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REF. 8, REH. 



his history comprises little more than the two last years of this 
prince. The action of the drama bcgins with Bolingbroke's 
pealing the Duke of N9rf91k) on an accuti9n of high treason, 
which fell out in the year 1398; and it cl9ses with the murder 
of King Richard at Pomfi'et Castle t9wards the end of the year 
1400, or the beginning of the ensuing year. THEOBALD. 
It iS evldent from a passage in Camden)s Annals, that there was 
an old play on the subject of Richard the Second ; but I know 
hot in what language. Sir Gillie Merick, who was concerned in 
the hare-brained business of the Earl of Essex, who was hanged 
for it, with the ingenious Cufl) in 1601) is accused) amongst 
other things, "quod ex91etam tragoediam de tragicâ abdicatione 
regis Ricardi Secundi in publico theatro c9ram conjuratis dath 
pecuni agi curasset." 
I have since met with a passage in my Lord Baco»,which proves 
this play to have been in English. It is in the arraignments of 
C and lerick, Vol. IV. p. 412, of Mallet's edition : " The 
afternoon belote the rebellion, Merick, with a great company of 
others, that afterwards were all in the action, had procured to 
be played belote them the play of deposing King Richard the 
Second;when it was told bim by one of the players, that the 
play was oM, and they should have loss in playing it, because few 
would corne to it, there was forty shillings extraordinary given 
to play, and so thereupon played it was." 
It may be worth enquiry, whether some of the rhgming parts 
of the present play, which hr. Pope thought of a different hand, 
. might hot be borroçed from the old one. Certainly, however» 
the general tendency of it must have been very different ; since, 
as Dr. Johnson obsees, there are some expressions in this of 
Shakspeare, which strongly inculcate the doctrine of indasible 
right. F. 
Bacon elsewhere glances at the saine transaction : « And for 
your comparison with Richard II. I see you follow the example of 
them that brought him upon the stage, and into print in Queen 
Elizabeth's thne." Wo'ks, Vol. IV. p. 278. The partizans of 
Essex had, therefore, proeured the publication as well as the 
aeting of this play. Ho 
It is probable, I think, that the play whieh Sir Gilly Merlek 
procured to be represented, bore the title of Ha 1V. and hot 
of RxcnAa II. 
Camden omis i* « exoletam tragediam de tragiea abdleatione 
regis Rieardi seeundi ;" and (Lord Baeon in his aceount of The 
Ebct  that whh pa«sed at the arraignment of Merick and 
others,) says: « That the afoernoon before the rebellion, Merick 

had procured to be played before them, the play of deTosing 
King Richard the Second." But in a more particular account 
the proceeding against Merick, which is printed in the State Trials, 
VoI.VII.p.60, the marrer is statedthus: "The story of HenrylV. 
being set forth in a play, and in that play there being set forth 
the killing of the king upon a stage ; the Friday belote, Sir Gilly 
_lVlericlc and some others of the earl's train having an humour to 
see a play, they must needs have The Play of HENttY IV. The 
players told them that was stale; they should get nothing by 
playing that; but no play else would serve : and Sir Gillu llrerick 
gives tbrty shillings to PhiliTs the player to play this, besides 
whatsoever he could get." 
Augustine PhilipTes was one of the patentees of the Globe 
playhouse with Shakspeare, in 1603 ; but the play here described 
was certainly not Shakspeare's HEaz IV. as that commences 
above a year after the death of Richard. TYawHI::. 
This play of Shakspeare was first entered at Stationers  Hall 
by Andrew Wise, Aug. 29, 1597. STEVrNS. 
It was written, I imagine in the saine year. 



King Richard the Second. 
Edmund ofLangley, Duke o/York;/. Uncles to the 
Jolm ofGaunt, Duke ofLancaster; J King. 
Henry, surnamed Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, 
Son to John of Gaunt; afterwards King 
Henry IV. 
Dul«e ofAumerle, 1 Son to the Duke of York. 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. 
Duke of Surrey. 
Earl of Salisbury. Earl ]3erkley.  
Bushy, } 
Bagot, Creatures to Kig Richard. 
.Earl ofNorthulnberland" Henry Percy, his Son. 
Lord Ross? Lord Willoughby. Lord Fitzwater. 
Bishop of Carlisle. Abbot of Westminster. 
Lord 2larshal; and another Lord. 
Sir Pierce of Exton. Sir Stephen Scroop. 
Captain of a Band of lVelchmen. 
Cueen to King Richard. 
Duchess of Gloster. 
39uchess of York. 
Ladt d attending on the Queen. 
Lords, Heralds, Oflîcers, Soldiers, Two Gardeners, 
Keeper, _Messenger, Groom, and other Attenda.nts. 
SCENE, dispersedlt d in England and Wales. 

' Duke ofAumerle,] Aumerle, or Aumale, is the French for 
what we now call Albernarle, which is a town in Normandy. 
The old historians generally use the French title. 
* Earl Berkley.] It ought to be Lord Berkley. There was 
no Earl Berkley till some ages after. 
 Lord Ross.] Now spelt Roos» one ofthe Duke of Rutland's 





London. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter King RICHARD, attended; JOHN 0f GAUNT, 
and other _Nobles, with him. 

K. Rzcz-z. Old John of Gaunt, time-honour'd 
Hast thou, aeeording fo thy oath and band, 
Brought hither Henry Hereford thy bold son ; 
Here to make good the boisterous late appeal, 
Whieh then our leisure would not let us hear, 
Against the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray 
GAVVT. I have, my liege. 

" --thy oath and band,] When these publick challenges 
were accepted, each combatant round a pledge for his appearance 
at the rime and place appointe& So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, 
B. IV. c. iii. st. S: 
" The day was set, that all might understand, 
" And pledges pawn'd the saine to keep aright." 
The old copies read hand instead of bond. The former is right. 
So, in The Comedy of Errors : 
« My toaster is arrested on a ban&" Srv.vwts. 
Banal and Bond were formerly .s.ynonymous. See note on 
The Comedy ofErrors, Act IV. sc. t. 


I£. RIC'. Tell me moreover, hast thou sounded 
If he appeal the duke on aneient malice ; 
Or worthily as a good subjeet should, 
On some known ground of treaehery in him ? 
GAtrVT. As near as I eould sift him on that ar- 
On some apparent danger seen in him, 
Aim'd at your highness, no inveterate malice, 
K. RtcH. Then eall them to our presenee ; face 
to rime, 
And frowning brow to brow, ourselves will hear 
The accuser, and the aeeused, freely speak :-- 
EExeunt some Attendants. 
ttigh-stomaeh'd are they both, and full of ire, 
In rage deaf as the sea, hasty as tire. 

te.enter Attendants, with, BOLINGBROKE and 

tJOLI'G. May many years of happy days befal 
My gracious sovereign, my most loving liege ! 
NOR. Eaeh day still better other's happiness ; 
Until the heavens, envying earth's good hap, 
Add an immortal title to your erown ! 
K. tICH. We thank you both : yet one but fiat.- 
ters us, 
As well appeareth by the cause you corne ; 
Tamely, to appeal each othcr of high treason.-- 
Cousin of Hereford, what dost thou object 
Against the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray ? 
.BoLtvG. First, (heaven be the record to my 
speech !) 
In the devotion of a subject's love, 

sc. x. KING RICHARD II. 7 

Tendering the precious safety of my prince« 
And fi'ee ri'oto other misbegotten hate, 
Corne I appellant to this princely presence.-- 
Now, Tholnas Mowbray, do I turn to thee, 
And mark my greeting well ; fbr what I speak, 
My body shall make good upon thi3 earth, 
Or my divine soul answer it in heaven. 
Thou art a traitor, and a miscreant ; 
Too good to be so, and too bad to live ; 
Since, the more fait and crystal is the sky, 
The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly. 
Once more, the more to aggravate the note, 
With a foul traitor's naine stuff I thy throat ; 
And wish, (so please my sovereign,)ere I more, 
What my tongue speaks, my right-drawn » sword 
may prove. 
Non. Let not my cold words here accuse my zeal: 
'Tis not the trial of a woman's war, 
The bitter clamour of two eager tongues, 
Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twaîn : 
The blood is hot, that nmst be cool'd for this, 
Yet can I not of such tame patience boast, 
As to be hush'd, and nought at all to say: 
First, the fait reverence of your highness curbs me 
From giving reins and spurs to lny free speech ; 
Which else would post, until it had return'd 
These terms of treason doubled down his throat. 
Setting aside his high blood's royalty, 
And let him be no kinsman to my liege, 
I do defy him, and I spit at him ; 
Call hima standerous coward, and a villain : 
Whîch to maintain, I would allow him odds ; 
And meet him, were I tied to run a-foot 

 ----riglt.draon] Drawn in a right or just cause. 


:Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps, 
Or any other ground inhabitable 6 
Where ever Englishman durst set his foot. 
Mean rime, let this defend my loyalty,u 
By all my hopes, most fa]sely doth he lie. 
BoLI2Va. Pale trembling coward, there I throw 
my gage, 
Disclaiming here the kindred of a king ; 
And lay aside my high blood's royalty, 
Which fear, hot reverence, makes thee to except : 
If guilty dread hath leff thee so much strength, 
As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop 
B) that, and ail the rites of knighthood else, " 
Will I make good against thee, afin to arm, 
What I have spoke, or thou canst worse devise. 
NOR. I take it up ; and, by that sword I swear, 
Which gently lay'd my knighthood on my shoulder, 
l'll answer thee in any t'air degree, 
Or chivalrous design of knightly trial : 
And, when I mount, alive lnay I hot light, 
If I be traitor, or unjustly fightl 
K. RxcH. What doth our cousin ]ay to Mowbray's 
charge ? 
It must be great, that can inherit us 7 
So much as of a thought of ill in him. 
 .inhabitable,] That is, hot habitable, unintmbitable. 
Ben Jonson uses the word in the saine sense in his Catiline: 
" And pour'd on some inhabitable place." 
Again, in Taylor the water-poet's Sort relation of a long 
Jom».e, &c. ,«  there stands a strong castle, but the town is 
ail spoil'd» and almost bdmbitable by the late lamentable troubles." 
So also, Braithwaite, in his Surçe of Histories, 161: 
ç Others, in imitation of some valiant knights» have frequented 
tlesarts and inhabited provinces." 
  that ca inherit us &c.] To iMeri is no more than 


BoLIVG. Look, what I speak my lire shall prove 
it true ;-- 
That Mowbray hafl receiv'd eight thousan d nobles, 
In naine of lendings for your highness' soldiers ; 
The which he hath detain'd for lewd employmcnts,-* 
Like a tMse traitor, and injurious villain. 
Besides I say, and will in battle prove,-- 
Or here, or elsewhere, to the thrtlmst verge 
That ever was survey'd by English eye,-- 
That all the treasons, for these eighteen years 
Complotted and contrived in this land, 
Fetch from fa|se Mowbray theirfirst head and spring. 
Further I say,--and further will maintain 
Upon his bad life, to make all this good, 
That he did plot the duke of Gloster's death, 
Suggest his soon-believing adversaries ;  
And, consequently, like a traitor coward, 

possess, though such a use of the word may be peculiar to Shak- 
speare. Again, in Romeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. il. 
" such delight 
"' Among fresh female buds shall you this night 
" Inherit at my house." S'wwvvss, 
See Vol. IV. p. 136, n. 7. M.LoNv., 
s for lewd emldoyments,] Lewd here signifies wicl,-cd. 
Itis so used in many of out old statures. Ma,OF. 
It sometimes signifiesidle. 
Thus, in King Richard Ili: 
" But you must trouble hlm with lewd complaints." 
9 --the duke of Gloster's death ;] Thomas of ll'oodstoct, 
the youngest son ot Edward III ; who  as murdered at Calais, 
in 1997. MaLotru. 
See Froissart's Chronicle, Vol. II. cap. CC. xxvi. Sa-FVF«S. 
 Suggest his soon-elieving adversaries;] i. e. prompt, set 
them on by injurious hints. Thus, in The Tempest : 
« They'll take suggestion as a cat laps milk." 


Sluic'd out his innocent soul through streams of 
Which blood, like sacrificing Abel's, cries, 
Even fi'om the tongueless caverns of the eartb, 
To lne, for justice, and rough chastisement ; 
And, by the glorious wooEh of my descent, 
This arm shall doit, or this life be spent. 
K.RICH. How high a pitch his resolution soars!-- 
Tholnas of Norfolk, what say'st thou to this ? 
NOR. O, let my sovereign turn away his face, 
And bid his ears a little while be deat 
Till I have told this slander of his blood,  
How God, and good men, hate so foui a liar. 
K. RWH. Mowbray, impartial are our eyes, and 
ears : 
Were he my brotber, nay, my kingdom's heir, 
(As he s but my father's brother's son,) 
Now by my scepter's awe 3 I make a vow, 
Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood 
Should nothing privilege him, nor partialîze 
The unstooping finnness of my upright soul ; 
He [s our subject, Mowbray, so art thou ; 
Free speech, and fearless, I to thee allow. 
.NoR. Then, Bolingbroke, as low as to thy heart, 
Through the false passage of thy throat, thou liest [ 
Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais, 
Disburs'd I duly to his liighness' soldiers : 
The other part reserv'd 1 by consent  
:For that my sovereign liege was in my debt, 
Upon remainder of a dear account, 

 this slander of his lood,] i. e. this reproach to his 
, ----- m sce2ter's awe] The reverence due to my sceptèr, 

sc. z. KING RICHARD II. 11 

Since last I went to France to fetch lais queen : 
Now swallow down that lie. For Gloster's 
I slew him not; but to my own disgrace, 
Neglected my sworn duty in that case.-- 
For you, my noble lord of Lancaster, 
The honourable father to my foe, 
Once did I lay an ambush for your lire, 
A trespass that doth vex my gricved soul : 
:But, ere I last recciv'd the sacrament, 
I did confess it; and exactly bcgg'd 
Your grace's pardon, and, I hopc, I had it, 
This is my fault - As for the test appeal'd, 
It issues ti'om the rancour of a villain, 
A recreant and most degenerate traitor : 
Which in myself I boldly will defend ; 
And intcrchangeably hurl down my gage 
Upon this overweening traitor's foot, 
Fo prove mysclf a loyal gentlcman 
Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom : 
In baste whereof, most heartily I pray 
Your highness to assign our trial day. 
I", RICH. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be rul'd by 
me ; 
Let's purge this choler without letting blood : 
This we preseribe, though no physieian ; « 
Deep malice makes too deep incision : 

 This we prescribe, thouzh no physician ; &c,] I must make 
one remark in general on thê rh.ymes throughout this whole play ; 
they are so much inferior to the rest of the writing, that they 
appear to me of a different hand. What confirms this, is, that 
the context does every where exaetly (and much 
better) connect, without the inserted rhymes, except m a very 
few places ; and just there too, the rhyming verses are of a much 
better taste than all the others, which rather strengthens my con- 
jeeture. Pot, E. 
" This observation of Mr. Pope's, (says Mr. Edwards,) hapv 


Forget, forgive ; conclude, and be agreed ; 
Our doctors say, this is no time to bleed.m 
Good uncle, let this end where it begun ; 
We'll calm the duke of Norfolk, you your son. 
GArroT. To be a make-peace shall become my 
age :-- 
Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's gage. 
K. I?ICH. And, Norfo]k, throw down his. 
GAUrT. When, Harry ? 5 when ? 
Obediencc bids, I should hot bid again. 
K. RICH. Norfolk, throw down ; we bid ; there 
is no boot. 6 
2VOR. MyselfIthrow, dreadsovereign, atthyfoot: 
My lire thou shalt command, but not my shame : 
The one my duty owes ; but my fair name, 

pens to be very unluckily placed here, because the context, with- 
out the inserted rhymes, will hot connect at all. Read this pas- 
sage as it would stand corrected by this rule, and we shall find, 
when the rhyming part of the dialogue is left out, King Richard 
begins with dissuading them from the duel, and, in the very next 
sentence, appoints the time and place of their combat. » 
Mr. Edwards's censure is rather hasty ; for in the note, to 
which it refers, it is allowed that some rhymes must be retained 
to make out the connection. 
s IVhen, Harr?] This obsolete exclamation of impatience 
is likewise round in Heywood's Sitver Age, 161S : 
" Fly into Affrick ; ri'oto the mountains there, 
" Clause me two venomous serpents: thou shalt know 
them : 
" By their fell poison and their tierce aspect. 
" When, Iris. 
« Iris. I ara gone." 
Again, in Look about /ou, 1600 : 
«  l'Il cut off thy legs, 
" If thou delay thy duty. When, proud John ." 
 --no boot.] That is, no advantage, no use, in delay, or 
refusal. Jorsol. 


(Despite of death, that lives upon my grave,)7 
To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have. 
I am disgrac'd, impeach'd, and baffled here ; s 
Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom'd spear ; 
The which no balm can cure, but lais heart-blood 
Which breath'd this poison. 
• I('. RlCH. Rage must be withstood : 
Give me lais gage :--Lions make leopards tame. 
2VoR. Yea, but not change their spots : 9 take but 
my shalne, 
And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, 
The purest treasure mortal tines afford, 
Is---spotless reputation ; that away, 
Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay. 
A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest 
Is--a bold spirit in a loyal breast. 

  mqfair naine, &c.] That is, ms naine that lires on m 
grave, in desjoight of death. This easy passage most of the 
editors seem to have mistaken. Jonrsor. 
o  and baffled here; ] Baffed in thls place means treated 
with the greatest ignominy imaginable. So, Holinshed, Vol. III. 
p. 87, and 118, or annis 151S, and 1570, explains it: "Ba- 
fulling, says he, is a great disgrace among the Scots, and it is 
used when a man is openlie perjured, and then they make of him 
an image painted, reversed, with his heels upward, with his 
name, wondering, crieing, and blowing out of him with horns.'" 
Spenser's Fair3t Queen, B. V. c. iii. st. $7 ; and B. VI. c. vii. st. 
7, has the word in the same signification. Tor.r«a'. 
The same expression occurs in Twelfth-Night, sc. ult : 
" Alas, poor fool ! how have they baffed thee 
Again, in King HenryIV. P. I. Act I. sc. ii : 
"  an I do not, call me villain, and ha.ffle me." 
Again, in The London Prodigal, 1605 : "  chil be abaffelled 
up and down the town, for a messel;" i. e. for a beggar» or 
rather a le19er. 
9  but hot change their spots :] The old copies havo..-his 
spots. Corrected by Mr. Pope. Marorz. 


Mine honour is my life; both grow in one ; 
Take honour fi'om me, and my life is done : 
Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try i 
In that I lire, and for that will I die. 
K. ttlc. Cousin, throw down your gage; do you 
230LZTa. O, Goal defend my soul from such foul 
sin ! 
Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight ? 
Or with pale beggar-fear' impeach my height 
Before flfis outdar'd dastard ? Ere my tongue 
Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong, 
Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear 
The slavish motive  of recanting fear ; 
And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace, 
Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowb ray's face. 
[Exit G,uNr. 
K. RIH. We were hot born to sue, but to com- 
mand : 
Which since we cannot do to make you fi'iends, 
Be ready, as your lives shall answer it, 
At Coventry, upon Saint Lambert's day; 
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate 
The swelling difference of your settled hate ; 
Since we cannot atone you,  we shall see 
Justice design  the victor's chivalry.-- 
 --xith pale beggar-fear--] This is the read]ng of one 
of the oldest quartos, and the folio. The quartos 1608 and 1615 
read--beggar-face; i. e. (as Dr. Warburton observes,) with a 
face of supplication. Sxvs. 
 The slavish motive--] Motive, for instrument. 
- Rather that which fear puts in motion. JoHso. 
*  atone you,] i. e. reconcile you. So, in Cym5eline : 
« I was glad I did atone my countryman and you." 
 Justia¢ design--] Thus the old copies. Mr. Pope reads 

Marshal, command 5 out officers at arms 
Be ready to direct these home.alarms. 



A Room in the Duke of Lancaster's 

Enter C-rAUNT, and Dt«hess of Gloster.  

GAUNT. Alas ! the part I had  in Gloster's blood 
Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims, 
To stir against the butchers of his lire. 
But since correction lieth in those hands, 
Which ruade the fault that we cannot correct, 
Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven ; 
Who when he secs s the hours ripe on earth, 
Wi|l rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads. 

« Justice decide," but without necessity. Designo, Lat. signifie 
to mark out, to point out : « Notat designatque oculis ad eoedem 
unumquemque nostrûm." Cicero in Catilinam. Sxwwvwrs. 
To design in out author's time signified to mark out. Sec 
Minsheu's Dxcx. in v: " To designe or shew bu a token. Ital. 
Denotare. Lat. Designare." At the end of the article the reader 
i referred to the words « to marke, note, demonstrate or shew. 
--the word is still used with this signification in Scotland. 
 larshal, command &c.] The old copies--Lord Marshall 
but (as Mr. Ritson observes,) the metre requires the omission 
have ruade. It is also justified by his Majesty's repeated addres 
to the saine ocer, in scene iii. Sxwwvws. 
 --duchess of Gloster.] The Duchess of Gloster was Elea- 
nor Bohun, widow of Duke Thomas, son of Edward III. 
  the part I had--] That is, my relation Of consan- 
guinity to Gloster. Ha»lwa. 
* heaven ; 
Who hen he secs--] The old copies erroneoudy read  
Who when they sec-----, 


D UCH. Findsbrotherhood in thee no sharper spur ? 
Hath love in thy old blood no living tire ? 
Edward's scven sons, whereof thyself art one, 
Were as seven phials of his sacred blood, 
Or seven fait branches springing fi'om one root" 
• Some of those seven are dried by nature's course, 
Some of those branches by the destinies cut: 
But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, my Gloster,-- 
One phial full of Edward's sacred blood, 
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,-- 
Is crack'd, and ail the precious liquor spilt ; 
Is hack'd down, and lais summer leaves ail faded, 9 
By envy's hand, and murder's bloody axe. 
Ah, Gaunt! his blood was thine ; that bed, that 
That mettle, that self-mould, that fashion'd thee, 
:Made him a man; and though thou liv'st, and 
Yet art thou slain in him: thou dost consent 1 
In some large measure to thy father's death, 
In that thou seest thy wretched brother die, 

I have reformed the text by example of a subsequent passage, 
p. 17: 
«  heaven's substitute, 
" His deputy, anointed in his sight," &c. 
90ne phial &c.] Though all the old copies concur in the 
present regulation of the following lines, I would rather read : 
One Thial full of Edward's sacred blood 
Is crack'd, and all the precious liçuor spill'd 
One flourishing branck of his most rogl foot 
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded. 
Some of the old copies in this instance, as in many others, 
read vaded, a mode of spelling praetised by several of out aneient 
writers. After all, I believe the transposition to be needless. 
' .----thou dost consent &c.] i. e. assent. So, in St. Luke's 
Gos2el , xxiii. 51 : " The saine had hot consented to the counsel 
and d«ed of them," 


Who was the model of thy father's lire. 
Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair : 
In suffering thus thy brother tobe slaughter'd, 
Thou show'st the naked pathway to thy lit, 
Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee : 
That which in mean men we entitleupatience, 
Is pale cold cowardice in noble breasts. 
What shall I say ? to safeguard thine own lire, 
The best way is--to 'venge lny Gloster's death. 
G.ur7 . Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's 
His dcputy anointed in his sight, 
Hath caus'd his death- the which if wrongfully¢ 
Let heaven revcnge ; for I may never lift 
An angry arm against lais minister. 
D U«H. Where then, alas ! nmy I colnplain myself? - 
G.«U.VT. To heaven, the widow's champion and 
DUCH. Why thon, I will. Farewell, old Gaunt2 

  mayI complan mqsel.]?] To complain is commonly a 
verb neuter, but itis here used as a verb active. So, in a very 
scarce book entitled A courtlie Controversie of C,«pid's Cautels 
&c. Translated from the French, &c. byH. W. [Henry Wotton] 
Gentleman, 4to. 1578: " I coulde finde no companion, eyther 
to comforte me, or helpe to complab, e my great sorrowe. » 
Again, p. 58: "  wyth greate griefe he coml»lained the cala- 
initie of his countrey." 
Again, in The Queenes llajesties Entertainment in 8ff'ol-e 
and Norfolke, by Thomas Churchyard : " Cupid encoutring 
the Queene, beganne to conrplayte hys state and his mothers," &c. 
Dryden also employs the, word in the saine sense in his Fables : 
" Gaufride, who couldst so well in rhyme complain 
" The death of Richard with an arrow slain." 
Complain m./se.1](as Mr. M. Mason observes,) is a literal trans- 
lation of the French phrase, me ilaindre. Srr.vrrs. 
 Why then, I vdll. Farewell, ohl Gaunt.] The measure of 
this line being clearly defective why may we not read . 
VOL. Xl. {2 


Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold 
Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight: 
O, sit my husband's wrongs on. Hereford's spear, 
That it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast ! 
Or, if misfbrtune lniss the first career, 
Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom, 
That they may break his foaming courser's baek, 
And throw the rider headlong in the lists, 
A eaitiff recreant  to my cousin Hereford ! 
Farewell, old Gaunt; thy solnetilnes brother's wife, 
With her eompanion grief must end her lire. 
GAvera. ister, tarewell : I must to Coventry: 
As much good stay with thee, as go with me! 
Dtrcl. Yet one word more ;-Z-Grief boundeth 
where it fais, 
Not with the emptv hollow,ess, but weight : 
I take lny leave bebre I have begun ; 
For sorrow ends hOt whe it seemeth done. 

IVhj then I will. Now rare thee well old Gaunt. 
Or thus : 
IVhj then I will. Farewell old John of Gaunt. 
There can be nothing ludicro in a title by which the King has 
already addressed hi R,wso. 
ir T. Hanmer completes the measure, by repeating fle word 
fa,well, at the end of the line. vs. 
+ A caitiff recreant] Caitoriginally signified a prisoner; 
next a slave, from the condition of prisoners ; then a coundrel, 
tom the qualities of a slave : 
In this psage it partakes of all these signifieations. Jonso. 
This just sentiment is in Homer ; but the learned eommenta- 
tor quoting, I suppose from monory, has eompressed a couplet 
into a single line : 
O@ss. Lib. XVII. v. Sgg. Ho Wu. 
I do hOt believe that cait in our language ever signified a 
risoncr. I take it to be derived, hot iom cat but from 
cl«t Ff. poor, miserable. 


Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. 
Lo, this is ail :--Nay, yet depart hOt so ; 
Though this be ail, do hOt so quickly go ; 
I shall remember more. Bid himmO, what ?u 
With ail good speed at Plashy visit me. 
Alack, and what shall good old York there see, 
But empty lodgings and unfurnish'd walls, » 
Unpeopled offices, untrodden stones ? 
And what cheer there 6 for welcome, but mygroans? 
Therefore comlnend me ; let him not corne there, 
To seek out sorrow that dwells every where :7 
I)esolate, desolate, will I hence, and die ; 
The last leave of thee takes lny weeping eye. 

  unfurnish'd walls,] In our ancient castles the naked 
stone walli were only covered with tapestry, or arras, hung upon 
tenter hooks, from which it was easily taken down on every re- 
moral of the family. See the preface to The Household Book of 
the Fifth Earl of Northumberland, begun in 1512. Sv.EVS. 
 And what cheer there &c.] I had followed the reading of the 
folio, [hear] but now rather incline to that of the first quarto.- 
And what cheer, there, &c. In the quarto of 1608, chear was 
changed to hear, and the editor of the folio followed the latter 
copy. MALONE. 
v let him hot conte there, 
To seek out sorrow that dwells everff where : ] Perhaps the 
pointing may be reformed without injury to the sense: 
 let him hot corne there 
To seek out sorrow :that dwells everg where. 




Gosford Green, near Coventry. 

set out, and a Throne. Heralds, ,v. attendin. 

Enter the Lord Marshal, s end AU3IERLE. 9 

BlAR. My lord Aumerle, is ttarry Hereford 
arm'd ? 
A UM. Yea, at all points ; and longs to enter in. 
M«m. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and 
Stays but the sumlnons of the appellant's trumpet. 
A¢:M. Why then, the champions are prepar'd, 
and stay 
For nothing but his majesty's approach. 

 Lord ]larshal,] Shakspeare has here committed a 
slight mistake. The office of Lord Marshal was executed on 
this occasion by Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey. Out author 
bas inadvertently introduced that nobleman as a distinct person 
from the Marshal, in the present drama. 
Mowbray Duke of Norfolk was Earl Marshal of England ; 
but being himself one of the combatants, the Duke of Surrey 
officiated as Earl Marshal for flae day. MaIOV.. 
 Aumerle.] Edward Duke of Aumerle, so created by his 
cousin german, King Richard II. in 1S97. He was the eldest 
son of Edward of Langley Duke of York, fifth son of King Ed- 
ward the Third, and was killed in 1415, at the batfle of Agin- 
court. He officiated at the lists of Coventry, as High Constable 
of England. M,o. 


Flourish of Trumpets. Enter Kiç RICHARD, who 
takes his seat on his Throne ; GAUNT, and several 
Noblemen, who take their places. A Truvtpet is 
sounded, and answered bj another Trurnpet with- 
in. Then enter NORFOLK bt armour, preceded 
by a Herald. 

K. RtcH. Marshal, demand of yonder champion 
The cause of his arrival here in arms: 
Ask hiln his naine ; and orderly proeeed 
To swear him in the justice of his cause. 
IR. In God's name, and the king's, say who 
thou art, 
And why thou coin'st, thus knightly clad in arms : 
Against what man thou coin'st, and what thy 
quarrcl : 
Speak truly, on thy knighthood, and thy oath ; 
And so  defend thee heaven, and thy valour ! 
17"0R.  My naine is Thomas Mowbray, duke of 
Nortblk ; 
Who hither eoine engaged by iny oath, 
(Whieh, heaven defend, a knight should violate !) 
Both to defend my loyalty and truth, 
To God, my king, and my suceeeding issue,  

' And so--] The old copies read--As so--. STVS. 
Corrected by Mr. Rowe. 
 No3roll«.] Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, observes, ri'oto 
Holinshed, that tire Duke of Hereford, appcllant, entered the 
lists first ; and this, indeed, must have been the regular method 
of the combat ; for the natural order of things requires, that the 
accuser or challenger should be at the place of appointment first. 
 my succeeding issue,.] His is the reading of the first 
folio; other editions readmy issue. Mowbray's issue, was 
by this accusation in danger of an attainder and therefore he 


Against the duke of Hereford that app.eals me ; 
And, by the grace ot' God, and this mine arln, 
To prove him, in defending of mysel; 
A traitor to lny God, my king, and me : 
_And, as I truly fight, defend nie heaven ! 
[ He takes his seat. 

Truml)et sounds. Enter BOLINGBROKE,  armour ; 
preceded bj a Herald. 

g..RI(.'H. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms,  
Both who he is, and whv he cometh hither 
Thus plated in habilimeïts of war; 
_And formally according to out law 
Depose him in the justice of his cause. 
M.4R. What is thy naine ? and wherefore coin'st 
thou hither, 
Before King Richard, in his royal lists ? 

m]ght come, among other reasons, for their sake : but the read- 
ing of the folio is more just and grammatical. JoNso. 
The three oldest quartos read m/, which Mr. M. Mason pre- 
rets, because, says he, Mowbray subjoins-- 
" To prove, him, in defending of myself 
« A traitor to my God, my king, and me." SWEVES. 
 and my ucceeding isue,] Thus the first quarto. The 
folio readshis ucceeding issue. The first quarto copy of this 
play, in 1597, being in general much more correct than the 
folio, and the quartos of 1608, and 1615, fronl the latter of 
vhich the folio appears to have been printed, I have preferred 
the elder reading. MALONE. 
* ]ilarshal, ask 3/onder knight in arms,] Vghy not, as before: 
l/Iars]ml, demand of 3onder knight in arms. 
The player, who varied the expression, was probably ignorant 
that he injured the metre. The insertion, however, of two little 
words would answer the saine puose : 
3larshal, go ak of gonder «night i» arms. Rxso. 


Against wholn conest thou ? and what's thy quar- 
tel ? 
Speak like a true knight, so dcfend thee heaven ! 
BoL'6. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and 
Ana I ; who ready here do stand in arms, 
To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's valour, 
In lists, on Thomas Mowbray duke of Norfolk, 
That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous, 
To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me i 
And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven ! 
I. On pain of death, no person be so bold, 
Or daring-hardy, as fo touch the lists i 
Except the lnarshal, and such officers 
Appointed to direct these fair designs. 
BOLING. Lord marshal, let me kiss my sove- 
reign's hand, 
And bow my knee before his majesty : 
For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men 
That vow a long and weary pilgrimage ; 
Then let us take a ceremonious leave, 
And loving iZarcwell, of out several fi'iends. 
IA. The appellant in all duty greets your 
And craves to kiss your hand, and take his leave. 
K. 3c. Ve will descend, and fold him in our 
Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right, 
So be thy fortune in this royal fight! 
Farewell, my blood ; which if to-day thou shed, 
Lainent we lnay, but hot revenge thee dead. 
BoLIara. O, let no noble eye profane a tear 
For me, if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear ; 


As confident, as is the tMcon's flight 
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.------ 
My loving lord, [To Lord Marshal.] I take my 
leave of you ;-- 
Ofyou, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle :-- 
Not sick, although I lave to do with death ; 
13ut lusty, young, aud cheerly drawing breath.------ 
Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet 
The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet ; 
O thou, the earthly author of my blood, 
Whose youthfid spMt, in me regenerate, 
1)oth with a two-Ibld vigour lift me up 
To reach at victory above lny head,-- 
Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers ; 
And with thy blessings steel lny lance's point, 
That it may enter Mowbray's waxen coat, 5 
_And firbish  new the naine of John of Gaunt, 
Eveu in the lusty 'haviour of lais son. 
GAUNT. Heaven in thy good cause make thee 
prosperous ! 
Be swift like lightning in the execution  

n  waxen coat,] Waxen may mean sort, and consequently 
p.enetrable, or flexible. The brigandines or coats of mail, then 
n use, vere composed of small pieces of steel quiltcd over one 
another, and yet so flexible as to accommodate the dress they 
form to every motion of the body. Of these many are still to 
be seen in the Tower of London. SWEEVSS. 

The object of Bolingbroke's request is, that the tempcr of lais 
lance's point might as much exceed the mail of his adversary, 
as the iron of that mail was barder than wax. HL'. 

 And furbish---I Thus the quartos, 1608 and 1615. The 
folio reads--jïtrnish. Either word will do, as to furnish in the 
rime of Shakspeare signified to dress. So, twice in As .you like 
it : "furnidted like a huntsman."--" --furnished like a beggar.'" 

sc. zzr. KING RICHARD II. o_.5 

And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, 
Fall like mnazing thunder on the casque 7 
Of thy advérse pernicious enemy- 
Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and lire. 
BOLXV. Mine innocency, s and Saint George to 
thrive ! [tle takes his seat. 
NOR. [Rising.] However heaven, or fortune, 
cast my lot, 
There lires or dies, true to king Richard's throne, 
A loyal, just, and upright gentleman : 
Never did captive with a fi'eer heart 
Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace 
His golden uncontroll'd enii'anchisement, 
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate 
This feast of battle  with mine adversary.-- 
Most mighty liege,--and my companion peers,--- 
Take from my mouth the wish of happy years : 
As gentle and as jocund, as to jest,  
Go I to fight ; Truth hath a quiet breast. 

 FMI like amazing thunder on the casque] To amaze, in 
ancient language, signifies to stun, to confomd. Thus, in Arthur 
Hall's translation of the third Iliad, 1581 : 
" And striking him upon the helme, his foe amazedmakes." 
See also, King John, Act IV. sc. iii. Srrvïs. 
 3line innocency,] Old copiesinnocence. Corrected by 
Mr. Steevens. 
9 This feast ofbattle " War is death'sfeast," is a prover- 
bial saying. See Ray's tollection. 
' 4s gentle and as jocund, as to jest,] Not so neither. We 
should read tojust; i. e. to tilt or tourney, which was a kind of 
sport too. WAlaUITOI, r. 
The sense would perhaps have been better if the author had 
written what his commentator substitutes; but the rhyme, to 
which sense is too often enslaved, obliged Shakspeare to write 
jest, and obliges us to read it. JoHSOl. 
The commentators forget that to jest sometimes signifies in 
old language to 


K. Rie. Farewell, my lord: securely I espy 
Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.---- 
Order the trial, marshal, and begin. 
[ The King and the Lords return to their seats. 
M.R. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, 
Receive thy lance ; and God defend the right ! 
BOrlN6 [Ristg.] Strong as a tower in hope, I 
cry--anl en. 
MAR. Go bear this lance [To an Oïcer.] to 
Thomas duke of Norfolk. 
1 HR. Harryof Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, 
Stands here/"or God, his sovereiEn , and hhnse]f, 
On pain to be round ialse and recreant, 
To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, 
A traitor to his God, his king, and him, 
And dares him to set forward to the fight. 
2 HER. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, duke 
of Norfolk, 
On pain to be round false and recreant, 
]3oth to defend himself, and to approve 
Hem T of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, 
To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal ; 
Courageously, and with a free desire, 
Attending but the signal to begin. 
_MnR. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, com- 
batants, lA Charge sounded. 
Stay, the king bath thrown his warder down? 
« He promised us in honour of out guest, 
« To grace out banquet with some pompous jest2  
and accordingly a mask is performed. 
Dr. Farmer bas well explained the force of this word. 
The Third Part of King Henry l'I: 
« as if the tragedy 
« Were play'd in jest by counterfeited actors." 
 hath throton 


K. RzcI-I. Let them lay by their helmets and 
their spears, 
And both return back to their chairs again :---- 
Withdraw with us :and let the trumpets sound, 
While we return these dukes what we decree. 
[.4 long jtourish. 
I)raw near, E To the CombataTts. 
And list, what with our council we have done. 
For that out kingdom's earth should hOt be soil'd 
With that dear blood which it bath fostered; 3 
_And foL" out eyes do hate the dire aspéct 
Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbours" 
swords ; 
[And for we think the eagle-winged pride 
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts, 
With rival-hating envy, set you on - 
To wake our peace, which in out country's cradle 
I)raws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep ;J 
-Which so rous'd npwith boisterous untun'd drums, 
With harsh resounding trumpets' dreadfid bray, 
_And grating shock of wrathful iron arms, 
bave been a kind of truncheon carried by the person who pre- 
sided at these single combats. So» in DanieVs Civil IVars» &c. 
" When lo» the king» sudden]y chang'd his mind» 
" Casts down his warder to arrest them there." 
 lith that dear lood which it hath fostered ;] The quarto 
With that dear lood which it bath been foster'd. 
I believe the author wrote-- 
IVith that dear blood with which it bath been foster'd. 
The quarto, 1608, reads, as in the text. STEEVSS. 
 4nd 3qor ve thin], the• eagle-winged. . . pride. &c.] These rive 
verses are omitted m the other e&tons, and restored from the 
first of 1598. POPE. 
 -- set you on--] The o|d copy readson you. Correct- 
ed by Mr. Pope. MLO]. 


Might ri'oto our quiet confines fright fair peace, 6 
And make us wade even in our kindred's blood;-- 

« To wake out peace,. 
Which so rous'd 
blightfright fair peace,] Thus the sentence stands in 
the common reading absurdly enough ; which ruade the Oxford 
editor, instead offri«htfair peace, read, be a.ff'righted; as if 
these latter words cou]'d ever, possibly, have been blundered into 
the former by transcribers. But his business is to airer as his 
fancy leads him, hot to reform errors, as the text and rules of 
criticism direct. In a word then, the true original of the blun- 
der was this : the editors, betbre Mr. Pope, had taken their edi- 
tions from the folios, in which the text stood thus : 
the dire aslect 
Of civil wounds plough'd up wlth neigl, bour swords ; 
II/'hich so rouz'd up 
fright fait peace. 
This is sense. But Mr. Pope, who carefully examined the first 
printed plays in quarto, (very much to the advantage of his eai- 
tion,) coming to this place, tbund rive lines, in the first edition 
of this play printed in 1598, omitted in the first general collec- 
tion of the poet's works ; and, hot enough attending to their 
agreement with the common text, put them into their place. 
Whereas, in truth, the rive lines were omitted by Shakspeare 
himself, as hot agreeing to the rest of the context; which, on 
revise, he thought fit to alter. On this account I have put them 
into hooks, hOt as spurious, but as rejected on the author's re- 
vise;and, indeed, with great judgment; for-- 
To wake our peace, vhich in our country's cradle 
Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep, 
as pretty as it is in the image, is absurd in the sense : for peace 
"awake is still peace, as well as when asleep. The difference is, 
that peace asleep gives one the notion of a happy people sunk in 
sloth and luxury which is hOt the idea the speaker would raise» 
anà ri'oto which state the sooner it was awaked fle better. 
To this note, written with such an appearance of taste and 
judgment, I ara ai'raid every reader will not subscribe. It is true, 
that peace avake is still peace, as eell as when asleep; but 
peace awakened by the tumults of these jarring nobles, and 
peace indulging in profound tranquillity, convey inages su- 
ciently.opposed to each other for the poet's purpose. To wake 
peace, s, to bztroduce dis«ord. Peace asleeT, is peace 


Therefore, we banish you our territories :----- 
You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, 
Till twice rive summers have enrich'd our fields, 
Shall hot regreet out fait dominions, 
But tread the stranger paths of banishlnent. 
BOLINa. Your will be donc : This must my coin- 
fort be, 
That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on me; 
And those his golden beams, to you here lent, 
Shall point on me, and gild my banishment. 
K. RICH. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier 
Which I with some unwillingness pronounce- 
The fly-slow hours 7 shall hot determinate 
The dateless limit of thy dear exile ;-- 
The hopeless word of--never to return 
Breathe I against thee, upon pain of lire. 
Non. A heavy sentence, my most sovereign 
And all unlook'd for fi'on your highness' mouth : 

its natural influence, from which it would be frighted by the 
clamours ofwar. STv, vv,s. 
 The fly-slow hours'l The old copies readThe sly-slow 
hours. Mr. Pope ruade the change ; whether it was necessary or 
hot, let the poetical reader determine. 
In Chapman's version of the second Book of Homer's Odyssey 
we bave : 
"  and those slie hours 
" That still surprise at length." 
It is remarkable, that Pope, in the 4th Book of his Essai/on 
Man, v. 6, has employed the epithet which, in the present ino 
tance, he has rejected : 
" All sl slow things, with circumspective eyes." 
Sec Warton's edit. of Pope's Works, Vol. III. p. lzk5. 
The latter word appears to me more intelligible:" the 
thievish minutes as they pass." Mrov-. 


A dearer merit, not so deep a maim 
As tobe cast forth in the common air, 
Have I deserved  at your highness" hand. 
The language I have learn'd these forty years, 
My native English, now I must forego : 
And now my tongue's use is to me no more, 
Than an unstringed viol or a harp ; 
Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up, 
Or, being open, put into his hands 
That knows no touch to tune the harmony. 
Within my mouth you have engaol'd my tongue, 
Doubly portcullis'd, xvith my teeth, and lips i 
And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance 
Is made my gaoler to attend on me. 
I am too old to tawn upon a nurse, 
Too far in years tobe a pupil now; 
What is thy sentence then, but speechless death, 
Which robs my tongue fi'om breathing native 
breath ? 
K. RrCH. It boots thee hOt tobe compassionate; 9. 
After our sentence plaining cornes too late. 

8 A dearer merit, hot so deep a maim-- 
Have I deserved--] To deserve a merit is a phrase of which 
I know hot any example. I wish some copy would exhibit: 
A dearer meed, and hot so deep a maire. 
To deserve a meed or reward, is regular and easy. JoHssor. 
As Shakspeare uses merit in this place, in the sense of reward, 
he frequently uses the word meed, which properly signifies re- 
ward, to express merit. So, in Timon of Athens, Lucullus says: 
"  no meed but he repays 
" Seven fold above itself." 
And in The Third Part of King Henry VI. Prince Edward says: 
" We are the sons of brave Plantagenet, 
" Each one already blazing by out meeds." 
And again, in the same play, King Henry says: 
« That's hot my fear, my meed hath got me fame." 
M. M,so. 
 .---- comiassionate; ] for ilainive. 

c. 7r. KING RICHARD II. sl 

NOR. Then thus I turn me fi'om my country's 
To dwell in solemn shades of endless night. 
It\ RZeH. Return again, and take an oath with 
Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands ; 
Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, 
(Out paoE therein we banish with yourselves,) * 
To keep the oath that we administer :-- 
You never shall (so help you truth and heaven l) 
Embrace each other's love in banishment ; 
Nor never look upon each other's face ; 
Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile 
This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate; 
Nor never by advised  purpose meet, 
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill, 
'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land. 
OLING. I swear. 
NOR. And I, to keep all this. 
BOLING. Norfolk, so far as to mine enemy ;s-- 

 (Our part &c.] It is a question much debated amongst th 
writers of the law of nations, whether a banished man may be 
still tied in his allegiance to the state which sent him into exile. 
Tully and Lord Chancellor Clarendon declare for the affirma- 
tive; Hobbes and Puffendoif hold the negative. Out author, 
by this line, seems to be of the same opinion. W&m3URTO. 
 advised--] i.e. concerted, deliberated. So, in The 
_lerchant of Venice : 
"" --with more advised watch." STEEV-rS. 
 Nofolk, so far &c.] I do not clearly see what is the sense 
of this abrupt line ; but suppose the meaning to be this : Here- 
lord immediately af ter his oath or" perpetual enmity, addresses 
Norfolk, and, fearing solne misconstruction, turns to the King 
and says--so Jhr as to mine enemythat is, I should say no- 
thing to him but what enemies may say to each other. 
Reviewing this passage, I rather think it should be understood 


By this time, had the king permitted us, 
One of our souls had vander'd in the air, 
Banish'd this ri-ail sepfllchre of our flesh,  
As now our flesh is banish'd fi'om this land: 
Confess thy treasons, ere thon fly the realm ; 
Since thou hast far to go, bear not along 
The clogging burden of a guilty soul. 
hOR. No, Bolingbroke ; if ever I were traitor, 
My naine be blotted from the book of life, 
And I from heaven banish'd, as ri'oto hence [ 
But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do know; 
And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue. 
Farewell, lny liege :Now no way tan I stray; 
Save back to England, all the world's my way. s 

thus. Norflolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to 
mine enemff, I now utter my last words with kindness and tender- 
ness, Confess thff treasons. JOHIsoN. 
so rare, as fo mine enemq;] i.e. he only wishes him to 
rare like his enemy, and he disdains to say tiare well as Aumerle 
does in the next scene. TOLrT. 
The first folio readsflare; the second farre. Bolingbroke 
only uses the phrase by way of caution, lest Mowbray should 
think he was about to address him as a friend. Nortblk, says 
he, so far as a man may speak to his enemy, &c. RiTsom 
Surely rare was a misprint for flarre, the old spelling of the 
word now placed in the text.--Perhaps the author intended that 
Hereford in speaking this line s]aould show some courtesy to 
Mowbray;--and the meaning may be: So much civility as an 
enemy bas a right to, I ara willing to offer to thee. 
Sir T. Hanmer's marginal direction isIn salutatiou. 
"  this frail sepfilchre of out 3qeh,] So, afterwards : 
« __ thou King Richard's tomb, 
« And hot King Richard-- " 
And VIilton, in Samson Agonistes: 
" ]Vlyself my sepulchre, a moving grave." 
  all the world's my way.] Perhaps Milton had this in 
his mind when he wrote these lines : 

sc. 111. KING RICHARD II. 3 

K. RrcH. Uncle, even in the glasses ofthine eyes 
I see thy grieved heart : thy sad aspéct 
Hath froln the lmmber of his banish'd years 
Pluek'd four away ;--Six fi'ozen winters spent, 
Return [To BoLx..] with weleome home ri'oto 
BOLtVc. How long a rime lies in one little word ! 
Four lagging winters, and bur wanton springs, 
End in a word ; Such is the breath of kings. 
GAu_'T. I thank my liege, that, in regard of me, 
He shortens four years of my son's exile : 
But little vantage shall I reap thereby ; 
For, ere the six years, that he hath to spend, 
Cau change their moons, and bring their rimes 
My oil-dried lamp, and time-bewasted light, 
Shall be extinct with age, and endless night ; 
My inch of taper will be burnt and done, 
And blindfold death not let me see lny son. 
IÇ. RlCH. Why, unele, thou hast lnany years to 
GAUNT. But hot a minute, king, that thou eanst 
give : 

" The world was ail before them, where to choose 
" Their place of rest, aud Providence their guide." 
The Duke of Norfolk after hls banishment went to Venice, 
where, says Holinshed, " for thought and melancholy he de- 
ceased." IALONEo 
I should point the passage thus: 
 Now no waj can I stra 
, Save back to England:all the world's raff waff. 
There s no way for me to go wrong, except back to England. 


Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow, 
And pluck nights fi'om me, but not lend a morrow :  
Thou canst help rime to furrow me with age, 
But stop no wrinkle ila his pilgrimage ; 
Thy word is current with him for my death ; 
But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. 
K. Rirc',r. Thy son is banish'd upon good adviee,  
Whereto thy tongue a party-verdiet gave ; s 
Why at our justice seem'st thou then to lower ? 
Gt:VT. Things sweet to taste, prove in digestion 
You urg'd lne as a judge ; but I had rather, 
You would have bid me argue like a tather : 
O, had it been a stranger,  hOt my child, 
To smooth his fault I should have been more mild : 
A partial slander  sought I to ,'tvoid, 
And ia the sentence my own lire destroy'd, 

 And pluck nights from me, but hot lend a morrow:] It is 
matter of very melanholy consideration, that ail human advan- 
tages confer more power of doing evil than good. Joaso. 
  u29on good advice,] Upon great consideration. 
So, in King Henry,VI. Part II : 
" But with adzice and silent secrecy." SEEVENS. 
  a party-verdict gave;] i.e. you had yourself a part or 
»bare in the verdict that I pronounced. MONE. 
 0, ad it een a stranger,] This couplet is wanting in the 
folio. STEEVEN$. 
»  partial slander] That is the reçroach of partialit. 
This is a jt picture of thc struggle between principle and affec- 
tion. JoHNso. 
This couplet, which is wanting in the folio edition, has been 
arbitrarly placcd by some ofthe modern editors at the conclusion 
of Gaunt's speech. In the three oldest quartos it follows the 
fifih line of it. In tire fourth quarto, which seems copied from 
the folio, thc passage is omitted. STEVNS. 


Alas, I look'd, when some of you should say, 
I was too strict, to make mine own away ; 
But you gave leave to my unwillig tongue, 
Against my will, to do myself this wrong. 
K. Ries. Cousin, çarewell :--and, uncle, bid him 
SO ; 
Six years we banish him, and he shall go. 
[Flot«rish. E,veunt Ik . RICHARD atd Trai. 
AUM. Cousin, hrewell : what presence must hot 
From where you do remain, let paper show. 
MA. My lord, no leave take I ; for I will ride, 
As far as land will let me, by your side. 
GAvr. 0, to what purpose dost thou hoard 
That thou return'st no greeting to thy fi'iends ? 
BOLING. I have too few to take my leave ofyou, 
When the tongue's office should be prodigal 
To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart. 
GAuT. Thy grief is but thy absence for a time. 
BOLg. Joy absent, grief is present for that 
GAleT. What is six winters ? they are quickly 
BOLG. To men in joy; but grief makes one 
hour ten. 
GUT. Call it a travel that thou tak'st for plea- 
BOL5G. My heart will sigh, when I miscall it so, 
Which finds t an enforced pi]grimage. 
GAUNT. The sullen passage of thy weary steps 
Esteem a foil, where]n thou art to set 
The precious jewel of thy home-return. 


BOLING. Nay,rather, every tedious stride I make « 
Will but remember me, what a deal of world 
I wander from the jewels that I love. 
Must I hOt serve a long apprenticehood 
To foreign passages; and in the end, 
Having lny tl-eedom, boast of nothing else, 
But that I was a journeyman to grief?  
Gnvï,. All places that the eye of heaven visits,  
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens" 
Teach thy necessity to reason thus ; 
There is no virtue like necessity. 
Think not, the king did banish thee ;  

 Boling. Nay, rather, eery tedious stride I make] Thls, 
and tho six verses whieh follow, I bave ventured to supply from 
the old quarto. The allusion, it is true, to an apprenticeship, 
and beeoming ajournedman, is not in the sublime taste ; nor, as 
Horaee bas expressed it: « spirat tragicum ,atis :" however, as 
there is no doubt of the passage being genuine, the lines are hot 
o despieable as to deserve being quite lost. 
" journeyman fo grief?] I ara afraid out author in this 
place designed a very poor quibble, as journey signifies both 
travel and a day's work. However, he is hot to be eensured for 
what he himselfrejeeted. JomSOl. 
The quarto, in whleh these lines are round, is said in its titlel 
page to have been eorreeted by the author ; and the play is in- 
deed more aeeurately printed than most ofthe other single copies. 
There is now, however, no certain method of knowing by whom 
the rejection was made. STVNS. 
 All places that te eye of heavcn vi,its, &c.] So, Nonnus : 
The fourteen verses that follow are round in the first edition. 
I mn inclined to be]eve th,t what Mr. Theobald and lIr. Pope 
bave restored were expunged in the revision by the author : If 
these lines are omitted, the sense is more coherent. Nothing i 
more frequent among dramatic writers, than to shorten ther 
ialigues for the stage. JOHNSON. 
 did banish thee;] Read: 
Therefore, think hot, the king did banish thee. Rtxo. 

5'. Xil. KING RICHARD II. $7 

But thou the king :s Woe doth the heavier sit, 
Where it perceives it is but faintly borne. 
Go, say---I sent thee forth to purchase honour, 
And not--the king exil'd thee: or suppose, 
Devouring pestilence hangs in our air, 
And thou art flying to a fresher clime. 
Look, what thy soul holds dear, imagine it 
To lie that way thou go'st, not whence thou com'st: 
Suppose the singing birds, musicians ; 
The grass whereon thou tread'st, the presenee 

 Think hot, the king did 5anish thee; 
But thou the king :] The same thought occurs in Coriolanus : 
« I banish you." M. Masos. 
All places that the eye of heaven visits, 
Are fo a wise man ports and happy havens :-- 
Think hot, the ki did banish thee ; 
But thou the king:] Shakspeare, when he wrote the passage 
before us, probably remembered that part of Lyly's Euphues, 
1580, in which Euphues exhorts Botanio fo take his exile 
Platienthj. Among other arguments he observes, that « Nature 
aath given to man a country no more than she hath a house, or 
lands, or livings. Soerates would neither eall hlmselfan Athenian, 
neither a Greeian, but a eitizen ofthe world. Plato would never 
aeeount him banished, that had the sunne, ayre, water, and 
earth, that he had before; where he fer tbe winter's blast and 
the summer's blaze ; where the same sunne and the saine moone 
hined : whereby he noted that every place was a countrff fo a 
toise man, and ail parts a palace to a quiet mind.--When it was 
cast in Diogenes' teeth, that the Sinoponetes had banished him 
Pontus, yea, said he, I them of Diogenes." MAlOl. 
  the presence strew'd;] Shakspeare has other allusions 
to the aneient praetiee of strewing rushes over the floor of the 
presence chamber. HENLEY. 
So, in Cymcline: 
" Tarquin flus 
" Did softly press the rushes, ere he waken'd 
" The chastity he wounded:" STEEVES. 
See Hentzner's account of the presence chamber, in the 
palace at Greenwich, 1598. Itinerar. p. 15. MALo. 


The flowers, fair ladies ; and thy steps, no lnore 
Than a delightfid lneasure, s or a dance : 
For gnarling sorrow hath less power to bite 
The man that mocks at it, and sets it light. 
BoLx2va. O, who can hold a tire in his hand, 
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus ?9 
Or cloy the hungry cdge of appetite, 
]3y bare imagination of a feast ? 
Or wallow nakcd in December SHOW, 
By thinking on tzantastick summer's heat ? 
O, no! the apprehension of thc good, 
Gives but the greatcr eling fo the worse : 
Fell sorrow's tooth doth never rankle more, 
Than when it bites, but lanceth hot the sore. 

 --than a delightful measure,] A measure was a formal 
court dance. So, in hïng Richard III: 
" Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.'" 
9 O, who can hold a tire in his hand, &c.-] Fire is here, as in 
many other places, used as a dissyllable. 
It has been renmrked, that there is a passage resembling this 
in Tully's Fifth Book of Tusculan Questions. Speaking of Epi- 
curus, he says :--" Sed unâ se dicit recordatione acquieseere 
proeteritarum voluptatum : ut si quis oestuans, cure viro caloris 
non facile patiatur, recordari velit se aliquando in Arpinati nostro 
gelidis fluminibus eireumfusum fuisse. Non enim video, quo- 
modo sedare possint mala proesentia proeteritoe voluptates." The 
Tusculan Questions of Cieero had been translated early enough 
for Shakspeare to have seen them. 
Shakspeare, however, I believe, was thinking on the words of 
Lyly, in the page from which an extract has been already ruade : 
" I speake this to this end, that though thy exile seem grievous to 
thee, yet guiding thy selfe with the rules of phylosophy, it should 
be more tolerable : he that is cold, doth not eover himselfe with 
care but with clothes; he that is washed in the raine, drieth 
himselfe by the 3çre, not by his fanc; and thou which art 
banished," &c. M.LO. 

sc. zr. KING RICHARD II. 9 

GAUNT. Corne, come, my son, l'll bring thee on 
thy way : 
Had I thy youth, and cause, I would not stay. 
BOLX2a.Then, England'sground, çarewell; sweet 
soil, adieu ; 
My mother, and my nurse, that bears me yet! 
Where-e'er I wander, boast of this I ean, 
Though banish'd, yet a trueborn Englishlnan.' 
[ Exeunt. 


The saine. 4 Room in the King's Castle. 

Enter King RICHARD, BAGOT, and GREEN ; 
2kUlgERLE folloïzizé. 

K. Rzc. We did observe.Cousin Aumerle, 
How far brought you lfigh Hereford on lais way ? 
/&r. I brought high Hereford, ifyou call him so, 
But to the next highway, and there I left him. 
K. Ricin. And, say, what store of parting tears 
were shed ? 
.4 rM. 'Faith, none by me:  except the north-east 

' yet a trueborn Englishman.] Here the first Act ought 
to end, that between the first and second Acts there may be rime 
for John of Gaunt to accompany his son, return, and fall sick. 
Then the first scene of the second Act begins with a natural con- 
versation, interrupted by a message from John of Gaunt, by 
which the King is called to visit him, which visit is paid in the 
following scene. As the play is now divided, more rime passes 
between the last two scenes of the first Act, than between the 
first Act and the second. JOHNSON. 
 --none by me:'l The old copies read--Jbr me. With the 
other modern editors I have here adopted an emcndation made 


Which then blew bitterly against our faces, 
Axvak'd the sleeping rheuln ; and so, by chance, 
Did grace our hollow parting with  tear. 
K. RICH. What said our cousin, when you parted 
with him ? 
Awt. Farewell : 
And, for my hcart disdained that my tongue 
Should so protane the word, that taught me craft 
To counterfeit oppression of such grief, 
That words seeln'd buried in my sorrow's grave. 
Marry, would the word farewell have lengthen'd 
And added years to lais short banishment, 
He should bave had a volume of farewells ; 
But, sance it would hOt, he had none of ane. 
K. RICH. He as our cousin, cousin ; but 'ris doubt, 
When time shall call him home ri'oto banishment, 
Whether out kinsman corne to ee his fi'iends. 
Ourself and Bushy, Bagot here, and Green,  
Observ'd lais courtship to the common people : 
How he did seem to dive into their hearts, 
With hulnble and familiar courtesy ; 
What reverence he did throw away on slaves ; 
Wooing poor craffsmen, with the craft of slniles, 

by tbe editor of the second folio; but without necessity. For me, 
may mean, on m¢ part. Thus we say, " For me, I ara con- 
tent," &c. where these words have the sanie signification as here. 
If we read--fl'br me, the expression will be equivocal, and 
seem as if it meant--no tears were shed on m3 accourir. So, in 
the preceding scene: 
" O, let no noble eye profane a tear 
{* or ?Re," &C. STEEVENSo 
  Bagot here, and Green,] The old copies read--here 
Bagot. The transposition was ruade in a quarto of no value, 
printcd in 16S. MLO]. 

sc.n. KING RICHARD II. 41 

And ptient nnderbearing of his fortune, 
As 'twere, to banish their aflhcts with him. 
Off goes his bonnet to an oyster-wencl-. ; 
A brace of draylnen bidmGod speed him well, 
And had the tribute of his supple knee,  
With--Thal,'s,nff co ztn t men, nff lovin g" fi'iends 
As were out England in reversion his, 
And he out subjects' next degree in hope. s 
GR2Z2z2¢. Well, he is gone; and with hiln go these 
:Now for the rebels, which stand out in Ireland 
Expedient 6 manage must be ruade, my liege ; 
Ere further leisure yield them further means, 
For their advantage, and your highness' loss. 
K. RICH. We will ourself in person to this war. 
And, for out coffërsT-with too great a court, 
And liberal lal'gess,are grown somewhat light, 
We are enforc'd to farm out royal reahn ; 
The revenue whereof shall filrnish us 
:For out affairs in hand- If that corne short, 
Our substitutes at home shall have blank charters 
Whereto, when they shall know what men are rich, 
They shall subscribe them tbr large sums of gold, 

  the tribute ofhis supple knee,] To illustrate this phrase, 
it should be remembered that courtesjing, (the act of reverence 
now confined to women,) was anciently practised by men. 
 _nd ]te out sulject' next degree in h.ope.] Spes altera Romoe. 
 Expedient] i. e. expeditious. So, in King John: 
" His marches are expedient to this town." SXEV.s. 
  for out coff'ers-.] i. e. because. So, at the beginning 
of this scene : 
" And, for my heart dlsdained that my tongue," &c. 
Again, in Othello: 
«  Haply, Jbr I ara black ;" Seves. 

And send them after to supply our wants ; 
For we will makc for Ireland presently. 

.dCT II. 


Bushy, what news ? 
.BusHY. Old John of Gaunt is grievous sick, my 
lord ; 
Suddenly taken ; and hafl sent post-baste, 
To entreat your majcsty to visit him. 
K. RICH. Where lies he ? 
BuSHY. At Ely-house. 
K. RIcTt. Now put it, heaven, in his physieian's 
To help him to his grave immediately ! 
The lining of his eoffers shall make coats 
To deek our soldiers for these Irish wars.-- 
Corne, gentlemen, let's all go visit him: 
Pray God, we may make haste, and corne too late ! 


London. A Room hz Ebj-house. 

GAUNT On a Couch; the Duke of YORK, s and 
Others standing by him. 

Ga UvT. Will the king come ? that I may breathe 
my last 
In wholesome counsel to his unstaied youth. 

 -----the duke o.f York,] was Edmund» son of Edward IIL 

sc. r. KING RICHARD II. 43 

YORk'. Vex not yourself nor strive not with 
your breath ; 
For all in vain cornes counsel to his car. 
GU2VT. O, but they say, the tongues of dying 
Enforce attention, like deep harmony" 
Where words are scarce, they are seldom spent in 
vain ; 
For they breathe truth, that breathe their words in 
He, that no more must say, is listen'd more 
Than they whom youth and ease have taught to 
glose ; 
More are men's ends lnark'd, than their lires be- 
The setting sun, and musick at the close, 9 
As the last taste of sweets, is sweetest last ; 
Writ in remembrance nore than things long past : 
Th.ough Richard my life's counsel would not hear, 
My death's sad tale may yet undeaf his ear. 
YORK. No; itis stopp'd with other flattering 
As, praises of his state" then, there are found 
Lascivious mctres ; to whose renom sound 
The open car of youth doth always listen : 

9 at the close,] This I suppose to be a musical term. 
So, in Lingua, 1607: 
" I tiare engage my ears, the close will jar." 

 Lascivious metres ;] The old copies havemeeters; but I 
believe we should read metres for verses. Thus the folio spells 
the word mette in The First Part of King Henr IV: 
"  one of these smne meeter ballad-mongers." 
Venom sound agrees well with lascivious ditties, but not so com- 
modiously with one who meets another; in which sense the worà 
appears to have been generally received. Srvs. 


Report of fashions in proud Italy ;  
Whose manners still our tardy apish nation 
Limps after, in base imitation. 
Where doth the world thrust forth a vanity, 
(So it be new, there's no respect how vile,) 
That is hot quiekly buzz'd into lais ears ? 
Then all too late cornes eounsel fo be heard, 
Where will doth mutiny with wit's regard? 
Direct not him, whose way himself will ehoose ;4 
'Tis breath thou laek'st, and that breath wilt thou 
G._T. Methinks, I am a prophet new inspir'd; 
And thus, expiring, do tbretell of him- 
His rash  tierce blaze of riot cannot last; 
For violent rires soon burn out themselves- 
Small showerslast long,but sudden storms are short 
He rires betines, that spurs too ihst betimes ; 
With eager feeding, bod doth choke the feeder : 
Light vanity, insatiate cormorant, 
Consuming means, soon preys upon itself. 
This royal throne of kings, this scepter'd isle, 
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, 
This other Eden, demi-paradise ; 

" Report offashions in proud Italy;] Our author, who gives 
to all nations the customs of England, and to ail ages the man- 
ners of his own, bas charged the rimes of Richard with a folly 
hot perhaps known then, but very frequent in Shakspeare's time» 
and much lamented by the wisest and best of our aneestors. 
 Where will doth mutiny with wits regard.] Vv'here the will 
rebels against the notiees of the understanding. JoI-ISSos. 
 whose way himselfwill choose;] Do hot attempt to 
guide him, who, whatever thou shalt say, will take his own 
course. Josso. 
»  rash--] That is, hasty, violent. JoI-ISSOS. 
S% in King Henry IV. Part I: 
« Like aconitum or rash gunpowder." M.o. 


.This fortress, built by nature for herself, 
Against infection, 6 and the hand of war: 
This happy breed of men, this little world ; 
This precious stone set in the silver sea, 
Which serves it in the office of a wall, 
Or as a moat defensive to a house, 
Against the envy of less happier lands ;  
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this Eng- 
This nurse, this teenfing womb of royal kings, 
Fear'd by their breed, and famous by their birth, 8 

« Against infection,] I once suspected that for infection we 
might read invasion ; but the copies all agree, and I suppose 
Shakspeare meant to say, that islanders are secured by their 
ituation both from war and pestilence. JOHNSON. 
In Allot's England's Parnassus, 1600, this passage is quoted : 
« Against intestion," &c. Perhaps the word might be inf¢stion, 
ifsuch a word was in use. Faillible. 
  less happîer lands ;] So read all the editions, except 
Sir T. Hanmer's, which has less happ. I believe, Shakspeare, 
from the habit of saying more hap1)ier , according to the custom 
of his rime, inadvertently writ less happier. JoHrSOr. 
 Fear'd by their breed, andfamous by their birth,] The first 
edition in quarto, 1598, reads : 
Fear'd by their breed, and famous for tkeir irt. 
The quarto, in 1615: 
Fear'd by their 5reed, and famous by th.eir irth. 
The fist folio, though printed from the second quarto, reads as 
the first. The particles in this author seem often to have been 
printed by chance. Perhaps the passage, which appears a little 
di,ordered, may be regulated thus: 
-- rojal kings, 
Fear'd for their breed, and famous for their birth, 
For Christian service, and true ehivalry; 
Renowned for their deeds as far from home 
As is the seloulchre. Jonsom 
The first folio eould not have been printed from the second 
quarto, on account of many variations as well as omissions. The 


Renowned for their deeds as far fi'om home, 
(For Christian service, and true chivalry,) 
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry, 
Of the world's ransom, blessed Mary's son- 
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land, 
Dear for ber reputation through the world, 
Is now leas'd out (I die pronouncing if,) 
Like to a tenement, or pelting farm :9 
England, bound in with the triumphant sea, 
Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege 
Of watery Neptune, is now bound in with shame, 
With inky blots, 1 and rotten parchment bonds 

quarto 1608 has the saine reading with that immediately pre- 
ceding it. Sa'v, EvEr:s. 
Fear'd by their breed,] i. e. by means of their breed. 
 This land 
Is now leas'd out (I die pronouncing if,) 
Like to a tenement, or pelting farm :] « In this d yeare 
of King Richard (says Fabian,) the common faine tanne, that 
the kinge had letten to farm the realme unto Sir -illiam Serope, 
earle of Wiltshire, and then treasurer of England, to Syr John 
Bushey, Sir 3ohn Bagot, and Sir Henry Grene, knightes." 
 lVith ink blots,] I suspect that out author wroteink# 
bolts. How can blots bind iu any thing ? and do hot bolts cor- 
respond better with bonds  b*k bolts are written rcstrictions. 
80, in The Honest lan's Fortune» by Beaumont and F]etcher 
Act IV. sc. i: 
"  ,mnaclin. itself 
" Ingyve ofparchment. » SxEvs. 
 rotten çarchment bonds;] Alluding to the great sums 
ralsed by loans and other exacfions, in this reign, upon the Eng- 
lish subjects. G. 
Gaunt does hot allude, as Grey supposes, to any loans or 
exacfions extorted by ichard, but to the circumstances of his 
having actually ed out h[s royal reahn, as he himself styles 
it. In the lt scene of the first Act he says : 
" And, for out coffers are grown somewhat l[ght» 
" We are enforc'd to arm out royal rem." 

,sc. _. KING RICHARD II. 7 

That England, that was wont to conquer others, 
Hath made a shamcful conquest of itsclf: 
O, would the scandal vanish with my lire, 
How happy then were my ensuing death [ 

nter King RICHARD, and Queen ;s AUMERLE,, 
BUSHY, GREEN, BA(3OT, Ross, » and WIr,- 

]/OR/tL The king is come: dcal mildly with his 
youth ; 
For young hot colts, being rag'd, do rage the more. 7 
OvE22v. How rares our noble uncle, Lancaster ? 
K. RlctZ. What comfort, man ? How is't with 
aged Gaunt ? 
GAVenT. O,how that name befits my composition! 
Old Gaunt, indeed ; and gaunt in being old: 
Within me grief hath kept a tedious fast ; 

And it afterwards appears that the person who farmed the realm 
wa the Earl of Wiltshire one of his own favourites. 
M. M.sor. 
 -- Queen ;] Shakspeare, as Mr. ,Valpole suggests to me, 
bas deviated from historical truth in the introduction of Richard's 
queen as a woman in the present piece ; for Anne, his first wife, 
was dead before the play commences, and Isabella, his second 
wife, was a child at the time of his death. M_LOSL 
 --Aumerle,-I was Edward, eldest son of Edmund Duke 
of York, whom he succeeded in the title. He was killed at 
Agincourt. W_LeOL. 
 --Ross,] was Willlam Lord Roos, (and so should be 
printed,) of Hamlake, afterwards Lord Treasurer to Henry IV. 
«  IVilloughby.] was Willam Lord ,Villoughby or Eresby, 
who afterwards married Joan, widow of Edmund Duke of York. 
 For young hot colts, bdng rag'd, do rage the more.] Read : 
 bebg rein'd, do rage the more. Rrsor. 


And who abstains ri-oto meat, that is hot gaunt ? 
For s!eeping England long time bave I watch'd ; 
Watching breeds leanness, leanness is all gaunt : 
The pleasure, that some ithers feed upon, 
Is my strict fast, I mean--my children's looks ; 
And, therein fasting, hast thou made me gaunt: 
Gaunt ara I for the grave, gaunt a a grave, 
Whose hollow womb inherits nought but bones. 
K. IICH. Can sick men play so nicely with their 
llalll{3s . 
GAUhTT. No, misery makes sport to mock itself: 
Since thou dost seek to kill my naine in me, 
I mock my name, great king, to flatter thee. 
h'. IIc. Should dying lnen flatter with tbose 
that tire ? 
GIu.¥'T. No, no; men living flatter those that 
.K. RICH. Thou, now a dying, say'st--thou flat- 
ter'st me. 
G.ar_rTT. Oh! no; thou diest, though I the sicker 
K. RrcH. I am in health, I breathe, and see thee 
GAUNT. Now, He that made me, knows I see 
thee ill ; 
Ill in myself to sec, and in thee seeing ill2 
Thy death-bed is no lesser than the land, 
Wherein thou liest in reputation sick : 
And thou, too careless patient as thou art, 
Commit'st thy anointed body to the cure 

 Ill it mqself to see, and in thee seeing ill.] I cannot help 
supposing that the idle wordsto see, which destroy the mea- 
sure, should be omitted. STEvs, 

«. i. KING RICHARD II. 49 

Of those physicians that first wounded thee : 
A thousand flatterers sit within thy crown, 
Whose compass is no bigger than thy bead; 
And yet, incaged in so small a verge, 
The waste is no whit lesser than fliy land. 
O, had thy grandsire, with a prophet's eye, 
Seen how his son's sou should destroy his sons, 
From forth thy reach he would have laid thy shalne 
Deposing thee before thou wert possess'd, 
Which art possess'd now to depose thyself. 9 
Why, cousin, wert thou regent of the world, 
It were a shame, to let this land by lease : 
But, for thy world, enjoying but this land, 
Is it hot lnore than shame, to shame it so ? 
Landlord of England art thou now, hot king: 
Thy state of law is bondslave to the law  

 Which art possess'd now fo depose th.iself.] Possess'd, in this 
second instance, was, I believe, designed to meana61icted with 
madness occasioned by the internal operation of a dœemon. So, 
in The Comedy ofEr"rors :" Both man and toaster is possess'd." 
 Thy state of law is bondslave to the lao;] Sate of lav, 
i. e. legal sovereignty. But the Oxford editor alters it to state o'er 
law, i. e. absolute sovereignty. A doctrine, which, if ever our 
poet learnt at ail, he learnt not in the reign when this play was 
written, Queen Elizabeth's, but in the reign after it, King 
James's. By bondslave to the law, the poet means his being in- 
slaved to hisfavourite subjects. W/trttrR7:ON. 
This sentiment, whatever it be, is obscurely expressed. I un- 
derstand it differently from the learned commentator, being per- 
haps not quite so zealous for Shakspeare's political reputation. 
The reasoning of Gaunt, I think, is this : By setting the royalties 
to farm thou hast red«tced thÆself to a state below sovereigntff, 
thou art now no longer king but landlord of England, stbject fo 
the saine restraint and limitations as other laudlords : by makitg 
thff condition a state of law, a condition ulgon which the comnwn 
rules of lato can operate, flmu art become a bondslave to the 
law; thou hast nade thgseljf amenable to lazt, sjfrom &ich thou 
voert originally exemTt. 

50 KING RICHARD II. actif. 

And thou----- 
K. Rrct. ----a lunatick lcan-witted fool,  
Presulning on an ague's privilege, 
Dar'st with thy fi-ozen admonition 
Make pale out check ; ehasing the royal blood, 
With fury, ri'oto his native residence. 

Whether this explanation be truc or no, it is plain that Dr. 
Warburton's explanation of bondslave to the law, is hot truc. 
Warburton'sexplanation ofthis passage is too absurd to rcquire 
eonfutation ; and his political observation is equally ill-founded. 
Thc doctrine of absolute sovcreignty might as wcll have been 
learned in the rcign of Elizabcth, as in that of hcr successor. 
She was, in thct, as absolute as ho wishcd to be. 
Johnson's explanation is in gcncral just ; but I think that the 
words, of law, must mean, bj law, or according fo law, as we 
say, of course, and o.f r(ght, instead of by right, or bv course. 
--Gaunt's reasoning is this--" Having let your kingdo by lease, 
you are no longer the king of England, but the landlord only ; 
and your state is by law, subject to the law." M. M,so. 
Mr. Heath explains the words state oflaw somewhat differently: 
" Thy royal estate, which is established bff the law, is now in vir- 
tue ofthy having leased it out, subjected," &c. Mo,. 
 Gaunt. And thou-- 
I\ Riel a htnntick lean-witted fool,] In the disposi- 
tion or" these lines I llave followed the fo[io, in giving the word 
thou to the king ; but the regulation of the first quarto, 1,597, 
perhaps preferable, being more in our poet's manner: 
Gaunt. And thou 
K. Rich. a lunatick, lean-dtted fool, 
And thou a mere cypher in th!/ own kingdom, Gaunt was going 
to say. Richard interrupts him, and takes the word thou in 
different sense, applying it to Gaunt, instead of himself. Of this 
kind of retort there are various instances in these plays. 
The folio repeats the word And: 
Gaunt. And----. 
K. Rich. And thou, &c. 
leau-witted] Dr. Fariner observes to me that the 
»a,ne expression oecurs in the 106th Psalm: 
"  and zent leanness wiflml into their soul." 

se. . KING RICHARD II. al 

Now by my seat's right royal majesty, 
Wert thou hot brother to great Edward's son, 
This tongue that runs so roundly in thv head, 
Should run thy head ri'oto thy unreverend shoulders. 
G.u_T. O, spare me not, my brother Edward's 
For that I was his father Edward's son ; 
That blood already, like the pelican, 
Hast thou tapp'd out, and drunkenly carous'd : 
My brother Gloster, plain well-meaning soul, 
(Whom fait befal in heaven 'mongst happy souls 
May be a precedent and wituess good, 
That thou respect'st hot spilling Edward's blood : 
Join with the present sickness that I bave ; 
And thy unkindness,be like crooked age, 
To crop at once a too-long withcr'd flower.  

" And thj unkin&zess be like crooked age, 
To crop at once a too-long wither'd fflower.] Thus stand 
these lines in all the copies, but I think there is an error. Why 
should Gaunt, already old, eall on any thing like age to end him ? 
How ean age be said to crop af once? How is the idea of- crooked- 
ness eonnected with that ofcropping? I suppose the poet dietated 
thus : 
And thy unkindness be time's crooked edge 
To crop at once 
That is, let thy unkindness be time's scythe to crop. 
Edge was easily confounded by the ear with age, and one nais- 
take once admitted ruade way for another. 3onxso. 
Shakspeare, I believe, took this idea from the figure of" Tilne, 
who was represented as carrying a sickle as well ns a scqthe. 
A sickle was anciently called a crook, and sometimes, as in the 
following instances, crooked may mean armed with a crook. So, 
-in Kendall's Epigrams, 1577: 
" The regall king and crooked clowne 
" Ail one alike death driveth downe." 
Again, in the 100th Sonnet of Shakspeare: 
" Give my love, faine, faster than time wastes lif'e, 
" So thou prevent'st his zcyt.lae and crooked knife." 


Live in thy shame, but die hot shame with thee !-- 
These words hereafter thy tormentors be !-- 
Convey me to my bed, then to my grave: 
Love they  fo live, that love and honour have. 
[Exit, bore out bg his Attendants. 
K. Rtcn. And let them die, that age and sullens 
have ; 
For both hast thou, and both beeome the grave. 
YORK. 'Beseeeh your majesty, 6 impute his words 
To wayward siekliness and age in him: 
He loves you, on lny lire, and holds you dear 
As Harry duke of Hereford, were he here. 
K. Rte'n. Right; you say true: as Hereford's love, 
so his : 
As theirs, so mine; and all be as it is. 

/gain, in the ll9th : 
" Love's hot Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks 
" Within his 3ending sicMe's compass corne." 
It may be mentioned, however, that crooked is an epithet be- 
stowed on age in the tragedy of Locri,e, 1595: 
" Now yield to death o'erlaid by crooked age." 
Locrine has been attributed to Shakspeare ; and in this passage 
quoted from it, no allusion to a scffthe can be supposed. Out poet's 
expressions are sometimes confused and abortive. Sa'EEVES. 
Again, in A Flourish upon Fancie, by N.B. [Nicholas Breton,] 
1577 : 
" Who, when that be a while bath bin in fancies schoole, 
" Doth learne in his old crooked age to play the doting 
foole." MALOW. 
Shakspeare had probably two different but kindred ideas in his 
mind ; the bend of age, and the sickle of time, which he con- 
tbunded together. M. MASO. 
 Love thej] That is let them love. JOHIIso. 
 "Beseech your majestg,] The old copies redundantly read-- 
" I dg beseech," &c. 
Mr. Ritson would regulate the passage differently (and perhap 
rightly,) by omitting the words--in him: 
I do eseech gour nafiest3 , impute 
Itis ords fo wa.yward d¢kliness and age. SEvms. 



NOITIt. My liege, old Gaunt COlnmends hiln to 
your lllajesty, 
K. RzcH. What says he now ?s 
NORTH. Nay, nothing ; all is said: 
His tongue is now a stringless instrulnent ; 
Words, lire, and all, old Lancaster hath spent. 
YORa= Be York the next that lnust be bankrupt 
Though death be poor, it ends a mortal voe. 
It\ RrcH. The ripest fruit first falls, and so doth 
he ; 
His time is spent, our pilgrimage must be: 9 
So much for that.----Now for our Irish wars: 
We lnust supplant those rough rug-headed kerns ; 
Which lire like venom, where no venoln else,  
But only they, hath privilege to lire. 
And for these great affairs do ask some charge, 

 --Northum3erland.] was Henry Percy, Earl of Northum- 
berland. Wa.I,O.. 
 What salis he now?-I I have supplied the adverbnow, 
(which is wanting in the old copy,) to complete the measure. 
 our Tilgrimage must e:] That is, our pilgrimage is 
yet to come. M. Masor. 
  tere no renom else,] Thls alludes to a tradition that 
St. Patrick freed the kingdom of Ireland ri'oto venomous reptîles 
of every kind. So, in Decker's Honest lYhore, P. II. 1650 : 
" that Irish Judas, 
" Bred in a country whcre no veom prospers, 
« But in his blood." 
Again, in Fuimus Troes, 16$: 
" As Irish earth doth poisou poisonous beasts." 
ISee also, Thomas Lupton's Fourth Book of _Notable Thigs, 
4to. bi. 1. ST..VS. 


Towards our assistance, we do seize to us 
The plate, coin, revenues, and moveablcs, 
Whereof our uncle Gauut did stand possess'd. 
YoRa'. How long shall I be patient ? Ah, hov 
Shall tender duty make me surfer wrong ? 
Not Gloster's death, nor Heretbrd's banishment, 
Not Gaunt's rebukes, nor England's private wrongs, 
Nor the prevention of poor Bolingbroke 
About his marriage,  nor my own disgrace, 
Have ever ruade lne sollr my patient cheek, 
Or bend one wrinkle on my sovereign's çace.-- 
I ana the last of noble Edward's sons, 
Of whom thy father, prince of Wales, was first ; 
In war, was never lion rag'd more tierce, 
In peace was never gentle lamb more mild, 
Than was that young and princely gentleman : 
I-Iis face thou hast, tbr even so look'd he, 
Accomplish'd with the number of thy hours,  
But, when he fi'own'd, it was against the French, 
And not against his fi'iends : his noble hand 
Did win what he did spend, and spent hot that 
Which his triumphant tathel"S hand had won: 
His hands were guilty of no kindred's blood, 
But bloody with the enemies of his kin. 
O, Richard! York is too far gone witb grief, 
Or else he never would compare between. 

 Nor the prevention ofpoor Bolingbro1e 
About his marriage,] When the duke of Hereford, after his 
banishment, went into France, he was 'honourably entertalned 
at that court, and would have obtained in marriage the only 
daughter of the duke of Berry, the French king, had 
hot Richard prevented the match. 

' Accomplish'd with the number o,f thj hours;] i.e. when he 
was ofthy age. 

sc. z. KING RICHARD II. 55 

K. RzcH. Why, uncle, what's the matter . 
Yo_I; O, my liege, 
Pardon me, if you please ; if hot, I pleas'd 
Not to be pardon'd, am content withal. 
Seek you fo seize, and gripe into your hands, 
The royalties and rights of banish'd Hereford . 
Is hot Gaunt dead . and doth hot Hereford live . 
Was hot Gaunt just . and is hot Harry true . 
Did not the one deserve to bave an heir . 
Is hot his heir a well-deserving son . 
Take Hereford's rights away, and take fi'om rime 
His charters and his customary rights ; 
:Let hot to-morrow t]len ensue to-day ; 
Be hot thyself, for how art thon a king, 
:But by fair sequence and succession ? 
Now, afore God (God forbid, I say true !) 
If you do wrongfully seize Hereford's rights, 
Ca|l in the letters patents that he hath 
:By his attornies-general to sue 
His livery, and deny his offer'd homage, a 
You pluck a thousand dangers on youï head, 
You lose a thousand well-disposed hearts, 
And prick my tender patience to those thoughts 
Which honour and allegiance cannot think. 
K. RzcH. Think what you will : we seize into oto" 
His plate, his goods, his money, and his lands. 
YoRh: l'll hot be by, the while : My liege, fare- 
well : 
What will ensue hereof, there's none can tell ; 
:But by bad courses may be understood, 
That their events can never fall out good. [Exit. 

* --den.y Ids'd homage,] That is, refuse to admit the 
liomage, by which he is to hold his lands. Joso. 


K. Rze. Go, Bushy, to the earl of Wiltshire 
straight ; 
Bid him repair to us to Ely-house, 
To see this business: To-morrow next 
We will for Ireland ; and 'tis rime, I trow ; 
And we create, in absence of ourself, 
Our uncle York lord governor of England, 
For he is just, and always lov'd us well.-- 
Corne on, our queen: to-lnorrow must we part ; 
Be lnerry, for out tilne ofstay is short. [Flourish. 
[Exeunt King, Queen, Buses:e, AWEIIE, 
GREEN, and B6OT. 
]VORT. Well, lords, the duke of_ Lancaster is 
Ross. And living too ; for now his son is duke. 
H)LLO. Barely in title, not in revenue. 
NORT. Richly in both, if justice had her right. 
ttoss. My heurt is great ; but it must break with 
:Ere't be disburden'd with a liberal tongue. 
]VORTH. Nay, speak thy mind ; and let him ne'er 
speak more, 
That speak thy words again, to do thee harm ] 
OelLLOo Tends that thou'dst speak, to the duke 
of Hereford ? 
If it be so, out with it boldly, man ; 
Quick is mine ear, to hear of good towards him. 
ttoss. No good at all, that I can do for him ; 
Unless you call if good, to pity him, 
:Bereft and gelded of_ his patrimony. 
NORT. Now, afore heaven, 'ris shame, such 
wrongs are borne, 
In him a royal prince, and many more 
Of noble blood in this declining land. 

ze. z. K1NG RICHARD II. 57 

The king is not himself, but basely led 
]3y flatterers ; and what they will inform, 
Merely in hate, 'gainst any of us all, 
That will the king severely proseeute 
'Gainst us, our lires, our children, and our heirs. 
Ross. The commons hath he pill'd with griev- 
ous taxes, 
And lost their hearts: 5 the nobles hath he fin'd 
:For ancient quarrels, and quite lost their hearts. 
VILLO. And daily new exactions are devis'd ; 
As blanks, benevolences, and I wot not ,hat: 6 
:But what, o'God's naine, doth become of this ? 
2VonTH. Wars have not wasted ît, for warr'd he 
bath hOt, 
But basely yielded upon compromise 
That which his ancestors acihev'd with blows : 
More hath he spent in peace, than they in wars. 
Ross. The earl of Wiltshire hath the realm in 
rlLLO. The king's grown bankrupt, like a 
broken man. 
NORTH. Reproach, and dissolution, hangeth over 

» And lost their hearts:] The old copies erroneously and un- 
metrically read: 
And quite lost their hearts:E 
The compositor's eye had caught the adverbEquite, from the 
following line. Sa-wvss. 
6  dai¢ new exactions are devis'd; 
As, blanks, benevolences, and Iwot hot what :] Stow records, 
that Richard II. " compelled ail the Religious, Gentlemen, and 
Commons, to set their seaies to blankes, to the end he might 
it pleased him, oppresse them severally, or ai1 at once: some 
of the Commons paid 1000 markes, some 1000 pounds," &e. 
Chronicle, p. 19, fol. 1689. Hoa" 


Ross. He hath hot money for these Irish wars, 
His burdenous taxations notwithstanding, 
But by the robbing of the banish'd duke. 
NORTH. His noble kinslnan: most degenerate 
king ! 
But, lords, we hear this fearfifl tempest sing, 7 
Yet seek no slmlter to aviod tbe storm : 
We see the wind sit sore upon out sails, 
And yet we strike hot, 8 but securely perish.  
Rosx. We sce the very wreck that we must surfer; 
And unavoided is tbe danger 1 now, 
For suffering so the causes of our wreck. 
NORTI¢. Not so; even through tbe hollow eyes 
of death, 
I spy lire peering ; but I date hot say 
How near the tidings of our comfort is. 
IVILO. Nay, let us share thy thoughts, as thou 
dost ours. 
17,oss. Be confident to speak, Northumberland : 

  we hear thlsfearf«l tempest sing,] So, in The Tempest: 
" another storm, brewing; I hear if sing in the 
wind." STEEVENSo 
« .dnd yet we strike not,] To strike the sails, is, to contract 
them when there is too much wind. Jortrsor. 
So, in King Henry VL P. III : 
« Than bear so low a sali, to strike to thee." 
9 ut securely Ferish.] VCe perish by too great confi- 
dence in our security. The word is used in the saine sense in 
The lerry Wives of lVindsor: " Though Page be a secur¢ 
fool," &c. MALOV.. 
Again, in Troilus and Cressida, Act IV. sc. v: 
" 'Tis done like Hector, but securel# done." 
See Dr. Farmer's note on this passage. 
t And unavoided is the danger--] Unavoided is I believe» 
here used for unavoidable. MLON.. 

zc. x.- KING RICHARD II. z9 

We three are but thyself; and, speaking so, 
Thy vords are but as thoughts ; therefore, be bold. 
2VORTH. Then thus :mi bave fi'om Port le Blanc, 
a bay 
In Britanny, receiv'd intelligence, 
That Harry ttereford, Reignold lord Cobham, 
[The son of Richard Earl of Arundel,-] 
That late broke ri'oto the duke of Exeter, - 

 [ The son of Richard Earl ofArundel, J 
That late broke from the duke of Exeter,] I suspect that some 
of these lines are transposed, as well  that the poet has ruade a 
blunder in his enumeration of persons, No eopy that I have 
seen, will authorize me to make an alteration, though according 
to Holinshed, whom Shakspeare followed in great measure, more 
than one is necessary. 
Ail the persons enumerated in Holinshed's account of those 
• vho embarked with Bolingbroke, are here mentioned with great 
exactness, except " Thomas Arundell, sonne and heire to the 
late earle of Arundell, beheaded at the Tower-hill." See Holin- 
shed. And yet this nobleman, who appears to have been thus 
omitted by the poet, is the person to whom alone that circum- 
stance relates of having broke fron the duke  E«eter, and to 
whom alone, of all mentioned in the list, the archbishop was re- 
lated, he being uncle to the young lord, though Shakspeare by 
mistake calls him his brother. See Holinshed, p. 496. 
From these circumsnces here taken notice of, which are ap- 
plicable only to this lord in particular, and from the improba- 
bility that Shakspeare would omit so principal a personage in his 
historian's list, I think it can scarce be doubted but that a line 
is lost in wlfich the naine of this Thons Arundel had originally 
a place. 
Mr. Ritson, wifl some probability, supposes Shakspeare could 
hot have neglected so fait an opportunity of availing lfimself of 
a rough ready-made verse which offers itself in Holinshed: 
[ The son and heir OE the late earl Arundel,] 
" Sws. 
For the insertion of the line included withln crotchets, I ara 
answerable ; it not being round in the old copies. 
The passages in Holinshed relative to is matter run thus : 
- Aboute the saine t[me the Earl of Arundell's sonne, named 
Thorax, which was kept in the Duke  Exeter's house, escaped 
out of the rcalme, by meanes of one Wflllam Scot &c, 


His brother, archbishop late of Canterbury,  
Sir Tlmmas Erpingham, sir John Ramston, 
Sir John Norbery, sir Robert Waterton, and Francis 
All these well furnish'd by the duke of Bretagne, 
With eight tall ships, three thousand men of war, 

« Duke Henry,--chiefly through the earnest persuasion of Tho- 
mas Arundell, late Archbishoppe of Canterburie, (who, as be- 
fore you have heard, had been removed ri-oto his sea, and banished 
the reahne by King Richardes means,) got him downe to 
Britaine :uand when all his provision was ruade ready, he tooke 
the sea, together with the said Archbishop of Canterburie, and 
his nephew Tholnas Arundell, sonne and heyre to the late Earle 
of Arundell, beheaded on Tower-hill. There were also with 
him Reginalde Lord Cobham, Sir Thomas Erpingham," &c. 
There cannot, therefore, I think, be the smallest doubt, that 
a line was omitted in the copy of 1597, by the negligence of the 
transcriber or compositor, in which hot only Thomas Arundel, 
but his father, was mentioned; for his in a subsequent line (His 
brother) must refer to the o/d Earl of Arundel. 
Rather than leave a lacuna, I have inserted such words as 
render the passage intelligible. In Act V. sc. ii. of the play be- 
fore us, a line ofa rhynling couplet was passed over by the printer 
of the first folio : 
" I11 may'st thou thrive, if thou grant any grace." 
It bas been recovered from the quarto. 8o also, in K. Henry VL 
Part II. the first of the following lines was omitted, as is proved 
by the old play on which that piece is founded, and (as in the 
present instance,) by the line which followed the omitted line : 
" [ Sur. Jove sometimes went disguis'd, and why hot I 771 
" Cap. But Jove was never slain, as thou shalt be." 
In Coriolanus, Act II. sc. ult. a line was in like manner omitted, 
and it has very properly been supplied. 
The christian name of Sir Thomas Ramston is changed to 
John, and the two following persons are improperly described as 
knights in all the copies. These perhaps were likewise mistakes 
of the press, but are scarcely worth correctlng. 
 archbisho19 late of Canterbur,] Thomas Arundel, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, brother to the Earl of Arundel who 
was beheaded in this reign, had been banished by the parliament, 
and was afterwards deprived by the Pope oi his see, at the 
quest of the King ; whence he is here called, late of Canter- 

sc. i. KING RICHARD II. 61 

Are making hither with all due expedience, 
And shortly nean to touch our northern shore : 
Perhaps, they had ere this ; but that they stay 
The first departing of the king for Ireland. 
If then we shall shake off our slavish yoke, 
Imp out « our dr0oping country's broken wing, 
Redeem fron broking pawn the blemish'd crown, 
Wipe off the dust that hides our seepter's gilt,  
And make high lnajesty look like itself, 
Away, with me, in post to Ravenspurg : 
But if you faint, as fearing to do so, 
Stay, and be secret, and lnyself will go. 
Ross. To horse, to horse! urge doubts to them 
that fear. 
IVILLO. Hold out my horse, and I will first be 
there. [Exeunt. 

4 Imp outil As this expression frequently occurs in our au- 
thor, it may not be amiss to explain the original meaning of it. 
VV-hen the wing-feathers of a hawk were dropped, or tbrced out 
by any accident, it was usual to supply as many as were deficient. 
This operation was called, to inp a hawk. 
So, in The Devil's Charter» 1607 : 
" His plumes only imp the muse's wlngs. 
Again, in ,4lbumazar, 1615: 
« when we desire 
« Time's haste he seems to lose a match with lobsters ; 
" And when we wish him stay, he imps his wings 
« With feathers plum'd with thought." 
Turberile has a whole chapter on The lVayand Manner howe 
fo ympe a Hawke's Feather, how-soever it be broken or broosed. 
"  gilt,] i. e. gilding, superficial dlsplay of gold. So, in 
Tbnon of Athens: 
" When thou wast in thy gilt and thy perfume," &c. 

62 KiNG RICHARD II. crXto 


The saine. A Room in the Palace. 

Enter Queen, BUSHY, and BAGOT. 

