Skip to main content

Full text of "Shakespeare S Venus And Adonis Lucrece And Other Poems"

See other formats

822,33 TAt (5) 

Keep Your Card in This Pocket 

Books will be issued only on 
of proper library cards, 

Unless labeled otherwise, j books may be 
retained for four weeks. Borrowers fiiiding 
books marked, defaced or mutilated, are f e^ 
pected to report same a| library desk; other- 
wise the last borrower ^vill be held responsible 
for all imperfections discovered. 

The card holder is responsible for* all books 
drawn on his card. 

Penalty for over-due books 2c a day pi*$& 
cost of notices. , 

JLost cards and change of residence must 
be reported promptly. 

.Kansas City, Ite. 









*-' V. 


COPYRIGHT, 1883 AND 1898, BY 



W. P. 3 


SHAKESPEARE'S Poems (aside from the Sonnets) have 
received comparatively slight attention from his biog- 
raphers and editors. They have been often omitted 
from editions of his works, and when included have 
seldom been adequately discussed and annotated. Of 
separate editions Wyndham's (see p, 27 below) seems 
to me the only one of any critical value. 

I have attempted to treat them with the same 
thoroughness as the plays. The early readings are 
given with sufficient fulness for the purposes of all 
classes of students ; and the same is true of the intro- 
duction and the notes, in which I have aimed to supply 
the deficiencies of other editors. 

The text is given without expurgation. The Lucrece 
needs none, and the Venus and 'Adonis does not admit 
of it without serious mutilation. Of course these poems 
will never be read in secondary schools or Shakespeare 

In The Passionate Pilgrim the pieces which are 
certainly not Shakespeare's are transferred from the 
text to the notes. Most of the others are of doubtful 
authenticity, but I give Shakespeare the benefit if 
benefit it be of the doubt. A Lovers Complaint and 
The Ph&nix and the Turtle are now generally conceded 
to be his. 




The History of the Poems 9 

The Sources of the Poems . , . . . .16 
General Comments on the Poems . .... 19 






NOTES . . 199 


The 1640 Edition of the Poems . 283 

Early Allusions to the Poems ...... 286 






Venus and Adonis was first published in quarto form, 
in 1593? with the following title-page : 

VENVS | AND ADONIS | Villa miretur vulgiis : mihi 
fiauus Apollo | Pocula Castalia plena minis tret aqua. \ 
LONDON | Imprinted by Richard Field, and are to be 
sold at I the signe of the white Greyhound in | Paules 
Church-yard. ( 1593. 

The book is printed with remarkable accuracy, and 
doubtless from the author's manuscript. 

A second quarto edition was published in 1594, the 
title-page of which differs from that of the first only 
in the date. 

io Shakespeare's Poems 

A third edition in octavo form (like all the subse- 
quent editions) was issued in 1596 from the same 
printing-office "for lohn Hanson." 

A fourth edition was published in 1599, with the 
following title-page (as given in Edmonds's reprint): 

VENVS | AND ADONIS. | Villa mirctur intlgus : 
mihi flaitits Apollo \ Pocula Castalia ptena ministret 
aqua. \ Imprinted at London for William Leake, 
dwel- I ling in Panics Churchyard at the signe of | the 
Greyhound. 1599. 

This edition was not known until 1867, when a copy 
of it was discovered at Lamport Hall in Northampton- 
shire by Mr. Charles Edmonds, who issued a fac-simile 
reprint in 1870. It was evidently printed from the 
third edition. Mr. Edmonds says : "A few correc- 
tions are introduced, but they bear no proportion to 
the misprints." 

Of the fifth edition a single copy is in existence (in 
the Bodleian Library), lacking the title-page, which has 
been restored in manuscript with the following imprint : 
" LONDON | Printed by I. H. | for lohn Harrison | 
1600." The date may be right, but, according to 
Halliwell-Phillipps and Edmonds, the publisher's name 
must be wrong, as Harrison had assigned the copyright 
to Leake four years previous. The Cambridge editors 
assumed in 1866 that this edition (the 4th of their num- 
bering in 1866, but 5th in the ed. of 1893) was printed 
from that of 1596 ; but it is certain, since the discovery 
of the 1599 eel, that it must have been based on that 

Introduction li 

Of the text they say ; " It contains many erroneous 
readings, due, it would seem, partly to carelessness and 
partly to wilful alteration, which were repeated in later 
eds. 1 ' 

Two new editions were issued in 1602, and others in 
1617 and 1620. In 1627, an edition (of which the only 
known copy is in the British Museum) was published 
in Edinburgh. In the Bodleian Library there is a 
unique copy of an edition wanting the title-page but 
catalogued with the date 1630; also a copy of another 
edition, published in 1630 (discovered since the Cam- 
bridge ed, of 1866 appeared). 1 A thirteenth edition was 
printed in 1636, "to be sold by Francis Conies in the 
Old Baily without Newgate." 

The first edition of Liicrece was published in quarto 
in 1594, with the following title-page : 

LVCRECE. | LONDON. | Printed by Richard Field, 
for lohn Harrison, and are | to be sold at the signe of 
the white Greyhound | in Paules Churh-yard. *594- 

The running title is " The Rape of Lvcrece." The 
Bodleian Library has two copies of this edition which 
differ in some important readings, indicating that it was 
corrected while passing through the press. 

A second edition appeared in 1598, a third in 1600, 

1 Bibliographical Contributions, edited by J. Winsor, Librarian of 
Harvard University: No. 2, Shakespeare's Poems (1879). This Bibli- 
ography of the earlier editions of the Poems contains much valuable 
and curious information concerning their history, the extant copies, 
reprints, etc. 

i 1 Shakespeare's Poems 

and a fourth in 1607, all in octavo and all "for lohn 
Harrison " (or u 11 arisen "). 

In 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death, the poem 
was reprinted with his name as "newly revised ; " but 
" as the readings are generally inferior to those of the 
earlier editions, there is no reason for attaching any 
importance to an assertion which was merely intended 
to allure purchasers " (Cambridge ed,). The title-page 
of this edition reads thus : 

THE | RAPE | OF | LVCRRCE, \ By | M r . Wil- 
liam Shakes feare. \ Newly Reuised. | LONDON:) 
Printed by T. S, for Roger laf&son, and are | to be 
solde at his shop neere the Conduit | in Fleet-street, 

A sixth edition, also printed for Jackson, was issued 
in 1624, 

The fifth and sixth editions differ considerably in 
their readings from the first four, in which there are 
no important variations. 

A seventh edition appeared in 1632, and an eighth 
in 1655. 

A Lovers Complaint was first printed, so far as we 
know, in the first edition of the Sonnets , which ap- 
peared in 1609. It was probably not reprinted 
until it was included in the Poems of 1640, mentioned 

The Passionate Pilgrim was first published in 1599? 
with the following title-page ; 


s\ Introduction 13 

(y ^ 

JJT//VW. ] AT LONDON \ Printed for \V. laggard, and 
^Hare | to be sold by \V. Leake, at the Grey- j hound in 
-J Paules Church-yard. | 1599. 
.i In the middle of sheet C is a second title : 
/ / SONNETS | To sundry notes of Musicke. | AT 
f)L ONDON | Printed for W. laggard, and are | to be sold 
/A by W. Leake, at the Grey- | hound in Paules Church- 
P/yard. | 1599. 

The book was reprinted in 1612, together with some 

y^oems by Thomas Heywood, the whole being attributed 

|A:o Shakespeare, The title at first stood thus : 

"j THE | PASSIONATE | PILGRIME. | or | Certain* 

N-/ Amorous Sonnets, \ betweene Venus and Adonis, | newly 

^corrected and aug- | mented. | By W. Shakespere. | The 

} third Edition, | Whereunto is newly ad- | ded two Loue- 

IJEpistles, the first | from Paris to Hdlen, and | He dens 

^ answere backe | againe to Paris. | Printed by W. lag- 

^^gard. | 1612. 

/ The Bodleian copy of this edition contains the follow- 
ing note by Malone : "All the poems from Sig. D. 5 
were written by Thomas Heywood, who was so offended 
y\t Jaggard for printing them under the name of Shake- 
/ speare that he has added a postscript to his Apology for 
, 4to, 1612, on this subject; and Jaggard in con- 
sequence of it appears to have printed a new title-page 
^to please Heywood, without the name of Shakespeare 
L in it. The former title-page was no doubt intended to be 
V cancelled, but by some inadvertence they were both 
to this copy and I have retained them as a 

14 Shakespeare's Poems 

curiosity." The corrected title-page is substantially 
as above, omitting " j5ty W. Shakes fere" 

It will be observed that this is called the third edi- 
tion ; but no other between 1599 and 1612 is known 
to exist. 

In 1640 most of the Sonnets, all the poems of 77/f 
Passionate Pilgrim, A Lover's Complaint, The Plwnix 
and the Turtle, the lines " Why should this a desert be, M 
etc. (A. K L. iii. 2. 133 fol.)< and 4k Take, O take those 
lips away, " etc. (M. for Jlf. iv. i. i fol.), with some 
translations from Ovid and sundry other poems falsely 
ascribed to Shakespeare, were published in a volume 
with the following title: 

Gent. | Printed at London, by Tlw> Cotes, and are [ to 
be sold by lohn Benson, dwelling in | S*. Duns tan* s 
Church-yard. 1640. 

The first complete edition of Shakespeare's Poems, 
including the Sonnets, was issued (according to Lowndes, 
Bibliographer's Manual) in 1709, with the following title ; 

A Collection of Poems, in Two Volumes ; Being all 
the Miscellanies of Mr. William Shakespeare, which 
were Published by himself in the Year 1609, and now 
correctly Printed from those Editions. The First Vol- 
ume contains, I. VENUS AND ADONIS. II. The Rape 
ofLucRECE. III. The Passionate Pilgrim. IV. Some 
Sonnets set to sundry Notes of Musick. The Second 
Volume contains One Hundred and Fifty Four Sonnets, 
all of them in Praise of his Mistress. II. A Lover's 

Introduction 15 

Complaint of his Angry Mistress. LONDON : Printed 
for Bernard Lintott, at the Cross-Keys^ between the Two 
Temple-Gates in Fleet-street. 

The Ph&nix and the. Turtle first appeared, with Shake- 
speare's name appended to it, in Robert Chester's Loves 
Martyr: or Rosalins Complaint, published in 1601 (re- 
printed by the New Shakspere Society in 1878). 

One of the earliest references to the Venus and Adorns 
that has been found is in the famous list of Shake- 
speare's works in Meres's PaHadis Tamia, 1598. For 
others, see pp. 286-292 below. As to the date of its 
composition, Dowden says (Primer, p. 81): "When 
Venus and Adonis appeared, Shakspere was twenty-nine 
years of age ; the Earl of Southampton, to whom it was 
dedicated, was not yet twenty. In the dedication the 
poet speaks of these ' un polish t lines ' as ' the first heire 
of my invention.' Did Shakspere mean by this that 
Venus and Adonis was written before any of his plays, 
or before any plays that were strictly original his own 
' invention ? ' or does he, setting plays altogether apart, 
which were not looked upon as literature, in a high 
sense of the word, call it his first poem because he had 
written no earlier narrative or lyrical verse ? We can- 
not be sure. It is possible, but not likely, that he may 
have written this poem before he left Stratford, and 
have brought it up with him to London. More prob- 
ably it was written in London, and perhaps not long 
before its publication. The year 1593, in which the 
poem appeared, was a year of plague ; the London 

16 Shakespeare's Poems 

theatres were closed: it may be that Shakspere, iillc 
in London, or having returned for a while to Stratfnul. 
then wrote the poem/* Kvon If begun some years earlier , 
it was probably revised not long before its publication, 

TheZ^rmr was not improbably the "graver lahnnt " 
promised in the dedication of the Hvw am/ Atfanfa ; 
and, as Dowden remarks, it "exhibits far less imma- 
turity than does the ' first heire ' of Shakspere's inven- 
tion." Jt is less likely than thai, I think, lo have been 
a youthful production taken up and elaborated at a later 

A Lover's Complaint was evidently written after the 
Litcrcce, but we have no means of fixing the time with 

The Shakespearian poems in The Ptmhwate Pilgrim 
were of course written before 1599, when the collection 
was published. The three taken from />;vV L&lunn* V 
Z^/must be as early as the date of that play, If the 
Venus and Adonis sonnets are Shakespeare's, they may 
have been experiments on the subject before writing 
the long poem ; but Furnivall says that they are ** so 
much easier in flow and lighter in handling M that he 
cannot suppose them to be earlier than the poem* 

The Pho&nix and the Turtle is almost certainly Shake- 
speare's, and must have been written before 1601. 


The story of the poem was taken from Ovid's 
Metamorphoses^ which had been translated by Gelding 

Introduction 17 

in 1567; but Shakespeare was doubtless familiar with 
it in the original Latin, which he had read in the Strat- 
ford grammar school, and to which he probably recurred 
in Field's edition after he came to London. In the poem 
he does not follow Ovid very closely. 

That poet " relates, shortly, that Venus, accidentally 
wounded by an arrow of Cupid's, falls in love with the 
beauteous Adonis, leaves her favourite haunts and the 
skies for him, and follows him in his huntings over 
mountains and bushy rocks, and through woods. She 
warns him against \vild boars and lions. She and he lie 
down in the shade on the grass he without pressure 
on her part ; and there, with her bosom on his, she tells 
him, with kisses, the story of how she helped Hippo- 
menes to win the swift-footed Atalanta, and then, 
because he was ungrateful to her (Venus), she excited 
him and his wife to defile a sanctuary by a forbidden 
act, for which they were both turned into lions. With 
a final warning against wild beasts, Venus leaves 
Adonis. He then hunts a boar, and gets his death- 
wound from it. Venus comes down to see him die, 
and turns his blood into a flower the anemone, or 
wind-flower, short-lived, because the winds (anemot), 
which give it its name, beat it down, 1 so slender is it. 
Other authors give Venus the enjoyment which Ovid 
and Shakespeare deny her, and bring Adonis back from 
Hades to be with her " (Furnivall). 

1 Pliny (bk. i. c, 23) says it never opens but when the wind is 


1 8 Shakespeare's Poems 

The main incidents of the Lucrece were doubtless 
familiar to Shakespeare from his school-days ; and they 
had been used again and again in poetry and prose. 
" Chaucer had, in his Legend* of Good Women, told the 
story of Lucrece, after those of Cleopatra, Dido, Thisbe, 
Ypsiphile, and Meclea, ' As saythe Ovyde and Titus 
Lyvyus' (Ovid's Fasti, ii. 74*; Livy, i. 57, 58); the 
story is also told by Dionysius Halicarnassensis, iv. 72, 
and by Diodorus Siculus, Pio Cassius, and Valerius 
Maximus. In English it is besides in Lydgate's Falles 
of Princes, iii. 5, and in Wm. Painter's Palate of Pleas- 
ure, 1567, vol. i. fol. 5-7, where the story is very shortly 
told : the heading is ' Sextus Tarquinius ravishelh Lu- 
crece, who bewailyng the losse of her chastitie, killeth 
her self.' The story is not in the Rouen edition, 1603, 
of Boaistuau and Belleforest's Histoires Tragiguss, 7 
vols. i2mo; or the Lucca edition, 1554, of the Novelte 
of Bandello, 3 parts; or the Lyons edition, 1573, of the 
Fourth Part. Painter's short Lucrece must have been 
taken by himself from one of the Latin authors he cites 
as his originals at the end of his preface. In 1568, was 
entered on the Stat. Reg. A, If. 174, a receipt for 4/7. 
from Jn. Aide ( for his lycense for prynting of a ballett, 
the grevious complaynt of Lucrece ' (Arbor's Transcript, 
i. 379); and in 1570 the like from 'James Robertes, 
for his lycense for the pryntinge of a ballett intituled 
The Death of Lucryssia ' (Arber's Transcript, i. 416). 
Another ballad of the legend of Lucrece was also 
printed in 1576, says Warton (J r ariorum ed, of 1821, 

Introduction 19 

xx, 100). Chaucer's simple, short telling of the story 
in 206 lines of which 95 are taken up with the visit 
of Collatyne and Tarquynyus to Rome, before Shak- 
spere's start with Tarquin's journey thither alone 
cannot of course compare with Shakspere's rich and 
elaborate poem of 1855 lines, though, had the latter 
had more of the earlier maker's brevity, it would have 
attained greater fame " (Furnivall). 

The story of A Lover's Complaint, so far as we know, 
was original with Shakespeare. 


The breadth of Shakespeare's literary tastes and 
aspirations in the 'prentice period of his career is 
shown by the fact that, just when his reputation as 
an actor and a dramatist was becoming established, 
he published two long narrative poems, Venus and 
Adonis and Lucrece. 

The Venus and Adonis was dedicated to the young 
Earl of Southampton, apparently without his permis- 
sion, as the poet begins by saying, " I know not how I 
shall offend in dedicating my unpolished lines to your 
lordship." He acids a " vow to take advantage of all 
idle hours " till he can honour his patron " with some 
graver labour." This promise doubtless refers to the 
Lncrece which he also dedicates to Southampton, and 
in terms implying that he does it with the earl's per- 
mission : " The warrant I have of your honourable dis- 
position, not the worth of my untutored lines, makes it 

20 Shakespeare's Poems 

assured of acceptance. What I have done is yours ; 
what I have to do is yours ; being part in all I have, 
devoted yours." 

Southampton was not quite twenty when the / V///AV 
and Adonis was dedicated to him, having been born 
October 6th, 1573, He was entered at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, on December n, 1585, just after he 
was twelve ; he took his degree of Master of Arts before 
he was sixteen, on June 6, 1589 ; and soon after entered 
at Gray's Inn, London. He was a ward of Lord Burgh- 
ley. He became a favourite of Queen Elizabeth's, but 
lost her favour, in 1595, for making love to Elizabeth 
Vernon (Essex's cousin), whom he married later, in 
1598. All his life he was a liberal patron of men of 
letters. He was particularly interested in the drama. 
In 1599 we find a reference to him as u going to plays 
every day." It may be added that later in life he was 
engaged in schemes for colonization in America. '* He 
helped to equip expeditions to Virginia, and was treas- 
urer of the Virginia Company, The map of the coun- 
try commemorates his labours as a colonial pioneer. In 
his honour were named Southampton Hundred, Hamp- 
ton River, and Hampton Roads in Virginia " (Sidney 

In the dedication of Venus and Adonis Shakespeare 
calls the poem " the first heir of my invention " that 
is, the first product of his imagination. It is a ques- 
tion whether this means that it was written before any 
of the plays, or that it was his first distinctively literary 

Introduction 21 

work, plays being then regarded as not belonging to 
" invention/ 1 or literature properly so called. Knight 
and some others take the expression in its literal sense. 
Knight, for instance, says : " We regard the Venus and 
Adonis as the production of a very young man, im- 
proved, perhaps, considerably in the interval between 
its first composition and its publication, but distin- 
guished by peculiarities which belong to the wild luxu- 
riance of youthful power, such power, however, as 
few besides Shakspere had ever possessed." 

Bay nes remarks : "All the facts and probabilities of 
the case seem to me to indicate that the Venus and 
Adonis, as Shakespeare's earliest considerable effort, 
must have been produced at Stratford some years 
before his departure for London. With regard to the 
internal evidence in support of this view, Mr. Collier 
says : ' A young man so gifted would not, and could 
not, wait until he was five or six and twenty before 
he made considerable and most successful attempts at 
poetical composition ; and we feel morally certain that 
Venus and Adonis was in being anterior to Shake- 
speare's quitting Stratford. It bears all the marks of 
youthful vigour, of strong passion, of luxuriant imagina- 
tion, together with a force and originality of expression 
which betoken the first efforts of a great mind, not 
always well regulated in its taste. It seems to have 
been written in the open air of a fine country like War- 
wickshire, possessing all the freshness of the recent im- 
pression of natural objects ; and we will go so far as to 

act Shakespeare's Poems 

say that we do not think even Shakespeare himself 
could have produced it, in the form it bears, after he 
had reached the age of forty.' In relation to the last 
point I should be disposed to go further still, and say 
that it is very unlikely that Shakespeare either could or 
would have produced such a poem after he had found 
in the drama the free use of both his hands the 
means of dealing effectively with action as well as 

But Shakespeare in London did not forget with 
his love of nature he could not forget his " woody 
Warwickshire ; " and in London there were many large 
gardens, and the suburbs were distinctly rural. The 
Theatre and the Curtain, just outside the walls, were 
" in the fields," and wild flowers could be gathered 
almost at the door of the playhouse, Shakespeare, 
moreover, was a poet when he began to be a dramatist, 
and the semi-lyrical character of large portions of his 
earliest plays, as well as the delight in nature which 
they show, has been often pointed out by the critics. 
The poems, like these plays, abound in reminiscences of 
country life, but it is not necessary to suppose that 
they, any more than the plays, were actually written 
amid the scenes of country life. 

In 1592 the theatres were closed from July to 
December on account of the plague, and as the Venus 
and Adonu was entered for publication in April, 1593, 
it is quite certain that it must have been mainly or 
wholly written during that half-year when the poet's 

Introduction 23 

interest was more or less diverted from dramatic com- 
position into other literary channels. There is a 
striking allusion to the pestilence in the poem (505- 

5*) : 

" Long may they kiss each other for this cure! 
O, never let their crimson liveries wear ! 
And as they last, their verdure still endure, 
To drive infection from the dangerous year! 
That the star-ga/ers, having writ on death, 
May say the plague is banish'd by thy breath." 

The allusion may have been immediately suggested 
by the practice of strewing rooms with rue and other 
strong-smelling herbs as a means of preventing infec- 
tion. The reference to the astrologers, predicting 
death by their horoscopes, is also in keeping with the 
fatal season, 

The critics of the eighteenth century were inclined 
to disparage Shakespeare's poems. Malone, in his 
concluding remarks upon the Venus and Adonis and 
LucrecC) says : " We should do Shal^speare injustice 
were we to try them by comparison with more modern 
and polished productions, or with our present idea of 
poetical excellence." Knight, after quoting this, ob- 
serves : " This was written in the year 1780 the 
period which rejoiced in the c polished productions ' of 
Hayley and Miss Seward, and founded its f idea of 
poetical excellence ' on some standard which, secure in 
its conventional forms, might depart as far as possible 
from simplicity and nature, to give us words without 

24 Shakespeare's Poems 

thought, arranged in verses without music. It would 
be injustice indeed to Shakspere to try the fa mis and 
Adonis and Lucrece by such a standard of * poetical 
excellence.' But we have outlived that period. 1 ' 

Coleridge was the first to do justice to the merits of 
the Venus and Adonis. He remarks : u It is throughout 
as if a superior spirit, more intuitive, more intimately 
conscious, even than the characters themselves, not 
only of every outward look and act, but of the flux and 
reflux of the mind in all its subtlest thoughts and feel- 
ings, were placing the whole before our view ; himself 
meanwhile unparticlpating in the passions, and actuated 
only by that pleasurable excitement which had resulted 
from the energetic fervour of his own spirit in so vividly 
exhibiting what it had so accurately and profoundly 
contemplated. ... His Venus and Adonis seem at 
once the characters themselves, and the whole repre- 
sentation of those characters by the most consummate 
actors. You seem to be told nothing, but to see and 
hear everything. Hence it is, that, from the perpetual 
activity of attention required on the part of the reader, 
from the rapid flow, the quick change, and the play- 
ful nature of the thoughts and images, and, above all, 
from the alienation, and, if I may hazard such an ex- 
pression, the utter aloofness of the poet's own feelings 
from those of which he is at once the painter and the 
analyst, that though the very subject cannot hut 
detract from the pleasure of a ddicale mind, yet 
never was poem less dangerous on a moral account." 

Introduction 25 

Elsewhere the same critic has observed that, " in the 
Venus and Adonis > the first and most obvious excellence 
is the perfect sweetness of the versification ; its adapta- 
tion to the subject ; and the power displayed in varying 
the march of the words without passing into a loftier 
and more majestic rhythm than was demanded by the 
thoughts, or permitted by the propriety of preserving a 
sense of melody predominant." This self-controlling 
power of " varying the march of the words without pass- 
ing into a loftier and more majestic rhythm " is perhaps 
one of the most signal instances of Shakespeare's con- 
summate mastery of his art, even as a very young man. 

Dowden says of the Venus and Adonis and the 
Lticrecc ; "Each is an artistic study; and they form 
companion studies one of female lust and boy- 
ish coldness, the other of male lust and womanly 
chastity. Coleridge noticed ' the utter aloofness of 
the poet's own feelings from those of which he is 
at once the painter and the analyst ; ' but it can 
hardly be admitted that this aloofness of the poet's 
own feelings proceeds from a dramatic abandonment 
of self. The subjects of these two poems did not call 
and choose their poet ; they did not possess him and 
compel him to render them into art. Rather the poet 
expressly made choice of the subjects, and deliberately 
set himself down before each to accomplish an exhaus- 
tive study of it. ... And for a young writer of the 
Renascence, the subject of Shakspere's earliest poem 
was a splendid one as voluptuous and unspiritual as 

26 Shakespeare's Poems 

that of a classical picture of Titian, It included two 
figures containing inexhaustible pasture for the fleshly 
eye, and delicacies and dainties for the sensuous imagi- 
nation of the Renascence the enamoured Queen of 
Beauty, and the beautiful, disdainful boy. It afforded 
occasion for endless exercises and variations on the 
themes, Beauty, Lust, and Death, In holding the sub- 
ject before his imagination, Shakspere is perfectly cool 
and collected. He has made choice of the subject, and 
he is interested in doing his duty by it in the most 
thorough way a young poet can ; but he remains unim- 
passioned intent wholly upon getting down the right 
colours and lines upon his canvas." 

Furnivall says : " From whatever source came the 
impulse to take from Ovid the heated story of the 
heathen goddess's lust, we cannot forbear noticing 
how through this stifling atmosphere Shakspere has 
blown the fresh breezes of English meads and downs. 
A Midsiimmer->Nigh?$ Dream itself is not fuller of evi- 
dence of Shakspere's intimate knowledge of, and intense 
delight in, country scenes and sights, whether shown in 
his description of horse and hounds, or in closer touches, 
like that of the hush of wind before the rain ; while such 
lines as those about the eagle flapping, ' shaking its 
wings ' over its food, send us still to the Zoological 
Gardens to verify. Two lines (V. and A. 707, 708) 
there are, reflecting Shakspere's own experience of 
life his own early life in London possibly which we 
must not fail to note; they are echoed in ffamlet; - 

Introduction 27 

* For misery is trodden on by many, 
And being low, never reliev'd by any/ 

'Twas a lesson plainly taught by the Elizabethan 
days, and the Victorian preach it too. It has been 
the fashion lately to run down the Venus as com- 
pared with Marlowe's Hero and Lea titter. Its faults 
are manifest. It shows less restraint and training 
than the work of the earlier-ripened Marlowe ; but 
to me it has a fulness of power and promise of 
genius enough to make three Marlowes. ... Of 
possession and promise in Shakspere's first poem, 
we have an intense love of nature, and a conviction 
(which never left him) of her sympathy with the 
moods of men ; a penetrating eye ; a passionate 
soul ; a striving power of throwing himself into 
all he sees, and reproducing it living and real to 
his reader ; a lively fancy, command of words, and 
music of verse ; these wielded by a shaping spirit 
that strives to keep each faculty under one control, 
and guide it while doing its share of the desired 

Mr. George Wyndham (1898),* in his Poems of Shake- 
speare, is right in declaring that Shakespeare handles 
his theme with due regard for beauty and " disregard 
for all that disfigures beauty," and, like Coleridge, 
defends the poem from the charge of immorality. He 

* Some of my readers may not know that the author of this admi- 
rable edition of the Poems is the Rt, Hon. George Wyndham, chief sec- 
retary for Ireland in 1900 and a cabinet minister in 1902. 

28 Shakespeare's Poems 

says: "Shakespeare portrays an amorous encounter 
through its every gesture; yet, unless in some dozen 
lines where he glances aside, like any Medieval, at a 
gaiety not yet divorced from love, his appeal to Beauty 
persists from first to last ; and nowhere is there an 
appeal to Lust. The laughter and sorrow of the 
poem, belong wholly to the faery world of vision and 
romance, where there is no sickness, whether of senti- 
ment or of sense. And both are rendered by images, 
clean-cut as in antique gems, brilliantly enamelled 
as in mediaeval chalices, numerous and interwoven 
as in Moorish arabesques; so that their incision, 
colour, and rapidity of development, apart even 
from the intricate melodies of the verbal medium in 
which they live, tax the faculty of artistic apprecia- 
tion to a point where it begins to participate in the 
asceticism of artistic creation. ' As little can a mind 
thus roused and awakened be brooded on by mean and 
indistinct emotion as the low, lazy mist can creep upon 
the surface of a lake while a strong gale is driving it 
onward in waves and billows: ' Thus does Coleridge 
resist the application to shift the venue of criticism on 
this poem from the court of Beauty to the court of 
Morals, and upon that subject little more can be said. 
How wilful it is to discuss the moral bearing of an in- 
vitation couched by an imaginary goddess in such 
imaginative terms as these: 

Bid me discourse, I will enchant thine ear, 
Or, like a fairv. trip upon the green. 

Introduction 29 

Or, like a nymph, with long dishevelPd hair, 
Dance on the sands, and yet no footing seen ! ' . . , 

" When Venus says, ' Bid me discourse, I will en- 
chant thine ear,' she instances yet another peculiar 
excellence of Shakespeare's lyrical art, which shows in 
this poem, is redoubled in Lucrece^ and in the Sonnets 
yields the most perfect examples of human speech : 

* Touch but my lips with those fair lips of thine, 
Though mine be not so fair, yet are they red. . . . 
Art thou ashamed to kiss ? Then wink again, 
And I will wink; so shall the day seem night.' 

These are the fair words of her soliciting, and Adonis's 
reply is of the same silvery quality : 

* If love have lent you twenty thousand tongues, 
And every tongue more moving than your own, 
Bewitching like the wanton mermaid's songs, 
Yet from mine ear the tempting tune is blown/ 

And, as he goes on : 

* Lest the deceiving harmony should run 
Into the quiet closure of my breast ; * 

you catch a note prelusive to the pleading altercation 
of the Sonnets, It is the discourse in Venus and Adonis 
and Lucrece which renders them discursive. Indeed 
they are long poems, on whose first reading Poe's 
advice, never to begin at the same place, may wisely 
be followed. You do well, for instance, to begin at 
stanza 136 

[' With this, he breaketh from the sweet embrace 
Of those fair arms which bound him to her breast, 

30 Shakespeare's Poems 

And homeward through the dark laund runs apace, 
Leaves Love upon her hack deeply distressed. 
Look, how a bright star shooteth from the sky, 
So glides he in the night from Venus' eye/] 

in order to enjoy the narrative of Venus's vain pursuit, 
with your senses unwearied by the length and sweet- 
ness of her argument. The passage hence to the end 
is in the true romantic tradition: stanzas 140 and 

['She marking them begins a wailing note 
And sings extemporally a woeful ditty : 
How love makes young men thrall ami old men dote ; 
How love is wise in folly, foolish-witty. 

Her heavy anthem still concludes in woe, 

And still the choir of echoes answer so, 

Her song was tedious and outwore the night, 
For lovers' hours are long, though seeming short; 
If pleased themselves, others, they think, delight 
In such-like circumstance, with sueh-lilu: sport; 
Their copious atones oftentimes begun 
End without audience and are never clone.'] 

are as clearly forerunners of Keats as 144 

[* Venus salutes him with this fair good-morrow: 
" C) thou clear god, and patron of all light, 
From whom each lamp and shining star doth borrow 
The beauteous influence that makes him bright, 
There lives a son that suck'd an earthly mother, 
May lend thee light, as thou dost lend to others." *] 

is the child of Chaucer. The truth of such art con- 
sists in magnifying selected details until their gigantic 

Introduction 31 

shapes, edged with a shadowy iridescence, fill the whole 
field of observation. Certain gestures of the body, 
certain moods of the mind, are made to tell with the 
weight of trifles during awe-stricken pauses of delay.'' 

The three sonnets on the story of Venus and Adonis 
in The Passionate Pilgrim are generally regarded by 
the critics as preliminary studies for the poem ; but it 
is doubtful whether Shakespeare wrote them. If they 
are his it is singular that they were not included in the 
1609 edition of the Sonnets with the two sonnets (153, 
154) on the same subject. Their authenticity may also 
be questioned from the fact that in one of them the 
author ridicules Adonis (" He rose and ran away ah, 
fool too frowarcl ! ") for not yielding to the wiles of 
Venus. In Shakespeare's poem it is to be noted that 
nothing like this occurs. In the line (578), " The poor 
fool prays her that he may depart," the context proves 
that "fool" is used in a sympathetic pitying way; as 
" poor fool " is in at least eight passages in the plays 
so also " good fool " and " pretty fool" The behaviour 
of Adonis is indirectly approved by the poet, while that 
of Venus is, again and again, directly condemned ; as, 
for instance, in lines 555-558 : 

" Her face doth reek and smoke, her blood doth boil, 
And careless lust stirs up a desperate courage ; 
Planting oblivion, beating reason back, 
Forgetting shame's pure blush and honour's wrack. 7 * 

Adonis himself is eloquent in his denunciations of her 
sensuality and her sophistry (787 fol), and Shake- 

32 Shakespeare's Poems 

speare speaks through him as truly as in the 129111 
sonnet : 

" * What have you urged that I cannot reprove ? 
The path is smooth that leadeth on to danger : 
I hate not love, but your device in love, 
That lends embraeernents unto every stranger. 
You do it for increase ; O strange excuse, 
When reason is the bawd tu lust's abuse ! 

'Call it not love, for Love to heaven is lied. 
Since sweating Lust on earth usurpM his name ; 
Under whose simple semblance he hath fed 
Upon fresh beauty, blotting it with blame, 

Which the hot tyrant stains and soon bereaves, 

As caterpillars do the tender leaves. 

* Love comforteth like sunshine after rain, 
But Lust's effect is tempest after sun ; 
Love's gentle spring doth always fresh remain, 
Lust's winter comes ere summer half be done ; 

Love surfeits not, Lust like a glutton dies ; 

Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.' " 

It is significant, moreover, that the goddess is not suc- 
cessful in her lustful wooing, as other authors (except 
Ovid) represent, bringing Adonis back from Hades to 
be with her, 

That the poem was considered somewhat objection- 
able even in Shakespeare's day is evident from certain 
contemporaneous references to it, Halliwell-Phillipps 
quotes A Mad World my Masters^ 1608 : " I have con- 
vay'd away all her wanton pamphlets, as Hero and 
Leander, Venus and Adonis;" and Sir John Davies, 

Introduction 33 

who in his Papers Complaint (found in his Scourge of 
/W/V, 1610) makes kf Paper " admit the superlative ex- 
cellence of Shakespeare's poem, but at the same time 
censure its being" " attired in such bawdy geare." It 
is also stated that " the coyest dames in private read it 
for their closset-games." In The Dumbe Knight, 1608, 
the lawyer's clerk refers to it as " maides philosophic ; " 
and the stanza beginning with line 229 (" ' Fondling, 7 
she saith, 'since I have hemm'd thee here,' " etc.) 
is quoted both in that play and in Heywood's jFayre 
May d of the Exchange, 1607. 

The greater maturity shown in the Lucrece, though 
published only a year after Venus and Adonis , certainly 
tends to support the theory that the latter was largely 
written some years before its publication, though prob- 
ably not completed until 1592. Knight, indeed, goes 
so far as to say : " There is to our mind the difference 
of eight or even ten years in the aspect of these poems 
a difference as manifest as that which exists between 
Lovers Labour 's Lost and Romeo and Juliet" Cole- 
ridge remarks : " The Venus and Adonis did not per- 
haps allow the display of the deeper passions. But the 
story of Lucretia seems to favour, and even demand, 
their intensest workings. And yet we find in Shake- 
speare's management of the tale neither pathos nor any 
other dramatic quality. There is the same minute and 
faithful imagery as in the former poem, in the same 
vivid colours, inspirited by the same impetuous vigour 
of thought, and diverging and contracting with the same 


34 Shakespeare's Poems 

activity of the assimilative and of the modifying facul- 
ties ; and with a yet larger display, a yet wider range 
of knowledge and reflection ; and, lastly, with the same 
perfect dominion, often domination, over the whole 
world of language.'* 

Baynes, in his comments on " the profounder ethical 
and reflective aspects " of the two poems, observes : " It 
may justly be said that if Shakespeare follows Ovid in 
the narrative and descriptive part of his work, in the 
vivid picturing of sensuous passion, he is as decisively 
separated from him in the reflective part, the higher 
purpose and ethical significance of the poems, The 
underlying subject in both is the same, the debasing 
nature and destructive results of the violent sensuous 
impulses, which in antiquity so often usurped the name 
of love, although in truth they have little in common 
with the nobler passion. The influence of fierce inor- 
dinate desire is dealt with by Shakespeare in these 
poems in all its breadth as affecting both sexes, and in 
all its intensity as blasting the most sacred interests 
and relationships of life. In working out the subject, 
Shakespeare shows his thorough knowledge of its se- 
ductive outward charm, of the arts and artifices, the 
persuasions and assaults, the raptures and languors of 
stimulated sensual passion. In this he is quite a match 
for the erotic and elegiac poets of classic times, and 
especially of Roman literature. He is not likely there- 
fore in any way to undervalue the attraction or the 
power of what they celebrate in strains so fervid and 

Introduction 35 

rapturous. But, while contemplating the lower passion 
steadily in all its force and charm, he has at the same 
time the higher vision which enables him to see through 
and beyond it, the reflective insight to measure its 
results, and to estimate with remorseless accuracy its 
true worth. It is in this higher power of reflective in- 
sight, in depth and vigour of thought as well as feeling, 
that Shakespeare's earliest efforts are marked off even 
from the better works of those whom he took, if not as 
his masters, at least as his models and guides. He 
was himself full of rich and vigorous life, deepened 
by sensibilities of the rarest strength and delicacy ; 
and in early youth had realized, in his own experience, 
the impetuous force of passionate impulses. But his 
intellectual power no less than the essential depth and 
purity of his nobler emotional nature would effectually 
prevent his ever becoming ' soft fancy's slave.' 

" In the very earliest poem we have from Shake- 
speare's pen this higher note of the modern world is 
clearly sounded the note that 'Love is Lord of all,' 
and that love is something infinitely higher and more 
divine than the lawless vagrant passion which in pagan 
times passed under that name. To the modern mind, 
while the latter is blind, selfish, and often brutal in pro- 
portion to its strength, the former is full of sympathy 
and self-abnegation, of an almost sacred ardour and 
gentleness, humility and devotion, the very heart and 
crown of life." 

Further on, after quoting the stanzas (787 fol.) given 

36 Shakespeare's Poems 

above, in which Adonis reproaches Venus for her 
sensuality, Baynes remarks: "In this reproof of the 
pagan goddess of love, the higher note of the modern 
world is struck fully and clearly. It is repeated with 
tragic emphasis in the Lumct, deepened in the Sonnets, 
and developed through all the gracious range of higher 
female characters in the dramas. Nowhere indeed is 
the vital difference in the social axes of the ancient and 
modern world more vividly seen, than in the contrast 
between the Lesbias, Delias, and Corinnas of Roman 
poetry, and the Mirandas, Portias, and Imogens of 
Shakespeare's dramas. In the one we have the monot- 
onous ardours and disdains, the gusts and glooms, the 
tricks and artifices belonging to the stunted life of lower 
impulse ; in the other, the fadeless beauty and grace, 
the vivacity and intelligence, the gentleness and truth 
of perfect womanhood/' 

Mr. Verity (" Henry Irving " edition), on the other 
hand, says; " Whereas Lucrecc is intensely didactic, 
Venus and Adonis is no less intensely non-moral not 
immoral, but unmoral. If Lucrece gives us the * criti- 
cism of life ' theory of literature at its keenest, Venus 
and Adonis shows us the ' art for art's sake ' doctrine 
in the furthest possible development of that idea. . , 
It is the purest paganism, a deification of erotic im- 
pulse which Catullus himself could not have surpassed. 
, . . There can be no place for the preacher here ; we 
cannot take very seriously the morality that flows from 
the pretty protesting lips o the blushing boy, , . The 

Introduction 37 

poem is, as far as I can understand it, a study in sensu- 
ous eiTects ; a series of stanzas in which morality and 
the ethical element that we usually look for in litera- 
ture, especially English literature, are wholly absent." 

But why should we not take the morality of Adonis 
as seriously as that of the i29th Sonnet? The tone 
of the stanzas quoted on p. 32 above ie identical with 
that of the Sonnet. If the latter is more intense, it is 
only because it expresses the remorse of one who has 
yielded to the temptations of lust, while Adonis has 
resisted them, though the allurements of the goddess 
are so seductive and so persistent that they " might 
well have warm'd old Saturn." 

"Lucrece," as the critic adds, " is perfectly different. 
Here the poet is at once an artist and a preacher ; his 
achievement, if not his aim, is purely didactic. For no 
more terrible picture was ever drawn of the utter deso- 
lation and ruin wrought by unbridled, unreasoning im- 
pulse. Each phase of the passion is anatomized with 
the pitiless detail of minute realism. Simple enough 
in its beginning, the story works up with a gradual 
crescendo of horror to its tragic climax, and when the 
end comes no one, not the dullest of prosaicists, can 
be blind to the poet's purpose." 

All this is true, but it is also substantially true of the 
other poem except for the lack there of the tragic ele- 
ment. The "minute realism" is the same in both 
though in some details more minute in the earlier poem 
and in both the " didactic " purpose, if we call it so, 

38 Shakespeare's Poems 

is equally clear. Shakespeare is seldom personally a 
" preacher," being generally content (as always in the 
plays) to let his characters speak for him; but Adonis 
preaches no less truly than Lucrece, and with equally 
c < sound doctrine/' though the presentation of it is natu- 
rally and necessarily modified by the situation and cir- 
cumstances. If Venus and Adonis is " the deification of 
erotic impulse," it is in no sense its defence or pallia- 
tion, but, like Lucrece, its absolute and emphatic dam- 

Aside from Venus and Adonis, Lucrecf, and the Son- 
nets (which will be discussed in another volume), the 
only poems ascribed to Shakespeare which are quite 
certainly his are A Lover's Complaint and The /%';//. v 
and the Turtle. 

A Lover's Complaint was first published with the Son- 
nets in 1609. There is no external evidence for deter- 
mining when it was written, but the internal evidence 
of style and treatment indicates that it was later than 
Lucrece, It is in the same seven-lined stanza as that 
poem, and shows a " marked decrease in the use of 
antithesis and verbal paradox, and so far points to a 
refinement in taste ; " but there is nothing in the treat- 
ment of the subject the lament of a girl who has been 
betrayed by a deceitful youth which shows any note- 
worthy advance in other respects. The Spenserian 
flavour of the poem has been often noted by the critics. 
Malone remarks that it reads like a challenge to Spenser 
on his own ground. As Mr, Verity says, " it has much 

Introduction 39 

of Spenser's stately pathos and sense of physical beauty, 
and exquisite verbal melody." It appears to be an early 
exercise in the style of that poet, whose Complaints : 
containing Sundry Small Poems of the Worlds Vanity 
was published in 1591. These opening lines of The 
Ruins of Time in that volume have been compared with 
those of A Lover's Complaint: 

" A woman sitting sorrowfully wailing, 
Rending her yellow locks like wiry gold. 
About her shoulders carelessly down trailing, 
And streams of tears from her fair eyes forth railing j 
In her right hand a broken rod she held, 
Which towards heaven she seemed on high to weld." 

The Ph&nix and the Turtle must have been written 
before 1601, when it was printed with Chester's Love's 
Martyr and ascribed to Shakespeare. 

Malone had no doubt of the genuineness of the poem, 
but a few of the recent critics have been less confident 
of its authorship. Grant White says: "There is no 
other external evidence that these verses are Shake- 
speare's than their appearance with his signature in a 
collection of poems published in London while he was 
living there in the height of his reputation. The style, 
however, is at least a happy imitation of his, especially 
in the bold and original use of epithet.' 7 Dowden, in 
his Primer (1878), says : " That it is his seems in a high 
degree doubtful; " but, some years later, in a letter to 
the present writer, he said that he had no longer any 
doubt that the poem is Shakespeare's. 

40 Shakespeare's Poems 

There is one point in favour of this view which 
apparently has been overlooked by the critics ; namely, 
that Chester's book was not a publisher's piratical 
venture, like The Passionate Pi/grim, but the reputable 
work of a gentleman who would hardly have ventured 
to insult his patron to whom he dedicates it, by palming 
off anonymous verses as the contribution of a well- 
known poet of the time, who was residing in London 
in 1 60 1 when it appeared. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, in the preface to his Par- 
nassus (1875), remarks: "I should like to have the 
Academy of Letters propose a prize for an essay on 
Shakespeare's poem, Let the bird of loudest lay, and the 
Tlirenos with which it closes, the aim of the essay being 
to explain, by a historical research into the poetic myths 
and tendencies of the age in which it was written, the 
frame and allusions of the poem. I have not seen 
Chester's Love's Martyr and ' the Additional Poems ' 
(1601) in which it appeared. Perhaps that book will 
suggest all the explanation this poem requires, To 
unassisted readers, it would appear to be a lament on 
the death of a poet, and of his poetic mistress. But 
the poem is so quaint, and charming in diction, tone, 
and allusions, and in its perfect metre and harmony, 
that I would gladly have the fullest illustration yet 
attainable. I consider this piece a good example of 
the rule that there is a poetry for barcls proper, as well 
as a poetry for the world of readers. This poem, if 
published for the first time, and without a known 

Introduction 41 

author's name, would find no general reception. Only 
the poets would save it." 

Halliwell-Phillipps says : " It was towards the close 
of the present year, 1600, or at some time in the follow- 
ing one, that Shakespeare, for the first and only time, 
came forward in the avowed character of a philosophi- 
cal writer." After giving an account of Chester's book, 
he adds : " The contribution of the great dramatist is 
a remarkable poem in which he makes a notice of the 
obsequies of the phoenix and turtle-dove subservient to 
the delineation of spiritual union. It is generally thought 
that Chester himself intended a personal allegory, but, 
if that be the case, there is nothing to indicate that 
Shakespeare participated in the design, nor even that 
he had endured the punishment of reading Lovers 






I know not how I shall offend in dedicating my unpolished lines 
to your Lordship, nor how the world will censure me for choosing 
so strong a prop to support so weak a burthen ; only if your 1 lonour 
seem but pleased, I account myself highly praised, and vow to take 
advantage of all idle hours till I have honoured you with some graver 
labour. But if the first heir of my invention prove deformed, I shall 
be sorry it had so noble a godfather, and never after ear so barren 
a land, for fear it yield me still so bad a harvest. 1 leave it to your 
honourable survey, and your Honour to your heart's content, which 
I wish may always answer your own wish and the world's hopeful 

Your Honour's in all duty, 


EVEN as the sun with purple-colour'd face 
Had ta'en his last leave of the weeping morn, 
Rose-cheek J d Adonis hied him to the chase ; 
Hunting he lov'd, but love he laugh *d to scorn. 
Sick-thoughted Venus makes amain unto him, 
And like a bold-fac'd suitor gins to woo him. 

< Thrice fairer than myself,' thus she began, 

* The field's chief flower, sweet above compare, 
Stain to all nymphs, more lovely than a man, 
More white and red than doves or roses are, 

Nature that made thee, with herself at strife, 
Saith that the world hath ending with thy life. 

* Vouchsafe, thou wonder, to alight thy steed, 
And rein his proud head to the saddle-bow; 


$6 Shakespeare *s Poems 

If thou wilt deign this favour, for thy meed 
A thousand honey secrets shall thou know. 

Here come and sit, where never serpent hisses, 
And being set I T ll smother thee with kisses, 

' And yet not cloy thy lips with loath 'd satiety, 
But rather famish them amid their plenty, 20 

Making them red and pale with fresh variety, 
Ten kisses short as one, one long as twenty ; 
A summer's day will seem an hour but short, 
Being wasted in such time-beguiling sport.' 

With this she seizeth on his sweating palm, 
The precedent of pith and livelihood, 
And, trembling in her passion, calls it balm, 
Earth's sovereign salve to do a goddess good ; 
Being so enrag'd, desire doth lend her force 
Courageously to pluck him from his horse. 30 

Over one arm the lusty courser's rein, 
Under her other was the tender boy, 
Who blush/d and pouted in a dull disdain, 
With leaden appetite, unapt to toy ; 

She red and hot as coals of glowing fire, 

He red for shame, but frosty in desire. 

The studded bridle on a ragged bough 

Nimbly she fastens O, how quick is love ! * 

The steed is stalled up, and even now 

To tie the rider she begins to prove ; 40 

Venus and Adonis 47 

Backward she pushed him, as she would be thrust, 
And govern 'd him in strength, though not in lust. 

So soon was she along as he was down, 
Each leaning on their elbows and their hips ; 
Now doth she stroke his cheek, now doth he frown, 
And gins to chide, but soon she stops his lips, 
And kissing speaks, with lustful language broken, 
1 If thou wilt chide, thy lips shall never open.' 

He burns with bashful shame, she with her tears 
Doth quench the maiden burning of his cheeks ; 50 
Then with her windy sighs and golden hairs 
To fan and blow them dry again she seeks. 

He saith she is immodest, blames her miss ; 

What follows more she murthers with a kiss. 

Even as an empty eagle, sharp by fast, 
Tires with her beak on feathers, flesh, and bone, 
Shaking her wings, devouring all in haste, 
Till either gorge be stufl'd or prey be gone, 

Even so she kiss'd his brow, his cheek, his chin, 
And where she ends she doth anew begin. 60 

Forc'd to content, but never to obey, 
Panting he lies and breatheth in her face ; 
She feedeth on the steam as on a prey, 
And calls it heavenly moisture, air of grace, 

Wishing her cheeks were gardens full of flowers, 
So they were dew'd with such distilling showers. 

48 Shakespeare's Poems 

Look how a bird lies tangled in a net, 

So fasten'cl in her arms Adonis lies; 

Pure shame and awed resistance made him fret, 

Which bred more beauty in his angry eyes. 70 

Rain added to a river that is rank 
Perforce will force it overilow the bank. 

Still she entreats, and prettily entreats, 

For to a pretty ear she tunes her tale ; 

Still is he sullen, still he lowers and frets, 

'Twixt crimson shame and anger ashy-pale. 

