(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Shakespeare's legal acquirements considered, in a letter to J. Payne Collier"

:CD 

= LO 
JO 



CO 



SMKEST'EA'KS 
LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



BY LORD CAMPBELL. 



J 




SHAKESPEARE'S 

LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS CONSIDEEED. 




SHAKESPEARE'S 

LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS 



CONSIDERED. 



BY JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 



A LETTER TO J. PAYNE COLLIER, ESQ., F.S.A. 



Thou art clerkly, thou art clerkly!" 

Merry Wives of Windsor. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUKKAY, ALBEMAKLE STREET. 

1859. 



SoSLS 



LONDON : PRINTED BY \T. CLOWES AND SONS. STAMFOHD STREET, 
AND CHARING CROSS. 



PREFACE. 



WHEN my old and valued friend, Mr. Payne Collier, 
received the following Letter, which I wrote with a 
view to assist him in his Shakespearian lucubrations, he 
forthwith, in terms which I should like to copy if they 
were not so complimentary, strongly recommended me 
to print and publish it in my own name, intimating 
that I might thus have " the glory of placing a stone on 
the lofty CAIRN of our immortal bard." If he had said a 
"pebble" the word would have been more appropriate. 
But the hope of making any addition, even if infinitesi- 
mally small, to this great national monument, is enough 
to induce me to follow my friend's advice, although I am 
aware that by the attempt I shall be exposed to some 
peril. In pointing out Shakespeare's frequent use of 
law-phrases, and the strict propriety with which he 
always applies them, the CHIEF JUSTICE may be likened 
to the COBBLER, who, when shown the masterpiece of a 
great painter, representing the Pope surrounded by an 
interesting historical group, could not be prevailed upon 



PREFACE. 



to notice any beauty in the painting, except the skilful 
structure of a slipper worn by his Holiness. 

Nevertheless I may meet with kinder critics, and some 
may think it right to countenance any effort to bring 
about a "fusion of Law and Literature," which, like 
" Law and Equity," have too long been kept apart in 
England. 

Stratheden House, Jan. 1, 1859. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION 9 

THE MEKBY WIVES OF WINDSOR 34 

MEASURE FOR MEASURE 36 

THE COMEDY OF ERRORS 38 

As You LIKE IT 40 

MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING 45 

LOVE'S LABOUR 's LOST 47 

MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM 48 

THE MERCHANT OF VENICE 49 

THE TAMING OF THE SHREW 53 

ALL ' s WELL THAT ENDS WELL .. 56 

THE WINTER'S TALE 59 

KING JOHN 61 

KING HENRY THE FOURTH, PART 1 64 

KING HENRY THE FOURTH, PART II 67 

KING HENRY THE SIXTH, PART II 74 

TROILUS AND CRESSIDA 77 

KING LEAR 79 

HAMLET 83 

MACBETH 89 

OTHELLO 90 

ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA 94 

CORIOLANUS 96 

ROMEO AND JULIET 97 

POEMS 99 

SHAKESPEARE'S WILL 103 

RETROSPECT .. . 107 



SHAKESPEARE'S 

LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS CONSIDERED. 



To J. Payne Collier, Esq., 

Riverside, Maidenhead* Berks. 



HABTRIGGE, JEDBURGH, N. B., 
September I5th, 1858. 

MY DEAR MB. PAYNE COLLIER, 

Knowing that I take great delight in Shake 
speare's plays, and that I have paid some attention to 
the common law of this realm, and recollecting that 
both in my * Lives of the Chancellors,' and in my ' Lives 
of the Chief Justices,' I have glanced at the subject of 
Shakespeare's legal acquirements, you demand rather 
peremptorily my opinion upon the question keenly 
agitated of late years, whether Shakespeare was a clerk 
in an attorney's office at Stratford before he joined the 
players in London ? 

From your indefatigable researches and your critical 
acumen, which have thrown so much new light upon 
the career of our unrivalled dramatist, I say, with entire 

B 



10 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



sincerity, that there is no one so well qualified as your 
self to speak authoritatively in this controversy, and I 
observe that in both the editions of your ' Life of Shake 
speare' you are strongly inclined to the belief that the 
author of ' Hamlet' was employed some years in engross 
ing deeds, serving writs, and making out bills of costs. 

However, as you seem to consider it still an open 
question, and as I have a little leisure during this long 
vacation, I cannot refuse to communicate to you my 
sentiments upon the subject, and I shall be happy if, 
from my professional knowledge and experience, I can 
afford you any information or throw out any hints which 
may be useful to you hereafter. I myself, at any rate, 
must derive some benefit from the task, as it will for 
a while drive from my mind the recollection of the 
wranglings of Westminster Hall. In literary pursuits 
should I have wished ever to be engaged, 

" Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam 
Auspiciis, et sponte mea componere cnras." 

Having read nearly all that has been written on 
Shakespeare's ante-Londinensian life, and carefully ex 
amined his writings with a view to obtain internal 
evidence as to his education and breeding, I am obliged 
to say that to the question you propound no positive 
answer can very safely be given. 



ISTROD.] A CASE FOR A JURY. 11 

Were an issue tried before me as Chief Justice at the 
Warwick assizes, " whether William Shakespeare, late of 
Stratford-upon-Avon, gentleman, ever was clerk in an 
attorney's office in Stratford-upon-Avon aforesaid," I 
should hold that there is evidence to go to the jury 
in support of the affirmative, but I should add that the 
evidence is very far from being conclusive, and I should 
tell the twelve gentlemen in the box that it is a case 
entirely for their decision, without venturing even to 
hint to them, for their guidance, any opinion of my own. 
Should they unanimously agree in a verdict either in the 
affirmative or negative, I do not think that the court, 
sitting in banco, could properly set it aside and grant a 
new trial. But the probability is (particularly if the trial 
were by a special jury of Fellows of the Society of Anti 
quaries) that, after they had been some hours in delibera 
tion, I should receive a message from them " there is 
no chance of our agreeing, and therefore we wish to be dis 
charged ;" that having sent for them into court, and read 
them a lecture on the duty imposed upon them by law 
of being unanimous, I should be obliged to order them 
to be locked up for the night ; that having sat up all 
night without eating or drinking, and "without fire, 
candle-light excepted,"* they would come into court 



* These are the words of the oath administered to the bailiff into 
whose custody the jurymen are delivered. I had lately to deter- 

B 2 



12 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 

next morning pale and ghastly, still saying " we cannot 
agree," and that, according to the rigour of the law, I 
ought to order them to be again locked up as before till 
the close of the assizes, and then sentence them to be put 
into a cart, to accompany me in my progress towards the 
next assize town, and to be shot into a ditch on the con 
fines of the county of Warwick. 

Yet in the hope of giving the gentlemen of the jury 
a chance of escaping these horrors, to which, according 
to the existing state of the law, they would be exposed, 
and desiring, without departing from my impartiality, 
to assist them in coming to a just conclusion, I should not 
hesitate to state, with some earnestness, that there has 
been a great deal of misrepresentation and delusion as to 
Shakespeare's opportunities when a youth of acquiring 
knowledge, and as to the knowledge he had acquired. 
From a love of the incredible, and a wish to make what 
he afterwards accomplished actually miraculous, a band 
of critics have conspired to lower the -condition of his 
father, and to represent the son, when approaching man's 
estate, as still almost wholly illiterate. We have been 



mine whether gas-lamps could be considered " candle-light." In 
favorem vitce, I ventured to rule in the affirmative ; and, the night 
being very cold, to order that the lamps should be liberally supplied 
with gas, so that, directly administering light according to law, they 
might, contrary to law, incidentally administer heat. 



INTROD.] GENTILITY OF HIS FATHEE. 13 

told that his father was a butcher in a small provincial 
town ; that " pleasant Willy " was bred to his father's 
business ; that the only early indication of genius which 
he betrayed was his habit, while killing a calf, eloquently 
to harangue the bystanders ; that he continued in this 
occupation till he was obliged to fly the country for 
theft ; that arriving in London a destitute stranger, he 
at first supported himself by receiving pence for holding 
gentlemen's horses at the theatre; that he then con 
trived to scrape an acquaintance with some of the 
actors, and being first employed as prompter, although 
he had hardly learned to read, he was allowed to play 
some very inferior parts himself ; and that without any 
further training he produced ' Eichard III.,' ' Othello/ 
f Macbeth,' and ' King Lear.' But, whether Shakespeare 
ever had any juridical education or not, I think it is 
established beyond all doubt that his father was of a 
respectable family, had some real property by descent, 
married a coheiress of an ancient house, received a grant 
of armorial bearings from the Heralds with a recognition 
of his lineage, was for many years an Alderman of Strat 
ford, and, after being intrusted by the Corporation to 
manage their finances as Chamberlain, served the office 
of Chief Magistrate of the town. There are entries in the 
Corporation books supposed to indicate that at one period 
of his life he was involved in pecuniary difficulties ; but 
this did not detract from his gentility, as is proved by the 



14 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTUOD. 

subsequent confirmation of his armorial bearings, with a 
slight alteration in his quarterings, and he seems still 
to have lived respectably in Stratford or the neigh 
bourhood.* That he was, as has been recently asserted, 
a glover, or that he ever sold wool or butcher's meat, 
is not proved by anything like satisfactory evidence ; 
and, at any rate, according to the usages of society in 
those times, occasional dealings whereby the owner of 
land disposed of part of the produce of it by retail 
were reckoned quite consistent with the position of a 
squire. At this day, and in our own country, gentle 
men not unfiequently sell their own hay, corn, and 
cattle, and on the Continent the high nobility are well 



* I am aware of your suggestion in your ' Life of Shakespeare,' 
that the first grant of arms to the father was at a subsequent 
time, when the son, although he had acquired both popularity 
and property, was, on account of his profession (then supposed 
to be unfit for a gentleman), not qualified to bear arms. But the 
"Confirmation" in 1596 recites that a patent had been before 
granted by Clarencieux Cooke to John Shakespeare, when chief 
magistrate of Stratford, and, as a ground for the Confirmation, that 
this original patent had been sent to the Heralds' Office when Sir 
William Dethick was Garter King-at-Arms. Against this positive 
evidence we lawyers should consider the negative evidence, that, 
upon search, an entry of the first grant is not found, to be of no avail : 
and there could be no object in forging the first grant, as an 
original grant in 1596 would have been equally beneficial both to 
father and son. 



INTROD.] GENTILITY OF HIS FATHER. 15 

pleased to sell by the bottle the produce of their vine 
yards. 

It is said that the worthy Alderman could not write 
his own name. But the fac simile of the document 
formerly relied upon to establish this [an order, dated 
29th Sept., 7 Eliz., for John Wheeler to take upon him 
self the office of Bailiff, signed by nineteen aldermen 
and burgesses] appears to me to prove the contrary, for 
the name of Jofjtt o>!)aefe0per is subscribed in a 
strong, clear hand, and the mark, supposed to be his, 
evidently belongs to the name of <Cl)Oma0 SDpjCUtl in 
the line below.* You tell us, in your latest edition, of the 
production of two new documents before the Shake 
speare Society, dated respectively 3rd and 9th Dec., 
11 Eliz., which, it is said, if John Shakespeare could 
have written, would have been signed by him, whereas 
they only bear his mark. But in my own experience 
I have known many instances of documents bearing a 
mark as the signature of persons who could write well, 
and this was probably much more common in illiterate 
ages, when documents were generally authenticated 
by a seal. Even if it were demonstrated that John 
Shakespeare had not been "so well brought up that 



* See that most elaborate and entertaining book, Knight's ' Life 
of Shakspere,' 1st ed., p. 16. 



16 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD; 

he could write his name," and that "he had a mark 
to himself like an honest, plain-dealing man," con 
sidering that he was born not very long after the wars 
of the Roses, this deficiency would not weigh much in 
disproving his wealth or his gentility. Even supposing 
him to have been a genuine marksman, he was only 
on a par in this respect with many persons of higher 
rank, and with several of the most influential of his 
fellow townsmen. Of the nineteen Aldermen and bur 
gesses who signed the order referred to, only seven 
subscribe their names with a pen, and the High Bailiff 
and Senior Alderman are among the marksmen. 

Whatever may have been the clownish condition of 
John Shakespeare, that the " Divine Williams " (as the 
French call our great dramatist) received an excellent 
school education can hardly admit of question or doubt. 
We certainly know that he wrote a beautiful and busi 
ness-like hand, which he probably acquired early. 
There was a free grammar school at Stratford, founded 
in the reign of Edward IV., and reformed by a charter of 
Edward VI. This school was supplied by a succession of 
competent masters to teach Greek and Latin ; and here 
the sons of all the members of the corporation were 
entitled to gratuitous instruction, and mixed with the 
sons of the neighbouring gentry. At such grammar 
schools, generally speaking, only a smattering of Greek 
was to be acquired, but the boys were thoroughly 



INTROD.] CULTIVATION OF HIS MIND. 17 

grounded in Latin grammar, and were rendered familiar 
with the most popular Koman classics. Shakespeare 
must have been at this school at least five years. His 
father's supposed pecuniary difficulties, which are said to 
have interrupted his education, did not occur till 
William had reached the age of 14 or 15, when, accord 
ing to the plan of education which was then followed, 
the sons of tradesmen were put out as apprentices or 
clerks, and the sons of the more wealthy went to the 
university. None of his school compositions are pre 
served, and we have no authentic account of his progress ; 
but we know that at these schools boys of industry and 
genius have become well versed in classical learning. 
Samuel Johnson said that he acquired little at Oxford 
beyond what he had brought away with him from Lich- 
field Grammar School, where he had been taught, like 
Shakespeare, as the son of a burgess ; and many from 
such schools, without further regular tuition, have dis 
tinguished themselves in literature. 

It is said that " the boy is the father of the man ;" 
and knowing the man, we may form a notion of the tastes 
and habits of the boy. Grown to be a man, Shakespeare 
certainly was most industrious, and showed an insatiable 
thirst for knowledge. We may therefore fairly infer, 
that from early infancy he instinctively availed himself 
of every opportunity of mental culture, 



18 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 



What time, where lucid Avon stray'd, 

To him the mighty mother did unveil 
Her aAvful face : the dauntless child 
Stretched forth his little arms, and smiled." 



The grand difficulty is to discover, or to conjecture 
with reasonable probability, how Shakespeare was em 
ployed from about 1579, when he most likely left school, 
till about 1586, when he is supposed to have gone to 
London. That during this interval he was merely an 
operative, earning his bread by manual labour, in stitch 
ing gloves, sorting wool, or killing calves, no sensible 
man can possibly imagine. At twenty-three years of 
age, although he had not become regularly learned as if 
he had taken the degree of M.A. at Oxford or Cam 
bridge, after disputing in the schools de omni scibili et quo- 
libet ente, there can be no doubt that, like our Scottish 
BURNS, his mind must have been richly cultivated, and 
that he had laid up a vast stock of valuable knowledge 
and of poetical imagery, gained from books, from social 
intercourse, and from the survey of nature. Whoever 
believes that when Shakespeare was first admitted to 
play a part in the Blackfriars Theatre his mind was 
as unfurnished as that of the stolid ' Clown ' in the 
1 Winter's Tale,' who called forth a wish from his own 
father that " there were no age between ten and three 
and twenty," will readily give credit to all the most 



INTROD.] OCCUPATIONS AFTER LEAVING SCHOOL. 19 

extravagant and appalling marvels of mesmerism, 
clairvoyance, table-turning, and spirit-rapping. 

Of Shakespeare's actual occupations during these 
important years, when his character was formed, there 
is not a scintilla of contemporary proof ; and the vague 
traditionary evidence which has been resorted to was 
picked up many years after his death, when the object 
was to startle the world with things strange and 
supernatural respecting him. That his time was en 
grossed during this interval by labouring as a me 
chanic, is a supposition which I at once dismiss as 
absurd. 

Aubrey asserts that from leaving school till he left 
Warwickshire Shakespeare was a schoolmaster. If this 
could be believed, it would sufficiently accord with the 
phenomena of Shakespeare's subsequent career, except 
the familiar, profound, and accurate knowledge he dis 
played of juridical principles and practice. Being a 
schoolmaster in the country for some years (as Samuel 
Johnson certainly was), his mental cultivation would 
have steadily advanced, and so he might have been 
prepared for the arena in which he was to appear on his 
arrival in the metropolis. 

Unfortunately, however, the pedagogical theory is 
not only quite unsupported by evidence, but it is not 
consistent with established facts. From the registration 
of the baptism of Shakespeare's children, and other well 



20 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 

authenticated circumstances, we know that he con 
tinued to dwell in Stratford, or the immediate neigh 
bourhood, till he became a citizen of London: there 
was no other school in Stratford except the endowed 
grammar school, where he had been a pupil ; of this he 
certainly never was master, for the unbroken succession 
of masters from the reign of Edward VI. till the reign of 
James I. is on record ; none of the mob who stand out 
for Shakespeare being quite illiterate will allow that 
he was qualified to be usher ; and there is no trace 
of there having been any usher employed in this school. 

It may likewise be observed that if Shakespeare 
really had been a schoolmaster, he probably would have 
had some regard for the " order " to which he belonged. 
In all his dramas we have three schoolmasters only, and 
he makes them all exceedingly ridiculous. First we have 
Holofernes in * Love's Labour 's Lost,' who is brought 
on the stage to be laughed at for his pedantry and his 
bad verses; then comes the Welshman, Sir Hugh 
Evans, in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor/ who, although 
in holy orders, has not yet learned to speak the English 
language; and last of all, Pinch, in the ' Comedy of 
Errors,' who unites the bad qualities of a pedagogue and 
a conjuror. 

By the process of exhaustion, I now arrive at the only 
other occupation in which it is well possible to imagine 
that Shakespeare could be engaged during the period 



WAS HE AN ATTOKNEY'S CLEEK? 21 



we are considering that of an attorney's clerk first 
suggested by Chalmers, and since countenanced by 
Malone, yourself, and others, whose opinions are entitled 
to high respect, but impugned by nearly an equal num 
ber of biographers and critics of almost equal authority, 
without any one, on either side, having as yet discussed 
the question very elaborately. 

It must be admitted that there is no established fact 
with which this supposition is not consistent. At Strat 
ford there was, by royal charter, a court of record, with 
jurisdiction over all personal actions to the amount of 
30, equal, at the latter end of the reign of Elizabeth, 
to more than 100?. in the reign of Victoria. This court, 
the records of which are extant, was regulated by the 
course of practice and pleading which prevailed in the 
superior courts of law at Westminster, and employed the 
same barbarous dialect, composed of Latin, English, and 
Norman-French. It sat every fortnight, and there were 
belonging to it, besides the Town-clerk, six attorneys, 
some of whom must have practised in the Queen's Bench 
and in Chancery, and have had extensive business in 
conveyancing. An attorney, steward of the Earl of 
Warwick, lord of the manor of Stratford, twice a year 
held a court - leet and view of frankpledge there, to 
which a jury was summoned, and at which constables 
were appointed and various presentments were made. 

If Shakespeare had been a clerk to one of these 



22 SHAKESPEAKE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROP. 

attorneys, all that followed while he remained at 
Stratford, and the knowledge and acquirements which 
he displayed when he came to London, would not only 
have been within the bounds of possibility, but would 
seem almost effect from cause in a natural and pro 
bable sequence. 

From the moderate pay allowed him by his master 
he would have been able decently to maintain his wife 
and children; vacant hours would have been left to 
him for the indulgence of his literary propensity ; and 
this temporary attention to law might have quickened 
his fancy, although a systematic, life-long devotion to 
it, I fear, may have a very different tendency. Burke 
eloquently descants upon the improvement of the mental 
faculties by juridical studies ; and Warburton, Chatter- 
ton, Pitt the younger, Canning, Disraeli, and Lord 
Macaulay are a few out of many instances which might 
be cited of men of brilliant intellectual career who had 
early become familiar with the elements of jurisprudence. 

Here would be the solution of Shakespeare's legalism 
which has so perplexed his biographers and commen 
tators, and which Aubrey's tradition leaves wholly 
unexplained. We should only have to recollect the 
maxim that " the vessel long retains the flavour with 
which it has been once imbued." Great as is the 
knowledge of law which Shakespeare's writings display, 
and familiar as he appears to have been with all its 



INTROD.] WAS HE AN ATTORNEY'S CLERK ? 23 

forms and proceedings, the whole of this would easily 
be accounted for if for some years he had occupied a 
desk in the office of a country attorney in good busi 
ness, attending sessions and assizes, keeping leets and 
law days, and perhaps being sent up to the metropolis 
in term time to conduct suits before the Lord Chancellor 
or the superior courts of common law at Westminster, 
according to the ancient practice of country attorneys, 
who would not employ a London agent to divide their 
fees.* 



* If Shakespeare really was articled to a Stratford attorney, in all 
probability during the five years of his clerkship he visited London 
several times on his master's business, and he may then have been 
introduced to the green room at Black friars by one of his country 
men connected with that theatre. 

Even so late as Queen Anne's reign there seems to have been 
a prodigious influx of all ranks from the provinces into the metro 
polis in term time. During the preceding century Parliament 
sometimes did not meet at all for a considerable number of years ; 
and being summoned rarely and capriciously, the " London season " 
seems to have been regulated, not by the session of Parliament, 
but by the law terms, 

" and prints before Term ends." Pope. 

While term lasted, Westminster Hall was crowded all the morning, 
not only by lawyers, but by idlers and politicians in quest of news. 
Term having ended, there seems to have been a general dispersion. 
Even the Judges spent their vacations in the country, having when 
in town resided in their chambers in the Temple or Inns of Court. 
The Chiefs were obliged to remain in town a day or two after term 



24 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 

On the supposition of Shakespeare having been an 
attorney's clerk at Stratford we may likewise see how, 
when very young, he contracted his taste for thea 
tricals, even if he had never left that locality till the 
unlucky affair of Sir Thomas Lucy's deer. It appears 
from the records of the Corporation of Stratford, that 
nearly every year the town was visited by strolling 
companies of players, calling themselves " the Earl of 
Derby's servants," " the Earl of Leicester's servants," 
and " Her Majesty's servants." These companies are 
most graphically represented to us by the strolling 



for Nisi Prius sittings; but the Puisnes were entirely liberated 
when proclamation was made at the rising of the court on the last 
day of term, in the form still preserved, that "all manner of 
persons may take their ease, and give their attendance here again 
on the first day of the ensuing term." An old lady very lately 
deceased, a daughter of Mr. Justice Blackstone, who was a puisne 
judge of the Common Pleas and lived near Abingdon, used to relate 
that the day after term ended, the family coach, with four black 
long-tailed horses, used regularly to come at an early hour to Ser 
jeants' Jnn to conduct them to their country house ; and there the 
Judge and his family remained till they travelled to London in 
the same style on the essoin-day of the following term. When a 
student of law, I had the honour of being presented to the oldest 
of the judges, Mr. Justice Grose, famous for his beautiful seat in 
the Isle of Wight, where he leisurely spent a considerable part of 
the year, more majorum. To his question to me, " Where do you 
live ? " I answered, " I have chambers in Lincoln's Inn, my Lord." 
" Ah ! " replied he, " but I mean when term is over." 



INTROD.] STROLLING PLAYERS AT STRATFORD. 25 

players in * Hamlet ' and in the ' Taming of the Shrew/ 
The custom at Stratford ,was for the players on their 
arrival to wait upon the Bailiff and Aldermen to obtain 
a licence to perform in the town. The Guildhall was 
generally allotted to them, and was fitted up as a theatre 
according to the simple and rude notions of the age. 
We may easily conceive that Will Shakespeare, son of the 
chief magistrate who granted the licence, now a bustling 
attorney's clerk, would actually assist in these proceed 
ings when his master's office was closed for the day ; 
and that he might thus readily become intimate with 
the manager and the performers, some of whom were 
said to be his fellow townsmen. He might well have 
officiated as prompter, the duty said to have been first 
assigned to him in the theatre at the Black-friars. The 
travelling associations of actors at that period consisted 
generally of not more than from five to ten members ; 
and when a play to be performed in the Guildhall at 
Stratford contained more characters than individuals in 
the list of strollers, it would be no great stretch of 
imagination to suppose that, instead of mutilating the 
piece by suppression, or awkwardly assigning two parts 
to one performer, " pleasant Willy's " assistance was 
called in; and our great dramatist may thus have 
commenced his career as an actor in his native 
town. 

To prove that he had been bred in an attorney's 

c 



26 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



office, there is one piece of direct evidence. This is an 
alleged libel upon him by a contemporary published 
to the world in his lifetime which, if it do actually 
refer to him, must be considered as the foundation of a 
very strong inference of the fact. 

Leaving Stratford and joining the players in London 
in 1586 or 1587, there can be no doubt that his success 
was very rapid; for, as early as 1589, he had actually 
got a share in the Blackfriars Theatre, and he was a 
partner in managing it with his townsman Thomas 
Green and his countryman Kichard Burbadge. I do 
not imagine that when he went up to London he 
carried a tragedy in his pocket to be offered for the 
stage as Samuel Johnson did ' IRENE.' The more pro 
bable conjecture is, that he began as an actor on the 
London boards, and being employed, from the clever 
ness he displayed, to correct, alter, and improve dramas 
written by others, he went on to produce dramas of his 
own, which were applauded more loudly than any that 
had before appeared upon the English stage. 

" Envy does merit as its shade pursue ;" 

and rivals whom he surpassed not only envied Shake 
speare, but grossly libelled him. Of this we have an 
example in ' An Epistle to the Gentlemen Students 
of the Two Universities, by Thomas Nash/ prefixed 



INTROD.] ALLEGED LIBEL ON SHAKESPEARE. 27 

to the first edition of Robert Greene's *MENAPHON' 
(which was subsequently Called ' Greene's AKCADIA '), 
according to the title-page, published in 1589. The 
alleged libel on Shakespeare is in the words following, 
viz. : 

" I will turn back to my first text of studies of delight, and talk 
a little in friendship with a few of our trivial translators. It is a 
common practice now-a-days, amongst a sort of shifting companions 
that run through every art and thrive by none, to leave the trade of 
Noverint, whereto they were born, and busy themselves with the 
endeavours of art, that could scarcely Latinize their neck- verse if 
they should have need ; yet English Seneca, read by candle-light, 
yields many good sentences, as Hood is a leggar, and so forth ; and 
if you intreat him fair, in a frosty morning, he will afford you whole 
Hamlets ; I should say handfuls of tragical speeches. But grief ! 
Tempus edax rerum what is that will last always ? The sea 
exhaled by drops will in continuance be dry; and Seneca, let 
blood, line by line, and page by page, at length must needs die to 
our stage." 

Now, if the innuendo which would have been intro 
duced into the declaration, in an action, " Shakespeare 
v. Nash" for this libel ( "thereby then and there 
meaning the said William Shakespeare " ) be made 
out, there can be no doubt as to the remaining innuendo 
" thereby then and there meaning that the said William 
Shakespeare had been an attorney's clerk, or bred an 
attorney." 

In Elizabeth's reign deeds were in the Latin tongue ; 

c 2 



28 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 

and all deeds poll, and many other law papers, began 
with the words " NOVEKINT universi per presentes " 
" Be it known to all men by these presents that, &c." 
The very bond which was given in 1582, prior to the 
grant of a licence for Shakespeare's marriage with Ann 
Hathaway, and which Shakespeare most probably himself 
drew, commences "NOVEBINT universi per presentes" 
The business of an attorney seems to have been then 
known as "the trade of NOVEBINT." Ergo, "these 
shifting companions " are charged with having aban 
doned the legal profession, to which they were bred; 
and, although most imperfectly educated, with trying to 
manufacture tragical speeches from an English transla 
tion of Seneca. 

For completing Nash's testimony (valeat quantum) 
to the fact that Shakespeare had been bred to the law, 
nothing remains but to consider whether Shakespeare is 
here aimed at ? Now, independently of the expressions 
" whole Hamlets " and " handfuls of tragical speeches," 
which, had Shakespeare's '.HAMLET' certainly been 
written and acted before the publication of Nash's 
letter, could leave no doubt as to the author's inten 
tion, there is strong reason to believe that the intended 
victim was the young man from Warwickshire, who 
had suddenly made such a sensation and such a 
revolution in the theatrical world. Nash and Kobert 
Greene, the author of 'Menaphon' or 'Arcadia,' the 



INTROD.] ENMITY OP ROBERT GREENE. 29 

work to which Nash's Epistle was appended, were very 
intimate. In this very epistle Nash calls Greene " sweet 
friend." It is well known that this Kobert Greene (who, 
it must always be remembered, was a totally different 
person from Thomas Green, the actor and part pro 
prietor of the Blackfriars Theatre) was one of the chief 
sufferers from Shakespeare being engaged by the Lord 
Chamberlain's players to alter stock pieces for the Black- 
friars Theatre, to touch up and improve new pieces pro 
posed to the managers, and to supply original pieces of 
his own. Kobert Greene had been himself employed in 
this department, and he felt that his occupation was 
gone. Therefore, by publishing Nash's Epistle in 1589, 
when Shakespeare, and no one else, had, by the display 
of superior genius, been the ruin of Greene, the two 
must have combined to denounce Shakespeare as having 
abandoned " the trade of Noverint " in order to " busy 
himself with the endeavours of art," and to furnish 
tragical speeches from the translation of Seneca. 