;BUSH". Madam, your majesty is too much sad: 
You promis'd, when you parted with the king, 
To lay aside life-harming heaviness,  
And entertain a cheerfifl disposition. 
QtrEE_. To please the king, I did; to please 
I cannot do it; yet I know no cause 
Why I should welcome such a guest as grief, 
Save bidding farewell to so sweet a guest 
As my sweet Richard: Yet, again, methinks, 
Some unborn sorrow, ripe iii fortune's wolnb, 
Is COlllillg towards me; and lny inward soul 
With nothing trelnbles- at something it grieves,  
More than with parting from my lord the king. 
 life-tarmi N heaviness,] Thus the quarto, 1597. The 
.quartos 1608, and 1615ha/-harming; the folio--se/f-harm- 
ng. S'vs. 
 lVith nothing trembles: at something if grieves,'] The fol- 
lowing line requires that this should be ïead just the contrary 
way : 
With something trembles, ]et at nothing grieves. 
AI1 the old editions read: 
 ny intard soul 
lVith nothinr trembles ; af somethin« if arieves 
The reading, which Dr. Warburton corrects, is itself an inno- 
vation. Itis conjectures give indeed a better sense than that oï 
any copy, but copies must not be needlessly forsaken. 
I suppose [t [s the unborn soïï'ow which she calls noth[ng, 
çause it is hot yet brought into existence. STEEVENS. 
Warburton does hot appear .to bave undertood ths passage, 


BUSHY, Each substance of a grief hath twenty 
Which show like grief itself, but are not so: 
:For sorrow's eye, glazed with blinding tears, 
Divides one thing entire to many objects ; 
Like pérspectives, which, rightly gaz'd upon, 
Show nothing but confusion; ey'd awry, 
Distinguish ibrm'8 so your swcet majesty, 

nor Johnson either. Through the wbole of this scene, till the 
arrival of Green, the Queen is describing to Bushy, a certain un- 
accountable despondency of mind, and a foreboding apprehen- 
sion which she felt of some unforeseen calamity. She says, 
" that lier inward soul trembles without any apparent cause, and 
grieves at something more than the King's departure, though she 
knows hOt what." He endeavours to persuade her that it is 
merely the consequence of her sorrow ibr the King's absence. 
She says it may be so, but her soul tells ber otherwise. He 
then tells lier it is only conceit ; but slm is hOt satisfied with that 
way of accounting for it, as she says that conceit is still derived 
from sonie fore-father grief, but what she feels was begot by 
nothing; tbat is, had no preceding cause. Conceit is bere used 
in the same sense that it is in Itamlet, when the King says that 
Ophelia's mathiess was occasioned by" conceit upon her father." 
M. Mso. 
 Like pérspectives, which, rightly gaz'd upon, 
Show nothing but confusion; ey'd awry, 
Distinuish form :] This is a fine similitude, and the thing 
meant is this. Amongst mathematical recreations, there is one 
in optics, in which a figure is drawn, wherein all the rules of 
perspective are inverted: so that, if held in the saine position with 
those pietures which are drawn aecording to tlm rules of pe»'- 
pective, it can present nothing but confusion : and to be seen in 
form, and under a regular appearance, it must be looked upon 
ri'oto a contrary station; or, as Shakspeare says, ey'd azrj. 
Dr. Plot's Historff of Staffbrds£ire, p. 991, exp|ains this per- 
spective, or odd kind of " pictures upon an indented board, 
which, if behe|d directly, you only perceive a confused piece of 
work ; but, if obliquely, you see the intended person's picture;" 
which, he was told, was ruade thus: " The board being indent- 
ed, [or furrowed with a plough-plane,] the print or painting 
eut into parallel picce, equal to the depth and number of thc in- 


LookinΠawrv_.pu on your lord's departure, 
Finds shapes of grief lnore than himself, to wail ; 
Which, look'd on as itis, is nought but shadows 
dentures on the board, and fley were pasted on the flats tiret 
strike the eye holding it obliquely, so that the edges of the 
parallel pieces of the print or painting exactly joining on the 
edges of the indentures, the work was done." TOr, LE'. 
The following short poem would almost persuade one that the 
words rightlff and awrff [perhaps originally written--aright and 
xrl,] had exchanged places in the text of our author : 
Lines prefixed to " ]Ielancholike Humours, in Verses of Diverse 
Natures, set down b d Nich. Breton, Gent. 1600: 
In Authorem. 
" That thou wouldst finde the habit of true passion, 
" And see a minde attir'd in perfect straines ; 
" Not wearing moodes, as gallants doe a fashion 
" In thcse pide rimes, only to shewe their braines ; 
" Looke here on Breton's worke, the toaster print, 
" Where such perfections to the lire doe rise: 
" If they seeme wry, to such as looke asquint, 
" The thult's not in the object, but their eyes. 
" For, as one comming with a laterall viewe 
" Unto a cunning piece-wroughtjoersjoective, 
«, Wants facultie to make a censure true: 
" So with this author's readers will it thrive : 
" Whîch, being eyed directly, I divine, 
" His proofe their praise will meete, as in this line." 
Ben Jonson. SrEEVS. 
So, in Hentzner, 1598, Royal Palace, Whitehall: " EdwardiVI. 
Anglioe regis effigies, primo intuitu monstrosum quid reproesen- 
tans, sed si quis effigiem recth intueatur, tum vera deproehen- 
The perspectives here mentioned, were hot pictures, but round 
chrystal glasses, the convex surface of which was cut into faces, 
like those of the rose-diamond; the concave left uniformly 
smooh. These chrystalswhich were sometimes mounted on 
tortoise-shell box-lids, and sometimes fixed into ivory casesif 
placed as here represented, would exhibit the different appear- 
ances described by the poet. 
The word shadows is here used, in opposition to substance, for 
reflected images, and not as the dark forms of bodies, occasioneel 
by their interception of the light that falls upon them, 


Of what it is not. Then, thrice-gracious queen, 
More than your lord's departure weep hOt ; more's 
not scen : 
Or îf it be, 'tis with false sorrow's eye, 
Which, for things truc, wecps things imaginary. 
QuzE. It may bc so; but yet lny inward soul 
Persuades me, it is othcrwise : Howe'cr it bc, 
I cannot but bc sad ; so heavy sad, 
As,though,in thinking, on no thought I think, 
Makcs me with heavy nothing faint and shrink. 
.BuSHY. 'Tis nothing but conceit,  my gracious 
QuzN. 'Tis nothing less : conccit is sti|| dcNv'd 
From somc fore-iathcr grief; mine is hOt so ; 
For nothlng hath begot lny somcthing grief; 
Or something hath the nothing that 1 grievc :" 

 As,thou«h,. , in thinldng, on no thou«ht, I think,'l Old cop3, 
on thmking ; but. we should readAs, though in thinking; 
that is, though, musng, I bave no distinct idea  calami(g. The 
involuntary and unaeeountable depression of the mind, whieh 
every one bas sometime felt, is here very foreibly deseribed. 
 'Tis othi, but conceit,] Conceit is here, as in Kig 
Henry II. and many other places, used for a ucul concep- 
tion. MALO'E. 
 For nothing bath begot mg somahing gr; 
Or someting bath the notMng that I grieve:] With these 
lin I know not well what can be donc. The Queen's reason- 
ing as it now stands, is this: my trouble is hot conce#, for con- 
ceit is still derived 'om some antecedent cause, somerefler 
griçf; but with me the ce is, that dther mg real griat no 
real cause, or some eal cause as produced a fanded gri That 
is, mg grioE is hot conce]t 3ecause it eiter bas hot a cause like 
conceit, or # bas a cause like conceit. This can hardly stand. 
Let us try again, and read thus : 
For nothing bath begot m somahing, grioE;. 
Not something at£ the noth,ng {hÇt I g'eve: 
That is, m gri is hot conceit ; concezt zs au zmainarg unead- 




'Tis in reversion that I do possess ; 
But what it is, that is hOt yet known ; what 
I cannot name ; 'ris nameless woe, I wot. 

_Elte GREEN. 

GR.v. God save your majesty [--and well net, 
genflelnen :-- 
I hope, the king is hot yet shipp'd for Ireland. 
QUEEV. Why hop'st thou so ? 'ris better hope, 
he is ; 
For his designs crave haste, his haste good hope ; 
Then wheretbre dost thou hope, he is not shipp'd ? 

,ess from some lgast occurrence. But, on the contrary, here is 
real grief without a real cause; nota eal cause with a fanciful 
sorrow. This, I think, nmst be the meaning ; harsh at the best, 
yet better than contradiction or absurdity. JoHrSOr. 
 ' Tis in reversion that I do possess; 
But what itis, that is hot yet known; &c.] I ara about to 
propose an interpretation whieh many will think harsb, and 
whieh I do not offer for certain. Topossess a man, in Shakspeare, 
is to iform him fidly, to make him comprehend. To be possessed, 
in to bedfidh J iformed. Ofthis sense the examples are numerous: 
" I lmve possess'd him rny rnost stay ean be but short." 
3leasure for l"ffeasure. 
,«  Is he yet possess'd 
" What sum you would ?" 3Ierchant of Yenice. 
I therefore Unagine the Oueen says thus : 
' Tis in reversion--that I do possess;-- 
The event is yet in futurituthat I know with full conviction 
--but what if is, that is hot et known. In any other interpreta- 
tion she must say that she possesses what is not yet corne, whieh, 
though it may be allowed to be poetieal and figurative language, 
îs yet, I think, less natural than my explanation. JoHrSO. 
As the grief the Queen felt, was for some event which had 
hot yet eome to pass, or at least not yet eome to ber knowledge, 
she expresses thls by saying that the grief whieh she then aetually 
possessed, was still in reversion, as she had no right to feel the 
grief until the event should happen which wa» to occasion it. 
M. 5Iaso-. 

sc. Iz. KING RICHARD II. 67 

GREEN. That he, our hope, might bave retir'd 
his power,  
And driven into despair an enemy's hope, 
Who strongly hath set footing in this land : 
The banish'd Bolingbroke repeals himselt; 
And with uplifted arlns is sat arriv'd 
At Ravenspurg. 
Quzv. Now God in heaven forbid ! 
Giee,v. O, madam, 'ris too true: and that is 
The lord Northumberland, his young son Henry 
The lords of Ross, Beaumond, and Willoughby, 
With all their powerfifi fi'iends, are fled to him. 
Bzr. Why lmve you hot proclaim'd Northum- 
And all the rest of the revolting factiou 
Traitors ? 
Ggv. We have : whereon the earl of Worces- 
Hath broke his staff, resign'd his stewardship, 
And all the household servants fled with him 
To Bolingbroke. 
Q. So, Green, thou art the midwife to my 
And Bolingbroke my sorrow's dismal heir :» 


Now hath my soul brought forth her prodigy ; 
And I, a gasping new-deliver'd mother, 
Have woe to woe, sorrow to sorrow join'd. 6 
IUSHY. Despair hot, lnadam. ' 
QUEE . Who shall hinder me t 
I will despair, and be at enmity 
With cozening hope ; he is a flatterer, 
A parasite, a keeper-back of death, 
Who gently would dissolve the bands of lire, 
Which fidse hope lingers in extremity. 

Enter YORK. 

GREE1Vo Here comes the duke of York. 
Q UEEN, Wit|l signs of war about his aged neck ; 
O, full of careful business are his looks !----- 
For heaven's sake, speak comfortable words. 

succession, is here put for one that succeeds, though he succeeds 
but in order of rime, not in order of descent. JoH.sox. 
Johnson has mistaken the meaning of this passage also. The 
Queen does not in any way allude to Bolingbroke's succession to 
che crown, an event, of which she could at that tirne have had 
no idea. She had said before, that " some unborn sorrow, ripe 
in fortune's womb, was coming towards her." She talks after- 
wards of her unknown griefs "being begotten ;" she calls Green 
"the midwife ofher woe ;" and then means to say, in the sarne 
metaphorical jargon, that the arrival of Bolingbroke was the dis- 
mal offspring that her foreboding sorrow was big of; which she 
expresses by calling him her" sorrow's dismal heh-," and explains 
more fully and intelligibly in the following line: 
Now bath m] soul brought forth ber lrodigy. 
M. M.sor. 
 tou o.rt the midwif'e to  woe. 
ztnd I a gasping new-deliver'd mother, 
ttave ooe to woe, sorrow to sorrow join'd.] So, in Pericles: 
" I ara great with woe» and shall deliver weeping." 

• c. 1. KING RICHARD II. 69 

rORK. Should I do so, I should belie my thoughts 
Comfort's in heaven ; and we are on the earth, 
Where nothing lives but crosses, care, and grief. 
Your husband he is gone to save far off, 
Whilst others eome to make him lose at home : 
Here am I left to underprop his land ; 
Who, weak with age, cannot support myself:---- 
Now eomes the sick hour that his surfeit lnade 
Now shall he try his fi'iends that flatter'd him. 

yEnter a Servant. 
SRr. My lord, your son was gone belote I came. 
YORk: He was ?Why, so !go all which way 
it will ! 
The nobles they are fled, tire commons cold, s 
And will, I fear, revolt on Hereford's side. 
Get thee to Plashy,  to my sister Gloster ; 
Bid ber send me presenfly a flousand pound : 
Hold, take my ring. 
SR . My lord, I had forgot to tell your lordship: 
To-day, as I came by, I called there ; 
But I shall grieve you to report the test. 
)ORIf. What is it, knave ? 
SRV. An hour before I ealne, the duchess died. 

 Should I do so, I should belie ny thoughts:] This line i 
round in the three eldest quartos, but is wantlng in the folio. 
« The obles the w arejTed, the comnons cold,] The old copies, 
|njuriously to the metre, read : 
The nobles they areJted, the commons they are cold. 
 Get thee fo Plashy,] The lordsh!p of Plashy, was a town of 
the duchcss of Gloster's in Essex. ee Hall's Chrocle, p. 13. 


YORK. God for his mercy! what a tide of woes 
Cornes rushing on this woefid land at once! 
I know not what to do :--I would to God, 
(So my untruth' had not provok'd hiln to it,) 
The king had cut offmy head with my brother's. - 
What, are there posts despatch'd for Ireland 
How shall we do ibr money for these wars 
Corne, sister,--cousin, I would say :« pray, pardon 
Go, fellow, [To the Servant.] get thee home, pro- 
vide some carts, 
And bring away thc armour that is there. 
[ Exil Servant. 
Gentlemen, wiIl you go nmster men ? if I know 
How, or which way, to order these affairs, 
Thus thrust disorderly into my hands, 
Nevcr believe me. Both are my kinsmen 
The one's my sovereign, whom both my oath 
And duty bids defend; the other again, 
Is my kinsman, whom the king hath wrong'd ;- 
Whom conscience and my kindred bids to right. 

  untruth] That is, disloaltt , treachery. 
" The king had cut off m head with v brother's.] None of 
York's brothers had his head eut off, either by the King or any 
one else. The Duke of Gloster, to whose death he probably 
alludes, was seeretly murdered at Calais, being snmthered be- 
tween two beds. Itwso. 
 IVhat, are there posts despatch'dfor Ireland?] Thus the 
folio. The quartostwo postsandno posts. Svves. 
 Corne, sister,coin, I would say:] This is one of Shak- 
speare's touches of nature. York is talking to the Queen his 
cousin, but the reeent death ofhis sister is uppermost in his mind. 
 Is mg kinsman, hom the kin« bath wron'd. Sir T. Han- 
mer has completed ths defectve hne, by reading : 
I kinsman fs, one whom the kbtg bath wrong'd. 

sc. if. KING RICHARD II. 71 

Well, somewhat we must do.--Come, cousin, l'll 
Dispose of you :--Go, mustcr up your mon, 
And mcct me prcscntly at Bcrklcy-castlc. 
I should to Plashy too ;- 
But timc will hot permit :--All is uncven, 
And cvcry thing is lcft at six and scvcn. 
E Exeunt YOlK and Quecn. 
BusHY. The wind sits fair for ncws to go to Ire- 
But nonc returns. :For us to lcvy power, 
Proportionable to the cnemy, 
Is all impossible. 
GREEN. Bcsides, our nearncss to thc king in love, 
Is ncar thc hatc of thosc love hot the king. 
IAGOT. And that's thc wavering commons : for 
their love 
Lies in thcir purses ; and whoso emptics them, 
By so much fills thcir hcarts with deadly haro. 
BUSH . Whcrcin thc king stands gcncrally con- 
BAGOT. Ifjudgmcnt lic in thcm, then so do we, 
Because wc over havc bccn ncar thc king. 
GREEz¢. Well, l'll for refuge straight to Bristol 
castlc ; 
The carl of Wiltshirc is alrcady thcrc. 
BHi . Thithcr will I with you : for little office 
The hatcful commons will pcrform for us ; 
Exccpt like curs to tcar us all to pieccs.-- 
Will you go along with us ? 
BAGOT. :No; l'll to Ircland to his majesty. 
:Farcwcll : if hcart's presagcs be hot vain, 
We thrce herc part, that ne'er shall mcet again. 
BOeHY. That's as York thrives t beat back Bo- 


GREEv. Alas, poor duke ! the task he undertakes 
Is--numb'ring sands, and drinking oceans &'y ; 
Where one on his side fights, thousands will fly. 
.BusIiY. Farewcll at once; for once, for all, and 
GnFFV. Well, we may meet again. 
BAGOT. I fear me, never. 


OE'he IVilds in Glostershire. 


BOLING. How far is it, my lord, to Berkley now ? 
]VORTIt. Believe me, noble lord, 
I am a stranger here in G lostershire. 
These high wild hills, and rough uneven ways, 
Draw out our mlles, and make them wearisome : 
And yet your fair discourse bath been as sugar, 
Making the hard way sweet and délectable. 
But, I bethink me, what a weary way 
From Ravenspurg to Cotswold, will be round 
In Ross and Willoughby, wanting your company ; 
Which, I protest, hath very much beguil'd 
The tediousness and process of my travel : 6 

«  wanting ]our compan]; 
Which, I protest, bath vemj much beguil'd 
The tediousness and process orme travel: ] So, in King Leir, 
1605 : 
" Th.y pleasant company will make the way seem short." 


But theirs is sweeten'd with the hope to bave 
The present benefit which I possess : 
And hope to " 
joy, is little less in joy, 
Than hope enjoy'd : by this the weary lords 
Shall make their way seem short; as mine hath done 
By sight of what I bave, your noble company. 
BOL_r2VG. Of much less value is my company, 
Than your good words. But who cornes here 

Enter fl,¢RRY PERCYo 

NORTH. It is my son, young Harry Percy, 
Sent froln my brother Worcester, whencesoever.-- 
Harry, how çares your unclc ? 
1)RCY. I lmd thought, my lord, to bave learn'd 
his health oï you. 
AORTIt. Why, is he not with thc queen . 
P2ZRC. No, my good lord; he hath forsook 
the court, 
Broken his staff of office, and dispers'd 
The household of the king. 
ORTtI. What was his reason ? 
He was not so resolv'd, when last we spake toge- 
_PERCY. Because your lordship was proclaimed 

 And hope fo joy,] Tojoy .is, I believe, here used as a verb. 
So, in the second Act of Iïng Henr IV. P. I : " Poor fellow 
never 3"°Y'd since the price ofoats rose." Again, in h\ Henry VI. 
P. II. Act IV. sc. 9: 
" Was ever king, thatjou'd on earthly throne--." 
The word is again used with the same signification in the play 
before us. MALOIE. 
 He was hot so resolv'd, w£en last we spae togetber.] i.e. 
conversed: toget]er is an interpolation sufficiently evident ri'oto 
the redundancy of the metre. 

7a KING RICHARD I1. ,1eT H. 

But he, nly lord, is gone to Ravenspurg, 
To offer service to the duke of Hereford ; 
And sent me o'er by Berkley, to discover 
What power the duke of York had levied there ; 
Then with direction to repair to Ravenspurg. 
NORTH. Have you forgot the duke of Hereford, 
PERCY. No, my good lord; for that is not for- 
Which ne'er I did remember" to my knowledge, 
I never in my life did look on him. 
NORTH. Then learn to know him now; this is 
the duke. 
P,ERC: My gracious lord, I tender you my ser- 
Such as it is, being tender, raw, and young ; 
Which elder days shall ripcn, and con]ïrm 
To more approved service and descrt. 
BOLLVa. I thank flme, gentle Percy; and be sure, 
I count myself in nothing else so happy, 
_As in a soul rememb'ring my good friends ; 
And, as my fortune ripens with thy love, 
It shall be still thy truc love's recompense : 
My hcart this covenant makcs, my hand thus seals 
.tORTH. How far is if fo Berkley . And what stir 
Kceps good old York therc, with his men of war ? 
PZRCY. There stands the casfle, by yon tuft of 
Mann'd with thrcc hundrcd mon, as I havc heard : 
And in it are thc lords of York, Bcrklcy, and Sey- 
mour ; 
None else of naine, and noble estimatc. 


Enter Ross and WILLOUGI-IBY. 

NORTIr. Here corne the lords of Ross and Wil- 
Bloody with spurring, fiery-red with haste. 
BOLING. Welcorae, lny lords : I wot, your love 
A banish'd traitor ; all ray treasury 
Is yet but unfelt thanks, which, lnore enrich'd, 
Shall be your love and labour's recorapense. 
Ross. Your presence raakes us rich, raost noble 
IUILLO. And far surmounts our labour to attain 
t30LING. Everlnore flmnks, the exchequer of 
the poor ; 
Which, till lny infant fortune coraes to years, 
Stands for ray bounty. But who cornes herc ? 


2,TORTH. It is ray lord of Berkley, as I guess. 
BERI: My lord of Hereford, lny lnessage is to 
yotl. 9 
t30LING. My lord, my answer isto Lancaster;  
And I ara come to seek that narae in England : 

 Mg lord of Herçford, my message is to you.J I suspect that 
our author designed this for a speech rendered abrupt by the 
impatience of Bolingbroke's reply ; and therefore wrote: 
1I lord of Iteroford, n message is-- 
The words to ou, only serve to destroy the metre. STVES. 
 --mj answer is--to Zancaster;] Your message, you say, 
is to my lord of Hereford. My answer is, It is hot to him ; it 
is to the Duke of Lancaster. MALOIE. 


And I must find that title in your tongue, 
Before I make reply to aught you say. 
BER/t: Mistake me not, my lord ; 'tis hot my 
To raze one title of your honour out : -- 
To york, my lord, I corne, (what lord you will,) 
From the most glorious regent of this land, 3 
The duke of York ; to know, what pricks you on 
To take advantage of the absent time, « 
And fright our native peace with self-born arms. 

JEnter YORK, altended. 

BoLING. I shall hot need transport my words 
by you ; 
Here cornes his grace in person.--My noble uncle ! 
YORk'. Show me thy humble heart, and hot thy 
Whose duty is deceivable and false. 
BoLING. My gracious uncle ! 
YORK. Tut, tut ! 
Grace ne no grace, nor uncle me no uncle :» 

 To raze one title of!jour honour out :] "How the names of 
them which for capital crimes against majestie were erazed out 
of the publicke records, tables, and registers, or forbidden to be 
borne by their posteritie, when thelr memorie was damned, 
¢ould show at large." Camden's Remains, p. 16, edit. 1605. 
» From the mo grious regent this nd,] Thus the first 
Çuarto, 1597. The word regent was accidentally omitted in the 
quarto, 1598, which was foowed by a the subsequent copies. 
" the absent time,] i. e. rime the king's absence. 
 Grace me o grace, nor uncle me o uncle : In Romeo and 
Ji«t we have the ame kind of phraslogy  


I am no traitor's uncle ; and that word--grace, 
In an ungracious mouth, is but protane. 
Why have those banish'd and forbidden legs 
Dar'd once to touch a dust of England's ground ? 
But then lnore why ;6-----Why bave they dar'd to 
So many mlles .upon ber peaccful bosom ; 
Frighting her pale-fhc'd villages with war, 
And ostentation of despiscd arms ?7 

" Tbank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds." 
.gain, in P, Iicrocynicon, Six snarling Satires, 'c. 16mo. 1599 
' Hower me no howers ; howers break no square." 
The readng of the folio is preferable : 
Tut, tut I grace me no grace, nor uncle me. RITSOU. 
« But then more wg;] This seems to be wrong. XVe might 
l'ead : 
But more than flliS; vhy, &c. TYWITT. 
But then ore why ;] But, to add more questions. This 
the reading of the first quarto, 1597, whieh in the second, and 
all the subsequent copies, w eorrupted thus But more than 
why. The expression of the text, though a singular one, was, 
I have no doubt, the author's. It is of a eolour with those 
mediately preeeding  
" Grace ne no gre, nor utcle me no uncle." 
A similar expression occurs in Tweh-Night: 
" iore than I love these eyes, more than my 
« More, by all mores, than I shall e'er love wiçe." 
There seems to be an error in ths psage, whch I belicve 
ahould run thus: 
But more then : lVh. w ave tey dar d» &c. 
Ths repefifion o the word w, s not unnatural for a person 
speaking with much warmth. M. MsoN. 
 And ostentation despsed arms  But sure the ostentation 
oç despsed ams would not 'ight any one. We should read: 
 disposed arms i. e. forces in battle array. 
This alteration is harsh. Sir T. Hanmer reads despighd. 
Upton gives this passage as a proof that our author uses 
passive participle in an actNe sense. The copies all agree. Per- 


Com'st thou because the anointed king is hence ? 
Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind, 
And in my loyal bosom lies his power. 
Were I but now the lord of such hot youth, 
As when brave Gaunt, thy father, and lnyself, 
Rescued the Black Prince, that young Mars oflnen, 
Fron forth the ranks of lnany thousand French ; 
O, then, how quickly should this arln of mine, 
Now prisoner fo the palsy, chstise thee, 
And minister correction to thy fault ! 
BoLzara. My gracious uncle, let me know my 
fault ; 
On what condition  stands it, and wherein . 
YORk: Even in condition of the worst degree,--- 
In gross rebellion, and detested treason" 
Thou art a banish'd lnan, and here art corne, 
Before tbe expiratîon of thy time, 
In braving arms against thy sovereign. 
BoLIara As I was banish'd, I was banish'd 
Hereford ; 
But as I colne, I corne for Lancaster. 
And, noble uncle, I beseech your grace, 

haps the old duke means to treat hlm with contempt as well as 
with severity, and to insinuate that he despises his power, a» 
being able to toaster it. In this sense all is right. JOHNSON. 
So, in this play: 
" We'll make foul weather with desised tears." 
The meaning of this probabIy isa boastflul disll%u of arms 
which we desïise. M. MAsom 
 On hat conditions] It should be, in what condition, l. e. 
in vhat degree ofguilt. The particles in the old editions are of 
little credit. Jomqso. 
York's reply supports Dr],Johnson's conjecture: 
" Even in condition» &c. Mar.o¢v.. 

sc. Ht. KING RICHARD Ii. 79 

Look on lny wrongs with an indifferent eye :n 
You are lny father, for, lnethinks, in you 
I see old Gaunt alive ; O, then, my fafler ! 
Will you permit that I shall stand condelnn'd 
A wand'ring vagabond ; my rights and royalties 
Pluck'd from my arms perforce, and given away 
To upstart unthrifts ? Wherefore was I born ?9 
If that my cousin king be king of England, 
It lnust be granted, I ara duke of Lancaster. 
You have a son, Aumerle, lny noble kinsman ; 
IIad you first died, and he been thus trod down, 
Ite should have found his uncle Gaunt a father, 
To rouse his wrongs, and chase them to the by.  
I ara denied to sue my livery here,  
And yet my letters-patent give me leave : 
My father's goods are all distrain'd, and sold ; 
And these, and all, are all amiss employ'd. 
What would you have me do ? I am a subject, 
And challenge law: Attornies are denied me; 
And therefore personally I lay my claire 
To my inheritance of free descent. 

 Look on mg wrongs with an indifferent eye:] i. e. with an 
impartial ege. " Every juryman (says Sir Edward Coke,) ought 
to be impartial and indifferent." MaLosr. 
9  Wherefore was I born?] To what purpose serres birth 
and lineal succession ? I ana duke of Lancaster by the saine 
right of birth as the king is king of England. JoHNSON. 
1 To rouse his wrongs, and chase them to the bay.] By his 
vrongs are rotant the peï'sons who wrong him. This explanation 
is supported by a passage in Fletcher's Double Marriage, where 
Juliana says 
" With all my youth and pleasure l'll embrace you, 
" Make tyranny and death stand still, affrighted, 
«, And, at our meeting souls, mnaze out mischiefs." 
  to sue my livery here,] A law phrase belonging to the 
feudal tenures. See notçs on/\ Henr I\ P. I. Act IV. sc. iii. 


ORTH. The noble duke hath been too much 
Ross. It stands your grace upon, to do him 
I"ILLO. Base men by his endowlnents are made 
YORK. My lords of England, let me tell you 
I bave had feeling of my cousin's wrongs, 
And labour'd all I could to do him right : 
Bnt in this kind to corne, in braving arlns, 
Be his own carver, and cut out his way, 
To find out right with wrong,--it may hot be ; 
And you, that do abet hîln in this kind, 
Cherish rebellion, and are rebels all. 
NonTH. The noble duke hath sworn, his coming 
But for his own: and, for the right of that, 
We all have strongly sworn to give him aid ; 
And let him ne'er see joy, that breaks that oath. 
YORk. Well, well, I see the issue of these arms i 
I cannot nend it, I must needs confess, 
Because my power is weak, and all ill left: 
But, if I could, by him that gave me lire, 
I would attach you all, and make you stoop 
Unto the sovereign mercy of the king; 

 If stands gour grace upon, to do him right.] i.e. it is your 
interest, it is matter of consequence to you. So, in King 
lichard III: 
" • it stands me much upon, 
" To stop ail hopes whose growth may danger me." 
Again, in 4nlon and Cleo_patra : 
" It only stands 
" Out lires uon, to use our strongest banals." 


But, since I cannot, be it known to you, 
I do remain as neuter. So, rare you well ;-- 
Unless you please to enter in the castle, 
And there repose you for this night. 
BO:L_rVG. An offer, uncle, that we will accept. 
But we lnust win your grace, to go vith us 
To Bristol castle ; which, they say, is held 
By Bushy, Bagot, and their complices, 
The caterpillars of the commonwealth, 
Which I have sworn to weed, and pluck away. 
YoR/c. It may be, I will go with you :rebut yet 
l'Il pause ;« 
For I am loath to break our country's laws. 
Nor fi'iends, nor foes, fo me welcome you are: 
Things past redress, are now with me past care? 

 If ma3t be, I will go with you :--but 3let l'llpause;] I sus- 
peet the wordstoith gou, which spoil the mette, to be another 
 Things 2ast redress, are nom with me past care.] So, in 
2Iacbeth : 
«  Things without remedy, 
« Should be without regard." 

VOL, XI,  



Camp in Wales. 

Enter S,snunY,  and a Captain. 

('P. My lord of Salisbury, we have staid ten 
And hardly kept our countrymen together, 
And yet we hear no tidings from the king ; 
Therefore we will disperse ourselves: farewell. 
S.4L. Stay yet another day, thou trusty Welsh- 
man ; 
The king reposeth all his confidence 
In thee. 
CA'. 'Tis thought, the king is dead ; we will hot 
The bay-trees in out country are all wither'd, 8 

 Here is a scene so unartfully and irregularly thrust into an 
improper place, that I cannot but suspect it accidentally trans- 
posed; which, when the scenes were written on single pages, 
might easily happen in the wildness of Shakspeare's drama. This 
dialogue was, in the author's draueht , probably the second scene 
in the ensuing Act, and there I would advise the reader to insert it, 
though I have not ventured on so bold a change, lXly conjecture 
is not so presumptuous as may be thought. The play was hot, 
in Shakspeare's time, broken into Acts ; the editions published 
before his death, exhibit on!y a sequence of scenes fi'om the be- 
ginning to the end, without any hint of a pause of action. In a 
drama so desultory and en'atic, left in such a state, transpositions 
might easily be ruade. JorISO. 
 -- Salisur.y,-1 was John Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. 
 Te 3aff-trees &c.-I This enumeration ofprodigles is in the 
highest degree poetical and striking. Jortrsox, 

sc. : KING RICHARD II. ss 

And meteors fi'ight the fixed stars of heaven ; 
The pale-fac'd moon looks bloody on the earth, 
And lean-look'd prophets whisper fearfitl change ; 
Rich men look sad, and ruffiaus dance and leap,-- 
The one, in fear to h)se what they enjo)r 
The other, to enjoy by rage and war: 
These signs foreruu the death or rail of kings.-- 
Farewell; our countrymen are gone and fled, 
As well assur'd, Richard their king is dead. 
SaL. Ah, Richard [ with the eycs ofheavy mind, 
I see thy glory, like a shooting star, . 
Fall to the base earth ri'oto the firmament! 
Thy sun sers weeping in the lowly west, 
Witnessing storms to corne, woe, and unrest : 
Thy fi'iends are f]ed, to wait upon thy foes; 
And crossly to thy good ail fortune gocs. [Exit. 

Some of these prodigies are found in Holinshed: "In this 
yeare in a manner flaroughout ail the realme of England, old 
baie trees withered," &c. 
This was esteemed a bad omen; for, as I learn fi'om Thomas 
Lupton's Suxt Booke of Notable Thinges, to. bi. 1: " Neyther 
falling sycknes, neyther devyll, wyll infest or hurt one in that 
place whereas a Bat] tree is. The Romaynes calles it the plant 
ofthe good angell," &c. STvrs. 
Evelyn says, " Amongst other things, it has of old been ob- 
served, that the baff is olninous of some funest accident, if" 
that be so accountedwhich Suetonius (in Galba) afiïrnàs to have 
happened before the death of the monster Nero, vhen these 
trees generally withered to the very roots in a very mild ,vinter : 
and much later ; that in the year 1629, when at Padua, preced- 
ing a great pestilence, almost all tbe Bay trees about that famous 
university grew sick and perished: Certo quasi proesagio, says 
my author, Alollinem 1VIusasque, subseyuenti anno urbe illa 
bonarum l#erarum domicilio excessuras." (Sylva, 4to. 1776, 
p. 596.) REEDo 



Bolingbroke's Cam_p at Bristol. 

PErtC', WILLOU6HB¥, Ross- Oflîcers behind 
with BUSHY and GREEN, Trisoners. 

BOLtNG. Bring forth these men.-- 
Bushy, and Green, I will not vex your souls 
(Since presently your souls must your bodies,) 
With too much urging your permcmus lives, 
For 'twere no eharity : yet, to wash your blood 
From off my hands, here, in the view of men, 
I will unfold some causes of your death. 
You have misled a prince, a royal king, 
A happy gentleman in blood and lineaments, 
By you unhappied and disfigur'd elean2 
You have, in nmnner, with your sinful hours, 
Made a divorce betwixt his queen and him ; 
Broke the possession of a royal bedfl 
And stain'd the beauty of a çair queen's eheeks 
With tears drawn from her eyes by your foul 
Myselfa prince, by fortune of my birth ; 

9 I clean.-] i.e. quite, completel, y. 
So, in out author's 75th Sonnet: 
" And by and by, clean starved for a look." 
' l'ou bave, in ,nanner, with 3our sbful hours 
Made a divorce betwixt his queen and hhn ; 
Broke the possession of a royal bed,] There is, I believe, no 
authority for this. Isabel, the queen of the present play, was 
but nine years old. Richard's first queen, Arme, died in 1392, 
and the king was extremely fond of her. 


Near to the king in blood ; and near in love, 
Till you did make hiln lnisintcrpret nie, 
Have stoop'd my neck under your injuries, 
And sigh'd my English breath in foreign elouds, 
Eating the bitter bread of banishlnent : 
Whilst you have fed upon my signories, 
Dispark'd my parks,  and fe[l'd lny forest woods ; 
From my own windows torn lny household eoat, 3 
Raz'd out my impress, leaving me no sign, «- 
Save lnen's opinions, and my living blood,u 
To show the world I am u gentleman. 
This, and much more, much more than twice all 
Condemns you to the death :--See theln deliver'd 
To execution and the hand of death. 

BUSHY. More welcome is the stroke of death to 
Than Bolingbroke to England.mLords, farewell. 
GREE: My comfort is,that heaven will take 
our souls, 
And plague injustice with the pains of hell. 

 Dispark'd myparks,] To dispark is to throw down the hedges 
of an enclosure. Dissepio. I meet with the word in Barret's 
Alvearie. or Quadru',t?.le Dictionary, 1580. It also occurs in The 
Estabhshment ofPrznce Henr 1610 : "Forestes and Parkes of 
the Prince's disloarked and in Lease," &c. STv« 

 From mg own windows torn raff household coat,'l It was the 
praetiee when eoloured glass was in use, of whieh there are still 
ome remains in old seats and ehurches, to anneal the arms of the 
family in the windows of the house. Jorn, rsol, r. 

* Raz'd out my impress, &c.] The impress was a device or 
motto. Ferne, in his Blazon of Gentr, 1585, observes, "that 
the arms, &c. of" traitors ard rebels may be defaced and removed, 
wheresoever they are fixed» or set." 

s6 K'ING RICHARD II. cT 11t. 

BOLING. My lord Northumberland, see theln 
[ E.reunt NOHTHUMBERLAND and Others, with 
Unele, you say, the queen is at your honse ; 
For heaven's sake, faMy let her be entreated : 
Tell her, I send to her my kind eommends ; 
Take speeial eare my greetings be deliver'd. 
Yonx. A gentlelnan of mine I have despateh'd 
With letters ofyour love to her at large. 
BoLtara. Thanks, gentle uncle.Come, lords, 
away ; 
To fight with Glcndower and his complices ; 
Awhile to work, and, after, holiday. » [Exeunt. 

 Thanks, gentle uncle,Comc, lords, awaff; 
To fight with Glendower and his complices; 
4while fo work, and, aller, holidaff.-] Though the interme- 
diate line bas taken possession of ail the old copies, I bave great 
suspicion ofits being an interpolation; and have therefore ventured 
to throw it out. The first and third lines rhyme to each other ; 
nor do I imagine this was casual, but-intended by the poet. 
Were we to acknowledge the line genuine, it must argue the 
poet of forgetfulness and inattention to history. Bolingbroke is, 
as it were, butjust arrived ; he is now at Bristol, weak in his num- 
bers ; has had no meeting with a parliament ; nor is so far assured 
of the succession, as to think of going to suppress i»surrections 
before he is planted in the throne. Besides, we find the opposi- 
tion of Glendower begins The First Part off" Itïng Henrq I I \ and 
Mortimer's defeat by that hardy Welchman is Oie tidings of the 
first scene of that play. Again, flmugh Glendower, in the very 
first year of King Henry IV. began to be troublesome, put in for 
the supremacy of Wales, and imprisoned Mortimer ; yet it was 
hot till the succeeding year that the King employed any force 
against him. THO3/I. 
This emendatlon, which I think is just, has been followed by 
Sir T. Hanmer, but is neglected by Dr. Warburton. JoHso. 
It is evident from the preceding scene, that there was a force 
in Wales, which Bolingbroke might think it necessary to suppress; 
and why might hot Shakspeare call it Glendower's . Wben we 

sc. zt. KING RICHARD II. 87 


The Coast of Wales. A Castle in view. 

Flourish: Drurns and Trumpets. Entes Ki»g 
RICHARD, Bishop of Carlisle, AUMERLE, and 

lx . RICH. Barkloughly casfle call you this at hand ? 
A uM. Yea, my lord : How brooks your grace the 
After late tossing on the breaking seas 77 
K. RICH. Needs must I like it well ; I weep for 
To stand upon lny kingdom once again. 
Dear earth, I do salute thee with my hand, 
Though rebels wound thee with their horses' hoofs: 
As a long parted mother with her child 
Plays fondly with her tears, and smiles in meeting ;' 

next see Bolingbroke, he is in Wales, and mentions his having 
received intelligence that the Welchmen are dispersed. 
Mr. Heath observes, that Bolingbroke marched to Chester, 
probably with a view to attack the Welsh army headed by Lord 
Salisbury. He thinks, therefore, the line is genuine. See sc. iii. 
100. Stowe expressly says, that " Owen Glendower served 
ing Richard at Flint-Castle." MLo. 
 Here may be properly inserted the last scene of the second 
 After late tOSSing &C.J The old copies redundant]y read : 
After your late tossing, &c. STEEVENSo 
* --smiles in meeting ;] It bas been proposed to read--in 


So, weephlg, smiling, greet I thee, lny earth, 
And do thee favour with my royal hands. 
Feed not thy sovereign's foe, my gentle earth, 
Nor with thy sweets eomfort his rav'nous sense : 
:But let thy spiders, that suek up thy venom, 
And heavy-gaited toads, lie in their way ; 
Doing annoyanee to the treaeherous feet, 
Which with usurping steps do trample thee. 
Yield stinging nettles to mine enemies- 
And when they ri'oto thy bosom pluck a flower, 
Guard it, I pray thee,  with a lurking adder ; 
Whose double tongue may with a mortal touch 
Throw death upon thy sovereign's enemies.-- 
Moek hOt my senseless conjuration, lords ; 
This earth shall have a feeling,  and these stones 

weeping; and thls change the repetition in the next line seems 
plainly to point out. Swvs. 
As a long parted mother with ber child 
Plays fondlg with ber tears, and smiles in meeting;] 
Perhaps smiles is here used as a substantive. As a mother 
plays fondly with her ehild from whom she has been a long rime 
parted, erying, and at the same rime smiling, at meeting him. 
It bas been proposed to readsmiles in weeping; and I once 
thought the emendation very plausible. But I ara now persuaded 
the text is right. If we read weeping, the long parted mother 
d her ehild do hot neet, and there is no partieular cause 
assigned for either ber smiles or her tears. 
rom the aetual smiles and tears of the long parted mother, 
we may, I think, suffieiently infer that she had met with her ehild. 
0 Guard it, Iprag thee,] Guard it, signifies here, as in many 
other places, border it. 
I think, thatto guard, in this place, rather means, to watch 
orprotect. M. Mso. 
 This eah shall bave afeelin-q Perhaps Milton had hOt 
forgot thm passage, when hrotè,'îa his Com 

sc. if. KING RICHARD II. s9 

Prove armed soldiers, ere her native king 
Shall ialter under foul rebellious arms. 
BISHOP. Fear not, my lord;  that Power, that 
ruade you king, 
Hath power to keep you king, in spite of all. 
Tbe means that heaven yields must be embrac'd, 
And not neglected ; else, if heaven would, 
And we wi|l not, heaven's offer we refuse, 
The proffer'd means of succour and redress. 
_d UM. He means,my lord, that we are too remiss; 
Whilst Bolingbroke, through our security, 
Grows strong and great, in substance, and iu fi'iends. 
K. R_rCH. Discomfortable cousin ! know'st thou 
That when the searchiug eye of heaven is hid 
Behind the globe, and lights the lower world, « 

"  dumb things shall be mov'd to sympathize, 
" And the brute earth shall lend ber nerves, and shake. '» 
 Fear hot, m, lord; &c.-] Ofthis speech, the four last lines 
were restered from the first edit[on by Mr. Pope. They were, 
I suppose, omitted by the players only to shorten the scene, for 
they are worthy of the author and suitable to tire personage. 
s ______ else, if heaven would, 
And voe will hot, heaven's off'er we ref.use ; ] Thus the quarto 
1597, exeept that the word/3 c is wantlng. Thc quarto 1608, 
and the late editions, read--And we would hot. The word  
was supplied by Mr. Pope. Both the rnetre and the sense show 
that it was aecidentally omitted in the first eopy. 
• --and lights the lower world,] The old copies read-- 
that lights. The emendation was ruade by Dr. Johnson. Sense 
rnight be obtained by a slight transposition, without ehanging 
the words of the original text: 
That when the searching e#e of heaven, that lights 
The lower world, is hid behind the globe ;-- 
By the lmÇr worhl, as the passage is amended by Dr. Johnson 
we must understand, a tÇorld lower than this of ours; I suppose 
our AntiTodes. 

90 KING RICHARD II. .«'T 11t. 

Then thieves and robbers range abroad unseen, 
In murders, and in outrage, bloody here ; 
But when, tï'om undcr this terrestrial ball, 
He rires the proud tops of the eastern pincs,  
And darts his light through every guilty hole, 
Then murdcrs, treasons, and detcsted sins, 
The cloak of night being pluck'd ri'oto off their 
Stand bare and naked, trembling at themselves ? 
So when this thief, this traitor, Bolingbroke,-- 
Who all this while hath revell'd i the night, 
Whilst we were wand'ring with tbe antipodes, 
Shall sec us rising in our throne the east, 
His treasons will sit blushing in his face, 
Not able to endure the sight of day, 
But, sêlf-affrighted, tremble af his sin. 
Not ail the water in the rough rude sea 
Can wash the bahn fi'om an anointed king: 
The breath of worldly nen eannot depose 
The deputy elected by the Lord : 

That this is the sense of the passage is obvious from the 
King's application of the simile : 
" So, when this thief, this traitor Bollngbrok%-- 
" Vho ail this while hath revell'd in the n]ght, 
« Whilst we were wand'ring with the antipodes 
" Shall sec us rising in our throne the east," &c. 
The lower world may slgnify our world. 
 HeJïres the. loroud tops ofthe eastern pines,-] It is hot easy 
to point out an mage more striking and heactiful than this, in 
any poet, whether aneient or modern. STEVES. 
 The breath of worldlq men &e.'J Here is the doctrine of 
indefeasible right expressed in the strongest terres ; but out poet 
did hot learn it in the reign of King James, to whieh it is now 
the praetiee of all writers, whose opinions are regulated by fa- 
shion or interest, to impute the original of every tenet whieh 
they have been taught to think false or foolish. Jonso. 
Far be it from me to palliate the conduct of the wretched 


For every man that Bolingbroke hath press'd, 
To lift shrewd steel against our golden crown, 
God for his Richard hath in heavenly pay 
A glorious angel : then, if angels fight, 
Weak men must tall ; for heaven still guards the 


Welcome, my lord ; How far off lies your power ? 
SL. Nor near, nor further ofl; my gracious lord, 
Than this weak arln: Discomfort guides my tongue, 
And bids me spcak of nothing but despair. 
One day too late, I fear, my noble lord, 
Hath clouded all thy happy days on earth: 
O, call back yesterday, bid rime return, 
And thou shalt have twelve thousand fighting mcn [ 
To-day, to-day, unhappy day, too late, 
O'erthrows thy joys, fi'iends, fortune, and thy state; 

James; but the truth is, that the inhcrent rlghts of the people 
had been ill undetood, or rather were not acknowledged by his 
r. f 
predecesso . The doctrine o the divine right of kings, and of 
the passive obedience of subjects, have never been carried further 
in any country than in this island, while the houseofTudor sate 
on the throne. Of this fact, the Homilies, composed durlng 
the relgn of young Edward, and appointed in the Thirty-nine 
Articles to be read in churches, furnish striking and abundant 
proof. Take, as an instance, the following extract from the 
Homily against Disobedience and wilful Rebellion : "As the name 
of the king is very often attributed and given unto God in holy 
scriptures, so doth God himself in the saine scriptures some- 
time vouchsafe to communicate his naine with earthly princes, 
terming them Gods." 1st. part. And in the 4th part, we are 
directed to " call to remembrance the heavy wrath and dreadful 
indignation of Ahnighty God against subjects as do only but in- 
wardl3 grudge, nutter, and murmur against their governors, 
though their inward treason, so privily hatched in their breasts, 
corne hot to an open declaration of their doings." 


For ail the Welshmen, hearing thou wert dead, 
Are gone to Bolingbroke, dispers'd, and fled. 
A uM. Comfort, my liege : why looks your grace 
so pale ? 
/. /tXCH. But now, the blood of twenty thou. 
sand men 
Did triumph in my face, and they are fled ; 
And, till so much blood thither come again, 
Have I hot reason to look pale and dead ?7 
. Ail souls that will be sale, fly fi'om my side ; 
:For time hath set a blot upon my pride. 
Aer'. Comfort, my liege ; remember who you 
/t:/?zcH. I had forgot lnyself: Aln I hot king 
Awake, thou sluggard u lnajesty ! thou sleep'st. 
Is hot the king's nmne forty thousand names ?9 
Arm, arm, lny name! a puny subject strikes 
At thy great glory.Look hot to the ground, 
Ye favourites of a king ; Are we hot high ? 
High be our thoughts : I know, my uncle York 
Hath power enough to serve out turn. But who 
Cornes here ? 

 Have I hot reason fo look pale and dead ?] So, in King 
Henr2t 1V. P. II : 
«« Even such a man. 
" So dull, so dead n look, so woe-begone, 
,« Drew Priam's curtains in the dead of night." 
gain» in A Midsummer-NighPs Dream : 
" So should a murderer &ok» so dead» so grim. » 
  sluggard] So the çolo. The quartos haveowrd. 
 Is not the g's nage rt t£ousnd names ] Thus» in 
Kng crd III: 
" Besicles, the king's naine is a tower of strength." 
See a speech of Ant]onus» in Plutarch» of ths knd» VoL II. 
199» 4to. Gr. S.W. 


E'ter SCROOP. 

ScRoo». More health and happiness betide my 
Than can my care-tun'd tongue deliver him. 
K. RICH. Mine ear is open, 1 and my heart pre- 
par'd ; 
The worst is worldly loss, thou canst unfold. 
Say, is my kingdoln lost ? why, 'twas my care; 
And what loss is if, tobe rid of care ? 
Strives Bolingbroke to be as great as we . 
Greater he shall not be ; if he serve God, 
We'll serve him too, and be his fellow so : 
Revoit out subjccts ? that we cannot mend ; 
They break their faith to God, as well as us: 
Cry, woe, destruction, ruin, loss, decay ; 
The worst ismdeath, and death will have his day. 
SCRO0». Glad am I, that your highness is so arm'd 
To bear the tidings of calamity. 
Like an unseasonable storlny day, 
Which makes the silver rivers drown their shores, 
As if the world were ail dissolv'd to tears ; 
So high above his limits swells the rage 
Of Bolingbroke, covering your fearful land 
With hard bright steel, and hearts barder than steel. 
White-beards  have arm'd their rhin and hairless 

 Mine. ear. is open, &c.] It seems to be the design, of the poet. 
to ralse Rtchard to esteem in his fall, and consequently to m- 
terest the reader in his favour. He gives him only passive for- 
titude, the virtue of a confessor, rather than of a king. In his 
prosperity we saw him imperious and oppressive ; but in his di- 
stress he is wise, patient, and pious. Jortrsor. 
 W]ffte beards] Thus fl quartos. The tiret folio, wlth 
a ridiculous blunder,White b¢ars. STvT. 


Against thy majesty ; boys, with women's voices, 
Strive to speak big, and clap their female joints  
In stiff unwieldy arms against t|ly crown : 
Thy very beadsmen learn to bend their bows « 
Of double-fatal yew " against thy state ; 
Yea, distaff-women manage rusty bills 

 and clap theirfemale joints] Mr. Pope more ele- 
gantly readsand clasp; which has been adopted by the sub- 
sequent editors. But the emendation does hot seen absolutely 
necessary. /ALONEo 
Clip would be still ncarer than clasp. Rsor. 
Lee, in his Mithr£[ates, has imitated this passage; Act IV: 
" The yery boys, like Cupids dress'd in arms, 
" Clap their young harness'd thighs, and trust to battle." 
 Th?/ver.9 beadsmen learn to bend tleir bos] Such is the 
reading of ail the copies ; yet I doubt whether $eadsmen be right, 
for the bow seems to be mentioned here as the proper weapon of 
a beadsman. The Kiug's beadsmen were his ehaplains. Trevisa 
calls himself the bead«man of lais patron. Beadsman might like- 
wise be any man maintained by eharity to pray for his benefae- 
tor. Hanmer reads--the very beadslnen, but th is better. 
The reading of the text is right enough : " As boys strve to 
speak big, and clasp their effeminate joints in stiff unwieldy 
arms," &c. " so his very 5cadsmeu learn to bend their bows 
against |fim." Their does not absolutely denote that the 
was the]r usual or proper weapon ; but only taken up and ap- 
proprated by thcm on th]s occasion. 
 Ofdoub.le-fatal 3/e--'] Called so, because the leaves of" the 
yew are poison, and the wood is employed for instruments of 
From some of" the ancient statutes it appears that every Eng- 
lishman, while archery was practised, was obliged to keep in hi, 
|iouse either a bow ofuew or some other wood. It should seem 
therefore that jevs were not only planted in church-yards to de- 
tend the churches from the wind, but on account of their use in 
making bows; while by the benefit of being secured in enclosed 
places, tiroir poisonous quality was kept froln doing mischief to 
cattle. SEVS. 

sa. ii. KING RICHARD II. 95 

Against thy seat: both young and old rebel, 
And all goes worse than I have power to tell. 
K. R1ctI. Too well, too well, thou tell'st a tale 
so ill. 
Where is the earl of Wiltshire ? where is Bagot ? 
What is become of Bushy ? where is Green ?6 
That they have let the dangerous enemy 
Measure out confines with such peaceful steps ? 

 IVhere is the earl of l57tshire? where is Bagot? 
IVhat is become of Bush,u ? where is Green ?-1 Here are four 
of them named ; and, withln a very few lines, the King hearing 
they had ruade their pcace with Bolingbroke, calls them three 
Judasses. But how was their peace made ? Why, with the loss 
of their heads. This being explained, Aumerle says: 
« Is Bushy, Green, and the earl of Wiltshire dead ?" 
So that Bagot ought to be left out of the question : and, indeed, 
he had marie the best of his way for Chester, and from thence 
had escaped into Ireland. 
The poet could not be guilty of so much forgetfulness and ab- 
surdity. The transcribers must have blundered. It seems proba- 
ble to me that he wrote, as I bave conjecturally altered the text : 
IVhere is the earl of lViltshirc ? where is he got ? 
i. e. into what corner of my dominions is he slunk and absconded. 
Thls emendation Dr. Warburton adopts. Hanmer leaves a 
blank af'ter Wiltshire. I believe the author, rather than trans- 
criber, made a mistake, lhere is he got, does not sound in my 
ear like an expression of Shakspeare. JOHlSOl. 
I agree with Johnson in thinking that thls was a mistake of' 
the author's, because we find a mistake of the same nature in 
the second Act, where Bolingbroke says, that Bristol Castle was 
held by Bushy and Bagot; yet it is certain that Bagot was not 
taken at Brlstol, for we find him afteiwaids accusing Aumerle 
of treason; and in the parting scene between him, Green, and 
Buhy, he declares hi intention of flying to the King in Ireland. 
M. MASOr¢. 
Perhaps Shakspeare intended to mark more strongly the per- 
turbation of the King by making him inquiie at fiist for Bagot» 
whose loyalty, on further recollection, might show him the im- 
propriety.ofhis question. M2tLoE. 


If we prevail, their heads shall pay for it. 
I warrant, they have ruade peace with Bolingbroke. 
SCROOe. Peace have they ruade with tim, in- 
deed, my lord. 
K. RZCH. 0 villains, vipers, damn'd without re- 
demption ! 
Dogs, easily won to fitwn on any man ! 
Snakes, in my heart-blood warm'd, that sting my 
heart ! 
Tbree Judasses, each one thrice worse than Judas 
Would they make peace ? terrible hell make war 
Upon their spotted souls for this offence ! 
SCRO0'. Swect love, I see, changing his property, 
Turns to the sourest and most deadly hate :m 
Again uncurse their souls; their peace is made 
With heads, and hOt with hands : those whom you 
Have felt the worst of death's destroying wound, 
And lie fidl low, grav'd 7 in the hollow ground. 
./IuM. ls Bushy, Green, and the earl of Wilt- 
shire, dead ? 
SCROOe. Yea, ail of them at Bristol lost their 
AUM. Where is the duke my father with his 
power ? 
K. RrcH. No marrer where ; of comfort no man 
speak : 
Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs ; 
Make dust out paper, and with rainy eyes 
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth. 

 grav'd] The verb, to grave, is hOt peculiar to Shak- 
speare. So, in Gower, De Cofessione mantis, Lib. III. fol. 58 : 
" Unto the hound, unto the ïaven, 
« She was none otherwise graven." STv.v.VV.s. 

sc. ct. KING RICHARD II. 97 

Let's choose executors, and talk of wills" 
And yet not so,for what can we bequeath, 
Savc our deposcd bodics to thc ground ? 
Our lands, out livcs, and ail arc Bolingbroke's, 
And nothing can wc call out own, but death ; 
And that small modcl of the barren earth, - 
Which scrves as pastc and covcr to out boncs2 
:For heavcn's sakc, let us sit upon the ground, 
And tell sad storics of thc dcath of kings :-- 
How some havc becn dcpos'd, some slain in war ; 
So,ne hauntcd by the ghosts they have depos'd ;' 
Somc poison'd by their wives, some sleeping kill'd; 
All murder'd :--For within the hollow crowu, 
That rounds the mortal temples of a king, 
Keeps death his court" and there the autick sits,  

o And that small model of the barren-earth,] He uses model 
for mould. That earth, whieh elosing upon the body, takes its 
form. This interpretation the next line seems to authorize. 
Perhaps, all that model, in the present instance, means, s thœe 
sepu]chra] ]ri]lock of earth wh]ch ascertains the ]ength and 
breadth of the body beneath it. In tlfis sensc if may be termcd 
its model. S'V.VESS. 
Shakspeare generally uses modcl, hot for an exemlolar , but for 
a thing made after a pattern. So, in a former scene of this play: 
" --- thou see'st thy wretched brother die, 
" VV'ho was the ndel of thy father's lire." 
See Vol. VIII. p. 5¢, n. . lffodel, however, may be used for 
mould. See Minsheu's DcT. in v. 5IAOE. 
IVhich serres as paste &e.] A metaphor, hot of the nmst 
sublime kind, taken ri'oto a pie. JOHtSOy. 
  the ghosts theq bave depos'd ;] Sueh is the reading of 
all the old copies. The modern editors, in the room of bave de- 
Tos'd, substituted dispossess'd. STwwvv.s. 
  there the antiek sits,] Here is an allusion to the antick 
or fool of old farces, whose chier part is to deride and disturb 
the graver and more splendid personages. JoHsso. 
If there be any sueh allusion intended, it is to the o/d Vice, 

98 KING RICHARD IL zcr xrr. 

Scoflïng his state, and grinning at his pomp ; 
Allowing him a breath, a little scene 
To monarchize, be fear'd, and kill with looks ; 
Infising him with self and vain conceit,m 
As if this flesh, which walls about out lire, 
Were brass impregnable ; and, hulnour'd thus, 
Cornes at the last, and with a little pin 
Bores through his castle wall, and--farewell king! 
Cover your heads, and luock hot flesh and blood 
With solemn reverence ; throw away respect, 
Tradition, 3 Ibrm, and ceremonious duty, 
For you have but mistook me all this vhile : 
1 live with bread ]ike you, feel want, taste grief, 
Need fi-iends :--Subjécted thus, 
IIow can you say to me--I ara a king ? 
CAR. My lord, wise luen ne'er wail theirpresent 
But presently prevent the ways to wail. 
To fear the foe, since fear oppresseth strength, 
Gives, in your wcakness, strength unto your foe, 
And so your follies fight against yourself. 
Fear, and be slain ; no worse can corne, to fight : 
And fight and die, is death destroying death ;« 
Where fcaring dying, pays death servile breath. 

who, indeed, appears to have been such a character as Dr. John- 
son describes. The Fool was rather introduced to be laughed 
at. RTso. 
So, in The First Part of King Henry VI: 
" Thou antick death, which laugh'st us here to scorn ! » 
 Tradition, This word seems here used for traditional 
ractices: that is, established or customary homagc. Joso. 
 death destroyi»g death;-] That is, to die3çghting, is to 
return the evil that we surfer, to destroy the destroyers. I once 
read death defyig; but de«trolfing is as wll. Joso. 


A trM. My father hath a power, enquire of him 
And learn to make a body of a limb.  
.K. RXCH. Thou chid'st me well :mProud Bo]ing- 
broke, I corne 
To change blows with tlme for out day of doom. 
This ague-fit of fear is over-b!çwn ; 
An easy task it is, to win our own.. 
Say, Scroop, where lies cur uncle with his power 
Speak sweetly, man, although thy looks be sour. 
Scl¢ooP. Men judge by the complexion of the 
The state and inclination of fle da'y: 
So may you by my dull and heavy eye, 
My tongue hath but a heavier tale to say. 
I play the torturer, by small and small, 
To lengthen out the worst that must be spoken :-- 
Your uncle York hath join'd with Bo!ingbroke ; 
And all your northern castles yielded up, 
And all yotu" southern gentlemen in arms 
Upon his party. 
K. RICH. Thou hast said enough.---- 
Beshrew thee, cousin, which didst lead me forth 
Of that sweet way I was în fo despair] 
¥hat say you nov ? What comfort have we now 
By heaven, I']] haie him ever]asting]y, 
That bids me be of comfort » any more. 

 Pll hate him everlastingly, 
That bids me be of co»fort '] This sentiment is drawn from 
nature. Nothing is more offensive to a mind convinced that its 
distress is without a remedy, and preparing to submit quietly t o 
irresistible calamity, than these petty and conjectured comfots 
which unskilful oflïciousnesz thinks it virtue to administer. 


Go, to Flint castle ; there l'll pine away ; 
A king, woe's slave, shall kingly woe obey. 
That power I have, discharge ; and let them go 
To car the land '» that hath some hope to grow, 
For I bave none :--Let no lnan speak again 
To alter this, for counsel is but vain. 
A uM. My liegê, one word. 
h\R,CH. Ilê does me double wrong, 
That wounds me with the flatteries of his tongue. 
Discharge my tbllowers, let them hence ;Away, 
From Riehard's night, to Bolingbroke's fair day. 

Wales. Before Flint Castle.  
.Eler, wilh Drum ad Colours, BOI'6ZnOKE and 
Ieorces ; YOlK, NOaTHU».nEr.a;D, and Others. 

BOLINa. So that by this intelligence we learn, 
The Welshmen are dispers'd; and Salisbury 
Is gone to meet the king, who lately landed, 
With some few private fi'iends, upon this toast. 

 To ear the land--'l i. e. to plough it. So, in All's well that 
ends well : 
" Ite that ears my land, spares my team." 
r Flint Castle.] In out former edition I had called this scene 
the saine with the preceding. That was at Barkloughly castle» 
on lhe coast v«here Richard landed; but Bolingbroke never 
marched further in Wales than to Flint. The interview between 
him and Richard was at the castle of Flint, where this scene 
»hould be said to lie, or rather in the camp of Bolingbroke be- 
fore that casfle." Go to Flint casfle." See above. 

sc. H,r. KING RICHARD II. 101 

NORTH. The news is veryfair and good, mylord; 
Richard, not far from hence, hath laid his head. 
YORI(. It would beseem thelordNorthumberland, 
To say--king Richard :--Alack the heavy day, 
When such a sacred king should hide his head! 
NORTH. Your grace mistakes me ; 8 only to be 
Left I lais title out. 
}fORE. The time hath been, 
Would you bave been so brief with him, he would 
Have been so brief with you, to shorten you, 
For taking so the head, 9 your whole head's length. 
BOLZ2va. Mistake hot, uncle, further than you 
YORa: Take not, good cousin, further than you 
Lest you mis-take: The heavens are o'er your head. 
BoLINa.  know it, uncle ; and oppose hOt 
Myself against their will.'But who cones here?  

s Your grace mistakes me ;] The word--me, which is wanting 
in the old copies, was supplied by Sir T. Hanmer. STEVENS. 
 For taking so the head,] To take the head is, to act without 
restraint; to take undue liberties. We now say, we give the 
horse his head, when we relax the teins. 30rINSON. 
  The heavens 
and oppose not 
l131self against their will.] So, in Romeo and Juliet : 
" The heavens, &c.- 
" More them no more by crossing their high will." 
 I know it, uncle; and oppose hot 
Myself against their will.--But who cornes here ?] These 
lines should be regulated thus : 
I know if, uncle; and oppose hot myself 
Against their vdll. But who cornes here? 
Such is the regulation of the old copies. Mxr.o. 


Eter PEIC¥: 

Well, Harry; what, will not this castle yield ? 
t'ERCY. The eastle royally is mann'd, my lord, 
Against thy entrance. 
Bor«rv. Royally ! 
Why, it contains no king ? 
PERCY. Yes, my good lord, 
It doth contain a king; king Richard lies 
Within the limits of yon lime and stone : 
And with him are the lord Aumerle, lord Salisbury, 
Sir Stephen Seroop ; besides a elergyman 
Of holy reverenee, who, I eannot learn. 
NORTH. Belike, it is the bishop of Carlisle. 
Bor4.v6. Noble lord, ¢[To NORTH. 
Go to thc rude ribs of that ancicnt castlc ; 
Through brazcn trmnpct send the brcath of parle 

I regard fle word lself, as an interpolation, and conceive 
Shakspeare to have written 
 and oppose hot 
Against their will. 
To oppose may be here a verb neuter. So, in Iïng Lear 
" -- a servant, thrill'd with remorse, 
" Oppos'd againt the act." STEEVES. 
 Well, Harry; what, will hot fhis castle dield?] The old 
copy destroys the metre by reading--Velcome, Harry;. The 
emendation is Sir T. Hanmer's. 
 Noble lord, 
Go to the rude ribs &e.] It is observable that our author in 
his addresses to persons, often begins with an hemistieh. So, 
in Troilus and Cressida, Act Il. sc. iii: 
" Agam. Princes, 
" What grief hath set the jaundiee on your eheeks ." 
This observation may be of use in other places, where in the 
old copies, by the mistake of the transeriber, the metre is de- 
utroyed by this regulation hot being observed. I.,oz, 


Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver. 
Harry Bolingbroke 
On both his knees doth kiss king Richard's hand ; 
And sends allegiance, and true thith of heart, 
To his most royal person: hither corne 
Even at his feet fo lay my arms and power ; 
Provided that, lny banishment repeal'd, 
And lands restor'd again, be freely granted : 
If not, l'Il use the advantage of my power, 
And lay the summer's dust with showers of blood, 
Rain'd from the wounds of slaughter'd English- 
men : 
The which, how far off fi'onl the mind of Boling- 
It is, such crimson tempest should bedrench 
The fi'esh green lap of fait king Richard's land, 
My stooping duty tenderly shall show. 
(30, signify as much while here we match 
Upon the grassy carpet of thîs plaîn. 
[-NORTHUMBERLAND advances to the Castle, 
with a Trumpet. 
Let's march without the noise ofthreat'ning druln, 
That from the castle's totter'd battlements 
Our fait appointments may be well perus'd. 
Methinks, king Richard and myself should meet 
With no less terror than the elements 
Of tire and water, when their thund'ring shock 
At meeting tears the eloudy cheeks of heaven. 
Be he the tire, l'Il be the yielding water : 
The rage be his, while on the earth I rain 
My waters ; on the earth, and not on him. 
Mareh on, and mark king Riehard how he looks. 

1o4 KING RICHARD II. Ac,'Iii. 

A parle soun&d, and answered by another Trumpet 
withïn. Flourish. Enter on the wall" King 
RcI-IaD, the Bishop of Carlisle, » AUIEttLE, 
ScaooP, and SaLISBURYo 

Yon-. See, see, king Richard doth himself ap- 
pear, 6 
As doth the blushing diseontented sun 
From out the fiery portal of the east ; 
When he perceives the envious elouds are bent 
To dira his glory, and fo stain the traek 
Of his bright passage to the occident. 
Yet looks he like a king ; behold, his eye, 
As bright as is the eagle's, lightens forth 
Controlling majesty ; Alack, alack, for woe, 
That any harm should stain so fair a show! 
K. RlCt¢. We are amaz'd; and thus long have 
we stood 
To watch the fearful bending of thy knee, 
Because we thought ourself tby lawful king: 
And if we be, how date thy joints forget 
To pay their awfifl duty to our presence ? 
If we be hot, show us the hand of God 
That bath dismiss'd us from out stewardship ; 
For well we know, no hand of blood aad bone 
Can gripe the sacred handle of out scepter, 

» --the Biho_p of Carlisle,] was Thomas Merkes. 
 See see klç Rldmrd doth imsel.)c appear'] The ïollowing 
six lines are absurdly given to Bolingbroke who is ruade to con- 
demn his own conduct and disculp the Kings. It is plain these 
six and the four following all belong to York. 
It should be observed that the çour last of these lines are in all 
thc copies givcn to York. 

sc. n. KING RICHARD II. lO5 

Unless ho do profane, steal, or usurp. 
And though you think, that ail, as you have donc, 
Have torn their souls, by turning them ri'oto us, 
And we are barren, and bereft of fi'iends ;----- 
Yet know,--my toaster, God omnipotent, 
Is must'ring in his elouds, on our behalf, 
Armies of pestilence ; and they shall strike 
Your children yet unborn, and unbegot, 
That lift your vassal hands against my head, 
And threat the glory of my preeious erown. 
Tell Bolingbroke, (for yond', methinks, he fs,) 
That every stride he makes upon my land, 
Is dangerous treason" He fs corne to ope 
The purple testament of bleeding war, 
But ere the erown he looks for live in peaee, 
Ten thousand bloody erowns of mothers' sons 
Shall ill become the flower of England's face ; 

 The purlole testament ?fbleeding war;] I once thought that 
Shakspeare might have had the saered book (which fs frequently 
covered with purple leather) in his thoughts ; but the following 
note renders such a supposition extremely doubtful, bI.r.orE. 
I believe our author uses the word testament in its legal sense. 
Bolingbroke fs eome to open the testament of war, that he may 
peruse what fs deereed there in his favour. PmTle fs an epithet 
referring to the future effusion ofblood. Sv.Evv.s. 
Mr. Steevens fs certainly right in his interpretation of this 
passage. Sec Julius Coesar : 
" Now, while your purpled hands do reek and smoke 
" Fulfil your pleasure." M.o. 
« But ere the crown he looksfor lire in peace, 
Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothe's' sons 
Shall ill become thejlower of England's face ; ] By thejlower 
of England'sface fs meant the choicest youths of Englaud, who 
shall be slaughtered in this quarrel, or have bloody crowns. The 
flover of England'sface, to design her choicest youth, fs a fine 
and noble expression. Pericles, by a similar thought, said "that 
the destruction of the Athenian youth was a fatality like cutting 
off the spring ri'oto the year." Waaçrtxor. 


Change the complexion of her mai&pale peace 
To scarlet indignation, and bedew 
Her pastures' grass 9 with faithfid Eng!ish blood. 
NOnT. The king of heaven forbid, our lord the 
8hould so with civil and uncivil arms 
Be rush'd upon! Thy thrice-noble cousin, 
Harry ]3olingbroke, doth humbly kiss thy hand 
And by the honourable tomb he swears, 
That stands upon thy royal grandsire's bones ; 
And by the royalties of both your bloods, 
Currents that spring ri'oto one most gracious head 
And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt ;1 

Dr. Warburton reads--light h peace, but live in peace is more 
uitable to Richard's intention, which is to tell him, that though 
he should get the crown by rebellion, it will be long before it will 
lire in peace, be so settled as to be firm. The.flower of England's 
face, is very happily explained. Jorso. 
The flower of England's face, I believe, means England's 
owery face, the owerj suiface o Enoland's 
. . ff! . . f  soil. The saine 
knd of expressmn lS used in Sidney's Arcadia, p. 2: "--open- 
ing the cherry of" her lips," i. e. her cherry lips. Again, p. 40 
edit. 1633: "--the sweet and beautifulflower of ber face." 
Again, Drayton, in _Morthner's Epistle fo Queen Isabell: 
« And in the field advance our plumy crest, 
« And match upon fair England'sJtow'ry reast." 
 Her pastures' grass--] Old coples--pastors. Corrected by 
Mr. Theobald. I.LOS. 
 And by the buried hand ofwarlike Gaunt;] Dr. Warburton 
would read-- 
And  the warlike hand ofburied Gaunt ; 
and this, no doubt, was Shakspeare's meaning, though he ha 
affectedly misplaced the epithets. Thus, in Kig Johnwe have; 
" There is no malice in this 5urning coa[," 
instead of--- 
" There is no malice 5trning in this coal." 
Agaîn, in A Midsummer Night's Dream : 
« But earthlier hapTy, '» instead of" earthly hapTier." 

sc. xxr. KING RICHARD II. lO7 

And by the worth and honour of himself, 
Comprising all that may be sworn or said,-- 
His coming hither hath no further scope, 
Than for his lineal royalties, and to beg 
Enfl'anchisement immediate on his knees : 
Which on thy royal party granted once, 
His glittering arms he will commend  to rust, 
His barbed steeds to stables, and his heart 
To thithfid service of your majesty. 
This swears he, as he is a prince, is just ; 
And, as I aih a gentleman, I credit him. 
It . RlCtt. Northmnberland, say,thus the king 
returns ; 
His noble cousin is right welcome hither ; 
And all the number of his fair demands 
Shall be accomplish'd without contradiction: 
With ail the gracious utterance thou hast, 
Speak to his gentle hearing kind commends. 
We do debase ourself, cousin, do we hot, 
[ To A:IERLEo 

Again, in King Henr VI. P. II: 
" These hands are free from guiltless bloods]tedding," 
instead of 
" These guiltless ltands are free from bloodshedding." 
Again, ibid. in P. III: 
" Until my isshai)'d trunlc that bears tlis ltead," 
instead of 
" Until m Iead that thls misshap'd trunk bears." o 
Again, in Anton and Cleopatra: 
" We cannot call her wînds and oaters, stg£s and tears, 
instead of 
" We cannot eall her sighs and tears, oinds ad waters." 
nd in the saine play we have proof of harness, for harness o3 
proof ; as elsewhcre, niserable most, for »wst. niserable; desl)e- 
ratel ,wrtal, for mortall desl)erate; actwn of l)recel)t, for_re- 
ce]or of action; &c. RITSOI. 
  com»end] i.e. commit. See Minsheu's Dtcw. in v. 

1os KING RICHARD II. c'«,,. 

To look so poorly, and to speak so fair ? 
Shall we call back Northumberland, and send 
Defiance to the traitor, and so die ? 
`4 ur. No, good my lord ; let's fight with gentle 
Till rime lend fi'iends, and fi-iends their helpful 
K. Rwtz. O God ! O God ! that e'er this tongue 
of mine, 
That laid the sentence of dread banishlnent 
On yon proud man, should take it oit again 
With words of sooth !z O, that I were as great 
As is my grief, or lesser than my naine ! 
Or that I could forger what I bave been ! 
Or not remember what I must be now ! 
Swell'st thou, proud heart ? I'll give thee scope to 
Since foes have scope to beat both thee and rne. 
.4 vM. Northulnberland colnes back ri'oto Boling- 
K. 12Ic. What lnUSt the king do now ? Must he 
submit .P 
The king shall do it. Must he be depos'd ? 
The king shall be contented : Must he lose 
The naine of king ? o'God's name, let it go" 
l'll give my jewels, for a set of beads ; 
My gorgeous palace, for a hermitage ; 
My gay apparel,  for an alms-lnan's gown ; 

 With words of sooth !] Sooth is sweet as well as true. In 
this place sooth means sweetness or softness, a signification yet 
retained in the verb fo sooth. Jormsor¢. 

gag apparel, &c.] Dr. Grey observes, "that King 
Richard's expence in regard to dress, was very extraordinary." 
Holinshed has the saine remark; and adds that he had "one 

sc. tlr. KING RICHARD II. lO9 

My figur'd goblets, for a dish of wood ; 
My scepter, for a palmer's walking-staff; 
My subjeets, for a pair of earved saints ; 
And my large kingdoln for a little grave, 
A little little grave, an obscure grave :- 
Or I'll be buried in the king's highway, 
Some way of eommon trade, 5 where subjeets' feet 
May hourly trample on their sovereign's head :6 
For on my heart they tread, now whilst I live ; 
And, buried once, why not upon my head ?----- 
Aumerle, thou weep'st ; My tender-hearted cou- 
sin !-- 
We'll make foul weather Mth despised tears ; 
Our sighs, and they, shall lodge the summer corn, 
And make a dearth in this revolting land. 
Or shall we play the wantons with our woes, 

cote which he caused to be ruade for him of gold and stone, 
valued at $0,000 marks." STVS. 
Stowe, in his Surveff., says, " to the value of three thousand 
markes." So, also, In Vita Ricardi Secundi, published by 
T. Hearne, p. 156. 
 Or l'll e &tried zn ghe ki , highwa, 
8orne wa d ofleommon trade,] So, in Lord Surrey's transla- 
tion of the second. Book of Virgil's gEneid¢ 
« A postern with a blind wicket there was, 
« A eommon Irade, to pass through Priam's bouse." 
« Limen erat, coecoeque fores, et perviu« usus, 
« Tectorum inter se Priami." 
The phrase is still used hy common people. When they speak 
of a road much frequented, they say, " it is a road of" much 
traffek." Shakspeare uses the word in the same sense in King 
Henry VIII: 
« Stand in the gap and grade of more prefermen8." 
« __ on their soveren's head:'] Shakspeare is very apt to 
deviate from the pathetick to the ridiculous. Had the speech of 
Richard ended at this line, it had exhibited the natural language 
of submissive misery, conforming its intention to the present 
fortune, and cahnly ending its purpoes in death. Jossos. 

110 KING RICHARD II. +«T nur. 

And make some pretty match with shedding tears. 
As thus ;--To drop them still upon one place, 
Till they bave fi-etted us a pair of graves 
Within the earth ; and, therein laid,--There lies 
Two kinsmeï, <h'g" d their graves ith weeping ejes ? 
Would hot this ill do well .--Well, well, I see 
I talk but idly, and you mock at me.-- 
Most mighty prince, my lord Northumbefland, 
What says king Bolingbroke . will his majesty 
Give Richard leave to lire fill Richard die . 
You make a leg, and Boli;gbroke says--ay.  
No_7'I-n My lord, in the base court  he doth at- 
To speak with you; may't please you to corne down ? 
K. tIClt. Down, down, I corne ; like glistering 
Wanting the mariage of unruly jades. 
[-NortTH. reth'es 1o Boz. 
In the base court? Base court, where kings grow 
To corne at traitors' calls, and do them grace. 
In the base court ? Corne down. Down, court! 
down king! 
For lfight-ow!s shriek, where mounting larks should 
smg. [Exempt, ri'oto al)ove. 

 -- Bolingbro]'e says--ay.] Here is another instance of in- 
jury done to the poet's mette by changing his orthography. I, 
which was Shakspeare's word, rhymed very well with die; but 
a 3, has quite a diitbrent sound. See a note on The ]llerry lVves 
of lYindsor, Act V. Vol. V. p. S0, n. 7. 
In some counties ay is at this day pronounced with a sound very 
little differing from that of/. MAI, OIL 
  base court--] Bas cour, Fr. So, in Hinde's Eliosto 
Libidinoso, 1606: " they were, foi- a public observation, 
brought into the base court of fle palace." Agaln, in Greene's 
'arewell fo Follie, 161î : "--began, at the entrance into the 
base court, to use the$e words." 

ze. iix. KING RICHARD II. 111 

]OLIhG. What says his majesty ? 
_]VORTH. Sorrow and grief of heart 
Makes him speak fondly, like a fi-antick man: 
Yet he is corne. 

yEter Kig RICHARD, and his Attendants, below. 

BOLING. Stand all apart, 
And show fait duty fo his majesty. 
My gracious lord, [Kneeling. 
K. _RlCtt. Fait cousin, you debase your princely 
To make the base earth proud with kissing it: 
Me rather ]md, my heart might feel your love, 
'ïhan my unpleas'd eye sec your courtesy. 
Up, cousin, up ; your heart is up, I know, 
Thus high at least, [Touching his own head.] al- 
though your knee be low. 
Bor, tz'a. My gracious lord, I corne but for mine 
K. Rcz. Your own îs yours, and I am yours, 
and all. 
BOLVV. So far be mine, my most redoubted 
As my truc service shall deserve your love. 
aK: Re. Well you deserve :They well deserve 
fo have, 
That know the strong'st and surest way fo get.-- 
Uncle, give me your hand : nay, dry your eyes ; 
Tears show their love, but want their remedies. 
Cousin, I ara too young to be your father, 
Though you are oid enough to be nly heir. 
What you will have, l'll give, and willing too; 
For do w¢ muet, what force will have us do. 

Set on towards London :--Cousin, is it so ? 
BOLING. Yea, my good lord. 
1£. RleH. Thcn I must not say, no. 9 
[Flourish. xeunt. 


Langley. The Duke oflYork's Garden. 

lnter the Queen, and two Ladies. 

QuE5 . What sport shall we devise here in this 
To drive away the heavy thought of care ? 
1 LADY. Madam, we'll play at bowls. 
QUE_n. 'Twill make me think, 
The world is full of rubs, and that my fortune 
Runs 'gainst the bias. 
1 LnzY. Madam, we will dance. 
Quev. My legs can keep no measure in delight 
When my poor heart no measure keeps in grief: 
Therefore, no dancing, girl; some other sport. 
1 L,4»Y. Madam, we'll tell tales. 

o Then I must hot say, o.] " The duke with a lfigh sharpe 
voyce bade bring forth the klngs horses, and then two little 
nagges, hot worth forty franks, were brought forth ; the king was 
set on the one, and the earle of Salisburie on the other : and thus 
the duke brought the king from Flint to Chester, where he was 
delivered to the duke of Glocesters sonne and to the earle of 
Arundels sonne, (that loved him but little, for he had put their 
fathers to death,) who led him straight to the castle." Stowe, 
(p. 521, edit. 1605) ri'oto a manuscript accourir written by a 
person who was present. IALONE. 

se. Iv. KING RICHARD II. 113 

QuE,. Of sorrow, or ofjoy ?' 
1 LADY. Of cithcr, madam. 
QUEEV. Of neither, girl : 
For if ofjoy, bcing altogether wanting, 
It doth rclncmbcr inc thc more of sorrow ; 
Or if of grief, bcing altogether had, 
It adds more sorïow to lny want ofjoy : 
For what I havc, I nced not to repeat ; 
And what I want, it boots not to complain3 
1 LAD]ç Madam, I'll sing. 
QUEE,V. 'Tis well, that thou hast cause ; 
But thou should'st plcase me bettcr, would'st thou 
1 LAD]ç I could wccp, madam, would it do you 
QuEv. And I could wecp, 3 would weeping do 
me good, 
And nevcr borrow any tear of thcc. 
But stay, hcrc corne the gardcncrs : 
Lct's stop into thc shadow of thcse trccs.-- 

Enter a Gardener, and Two Servants. 

My wretchedness unto a row of pins, 
They'll talk of state ; for every one doth so 
Against a change : Woe is forerun with woe.  
l-Queen and Ladies retire. 

10.fsorrow, or ofjoy ?] All the old copies concur in reading : 
Of sorrow, or of grief? 
Mr. Pope ruade the necessary alteration. STwEVWS. 
 complain.] Sec p. 17, n. % SrwwvwNs. 
 And I could weep,] The old copies readAnd lcould sing. 
Mr. Pope made the emendation. Mao. 
 Against a change: Woe isforerun oith woe.'l The poet, 


GARD. Go, bind thou up yon' dangling apricocks, 
Which, like unruly children, make their sire 
Stoop with oppression of their prodigal weight : 
Give some supportance to the bending twigs.-- 
Go thou, and like an executioner, 
Cut off the heads of too-xCast-growing sprays, 
That look too lofty in our commonwealth : 
AIl must be even in our government. 
You thus employ'd, I will go foot away 
The noisolne weeds, that without profit suck 
The soil's fertility from wholesome flowers. 
1 SE_nf. Why should we, in the compass of a 
Keep law, and tbJ'ln, and due proportion, 
,Showing, as in a lnodel, our firln estate ? 
When our sea-walled garden, the whole land, 
Is full of weeds ; ber fhirest flowers chok'd up, 
Her fi'uit-trees all unprun'd, her hedges ruin'd, 
Her knots disorder'd, ; and ber wholesome herbs 
Swarming with caterpillars ? 

according to the common doctrine of'prognostication, supposes 
dejection to forerun calamity, and a kingdom tobe filled with 
rumours of' sorrow when any great disaster is impending. The 
sense is, that publick evils are always presignified by publick 
pensiveness, and plaintive conversation. JoHsO. 
  our3çrm estate .] How could he say out, when he im- 
mediately subjoins, that it was infirm ? we should read: 
 afi'rm state. WARBURTON. 
The servant says our, meaning the state oi°the garden in which 
they are at work. The state of' the mctaphorical garden was 
indced uqflrm, and thcrefbre his reasoning is very naturally in- 
duced. Why (says he,) should we be careful to preserve order 
in the narrow cincture of' this out se when the great state of 
the 1}ingdom is in disorder ? I have replaced the old reading which 
Dr. Warburton would have discontinued in favour of his own 
conjecture. STEEVENSo 
« tler knots disordcr'd,] l5zots are figures planted in box, the 
lines of which frequently intersect each other. So, Milton: 

c. n'. KING RICHARD II. 115 

Hold thy peace :m 

He that hath suffer'd this disorder'd spring, 
Hath now himself mt with the fall of leaf: 
The weeds, that his broad-spreading leaves did 
That seem'd in eating him to hold biln ui), 
Are pluck'd up, root and all, by Bolingbroke ; 
I mean, the ead of Wiltshire, Bushy, Green. 
1 SEnt« What, are they dead ? 
GARD. They are ; and Bolingbroke 
Hath seiz'd the wasteful king.--Oh ! What pity is it, 
That he had not so trimm'd and dress'd his land, 
As we this garden ! We at rime of year 7 
Do wound the bark, the skin of our fi'uit-trees ; 
Lest, being over-proud with sap and blood, 
With too much riches it confound itsclf: 
Had he done so to great and growing men, 
They might have liv'd to bear, and he to taste 
Their fruits of duty. Ail superfluous branches s 
We lop away, that bearing boughs may live- 
Had he done so, himself had borne the crown, 
Which waste ofidle hours hath quite thrown down. 
1 SERr. What, think you then, the king shall be 
depos'd ? 

" Flowers, worthy Paradise, which not nice art 
" In beds and curious knots, but nature boon 
" Pour'd forth." Sxvs. 
  We at time ofear] The word lire is not in the old 
copies. The context shows that some word was omitted at the 
press ; and the subsequent lines- 
« -- superfluous branches 
« We lop away--" 
tender it highly probable tlmt this was the word. 
s --Allsuperj?uous branches--J Thus the second folio. The 
first omits the word---all and thereby hurts the mette; for sui»er- 
uooE is nevcr accented on the third syllable. 


GIRD. Depress'd he is already; and depos'd, 
'Tis doubt, he will be :9 Letters came last night 
To a dear fi'iend of the good duke of York's, 
That tell black tidings. 
QUEEN. O, I ara press'd to death, 
Through want of speaking !--Thou, old Adam's 
likeness, [ Comingfrom her concealment. 
Set to dress this garden,  how dates 
Thyharsh-rude tongue sound this unpleasing news 

9'Tis doubt, he will be:] We have already had an instance 
of this uncommon phraseology in the present play: 
" He is our cousin, cousin ; but 'ris doubt, 
" When time shall call him home," &c. 
Doubt is the reading of the quarto, 1597. The folio reads 
doubted. I have round reason to believe that some alteration 
even in that valuable copy was made arbitrarily by the editor. 
 O, I ara press'd fo death, 
7Yrough want speaAingJ The poet alludes to the ancient 
legal punishment, called peine forte et dure, which was inflicted 
on those persons, who, being arraigned, refused to plead, re- 
maining obstinately silent. They were pressed to death by a 
heavy weight laid upon their stomach. Mao. 
  to dress this garden,] This was flae technical language 
of Shakspeare's titne.. So, in Holy Writ: "-- and put him 
into the garden of Eden, to dress it, and to keep it." Gen. ii. 15. 
 h dares 
ThoE harsh-rude tongue &c.] So, in Hamlet: 
What have I done that thou dar'st wag thy tongue 
" In noise so rude against me ?" 
I have quoted this passage only to justify the restoration of the 
word rude, which bas been rejected in some modern editions. 
A line in ïng John may add support to the restoration here 
marie from the old copy: 
" To whom he sung in rude harsh-sounding rhymes." 
Some words seem to have been omitted in the first of these 
lines. We might read: 
Set to dress out this garden. Say, how dares, &e. 
It is always saler to add than to omit. 


What Eve, what serpent hath suggested thee 
To make a second fall of cursed man ? 
Why dost thou say, king Richard is depos'd ? 
Dar'st thou, thou little better thing than earth, 
Divine his downfal ? Say, where, when, and how, 
Cam'st thou by these iil tidings ? speak, thou 
G.RD. Pardon me, madam : little joy have I, 
To breathe this news ; yet, what I say, is truc. 
King Richard, he is in the mighty hold 
Of Bolingbroke ; their fortunes both are weigh'd: 
In your lord's scale is nothing but himself, 
And SOlne few vanities that make him light ; 
But in the balance of great Bolingbroke, 
Besides himself, are all the English peers, 
And with that odds he weighs king Richard down. 
Post you to London, and you'll find if so ; 
I speak no more than every one doth know. 
QuEz. Nimble mischanee, that art so light of 
Doth not thy embassage belong to me, 
And am I last that knows it ? O, thou think'st 
To serve me last, that I may longest keep 
Thy sorrow in my breast.Come, ladies, go, 
To meet at London London's king in woe. 
What, was I born to this! that my sad look 
Should grace the triumph of" gxeat Bolingbroke ? 

I would readSet here to dress this gardent. ]Vlr. ]Vlalone's 
quotation from Genesis serres to show that " dress out" was not 
the established phrase. 
Neither tan I concur with the saine gen'deman's opinion that 
« it is always saler to add than to omit ;" since, in Dr. Farmer's 
judgment as well as my own, the irregularities of our author's 
measure are too frequently occasioned by gross and manifest 


Gardener, for tdling me this news of woe, 
I would, the plants thou graft'st, may never grow.  
[Exeunt Queen ad Ladies. 
GAR9. Poor queen ! so that thy state might be no 
I would, my skill were subject to thy curse.m 
Here did she drop a tear; here, in this place, 
l'll set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace : 
Rue, even for ruth, here shortly shall be seen, 
In the remembrance of a weeping queen. 

' I would, the plants &c.] This execration of the Queen is 
$omewhat ludicrous, and unsuitable to her condition ; the gar- 
dener's reflection is better adapted to the state both of his mind 
and his fortune. Mr. Pope, who has been throughout this play 
very diligent to reject what he did not like, has yet, I know hot 
why, spared the last lines of this Act. Jornso. 
I ould, the plants thou gradet'st, manu never grow.] So, in 
The Rape of Lucrece: 
" This bastard graft shall never corne to growth." 

net n; KING RICHARD II. 119 


London. Westminster Hall s 

The Lords s_piritual on the rçht side of the Throne; 
the Lords temporal on the 1u"t; /he Commons be- 
low. Enter BON6OE, AUELE, SUY,  
Lord, Bishop Carlislc, 3bbot Westminster, 
and Attendants. Ocers behind, with B.GOT. 

BOLI_'G. Call forth Bagot :-- 
Now, Bagot, fi'eely speak thy mind; 
What thou dost klloW of noble Gloster's death ; 
Who wrought it with the king, and who perform'd 
The bloody office of his timeless end. 8 
BaaoT. Then set belote lnyfacethelord Aumerle. 
BoLxa. Cousin, stand forth, and look upon that 

»  Westminster Hall.] The rebuilding of Westminster- 
Hall, which Richard had begun in 197, being finished in 1399, 
the first meeting of parliament in the new edifice was tbr the 
purpose of deposing him. MMON.. 
n Surrej,] Thonas Holland earl of Kent. Hz was 
brother to John Holland duke of Exeter, and was created duke 
of Surrey in the 21st year of King Richard the Second, 1397. 
The dukes of Surrey and Exeter were hall brothers to the King, 
being sons of his mother Joan, (daughter of Echnond, earle 
Kent,) who after the death ofher second husband, Lord Thomas 
Holland, married Edward the Black Prince. 
  Fitzwater,] The christian name of this nobleman was 
Walter. W.vor. 
'  his timeless end.-I Tbneless for untiraely. 


B.ço'. My lord Aumerle, I know your daring 
Seorns to unsay what once it hath deliver'd. 
In that dead rime when Gloster's death was plotted, 
I heard you say,--Is ot mj arm oflegth, 
That reacheth.fron, the restJitl E»gtish court 
As far as Calais, to my uncle's head ? 
Amongst much other talk, that very rime, 
I heard you say, that you had rather refuse 
The offer of an hundred thousand erowns, 
Than Bolingbroke's return to England ; 
Adding withal, how blest this land would be, 
In this your eousin's death. 
2/. Princes, and noble lords, 
What answer shall I make to this base man ? 
Shall I so mueh dishonour my Fair stars, 9 
On equal terres to give him chastisement ? 
Either I nmst, or have mine honour soil'd 
With the attainder of his sland'rous lips.---- 
There is my gage, the manual seal ofdeath, • 
That marks thee out for hell : I say, thou liest, 
And vill maintain, what thou hast said, is false, 
In thy heart-blood, though being all too base 
To stain the retaper of my knightly sword. 
BoLING. Bagot, forbear, thou shalt not take it up. 
A e. Exeepting one, I would he were the best 
In all this presence, that hath lllov'd me so. 

  msfair stars,] I rather think it should be stem, being 
of the royal blood. 
I think the present reading unexeeptionable. The birth 
supposed to be influenced by the stars, therefore our author, with 
his usual licence takes stars for birlh. Joxso. 
We learn from Pliny's Natural Histors, that the vulgar error 
assigned the bright and hir stars to the rich and great : " Sidera 
,ingulis attributa obis, et clara divitibu,, minora auperibus" 
&c. Lib. I. cap. viii. 


_FITZ. If that thy va.lour stand on sympathies, 1 
There is my gage, Aumerle, in gage to thine: 
By that fair sun that shows me where thou stand'st, 
I heard thee say, and vauntingly thou spak'st it, 
That thou wert cause of noble Gloster's death. 
If thou deny'st it, twenty rimes thou liest ; 
And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart, 
Where it was forged, with my rapier's point. " 

t If that thj valour stand on sympathies,'! Here is a trans- 
lated sense much harsher than that of stars explained in the tbre- 
going note. Aumerle has challenged Bagot with some hesitation, 
as not being lais equal, and therefore one whom, according to 
the rules of chivalry, he was not obliged to fight, as a nobler 
lire was not tobe staked in a duel against a baser. Fitzwater 
then throws down his gage, a pledge of battle ; and tells him that 
if he stands upon sgmpathies, that is, upon equality of blood, 
the combat is now offered him by a man of tank not inferior to 
his own. Symloath ff is an affection incident at once to two sub- 
jects. This community of affection implies a likeness or equality 
of" nature, and thence out poet transferred the terre to equality 
of blood. JoHlSO. 
  m?¢ rapier's point.] Shakspeare deserts the manners of" 
the age in which this drama was placed, very often without ne- 
cessity or advantage. The edge of a sword had served his pur- 
pose as well as the point of a rapier, and he had then escaped 
the impropriety of giving the English nobles a weapon which was 
hot seen in England till two centuries afterwards. JoHl, rSO. 
Mr. Ritson censures this note in the following terms: " It 
would be well, however, though not quite so easy, for some 
learned critick to bringsome proofln support of this and such like 
assertions. Without which the authority of Shakspeare is at least 
equal to that of" Dr. Johnson." It is probable that Dr. Johnson 
did not see the necessity of citing any authority for a fact so well 
known, or suspect that any person would demand one. If an 
authority, lmwever, only is wanted, perhaps the following may 
be deemed sufficient to justify the Doctor's observation: "at 
that rime two oflmr Englishmen, Sir W. Stanley, and Rowland 
Yorke, got an ignominious name of" traytors. This Yorke, 
borne in London, was a man nmst negligent and lazy, but des- 
perately hardy; he was in his time nmst famous among those 
who respected fencing, having been the rst that brought into 


AUM. Thou dar'st not, coward, live to see that 
tITZ. Now, by my soul, I would it were this 
_//trM. Fitzwater, thou art damn'd fo hell for this. 
PERC: Aulnerle, thou liest; his honour is as 
In this appeal, as thou art all unjust : 
And, that thou art so, there I throw my gage, 
To prove if on thee to the extremest point 
Of lnortal breathing ; seize it, if thou dar'st. 
A trM. And if I do not, may my hands rot off, 
And never brandish more revengeful steel 
Over the glittering helmet of my foe! 
LoR». I take the earth to the like, forsworn 
Aumerle ; a 
England that wicked and pernidousfashion to fight in the field 
in duels with a rapier called a lucke onely dror the thrust: the 
Eng .lih having till. that verj lime used todçght, with backe svoords, 
slashzng and cuttng one the other, armed wzth tar«ets or buck- 
lers, with t, erg broad weapons, accou»ting it hot t be a manhj 
action to fight by thrusting and stabbing, and chiefl. I under the 
waste." "areie's Annals of Queen Elizabeth, 4to. 1623, p. 
sub anno, 1587. 
Again, in Bulleine's Dialogue between Soar»esse and Chirurgi, 
fol. 1579, p. '2.0: « There is a new kynd of instruments to let 
bloud withall, whyeh brynge the bloud-letter sometyme to the 
gallowes, beeause hee stryketh to deepe. These instruments are 
ealled the ruflïns tueke, and long deoining rai»let: weapons more 
malieious than manly." 
» I take the earth to the like, &e.] This speeeh I bave restored 
from the first edition in humble imitation of former editors, 
though, I believe, against the mind of the author. For the earth 
I suppose we should read» th.y oath. Jonsos. 
To take the earth is, at present a fox-hunter's phrase. So, in 
The Illind Beggar of Ale«andria, 1598 : 
« l'll follow him until he take the earth." 
But I know hOt how it ean be applied here. It should seem, 
however, from the following passage in Warner's Albion's Eug- 



And spur thee on with full as many lies 
As lnay be holla'd in thy treacherous ear 
17rom sun to sun :« there is my honour's pawn ; 
Engage it to the trial, if flou dar'st. 

land, 1602, B. 1II. c. xvi. that the expression is yet capable of 
another meaning : 
« Lo here my gage, (he terï"d his glove) thou know'st 
the victor's meed." 
To terre the glove was, I suppose, to dash it on the earth. 
We still say to ground a musquet, and to ground a bowl. 
Let me add, however, in support of Dr. Johnson's conjecture, 
that the word oath, in Troilus and Cressida, quarto, 1609, is 
corrupted in the saine mmmer. Instead of the « __ untraded 
oaHt,'" it gives «,  untraded eaï'th." We might read, only 
changing the place of one letter, and altering anothcr : 
I task thy heart to the li'e, 
i. e. I put thy valour to the same trial. So, in hïng Henrff IV. 
Act V. sc. ii: 
" How show'd his tas]'btg? seem'd it in contempt ?" 
The quarto, 1597, reads--task; tbe succeeding quartos, viz. 
1598, 1608, and 1615, have take. Sa'v,v, 
Task is the reading of the first and best quarto in 1597. In 
that printed in the following year the word was changed to take; 
but all the alterations made in the several editions ofour author's 
plays in quarto, after the first, appear to have been ruade either 
arbitrarily or by negligence. (I do hot mean to include copies 
containing new and additional matter.) I confess I am unable 
to explain either reading; but I adhere to the elder, as more 
likely to be the true one. 
 From sun fo sun:] i. e. as I think, from sun-rise to sun-set. 
So, in Cymbeline: 
" Ino. How many score of mlles may we well ride 
« Twixt hour and hour ? 
« Pisa. One score 'twixt sun and sun, 
« Madam, 's enough for you, and too much too." 
« Tire rime appointed for the duello (says Saviolo,) hath alwales 
bene 'lwixt the rising and the setting sun ; and whoever in that 
rime doth not prove his intent, can never after be admitted the 
combat upon that quarrel." On Honourandhonouï'able Quarrels» 
4to. 1595. This passage fully supports the emendation here 
ruade, and my interpretation of the words. The quartos read-- 
t'rom in to sin. The emendation, which in my apprehensioa 


ZIUM. Who sets me else ? by heaven, l'Il throw 
at ail : 
I have a thousand spîrits in one breast,  
To answer twenty thousand such as you. 
SUEY. My lord Fitzwater, I do remember well 
The very time Aumerle and you did talk. 
_NTZ. My lord, 'ris truc: you were in presence 
then ; 6 
And you can witness with me, this is true. 
SunEY. As false, by heaven, as heaven itself 
is truc. 
_NrTZ. Surrey, thou liest. 
SURREY. Dishonourable boy! 
That lie shall lie so heavy on my sword, 
That it shall render vengeance and revenge, 
Till thou the lie-giver, and that lie, do lie 
In earth as quiet as thy çather's scull. 
In proof whereof, there is my honour's pawn ; 
Engage t to the trial, if thou dar'st. 
FTZ. Howfondly dost thou spur a forward horse 
If I date eat, or drink, or breathe, or lire, 

requires no enforcement or support, was proposed by Mr. Stee- 
vens, who explains flmse words difi'erently. He is of opinion 
that they mean,from o,e daff to another. 1V[ALOE. 
However ingenious the conjecture of Mr. Steevens may be, I 
think the old reading the true one. From sin to sin, is from one 
denial to another ; for those denials were severally maintained to 
be lies. 
•  I bave a tlwusand spirits in one reast,] So, in King 
Ricard III: 
" A thousand hearts are great within my bosom." 
My lord, "Iis true : you vere in presence tIwn ; ] The quarto 
omit--/lq lord, and read--Tis very true, &c. The folio pre- 
¢rves both readings, and consequently overloads the mette. 

sc. z. KING RICHARD II. 125 

I dare meet Surrey in a wilderness, 7 
And spit upon him, whilst I say he lies, 
And lies, and lies : there is my bond of faith, 
To rie thee to my strong correction.- 
As I intend to thrive in this new world, s 
Aumerle is guilty of my true appeal : 
Besides, I heard the banish'd Norfolk say, 
That thou, Aumerle, didst send two of thy men 
To execute file noble duke at Calais. 
2/trM. Some honest Christian trust me with a gage, 
That Norfolk lies: here do I throw down this,  
If he may be repeal'd to try his honour. 
BOLINa. These differences shall all test under 
Till Norfolk be repeal'd : repeal'd he shall be, 
And, though mine enemy, restor'd again 
To all his land and signories ; when he's return'd, 
Against Aumerle we will enforce his trial. 
CaR. That honourable day shall ne'er be seen. 
Many a time hath banish'd Norfolk fought 
For Jesu Christ; in glorious Christian field 
Streaming the ensign of the Christian cross, 
Against black pagans, Turks, and Saraeens : 

 I date rneet Surreu in a oilderness,] I dare meet him where 
no he]p can be had by me against him. $o, in 3lacbeth: 
"  or be alive again, 
" And date me to the desert with thy sword." 
' in Hds new world,] In thls world where I have jus 
begun to be an actor. Surrey has,  few lines above, called him 
boy. Jonssoi. 
'--here do I throw down this,] Holinshed says, that on 
this occasion " he threw down a hood that he had borrowed." 
tic had belote thrown down hls own hood, when aeeused by 
Bagot. M.-o. 