Being red, she loves him best; and being white, 
Her best is better'd with a more delight. 

Look how he can, she cannot choose but love ; 

And by her fair immortal hand she swears So 

From his soft bosom never to remove 

Till he take truce with her contending tears, 

Which long have rain'cl, making her cheeks all wet ; 

And one sweet kiss shall pay this countless debt. 

Upon this promise did he raise his chin, 
Like a divedapper peering through a wave, 
Who, being look'd on, ducks as quickly in ; 
So offers he to give what she did crave, 
But when her lips were ready for his pay, 
He winks and turns his lips another way. 90 

Never did passenger in summer's heat 

More thirst for drink than she for this good turn. 

Venus and Adonis 49 

Her help she sees, but help she cannot get ; 
She bathes in water, yet her lire must burn. 

* O, pity,' gan she cry, f flint-hearted boy ! 

; T is but a kiss I beg ; why art thou coy ? 

1 1 have been woo'd, as I entreat thee now, 
Even by the stern and direful god of war, 
Whose sinewy neck in battle ne'er did bow, 
Who conquers where he comes in every jar ; 100 

Yet hath he been my captive and my slave, 
And begg'd for that which thou unask'd shalt have. 

' Over my altars hath he hung his lance, 
His batter'd shield, his uncontrolled crest, 
And for my sake hath learned to sport and dance, 
To toy, to wanton, dally, smile, and jest, 
Scorning his churlish drum and ensign red, 
Making my arms his field, his tent my bed. 

* Thus he that overrul'd I oversway'd, 

Leading him prisoner in a red-rose chain ; no 

Strong-temper'd steel his stronger strength obey'd, 
Yet was he servile to my coy disdain. 

O, be not proud, nor brag not of thy might, 
For mastering her that foiPd the god of fight I 

* Touch but my lips with those fair lips of thine, 
Though mine be not so fair, yet are they red, 
The kiss shall be thine own as well as mine. 
What seest thou in the ground ? hold up thy head. 


50 Shakespeare's Poems 

Look in mine eye-balls, there thy beauty lies ; 

Then why not lips on lips, since eyes in eyes ? 120 

' Art thou ashatrf d to kiss ? then wink again, 
And I will wink; so shall the clay seem night. 
Love keeps his revels where there are but twain ; 
Be bold to play, our sport is not in sight 
These blue-vein'd violets whereon we lean 
Never can blab, nor know not what we mean. 

{ The tender spring upon thy tempting lip 

Shows thee unripe, yet mayst thou well be tasted. 

Make use of time, let not advantage slip ; 

Beauty within itself should not be wasted. 130 

Fair flowers that are not gather 'cl in their prime 
Rot and consume themselves in little time. 

1 Were I hard-favour'd, foul, or wrinkled-old, 
Ill-nurtur'd, crooked, churlish, harsh in voice, 
O'erworn, despised, rheumatic and cold, 
Thick-sighted, barren, lean and lacking juice, 

Then mightst thou pause, for then I were not for thee ; 

But having no defects, why clost abhor me ? 

( Thou canst not see one wrinkle in my brow ; 

Mine eyes are gray and bright and quick in turning; 

My beauty as the spring doth yearly grow ; 141 

My flesh is soft and plump, my marrow burning ; 
My smooth moist hand, were it with thy hand felt, 
Would in thy palm dissolve, or seem to melt, 

Venus and Adonis 51 

* Bid me discourse, I will enchant thine ear, 
Or, like a fairy, trip upon the green, 
Or, like a nymph, with long dishevell'd hair, 
Dance on the sands, and yet no footing seen ; 

Love is a spirit all compact of fire, 

Not gross to sink, but light, and will aspire. 150 

' Witness this primrose bank whereon I He ; 

These forceless flowers like sturdy trees support me ; 

Two strengthless cloves will draw me through the sky, 

From morn till night, even where I list to sport me. 
Is love so light, sweet boy, and may it be 
That thou shouldst think it heavy unto thee ? 

' Is thine own heart to thine own face affected ? 

Can thy right hand seize love upon thy left ? 

Then woo thyself, be of thyself rejected, 

Steal thine own freedom and complain on theft. 160 
Narcissus so himself himself forsook, 
And died to kiss his shadow in the brook, 

' Torches are made to light, jewels to wear, 
Dainties to taste, fresh beauty for the use, 
Herbs for their smell, and sappy plants to bear ; 
Things growing to themselves are growth's abuse. 

Seeds spring from seeds and beauty breedeth beauty ; 

Thou wast begot, to get it is thy duty. 

Upon the earth's increase why shouldst thou feed 
Unless the earth with thy increase be fed ? 170 

52 Shakespeare's Poems 

By law of nature thou are bound to breed, 
That thine may live when thou thyself art dead 

And so, in spite of death, thou dost survive, 

In that thy likeness still is left alive.' 

By this the love-sick queen began to sweat, 
For where they lay the shadow hacl forsook them, 
And Titan, tired in the mid-day heat, 
With burning eye did hotly overlook them. 

Wishing Adonis had his team to guide, 

So he were like him and by Venus' side. iSo 

And now Adonis, with a la#y spright, 

And with a heavy, dark, disliking eye, 

His lowering brows overwhelming his fair sight, 

Like misty vapours when they blot the sky, 

Souring his cheeks, cries ' Fie, no more of love 1 
The sun doth burn my face ; I must remove.' 

' Ay me,' quoth Venus, ' young and so unkind ? 

What bare excuses mak'st thou to be gone ! 

I '11 sigh celestial breath, whose gentle wind 

Shall cool the heat of this descending sun. 190 

I '11 make a shadow for thee of my hairs ; 

If they burn too, 1 11 quench them with my tears, 

' The sun that shines from heaven shines but warm, 
And, lo, I lie between that sun and thee. 
The heat I have from thence doth little harm, 
Thine eye darts forth the fire that burneth me ; 

Venus and Adonis 53 

And were I not immortal, life were done 
Between this heavenly and earthly sun. 

1 Art thou obdurate, flinty, hard as steel, 
Nay, more than flint, for stone at rain relenteth ? 200 
Art thou a woman's son, and canst not feel 
What ? t is to love ? how want of love tormenteth ? 
O, had thy mother borne so hard a mind, 
She had not brought forth thee, but died unkind 1 

1 What am I, that thou shouldst contemn me this? 

Or what great danger dwells upon my suit ? 

What were thy lips the worse for one poor kiss ? 

Speak, fair ; but speak fair words, or else be mute. 
Give me one kiss, I '11 give it thee again, 
And one for interest, if thou wilt have twain. 210 

' Fie, lifeless picture, cold and senseless stone, 
Well-painted idol, image dull and dead, 
Statue contenting but the eye alone, 
Thing like a man, but of no woman bred ! 

Thou art no man, though of a man's complexion ; 

For men will kiss even by their own direction/ 

This said, impatience chokes her pleading tongue, 

And swelling passion doth provoke a pause ; 

Red cheeks and fiery eyes blaze forth her wrong ; 

Being judge in love, she cannot right her cause ; 220 
And now she weeps, and now she fain would speak, 
And now her sobs do her intendments break. 

54 Shakespeare's Poems 

Sometimes she shakes her head and then his hand, 
Now gazeth she on him, now on the ground ; 
Sometimes her arms infold him like a band ; 
She would, he will not in her arms be bound ; 

And when from thence he struggles to be gone, 

She locks her lily fingers one in one. 

1 Fondling,' she sailh, 'since I have hemm'd thee here 
Within the circuit of this ivory pale, 230 

I '11 be a park, and thou shalt be my deer ; 
Feed where thou wilt, on mountain or in dale. 
Graze on my lips ; and if those hills be dry, 
Stray lower, where the pleasant fountains lie. 

'Within this limit is relief enough, 
Sweet bottom-grass and high delightful plain, 
Round rising hillocks, brakes obscure and rough, 
To shelter thee from tempest and from rain. 

Then be my deer, since I am such a park ; 

No dog shall rouse thee, though a thousand bark.* 

At this Adonis smiles as in disdain, 241 

That in each cheek appears a pretty dimple. 

Love made those hollows, if himself were slain, 

He might be buried in a tomb so simple ; 
Foreknowing well, if there he came to lie, 
Why, there Love liv'd and there he could not die. 

These lovely caves, these round enchanting pits, 
Open'd their mouths to swallow Venus' liking. 

Venus and Adonis 55 

Being mad before, how doth she now for wits ? 

Struck dead at first, what needs a second striking ? 250 
Poor queen of love, in thine own law forlorn, 
To love a cheek that smiles at thee in scorn ! 

Now which way shall she turn ? what shall she say ? 

Her words are done, her woes the more increasing ; . 

The time is spent, her object will away, 

And from her twining arms doth urge releasing. 
' Pity/ she cries, i some favour, some remorse 1 ' 
Away he springs and hasteth to his horse. 

But, lo, from forth a copse that neighbours by, 
A breeding jennet, lusty, young, and proud, 260 

Adonis' trampling courser doth espy, 
And forth she rushes, snorts, and neighs aloud ; 
The strong-neck'd steed, being tied unto a tree, 
Breaketh his rein, and to her straight goes he. 

Imperiously he leaps, he neighs, he bounds, 
And now his woven girths he breaks asunder ; 
The bearing earth with his hard hoof he wounds, 
Whose hollow womb resounds like heaven's thunder ; 
The iron bit he crushes 'tween his teeth, 
Controlling what he was controlled with. 270 

His ears up-prick'd ; his braided hanging mane 
Upon his com pass 'd crest now stand on end ; 
His nostrils drink the air, and forth again, 
As from a furnace, vapours doth he send j 

56 Shakespeare's Poems 

His eye, which scornfully glisters like fire, 
Shows his hot courage and his high desire. 

Sometime he trots, as if he told the steps, 

With gentle majesty and modest pride ; 

Anon he rears upright, curvets, and leaps, 

As who should say l Lo, thus my strength is tried, ago 
And this I do to captivate the eye 
Of the fair breeder that is standing by 1 ' 

What recketh he his rider's angry stir, 
His flattering < Holla,' or his ' Stand, I say ? ' 
What cares he now for curb or pricking spur ? 
For rich caparisons or trapping gay ? 

He sees his love, and nothing else he sees, 
For nothing else with his proud sight agrees, 

Look, when a painter would surpass the life, 
In limning out a well-proportion 'd steed, 290 

His art with nature's workmanship at strife, 
As if the dead the living should exceed, 
So did this horse excel a common one 
In shape, in courage, colour, pace, and bone. 

Round-hoof'd, short-jointed, fetlocks shag and long, 
Broad breast, full eye, small head, and nostril wide, 
High crest, short ears, straight legs and passing strong, 
Thin mane, thick tail, broad buttock, tender hide, 
Look, what a horse should have he did not lack, 
Save a proud rider on so proud a back, 300 

Venus and Adonis 57 

Sometime he scuds far off, and there he stares ; 

Anon he starts at stirring of a feather ; 

To bid the wind a base he now prepares, 

And whether he run or fly they know not whether ; 

For through his mane and tail the high wind sings, 
' Fanning the hairs, who wave like feather 'd wings. 

He looks upon his love and neighs unto her, 
She answers him as if she knew his mind ; 
Being proud, as females are, to see him woo her, 
She puts on outward strangeness, seems unkind, 310 
Spurns at his love and scorns the heat he feels, 
Beating his kind embracements with her heels. 

Then, like a melancholy malcontent, 

He vails his tail that, like a falling plume, 

Cool shadow to his melting buttock lent ; 

He stamps and bites the poor flies in his fume. 
His love, perceiving how he is enrag'd, 
Grew kinder, and his fury was assuag'd. 

His testy master goeth about to take him, 

When, lo, the unback'd breeder, full of fear, 320 

Jealous of catching, swiftly doth forsake him, 

With her the horse, and left Adonis there ; 

As they were mad, unto the wood they hie them, 
Out-stripping crows that strive to over-fly them. 

All swoln with chafing, down Adonis sits, 
Banning his boisterous and unruly beast ; 

58 Shakespeare's Poems 

And now the happy season once more fits 
That love-sick Love by pleading may be blest, 
For lovers say the heart hath treble wrong 
When it is barr'd the aidance of the tongue. 330 

An oven that is stopp'd, or river stay'd, 

Burneth more hotly, swelleth with more rage. 

vSo of concealed sorrow may be said ; 

Free vent of words love's lire doth assuage, 
But when the heart's attorney once is mute 
The client breaks, as desperate in his suit. 

He sees her coming, and begins to glow, 
Even as a dying coal revives with wind, 
And with his bonnet hides his angry brow, 
Looks on the dull earth with disturbed mind, 340 

Taking no notice that she is so nigh, 
For all askance he holds her in his eye, 

O, what a sight it was, wistly to view 
How she came stealing to the wayward boy ! 
To note the fighting conflict of her hue, 
How white and red each other did destroy 1 
But now her cheek was pale, and by and by 
It flash'd forth fire, as lightning from the sky. 

Now was she just before him as he sat, 

And like a lowly lover clown she kneels ; 350 

With one fair hand she hcaveth up his hat, 

Her other tender hand his fair cheek feels ; 

Venus and Adonis 59 

His tenderer cheek receives her soft hand's print, 
As apt as new-fallen snow takes any dint. 

O, what a war of looks was then between them ! 

Her eyes petitioners to his eyes suing ; 

His eyes saw her eyes as they had not seen them ; 

Her eyes woo'd still, his eyes disdain'd the wooing ; 
And all this dumb play had his acts made plain 
With tears, which, chorus-like, her eyes did rain. 360 

Full gently noxv she takes him by the hand, 

A lily prison'd in a gaol of snow, 

Or ivory in an alabaster band ; 

So white a friend engirts so white a foe. 

This beauteous combat, wilful and unwilling, 
Show'd like two silver doves that sit a-billing. 

Once more the engine of her thoughts began : 

' O fairest mover on this mortal round, 

Would thou wert as I am, and I a man, 

My heart all whole as thine, thy heart my wound ; 370 
For one sweet look thy help I would assure thee, 
Though nothing but my body's bane would cure 

f Give me my hand,' saith he, * why dost thou feel it ? ' 
< Give me my heart,' saith she, ' and thou shalt have it ; 
O, give it me, lest thy hard heart do steel it, 
And being steel 'd, soft sighs can never grave it. 
Then love's deep groans I never shall regard, 
Because Adonis' heart hath made mine hard.' 

60 Shakespeare's Poems 

* For shame,' he cries, * let go, and let me go ; 

My day's delight is past, my horse is gone, 380 

And 't is your fault I am bereft him so. 

I pray you hence, and leave me here alone ; 
For all my mind, my thought, my busy care, 
Is how to get my palfrey from the mare.' 

Thus she replies : * Thy palfrey, as he should. 

Welcomes the warm approach of sweet desire. 

Affection is a coal that must be cool'd ; 

Else, suffer'd, it will set the heart on fire. 

The sea hath bounds, but deep desire hath none ; * 
Therefore no marvel though thy horse be gone. 390 

4 How like a jade he stood, tied to the tree, 

Servilely mastered with a leathern rein 1 

But when he saw his love, his youth's fair fee, 

He held such petty bondage in disdain ; 

Throwing the base thong from his bending crest, 
Enfranchising his mouth, his back, his breast. 

* Who sees his true-love in her naked bed, 
Teaching the sheets a whiter hue than white, 
But, when his glutton eye so full hath fed, 

His other agents aim at like delight ? 400 

Who is so faint that dares not be so bold 
To touch the fire, the weather being cold ? 

* Let me excuse thy courser, gentle boy ; 
And learn of him, I heartily beseech thee, 

Venus and Adonis 61 

To take advantage on presented joy ; 

Though I were dumb, yet his proceedings teach thee. 
O, learn to love 1 the lesson is but plain, 
And once made perfect, never lost again.' 

; I know not love/ quoth he, ' nor will not know it, 
Unless it be a boar, and then I chase it ; 410 

'T is much to borrow, and I will not owe it ; 
My love to love is love but to disgrace it ; 
For I have heard it is a life in death, 
That laughs and weeps, and all but with a breath. 

< Who wears a garment shapeless and unfinished ? 

Who plucks the bud before one leaf put forth ? 

If springing things be any jot diminish 'd, 

They wither in their prime, prove nothing worth ; 
The colt that 's back'd and burden'd being young 
Loseth his pride and never waxeth strong. 420 

* You hurt my hand with wringing ; let us part, 
And leave this idle theme, this bootless chat. 
Remove your siege from my unyielding heart ; 
To love's alarms it will not 6pe the gate. 

Dismiss your vows, your feigned tears, your flattery ; 

For where a heart is hard they make no battery.' 

' What ! canst thou talk ? ' quoth she, ' hast thou a 

tongue ? 

O, would thou hadst not, or I had no hearing ! 
Thy mermaid's voice hath done me double wrong ; 
1 had my load before, now press 'd with bearing; 430 

62 Shakespeare's Poems 

Melodious discord, heavenly tune harsh-sounding, 
Ear's deep-sweet music, and heart's deep-sore 

c Had I no eyes but ears, my cars would love 

That inward beauty and invisible ; 

Or were I deaf, thy outward parts would move 

Each part in me that were but sensible ; 

Though neither eyes nor ears, to hear nor see, 
Yet should I be in love by touching thee. 

' Say, that the sense of feeling were bereft me, 
And that I could not see, nor hear, nor touch, 440 

And nothing but the very smell were left me, 
Yet would my love to thee be still as much ; 
For from the stillitory of thy face excelling 
Comes breath perfum'd that breedeth love by 

' But, 0, what banquet wert them to the taste, 

Being nurse and feeder of the other four ! 

Would they not wish the feast might ever last, 

And bid Suspicion double-lock the door, 
Lest Jealousy, that sour unwelcome guest, 
Should, by his stealing in, disturb the feast? ' 450 

Once more the ruby-colotir'd portal open'd, 
Which to his speech did honey passage yield ; 
Like a red morn, that ever yet betoken'd 
Wrack to the seaman, tempest to the field, 

Venus and Adonis 63 

Sorrow to shepherds, woe unto the birds, 
Gusts and foul flaws to herdmen and to herds. 

This ill presage advisedly she marketh ; 
Even as the wind is hush'd before it raineth, 
Or as the wolf cloth grin before he barketh, 
Or as the berry breaks before it staineth, 460 

Or like the deadly bullet of a gun, 
His meaning struck her ere his words begun. 

And at his look she flatly falleth down, 
For looks kill love and love by looks reviveth ; 
A smile recures the wounding of a frown, 
But blessed bankrupt, that by love so thriveth ! 
The silly boy, believing she is dead, 
Claps her pale cheek, till clapping makes it red ; 

And all amaz'd brake off his late intent, 
For sharply he did think to reprehend her, 470 

Which cunning love did wittingly prevent 
Fair fall the wit that can so well defend her 1 
For on the grass she lies as she were slain, 
Till his breath breatheth life in her again. 

He wrings her nose, he strikes her on the cheeks, 
He bends her fingers, holds her pulses hard, 
He chafes her lips ; a thousand ways he seeks 
To mend the hurt that his unkindness marr'd. 
He kisses her ; and she, by her good will, 
Will never rise, so he will kiss her still. 480 

64 Shakespeare's Poems 

The night of sorrow now is turn VI to day ; 
Her two blue windows faintly she upheavcth, 
Like the fair sun, when in his fresh array 
He cheers the morn and all the earth relieveth; 

And as the bright sun glorifies the sky, 

So is her face illumined with her eye, 

Whose beams upon his hairless face are fix'd, 
As if from thence they borrow'd all their shine. 
Were never four such lamps together mix'd, 
Had not his clouded with his brow's repine ; 490 

But hers, which through the crystal tears gave light, 
Shone like the moon in water seen by night. 

O, where am I ? ' quoth she, ( in earth or heaven, 
Or in the ocean drench 'd, or in the lire ? 
What hour is this ? or morn or weary even ? 
Do I delight to die, or life desire ? 

But now I liv'd, and life was death's annoy ; 

But now I died, and death was lively joy. 

' O, thou didst kill me ; kill me once again ! 
Thy eyes' shrewd tutor, that hard heart of thine, 500 
Hath taught them scornful tricks and such disdain 
That they have murther'd this poor heart of mine ; 
And these mine eyes, true leaders to their queen, 
But for thy piteous lips no more had seen. 

' Long may they kiss each other for this cure 1 
O, never let their crimson liveries wear 1 

Venus and Adonis 65 

And as they last, their verdure still endure, 
To drive infection from the dangerous year ! 
That the star-gazers, having writ on death, 
May say the plague is banish 'd by thy breath. 510 

* Pure lips, sweet seals in my soft lips imprinted, 
What bargains may I make, still to be sealing ? 
To sell myself I can be well contented, 

So thou wilt buy and pay and use good dealing ; 
Which purchase if thou make, for fear of slips 
Set thy seal-manual on my wax-red lips. 

* A thousand kisses buys my heart from me ; 
And pay them at thy leisure, one by one. 
What is ten hundred touches unto thee ? 

Are they not quickly told and quickly gone ? 520 

Say, for non-payment that the debt should double, 
Is twenty hundred kisses such a trouble ? ' 

* Fair queen,' quoth he, ' if any love you owe me, 
Measure my strangeness with my unripe years. 
Before I know myself, seek not to know me ; 

No fisher but the ungrown fry forbears. 

The mellow plum doth fall, the green sticks fast, 
Or being early pluck'd is sour to taste. 

* Look, the world's comforter, with weary gait, 

His day's hot task hath ended in the west ; 530 

The owl, night's herald, shrieks, " 'T is very late ; " 
The sheep are gone to fold, birds to their nest, 

66 Shakespeare's Poems 

And coal-black clouds that shadow heaven's light 
Do summon us to part and bid good night. 

' Now let me say " Good night," and so say you ; 
If you will say so, you shall have a kiss.' 
' Good night,' quoth she, and, ere he says ' Adieu,' 
The honey fee of parting tender 'd is. 

Her arms do lend his neck a sweet embrace ; 

Incorporate then they seem, face grows to face : 540 

Till, breathless, he disjoined, and backward drew 
The heavenly moisture, that sweet coral mouth, 
Whose precious taste her thirsty lips well knew, 
Whereon they surfeit, yet complain on drouth. 
He with her plenty press 'd, she faint with dearth, 
Their lips together glued, fall to the earth. 

Now quick desire hath caught the yielding prey, 

And glutton-like she feeds, yet never filleth ; 

Her lips are conquerors, his lips obey, 

Paying what ransom the insulter willeth, 550 

Whose vulture thought doth pitch the price so high 
That she will draw his lips' rich treasure dry ; 

And having felt the sweetness of the spoil, 

With blindfold fury she begins to forage ; 

Her face doth reek and smoke, her blood doth boil, 

And careless lust stirs up a desperate courage ; 
Planting oblivion, beating reason back, 
Forgetting shame's pure blush and honour's wrack. 

Venus and Adonis 67 

Hot, faint, and weary, with her hard embracing, 
Like a wild bird being tam'd with too much handling, 
Or as the fleet-foot roe that 's tir'd with chasing, 561 
Or like the froward infant still'd with dandling, 
He now obeys, and now no more resisteth, 
While she takes all she can, not all she listeth. 

What wax so frozen but dissolves with tempering, 
And yields at last to every light impression ? 
Things out of hope are com pass 'd oft with venturing, 
Chiefly in love, whose leave exceeds commission ; 
Affection faints not like a pale-fac'd coward, 
But then wooes best when most his choice is froward. 

When he did frown, O, had she then gave over, 571 

Such nectar from his lips she had not suck'd. 

Foul words and frowns must not repel a lover ; 

What though the rose have prickles, yet J t is pluck'd. 
Were beauty under twenty locks kept fast, 
Yet love breaks through and picks them all at last. 

For pity now she can no more detain him ; 

The poor fool prays her that he may depart. 

She is resolv'd no longer to restrain him ; 

Bids him farewell, and look well to her heart, 580 

The which, by Cupid's bow she doth protest, 
He carries thence incaged in his breast. 

* Sweet boy,' she says, c this night I '11 waste in sorrow, 
For my sick heart commands mine eyes to watch. 

68 Shakespeare's Poems 

Tell me, Love's master, shall we meet to-morrow ? 

Say, shall we ? shall we ? wilt thou make the match ? ' 
He tells her, no ; to-morrow he intends 
To hunt the boar with certain of his friends. 

' The boar ! ' quoth she ; whereat a sudden pale/ 
Like lawn being spread upon the blushing rose, 590 
Usurps her cheek ; she trembles at his tale, 
And on his neck her yoking arms she throws. 

She sinketh down, still hanging by his neck, 

He on her belly falls, she on her back. 

Now is she in the very lists of love, 

Her champion mounted for the hot encounter. 

All is imaginary she doth prove, 

He will not manage her, although he mount her ; 
That worse than Tantalus' is her annoy, 
To clip Elysium and to lack her joy. 600 

Even so poor birds, deceiv'd with painted grapes, 

Do surfeit by the eye and pine the maw ; 

Even so she languished! in her mishaps 

As those poor birds that helpless berries saw. 

The warm effects which she in him finds missing 
She seeks to kindle with continual kissing, 

But all in vain ; good queen, it will not be. 

She hath assay 'cl as much as may be prov'cl ; 

Her pleading hath deserv'd a greater fee ; 

She 's Love, she loves, and yet she is not lov'cL 610 

Venus and Adonis 69 

* Fie, fie,' he says, c you crush me, let me go ; 
You have no reason to withhold me so/ 

' Thou hadst been gone,' quoth she, c sweet boy, ere this, 
But that thou told'st me thou wouldst hunt the boar. 
O 7 be advis'd ! thou know'st not what it is 
With javelin's point a churlish swine to gore, 

Whose tushes never sheath 'd he whetteth still, 

Like to a mortal butcher bent to kill. 

' On his bow-back he hath a battle set 

Of 'bristly pikes, that ever threat his foes ; 620 

His eyes, like glow-worms, shine when he doth fret ; 

His snout digs sepulchres where'er he goes ; 
Being mov'd, he strikes whate'er is in 'his way, 
And whom he strikes his crooked tushes slay. 

* His brawny sides, with hairy bristles arm'd, 
Are better proof than thy spear's point can enter ; 
His short thick neck cannot be easily harm'd ; 
Being ireful, on the lion he will venture ; 

The thorny brambles and embracing bushes, 

As fearful of him, part, through whom he rushes. 630 

* Alas, he nought esteems that face of thine, 
To which Love's eyes pay tributary gazes, 

Nor thy soft hands, sweet lips, and crystal eyne, 
Whose full perfection all the world amazes, 
But having thee at vantage, wondrous dread 1 
Would root these beauties as he roots the mead. 

yo Shakespeare's Poems 

: 0, let him "keep his loathsome cabin still ; 

Beauty hath nought to do with such foul fiends. 

Come not within his danger by thy will ; 

They that thrive well take counsel of their friends. 640 
When thou didst name the boar, not to dissemble, 
I fear'd thy fortune, and my joints did tremble. 

{ Didst thou not mark my face ? was it not white ? 

Saw'st thou not signs of fear lurk in mine eye ? 

Grew I not faint ? and fell I not downright ? 

Within my bosom, whereon thou dost lie, 

My boding heart pants, beats, and takes no rest, 
But, like an earthquake, shakes thee on my breast. 

' For where Love reigns, disturbing Jealousy 

Doth call himself Affection's sentinel, 650 

Gives false alarms, suggesteth mutiny, 

And in a peaceful hour doth cry " Kill, kill 1 " 

Distempering gentle Love in his desire, 

As air and water do abate the fire. 

' This sour informer, this bate-breeding spy, 

This canker that eats up Love's tender spring, 

This carry-tale, dissenlious Jealousy, 

That sometime true news, sometime false doth bring, 
Knocks at my heart and whispers in mine ear 
That if I love thee, I thy death should fear ; 660 

1 And more than so, presenteth to mine eye 
The picture of an angry-chafing boar, 

Venus and Adonis 71 

Under whose sharp fangs on his back doth lie 
An image like thyself, all stain J d with gore, 

Whose blood upon the fresh flowers being shed 
Doth make them droop with grief and hang the head. 

' What should I do, seeing thee so indeed, 

That tremble at the imagination ? 

The thought of it doth make my faint heart bleed, 

And fear doth teach it divination ; 670 

I prophesy thy death, my living sorrow, 
If thou encounter with the boar to-morrow. 

i But if thou needs wilt hunt, be rul'd by me ; 

Uncouple at the timorous flying hare, 

Or at the fox, which lives by subtlety, 

Or at the roe, which no encounter dare. 

Pursue these fearful creatures o'er the downs, 

And on thy well-breath'd horse keep with thy hounds. 

* And when thou hast on foot the purblind hare, 
Mark the poor wretch, to overshoot his troubles 680 
How he outruns the wind, and with what care 
He cranks and crosses with a thousand doubles ; 

The many musits through the which he goes 

Are like a labyrinth to amaze his foes. 

' Sometime he runs among a flock of sheep, 
To make the cunning hounds mistake their smell, 
And sometime where earth-delving conies keep, 
To stop the loud pursuers in their yell, , 

72 Shakespeare's Poems 

And sometime sorteth with a herd of deer ; 

Danger devise th shifts, wit waits on fear ; 690 

' For there his smell with others being mingled, 
The hot scent-snuffing hounds are driven to doubt, 
Ceasing their clamorous cry till they have singled 
With much ado the cold fault cleanly out. 

Then do they spend their mouths ; Echo replies, 

As if another chase were in the skies. 

1 By this, poor Wat, far off upon a hill, 

Stands on his hinder legs with listening ear, 

To hearken if his foes pursue him still ; 

Anon their loud alarums he doth hear, 700 

And now his grief may be compared well 
To one sore sick that hears the passing-bell. 

< Then shalt thou see the dew-bedabbled wretch 
Turn and return, indenting with the way; 
Each envious brier his weary legs doth scratch, 
Each shadow makes him stop, each murmur stay ; 

For misery is trodden on by many, 

And being low never reliev'd by any. 

4 Lie quietly, and hear a little more ; 

Nay, do not struggle, for thou shalt not rise. 710 

To make thee hate the hunting of the boar, 

Unlike myself thou hear'st me moralize, 

Applying this to that, and so to so ; 

For love car; comment upon every woe. 

Venus and Adonis 73 

* Where did I leave ? 7 * No matter where,' quoth he, 

' Leave me and then the story aptly ends ; 

The night is spent.' ' Why, what of that? ' quoth she. 

' I am,' quoth he, ' expected of my friends ; 
And now 't is dark, a,nd going I shall fall.' 
( In night,' quoth she, ' desire sees best of all. 720 

' But if thou fall, O, then imagine this, 

The earth, in love with thee, thy footing trips, 

And all is but to rob thee of a kiss. 

Rich preys make true men thieves ; so do thy lips 
Make modest Dian cloudy and forlorn, 
Lest she should steal a kiss and die forsworn. 

' Now of this dark night I perceive the reason : 
Cynthia for shame obscures her silver shine, 
Till forging Nature be condemn 'd of treason, 
For stealing moulds from heaven that were divine, 730 
Wherein she fram'd thee in high heaven's despite, 
To shame the sun by day and her by night. 

And therefore hath she brib'd the Destinies 
To cross the curious workmanship of nature, 
To mingle beauty with infirmities, 
And pure perfection with impure defeature, 

Making it subject to the tyranny 

Of mad mischances and much misery ; 

' As burning fevers, agues pale and faint, 
Life-poisoning pestilence and frenzies wood, 740 

74 Shakespeare's Poems 

The marrow-eating sickness, whose attaint 

Disorder breeds by heating of the blood. 

Surfeits, imposthumes, grief, and damn'd despair, 
Swear Nature's death for framing thee so fair. 

' And not the least of all these maladies 
But in one minute's fight brings beauty under ; 
Both favour, savour, hue, and qualities, 
Whereat the impartial gazer late did wonder, 
Are on the sudden wasted, thaw'd, and done, 
As mountain snow melts with the mid-day sun. 750 

' Therefore, despite of fruitless chastity, 

Love-lacking vestals and self -loving nuns, 

That on the earth would breed a scarcity 

And barren dearth of daughters and of sons, 
Be prodigal ; the lamp that burns by night 
Dries up his oil to lend the world his light. 

' What is thy body but a swallowing grave, 

Seeming to bury that posterity 

Which by the rights of time thou needs must have, 

If thou destroy them not in dark obscurity ? 760 

If so, the world will hold thee in disdain, 

Sith in thy pride so fair a hope is slain. 

1 So in thyself thyself art made away ; 

A mischief worse than civil home-bred strife, 

Or theirs whose desperate hands themselves do slay, 

Or butcher-sire that reaves his son of life. 

Venus and Adonis 75 

Foul-cankering rust the hidden treasure frets, 
But gold that 's put to use more gold begets/ 

( Nay, then,' quoth Adon, 'you will fall again 
Into your idle over-handled theme. 770 

The kiss I gave you is bestow'd in vain, 
And all in vain you strive against the stream ; 
For, by this black-fac'd night, desire's foul nurse, 
Your treatise makes me like you worse and worse. 

* If love have lent you twenty thousand tongues, 
And every tongue more moving than your own, 
Bewitching like the wanton mermaid's songs, 
Yet from mine ear the tempting tune is blown ; 

For know, my heart stands armed in mine ear, 

And will not let a false sound enter there, 780 

< Lest the deceiving harmony should run 

Into the quiet closure of my breast ; 

And then my little heart were quite undone, 

In his bedchamber to be barr'd of rest. 
No, lady, no ; my heart longs not to groan, 
But soundly sleeps while now it sleeps alone. 

* What have you urg'd that I cannot reprove ? 
The path is smooth that leadeth on to danger. 
I hate not love, but your device in love, 

That lends embracements unto every stranger. 790 

You do it for increase ; O strange excuse, 
When reason is the bawd to lust's abuse ! 

7 6 Shakespeare's Poems 

* Call it not love, for Love to heaven is fled, 
Since sweating Lust on earth usurp VI his name, 
Under whose simple semblance he hath fed 
Upon fresh beauty, blotting it with blame, 

Which the hot tyrant stains and soon bereaves, 

As caterpillars do the tender leaves. 

4 Love comforteth like sunshine after rain, 
But Lust's effect is tempest after sun ; 800 

Love's gentle spring doth always fresh remain, 
Lust's winter comes ere summer half be done ; 

Love surfeits not, Lust like a glutton dies ; 

Love is all trutji, Lust full of forged lies. 

1 More I could tell, but more I dare not say ; 

The text is old, the orator too green. 

Therefore, in sadness, now I will away. 

My face is full of shame, my heart of teen ; 
Mine ears, that to your wanton talk attended, 
Do burn themselves for having so offended.' 810 

With this, he breaketh from the sweet embrace 
Of those fair arms which bound him to her breast, 
And homeward through the dark laund runs apace, 
Leaves Love upon her back deeply distress'd. 
Look, how a bright star shooteth from the sky, 
So glides he in the night from Venus' eye, 

Which after him she darts, as one on shore 
Gazing upon a late-embarked friend 

Venus and Adonis 77 

Till the wild waves will have him seen no more, 
Whose ridges with the meeting clouds contend ; 820 
So did the merciless and pitchy night 
Fold in the object that did feed her sight. 

Whereat amaz'd, as one that unaware 
Hath dropp'd a precious jewel in the flood, 
Or 'stonish'd as night- wanderers often are, 
Their light blown out in some mistrustful wood, 
Even so confounded in the dark she lay, 
Having lost the fair discovery of her way. 

And now she beats her heart, whereat it groans, 

That all the neighbour caves, as seeming troubled, 830 

Make verbal repetition of her moans. 

Passion on passion deeply is redoubled ; 

1 Ay me ! ' she cries, and twenty times ' Woe, woe 1 ' 
And twenty echoes twenty times cry so. 

She marking them begins a wailing note 

And sings extemporally a woeful ditty : 

How love makes young men thrall and old men dote ; 

How love is wise in folly, foolish-witty. 
Her heavy anthem still concludes in woe, 
And still the choir of echoes answer so- 840 

Her song was tedious and outwore the night, 
For lovers 7 hours are long, though seeming short ; 
If pleas'd themselves, others, they think, delight 
In such-like circumstance, with such-like sport ; 

78 Shakespeare's Poems 

Their copious stories oftentimes begun 
End without audience and are never done. 

For who hath she to spend the night withal 
But idle sounds resembling parasites, 
Like shrill-tongu'd tapsters answering every call, 
Soothing the humour of fantastic wits ? 850 

She says < T is so ; ' they answer all ' 'T is so/ 
And would say after her, if she said ' No,' 

Lo, here the gentle lark, weary of rest, 
From his moist cabinet mounts up on high, 
And wakes the morning, from whose silver breast 
The sun ariseth in his majesty, 
Who doth the world so gloriously behold 
That cedar-tops and hills seem burnish 'd gold. 

Venus salutes him with this fair good-morrow : 
' O thou clear god, and patron of all light, 860 

From whom each lamp and shining star doth borrow 
The beauteous influence that makes him bright, 
There lives a son that suck'd an earthly mother 
May lend thee light, as thou dost lend to other. 7 

This said, she hasteth to a myrtle grove, 
Musing the morning is so much o'erworn, 
And yet she hears no tidings of her love. 
She hearkens for his hounds and for his horn ; 

Anon she hears them chant it lustily, 

And all in haste she coasteth to the cry. 870 

Venus and Adonis 79 

And as she runs, the bushes in the way 
Some catch her by the neck, some kiss her face, 
Some twine about her thigh to make her stay ; 
She wildly breaketh from their strict embrace, 
Like a milch doe, whose swelling dugs do ache, 
Hasting to feed her fawn hid in some brake. 

By this, she hears the hounds are at a bay, 
Whereat she starts, like one that spies an adder 
Wreath'd up in fatal folds just in his way, 879 

The fear whereof doth make him shake and shudder; 
Even so the timorous yelping of the hounds 
Appals her senses and her spirit confounds. 

For now she knows it is no gentle chase, 

But the blunt boar, rough bear, or lion proud, 

Because the cry retnaineth in one place, 

Where fearfully the dogs exclaim aloud ; 
Finding their enemy to be so curst, 
They all strain courtesy who shall cope him first 

This dismal cry rings sadly in her ear, 
Through which it enters to surprise her heart, 890 

Who, overcome by doubt and bloodless fear, 
With cold-pale weakness numbs each feeling part ; 
Like soldiers, when their captain once doth yield, 
They basely fly and dare not stay the field. 

Thus stands she in a trembling ecstasy, 
Till, cheering up her senses all dismay'd, 

8o Shakespeare's Poems 

She tells them 't is a causeless fantasy 

And childish error, that they are afraid, 

Bids them leave quaking, bids them fear no more ; 
And with that word she spied the hunted boar, 900 

Whose frothy mouth, bepainted all with red, 
Like milk and blood being mingled both together, 
A second fear through all her sinews spread, 
Which madly hurries her she knows not whither. 
This way she runs, and now she will no further, 
But back retires to rate the boar for murther. 

A thousand spleens bear her a thousand ways ; 

She treads the path that she untreads again ; 

Her more than haste is mated with delays, 

Like the proceedings of a drunken brain, 910 

Full of respects, yet nought at all respecting, 
In hand with all things, nought at all effecting. 

Here kennelPd in a brake she finds a hound, 

And asks the weary caitiff for his master, 

And there another licking of his wound, 

'Gainst venom'd sores the only sovereign plaster ; 
And here she meets another sadly scowling, 
To whom she speaks, and he replies with howling. 

When he hath ceas'd his ill-resounding noise, 
Another flap-mouth J d mourner, black and grim, 920 
Against the welkin volleys out his voice j 
Another and another answer him, 

Venus and Adonis 81 

Clapping their proud tails to the ground below, 
Shaking their scratch'd ears, bleeding as they go. 

Look, how the world's poor people are amaz'd 

At apparitions, signs, and prodigies, 

Whereon with fearful eyes they long have gaz'd, 

Infusing them with dreadful prophecies ; 

So she at these sad signs draws up her breath, 
And, sighing it again, exclaims on Death. 930 

4 Hard-favour 'd tyrant, ugly, meagre, lean, 

Hateful divorce of love,' thus chides she Death, 

' Grim-grinning ghost, earth's worm, what dost thou 

To stifle beauty and to steal his breath 

Who, when he liv'd, his breath and beauty set 

Gloss on the rose, smell to the violet ? 

' If he be dead, O no, it cannot be, 

Seeing his beauty, thou shouldst strike at it ! 

O yes, it may 1 thou hast no eyes to see, 

But hatefully at random dost thou hit. 940 

Thy mark is feeble age, but thy false dart 
Mistakes that aim and cleaves an infant's heart. 

' Hadst thou but bid beware, then he had spoke, 

And, hearing him, thy power had lost his power. 

The Destinies will curse thee for this stroke ; 

They bid thee crop a weed, thou pluck'st a flower. 
Love's golden arrow at him should have fled, 
And not Death's ebon dart to strike him dead. 

82 Shakespeare's Poems 

' Dost thou drink tears, that thou provok'st such weeping? 

What may a heavy groan advantage thee ? 950 

Why hast thou cast into eternal sleeping 

Those eyes that taught all other eyes to see ? 
Now Nature cares not for thy mortal vigour, 
Since her best work is ruin'd with thy rigour.' 

Here overcome, as one full of despair, 
She vail'd her eyelids, who, like sluices, stopt 
The crystal tide that from her two cheeks fair 
In the sweet channel of her bosom dropt ; 

But through the flood-gates breaks the silver rain, 
And with his strong course opens them again. 960 

O, how her eyes and tears did lend and borrow 1 
Her eyes seen in the tears, tears in her eye ; 
Both crystals, where they view'd each other's sorrow, 
Sorrow that friendly sighs sought still to dry ; 
But like a stormy day, now wind, now rain, 
Sighs dry her cheeks, tears make them wet again. 

Variable passions throng her constant woe, 

As striving who should best become her grief; 

All entertain'd, each passion labours so 

That every present sorrow seemeth chief, 970 

But none is best ; then join they all together, 
Like many clouds consulting for foul weather. 

By this, far off she hears some huntsman hollo ; 
A nurse's song ne'er pleas'd her babe so well. 

Venus and Adonis 83 

The dire imagination she did follow 
This sound of hope doth labour to expel, 

For now reviving joy bids her rejoice, 

And flatters her it is Adonis' voice. 

Whereat her tears began to turn their tide, 
Being prison'd in her eye like pearls in glass ; 980 

Yet sometimes falls an orient drop beside, 
Which her cheek melts, as scorning it should pass 
To wash the foul face of the sluttish ground, 
Who is but drunken when she seemeth drown'd. 

hard-believing love, how strange it seems 
Not to believe, and yet too credulous ! 

Thy weal and woe are both of them extremes ; 

Despair and hope makes thee ridiculous : 

The one doth flatter thee in thoughts unlikely, 

In likely thoughts the other kills thee quickly. 990 

Now she unweaves the web that she hath wrought ; 

Adonis lives, and Death is not to blame ; 

It was not she that call'd him all to naught. 

Now she adds honours to his hateful name ; 

She clepes him king of graves and grave for kings, 
Imperious supreme of all mortal things. 

1 No, no,' quoth she, l sweet Death, I did but jest; 
Yet pardon me I felt a kind of fear 

Whenas I met the boar, that bloody beast, 

Which knows no pity, but is still severe; 1000 

84 Shakespeare's Poems 

Then, gentle shadow, truth I must confess, 
I raiPd on thee, fearing my love's decease. 

* ' T is not my fault ; the boar provok'd my tongue. 

Be wreak'd on him, invisible commander ; 

'T is he, foul creature, that hath done thee wrong ; 

I did but act, he 's author of thy slander. 

Grief hath two tongues, and never woman yet 
Could rule them both without ten women's wit.' 

Thus hoping that Adonis is alive, 

Her rash suspect she doth extenuate ; 

And that his beauty may the better thrive, 

With Death she humbly doth insinuate, 

Tells him of trophies, statues, tombs, and stones 
His victories, his triumphs, and his glories. 

( O Jove/ quoth she, ' how much a fool was I 

To be of such a weak and silly mind 

To wail his death who lives and must not die 

Till mutual overthrow of mortal kind 1 

For he being dead, with him is beauty slain, 
And, beauty dead, black chaos comes again. 

' Fie, fie, fond love, thou art so full of fear 
As one with treasure laden hemm'd with thieves ; 
Trifles, unwitnessed with eye or ear, 
Thy coward heart with false bethinking grieves,' 
Even at this word she hears a merry horn, 
Whereat she leaps that was but late forlorn. 

Venus and Adonis 85 

As falcon to the lure, away she flies 

The grass stoops not, she treads on it so light 

And in her haste unfortunately spies 

The foul boar's conquest on her fair delight, 1030 

Which seen, her eyes, as murther'd with the view, 
Like stars asham'd of day, themselves withdrew ; 

Or, as the snail, whose tender horns being hit, 
Shrinks backward in his shelly cave with pain, 
And there, all smother 'd up, in shade doth sit, 
Long after fearing to creep forth again ; 

So, at his bloody view, her eyes are fled 

Into the deep-dark cabins of her head, 

Where they resign their office and their light 
To the disposing of her troubled brain, 1040 

Who bids them still consort with ugly night, 
And never wound the heart with looks again, 
Who, like a king perplexed in his throne, 
By their suggestion gives a deadly groan, 

Whereat each tributary subject quakes ; 
As when the wind, imprison'd in the ground, 
Struggling for passage, earth's foundation shakes, 
Which with cold terror doth men's minds confound. 
This mutiny each part doth so surprise 
That from their dark beds once more leap her eyes, 

And, being open'd, threw unwilling light 1051 

Upon the wide wound that the boar had trench'd 

86 Shakespeare's Poems 

In his soft flank, whose wonted lily white 
With purple tears that his wound wept was drench 'd ; 
No flower was nigh, no grass, herb, leaf, or weed, 
But stole his blood and seem'd with him to bleed. 

This solemn sympathy poor Venus noteth ; 

Over one shoulder doth she hang her head ; 

Dumbly she passions, franticly she doteth ; 

She thinks he could not die, he is not dead ; 1060 

Her voice is stopt, her joints forget to bow ; 

Her eyes are mad that they have wept till now. 

Upon his hurt she looks so steadfastly 

That her sight dazzling makes the wound seem three ; 

And then she reprehends her mangling eye 

That makes more gashes where no breach should be. 

His face seems twain, each several limb is doubled ; 

For oft the eye mistakes, the brain being troubled. 

' My tongue cannot express my grief for one, 

And yet,' quoth she, * behold two Adons dead ! 1070 

My sighs are blown away, my salt tears gone, 

Mine eyes are turn'd to fire, my heart to lead. 

Heavy heart's lead, melt at mine eyes' red fire ! 

So shall I die by drops of hot desire. 

f Alas, poor world, what treasure hast thou lost! 
What face remains alive that 's worth the viewing ? 
Whose tongue is music now ? what canst thou boast 
Of things long since, or any thing ensuing? 

Venus and Adonis 87 

The flowers are sweet, their colours fresh and trim ; 
But true-sweet beauty liv'd and died with him. 1080 

f Bonnet nor veil henceforth no creature wear ! 

Nor sun nor wind will ever strive to kiss you. 

Having no fair to lose, you need not fear ; 

The sun doth scorn you and the wind doth hiss you ; 
But when Adonis liv'd, sun and sharp air 
Lurk'd like two thieves, to rob him of his fair. 

'And therefore would he put his bonnet on, 
Under whose brim the gaudy sun would peep ; 
The wind would blow it off and, being gone, 
Play with his locks ; then would Adonis weep, 1090 

And straight, in pity of his tender years, 
They both would strive who first should dry his tears. 

* To see his face the lion walk'd along 

Behind some hedge, because he would not fear him ; 

To recreate himself when he hath sung, 

The tiger would be tame and gently hear him ; 
If he had spoke, the wolf would leave his prey, 
And never fright the silly lamb that day. 

1 When he beheld his shadow in the brook, 

The fishes spread on it their golden gills ; uoo 

When he was by, the birds such pleasure took 

That some would sing, some other in their bills 

Would bring him mulberries and ripe-red cherries ; 

He fed them with his sight, they him with berries. 

88 Shakespeare's Poems 

1 But this foul, grim, and urchin-snouted boar, 
Whose downward eye still looketh for a grave, 
Ne'er saw the beauteous livery that he wore ; 
Witness the entertainment that he gave. 

If he did see his face, why then I know 

He thought to kiss him, and hath kill'd him so. mo 

' 'T is true, 't is true ; thus was Adonis slain ! 

He ran upon the boar with his sharp spear, 

Who did not whet his teeth at him again, 

But by a kiss thought to persuade him there ; 
And nuzzling in his flank, the loving swine 
Sheath'd unaware the tusk in his soft groin. 

' Had I been tooth 'd like him, I must confess, 

With kissing him I should have kill'd him first; 

But he is dead, and never did he bless 

My youth with his <the more am I accurst.' 1120 

With this, she falleth in the place she stood, 
And stains her face with his congealed blood. 

She looks upon his lips, and they are pale ; 

She takes him by the hand, and that is cold ; 

She whispers in his ears a heavy tale, 

As if they heard the woeful words she told ; 
She lifts the coffer-lids that close his eyes, 
Where, lo, two lamps burnt out in darkness lies ! 

Two glasses, where herself herself beheld 

A thousand times, and now no more reflect; 1130 

Venus and Adonis 89 

Their virtue lost, wherein they late excell'd, 

And every beauty robb'd of his effect. 

' Wonder of time,' quoth she, ' this is my spite, 
That, thou being dead, the day should yet be light. 

' Since thou art dead, lo, here I prophesy : 

Sorrow on love hereafter shall attend ; 

It shall be waited on with jealousy, 

Find sweet beginning, but unsavoury end ; 
Ne'er settled equally, but high or low, 
That all love's pleasure shall not match his woe. 

' It shall be fickle, false, and full of fraud, 1141 

Bud and be blasted in a breathing-while ; 

The bottom poison, and the top o'erstraw'd 

With sweets that shall the truest sight beguile ; 
The strongest body shall it make most weak, 
Strike the wise dumb, and teach the fool to speak. 

' It shall be sparing and too full of riot, 
Teaching decrepit age to tread the measures ; 
The staring ruffian shall it keep in quiet, 
Pluck down the rich, enrich the poor with treasures ; 
It shall be raging-mad and silly-mild, 1151 

Make the young old, the old become a child. 