In 1592 Greene followed up the attack of 1589 in a 
tract called ' The Groatsworth of Wit/ Here he does 
not renew the taunt of abandoning "the trade of No- 
VERINT," which with Nash he had before made, but he 
pointedly upbraids Shakespeare by the nickname of 
Shake-scene, as "an upstart crow beautified with our 
feathers," having just before spoken of himself as " the 
man to whom actors had been previously beholding." 



30 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [INTROD. 

He goes on farther to allude to Shakespeare as one who 
" supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank 
verse as the best of his predecessors," as "an absolute 
Johannes Factotum," and " in his own conceit the only 
SHAKE-SCENE in a country." In 1592 Eobert Greene 
frankly complains that Shake-scene had undeservedly 
met with such success as to be able to drive him 
(Greene) and others similarly circumstanced from an 
employment by which they had mainly subsisted.* 
This evidence, therefore, seems amply sufficient to prove 
that there was a conspiracy between the two libellers, 
JSTash and Robert Greene, and that Shakespeare was the 
object of it. 

But I do not hesitate to believe that Nash, in 1589, 
directly alludes to ' HAMLET ' as a play of Shakespeare, 
and wishes to turn it into ridicule. I am aware that an 
attempt has been made to show that there had been an 
edition of ' Menaphon' before 1589 ; but no copy of any 
prior edition of it, with Nash's Epistle appended to it, 
has been produced. I am also aware that * Hamlet,' in 
the perfect state in which we now behold it, was not 
finished till several years after; but I make no doubt 



* You no doubt recollect that Kobert Greene actually died 
of starvation before his ' Groatsworth of Wit,' in which he so 
bitterly assailed Shakespeare as " Shake-scene," was published. 



INTROD.] ELABORATION OF HIS PLAYS. 31 

that before the publication of Nash's Epistle Shake 
speare's first sketch of his play of ' Hamlet/ taken pro 
bably from some older play with the same title, had 
been produced upon the Blackfriars stage and received 
with applause which generated envy. 

From the saying of the players, recorded by BEN 
JONSON, that Shakespeare never blotted a line, an er 
roneous notion has prevailed that he carelessly sketched 
off his dramas, and never retouched them or cared about 
them after. So far from this (contrary to modern prac 
tice), he often materially altered, enlarged, and improved 
them subsequently to their having been brought out 
upon the stage and having had a successful run. There 
is clear proof that he wrote and rewrote ' Hamlet,' 
* Borneo and Juliet,' ' The Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
and several other of his dramas, with unwearied pains, 
making them at last sometimes nearly twice as long as 
they were when originally represented. 

With respect to these dates it is remarkable that an 
English translation of Seneca, from which Shakespeare 
was supposed to have plagiarised so freely, had been 
published several years before Nash's Epistle ; and in 
the scene with the players on their arrival at Elsinore 
(if this scene appeared in the first sketch of the tragedy, 
as it probably did, from being so essential to the plot), 
Shakespeare's acquaintance with this author was pro 
claimed by the panegyric of Polonius upon the new 



32 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



company, for whom " SENECA could not be too heavy nor 
Plautus too light." 

Therefore, my dear Mr. Payne Collier, in support of 
your opinion that Shakespeare had been bred to the 
profession of the law in an attorney's office, I think you 
will be justified in saying that the fact was asserted 
publicly in Shakespeare's lifetime by two contemporaries 
of Shakespeare, who were engaged in the same pursuits 
with himself, who must have known him well, and who 
were probably acquainted with the whole of his career. 

I must likewise admit that this assertion is strongly 
corroborated by internal evidence to be found in 
Shakespeare's writings. I have once more perused the 
whole of his dramas, that I might more satisfactorily 
answer your question, and render you some assistance 
in finally coming to a right conclusion. 

In * The Two Gentlemen of Verona,' < Twelfth Night,' 
'Julius Caesar,' 'Cymbeline,' 'Timon of Athens,' 'The 
Tempest,' 'King Kichard II.,' 'King Henry V.,' 'King 
Henry VI. Part I.,' ' King Henry VI. Part III.,' King 
Kichard III.,' 'King Henry VIII.; 'Pericles of Tyre,' 
and ' Titus Andronicus ' fourteen of the thirty-seven 
dramas generally attributed to Shakespeare I find 
nothing that fairly bears upon this controversy. Of 
course I had only to look for expressions and allusions 
that must be supposed to come from one who has been 
a professional lawyer. Amidst the seducing beauties of 



INTROD.] ARRANGEMENT OF EXTRACTS. 33 

sentiment and language through which I had to pick 
my way, I may have overlooked various specimens of 
the article of which I was in quest, which would have 
been accidentally valuable, although intrinsically worth 
less. 

However, from each of the remaining twenty-three 
dramas I have made extracts which I think are well 
worth your attention. These extracts I will now lay 
before you, with a few explanatory remarks, which 
perhaps you will think demonstrably prove that your 
correspondent is a lawyer, AND NOTHING BUT A LAWYER. 

I thought of grouping the extracts as they may be 
supposed to apply to particular heads of law or particular 
legal phrases, but I found this impracticable ; and I am 
driven to examine seriatim the dramas from which the 
extracts are made. I take them in the order in which 
they are arranged, as "Comedies," "Histories," and 
" Tragedies," in the folio of 1623, the earliest authority 
for the whole collection. 



34 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



liters Wiifaz of 



In Act n. Sc. 2, where Ford, under the name of 
Master Brook, tries to induce Falstaff to assist him in 
his intrigue with Mrs. Ford, and states that from all the 
trouble and money he had bestowed upon her he had 
had no beneficial return, we have the following question 
and answer : 

Fal. Of what quality was your love, then ? 

Ford. Like a fair house built upon another man's ground ; so 
that I have lost my edifice by mistaking the place where I erected it. 

Now this shows in Shakespeare a knowledge of the 
law of real property, not generally possessed. The un 
learned would suppose that if, by mistake, a man builds 
a fine house on the land of another, when he discovers 
his error he will be permitted to remove all the materials 
of the structure, and particularly the marble pillars and 
carved chimney-pieces with which he has adorned it ; 
but Shakespeare knew better. He was aware that, being 
fixed to the freehold, the absolute property in them 
belonged to the owner of the soil, and he recollected the 
maxim, Cujus est solum, ejus est usqite ad coelum. 



COMEDIES.] THE MEKBY WIVES OF WINDSOR. 35 

Afterwards, in writing the second scene of Act iv., 
Shakespeare's head was so full of the recondite terms 
of the law, that he makes a lady thus pour them out, 
in a confidential tete-a-tete conversation with another 
lady, while discoursing of the revenge they two should 
take upon an old gentleman for having made an unsuc 
cessful attempt upon their virtue : 

Mrs. Page. I'll have the cudgel hallowed, and hung o'er the altar : 
it hath done meritorious service. 

Mrs. Ford. What think you? May we, with the warrant of 
womanhood, and the witness of a good conscience, pursue him with 
any farther revenge ? 

Mrs. Page. The spirit of wantonness is, sure, scared out of him : 
if the devil have him not in fee simple, with fine and recovery, he 
will never, I think, in the way of waste, attempt us again. 

This Merry Wife of Windsor, is supposed to know 
that the highest estate which the devil could hold in 
any of his victims was a fee simple, strengthened by fine 
and recovery. Shakespeare himself may probably have 
become aware of the law upon the subject, when it was 
explained to him in answer to questions he put to the 
attorney, his master, while engrossing the deeds to be 
executed upon the purchase of a Warwickshire estate 
with a doubtful title. 



36 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



ar 



In Act I. Sc. 2, the old lady who had kept a lodging- 
home of a disreputable character in the suburbs of 
Vienna being thrown into despair by the proclamation 
that all such houses in the suburbs must be plucked 
down, the Clown thus comforts her : 

Clo. Come ; fear not you : good counsellors lack no clients. 

This comparison is not very flattering to the bar, but 
it seems to show a familiarity with both the professions 
alluded to. 



In Act ii. Sc. 1, the ignorance of special pleading 
and of the nature of actions at law betrayed by Elbow, 
the constable, when slandered, is ridiculed by the Lord 
Escalus in a manner which proves that the composer 
of the dialogue was himself fully initiated in these 
mysteries : 

Elbow. Oh, thou caitiff! Oh, thou varlet! Oh, thou wicked 
Hannibal ! I respected with her, before I was married to her ? If 
ever I was respected with her, or she with me, let not your worship 
think me the poor duke's officer. Prove this, thou wicked Han 
nibal, or I'll have mine action of battery on thee. 

Escal. If he took you a box o' th' ear, you might have your 
action of slander too. 



COMEDIES.] MEASUEE FOR MEASURE. 37 



The manner in which, in Act in. Sc. 2, Escalus 
designates and talks of Angelo, with whom he was 
joined in commission as Judge, is so like the manner 
in which one English Judge designates and talks of 
another, that it countenances the supposition that 
Shakespeare may often, as an attorney's clerk, have 
been in the presence of English Judges : 

Escal. Provost, my brother Angelo will not be altered ; Claudio 
must die to-morrow. * * * If my brother wrought by my pity, 
it should not be so with him. * * * I have laboured for the 
poor gentleman to the extremest shore of my modesty; but my 
brother justice have I found so severe, that he hath forced me to 
tell him, he is indeed JUSTICE.* 



Even where Shakespeare is most solemn and sublime, 
his sentiments and language seem sometimes to take a 
tinge from his early pursuits, as may be observed from 
a beautiful passage in this play, which, lest I should 
be thought guilty of irreverence, I do not venture to 
comment upon : 



* I am glad to observe that our " brethren" in America adhere to 
the old phraseology of Westminster Hall. A Chief Justice in New 
England thus concludes a very sound judgment : " My brother 
Blannerhasset, who was present at the argument, but is prevented 
by business at chambers from being here to-day, authorises me to 
say that he has read this judgment, and that he entirely concurs 
in it." 



38 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



Angela. Your brother is a forfeit to the law. 

Isabella. Alas ! alas ! 

Why, all the souls that were, were forfeit once ; 
And He that might the vantage best have took 
Found out the remedy : How would you be 
If He, which is the top of judgment, should 
But judge you as you are ? 0, think on that ; 
And mercy then will breathe within your lips, 
Like man new made. 

(Act ii. Sc. 2.) 



The following is part of the dialogue between Anti- 
pholus of Syracuse and his man Dromio, in Act n. 
Sc. 2 : 

Dro. S. There's no time for a man to recover his hair, that grows 
bald by nature. 

Ant. S. May he not do it by fine and recovery ? 

Dro. S. Yes, to pay a fine for a periwig, and recover the lost hair 
of another man. 

These jests cannot be supposed to arise from anything 
in the laws or customs of Syracuse ; but they show the 
author to be very familiar with some of the most 
abstruse proceedings in English jurisprudence. 



COMEDIES.] THE COMEDY OF ERRORS. 39 

In Act iv. Sc. 2, Adriana asks Dromio of Syracuse, 
" Where is thy master, Dromio ? Is he well ?" and 
Dromio replies 

No, he's in Tartar limbo, worse than hell : 
A devil in an everlasting garment hath him, 
One whose hard heart is button'd up with steel ; 
A fiend, a fairy, pitiless and rough ; 
A wolf; nay worse, a fellow all in buff; 
A back-friend, a shoulder-clapper, one that countermands 
The passages and alleys, creeks, and narrow lands : 
A hound that runs counter, and yet draws dry- foot well ; 
One that before the judgment carries poor souls to hell. 
Adr. Why, man, what is the matter ? 
Dro. S. I do not know the matter ; he is 'rested on the case. 
Adr. What, is he arrested ? tell me at whose suit. 
Dro. S. I know not at whose suit he is arrested, well 
But he's in a suit of buff which 'rested him, that can I tell. * * * 

Adr. * * * This I wonder at : 
That he, unknown to me, should be in debt. 
Tell me, was he arrested on a bond ? 

Dro. S. Not on a lond, but on a stronger thing : 
A chain, a chain I 

Here we have a most circumstantial and graphic 
account of an English arrest on mesne process [" before 
judgment"], in an action on the case, for the price 
of a gold chain, by a sheriffs officer, or bum-bailiff, 
in his buff costume, and carrying his prisoner to a 
sponging-house a spectacle which might often have 
been seen by an attorney's clerk. A fellow-student 
of mine (since an eminent Judge), being sent to an 
attorney's office, as part of his legal education, used to 



40 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



accompany the sheriff's officer when making captions 
on mesne process, that he might enjoy the whole feast 
of a law-suit from the egg to the apples and he was 
fond of giving a similar account of this proceeding, 
which was then constantly occurring, but which, like 
" Trial by Battle," may now be considered obsolete. 



ife ft. 



In Act I. Sc. 2, Shakespeare makes the lively Rosa 
lind, who, although well versed in poesy and books of 
chivalry, had probably never seen a bond or a law- 
paper of any sort in her life, quite familiar with the 
commencement of all deeds poll, which in Latin was, 
Noverint universi per presentes, in English, " Be it known 
to all men by these presents " : 

Le Beau. There comes an old man and his three sons, 

Gel. I could match this beginning with an old tale. 

Le Beau* Three proper young men, of excellent growth and 
presence ; 

Eos. With bills on their necks, " Be it known unto all men ly 
these presents" 

This is the technical phraseology referred to by 
Thomas Nash in his * Epistle to the Gentlemen Stu- 



COMEDIES.] AS YOU LIKE IT. 41 

dents of the two Universities,' in the year 1589, when 
he is supposed to have denounced the author of 
' Hamlet' as one of those who had "left the trade of 
Noverint, whereto they were born, for handfuls of tra 
gical speeches " that is, an attorney's clerk become a 
poet, and penning a stanza when he should engross. 

* As You Like It ' was not brought out until shortly 
before the year 1600, so that Nash's Noverint could not 
have been suggested by it. Possibly Shakespeare now 
introduced the "Be it known unto all men," &c., in 
order to show his contempt for Nash's sarcasm. 



In Act ii. Sc. 1, there are illustrations which would 
present themselves rather to the mind of one initiated 
in legal proceedings, thai of one who had been brought 
up as an apprentice to a glover, or an assistant to a 
butcher or a woolstapler : for instance, when it is said 
of the poor wounded deer, weeping in the stream 



thou mak'st a testament 



As worldlings do, giving thy sum of more 
To that which hath too much." 

And again where the careless herd, jumping by him 
without greeting him, are compared to " fat and greasy 
citizens," who look 



11 Upon that poor and broken bankrupt there," 

D 



42 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



without pitying his sufferings or attempting to relieve 
his necessities. 



It may perhaps be said that such language might be 
used by any man of observation. But in Act in. Sc. 1, 
a deep technical knowledge of law is displayed, how 
soever it may have been acquired. 

The usurping Duke, Frederick, wishing all the real 
property of Oliver to be seized, awards a writ of extent 
against him, in the language which would be used by 
the Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer 

Duke Fred. Make an extent upon his house and lands 

an extendi facias applying to house and lands, as a 
fieri facias would apply to goods and chattels, or a 
capias ad satisfaciendum to the person. 

So in ' King Henry VIII.' we have an equally accu 
rate statement of the omnivorous nature of a writ of 
PR^MUNIRE. The Duke of Suffolk, addressing Cardinal 
Wolsey, says, 

" Lord Cardinal, the King's further pleasure is, 
Because all those things you have done of late 
By your power legatine within this kingdom 
Fall into the compass of a prcemunire, 
That therefore such a writ be sued against you, 
To forfeit all your goods, lands, tenements, 
Chattels, and whatsoever, and to be 
Out of the King's protection? 



COMEDIES.] AS YOU LIKE IT. 43 



In the next scene of ' As You Like It ' Shakespeare 
shows that he was well acquainted with lawyers them 
selves and the vicissitudes of their lives. Rosalind 
having told " who Time ambles withal, who Time trots 
withal, who Time gallops withal," being asked, " Who 
Time stands still withal ?" answers 

With lawyers in the vacation ; for they sleep between term and 
term, and then they perceive not how Time moves. 

Our great poet had probably observed that some 
lawyers have little enjoyment of the vacation after a 
very few weeks, and that they again long for the excite 
ment of arguing demurrers and pocketing fees. 



In the first scene of Act iv. Shakespeare gives us the 
true legal meaning of the word " attorney/' viz. repre 
sentative or deputy. [Celui qui vient a tour d'autrui ; 
Qui alterius vices subit ; Legatus ; Vakeel.] 

Bos. Well, in her person I say I will not have you. 

Orl. Then, in my own person, I die. 

.Res. No, faith, die by attorney. The poor world is almost six 
thousand years old, and in all this time there was not any man died 
in his own person, videlicet, hi a love-cause.* 



* So in ' Richard III.,' Act iv. Sc. 4, the crook-backed tyrant, 
after murdering the infant sons of Edward IV., audaciously pro- 

D 2 



44 SHAKESPEAKE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



I am sorry to say that in our time the once most 
respectable word "attorney" seems to have gained a 
new meaning, viz. " a disreputable legal practitioner ;" 
so that attorneys at law consider themselves treated 
discourteously when they are called " Attorneys." They 
now all wish to be called Solicitors, when doing the 
proper business of attorneys in the Courts of Common 
Law. Most sincerely honouring this branch of our 
profession, if it would please them, I am ready to sup 
port a bill " to prohibit the use of the word Attorney, 
and to enact that on all occasions the word Solicitor 
shall be used instead thereof." 

Near the end of the same scene Shakespeare again 
evinces his love for legal phraseology and imagery by 
converting Time into an aged Judge of Assize, sitting 
on the Crown side : 

JRos. Well, Time is the old JUSTICE that examines all such 
offenders, and let Time try. 

As in ' Troilus and Cressida ' (Act iv. Sc. 5) Shake 
speare makes Time an Arbitrator : 

" And that old common ARBITRATOR, Time, 
Will one day end it." 

poses to their mother to marry the Princess Elizabeth, their sister, 
and wishing the Queen to intercede with her in his favour, says 
Be the attorney of my love to her. 

Again in the same play (Act v. Sc. 3) Lord Stanley, meeting 
Eichmond on the field at Bosworth, says 

I by attorney bless thee from thy mother. 



COMEDIES.] MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING. 45 



SNr 



It has been generally supposed that Shakespeare, in 
the characters of Dogberry and Verges, only meant to 
satirize the ignorance and folly of parish constables a 
race with which we of this generation were familiar till 
the establishment of the metropolitan and rural police ; 
but I cannot help suspecting that he slily aimed at 
higher legal functionaries Chairmen at Quarter-ses 
sions, and even Judges of assize, with whose perform 
ances he may probably have become acquainted at 
Warwick and elsewhere. 

There never has been a law or custom in England to 
"give a charge " to constables ; but from time immemo 
rial there has been " a charge to grand juries " by the 
presiding judge. This charge, we are bound to believe, 
is now-a-days always characterised by simplicity, perti 
nence, and correctness, although, according to existing 
etiquette, in order that it may not be too severely 
criticised, the barristers are not admitted into the Crown 
Court till the charge is over. But when Justice Shallow 
gave the charge to the grand jury at sessions in the 
county of Gloucester, we may conjecture that some of 
his doctrines and directions were not very wise; and 
Judges of the superior courts in former times made 
themselves ridiculous by expatiating, in their charges to 
grand juries, on vexed questions of manners, religion, 



46 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



politics, and political economy. Dogberry uses the very 
words of the oath administered by the Judges' marshal 
to the grand jury at the present day : 

Keep your fellows' counsels and your own. 

(Act in. Sc. 3.) 



If the different parts of Dogberry's charge are strictly 
examined, it will be found that the author of it had a 
very respectable acquaintance with crown law. The 
problem was to save the constables from all trouble, 
danger, and responsibility, without any regard to the 
public safety : 

Dogb. If you meet a thief, you may suspect him, by virtue of 
your office, to be no true man ; and for such kind of men, the less 
you meddle or make with them, why, the more is for your honesty. 

2 Watch. If we know him to be a thief, shall we not lay hands 
on him ? 

Dogb. Truly, by your office you may; but, I think, they that 
touch pitch will be defiled. The most peaceable way for you, if 
you do take a thief, is to let him show himself what he is, and steal 
out of your company. 

Now there can be no doubt that Lord Coke himself 
could not more accurately have defined the power of a 
peace-officer. 

I cannot say as much for the law laid down by Dog 
berry and Verges in Act iv. Sc. 2, that it was "flat 
perjury" to call a prince's brother villain; or "flat 
burglary as ever was committed " to receive a thousand 



COMEDIES.] LOVE'S LABOUR 's LOST. 47 

ducats " for accusing a lady wrongfully." But the 
dramatist seems himself to have been well acquainted 
with the terms and distinctions of our criminal code, or 
he could not have rendered the blunders of the parish 
officers so absurd and laughable. 



'B fabowr's 0st. 



In Act i. Sc. 1, we have an extract from the Keport 
by Don Adriano de Armado of the infraction he had 
witnessed of the King's proclamation by Costard with 
Jaquenetta ; and it is drawn up in the true lawyerlike, 
tautological dialect, which is to be paid for at so much 
a folio : 

Then for the place where ; where, I mean, I did encounter that 
obscene and most preposterous event that draweth from my snow- 
white pen the ebon-coloured ink, which here thou viewest, behold- 
est, surveyest, and seest. * * * Him I (as my ever-esteemed 
duty pricks me on) have sent to thee to receive the meed of punish 
ment, by thy sweet Grace's officer, Antony Dull, a man of good 
repute, carriage, bearing, and estimation. 

The gifted Shakespeare might perhaps have been 
capable, by intuition, of thus imitating the conveyancer's 
jargon ; but no ordinary man could have hit it off so 
exactly, without having engrossed in an attorney's office. 



48 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



Egeus makes complaint to Theseus, in Act I. Sc. 1, 
against Ms daughter Hermia, because, while he wishes 
her to marry Demetrius, she prefers Lysander ; and he 
seeks to enforce the law of Athens, that a daughter, who 
refuses to marry according to her father's directions, 
may be put to death by him : 

And, my gracious duke, 
Be it so, she will not here, before your grace, 
Consent to marry with Demetrius. 
I beg the ancient privilege of Athens, 
As she is mine, I may dispose of her, 
Which shall be either to this gentleman 
Or to her death, according to our law 
Immediately provided in that case. 

Commenting on this last line, Steevens observes, 
" Shakespeare is grievously suspected of having been 
placed, while a boy, in an attorney's office. The line 
before us has an undoubted smack of legal common 
place : Poetry disclaims it." 

The precise formula " In such case made and pro 
vided " would not have stood in the verse. There is 
certainly no nearer approach in heroic measure to the 
technical language of an indictment ; and there seems 



COMEDIES.] THE MERCHANT OF VENICE. 49 

no motive for the addition made to the preceding line, 
except to show a familiarity with legal phraseology, 
which Shakespeare, whether he ever were an attorney's 
clerk or not, is constantly fond of displaying. 



[mjmrtt 0f 



In Act I. Sc. 3, and Act n. Sc. 8, Antonio's bond to 
Shylock is prepared and talked about according to all 
the forms observed in an English attorney's office. The 
distinction between a " single bill " and a " bond with a 
condition " is clearly referred to ; and punctual payment 
is expressed in the technical phrase " Let good Antonio 
keep his day" 



It appears by Act in. Sc. 3, between Shylock, Salarino, 
Antonio, and a Jailer, that the action on the bond had 
been commenced, and Antonio had been arrested on 
mesne process. The trial was to come on before the 
Doge ; and the question was., whether Shylock was en 
titled to judgment specifically for his pound of flesh, or 
must be contented with pecuniary damages. 



50 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 

Shylock threatens the Jailer with an action for 
" escape " for allowing Antonio to come for a short 
time beyond the walls of the prison : 

I do wonder, 

Thou naughty Jailer, that thou art so fond 
To come abroad with him at his request. 

Antonio is made to confess that Shylock is entitled 
to the pound of flesh, according to the plain meaning 
of the bond and condition, and the rigid strictness of 
the common law of England :<- 

Sdlarino. I am sure the Duke 

Will never grant this forfeiture to hold. 

Antonio. The Duke cannot deny the course of law. 

All this has a strong odour of Westminster Hall. 



The trial comes on in Act IV. Sc. 1, and it is duly 
conducted according to the strict forms of legal pro 
cedure. Portia, the PODESTA or judge called in to act 
under the authority of the Doge, first inquires if there 
be any plea of non est factum. 

She asks Antonio, " Do you confess the bond ? " and 
when he answers, " I do," the judge proceeds to con 
sider how the damages are to be assessed. The plaintiff 
claims the penalty of the bond, according to the words 
of the condition ; and Bassanio, who acts as counsel for 
the defendant, attempting on equitable grounds to have 



COMEDIES.] THE MERCHANT OF VENICE. 51 

him excused by paying twice the sum of money lent, 
or " ten times o'er," judgment is given : 

Portia. It must not be. There is no power in Venice 
Can alter a decree established. 
'Twill be recorded for a precedent, 
And many an error by the same example 
Will rush into the state. * * * 

This bond is forfeit, 

And lawfully by this the Jew may claim 
A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off 
Nearest the merchant's heart. 

However, oyer of the bond being demanded, the judge 
found that it gave " no jot of blood ;" and the result 
was that Shylock, to save his own life, was obliged to 
consent to make over all his goods to his daughter 
Jessica and her Christian husband Lorenzo, and him 
self to submit to Christian baptism. 

Shakespeare concludes this scene with an ebullition 
which might be expected from an English lawyer, by 
making Gratiano exclaim, 

In christening thou shalt have two godfathers : 
Had I been judge, thou shouldst have had ten more, 
To bring thee to the gallows, not ihefont 

meaning a jury of twelve men, to find him guilty of the 
capital offence of an attempt to murder ; whereupon he 
must have been hanged. 



52 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 

I may further observe that this play, in the last scene 
of the last act, contains another palpable allusion to 
English legal procedure. In the Court of Queen's 
Bench, when a complaint is made against a person for 
a "contempt" the practice is that before sentence is 
finally pronounced, he is sent into the Crown Office, and 
being there " charged upon interrogatories" he is made 
to swear that he will "answer all things faithfully." 
Accordingly, in the moonlight scene in the garden at 
Belmont, after a partial explanation between Bassanio, 
Gratiano, Portia, and Nerissa, about their rings, some 
farther inquiry being deemed necessary, Portia says, 

Let us go in, 

And charge us there upon inter 'gatories, 
And we will answer all things faithfully. 

Gratiano assents, observing, 

Let it be so : the first inter'gatory 
That my Nerissa shall be sworn on is, 
Whether till the next night she had rather stay, 
Or go to bed now, being two hours to day. 



COMEDIES.] THE TAMING OF THE SHREW. 53 



Cmning 0f % Sjrrcto. 



In the " Induction " Shakespeare betrays an intimate 
knowledge of the matters which may be prosecuted as 
offences before the Court Leet, the lowest court of 
criminal judicature in England. He puts this speech 
into the mouth of a servant, who is trying to persuade 
Sly that he is a great lord, and that he had been in a 
dream for fifteen years, during which time he thought 
he was a frequenter of alehouses : 

For though you lay here in this goodly chamber, 
Yet would you say, ye were beaten out of door, 
And rail upon the hostess of the house, 
And say you would present her at the leet, 
Because she brought stone jugs, and no sealed quarts. 

Now, in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., there 
was a very wholesome law, that, for the protection of the 
public against " false measures/' ale should be sold only 
in sealed vessels of the standard capacity ; and the viola 
tion of the law was to be presented at the " Court Leet," 
or "View of Frankpledge," held in every hundred, 
manor, or lordship, before the steward of the leet. 