And, toil'd with works of war, retir'd himself 
To Italy; and there, at Venice, gave 
His body to that pleasant country's earth, 
And his pure soul unto his captain Christ, 
Under whose colours he had tbught so long. 
BoLx:a. Why, bishop, is Norfolk dead ? 
CAR. As sure as I lire, my lord. 
BoLx.Ta. Sweet peace conduct his sweet soul fo 
the bosom 
Of good old Abraham !--Lords appellants, 
Your ditthrences shall all test under gage, 
Till we assign you to your days of triah 
Enter YonK, atteded. 
YORk: Great duke of Lancaster, I corne to thee 
Frolnplulne-pluck'd Richard; who withwillingsoul 
Adopts thee hcir, and his high scepter yields 
To the possession of thy royal hand: 
Ascend his throne, descending now ri'oto him, 
And long lire Hem'y, of that naine the fourth ! 
BoLva. In God's naine, Fil ascend the regal 
CR. Marry, God forbid ! 
Worst in this royal presence may I speak, 
Yet best beseeming nie to speak the truthJ 
Would God, that any in this noble presence 
Were enough noble to be upright judge 
Of noble Richard; then true nobless  would 
Learn him forbearance from so foul a wrong. 
 Yet best beseeming me fo sleak the trut.] It might be read 
more grammadcally: 
Yet best beseems it me to sffeak he trut. 
But I do hot think it is printed otherwise than as Shakspeare 
wrote it. JoIJlSO. 
  noblesse] i.e. nobleness ; a word nov obsolete» but 
used both by Spenser and Ben Jonson. S-vs. 

zc. t. KING RICHARD II. 127 

What subject can give sentence on his king ? 
And who sits here, that is not Richard's subject ? 
Thieves are hOt judg'd, but they are by to hear, 
Although apparent guilt be seen in them- 
And shall the figure of God's majesty, 3 
His captain, steward, deputy elect, 
Anointed, crowned, planted many years, 
Be judg'd by subject and inferior breath, 
And he himself hOt present ? O, forbid it, God, 
That, in a Christian climate, souls refin'd 
Should show so heinous, black, obscene a deed! 
I speak to subjects, and a subject speaks, 

 And shall the figure &c.-I Here is another proof that our 
author did hot learn in K. James's court his elevated notions of 
the right of kings. I know not any flatterer of the Stuarts, who 
has expressed this doctrine in much stronger terres. It must be 
observed that the poet intends, from the beginning to the end, to 
exhibit this bishop as brave, pious, and venerable. Jorz,sol. 
Shakspeare h represented the character of the bishop as he 
round it in Holinshed, where this famous speech, (which contains, 
in the most express terres, the doctrine of passive obedlence,) is 
preserved. The politicks of the historian were the politicks of 
the poet. Sa:msvls. 
The chiefargument urged by the bishop in Holinshed, is, tht 
it was unjust to proceed against the king " without calling him 
openly to his aunswer and defence. » He says, that " none of 
them were worthie or meete to give judgement to so noble a 
prince;" but does not expressly assert that he could not be law- 
fully deposed. Our author, however, undoubtedly had Holin- 
hed before him. 3IALol. 
It does hOt appear from any better authority than Holinshed 
that Bishop Merkes ruade this famous speech, or any speech at 
all upon this occasion, or even that he vas present at the rime. 
His sentiments, however, whether right or wrong, would bave 
been regarded neither as novel nor unconstitutional. And ft f, 
observable that usurpers are as ready to avail themselves oi  the 
doctrine of divine right, as lawful sovereigns ; to dwell upon the 
sacredness of their 19ersons and the sanctit of their character. 
Even that " cutpurse of the empire," Claudius, in Hamlet, 
affect$ to believe that 
"  uch divinity doth hedge a king," &c. Rzo.. 

128 KING RICHARD II. eT irr. 

Stirr'd up by heaven thus boldly for his king. 
My lord of Hereford here, whom you call king, 
Is a bul traitor to proud Hereford's king: 
And if you crown him, let me prophecy,-- 
The blood of English shall manure the ground, 
And future ages groan for this foul act; 
Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels, 
And, in this seat of peace, tumultuous wars 
Shall kin with kin, and kind with kind confound; 
D:.sorder, horror, fear, and nmtiny, 
Shall here inhabit, and this land be call'd 
The field of Golgotha, and dead men's sculls. 
O, if you rcar this house against this house, 
It will the woefidlest division prove, 
That ever fell upon tlis cursed earth : 
Prevent, resist if, let it hot be so, 
Lest child, child's children,  cry against youwoe[ 
_Nop, TIZ. Well have you argu'd, sir; and, 
your pains, 
Of capitgl treason we arrest ),ou here : 
My lord bF Westminster, be it your charge 
To keep him safely till his day of trial? 
May't please you, lords, to grantthe commons' suit. 

" Lest child, child's childre,] Thus the old copy. Some of 
our modern editors readchildrens" children. S:vss. 
» his daq of trial.] After this line, whatever follows, 
almost to the end of the Act, containing the whole process ofde- 
throning and debasing King Richard, was added after the first 
edltion, of 1598, and before the second of 1615. Part of the 
addition is proper, and part might have been forborn without 
much loss. The author, I suppose, intended to'make a very 
moving scene. Jonsor. 
The addition was first ruade in the qtarto, 1608. 
The first edition was in 1597, hot in 1598. When it is said 
that this scene was added, the reader must understand that it was 
added by the lrinter, or that a more perfect copy fell into the 
hands of the later editor than was published by a tbrmer. There 

a. z. KING RICHARD II. 129 

Bor, zTa. Fetch hither Richard, that in common 
He may surrender; so we shall proceed 
Without suspicion. 
YORK. I will be his conduct. 6 lE, rit. 
tOLING. Lords,youthat are here underourarrest, 
Procure your suretiesfor your days of answer :-- 
Little are we beholden to your love, [-To CAICS.E. 
And little look'd for at your helping hands. 

12e-enter YORK, rx, ith King" RICHARD, and Od?îcers 
bearing lhe Crown, 'c. 

K. Rwtz. Alack, why am I sent for to a king, 
Belote I have shook off the regal thoughts 
Wherewith I reign'd ? I hardly yet have learn'd 
To insinuate, flatter, bow, and bend my knee :-- 
Give sorrow leave a vhile to tutor me 
To this submission. Yet I well remember 
The favours of these men :7 Were theynot mine 
Did they hot sometime cry, all hail! to me ? 
So Judas did to Christ: but he, in twelve, 

is no proof that the whole scene was hot written by Shakspeare 
at the same rime with the rest of the play, though for political 
reasons it might not bave been exhibited or printed during the 
lire of Queen Elizabeth. See An Attem1t to ascertain the Order 
of his Pla.ys, Vol. II. 
« -----his conduct.] i.ë. conductor. So, in/Gng Henrj VI. 
P. II: 
" Although thou hast been conduct of my shame." 
» Thefavours &c.'] The countenances, thefeatures. 
$% in Othello : 
"  nor should I know hlm, 
" Were he in favour as in humour alter'd." 


:Found truth in all, but one ; I, in twelve thou- 
sand, llOIle. 
God save the king !--Will no man say, amen . 
Ara I both priest and clerk ? well then, amen. 
God save the king! although I be hOt he ; 
And yet, amen, if heaven do think him me.-- 
To do what service ara I sent for hither . 
YORK. To do that office, of thine own good will, 
Which tircd majesty did make thee offer,---- 
The resignation of thy state and crown 
To Henry Bolîngbroke. 
K. Rxcr. Give 1ne the crown :Here, cousin, 
seize the crown ; 
Here, on this side, s my hand ; on that side, thine. 
Now is this golden crown like a deep well, 
That owes two buckets filling one another ; 
The emptîer ever dancing ' in the air, 
The other down, unseen, and full of water : 
That bucket down, and full of tears, am I, 
Drinking my griefs, whilst you mount up on high. 
BoLLv. Ithought you had been willingto resign. 
/\ ZCH. My crown, I ara ; but stîll my griefs 
are mine : 
You may my glories and my state depose, 
But not my griefs; still ara I king of those. 
BOLL¥. Part of your cares you give me with 
your crowll. 
K. ]ICH. Your cares set up, do hOt pluck my 
cares down. 

 Here, on this side,] The o|d copy redundantly hasHere, 
cousin, on this side,. Sa'EEvs. 
 Tl, e emptier ever dancing] This is a comparison hot 
easily accommodated to the subiect , nor very naturally intro- 
duced. The best part is this ]ine, in which he makes the 
usurper the 


My care is--loss of care, by old care done; 1 
Your care is--gain of care, by new care won: 
The cares I give, I bave, though given away ; 
They tend the crown, yet still with me thcy stay. 
.BOLI5rG. Are you contented to resign the crown 
K. RZCH. Ay, no i--no, ay;--for I must nothing 
be ; 
Therefore no no, for I resign to thee. 
Now mark me how I will u.ndo myself':-- 
I give this heavy weight fi'on off my head, 
And this unwieldy scepter from my hand, 
The pride of kingly sway ri'oto out my heart ; 
With nine own tears I wash away lny balm,  
With lnine own hands I give away ny crown, 
With mine own tongue deny my sacred state, 
With mine own breath release all duteous oaths : 
All pomp and majesty I do forswear ; 
My manors, rents, revenues, I forego ; 
My acts, decrees, and statutes, I deny: 
God pardon all oaths, that are broke to me ! 
God keep ail vows unbroke, are ruade to thee! 
Make me, that nothing have, with nothing griev'd 
And thou with all pleas'd, that hast all achiev'd! 
Long may'st thou lire in Richard's seat to sit, 
And soon lie Richard in an earthy pit! 
God save king Henry, unking'd Richard says, 
And send him many years of sunshine days !-- 
What more remains ? 

' Iïj care is--loss ofcare, by o[d care done;] Shakspeare 
often obscures lais meaning by playing with sounds. Richard 
seems to say here, that his cares are hot ruade less @ the increase 
o.f Bolingbroke's cares ; for this reason, that his care is the loss of 
care,--his grief is, that his regal cares are at an end, bq the cessa- 
tion of the care to hich he had been accustomed. Jorso. 
  m balm,] The oil of' consecration. He has menfioned 
it before. Jonsorr. 


.-ORTH. No more, but that you read 
[Offering a Pal)er. 
These accusations, and these grievous crimes, 
Committed by your person, and your fbllowers, 
Against the state and profit of this land ; 
That, by eonfessing them, the souls of men 
May deem that you are worthily depos'd. 
I£. RWH. Must I do so ? and must I ravel out. 
My weav'd-up follies ? Gentle Northumberland, 
If thy offences were upon record, 
Would it not shame thee in so fair a troop, 
To read a lecture of them ? If thou would'st, s 
There should'st thou find one heinous artiele, 
Containing the deposing of a king, 
And eraeking the strong warrant of an oath, 
Mark'dwith a blot, damn'd in thebook ofheaven : 
Nay, all of you, that st,'md and look upon me, 
Whilst that my wretchedness doth bait myself, 
Though some ofyou, with Pilate, wash your hands, 
Showing an outward pity; yet you Pilates 
Have here deIiver'd me to my sour cross, 
And water eannot wash away your sin. 
NOTH. My lord, despatch ; read o'er these ar- 
K. _RICH. Mine eyes are full of tears, I cannot 
sec : 
And yet salt watcr b]inds them not so nmch, 
But they can sec a sort « of traitors hcre. 
Nay, if I turn mine eyes upon myself, 

• " --I_fthou would'st,] That is, if thou wouldst read over 
a list of thy own deeds. Jonsso. 
« a sort] ATack , a company. WAvrta-o. 
So, in tGng Richard III: 
" A sort of vagabonds, rascal», and runaways." 

sc. i. KING RICHARD II. 133 

I find myself a traitor with the test : 
For I have given here lny soul's consent, 
To undeck the pompons body of a king; 
Make glory base ; and sovereignty, a slave ; 
Proud majesty, a subject ; state, a peasant. 
-IORTH. My lord,-- 
1£. Ricin. No lord of thine, thou haught,  insult- 
ing man, 
Nor no man's lord ; I have no naine, no tifle,-- 
No, hOt that name was given lne at the font,6A 
But 'ris usurp'd :-Alack the hea T day, 
Tbat I bave worn so lnany winters out, 
And know not now what naine to ca]l mysêlf! 
O, that I were a mockery king of SHOW, 
Standing befbre the sun of Bolingbroke, 
To lnelt myself away in water-drops ! 
Good king,great king,(and yet hOt greatly 
An if my word be sterling yet in England, 
Let it command a mirror hither straight ; 
That it may show me what a face I bave, 
Since it is bankrupt of his majesty. 
BOLIVa. Go some of you, and fetch a looking- 
g]ass. [Exit an Attendant. 
NORTI. Read o'er this paper, while the glass 
doth corne. 

 haught,] i. e. haught. So, in/ïng Richard III: 
" And he queen's sons and brothers» haught and proud." 
 No, hot that naine was given me at thefont,] How that 
naine which was given him at the font could be usurped, I do 
hot understand. Perhaps Shakspeare meant to shew that imagi- 
nation, dwelling long on its own misfortunes, represents them as 
greater than they really are. 


K. IOcz¢. Fiend ! thou torment'st me ere I corne 
to hell. 
BoLza. Urge it no more, my lord Northumber- 
NORTH. The commons will hot then be satisfied. 
K. RwH. Theyshall be satisfied: l'l] read enough, 
When I do see the very book indeed 
Where ail my sins are writ, lE and that's--myself. 

Re-enter Attendant, u'ith a Glass. 

Give me that glass, and therein will I read.-- 
No deeper wrinkles yet . Hath sorrow struck 
So lnany blows upon this face ot" lnine, 
And ruade no deeper wounds ?--0, flattering glass, 
Like to my ibllowers in prosperity, 
Thou dost beguile me ! Was this face the face, 
That every day under his household roof 
Did keep ten thousand lrien. s Was this the face, 
That, like the sun, did make beholders wink . 
Was this the face, that fac'd so many follies, 
And was at last outfhc'd by Bolingbroke ? 
A brittle glory shineth in this face: 
As brittle as the glory is the face ; 
[Dasles the Glass ag'ainst the ground. 
For there it is, crack'd in a hundred shivers.-- 
Mark, silent king, the moral of this sport,-- 
How soon my sorrow hath destroy'd my face. 

  the verj book indeed 
Where ail my sins are writ,] This phrase is from the 1S9th 
Psalm, v. 15: "--and in thy book were all rny membera 
written." SEEVES. 
* DM keep ten îlousand nen ?] Shakspeare is here hot quite 
accurate. Out old chronicles only say " that to his household 
came every day, to meate ten thousand men. 


BOLING. The shadow of your sorrow hath dc- 
The shadow of your face. 
K. tICtt. Say that again. 
The shadow of my sorrow ? Ha ! let's sec :-- 
'Tis very truc, my grief lies all within ; 
And these external manners of lament 9 
Are merely shadows to the unseen grief, 
That swells with silence in the tortur'd soul; 
There lies the substance: and I thank thee, king, 
For thy great bounty, that not only giv'st 
Me cause to wail, but teaehest me the way 
How to lainent the cause, l'll beg one boon, 
And then be gone, and trouble you no more. 
Shall I obtain it ? 
BOLINa. Naine it, fair cousin. 
K. RSCH. Fair cousin ? Why, I am greater than 
a king : 
For, when I was a king, my flatterers 
Were then but subjects ; being now a subject, 
I have a king here to my flatterer. 
Being so great, I have no need to beg. 
BOLING. Yet ask. 
K. RscH. And shall I bave ? 
BOLZ.,va. You shall. 
K. RlcH. Then give me leave to go. 
BOLING. Whither ? 
K./zc. Whither you will, so I were ri'oto your 

-- mg grief lies all within ; . 
4nd these external manners of lainent &c.] So, in Hamlet : 
" But I bave that within whieh passeth show ; 
" These but the trappings and the suits of woe." 


BOLI.VG. Go, some of you, convey hitn to the 
K. RxcH. O, good ! Convey ?--Conveyers are 
you all,  
That rise thus nimbly by a true king's fall.  
[E,veut K. RICHARD, sonate Lords, ad a Guard. 
BOLXa. On Wednesday next, we solemnly set 
Our eoronation : lords, prepare yourselves? 
[Exeunt all but the Abbot, Bishop OECarlisle, 
and AU»IEItLE. 
AOT. A woeful pageant have we herc bcheld. 
CR. The woe's to corne; the children yet unborn 
Shall feel this day as sharp to them as thorn. « 
AVM. You holy c]crgymen, is therc no plot 
To rid the reahn of this pernicious blot ? 
AOT. Belote I freely speak my mind herein, 
You sha!l not on]y take the sacrament 

1 Conveyers are you all,] To convey is a term often used 
in an ill sense and so Richard understands it here. Pistol says 
of stealing convey the wise it call; and to convey is the word 
for sleight of hand, which seems to be alluded to here. Ye are 
all» says the deposed prince, jugglers, who rise with this nimble 
dexterity by the fall of a good king. JOnNSON. 
 a true king'sfalL] This is the last of the additional 
lines which were first printed in the quarto 1608. 
 On Wednesdaff next, we solemnbj set dooen 
Our coronation 
: lords, prepare ourselves.] The two first 
quartos, read : 
Let it be so : and loe on lVednesdaff next 
We solemnly proclaim out coronation : 
Lords, be readl] ail. STVS. 
 --as sha T to them as thorn.] This pathetic denunciation 
shows that Shakspeare intended to impress his auditors with a 
dislike of the deposal of Richard. Jonso. 


To bury 5 mine intents, but to effect 6 
Whatever I shall happen to devise :-- 
see your brows are full of discontent, 
Your hearts of sorrow, and your eyes of tears ; 
Corne home with me to supper ; I will lay 
plot, shall show us alla merry day. 7 [Exeunt. 


London. A Street leading to the Tower. 

Enter Queen, and Ladies. 

QUEEN. This way the king will corne; this is 
the way 
To Julius Coesar's ill-erected tower, s 
To whose flint bosom my condemned lord 
Is doom'd a prisoner by proud Bolingbroke : 

s To bury] To conceal, to keep secret. Jottlsol. 
So, in Every lIan in his Humour, by Bon .Ionson : 
" Lock'd up in silence, midnight, buried here." 
  ut to ect--] The old copies redundantly read--Sut 
also fo ct. SrEvEs. 
7 In the first edition there is no personal appearance oç King 
Richard, so that ail to the line at which he leaves the stage was 
inserted afterwar. Joso. 
s To Julius Coesar's ill-erected tower,] The Tower of London 
is traditionally said to have been e work of Julius Cœesar. 
By--ill-erected, I suppose, is meant--erected for bad pur- 
poses. STvEs. 

Here let us test, if thîs rebellious earth 
Have any resting for her true king's queen2 

Enter Ki'»g RICH_alD, and Guards. 

But sort, but see, or rather do hot see, 
My fair rose wither:  Yet look up ; behold; 
That you in pity may dissolve to dew, 
And wash him fi'esh again with true-love tears.-- 
Ah, thou, the model where old Troy did stand 
Thou map of honour; thou king Richard's tomb, 

 Here let us test, .tf&c.] So, Milton : 
« Here rest, if any rest can harbour here. » 
And Browne, in his Britannia's Pastorals, B. II. Song iii. 
« __ Night and day upon the hard'ned stones 
" Rests, if a test can be--," &c. HOLr Wrr. 
llq fait rose wither:] Even the Cron/il of A. of Wyn- 
town, on this occasion, is not unpoetical : 
" The king Richard of Yngland 
" Wes in his flowris than regnand :-- 
" Bot his flowis eftyr sone 
« Fadyt, andware ail undone." B. IX. ch. xviii.v. 61, &c. 
 .h, thou, the model ïvhere old Troff did stand;] The Queen 
uses comparative terres absolutely. Instead of saying, Thou 
vho appearest as the ground on which the magnificence of Troy 
was once erected, she says: 
.h, thou the model &c. 
Thou map of honour ; 
Thou picture of gTeatness. Jorrsor. 
Model, it bas already been observed, is used by out author, 
for a thing made after a pattern. He is, I believe, singular in 
this use of the word. Thou ruined majesty, says the Queen, 
that resemblest the desolated waste where Troy once stood. So, 
" Who was the model of thy father's lire." 
In out author's Rape of Lucrece, zleep is called « the map of 
death. » 


And not king Richard; thou most beauteous inn, s 
Why should hard-favour'd grief be lodg'd in thee, 
When triumph is become an alehouse guest ? 
1£. RICH. Join hot with grief, « fair woman, do 
hOt SO 
To make my end too sudden : learn, good soul, 
To think out former state a happy dream ; 
From which awak'd, the truth of what we are 
Shows us but this: I ara sworn brother, sweet, 
To grim necessity;  and he and I.. 
Will keep a league till death. Hie thee to France, 
And cloister thee in sonne religious house : 
Our holy lives must win a new wofld's crown, 
Which our profane honrs here have stricken down. 

  beauteous inn,] /nn does not here signify a housq of 
publick entertainment ; but a dignified habitation. 
So, in an ancient satirical Song, quoted by the Rev. T. Warton, 
in his Hist. of English Poetry, Vol. I. 45 : 
s' Syre Simonde de MountfotoE bath suore bi ys chyn, 
« Hevede he nou here the erle of Wat3m , 
« Shuld he never more corne to is n." 
Lord Howard's magnificent seat in Essex is still called Audley- 
Inn. Srvrs. 
I cannot agree wlth Steevens. rnn means a house of enter- 
tainment, and is opposed to alehouse in the following line. 
M. MAsol. 
 doin hot vith grief,] Do hOt thou unite with grief against 
me; do hOt, by thy additional sorrows, enable grief to strike me 
down at once. My own part of sorrow I can bear, but thy 
affliction will immediately destroy me. JoHso. 
s -----I ara sworn brother, 
To grim necessity,] I bave reconciled myself to necessity, I 
am in a state of amity with the constraint which I have sustain- 
ed. JorIso. 
The expression--seorn brother, alludes to the 35"atres jurati, 
who, in the ages of adventure, bound themselves by mutual 
oaths, to share fortunes together. See blr. Whalley's note on 
King Henr.y V. Act II. sc. i. 

1.4o KING RICHARD II. .«, : 

QuEE_ . What, is my Richard both in shape and 
Transform'd, and weakened ? Hath Bolingbroke 
Depos'd thine intellect? bath he been in thy heart? 
The lion, dying, thrusteth forth his paw, 
And wounds the earth, if nothing else, with rage 
To be o'erpower'd ; and wilt thou, pupil-like, 
Take thy correction mildly ? kiss the rod; 
And fawn on rage with base humility, 
Which art a lion, and a king of beasts ? 
K. BWH. A king ofbeasts, indeed ; if aught but 
I had been still a happy king of men. 6 
Good sometime queen, prepare thee hence for 
France : 
Think, I ara dead ; and that even here thou tak'st, 
As ri'oto my death-bed, my last living leave. 
In winter's tedious nights, sit by the tire 
With good old folks ; and let them tell thee tales 
Of woeful ages, long ago betid: 
And, ere thou bid good night, to quit their grief,  
Tell thou the lamentable fall of me, s 
And send the hearers weeping to their beds. 

«--king ofmen.] 'Tis marvellous, tiret Mr. Upton did not 
quote this passage as an evidence of our author's learning, and 
observe, that a more faithful translation of Homer's 
could hOt bave been ruade. 
  fo ¢uit feir grief,] To retaliate their mournful stories. 
« Tell $hou te lamentable fall ofme,] Thus the folio. So, in 
King Henr. FIII: 
" And when you would say something that is sad, 
" Speak how I fell." 
The reading, however, of the first quarto, 1597» is also much 
in out author's manner: 
Tell fhou the lamentable tale of me. MALo. 

sc. i. KING RICHARD II. 14,1 

For why, 9 the senseless brands vill sympathize 
The heavy accent of thy moving tongue, 
And, in compassion, weep the tire out: 
And some will mourn in ashes, some coal-black, 
For the deposing of a rightfifl king. 

nte" NORTHU2VIBERLAND, att«nded. 
NORTI¢. My lord, the mind of Bolingbroke is 
chan d ; 
You must to Pomfi'et, not unto the Tower.-- 
And, madam, there is order ta'en for you ; 
With all swifi s])eed you must away to France. 
K. RICH. Northmnberland, thou ladder where- 
The mounting Bolingbroke ascends my throne,-- 
The time shall hot be many hours of age 
More than it is, ere foul sin, gathering head, 
Shall break into corruption : thou shalt think, 
Though he divide the reahn, and give thee hall, 
It is too little, helping him to ail; 
And he shall think,' that thou, which know'st 
the way 
To plant unrightfifl kings, wilt know again, 
Being ne'er so little urg'd, another way 
To pluck him headlong om the usurped throne. 
The love of wicked fi'iends converts to fear; 
That fear, to hate; and hate turns one, or both, 
  For oehy,] The poct should bave ended this speech wlth 
the foregoing line, and have spared his childish prattle about the 
tire. JOHNSON. 
This is certainly childish prattle, as Johnson calls it ; but it is 
of the saine stamp with the other speeches of Richard, after fle 
landing of Bolingbroke, which are a strange medley ofsense and 
puerility. M. Msom 
' And fie shall thin},] The conjunction--And, without whleh 
the mette is defieient, was upplied by Mr. Rowe. STvs. 


To worthy danger, and deserved death. 
.?ORTH. My guilt be on my head, and there an 
Take leave, and part ; for you must part forthwith. 
_K. Rw. Doub]ydivorc'd ?--Bad men, ye violate 
A twofold marriage ; 'twixt my crown and me 
And then, betwixt me and my married 
Let me unkiss the oath 'twixt thee and me ; 
And yet hot so, for with a kiss 'twas ruade. - 
Part us, Northumberland; I towards the north, 
Where shivering cold and sickness pines the clime 
My wife to France; ri'oto whence, set forth in pomp, 
She came adorned hither like sweet May, 
Sent back like Hallowmas,  or short'st of day. 
QffEE. And must we be divided? must we part 
K. RICH. Ay, hand fi'om hand, my love, and 
heart ri'oto heart. 
Qff Banish us both, and send the king with 
Nonn. That were some love, but little policy. 
QWEEç Thenwhither hegoes, thither let me go2 
ç Rzcn. So two, together weeping, make onewoe. 

 Let me unkiss the oath 'twixt thee and me; 
And #t hot so, for with a kiss 'twas made.] A kiss appears 
to bave been an established circumstance in our ancient nuptial 
ceremony. So, in Marston's Insatiate Countess, 1618, the Duke, 
on parting with his wife, says to ber: 
" The kiss thou gav'st me in the church, here take." 
"--Hallowmas,] All-hallows, or all-hallowtide; the first 
of November. 
* That were corne love, &e.] The quartos give this speeeh to 
the King. Sa'vs. 
 Then whither he goes, thither let me go.] So, in the Book 
of Rutk, i. 16 :" for whither thou goest, I will go." 

sc. . KING RICHARD II. 143 

Weep thou for me in France, I for thee here ; 
Better far ofl thanmnear, be ne'er the near'2 
Go, count thy way with sighs; I, mine with groans. 
Quzz. So longest way shall have the longest 
m oan s. 
K..RlCH. Twice for one step l'll groan, the way 
being short, 
And piece the way out with a heavy heart. 
Corne, corne, in wooing sorrow let's be brief, 
Since, wedding ît, there is such length in grief, 
One kiss shall stop our mouths, and dumbly part ; 
Thus give I mine, and thus I take thy heart. 
[ The d Mss. 
Quzzr. Give me mine own again ; 'twere no 
good part, 
To take on me to keep, and kill thy heart. 7 
[Kiss again. 

 Betterfar off,. thannear, e ne'er the near'.'] To be never 
the nigher, or, as t is commonly spoken in the midland counties, 
ne'er the ne'er, is, to make no advance towards the good 
deired. Joxaso. 
So, in The Legend of Shore's lVife, by Thomas Churchyard, 
lYIirrour for Magistrates, 1578 : 
" Compel the hauke to sit, that is unmann'd, 
« Or make the hound untaught to draw the deere» 
" Or bring the free against his will in band, 
,« Or move the sad a pleasant tale to hear, 
" Your time is lost, and you are never the near. » 
The meaning is, it is better tobe at a great distance, than 
being near each other, to find that we yet are hOt likely tobe 
peaceably and happily united. MAtrOnE. 
 and kill thd/ heart.] So, in out author's Venus and 
Adonis : 
"  they have murder'd this poor heart of mine." 
Again, in King Henry V. Act II. sc. i: « --he'll yield the 
crow a pudding one of thele dayi: the king bath kill'd his 
heart. '» 

144 KING RICHARD IL ,tc" r. 

So, now I have mine own again, begone, 
That I may strive to kill it with a groan. 
K. ReH. We make woe wanton with this fond 
delay : 
Once more, adieu ; the test let sorrow say. 


The saine. A Room h the Duke ofYork's Palace. 

Enter YORK, and his Duchess. 

DUCH. ][y lord, you told me, you would tell the 
When weeping ruade vou break the story off 
Of our two cousins c(;ining into London. 
Yo-. Where did I leave ? 
DUCH. At that sad stop, my lord, 
Whererude misgovern'dhauds, fi'omwindows' tops 
Threw dust and rubbish on king Richard's head. 
YORh'. Thên, as I said, the duke, great Boling- 
Mounted upon a hot and fiery steed, 
Which his aspiring rider seem'd to know, 
With slow, but stately pace, kept on his course, 
While all tongues criedGod save thee, Boling- 
broke ! 
You would have thought the very windows spake, 
So many greedy looks of young and old 
Through casements darted their desiring eyes 
Upon his visage; and that all the walls, 
With painted imae'rv had said at once,  

 With painted imag'ry, had said af once,] Out author proba- 
bly was thinking of the painted clothes that were hung in the 

sc. ,z. KING RICHARD II. 1,r5 

Jesu preserve thee! welcome, Bolingbroke ! 
Whilst he, fl'Oll] one side to the other turning, 
Bare-headed, lower than his proud steed's neck, 
Bespake them thus,--I thank you, countrymen : 
And thus still doing, thus he pass'd along. 
Dvc2t. Alas, poor Richard ! whcre rides he the 
while ? 
YORç. As in a theatre, ' the eyes of men, 
After a well-grac'd actor leaves the stage, 
Are idly bent I on him that enters next, 
Thinking his prattle tobe tedious : 
Even so, or with much more contempt, men's eyes 
Did scowl on Richard; no man cried, God save 
him ; 
No joyfid tongue gave him his welcome holne : 
But dust was thrown upon his sacred head; 
Which with such gentle sorrow he shook off,-- 
His face still combating with tears and smiles, 
The badges of his grief and patience; -- 

streets, in the pageants that were exhibited in his own time ; in 
which the figures sometimes had labels issuing from their mouths, 
containing sentences of gratulation. IALONE. 
 As in a theatre, &c.-I " The painting of flfis description 
(says Dryden, in his Preface to Troilus and Cressida,) is so 
lively, and the words so moving, that I have scarce read any 
thing comparable to it, in any other language." STEVIS. 
 Are îdlg 3ent] That is, carelessl turned, thrown with- 
out attention. This the poet learned by his attendance and 
practice on the stage. JoHSOl. 
 His face still combating with tears and smiles, 
The adges of his grief and patience,] There is, I believe, 
no image, which out poet more delighted in than this. So, in a 
former scene of this play: 
« As a long-parted mother with her child, 
" Plays fondly with her tears, and smiles in meeting." 
Again, in King Lear : 
VOL. XI. I, 


That had not God, for some strong purpose, steel'd 
The hearts ofmen, they must peribrce have melted, 
And barbarism itself have pitied him. 
But heaven hath a hand in these events ; 
To whose high will we bound our calm contents. 
To Bolingbroke are we sworn subjects now, 
Whose state and honour I for aye allow. 


.DvcH. Itere cornes my son AumeHe. 
YORk-. Aumerle that was ; 
But that is lost, for being Richard's fi'iend, 
And, madam, you nmst call him Rutland now: 

« Patience and sorrow strove 
" Who should express her goodliest : 
" her smiles and tears 
" Were like a better May." 
Again, in Cymdine: 
" nobly he yokes 
" A smiling with a sigh.'" 
Again, in Macbeth : 
" My plenteous joys, 
" Wanton in fullness, seek to bide themselves 
" In drops of sorrow." 
Again, in Coriolanus: 
" Where senators shall mingle tears with smiles.'" 
Again,,iî The Tempest : 
I ara a fool 
" To weep at what I ara glad of." 
So, also, Drayton, in his Mortimeriados, 4to. 1596: 
" With thy sweete kisses so them both beguile, 
« Untill they srnilizg weep, and weeping srnile." 
  Aumerle that was;] The Dukes of" Aumerle, Surrey, 
and Exeter, were, by an act of Henry's first parliament, de- 
prived of their dukedoms, but were allowed to retain their ead- 
dores of Rutland, Kent, and Huntingdon. 11olinshed, p. 51, 


I am in parliament pledge for his truth, 
And lasting fealty to the new-made king. 
DucH. Welcome, lny son- Who are the violets 
That strew the green lap of the new-corne spring ?a 
A rM. Madam, I klmw hot, nor I greatly care not: 
God knows, I had as lief be none, as one. 
YORK. Well, bear you well  in this new spring 
of tilne, 
Lest you be cropp'd beforc you corne to prime. 
What news from Oxford  hold those justs and tri- 
umphs ?6 
AffM. For aught I know, my lord, they do. 
l'OR: You will be there, I know. 
Z/rM. If God prevent it hot ; I purpose so. 
YORk: What seal is that, that hangs without thy 
bosom ? 
Yea, look'st thou pale ? let me see the writing, s 

" That strew the green lap of the new-corne spring ?] So, in 
5Iilton's Son" on 'Iau 3Iornin« • 
--who from her green lap throws 
« The yellow cowslip, and the pale primrose." 
» -- bear qou well--] That is, conduct yourself with pru- 
dence. JOrNSON. 
 justs and triumphs ?] Triumphs are Shows, such as 
13/Iasks, Revels, &c. 
So, iî, The Third Part of ttïng Henryl'I. Act V. sc. vil: 
And now what rests, but that we spend the rime 
« With stately triumphs, mirthful comick shows, 
" Such as befit the pleasures of the court ." Srv.vv«s. 
 lVhat seal is that, that hangs without thu bosom ] The 
seals of deeds were formerlyïmpressed on slips or labels ofparch- 
ment appendant to them. 
 Yea, look'st thou pale ? let me see the wrRing.] Such harsh 
and defeetive lines as this, are probably eorrupt, and might be 

]48 KING RICHARD II. .er r: 

Arrêt. My lord, 'tis nothing. 
YoRzç. No matter then who sees it" 
I will be satisfied, let me see the writing. 
At:M. I do beseech your grace to pardon me ; 
Itis a marrer of small consequence, 
Which for solne reasons I would hot bave seen. 
YORA'. Which,for some reasons, sir, I mean to see. 
I fear, I fear,------ 
DrcH. What should you fear ? 
'Tis nothing but some bond that he is enter'd into 
For gay apparel, 'gainst the triumph day. 
YoRIc. Bound to himself? what doth he with a 
That he is bound to ? Wife, thou art a fool.-- 
Boy, let me see the writing. 
_4«¢z,t. I do beseech you, pardon me ; I may not 
show it. 
Yona: I will be satisfied ; let me see it, I say. 
[Snatches it, and reads. 
Treason ! foui treason !villain ! traitor [ slave ! 
Dt:cH. What is the lnatter, my lord ? 
Yoa/c. Ho [ who is within there ? [Enter a Ser- 
vant.] Saddle my horse. 
God for his merey [ what treaehery is here ! 
D trcn. Why, what is it, my lord ? 
Yona'. Give me my boots, I say ; saddle my 
horse : 
Now by mine honour, by my lire, my troth, 
I will appeaeh the villain. [Exit Servant. 

eaiily supplied, but that it would be dangerous to let conjecture 
loose on such slight occasions. JoHl, ISOS. 
Perhaps Shakspeare wrote--Bog let me see the writing. 
York mes these words a llttle lower. 

88. II. 


) UCH. 

A u3i. 
Than my poor lire must answer. 
D uci. 

What's t/le lnatter ? 
Peace, foolish wolnan. 
I will not peace :--What is the marrer, 
SOll ? 
Good lnother, be content ; it is no more 

Thy lire answer ! 

Re-enter Servant, with Boots. 

"ORKo Bring me my boots, I will unto the king. 
DucI-z. Strike hiln, Aumerle.--Poor boy, thou 
art amaz'd : s__ 
Hence, villain ; never more tome in my sight.-- 
[ To the Servant. 
YoRk-. Give me my boots, I say. 
DvcI-z. Why, York, what wilt flmu do ? 
Wilt thou not hide the trespass of thine own ? 
Have we more sons ? or are we like to have ? 
Is not my teeming date drunk up with rime ? 
And wilt thou pluck nly fair son ri'oin mine age, 
And rob llle of a happy nother's name ? 
Is he not like thee ? is he not thine own ? 
YonK. Thou fond mad woman, 
Wilt thou conceal this dark conspiracy ? 
A dozen of theln here have fa'en the sacrament, 
And interchangeably set down their hands, 
To Mil the king at Oxford. 

 amaz'd:] i.e. perplexed, confounded. So, in The 
Merrff lVives of IVindsor: « That cannot choose but amaze 
him. If he be not amazed, he Mil be mocked ; if he be amazcd, 
he will every way be mocked." Sx.V.lS. 

15o KING RICHARD II. c, v. 

Drrcg. He shall be none; 
We'll keep him here: Then what is that to him ? 
YORK. Away, 
Fond woman ! werc he twenty times my son, 
I would appeach him. 
Dvc. Hadst thou groan'd for him, 
As I have done, thoud'st be more pitiful. 
But now I know thy mind ; thou dost suspect, 
That I have been disloyal to thy bed, 
And that he is a bastard, not thy son : 
Sweet York, sweet husband, be hot of that mind : 
He is as like thce as a man may be, 
Not like to me, or any of my kin, 
And yet I love him. 
Yo: Make way, unruly woman. 
DcH. After, Aumcrlc; monnt thee upon his 
horsc ; 
Spur, post ; and get belote him o the king, 
And beg thy pardon erc ho do accuse thee. 
l'll hot be long behind ; though I be old, 
I doubt not but to ride as fast as York: 
And nevcr will I fise up ri'oto the ground, 
Till Bolingbroke havc pardon'd thee : Away ; 
Begone. [Exeunt. 



Windsor. A Room in the Castle. 

Ezter BOLINGBROKE aS ï;ff; PERCY, and other 

BOLtNa. Can no man tel! of my unthrifty son ? 
'Tis full three months, since I did sec him last :- 
If any plague haug over us, 'ris he. 
I would to God, my lords, he lnight be round : 
Inquire at London, 'mongst the taverns there,' 
For there, they say, he daily doth fi'equent, 
With unrestrained loose companions ; 
Even such, they say, as stand in narrow lanes, 
And beat our watch, and rob our passengers ; . 
While he,  young, wanton, and ettminate boy, 
Takes on the point of honour, to support 
So dissolute a erew. 
PRe: M): lord, some two days since I saw the 
prince ; 
And told him of these triumphs held at Oxford. 
BOLIVa. And what said the gallant ? 

 Inquire af London, &c.] This is a very proper introduction 
to the future character of Henry the Fifth, to his debaucheries 
in his youth, and his greatness in his manhood. JoHso. 
Shakspeare seldom attended to chronology. The prince was 
at this rime but twelve years old, for he was born in 1588, and 
the conspiracy on which the present scene is formed, was dis- 
covered in the beginning of the year 1400.He scarcely fre- 
quented taverns or stews at so early an age. 
 While he,] Ail the old copies readWhich he. 
The correction was ruade by Mr. Pope. 


/ERC: His answer was,--he would unto the 
stews ; 
And fi'om the common'st creature pluck a glove, 3 
And wear if as a favour ; and with that 
He would unhorse the lustiest challenger. 
BOLIa. As dissolute, as desperate: yet, through 
I sec some sparkles of a better hope, « 
Which eldcr days may happily bring forth. 
But who cornes here ? 

EnlCI" AUMERLE, hastil. 

AvM. Whcre is the king ? 
BOLING. What means 
Our cousin, that he stares and looks so wildly ? 
/u«. God save your grace. I do beseech your 
To have some conference with your grace alone. 
BOLtVa. Withdraw yourselves, and leave us here 
alone.-- [Exeunt PERC¥ and Lords. 
What is the matter with out cousin now . 

 pluck a glove,] So, in Promos and Cassandra, 1578, 
Lamia, the strumpet, says: 
" Who loves me once is lymed to my heast: 
" My colour some, and some shall wear my glove." 
Again, in The Shoemaker's Hol!tda!t, or Gentle Cra.fl, 1600: 
" Or shall I undertake some martial sport 
" Wearing your glove at turney or at tilt, 
" And tell how many gallants I unhors'd ." 
 I sec some sparkles ofa better he,] The folio reads: 
',  sparks od¢'better hojpe. 
The quarto, 1615 : 
 sparkles odfbetter hope. SrvEs. 
The first quarto has---sparles OEetter ho1e. The article was 
inserted by Mr. $teevens. IVlaror. 


/ / I R I I IIIIIIIIIlI1]Illl1IIIII111111111111 

se. zzz. KING RICHARD II. 153 

A rYM. For ever may my knees grow to the earth, 
[ Kneels. 
My tongue cleave to my roof within my mouth, 
Unless a pardon, ere I fise, or speak. 
BOLa. Intended, or committed, was this fault ? 
If but  the first, how heinous ere it be, 
To win thy a£ter-love, I pardon thee. 
AUM. Then give me leave that I may turn the 
That no man enter till my tale be done. 
BOLZTG. Have thy desire. 
[AuMERLE 10CI'8 l]le door. 
YORK. [[Izit]dn.] My liege, beware; look to 
Thou hast a traitor in thy presence there. 
Bor,ra. Villain, l'll make thee sale. [Drawing. 
A VM. Stay thy revengeful hand ; 
Thou hast no cause to ibar. 
YORK. [IVithin.] Open the door, secure, fool- 
hardy king- 
Shall I, for love, speak treason to thy ihce ? 
Open the door, or I will break it open. 
[-BoLINGBROKE 013e8 the door. 

Enter YORK. 

BOLING. What is the matter, uncle . speak ; 
Recover breath ; tell us how near is danger, 
That we may arm us to encounter it. 
YORK. Peruse this writing here, and thou shalt 
The treason that my haste forbids me show. 

'/.f but--:] Old copies--If on. Corrected by Mr. Pope. 


A uM. Remember, as thou read'st, thy promise 
past : 
I do repent me; read not my name there, 
My heart is not con/derate with my hand. 
YORK. 'Twas, villain, ere thy hand did set it 
I tore it ri'oto the traitor's bosom, king ; 
Fear, and hot love, begets his penitence : 
Forget to pity him, lest thy pity prove 
A serpent that will sting thee to the heart. 
BOLZ.Va. 0 heinous, strong, and bold conspi- 
racy !-- 
O loyal father of a treacherous son ! 
Thou sheer, immaculate, 6 and silver fountain, 
From whence this stream through muddy passages, 
Hath held his current, and defil'd himself[ 
Thv overflow of good converts to bad ;7 
An thy abundant goodness shall excuse 

 Tlwu sheer, immaculate, &c.] Sleer is pellucld, transparent. 
Some of the modern editors arbitrarily read clear. So in 
Spenser's Fairj Queen, B. III. c. ii: 
" Who having viewed in a fountain shere 
« Her faces" 
Again, in B. III. c. xi: 
« That she at last came to a fountain shere." 
Again, in the fourth Book of Golding's translation of Ovid's 
llletamorphosis, 1587 : 
" The water was so pure and sheere," &c. 
Transparent muslin is still called sheer muslin. S..v.s. 
 Tly ovo3flow ofgood converts to bad,] Mr. Theobald would 
read : 
converts the bad. ST.EVENS. 
The old reading--converts to bad, is right, I believe, though 
Mr. Theobald did not understand it. " The overflow of good 
in ttee is turned to bad in ttj son ; and that saine abundaut 
goodness in thee shall excuse his transgression. » 

ac. m'. KING RICHARD II, 155 

This deadly blot in thy digressing son. s 
YonK. So shall my virtue be his vice's bawd ; 
And he shall spend lnine honour with his shame, 
As thriftless sons their scraping fathers' gold. 
Mine honour lives when his dishonour dies, 
Or my sham'd lire in his dishonour lies: 
Thou kill'st me in his lire; giving him breath, 
The traitor lives, the true man's put to death. 
DucH. [lYithin.] What ho, my liege! for God's 
sake let me in. 
BOLtA*a. What shrill-voic'd suppliant makes this 
eager cry ? 
Duc. A woman, and thine aunt, great king; 
'ris I. 
Speak with me, pity me, open file door; 
A beggar begs, that never begg'd before. 
BOL'IXa. Out scene is alter'd,fi'om a serious 
And now chang'd to T/te Beggar and the King2-- 

*  digressing son,] Thus the old copies, and rightly. $o» 
in Romeo and duliet : 
" Digressing from the valour of a man." 
To digre,« i to deviate from what is right or regular. 8ome of 
the modern editors read :transgressing. Svss. 
9  The Beggar and the hïng.] The Tng and the Beggar 
seems to bave been an interlude well known in the time of Out 
author, who has alluded to it more than once. I cannot now 
find that any copy ofit is left. Jonso. 
The Kïnand Beggar was perhaps once an interlude ; it was 
eertainly a song. The reader will find it in the fil'St volume of 
Dr. Percy's collection. It is there entitled, hTng Cophetua and 
the Beggar 3laid; and is printed tom Rich. Johnson's Crooen 
Garland  Goul,&n Roses, 161, lCmo. where it is entitled, 
simply, A Song  a Beggar and a hg. This interlude or 
ballad, is mentioned in Cgnthia's Revenge, 161S: 
" Provoke thy sharp Melpomene to sing 
" l  
" The sto of a Beggar and the o g. Sws. 


My dangerous cousin, let your mother in ; 
I know, she's come to pray for your foul sin. 
ORK. If thou do pardon, whosoever pray, 
More sins, for this forgiveness, prosper may. 
This fester'd joint cut off, the test tests sound ; 
This, let alone, will all the rest confound. 

E»ter Duchess. 

DucI-t. 0 king, believe not this hard-hearted 
Love, loving hot itself, none other can. 
YonK. Thou frantick woman, what dost thou 
make here ?' 
Shall thy old dugs once more a traitor rear ? 
Duc. Sweet York, be patient : Hear me, gentle 
liege. [Kneels. 
BOLXNa. Rise up, good aunt. 
DUCH. Not yet, I thee beseech : 
For ever will I kneel upon my knees,  
And never see day that the happy sees, 
Till thou give joy ; until thou bid me joy, 
By pardoning Rutland, my transgressing boy. 
.4uM. Unto my mother's prayers, I bend my 
knee. [Kneels. 
ORZ. Against them both, my truejoints bended 
be. [Kneels. 


Ill lnay'st thou thrive, if thou grant any grace t 3 
Ducat. Pleads he in earnest ? look upon his face ; 
His eyes do drop no tears, his prayers are in jest ; 
His words corne ri'oto his mouth, ours from our 
breast : 
He prays but faintly, and would be denied ; 
We pray with heart, and soul, and all beside : 
His weary joints would gladly fise, I know; 
Our knees shall kneel fill to the ground they grow: 
His prayers are fifll of false hypocrisy; 
Ours, Of true zeal and deep integrity. 
Out prayers do out-pray his; flen let them have 
That mercy, which true prayers ought to have. 
BOLING. Good aunt, stand up. 
DCH. Nay, do not say--stand up ; 
But, pardon, first; and afterwards, stand up. 
An if I were thy nurse, thy tongue to teach, 
Pardon--should be the first word of thy speech. 
I never long'd to hear a word till now ; 
Say--pardon, king; let pity teach thee how: 
The word is short but hOt so short as sweet ; 
No word like, pardon, for kings' mouths so meet. 
YORK. Speak it in French, king ; say, pardonnez 
llOff .  
D UCH. Dost flou teach pardon pardon to de- 
stroy ? 
Ah, my sour husband, my hard-hearted lord, 
That set'st the word itself against the word i-- 

 1ll ma.9'st thou thrive, if thou grant anygrace!] This line 
is not in the folio. MArorr. 
* p. ardonne ~. ~ .m°Y. .] That. s," excuse me, a phrase used 
when any thing s cwlly demed. The whole passage is such as 
I could well wish away. Jor.o. 


Speak, pardon, as 'tis current in our land ; 
The chopping French  we do not understand. 
Thine eye begins to speak, set thy tongue there : 
Or, in tby piteous heart plant thou thine ear ; 
That, hearinghow our plaints and prayers do pierce, 
Pity may more thee pardon to rehearse. 
BOLINa. Good aunt, stand up. 
DUCH. I do not sue to stand, 
Pardon is all the suit I have in hand. 
Borxva. I pardon him, as God shall pardon me. 
DUCH. 0 happy vantage of a kneeling knee! 
Yet am I sick for fear : speak it again ; 
Twice saying pardon, doth hot pardon twain, 
But makes ont pardon strong. With all my heart 
I pardon him. 6 
Ducat. A god on earth thou art. 7 
Boz2v. But for our trusty brother-in-law, 
and the abbot, 9 

» The chopplng French] Chopping, I suppose, here means 
abberi»g, talking flippantly a language unintelligible to English- 
men; or perhaps it may meanthe French, who clip and muti- 
late their words. I do hot remember to have met the word, in 
this sense, in any other place. In the universities flaey talk of 
choppintg logick; and out author in Romeo and Juliet has the 
smne phrase : 
" How now ! how now ! chop logick?" MAI.,OIE. 
 Vilh all n 9 heart 
I pardon him.] The old copies read--I pardon hbn dth all 
my heart. The transposition was ruade by Mr. Pope. 
r A god on earth thou art.] So, in Cymbeline: 
" He sits 'mongst men, like a descended go&" 
* But for out trust 9,] The brother-ln-law, 
meant, was John Duke of Exeter and Earl of Huntingdon (own 


With all the rest of that consorted crew,-- 
Destruction straight sha]l dog theln at the heels, x- 
Good uncle, help to order several powers 
To Oxford, or where'er these traitors are: 
They shall hot live within this world, I swear, 
But I will have them, if I once know where. 
Unc]e, farewell,mand cousin too,  adieu: 
Your mother well bath pray'd, and prove you truc. 
DvCH. Corne, my old son ;--I pray God make 
thee new. [Exeunt. 


tnler EXTON, and a Servant. 

.IXTO2V. Didst thou not mark the king, what 
words he spake ? 
Have I no friend will rid me of this living fear? 
Was it not so ? 
_çRY. Those werc his very words. 
EXTON. Have I no 3ï'iend? quoth he : he spake 
it twice, 
And urg'd it twice together ; did he not ? 
SRr. He did. 

brother to King Richard II.) and who had married with the lady 
Elizabeth, sister of Henry Bolingbroke. TttEOBALD. 
9  the abbot,] i. e. the Abbot of Westminster. 
 1)estruction straight shall dog them at the heels.] Again, in 
King Richard III: 
« Death and destruction dog thee at the heels." 
  cousin too, adieu:] Too, whleh is hOt in the old eopy, 
was added by ',-Ir. Theobald, for the sake of the metre. 


EXTOV. And, speaking it, he wistfidly look'd on 
me ; 
_As who should say,--I would, thou wert the man 
That would divorce this terror from my heart ; 
Meaning, the king ai Pomfi'et. Corne, let's go ; 
I am the king's fi'iend, and will rîd his foe. 


Pomfi'et. The D«.l,geon of the Castle. 

Enter Itïg RICHARD. 

K. RICtI. I have been studying how I lnay com- 
This prison, where I live, unto the world : 
_And, for because the world is populous, 
And here is not a ereature but myself, 
I cannot do it ;Yet l'Il hammer it out. 
My brain l'Il prove the female to my soul ; 
My soul, the father : and these two beget 
A generation of still-breeding thoughts, 
And these saine thoughts people this little world;  
In hulnours, like the people of this world, 
For no thought is eontented. The better sort,--- 
As thoughts of things divine,are intermix'd 
With seruples, and do set the word itself 

 people this little world ;] i. e. his own frame;" the 
state of man ;" which in out author's Julius Ccesar is said to be 
" like to a little kingdom." So also, in his Lover's Com.plaint: 
" Storming my zeorld with sorrow's wind and tain." 
Agaln, in King Lear : 
" Strives in this little world of man to outscorn 
" The to-and-fro-conflicting wind and tain." blarov.. 

sc. v. KING RICHARD II. ]61 

Against the word :« 
As thus,--Come, little ones ; and then again,-- 
It is as hard to corne, as Jbr a camel 
To thread the postern ofla eedle's ee. 
Thoughts tendng to ambition, they do plot 
Unlikely wonders: how these vain weak halls 
May tear. a passage through the flinty ribs 
Of t.bis hard world, my ragged prison walls ; 
And, For they cannot, die in their own pride. 
Thoughts tending to content, flatter themselves,-- 
That they are not the first of fortune's slaves, 
Nor shall not be the last ; like silly beggars, 
Who, sitting in the stocks refuge their shame,-- 
That many have, and others must sit there : 
And in this thought they find a kind of case, 
Bearing their own misfortune on the back 
Of such as have before endur'd the like, 
Thus play I, in one person,  many people, 
And none eontented : Solnetimes ara I king; 
Then treason makes me wish myself a beggar, 
And so I ara: Then crushing penury 
Persuades me I was better when a king; 
Then ara I king'd again : and, by-and-by, 
Think that I am unking'd by Bolingbroke, 

 the word itself 
4gainst the word :] By the word, I suppose, is meant, the 
ho13¢ word. The folio reads: 
 the faith itself 
.4gainst the faith. Srvs. 
The reading of the text is that of the first quarto, 1597. 
s Thus play I, in one person,] Alluding, perhaps, to the ne- 
eessities of out early theatres. The title-pages of some of out 
Moralities show, that three or four characters were frequently 
represented by one lerson. Swrrvrs. 
Thus the first quarto, 1597. Ail the subsequent old copies 
havelrison. MarOF. 
rOL. XI, 1I 


And straight am nothing :reBut, whate'er I am, 
Nor I, nor any man, that but man is, 
With nothing shall be pleas'd, till he be eas'd 
With being not.hing.--Musick to I hear? [lusick. 
Ha, ha ! keep time :--How sour sweet musick is, 
When time is broke, and no proportion kept! 
So is it in the musick of men's lives. 
And here have I the daintiness of car, 
To check 6 rime broke in ,-t disorder'd string ; 
But, for the concord of my state and time, 
Had not an car to hear my truc time broke. 
I wasted rime, and now doth rime waste me. 
For now hath time ruade me his numb'ring clock : 
My thoughts are minutes ; and, with sighs, theyjar 
Their watches on to mine eyes, the outward watch, 

 To check'] Thus the first quarto, 1597. The folio reads 
To hear. Of this play the first quarto copy is much more 
valuable than that of the folio. 
 For now hatl time nade me his numb'ring dock: 
Iff thoughts are minutes; and, with sighs, thçy jar 
Their watches on fo mine eyes, the outward watch, c.] 
I think this psage must be corrupt, but I know not wdl how 
to make it better. The first quarto rea: 
 thoughts are ,inutes; and ith sighs thejar, 
eir atches on unto mine eyes the outward watch.. 
The quarto, 1615 : 
Mff thoughts are minutes, and cith sighs they jar, 
There tvatches on unto mine eyes the outward atch. 
The first folio agrees with the second quarto. 
Perhaps out of these two readings the right may be ruade. 
lVatch seems to be used in a double sense, for a quantity of 
rime, and for the instrument that mesures rime. I read» but 
with no great confidence, thus: 
 thoughts are vinutes, and with sighs thçjar 
1: zczr watches on; mine ees the outward tvatch, 
IYhereto &c. JoHso. 
I am unable to throw any certain light on this psage. 
few hints, however, which may tend to its illustration, are left 
for the service of future commentators. 
The outward watch, as I ara informed, was the moveable 



Whereto my finger, like a dial's point, 
Is pointing still, in cleansing theln froln tears. 

.figure of a man habited like a watchman, with a pole and lantern 
In his hand. The figure had the word--watch written on its 
forehead; and was placed above the dial-plate. This informa- 
tion was derived ri'oto an after the operation of a second 
cn_p : therefore neitber Mr. "Iollbt, who communicated it, or 
myself, can vouch for its authenticity, or with any degree of 
confidence apply it to the passage belote us.* Such a figure, 
however, appears to have been alhlded to in Ben Jonson's lvery 
13Ian out of his Humour: " he looks like one of these motions 
in a great antique clock," &c. A motion anciently signified a 
19nppet. Again, in his Sejanus: 
" Observe him, as lais oatch observes hls dock." 
Agaln, in Churchyard's Charitie, 1595: 
" The clocke will strike in haste, I heare the watch 
" That sounds the bell." 
The saine thought also occurs in Greene's Perimedes, 1588 : 
" Disquiet thoughts the minuts of her vatch." 
Tofiar is, I believe, to make that noise which is called ticking. 
So, in The lVinter's Tale: 
"  I love thee not ajar o'the dock behind," &c. 
Again, in The Spanish Tragedy: 
"  the minutes.jarring, the clock strlklng." 
Tbere appears to be no reason t'or supposing with Dr. Johnson, 
that this passage is cÇrrupt. It should be recollected, that there 
are three ways in which a clock notices the progress of rime ; 
riz. by the libration of the pendulum, the index on the dial, and 
the striking of the hour. To these, the King, in his comparison, 
severally alludes ; his sighs corresponding to the jarring of the 
pendulum which at the same rime that it watches or numbers 
the seconds, marks also their progress in minutes on the dial or 
outward-watch, to which the King compares his eyes ; and their 
want of figures is supplled by a succession of tears, or, (to use 
an expression of liilton,) minute drops: his finger, by as regu- 
lady wiping these away, performs the office of the dial's point: 
bis clamorous groans are the sounds that tell the hour. 
In King Henrff IF'. P. II. tears are used in a similar manner : 
" But Harry lives, that shall convert those tears, 
« By number, into hours of happiness." 

 Mr. Dutton, of Fleet Street, bas since confirmed fo me this intelligence. 

1.64 KING RICHARD II. «T la 

Now, sir, the sound, that tells what hour it is, 8 
Are clamorous groans, that strike upon my heart, 
Which is tbe bell : So sighs, and tears, and groans, 
Show minutes, times, and hours :rebut my time 
Runs posting on in Bolingbroke's proud joy, 
While I stand fooling here, his Jack o'the c]ock. 9 
This musick mads me, let it sound no more; 1 
:For, though it have holpe madlnen to their wits,  
In me, it seems it will make wise men mad. 
Yet, blessing on his heart that gives it me! 
For 'ris a sign of love ; and love to Richard 
Is a strange brooch in this all-hating world? 

* Noo, sir, &c.] Should we hOt read thus : 
_Now, sir, the sounds Ihat tell what our if is, 
_Are clamorous groans, &c. RITsoI. 
  his Jack o'the clock.] That is, I strike for him. One 
ofthese automatons is alludcd to in h5"ng Richard III. Act IV. 
$C. 111 : 
" Because that, llke a Jack, thou keep'st the stroke, 
" Between thy begging and my meditation." 
Again, in an old comedy, entitled,  this be hot a good Pla te 
Devil is in it, 161: 
" so would I, 
" And wc theirjacs o'the clochouse." STEEVES. 
t This musick mads me, let it sound no more;] So, in out 
author's Rape ŒEELucrece : 
" The 1]ttle birds that tune their morning throats, 
" Make her moans mad with their sweet melody." 
 For, though it bave holpe admen fo thcir wits,] In what 
degree musiek was supposed to be useful in ering madness, the 
reader may reeeive information from Burton s Anatomg 3le- 
lancholg, Part II. seet. ii. 
The allusion is perhaps to the persons bit by the tarta, 
who are said to be eured by musiek. MLo. 
* and love fo Richard 
ls a arange brooeh in this all-hating worM.] i. e. is as strge 
and uneommon as a brooch whieh is now no longer wom. 
in All', well tha$ ends weg  " Virginity, like an old courtier, 

sc. r. KING RICHARD II. 65 

Enter Groom. 

GRoo2tt. Hail, royal prince! 
K. RIc2I. Thanks, noble peer; 
The eheapest of us is ten groats too dear. 
What art thou ? and how eomest thou hither, 
Where no man never cornes, but that sad dog « 
That brings me food, to make misfortune live ? 
GROO_aX. I was a poor groom of thy stable, king, 
When thou wert king; wh o, travellingtowards York, 
With much ado, at length have gotten leave 
To look upon lny sonaedmes » master's face. 

wears her cap out offashion, richly suited, but unsuitablc ; just 
like the brooch and the toothpîck, which xvcar hot now." 
That the word rooch was appfied to a parficular k]nd of oma- 
ment is certMn ; but it also signifies a jcwel in general: and t 
appears to me, that Richard means to say that love to him was a 
strange jewel in an all-hating world, without any refcrcnce to 
the çashion of wearhg rooches. h. 
 in thîs all-hathg wor]d.] ] believe the mean]ng is, th]s 
world h which I ara uiversally hated. JoHsso. 
I thnk, he rather means a world in wlfich the spMt of hatred 
was prevalent. I. hIAso. 
 lVhere no man never cornes, ut that sad dog] It should 
be remembered that the word sad was in the time of our author 
used for grave. The expression will then be the same as if he 
had said, that grave, that gloomy vilhdn. So, in Holinshed, 
p. 790 : "With that, the recorder called Fitzwîlliam, a sad man, 
and an honest," &c. STEEVES. 
"  sometimes maaer'sface.] Sometfines was used forr- 
nerly, as well as sometbne, which the modern editors have sub- 
stituted. So, in Speed's Historff OEGreat Britaine, 1611 : 
" A catalogue of the religious houses, &c. sometbnes in England 
And Wales." MaOE. 
The old copy, redundanfly 
 sometimes royal master's face. SrEvs. 


O, how it yern'd my heart, when I beheld, 
In London streets, that coronation day, 
When Bolingbroke rode on roan Barbary ! 
That horse, that thou so often hast bestrid ; 
That horse, that I so carefidly have dress'd! 
K. RZCH. Rode he on Barbary? 6 Tell me, gentle 
How went he under hiln ? 
GRoo,. So proudly, as ifhe disdain'd the ground. 
1(. Ricin. So proud that Bolingbroke was on hi 
back ! 
That jade bath eat bread ri'oto my royal hand ; 
This hand bath made him proud with clapping hiln. 
Would he hot stumble ? Would he hOt tall down, 
(Since pride must have a fall,) and break the neck 
Of that proud man that did usurp his back ? 
Forgiveness, horse ! why do I rail on thee, 
Since thou, created fo be aw'd by man, 
Wast born to bear ? I was hot ruade a horse ; 
And yet I bear a burden like an ass, 
Spur-gall'd, and tir'd, by jauncing Bolingbroke.  

 Rode he on Barbar.y?] This story of Roan Barbary might 
bave been of Shakspeare's own invention. Froissart, however, 
relates a yet more silly tale concerning a favourite grey hound 
of King Richard's, " who was wont to lepe upon the King, but 
lcft tire King and came to the erle of Derby duke of Lancastre, 
and ruade to hym the saine frendly countinaunce and chere 
as he was wonte to do to the King," &c. Froissart, Vol. II. 
fo. SWNS. 
* --2/ jauncing Boling5ro'e. Jaunce and jaunt were 
ynonymous words. Ben Jonson uses geances in his Tale o.fa 
" I would I had a few more geances of it: 
" And you ,ay the word, send me to Jericho." 

sc. '. KING RICHARD II. 167 

Enter Keeper, with a Dish. 

KzzP. Fellow,give place ; here is no longer stay. 
[ To the Groom. 

1(. RzcH. If thou love me, 
GRooaf. What my tongue 
heart shall say. 

'ris time thou wert 

dares not, that my 

Kv,». My lord, will't please yon to fall to ? 
K. RICH. Taste ofit first, as thou art wont to do. 
KeP. My lord, I dare hot ? sir Pierce of Exton, 
Lately came ri'oto the king, commands the contrary. 
lt\ RrCH. The devil take Henry of Lancaster, 
and thee ! 
Patience is stale, and I am weary of it. 
[Beats the Keeper. 
Kz«. Help, help, help! 

2Enler ExwoN, and Servants, armed. 

I\Rzcrr. How now ? what lneans death in this 
rude assault ? 
Villain, thy own hand yields thy death's instrument. 
[Snatching," a weapon, and killing one. 
Go thou, and fill another room in hell. 
[He kills another, then EXTON strikes him dowm 
That hand shall burn in never-quenehing tire, 
That staggers thus my person.Exton, thy tierce 
Hath with the king's blood stain'd the king's own 


Mount, mount, my soul ! thy seat is up on high ; 
Whilst my gross flesh sinks downward, here to die. B 

 here fo die.'] Shakspeare in this scene has followed 
tIollnshed, vllo took his account of Richard's death from Hall, 
as Hall did ri'oto Fabian, in vhose Chronicle, I believe, this 
story of Sir Piers of Exton first appeared. Froissart, who had 
been in England in 1896, and who appears to have finished hi 
Chroniclc soon after the death of the King, says, "how he died, 
and by what meanes, I could not tell vhanne I wrote this cro- 
nicle." Had he been murdered by eight armed men, (for such 
is Fabian's story,) "four of whom he slew with his own hand," 
and ri'oto wlmm he must bave received many wounds, surely 
such an event must have rcached the ears of Froissart, who had 
a great regard for the King, having received from him at his 
departure from England " a goblet of silver and gilt, waying 
two marke of silver, and within it a C. nobles ; by the wTch (he 
adds) I ara as yet the better, and shal be as longe as I lire; 
wherefore I ana bounde to praye to God for lais soule, and wyth 
:huche sorowe I wryte of his deathe." 
Nor is this story of lais murder consistent with the account 
(which is hot controverted) ofhis body being brought to London 
and exposed in Cheapside for two hours, (" his heade on a blacke 
quishen, and lais sage open,") where it was viewed, say 
Froissart, by twenty thousand pesons. The account given by 
Stowe, who seems to bave had before him a Manuscript History 
ot" the latter part of Richard's lire, written by a person who was 
with him in Wales, appears much lnore probable. He says, 
" he was imprisoned in Pomfi'ait Castle, where xv dayes and 
nightes they vexed him with continuall hunger, thirst, and cold, 
and finally bereft him of lais lire, with such a kind of death as 
never betbre that rime was knowen in England, saith Sir John 
Fortis.cute," probably in his Declaration touching the Title of 
the House of Yorke, a work yet, I believe, somewhere existing 
in MS. Sir John Fortcscue was called to the bar a few year 
after tb, e death of Richard: living therefore so near the rime, 
his testimony is of the highest weight. And with hira Harding, 
who is supposed to bave been 6t the battle of Shrewsbury, in 
140, concurs : " Men saydfor-hung'ered he »vas." Chron. 15zb, 
fol. 199. So also,Walsingham, who wrote in the time of Henry V. 
and Polydore Virgil. 
The Percies in the Manfestowhich theypublished against King 
Henry IV. in the tb, ird yeare of his reign, the day before the 
battle ofShrewsbury, expressly charge him with having « carried 

sc. r. KING RICHARD II. 169 

EXTOh r. As fifll of valour, as of royal blood : 
Both have I spilt ; O, would the deed were good ! 
For now the devil, that told me--I did well, 
Says, thtt this deed is chronicled in hell. 
This dead king to the living king I'll bear ;-- 
Take hence the rest, and give then burial here. 
[ :Exeunt. 

his sovereign lord traiterously within the caste]l of Pomfret, with- 
out the consent or the judgement of the lordes of the realm, by 
the space offiftene daies and so many nightes, (which is horrible 
among Christian people to be heard,) with hunger, thirst, and 
cold, fo perishe.'" Had the story of Sir Pierce of Exton beerx 
true, it undoubtedly must bave reachcd them. Thcir not men- 
tioning it is declsive. 
If, however, we are to give credit to Sir John Hayward, thls 
controverted point will hot adroit of dispute; for in The First 
Part. of the Lire and Reig.n. of Iïn. g Hen,',ff IV: to.. 1599, after 
relatmg the story of Kng Rchard's assassnaton, he very 
gravely tells us, that "after being felled to the ground, he with 
a faint and feeble voice groanedforth these words : " My great 
grandfather Edward II." &c." Mr. Hume, in his entertaining, 
but often superficial, Histor..y of En. gland, has hOt been. weak 
enough to insert this fictttous dymg speech. He nught, how- 
ever, have inserted it with as much propriety as an abridgement 
of the oration of the Bishop of Carlisle, on the deposition of the 
King being propounded in parliament, which Hayward feigned 
in imitation of Livy, grounding himself on a few sentences pre- 
erved in our old Chronicles, which he has expanded into thir- 
teen quarto. .p ,aet. The writers of The Parliamentary History 
bave In ths marrer been as careless as Mr. Hume. 
9 Dies.] The representation here given of the King's death is 
perfectly agreeable to Hall and Hollnshed. But the fact was 
otherwise. He refused food for several days, and died of absti- 
nence and a broken heart. 8ee Walslngham, Otterbourne, the 
Monk of Evesham, the continuator of the History of Croyland» 
and the anonymou Godstow Chronicle. RTsos. 



A Room in the Castle. 

Flourish. Enter BOLINGBROKE, and YoltK, wilh 
Lords and Attendants. 

BorzNa. Kind uncle York, the latest news we 
Isthat the rebels bave consmn'd with tire 
Out town of Cicester in Glostershire ; 
But whether they be ta'en, or slain, we hear not. 


Welcome, my lord- What is the news ? 
NonTI¢. First, to thy sacred state wish I ail 
The next news is,--I have to London sent 
The heads of Salisbury, Spencer, Blunt, and Kent: 1 
The manner of their taking may appear 
At large discoursed in this paper here. 
[Presenting a imper. 
Bor4ra. We thank thee, gentle Percy, for thy 
pains ; 
And to fly worth will add right worthy gains. 


FTZ. My lord, I have from Oxford sent to 

'  of Salisbury, Spencer, Blunt, and Kent ;] So the folio. 
The quarto readsof Oxford, Salisbur?/, Blunt, and Kent. It 
appears fi'om the histories of this reign that the reading of the 
folio is right. 

sc. rx. KING RICHARD II. 171 

The heads of Brocas, and Sir Bennet Seely ; 
Two of the dangerous consorted traitors, 
That sought at Oxford thy dire overthrow. 
BoIzN6. Thy pains, Fitzwater, shall not be for- 
got ; 
Right noble is thy merit, well I wot. 

Enter PEtCY, with the Bishop of Carlisle. 

PRc: The grand conspirator, abbot of West- 
With clog of conscience, and sour melancholy, 
Hath yielded up his body to the grave ;  
But here is Carlisle living, to abide 
Thy kingly doom, and sentence of his pride. 
BoLIa. Carlisle, this is your doom :s 
Choose out some secret place, some reverend room, 
More than thou hast, and with it 3oy" thy lire 
So, as thou liv'st in peace, die fi'ee ri-oto 
strife - 
For though mine enemy thou hast ever been, 
High sparks of honour in thee have I seen. « 

• The grand con.,T.irator, abbot of tVestminster,--. 
Hath ielded u_p hs bodyfo the grave ; ] Ths Abbot of'West- 
minster was William de Colchester. The relation here given of" 
his death after Holinshed's Chronicle is untrue, as he survived 
the King many years; and though called " the grand conspi- 
rator," it is very doubtful whethcr he had any concern in the 
eonspiracy ; at lcast nothing was proved against him. Rso. 
 Carlide, this is !/our doom: ] This prelate was committed to 
the Tower, but on the intercession of his friends, obtained leave 
to change his prison for Westminster-Abbey. In order to de- 
prive him of his see, the Pope, at the King's instance, translated 
him to a bishoprick in lartibus idelium; and the only prefer- 
ment he could ever after obtain, was a rectory in Gloucester- 
,hire. He died in 1409. Ra'so. 
* High sparks of honour in thee have I seen.] Thus, in the 
old Play of The History of ITng L¢ir, &c. 

172 KING RICHARD II. ,c, r. 

Enter EXTON, î,ith Attendants bearbg a Coin. 

EXTON. Great king, within this coffin I present 
Thy buried fear : herein ail breathless lies 
The mightiest of thy greatest enemies, 
Richard of Bourdeaux, by me hither brought. 
BoLt2Va. Exton, I thank thee hot; for thou hast 
A deed of slander, with thy fatal hand, 
Upon my head, and all this Pamous ]and. 
ExTo2. From your own mouth, my lord, did I 
tllis deed. 
BOLZVa. They love hot poison that do poison 
Nor do I thee; though I did wish him dead, 
I hate fle murderer, love him murdered. 
The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labour, 
But neither my good word, nor princely favour : 
With Cain go wander through the shade of night, 
And never show thy head by daynor light. 
Lords, I protest, my sou[ is mll o woe, 
That blood should sprinkle me, to make me grow : 
Corne, mourn with me for what I do lainent, 
And put on sullen black incontinent ; 
l'll make a voyage to the Holy land, 
To wash this blood off ri'oto my guilty hand :-- 
March sadly after ; grace my mournings here, 
In weeping after this untimely bier. [Exemt2 

" I see such sparks ofhonour bz ç, our face." 
Hence, perhaps, as Mr. Todd observes, Milton, in his Arcades, 
" I see bright honour sparkle in ]our eles." SEEVEIS. 
 This play is extracted from the Chronicle of Holinshed, in 
which many passages may be round which Shakspeare bas, with 
very little alteration, transplanted into his scenes ; particularly a 


apeech of the Bishop of Carllsle, in defence of King Richard'a 
unalienable right, and immunity from human jurisdiction. 
Jonson, who, in his Catiline and Sejanus, has inserted many 
æpeeches ri'oto fim Roman historians, was perhaps induced to 
that practice by the example of Shakspeare, who had conde- 
scended sometimes to copy more ignoble writers. But Shak- 
speare had more of his own than Jonson ; and, if he sometimes 
was willing to spare his labour, showed by what he performed at 
other times, that his extracts were ruade by choice or idleness 
ratber than necessity. 
This play is one of those which Shakspeare bas apparently 
revised; but as success in works of invention is hOt always pro- 
portionate to labour it is hOt flnished at last with the happy 
force of some other of his tragedies, nor can be said much to 
affect the passions» or enlarge the understanding. JOHNSO. 
The notion that Shakspeare revised this play, though it has 
long prevailed» appears to me extremely doubtful ; or, to speak 
more plainly, I do not believe it. See further on this subject 
in A ilttempt fo ascertain the Order of Shakspeares Plas 
Val. II. M,.o. 


PART I. « 

$ KING HENRY IV. P.n: I.] The transactions contained in 
this historical drama are comprised xvithin the period oç about 
ten months ; for the action commences with the news brought 
of Hotspur having defeated the Scots tmder Archibald earl of" 
Douglas at Holmedon, (or Halidown-hill,) which battle was 
fought on Holy-rood day, (the lth of September,) l0 ; and 
it closes with the defeat and death of Hotspur at Shrewsbury ; 
which engagement happened on Saturday the Olst of Jtfly, (the 
eve of Saint Mary lIagdalen,) in the year 1403. THEOBALD. 
This play was first entered at Stationers' Hall, Feb. o5, 1597, 
by Andrew Wise. Again, by I. Woolff, Jan. 9, 1598. For 
the piece supposed to bave been its original, see Six old Plays 
on which Shakspearefounded, &c. published for S. Leacroft, 
Charing-Cross. STEV.NS. 
Shakspeare has apparently designed a regular connection of 
these dramatick histories from Richard the Second to Henry 
the Fifth. King Henry, at the end of Richard the Second, de- 
elares his purpose to visit the Holy Land, which he resumes in 
the first speech of this play. The complaint ruade by King 
Henry in the last Aet of Richard the Second, of the wildness 
of his son, prepares the reader for the frolicks whieh are here 
to be reeounted, and the eharaeters which are now to be ex- 
hibited. Jomnso. 
This eomedy was written, I believe, in the year 1597. See 
An AttemFt to ascertain the Order of ShaksFeare's Plaus, Vol. IL 



Kitg Henry the Fourth. 
Henry, Prince of Wales,  
Priwe John ofLaneaster, 1  Sons to the King'. 
Earl of Westmoreland, " Friends to the King. 
Sir Walter Blunt,  
Thomas Perey, Earl of Woreester. 
Henry Percy, Earl ofNorthumberland: 
Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, his Son. 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March. 
8croop, Archbishop of York. 
Arehibald, Earl of Douglas. 
Owen Glendower. 
Sir Richard Vernon. 
Sir John Falstafl: 
Peto. Bardolph. 
Ladg Percy, llJè to Hotspur, and Sisteî" to Mor- 
Lady Mortimer, Daughter to Glendower, and lYife 
to Mortimer. 
3Ifs. Quickly, Itostess of a Ta'ern in Easteheap. 
.Lords, 05fficers, Sherifl', Vintner, Chavtberlait, Draw- 
ets, Two Carriers, Travellers, and Atteudants. 
SCENE, England. 

' Prince John ofLancaster.] The persons of the drama were 
originally collected by Mr. Rowe, who has given the title of 
Due ofLancaster to Pince John, a mistake which Shakspeare 
]ms been no where guilty of in the first part of this play, though 
in the second he has fallen into the saine eïror. Iïng Henrq I V. 
was himself the last person that ever bore the title of Duke of 
Lancaster. But ail his sons (till they had peerages, as Clarence,, Gloucester,) were distinguished by the naine of the 
royal house, as John of Lancaster, Hu,phretj of Lancaster, &c. 
and in thC proper style, the present John (who became after- 
wards so illustrious by the title of Duke ofBedford,) is always 
mentioned in the play belote us. 



London. ./1 Room in the Palace. 

BLUNT, and Others. 

K. HE2 . So shaken as we are, so wan with care, 
Find we a time for frighted peace to pant, 
And breathe short-winded accents of ncw broils  
To be commenc'd in stronds afar remote. 
No more the thirsty Erinnys of this soil 
Shall daub her lips with her own children's blood;  

 Find we a timeforfrightedpeace to Tant, 
And breathe short-winded accents of new broils--] That is, 
let us soften peace to rest a while without disturbance, that she 
may reeover breath to propose new wars. JoHlso. 
 No more the thirst Erinnys ofthis soil 
Shall daub ber lips with ber own children's blood;] Sec 
Mr; M. Mason's note, p. 181. The old copies read--entrance. 
Perhaps the following conjecture may be thought very far 
fetched, and yet I ana willing to venture it, because it often hap- 
pens that a wrong reading bas aflànity to the rlght. We might 
read : 
--the thirsty entrants of this soil; 
i. e. those who set foot on this kingdom through the thirst of 
power or conquest, as the speaker himself had donc, on his re- 
turn to England after banlshment. 


No more shall trenching war channel her fields, 

Whoever is accustomed to the old copies of this author, will 
generally find the words consequents, occurrents, ingredients, 
spelt consequence, occurrence, ingredience; and thus, perhaps, 
the French word entrants, anglicized by Shakspeare, might have 
been .corrupted into entrance, which aflbrds no very apparent 
By ber lips Shakspeare may mean the lips ofpeace, who is 
mentioncd in tbe second line; or may use the thirstyentrance 
of the soil, for the porous sur.face of the earth, through which ail 
moisture entcrs, and is thirstily drank, or soaked up. 
So, in an Ode inserted by Gascoigne in his and Francis Kin- 
wehnersh's translation of the Phoenissee of Euripides : 
" And make the greedy ground a drinking cup, 
" To sup the blood of murdered bodies up." Srvms. 
If there be no corruption in the text, I believe Shakspeare 
aneant, lmwevcr licentiously, to say, No more shall ¢his soil lmve 
the lips of ber thirsty entrance, or mouth, daubed with the blood 
of ber ovn children. 
Her lips, in my apprehension, refers to soil in the preeedlng 
line, and hot to peace, as bas beeu suggested. Shakspeare seldom 
attends to the integrity of lais metaphors. In the second of these 
lines he considers tbe soil or earth of England as a person ; (So, 
in King Richard 11: 
" Tells them, he does bestride a bleeding land, 
" Gasping tbr l/ under great Bolingbroke.") 
and yet in the first line the soil must be understood in its ordi- 
nary material sense, as also in a subsequent line in whieh its 
d-qelds are said to be ehannelled with war. Of this kind of in- 
eongruity our antbor's plays firnish innumerable instances. 
Dm«b, the reading of the earliest copy, is eonfirmed by a pas- 
.age in l,,'ng Bichard 11. where we again meet with the image 
presented here : 
" For that out kingdom's earth shall hot be soil'd 
" V'ith that dear blood which it bath fostered." 
The saine kind ofimagery is found in King tte-nrq VI. P. III: 
" Thy brother's blood the thirstj earth hah drunk:'" 
In which passage, as well as in that before us, the poet had per- 
haps the sacred writings in his thoughts: " And now art thou 
cursed from the earth, which bath opened ber mouth to receive 
thy brother's blood ri'oto thy hand." Gen. iv. . This last ob- 
»ervation has been ruade by an anonymous writer. 
Again, in King Bichard 1I: 
" Rest thy unrest on England's lawful earth, 
« Unlawfully ruade drunk with innocent blood. » 

sc. r. KING HENRY IV. 

Nor bruise her flowrets with the armed hoofs 

The earth may with equal propriety be said to daub ber lips 
with blood, as tobe ruade drunk with blood. 
A passage in the old play of Aïng Job», 1591, may throv 
some light on that before us: 
" ls ail the blood y-spilt on either part, 
" Closing the crannies ofthe thirsty earth, 
" Grown to a love-gaine, and a bridal feast ?" 
The thirst.] entrance of the soil is nothing more or less, than 
the Face of the earth parch'd and crack'd as it always appears 
in a dry summer. As to its being personified, itis certainly no 
such unusual practice with Shakspeare. Evcry one talks fami- 
liarly of 2lother Earth ; and they wbo live upon lier face, may 
without much impropriety be called her children. Our author 
only confines the image to his own country. The allusion is to 
the Bm'ons' wars. llTSOl. 
The amendmel:t which I should propose, is to read Erinns, 
instead of entrance.By Erinnys is meant the fury of discord. 
The ErinnÆs of the soil, may possibly be considered as an un- 
common mode of expression, as in truth it is ; but itis justified 
by a passage in the second .TEneid of Virgil, where _ZEneas calls 
"  Trojce & patrice communis Erinnys." 
n expression solnewhat similm" occurs in The ]First Part of 
King Henr VL where Sir William Lucy says: 
" Is Talbot slain ? the Frenchman's only scourge, 
" Your kingdom's terror, and black Nemesis ." 
It is evident that the words, ber own children,.her 3çelds, ber 
3%wrets, must all neeessarily refer to this soil; and that Shak- 
speare in this place, as in many others, uses the personal pro- 
noun instead of the impersonal; ber instead of its; unless we 
uppose he means to personify the soil, as he does in King Ri- 
chard IL where Bolingbroke departing on his exile says: 
" sweet soil, adieu ! 
« My mother, and my nurse, that bears me yet." 
M. Masol. 
Mr. IV[. Mason's conjecture (which I prefer to any explana- 
tion hitherto offered respecting this diflicult passage,) may 
ceive support from N. Ling's Epistle prefixed to Wit's Common- 
wealth, 1598: " I knowe there is nothing in this worlde 
but is subjeet to the Ergnms of tll-disposed persons. The 
.*ame phrase also occurs in the tenth Book of Lucan: 
« Dedecus _?Egypti, Latio feralis Erinngs." 


Of hostile paces : those opposed eyes, 

Again, in the 5th Thebaid of Statius, v. 202 : 
« __ cuncta suo regnat Eriumjs 
" Pectore." 
Amidst these uncertainties of opinion, however, let me pre- 
uent our rcaders with a single fact on which they may implicitly 
rely; viz. that Shakspeare could hot have designed to open his 
play with a spcech, the fiftb line of which is obscure enougb to 
demanda series of comments thrice as long as tire dialogue to 
which it is appended. All that is wanted, on this emergency, 
seems to be--a just and striking personification, or, rathcr, a 
proper naine. Tbe former of these is hot discoverable in the 
old rcading--entrance; but tbe latter, çurnisbed by Mr. M. Ma- 
son, may, I flfin, be saçely admitted, as it affords a natural un- 
embarrassed introduction to fle train of imagery tbat succeeds. 
Let us likcwise recollect, tiret, by the first editors of out au- 
thor, Hgp«io had been changed into Epton; and that Mar- 
ston's flsatiate Counfess, 1613, concludes with a speech so dark- 
ened by con-uptions, that tire comparison in the fomoEh line of it 
is absolutely unintelligible.--It stands as follows : 
" Night, like a masque, is entred heaven's great hall, 
" With thousand torches usbering the way : 
" To Bisus will we consecrate this evening, 
" Like Blessermis cheating qfthe brack. 
" Weele make flfis night fle day," &c.  
Is it impossible, therefore, that Erinnys may have been blun- 
dered into entrance, a transformation almost as perverse and 
mysterious as the foregoing in Marston's tragedy ? 
Being nevertheless aware that Mr. M. Mason's gallant effort to 
produce an easysense,will provoke the slight objections and petty 
cavils of such  restrain themselves within the bounds of timid 
conjecture, it is necessary I should subjoin, that his present emen- 
dation was not inserted in out text on merely my own judgment, 

 Since my introduction of this corrupted line, I have discovered the truc 
zense of it. lead : 
" Like Mpceri»us cheating of the oracle, 
" We'll make" &c. 
The printer took the MS. o lbr a b, and the le for a/. See the Euterpe of 
Ierodotus, for the history of Mycevinus, who, changing night into day, by 
means of lamps and torches, and thus apparently multiplying his pedicted 
six -ears of liIi into twelve, designed to cotx.ict the Oracle of falshood. 

sc. z. KING HENRY IV. 183 

Which,mlike the meteors of a troubled heaven,  
Ail of one nature, of one substance bred, 
Did lately meet in the intestine shock 
And firious close of civil butchery, 
Shall now, in mutual, well-beseeming ranks, 
Match all one way; and be no more oppos'd 
Against acquaintance, kindred, and allies- 
The edge of war, like ail ill-sheathed kuife, 
No more shall cut his master. Therefore, fi'iends, 
_As far as to the sepulcher of Christ,  
(Whose soldier now, under whose blessed cross 
We are impressed and engag'd to fight,) 
Forthwith a power of English shall we levy ; 

but with the dellberate approbation of" Dr. Farmer.Havlng 
now prepared for controversysigna cauant ! STEvms. 
  like the meteors of a troubled heaven,] Namely, long 
streaks of red, whîch represent the lines of armies ; the appear- 
ance of which, and their likeness to such lines, gave occasion to 
all the superstition of the common people concerning annies in 
the air, &c. 
 As far as fo the sepulcher &c.'] The lawfulness and justice 
of the holy wars have been much disputed ; bat perhaps there is 
a principle on which the question may be easily determined. If 
it be part of the religion of the Mahometans to extirpate by the 
sword all other religions, it is, by the laws of self-defence, 
lawful for men of every other religion, and for Christians among 
others, to make war upon Mahometans, simply as Mahometans, 
as men obliged by their own principles to make war upon 
Christians, and only lying in wait till opportunity shall promise 
them success. JOHNSON. 
Upon this note l[r. Gibbon makes the following observation : 
« If the reader will turn to the first scene of The First Part of 
King HenrÇ IV. he will see in the text of Shakspeare, the natural 
feelings of enthusiasm; and in the notes of Dr. Johnson, the 
workings of a bigotted, though vigorous mind, greedy of" every 
pretence to hate and persecute those who dissent from his creed." 
Gibbon's History, Vol. VI. 9, 4to. edit. 
 shall we levy;] To levga power of English as.far as 
to the sepulchre of Christ, is an expression quite unexampled, if 


Whose arms were moulded in their lnothers' womb 
To chase these pagans, in those holy fields, 
Over whose acres walk'd those blessed feet, 
Which, fourteen hundred years ago, were nail'd 
For our advantage, on the bitter cross. 
But this out purpose is a twelve-month old, 
And bootless 'tis to tell youwe will go ; 
Therefore we meet not now :Then let me hear 
Of you, my gentle cousin Westmoreland, 
What yesternight out council did decree, 
In forwarding this dear expedience, s 
IFIST. My liege, this haste was hot in question, 
And many limits ' of the charge set down 
But yesternight : when, all athwart, there came 

not corrupt. We might propose lead, vithout violence to the 
sense, or too wide a deviation from the traces of the letters. In 
Iericles, however, the saine verb is used in a mode as uncommon : 
" Never did thought of naine lev 9 offence." Swrvrs. 
The expression" tsfar as to the sepulchre," &c. does not, 
as I conceive, signifyto the distance of&c. butso far onl 9 as 
regards the selulchre, &c. Doucr.. 
 Therefore we meet hot no :3 i.e. not on that account do we 
now meet ;we are not now assembled, to acquaint you with 
out intended expedition. 
 this dear expcdience.'l For exTedition. WAlClXor. 
So, in Antonff and Cleopatr.a: 
" I shall break 
" The cause of out ex2edience to the queen." 
 And man 9 limits'l Limits for estimates. WARBURTON. 
Limits, as Mr. Heath observes, may mean, outlines, rough 
sketches, or calculations. STEVNS. 
Limits maymean the regulated and appointed times for the con- 
duct ofthe business in hand. So, in Jl'1easurejCor llIeasure: 
" between the time of the contract and limit of the solemnity 
her brother Frederick was wrecked at sea." Again, in Macbeth: 
"  l'll make so bold to call, 
"' For 'ris my limited service." M.o. 

zc. i. KING HENRY IV. 

A post from Wales, loaden with heavy news ; 
Whose worst was,mthat the noble Mortimer, 
Leading the men of Herefordshire fo fight 
Against the irregular and wild Glendower, 
Was by the rude hands of that Welshman taken, 
And a thousand of his people butchercd : 
Upou whose dead corps there was such misuse, 
Such beastly, shameless transformation, 
By those Welshwomen donc, 1 as may not be, 
Without much shame, re-told or spoken off 
I(. IoEEar. If seems then, that the tidings of this 
Brake off our business for the Holy land. 
lYEsr. This, match'd with other, did, my gra- 
cious lord ; 
:For more uneven and unwelcome news 
Came from the north, and thus it did import. 
On Holy-rood day, the gallant Hotspur there, 
Young Harry Percy, " and brave Archibald, a 
That ever-valiant and approved Scot, 
At Hohnedon met, 
Where they did spend a sad and bloody hour ; 
As by discharge of their artillery, 
And shape of likelihood, the news was told; 

lB loi those Welshwomen done,] Thus Holinshed, p. 5-'28: 
« sueh shameful villanie exeeuted upon the eareasses of the 
dead men by the Welshwomen; as the like (I doo beleeve) hath 
never or sildome beene praetised." See T. Walsingham, p. 557. 
the gallant Hotspur there, 
Young Harry Perey,] Holinshed's Historg of Scotland, 
40, says: " This Harrj Perct was surnamed, tbr his often 
pricking, Hem.'j Hot.spur, as one" that seldom rimes rested, if 
there were ame servme to be done abroad." 
 Archibald,] Archibald Douglas, earl Douglas. 