' It shall suspect where is no cause of fear ; 
It shall not fear where it should most mistrust ; 
It shall be merciful and too severe, 
And most deceiving when it seems most just; 

90 Shakespeare's Poems 

Perverse it shall be where it shows most toward, 
Put fear to valour, courage to the coward. 

1 It shall be cause of war and dire events, 

And set dissension 'twixt the son and sire ; 1160 

Subject and servile to all discontents, 

As dry combustions matter is to lire ; 

Sith in his prime Death doth my love destroy, 
They that love best their loves shall not enjoy.' 

By this, the boy that by her side lay kilPd 
Was melted like a vapour from her sight, 
And in his blood that on the ground lay spill 'd 
A purple flower sprung up, chequer'd with white, 

Resembling well his pale cheeks and the blood 1169 
Which in round drops upon their whiteness stood, * 

She bows her head the new-sprung flower to smell, 

Comparing it to her Adonis' breath, 

And says within her bosom it shall dwell, 

Since he himself is reft from her by death ; 
She crops the stalk, and in the breach appears 
Green-dropping sap, which she compares to tears. : 

Poor flower,' quoth she, ' this was thy father's guise 

Sweet issue of a more sweet-smelling sire 

For every little grief to wet his eyes. 

To grow unto himself was his desire, u8o 

And so 't is thine ; but know, it is as good 

To wither in my breast as in his blood. 

Venus and Adonis 91 

' Here was thy father's bed, here in my breast ; 

Thou art the next of blood, and 't is thy right. 

Lo, in this hollow cradle take thy rest, 

My throbbing heart shall rock thee day and night ; 
There shall not be one minute in an hour 
Wherein I will not kiss my sweet love's flower. 5 

Thus weary of the world, away she hies 

And yokes her silver doves, by whose swift aid 1190 

Their mistress mounted through the empty skies 

In her light chariot quickly is convey'd ; 

Holding their course to Paphos, where their queen 
Means to immure herself and not be seen. 




The love I dedicate to your Lordship is without end, whereof this 
pamphlet, without beginning, is but a superfluous moiety. The 
warrant I have of your honourable disposition, not the worth of my 
untutored lines, makes it assured of acceptance. What I have done 
is yours ; what I have to do is yours ; being part in all I have, de- 
voted yours. Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater; 
meantime, as it is, it is bound to your Lordship, to whom I wish 
long life, still lengthened with all happiness. 

Your Lordship's in all duty, 





LUCIUS TARQUINIUS, for his excessive pride surnamed Superbus, 
after he had caused his own father-in-law Servius Tullius to be 
cruelly raujrhered, and, contrary to the Roman laws and customs, 
not requiring *or staying for the people's suffrages, had possessed 
himself of the kingdom, went, accompanied with his sons and other 
noblemen of Rome, to besiege Ardea. During which siege the 
principal men of the army meeting one evening at the tent of Sex- 
tus Tarquinius, the king's son, in their discourses after supper every 
one commended the virtues of his own wife ; among whom Colla- 
tinus extolled the incomparable chastity of his wife Lucretia. In 
that pleasant humour they all posted to Rome ; and intending, by 
their secret and sudden arrival, to make trial of that which every 
one had before avouched, only Collatinus finds his wife, though it 


96 Shakespeare's Poems 

were late in the night, spinning amongst her maids ; the other ladies 
were all found dancing and revelling, or in several disports. Where- 
upon the noblemen yielded Collatinus the victory and his wife the 
fame. At that time Sextus Tarquinius, being inflamed with Lucrece' 
beauty, yet smothering his passions for the present, departed with 
the rest back to the camp ; from whence he shortly after privily 
withdrew himself, and was, according to his estate, royally enter- 
tained and lodged by Lucrece at Collatimn. The same night he 
treacherously stealeth into her chamber, violently ravished her, and 
early in the morning speedeth away. Lucrece, in this lamentable 
plight, hastily dispatcheth messengers, one to Rome for her father, 
another to the camp for Collatine. They came, the one accompa- 
nied with Junius Brutus, the other with Publius Valerius, and finding 
Lucrece attired in mourning habit, demanded the cause of her sor- 
row. She, first taking an oath of them for her revenge, revealed 
the actor and whole manner of his dealing, and withal suddenly 
stabbed herself. Which done, with one consent they all vowed 
to root out the whole hated family of the Tarquins ; and, bearing 
the dead body to Rome, Brutus acquainted the people with the 
doer and manner of the vile deed, with a bitter invective against 
the tyranny of the king ; wherewith the people were so moved that 
with one consent and a general acclamation the Tarquins were all 
exiled, and the state government changed from kings to consuls. 

FROM the besieged Ardea all in post, 
Borne by the trustless wings of false desire, 
Lust-breathed Tarquin leaves the Roman host 
And to Collatium bears the lightless fire 
Which, in pale embers hid, lurks to aspire 
And girdle with embracing flames the waist 
Of Collatine's fair love, Lucrece the chaste. 

The Rape of Lucrece 97 

Haply that name of chaste ' unhappily set 
This bateless edge on his keen appetite, 
When Collatine unwisely did not let 
To praise the clear unmatched red and white 
Which triumph 'd in that sky of his delight, 

Where mortal stars, as bright as heaven's beauuet., 
With pure aspects did him peculiar duties. 

For he the night before, in Tarquin's tent, 

Unlock'd the treasure of his happy state, 

What priceless wealth the heavens had him lent 

In the possession of his beauteous mate ; 

Reckoning his fortune at such high-proud rate 

That kings might be espoused to more fame, 20 

But king nor peer to such a peerless dame. 

O happiness enjoy'd but of a few ! 

And, if possess'd, as soon decay'd and done 

As is the morning's silver-melting dew 

Against the golden splendour of the sun, 

An expir'd date, cancell'd ere well begun ! 
Honour and beauty, in the owner's arms, 
Are weakly fortress'd from a world of harms. 

Beauty itself doth of itself persuade 
The eyes of men without an orator ; 30 

What needeth then apologies be made, 
To set forth that which is so singular ? 
Or why is Collatine the publisher 

98 Shakespeare's Poems 

Of that rich jewel he should keep unknown 
From thievish ears, because it is his own ? 

Perchance his boast of Lucrece' sovereignty 

Suggested this proud issue of a king, 

For by our ears our hearts oft tainted be ; 

Perchance that envy of so rich a thing, 

Braving compare, disdainfully did sting 40 

His high-pitch'd thoughts that meaner men should 

That golden hap which their superiors want. 

But some untimely thought did instigate 
His all-too-timeless speed, if none of those ; 
His honour, his affairs, his friends, his state, 
Neglected all, with swift intent he goes 
To quench the coal which in his liver glows. 
O rash false heat, wrapp'd in repentant cold, 
Thy hasty spring still blasts and ne'er grows old ! 

When at Collatium this false lord arriv'd, 50 

Well was he welcomed by the Roman dame, 
Within whose face beauty and virtue striv'd 
Which of them both should underprop her fame. 
When virtue bragg'd, beauty would blush for shame ; 
When beauty boasted blushes, in despite 
Virtue would stain that o'er with silver white. 

But beauty, in that white intituled, 

From Venus' doves doth challenge that fair field > 

The Rape of Lucrece 99 

Then virtue claims from beauty beauty's red, 
Which virtue gave the golden age to gild 60 

Their silver cheeks, and call'd it then their shietd, 
Teaching them thus to use it in the fight, 
When shame assail'd, the red should fence the white. 

This heraldry in Lucrece' face was seen, 
Argued by beauty's red and virtue's white. 
Of either's colour was the other queen, 
Proving from world's minority their right ; 
Yet their ambition makes them still to fight, 
The sovereignty of either being so great 
That oft they interchange each other's seat. 70 

This silent war of lilies and of roses, 
Which Tarquin view'd in her fair face's field, 
In their pure ranks his traitor eye encloses ; 
Where, lest between them both it should be kill'd, 
The coward captive vanquished doth yield 

To those two armies that would let him go 

Rather than triumph in so false a foe. 

Now thinks he that her husband's shallow tongue 
The niggard prodigal that prais'd her so 
In that high task hath done her beauty wrong, 80 

Which far exceeds his barren skill to show ; 
Therefore that praise which Collatine doth 

Enchanted Tarquin answers with surmise, 

In silent wonder of still-gazing eyes. 

zoo Shakespeare's Poems 

This earthly saint, adored by this devil, 

Little suspecteth the false worshipper, 

For unstain'd thoughts do seldom dream on evil, 

Birds never lim'd no secret bushes fear ; 

So guiltless she securely gives good cheer 

And reverend welcome to her princely guest, 90 

Whose inward ill no outward harm expressed. 

For that he colour'd with his high estate, 

Hiding base sin in plaits of majesty, 

That nothing in him seem'd inordinate, 

Save sometime too much wonder of his eye, 

Which, having all, all could not satisfy, 
But, poorly rich, so wanteth in his store 
That, cloy'd with much, he pineth still for more. 

But she, that never cop'd with stranger eyes, 
Could pick no meaning from their parling looks, 100 
Nor read the subtle-shining secrecies 
Writ in the glassy margents of such books. 
She touch'd no unknown baits, nor fear'd no hooks ; 
Nor could she moralize his wanton sight, 
More than his eyes were open'd to the light. 

He stories to her ears her husband's fame,' 

Won in the fields of fruitful Italy, 

And decks with praises Collatine's high name* 

Made glorious by his manly chivalry 

With bruised arms and wreaths of victory ; no 

The Rape of Lucrece 101 

Her joy with heav'd-up hand she doth express, 
And, wordless, so greets heaven for his success. 

Far from the purpose of his coming hither, 

He makes excuses for his being there ; 

No cloudy show of stormy blustering weather 

Doth yet in his fair welkin once appear 

Till sable Night, mother of dread and fear, 
Upon the world dim darkness doth display 
And in her vaulty prison stows the day. 

For then is Tarquin brought unto his bed, 120 

Intending weariness with heavy spright ; 

For, after supper, long he questioned 

With modest Lucrece and wore out the night. 

Now leaden slumber with life's strength doth fight, 
And every one to rest themselves betake, 
Save thieves, and cares, and troubled minds, that 
wake ; 

As one of which doth Tarquin lie revolving 
The sundry clangers of his will's obtaining, 
Yet ever to obtain his will resolving, 
Though weak-built hopes persuade him to abstain- 
ing. 130 
Despair to gain doth traffic oft for gaining, 
And when great treasure is the meed propos'd, 
Though death be adjunct, there's no death sup- 

102 Shakespeare's Poems 

Those that much covet are with gain so fond, 
For what they have not, that which they possess 
They scatter and unloose it from their bond, 
And so, by hoping more, they have but less ; 
Or, gaining more, the profit of excess 
Is but to surfeit, and such griefs sustain 
That they prove bankrupt in this poor-rich gain. 140 

The aim of all is but to nurse the life 
With honour, wealth, and ease, in waning age ; 
And in this aim there is such thwarting strife 
That one for all or all for one we gage, 
As life for honour in fell battle's rage, 

Honour for wealth ; and oft that wealth doth cost 

The death of all, and all together lost. 

So that in venturing ill we leave to be 
The things we are for that which we expect, 
And this ambitious foul infirmity, 150 

In having much, torments us with defect 
Of that we have ; so then we do neglect 
The thing we have and, all for want of wit, 
Make something nothing by augmenting it. 

Such hazard now must doting Tarquin make, 
Pawning his honour to obtain his lust, 
And for himself himself he must forsake ; 
Then where is truth, if there be no self-trust ? 
When shall he think to find a stranger just, 

The Rape of Lucrece 103 

When he himself himself confounds, betrays 160 

To slanderous tongues and wretched hateful days ? 

Now stole upon the time the dead of night 
When heavy sleep had clos'd up mortal eyes. 
No comfortable star did lend his light, 
No noise but owls' and wolves' death-boding cries ; 
Now serves the season that they may surprise 

The silly lambs ; pure thoughts are dead and still, 
While lust and murther wakes to stain and kill. 

And now this lustful lord leap'd from his bed, 
Throwing his mantle rudely o'er his arm, 170 

Is madly toss'd between desire and dread. 
The one sweetly flatters, the other feareth harm ; 
But honest fear, bewitch 'd with lust's foul charm, 

Doth too too oft betake him to retire, 

Beaten away by brain-sick rude desire. 

His falchion on a flint he softly smiteth, 

That from the cold stone sparks of fire do fly, 

Whereat a waxen torch forthwith he Hghteth 

Which must be lode-star to his lustful eye, 

And to the flame thus speaks advisedly : 180 

' As from this cold flint I enforced this fire, 

So Lucrece must I force to my desire. 5 

Here pale with fear he doth premeditate 
The dangers of his loathsome enterprise, 

IO4 Shakespeare's Poems 

And in his inward mind he doth debate 

What following sorrow may on this arise ; 

Then looking scornfully, he doth despise 
His naked armour of still-slaughter J d lust, 
And justly thus controls his thoughts unjust: 

< Fair torch, burn out thy light, and lend it not 190 

To darken her whose light excelleth thine ; 
And die, unhallow'd thoughts, before you blot 
With your uncleanness that which is divine. 
Offer pure incense to so pure a shrine ; 

Let fair humanity abhor the deed 

That spots and stains love's modest snow-white 

1 O shame to knighthood and to shining arms ! 

O foul dishonour to my household's grave ! 

O impious act, including all foul harms ! 

A martial man to be soft fancy's slave ! 200 

True valour still a true respect should have ; 

Then my digression is so vile, so base, 

That it will live engraven in my face. 

' Yea, though I die, the scandal will survive, 

And be an eye-sore in my golden coat ; 

Some loathsome dash the herald will contrive, 

To cipher me how fondly I did dote ; 

That my posterity, sham'd with the note, 
Shall curse my bones, and hold it for no sin 
To wish that I their father had not been, 210 

The Rape of Lucrece 105 

' What win I, if I gain the thing I seek ? 

A dream, a breath, a froth of fleeting joy. 

Who buys a minute's mirth to wail a week, 

Or sells eternity to get a toy ? 

For one sweet grape who will the vine destroy ? 
Or what fond beggar, but to touch the crown, 
Would with the sceptre straight be strucken down ? 

' If Collatinus dream of my intent, 
Will he not wake, and in a desperate rage 
Post hither, this vile purpose to prevent ? 220 

This siege that hath engirt his marriage, 
This blur to youth, this sorrow to the sage, 
This dying virtue, this surviving shame, 
Whose crime will bear an ever-during blame ? 

' O, what excuse can my invention make 
When thou shalt charge me with so black a deed ? 
Will not my tongue be mute, my frail joints shake, 
Mine eyes forego their light, my false heart bleed ? 
The guilt being great, the fear doth still exceed ; 

And extreme fear can neither fight nor fly, 230 

But coward-like with trembling terror die. 

* Had Collatinus kill'd my son or sire, 
Or lain in ambush to betray my life, 
Or were he not my dear friend, this desire 
Might have excuse to work upon his wife, 
As in revenge or quittal of such strife ; 

io6 Shakespeare's Poems 

But as he is my kinsman, my dear friend, 
The shame and fault finds no excuse nor end. 

' Shameful it is ; ay, if the fact be known. 

Hateful it is ; there is no hate in loving. 240 

I '11 beg her love ; but she is not her own. 

The worst is but denial and reproving ; 

My will is strong, past reason's weak removing. 
Who fears a sentence or an old man's saw 
Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe.' 

Thus, graceless, holds he disputation 
Tween frozen conscience and hot-burning will, 
And with good thoughts makes dispensation, 
Urging the worser sense for vantage still, 
Which in a moment doth confound and kill 250 

All pure effects, and doth so far proceed 
That what is vile shows like a virtuous deed. 

Quoth he, * She took me kindly by the hand, 

And gaz'd for tidings in my eager eyes, 

Fearing some hard news from the warlike band 

Where her beloved Collatinus lies. 

O, how her fear did make her colour rise ! 
First red as roses that on lawn we lay, 
Then white as lawn, the roses took away. 

' And how her hand, in my hand being lock'd, 260 

Forc'd it to tremble with her loyal fear I 

The Rape of Lucrec.e 107 

Which struck her sad, and then it faster rock'd 
Until her husband's welfare she did hear; 
Whereat she smiled with so sweet a cheer 
That had Narcissus seen her as she stood 
Self-love had never drown'd him in the flood. 

' Why hunt I then for colour or excuses ? 

All orators are dumb when beauty pleadeth ; 

Poor wretches have remorse in poor abuses ; 269 

Love thrives not in the heart that shadows dreadeth ; 

Affection is my captain, and he leadeth ; 
And when his gaudy banner is displayed 
The coward fights and will not be dismay'd. 

Then, childish fear avaunt ! debating die ! 

Respect and reason wait on wrinkled age ! 

My heart shall never countermand mine eye. 

Sad pause and deep regard beseems the sage ; 

My part is youth, and beats these from the stage. 
Desire my pilot is, beauty my prize ; 279 

Then who fears sinking where such treasure lies ? ' 

As corn o'ergrown by weeds, so heedful fear 

Is almost chok'd by unresisted lust. 

Away he steals with open listening ear, 

Full of foul hope and full of fond mistrust, 

Both which, as servitors to the unjust, 

So cross him with their opposite persuasion 
That now he vows a league, and now invasion. 

io8 Shakespeare's Poems 

Within his thought her heavenly image sits, 

And in the self-same seat sits Collatine. 

That eye which looks on her confounds his wits ; 290 

That eye which him beholds, as more divine, 

Unto a view so false will not incline, 

But with a pure appeal seeks to the heart, 
Which once corrupted takes the worser part, 

And therein heartens up his servile powers, 
Who, flatter'd by their leader's jocund show, 
Stuff up his lust, as minutes fill up hours ; 
And as their captain, so their pride doth grow, 
Paying more slavish tribute than they owe. 

By reprobate desire thus madly led, 300 

The Roman lord marcheth to Lucrece' bed. 

The locks between her chamber and his will, 
Each one by him enforc'd, retires his ward ; 
But, as they open, they all rate his ill, 
Which drives the creeping thief to some regard. 
The threshold grates the door to have him heard ; 

Night-wandering weasels shriek to see him there ; 

They fright him, yet he still pursues his fear. 

As each unwilling portal yields him way, 
Through little vents and crannies of the place 310 

The wind wars with his torch to make him stay, 
And blows the smoke of it into his face, 
Extinguishing his conduct in this case ; 

The Rape of Lucrece 109 

But his hot heart, which fond desire doth scorch. 
Puffs forth another wind that fires the torch ; 

And being lighted, by the light he spies 

Lucretia's glove, wherein her needle sticks. 

He takes it from the rushes where it lies, 

And griping it, the needle his finger pricks, 

As who should say ' This glove to wanton tricks 320 

Is not inur'd ; return again in haste ; 

Thou see'st our mistress 7 ornaments are chaste.' 

But all these poor forbiddings could not stay him ; 

He in the worst sense construes their denial. 

The doors, the wind, the glove, that did delay him, 

He takes for accidental things of trial ; 

Or as those bars which stop the hourly dial, 
Who with a lingering stay his course doth let 
Till every minute pays the hour his debt. 

f So, so,' quoth he, ' these lets attend the time, 330 

Like little frosts that sometime threat the spring, 
To add a more rejoicing to the prime 
And give the sneaped birds more cause to sing. 
Pain pays the income of each precious thing ; 

Huge rocks, high winds, strong pirates, shelves and 

The merchant fears, ere rich at home he lands.' 

Now is he come unto the chamber-door 

That shuts him from the heaven of his thought, 

no Shakespeare's Poems 

Which with a yielding latch, and with no more, 
Hath barr'd him from the blessed thing he sought. 340 
So from himself impiety hath wrought 
That for his prey to pray he doth begin, 
As if the heavens should countenance his sin. 

But in the midst of his unfruitful prayer, 
Having solicited the eternal power 
That his foul thoughts might compass his fair fair, 
And they would stand auspicious to the hour, 
Even there he starts. Quoth he, ' I must deflower ; 
The powers to whom I pray abhor this fact, 
How can they then assist me in the act ? 350 

6 Then Love and Fortune be my gods, my guide ! 

My will is back'd with resolution. 

Thoughts are but dreams till their effects be tried ; 

The blackest sin is clear'd with absolution ; 

Against love's fire fear's frost hath dissolution. 
The eye of heaven is out, and misty night 
Covers the shame that follows sweet delight.' 

This said, his guilty hand pluck J d up the latch, 

And with his knee the door he opens wide. 

The dove sleeps fast that this night-owl will catch ; 360 

Thus treason works ere traitors be espied. 

Who sees the lurking serpent steps aside ; 

But she, sound sleeping, fearing no such thing, 

Lies at the mercy of his mortal sting. 

The Rape of Lucrece 1 1 1 

Into the chamber wickedly he stalks, 

And gazeth on her yet unstained bed. 

The curtains being close, about he walks, 

Rolling his greedy eyeballs in his head ; 

By their high treason is his heart misled, 

Which gives the watchword to his hand full soon 
To draw the cloud that hides the silver moon. 371 

Look, as the fair and fiery-pointed sun, 
Rushing from forth a cloud, bereaves our sight, 
Even so, the curtain drawn, his eyes begun 
To wink, being blinded with a greater light ; 
Whether it is that she reflects so bright 

That dazzleth them, or else some shame supposed, 
But blind they are and keep themselves enclos'd. 

O, had they in that darksome prison died ! 

Then had they seen the period of their ill ; 380 

Then Collatine again, by Lucrece' side, 

In his clear bed might have reposed still ; 

But they must ope, this blessed league to kill, 
And holy-thoughted Lucrece to their sight 
Must sell her joy, her life, her world's delight. 

Her lily hand her rosy cheek lies under, 

Cozening the pillow of a lawful kiss, 

Who, therefore angry, seems to part in sunder, 

Swelling on either side to want his bliss ; 

Between whose hills her head entombed is, 390 

112 Shakespeare's Poems 

Where, like a virtuous monument, she lies, 
To be admir'd of lewd unhallow'd eyes. 

Without the bed her other fair hand was, 

On the green coverlet, whose perfect white 

Show'd like an April daisy on thejjprass, 

With pearly sweat, resembling dew of night. 

Her eyes, like marigolds, had sheath 'd their light, 

And canopied in darkness sweetly lay 

Till they might open to adorn the day. 

Her hair, like golden threads, play'd with her breath ; 

O modest wantons ! wanton modesty ! 401 

Showing life's triumph in the map of death, 

And death's dim look in life's mortality ; 

Each in her sleep themselves so beautify 

As if between them twain there were no strife, 
But that life liv'd in death, and death in life. 

Her breasts, like ivory globes circled with blue, 
A pair of maiden worlds unconquered, 
Save of their lord no bearing yoke they knew, 
And him by oath they truly honoured. 410 

These worlds in Tarquin new ambition bred, 
Who, like a foul usurper, went about 
From this fair throne to heave the owner out. 

What could he see but mightily he noted ? 
What did he note but strongly he desir'd ? 

The Rape of Lucrece 1 13 

What he beheld, on that he firmly doted, 
And in his will his wilful eye he tir'd. 
With more than admiration he admir'd 

'Her azure veins, her alabaster skin, 

Her coral lips, her snow-white dimpled chin. 420 

As the grim lion fawfteth o'er his prey, 

Sharp hunger by the conquest satisfied, 

So o'er this sleeping soul doth Tarquin stay ? 

His rage of lust by gazing qualified ; 

Slack'd, not suppressed, for standing by her side, 
His eye, which late this mutiny restrains, 
Unto a greater uproar tempts his veins. 

And they, like straggling slaves for pillage fighting, 
Obdurate vassals fell exploits effecting, 
In bloody death and ravishment delighting, 430 

Nor children's tears nor mothers' groans respecting, 
Swell in their pride, the onset still expecting; 
Anon his beating heart, alarum striking, 
Gives the hot charge and bids them do their liking. 

His drumming heart cheers up his burning eye, 
His eye commends the leading to his hand ; 
His hand, as proud of such a dignity, 
Smoking with pride, march 'd on to make his stand 
On her bare breast, the heart of all her land, 

Whose ranks of blue veins, as his hand did scale, 
Left their round turrets destitute and pale. 441 


1 14 Shakespeare's Poems 

They, mustering to the quiet cabinet 

Where their dear governess and lady lies, 

Do tell her she is dreadfully beset 

And fright her with confusion of their cries ; 

She, much amaz'd, breaks ope her lock'd-up eyes, 
Who, peeping forth this tumult to behold, 
Are by his flaming torch dimm'd and controlPd. 

Imagine her as one in dead of night 
From forth dull sleep by dreadful fancy waking, 450 
That thinks she hath beheld some ghastly sprite 
Whose grim aspect sets every joint a-shaking ; 
What terror 't is ! but she, in worser taking, 
From sleep disturbed, needfully doth view 
The sight which makes supposed terror true. 

Wrapp'd and confounded in a thousand fears, 

Like to a new-kill'd bird she trembling lies. 

She dares not look ; yet, winking, there appears 

Quick-shifting antics, ugly in her eyes. 

Such shadows are the weak brain's forgeries, 460 

Who, angry that the eyes fly from their lights, 
In darkness daunts them with more dreadful sights. 

His hand, that yet remains upon her breast, 
Rude ram, to batter such an ivory wall ! 
May feel her heart poor citizen 1 distress'd, 
Wounding itself to death, rise up and fall, 
Beating her bulk, that his hand shakes withal. 

The Rape of Lucrece 1 1 5 

This moves in him more rage and lesser pity, 
To make the breach and enter this sweet city. 

First, like a trumpet, doth his tongue begin 470 

To sound a parley to his heartless foe, 

Who o'er the white sheet peers her whiter chin, 

The reason of this rash alarm to know, 

Which he by dumb demeanour seeks to show ; 

But she with vehement prayers urgeth still 

Under what colour he commits this ill. 

Thus he replies : ' The colour in thy face, 

That even for anger makes the lily pale 

And the red rose blush at her own disgrace, 

Shall plead for me and tell my loving tale. 480 

Under that colour am I come to scale 

Thy never-conquer'd fort ; the fault is thine, 
For those thine eyes betray thee unto mine. 

' Thus I forestall thee, if thou mean to chide : 
Thy beauty hath ensnar'd thee to this night, 
Where thou with patience must my will abide ; 
My will that marks thee for my earth's delight, 
Which I to conquer sought with all my might, 

But as reproof and reason beat it dead, 

By thy bright beauty was it newly bred. 490 

* I see what crosses my attempt will bring ; 
I know what thorns the growing rose defends ; 

Shakespeare's Poems 

I think the honey guarded with a stin 
All this beforehand counsel comprehends, 
But will is deaf and hears no heedful friends ; 
Only he hath an eye to gaze on beauty, 
And dotes on what he looks, 'gainst law or duty. 

* I have debated, even in my soul, 

What wrong, what shame, what sorrow I shall breed ; 

But nothing can affection's course control, 500 

Or stop the headlong fury of his speed. 

I know repentant tears ensue the deed, 

Reproach, disdain, and deadly enmity ; 

Yet strive I to embrace mine infamy.' 

This said, he shakes aloft his Roman blade, 
Which, like a falcon towering in the skies, 
Coucheth the fowl below with his wings' shade, 
Whose crooked beak threats if he mount he dies ; 
So under his insulting falchion lies 

Harmless Lucretia, marking what he tells 510 

With trembling fear, as fowl hear falcon's bells. 

'Lucrece,' quoth he, 'this night I must enjoy thee; 

If thou deny, then force must work my way, 

For in thy bed I purpose to destroy thee. 

That done, some worthless slave of thine I '11 slay, 

To kill thine honour with thy life's decay ; 

And in thy dead arms do I mean to place him., 
Swearing I slew him, seeing thee embrace him. 

The Rape of Lucrece 117 

* So thy surviving husband shall remain 

The scornful mark of every open eye ; 520 

Thy kinsmen hang their heads at this disdain, 

Thy issue blurr'd with nameless bastardy ; 

And thou, the author of their obloquy, 

Shalt have thy trespass cited up in rhymes 
And sung by children in succeeding times. 

i But if thou yield, I rest thy secret friend. 

The fault unknown is as a thought unacted ; 

A little harm done to a great good end 

For lawful policy remains enacted. 

The poisonous simple sometimes is compacted 530 

In a pure compound ; being so applied, 

His venom in effect is purified. 

c Then, for thy husband and thy children's sake, 
Tender my suit ; bequeath not to their lot 
The shame that from them no device can take, 
The blemish that will never be forgot, 
Worse than a slavish wipe or birth-hour's blot, 
For marks descried in men's nativity 
Are nature's faults, not their own infamy.' 

Here with a cockatrice' dead-killing eye 540 

He rouseth up himself and makes a pause ; 

While she, the picture of pure piety, 

Like a white hind under the gripe's sharp claws, 

Pleads, in a wilderness where are no laws, 

n8- Shakespeare's Poems 

To the rough beast that knows no gentle right, 
Nor aught obeys but his foul appetite. 

But when a black-fac'd cloud the world doth threat, 
In his dim mist the aspiring mountains hiding, 
From earth's dark womb some gentle gust doth get, 
Which blows these pitchy vapours from their biding, 
Hindering their present fall by this dividing ; 551 

So his unhallow'd haste her words delays, 
And moody Pluto winks while Orpheus plays. 

Yet, foul night-working cat, he doth but dally, 
While in his hold-fast foot the weak mouse panteth ; 
Her sad behaviour feeds his vulture folly, 
A swallowing gulf that even in plenty wanteth. 
His ear her prayers admits, but his heart granteth 

No penetrable entrance to her plaining ; 

Tears harden lust, though marble wear with raining. 

Her pity-pleading eyes are sadly fix'd 561 

In the remorseless wrinkles of his face ; 

Her modest eloquence with sighs is mix'd, 

Which to her oratory adds more grace, 

She puts the period often from his place, 

And midst the sentence so her accent breaks 
That twice she doth begin ere once she speaks. 

She conjures him by high almighty Jove, 

By knighthood, gentry, and sweet friendship's oath, 

The Rape of Lucrece 1 1 9 

By her untimely tears, her husband's love, 570 

By holy human law, and common troth, 
By heaven and earth, and all the power of both, 
That to his borrow 'd bed he make retire, 
And stoop to honour, not to foul desire. 

Quoth she, ' Reward not hospitality 
With such black payment as thou hast pretended ; 
Mud not the fountain that gave drink to thee ; 
Mar not the thing that cannot be amended ; 
End thy ill aim before thy shoot be ended ; 

He is no woodman that doth bend his bow 580 

To strike a poor unseasonable doe. 

* My husband is thy friend ; for his sake spare me. 
Thyself art mighty ; for thine own sake leave me. 
Myself a weakling ; do not then ensnare me. 
Thou look'st not like deceit ; do not deceive me. 

My sighs, like whirlwinds, labour hence to heave thee. 
If ever man were mov'd with woman's moans, 
Be moved with my tears, my sighs, my groans, 

* All which together, like a troubled ocean, 

Beat at thy rocky and wrack-threatening heart, 590 

To soften it with their continual motion, 
For stones dissolv'd to water do convert. 
O, if no harder than a stone thou art, 

Melt at my tears, and be compassionate 1 

Soft pity enters at an iron 

120 Shakespeare's Poems 

'In Tarquin's likeness I did entertain thee ; 

Hast thou put on his shape to do him shame ? 

To all the host of heaven I complain me, 

Thou wrong'st his honour, wound'st his princely name., 

Thou art not what thou seem'st ; and if the same, 6oc 
Thou seem'st not what thou art, a god, a king, 
For kings like gods should govern every thing. 

' How will thy shame be seeded in thine age, 
When thus thy vices bud before thy spring i 
If in thy hope thou dar'st do such outrage, 
What dar'st thou not when once thou art a king ? 
O, be remember'cl, no outrageous thing 

From vassal actors can be wip'd away ; 

Then kings' misdeeds cannot be hid in clay. 

f This deed will make thee only lov'd for fear, 610 

But happy monarchs still are fear'd for love ; 
With foul offenders thou perforce must bear, 
When they in thee the like offences prove. 
If but for fear of this, thy will remove ; 

For princes are the glass, the school, the book, 
Where subjects' eyes do learn, do read, do look. 

And wilt thou be the school where Lust shall learn ? 
Must he in thee read lectures of such shame ? 
Wilt thou be glass wherein it shall discern 
Authority for sin, warrant for blame, 620 

To privilege dishonour in thy name? 

The Rape of fo**#@e 121 

Thou back'st reproach against long-living laud, 
And mak'st fair reputation but a bawd. 

' Hast thou command ? by him that gave it thee, 

From a pure heart command thy rebel will ; 

Draw not thy sword to guard iniquity, 

For it was lent thee all that brood to kill. 

Thy princely office how canst thou fulfil, 

When, pattern 'd by thy fault, foul sin may say, 
He learn'd to sin, and thou didst teach the way? 

1 Think but how vile a spectacle it were 631 

To view thy present trespass in another. 

Men's faults do seldom to themselves appear; 

Their own transgressions partially they smother ; 

This guilt would seem death-worthy in thy brother. 
O, how are they wrapp'd in with infamies 
That from their own misdeeds askance their eyes ! 

< To thee, to thee, my heav'd-up hands appeal, 

Not to seducing lust, thy rash relier. 

I sue for exil'd majesty's repeal ; 640 

Let him return, and flattering thoughts retire. 

His true respect will prison false desire, 

And wipe the dim mist from thy doting eyne, 
That thou shalt see thy state and pity mine.' 

* Have done,' quoth he; : my uncontrolled tide 
Turns not, but swells the higher by this let. 

122 Shakespeare's Poems 

Small lights are soon blown out, huge fires abide, 

And with the wind in greater fury fret ; 

The petty streams that pay a daily debt 

To their salt sovereign, with their fresh falls' haste 
Add to his flow, but alter not his taste.' 651 

'Thou art,' quoth she, <asea, a sovereign king; 

And lo, there falls into thy boundless Hood 

Black lust, dishonour, shame, misgoverning, 

Who seek to stain the ocean of thy blood. 

If all these petty ills shall change thy^ood, 
Thy sea within a puddle's womb is hears 'd, 
And not the puddle in thy sea dispers'd. 

< So shall these slaves be king, and thou their slave ; 

Thou nobly base, they basely dignified ; 660 

Thou their fair life, and they thy fouler grave ; 

Thou loathed in their shame, they in thy pride. 

The lesser thing should not the greater hide ; 
The cedar stoops not to the base shrub's foot, 
But low shrubs wither at the cedar's root. 

' So let thy thoughts, low vassals to thy state 
' No more,' quoth he ; 'by heaven, I will not hear thee. 
Yield to my love ; if not, enforced hate, 
Instead of love's coy touch, shall rudely tear thee. 
That done, despitefully I mean to bear thee 670 

Unto the base bed of some rascal groom, 
To be thy partner in this shameful doom,' 

The Rape of Lucrece 123 

This said, he sets his foot upon the light, 

For light and lust are deadly enemies ; 

Shame folded up in blind concealing night, 

When most unseen, then most doth tyrannize. 

The wolf hath seiz'd his prey, the poor lamb cries; 
Till with her own white fleece her voice controlPd 
Entombs her outcry in her lips' sweet fold. 

For with the nightly linen that she wears 68c 

He pens her piteous clamours in her head, 

Cooling his hot face in the chastest tears 

That ever modest eyes with sorrow shed. 

O, that prone lust should stain so pure a bed ! 
The spots whereof could weeping purify, 
Her tears should drop on them perpetually. 

But she hath lost a dearer thing than life, 

And he hath won what he would lose again. 

This forced league doth force a further strife ; 

This momentary joy breeds months of pain ; 690 

This hot desire converts to cold disdain ; 
Pure Chastity is rifled of her store, 
And Lust, the thief, far poorer than before. 

Look, as the full-fed hound or gorged hawk, 
Unapt for tender smell or speedy flight, 
Make slow pursuit, or altogether balk 
The prey wherein by nature they delight, 
So surfeit-taking Tarquin fares this night ; 

124 Shakespeare's Poems 

His taste delicious, in digestion souring, 

Devours his will that liv'd by foul devouring. 700 

O, deeper sin than bottomless conceit 

Can comprehend in still imagination I 

Drunken Desire must vomit his receipt 

Ere he can see his own abomination. 

While Lust is in his pride, no exclamation 
Can curb his heat or rein his rash desire 
Till like a jade Self-will himself doth tire. 

And then with lank and lean discolour'd cheek, 
With heavy eye, knit brow, and strengthless pace, 
Feeble Desire, all recreant, poor, and meek, 710 

Like to a bankrupt beggar wails his case. 
The flesh being proud, Desire doth fight with Grace, 

For there it revels ; and when that decays, 

The guilty rebel for remission prays. 

So fares it with this faultful lord of Rome 

Who this accomplishment so hotly chas'd ; 

For now against himself he sounds this doom, 

That through the length of times he stands disgrac'd. 

Besides, his soul's fair temple is defac'd, 

To whose weak ruins muster troops of cares 720 

To ask the spotted princess how she fares. 

She says her subjects with foul insurrection 
Have batter 'd down her consecrated wall, 

The Rape of Lucrece 125 

And by their mortal fault brought in subjection 

Her immortality, and made her thrall 

To living death and pain perpetual, 

Which in her prescience she controlled still, 
But her foresight could not forestall their will. 

Even in this thought through the dark night he stealeth, 
A captive victor that hath lost in gain ; 730 

Bearing away the wound that nothing healeth, 
The scar that will, despite of cure, remain ; 
Leaving his spoil perplex'd in greater pain. 

She bears the load of lust he left behind, 

And he the burthen of a guilty mind. 

He like a thievish dog creeps sadly thence ; 

She like a wearied lamb lies panting there ; 

He scowls and hates himself for his offence ; 

She, desperate, with her nails her flesh doth tear ; 

He faintly flies, sweating with guilty fear ; 740 

She stays, exclaiming on the direful night ; 

He runs, and chides his vanish'd, loath'd delight. 

He thence departs a heavy convertite ; 

She there remains a hopeless castaway ; 

He in his speed looks for the morning light ; 

She prays she never may behold the day, 

* For day,' quoth she, ' night's scapes doth open lay, 

And my true eyes have never practis'd how 

To cloak offences with a cunning brow. 

126 Shakespeare's Poems 

1 They think not but that every eye can see 75 

The same disgrace which they themselves behold, 
And therefore would they still in darkness be, 
To have their unseen sin remain untold ; 
For they their guilt with weeping will unfold, 
And grave, like water that doth eat in steel, 
Upon my cheeks what helpless shame I feel.' 

Here she exclaims against repose and rest, 

And bids her eyes hereafter still be blind ; 

She wakes her heart by beating on her breast, 

And bids it leap from thence, where it may find 760 

Some purer chest to close so pure a mind. 

Frantic with grief thus breathes she forth her spite 

Against the unseen secrecy of night : 

' O comfort-killing Night, image of hell 1 
Dim register and notary of shame 1 
Black stage for tragedies and murthers fell 1 
Vast sin-concealing chaos ! nurse of blame ! 
Blind muffled bawd 1 dark harbour for defame ! 
Grim cave of death ! whispering conspirator 
With close-tongu'd treason and the ravisher ! - 770 

' O hateful, vaporous, and foggy Night I 
Since thou art guilty of my cureless crime, 
Muster thy mists to meet the eastern light, 
Make war against proportion 'd course of time ; 
Or if thou wilt permit the sun to climb 

The Rape of Lucrece 127 

His wonted height, yet ere he go to bed 
Knit poisonous clouds about his golden head. 

' With rotten damps ravish the morning air ; 

Let their exhaPd unwholesome breaths make sick 

The life of purity, the supreme fair, 780 

Ere he arrive his weary noon-tide prick ; 

And let thy misty vapours march so thick 
That in their smoky ranks his smother'd light 
May set at noon and make perpetual night. 

' Were Tarquin Night, as he is but Night's child, 
The silver-shining queen he would distain ; 
Her twinkling handmaids too, by him defil'd, 
Through Night's black bosom should not peep again. 
So should I have co-partners in my pain, 

And fellowship in woe doth woe assuage, 790 

As palmers' chat makes short their pilgrimage ; 

' Where now I have no one to blush with me, 
To cross their arms and hang their heads with mine, 
To mask their brows and hide their infamy, 
But I alone alone must sit and pine, 
Seasoning the earth with showers of silver brine, 
Mingling my talk with tears, my grief with groans, 
Poor wasting monuments of lasting moans. 

' O Night, thou furnace of foul-reeking smoke, 

Let not the jealous Day behold that face Soo 

128 Shakespeare's Poems 

Which underneath thy black all-hiding cloak 

Immodestly lies martyr 'd with disgrace ! 

Keep still possession of thy gloomy place, 

That all the faults which in thy reign are made 
May likewise be sepulchred in thy shade 1 

' Make me not object to the tell-tale Day ! 

The light will show, charactered in my brow, 

The story of sweet chastity's decay, 

The impious breach of holy wedlock vow ; 

Yea, the illiterate, that know not how Sio 

To cipher what is writ in learned books, 
Will quote my loathsome trespass in my looks. 

e The nurse, to still her child, will tell my story, 
And fright her crying babe with Tarquin's name ; 
The orator, to deck his oratory, 
Will couple my reproach to Tarquin's shame ; 
Feast-finding minstrels, tuning my defame, 

Will tie the hearers to attend each line, 

How Tarquin wronged me, I Collatine. 

4 Let my good name, that senseless reputation, 820 

For Collatine's dear love be kept unspotted ; 
If that be made a theme for disputation, 
The branches of another root are rotted, 
And undeserv'd reproach to him allotted 

That is as clear from this attaint of mine 

As I, ere this, was pure to Collatine. 

The Rape of Lucrece 129 

1 O unseen shame ! invisible disgrace ! 

unfelt sore 1 crest-wounding, private scar! 
Reproach is stamp'd in Collatinus' face, 

And Tarquin's eye may read the mot afar, 830 

How he in peace is wounded, not in war. 
Alas, how many bear such shameful blows, 
Which not themselves, but he that gives them knows ! 

1 If, Collatine, thine honour lay in me, 
From me by strong assault it is bereft. 
My honey lost, and I, a drone-like bee, 
Have no perfection of my summer left, 

But robb'd and ransack'd by injurious theft ; 
In thy weak hive a wandering wasp hath crept, 
And suck'd the honey which thy chaste bee kept. 

* Yet am I guilty of thy honour's wrack ; 841 

Yet for thy honour did I entertain him ; 

Coming from thee, I could not put him back, 

For it had been dishonour to disdain him. 

Besides, of weariness he did complain him, 
And talk'd of virtue ; O unlook'd-for evil, 
When virtue is profan'd in such a devil 1 

1 Why shoxild the worm intrude the maiden bud ? 
Or hateful cuckoos hatch in sparrows' nests ? 
Or toads infect fair founts with venom mud ? 850 

Or tyrant folly lurk in gentle breasts ? 
Or kings be breakers of their own behests ? 

130 Shakespeare's Poems 

But no perfection is so absolute 
That some impurity doth not pollute. 

* The aged man that coffers up his gold 

Is plagued with cramps and gouts and painful fits, 

And scarce hath eyes his treasure to behold ; 

But like still-pining Tantalus he sits, 

And useless barns the harvest of his wits, 

Having no other pleasure of his gain 860 

But torment that it cannot cure his pain. 

4 So then he hath it when he cannot use it, 

And leaves it to be master'd by his young, 

Who in their pride do presently abuse it ; 

Their father was too weak, and they too strong, 

To hold their cursed-blessed fortune long. 
The sweets we wish for turn to loathed sours 
Even in the moment that we call them ours. 

4 Unruly blasts wait on the tender spring ; 
Unwholesome weeds take root with precious flowers ; 
The adder hisses where the sweet birds sing ; 871 

What virtue breeds iniquity devours. 
We have no good that we can say is ours 

But ill-annexed Opportunity 

Or kills his life or else his quality. 

( O Opportunity, thy guilt is great ! 

J T is thou that execut'st the traitor's treason ; 

The Rape of Lucrece 131 

Thou set'st the wolf where he the lamb may get ; 

Whoever plots the sin, thou point'st the season ; 

'T is thou that spurn 'st at right, at law, at reason ; 880 
And in thy shady cell, where none may spy him, 
Sits Sin, to seize the souls that wander by him. 

' Thou mak'st the vestal violate her oath ; 

Thou blow'st the fire when temperance is thaw'd ; 

Thou smother 'st honesty, thou murther'st troth ; 

Thou foul abettor ! thou notorious bawd ! 

Thou plantest scandal and displacest laud ; 
Thou ravisher, thou traitor, thou false thief, 
Thy honey turns to gall, thy joy to grief 1 

Thy secret pleasure turns to open shame, 890 

Thy private feasting to a public fast, 

Thy smoothing titles to a ragged name, 

Thy sugar'd tongue to bitter wormwood taste ; 

Thy violent vanities can never last. 
How comes it then, vile Opportunity, 
Being so bad, such numbers seek for thee ? 

* When wilt thou be the humble suppliant's friend, 
And bring him where his suit may be obtain'd ? 
When wilt thou sort an hour great strifes to end ? 
Or free that soul which wretchedness hath chain 'd ? 
Give physic to the sick, ease to the pain'd ? 901 

The poor, lame, blind, halt, creep, cry out for thee, 

But they ne'er meet with Opportunity. 

132. Shakespeare's Poems 

( The patient dies while the physician sleeps ; 

The orphan pines while the oppressor feeds ; 

Justice is feasting while the widow weeps ; 

Advice is sporting while infection breeds. 

Thou grant'st no time for charitable deeds ; 

Wrath, envy, treason, rape, and murther's rages, 
Thy heinous hours wait on them as their pages. 910 

* When Truth and Virtue have to do with thee, 
A thousand crosses keep them from thy aid. 
They buy thy help ; but Sin ne'er gives a fee, 
He gratis comes ; and thou art well appaid 
As well to hear as grant what he hath said. 
My Collatine would else have come to me 
When Tarquin did, but he was stay'd by thee. 

c Guilty thou art of murther and of theft, 

Guilty of perjury and subornation, 

Guilty of treason, forgery, and shift, 920 

Guilty of incest, that abomination ; 

An accessary by thine inclination 

To all sins past and all that are to come, 

From the creation to t'he general doom. 

c Misshapen Time, copes mate of ugly Night, 

Swift subtle post, carrier of grisly care, 

Eater of youth, false slave to false delight, 

Ease watch of woes, sin's pack-horse, virtue's snare, 

Thou nursest all and murther 'st all that are ; 

The Rape of Lucrece 133 

O, hear me then, injurious, shifting Time 1 930 

Be guilty of my death, since of my crime. 

1 Why hath thy servant, Opportunity, 
Betray 'd the hours thou gav'st me to repose, 
Cancell'd my fortunes, and enchained me 
To endless date of never-ending woes ? 
Time's office is to fine the hate of foes, 

To eat up errors by opinion bred, 

Not spend the dowry of a lawful bed. 

* Time's glory is to calm contending kings, 

To unmask falsehood and bring truth to light, 940 

To stamp the seal of time in aged things, 

To wake the morn and sentinel the night, 

To wrong the wronger till he render right, 
To ruinate proud buildings with thy hours, 
And smear with dust their glittering golden towers ; 

* To fill with worm-holes stately monuments, 
To feed oblivion with decay of things, 

To blot old books and alter their contents, 
To pluck the quills from ancient ravens' wings, 
To dry the old oak's sap and cherish springs, 950 

To spoil antiquities of hammer'd steel, 
And turn the giddy round of Fortune's wheel ; 

' To show the beldam daughters of her daughter, 
To make the child a man, the man a child, 

1 34 Shakespeare's Poems 

To slay the tiger that doth live by slaughter, 

To tame the unicorn and lion wild, 

To mock the subtle in themselves beguiPd, 

To cheer the ploughman with increaseful crops, 
And waste huge stones with little water-drops. 

' Why work'st thou mischief in thy pilgrimage, 960 

Unless thou couldst return to make amends ? 

One poor retiring minute in an age 

Would purchase thee a thousand thousand friends, 

Lending him wit that to bad debtors lends ; 

O, this dread night, wouldst thou one hour come 

I could prevent this storm and shun thy wrack ! 

' Thou ceaseless lackey to eternity, 

With some mischance cross Tarquin in his flight ; 

Devise extremes beyond extremity, 

To make him curse this cursed crimeful night ; 970 

Let ghastly shadows his lewd eyes affright, 
And the dire thought of his committed evil 
Shape every bush a hideous shapeless devil, 

' Disturb his hours of rest with restless trances, 

Afflict him in his bed with bedrid groans ; 

Let there bechance him pitiful mischances, 

To make him moan, but pity not his moans ; 

Stone him with harden J d hearts, harder than stones ; 
And let mild women to him lose their mildness, 
Wilder to him than tigers in their wildness. 980 

The Rape of Lucrece 135 

1 Let him have time to tear his curled hair, 
Let him have time against himself to rave, 
Let him have time of Time's help to despair, 
Let him have time to live a loathed slave, 
Let him have time a beggar's orts to crave, 
And time to see one that by alms doth live 
Disdain to him disdained scraps to give. 

1 Let him have time to see his friends his foes, 

And merry fools to mock at him resort ; 

Let him have time to mark how slow time goes 990 

In time of sorrow, and how swift and short 

His time of folly and his .time of sport ; 
And ever let his unrecalling crime 
Have time to wail the abusing of his time. 

' O Time, thou tutor both to good and bad, 

Teach me to curse him that thou taught'st this ill ! 

At his own shadow let the thief run mad, 

Himself himself seek every hour to kill ! 

Such wretched hands such wretched blood should spill ; 
For who so base would such an office have 1000 

As slanderous deathsman to so base a slave ? 

* The baser is he, coming from a king, 
To shame his hope with deeds degenerate ; 
The mightier man, the mightier is the thing 
That makes him honour'd or begets him hate, 
For greatest scandal waits on greatest state. 

136 Shakespeare's Poems 

The moon being clouded presently is miss'd, 
But little stars may hide them when they list. 

* The crow may bathe his coal-black wings in mire 

And unperceiv'd fly with the filth away, 1010 

But if the like the snow-white swan desire, 

The stain upon his silver down will stay. 

Poor grooms are sightless night, kings glorious day ; 

Gnats are unnoted wheresoe'er they fly, 

But eagles gaz'd upon with every eye. 

1 Out, idle words, servants to shallow fools ! 
Unprofitable sounds, weak arbitrators 1 
Busy yourselves in skill-contending schools, 
Debate where leisure serves with dull debaters ; 
To trembling clients be you mediators. 1020 

For me, I force not argument a straw, 
Since that my case is past the help of law. 