Malone, in reference to this passage, cites the well- 
known treatise of ' Kitchen on Courts,' and also copies 
a passage from a work with which I am not acquainted 



54 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



1 Characterismi, or Lenton's Leasures,' 12mo. 1631 
which runs thus : " He [an informer] transforms him- 
selfe into several shapes, to avoid suspicion of inneholders, 
and inwardly joyes at the sight of a blacke pot or jugge, 
knowing that their sale by sealed quarts spoyles his 
market." 



In Act i. Sc. 2, the proposal of Tranio that the rival 
lovers of Bianca, while they eagerly in her presence 
should press their suit, yet, when she is absent, should 
converse freely as friends, is illustrated in a manner to 
induce a belief that the author of Tranio's speech had 
been accustomed to see the contending counsel, when 
the trial is over, or suspended, on very familiar and 
friendly terms with each other : 

Tra. Sir, I shall not be slack : in sign whereof, 
Please ye, we may contrive this afternoon, 
And quaff carouses to our mistress' health ; 
And do as adversaries do in law, 
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends. 

This clearly alludes not to the parties litigating, who, 
if they were to eat and drink together, would generally 
be disposed to poison each other, but to the counsel on 
opposite sides, with whom, notwithstanding the fiercest 
contests in court, when they meet in private immediately 
after, it is " All hail, fellow, and well met." 



COMEDIES.] THE TAMING OF THE SHREW. 55 

In the first encounter of wits between Katherine and 
Petruchio, Shakespeare shows that he was acquainted 
with the law for regulating " trials by battle " between 
champions, one of which had been fought in Tothill 
Fields before the judges of the Court of Common Pleas 
in the reign of Elizabeth. 

Kath. "What is your crest ? a coxcomb ? 

Pet. A combless cock, so Kate will be my hen. 

Kath. No cock of mine ; you crow too like a craven. 

(Act ii. Sc. 1.) 

This all lawyers know to be the word spoken by a 
champion who acknowledged that he was beaten, and 
declared that he would fight no more : whereupon 
judgment was immediately given against the side which 
he supported, and he bore the infamous name of Craven 
for the rest of his days. 

We have like evidence in * Hamlet ' (Act iv. Sc. 4) of 
Shakespeare's acquaintance with the legal meaning of 
this word, where the hero says 

Now, whether it be 

Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple 
Of thinking too precisely on th' event. 



56 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



's Well %t tfnbs Well. 



In this play we meet with proof that Shakespeare had 
an accurate knowledge of the law of England respecting 
the incidents of military tenure, or tenure in chivalry,, by 
which the greatest part of the land in this kingdom was 
held till the reign of Charles II. The incidents of that 
tenure here dwelt upon are "wardship of minors" and 
" the right of the guardian to dispose of the minor in 
marriage at his pleasure." The scene lies in France, 
and, strictly speaking, the law of that country ought to 
prevail in settling such questions ; but Dr. Johnson, in 
his notes on ' All 's Well that Ends Well,' justly intimates 
his opinion that it is of no great use to inquire whether 
the law upon these subjects was the same in France as 
in England, " for Shakespeare gives to all nations the 
manners of England." 

According to the plot on which this play is con 
structed, the French King laboured under a malady 
which his physicians had declared incurable ; and 
Helena, the daughter of a deceased physician of great 
eminence, knew of a cure for it. She was in love with 
Bertram, Count of Eousillon, still a minor, who held 
large possessions as tenant in capite under the crown, 
and was in ward to the King. Helena undertook the 
cure, making this condition : 



COMEDIES.] ALL 's WELL THAT ENDS WELL. 57 



Hel. Then shalt thou give me with thy kingly hand 
What husband in thy power I will command. 

Adding, however : 

Exempted be from me the arrogance 
To choose from forth the royal blood of France * * * 
But such a one, thy vassal, whom I know 
7rv Is free for me to ask, thee to bestow. (Act n. Sc. 1.) 

She effects the cure, and the King, showing her all the 
noble unmarried youths whom he then held as wards, 
says to her 

Fair maid, send forth thine eye : this youthful parcel 
A Of noble bachelors stand at my bestowing * * * 

thy frank election make : 

Thou hast power to choose, and they none to forsake. 

(Act ii. Sc. 3.) 

Helena, after excusing herself to several of the others, 
comes to Bertram, and, covered with blushes, declares 
her election : 

Eel. I dare not say I take you ; but I give 
Me an3~rny~service, ever whilst I live, 
Into your guiding power. This is the man. 

King. Why then, young Bertram, take her: she's thy wife. 

Bertram at first strenuously refuses, saying 

In such a business give me leave to usej 
The help of mine own eyes. 

But the King, after much discussion, thus addresses 
him: 



58 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



It is in us to plant thine honour where 

We please to have it grow. Check thy contempt. 

Obey our will, which travails in thy good. * * * 

, Take her by the hand, 

And tell her she is thine. * * * 

Bert. I take her hand. (Act n. Sc. 3.) 

The ceremony of marriage was immediately performed, 
and no penalty or forfeiture was incurred. But the law 
not extending to a compulsion upon the ward to live 
with the wife thus forced upon him, Bertram escapes 
from the church door, and abandoning his wife, makes 
off for the wars in Italy, where he unconsciously em 
braced the deserted Helena. 

For the cure of the King by the physician's daughter, 
and her being deserted by her husband, Shakespeare is 
indebted to Boccaccio ; but the wardship of Bertram, and 
the obligation of the ward to take the wife provided for 
him by his guardian, Shakespeare drew from his own 
knowledge of the common law of England, which, though 
now obsolete, was in full force in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and was to be found in Littleton.* The adventure of 
Parolles's drum and the other comic parts of the drama 
are quite original, and these he drew from his own inex 
haustible fancy. 



* However, according to Littleton, it is doubtful whether Bertram, 
without being liable to any penalty or forfeiture, might not have 
refused to marry Helena, on the ground that she was not of noble 
descent. The lord could not " disparage " the ward by a mesal 
liance. Go. Litt. 80a. 



COMEDIES.] THE WINTER'S TALE. 59 



In this play, Act I. Sc. 2, there is an allusion to a 
piece of English law procedure, which, although it might 
have been enforced till very recently, could hardly be 
known to any except lawyers, or those who had them 
selves actually been in prison on a criminal charge, 
that, whether guilty or innocent, the prisoner was liable 
to pay a fee on his liberation. Hermione, trying to per 
suade Polixenes, King of Bohemia, to prolong his stay at 
the court of Leontes in Sicily, says to him 

You put me off with Umber vows ; but T, 

Though you would see': t' unsphere the stars with oaths, 

Should yet say, " Sir, no going." * * * 

Force me to keep you as a prisoner, 

Not like a guest ; so you shall pay your fees 

When you depart, and save your thanks. 

I remember when the Clerk of Assize and the Clerk 
of the Peace were entitled to exact their fee from all 
acquitted prisoners, and were supposed in strictness to 
have a lien on their persons for it. I believe there is now 
no tribunal in England where the practice remains, ex 
cepting the two Houses of Parliament ; but the Lord 
Chancellor and the Speaker of the House of Commons 
still say to prisoners about to be liberated from the 

E 2 



60 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [COMEDIES. 



custody of the Black Bod or the Serjeant-at-Arms, " You 
are discharged, paying your fees." 



When the trial of Queen Hermione for high treason 
comes off in Act in. Sc. 2, although the indictment is 
not altogether according to English legal form, and 
might be held insufficient on a writ of error, we lawyers 
cannot but wonder at seeing it so near perfection in 
charging the treason, and alleging the overt act com 
mitted by her " contrary to the faith and allegiance of a 
true subject." 

It is likewise remarkable that Cleomenes and Dion, 
the messengers who brought back the response from the 
oracle of Delphi, to be given in evidence, are sworn to 
the genuineness of the document they produce almost 
in the very words now used by the Lord Chancellor 
when an officer presents at the bar of the House of 
Lords the copy of a record of a court of justice : 

You here shall swear * * * 

That you, Cleomenes and Dion, have 

Been both at Delphos ; and from thence have brought 

The seal'd-up oracle, by the hand delivered 

Of great Apollo's priest ; and that since then 

You have not dar'd to break the holy seal, 

Nor read the secrets in 't. 



HISTORIES.] KING JOHN. 01 



In Shakespeare's dramas founded upon English 
history, more legalisms might have been expected ; but 
I have met with fewer than in those which are taken 
from the annals of foreign nations, or which, without 
depending on locality, "hold the mirror up to nature." 
This paucity of reference to law or to law proceedings 
may, perhaps, in part be accounted for by the fact that, 
in these "Histories," as they were called, our great 
dramatist is known to have worked upon foundations 
already laid by other men who had no technical know 
ledge, and in several ir stances he appears only to have 
introduced additions and improvements into stock pieces 
to revive their popularity. Yet we find in several of 
the " Histories," Shakespeare's fondness for law terms ; 
and it is still remarkable, that whenever he indulges 
this propensity he uniformly lays down good law. 

Thus in the controversy, in the opening scene of 
1 KING JOHN,' between Eobert and Philip Faulcon- 
bridge, as to which of them was to be considered the 
true heir of the deceased Sir Eobert, the King, in giving 
judgment, lays down the law of legitimacy most per 
spicuously and soundly, thus addressing Robert, the 
plaintiff : 



62 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



" Sirrah, your brother is legitimate : 
Your father's wife did after wedlock bear him ; 
*And if she did play false, the fraud was hers, 
Which fault lies on the hazards of all husbands 
That marry wives. Tell me, how if my brother, 
Who, as you say, took pains to get this son, 
Had of your father claim'd this son for his ? 
In sooth, good friend, your father might have kept 
This calf, bred from his cow, from all the world : 
In sooth, he might : then, if he were my brother's, 
My brother might not claim him, nor your father, 
Being none of his, refuse him. This concludes 
My mother's son did get your father's heir ; 
Your father's heir must have your father's land." 

This is the true doctrine, "Pater est quern nuptice 
demonstrant" 

It was likewise properly ruled that the father's will, 
in favour of his son Kobert, had no power to dispossess 
the right heir. Philip might have recovered the land, 
if he had not preferred the offer made to him by his 
grandmother, Elinor, the Queen Dowager, of taking the 
name of Plantagenet, and being dubbed Sir Kichard. 



In Act ii. Sc. 1, we encounter a metaphor which is 
purely legal, yet might come naturally from an 
attorney's clerk, who had often been an attesting 
witness to the execution of deeds. The Duke of 
Austria, having entered into an engagement to support 
Arthur against his unnatural uncle, till the young 



HISTORIES.] KING JOHN. 63 

prince should be put in possession of the dominions in 
France to which he was entitled as the true heir of the 
Plantagenets, and should be crowned king of England, 
says, kissing the boy to render the covenant more 
binding, 

" Upon thy cheek I lay this zealous kiss, 
As seal to this indenture of my love." 



In a subsequent part of this play, the true ancient 
doctrine of " the supremacy of the crown " is laid down 
with great spirit and force; and Shakespeare clearly 
shows that, whatever his opinion might have been 
on speculative dogmas in controversy between the 
Eeformers and the Komanists, he spurned the ultra 
montane pretensions of the Pope, which some of our 
Eoman Catholic fellow subjects are now too much dis 
posed to countenance, although they were stoutly re 
sisted before the Reformation by our ancestors, who were 
good Catholics. King John declares, Act in. Sc. 1, 

" No Italian priest 
Shall tithe or toll in our dominions ; 
But as we under heaven are supreme head, 
So, under heaven, that great supremacy, 
Where we do reign, we will alone uphold, 
Without th' assistance of a mortal hand. 
So tell the Pope ; all reverence set apart 
To him and his usurp'd authority. 



64 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



King Philip. Brother of England, you blaspheme in this. 

King John. Though you and all the kings of Christendom 
Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, 
Dreading the curse that money may buy out, 
And by the merit of vile gold, dross, dust, 
Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, 
Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, 
Though you and all the rest, so grossly led, 
This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish, 
Yet I alone, alone do me oppose 
Against the Pope, and count his friends my foes." 

At the same time, it is clear, from Shakespeare's 
portraiture of Friar Lawrence and other Roman 
Catholic ecclesiastics, who do honour to their church, 
that he was no bigot, and that he regarded with venera 
tion all who seek to imitate the meek example of the 
divine founder of the Christian religion. 



PART I. 



In Act in. Sc. 1, we have the partition of England 
and Wales between Mortimer, Glendower, and Hotspur, 
and the business is conducted in as clerk-like, attorney- 
like fashion, as if it had been the partition of a manor 



HISTORIES.] KING HENKY THE FOURTH. PAET I. 65 

between joint tenants, tenants in common, or co 
parceners. 

Olend. Come, here 's the map : shall we divide our right, 
According to our three-fold order ta'en ? 

Mort. The archdeacon hath divided it 
Into three limits very equally. 
England, from Trent and Severn hitherto, 
By south and east is to my part assign'd : 
And westward, Wales, beyond the Severn shore : 
And all the fertile land within that bound, 
To Owen Glendower : and, dear Coz, to you 
The remnant northward, lying off from Trent ; 
And our indentures tripartite are drawn, 
Which being sealed interchangeably, 
(A business that this night may execute,) 
To-morrow, cousin Percy, you and I, 
And my good Lord of Worcester, will set forth. 

It may well be imagined, that in composing this 
speech Shakespeare was recollecting how he had seen 
a deed of partition tripartite drawn and executed in his 
master's office at Stratford. 

Afterwards, in the same scene, he represents that the 
unlearned Hotspur, who had such an antipathy to 
" metre ballad-mongers " and " mincing poetry," fully 
understood this conveyancing proceeding, and makes 
him ask impatiently, 

" Are the indentures drawn ? shall we be gone ?" 

Shakespeare may have been taught that " livery of 
seisin " was not necessary to a deed of partition, or he 



G6 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



would probably have directed this ceremony to com 
plete the title. 

So fond was he of law terms, that afterwards, when 
Henry IV. is made to lecture the Prince of Wales on 
his irregularities, and to liken him to Kichard II., who, 
by such improper conduct, lost the crown, he uses the 
forced and harsh figure, that Eichard 

" Enfeoffed himself to popularity " (Act in. Sc. 2). 

I copy Malone's note of explanation on this line: 
"Gave himself up absolutely to popularity. A feoff- 
ment was the ancient mode of conveyance, by which all 
lands in England were granted in fee-simple for several 
ages, till the conveyance of lease and release was 
invented by Serjeant Moor about the year 1630. Every 
deed of feoffment was accompanied with livery of seisin, 
that is, with the delivery of corporal possession of the 
land or tenement granted in fee." 



To " sue out livery " is another law term used in this 
play (Act IV. Sc. 3), a proceeding to be taken by a 
ward of the crown, on coming of age, to obtain posses 
sion of his lands, which the king had held as guardian 
in chivalry during his minority. Hotspur, in giving a 
description of Henry the Fourth's beggarly and sup 
pliant condition when he landed at Kavenspurg, till 
assisted by the Percys, says, 



HISTORIES.] KING HENRY THE FOURTH. PART II. 67 



" And when lie was not six-and-twenty strong, 
Sick in the world's regard, wretched and low, 
A poor unminded outlaw, sneaking home, 
My father gave him welcome to the shore : 
And when he heard him swear, and vow to God, 
He came but to be Duke of Lancaster, 
To sue his livery, and beg his peace, 
With tears of innocency and terms of zeal, 
My father, in kind heart and pity mov'd, 
Swore him assistance." 



% Jmrffc, 
PART II. 



Arguments have been drawn from this drama against 
Shakespeare's supposed great legal acquirements. It 
has been objected to the very amusing interview, in 
Act I. Sc. 2, between Falstaff and the Lord Chief 
Justice, that if Shakespeare had been much of a lawyer, 
he would have known that this great magistrate could 
not examine offenders in the manner supposed, and 
could only take notice of offences when they were 
regularly prosecuted before him in the Court of King's 
Bench, or at the assizes. But although such is the 
practice in our days, so recently as the beginning of 



68 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 

the eighteenth century that illustrious Judge, Lord 
Chief Justice Holt, acted as a police magistrate, quell 
ing riots, taking depositions against parties accused, 
and, where a prima facie case was made out against 
them, committing them for trial. Lord Chief Justice 
Coke actually assisted in taking the Earl and Countess of 
Somerset into custody when charged with the murder of 
Sir Thomas Overbury, and examined not less than three 
hundred witnesses against them, writing the deposi 
tions with his own hand. It was quite in course that 
those charged with the robbery at Gadshill should be 
"had up" before Lord Chief Justice Gascoigne, and 
that he should take notice of any of them who, having 
disobeyed a summons to appear before him, happened 
to come casually into his presence. 

His Lordship is here attended by the tipstaff (or 
orderly), who, down to the present day, follows the Chief 
Justice, like his shadow, wherever he officially appears. 
On this occasion the Chief Justice meeting Sir John, 
naturally taxes him with having refused to obey the 
summons served upon him to attend at his Lordship's 
chambers, that he might answer the information laid 
against him ; and Sir John tries to excuse himself by 
saying that he was then advised by his " counsel learned 
in the laws," that, as he was marching to Shrewsbury 
by the king's orders, he was not bound to come. 

Again, it is objected that a Chief Justice could not be 
supposed, by any person acquainted with his station and 
functions, to use such vulgar language as that put into 



HISTORIES.] KING HENRY THE FOURTH. PART II. 69 

the mouth of Sir William Gascoigne when Falstaff 
will not listen to him, and that this rather smacks of 
the butcher's shop in which it is alleged that young 
Shakespeare employed himself in killing calves. 

Ch. Just. To punish you by the heels would amend the attention 
of your ears ; and I care not if I do become your physician. 

But " to lay by the heels " was the technical expres 
sion for committing to prison, and I could produce from 
the Reports various instances of its being so used by 
distinguished judges from the bench. I will content 
myself with one. A petition being heard in the Court 
of Chancery, before Lord Chancellor Jeffreys, against a 
great City attorney who had given him many briefs at 
the bar, an affidavit was read, swearing that when the 
attorney was threatened with being brought before my 
Lord Chancellor, he exclaimed " My Lord Chancellor ! 
I made him ! " Lord Chancellor Jeffreys : " Then will 
I lay my MAKER by the heels" A warrant of commit 
ment was instantly signed and sealed by the Lord Chan 
cellor, and the poor attorney was sent off to the Fleet. 

I must confess that I am rather mortified by the 
advantage given to the fat knight over my predecessor 
in this encounter of their wits. Sir John professes to 
treat the Chief Justice with profound reverence, inter 
larding his sentences plentifully with your Lordship 
" God give your Lordship good time of day : I am glad 
to see your Lordship abroad : I heard say your Lordship 
was sick : I hope your Lordship goes abroad by advice. 



70 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 

Your Lordship, though not clean past your youth, hath 
yet some smack of age in you, some relish of the salt- 
ness of time ; and I most humbly beseech your Lord 
ship to have a reverend care of your health." Yet 
Falstaff' s object is to turn the Lord Chief Justice into 
ridicule, and I am sorry to say that he splendidly suc- 
ceeds, insomuch that after the party accused of felony 
has vaingloriously asserted that he himself had done 
great service to the state, and that his name was terrible 
to the enemy, the Chief Justice, instead of committing 
him to Newgate to answer for the robbery at Gadshill, 
is contented with admonishing him to be honest, and dis 
misses him with a blessing; upon which Sir John is 
emboldened to ask the Chief Justice for the loan of a 
thousand pounds. To lower the law still further, my Lord 
Chief Justice is made to break off the conversation, in 
which FalstafFs wit is so sparkling, with a very bad pun. 

Ch. Just. Not a penny, not a penny : you are too impatient to 
bear crosses.* 

The same superiority is preserved in the subsequent 
scene (Act n. Sc. 1), where Falstaff being arrested on 
mesne process for debt at the suit of Dame Quickly, he 
gains his discharge, with the consent of the Chief 



* So bad is this pun that perhaps it may not be useless to remind 
you thaj; the penny and all the royal coins then had impressed 
upon them the sign of the cross. 



HISTORIES.] KING HENRY THE FOURTH. PART II. 71 



Justice, by saying to his Lordship " My Lord, this is 
a poor mad soul ; and she says, up and down the town, 
that her eldest son is like you :" and by insisting that 
although he owed the money, he was privileged from 
arrest for debt, " being upon hasty employment in the 
king's affairs." 



In Act v. Sc. 1, Falstaff, having long made Justice 
Shallow his butt during a visit to him in Gloucester 
shire, looks forward with great delight to the fun of 
recapitulating at the Boar's Head, East Cheap, Shal 
low's absurdities; and, meaning to intimate that this 
would afford him opportunities of amusing the Prince of 
Wales for a twelvemonth, he says 

" I will devise matter enough out of this Shallow to keep Prince 
Henry in continual laughter the wearing out of six fashions (which 
is four terms, or two actions), and he shall laugh without inter- 
vallums." 

Dr. Johnson thus annotates on the "two actions:" 
" There is something humorous in making a spendthrift 
compute time by the operation of an action for debt." 
The critic supposes, therefore, that in Shakespeare's 
time final judgment was obtained in an action of debt 
in the second term after the writ commencing it was 
sued out ; and as there are four terms in the legal year, 
Michaelmas Term, Hilary Term, Easter Term, and 



72 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



Trinity Term this is a legal circumlocution for a twelve 
month. It would seem that the author who dealt in 
such phraseology must have been early initiated in the 
mysteries of terms and actions. 



Shakespeare has likewise been blamed for an extra 
vagant perversion of law in the promises and threats 
which Falstaff throws out on hearing that Henry IV. 

was dead, and that Prince Hal reigned in his stead. 



Fal. Master Eobert Shallow, choose what office thou wilt in the 
land, 'tis thine. Pistol, I will double-charge thee with dignities. 
* * * Master Shallow, my Lord Shallow, be what thou wilt, I 
am Fortune's steward. * * * Come, Pistol, utter more to me ; 
and withal devise something to do thyself good. Boot, boot, 
master Shallow : I know the young King is sick for me. Let us 
take any man's horses ; the laws of England are at my command 
ment. Happy are they which have been my friends, and woe unto 
my Lord Chief Justice I Act v. Sc. 4. 

But Falstaff may not unreasonably be supposed to 
have believed that he could do all this, even if he were 
strictly kept to the literal meaning of his words. In 
the natural and usual course of things he was to become 
(as it was then called) " favourite " (or, as we call it, 
Prime Minister) to the new king, and to have all the 
power and patronage of the crown in his hands. Then, 
why might not Ancient Pistol, who had seen service, 
have been made War Minister f And if Justice Shallow 



HISTORIES.] KING HENRY THE FOURTH. PART II. 73 



had been pitchforked into the House of Peers, he might 
have turned out a distinguished Law Lord. By taking 
" any man's horses " was not meant stealing them, but 
pressing them for the king's service, or appropriating 
them at a nominal price, which the law would then 
have justified under the king's prerogative of pre 
emption. Sir W. Gascoigne was continued as Lord 
Chief Justice in the new reign ; but, according to law 
and custom, he was removable, and he no doubt ex 
pected to be removed, from his office. 

Therefore, if Lord Eldon could be supposed to have 
written the play, I do not see how he would be charge 
able with having forgotten any of his law while writing it. 



It is remarkable that while Falstaff and his com 
panions, in Act v. Sc. 5, are standing in Palace Yard 
to see the new king returning from his coronation in 
Westminster Abbey, Pistol is made to utter an expres 
sion used, when the record was in Latin, by special 
pleaders in introducing a special traverse or negation 
of a positive material allegation of the opposite side, 
and so framing an issue of fact for the determination 
of the jury; absque hoc, "without this that;" then 
repeating the allegation to be negatived. But there is 
often much difficulty in explaining or accounting for 
the phraseology of Ancient Pistol, who appears "to 
have been at a great feast of languages and stolen the 



74 SHAKESPEAKE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



scraps ;" so that if, when " double charged with dig 
nities," he had been called upon to speak in debate as 
a leading member of the government, his appointment 
might have been carped at. 



% Sktjr, 

PART II. 



In the speeches of Jack Cade and his coadjutors in 
this play we find a familiarity with the law and its 
proceedings which strongly indicates that the author 
must have had some professional practice or education 
as a lawyer. The second scene in Act iv. may be 
taken as an example. 

Dick. The first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers. 

Cade. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a lamentable thing, 
that the skin of an innocent lamb should be made parchment ? 
that parchment, being scribbled o'er, should undo a man ? Some 
say the bee stings ; but I say 'tis the bee's wax, for I did but seal 
once to a thing, and I was never mine own man since. 

The Clerk of Chatham is then brought in, who could 
"make obligations and write court hand," and who, 
instead of " making his mark like an honest plain- 
dealing man," had been " so well brought up that he 



HISTORIES.] KING HENRY THE SIXTH. PART II. 76 

could write his name." Therefore he was sentenced 
to be hanged with his pen and ink-horn about his 
neck. 

Surely Shakespeare must have been employed to 
write deeds on parchment in court hand, and to apply 
the wax to them in the form of seals: one does not 
understand how he should, on any other theory of his 
bringing up, have been acquainted with these details. 



Again, the indictment on which Lord Say was ar 
raigned, in Act IV. Sc. 7, seems drawn by no inexpe 
rienced hand :-*- 

" Thou hast most traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm in 
erecting a grammar-school : and whereas, before, our forefathers had 
no other books but the score and the tally, thou hast caused print 
ing to be used ; and contrary to the king, his crown and dignity, 
thou hast built a paper-mill. It will be proved to thy face that 
thou hast men about thee that usually talk of a noun and a verb, 
and such abominable words as no Christian ear can endure to hear.* 
Thou bast appointed justices of peace, to call poor men before them 
about matters they were not able to answer. Moreover thou hast 
put them in prison ; and because they could not read, thou hast 
hanged them, when indeed only for that cause they have been most 
worthy to live." 

How acquired I know not, but it is quite certain 
that the drawer of this indictment must have had some 



" Inter Christianas non nominand' " 

F 2 



76 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [HISTORIES. 



acquaintance with ' The Crown Circuit Companion,' and 
must have had a full and accurate knowledge of that 
rather obscure and intricate subject " Felony and 
Benefit of Clergy." 



Cade's proclamation, which follows, deals with still 
more recondite heads of jurisprudence. Announcing 
his policy when he should mount the throne, he says : 

" The proudest peer in the realm shall not wear a head on his 
shoulders unless he pay me tribute : there shall not a maid be 
married but she shall pay me her maidenhead ere they have it. 
Men shall hold of me in capite ; and we charge and command that 
their wives be as/ree as heart can wish, or tongue can tell" 

He thus declares a great forthcoming change in the 
tenure of land and in the liability to taxation : he is 
to have a poll-tax like that which had raised the rebel 
lion ; but, instead of coming down to the daughters of 
blacksmiths who had reached the age of fifteen, it was 
to be confined to the nobility. Then he is to legislate 
on the mercheta mulierum. According to Blackstone 
and other high authorities this never had been known 
in England ; although, till the reign of Malcolm III., it 
certainly appears to have been established in Scotland ; 
but Cade intimates his determination to adopt it, with 
this alteration, that instead of conferring the privilege 
on every lord of a manor, to be exercised within the 



HISTORIES.] TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 77 

manor, he is to assume it exclusively for himself all 
over the realm, as belonging to his prerogative royal. 

He proceeds to announce his intention to abolish 
tenure in free soccage, and that all men should hold of 
him in capite, concluding with a licentious jest, that 
although his subjects should no longer hold in free 
soccage, " their wives should be as free as heart 
can wish, or tongue can tell." Strange to say, this 
phrase, or one almost identically the same, " as free as 
tongue can speak or heart can think," is feudal, and was 
known to the ancient law of England. In the tenth 
year of King Henry VII., that very distinguished judge, 
Lord Hussey, who was Chief Justice of England during 
four reigns, in a considered judgment delivered the 
opinion of the whole Court of King's Bench as to the 
construction to be put upon the words "as free as 
tongue can speak or heart can think." See YEAR BOOK, 
EH. Term, 10 Hen. VIL, fol. 13, pL 6. 



attir 



In this play the author shows his insatiable desire to 
illustrate his descriptions of kissing by his recollection 
of the forms used in executing deeds. When Pandarus 



78 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



(Act in. Sc. 2) lias brought Troilus and Cressida together 
in the Orchard to gratify their warm inclinations, he 
advises Troilus to give Cressida " a kiss in fee-farm," 
which Malone explains to be " a kiss of a duration that 
has no bounds, a fee-farm being a grant of lands in 
fee, that is for ever, reserving a rent certain." 

The advice of Pandarus to the lovers being taken, he 
exclaims 

" What ! billing again ? Here 's In witness the parties inter 
changeably " 

the exact form of the testatum clause in an indenture 
" In witness whereof the parties interchangeably have 
hereto set their hands and seals." 