For he tbat brought them, in the very heat 
And pride of their conteution did take horse, 
Uncertain of the issue any way. 
K. I-IE,V. Here is a dear and true-industrious 
Sir Walter Blunt, new ]ighted from his horse, 
Stain'd with the variation of each soil  
Betwixt that Holmedon and this seat of ours ; 
And he hath brought us Slnooth and welcome news. 
The earl of Douglas is discomfited ; 
Ten thousand bold Scots, two-and-twenty knights, 
Balk'd in flieir own blood,  did sir Walter see 
4 Stain'd with the variation of each soil] No circumstance 
could have been better chosen to mark the expedition of Sir 
Walter. It is used by Falstaff in a similar manner: " As it 
were to ride day and night, and hOt to deliberate, hot to remem- 
ber, hot to bave patience to shit) me, but to stand stained with 
travel." HENLEY. 
» Balk'd in their own blood,] I should suppose, that the au- 
thor might bave written either bath'd, or bak'd, i. e. encrusted 
over with blood dried upon them. A passage in Heywood's 
Iron ./Ige, 16S, may countenance the latter of these conjec- 
tures : 
" Troilus lies embak'd 
" In his cold blood."-- 
Again, in Hamlet: 
" horribly trick'd 
« With blood of fathers, mothers, daughters, sons, 
« Bak'd and impasted," &c. 
Again, in Heywood's Iron Age: 
" -- bak'd in blood and dust." 
Again, ibid : 
" .-------as bak'd in blood." ST..vms. 
Balk is a ridge; and particularly, a ridge of land: here is 
therefore a metaphor ; and perhaps the poet means, in his bold 
and careless manner of expression: « Ten thousand bloodg car- 
casses piled up together in a long heap."--', A ridge of dead 
bodies piled up in blood." If this be the meaning of balked for 
the g.reater, exactness of construction, we might add to the 
pointmg, VlZ. 
Balk'd, in their on blood, &c. 

sc. r. KING HENRY IV. 187 

On Hohnedon's plains: Ofprisoners, Hotspur took 
liordake the earl of File, and eldest son 
To beaten Douglas ; 6 and the earls of Athol, 

" Piled up in a ridge, and in their own blood," &c. But with- 
out this punctuation, as at present, the context is more poetical, 
and presents a stronger image. 
A balb, in the sense here mentioned, is a common expression 
in Warwickshire, and the northern cottnties. It is used in tbe 
saine signification in Chaucer's Plowmau's Tale, p. 18.2, edit. 
Urr. v. %28. WArtToN. 
Balk'd bt their ovn blood, I believe, means, laid in heaps or 
hillocks, in their own blood. Blithe's Englaud's Improvement, 
p. 118, observes: " The mole raiseth balks in meads and pas- 
tures." In Leland's Itinerary, Vol. V. p. 16 and 118, Vol. VII. 
p. 10, a balk signifies a bank or bill. Ir. Pope, in the lliad, 
has the saine thought : 
" On heaps the Greeks, on heaps the Trojans bled, 
" And thick'ning round them rise the hills of dead." 
In Chapman's translation of the Shield ofAchilles, 4to. 1598, 
the word balk also occurs: 
" Amongst all these ail silent stood their king, 
" Upon a bal', his scepter in his hand." 
 :3lordal'e the earl of File, and eldest son 
To beaten Douglas ; ] The articlethe, which is wanting 
in the old copies, was supplied by Mr. Pope. 5'If. Malone, how- 
ever, thinks it needless, and says " the word earl is here used 
as a dissyllable." 
Mordake earl of Fit'e, who was son to the duke of Albany, 
regent of Scotland, is here called the soz ofearl Douglas, through 
a mistake into which the poet was led by the omission of a coin- 
ma in the passage of Holinshed fi-omwhence he took tbis account 
of the Scottish prisoners. It stands thus in the historian: "and 
of prisoners, Mordacke earl o" Fife, son to the gouvernour Ar- 
chembald earle Dowglas," &c. The want of a comma after 
gouvernour, makes these words appear to be the description of 
one and the same person, and so the poet understood them ; but 
by putting the stop in the proper place, it will then be manifest 
that in this list 3Iordake, who was son to the governor of Scot- 
land, was the first prisoner, and that Archibald earl of Douglas 
was the second, and so on. Sxv,.vv,rs. 


Of Murray, Angus, and MenteithY 
And is not this an honourable spoil ? 
A gallant prize ? ha, cousin, is it uot ? 
l'Il*EST. In faith, 
It is  a conquest tbr a prince to boast of. 
K. H.v. Yea, there thou mak'st me sad, and 
mak'st me sin 
In envy that my lord Northumberland 
Should be the thther of so blest a son : 
A son, who is the theme of honour's tongue ; 
Amongst a grove, the very straightest plant ; 
Who is sveet fortune's minion, and ber pride : 
Whilst I, by looking on the praise of him, 
See riot and dishonour stain the brow 
Of my young Harry. O, that it could be prov'd, 
That some night-tripping fairy had exchang'd 
In cradle-clothes our children where they lay, 
And call'd minePercy, hisPlantagenet ! 
Then would I bave his Harry, and he mine. 
But let hiln ri'oto my thoughts :What think you, 
Of this young Percy's pride ? the prisoners, - 

  and Menteith.'l This is a mistake of' Holinshed in lais 
English Historg, tbr in that of Scotland, p. 59, 269, and 419 
he speaks of' the Earl of' File and ]ffenteith as one and the saine 
person. STZrVZrS. 
 In fa#h, 
It is ] These words are in the first quarto, 1598, by the 
inaeeuraey of the transeriber, plaeed at the end of the preee- 
ding speeeh, but at a eonsiderable distance £rom the last word of 
it. Mr. Pope and the subsequent editors read'Faith 'Iis &e. 
  thelgrisoners,] Perey had an exclusive right to these 
prisoners, exeept the Earl of File.. By the law of arms, every 
man who had taken any captive, whose redemption did hot ex- 
eeed ten thousand erowns, had him elearly for himsel£, either to 
acquit or ransom» at his pleasure. It seems from Camden's Bri- 

sc. . KING HENRY IV. 189 
Which he in this adventure hath surpriz'd, 
To his own use he keeps ; and sends me word, 
I shall have none but Mordake earl of Fife. 
IVEs'r. This is his uncle's teaching, this is Wor- 
Malevolent to yot.t in all aspécts ;1 
Which makes him prune himself,  and bristle up 
The crest of youth against your diglfity. 
K. _,tI. But I have sent for him to answer this; 
And, for this cause, awhile we nmst negleet 
Our holy purpose to Jerusalem. 

tannht, that Pounouny castle in Scotland was built out of the 
ransom or" this very Henry Percy, when taken prisoner at the 
battle of Otterbourne by an ancestor of the present Earl of Eg- 
lington. TorL'. 
Pcrcy could not refuse the Earl of Fife to the King ; for being 
a prince of the blood royal, (son to the Duke oç Albany, brother 
to King Robert III.) Henry nfight justly claim him by his ac- 
knowledged military prerogative. S.Eves. 
 Malevolent to ou in all asTe'cts; ] An astrological alluvion 
Worcester is represented as a mahgnant star that influenced the 
¢onduct of Hotspur. HENLEY. 
 Which makes hbn prune himself,] The metaphor is takcn 
from a cock, who in lais pride prunes himself; that is, picks oit 
the loose feathers to smooth the rest. To prune and fo plume, 
spol-:en of a bird, is the saine. Joratqso,-. 
Dr. Johnson is certainly right in his cholce of the reading. 8% 
in The Ebbler's Prophecy, 159 : 
" Sith now thou dost but prune thy wings, 
" And make thy feathers gay." 
Again, in Greene's 'tletamorphosis, 1619: 
" Pride makes the fowl to prune his feathers so." 
But I ana not certain that the verb toprmte is justlyinterpreted. 
In The Booke of I-Iaukynge, &c. (commonly called The Booke of 
St..4lbans,) is the following aeeount of it: " The hauke lroi- 
neth when she fetcheth oyle with ber beake over the talle, and 
anointeth ber feet and her fethers. She plmneth whert she pull- 
eth f«thers of anie fouie and cateth theln from her." 


Cousin, on Wednesday next our council we 
Will hold at Windsor, so inforln the lords : 
But eome yourself with speed to us again ; 
For more is to be said, and to be done, 
Than out of anger ean be uttered? 
IV2ST. I will, my liege. [Exeunt. 


The saine. Zlnolher Room in the Palace. 

Enter HENRY Prizce o.f Wales, and lç'ALSTAFFo 

FtL. Now, Hal, what rime of day is it, lad ? 
P. H22 . Thou art so tat-witted, with drinking 
of old sack, and unbuttoning thee after supper, and 
sleeping upon benches after noon, that thou hast 
forgotten to demand that truly which thou wou]d'st 
truly know.  What a devil hast thou to do with the 
time of the day ? unless hours were eups of saek, 
and minutes capons, and elocks the tongues of" 
ba,-,ds, and dials the signs of leaping-houses, and 

 Than out of anger can be uttered.] That is, " More is to 
be said than anger will surfer me fo say: more than can issue 
from a mind disturbed like mîne." 3OHISO. 
  fo demand that truhj which thou would'st trulgknow.] 
The Prinee's objection to the question seems to be, that Falstaff 
had asked in the night what was the rime of the dag. 
This cannot be well received as the objection of" the Prince ; 
f;r presently af'ter, the Prince himself says: " Good morrow, 
Ned," and Poins replies: " Good morrow, sweet lad." The 
truth may be, that when Shakspeare makes tbe Prince wish 
Poins a good morrow, he had forgot that the scene commenced 
at night. STEEVENS. 

sc. H. KING HENRY IV. 191 

the blessed sun hilnself a fair hot wench in flame- 
eolour'd raff'ara; I sec no reason, whythou should'st 
be so superfluous to demand the tilne of the day. 
£'AL. Indeed, you eome near me, now, Hal : for 
we, that take purses, go by the moon and seven 
stars; and hOt by Phoebus,--he, that wandering 
k»@ht soJàir. » And, I pray thee, sweet wag, when 
thou art king,mas, God save thy grace, (lna.jesty, 
I should say; for graee thou wilt have none,) 
P. tt. What ! none ? 
FL. No, by my troth ; hOt so inuch as will serve 
to be prologue to an egg and butter. 
P. Hv. Well, how then ? corne, roundly, roundly. 
L. Marry, then, sweet, when thou art 
king, let not us, that are sqmres of the night's 
body, be called thieves of the day's bcauty; 6 let 

s Phoebus,he, that wandering knight so fizlr.] Flstaff starts 
the idea of Phoebus, i. e. the sun ; but dev]ates into an allusion 
to El Donzel del F«bo, the knight of the sun in a Spanish romance 
translated (under the title of The 3Iirror of Knighthood, &c. 
during the age of Shakspeare. This illustrious personage was 
" nmst excellently faire," and a great wanderer, as those who 
travel after him throughout three thick volumes in 4to. will dis- 
cover. Perhaps the words " thC wanderlng knight so tZair, '' are 
art of some forgotten ballad on the subject of this marvellous 
ero's adventures. In Peele's Old lVives Talc, Coin. 1595, 
Eumenides, the wandering knight, is a character. Sxrrvss. 
« let hot us, that are squires of the night's body, be called 
thieves of the dag's beautj] This conveys no manner of idea 
to me. How could they be called thieves of the dC's beauty 
They robbed by moonshine; they could not steal the fait day-light. 
I have ventured to substitute boot/: and tbis I take to be the 
meaning. Let us not be called tttieves, the purloiners of that 
hootu, which, to the proprietors, was the purchase of honest 
labour and industry by day. 
It is truc, as Mr. Theobald has observed, that they eould hot 
steal thefairdazj-light; but I believe our poet by the expression, 
thieves o.f the dŒE]'s beauty, meant only, let hot us who are boddt 


us be--Diana's foresters, 7 gentlemen of the shade, 
minions of the moon : And let men say, we be 
men of good government ; being governed as the 
sea is, by our noble and chaste mistress the moon, 
under whose countenance we--steal. 

P. Hr. Thou say'st well; and it holds well too: 
for the fortune of us, that are the moon's men, 
doth ebb and flow like the sea; being governed as 
the sea îs, by the moon. As, for proof, now : A 
purse of go]d most resolutely snatchcd on Monday 
night, and most dissolutely spent on Tuesday morn- 

squircs to the night, i. e. adorn the nlght, be called a disgrace fo 
lhe day. To take away the beauty of the day, may probably 
mean, to disgraee it. A squire of the body signified originally, 
the attendant on a knight ; the person who bore lais head-pieee, 
spear, and shield. It beeame aterwards the eant terre for a 
pimp; and is so used in the second part of Deeker's Honest 
IVhore, 1690. Again, in The lVit 0 fait One, 1633, for a 
procuress: " Here cornes the squire of her mistress's body." 
Falstaff, however, puns on the word knight. See the 6rialia 
of Samuel Pegge, Esq. Part I. p. 100. SvEs. 
There is also, I bave no doubt, a pun on the word beautff, 
whieh in the western eounties is pronouneed nearly in the same 
manner as boot. See King Henry VL P. III: 
" So trimnph thieves upon their conquer'd boo(." 
7 Diana's foresters, &c.] 
" Exile and slander are justly mee awarded, 
" My wife and heire laeke lands and lawful right; 
" And me their lord ruade dame Diana's knight." 
So lamenteth Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, in The 
Iirrour r 5lagistrates. HDeaSO. 
We learn from Hall, that certain persons who appeared as 
resters in a pageant exhibited in the reign of King Henry VIII. 
were called Diana's knights. 
s  minions  the moon :] ms, as Dr. Fariner obsees» 
Gamaliel Ratsey and his eompany " beeame servants to the 
»wone, for the sunne vas too hot for them." 

zc. xx. KING HENRY IV. 193 

ing ; got with swearingmlay by ;9 and spent with 
crying--bring in: 1 now, in as low an ebb as the 
foot of the ladder; and, by and by, in as high a 
flow as the ridge of the gallows. 
FnL. By the Lord, thou say'st true, lad. _And is 
hot my hostess of the tavern a most sweet wench ?" 
P. Hz,v. As the honey of Hybla, my old lad of 

9 got with swearinglay by ;] i.e. swearing at the 
passengers they robbed,. .lay by gour arms ; or rather, lay bzT was 
a phrase tha.t then sfied stand still, addressed to those who 
were preparmg to rush tbrward. But the Oxford cditor kindly 
accommodates these old thieves with a new caut phrase, taken 
from Bagshot-heath or Finchley-common, of lug out. 
To lay bg, is a phrase adopted ri'oto navigation, and signifies, 
by slackening sail to become stationary. It oecurs again 
5"ng Henr VIII: 
" Even the bil]ows of the sea 
" Hung their heads, and then la by." 
'  and spent with crgingbring in ] i. e. more wine. 
«  And is hot m hostess &E the lavern &c.] We meet 
with the saine kind of humour as is eontained in this and the 
three following speeehes, in The lostellaria OEPlautus, Aet I. 
se. ii : 
" Jampridem ecastor fi'igidà non lavi magis lubenter, 
" Nec unde me melius, mea Scapha, rear esse defoecatam. 
" Sca. Eventus rebus omnibus, velut horno messis magna 
' Phi. Quid ea messis attinet ad meam lavationem 
«, Sca. Nihilo plus, quam lavatio tua ad messim." 
In the want of connection to what went belote, probably eon- 
slsts the humour ofthe Prlnce's question. Szevs. 
This kind of hunmur is often lnet with in o]d plays. In The 
Gallathea of Lyly, Phillida says: " It is a pittie that nature 
fi-amed you hot a woman. 
" Gall. There is a tree in Tylos, &e. 
" PhilL What a toy it is to tell me of that tree, being nothing 
to the purpose," 
Ben Jonson calls it a gane af va2ours. 
¥OL, XI. 0 

the castle? And is hot a buffjcrkin a most sweet 
robe of durance ? 

 As the honej oftIjbla, my old lad of the castle.] Mr. Rowe 
took notice of a tradition, that this part of Falstaff was written 
originally under the naine of Oldeastle. An ingenious corre- 
spondent hints to me, that the passage above quoted from our 
author, proves what Mr. Robre tells us was a tradition. Old lad 
ofthe castle seems to have a referenee to Oldeastle. Besides, if 
this had not been the faet, why, in the epilogue to The Second 
Part of£ïn tt«nrj IV. where our author promises to continue 
his story wih Sir John in it, should he say, " Where, for any 
thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a sweat, unless already he be 
killed with your hard opinions : tbr Oldetle died a martyr, and 
this is not the man." This looks like deelining a point that had 
been ruade an objection to him. I'll give a farther marrer in 
proof, vhieh seems alnmst to fix the charge. I bave read an old 
play, ealled, The famous Victories of Henry the Fifth, contain- 
in the honour«ble B«ttle of Agincourt.--The action of this pieee 
commences about the year of King Hen.ry the Fourth' 
reign, and ends with Henry the Fith's marrymg Princess Ca- 
tharine of France. The seene opens with Prince Henry's rob- 
beries. Sir John Oldeastle is one of the gang, and ealled Joekie ; 
and Ned and Gadshill are two other eomrades.--From this old 
imperfeet sketeh, I have a suspicion, Shakspeare might form hi 
two parts of King Henrj IV. and his]fistorv of King Henrj V. 
and eonsequently it is not improbable, thal he mig'ht continue 
the mention of Sir John Oldeastle, till some descendant of that 
family moved Queen Elizabeth to eommand him to change tha 
naine. Trr:ontX.D, 
-- m.] old lad of the castle.] This alludes to the name Shak- 
speare first gave to this buffoon eharaeter, which vas Sir John 
Oldcastle ; and when he ehanged the naine he forgot to strike out 
this expression that alluded to it. The reason of the change was 
this: one Sir John Oldeastle having suffered in the rime of 
Henry the Fifth for the opinions of Wiekliffe, it gave offenee, 
and therefore the poet altered it to Falstaff, and endeavours to 
remove the seandal in the epilogue to The Second Part oftTng 
Itenr3 I t\Fuller takes notice of this marrer in his Chvrch 
Histor!/:--" Stage-poets bave themselves been very bold with, 
and others very merry at, the memory of Sir John Oldeastle, 
whom they have faneied a boon eompanion, a joviM royster, and 
a eoward to boot. The best is, Sir John Falstaff hath relieved 
the memory of Sir John Oldcastle, and of late is substituted 

sc. lt. KING HENRY IV. I95 

tï'AL. How now, how now, mad wag ? what, in 

buffoon in hls place." Book IV. p. 168. But, to be candld, I 
believe there was no malice in the marrer. Shakspeare wanted 
a droll naine to his character, and never considered whom it 
belonged to. We have a like instance in The 21lcrrff lVives ff 
IVindsor, where he calls his French quack, Caius, a naine at 
that time very respectable, as bclougiug to an eminent aud 
learned physician, one of the founders of Caius College in Cam- 
bridge. W. rvrToN. 
The propriety of this notc the readcr will find contested at 
the beginning of King llenrff V. Sir John Oldcastle was not a 
character ever introduced by Shakspeare, nor did he ever oc- 
cupy the place of FalstalT. The play in  hich Gldcastle's naine 
occurs, was not the work of our poet. 
OId lad is likewise a i:amiliar compellation to be round in some 
of our most ancient drainatick pieces. So, in The Trial of Trea- 
sure, 1567 : " What, Inclination, old lad art thou there ?" In 
the dedication to Gabriel Harvey's Hunt is u]», &c. by T. Nash, 
1598, old Dick of the castle is mentioned. 
Again, in Pierce's Supererogation, or a New Praise of the Old 
Asse, 1595 : " And here's a lusty ladd of the castell, that will 
binde beares, and ride golden asses to death." STVNS. 
Old lad of the castle, is the saine with Old lad of Castile, a 
Castilian.--Meres reckons Oliver of the castle anmngst his ro- 
mances : and Gabriel Harvey tells us of "Old lads of the castell 
with their rapping babble."--roaring boys.--This is thcrefore no 
argument for Falstaff's appearing first under the naine of Old- 
castle. There is, however, a passage in a play called Amends 
for Ladies, by Field the player, 1618, which may seem to prove 
it, unless he confounded the different performances : 
" Did you never see 
" The play where the fat knight, hight Oldcastle, 
" Did tcll you truly what this honour was ?" 
Fuller, besides the words cited it the note, has in his lVorthies, 
p. -'25S, the following passage: " Sir John Oldcastle was first 
ruade a thrason&al pu2f, an emblem of mock valour, a make- 
sport in all plays, for a coward.'" Speed, likewise, in his Chro- 
nicle, edit. 2, p. 178, says: " The author of The Three Con- 
versions (i. e. Parsons the Jesuit,) hath ruade Oldcastle a ruffian, 
a robber, and a rebel, and lais authority, taken fi'om the stage 
players, is more befitting the pen of his slanderous report, than 
the credit of the judicious, being only grounded from the papist 

196 FIRST PART OF ,c '. 

thy quips, and thy quiddities ? what a plague have 
I to do with a buffjerkin ? 
and the poet, of like conscience for lies, the one ever feigning, 
and the otber ever thlsifying the truth." RITsoN. 
From flae following passage in The l¢eeting of Gallants af an 
Ordinaire, or the Walkes in Prudes, quarto, 160, it appears that 
Sir John Oldcastle was represented on the stage as a very fat 
man (certainly hot in the play printed with that title in 1600 :) 
" Now, signiors, how like you naine host ? did I hot tdl you 
ho was a madde round knave and a merrie one too ? and if you 
dmunce to talke of.fitlle Sir John Oldcastle, he will tell you, he 
was his great grand-thther, and hot much unlike him in Iaunch." 
The host, who is hcre described, returns to the gallants, and 
entertains them with telling them stories. After his first tale 
he says: " Nay gallants, l'll fit you, and now I will serve in 
another, as good as vinegar and pepper to your roast beefe." 
Signor Içicltshawe replies : "Let's have it, let's taste on it, naine 
host, my noble fat actor." 
The cause of all the confusion relative to these two charac- 
tors, and of the tradition mcntioned by Mr. Iowe, that out au- 
thor changed the naine from Oldcastle to Falstaff, (to which I 
do not give the smallest credit,) seems to have been this. Shak- 
speare appears evidently to have caught the idea of the charac- 
ter of Falstaff from a wretched play entitled The jïamous Victo- 
• ries of King Henry V. (which had been exhibited before 1589,} 
in which Henry Prince of Wales is a principal character. He 
is accompanicd in his revels and his robberies by Sir John Old- 
castle, (" a pamper'd glutton, and a debauchee," as he is called 
in a piece of" that age,) who appears to be the character alluded 
to in the passage above quoted from The Jleetin of Gallants, 
&c. To this character undoubtedly it is that Fuller alludes in 
his Chu.rch History, 1656, when he says, " Stage-poets have 
themselves been very bold with, and others very merry at, the 
memory of Sir John Oldcastle, whom they have fancied a boon 
companion, a jovial royster, and a coward to boot." 8peed, in 
his History, which was first published in 1611, alludes both to 
this "boon companion" of the anonymous King Henry V. and 
to the Sir John Oldcastle exhibited in a play of the sanie naine, 
which was printed in 1600: " The author of The Three Con- 
versions hath ruade Oldcastle a ruflïan, a robber, and a rebel, 
and his authority taken from the stae 7lavers." Oldcastle is 
represented as re5el in the play las m'en't'ioned alone ; in the 
former play a "a ruflian and a robber." 

oe. zi. KING HENRY IV. 197 

P. HE . Wh)-, what a pox bave I to do with my 
hostess of the tavern ? 

Shakspeare probably never intended to ridicule the real Sir 
John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, in any respect: but thought pro- 
per to make Falstaff, in imitation of his proto-type, the Oldcastle 
of the old Kbg tIenrff V. a mad round kave also. From the 
first appearance of our author's King Henry 1V. the old play in 
.vhich Sir Jolm Oldcastle had been exhibited, (which was printed 
in 1598,) was probably never performed. Hence, I conceive, 
it is, that Fuller says, " Sir John Falstaff has relieved thc me- 
morv of Sir John Oldcastle, and of late is substit«ted buffoon in 
his lace ;" which being misunderstood, probably gave fise to 
the story, that Shakspeare changed the naine of his character. 
A passage in his Worthies, folio, 1662, p. 25, shows his mean- 
ing still more clearly; and will serve at the saine time to point 
out the source of the mistakes on fils subject." Sir John Fas- 
toile, knight, was a native of this county [Norfolk-I. To avouch 
him by many arguments valiant, is to maintaia that the sun is 
bright; though, since, the stage bas been over-bold with his 
memory, making him a Thrasonical puff, and emblem of mock- 
valour.True it is, Sir Joha Oldcastle did jfirst bear thc brunt of 
the one, being ruade the makesport in all 1gl«(ys for a coward. It 
is easily known out of what purse this black penny came. The 
papists railing on him for a heretick ; and therefore he must be 
also a coward : though indeed he was a man of arms, every inch 
ofhim, and as valiant as any ofhis age. 
« Now as I am glad that Sr Joh Oldcastle is put out, so I 
ana sorry that Sir Jolm Fastolfe is put in, to relieve his memory 
in thls base service : to be the anvil for every dull wit to strike 
upon. Nor is out comedian excusable by some alteration of his 
naine, writing him Sir John Falstafe, (and making him the pro- 
perty and pleasure of King Henry V. to abuse,) seeing the vici- 
nity of sounds intrench on the memory of that worthy knight." 
Here we see thc assertion is, not that Sir John Oldcastle did 
j-çrst bear the brunt in Shat's)geare's play, but in allpla.]s, that is, 
on the stage in general, bcfore Shakspeare's character had ap- 
peared; owing to the malevolence ofpalgists , of which religion 
it is plain Fuller supposed the writers of those plays in which 
Oldcasfle was exhibited, to have been ; nor does he complain of 
Shakspeare's altering the naine of his character ri'oto Oldcastle 
to Falstaff, but of the metathesis of Fastolje to Falstaff. Yet I 
bave no donbt that the words above cited, " put out" and "put 
in," and " by some alteration of his naine," that these words 
aloae, misunderstood, gave fise to the misapprehension tiret ha8 


FArt. Wcll, thou hast called her to a reckoning, 
many a rime and oft. 

prevailed since the rime of Mr. Rowe, relative to this matter. 
For what is the plain meaning of Fuller's words ? " Sir John 
Fastolfe was in trutb a ver), brave man, though he is now repre- 
sented on the stage as a cowardly braggart. Betbre he was thus 
ridieu]ed, Sir John Oldcastle, being hated by the papists, was 
exhibited by popish wr#ers, in all plays, as a coward. 8ince 
the new charaeter of Falstaff has appeared, Oldcastle bas no 
longer borne the brunt, has no longer been the object of ridi- 
cule : but, as on the one hand, I ana glad tbat ' his memol'y bas 
been relieved,' tbat the plays in which he was represented have 
been expelled ri'oto the scene, su on the otber, I ana sorry tlmt 
so respectable a charaeter as Sir .John Fastollè has been brought 
on it, and ' substituted buffoon in his place;' for however our 
comiek poet [Shakspeare'] naay bave hoped to eseape censure 
by alteri;ç the naine from Fastolfe to Falstaff, he is certain]y 
culpable, since some imputation must neeessarily fall on the 
brave knight of Norfolk, from the similitude of the sounds." 
Falstaff having thus grown out of, and immediately succeed- 
ing, the other eharacter, (the Oldeastle of the old I7;;g Hen- 
-y Y.) having one or two features in common with him, and 
being probably represented in the saine dress, and with the saine 
fictitious belly, as lais predeeessor, the two names might bave 
been iudiseri,ninately used by Field and others, without any 
lnistake or intention to deeelve. Perhaps, behind the scenes, 
in consequence of tbe circumstances already mentioned, Old- 
castle might bave been a cant appellation for Falstaff for a long 
time. Hence the naine might bave been prefixed inadvertently, 
in some playhouse copy, to one of the speeches in The Second 
Part of lçïg Henrtj 1 I2 
If the verses be examined in which the naine of Falstaff oc- 
curs, it will be round, that Oldcastle could hot bave stood in 
those places. Tbe only answer that can be given to tbis, is 
that Shakspeare new-wrote each verse in which Falstaff's naine 
occurred ;a labour which those only who are entirely unac- 
quainted with out author's history and works, can suppose him 
to bave undergone.A passage in the Epilogue to The Second 
19art of lçng Henry 112 rightly understood, appears to me 
strongly to confirm what has been now suggested. See the 
note dere. MM.ox. 

And is hot a buffjerkin a most sweet robe ofdurance ?] To 
understand the propriety of the Prince's answer, it must be re- 
marked that the heriff's officers were formerly clad in buff. So 

sc. xt. KING HENRY IV. 19 

1 ). IIE: Did I ever call for thee to pay thy part ? 
FL. No ; l'Il give thee thy due, thou hast paid 
all there. 
P. HEn: Yea, and e|sewhere, so far as my coin 
would streteh; and, where it would not, I have 
used lny eredit. 
FAL. Yea, and so used it, that were it not here 
apparent that thou art heir apparent,--But, I pr'y- 
thee, sweet wag, shall there be gallows standing in 
Egland when thou art king ? and resolution thus 
fobbed as it is, with the rusty curb of old father 
antick the law ? Do not thou, when thon art king, 
hang a thief. 
P. HEur. No; thou shalt. 
FL. Shall I ? O rare! By the Lord, l'll be a 
brave judge? 

that when FaIstaffasks, whether his hostess is hot a sweet, wench 
the Prince asks in return whether if will hot be a sweet thing to 
go fo prison by running in debt fo this sweet wench. JoHso. 
The following passage from the old play of Ram-Alley, nmy 
serve to confirm Dr. Johnson's observation : 
" Look, I bave certain goblins in buffjerkins, 
« Lye ambuseado."-- [Enter Serjeants. 
Again, in The Comedy ofErrors, Aet IV: 
" A devil in an everlasting garmett hath him, 
" A fellow all in bu.ff:." 
Durance, however, might also have signified some lasting kind 
of stuff, such as we call at present, everlastinz. So, in West- 
ward Hoe, by Decker and Webster, 1607: ' Where did'st thou 
buy this buff? Let me hot live but I will give thee a good su# of 
durance. Wi]t thou take my bond ?" &e. 
Again, in The Devil's Charter, 1607: « VaHet of vdvet,, 
my moccado villain, old heart of durance, my strip'd canvas 
shoulders, and my perpetuana pander." Again, in The Three 
Ladies of London, 158: « As the taylor that out of seven 
yards, stole one and a hall" of durance." S.gvgs. 
» -- l'll be a bravejudge.] This thought, llke many others 
is taken from the old play of King Henry V: 

'200 FIRST PART OF cr t. 

P. HEa. Thou judgest false already ; I nean, 
thou shalt have the hanging of the thieves, and so 
become a rare hangman. 
FAL. Well, Hal, well ; and in sonne sort it jumps 
with my humour, as well as waiting in the court, 
I Call tell you. 
/9. HEa. For obtaining of suits 76 
F_L. Yea, for obtaining of suits : whereof the 
hangman hath no lean wardrobe. 'Sblood, I aih 
as melancholy as a gib cat, 7 or a lugged bear. 

" Hen. lç Ned, so soon as I ana king, the first thing I will do 
shall be to put my lord chiefjusffce out of office ; and thou shalt 
be my lord chiefjustice of England." 
" Ned. Shall Ï be lord chie.fjustice ? By gogs wounds, l'Il be 
the bravest lord chier justice that ever was in England." 
For obtaining of suits?] Suit, spoken of one that attends 
at court, means aFetition ; used with respect to the hangman» 
means the clothes of the offender. JoHsor. 
So, in an ancient l[edley, bl. 1: 
«, The broker hath gay cloaths to sell 
" Which from the hangman's budget fell." S'vs. 
See Vol. VI. p. 949, n. 8. The saine quibble oeeurs in Hoff- 
nan's Traged 9, 161 : " A poor maiden, mlstress, has a suit to 
you; and 'ris a good suit,very good apparel." 
r  a gib eat,'] A gib car means, I know not why, an old 
A gib car is thc common tcrm n Northamptonshire, and all 
adjacent countics, to express a he cat. PERCY. 
" As melancholy as a gb'd car," is a proverb enumerated 
among others in Ray's Collection. In A Match at 
1653, is thc following passage: " They swe]l like a couple of 
gib'd cts, met both by chance in the dark in an o]d garret." 
So, in Bulwer's Artcial Changeli», 1653: " Some in mania 
or mclancho]y nmdness have nttempted the saine, not without 
success, although they bave remaned somewhat nelancho like 
ib'd cats." I bclicve, aftcr al], a gib'd cat is a car who bas becn 
qualificd for thc scraglio ; for all animals so mutilated, become 

sc. xx. KING HENRY IV. 2Ol 

P. I-IFV. Or an old lion ; or a lover's lute.  
/AL. Yea, or the drone of a Lincolnshire bag- 
pipe. 9 
P. HEur. What sayest thou to ahare, 1 or the me- 
lancholy of Moor-ditch . 

drowsy and melancholy. To glib has certainly that meaning. 
So, in The Winter's Talc, Act II. sc. i: 
" And I had rather glib myself than they 
" Should not produce fair issue." 
In Sidney's Arcadia, however, the saine quality in a car 
mentioned, without any retirence to the consequences of cas- 
tration : 
" The hare, her sleights ; fle car, his melancholy.'" 
Sherwood's F.nglish Dictionar at the end oF Cotgrave's 
French one, says : "Gibbe is an old ho cat." Aged animals are 
hot so playfnl as those which are young: and gib'd or gelded 
ones are duller than others. So we might read: "as 
melancholy as a gi car, or a glib'd car." TOLLET. 
s  or a lover's lute.] See Vol. VI. p. 90, n. 5. 
9 Lncolnshre bagppe.] Lncolnslnre bagppes is a 
proverbial saying. Fuller has not attempted to explain it; and 
Ray only conjectures that the Lincolnshire people may be fonder 
of this instrument than others. Dovc.. 
I suspect, that by the drone of a Lincolnshire baglfiTe , is 
nmant the dull croak of a frog, one of the native musicians of 
tlmt waterish county. 
As a vigorous support to myexplanation, I ara informed by Sir 
Joseph Banks, that in the neighbourhood of Boston in Lincoln- 
shire, the noisy frogs are still humorously denominated " the 
Boston aits."In The pleasaunt and statelff _Morall of Three 
Lordes and Three Ladies of London, 1590, to. bi. 1. there is 
mention of " The sweete ballade of 2"]te Lincolnshire Bag- 
pilles." SrElïVEN$. 
  a hare,] A hare may be considered as melancholy, be- 
cause she is upon ber form always solitary; and, according to the 
physick of the times, the flesh of it was supposed to generate 
melancholy. JorrsoN. 
The following passage in Yittoria Coromona, &c. 1612, may 
prove the best explanation: 

Ft5. Thou hast the mostunsavourysîmiles; 3 and 
art, indeed, the most comparative,  rascalliest,-- 

"  like your melancholy hare, 
" Feed after midnight." 
Again, in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song the second: 
" The melanchol.q hare is form'd in brakes and briers." 
The Egyptians in their Hieroglyphies expressed a melaneholy 
man by a hare sitting in her tbrm. See Pierii Hieroglgph. 
Lib. XII. Sïwv.vws. 
 the wlanchol of Moor-diteh?] It appears rioto 
Stowe's Sur,e?/, that a broad diteh, called Deep-diteh, formerly 
parted the Hospital from ,Ioor-fields; and what bas a lnore 
melancholy appearanee than stagnant water ? 
This diteh is also mentioned in The Gul's Hornbook, by Decker, 
1609: "it will be a sorer labour than the eleansing of 
Augeas' stable, or the seowring of 3Ioor-ditch." 
Again, in Newes from Hell, brought by the Divel's Carrier, 
by Thomas Deeker, 1606: " As touching the river, looke how 
5Ioor-ditch shews when the water is three quarters dreyn'd out, 
and by reason the stomaeke of it is overladen, is ready to fall to 
easting. So does that; it stinks almost worse, is ahnost as poyson- 
ous, altogether so muddy, altogetber so black." Szwwvv.s. 
So, in Ta_¥1or's Pentqlesse Pilgrimage, quarto, 1618 : " -- my 
body being "tired with travel, and my mind attired with moody, 
muddy, 31oore-ditch melancholg." 
_loor-ditch, a part of the diteh surrounding the eity of Lon- 
don, between Bishopsgate and Cripplegate, opened toan unwhole- 
some and impassable morass, and eonsequently hot frequented by 
the eitizens, like other suburbial fields whieh were remarkably 
pleasant, and the tashionable places of resort. T. WlXo. 
 similes;] Old eopiessmiles. Correeted by the editor 
of the second folio. Mo. 
 the most eomparative,] Sir T. Hanmer, and Dr. War- 
burton after him, readincomparative, I suppose for incomTa- 
vable, or peerless ; but coenparative here means quicZ" af compa- 
visons, or.fruit./'ul fit similes, and is properly introdueed. 
Thls epthet s used agan, n Act III. sc. ii. of this p]ay, and 
apparently in the saine sense : 
' stand tire push 
« Of every beardless vain con]mrative." 

c. xr. KING HENRY IV. os 

sweet young priuce,mBut, Hal, I pr'ythee, trouble 
me no more with vanity. I would to God, thou 
and I knewwhere a conuuodity of good names were 
to be botght :  An old lord of the council rated 
nie the other day in the strcet about you, sir; but 
I lnarked him not : and yet he talked very wisely; 
but I regarded him hot : and yet he talked wisely, 
and lai the street too. 
P. Heur. Thou did'st well; for wisdom cries out 
in the streets, and no man regards it. 6 
_/;'AL. O thou hast dalnnable iteration;  and art, 
indeed, able to corrupt a saint. Thou hast doue 
And in Love's Laour»s Lost, Act V. sc. ult. Rosalind tells Biron 
that he is a man " Full of COmlmrisons and wounding flouts." 
" I WouM to God, thou and I knew where a commodity  good 
names were fo be bought :] So, in The Dhcoverie of the Knights 
of the Poste, 1597, sign. C : " In troth they lire so so, and it 
were well if they knew where a commoditie of ames were to be 
sould, and yet I thinke all the nmney in their purses eould not 
buy it." REE». 
 --wisdom cries out in the streets, and no man regards it.] 
This is a scriptural expression: " IVisdom crieth without; she 
uttereth ber voiee bi the streets.I have stretched out my hand, 
and no man regarded." Prover3s, i. 0 and 24. 
 O thou hast damnable iteration ;] For iteration Sir T. Han- 
mer and Dr. Warburton read attractiou, of which the meaning 
is certainly more apparent ; but an editor is hot always to change 
what he does hot understand. In the last speech a text is ver), in- 
decently and abusively app|ied, to whlch Falstaff answers, thot 
ast damnable iteration, or a wicked trick of repeating and ap- 
plying holy texts. This, I think, is the meaning. JoHr¢so. 
Iteration is right, for it also signified simply citation or recita- 
tion. So in VIarlow's Doctor _Faustus, 1631 : 
" Here take this book, and peruse it well, 
« The iteratlng of. these lines brings gold." 
From the context, itera, tg here appears to mean Tronouuciug 
'eciting. Again, in Camden's Remaines 161: « King Ed- 
ward L disliking the iteration of Fi'z, &c. 

2o FIRST PART OF ,«' t. 

much harm upon me, Hal,--God £orgive thee for 
it ! Before Ï knew thee, Hal, I knew nothing ; and 
now ana I, if a man shouht speak truly, little better 
than one of the wieked. I must give over this lire, 
and Ï will give it over; by the Lord, an I do not, 
I am a villain ; I'll be damned ibr never a king's 
son in Christendom. 
P. HN. Where shall we take a purse to-morrow, 
Jack ? 
FAr. Where thou wilt, lad, l'Il make one; an I 
do not, call me villain, and baflte me. s 
P. tic.v. I sec a good amendment of lire in thee  
ri'oto praymg, to purse-taking. 

Enter Pores, at a distance. 

/AL. Why, Hal, 'ris my vocation, Hal ; 'tis no 
sin for a man to labour in his vocation.  Poins !-- 
Now shall we know if Gadshill have set a match, a 

 and baffle me.] See Mr. Tollet's note on King Rich- 
ard II. p. 13. STEEVENS. 
  nO sin for a man to labour in his vocation.] This (as 
I)r. Fariner observes to me,) is undoubtedly a sneer on Agre- 
mont Radcliffe's Politique Discourses, 1578. From the begin- 
ning to the end of this work, the word vocation occurs in ahnost 
every paragraph. Thus chapter i : 
" That the vocation of men hath been a thing unknown unto 
philosophers, and other that have treated of Politique Govern- 
ment; of the commoditie that coineth by tire knowledge there- 
of; and the etymology and definition of this worde vocation." 
Again chap. xxv: 
" Whether a man being disorderl!] and unduelff entered into 
anti vocation, may latfidh d brooke and abide in the saine; and 
whether the administration in the meane while done by him that 
is unduely entered, ought to holde, or be of force." 
 -- bave set a match.J Thus the quarto. So, in Ben Jon- 
son's Bartholomew Fait» 161: " Peace» sir, they'll be angry 

sc. zr. KING HENRY IV. "2_05 

O, if men were to be saved by merit, what hole iii 
hell were hot enough for him ? This is the most 
omnipotent villain, that ever cried, Stand, to a true 
/'. Hv. Good morrow, Ned. 
Pozl«s. Good morrow, sweet Hal.--What s,%vs 
monsieur Remorse ? What says sir John Sack-and- 
Sugar ?,2 Jack, how agrees the devil and thee about 

if they hear you eves-dropping, now they are setting their 
match." There it seems to mean making an aplgointment.The 
tblio readsset a watch, lXlALOSE. 
As no watch is afterwards set, I suppose match to be the true 
reading. So, as Dr. Fariner observed, in Ratsed's (Gamaliel) 
Ghost, b. 1. to. (no date) about 1605 ; " I ha,ce, says he, been 
many rimes beholding to Tapsters and Chamberlaines tbr direc- 
tions and setting of matches." 
 sir John Sact--and-Sugar?] Hentzner, p. 88, edlt. 
1757, speaking of the manners of the English, says, « in potum 
copiosè immittunt saccarum," they put a great deal of sugar in 
their drink. 
Much inqulry has been ruade about Falstaff's sack, and great 
surprize has been expressed that he should have mixed sugar with 
it. As they are here mentioned for the first time in this play, it 
may hot be improper to obser,ce, that it is probable that Falstaff's 
wine was Sherry, a Spanish wine, originally ruade at Xeres. He 
frequcntlyhimselfcalls it Sherris-sack.* Nor will his mixing sugar 
with sack appear extraordinary, when it is known that it was a 
very common practice in our author's tlme to put sugar into ail 
wines. " Clownes and vulgar men (says Fyncs Moryson) only 
use large drinking of beere or ale,but gentlemen garrawse 
only in wine, with which they mix sugar, which I never ob- 
-erved in any other place or kingdom to be used for that purpose. 
And because the taste ofthe English is thus delightedwith sweet- 
ness, the wines in taverns (for I speak not of merchantes' or 
gentlemen's cellars) are commouly mixed at the filling thereof, 
to make them pleasant." Irs. 1617, P. III. p. 152. See also 
Mr. Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, Vol. IV. p. S08: " Among the or- 
ders of the royal household in 1604 is the following: [MSS. 
Haïl. 29, fol. 162.-I ' And whereas in tymes past, SlmUish 

* She,.risis possibly a corruption ri'oto 7«r«s. Szxv»ns. 

o_,06 FIRST PART OF :eT I. 

thy soul, that thou soldest him on Good-friday last, 
for a cup of Madeira, and a cold capon's leg ? 
P. HEur. Sir John stands fo his word, file devil 

wines, called Sacke, were little or no whitt used in our courte,-- 
we now understauding that it is now used in common drink," 
&c. Sack was, I believe, often mulled in our author's rime. 
See a note, post, on the words, " If sack and sugar be a sin," 
&c. See also Blount's GLossorAerlX" : "]klulled Sack, (Vi- 
hum mollitum) because softened and ruade mild by burning, and 
a mixture of sugar." 
Fince this note was written, I have round reason to believe that 
Falstaff's Sack was the dry Spanish wine which we call l$loun- 
tain 3Ia[aga. A passage in lria recta ad itam longam, by 
Thom Venuer, Dr. of Physicke in Bathe, to. 1622, seems to 
ascertain this : 
" Sac]e is completely hot in tbe third degree, and of thb 
Tarts, and theref9re it doth veheluently and quickly heat the 
body.Some affect to drink sack with sugar, and some without, 
and upon no other grounds, as I thiitke, but as it is best plesing 
to their palates. I will speake what I deeme thereof.Sack, 
taken by itself, is very hot and very penetrative; being taken 
with sugar, the heat is both somewhat allayed, and the penetra- 
tire quality thereof also retarded." 
The author afterwards tbus speaks of the wine whlch we now 
denominate Sack, and which was then called Canary: " Cana- 
rie-wine, which beareth the naine of the islands ri'oto whence it 
is brought, is of SOlne termed a sacle, with this adjunct, sweete; 
but yet very improperly, fbr it differeth hot only from sache in 
veetness and plcasantness of taste, but also in colour and con- 
sistence, for it is not so white in colour as sack, nor so thha in 
substance ; wherefore it is more nutritive than sack, and less pe- 
netrative.--White wine, Rhenish wine, &c.--do in six or sea- 
ven moneths, or within, according to the smallness of them, 
attaine unto the height of their goodness, especially the smaller 
sort of them. But the stronger sort of wines, as sack, muska- 
dell, mahnsey, are best when they are two or three years old." 
From hence, therefore, it is clear, that the wine usually called 
ack in that age was thinner than Canary, and was a strong light- 
coloured dry wine; vin sec; and that it was a Spanish wine is 
ascertained by the order quoted by Mr. Tyrwhitt, and by seve- 
rai ancient books. Cole, in lfis Dict. 1679, renders sack by 
Iïnum Hispanicum; and Sherwood in lais Eoglish and French 
I0ict. 1650, by lïn d'Espagne. 5lAror. 

sc. zt. KING HENRY IV. 207 

shall have his bargain; for he was never yet a 
breaker of proverbs, he will give the devil his due. 
Porvs. Then art thou damned for keeping thy 
word with the devil. 
P. tIEV. Else he had been damned for eozening 
the devil. 
Porcs's. But, lny lads, my lads, to-morrow morn- 
ing, by tbur o'clock, early at Gadshill : There are 
pilgrims going to Canterbury with rieh oftrings, 
and traders riding to London with tkt purses: I 
have visors for you all, you have horses for your- 
selves; Gadshill lies to-night iii Rochester ; I bave 
bespoke supper to-morrow night in Easteheap ; we 
may do it as seeure as sleep: If you will go, I wil| 
stuff your purses fidl of crowns ; if you will not, 
tarry at home, and be hanged. 
FAc. Hear me, Yedward; if I tarry at home, 
and go hot, l'Il hang you for going. 
PoI.vS. You will, ehops ? 
FAr. Hal, wilt thou make one ? 
P. tIE.v. Who, I rob ? I a tlfief? not I, by my 
Fnr. There's neitherhonesty, manhood, norgood 
fellowship in thee, nor thou eamest hot ofthe blood 
royal, if thou darest not stand for ten shillings? 

 if thou darest hot stand &c.] The modern reading 
[cry stand] may perhaps be right; but I think it necessary to 
remark, that all the old editions read/f thou darest hot stand 
.for ten shillings. JonNsoY. 
Falstaff is quibbling on the word roffal. The real or roffal 
was of the value of ten shillings. Almost the saine jest occurs 
in a subsequent scene. The quibble, however, is lost, except 
the old reading be preserved. Cy, stand, will hot support it. 

vos FIRST PART OF c' I. 

P. H. Well, then once in my days l'll be a 
'r. Why, that's well said. 
P. HE . Well, comewhat will, l'Il tarryat home. 
Fro;. By the Lord, l'Il be a traitor then, when 
thou art king. 
P. HE . I tare hot. 
Pozvs. Sir John, I pr'ythee, leave the prince and 
me alone; I will lay him down such reasons for 
this adventure, that he shall go. 
/;. Well, may'st thou have the spirit of per- 
suasion, and he the ears ofprofiting, that what thou 
speakest nay move, and what he hears may be be- 
lieved, that the truc prince may (for recreation 
sake,) prove a fitlse thief; for the poor abuses of the 
rime want countenance. Farewell : You shall find 
me in Easteheap. 
P. HExç Farewell, thou latter spring! « Farewell, 
All-hallown sumlner [ » [Exit F.«Ls'rarr. 

  thou latter sprino.t ] Old copiesthe latter. Corrected 
by Mr. Pope. 3IALONE. 
  All-hallown summer !] qll-hallows, is qll-hallozon-tide, 
or _/1Il-saints' day, which is the first of November. We have 
still a church in London, which is absurdly styled St../lll-hallows, 
as if a word which was formed to express the community of 
saints, could be appropriated to anyparticular one ofthe number. 
In The Plaff q] the Four P's, 1569, this mistake, (which might 
bave been a common one,) is pleasantly exposed : 
" Pard. Friends, here you shall see, even anone, 
" Of ./lll-hallows the blessed jaw-bone, 
" Kiss it hardly, with good devotion :" &c. 
The characters in riais scene are striving who should produce the 
greatest falsehood, and very probably in their attempts to excel 
each other, have out-lied even the Romish Kalendar. 
Shakspeare's alluslon is designed to ridicule an old man with 
youthful passions. So, in file second part of this play : « the 
2"lartlemas your toaster." Swv.vm, ls. 

sc. zt. KING HENRY IV. 209 

Po«s. Now, my good sweet honey lord, ride 
with us to-morrow ; I have a jest to execute, that 
I cannot mariage alone. Falstafl Bardolph, Peto, 
and Gadshiil,  shall rob those men that we have 
already way-laid; yourself, and I, will not be there : 
and when they bave the booty, if you and I do hOt 
rob them, cut this head fi'om my shoulders. 

P. HE . But how shall we part with them in 
setting forth ? 

PoINs. Why, we will set forth before or after 
them, and appoint them a place of meeting, where- 
in itis at our pleasure to fitil ; and then will they 
adventure upon the exploit themselves: which they 
shall bave no sooner achieved, but we'll set upon 

19. HE: Ay, but, 'tis like, that they will know 
us, by out horses, by our habits, and by every other 
appointment, tobe ourselves. 

PozNs. Tut! our horses they shall hOt see, l'Il 

 Falsta, Bardolph, Peto, and Gadshill,] In former editlons 
Falsta, Harvey, Rossil, and Gadshill. Thus have we two 
persons named, as eharaeters in this play, that were never among 
the dramatis personce. But let us see who they were that eom- 
mitted this robbery. In the second Aet we eome to a seene of the 
highway. Falstaff, wanting his horse, ealls out on Hal, Poins, 
Bardolph, and Peto. Presently Gadshill joins them, with intel- 
ligence of travellers being at hand ; upon whieh the Prince says, 
" You four shall front 'ena in a narrow lane, Ned Poins and I 
will walk lower." So that the four tobe eoneerned are Falstaff, 
Bardolph, Peto, and Gadshill. Aeeordingly, the robbery is 
eommitted ; and the Prince and Poins afterwards rob them four. 
In the Boar's-head tavern, the Prince rallies Peto and Bardolph 
for their running away, who eonfess the charge. Is it not plain 
now that Bardolph and Peto were two of the four robbers ? 
And who then ean doubt, but Harvey and Rossil were the namcs 
of the actors ? THEOBALD. 

210 FIRST PART OF e, t. 

tie them in the wood ; our visors we will change, 
after we leave them; and, sirrah,  I have cases of 
buckram for the nonce,  to immask our noted out- 
ward garments. 
P. Itzv. But, I doubt, they will be too hard for 
Pozys. Well, for two of them, I know them to 
be as true-bred cowards as ever turned back ; and 
for the third, if he,fight longer than he sees rea- 
son, l'Il forswear arms. The virtue ofthisjest wi]l 
be, the incomprchensible lies that this same fat 
rogue will tell us, when we meet at supper- how 
thirty, at least, he fought with ; what wards, what 
blows, what extrcmities he endured ; and, in the 
reproof  oçthis, lies the jest. 
P. Hy. Well, l'Il go with thee; provide us ail 
things necessary, and meet me to«norrow night  
in Eastcheap, there l'Il sup. Farewell. 
Poys. Farewell, my lord. Exit Pos. 

r sirrah,] Sirrah, in our author's time, as appears fi'om 
this and many other passages, was not a word of disrespect. 
It is scarcely used as a term of respect, when addressed by the 
king to Hotspur, p. o3. Sevs. 
s for the nonce,] That is, as I conceive, for the occa- 
sion. This phrase, which was very frequently, though hot al- 
ways very precisely, used by out old writers, I suppose to have 
been originally a corruption of corrupt Latin. From pro-nunc, 
I suppose, came for the nunc, and sofor the nonce; just as from 
ad-nunc came a-non. The Spanish enfonces has been formed in 
the same manner fron in-tunc. TYRWHITT. 
For the nonce is an expression in daily use amongst the coin- 
mon people in Suffolk, to signify on purpose; for the turn. 
9 __ reproof--J Reproof is confutation. JoHso. 
--to-morrow night---] I think we should read--to- 
ffght. The disguises were to be provided for the purpose of the 

,sc. «.r. KING HENRY IV. 2] 1 

P. Hlx: I know you ail, and will a while uphold 
The unyok'd ht,mour of your idleness : 
Yet herein will I imitâte the sun ; 
Who doth permit the base eontagious elouds  
To smother up his beauty from the world, 
That, when he plêase ag'ain to be himself, 
Being wanted, he may be more wonder'd at, 
By breaking through the foul and ugly mists 
Of vapours, that did seem to strangle him? 
If all the year were playing holidays, 
To sport would be as tedious as to work ; 
But, when they seldom corne, they wish'd-for corne, « 
And nothing pleaseth but rare accidents. 
So, when this loose behaviour I throw off, 
And pay the debt I never promised, 
By how nmch better than my word I ara, 

robbery, which was to be committed atfour in the mornb»g; 
and they would corne too late if the Prince was hot to receive 
them till the night after the day of the exploit. This is a second 
instance to prove that Shakspeare could forget in the end of a 
scene what he lmd said in the beginning. SEEV.XS. 
 lVho doth permit the base contagious clouds &c.] So, in our 
author's d Sonnet: 
" Full many a glorious morning bave I seen 
' Flatter the lnountain-tops with sovereign eye, 
" Anon permit the basest clouds to ride 
« With ug/.y rack on his celestial face." MALo. 
"  va_pours, that did seem to strangle him.] So, in l"ffac- 
beth : 
" And yet dark night strangles the travelling lamp." 
 If all the ffear were pla,i»g holidaffs, 
To sport would be as tedious as fo work ; 
But, when they seldom come they wish'd-for come,] So in 
out author's 5'2d Sonnet: 
« Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare, 
" Sinee seldom coming, in the long year set, 
" Like stones of worth they thinly plaeed are, 
" Or captain jewels in the carkanet." Mao,nr. 


By so ranch shall I £dsify men's hopes 
And, like bright lnetal on a sullen ground,  
My refbrmation, glittering o'er my fault, 
Shall show more goodly, and attract more eyes, 
Than that which hath no foil to set it 
l'Il so oItind, to make offence a skill 
Redeeming time, when men think lcast I will. 
5 shall I falsiftj men's hopes ;] To falsify hope is to 
exceed holoe, to give much where men hoped for little. 
This speech is very artfully introduced to keep the Prince from 
appearing vile in the opinion of the audience ; it prepares them 
for lais future rctbrmation ; and, wlmt is yet more valuable, ex- 
hibits a natural picture of a great mind offering excuses to 
itsell; and palliating those follies which it can neither justify 
nor forsake. JorNSON. 
llopes is uscd siml)ly for expeclations, as success is for the 
¢vent, whethcr good or bad. This is still common in the midland 
counties. " Such nmnner ofuncouth speech, (says Puttenham,) 
did the Tamwr of Tamworth use to King Edward IV. which 
Tatn«r having a grcat while mistaken him, and used very broad 
talke with him, at lcngth perceiving by lais traine that it was the 
king, was ail'aide he should be punished for it, and said thus, 
with a o:«tain rude repentance: ' I hope I shall be hanged to- 
morrow,' for ' I fear me I shall be hanged ;' whereat the king 
laughcd a-good ; hot only to see the Tanuer's vainefeare, but 
also to hear his mishapen terme; and gave him for a recom- 
pence of lais good sport, the inheritance of Plumton Parke." 
P. 214,. Fartul.rt. 
The following passage in The Second Part of tG'ng Henry IV. 
fully stapports Dr. Farmer's interpretation. The Prince is there, 
as in the passage belote us, the speaker: 
" My father is gone wild into his grave, 
" And with his spirit sadly I survive, 
" To mock the expectations of the worid ; 
" To frustrate prophecies, and to raze out 
" Rotten opinion, who bath written down 
" After my seeming." I,LONE. 
'»  like bright metal on a sullen ground, &c.] So, in King 
Richard II: 
" The sullen passage of thy weary steps 
" Esteem a 3Coil, wherein thou art to set 
" The preeious jewel of thy home return." 



The saine. Another Room in the Palace. 


K. H. My blood hath been too cold and tem- 
Unapt to stir at these indignities, 
And you bave found me; for, accordingly, 
You tread upon my patîence" but, be sure, 
I will froln henceforth rather be myself, 
Mighty and to be fear'd, than my condition ; 
Which bath been smooth as oil, soit as young down 

7 I willfi'om henceforth rather be mgself, 
ltlightg, and to be fear'd, than mg condition;] i. e. I wîll 
from heneeforth rather'put on the character that becomes me, 
and exert the resentment of an injured king, than still continue 
in the inaetivity and mildness of my natural disposition. And 
this sentiment he has well expressed, save that by his usual 
licence, he puts the word condition for dispo#ion. 
The commentator bas well explained the sense which was hot 
very diflïcult, but is mistakcn in supposing the use of condition 
licentious. Shakspeare uses it very frequently for retaper of 
"rnind, and in this sense the vulgar still say a good or ill-condition. 
ed man. Jox-ISO. 
So, in King Henry l: Act V: " Out tongue is rough, coz, 
and my condition is hot smooth. ' Ben Jonson uses it in the 
ame sense, in The New-Inn, Act I. sc. vi: 
« You cannot think me of that coarse condition 
« To envy you any thing." STVNS. 
$O also all the contemporary writers. See Vol. VII. p. 250 
m 5 ; and Vol. VIII. p. 31» n. 1. M.¢.o, 

'21¢ FIRST PART OF .eT r. 

And therefore lost that title of respect, 
Which the proud soul ne'er pays, but to the prou& 
WOR. Our house, my sovereign liege, little de- 
The seourge of greatness to be used on it ; 
And that saine greatness too whieh our own hands 
Have holp to make so portly. 
.'rORTH. My lord,-- 
K. HEç Worcester, get thee gone, for I see 
danger s 
And disobedience in thine eye: O, sir, 
Your presenee is too bold and peremptory, 
And lnajesty might never yet endure 
The moody frontier of a servant brow. 9 
You have good leave' to leave us; when we need 
Your use and counsel, we shall send for you. 
¥OU were about to speak. [7'0 NolWH. 
2VORT. Yea, my good lord. 

"  I see da»ger] Old copiesI do see &c. 
 And rnajestff might never et en&tre 
The mood.q frontier OE a servant brow.] Frontier was an- 
ciently used forforehea& So Stubbs, in his Anatomy f Abuses, 
1595: " Then on the edges of their bolstered hair, which 
standeth crested round flaeirfrontiers, and hanging over their 
faces," &c. Svs. 
nd mq]est might never et endure &c.] So, in 
Henry .VIII: " 
" The hearts of princes Mss obedience, 
" So much they love it ; but to stubborn spirits, 
" They swell and grow as terrible  storms." 

' You bave good leave--] i. e. our ready assent. 
" Good leave, good Philip." 
ISee n. 8, p. S6ff, Vol. X. Sxwwvwr;s. 

King - 

So, in King 

c. zzr. KING HENRY IV. 5 

Those prisoners in your highness' name demanded, 
Which Harry Percy here at Hohnedon took, 
Were, as he says, not with such strength denied 
As is deliver'd to your majesty- 
Either envy, therebre, or misprision 
Is guilty of this fault, and not lny son. 
HoT. My liege, I did deny iao prisoners. 
But, I remember, when the fght was done, 
When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil, 
Breathless and t:aint, leaning upon my sword, 
Came there a certain lord, neat, .trimly dress'd, 
Fresh as a bridegroom ; and lais chin, new reap'd, 
Show'd like a stubble-land at harvest-honae ; - 
He was perfumed like a milliner ; 
And 'twixt lais finger and his thulnb he held 
A pouncet-box, a which ever and anon 
He gave lais nose, and took't away again 
Who, therewith angry, when it next came there, 

 --at harvest home:] That i, a time offestivity. - 
If we understand harvest-home in the general sense of a rime 
offestiv.it3/ we shall lose the most pointed circumstanee of the- 
comparlson. A chin new shaven is eompared to a stubble-land at 
larvest-home, hot on account of the festivity of that season, as 
I apprehend, but because at that time, when the corn has been 
but just carried in, the stubble appears more even and upright, 
than at any other. 
 ,4 pouncet-box,] A small box for musk or other perfumes 
then in fashion: the lid of whlch being cut withopen work, 
gave it its naine ; from poinsoner to prick, pierce, or engrave. 
Dr. Warburtons explanation is just. At the christening of 
Queen Elizabeth, the Marchioness of Dorset gave, according ri 
Holinshed, " three gilt biwls pounced, with a cover." 
So also, in Gawin Douglas's translation of the ninth 2Eneid: 
" --wroght richt curiously 
« With figuris grave» and punsît ymagery." 


Took it in snuff:ç--and still he smil'd, and talk'd; 
And, a.s, the soldiers bore dead bodies by, 
Ho call d them--untaught knaves, unmannerly, 
To bring a slovenly unhandsome corse 
Betwixt the wind and his nobility. 
With anany holiday and lady terres  
Ho question'd me ; among the rest demanded 
My prisoners, in your majesty's beha[t: 
I then, ail smarting, with my wounds being cold, 
To be so pester'd with a popinjay,  

" Took it in snuff:] Smtff is equivocally used for anger, and 
a powder taken up the nose. 
So, in The Fleire, a comedy, by E. Sharpbam, 1610: " Nay 
be hot angry ; I do hot touch thy nose, to the end it should take 
any thing in 
Again, in Deeker's Satirom.astix: 
" 'tis enough, 
" Having so nmeh fool, to take him in 
and here they are talking about tobaceo. Again, in Hinde's 
Eliosto Libidinoso, 1606: " The goodwife glad that he took the 
natter so in snu.ff," &c. STvrs. 
See Vol. IV. p. ff82, n. . M.o. 
 lth many holiday and lady terms--] So, in A Looki»g 
Glass for London and Eagland, 1598 : " These be but holiday 
/erms, but if you heard her working day words." Again, in 
The 31erry IVives of lVindsor : " he speaks holiday." 
 I then, ail smarti»g, with my wounds being cold, 
To be so loester'd with a popinjay,] But in the beginning of 
tire speech he represents himself at this rime hot as coM but hot, 
and inflamed with rage and labour: 
" When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil," &c. 
I ana therefore persuaded that Shakspeare wrote and pointed it 
thus : 
I then ail smarting with my wounds; being gall'd 
To be so pester'd with a popinjay, &c. W.rtuTor. 
Whatever Percy might say ofhis rage and toil, which is merely 
deelamatory and apologetieal, his wounds would at this time be 
certainly cold, and when they were cold would smart» and hot 


Out of my grief 7 and my impatience, 
Answer'd neglectingly, I know hOt what; 
He should, or he should hot ;mfor lac ruade me 
To see hiln shine so brisk, and smell so sweet, 
And talk so like a waiting-gentlewolnan, 
Of guns, and drums, and wounds, (God save the 
lnark !) 
And telling llle, the sovereign'st thing on earth 

before. If any alteration were necessary, I should transpose the 
lines : 
I then all smarting with mau wounds being cold, 
Oet of m grief, and mq impatience, 
To be so pester'd with a pol)injaj, 
Answer'd neglectin.£1.q. 
A popbja is a parrot. Jonsom 
The saine transposition had been proposed by Mr. Edwards. 
In John Alday's Summarie of secret Wonders, &e. bi. 1. no date, 
we are told that " The Popingaj ean speake humaine speaeh, 
they eome from the Indias," &e. 
From the following passage in The Northern Lass 16, it 
should seem, however, that al)olijaq and al»arrot were distinct 
birds : 
" Is this a parrot or a popinja.y ?" 
Again in Nash's Lenten Stuff, &c. 1599: " the parrot, 
the lOOpînjay Philip-sparrov, and the cuckow." In the ancient 
poem called The Parliamcnt of Birds, bl. l. this bird is called 
" the popngejayof paradyse." 
It appears from Minsheu that Dr. Johnson is right. See his 
Dict. 1617, in v. Parret. 
The old reading may be supported by the following passage 
in Barnes's Historyof Edward III. p. 786: " The esquire 
fought still, until the wounds begm with loss of blood to cool 
and smart." TOLLET. 
So, in lortimeriados, by Michael Drayton, to. 1596: 
" As when the blood is cold, we feel the wound." 
 grief] i.e. pain. In our ancient translations of phy- 
ical treatises» dolor ventris is commonly called bell-grief. 

8 FiRST PART OF .«' i, 

Was parmaceti, s for an inward bruise ;  
And that it was great pity, so it was, 
That villainous salt-petre should be digg'd 
Out of the bowels of the harmless earth, 
Which many a good tall fellow had destroy'd 
8o cowardly ; and, but ibr 'these vile guns,  
He would himself have been a soldier. 
This bald unjointed chat of lais, my lord, 
I answer'd indirectly, as I said ; 
And, I beseech you, let hot his report 
Corne current ibr an accusation, 
Betwixt my love and yollr high majesty. 
BLtr.v'. The circumstance consider'd, good my 
Whatever Harry Percy then had said, 
To such a person, and in such a place, 
At such a rime, with ail the rest re-told, 
May reasonably die, and never fise 
To do him wrong, or an 3, way impeach 
What then he said, so he unsay it now. - 

s parmaceti,] So the old editions. Some modern editors 
have altered it to stoermaceti. Sir Richard Hawkins, in his Vo.yage 
into the South Sea, 159:3, speaking of whales, says, " his 
spawne is for divers purposes. This we corruptly call parma- 
cettie, of the Latin word S19erma 'Ceti." p. 6. 
 parmaceti, for an inward bruise;] So, in Sir T. Over- 
bury's Characters, 1616: " [An Ordinary Fencer.] " His 
wounds are seldom skin-deepe ; for an inward brnise lambstones 
and sweete-breads are his only slermaceti." Bow. 
 .but for these vile guns, &c.] A similar thought occurs 
in Questwns of lproJitable and pleasant Concernings, &c. 1594, 
p. 11 : " I confesse those gunnes are diuellish things, and make 
many men runne away that other wayes would hOt turne their 
 To do him xrong, or any xaq impeach 
lVhat then he said, so he unsay if now.] Let what he thert 
said never fise to impeach him, so he unsay it now. Jorsor. 

e. zxz. KING HENRY IV. 219 

/Q HEy. Why, yet he doth dcny his prisoners ; 
But with proviso, and except'ion,-- 
That we, at out own charge, shall ransome straight 
His brother-in-law, the foolish Mortimer ;  
Who, on my soul, hath wihçully betray'd 
The lives of those that he did lead to fight 
Against the great magician, damn'd Glendower ; 
Whose daughter, as we hear, the earl of March 
Hath lately inarried. Shall out coffers then 
Be emptied, to redeem a traitor home ? 
Shall we buy treason ? and indent with fears, « 

 His brother-in-lmo, hefoolish 3lortimer;] Shakspeare has 
fallen into some contradictions with regard to this Lord Morti- 
mer. Belote he makes his personal appearance in the play, he 
is repeatedly spoken of as Hotspur's brot]er-in-law. In Act II. 
Lady Percy expressly calls him lter brother blortimer. And yet 
when he enters in the third Act, he calls Lady Percy his aunt, 
which in fact she was, and hot his sister. Th inconsistence may 
be accounted tbr as follows. It appears bofla from Dugdale's 
and Sandford's account of the Mortimcr family, that there were 
two of them taken prisoners at different times by Glendower: 
each of theln bearing the name of Edmund; one being Edmund 
arl larch, nephew to Lady Percy, and the proper 31ortimer 
of this play; the other, Sir Edmund 5lortimer, uncle to the for- 
mer, and brother to Lady Percy Shakspeare confounds the 
two persons. STEEVEN$. 
Another cause also may be assigned for this confusion. Henry 
Percy, according to the accounts of our old historians, married 
Eleanor, flae sister of Roger Earl of Match, who was the ratiner 
of the Edmund Earl of March, that appears in the present play. 
But this Edmund had a sister likewise named Eleanor. Shak- 
speare might, therefore, have at different rimes contunded these 
two Eleanors. In fact, however, the sister of Robert Earl of 
March, whom young Percy married, was cled Elizabeth. 
8ee my note on Act II. sc. iii. where this Lady is calledte. 
 m ndent  £ears. The reason wh he says» bar- 
gain and article wth ar, meanng wth Morfier, s, because 
he supposed Mordmer had wHfiflly betrayed hs own forces to 
Glendower eut er f¢ar, as appears from his next speech. 



When they have lost and forfeited themselves ? 
No, on the barren lnountains let hiln starve ; 

The difficulty seems to me to arise œeem this, that the King is 
hOt desircd to article or contract ith Mortimer, but with an- 
otherjôr Mortimer. Perl,aps we may read: 
Shall t,e buy treason ".e and indent with peers, 
Il'heu they bave lost and forfeited thcmseh,es ? 
Shall we purclmse back a traitor ? Shall we descend to a com- 
position with Worcester, Northumberland, and young Percy, 
who by disobedience have lost anddeordeeited their honours and 
themselves ? Jor.xsor. 
Shall oe buy treason? and indent with fears,] This verb is 
used by Harrington in his translation of Ariosto. B. XVI. st. 35 : 
" And with the Irish bands he first indents, 
" To spoil their lodging. and t¢ burn their tents." 
Agaln, in The Cruel Brother, by Sir W. D'Avenant, 1630: 
" ---------Dost thou indent 
" With my acceptance, make choice of services ?" 
Fears nmy be used in the active sense for terrors. $o, in the 
• econd part of this play: 
" ail those bold fears 
" Thou seest with peril I have answered." 
These lords, however, had, as yet, neither forfeited or lost 
any thing, so that Dr. Johnson's conjecture is inadmissible. 
After ail, I ara inclined to regard Mortimer (though the King 
affects to speak ofhim in the plural number) as the Fear, or timid 
object, which had lost ordeorfeited itself. Henry afterwards says : 
« __ he durst as well have met the devil alone, 
" As Owen Glendower for an enemy." 
Indent with fears, may therefore mean, sign an indenture or 
compact with dastards. Fears may be substituted for jëarfid 
_peoi;le , as wro»,gs has been used for wrongers in K: Richard 11; 
" He should have round lais uncle Gaunt a father, 
« To rouse his wrongs, and chase them to a bay." 
« Near Cœesar's angel (says the Soothsayer to Antony,) thy 
own becomes afear," i. e. a spirit of cowardice ; and Sir Richard 
Vernon, in the play before us, uses an expression that nearly re- 
sembles indenting with fears 
« I hold as little counsel wlth weak deear, 
" As you, my lord-------." 
The King, by buying treason, and indenting with fears, may 
therefore covertly repeat both his pretended charges against 
Mortimer; first, that he had treasonably betrayed his party to 
Glendower; and, secondly, that he would have been afraid to 
encounter with so brave an adversary. 

sc. ni. KING HENRY IV. 251 

For I shall never hold that man lny friend, 
Whose tongue shall ask me for one penny cost 
To ransome home revolted Mortilner. 
HOT. Revolted Mortimer ! 
He never did rail oit; my sovereign liege, 
But by the chance of war ;S--To prove that true, 
Needs no more but one tongue for all those wounds, 
Those lnouthed wounds, 6 whieh valiantly he took, 
When on the gentle Severn's sedgy bank, 
In single opposition, hand to hand, 
He did confound the best part of an hour 
In changing hardiment  with great Glendower : 
Three rimes they breath'd, and three times did 
they drink,  

" He never did fall off, rny sovereign liege, 
But b the chance of war ; ] The meaning is, he came 
into the enemy's power, but by the chance of war. The King 
eharged Mortimer, that he wilfully betrayed his army, and, as 
he was then with the enemy, ealls him revolted Mortimer. Hot- 
spur replies, that he never fcll of[; that is, fell into Glendower's 
hands, but by the chance of war. I should not have explained 
thus tediously a passage so hard tobe mistaken, but that two 
editors have already mistaken it. Jortzso«. 
  To prove that true, 
Needs no more but one tongue for all those wounds, &e.] 
Hotspur calls Mortimer's wounds mouthed, from their gaping 
like a mouth, and says, that to prove his loyalty, but one tongue 
was necessary for all these mouths. This may be harsh; but 
the saine idea oeeurs in Coriolanus, where one of the populace 
aays : " For if he shows us his wounds, we are to put out tongues 
iuto these wounds, and speak for them." 
And again, in Julius Cœesar, Antony says: 
"  there were an Antony, 
" Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue 
« In every wound of Coesar, that should move," &e. 
M. Mv, so. 
ŒEE  hardimenl] An obsolete word, signifying hardiness, 
bravery, stoutness. Spenser is frequent in his use of it. 
*  three limes did the drink,] Itis the property ofwounds 


Upon agreement, of swift Severn's flood; 
Who then, affrighted  with their bloody looks, 
Ran fearfully among the trembling reeds, 
And hid his crisp head J in the hollow bank 
Blood-stained with these valiant combatants. 
Never did bare and rotten policy  

to excite the most impatient thirst. The poet therefore hath 
with exquisite propriety introdueed this eireumstance, which 
may serve to place in its proper light the dying kindness of Sir 
Philip Sydney; who, flough sufferi»g the extremity of flfirst 
from the agony of his own wounds, yet, notwithstanding, gave 
up his own draught of water to a wounded soldier. 
9 lVho then, qfi'iglted &c.] q-his passage has been censured 
as soundig nonsense, which represents a stream of water as 
capable or" fear. Itis nlisunderstood. Severn is here not the 
flood, but tbe tutelary power of the flood, who was affrighted, 
and hid his head in the hollow break. JoHsol. 
' -- his crisp ead--'] Crisp is curled. So, Beaumont and 
Fletcher, in T]2e 5Iaid o.fthe Mill: 
"  methinks'the river, 
" As he steals by, curls up hls head to view." 
Agaln, in Kyd's Cor,clia, 1595: 
" O beauteous Tyber, with thine easy streams, 
« That glide as smoothly as a Parthian shaft, 
" Turn hOt thy crisp rides, like silver curls, 
" Back to tby grass-green banks to welcome us ?" 
Perhaps Shakspeare has bestowed an epithet, applicable only 
to the strean of water, on the genius of the stieam. The fol- 
lowing passage, however, in the sixth Song of Drayton's Pol3/- 
olbio«, may seem to justify its propriety: 
« Your corses were dissolv'd into that chrystal stream ; 
' Your curls to curled waves, which plainly still appear 
" The saine in water now tbat once in locks they were." 
Beaumont and Fletcher have the saine image with Shakspeare 
in T]e îo.qal Subject : 
the Volga trembled at his terror, 
' _And hid his seven curl'd ]eads." 
Agaln, in one of Ben 3onson's 3lasq,tes: 
" The rivers rm, as smoothed by his hand, 
' Only their leads are crisped by his stroke." 
Sec Vol. VI. (Whalley's edit.) p. 26. SEvEs. 
" Nevcr did bare and rottcn Tolicg-- ] Ail the quartos which 

se. 1ii. KING HENRY IV. 22s 

Colour her working with such deadly wounds i 
Nor never could the noble Mortimer 
Receive so many, and a|l willingly: 
Then let him hot be slander'd with revolt. 
K. HE,v. Thou dost belie him, Percy, thou dost 
belle him, 
Ho never did encounter with Glendower ; 
I tell thee, 
He durst as well bave met the devil alone, 
As Owen Glendower for an enemy. 
Art hot  ahamed ? But, sirrah, hcnceforth 
Let me hot hcar you spcak of Mortimer : 
Send me your prisoners with the spcediest means, 
Or you shall hear in such a kind ri'oto me 
As will displease you.--My lord Northumberland, 
We license your departure with. your son :-- 
Send us your prisoners, or you'll hear of it. 
Exeunt King HENRY, BLUNT» and Train. 
HoT. And if the devil corne and roar for them, 
I will hot send them :--I will after straight, 
And tell him so; for I will ease my heart, 
Although it bc with hazard of lny head. 

I have seen read bare in this place. The first folio, and all the 
subsequent editions, have base. I believe bare is right : " Nevcr 
did policy, lying open to detection, so colour its workings." 
The first quarto, 159S, reads bare; which means so thinly 
covered b¢ art as fo be easil¢ seeu throz:gh. So, in Venus and 
Adonis : 
" What bare excuses mak'st thou to be gone !" 
Since there is such good authority as Johnson informs us, for 
reading base, in this passage, instead of bare, the former word 
»hould certainly be adopted. Bare policy, that is, policy lying 
open to detection, is in truth no policy at all. The epithet base, 
also best agrees with rotten. M. 5Iaso. 
 Art not--] Old copies--Art filOU hot. 


x-ORTH. What, drunk 
pause awhile ; 
Here cornes your uncle. 

with choler ? 

stay, and 

_Re-enter ÇORCESTEll. 

ttOT. Speak of Mortimer ? 
'Zounds, I will speak of him ; and let lny soul 
Want mercy, if I do hot join with him : 
Yea, on his part, I'll empty all these veins, 
And shed my dear blood drop by drop i'the dust, 
But I will lift the down-trod Mortimer 
As high i'the air as this unthalkful king, 
As this ingrate and canker'd Bolingbroke. 
NonrI. Brother, the king hath ruade your ne- 
phew mad. [ŒEEb WOllCESTERo 
IFOR. Who struck this heat up, afler I was gone 
HOT. He will, forsooth, have ail my prisoners 
And when I urg'd the ransome once again 
Of my wife's brothcr, then his cheek look'd pale 
And on my face he turn'd an eye of death,  
Trembling even at the name of Mortimer. 

 an ege ofdeath,] That is, an eye menacing death. 
Hotspur seems to describe the King as trembling with rage 
rather than fear. JOHNSON. 
So, in Marlowe's Tamburlaine, 1590: 
" And wrapt in silence of his angry soul, 
" Upon his brows were pourtraid ugly death, 
" And in his eyes the furies of his heart." 
Johnson and Steevens seem to think that Hotspur meant to 
describe the King as trembling not with fear, but rage; but 
surely flmy are mistaken. The King had no reason tobe en- 
raged at Mortimer, who had been taken prisoner in fighting 
against his enemy ; but he had much reason to fear the 
who had a better title to the crown flmn himself, which had 
been proclaimed by Richard II. ; and accordingly» when Hot« 
spur is informed of that circumstance» he says : 


II"OR. I cannot blame him: Was he not pro- 
By Richard that dead is, the next of blood ? 
NORTZ. He was; I heard the proclamation: 
And then it was, when the unhappy king 
(Whose wrongs in us God pardon !) did set forth 
Upon his Irish expedition ; 
From whence he, intercepted, did return 
To be depos'd, and shortly, murdered. 
IYOR. And for whose death, we in the world's 
wide mouth 
Lire scandaliz'd, and foully spoken of. 
HoT. But, soif, I pray you ; Did king Richard 
Proclaim my brother Edmund Mortimer 
Heir to the crown ?» 

" Nay, then I cannot blame his cousin king 
" That wish'd him on the barren mountains starv'd." 
And Worcester, in the very next line, says : " He cannot blame 
him for trembling at the naine of Mortimer, since Richard had 
proclaimed him next of blood." M. Masol, r. 
Mr. M. Mason's remark is, I think, in general just ; but the 
King, as appears from this scene, had some reason to be enraged 
also at Mortimer, because he thought that Mortimer hadnot been 
taken prisoner by the efforts of his enemies, but had hinlself 
revolted. MALOXE. 
 lYas he hot ?roclaim'd, 
Bg Richard that dead is, the next of blood?] loger Mor- 
rimer, Earl of March, who was born in 1:371, was declared heir 
apparent t o the crown in the 9th year of King lichard I I. ( 1 85. ) 
Sec Grafton, p. :37. But he was killed in Ireland in 1:398. 
The person who was proclaimed by Richard heir apparent to the 
crown, previous to his last voyage to Ireland, was Edmund Mor- 
rimer, (the son of Roger,) who was then but seven years old; 
but he was hot Percy's witës brother, but her nephew. 
» Heir fo te crown?] Edmund ][ort[mer, Earl of" March, 
was the undoubted heir to the crown afier the dcath of Richard, 
VOL. XI. Q. 


NORTH. He did; myself did hear it. 
HOT. Nay, then I cannot blame his cousin king, 
as appears ri'oto the following table ; in whieh the three younger 
ehildren of" King Edward III. are not ineluded, as being imma- 
terial to the subjeet belote us: 
]King Edward III.[ 

John of Gaunt,[ 
duke of Lan- 
Henry, duke 
Herëtbrd, af-" 
terwatts King 
Henry IV. 

Edward, Prince 
of Wales. 

I King Richard 
IL died with- 
out issue. 

I William of 
Hatfield died 
without issue. 

Lionel, duke 
of Clarence. 
Philippa, mar-'1 
ried to Edmund  
Mortimer, Earl [ 
of March. 
I Roger Iortimer, ] 
Earl of 5Iarch. I 


l Edmund Mortimer, 
_ Earl of 5Iarch. 

I Eleanor died 
without issue. 

Arme, marrled [ 
Richard, Earl] 
of Cambridge. I 

Sandford, in lais Genealogical Historg, says, that the last men- 
tioned Edmund, Earl ofMarch, (the Mortimer ofthis play,) was 
married to Arme Stafford, daughter of Edmund, Earl of Stafford. 
Thomas Walsingham asserts that he married a daughteï of Owen 
Glendower ; and the subsequent historians copied him ; but this 
is a very doubtful point, for the Welsh writers make no mention 
of it. "Sandford says that this Earl of March was confined by the 
jealous Henry in the castle of Trim in Ireland, and that he died 
dmre, after an imprisonment of twenty years, on the 19th of 
January, 1,1,24. But this is a mistake. There is no proof that 
he was confined a state-prisoner by King Henry the Fourth, and 
he was employed in many military services by his son Henry the. 
Fifth. He died at his own castle at Trim in Ireland, at the time 
mentioned by Sandford, but hOt in a state of imprisonment. See 
note on King Hem VI. P. 11. Act IL sc. ii. Vol. XIII. 


That wish'd hiln on the barren mountains starv'd. 
But shall it be, that you,mthat set the crown 
Upon the head of this forgetful man ; 
And, for his sake, wear the detested blot 
Of murd'rous subornation,--shall it be, 
That you a world of CUl'ses undergo ; 
Being the agents, or base second means, 
The cords, the ladder, or the hangman rather ?-- 
O, pardon me, that I descend so low, 
To show the line, and the predicament, 
Wherein you range under this subtle king. 
Shall it, ibr shame, be spoken in these days, 
Or fill up chronicles in time to corne, 
That men of your nobility and power, 
Did gage them both in an unjust behalf, m 
As both of you, God pardon it! have done, 
To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose, 
And plant this thorn, this canker, Bolingbroke ?* 
And shall it, in more shame, be further spoken, 
That you are fool'd, discarded, and shook off 
By him, for whom these shames ye underwent ? 
No ; yet time serres, wherein you may redeem 
Your banish'd honours, and restore yourselves 
Into the good thoughts of the world again - 

Since the original note was written, I have learned that Owen 
Glendower's daughter was married to his antagonist Lord Grey 
of luthven. Holinshed led Shakspeare into the error of suppos- 
ing her the wife of Edmund Mortimer, Eaïl of Match. This 
nobleman, who is the Mortimer of the present play, was boni 
in November, 1 92, and consequently at the time when this play 
commences, was little more than ten years old. The Prince of 
Wales was not fifteen. IALONE. 
  lhis canker, BolingbroL'e ?] The canker-rose is the dog- 
rose, the flower of the Cynosbaton. So, in 3Iuch Ado about 
Nothing: "" I had rather be a canker in a hedge, than a rose in 
his grace." S'EEVXls. 

9.s FIRST PART OF .eT t. 

R. evenge the jeering, and disdain'd 7 contempt, 
Ofthis proud king; who studies, day and night, 
ïo answer ail the debt he owes to you, 
Even with the bloody paymcnt of your deaths. 
Therefore, I say,-- 
I[rR. Peace, cousin, say no more: 
And now I will tmclasp a secret book, 
And to your quick-conceiving discontents 
l'll read you marrer decp and dangerous ; 
As full of peril, and advent'rous spirit, 
As to o'er-walk a current, roaring loud, 
On the unsteadçast footing of a spear, s 
1IOT. If he fall in, good night :--or sink or 
swim : 9__ 
Send danger fi'om the east unto the west, 
So honour cross it ii'om the north to south, 
And let them grapple;--O! the blood more stirs, 
To rouse a lion, than to start a hare.  
Nonrzz. Imagination of some great exploit 
Drives him beyond the bounds of patience. 

--disdain'd--] For disdaînful. Jorso. 
 On the unsteadfastfooting ofa sTear. ] That is, ofa spear 
laid across. 
 --sink or swim :] This is a very ancient proverbial ex- 
pression. So, in The Knight's Tale of Chaucer, Mr. Tyrwhitt's 
edit. v. 
" Ne recceth never, whether I sink or flete." 
Again, in The longer thou livest the more Fool thou art, 1570: 
" He careth not who doth sink or swimme." STEVENS. 
 the blood more stirs, 
To rouse a lion, than to start a hare.] Thls passage will re- 
mind the elassieal reader of young Aseanius's heroie lèelings in 
the fourth .oeneid: 
" pecora inter inertia votis 
" Optat aprum, aut fulvum descendere monte leonem." 

sc. xx. KING HENRY IV. 2.0_9 

HoT. By heaven, methinks, it were an easy leap, 
To pluck bright honour from the pale-fac'd moon ;" 
Or dive into the bottom of the deep, 

" B# heaven, methinks, if were an eas leai , 
To pluck brght honour from the pale-.fac'd moon;] Though 
I am very far from condemning this speech with Gildon and 
Theobald, as absolute madness, yet I cannot find in it that pro- 
fundity of reflection, and beauty of allegory, which Dr. Warbur- 
ton endeavoured to display. This sally of Hotspur, may bc, I 
think, soberly and rationally vindieated as the violent eruption of 
a mind inflated with ambition, and fired with resentment; as 
the boasted clamour of a man able to do much, and eager to do 
more ; as the hasty motion of turbulent desire ; as the dark ex- 
pression ofindetermined.thoughts. Thepassage from Euripides 
is surely not allegorical, yet it is produced, and properly, as 
paral]el. JOHSON. 
Euripides bas put the very saine sentiment into the mouth of 
Eteocles: " I will hot, madam, disguise my thoughts; I wou]d 
scale heaven, I would descend to the very entrails of the earth, 
if so be that by that price I could obtain a kingdom." 
This is probably a passage from some bombast play, and after- 
wards used as a common burlesque phrase for attempting im- 
possibilities. At ieast, that it was the last, might be concluded 
from its use in Cartwright's poem On 3lr. Stokes his Book on the 
Art of Vaulting, edit. 1651, p. 21.'2 : 
" Then go thy ways, brave Vill, for one; 
" By Jove 'tis thou must ieap, or none, 
" To pull bright honour from the moon." 
Unless Cartwright intended to ridicule this passage in Shaks- 
peare, which I partly suspect. Stokes's book, a noble object 
tbr the wits, was printed at London, 164,1. 
A passage somewhat resembl[ng this, occurs in Archbishop 
Parker's Address to the Readcr, prefixed to his Tract entitled 
A Brief Examinationfor the T3tme, &c.--" But trueth is to hye 
set, for you to phck ber out of h«aven, to manifestlye knowen 
tobe by your papers obseured, and surely stablished, to drowne 
ber in the myrie lakes of your sophistieall writinges." 
In The Knight of the burning Pestle, Beaumont and Fleteher 
bave put the foregoing rant of Hotspur, into the mouth of Raiph 
the apprentiee, who, like Bottom, appears to bave been tbnd of 
aeting parts to tear a cat in. I suppose a ridicule on Shakspeare 
was designed. S.w.Ns. 

30 FIRST PART OF .eT r. 

Where faflaom-line could never touch the ground, s 
And pluck up drowned honour by the locks ; 
So he, that doth redeem her thence, might wear, 
Without corrival, ail her dignities : 
But out upon this halfJac'd fellowship ! 

 TVhere fathom-line could never touch the ground,] So, in 
The Tempest : 
" Fil seek him deeper than c'er plummet sounded." 
 But ott upon this half-fac'd fellowship!] A coat is said to be 
faced, when part of it, as the slecves or bosom, is covered with 
something finer or more splendid than the main substance. The 
mantua-makers still use the word. Half.-fac'dfellowship is then 
«, partnership but half-adorned, partnership which yet wants hall? 
the show of dignlties and honours." JOrlNSO.,¢. 
So, in The Portraiture of Hypocrisie, &c. bl. 1. 1589: " A 
gentlenmn should have a gownc for the night, two for the daie, 
&c. one all furred, another ha[['-faced." 
Mr. M. Mason, however, observes, tlmt the allusion may be 
to the hall-faces on medals, where two persons are represented. 
" The coins of Philip and Mary (says he) rendered this inaage 
sufliciently familiar to Shakspeare." STEVrS. 
I doubt whether the allusion was to dress. Half-fac'd seem$ 
to have meant laltry. The expression, which appears to have 
been a contemptuous one, I bc]ieve, had its rise from the meaner 
denominations of coin, on which, formerly, only a profile of the 
reigning prince was exhibited; whereas on the more valuable 
pieces afidlface was represented. So, in lxïng John: 
" With that halfyace wonld he bave all my land,-- 
" A hal.['-fac'd groat, rive hundred pound a year !" 
But then, it will be said, " what becomes of fellowship. 
qmre is the fellowship in a si»gle face in profile . The allusion 
must be to the coins of Philip and Mary, where two faces were 
in part exhibited."--This squaring of our author's comparisons, 
and making them correspond precisely on every side, is in my 
apprehension the source of endless mistakes. Sec p. 241, n. 7. 
_Fellowshp relates to Hotspur s cormval and hmaself, and I 
think to nothing more. I find the epithet here applied to it, in 
Nashe's _zlpologie of Pierce Penn.ilesse, 159S : " with ail 
other ends of your half-faced English." Again, in Histrio. 
mastix 1610 : 
" Whilst I behold yon half-fac'd minion,---." Ma.or. 

,'c. ni. KING HENRY IV. 

Il'OR. He apprehends a world of figures here, 
But not the tbrln of what he should attend.-- 
Good cousin, give me attdience for a while. 
HOT. I cry you mcrcy. 
Il/OR. Those same noble Scots, 
That are your prisoners, 
HOT. l'll keep them all 
By heaven, he shall hot have a Scot of them: 
No, if a Scot ,vould save his soul, he shall not: 
l'll kecp them, by this hand. 
H'OR. You start away, 
And lcnd no ear unto my purposcs.-- 
Thosc prisoncrs you shall keep. 
HOT. Nay, I will; that's (lat 
He said, he would not ransome Mortimcr ; 
Forbad my tongue to speak of Mortimer ; 
But I will find him whcn he lies asleep, 
And in his ear l'll holla--Mortilner !6 
l'll have a starling shall be taught to speak 
Nothing but Mortimcr, and givc it hiln, 
To kcep his anger still in motion. 
IVOR. Hear you, 
Cousin ; a word. 

 -- a world of figures here,] Figure is here used equivocally. 
As itis applied to Hotspur's speeeh itis a rhetorieal mode; as 
opposed to form, it means appearanee or shape. JoHssos. 
Figures mean shapes ereated by Hotspur's imagination ; but 
hot the form of what he should attend, viz. of what his unele 
had to propose. EDWalDS. 
 He said, he wouM hOt ransome llIortimer;-- 
But I will jTud him when he lies asleep, 
Aud in his ear Pli hollaMortbner!] So Marlowe, in 
King Edward II: 

250 FIRST PART OF ,c' t. 

Ho't. Ail studies here I solemnly defy,  
Save how to gall and pinch this" 
And that saine sword-and-buckler prince of 
But that I think his father loves him not, 
And would be glad he met with solne mischance, 
I'd have him poison'd with a pot of ale. 9 
If'on. Farewell, kinsman ! I will talk to you, 
When you are bêtter temper'd to attend. 

"  and if he will not ransome hlm, 
" I'll thunder such a peale into his eares, 
" As never subject did unto his king." Mar.orrr.'.. 
  I solemnly defy,] One of the ancient senses of the 
verb, to deff'q, was to re.fitse. So, in Romeo and dulict : Act V. 
sc. iii. folio, 
" I do deff'o thy commiseration." SXEEVES. 
8 Ind that saine sword-and-buckler prfice off" lI:ales,] A roy- 
ster or turbulent fellow, that ibught in taverns, or raised dis- 
orders in the streets, was callcd a Swash-buckler. In this sense 
sword-and-buckler is here used. 3ortso. 
Stowe will keep us to tbe precise meaning of the epithet here 
given to the prince." This field, commonly called West-Smith- 
field, was for many years called Ruftians Hall, by reason it was 
the usual place of frayes and common fighting, during the time 
that sword and btcklers were in use. hen every ser,ig-man, 
from tbe base to the best, carried a buckler at his back, which 
hung by the hilt or pomel ofhis stvo'rd." 
I have now before me (to confirln the justice ofthis remark) 
a poem entitled "Sword and Buckler, or Serving _hlan'sDefence,'" 
By William Bas, 160. 
" What weapons bear they ?Some sword and dagger, some 
sword and buckler.What weapon is that buckler?A clownish 
dastardly weapon, and hot fit for a gentleman." Florio's First 
Fruites, 1578. MALOV.. 
9 poison'd with a pot ?fale.] Dr. Grey supposes this to 
be said in allusion to Caxton's dccout off" Rng dohn's Death; 
(See Caxton's F.ructus Temporum, 1515, fol. 6.)but I rather 
think it has referenee to the low company (drinkers of ale) with 
whom the prince spent so much of his rime in the meanelt 

sc. zzz. KING HENRY IV. gs 

]ORTH. Why, what a wasp-stung and impatient 

* II7.q, what a wasp.stung and impatient fool--] Thus the 
quarto, 1598 ; and surely it afibrds a more obvious meaning than 
the tblio, which reads :--wasp-tongued. That Shakspeare knev 
the sting of a wasp was hOt situated in its mouth, nmy be learned 
ri'oto the following passage in The lVinter's Tale, Act I. sc. il: 
"  is goads, thorns, nettles, tails ofwasps." 
This reading s conrm'd by Hotspurs reply : 
" Why look you, I m whipp'd and scourg'd with rods» 
" Nettled and stu»g with pismires, when I helar 
" Of this vile politician, Bolingbroke." M. M_so. 
The first quarto copies of several of these plays are in many 
respects much preferable to the folio, and in general I have paid 
the utmost attention to them. In the prcsent instance, however, 
I think the transcriber's ear deceived him, and tlmt the true 
reading is that of the second quarto, 1599, wasp-tongue, which 
I have adopted, not on the authority of that copy, (tbr it has 
none,) but because I believe it to have been the word used by 
the author. The folio was apparently printed from a later 
quarto; and the editor from ignorance of out author's phraseo- 
logy changed wasp-tongue to wasp-tongued. There are other 
instances of the saine unwarrantable alterations even in that va- 
luable copy of out author's plays. The change, I say, was ruade 
from ignorance of Shakspeare's phraseology; for in King Ri- 
chard HL we have--his venom-tooth, hot venom'd-tooth ; your 
widow-dolour, not widow'd-dolour ; and in another play,--parted 
with sugar-breath not sugar'd-breath ; and many more instances 
of the saine kind may be round. Thus, in this play,--smooth- 
tongue» hot smooth-tongued. Again: "-stolen flore my host 
at St. Albans, or the red-nose innkeeper of Daintry." [not red- 
nosed.] Again, in ITng Richard 111: 
" Some light-.foot tiend post to the Duke of Norfolk." 
hot light:footed. 
So also, in The Black Book, 4:to. 1501,: "--The spindle- 
shanke spyder, which showed like great leachers with little legs, 
went stealing over his head," &c. In the last Act of Th.e Second 
Part of Iïng He»ry 1\ " blew-bottle rogue" (the reading of 
the quarto,) is changed by the editor of the folio to " blew- 
bottled rogue," as he here substituted wasp-tongued for wasp- 
Shakspeare certainly kne% as Mr. Steevens has obselwed» that 
the ting of n wasp lay in his tail ; nor is there in my apprehen- 


ACT . 