1 In vain I rail at Opportunity, 

At Time, at Tarquin, and un cheerful Night ; 

In vain I cavil with mine infamy, 

In vain I spurn at my confirm 'd despite ; 

This helpless smoke of words doth me no right. 

The remedy indeed to do me good 

Is to let forth my foul-defiled blood. 

' Poor hand, why quiver's! thou at this decree ? 1030 
Honour thyself to rid me of this shame ; 

The Rape of Lucrece 137 

For if I die, my honour lives in thee, 

But if I live, thou liv'st in my defame. 

Since thou couldst not defend thy loyal dame 
And wast afeard to scratch her wicked foe, 
Kill both thyself and her for yielding so.' 

This said, from her betumbled couch she starteth, 
To find some desperate instrument of death ; 
But this no slaughter-house no tool imparteth 
To make more vent for passage of her breath, 1040 

Which, thronging through her lips, so vanisheth 
As smoke from ./Etna, that in air consumes, 
Or that which from discharged cannon fumes. 

1 In vain, 3 quoth she, ' I live, and seek in vain 
Some happy mean to end a hapless life. 
I fear'd by Tarquin's falchion to be slain, 
Yet for the selfsame purpose seek a knife. 
But when I fear'd I was a loyal wife ; 

So am I now O no, that cannot be ! 

Of that true type hath Tarquin rifled me. 1050 

* O, that is gone for which I sought to live, 

And therefore now I need not fear to die ! 

To clear this spot by death, at least I give 

A badge of fame to slander's livery, 

A dying life to living infamy ; 

Poor helpless help, the treasure stolen away, 
To burn the guiltless casket where it lay ! 

138 Shakespeare's Poems 

fi Well, well, dear Collatine, thou shalt not know 

The stained taste of violated troth ; 

I will not wrong thy true affection so, 1060 

To flatter thee with an infringed oath ; 

This bastard graft shall never come to growth. 

He shall not boast who did thy stock pollute 

That thou art doting father of his fruit. 

< Nor shall he smile at thee in secret thought, 
Nor laugh with his companions at thy state ; 
But thou shalt know thy interest was not bought 
Basely with gold, but stolen from forth thy gate. 
For me, I am the mistress of my fate, 

And with my trespass never will dispense 1070 

Till life to death acquit my forc'd offence. 

' I will not poison thee with my attaint, 
Nor fold my fault in cleanly-coin'd excuses; 
My sable ground of sin I will not paint, 
To hide the truth of this false night's abuses. 
My tongue shall utter all ; mine eyes, like sluices, 
As from a mountain-spring that feeds a dale, 
Shall gush pure streams to purge my impure tale.' 

By this, lamenting Philomel had ended 

The well-tun s d warble of her nightly sorrow, 1080 

And solemn night with slow sad gait descended 

To ugly hell; when, lo, the blushing morrow 

Lends light to all fair eyes that light will borrow, 

The Rape of Lucrece 139 

But cloudy Lucrece shames herself to see 
And therefore still in night would cloister'd be. 

Revealing day through every cranny spies 
And seems to point her out where she sits weeping, 
To whom she sobbing speaks : ' O eye of eyes, 
Why pry'st thou through my window ? leave thy peep- 
ing ; 1089 
Mock with thy tickling beams eyes that are sleeping ; 
Brand not my forehead with thy piercing light, 
For day hath nought to do what 's done by night.' 

Thus cavils she with every thing she sees. 

True grief is fond and testy as a child, 

Who wayward once, his mood with nought agrees ; 

Old woes, not infant sorrows, bear them mild. 

Continuance tames the one ; the other wild, 
Like an unpractised swimmer plunging still, 
With too much labour drowns for want of skill. 

So she, deep-drenched in a sea of care, noo 

Holds disputation with each thing she views, 
And to herself all sorrow doth compare ; 
No object but her passion's strength renews, 
And as one shifts another straight ensues ; 

Sometime her grief is dumb and hath no words, 
Sometime 't is mad and too much talk affords. 

The little birds that tune their morning's joy 
Make her moans mad with their sweet melody. 

140 Shakespeare's Poems 

For mirth doth search the bottom of annoy ; 

Sad souls are slain in merry company; mo 

Grief best is pleas'cl with grief's society ; 
True sorrow then is feelingly suffic'd 
When with like semblance it is sympathiz'd. 

'T is double death to drown in ken of shore ; 
He ten times pines that pines beholding food ; 
To see the salve doth make the wound ache more ; 
Great grief grieves most at that would do it good ; 
Deep woes roll forward like a gentle flood, 

Who, being stopp'd, the bounding banks overflows ; 

Grief dallied with nor law nor limit knows. 1120 

' You mocking birds,' quoth she, 'your tunes entomb 
Within your hollow-swelling feather'd breasts, 
And in my hearing be you mute and dumb ; 
My restless discord loves no stops nor rests ; 
A woeful hostess brooks not merry guests. 

Relish your nimble notes to pleasing ears ; 

Distress likes dumps when time is kept with tears. 

1 Come, Philomel, that sing'st of ravishment, 

Make thy sad grove in my dishevell'd hair. 

As the dank earth weeps at thy languishment, 1130 

So I at each sad strain will strain a tear, 

And with deep groans the diapason bear ; 
For burden-wise I '11 hum on Tarquin still, 
While thou ,on Tereus descant'st better skill. 

The Rape of Lucrece 141 

'And whiles against a thorn thou bear'st thy part, 
To keep thy sharp woes waking, wretched I, 
To imitate thee well, against my heart 
Will fix a sharp knife to affright mine eye, 
Who, if it wink, shall thereon fall and die. 

These means, as frets upon an instrument, 1140 

Shall tune our heart-strings to true languishment. 

1 And for, poor bird, thou sing'st not in the day, 
As shaming any eye should thee behold, 
Some dark deep desert, seated from the way, 
That knows not parching heat nor freezing cold, 
Will we find out, and there we will unfold 

To creatures stern sad tunes, to change their kinds ; 

Since men prove beasts, let beasts bear gentle minds.' 

As the poor frighted deer, that stands at gaze, 

Wildly determining which way to fly, 1150 

Or one encompassed with a winding maze, 

That cannot tread the way out readily, 

So with herself is she in mutiny, 

To live or die which of the twain were better, 
When life is sham'd, and death reproach's debtor. 

* To kill myself,' quoth she, c alack, what were it 
But with my body my poor soul's pollution ? 
They that lose half with greater patience bear it 
Than they whose whole is swallow 'd in confusion. 
That mother tries a merciless conclusion 1160 

142. Shakespeare's Poems 

Who, having two sweet babes, when death takes one, 
Will slay the other and be nurse to none. 

' My body or my soul, which was the dearer, 
When the one pure the other made divine ? 
Whose love of either to myself was nearer 
When both were kept for heaven and Collatine ? 
Ay me 1 the bark peel'd from the lofty pine, 

His leaves will wither and his sap decay ; 

So must my soul, her bark being peel'd away. 

* Her house is sack'd, her quiet interrupted, 1170 

Her mansion batter'd by the enemy ; 

Her sacred temple spotted, spoil'd, corrupted, 

Grossly engirt with daring infamy. 

Then let it not be call'd impiety, 

If in this blemish 'd fort I make some hole 
Through which I may convey this troubled soul. 

' Yet die I will not till my Collatine 

Have heard the cause of my untimely death, 

That he may vow, in that sad hour of mine, 

Revenge on him that made me stop my breath. nSo 

My stained blood to Tarquin I '11 bequeath, 

Which by him tainted shall for him be spent 

And as his due writ in my testament. 

' My honour I '11 bequeath unto the knife 
That wounds my body so dishonoured. 

The Rape of Lucrece 143 

T is honour to deprive dishonoured life ; 
The one will live, the other being dead. 
So of shame's ashes shall my fame be bred, 

For in my death I murther shameful scorn ; 

My shame so dead, mine honour is new-born. 1190 

' Dear lord of that dear jewel I have lost, 

What legacy shall I bequeath to thee ? 

My resolution, love, shall be thy boast, 

By whose example thou reveng'd mayst be. 

How Tarquin must be us'd, read it in me ; 
Myself, thy friend, will kill myself, thy foe, 
And for my sake serve thou false Tarquin so. 

c This brief abridgement of my will I make : 
My soul and body to the skies and ground ; 
My resolution, husband, do thou take ; 1200 

Mine honour be the knife's that makes my wound ; 
My shame be his that did my fame confound ; 
And all my fame that lives disbursed be 
To those that live and think no shame of rne. 

c Thou, Collatine, shalt oversee this will ; 
How was I overseen that thou shalt see it 1 
My blood shall wash the slander of mine ill ; 
My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it. 
Faint not, faint heart, but stoutly say " So be it." 1209 

Yield to my hand ; my hand shall conquer thee. 

Thou dead, both die, and both shall victors be.' 

144 Shakespeare's Poems 

This plot of death when sadly she had laid, 
And wip'd the brinish pearl from her bright eyes, 
With untun'd tongue she hoarsely calls her maid, 
Whose swift obedience to her mistress hies ; 
For fleet-wing'd duty with thought's feathers flies. 
Poor Lucrece' cheeks unto her maid seem so 
As winter meads when sun doth melt their snow. 

Her mistress she doth give demure good-morrow, 
With soft-slow tongue, true mark of modesty, 1220 

And sorts a sad look to her lady's sorrow ; 
For why, her face wore sorrow's livery, 
But durst not ask of her audaciously 

Why her two suns were cloud-eclipsed so, 
Nor why her fair cheeks over-wash ? d with woe. 

But as the earth doth weep, the sun being set, 

Each flower moisten'd like a melting eye, 

Even so the maid with swelling drops gan wet 

Her circled eyne, enforc'd by sympathy 

Of those fair suns set in her mistress' sky, 1230 

Who in a salt-wav'd ocean quench their light, 
Which makes the maid weep like the dewy night. 

A pretty while these pretty creatures stand, 
Like ivory conduits coral cisterns filling. 
One justly weeps ; the other takes in hand 
No cause, but company, of her drops spilling. 
Their gentle sex to weep are often willing, 

The Rape of Lucrece 145 

Grieving themselves to guess at others' smarts, 

And then they drown their eyes or break their hearts. 

For men have marble, women waxen minds, 1240 

And therefore are they form'd as marble will ; 
The weak oppress'd, the impression of strange kinds 
Is form'd in them by force, by fraud, or skill. 
Then call them not the authors of their ill, 
No more than wax shall be accounted evil 
Wherein is starnp'd the semblance of a devil. 

Their smoothness, like a goodly champaign plain, 
Lays open all the little worms that creep ; 
In men, as in a rough-grown grove, remain 
Cave-keeping evils that obscurely sleep. 1250 

Through crystal walls each little mote will peep ; 

Though men can cover crimes with bold stern looks, 
Poor women's faces are their own faults' books. 

No man inveigh against the wither 'd flower, 
But chide rough winter that the flower hath kill'd ; 
Not that devour'd, but that which doth devour, 
Is worthy blame. O, let it not be hild 
Poor women's faults that they are so fulfill' d 

With men's abuses ! those proud lords, to blame, 
Make weak-made women tenants to their shame. 

The precedent whereof in Lucrece view, 1261 

AssaiPd by night with circumstances strong 

146 Shakespeare's Poems 

Of present death, and shame that might ensue 
By that her death to do her husband wrong. 
Such danger to resistance did belong- 
That dying fear through all her body spread ; 
And who cannot abuse a body dead ? 

By this, mild patience bid fair Lucrece speak 
To the poor counterfeit of her complaining. 
' My girl,' quoth she, ' on what occasion break 1270 

Those tears from thee that down thy cheeks are rain- 
ing ? 
If thou dost weep for grief of my sustaining, 

Know, gentle wench, it small avails my mood ; 

If tears could help, mine own would do me good. 

' But tell me, girl, when went ' and there she stay'd 
Till after a deep groan { Tarquin from hence ? ' 
1 Madam, ere I was up,' replied the maid, 
' The more to blame my sluggard negligence ; 
Yet with the fault I thus far can dispense, 

Myself was stirring ere the break of day, 1280 

And ere I rose was Tarquin gone away. 

' But, lady, if your maid may be so bold, 
She would request to know your heaviness.' 
' O, peace I ' quoth Lucrece : ' if it should be told, 
The repetition cannot make it less, 
For more it is than I can well express ; 
And that deep torture may be call'd a hell 
When more is felt than one hath power to tell. 

The Rape of Lucrece 147 

' Go, get me hither paper, ink, and pen 

Yet save that labour, for I have them here. 1290 

What should I say ? One of my husband's men 

Bid thou be ready, by and by, to bear 

A letter to my lord, my love, my dear. 

Bid him with speed prepare to carry it ; 

The cause craves haste, and it will soon be writ,' 

Her maid is gone, and she prepares to write, 

First hovering o'er the paper with her quill. 

Conceit and grief an eager combat fight ; 

What wit sets down is blotted straight with will ; 

This is too curious-good, this blunt and ill ; 1300 

Much like a press of people at a door, 
Throng her inventions, which shall go before. 

At last she thus begins : ' Thou worthy lord 
Of that unworthy wife that greeteth thee, 
Health to thy person ! next vouchsafe t ? afford 
If ever, love, thy Lucrece thou wilt see 
Some present speed to come and visit me. 

So, I commend me from our house in grief ; 

My woes are tedious, though my words are brief.' 

Here folds she up the tenor of her woe, 1310 

Her certain sorrow writ uncertainly. 

By this short schedule Collatine may know 

Her grief, but not her grief's true quality ; 

She dares not thereof make discovery, 

148 Shakespeare's Poems 

Lest he should hold it her own gross abuse, 

Ere she with blood had stain'd her stain 'd excuse. 

Besides, the life and feeling of her passion 
She hoards, to spend when he is by to hear her ; 
When sighs and groans and tears may grace the fashion 
Of her disgrace, the better so to clear her 1320 

From that suspicion which the world might bear her. 
To shun this blot, she would not blot the letter 
With words till action might become them better. 

To see .sad sights moves more than hear them told ; 

For then the eye interprets to the ear 

The heavy motion that it doth behold, 

When every part a part of woe doth bear. 

J T is but a part of sorrow that we hear ; 

Deep sounds make lesser noise than shallow fords, 
And sorrow ebbs, being blown with wind of words. 

Her letter now is seal'd, and on it writ 133! 

* At Ardea to my lord with more than haste.' 
The post attends, and she delivers it, 
Charging the sour-fac'd groom to hie as fast 
As lagging fowls before the northern blast. 

Speed more than speed but dull and slow she deems ; 

Extremity still urgeth such extremes. 

The homely villain curtsies to her low, 
And, blushing on her, with a steadfast eye 

The Rape of Lucrece 149 

Receives the scroll without or yea or no 1340 

And forth with bashful innocence doth hie. 
But they whose guilt within their bosoms lie 

Imagine every eye beholds their blame ; 

For Lucrece thought he blush'd to see her shame, 

When, silly groom 1 God wot, it was defect 

Of spirit, life, and bold audacity. 

Such harmless creatures have a true respect 

To talk in deeds, while others saucily 

Promise more speed, but do it leisurely ; 

Even so this pattern of the worn-out age 1350 

Pawn'd honest looks, but laid no words to gage. 

His kindled duty kindled her mistrust, 
That two red fires in both their faces blaz'd ; 
She thought he blush'd, as knowing Tarquin's lust, 
And, blushing with him, wistly on him gaz'd. 
Her earnest eye did make him more amaz'd; 

The more she saw the blood his cheeks replenish, 
The more she thought he spied in her some blemish. 

But long she thinks till he return again, 

And yet the duteous vassal scarce is gone. 1360 

The weary time she cannot entertain, 

For now 't is stale to sigh, to weep, and groan ; 

So woe hath wearied woe, moan tired moan, 
That she her plaints a little while doth stay, 
Pausing for means to mourn some newer way. 

i jo Shakespeare's Poems 

At last she calls to mind where hangs a piece 
Of skilful painting, made for Priam's Troy, 
Before the which is drawn the power of Greece, 
For Helen's rape the city to destroy, 
Threatening cloud-kissing Ilion with annoy, 1370 

Which the conceited painter drew so proud 
As heaven, it seem'd, to kiss the turrets bow'd. 

A thousand lamentable objects there, 

In scorn of nature, art gave lifeless life. 

Many a dry drop seem'd a weeping tear, 

Shed for the slaughter'd husband by the wife ; 

The red blood reek'd, to show the painter's strife, 
And dying eyes gleam 'd forth their ashy lights, 
Like dying coals burnt out in tedious nights. 

There might you see the labouring pioneer 1380 

Begrim'd with sweat and smeared all with dust ; 
And from the towers of Troy there would appear 
The very eyes of men through loop-holes thrust, 
Gazing upon the Greeks with little lust. 

Such sweet observance in this work was had 
That one might see those far-off eyes look sad. 

In great commanders grace and majesty 

You might behold, triumphing in their faces ; 

In youth, quick bearing and dexterity ; 

And here and there the painter interlaces 1390 

Pale cowards, marching on with trembling paces, 

The Rape of Lucrece 151 

Which heartless peasants did so well resemble 
That one would swear he saw them quake and tremble. 

In Ajax and Ulysses, O, what art 

Of physiognomy might one behold ! 

The face of either ciphered either's heart, 

Their face their manners most expressly told ; 

In Ajax' eyes blunt rage and rigour roll'd, 
But the mild glance that sly Ulysses lent 
Show'd deep regard and smiling government. 1400 

There pleading might you see grave Nestor stand, 
As 't were encouraging the Greeks to fight, 
Making such sober action with his hand 
That it beguil'd attention, charm'd the sight; 
In speech, it seem'd, his beard, all silver white, 
Wagg'd up and down, and from his lips did fly 
Thin winding breath which purl'd up to the sky. 

About him were a press of gaping faces, 
Which seem'd to swallow up his sound advice ; 
All jointly listening, but with several graces, 1410 

As if some mermaid did their ears entice, 
Some high, some low, the painter was so nice ; 
The scalps of many, almost hid behind, 
To jump up higher seem'd, to mock the mind. 

Here one man's hand leaned on another's head, 
His nose being shadow'd by his neighbour's ear ; 

152. Shakespeare's Poems 

Here one being throng'd bears back, all bollen and red ; 

Another smother'd seems to pelt and swear ; 

And in their rage such signs of rage they bear 

As, but for loss of Nestor's golden words, 1420 

It seem'd they would debate with angry swords. 

For much imaginary work was there, 
Conceit deceitful, so compact, so kind, 
That for Achilles' image stood his spear, 
Gripp'd in an armed hand ; himself, behind, 
Was left unseen, save to the eye of mind.; 

A hand, a foot, a face, a leg, a head, 

Stood for the whole to be imagined. 

And from the walls of strong-besieged Troy 
When their brave hope, bold Hector, march 'd to field, 
Stood many Trojan mothers, sharing joy 1431 

To see their youthful sons bright weapons wield ; 
And to their hope they such odd action yield 
That through their light joy seemed to appear, 
Like bright things stain'd, a kind of heavy fear. 

And from the strand of Dardan where they fought 
To Simois' reedy banks the red blood ran, 
Whose waves to imitate the battle sought 
With swelling ridges ; and their ranks began 
To break upon the galled shore, and than 1440 

Retire again, till, meeting greater ranks, 
They join and shoot their foam at Simois' banks. 

The Rape of Lucrece i 53 

To this well-painted piece is Lucrece come, 
To find a face where all distress is stell'd. 
Many she sees where cares have carved some, 
But none where all distress and dolour dwell'd 
Till she despairing Hecuba beheld, 

Staring on Priam's wounds with her old eyes, 
Which bleeding under Pyrrhus' proud foot lies. 

In her the painter had anatomiz'd 1450 

Time's ruin, beauty's wrack, and grim care's reign. 
Her cheeks with chaps and wrinkles were disguis'd ; 
Of what she was no semblance did remain. 
Her blue blood, chang'd to black in every vein, 

Wanting the spring that those shrunk pipes had fed, 

Show'd life imprison 'd in a body dead. 

On this sad shadow Lucrece spends her eyes 

And shapes her sorrow to the beldam's woes, 

Who nothing wants to answer her but cries, 

And bitter words to ban her cruel foes. 1460 

The painter was no god to lend her those ; 

And therefore Lucrece swears he did her wrong, 
To give her so much grief and not a tongue. 

' Poor instrument,' quoth she, ' without a sound, 
I '11 tune thy woes with my lamenting tongue, 
And drop sweet balm in Priam's painted wound, 
And rail on Pyrrhus that hath done him wrong, 
And with my tears quench Troy that burns so long, 

1 54 Shakespeare's Poems 

And with my knife scratch out the angry eyes 

Of all the Greeks that are thine enemies, 1470 

' Show me the strumpet that began this stir, 
That with my nails her beauty I may tear. 
Thy heat of lust, fond Paris, did incur 
This load of wrath that burning Troy doth bear ; 
Thy eye kindled the lire that burneth here ; 
And here in Troy, for trespass of thine eye, 
The sire, the son, the dame, and daughter die. 

' Why should the private pleasure of some one 

Become the public plague of many moe ? 

Let sin, alone committed, light alone 1480 

Upon his head that hath transgressed so ; 

Let guiltless souls be freed from guilty woe. 

For one's offence why should so in any fall, 

To plague a private sin in general ? 

1 Lo, here weeps Hecuba, here Priam dies, 
Here manly Hector faints, here Troilus swounds, 
Here friend by friend in bloody channel lies. 
And friend to friend gives unadvised wounds, 
And one man's lust these many lives confounds ; 

Had doting Priam check'd his son's desire, 1490 

Troy had been bright with tame and not with fire.' 

Here feelingly she weeps Troy's painted woes, 
For sorrow, like a heavy-hanging bell, 

The Rape of Lucrece 155 

Once set on ringing, with his own weight goes ; 
Then little strength rings out the doleful knell. 
So Lucrece, set a-work, sad tales doth tell 

To penciled pensiveness and coloured sorrow ; 

She lends them words, and she their looks doth 

She throws her eyes about the painting round, 
And who she finds forlorn she doth lament. 1500 

At last she sees a wretched image bound 
That piteous looks to Phrygian shepherds lent. 
His face, though full of cares, yet show'd content ; 
Onward to Troy with the blunt swains he goes, 
So mild that Patience seem'd to scorn his woes. 

In him the painter labour'd with his skill 
To hide deceit, and give the harmless show 
An humble gait, calm looks, eyes wailing still, 
A brow unbent that seem'd to welcome woe ; 
Cheeks neither red nor pale, but mingled so 1510 

That blushing red no guilty instance gave, 
Nor ashy pale the fear that false hearts have. 

But, like a constant and confirmed devil, 

He entertain'd a show so seeming just, 

And therein so ensconc'd his secret evil, 

That jealousy itself could not mistrust 

False-creeping craft and perjury should thrust 
Into so bright a day such black-fac'd storms, 
Or blot with hell-born sin such saint-like forms. 

156 Shakespeare's Poems 

The well-skilPd workman this mild image drew 
For perjur'd Sinon, whose enchanting story 
The credulous old Priam after slew ; 
Whose words like wildfire burnt the shining glory 
Of rich-built Ilion, that the skies were sorry, 
And little stars shot from their fixed places 
When their glass fell wherein they view'd their faces. 

This picture she advisedly perus'd, 
And chid the painter for his wondrous skill, 
Saying some shape in Sinon's was abus'd ; 
So fair a form lodg'd not a mind so ill. 1530 

And still on him she gaz'd ; and gazing still 
Such signs of truth in his plain face she spied 
That she concludes the picture was belied. 

' It cannot be,' quoth she, ' that so much guile ' 
She would have said ' can lurk in such a look ; ' 
But Tarquin's shape came in her mind the while, 
And from her tongue ' can lurk ' from ' cannot ' took. 
' It cannot be, 7 she in that sense forsook, 
And turn'd it thus : ' It cannot be, I find, 
But such a face should bear a wicked mind ; 1540 

* For even as subtle Sinon here is painted, 
So sober-sad, so weary, and so mild, 
As if with grief or travail he had fainted 
To me came Tarquin armed, so beguil'd 
With outward honesty, but yet defiPd 

The Rape of Lucrece 157 

With inward vice. As Priam him did cherish, 
So did I Tarquin ; so my Troy did perish. 

f ' Look, look, how listening Priam wets his eyes 

To see those borrow'd tears that Sinon sheds 1 

Priam, why art thou old and yet not wise ? 1550 

For every tear he falls a Trojan bleeds. 

His eye drops fire, no water thence proceeds ; 

Those round clear pearls of his that move thy pity 
Are balls of quenchless fire to burn thy city. 

* Such devils steal effects from lightless hell ; 

For Sinon in his fire doth quake with cold, 

And in that cold hot-burning fire doth dwell. 

These contraries such unity do hold 

Only to flatter fools and make them bold ; 

So Priam's trust false Sinon's tears doth flatter 1560 
That he finds means to burn his Troy with water.' 

Here, all enrag'd, such passion her assails 
That patience is quite beaten from her breast. 
She tears the senseless Sinon with her nails, 
Comparing him to that unhappy guest 
Whose deed hath made herself herself detest. 
At last she smilingly with this gives o'er : 
' Fool, fool 1 ' quoth she, ' his wounds will not be sore.' 

Thus ebbs and flows the current of her sorrow, 

And time doth weary time with her complaining. 1570 

158 Shakespeare's Poems 

She looks for night, and then she longs for morrow, 
And both she thinks too long with her remaining. 
Short time seems long in sorrow's sharp sustaining ; 
Though woe be heavy, yet it seldom sleeps, 
And they that watch see time how slow it creeps. 

Which all this time hath overslipp'd her thought 

That she with painted images hath spent ; 

Being from the feeling of her own grief brought 

By deep surmise of others' detriment, 

Losing her woes in shows of discontent. 1580 

It easeth some, though none it ever cur'd, 
To think their dolour others have endur'd. 

But now the mindful messenger, come back, 
Brings home his lord and other company, 
Who finds his Lucrece clad in mourning black; 
And round about her tear-distained eye 
Blue circles stream'd, like rainbows in the sky. 
These water-galls in her dim element 
Foretell new storms to those already spent, 

Which when her sad-beholding husband saw, 1590 

Amazedly in her sad face he stares ; 

Her eyes, though sod in tears, look'cl red and raw, 

Her lively colour kill'd with deadly cares. 

He hath no power to ask her how she fares ; 
Both stood, like old acquaintance in a tra-nce, 
Met far from home, wondering each other's chance. 

The Rape of Lucrece 159 

At last he takes her by the bloodless hand, 
And thus begins : * What uncouth ill event 
Hath thee befallen, that thou dost trembling stand? 
Sweet love, what spite hath thy fair colour spent? 1600 
Why art thou thus attir'd in discontent? 
Unmask, dear dear, this moody heaviness 
And tell thy grief, that we may give redress.' 

Three times with sighs she gives her sorrow fire 

Ere once she can discharge one word of woe ; 

At length address'd to answer his desire, 

She modestly prepares to let them know 

Her honour is ta'en prisoner by the foe, 
While Collatine and his consorted lords 
With sad attention long to hear her words. 1610 

And now this pale swan in her watery nest 
Begins the sad dirge of her certain ending. 
1 Few words,' quoth she, ' shall fit the trespass best 
Where no excuse can give the fault amending ; 
In me moe woes than words are now depending, 
And my laments would be drawn out too long 
To tell them all with one poor tired tongue. 

' Then be this all the task it hath to say : 

Dear husband, in the interest of thy bed 

A stranger came, and on that pillow lay 1620 

Where thou wast wont to rest thy weary head ; 

And what wrong else may be imagined 

160 Shakespeare's Poems 

By foul enforcement might be done to me, 
From that, alas, thy Lucrece is not free. 

c For in the dreadful dead of dark midnight, . 
With shining falchion in my chamber came 
A creeping creature, with a flaming light, 
And softly cried " Awake, thou Roman dame, 
And entertain my love ; else lasting shame 

On thee and thine this night I will inflict 1630 

If thou my love's desire do contradict. 

1 " For some hard-favour'd groom of thine," quoth he, 

" Unless thou yoke thy liking to my will, 

I '11 murther straight, and then I '11 slaughter thee 

And swear I found you where you did fulfil 

The loathsome act of lust, and so did kill 

The lechers in their deed ; this act will be 

My fame and thy perpetual infamy." 

t With this, I did begin to start and cry ; 

And then against my heart he sets his sword, 1640 

Swearing, unless I took all patiently, 

I should not live to speak another word ; 

So should my shame still rest upon record, 
And never be forgot in mighty Rome 
The adulterate death of Lucrece and her groom. 

' Mine enemy was strong, my poor self weak, 
And far the weaker with so strong a fear. 

The Rape of Lucr^gcg,,^ 161 

My bloody judge forbade my tongue to speak ; 
No rightful plea might plead for justice there. 
His scarlet lust came evidence to swear 1650 

That my poor beauty had purloin'd his eyes ; 

And when the judge is robb'd the prisoner dies. 

< O, teach me how to make mine own excuse ! 

Or at the least this refuge let me find : 

Though my gross blood be stain 'd with this abuse, 

Immaculate and spotless is my mind ; 

That was not forc'd, that never was inclin'd 
To accessary yield ings, but still pure 
Doth in her poison 'd closet yet endure.' 

Lo, here, the hopeless merchant of this loss, 1660 

With head declin'd, and voice damm'd up with woe, 
With sad-set eyes, and wretched arms across, 
From lips new-waxen pale begins to blow 
The grief away that stops his answer so, 

But, wretched as he is, he strives in vain ; 

What he breaths out his breath drinks up again. 

As through an arch the violent roaring tide 
Outruns the eye that doth behold his haste, 
Yet in the eddy boundeth in his pride 
Back to the strait that forc'd him on so fast, 1670 

In rage sent out, recall'd in rage, being past ; 
Even so his sighs, his sorrows, make a saw, 
To push grief on, and back the same grief draw. 

1 62 Shakespeare's Poems 

.Which speechless woe of his poor she attendeth 
And his untimely frenzy thus awaketh : 

* Dear lord, thy sorrow to my sorrow lendeth 
Another power ; no flood by raining slaketh. 
My woe too sensible thy passion maketh 

More feeling-painful ; let it then suffice 

To drown one woe, one pair of weeping eyes. 1680 

1 And for my sake, when I might charm thee so, 

For she that was thy Lucrece, now attend me : 

Be suddenly revenged on my foe, 

Thine, mine, his own ; suppose thou dost defend me 

From what is past. The help that thou shalt lend me 

Comes all too late, yet let the traitor die, 

For sparing justice feeds iniquity, 

' But ere I name him, you fair lords,' quoth she, 
Speaking to those that came with Collatine, 

* Shall plight your honourable faiths to me, 1090 
With swift pursuit to venge this wrong of mine ; 

For 't is a meritorious fair design 
To chase injustice with revengeful arms. 
Knights, by their oaths, should right poor ladies' 

At this request, with noble disposition 
Each present lord began to promise aid, 
As bound in knighthood to her imposition, 
Longing to hear the hateful foe bewray'd. 
But she, that yet her sad task hath not said, 

The Rape of Lucrece 163 

The protestation stops. ' O, speak,' quoth she, 1700 
' How may this forced stain be wip'd from me ? 

'What is the quality of mine offence, 

Being constrain'd with dreadful circumstance ? 

May my pure mind with the foul act dispense, 

My low-declined honour to advance ? 

May any terms acquit me from this chance ? 

The poison'd fountain clears itself again ; 

And why not I from this compelled stain ? ' 

With this, they all at once began to say 

Her body's stain her mind untainted clears ; 1710 

While with a joyless smile she turns away 

The face, that map which deep impression bears 

Of hard misfortune, carv'd in it with tears. 

' No, no/ quoth she, ' no dame, hereafter living, 
By my excuse shall claim excuse's giving.' 

Here with a sigh, as if her heart would break, 
She throws forth Tarquin's name: ' He, he/ she says, 
But more than < he ' her poor tongue could not speak ; 
Till after many accents and delays, 
Untimely breathings, sick and short assays, 1720 

She utters this : ' He, he, fair lords, 't is he 
That guides this hand to give this wound to me.' 

Even here she sheathed in her harmless breast 
A harmful knife that thence her soul unsheath'd. 

164 Shakespeare's Poems 

That blow did bail it from the deep unrest 

Of that polluted prison where it breath 'd ; 

Her contrite sighs unto the clouds bequeath 'd 

Her winged sprite, and through her wounds doth fly 
Life's lasting date from cancelled destiny. 

Stone-still, astonish'd with this deadly deed, 1730 

Stood Collatine and all his lordly crew, 
Till Lucrece' father, that beholds her bleed, 
Himself on her self-slaughter'd body threw, 
And from the purple fountain Brutus drew 

The murtherous knife, and, as it left the place, 
Her blood, in poor revenge, held it in chase ; 

And bubbling from her breast it doth divide 

In two slow rivers, that the crimson blood 

Circles her body in on every side, 

Who, like a late-sack'd island, vastly stood 1740 

Bare and unpeopled in this fearful flood 

Some of her blood still pure and red remain 'd, 

And some look'd black and that false Tarquin stain'd. 

About the mourning and congealed face 
Of that black blood a watery rigol goes, 
Which seems to weep upon the tainted place ; 
And ever since, as pitying Lucrece' woes, 
Corrupted blood some watery token shows, 
And blood untainted still doth red abide, 
Blushing at that which is so putrefied. 1750 

The Rape of Lucrece 165 

! Daughter, dear daughter,' old Lucretius cries, 

* That life was mine which thou hast here depriv'd. 
If in the child the father's image lies, 

Where shall I live now Lucrece is unliv'd ? 

Thou wast not to this end from me deriv'd. 
If children pre-decease progenitors, 
We are their offspring, and they none of ours. 

* Poor broken glass, I often did behold 

In thy sweet semblance my old age new born ; 

But now that fair fresh mirror, dim and old, 1760 

Shows me a bare-bon'd death by time outworn. 

O, from thy cheeks my image thou hast torn 
And shiver'd all the beauty of my glass, 
That I no more can see what once I was I 

( O time, cease thou thy course and last no longer, 
If they surcease to be that should survive. 
Shall rotten death make conquest of the stronger 
And leave the faltering feeble souls alive ? 
The old bees die, the young possess their hive ; 

Then live, sweet Lucrece, live again and see 1770 
Thy father die, and not thy father thee ! ' 

By this, starts Collatine as from a dream 
And bids Lucretius give his sorrow place ; 
And then in key-cold Lucrece' bleeding stream 
, He falls, and bathes the pale fear in his face, 
And counterfeits to die with her a space, 

1 66 Shakespeare's Poems 

Till manly shame bids him possess his breath 
And live to be revenged on her death. 

The deep vexation of his inward soul 
Hath serv'd a dumb arrest upon his tongue, i;8a 

Who, mad that sorrow should his use control 
Or keep him from heart-easing words so long, 
Begins to talk ; but through his lips do throng 
Weak words, so thick come in his poor heart's aid 
That no man could distinguish what he said. 

Yet sometime * Tarquin ' was pronounced plain, 
But through his teeth, as if the name he tore. 
This windy tempest, till it blow up rain, 
Held back his sorrow's tide to make it more ; 
At last it rains, and busy winds give o'er. 1790 

Then son and father weep with equal strife 
Who should weep most, for daughter or for wife. 

The one doth call her his, the other his, 

Yet neither may possess the claim they lay. 

The father says * She ; s mine.' ' O 5 mine she is,' 

Replies her husband ; ' do not take away 

My sorrow's interest, let no mourner say 

He weeps for her, for she was only mine 

And only must be wail'd by Collatine.' 

* O,' quoth Lucretius, ' I did give that life 1800 

Which she too early and too late hath spill J d.' 

The Rape of Lucrece 167 

* Woe, woe,' quoth Collatine, ' she was my wife, 
I owed her, and 't is mine that she hath IdlPd.' 
1 My daughter ' and ' my wife ' with clamours fill'd 
The dispers'd air, who, holding Lucrece' life, 
Answer 'd their cries, c my daughter ' and l my wife.' 

Brutus, who pluck'd the knife from Lucrece' side, 
Seeing such emulation in their woe, 
Began to clothe his wit in state and pride, 
Burying in Lucrece' wound his folly's show, 1810 

He with the Romans was esteemed so 
As silly-jeering idiots are with kings, 
For sportive words and uttering foolish things ; 

But now he throws that shallow habit by 

Wherein deep policy did him disguise; 

And arm'd his long-hid wits advisedly, 

To check the tears in Collatinus' eyes. 

1 Thou wronged lord of Rome,' quoth he, ' arise ; 
Let my unsounded self, suppos'd a fool, 
Now set thy long-experienc'd wit to school. 1820 

' Why, Collatine, is woe the cure for woe ? 

Do wounds help wounds, or grief help grievous deeds ? 

Is it revenge to give thyself a blow 

For his foul act by whom thy fair wife bleeds ? 

Such childish humour from weak minds proceeds ; 
Thy wretched wife mistook the matter so, 
To slay herself that should have slain her foe. 

1 68 Shakespeare's Poems 

' Courageous Roman, do not steep thy heart 

In such relenting dew of lamentations ; 

But kneel with me and help to bear thy part 1830 

To rouse our Roman gods with invocations 

That they will suffer these abominations, 

Since Rome herself in them doth stand disgrac'd, 
By our strong arms from forth her fair streets chas'd. 

' Now, by the Capitol that we adore, 

And by this chaste blood so unjustly stain 'd, 

By heaven's fair sun that breeds the fat earth's store, 

By all our country rights in Rome maintain 'd, 

And by chaste Lucrece' soul that late complain 'd 

Her wrongs to us, and by this bloody knife, 1840 

We will revenge the death of this true wife.' 

This said, he struck his hand upon his breast, 
And kiss'd the fatal knife, to end his vow ; 
And to his protestation urg'd the rest, 
Who, wondering at him, did his words allow. 
Then jointly to the ground their knees they bow ; 
And that deep vow which Brutus made before 
He doth again repeat, and that they swore, 

When they had sworn to this advised doom, 

They did conclude to bear dead Lucrece thence, 1850 

To show her bleeding body thorough Rome, 

And so to publish Tarquin's foul offence ; 

Which being done with speedy diligence, 

The Romans plausibly did give consent 

To Tarquin's everlasting banishment. 



FROM off a hill whose concave womb re- worded 
A plaintful story from a sistering vale, 
My spirits to attend this double voice accorded, 
And down I laid to list the sad-tun 'cl tale ; 
Ere long espied a fickle maid full pale, 
Tearing of papers, breaking rings a-twain, 
Storming her world with sorrow's wind and rain. 

Upon her head a platted hive of straw, 
Which fortified her visage from the sun, 
Whereon the thought might think sometime it saw 
The carcass of a beauty spent and done ; 
Time had not scythed all that youth begun, 


A Lover's Complaint 171 

Nor youth all quit, but, spite of heaven's fell rage, 
Some beauty peep'd through lattice of sear'd age. 

Oft did she heave her napkin to her eyne, 

Which on it had conceited characters, 

Laundering the silken figures in the brine 

That season 'd woe had pelleted in tears, 

And often reading what contents it bears ; 

As often shrieking undistinguished woe, 20 

In clamours of all size, both high and low. 

Sometimes her levelPd eyes their carriage ride, 
As they did battery to the spheres intend ; 
Sometime diverted their poor balls are tied 
To the orbed earth ; sometimes they do extend 
Their view right on ; anon their gazes lend 
To every place at once, and, nowhere fix'd, 
The mind and sight distractedly commix'd. 

Her hair, nor loose nor tied in formal plat, 

Proclaim 'd in her a careless hand of pride, 30 

For some, untuck'd, descended her sheav'd hat, 

Hanging her pale and pined cheek beside; 

Some in her threaden fillet still did bide, 

And true to bondage would not break from thence, 

Though slackly braided in loose negligence. 

A thousand favours from a maund she drew 
Of amber, crystal, and of beaded jet, 

172 Shakespeare's Poems 

Which one by one she in a river threw 

Upon whose weeping margent she was set ; 

Like usury, applying wet to wet, 4 o 

Or monarch's hands that let not bounty fall 

Where want cries some, but where excess begs all. 

Of folded schedules had she many a one, 
Which she perus'd, sigh'd, tore, and gave the flood ; 
Crack'd many a ring of posied gold and bone, 
Bidding them find their sepulchres in mud ; 
Found yet moe letters sadly penn'd in blood, 
With sleided silk feat and affectedly 
Enswath'd, and seal'd to curious secrecy. 

These often bath'd she in her fluxive eyes, 50 

And often kiss'd, and often gan to tear : 

Cried ' false blood, thou register of lies, 

What unapproved witness dost thou bear ! 

Ink would have seem'd more black and damned here ! ' 

This said, in top of rage the lines she rents, 

Big discontent so breaking their contents. 

A reverend man that graz'd his cattle nigh 

Sometime a blusterer, that the ruffle knew 

Of court, of city, and had let go by 

The swiftest hours, observed as they flew 60 

Towards this afflicted fancy fastly drew, 

And, privileg'd by age, desires to know 

In brief the grounds and motives of her woe. 

A Lover's Complaint 173 

So slides he down upon his grained bat, 

And comely-distant sits he by her side, 

When he again desires her, being sat, 

Her grievance with his hearing to divide ; 

If that from him there may be aught applied 

Which may her suffering ecstasy assuage, 

'T is promis'd in the charity of age. 70 

* Father,' she says, ' though in me you behold 
The injury of many a blasting hour, 

Let it not tell your judgment I am old ; 
Not age, but sorrow, over me hath power. 
1 might as yet have been a spreading flower, 
Fresh to myself, if I had self-applied 
Love to myself and to no love beside. 

* But, woe is me ! too early I attended 

A youthful suit it was to gain my grace 

Of one by nature's outwards so commended So 

That maidens' eyes stuck over all his face ; 

Love lack'd a dwelling and made him her place, 

And when in his fair parts she did abide 

She was new lodg'd and newly deified. 

' His browny locks did hang in crooked curls, 
And every light occasion of the wind 
Upon his lips their silken parcels hurls. 
What 5 s sweet to do, to do will aptly find ; 
Each eye that saw him did enchant the mind, 

174 Shakespeare's Poems 

For on his visage was in little drawn 90 

What largeness thinks in Paradise was sawn. 

1 Small show of man was yet upon his chin ; 

His phcenix down began but to appear 

Like unshorn velvet on that termless skin 

Whose bare out-bragg'cl the web it seem'd to wear. 

Yet show'd his visage by that cost more dear, 

And nice affections wavering stood in doubt 

If best were as it was, or best without. 

' His qualities were beauteous as his form, 

For maiden-tongued he was, and thereof free ; 100 

Yet, if men mov'd him, was he such a storm 

As oft 'twixt May and April is to see, 

When winds breathe sweet, unruly though they be. 

His rudeness so with his authoriz'd youth 

Did livery falseness in a pride of truth. 

1 Well could he ride, and often men would say 

" That horse his mettle from his rider takes ; 

Proud of subjection, noble by the sway, 

What rounds, what bounds, what course, what stop he 

makes ! " 

And controversy hence a question takes, no 

Whether the horse by him became his deed, 
Or he his manage by the well-doing steed. 

' But quickly on this side the verdict went : 
His real habitude gave life and grace 

A Lover's Complaint 175 

To appertain ings and to ornament, 
Accomplished in himself, not in his case. 
All aids, themselves made fairer by their place, 
Came for additions ; yet their purpos'd trim 
Piec'd not his grace, but were all grac'd by him. 

' So on the tip of his subduing tongue 120 

All kind of arguments and question deep, 

All replication prompt and reason strong, 

For his advantage still did wake and sleep. 

To make the weeper laugh, the laugher weep, 

He had the dialect and different skill, 

Catching all passions in his craft of will ; 

' That he did in the general bosom reign 

Of young, of old, and sexes both enchanted, 

To dwell with him in thoughts, or to remain 

In personal duty, following where he haunted. 130 

Consents bewitch'd, ere he desire, have granted, 

And dialogued for him what he would say, 

Ask'd their own wills, and made their wills obey. 

' Many there were that did his picture get, 

To serve their eyes, and in it put their mind ; 

Like fools that in the imagination set 

The goodly objects which abroad they find 

Of lands and mansions, theirs in thought assign'd, 

And labouring in moe pleasures to bestow them 139 

Than the true gouty landlord which doth owe them. 

176 Shakespeare's Poems 

' So many have that never touch'd his hand 
Sweetly suppos'd them mistress of his heart. 
My woeful self, that did in freedom stand 
And was my own fee-simple, not in part, 
What with his art in youth and youth in art, 
Threw my affections in his charmed power, 
Reserv'd the stalk and gave him all my flower. 

' Yet did I not, as some my equals did, 

Demand of him, nor being desired yielded ; 

Finding myself in honour so forbid, 150 

With safest distance I mine honour shielded. 

Experience for me many bulwarks builded 

Of proofs new-bleeding, which remain'd the foil 

Of this false jewel, and his amorous spoil. 

' But, ah, who ever shunn'd by precedent 

The destin'd ill she must herself assay ? 

Or forc'd examples, 'gainst her own content, 

To put the by-past perils in her way ? 

Counsel may stop awhile what will not stay ; 

For when we rage, advice is often seen n5o 

By blunting us to make our wits more keen. 

' Nor gives it satisfaction to our blood 
That we must curb it upon others' proof; 
To be forbod the sweets that seem so good, 
For fear of harms that preach in our behoof. 
O appetite, from judgment stand aloof 1 

A Lover's Complaint 177 

The one a palate hath that needs will taste, 
Though Reason weep, and cry " It is thy last." 

* For further I could say " This man 's untrue," 

And knew the patterns of his foul beguiling, 170 

Heard where his plants in others' orchards grew, 
Saw how deceits were gilded in his smiling, 
Knew vows were ever brokers to defiling, 
Thought characters and words merely but art 
And bastards of his foul adulterate heart. 

* And long upon these terms I held my city, 
Till thus he gan besiege me : " Gentle maid, 
Have of my suffering youth some feeling pity, 
And be not of my holy vows afraid. 

That 7 s to ye sworn to none was ever said ; 180 

For feasts of love I have been call'd unto, 
Till now did ne'er invite, nor never woo. 

* u All my offences that abroad you see 
Are errors of the blood, none of the mind. 
Love made them not ; with acture they may be, 
Where neither party is nor true nor kind. 

They sought their shame that so their shame did find ; 
And so much less of shame in me remains, 
By how much of me their reproach contains. 

' " Among the many that mine eyes have seen, 190 

Not one whose flame my heart so much as warm'd, 

178 Shakespeare's Poems 

Or my affection put to the smallest teen, 

Or any of my leisures ever charm 'd ; 

Harm have I done to them, but ne'er was harm'd, 

Kept hearts in liveries, but mine own was free, 

And reign 'd, commanding in his monarchy. 

' " Look here, what tributes wounded fancies sent me, 

Of paled pearls and rubies red as blood ; 

Figuring that they their passions likewise lent me 

Of grief and blushes, aptly understood 20 , 

In bloodless white and the en crimson 'd mood ; 

Effects of terror and dear modesty, 

Encamp 'd in hearts, but fighting outwardly. 

' "And, lo, behold these talents of their hair, 

With twisted metal amorously impleach'd, 

I have receiv'd from many a several fair, 

Their kind acceptance weepingly beseech'd, 

With the annexions of fair gems enrich 'd, 

And deep-brain 'd sonnets that did amplify 

Each stone's dear nature, worth, and quality. zu 

' " The diamond, why, 't was beautiful and hard, 

Whereto his invis'd properties did tend ; 

The deep-green emerald, in whose fresh regard 

Weak sights their sickly radiance do amend ; 

The heaven-hued sapphire and the opal blend 

With objects manifold ; each several stone, 

With wit well blazon'd, smiPd or made some moan. 

A .Lover's Complaint 179 

' " Lo, all these trophies of affections hot, 

Of pensiv'd and subdued desires the tender, 

Nature hath charg'd me that I hoard them not, 220 

But yield them up where I myself must render, 

That is, to you, my origin and ender ; 

For these, of force, must your oblations be, 

Since, I their altar, you enpatron me. 

* " O, then, advance of yours that phraseless hand, 
Whose white weighs down the airy scale of praise; 
Take all these similes to your own command, 
Hallow'd with sighs that burning lungs did raise. 
What me your minister, for you obeys, 
Works under you ; and to your audit comes 230 

Their distract parcels in combined sums. 

4 " Lo, this device was sent me from a nun, 
A sister sanctified, of holiest note, 
Which late her noble suit in court did shun, 
Whose rarest havings made the blossoms dote ; 
For she was sought by spirits of richest coat, 
But kept cold distance, and did thence remove, 
To spend her living in eternal love. 

< " But, O my sweet, what labour is 't to leave 
The thing we have not, mastering what not strives, 
Paling the place which did no form receive, 241 

Playing patient sports in unconstrained gyves ? 
She that her fame so to herself contrives 

180 Shakespeare's Poems 

The scars of battle scapeth by the flight, 
And makes her absence valiant, not her might. 

* " O, pardon me, in that my boast is true ; 

The accident which brought me to her eye 

Upon the moment did her force subdue, 

And now she would the caged cloister fly. 

Religious love put out Religion's eye ; 350 

Not to be tempted, would she be immur'd, 

And now, to tempt, all liberty procur'd. 

' " How mighty then you are, O, hear me tell I 

The broken bosoms that to me belong 

Have emptied all their fountains in my well, 

And mine I pour your ocean all among; 

I strong o'er them, and you o'er me being strong, 

Must for your victory us all congest, 

As compound love to physic your cold breast. 

1 " My parts had power to charm a sacred nun, 260 

Who, disciplin'd, ay, dieted in grace, 

Believ'd her eyes when they to assail begun, 

All vows and consecrations giving place ; 

O most potential love I vow, bond, nor space, 

In thee hath neither sting, knot, nor confine, 

For thou art all, and all things else are thine. 

c " When thou impressest, what are precepts worth 
Of stale example ? When thou wilt inflame, 

A Lover's Complaint 181 

How coldly those impediments stand forth 

Of wealth, of filial fear, law, kindred, fame ! 270 

Love's arms are proof 'gainst rule, 'gainst sense, 'gainst 


And sweetens, in the suffering pangs it bears, 
The aloes of all forces, shocks, and fears. 