To avoid a return to this figure of speech I may here 
mention other instances in which Shakespeare intro 
duces it. In ' Measure for Measure/ Act iv. Sc. 1 

" But my kisses bring again 
Seals of love, but seal'd in vain : " 

and in his poem of ' Venus and Adonis ' 

" Pure lips, sweet seals in my soft lips imprinted, 
What bargains may I make, still to be sealing f " 



TRAGEDIES.] KING LEAE. 79 



In Act I. Sc. 4 the Fool makes a lengthy rhyming 
speech, containing a great many trite but useful moral 
maxims, such as 

Have more than thou showest, 
Speak less than thou knowest, &c., 

which the testy old King found rather flat and tire 
some. 

Lear. This is nothing, fool. 

Fool. Then, 'tis like the breath of an unfeed lawyer : you gave me 
nothing for it. 

This*seems to show that Shakespeare had frequently 
been present at trials in courts of justice, and now 
speaks from his own recollection. There is no trace of 
such a proverbial saying as " like the breath of an 
unfeed lawyer," while all the world knows the proverb, 
"Whosoever is his own counsel has a fool for his client." 

How unfeed lawyers may have comported themselves 
in Shakespeare's time I know not ; but I am bound to 
say, in vindication of " my order," that in my time there 
has been no ground for the Fool's sarcasm upon the bar. 
The two occasions when "the breath of an unfeed 
lawyer " attracts notice in this generation are when he 



80 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 

pleads for a party suing in forma pauperis, or when he 
defends a person prosecuted by the crown for high 
treason. It is contrary to etiquette to take a fee in the 
one case as well as in the other ; and on all such occa 
sions counsel, from a regard to their own credit, as well 
as from conscientious motives, uniformly exert them 
selves with extraordinary zeal, and put forth all their 
learning and eloquence. 

I confess that there is some foundation for the saying 
that " a lawyer's opinion which costs nothing is worth 
nothing;" but this can only apply to opinions given 
off-hand, in the course of common conversation, where 
there is no time for deliberation, where there is a desire 
to say what will be agreeable, and where no responsi 
bility is incurred. 



In Act II. Sc. 1, there is a remarkable example of 
Shakespeare's use of. technical legal phraseology. 
Edmund, the wicked illegitimate son of the Earl of 
Gloster, having succeeded in deluding his father into 
the belief that Edgar, the' legitimate son, had attempted 
to commit parricide, and had been prevented from 
accomplishing the crime by Edmund's tender solicitude 
for the Earl's safety, the Earl is thus made to express a 
determination that he would disinherit Edgar (who was 
supposed to have fled from justice), and that he would 
leave all his possessions to Edmund : 



TRAGEDIES.] KING LEAR. 81 



Glo. Strong and fasten'd villain ! 

***** 

All ports I'll bar ;,the villain shall not 'scape. 

***** 

Besides, his picture f* 
I will send far and near, that all the kingdom 
May have due note of him ;f and of my land, 
Loyal and natural boy, I '11 work the means / *-f J 
To make thee capable. j> * 

In forensic discussions respecting legitimacy, the 
question is put, whether the individual whose status is to 
be determined is " capable," i. e. capable of inheriting ; 
but it is only a lawyer who would express the idea of 
legitimising a natural son by simply saying 

I '11 work the means 
To make him capable. 



Again, in Act in. Sc. 5, we find Edmund trying to 
incense the Duke of Cornwall against his father for 
having taken part with Lear when so cruelly treated 
by Goneril and Regan. The two daughters had become 
the reigning sovereigns, to whom Edmund professed to 
owe allegiance. .Cornwall having created Edmund 
Earl of Gloster says to him 



f One would suppose that photography, by which this mode of 
catching criminals is now practised, had been invented in the reign 
of King Lear. 



82 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



" Seek out where thy father is, that he may be ready for our 
apprehension." 

On which Edmund observes aside 

" If I find him comforting the King, it will stuff his suspicion 
more fully." 

Upon this Dr. Johnson has the following note : 
" He uses the word [comforting] in the juridical sense, 
for supporting, helping." 

The indictment against an accessary after the fact, 
for treason, charges that the accessary " comforted " the 
principal traitor after knowledge of the treason. 



In Act in. Sc. 6 the imaginary trial, of the two un 
natural daughters is conducted in a manner showing a 
perfect familiarity with criminal procedure. 

Lear places the two Judges on the bench, viz., Mad 
Tom and the Fool. He properly addresses the former 
as " the robed man of justice," but, although both were 
"of the commission," I do not quite understand why 
the latter is called his "yokefellow of equity," unless 
this might be supposed to be a sp'ecial commission, 
like that which sat on Mary, Queen of Scots, including 
Lord Chancellor Audley. 

Lear causes Goneril to be arraigned first, and then 
proceeds "as a witness to give evidence against her, to 
prove an overt act of high treason : 



TRAGEDIES.] HAMLET. 83 



" I here take my oath before this honourable assembly, she kicked 
the poor king, her father." 

But the trial could not be carried on with perfect 
regularity on account of Lear's madness, and, without 
waiting for a verdict, he himself sentences Regan to be 
anatomized : 

" Then, let them anatomize Regan ; see what breeds about her 
heart." 



xmht 



In this tragedy various expressions and allusions crop 
out, showing the substratum of law in the author's mind, 
e. g., the description of the disputed territory which was 
the cause of the war between Norway and Poland : 

We go to gain a little patch of ground, 

That hath in it no profit but the name. 

To pay five ducats, five, I would not farm it, 

Nor will it yield to Norway or the Pole 

A ranker rate, should it be sold in fee. (Act iv. Sc. 4.) 

Earlier in the play (Act I. Sc. 1) Marcellus inquires 
what was the cause of the warlike preparations in 
Denmark 



84 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



And why such daily cast of brazen cannon, 
And foreign mart for implements of war ? 
Why such impress of shipwrights, whose sore task 
Does not divide the Sunday from the week ? 

Such confidence has there been in Shakespeare's 
accuracy, that this passage has been quoted, both by 
text writers and by Judges on the bench, as an authority 
upon the legality of \hspress-gang, and upon the debated 
question whether shipwrights, as well as common seamen, 
are liable to be pressed into the service of the royal 
navy.* 



Hamlet, when mortally wounded in Act v. Sc. 2, 
represents that Death comes to him in the shape of a 
sheriffs officer, as it were to take him into custody 
under a capias ad satisfaciendum : 

" Had I but time (as this fell serjeant, Death, 
Is strict in his arrest), Oh ! I could tell you," &c. 



The Grave-diggers' scene, however, is the mine which 
produces the richest legal ore. The discussion as to 
whether Ophelia was entitled to Christian burial proves 
that Shakespeare had read and studied Plowden's 
Report of the celebrated case of Hales v. Petit, tried in 
the reign of Philip and Mary, and that he intended to 



See Barrington on the Ancient Statutes, p. 300. 



TRAGEDIES.] HAMLET. 85 



ridicule the counsel who argued and the Judges who 
decided it. 

On the accession of Mary Tudor, Sir James Hales, 
a puisne Judge of the Common Pleas, was prosecuted 
for being concerned in the plot which placed the Lady 
Jane Grey for a few days upon the throne ; but, as he 
had previously expressed a strong opinion that the suc 
cession of the right heir ought not to be disturbed, he 
was pardoned and released from prison. Nevertheless, 
so frightened was he by the proceedings taken against 
him that he went out of his mind, and, after attempting 
suicide by a penknife, he drowned himself by walking 
into a river. Upon an inquisition before the Coroner, a 
verdict of felo de se was returned. Under this finding 
his body was to be buried in a cross-road, with a 
stake thrust through it, and all his goods were forfeited 
to the crown. It so happened that at the time of 
his death he was possessed of a lease for years of a 
large estate in the county of Kent, granted by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury jointly to him and his wife, 
the Lady Margaret, who survived him. Upon the sup 
position that this lease was forfeited, the estate was 
given by the crown to one Cyriac Petit, who took 
possession of it, and Dame Margaret Hales, the widow, 
brought this action against him to recover it. The only 
question was whether the forfeiture could be considered 
as having taken place in the lifetime of Sir James 
Hales ; for, if not, the plaintiff certainly took the estate 
by survivorship. 



86 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 

Her counsel, Serjeants Southcote and Puttrel, power 
fully argued that, the offence of suicide being the 
killing of a man's self, it could not be completed in his 
lifetime, for as long as he was alive he had not killed 
himself, and, the moment that he died, the estate vested 
in the plaintiff. " The felony of the husband shall not 
take away her title by survivorship, for in this manner 
of felony two things are to be considered first, the cause 
of the death ; secondly, the death ensuing the cause ; 
and these two make the felony, and without both of 
them the felony is not consummate. And the cause of 
the death is the act done in the party's lifetime, which 
makes the death to follow. And the act which brought 
on the death here was the throwing himself voluntarily 
into the water, for this was the cause of his death. 
And if a man kills himself by a wound which he gives 
himself with a knife, or if he hangs himself, as the 
wound or the hanging, which is the act done in the 
party's lifetime, is the cause of his death, so is the 
throwing himself into the water here. Forasmuch as he 
cannot be attainted of his own death, because he is dead 
before there is any time to attaint him, the finding of 
his death by the Coroner is by necessity of law equiva 
lent to an attainder in fact coming after his death. 
He cannot be felo de se till the death is fully con 
summate, and the death precedes the felony and the 
forfeiture." 

WALSH, Serjeant, contra, argued that the felony was 
to be referred back to the act which caused the death. 



TRAGEDIES.] HAMLET. 87 



" The act consists of three parts : the first is the imagina 
tion, which is a reflection or meditation of the mind, 
whether or not it is convenient for him to destroy him 
self, and what way it can be done ; the second is the 
resolution, which is a determination of the mind to 
destroy himself; the third is the perfection, which is 
the execution of what the mind had resolved to do. 
And of all the parts, the doing of the act is the greatest 
in the judgment of our law, and it is in effect the whole. 
Then here the act done by Sir James Hales, which is 
evil, and the cause of his death, is the throwing himself 
into the water, and the death is but a sequel thereof." 

Lord C. J. Dyer and the whole court gave judgment 
for the defendant, holding that although Sir James Hales 
could hardly be said to have killed himself in his life 
time, " the forfeiture shall have relation to the act done 
by Sir James Hales in his lifetime, which was the cause 
of his death, viz., the throwing himself into the water." 
Said they, " Sir James Hales was dead, and how came 
he to his death ? by drowning ; and who drowned him ? 
Sir James Hales; and when did he drown him? in 
his lifetime. So that Sir James Hales, being alive, 
caused Sir James Hales to die ; and the act of the 
living man was the death of the dead man. He there 
fore committed felony in his lifetime, although there was 
no possibility of the forfeiture being found in his lifetime, 
for until his death there was no cause of forfeiture." 

The argument of the gravediggers upon Ophelia's 
case is almost in the words reported by Plowden : 



88 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



1 Clo. Is she to be buried in Christian burial, that wilfully 
seeks her own salvation ? 

2 Clo. The crowner hath sate on her, and finds it Christian burial. 

1 Clo. How can that be, unless she drowned herself in her own 
defence ? 

2 Clo. Why, 'tis found so. 

1 Clo. It must be se offendendo ; it cannot be else. For here 
lies the point : if I drown myself wittingly, it argues an act ; and 
an act hath three branches ; it is to act, to do, and to perform. 
Argal she drowned herself wittingly. * * * Here lies the 
water ; good : here stands the man ; good. If the man go to this 
water and drown himself, it is, will he, nill he, he goes ; mark you 
that : but if the water come to him and drown him, he drowns not 
himself. Argal he that is not guilty of his own death shortens 
not his own life 

2 Clo. But is this law ? 

1 Clo, Ay, marry ib't, crowner's quest law. 



Hamlet's own speech, on taking in his hand what he 
supposed might be the skull of a lawyer, abounds with 
lawyer-like thoughts and words : 

" Where be his quiddits now, his quillets, his cases, his tenures, 
and his tricks ? Why does he suffer this rude knave now to 
knock him about the sconce with a dirty shovel, and will not tell 
him of his action of battery ? Humph ! This fellow might be 
in's time a great buyer of land, with his statutes, his recog 
nizances, his fines, his double vouchers, his recoveries : is this the 
fine of his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries, to have his 
fine pate full of fine dirt? will his vouchers vouch him no more 
of his purchases, and double ones too,, than the length and breadth 
of a pair of indentures ? " 



TRAGEDIES.] MACBETH. 80 

These terms of art are all used seemingly with a full 
knowledge of their import; and it would puzzle some 
practising barristers with whom I am acquainted to go 
over the whole seriatim, and to define each of them 
satisfactorily. 



In perusing this unrivalled tragedy I am so carried 
away by the intense interest which it excites, that I fear 
I may have passed over legal phrases and allusions 
which I ought to have noticed ; but the only passage I 
find with the juridical mark upon it in * Macbeth ' is in 
Act iv. Sc. 1, where, the hero exulting in the assurance 
from the Weird Sisters that he can receive harm from 
" none of woman born," he, rather in a lawyer-like 
manner, resolves to provide an indemnity, if the worst 
should come to the worst, 

" But yet m make assurance double sure, 
And take a bond of fate ;" 

without much considering what should be the penalty 
of the bond, or how he was to enforce the remedy, if the 
condition should be broken. 

He, immediately after, goes on in the same legal 
jargon to say, 

a 



90 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



our high-plac'd Macbeth 



Shall live the lease of nature." 

But, unluckily for Macbeth, the lease contained no 
covenants for title or quiet enjoyment : there were like 
wise forfeitures to be incurred by the tenant, with a 
clause of re-entry, and consequently he was speedily 
ousted.* 



In the very first scene of this play there is a striking 
instance of Shakespeare's proneness to legal phrase 
ology : where lago, giving an explanation to Roderigo 
of the manner in which he had been disappointed in not 
obtaining the place of Othello's lieutenant, notwith 
standing the solicitations in his favour of " three great 
ones of the city," says 



* The lease frequently presents itself to Shakespeare's mind, as 
in < Eichard III.,' Act iv. Se. 4 

Tell me what state, what dignity, what honour, 
Canst thou demise to any child of mine ? 

This is as clear a reference to leasing, as if he had said in full, 
" demise, lease, grant and to farm let." 



TRAGEDIES.] OTHELLO. 91 



" But he, as loving his own pride and purposes, 
Evades them with a bombast circumstance 
Horribly stuffd with epithets of war, 
And, in conclusion, 
Nonsuits my mediators." 



" Nonsuiting " is known to the learned to be the most 
disreputable and mortifying mode of being beaten: it 
indicates that the action is wholly unfounded on the 
plaintiffs own showing, or that there is a fatal defect in 
the manner in which his case has been got up : inso 
much that Mr. Chitty, the great special pleader, used 
to give this advice to young barristers practising at nisi 
prius : " Always avoid your attorney when nonsuited, 
for till he has a little time for reflection, however much 
you may abuse the Judge, he will think that the 
nonsuit was all your fault." 



In the next scene Shakespeare gives us very distinct 
proof that he was acquainted with Admiralty law, as 
well as with the procedure of Westminster Hall. De 
scribing the feat of the Moor in carrying off Desdemona 
against her father's consent, which might either make 
or mar his fortune, according as the act might be 
sanctioned or nullified, lago observes 

" Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land carack : 
If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever;" 

G 2 



92 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 

the trope indicating that there would be a suit in the 
High Court of Admiralty to determine the validity of 
the capture. 



Then follows, in Act I. Sc. 3, the trial of Othello 
before the Senate, as if he had been indicted on Stat. 
33 Hen. YII. c. 8, for practising " conjuration, witch 
craft, enchantment, and sorcery, to provoke to unlawful 
love." Brabantio, the prosecutor, says 

" She is abused, stol'n from me, and corrupted 
By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks ; 
For Nature so preposterously to en- * * * 
Sans witchcraft could not." 

The presiding Judge at first seems alarmingly to 
favour the prosecutor, saying 

Duke. Whoe'er he be that in this foul proceeding 
Hath thus beguil'd your daughter of herself, 
And you of her, the bloody book of law 
You shall yourself read, in the bitter letter, 
After your own sense. 

The Moor, although acting as his own counsel, makes 
a noble and skilful defence, directly meeting the sta- 
tutable misdemeanour with which he is charged, and 
referring pointedly to the very words of the indictment 
and the Act of Parliament : 



TRAGEDIES.] OTHELLO. 93 



" I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver 
Of my whole course of love ; what drugs, what charms, 
What conjuration, and what mighty magic 
(For such proceedings I am charged withal) 
I won his daughter with." 

Having fully opened his case, showing that he had used 
no forbidden arts, and having explained the course which 
he had lawfully pursued, he says in conclusion : 

" This only is the witchcraft I have used : 
Here comes the lady let her witness it." 

He then examines the witness, and is honourably 
acquitted. 



Again, the application to Othello to forgive Cassio is 
made to assume the shape of a juridical proceeding. 
Thus Desdemona concludes her address to Cassio, as 
suring him of her zeal as his Solicitor : 

" I'll intermingle every thing he does 
With Cassio's suit : Therefore be merry, Cassio ; 
For thy Solicitor shall rather die 
Than give thy cause away" (Act in. sc. 3.) 



The subsequent part of the same scene shows that 
Shakespeare was well acquainted with all courts, low as 
well as high ; where lago asks 



94 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



Who has a breast so pure 
But some uncleanly apprehensions 
Keep leets and law-days, and in session sit 
With meditations lawful? 






In ' Julius Caesar ' I could not find a single instance 
of a Roman being made to talk like an English lawyer ; 
but in ' Antony and Cleopatra ' (Act I. Sc. 4) Lepidus, 
in trying to palliate the bad qualities and misdeeds of 
Antony, uses the language of a conveyancer's chambers 
in Lincoln's Inn : 

" His faults, in him, seem as the spots of heaven, 
More fiery by night's blackness ; hereditary 
Bather than purchased" 

That is to say, they are taken by descent, not by 
purchase* 



* So in 'the Second Part of Henry IV.,' Act iv. Sc. 4, the King, 
who had usurped the crown, says to the Prince of Wales 

for what in me was purchas'd 
Falls upon thee in a more fairer sort. 

146, I took by purchase, you will take by descent. 



TRAGEDIES.] ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 95 

Lay gents (viz., all except lawyers) understand by 
"purchase" buying for a sum of money, called the 
price ; but lawyers consider that " purchase " is opposed 
to descent that all things come to the owner either by 
descent or by purchase, and that whatever does not 
come through operation of law by descent is purchased, 
although it may be the free gift of a donor. Thus, if 
land be devised by will to A. in fee, he takes by purchase, 
or to B. for life, remainder to A. and his heirs, B. being 
a stranger to A., A. takes by purchase ; but upon the 
death of A., his eldest son would take by descent. 

English lawyers sometimes use these terms meta 
phorically, like LEPIDUS. Thus a Law Lord who has 
suffered much from hereditary gout, although very tem 
perate in his habits, says, " I take it by descent, not by 
purchase" Again, Lord Chancellor Eldon, a very bad 
shot, having insisted on going out quite alone to shoot, 
and boasted of the heavy bag of game which he had 
brought home, Lord Stowell, insinuating that he had 
filled it with game bought from a poacher, used to say, 
" My brother takes his game not by descent, but by 
purchase ;" this being a pendant to another joke Lord 
Stowell was fond of " My brother, the Chancellor, in 
vacation goes out with his gun to kill time." 



96 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES. 



In this drama, in which we should not expect to find 
any allusion to English juridical proceedings, Shake 
speare shows that he must have been present before 
some tiresome, testy, choleric judges at Stratford, War 
wick, or Westminster, whom he evidently intends to 
depict and to satirise, like my distinguished friend 
CHARLES DICKENS, in his famous report of the trial of 
Bardel v. Pickwick, before Mr. Justice Starey, for breach 
of promise of marriage. Menenius (Act n. Sc. 1), in 
reproaching the two tribunes, Sicinius and Brutus, with 
their own offences, which they forget while they inveigh 
against Coriolanus, says 

*' You wear out a good wholesome forenoon in hearing a cause 
between an orange- wife and a posset-seller, and then re-journ the 
controversy of three pence to a second day of audience. When you 
are hearing a matter between party and party, if you chance to be 
pinched with the colic, you make faces like mummers, set up the 

bloody flag against all patience, and in roaring for a pot 

dismiss the controversy pleading more entangled by your hearing : 
all the peace you make in their cause is, calling both the parties 
knaves." 

Shakespeare here mistakes the duties of the Tribune 
for those of the Praetor ; but in truth he was recollecting 






TRAGEDIES.] COEIOLANUS EOMEO AND JULIET. 97 

with disgust what he had himself witnessed in his own 
country. Nowadays all English judges are exemplary 
for despatch, patience, and good temper ! ! ! 



|lante0 %nb ijnlui. 



The first scene of this romantic drama may be studied 
by a student of the Inns of Court to acquire a knowledge 
of the law of "assault and battery," and what will 
amount to a justification. Although Sampson exclaims, 
" My naked weapon is out : quarrel, I will back thee," 
he adds, " Let us take the law of our sides ; let them 
begin." Then we learn that neither frowning, nor biting 
the thumb, nor answering to a question, "Do you bite 
your thumb at us, Sir?" "I do bite my thumb, Sir," 
would be enough to support the plea of se defen- 
dendo* 



* To show the ignorance and stupidity of Sir Andrew Aguecheek 
(' Twelfth Night,' Act iv. Sc. 1) in supposing that son assault 
demesne (or that the Plaintiff gave the first blow) i* not a good 
defence to an action of battery, he is made to say, " I'll have an 
action of battery against him, if there be any law in Illyria : though 
I struck him first, yet ifs no matter for that." 



98 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [TRAGEDIES, 



The scene ends with old Montagu and old Capulet 
being bound over, in the English fashion, to keep the 
peace, in the same manner as two Warwickshire clowns, 
who had been fighting, might have been dealt with at 
Charlecote before Sir Thomas Lucy. 



The only other scene in this play I have marked to 
be noticed for the use of law terms is that between 
Mercutio and Benvolio, in which they keenly dispute 
which of the two is the more quarrelsome; at last 
Benvolio, not denying that he had quarrelled with a 
man for coughing in the street, whereby he wakened 
Benvolio's dog that lay asleep in the sun, or that he 
had quarrelled with another for tying his new shoes with 
old riband, contents himself with this tu quoque answer 
to Mercutio : 

An I were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any man should buy the 
fee-simple of my life for an hour and a quarter. (Act in. Sc. 1.) 

Talking of the fee-simple of a man's life, and cal 
culating how many hours' purchase it was worth, is cer 
tainly what might not unnaturally be expected from the 
clerk of a country attorney.* 



* So in All's Well that Ends Well' (Act iv. Sc. 3) Parolles, the 
bragging cowardly soldier, is made to talk like a conveyancer in 
Lincoln's Inn : " He will sell the fee-simple of his salvation * * 
and cut the entail from all remainders" 



POEMS.] VENUS AND ADONIS. 99 



faints. 

With a view to your inquiry respecting the learning 
of Shakespeare I have now, my dear Mr. Payne Collier, 
gone through all his plays, and I can venture to speak 
of their contents with some confidence, having been long 
familiar with them. His Poems are by no means so 
well known to me; for, although I have occasionally 
looked into them, and I am not blind to their beauties, 
I must confess that I never could discover in them (like 
some of his enthusiastic admirers) the same proofs of 
surpassing genius which render him immortal as a 
dramatist. But a cursory perusal of them does dis 
cover the propensity to legal thoughts and words which 
might be expected in an attorney's clerk who takes to 
rhyming. 

I shall select a few instances, without unnecessarily 
adding any comment. 

From VENUS AND ADONIS. 

" But when the heart's attorney once is mute, 
The client breaks as desperate in the suit." 



" Which purchase if thou make for fear of slips, 
Set thy seal-manual on my wax-red lips." 



Her pleading hath deserved a greater fee' 



100 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. [POEMS. 

From the EAPE OF LUCRECE. 
<* Dim register and notary of shame," 



" For me I force not argument a straw, 
Since that my case is past the help of law" 



" No rightful plea might plead for justice there.' 
*' Hath served a dumb arrest upon his tongue." 



From the SONNETS. 

" When, to the sessions of sweet silent thought 



" So should that beauty which you hold in lease' 



And summer's lease hath all too short a date.' 
And 'gainst thyself a lawful plea commence. ' 



POEMS.] SONNETS. 101 



" But be contented ; when that fell arrest 
Without all bail shall carry me away." * 



" Of faults concealed, wherein I am attainted." 
" Which works on leases of short numbered hours. 



" Lord of my love, to whom in vassalage 
Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit, 
To thee I send this written embassage."f 



" And I myself am mortgaged" 

" Why so large cost, having so short a lease ? 



" So should that beaut/, which you hold in lease, 
Find no determination " 



* Death is the sheriff's officer, strict in his arrest, and will take no 
bail. 

t This is the beginning of a love-letter, in the language of a vassal 
doing homage to his liege lord. 

J Taxing an overcharge in the attorney's bill of costs. 

The word " determination " is always used by lawyers instead 
of " end." 



102 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



SONNET XL VI. 

" Mine Eye and Heart are at a mortal war 
How to divide the conquest of thy sight ; 
Mine Eye my Heart thy picture's sight would bar, 
My Heart mine Eye the freedom of that right. 
My Heart doth plead that thou in him dost lie 
(A closet never pierced with crystal eyes), 
But the Defendant doth that plea deny, 
And says in him thy fair appearance lies. 
To 'cide this title is impannelled 
A quest of thoughts, all tenants to the Heart ; 
And by their verdict is determined 
The clear Eye's moiety, and the dear Heart's part ; 
As thus : mine Eyes' due is thine outward part, 
And my Heart's right, thine inward love of heart." 



I need not go further than this sonnet, which is 
so intensely legal in its language and imagery, that 
without a considerable knowledge of English forensic 
procedure it cannot be fully understood. A lover being 
supposed to have made a conquest of [i. e. to have gained 
by purchase] his mistress, his EYE and his HEART, 
holding as joint-tenants, have a contest as to how she is 
to be partitioned between them, each moiety then to be 
held in severalty. There are regular Pleadings in the 
suit, the HEART being represented as Plaintiff and the 
EYE as Defendant. At last issue is joined on what the 
one affirms and the other denies. Now a jury [in the 
nature of an inquest] is to be impannelled to 'cide 



HIS WILL. 103 



[decide] and by their verdict to apportion between the 
litigating parties the subject matter to be divided. 
The jury fortunately are unanimous, and after due 
deliberation find for the EYE in respect of the lady's 
outward form, and for the HEART in respect of her 
inward love. 

Surely Sonnet XLVI. smells as potently of the 
attorney's office as any of the stanzas penned by Lord 
Kenyon while an attorney's clerk in Wales. 



Among Shakespeare's writings, I think that attention 
should be paid to his WILL, for, upon a careful perusal, 
it will be found to have been in all probability composed 
by himself. It seems much too simple, terse, and 
condensed, to have been the composition of a Stratford 
attorney, who was to be paid by the number of lines 
which it contained. But a testator, without professional 
experience, could hardly have used language so appro 
priate as we find in this will, to express his meaning. 

Shakespeare, the greatest of British dramatists, 
appears to have been as anxious as Sir Walter Scott, 
the greatest of British novelists, to found a family, 



104 SHAKESPEARE S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 



although he does not require all his descendants to 
"bear the name and arms of Shakespeare." But, as 
far as the rules of English law would permit, he seeks 
to perpetuate in an heir male, descended from one of 
his daughters (his son having died in infancy, and there 
being no longer any prospect of issue male of his own), 
all the houses and lands he had acquired, which were 
quite sufficient for a respectable Warwickshire squire. 
His favourite daughter, Susanna, married to Dr. Hall, 
an eminent physician, was to be the stirps from which 
this line of male heirs was to spring; and the tes 
tator creates an estate in tail male, with remainders 
over, which, but for fines and recoveries, would have 
kept the whole of his property in one male represen 
tative for generations to come. 