Art thou, to break into this woman's mood ; 
Tying thine ear to no tongue but thine own ? 

sion any thing-couched undcr the epithet wasp-tongue, inconsist- 
eut with that knowledge. It means only, having a tongue as 
peevish and mischievous (if such terms may be applied to that 
instrument of the mind) as a wasp. Thus, in As dOU like if, 
waspish is used without any particular reference to auy action of 
a wasp, but merely as synonymous to peevish orfretful: 
" By the stern .br°w and cas;Tish action.. 
" Which she d,d use as she was wnUng of it, 
" It bears an a»gr,/tenour." 
In The TemTest, when ris, speaklng of Venus, says, 
" Her waspish-headed son has broke lais arrows," 
the meaning is perfectly clear; yet the objection that Shak- 
speare knew the sting of a wasp was in his rail, hot in lais head, 
might, I conceive, be nmde with equal force, there, as on the 
present occasion. 
Though this note has run out to an unreasonable length, I 
must add a passage in The Taming ofthe Shrew; which, while 
it shows that our author knew the sting of a wasp was really 
situated in its rail, proves at the saine rime that he thought it 
might vith propriety be applied metaphorieally to the to»gue: 
" Pet. Corne, corne, you wasp; i'faith you are too angry. 
' Cath. If I be waspish, best beware my sting. 
« Pet. Iy remedy is then to pluek it out. 
« Cath. Ay, if the fool eould final out where it lies. 
" Pet. Who knows hot where a wasp does wear his stbtg ? 
« In his rail." 
" Cath. In his tongue. 
" Pet. Whose tongue ? 
" Cath. Yours, if you talk of tails," &c. 
This passage appears to me fully to justify the readlng that I 
have chosen. Independent, however, of ail authority, or re- 
ference to other passages, it is supported by the context here. 
A person stung by a wasp would hot be very likely to clalm all 
the talk to himself, as Hotspur is described to do, but rather in 
the agony of pain to implore the assistance of those about 
him; whereas " the wasp-tongue fool" may well be supposed 
to « break into a woman's mood," and to listen « to no tongue 
but his own." 
Mr. M. Mason thlnks that the words ai'terwards used by Hot- 
spur are decisively in favour ofwasp-stung,--" Nettled and stung 
wifla pismires ;" but Hotspur uses that expression to mark tire 
laoignancy of his ovnfeelings; Northumberland uses the terre 

sc. Zl.. KING ItENRY IV. 9s5 

HOT. Why, look you, I ara whipp'd and scourg'd 
with rods, 
Nettled, and st,mg with pismires, when I hear 
Of this vile politician, Bolingbroke. 
In Richard's time,mWhat do you call the place 
A plague upon't !mit is in Gloucestershire ;m 
'Twas where the mad-cap duke his uncle kept 
His uncle York ;where I first bow'd my knee 
Unto this king of smiles, this Bolingbroke, 
When you and hc came back ri'oto Ravenspurg. 
NORTtt. At Berkley castle. 
HOT. You say true : 
Why, what a candy deal of courtesy  
This fawning greyhound then did proffer 
Look,--when his btnt fortune came to agefl 
And,---gentle Hair Percff,and, Z'ind cousin, 
O, the devil take such cozeners !----God forgive 
Good uncle, tell your tale, for I have done. 

msp-tongue to denote the irritability of his son's temper, and the 
petulance ofhis language. M.LOE. 
I may seem to be overlald by the foregoing note, but do hot 
think myselfdefeated. The reader's patience, however, shall 
be no further exercised on the present occasion. Sws. 
  what a candy deal courtesff] i.e. what a deal of 
candy courtesy. Mr. Pope and the subsequent editors read-- 
eandy'd, without necessity. See also hïng Richard 111: 
" Grossly grew captive to his honeff words." 
not honey'd words. See the last note. 5Io. 
  bant rtune came fo age,] Alluding to what psed 
in £5"ng Richard, Act II. sc. iii. Jonso. 
"  the devil tag.e stoEh cozeners ] The saine jingle occurs 
in vo Tragedies in One, &c. 1601 : 
" Corne pretty co«sin, cozened by grim death. » 
Again, in 5lonsœeeur Thomas by Beaumont and Fletcher: 
« Cozet thyself no more." 


frOR. Hay, if you have not, to't again ; 
We'll stay your leisure. 
HOT. I bave done, i'£aith. 
IYOR. Thon once more to your Scottish prisoners. 
Deliver them up without their ransome straight, 
And make the Douglas' son your only mean 
For powcrs in Scotland; which,--for divers reasons, 
Which I shall send you written,--bc assur'd, 
Will easily be grantcd.--You, my lord,-- 
Your son in Scot]and being thas employ'd, 
Sha|| secret|y into the bosom creep 
Of tbat saine noble prelate, well belov'd, 
The arcbbishop. 
Ho2". Of York, is't hot ? 
lV'o_. True; who bears hard 
His brother's death at Bristol, the lord Scroop. 
I speak hot this in estimation,  
As what I think might be, but what I know 
Is rmninated, plotted, and set down ; 
And only stays but. to behold the face 
Of that occasion that shall bring it on. 
HOT. I smell it; upon my lire, it will do well. 
NORTH. Belote the game's a-foot, thou still let'st 
HoT.V(hy,it cannot choosebut be a noble plot :-- 

Again, in The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, 1601 
« To see my cousin cozen'd in this sort." 
 I sTeak hot this in estimation,] Esthnation for conjecture. 
 --letst slip»'] To let slip, is to loose the greyhound. 
So, in T£e Taming  the S£rew : 
« Lucentio lpp d me» like his greyhod," 

sc. 1ii. KING HENRY IV. s7 

And then the power of Scotland, and of York,-- 
To join with Mortimer, ha ? 
lVon. And so they shall. 
HoT. In faith, it is exceedingly well aim'd. 
lVoz. And 'tis no little reason bids us speed, 
To save our heads by raising of a head - 
Fol-, bear om'selves as even as we tan, 
The king will always think him in out debt ;* 
And think we think ourseh'es unsatisfied, 
Till he hath round a rime to pay us home. 
And see already, how he doth begin 
To make us strangers to his looks of love. 
IIoT. He does, he does; we'll be reveng'd on 
IVOR. Cousin,  farewell :--No firther go in this, 
Than I by letters shall direct your course. 
When rime is ripe, (which will be suddenly,) 
I'll steal to Glendower, and lord Mortimer ; 
Where you and Douglas, and out powers at once, 
(As I will fashion it,) slmll lmppily meet, 
To bear our fortunes in out own strong arms, 
1Vhich now we hold at much uucertainty. 
NozTOe. Farewell, good brother - we shall thrive, 
I trust. 

7 by raising ofa head :'l A head is a body of forces. 
So, i,n, liTng Henr3¢ VL P. III: 
Making another head, to fight again. » SEEVEIS. 
 Te king will alwas &c.'] TMs is a natural description of 
the state of mind between those that have conferred, and those 
that have received obligations too great to be satisfied. 
That this would be the event of Northumberland's disloyalty, 
was predicted by King Richard in the former play. JoHiSO.. 
 Cousin,] This was a common address in our author's time 
to nephews, nieces, and grandchildren. 8ee Holinshed's Chro- 
nicle, pas»im. Hot»pur was Vorcester'» nep,,ew. BIA LOI-. 

tIoT. Uncle, adieu :--O, let the hours be short, 
Till fields, and blows, and groans, applaud out sport 


Rochester. tn Inn Yard. 

Enter a Carrier, with a Lanter» in his hand. 

1 04R. Heigh ho ! An't be not four by the day, 
l'll be hanged: Charles' wain  is over the new 
chimney, and yet our horse hot packed. What, 
ostler ! 
Osrr. [lVithin.] Anon, anon. 
 CtR. I pr'ythee, Tom, beat Cut's saddle,  put 
a few flocks in the point; the poor jade is wrung 
in the withers out of ail eess? 

' -- Charles' wain--] Charles's ain is the vu]gar name 
given to the constellation called the Bear. It is a corruption of" 
the Chorles or Churls wain (Sax. ceopl, a countryman.) 
See also Thoresby's Leecls, p. 68. 
Chorl is frequently used for a eountryman in old books. 
« Here begynneth the chorle and the byrde," prînted for Wyaa- 
kyn de Worde. See also the Glossaries of Skinner and Junius» 
v. Churl. DovCE. 
  Cut's saddle,] Cut is the naine of a horse in The 
Witches of Lancashire, 163, and, I suppoe, was a eommon 
one. S'rvss. 
See ¥ol. V. p. 90, n. 5. 
 out ofall eess.] i.e. out ofall measure: the phrase 
being taken from a cess, tax, or subsidy; whieh being by regu- 
lar anti moderate rates, when any thing w exorbitant, or out 
of measure, it was aid t be out o.fall 

6«. ,r.. KING HENRY IV. 39 

flatter another Carrier. 

2 CAR. Pease and beans are as dank  here as a 
dog, and that is the next way to give poor jades 
the bots :» this bouse is turned upside down, since 
Robin ostler died. 
1 CAR. Poor fellow ! never joyed since the price 
of oats rose ; it was the death of him. 
2 CAR. I think this be the most villainous house 
in all London road for fleas: i aih stung like a 

*  as dank--] i. e. wet, rotten. PotE. 
In the directions given by Sir Thomas Bodley, for the preser- 
-cation of his library, he orders that the cleanser thereof shou]d, 
" at least twice a quarter, with clean cloths, strike away the dust 
and noulding of the books, which will hot then continue long 
with it ; now it proceedeth chiefly of the newness of the forrels, 
which in time will be less and less dankish." Reliquiw Bodlei- 
anw, p. 111. 
 bots:] Are worm in the stomach ofa horse. 
" The bottes is an yll disease, and they lye in a horse mawe ; 
and they be an inch long, white coloured, and a reed heed, and 
as moche as  fyngers ende; and they be quycle and stycke 
thste in the mawe syde : it apperêthe by stampynge of the horse 
or tomblynge ; and in the beginninge there is remedy ynoughe ; 
and if they be hot cured betyme, they will eate thorough his 
mawe and kyll hym." Fitzherbert's Bool« of Husbandr3. RED. 
A bots light on ]ou, is an imprecation fi'equently repeated 
in the anonynmus play of King Henrj \ as well as in many 
other old pieces. So, in the ancient black letter interlude of 
The disobedient Child, no date: 
" That I wished their bellies full of hottes." 
In Reginald Scott, on tVitchcraft, 158, is "a charme for thc 
bots in a horse." 
  I ara stung like a tench.] Why like a tench ? I know 
hot, unless the similitude conslsts in the spots of the tench, and 
thoe made by the bite of refrain. 5IaLol. 

9.,o FIRST PART OF .4c2. iI. 

CAR, Like a tench ? by the mass there is ne'er 
kîng in Christendom could be better bit than I 
have been since the first cock. 

2 C.R. Why, they will allow us ne'er a jorden, 
and then we leak in your chimney; and your 
chalnber-lie breeds fleas like a loach. ' 

I have either read, or been told, that it was once customary to 
pack such pond-fish as wcre brought alive to market, in sting- 
ing-nettles. But writing from recollection, and having no proof 
of tbis usage to offer, I do hOt press my i.ntelligence on the 
It appcars, however, from fle following passage in Philemon 
ttolland's translation of Pliny's Natural History Book IX. 
ch. xlvii, tbat anciently fishes were supposed to be infested by 
37,eas : " In summe, what is there hot bred within the sea . Even 
the veric jTeas that skip so merrily in summer time within vic- 
tualling houses and innes, and bite so shrowd]y : as a]so llce that 
love best to lire close under the haire of our heads, are there 
engendred and to be round: for many a time the fishers twitch 
up their hookes, and see a number of these skippers and creep- 
ers settled thick about their baits which they laid ibr fishes. And 
flfis vermin is thought to trouble the poore fishes in their sleep 
by night within the .ea, s well as us on land." 
Dr. Fariner supposes that " stung like a tencl," may be a 
blunder for " like a trout." See, says he, the representation 
of a trout in Walton's Co»llete Angler, ch. v. STEEVE:NSo 
  breeds.fleas like a loach.-I The loach is a very small 
flsh, but so exceedingly prolifick, that it is seldom round without 
spawn in it ; and it was formerly a practice of the young gallants 
to swallow loaches in wine, because they were considered as 
invigorating, and apt to communicate their prolilïck quality. 
The carrier therefore means to say, that " your chamber-lie 
breeds fleas as fast as a loach" breeds, hot fleas, but loaches. 
In As jou like it, Jaques says that he " can suck melancholy 
out of a song, as a weasel sucks eggs ;" but he does hot mean 
that a weasel sucls eggs " out of a song."--And in Troilus and 
Cressida, where Nestor says that Thersites 
" A slave whose gall coiçs slanders like a mint," 
he means that his gall coined slanders as fast as a mint coins 
money. M. MAso. 
A passage in Coriolanus likewise may be produced in support 
of the interpretation here given : - -- and he no more rememo 

se. t. KING HENRY IV. 241 

1 CIR. What, ostler ! come away and be hanged, 
C0111{ awa) r, 
 CaR. I bave a gammon of bacon, and two 
razes of ginger, s to bc delivered as fitr as Charing- 

bers his mother, than an eight-year-old horse;" i. e. than an 
eight-year-old horse remembers his data. 
I entirely agree with Mr. M. Mason iii his explanation of this 
passage, and, belote I had seen his COMMENTS, had in the saine 
manner interpreted a passage in As dou like it. See Vol. VIII. 
p. 84, n. 4. One principal source of error in the interpretation 
of many passages in out author's plays has been the supposing 
that his similes were intend,d to correspond exactly on both 
$ides. M-CLOSE. 
I fear the foregoing ingenious explanatlon must give way to the 
eircumstance recorded in the ninth Book of Pliny's Natural 
History, ch. xlvii, referred to by me in a note on this passage in 
the editon of 1785, omitted in the last, but now quoted at length 
by Mr. Steevens in the prenent. Again : "Last of all, some.flshes 
there be which of themselves are given fo breed fleas and lice; 
among whieh the ehalcis, a kind of turgot, is one." REND. 
« and two razes of ginger,] As our author in several 
passages mentions a race of ginger, I thought proper to distin- 
guish it from the raze mentioned here. The former signifies no 
more than a single foot of it; but a raze is the Indian terre for 
a baie of it. THEOBALD. 
and two razes of" ginger,'l So, in the o!d anonymous 
play of Henr V: " he hath taken the great raze ofgi»ger, 
that bouncing Bess, &c. was to bave had." Zt daint¢ race of 
ginger is mentioned in Ben Jonson's masque of The Gipsies 
_hletamoThosed. The ]ate Mr. Warner observed to me, tbat a 
single roof or race of ginger, werc it brought home entirc, as it 
might formerly have been, and not in small pieces, as at present, 
would have been sufficient to load a pack-horse. Ho quoted 
Sir Hans Sloane's Introduction to his Histor of Jamaica, in sup- 
port of his assertion; and added " that he could discover no 
authority for the word raze in thc sense appropriated to it by 
A race of ginger is a phrase that seems familiar among our 
comick writers. So, in .4 Looking-Glass for London and Eng- 
land, 1598: " I bave spent" eleven penee, besides three rases 
af ginger."" Here's two rases more." STvrs. 

_,2¢o. FIRST PART OF Acr zx. 

1 CAR. 'Odsbody! the turkies in my pannier are 
quite starved.gWhat, ostler !mA plague on thee ! 
hast thou never an eye in thy head ? eanst hot hear ? 
An 'twere hot as good a deed as drink, to break 
the pare of thee, I atn a very villain.--Come, and 
be hanged :mHast no faith in thee ? 

Enter GADSHILL. t 

GAz)s. Good morrow, carriers. What's o'clock ? 
1 Ca. I think it be two o'clock. - 
GAz)s. I pr'ythee, lend me thy lantern, to see my 
gelding in the stable. 

Dr. Grew speaks, in The PhilosoThical Transactions, of a 
single roof of ginger weighing fourteen ounces, as uncommonly 
large. I doubt, therefore, concerning the truth of Mr. Warner's 
assertion. Theobald's explanation seems equally disputable. 
Sec Hacklv.t's Vo'ages, Vol. III. p. 
  the turkies in mg pannier are quite starved.] Here 
 slight anachronism. Turkies were hOt brought into England 
till the rime of King Henry VIII. MAIolE. 
'  Gadshill.] This thief receives his tifle f'rom a place 
on the Kentish road, where many robberies have been commit- 
ted. So, in Weaward Hoe, 1606: 
" ------ Why, how lies sbe ? 
" Troth, as the way lies over Gads-hill, very dangerous." 
Again, in the anonymous play of Thefamous Victories of Henr3¢ 
the Fifth : 
" And I know thee for a taking fellow 
" Upon Gads-hill in Kent." 
In the year 1558, a ballad entitled The Robbery at Gadshill, 
was etered on the books of the Stationers' Company. 
 I think it be two o'clock.'] The carrier, who suspected Gads- 
hill, strives to mislead him as to the hour; because the first ob- 
servation ruade in thiz seene is» that it wasffbur o'clock. 

sc. I. KING HENRY IV. 2s 

1 CAR. Nay, soft, I pray ye; I know a trick 
worth two of that, i'faith. 
G«t9. æ. I pr'ythee, lend me thine. 
2 CaR. Ay, when ? canst tell ?3--Lend me thy 
]antern, quoth a?mmarry, l'll see thee hanged 
Ga9s. Sirrah carrier, what time do you mean to 
come to London ? 
2 CaR. Time enough to go to bed with a candle, 
I warrant thee.--Come, neighbour Mugs, we'll call 
up the gentlemen ; they will along with company, 
for they have great charge. [Exeunt Carriers. 
G_4DS. What, ho ! chamberlain ! 
Cra. [lVithin.] At hand, quoth piek-purse.  
Gars. That's even as fait as--at hand, quoth the 
ehamberlain: for thou variest no more from picking 

 Ay, when? canst tell?] Thîs is a proverbial phrase. So, 
in The Comedy ofErrors, Act III. sc. i: 
" Dro. E. Have at you with a proverb, &c. 
«, Luce. Have at you with another : that'sWhen? can ]ou 
tell?" STver:s. 
 At hand, çuoth pic-purse.] This is a proverbial expression 
often used by Green, Nashe, and other writers of the rime, in 
whose works the cant of low conversation is preserved. Again, 
in the play of ATius and Virginia, 1575» Haphazard» the vice» 
says : 
" At hand, çuoth pickpurse, here redy ara I, 
" See well to the cutpurse, be ruled by me. '» 
Agan, (as Mr. Malone observes, in The Duchess of Suo[k, by 
Tho. Drue (but hitherto ascribed to Heywood,) 161 : « Af 
hand, uoth lickpursehave you any work ibr a tyler ?" 
Thls proverbial saying probably arose from the pick-purse al- 
was seizing upon the prey nearest him: his maxim being that 
9f Pope's man of gallantry : 
" The thing a$ hand is of ail thlngs the best. » 

of purses, than giving direction doth from labour- 
ing ; thou lay'st the plot how? 

E, tler Chamberlain. 

CHIM. Good morrow, toaster Gadshill. It holds 
current, that I told you yesternight: There's a 
fi-anklin  in the xvild of Kent, hath brought three 
hundred marks with him in gold : I heard him tell 
it to one of his company, last night af supper ; a 
kind ofauditor; one that hath abundance of charge 
too, God knows what. They are up already, and 
call for eggs and butter :7 They will away pre- 

 That's even as fa[r as--af hand, quoth the chamberlain : for 
thou variest no mo«e &c.] So, in The Li.fe and Death of Gamalœeel 
Ratseff, 1605: "  he dealt with the chamberlaine of the house 
to learne which way thcy rode in fle morning, which the cham- 
berlaine perbrmed accordingly, and that with great care and 
diligence, for he knew he should partake of their fortunes, if 
they sped." 
'; fi'anklin] is a little gcntleman. JorlS(J. 
A fi'anklin is a fi'e&older, hq. Maso. 
Fortescue, says the editor of The Canterbu Tales, Vol. IV. 
p. 202, (de L. L. Ang. c. xxix.) describes afranklain to be 
pater familias--magnis ditatus possessioni5us. He is classed ¢dth 
(but a.12er ) the mlles and armi?:,er; and is distinguished from the 
Li5ere tenentes and valecti; though, as it should seem, the only 
real distinction between him and other freeholders, consisted in 
the largeness of his estate. Spelman, in voce Franklein, quotes 
the following passage from Trivet's French Chronicle. (MSS. 
Bibl. R. S. n. 56.) " Thomas de Brotherton filius Edwardi I. 
marescallus Anglioe, apres la mort de son pere esposa la fille de 
un Franchelyn apelee Alice." The historian did not think it 
worth his while even to mention the name of the Frankelein. 
r and callfor eggs and butter:] It appears from The 
Hous&old Book of the Fth Earl of P,»orthumberland, that but- 
ter'd eggs was the usual breakfast of my lord and lady, during 
the season of Lent. 


Gl»s. Sirrah, if they meet hot with saint Ni- 
cholas' clerks, s I'll give thee this neck. 
CHM. No, l'Il none of it: I pr'ythee, keep 
that for the hangnan; for, I know, thou wor- 
ship'st saint Nicholas as truly as a man of iZalsehood 
GA»s. What talkest thou to me of the hangman ? 
if I bang, l'Il make a fat pair of gallows: ibr, if 
I hang, old sir John hangs with me; and, thou 
knowest, he's no staïve]ing. Tut! there are other 
Trojans  that thou dreamcst hot of, the which, for 

 aint Nicholas' clerks,] St. Nicholas was the patron 
aint of scholars ; and Nicholas, or old Nick, is a cant naine for 
the devil. Hence he equivocally calls robbers, St. Tcholas' 
clerks. Wagvaa'os. 
Highwaymen or robbers were so called, or Saint _7cholas's 
l«nights : 
" A mandrake grown under some heavy tree, 
"' There where Saint Nicholas knights hot long belote 
" Had dropt their fat axungia to the lee." 
Glarean us Vadeanus's Panegyrick upon Tom Coruat. 
Again, in Rowley's lIatch af lIidnight, 1633 : "I think yon- 
der corne pra, ncing d«,,wn the bills çrom Kingston, a c, ouple of 
St. Nicholass clerks. Again, in .4 Christian turnd Turk, 
"  ,Ve are prevented 
" St. Nicholas's clerks are stepp'd up belote us." 
Again, in The Hollander, a comedy by Glapthorne, 1640: 
" Next it is decreed, that the receivers of our rents and customs, 
to wit, divers rooks, and St. Nicholas' clerks, &c.under 
pain of being carried up Holborn in a cart," &c. SweEVeSS. 
This expression probably took its fise from the parish clerks 
of London, who were iincorporated into a frateruity or guild, 
with St. Nicholas for their patron. 
See Vol. IV. 252, n. 9, where an account is given of the ori- 
gin of this expression as applied to sdmlars. MLOS. 
  other Trojans ] So, in Love's Labour's Lost: "Hec» 
tor was but a Tro.]an in respect of this. » Trojan in both these 

246 FIRST PART OF Acriz. 

sport sake, are content to do the profession solne 
grace; that would, ifmatters should be looked into, 
for their own credit sake, lnake all whole. I ara 
joined with no foot land-rakers,' no long-staff, six- 
penny strikers; none of these mad, mustaehio 

instances had a cant signification, and perhaps was only a more 
creditable terre for a thief. So again, in Love's Labour's Lost 
" -- unless you play the honest Trojan, tbe poor wench is cast 
 lam joined wit no foot land.rakers, &c.] That is, with 
no padders, no wanderers on foot. No long-sto î six penny 
strikers,--no fellows that infest the road with long-staffs, and 
knock men down for six-pence. None of these mad, mustachio, 
jourple-hued malt-worms,--none of those whose faces are red 
with drinking ale. Jossor. 
 --si«-penn strikers;] A striker had some cant signlfica- 
tion with vhich at present we are hot exactly acquainted. It 
used in several of the old plays. I rathcr believe in this place, 
o six-penny striker signifies, hot one who would content himself 
fo borrow, i. e. rob yott for the sake of six-pence. That to borrow 
was the cant phrase for to steal, is well known; and that to 
strike likewise signified to tmrrow, let the following passage in 
8hirley's Gentleman of Venice confirm: 
" Cor. You had best assault me too. 
" 3lal. I must borrow money, 
«, And that some call a striking," &c. 
Again, in Glapthorne's Hollander, 1640: 
" The only shape to hide a striker in." 
_Again, inanold MS. playentitled, The SecondMaiden's Tragedy: 
"  one that robs the mind, 
« Twenty times worse than any highway striker." 
In Greene's Art of ConeycatcMng, 159, under the table of 
Cant Expressions uscd bq Thieves: « __ the cutting a pocket 
or picking a purse, is called strilin.g." Again: "--who 
taking a proper youth to be his prentce, to teach him the order 
of striking, and foisting." COLLyres. 
Sec also, The London Prodigal, 1605: " Nay, now I have 
had such a fortunate beginning» Pli hot let a six-loenn.-lours¢ 
escape me. » 

sc. z. KING HENRY IV. »7 

purple-hucd malt-worms:  but with nobility, and 
tranquillity; burgomasters, and great oneyers; « such 

malt-zoorms:] This cant terre for a tippler I find in 
The Lire and Death of rack Straw, 1593 : " You shall purch-ase 
the prayers of ail fle alewives in town, for saving a rnalt-worm 
and a customer." STEEVENS. andgreat oneyers ;] " Perhaps, oneraireg, 
trustees, or commsstoners ;" says Mr. Popc. But how this 
word cornes to adroit of any such construction, I ara at a loss 
to know. To Mr. Pope's second conjecture, " of cunning men 
that look sharp, and aim well," I have nothing to reply seriously: 
but choose to drop it. The reading which I have substituted, 
[moneyers 3 I owe to the friendship of the ingenious Nicholas 
I-I.?rdinge, Esq. A moneer is an ottïcer of the Mint, who makes 
coin, and delivers out the king's money. Monegers are also 
taken for bankers, or those that make it their trade to turn and 
ïeturn money. Either of these acceptations will admirably 
square with out author's context. THEOBALD. 
This is a very acute and judicious attempt at emendation, and 
is hot undeservedly adopted by Dr. Warburton. Sir Thomas 
Hanmer reads great owners, hOt without equal or greater like- 
lihood of truth. I know hot however whether any change is 
necessary: Gadshill tells the Chamberlain, that he is joinedwith 
no mean wretches, but with burgomasters and great ones, or, as 
he terres them in merriment by a cant termination, great oneqers, 
or great-one-éers, as we say, privateer, auctioneer, circuiteer. 
This is, I fancy, the whole of the matter. JOHÆSOÆ. 
Mr. Hardlnge's conjecture may be supported by an ancient 
authorit3r, and is probably right: "there is a house upon 
Page Greene, next unto the round turf of trees, sometime in 
the tenure and occupation of Simon Bolton, Mon.yer;" i. e. 
probably banker. Description of Tottenham High-Cross, 161. 
.1 EED. 
Perhaps Shakspeare wroteon?/ers, that is, publick accomt- 
ants; men possessed of large sums of money belonging to the 
state.It is the course of the Court of Exchequer, when the 
sheriff makes up his accounts for issues, amerciaments, and 
mesne profits, to set upon his head o. ni. which denotes oneratur, 
nisi habeat su.ffïcientem exonerationem: he thereupon becomes 
the king's debtor, and the parties peravaile (as they are termed 
in law) for whom he answers, become lais debtors, and are dis- 
eharged as with respect to the King. 


as can hold in; such as will strike sooner than 
speak, and speak sooner than drink, and drink 
sooner than pray: s And yet I lie; for they pray 

To settle accounts in this manner, is still called in the Exche- 
quer, to on,u; and from hence 8hakspeare perhaps tbrmed the 
word onyrs.--The Chamberlain had a little before mentioned, 
among the travellers whom he thought worth plundering, an 
officer of the Exchequer, "a kind of auditor, one that bath 
abundance of charge too, God knows what." This emendation 
may derive some support from what Gadshill says in the next 
scene: " There's money of the king's coming down the hill; 
"ris going to the king's Exchequer." The first quarto has-- 
one#res, which the second and ail the subsequent copies ruade 
oney.ers. The original reading gives great probability to Hanmer's 
» such as can hold in; suc as teill strike sooner tha, 
s]oeak, and speak soone.r than drink, and drink grc.] According 
to the specimen given us in this play, of this dissolute gang, we 
ha,ve no reason to think they were less readq fo drink thau speak. 
]3esides, it is plain, a natural gradation was here intended to be 
given of their actions, relative to one another. But what ha 
Ssaeaki±g, drinking, and praying, to do with one another . We 
ould certainly read think in both places instead of drink ; and 
then we have a very regular and humorous climax. They will 
strike sooner thau s_peak; and speak sooner than think ; and 
think sooner lhan 1»raff. By which last words is meant, that 
" though perhaps they nmy now and then reflect on their crimes, 
they will never repent of them." The Oxtbrd editor has digni- 
fied this correction by his adoption ofit. Waavaor. 
I ana in doubt about thls passage. There îs yet a part unex- 
plaine& What is the meaning of such as can hold in ? 
cannot mean such as can keep their ovn secret, for they will, 
he says, s_peak sooner than think: it cannot mean such as vill go 
calmly fo work without unnecessary violence, such as is used by 
long-sta strikers, for the following part will not suit with thi 
meaning; and though we should read by transposition such as 
will s.peak sooner than strike, the clinmx will hot proceed regu- 
lady. I must leave it as it is. JOHSON. 
Snch as can hold in, may mean such as can cur5 old father 
aTtick the law, or such as vill hot blab. 
Turbervile's Book on Hunting, 1575, p. 37, mentions hunts- 
men on horseback to make young hounds « hold in and close 

te. t. KING HENRY IV. e49 

continually to their saint, the commonwealth ; or, 
rather, not pray to her, but prey on her ; for they 
ride up and down on her, and make her their boots. 
CH.M. What, the commonwealth their boots ? 
will she hold out water in foui way ? 
Gms. She will, she will; justice hath liquored 
ber. 6 We steal as in a castle,  cock-sure ; we have 
the receipt of fern-seed, s we walk invisible. 

to the old ones: so Gadshill may mean, that he is joined with 
ruch companions as will hold in, or keep and stick close to one 
another, and such as are men of deeds, and hOt of words; and 
yet they love to talk and speak their mind freely better than to 
drink. To LI.. 
I think a gradation was intended, as Dr. Warburton supposes. 
To hold in, I believe, meant to " keep their fellows' counsel 
and their own ;" hot to discover their rogueries by talking about 
them. So, in Twelfih-Night: "--that you will hOt extort 
from me, what I ana willing to keep in." Gadshill, therefore, 
I suppose, means to say, that he keeps company with steady 
robbers ; such as will hOt impeach their comrades, or make any 
discovery by talking of what they bave done; men that will 
strike the traveller sooner than talk to him; that yet vould 
sooner speak to him than drink, which might intoxicate them, 
and put them off their guard; and, notwithstanding, would 
prefer drinking, however dangerous, fo prayer, which is the last 
thing they would think oï.--The words however will adroit a 
different interpretation. We have oftcn in these plays, "it were 
as good a deed as to drink." Perhaps therefore the meaning 
may be,--Men who will knock the traveller down sooner than 
speak to him; who yet will spcak to him and bid him stand, 
sooner than drink ; (to which they are sufliciently well inc]ined;) 
and lastly, who will drink sooner than pray. Here indeed the 
climax is not regular. But perhaps our author did not intend 
it should be preserved. 
« She will, .he will; justice hath liquored her.] A satire on 
chicane in courts of justice; whieh supports ill men in their 
violations of the lav, under the very cover of it. WAaVaTOl. 
Alluding to boots mentioned in the preeeding speeeh. " They 
would melt me (says Falstaff, in The lerry Wives o..f Windsor, ) 


CIaM. Nay, by my faith ; I think you are lnore 

out of my fat drop by drop, and liquor fishermen's boots with 
me." See also Peacham's Complete Gentleman, 1627, p. 199 : 
" Item, a halfpenny for liquor for his boots." MLorE. 
7 --as in a castle,] This was once a proverbial phrase. 
So, Dante, (in Paatorio) : 
" Sicura quasi rocca in alto monte." 
Again, in The Little French Lawyer, by Beaumont and 
F]etcher : 
" That noble courage we have seen, and we 
" Shall fight as in a castle." 
Perhaps Shakspeare means, we steal with as much security as 
the ancient inhabitants of castles, who had those strong holds 
to fly to for protection and defence against the laws. So, in 
]tng HenryVI. Part I. Act III. sc. i: 
« Yes, as an outlaw in a castle keeps, 
" And uses it to patronage lais thcft." 
Agaln, in Sidney's Arcadia, Book II: « Among the test, 
two brothers of huge both greatnesse and force, therfore called 
giants, who kept themselves in a castle seated upon the top of 
a rock, impregnable" &c. STEEXrEN8. 
« we bave the receipt offern-seed, Fern is one of those 
plants which have their seed on the back of the leaf so small as 
to escape the sight. Those who perceived that jêrn was propa- 
gated by semination, and yet could never see the seed, were 
much at a loss for a solution of the difficulty ; and as wonder 
always endeavours to augment itself, they ascribed to fern-seed 
,nany strange properties, some of which the rustick virgins have 
not yet forgotten or exploded. JOHSON. 
This circumstance relative to .fern-seed is alluded to in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's Fair Iaid of the Inn: 
"  had you Gyges' ring, 
" Or the herb that gives invisibility ." 
Agaln, in Ben Jonson's New Inn : 
« I had 
" No medicine, sir, to go invisible, 
" No fern-seed in my pocket." 
Again, in P. Holland's translation of Pliny, Book XXVII. 
ch. ix : " Offerne be two kinds, and they beare neither floure 
nor seede." STEEVENSo 
The anclents, who often paid more attention to received opi- 
nions than to the evidence of their senses, believed thatjérn 

sc. z. KING HENRY IV. s 

beholden to the night, than to fern-seed, for your 
walking invisible. 
G»s. Give me thy hand: thou shalt have a 
hare in our purchase,  as I am a true man. 
C/t. Nay, rather let me have it, as you are a 
false thief. 
GADS. Go to; Homo is a common name to all 
men. 1 Bid the ostler bring my-gelding out of the 
stable. Farewell, you muddy knave. [Exeunt. 

bore no seed. Our ancestors imagined that this plant produced 
seed which was invisible. Hence, ri'oto an extraordinary mode 
of reasoning, founded on the fantastic doctrine of signatures, 
they concluded that they wlm possessed the secret of wearing 
this seed about them would become invisible. Tlfis superstition 
the good sense of the poet taught him to ridicule. It was also 
supposed to seed in the course of a single night, and is called in 
Browne's Brilannia's Pastorals, 1615: 
" The wond'rous one-night-seedlng ferne." 
Absurd as these notions are, they were not wholly exp]oded 
in the time of Addison. He laughs at " a doctor who was 
arrived at the knowledge of the green and red dragon, and had 
discovered the female fern-seed." Tatler, No. 240. 
9 --purchase,] Is the term used in law for any thing hot 
inherited but acquired. Jorrsos. 
Parchase was anciently the cant terre for tolen goods. 
in Henry V. Act III: 
" They will steal any thing, and call it_purchase." 
So, Chaucer : 
" And robbery is holde Turchase. "' 
  Homo is a common naine &c.] Gadshill had promised 
as he was a true man; the Chamberlain wills him to promise 
rather as a false thief; to which Gadshill answers, that though 
he nfight have reason to change the word true, he might have 
spared man, for homo is a name common to all men, and among 
others to thieves. JorilSOl. 
This is a quotation from The .4ccidence, and I believe is hot 
the only one from that book, which, therefore, IVlr. Capell 
thould have added to his Shaksperiana. Loar. 


The Road bff Gadshill. 
Enter PHnce HErIY, and PolNS; BmtDOLVt ad 
PETO, al some distatce. 
PoNs. Corne, shelter, shelter ; I bave removed 
Falstafl' horse,and he frets like a gummed velvet. * 
P. Hv. Stand close. 


FAL. Poins ! Poins, and be hanged ! Poins ! 
P. Hx. Peace, ye fat-kidneyed rascal ; What 
a brawling dost thou keep ? 
Fz. Where's Poins, Hal ? 
P. Hz. He is walked up to the top of the hill ; 
l'll go seek him. [Pretends to seek Poires. 
F.L. I am accursed to rob in that thief's com- 
pany : the rascal bath removed my horse, and tied 
hiln I know hot where. If I travel but four foot 
by the squire  further afoot, I shall break my wind. 

See Vol. VI. p. 91, n. 6; p. 119, n. 4; and Vol. IX. p. 8, 
n. 9. MALOIIE. 
 like a gummed elvet.] This allusion we often meet 
with in the old comedies. So, in The Malcontent, 160¢: « I'll 
corne among you, like gum into taffata, to fret, fret." 
s fourfoot by the squire'] The thought is humorous, 
and alludes to lais bulk: insinuating, that hls legs being four foot 
asunder, when he advanced four tbot, this put together ruade 
four feet suare, WAI'mUI',TO. , 

sc. tt. K1NG HENRY IV. 2ss 

Well, I doubt not but to die a ir death for ail 
this, if I 'scape hanging for killing that rogue. 
have forsworn his eompany hourly any time this 
two-and-twenty years, and yet I ara bewitehed with 
the rogue's eompany. If the rascal have not given 
me medicincs to make ne love him,  I'll be hanged; 
it could hOt be else; I have drunk medicines.-- 
Poins !mHal !mA plague upon you both !--Bar- 
dolph !mPeto [I'll starve, ere l'll rob a foot fur- 
ther? An 'twere hot as good a deed as drink, to 
turn true man, and leave these rogues, I ara the 
veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. Eight 
yards ofuneven ground, is threescore and ten toiles 
afoot wifli me ; and the stony-hearted villains know 

I ara in doubt whether there is so much humour here as is 
suspected: Four foot b, d the squire is probably no more than 
dfour droot bff a rule. JoHlSOl. 
Dr. Johnson is certainly right. Bishop Corbet says in one of 
his poems : 
" Some twelvefoot b* d the sqzuzre." F]trtMErt. 
All the old copies read by the squire, which points out the 
etymology--esquiere, Ff. The saine phrase occurs in The 
lVinter's Tale: « --hOt the worst of the three, but jumps twelve 
foot and a hall b.t/the squire." Again, in Burton's Anatom of 
,'Ielanchol, P. II. sect. iv: "--as tbr a workman hOt to know 
his axe, saw, squire, or any other toole," &c. Sa'EEVmS. 
See Vol. VII. p. 177, n.o.. MLoE. 
" --medicines to make me love him,] Alluding to the vulgar 
notion of love pozvder. JOHISOl. 
So, in Othello: 
" she is corrupted 
" By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks." 
  ro a foot flurt£er.] Ths s only a slight error, which 
yet has run through all the copies. We should readru a foot. 
8o we now sayru on. JoHso. 
Why my it hot meanI vi[l hot go a foot furt£«r fo ro ? 

25, FIRST PART OF AeT zar. 

it well enough: A plague upon't, when thieves can- 
hOt be true to one another ! [They çchistle. Whew ! 
--A plague upon you ail ! Give me my horse, you 
rogues; give 1/le my horse, and be hanged. 
P. Hz.: Peace, ye tat-guts! lie down; lay thine 
ear close to the ground, and list if thou canst hear 
the trcad of travellers. 
FAL. Have you any levers to lift ine up again, 
being down ? 'Sblood, I'll hOt bear mine own fiesh 
so far afoot again, for all the coin in thy father's 
exchequer. What a plague mean ye to colt  me 
thus ? 
/9. Hzz¢. Thou liest, thou art hot colted, thou 
art uncolted. 
FAL. I pr'ythee, good prince Hal, help me to 
my horse; good king's son. 
/9. Hz: Out, you rogue ! shall I be your ostler! 
T'aL. Go, hang thyself in thy own heir-apparent 
garters ! 7 If I be ta'en, l'Il peach for this. An I 
bave hot ballads made on you all, and sung to 
filthy tunes, let a cup ofsack be my poison :s When 
a jest is so forward, and afoot too,I hate it. 

  to colt--] Is to fool, to trick; but the prince taking" 
it in another sense, opposes it by uncolt, that is, unhorse. 
In the first of these senses it is used by Nashe, in Have witk 
.you to Saffron Walden, &c. 1596: " toaster fretting and 
chaffing to be thus colted of both or mem," &c. Again, 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Lo}/al Suject : " Vvqmt, are we bobbed 
thus still ? colted and carted ?" From Decker's Bell-mau's Night- 
lValkes, &c. 1616, it appears that the technical terre for any 
innkeeper or hackney-man who had been cheated of horses, 
was a colt. STVS. 
7  heir-apÆarent garters!] " He may bang himself in his 
own garters" is a proverb il Ray's Collection. 
* An I bave hot ballads nad¢ on jou all» and sung to jïlth3 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. 


Gags. Stand. 
Far.. So I do, against my will. 
PoI2vS. O, 'ris out setter : I know his voice. 


BARD. What news. 79 
GA»S. Case ye, case ye; on with your visors ; 
there's money of the king's coming down the hill; 
'ris going to the king's exchequer. 
ALo You lie, you rogue; 'tis going to the king's 
GADS. There's enough to make us all. 
FAL. To be hanged. 

tunes, let a cup of sack be n 2oison: ] So, in The Rafle of Lu- 
" Shall have thy trespass ched up in rhymes, 
" And sung by chfldren in succeeding rimes." 
Again, in Antony and Cleopatra : 
" saucy lictors 
" Will catch at us like strumpets, and scald rhmers 
" Ballad us out of tune." Mo. 
9 Bard. What nmçs] In all the copies that I bave seen» 
Poins is ruade to speak upon the entrance of Gadshill thus: 
O, 'ris out setter ; I know his voice.Bardolph, tchat news ? 
This is absurd; he knows Gadshill to be the setter, and asks 
Bardolph vhat news. To countenance this impropriety, the 
toer editions have ruade Gadshill and Bardolph enter together, 
"but e old copies bring in Gadshill alone, and we find that Fal- 
sff, who knew their stations, calls to Bardolph among others 
for his horse, but not to Gadshi]l, who was posted at a distance. 
We shou]d therefore read: 
Poins. O,' ris our setter, &c. 
Bard. What news ? 
Gads. Case ge, &c. JoHsos. 


P. HEhr. Sirs, you four shall ri'ont them in the 
narrow lane; Ned Poins, and I will walk lower: 
if they 'scape ri'oto your encounter, then they 
light on us. 
PETo. How many b6 there of theln ? 
G.4DS. Some eight, or ten. 
/AL. Zounds! will they hOt rob us ? 
P. HEy. What, a eoward, sir John Paunch ? 
/StL. Indeed, I ana hOt John of Gaunt, your 
grandfather ; but yet no coward, Hal. 
_P. HEv. Well, we leave that fo the proof. 
PoI.vs. Sirrah Jack, thy horse stands behind the 
hedge; when thou needest him, there thou shalt 
find him. Farewell, and stand tast. 
Ft. Now cannot I strike him, if I should b¢ 
P. Hv. Ned, where are our disguises ? 
Povs. Here, hard by; stand close. 
[Exeunt P. HENRY and POINSo 
/AL. Now, my masters, happy man be his dole,  
say I; every man to his business. 

' dole,] The portion of altos distributed at Lambeth 
palace gate is at this day called the dole. In Jonson's Alchemist, 
Subtle charges Face with perverting his master's charitable in- 
tentions, by selling the dole beer to aqua-vitce men. 
So, in The Costlu lVhore, 1633: 
"  we cmne thinking 
" We should bave some dole at the bishop's funeral. '» 
Agaîn : 
" Go to the back gate, and you shall have dole." 
See Vol. V. p. 145, n. 1. Mo. 

sc. hr. KING HENRY IV. 257 

Enter Travellers. 

1 TRAY. Corne, neighbour; the boy shall lead 
our horses down the hill : we'll walk atbot a while, 
and ease our legs. 
THIE'ES. Stand. 
TRAY. Jesu bless us! 
tZAL. Strike ;down with them ;cut the villains' 
throats- Ah! whorson caterpiIlars bacon-fed 
knaves! they hate us youth- down with them ; 

fleece them. 
1 Tm« O, we are undone, 
for ever. 

both we and ours, 

tZL. Hang Te 
) , gorbellied - knaves; Are ye un- 
done ? No, ye tt chufl ; I wouhl, your store were 

 ,gorbdlied] i. e. fat and corpulent. See the Glossary 
to Kennet's Parochial Antiquities. 
This word is likewise used by Sir Thomas North in his trans- 
lation of Plutarch. 
Nashe, in his Have with you to Saffron IValden, 1596, says : 
" O 'tis an unconscionable gorbellied volume, bigger bulk'd 
than a Dutch hoy, and far more boisterous and cumbersome than 
a payre of Swissers omnipotent galeaze breeches." Again, in The 
tVeakestgoes to lhe IVall, 1600 : " Vqmt are these thick-skinned, 
heavy-pursed, gorbellied churles mari ." 
 yefat chuffs ;] This terre of contempt is always ap- 
plied to rich and avaricious people. So, in The 3luses' Looking," 
Glass, 168 : 
'" the chuff's crowns, 
" Imprison'd in his rusty chest," &c. 
The derivation of the word is said to be uncertain. Perhaps it is 
a corruption of chough, a thievish bird that collects lais prey on 
the sea-shore. So, in Chaucer's Assemble of Foules: 
" The thief the chough, and eke the chatt'ring pie." 
Sir W. D'Avenant, in his Just ltalian, 1630, has the saine 
terre : 


here! On, bacous, on! What, ye knaves ? young 
men must lire : You are grand-jurors are ye ? We'll 
jure ye, i'£aith. 
Exeunt FALSTA'F, &c. driving the Trave]lers 

Ile-enter Prince HENR and POINS. 

.P. tlF: The thieves have bound the true men:' 
Now could thou and I rob the thieves, and go mer- 
rily to London, it would be argument for a week,  
laughter tbr a month, and a good jest for ever. 

" They're rich chough«, they've store 
" Of villages and plough'd earth." 
And Sir Epicure Mammon, in The Alchemist, being asked who 
had robbed him, answers, " a kind of choughs, sir." 
The naine of the Corish bird is pronounced by the natives 
chow. Chu.[f is the saine word with cu.f, both signifying a 
clown, anbeing in all probability derived from a Saxon word 
of the latter sound. 
 îhe true men:'] In the old plays a true ma is always 
ïet in opposition to a thief So, in the ancient Morallty called 
Htjcke Scorner, bl. 1. no date: 
" And when me list to hang a true man 
" Theves I can help out of pryson." 
Again, in The Four Prentices of London, 1615: 
" Now, true man, try if thou canst rob a thief." 
Again : 
« Sweet wench, embrace a true man, scorn a thief. ' 
See Vol. VI. p. $¢9, n. 8. SXEEVEIS. 
»  argument for a weelc,] .4rgument is subject marrer for 
conversation or a drama. So, in the second part of this play: 
" For all my part has been but as a scene 
" Acting that argument." 
Mr. 3I 31ason adopts the former of these meanings, and adds, 
in support of his opinion, a passage from 3"luch Ado about No-. 
thing, where Don Pedro says to Benedick, [Vol. VI. p. 
"  if ever flou dost fall ri'oto this faith, thou wilt prove 
notable argument." STvEIS. 

Stand close, I hear them coming. 


Re-enter Thieves. 

FAL. Come, my masters, let us share, and then 
to horse before day. An the prince and Poins be 
not two arrant eowards, there's no equity stirring : 
there's no more valour in that Poins, than in a wild 
P. Ha.v. Your money. [Rushi»g out upon thern. 
PoI,vs. Villains. 
[As they are sharing, the Prince and Polvs set 
upon them. FALSTAFF, after a blow or two, 
and th« rest, run awad, leaving their boo 0 
behind them.] 
P. Hz. Got with mueh ease. Now merrily to 
horse : 
The thieves are seatter'd, and possess'd with fear 
So strongly, that they date not meet each other ; 
Eaeh takes his fellow for an officer. « 
Away, good Ned. Falstaffsweats to deatb, 
And lards the lean earth v as he walks along : 
Wer't not for laughing, I should pity him. 
tlOINS. How the rogue roar'd! [Exemtt. 

Each takes his fellow for an offcer.] The saine thought, a 
little varied, oeeurs again in King Henry VL P. III : 
« The thief doth tèar eaeh bush an ofiïeer." STVXS. 
And lards the lean earth] So, in K/ng Henrg V: 
" In which array, brave soldier, doth he lie 
" Larding theplain." 



Warkworth. .4 Room in the Castle. 

,tter HoTsI)ur, readitg a Letter. s 

------But, .for mine oa'n part, mg lord, I could be 
well conteted tobe there, in respect OE the love I bear 
9our house.He eould be contented,Why is he 
hot then ? In respect of the love he bears out 
house :he shows in this, he loves his own barri 
better than he loves our house. Let me sec some 
more. Th.e purpose ou undertake, is dangerous ; 
Why, that's certain ; 'ris dangerous to take a eold, 
to sleep, to drink : but I tell you, my lord fool, out 
of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety. 
The purpose ou undertake, is dang'ervus ; theiends 
.you have named, uwertain ; the rime itse unsorted ; 
and our whok plot too light,r the comterpoise qf 
so great an opposi@n.--Say you so, say you so ? I 
say unto you agam, you are a shallow, eowary 
hind, and you lie. What a laek-brain is this ? By 
the Lord, our plot is a good plot as ever was laid ; 
our friends truc and constant : a good plot, good 
fi'iends, and full of expectation : an excellent plot, 
very good fi'iends. What a frosty-spirited rogue is 
this ? Why, my lord of York 9 commends the plot, 
and the general course of the action. 'Zounds, an 
I were now by this raseal, I eould brain him with 

 Enter Hotspur, reading a letter.] This letter was fi'om 
George Dunbar, Earl of Match, in Scotland. 
Mr. EDWARDS'S MS. Notes. 
 my lord of York--] Richard Scroop, Archbishop of 
York. S,..w.lz. 


his lady's fart. 1 Is there not my Father, my uncle, 
and myself? lord Edmund Mortimer, my lord of 
York, and Owen Glendower ? Is there hot, besides, 
the Douglas ? Have I hot all their letters, to meet 
lne in arms by the ninth of the next month ? and 
are they hOt, some of them, set forward already ? 
What a pagan rascal is this ? an infidel ? Ha ! you 
shall see now, in very sineerity of fear and cold 
heart, will he to the king, and lay open ail our pro- 
eeedings. O, I eould divide myself, and go to 
buffets, for moving such a dish of skimmed milk 
with so honourable an action! Hang him! let him 
tell the king : We are prepared : I will set forward 

 I could brain him vith his lady'sfan.] lIr. Edwards 
observes, in his Canons off" Criticism, " that the ladies in our au- 
thor's time wore fans ruade of feathers." See Ben Jonson's 
Every laïz out off" his Humour, Act III. se. il: 
" This feather grew in her sweet.)¢ân sometimes, tho' now it 
be my poor fortune to wear it.'" 
So again, in Cqnthia's Revels, Aet III. se. iv: 
" for a garter, 
" Or the least feather in her bounteous fan." 
Again, as Mr. Whalley observes to me, in Beaumont and 
Fleteher's Wit at several W«apons, Aet V : 
" Wer't hot better 
" Your head were broke with the handle of a fan?" 
See the wooden eut in a note on a passage in The .Merr..y 
t-Vives of IVindsor, Aet II. se. ii. and the figure of llarguertte 
de France, Duchesse de Savoie, in the fifth Vol. of lIontfaueon's 
3lonarchie de France. Plate XI. 
This passage ought to be a memento to all eommentators, not 
to be too positive about the eustoms of former ages. blr. Ed- 
wards has laughed unmereifully at Dr. Warburton for supposing 
that Hotspur meant to brain the Earl of lIareh with the handle 
of his lady's fan, instead of the feathers of it. The lines quoted 
by llr. Whalley shew that the supposition was hot so wild a one 
as lIr. Edwards supposed. 

262 FIRST PART OF cT'zz. 

Enter Ladff PzrtcY. 

I-Iow now, Kate ? I must leave you within these 
two hours. 
LADI5 0 lny good lord, why are you thus alone ? 
For what offcnce have I, this fortnight, been 
A banish'd woman fi'om my Harry's bed ? 
Tell ne, sweet lord, what is't that takes ri'oin thee 
Thy stomach, pleasure, and thy golden sleep ?,3 
Why dost thou bend thine eyes upon the earth ; 
And start so often whcn thou sit'st alone ? 

 How now, Kate ?] Shakspeare either mistook the naine of 
Hotspur's wife, (whieh was hot Katharbw, but Eli'_abeth,) or 
else designedly changed it, out of the remarkable tbndness he 
seems to bave had for the thmiliar appellation of Kate, which he 
is never weary of repeating, when he bas once introdueed it ; as 
in this seene, the scene of Katha, bze and Petruchio, and the 
couïtship between King Henry V. and the French Princess. The 
wit'e of Hotspur was the Lady Eizabeth Mortimer, sister to 
Roger Earl of Match, and aunt to Edmund Earl of Match, who 
is introduced in this play by the naine of Lord Mortimer. 
The slster ot" Roger Earl ot" Match, according to Hall, was 
ca]led Eleanor: " Thls Edmonde was sonne to Erle Roger,-- 
which Edmonde at King Richarde's going into Ireland was pro- 
c]aimed heire apparent to the rea]me ; whose aunt, ca]led Elinor, 
this lord Henry Percy had nmrried." Chron. fol. 20. So a]so, 
Ho]inshed. But both these historans were mistaken, for ber 
christian name undoubtedly was EllzaSeth. 
 --golden sleep?'] So, in HalPs Chronide, Rîchard III: 
" -- he needed now no more once for that cause eyther to wake» 
or breake hys golden Ieepe.'" HE»EnSO. 
The varous epithets, borrowcd i¥om tle qualities of metals, 
which bave been bcstowed on sl«ep, nmy serve to show how 
'aguely words are applied in poctry. In the line bc£ore us, s]eep 
s called golde, and in King Richard IIL we have " leaden 
slumber." But in Virgil it is "ferreus somnus;" while Homer 
terres sleep brazen, or more strîetly copl)er , 


Whv hast thou lost the fi'esh blood in thy cheeks; 
Anal given my treasures, ¢ and mv rights of thee, 
To thick-ey'd musing, and curs't melancholy? 
In thy faint slulnbers, s I by thee have watch'd, 
And heard thee nmrmur tales of iron wars: 
Speak terres of nanage to thy bounding steed ; 
Cry, Courag'e!--to the 3qeld! And thou hast talk'd 
Of sal}ies, and retires ;6 of trenches, tcnts, 
Of palisadoes, fi'ontiers,  parapets; 

" And given my treasures,] So, in Othello: 
" To pour our treasures into foreign laps." MaLolv.. 
" In thu faint shtmbers,] Such are the remarks of Argia, on 
the inquietude of her husband Polynices, at the commencement 
of the Theban war. See the second Thebaid of Statius, 
v. 553 f seq. Svs. 
 --and retires;] Betires are retreats. So, in Drayton's 
Pololbion, Song 10: " --their secret sale retire." Again, in 
Holinshed, p. 960: " --the Frenchmen's flight, (for manie so 
ternmd their sudden retire,") &c. 
7 -frontiers,] For frontiers, Sir Thomas Hanmer, and 
after him Dr. Warburton, read very plausibly--.fortins. 
Plausible as this is, it is apparently erroneous, and therefore 
unnecessary. Frontiers formerly meant hot only the bounds of 
different territories, but also the forts built along, or near those 
limits. In Ives's Practice of Fortidçcation , printed in 1589, 
p. 1, it is said: " A tbrte hot placed where it were needful, 
might skantly be accounted tbr frontier." Again, p. 1 : " In 
thefrontiers ruade by the late emperor Charles the Fifth, divers 
of their walles having given way," &c. p. 4 : " It shall hot be 
necessary to make the bulwarkes in townes so great as those in 
royall frontiers." P. 40 : " When as any open towne or other 
inhabited place is to be fortified, whether the saine be to be made 
a royal frontier, or to be meanly defended," &c. This account 
of the word will, I hope, be thought suflicient. STSVeS. 
So, in Notesfrom Blac];2ïers, by H. Fitzgeoffery, 1617: 
" He'll tell of basilisks, trenches, and retires, 
" Of palisadoes, parapets, frontiers." 


Of basilisks,  of cannon, culverin ; 
Of prisoner's ransome, and of soldiers slain, 
And ail the 'currents 9 of a heady fight. 
Thy spirit within thee hath been so at war, 
And thus hath so bestir'd thee in thy sleep, 
That beads of sweat  have stood upon thy brow, 
Like bubbles in a late-disturbed stream : 
And in thy face strange motions have appear'd, 
Such as we see when men restrain their breath 
On some great sudden haste.  O, what portents 
are these ? 
Some heavy business bath my lord in hand, 
And I must know it, else he loves me not. 
Hor. What, ho! is Gilliams with the packet 
gone ? 

 Of basilisks,] A asilisk is a cannon of a particular kind. 
So, in Rare Allcy, 1611 : 
" My cannons, demi-cannons, asilisks," &c. 
Again, in The De,il's Charter, 1607: 
" are those two basilisks 
" Already mounted on their carriages " 
Again, in Holinshed, p. 816 : ""  setting his tasilkes and 
other cannon in the mouth of the baie." See likewise Holin- 
shed's Description Engla.nd, p. 198, 199. SEEvrs. 
9 And all the 'currents] i.e. the occurrences. In old lan- 
guage occurrent was used instead of occurrence. 
' Tiret beads swet] 8% in Julius Coesar: 
« __ mine eyes, 
" Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine 
« Began to water." Mao. 
 On some great sudden haste.] The epithesudden, whlch 
overloads the verse, may be jusfly suspected as an interpola- 
tion. S-rvs. 


Eter Servant. 

SeRt'. He is, my lord, an hour ago? 
HOT. Hath Butler brought those horses from 
the sheriff? 
SeRv. One horse, my lord, he brought even now. 
HOT. What horse ? a roan, a crop-ear, is it not ? 
SeRt: It is my lord. 
HOT. That roan shall be my thronc. 
Well, I will back him straight : 0 esperauce 
Bid Butler lead hiln tbrth into the park. 
[ Exit Servant. 
LAm: But hear you, my lord. 
HOT. What say'st, my lady ?» 
LADY. What is it carries you away ? 
HOT. My borse,  
My love, my horse. 
LADI; Out, you mad-headed ape! 
A weasel bath not such a deal of spleen,  
As you are toss'd with. In faith, 

 He is, my lord, an hour ago.] I suppose, our author wrote : 
He is, my lorJ, above an hour ago. 
The verse is otherwise defcctive : as is the Servant's next reply 
which original]y might have run thus : 
One horse mj lord, he brought but even now. 
 --es_perance! This was the motto of the Percy family. 
 Wat say/'st, my lady . Old copies--What say'st thou, my 
lady . STEEVENS. 
« 2tly horse,] Old copies--Why, my horse. S'wss. 
 ,4 weasel bath hot such a deal ofspleen,'l So, in Cymbeline: 
« As OEuarrellous as the weasel." STv.s. 


l'll know your business, Harry, that I will. 
I fear, my brother Mortimer doth stir 
About bis title ; and bath sent for you, 
To line his enterprize : s But if you go 
HOT. So far afoot, I shall be weary, love. 
LADr. Corne, colne, you paraquito, answer me 
Directly to this question that I ask. 
In faith, 1'1l break thy little finger, Harry, 9 
An if thou wilt hot tell me all things true. 
HOT. Away, 
Away, you trifler !NLove ?--I love thee hot,' 

« To llne his enteTrize: ] So, in Macbeth: 
,, did line the rebel 
« With hidden help and vantage." Sa'r'vls. 
-  l'Il break thy little ffinger, Harry,] This token of 
amorous dalliance appeareth to be of a very anclent date ; being 
mentioned in Fenton's Tragical Discourses, 1579: " Where- 
upon, I think, no sort of kysses or follyes in love were forgotten, 
lin kynd of crampe, nor pinching by the little dEnger." 
See Antonjt and Cleopatra : 
" The stroke of death is a a lover's pinch, 
' 1Vhich hurts, and is de.sire&'" M.rol. 
t Hot. Away, 
Away, 9ou trijtcr !Love ?I love not,] This, I 
think, would be better thus : 
Hot. Awa.q, gou tri.fier ! 
Lady. Love ! 
Hot. I love thee hot. 
This is no zorld, &c. Jomsol. 
The alteration proposed by Dr. 3ohnson seems unnecessary. 
The passage, as now regulated, appears to me perfectly clear. 
The first love is hot a substantive, but a verb 
love [-thee ?-[I love thee hot. 
ttotspur's mind being intent on other things, hls answers are 
irregular. He has been musing, and now replies to what Lady 
Perey had said some rime belote: 
" Some heavy business bath my lord in hand, 
« And I must know it,else he loves me hot." 
In a subsequent seene this distingulshing trait of his eharaeter 

zc. zzr. KING HENRY IV. '267 

I care hOt for thee, Kate: this is no world, 
To play with mammets,  and to tilt with lips: 
We must bave bloody noses, and crack'd crowns,  
Aud pass them current too.wGods me, myhorse !-- 
What say'st thou, Kate ? what would'st thou have 
with me ? 
La9Y. Do you hot love me ? do you not, indeed? 

is particularly mentioned by the Prince of Wales, in his de- 
scription of a conversation between Hotspur and Lady Percy: 
': 0 »ff sweet Harrff, (says she,) how manif hast thou killed 
fo-dag? Gh,e vg romt horse a drech, (says he, and answers,) 
,oite fourteen,AN HOUR AFTER." {ALONE. 
 mammets,] Puppets. .lorso. 
So Stubbs, speaking ofladies drest in the fashion, says : "they 
are hot natura[, but artificial women, not women offlesh and 
blood, but rather pttppets or vmmmets, consisting of ragges and 
clowts compact together." 
So, in the old comedy of Every IVoman in ber I-Iumour, 1609 : 
" I have seen the city of new Nineveh, and Juliu Coesar, 
acted by nmmets." Again, in the ancient romance of lïrgilius, 
bi. 1. no date: " he ruade in that compace ail the goddes 
that we call mawmets and ydolles." Marnet is perhaps a cor- 
ruption of l1ahomet. Throughout the English translation of 
_Marco Paolo, 1579, 3Iahometans and other worshippers of idols 
are always called Mahonets and 3Iahmet«. Holinshed's Histo 
of England, p. 108, speaks « of mawmets and idols." This last 
conjecture and quotation is from Mr. Tollet. I may add, that 
I-Iamlet seems to have the saine idea when he relis Ophelia, that 
" he could interpret between her and her love, if he saw the 
pui)pets dallyng." STwvs. 
a crack'd crmvns, &c.] Signifies at once cracked morte.y, 
and a broie'en head. Current will apply to both ; as it refers to 
money, its sense is well known; as it is applied to a broken 
hcad, it insinuates that a soldier's wounds eutitle him to uni- 
versal reception. Joirso. 
The same quibble occurs in Sir John Oldcastle, 1600: 
" --Fil none of your cracked French crmvns 
" King. No cracked French crowns ! I hope to sec more 
cracked French crowns ere long. 
" Priest. Thou mean'st of Frenchmen' crotvs," &c. 

26s FIRST PART OF ae lt. 

Well, do not then ; for, since you love me not, 
I will hOt love myself. Do you not love me ? 
Nay, tell me, if you speak in jest, or no. 
1-IoT. Corne, wilt thou see me ride ? 
And when I am o'horse-back, I will swear 
I love thee infinitely. But hark you, Kate ; 
I must hot have you henceforth question me 
Whither I go, nor reason whereabout : 
Whither I lnust, I must ; and, to conclude, 
This evelfing must I leave you, gentle Kate. 
I know you wise ; but yet no further wise, 
Than Harry Percy's wife : constant you are ; 
But yet a woman : and for secrecy, 
No lady closer ; for I well believe, 
Thou wilt hot utter what thou dost hOt know ; 
And so far will I trust thee, gentle Kate! 
LADY. How! so far ? 
Ho'. Not an ineh further. But hark you, Kate 
Whither I go, thither shall you go too; 
To-day will I set forth, to-morrow you. 
Will this content you, Kate ? 
LADY. It must, of force. 
[ Exeunt. 

* Thou wilt hot utter what thou dost hot know ;] This line 
is borrowed from a proverbial sentence : " A WOlnan eonceals 
what she knows not." See Ray's Proverbs. STEVIS. 
So, in Nashe's Anatonie of Absurditie, 1589: " In the saine 
place he [Valerius] saith, quis muliebri arrulitati aliquid con- 
nittit, que illud solum potest tacere quocl nescit ? who will com- 
mit any thing to a woman's tatling trust, who conceales nothing 
but that she knows not ." 

sc. z; KING HENRY IV. 


Eastcheap. A Room in the Boar's Head Tavern2 
Enter Prince HENRY and PoINs. 

P. HEur. Ned, pr'ythee, corne out of that fat 
room, and lend me thy hand to laugh a little. 
PoI2vS. Where hast been, Hal ? 
1'. HEv.With three or four loggerheads,amongst 
three or four score hogsheads. I have sounded the 
very base string of humility. Sirrah, I am sworn 
brofler to a leash of drawers ;6 and can call them 
all by their Christian names, as--Tom, Dick, and 

s Eastcheap. A Room in lhe Boar's Head Tavern.] In the 
zld anonymous play of/ïng Plenrff Y., Eastcheap is the place 
where Henry and his companions meet: « Henry 5. You know 
the old tavern in Eastcheap; there is good wine." Shakspeare 
bas hung up a sign for them that he saw daily; for the Boar's 
Head tavern was very near Black-friars playhouse. See Stowe's 
Survey, 4to. 1618, p. 686. 
This sign is mentioned in a Ietter ri'oto Henry Wyndesore, 
1459, 8 Henry VI. See Letters ofthe Paston Familj, Vol. I. 
p. 175. The writer of this letter was one of Sir John Fastolf's 
Sir John Fastolf, (as I learn from Mr. T. Warton,) was in his 
life-time a considerable beneihctor to Magdalen College, Ox- 
lord, for which his naine is commemorated in an anniversary 
speech ; and though the College cannot give the particulars at 
large, the Boar's Head in Southwarlï, (which still retains that 
naine, though divided into tenements, yielding 1501. per ann.) 
and Caldecot manor in Suffolk, were part of the lands, &c. he 
bestowed. STEEVENS. 
  I an sworn brother fo a leash ofdravers;] Alludlng 
to the fratresjurati in the ages of adventure. So, says Bardolph, 
in King ttenry V. Act II. sc. i: " --we'll be ail three sworn 
irother» to France." See note on this passage. 

7o FIRST PART OF ilc'T «c, 

Francis. They take it already upon their salvation, 
that, though I be but prince of' Wales, yet I ara 
the king of courtesy; and tell me flatly I am no 
proud Jack, like Falstaff; but a Corinthian, 7 a lad 
of inertie, a good boy,--by the Lord, so they call 
me; and when I am king of England, I shall com- 
mand ail the good lads in Eastcheap. They call 
.drinking deep, dying scarlet: and when you breathe 
m your watering, s they cryhem! and bid you 
play it off.To conclude, I am so good a pro- 
ficient in one quarter of an hour, that I can drink 
with any tinker in his own language during my 
lire. I tell thee, Ned, thou hast lost much honour, 
that thou wert hot with me in this action. But, 
sweet Ned,--to sweeten which name of Ned, I give 
thee this pennyworth of sugar,  clapped even now 

ŒEE Corinthian,] A wencher. JoHssos. 
This cant expression is common in old plays. So, Randolph, 
in The Jealots Loyers, 1652 : 
"  let him vench, 
" Buy me all Corinth for hlm." 
" Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum." 
Again, in the tragedy of Nero, 1659: 
" Nor us, tho' Romans, Lais will refuse, 
" To Corinth any man may go." 
 and vhen jou 3reathe &c.-] A certain maxim of 
health attributed to the school of Salerno, may prove the best 
comment on this passage. I meet with a similar expression in a 
MS. play of Timon off Athens, which, from the hand-writing, 
appears to be at least as ancient as the time of Shakspeare : 
"' we also do enact 
" That all hold up their heads, and laugh aloud; 
" Drink much at one draught ; reathe hot in tkeir dr[nk; 
« That none go out to." SrEvs. 
« this penn.yworth ofsugar,] It appears from the foi- 
lowing passage in Look aSout .you, 1600, and some others, that 
the drawers kept sugar folded up in papers, ready to be deli- 
vered to those who called for sack: 
"  but do you hear ? 
" Bring sugar in white Talger» not in brown." 

sc. iv. KING HENRY IV. 71 

in my hand by an under-skinker ; 1 one that never 
spake other English in his lire, than--Eight shil- 
linge and shTence , and--You are welcone ; with 
this shrill addition,--Anon, anon, sir ! Score a pint 
of baslaï'd in the Hall moon, or so. But, Ned, to 
drive away the rime till Falstaff corne, I pr'ythee, 
do thou staud in some by-room, while I question 
my puny drawer, to what end he gave me the 
sugar ; and do thou never leave calling--Francis, 
that his talc to me may be nothing butanon. 
Step aside, and I'll show thee a precedent. 

Pozvs. Francis ! 

Shakspeare might perhaps allude to a custom mentloned by 
Decker, in The Gul's Horn Book, 1609: " Enquire what gal- 
lants sup in the next roome, and if they be any of your ac- 
quaintance, do hot you (after the cityfashion) send them in a 
pottle of wine, and our naine sweetened in two pittiful papers of 
sugar, with some filthy apologie cram'd into the mouth of a 
drawer," &c. STEEVENSo 
See p. 205, n..'2. M.r.oxe. 
'  under-skinker;_'l A tapster ; an under-drawer. Skink 
is drink, and a skinker is one that serres drink at table. 
Schenken, Dutch, is to fill a glass or cup; and schenker is a 
eup-bearer, one that waits at table to fill the glasses. An under- 
skinker, is, therefore, as Dr. Johnson has explained it, an under- 
drawer. Sa'V.Ns. 
Giles Fletcher, in his Russe Commonwealth, 1591 p. 15, 
speaking of a town built on the south side of Moskoa, by Ba- 
silius the emperor, for a garrison of soldiers, says: " to 
whom he gave privilege to drinke mead and beer at the drye or 
prohibited rimes, when other Russes nmy drinke nothing but 
water; and for that cause called this new citie by the name of 
:Naloi, that is, skink or poure in." 
$o, in Ben Jonson's Poetaster, Aet IV. sc. v: 
" Alb. l'll ply the table with nectar, and make 'ena 
" Her. Heaven i» like to have but a lanae skinker." 

7o- FIRST PART OF Acr ii. 

P. HE2. Thou art perfect. 
_POINS. Francis ! 

[Exit Pores. 

Enter 17RANCIS. e 

FRAar. Anon, anon, sir.--Look down into the 
Pomcgranate, 3 Ralph. 
P. LrEN. Corne hither, Francis. 
FiAar. My lord. 
P. IIEar. How long hast thou to serve, Francis ? 
FiA2v. Forsooth, rive year, and as nmch as to-- 
Profs. [llTlhin.] Francis! 
.RAN, Allon, anon, sir. 
P. Iii_ri'. Five years! by'r lay, a long lease for 
the elinking of pewter. Bnt, lrancis, darest thou 
be so valiant, as to play the eoward with thy in- 
denture, and to shew if a fair pair of heels, and 
run fi'om it ? 
Fn.4v. 0 lord, sir[ Pli be sworn upon all the 
books in England, I could find in my heart-- 
PONS. [lVithin.] Francis! 
/nN. Anon, anon, sir. 
P. HEy. How old art thou, Francis ? 
Fn. Let me see,About Michaelmas next I 
shall be 

 Enter Francis.] This scene, he|ped by the distraction of 
the drawer, and grimaces of the Prince, may entertain upon the 
stage, but affords not much delight to the reader. The author 
bas judiciously ruade it short. Jorso. 
 Look down into the Pomegranate,] To have windows or 
loop-holes looking into the rooms beneath them, was anciently 
a general custom. Sec note on King I-lcnrj VIlL Act ç\ sc. ii. 

se: m KING HENRY IV. -o73 

Poxs. [lYithin.] Francis! 
FR5 . Anon, sir.--Pray you, stay a little, m 
P. HE.v. Nay, but hark you, Francis: For the 
sugar thou gavest me,--'twas a pennyworth, was't 
not ? 
/RAr. 0 lord, sir! I would, it had been two. 
P./-I:: I will give thee for it a thousand pound: 
ask me when thou wilt, and thou shalt have it. 
Pos. [lFilhin.-] Francis! 
FnA5 . Anon, anon. 
19. IIr. Anon, Francis ? No, Francis : but to- 
morrow, Francis ; or, Francis, on Thursdav ; or, 
indeed, Francis, when thou wilt. But, Fraïcis, 
FRAh r. My lord ? 
P. HE.v. Wilt thou rob this leathern-jerkin,  cry- 
stal-butto n ,s n ott-p are d, « agate -ring, p uk e-stoc k ing ,v 

 IlS"lt thou rob this leathern-jerZ'in, &c.] The Prince intends 
to ask the drawer whether he will rob his lnaster, whom he de- 
notes by many contemptuous distinctions. ,loysos. 
 crytal-button,] It appears from the following passage 
in Greene's Quip for an Ulostart Courtier, 160, that a leather 
jer'in with crstal-b«ttons was the habit of a 1)awz-broker: 
" a black taffata doublet, and a spruce leather jerbin with 
chrstal buttons, &c. I enquired of what occupation: Marry, 
sir, quoth he, a broker." Sa'EEVES. 
 nott-pated,-] It should be printed as in the old folios, 
ott-pated. So, in Chaucer's Canterbttrj Tales, the Yeman is 
thus described : 
" A nott head had he with a brown visage." 
A person was said to be nott-t)ated , when the hair was cut 
short and round. Ilay says the word is still used in Essex, for 
l)olled or shorn. Vide Ray's Collection, p. 108. Morcll's 
Chaucer, 8vo. p. 11. vide Jun. Etym. ad verb. PErtc. 
So, in The IYidow's Tears, by Chapman, 161o: 
"  your nott&eaded country gentleman." 
VOL. xI. 'r 


caddis-garter,  smooth-tongue, Spanish-pouch,-- 

Again, in Stowe's An»alsfor the Year 15:35, 27th of Henry 
the Eighth : " He caused his own head to bee polled, and from 
thenceforth his beard to bee notted and no more shaven." In 
Barrett's Alvearie, or QuadruTle Dictiona, 1580, to notre the 
hair is the saine as to car it. STEEVENS. 
7--puke-stocking,] In Barrett's Alvearie, or Quadr«ple 
Dictionar3/, 1580, a puke colour is explained as being a colour 
between russet and black, and is rendered in Latin pullus. 
Again, in Drant's translation of the eighth Satire of Horace» 
1567 : 
«,  nigra succinctam vadere palla." 
"  ytuckde in ïoukishe fi-ocke." 
In a small book entitled The Order of mj Lorde Iaior, &c. 
for their Meetings and Wearing of theqr Apparel throughout 
the Yeere, printed in 1586: " the maio', &c. are commanded 
to appeare on Good Fryday in their pewke gownes, and without 
their chaynes and typetes." 
Shelton, in his translation of Don Qui«ote, p..'2, says: " the 
rest and remnant of his estate was spent on a jerkine of fine 
jouke." Edit. 161. 
In Salmon's Chymist's Sho. ,19 l«id. oTen, there is a recept to 
make a puke eolour. The ngre&ents are the vegetable gall and 
a large proportion of water; ri'oto whieh it should appear that 
the colour was grey. 
In the rime of Shakspeare the most expensive silk stockings 
were worn ; and in King Lear, by way of reproach, an attend- 
ant is called a worsted-stocking knave. So that, after all, per- 
haps the word puke refers to the quali W of the stuff rather than 
to the colour. STEEVENSo 
Dugdale's Warwickshire, 1760, p. 4,06, speks of " a gown 
of black puke. » The statute 5 and 6 of Edward VI. c. vi. men- 
tions cloth of these colours "puke, brown-blue, blacks." Hence 
puke seems hot to be a perfect or full black, but it might be a 
russet blue» or rather, a russet black, as Mr. Steevens intimate 
from Barrett's Alvearie. TOLLET. 
If Shelton be accurate, as I think he is, in rendering velart¢ 
by pue ; _puke must signify russet oeool tat as never 5een ded. 
I have no doubt that the epithet referred to the dark colour. 
Black stockings are now worn, as they probably were in Shak- 
peare's time, by per.ons of inferior condition, on a principle of 
aeconomy. M.LO. 

se. iv. KING HENRY IV. -'275 

FRAN. 0 lord, sir, who do you mean ? 
19. HEN. Why then, your brown basta.rd 9 is your 

 caddis-garter,] Caddis was, I believe, a kind of coarse 
ferret. The garters of Shakspeare's time were worn in sight, 
and consequently were expensive. He who would submit to wear 
a coarser sort was probably called by this contemptuous distinc- 
tion, whicb I meet with again in Glapthorne's lYit in a Constable, 
1639 : 
" dost hear, 
" My honest caddis-garters ?" 
Ths is an address to a servant. Again, in IVarres, or the Peace 
is broken : "  fine piecd silke stockens on their legs, tyed up 
smoothly with caddisgarters." Swvss. 
" At this day, [about the year 1625-1 says the continuator of" 
Stowe's Chronicle, men of mean rank wcare garters and shoe- 
roses of more than rive pound price." In a note on Twel.[ïh- 
Night, Mr. Steevens observes that very rich garters were an- 
ciently worn below the knee; and quotes the following lines 
from Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. IX. c. xlvii, which 
may throw a light on the following passage: 
" Then wore they 
" Garters of listes; but now of silk, some edged deep 
with gold." 
In a manuscript Account-book kept by Mv. Philip Henslowe, 
step-father to the wife of Alleyn the player, ofwhich an account 
is given in Vol. II. is the following article : " Lent unto Thomas 
Hewode, [the dramatick writer,-] the 1 of september 1602, to 
bye him a payre of silver garters, ijs. vid." 
Caddis was worsted galloon. MALONE. 
 broWn bastard'l Bastard was a kind of sweet wlne. 
The Prince finding the waiter hOt able, or not willing, to under- 
stand his instigtion, puzzles him with unconnected prattle, and 
drives him away. JOHISO. 
In an old dramatick piece, entitled, IVine, Beer, Alc, and 
Tobacco, the second edition, 16ô0, Beer says to Wine: 
" Wine well born ? Did hot every man call you bastard but 
t'other day ?" 
" So again, in The Honest Whore, a comedy by Dekker, 1685: 
"  What wine sent thy for ? 
"' Ro. Bastard lVine ; for if it had been truly begotten, it 
would hot have been asham'd to corne in. Here's sixpenee to pay 
for the nursing the bastard." 


only drink : for, look you, Francis, your white can- 
vas doublet will sully: in Barbary, sir, it canuot 
corne to so much. 
/'. What, sir ? 
POINS. [lVithin.] Francis! 
P. t-IFN. Away, you rogue ; Dost thou hot hear 
flmm call ? 
[Here the d bon call hbn ; the Drawer stands 
amazed, hot knowh,g which wa dto go. 

yEnter Vintner. 

UzvT. What! stand'st thou still, and hear'st uch 
a calling ? Look to the guests within. Exit Faa.] 

Again, in The Fair Maid of the West, 1631 : 
" I'll furnish you with bastard, white or brown," &c. 
In the ancient metrical romance of The Squhr of low Degre, 
bl. l. no date, is the following catalogue of wines: 
" You shall have Rumney and Malmesyne» 
" Both Ypocrasse and Vernage wyne : 
" Mountrose, and wyne of Grekc, 
" Both Algrade and Respice eke, 
" Antioche and Bastarde, 
" Pyment also and Garnarde : 
" Wyne of Greke and Muscadell, 
" Both Clare-lPyment and Rochell, 
" The rede your stomach to defye, 
" And pottes of Osey set you by." S'eevegs. 
]laison Rustique, translated by 5Iarkham, 1616, p. 635, says : 
" -- such wines are called mungrell, or bas-tard wines, which 
(betwixt the sweet and astringent ones) have neither manifest 
weetness, nor manifest astriction, but indeed participate and 
contain in them both qualities." 
Barrett, however, in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionar.q, 
1580, says, that " bastarde is muscadell, sweet wine." 
So also in Stowe's Annals, 867 : " When an argosie came with 
Greek and Spanish wines, riz. muscadel, malmsey, sack» and 
astard," &c. M.LO. 

sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. °-77 

My lord, old sir John, with half a dozen more, are 
at the door ; Shall I let them in ? 
P. He3 . Let them alone awhile, and then open 
the door. [E«it Vintner.-] Poins ! 

te-enter POINS. 

POlNS. Anon, anon, sir. 
P. HEur. Sirrah, Falstaff and the rest of tire 
thieves are at the door; Shall we be merry ? 
Potvs. As merry as crickets, my lad. But hark 
ye ; What cunning match bave you ruade with this 
jest of the drawer ? corne, what's the issue ? 
P. Hy. I ana now of ail humours, that have 
show'd themselves humours, since the old days of 
goodman Adam, to the pupîl age of this present 
twelve o'clock at lnidnight. [Re-etter FRONCIS 
"with lVine.-] What's o'clock, Francis ? 
FR.V. Anon, anon, sir. 
P. HEN. That ever this fellow should have fewer 
words than a parrot, and yet the son of a woman !-- 
His industry is--up-stairs, and down-stairs; his 
eloquence, the parcel of a reckoning. I am hot 
yet of Percy's mind,' the Hotspur of the north ; 
he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Scots 
ata breakfast, washes his hands, and says to his 

'  I ara hot flet of Perc's nind,] The drawer's answer 
had interrupted the prince's train of discourse. He was pro- 
ceeding thus: I ara now of all humours that bave showed them- 
selves humours ;I am hot flet of Percj's mind ; that is, I ara 
willing to indulge myself in gaiety and frolick, and try all the 
varieties of human lire. I ara hot !let of Perc.'s mind,who 
thinks all the time lost that is not spent in bloodshed, forgets de- 
cency and civility, and has nothing but the barren talk of a brutal 
oldier. Jorsor. 


wile,--Fffe upon this quiet life.t I want a'ork. 0 nt 
sr«eet Harrff , says she, how massif hasl lhou killed to- 
daff ? Give m roan horse a drench, says he; and an- 
swers, Somejbm't«e, an hour after; a triffle, a h'i37e. 
I pr'ythee, call in Falstaff; l'l| play Perey, and 
that damned brawn shall play dame Mortimer his 
wife. Rivo,  says the drunkard. Call in ribs, eall 
in tallow. 

.Etler F.aLST.aFF, Gsmz, ]3amozrH, ad 

_Pozrs. Welcome, Jack. Where hast thou been ? 
FA5. A plague of ail cowards, I say, and a ven- 
geance too ! marry, and amen !--Give me a cup of 
sack, boy.--Ere 1 lead this lire long, I'll sewnether- 
stocks,  and mend them, and foot them too. A 
plague of ail cowards !--Give me a cup of sack, 
rogue.--Is there no virtue extant ? He drinks. 
P. Hr. Didst thon never sec Titan kiss a dish of 

 Rivo,] This was perhaps the cant of the English 
t:averns. JolNso. 
This conjecture Dr. Fariner has supported by a quotation 
ri'oto lIarston : 
" If thou art sad at others' rate, 
" Rivo, drink deep, give eare the mate." 
I find the saine word used in the eomedy of Blurt _Master Con- 
stable, 160 : 
"  Yet to endear ourselves to thy lean aequaintanee, ery 
zivo ho! laugh and be fat," &e. 
Again, h Marston's What you will, 1607: 
"  that rubs his guts, elaps his pauneh and cries rivo." &c. 
Again: " Rivo, here's good juiee, fresh borage, boys." Again: 
" Sing, sing, or stay: we'll quaffe, or any thing: 
" Rivo, Saint Mark !" S:wwvv.s. 
  nether-stocks,] Nether-stocks are stockings. Sec King 
Lear Act II. sc. iv. 

sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 

butter ? pitifid-hearted Titan, that melted at the 
sweet tale of the son!4 if thou didst, then behold 
that compound. 

4 Didst thou never see Titan iss a dish of buttera, piti.]C- 
hearted Titan! that melted af the soeet tale of the son!-] The 
usual reading has hitherto been--the st, eet raie o.fthe sun. The 
present change will be accounted for in the course of the follow- 
lng annotations. STEEVV.S. 
Ail that wants restoring is a parenthesis, into which (pitijùl- 
hearted Titan!) should be put. PitifM-hearted means only 
amorous, which was Titan's character : the pronoun that refers 
to butter. The heat of the sun is figuratively represented as a 
love-raie, the poet having befbre called him pitiffhl-hearted, or 
amorous. WIUITO. 
The saine thought, as Dr. Fariner observcd to me, is round 
among Turberville's Epitaphs, p. 142: 
" It melts as butter doth against the sunne. » 
The readcr, who inclines to Dr. Warburton's opinion, will 
please to furnish himself with some proof that piHful-hearted was 
eveï used to signify amorous, belote he pronounces this learned 
critick's emendaton to be just. 
In the oldest copy, the contested part of the passage appear$ 
thus : 
 af the sweet tale of the sonnes. 
Out author might have writtenpitiful-earted Ttan, who 
znelted af te szveet tale ?f his son ; i. e. of Phaëton, who, by a 
plausible story, won on the easy nature of his father so far, as to 
obtain from him the guidance of his own chariot for a day. 
As gross a mythological corruption as the foregoing, occurs 
in Locrine, 1595 : 
" The arm-strong offspring of the doubted lI'night 
" Stout Hercules," &c. 
Thus ail the copies ancient and modern. But I should not hesi- 
tare to readdoubled-night, i. e. the night lengthened to twice 
its usual proportion, while Jupiter possessed himself of Al cmena; 
a circumstance wid which every school-boy is acquainted. 
I bave followed the reading of the original copy in 1598, re- 
jecting only the double genitive, for it reads--ofte son's. 
which is the reading of the folio, derives no authority from its 
being round in that copy; for the change was ruade arbitrarily in 
the quarto 160, and adopted of course in that of 1608 and 
1613, from the latter of which the folio was prlnted; in conse- 


/2aL. You rogue, here's lilne in this sack too: 

quencc of which the accumulated errors of the rive preceding 
editions were incorporated in the folio copy of this play. 
Mr. Theobald rcadsupiti.fid-hearted butter, that melted at the 
veet tale o.fl the sun;uwhich is hot so absurd aspitiflïul- 
heartcd Titan, that melted at the sweet tale qf the sun,but yet 
very exceptionable ; 'or what is the meaning of butter melting 
ata talc? or wbat idea does the tale o.fl the sun eonvey? Dr. 
Warburton, who, witb Mr. Theobald, readssun, has extracted 
some sense ri'oto the passage by placing the words--" pitiful- 
hearted Titan" in a parenthesis, and referring the word that to 
butter; but then, besides that bis interpretation pitiful-hearted, 
wlfieb be says means amorous, is unautlmrized and inadmissible, 
the saine objection will lie to the sentence when thus regulated, 
that has already been ruade to tbe reading introdueed by Mr. 
The Prince undoubtedly, as Mr. Theobald observes, by the 
words, " Didst thou never sec Titan kiss a dish of butter ?" al- 
]udes to Fa]staff's entering in a great heat, "his fat dripping wifl 
the violence of his motion, as butter does with the heat of the 
sun." Our author here, as in many other places, having started 
an idea, leaves it, and goes to another that bas but a very slight 
connection wifl the former. Thus the idea of butter me#ed by 
Titan, or the Snn,' suggests to hîm the idea of Titan's being 
mclted or softened by the talc of his son, Phaëton : a talc, which 
undoubtedly Shakspeare had rend in the third Book of Golding's 
translation of Ovld, haing, in his description of Winter, in The 
]tlidsummer-Night's Drea.m, imitated a passage that is round in 
the saine page in which the history of Phaëton is related. 
should add that the explanation now given was suggested by the 
foregoing note.I would, however, wish to readth, son. In 
the old copies, the, lhee, and tkj are frequently confounded. 
I ara now [This conclusion of Mr. Malone's note is taken 
fi'om his Appendix.] persuaded that the original readingson's, 
however ungrammatical, is right; for such was the phraseology 
of out poet's age. So again in this play: 
" This absence of yourfather's draws a curtain." 
notuof your fat/ter. 
So, in :l'te Buter's Tale: 
"  the letters of Hermione's." 
Again, in King John : 
" With them a bastard of the king's deeeas'd." 
,galn, in Anton5 and Cleopatra : 
" Nay, but this dotage of our general's." 

sc. xv. KING HENRY IV. US l 

There is nothing but roguery to be round in vil- 
lainons man- » Yet a coward is worse than a cup of" 

Again, in Co, mbeline : 
"  or eould this earl, 
" A very drudge of nature's--." 
How little ,attention the reading of the folio («--.of the 
sun's,") is entitled to, may appear from henee. In the quarto 
copy of 1613, we find--" Why then 'tis like, if there cornes a 
hot sun,'--instead of a hot ,lune. There, as in the instance be- 
lote us, the error is implieit!y eopied in the folio.--In that eopy 
also, in Timon of Athens, Aet I V. se. uit. we find " 'twixt 
natural «ume and sire," instead of --'tvixt natural son and 
Till the deviation from established grammar, which Mr. Ma- 
lone has styled « the phraseology of out poet's age," be supported 
by other examp]es than such as are drawn from the most incor- 
rect and vitiated of all publications, I nmst continue to exclude 
the double genitive, as one of the numerous vulgarisms by which 
the early printers of Shakspeare have disgraced his compositions. 
It must frequently happen, that while we suppose ourselves 
struggling with the dcfects and obscurities of our author, we are 
in reality busied by omissions, interpolations, and corruptions, 
chargeable only on the ignorance and carelessncss of his original 
transcribers and editors. STvss. 
--here's line in this sack loo: "ïhere is nothing but 
'oguery to be found in villainous man :] Sir Richard Hawkins, 
one of Queen Elizabeth's sea-eaptains, in hls Voo'ages, p. $79, 
says: " Sinee the Spanish saeks have been eommon in out ta- 
verns, whieh for conservation are mingled with the lime in the 
making, out nation eomplains of ealentures, of the stone, the 
dropsy, and infinite other distempers, hot heard of before this 
wine came into frequent use. Besides, there is no year that it 
wasteth not two-millions of erowns of out substance, by eonvey- 
anee into foreign eountries." I think Lord Clarendon, in his 
Avolo«,- tells us, "That weet wines belote the Restoration were 
o muë to the Enghsh taste, that we engrossed the wbole pro- 
duct of the Canaries ; and tiret not a pipe of it was expended in 
any other country in Europe." But the banished cavaliers 
brought home with them the goust for French wines, which has 
continued ever since. WrtBurta'or. 
Dr. Warburton does not consider that sack, in Shakspeare, 
most probably thought to mean what we now call sherry, which, 
when it is drank, is still drank with sugar. Jorrqso. 


sack with lime in it ; a villainous coward.--Go thy 
ways, old Jack; die when thou wilt, if manhood, 
good manhood, be hot forgot upon the face of the 
earth, then ara I a shotten herring. There live hot 

Rhenîsh is drank with sugar, but never sherr3h 
.The difference between the true sack and skerr3 , is distincfly 
marked by the following passage in Fortune bj Land and Sec, 
by Heywood and Rowley, 1655: 
" Rayns. Some sad', boy, &c. 
" Drmver. Good sherr d sack, sir ? 
" RatdnS. I meant canary, sir : what, hast no brains ?" 
Ellot, in hls Orthoepia, 159, speaking of" sack and rhenish, 
says : " The vintners ot" London put in lime, and thenee proeeed 
infinite maladies, speeially the gouttes." Fatv.a. 
From the f"ollowing passage in Greene's Ghot haunting Conie- 
¢.atchers, 1604, it seems as though lime was mixed with the sack 
for the purpose ofgiving strength to the liquor: " --a ehristian 
exhortation to Mother Bunch would hot have done amisse, that 
he should not mixe lime with her ale to make it mightie." 
Sack, the favourite beverage of Sir John Falstaff, was, ac- 
cording to the information of a very old gentleman, a liquor com- 
pounded of sherry, cyder, andsugar. Sometimes it should seem 
to have been brewd with eggs, i. e. nndled. And that the 
vintners played tricks with it, appears from Falstaff's charge in 
the text. It does hot seem to be at present known; the sweet 
wine so called, being apparently of a quite different nature. 
That the sweet wine at present called sack, is difi'erent ri'oto 
Falstaff's f.avourite liquor, I ara by no means convinced. On the 
contrary, from the fondness of the English nation for s.u.gar at 
this period, I ana rather inclined to Dr. Warburton's opmmn on 
this subject. If the English drank only rough wine with sugar 
there appears nothing extraordinary, or worthy of" particular 
notice; and that their partiality for sugar was very great, will 
appear from the following passage in Hentzner already quoted 
p. 205, as well as the passage from Moryson's Itinerar, which 
being since adopted by Mr. Malone in his note, ibid. need hot to 
be here repeated. The addition of sugar even to sack, might, 
perhaps, to a taste habituated to sweets operate only in a 
manner to improve the flavour of the wine. Rwv, D. 

,sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 

three good lnen unhanged in England ; and one of 
them is fat, and grows old: God help the while! 
a bad world, I say ? I would, I were a weaver ; I 
could sing psahns or any thing:  A plague of all 
cowards, I say still. 

' I would I were a weaver ; I could sing psabns &c.] In 
the first edition [-the quarto 1598,] the passage is read thus: 
I could sing psalms or an.q thing. In the first folio thus : I could 
sing all manner ofsongs. Many expressions bordering on inde- 
cency or profaneness are round in the first editions, whieh are 
afterwards corrected. The reading of the three last editions, 
I could sing psalms and ai1 manner of songs, is ruade without 
authority out ofdifferent copics. JoHso. 
The editors of the folio, 16, to avoid the penalty of the 
tatute, S Jac. I. c. xxi. changed the text here, as they did in 
many other places from the saine motive. MALOlqe. 
In the persecutions of the Protestants in Flanders under 
Philip II. those who came over into England on that occasion, 
brought with them the woollen manufactory. These were 
Calvinists, who were always distinguished tbr their love of 
psalmody. VARBURTON- 
I believe nothing more is here meant than to allude to the 
practice of weavers, who, having their hands more employ¢ 
than their minds, amuse themse]ves frequently with songs at the 
loom. The knight, being full of vexation, wishes he could sing 
to divert his thoughts. 
IVeavers are mentioned as loyers of musick in The l"tlerchant 
of Venice. [Twel.fth-Night, Vol. V. p. 292, n. '2..] Perhaps 
" to sing like a weaver" might be prove'bial. Jorso. 
Dr. Warbtrton's observation may be confirmed by the follow- 
ing passage: Ben Jonson, in The Silent Woman, makes Cut- 
berd tell Motos% that ".the parson caught his co]d by sitting 
up late, and singing catches with cloth-workers." STEEVENS. 
So, in The lTnter's Tale: "--but one puritan among 
them, and he sings psabns to hornpipes." MALONE. 
The Protestants who fled fi-om the persecution of the Duke 
d'Alva were mosfly weavers and woollen manufacturers: they 
settled in Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and other counties, and 
(as Dr. Warburton observes,) being Calvlnists, were distinguish- 
ed for their love of psalmody. For many year the inhabitants 


P. H2v. Hownow, wool-sack ? what mutter you ? 
FIL. A king's son! If I do hot beat thee out of 
thy kingdom with a dagger of lath, 7 and drive all 
thysubjects afore thee like a flock ofwild geese, I'll 
never wear hair on my face more. You prince of 
Wales ! 
P. HE2 . Why, you whoreson round man ! what's 
fle matter ? 
FaL. Are you uot a coward ? answer me to that; 
and Poins there ? 
Poz.s. 'Zounds,  ye fat paunch, an ye call me 
coward, I'll stab thee. 
FAL. I call thee coward! l'll sec thee damned ere 
I call thee coward: but I would give a thousand 
pound, I could run as fast as tlou canst. You are 
straight enough in the shoulders, you care hot who 

of these counties have excelled the rest of the kingdom in the 
skill of vocal harmony. SI J. HAWKtS. 
  a dagger of lath,] i.e. such a dagger as the Vice in 
the old moralities was arm'd with. So, in Tvoelfth-Night: 
" In a trice, like to the old Vice, 
" Your need to sustain : 
" Who with dagger of lath, 
" In his rage aud his wrath," &c. 
Again, in Like IYill to Like, quoth the Devil fo the Collier, 
1587, the Iïce says: 
" Corne no neer me you knaves for your lire, 
" Lest I stick you both with this wood knife, 
" Back, I say, back, you sturdy beggar; 
" Body o'me, they have tarte away my dagger." 
And in the Second Part of this play, Falstaff c-alls Shallow t 
" Vice's dagger." Svs. 
 Poins. 'Zounds, &c. Thus the first quarto and the three 
subsequent copies. In the quarto of 161S, Prince being pre- 
fixed to this speech by the carelessness of the printer, the error, 
with many others, was adopted in the folio; the quarto of 161S 
being evidently the copy from which the folio was printed. 

sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 2s. 

secs your back: Call you that backing of your 
friends ? A plague upon such backing! give me 
them that will tkee me.--Give me a eup of saek : 
--I ara a rogue, if I drunk to-day. 
P. HEz¢. O villain! thy lips are searee wiped 
-inee thou drunk'st last. 
FaL. All's one for that. A plague of all cow- 
ards, still say I. [He drinks. 
P. HEz¢. What's the marrer ? 
FL. What's the matter ? there be four of us here 
have ta'en a thousand pound this morning. 
P. Hv. Where is it, Jack ? where is it ? 
/5L. Where is it ? taken ri'oto us it is: a hun. 
dred upon poor four of us. 
P. Hz¢. What, a hundred, man ? 
FL. ! ara a rogue, if I were hot at half-sword 
with a dozen of them two hours together. I have 
'seap'd by miracle. I ara eight rimes thrust through 
the doublet ; four, through the hose ; my buekler 
cut through and through ; 9 my sword hacked like a 
hand-saw, ecce signum. I never dealt better since 
I was a man : ail would hot do. A plague of ail 

--vq buckler eut through and through ;] It appears from 
the old comedy of The Two angrg. Women of Abinon, that this 
method of defence and fight was n Shakspeare's time growing 
out of fashion. The play was published in 1599, and one of the 
characters in it makes the following observation: 
« I see by this dearth of good swords, that sword-and-buckler- 
fight begins to grow out. I am sorry for it; I shall never see 
good manhood again. If it be once gone, this poking fight of 
rapier and dagger will come up then. Then a tall man, and 
a good sword-and-buckler-man, will be spitted like a cat» or 
a coney: then a boy will be as good as a man»" &c. 
See Vol. V. p. 76, n. S. 


cowards !--Let them speak : if they speak more or 
less than truth, they are villains, and the sons of 
/'. H2v. Speak, sirs; how was it ? 
G.4»s. We four set upon some dozen, 
/AL. Sixteen, at least, my lord. 
Gn»s. And bound them. 
PTO. No, no, they were not bound. 
F.JL. You rogue, they were bound, every man 
of them; or I ara a Jew else, an Ebrew Jew. a 
G.4DS. As we were sharing, some six or seven 
fresh men set upon us,---î. 
Fn5. And uubound the test, and then corne in 
the other. 
/'. Hv. What, fought ye with them all . 
F«L. All? I know hot what ye cali, all; but if 
I fought hot with fifty of them, I ara a bunch of 
radish: if there were hot two or three and fifty 
upon poor old Jack, then ara I no two-legged crea- 
t'oz.¥s. Pray God, you have hot murdered some 
of them. 
Fa. Nay, flmt's past praying for : for I have pep- 
pered two of them- two, I ana sure, I bave paid ; - 

'--an Ebrew Jew.] So, in Te Two Gentlemen of 
Ferona: "--thou art an He5re, a Jew and not worth the 
name of a Christian." 
The natives of Palestine were called He5ret,s, by way of dis- 
tinction ri'oto the stranger Jews denominated Grcel«s. 
Jews, in Shakspeare's rime, were supposed to be peculîarly 
hard-hearted. So, in The Two Gentlemen of Yerona : " A Jew 
would bave wept to have seen out parting." MAsoE. 
  lvo, I ara sure, I ave paid; i.e. drubbed, beaten. 

sc. zl,. KING HENRY IV. 0_87 

tvo rogues in buckram suits. I tell thee what, 
Hal,--if I tell thee a lie, spit in my face, call lue 
horse. Thou knowest my old ward ;--here I lay, 
and thus I bore my point. Four rogues in buck- 
rare let drîve at 
P. HE.V. What, four ? thou said'st but two, even 
FL. Four, Hal; I told thee fo. 
Pot.sçç. Ay, ay, he said four. 
FAL. These four came all a-ff'out, and mainly 
thrust at me. I made me 11o lnore ado, but took 
ail their seven points in my target, thus. 
P. He. Seven ? why, there were but four, even 
FL. In buckram2 
Pozs. Ay, four, in buekram suits.* 
So, in Marlowe's trandation of Ovid's Elegies, printed at BIid- 
dleburgh, (without date) : 
" Thou eozenest bws of sleep, and dost betray them 
" To pedants that with cruel lashes pag them." 
Paid, here, seems to import more than drubbed, beaten. I 
think it means 'illed. In Sir Ridmrd Hawkins's Observations, 
we have payments in this sense. Sec p. 58. RD. 
 I buckram.] 1 be!ieve these words bdong to the Prince's 
speeeh: "there were but four even now,in buekram." 
Poins eoncurs with the Prince: " Ay, four, in buekram suits;" 
and Fa£taff perseveres in the number of seven. As the speed»es 
are at present regulated, Falsmff seems to assent to the Prince's 
assertion, that there were but four, if the Prince will but grant 
they were in buca'ram; and then immediately afterwards assel 
that the number of his assailants was seven. The regulation 
proposed renders the whole consistent. 
 P. Hen. Seven  t, hy, tlere ere but ur, even now. 
Fal. I, buckram. 
Poins. A.t,ur, i, bxkram suits.] From the Prinee's 
peech, and Poins's answer, I apprehend that FMstaff's reply 
dmuld be interrogatively: In buekram ? Wunv. 