< " Now all these hearts that do on mine depend, 

Feeling it break, with bleeding groans they pine; 

And supplicant their sighs to you extend, 

To leave the battery that you make 'gainst mine, 

Lending soft audience to my sweet design, 

And credent soul to that strong-bonded oath 

That shall prefer and undertake my troth." 280 

* This said, his watery eyes he did dismount, 
Whose sights till then were levelPd on my face ; 
Each cheek a river running from a fount 
With brinish current downward flow'd apace. 
O, how the channel to the stream gave grace ! 
Who glaz'd with crystal gate the glowing roses 
That flame through water which their hue encloses. 

* O father, what a hell of witchcraft lies 
In the small orb of one particular tear I 

But with the inundation of the eyes 29 

What rocky heart to water will not wear? 

What breast so cold that is not warmed here ? 

O cleft efTect I cold modesty, hot wrath, 

Both fire from hence and chill extincture hath. 

1 82 Shakespeare's Poems 

' For, lo, his passion, but an art of craft, 

Even there resolv'cl my reason into tears ; 

There my white stole of chastity I clafFd, 

Shook off my sober guards and civil fears. 

Appear to him, as he to me appears, 

All melting ; though our drops this difference bore, 300 

His poison 'd me, and mine did him restore. 

' In him a plenitude of subtle matter, 
Applied to cautels, all strange forms receives, 
Of burning blushes, or of weeping water, 
Or swooning paleness ; and he takes and leaves, 
In either J s aptness, as it best deceives, 
To blush at speeches rank, to weep at woes, 
Or to turn white and swoon at tragic shows ; 

' That not a heart which in his level came 

Could scape the hail of his all-hurting aim, 310 

Showing fair nature is both kind and tame, 

And, veil'd in them, did win whom he would maim, 

Against the, thing he sought he would exclaim ; 

When he most burn *d in heart-wish 'd luxury 

He preach'd pure maid' and prais'd cold chastity. 

* Thus merely with the garment of a^Grace 

The naked anci^eoncealed fiend he cover'd, 

That the unexpe&eht gave the tempter place, 

Which like a chferubin above them hover'd. 

Who, young anci "simple, would not be so lover 'd ? 320 

A Lover's Complaint 

Ay me ! I fel! 5 and yet do question make 
What I should do again for such a sake. 

1 O, that infected moisture of his eye, 
O, that false fire which in his cheek so glow'd> 
O, that forc'd thunder from his heart did fly, 
O, that sad breath his spongy lungs bestow'd, 
O, all that borrowed motion seeming owed. 
Would yet again betray the fore-betray'd 
And new pervert a reconciled maid ! ' 


SWEET Cytherea, sitting by a brook 

With young Adonis, lovely, fresh, and green. 

Did court the lad with many a lovely look, 

Such looks as none could look but beauty's queen. 

She told him stories to delight his ear ; 

She show'd him favours to allure his eye ; 

To win his heart, she touch *d him here and there, 

Touches so soft still conquer chastity. 

But whether unripe years did want conceit, 

Or he refus'd to take her figur'd proffer, 

The tender nibbler would not touch the bait, 

But smile and jest at every gentle offer. 

Then fell she on her back, fair queen, and toward 
He rose and ran away ah, fool too froward 1 

The Passionate Pilgrim 185 


Scarce had the sun dried up the dewy morn, 

And scarce the herd gone to the hedge for shade, 

When Cytherea, all in love forlorn, 

A longing tarriance for Adonis made 

Under an osier growing by a brook, 

A brook where Adon us'd to cool his spleen. 

Hot was the day ; she hotter that did look 

For his approach that often there had been. 

Anon he comes, and throws his mantle by, 

And stood stark linked ot< t-vi brook's green brim ; 

The sun look'd on the world with glorious eye, 

Yet not so wistly as this queen on him. 

He, spying her, bounc'd in, whereas he stood; 

* O Jove/ quoth she, l why was not I a flood 1 ' 


Fair was the morn when the fair queen of love, 


Paler for sorrow than her milk-white dove, 
For Adon's sake, a youngster proud and wild. 
Her stand she takes upon a steep-up hill. 
Anon Adonis comes with horn and hounds ; 
She, silly queen, with more than love's good will, 
Forbade the boy he should not pass those grounds. 
1 Once,' quoth she, 'did I see a fair sweet youth 
Here in these brakes deep-wounded with a boar, 

1 86 Shakespeare's Poems 

Deep in the thigh, a spectacle of ruth ! 

See, in my thigh,' quoth she, ' here was the sore.' 
She showed hers ; he saw more wounds than one, 
And blushing fled and left her all alone. 


Fair is my love, but not so fair as fickle ; 

Mild as a dove, but neither true nor trusty ; 

Brighter than glass, and yet, as glass is, brittle ; 

Softer than wax, and yet, as iron, rusty : 
A lily pale, with damask dye to grace her, 
None fairer, nor none falser to deface her. 

Her lips to mine how often hath she joined, 
Between each kiss her oaths of true love swearing ! 
How many tales to please me hath she coined, 
Dreading my love, the loss thereof still fearing ! 
Yet in the midst of all her pure pretestings, 
Her faith, her oaths, her tears, and all were jestings. 

She burn'd with love, as straw with fire flameth ; 
She burn'd out love, as soon as straw out-burneth ; 
She fram'd the love, and yet she foil'd the framing ; 
She bade love last, and yet she fell a-turning. 

Was this a lover, or a lecher whether ? 

Bad in the best, though excellent in neither. 

Sweet rose, fair flower, untimely pluck'd, soon vaded, 
Pluck'd in the bud, and vaded in the spring 1 

The Passionate Pilgrim 187 

Bright orient pearl, alack, too timely shaded ! 

Fair creature, kill'd too soon by death's sharp sting ! 
Like a green plum that hangs upon a tree. 
And falls, through wind, before the fall should be. 

I weep for thee, and yet no cause I have ; 

For why, thou left'st me nothing in thy will. 

And yet thou left'st me more than I did crave ; 

For why, I craved nothing of thee still. 
O yes, dear friend, I pardon crave of thee, 
Thy discontent thou didst bequeath to me. 


Crabbed age and youth cannot live together. 
Youth is full of pleasance, age is full of care ; 
Youth like summer morn, age like winter weather ; 
Youth like summer brave, age like winter bare. 
Youth is full of sport, age's breath is short ; 

Youth is nimble, age is lame ; 
Youth is hot and bold, age is weak and cold ; 

Youth is wild, and age is tame. 
Age, I do abhor thee ; youth, I do adore thee ; 

O, my love, my love is young 1 
Age, I do defy thee ; O, sweet shepherd, hie thee, 

For methinks thou stay'st too long. 


Beauty Is but a vain and doubtful good ; 
A shining gloss that vadeth suddenly ; 

1 88 Shakespeare's Poems 

A flower that dies when first it gins to bud ; 

A brittle glass that 's broken presently : 
A doubtful good, a gloss, a glass, a flower, 
Lost, vaded, broken, dead within an hour. 

And as goods lost are seld or never found, 

As vaded gloss no rubbing will refresh, 

As flowers dead lie wither 'd on the ground, 

As broken glass no cement can redress, 
So beauty blemish'd once 's for ever lost, 
In spite of physic, painting, pain, and -cost. 


Good night, good rest. Ah, neither be my share ! 
She bade good night that kept my rest away, 
And daff'd me to a cabin hang'd with care, 
To descant on the doubts of my decay. 

'Farewell,' quoth she, * and come again to-morrow; ; 

Pare well I could not, for I supp'd with sorrow. 

Yet at my parting sweetly did she smile, 

In scorn or friendship, nill I construe whether ; 

'T may be, she joy'd to jest at my exile, 

'T may be, again to make me wander thither, ia 

' Wander,' a word for shadows like myself, 
As take the pain, but cannot pluck the pelf. 

Lord, how mine eyes throw gazes to the east ! 
My heart doth charge the watch ; the morning rise 

The Passionate Pilgrim 189 

Doth cite each moving sense from idle rest. 

Not daring trust the office of mine eyes, 

While Philomela sits and sings, I sit and mark, 
And wish her lays were tuned like the lark ; 

For she doth welcome daylight with her ditty, 

And drives away dark dismal-dreaming night. 20 

The night so pack'd, I post unto my pretty ; 

Heart hath his hope, and eyes their wished sight ; 

Sorrow chang'd to solace, solace mix'd with sorrow ; 

For why, she sigh'd and bade me come to-morrow. 

Were I with her, the night would post too soon ; 

But now are minutes added to the hours ; 

To spite me now, each minute seems a moon ; 

Yet not for me shine sun to succour flowers ! 28 

Pack night, peep day ; good day, of night now borrow ; 

Short, night, to-night, and length thyself to-morrow. v 


Whenas thine eye hath chose the dame, 
And stalPd the deer that thou shouldst strike, 
Let reason rule things worthy blame. 
As well as partial fancy like ; 

Take counsel of some wiser head, 
Neither too young nor yet unwed. 

And when thou com'st thy tale to tell, 
Smooth not thy tongue with filed talk, 

190 Shakespeare's Poems 

Lest she some subtle practice smell, 

A cripple soon can find a halt ; 10 

But plainly say thou lov'st her well, 

And set her person forth to sell. 

What though her frowning brows be bent, 
Her cloudy looks will clear ere night ; 
And then too late she will repent 
That thus dissembled her delight, 

And twice desire, ere it be day, 

That which with scorn she put away. 

What though she strive to try her strength, 

And ban and brawl, and say thee nay, *o 

Her feeble force will yield at length, 

When craft hath taught her thus to say, 

' Had women been so strong as men, 

In faith, you had not had it then.' 

And to her will frame all thy ways ; 
Spare not to spend, and chiefly there 
Where thy desert may merit praise, 
By ringing in thy lady's ear. 

The strongest castle, tower, and town, 

The golden bullet beats it down. 30 

Serve always with assured trust, 
And in thy suit be humble-true ; 
Unless thy lady prove unjust, 
Press never thou to choose anew. 

The Passionate Pilgrim 191 

When time shall serve, be thou not slack 
To proffer, though she put thee back. 

The wiles and guiles that women work, 

Dissembled with an outward show, 

The tricks and toys that in them lurk, 

The cock that treads them shall not know. 40 

Have you not heard it said full oft, 

A woman's nay doth stand for nought ? 

Think women still to strive with men, 
To sin and never for to saint. 
Here is no heaven ; be holy then, 
When time with age shall thee attaint. 

Were kisses all the joys in bed, 

One woman would another wed. 

But, soft ! enough too much, I fear 

Lest that my mistress hear my song ; ' 50 

She will not stick to round me i' the ear, 

To teach my tongue to be so long ; 

Yet will she blush, here be it said, 

To hear her secrets so bewray'd. 


LET the bird of loudest lay, 

On the sole Arabian tree, 

Herald sad and trumpet be, 

To whose sound chaste wings obey. 

But thou shrieking harbinger, 
Foul precurrer of the fiend, 
Augur of the fever's end, 
To this troop come thou not near 1 

From this session interdict 
Every fowl of tyrant wing, 
Save the eagle, feather 'd king ; 
Keep the obsequy so strict. 

The Phoenix and the Turtle 193 

Let the priest in surplice white, 
That defunctive music can, 
Be the death-divining swan, 
Lest the requiem lack his right, 

And thou treble-dated crow, 

That thy sable gender mak'st 

With the breath thou giv'st and tak'st, 

'Mongst our mourners shalt thou go. 20 

Here the anthem doth commence : 
Love and constancy is dead ; 
Phoenix and the turtle fled 
In a mutual flame from hence. 

So they lov'd as love in twain 
Had the essence but in one, 
Two distincts, division none ; 
Number there in love was slain. 

Hearts remote, yet not asunder ; 

Distance, and no space was seen 30 

'Twixt the turtle and his queen ; 

But in them it were a wonder. 

So between them love did shine 
That the turtle saw his right 
Flaming in the phoenix' sight ; 
Either was the other's mine. 

Shakespeare's Poems 

Property was thus appalPd, 

That the self was not the same ; 

Single nature's double name 

Neither two nor one was call'd. 40 

Reason, in itself confounded, 
Saw division grow together, 
To themselves yet either neither, 
Simple were so well compounded 

That it cried, How true a twain 
Seemeth this concordant one ! 
Love hath reason, reason none, 
If what parts can so remain. 

Whereupon it made this threne 

To the phoenix and the dove, 50 

Co-supremes and stars of love, 

As chorus to their tragic scene. 


Beauty, truth, and rarity, 
Grace in all simplicity, 
Here enclosed in cinders lie, 

Death is now the phoenix' nest, 
And the turtle's loyal breast 
To eternity doth rest, 

The Phoenix and the Turtle 195 

Leaving no posterity ; 

'T was not their infirmity, 60 

It was married chastity, 

Truth may seem, but cannot be ; 
Beauty brag, but 't is not she ; 
Truth and beauty buried be. 

To this urn let those repair 
That are either true or fair ; 
For these dead birds sigh a prayer. 





THE EARLY EDITIONS. Richard Field, the printer of the first 
ed. (see p. 9 above), was a native of Stratford, and the son of the 
Henry Field whose goods John Shakespeare was employed to value 
in 1592. He adopted the device of an anchor, with the motto 
" Anchora spei," because they had been used by his father-in-law, 
Thomas Vautrollier, a celebrated and learned printer, who resided 
in Blackfriars, and to whose business, at his death in 1589, Field 

The poem was licensed by the Archbishop of Canterbury (John 
Whitgift), and entered in the Stationers' Register, April 1 8, 1593. 

The second edition, likewise printed and published by Field, 
must have been brought out early in 1594, as the transfer of the 
copyright from Field to Harrison is recorded as having taken place 
on the 25th of June in that year. 

2oo Notes 

The third edition was printed by Field, though published by Har- 
rison, and must have appeared before June, 1596, when Harrison 
transferred the copyright to Leake. 

It is probable that there were editions between this of 1596 and 
that of 1599. The poem had evidently been very popular, and 
it would be strange if Leake did not issue an edition until three 
years after he had secured the copyright. When we consider that 
of several early eds. only single copies have come down to our day, 
and of others only two or three copies, it is not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that of some editions not a single copy has survived. It is also 
probable that there were editions between 1602 and 1627, when the 
poem was reprinted in Edinburgh. The edition published in 1599 
(seep, i o above) was not known until 1867; anc ^ * ne edition of 
1630 (see p. n) was discovered more recently. 

It has been suggested that the book may have fallen under the 
ban of the Privy Council. A decree of the Star Chamber, dated 
June 23, 1585, gave unlimited power to the ecclesiastical authorities 
to seize and destroy whatever books they thought proper. A not- 
able instance of this interference with books already printed oc- 
curred in 1599, at Stationers' Hall, when a number of objectionable 
works were burned, and special admonitions given then and there 
to the printers, some of the most eminent of the time, and among 
them our friend Richard Field (Edmonds). 

THE METRE OF THE POEM. The verse is the iambic measure, 
already familiar to the student of Shakespeare in the plays : the ten- 
syllable line, subject to the usual variations. The stanza is the 
" staff e of sixe verses " (al> a& cc) described by Puttenham in The 
Arts of English Poesie> 1589, as " not only most usual, but also very 
pleasant to th' eare." There is no reason to suppose, as some have 
done, that S. borrowed it from Lodge, though the latter used it in 
his Scyllcfs Metamorphosis, 1589, in which there is a slight allusion 
to the death of Adonis. 

Verity notes " the extraordinary verbal beauty of the verse," which 

Venus and Adonis 201 

links it with the early plays, like J?. and J. and M, N. D. "We 
have the same elaborate harmonies, the * linked sweetness long 
drawn out,' the cadences, the ' dying falls,' the lyric charm and rap- 
ture of Shakespeare's earliest, most purely poetic style." 

Coleridge has observed that, "in the Venus and Adonis > the first 
and most obvious excellence is the perfect sweetness of the versifi- 
cation ; its adaptation to the subject ; and the power displayed in 
varying the march of the words without passing into a loftier and 
more majestic rhythm than was demanded by the thoughts, or per- 
mitted by the propriety of preserving a sense of melody predomi- 
nant." Knight, quoting this, adds : "This self-controlling power 
of ' varying the march of the words without passing into a loftier 
and more majestic rhythm' is perhaps one of the most signal in- 
stances of Shakspere's consummate mastery of his art, even as a 
very young man. lie who, at the proper season, knew how to 
strike the grandest music within the compass of our own powerful 
and sonorous language, in his early productions breathes out his 

th U S hts 'to the Dorian mood 

Of flutes and soft recorders.' 

The sustained sweetness of the versification is never cloying ; and 
yet there are no violent contrasts, no sudden elevations : all is 
equable in its infinite variety. The early comedies are full of the 
same rare beauty. In Love's Labour's Lost, The Comedy of Errors, 
and A Midsummer- Nigh? $ Dream, we have verses of alternate 
rhymes formed upon the same model as those of the Venus and 
Adonis, and producing the same feeling of placid delight by their 
exquisite harmony. The same principles on which he built the 
versification of the Venus and Adonis exhibited to him the grace 
which these elegiac harmonies would impart to the scenes of repose 
in the progress of a dramatic action." 

THE DEDICATION, For the Rarl of Southampton* see p. 20 
above. For a much fuller account, with the many poetical tributes 
paid him, see the Variorum of 1821, vol. xx. pp. 427-468. 

2O2 Notes 

6. Invention. Imagination ; as often. Cf. Bonn. 38. 8, 76. 6, 
103. 7, 105. n, etc. 

7. Ear. Plough, till. Cf. Rich. //. in. 2. 212, A. and C \. z 
115, i. 4. 49, etc. 

9. Your Honour, Your lordship ; as often. 

VENUS AND ADONIS. The motto of the poem is from Ovid's 
Amores (i. 15), which at that time had not been translated into 
English. Marlowe's version appeared in or about 1598. This par- 
ticular elegy in it was evidently by Ben Jonson. See The Poetaster ^ 
i. i, where the couplet reads : 

" Kneel hinds to trash : me let bright Phoebus swell 
With cups full flowing from the Muses' well." 

In Marlowe the reading is : 

" Let base-conceited wits admire 1 vild things ; 
Fair Phoebus lead me to the Muses' springs/' 

3. Rose-cheeked Adonis. Marlowe applies the same epithet to 
the youth in his Hero and Leander : 

" The men of wealthy Sestos every year, 
For his sake whom their goddess held so dear, 
Rose-cheek'd Adonis, kept a solemn feast." 

Cf. T. of A. iv. 3. 86. 

6. Gins. Some eds print " 'gins ; " but see any of the large 
dictionaries. Richardson says : " Gin, and the pret. gan^ are in 
common use with our old writers without the prefix be; " and one 
of his examples (Hakluyt's Voyages^ vol. i. p. 187 : "Therefore I 
ginne to wryte now of the see") proves that the word had not 
ceased to be used, even in prose, in the time of S. The editors 
often confound obsolete simple words (like fore, gree, scape, etc.) 
with contractions of their compounds now in use. See on 53 

9. Stain to all nymphs. That is, by eclipsing them. Cf. Cor. i 
10. 1 8, Sonn. 109. 8, etc. 

Venus and Adonis 203 

10. Doves or roses. Farmer conjectures "and" for or; but the 
latter is doubtless uhat S. wrote. 

11. With herself at strife. Cf. 291 below. 

16. Honey. For the adjective use, cf. 452 and 538 below. 

19. Satiety. The first four eds. and the loth have " sacietie." 

20. Famish them, etc. Cf. A. and C. ii. 2. 241 : 

" Other women cloy 

The appetites they feed ; but she makes hungry 
Where most she satisfies." 

25. His sweating palm. Cf. A. and C. i. 2. 53 : "Nay, if an 
oily palm be not a fruitful prognostication," etc. See also 143 
below, and Oth* iii. 4. 36 fol. 

26. Pith. Vigour. Cf. lien. V. iii. chor. 21 : "pith and puis- 
sance," etc. Precedent = indication. 

29. Enraged* Mad with love and desire ; as in 317 below. Cf. 
Much Ado, ii. 3. 105 : " that she loves him with an enraged affec- 
tion," etc. 

32. Her other. The 5th and later eds. have " the other." 

40. Prove. Try ; as in 608 below. 

50. Maiden. For the masculine use, cf. A". John, iv. 2. 52, 
I Hen. IV. v. 4. 134, etc. 

51. Hairs. For the rhyme, see on 192 below. 

53. Miss. Misbehaviour. Malone and others print " 'miss," 
but it is not a contraction of amiss. 

54. Murthers. The 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th eds. have "murthers," 
the others " smothers," 

55. Empty eagle. We have the same expression in 2 Hen. VI. 
iii. i. 248 and 3 Hen. VI. i. i. 268. 

56. Tires. Tears and feeds ravenously upon. Cf. Cymb. iii. 
4. 97, ^c. 

61. Fort? d to content. " Forced to content himself in a situation 
from which he had no means of escaping" (Steevens). 

62. Breatheth. The reading of the tirst three eds.; "breath- 
ing " in the 4th and the rest. 

2O4 Notes 

66. Such distilling. Walker would read " such-distilling." 
71. Rank. Exuberant, high. Cf. the use of the noun in K* 
John, v. 4. 54 : 

" And, like a bated and retired flood, 
Leaving our rankness and irregular course, 
Stoop low within those bounds we have o'erlook'd." 
76. Ashy-pale. Malone at first made this refer to Adonis, but 
subsequently saw that it goes with anger. 

78. More. Cf. R of L. 332 : " A more rejoicing," etc. 
82. Take truce. Makepeace. Cf. K. John, iii. i. 17 : "With 
my vex'd spirits I cannot take a truce," etc. 

86. Dwedapper. The didapper or dabchick (JPodiceps minor)*, 
mentioned by S. only here. 

90, Winks. Shuts his eyes; as in 121 below. 

91. Passenger. Wayfarer ; the only sense in S. Cf. T. G. of F. 
iv. i. i, 72, v. 4. 15, etc. 

94. Yet her. The reading of the first four eds.; the rest have 
"Yet in." 

96. Coy? Contemptuous. Cf. 1 12 below. See also T. G. of V, 
i. i. 30, etc. 

97. I have been woo'd, etc. For other allusions to the loves of 
Mars and Venus, see Temp. iv. I, 98, A. and C. i. 5. 18, etc, 

loo. Jar. Conflict. 

104, Crest. Helmet ; as often. 

106. To toy. All the early eds., except the 1st and 2cl, have 
" To coy." 

107. Churlish drum. Repeated in K.John 9 ii. I. 79. and iii. i. 


109. He that overruled, S. often confounds the inflections of 
personal pronouns. 

11 8. In thegroitnd? That is, on it. Cf. M. N. D. ii. i. 85, etc. 

1 19. There. Changed to " where " in the 4th and later eds. 
123. There are. The reading of the 1st ed. ; "there be in the 

rest, except the loth, which has " they be." 

Venus and Adonis 205 

126. Nor know not. The 5th and later eds. read "nor know 

133. Hard-favoured. Hard-featured, ill-looking ; as in 931 be- 
low. The hyphen in wrinkled-old is due to Malone. 

134. Ill-nurtur* d. Ill-bred ; used again in 2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 42 : 
" Presumptuous dame, ill-nurtur'd Eleanor," etc. 

135. Overworn. Cf. Rich, III. i. i. Si : "The jealous, o'er- 
worn widow," etc. In 866 below, the word is used of time = 

140. Gray. Explained by Malone, Hudson, and others as 
blue (and so in sundry other passages), but I think it has its 
usual meaning. 

142. Plump. The 4th ed. has " plumbe ; " all the later ones 
(according to the Cambridge ed.) have " plum." 

143. Moist hand. See on 25 above. 

148. No footing seen. Malone quotes Temp. v. I. 34 : 

" And ye that on the sands with printless feet 
Do chase the ebbing Neptune/' etc. 

149. Compact of fir f. Cf. M. N. D. v. i. 8 : "of imagination all 
compact ; " A. Y. L. ii. 7. 5 : " compact of jars," etc. 

150. Not gross to sink, etc. Cf. C. of E. iii. 2. 52 : " Let Love, 
being light, be drowned if she sink." 

153. Doves. Cf. Temp. iv. I. 94, where Venus is referred to as 
"clove-drawn." See also 1190 below, and R. andj. ii. 5. 7. 
156. Heavy. Burdensome ; in antithesis to light. 

1 60. Complain on. The 3d and subsequent eds. have "com- 
plain of." Cf. 544 below. 

161. Narcissus. Cf. R. of L. 265 and A. and C. ii. 5. 96. 
163. Torches are made to light. Cf. M.for M. i. i. 33 : 

" Heaven doth with us as we with torches do, 
Not light them for themselves." 

166. To themselves. For themselves alone, " without producing 

206 Notes 

fruit or benefiting mankind" (Malone). Cf, 1180 belcw. See 
also Sonn. 13. 14. 

177. Titan. The sun; as in T. and C. v. 10. 25, -. and J. ii. 
3, 4, Cj/*w#. iii. 4. 1 66, etc. 

Tired is explained by Boswell as = attired ; and Schmidt and 
Wyndham favour that explanation. Cf. L. L. L. iv. 2. 131 : "the 
tired horse." The word is here a dissyllable, 

I Si. Spright. Spirit ; as in JR. of L. 121. 

192. Tears. The rhyme was not so bad in the time of S. as 
now, ea in many words being pronounced like long a. Hairs is 
spelled Jieares in the early eds. Cf. 51 above. 

193. Shines but warm. " Affords only a natural and genial 
heat; it warms but it does not burn" (Malone). 

199. Obdurate. Accented on the second syllable, as elsewhere 
in S. Cf. R. of L. 429, M. of V. iv. i. 8, etc. 

203. Hard. The reading of the 1st ed. ; "bad" in all the rest. 

204. Unkind! Leaving none of her kind, or race ; childless. 
Malone explains it as " unnatural," but the antithesis favours the 
other explanation. 

205. Contemn me this. " Contemptuously refuse this favour " 
(Malone). The roth ed. has "thus" for this> and Steevens was 
inclined to that reading. " Thus and kiss? he says, ' correspond 
in sound as well as unlikely and quickly, adder and shudder, which 
we meet with afterwards." 

211. Lifeless. The early eds. have "liuelesse," except the 4th, 
which has " liueles." 

222. Intendments, Intentions. Cf. A. K L. i. I. 140, etc. S. 
uses the word four times, intention only twice. 

229. Fondling. Darling (Schmidt and the Cambridge ed.); used 
by S. only here. Wyndham takes it to be descriptive of the action 
of Venus, and he may be right. 

230. Pale. Enclosure ; as in C. of E. ii. I, 100, etc. 

236. Bottom-grass. Rich valley grass. Cf. A. Y. L. iv. 3. 79 
and I Hen. IV. iii. I. 105. 

Venus and Adonis 1207 

240. Rouse. A hunter's term. Guillim, in his Display of //<?;-- 
ttldrU) which has an " Addition " of Tennes of Hawking and hunt- 
ing* *632 (quoted by Wyndham), says : 


[ Bucke 

You shall say 


the Foxe 



242. That. So that. Cf. 599, 830, and 1140 below. 

257. Remorse! Pity, tenderness; as very often. We still use 
remorseless = pitiless. 

260. Jennet. A small Spanish horse. Cf. Oth. i. I. 113. 

272. Compassed. Curved, arched. In T. and C. i. 2. 120, "com- 
passed window " = bow-window, and in T. of S. iv. 3. 140, "com- 
passed cape " = round cape. 

Stand is the reading of the first four eds. ; changed in the later 
ones to " stands.' 7 Mane, " as composed of many hairs " (Malone), 
is here used as a plural. 

275. Scornfully glisters. Some editors follow Sewell in trans- 
posing these words. S. has glister nine times, glisten not at all. 

277. Told. Counted ; as in 520 below. 

279. Leaps. Malone infers from the rhyme that the word was 
pronounced leps y as it still is in Ireland ; but it is hardly safe to 
draw an inference from a single rhyme. In Sonn. 128. 5, we have 
leap rhymed with reap. Curvet (= prance) was a technical term 
in horsemanship. 

281. This I do. The 4th and later eds. have " thus I do." 

296. Eye. Changed to " eyes" in the 5th and following eds. 

301. Sometime. The later eds. have " Sometimes." The words 
were used by S. interchangeably. 

303. To bid the wind a base. To challenge the wind to a race. 
See Cymb. v. 3. 19 and T. G. of V. i. 2. 97. It alludes to the game 
of prisoner's base, or prison-base. f 

208 Notes 

304. And whether. The early eds. have " And where." M alone 
prints " And whe'r." Whether is often monosyllabic, even when 
spelled in full. In Sonn, 59. 1 1 the quarto has whether and where 
in the same line, both monosyllabic. 

306. Who. The loth ed. " corrects " this to " which "; but who 
for which (like which for who] was common in Elizabethan English. 

312. Embracements. Cf. 790 below. S. uses the word oftener 
than embrace (noun), though in this poem the latter is found three 
times (539, Si I, 874), or as many times as in all his other works. 

313. Malcontent. The 4th ed. has "male content" 

314. Vails. Lowers ; as in 956 below. Cf. M. of V. i. r. 28, 
Ham. i. 2. 70, etc,, This obsolete vail is often confounded, even by 
editors, with veil? a word of wholly different origin. 

315. Buttock. Changed to the plural in the 4th and follow- 
ing eds. 

319. Goeth about. Attempts. Cf. Much Ado, i. 3. n : "I won- 
der that thou goest about ... to apply a moral medicine to a mor- 
tifying mischief." See also R. of L. 412, M. for M. iii. 2. 215, 
Hen. V. iv. I. 212, etc. 

325. Chafing. Often used of sweating or the effects of heat. 
Cf. T. of S, i. 2. 203 : " chafed with sweat," etc. See also 662 
below. The later eds. have " chasing." 

326. Banning. Cursing. Cf. 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 319 : "to curse 
and ban," etc. 

334. Fire. A dissyllable ; as not unfrequently. The first three 
eds. print it " fier ; " as they do in 402 below, where it is a mono- 

335. The hearts attorney. That is, the tongue. Steevens aptly 
quotes Rich. III. iv. 4. 127 : 

" Duchess. Why should calamity be full of words ? 

Queen Elizabeth. Windy attorneys to their client woes," etc. 
343. Wistly, Wistfully ; modifying came stealing^ not mew. 
Cf. R. of L. 1355 : "wistly on him gaz'd," etc. Schmidt make"-, it 
= " attentively, observingly, with scrutiny," in both passages. 

Venus and Adonis 209 

346. How ivfnte and red, etc. Steevcns compares 7*. of S. iv. 5, 
30 : " Such war of white and red within her cheeks ! " 

350. Lowly, The 4th ed. has " slowly." 

352. Cheek. Made plural in the 5th and later eds. In the next 
line the 4th and the rest read "cheeks (or " cheekes " ) reuiues" 
or "cheekes receiue ; " and all eds. except the ist have "tender" 
for tenderer. 

359. His. Its ; as often before its came into general use. The 
{illusion is to the chorus, or interpreter, in a dumb-show, or panto- 
mime. Cf. T. G. of K ii. i. 101, T. of A. i. r. 34, etc. 

363. Alabaster, Spelled " allablaster " or " alablaster " in the 
early eds., as elsewhere in S. and his contemporaries. 

365. And unwilling. The 4th ed. has "and willing." 

367. The engine of her thoughts. That is, her tongue. Cf. 7. A, 
iii. i. 82, where the expression is similarly used. 

370. Thy heart my wound. "Thy heart wounded as mine is" 

376. Grave, Engrave, impress. Schmidt makes it = " cut a 
little, wound slightly, graze. " 

388. Suffered. That is, allowed to burn. Cf. 3 Hen. VL iv. 

" A little fire is quickly trodden out, 
Which, being suffer'd, rivers cannot quench." 

397. Sees. The 2d, 3d, and 4th eds. have "seekes." In her 
naked bed, as some take the trouble to inform us, means " naked in 
her bed." This rhetorical transference of an epithet is familiar to 
every schoolboy ; but the expression (as it occurred in Jeronimo*) 
was ridiculed by Jonson and others. Cf. "idle bed" (/. C. ii. i. 
117), "lazy bed" (T. and C. i. 3. 147), "tired bed" (Lear, i. 2. 
13), etc. So sick bed, etc. 

398. A whiter hue than -white. Cf, Cymb. ii. 2. 14 : 

" How bravely thou becom'st thy bed, fresh lily, 
And whiter than the sheets ! " 

210 Notes 

and ./?. of L. 472 : " Who o'er the white sheet peers her whitei 

411. Owe. Own, possess ; as very often. Cf. R. of L. 1803, etc. 

424. Alarms. Alarums, attacks. The 5th and later eds. have 
" alarme." The 4th has " alarum." 

429. Mermaid. Siren ; the usual meaning in S. Cf. 777 below. 

432. Ear's. Misprinted " Earths" in the 4th and later eds. 

434. Invisible. Steevens conjectures " invincible ; " but, as 
Malone remarks, "an opposition is clearly intended between 
external beauty, of which the eye is the judge, and a melody of 
voice (which the poet calls inward beauty) striking not the sight, 
but the ear." 

436. Sensible. Endowed with sensibility, sensitive. Cf. Z. Z. Z. 
iv. 2. 28, iv. 3. 337, etc. 

443. Stillitory. Alembic, still ; used by S. only here. 

448. And bid Suspicion, etc. Malone thinks that " a bolder or 
happier personification than this" is hardly to be found in Shake- 
speare's works ! 

453. Like a red morn, etc. A common bit of folk-lore. Cf. the 
familiar proverb (often varied in form) : 

A red sky at night is a shepherd's delight ; 
A red sky at morning is a shepherd's warning." 

See also Matthew, xvi. 2. 

454. Wrack. The regular form of the word in S. Cf, the 
rhymes in 558 below, R. of L. 841, 965, etc. 

456. Flaws. Sudden gusts, or "squalls." Cf. Cor. v. 3. 74, 
Ham. v. I. 239, etc. 

462. Struck. Spelt "strucke," "stroake," "stroke," and 
"strooke" in the early eds. Elsewhere we find "strucken," 
"stricken," "stroken," etc. 

466. Bankrupt. " Bankrout," " banckrout," or " banquerout " 
in the old eds., as often in other passages. Hudson adopts 
Walker's plausible conjecture of "loss" for Jove. 

Venus and Adonis 21 1 

469. All a?nadd. The 4th and later eds. have " in a maze.' 
472. Fair fall, etc. May good luck befall, etc. 

481. Night of sorrow. Cf. Sonn. 120. 9 : "night of woe." 

482. Blue windows. That is, eyelids, on account of their "blue 
veins" (-#. of L. 440). Cf. Cymb. ii. 2. 21 : 

" would under-peep her lids, 
To see the enclosed lights, now canopied 
Under these windows, white and azure lac'd 
With blue of heaven's own tinct." 

Malone cites both this last passage and V. and A. 482 as referring 
to blue eyes; but the "azure lafd" ought to settle the question in 
regard to the former, and " windows " evidently has the same mean- 
ing in both. If the " blue windows " were blue eyes, Malone would 
make out his case, for in V. and A. 140 the goddess says " Mine 
eyes are grey and bright," But why should the poet call them 
blue in the one place and grey in the other, when the former word 
would suit the verse equally well in both ? In my opinion, when 
he says blue he means blue, and when he says grey he means grey. 
See note on 140. 

484. Earth. All the early eds. except the 1st have "world." 

488. Shine. For the noun, cf. 728 below. 

490. Repine. The only instance of the noun in S. The verb 
occurs only three times. 

492. Shone like the moon, etc. Malone compares L. L. L. iv. 3. 
30 fol. 

497. Annoy. For the noun, cf. 599 below, JR. ofJL. 1109, etc. 

500. Shrewd. Evil ; the original sense, occurring often in S. 

506. Their crimson liveries. Referring, of course, to the lips. 
The transition to verdure in the next line is curious, and the whole 
passage is a good example of the quaint " conceits " of the time. 
The allusion, as Malone remarks, is to the practice of strewing 
rooms with rue and other strong-smelling herbs as a means of 
preventing infection. The astrological allusion is also to be noted. 


Writ on death = predicted death by their horoscopes. The 4th 
ed. has " neither " for never. 

508-510. To drive infection, etc. Clearly an allusion to the 
plague in London in 1592, when the play was either written or 
revised for publication. See p. 22 above. 

509. The star-gazers, etc. Cf. Sonn. 107. 5 fol 

511. Sweet seals. Cf. M.for M. iv. I. 6, etc. 

515. Slips. A play on the word as applied to counterfeit coin. 
For a similar quibble, see R. andj, \\. 4. 51. 

519. Touches. " Kisses " in the 5th and following eds. 

520. Told. Counted; as in 277 above. 

521. Say, for non-payment, etc. "The poet was thinking of a 
conditional bond's becoming forfeited for non-payment ; in which 
case the entire penalty (usually the double of the principal sum 
lent by the obligee) was formerly recoverable at law" (Malone). 

524. Strangeness. Bashfulness, reserve. Cf. 310 above. 

526. Fry. Or "small fry," as we still say. Cf. A. W. iv. 3. 
250, Macb. iv. 2. 84, etc. 

529. The worlds comforter. Cf. 799 below. 

538. Honey fee. For the adjective, cf. 1 6 above and Sonn. 
65. 5 : "honey breath," etc. Honey occurs much oftener than 
sugar in S., both literally and figuratively, but it was then the 
more familiar sweet. 

540. Incorporate. Cf. M. N. D. iii. 2. 208 : 

"As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds, 
Had been incorporate. So we grew together," etc. 

544. Complain on. Cf. 1 60 above. 

550. The insulter. The exulting victor ; the only instance of 
the noun in S. For insult exult, cf. Sonn. 107. 12, 3 Hen. VL 
i. 3. 14, etc. 

565.' With tempering. Cf. 2 Hen. TV. iv. 3. 140 : " I have him 
already tempering between my finger and my thumb, and shortly 
will I seal with him." 

Venus and Adonis 213 

565, 567. Tempering . . . venturing. An imperfect rhyme, but 
see on 192 above, and 628 below. That in 566, 568 is also 

568. Leave. License. Cf. the play on the word in 3 Hen. VI. 
Hi. 2. 34 : 

" Ay, good leave have you ; for you will have leave 
Till youth take leave, and leave you to the crutch." 

Commission = warrant ; as often. 

570. Wooes. The 4th ed. has "woes." 

571. Had she then gave. Elsewhere S. has the participle given 
(usually monosyllabic). It is a wonder that all the editors have 
\z\.gave alone here. 

574. Prickles. The 5th and later eds. have "pricks," and "is 
it " for V is. 

589. Pale. For the noun, cf. R. of L. 1512 and W. T. iv. 3. 4. 

590. Like lawn, etc. Cf. R. of L. 258. 

591. Cheek. Made plural in the 4th ed. et al. See on 352 

593. Hanging by. The 4th and later eds. have " hanging on." 
595. Lists of love. Steevens quotes Dryden, Don Sebastian: 

" The sprightly bridegroom on his wedding night 
More gladly enters not the lists of love." 

597. Prove. Experience. Cf, 608 below, and A. and C. i. 2. 
33 : " You have seen and prov'd a fairer former fortune," etc. 

598. Manage. For the noun as applied to the training of a 
horse, cf. A. Y. L.\. I. 13, Rich. If. iii. 3. 179, etc. This is the 
only instance in S. of the verb similarly used. 

599. That. So that. See on 242 above. For the allusion to 
Tantalus, cf. R. of L. 858. 

600. Clip. Embrace^ Cf. Oth. iii. 3. 464, Cymb. ii. 3. 139, etc. 

601. Even so poor birds, etc. The original reading, generally 
changed to " Even as ? " etc. ; but ? as Wyndham notes, this change 

214 Notes 

and the comma for the colon (or semicolon) in 602 make the 
construction awkward in 604. 

602. Pine. Starve. For the transitive use, cf. Rick. IL v. I. 
77 ; the only other instance in S. 

604. Helpless. Affording no help, or sustenance, Cf. R. of L, 
1027 and 1056. 

The allusion is to the celebrated picture of Zeuxis, mentioned by 
Pliny, in which some grapes were so well represented that birds 
came to peck them. Cf. Sir John Davies, Noses Tdpsum, 1599 : 
"And birds of grapes the cunning shadow peck." 

612. Withhold. Detain, restrain ; as in Rich. III. iii. I. 30, etc. 

615. Be advts'd! Take heed ; as often. 

616. Churlish boar. Cf. T. and C. i. 2. 21 : "Churlish as the 
bear," etc. 

617. Tushes. Tusks. Cf. 1116 below. S. uses the word only 
in this poem. 

618. Mortal. Death-dealing; as in 953 below. See also R. 
ofL. 364, 724, etc. Schmidt takes it to be here = human. 

619. Battle. Battalion, host. Cf. Hen. V. iv. chor. 9, iv. 2. 54, 

624. Crooked. The Variorum of 1821 has " cruel ; " apparently 
accidental, as it is given without comment. 

626. Proof. Defensive armour. Cf. Macb. i. 2. 54 : " lapp'd in 
proof," etc. 

628. Venture. Commonly pronounced venter in the time of S. 
See on 565, 567 above. 

632. Eyes pay. The early eds. have "eyes (or "eies") paies" 
(or " payes ") or " eie (or " eye ") paies " (or " payes ") ; corrected 
by M alone. 

633. yne. The old plural, used for the sake of the rhyme, as 
in R. of L. 643, M. N. D. i. I. 244, ii. 2. 99, iii. 2. 138, v. I. 178, 
etc. In R. of L. 1229 it is not a rhyming word. 

639. Within his danger. Cf. M. of V. iv. I. 180: "You stand 
within his danger, do you not ? " T. N. v. I, 87 : -~ 

Venus and Adonis 215 

" for his sake 

Did I expose myself, pure for his love, 
Into the danger of this adverse town," etc. 

652. Kill, kill! The old English battle-cry in charging the 
enemy. Cf. Lear, iv. 6. 191, etc. 

655. Bate-breeding. Causing quarrel or contention. Cf. 2 
Hen, IV. ii. 4. 271: "breeds no bate with telling of discreet 
stories." The 4th ed. has " bare-breeding." 

656. Canker. Canker-worm. Cf. M. N. D. ii. 2. 3, Temp. i. 2. 
415, etc. Love's tender spring "the tender bud of growing 
love" (Malone). Cf. C. of E. iii. 2. 3: "Even in the spring of 
love thy love-springs rot." 

657. Carry-tale. Used again in L. L. L. v. 2. 463: "Some 
carry-tale," etc. 

662. Angry-chafing. Fretting with rage. The hyphen was 
inserted by Maione. See on 325 above. 

668. Imagination. Metrically six syllables. For tremble, the 
3d and later eds. have " trembling." 

674. Uncouple, Set loose the hounds; as in M. IV* D. iv. r. 
112, etc. 

677. Fearful. Full of fear, timorous. Cf. 927 below. 

679-702. And ivhen thou hast . . . relieved by any. Knight re- 
marks : " In Coleridge's Literary Remains the Venus and Adonis 
is cited as furnishing a signal example of * that affectionate love 
of nature and natural objects, without which no man could have 
observed so steadily, or painted so truly and passionately, the very 
minutest beauties of the external world.* The description of the 
hare-hunt is there given at length as a specimen of this power. A 
remarkable proof of the completeness as well as accuracy of Shaks- 
pere's description lately presented itself to our mind, in running 
through a little volume, full of talent, published in 1825 Essays 
and Sketches of Character > by the late Richard Ayton, Esq. There 
is a paper on hunting, and especially on hare-hunting. He says : 
* 1 am not one of the perfect fox-hunters of these realms ; but 

216 Notes 

having been in the way of late of seeing a goo i deal of various 
modes of hunting, I would, for the benefit of the uninitiated, set 
down the results of my observations.' In this matter he writes 
with a perfect unconsciousness that he is describing what any one 
has described before; but as accurate an observer had been before 

" * She (the hare) generally returns to the seat from which she 
was put up, running, as all the world knows, in a circle, or some- 
thing sometimes like it, we had better say, that we may keep on 
good terms with the mathematical. At starting, she tears away at 
her utmost speed for a mile or more, and distances the dogs half- 
way : she then returns, diverging a little to the right or left, that 
she may not run into the mouths of her enemies a necessity 
which accounts for what we call the circularity of her course. Her 
flight from home is direct and precipitate ; but on her way back 
when she has gained a little time for consideration and stratagem, 
she describes a curious labyrinth of short turnings and windings, as 
if to perplex the dogs by the intricacy of her track.' 

"Compare this with Shakspere [lines 679-684 : * And when thou 
hast on foot the purblind hare,' etc.]. 

" Mr. Ayton thus goes on : * The hounds, whom we left in full 
cry, continue their music without remission as long as they are 
faithful to the scent ; as a summons, it should seem, like the sea- 
man's cry, to pull together, or keep together, and it is a certain 
proof to themselves and their followers that they are in the right 
way. On the instant that they are " at fault," or lose the scent, 
they are silent. . . . The weather, in its impression on the scent, 
is the great father of " faults ; " but they may arise from other acci- 
dents, even when the day is in every respect favourable. The 
intervention of ploughed land, on which the scent soon cools or 
evaporates, is at least perilous ; but sheep-stains, recently left by 
a flock, are fatal : they cut off the scent irrecoverably making a 
gap, as it were, in the clue, in which the dogs have not even a bint 
for their guidance.' 

Venus and Adonis 217 

" Compare Shakspere again [lines 685-696 : Sometime he runs 
among a flock of sheep,' etc.]. 

" One more extract from Mr. Ay ton : * Suppose then, after the 
usual rounds, that you see the hare at last (a sorry mark for so 
many foes) sorely beleaguered looking dark and draggled and 
limping heavily along ; then stopping to listen again tottering on 
a little and again stopping; and at every step, and every pause, 
hearing the death-cry grow nearer and louder.' 

" One more comparison, and we have exhausted Shakspere's 
description [lines 697-702 : * By this, poor Wat, far off upon 
a hill/ etc.]. 

" Here, then, be it observed, are not only the same objects, the 
same accidents, the same movement, in each description, but the 
very words employed to convey the scene to the mind are often 
the same in each. It would be easy to say that Mr. Ayton copied 
Shakspere. We believe he did not. There is a sturdy ingenuous- 
ness about his writings which would have led him to notice the 
Venus and Adonis if he had had it in his mind. Shakspere and 
he had each looked minutely and practically upon the same scene; 
and the wonder is, not that Shakspere was an accurate describer, 
but that in him the accurate is so thoroughly fused with the poeti- 
cal that it is one and the same life." 

680. Overshoot. The early eds. have " ouer-shut " or " ouershut ; " 
corrected by Dyce (the conjecture of Steevens). Wyndham retains 
the old reading as = shut up, conclude. 

682. Cranks. Turns, winds. Cf. i ffen. IV. iii. I. 98: "See 
how this river comes me cranking in." 

683. Musits. Holes for creeping through; used by S. only here. 
Cf. Two Noble Kinsmen, iii. I. 97, where it is = hiding-place. 

684. Amaze. Bewilder. Cf. K. fohn^ iv. 3. 140. 

694. Cold fault. Cold scent, loss of scent. Cf. T. of S* ind. 

I. 20: 

" Saw'st thou not, boy, how Silver made it good 
At the hedge-corner, in the coldest fault ? 
I would not lose the dog for .twenty pound." 

21 8 Notes 

695. Spend their mouths. That is, bark; a sportsman's expres 
sion. Cf. Hen. V. ii. 4. 70 : 

" for coward dogs 

Most spend their mouths when what they seem to threaten 
Runs far before them." 

697. Wat. " A familiar term among sportsmen for a hare ; why, 
does not appear. Perhaps for no better reason than Philip for a 
sparrow [cf. K*John> i, I. 231], Tom for a cat, and the like" 

700. Their. The 4th ed. has " with." 

703. Wretch, On the use of the word as a term of pity or ten- 
derness, cf. Oth. iii. 3. 90 : " Excellent wretch ! " "It expresses the 
utmost degree of amiableness, joined with an idea which perhaps 
all tenderness includes, of feebleness, softness, and want of protec- 
tion " (Johnson). See also R. andj. i. 3.44: "The pretty wretch 
left crying," etc. 

704. Indenting* The 4th ed. has " intending." 

705. Envious* Malicious ; as often. So envy is often = malice. 
712. Myself. The 4th and following eds. have " thy selfe." 
724. True men thieves. The 1st and 2d eds. have "true-men 

theeves," the 3d "rich-men theeve," the rest "rich men theeves." 
The use of true men in opposition to thieves is common in S. and 
other writers of the time. 

726. Forsworn. "That is, having broken her vow of virginity " 

734. Curious. Careful, elaborate. Cf. A. W* i. 2. 20 : 

" Frank Nature, rather curious than in haste, 
Hath well compos 'd thee." 

736. Defeature. Deformity; as in C. ofE. ii. i. 98 and v. I. 299. 

738. Mad. "Sad " in the 5th and later eds. 

740. Wood. Mad, frantic. Cf. the play on the word in M. JV, D+ 
ii. i. 192: "And here am I, and wood [or "wode"] within this 

Venus and Adonis 219 

743. Imposthumes. Abscesses. Cf. Ham, iv. 4. 27 and T. and C. 
v. i. 24. 

746. Fight. The 5th and following eds. have "sight; " and in 
748 the 4th and the rest have * imperiall " for impartial. 

751. Fruitless. Barren. Cf. M.N. D, i. i. 73: "the cold fruit- 
less moon," etc. 

754. Dearth. The 4th ed. has " death." 

755* The lamp, etc. " Ye nuns and vestals, says Venus, imitate 
the example of the lamp, that profiteth mankind at the expense of 
its own oil" (Malone). 

760. Dark. The 4th and later eds. have " their." 

762. Sifh. Since. Cf. 1 1 63 below. 

766. Reaves. Bereaves. For the participle, still used in poetry, 
see 1174 below. 

767. Frets. Corrodes, wears away. Cf. A. and C. iv. 12. 8, etc. 

768. Use. Interest. Cf. Much Ado, ii. i. 288, etc. 

774. Treatise. Discourse, talk, tale. Cf. Much Ado, i. I. 317 
and Macb. v. 5. 12, the only other instances of the word in S. 