The will, dated 25th March, 1616, a month before 
his death, having given legacies to various friends and 
relations, thus proceeds : 



" Item, I give, will, bequeath, and devise unto my daughter, 
Susanna Hall, for better enabling of her to perform this my will and 
towards performance thereof, all that capital messuage or tenement, 
with the appurtenances, in Stratford aforesaid, called the New Place, 
wherein I now dwell, and two messuages or tenements with the 
appurtenances, situate, lying, and being in Henley Street, within 
the borough of Stratford aforesaid; and all my barns, stables, 
orchards, gardens, lands, tenements, and hereditaments whatsoever, 
situate, lying, and being, or to be had, received, perceived, or taken, 
within the towns, hamlets, villages, fields, and grounds of Stratford- 
upon-Avon, Old Stratford, Bishopton, and. Welcombe, or in any of 
them, in. the said county of Warwick ; and also all that messuage 



HIS WILL. 105 



or tenement, with the appurtenances, wherein one John Robinson 
dwelleth, situate, lying, and being in the Blackfriars in London, near 
the Wardrobe ; and all other my lands, tenements, and heredita 
ments whatsoever ; to have and to hold all and singular the said 
premises, with their appurtenances, unto the said Susanna Hall, for 
and during the term of her natural life ; and after her decease, to 
the first son of her body lawfully issuing, and to the heirs males of 
the body of the said first son lawfully issuing ; and for default of 
such issue, to the said second son of her body lawfully issuing, and to 
the heirs males of the body of the second son lawfully issuing ; and 
for default of such heirs, to the third son of the body of the said 
Susanna lawfully issuing, and to the heirs males of the body of the 
said third son lawfully issuing ; and for default of such issue, the 
same so to be and remain to the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh sons 
of her body, lawfully issuing one after another, and to the heirs 
males of the bodies of the said fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh sons 
lawfully issuing, in such manner as it is before limited to be and 
remain to the first, second, and third sons of her body, and to their 
heirs males ; and for default of such issue, the said premises to be 
and remain to my said niece Hall, and the heirs males of her body 
lawfully issuing; and for default of such issue, to my daughter 
Judith, and the heirs males of her body lawfully issuing ; and for 
default of such issue, to the right heirs of me the said William 
Shakespeare for ever." 



In his will, when originally engrossed, there was no 
notice whatever taken of his wife; but immediately 
after these limitations he subsequently interpolated a 
bequest to her in the following words : 

"I give unto my wife my second best bed with the furniture." 

The subject of this magnificent gift being only per 
sonal property, he shows his technical skill by omitting 



106 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

the word devise, which he had used in disposing of his 
realty.* 



* The idolatrous worshippers of Shakespeare, who think it neces 
sary to make his moral qualities as exalted as his poetical genius, 
account for this sorry bequest, and for no other notice being taken 
of poor Mrs. Shakespeare in the will, by saying that he knew she 
was sufficiently provided for by her right to dower out of his landed 
property, which the law would give her ; and they add that he must 
have been tenderly attached to her, because (they take upon them 
selves to say) she was exquisitely beautiful as well as strictly vir 
tuous. But she was left by her husband without house or furniture 
(except the second best bed), or a kind word, or any other token of 
his love ; and I sadly fear that between William Shakespeare and 
Ann Hathaway the course of true love never did run smooth. His 
boyish inexperience was no doubt pleased for a short time with her 
caresses ; but he probably found that their union was " misgraffed 
in respect of years," and gave advice from his own experience when 
he said, 

' Let still the woman take 

An elder than herself ; so wears she to him, 

So sways she level in her husband's heart. 
For, boy, however we do praise ourselves, 

Our fancies are more giddy and infirm, 

More longing, wavering, sooner lost and worn, 

Than women's are. * * 

Then let thy love be younger than thyself, 

Or thy affection cannot hold the bent; 

For women are like roses ; whose fair flower, 

Being once displayed, doth fall that very hour." 

To strengthen the suspicion that Shakespeare was likely not to 
have much respect for his wife, persons animated by the spirit of 
the late John Wilson Croker (although Shakespeare's biographers, in 
the absence of any register of his marriage, had conjectured that it 
took place in June, 1582), by searching the records of the Eccle 
siastical Court at Worcester, have lately made the very awkward 
discovery that the bond given on grant of the licence for William 



RETKOSPECT. 107 



Having concluded my examination of Shakespeare's 
juridical phrases and forensic allusions, on the retro 
spect I am amazed, not only by their number, but by 
the accuracy and propriety with which they are uni 
formly introduced. There is nothing so dangerous as 
for one not of the craft to tamper with our free-masonry. 
In the House of Commons I have heard a county 
member, who meant to intimate that he entirely con 
curred with the last preceding speaker, say, " I join issue 
with the honourable gentleman who has just sat down ; * 
the legal sense of which is, " I flatly contradict all his 
facts and deny his inferences." JUNIUS, who was fond 
of dabbling in law, and who was supposed by some to 
be a lawyer (although Sir Philip Francis, then a clerk 
in the War Office, is now ascertained, beyond all doubt, 
to have been the man), in his address to the English 
nation, speaking of the House of Commons, and wishing 



Shakespeare to marry Ann Hathaway is dated 26th November, 1582, 
while the entry in the parish register of the baptism of Susanna, 
their eldest child, is dated 26th May, 1583. As Shakespeare, at 
the time of this misfortune, was a lad of eighteen years of age, and 
Miss Hathaway was more than seven years his senior, he could 
hardly have been the seducer ; and I am afraid that she was " no 
better than she should be," whatever imaginary personal charms may 
be imputed to her. 

H 2 



108 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

to say that the beneficial interest in the state belongs to 
the people, and not to their representatives, says, 
" They are only trustees ; the fee is in us." Now every 
attorney's clerk knows that when land is held in trust, 
the fee (or legal estate) is in the trustee, and that 
the beneficiary has only an equitable interest. While 
Novelists and Dramatists are constantly making mis 
takes as to the law of marriage, of wills, and of inherit 
ance, to Shakespeare's law, lavishly as he propounds it, 
there can neither be demurrer, nor bill of exceptions, 
nor writ of error. 

He is no doubt equally accurate in referring to some 
other professions, but these references are rare and com 
paratively slight. Some have contended that he must 
have been by trade a gardener, from the conversation, in 
the ' WINTER'S TALE,' between Perdita, Polixenes, and 
Florizel, about raising carnations and gilliflowers, and 
the skilful grafting of fruit trees. Others have con 
tended that Shakespeare must have been bred to the sea 9 
from the nautical language in which directions are given 
for the maneuvering of the ship in the ' TEMPEST/ and 
from the graphic description in Henry IV.'s soliloquy of 
the "high and giddy mast," of the "ruffian billows," of 
the "slippery shrouds," and of "sealing up the ship 
boy's eyes." Nay, notwithstanding the admonition to 
be found in his works, "Throw physic to the dogs," 
it KAR been gravely suggested that he must have been 



HIS REFERENCES TO OTHER PROFESSIONS. 109 

initiated in medicine, from the minute inventory of the 
contents of the apothecary's shop in 'Romeo and Juliet.' 
But the descriptions thus relied upon, however minute, 
exact, and picturesque, will be found to be the result of 
casual observation, and they prove only nice percep 
tion, accurate recollection, and extraordinary power of 
pictorial language. Take the last instance referred to 
Romeo's photograph of the apothecary and his shop. 

" Meagre were his looks, 
Sharp misery had worn him to the bones : 
And in his needy shop a tortoise hung, 
An alligator stuffed, and other skins 
Of ill-shaped fishes ; and about his shelves 
A beggarly account of empty boxes. 
Green earthen pots, bladders and musty seeds, 
Kemnants of packthread and old cakes of roses, 
Were thinly scattered to make up a show." 

(Act v. Sc. 1.) 

Any observing customer, who had once entered the 
shop to buy a dose of rhubarb, might have safely given 
a similar account of what he saw, although utterly 
ignorant of Galen and Hippocrates. But let a non- 
professional man, however acute, presume to talk law, 
or to draw illustrations from legal science in discussing 
other subjects, and he will very speedily fall into some 
laughable absurdity. 

To conclude my summing up of the evidence under 



110 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

this head, I say, if Shakespeare is shown to have 
possessed a knowledge of law, which he might have 
acquired as clerk in an attorney's office in Stratford, 
and which he could have acquired in no other way, we 
are justified in believing the fact that he was a clerk in 
an attorney's office at Stratford, without any direct 
proof of the fact. Logicians and jurists allow us to 
infer a fact of which there is no direct proof, from facts 
expressly proved, if the fact to be inferred may have 
existed, if it be consistent with all other facts known to 
exist, and if facts known to exist can only be accounted 
for by inferring the fact to be inferred. 

But, my dear Mr. Payne Collier, you must not from 
all this suppose that I have really become an absolute 
convert to your side of the question. ^ENEAS, while in 
the shades below, for a time believed in the reality of all 
he seemed to see and to hear; but, when dismissed 
through the ivory gate, he found that he had been 
dreaming. I hope that my arguments do not "come 
like shadows, so depart." Still I must warn you that 
I myself remain rather sceptical. All that I can 
admit to you is that you may be right, and that while 
there is weighty evidence for you, there is nothing con 
clusive against you. 

Kesuming the Judge, however, I must lay down that 
your opponents are not called upon to prove a negative, 
and that the onus prdbandi rests upon you. You must 



STATE OF THE EVIDENCE. Ill 

likewise remember that yon require us implicitly to 
believe a fact, which, were it true, positive and irre 
fragable evidence in Shakespeare's own handwriting 
might have been forthcoming to establish it. Not 
having been actually inrolled as an attorney, neither 
the records of the local court at Stratford, nor of the 
superior courts at Westminster, would present his name, 
as being concerned in any suits as an attorney ; but it 
might have been reasonably expected that there would 
have been deeds or wills witnessed by him still extant ; 
and, after a very diligent search, none such can 
be discovered. Nor can this consideration be disre 
garded, that between Nash's Epistle in the end of 
the 16th century, and Chalmers's suggestion more 
than two hundred years after, there is no hint by his 
foes or his friends of Shakespeare having consumed 
pens, paper, ink, and pounce in an attorney's office at 
Stratford.* 

I am quite serious and sincere in what I have written 
about Nash and Robert Greene having asserted the fact ; 
but I by no means think that on this ground alone 
it must necessarily be taken for truth. Their statement 



" Three years I sat his smoky room in, 
Pens, paper, ink, and pounce consuminV 

Pleaders Guide. 



112 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

that he had belonged to the profession of the law may 
be as false as that he was a plagiarist from Seneca. 
Nash and Robert Greene may have invented it, or re 
peated it on some groundless rumour. Shakespeare 
may have contradicted and refuted it twenty times ; or, 
not thinking it discreditable, though untrue, he may 
have thought it undeserving of any notice. Observing 
what fictitious statements are introduced into the pub 
lished " Lives " of living individuals, in our own time, 
when truth in such matters can be so much more easily 
ascertained, and error so much more easily corrected, 
we should be slow to give faith to an uncorroborated 
statement made near three centuries ago by persons 
who were evidently actuated by malice.* 



* In several successive Lives of Lord Chief Justice Campbell it is 
related that, by going for a few weeks to Ireland as Chancellor, 
he obtained a pension of 4000Z. a year, which he has ever since 
received, thereby robbing the public ; whereas in truth and in 
fact, he made it a stipulation on his going to Ireland that he 
should receive no pension and pension he never did receive and, 
without pension or place, for years after he returned from Ireland 
he regularly served the public in the Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council, and in the judicial business of the House of Lords. 
This erroneous statement is to be found in a recent Life of Lord C., 
which is upon the whole laudatory above due measure, but in which 
the author laments that there was one fault to be imputed to him 
which could not be passed over by an impartial biographer, viz., 
that he had most improperly obtained this Irish pension, which he 



STATE OF THE EVIDENCE. 113 

What you have mainly to rely upon (and this con 
sideration may prevail Jn your favour with a large 
majority of the literary world) is the seemingly utter 
impossibility of Shakespeare having acquired, on any 
other theory, the wonderful knowledge of law which he 
undoubtedly displays. But we must bear in mind that, 
although he was a mortal man, and nothing miraculous 
can be attributed to him, he was intellectually the most 
gifted of mankind, and that he was capable of acquiring 
knowledge where the opportunities he enjoyed would 
have been insufficient for any other. Supposing that 
John the father lived as a gentleman, or respectably 
carried on trade as one of the principal inhabitants of 
the town, and -that William the son, from the time of 
leaving the grammar-school till he went to London, 
resided with his fathei, assisting him in the manage 
ment of his houses and land and any ancillary business 
carried on by him, the son might have been in the 
habit of attending trials in the Stratford Court of Ee- 
cord, and when of age he might have been summoned 
to serve as a juryman there or at the Court Leet ; he 
might have been intimate with some of the attorneys 



still continues to receive without any benefit being derived by the 
public from his services. Lord C. ought to speak tenderly of 
Biographers, but I am afraid that they may sometimes be justly 
compared to the hogs of Westphalia, who without discrimination 
pick up what falls from one another. 



114 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

who practised in the town and with their clerks, and 
while in their company at fairs, wakes, church ales, 
bowling-, bell-ringing-, and hurling-matches, he might 
not only have picked up some of their professional 
jargon, but gained some insight into the principles of 
their calling, which are not without interest to the 
curious. 

Moreover, it is to be considered that, although 
Shakespeare in 1589 was unquestionably a shareholder 
in the Blackfriars Theatre, and had trod the boards as 
an actor, the time when he began to write for the stage 
is uncertain ; and we are not in possession of any piece 
which we assuredly know to have been written and 
finished by him before the year 1592. Thus there was 
a long interval between his arrival in London and the 
publication of any of the dramas from which my selec 
tions are made. In this interval he was no doubt con 
versant with all sorts and conditions of men. I am 
sorry to say I cannot discover that at any period of his 
life Lord Chancellors or Lord Chief Justices showed the 
good taste to cultivate his acquaintance.* But he must 
have been intimate with the students at the Inns of 



* Although it is said that Shakespeare was introduced to Lord 
Chancellor Ellesmere, Lord Somers is the first legal dignitary I 
find forming friendships with literary men. 



STATE OF THE EVIDENCE. 115 

Court, who were in the habit of playing before Queen 
Elizabeth at Greenwich^ as he took a part in these court 
theatricals ; and the author, in all probability, was 
present among the lawyers when ' Twelfth Night ' was 
brought out at the Headers' Feast in the Middle 
Temple, and when ' Othello ' was acted at Lord Chan 
cellor Ellesmere's before Queen Elizabeth. 

Shakespeare, during his first years in London, when 
his purse was low, may have dined at the ordinary in 
Alsatia, thus described by Dekker, where he may have 
had a daily surfeit of law, if, with his universal thirst for 
knowledge, he had any desire to drink deeply at this 
muddy fountain : 

" There is another ordinary at which your London usurer, your 
stale bachelor, and your thi ifty attorney do resort ; the price three 
pence ; the rooms as full of company as a gaol ; and indeed divided 
into several wards, like the beds of an hospital. * * * If they 
chance to discourse, it is of nothing but of statutes, bonds, recog 
nizances, fines, recoveries, audits, rents, subsidies, sureties, en 
closures, liveries, indictments, outlawries, feoffments, judgments, 
commissions, bankrupts, amercements, and of such horrible matter." 
Dekker's GuWs Hornbook, 1609. 

In such company a willing listener might soon make 
great progress in law ; and it may be urged, that I 
have unconsciously exaggerated the difficulty to be 
encountered by Shakespeare in picking up his know- 



I 



116 SHAKESPEARE'S LEGAL ACQUIREMENTS. 

ledge of that which I myself have been so long labouring 
to understand. Many may think that Shakespeare 
resembles his own Prince Hal, when reformed and 
become Henry V., who, notwithstanding his revels in 
East Cheap, and with no apparent opportunities of 
acquiring the knowledge he displayed, astonished the 
world with his universal wisdom : 



" Hear him but reason in divinity, 
And, all-admiring, with an inward wish, 
You would desire the king were made a prelate. 
Hear him debate of commonwealth affairs, 
You would say, it hath been all-in-all his study. 
List his discourse of war, and you shall hear 
A fearful battle render'd you in music. 
Turn him to any cause of policy, 
The Gordian knot of it he will unloose 



Familiar as his garter ; that, when he speaks, 
The air, a chartered libertine, is still, 
And the mute wonder lurketh in man's ears 
To steal his sweet and honeyed sentences ; 
So that the art, and practick part of life, 
Must be the mistress to this theorick." 

Henry V., Act i. Sc. 1. 



We cannot argue with confidence on the principles 
which would guide us to safe conclusions respecting 
ordinary men, when we are reasoning respecting one of 
whom it was truly said : 



CONCLUSION. 117 



" Each change of many-coloured life he drew, 
Exhausted worlds, and then imagined new ; 
Existence saw him spurn her bounded reign, 
And panting Time toiled after him in vain." 

And now, my dear Mr. Payne Collier, I must con 
clude. Long ago, I dare say, you were heartily sorry 
that you ever thought of taking the opinion of counsel 
on this knotty point; and at last you may not only 
exclaim, " I am no wiser than I was," but shaking your 
head, like old DEMIPHO in ' Terence,' after being present 
at a consultation of lawyers on the validity of his son's 
marriage, you may sigh and say, " Incertior sum multo 
quam dudum." 

However, if my scepticism and my argumentation 
(worthy of Serjeant Eitherside) should stimulate you 
deliberately to reconsider the question, and to com 
municate your matured judgment to the world, I shall 
not have doubted or hallucinated in vain. By another 
outpouring of your Shakespearian lore you may entirely 
convince, and at all events you will much gratify, 
Your sincere admirer and friend, 

(Signed) CAMPBELL. 



THE END. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, 
AND CHARING CROSS. 



ALBEMARLK STBEET, LONDOS. 
January, 1859. 



MR MURRAY'S 
GENERAL LIST OF WORKS. 



ABBOTT'S (REV. J.) Philip Musgrave ; or, Memoirs of a Church of 
England Missionary in the North American Colonies. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

ABERCROMBIE'S (JOHN, M.D.) Enquiries concerning the Intel 
lectual Powers and the Investigation of Truth, fifteenth Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

- Philosophy of the Moral Feelings. Tenth 

Edition. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

Pathological and Practical Researches on. the 



Diseases of the Stomach, &c. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

ACLAND'S (REV. CHARLES) Popular Account of the Manners and 

Customs of India. PostSvo. 2s. Qd. 
ADDISON'S WORKS. A New Edition, with a New Life and 

Notes. By Rev. WHITWELL ELWIN. 4 Vols. 8vo. In Preparation. 

ADOLPHUS'S (J. L.) Letters from Spain, in 1856 and 1857. 
Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

^SCHYLUS. (The Agamemnon and Choephoroa.) Edited, with 
Notes. By Kev. W. PEILE, D.D. Second Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 9s. 
each. 

JISOP'S FABLES. A New Translation. With Historical 
Preface. By Rev. THOMAS JAMES, M.A. With 100 Woodcuts, by JOHN 
TENNIEL and J. WOLF. 26th Thousand. PostSvo. 2*. 6d. 

AGRICULTURAL (THE) JOURNAL. Of the Royal Agricultural 

Society of England. 8vo. 10s. Published half-yearly. 

AMBER-WITCH (THE). The most interesting Trial for Witch 
craft ever known. Translated from the German by LADY DUFF 
GORDON. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

ARABIAN NIGHTS ENTERTAINMENT. Translated from the 
Arable, with Explanatory Notes. By E. W. LANE. A New Edition. 
Edited by E. STANLEY POOLS. With 600 Woodcuts. 3 Vols. 8vo. 42*. 

ARTHUR'S (LITTLE) History of England. By LADY CALLOOTT. 

Eighteenth Edition. With 20 Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

AUNT IDA'S Walks and Talks ; a Story Book for Children. By 

a LADY. Woodcuts. 16mo. 5s. 
AUSTIN'S (SARAH) Fragments from German Prose Writers. 

With Biographical Notes. Post 8vo. 10s. 
Translation of Ranke's History of the Popes of Rome. 

Third Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 24s. 



LIST OP WORKS 



ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS ; Issued by direction of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty: 

1. A MANUAL OF SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, for the Use of Officers in 

H.M. Navy and Travellers in General. By Various Hands. Third 
Edition, revised. Woodcuts. Post 8 70. 

2. AIRY'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT GREENWICH. 

1836 to 1847. Royal 4to. 50s. each. 
ASTRONOMICAL RESULTS. 1848 to 1856. 4to. 8s* each. 

3. APPENDICES TO THE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVA. 

TIONS. 

1836. I. Bessel's Refraction Tables. 

II. Tables for converting Errors of R.A. and N.P.D. 

into Errors of Longitude and Ecliptic P.O. 
1837. I. Logarithms of Sines and Cosines to every Ten 
Seconds of Time. 

II. Table for converting Sidereal into Mean Solar Time. 
1842. Catalogue of 1439 Stars. 8s. 
1845. Longitude of Valentia, 8s. 
1847. Twelve Years' Catalogue of Stars. 14s. 
1851. Maskelyne's Ledger of Stars. 6s. 
1852. I. Description of the Transit Circle. 5s. 

II. Regulations of the Royal Observatory. 2s. 
1853. Bessel's Refraction Tables. 3s. 
1854. I. Description of the Zenith Tube. 3*. 

II. Six Years' Catalogue of Stars. 10s. 

4. MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVA 
TIONS. 1840 to 1847. Royal 4to. 50s. each. 

MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS. 

1848 to 1855. 4to. 8s. each. 

5. ASTRONOMICAL, MAGNETICAL, AND METEOROLO 
GICAL OBSERVATIONS, 1848 to 1854. Royal 4to. 50s. each. 

6. REDUCTION OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETS, 

1750 to 1830. Royal 4to. 60s. 

7, _ LUNAR OBSERVATIONS. 1750 

to 1830. 2 Vols. Royal 4to. 50s. each. 

8. BERNOULLI'S SEXCENTENARY TABLE. London, 1779. 4to. 

9. BESSEL'S AUXILIARY TABLES FOR HIS METHOD OF CLEAR 

ING LUNAR DISTANCES. 8vo. 

10. FUNDAMENTA ASTRONOMIC: Regiomontii, 1818. Folio. 60s. 

11. BIRD'S METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING MURAL QUADRANTS. 

London, 1768. 4to. 2s. 6d. 

12. METHOD OF DIVIDING ASTRONOMICAL INSTRU 
MENTS. London, 1767. 4to. 2s. 6d. 

13. COOK, KING, AND BAYLY'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

London, 1782. 4to. 21s. 

14. EIFFE'S ACCOUNT OF IMPROVEMENTS IN CHRONOMETERS. 

4to. 2s. 

15. ENCKE'S BERLINER JAIIRBUCH, for 1830. Berlin, 1828. 8vo. 9s. 

16. GROOMBRIDGE'S CATALOGUE OF CIRCUMPOLAR STARS. 

4to. 10s. 

17. HANSEN'S TABLES DE LA LUNE. 4to. 20s. 

17. HARRISON'S PRINCIPLES OF HIS TIME-KEEPER. PLATES. 

1767. 4to. 5s. 

18. BUTTON'S TABLES OF THE PRODUCTS AND POWERS OF 

NUMBERS. 1781. Folio. 7s. 6d. 

19. LAX'S TABLES FOR FINDING THE LATITUDE AND LONGI 

TUDE. 1821. 8vo. 10s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS continued. 

20. LUNAR OBSERVATIONS at GREENWICH. 1783 to 1819. Compared 

with the Tahles, 1821. 4to. 7s. 6d. 

22. MASKELYNE'S ACCOUNT OP THE GOING OP HARRISON'S 
WATCH. 1767. 4to. 2s. 6d. 

21. MAYER'S DISTANCES of the MOON'S CENTRE from the 

PLANETS. 1822, 3*.; 1823, 4s. 6d. 1824 to 1835, 8vo. 4s. each. 

\ 23. THEORIA LUN^E JUXTA SYSTEMA NEWTONIANUM. 

4to. 2s. 6d. 

24. TABULAE MOTUUM SOLIS ET LUNJ3. 1770. 4to. 5s. 

25. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT GOT- 

TINGEN, from 1756 to 1761. 1826. Folio. Is. 6d. 

26. NAUTICAL ALMANACS, from 1767 to 1861. 8vo. 2s. 6d. each. 

27 SELECTIONS FROM THE ADDITIONS 

up to 1812. 8vo. 5s. 1834-54. 8vo. 5s. 

28. SUPPLEMENTS, 1828 to 1833, 1837 and 1838. 

8vo. 2s. each. 

29. TABLE requisite to be used with the N.A. 

1781. 8vo. 5s. 

30. POND'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 1811 to 1835. 4to. 21s. 

each. 

31. RAMSDEN'S ENGINE for DIVIDING MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

4to. 5*. 
32, ENGINE for DIVIDING STRAIGHT LINES. 4to. 5s. 

33. SABINE'S PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS to DETERMINE THE FIGURE 

OF THE EARTH. 1825. 4to. 40s. 

34. SHEPHERD'S TABLES for CORRECTING LUNAR DISTANCES. 1772. 

Royal 4to. 21s. 
35 TABLES, GENERAL, of the MOON'S DISTANCE 

froin the SUN, and 10 STARS. 1787. Folio. 5s. 6d. 
36. TAYLOR'S SEXAGESIMAL TABLE. 1780. 4to. 15s. 

37- TABLES OF LOGARITHMS. 4to. 31. 

38. TIARK'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS for the LONGITUDE 

of MADEIRA. 1822. 4to. 5s. 
3g> CHRONOMETRICAL OBSERVATIONS for DIFFERENCES 

of LONGITUDE between DOVER, PORTSMOUTH, and FALMOUTH. 1823. 

4to. 5s. 

40. VENUS and JUPITER: OBSERVATIONS of, compared with the TABLES. 

London, 1822. 4to. 2s. 

41. WALES' AND BAYLY'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

1777. 4to. 21s. 
42 WALES' REDUCTION OF ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS 

MADE IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 1764-1771. 1788. 4tO. 

10s. 6d. 
BABBAGE'S (CHARLES) Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 

Fourth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Ninth Bridgewater Treatise. 8vo. 9s. 6d. ' 

Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, 

and on some of its Causes. 4to. 7s. Gd. 
Views of the Industry, the Science, and the Govern 



ment of England, 1851. Seconl Edition. 8vo. 7s.6d. 

B 2 



LIST OF WORKS 



BAIKIE'S (W. B.) Narrative of an Exploring Voyage up the Rivers 
Quorra and Tshadda in 1854. Map. 8vo. 16. 

BANKES' (GEORGE) STORY OF CORFE CASTLE, with documents relating 
to the Time of the Civil Wars, &c. Woodcuts. PostSvo. 10s. Qd. 

BASSOMPIERRE'S Memoirs of his Embassy to the Court of 
England in 1626. Translated with Notes. 8vo. 9s. 6d. 

BARROW'S (SiR JOHN) Autobiographical Memoir, including 
Reflections, Observations, and Reminiscences at Home and Abroad. 
From Early Life to Advanced Age. Portrait. 8vo. 16*. 

Voyages of Discovery and Research within the 

Arctic Regions, from 1818 to the present time. Abridged and ar 
ranged from the Official Narratives. 8vo. 15s. 

(SiR GEORGE) Ceylon; Past and Present. Map. 
Post 8vo. 6s. Qd. 

(JOHN) Naval Worthies of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, 

their Gallant Deeds, Daring Adventures, and Services in the infant state 
of the British Navy. 8vo. 14s. 

Life and Voyages of Sir Francis Drake. With nume 
rous Original Letters. Post 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

BEES AND FLOWERS. Two Essays. By Rev. Thomas James. 
Reprinted from the " Quarterly Review." Fcap. 8vo. Is. each. 

BELL'S (SiR CHARLES) Mechanism and Vital Endowments of the 
Hand as evincing Design. Sixth Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

BENEDICT'S (JULES) Sketch of the Life and Works of Felix 

Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Second Edition. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
BERTHA'S Journal during a Visit to her Uncle in England. 
Containing a Variety of Interesting and Instructive Information. Seventh 
Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7s. 6d. 

BIRCH'S (SAMUEL) History of Ancient Pottery and Porcelain : 
Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek, Roman, and Etruscan. With 200 Illustrations. 
2Vols. Medium 8vo. 42s. 

BLUNT'S (REV. J. J.) Principles for the proper understanding of 
the Mosaic Writings, stated and applied, together with an Incidental 
Argument for the truth of the Resurrection of our Lord. Being the 
HOLSEAN LECTUKES for 1832. Post 8vo. 6s. Qd, 

Undesigned Coincidences in the Writings of the Old 

and New Testament, an Argument of their Veracity : with an 
Appendix containing Undesigned Coincidences between the Gospels, 
Acts, and Josephus. Sixth Edition. Post 8vo. 7s. Qd. 

History of the Church in the First Three Centuries. 

Second Edition. 8vo. 9s. Qd. 