FAL. Seven, by these hi]ts, or I ara a villain 
P. HE . Pr'ythee, let him alone ; we shall have 
more aIlOl-l. 
FaL. Dost thou hear me, Hal ? 
P. HzN. Ay, and mark thee too, Jack. 
I'AL. Do so, for if is worth the listening to. 
These nine in buckram, that I told thee of,--- 
P. tlzv. So, two more already. 
F,L. Their points being broken, 
Povs. D6wn fell their hose2 
FaL. Began to give me ground: But I followed 
me close, came in foot and hand; and, with a 
thought, seven of the eleven I paid. 
P. Hz". 0 monstrous[ eleven buckram men 
grown out of two! 
FaL. But, as the devil would have it, three nais- 

 Fal. Theirpoints being 5rol'en,-- 
Poins. Downfell their hose.] To understand Poins's joke, 
the double meaning ofToint must be remembered, which signi- 
fies the sharp end of a weapon, and the lace of a garment. The 
cleanly phr.e for letting down the hose, ad levandum alvum, 
was to untruss a point. JOHNSON. 
So, in the comedy of lVily Beguiled: « I was so near taken 
that I was fain to cut all my points. » Again in Sir Giles 
Goosecap» 1606 : 
« __ Help me to truss my points.- 
c, I had rather see your hose about your heels than I wotd& 
help you to truss a Toint." 
Randle Holme also, in his Academ b, of Arms and Blazon 
Book III. ch. iii. has given us to understand that these holder 
" are small wiers ruade round, through which the breeches 
hooks are put, to keep them ff'oto thlling." 
The saine jest indeed had already occm're-,1 in Tcelfth Night. 
See Vol. V. p. 61, n. 

,c. if. KING HENRY IV. 2s9 

begotten knaves, in Kcndal 6 green, came at my 
back, and let drive at me ;wfor it was so dark, 
Hal, that thou could'st hot see thy hand. 
P. HEN. These lies are like the father that be- 
gets them; gross as a mountain, open, palpable. 
Why, thou clay-brained guts; thou knotty-pated 
fool; thou whoreson, obscene, greasy tallow- 
keech, - 

 Kendal--] Kendal, in Weshnoreland, is a place 
famous for making cloths, and dying tbem with several bright 
colours. To this purpose, Drayton, in the S0th $ong of his 
Polyolbion : 
"  where Kendal town dofl stand, 
" For making of our cloth scarce match'd in all the 
Içendal g, reen was the livery of Robert Earl of Huntington 
and his followers, while they remained in a state of outlawry, 
and their leader assumed the title of Robin Hood. The colour 
is repeatedly mentioned in the old play on this subject, 1601 : 
" all the woods 
" Are full of outlaws, that, in Kendall green, 
" Follow the out-law'd earl of Huntington." 
Agaln : 
" Then Robin will I wear thy Kendall green.'" 
Again, in The Playe of Rob.qn Hoode ver3/e Troper fo bc ldmjed 
in Gmnes, bl. l. no date: 
" Here be a sorte of ragged knaves corne in, 
« Clothed all in Kendale grene.'" STwvws. 
Agaln: " Kendal, a towne so highly renowned for ber com- 
modious cloathing and industrious trading, as her naine is be- 
corne famous in that kind." Camd. in Brit. Barnabee's Journal. 
See also Hall's Chronide, Henry VIII. p. 6. MALo. 
 tallow-keech,] The word falloir-catch is in all edi- 
tions, but having no meaning, cannot be understood. In some 
parts of the kingdom, a cake or nass of wax or tallow, is calle4 
a keech, which is doubtless the word intended here, unless we 
read tallow-ketch, that is tub oftallow. Jotso. 
The eonjeetural emendation ketch, i. e. tub, is very ingenious. 
But the Prinee's allusion is suflieiently striking, if we a!ter hot 


iTAL. What, art thou lnad ? art thou mari? is 
hot the truth, the truth ? 
P. Hy. Why, how eouht'st thou know these 
men in Kendal green, when it was so dark thou 
cou|al'st not sec thv hand ? corne, te|l us your rea- 
son; What say'st hou to this ? 
Pozvs. Corne, your reason, Jack, your reason. 
F5. What, upon eompulsion ? No; were I at 
the strappado,  or ail the racks in the worId, I 
vould not tell you on compulsion. Give you a 
reason on eompulsion! if reasons were as plenty 
as blackberries, I would give no man a reason 
upon COlnpulsion, I. 
P. Hv. l'Il be no longer guilty of this sin; 
this sanguine coward, this bed-presser, this horse- 
baek-breaker,this huge hill of flesh ;-- 
F. Away, :fou starveling, you eIf-skin, 9 you 

a letter; and only suppose that by tallow.catch, he means a 
rece])tacle 3ror tallmv. T. WARTON. 
Tallow-keech is undoubtedly right, but ill explained. A keech 
of tallow is the fiat of an ox or cow rolled up by the butcher 
in a round lump, in order to be earried to the ehandler. It 
the proper word in use now. Pr, Rct'. 
A kee«h is wbat is called a tallow-loqf in Sussex, and in 
form resembles the rotundity of a fiat man's belly. CoLr,1s. 
Shakspeare calls the butcher's wife goody Keech, in the Second 
]Part of this play. S'rEEVErS. 
s  the strappado,] " The strappado is when the person 
is drawn up to his height, and then suddenly to let him fall hall 
way with a jerk, which hot only breaketh his arms to pieces, 
but also shaketh all his joints out of joint; which punishment 
better to be hanged, than for a man to undergo." See Randle 
Hohne's Acade-mj of Arms and Blazon, Book III. ch. vil p. gl0. 
 you starveling, .]ou elf-skin,] For eldr-skin Sir Thomas 
Hanmer and Dr. Warburton read eel-skin. The truc reading, 
I believe, is el.f-kin, or littlefair.; for though the Bastard in 

sc. zv, KING HENRY IV. 91 

dried neats tongue, bull's pizzle, you stock-fish,-- 
O, for breath to utter what is like thee !--you tai- 
lor's yard, you sheath, you bow-case, you vile 
standing tuek ; 
P. HE.v. Well, breathe awhile, and then to it 
again: and when thou bast tired thyself in base 
eomparisons, hear nie speak but this. 
.POl'S. Mark, Jack. 
P. HE. ]Ve two saw you/'out set on/'ont; you 
bound them,' and were masters oftheir wealth. 
Mark now, how plain a talc shall put ),ou down.-- 
Then did we two set on you four: and, with a word, 
out-tCed you ri'oto your pïize, and bave it; yea, 
and can show it you here in the bouse :--and, Fal- 
staff, you carried your guts away as nimbly, with 
as quick dexterity, and roared for merey, and still 
tan and roared, as ever I heard bull-ealf. What a 
slave art thou, to hack thy sword as thou hast donc; 

King John compares his brother's two legs to two eel-skins 
stuff'd, yet an eel-skin simply bears no great resemblanee to 
a man. JoI-ISO. 
In these eomparisons Shakspeare was not drawing the pieture 
of a little .faire, but of a man remarkably tall and rhin, to 
whose shapeless uniformity of length, an " eel-skin stuff"d'" 
(for that eireumstanee is implied) eertainly bears a humorous 
resemblanee, as do the tailor's ard, the tuck, or small sword 
set upright, &e. The eomparisons of the stocksh and dried 
neat's tongue allude to the leanness of the Prince. The reading, is supported likewise by the passage already quoted 
from King John, and by Falstaff's description of the lean Shal- 
w in The Second Part ¢ King Henr 
Shakspeare had historieal authority for the leanness of the 
Prince of Wales. Stowe, speakmg or hnn, says, he exeeeded 
the mean stature of men, his neek long, body slender and lean, 
and his bones small," &e. STEVES. 
 you bound them,] The old copies read--and bound 
them. Corrected by Mr. Pope. Mo. 

_90. FIRST PART OF zcT zx. 

and then say, it was in fight ? What trick, what 
device, what starting-hole, canst thou now find 
out, to hide thee fi'om this open and apparent 
shame ? 

PozTS. Corne, let's hear, Jack ; What trick hast 
thou now . 

FaL. By the Lord, I knew ye, as well as he that 
made ye. Why, hear ye, my masters: Was it for 
me to kill the heir apparent ? Should I turn upon 
the true prince ? Why, thon knowest, I ara as va- 
liant as Hercules: but beware instinct ; the lion 
will hot touch the true prince.  Instinct is a great 
marrer ; I was a coward on instinct. I shall think 
the better of myself and thee, during my life; I, 
for  valiant lion, and thou for a true prince. But, 
by the Lord, lads, I ara glad you have the money. 
-----Hostess, clap to the doors; watch to-night, 
pray to-morrow.Gallants, lads, boys, hearts of 
gold, Ail the titles of good fêllowship corne to 
yoa! What, shall we be merry? shall we have  
play extempore ? 

  the lion eill hot touch the true prince.'l So, in The 
lIad Lover, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 
" Fetch the Numidian lion I brought over; 
" If she be spruug from roual blood, the lion 
" Will do ber reverence, elle lac'Il tear her," &c. 
 Instinct is a great matter] Diego, the host, in Love' 
Pilrima«e bv Beaumont and Fletcher, excuses a rudeness he 
had been gmlty of to one of his guests, in almost the saine 
words : 
" should I have been so barbarous as to have parted 
brothers ? 
" Philippo. You knew it then ? 
" Diego. --I knew 'twas necessary 
" You should be both together. Instinct, signior 
" Is a great malter in an host." $..v.s. 

sc. zr. KING HENRY IV. 293 

P. HE2V'. Content ;--and the argument shall be, 
thy running away. 
FL. Ah ! no more of that, Hal, an thou lovest 
111 e. 

Enter Hostess. 

HosT. My lord the prince,----- 
P. HE2« How now, lny lady the hostess ? what 
say'st thou to me ? 
Hos,. Marry, my lord, there is a nobleman of 
the court at door, would speak with you : he says, 
he cornes ri'oto your father. 
P. H2. Give him as mueh as will make him a 
royal man, « and send hiln baek again to my mo 
FL. What manner of man is he ? 

 --there is a nobleman--Give hlm as much as will make 
hbn a royal man,] I believe here is a kind of jest intended. 
He that reeeived a noble vas, in eant language, ealled a noble- 
man : in this sense the Prince catches the word, and bids the 
landlady give him as much as will make him a royal man, that is, 
a real or royal man, and send him away. JoHso. 
The saine play on the word--royal, oeeurs in The Two Angry 
Women of Abington, 1599 : 
" This is not noble sport, but royal play. 
" It must be so where royals walk so thst." Sa'VNS. 
Give him as much as will make him a royal man,] The rojag 
went for 10s.--the noble only for 6s. and 8d. T,/avnizv. 
This seems to allude to a jest of Queen Elizabeth. Mr. John 
Blower, in a sermon belote her majesty, first said: " My royl 
Queen," and a little after: " My noble Queen." Upon which 
says the Queen: " What ara I ten groats worse than I was ." 
This is to be round in Hearne's Discourse ofsome Antiquities be- 
tween Windsor and Oxford; and it eonfirms the remark of tbe 
,ery learned and ingeious Mr. Tyrwhitt. TOLL. 

29,b FIRST PART OF ,c' II. 

tlos7 . An old man. 
FL. What doth gravity out of his bed at mid- 
night ?--Shall I give him his answer ? 
P. HEur. Pr'ythee, do, Jack. 
FIL. 'Faith, and l'Il send him packing. [Exil. 
P. HEur. Now, sirs; by'r lady, you fought fait; 
--so did you, Peto ;--so did you, Bardolph : you 
are lions too, you ran away upon instinct, you will 
not touch the true prince; no,--fye ! 
/3R9. 'Faith, I tan when I saw others run. 
P. HE2v. Tell me now in earnest, How came 
Falstaff's sword so hacked ? 
PE7'o. Why, he hacked it with his dagger; and 
said, he would swear truth out of" England, but he 
• vould make you believe it was done in fight; and 
persuaded us to do the like. 
/3.R9. Yea, and to tickle our noses with spear- 
grass, s to make them bleed; and then to beslub- 
ber our garments with it, and to swear it was the 
blood of true men.  I did that I did not this 
even year belote, I blushed to hear his monstrous 
P. HE2v. O villain, thou stolest a cup of' sack 
eighteen years ago, and wert taken with the man- 
ner,  and ever since thou hast blusbed extempore: 
- » --fo tickle our noses with spear-grass, &c.] So, in the 
old anonymous play of The lïctories of Henry the _Fifth : 
« Every day when I went into the field, I would take a ,traw 
and thrust it into my noie, and make my nose bleed," &-c. 
 the blood ?f truc men.] That is, of the men with 
vhom they fought, of honest men, opposed to thieves. 
"  talen with the manner,] 7"aken with. the manner is a 

sc. Iv. KING HENRY IV. 95 

Thou hadst tire and sword  on thy side, and yet 
thou ran'st away ; What instinct hadst thou Ibr it ? 

lavphrase, and then in common use, to signiFy taken in thefact. 
But the Oxtbrd editor alters it, tbr b'etter security of the sense, 
to--taken in the manor ;--i. e. I suppose, by the lord oç it, as a 
stray. WAasUuTo. 
The expression--taken in the manner, or with the manner, is 
a forensick terre, and common to many of out old dramatick 
writers. So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Rule a IV and bave 
" How like a sheep-biting rogue taken hz the 
" And ready for a halter, dost thou look now '" 
Again, in Heywood's Brazen Age, 1618: 
" Take tbem hOt in thc manner, though you may." 
lanour, or llainour, or Iaynour, an old law terre, (from 
the French mainaver or manier, Lat. manu tractav,) signities 
the thing which a thief takcs away or steals: and to be taken 
with the manour or mai»out, is to be taken with tbe thing stolen 
about bim, or doing an unlawthl act, flagra#e delicto, or, as we 
say, in the fact. The expression is much used in the forest- 
laws. See Manwood's edition in quarto, 1665, p. 292, where 
it is spelt manner. HAWKINS. 
Dr. Pettlngall, in his Enquir into the Use and Practice 
Juries amo»g the Greeks and Romans, ffto. p. 176, observes, that 
" in the sense of being taken in the çact, the Romans used the 
expression manresto deprehensus, Cic. pro Cluettio--et pro 
Coelio. The word mansto scems to be tbrmed of manu. 
Hence the Saxons expressed this idea by words of the same 
import, hand, habend, havi»g in the hand, or back berend, bear. 
ing on the back. The Welsh laws of Hoel-dda, used in the 
saine sense the words l?edrad un y llaw--latrocinium vel fieum 
in manu, lhe tiret in his hand. The English law calls it taken 
,ith the manner, instead of the mainer, from main, the bond, 
in the French language, in which out stature laws were written 
from lçstminst, primer S Edward I. to Richard III. In 
,tinst. prbner, e.xv. it is ealled prise ove le mainer. In Rot. 
Parliament, 5 Richard II. Tir. 96, Cotton's Abridgement, and 
Coke's Institutes, it is eorruptly ealled taken with the manner; 
and the English translators of the Bible, following the vu]gar 
jargon of the law, rendered Numbers v. 1S, relating to a woman 
taken in the fact of adultery, by taken tdth the manner."" In 
the Seoteh law it is ealled taben with the rang. See Reg. Ma- 


BARD. My lord, do you see these meteors ? do 
you behold these exhalations ? 
P. IIz . I do. 
B.4RD. What think you they portend ? 
P. HE2V. Hot livers and cold purses2 
BARD. Choler, my lord, if righdy taken. 
P. HEur. No, if rightly taken, halter. 1 

Re.enter IALSTAFFo 

Here cornes lean Jack, here cornes bare-bone. 
How now, my sweet creature of bolnbast ? How 

jest. Lib. IV. c. xxi. And in cases of murder manifest, the mur- 
derer was said to be taken cith the red hand and hot 31ade. Ail 
which modes of expression in the Western Empire took their 
origin from the Roman manijfesto delprehensus." RwwD. 
s Thou hadst tire and sword &c.-I The.[ire was in his face. 
_ red face is termed afiergface: 
" While I aflïrm a 3qerface 
" Is to the owner no disgrace." Legend o Capt. Jones. 
 Hot livers, and cold purses.] That is, drunkenness and 
overty. To drink was, in the language of those rimes, to heat 
the liver. Jossos. 
So, in Antony and Cleopatra, Act I. sc. il. as Charmlan re- 
plies to the Soothsayer : 
" Sooth. You shall be more beloving, than belov'd. 
" Char. I had rather heat ,y liver with drinking." 
 ard. Cho]er, n. lord, ifrightl/taken. 
P. Hen. No,  rihdy tahn, halter.'] The reader who 
would enter into the spirit of this repartee, must recollect tbc 
imilarity of sound between collar and choler. 
So, in King John and Matilda, 1655 : 
" O./3ru. Son, you're too full of choler. 
" Y. Bru. Choler ! halter. 
" Fitz. By the mass, that's near the collar." S'wv.vwrs. 
 bombast.] Is the stuffing of clothes. JonrsoN. 

sc. n: KING HENRY IV. _'297 

long is't ago, Jack, since thou sawest thine own 
knee ? 
F4L. My own knee ? wheu I was about tb.y years, 
Hal, I was hot an eagle's talon in the waist ; I 
could have crept into any alderman's thumb-ring : 3 
A plague of sighing and grief! it blows a man up 
like a bladder. There's villainous news abroad" 
here was sir John Bracy ri'oto your father; you 
rnust to the court in the morning. That saine mad 
fellow of the north, Percy; and he of Wales, that 
gave Amaimon the bastinado, and made Lucifer 
cuckold, and swore the devil his true liegeman 
upon the cross of a Welsh hook,--What, a plague, 
call you him ?----- 

Stubbs, in lais Anatomie of ASuses, 1595, observes, that in 
hls rime " the doublettes were so hard quilted, stuffed, bom- 
asted, and sewed, as they could neither vorke, nor yet well 
play in them." And again, the saine chapter, le adds, that they 
were « stuffed with route, rive, or sixe pounde of bombast at 
least." Again, in Deckar's Satiromastix: « You shall swear 
hot to bombast out a new play with the old linings of jests." 
Bombast is cotton. Gerard calls the cotton plant « the bombast 
tree." STEEVENS. 
--I could have crept into any alderman's thumb-ring:] 
Aristophanes bas the saine thought : 
Plutus, v. 1057. SIR W. RtkWLIN$ON. 
An alderman's thumb-ring is mentioned by Brome in The 
Antipodes, 16¢0 : « --Item, a distich graven in his thumb-ring." 
Again, in The Northern Lass, 1632 : " A good man in the city 
&c. wears nothing rich about him, but the gout, or a thumb- 
ng." Agaln," in lVit in a Constable,. 160:. . " --no more. 
wit than the test of the bench ; what hes n hs thumb-rtng.. 
The custom of wearing a tin. g. on the thumb, is very ancient. 
In Chaucer's Squier's Tale, t ts said of the rider of the brazen 
horse, who advanced into the hall of Cambuscan, that 
" --upon his rhombe he had of gold a ring.'" 
• --uvon the cross ofa Welsh hook,] A Welsh hook ap- 

298 FIRST PART OF .c' zz. 

Potrs. O, Glendower. 
',aL. Owen, Owen ; the same ;and his son-in- 
law, Mortimer; and old Northulnberland; and that 
sprightly Scot ofScots, Douglas» that runs o'horse- 
back up a hill perpendicular. 
P. HN. He that rides at high speed, and with 
lais pistoP kills a sparrow flying. 

pears to have been some instrument of the offensive kind. It 
mentioned in the play of Sir John Oldcastle: 
"that no m,u presume to wear any weapons, especially 
welsh-hool«s and forest-bills." 
Again, in IVe.'teard ttoe, by Deckar and Webster, 1607: 
"  it will be as good as a IVelsh-hook for you, to keep out 
the other at staves-end." 
Again, in The Insatiate Countess, by Marston, 1618: 
" The ancicnt hook o|" great Cadwallader." 
«, The Welsh Glaive," (which I take to be the same weapon 
under another naine,) says Captain Grose in his Treatise on an- 
cient Armour, " is a kind of bill, sometimes reckoned among 
the pole-axes ;" a variety perhaps of the securis afalcata, or pro- 
bably resembling the Lochaber axe, which was used in the late 
rebellion. Colonel Gardner was attacked with such a one at the 
battle of Prestonpans. See the representation of an ancient 
watchman, with a bill on his shoulder, Vol. VI. p. 97. 
The llTelsh hoolr, I believe, was pointed, like a spear, to push 
or thrust with; and below had a hook to seize the enemy il" he 
should attempt to escape by flight. I take my ideas from a pas- 
sage in Butler's Character of a Justice of the Peace, whom the 
witty author thus describes: " His whole authority is like a 
IVelsh hook for his warrant is apuller to her, and his mittimus 
a thrusterfrom ber." t&,ains, Vol. II. p. 19ff. 
Minsheu, in his DcT. 1617, explains a lVelsh hook thus: 
« Armorum genus est oere in falcis mo&tm incurvato, ]oerticw 
longissin, oe lrÇ1ïxo." Cotgrave calls it "a long hedging-bill, 
about the length of a partisan." See also Florio's ltalian Dict. 
1598 : 
" Falcione. A bending forrest bill, or lVelsh hook.-- 
" Pennati. Hedge-bills, forest bills,.tVelsh hooks, or weeding 
hooks." 5'IALo. 
" ']istol--] Shakspeare neveï bas an 3, care to preserve 


T'.r.. You have hit it. 
.P. HE.V. So did he never the sparrow. 
/ar.. Well, that rascal bath good mettle in him ; 
he will hot run. 
P. HE,v. Why, what a rascal art thou then, to 
praise him so for running ? 
FAr. O'horseback, ye cuckoo! but, afoot, he wil! 
hot budge a foot. 
P. HE,v. Yes, Jack, upon instinct. 
FAr.. I grant ye, upon instinct. Well, he is there 
too, and one Mordake, and a thousand blue-caps 6 
more: Worcester is stolen away to-night ; thy fa- 
ther's beard is turned white with the news; 7 you 

the manners of' the time. Pistols were not known in the age ot" 
Henry. Pistols were, I believe, about out author's time, emi- 
nently used by the Scots. Sir Henry Wotton somewhere makes 
mention of' a Scottish pistol. JOHNSOlç. 
Beaumont and Fletcher are still more inexcusable. In The 
Humourous Lieutenant, they have equipped Demetrius Po- 
liorcetes, one of the immediate successors of Alexander the 
Great, with the same weapon. STv.V.Vm¢S. 
 blue-cals ] A name of ridicule given to the Scots 
from their 31ue-onnets. JOHISON. 
There is an old ballad called Blew Cap for me, or 
« A Scottish lass her resolute chusing; 
" Shee'll have bonny 31ew cap, all other refusm. 
 thy/father's beard is tumed whlte vith the ews;] I 
think Montaigne mentions a person condemned to death, whose 
hair turned grey in one night. TOLLET. 
Nashe, in his Have çith ou to Saffron lValden, &c. 1596, 
says: " ----- looke and you shall find a greÆ haire for everie line 
I have writ against him; and you shall have all.his beard white 
too, by the rime he hath read over this book." The reader may 
find more examples of the same phoenomenon in Grimeston's 
t.ranlation of Goulart' _fl¢emorabl¢ Histories, p. z89, &c. 

300 FIRST PART OF .4eT 11 

may buy land now as cheap as stinking mackarel.  
_l 9. lIEN. Why then, 'ris like, if there eome a hot 
June, and this eivii bulTeting hold, we shall buy 
maidenheads as they buy hob-nails, by the hun- 
FL. By the mass, lad, thou sayest truc; itis like, 
we shall have good trading that way.--But, tell me, 
Hal, art thou not horriblyafeard? thou being heir 
apparent, eould the world piek thee out three such 
enemies again, as that fiend Douglas, that spirit 
Percy, and that devil Glendower ? Art thou hot 
horribly afi'aid ? doth not thy blood thrill at it ? 
P. I-Iv. Nota whit, i'faith; I lack some of thy 
F. Wel|, thou wi|t be horribly ehid to-mor- 
row, when thou comest to thy father : if thou love 
me, praetise an answer. 
P. Hr. Do thou stand for my father, and exa- 
mine me upon the particulars of my lire.  
'A/. Shall I? content :This chair shall be my 

 you may ty land &c.] In former times the prosperity 
of the nation was known by the value of land, as now by the 
price of stocks. Belote Henry the Seventh ruade it safè to serve 
the King regnant, it was the practice at every revolution, for the 
conqueror to confiscate the estates of those that opposed, and 
perhaps of those who did not assist him. Those, therefore, that 
foresaw the change of government, and thought their estates in 
danger, were desirous to se!l them in haste for something that 
might be carried away. JotJso. 
9 Do thou stand for y, and examine me upon the par- 
ticulars fmy l.J In the old anonymous play of Henry lç the 
saine strain of humour is diseoverable : 
« Thou shalt be my lord chier justice, and shall sit in the ehair 
and l'Il be the young prince and hit thee a box on the car," 

sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 3Ol 

state,  this dagger my scepter, and this cushion my 
Cl'OWYl. 2 
19. ttE,v. Thy state is taken for a joint-stool, thy 
golden scepterfor a leaden dagger, and thyprecious 
rich crown, for a pitifid bald crown 13 
FAL. Well, an the tire of grace be hOt quite out 
of thee, now shalt thou be moved.--Give me a cup 
of sack, to make mine eyes look red, that it may 
be thought I have wept ; for I mLt speak in pas- 
sion, and I will doit in king Cambyses'* vein. 
  This chab" shall be raff state,] A state is a chair with a 
canopy over it. So, in lacbeth: 
" Out hostess keeps her state." 
See also, Vol. V. p. go, g, n. 7. 
This, as well as a following passage, was perhaps deslgned to 
ridicule the mock majesty of Cambjses, the hero of a play which 
appears from Deckar's Guls Hornbook, 1609, to bave been ex- 
hibited with some degree ot" theatrical pomp. Deckar is ridi- 
culing the impertinence of young gal]ants who sat or stood on the 
stage : " on the ver)" rushes where the commedy is to daunce, 
yea and under the state ojf Cambises himselfe." SrErrss. 
  this cushion my crown.] Dr. Letherland, in a MS. note, 
observes that the country people in Warwickshire use a cushion 
for a crown, at their harvest-home diversions ; and in the play of 
King JEdward 1V. P. II. 1619, is the following passage : 
" Then cornes a slave, one of those drunken sots, 
" In with a tavern reck'ning for a supplication, 
" Disguised with a cushion on his head." STwvs. 
s Thy state &c.-] This answer might, I think, have better 
been omitted: it contains only a repetition of Falstaff's mock- 
royalty. Joasot. 
This is an apostrophe of the Prince to his absent father, not an 
answer to Falstaff. 
lather a ludicrous description of Fa]staff's mock regal[ct. 
•--king CamSses'--'l The banter is here upon a play 
called, A lamentable Tr«gedie, mixed full ?f pleasant 5lirth, 
containing the Lire of Cambises, tTng ?f Persia. By Thomas 
Preston. [ 1570.-! 
I [tuestion if Shakspeare had ever seen this tragedy; for there 


P. HE. Well, here is lny leg2 
AL. And here is my speech :--Stand aside, no- 
HOST. This is excellent sport, i'faith. 
AL. Weep hot, sweet queen, for trickling tears 
are vain. 
HOST. O, the father, how he holds lais counte- 
nance ! 
/AL. For God's sake, lords, convey my tristful 
queen» 6 
For tears do stop the flood-gates of her eyes. 7 
HosT. 0 rare! he doth it as like one of these 
harlotry players, s as I ever see. 

is a remarkable peculiarity ot" measure, whlcb, when he pro- 
fessed to speak in ki»g Cambyses' vcin, he would hardly have 
missed, ifhe had known it. JOrlNSON. 
There is a marginal direction in the old play of hï» Cambises: 
« At this tale tolde, let the queen weep ;" which I fancy is al- 
luded to, though the measure is not preserved. FaRMSR. 
s myleg.] That is, my obeisance to my father. 
  my tristful 9ueen,] Old copies--trustful. Corrected by 
Mr. Rowe. The word tristful is again used in Hamlet. 
 the .floodates ofher ees.] This passage is probably a 
burlesque on the following in Preston's Cambyses: 
" Queen. These words to hear makes stilling teares issue from 
chrystall eyes." 
Perhaps, says Dr. Fariner, we should read--do ope the dflood- 
gates &c. STEEVENS. 
The allusion may be to the following passage in SoHman and 
" How can mine eyes dart fortb a tleasant look, 
« When they are stop'd with joods of flowing tears ?» 
  harlotryplaers,] The word is used in The Plozoman's 
Tale: " Soche harlotre men," &c. Again» in P. P. fol. 27: 

sc. rr. KING HENRY IV. 303 

FnL. Peace, good pint-pot ; peace, good tickle- 
brain.'--Harry, I do hot only marvel where thou 
spendest thy rime, but also how thou art accom- 
panied" for though the camomile,' the more it 
is trodden on, the faster it grows, yet youth, the 
more it is wasted, the sooner it wears. That thou 

« I had lever hear an lmrlotry, or a somer's gaine." Junius ex- 
plains the word by "inhonesta paupertinoe sorts foeditas." 
 tickle-brain,] This appears to bave been the nick naine 
of some strong liquor. So, in A new Trick to cheat the Devil, 
" A cup of Nipsitate brisk and neat, 
" The drawers call it tickle-brain." 
In The Antipodes, 16-0, settle-brain is mentloned a another 
potation. STeVeNS. 
--th.ough tle camomîle, &c.] This whole speech is su- 
premely comick. The simile ofcamomile used to illustrate a con- 
trary effect, brings to my remembrance an observation of a late 
writer of some merit, whom the dcsire of being witty has be- 
trayed into a like thought. Meaning to enfbrce with great vehe- 
mence the mad temerity of young soldiers, he remarks, that 
" though Bedlam be in the road to Hogsden, it is out of the 
way to promotion." JoHlSOl. 
In The zVIore the llerrier, a collection of Epigrams, 1608» i 
the following passage : 
" The camomile shall teach thee patience, 
« Which thriveth best when trodden most upon." 
/kgain, in Parasitaster, or the Fawne, a comedy, by 5Iarston, 
1606 : 
" For indeed, sir, a repress'd faine mounts like camomile the 
more trod down, the more it grows." STv.v.vms. 
The style immediately ridiculed, is that of Lyly, in his 
uphues: « Though the camomile the more it is trodden and 
pressed downe, the more it spreadeth ; yet the violet the oftener 
it is handled and touched, the sooner it withereth and decay- 
eth," &c. FARME. 
Again, in Philomela, the Lady Fitzwaller's Nightingale, by 
:Robert Greene, bl. 1. 1595, sign. I 4: " The palme tree, the 
more it is prest downe, the more it sprowteth up : the camomill, 
he more it i trodden the weeter mell it ieldeth." Rv.wx). 

.o FIRST PART OF ac'ii. 

art my son, I have partly thy mother's word, part]y 
my own opinion; but chiefly, a villainous trick of 
thine eye, and a foolish hanging of thy nether lip, 
that doth warrant me. If then thou be son to me, 
here lies the point ;--Why, being son to me, art 
thou so pointed at? Shall the blessed sun ofheaven  
prove a micher,  and eat blackberries ? a question 
hot to be asked. Shall the son of England prove a 
thief, and take purses ? a question to be asked, 
There is a thing, Harry, which thou hast often 

 Shall the blessed sun of heaven--] Thus the first quarto. 
In the second quarto, 1599, the word sun was changed to son, 
which consequcntly is the reading of the subsequent quartos and 
the folio: and so I suspect the author wrote. The orthography 
of these two words was tbrmerly so unsettled, that it is often 
fi'om the context alone one can determine what is nmant. 
 --a micher:] L e. truant; to miÇh s to lurk out of sght» 
a hedge-creeper. 
The lluson s to a truant boy, who unwillng to go to schoo]» 
and afaid to go home luks in the fields and picks wi]d fruits. 
In A Comment on the Ten Commandments, prlnted at London, 
in 1¢9, by Richard Pynson, I find the word thus used: 
" They make Goddes hoe a den of theyves; for commonly 
in such feyrs and markets, wheresoever it be holden, ther ben 
many theyves, michers, and cutpurse." 
Again in The Devil's Charter, 1607: 
" Pox on him, micher, I'll make him pay for it.'" 
Again, in Lyly's Mother Bombie, 159: 
" How like a micher he stand, as though he had truanted 
from honesty." 
Again, in the old Morality of Hffcke Scorner : 
" Wanton wenches and also michers." Srvs. 
A micher, I believe, means only a lurking thief distinguished 
from one more daring. Lambard in his Eirenarcha, 1610, 
p. 186, speaking of the powers which may be exercised by one 
justice, says, he may charge the constables to arrest such as shall 
be suspected to be "draw-latches, wastors, or robertsmen, that 
is to say, eiflaer miching or mightie theeves, for the meaning musç 
remarie howsoever the word be gone out of use." R. 

se. zr. KING HENRY IV. so5 

heard of, and it is known to many in our land by 
the name ofpitch: this pitch, as ancient writers 
do report, doth defile ;« so doth thç company thou 
keepest: for, Harry, now I do hot speak to thee 
in drink, but in tears ; hot in pleasure, but in pas- 
sion ; hot in words only, but in woes also :--And 
yet there is a virtuous man, whom I have often 
noted in thy company, but I know not his naine. 
P. HE . What manner of man, an it like your 
majesty ? 
FL. A good portly man, i'faith, and a corpu- 
lent; of a cheerfifl look, a pleasing eye, and a most 
noble carriage ; and, as I think, his age some fifty, 
or, by'r-lady, inelining to threeseore ; and now I 
remember lne, his naine is Falstaff: if that man 
should be lewdly given, he deeeiveth me; Ibr, 
Harry, I see virtue in his looks. If then the tree  

 this pitch, as ancient wrlters do report, doth defile ;] 
Alluding to an ancient ballad beginning : 
" Who toueheth pitch must be dejïl'd." SEEVES. 
Or perhaps to Lyly's Euphues: 
" He tbat toucbeth pitch shall be defiled.'" lfOLT WHITE. 
Dr. Fariner bas pointed out another passage exhibiting the 
saine observation, but omitted to specify the work to wbich it 
belongs : "It is barde for a man to touch 1)itch, and hot to be 
deJïled w{th it." S rEEVESS. 
The quotation is from the apocryphal Book of Ecdesiasticu«, 
xiii. 1 : " He that toucbeth pitch shall be deled therewith." 
 [fthen the tree &c.-] Sir T. Hanmer reads/.f then 
the fruit may be knoton by the tree, as the tree by the fruit, &c. 
and his emendation has been adopted in the late editions. The 
old reading is, I tbink, well supported by Mr. Heath, who ob- 
serves, that " Virtue is considered as the fruit, the man as the 
tree ; consequently the old reading must be right. If then the 
tree may be known by thefruit, as the fruit by the tree,that 
i, If I can judge of the man by the virtue I see in his looks he 
must be a virtuous man.'.  


may be known by the ri-uit, as the ri-uit by the 
tree, then, perelnptorily I speak it, there is virtue 
in that Falstaff: him keep wîth, the rest banish. 
And tell me now, thou naughty varlet, tell me, 
where hast thou been this month ? 
P. HE.v. Dost thou speak like a king ? Do thou 
stand for me, and l'Il play my fither. 
FaL. Depose me ? ifthou dost it hall so gravely, 
so majestically, both in word and marrer, hang me 
up by the heels for a rabbet-sucker,  or a poulter's 
1'. Hv. Well, here I am set. 
Fa. And here I stand :judge, my masters. 
P. H; Now, Harry ? whence corne you ? 
Fa/:. My noble lord, fi'om Eastcheap. 
P.//R2v. The complaints I hear of thee are 
iaL. '$blood, my lord, they are false :nay, 
1'11 tickle ye for a young prince, i'faith. 
P. Hv. Swearest thou, ungracious boy ? Imnce- 
I am afraid here is a profane allusion to the 88d verse of the 
1L2th chapter of St. Vlatthew. Sx.VV.NS. 
 --rabbet-sucker, &c.] Is, I suppose, a sucl'ing rabbet. 
The jest is in eomparing himself to something thin and little. 
So aloulterer's hare; a hare hung up by the hind legs without 
a skin, is long and slender. JOrNSON. 
Dr. Johnson is right; for in the account of the serjeant's 
feast, by Dugdale, in his Orig. Juridiciales, one article is a 
dozen of rabbet-suckers. 
Again, in Lily's Endqmion, 1591 : " I prefer an old coney 
rabbet-sucker.'" Again, in The Tr.éal of Chivalrg, 
before1599:  -- a bountiful benefactor for sendmg thither such 
zabbet-suckers. » 
A poulterer was formerly written--a poulter, and so the old 
copies of this play. Thus, in Pierce Pennilesse his Supplication 
to the Devil, 1595: « We must have out tables furnisht like 
oulters' stalles." 


forth ne'er look on me. Thou art violently car- 
ried away fi'om grace : there is a devil haunts thee, 
in the likeness of a fat old man: a tun of Inall 7 is 
thy companiou. Why dost thon converse with that 
trunk of humours, that bolting-hutch s of beastli- 
ness, that swoln parcel of dropsies, that huge bom- 
bard of sack, 9 that stuffed cloak-bag of guts, that 
roasted Manningtree ox' with the pudding in his 

  a tun of)an--] Dryden has transplanted this image 
înto his Mac Fleck»oe : 
" .4 tun of man in thy large bulk is writ, 
" Yet sure thou'rt but a kilderkin of wit." STEEVE'S. 
S  bo#ing.hutch_ ] Is the wooden receptacle into which 
the nmal is bohed." STXEVES. 
9 that huge bombard ofsacl«,] A bombard is a barrel. 
So, in The Tempest: " --like a foul bonbard that would shcd 
his liquor." STZZvEs. 
' Manningtree ox--] 'Iannin'tree in Essex, and the 
neighbourhood of it, are famous tbr rihness of pasture. The 
fatras thereabouts are chiefly tenanted by graziers. Some ox 
an unusual size was, I suppose, roasted there on an occasion or  
publick festivity, or exposed for money to publick short. 
This place likewise appears to bave been noted for the iutem- 
perance of its inhabitants. So, in Newesd'rom H«ll, bro,ght by 
the Devil's Carrier, by Thonms Decker, 1606: " you shall 
have a slave eat more at a meale than ten of the guard: and 
drink more in two days, than ail lIannbgtree does at a Whit- 
sun-ale." STEEVES. 
It appears from Heywood's «4pologyfor Actors, 161, that 
l"lanningtree formerly enjoyed the privilege of faits, by exhi- 
biting a certain number of stage-plays yearly. See also The 
choost»g of I alenttnes, a poem, by Thomas Nashe,  iS. in thc 
Library ot" the Inner Temple, No. 53, Vol. XLIII: 
" or see a play ot" strange moralitie 
" Shewen by bacheh'ie of .llanning-tree, 
" Vhereto the countrie franklins flock-meale swarme.'" 
Again, in Decker's Seven dcadl,.j Sinnes of London, 1607: 
« Cruelty has got another part to play; it is acted like thc o]d 
morals at lllanning'-tree." In this season of festivity, we may 
presume it was customary to roast an ox whole. ' Huge 
volumes, (says Osborne, in 


belly, that reverend vice, that grey iniquity, that 
father ruffian, that vanity in years? Wherein is 
he good, but to taste sack and drink it ? wherein 
neat and cleanly, but to carre a capon and eat it ? 
wherein cunning, 3 but in craft? wherein e.rafty, 
but in villainy? wherein villainous, but m all 
things ? wherein worthy, but in nothing ? 
FL. I would, your graee would take me with 
you ; Whon means your grace ? 
P. HEar. That villainous abominable misleader 
of youth, Falstaff, that old white-bearded Satan. 
FL. My lord, the man I know. 
P. ÏIar. I know, thou dost. 
F«L. But to say, I know more harm in him 
than in myself, were to say more than I know. 
That he is old, (the more the pity,) his white hairs 
do witness it: but that he is (saving your reve- 
rente,) a whoremaster, that I utterly deny. Ifsaek 
and sugar be a fault, s God help the wicked ! Ifto be 

roasted whole at Bartholomew Fait, may prodaim plenty of 
labour and invention, but afford less of what is delicate, savoury 
and well eoncocted, than smaller pieces." MhoE. 
  that reverend vice, that grey iniquity,that vanity 
in years?] The Vice, hdquity, and Van#y, were personages 
exhibited in the old nmralities. MhosE. 
 cunning,] Cunnin was not yet debased to a bad 
meaning; it slgnified knowtng, or skilful. Jontsog. 
  takc me with you; ] That is, go no faster than I can 
follow. Let me know your meaning. Jonssoy. 
Lyly, in hîs Endjmion, says: " Tush, rush, neighbours, take 
ne with you." FAIRMEII. 
Tbe expression is so common in the old p]ays, that it is unne- 
cessary to introduce any more quota/ions in support of it. 
» I.fsack ad sugar 3e a fault,] Sack with sugar was a 
favoùrite liquor in Shakspeâre's rime. la a Letter deseribing 

sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 009 

old and merry be a sin, then many an old host 
that I know, is damned : if tobe ht be to be hated, 
then Pharaoh's lean kine are tobe loved. No, my 
good lord; banish Peto, banish Bardolph, banish 
Poins : but for sweet Jack Falstaff, kind Jack Fal- 
staff, true Jack Falstafl valiant Jack Falstaff, and 
therefore more valiant, being as he is, old Jack 
Falstaff, banish not him thy Harry's company, 
banish hOt him thy Harry's company; banish 
plump Jack, and banish ail the world. 
_P. tIEnt. I do, I will. [_J 1,'nocMng heard. 
[Ea'eunt Hostess, FrtacIs, and BartDOLI'H. 

Queen Elizabeth's entertainment at Killingworth casfle, 1575, 
by R. L. [Langham] bi. 1. lmo. the writer says, (p. 86,) 
" sipt I no nore sack and sugar than I do mahnzey, I should 
hOt blush so much a dayz az I doo." And in anothcr place, 
describing a minstrel, who, being somewhat irascible, had becn 
oft'ended af the company, he adds : " at last, by sure entreaty, 
and many fait woords, with sack and sugar, we sweeten him 
again." P. 52. 
In an old MS. book of the chamberlain's account belonglng 
to the city of Worcester, I also find the following article, which 
ints out the origin of out word sack, [Fr. sec.] ,¢iz. "--Anno 
iz. xxxiiij. [1592] Item, For a gallon of clarett wyne, and 
seck, and a pound of sugar, geven to sir John Russell, iiij. s."-- 
This Sir John Russell, I believe, was their representative in par- 
liament, or at least had prosecuted some suit for them at the 
court.--In the same book is another article, which illnstrates the 
history of the stage at that time, viz. " A. Eliz. xxxiiij. Item, 
Bestowed upon the queen's trumpeters and players, iiij. lb." 

This liquor is likewise mentioned in xlonsieur Tho»tas, by 
Beaumont and Fletcher, 1639, and in The tVild Goose Chase of 
the saine authors : 
"  You shall final us at the tavern, 
" Lamenting in sack and sugar for your losses." 
Agaîn, in Northward Hoe, 1607: 
« I use hot to be drunk with sack and sugar." 

:1o FIRST PART OF ,c'zz. 

Re-enter BARDOLPH, rumdg. 

BAR/). O, lny lord, my lord; the sherioE with a 
most monstrous watch, is at the door. 
FAL. Out, you rogue! play out the play : I bave 
much to say in the behalf of that Falstafl: 

Re-etler Hostess, hastily. 

tlosT. 0 Jesu, my lord, my lord [----- 
FaL. tleigh, heigh! the devil rides upon a 
fiddle-stick :6 What's the matter ? 
HosT. The sheriff and all the watch are at the 
door : they are corne to search the house ; Nmll I 
let them in ? 
T'AL. Dost thou hear, Hal . never call a truc 
piece of gold, a counterfeit" thou art essentially 
mad,  without seeming so. 
p. /-Izr. And thou a natural coward, without 
FL. I deny your m«jor: if you will deny the 

  a fiddle-stick:] I suppose this phrase is proverbial. It 
occurs in The ltumorous Lieutenam of Beaumont and Fletcher: 
" .... for certain, gentlemen, 
" Tlte fleud rides on a 3'iddle-stick.'" S:r.V.lS. 
  matl,] Old copies--wade. Corrected by bir. Rowe. 
I ana hot sure that I understand this speech. Perhaps Falstaff 
means to say,---We must now look to ourselves ; never call that 
which is real danger, fictitious or imaginm T. If you do, you 
are a madman, though you are hot reckoned one. Should you 
adroit the sheriff to enter here, you will deserve that appellation. 
The first words, however, " Never call," &c. may allude, hOt 
to real and imaginary danger, but to the subsequent words only, 
t«ential and seeming madness. 

sc. zr,. KING HENRY IV. 1I 

sheriff, so ;  if not, let hiln enter : if I become not 
a cart as well as another man, a plague on my 
bringing up! I hope, I shall as soon be strangled 
with a halter, as another. 
P. IIEy. Go, hide thee behind the arras;---the 

« I dem/your major :  j/ou will denq the sheriff, so;] Fal- 
staff clem:lyintends a qmb'" ble between khe principal officer of a 
corporation, now called a mayor, to whom the sheriis gene- 
rally next in rank, and one of thê parts of a logical proposition. 
To render this supposition probable, it should be proved that 
tire mayor of a corporation was called in hakspeare's time 
ma-jor. That he was hot called so at an earlier periodo appears 
ri'oto several old books, anaong others fi-om The Historj of 
Edward I'. annexed to Hardynge's (ronicle« 154.3, where we 
find the old spelling was mire:" he beeyng at the haveryng 
at the bower, sent for the maire and aldermen of London.'" 
Fol. :307, b.If it sball be objceted, that afterwards the pro- 
nunciation was ebanged to ma-.jor, tbe tbllowing couplet in 
Jordan's Poems, (no date, but printed about 1661,) may serve 
to show that it is very unlikely tbat should have been the case, 
the pronunciation being at the Restoration the anae as it is now : 
" and the major 
" Shall justle zealous Isaae ri'oto the chaire." 
lIajor is the Latin word, and occurs, with the requisite pro- 
nuneiation, as a dissyllabl% in hing Henru V1. l'art I. (tblio 
edition) : 
" 3Iajor, farewell ; thou dost but what thou mayst. '' 
 hide thee belhd the arras;] The bulk of Falstaff 
ruade him not the fittest to be eoneealed behind the hangings.. 
but every poet sacrifices something to the scenery. If Falstaff 
had hot beén hidden, he could hot have been round asleep, nor 
had his poekets searched. JOINSO-. 
When arras xvas first brought into England, it was suspended 
on small hooks driven into the bare walls of houses and eastles. 
But this practiee was soon discontinued; t'or after the damp of 
the stone or brickwork had been round to rot the tapestry, it 
was fixed on frames of wood at such a distance ri'oto the wall» 
as prevented the latter from being injurious to the former. In 
old houses therefore, long before the rime of Shakspeare there 
were large spaces lcft between the arras and the walls, uteient 

312 FIRST PART OF Ac' xr. 

rest walk up above. Now, my masters, for a true 
face, and good conscience. 
FA:. Both which I have had: but their date is 
out, and therefore l'l[ hide me. 
[Exeunt ai1 but the Prince and Pos. 
P. H2. Call in the sheriff. 

Enter Sheriff and Carrier. 

Now, master sheriff; what's your will with me ? 
SgER. Yirst, pardon me, my lord. A hue and 
Hath follow'd certain men unto this house. 
/). Hv. What men ? 
SHR. One of them is well known, my gracious 
lord ;  

to contaln even one of Falstaff's bulk. Such are those which 
'antome mentions in The Drummer. 
Again, in The Bird in a Cage, 1633: 
" Does hot the arras laugh at me . it shakes methinks. 
" Kat. It cannot choose, there's one behind doth tiekle it." 
Again, in Northward Hoe, 1607 : " but softly as a gentle- 
man courts a wench behind the arras." 
Again, in King John, Aet IV. se. i : 
" Heat me these irons hot, and look thou stand 
" Within the arras." 
In Much Ado about Nothing, Boraehio says, " I whipp¢d me 
behind the arras.'" Polonius is killed behind the arras. Sec 
likewise Holinshed, Vol. III. p. 59. Sec also my note on the 
eeond seene of the first Aet of King Richard II. STEEVS. 
So, in Brathwaite's Survey of Histories, 161: « Pyrrhus, 
to terrifie Fabius, eommanded his guard to place an elephant 
behind the arras." 
 -- ny graeious lord;] We have here, I believe, another 
playhouse intrusion. Strike out the word gracious, and the 
metre beeornes perfeet : 
P. Hen. What men ? 
Sher. One of them is well known, mit lord. 

sc. zr. KING HENRY IV. lS 

A gross fat man. 
CR. As fat as butter.  
P. tLEv. The man, I do assure you, is not here;  
For I myself af this rime have employ'd him. 
And, sheriff, I will engage my word to thee, 
That I will, by to-morrow dinner-time, 
Send him to answer thee, or any man, 
For any thing he shall be charg'd withal : 
And so let me entreat you leave the bouse. 
Sn. I will, my lord : There are two gentlemen 
Have in this robbery lost three hundred marks. 
P./-lv. It may be so: if he have robb'd these 
He shall be answerable ; and so, farewell. 
SHR. Good night, my noble lord. 
P. H2 . I think if is good morrow; Is it not ? 
SHER. Indeed, mylord, I think it be tvo o'clock. 
[Exeunt Sheriff and Carrier. 
P. H2. This oily rascal is known as well as 
Paul's. Go, call him forth. 
Pos. Falstaff! ---thst asleep behind the arras, 
and snorting like a horse. 

"- .ds fat as butter.] I suppose our author, to complete the 
verse, originally wrote 
A man as.fat as butter. SEEVErS. 
s The man, I do assure .you, is hot here;] Every reader must 
regret that Shakspeare would not give hmself the trouble to 
furnish Prince Henry with some more pardonable excuse ; with- 
out obliging him to have recourse to an absolute falsehood, and 
that too uttered under the sanction of so strong an assurance. 
4 Poins. Falsta.ff7 &c.] This speech, in the old copies, is 
g]ven to Peto. It has been transferred to Poins on the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Johnson. Peto is again printed elsewhere for Poins 
in thi llay, probably from a P. only being used in the MS. 

FIl{ST PAl{T OF .4c' Ii, 

P. HE2r. Hark, how liard he fetches breatb: 
Search lfis pockets. [Pois searcltes.-] What hast 
thou round ? 
PoIvs. Nothing but papers, my lord. 
/'. HEur. Let's see what they be: read them. 
Po,,vs. Item, A capon, s. d. 
Item, Sauce, 4d. 
Item, Sack, two gallons, ss. 8d2 

" What had Peto done, (Dr. Johnson observes,) to be trusted 
with the plot against Falstaff? Poins has the Prince's confidence, 
and is a man of courage. This alteration clears the whole dif- 
ficulty; they ail retircd but Poins, who, witb the Prince, having 
only robbed the robbers, had no need to conceal himself from 
the traveller.." M.LONE. 
»  Sac[c, two gallons, Ss. 8d.] It appears from Peacham's 
lYort] of a Penng that sack was hOt many years after hak- 
speare's death, about two sbillings, a quart. If therefore our 
author had followed his usual practme of attributing to former 
ages the modes of his own, the charge would bave been here 16s. 
Perhaps he set down the price at random. He bas, however 
as a learned friend observes to me, fallen into an anachronism, 
in furnishing his tavern in Eastcbeap with sack in tbe rime of 
King Henry IV. " The vb, t,ers sold no other sacks, muscadels, 
mahnsles, bastards, a]icants, nor any otber wines but white and 
claret, till the :3:3d year of King Henry VIII. 154, ad then 
was old Parr 60 years of age. All flmse sweet wines were sold 
till that time at tbe apoflmcary's, for no otber use but for 
medicines." Taylor's Lire of T]omas Part, to. Lond. 16:35. 
« If tlmrefore Falstaffgot drunk with sack 14:0 years belote the 
above date, it could hot have been at Mrs. Quickly's." 
For this information I ara indebted to the Reverend Dr. Stock, 
the accurate and learned editor of Demosthenes. 
Since this note was written, I have learnt fi'om a passage in 
Florio's First Fruites, 1578, wifl which I was furnished by tbe 
late Reverend Mr. Bowle, that sack was at that rime but sixpence 
a quart. " Claret wine, red and white, is sold for rive pence the 
quart, and sac[ce for sixpence: muscadel and malmsey, for 
eigbt." Twenty years afterwards sack had probably risen to eght 
pence or. eig!t pence halfpenny a quart, so that out author's 
computatlon s very exact. 

sc. « KING HENRY IV. 315 

Item, Anchovies, and sack after supper, 2s. 6d. 
Item, ]read, a halt-]:.emly. 
P. tI r. 0 monstrous! but one half-pennyworth 
of bread to this intolerable deal of sack !--What 
there is else, keep close ; we'll read it at more ad- 
vautage: there let him sleep till day. l'Il to the 
court in the morning - we nmst all to the wars, and 
thy place shall be honourable, l'Il procure this 
fat rogue a charge of tbot ; and, I know, his death 
wili be a match oftwelve-score. The money shall 
be paid back agaiu with advantage. Be with me 

 I know, his dealh will be a match of twelve-score.] 
i. e. It will kill him to march so far as twelve-score yards. 
Ben Jonson uses the saine expression n his Sejanus: 
« That look'd for salutations twdve-score off." 
Again, n IVestward Itoe, 1606: 
" I'll get me tw,olve-core off, and give aire." 
Again, in an ancient MS. play, entltled, The Second llaiclen** 
Traged : 
" hot one word near it ; 
" There was no syllable but was twelve-score off." 
That is, twelve score jï,,et; the Prince quibbles on the word 
foot, which sig.nifies a measure, and the inflantry of an army. 
I cannot conceve why Johnson supposes that he means twelvc 
score jards; he might as well extend it to twelve score toiles. 
5I. Mnso. 
]Dr. Johnson supposed that "twelve-score" meant twelve score 
yards, because that was the common phraseology of the time. 
When archers talked of sending a shaft fourtee, score, they 
meant fourteen score 3tards. So, in The lIerry Vives of 
sot: " This boy will carry a letter twenty toiles, as easily as a 
cannon will shoot point-blank twelve-score." See also, hïng 
Henry 1V. P. II. I have therefore great doubts whether the 
equivoque pointed out by Mr. Mason was intended. If not, 
Mr. Pope's interpretation [twelve-score foot] is wrong, and 
Dr. Johnson's right. 
Twelve-score always means so many jards and not feet. 
There is not the smallest reason to suppose that Shakspeare 
meant any quibble. Dotcw. 

316 FIRST PART OF ac'iir. 
betimes in the morning; and so good morrow, 
t'oI2¢S. Good morrow, good my lord. 


Bangor. .4 Room h the .4rchdeacon's House. 


IORT. These promises are £air, the parties sure, 
And our induction  full of prosperous hope. 
HOT. Lord Mortimer,--and cousin Glendower,--- 
Will you sit down .----- 
And, uncle Worcester :--A plague upon it ! 
I have forgot the map. 
(SLE2*D. NO, here it is. 
Sit, cousin Percy; sit, good cousin Hotspur: 
For by that naine as oft as Lancaster 
Doth speak ofyou, his cheek looks pale ; and, with 
A rising sigh, he wisheth you in heaven. 
HoT. And you in hell, as often as he hears 
Owen Glendower spoke of. 

induction] That is, entrance; beginning. JoHso. 
An induction was anciently something introductory to a play. 
Such is the business of the Tinker previous to the performance 
of The Tarning ofthe Shrevo. Shakspeare often uses the word, 
v¢hich his attendance on the theatres might have tmiliarized to 
his conception. Thus, in King Richard III: 
« Plots have I laid, inductons dangerous. 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. 317 

GLEND. I cannot blame him: at my nativity, s 
The ri-ont of heaven was fidl of fiery shapes, 
Of burning cressets ;9 and, at my birth, 
The frame and huge foundation'of the earth 
Shak'd like a coward. 
HoT. Why, so it wou!d bave donc  
At the same season, if your mother's cat had 
But kitten'd, though yourself had ne'er been born. 

s  af my nativltq, &c.] Most of these prodigies appear 
to have been invented by Shakspeare. Holinshed says only: 
" Strange wonders happened at the nativity of this man ; for the 
same night he was born, ail his father's horses in the stable were 
round to stand in blood up to their bellies." STwv.vs. 
In the year 140, a blazing star appeared, which the Welsh 
bards represented as portending good tbrtune to Owen Glen- 
dower. Shakspeare had probably read an account of this star 
in some Chronicle, and transferred its appearance to the time 
ofOwen's nativity. MALO. 
9 Of 5urning cressets;] A cresset was a great light set upon a 
beacon, light-house, or watch-tower: from the French word 
croissette, a little cross, because the beacons had anciently crosses 
on the top ofthem. HANMER. 
The same word occurs in Histriomastix, or the Plaæer whipt, 
" Corne, Cressida, my cresset-light, 
" Thy face doth shine both da), and night." 
In the reign of Elizabeth, Holinshed says : " The count[e Pala- 
tine of Rhene was conveied by cresset-light, and torch-light, to 
Sir T. Gresham's house in Bishopsgate-street." Again, in 
tatelff Moral of the Three Lords of London, 1590: 
" Watches in armour, triumphs, cresset-lights.'" 
The cresset-lights were iights fixed on a moveable /'rame or 
cross, like a turnstile, and were carried on poles, in processions. 
I bave seen them represented in an ancient print fi'om Van Velde. 
Sec also a wooden cut in Vol. IX. p. 59. Swwvwss. 
' IVhff, so it would bave donc &c.] A similar observation oc- 
curs in Cicero de Fato, cap. S: " Quid mirum igitùr, ex speluncâ 
saxum in crura Icadii incidisse ? Puto eninb etiàm si Icadius in 
peluncâ non fuisset» saxum tamèn illud casurum fuisse." 


GLEND. I say, thc earth did shake when I was 
HoT. And I say, the earth was not of my mind, 
If you suppose, as fearing you it shook. 
GLEND. The heavens were all on tire, the earth 
did tremble. 
HoT. O, then the earth shook to see the heaven 
O11 fire, 
And hOt in fear of your nativity. 
Diseased natur& oftentimës breaks forth 
In strange eruptions : off the teeming earth 
Is with a kind of colick pinch'd and vex'd 
]3y the ilnprisoning of unruly wind 
Within her womb; which, tbr enlargement striving, 
Shakes the ohl beldame earth,  and topples down 

 Diseased nature] The poet has here taken, ri'oto the per- 
verseness and contrariousness of Hotspur's retaper, an opportu- 
nity of raising his character, by a very rational and philosophical 
confutation ofsuperstitious error. JoHssos. 
s  off the teeming earth 
Is with a tind of colick pinch'd and vex'd 
Bg the imprisoning o.fl unruly wind 
IVithin ber womb ; which, for enlargment striving, 
Shakes the old beldame earth,] So, in our author's Venus 
and Adonis: 
" As when the u, ind, imprison'd in the ground, 
"" Stïuggling for passage, earth's foundation shakes, 
« Vhich with cold terrours doth men's minds confound. » 
The saine thought is round in Spenseï's Fairy Queen, B. III. 
c. ix: 
" like as a hoy'strous wi»d, 
" Which in th' earth's hollow caves hath long been hid, 
" And, shut up fast within her prisons blind, 
" Makes the huge element against her kind 
" To more, and tremble, as it were aghast, 
" Untill that it an issue tbrth may find ; 
" Then forth it breakes; and with his furious blast 
" Confounds both land and seas, and s_.kyes doth overcast." 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. 19 

Steeples, and moss-grown towers. ç At your birth, 
Out grandam earth, having this distemperature, 
In passion shook. 
GLEND. Cousin, of many men 
I do hot bear these crossings. G ive me leave 
To tell you once again,--that at my birth, 
The ri'ont of heaven was full of fiery shapes ; 
The goats tan ri'oto the mountains, and the herds 
Were strangely clmuorous to the fi'ighted fields. » 

So also, in Drayton's Legend ofPierce Gaveston, 1594 : 
"" As when within the sort and spongie soyle 
"' The wind doth pierce the entrails of the earth, 
"Where hurlyburly with a restless coyle 
"' Shakes all the centre, wanting issue forth," &c. 
ddrn« s not ued here as a terre of" conempt, but n he 
sense of" ¢f« mohr. d-, Ff. Drayton, n the 8th 
on or" hs ]ooon, ues «hsb-« , the ame sense : 
« As his great d-fr Brue çrom A|bion's heirs i won. » 
Agan, in the 1th Song: 
« Vhen he hs |ong descent sha|! from |ris d-ffr« brng." 
u o s French forfr-fndw, but the word emp|oyed 
by Drayton seems to have no such meaning. Perhaps beldame 
originally meant a grandmother. So, in Shakspeare's Tarub, 
and Lucrece  
"' To show the beldame daughters of her daughter." 
  and topples down 
Steeples, and moss,rown towers.] To to]lde is to tumble. 
So, in Macbeth: 
" Though castles tOl291e on their warders' heads." 
 The goats ran from the mountains, and the herds 
Were strangely clamorous fo the frighted dçelds.] Shakspeare 
appears to have been as well acquainted with the rarer phoeno- 
mena, as with the ordinary appearances of nature. A writer in 
The Philosolohical Transactions, No..'207, describing an earth- 
quake in Catanea, near Mount .ZEtna, by wlfich eighteen thou- 
sand persons were destroyed, mentions one of the circumstances 
that are here said to have marked the birth of Glendower: 
« There wa» a blow, as if all the artillery in the world had been 


These signs have mark'd me extraordinary ; 
And all the courses of my lire do show, 
I am hOt in the roll of common men. 
Where is he living,--clipp'd in with the sea 
That chides the banks of England, Scotland» 
Which calls inc pupil, or hath read to me ? 
And bring him out, that is but woman's son, 
Can trace me in the tedious ways of art, 
And hold me pace in deep experiments. 
Ho'. I think, there is no man speaks better 
Welsh :----- 
I will to dinner. 
IOR'. Peaee, cousin Percy; you will make him 
GLVD. I ean eall spirits ri'oto the vasty deep. 
HOT. Why, so can I; or so can any man: 
But will they come, when you do eall for them ? 
GL.E.D. Why, I ean teach you, cousin, to eom- 
The devil. 
11o7. And I can teach thee, coz, to shame the 
devil, 6 
By telling truth; Tell truth, and shame the devil.-- 

discharged at once; the sea retired flore the town above two 
mlles; the birds flew about astonished; the cattle in the.]ïelds 
tan crffing." MLOlE. 
--to thefrightedJTelds.] We should read--in the frlghted 
fields. M. 5lAsol. 
In the very next scene, to is used where we should at present 
" He hath more worthy interest fo the state--." 
 -- o shame the devl,] " Spea the truth, and shame the 
devil, » was proverbial. Se Ray's rover5s 163. RE. 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. Sel 

If thou have power to raise him, bring him hither, 
And l'Il be sworn, I havepower toshame him hence. 
0, while you lire, tell truth, and shame the devil. 
3IoRT. Corne, corne, 
:No nmre of this unprofitable chat. 
GLEND. Three rimes hath Hem T Bolingbroke 
ruade head 
Against my po»ver: thrice flore the banks of Wye, 
And sandy-bottom'd Severn, have I sent him, 
Bootless v home, and weather-beaten back. 
HOT. Home without boots, and in foui weather 
too ! 
How 'scapes he agues, in the devil's naine ? 
Gr'«. Corne, here's the map; Shall ve dîvide 
our right, 
Accordin to our three-fold order ta'en ? 
3IOT. The archdeacon bath divided it s 
Into three limits, very equally: 
Enland, ri'oto Trent and Severn hitherto,  
By south and east, is fo my part assign'd : 
Ail westward, Wales beyond the Severn shore, 
And ail the fertile land within that bound, 
To Owen Glendower :and, dear coz, to you 
The remnant northward, lyin off ri'oto Trent. 

7 Bootless] Unless we read bootless as a trissyllable, the 
metre will be defective. In As ou like itwrestler is apparently 
to be thus pronounced : 
" The parts and graces of the wrestler." 
Mr. Pope transferred the word hbu from the former line to 
this: and perhaps he was right. 
s The archd«acon ]al/z divided it] The metre is here 
deficient. I suppose the line originally ran thus : 
Trie arclMeacon bath divided if already. Sav,lvEs. 
9 England, from Trent and Severn hitherto] i. e. to this spot 
(pointing to the map). 


And our indentures tripartite are drawn : 
Which being sealed interchangeably, 
(A business that tbis nigbt may execute,) 
To-morrow, cousin Percy, you, and I, 
And my good lord of Woreester, will set forth, 
To meet your father, and the Scottish power, 
As is appointed us, at Shrewsbury. 
My father Glendower is not ready yet, 
Nor shall we need his help these tburteen days:--- 
Within that spaee, [To GLAND.-] yOU may have 
drawn together 
Your tenants, fi'iends, and neighbouring gentle- 
GLEN9. A shorter rime shall send me fo york, 
And in my couduet shall your ladies eome : 
From whom you nowmust steal, and take no leave; 
For there will be a world of water shed, 
Upon the parting of your wives and you. 
HoT. Methinks, my moiety, north ri'oto Burton 
here, I 
In quantity equals hot one of yours : 
Sec, how this river cornes me cranking in,  

 3Iethinlis, nj moiety, torth from Burton here.] The divi- 
sion is here into three parts.A moiet# was frequently used by 
the writers of Shakspeare's age, as a portion of any thing, though 
hot divided into two equal parts. See a note on King Lear, 
Act I. sc. iv. MALONE. 
 --cranking in,] Perhaps we shou]d read--crankli ŒE. So, 
Drayton, in his Polyolbion, Song 7, speaking of a river, says 
that Meander-- 
" Hath hot so many turns, nor craukling nooks as she." 
Mr. Pope readscranklin. Cranking, however, is right. 
So, in our author's Venus and Adonis: 
" He cranks and erosses with a thousand doubles." 
1VIax.o r.. 

sc. . KING HENRY IV. 3_o3 

And cuts me, ri'oto the best of ail my land, 
A huge hall moou, a moustrous cantle out2 
l'll bave the current in this place damm'd 
And here the smug and silver Trent shall run, 
In a new channel, fair and evenly : 
It shall hot wind with such a deep indent, 
To rob me of so rich a bottom here. 
GLïXD. Not wind ? it shall, it lnUSt; you sec, 
it doth. 
3IoR: Yea, 
But mark, how he bcars his course, and runs me up 
With like advantaffe on thc other side 
Gelding the opposed continent as much, 
As on the other side it takes fi'om you. 
Il'oR. Yea, but a little charge will trench him 
And on this north side win this cape of land 
And then he runs straight aud even. 
HoT. I'll have it so; a little charge will do it. 
GLZrD. I will hOt have it alter'd. 
Ho2". Will not you ? 

Scantle out.] A cantle is a corner, or piece of any 
thing, in the saine sense that Horace uses angulus: 
" O si mtguhts ille 
" Proximus arridet !" 
Canton, Fr. canto, Ital. signif'y a corner. To cantle is a verb 
used in Decker's lVhore of Bab.qlon, 1(307: 
" That this vast globe terrestrial should be cantled." 
The substantive occurs in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song 1 : 
" Rude Neptune cutting in a cantle forth doth take." 
Again, in A new Trick to cheat the Devil, 16S6: 
" Not so much as a cantell of cheesê or crust of bread." 
Canton in heraldry is a corner of" the shield. Cant of cheese 
now used in Pembrokeshire. Loa'. 




No, nor you shall not. 
Who shall say ne nay ? 
Why, that will I. 

tloT. Let me not understand you then, « 
8peak it in Welsh. 
GLED. I tan speak English, lord, as well as you  
For I was train'd up in the English court :5 
Where, being but young, I fi'amed to the harp 
Many an English ditty, lovely well, 
And gave the tongue 6  helpfil ornament ; 
A virtue that was never seen in you. 

 Let me hot understatd Sou then,] You, an apparent inter- 
polation, destructive to the metre, should, I think, be omitted. 
 For [ was train'd up in the English com't : ] The real naine 
of Owen Glendower was Vaughan, and he was originally a bar- 
rister of the Middle Temple. Sa'VlS. 
Owen Glendower, whose real naine was Owen ap-Gryffyth 
Vaughan, took the naine of Gl.qndour or Glendowr from the 
lordship of Glyndourdwy, of which he was owner. He was 
partieularly adverse to the Mortimers, beeause Lady Percy's 
nephew, Edmund Earl of Mortimer, was righffully entitled to 
the principality of Wales, (as well as the crown of England,) 
being lineally deseended from Gladys the daughter of Lhewelyn, 
and sister of David Prince of Wales, the latter of whom died in 
the year 1ff46. Owen Glendower himself elaimed the princi- 
pality of Wales. 
He afterwards beeame esquire of the body to K. Richard II. 
with whom he was in attendanee at Flint Castle, when Richard 
was taken prisoner by Henry of Bolingbroke, afterwards King 
Henry IV. Owen Glendower was erowned Prince of" Wales 
in the year 140ff, and for near twelve years was a ver 3, formida- 
ble enemy to the English. He died in great distress in I-15. 
« --the tongue] The English language. JoIISO-. 
Glendower means, that he graeed his own tongue with the rt 
of singing. RTso. 
I think Dr. Johnson's explanation the true one. MALOI¢. 

sc. h KING HENRY IV. ,, 

HOT. Marry, and I'm glad of it with all my 
h eart; 
I had rather be a kitten and cry--mew, 
Than one of these saine mette ballad-mongers : 
I had rather hear a brazen eanstick turn'd, 7 
Or a dry wheel grate on an axle-tree ; 
And that would set my teeth nothing on edge, 
Nothing so much as mincing poetry ; 
'Tis like the forc'd gait of a shufl]ing nag. 
GLEVD. Come, you shall have Trent turn'd. 
HOT. I do hot tare: l'll give thrice so much land 
To any well-deserving fiiend ; 
But, in the way of bargain, mark ye me, 
l'Il cavil on the ninth part of a hair. 
Are the indentures drawn ? shall we be gone ? 
GLE«VD. The moon shines fair, you may away 
by night : 

7 a brazen canstick turn'd,] The word candlestick, 
which destroys the harmony of the line, is written canstick in the 
quartos, 1598, 1599, and 1608; and so it was pronounced. 
Heywood, and several of the old writers, constantly spell it in 
this manner. Kit with the canstick is one of the spirits men- 
tioned by Reginald Scott, 158. Again, in The 1amous His- 
tory of Thomas Stukely, 1605, bl. 1 : " If he have so much as a 
canstick, I am a traitor." 
Aga[n, in Chapman's translation of Homer's Batrachomuo- 
nachia : 
" Their fenceful bucklers were 
" The middle rounds of cansticks; but their spear 
" A huge long needle was." 
The noise to which Hotspur alludes, is likewise mentioned in 
A new Trick to cheat the Devil, 1696 : 
« As if you were to lodge in Lothbury, 
« Where they turn brazen candlesticks." 
And again, in Ben Jonson's Masque of Witches ]letamorphosed: 
" From the candlesticks of Lothbury, 
" And the loutl pure wives of Banbury." 

._'26 FIRST PART OF ,CT zzt. 

I'll haste the writer,  and, withal, 
Break with your wives of your departure hence : 
I ara afi'aid, my daughter will run mad, 
So much she doteth Oll her Mortilner. [Exit. 
_MORT. Fye, cousin Percy! how you cross my 
father [ 
Hot. I cannot choose: sometimes he angers 
With telling InC of the luoldwarp and the ant,  

s l'll baste the writer,] He means the writer of" the articles. 
I suppose, to complete the measure, we should read : 
Pli in and haste the writer; 
for he goes out immediatclv. 
So, in The Taming ojïtl[e Shrew: 
,, But I will in, to be reveng'd for this villainy." 
« bly cake is dough: But I'll in, among the rest." 
We should undoubteclly read : 
l'll in, and baste the writcr, and withal-- 
The two supplemcntal words which were suggested by 
Steevens, complete both the sense and metre, and were certainly 
omitted in the first copy by the negligcnce of the transcriber or 
printer. Such onfissi(ms more ffequentlhappen than almost any 
other errour of the press. The present'restoration is supported 
by various other passages. So, in Timon ofAthens, Act I. sc. i : 
" 1 Lord. Shall we 
" 2 Lord. l'Il keep you company." 
Again, ibidem, Act V. sc. iii: 
" In, and prepare." 
Again, more appositely, in" King Richard III: ,, 
" l'll in, to urge his hatred more to Clarenee. 
o o the moldwarp and the ant,] This alludes to an old 
propheey, whmh s smd to have induced Owen Glendower to 
take arms against King Henry. Sec Hall's Chronicle, fol. 0. 
So, in The .Iirrour for .Iagistrates» 1559» Owen Glendower 
is introdueed speaking of himself: 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. s27 

Of the drealner Merlin and his prophecies ; 
And of a dragon and a finless fish, 
A clip-wing'd grifiin, and a moulten raven, 
A couching lion, and a ramping car, 
And such a deal of" skimble-skamble stuff' 
As puts me fi'om my faith. I tell you what,-- 
He held me, but last night, at least nine hours,' 
Iii reckoning up the several devils' names, * 

" And for to set us hereon more agog, 
" A prophet came (a vengeaunce take them ail !) 
" Aflirming Henry to be Gogmagog 
" Whom Merlyn doth a mouldwarp ever call 
« Accurs'd of God, that must be brought in thrall, 
" By a wulf, a dragon, and a lyon strong, 
" Which shuld devide his kingdome them among." 
The mould-warp is the mole, so called because it renders the 
surthce of the earth unlevel by the hil!ocks which it raises. 
Anglo-Saxon molde, and weortgan. Svls. 
So Holinshed, for he was Shakspeare's authority: « Thi 
[the division of the reahn between Mortimer, Glendower, and 
Percy,] was done (as some bave sayde) through a foolish credite 
given to a vaine prophecie, as though king Henry was the molde- 
toarpe cursed of God's owne mouth and they three were the 
dragon, the lion, and the volfe, which should divide this realm 
between them." 
 skimble-slmmble st,ff--] This cant word, formed by 
reduplication from scamble, occurs likewise in Taylor the water- 
poet's Description of a IVanton: 
" Here's a sweet deal of scimble-scamble sttd.." 
 He held me, but last night, at least nine ]tours,] I have 
inserted the eonjunctionbut, which is wanting in the aneient 
copies. Without some sueh assistance the metre would be 
defeetive. Sa'EEWS. 
 h reckoning up the several devils' names,] See Reginald 
Seott's Discoverj of Witchcraft, 158, Book XV. eh. il. p. :377, 
where the reader may find his patience as severely exereised as 
that of" Hotspur, and on the same occasion. Shakspeare nmst 
eertainly have seen this book. 


That were his lackeys : I cried, humph,mand well, 
go to,  
But mark'd him hot a word. O, he's as tedious 
As is a tired horse, a railing wifie; 
Vorse than a snoky house:--I had rather live 
With eheese and garliek, in a windmil|, far, 
Than feed on eates, and have him talk to me, 
In any summer-house in Christendom. 
3IoRT. In faith, he is a worthy gentleman ; 
Exeeedingly well read, and profited 
In strange eoncealments ; valiant as a lion, 
And wond'rous afltble ; and as bountiful 
As mines of lndia. Shall I tell )-ou, cousin ? 
He holds your retaper in a high respect, 
And curbs hilnself even of his natural seope, 
When you do cross lais humour ; 'faith, he does: 
I warrant you, that man is not alive, 
Might so have tempted him as you have donc, 
Without the taste of danger and reproof; 
But do not use it oI, let Inc entreat you. 
IVOR. In faith, my lord, you are too wilfid- 

 go to,'l These two senseless monosyllables seem t 
bave been added by some foolish player, purposely to destroy 
the measure. RTso. 
s. a railing wife ; 
Worse than a smoky house:] Thus Chaucer, in The lVi..f 
o..f Bathe's Prologue: 
« And chiding wives maken men to flee 
« Out of hir owen bous." 
In strange concealments ;] Skilled in wonderful secrets. 
 -- too wiul-blame;] This is a mode of speech with which 

sc. x. KING HENRY IV. 

And since your coming hither have done enough 
To put him quite beside his patience. 
You must needs learn, lord, to amend this fault : 
Though sometimes it show greatness, courage, 
(And that's the dearest grace it renders you,) 
Yet oftentimes it doth present harsh rage, 
I)efect of manners, want of government, 
Pride, haughtiness, opinion, 8 and disdain : 
The least of which, haunting a nobleman, 
Loseth men's hearts ; and leaves behind a stain 
Upon the beauty of all parts besides, 
Beguiling them of colnlnendation. 
HoT. Well, I am school'd; good manners be 
your speed ! 
Here come our wives, and let us take our leave. 

tde.eler GLgDOWrt, r«ith the Ladies. 

MonT. This is the deadly spite that angers me,-- 
My wife can speak no English, I no Welsh. 

I am not acquainted. Perhaps it might be readtoo ilful. 
lunt, or too wil3Cul-bent ; or thus: 
Indeed, my lord, jou are fo blame, too wilful. 
I suspect that our author wrote 
i. e. you are il.full to blame the offence you give is medltated, 
Shakspeare has several compounds in which the first adjective 
bas the power of an adverb. Thus, (as Mr. Tyrwhitt bas ob- 
served,) in King Richard III. we meet with childish-foolish, 
senseless-obstinate, and mortal-staring. 
" ----opinion,] means here sclf-oTinion, or conceit. 

zo FIRST PART OF AcT zzr. 

GLEND. ly daughter weeps ; she will not part 
with you, 
She'll be a soldier too, she'll to the wars. 
_MORT. Good tather, tell her--that she, and my 
aunt Percy, 
Shall follow in your conduct speedily. 
[GLEDOWErt speaks to his Daughter in Welsh, 
and she answers him in the saine. 
Gzv». She's desperate here; a peevish self- 
will'd harlotry, 9 
One no persuasion' can do good upon. 
[Ladj M. speaks to MORTI.IER in Welsh. 
_MonT". I understand thy looks: that pretty Welsh 
Which thou pourest down ri'oto these swelling hea- 
veil$ °- 
I am too perfect in ; and, but ibr shame, 
In such a parley would I answer thee. 
[Lad M. s_peaks. 
I understand thy kisses, and thou mine, 
And that's a teling disputation : 
But I will never be a truant, love, 
Till [ have learn'd thy language ; for thy tongue 

  a pee,ish self-dll'd harlotry,] Capulet, in Romeo and 
,.uliet, reproaches his daughter in the saine terres : 
" A peevish selaf-will'd harlotr it is." Rwsor. 
 Ote no persuasion &c.] A common ellipsis forOne that 
no persuasion &c. and so flae ancient copies redundantly read. 
t lVhich thou pourest dovon Jïrom these swelling heavens,] The 
defeet ofharmony in this line, induees me to suppose (with Sir 
T. Hanmer) that our author originally wrote-- 
Which thou pour'st down J'fore these two swelling heavens, 
meaning her two prominent lits. STVlS. 
 --afeelbtg disputation:] i.e. a eontest of sensibility, 
a reeiproeation in whieh we engage on equal terres. 

sc. ,. KING HENRY IV. 

Makes Welsh as sweet as ditties highly penn'd, 
Sung by a fair queen iii a sumnIe,"s bower,* 
With ravishing division, to lier lute? 
GrEV». Nay, ifyou melt, then will she run mad. 6 
[La@ M. speal,'s agabz. 
_MORT. O, I ara ignorance itself in this. 7 
GrE2v». She bids you 
Upon the wanton rushes lay you clown, s 

 8ung # a.fair queen &c.] Our author perhaps here in- 
tended a complime,t to Queen Eiizabeth, xvho was a performer 
on the lute and the virginals. See Sir James Melvil's curious 
account. 3l«moirs, folio, p. 50. MALov.. 
s IV#h ravishi,çg division, to ber hae.] This verse may serve 
for a translation of a line in Horace: 
"  grataque foeminis 
" hnbelli cithara carmina divides." 
It is to no purpose that you (Paris) please the women by 
singing " with ravishing division" to the harp. See the Com- 
mentators, and Vossius on Catullus, p. 2'»9. S.W. 
Divisions were very uncommon in vocal musick during the 
rime of Shakspeare. BURNEY. 
 Na/, iftjou melt, then will she run mad.] We might read, 
to complete the verse : 
Nag, iJ'9ou melt, why then will she run d. 
 O, I ara ignorance itselfin this.] Massinger uses the saine 
expression in The Unnatural Combat, 1639: 
" in this vou speak, sir, 
" I ara ignora,ce itselfl:." STEEVENSo 
" She bids you 
Upon the wanton rushes lay gou down,] It was the eustom 
in this country, for many ages, to strew the floors with rushes, 
as we now eover them with earpets. Jonssom 
It should have been observed in a note, that the old copies 
read on, not u2on. This slight emendation was rnade by Mr. 
I ana now, however, inelined to adhere to the original read- 
ing, and would print the line as it stands in the old eopy: 
She bids S/ou on the wanton rushes la 9 .you down. 

$ FIRST PART OF .«' «rr. 

And rest your gentle head upon her lap, 
And she will sing the song that pleaseth you, 
And on your eye-lids crown the god of sleep, 9 
Charming your blood with pleasing heaviness, 
Making such difference 'twixt wake and sleep, 1 

We have some other lines in these plays as irregular as this. 
We have ; but there is the strongest reason for supposing such 
irregularities arose from the badness of the playhouse copies, or 
the carelessness ofprinters. STEVEIS. 
9 And on your. eylids crown the god ofsleep,] The expression 
is fine ; intimatng, that the god of sleep should hOt only sit on 
his eyelids, but that ire should sit crowned, that is, pleased and 
delighted. WnRVrtTOr. 
The same inaage (whatever idea it was meant to convey) 
occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster: 
"  who shall take up his lute, 
" And touch it till he crown a silent sleep 
" Upon m.q eyelid." 
Again, in Chapman's version of the ninth Book of Homer't 
Odsse : 
"  Sleep, with all crowns crown'd, 
" Subdu'd the savage." SEvrs. 
The image i certainly a strange one; but I do hOt suspect 
any corruption of the text. Ïhe god of sleep is hOt only to sit 
on Mortimer's eyelids, but to sit crovoned, that is, with sovereign 
dominion. So, in Tvoelfth Night: 
" Him will I tear out of that cruel e2ye , 
" Where he sits crowned in his master's spite." 
Again, in out poet's 1 lth Sonnet: 
" Or whether doth my mind, being crown'd with you 
" Drink up the monarch's plague, this flattery ." 
Again, in Romeo and Juliet : 
« Upon his brow shame is asham'd to sit, 
« For 'tis a throne where honour may be crownd 
" Sole monarch of the universal earth." 
Again, in King Henr] V: 
" As if allegiance in their bosoms sat, 
" Crowned with faith and constant loyalty." 
t 3laking such diff'erence 'twixt wake and sleep,] She will 
lull you by her sonff into sort tranquillity, in which you shall be 
no near to sleep as to be free from perturbation, and so much 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV.  

As is the difference betwixt day and night, 
The hour before the heavenly-harness'd team 
Begins his golden progress in the east. 
ltlORT. With all my heart Fil sit, and hear her 
By that rime will our book, - I think, be drawn. 
GLE_TD. Do so ; 
And those musicians that shall play to you, 
Hang in the air a thousand leagues from hence ; 
Yet straight they shall be here : sit, and attend. 
HOT. Corne, Kate,thou art perfêct in lyingdown: 
Corne, quick,quick ; that I may lay my head in thy 
Lgr" P. Go, ye giddy goose. , 

GLENDOWER speaks some Welsh u, ords, 
and then the :Musick plad/s. 

HOT. Now I perceive,the devil understandsWelsh; 

awake as to be sensible of pleasure ; a state partaking of sleep 
and wakefulness, as the twilight of night and day. Joaso. 
  our book,] Out paper of conditions. JoI-xSOo 
 And those musicians that shallpla fo 31ou, 
Hang in the air a thousand leagues from hence ; 
Yet straight thet shall be here:] OEhe old copies//ndo 
Glendower had before boasted that he cou]d call sp]rits from . 
the vasty deep; he now pretends to equal power over the spir]t$ 
of the air. Sir, says he to Mortimer, and, by my power, you 
uhal[ have heavenly musick. The nmsicians that shall play to 
you, now hang in the air a thousand mlles from the earth : I will 
ummon them, and they shall straight be here. "And stra]ght" 
is thc reading of the most authentick copies, the quarto 1598 
and the folio 16o, and indeed of all the othcr aucicnt editions. 
Mr. Rowe first introduced the reading--t straight, which all 
the subsequent editors have adopted; but the change does hot 
eem ab»olutely nccesary. 


And 'ris no marvel, he's so humorous. 
By'r-lady, he's a good musician. 
LAgY P. Then should you be nothing but lnu- 
sical ; for you are altogether governed by lltllllOtirs. 
Lie still, ye thiel and hear the lady sing in Welsh. 

in Irish. 
tt o T. 

I had rather hear La@, tny brach, howl 

P. Would'st thou have thy head broken ? 
P. Then be still. 
Neither ; 'ris a woman's fault.  
P. Now God help thee[ 
To the Welsh lady's bed. 
P. What's that ? 
Peace ! she sings. 

 Neither ; 'ris a woman's fault.] I do hOt plalnly sec wha 
is a woman's fault. JosoN. 
If is a woman's ftult, is spoken ironically. Fnrtt. 
This is a proverbial expression. I find it in The Birth of 
]lerlin, 1662 : 
" ' Tis a woman's ftult : p-- of this bashfulness." 
Again : 
" A woman'sfault, we are subject to go to it, sir." 
Again, in Greene's Planetomachia, 1585: "--a woman's 
.faulte to thrust away that with ber little finger, whiche they 
pull to tbem with both their banals." 
I believe the meaning is this: Hotspur having declared h[s 
resolution neither to have lais head broken, nor to sit still, slily 
adds, that such is the usual fault of a woman ; i. e. never to do 
what they are bid or desired to do. STnvs. 
The whole tenor of Hotspur's conversation in this scene 
shows, that the sti|lness which he here imputes to wolnen as a 
fault, 'as something very differeut ri'oto silence; and that an 
idea was couched under thcse words, which may be better un- 
derstood than explained.He is still in the Welsh lady's bed- 
chanlber. W»Hx. 

sc. i. KING HENRY IV. s35 

.4 Welsh SONG sung by Lady M. 

HoT. Corne, Kate, l'Il have your song too. 
LADY _1 ). Not mine, in good sooth. 
HoT. Not yours, in good sooth! 'Hcart, yo.u 
swear like a comfit-maker's wifh! Not you, in 
good sooth ; and, As true as I live; and, as God 
shall mend me; and, As sure as day: 
And giv'st such sarcenet suret , for thy oaths, 
As if thou never walk'dst firtl'cr than Finsbury2 
Swear me, Kate, like a lady as thou art, 
A good mouth-filling oath; and leave in sooth, 
And such protest of peppcr-gingerbread,  
To velvet-guards,  and Sunday-citizcns. 
Corne, sing. 

» As if thou never oalk'dst .further than Finsburj.] Open 
walks and fields near Chiswell-street, London Wall, by Moor- 
gare ; the comnmn resort of the citizens, as appears ti'om many 
of out ancient comedies. I suppose the verse originally (but 
dliptically) tan thus : 
As thou ne'er walk'dst further than Finsbur. 
i. e. as thou ne'er &c. Swavys. 
  such protest pepper-gingerbread,] i. e. protestalions 
as common as the letters which children learn ri'oto an alphabet 
of ginger-bread. What we now call spice ginger-bread was then 
called pepper ginger-bread. STEEVES. 
Such protestations as are uttered by the maers ofgingerbread. 
Hotspur has just told his wife that she " svore like a eofit- 
maker's wife ;" such ?rotests therefore of pepper ginger-bread, a$ 
" in sooth," &c. were tobe leff to persons of that c]ass. 
  velvetuards,] To such as have the[r clothes adorned 
with shreds of velvet, which was, I suppose, the finery of cock- 
neys. Jonso. 
" The cloaks, doublets, &c. (says Stubbs, in his Anatomie ŒEE 
ASuses,) were guarded with velvet-guards, or else laced with 

L»r P. I will hOt sing. 
tir07 '. 'Tis the next way to turn tailor, or be red- 
breast teacheï.  An the indentures be drawn, l'Il 

costly lace." Speaking of women's gowns, he adds : th.y rtltlst 
be uardcd with gre..t .uards od[" v«lvet, every guard four or six 
fingers brod at the least." 
So, in The 31alco:tent, 106: 
" ¥ou are in good case since you came to court; garded, 
garde.; : 
« Yes, ttith, even footmen and bawds wear elvet.'" 
Veh,etuard appear, however, to have been a cityfashion. 
So in Histrio»,astix, 1610 : 
" Nay, I myself will wear the courtly grace : 
' Out on these velvet-.gtthrds, and blzck-lae'd sleeves 
« These sunp'ring fashions simply followed !" 
Again : 
" I like this jewel : I'I1 have his fell«w. 
«, How ?you ?what fellow it ?gip, velvet-guards 
To e.hetuards means, I believe, to tle higher ranlc of 
female dtzens, the wives of elther mercbmts or welthy shop- 
keepers. It appears from the followiilg in The Lodor 
Prodigal, 1605, that a uarded gown was the best dress of a 
dt./lady in the time oi r our uthor : 
« France. But, Tom, must I go as I do now, when I ara 
married ? 
" Cvet. No, Franke, l-l. e. Frances, l'll have thee go llke a 
ckizen, in a garded gown, and a French hood." 
Fynes Morison is still more exprcss to the saine poiilt, nd 
furnishes us with the best comment on the words before us. 
Describing the dress of the various orders of the people of Eng- 
land, he says, " At publie meetings the aldermen of London 
weere skarlet gownes, and their wfies a close gown of skarlet, 
with gardes of black veh,et. ITtN. fol. 1617, P. III. p. 179. 
Vol. ri. p. 900, Il. 6. M-ALONEo 
 --'Tis the next va?l to turn tailor, &c.] I sui)pose Percy 
means, that singing is a mean quality, and therefore he excuses 
his lady. JolaSo. 
The next way--is the nearest way. So, in Lingua, &c. 1607 : 
« The quadrature of a circle ; the philosopher's stone; aild the 
next way to the Indies." T«dlors sevm to have been as remark- 
able tbr singing, as teavers of whose musical turn Shakspeare. 

sc. i. KING HENRY IV. .s7 

away within these two hours ; and so corne in when 
ye will. Exit. 
Gr, END. Corne, corne, lord Mortimer; you are 
as slow, 
_As hot lord Percy is on tire to go. 
By this out book's drawn; v we'll but seal, and then 

bas more than once made mention. Beaumont and Fletcher, in 
The Knight of the Burning Pestle, speak of this quMity in the 
former: " Never trust a tailor that does hOt sing at his work; 
his mind is on nothing but filching." 
The Honourable Daines Barrington observes, tiret " a gol«l- 
.]ïnch still continues to be called a proud tailor, in some parts of 
England; (particularly Warwicksbire, Shakspeare's native 
county,) which renders this passage intelligible, that otherwise 
seems to have no meaning whatsoever." Perhaps this bird is 
called a proud tailor, because his plumage is varied like a suit of 
clothes ruade out of rernnants of different colours, such as a 
ailor might be supposed to wcar. The sense then xvill be this: 
--The next thing to singing oneself, is to teach birds to sing, th 
goldfinch and the robin. I hope the poet meant to inculcate, 
that singing is a quality destructive to its possessor; and that after 
a person has ruined himself by it, he may be reduced to the ne- 
cessity of instructing birds in an art which tan render birds alone 
more valuable. STEEVElgS. 
One instance may suffice, to shew that next has been r]ghtly 
interpreted: "  and when mattens was donc, the erles and 
the lordes went the next way to the deane's place to breckfast. » 
Ives's Select Papers, 4to. 177, p. 165. 
This passage bas been interpreted as if the latter member of" 
the sentence were explanatory of the former; but surely they 
are entirely distinct. The plain meaning is, that he who makes 
a common practice of singing, reduces himself to the condition 
e]ther of a tailor, or a teacher of musick to birds. That tailors 
were remarkable for singSg in out author's time, he has himself 
in['ormed us elsewhere : " Do you make an alehouse of my lady's 
bouse, (says Malvolio in Twel th.Nizht, ) that ye squeak out vour 
¢oziers » catches» wlthout any mtlgatmn or rcmorse of" voce ? 
  OUt book's drazon ;'l i. e. out articles. Every compo- 
zition, whether play, ballad, or history, was called a ook, on 
the registers of ancient publications. Sa'EEvs. 

To horse îmmediate]y. 


With ail my heart. 


London. _/1 Room in the Palace. 

Enter/G»g HENRY» P, ince of Wales, and Lords. 

I{. It'; Lords, give us leave; the Prince of 
Wales and I, 
Must have some conference: But be near af hand, 1 
:For we shall presently bave need of you.m 
[Exeunt Lords. 
I know hot vhether God will have it so, 
:For some displeasing service  I have donc, 
That in lais secret doom, out of my blood 
t-le'Il breed revengement and a scourge for me ; 
But thou dost, in thy passages of lire, a 
Make me believe,that thou art only mark'd 
For the hot vengeance and the rod of heaven, 
To punish my mis-treadings. Tell inc else, 
Could such inordinate, and low desires, 
Such poor, such bare, such lewd, such mean at- 

 3best bave some conference: But be near af hand,] The old 
copies redundantly readsome private conference ; but, as the 
Iords were dismissed on this occasion, they would naturally ilffer 
thatprivacj was the King's object. SXEEVES. 
 Fo»" some displeashg services] Service for actio», simply. 
•   in thTassages flife,] L e. in the passages of thy lire. 
--such lewd, swh mcan attempts,] lean attemTts , are 

xc. H. KING HENRY IV. s9 

Such barren pleasures, rude society, 
As thou art match'd withal, and grafted to, 
Accompany the greatness of thy blood, 
And hold their level with thy princely heart ? 
P. Heur. So please your majesty, I would, I could 
Quit ail offences with as clear excuse, 
As well as, I am doubtless, I can purge 
Myself of many I am charg'd withal ; 
Yet such extenuation let me beg,  
As, in reproof of many tales devis'd, 6- 
Which oft the car of greatness rreeds must hear,-- 
By smiling pick-thanks 7 and base newsmongers, 

nean, umoorth.,u undertakbzgs. Letod does not in this place 
barely signify wanton, but idle, ignorant, or licentious. So, Ben 
Jonson, in his Poetaster: 
" great actions may be su'd 
" 'Gainst such as wrong men's lames with verses lew& » 
And again, in t%lpone: 
"  they are most lewd impostors» 
" Made ail of terres and shreds." 
This epithet is likewise employed to describe a la# or an igno- 
rant character, as in the following instance 
" He spared nether lewde nor clerke." 
Romance of the Sowdon, &c. MS. 
The word is thus used in many of out ancient statures. 
s Yet such extenuation let me eg, &c.] The construction is 
omewhat obscure. Let me beg so much extenuation, that, upon 
¢odation  many false charges, I may be pardoned some that 
are true. I should read on repro instead of in repro; but 
¢oncerning Shakspeare's particles there is no certainty. 
 As, in reprooF  man tales devis'd,] ReTro  here means 
dispro M. Maso. 
:--p[c-tans--] l.e. oclous parasites. So, in the 
tragedy oç ariam 1613: 
" Base pick-tan devil--." SvNs. 
Again, in Euphues, 1587 : " I should seeme either to pice a 
thanke with mcn» or a qur¢l with women. 


I may, for some things true, wberein my youth 
Hath faulty wander'd and irregular, 
Find pardon on my true submission. 
lç tlz,v. God pardon thee'!yet let me wonder, 
At thy affections, which do hold a wing 
Quite fi'om the flight of ail thy ancestors. 
Thy place in council thou hast rudely lost,  
Which by thy younger brother is supplied ; 
And art ahnost an alien to the hearts 
Of all the court and princes of my blood : 
The hope and expectation of thy time 
Is ruin'd ; and the soul of every man 
Prophètically does fore-think thy fall. 
tIad I so lavish ofmy presence been, 
So common-hackney'd in the eyes of men, 
So stale and cheap to vulgar company ; 
Opinion, that did belp me to the crown, 
t-Iad still kept loyal to possession ; 
And left me in reputeless banishment, 
A fellow of no mark, nor likelihood. 
]3y being seldom seen, I could hot stir, 
But, like a cornet, I was wonder'd at: 
That men would tell thêir children, This is he; 

 ThIt place in com,cil thou hast rudelIt lost,'] The Prince 
removed from being President of the Council, immediately after 
he struck the judge. 
Out author bas, I believe, here been guilty of an anachronism. 
"The prince's removal ri'oto council in consequence of his striking 
the Lord Chier Justice Gascoigne, was some years afteï the 
battle of Shrewsbury (14.0S). His brother, Thomas Duke of 
Clarence, was appointed Presldent of the Council in his room, 
.and he was not created a duke till the 1Sth year of King 
}tenry IV. (111). MALO. 
 lo?}al to possession;'] True to him that had then 
session of the crown. 

sc. zz. KING ItENRY IV. s 

Others would say,m IVhere? which is Bollngbroke? 
And then I stole ail courtesy ti'oln heaven, L 
And dress'd myself in such humility, 

i And then I stoleall courtes9from heaven,] This is an allu- 
sion to the story of Prometheus's theft, whostolejçre ri'oto thenee; 
and as with this he ruade a man, so with that Bolingbroke ruade 
a king. As the gods were supposed jealous in appropriating 
reason to themselves,, the gettin gjqre from thenee, which .lighted. 
it up in the mmd, was called a theft; and as power ts ther 
prerogative, the getting courteç« 9 from thence, by.whieh power.. 
is best proeured, is called a theft. The thought lS exqmstely 
great and beautiful. 
Massinger has adopted this expressien in The great Duke eaf 
Florence : 
" Giovanni, 
«, A prince in expectation, when he liv'd here, 
" Stole courtesyfrom heaveu; and would not to 
« The meanest servant in my father's bouse 
" Have kept such distance." 
Dr. Warburton's explanation of this passage appears to 
,ery questionable. The poet had not, I believe, a flmught of' 
Prometheus or the heathen gods, nor indeed was courtesy (even 
understanding it to signify affability) the characteristic attri- 
bute of those deities.The meaning, I apprehend, is,I was 
so affable and popular, that I engrossed the devotion and reve- 
rence of ail men fo m.yself, and thus defrauded Heaven of its 
Courtesy may be here used for the respect and obeisance paid 
by an inferior to a superior. So, in this play: 
" To dog his heels and court'sri at his fl'OXqlS." 
In Act V. it is used ibr a respectful salute, in which sense 
was applied formerly to meu as well as women 
" I will embrace him with a soldier's arm, 
" That he shall shrink under my courtesq" 
Again, in the History of Edward IV. annexed to Hardynge's 
Chronicle, 15-:3: " which thyng ïl I could hax, e forsene,[ 
would never have wonne fle courtisies of men's knees with the 
loss of so many heades." 
This interpretation is strengthened by the two subsequent 
lines, which contain a kindred thought : 
" And dress'd myself in such humiliW, 
" That I did pluck allegiance from men's hearts. '» 

s2 FIRST PART OF Ac" ni. 

That I did pluck allegiance fi'om men's hearts,  
Loud shouts and salutations fi'Olll their mouths, 
Even in the presence of the crowned king. 
Thus did I keep my person fresh and new ; 
My presence, like a robe pontifical, 
Ne'er seen, but wonder'd at: 3 and so my state, 
Seldom, but sumptuous, showed like a feast ; 
And won, by rareness, such solemnity. 
The skipping king, he ambled up and down 
With shallow jesters, and rash bavin wits,  

I-Ienry, I think, means to say, that he robbed heaven of its 
oorshil9 , and the king of the allegiance of lais subjects. 
" That I did ilucl} allegiance from men's hearts,] Apparently 
eopied ri'oto Marlowe's L ust's Dominion, written belote 159: 
" The pope shall send his bulls through ail thy realm, 
" And pull obediencefrom th sub.jects' hearts." 
In another place, in the same play, we meet with the phrase 
used here: 
«  Then here upon my knees 
" I_pluck allegiance t¥om her." 
 Mg presence, like a robe ponti3çcal , 
Ne'er seen, but wonder'd at:] So, in our author's 5C2d 
" Or as the waïdrobe, which the robe doth hide, 
"' To make some special instant special-blest, 
« By new unfolding his imprison'd pride." MAror. 
 rash bavin wits,] Rash, is heady, thoughtless: bavin 
is brushwood, which, fired, burns fiercely, but is soon out. 
So, in lloiher Bombie, 159 : "/ains will have their flashes, 
and youth their fancies, the one as soon quenched as the other 
burnt." Again, in Greene's Never oo laie, 1606: " Love is 
]ike  bavin, but a b]ze." Svs. 
Rash is, I believe, j/îerce, violent. So, in King Richard 
" His rash tierce blaxe of riot cannot ]ast." 
In Shakspeare's rime bavin was used for Idndlin rires. Sec 
Florio's Second Frutes, 4fo. 1591, ch. i : " There s no 
Mak¢ a little blaze with a bavin.'" 

sc. t. KING HENRY IV. :,, 

Soon kindled, and soon burn'd: carded lais state  » 
Mingled lais royalty with capering Ibols ; 6 

s  carded his state; ] Dr. Warburton supposes that card- 
ed or 'scarded, (for so he would read,) means discarded, threw 
it off. 
The metaphor seems to be taken fi'om mingling coarse woo.1 
with 3çne, and carding them together, whereby the value of the 
latter is diminished. The King means, that Richard mingled 
and carded together his royal state with capering fools, &c. 
A subsequent part of the speech gives a sanction to this expla- 
" For thou hast lost thy princely privilege 
" With vile participation.'" 
To card is used by other writers for, to mix. So, in 
Tamer Tamed, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 
" But mine is such a drench of balderdash, 
" Such a strange carded cunningness." 
Again, in Greene's Quip for an upstart Courtier, 1620: 
" --you card your beer, (if you sec your guests begin to get 
drunk,) hall small, half strong," &c. Again, in Nashe's Havc 
«dth you to Sq[fron tValden, &c. 1596: "'--he being con- 
stralned to betake himself to carded aie." Shakspeare bas 
imilar thought in All's well that ends well: " The web of our 
lire is of a mingled yarn, good and ill together." The original 
hint for this note I received from Mr. Tollet. SEvss. 
Mr. Steevens very rightly supports the old reading. The 
word is used by Shelton, in lals translation of Don Quixote. The 
Tinker in the introduction to The Taming ojfte Shrew» was 
education a cardmaker. FAMert. 
To card does hot mean to mlx coarse wool with fine, as I1". 
]*CI. Mason has justly obseawed, but simply to work wool with 
¢ard or teazel, so as to prepare it for spinning. Maror. 
]3y carding his state, the King means that llls predecessor set 
lais consequence to hazard, played it away (as a man loses lais 
fortune) at car&. Rxxso. 
 caperingfools;] Thus the quarto, 1598, and rightly, 
I believe, because such a reading requires no explanation. The 
other copies, however, havecarping. STEEVENSo 
Carffn is jesting» prating» &c. This word had hot ye¢ 

t-Iad his great name profaned with their scorns; 

quired the sense whlch it bears in modern speech. Chaucer says 
ofhis IVife of Bath, Prol. 470: 
" In felawship wele could she laugh and carpe." 
The verb, to caT, is whlmsically used by Phaer in his version 
of the first Book of the ]-Eneid: 
" cithara crinitus Iolas 
" Personat aurata. 
" and on lals golden harp 
« Iopas with his bushie locks in sweete song gan to carpe." 
In the second quarto, printed in 1599, capering was ehanged 
into, and that word was transmitted through all the sub- 
.equent quartos. Henee, it is also the reading ofthe folio, whieh 
zppears to bave been printed from the quarto of 1618. Had all 
the quartos read calgering , and the folio carping, the latter read- 
ing might derive some strength from the authority of that copy; 
but the change having been made arbitrarily, or by chance, in 
1599, it has no pretensions of that kind. 
It raay be further observed, that " capering fools" were very 
proper eompanions for a « skilping king;" and that Falstaff in 
the second part of this play, boasts of his being able to calmer, as 
a proof of his youth: " To approve my youth further I will not; 
the truth is, I am old in judgment and understanding; and he 
that will Calmer with me for a thousand marks," &c. 
Carping undoubtedly might also have been used with pro- 
priety; having had in out author's time the saine signification as 
at present; though it bas been doubted, lX1insheu explains it in 
his Dlcr. 1617, thus: " To taunt, to find fault witl b or bite 
with words." 
It is obsewable tiret in the original copy the word catgring is 
exhibited without an apostrophe, according to the usual practice 
ofthat rime. S0, in Marlowe's Hero and Leander, 1598: 
" Whereat the saphir-visag'd god grew proud, 
O" ° 
" And made hi caïoring Triton sound aloud. 
The original readin.g is also strongly eonfirmed by Henry's de- 
scription of the caperiL.îbols , who, he supposes, will immedi- 
ately after his death flock round his son : 
" Now, neighbour confines, purge you of your scum ; 
' Have you a ruffian that will swear, drink, dance» 
" Revel the night, rob, murder, and commit 
« The oldest sin8 the newest kind ofway," 

sc. ct. KING HENRY IV. 


And gave his countenance, against his name, v 
To laugh at gibing boys, s and stand the push 
Of every beardless vain comparative :9 

A carper did hot mean (as bas been supposed) et Trating 
jester, but a cynical fellow. So, in Timon of Attens: 
' --Shame hot these woods 
" By putting on the cunning of a cartger." 
It cannot be supposed that the King meant to reproach tire 
luxurious Richard with keeping company with sour morose 
eynicks. MALO. 
 And gave his countenance, against his naine,'] Made his pre- 
sence injurious to his reputation. JoHaO¢. 
I doubt the proprtety of Johnson's explanation of this pas- 
sage ; and should rather suppose the meantng of it to be, "that 
he favoured and encouraged things that were contrary to his 
dignity and reputation." To countenance, or to give countenance 
to, are common expressions, and mean, toloatronize or encourage. 
M. Mnsor. 
Against his name is, I think, parenthetical. He gave hi 
countenance, (to the diminution of his naine or character,) to 
laugh, &c. In plain English, he lmnoured gibing boys with his 
¢ompany, and dishonoured himself by joining in their mirth. 
' 'o u  fSf 5o,] L e. ai the jests oç giMn boys. 
. Oever;. .  5ear. M. orHve. . .-] Oç.every, boy whose 
van,ty ,noted h,m to try h,s wt agamst the K,ng s. 
When Lewis XIV. was askcd, why, with so much wit, he 
never attempted raillery, he answered, that he who practised 
raillery ought to bear it in his turn, and that to stand _the butt 
of raillery was not suitable to the dignity of a king. • 'udery's 
Conversation. JorI,XSOr:. 
Comparath, e, I bclieve, [s equal, or rival in any thing; anti 
may therefore signify, in this place,every one who thought 
himself on a lcvcl with the Prince. So, in the second of T« 
_Four Plas in Ont, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 
« Gerrard ever was 
« His full comparalive." STEEVENS. 
I believe comparative means here, one who affccts wit, a 
dealer in comparisons: vhat Shakspeare calls, somewhere else, 
if" I remember right, a simile-monger. « The most comparative 
prince" has already occurred in the play belote us ; and the fol- 


Grew a companion to the common streets, 
Enfeoff'd himself to popularity :  
That being daily swallow'd by men's eyes,: 
They surfeited with honey; and began 
To loathe the taste of sweetncss, whereof a little 
More than a little is by much too much. 
So, when he had occasion to be seen, 
He was but as the cuckoo is in June, 
I-Ieard, uot regarded ; seen, but with such eyes» 
As, sick and blunted with community, 
Afford no extraordinary gaze, 
Such as is bent on sun-like majesty 
When it shines seldom in admiring.eyes : 
But rather drowz'd, and hung their eye-lids down, 
Slept in his face, and rcnder'd such aspéct 
As cloudy men use to their adversaries ; 

lowing passage in Love's Labour's Lost, is yet more apposite in 
zupport of this interprctation : 
«  The world's large tongue 
" Proclaims you for a man replete with mocks 
" Full of comTarisons , and wounding flouts." 
' Enfeoff'd hi,,,selfto popularitff:] .,To e'off is a law terre, 
signifying to invest with possession. So, in the old comedy of 
Wily Beguiled: " I protested to efio lier .in forty pounds a 
rear." TEEVESo 
Gave himself up aSsohttelff aud entirelff to popularity. AJëof- 
ment was the ancient mode of conveyance, by which ail lands in 
England were granted in fee-simple for several ages, till the con- 
veyance of Lease and Release was invented by Serjeant Moor, 
about the year 1630. Every deed of feofment was accompanied 
with liverff of seisin, that is, with the delivery o17 corporal pos- 
session or the land or tenement granted in fee. 
" That, being da.ily scallou'd by men's ejes,-] Nearly the same 
expression occurs in A Warningfor.faire lVomen, a tragedy, 1599 : 
" The people's ejes have 3'èd them with my sight." 
s_ As cloudy men use fo their adversaries;] Strada, in hi 


]3eing with his presence glutted, gorg'd, and full. 
And in that very line, Harry, stand'st thou : 
For thou hast lost thy princely privilege, 
With vile participation ; hot an eye 
But is a-weary of thy common sight, 
Save mine, which hath desir'd to see thee more 
Which now doth that I would not have it do, 
Make blind itself with foolish tenderness. 
P. Hv. I shall hereafter, my thrice-gracious 
]3e more myself. 
K. tic,v. For ail the world, s 
As thou art to this hour, was Richard then 
When I from France set foot at Ravenspurg ; 
And even as I was then, is Percy now. 
Now by my scepter, and my soul to boot, 
He hath more worthy interest to the state, 
Than thou, the shadow of succession :6 

imitation of Statius, describing tbe look thrown by the Gerlnan 
on his Portuguese antagonist, has the saine expression : 
" Lusiademçue tuens et amaro nubilus ores." 
* And in that very line, tlarry, stand'st thou:] So, in The 
3Vlerchant of Venice : 
" In this predieament, I say, thou stand'st." 
 For all the world,] Sir T. Hanmer, to eomplete the verse 
Harry, d'ôr all the world,. 
 He bath more worthy interest to the state, 
Than thou, the shadov of succession:] This is obscure. 
I believe the meaning isHotspur hath a right to the kingdom 
more worthy than thou, who hast only the shadowy right of 
lineal succession, while he has real and solid power. Joatso. 
Ratber,He botter deserves to inherit the kingdom than 
thyself, who art entitled by birth to that successiot of which 
thy vices tender thee unworthy. 


For, of no right, nor colour like to right, 
He doth fill fieids with harness in the realm ; 
Turns head against the lion's armed jaws ; 
And, being no more in debt to years than thou, 
Leads ancient lords and reverend bishops on, 
To bloody battles, and to bruising arms. 
What never-dying honour hath he got 
Against renowned Douglas ; whose high dceds, 
Whose hot incursions, and great name in arnls, 
Holds from ail soldiers chief majority, 
And military title capital, 
Through ail the kingdoms that acknowledge Christ 
Thrice hath this Hotspur Mars in swathing clothes, 
This infant warrior in his enterprizes 
Discomfited great Douglas: ta'en him once, 
Enlarged him, and ruade a fi'iend of him, 
To fill the mouth of de.op defianee up, 
And shake the peaee and safety of our throne. 
And what say y0u to this ? Perey, Northumberland, 
The arehbishop's graee of York, Douglas, Morti- 
Capitulate 7 against us, and are up. 

To have an interest fo any thing, is not English. If we read, 
He hath more worth interest in the state» 
the sense would be clear, and agreeable to the tenor of the test 
of the King's speech. 5I. 
I believe the meaning is only he hath more popularlty in the 
realm, more weight with the people, than thou the heir apparent 
to the throne. 
" From thy succession bar me father; I 
« Ana heir to my affection  
ays Florize], in The IVinter's Talc. 
We should now write--in the state, but tbere is no corruption 
in the text. So» in The IVinter's Talc: " --he is less ti'equent 
to his prineely exercises than formedy." 
 Capitulate--] i.e. make head. So, to articulate, in a 
ubsequent scene, is to form articles. 

sc. r. KING HENRY IV. 

But wherefore do I tell these news to thee ? 
Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, 
Which art my near'st and dearest 8 enemy ? 
Thou that art like enough,--through vassal fear, 
Base inclination, and the start of spleen,---- 
To fight against me under Percy's pay, 
To dog his heels, and court'sy at his frowns, 
To show how much degenerate thou art. 
P. HEur. Do not think so, you shall hot find it so; 
And God forgive them, that have so much sway'd 
Your majesty's good thoughts away fi'om me[ 
I will redeem all this on Percy's head, 
And, in the closing of some glorious day, 
Be bold to tell you that I am your son ; 
When I will wear a garment all of blood, 
And stain my favours in a bloody mask,ï 

Rather, combine, confederate, indent. To capltulate is fo dra 
tfl anj thing in heads or articles. Johnson's Dictionaryrso._ 
To capitulate, Minsheu explains thus: « per capita seu 
articulos pacisci;" and nearly in this sense, I believe, it is used 
here. The Percies, we are told by Walsingham, sent nbout 
letters containing three articles, or principal grievances, on which 
their rising was founded ; and to this perhaps out author alludes. 
•  dearest Deacest i most fatal, most mischievous. 
 And stain my favours n a bloody mask,'l We should read 
jCavour, i. e. countenance. 
aVavours are features. JoHso. 
I am hot certain that favours, in this place, means features, 
o that the plural xumber offavour in that sense is ever used. 
believefavours mean only some decoration usually worn by. 
knights in their helmets, as a present from a mistress, or a tro- 
phy from an enemy. So, afterwards, in this play: 
• ' Then let my favours hide thy mangled face "-» 
I'here the Prince must have meant his scarf. 
Again» in Heïwood's Ralae of Lucrece 1630; 


Which, wash'd away, shall scour my shame with it. 
And that shall be the day, whene'er it lights, 
That this saine child of honour and renown, 
This gallant Hotspur, this all-praised knight, 
And your unthought of Harry, chance to aneet : 
For every honour sitting on lais hehn, 
'Would they were multitudes ; and on my head 
Iy shames redoubled! for the time will corne, 
That I shall make this northern youth exchange 
His glorious deeds for my indignities. 
Percy is but my factor, good my lord, 
To engross up glorious deeds on my behalf; 
And I will call him to so strict account, 
That he shall tender every glory up, 
Yea, even the slightest worship of his time, 
Or I will tear the reckoning fi'om his heart. 
This, in the name of God, I promise here: 
The which if he be pleas'd I shall perform, 
I do beseech your majesty, may salve 
The long-grown wounds of my intemperance : 
If not, the end of life cancels ail bands ;  
And I will die a hundred thousand deaths, 
Ere break thc smallest parcel of this vow. 

" Aruns, these crimson.favours, for thy sake, 
" l'Il wear upon my forehead mask'd with blood." 

Steevens's explanation of tlis passage appears to be right. 
The word garrnent» in the preceding line, seems to confirm it. 
M. Msor¢. 

a cancels ail bands ;'1 i.e. bonds, for thus the word was 
anciently spelt. So, in The Coned¢ of Errors : 
" My toaster is arrested on a hand." 
Shakspeare has the same allusion in 3Iacbeth: 
" Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond," &e. 
Again, in Cymbeline: 
" And cancel these cold bonds." SV.EVZts. 

sc. lt. KING HENRY IV. 
K. Hzr. A hundred thousand rebels die in this :-- 
Thou shalt have charge, and sovereign trust,herein. 

Enter BLUNT. 

How now, good Blunt ? thy looks are full ofspeed. 
BLUNT. So bath the business that I corne to 
speak of. 2 
Lord Mortimer of Scotland hath sent word,S-- 
That Douglas, and the English rebels, met, 
The eleventh of this lnonth, at Shrewsbury : 
A mighty and a fearful head they are, 
If promises be kept on every hand, 
As ever offer'd foul play in a state. 
K. HE. The earl of Westmoreland set forth 
to-day ; 

 So bath the business that I corne to speak] So also the 
business that I corne to speak of, hath speed; i. e. requires im- 
mediate attention and dispatch. Mr. Pope changed bath to is, 
and the alteration has been adopted, in my opinion, unnecessa- 
rily, by the subsequent editors. 
-* Lord Mortlmer of Scotland bath sent word,] There was no 
such person as Lord _Mortimer of Scotland; but there was a 
Lord March of Scotland, ( George Dunbar,) who having quitted 
his own country in disgust, attached himseli" so warmly to the 
:English, and did them such signal services in their wars with 
Scotland, that the Parliament petitioned the King to bestow 
some reward on him. He fought on the side of Henry in this 
rebellion, and was the means of saving his lire at the battle of 
Shrewsbury, as is related by Holinshed. This, no doubt, was 
the lord whom Shakspeare designed to represent in the act of 
sending friendly intelligence to the King.Our author had  
recollection that there was in these wars a Scottish lord on the 
King's side, who bore the same title with the English family, on 
the rebel side, (one being the Earl of March in England, the 
other, Earl of March in Scotland,) but his memory deceived 
him as to the particular name which was common to both.- He 
took it to be .hlortimer insteaà of Match. 


With him my son, lord John of Lancaster ; 
For this advertisement is rive days old :- 
On Wednesday next, Harry, you shall set 
Forward ; on Thursday, we ourselves will march : 
Our meeting is Bridgnorth: and, Harry, you 
Shall march through Glostershire ; by which ac- 
Our business valued, some twelve days hence 
Our general forces at Bridgnorth shall meet. 
Our hands are iïlll of business : let's away ; 
Advantage feeds him fat,  while men delay. 


Eastcheap. A Room in the Boar's Head Tavern. 

nter Er.ST.'" and BmDOL'H. 

/raz. Bardolph, am I not fallen away vilely since 
this last action ? do I not bate ? do I not dwindle ? 
Why, my skin hangsabout me like an old lady'sloose 
gown;  I ara wither'd like an old apple-John. Wel], 
I'll repent, and that suddenly, while I ara in some 

* Advantagefeeds himfat,] i. e. fecds hhnself. Mazoxw. 
$o, in The Taming of the Shrew : 
« Who, for twice seven years, hath esteemed him 
« No better than a poor and loathsome beggar." 
s --?n skin hangs about me like an old lad's loose gown;] 
Pope has in The Dunciad availed himself of this idea : 
" In a dun night-gown of his own loose skin." 

sc. lit. KING HENRY IV. 353 

liking ;6 I shall be out of heart shortly, and then I 
shall have no strength to repent. An I have not for- 
gotten what the inside ofa church is made of, I ara 
a pepper-corn, a brewer's horse :7 the inside of a 
church !s Company, villainouscompany, hath been 
the spoil of me. 
Ban». 8if John, you are so fi'etful, you cannot 
lire long. 
Em:. Why, there is it :--colne, sing me a bawdy 

 whil« I ara in ome liking ;] While I have some flesh, 
some substance. We bave had well-liking in the saine sense in 
a former play. MAtogw. 
So in the Book of Job, xxxix. ; "their young ones are 
in good liking.'" Thus also P. Holland, in his translation of the 
eleventh Book of Pliny's Natural Histor/: "wheri they be 
well liking, the heart hath a kind of ï'at in the utmost tip 
thereof." Sçv.wvwxs. 
  a brewer' horse :] I suppose a brewer's horse was apt 
to be lean with hard work. Jonsom 
A brezoe/s horse does hot, perhaps, mean a dray-horse, but 
the cross-beam on which beer-barrels are earried into eellars» &c. 
The allusion may be to the taper form of this machine. 
A brewer's horse, however, is mentioned in Aristippus, or 
The Jovial Philosopher, 1630: "to think Helieon a barrel of 
beer, is as great a sin as to call Pegasus a brever', horse." 
The commentators seem hot fo be aware, that, in assertions 
of this sort, Falstaff does hot mean to point out any 
to his own condition, but, on the contrary, some striking 
militude. He says here, I ara a pepper-corn, a 5rewer's horse; 
just as in Act Il. sc. iv. he asserts the truth of several parts of 
his narrative, on pain of being considered as a rogue--a Jew-- 
an Ebrew ,lev--a bunch of raddish--a horse. TawmT. 
 the inside ofa church, rI The latter words (the inside 
o.f a church) were, I suspect, repeated by the mistake of the 
compositor. Or Falstaff may be here only repeating his former 
words--The inside of a church .twithout any connection with 
the words immediately preceding. My first conjecture appears 
Æo me the nost probable. M.AtONr. 
VOL, Xl, 2 A 

35¢ FIRST PART OF .4C'rlZt. 

song ; make me merry. I was as virtuouslygiven, 
as a gentleman need to be; virtuous enough- swore 
little ; diced, hot above seven tines a week ; went 
to a bawdy-house, hot abovc once in a quarter--of 
an hour ; paid money that I borrowed, three or four 
times ; lived well, and in good compass : and now 
I live out of all order, out of all compass. 
.BARD. Why, you are so fat, sir John, tiret you 
nmst needs be out of all compass; out of" all rea- 
sonable compass, sir John. 
Flm. I)o thou amend thy fitce, and l'll amend 
my lire : Thou art our admiral, 9 thou bearest the 
]antern in thc poop,--but 'ris in the nose of thee ; 
thou art the knight of the burning lamp. 
B,n. Why, sir John, my face does you no 

ç  Thou art out admiral, &c.] Decker, in lais IIronde.Tïd 
Yeare, 1605, has the saine thought. He is describingthe Host 
of a country inn : « An antiquary might have pickt rare matter 
out of his nose.The Hamburgers offcred I know hot how 
manv dollars for his companie in an Est-Indian voyage, to have 
,tooile a nightes in the Poope OE 1heir 3dmirall, onelff to ,ave 
the chaes candles.'" 'rEEVENS. 
This appears to have been a very old joke. So, in A Dialue 
loth pleasaunt and pietdl, &e. by Wm. Bulleyne, 156: 
" Marie, this friar, though he did rise to the quere by dareke 
night, he needed no eandel], his nose wos so redd and brighte; 
znd although he had but little money in store in his purse, yet 
his nose and cheeks were well set wlth eurral and rubies." 
' the kdght  the burning lamp.] This is a natural 
pieture. Every man who fee]s in himself the pain of deformity, 
however, like this merry knight, he may affeet to make sport 
with it among those whom it is his interest to please, is ready to 
revenge any hint of eontempt upon one whom he ean use with 
fi'eedom. Jonso. 
T:estle, are both. names, invented with a design to ridicule the 
tles ofheroes m ancrent romances. Sxzvgs. 


F«IL. No, l'Il be sworn ; I make as good use of 
it as lnany a man doth of a death's head, or a 
nemento mori: I never sec thy face, but I think 
upon hell-fire, and Dives that lived in purple ; for 
there he is ,n his robes, burning, burning. If 
thou wert any way given to virtuc, I would swear 
by thy face ; lny oath should be, By this tire : but 
thou art altogether given over; and wert indeed, 
but for the light in thy face, the son of utter dark- 
ness. When thou ran'st up Gads-bill in the night 
to catch my horse, if I did hot think thou hadst 
been an ignis Jàtuus, or a ball of wildfire, there's 
no purchase in money. O, thou art a perpetual 
triumph,  an everlasting bonfire-light! Thou hast 
saved me a thousand marks in links and torches,  

" B,! this tire :] Here the quartos 1fi99 and 1609 very 
profanely aî|d:'hat's God's angeL This passage is perhaps 
alluded to in Histriomastix, 1610, where Asinius says: " By 
this candle (which is none of God's angels) I remember you 
started back at sprite and flame." llr. Henley, however, ob- 
serves, tht " by the extrusion of the words now omitted, the 
intended antithesis is lost." STEEVErS. 
  thou art a perletual triumph,] So, in King Henry 
Part II I : 
" And what now tests but that we spend the rime 
" With stately triumphs, mirthful eomick shows, 
" Such as befit the pleasures of the court." 
A triumloh wC a general ter,,, Ibr any public exhibition, such 
as a royal marriage, a grand proeession, &c. &c. which eom- 
monly being at night, were attended by multitudes of torch- 
bearers. STEEVENSo 
* -- Thou hast saved me a thousand mar]s &c.] This pas- 
sage stands in need of no explanation ; but I cannot help seizing 
the opportunity to mention that in Shakspeare's time, (long 
belote the streets were illuminated with lamps,) candles and 
lanthorns to let, were cried about London. So, in Decker's 
Satiromastix : "--dost roar ? thou hast a good rouncival voice 
to cry lantern and candle light." Again, in Heywood's 
qfLucrece, among the Cries ofLondon: 


walking with thee in file night betwixt tavern and 
tavern : but the sack that thou hast drunk me, 
would have bought me lights as good cheap,  at the 
dearest chandler's in Europe. I have maintained 
that salamander ofvourswith, fire, any rime this two 
and thirty years ; Heaven reward me for it! 
BnnH. 'Sblood, I would my face were in your 
belly ! 
'AL. God-a-mercy! so should I be sure to be 

" Lanthorn and candlelight here, 
" Maid ha' light here. 
" Thus go the cries," &e. 
Again, in Kiug Edward IV. 166 : 
" No more calling of lanthorn and candlelight.'" 
Again, in Pierce Pennless's Supplication fo the Devil, 159 : 
" It is said that you went up and down London, erying like 
a lantern and candle man. » TEEVE_N'So 

 good cheap,] Cheap is market, and good chea]o there- 
tbre is a bon marchL 

So, in Friar Bacon and Frîar Bungay, 1599: 
" If this weather hold, we shall have hay good cheao." 
Ag.'fin in the anonymous play of Ki»g Henry 
' Perhaps thou may'st agree better chea] now." 
_&nd again, in these two proverbs : 
" They buy good cheap that bring nothing home." 
" He'll ne'er have thing good chea] that's afraid to ask 
the priee." 
Cheap (as Dr. Johtason has observed) is undoubtedly an old 
word tbr market. So, in the aneient metrieal romataee of Sur 
Bevs of Hampton, bi. 1. no date : 
" Tvll he came to the chel»e 
" TÏaere he founde many men ofa hepe." 
From this word, ast-cheaï, Chep-stovo, Cheal-side  &c. are 
derived; indeed a passage that follows in Syr Be'.s may seem 
to fix the derivation of the latter : 
" So many talen was dead, 
« £he Cheoe s.tde was of blode red." 

sc. IxI. KING HENRY IV. s57 

Enter Hostess. 

How now, dame Partlet « the hen ? have you in- 
quired yct, who picked my pocket ? 
Hos. Why, sir John! what do you think, sir 
John ? Do you think I keep thieves in my house ? 
I have searched, I bave inquired, so bas my hus- 
band, man by man, boy by boy, servant by servant: 
the tithe of a hair was never lost in my house be- 
FAL. You lie, hostess; Bardolphwas shaYed, and 
lost many a hair : and Pli be sworn, my pocket was 
picked : Go to, you are a woman, go. 
HOST. Who I ? I defy thee : I was noyer called 
so in mine own bouse beibre. 
FL. Go to, I know you well enougi. 
HOST. No, sir John ; you do hOt know me, sir 
John : I know you, sir John : you owe me money, 
sir John, and now you pick a quarrel to beguile 
me ofit: I bought you a dozen of shirts to your 
FAL. Dowlas, filthy dowlas : I bave given them 
away to bakers' wives, and they have ruade bolters 
of them. 
HO,T. Now, as I ara 3 true woman, holland of 
e!ght shillings an ell. You owe money here besides, 
sr John, for your diet, and by-drinkings, and lnO- 
ney lent you, four and twenty pound. 

«--dame Partlet--] Dame Partlet is the naine of file 
hen in the old story-book ofRejnard the Fox: and in Chaucer's 
tale of The Cock and t],e Fox, the favourite hen is called dame 
Pertclote. S'vNs. 


AL. He had his part of it ; let him pay. 
tlosT. He ? alas, he is poor ; he hath nothing. 
F,,IL. How! poor? look upon his face; What eall 
you rich ?7 let them coin bis nose, let them coin 
his ebeeks ; l'Il not pay a denier. What, will you 
make ayounker of me ?8 shall I hot take mine case 
in mine inn, but I shall have my poeket picked ?9 

  What call you rich?] A face set with carbuncles is 
called a rich face. Legend of Calot. Jones. Jonso. 
  a younker of me ?] A ounker is a novice, a young 
inexperienced man easily gulled. So, in Gascoine's Glassr 
Government, 1575 : 
« These onkers shall pay for the rost." 
Sec Spenser's Eclogue on May, and Sir Tho. Smith's Common- 
tvealth OEE»gland, Book I. ch. xxiii. 
Th contemptuous distinction is likewise verycommon in the 
old plays. Thus, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Elder Brother: 
" I fear he'll make an ass of me, a onker.'" 
I learn, however, from Smith's Sea-Grammar, 1627, (tbere 
was an earlier edition,) that one of the senses of the term 
y]ou»ker, was " the young men" employed " to take in the top- 
sailes." They are mentioned as distinct characters ri'oto the 
sailors, who " are the ancient men for hoising the sailes," &c. 
 slmll I hot fake ffne case in mine inn, but I shall 
]tare nocket picked?] There is a peculiar force in these 
woroE. To take ine case in mine inne, ws an ancient pro- 
• erb, not very different in its application from that maxim, 
" Every man's house is his castle ;" for inne originnlly signified 
a bouse or abitation. [Sax. inne, domus, domi«ilium.] When 
the word inne began to change its meaning, nd fo be used to 
signify a bouse  entertainment, the proverb, still continuing 
in force, was applied in the latter sense, as it is here used by 
8hakspeare : or perhaps Falstaff here humor»us]y puns upon the 
word inne, in order to represent the -rong donc hiln more 
In 3ohn Iteywood's lVorks, imprinted at London, 1598, 
quarto, bi. 1. is " a dialogue wherein are pleasantly contrived 
the mmaber of all the eflèctual proverbs in out English tongue, 
&c. together with flree hundred epigrams on flaree hundred 
proverbs." In ch. i. is the following : 


I have lost a seal-ring of my grandfathcr's, worth 
forty mark.  
HOST. 0 Jesu! I bave heard the prince tell bi:n, 
I know hOt how oft, that that ring was copper. 
'L. How ! the prince is a Jack,: a sneak-cup ; 

" Resty welth willeth me the widow to winne, 
" To let the world wag, and lake mine ease in mine inne." 
And among the epigrams is : [-'26. OfEase b, an Inne.] 
" Thou takest thine ease in îhine inne so nye thee, 
" That no man in his inne can take ease by thee." 
Otherwise : 
" Thou takest tldne ease in tldne inne, but I see, 
" Thine inne taketh neither ease nor profit by thee." 
Now in the first of these distichs the word imze is used in 
ancient meaning, being spoken by a person who is about to 
marry a widow ibr the sake of a home, &c. In the two last 
places, inne seems to be used in the sense it bears at present. 
Gabrlel Harvey, in a MS. note to Speght's Chaucer, say.% 
" Some o Heywood's epigrams are supposed to be the conc2 ts 
and devices of pleasant sir Thomas More." 
Inne, for a habitation, or a recess, is f'requentlv used by 
Spenser, and other ancient writers. So in A Wor'ld toss'd af 
Tennis, 1560: " These grcat rich men must take their ease la 
their inn." Again, in Greene's Farewell fo Follie, 1617 : " The 
beggar Irus that hauuted the palace of Penelope, would taire his 
ease in his inne, as well as the peers of Ithaca." STnEVEUS. 
• I believe inns differed ri'oto castlcs, in hot beilg of so much 
consequence and extent, and more particularly in not being for- 
tified. So inns of" court, and in the universities, before the 
endowment of colleges. Tlms, Trinity college, Cambridge, was 
ruade out of and built on the site of several inns. LORT. 
t et seal-ring offre?! xrand.fatl«r's, worth forty mark.] 
This seems to bave been the usual price of such a ring about 
Falstaff's rime. In the printed Bolls o.f Parliament, Vol. VI. 
p. 1¢0, we meet with « A signet ofgold, to the value of" XL 
marcs." I{ITSON. 
  tlte prince is a Jack,] Thls term of contempt occurs 
frequently in our author. In Tle Tambg ofthe Shrew, Katha- 
fine calls her musick-mastcr, in derision, a trangling Jacl,'. 

s6o FIRST PART OF .4cr ili. 
and, if he were bore, I would cudgel him like a 
dog, if he wouhl say so. 

Enter Prince HENRY a»d POlNS, nrchi»g. EL- 
ST.«r nzeets the Prince, plmding on his truncheon, 
l i k e aille. 

l'AL. How now, lad ? is the wind in that door, 
i't)ith ? must we all march ? 
BIR». Yea, two and two, Newgate-fashion ?3 
HosT. My lord, I pray you, hear me. 
P. Hx. What sayest thou, mistress Quiekly ? 
How does thy husband ? I love him well, he is an 
honest man. 
-HosT. Good my lord, hear me. 
/A. Pr'ythee, let her alone, and list to me. 
P. Ha . What sayest thou, Jack ? 
F.4L. The other night I fell asleep here behind 
the arras, and had my pocket picked : this house is 
turned bawdy-house; they pick pockets. 
P. H. What didst thou lose, Jack ? 
/AL. Wilt thou believe me, Hal ? three or four 
bonds of forty pound a-piece, and a seal-ring of my 
P. Hz". A trifle, s.ome eight-pelmy matter. 

This term is likewise met with in Coriolanus, The Blerchant 
o.f Venice, Cymbeline, &c. &c. but is still so much in use, as 
8carcely to need exmaplification. Sv.v.ves. 
 ]Vetgate-fashion.] As prisoners are conveyed to New- 
gare, fastened two and two together. Jonsor. 
8o in Decker's Satiromasti«, 1601 : " Vfhy then coin,e; 
we'll walk arm in arm, as though we were leading one another 
to Nergate." Rv.,. 

sc. x±. KING HENRY IV. $61 

HOST. So I told him, lny lord; and I said, I 
heard your grace say so" And, my lord, he speaks 
most vilely of you, like a foul-mouthed man as he 
is; and said, he would cudgel you. 
P. HÆ,v. What ! he did not? 
HosT". There's neither faith, truth, nor woman- 
hood in me else. 
T';. There's no more faith in thee than in a 
stewed prune ; nor no more truth in thee, than in 

4 There's no norefaith in thee than in a stewed prune; &c.] 
"ïhe propriety of thcse similes I ara hot sure that I fully under- 
• tand. A stevedl»'une bas the appearance of a prune, but has 
no taste. A drawn fox that is an exenteratedfox, has the 
form of a ibx without his powers. I think Dr. Warburton's 
explication wrong, whlch makes a drawnfox to mean, a fox 
J'ten hunted; though to draw is a hunter's term for pursuit by 
the track. My interpretation makes the fox suit better to thc 
prune. These are very slender disquisitions, but such is the 
task ofa commentator. Joxsor. 
Dr. Lodge, in his pamphlet called ll'it's 3liserie, or the 
]Iadnesse, 1596, describcs a bawd thus : « This is shee that laies 
wait at ail the carriers for wenches new corne up to London ; and 
you shall know her dwelling by a dish of stewed prunes in the 
window; and two or three fleering wenches sit knitting or sow- 
ing in her shop." 
In 3leasurefor )Ieasure Act II. the maie bawd excuses him- 
sdf for having admitted Elbow's wife into his house, by saying, 
« that she came in great with child and longing for stewed 
Trunes, which stood in a dish," &e. 
Slender, in The Ierry IVives of lTndsor, who apparently 
wishes to recommend hîmself to his mistress by a seeming pro- 
pensity to love as well as war, talks of having measured weapons 
with a fencing-master t'or a dish of stewed prunes. 
In another old dramatic piece entitled, /f this be hot a good 
391a./the Devil is in if, 1612, a bravo enters with money, and 
says, " This is the pension of the stewes, you need hot untie it; 
'ris stew-money, sir, steved prune cash, sir." 
Among thc other sins laid to the charge of the once celebrated 
Gabriel Harvey, by his antagonist, Nash, « tobe drunk with 
the sirrop or liquor of steoed prunes," is hot the least insisted on. 
Again» in Decker's Honest tYhore» P. IL 1630: « Peace! 

562 FIRST PART OF ,crzz. 

a drawn fox ; and for womanhood, maid Marian 

two dishes ofsteedIrunes, a bawd and a pander !" Again, in 
Northward Hoe, by Decker and Webster, 1607, a bawd says, 
« I will bave but six stewed prurres in a disll, and some of mother 
Wall's cakes; for my best customers are tailors. » Again, in The 
Noble Strarrger, 16çO: " to be drunk with cream and 
stezed prunes! Pox on't, bawdy-house rare. » Again, in 
Deckcr's Sec'en deadlff Sinncs of Lo»clon, 1606; " Nay, the 
sober Perpetuana-suitcd Puritane, that dares not (so much as by 
rnoone-light) corne neare the suburb shadow of a hottse where 
they set steved 1mines .bef°re. -.Y°U'. rap.s as bohlly at the batch, 
when he knows Candlehght m wtthm» as if he were a new chosen 
The passages already quoted are suff]clent to show that a disl 
of steeed prunes was hot only the ancient designation of a 
brothel but the constant appendage to it. 
From A Treatise on the Lues Venerea, written by V. Clowes, 
one of her majesty's surgeons, 1596, and other books of the 
same kind it appears that prunes werc directed to be boiled in 
broth for those persons already infected; and that both stewed 
rUnes and roasted apples were commonly, though unsuccess- 
lly taken by way of prevention. So much for the infidelity 
of stewed l)runes. S.vs. 
lIr. Steevens has so fully discussed the stalaject of steeed 
run¢s that one can add nothing but the price. In a piece 
called BaM's's Bay Horse in a Trance, 1593, we have " a stock 
of wenches, set up with their steeed l»'u:es nine for a tester.'" 
s  a draonfox;] A drawt fox may be a fox drawn over 
the ground to exercise the hounds. $o, in Beaunmnt and 
Fletcher's Tamer Tamed: 
" -- that dravn fox Moroso. » 
Mr. Heath observes, that " a fox drawn over the ground to 
leave a scent and exercise the hounds nmy be said to have no 
truth in it because it deceives the hounds who run with the 
saine eagerness as if they were in pursuit of a real fox." 
I ara not, however confident that this explanation is right. It 
was formerly supposed that ajbx, when drawn out of his ho]e, 
had the sagacity to counte2feit death, that he might tbereby ob- 
tain an opportunity to e$cape. For this information I ara in- 
debted to Ml'. Tollet, who quotes Olaus 3lagnus, Lib XVIII. 
cap. xxxix: Insuperfin,et se mortuam «c. This particular 
and nmny others relative to the subtility of the fox, bave bee 
translated by several ancient English writers. 

may be the deputy's wife oi" the ward fo thee. n 
Go, you thing, go, 

 maid Marian may be &c.] l'llaM 3larlan is a man 
dressed like a voman, who attends the dancers of the morris. 
In the ancrent Sogs of Robin Hoodçrequcnt mention s ruade 
of maid 3larian, who appears to have been his concubine. I 
could quote many passages in my old MS. to this purpose» but 
hall produce only one: 
" Good Robin Hood was living then, 
" Which now is quite forgot, 
" And so was fayre maM marian,'" &c. 
It appears from the old play of "l'he Downfall of Robert Earl 
of Huntington, 1601, that maid larian was originally a naine 
assmned by lIatilda the daughter or" Robert Lord Fitzwater» 
hile Robin Hood remained in a state of outlawry: 
" Next 'ris agçeed (ittherto shee agree) 
" That faire llatihla henceforth change her naine; 
" And while it is the chance of Robin Hoode 
" To lire in Sherewodde a poor outlawes lit'e» 
" She by maide 1Iarian's nmne be only call'd. 
" Mat. I am contented ; reade on, little John : 
" Henceforth let me be nam'd maide larian." 
This lady was poisoncd by King John at Dunmow Priory» 
after he had ruade several fi'uitless attempts ou her chastity. 
Drayton has written her legend. 
Shakspeare speaks ofmaid .[arian in her degraded state, when 
she was represented by a strumpet or a clown. 
See Figure 2, in the plate at the end of this play, with iIr. 
Tollet's observation on it. Sa'nvns, 
]Iaid ;ffarian seems to have bcen fle lady ot  a Whitsun-ali, 
or morris-dance. The \Vidow, in Sir W. D' Ævenant's Love and 
ltonour, (p. ¢4,7,) savs: " I have been _Iistress l'tlarian in a 
laurice ere now." Morris is, indeed, there spelt wrong; the 
dance was not so called ri'oto prince 1Iaurice, but ri'oto the 
Spanish morisco, a dancer of the morris or moorish dance. 
There [s an old plece entit|ed, Old lleg of tlerefords£ire for 
a Mayd-Marian 
lllorris-danccrs in HerefordsMre qf 1°00 Years old. Lond. 
1609 quarto. It is dedicated to one HalI a celebrated Tabouret" 
in that country. T. 

56 FIRST PART OF acr zzl. 

IYosT. Say, what thing ? what thing ? 
F.4L. What thing ? why, a thing to thank God 
HOST. I am no thing to thank God on, I would 
thou should'st know it; I ana an honest man's 
vife: and, setting thy knighthood aside, thou art 
a knave fo call me so. 
ff, jr,. Setting thy womanhood aside, thou art a 
beast to say otherwise. 
HOST. Say, what beast, thou kna' thou ? 
,/ar. What beast ? why an otter. 
P. tlEv. An otter, sir John  why an otter ? 
FL. Why ? she's neither fish, nor flesh ; a man 
knows not where to bave her. 
HOST. Thou art an unjust man in saying so; thou 
or any man knows where to have me, thou knave 
thou ! 
P. HEnry. Thou sayest trte, hostess; and he slan- 
ders thee most grossly. 
HOST. So he doth you, my lord; and said this 
other day, you ought him a thousand pound. 
P. HFr. Sirrah, do I owe you a thousand pound? 
/r. A thousand pound, Hal ? a million: thy 
love is worth a million ; thou owest me thy love. 
HOST. Nay, my lord, he called you Jack, and 
said, he would cudgel you. 
Fr. Did I, Bardolph ? 
.B.4RD. Indeed, sir John, you said so. 
FL. Yea; if he said, my ring was copper. 

ç, zor.flesh;] So, the proverb: "Neither 
.fish norJtesh, nor good red herring. » Sx,v.VV.lZ. 


P. HEur. I say, 'tis copper: Darest thou be as 
good as thy word now ? 
2VAL. Why, Hal, thou knowest, as thou art but 
man, I tiare: but, as thou art prince, I fear thee, 
as I £ear the roaring of the lion's whelp. 
P. HEur. And why not, as the lion ? 
_}7'ALo The king himself is to be feared as the 
lion: Dost thou think, Fil fear thee as I fear thy 
father? nay, ail I do» I pray God, my girdle break! 8 
2 9. HEur. O, if it should, how would thy guts fall 
about thy knees! But, sirrah, there's no room for 
faith, truth, nor honesty, in this bosom of thine ; 
it is filled up with guts, and midrifl: Charge an 
honest woman with picking thypocket! Why, thou . 
whoreson, impudent, embossed rascal, 9 if there 
were any thing in thy pocket but tavern-reckon- 

S--I pray God, ,y girdle brea!] Alluding to the old 
adage--" ungirt, unblest." Thus, m The Phantastick Age» 
bl. l. an ancient ballad : 
" Ungirt, unblest, the proverbe sayes; 
« And they, to provc it right, 
" Have got a thshion now adayes 
" That's odious to the sight ; 
« Like Frenehmen, all on points they stand, 
" No Mrdles now thev wear," &e. 
Perhaps this ludmrous lmpreeatmn ls proverbml. So, in 'Tic 
nerrj when Gossips meet, a poem, 4to. 1609: 
" How say'st thou, Besse? shall it be so, gifle ? speake: 
" If I make one, pra]] God m.,u girdle break!" 
This wlsh had more force formerl:¢ than at present, it being 
once the eustom to wear the purse hanging by the girdle; so that 
.;ts breaking, if hot observed by the wearer, was a serious 
matter. 3{nLONE. 
: --impudent, embossed rascal,] Embossed is swoln, puffy. 
So, in I)'g Lear : 
" A plague-sore, or «mosed carbuncle." $,v's. 


ings, lnemorandums of bawdy-houses, and one 
poor penny-worth of sugar-candy to nlake thee 
long winded; if thy pocket were enriched with any 
other injuries but these, I an a villain2 And yet 
you will stand toit; you will hot pocket up 
wrong:  Art thou hot asha|ned ? 
/,r. Dost thou hear, Hal ? thou knowest, in 
the state ofilmocency, Adam fell; and what should 
poor Jack I alstaffdo, in the days of villainy ? Thou 
seest, I have more flesh than another man; and 
therefore more frailty.------You confess then, )'ou 
picked my pocket ? 
P. Hzv. It appears so by the story. 
/,r. Hostess, I forgire thee: Go, make ready 
breakfitst ; love thy lmsband, look to thy servants, 
cherish thy guests: thou shalt find me tractable to 
anyhonest reason" thou seest, I am pacified.Still ? 
Nay, pr'ythee, be gone. [Exit Hostess.] Now, 
Hal, to the news at court : lbr the robbery, lad,-- 
tIow is that answered ? 
P./-I.',: O, mv sweet beef, I must still be good 
mlgel to thce :'])he money is paid back again. 
1;'AL. O, I do hot like that paying back, 'tis a 
double labour. 
_l 9. t-lE.v. I ana good fricnds with my father, and 
may do any thing. 

  i.f th.q 1)ocket toere eniched rith anyother injuries but 
these, &c.] As the l»ocketbç  ijuries ws a common phrase, 
 uEpose, the Prince calls the contents of Falstaff's pockct 
urtes. STEEVENS. 
 OU u'ill otpocet up orog:] Some part of this merry 
dialogue seems to bave becn lost. I suppose Falstaff in pressing 
the robbery upon his hostess, had declared his resolution hot to 
poc'et up wro»gs or iuries, to Mfich the Prince alludcs. 

sc. 1ii. KING HENRY IV. $67 

FIL. Rob me the exchequer the first thing thou 
doest, and do it with unwashed hands too? 
.BAnD. Do, my lord. 
P. Hz.: I have procured thec, Jack, a charge 
of foot. 
FAL. I would, it had been of horse. Where 
shall I find one that can steal well ? 0 for a fine 
thief, of the age oftwo and twenty, or thereabouts! 
I am heinously unprovided. Well, God be thanked 
tbr these rebels, they offend none but the virtuous ; 
I laud them, I praise them. 
P. Hz.: Bardolph---- 
BAn». My lord. 
P. He.v. Go bear this letter to lord John of 

  do if with unwashed hands too.] i. e. do it immediately, 
or the first thing in the morning, even without staying to wash 
your hands. 
So, in The 3Iore the 3Ierrier, a collection of Epigrams, 160S: 
« as a sehool-boy dares 
' Fall to ere wash'd his hands, or said his prayers." 
Perhaps, however, Falstaff alludes to the aneient adage : 
lllotis manibus tractare sacra. I find the smne expression in 
Acolastus, a comedy, 1540: " Why be tbese holy thynges to be 
medled with with unwashed hands?" STEEVENSo 
I cannot accede to this explanation. It appears to me, that 
Falstaff means to say, do it without retractbçff, or reloenting off 
it. When a man is unwilling to engage in a business proposed 
o him, or to go all lengths in ît, it is a comnon expression to 
say,l wash raff hands of it; and in the Gospel of St. 3Iatthew, 
we find that when Pilate was forced to condemn Christ by the 
tumult of the nmltitude, " he took water, and washed his hands, 
saying, I ana innocent of the blood of this just person." And 
m Rbtg Richard IIL the second Murderer says: 
" a bloody deed ! 
" How fain, like Pilate, would I wash raff hands 
« Of this most grievou» guilty murder done." 


My brother John; this to my lord of Westmore- 
Go, Poins, to horse, « to horse ; for thou, and I, 
Have thirty mlles to ride yet ere dînner time.----- 
Meet me to-morrow i'the Temple-hall 
At two o'clock i'the afternoon : 
There shalt thou know thy charge; and there re- 
Money, and order for their furniture. 
The land is burning ; Percy stands on high ; 
And either they, or we, lnust lower lie. 
[Exeunt Prince, POINS, and BARDOLPH. 
FAL. Rare words! brave world!Hostess, 
my breakfast ; COlne :-- 
O, I could wish, this tavern were my drum. [Exit. 

*  Poins, to horse,] I cannot but think that Peto is again 
put for Poins. I suppose the old copy had only a P-----. We 
have Peto afterwards, not riding with the Prince, but Lieu- 
tenant to Falstaff. Jonrsor. 
I have adopted Dr. Johnson's emendation. STEEVENS. 
The old copies read--Go, Peto, to horse. In further support 
of Dr. Johnson's emendation, it ma), be observed, that Poins 
suits the mette of the line, which would be destroyed by a word 
oftwo syllables. 'IALONE. 





The Rebel Camp near Shrewsbury, 

.Enter HOTSPUIt, WORCESTER, and Doul.s. 

HoT. Well said, my noble Scot: If speaking 
In this fine age, were not thought flatter3r, 
Such attribution should the Douglas » have, 
As not a soldier of this season's stamp 
Should go so general eurrent through the world, 
]3y heaven, I eannot flatter; I defy 
The tongues of soothers ;6 but a braver place 
In my heart's love, hath no man than yourself« 
Nay, task nie to the word : approve me, lord. 
Dova. Thou art the king of honour : 
No fflall SO potent breathes upon the ground, 
But I will beard himd 

 --the Douglas--] This expression is frequent in Holln- 
hed, and is always applied by way of pre-eminence to the head 
of the Douglas family. Sa'EEVES. 
 I deçy 
The tongues o.f soothers;] To defj mcans here to «lisdain. 
 But Iwill beard him.] To beard is fo opposejeace toface in 
a hostile or daring nmnner. So, in Drayton's odfCnthia: 
,« That it with woodbine durst compare 
" And beard the eglantine." 
Again, in l]Iacbeth : 
"  met them dareful, beard to beard. ' 
.Again, in Chapman's version of the first Iliad: 
"  or in this proud kind bear 
" Their beards against me." 
Thls phrase, which soon lost its or]giriaI sgnificatlon, appear 
to have been adopted from romance. In ancient language to 
VOL. XI. 5 B 

Do so, and 'ris well :-- 

Enter a Messenger, ,ith Letter& 

What letters hast thou there ?--I can but thank you. 
12ss. These letters corne ri'oto your father,m 
HoT. Letters ri'oto him ! why cornes he hot him- 
lss. He cannot corne, my lord ; he's grievous 
ttoT. 'Zounds ! how bas be the leisure to be sick, 
In such a justling rime ? Who leads his power ? 
Uder whose govermnent corne fley along ? 
[ss. His letters bcar his mind, hOt I, my lord. s 

head a man, as to cut 9ff`his head, and to beard him, slgnified 
to cut off" his beard; a punishment which was frequently in- 
flicted by giants on such unfortunate princes as fell into thelr 
hands. So, Drayton, in his Pol3/olbion, 8ong 4 : 
" And for a trophy brought the giant's coat away, 
" Made of the beards of kings." STWV.s. 
 Mess. His l«tters bear his mind, hot I, m. lord.] The old 
copiesnot I raff mind, andnot I his mbzd. STE.VEts. 
The l,.'ne should be read and divided thus : 
Mess. His letters bçar his mbul, hot L 
Hot. His mind ! 
Itotspur had asked, who leads his powers ? The Messenger 
answers, His letters bear his ,dnd. The other replies, His ,tind : 
As much as to say, I enquire not about his nlind, I want to 
know where his powers are. This is natural, and perfectly in 
character. W_rtvrtxo. 
The earliest quarto, 1598, readsnot I n27 mind ;the com- 
positor having inadvertenfly repeated the word mind, which had 
occurred immediately before ; an error which often happens a 
the press. The printer of the flfird quarto, in 1604, not seeing 
how the mistake had arisen, in order to obtain some sense, 
changed my to his, reading, " hOt I his mind," which was fol- 
lowed in all the subsequent ancient editions. The present cor- 

c. z. KING HENRY IV. 371 

I'OR. I pr'ythee, tell me, doth he keep his bed ? 
HIEss. He did, my lord, four days ere I set forth  
And at the time of my departure thence, 
He was much fear'd by his physicians. 
IF'oR. I would, the state of time had first been 
Ere he by sickness had been visited ; 
His health was never better worth than now. 
Hoz'. Sick now ! droop now ! this sickness doth 
The very life-blood of our enterprize ; 
"Tis catching hither, even to our camp.----- 
He writes me here,--that inward sickness 9-- 
And that his friends by deputation could hot 
So soon be drawn ; nor did he think it meet, 
To lay so dangerous and dear a trust 
On any soul relnov'd,  but on his own. 

rection, which is certainly right, was ruade by Mr. Capcll. In 
two of the other speeches spoken by the Messenger, he uses the 
saine language, nor is it likely that he should address Hotspur, 
without this mark of respect. In his Jïrst speech the Messenger 
is interrupted by the impetuosity of the person whom he ad- 
dresses, to whom, it may be supposed, he would otherwise have 
there also given his title. MAr.orv.. 
I have followed Mr. Malone in prlnting this3çrst speech wlth 
a break afterfather,. At the same rime I suspect that 
the wordcome, which deprives the sentence of ail pretensions 
to harmony, was a playhouse interpolation, and tlmt the passage 
originally ran as follows : 
These letters from /our father-----. STEEVENSo 
9 that inward sickness] A line, probably, has here 
been lost. 
I suspect no omission. Hotspur is abruptly enumerat[ng the 
principal topicks of the letter he has before him. SWEEV..nS. 
" On anysoul ronov'd,] On any less near to himself; on any 
whose interest is remote. Jonsov. 


Yet doth he give us bold advertisement,-- 
That with our small conjunction, we should on, 
To see how fortune is dispos'd to us : 
For, as he writes, there is no quailing now ;e 
Because the king is certainly possess'd 
Of ail our purposes. What say you to it ? 
IVoR. Your father's sickncss is a maire to us. 
tloT. A perilous gash, a very limb lopp'd off:-- 
And yct, in faith, 'ris not ; lais prescrit want 
Seems more than we shall find it :--Were it good, 
To set the exact wealth of ail our states 
Ail at one cast ? to set so rich a main 
On the nice hazard of one doubtfitl hour ? 
It were hot good : for thercin shotfld we read 
The very bottom and the soul of hope ; 
The very list, the very utmost bound 
Of all ottr fortunes? 

So, in As jou like it: " Your accent is somcthing finer than 
you could purchase in so removed a dwelling." ST.vs. 
"- ---- no quail-ing vorv;] To yuail is to languish, to sink into 
dejection. So, in Cffmbdinc: 
" For whom my heart drops blood, and my false spirits 
" Quail to remenber,." 
Perhaps from the timid caution occasionally practised by the 
bird of that nmne. So, in Chauccr's Clerke's Talc: 
" And thou shalt make him couche as dotk a çuaille." 
 for therein should we read 
The very bottom and the soul of hopc ; 
The vertj ]ist, the ve:y utmost bound 
Of all our.fortunes.] To read the bottom and the soul o.f 
bol?e, and the bound o.flfortune, though all the copies nd all the 
editors have reeeivet it, surely eannot be right. I ean think on 
no other word than risque: 
therein should we risque 
The very bottom &c. 
The list is the selvage; figuratively, the utnost line of elrcum- 

sc. c. KING HENRY IV. sTg 
Doga. 'Faith, and so we should ; 
Where now remains ç a sweet reversion : 
We may boldly spend upon the hope of what 

ference, the utmost extent. If we should with less change read 
rend, it will only suit with list, hot with soul or bottom. 
I believe the old reading to be the truc one. So, in Ki»g 
Henr. l'L Part II: 
"  we then should see the bottom 
" Of all out fortunes." STEEVENS. 
I once wished to read--t»'ead, instead of" read; but I nov 
flfink, there is no need of alteration. To read a bound is cer- 
tainly a very ]mrsh phrase, but not more so than many others of 
Shakspeare. At the saine rime that the bottom of their fortunes 
should be displayed, its circumference or boundary would be ne- 
cessarily exposed to view. Sight being necessary to reading, to 
read, is here used, in Shakspeare's licentious language, for to 
The passage quoted by Mr. Steevens ri'oto King Henr.t ! VL 
strongly collfirtns this interpretation. To it may be added this 
in Romeo and .hdiet : 
" Is there no pity sltting in the clouds, 
" Vfhich sees into the bottom of my ,rle, " f». 
And this in 3Ieasu, re for 3Ieasure: 
"  and it concerns nm 
" To look into the bottom of" my place." 
One of" the phrases in the tcxt is round in Twelfth Night: " She 
is the list of my voyage 2' The other [the soul of" hope] occurs 
frequently in our author's plays, as well as in those of his con- 
temporaries. Thus, in A,, 31idsummer-Nighl's Dream, we find, 
" the soul of" counsel; and in Troilus and Cressida" the 
,ozd of love." So also, in Marlowe's Lust's Dombdon : 
,, Your desperate arm 
" Hath almost thrust quite through the heart ofhope." 
« Where now remabzs] HTtere is, I think, used here for 
t,hereas. It is often used with that signification by out author 
and his contemporaries. MaoE. 
So, in Pericles, Prbce of Tyre, Act I. sc. i : 
" 'Vhere now you are both a father and a son.'" 


Is to come in :» 
A comfort of retirement Ç lives in this. 
HoT. A rendezvous, a home to fly unto, 
If that the devil and mischance look big 
Upon the maidenhead of our affairs. 
IF'OR. But yet, I would your father had been here. 
The quality and hair of out attempt 7 
Brooks no division : It will be thought 
By some, that know not why he is away, 
That wisdom, loyalty, and mere dis]ike 
Of out proceedings,kept the earl from hence ; 
And think, how such an apprehension 
May turn the ride of fearful t:action, 
And breed a kind of question in our cause : 
:For, well you know, we of the offering side « 

. We ma3 boldly spend upon the ho_pe of what 
Is to corne in :-] Read: 
IVe now may boldly sTend, up»n the hofl¢ 
03ewhat is to corne in. 
 .4 coin.fort of reti.rement--J A support to whieh we may 
]lave reeourse. Jouso. 
 The quality and hair of out attempt--] The hair seems to 
be the complexion, the character. The metaphor appears harsh 
to us, but, perhaps, was familiar in out author's rime. We still 
say SOlnething is against the hair, as against the grain, that is, 
against the natural tendeney. JoHsos. 
In an old eomedy ealled The Family of Lofe, I meet with an 
expression whieh very well supports Dr. Johnson's explanation : 
" --They say I ana of the right hair, and indeed they may 
staud to't." 
Again, in The Coa«omb, by Beaumont and Fleteher: 
" since he will be 
" An ass against the lzab." 
This word is used in the saine sense in the c.ld interlude of 
Tom Tffler and his lVife, 1598 : 
" But I bridled a colt of a contrarie haire." 
* --we of rite offering side--] Ail the latter editions reaà 
ffending, but ail the older copies which I have seen, ri'oto the 

sc. x. KING HENRY IV. 375 

Must keep aloof ri'oto strict arbitrement ; 
And stop ail sight-holes, every loop, fi'om whence 
The eye of reason lnay pry in upon us : 
This absence of your father's draws a curtain, 
That shows the ignorant a kind of fear 9 
]3efore hot drealnt of. 

HOT. You strain too far. 
I, rather, of his absence make this use ;m 
It lends a lustre, and more great opinion, 
A larger dare to our great enterprize, 
ïhan if the earl were here- for lnen lnust think, 
If we, without lais help, tan make a head 

first quarto to the editlon of Rowe, read--we of the OE'ring 
side. Of this reading the sense is obscure, and thereforc the 
change has been ruade; but since neither oering nor oflènding 
are words likelv to be mistaken, I cannot but suspect that o.ffèr- 
ing is right, esDecially as it is read in the copy of 1599, which 
is more correctly printed than any single edition, that I have yet 
seen, of a play written by Shakspeare. 
The ?erfig side may siguify that party, which, acting in op- 
position to the law, strengthens itself only by oers; increases 
its numbers only by promises. The king can raise an anny, and 
continue it by threats of punishment; but those, whom no man 
is under any obligation to obey, can gathcr forces only by oers 
of advantage: and it is truly rcmarked, that they, whose influ- 
ence arises ri-oto oers, must keep danger out of zight. 
The oring side may mean simply tle assailant, in opposition 
to the defendant; and it is likewise true of him that o.ffbrs war, 
or makes an invasion, that his case ought to be kept clear f,'om 
ail objections. Jorisox. 
Johnson's last explanation of the word o.ff'erinz, appears to be 
right. His first is far-fetched and unnatural. M. Maso. 
9 Th& absence of#ourfather's draws a curtain, 
That shorts the çgorant a L'fizd of fear &c.-1 To drao a 
cuïtain had anciently the saine meani,ag as to ztndrttv one has at 
present. So, (says Mr. Malone,) in a stage direction in Ixïng 
H«n W KL Part II. (quarto, 1600,) " Then the curtaines being 
drawne, Duke Humphrey is discovered in his bed." 
.Fear in the present instance signifies a terrifick object. 

876 FïRST PART OF .a«T Iv. 

To push against the kingdom ; with his help 
We shall o'erturn it topsy-turvy down.-- 
Yet ail goes well, yet all out joints are who]e. 
Dotra. As heart can think: there is hOt such 
a word 
Spoke of in Scotland, as this term of fear2 


Ho'. My cousin Vernon ! welcome, by my soul. 
VeR. Pray God, my news be worth a welcome, 
The car] of Westmoreland, seven thousand strong, 
Is lnarching hitherwards; with him, prince John. 
tlOT. No harm : What more ? 
VER. And fitrther, I have learn'd,-- 
The king hilnse]f in person is set forth, 
Or hitherwards intended speedily, 
Vifl strong and mighty preparation. 
HOT. He shall be welcome too. Where is his son, 
The nîmble-footed mad-cap prince of Wales,  
And lais comrdes, that daff'd the wor]d aside, 
And bid it pass ? 
VR. Ail furnish'd, ail in arms, 
Ail plum'd like estridges that wing the wind ; 
]3ated like eagles having lately bath'd ; 

 -- term offear.] Foliodream of fear. 
 The nimble-footed mad-cap prince ç Wales,] Slmkspeare 
rarely bestows his epithets at random. Stowe says of the Prince : 
" He was psing swit in running, insomuch that he with two 
other of his lords, without hounds, bow, or other engine, would 
take a wild bùck, or doe, in a large park." 
 Allfurnish'd, ail in arms, 
Ah plum'd like estridges that wing the wi»d; 
Bated Kke eagles &e.] The old eopiesthat with the wind, 

sc. r. KING HENRY IV. 377 

Glittering in golden coats, like images 

For the sake of affording the reader a text easily intelligible, 
I have followed the example of Mr. Malone, by adopting Dr. 
Johnson's emendation. 
Sec the following notes. STEVENS. 
What is the meaning of estridg«s, that bated with the wi»d 
like eagles ? for the relative that, in the usual construction, must 
relate to estridges. 
Sir T. Hanmer reads: 
All phon'd like estridges, and with the whtd 
Bating like eagles. 
By whiçh he ha. eseaped part of the difl]eulty, but bas yet left 
impropriety sufficient to make his reading questionable. 
I read : 
All fiern#h'd, all in arms, 
Ail plum'd like estridges, that wing the whd 
Bated lil'e eagles. 
This glves a strong image. They were hot only plumed like 
estridges, but their plumes fluttered like those of an estridge 
beating the wind with his wings. A more lively representation 
o.f young men ardent for cnterprize, perhaps no writer has ever 
gtven. Jonsog. 
I believe estridges never mount at all, bnt only rnn bcfore the 
wlnd, opening their wings to receive its assistance in urging them 
forward. "l'hey are generally hunted on horseback, and the art 
of the hunter is to turn them ri'oto the gale, by the help of whieh 
they are too fleet tbr the swiftest horse to keep up with them. 
I should have suspected a line to have been omitted, had hot all 
the copies concurred in the saine reading. 
In the °-'2d Song of Drayton's Poltjolbion is the saine thought : 
« Prince Edward ail in gold, as he great Jove had been: 
« The Mountfords all in2lumes, like estridges, were seen:" 
I bave little doubt that instead of with, some verb ought tobe 
substituted here. Perhaps it should be wbisk. The word is used 
by a writer of Shakspeare's age. England's Helicon, sign. Q : 
" This said, he whisk'd his particoioured wings.'" 
This is one of those passages, in which, in my apprehen- 
sion, there can be no doubt that there is some corruption, either 
by the onfission of an entire line, or by one word being printed 
instead of another. The first quarto, which is followed by ail th 
other ancient copies, reads: 

s78 FIRST PART Oœe cz' IF, 

As full of spirit as the month of May, 

ttll plum'd like estridges, that with the wind, 
Bated like eagles having lately bath'd. 
From the eontext, it appears to me evident that two distinct 
¢omparisons were here intended,that two objeets were mentioned, 
to each of whieh the Prinee's troops were eompared ; and that 
our author eould never mean to compare estridges to eagles, a 
construction whieh the word with forces us to. In eaeh of the 
ubsequent lines a distinct image is given.--Besides, as Dr. John- 
son has remarked, "What is tbe meaning of estridges that bated 
ith the wind like eagles ? for the relative that in the usual con- 
struction must relate to estridges." 
lr. Tyrwhitt concurs with me in thinking the old text cor- 
upt. I have therefore adopted the slight alteration proposed by 
Dr. Johnson--that wing the wind; which gives an easy sense.-- 
OEhe spirit and ardour of the troops are marked by their being 
¢ompared to eagles in the next line; but the estridges appear 
to be introduced here, as in the passage quoted above, from 
Drayton, by Mr. Steeyens, solely on account of the soldiers' 
lumes; and the manner in which those birds are said to move 
tklclently explains tbe meaning of the words--that wing the 
wind. If this emendation be not just, and with be the truc 
readng, a line must have been lost, in which the particular move: 
ment of the estridge was described. The concurrence of the 
copies (mentioned by Mr. Steevens in a foregoing note, ) militatcs 
but little in my mind against the probability of sucb an omission ; 
for, in general, I bave observed, that whencver there is a cor- 
l'uption in one copy, it is continued in every subsequent one. 
Omission is one of the most frequent errors of the press, and we 
bave undoubted proofs that somc lines were omitted in the early 
editions of these plays. Sec Vol. VI. p. 189, n. :; Vol. XI. 
p. 59, n. 2; and Romeo and Juliet, Act III. sc. iv. See also 
King HenrVL Part II. Act III. sc. iv. where the following 
line is omitted in the folio, 162. : 
" Jove sometimes went disgulsd, and why not I ? 
There is still another objection to the old reading, that I had 
nearly forgotten. Supposing the expression--'.' that with the 
wind bated like eagles"--was defensible, and that these estridges 
were intended to be compared to eagles, why should the com- 
parison be in the past time ? Would it not be more natural to 
say,The troops were all plumed like estridges, that, like eagles, 
bate with the wind, &c. 
On the whole, I think it most probable that a line, in which 
the moçion of estridges was described, was inadvertently passed 

sc. t. KING-HENRY IV. 579 

And gorgeous as the sun at midsummer ; 
over by the transcriber or composltor, when the earllest copy 
was printed ; an error which has indisputably happened in other 
places in these plays. It is observable, that in this passage, as it 
stands in the old copy» there is no verb: nothing is predicated 
concerning the troops. In the lost line it was very probably said» 
that they were then advancing. Rather, however, than print 
the passage with asterisks as imperfect, I lmve as the lesser cvil» 
adopted Dr..lohnson's emendation. Mr. Steevenus notes per- 
fectly explain the text as now rgulated. 
I have said that nothing is predicated of these 9lumed troops 
and this is a very strong circumstce to show that a liae was 
omitted in which they probably were at once described as in 
motion, and compared (for the sake of their plumage) to 
stridges. The omitted line might have been of this import: 
ll fitrnish'd, ail in arms, 
Ail plum'd like estridges, that with the btd 
Run on, in gallant trim fley now advance : 
Bated like eagles having latelff bath'd; 
Glittering in golden coats like images, 
As fidl OE sTirit as the month OElay, 
nd gorgeous as the sun ai vffdsummer ; 
IVanton as youthtl goats, wild as oung 5ulls. 
All plum'd lie estr[«ges, All dressed like fle Prince him- 
sel, tire ostrichther being the cogniza,ce oç tire Prince of 
Wales. GR. 
Bated lie eagles avin lately bath'd ; To 5are is, in the style 
of falconry, to 5eat the wing, ri'oto the French battre that is, to 
fiutter in preparation for flght. JOHNSO. 
The çollowing passage çrom DavM an Betsabe, 1599, will 
confirm Dr. Johnson's assertion : 
" Where all delights sat batin, wing'd with thoughts» 
« Ready to nestle in her naed breast." 
Agaln, in Greene's Card  Fancy, 1608: "--ruade her 
check at the prey, bate at the lute," &c. 
Writers on çalconry also oen mention the bathin2" of hawks 
and eagles, as highly necessary tr their healfl and spirits.--All 
birds, ater batbbg, (which alnmst all birds are fond of,) spread 
out their wings to catch the wind, and flutter violently wlth 
thcm in order to dry themselves. is, in the çalconer's lan- 
guage, is called bating, and by Shakspeare, batiç rith lb« 
«ein&--It may e observed that birds never appear so lively and 
fuH of sirits, as immediately after bathing. Srrws. 

so F!RST PART OF c, I»: 

Wanton as youthful goats, wild as young bulls. 
I saw young Harry,--with his beaver on,  

This appears to be justly explalned by Steevens. Vhen birds 
bave bathed, they cannot fly until their feathers be disentangled» 
by bating with the wind. M.M.¢soN. 
Bated, is, I believe, here used for bating, the passive for the 
active participle ; a licence which out author often takes. 
in Othello : 
« If virtue no delighted heauty lack. » 
.Again, in The Comed.y of Errors: 
«, And careful hours with time's deformed hand." 
To bute, as appears from Minsheu's Dict. 1617, was originally 
applied to birds of pre, when they swoop upon their quarry. 
S'abbatre, se devaller, r. Hence it signifies, as Dr. Johnson 
bas explained it, to fiutter, " à Gal. barre, (says Minsheu,) i.e. 
to beat, because she [the hawk] beats herself with unquiet 
fluttering. '* 
' Glittering b golden cours like images,] This alludes to the 
rnanner of dressing up images in the Romish churches on holy- 
days; when they are bedccked in robes very richly laced and 
mbroldered. So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, Book I. ch. iii: 
" He was to weet a stout and sturdie thiefe 
« Wont to robbe churches of their ornaments, drc. 
« The holy saints oftheir rich ,estiments 
" He did disrobe," &c. 
 I saw .young Harry,aith his beaver on,] We should 
readbeaver up. It is an impropriety to say on : tbr the beaver 
is only the visiere of flae helrnet, which, let dowu, covers the 
face. When the soldier was hot upon action he wore it up, so 
tiret his face rnight be seen, (hence Vernon says he saw 
Harry &c.) But, when upon action, it was let down to cover 
and secure the thce. Hence, in The SecondPart ofK. HenrdlV. 
it is said : 
*" Their armed staves in clmrge, their beavers down." 
There is no need of all this note ; for 5eaçer may be a helmet; 
or the Prince, trying his armour, might wear his beaver down. 
Dr. Warburton seems hot to have observed, that Vernon only 
says, he saw «, young Harrj, » hot that he saw his.face. 

se. x. KING HENRY IV. 

His cuisses on his thighs, 6 gallantly arm'd,-- 
Rise fi'om the ground like feather'd Mercury, 
_And vaulted 7 with such ease into his seat, 
_As if an angel dropp'd down ri'oto the clouds, 
To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus, s 
And witch the world 9 with noble horsemanship. 
HOT. No more, no more ; worse than the sun in 
This praise doth nourish agues. Let them corne ; 

Bever and visiere were two ditTerent parts of the helmet. The 
former part let down to enablc the wearer to drin],', the latter 
was raised up to enable him to sec. LOT. 
Shakspeare, however, confounded them; for, in Hamlet, 
ttoratio says, that he saw the old king's face, because "he wore 
his beaver up.'" Nor is our poet singular in the use of this word. 
This ",vas the common signification of the word, for Bullokar in 
his English Expositor, 1616, defines beaver thus : " In armour it 
signifies that part of the helmet which nmy be lifted uip , to take 
breath the more freely." M,LOIE. 
The poet is certainly hot guilty of the confusion lad to 
charge with respect to the passage in tlamlet; for the beaver 
was as oïten ruade to lift up as to let down. DoucE. 
 IIis cuisses on his thighs,] Cuisses, French. Armour for 
thc thighs. 
The rcason why hls cdsses are so particularly mentioned, I 
conceive to be, that lais horsemanship is here praised, and the 
cuisses are that part of armour v¢hich most hinders a horseman's 
activity. JortNsoN. 
 And vauhed--] The context requires vault, but a word of 
one syllable will not suit the metre. Perhaps our author wrote 
,anlt it, a mode ot" phraseology of which there are sonm exam- 
ples in these plays. MaLorn. 
 To turn and wind a ,flery Pegasus,] This idea ,occurs in 
Have with flou to Saffron llS-dden, or Gabriel tterve3t s Ilunt is 
up, &c. 1596 : " her hottest fury may be resembled to the 
passing of a brave cariere by a Pegasu.s.'" SrEEvm's. 
9 And witch the worht] For bewitch, charm. Pol, e. 
So, in King Henry I'L P. II: 
" To sit and vdtch me, as Ascanlus did." 


They corne like sacrifices in their trim, 
And to the fire-ey'd maid of smoky war, 
All hot, and bleeding, will we oflier them: 
The mailed Mars shall on his altar sit, 
Up to the ears in blood. I ara on tire, 
To hear this rich reprisal is so nigh, 
And yet not ours :--Corne, let me take my horse, 
¥(ho is to bear me, like a thunderbolt, 
Against the bosom of the prince of Wales : 
Harry to Harry shall, hot horse to horse, 
Meet, and ne'er part, till one drop down a corse.--- 
O, that Glendower were corne! 
VeR. There is more news : 
I learn'd in Woreester, as I rode along, 
He eannot draw his power this fourteen days. 
.Doua. That's the worst tidings that I hear ofyet. 
.. IYo2. Ay, by my faith, that bears a fi'osty sound. 
HOT. What may the king's whole battle reach 
unto ? 
Vz2. To thirty thousand. 
HoT. Forty let it be ; 
My father and Glendower being both away, 
The powers of us may serve so great a day. 
Corne, let us make a muster speedily : 
Doomsday is near ; die all, die merrily. 
1)ou. Talk hot of dying ; I ara out of fear 
Of death, or death's hand, tbr this one half year. 

sc. «r. KING HENRY IV. 3SS 


_4 ]oublick Road near Coventry. 
Enter FALsa'.II and ]3ARDOLPH. 

/AL. Bardolph, get thee before to Coventry ; fill 
me a bottle of sack: our soldiers shall march 
through ; we'll to Sutton-Colfield to-night. 
.BARD. Will you give me money, captain ? 
/AL. Lay out, lay out. 
.BARD. This bottle makes an ange]. 
EAL. An if it do, take it for thy labour ; and if 
it make twenty, take thcm ail, l'll answer the coin- 
age. Bid my lieutenant Peto' meet me at the 
town's end. 
.BARD. I will captain: farewell. [Exit. 
_NAL. If I be not ashamed of my soldiers, I mn 
a souced gurnet.  I have misused the king's press 

t  lieutenant Peton] This passage proves that Peto did 
hot go with the Prince. JoHssos. 
  souced gurnet.] This is a dish mentloned in that very 
iaughable poem called T]e Counter-scu, 1658: 
« Stuck thick with cloves upon the back, 
" Well stuff'd with sage, and for the smack» 
« Daintily strew'd with pepper black, 
« Souc,dgurnet.» 
Souced g. urnet is an appellation, of contempt very frequntl 
employed n the old comedms. So, in Decker's Honest IIhore» 
165 : 
« Punck ! you souc'd gurnet!" 
Again» in the Prologue to Wild/Beguiled, 1606 : 
« Out you souced gurnet you wool-fist 

:s FIRST PART OF c" z; 

damnably.  I have got, in exchange of a hundred 
and fiy soldiers, three hundred and odd pounds. 
I press me none but good householders, « yeomen's 
sons : inquire me out contracted bachelors, such as 
had been asked twice on the bans ; such a colnlno- 
dity of warln slaves, as had as lier hear the devil 
as a drmn; such as fear the report of a caliver, 
worse than a struck fowl, or ahurt wild-duck. » 

Among the Cotton MSS. is a part of an old household book 
tbr the year 1595. See Veslg. F. xvi: 
" Supper. Paid for a gurnard, viii. d." Sa'EEVSS. 
A gurnet is a fish very nearly resembling a piper. 
It should seem from one of Taylor's pieces, entitled 2/Baod 
1.'2mo. 1655, that a sowced gttrtet vas sometimes used in the 
saine metaphorical sense in which we now frequently use the 
word gud, qeon : " Though she, la bawd] lire after the flesh, ail 
is fish thdt cornes to the net with her ;She hath baytes for all 
kinde of frye : a great lord is her Greenland whale ; a countrey 
gentleman is her cods-head; a rich citizen's son is ber sovas'd 
gtrnet, or ber gudgeo«." laroxE. 
•   I bave mistsed the li»g's press damnablg.] Thus, in 
the l'oyage o Cadiz, 1597. [See Hakluyt, Vol. I. p. 60771 
' about the -'28 of the said moneth, a certaine Lieutenant was 
degraded and cashierd, &c. for the taking of money by the way 
of corruption of certaine prest souldiers in the countrey, and for 
pleasing of others in their roomes, more tzJït for service, and 
of less sufflciency and abilitie." 
 Ipress me none but good householders, &c.] This prac- 
tice is complained of in Barnabie Riche's Souldier's llshe fo 
zBriton's l'Ielfare, or Captaine Slcill and Cal»laine Pill, 160-, 
p. 62 : «, Sir, I perceive by the sound of your wo,'ds you are a 
ttvourite to Captaines, and I thinke you could be contented, that 
to serve the expedition of these rimes, we should take up honest 
houaeholders, men that are of wealth and abilitie to live at home, 
such as your captaines might chop and chaunge, and make mar- 
chandise of," &c. Sxzvers. 
 worse than a struck fowl, or ahurt vild-dtwk.'] The 
repetition of the same image disposed Sir Thomas Hanmer, and 
after him Dr. Warburton, to read, in opposition to ail the copies, 
a struck d«er, which is indeed a proper expression, but not likely 

sc. H. KING HENRY IV. 385 

pressed me none but such toasts and butter, » with 
hearts in their bellies no bigger than pins' heads, 
and they bave bought out their services ; and now 
my whole charge consists of ancients, corporals, 
lieutenants, gentlemen of companies, slaves as rag- 
ged as Lazarus in th.ê painted eloth, where the 
glutton's dogs lieked his sores: and sueh as, indeed, 
were never sohliers ; but disearded unjust serving- 
men, younger sons to younger brothers,  revolted 

to have been corrupted. Shakspeare, perhaps, wrote a strucl« 
sorrel, which, being negligently read by a man hot skilled in hun- 
ter's language, was easily changed to struckfowL Sorrel is used 
in Love's Labour's Lost for a you»xg d«er ; and the terms of the 
chase were, in our author's time, familiar to the ears of every 
gentleman. JoHso. 
=/bw/,-] Thus the first quarto, 1598. In a subsequent copy 
(1608) the word.]ôw/being crroneously printedfool, that er or 
was adopted in the quarto 1615, and consequently in th tblio, 
whch was printed from it. Mao. 
Fowl seems to have been the word designed by the poet, who 
might have thought an opposition betweenfowl, i. e. domestick 
birds, and wild:fowl, sufflcient on this occasion. He has ahnost 
the saine expression in '1uch «4do about Nothing : « Alas poor 
hurtfowl! now will he creep into sedges." Sa.v.s. 
o such toasls and buller,] This term of contempt is used 
in Beaumont and Fletcher's lVit oeilhout llone 
« They love young toasts and butter, Bow-bell suckers." 
" Londiners, and all within th.c cund ofBow-bell, are in re- 
proach called cocknies, ad eaters offbulteredtostcs." Moryson's 
/tin. 1617. 
7 youner sons fo younger brothers, &c.] Raleigh, in his 
Discourse on Var, uses tlïis vcry expression tbr men ofdesperate 
fortune and wild adventure. Which borrowed it from the other, 
I knownot, but I think the play was printed before the Discourse. 
Perhaps Oliver Cromwell was indebted to this speech, for the 
sarcasm which he threw out on the soldiers commanded by 
Hampden : " Your troops are most of them o/d decajed serving 
men and taflslers," &c. STEVYS. 
VOL. XI. o C 


tapsters, and ostlers trade-fidlen ; the cankers of a 
cahn world, and : long peace ;s ten limes more 
dishonourable ragged than an old fhced ancient'9 

* cankers ofa cahn world, and a long peace;] So, in 
The Pur#an : "l,atched and nourisbed in the idle calmness 
of peace." Agaln, in Pierce Pemdless his Sq»plicotion fo the 
Devil, 159: " ail the canker-ormes that brccd on. the rust 
o.f peace." 
9  ten limes more dishonourable ra.gged than an oldfaced 
ancient :] Shakspeare uses this word so promiscuously to signify 
ma ensign or standard-bearcr, and also tbe colours or standard 
borne, that I cannot be al a certaintv for lais allusion bere. If 
the text be genuine, I think the nlealing must be, as dishonour- 
ably ragged as one that has been an cnsign all lais days ; that bas 
let age creep upon him, and never btd merit enougb to gain pre- 
ferment. Dr.Warburton, who understands il in the second con- 
struction, has suspected the text, and given the following inge- 
nious emendation : «, tlow iv an old-faced anciett or ensign, dis- 
honourably ragged ? on the contrary, nothing is esteemed more 
honourable than a ragged paiï of colours. A very little altera- 
tion will restore it to ils origiml sense, which contains a touch of 
the strongest and most fine-turned satire in. the world :  ten 
limes more dishonourablq .agged than an old feast ancient ; i. e. 
tlle colours used by the clty-eolupanies in their feasts and pro- 
cessions; for each company had one with ils peculiar device, 
which was usually displayed and borne about on such occasions. 
Now nothing could be naol-e witty or sarcastical than tbis compa- 
tison: for as Falstaff's raggamuffins were reduced to their 
tattercd condition through their riotous excesses ; so tbis oldfeast 
ancien! became torn and shattered, llOt in any manly exercise of 
arms, but amidst the revels of drunken bacchanals." 
Dr. VVarburtons emenaton is very acute and judicious ; but 
I know hot whether the licentiousness ofour autbor's diction may 
hot allow us to suppose that he meant to represent his soldiers, 
as more raed, tbough less honourably ragged, than an old 
ancient. Joi so.-. 
Au oldflaced ancient, is an old standard mended with a dif- 
ferent colour. Il should not be written in one word, as old and 
faced are distinct ep.ithets. Toface a gown is to trim il; an ex- 
pression at present m use. In out author's time thefacings of 
gowns wete ahvays of a colorer diierent from the stuff itsel£ 
So, in this play : 

sc. zh KING HENRY I,. 

and such have I, to fill up the rooms of them that 
have bought outtheir services, that youwould think, 
that I had a hundred and fitYy tattered prodigals, 
lately corne ri'oto swine-keeping, ri'oto eating draff 
and Imsks. A mad fellow met me on the wav, and 
told me, I had unloaded all the gibbets, and p]'essed 
the dead bodies. No eye hath seen such scare- 
crows. Fil hOt march through Covcntry with them, 
that's fiat :--Nay, and the villians march wide be- 
twixt the legs, as if they had gyvcs, on ;1 for, in- 
deed, 1 had the most ofthcm out of prison. There's 
but a shirt and a hall" in ail my company : and thc 
" Toface the garment of rebellion 
" With sonae fine colour.". 
Agaln, in Ram-alley or 3[err.y Trœeeks, 161 t : 
" Your tawny coats with greasyfacings bere." 
So, in The Puritan, a comedy, 1607: "full of holcs, 
like a shot ancient." The modern editors, instead ofdishonour- 
able read dishonourabl3 ; but the change is unnecessary, tbr out 
autbor frequently uses adjectives adverbially. So again in this 
play : 
" And since tbis business sofair is donc." 
Again, in King HenryVIII: " He is equal ravenous as he is 
subtle." Again, in Hamlet : " I ara myselfinoEiffêrent honest." 
Again, in The Taming of the Shrew : 
" Her only fault 
" Is that she is intolerable curst." 
See also Vol. VIII. p. 4,8, n. 7. 5IaLOe. 
  gyves on ;] i. e. shackles. Popv.. 
So in the old Morality of Hffcke Scorner : 
" And I will go fetch a pair ofgjves." 
Again : 
" They be yeomen of the wrethe, that be shackled in 
  There's but a shirt and a half--] The cdd copies read 
There's hOt a shb't &c. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. In The 
3Ierchant of Venœeee, printed by J. Roberts, 4to. 1600, but has 
taken tbe place of hot : 
" Repent but you that you shall lose your fi'iend." 


halt'-shirt is two napkins, tacked together, and 
thrown over the shoulders like a hera]d's coat with- 
out sleeves ; and the shirt, to say the truth, stolen 
ri'oto my host at Saint Albans, or the red-nose inn- 
keeper ot'Daintry. 3 But that's ail one; they'll finœe 
linen enough on every hedge. 

Enter Prince HENRi" and WESTMORELANDo 

P. Hv. Hownow, blown Jack ? hownow, quilt? 
tAL. What, Hal ? How now, mad wag ? what 
a devil dost thou in Warwickshire ?--My good lord 
of Westmoreland, I cry you mercy; I thought, 
your honour had already bcen at Shrewsbury. 
lYïST. 'Faith, sir John, 'ris more than time that 
I were there, and you too; but lny powers are 
there already : Thc king, I can tell you, looks for 
us all; we must away ail night.  
FAL. Tut, never fear me ; I ara as vigilant as a 
car to steal cream. 

» --ofDaintry.] i.e. Daventry. STrrVrS. 
*  stolenfrom nty host &c.] This propensity ofsoldiers in 
a mareh to purloin, is noticed by a writer contemporary with 
Shakspeare. Barnabie Rich says, " Fyrst by the way as they 
travayle through the countrey where they chunee to lye all night, 
the good wyt hath spedde well if shee tnde hyr sheetes in the 
morning, or if this happe to lb)-le, yet a coverlet or curtens from 
the bed, or a earpet rioto the table, some bed clothes or table 
napkins, or some other thing must needs packe away with them, 
there cornes nothing amisse ifit will serve to by drinke." A right 
excellcut and pleasaunt Dialogue betwene llercur ad an g- 
lish Souldier, &e. 1574, bl. 1. sig. H. 5. RD. 
  we must atea all night.] Readwe must acaff all to- 
ffght. M.M.«sos. 
Perhaps Westmoreland means « we must travel ail night." 

sc. H. KING HENRY IV. 389 

P. HEy. I think, to steal cream indeed; for thy 
theft hath already made thee butter. But tell me, 
Jack ; Whose fellows are these that eome after . 
F.L. Mine, Hal, mine. 
P. Hï: I did never see sueh pitififl raseals. 
FL. Tut, tut ; good enough to toss ; 6 food for 
powder, food for powder ; they'll fill a pit, as well 
as better : rush, lnan, mortal men, mortal men. 
H'sT. Ay, but, sir John, methinks they are ex- 
eeeding poor and bare ; too beggarly. 
Fz. 'Faith, fortheirpoverty,I know not where 
they had that : and for their bareness,I am sure, 
they never learned that of me. 
P. H . No, l'll be sworn; unles you eall three 
fingers on the ribs, bare. But, sirrah, make haste; 
Perey is already in the field. 
F, tr. What, is the king eneamped ? 
IIST. He is, sir John ; I fear, we shall stay too 
Fz. Well, 
To the latter end ofa fi'ay, and the beginning of a 
Fits a dull fighter, and a keen guest. [Exeunt. 

 good enough fo toss ;] That is, to toss upon a pike. 

So, in King Henr VI. P. III: 
" The soldiers should have toss'd me on their pikes, 
' Before I would have granted," &c. SxEVV-rs. 


The Rebel Camp ear Shrewsbury. 
nter HoTsPurt, WortCESTErt, DOU6LAS, and 

ItOT. We'll fight xvith him to-night. 
Il'oR. It lna.y not be. 
Doue. You give him then advantage. 
Vzn. Not a whit. 
IIoT. Why sa)" you so ? looks he hot for supply ? 
l".ER. So do we. 
ItoT. His is certain, ours is doubtful. 
ll'oR. Good cousin, be advis'd; stir notto-night. 
1. Do hOt, my lord. 
Dora. You do uot counsel well ; 
You spcak it out of fear, aud cold heart. 
l:2ï/. Do me no slander, Douglas : by my life, 
(And I dare well maintain it with ny lire,) 
If well-respccted honour bid me on, 
[ hold as little counsel with weak ibar, 
As you, my lord, or any Scot that lires :' 
Let it be seen to-morrow in the battlc, 
Which of us fcars. Yca, or to-night. 
l,R. Cntent. 

  As you, rot! lord, or ara d Scot that lires: ] The old copies : 
that th'is day lires. «STEEVENSo 
We should omit the words, this day, which weaken the sense 
and destroy the measure. 51. Maso. 


IIOT. To-night, say I. 
V/R. Corne, colne, it may hot be. 
I wonder much, being men of such great leading, 
That you foresee not what impediments 
Drag back our expedition" Certain horse 
Of my cousin Vernon's are not yet corne up: 
Your uncle Worcester's horse came but to-day ; 
And now their pride and mettle is asleep, 
Their courage with hard labour tame and dull, 
That nota horse is hall the hall himself. 9 
IIOT. So are tire horses of the cncmy 
In general, journcy-bated, and brought low ; 
The better part of ours is full of rest. 
IFOR. Tbe nuluber of the king exceedeth ours 
For God's sake, cousin, stay till ail corne in. 
[ The Trum_pet soumls a parlej. '" WALTER BLUNT. 

ILUNT. I colne with gracious offers fi-om the 
If you vouchsafe me hearing, and respect. 
HOT. Welcolne, sir Walter Blunt ; And 'would 
to God, 
You were of ont determination ! 
;olne of us love you well : and even those some 
Envy your great deserviug, and good naine  

  such great leading,] Such conduct, such experience in 
martial business. JOrllSOl. 
The old copies 
 such great leading as you are. 
By the advice of Mr. Ritson I have omitted the wordsas o 
are, which only serve to destroy the metre. Srvs. 

9 FIRST PART OF c' tf 

Because you are hot of our quality, 1 
But stand against us like an enemy. 
BLVTT. And God defcnd, but still I should 
stand so, 
So long as, out of limit, and truc rule, 
You stand against anointed majesty ! 
But, to my chargc.--Thc king hath sent to know 
The nature ofyour grieI ;e and whereupon 
You conjure fi'om the breast of civil peace 
Such bold hostility, teaching his duteous land 
Audacious cruelty: Ifthat the king 
Have any way your good deserts forgot, 
Which he confesseth to be manifold, 
He bids you naine your griefs ; and, with all speed, 
You shall bave your desires, with interest ; 
And pardon absolute for yourself and these, 
Iterein misled by your suggestion. 
11o'. The king is kind ; and, well we know, the 
Knows ai what rime to promise, when to pay. 
My father, and my uncle, anti myself, 
Did give him that saine ro3alty he wears :  

a --?fur quality,] (ualit.y, in onr author's time, was 
frequently used in the ense offell9a, sip or occupation. So, in 
The Tempest : " Task Ariel and all his quality," i. e. all those 
whowere employed with Ariel in similar services or occupations ; 
his Illows. Again, in Hamlet : " give me a taste of your 
 --gour griefs ;] That is, grie'ances. So, in  Decla- 
vallon çf the Treasons  the laie Earle  Essex, &c. 1601: 
" The Lord Keeper required the Earle of Essex, that ifhe would 
uot declare his gri openly, yet that then he would impart them 
privatdy." lao. 
 lfffather, and ny uncle, and mse 
Did gve him that saine royaltq he oe«rs :] The Percies 
were in the highest favour wlth Kig Henry the Fourth for 'some 
lime ter is accession. Thomas Earl of Worcester was 


And,--when he was not six and twenty strong, 
Sick in the world's regard, wretched and low, 
A poor umninded outlaw sneaking ho,ne,--- 
My father gave hi,n welcome to the shore : 
And,--when he heard him swear, and vow to God, 
He cmne but to be duke of Lancaster, 
To sue his livery,a and beg his peace ; 
With tears of innocency, and terres of zeal,-- 
My father, in kind heart and pity mov'd, 
Swore him assistance, and perfor,n'd it too. 

pointed Governour to the Prince of Wales, and was honoured 
with the custody of Isabel, widow of King Richard the Second, 
when she was sent back to France after that king's deposition. 
ttotspur, who accompanied llim on that occasion, in the presence 
of the Ambassadors of both nations, who met between Calais and 
3oulogne, protested " upon his soul" that she was a virgin, 
« sound and entire even as she was dclivcred to King Richard, 
and if any would say to the eontrary, he was ready to prove 
against him by combat." Speed, p. 753. 5IALONE. 
 To sue his liveu/,] This is a law phrase belonging to the 
feudal tenures ; meaning, to sue out the delivery or possession of 
his lands fi'om those persons who, on the death of any of the te- 
nants of the crown, seized their lands, till the heir sued out 
livery. STEVS. 
Before the Sd year of King Henry the Eghth, wardships 
were usually granted as court favours, "to those who nade suit 
t'or, and had interest enough to obtain them. RISON. 
During the existence of the feudal tenures, on the death of any 
of the King's tenants, an inquest of office, called inyuisitio post 
mortem, was held, to inquire of what lands he died seized, who 
was his heir, of what age he was, &c. and in those cases where 
the heir was a minor, he became the ward of the crown ; the 
land was seized by its oflïcers, and continued in its possession, or 
that of the per»on to whom the crown granted it, till the heir 
came of" age, aud sued out his liver., or oustetemaine, that is, 
the delivery of the land out of his guardian's hands. To regu- 
late these inquiries, which were greatly abused, many persons 
being compelled to sue out livery from the crown, who were by 
no means tenants thereunto, the Cotrt of lVards and Liveries 
was erected by Star. S, Hem VIII. c. 4.6. Sec Blackstone's 
Comm. II. 61. III. '258. 

3 FIRST PART OF .,«' n: 

Now, when the lords, and barons of the reahn 
Perceiv'd Northumberland did lean to hinb 
The more and less » came in with cap and knee 
Met him in boroughs, cities, villages; 
Attended hiln on bridges, stood in lanes, 
Laid gifts belote hilu, proffer'd him their oaths, 
Gave him their heirs; as pages fbllow'd him, 6 
Even af the heels, in golden multitudes. 
He presently,as greatness knows itselI 
Steps me a little higher than his vow 
Made to lny father, while his blood was poor, 
Upon the naked shore at Ravenspurg 
And now, forsooth, takes on hiln to reform 
ome certain edicts, and some strait deçrees, 
That lie too heavy on the eommolwealth: 
Cries out upon abuses, seelns to weep 
Over his eountry's wrongs; and, by this face, 
This seeming brow of justice, did he win 
The hearts of ail that he did angle for. 
Proceeded further; eut me off the heads 
Of ail the favourites, that the absent king 
In deputation leff behind him here, 
When he was personal in the Irish war. 
Br:.v'. Tut, I came hOt to hear this. 

 The more and less] i. e. the greater and the less. 
Steevens has given the words, te mrc and lcm, the only ex- 
p]anation they can bear; but I have little doubt that we ought 
to read 
They more and less, came in &c. M. Maso,'. 
 Gave him their heirs; as jgagesfollot'd him,] Perhaps we 
ought to point differently: 
Gave him their heirs as 2mges ; follow'd him, &c. 
 .Upon the naked shore &c.] In this whole speech he alludes 
agam to some passages in Richard the Second° Jonso, 

sc. lrI. KING HENRY IV. 895 

HOT. Then, to the point.----- 
In short time ai'ter, he depos'd the king ; 
Soon after that, depriv'd him of his lire ; 
And, in the neck of that, s task'd the whole state : 9 
To make that worse, sufIr'd his kinsman March 
(Who is, if every owner were well plac'd, 
Indeed his king,) to be incag'd in Wales,' 
There without ransome to lie forfeited : 
Disgrac'd me in my happy victories ; 
Sought to entrap me by intelligence ; 
Rated my uncle fi'om the council-board ; 
In rage dismiss'd my fitther from the court; 
Broke oath on oath, conunitted wrong on wrong: 
And, in conclusion, drove us to seek out 
This head of safety;  and withal, to pry 

 And, in the neck of that,] So, in Painter's Palace of Plea- 
sure, 1566: " Great mischiefes succedyng one in anolher's 
nec]ce." HENDERSOo 
9  task'd the ohole state :] I suppose it should be tax'd the 
whole state. JoHsos. 
Task'd is here used for taxed; it was once common to employ 
these words indiscriminately. Memoirs OE P. de Co»»nbes, by 
Danert, folio, 4th edit. 1674, p. 136: " Duke Philip, by the 
space of many years levied neither subsidies nor tasl's." Again, 
in Stephen Gosson's School of Abuse, 1579: " like a greedy 
surveiour being sent into Fraunce to govern the countrie, robbed 
them and spoyled them of ail their treasure with.unreasonable 
Again, in Holinshed, p. 4 : " There was a new and strange 
subsidie or taske granted to be levied for the king's use." 
  incag'd in lVales, The old copies have engag'd. Cor- 
reccd by Mr. Theobald. MoE. 
No change was necessary. EoEag'd signifies delivered as a 
hstae; and is again used in that sense. Ste p. 09, n. 8. 
 This head of safettj;] This army, fi'om which I hope for 


Into his title, the which we find 
Too indirect/'or long continuance. 
BLtrZ¢T. Shall I return this answer to the king? 
HOT. Not so, sir Walter; we'll withdraw awhile. 
Go to the king  and let there be impawn'd 
Some surety/'or a sale return again, 
And in the morning early shall mine uncle 
Bring him our purposes : and so farewell. 
13LtrrT. I would, you would aeeept of graee 
and love. 
t-loT. And, may be, so we shall. 
33Lv'. 'Pray heaven, you dol 


York. A Rooîn bt the Archbisho1's House. 

£nler the Archbisho_p of York, and a Gentlemano 

ARCH. Hie, g.o.od sir Michael ; bear this saled 
V¢ith winged baste, to the lord mareshal ;* 
This fo my cousin Scroop; and ail the rest 
To whom they are directed : if you knew 
How much they do import, you would make baste. 
G2VT. My good lord, 
I guess their tenor. 

s .---- sealed brief,] A brîef is shnply a letter. Jomso.n. 
* ---,-to the lord marezhal;] Thomas Lord Mowbray. 

,se, r.t: KING HENRY IV, 97 

ARct. Like enough, you do. 5 
To-morrow, good sir Miehael, is a day, 
Wherein the fortune of ten thousand men 
Must 'bide the toueh : For, sir, at Shrewsbury, 
As I am truly given to nnderstand, 
The king, with mighty and quiek-raised power, 
Meets with lord Harry : and I fear, sir Miehael,-- 
What with the siekness of Northumberland, 
(Whose power was in the first proportion,)  
And what with Owen Glendower's absence, thenee, 
(Who with them was a rated sinew too,  
And cornes hot in, o'er-rul'd by propheeies,)--- 
I fear, the power of Percy is too weak 
To wage an instant trial with the king. 
G'T. Why, good my lord, you need hOt fear ; 
there's Douglas, 
And Mortimer. * 
2RCH. NO, Mortimer's not there. 
GXT. But there is Mordake, Vernon, lord 
Harry Perey, 
And there's my lord of Worcester ; and a head 
Of gallant warriors, noble gentlemen. 

Gent. Iy good lord, 
I zuess their tenor. 
ArcÏ. Like enough, you do.] Read: 
Gent. lff.y lord, I guess their tenor. 
Arch. Like enough. Rtxsor. 
 in the.flrst proportio»,] Whose quota was larger than 
that ofany other nmn in the confederacy. Jorso. 
 rated sinew too,] A rated sincw signifies a strength on 
which we reckoned; a help of which we ruade account. 
And JlIortimer,] Old copies, redundantly: 
/nd lord Mortbner. 

39s FIRST PART OF zcTt». 

Ancr. And so there is: but yet the king hath 
The special head of ail the land together 
The prince of Wales, lord John of Lancaster, 
The noble Westmoreland, and warlike Blunt 
And many more cor-rivais, and dear men 
Of estimation and command in arms. 
GerT. Doubt hot, my lord, they shall be well 
Anc. I hope no less, yet needful 'ris to fear 
And, to prevent the worst, sir Michael, speed : 
For, if lord Percy thrive hot, ere the king 
Dismiss his power, he means to visit 
For he hath heard of our eonfederaey,-- 
And 'ris but wisdoln to make strong against hiln 
Therefore, make haste- I must go write again 
To other fi'iends ; and so farewell, sir Michael. 
[ Exeunt severa!bj. 

.«  KING HENRY IV. 399 


The King's Ca»q» ear Shrewsbury. 

Elh'r Iïg HENRY» Prince HENRr» Prince JoHN 
qf Lancaster, Sir "VALTER BLUNT, ald Sir 

K. HEy. How bloodily the sun begins to peer 
Above )'on busky hill!  the day looks pale 
At his distemperamre. 
P. HE.v. The southern wind 
Doth play the trumpet to his purposes ;s 
And, by his hollow whistling in the leaves, 
Foretells a tempest, and a blustering day. 
K. tIz.x: Then with the losers let it sympathize; 
For nothing can seem t'oul to those that xvin. 

Trum_pet. Enter ]OrtCESTErt and TERNONo 
IIow now, my lord of Worcester ? 'ris hot well, 

 Act \] It seems proper to be renmrked, that in the edi- 
tions printed while the author lived, this play is hot broken into 
Acts. The division whicb was ruade by the players in the first 
folio, seems eommodious enough ; but, being without authority, 
may be changed by any editor wbo tbinks himself able to lnake 
a better. JOHS6N. 
 In tbe old and lnodern editions thc Earl of Westmoreland is 
ruade to enter here witb the King: but, it appears ri'oto a pas- 
sage in the next scene that he was !eft as a bostage in Hotspur'» 
camp, ti]l Worcester shouid return ri'oto treating with Henry. 
Sec p..t,08, n. 5. 
  buskv bill! ] Buslaj is woody. (Bosquet, Ff.) Milton 
writes the word perhaps more properly, boslaj. TEVS. 
  to his purposes;] That is, to the sun's, to that which 
the sun portends by his u;msual appearance. Jonsog. 

oo FIRST PART OF Acz r. 

That you and I should meet upon such terres 
As now we meet: You have deceiv'd our trust ; 
And made us doff out easy robes  of peace, 
To crush out old limbs in ungentle steel :» 
This is not well, lny lord, this is not well. 
What say you to't ? will you again unknit 
This churlish knot of all-abhorred war . 
And move in that obedient orb again, 
Where you did give a fair and natural light ; 
And be no more an exhal'd meteor, 
A prodigy of tar, and a portent 
Of broached mischiefto the unborn times ? 
lyon.. Hear me, my liege: 
For mine owu part, I could be well content 
To entertain the lag-end of my lire 
With quiet hours; for, I do protest, 
I have hOt sought the day of this dislike. 
K. H. You have hOt sought for it ! how cornes 
it then ? 
/Az. Rebellion lay in his way, and ho round it. 
P. Hr. Peace, chewet, peace2 

' --doff out easj robes--] i. e. do them ?ff; put them off. 
So, in King John : 
" Thou wear a llon's bide! do.ff it for shame--." 
 To cr out old l{mbs 5 unge,tle steel:] Shakspeare must 
bave been aware that the King was not at this rime more than 
four years older than he was at the deposition of King Richard. 
And indeed n the next play, he makes him expressly tell us, 
that it was then-- 
"  but eig]tt /ears since 
" Northumberland, even to the eyes of Richard 
« Gave him defiance." 
But it is altogether fi'uidess to attempt the reconciliation of 
out author's chronology. Rso. 
 Peace, chewet, peace.] A chewet, or uet, is a nolsy chat- 

se. z. KING HENRY IV. 4oi 

H/'OR. It pleas'd your majesty, to turn your looks 
Of favour, from myseli; and ail out house; 
And yet I must remember you, my lord, 
We were the first and dearest of your friends. 
:For you, my staff of office 7 did I break 
In Richard's time ; and posted day and night 
To meet you on the way, and kiss your hand, 
When yet you were in place and in account 
Nothing so strong and ibrtunate as I. 
It was myseli; my brother, and his son, 
That brought you home, and boldly did outdare 
The dangers of the time: You swore to us,- 
And you did swear that oath at Doncaster,-- 
That you did nothing purpose 'gainst the state ; 
Nor clailn no thrther than your new-fall'n right, 
The seat of Gaunt, dukedom of Lancaster : 
To this we swore our aid. But, in short space, 

tering bird, a pie. This carries a proper reproach to Falstafffor 
his ill-timed and impertinent jest. THOgAD. 
In an old book of cookery, printed in 1596, I find a receipt 
to make chezoets, which, from their ingredients, seeln to have 
been fat greasy puddings ; and to these it is highly probable that 
the Prince alludes. Both the quartos and fiflio spell the word as 
it now stands in the text, and as I found it in the book already 
mentioned. So, in Bacon's Natural Histor#: " As for chuets, 
which are likewise minced lneat, instead of butter and ht., it were 
good to moisten them partIy with cream, or almond and pistachio 
milk," &c. It appears froln a receipt in The Forme ofCury, a 
Roll of ancient English Coo'er,j, compiled about A. D. 190, b/ 
the .'tIaster Cook of King Richard II. and published by 5Ir. Pegge, 
8vo. 1780, that these chewets were fried in oil. See p. 8, of 
that work. Cotgrave's Dictionar$, explains the French word 
goubelet, to be a kind of round pie resembling our chuet. 
See also Florio's Italian Dictionar,. .2q 1598: " Frilingotti. 
A kinde of daintie chezoet or mlnced pie." 3IALONE. 
  mu staffofoffce--] See Richard the Second. 
VOL. XI.  D 

402 FIRST PART OI,' .eT « 

It rain'd down fortune showering on your head ; 
And such a flood of greatness fell on you,-- 
What with our help ; what with the absent king ; 
What with the injuries of a wanton time ;s 
The seeming sufferances that you had borne ; 
And the contrarious winds, that held the king 
So long in his unlucky Irish wars, 
That ail in England did repute him dead,-- 
And, from this swarm of fair advantages, 
You took occasion to be quickly woo'd 
To gripe the general sway into your hand: 
Forgot yonr oath to us at Doncaster ; 
And, being fed by us, you us'd us so 
As that ungentle gull, the cuckoo's bird, ç 
Useth the sparrow : did oppress out nest ; 
Grew by out feeding to so great a bulk, 
That even our love dnrst hOt corne near yonr sight, 
For fear of swallowing; but with nimble wing 
We were enforc'd, tbr safety sake, to fly 
Out of your sight, and raise this present head : 
Whereby we stand opposed ' by such means 
As you yourself have forg'd against yonrself; 

s the bjuries ofa anton time;] i.e. the injuries done 
by King Richard in the wantonness of prosperity. 
 As that ungentle gull, the cuckoo's bird,] The euekoo's 
chieken, who, beiig hatehed and fed by the sparrow, in whose 
nest the euekoo's egg was laid, grows in time ab!e to devour ber 
ntrse. JOHNSON. 
Thus, in Philemon Holland's translation of the tenth Book of 
Pliny's Nat. Hist. ch. 9: " The Titling, therefore, that sitteth, 
being thus deceived, hatchefl the egge and bringeth up the 
chicke of another biïd :and this she doth so long, untill the 
young cuckow being once fledge and readie to file abroad, is so 
bold as to seize upon the old Titling, and eat up her that hatch- 
cd her." STEEVENS. 
'  we stand o.pposed &c.] We stand in opposition to you. 

se. z. KING HENRY IV. 4os 

By unkind usage, dangerous countenance, 
And violation of ail i:aith and troth 
Sworn to us in your younger enterprize. 
/\ HEur. These things, indeed, you have arti- 
t)roclaim'd at market-crosses, read in churches ; 
To face the garment of rebellion 
With some fine colour,  that may please the eye 
Of fickle changelings, and poor discontents, a 
Which gape, and tub the elbow, at the news 
Of hurlyburly innovation : 
And never yet did insurrection want 
Such water-colours, to impaint lais cause ; 
Nor moody beggars, starving for a rime » 
Of pelhnell havock and conthsion. 

 -- articulated,] i. e. exhibited in articles. So, in Daniel's 
Civil lVars, &c. Book V : 
" How to articulate with yielding wights." 
Again, in The Spanish Tragedy : 
" To end those things articulated here." 
Again, in The Valiant Welchman, 1615: 
" Drums, beat aloud !--Pli hot articulate." 

 To face thegarment ofrebellion 
With some fine colour,] This is an allusion to our ancient 
fantastick habits, which were .usuallyfaced or turned up with a 
colour different from that of which they were made. So, in the 
old bterl-ude of Nature, bi. 1. no date: 
" His hosen shall be freshly garded 
" Wyth colours two or thre." ST:EEVENS. 

"--poor discontents,] Poor discontents are poor discon- 
tented people, as we now say--malcontents. So, in Marston's 
Malcontent, 1604: 
« 'Vhat play I well the free-breath'd discourent ." 

 -- starving for a time--] i.e. impatiently expecting a 
rime, &c. So, in The Comedy of Errors : 
« And now again dean starved for a look." 


P. HEav. In both ourarmies, there is a many a soul 
Shall pay full dearly tbr this encounter, 
If once they join in trial. Tell your nephew, 
The prince of Wales doth join with all the world 
In praise of Henry Percy: By my hopes,-- 
This present enterprize set off his head,-- 
I do hOt think, a braver gentleman, 
More active-valiant, or more valiant-young, 7 
More daring, or more bold, is now alive, 
To grace this latter age with noble deeds. 
For my part, I may speak it to my shame, 
I bave a truant been to chivalry ; 
And so, I hear, he doth account me too : 
Yet this before ny fitther's majesty, 
I am content, that he shall take the odds 
Of his great nmne and estimation ; 
And will, to save the blood on either side, 
Try fortune with him in a single fight. 
K. I:tEar. And, prince of Wales, so date we 
venture thee, 
Albeit, considerations infinite 
Do make against it :--No, good Worcester, no, 
We love our people well ; even those we love, 

6  set offhis head,] i. e. taken from lais account. 
 Iore active-valiant, or more valiant-goung,] Sir Thomas 
Hanmer reads--more valuedtoung. I think the present gingle 
bas more of Shakspeare. JoHso. 
The saine kind of gingle is in Sydney's Aslrophel and Stella : 
"  young-wise, wise-valiant." 
*  No, good Worceser, no, 
We love ourpeople well;-] As there appears to be no reason 
for introducing the negative into this sentence, I should suppose 
it an error of the press, and that we ought to read : 
Know, good grorcester, know, &c. 
Thcre is sufficient rea,son to bdieve that many parts of these 

sc. z. KING HENRY IV. 405 

That are lnisled upon your cousin's part: 
And, will they take the oflr of our grace, 
Both he, and they, and you, yea, every man 
Shall be lny fi'iend again, and I'll be his: 
So tell your cousin, and bring me word 
What he will do :--But if he will hot yield, 
Rebuke and dread correction wait on us, 
And they shall do their office. 8o, be gone ; 
We will hot now be troubled with reply : 
We offer fair, take it advisedly. 
[Exeu,t WORCESTER and /ERNON. 
/9. HEur. It will n0t be accepted, on lny lire : 
The Douglas and the Hotspur both together 
Are confident against the world in arms. 
K. HEur. Hence, therefore, every leader to his 
charge ; 
For, on their answer, will we set on them: 
And God befriend us, as out cause is just! 
[Exunt King, BLUNT, and Prince JOHN. 
FAL. Hal, ifthou see me down in the battle, and 
bestride me, 9 so; "ris a point of fi'iendship. 
P. Hr. Nothing but a colossus can do thee 
that fi'iendship. Say thy pr%vers, and farewell. 
FAL. I would it were bed-time, Hal, and ail well. 

plays were dictated to the transcribers, and the words, l('now and 
no, are precisely the same in sound. M. MAS0N. 

  and bestride me,] In the battle of Agincourt, Henry, 
when king, did this act of fi-iendship tbr his brother the Duke 
of Gloucester. STEVSS. 

So again, in Taï Comedy o.f E,','ors : 
"" When I bestrM tltee in the wars, and took 
"" Deep scars, to save thy lire." MaLOlSlE. 

406 FIRST PART OF Ac2" r. 

/'.//2v. Why, thou owest God a death. 
FU;. 'Tis not due yet ; I would be loath to pay 
him before his day. What need I be so forward with 
him that calls not on me ? Well, 'tis no Inatter; 
I-Ionour pricks nie on. Yea, but how if honour 
prick me oit when I corne on? how then ? Can 
honoursetto aleg? No. Or an arm? No. Or 
take away the grief of a wound ? No. Honour 
bath no skill in surgery then? No. What is 
honour ? A word. What is in that word, honour? 
What is that honour ? Air. A trim reckoning!m 
Who hath it ? He that died o' Wednesday. Doth 
hefeelit? No. Dothhe hearit? No. Isit in- 
sensible then ? Yea, to the dead. But will it hot 
live with the living ? No. Why ? Detraction will 
hOt surfer it:mtherefore l'll none of it: Honour 
is a mere scutcheon,  and so ends my catechism. 

 Exit.] This exit is remarked by Mr. Upton. JOHlqSOl. 
 -- Honour is a mere scutcheon,] This is very fine. The 
reward of brave actions formerly was only some honourable 
bearing in the shields of arrns bestowed upon deservers. But 
Falstaff having said that honour often came not till after death, 
he calls it very wittily a scutcheon, which is the painted heraldry 
borne in funeral processions; and by mere scutcheon is insinuated, 
that whether alive or dead, honour was but a name. 

sc. H. KING HENRY IV. 44)7 


The ttebel Camp. 

Enter Wotc,sTr.t and Vwlt¢oN. 

IVOR. O, no, my nephew must not know, sir 
The liberal kind off`er of the king. 
FER. 'Twere best, he did. 
H'OR. Then are we ail undone. 
If is hOt possible, if cannot be, 
The king should keep his word in loving us ; 
He will suspect us still, and find a rime 
To punish this off`ence in other fiults : 
Suspicion shall be ail stuck full of eves: 3 
For treason is but trusted like the fx ; 
Who, ne'er so tame, so cherish'd, and lock'd up, 
Will have a wild trick of lais ancestors. 
Look how we can, or sad, or merrily, 
Interpretation will misquote our looks; 
And we shall feed like oxen at a stall, 
The better cherish'd, still the nearer death. 
lIv nephew's trespass may be well forgot, 
It'hath the excuse of youth, and heat of blood ; 

 Suspicion shall be all stuckfidl ofç/es: ] The saine inaage of 
SUsloicion is exhibited in a Latin tragedy, called Roxana, written 
about the saine time by Dr. William Alabaster. 3OHI-SOI-. 
Dr. Farmer, with great propriety, would reform the line as I 
have printed it. In ail tbrmer editions, without regard to mea- 
ure, it stood thus : 
" Suspicion, all our lires, shall be stuck thll of eyes." 
Ail the old copies readsuppositio,. STV.V.vv«xs. 
The emendation was nmde bv 3If. Pope. 3IaLoxv.. 


And an adopted naine of privilege,-- 
A hare-brain'd Hotspur,  govern'd by a spleen : 
_Ail his offences live upon my head, 
And on his father's ;--we did train him on ; 
And, his corruption being ta'en from 
We, as the spring of all, shall pay for ail. 
Therefore, good cousin, let hOt Harry know, 
In any case, the offer of the king. 
VR. Deliver what you will, I'll say, 'ris so. 
Here cornes your cousin. 

Enter HoTsPutt and DovI^S; and Oïcers and 
Sohliers, behind. 

HoT. My uncle is return'd :Deliver up 
My lord of Westmoreland?Uncle, what news ? 
lVo2. The king will bid you battle presently. 
Doa. Defy him by the lord of Westmoreland.  
HOT. Lord Douglas, go you and tell him soY 
Doa. Marry, and shll, and very willingly. 

"  an adopted naine of privilege, 
./1 hare-brain'd Hotspur,] The name of HotsTur will privi- 
lege him ri'oto censure. 3om, zSol, z. 
" Deliver up 
ltIy lord ofWestmoreland.] He 
for the sale return" of "Vorcester. 

was " impawned as a suret)" 
See Act IV. sc. iii. 

 Doug. Defj him by the lord o. Westmoreland.] This line, 
as well as the next, (as has been observed by one of the modern 
editors,) woperly belongs to Hotspur, whose impatience would 
scarcely surfer any one to nticipate him on such an occasion. 
 Lord Douglas, go ou &c.] Douglas is here used as a tri- 

sc. H. KING HENRY IV. 409 

I{ZOR. There is no seeming mercy in the king. 
HOT. Did you beg any ? God forbid ! 
IVOR. I told him gently of our grievances, 
Of his oath-breaking ; which he mended thus,m 
By now forswearing that he is forsworn : 
He calls us rebels, traitors  and will scourge 
With haughty arms this hateful name in us. 

Re-enter DOUGLAS. 

Doua. Arm, gentlemen ; to arms! for I have 
A brave defiance in king Henry's teeth, 
And Westmoreland, that was engag'd, s did bear it; 
Which cannot choose but bring him quickly on. 
IVOR. The prince of Wales stepp'd forth before 
the king, 
And, nephew, challeng'd you to single fight. 
HOT. O, 'would the quay,'el |ay npon o,,," heads ; 
And that no man might drw short breath to-day, 
But I, and Harry Monmouth [ Tell me, tell me, 
How show'd his tasking ?" seem'd it in contempt ? 
VER. No, by my soul ; I never in my lire 
Did hear a challenge urg'd more modestly, 

s And Westmoreland, that was engag'd,] Engag'd is delivered 
as an hostage. A few lines before, upon the return of Worcester, 
he orders Westmoreland to be dismissed. JOHSO. 
9 How show'd his tasking ?] Thus the quarto, 1598. The 
others, with the folio, readtalMng. Sa'wevwrs. 
I know not whether tasking is not here used for taxing; 
ï. e. his satlrical representation. So, in As /ou lilt'e it: 
"  my taxing, like a wild goose, flies." 
See p. $95, n. 9. Tasking, however, is suflïciently intelligible 
în its more usual acceptation. We yet say, "he took him to 
tasJ'.'" MAIOrW. 


Unless a brother should a brother dare 
To gentle exercise and. proof of arlns. 
He gave you all the duties of a man; 
Trimm'd up your praises with a princely tongue ; 
Spoke your deservings like a chronicle ; 
Making you ever better than his praise, 
By still dispraising praise, valued with you: 1 
And, which became him like a prince indeed, 
He made a blushing cital of himse]f;  
And chid his truant youth with such a grace, 
As if ho master'd 3 there a double spirit, 
Of teaching, and of learning, instantly. 

' By still di,Traising praise, valued with .you :] This foolish 
line is indeed in the folio of 1623, but it is evidently the player's 
nonsense. WAIVITOl. 
This line is hot only in the first folio, but in all the editions 
before it, that I bave seen. Why it should be eensured as non- 
sense I know hot. To vilify praise, eompared or valœeed witli 
merit superior to pralse, is no harsh expression. There is another 
objection to be ruade. Prince Henry, in his challenge of Percy, 
had indeed commended him, but with no such hyperboles as 
might represent him above praise; and there seems to be no 
reason why Vernon should magnify the Prinee's eandour beyond 
the truth. Did then Shakspeare forger the foregoing seene . or 
are some lines lost from the Prince's speech ? JoHlSOl. 
I do hOt suspect any omission. Our author in repeating let- 
ters and speeches of former seenes in his plays, seldom attends 
minutely to what he had written. I believe, in these cases he 
always trusted to memory. MAI.Ol. 
 He ruade a blushing eital of himself;] Mr. Pope observes 
that by cital is meant taxation; but I rather think it means 
recital. The verb is used in that sense in The Two Gentlenzen 
of Verona, Aet IV. se. i : 
«  for we cite our faults, 
" That they may hold exeus'd out lawless lires. » 
Agaln, in h%ng Henry \ Aet V. se. il: 
" Whose want gives growth to the imperfections 
« Which you have cBed," &e. CoLLs. 
 -------he master'd--] i.e. was toaster of. SxzzVlS. 

se. H. KING HENRY IV. 411 

There did he pause : But let me tell the world,-- 
If he outlive the envy of this day, 
England did never owe so sweet a hope, 
So much misconstrued in his wantonncss. 

HOT'. Cousin, I think, thou art enamoured 
Upon his follies ; never did I hear  
Of any prince, so wild, at liberty :s__ 
But, be he as he will, yet once ere night 
I will embrace him with a soldier's arm, 
That he shall shrink under my courtesy.---- 
_Arm, ann, with speed :--And, fellows, soldiers, 
Better consider what you have to do, 
Than I, that have hot well the gift of tongue, 
Can lift your blood up with persuasion. 

" Upon his follies; never did I hear--] The old copies--on 
his follies. Mr. Pope introduced the syllable necessary to metre. 
Mr. Malone, however, tells us, that---hear is used, in this in- 
stance, as a dissyllable, and consequently, I suppose, would read 
the line as follows : 
On his Ifollics; I never [ dia 1 1 ho-af. SX.EVENS. 
s Of any prince, so wild, af liberty :] Of any prince that 
played such pranks, and was not confined as a madman. 
The quartos, 1598, 1599, and 1608, read--so wild a libertie. 
Perhaps the author wrote--so wild a libertine. Thus, in Antony and Cleopatra : 
"' Tie up the liSertine in a fie|d of feasts." 
The oldest reading, however, may be the true one; ior in 
The Comedy ofErrors the saine phraseology occurs again : 
« __ prating mountebanks, 
" And many such like liberties of sin. » S'v.vv.s. 
Our author uses the expression in the text again, in King 
Richard III: 
« My hair doth stand on end to hear her curses. 
« And so doth minc. I muse, why she's at libertj.'" 



Enter a Messenger. 

MFSS. My lord, here are letters fo." you. 
/-Zov. I cannot read them now.-- 
O gentlemen, the rime of lire is short ; 
To spend that shortness basely, were too long, 
If lire did ride upon a dial's point, 
Still ending at fle arrival of an hour. 
An if we live, we live to tread on kings ; 
If die, brave death, when princes die with us! 
Now for out conscience,--the arms are fair, 
When the intent of bearing them is just. 

Fnter another Messenger. 

2Ess. Mylord,prepare; the king comes on a pace. 
HOT. I thank hiln, that he cuts me from my tale, 
For I profess not talking ; Only this-- 
Let each man do his best: and here draw I 
A sword, whose temper I intend to stain 
With fle best blood that I can meet withal 
In the adventure of this perilous day. 
Now,--Esperance !---Percy !--and set on.-- 
Sound all the lofty instruments of war, 

« Now,--Esperance !] This was the word of battle on Percy's 
side. See Hall's Chronicle, folio 22. POPE. 
Esperance, or Esperanza, bas always been the motto of the 
Percy family. Esperance en Dieu is the present motto of the 
Duke of Northumberland, and has been long used by his prede- 
cessors. Sometimes it was expressed Esperance ma Comforte, 
which is still legible at Alnwick castle over the great gate. 
Our author round this word of batt]e in Ho]inshed. He seems 
to have used Esperance as a word of four syllables. So, in The 
]Vlerry lYives of Windsor : 
« And Honi soit qui mal  pensé, write." MaLOlE. 


And by that musick let us ail embrace : 
For, heaven to earth, 7 some of us never shall 
A second rime do such a courtesy. 
[ The Trumpets sound. They embrace, and exeunt. 


PDin near Shrewsbury. 

Excursions, and Parties dfighting. Ahtrum to the 
Baltle. Then enter DouLaS and BLUNT, meet- 

BLUNT. What is thy naine, that in the battle * 
Thou crossest me ? what honour dost thou seek 
Upon my head ? 
Doua. Know then, my name is Douglas ; 
And I do haunt thee in the battle thus, 
Because some tell lne that thou art a king. 
BLUNT. They tell thee true. 
Dora. The lord of Stafford dear to-day hath 
Thy likeness; tbr, instead of thee, king Harry, . 
This sword bath ended him : so shall it thee, 
Unless thou yield thee as my prisoner. 

In French metre, the e final always makes a syllable, though 
it does not in prose. 
7 For, heaven to earth,] i.e. one might wager heaven to earth. 
*  hz the battle] The, which is not in the old copies 
 as added for the -ake of the measure, by Sir T. Hanmer. 

,rl,r FIRST PART OF ,4c, r. 

BLU,Vr. I was hot born a yielder, thou proud 
Scot ; 9 
And thou shalt find a king that will revenge 
Lord Stafford's deafla. 
[They d[ight; and BLUNT i$ slabz. 


Ho'. 0 Douglas, hadst thou fought at Holme- 
don flms, 
I never had triflmph'd upon a Scot. 
Doua. All's done, all's won ; here breatlfless lies 
the king. 
Ho2" Where ? 
Doua. Here. 
Ho2" This, Douglas ? no, I know this face full 
well : 
A gallant knight he was, lais name was Blunt ; 
Semblably furnish'd like the king hilnself.' 

9 I voas hot born a yielder, thou proud Scot;] The folio reads, 
I think, better : 
I voas hot born to yield, thou haughty Scot. RITSOl. 
 Semblablyfurnish'd &c.] i.e. in resemblance, alike. Thia 
word occurs in The Devil's Charter, 1607: 
" So, semblably doth he with terror strike." 
Again, in The Case is alter'd, by Ben Jonson, 1609: 
" Semblably prisoner to your general." 
The smne circumstance is also recorded in the .Od Song of" 
Drayton's Poll/olbion : 
" The next, sir Walter Blunt, he with three others slew, 
" Ail armed lie the kh,g, which he dead sure accounted ; 
" But after, when he saw the king himself remounted, 
" This hand of" mine, quofli he, four kings this day have 
« And swore out of the earth he thought they sprang 
again." STE]RVENS. 

e. riz. KING HENRY IV. 15 

DouG. A fool go with thv soul, whither it goes ! 
A borrow'd title hast thou'bought too dear. 
Why didst thou tel[ me tl',at thou wert a king ? 
HoT. The king hath many marching in his coats. 
DouG. Now, by my sword, I will kill all his 
courts ; 
l'll murder all his wardrobe, piece by piece, 
Until I meet the king. 
HoT. Up, and away ; 
Our sokliers stand £ull £airly for the day. [Exeunt. 

Olher Mlarun-ts. Etter FALSTAFF. 

FAL. Though I could 'scape shot-fi'ee at Lon. 
don,  I fear the shot here; here's no scoring, but 

 A fool go with thsoul, whither it oes !] The old copies 
read: Ah, fool, go eith thy soul, &e. but this appears to be 
nonsense. I have ventured to omit a single ]etter, as well as to 
change the punetuation, on the authm-ity of the following pas- 
sage in The .llerchant of Venice: 
" With one fool's head I came to woo, 
" But I go away with two." 
Again, more appositely, in Promos and Cassandra, 1578: 
" Go, and a knave with thee." 
See a note on Tinon oJ"Athens, Act V. sc. ii. S'rv.vws. 
Mr. Steevens has but partially eradicated the nonsense of thls 
passage. Read : 
A fool go with thy soul, where-c'er it goes. RITSO_,q. 
IVhither, I believe, meansto whateverplace. So, p. 268 : 
"  But hark you, Kate » 
" IVhither I go, thither shall you go too." SwwwVWlS. 
  shot-free at Londo»,] A play upon shot, as it means 
the part of a reckoning, and a missive weapon diseharged ri'oto 
artillery. JOHISON. 
So, in Aristippus, or the Jovial Philosopher, 160: " the 
best shot to be diseharged is the tavern bill ; the best alarum is 
the sound of healths." 

4.16 FIRST PART OF A«T '. 

upon tlle pate.--Soft! who art thou ? Sir Walter 
Blunt ;--there's honour for you: Here's no vanity I a 
--I am as hot as molten lead, and as heavy too: 
God keep lead out of me! I need no more 
weight than mine own bowels.--I bave Ied my 
raggamuffins where they are peppered: flmre's but 
three of lny hundred and fifty » left alive ; and they 

Again, in The Play ofthe _Four P's, 1569: 
" Then after your drinking, how fall ye to winking ? 
" Sir, after drinking, while the shot is tinking." 
Again, Heywood, in his Epigrams on Proverbs: 
" And it is yll commynge, I have heard say, 
«, To the end of a shot, and beginnyng of a fray." 
4  Here's no vanit.q .t'l In our author's time the negative, 
in common speech, was used to design, ironîcally, the excess of 
a thing. Thus, Ben Jonson, in Every ]llan in his Humour, says : 
" O here's no fopper/, t 
" 'Death, I can endure the stocks better." 
Meaning, as the passage shews, that the fopTery was excessive. 
And so in many other places. 
I am in doubt whether this interpretation, though ingenious 
and well supported, is true. The words may mean, here is real 
honour, no vanitq, or empt9 appearauce. JoHso. 
I believe Dr. Warburton is right: the same ironical kind of 
expression occurs in The 3Iad Loyer of Beaumont and Fletcher: 
" --Here's no villainy! 
« I ana glad I came to tire hearing." 
Again, in Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub: 
« Here was no subtle device to get a wench 
Again, in flae first part of Jeronimo, &c. 1605 : 
" Here's no /ïne villainy! no damned brother !" 
Again, in out" aùllor's Taming of the Shre: " Here's no 
knavery I" 
s  chere's but three ofmy hundred andft] Ail the 
old copies have-- There's hOt three &c. They are evidenfly erro- 
neous. The saine mistake has already happened in this play, 
where it has been rightly corrected. See p. 587, n. 2. So again, 
in Coriolanus, 1623: 
" Cor. Ay, but mine own desire ? 
" 1 Cit. How, hot your own desire 

sc. XH. KING HENRY IV. 417 
are for the town's end, to bcg during lire. But 
who cornes here ? 

Eter Prince HENRY. 

P. HE,v. What, stand'st thou idle hcre ? lend 
me thy sword : 
Many a nobleman lies stark and stiff 
Under the hoofs of vaunting cnemies, 
Whose deaths are unreveng'd : Pr'ythee, lend thy 
sword. 6 

ï;'AL. 0 Hal, I pr'ythee, give lne leave to breathe 
a while.Turk Gregory never did such deeds in 
arlns, 7 as I hav doue this da.3,. I have paid Percy, 
I have made him sure. 

P. HEv. He is, indeed ; and living to kill thee2 
Lend me thy sword, I pr'ythee. 

«  Pr'ythee, lend thy sword.] Old copies, redundantly, 
Pr'dthee , lend me th d sord. STïeVïSs. 
 -- Turk Gregory never did such deeds in arms,] 5Ieaning 
Gregory the Seventh, ealled Hildebrand. This furious fi'iar sur- 
mounted ahnost invincible obstacles to deprive the Emperor of 
his right of investiture of bishops, whieh his predeeessors had 
long attempted in vain. Fox, in his History, bath ruade Gre- 
gory so odious, that I don't doubt but the good Protestants of 
that time vere well pleased to hear him thus charaeterized, as 
uniting the attributes of their two great enemies, the Turk and 
Pope, in one. Waaurtox. 
On the subjeet of Hildebrand's exploits an aneient tragedy 
was written, though the title of it ollly bas reaehed us. Hence, 
perhaps, our author's aequaintanee with Turk Gregory. 
 -- I have paid Percff, I have ,mde him sure. 
P. Hen. He is, indeed; and &e.] The Prinee's answer, 
whieh is apparently eonneeted with Falstaff's last words, does 
hot eohere so well as if the knight had said 
VOL, XI. 2 E 


_'AL. Nay, before God, Hal, if Percy be alive, 
thou et st hot my sword ; but take my pistol, if 
thou wilt. 
/9. H.. Give if me : What, is if in the case ? 
F«lz,. Ay, Hal ; 'ris hot, 'ris hot; there's that 
will sack a city. 9 
 The Prince draws out a bottle of sack. I 
P. H'. What, is't a rime to jest and dally now? 
[ Throws it at him, and exit. 
FL. Well, if Percy be a]ive, l'll pierce him.  If 

I bave nade him sure; Percy's sale enough. 
Perhaps a word or two like these may be lost. JoHlSO. 
Sure has two significations; certainly disposed of, and sa.ff. 
Falstaff uses it in the former sensc, the Prince replies to it n 
the latter. Sa'EEvs. 
sack a city.] A quibble on the word sack. 
The saine quibble may be round in Aristippus, or the Jovial 
Philosopher, 16:30: "--it may justly seem to have taken the 
naine of sack from the sackUg of cities." 
'  a bottlc ofsack.] The same comick circumstanceoccurs 
in the ancient Interlude of Nature, (written long belote the time 
of Shakspeare,) bi. 1. no date': 
" Gloton.y. We shall have a warfare it ys told me. 
" [an. Ye; where is thy harnes 
" Glotony. Mary, here may ye se, 
" Here ys harnes inow. 
" Wrath. Why hast thou none other harnes but thys 
" Glotony. What the deyyll harnes should I mys, 
" Without it be a bottell 
" Another bottell I wyll go purvey, 
" Lest that drynk be scarce in the way, 
" Or happely none to sell." SaEVES. 
"- if Perc./ be alive, I'll pierce him.] Certainly, he'll 
lgierce him, i. e. Prince Henry will, who is just gone out to seek 
him. Besides, 1'll pierce hbn, contradicts the whole turn and 
humour of the speech. 


he do corne in my way, so : if he do not, if I corne 
in his, willingly, let hiln make a carbonado of me.  
I like hOt such grinning honour as sir Walter hath : 
Give me lire: which if I con save, so; if not, ho- 
nour cornes unlooked for, and there's an end. 

I rather take the conceit to be this : To pierce a vessel is to 
tap it. Falstaff takes up his bottle, which the Prince had tossed 
at his head, and being about to animate himself with a draught, 
cries: IfPercj be olive, l'llpierce him, and so draws tbe cork. 
I do not propose this with much confidence. JOHSO. 
Ben Jonson has the saine quibble in his New Inn, Act III: 
" Sir Pierce anon will pierce us a new hogshead." 
I believe Falstaff nmkes this boast that thc Prince may hear 
it; and continues the rest of the speech in a lower accent, or 
when he is out of hearing. Shakspeare has the same play on 
words in Love's Laboures Lost, Act IV. sc. il. Vol. VII. p. 94, 
n. 9. STEEVEN$. 
Shakspeare was hOt aware tbat he here ridiculcd the serious 
etymology of the Scottish historian: « Piercj a penetrando 
oculum Regis Scotorum, ut thbulatur I3oetius." kinner. 
 a carbonado o3eme.] A carbonado is a piece of meat 
eut cross-wise for the gridiron. JOHNSON. 
So, in The S]ganish Gffpsie, lry Middleton and Rowley, 
1653 : 
" Carbonado thou the old rogue my father,. 
"\Vhile you slice into collops the rusty gammon his man." 



Another Part of the Field. 

Alarums. Eavursions. Enter the King, Pri»ce 

K. T1E. I pr'ythee, 
Harry,withdraw thyself; thou bleed'st too much 
Lord John of Lancaster, go you with him. 
P. JOHN. Not I, my lord, unless I did bleed too. 
P. ItEv. I do beseech your majesty, make up, 
Lest your retirement do amaze your friends? 
K. HN. I will do so :-- 
My lord of Westraoreland, lead him to his tent. 
IVST. Corne, my lord, I will lead you to your 
P. tt.v. Lead me, my lord ? I do not need 
your help : 
_And heaven forbid, a shallow scratch should drîve 
The prince of Wales ri'oto such a field as this; 
Where stain'd nobility lies trodden on, 
And rebels' arms tridmph in massacres! 
P. JOH . We breathe too long :--Corne, cousin 
Our duty this way lies ; for God's sake, corne. 
[Exeunt Prince JOHN a7d WESTMORELAND. 

"  thou bleed'st too much:] History says, the Prince was 
wounded in the face by an arrow. SrEwvErs. 
" amaze tour.friends.] i.e. throw them into conster. 
:ation. SrvEs. 

sc. m KING HENRY IV. '21 

P. HEar. By heaven, thou hast deceiv'd me, 
I did not think thee lord of such a spirit : 
Before, I lov'd thee as a brother, Jolm; 
But now, I do respect thee as lny soul. 
/\ HEa . I saw him hold lord Percy at the point, 
With lustier maintenance than I did look for 

Of such an ungrown warrior. 6 
P. Ha . 
Lends metfle to us all! 

O, this boy 

Alarums. Enter DOUGLhS. 

Doc. Another king! they grow like Hydra's 
heads : 
[ aih the Douglas, fatal to all flmse 
l'bat wear those colours on theln.--What art thou, 
That counterfeit'st the person of a king ? 
K. HE.v. The king himself; who, Douglas, 
grieves at heart, 
No lnany of his shadows thou hast met, 
And not the very king. I have two boys, 
Seek Percy, and thyself, about the field: 
But, seeing thou l'ail'st on me so luckily, 
I will assay thce ; so defend thyself] 
Doc'. I fear, thou art another counterfeit ; 
And yet, iii thitl, thou bear'st thee like a king: 

'; I saw him hold lord Perc.q af the point, 
W'iih lustier maintenance than I did look.for &c.] So, 
Holinshed, p. 759: " --the earle of Riehmond withstood his 
violence, and kept him af the sword's point without advantage, 
longe»" than his companions either thought orjudged." 


But mine, I am sure, thou art, whoe'er thou be, 
And thus I win thee. 
[ Thed fight ; lhe King being in claTger, enter 
Prince HENRY. 
P. HZ. Hold up thy head, vile Scot, or thou 
art like 
Never to hold it up again  the spirits 
Of Shirley,  Stafford, Bhmt, are in my arms" 
It is the prince of Wa]cs, that threatens thee ; 
Who never promiseth, but he lneans to pay. s 
[ The fight; DOUGLAS lies. 
Cheer]y, my lord ; How rares your grace ? 
Sir Nicholas Gawsey hath for succour sent, 
And so hath Cliflon ; l'il to Cliflon straight. 
K. HE.: Stay, and breathe a while : 
Thou hast redeem'd thy lost opinion ;9 
And show'd, thou mak'st some tender of my lii, 
In this fair rescue thou hast brought to lne. 
P. HEN. O heaven they did me too ll]Hch injury, 
That ever said, I hearken'd fbr your death. 

7 Of Shirley, &c.] The old copies, redundantly, 
Ofvaliant Shh'ley, &c. STEEVENS. 
 Who never promiseth, but he means to lmy.] We should 
eertainly read : 
lVho never promiseth, b»t means fo pari. 
which agrees with what the Prince says in tlae first Act : 
" And pay the debts I never promised." M. M,sor. 
9 Thou hast redeem'd thy lost opinion ;] i.e. thy lost repu- 
ration; for in that sense the word was then used. So, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's Thierrff and Theodoret : 
" What olginion will the managing 
" Of this affair bring to my wisdom ! my invention 
" Tickles vith approbation on't !" 
Again, in The Gamester, by Shirley, 1687 : 
" Patience! I mean you have the opinion of a valiant gen- 
tlenaan; one that dares fight and maintain your honour against 

8C. Il: KING HENRY IV. 423 

If it xvere so, I might have let alone 
The insulting hand of Douglas over you ; 
Which would bave been as speedy in )Tour end, 
As all the poisonous potions in the world, 
And sav'd the treacherous labour of your son. 
K. ttE . Make up to Clifton, l'll to sir Nicholas 
Gawsey. [Exit King HENRY° 

Enler HoTsI'um 

//o7 . If I lnistake uot, thou art Itarry Mon- 
P. HE5 . Thou speak'st as if I would deny lny 
HOT. My naine is Harry Percy. 
_P. HEA r. Wby, then I see 
A very valiant rebel of the naine. 
I ara the prince oF Wales ; and think not, Percy, 
To share with lne in glory any more: 
Two stars keep hot their motion in one sphere ; 
Nor can one England brook a double reign, 
Of Harry Percy, and the prince of Wales. 
HOT. Nor shall it, Harry, tbr the hour is corne 
To end the one of us ; And 'would to God, 
Thy nanle in arms were now as great as mine[ 
P. HEur. l'Il make it greater, ere I part ri'oto 
thee ; 
And all the buddiug honours on thy crest 
l'll crop, to make a garland for my head. 
HOT. I can no longer brook thy vanities. 
[ Theq j#ght. 


?i/'r FALSTAFFo 

T'AL. Well said, Ital v. to it, Hal .-,xT«'-- , you 
shall find no boy's 1)lay hcre, I can tell you. 

Enler DOUGLAS; he 3q',ghts witk FALsT,UF, Who 
falls down as ijïhe were d«ad, and ea'it DOUGLAS. 
HOTSPUt is wotmdcd, and falls. 

1Io'. O, IIarry, thou lmst rol)b'd me of tny 
I better brook the loss of brittle lih, 
Than those proud titles thou hast won oç me ; 
They vound my thoughts, worse than thy sword 
lny flesh :.-- 
But thought's the slave of lilh,  and lire tine's foc ; 
And tine, that takes survey of all the world, 
Must bave a stop? O, I could prophecy, 

' O, Harr d, thou hast robS'd me o.f m.q.qoulh:] Shakspcare 
has chosen to make Hotspur fall by the hand of the Prince of 
$Vales; but thcre is, I believe, no authority for the faet. Ho- 
linshed says, " The king slew that day with his own hand six 
and thirty persons of his enemies. The offset [i. e. troops] of 
his party, encouraged bv his doings, fought valiantly, and slew 
the Lord Pcrcy, called enry Hotspur." Speed says Percy was 
killed by an unknown hand. MLor. 
 But thozNht's ihe slave 1,] So, in Hamlet : 
" PmTose is but the slave to ïneïnor." STEEVES. 
  those l»'oml tilles thou hast won .me; 
_'Feff wmmd mq thoughts, 
But thought's ihe slave 'l, and l[ time'sol; 
And time, 
2$lust bave a stop.] Hotspur in his last moments endeavours 
to console himself. The glory of the prince wounds his thoughts; 
but thought, being dependent on lb, must cease with it, and 
will soon be at an end. L, on which thoztght depends, is 
itself of no great value, beiug thefool and sport of rime; of 

sc. iv. KING HENRY IV. 

Bu: that the earthy and cold hand of death 
Lies on my tongue :--No, Perey, thou art dust, 
And food for-- 
P. HEur. For worms, brave Percy: Fare thee 
well, great heart !-- 
Ill-weav'd ambition, how much art thou shrunk ! 
When that this body did contain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
But now, two paces of the vilest earth 
Is room enough:SThis earth, that bears thee 
dead, 6 
Bears hot alive so stout a gentlelnan. 
If thou wert sensible of courtesy, 
I should hOt make so dear a show  of zeal : 
But let my çavours hide thy mangled face ; 

rime, which with all its dominion over sublunary things, must 
itselfat last be stoppe& JoHso. 
Hotspur alludes to the Fool in our ancient farces, or the 
representations commonly called Death's Dance, &c. The saine 
allusion occurs in a, leasure for l"Ieasure, and Lore's Labmtr's 
The saine expression is to be round in out author's 106th 
Sonnet : 
" Love's hot Time'sfool." M..ov.. 
* Ill weav'd ambition, &c. A metaphor taken from cloth, 
which shrinks when it is ill-weaved, when its texture is loose. 
 .'I kingdom for it was too small a ound; &c.] 
" Carminibus eonfide bonis--jaeet eeee Tibullus ; 
" Vix marier è toto parva quod urna eapit." Ovid. 
  that 5ears thee dead,] The most authentick copy, the 
quarto of 1598, and the folio, have--the dead. The true read- 
ing is round in a quarto of no authority or value, 169 ; but it 
is here clearly right. 
  so dear a show--] Thus the first and best quarto. 
the subsequent copies have--so great &c. 
 But let my favours Mde thy mangled face;] We should 


And, even in thy behalf, I'll thank mvse]f. 
For doing thcse fair rites of tenderness. 
Adieu, and take thy praise with thee to heaven ! 
Thy ignomy  sleep with thee in the grave, 
But hot remember'd in thy epitaph !m 
[He secs lïALSTA]?F 071 lhe gromtd. 
What! old aequaintanee! eould hot all this flesh 
Keep in a little lire ? Poor Jack, farewell ! 
I eould bave better spar'd a better man. 
O, I should have a heavy miss of thee, 
If I were mueh in love vith vanity. 
Death hath not struck so fat a deer  to-day, 
Though many dearer,  in this bloody fray :-- 

read--favour, face, or countenance. He is stooping down here 
to kiss Hotspur. 
He rather covers his face with a scarf, to hide the ghastliness 
of death. Jonrsor. 
Sec p. 49, n. 9. ]VL¢LOrE. 
9 __ ignom.-y--] So the word ignominy was formerly written. 
Thus, in Troihts and Cressida, Act V. sc. iii: 
" Hence broker lacquey! ignomy and shame," &c. 
Agaln, in Lord Cromwell, 160: 
« With scmdalous ignomy and slanderous speeches." 
Sec Vol. VL p. 81, n. . ]VL¢LONE. 
 -- SO fat a deer--] There is in these lines a very natural 
mixture of the serious and ludicrous, iroduced by the view of 
Percy md Falstaff. I wish all play on words had been forborn. 
I find the saine quibble in The To Angry Women of Abington, 
1599 : 
« Lire is as dear in deer, as 'ris in men." 
Again, in A aidenead well lo«t, 1652, a comedy, by Hey- 
" There's no deer so dear to him, but he will kill it." 
.Fat is the reading of the first quarto, 1598, the most authen- 
tick impression of this play, and of the folio. The other quartos 


.sc. zv. KING HENRY IV. 427 

Embowell'd will I see thee by and by; 
Till then, in blood by noble Percy lie. [Exit. 
FAL. [Rising slowly.-] Embowelled ! if thou e111- 
bowel me to-day, l'Il give you leave to powder me,  
and eat me too to-morrow. 'Sblood, 'twas time 
to counterfeit, or that hot termagant Scot had paid 
me scot and lot too. Counterfeit ? I lie, I ara no 
counterfeit : To die, is to be a counterfeit ; for he 
is but the counterfeit of a lnan, who hath not the 
lire of a man: but to comtertbit dying, when a 
man thereby liveth, is to be no counterfeit, but 
the true and perfect image of lire indeed. The 
better part of' valour is--discretion ; in the which 
better part, I have saved my life. 'Zounds, I am 
afi'aid of this gunpowder Percy, though he be 
dead : How, if he should counterfeit too, and rise ? 
I am afi'aid he would prove the better counterfeit. 
Therefore I'I1 make him sure: yea, and l'Il swear 
I killed him. Why may not he fise, as well as I ? 
Nothing eon£utes me but eyes, and nobody sees 
me. Therefore, sirrah, [Stabbi»g him. with a 
new wound in your thigh, eome you along with 
me. [Takes HoTsua on his back. 

Re-enter _Prince HENRY and Prince JOHN. 

P. Hev. Corne, brother John, fifll bravely hast 
tbou flesh'd 
Thy maiden sword. 

So j'ht a deer, seems to be the better reading, for Turbervile, 
in The Terres of the Ages of ail Beasts of Venerie and Chase, 
observes: " You shall say by anie deare, a great deare, and 
not a fadre deare, unless it be a rowe, whieh in the fifth year is 
called a filAre rowe-bueke." To.wa'. 
 --man dearer,] Many of greater value. JoHrSOr. 
" to powder me,] Topowder is to sait. Jomsor. 

428 FIRST PART OF acT i,'. 

P. JOH,X: But, sort! whom have we here ? 
Did you llOt tell me, this fat nlan was dead ? 
P. tlEv. I did; I saw him dead, breathless and 
Upon the ground.------- 
Art thon alive ? or is it phantasy 
That plays upon our eyesight ? I pr'ythee, speak; 
We will hOt trust out eyes, without our ears :- 
Thon art hot what thon seeln'st. 
/2;. No, that's certain ; I ana not a double 
man :s but if I be hot Jack Falstaff, then aih I a 
Jack. There is Percy: [Throwing the body do'n.] 
if y our father vill do me any honour, so; if hOt, 
lethim kill the next Perey himself. I look fo be 
either earl or duke, I can assure you. 
P. HE.V. Why, Perey I killed myself, and saw 
thee dead. 
F. Didst thon ?Lord, lord, how this world 
is given to lying !I grant you, I was down, and 
out of breath ; and so was he : but we rose both at 
an instant, and fought a long hour by Shrewsbury 
clock. If I may be believed, so; if hOt, let them, 
that should reward valour, bear the sin upon their 
own heads. I'll take it upon my death, I gave him 
this wound in the thigh:  if the man were alive, 

" Upon the groud.] Old copies-- 
On the ground. SxVlS. 
  a double man :] That is, I am not Falstaff and Percy 
together, thongh having Percy on my back, I seem double. 
Dryden has adopted this phrase in his Indian Everor: 
" I kill'd a double nan ; the one hall lay 
" Upon the ground, the other ran away." 
  I gave him this wound in the thigh :] The very learned 
Lord Lyttelton observes, that 8haLspeare has applied an action 

sc. r. KING HENRY IV. 4,29 

and would deny it, I would make him eat a piece 
of my sword. 
i. JOli,v. This is the strangest tale that e'er I 
P. HE2. This îs the strangest fellow, brother 
Come, bring your luggae noblv on your back- 
For my part, if" a lie ma do thée grace, 
l'll gild it with the happiest terres I have. 
lA Retreat is sounded. 
The trumpet sounds retreat, the day is ours. 
Corne, brother, let's to the highest of the field, 
To see what fi'iends are living, who are dead. 
[E.reunt Prince HENRY and Pritce JOHN. 
FL. l'Il follow, as they say, for reward. He 
that rewards me, God reward him! If I do grow 
great, l'Il grow less; for l'Il purge, and leave sack, 
and live eleanly, as a nobleman should do. 
[Exit, bearing off the Bodff. 

to Falstaff, whlch William of 5ialmsbury tells us was really done 
by one of the Conqueror's knights to the body of King Harold. 
I do not however believe that Lord Lyttelton supposed Shaks- 
peare to bave read this old Monk. The story is told likewise 
by Matthew Paris and Matthew of Westminster; and by many 
of the English Chroniclers, Stowe, Speed, &c. &c. FAa.a. 



.4nother Part ofthe Field. 

The Trumpets sound. JEnter Iïng HENRY, Prince 
Others, with WORCESTER and V.Ro, pri- 

h2 HE. Thus ever did rebellion find rebuke.--- 
Ill-spirited Worcester ! did we hOt send grace, 
Pardon, and terres of love fo all of you ? 
And would'st thou turn out offers contrary ? 
Misuse the tenor of th:y kinsman's trust ? 
Three knights upon out party slain to-day, 
A noble earl, and many a ereature else, 
Had been alive this hour, 
If, like a christian, thou hadst truly borne 
Betwixt out armies true intelligence. 
lVo. What I have done, my safety urg'd me to; 
And I embrace this fortune patiently, 
Since not tobe avoided it falls on me. 
K. HE. Bear Worcester to the death, and Ver- 
non too: 
Other offenders we will pause uion. 
[Exeunt WORCESTER and VERNON, guarded. 
How goes the field ? 
P. H. The noble Seot, lord Douglas, when 
fie saw 

 Thus ever did rebellion jï, nd rebuke.] Thomas Church- 
yard, in a catalogue of his own printed works, prefixed to his 
Challenge, 1593, informs us, that he had published " a booke 
called A Rebuke to Rebellion [dedicated] to the good old Earle 
of Bedford." SxEvss. 

sc. v. KING HENRY IV. a31 

The fortune of the day quite turn'd from him, 
The noble Percy slain, and ail his men 
Upon the foot of fear,mfled with the rest ; 
And, falling ri'oto a hill, he was so bruis'd, 
That the pursuers took him. At my tent 
The Douglas is ; and I beseech your grace, 
I lnay dispose of him. 
K. HEv. With all my heart. 
P. HE . Then, brother John of Lancaster, to 
This honourable bounty shall belong- 
Go to the Douglas, and deliver him 
Up to his pleasure, ransolneless, and free: 
His valour, shown upon our crests to-day, 
Hath taught us a how to cherish such high deeds, 
Even in the bosom of our adversaries. 9 
K. ItEX. Then this remains,mthat we divide 
our power.-- 
You, son John, and my cousin Westlnoreland, 
Towards York shall bend you, with your dearest 

 Itath taught us-] This reading, which serves to exclude 
an inelegant repetition, (and might bave been derived ri'oto the 
quarto 1598, corrected by our author,) is refused by 3If. Malone. 
Sec the subsequent note : and yet, are we authorized to reject the 
fittest word, mere]y because it is hot round in the car]lest copy? 
In a note on p. 45, Mr. Malone accepts a reading ri'oto a late 
quarto, which he acknowledges to be of no value. STEEVEN$. 
Hath shown us] Thus the quarto, 1598. In that of 1599, 
shozon was arbitrarily changed to tauï, ht, which consequently is 
the reading of the folio. The repetition is nmch in out author's 
Here Mr. Pope inserts the following speech fi'om the quartos: 
" Lan. I thank your grace for this high courtesy, 
" Which I shall give away immediately." 
But Dr. Johnson judiciously supposes it to have been rejected 
by Shakspeare himself. Svs. 

4ôe FIRST PART OF tc2-t: 

To meet Northtmaberland, and the prelate Scroop, 
Who, as we hear, are busily in arms : 
Myself, mand you, son Harry,mwill towards Wales, 
To fight with Glendower, and the earl of March. 
Rebellion in this land shall lose his sway, 
Meeting the check of such another day: 
And since this business so Pair is done,  
Let us not leave till ail our own be won. [Exeunt. 

' And since this business so fair is done,] Fait forfab'ly. 
Either that word is here used as a dissyllable, or business as a 
trisyllable. MaLoE. 
Business is undoubtedly the word employed as a trisyllable. 

The following Observations arrived too late to be inserted in their 
proper place, and are therefore redCerred to the conclusion of 
Mr. Malone's note, 19. 198. 

Neither evidence nor argument has in my opinion been yet 
produced, sufficient to controvert the received opinion, that the 
character of Falstaffwas originally represented under the name 
of Oldcastle. The contraction of" the original naine Old, left 
standing in the first edition, as the prolocutor of" one of Falstaff's 
8peeches, this address of"" Old lad of the castle," the E)gilogue fo 
ceeding writers, hOt to insist on the opinions of the most eminent 
criticks and commentators, seem irrefi'agable. It has been ob- 
served, that " if the verses be examined in which the naine of 
Falstaff occurs, it will be round that Oldcastle could not have 
stood in those places ;" and that" those only who are entirely un- 
acquainted with our author's history and works, can suppose him 
to have undergone thelabour ofnew-vriting each verse." These 
verses, I believe, are in number seven; and why he, who wrote 
between thirty and forty plays with ease, cannot be reasonably 
supposed to have submitted to the drudgery of new-writing 
seven-lines, to introduce an alteration commanded byhis sovereign, 


is to me utterly incomprehensible. But hat need, after ail, of 
new-writing ? There was but a single syllable in diflirence be- 
tween the two names, to be supplied; which might surely be 
effected, in some places at least, without an entirely new llne. 
The verses in question are, at present, as follows: 
1. " Away, good Ned. FalstqlTsweats to death ;" 
2. " And asking every one for sir John Falsta;" 
3. " Give me my sword and cloak ; Falstaood nlht' ;" 
. . 
4. " Now, Falst where have you been all tlus whde. 
5. " Fare you well, Falst I, in my condition ;" 
6. « Well, you must nov speak sir John Falstfair ;" 
7. " Go, cry sir John Falstto the Fleet ;" 
And may be supposed to have stood originally thus: 
1. « Away, good Ned. Oldcast& sweats to death ;" 
. " And asking every one for sir John Oldcast& ;" 
S. " Give me mysword and cloak; good night, Oldcastle;'" 
4. " Now, Oldcast&, where've you been all this while ?" or, 
« Oldcastle, where have you been ail this while ?" 
5. « Fare you well, Oldcastle, I, in my conclut on; 
6. " You must now speak sir John Oktcastle tir ;" 
7. " Go, carry sir John Oldcastle to th' eet ;" or, 
" Carry sir John Oldcastle to the Fleet." 
Now, it is remarkable, that, ofthese seven lines, tberst aetually 
requires the naine of Oldcastle to pedct the mette, which is at 
present a foot deficient, and consequently affords a proof tiret it 
was originally written to suit that naine and no ooEer ; the second 
and fth do not, require the alteration of a single letter; the 
third but a slight transposition; and the fourth, sixth, and se- 
venth, the addition at most of a single syllable. So that ail this 
mighty labour, which no one acquainted with out author's his- 
tory and works c suppose him to have undcrgone, consisted 
in the substitution of Falst tbr Oldcastle, the transposition of 
two words, and the addition of th,'ee syllables  a prodigious and 
insurmountable fatigue to be sure  which might have taken no 
less space th two long minutes ; and which, afoer ail, he might 
probably and safely commit to the players. 
However the cbacter of sir John Oldcastle, in the original 
play, might be performed, he does not, from any psage now in 
it, appear to bave been either a amper'd glutton or a coward; 
and therefore it is a fait inference that ail those extracts fi'om 
early writers, in which Oldcastle is thus described, rcfer to out 
thor's character so called, and not to the old play.. If it be 
true that Queen Elizabeth, on seeing both or either ofthese plays 
of Henry 1V. eommded Shakspeare to produce his fat knight 
in a different situafion 8he might at the saine rime, out of respect 
• OL. XI.  F 


to the memory of Lord Cobham, have signified a deslre that he 
would change h]s naine; which, being already acquainted with 
another covardly knight of the smne christian name, one Sir 
John Falstae, in the old play of tIery VI. (for both Hall and 
Holinshed call him rightly Fastolfc,) he was able to do without 
having thc trouble to invent or hunt after a new one ; hot per- 
ceiving or regarding thc confusion which the transfer would 
naturally make between the two charactcrs. However this may 
bave been, there is every reason to believe, that when these two 
plays came out of our author's hands, the name of O[dcastle 
supplied the place ofFalsta:. He continued Ned and Gadshill» 
and why should he abandon Oldcaslle? a naine and character 
to which the pnblic was already familiarised, and whom an au- 
dience would indisputably be much more glad to see along with 
his old companions than a stranger ; if indeed our author him- 
self did hot at the time he was writing these dramas, take tbe 
Sir John Oldcastle of the original play to be a real historical 
personage, as necessarily connected with his story as Hal or 
Hors_pur. RIrso v. 

Line , Mr. Ritson's note. For contradiction read contrac- 

I take this opportunity of expressing my concurrence with 
Mr. Ritson's sentiments on this subject, and of declaring my 
opinion that the tradition of Falstaff having been originally Old- 
castle is by no means disproved. The weight of rem evidence 
appears to me to be on the side of Fuller, who lived near enough 
to the time of Shakspeare to be accurately informed, and had 
no temptation to falsify the real fact. To avoid fatiguing the 
reader with a long train of facts and arguments, it may be suf- 
ficient to rely on two authorities which bave been too slightly 
attended to, if they may be said to be noticed at ail. The first 
is Weever, writing at the very period, who describes Oldcastle 
as Shakspeare docs Falstaff, as the page of Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk, (see Vol. XII. p. 1$,} a circumstance which 
¢ould hardlv bave happened if Falstaff had hot originally been 
Oldcastle. OEhe other is Nathaniel Field, a player in Shakspeare's 
company, who might have acted in the play himself, who could 
hot be mistaken, and who expressly refers to Falstaff by the 
naine of Oldcastle. (See p. 95.) Against these testimonies and 
others what has been opposed.} May I hot say, conjecture anll 
inference alone ? Conjecture, I admit, very ingeniously sug- 
gested, and inference very subtilly extracted ; but weighing 
thing against what is equivalent to positive evidence. Rrm 


)lr. ToLLE's Opinion concerning the MoRRIS DACERS uo 
is IVindow. 

THE celebration of May-day, which is represented upon my 
window of painted glass, is a very ancient custoln, that has been 
observed by noble and royal persortages, as well as by the vulgar. 
It is mentioned in Chaucer's Court of Love, that early on May- 
day « furth goth al the court, both most and lest, to fetche the 
flouris fresh, and braunch, and blome." Historians record, that 
in the beginning ofhis reign, Henry the Eighth with his courtiers 
« rose on May-day very early to fetch May or green boughs; and 
they went with their bows and arrows shooting to the wood." 
Stowe's Survegfo London informs us, that " ever. y parish, there, 
or two or three parishes joining together,had ther Maylngs; and 
did fetch in May-poles, wifl diverse warlike shews, with good 
archers, Morrice Dancers, and otheï devices for pastime all fle 
day long." Shakspeare says it was "impossible to make the 
people sleep, on May morning; and that they rose early to ob- 
serve the me of May." The court of King James the First, 
and the po, pulace, long preserved the observance .°f the day, as 
Spelman s Glossar d remarks, under the word, Mamma. 
Better judges may decide, that the institution of this festivity 
originated from the Roman Floralia, or from the Celtic la 
Beltine, while I conceive it derived to us from out Gothic an- 
cestors.... Olau. Jlagnus de .Gentibus .SeT tentrionalibus, .Lib." XV . 
c. Vlll. sayS t that after thelr long wlnter fi'om the beglnnlng 
October to the end of April, the northern nations have a custom 
to welcome the returning splendor of the sun with dancing, and 
rnutually to feast each other, rejoicing that a better season lbr 
fishing and hunting was approached." In honour of May-day 
the Goths and southern Swedes had a mock battle between 
summer and winter, which ceremony is retained in the Isle of 
Man, where the Danes and Norwegians had been for a 10ng 
rime rnasters. It appears from Holinshed's ChroMcle, Vol. III. 
p. Slzb, or in the year 1806, that, before that rime, in country 
towns the young folks chose a summer king and queen for sport 
to dance about Maypoles. There can be no doubt but their 
majesties had proper attendants, or such as would best divert 
the spectators ; and we may presume, that some of the charac- 
ters varied, as fashions and customs altered. About hall a cen- 
tury afterwards, a great addition seems to have been ruade to 

* King 1-Ienry VIIL Act V. sc. iii. and Midsmmer-IVight's Dream, Act IV. 
SC. i. 


the diversion by fle introduction of the Morris or Moorish 
dance into it, which, as Mr. Peck, in his 5lemoirs ofllilton, 
with great probability conjectures, was first brougllt into Eng- 
land in the time of Edward III. when John of Gaunt returned 
from Spain, where he had been to assist Peter, King of Castile, 
against Henry the Bastard. " This dance," says Mr. Peck, 
" was usually perforlned abroad by an equal number of young 
men, who danced in their shirts with ribbands and little bells 
about their legs. But here in England they have always an odd 
person besides, being a boy* dressed in a girl's habit, ,vhom 
they call Maid Marian, an old favourite character in the sport." 
" Thus," as he obser,es in the words of Shakspeare,î " they 
ruade more matter for a May morning : having as a pancake for 
Shrove-Tuesday, a Morris for 5Iay-day." 
We are authorized by the poets, Ben Jonson and Drayton, to 
call some of the representations on my window Morris Dancers, 
though I ara uncertain wbether it exhibits one Moorish person- 
age ; as none of them have black or tawny faces, nor do they 
brandish swords or staves in their hands, nor are they in their 
shirts adorned witb ribbons. We find in Olaus Iagnus, that 
the northern nations danced with brass bells about their knees, 
and such we have upon several of these figures, who may per- 
haps be the original Englisb performers in a May-game before 
the introduction of the real Morris dance. However this may 
be, the vindow cxhibits a favourite diversion of our ancestors 
in ail its principal parts. I shall endeavour to explain some of 
tbe characters, and in compliment to the lady I will begin the 
description with the front rank, in which she is stationed. I am 
fortunate enough to have Mr. Steevens think with me, that 
figure 1. may be designed for the Bavian fool, or the fool with 
the slabbering bib, as Bavon, in Cotgrave's French Dictionarq, 
means a bib for a slabbering child; and this figure has such a 
bib, and a childish simplicity in his countenance. Mr. Steevens 
refers to a passage in Bcaumont and Fletcher's play of The Two 

* It is evident from several authors, that Maid Marian's part was frequently 
pertbrmed by a young woman, and often by one, as I think, of unsullied re- 
putation. Our blarian's deportment is decent and graceful. 
t Twelfth-Night, Act III. sc. iv. All's well that ends well, Act II. sc. ii. 
$ In the lIorisco the dancers held swords in their hands with the pointa 
upward, says Dr. Johnson's note in Atony and Cleopatra, Act III. sc. ix. The 
Goths did the saine in their military dance, sa3s Olaus Magnus, Lib. XV. 
ch. xxiii. Haydocke's translation of Lomagzo on Painting, 1598, 13. lI. p. 
says : "There are other actions of dancing used, as or those who are repre- 
sented with weapons in their hands going round in a ring, capering skilfully, 
hakbg their weapons after the manner of the llorris, with divers actions of 
meeting," &c. " Others hanging lIorris bells upon their ankles." 


Noble Kinsmen, by which it appears that the Bavian in the 
Morris dance was a tumbler, and mimicked the barking of a 
dog. I apprehend that several of the Morris dancers on my 
window tumbled occasionally, and exertcd the chier feat of their 
activity, when they were aside the May-pole ; and I apprehend 
flaat jigs, hornpipes, and the hay, were fleir chier dances. 
It will certainly be tedious to describe the colours of the 
dresses, but the task is attempted upon an intimation, that it 
might hOt be altogether unacceptable. Thc Bavian's cap is 
red, faced with yellow, lais bib yellow, lais doublet blue, his lmse 
red, and his shoes black. 
Figure _% is the celebrated Maid Marian, who, as queen of 
May, bas a golden crown on her head, and in ber left hand a 
flower, as the emblem ofsummer. The flower seems designed 
for a red pink, but the pointals are omitted by thc engraver, who 
copied from a drawing with the like mistake. Olaus Magnus 
mentions the artificial raising of flowers for the celebration of 
1V[ay-day; and the supposition of the like practice « here will 
account for the queen of May having in her hand any particular 
flower before the season of its natural production in this climate. 
Her vesture was once fashionable in the highest degree. It was 
anciently the custom for maiden ladies to wear their hairJ- 
dishevelled at their coronations, their nuptials, and perhaps on 
all splendid solemnities. Margaret, the eldest daughter of 
Henry VIl. was married to James, King of Scotland, with the 
crown upon her head: ber hair hanging down. Betwixt the 
crown and the hair was a very rich coif hanging down behind 
the whole length of the body.This single example sufficiently 
explains the dress of Marian's head. Her coif is purple, her 
surcoat blue, her cuffs white, the skirts of her robe yellow, the 
sleeves of a carnation colour, and her stomacher red with a yel- 
low lace in cross bars. In Shakspeare's play of HenryN'III. 
Arme Bullen at ber coronation is iz her hair, or as Holinshed 
says, "her hair hanged down," but on ber head she had a coif 
with a circlet about it full of rich stones. 
Figure S. is a friar in the full clerical tonsure, with the chaplet 
of white and red beads in his right hand ; and, expressive of his 
professed humility, his eyes are cast upon the ground. His 
corded girdle, and his russet habit, denote him to be of the Fran- 

* Markham's translation of Heresbatch's Husband'g, 1601, observes, ,« tha 
gillifiwers, set in pots and carried into vaults or cellars, have flowered all the 
winter long, through the warmness of the place." 
$ Leland'» Collectanea, 1770, Vol. IV. p. 019, 93, Vol. V. p. 33_0, and 
]-Iolinshed, Vol. III. p. 801,931 ; and see Capilli in Slehnan's Giossa-rt. 



ciscan order, or one of file grey friars, as they were commonly 
called ri'om the colour of thcir apparel, which was a russet or 
a brown russet, as Holinshed, 1586, Vol. III. p. 789, observes. 
The mixture of colours in his habit may bc resembled to a grey 
¢loud, faintly tinged with rcd by file beams of file rising sun, 
and streakcd with black; and such perhaps was Shakspeare's 
Aurora, or " the morn in russet mantle clad." Hamlet, Act l. 
sc. i. The fi'iar's stockings are red, his rcd girdle is ornamented 
with a golden twist, and with a golden tassel.* At his girdle 
hangs a wallet for the reception of provision, the only revenue of 
the mendicant orders of religious, who wcre named Walleteers 
or budget-bearers. It was customary in former rimes for the 
priest and peop!e in procession to go to some adjoining wood on 
May-day mornlng, and return i» a sort of triumph with a May- 
pole, boughs, flowers, garlands, and such like tokens of the 
spring ; and as the gre.y ti'iars were held in very grcat esteem, 
perhaps on this occasion their attendance was frequently re- 
quested. Most of Shakspeare's friars are Franciscans. Mr. 
Steevens ingeniously suggests, that as Marian was the name of 
Robin Hood's beloved mistress, and as she was the queen of 
May, the Morris fi-iar was designcd for fi'iar Tuck, chaplain to 
Robin Huid, king of May, as Robin Hood is styled in Sir David 
Dalrymple's extracts from the book of the Universal KirJ', in 
the year 1576. 
Figure 4. bas been taken to be Marian's gentleman-usher. 
Mr. Steevens considers him as .Marian's paramour, who in deli- 
cacy appears uncovered betbre her; and as it was a custom for 
betrothed persons to we.r some mark for a token of their mutual 
engagement, he thinks that the cross-shaped flower on the head 
of this figure, and tire flower in Marian's hand, denote their 
espousa]s or contract. Spenser's ,S'helherd's Calenda», April, 
specifies thc flowers worn ofparamours tobe the pink,the purple 
colmnbine, gil]i-flowêrs, carnations, and sops in whm. I sup- 
pose the flower in Marian's hand to be a pink, and this to be a 
tock-gil]iflower, or the Hesperis, dame's violet, or queen's gilli- 
flot'er; but perhaps it may be designed for an ornamental ribbon. 
.a,n eminent botanist apprehends the flower upon the man's head 

: Spleudid girdles appear to have been a great article of monastick finery. 
Wykeham, in his lïsitatio Notabilis, prohibits the Canons of Selborne any 
longer wearing silken girdles ornamented xvith gold or silver : " Zonisve serieis 
auri vel argenti oraatmn habentibus." Sec N«tu.ral Histor], and Anti2uities of 
Selborne, p. 371, and Appendix, p. 459. Itox Wnxr... 
 Sec Mail iaducfio in Cowel's Law Dictionarj. When the parish priests 
were inhibited by the diocesan to assist in the May gaines, the Fratciscans 
might gve atteudance, as being exempted from episcopal jurisdiction. 


to be an Epimedium. Many particulars of this figure resenable 
Absolon, the parish clerk in Chaucer's Miller's Tale, such as lais 
curled and golden hair, lais kirtle of watchet, lais red hose, and 
Paul's windows corvin on his shoes, that is, his shoes pinked and 
cut into holes, like the windows of St. Paul's ancient church. 
My window plainly exhibits upon his right thigh a yellow scrip 
or ouch, in which he might, as treasurer to the comoanv, out 
the collected pence, which he might receive, though the cordelier 
must, by the rules ofhis order, carry no money about him. If 
this figure should hot be allowed to be a parish clerk, I incline to 
call him Hocus Pocus, or some juggler attendant upon the 
toaster of the hobby-horse, as " faire de tours de (jouer de la) 
gibeciere," in Boyer's :Frenclz DictioaT, signifies to play tricks 
by virtue ofHocus Pocus. His red StOlnacher has a yellow lace» 
and his shoes are yellow. Ben Jonson mentions " Hokos Pokos 
in ajuggler'sjerkin," which Skinner derives from kirtlekin ; that 
is, a short kirtle, and such seems to be the coat ofthis figure. 
Figure 5. is the famous hobby-horsc, who was often forgotten 
or disused in the Morris dance, even after Maid Marian, the 
friar, and the fool were continued in it, as is intinaated in Ben 
Jonson's masque of The MetamoThosed Gjpsies, and in his 
JEntertainmet off tle Queen ard Prince af .4ltloTe. Our 
hobby is a spirited hol-se of pasteboard, in which the master 
dances,T and displays tricks oflegerdemain, such as the threading 
of tbe needle, the mimicking of tbe ,higb-hie, and tbe daggers 
in the nose, &c. as Ben Jonson, edit. 1756, Vol. I. p. 171, 
acquaints us, and thereby explains the swords in the man's 
cheeks. What is stuck in tbe horses mouth I apprehend to be 
a ladle ornamented with a ribbon. Its use was to receive the 
spectators' pecuniary donations. The crimson foot-cloth fretted 
with gold, the golden bit, the purple bridle with a golden tassel» 
and studded with gold; the man's purple mantle with a golden 
border» which is latticed with purple, his golden crown» purple 

* Vol. VI. p. 93, ofWhailey's edition, 1756: 
"' Clo. They should be Morris dancers by their gingle, but they have no 
" Coc. No, nor a hobby-horse. 
" Clo. Oh, he's oeu forgotten, that's no rule ; but there is no Iaid Marlaa 
nor friar ainongst them, which is thc suret mark." 
Vol. V. p.  11 : 
'" But see, the hobby-horse is forgot» 
" Fool, it must be your lot 
" To supply his want with faces» 
« And some other buffoon graces." 
t  Dr. Plot's History of Staffordshir, p. 4, mentions a dance by a hobbv 
horse aud six others. 


cap witb a red feather, and with a golden knop, induce me to 
think him tobe the king of May ; though he now appears as a 
juggler and a buffoon. We are to recollect the simplicity of 
ancient rimes, which knew hOt polite literature» and delighted 
in jesters, tumblers, jugglers, and pantomimes. The emperor 
Lewis the Debonair hOt only sent tbr sucb actors upon great 
festivals, but out of complaisance to the peopl was obliged to 
assist at their plays, though he was averse to publick shews. 
Queen Elizabeth was entertained at Kenelworth with Italian 
tumblers, Morris dancers, &c. The colour of the hobby-horse 
is a reddish white, like the beautiful blossom of the peach-tree. 
The man's coat or doublet is the only one upon the window that 
has buttons upon it, and the right side of itis yellow, and the 
left red. Such a particoloured « jacket, and hose in the like 
lnanner, were occasionally fashionable froln Chaucer's days to 
Ben Jonson s,* ho, in Epigram 75, speaks of a partie-per-paie 
picture, one hall drawn in solemn Cyprus, the other cobweb 
Figure 6. seems tobe a clown, peasant, or yeoman, by hls 
brown visage, notted huit, and robust limbs.Jf In Beaumont 
and Fletcher's play of The 7%0 Noble _hïnsmen, a clown is 
placed next to the Bavian fool in the Morris dance; and flfis 
figure is next to him on flae file, or in the downward line. Hi» 
bonnet is red, faced with yellow, lais jacket red, his sleeves 
yellow, striped across or rayed with red, the upper part of lais 
bose is like the sleeves, and the lower part is a course deep 
purple, his shoes red. 
Figure 7. by the superior neatness of lais dress, may be a 
franklin or a gentleman of fortune. His hair is curled, his 
bonnet purple, his doublet red with gatheïed sleeves, and his 
yellow stomacher is laced with red. His hose red, striped across 
or rayed with a whitish brown, and spotted brown. His cod- 
piece is yellow, and so are hls shocs. 
Figure 8. the May-pole, is painted yellow and black in spiral 
lines. Spehnan's Glossarj/. mentions the custom of erecting a tall 
May-pole painted with vanous colours. Shakspeare, in the play 
of A 3lidsummer-Night's Dream, Act III. sc. ii. speaks of  

- Itolinshed, 1586. Vol. III. p. ô6, 805, 81, 844, 96ô. Whalley's edltloa 
of Ben Jonson, Vol. VL p. "248. Stowe's Surtey oJ'London, 17,o0, ]3ook V. 
p. 16, 166. Urry's Chaucer, p. 198. 
t So, in Chaucer's Canterbm' Tales, the yeoman is thus described : "A nott 
hede had he, with a brown visage." 
Again, in The |Vidoo's Tea, by Chapman, 161o: « (our not-heaàed 
country gentleman." 


painted May-pole. Upon our pole are displayed St. George's red 
cross, or tbe banner of England, and a white pennon or streamer 
emblazoned with a red cross terminating like the blade of a 
sword, but the delineation thereof is much faded. Itis plain 
however from an inspection of the window, that the upright line 
of the cross, which is disunited in the engraving, should be con- 
tinuous.* Keysler, in p. 78 of his Northern and Celtic Anti- 
quities, gives us perhaps the original of May-poles; and that 
the French used to erect them appears also from Mezeray's 
History of their King Henry IV. and from a passage in Stowe's 
Chronicle, in the year 1560. Mr. Theobald and Dr. SVarburton 
acquaint us that the May-games, and particularly some of the 
characters in them, became exceptionable to the puritanical 
hunlour of former times. By an ordinance of the Rump Par- 
liament in April, 16¢4, all May-poles were taken down and 
removed by the constables and church-wardens, &c. After the 
Restoratiou they were permitted to be erected again. I appre- 
hend they are now generally unregarded and unfrequented, but 
we still on May-day adorn our doors in the country with flowers 
and the boughs of birch, which tree was especially honoured on 
the same festival by our Gothic ancestors. 
To prove figure 9. to be Tom the Piper, Mr. Steevens has 
very happily quoted these lines from Drayton's 3d Eclogue : 
" Myself above Tom Piper to advance, 
" Who so bestirs him in the Morris dauce 
" For penny wage." 
His tabour, tabour-stick, and pipe, attest his profession ; the 
feather in his cap, his sword, and silver-tinctured shield, may 
denote him to be a squire minstrel, or a minstrel of the superior 
order. Chaucer, 1721, p. 181, says, " Mistrels used a red 
hat." Tom Piier's bonnet is red, faced or turned up with yellow, 
his doublet blue, the sleeves blue, turned up with yellow, some- 
thing like red nmffettees at his wrists, over his doublet is a red 
garment, like a short cloak with arm-holes, aud with a yellow 

* St. James was the apostle and patron of Spain, and the knights of his 
order were the most honourable there ; and the ensign that they wore, was 
white, charged with a red cross in the form of a sword. The pennon or 
streamer upon the May-pole seems to contain such a cross. If this conjecture 
be admitted, e have the banner of England and the ensign of Spain upon the 
May-pole ; and perhaps from this circumstance we ma)-infer that the glass 
was painted during the narriage of King Henry VIII. and Katharine of Spain. 
For an account of the ensign of the knights of St. James, see Ashmole's 
History of the Ordcr " the Garter, and llariana's 1-iistory of Spaim 
 This should have been called the Long Parliament. The Rump Parlia- 
.ment ,as in Oliver's time. 


cape, his hose red, and garnished acros and perpendicularly 
on the thlghs, with a narrow yellow lace. This ornamental 
trimming seems to be called gimp-thigh'd in Grey's edition of 
Butler's Hudibras; and something almost similar occurs in 
Love's Labour's Lost Act IV. sc. il. where the poet mentions, 
« Rhimes are guards on wanton Cupid's hose." His shoes are 
Figures 10. and 11. bave been thought to be Femings or 
Spaniards, and the latter a l[orisco. The bonnet of figure 10. 
is red, turned up with blue, his jacket red with red s]eeves 
down the arms, his stomacher white with a red lace, his hose 
yellow, striped across or rayed with blue, and spotted blue, the 
under part of his hose blue, his shoes are pinked, and they are 
of a light colour. I ana ata loss to naine the pennant-like slips 
waving from Iris shoulders, but I will venture to call them side- 
sleeves or long sleeves, slit into two or three parts. The poet 
Hocclive or Occleve, about the reign of Richard the Second, or 
of Henry the Fourth, mentions side-sleeves ofpennyless grooms, 
which swept the ground ; and do hot the two following quota- 
tions infer the use or fashion oftwo pair. of sleeves upon one 
gown or doublet ? It is asked, in the ap.pendix to Bulwer's. 
Arti..[icial Changeling: " What use is thei'e of any other than 
arm'ing sleeves , which answer the proportion of the arm ?" In 
Much Ado about Nothing, Act III. sc. iv. a lady's gown is de- 
scribed with down-sleeves, and side-sleeves, tbat is, as I conceive 
it, with sleeves down the arms, and with another pair of sleeves, 
slit open belote fi'om the shoulder to the bottom, or almost to the 
bottom, and by this means unsustained by the arms and hanging 
down by her sides to the ground or as low as her gown. If 
such sleeves were slit downwards into four parts, they would be 
qtmrtered: and Holinshed says: " that at a royal mummery, 
Henry VIII. and fifteen others appeared in Almain jackets, with 
long quartered sleeves ;" and I consider the bipartit 9 or tripartite 
sleeves of figures 10. and 11. as only a smatl variation of that 
fashion. Mr. Steevens thinks the winged sleeves of figures 
10. and 11. are alluded to in Beaumont and Fletcher, in The 
Pilgrim : 
"  That fairy rogue that haunted me 
" He bas sleeves like dragon's wings." 
And he thinks that from these perhaps the fluttering streamers 
ofthe present Morris dancers in Sussex may be derived. Mark- 
ham's Art of Angling, 1685, orders the angler's apparel to be 
" without hanging sleeves, waving loose, like sails.'" 
Figure 11. has upon hi head a silver coronet, a purple cap 
with a red feathor, and with a golden knop. In my opinion he 


personates a nobleman, for I l'ncline to think that various ranks 
of lire were meant to be represented upon my window. He has 
a post of honour, or, "a station in the valued file," which here 
seems tobe the middle row, and which according to my con- 
jecture comprehends the queen, the king, the May-pole, and 
the noblenlan. The golden crown upon the head of the toaster 
of the hobby-horse, denotes pre-eminence of tank over figure 
11. not only by the greater value of the metal d- but by the 
superior number of points raised upon it. The shoes are blackish, 
the hose red, striped across or rayed with brown or with a darker 
red, his codpiece yellow, his doublet yellow, witla yellow side- 
sleeves, and red arming sleeves, or down-sleeves. The form of 
his doublet is remarkable. There is great variety in file dresses 
and attitudes of the Morris dancers.on the window I but an ocular 
observation will give a more accurate idea of this and of other 
particulars than a verbal description. 
Figure 12. is the counterfeit fool, that was kept in the royal 
palace, and in all great houæes, to make sport tbr the family. 
He appears with ail the badges of his office ; the bauble in his 
hand, and a coxcomb hood with asses ears on his head. The 
top of the hood rises into the form of a cock's neck nd head, 
with a bell at the latter; and Minsheu's Dictionary, 1627, 
under the word cock's comb, observes,--that " natural idiots and 
fools have [accustomed-I and still do accustome themselves to 
weare in their cappes cocke's fêathers or a hat with a necke and 
a head of a cocke on the top, and a bell thereon," &c. 
hood is blue, guarded or edged with yellow at itsscalloped bottom, 
his doublet is red, striped across or rayed with a deeper red, and 
edged with yellow, his girdle yellow, his left side hose yellow, 
with a red shoe, and his right side hose blue, soled with red lêa- 
ther. Stowe's Chronicle, 1614, p. 899, mentions a paix- of cloth- 
stockings soled with white leather called " cashambles," that is, 
" Chausses semelles de cuir," as Mr. Anstis, on the Knighthood 
of fle Bath, observes. The fool's bauble and the carved head 
with asses ears upon it are all yellow. There is in Olaus llagnu«, 
1555, p. o4:, a delineation of a fool, or jester, with several bells 
npon his habit, with a bauble in his hand, and he has on his head 
a hood with asses ears, a feather, and the resemblance of the 
comb of a cock. Such jesters seem to have been formerly much 
caressed by the northern nations, especially in the court of 
" The right hand file is the flrst in dignity and account, or la degree of 
• alue, acc6rding to Count Mansfield's Directions of |Var, 1624. 
 The ancient kings of France wore gilded helmets, the dukes and count, 
v,'ore silvered ones. Se Selden's..Titlc of Honour for the raised loints of 


Denmark ; and perhaps our ancient joculator regis might mean 
zuch a person. 
A gentleman of the highest class in histol:ical literature, ap- 
prehends, that the re.presentation upon my window is that of a 
Morris dance processmn about a May-pole; and he inclines to 
flfink, yet witb many doubts of its propriety in a modern paint- 
ing, that the personages in it rank in the boustrophedon form. 
By this arrangeme)at.(says he) the piece seems to form a regular 
whole, and the train as begun and ended by a fool in tbe follow- 
ing manner: Figure 12. is tbe well known fool. Figure 11. is 
a Morisco, and Figure 10. a Spaniard, persons peculiarly perti- 
nent to the Morris dance ; and he remarks that the Spaniard ob- 
viously forms a sort of middle terre betwixt the Moorish and the 
English characters, having the great fantastical sleeve of the one, 
and the laced stomacher of the other. Figure 9. is Tom the 
Piper. Figure 8. the May-pole. Then follow the English cha- 
racters, representing, as he apprehends, the rive great ranks of 
civil lire. Figure 7. is the franklin, or private gentleman. 
Figure 6. is a plain churl or villaine. He takes figure 5. the man 
within the hobby-horse, to be perhaps a Moorish king, and 
from many circumstances of superior grandeur plainly pointed 
out as the greatest personage of tbe piece, the monarch of tbe 
May, and the intended consort of out English Maid 5Iarian. 
Figure 4. is a nobleman. Figure S. the friar, the rcpresentative 
of ail the clergy. Figure 2. is Maid Marian, queen of May. 
Figure 1. the lesser fool, closes the rear. 
My description commences where this concludes, or I bave 
reversed this genfleman's arrangeffaent, by which in either way 
the train begins and ends with a fool ; but I will not assert that 
zuch a disposition was designedly observed by tbe painter. 
With regard to the antiquity of the painted glass there is no 
memorial or traditional accotmt transmitted to us; nor is there 
any date in the room but flfis, 1621, which is over a door, and 
which indicates in my opinion the year of building the house. 
The book of STorts or lawful Recreations upon Su,,day a fret 
Evening-prayers, and upon Holy-days, published by King James 
in 1618, allowed 5Iay-games, Morris dances, and the setting 
up of May-poles ; and, as Ben Jonson's Masque of The llcta- 
morphosed Gypsies, intimates, that Maid Marian, and the ti'iar, 
together with the often forgotten hobby-horse, were sometimes 
continued in the Morris danc,e as late as the year 1621, 1 once 
thought tbat the glass might be stained about that time ; but my 
present objections to this are the following ones. It seems from 
the prologue to fle play of Kng Henry l'III, that Shakspeare's 
fools should be dressed " in a long mofley coat guarded with 



yellow ;" but fim fool upon my window is not so habited ; and 
he has upon his head a hood, which I apprehend might be the 
coverture of the fool's head belote the days of Shakspere, when 
it was a cap with a comb like a cock's, as both Dr. Warburton 
and Dr. Johnson assert, and flmy seem justified in doing so from 
King Lear's fool giving Kent his cap, and calling it his coxcomb. 
I am uncertain, whether any judgment can be formed from the 
manner of spelling the inscrolled inscription upon the May-pole, 
upon which is displayed the old banner of England, and hot the 
union flag ofGreat Britain, or St. George's red cross and St. An- 
drew's white cross joined together, which was ordered by King 
James in 1606, as Stowe's Ch.ronicle certifies. Ouly one of the 
doublets bas buttons, which I conceive were common in Queen 
Elizabeth's reign; nor have any of tbe figures rufl, which 
fashion commenced in the latter days of Henry VIII. and from 
their want of beards also I am inclined to suppose they were de- 
lineated before the year 1535, when " King Henry VIII. com- 
manded all about his court to poll their heads, and caused his own 
to be polled, and his beard tobe notted, and no more shaven." 
Probably the glass was painted in his youthful days, when he 
delighted in May-games, unless it may. be judged tobe of much 
higher antiquity by almost two centurles. 
Such are my conjectures upon a subject of so much obscurity ; 
but it is high rime to resign it to one more conversant with the 
history of out ancient dresses. 


Printed by S. Hamilton, Weybtidge.