777. Mermaid^s. Siren's. Cf. 429 above. 

782. Closure. Enclosure ; as in Sonn. 48. 1 1 and Rich. III. iii. 
3. ii. In T. A. v. 3. 134 it is = close, conclusion. 

787. Reprove? Disprove, confute; as in Much Ado, ii. 3. 241: 
" 't is so; I cannot reprove it," etc. 

795. Simple. Artless, guileless. 

797. Bereaves. Impairs, spoils ; as in R* of L. 373, etc. 

807. In sadness. In earnest, Cf. R.andJ. i. i. 191. In A. W. 
iv. 3. 230, we have " in good sadness." 

808. Teen. Sorrow. Cf. Temp. i. 2. 64: "the teen I have 
turn'd you to ; " L. L, L. iv. 3. 164: " of sorrow and of teen," etc. 

813. Laund. Lawn (in the old sense of glade). The 4th and 
later eds. have "lawnes." Cf. 3 Hen. VI. iii. i. 2. 

826. Mistrustful. Causing mistrust ; here used actively. In 3 
Hen. VI. iv. 2. 8 (the only instance of the word in the plays) it 
has its ordinary meaning (wanting confidence, or suspicious). 

220 Notes 

830. That. So that. See on 242 above. 

833* Ay me ! Changed by Hudson to " Ah me ! " which oecurs 
in the early eds, of S. only in . andj. v. I. lo, where it is prob- 
ably a misprint. Ay me ! is used often by S., as by Milton. 

837. Thrall. Enslaved. Cf. A>. 0/. 725. 

840. Answer, The plural may be explained either by the implied 
plural in the collective choir or by *' confusion of proximity." 

848. Idle sounds resembling parasites. That is, servilely echoing 
what she says, as the context shows. Staunton reads " idle, sounds- 
resembling parasites." 

849. Shrill-tongzted tapsters, etc. Cf. I Hen. IV. ii. 4, where 
Prince Henry amuses himself with the tapster Francis. 

850. Wits? Theobald conjectured " wights," for the sake of the 
rhyme; but parasites is spelled " parasits " in the first three eds., 
and may have been intended to be so pronounced. See on 1001, 
1002 below. But the rhyme i parasites and wits is no worse than 
many in the poem. Cf., for instance, 449, 450, and 635, 636 above. 
See also on 51, 192, etc. 

854. Cabinet. Poetically for nest, as cabin in 637 above for 
lair or den. 

858. Stein bur nisi? d gold* Malone compares the opening lines 
of Sonn, 33. 

865, Myrtle grove. It will be recollected that the myrtle was 
sacred to Venus. 

866. Musing; Wondering. Cf. K. John> iii. I. 317, ,&f<w, iii. 
4. 85, etc. 

868. For his hounds. The 4th ed. omits his. 

870. Coasteth. Schmidt well explains the word : " to steer, to 
sail not by the direct way but in sight of the coast, and as it were 
gropingly." Cf. Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 38 : - 

"The king in this perceives him, how he coasts 
And hedges his own way." 

871. And as she runs, etc. Wyndham omits the comma after 

Venus and Adonis 221 

runs, which he takes to be transitive, as in "the fox ran the 
meadows," etc. 

873. Twine. The ist and 2cl eds. have "twin'd," the 3d 
"twind," and the 4th " twinde ; " corrected in the 5th. Wyndham 
has "twined." 

877. At a bay. The state of a chase when the game is driven to 
extremity and turns against its pursuers. Cf. T. of S. v. 2. 56, 

882. Spirit. A monosyllable, as often. Cf. L. C. 3, etc. 

884. Blunt. Rough, savage. 

887. Curst. Snappish, fierce. Cf. W. T. iii. 3. 135: "they 
[bears] are never curst but when they are hungry ; " Much Ado, 
ii. i. 22: "a curst cow," etc. The word is often used in the sense 
of shrewish in T. of S. ; as in i. I. 185, i. 2. 70, 128, ii. I. 187, 294, 
307, etc. We have the comparative curster in T. of S. iii, 2. 156 
and the superlative in ii. i. 315. 

888. Cope him. Cope with him, encounter him. Cf. T. and C. 
i. 2. 34, ii. 3. 275, etc. 

891. Who. Often used "to personify irrational antecedents." 
Cf. 956 and 1041 below. 

892. Cold-pale. The hyphen is in the early eds. 

895. Ecstasy. Excitement. In S. it means " any state of being 
beside one's self" (Schmidt). It is often equivalent to insanity ; 
as in Ham. ii. i. 102, iii. I. 168, iii. 4. 74, etc. 

896. All dismayed. The reading of the ist and 2d eds. ; " Sore 
dismay'd " in the rest. 

899. For the second bids the 6th and some later eds. have 

901, Bepainted. Cf. R. andj. ii. 2. 86 ; the only other instance 
in S. 

907. Spleens. Passionate impulses. Cf. I Hen. IV. v. 2. 19, 
/. C, iv. 3. 47, etc. 

908. Untreads. Retraces j as in K. John, v. 4. 52 and M. of V. 
ii. 6. 10. 

222 Notes 

909. Mated. Bewildered, paralyzed. Cf. C. of E. iii. 2. 54, v. 
i. 281, etc. 

911. Respects. Considerations, thoughts; as in Z, L. Z. v. 2. 
792, etc. 

912. In hand with. Taking in hand, undertaking. 

930. Exclaims on. Cries out against. Cf. R. of L. 741, M. of 
V. iii. 2. 176, etc. 

933' Worm. Serpent ; as often. 

947. Love's golden arrow, etc. Malone remarks that S. had 
probably in mind the old fable of Love and Death exchanging 
their arrows by mistake ; and he quotes Massinger, Virgin 

Martyr : 

" Strange affection 1 

Cupid once more hath chang'd his darts with Death, 
And kills instead of giving life." 

949. Drink tears. Cf. T. A, ii. 2. 37 : " no other drink but 

956. VaiFd. Let fall. See on 314 above. 

963. Both crystals, etc. " Magic crystals, as Dr. Dee's, in which 
one in sympathy with another could see the scene of his distress " 

981. Orient. Pearly, or lustrous like pearl. Cf. M. N. D. iv. 
i. 59, etc. 

988. Makes. The 5th and later eds. have "make." Herford 
says the singular is right, the true subject being " the rapid inter- 
change of despair and hope." 

990. In likely. The reading of the 1st and 2d eds. The 3d and 
4th have "The likely," and the rest "With likely." 

993. All to naught. Good for nothing. Some print " ail-to 
naught," and others "all to-naught." 

995. Clepes. Calls. Cf. Ham. i. 4. 19 : " They clepe us drunk- 
ards," etc. 

996. Imperious, " Imperial " (the reading of the 5th and later 
eds.). Cf. T. and C. iv. 5. 272 : "most imperious Agamemnon," etc. 

Venus and Adonis 223 

998. Pardon me I felt. That is, that I felt. Some make pardon 
me parenthetical. 

999. Whenas. When ; as not unfrequently. 

1002. Decease. The early eds. have "decesse," "deceass," or 
** deceasse." See on 850 above. 

1004. Wreak'd. Revenged. Cf. R. and J. iii. 5. 102 and 
T. A. iv. 3. 51. See also the noun in Cor. iv. 5. 91, T. A. iv. 3, 
33, etc. The 4th ed. prints " Bewreakt." 

loio. Suspect. For the noun, cf. Sonn. 70. 3, Rich. III. i. 3* 
89, etc. 

1012. Insinuate With. Try to ingratiate herself with. Cf. 
A. Y. L. epil. 9; the only other instance of the phrase in S. 

1013. Stories. For the verb, cf. /c*. of L. 106 and Cymb. i. 4. 34. 

1020. Chaos comes again. Cf. Oth. iii. 3. 92 : " Chaos is come 

1021. Fond. Foolish ; the usual meaning in S. Cf. R. of L. 
216, 1094, etc. 

1027. Falcon. The reading of the 5th ed., and to be preferred 
on the whole to the plural of the earlier eds. 

1028. The grass stoops not> etc. A hyperbole found in Virgil 
(Mneid, viii. 808), Milton (Camus'), Pope (Essay on Criticism), 
Tennyson (The Talking Oak), and elsewhere. 

1038. Deep-dark. Hyphened in the first three eds. 

1041. Who. See on 891 above. 

1046. As when the wind, etc. The vulgar explanation of the 
earthquake. Cf. I Hen. IV. iii. I. 32. See also Marlowe, Tambur- 
iaine. Part I. i. 2. 51 : 

" Even as when windy exhalations, 
Fighting for passage, tilt within the earth." 

1048. Which with cold terror, etc. There was an earthquake 
in England in 1580, when S. was sixteen years old (Malone). 

1051. Light. The reading of the 1st and 2d eds. The 3d and 
4th have "night," and the rest "sight," 

224 Notes 

1052. Trcnctid. Gashed. Cf. Macb. iii. 4. 27: "trenched 
gashes, 1 ' etc. The 3d and 4th eds. have " drencht." 

1059. Passions. Grieves. Cf. 7'. G. of V. iv. 4. 172: "Ari- 
adne passioning," etc. 

1062, That they have wept till now. That is, that they have 
wasted their tears on inferior "hints of woe." 

1073. Eyef red fire ! The 1st and 2d eds. have " eyes red fire," 
the 3d has " eyes red as fire," the 4th " eies as red as fire," and the 
rest have "eyes, as fire." 

1083. Fair. Beauty; as in C. of E. ii. I. 98,^. Y, L. iii. 2. 
99, etc. There is a play on fair and fear, which were pronounced 
nearly alike. See on 51 and 192 above. 

1094. Fear. Frighten. See M. of V. ii. I. 9, 7 1 . of S. i. 2. 
211, etc. 

1098. Silly. Innocent, helpless. Cf. 7^. of L, 167: " the silly 
lambs ; " 3 Hen. VI. ii. 5. 43 : " silly sheep," etc. 

1105. Urchin- snouted. With snout like that of a hedgehog. 
For urchin^ cf. Temp. i. 2. 326, ii. 2. 5, etc. 

no8. Entertainment. Treatment. The word is used by S. in 
both a good and a bad sense. 

1 1 10. He thought to kiss him, etc. This conceit, as Malone notes, 
is found in the 3Oth Idyl pf Theocritus, and in a Latin poem by 
Antonius Sebastianus Minturnus entitled De Adoni ab Apro Inter 
empto : 

" iterum atque juro iterum, 
Formosum hunc juvenem tuum hand volui 
Meis diripere his cupidinibus ; 
Verum dum specimen nitens video 
(Aestus impatiens tenella dabat 
Nuda femina mollibus zephyris), 
Ingens me miserum libido capit 
Mills suavia dulcia hinc capere, 
Atque me impulit ingens indomitus." 

Cf. Milton, Death of a Fair Infant: 

Venus and Adonis 

" O fairest flower, no sooner blown but blasted ! 
Soft silken primrose fading tunelessly, 
Summer's chief honour, if thou hadst outlasted 
Bleak Winter's force that made thy blossom dry; 
For he, being amorous on that lovely dye 
That did thy cheek envermeil, thought to kiss, 
But kill'd, alas 1 and then bewail'd his fatal bliss." 

1113. Did not. All the eds. except the 1st have "would not," 
1115. Nuzzling. Thrusting his nose in; the only instance of 
the word in S. It is spelled " nousling " in all the early eds. 

1128. Lies/ For the singular, cf. Ham. iii. 2. 214: "The 
great man down, you mark his favourites flies. 3 ' See also L. L. L. 
v. 2. 750 and many similar instances. Abbott {Grammar , 333) 
calls it the " third person plural in -j," and among his examples 
includes sundry instances of j, like " What manners is in this ? " 
(R. and J. v. 3. 214.) On the present passage, cf. J?, of L. 1378. 

1143. OP erstraix? d. Overstre\vn; used of course for the rhyme. 
S. has neither form elsewhere. 

1144, Truest. The reading of the first three eds. ; "sharpest" 
in the rest. 

1148. Measures. Grave and formal dances. Cf. Much Ado, 
ii. r. So: "as a measure, fall of state and ancientry," etc. 

1 149. Staring. Schmidt gives the word the ordinary meaning, 
as in 301 above. Wyndharn says : " perhaps = bristly and un- 
kempt, as in the * staring coat' of an ungroomed horse." In/. C. 
iv. 3. 280: " makest . . . my hair to stare," it means to stand on 

1151. Raging-mad and silly-mild. The hyphens were first in- 
serted by Malone. 

1157. Toward. Forward, eager. Cf. P. P. 13, T. of S. v. 2. 
182, etc. 

1162. Combustions. Combustible; used by S. nowhere else. 

1163. Sith. See on 762 above. 

n68. A purple flower. The anemone. The 4th ed, has "pur- 


2.26 Notes 

pul'd." According to Bion, the anemone sprang from his tears, 
the rose from his blood. 

1174. Reft. See on 766 above. 

1183. Herein. The reading of the 1st and 2d eds.; "here 
is " in the rest. 

1190. Doves. See on 153 above. 

1193. Paphos. A town in Cyprus, the chief seat of the worship 
of Venus. Cf. Temp. iv. 1 . 93 and Per. iv. prol. 32. 

1194. Immure. Seclude. Cf. L. C 251,, L. L. L. hi. I, 126, 


THE METRE OF THE POEM. The measure is the ten-syllable 
iambic, as in V. and A,, but the seven-lined stanza (ab abb cc) was 
borrowed by Chaucer from Guillaume de Machault, a French poet, 
Chaucer used it in his Complaint unto Pite and his Troilus and 
Criseyde, Puttenham (1589) had noted it as " heroicall, very 
grave and stately," and " most usuall with our auncient makers " 
(poets). Daniel had used it for his Rosamond, four years before 
Lucrece, and Spenser for his ffymnes, published the year after. 

THE DEDICATION. 2. Moiety. Often used by S. of a portion 
other than an exact half. 

6. Would. The reading of the first three eds. ; " should " in the 

THE ARGUMENT. " This appears to have been written by Shake- 
speare, being prefixed to the original edition of 1594 ; and is a 
curiosity, this and the two dedications to the Earl of Southampton 
being the only prose compositions of our great poet (no* in a 
dramatic form) now remaining" (Malone), 

3, Requiring. Asking. Cf, Hen, VIII. ii. 4. 144: "In hum- 
blest manner I require your highness," etc. 

Rape of Lucrece 

1 6. Disports. For the noun, cf. Oth. i. 3. 272, the only other 
instance in S. 

THE RAPE OF LUCRECE. For the title, see p. 1 1 above. The 
Cambridge editors give " The Rape of Lucrece " throughout 

i. Ardea. As Dyce notes, S. accents the word on the first sylla- 
ble, as it should be. The Variorum of 1821 and some other eds. 
have "besieg'd," which requires " Ardea." 

In post. Cf. C. of E, i. 2. 63 : "I from my mistress come to you 
in post," etc. We find " in all post " in Rich. III. iii. 5. 73. 

3. Lust-breathed. Animated by lust. 

8, Unhappily. The early eds. have " vnhap'ly " or " vnhaply," 
except the 7th, which misprints " unhappy." 

9, Bateless. Not to be blunted. Cf. wibatedm Ham. iv. 7, 139 
and v. 2, 328. See also the verb bate in L. L. Z. i. i. 6. 

10, Let. Forbear. Cf, 328 below, where it is = hinder. 

13. Heavens beauties. The stars. 

14. Aspects. Accented on the last syllable, as regularly in S. 
Cf. 452 below. 

19. Such high- proud. Hyphened by Malone. The later eds. 
have "so high a." 

21. Peer. The reading of the 1st eel. ; "prince " in all the rest. 

23. Done, Brought to an end, ruined. Cf. V. and A, 197, 749, 
A. W. iv. 2. 65, etc. 

2,6. Expired. Accented on the first syllable because preceding 
a noun so accented. Cf. unstained in 87, extreme in 230, s^cpreme 
in 780, unfelt in 828, dispersed in 1805, etc. The later eds. have 
" A date expir'd : and canceld ere begun." 

37* Suggested, Incited, tempted; as often. Cf. Rich. II. iii. 4. 
75, etc. 

40. Braving compare. Challenging comparison. For the noun, 
cf. V. and A. 8, Sonn. 21. 5, etc. 

44, All-too-timeless. Too unseasonable; first hyphened by 

228 Notes 

47. Liver* For the liver as the seat of sensual passion, cf, 
Temp.yf. I, 56, M. W. ii. i. 121, etc. 

49. Blasts. For the intransitive use, cf. T. G. of V.\. 1.48: 
" blasting in the bud." 

56. O'er. "Ore" or " or' e "in the early eds. Malone was in- 
clined to take it as the noun ore " in the sense of or or gold ; " and 
Wyndham considers that this view is favoured by the terms of 
heraldry that follow. 

57. In that white intituled. Consisting in that whiteness, or 
taking its title from it (Steevens). Wyndham takes intituled in the 
heraldic sense of " formally blazoned (in white, which is virtue's 
colour) by derivation from Venus' doves" 

58. Venus' doves. Cf. V. and A. 153 and 1190. 

63. Fence. Defend, guard ; as in 3 Hen. VI. ii. 6. 75, iii. 3, 
98, etc. 

71. War of lilies and of roses, Steevens compares Cor. ii. I. 232 
and V. and A. 345 ; and Malone adds T. of S. iv. 5. 30. 

72. Field. . There is a kind of play upon the word in its heraldic 
sense and that of a field of battle. 

82. That praise which Collatine doth owe. Malone and Hudson 
make praise = object of praise, and owe possess. This interpre- 
tation seems forced and inconsistent with the next line, which they 
do not explain. I prefer to take both praise and owe in the ordi- 
nary sense. For owe = possess, cf. 1803 below. 

87. Unstained thoughts. The words are transposed in the $th 
and later eds. 

88. Lim?d. Ensnared by bird-lime. Cf. Ham. iii. 3. 68, Much 
Ado, iii. I. 104, etc. 

89. Securely. Unsuspiciously. Cf. M. W. ii. 2. 252, X. John, 
ii. i. 374, etc. 

92. For that he coloured. For that inward ill he covered or 

93. Plaits. That is, plaited robes. The old eds. spell it 
" pleats/' which is a common New England pronunciation of the 

Rape of Lucrece 229 

word. Boswell quotes Lear, i. i. 183 : "Time shall unfold what 
plaited cunning hides." These are the only instances of the word 
in S. 

94. That. So that. See on V. and A. 242. For inordinate, 
cf. I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 12 and Oth. ii. 3. 311. 

loo. Parting. Speaking, significant. The verb occurs again in 
Z. L. L. v. 2. 122. 

102. Margents. Margins. For other allusions to the practice 
of writing explanations and comments in the margin of books, cf. 
Ham. v. 2. 162, 7?. andj. i. 3. 86, etc. 

104. Moralize. Interpret. Cf. T. of S. iv. 4. 81 : 

" Biondello. Faith, nothing ; but has left me here behind, to expound 
the meaning or moral of his signs and tokens. 
Lucentio. I pray thee, moralize them." 

106. Stories. For the verb, cf. V. and A. 1013. 

117. Mother. The 5th and later eds. change this to "sad 
source ; " and stows in 119 to "shuts." For stows, zisOth. i. 2. 62: 
" where hast thou stow'd my daughter ? " 

1,21. Intending. Pretending. Cf. Rich. III. iii. 5. 8, Hi. 7. 45, 
etc. For spright, see on V. and A. 181. 

122. Questioned. Talked, conversed. Cf. M. of V. iv. I. 70, 

125. Themselves betake. The Bodleian copy of 1st ed. (see p. II 
above) has " himselfe betakes," and " wakes " in the next line ; 
and these are the readings in the Variorum of 1821. 

133. Though death be adjunct. Cf. fC. John, iii. 3. 57 : "Though 
that my death were adjunct to my act." These are the only in- 
stances of adjunct in S. except Sonn. 91. 5. 

135. For what, etc. The first four eds. have "That what," etc., 
and the rest " That oft," etc. The earliest reading may be explained 
after a fashion, as by Malone (and Wyndham) : " Poetically speak- 
ing, they may be said to scatter what they have not, that is, what 
they cannot be truly said to have ; what they do not enjoy, though 

230 Notes 

possessed 'of it." Malone compares Daniel, Rosamond: " As wedded 
widows, wanting what we have ; " and the same author's Cleo- 
patra : " For what thou hast, thou still dost lacke." " Tarn avaro 
deest quod habet, quam quod non habet " is one of the sayings of 
Publius Syrus. But I have little hesitation in adopting Staunton's 
conjecture of For what, etc., as do the Cambridge editors (in the 
" Globe " ed.) and Hudson. It is supported by the context : they 
scatter or spend what they have in trying to get what they have not, 
and so by hoping more they have but less* Bond must here be = 
ownership, or that which a bond claims or secures. The reading 
of the $th ed. seems to be a clumsy attempt to mend the corruption 
of the ist. 

140. Bankrupt. Spelled " backrout," " banckrout," or " bank- 
rout " in the early eds. See on V. and A. 466. 

144. Gage. Stake, risk; as in Ham. i. I. 91. 

150. Ambitious foul. Walker would read " ambitious- foul." 

160. Confounds. Ruins, destroys; as in 250, 1202, and 1489 
below. Cf. confusion = ruin, in 1159 below. 

164. Comfortable. Comforting; the " active " use of the adjec- 
tive, and the most frequent in S. Cf. R. and J. v. 3. 148 : '* O 
comfortable friar ! " etc. 

167. Silly. See on V. and A. 1098. 

168. Wakes. Malone and some others have "wake." 

169. Leaped. Herford puts a comma before this, and makes 
it = " having leaped ; " but he puts a semicolon after arm> which 
seems inconsistent pointing. 

174. Too too. Dyce and Hudson print "too-too." For retire 
as a noun, cf. 573 below. 

177. That So that. See on 94 above. The 5th and following 
eds. have " doth " for do. 

1 79. Lode-star. The preferable spelling, being the etymological 
one. S. uses the word again in M. N. D.i. I. 183. 

180. Advisedly. Deliberately ; as in 1527 and 1816 below. 

1 88, Naked. As Schmidt notes, there is a kind of play upon the 

Rape of Lucrece 231 

word. Still-slaughtered (first hyphened by Malone) = ever killed 
but never dying. 

196. Weed. Robe, garment ; as often in both numbers. 

200, Fancy 's. Love's ; as often. 

202. Digression. Transgression, as in Z. Z. Z. i. 2. 121. In the 
only other instance in S. (2 Men. IV. iv. i. 140) it is = deviation. 

205. Golden coat. That is, coat-of-arms ; an anachronism heie. 

206. Some loathsome dash, etc. " In the books of heraldry a 
particular mark of disgrace is mentioned by which the escutcheons 
of those persons were anciently distinguished who * discourteously 
used a widow, maid, or wife, against her will.' " (Malone). 

207. Fondly. Foolishly. Cf. the adjective in 216, 284, and 1094 
below; and see on V. and A. 1021. 

208. That. So that; as in 94 and 177 above. Note brand, 
stigma. Cf. Rich* //. i. I. 43, Z. Z. Z. iv. 3. 125 and v. 2. 75. 

217. Strucken. The early eds. have "stroke," "stroken," or 
" strucken." See on V. and A. 462. 

221. Marriage. A trisyllable ; as in I Hen. VI. v. 5. 55, etc, 

230. Extreme. For the accent, see on 26 above. 

236. Quittal. Requital ; used by S. only here. Cf. quittance 
in 2 Hen. IV. i. i. 108, Hen. V. ii. 2. 34, etc. 

239. Ay, if. The first four eds. have " I, if " (ay is regularly 
printed / in the early eds.) ; the rest have " if once." 

244. Saw. Moral saying, maxim. Cf. A. Y. Z. ii. 7. 156, etc. 
For the practice of putting these saws on the painted cloth or 
hangings of the poet's time, cf. A. Y. Z. iii. 2. 291 : "I answer 
you right painted cloth." 

246. Disputation. Metrically five syllables. Cf. 352 below. 

258. Roses that on lawn, etc. Cf. V. and A. 590. 

264. Cheer. Face, look. Cf. M. N. D. iii. 2. 96: "pale of 
cheer," etc. 

265. Narcissus. Cf. V.andA.if>\. 

268. Pleadeth. The 5th and following eds. have " pleads," with 
" dreads " and " leades " in the rhyming lines. 

2.3 2 Notes 

274. Tfan, childish fear avaunt! etc. In this line and the next 
I follow the pointing of the early eds. Most of the editors, with 
Malone, makey9#r, debating^ etc., vocatives. 

275. Respect, "Cautious prudence" (Malone), consideration of 
consequences. Cf. T. and C. ii. 2. 49, etc. 

277. Beseems. Becomes. For the number, cf. 1 68 above. Sad 
= serious, sober. Cf. the noun in V. and A. 807. 

278. My part. A metaphor taken from the stage. Malone sees 
a special reference to the conflicts between the Devil and the Vice 
in the old moralities. Cf. T. N. iv. 2. 134 fol. 

284. Fond. Foolish, weak. See on 207 above. 

293. Seeks to. Applies to. Cf. Burton, Anat. of M elan. : "why 
should we then seek to any other but to him ? " See also Deuter- 
onomy > xii. 5, I Kings, x. 24, Isaiah^ viii. 19, xix. 3, etc. 

301. Marcheth. The 5th and later eds. have " doth march ; " 
and in 303 " recites " for retires. 

303. Retires his ward. Draws back its bolt. For the transitive 
verb, cf. Rich. II. ii. 2. 46 : " might have retir'd his power ; " and 
for ward, see T. of A, iii. 3. 38 : " Doors that were ne'er acquainted 
with their wards." 

304. Rate his ill. That is, chide it by the noise they make. 
308. His fear. That is, the object of his fear. Cf. M. N. JD. v 

I. 21 : 

" Or in the night, imagining some fear, 
How often is a bush supposed a bear 1 " 

313. His conduct. That which condtuts or guides him. Cf. R. 
andj. iii. I. 129 : "And fire-eyed fury be my conduct now ! " and 
Id. v. 3. 116 : "Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide," etc. 

319. Needle. Monosyllabic ; as in M. N. D. iii. 2, 204, K.John^ 
v. 2. 157, etc. Some print it " neeld." 

328. Let. Hinder. Cf. the noun just below ; and see Ham. i. 
4. 85, T. N. v. I. 256, etc. 

332. Prime. Spring ; as in Sonn. 97. 7, etc. 

333. Sneaped. Nipped, frost-bitten. Cf. Z. L. L. i. I. 100 : 

Rape of Lucrece 233 

" an envious sneaping frost 
That bites the first-born infants of the spring." 

347. And they. Steevens conjectured "And he ;" but power is 
treated as a plural perhaps on account of the preceding heavens. 
Cf. the plural use of heaven, for which see Rich. //. i. I. 23, iii. 3. 
17, etc. 

349. Fact. Deed. Some explain it as " crime ; " the only 
meaning of the word recognized by Schmidt. 

352. Resolution. Metrically five syllables. See on 246 above. 
In 354 the 5th and following eds. have *' Blacke " for The blackest. 
The former, it will be seen, will satisfy the measure if absolution is 
made five syllables like resolution. 

372. Fiery-pointed. "Throwing darts with points of fire" 
(Schmidt). Steevens wanted to read " fire-ypointed ; " and the 
meaning of fiery-pointed may possibly be pointed (= appointed, 
equipped) with fire. 

377. Or else some shame supposed. Or else some shame is im- 
agined by them. Hudson has the following curious note : "An 
odd use of supposed, but strictly classical. So in Chapman's JBy- 
rorts Conspiracy, 1608 : 4 Foolish statuaries, that under little saints 
suppose great bases, make less, to sense, the saints.' " How the 
etymological sense of supposed (placed under) can suit the present 
passage it is not easy to see. 

386. Cheek. The reading of 1st, 2d, and 4th eds. ; plural in the 

388. Who. See on V. and A. 891. Cf. 447 and 461 below. 

389. To want. At wanting or missing j the "indefinite use" 
of the infinitive. 

402. Map. Picture, image. Cf. 1712 below. 

408. Maiden worlds. White calls the epithet " unhappy " and 
a " heedless misuse of language ; " but the context explains and 
justifies it. Furnivall remarks that S. uses maiden here as we do 
of a castle, which admits its own lord but not a foe. 

234 Notes 

419. Alabaster. The early eds. have " alablaster." See on 
F. and A. 363. 

424. Qualified. Abated, diminished ; that is, for the moment. 
Cf. M. of V. iv. I. 7, W. T. iv. 4. 543, etc. 

428443. And they, like straggling stares, etc. " A sustained 
conceit taken from the assault of a fortress. It is resumed in 464- 
483" (Wyndham). 

429. Obdurate. For the accent, see on V. and A. 199. 

436. Commends. Commits ; as often. Cf. C. of E. i. 2. 32, 
L. L. L.\, i. 234, iii. I. 169, etc. 

439. Breast. Made plural in the 5th and following eds. 

448. Controlled. Restrained. Cf. 500, 678, and 1781 below. 

453- Taking. Now used only colloquially in this sense. Cf. 
Jlf. W. iii. 3. 491 : "What a taking was he in when your husband 
asked who was in the basket ! " 

456. Wrapped. Involved, overwhelmed. Hudson reads " rapt." 
Cf. 636 below, 

458. Winking. Shutting her eyes. See on V. and A. 90. 

459. Antics. Fantastic appearances. The early eds. have *' an- 
tiques." The words are used interchangeably in the early eds., the 
accent being always on the first syllable. Leading = direction ; as 
in Cor. iv. 5. 143. 

467. Bulk. Chest. Cf. Rich. III. i. 4. 40 and Ham. ii. i. 95. 
That =.$& that ; as in 94, 177, and 208 above. 

471. Heartless. Without heart, or courage ; as in 1392 below. 
See also R. andj. i. i. 73 : " heartless hinds." These are the only 
instances of the word in S. 

472, Peers. Lets appear, shows. Elsewhere in S. peer is in- 

476. Colour. Pretext. For the play on the word in the reply, 
cf. 2 Hen. IV. v. 5. 91 : 

" Falstaff. Sir, I will be as good as my word ; this that you heard 
was but a colour. 

Shallow. A colour [ = collar] that I fear you wiU $je in, Sir John." 

Rape of Lucrece 235 

491. Crosses. Mischances, vexations. Cf. 912 below. 
493. / think, etc. " I am aware that the honey is guarded with 
a sting" (Malone). 

496. Only. The transposition of the adverb is common in S. 

497. On what he looks. That is, on what he looks on ; as prepo- 
sitions are often omitted in relative sentences when expressed in 
what precedes. 

500. Affections. Passion's, lust's. Cf. W. T. i. 2. 138, etc. 
502. Ensue. Follow; as in Rich. II. ii. I. 197 : "Let not to- 
morrow, then, ensue to-day." See also I Peter ^ iii. n. 

506. Towering. A technical term in falconry. Cf. Macb. ii. 4. 
12, etc. Like may possibly be = as, or there may be a "confusion 
of construction." Hudson adopts the former explanation, and 
gives the impression that like is "repeatedly" so used by S. The 
fact is that there is not a single clear instance of it in all his works. 
The two examples in Pericles are not in his part of the play ; and 
in M. N. D. iv. I. 178 (the only other possible case of the kind) 
the reading is doubtful, and with either reading the passage may be 
pointed so as to avoid this awkward use of like. If S. had been 
willing to employ it, he would probably have done so " repeatedly ; " 
but it seems to have been no part of his English. 

507. Coucheth. Causes to couch or cower. Cf. the intransitive 
use in A. W. iv. I. 24, etc. 

511. Falcon* s bells. For the bells attached to the necks of tame 
falcons, cf. A. Y. L. iii. 3. 81 and 3 Hen. VI. i. I. 47. 

522. Nameless. " Because an illegitimate child has no name by 
inheritance, being considered by the law as nullius filius " (Malone). 
Cf. T. G. of V. iii. I. 321 : "bastard virtues, that indeed know not 
their fathers, and therefore have no names." 

530. Simple. Cf. A. Y. L. iv. I. 1 6 : " compounded of many 
simples," etc. From this meaning of "an ingredient in a com- 
pound" the word came to be applied to medicinal herbs (mainly 
used in compounds) j as in M. W. i. 4. 65, iii. 3. 79, R. and J. v. 
i. 40, etc. 



531. A pure compound. The 5th and later eds. have "purest 
compounds." In the next line, his its. Purified = rendered 

534. Tender. Favour. It is often similarly used ( = regard or 
treat kindly) ; as in T. G. of V. iv. 4. 145, C. of E. v. I. 132, etc. 

537- Wipe. Brand ; the only instance of the noun in S. For 
birth-hour* s blot, cf. M. N. D. v. i. 416 : 

" And the blots of Nature's hand 
Shall not in their issue stand ; 
Never mole, hare-lip, nor scar, 
Nor mark prodigious, such as are 
Despised in nativity, 
Shall upon their children be," 

540. Cockatrice^ dead-killing eye. For the fabled cockatrice, or 
basilisk, which was supposed to kill with a glance of its eye, cf. 
W. T. i. 2. 388, Hen. V. v. 2. 17, Rich. III. i. 2. 151, etc. 

543. Gripes. Griffin's (Steevens). The word is often = vul- 
ture ; as in Sidney's Astrophel : 

" Upon whose breast a fiercer gripe doth tire, 
Than did on him who first stole down the fire ; " 

Ferrex and Porrex : " Or cruel gripe to gnaw my growing harte," 
etc. For allusions to the griffin, see M. N. D. ii. I. 232 and I Hen* 
IV. iii. i. 152. 

547. But. The reading of all the early eds. Changed by Sewell 
to "As," and by Malone to "Look." Boswell explains the text 
thus : " He knows no gentle right, but still her words delay him, 
as a gentle gust blows away a black-faced cloud." 

550. Blows. The early eels, have "blow;" corrected by 

553. Winks. Shuts his eyes, sleeps. See on 458 above. For 
Orphezts, cf, T. G. ofV. iii, 2. 78, M. of K v. i. 80, 
iii. i. 3, etc. 

Rape of Lucrece 237 

554. Night-waking* Awake at night. 

556. Vulture folly, Cf. V. and A. 551: * vulture thought." 

559. Plaining. Complaining. Cf. Lear, iii. I. 39; "cause to 
plain," etc. 

560. Wear with raining. Cf. 959 below. 

565. His. Its ; as in 532 above. Steevens quotes M. M D. v. 
I. 96 : " Make periods in the midst of sentences," etc. 

568. Conjures. The accent in S. is on either syllable without 
regard to the sense. 

569. Gentry. His gentle birth. Cf. W. T. i. 2. 393, Cor. iii. 
I. 144, etc. 

574. Stoop. Yield. Cf. M. of V. ii. 7. 20, Lear, i. r. 51, etc. 
576. Pretended. Intended; as in T. G. of V. ii. 6. 37 : "their 
pretended flight," etc. 

579. Shoot. For the noun, cf. L. L. L. iv. i. 10, 12, 26, 
2 Hen. IV. iii. 2. 49, etc. Malone conjectures "suit," with a play 
on the word, which was then pronounced shoot. See L. Z. L. iv. 
i. no, where is a play on suitor and shooter. 

580. Woodman. Huntsman. Cf. M. W. v. 5. 30, etc. 

581. Unseasonable. Cf. M. W. iii. 3. 169: "buck and of the 

592. Convert. For the intransitive use, cf. 691 below. For the 
rhyme, cf. Sonn. 14. 12, 17. 2, 49. 10, 72. 6, etc. 

595. At an iron gate. Even at the gates of a prison (Steevens). 

603. Seeded. Matured, full-grown ; used again in T. and C. i. 
3. 316 : "seeded pride." 

607. Be remembered. Remember, bear in mind. Cf. A. Y. L. 
iii, 5. 135 : "now I am remember'd," etc. 

609. In clay. That is, even in their graves. Their misdeeds 
will live after them. Cf. Sonn. 71. 10 : "when I perhaps com- 
pounded am with clay," etc, 

615, 6 1 6. For princes are the glass, the school, the book, etc. For 
the " chiastic " construction, not carried out in the second line, cf. 
A. and C. iv. 15. 25 : 

238 Notes 

" if knife, drugs, serpents have 
Edge, sting, or operation, I am safe." 

See also on L, C. 265. For the 6gures, cf. I Hen. IV. ii. 3. 31. 

6 1 8. Lectures* Lessons. Elsewhere in S. read lectures = give 
lessons, not receive them. Cf. A. Y. L. iii. 2. 365, T. of S. i, 2. 148, 
Cor. ii. 3. 243, etc. 

621. Privilege. For the verb, cf. Bonn. 58. 10, etc. 

622. Laud. Cf. 887 below, 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 236, etc. 

637. Askance. Turn aside ; the only instance of the verb in S. 
Schmidt paraphrases the line thus : " who, in consequence of their 
own misdeeds, look with indifference on the offences of others." 

639. Lusf, thy rash relier. "That is, lust which confides too 
rashly in thy present disposition and does not foresee its necessary 
change " (Schmidt). The 5th and following eds. have " reply " for 

640. Repeal. Recall. Cf. /. C. iii. i. 51, Rich. II. ii. 2. 49, etc. 
643. Eyne. See on V. and A. 632. The 5th and later eds, 

have " eies ; " and in 649 " pretty " for petty. 

646. Let. Hindrance j as in 330 above. 

651. To his. The reading of the 1st and 2d eds. The 3d has 
"to the," and the others "to this." 

655. Who. See on 388 above. 

657. Puddle's. The reading of 1st, 2d, and 4th eds. ; the others 
have " puddle." For hears* d the 5th and 6th have " bersed," and 
the yth " persed." Hearsed is found also in M. of V. iii. 1 . 93 and 
Ham. i. 4. 47. 

661. Thy fouler grave. Hudson points " thy fouler, grave ; " 
and adds this strange note : " Grave is here a verb, meaning to 
bury or be the death of." He seems to take the line to mean, Thou 
buriest their fair life, and they bury thy fouler life ; but how he 
would explain the former clause I cannot guess. Of course the 
meaning is, Thou art their fair life a repetition of the idea in 
they basely dignified. 

678. Controlled* See on 448 above. 

Rape of Lucrece 239 

680. Nightly. The 5th and 6th eels, misprint " mighty." Linen 
is not = nightgown (unknown in the time of S.), but a linen cloth 
about the head. Nightgown (in Macb. ii. 2. 70, Much Ado, iii. 4. 
1 8, Oth. iv. 3. 34, etc.) is = robe de chambre, or dressing-gown. 

684. Prone. Headlong. Cf. M. for M. i. 2. 1 88, etc. The 3d, 
5th, 6th, and 7th eds. have " proud." 

691. Converts. Changes. See on 592 above. 
696. Balk. Disregard, neglect. Cf. Davies, Scourge of Folly, 
1611 : 

" Learn'd and judicious lord, if I should balke 
Thyne honor'd name, it being in my way, 
My muse unworthy were of such a walke, 
Where honor's branches make it ever May." 

698. Fares. The 5th and 6th eds. have " feares," and in 706 
" of eine " for or rein. 

701. Conceit. Conception, thought. Cf. 1298 below. 

703. His receipt. What he has received; as in Cor. i. I. 116: 

" The discontented members, the mutinous parts 
That envied his [the stomach's] receipt." 

707. Till, like a jade, etc. Steevens aptly quotes Hen. VIII. i. 

i. 132: 

41 Anger is like 

A full-hot horse, who being allow'd his way. 
Self-mettle tires him," 

For jade (= a worthless or vicious horse), cf. V. a?id A. 391. 

721. The spotted princess. The polluted soul. For spotted, cf. 
M. N. D.\. i. no, Rich. //. iii. 2. 134, etc. 

728. Forestall. Prevent ; as in 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 141, etc. The 
7th ed. has "forest, all ; " as "presence" for prescience in 727, and 
" swearing" for sweating in 740. 

733. Perplexed. Bewildered, confounded. Cf. Oth. v. 2. 346 : 
" Perplex 7 d in the extreme," etc. 


741. Exclaiming on. Crying out against. Cf. V. and A. 930, 

743. Cowvertite. Convert, penitent. The word is found also in 
A. Y. L. v. 4. 190 and A". John, v. I. 19. 

747. Scapes. Transgressions ; as in ffl* T. iii. 3. 73 : "some 
scape," etc. 

766. Black stage. In the time of S. the stage was hung with 
black when tragedies were performed (Malone). Cf. I Hen. VL 
i. I. I : "Hung be the heavens with black," etc. The upper part 
of the stage was technically known as the heavens. Cf. Sidney, 
Arcadia : " There arose, even with the sunne, a vaile of clarke 
cloudes before his face, which shortly had blacked over all the face 
of heaven, preparing (as it were) a mournfull stage for a tragedie 
to be played on." 

768. Defame! Cf. 817 and 1033 below. These are the only 
instances of the noun in S. 

774. Proportioned. " Regular, orderly" (Schmidt). 

780. Supreme. For the accent, see on 26 above. 

781. Arrive. For the transitive use, cf. /. C. i. 2, 1 10, Cor. ii. 
3, 189, etc. T?ot prick = dial-point, cf. R. andj. ii. 4. 119 : "The 
prick of noon," etc. 

782. Misty. The 1st and 2d eds. have " mustie ; " corrected in 
the 3d ed., which, however, misprints "vapour " for vapours. 

783. In their smoky ranks his smothered light. That is, his 
light smothered in their smoky ranks. The queen Is of course 
the moon, the handmaids the stars. 

786. Distain. Stain, defile. The $th and later eds. have 
" disdaine." 

790. Fellowship in woe, etc. "Misery loves company," as the 
old saw puts it. Cf. 1580 below and R. and J. iii. 2. 116 : "sour 
woe delights in fellowship." 

791. Palmers'. Pilgrims'. Cf. A. W. iii. 5. 38, R. and J. i. 5. 
102, etc. 

792. Where. Whereas. See L. Z. L. ii. I. 103, etc. 

805. Sepulchred. S. accents the verb regularly on the penult ; 

Rape of Lucrece 1241 

as be does the noun in Rich. II, i. 3. 196, but elsewhere on the first 
syllable, as in If. and A, 622, etc. 

807. Character''*.-?. S. accents the verb on either the first or 
second syllable, the noun on the first except in Rich. III. iii. I. 81. 

Sir. Cipher. Decipher ; used by S. only here and in 207 and 
1396 of this poem. 

812. Quote. Note, observe. Cf. R. and J. i. 4, 31, etc. The 
word is spelled cote in the 1st and 2d eds., as it was pronounced. 

817, Feast-finding* " Our ancient minstrels were the constant 
attendants on feasts " (Steevens) . Their music of course made 
them welcome, 

820. Senseless. Not sensible of the wrong done it. 

828. Crest-wounding. Staining or disgracing the family crest 
or coat of arms a " blot i' the scutcheon." 

830. Mot, Motto, or word, as it was called in heraldry; used 
by S. only here. 

841 . Guilty. Malone reads " guiltless. " Sewell makes the line 
a question ; but, as Boswell says, Lucrece at first reproaches her- 
self for having received Tarquin's visit, but instantly defends her- 
self by saying that she did it out of respect to her husband. 

848. Intrude. Invade; not elsewhere transitive in,S. 

849. Cuckoos. For the allusion to the cuckoo's laying its eggs 
in other birds' nests, cf. I Hen. /K iii. 2. 75, v. i. 60, A. and C. ii. 
6, 28, etc. 

851. Folly. "Used, as in Scripture, for -wickedness" (Malone). 
Schmidt explains it as " inordinate desire, wantonness/ 7 both here 
and in 556 above. Cf. Oth. v. 2. 132 : "She turn'd to folly, and 
she was a whore." 

858. Still-pining. Ever-longing. Cf. " still- vex'd" (Temp. i. 
2. 229), "still-closing" (/</. iii. 3- 6 4)> etc. For Tantalus, see 

V. anctA.599- 

859. Barns. Stores up ; the only instance of the verb in S. 
The 5th and later eds. have " bannes " or " bans." 

864. Abuse. Misuse ; as in 994 below. 

242. Notes 

867. The sweets we wish for, etc. Cf.Scwn. 129, "that greatest 
of sonnets," as Mr. Verity calls it. 

879. Poinfst. Appointest ; but not to be printed "'point'st," 
as by some editors. Cf. T. of S. iii. I. 19, iii. 2. I, 15, etc. 

884. Temperance. Chastity. Cf. A. and C. iii. 13. 1 21 the 
only other instance of this sense in S. 

892. Smoothing. Flattering. Cf. Kick. III. i. 2. 169, i. 3. 48, etc. 
The 5th and following eds. have "smothering." 

894. Thy -violent vanities, etc. Cf. R. and J. ii. 6. 9 : " These 
violent delights have violent ends." 

899. Sort. Sort out, select. Cf. R. and J. iii. 5. 1 08, iv. 2. 
34, etc. 

907. Advice. That is, medical advice. 

9*2. Crosses. Hindrances, mischances. Cf. 491 above. 

914. Appaid. Satisfied ; used by S. only here. 

920. Shift. Trickery. Nares (s. v. Shifter) quotes Rich Cabi- 
net furnished with Varietit of Excellent Descriptions, 1616 : 
" Shifting doth many times incurre the indignitie of reproach, and 
to be counted a shifter is as if a man would say in plaine tearmes 
a coosener." Cf. 930 below. 

925. Copesmate. Companion ; used by S, nowhere else. 

926. Grisly. Grim, terrible. Cf. I Hen. VI. i. 4. 47, J\T. N. D. 
v. i. 140, etc. 

928. Watch of woes. "Divided and marked only by woes" 
(Schmidt). Cf. Macb. ii. i. 54 : "the wolf, whose howl 's his 

930. Injurious^ shifting. Some editors adopt Walker's conjecture 
of " injurious-shifting ; " but shifting may be = cozening, deceitful. 
See on 920 just above. 

936. Fine. Explained by Malone as = soften, refine, and by 
Steevens and Wyndham as = bring to an end. The latter is on 
the whole to be preferred. 

943. Wrong the wronger. That is, treat him as he treats others, 
make him suffer. Farmer would read " wring " 

Rape of Lucrece 243 

944. Ruinate* Cf. Sonn. 10. 7 : " Seeking that beauteous roof 
to ruinate," etc. 

With thy hours. Steevens conjectures " with their bowers," and 
Malone was at first inclined to read " with his hours." 

948. To blot old books and alter their contents. As Malone re- 
marks, S. little thought how the fate of his own compositions 
would come to illustrate this line. 

950. Cherish springs. That is, young shoots. Cf. V. and A. 
656. Warburton wanted to read " tarish " (= dry up, from Fr. 
tarir) ; Heath conjectured " sere its ; " and Johnson " perish." 

953' Beldam. Grandmother ; as in 1458 below. 

962. Retiring. Returning ; as in T. and C. \. 3. 281, etc. 

981. Curled hair. " A distinguishing characteristic of a person 
of rank" (Malone). Cf. Oth. i. 2. 68 : "wealthy curl'd darlings; " 
A. and C. v. 2. 304: " the curled Antony," etc. 

985. Orts. Scraps, remnants. Cf. T. and C. v. 2. 158 and T. 
of A. iv. 3. 400. 

993. Unrecalling. Not to be recalled. For crime, the 4th and 
following eds. have " time." 

looi. Slanderous. Disgraceful; asiny. C. iv. I. 20: "To ease 
ourselves of divers slanderous loads." The office of executioner, or 
deathsman (cf. Lear, iv. 6. 263), was regarded as ignominious. 

1021. Force not. Regard not, care not for. Cf. L. L. L. v. 2. 
440 : " force not to forswear." 

1024. Uncheerful. The 4th and later eds. have " unsearch- 

1027. Helpless. Unavailing ; as in 1056 below. See on V. ami 
A. 604. 

1035. Afeard. Used by S. interchangeably with afraid. 

1045. Mean. The singular is often used by S., but the plural 

1062. Graff. Graft. All the early eds. except the ist and 
2d have "grasse." 

1067. Thy interest. Thy possession, thy married right to my 

244 Notes 

bed. Cf. 1619 below. See also Cyntb. i. 3. 90: "my interest and 
his honour." 

1070. With my trespass never will dispense. That is, will never 
excuse it. Cf. 1279 and 1704 below. 

1079. Philomel. The nightingale. Cf. 1 1 28 below. 

1084. Cloudy. Cf. V. and A. 725. See also I Hen. IV. iii. 2, 
83 : " cloudy men," etc. For shames = is ashamed, cf. 1 143 

1092. Nought to do. That is, nothing to do with, no concern in. 

1094. Fond. Foolish ; as in 216 above. 

1 105. Sometime. The 4th and following eds. have " sometimes." 
The two forms are used indiscriminately. 

1109. Annoy. See on V. and A. 497. 

1114. Ken. Sight. Cf. 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 113: "losing ken of 
Albion's wished coast," etc. 

1119. Who. See on 388 above. 

1124. Stops. Referring to the stops of musical instruments. Cf. 
Ham. iii. 2. 76, 376, 381, etc. 

1 126. Relish your nimble notes to pleasing ears. Tune your lively 
notes for those who like to hear them. With phasing cf. unreeall- 
ing in 993 above. 

1127. Dumps. Mournful elegies. Cf. T. G. of V. iii. 2. 85: 
"Tune a deploring dump." 

1128. Of ravishment. Referring to her being ravished by Te- 
reus. See T. A. ii. 4. 26 fol. and iv. r. 48 fol. 

1132. Diapason. "Deep notes harmoniously accompanying 
high ones" (Schmidt). Used by S. only here. 

1133. Burden-wise. As in the burden of a song. 

1134. Descanfst. Singest. For the noun, cf. T. G. of V. \. 2. 
94. Here the early eds. all have "descants;" a euphonic con- 
traction of second persons singular of verbs in -/, found not infre- 
quently in the early eds. Skill must be regarded as the direct 
object of descanfst) not governed by with understood, as Malone 
makes it, pointing " descant'st, better skill." Wyndham says : " S. 

Rape of Lucrece 245 

here, as ever, exhibits a complete grasp of technical terms. lie 
makes Lucrece contrast her sad, monotonous accompaniment of 
groans humming onTarquin still with the treble descant oi the 
nightingale, complaining in a higher register and with more frequent 
modulations of the wrong wrought her by Tereus. The one he 
compares to a single droning bass, chiefly in the diapason or lower 
octave ; the other to the better skill or more ingenious artifice of a 
contrapuntal melody scored above it." See Elson (J?. in Music} 
on descant. 

1135. Against a /horn. The nightingale was supposed to press 
her breast against a thorn while singing. Cf. Two Noble Kins- 
men, iii. 4. 25 : " O for a prick now, like a nightingale, To put my 
breast against ! " See also P. P. 379. 

1140. Frets. The stops that regulated the vibration of the 
strings in lutes, etc. Cf. 7\ of S. ii. i. 150, 153. 

1142. And for. And because. 

1 143. Shaming. Being ashamed ; as in 1084 above. 