Parish Priest; His Duties, Acquirements and Obliga 
tions. Third Edition. PostSvo. 7s. Gd. 

Lectures on the Right Use of the Early Fathers. 

Second Edition. 8vo. 15s. 

Plain Sermons Preached to a Country Congregation. 

Second Edition. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 7s. Qd. each. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



BLACKSTONE'S (SiR WILLIAM) Commentaries on the Laws of 
England. A New Edition, adapted to the preseut state of the law. By 
R. MALCOLM KERB, LL.D. 4 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 

- (The Student's Blackstone :) Being those Portions 
of the above work which relate to the BRITISH CONSTITUTION and the 
RIGHTS OF PERSONS. By R. MALCOLM KERB, LLD. Post 8vo. 9s. 

xBLAINE (EOBERTON) on the Laws of Artistic Copyright and their 
Defects, for Artists, Engravers, Printsellers, &c. 8vo. 3s. Gd. 

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. With 1000 Illustrations of 
Borders, Initials, and Woodcut Vignettes. A New Edition. Medium 
8vo. 21s. cloth, 31s. 6d. calf, or 42s. morocco. 

BOSWELL'S (JAMBS) Life of Dr. Johnson. Including the Tour to 
the Hebrides. Edited by Mr. CBOKEB. Third Edition. Portraits. Royal 
8vo. 15s. 

BORROWS (GEORGE) Lavengro ; The Scholar The Gipsy and 
the Priest. Portrait. . 3 Vols. Post 8vo. 30s. 

- Romany Rye ; a Sequel to Lavengro. Second 
Edition. 2 Vols. Pout 8vo. 21*. 

- Bible in Spain; or the Journeys, Adventures, and 
Imprisonments of an Englishman in an Attempt to circulate the 
Scriptures in the Peninsula. 3 Vols. Post 8vo. 27s., or Popular Edition, 
16mo, 6*. 

- Zincali, or the Gipsies of Spain ; their Manners, 
Customs, Religion, and Language. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 18s., or Popular 
Edition, 16mo, 6s. 

BRAY'S (MRS.) Life of Thomas Stothard, R.A. With Personal 
Reminiscences. Illustrated with Portrait and 60 Woodcuts of his 
chief works. 4to. 

BREWSTER'S (SiR DAVID) Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of 
Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. Gd. 

- More Worlds than One. The Creed of the Philo 
sopher and the Hope of the Christian. Seventh Thousand. Post 8vo. 6s. 



- Stereoscope : its History, Theory, Construction, 
and Application to the Arts and to Education. Woodcuts. 12mo. 



- Kaleidoscope : its History, Theory, and Construction, 
with its application to the Fine and Useful Arts. Second Edition. 
Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION REPORTS. 8vo. York and Oxford, 

1831-32, 13s. Gd. Cambridge, 1833, 12s. Edinburgh, 1834, 15s. Dublin, 
1835, 13s. Gd. Bristol, 1836, 12s. Liverpool, 1837, 16s. Gd. Newcastle, 
1638, 15s. Birmingham, 1839, 13s. Gd. Glasgow, 1840, 15s. Plymouth, 
1841, 13s. Gd. Manchester, 1842, 10s. Gd. Cork, 1843, 12s. York, 1844. 
20s. Cambridge, 1845, 12s. Southampton, 1846, 15s. Oxford, 1847, 18s. 
Swansea, 1848, 9s. Birmingham, 1849, 10s. Edinburgh, 1850, 15s. Ipswich, 
1851, 16s. Gd. Belfast, 1852, 15s. Hull, 1853, 10s. Gd. Liverpool, 1854, 18s. 
Glasgow, 1855, 15s. ; Cheltenham, 1856, 18s ; Dublin, 1857, 15s. 



LIST OF WORKS 



BRITISH CLASSICS. A New Series of Standard English 
Authors, printed from the most correct text, and edited with elucida 
tory notes. Published occasionally in demy 8vo. Volumes. 

Already Published. 
GOLDSMITH'S WORKS. Edited by PETEB CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. 

Vignettes. 4 Vols. 80s. 
GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 

Edited by WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D. Portrait and Maps. 8 Vols. 60s. 
JOHNSON'S LIVES OF THE ENGLISH POETS. Edited by PETEK 

CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. 3 Vols. 22s. 6d. 
BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. Edited, with Notes. 6 vols. 45s. 

In Preparation. 

WORKS OF POPE. Edited, with Notes. 
WORKS OF DRYDEN. Edited, with Notes." 
HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Edited, with Notes. 
LIFE, LETTERS, AND JOURNALS OF SWIFT. Edited, with Notes, 

by JOHN FOKSTEB. 

WORKS OF SWIFT. Edited, with Notes. By JOHN FOKSTER. 
WORKS OF ADDISON. Edited, with Notes. By Rev. W. ELWIN. 

BROUGHTON'S (LORD) Journey through Albania and other 
Provinces of Turkey in Europe and Asia, to Constantinople, 180910. 
Second Edition. Maps and Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 30s. 

. ITALY : Remarks made in several Visits from 

the Year 1816 to 1854. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 

BUBBLES FROM THE BRUNNEN OF NASSAU. By an Old 

MAN. Sixth Edition. 16mo. 5s. 

BUNBURY'S (C. J. F.) Journal of a Residence at the Cape of Good 
Hope; with Excursions into the Interior, and Notes on the Natural 
History and Native Tribes of the Country. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 9s. 

BUNYAN (JOHN) and Oliver Cromwell. Select Biographies. By 
ROBERT SOUTHEY. Post 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

BUONAPARTE'S (NAPOLEON) Confidential Correspondence with his 
Brother Joseph, sometime King of Spain. Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. 
26s. 

BURGHERSH'S (LORD) Memoir of the Operations of the Allied 

Armies under Prince Schwarzenberg and Marshal Blucher during the 
latter end of 181314. 8vo. 21s. 

Early Campaigns of the Duke of Wellington in 

Portugal and Spain. 8vo. 8s. Qd. 

BURGON'S (Rev. J. W.) Portrait of a Christian Gentleman: a 

Memoir of the late Patrick Fraser Tytler, author of " The History of 
Scotland." 8vo. In the Press. 

BURN'S (LiEUT-CoL.) French and English Dictionary of Naval 
and Military Technical Terms. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 15s. 

BURNS' (ROBERT) Life. By JOHN GIBSON LOCKHART. Fifth 

Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 

BURR'S (G. D.) Instructions in Practical Surveying, Topogra 
phical Plan Drawing, and on sketching ground without Instruments. 
Third Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



BUXTON'S (SiR FOWELL) Memoirs. With Selections from liis 
Correspondence. By bis Son. fifth Edition. 8vo. 16s.; or, Popular 
Edition. Post 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

BYRON'S (LORD) Life, Letters, and Journals. By THOMAS MOORE. 

Cabinet Edition. Plates. 6 Vols. Fcap. 8vo. 18s. 

Life, Letters, and Journals. By THOMAS MOORE. Popular 
Edition. Portrait and Vignette. One Volume, royal 8vo. 12s. 

^ Poetical Works. Library Edition. Portrait. 6 Yols. 

Demy 8vo. 45s. 

- Poetical Works. Cabinet Edition. Plates. 10 Vols. 
Fcap. 8vo. 30s. 

- Poetical Works. People's Edition. Portrait and Steel 
Engravings. Royal 8vo. 9s. 

- Poetical Works. Travelling Edition. Printed in small 
but beautifully clear type. Portrait. Crown 8vo. 9s. 

Poetical Works. Pocket Edition, Containing Childe 

Harold; Dramas, 2 Vols.; Tales and Poems; Miscellanies, 2 Vols.; 
Beppo and Don Juan, 2 Vols. 8 Vols. 24mo. 20s. Or, separately, 
2s. 6d, Each volume. 

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. A New and beautifully 

printed Edition. Illustrated, with Wood Engravings, from original 
Drawings by PEBCIVAL SKELTON. Fcap.4to. 21*. 

Illustrated with 30 Steel Vignettes. 

Crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

BYRON Beauties. Poetry and Prose. A Reading Book for Youth. 

Portrait. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
CALVIN'S (JOHN) Life. With Extracts from his Correspondence. 

By THOMAS H. DYEB. Portrait. 8vo. 15s. 
CALLCOTT'S (LADY) Little Arthur's History of England. 

18th Edition. With 20 Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
CARMICHAEL'S (A. N.) Greek Verbs. Their Formations, 

Irregularities, and Defects. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 8s. 6d. 
CARNARVON'S (LORD) Portugal, Gallicia, and the Basque 

Provinces. From Notes made during a Journey to those Countries. 

Third Edition. PostSvo. 6s. 

CAMPBELL'S (LORD) Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers 
of the Great Seal of England. From the Earliest Times to the Death of 
Lord Eldon in 1838. 4th Edition. 10 Vols. Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

Life of Lord Chancellor Bacon. Fcap. 8vo. 2.9. 6d. 

Lives of the Chief Justices of England. From the 
Norman Conquest to the Death of Lord Tenterden. Second Edition. 
3 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 

(GEORGE) Modern India. A Sketch of the System 

of Civil Government. With some Account of the Natives and Native 
Institutions. Second Edition. 8vo. 16s. 



India as it may be. An Outline of a proposed 

Government and Policy. 8vo. 12s. 

(Tnos.) Short Lives of the British Poets. With an 



Essay on English Poetry. Post 8vo. 6s. 



LIST OF WORKS 



CASTLEREAGH (THE) DESPATCHES, from the commencement 
of the official career of the late Viscount Castlereagh to the close of his 
life. Edited by the MAEQUIS OF LONDONDERRY. 12 Vols. Svo. 14s. each . 

CATHCART'S (Sin GEORGE) Commentaries on the War in Russia 
and Germany, 1812-13. Plans. Svo. 14s. 

Military Operations in Kaffraria, which led to the 
Termination of the Kaffir War. Second Edition. Svo. 12*. 

CAVALCASELLE (G. B.) Notices of the Early Flemish Painters ; 
Their Lives and Works. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 12s. 

CHAN TREY (S FRANCIS). Winged Words on Chantrey's Wood 
cocks. Edited by JAS. P. MUIRHEAD. Etchings. Square Svo. 10s. 6d- 

CHARMED ROE (THE) ; or, The Story of the Little Brother and 
Sister. By OTTO SPECKTER. Plates. 16mo. 5s. 

CLARENDON (LORD CHANCELLOR) ; Lives of his Friends and 
Contemporaries, illustrative of Portraits in his Gallery. By Lady 
THERESA LEWIS. Portraits. 3 Vols. Svo. 42s. 

CLAUSEWITZ'S (CARL VON) Campaign of 1812, in Russia. 
Translated from the German by LORD ELLESMERE. Map. Svo. 10s. 6d. 

CLIVE'S (LORD) Life. By REV. G. R. GLEIG, M.A. Post Svo. 6s. 

COLERIDGE (SAMUEL TAYLOR). Specimens of his Table-Talk. 
Fourth Edition. Portrait. Fcap. Svo. 6s. 

(HENRY NELSON) Introductions to the Study of 
the Greek Classic Poets. Third Edition. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 6d. 

COLONIAL LIBRARY. [See Home and Colonial Library.] 

COOKERY (DOMESTIC). Founded on Principles of Economy and 
Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. New Edition. 
Woodcuts. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 

CORNWALLIS (THE) Papers and Correspondence during the 
American War, Administrations in India, Union with Ireland, and 
Peace of Amiens. From Family Papers, &c. Edited by CHARLES Ross. 
3 Vols. Svo. 63*. 

CRABBE'S (Rsv. GEORGE) Life, Letters, and Journals. By his SON. 
Portrait. Fcap. Svo. 3s. 

and Poetical Works. Cabinet 

Edition. Plates. 8 Vols. Fcap. Svo. 24s. 

and Poetical Works. Popular 
Edition. Plates. One Volume. Eoyal Svo. 10s. 6d. 

CRAIK'S (G. L.) Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties. 
New Edition. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 12s. 

CURZON'S (HoN. ROBERT) Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant. 
fourth Edition. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 15s. 

ARMENIA AND ERZEROUM. A Year on the Frontiers 

of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 
7s. 6d. 

CUNNINGHAM'S (ALLAN) Life of Sir David Wilkie. With Ms 

Journals and Critical Remarks on Works of Art. Portrait. 3 Vols. 
Svo. 42s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



CUNNINGHAM'S (ALLAN) ..Poems and Songs. Now first col 
lected and arranged, with Biographical Notice. 24mo. 2s. Gd. 

- (CAPT. J. D.) History of the Sikhs. From 
the Origin of the Nation to the Battle of the Sutlej. Second Edition. 
Maps, 8vo. 15a. 

- (PETER) London Past and Present. A Hand 
book to the Antiquities, Curiosities, Churches, Works of Art, Public 
Buildings, and Places connected with interesting and historical asso 
ciations. Second Edition. PostSvo. 16*. 



Modern London. A complete Guide for 

Visitors to the Metropolis. Map. 16mo. 5s. 

Westminster Abbey. Its Art, Architecture, 



and Associations. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 
Works of Oliver Goldsmith. Edited with 



Notes. Vignettes. 4 vols. 8vo. 30s. (Murray's British Classics.) 

Lives of Eminent English Poets. By SAMUEL 
JOHNSON, LL.D. Edited with Notes. 3 vols. 8vo. 22s. 6d. (Murray's 
British Classics.) 

CHOKER'S (J. W.) Progressive Geography for Children. 
Fifth Edition. 18mo. J*. Gd. 

Stories for Children, Selected from the History of 
England, fifteenth Edition. Woodcuts. 16mo. 2s. 6d. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. Including the Tour to the 



Hebrides. Third Edition. Portraits. Royal 8vo. 15s. 



LORD HERVEY'S Memoirs of the Eeign of George the 

Second, from his Accession to the death of Queen Caroline. Edited 
with Notes. Second Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 21s. 

- Essays on the Early Period of the French Revolution. 
Reprinted from the Quarterly Review. 8vo. 15s. 

Historical Essay on the Guillotine. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

CROMWELL (OLIVER) and John Bunyan. By ROBERT SOUTHEY. 
Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

CROWE'S (J. A.) Notices of the Early Flemish Painters; their 

Lives and Works. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 12s. 
CURETON (REV. W.) Remains of a very Ancient Recension of 

the Four Gospels in Syriac, hitherto unknown in Europe. Discovered, 

Edited, and Translated. 4to. 24s. 

DARWIN'S (CHARLES) Journal of Researches into the Natural 

History and Geology of the Countries visited during a Voyage round the 

World. Post 8vo. 8s. 6d. 
DA VIS'S (SiH J. F.) China : A General Description of that Empire 

and its Inhabitants, down to 1857. New Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 

PostSvo. 14s. 

DAVY'S (SIR HUMPHRY) Consolations in Travel; or, Last Days 

of a Philosopher. Fifth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Salmonia ; or, Days of Fly Fishing. With some Account 
of the Habits of Fishes belonging to the genus Salmo. Fourth Edition. 
Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

DENNIS' (GEORGE) Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria; or, the 
extant Local Remains of Etruscan Art. Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 



10 LIST OF WORKS 



DOG-BREAKING; the Most Expeditious, Certain, and Easy 
Method, whether great excellence or only mediocrity be required. By 
LIEUT.-COL. HUTCHINSON. Third Edition. Revised and enlarged. 
Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 9s. 

DOMESTIC MODERN COOKERY. Founded on Principles of 
Economy and Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. 
New Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

DOUGLAS'S (GENERAL SIR HOWARD) Treatise on the Theory 
and Practice of Gunnery. Fourth Edition. Plates. 8vo. 21s. 

Treatise on the Principle and Construction of Military 

Bridges, and the Passage of Elvers in Military Operations. Third 
Edition. Plates. 8vo. 21s. 



Naval Warfare with Steam. Woodcuts. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 



DRAKE'S (SiR FRANCIS) Life, Voyages, and Exploits, by Sea and 
Land. By JOHN BAKKOW. Third Edition. PostSvo. 2s. Gd. 

DRINKWATER'S (JOHN) History of the Siege of Gibraltar, 
1779-1783. With a Description and Account of that Garrison from the 
Earliest Periods. Post 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

DRYDEN'S (JOHN) Works. A New Edition, based upon Sir 
Walter Scott's Edition, entirely revised. 8vo. In Preparation. 

DUDLEY'S (EARL OP) Letters to the late Bishop of Llandaff. 

Second Edition. Portrait. 8vo. 10s. Gd. 

DUFFERIN'S (LORD) Letters from High Latitudes, being some 
Account of a Yacht Voyage to Iceland, &c., in 1856. Fourth Edition. 
Woodcuts. Post Svo. 9s. 

DURHAM'S (ADMIRAL SIR PHILIP) Naval Life and Services. By 
CAPT. ALEXANDER MURRAY. Svo. 5s. Gd. 

DYER'S (THOMAS H.) Life and Letters of John Calvin. Compiled 
from authentic Sources. Portrait. Svo. 15s. 

New History of Modern Europe. From the taking of 

Constantinople by Ihe Turks to the Close of the War in the Crimea. 
4 Vols. Svo. In Preparation. 

EASTLAKE (SiR CHARLES) The Schools of Painting in Italy. 
From the Earliest times. From the German of KUGLEB. Edited, with 
Notes. Third Edition. Illustrated from the Old Masters. 2 Vols. 
Post Svo. 30s. 

EDWARDS' (W. H.) Voyage up the River Amazon, including a 

Visit to Para. Post Svo. 2s. Gd. 

EGERTON'S (HoN. CAPT. FRANCIS) Journal of a Winter's Tour in 
India; with a Visit to Nepaul. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 18s. 

ELDON'S (LORD CHANCELLOR) Public and Private Life, with Selec 
tions from his Correspondence and Diaries. By HORACE Twiss. Third 
Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 21s. 

ELIOT'S (HoN. W. G. C.) Khans of the Crimea. Being a Nar 
rative of an Embassy from Frederick the Great to the Court of Krim 
Gerai. Translated from the German. Post 8vo. 6*. 

ELLIS (MRS.) On the Education of Character, with Hints on Moral 
Training. Post Svo. 7s. Gd. 

(RKV. W.) Three Visits to Madagascar. During 1853,-54, 

and -56, including a Journey to the Capital, with notices of Natural 
History,and Present Civilisation of the People. Fourth Thousand. Map 
and Woodcuts. Svo. 16s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 11 



ELLESMEKE'S (LORD) Two Sieges of Vienna by the Turks. 
Translated from the German. Post Svo. 2s. 6d. 

- Second Campaign of Radetzky in Piedmont. 
The Defence of Temeswar and the Camp of the Ban. From the German. 
PostSvo. 6s. 6d. 



Life and Character of the Duke of Wellington ; 
a Discourse. Fcap. 8vo. 6d. 

Campaign of 1812 in Russia, from the German 



of General Carl Von Clausewitz. Map. 8vo. 10s. Gd. 

Pilgrimage, and other Poems. Crown 4to. 24s. 

Essays on History, Biography, Geography, and 



Engineering. 8vo. 12s. 

ELPHINSTOtfE'S (Hon. MOUNTSTUART) History of India the 
Hindoo and Mahomedan Periods. Fourth Edition. "With an Index. 
Map. Svo. 18s. 

ELWIN'S (REV. W.) Lives of Eminent British Poets. From 

Chaucer to Wordsworth. 4 Vols. 8vo. In Preparation. 

ENGLAND (HISTORY OF) from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace 
of Versailles, 1713 S3. By LORD MAHON. Library Edition, 1 Vols. 
8vo, 93s.; or, Popular Edition, 7 Vols. Post Svo. 35s. 

From the First Invasion by the Romans, 
down to the 14th year of Queen Victoria's JReign. By MRS, MARKHAM. 
98iA Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 

As IT is : Social, Political, and Industrial, in the 
19th Century. By W. JOHNSTON. 2 Vols. PostSvo. 18s. 
and France under the House of Lancaster. With an 



Introductory View of the Early Reformation. Second Edition. Svo, 15s. 
ENGLISHWOMAN IN AMERICA. Post Svo. 10s. 6d. 

- RUSSIA : or, Impressions of Manners 
and Society during a Ten Years' Residence in that Country. Fifth 
Thousand. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 10s. 6d. 

ERSKINE'S (CAPT., R.N.) Journal of a Cruise among the Islands 
of the Western Pacific, including the Fejees, and others inhabited by 
the Polynesian Negro Races. Plates. Svo. 16s. 

ESKIM AUX (THE) and English Vocabulary, for the use of Travellers 
in the Arctic Regions. 16mo. 3s. 6d. 

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES." Being a Selection from the 
LITERARY PAPERS which have appeared in that Journal. 7th Thousand. 
2 vols. Fcap. Svo. 8s. 

EXETER'S (BISHOP OF) Letters to the late Charles Butler, on the 
Theological parts of his Book of the Roman Catholic Church; with 
Remarks on certain Works of Dr. Milner and Dr. Lingard, and on some 
parts of the Evidence of Dr. Doyle. Second Edition. Svo. 16s. 

FAIRY RING (THE), A Collection of TALES and STORIES for Young 

Persons. From the German. By J. E. TAYLOR. Illustrated by RICHARD 

DOYLE. Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. 
FALKNER'S (FRED.) Muck Manual for the Use of Farmers. A 

Treatise on the Nature and Value of Manures. Second Edition, with a 

Glossary of Terms and an Index. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 

FAMILY RECEIPT-BOOK. A Collection of a Thousand Valuable 
and Useful Receipts. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 6d. 



12 LIST OF WORKS 



FANCOURT'S (CoL.) History of Yucatan, from its Discovery 
to the Close of the 17th Century. With Map. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH'S (G. W.) Tour through the Slave States 
of North America, from the River Potomac, to Texas and the Frontiers 
of Mexico. Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 26s. 

FELLOWS' (SiK CHARLES) Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, 
more particularly in the Province of Lycia. New Edition. Plates. Post 
8vo. 9s. 

FERGUSSON'S (JAMES) Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis 
Restored : an Essay on Ancient Assyrian and Persian Architecture. 
With 45 Woodcuts. 8vo. 16*. 

Handbook of Architecture. Being a 

Concise and Popular Account of the Different Styles prevailing in all 
Ages and Countries in the World. With a Description of the most re 
markable Buildings. Fourth Thousand. With 850 Illustrations. 8vo. 26s. 

FERRIER'S (T. P.) Caravan Journeys in Persia, Afghanistan, 
Herat, Turkistan, and Beloochistan, with Descriptions of Meshed, Balk, 
and Candahar, and Sketches of the Nomade Tribes of Central Asia. 
Second Edition. Map. 8vo. 21s. 



History of the Afghans. Map. 8vo. 21s. 



FEUERBACH'S Remarkable German Crimes and Trials. Trans 
lated from the German by Lady DUFF GORDON. 8vo. 12s. 

FISHER'S (REV. GEORGE) Elements of Geometry, for the Use of 
Schools. Fifth Edition. 18mo. Is. Gd. 

- First Principles of Algebra, for the Use of Schools. 
Fifth Edition. 18mo. 1*. 6d. 

FLOWER GARDEN (THE). An Essay. By REV. THOS. JAMES. 

Reprinted from the " Quarterly Review." Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

FORD'S (RICHARD) Handbook for Spain, Andalusia, Ronda, Valencia, 
Catalonia, Granada, Gallijcia, Arragon, Navarre, &c. Third Edition. 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 30s. 



Gatherings from Spain. Post 8vo. 



FORSTER'S (JOHN) Historical & Biographical Essays. Contents : 



I. The Grand Remonstrance, 1641. 
II. The Plantagenets and the Tudor.s. 
III. The Civil Wars and Oliver Crom 
well. 



IV. Daniel De Foe. 

V. Sir Richard Steele. 
VI. Charles Churchill. 
VII. Samuel Foote. 



2 Vols. Post 8vo. 21s. 

FORSYTH'S (WILLIAM) Hortensius, or the Advocate : an Historical 
Essay on the Office and Duties of an Advocate. Post 8vo. 12s. 

History of Napoleon at St. Helena. From the 

Letters and Journals of SIR HUDSON LOWE. Portrait and Maps. 3 Vols. 
8vo. 45s. 

FORTUNE'S (ROBERT) Narrative of Two Visits to China, between 
the years 1843-52, with full Descriptions of the Culture of the Tea 
Plant. Third Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. PostSvo. 18s. 

Residence among the Chinese : Inland, on the 
Coast, and at Sea, during 1853-56. Woodcuts. 8vo. 16s. 
FRANCE (HISTORY OF). From the Conquest by the Gauls to the 
Death of Louis Philippe. By Mrs. MARKHAM. 56th Thousand. Wood 
cuts. 12mo. 6s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 13 



FRENCH (THE) in Algiers ; The Soldier of the Foreign Legion 
and the Prisoners of Abd-el-Kadir. Translated by Lady DUFF GORDON. 
Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

G ALTON'S (FRANCIS) Art of Travel ; or, Hints on the Shifts and 
Contrivances available in Wild Countries. Second Edition. Wood- 
cuts. Post 8vo. 6s. 

GEOGRAPHICAL (THE) Journal. Published by the Royal Geo- 

graphical Society of London. 8vo. 

GERMANY (HISTORY OP). From the Invasion by Marius, to the 
present time. On the plan of Mrs. MABKHAM. Ninth Tliousand. Woodcuts. 
12mo. 6s. 

GIBBON'S (EDWARD) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. A 
Nsw Edition. Preceded by his Autobiography. Edited with Notes 
by Dr. WM. SMITH. Maps. 8 Vols. 8vo. 60s. 

The Student's Gibbon; Being the History of the 

Decline and Fall, Abridged, incorporating the Researches of Recent 
Commentators. By Dr. WM. SMITH. Sixth Thousand. Woodcuts. Post 
8vo. Is. 6d. 

GIFFARD'S (EDWARD) Deeds of Naval Daring; or, Anecdotes of 
the British Navy. 2 Vols. Fcap. 8vo. 

GISBORNE'S (THOMAS) Essays on Agriculture. Tliird Edition. 

Post 8vo. 
GLADSTONE'S (W. E.) Prayers arranged from the Liturgy for 

Family Use. Second Edition. 12mo. 2s. 6d. 

GOLDSMITH'S (OLIVER) Works. A New Edition. Printed from 
the last^ditions revised by the Author. Edited Jby PETER CUNNING 
HAM. Vignettes. 4Vols.8vo. 30s. (Murray's British Classics.) 

GLEIG'S (REV. G. R.) Campaigns of the British Army at Washing 
ton and New Orleans. Post 8vo. 2*. 6d. 

Story of the Battle of Waterloo. Compiled from Public 

and Authentic Sources. Post 8vo. 5s. 

Narrative of Sir Robert Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan, 

with an Account of the Seizure and Defence of Jellalabad, Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Life of Robert Lord Clive. Post 8vo. 5*. 

Life and Letters of General Sir Thomas Munro. Post 
8vo. 5s. 

GORDON'S (SiR ALEX. DUFF) Sketches of German Life, and Scenes 
from the War of Liberation. From the German. Post 8vo. 6s. 

(LADY DUFF) Amber- Witch : the most interesting 

Trial for Witchcraft ever known. From the German. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

French in Algiers. 1. The Soldier of the Foreign 

Legion. 2. The Prisoners of Abd-el-Kadir. From the French, 
Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Remarkable German Crimes and Trials. From the 

German of Fuerbach. 8vo. 12s. 

GRANT'S (ASAHEL) Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes ; containing 
Evidence of their Identity, their Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies ; 
with Sketches of Travel in Ancient Assyria, Armenia, and Mesopotamia ; 
and Illustrations of Scripture Prophecy. Third Edition. Fcap 8vo. fcs. 



14 LIST OF WORKS 



GRENVILLE (THE) PAPERS. Being the Public and Private 
Correspondence of George Grenville, his Friends and Contemporaries, 
during a period of 30 years. Including his DIARY OF POLITICAL, 
EVENTS while First Lord of the Treasury. Edited, with Notes, by 
W. J. SMITH. 4 Vols. 8vo. 16s. each. 

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR SCHOOLS. Abridged from Matthias. 
By the BISHOP OF LONDON. Ninth Edition, revised by Rev. J. EDWAKDS. 
12mo. 3s. 

GREY'S (SiK GEORGE) Polynesian Mythology, and Ancient 
Traditional History of the New Zealand Race. Woodcuts. Post 
8vo. 10s. 6d. 

GROTE'S (GEORGE) History of Greece. From the Earliest Times 
to the close of the generation contemporary with the death of Alexander 
the Great. Third Edition. Maps and Index. 12 vols. 8vo. 16s. each. 

GROSYENOR'S (LORD ROBERT) Leaves from my Journal during 

the Summer of 1851. Second Edition. Plates. Post 8vo. 3s. Gd. 
GUSTAVUS VASA (History of), King of Sweden. With Extracts 

from his Correspondence. Portrait. 8vo. 10s. Gd. 
HALLAM'S (HENRY) Constitutional History of England, from the 

Accession of Henry the Seventh to the Death of George the Second. 

Seventh Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 30s. 

History of Europe during the Middle Ages. 

Tenth Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 30s. 

Introduction to the Literary History of Europe, during 
the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. Fourth Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 36s. 

Literary Essays and Characters. Selected from the 

last work. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

Historical Works. Containing the History of Eng 
land, The Middle Ages of Europe, and the Literary History of 
Europe. Complete Edition. 10 Vols. Post 8vo. 6s. each. 

HAMILTON'S (JAMES) Wanderings in Northern Africa, Benghazi, 
Cyrene, the Oasis of Siwah, &c. Second Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 12s. 

(WALTER) Hindostan, Geographically, Statistically, 

and Historically. Map. 2 Vols. 4to. 94s. Gd. 

HAMPDEN'S (BISHOP) Essay on the Philosophical Evidence of 
Christianity, or the Credibility obtained to a Scripture Revelation 
from its Coincidence with the Facts of Nature. 8vo. 9s. 6d. 

HARCOURT'S (EDWARD VERNON) Sketch of Madeira ; with Map 

and Plates. Post 8vo. 8s. Gd. 

HART'S ARMY LIST. (Quarterly and Annually.} 8vo. 
HAY'S (J. H. DRUMMOND) Western Barbary, its wild Tribes and 

savage Animals. PostSvo. 2s. Gd. 

HEBER (BISHOP) Parish Sermons; on the Lessons, the Gospel, 
or the Epistle, for every Sunday in the Year, and for Week-day Festivals. 
Sixth Edition. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 16s. 

Sermons Preached in England. Second Edition. 8vo. 9s. Gd. 

Hymns written and adapted for the weekly Church 
Service of the Year. Twelfth Edition. 16mo. 2s. 

Poetical Works. Fifth Edition. Portrait. Fcap. 8vo, 

7s. Gd. 

Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, From 
Calcutta to Bombay, with a Journey to Madras and the Southern Pro 
vinces. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 12s. 






PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



15 



HAND-BOOK OF TRAVEL-TALK; or, Conversations in 

English, German, French, and Italian. 18mo. 3s. 6d. 

- NORTH GERMANY HOLLAND, BELGIUM, and 
the Rhine to Switzerland. Map. PostSvo. 10s. 

- SOUTH GERMANY Bavaria, Austria, Salzberg, 
the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, the Tyrol, and the Danube, from Ulm 
to the Black Sea. Map. Post 8vo. 10s. 

- PAINTING the German, Flemish, and Dutch 
Schools; From the German of KUGLEK. A New Edition, Edited by 
DB. WAAGEN. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. (In the Press.') 

SWITZERLAND the Alps of Savoy, and Piedmont. 



Maps. Post 8vo. 9s. 

- FRANCE Normandy, Brittany, the French 
Alps, the Rivers Loire, Seine, Rhone, and Garonne, Dauphine", Provence, 
and the Pyrenees. Maps. Post 8vo. 10s. 

SPAIN Andalusia, Ronda, Granada, Valencia, 

Catalonia, Gallicia, Arragon, and Navarre. Maps. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 30s. 

- PORTUGAL, LISBON, &c. Map. Post Svo. 9s. 

PAINTING SPANISH AND FRENCH SCHOOLS. By 



SIR EDMUND HEAD, BAKT. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 12s. 

NORTH ITALY Florence, Sardinia, Genoa, the 



Riviera, Venice, Lombardy, and Tuscany. Map. Post 8vo. 2 Vols. 12s 

CENTRAL ITALY SOUTH TUSCANY and the 

PAPAL STATES. Map. Post Svo. 7s. 
^ ROME AND ITS ENVIRONS. Map. Post 



'SOUTH ITALY Naples, Pompeii, Herculaneum, 
Vesuvius, &c. Map. PostSvo. 10s. 

SICILY. Map. Post Svo. (In the Press.) 

PAINTING the Italian Schools. From the Ger 
man of KUGLEK. Edited by Sir CHAKLES EASTLAKE, R. A. Woodcuts. 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 30s. 

ITALIAN PAINTERS: (A SHOUT BIOGRAPHICAL 

DICTIONABY OF.) With a Chart. Post Svo. 6s. 6d. 

GREECE the Ionian Islands, Albania, Thessaly, 
and Macedonia. Maps. Post Svo. 15s. 

TURKEY MALTA, ASIA MINOR, CONSTANTINOPLE, 



Armenia, Mesopotamia, &c. Maps. Post Svo. 

EGYPT Thebes, the Nile, Alexandria, Cairo, 

the Pyramids, Mount Sinai, &c. Map. Post Svo. 15s. 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE; the Peninsula of 

Sinai, Edom, and the Syrian Desert. Maps. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 24s. 

INDIA. Part 1. Bombay and Madras. Map. 

2 Parts. Post Svo. 

DENMARK NORWAY and SWEDEN. 



8vo. 15s. 



Svo. 12s. 



Maps. Post 



RUSSIA THE BALTIC AND FINLAND. Maps. Post 



16 LIST OF WORKS 



HANDBOOK OF LONDON, PAST AND PRESENT. Alphabetically 

arranged. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 16s. 

- MODERN LONDON. A Guide to all objects 
of interest in the Metropolis. Map. 16mo. 5s. 

ENVIRONS OF LONDON. Including a Circle of 



30 Miles round St. Paul's. Maps. Post 8vo. (In preparation.) 

- DEVON AND CORNWALL. Maps. Post 8vo. 
WILTS, DORSET, AND SOMERSET. Map. Post 



8vo. 

- KENT AND SUSSEX. Map. Post 8vo. 10s. 
SURREY, HANTS, and the Isle of Wight. 

Maps. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY its Art, Architecture, 



and Associations. Woodcuts. 16mo. 

CATHEDRALS OF ENGLAND. Post 8vo. In 



Preparation. 

- PARIS. Post 8vo. (In Preparation.) 

FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS. Chiefly from English 



Authors. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

ARCHITECTURE. Being a Concise and Popular 
Account of the Different Styles prevailing in all Ages and Countries. 
By JAMES FERGUSSON. Fourth Thousand. With 859 Illustrations. 
8vo. 26a. 

ARTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND RE- 



naissance. By M. Jules Labarte. With 200 Illustrations. 8vo. 18s. 

HEAD'S (SiR FRANCIS) Rough Notes of some Rapid Journeys across 
the Pampas and over the Andes. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Descriptive Essays : contributed to the " Quarterly 

Review." 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 18s. 

Bubbles from the Brunnen of Nassau. By an OLD MAN. 

Sixth Edition. 16mo. 5s. 

Emigrant. Sixth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Stokers and Pokers ; or, the London and North- Western 

Railway. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
Defenceless State of Great Britain. Post 8vo. 125. 

Faggot of French Sticks ; or, Sketches of Paris. 

New Edition. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 12s. 

Fortnight in Ireland. Second Edition. Map. 8vo. 12s. 

(SiR GEORGE) Forest Scenes and Incidents in Canada. 

Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10s. 

Home Tour through the Manufacturing Districts of 

England, Scotland, and Ireland, including the Channel Islands, and the 
Isle of Man. Third Edition. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 12s. 

(SiR EDMUND) Handbook of Painting the Spanish 

and French Schools. With Illustrations. Post 8vo. 

Shall and Will ; or, Two Chapters on Future Auxiliary 

Verbs. Second Edition, Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo. 4?. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 17 



HEIRESS (THE) in Her Minority ; or, The Progress of Character. 
By the Author of "BEKTHA'S JOURNAL." 2 Vols. 12mo. 18s. 

HERODOTUS. A New English Version. Edited with Notes, 

and Essays. By Rev. G. RAWLINSON, assisted by SIB HENRY 

RAWLINSON, and SIB J. G. WILKINSON. Maps and Woodcuts. 4 Vols. 
8vo. 18. each. 

HERYEY'S (LORD) Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second, 
from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline. Edited, with Notes 
by MB. CBOKEB. Second Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 21s. 

HICKMAN'S (WM.) Treatise on the Law and Practice of Naval 
Courts Martial. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

HILLARD'S (G. S.) Six Months in Italy. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 16*. 

HISTORY OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE UNDER THE HOUSE 
OF LANCASTEB. With an Introductory View of the Early Reformation. 
Second Edition. 8vo. 15s. 

HOLLAND'S (Rsv. W. B.) Psalms and Hymns, selected and 
adapted to the variois Solemnities of the Church. Third Edition. 24mo. 
Is. 3d. 

HOLL WAY'S (J. G.) Month in Norway. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. p . 

HONEY BEE (THE). An Essay. By REV. THOMAS JAMES. 
Reprinted from the " Quarterly Review." Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

HOOK'S (REV. DR.) Church Dictionary. Eighth Edition. 8vo. 16. 
Discourses on the Religious Controversies of the Day. 



8vo. 9s. 
(THEODORE) Life. By J. G. LOCKHART. Reprinted from the 



HOOKER'S (Dr. J. D.) Himalayan Journals ; or, Notes of an Oriental 
Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia 
Mountains, &c. Second Edition, Woodcuts. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 18s. 



HOOPER'S (LIEUT.) Ten Months among the Tents of the Tuski ; 
with Incidents of an Arctic Boat Expedition in Search of Sir Johu 
Franklin. Plates, 8vo. 14s. 

HORACE (Works of). Edited by DEAN MILMAN. With 300 

Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 21s. 

(Life of). By DEAN MILMAN. Woodcuts, and coloured 



Borders. 8vo. 9s. 
HOSPITALS AND SISTERHOODS. By A LADY. Fcap.' 8vo. 

3s. Gd, 

HOUSTOUN'S (MRS.) Yacht Voyage to Texas and the Gulf of 
Mexico. Plates. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 21s. 





LIST OF WORKS 



HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. Complete in 70 Parts. 
Post 8vo, 2s. 6d. each, or bound in 31 Volumes, cloth. 



CONTESTS OF THE SERIES. 

THE BIBLE IN SPAIN. By GEORGE BORROW. 

JOURNALS IN INDIA. By BISHOP HEBER. 

TRAVELS IN THE HOLY LAND. By CAPTAINS IRBY and MANGLES. 

THE SIEGE OF GIBRALTAR. By JOHN DRINKWATEB. 

MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. By J. DRUMMOND HAY, 

LETTERS FROM THE BALTIC. By a LADY. 

THE AMBER-WITCH. By LADY DUFF GORDON. 

OLIVER CROMWELL & JOHN BUNYAN. By ROBERT SOUTHEY. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. By MRS. MEREDITH. 

LIFE OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKE. By JOHN BARROW. 

FATHER RIPA'S MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF CHINA. 

A RESIDENCE IN THE WEST INDIES. By M.G.LEWIS. 

SKETCHES OF PERSIA. By SIR JOHN MALCOLM. 

THE FRENCH IN ALGIERS. By LADY DUFF GORDON. 

VOYAGE OF A NATURALIST. By CHARLES DARWIN. 

HISTORY OF THE FALL OF THE JESUITS. 

LIFE OF LOUIS PRINCE OF CONDE. By LORD MAHON. 

GIPSIES OF SPAIN. By GEORGE BORROW. 

THE MARQUESAS. By HERMANN MELVILLE. 

LIVONIAN TALES. By a LADY. 

MISSIONARY LIFE IN CANADA. By REV. J. ABBOTT. 

SALE'S BRIGADE IN AFFGHANISTAN. By REV. G. R. GLEIO. 

LETTERS FROM MADRAS. By a LADY. 

HIGHLAND SPORTS. By CHARLES ST. JOHN. 

JOURNEYS ACROSS THE PAMPAS. By SIR F. B. HEAD. 

GATHERINGS FROM SPAIN. By RICHARD FORD. 

SIEGES OF VIENNA BY THE TURKS. By LORD ELLESJIERE. 

SKETCHES OF GERMAN LIFE. By SIR A. GORDON. 

ADVENTURES IN THE SOUTH SEAS. By HERMANN MELVILLE. 

STORY OF BATTLE OF WATERLOO. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 

A VOYAGE UP THE RIVER AMAZON. By W. H. EDWARDS, 

THE WAYSIDE CROSS. By CAPT. MILMAN. 

MANNERS & CUSTOMS OF INDIA. By REV. C. ACLAND. 

CAMPAIGNS AT WASHINGTON. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 

ADVENTURES IN MEXICO. By G. F. RUXTON. 

PORTUGAL AND GALLICIA. By LORD CARNARVON. 

LIFE OF LORD CLIVE. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 

BUSH LIFE IN AUSTRALIA. By H. W. HAYGARTH. 

THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF HENRY STEFFENS. 

SHORT LIVES OF THE POETS. By THOMAS CAMPBELL. 

HISTORICAL ESSAYS. By LORD MAHON. 

LONDON & NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY. By SIR F. B. HEAD. 

ADVENTURES IN THE LIBYAN DESERT. By BAYLE ST. JOHN-. 

A RESIDENCE AT SIERRA LEONE. By a LADY. 

LIFE OF GENERAL MUNRO. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 

MEMOIRS OF SIR FOWELL BUXTON. By his SON. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



HUME (THE STUDENT'S). A History of England, from the In 
vasion of Julius Caesar. By DAVID HUME; abridged and continued to 
the Present Time. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7*. 6d. .(Uniform with 
The Student's Gibbon.) 

HUTCHINSON (COLONEL) on Dog-Breaking; the most expe 
ditious, certain, and easy Method, whether great Excellence or only 
Mediocrity be required. Third Edition. Revised and enlarged. Woodcuts. 
Post 8vo. 9s. 

IRBY AND MANGLES' Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and, 
the Holy Land, including a Journey round the Dead Sea, and through 
the Country east of the Jordan. Post 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

JAMES' (REV. THOMAS) Fables of ^Esop. A New Translation, with 
Historical Preface. With 100 Woodcuts by TENNIEL and WOLF. 
Twenty-sixth Thousand. Post 8vo. 2s. Gd, 

JAMESON'S (MBS.) Memoirs of the Early Italian Painters, and 
of the Progress of Italian Painting in Italy. Tenth Edition. With 
70 Woodcuts. Fcap. 8yo. 6s. 

JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE. Described from the Accounts 
of Recent Dutch Travellers. New Edition. PostSvo. 6s. 

JARDINE'S (DAVID) Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot. New 

Edition. Post Svo. 7s. 6d. 

JERVIS'S (CAPT.) Manual of Operations in the Field, for the Use of 
Officers. PostSvo. 9s. Gd. 

JESSE'S (EDWARD) Favorite Haunts and Rural Studies ; or Visits 
to Spots of Interest in the Vicinity of Windsor and Eton. Woodcuts. 
PostSvo. 12s. 

Scenes and Occupations of Country Life. With Recol 
lections of Natural History. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap.Svo. 6s. 

Gleanings in Natural History. With Anecdotes of the 

Sagacity and Instinct of Animals. Eighth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

JOHNSON'S (DR. SAMUEL) Life : By James Boswell. Including 
the Tour to the Hebrides, with Notes by SIB W. SCOTT. Edited by 
the late MB. CBOKEB. Third Edition. Portraits. Royal 8vo. 15s. 

Lives of the most eminent English Poets. A New 

Edition. Edited by PETEB CUNNINGHAM. 3 vols, 8vo. 22s. Gd. 
(Murray's British Classics.) 

JOHNSTON'S (WM.) England as it is : Social, Political, and 
Industrial, in the Middle of the 19th Century. 2 Vols. PostSvo. 18s. 

JOURNAL OF A NATURALIST. Fourth Edition. '] Woodcuts. 
Post 8vo. 9s. Gd. 

JOWETT'S (Rev. B.) Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles to the 
Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans. With Notes and Dissertations. 
Second Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

KEN'S (BISHOP) Life. By A LAYMAN. Second Edition. Portrait. 
2 Vols. 8vo. 18s. 

C 2 



2p LIST OF WORKS 



KEN'S (BISHOP) Exposition of the Apostles' Creed. Extracted 

from his "Practice of Divine Love." New Edition. Fcap. Is. Gd. 
Approach to the Holy Altar. Extracted from his " Manual 

of Prayer" aud " Practice of Divine Love." New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

Is. Gd. 
KING'S (REV. S. W.) Italian Valleys of the Alps ; a Tour 

through all the Romantic and less-frequented "Vals" of Northern 

Piedmont, from the Tarentaise to the Cries. With Illustrations. Crown 

8vo. 18*. 
KING EDWARD Vlin's Latin Grammar; or, an Introduction 

to the Latin Tongue, for the Use of Schools. 12th Edition. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 

First Latin Book ; or, the Accidence, 

Syntax and Prosody, with an English Translation for the Use of Junior 
Classes. Third Edition. 12mo. 2s. 

KNAPP'S (J. A.) English Roots and Ramifications ; or, the 
Derivation and Meaning of Divers Words. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 

KUGLER'S (Dr. FKANZ) Handbook to the History of Painting 
(the Italian Schools). Translated from the German. Edited, with 
Notes, by SIB CHARLES EASTLAKE. Third Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 
PostSvo. 30s. 

- (the German, Dutch, and 

Flemish Schools). Translated from the German. A New Edition. 
Edited, with Notes. By DH. WAAGEN. Woodcuts. Post Svo. Nearly 
Heady. 

LABARTE'S (M. JULES) Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages 

and Renaissance. With 200 Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. 
LABORDE'S (LEON DE) Journey through Arabia Petraea, to Mount 

Sinai, and the Excavated City of Petrsea, the Edom of the Prophecies. 

Second Edition. With Plates. 8vo. 18s. 

LANE'S (E. W.) Arabian Nights. Translated from the Arabic, 
with Explanatory Notes. A Neio Edition. Edited by E. STANLEY 
POOLE. With 600 Woodcuts. 3 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 

LATIN GRAMMAR (KiQ EDWARD THE Vim's.) For the Use 

of Schools. Twelfth Edition. 12mo. 3s. Gil. 

First Book (KING EDWAKD VI.) ; or, the Accidence, 

h Translation for Junior Classes. 



Syntax, and Prosody, with Englis 
Third Edition. 12mo. 2s. 



LA YARD'S (A. H.) Nineveh and its Remains. Being a Nar 
rative of Researches and Discoveries amidst the Ruins of Assyria. 
With an Account of the Chaldean Christians of Kurdistan ; the Yezedis, 
or Devil-worshippers ; and an Enquiry into the Manners and Arts of 
the Ancient Assyrians. Sixth Edition. Plates and Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 
8vo. 36s. 

Nineveh and Babylon ; being the Result 

of a Second Expedition to Assyria. Fourteenth Thousand. Plates. 
Svo. 21s. Or Fine Paper, 2 Vols. 8vo. 30s. 

Popular Account of Nineveh. 15$ Edition. With 

Woodcuts. Post Svo. 5s. 

LESLIE'S (C. R.) Handbook for Young Painters. With Illustra 
tions. Post Svo. 10s. 6d. 

. Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. With an Account 

of his Works, and a Sketch of his Cotemporaries. Fcap. 4to. In the 
Press. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 21 



LEAKE'S (CoL. W. MARTIN) Topography of Athens, with Remarks 

on its Antiquities; to which is added, the Demi of Attica. Second 
Edition. Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 30s. 

Travels in Northern Greece. Maps. 4 Vols. 8vo. 60*. 

Disputed Questions of Ancient Geography. Map. 

8yo. 6s. Gd. 

Numismata Hellenica. A Catalogue of Greek Coins. 
With Map and Appendix. 4to. 63s. 

Peloponnesiaca : A Supplement to Travels in the Morea. 
8vo. 15s, 

Thoughts on the Degradation of Science in England. 

8vo. 3s. 6d. 

LETTERS FROM THE SHORES OF THE BALTIC. By a 

LADY. PostSvo. 2s. 6d. 

Madras ; or, First Impressions of Life and 

Manners in India. By a LADY. PostSvo. 2s. Gd. 

Sierra Leone, written to Friends at Home. 



By a LADY. Edited by Mrs. NORTON. Post 8vo. 6s. 

Head Quarters ; or, The Realities of the War 



in the Crimea. By a STAFF OFFICES. Popular Edition. Plans. 
Post 8vo. 6s. 

LEXINGTON (THE) PAPERS ; or, Some Account of the Courts 
of London and Vienna at the end of the 17th Century. Edited by HON. 
H. MANNEES BUTTON. 8vo. 14s. 

LEWIS" (SiR G. C.) Essay on the Government of Dependencies. 
8vo. 12s. 

. Glossary of Provincial Words used in Herefordshire and 

some of the adjoining Counties. 12mo. 4s. Gd. 

(LADY THERESA) Friends and Contemporaries of the 

Lord Chancellor Clarendon, illustrative of Portraits in his Gallery. 
With a Descriptive Account of the Pictures, and Origin of the Collec 
tion. Portraits. 3 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 

- (M. G.) Journal of a Residence among the Negroes in the 
West Indies. Post 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

LIDDELL'S (DEAN) History of Rome. From the Earliest Times 
to the Establishment of the Empire. With the History of Literature 
and Art. Library Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28s. 

- SCHOOL HISTORY OF ROME. Abridged from 
the Larger Work. Eighth Thousand. With 100 Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 
7s. Gd. {Uniform with DR. WM. SMITH'S HISTORY OF GREECE]. 

LINDSAY'S (LORD) Lives of the Lindsays ; or, a Memoir of the 
Houses of Crawford and Balcarres. With Extracts from Official Papers 
and Personal Narratives. Second Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 24s. 

Report of the Claim of James, Earl of Crawfurd and 
Balcarres, to the Original Dukedom of Montrose, created in 1488. 
Folio. 15s. 
LITTLE ARTHUR'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By LADY 

CALLCOTT. Eighteenth Edition. With 20 Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 
2s. Gd. 



22 LIST OF WORKS 



LIVINGSTONE'S (REV. DR.) Missionary Travels and Researches 
in South Africa ; including a Sketch of Sixteen Years' Residence in 
the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to 
Loanda on the West Coast ; thence across the Continent, down the 
River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean. Thirtieth Thousand. Map, 
Plates, and Index. 8vo. 21s. 

LIVONIAN TALES. The Disponent. The Wolves. The Jewess. 

By the Author of " Letters from the Baltic." Post 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
LOCKH ART'S (J. G.) Ancient Spanish Ballads. Historical and 

Romantic. Translated, with Notes. Illustrated Edition. 4to. 2 Is. Or, 

Popular Edition. Post 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

Life of Robert Burns. Fifth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

LOUDON'S (MRS.) Instructions in Gardening for Ladies. With 

Directions and Calendar of Operations for Every Month. Eighth 

Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 
-Modern Botany; a Popular Introduction to the 

Natural System of Plants. Second Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 
LOWE'S (SiR HUDSON) Letters and Journals, during the Captivity 

of Napoleon at St. Helena. By WILLIAM FORSYTE. Portrait. 3 Vols. 

8vo. 45s. 
LUCKNOW : A Lady's Diary of the Siege. Written for Friends 

at Home. Fourth Thousand. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. Gd. 
LYELL'S (SiR CHARLES) Principles of Geology; or, the Modern 

Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants considered as illustrative of 

Geology. Ninth Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. 
Manual of Elementary Geology ; or, the Ancient Changes 

of the Earth and its Inhabitants illustrated by its Geological Monuments. 

Fifth Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 14s. 

Visits to the United States, 184146. Second Edition. 

Plates. 4VoIs. PostSvo. 24s. 
MAHON'S (LORD) History of England, from the Peace of Utrecht 

to the Peace of Versailles, 171383. Library Edition. 7 Vols. 8vo. 93s. 

Popular Edition. 7 Vols. 

PostSvo. 35s. 

Forty-Five ; " a Narrative of the Rebellion in Scot 
land. PostSvo. 3s. 

The Rise of our Indian Empire. Being the History 

of British India from its Origin till the Peace of 1783. Extracted from 
his " History of England." Post 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

History of the War of the Succession in Spain. Second 
Edition. Map. 8vo. 15s. 

Spain under Charles the Second ; or, Extracts from the 

Correspondence of the Hon. ALEXANDER STANHOPE, British Minister at 
Madrid from 1690 to 1700. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 6s. Qd. 

Life of Louis Prince of Conde, surnamed the Great, 

Post 8vo. 6s. 

Life of Belisarius. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10s. Qd. 

Historical and Critical Essays. Post 8vo. 6s. 

Story of Joan of Arc. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

Addresses Delivered at Manchester, Leeds, and Bir 



mingham. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 23 



M C CULLOCH'S (J. R.) Collected Edition of RICARDO'S Political 
Works. With Notes and Memoir. Second Edition. 8vo. 16s. 

MALCOLM'S (SiR JOHN) Sketches of Persia. Third Edition. 
Post 8vo. 6*. 

HANSEL'S (REV. H. L.) The Limits of Religious Thought 
Examined. Being the Bampton Lectures for 1858. Second Edition. 
8vo. 128. 

MANTELL'S (GIDEON A.) Thoughts on Animalcules; or, the 
Invisible World, as revealed by the Microscope. Second Edition. Plates. 
16mo. 6s. 

MANUAL OP SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, Prepared for the Use of 
Officers and Travellers. ' By various Writers. Third Edition 
revised. Maps. Post 8vo. (Published "by order of the Lords of the 
Admiralty.) 

M ARKHAM'S (Mas.) History of England. From the First Inva 
sion by the Romans, down to the fourteenth year of Queen Victoria's 
Reign. Q8th Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 



History of France. From the Conquest by the Gauls, 

to the Death of Louis Philippe. 58th Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 

History of Germany. From the Invasion by Marius, 

to the present time. 6th Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 

School History of Greece. From the Earliest 



Times of the Roman Conquest. With the History of Literature and 
Art. By Dr. WM. SMITH. Sixteenth Thousand. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7s. 6d. 
(Questions. 12mo. 2s.) 

School History of Rome, from the Earliest 

Times to the Establishment of the Empire. With the History of 
Literature and Art. By DEAN LIDDELL. Eighth Thousand. Woodcuts. 
12mo. 7s. Qd. 

MARKLAND'S (J. H.) Reverence due to Holy Places. Third 

Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

MARRY AT'S (JOSEPH) History of Modern and Mediaeval Pottery 
and Porcelain. With a Description of the Manufacture, a Glossary, 
and a List of Monograms. Second Edition. Plates and Woodcuts. 
8vo. 31s. 6d. 

MATTHIJS'S (AUGUSTUS) Greek Grammar for Schools. Abridged 
from the Larger Grammar. By Blomfield. Ninth Edition. Revised by 
EDWABDS. 12mo. 3s. 

MAUREL'S (JULES) Essay on the Character, Actions, and Writings 
of the Duke of Wellington. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 6d. 

MAWE'S (H. L.) Journal of a Passage from the Pacific to the 

Atlantic, crossing the Andes in the Northern Provinces of Peru, and 
descending the great River Marauon. 8vo. 12s. 

MAXIMS AND HINTS for an Angler, and the Miseries of 
Fishing. By RICHARD PENN. New Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. Is. 

MAYO'S (DR.) Pathology of the Human Mind. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. Qd. 

MELYILLE'S (HERMANN) Typee and Omoo; or, Adventures 
amongst the Marquesas and South Sea Islands. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 



24 LIST OF WORKS 



MENDELSSOHN'S (FELIX BARTHOLDY) Life. By JULES BENEDICT. 

8vo. 2s. 6d. 

MEREDITH'S (Mns. CHARLES) Notes and Sketches of New South 
Wales, during a Residence from 1839 to 1844. Post 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

Tasmania, during a Residence of Nine Years. With 



Illustrations. 2Yols. PostSvo. 18s. 

MERRIFIELD (MRS.) on the Arts of Painting in Oil, Miniature, 
Mosaic, and Glass ; Gilding, Dyeing, and the Preparation of Colours 
and Artificial Gems, described in several old Manuscripts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 
30s. 

MILLS (ARTHUR) India in 1858 ; A Summary of the Existing 
Administration Political, Fitcal, and Judicial ; with Laws and Public 
Documents, from the earliest to the present time. Second Edition. With 
Coloured Revenue Map. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

MITCHELL'S (THOMAS) Plays of Aristophanes. With English 
Notes. 8vo.l. CLOUDS, 10s. 2. WASPS, 10s. 3. FROGS, 15s. 