1 144. Seated from the way. Situated out of the way. 
1149. At gaze. Staring about. 

1 1 60. Conclusion. Experiment. Cf. A. and C. v. 2. 358, Cymb. 
i. 5. 18, etc. 

1167. PeeVd. Here and in 1169 the early eds. have "pil'd," 
"pild," or " pill'd ; " and this last form might well enough be 
retained. Cf. Genesis, xxx. 37, 38. In M. of F, i. 3. 85 the quartos 
have "pyld" or "pyl'd," and the folios "pil'd." 

1 1 86. Deprive. Take away ; as in 1752 below. 

1 202. Confound. Ruin; as in 1 60 above. 

1205. Oversee. The overseer of a will was one who had a super- 
vision of the executors. The poet, in his will, appoints John Hall 
and his wife as executors, and Thomas Russel and Francis Collins 
as overseers. In some old wills the term overseer is used instead 
of executor (Malone). 

1 206. Overseen. Bewitched, as by the " evil eye." Cf. overlooked 
in M. W. v. 5. 87 and M. of V. iii. 2. 15. 

246 Notes 

1 221. Sorts. Adapts, as if choosing or selecting. Cf. 899 above. 

1222. For why. Because; as in Rich. If, v. I. 140, etc. 

1227. Each flower moisten' d, etc. Cf. M. N. D. iii. I. 204 and 
T, and C. i. 2. 9. The early eds, have " moistned," and Wyndham 
prints " moist'ned," which he regards as more melodious. 

1229. Eyne, See on 643 above. 

1233. Pretty. In this and similar expressions pretty may be 
explained as = "moderately great" (Schmidt), or "suitable, suffi- 
cient," as some make it. Cf. R. and J. i. 3. 10: ','a pretty age." 
This is still a colloquialism ; as in " pretty good," etc. 

1241. And therefore art they, etc. " Hence do they (women) 
receive whatever impression their marble-hearted associates (men) 
choose" (Malone). Will = may will (subjunctive). 

1242. Strange kinds. Alien or foreign natures. 
1244. Thin call them not, etc. Cf. T. A 7 ", ii. 2. 30: 

" How easy is it for the proper-false 
In women's waxen hearts to set their forms ! 
Alas, our frailty is the cause, not we, 
For such as we are made of, such we be ! " 

atL&M.for M. ii. 4- *3 O: 

" Women ! Help Heaven ! men their creation mar 
In profiting by them. Nay, call us ten times frail, 
For we are soft as our complexions aie, 
And credulous to false prints." 

1247. Like a goodly. The 5th and 6th eds. have simply " like a," 
and the 7th reads "like unto a." 

1254, No man inveigh. Let no man inveigh. All the eds. but 
the 1st have "inveighs." 

1257. Hild. For held, for the sake of the rhyme. The 5th and 
later eds. have " held." Cf. Spenser, F. Q. iv. n. 17 : 

" How can they all in this so narrow verse 
Contayned be, and in small compasse hild ? 
Let them record them that are better skild," etc. 

Rape of Lucrece 247 

1258. Fulfil? d, Filled full. Cf. T. and C. prol. 18: "fulfilling 
bolts." See also Sonn. 136. 5. 

1261. Precedent. Example, illustration. 

1263. Present. Instant ; as in 1307 below. 

1269. Cotmterfcit. Likeness, image ; as in M. of V. iii. 2. 115, 
Macb. ii. 3. 81, etc. 

1272. Of my sustaining. That I suffer. 

1279. With tfie fault I thus far can dispense. See on 1070 

1285. The repetition. The telling it. Cf. Macb. ii. 3, 90, etc. 

1298. Conceit. Conception, thought ; as in 701 above. 

1302. Inventions. Elsewhere used of thoughts expressed in 
writing ; as in A. Y. L. iv. 3. 29, 34, T. N. v. i. 341, etc. 

1325. Interprets. The figure here is taken from the old motion, 
or dumb-show, which was explained by an interpreter. Cf. T. G. 
of V. ii. I. 101 and T. of A. i. I. 34. Steevens quotes Greene, 
Groatsworth of Wit: " It was I that . . . for seven years' space 
was absolute interpreter of the puppets." 

1329. Sounds. That is, waters (which may be deep, though not 
fathomless). Malone conjectured "floods." 

1335. fowls. The 6th and 7th eds. have "soules; " an easy 
misprint when the long s was in fashion. 

1338. Villain. Servant, bondman. Cf. Lear, iii. 7. 78: "my 
villain," etc. 

1345. God wot. God knows. Cf. Rich. III. ii. 3. 18 : "no, no, 
good friends, God wot." 

1350. This pattern. That is, the groom. On worn-out age t 
cf. Sonn. 68. i : " map of days outworn." 

1353. That. So that ; as in 94 above. 

1355. Wistly. Wistfully. See on V. and A. 343. 

1357, 1358. Note the imperfect rhyme. 

1368. The which. Referring to Troy. Drawn = drawn up. 

1370. Cloud-kissing Ilion. Cf. T. and C. iv. 5. 220: "Yond 
towers whose wanton tops do buss the clouds," etc. 

248 Notes 

1371. Conceited. Fanciful, imaginative. Cf. IV. T. iv. 4. 204 : 
"an admirable conceited fellow ; " Z. C. 16 : "conceited charac- 
ters," etc. 

1372, As. That; as in 1420 below. See also 77ie Phoenix and 
the Turtle, 25. 

1377. Strife, That is, "his art with nature's workmanship at 
strife" (V. and A. 291). Cf. T. of A. i. I. 37. 

1378. And dying eyes, etc. Cf. V. and A. 1127. 

1380. Pioneer, Sapper. The early eds. have "pyoner" or 
"pioner." Here the rhyme requires pioneer. The early eels, have 
pioner in the four instances in which S. uses the word, except in 
Oth. iii. 3. 146, where the later folios have pioneer. Cf. enginer 
and mutiner. 

1384. Lust. Pleasure. Cf. T. and C. iv. 4. 134. 

1388. Triumphing. Accented on the second syllable, as often. 
Cf. L. L. L. iv. 3. 35, i Hen. IV. v. 4. 14, v. 3. 15, etc. 

1400. Deep regard and smiling government. " Profound wisdom 
and the complacency arising from the passions being under the 
command of reason " (Malone) ; or deep thought and complacent 
self-control. For deep regard, cf. 277 above. 

1407. PurVd. "Curl'd" (Steevens's conjecture) ; used by S. 
only here. 

1411. Mermaid. Siren. See on V. and A. 429. 

1417. Bollen. Swollen; used by S. nowhere else. Cf. Chaucer, 
Black Knigh^ 101 : " Bollen hertes," etc. The later form boiled 
occurs in Exodus, ix. 31. 

1418. Pelt. Probably = throw out angry words, be passionately 
clamorous ; as Malone, Nares, and Schmidt explain it. Cf. Wits, 
frits, and Fancies : "all in a pelting chafe," etc. The noun is also 
sometimes = a great rage ; as in The Unnatural Brother : " which 
put her ladyship into a horrid pelt," etc. 

1422. Imaginary. Imaginative; as in Sonn. 27, 9: "my 
soul's imaginary sight," etc. For conceit, see on 701 and 1371 

Rape of Lucrece 249 

1423. Kind. Natural ; as often. See Much Ado, i. I. 26, etc. 

1436. Strand. All the early eds. have " strond ; " an old spell- 
ing found elsewhere. 

1440. Than* The old form of then, sometimes found in the 
early eds. (as in M. of V. ii. 2. 200, 3 Hen. VI, ii. 5. 9, etc.), here 
used for the sake of the rhyme. 

1444. StelPd. Spelled "steld" in all the early eds., and prob- 
ably = placed, fixed. Cf. Sonn. 24, i : 

11 Mine eye hath play'd the painter, and hath stell'd 
Thy beauty's form in table of my heart." 

\i\Lear> iii. 7. 61, we find "the stelled fires," where sidled \$ com- 
monly explained as derived from stella, though probably = fixed, 
as here. Knight and Hudson suspect that stelfd is "simply a 
poetical form of styled^ that is, written or depicted as with a 
stilus or stylus" 

1449. Bleeding under Pyrrhus* proud foot. Cf. Ham. ii. 2. 
474 fol. 

1450. Anatomized. " Laid open, shown distinctly " (Schmidt). 
Cf. A. Y. L. i. I. 162, ii. 7. 56, A. W. iv. 3. 37, etc. 

1452. Chaps. Spelled " chops " in all the early eds. except the 
yth. Cf. chop* or chopped in A. Y. L. ii. 4. 50, 2 Hen. XV. iii. 2. 
294, etc., and choppy in Macb. i, 3. 44. 

1460. Ban. Curse ; as in V. and A. 326. 

1479. Moe? More ; used often, but only with plural or collec- 
tive nouns. 

1486. Swounds. Swoons. All the early eds. have "sounds," 
as the word was often spelled. 

1487. Channel. Stream ; or, as some define it, gutter. Cf. 
I Hen. IV. ii. I. 52. 

1488. Unadvised. Unintentional, inadvertent. Cf. T. G. of V. 
iv. 4. 127, etc. 

1489. Confounds. Destroys. See on 160 above. 

1494. On ringing. A-ringing. This on and a- (see a-work in 

250 Notes 

1496) are often used interchangeably. Cf. aboard and on board, 
etc. //^ = its. Cf. V.andA. 159, etc. 

1499. Painting. All the early eds. except the 1st and 2d have 

1500. Who. The reading of all the early eds., changed in some 
modern ones to " whom." We find who even after prepositions. 

1504, Blunt. Rude, rough. The 5th and later eds. have 
"these blunt." 

1505. His woes. "That is, the woes suffered by Patience" 
(Malone). Cf. T. M ii. 4. 117 and Per. v. I. 139. 

1507. The harmless show. The harmless painted figure. 
1511. Guilty instance. Token or evidence of guilt. For in- 
stance, see Much Ado, ii. 2. 42, A. Y. L. iii. 2. 53, 59, 62, 71, etc. 
1521. Sinon. Cf. 3 Hen, VI. iii. 2. 190 and Cymb. iii. 4. 61. 

1524. That. So that. See on 94 above. 

1525. Stars shot from their fixed places. Cf. M. N. D. ii. I. 153: 
" And certain stars shot madly from their spheres." 

1526. Their glass, etc. "Why Priam's palace, however beauti- 
ful or magnificent, should be called the mirror in which the fixed 
stars beheld themselves, I do not see. The image is very quaint and 
far-fetched " (Malone). The reference is probably to the burnished 
roof. Boswell cites what Lydgate says of Priam's palace : 

* 4 That verely when so the sonne shone 
Upon the golde meynt among the stone, 
They gave a lyght with ou ten any were, 
As doth Apollo in his mid-day sphere." 

1527. Advisedly. Deliberately, attentively. Cf. advised in V. 
and A. 615, and unadvised, 1488 above. 

1544. BcguiPd, Rendered deceptive or guileful. Cf. guiledvs\ 
M. of V. iii. 2. 97. The early eds. have " armed to beguild " (or 
" beguil'd ") ; corrected by Malone. Wyndham retains " beguild " 
as begild, reading : 

" To me came Tarquin armed to beguild 
With outward honesty, but yet defiled," etc. 

Rape of Lucrece 251 

It is true that^'/c/is sometimes u guild " in the old eds.; as in 60 
above, Sonn. 55. I, etc.; but S. does not use begild^ and I doubt 
whether it was his word here. 

1549. Sheds f The old eds. have "sheeds" for the rhyme. 

1551. Falls. Lets fall; as often. Cf. Temp, v. 1 . 64, M. JV. D, 
v. I. I43 etc. 

1555. Effects. Outward manifestations or attributes. Some 
make it = efficacies, powers, or faculties. 

1565. Unhappy. Mischievous, fatal, pernicious ; as in C. of E. 
iv. 4. 127, Lear, iv. 6. 232, etc. 

1576. Which all this time. This (namely, time] has passed un- 
heeded by her during this interval that she has spent with painted 
images ; or which may perhaps refer to the slow passage of time 
just mentioned, and the meaning may be, This she has forgotten 
all the while that she has been looking at the pictures. Hudson 
says : ** Which refers to time in the preceding stanza, and is the 
object of spent: Which that she hath spent with painted images, 
it hath all this time overslipped her thought." This seems need- 
lessly awkward and involved. 

1588. Water-galls. The word is evidently used here simply as = 
rainbows, to avoid the repetition of that word. Nares defines it as 
'* a watery appearance in the sky, accompanying the rainbow;" 
according to others, it means the " secondary bow " of the rainbow 
(which Hudson speaks of as being "within" the primary bow). 
Halliwell {Archaic Diet.) says: "I am told a second rainbow 
above the first is called in the Isle of Wight a watergeal. Carr has 
weather-gall^ a secondary or broken rainbow." For element = sky, 
cf.y. C. i. 3. 128: "the complexion of the element," etc. 

1589. To. In addition to ; as not unfrequently. 

1592. Sod. The participle of seethe^ used interchangeably with 
sodden. Cf. L. L. L. iv. 2. 23, Hen. V. iii. 5, 18, etc. 

1598. Uncouth. Strange (literally, unknown). Cf A. K L. ii. 
6. 6 : " this uncouth forest," etc. 

1600, Spent? Consumed, destroyed. Cf. 938 above. 


1 60 1. Attir'd in discontent? Cf. Much Ado,, iv, I. 146: "sc 
attir'd in wonder,' 1 etc. 

1604. Gives her sorrow Jire. The metaphor is taken from the 
discharge of the old-fashioned firelock musket. Cf. T. G. of V. 
ii. 4. 38 : " for you gave the fire." 

1606. Address* d. Prepared, ready ; as often. 

1615. Moe. The reading of the first three eds.; "more" in 
the rest. See on 1479 above. 

Depending. Impending. Cf. T. and C. ii. 3. 21, etc. 

1619. Interest. See on 1067 above. 

1632. Hard-favoured. See on V. and A. 133. 

1645. Adulterate. Cf. C. of E. ii. 2. 142, Ham. i. 5. 42, etc, 

1650. Scarlet. Dressed in red robes, like a judge. 

1661. Declined. All the eds. except the 1st have "inclin'd." 

1662. Wretched. Walker plausibly conjectures "wreathed." Cf. 
T. G. of V. ii. I. 19 : " to wreathe your arms.* 7 

1667. As through an arch, etc. Doubtless suggested by the tide 
rushing through the arches of Old London Bridge, which greatly 
obstructed its current. Cf. Cor. v. 4, 50. 

1671. Recalled in rage, etc. Farmer wished to read ** recall'd, 
the rage being past." 

1672. Make a saw. The metaphor is quaint, but readily under- 
stood from the context. The noun saw is used by S. nowhere else, 
though handsaw occurs in I Hen /K ii. 4. 187 and Ham. ii. 2. 397. 

1680. One woe. The 1st and 2cl eds. have " on " for one, a 
common spelling. In L. L. L, iv. 3, 142, for instance, the ist folio 
reads: "On [one] her haires were gold, christall the others eyes." 

1691. Venge. Not 'venge, as often printed. Cf. vengeful^ ven- 
geance^ etc. 

1694. Knights, by their oaths? etc, Malorie remarks: " Here one 
of the laws of chivalry is somewhat prematurely introduced." 

1698. Bewrayed. Exposed, made known. Cf. Lear, ii. I. 109, 
iii. 6. 1 1 8, etc. 

1704, With the foul act dispense. See on 1070 above. 

Rape of Lucrece 253 

1705. Advance? Raise; opposed to low-declined. For advance. 
= lift up, cf. ii. 2. 60, etc. 

1713. Carved in it. All the early eds. have "it in" for in zV, 
except the 7th, which omits it. The correction is Malone's. 

1715. By my excuse^ etc. Livy makes Lucretia say: "Ego me, 
etsi peccato absolve, supplicio non libero ; nee ulla deinde impudica 
exemplo Lucretiae vivet;" which Painter, in his novel (see p. 18 
above) translates thus: "As for my part, though I cleare my selfe 
of the offence, my body shall feel the punishment, for no unchaste 
or ill woman shall hereafter impute no dishonest act to Lucrece." 

1720. Assays. Attempts ; as in T. of A. iv. 3. 406, Ham. iii. 3. 
69, etc. 

1728. Sprite, See on 121 above, where we have sprigkt. 

1730. Astonished, Astounded, thunderstruck. Cf. 2 Hen. VI. 
v. i. 146, etc. 

1738. That. So that; as in 1764 below. See on 94 above. 

1740. Vastly. "Like a waste" (Sleevens); the only instance 
of the word in S. Cf. vasty in M. of V. ii. 7. 41 : " the vasty 
wilds of wide Arabia," etc. 

1745. Pigol. Circle. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5.36: "the golden 
rigol" (the royal crown); the only other instance in S. 

1752. Deprived. Taken away; as in n 86 above. 

1754. Unlitfd. Probably the poet's own coinage, and used by 
him only here. 

1760. Fair fresh. Dyce reads "fresh fair," and Staunton and 
Hudson " fresh-fair." 

1765. Last. All the early eds. but the ist and 2d have "hast," 
and in the next line " thou " for they. 

1766. Surcease. Cease ; as in Cor. iii. 2. 121 and JR. andj. iv. 


1774. Key-cold. Cf. Rich. III. i. 2. 5 : "Poor key-cold figure 
of a holy king ; " the only other instance in S. 

1784. Thick. Fast. Cf. thick-coming in Macb. v. 3. 38. See 
also Cymb* i. 6. 67 : " thick sighs," etc. 

254 Notes 

1788. This windy tempest, etc. Cf. T. and C. iv. 4. 55 : " rain 
fo lay this wind/ 3 etc. 

1797. Sorrow's interest. Tears. Cf. "interest of the dead" in 
Sonn. 31. 7. 

1801. Too late. Too lately. Cf. 426 above and F. and A. 1026. 

1803. / owed her. She was mine. For oive own, cf. 82 
above, PL and A. 411, L. C. 140, 327, etc. 

1805. Dispersed. For the accent, see on 26 above. 

1816. Advisedly. Deliberately. Cf. 180 and 1527 above. So 
advised = deliberate, in 1849 below. 

1819. Umotmded. Not sounded or understood hitherto. Cf, 
2 ffen. VI, iii. 1.57. 

1822. Wounds kelp. Walker would read "heal" and Staunton 
" salve " for kelp ; but help is often = cure. Cf. Temp. ii. 2. 97, 
A. W. i. 3. 244, ii. i. 192, ii. 3, 18, etc. 

1829. Relenting. The 5th and later eds. have "lamenting." 

1832. Suffer these abominations, etc. That is, permit these 
abominable Tarquins to be chased, etc. 

1839. Complain* d* Bewailed. For the transitive use, cf. Rick. 
77. iii. 4. 1 8. The verb is used reflexively in 845 above and 
Rich. 77. i. 2. 42. 

1845. AUow. Approve. Cf. 2 Hen. TV. iv. 2. 54. 

1851. Thorough. Used interchangeably with through; so also 
in thoroughly and thoroughfare. The 5th ed. has " through out," 
and the 7th " throughout." 

1854. Plausibly. With applause or acclamations (Malone and 
Steevens); or "readily, willingly" (Schmidt). It is the only in- 
stance of the adverb in S, Plausible occurs only in M. for M, 
iii. i. 253, where it is = pleased, willing. 

Lover's Complaint 255 


For the feminine use of lover in the title, cf. A. Y. L. iii. 4. 46, 
M. for M. i. 4. 40, Cymb. v. 5, 172, etc. We still say "a pair of 
lovers," The stanza is the same a 1 - in A 1 , and L. 

1. Re-worded* Echoed. Cf. Ham. iii. 4. 143 : " I the matter will 

2. Sisfering* Neighbouring. We find the verb in Per. v. prol. 
7 : " her art sisters the natural roses." 

3. Spirits. Monosyllabic ; as very often. Cf. 236 below and 
see on V. and A, 181. The to is an extra unaccented syllable. 
Accorded = agreed. 

4. Laid. Malone reads "lay," which is the form elsewhere 
in S. Laid may be a misprint. 

5. Fickle. Apparently referring to her behaviour at the time. 

6. A-twain* So in the folio text of Lear, ii. 2. So, where the 
quartos have " in twain." In Oth. v. 2. 206, the ist quarto has 
a-twain, the other early eds. *' in twain." 

7. Her world. Malone quotes Lear, iii. I. 10 : 

" Strives in his little world of man to outscorn 
The to-arid-fro-conflicting wind and rain." 

8. Hive. Hat, shaped like a beehive. 

II. Done. Past, lost. Cf. V. and A. 197, 749, and R. of L. 23. 

14. Seared. Withered. Hudson has " sere " (also spelt " sear ") , 
which S. uses in C. of E. iv. 2. 19 and Macb. v. 3. 23, where 
Schmidt takes sear to be a noun. 

15. Heave her napkin. Lift her handkerchief ; the only mean- 
ing of napkin in S. For hcave^ cf. Cymb. v. 5. 157 : 

" O, would 

Our viands had been poison'd, or at least 
Those which I heav'd to- head ! " 

and for napkin see Oth. iii. 3. 287, 290, 321, etc. 



1 6. Conceited characters. Fan ci ful figures. See on R. of L. 1371. 

17. Laundering* Welling; used by S. only hero. Malone calls 
the verb " obsolete ; " but it has come into use again in our day. 
Laundress occurs in ?\L IV. iii. 3. 157, 163, and Evans has laundry 
blunderingly in the same sense in /</. i. 2. 5. 

18. Seasoned. A favourite figure with S. Cf. A. W* i. I. 55 : 
"'T is the best brine a maiden can season her praise in;" 

T. N. i. i. 30 ;~ 

" all this to season 

A brother's dead love, which she would keep fresh 
And lasting in her sad remembrance ; " 

and R. and J. ii. 3. 72: 

" How much salt water thrown away in waste, 
To season love, that of it doth not taste 1 " 

See also Muck Ado, iv. I. 144. ' For pelleted (= rounded), cf. A. 
and C. iii. 13. 165. 

21. Size. This use of the word seems peculiar now ; but cf. 
Hen. VIIL v. i. 136, A. and C. iv. 15. 4, v. 2. 97, etc. 

22. Carnage. The figure is taken from a gun-carriage. Level? d 
was a technical term for aiming a gun. Cf. Rich. If I. iv. 4. 202, 
2 Hen. IV, iii. 2. 286, etc. See also 281 and 309 below. 

30. Careless hand of pride. That is, hand of careless pride. 

31. Shea n Jd. Straw. Cf. 8 above. 

33. Threaden. The word is used again in Hen. V. iii. chor. 10 : 
" threaden sails." 

36. Maund. Hand-basket ; used by S. only here. Cf. Drayton, 
Polyolbion, xiii. : 

" And in a little maund, being made of oziers small, 
Which serveth him to do full many a thing withall, 
He very choicely sorts his simples got abroad ; " 

Herrick, Poems : " With maunds of roses for to strew the way," 
etc. Hence Maundy Thursday, from the baskets in which the 
royal alms were distributed at Whitehall. 

Lover's Complaint 257 

37. Beaded. The quarto (the 1609 ed. of Sonnets, in which the 
poem first appears') has "bedded; " corrected by Scwell. Knight 
and Wyiulham retain u bedded" as = imbedded, set. 

40. Applying wet to wet. A favourite conceit with S. See 
A. . L. ii. i. 48, A\ and J. i. r. 138, 3 Hen. VL v. 4. 8, Ham. iv. 
7. i $6, etc. 

42. Cries some. Cries for some. Malone puts some in italics 
( = " cries * Some ' ") . 

45. Posied. Inscribed with posies, or mottoes. Cf. M. of V. v. 
i. 148, 151, and /faff t. iii. 2. i&2. Rings were often made of bone 
and ivory. 

47. Moe. More. Cf. R. of L. 1479, 1615, etc. 

48. Sleided. Untwisted or unwrought. Cf. Per. iv. prol. 21 : 
"sleided silk." Peat = featly, dexterously. Cf. Temp. i. 2. 380 
and IV. T. iv. 4. 186. 

49. Enswattid. Enwrapped ; used by S, only here. Steevens 
says : " Anciently the ends of a piece of narrow ribbon were placed 
under the seals of letters to connect them more closely ; " that is, I 
suppose, the letters were tied with ribbon, and the knot was sealed 
for security as we might wrap and seal a small package nowadays. 

Curious. Careful ; as in A. W. i. 2. 20, Cymb. i. 6. 191, etc. 

50. Fluxive. Flowing, weeping ; used by S. only here. 

51. Can. The quarto has " gaue," which Knight and Wynd- 
ham retain (as "gave") ; corrected by Malone. 

53. Unapproved. Not approved, or proved true ; used by S. 
only here. Approve is often = prove. 

55. In top of rage. Cf. 3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 4 : " in tops of all their 
pride ; " A. and C. v. i. 43 : " in top of all design," etc. 

Rents = rends ; an old form of rend, found in M. N. D. iii. 2. 
215, Rich. ///. i. 2. 126 (rend'm quartos), Macb. iv. 3. 168, etc. 

58. Sometime. Formerly ; used interchangeably with sometimes 
in this sense. Ruffle = bustle, stir ; the only instance of the noun 
in S. 

'60. The swiftest hours. " The prime of life, when Time appears 


to move with his quickest pace" (Malone). They, according to 
Malone, refers to the fragments of the torn-up letters ; though he 
admits that the clause may be connected with hours, meaning that 
"this reverend man, though engaged in the bustle of court and 
city, had not suffered the busy and gay period of youth to pass by 
without gaining some knowledge of the world." This latter expla- 
nation is doubtless the correct one, 

61. Fancy. Often = love (see on R, of L, 200), and here used 
concretely for the lover. Cf. 197 below. Fastly is used by S. only 

64. Slides he down, etc. That is, lets himself down by the aid 
of his staff, as he seats himself beside her. Grained = of rough 
wood, or showing the grain of the wood. Cf. Cor. iv. 5, 114 : 
"My grained ash" ( = spear). 

69. Ecstasy. Passion, excitement. Cf. V, and A. 895. 

50. Outwards. External features ; not elsewhere plural in S. 
For Of the quarto has " O ; " corrected by M alone. 

51. Stuck. Cf. M.for M. iv. I. 61 : 

" O place and greatness ! millions of false eyes 
Are stuck upon thee." 

88. What 's sweet to do, etc. " Things pleasant to be done will 
easily find people enough to do them" (Steevens). 

91. Sawn. Explained by some as a form of the participle of 
see, used for the sake of the rhyme ; by others as = sown, which 
Boswell says is still pronounced sawn in Scotland. The latter is 
the more probable. 

93. Phcsnix. Explained by Malone and Schmidt as = " match- 
less, rare." So termless = indescribable. Wyndham makes it = 

95. Bare. Bareness ; not elsewhere used substantively by S. 

104. Authorized. Accented on the second syllable ; as in the 
other two instances in which S. uses the word (Sonn. 35. 6 and 
Macb. iii. 4. 66). 

Lover's Complaint 259 

107. 7^hat horse, etc. Hudson does not include this line in the 
supposed comment. 

112. Manage. See on the verb in V. and A. 598. 

1 1 6. Case. Dress; as in M. for M. ii. 4. 13, etc. It maybe 
= " accessories " (Wyndham). 

1 1 8. Came. The quarto has "Can;" corrected by Sewell. 
Knight and Wyndham retain " Can " as = " to be effective." 

126. Catching all passions, etc. Steevens says: "These lines, 
in which our poet has accidentally delineated his own character, 
would have been better adapted to his monumental inscription 
than such as are placed on the scroll in Westminster Abbey." 
Craft of will =" faculty of influencing them" (Wyndham). 

127. That. So that. See on V. and A. 242. 

139. Moe. Cf. 47 above. 

140. Owf. Own. See on JZ. of L. 1803. 

144. Was my own foe-simple. " Had an absolute power over 
myself" (Malone). Cf. A. W. iv. 3. 312 : "the fee-simple of his 
salvation," etc. 

153. Foil. The background used to set off a jewel. Cf. Rich. 
IIL i. 3. 266, Ham. v. 2. 266, etc. 

156. Assay. Essay, try. Cf. V. and A. 6oS. 

162. Blood. Passion. Cf. Much Ado, ii. i. 187, ii. 3. 170, iv. 
i. 60, etc. 

163. Proof. Experience. Cf. M. of V. i. I. 144 : "I urge this 
childhood proof," etc. 

164. Forbod. Forbidden; an old form of the participle used 
by S. only here. 

170. The patterns of his foul beguiling. "The examples of his 
seduction" (Malone). 

171. Orchards. Gardens; the usual meaning in S. For the 
figure, cf. Sonn. 1 6. 6. 

173. Brokers. Panders, go-betweens. Cf. Ham. i. 3. 127: 
" his vows . . . are brokers," etc. 

174. Thought. Malone took this to be a noun. 

260 Notes 

176. My city. For the figure, cf. jR. of L. 469 (see also 1547), 
A. IV* i. J. 137, etc. 

182. Woo. The quarto has " vow ;" corrected by Dyce. 

185. Acture. Action; not found elsewhere. Cf. enactures in 
Ham, iii. 2. 207, 

Malone paraphrases the passage thus : " My illicit amours were 
merely the effect of constitution [or animal passion], and not ap- 
proved by my reason : pure and genuine love had no share in 
them, or in their consequences ; for the mere congress of the sexes 
may produce such fruits, without the affections of the parties 
being at all engaged." 

192. Teen. Trouble, pain. See on V. and A. 808. 

193. Leisures. Moments of leisure. Schmidt makes it = 
" affections, inclinations," which it implies. 

197. Fancies. See on 61 above. 

198. Paled. The quarto has "palyd," and Sewell reads "pallid," 
which may be right. Paled is due to Malone. 

204. These talents, etc. " These lockets, consisting of hair platted 
and set in gold" (Malone), Wyndham thinks it may mean "pre- 
cious possessions," or gifts. 

205. ImpltacKd. Interwoven. Cf. pleached in Aluch Ado, iii, 
I. 7, and thick-pleached in Id. \, 2. 8. 

207. Beseectid. Cf. the past tense in Ham. iii. I. 22. 

208. Annexions. Additions j used by S. only here, as annex- 
ment only in Ham. iii. 3. 21. 

210. Quality. " In the age of S. peculiar virtues were imputed 
to every species of precious stone" (Steevens). 

212. Invis'd. " Invisible " (Malone) ; or, " perhaps = inspected, 
investigated, tried" (Schmidt). No other example of the word is 

214. Weak sights, etc. Eye-glasses of emerald were much 
esteemed by the ancients ; and the near-sighted Nero is said to 
have used them in watching the shows of gladiators. 

215. Blend, Walker makes this a participle = blended. He 

Lover's Complaint 261 

adds : "The expression is perhaps somewhat confused, but it refers 
to the ever-varying hue of the opal." 

217. Blazoned. Interpreted, explained. Cf. the noun in Mitch 
Ado, ii. i. 307. 

219. Pensvtfd. Found only here. Pensive occurs in 3 Hen. 
VL iv. r. 10 and R. ami J. iv. i. 39. Hudson adopts Lettsom's 
conjecture of "pensive" here; but the "pensiu'd" of the quarto 
could hardly be a misprint. 

223. Of force. Perforce, of necessity, Cf. L. L. L. i. I. 148, 
M. N. D. iii. 2. 40, etc. 

224. Enpatron me. Are my patron saint. The verb is used by 
S. only here. 

225. Pkrasehss, Probably = indescribable, like termless in 94 
above. Schmidt thinks it may possibly be = silent, like speechless 
(hand) in Cor. v. I. 67 S. uses it only here. 

229. What me, etc. Whatever obeys me, your minister, for (or 
instead of) you, etc. 

231. Distract. Disjoined, separate. For the accent, see on 
R. ofJL 26. 

233. A sister. The quarto has " Or sister ; " corrected by Ma- 

Note. Notoriety, distinction. Cf. Cymb. i. 4. 2 : " of cres- 
cent note," etc. 

234. Which late> etc. Who lately withdrew from her noble 

235. Whose rarest havings , etc. " Whose accomplishments 
were so extraordinary that the flower of the young nobility were 
passionately enamoured of her" (Malone). 

236. Spirits. Monosyllabic, as in 3 above. Coat may be = 
coat-of-arms (Malone), or dress as indicative of rank, as some 
explain it. 

240. Have not. Hudson adopts Barron Field's conjecture of 
" love not " a needless if not an injurious change. 

241. Paling the place ; etc. The quarto has " Playing the place," 

262 Notes 

etc. ; for which no really satisfactory emendation has been pro- 
posed. Paling, which is as tolerable as any, is due to Malone, who 
explains the line thus : "Securing within the pale of a cloister that 
heart which had never received the impression of love," Lettsorn 
conjectures " Salving the place which did no harm receive." Staun- 
ton proposes " Filling the place," etc. Paling is adopted by most 
of the editors. For pale = enclose, cf. A. and C\ ii. 7. 74, 3 Hen. 

VL i. 4, 103, etc. 
243. Contrives. Some make this = wear away, spend ; as in 

T. ofS, i. 2. 278. 

250. Rye. The rhyme of eye and eye is apparently an oversight, 
no misprint being probable. 

251. Immured. The quarto has "enur'd" and "procure;" 
both corrected by Gildon. S. may have written " emur'd" (= im~ 
mu^d}) as Wyndham suggests. 

252. To tempt) all. Most eds. join all to tempt, which, to my 
thinking, mars both the antithesis and the rhythm. 

258. Congest* Gather in one ; used by S. only here. 

260. Nun. The quarto has "Sunne." The correction was 
suggested by Malone, and first adopted by Dyce. Wyndham re- 
tains " sun ? " as " a metaphor not far-fetched." 

261. Ay, dieted. The quarto has " I dieted," not " I died," as 
Malone (who reads "and dieted ") states. 

262. Believed her eyes, etc. " Believed or yielded to her eyes 
when they, captivated by the external appearance of her wooer, be- 
gan to assail her chastity" (Malone). "When I the assail" was 
an anonymous conjecture which Malone was at first inclined to 

265. Sting. Stimulus, incitement. Cf. Oth. i. 3. 335 : " our 
carnal stings." Note the " chiastic " construction. See on R. of L* 
616, 617, 

271. Love's arms are proof, etc. Another perplexing line. The 
quarto has "peace" for proof, which was suggested by Malone. 
Steevens conjectures " Love aims at peace," Dyce " Love arms our 

Lover's Complaint 263 

peace," and Lettsom " Love charms our peace." Wyndham re- 
tains the old text without question or comment. The meaning 
might possibly be : Love's warfare is peaceful (though arbitrary 
and persistent) rather than hostile ; which may be favoured by 
the sweetens that follows. The passage, however, is probably cor- 

272. And sweetens. And it {Love} sweetens. 

273. Aloes. The only mention of the bitter drug in S. 
276. Supplicant. Not found elsewhere in S. 

279. Credent. Credulous. Cf. Ham. i. 3. 30 : "too credent 
ear," etc. 

280. Prefer and tindertake. Recommend (cf. M. of V. ii. 2. 155) 
and guarantee, or answer for (see I Ben. VI. v. 3. 158, Hen. VIII. 
prol. 12, etc.). 

281. Dismount. "The allusion is to the old English fire-arms, 
which were supported on what was called a rest " (Malone). For 
leveled = aimed, see on 22 above. Cf. the noun in 309 below. 

286. Who glatfd with crystal gate, etc. Malone points thus : 
" Who, glaz'd with crystal, gate ; " making gate " the ancient per- 
fect tense of the verb to get." flame he took to be the object of 

290. Btit with. With but, or only. 

293. O cleft effect! The quarto has "Or" for ; corrected by 

294. Extincture. Extinction ; used by S. only here. 

297. Daff>d. Doffed, put off. Cf. Much Ado, ii. 3. 176, v. r. 
78, etc. Stole ( = robe) is not found elsewhere in S. 

298. Civil. Decorous; as in Oth. ii. I. 243: "civil and hu- 
mane seeming," etc. 

303. Cautels. Deceits. Cf. Ham. i. 3. 15 ; the only other in- 
stance in S. Cautelous ( = false, deceitful) occurs in /, C. ii. r. 
129 and Cor. iv. I. 33. 

305. Swooning. The quarto has " sounding," and " sound " in 
308 below. See on /?. of L. 1486. 

264 Notes 

309, Level, See on 281 above. 

314. Luxury. Lust, lasciviousness ; the only meaning of the 
word in S. Cf. Hen. F. iii. 5. 6, Ham, i. 7. 83, etc. 

315. Preached pure maid, Cf. A. Y. L. iii. 2. 227 : "speak sad 
brow and true maid." 

318. Unexperient. Used by S. only here, as unexperienced 
only in T. of S. iv. I. 86. 

319. Cherubin. Used by S. ten times. Cherub he has only in 
Ham. iv. 3. 50, cherubim not at all. 

327. Owed. That is, owned, or his own. See on 140 above. 
Borrowed motion = counterfeit expression of feeling. 


Swinburne remarks : " What Coleridge said of Ben Jonson's 
epithet for ' turtle-footed peace, 3 we may say of the label affixed to 
this rag-picker's bag of stolen goods : The Passionate Pilgrim is a 
pretty title, a very pretty title ; pray what may it mean ? In all 
the larcenous little bundle of verse there is neither a poem which 
bears that name nor a poem by which that name would be bear- 
able. The publisher of the booklet was like * one Ragozine, a 
most notorious pirate ; ' and the method no less than the motive 
of his rascality in the present instance is palpable and simple 
enough. Fired by the immediate and instantly proverbial popu- 
larity of Shakespeare's Venits and Adonis, he hired, we may sup- 
pose, some ready hack of unclean hand to supply him with three 
doggerel sonnets on the same subject, noticeable only for the porcine 
quality of prurience ; he procured by some means a rough copy or 
an incorrect transcript of two genuine and unpublished sonnets by 
Shakespeare, which with the acute instinct of a felonious trades- 
man he laid atop of his worthless wares by way of gilding to their 
base metal ; he stole from the two years published text of Love's 
Labour 's Lost, and reproduced, with more or less mutilation or cor- 
ruption, the sonnet of Longaville, the ' canzonet ' of Biron, and the 

Passionate Pilgrim 265 

far lovelier love-song of Dumain. The rest of the ragman's gath- 
erings, with three most notable exceptions, is little better for the 
most part than dry rubbish or disgusting refuse ; unless a plea may 
haply be put in for the pretty commonplaces of the lines on a 
' sweet rose, fair flower,' and so forth ; for the couple of thin and 
pallid if tender and tolerable copies of verse on 'Beauty' and 
'Good Night,' or the passably light and lively stray of song on 
* crabbed age and youth.' I need not say that those three excep- 
tions are the stolen and garbled work of Marlowe and of Barnfield, 
our elder Shelley and our first-born Keats : the singer of Cynthia 
in verse well worthy of Endymion, who would seem to have died 
as a poet in the same fatal year of his age that Keats died as a 
man ; the first adequate English laureate of the nightingale, to be 
supplanted or equalled by none until the advent of his mightier 

The contents of Jaggard's piratical collection, stated more in de- 
tail, were as follows (the order being that of the " Globe " ed.) : 

I., II. Shakespeare's Satinets 138 and 144, with some early or 
corrupt readings (noted in my ed. of the Sonnets), 

III. Longaville's sonnet to Maria in L, L. L. iv. 3. 60 fol. : " Did 
not the heavenly rhetoric of thine eye," etc. The verbal variations 
in the two versions (as in V. and XVI.) are few and slight. 

IV. (I. of the present ed.). 

V. The sonnet in Z, L. L. iv. 2. 109 fol. : "If love make me 
forsworn," etc. 

VI., VII. (II. and IV. of this ed.) 

VIII. The following sonnet, probably by Richard Barnfield, in 
\vhose Poems : In diners humors^ 1598 (appended, with a separate 
title-page, to a small volume containing The Encomion of Lady Pe- 
cunia and The Complaint of Poetrie,for the Death of Liberalise) , 
it had first appeared, with this heading : "To his friend Maister 
R. L. In praise of Musique and Poetrie : " 
" If music and sweet poetry agree, 
As they must needs, the sister and the brother, 

266 Notes 

Then must the love be great 'twixt thee and me, 
Because thou lov'st the one, and I the other. 
Dowland * to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch 
Upon the lute doth ravish human sense ; 
Spenser to me, whose deep conceit is such 
As, passing all conceit, needs no defence. 
Thou lov'st to hear the sweet melodious sound 
That Phcebus' lute, the queen of music, makes; 
And I in deep delight am chiefly drown'd 
Whenas himself to singing he betakes. 
One god is god of both, as poets feign : 
One knight loves both, and both in thee remain:" 
Barnfield terms these poems " fruits of unriper years," and ex- 
pressly claims their authorship. The above sonnet is the first in 
the collection. Both this and XX. are omitted in the second edi- 
tion of Lady Pecwiia^ 1605 ; but so also are nearly all of the 
" Poems in Divers Humors," so that no substantial argument can 
rest upon the absence of the two P. P. sonnets from that edition 

IX., X. (III. and V. of this ed.). 

XL The following sonnet, probably by Bartholomew Griffin, in 
whose Fidessa more Chaste than I\indc^ 1596, it had appeared vuth 
some variations : 2 

1 John Dowland (1563-1625) was the most famous musician of his 
day. He published several collections of Songs or Airs, and is often 
referred to by contemporary dramatists. He is here the representative 
of music, as Spenser of poetry. In line 14 there may be an allusion to 
Sir George Carey, to whom Dowland dedicated his first book. Carey's 
wife was an intimate friend of Spenser. 

2 Instead of lines 9-14, the following are given in the Fidessa : 

" But he a wayward boy refusde her offer, 

And ran away, the beautious Queene neglecting : 

Shewing both folly to abuse her proffer, 
And all his sex of cowardise detecting. 

Oh that I had my mistris at that bay 

To kisse and clippe me till I ramie away 1 " 

Passionate Pilgrim 267 

M Venus, with young Adonis sitting by her 
Under a myrtle shade, began to woo him ; 
She told the youngling how god Mars did try her, 
And as he fell to her, so fell she to him. 
' Even thus/ quoth she, ' the warlike god embrac'd me,' 
And then she clipp'd Adonis in her arms ; 
* Even thus/ quoth she, ' the warlike god unlac'd me/ 
As if the boy should use like loving charms ; 
1 Even thus/ quoth she, ' he seized on my lips/ 
And with her lips on his did act the seizure ; 
And as she fetched breath, away he skips, 
And would not take her meaning nor her pleasure. 

Ah, that I had my lady at this bay, 

To kiss and clip me till I run away ! " 

XII., XIII., XIV. (VL, VII., and VIII. of this ed.). 

XV. Here begin the *' Sonnets To sundry notes of Musicke" 
(see p. 13 above) with the following, which is certainly not Shake- 
speare's, though it is not found elsewhere : 

41 It was a lording's daughter, the fairest one of three, 
That liked of her master as well as well might be, 
Till looking on an Englishman, the fair'st that eye could see, 

Her fancy fell a-turning. 

Long was the combat doubtful that love with love did fight, 
To leave the master loveless, or kill the gallant knight ; 
To put in practice either, alas, it was a spile 

Unto the silly damsel ! 

But one must be refused ; more mickle was the pain 
That nothing could be used to turn them both to gain, 
For of the two the trusty knight was wounded with disdain ; 

Alas, she could not help it ! 

Thus art with arms contending was victor of the day, 
Which by a gift of learning did bear the maid away. 
Then, lullaby, the learned man hath got the lady gay ; 

For now my song is ended." 

XVI. Dumain's poem to Kate, in L. L. L. iv. 3. 101 fol: "On 
a day alack, the day I " etc. 

68 Notes 

XVII. The following, from Thomas Weelkes's Madrigals, 1597, 
certainly not Shakespeare's : 1 

" My flocks feed not, 
My ewes breed not, 
My rams speed not, 

All is amiss ; 
Love's denying, 
Faith's defying, 
Heart's renying, 

Causer of this. 

All my merry jigs are quite forgot, 
All my lady's love is lost, God wot ; 
Where her faith was firmly fix'd in love, 
There a nay is plac'd without remove. 
One silly cross 
Wrought all my loss. 

O frowning Fortune, cursed, fickle darnel 
For now I see 

More in women than in men remain. 

In black mourn I, 
All fears scorn I, 
Love hath forlorn me, 

Living in thrall ; 
Heart is bleeding, 
All help needing, 
O cruel speeding, 

Fraughted with gall. 
My shepherd's pipe can sound no deal ; 
My wether's bell rings doleful knell ; 
My curtal dog, that wont to have play'd, 
Plays not at all, but seems afraid ; 

l Weelkes was the composer of the music, but not necessarily the 
author of the words. The poem is found also in England's Helicon 
1600, with the title " The Unknown Sheepheard's Complaint,'" and 
subscribed " Ignoto." 

Passionate Pilgrim 269 

My sighs so deep 
Procure to weep, 

In howling wise, to see my doleful plight. 
How sighs resound 
Through heartless ground, 

Like a thousand vanquished men in bloody fight! 
Clear wells spring not, 
Sweet birds sing not, 
Green plants bring not 

Forth their dye ; 
Herds stand weeping, 
Flocks all sleeping, 
Nymphs back peeping 


All our pleasure known to us poor swains, 
All our merry meetings on the plains, 
All our evening sport from us is fled, 
All our love is lost, for Love is dead. 
Farewell, sweet lass, 
Thy like ne'er was 

For a sweet content, the cause of all my moan. 
Poor Corydon 
Must live alone ; 

Other help for him I see that there is none." 

XVIIL (IX. of this ed.). 

XIX. The following imperfect version of Marlowe's " Come, live 
with me," etc., with Love's Answer (a mere fragment), attributed 
to Sir Walter Raleigh : 

*' Live with me, and be my love, 
And we will all the pleasures prove 
That hills and valleys, dales and fields, 
And all the craggy mountains yields. 

There will we sit upon the rocks, 
And see the shepherds feed their flocks, 
By shallow rivers, by whose falls 
Melodious birds sing madrigals. 

270 Notes 

There will I make thee a bed of roses,, 
With a thousand fragrant posies, 
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle 
Embroider'd all with leaves of myrtle, 

A belt of straw and ivy buds, 
With coral clasps and amber studs; 
And if these pleasures may thee move, 
Then live with me and be my love. 


If that the world and love were young, 
And truth in every shepherd's tongue, 
These pretty pleasures might me move 
To live with thee and be thy love." 

XX. The following (except lines 27, 28) from Richard Barn- 
field's Poems : In diuers humors, 1598 (the first 28 lines also found 
in England's Helicon, 1600, where it is subscribed " Ignoto ") : 

" As it fell upon a day 
In the merry month of May, 
Sitting in a pleasant shade 
Which a grove of myrtles made, 
Beasts did leap, and birds did sing, 
Trees did grow, and plants did spring. 
Every thing did banish moan, 
Save the nightingale alone ; 
She, poor bird, as all forlorn, 
Lean'd her breast up-till a thorn, 
And there sung the dolefull'st ditty, 
That to hear it was great pity : 
'Fie, fie, fie,' now would she cry; 
' Tereu, tereu ! ' by and by ; 
That to hear her so complain, 
Scarce I could from tears refrain, 
For her griefs, so lively shown, 
Made me think upon mine own, 

Passionate Pilgrim 

Ah, thought I, thou mourn 'st in vain! 
None takes pity on thy pain. 
Senseless trees they cannot hear thee; 
Ruthless beasts they will not cheer thee; 
King Pandion lie is dead ; 
All thy friends are lapp'd in lead; 
All thy fellow birds do sing, 
Careless of thy sorrowing. 
Even so, poor bird, like thee, 
None alive will pity me. 
Whilst as fickle Fortune srail'd, 
Thou and I were both beguil'd. 

Every one that flatters thee 
Is no friend in misery. 
Words are easy, like the wind ; 
Faithful friends are hard to find. 
Every man will be thy friend 
Whilst thou hast wherewith to spend' 
But if store of crowns be scant, 
No man will supply thy want. 
If that one be prodigal, 
Bountiful they will him call, 
And with such-like flattering, 
1 Pity but he were a king ! ' 
If he be addict to vice, 
Quickly him they will entice; 
If to women he be bent, 
They have at cornmandement; 
But if Fortune once do frown, 
Then farewell his great renown ; 
They that fawn'd on him before 
Use his company no more. 
He that is thy friend indeed, 
He will help thee in thy need. 
If thou sorrow, he will weep ; 
If thou wake, he cannot sleep ; 
Thus of every grief in heart 
He with thee doth bear a part. 

272 Notes 

These are certain signs to know 
Faithful friend from flattering foe." 

Some editors have divided the above poem, making the first 28 
lines (or the portion printed in JSngland's Helicon) a separate 
piece ; but the whole (except lines 27, 28) forms a continuous 
" Ode" in Barnfield's book, and there is no real division in the 1599 
ed. of the P. P. The editors have been misled by the printer's 
arrangement of his matter in that little book, where each page has 
an ornamental head-piece and tail-piece, with unequal portions of 
text between. The first 14 lines of this poem are on one page, the 
next 12 on the next page (27 and 28 wanting), the next 14 on the 
next, and the last 16 on the next. As there is something like a 
break in the piece between the 2d and 3d pages as thus arranged, 
it might appear at first sight that it was a division between poems 
rather than in a poem ; but, as Mr, Edmonds has pointed out, " the 
poet's object being to show the similarity of his griefs to those of 
the nightingale, he devotes the lines ending with sorrowing to the 
bird," and then " takes up all his own woes with the line Whilst as 
fickle fortune smiVd, and enlarges upon them to the end of the 
ode." For typographical proof that it should not be divided (as I 
was the first to point out), see on viii. below. 

The editor of England's Helicon seems to have taken the first 
two pages from the P. />., supposing them to be a complete poem ; 
but feeling that it ended too abruptly, he added the couplet, 

" Even so, poore bird like thee, 
None a-live will pitty mee s " 

to round it off. 

It may be added that his signing the poem " Ignoto " shows that 
he was not aware it was Barnfield's, and did not consider that its 
appearance in the P. P. proved it to be Shakespeare's ; and the 
same may be said of XVIL, the Helicon copy of which is evidently 
from the P. />., not from Weelkes. On the other hand, XVI. of 
the P. P. (" On * d*.y, alack the day," etc.), taken from Z. L, Z., 

Passionate Pilgrim 273 

is given in the Helicon with Shakespeare's name attached to it, 
Furnivall says : " Mr. Grosart has shown in his prefaces to his 
editions of Barnlield's Poems and Griffin's Fidessa that there is no 
reason to take from the first his Ode (XX.) and his Sonnet (VIII.), 
or from the second his Venus and Adonis Sonnet (XI. ), many of 
whose readings the Passiona/e Pi /grim print spoils." See also Mr. 
Edmonds's able plea in behalf of Barnfield's title to VIII. and XX. 
in the preface to his reprint (London, 1870) of the 1599 ed. of the 
P. P. p. xiv. fol. 


i. Cytherea. Cf. T. of S. ind. 2. 53, W. T. iv. 4. 122, and 
Cymb, ii. 2. 14. 

9. Conceit. Understanding. Cf, 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 263, etc, 

10. Figured. Expressed by signs. 
14. Ah, fool, etc. See p. 31 above. 


4, Tarriance. The word occurs again in T. G. of V. ii. 7. 90. 
6. Spleen. Heat ; as often in a figurative sense. Cf. V. and A. 


12. Wistly. Wistfully. See on V. and A. 343. 

13. Whereas. Where. Cf. 2 lien, VI. \. 2. 58 and Per, i. 4. 70. 


The 2d line is wanting in all the editions, the omission being 
first marked by Malone, 

3. Dove. See on V. and A. 153. 

5. Steep-up. Cf, Sonn. 7. 5 : "the steep-up heavenly hill." 
We find steep-down in Oth. v. 2. 280. 

11. Ruth. Pity. Cf. Rich. II. iii. 4. 106, Sonn. 132. 4, etc. 


This may possibly be Shakespeare's, but I think it extremely 
improbable. Cf. Sonn. 138. 


274 Notes 

3. Brighter than glass, , etc, Steevens quotes the following lines 
" written under a lady's name on an inn window : " 

" Quam digna inscribi vitro, cum lubrica, laevis, 
Pellucens, fragilis, vitrea tota nites ! " 

For brittle the old brickie (which means the same) might well 
be substituted for the rhyme. 

8. Between each kiss. I think that S. is never guilty of between 

14. Out-burneth. Sewell has " out burning." 

This is probably not Shakespeare's. 

1. Vaded. Faded. Cf. vii. 2. below. See also Rich. II. i. 2. 
20, where the folios have vaded^ the quartos faded. 

3. Timely. Early. Cf. A. and C. ii. 6. 52, etc. 

8. For why. Because. See on A*, of L. 1 222. The old eds, 
have "lefts" for leffst in both 8 and 9 ; a common contraction of 
such harsh second persons. See on R. of L, 1134. 


Possibly Shakespeare's. In the eds. of 1599 and 1612 it is 
printed, as here, in twelve lines. Malone and others make twenty 
of it. 

2. Pleasance. Pleasure. Cf. Oth. ii. 3. 293 ; the only other 
instance in S. 

4, Brave. Fair, beautiful ; as very often. 

n. Defy. Despise, spurn. Cf. K. John, iii. 4. 23 : "I defy all 
counsel, all redress j " I Hen. IV. i. 3. 228 : "All studies here I 
solemnly defy," etc. 


Probably not Shakespeare's ; perhaps by the same author as V. 
I. Doubtful* A copy of this poem, said to be from an ancient 

Passionate Pilgrim 1275 

MS. and published in the Gentleman* s Magazine, vol. xxii. p. 521, 
has " fleeting " for doubtful both here and in 5 below. In 3 it has 
" almost in the bud " for first it gins to bud ; in 4, " that breaketh " 
for that 's broken ; in 7, " As goods, when lost, are wond'rous 
seldom found;" in S "can excite" for will refresh, and in 10 
"unite" for redress; in II "once, is ever' 5 for once' } s forever ; and 
in 12 "pains" te? pain. 

A second copy, " from a corrected MS.," appeared in the same 
magazine, vol. xxx. p. 39. The readings are the same as in the 
other copy, except that it has "a fleeting" for "and fleeting" in i, 
and " fading " for vaded in 8. 

7. Seld. Seldom. Cf. T. and C. iv. 5. 150 : "As seld I have 
the chance." We find "seld-shown" in Cor. ii. I. 229. 

ii. Oncers. This is the reading generally adopted ; but it is 
very harsh. The eds. of 1599 and 1612 have "once, forever," 
which might well enough be retained. Verity suggests " once for 
ever 's lost." 


Probably not Shakespeare's. All recent eds. make the last three 
stanzas a separate poem ; but this is unquestionably a mistake. 
Dowden (in his introduction to the "Griggs" fac-simile of the 
1599 ed. of P. P.} gives good reasons for not dividing this poem, 
but neither he nor any other critic has seen that the 1599 ed. 
proves its unity beyond a doubt. The first two stanzas are on one 
page, the next two on another, and the last stanza on a third ; but 
the third stanza does not begin with the large initial letter, which 
elsewhere in the book is used to mark the beginning of a poem. 
I may add that there is similar typographical evidence in the 1599 
ed. that XX. (cf. p. 272 above) should not be divided. 

Dowden notes that in the 1640 ed. of the Poems, the five stanzas 
of VIII. appear as one poem (see p. 284 below). Malone (in his 
Supplement, 1 780) seems to have been the first editor to divide it. 

3, Jpafd ?/?<?, Put me off, sent me away. See on Z. C. 297. 

276 Notes 


4. Descant. Comment ; as in Rich. II L i. I. 27. Cf. R. of L. 

6. Fare well. There is a play on fare = feed ; as in 7". <?/ 5. 
ind. 2. 103. 

8. -Aft//. Will not. Cf. T. of S. ii. I. 273 : " will you, will you ; " 
Ham. v. I. 19 : " will he, will he," etc. 

9. ^T may be. Steevens says: "I will never believe any poet 
could begin two lines together with such offensive elisions. They 
may both be omitted without injury to sense or metre." I cannot 
imagine S. guilty of them, or of sundry other metrical faults in the 

12. As take. That take. Cf. R. of L, 1372, 1420. 

14. Charge the ivatch. Probably = accuse or blame the watch 
(for marking the time so slowly). 

17. Philomela. The nightingale. See on JR. of L. 1079. The 
Cambridge editors conjecture that sits and should be omitted ; 
and they are probably right. 

20. Dismal-dreaming. The old eds. have " darke dreaming 
night ; " corrected by Malone. 

21. Pac&tf. Sent packing, gone. Cf. Rich. III. i. I, 146 : 
"Till George be pack'd with post-horse up to heaven." See also 
29 below. 

23, Solace, solace. The old eds. have " solace and solace ; " 
corrected by Malone. 

24. For why. See on R. of L. 1222, and cf. v. S above. 

27. Moon. The old eds. have "houre; " corrected by Malone. 
30. Short, night, to-night. Shorten to-night, O night. For the 
antithesis, cf. Cymb. i. 6. 200 : 

" I shall short my word 
By lengthening my return." 


This may possibly be Shakespeare's, but I seriously doubt it. 
Furnivall says : "That *to sin and never for to saint/ and the whole 

Passionate Pilgrim 277 

of the poem, are by some strong man of the Shakspere breed." 
But the whole tone and spirit of it are unlike S. himself. 

1. Whenas. When. See on V. and A. 999. 

2. StaWd. Got as in a stall, secured. Cf. Cymb. iii. 4. ill : 

" when thou hast ta'en thy stand, 
The elected deer before thee." 

4, Partial fancy like. For fancy love, see on R, of L, 2OO. 
The early eds. have ' fancy (party all might)." Malone gave in 
1780 "fancy, partial tike," but later from an ancient MS. "fancy, 
partial like." Staunton conjectures " fancy ' martial might ; " the 
Cambridge editors read " fancy, martial wight " (a conjecture of 
Malone's) ; and White " fancy's partial might." The text is from 
a manuscript in the possession of Collier. As Schmidt notes, like 
is " almost = love ; " as in A. Y. L, iii. 2. 431, K. John, ii. I. 511, 
R. andj. i. 3. 97, etc. 

8. Filed talk. " Studied or polished language " (Malone). Cf. 
Z. L, L. v. i. 12: "his tongue filed." See also Sonn. 85. 4. 

12. Sell. The early eds. have "sale;" corrected by Malone, 
from his old manuscript, which also has " thy " for her. The 
editors have generally adopted " thy," but the other reading may 
be = " praise her person highly, as a salesman praises his wares " 
(White). Cf. T. and C. iv. I. 78 : "We '11 but commend what we 
intend to sell;" L. L. L. iv. 3. 240: "To things of sale a seller's 
praise belongs; " Sonn. 21. 14: "I will not praise that purpose not 
to sell," etc. 

14. Clear ere. The reading of Malone's manuscript, for the 
" calme yer " of the old eds. 

20. Ban. Curse. See on V. and A. 326. 

28. In thy lady^s ear. Malone reads " always in her ear." 

32. fatmble-truc. First hyphened by Staunton. 

42. Nought? The rhyme with oft is peculiar. In Rich. III. iii. 
6, 13 and Mack, iv. I. 70, nought rhymes with thought. On the 

27 3 Notes 

passage, cf. T, G. of V. i. 2. 55. There was an old proverb, 
" Maids say nay, and take it." 

43-46. Think women stilt, etc. Expect women always, etc. 
Malone reads from the old manuscript thus : 

" Think, women love to match with men, 
And not to live so like a saint : 
Here is no heaven : they holy then 
Begin, when age doth them attaint," 

The early eds. have in 45, 46 : 

" There is no heaven (by holy then) 
When time with age shall them attaint." 

The reading in the text is due to White, and gives a clear meaning 
with very slight changes in the old text. In a passage so corrupt, 
emendation is but guesswork at best ; but this seems to me a 
happier guess than that of the writer of Malone's manuscript. I do 
not, however, think it necessary to put " seek " for still in 43, as 
White does. 

50, Lest that. The early eds. have ** Least that." Malone reads 
"For if" from his manuscript, connecting the line with what 

51. To round tue ?' the ear. To whisper in my ear. Cf. K.John^ 
ii. i. 566 and W. T. i. 2. 217, the only instances in S. The early 
eds. have " on th' are " and " on th' ere." Malone changed " on " 
to in 1780; but in 1790 he read "ring mine ear." Collier has 
" warm my ear " (from his old manuscript). White reads ** She '11 
not stick to round me i' th' ear." 

54. Bewray'd, Disclosed, exposed. See on tf. of L* 1698. 


The title-page of Chester's Loves Martyr, after referring at some 
length to that poem and " the true legend of famous King Arthur" 
which follows it, continues thus : " 7"o these are added some new 

Phoenix and Turtle 279 

compositions, of setter alt mot/erne Writers whose names are sub- 
scribed to their seuerall ivorkes, upon the first subiect ; viz. the 
Phoenix and Turtle." 

The part of the book containing these " compositions " has 
a separate title-page, as follows : 

HEREAFTER | FOLLOW DIVERSE | Poeticall Essaies on 
the former Sub- | iectj viz: the Turtle and Phoenix* \ Done by the 
best and chiefest of o^tr \ moderne writers, with their names sub- | 
scribed to their particular workes: | neuer before extant. \ And 
(now first) consecrared by them all generally, | to the loue and 
merits of the trite-noble Knight, \ Sir John Salisburie. | Dignum 
laude mrum Afusa -vetat mori. \ [wood-cut of anchor] Anchora 
Spei | MDCI. 

Among these poems are some by Marston, Chapman, and Ben 

Malone has no doubt of the genuineness of The Phcenix and the 
Turtle. White says : " There is no other external evidence that 
these verses are Shakespeare's than their appearance with his sig- 
nature in a collection of poems published in London while he was 
living there in the height of his reputation. The style, however, is 
at least a happy imitation of his, especially in the bold and original 
use of epithet." Dowden writes me that he has now no doubt that 
the poem is Shakespeare's (cf. his Primer, ed. 1878, p. 112); and 
Furnivall also believes it to be genuine. All the recent editors 
and commentators, so far as I am aware, take the same view of it, 
though most of them agree that the allegory has not been satis- 
factorily explained. Sidney Lee remarks : " Happily Shakespeare 
wrote nothing else of like character," 

Dr. Grosart (see his introduction to the New Shaks. Soc. ed. 
of Chester's Loves Martyr) sees a hidden meaning in this poem 
and those associated with it in Chester's book. "The Phoenix is a 
person and a woman, and the Turtle-dove a person and a male ; 
and while, as the title-page puts it, the poet is * Allegorically shad- 
owing the truth of Love,' it is a genuine story of human love and 


martyrdom (Love's Martyr}. ... No one at all acquainted with 
what was the mode of speaking of Queen Elizabeth to the very last, 
will hesitate in recognizing her as the JRosalin and Pk&nix of 
Robert Chester, and the * moderne writers ' of this book. ... So 
with the Turtle-dove, epithet and circumstance and the whole 
bearing of the Poems make us think of but one pre-eminent man in 
the Court of Elizabeth . . . and it will be felt that only of the brill- 
iant but impetuous, the greatly-dowered but rash, the illustrious 
but unhappy Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, could such 
splendid things have been thought." See, however, on line 67 
below. Dr. Grosart believes The Phoenix and the Turtle to be 
Shakespeare's, and calls it "priceless and unique" 

For a recent and very thorough study of the poem by Mr. Arthur 
H. R. Fairchild, see Englische Studien (Leipzig), xxxiii. 3. 


1. The bird of loudest lay. As Dr. Grosart remarks, this is not 
the Phoenix j as has generally been assumed, as " it were absurd to 
imagine it could be called on to 'sing' its own death," and besides 
it is nowhere represented as gifted with song. 

2. The sole Arabian tree. Malone cites Temp. iii. 3. 22 : 

" Now I will believe 

That there are unicorns ; that in Arabia 
There is one tree, the phcenix' throne ; one phoenix 
At this hour reigning there." 

He adds : " This singular coincidence likewise serves to authenti- 
cate the present poem." The tree is probably the palm^ the Greek 
name of which is the same as that of the phoniix (0oh/i|). 

3. Trumpet. Trumpeter. Cf. Ham. i. I. 150, Hen. V. iv. 2. 
61, etc. 

4. 70. For its use with obey, cf. T. and C. iii. I. 165, We now 
say " obedience to." 

Dr. Grosart, who takes the bird to be the nightingale, says : " I 
have myself often watched the lifting and tremulous motion of the 

Phoenix and Turtle 281 

singing nightingale's wings, and chaste was the exquisitely chosen 
word to describe the nightingale, in reminiscence of the classical 

5. Shrieking harbinger. The screech-owl (Steevens). Cf. M. 
N.D.v. 1.383 : 

" Whilst the screech-owl, screeching loud, 
Puts the wretch that lies in woe 
In remembrance of a shroud." 

The fevers end is of course death. 

1 3. Surplice. The old reading is " Surples. " S. uses the word 
only here and in A* W. i. 3. 99. 

14. That defunctive music can. That understands funereal 
music, or can perform it. For this absolute use of can, cf. 
Chaucer, C. T. 5638 (ed. Tyrwhitt) : 

" I wot wel Abraham was an holy man, 
And Jacob eke, as fer as ever I can/' etc. 

See also Ham, iv. 7. 85 : " they can well on horseback ; " where 
can = are skilful. 

1 6. His, Its. See on V. and A. 359. 

17. Treble-dated. Living thrice as long as man. Steevens 
quotes Lucretius, v. 1053 : 

*' Ter tres aetates humanas garrula vincit 

18. That thy sable gender mattst, etc. " Thou crow that makest 
[change in] thy sable gender with the mere exhalation and inhala- 
tion of thy breath " (E. W. Gosse). It was a popular belief that 
the crow could change its sex at will. 

25. As. That. Cf. R. of L. 1372 and 1420. 

32. But in them it were a wonder. " So extraordinary a phe- 
nomenon as hearts remote, yet not asunder, etc., would have excited 
admiration, had it been found anywhere else except in these two 
birds. In them it was not wonderful " (Malone). 

282 Notes 

34. Saw his right, etc. " It is merely a variant mode of express- 
ing seeing love-babies (or one's self imaged) in the other's eyes. 
This gives the true sense to mine in 36 " (Grosart). 

37. Property. Property in self, individuality. 

43. To themselves. Grosart suggests that these words should be 
joined to what precedes. 

44. Simple were so well compounded. That is, were so well 
blended into one. 

45. That. So that. Cf. V. and A. 242. 

49. Threne. Threnody, funeral song. It is the Anglicized 
threnos (Qpfjvos), with which the following stanzas are headed. 
Malone quotes Kendal's Poems, 1577 : 

" Of verses, threnes, and epitaphs, 
Full fraught with tears of teene." 

A book entitled David' ^s Threanes was published in 1620, and 
reprinted two years later as Damans Tears. 

67. These dead birds. That these birds are not Elizabeth and 
Essex has been shown clearly in Dr. F. J. Furnivall's paper " On 
Chester's Love's Martyr" in Trans, of New Shak. Soc. 1877-79, 
p. 451 fol. 



THE contents of this book (see p. 14 above) are not described 
accurately by any editor or bibliographer that I have been able 
to consult. They are as follows : 

1. Poems by Leon. Digges 1 and John Warren 2 in eulogy of 

2. All the Sonnets (except Nos. 18, 19, 43, 56, 75, 76, 96, and 
126) arranged under various titles. The first group, for instance, 
includes 67, 68, and 69, with the heading " The glory of beautie," 
and the second puts together 60, 63, 64, 65, and 66 under the title 
" Injurious Time." From one to five sonnets appear under a title. 
When two or more are grouped they are printed as a continuous 
piece, with no space between the sonnets. 3 

3. All the poems of The Passionate Pilgrim of 1599 (not "some," 
as the "Cambridge" ed. says (not corrected in the revised ed.), or 
"the greater part," as Knight and others give it), mostly inter- 
spersed among the Sonnets and furnished with titles. For instance, 
No. 4 (" Sweet Cytherea," etc.) is headed " A sweet provocation ; " 
No. 8 ("If music," etc.), "Friendly concord;" No. 10 ("Sweet 
rose," etc,), "Loves Losse ; " No. 12 ("Crabbed age," etc.), 

1 Not the verses prefixed to the folio of 1623, but a much longer piece, 
beginning " Poets are borne not made, when I would prove/ 1 etc. See 
Ingleby's Centurie of Praise, 2d ed., p. 231 fol. 

2 A sonnet, beginning " What, lofty Shakespeare, art again reviv'd? " 
See Centurie of Praise, p. 235. 

3 For a full list of the groups with their titles, see Knight's Pictorial 
Shakspere, vol. ii. of Tragedies, etc., p. 487 fol., or Dowden's larger ed. 
of the Sonnets, p. 47 fol. 


284 Appendix 

"Ancient Antipothy ; " No. 15 ("It was a lording's daughter," 
etc.), "A Duell ; " and so on. The five stands of "Good night, 
good rest," are printed as one poem with the title " Loath to 
depart." " As it fell upon a day" also appears without division, 
and is entitled "Sympathizing love." 

4. The following translations from Ovid, and other poems : 

"The Tale of Cephalus and Procris " (inserted before Sonnets 
153 and 154). 

"That Menelaus was cause of his owne wrongs." 

" Vulcan was lupiters Smith, an excellent workeman, on whom 
the Poets father many rare Workes, among which, I find this one. 
Mars and Venus." 

"The History how the Mynotaure was begot." 

" This Mynotaure, when he came to growth, was incloased in the 
Laborinth, which was made by the curious Arts-master Dedalus, 
whose Tale likewise we thus pursue." 

" Achilles his concealment of his Sex in the Court of Lycomedes." 

A Lovers Complaint (Shakespeare's). 

"The amorous Epistle of Paris to Hellen." 

" Hellen to Paris." 

" The Passionate Shepheard to his Love " (the complete text of 
Marlowe's poem, given imperfectly in P. /*.). 

" The Nimphs reply to the Shepheard " (the six stanzas, of which 
only one is given in P. /*.). 

" Another of the same Nature " (a poem of 44 lines, beginning : 

" Come live with me and be my deare, 
And we will revill all the yeare, 
In plaines and groves, on hills and dales, 
Where fragrant ayre breeds sweetest gales. 
There shall you have the beautious Pine, 
The Ceder and the spreading Vine, 
And all the woods to be a skrene, 
Least Ph&bus kisse my Summers Queene." 

And ending thus : 

Appendix 285 

" If these may serve for to intice, 
Your presence to Loves Paradise, 
Then come with me and be my deare, 
And we will straight begin the yeare."). 

"Take, O take those lips away" (the stanza in M. for M. iv. I. 
I fol., with the additional stanza, ascribed to Fletcher ; the song 
appearing here without a title). 

" Let the bird of lowest [sic"] lay" (The Phcenix and the Turtle, 
without a title, except for the Tkrmos, which is headed " Threms "). 

" Why should this Desart be " (the lines from A. Y, L. iii. 2. 
133 fol., without a title). 

"An Epitaph on the admirable Dramaticke Poet, William 
Sheakespeare " (signed "I. M.," that is, John Milton). 

"On the death of William Shakespeare, who died in Aprill, 
Anno Dom. 1616" (the lines, " Renowned Spenser, lie a thought 
more nigh," etc., signed here " W. B.," that is, William Basse, who 
probably wrote them, though they have been ascribed to Dr. Donne 
and others). 

"An Elegie on the death of that famous Writer and Actor, M. 
William Shakspeare " (" I dare not do thy memory that wrong," 
etc., unsigned and not traced to any author) . 

5. After the " FINIS" that follows the above poems there is an 
appendix, with the heading : " An Addition of some Excellent | 
Poems, to those precedent, of | Renowned Shakespeare^ \ By other 

The poems are as follows : 

" His Mistresse Drawne " (signed " B. L." evidently intended 
for " B. L," or Ben Jonson, in whose works the lines are printed). 

" Her minde " (signed " B. L," and also printed as his). 

" His Mistris Shade." 

" Lavinia walking in a frosty Morning." 

" A Sigh sent to, his Mistresse." 

"An Allegorical allusion of melancholy thoughts to Bees" 
(signed " I. G."), 

286 Appendix 

" The Primrose." 

" A Sigh." 

" A Blush." 

"Am I dispis'd because you say," etc. (no title) 

" Vpon a Gentlewoman walking on the Grasse." 

" On his Love going to Sea." 

** Aske rne no more where love bestovves," etc. (no title). 

A second," FINIS" ends the volume. 


THE earliest allusion to any of the Poems, according to Ingleby's 
Shakespeare's Centurie of Pmyse (1879) is to Lucrecc in 1594, 
in. an Epicedium (or Funerall Song} ascribed to Sir William 
Harbert : 

" You that have writ of chaste Lucretia, 
Whose death was witnesse of her spotlesse life." 

Drayton, in his Matilda (1594), has a reference to Lucretia, but 
it seems to imply a dramatic representation rather than a poem : 

" Lucrece of whom proude Rome hath boasted long, 
Lately reviv'd to live another age, 
And here ariv'd to tell of Tarquins wrong, 
Her chast denial, and the Tyrants rage, 
Acting her passions on our stately stage." 

Robert Southwell, in the poetical preface to his Saint jPeter*s 
Complaint, etc. (1595), says: 

" Still finest wits are 'stilling Venus rose, 
In Paynim toyes the sweetest vaines are spent ; 
To Christian workes few have their talents lent," 

As Southwell was executed Feb. 20, 1594 5, this may have been 
written as early as the references quoted above. 

Appendix 287 

In John Weever's apostrophe to Shakespeare, which is supposed 
to have been first published in 1595, though the earliest extant edi- 
tion is of 1599, we have allusions to both Venus and Adonis and 
Lucrece : 

" Honie-tong'd Shakespeare, when I saw thine issue, 
I swore Apollo got them and none other, 
Their rosie-tainted [tinted] features cloth'd in tissue, 
Some heaven born goddesse said to be their mother: 
Rose-checkt [cheek'd] Adonis with his amber tresses 
Faire fire-hot Venus charming him to love her, 
Chaste Lucretia virgine-like her dresses, 
Prowd lust-stung Tarquine seeking still to prove her," etc. 
Thomas Edward es, in 1595, in the Envoy to his Cephalus and 
Procris, referring to certain poets under the names of their best- 
known works, alludes to Shakespeare thus: 
" Adon deafly masking thro, 
Stately troupes rich conceited 
Shew'd he well deserved to 

Loves delight on him to gaze 
And had not love herselfe intreated, 
Other nymphs had sent him baies." 

The next reference to the Poems that has been noted is the 
familiar one in Meres's Palladis Tamia (see p. 15 above), where 
both the Venus and Adonis and Lucrece^ as well as the " sugred 
Sonnets," are mentioned. 

In the same year both poems are referred to in "A Remembrance 
of some English Poets," the fourth tract in a volume called Poems : 
in diuers humor s> of which the first tract bears Richard Barn- 
field's name (see p. 265 above) : 

" And Shakespeare thou, whose hony-flowing Vaine, 
(Pleasing the World) thy Praises doth obtaine ; 
Whose Venus, and whose Lucrece (sweete and chaste). 
Thy Name in fame's immortall Booke have plac't. 
Liue ever you ! at least, in Fame Hue ever ! 
Well may the Bodye dye ; but Fame dies neuer." 

288 Appendix 

In 1598 also, as Funnvall remarks, "the Satirist, John Marston, 
published *the first heir of his invention,' which he called * the Hrsi 
bloomes of my poesie,' The Metamorphosis of Pigmaliorfs Image, 
And Certaine Sdtyres ; and in it, says Mr. Minlo {Characteristits 
of English Poets, 1874), reviving an old theory, * Shakspere's Venus 
and Adonis was singled out as the type of dangerously voluptuous 
poetry, and unmercifully parodied ; the acts of the goddess to win 
over the eold youth being coarsely paralleled in mad mockery by 
the acts of Pygmalion to bring his beloved statue to life.' Now the 
fact is, that there is no trace of ' mad mockery ' or parody in Mars- 
ton's poem, though there are echoes in it of Venus, as there are of 
Richard ///., Hamlet, etc., in Marston's Scourge of Villanic, his 
Fawn, etc. ; and the far more probable view of the ease is that put 
forward by Dr. Brinsley Nicholson : that Marston, being young, and 
of a warm temperament and licentious disposition, followed the lead 
of a poem then in everybody's mouth 1 (Shakspere's Venus}, and 
produced his Pigmctliorfs Image ; but being able only to heighten 
the Venus' s sensuality, and leave out its poetry and bright outdoor 
life, he disgusted his readers, had his poem suppressed by Whit gift 
and Bancroft's order, and then tried to get out of the scrape by 
saying that he had written his nastiness only to condemn other 
poets for writing theirs ! A likely story indeed ! But let him tell 
it himself. In his 'Satyre VI.' of his Scourge of Villanit, 1598 
(completed in 1599), he says: 

1 Curio ! know'st my sprite ; 
Vet deem'st that in sad seriousness I write 

1 See The Fair Maid of the Exchange : 

" Crip[ple], But heare you sir? reading so much as you haue done, 
Doe you not remember one pretty phrase, 
To scale the walles of a faire wenches loue ? 

Bow\dler\ , I never read any thing but Venus and Adonis* 
Crip. Why that 's the very quintessence of loue ; 
If you remember but a verse or two, 
lie pawne my head, goods, lands, and all, 'twill doe," 

Appendix 289 

Such nasty stuffe as is jPtgrnalion '? 

Such maggot-tainted, lewd corruption! . . . 

Think'st thou that I, which was create to whip 

Incarnate fiends . . . 

Think'st thou that I in melting poesie 

Will pamper itching sensualitie, 

That in the bodies scumme, all fatally 

Intombes the scales most sacred faculty ? 

Hence, thou misjudging censor! know, I wrot 
Those idle rimes to note the odious spot 
And blemish that deformes the lineaments 
Of modcrne poesies habiliments. 
Oh that the beauties of invention 
For want of judgements disposition, 
Should all be spoil'd! 1 . . . 

Then, after describing seven types of poets of whom the fifth may 
be Shakspere, 1 and the sixth Ben Jonson Marston goes on to 
satirize the readers of his and other writers' loose poems, for whom 
he ' slubber'd up that chaos indigest ' of his Pigmalion. This epi- 
thet is certainly not consistent with the dedication of his poem to 
Good Opinion and his Mistress ; and his excuse for his failure in it 
is plainly an after-thought. But whatever we determine as to Mars- 
ton's motives and honesty, we shall all join in regretting the 'want 
of judgements disposition 7 that let Shakspere choose Venus for an 
early place in his glorious gallery of women forms whose radiant 
purity and innocence have won all hearts ; though we will remem- 
ber this fault only as the low level from which he rose on stepping- 
stones of his dead self to higher things. He who put Venus near 

i Yon 's one whose straines haue flowne so high a pitch, 
That straight he flags, and tumbles in a ditch. 
His sprightly hot high-soring poesie 
Is like that dream'd-of imagery, 
Whose head was gold, brest silver, brassie thigh, 
Lead leggs, clay feete : O faire franx'd poesie ! " 

That Shakspere's subject was clay, and his verse gold, is certainly true. 

2,90 Appendix 

the beginning of his career, ended with Miranda, Perdita, Imogen, 
and Queen Katharine. Let them make atonement for ker ! 
John Lane, in Tom Td~ Troths Message, 1600, says ; 

" When chast Adonis came to mans estate, 
Venus straight courted him with many a wile ; 
Lucrece once scene, straight T&rquine Uiid a baite, 
With foule incest her bailie to defile : 
Thus men by women, women wrongde by men, 
Give mutter stilt unto my plaintife pen." 

It was probably between 1600 and 1603 that Gabriel Harvey 
wrote the following manuscript note in a copy of Speght's Chaucer 
(1598), now lost : "The younger sort take much delight in Shake- 
speare's Venus and Adonis ; but his Lucrece, and his tragedy of 
Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke, have it in them to please the wiser 

In 1601, Robert Chester, in the introduction of his Loves Martyr 
(see p. 278 above), has the following lines ; 

11 To the Kind Reader. 
Of bloody warres, nor of the sacke of Troy, 
Of Pryams murdred sonnes, nor Didoes fall, 
Of Hellens rape, by Paris Tr&ian boy, 
Of Cassars victories, nor Pompeys thrall, 
Of Lucrece rape, being ravisht by a King, 
Of none of these, ofsweete Conceit I sing." 

In The Returns from Parnassus (1601-2) Judicio says : 

" Who loves Adonis love or Lucre's rape, 
His sweeter verse containes hart robbing life, 
Could but a graver subject him content, 
Without loves foolish lazy languishment." 

In Saint Marie Magdalens Conversion, by "I. C," (1603) we 
find the following : 

" Of Helens rape and Troyes beseiged Towne, 
Of Troy his faith, and Cress ids fulsitie, 

Appendix 291 

Of Rychards stratagems for the english crowne, 
Of Tar i] urns lust, and luerece [sic] chastitie, 
Of these, of none of these my muse nowe treates, 
Of greater conquests, warres, and loves she speakes." 

William Drummond of Hawthornden, in his list of " Bookes red 
by me, anno 1606," mentions The Passionate Pilgrims and The 
Rape of * Luerece ; and among those under " anno 1611," Venus and 
A don. by Schafap* and The Rap of Luerece* 

George Peele, in his tiferrie Conceited Jests (earliest known ed. 
1607), refers to a certain tapster as "much given to poetry," and 
mentions Venus ami Adonis among the books which he " had 
collected together." 

In 1609 the Venus and Adonis was alluded to in the publisher's 
Address prefixed to some copies of the first edition of Troilus and 
Cressida and reprinted in the standard modern editions of that 

Thomas Freeman, in a poetical address " To Master W. Shake- 
speare," 1614, says : 

'* Vertues or vices theame to thee all one is : 
Who loves chaste life there 's Luerece for a teacher : 
Who list read lust there 's Venus and Adonis, 
True model of a most lascivious leatcher " [lecher]. 

Richard Brathvvaite, in The Cimll Devill (1615) has the follow- 
ing passage : 

" lie be thy Venus, pretty Ducke I will, 
And though lesse faire, yet I have farre more skill, 
In Loves affaires : for if I Adon had, 
As Venus had : I could have taught the lad 
To have been farre more forward than he was, 
And not have dallied with so apt a lasse." 

These are specimens (in addition to those given in the introduc- 
tion pp. 15 and 32 fol.) of the more important allusions to the 
two poems between their first appearance and the death of Shake- 


speare in 1616. For others, between that date and 1693, the 
reader may be referred to Shakespeare^ s Centurie of Prayse, to 
which I have been mainly indebted in making these selections. 

The only allusions to The Passionate Pilgrim cited in that 
book are the mention of it by Drummond above, arid Thomas Hey- 
wood's protest in his Apology for Actors (1612) against the inser- 
tion of two of his poems under Shakespeare's name in the second 
edition of the Pilgrim, printed the same year. He says : " I must 
necessarily insert a manifest injury done me ... by taking the 
two Epistles of Paris to Helen, and printing them in a lesse volume 
under the name of another. ... As T must acknowledge my lines 
not worthy his patronage, under whom he hath publisht them, so 
the Author [Shakespeare] I know much offended with M. Jaggard 
that (altogether unknowne to him) presumed to make so bold with 
his name." This led Jaggard to insert a new title-page, omitting 
Shakespeare's name (see p. 13 above). 


abuse (= misuse), 241 

accorded (= agreed), 255 

acture, a6o 

addressed (= ready), 252 

adjunct, 229 

adulterate, 252 

advance ( raise) , 253 

advice, 242 

advised, be, 2x4 

advisedly, 230, 250, 254 

afeard, 243 

affection (=lust), 235 

against a thorn, 243 

alablaster, 209, 234 

alarms, 210 

all to naught, 222 

allow (= approve) , 254 

all-too-timeless, 227 

aloes, 263 

amaze (= bewilder) , 217 

anatomized, 249 

and for, 245 

angry-chafing, 215 

annexions, 260 

annoy (noun), 211, 244 

antics, 234 

appaid, 242 

applying wet to wet, 257 

Arabian tree, 280 

Ardea (accent}, 227 

arrive (transitive) , 240 

as (= that) , 248, 276, 280 

askance (verb), 238 

aspect (accent), 227 

assays (= attempts), 253, 

astonished (= astounded) , 


at a bay, 221 
at gaze, 245 

attired m discontent, 
1 252^ 
a- twain. a=;<; 
authorized (accent), 258 

a-work, 249 

can (= know), 281 

ay me ! 220 

canker (=worm), 215 

balk (neglect), 239 
bankrupt (spelling), 210 

careless hand of pride, 256 
carriage (figurative), 256 
carry-tale, 215 

banning (= cursing) , 208, 

case (= dress) , 259 

230, 249, 277 

cautels, 263 

bare (noun), 258 

chafe, 208 

barns (verb) , 241 

channel, 249 

bateless, 227 
bate-breeding, 215 

chaos come again, 223 
chaps (spelling), 249 

battle (= battalion), 214 

charactered (accent), 241 

be remembered, 237 

charge the watch, 276 

beaded, 257 

cheek (plural), 213 

beguiled (active), 250 

cheer (= face) , 231 

beldam, 243 
bells (of falcon) , 235 

cherish springs, 243 
cherubin, 264 

bepainted, 221 

churlish (boar), 214 

bereaves, 219 

churlish (drum), 204 

beseeched, 260 

cipher (= decipher) , 241 

beseems, 232 

city (figurative), 260 

between each, 274 

civil (= decorous) , 263 

bewrayed, 252, 278 

clepes, 222 

bid a base, 207 

clip (= embrace), 213 

bird of loudest lay, 280 

closure, 219 

birth-hour's blot, 236 

cloud-kissing Ilion, 247 

black stage, 240 

cloudy, 244 

blasts (intransitive) ., 228 

coasteth, 220 

blazoned, 261 

coat(= coat-of-arms) ,231, 

blood (= passion) , 259 
blue windows, 211 

cockatrice 1 dead-killing 

blunt (~ rude), 250 
blunt (= savage), 221 
bollen, 248 

eye, 236 
cold fault, 217 
colour (play upon), 234 

bond (= ownership), 230 
borrowed motion, 264 
bottom-grass, 206 

combustious, 225 
comfortable, 230 
commends ( commits) , 

brave (= beautiful) , 274 

2 34 . 

braving compare, 227 

commission, 213 

brickie, 274 

compact of, 205 

brokers (= panders), 259 
bulk (= chest) , 234 

compare (noun), 227 
compassed (= curved), 

burden-wise, 244 


cabinet (=nest), 220 

complain on, 205, 212 


294 Index of Words and Phrases 

complained (transitive), 

descant (- comment) , 276 
descant (~ sing) , 244 

fear (= frighten) , 224 
fear (~ object of fear), 

conceit (= conception), 
239, 247 

diapason, 244 
digression (~ transgres- 

fearful (= full of fear), 

conceit (~ understand- 
ing), 273 

sion), 231 
dismount (figurative), 

feast-finding, 241 

conceited (== fanciful), 
248, 256 
conclusion (= experi- 
ment), 245 
conduct (= conductor), 
confounds (= ruins) , 230, 
245, 249 

dispense with, 244, 247, 
dispersed (accent), 254 
disports (noun), 227 
disputation (metre), 231 
distain, 240 
distract (accent), 261 

feat (adverb), 257 
fee-simple, my own, 259 
fellowship in woe, 340 
fence (= guard), 228 
fever's end, 281 
fickle, 255 
field (play upon), 228 
fiery-pointed, 233 

congest, 262 
conjures (accent), 237 
contemn me this, 206 

divedapper, 204 
done (- ruined), 227, 255 
doves (of Venus) , 205, 

figured, 273 
filed talk, 276 
fine (= bring to an end), 

226, 228, 273 


controlled (= restrained) , 

drawn (= drawn up), 247 

fire (dissyllable), 208 

234, 238 

drink tears, 222 

flaws (-gusts), 210 

convert (intransitive), 

dumps, 244 

fluxive, 257 
foil (noun), 259 

convert (rhyme), 237 
convertite, 240 
cope him, 221 
copesmate, 242 
coucheth (transitive), 235 
counterfeit (= likeness), 

ear (~ plough) , 202 
ecstasy (= excitement), 
221, 258 
effects, 251 
element (~ sky), 251 
embracements, 208 

folly (= wickedness), 241 
fond (= foolish), 223, 232 
fondling (= darling), 206 
fondly (== foolishly), 231 
for (= because), 192 
for why, 246, 274, 276 
forbod, 259 

coy, 204 
craft of will, 259 

empty eagle, 203 
engine of her thoughts, 

force not (= regard not), 

cranks 0= turns) , 217 
credent, 263 
crest (= helmet) , 204 
crest-wounding, 241 
cries some, 257 

enpatron, 261 
enraged (with^love), 203 
ensue f transitive), 235 
enswatned, 257 
entertainment, 124 

forced to content, 203 
forestall (= prevent), 239 
forsworn, 218 
frets (noun), 219, 245 
fruitless (= barren), 219 
fry ( small fry), 213 
fulfilled (= filled full) , 247 

crosses, 235, 242 


crystals (magic), 222 
cuckoos, 241 
curious (= careful), 218, 

exclaims on, 222, 240 
expired (accent), 227 
extincture, 263 

gage (= risk), 230 
gentry (- gentle birth), 

curled hair, 243 
curst, 221 
curvet, 207 

extreme (accent), 231 
eye (rhyme), 262 
eyne, 214, 238, 246 

gins (begins),, 202 
gives her sorrow fire, 


Cytherca, 273 

fact (= deed) , 233 

glisters, 207 
go about ( ss attempt), 

daffed, 263, 275 
deep regard, 248 
defame (noun), 240 
defeature, 218 
defunctive, 281 
defy (= despise) , 274 
depending, 252 

fair (= beauty) , 324 
fair fall, 211 
falcon's bells, 235 
fall (= let fall), 25* 
fancy (= love), 231 
fancy ( lover), 258, 260 
fare (play upon), 276 

God wot, 247 
government, 248 
graff, 343 
grained (bat), 358 
grave ( bury ?;, 238 
grave ( engrave) , ao 

deprive (= take away), 

fastly, 258 
fault (in hunting), 217 

gray, 205 
gripe (gnffin), 236 

Index of Words and Phrases 

grisly, 242 

had gave, 213 

hairs (rhyme), 203 

hard-favoured, 205-252 

harmless show, 250 

havingSj 261 

he (= him). 204 

hearsed, 238 

heartless, 234 

heart's attorney, 208 

heave her napkin, 255 

heaven's beauties, 227 

heavy, 205 

help ( cure) , 254 

helpless, 2^4, 243 

honey (adjective), 203, 


honour (== lordship), 202 
hild (= held), 246 
his (= its), 209, 236, 237, 

hive (= hat), 255 

ill-nurtured, 205 
imaginary, 248 
imagination (metre), 215 
immure, 226 
imperious (= imperial), 


implcached, 260 

imposthumes, 219 

in (= on) , 204 

in clay (= in the grave) , 

2 37 

in hand with, 222 

in post, 227 

in sadness (= in earnest) , 

incorporate, 212 

insinuate with, 223 

instance (= evidence) , 

insult (= exult), 212 

insulter. 212 

intend (= pretend) , 229 

intendments, 206 

interest (= possession), 
243, 253 

interprets, 247 

intituled, 228 

intrude (= invade) , 241 

invention (= imagina- 
tion), 202 

inventions, 247 

invised, 260 

invisible, 210 

miss (= misbehaviour) , 


jade, 239 

mistrustful, 219 

jar, 204 

moe, 249, 252, 257 

jennet, 207 

moiety, 226 

moist hand, 205 

ken (= sight), 244 

moralize, 229 

key-cold, 253 
kill, kill! 215 

more (= greater), 204 
mortal (= deadly), 2:4 

kind (= natural) , 249 

mot (= motto), 241 

musing (= wondering) , 

laid ( lay), 255 


land (noun), 238 

musits, 217 

late (= lately) , 254 

myrtle, 220 

laundering, 056 

naked (play upon), 230 

leaps (rhyme), 207 
leave (= license), 213 
lectures (= lessons), 238 

naked bed, 209 
nameless, 235 
napkin (== handkerchief), 

leisures, 260 

XT 255 ' 

let (= forbear), 227 
let (= hinder) , 232 

Narcissus, 205, 231 
needle (monosyllable), 

let (= hindrance) , 238 
levelled (= aimed), 256, 

nightly linen, 239 
night-waking, 237 

like (=as?), 235 

nill, 276 
nimble notes, 244 

lists of love, 213 
liver (seat of passion), 

no footing seen, 205 
nor know not, 205 
note (= notoriety) , 261 

lode-star, 230 
lover (feminine), 255 
love's golden arrow, 222 
love's tender spring, 215 

note (= stigma), 231 
nought (rhyme), 277 
nought to do, 244 
nuzzling, 225 

lust (= pleasure) , 248 
lust-breathed, 227 

obdurate (accent), 206, 

luxury (= lust) , 264 

obey to, 280 

maiden (masculine), 203 

o'erstiaw'd, 225 
o'er-worn, 205 

maiden worlds, 233 
make a saw, 252 

offeree, 261 
on (omitted), 235 

manage (noun), 259 
manage (of horses), 213 
mane (plural), 207, 
map (= picture) , 233 

on ringing, 249 
only (transposed), 235 
orchard (= garden), 259 
orient (= pearly), 222 

margents, 229 
marriage (trisyllable) , 

Orpheus, 236 
orts, 243 

Mars and Venus, 204 
mated ( bewildered) , 

outwards (noun), 258 
overseen (= bewitched) , 


overseer (of will), 245 

maund, 256 

owe (=own), 210, 228, 

mean (= means) , 243 

259, 264 

measure (= dance) , 225 
mermaid (= siren), 210, 

packed (= sent packing) , 

219, 248 


Index of Words and Phrases 

painted cloth, 231 
pale (enclose), 262 
pale (= enclosure), 206 
pale (= paleness), 217 
palmer, 240 
Paphos, 226 
parting, 229 
pnrt (stage), 232 
passenger, 204 
passions (~ grieves) , 224 
peeled (.spelling), 245 
peers (verb), 234 
pelleted, 256 
pelt (verb), 248 
pensived, 261 
perplexed (= confounded) , 


Philomel, 244, 276 
phoenix (adjective), 258 
phraseless, 261 
pine (= starve), 214 
pioneer (spelling) , 248 
pith (=s vigour), 203 
plaining, 237 
plaits (noun), 228 
plausibly, 254 
pleasance, 274 
pleasing (passive), 244 
point (= appoint) , 242 
posied, 257 
power (plural), 233 
preached pure maid, 264 
precedent, 203, 247 
prefer and undertake, 263 
present (= instant) , 247 
pretended ( intended) , 


pretty, 246 

prick (= dial-point), 240 
prime ( spring), 232 
privilege (verb), 238 
prone (= headlong) , 239 
proof (= armour), 214, 


proof (= experience) , 259 
property, 282 
proportioned, 240 
prove (= experience), 213 
prove (= try), 203 
purified, 236 
purled, 248 

qualified, 234 
quality (of gems) , 260 
questioned (= talked), 229 
cjiuittal, 231 

quote (-note), 241 

rank (adjective), 204 
rate his ill, 232 
read lectures, 238 
reaves, 219, 226 
receipt, 239 
red morn, 210 
reft, 226 

relish your notes, 244 
remorse ( pity) , 207 
rents (= rends) , 257 
repeal (= recall), 238 
repine (noun), 211 
reprove (= disprove), sic) 
requiring (= asking), 226 
resolution (metre), 233 
respect (~ prudence) , 232 
respects ( considera- 
tions), 222 
retire (noun), 230 
retire (transitive), 232 
retiring (= returning) , 243 
re-worded, 355 
rigol, 253 
rose-cheeked, 202 
round (= whisper), 278 
rouse (in hunting), 207 
ruffle (-bustle), 257 
ruinate, 243 
ruth (---= pity) , 273 

sad ( serious) , 232 

saw ( maxim) , 231 

saw (metaphor) , 252 

sawn (= so\vn?), 258 

scape (noun) , 240 

scarlet, 252 

seared, 255 

seasoned (figurative), 256 

seated from the way, 245 

securely, 228 

seeded (= mature) , 237 

seeks to, 232 

seld, 275 

senseless, 241 

sensible (= sensitive), 210 

sepulchred (accent) , 240 

set a-work, 249 

sharne (intransitive), 244, 


sheaved, 256 
shift (= trickery) , 242 
shifting (= deceitful), 242 
shine (noun), 211 
shines but warm, 206 

shoot (noun), 237 
short (verb), 276 
shrewd ( evil), an 
shrieking harbinger, 283 
silly (= innocent) , 224 


simple (artless), 219 
simple (noun), 235 
Sinon, 250 
sistering", 255 
sith, siq, 225 
size, 256 
slanderous, 243 
sleided, 257 
slips (play upon) , 212 
smiling government, 248 
smoothing (= flattering), 


sneaped, 232 
sod (= sodden), 251 
sometime, 207, 244, 257 
sorrow's interest, 254 
sort (- adapt) , 246" 
sort ( select), 242 
sounds (waters), 247 
spend their mouths. 218 
spent (= consumed), 251 
spirit (monosyllable) , 221, 

255, 261 

spleen '(= heat), 273 
spleens, 221 

spotted ( polluted) , 239 
spiight, 206, 229, 253 
spring (~bud), 215, 243 
stain to all nymphs, 202 
stalled, 377 
staring, 225 
steep-up, 273 
stelled, 249 
stillitory, 210 
still-pining, 241 
still-slaughtered, 230 
1 sting (= .stimulus) , 262 
stole (= robe), 263 
stoop (== yield), 237 
stops (of musical instru- 
ment), 244 
stories (verb), 223 
stow (= bestow) , 229 
strand (spelling), 249 
strange kinds, 246 
strangeness, 212 
struck (spelling), 210 
strucken. 231 
stuck (of eyes), 258 
suffered, 209 

Index of Words and Phrases 297 

suggested (= tempted), 


supplicant, 263 
supposed, 233 
supreme (accent), 240 
surcease, 253 
suspect (noun), 223 
sweating palm, 203 
sweet seals, 212 
swooning (spelling), 263 
swounds, 249 

take truce, 204 

taking (noun), 234 

talents, 260 

tapsters, 220 

tarriance, 273 

tears (rhyme), 206 

teen (= sorrow), 219, 260 

temperance (= chastity) , 

tempering, 212 

tender (= favour) , 236 

termless, 258 

than (= then) , 249 

that (omitted) , 223 

that (== so that), 207, 213, 
220, 229, 230, 231, 247, 
250, 258, 282 

thick (=fast), 253 

thorough (= through) , 254 

thrall, 220 

threaden, 256 

threne, 282 

timely (= early) , 274 

tired (dissyllable), 206 

tires (== feeds ravenous- 
ly), 203 

Titan (sun), 206 

to (==for), 205 

to (= in addition to) , 251 
too late (= too lately) , 254 
too too, 230 

told (= counted), 207, 212 
top of rage, 257 
toward (= forward) , 225 
towering (in falconry), 

reatise (= talk), 219 

reble-dated, 281 

renched, 224 

riumphing (accent), 248 

rue men, 218 

rumpet (= trumpeter), 

unadvised, 249 
unapproved, 257 
uncouple, 215 
uncouth (= strange), 251 
undertake (= guarantee) , 

263 , 

unexpenent, 204 
unhappy (=mischievous), 


unkind (= childless), 206 
unlived, 253 

unrecalling (passive), 243 
unseasonable, 237 
unsounded, 254 
untread, 221 
urchin-snouted, 224 
use (= interest), 219 

vaded, 274 

vails (= lowers), 208, 222 
vastly, 253 
venge, 252 

venturing (rhyme), 213, 

villain (= servant) , 247 
vulture folly, 237 

ward (= bolt) , 232 
Wat (=hare), 218 
watch of woes, 242 
water-galls, 251 
weed (garment), 231 
whenas, 223, 277 
where (= whereas), 240 
whereas (= where), 273 
whether (monosyllable), 


whiter than white, 209 
who (= which), 208, 221, 

223 233 238 
who (=whom), 250 
windows (= eyelids), 211 
wink (= shut the eyes), 

204, 234, 236 
wipe (noun), 236 . 
wistly, 208, 247, 273 
withhold (= detain) , 214 
within his danger, 214 
wits (rhyme), 220 
wood (= mad), 218- 
woodman (= huntsman), 

273 . 

worm (= serpent), 222 
woin-out age, 247 
wot, 247 
wrack, 210 
wrapped (= involved) , 

wreaked (= revenged), 

wretch (term of pity) 5 


writ on death, 212 
wrong the wronger, s^.s