MILMAN'S (DEAN) History of Christianity, from the Birth of 

Christ to the Extinction of Paganism in the Roman Empire. 3 Vols. 
8vo. 36s. 

History of Latin Christianity ; including that of the 

Popes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V. Second Edition. 6 Vols. 8vo. 72s. 

Character and Conduct of the Apostles considered as 
an Evidence of Christianity. 8vo. 10s. 6d, 

- Life and Works of Horace. With 300 Woodcuts. 
New Edition. 2 Vols. Crown 8ro. 30s. 

- Poetical Works. Plates. 3 Vols. Fcap. Svo. 18s. 

Fall of Jerusalem. Fcap. Svo. Is. 

- (CAPT. E. A.) Wayside Cross ; or, the Eaid of Gomez. 
A Tale of the Carlist War. Post Svo. 2s. 6d. 

MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY. Founded on Principles of 
Economy and Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. 
New Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 

MOLTKE'S (BARON) Russian Campaigns on the Danube and the 
Passage of the Balkan, 182S 9. Plans. Svo. . 14s. 

MONASTERY AND THE MOUNTAIN CHURCH. By Author 

of "Sunlight through the Mist." Woodcuts. 16mo. 4s. 

MOORE'S (THOMAS) Life and Letters of Lord Byron. Cabinet 
Edition. 6 Vols. Fcap. Svo. ISs. 

Life and Letters of Lord Byron. Popular Edition. 

With Portrait and Vignette. One Volume. Royal Svo. 12s. 

MOZLEY'S (REV. J. B.) Treatise on the Augustinian Doctrine of 
Predestination. Svo. 14s. 

Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration. Svo. 7s. 6d. 

MUCK MANUAL (The)for the Use of Farmers. A Practical Treatise 
on the Chemical Properties, Management, and Application of Manures. 
By FREDERICK FALKNER. /Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 25 



MUNDY'S (GEN.) Pen and Pencil Sketches during a Tour 
in India. Third Edition. Plates. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

MUNRO'S (GENERAL SIR THOMAS) Life and Letters. By tlie KEY. 
G. fi. GLEIG. Post 8vo. 6s. 

MURCHISON'S (SiR RODERICK) Russia in Europe and the Ural 
Mountains; Geologically Illustrated. With Coloured Maps, Plates, 
Sections, &c. 2 Vols. Royal 4to. 

Siluria ; or, a History of the Oldest Rocks con 
taining Organic Remains. Second Edition. Map and Plates. 8vo. 

MURRAY'S (CAPT. A.) Naval Life and Services of Admiral Sir 
Philip Durham. 8vo. 5s. Gd. 

MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING. For all classes of Readers. 

[The following are publisTied :] 



>. By LOBDELLESMERE. M. MAHON'S JOAN OP ABC. 1. 
THE CHASE, Is. HEAD'S EMIGRANT. 2s. fid. 



WBLLINSTO 

XlMBODON 'inn ^naan, o. 

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES." 2 Vols. 8s. 
Music AND DBKSS. Is. 
LAYABO'S ACCOUNT OF NINEVEH. 5s. 
MILMAN'S FALL OF JERUSALEM. 1*. 
MAHON'S "FoBTY-FivE." 3*. 
LIFE OF THEODORE HOOK. U. 
BEEBS OF NATAL DABING. 2 Vols. 5. 



NlMROD ON THE RC 

WILKINSON'S Ar 



CBOKEB ON THE GUILLOTINE. Is. 

HO-LLWATt's NOBWAT. 2s. 

MAUBKL'S WELLINOTON. 1*. 6d. 
CAMPBELL'S LIKE OF BACO.N. 2s. Gd. 
THE FLOWER GABDEN. Is. 



Tun HONET BEE. Is. LOCKH ART'S SPANISH BALLADS. 2.6d. 

JAMES' jEsop's FABLES. 2s. 6d. i LUCAS ON HISTORY, fid. 

NlMROD ON THE TuHF. Is. 6d. i BEAUTIES OF BYRON. 3s. 

OLIPHANT'S NKPAUL. 2s. 6d. TAYLOR'S NOTES FROM LIFB. 2s. 

ART OF DINING. Is. 6d. REJECTED ADDRESSES. Is. 

U ALLAH'S LITERARY ESSATS. 2s. ' FSNN'S HINTS on ANGLIMG. Is. 

MUSIC AND DRESS. Two Essays, by a Lady. Reprinted from 
the " Quarterly Review." Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

NAPIER'S (SiR WM.) English Battles and Sieges of the Peninsular 
War. Third Edition. Portrait. PostSvo. 10*. Gd. 

Life and Opinions of General Sir Charles Napier ; 
chiefly derived from his .Journals, Letters, and Familiar Correspon 
dence. Second Edition. Portraits. 4 Vols. Post 8vo. 48s. 

NAUTICAL ALMANACK (The). Royal 8vo. 2s. 6d. (PuUislied 

ly Authority.) 

NAYY LIST (The Quarterly). (Published by Authority.) 
Post 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

NEWBOLD'S (LIEUT.) Straits of Malacca, Penang, and Singapore. 

2Vols.8vo. 26s. 
NEWDEGATE'S (C. N.) Customs' Tariffs of all Nations; collected 

and arranged up to the year 1855* 4to. 30*. 
NICHOLLS' (SiR GEORGE) History of the British Poor : Being 

an Historical Account of the English, Scotch, and Irish Poor Law : in 

connection with the Condition of the People. 4 Vols. 8vo. 

Tlie work may be had separately : 
History of the English Poor. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28s. 

the Irish Poor. 8vo. 14s. 

the Scotch Poor. 8vo. 12s. 

- (Rev. H. G.) FOREST OF DEAN. An Historical 
and Descriptive Account, derived from Personal Observation and 
other Sources, Public, Private, Legendary, and Local. Woodcuts, &c. 
Post 8vo. 10*. Qd. 



28 LIST OF WORKS 



NICOLAS' (SiE HARRIS) Historic Peerage of England. Exhi 
biting, under Alphabetical Arrangement, the Origin, Descent, and 
Present State of every Title of Peerage which has existed in this 
Country since the Conquest. Being a New Edition of the " Synopsis of 
the Peerage." Revised, Corrected, and Continued to the Present Time. 
By WILLIAM COUKTHOPB, Somerset Herald. 8vo. 30s. 

NIMROD On the Chace The Turf and The Road. Reprinted 
from the " Quarterly Review." Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

O'CONNOR'S (R.) Field Sports of France ; or, Hunting, Shooting, 
and Fishing on the Continent. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7s. 6d, 

OLIPHANT'S (LAURENCE) Journey to Katmandu, with Visit to 
the Camp of the Nepaulese Ambassador. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. M. 

OWEN'S (PROFESSOR) Manual of Fossil Mammals. Including the 
substance of the course of Lectures on Osteology and Palaeontology of 
the class Mammalia, delivered at the Metropolitan School of Science, 
Jermyn Street. Illustrations. 8vo. In the Press. 

OXENHAM'S (REV. W.) English Notes for Latin Elegiacs ; designed 
for early Proficients in the Art of Latin Versification, with Prefatory 
Rules of Composition iii Elegiac Metre. Third Edition. 12mo. 4s. 

PAGET'S (JOHN) Hungary and Transylvania. With Remarks on 
their" Condition, Social, Political, and Economical. Third Edition. 
Woodcuts. 2Vols. 8vo. 18s. 

PARIS' (Dr.) Philosophy in Sport made Science in Ear 
nest; or, the First Principles of Natural Philosophy inculcated by aid 
of the Toys and Sports of Youth. Eighth Edition. Woodcuts. 
Post 8vo. 9s. 

PARISH'S (SiR WOODBINE) Buenos Ayres and the Provinces of the 

Rio de la Plata. Their First Discovery and Conquest, Present State, 
Trade, Debt, &c. Second Edition. Map and Woodcuts. 8vo. 15s. 

PARKYNS' (MANSFIELD) Personal Narrative of Three Years' Resi 
dence and Adventures in Abyssinia. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. Svo. 30s. 

PEEL'S (SiR ROBT.) MEMOIRS. Left in MSS. Edited by 
EARL STANHOPE and the Right Hon. EDWARD CARDWELL. 2 Vols. 
Post Svo. 7s. 6d. each. 

PEILE'S (REV. DR.) Agamemnon and Choephoros of JEschylus. 
A New Edition of the Text, with Notes. Second Edition. 2 Vols. 
8vo. 9s. each. 

PENN'S (RICHARD) Maxims and Hints for an Angler, and the 
Miseries of Fishing. To which is added, Maxims and Hints for a 
Chess-player. New Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

PENROSE'S (REV. JOHN) Faith and Practice ; an Exposition of the 
Principles and Duties of Natural and Revealed Religion. Post Svo. 8s. 6d. 

- (F. C.) Principles of Athenian Architecture, and the 
Optical Refinements exhibited in the Construction of the Ancient 
Buildings at Athens, from a Survey. With 40 Plates. Folio. 51. 5s. 
(Published under the direction of the Dilettanti Society.} 

PERRY'S (SiR ERSKINE) Bird's-Eye View of India. With Extracts 
from a Journal kept in the Provinces, Nepaul, &c. Fcap. Svo, 5s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 27 



PHILLIPS' (JOHN) Memoirs of William Smith, LL.D. (the Geo- 

legist). Portrait. 8vo. Is. 6d. 

Geology of Yorkshire, The Yorkshire Coast, and the 

Mountain-Limestone District. Plates 4to. Part I., 20s. -Part II., 30s. 

Rivers, ) Mountains, and Sea Coast of Yorkshire. 



With Essays on the Climate, Scenery, and Ancient Inhabitants of the 
Country. Second Edition, with 36 Plates. 8vo. 15s. 

XPHILPOTT'S (BISHOP) Letters to the late Charles Butler, on the 
Theological parts of his " Book of the Roman Catholic Church ; " with 
Remarks on certain Works of Dr. Milner and Dr. Lingard, and on some 
parts of the Evidence of Dr. Doyle. Second Edition. Svo, 16s. 

PHIPPS' (HoN. EDMUND) Memoir, Correspondence, Literary and 
Unpublished Diaries of Robert Plumer Ward. Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28s. 

POPE'S (ALEXANDER) WORKS. An entirely New Edition. Edited, 
with Notes. 8vo, In the Press. 

PORTER'S (REV. J. L.) Five Years in Damascus. With Travels to 
Palmyra, Lebanon, and other Scripture Sites. Map and Woodcuts. 
2 vols. Post 8vo. 21s. 

HANDBOOK FOR SYRIA AND PALESTINE: 

including an Account of the Geography, History, Antiquities, and 
Inhabitants of these Countries, the Peninsula of Sinai, Edom, and the 
Syrian Desert. Maps. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 24s. 

- (MRS. G. R.) Rational Arithmetic for Schools and for 
Private Instruction. 12mo. 3s. 6d. 

PRAYER-BOOK (The Illustrated), with 1000 Illustrations of Bor 
ders, Initials, Vignettes, &c. Medium 8vo. Cloth, 21s.; Calf, 31s. 6d.' t 
Morocco, 42s. 

PRECEPTS FOR THE CONDUCT OF LIFE. Exhortations to 
a Virtuous Course and Dissuasions from a Vicious Career. Extracted 
from the Scriptures. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

PRINSEP'S (JAS.) Essays on Indian Antiquities, Historic, 
Numismatic, and Palseographic, with Tables, illustrative of Indian 
History, Chronology, Modern Coinages, Weights, Measures, &c. 
Edited by EDWAKD THOMAS. Illustrations. 2 Vols. Svo. 52s. 6d. 

PROGRESS OF RUSSIA IN THE EAST, An Historical Sum- 
mary, continued to the Present Time. With Map by ABBOWBMITH. 
Third Edition. Svo. 6s. Gd. 

PUSS IN BOOTS. With 12 Illustrations ; for Old and Young. 
By OTTO SPECKTEE. A New Edition. 16mo. Is. 6d. 

QUARTERLY REVIEW (THE). Svo. 6*. 

RANKE'S (LEOPOLD) Political and Ecclesiastical History of the 
Popes of Rome, during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Trans 
lated from the German by MKS. AUSTIN. Third Edition. 2 Vols. Svo. 24s. 

RAWLINSON'S (Ruv. GEORGE) Herodotus. A New English 
Version. Edited with Notes and Essays. Assisted by SIR HENRY 
RAWLINSON and SIB J. G. WILKIHSOF. Maps and Woodcuts. 4 Vols. 
Svo. 18s. each. 

REJECTED ADDRESSES (THE). By JAMES AND HORACE SMITH. 

With Biographies of the Authors, and additional Notes. New Edition, 
with the Author's latest Corrections. Fcap. Svo. Is., or Fine Paper, with 
Portrait. Fcap. Svo. 6s. 



28 LIST OF WORKS 



RENNIE'S (JAMES) Insect Architecture. To which are added 
Chapters on the Ravages, the Preservation, for Purposes of Study, and 
the Classification of Insects. New Edition. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 5s. 

RICARDO'S (DAVID) Political Works. With a Notice of his 
Life and Writings. By J. R. M'CULLOCH. New Edition. Svo. 16*. 

EIPA'S (FATHER) Memoirs during Thirteen Years' Residence at the 
Court of Peking, in the Service of the Emperor of China. Translated 
from the Italian. By FORTUNATO PBANDI. Post Svo. 2s. 6d. 

ROBERTSON'S (REV. J. C.) History of the Christian Church, From 
the Apostolic Age to the Pontificate of Gregory the Great, A.D. 590. 
Stcond and Revised Edition. Vol. 1. Svo. 16s. 

Second Period, from A.D. 590 to the Concordat of 

Worms. A.D. 1123. Vol. 2. Svo. 18s. 
ROBINSON'S (REV. DR.) Biblical Researches in the Holy Land. 

Being a Journal of Travels in 1838, and of Later Researches in 1852. 

With New Maps. 3 Vols. Svo. 36s. 

*,* The " Later Researches" may be had separately. Svo. 15s. 
ROMILLY'S (SiR SAMUEL) Memoirs and Political Diary. By his 

SONS. Third Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. Fcap. Svo. 12s. 
ROSS'S (SiR JAMES) Voyage of Discovery and Research in the 

Southern and Antarctic Regions during the years 1839-43. Plates. 

2 Vols. Svo. 36s. 

RUNDELL'S (MRS.) Domestic Cookery, founded on Principles 
of Economy and Practice, and adapted for Private Families. New and 
Revised Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. Svo. 5s. 

RUSSIA ; A Memoir of the Remarkable Events which attended 
the Accession of the Emperor Nicholas. By BARON M. KORFF, Secretary 
of State. Svo. 10s. 6d. (Published ly Imperial Command.) 

RUXTON'S (GEORGE F.) Travels in Mexico; with Adventures 
among the Wild Tribes and Animals of the Prairies and Rocky Moun 
tains. Post Svo. 6s. 

SALE'S (LADY) Journal of the Disasters in Affghanistan. Eighth 

Edition. Post Svo. 12s. 
(SiR ROBERT) Brigade in Affghanistan. With an Account of 

the Seizure and Defence of Jellalabad. ByREv.G.R.GLEio. Post8vo.2s.6d. 
SANDWITH'S (HUMPHRY) Narrative of the Siege of Kars 

and of the Six Months' Resistance by the Turkish Garrison unde 

General Williams. Seventh Thousand. Post Svo. 3s. 6d. 

SCOTT'S (G. GILBERT) Remarks on Secular and Domestic 
Architecture, Present and Future. Second Edition. Svo. 9s. 

SCROPE'S (WILLIAM) Days of Deer-Stalking in the Forest of Atholl ; 
with some Account of the Nature and Habits of the Red Deer. Third 
Edition. Woodcuts. Crown Svo. 20s. 

Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing in the Tweed ; 
with a short Account of the Natural History and Habits of the Salmon. 
Second Edition. Woodcuts. Royal Svo. 31s. 6d. 

(G. P.) Memoir of Lord Sydenham, and his Administra 
tion in Canada. Second Edition. Portrait. Svo. 9s. 6d. 

Geology and Extinct Volcanos of Central France. 

Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrations. Medium Svo. 30s. 
SHAW'S (THOS. B.) Outlines of English Literature, for the Use of 
Young Students. Post Svo. 12s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



29 



SIERRA LEONE ; Described in a Series of Letters to Friends at 
Home. By A LADY. Edited by MRS. NORTON. Post 8vo. 6s. 

SMITH'S (WM., LL.D.) Dictionary of Greek and Roman Anti 
quities. Second Edition. With 500 Woodcuts. 8vo. 42s. 

Smaller Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

Abridged from the above work. Fourth Edition. With 200 Woodcuts. 

. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and My 
thology. With 500 Woodcuts. 3 Vols. 8vo. 51. 15s. Qd. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. With 

Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 80s. 

Atlas of Ancient Geography. 4to. \Inpreparaticn. 

Classical Dictionary for the Higher Forms in Schools. 

Compiled from the above two works. Fourth Edition. With 750 Wood 
cuts. 8vo. 18s. 

Smaller Classical Dictionary. Abridged from the 
above work. Fifth Edition. With 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 

Latin - English Dictionary. Based upon the Works 
of Forcellini and Freund. Fifth Thousand. 8vo. 21s. 

- Smaller Latin -English Dictionary. Abridged from the 
above work. Twelfth Thousand. Square 12mo. 7s. Qd. 

English-Latin Dictionary. Assisted by JOHN ROBSON, 

B.A. 8vo. and 12mo. [In preparation. 

Mediaeval Latin-English Dictionary. Selected from the 

great work of DUCANQE. 8vo. [ Uniform with Dr. SMITH'S " Latin- 
English Dictionary."] 

Dictionary of Biblical Antiquities, Biography, Geo 
graphy, and Natural History. Woodcuts. 8vo. [In the Press. 

- Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire. Edited, with Notes. Portrait and Map. 8 Vols. 8vo. 
60s. (Murray's British Classics.) 

Student's Gibbon ; being the History of the Decline 

and Fall, Abridged. Incorporating the Researches of Recent Com 
mentators. Sixth Thousand. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. Qd. 

Student's Hume. A History of England from the 

Invasion of Julius Cassar. Abridged from Hume, and continued to the 
present time. With woodcuts. Post 8vo. Is. Qd. 

History of Greece ; from the Earliest Times to 
the Roman Conquest. With the History of Literature and Art. Sixteenth 
Thousand. Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. (Questions. 12mo. 2*.) 



History of Rome ; from the Earliest Times to the 

Establishment of the Empire. With the History of Literature and 
Art. By H. G. LIDDELL, D.D. Eighth Thousand. Woodcuts. Crown 
8vo. 7s. 6d. [Uniform with SMITH'S "HISTORY OF GREECE."], 

(WM. JAS.) Grenville Letters and Diaries, including 

ME. GBENVILLE'S DIARY OF POLITICAL EVENTS, while First Lord of 
the Treasury. Edited, with Notes. 4 Vols. 8vo. 64s. 

(JAMES & HORACE) Rejected Addresses. Twenty-third 
Edition. Fcap.Svo. Is., or Fine Paper, with Portrait. Fcap.Svo. 5s. 



30 LIST OF WORKS 



SOMERVILLE'S (MART) Physical Geography. Fourth Edition. 

Portrait. Post 8vo. 95. 
. Connexion of the Physical Sciences. Ninth 

Edition. Woodcuts. PostSvo. 9s. 

SOUTH'S (JOHN F.) Household Surgery ; or, Hints on Emergen 
cies. Seventeenth Thousand. Woodcuts. Fcp. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

SOUTHEY'S (EGBERT) Book of the Church ; with Notes contain 
ing the Authorities, aiid an Index. Seventh Edition. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
Lives of John Bunyan & Oliver Cromwell. Post 8vo. 2s.Gd. 

SPECKTER'S (Olio) Puss in Boots, suited to the Tastes of Old 
and Young. A New Edition. With 12 Woodcuts. Square 12mo. Is. 6d. 

Charmed Roe ; or, the Story of the Little Brother 

and Sister. Illustrated. 16mo. 

STANLEY'S (Rev. A. P.) ADDRESSES AND CHARGES OF THE LATE 
BISHOP STANLEY. With a Memoir of his Life. Second Edition. 8vo. 
10s. 6d. 

Sermons preached in Canterbury Cathedral, on the 

Unity of Evangelical and Apostolical Teaching. PostSvo. 

- Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles to the Corin 
thians, with Notes and Dissertations. Second, and revised Edition. 
8vo. 18s. 



Historical Memorials of Canterbury. The Landing of 
Augustine The Murder of Becket The Black Prince The Shrine of 
Becket. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Sinai and Palestine, in Connexion with their History. 



Fifth Edition. Map. 8vo. 16s. 

ST. JOHN'S (CHARLES) Wild Sports and Natural History of the 

Highlands. Post 8vo. 6s. 

(BATLE) Adventures in the Libyan Desert and the 

Oasis of Jupiter Ammon. Woodcuts. PostSvo. 2s. 6d. 

STEPHENSON'S (GEORGE) Life. The Railway Engineer. By 
SAMUEL SMILES. Fifth Edition. Portrait. 8vo. 16s. 

STOTHARD'S (Tnos., R. A.) Life. With Personal Reminiscences. 
By Mrs. BEAT. With Portrait and 60 Woodcuts. 4to. 

STREET'S (G. E.) Brick and Marble Architecture of Italy, in the 
Middle Ages. Plates. 8vo. 21s. 

STRIFE FOR THE MASTERY. Two Allegories. With Illus 
trations. Crown Svo. 6s. 

SWIFT'S (JONATHAN) Life, Letters and Journals. By JOHN 

FOBSTEB. 8vo. In Preparation. 

Works. Edited, with Notes. By JOHN FOBSTER. Svo. 

In Preparation. 

SYDENHAM'S (LORD) Memoirs. With his Administration in 
Canada. By G.PouLETScBOPE,M.P. Second Edition. Portrait. Svo. Qs.Gd. 

SYME'S (JAS.) Principles of Surgery. Fourth Edition. Svo. 14s. 

TAYLOR'S (HENRY) Notes from Life. Fcap Svo. 2s. 

(J. E.) Fairy Ring. A Collection of Stories for Young 

Persons. From the German. With Illustrations by RICHAED DOYLE. 
Second Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. Svo. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 31 



TENNENT'S (SiR J. E.) Christianity in Ceylon. Its Introduction 
and Progress under the Portuguese, Dutch, British, and American Mis 
sions. With an Historical Sketch of the Brahmanical and Buddhist 
Superstitions. Woodcuts. 8vo. 14s. 

THREE-LEAVED MANUAL OF FAMILY PRAYER; arranged 
so as to save the trouble of turning the Pages backwards and forwards. 
Royal 8vo. 2s. 

TICKNOR'S (GEORGE) History of Spanish Literature. With Criti 
cisms on particular Works, and Biographical Notices of Prominent 
Writers. Second Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 24s. 

TOCQUEVILLE'S (M. DE) State of France before the Revolution, 
1789, and on the Causes of that Event. Translated by HEKEY REEVE. 
ESQ.SVO. 14s. 

TREMENHEERE'S (H. S.) Political Experience of the Ancients, 
in its bearing on Modern Times. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Notes on Public Subjects, made during a 
Tour in the United States and Canada. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Constitution of the United States compared 

with our own. Post 8vo. 9s. 6d. 

TWISS' (HORACE) Public and Private Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon, 
with Selections from his Correspondence. Portrait. Third Edition. 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 21s. 

TYTLER (PATRICK FRASER), A Memoir of. By his Friend, REV. 

J. W. BCTRGON, M.A. 8vo. In the Press. 

UBICINI'S (M. A.) Letters on Turkey and its Inhabitants the 
Moslems, Greeks, Armenians, &c. Translated by LADY EASTHOPE. 
2 Vols. Post 8vo. 21s. 

VAUGHAN'S (REV. DR.) Sermons preached in Harrow School. 

8vo. 10s. 6d. 

New Sermons. 12mo. 5s. 

VENABLES' (REV. R. L.) Domestic Scenes in Russia during a 
Year's Residence, chiefly in the Interior. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 5s. 

VOYAGE to the Mauritius and back, touching at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and St. Helena. By Author of " PADDIANA." Post 8vo. 9s. 6d. 

WAAGEN'S (DR.) Treasures of Art in Great Britain. Being an 
Account of the Chief Collections of Paintings, Sculpture, Manuscripts, 
Miniatures, &c, &c., in this Country. Obtained from Personal Inspec 
tion during Visits to England. 3 Vols. 8vo. 36s. 

Galleries and Cabinets of Art in England. Being 

an Account of more than Forty Collections, visited in 1854-56 and 
never before described. With Index. 8vo. 18s. 

WADDINGTON'S (DEAN) Condition and Prospects of the 
Greek Church. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

WAKEFIELD'S (E. J.) Adventures in New Zealand. With 

some Account of the Beginning of the British Colonisation of the 

Island. Map. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28*. 
WALKS AND TALKS. A Story-book for Young Children. By 

AUNT IDA. With Woodcuts. 16mo. 5s. 
WARD'S (ROBERT PLTJMER) Memoir, Correspondence, Literary and 

Unpublished Diaries and Remains. By the HON. EDMUND PHIPPS. 

Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28s. 



32 LIST OP WORKS PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



WATT'S (JAMES) Life. Incorporating the most interesting pas 
sages from his Private, and Public Correspondence. By JAMES P. 
MUIBHEAD, M.A. Portraits and Woodcuts. 8vo. 16s. 

Origin and Progress of his Mechanical Inventions. Illus 
trated by his Correspondence with his Friends. Edited by J. P. 
MUJRHEAD. Plates. 3 vols. 8vo. 45s., or Large Paper. 3 Vols. 4to. 

WELLINGTON'S (THE DUKE OF) Despatches during his Tarious 
Campaigns. Compiled from Official and other Authentic Documents. By 
COL. GUBWOOD, C.B. New Enlarged Edition. 8 Vols. 8vo. 21s. each. 

Supplementary Letters, Despatches, and other 

Papers. Edited by his SON. Vols. 1 and 2. 8vo. 20s. each. 

Selections from his Despatches and General 



Orders. By COLONEL GUEWOOD. STO. 18s. 

Speeches in Parliament. 2 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 



WILKIE'S (SiR DAVID) Life, Journals, Tours, and Critical Remarks 
on Works of Art, with a Selection from his Correspondence. By ALLAN 
CUNNINGHAM. Portrait. 3 Vols. 8vo. 42s, 

WILKINSON'S (SiR J. G.) Popular Account of the Private Life, 
Manners, and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. New Edition. 
Revised and Condensed. .With 500 Woodcuts. 2 Vols. PostSvo. 12s. 
Dalmatia and Montenegro ; with a Journey to 
Mostar in Hertzegovina, and Remarks on the Slavonic Nations. Plates 
and Woodcuts. 2Vols.8vo. 42s. 

- Handbook for Egypt. Thebes, the Nile, Alex 
andria, Cairo, the Pyramids, Mount Sinai, &c. Map. Post 8vo. 15s. 
On Colour, and on the Necessity for a General 



Diffusion of Taste among fill Classes ; with Remarks on laying cut 
Dressed or Geometrical Gardens. With Coloured Illustrations and 
Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. 

(G. B.) Working Man's Handbook to South Aus 



tralia ; with Advice to the Farmer, and Detailed Information for the 
several Classes of Labourers and Artisans. Map. 18mo. Is. Gd. 

WOOD'S (LIEUT.) Voyage up the Indus to the Source of the 
River Oxus, by Kabul and Badakhshan. Map. 8vo. 14s. 

WORDSWORTH'S (REV. DR.) Athens and Attica. Journal of a 
Tour. Third Edition. Plates. Post 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

Greece: Pictorial, Descriptive, and Historical, 
with a History of Greek Art, by G. SCHAKF, F.S.A. New Edition. With 
600 Woodcuts. Royal 8vo. 28s. 

King Edward Vlth's Latin Grammar, for the 

Use of Schools. 1 2th Edition, revised. 12mo. 3s. 6d. 

First Latin Book, or the Accidence, Syntax 
and Prosody, with English Translation for Junior Classes. Third 
Edition. 12mo. 2s. 

WORNTJM (RALPH). A Biographical Dictionary of Italian Painters : 
with a Table of the Contemporary Schools of Italy. By a LADY. 
Post 8vo. 6s. Qd. 

YOUNG'S (DR. THOS.) Life and Miscellaneous Works, edited 
by DEAN PEACOCK and JOHN LEITCH. Portrait and Plates. 4 Vols. 
8vo. 15*. each. 



PR 

3023 

C35 



Campbell, John Campbell 

Shakespeare's legal acquire 
ments 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY