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ACT 1 41 

" II 67 

"III 84 

" IV... . no 



NOTES .161 







Cymbeline was first printed in the folio of 1623, where it is 
the last play in the volume, occupying pages 369-399 (mis- 
printed 993) in the division of " Tragedies." The earliest 
allusion to it that has been discovered is in Dr. Simon For- 
man's MS. Diary (see Richard II. p. 13, M. N. D. p. 10, and 
W. T. p. 10), which belongs to the years 1610 and 1611. 
His sketch of the plot (not dated) is as follows :* 

* As given in the New Shaks. Soc, Transactions for 1875-6, p. 417. 


" Remember also the storri of Cymbalin king of England, 
in Lucius tyme, howe Lucius Cam from Octauus Cesar for 
Tribut, and being denied, after sent Lucius wM a greate 
Arme of Souldiars who landed at milford hauen, and Affter 
wer vanquished by Cimbalin, and Lucius taken prisoner, and 
all by means of 3 outlawes, of the w^/ch 2 of them were the 
sonns of Cimbalim, stolen from him when they but 2 yers 
old by an old man whom Cymbalin banished, and he kept 
them as his own sonns 20 yers w/t/ him in A caue. And 
howe [one] of them slewe Clotan, that was the quens sonn, 
goinge To milford hauen to sek the loue of Innogen the 
kingly daughter, whom he had banished also for louinge his 
daughter, and howe the Italian that cam from her loue con- 


veied him selfe into A Cheste, and said yt was a chest of 
plate sent from her loue & others, to be presented to the 
kinge. And in the depest of the night, she being aslepe, he 
opened the cheste & cam forth of yt, And vewed her in her 
bed, and the markes of her body, & toke a-wai her braslet, & 
after Accused her of adultery to her loue, &c. And in thend 
howe he came w/t the Remains into England & was taken 
prisoner, and after Reueled to Innogen who had turned her 
self into mans apparrell & fled to mete her loue at milford 
hauen, & chanchsed to fall on the Caue in the wod^f wher 
her 2 brothers were, & howe by eating a sleping Dram they 
thought she had bin deed, & laid her in the wod^r, & the 
body of cloten by her in her loues apparrell that he left be- 
hind him, & howe she was found by lucius, &c." 

The play was probably a new one when Forman saw it in 
1610 or 1611. Drake dates it in 1605, Chalmers in 1606, 
Malone in 1609 (after having at first assigned it to 1605), 
Fleay (Introd. to Shakespearian Study) "circa 1609," White 
" 1609 or 1610," Delius, Furnivall, and Stokes in 1610, Dow- 
den and Ward at about the time when Forman saw it. The 
internal evidence of style and metre indicates that it was 
one of the latest of the plays. 


Cymbeline is badly printed in the folio, and the involved 
style makes the correction of the text a task of more than 
usual difficulty. The critics generally agree that the vision 
in v. 4 cannot be Shakespeare's. Ward considers that " there 
is no reason, on account of its style, which reminds one of 
the prefatory lines to the cantos of the Faerie Queene, to im- 
pugn Shakespeare's authorship of it;" but it seems to us 
very clearly the work of another hand. Cf. the rhymed epi- 
sode in A. Y. L. v. 4. 113 fol., and see oui ed. p. 199 (note 
on 136). 


The poet took the names of Cymbeline and his two sons 
from Holinshed, together with a few historical facts concern- 
ing the king ; but the story of the stealing of the princes and 
of their life in the wilderness appears to be his own.* 

The story of Imogen, which is so admirably interwoven 
with that of the sons of Cymbeline, was taken, directly or in- 
directly, from the Decamerone of Boccaccio, in which it forms 
the ninth novel of the second day. No English translation 
of it is known to have been made in Shakespeare's time. A 
version appeared in a tract entitled Westward for Smelts, 
which was published in 1620. Malone speaks of an edition 
of 1603 \ but this is probably an error, as the book was not 
entered upon the Stationers' Registers until 1619-20. This 
translation, moreover, lacks some important details which the 
play has in common with the Italian original.f 

* It has been pointed out by K. Schenkl that the incidents of Imogen's 
seeking refuge in the wilderness and her deathlike sleep occur in the Ger- 
man fairy-tale of Schtteewittchen. 

f For an outline of Boccaccio's novel, see the extract from Mrs. Jame- 
son below. The chief incidents of the story had been used in a French 
miracle-play of the Middle Ages, and also in the old French romances of 
La Violette and Flore etjehanne ; but we have no reason to suppose that 
Shakespeare made any use of these. In one of the romances the lady 
has a mole upon her right breast ; in Boccaccio, as in Shakespeare, it is 
on her left breast. This mark is not mentioned at all in Westward for 


But, as Verplanck remarks, " from whatever source the 
idea of the plot might have been immediately drawn, the 
poet owes to his predecessors nothing more than the bare 
outline of two or three leading incidents. These he has 
raised, refined, and elevated into a higher sphere ; while the 
characters, dialogue, circumstances, details, descriptions, 
the lively interest of the plot, its artful involution and skilful 
development, are entirely his own. He has given to what 
were originally scenes of coarse and tavern-like profligacy a 
dignity suited to the state and character of his personages, 
and has poured over the whole the golden light, the rainbow 
hues, of imaginative poetry." 


[From SchlegePs "Dramatic Literature" *] 

Cymbeline is one of Shakspeare's most wonderful compo- 
sitions. He has here combined a novel of Boccaccio's with 
traditionary tales of the ancient Britons, reaching back to 

Smelts. In the latter, moreover, the person corresponding to lachimo 
conceals himself under the bed in the lady's chamber, while in the French 
and Italian versions he is conveyed thither in a chest. 

White has noted another circumstance which seems to show that 
Shakespeare went directly to Boccaccio, and that the Winter's Tale and 
Cymbeline were composed at about the same period : " In Boccaccio's 
novel the convicted slanderer is condemned by the Sultan to be anointed 
with honey, and exposed to the rays of the sun, tied to a stake upon 
some elevated spot, and to remain there until his flesh falls away from 
his bones. From this doom it seems quite clear that Shakespeare took 
the hint for that mock sentence which Autolycus passes upon the young 
clown in W. T. iv. 4. 812 : ' He has a son who shall be flayed alive ; then 
'nointed over with honey . . . then, raw as he is, and in the hottest day 
prognostication proclaims, shall he be set against a brick wall, the sun 
looking with a southward eye upon him, where he is to behold him with 
flies blown to death.' " 

Westward for Smelts is reprinted in the "Variorum" ed. of 1821, vol. 
xiii., and in Collier's Shakespeare^s Library -, vol. ii. 

* Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature, by A. W. Schlegel ; Black's 
translation, revised by Morrison (London, 1846), p. 397 fol. 


the times of the first Roman Emperors, and he has contrived, 
by the most gentle transitions, to blend together into one 
harmonious whole the social manners of the newest times 
with olden heroic deeds, and even with appearances of the 
gods. In the character of Imogen no one feature of female 
excellence is omitted : her chaste tenderness, her softness, 
and her virgin pride, her boundless resignation, and her mag- 
nanimity towards her mistaken husband, by whom she is un- 
justly persecuted, her adventures in disguise, her apparent 
death, and her recovery, form altogether a picture equally 
tender and affecting. The two Princes, Guiderius and Ar- 
viragus, both educated in the wilds, form a noble contrast to 
Miranda and Perdita. Shakspeare is fond of showing the 
superiority of the natural over the artificial. Over the art 
which enriches nature, he somewhere says, there is a higher 
art created by nature herself. As Miranda's unconscious 
and unstudied sweetness is more pleasing than those charms 
which endeavour to captivate us by the brilliant embellish- 
ments of a refined cultivation/so in these two youths, to 
whom the chase has given vigour and hardihood, but who are 
ignorant of their high destination, and have been brought up 
apart from human society, we are equally enchanted by a 
naive heroism which leads them to anticipate and to dream 
of deeds of valour, till an occasion is offered which they are 
irresistibly compelled to embrace.! When Imogen comes in 
disguise to their cave ; when, with all the innocence of child- 
hood, Guiderius and Arviragus form an impassioned friend- 
ship for the tender boy, in whom they neither suspect a fe- 
male nor their own sister \ when, on their return from the 
chase they find her dead, then " sing her to the ground," and 
cover the grave with flowers these scenes might give to 
the most deadened imagination a new life for poetry. If a 
tragical event is only apparent in such case, whether the 
spectators are already aware of it or ought merely to suspect 
it, Shakspeare always knows how to mitigate the impres- 


sion without weakening it: he makes the mourning musical, 
that it may gain in solemnity what it loses in seriousness. 
With respect to the other parts, the wise and vigorous Be- 
larius, who after long living as a hermit again becomes a 
hero, is a venerable figure ; the Italian lachimo's ready dis- 
simulation and quick presence of mind is quite suitable to 
the bold treachery which he plays ; Cymbeline, the father of 
Imogen, and even her husband Posthumus, during the first 
half of the piece, are somewhat sacrificed, but this could not 
be otherwise ; the false and wicked Queen is merely an in- 
strument of the plot; she and her stupid son Cloten (the 
only comic part in the piece) whose rude arrogance is por- 
trayed with much humour, are, before the conclusion, got rid 
f^of by merited punishment. As for the heroical part of the 
\ fable, the war between the Romans and Britons, which brings 
J on the denouement, the poet in the extent of his plan had so 
i little room to spare that he merely endeavours to represent it 
<^as a mute procession. But to the last scene, where all the 
numerous threads of the knot are untied, he has again given 
its full development, that he might collect together into one 
focus the scattered impressions of the whole. This example 
and many others are a sufficient refutation of Johnson's as- 
sertion, that Shakspeare usually hurries over the conclusion 
of his pieces. Rather does he, from a desire to satisfy the 
feelings, introduce a great deal which, so far as the under- 
standing of the denouement requires, might, in a strict sense, 
be justly spared : our modern spectators are much more im- 
patient to see the curtain drop, when there is nothing more 
to be determined, than those of his day could have been. 

[From Drake^s " Shakespeare and his Times" *] 
This play, if not in the construction of its fable one of the 
most perfect of our author's productions, is, in point of poetic 

* Shakespeare and his Ttmes,by Nathan Drake, M.D. (London, 1817), 
vol. ii. p. 466. 


beauty, of variety and truth of character, and in the display 
of sentiment and emotion, one of the most lovely and inter- 
esting. Nor can we avoid expressing our astonishment at 
the sweeping condemnation which Johnson has passed upon 
it ; charging its fiction with folly, its conduct with absurdity, 
its events with impossibility ; terming its faults too evident 
for detection and too gross for aggravation. 

Of the enormous injustice of this sentence, nearly every 
page of Cymbeline will, to a reader of any taste or discrimi- 
nation, bring the most decisive evidence. That it possesses 
many of the too common inattentions of Shakspeare, that it 
exhibits a frequent violation of costume, and a singular con- 
fusion of nomenclature, cannot be denied ; but these are tri- 
fles light as air when contrasted with its merits, which are 
of the very essence of dramatic worth, rich and full in all 
that breathes of vigour, animation, and intellect, in all that 
elevates the fancy and improves the heart, in all that fills 
the eye with tears or agitates the soul with hope and fear. 

Imogen, the most lovely and perfect of Shakspeare's fe- 
male characters the pattern of connubial love and chastity, 
by the delicacy and propriety of her sentiments, by her sen- 
sibility, tenderness, and resignation, by her patient endurance 
of persecution from the quarter where she had confidently 
looked for endearment and protection irresistibly seizes 
upon our affections. 

The scenes which disclose the incidents of her pilgrimage ; 
her reception at the cave of Belarius ; her intercourse with 
her lost brothers, who are ignorant of their birth and rank ; 
her supposed death, funeral rites, and resuscitation, are 
wrought up with a mixture of pathos and romantic wildness 
peculiarly characteristic of our author's genius, and which 
has had but few successful imitators. Among these few 
stands pre-eminent the poet Collins, who seems to have trod- 
den this consecrated ground with a congenial mind, and who 
has sung the sorrows of Ficlele in strains worthy of their sub- 


ject, and which will continue to charm the mind and soothe 
the heart "till pity's self be dead." 

When compared with this fascinating portrait, the other 
personages of the drama appear but in a secondary light. 
Yet are they adequately brought out and skilfully diversified : 
the treacherous subtlety of lachimo ; the sage experience of 
Belarius ;^the native nobleness of heart and innate heroism 

I of mind which burst forth in the vigorous sketches of Guide- 
rius and Arviragusj) the temerity, credulity, and penitence 
of Posthumus ; the uxorious weakness of Cymbeline ; the 
hypocrisy of his Queen ; and the comic arrogance of Cloten, 
half fool and half knave, produce a striking diversity of ac- 
tion and sentiment. 

Poetical justice has been strictly observed in this drama ; 
the vicious characters meet the punishment due to their 
crimes ; while virtue, in all its various degrees, is propor- 
tionably rewarded. The scene of retribution, which is the 
closing one of the play, is a masterpiece of skill ; the devel- 
opment of the plot, for its fulness, completeness, and inge- 
nuity, surpassing any effort of the kind among our author's 
contemporaries, and atoning for any partial incongruity which 
the structure or conduct of the story may have previously 

[From Mrs. Jameson 's " Characteristics of Women" *] 
Others of Shakspeare's characters are, as dramatic and 
poetical conceptions, more striking, more brilliant, more pow- 
erful; but of all his women, considered as individuals rather 
than as heroines, Imogen is the most perfect. Portia and 
Juliet are pictured to the fancy with more force of contrast, 
more depth of light and shade ; Viola and Miranda, with 
more aerial delicacy of outline; but there is no female por- 
^j trait that can be compared to Imogen as a woman none in 
which so great a variety of tints are mingled together into 
* American ed. (Boston, 1857), p. 253 fol. 


such perfect harmony, fin her, we have all the fervour of 
youthful tenderness, all the romance of youthful fancy, all the 
enchantment of ideal grace the bloom of beauty, the bright- 
ness of intellect, and the dignity of rank taking a peculiar 
hue from the conjugal character which is shed over all, like 
a consecration and a holy charm. I In Othello and the Win- 
ter's Tale^ the interest excited for Desdemona and Hermione 
is divided with others ;V.but in Cymbeline, Imogen is the angel 
of light, whose lovely presence pervades and animates the 
whole piece. ) The character altogether may be pronounced 
finer, more complex in its elements, and more fully devel- 
oped in all its parts, than those of Hermione and Desde- 
mona; but the position in which she is placed is not, I think, 
so fine at least, not so effective, as a tragic situation. 

Shakspeare has borrowed the chief circumstances of Imo- 
gen's story from one of Boccaccio's tales. 

A company of Italian merchants who are assembled in a 
tavern at Paris are represented as conversing on the subject 
of their wives. All of them express themselves with levity, 
or scepticism, or scorn, on the virtue of women, except a 
young Genoese merchant named Bernabo, who maintains 
that by the especial favour of Heaven he possesses a wife no 
less chaste than beautiful. Heated by the wine, and excited 
by the arguments and the coarse raillery of another young 
merchant, Ambrogiolo, Bernabo proceeds to enumerate the 
various perfections and accomplishments of his Zinevra. He 
praises her loveliness, her submission, and her discretion 
her skill in embroidery, her graceful service, in which the best 
trained page of the court could not exceed her; and he adds, 
as rarer accomplishments, that she could mount a horse, fly 
a hawk, write and read, and cast up accounts, as well as any 
merchant of them all. His enthusiasm only excites the 
laughter and mockery of his companions, particularly of Am- 
brogiolo, who, by the most artful mixture of contradiction and 
argument, rouses the anger of Bernabo, and he at length ex- 



claims that he would willingly stake his life, his head, on the 
virtue of his wife. This leads to the wager which forms so 
important an incident in the drama. Ambrogiolo bets one 
thousand florins of gold against five thousand that Zinevra, 
like the rest of her sex, is accessible to temptation that in 
less than three months he will undermine her virtue, and 
bring her husband the most undeniable proofs of her false- 
hood. He sets off for Genoa in order to accomplish his pur- 
pose; but on his arrival, all that he learns, and all that he be- 
holds with his own eyes, of the discreet and noble character 
of the lady, make him despair of success by fair means ; he 
therefore has recourse to the basest treachery. By bribing 
an old woman in the service of Zinevra, he is conveyed to 
her sleeping apartment concealed in a trunk, from which he 
issues in the dead of the night; he takes note of the furniture 
of the chamber, makes himself master of her purse, her morn- 
ing robe, or cymar, and her girdle, and of a certain mark on 
her person. He repeats these observations for two nights, 
and, furnished with these evidences of Zinevra's guilt, he re- 
turns to Paris, and lays them before the wretched husband. 
Bernabo rejects every proof of his wife's infidelity except that 
which finally convinces Posthumus. When Ambrogiolo men- 
tions the " mole, cinque-spotted," he stands like one who has 
received a poniard in his heart; without further dispute he 
pays down the forfeit, and filled with rage and despair both 
at the loss of his money and the falsehood of his wife, he re- 
turns towards Genoa. He retires to his country-house, and 
sends a messenger to the city with letters to Zinevra, desiring 
that she would come and meet him, but with secret orders to 
the man to despatch her by the way. The servant prepares 
to execute his master's command, but overcome by her en- 
treaties for mercy and his own remorse, he spares her life, on 
condition that she will fly from the country forever. He then 
disguises her in his own cloak and cap, and brings back to 
her husband the assurance that she is killed, and that her 


body has been devoured by the wolves. In the disguise of a 
mariner, Zinevra then embarks on board a vessel bound to the 
Levant, and on arriving at Alexandria she is taken into the 
service of the Sultan of Egypt, under the name of Sicurano. 
She gains the confidence of her master, who, not suspecting 
her sex, sends her as captain of the guard which was ap- 
pointed for the protection of the merchants at the fair of 
Acre. Here she accidentally meets Ambrogiolo, and sees in 
his possession the purse and girdle, which she immediately 
recognizes as her own. In reply to her inquiries, he relates 
with fiendish exultation the manner in which he had obtain- 
ed possession of them, and she persuades him to go back 
with her to Alexandria. She then sends a messenger to 
Genoa in the name of the Sultan, and induces her husband 
to come and settle in Alexandria. At a proper opportunity, 
she summons both to the presence of the Sultan, obliges Am- 
brogiolo to make a full confession of his treachery, and wrings 
from her husband the avowal of his supposed murder of her- 
self; then, falling at the feet of the Sultan, discovers her real 
name and sex, to the great amazement of all. Bernabo is 
pardoned at the prayer of his wife, and Ambrogiolo is con- 
demned to be fastened to a stake, smeared with honey, and 
left to be devoured by the flies and locusts. This horrible 
sentence is executed; while Zinevra, enriched by the pres- 
ents of the Sultan and the forfeit wealth of Ambrogiolo, re- 
turns with her husband to Genoa, where she lives in great 
honour and happiness, and maintains her reputation of virtue 
to the end of her life. 

These are the materials from which Shakspeare has drawn 
the dramatic situation of Imogen. He has also endowed her 
with several of the qualities which are attributed to Zinevra; 
but for the essential truth and beauty of the individual char- 
acter, for the sweet colouring of pathos, and sentiment, and 
poetry interfused through the whole, he is indebted only to 
nature and himself. . . . 


When Ferdinand tells Miranda that she was " created of 
every creature's best," he speaks like a lover, or refers only 
to her personal charms: the same expression might be ap- 
plied critically to the character of Imogen ; for, as the por- 
trait of Miranda is produced by resolving the female charac- 
ter into its original elements, so that of Imogen unites the 
greatest number of those qualities which we imagine to con- 
stitute excellency in woman. 

Imogen, like Juliet, conveys to our mind the impression 
of extreme simplicity in the midst of the most wonderful 
complexity. To conceive her aright, we must take some 
peculiar tint from many characters, and so mingle them that, 
like the combination of hues in a sunbeam, the effect shall 
be as one to the eye. We must imagine something of the 
romantic enthusiasm of Juliet, of the truth and constancy of 
Helen, of the dignified purity of Isabel, of the tender sweet- 
ness of Viola, of the self-possession and intellect of Portia 
combined together so equally and so harmoniously that we 
can scarcely say that one quality predominates over the oth- 
er. But Imogen is less imaginative than Juliet, less spirited 
and intellectual than Portia, less serious than Helen and Isa- 
bel; her dignity is not so imposing as that of Hermione it 
stands more on the defensive; her submission, though un- 
bounded, is not so passive as that of Desdemona ; and thus, 
while she resembles each of these characters individually, 
she stands wholly distinct from all. 

It is true that the conjugal tenderness of Imogen is at 
once the chief subject of the drama and the pervading charm 
of her character; but it is not true, I think, that she is mere- 
ly interesting from her tenderness and constancy to her hus- 
band. We are so completely let into the essence of Imo- 
gen's nature that we feel as if we had known and loved her 
before she was married to Posthumus, and that her conjugal 
virtues are a charm superadded, like the colour laid upon a 
beautiful groundwork. Neither does it appear to me that 


Posthumus is unworthy of Imogen, or only interesting on 
Imogen's account. His character, like those of all the other 
persons of the drama, is kept subordinate to hers; but this 
could not be otherwise, for she is the proper subject the 
heroine of the poem. Everything is done to ennoble Post- 
humus and justify her love for him; and though we certain- 
ly approve him more for her sake than for his own, we are 
early prepared to view him with Imogen's eyes, and not only 
excuse, but sympathize in her admiration of one 

"Who sat 'mongst men like a descended god; 


who liv'd in court 

Which rare it is to do most prais'd, most lov'd ; 
A sample to the youngest, to the more mature 
A glass that feated them." . . . 

One thing more must be particularly remarked, because 
it serves to individualize the character from the beginning 
to the end of the poem. We are constantly sensible that 
Imogen, besides being a tender and devoted woman, is a 
princess and a beauty, at the same time that she is ever su- 
perior to her position and her external charms. There is, 
for instance, a certain airy majesty of deportment a spirit 
of accustomed command breaking out every now and then 
the dignity, without the assumption, of rank and royal birth, 
which is apparent in the scene with Cloten and elsewhere; 
and we have not only a general impression that Imogen, like 
other heroines, is beautiful, but the peculiar style and char- 
acter of her beauty is placed before us. We have an image 
of the most luxuriant loveliness, combined with exceeding 
delicacy, and even fragility, of person; of the most refined 
elegance and the most exquisite modesty, set forth in one or 
two passages of description; as when lachimo is contem- 
plating her asleep: 

" Cytherea, 

How bravely thou becom'st thy bed ! fresh lily, 
And whiter than the sheets ! 


7 T is her breathing that 

Perfumes the chamber thus. The flame o' the taper 
Bows toward her, and would underpeep her lids 
To see the enclosed lights, now canopied 
Under those windows, white and azure, lac'd 
With blue of heaven's own tinct !" 

The preservation of her feminine character under her 
masculine attire; her delicacy, her modesty, and her timid- 
ity, are managed with the same perfect consistency and un- 
conscious grace as in Viola. And we must not forget that 
her " neat cookery," which is so prettily eulogized by Guide- 

" He cut our roots in characters, 
And sauc'd our broths, as Juno had been sick, 
And he her dieter" 

formed part of the education of a princess in those remote 
times. . . . 

The catastrophe of this play has been much admired for 
the peculiar skill with which all the various threads of inter- 
est are gathered together at last, and entwined with the des- 
tiny of Imogen. It may be added that one of its chief beau- 
ties is the manner in which the character of Imogen is not 
only preserved, but rises upon us to the conclusion with 
added grace: her instantaneous forgiveness of her husband 
before he even asks it, when she flings herself at once into 
his arms 

" Why did you throw your wedded lady from you?" 

and her magnanimous reply to her father, when he tells her 
that by the discovery of her two brothers she has lost a king- 

" No I have got two worlds by 't " 

clothing a noble sentiment in a noble image, give the finish- 
ing touches of excellence to this most enchanting portrait. 

On the whole, Imogen is a lovely compound of goodness, 
truth, and affection, with just so much of passion and intel- 


lect and poetry as serve to lend to the picture that power 
and glowing richness of effect which it would otherwise have 
wanted; and of her it might be said, if we could condescend 
to quote from any other poet with Shakspeare open before 
us, that " her person was a paradise and her soul the cherub 
to guard it."* 

[From Charles Coivden- Clarke' 's " Shakespeare- Characters"^ 
It is not my purpose to enter upon a discussion of the 
small dramatic proprieties, as these are observed or ignored 
in the play of Cymbeline. They who are interested in the 
rigidities, perhaps the fussiness, of criticism, who take more 
pleasure in detecting a lapse in the unity of such a composi- 
tion as this, who would rather pride themselves upon ex- 
posing a deficiency in its chronology than in displaying its 
incomparable force and beauty of passion and fancy, of ten- 
derness, imagery, and splendour of language, are referred 
to the supplementary notices of the Johnsonian school of 
criticism. For myself, I care not one straw about the viola- 
tion of the unities : I am content to be wafted on the wings 
of the poet's imagination, and to be with him to-day in Rome 
and to-morrow watching the weary pilgrimage of the divine 
Imogen towards Milford-Haven. It is enough for me that 
the play is one of the most romantic and interesting of 
Shakespeare's dramas; and this we say of every drama of 
his, as we read them in succession. The romance itself of 
this story is sublimated by an intensity of passion and heart- 
ennobling affection and endurance that I have yet to see ex- 
celled. Of all his heroines, no one conveys so fully the ideal 
of womanly perfection as Imogen. We have full faith in the 
love and steadfast endurance of Desdemona: we believe that 

* Dryden. 

t From the unpublished "Second Series" of the Shakespeare- Charac- 
ters (see 2 Hen. IV. p. 18), kindly sent to us by Mrs. Mary Covvden-Clarke 
for publication here. 


she would have borne more than her lord's jealousy in her 
personal love for him; but Imogen has given us the proof 
that nothing could quench the pure flame of affection and 
devotedness in her heart; not even the charge of disloyalty 
and the atrocity of assassination. The triumph of self-re- 
liance in the consciousness of holy virtue and of artless in- 
nocence was never more grandly carried out than in Imo- 
gen's steadfastness of purpose to go on and meet her hus- 
band after she has read his treacherous letter to their servant 
Pisanio, enjoining him to put her to death. It may be said, 
indeed, and for the thousandth time, that "No one ever hit 
the true perfection of the female character the sense of 
weakness leaning on the strength of its affections for support, 
so well as Shakespeare: no one ever so well painted nat- 
ural tenderness free from affectation and disguise : no one 
else ever so well showed how delicacy and timidity, when 
driven to extremity, grow romantic and extravagant;" and 
there are few who cannot identify this testimony to their 
character, not, of course, to the letter, but in the full spirit 
of Imogen's conduct. The homily of dear old Chaucer, 
when dismissing his narrative of the world-noted Griselda, 
may well be applied to our nation's Imogen : 

"This story is said, not for that wives should 
Follow Grisild' as in humility, 
For it were importable though they would ; 
But for that every wight in his degree 
Shoulde be constant in adversity 
As was Grisilda ; therefore Petrarc writeth 
This story, which with high style he inditeth." 

Before proceeding to the inferior agents in this drama, I 
would say a few words upon the character of Posthumus. 

That he was unworthy of the love of such a being as Imo- 
gen need only be stated. We need only be reminded that 
when lachimo assays her constancy with the account of her 
husband's infidelities, she gives utterance to no stronger re- 


2 5 

ply than the celebrated one, " My lord, I fear, has forgot 
Britain" not "forgotten me;" not "forgotten his wife:" Imo- 
gen is too high-souled a lover and woman to utter a selfish 
reproach. Yet, when Posthumus receives the scandal of her 
disloyalty, it should be borne in mind that the proofs pro- 
duced, and sworn to, by lachimo were enough to stun even 
a devout lover. Real charity (or love), it is true, " endureth 
all things, hopeth all things," and Posthumus should still have 
proved for himself: but what I mainly feel to be an incon- 
sistency in his character is that he is not reconcilable with 
himself a perilous charge to venture against even the hum- 
blest of Shakespeare's creations, and which I would gladly 
fail to substantiate : nevertheless, in the first scene of the 
play, a friend describes him as 

"a creature such 

As to seek through the regions of the earth 
For one his like, there would be something failing 
In him that should compare : I do not think 
So fair an outward, and such stuff within, 
Endows a man but he." 

"You speak him far" (says the Second Gentleman). 

"I do extend him, sir, within himself; 
Crush him together, rather than unfold 
His measure duly." 

This fair report he certainly justifies in his leave-taking 
with Imogen; and subsequently maintains it in the wager 
with lachimo for the inviolability of her honour and truth. 
In short, he gives every proof of being noble and magnani- 
mous to the core. Is it then reconcilable with rational prob- 
ability that a man so endowed should so damn himself as, 
with the same ink, and the self-same pen, to write a treacher- 
ous letter to the woman he had adored, appointing her to 
meet him, and another to their servant, suborning him to be 
her murderer? His first resolution, upon encountering lachi- 
mo's proofs, that in the torment of his passion he would re- 
turn to her father's court and " tear her limb-meal," is not 


irreconcilable with a generous, although an ungovernable 
temper; but coolly, and deliberately, and upon reflection to 
turn assassin by deputy! Can such a contradiction exist in 
a man so described as Posthumus has been described to us? 
The man who could reflectively compass the life of her whom 
he had adored beyond all the beings on earth was not the 
character to dismiss her slanderer, and the author of all their 
misery, with so godlike a punishment as this: 

*' The power that I have on you is to spare you ; 
The malice towards you to forgive you : live, 
And deal with others better." 

The divine spirit of this conclusion (as Mr. Charles Knight 
says) "is perfect Shakespeare." It is so; but I cannot feel 
it to be perfect Posthumus. 

In the original story of Boccaccio, from whence the play 
was taken, the punishment of the slanderer better accords 
with the revengeful nature of Posthumus ; and, indeed, with 
the frightful spirit of retribution that crowns the otherwise 
perfect the divine tales of the great Florentine. " He was 
fastened naked to a stake, smeared with honey, and left to 
be devoured by flies and locusts:' 7 a revenge in character; 
for the Italians have a proverb, actually inculcating the vice 
of revenge as a virtue: it is, " He who cannot revenge him- 
self is weak; he who will not is despicable." Imogen (thank 
Heaven!) was one of our own women. And yet, with all the 
objection here suggested against his character-structure, I 
am in candour bound (and I rejoice in my duty) to testify 
that Posthumus, in the clearing of his wife's innocence, does 
prostrate his soul in the very mire of self-reproach and de- 
spair. His rejoinder to the confession of lachimo's treach- 
ery is enormous in its remorse ; and, I must acknowledge, 
atoning and complete; as, in its spirit, it harmonizes with the 
impulsiveness of his nature. But, good Heaven ! how per- 
fectly divine is the scene of their reunion ! She, with her char- 



acteristic strength of passion and gentleness, says almost 
playfully : 

" Why did you throw your wedded lady from you ? 
Think that you are upon a rock ; and now 
Throw me again." [Embracing him.] 

His heart is too full : he can make no more reply than : 

" Hang there like fruit, my soul, 
Till the tree die." 

The noted soliloquy of Posthumus, after he has received 
from lachimo the proofs of Imogen's infidelity, a speech 
that has been objected to, on account of its unrestricted tone 
of expression and want of harmony with the quality of that 
conjugal love which had existed between them, appears to 
me, on the contrary, to be accurately consistent with his im- 
petuous and engrossing nature. It is the strongest foil the 
poet could have placed against the exquisite delicacy 
forbearance of Imogen, whose sharpest speeches are: "Some 
painted jay of Italy has betray'd him;" and her heaviest re- 
proach in her affliction : 

" My dear lord ! 

Thou art one of the false ones : now I think on thee, 
My hunger's gone ; but even before, I was 
At point to sink for food." 

And but once is she betrayed into an expression of anger: 
"That drug-damn'd Italy hath out-crafted him." She, the 
most injured party, is the most forbearing the common re- 
sult in society and, in short, never was case more trium- 
phantly carried out between what has been wittily styled the 
" fair, and the /^-fair sex." 

The prevailing feature in the play of Cymbeline is that, un- 
der different phases, it exhibits an enchanting portraiture of 
the a Affections " in their several varieties. In the two prime 
agents of the drama (Imogen and Posthumus), we are pre- 
sented with the passion in its grandest feature : in the broth- 


/ers, Guiderius and Arviragus, we have the mysterious instinct 
/ of the fraternal affection; in the stupid addresses of the 
booby prince, Cloten, a contrast of the animal affection, un- 
elevated by a spark of the celestial fire, is set forth ; and 
lastly, the affection of menial attachment, in its most dis- 
interested form, is exhibited in the beautiful character of 
Pisanio, the servant to Posthumus, who is one of Shake- 
speare's favorite class of attendant gentlemen like Horatio 
and Benvolio; of level understanding, unostentatiously faith- 
ful and actively devoted. The character of Pisanio is a 
charming one. And here, while upon the subject of "Affec- 
tion," rather, perhaps, say of " Friendship," which is only a 
modified emotion of the same subject (Friendship is Love 
without his wings), we may observe the different sentiment 
of Shakespeare as regards menial attachment, and that of 
Sir Walter Scott, who has so often been compared with him. 
Shakespeare, who in his love for his species seems to have 
been a cosmophilanthropist, took an evident pleasure in 
uniting the several grades of society in the bonds of mutual 
respect and unselfish attachment. Instances of this might 
be quoted from his plays to a considerable extent. As he 
has finely said, " One touch of Nature makes the whole world 
kin" He has therefore constantly identified both master 
and man in one common interest ; and in but one instance 
that I can recall has he personated the mere dogged, un- 
compromising, mechanically obedient serf, or slave, namely, 
in the steward to Queen Goneril ; and an admirable con- 
junction of dominion and servitude that was. The very ap- 
pointment of such a menial to such a mistress was, in itself, 
a touch of art. If we retrace the stories of Sir Walter Scott, 
we, I think, uniformly perceive that his idea of the connec- 
tion between master and servant is s\x\c\]y feudal. Through- 
out his writings we scarcely meet with any other idea of their 
reciprocal duties than that of irresponsible sway and com- 
mand on the one hand, with mechanical and implicit obedi- 


ence on the other, and not a spark of free and intrinsic 
attachment existing between them. He was a kind-hearted 
man, was Scott, but he was a thorough aristocrat by birth, 
education, and habit; and this circumstance cramped his 
prodigious brain, like a Chinese foot ; for he had some- 
what to seek in the fields of social philosophy. 

Contrasted with the master-feeling of the " \gf^tW>g" in 
this play, we are presented with the shocking treachery of 
the Queen-mother a character so odious, and even outra- 
geous, as to amount almost to a monstrous anomaly. To 
my apprehension, there does not appear sufficient ground 
in the light even of self-indulgence for such wholesale, 
gratuitous wickedness ; except, indeed, that there is a princi- 
ple of evil in the great economy of Nature, and that some 
dispositions draw their sustenance from, and batten upon, 
stratagem and murder. In the case, however, of Cymbe- 
line's Queen, Shakespeare has, with his own gentle wisdom, 
put a characteristic rebuke to her cruelty in the mouth of 
her physician, Cornelius, whom she has directed to concoct 
some poison for her. In answer to his inquiry as to her 
purport in requiring such dangerous compounds, she says 
she intends trying their effects on "such creatures as we count 
not worth the hanging." "Your Highmsss &kall from__this. 
practice but make hardyonr hgarr,," is his gentle remon- 
strance. This is a little effusion of humanity in relief to the 
savage craft of the murderess. But the whole detail of this 
woman (although below even a second-rate character) is per- 
fectly consistent. . 

Cymbeline. the Kinp; T is an ordinary specimen of h^man-wui^ 
ity, invested with irresponsible pnwpr, weak, wilful, an^ vjn- 
lent; not, however, unimpressible to the emotion of a gener- 
ous sentiment; for, in the conclusion, he makes a handsome 
and natural atonement for his previous folly and misrule. 
The constitutional imbecility of the man is well manifested 
injiisrequiring the counsel of his stupid step-son, Cloten, at 


the conference with the ambassador from Rome; and, with 
his usual tact, Shakespeare has made the blurting ass most 
forward in the debate. With the true lout-intellect, he tells 
the ambassador that they "will not pay tribute to Rome for 
wearing their own noses." And he closes the audience with 
this elegant peroration: "His Majesty bids you welcome. 
Make pastime with us a day or two longer ; if you seek us 
afterwards in other terms, you shall find us in our salt-water 
girdle : if you beat us out of it, it is yours ; if you fail in the 
adventure, our crows shall fare the better for you ; and 
there 's an end." This speech accurately tallies with the de- 
scription of the man afterwards given by old Belarius; who, 
rin his hiding-place in the mountains, recognizes him after 
years of absence. He says : " By the snatches in his voice, 
and burst of speaking, it is absolute Cloten." No one like 
Shakespeare to give the whole of a man's manner in one 
line. Again, in the opening of the 2d act, a speaking 
picture of him is presented to us, where he is fuming and 
fretting, ruffling and vapouring with two courtier lords, after 
a game at bowls ; in which his temper appears to be as bad 
as his play had been. In the scene with Pisanio (the 5th 
of the 3d act) we have yet again full insight into the base 
soul of the man ; and all by concise yet plenary touches, 
apparently casual and inadvertent, but carefully and close- 
ly calculated. He has detected the letter from Posthumus 
to Pisanio, and taken it from him ; he there finds instruction 
that Imogen shall meet her husband at Milford-Haven. 
Having then ordered the servant to fetch him a suit of his 
master's garments, he falls into soliloquy, pondering his ruf- 
fianly intention against Imogen. " To the court I '11 knock 
her back, foot her home again. She hath despised me re- 
joicingly, and I '11 be merry in my revenge." It will be re- 
membered that she had rejected with ladylike dignity his 
swinish suit to her: 


" I am much sorry, sir, 
You put me to forget a lady's manners, 
By being so verbal : and learn now, for all, 
That I, which know my heart, do here pronounce, 
By the very truth of it, I care not for you, 
And am so near the lack of chanty, 
(To accuse myself) I hate you ; which I had rather 
You felt, than make 't my boast." 

In alluding to him in an after-part of the play, she says : 

"That Cloten, whose love-suit hath been to me 
As fearful as a siege." 

Lastly, his reputed animal courage is sagaciously accounted 
for by Belarius, who imputes it to defective judgment. And 
this is the solution of much of the headlong bravery that we 
hear of in the world, which, at times, is referable to phlegm 
and obtuseness of constitution. Cloten is a masterly varied! 
specimen in Shakespeare's class of half-witted characters :J 
he is of the race, yet distinct and original in feature and 
bearing. One of the lords of the court says of him : 

" That such a crafty devil as his mother 
Should yield the world this ass \ a woman that 
Bears all down with her brain ; and this, her son, 
Cannot take two from twenty, for his heart, 
And leave eighteen." 

This play of Cymbeline* inwoven as it is with the loftiest 
sentiment, with superb imagery, and with the most condensed 
truths and worldly axioms, contains yet no scene more fruit- 
ful in matter for sedate meditation than the one between 
Posthumus and his gaoler. Some commentator has re- 
marked that Voltaire himself has nothing comparable to the 
humorous discussion of the philosophic gaoler in Cymbeline : 
probably so; but beneath that humour there are speculations 
calculated to give one pause, and to set one chewing the cud 
of serious thoughts. Under these quaint and rough exteri- 
ors, Shakespeare loved to read his brethren a lesson upon 
the subject most deeply interesting their future-world inter- 


ests; as Rabelais beautifully compared his own broad and 
coarse humour investing worldly knowledge and wisdom 
to the old-fashioned jars and bottles of the apothecaries, on 
the exteriors of which they used to paint grotesque figures and 
uncouth heads, yet within they contained precious unguents 
and healing balsams. The scene alluded to (v. 4. 150-201) 
is short, and not introduced on the stage which it should be. 
The scenes in which old Belarius and the young princes, 
Guiderius and Arviragus, his adopted sons, and stolen by 
him from the king, are engaged, form the sunshine of the 
play ; and their characters and mountain-life afford a bright 
relief to the court - treacheries, stormy passions, and heart- 
sickness of the other portio'nT It is palpable that, whenever 
our poet places his persons under the open canopy of heav- 
en, and in the unchartered wilds of rural nature, whether 
amid the solemn aisles and shadows brown of monumental 
oak, or on the crags and heathy slopes of the mountains old 
and bare, their language always takes a tone consonant with 
their free and primeval domain : as witness all the scenes in 
the forest of Arden, in As You Like It and so again, in this 
Cymbeline: these wild huntsmen talk the finest and the 
most vivid poetry of them all ; and how different is its char- 
acter and pitch from those of the placid, ruminating shep- 
herds who compose the still-life, as these mountaineers do 
romantic and adventurous life, of rudest nature. What 
vigour is breathed into their every action ! and how finely are 
discriminated the energy, yet cautious circumspection of the 
old man, and the impetuosity and recklessness of the young 
and inexperienced ones: what freshness, and what fancy 
too, to say nothing of the homely wisdom, in the sweet 
uses of their mountain life ! 

" You, Polydore, have prov'd best woodman, and 
Are master of the feast : Cadwal and I 
Will play the cook and servant ; 't is our match. 
The sweat of industry would dry and die, 


But for the end it works to. Come, our stomachs 
Will make what 's homely, savoury ; weariness 
Can snore upon the flint, when resty sloth 
Finds the down pillow hard." 

What a superb illustration of the delight of an active em- 
ployment ! But this division of the play absolutely glitters 
with these drops of heavenly wisdom, like morning-dew upon 
the scented hawthorn. Again, what lustre and grandeur in 
Belarius's description of the dispositions in the two youths : 

"O thou goddess, 

Thou divine Nature, how thyself thou blazon'st 
In these two princely boys ! They are as gentle 
As zephyrs, blowing below the violet, 
Not wagging his sweet head ; and yet as rough, 
Their royal blood enchaf'd, as the rud'st wind, 
That by the top doth take the mountain pine, 
And make him stoop to the vale." 

Yet again, we note the plausible advantage taken by the 
poet to signalize the old prejudice <J&^tinct of birt^ to dis- 
tinguish the roval blood flowing in the^veins of the twoprfnce-' 
ly youths. I do but refer to the advantage taken 6t the pop- 
ular prejudice, and have no argument for its physiological 
accuracy. Nevertheless, there is undeniable truth in the 
axioms put into the mouth of old Belarius ; for instance: 

" Cowards father cowards, and base things sire base : 
Nature hath meal and bran, contempt and grace." 

Again, referring to the youths, he says : 

" How hard it is to hide the sparks of nature ! 
These boys know little they are the sons of the king, 
Nor Cymbeline dreams that they are alive. 
They think they are mine ; and though trained up thus meanly 
I' the cave wherein they bow, thpjr tho.ngM g ^ n hi*" 
The roofs of palaces ; and nature prompts them 
Beyond the trick ot otuers. This Polydore, 
The helP Of CyillliLliiie and Britain, whom 
The King his father call'd Guiderius, Jove ! 
When on my three-foot stool I sit, and tell 



The warlike feats I have done, his spirits fly out 
Into my story, say, ' thus mine enemy fell, 
And thus I set my foot on 's neck ;' even then 
vThe princely blood flows in 's cheek, he sweats, 
Strains his youn^ nerves, and puts himself in posture 
That acts my words. The younger brother, Cadwal, 
(Once Arviragus) in as like a figure, 
Strikes life into my speech, and shows much more 
His own conceiving. 1 ' 

And so, in the full spirit of this principle, th^Lpflftfj with 
acteristic boldness, has followed out the conduct of the^yojjng 
prince Guiderius in his contest with the booby-bully, Cloten, 
in which unconscious self-estimation and brutal assumption 
are felicitously associated and as dramatically contrasted. 
The vulgarity of low life is sufficiently offensive ; but there 
is no vulgarity so repugnant as the vulgarity of high life, 
because it commonly arises from an obtuse defiance of all 
that the wisest and most graceful of mankind have deemed 
essential to social interests and good order. This scene 
(the 2d of the 4th act) is almost the only light one in the 
play. Cloten has followed Imogen in her flight towards Mil- 
ford-Haven, and stumbled upon the young mountaineer, Gui- 
derius, whom he orders to yield, and they go out fighting. 
The prince afterwards returns with the boaster's head, say- 
ing : 

("This Cloten was a fool, an empty purse; 
There was no money in 't : not Hercules 
Could have knocked out his brains, for he had none." 

That same instinct of nature Shakespeare has followed on, 
in the prompt and unconscious affection that the two youths 
discover for their disguised sister, claiming their hospitality 
on her pilgrimage. One of them calls her " Brother." 
" Brother, jfoy here ; are we not brothers ?" 

She replies : 

" So man and man should be ; 
But clay and clay differs in dignity, 
Whose dust is both alike." 


Like Perdita, in the Winter's Tale, consciously and uncon- 
sciously the regal instinct manifests itself. The young moun- 
taineers are neither more nor less than kind-hearted, but ple- 
beian, foresters in her then estimation. Again, reiterating 
the " instinct " question, Guiderius says to his sister-brother : 

" I love thee, I have spoke it, * * * 


As I do loye my father." 

Belarius exclaims : 

" What? how ! how! 

Arviragus. If it be sin to say so, sir, I yoke me 
In my good brother's fault. I know not why 
I love this youth ; and I have heard you say, 
Love's reason 's without reason. The bier at door, 
And a demand who is 't shall die, I 'd say, 
My father, not this youth," 

And then, how like our Shakespeare, to put the following 
impelled justification of the ill-appreciated plebeians in the 
mouth of the grateful and womanly Imogen : 


These are kind creatures. Gods, what lies I have heard ! 
Our courtiers say, all 's savage but at court." 

Lastly, upon the principle of " Breeding," and of the myste- 
rious influence of consanguinity, may be noted the allusion 
made toTthe " mole, cinque-spotted " upon Imogen^ heck, 
by which lachimo traduced her to her husband. At the con- 
clusion of the play, when the two youths are discovered to 
be her brothers, it is said that Guiderius may be identified 
as a son of Cymbeline, and consequently as her brother, by 
his having "upon his neck ajnole 7 a sanguine star." This 
touch of a personal triviality being brought to indicate a re- 
lationship, may, at first sight, appear insignificant to allude 
to ; but it proves the close attention of the poet, and the_rjre- 
vailing sense of " harmony " in his mind, as a means he ad- 
hered to for perfecting a theory or a principle. 

A considerable portion, indeed, of the play is a practical 


argument to enforce the dignity as well as the ^/worthiness 
/ of " breeding " in the physical man ; at the same time, the 
secret and hidden force of "instinct." I scarcely know of 
any arrangement more appealing to the gentler emotions of 
our nature than in this portion of the play ; so triumphant- 
lyjias be^n a^firfrpH_thfi pphilify nf tqifi ^r^Y^r^T^JriHrix^- 

Iyronnprfprl_wjrh gf ntlpm^s j?f hparf - and, assuredly, the 
highest order of courage is never unattended by the proffer- 
ings of benevolence. Thus we have the daily practice in 
the two youths of paying honour to the grave of Euriphile, 
the wife of Belarius, and their supposed mother. Their 
primitive and rational piety when entering upon their morn- 
ing labours, " Hail, Heaven !" No -ow^-bet^jLtJian Shake- 
speare knew 'how to combine ^uje^pjty_with braveryj)or, 
in other words, what constitutes the most ^eXalttid liiagna- 
nimity. And, lastly, their affecting and child -like sorrow 
when they are performing the funeral rites of Fidele sup- 
posed to be dead. 

Guiderius. " Why he but sleeps. 

If he be gone, he '11 make his grave a bed ; 
With female fairies will his tomb be haunted, 
And worms will not come to thee. 

Awiragus. W 7 ith fairest flowers, 

Whilst summer lasts, and I live here, Fidele, 
I '11 sweeten thy sad grave. Thou shalt not lack 
The flower that's like thy face, pale primrose; nor 
The azure hare-bell, like thy veins ; no, nor 
The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander, 
Out-sweeten'd not thy breath. The ruddock would 
With charitable bill O bill, sore shaming 
Those rich-left heirs that let their fathers lie 
Without a monument ! bring thee all this ; 
Yea, and furr'd moss besides, when flowers are none, 
To winter-ground thy corse. Say, where shall 's lay him ? 

Guiderins. By good Euriphile, our mother. 

Arviragus. Be it so ; 

And let us, Polydore, though now our voices 
Have got the mannish crack, sing him to the ground, 


As once our mother ; use like note and words, 
Save that Euriphile must be Fidele." 

Then follows an exquisite touch of natural pathos ; Guide- 

rius in answer says : 

" Cadwal, 

I cannot sing: I '11 weep, and word it with thee ; 
For notes of sorrow out of tune are wbrse 
Than priests and fanes that lie." 

And to this succeeds one of those observances in the prim- 
itive church which the poet (true to his own nature) chose 
to honour ; having already put the axiom into the mouth of 
Imogen, " The breach of custom is the breach of all ;" and 
so here : one of the brothers, when they are proceeding to 
lay the body in the earth, objects : 

" Nay, Cadwal, we must lay his head to the east ; 
Our father hath a reason for 't." 

Having once given us a clue to the prevailing quality in 
their dispositions (" gentle as zephyrs blowing below the vio- 
let") the poet never loses the thread. They are punctually 
observant even in the absence of their father of his mi- 
nutest wish and injunction. Is not this absolute consistency 
in character delineation ? Never were obsequies perform'd 
with more graceful pathos than those at the funeral of the 
"fair Fidele;" and, surely, never was parting hymn more 
aptly appropriated to its subject and primitive occasion. No 
rural poet of the old world could have surpassed it in simple, 
natural dignity and tender regret. There is music in the 
words, and the music of the heart breathes like wafted odours 
through the entire composition. And the closing farewell, 
in undiminished beauty of sentiment, closes the scene : 

" Here 's a few flowers ; but 'bout midnight more. 
The herbs that have on them cold dew o' the night, 
Are strewings fitt'st for graves. Upon their faces. 
You were as flowers, now wither'd ; even so 
These herbs shall, which we upon you strew. 


The ground that gave them first has them again; 
Their pleasures here are past, so is their pain." 

I know of no composition to surpass in exquisite taste 
and tenderness the ceremony and the obsequies performed 
at the funeral of the divine little pilgrim to Milford-Haven. 
Let it be borne in mind that the predominance of rich ex- 
tracts quoted in these essays are lavished upon the second 
and third rate characters of our poet ; " The greatest is yet 
behind." Be it repeated again and again that, to come at 
something like an estimate of the wealth of his mind, we 
have but to notice its prodigality, as heaped upon the less 
consequential, and even the insignificant, members of his 
dramatis personae. 

No being that ever lived studied less than Shakespeare 
the art of reserving his strength for the purpose of " making 
points," as the actors term it. He had no occasion to do 
this, and he must have known it ; for his strength was ever 
at the flood ; and as the event arose, so he grappled with 
and overcame it ; like a mighty river that rolls on, resistless, 
now bearing all before it rocks, trees, and spars whirled 
aloft in its mountain foam or equally prevailing when it 
meanders through some flowery dale, calm as its own face, 

"And makes sweet music with th' enamell'd stones, 
Giving a gentle kiss to every sedge 
It overtaketh in its pilgrimage ; 
And so, by many winding nooks it strays 
With willing sport to the wild ocean." 

Such was the genius of Shakespeare. In other plays he 
has doubtless manifested sublimer bursts of passion ; but in 
no one of them has he set forth the prevailing power of his 
own bland and sweet disposition in the omnipotence of meek 
forbearance and untiring affection as in the play of Cymbe- 



CYMBELINE, King of Britain. 

CLOTEN, son to the Queen by a former husband. 

POSTHUMUS LEONATUS, a gentleman, husband to Imc- 

BELARIUS, a banished lord, disguised under the name of 


(sons to Cymbeline, disguised under the 

Y U1E IUS ' \ names of Polyclore and Cadwal, supposed 
ARVIRAGUS, ( sons to Morgan. 

PHILARIO, friend to Posthumus, I T , r 

IACHIMO, friend to Philario, J Italians. 

CAIUS Lucius, general of the Roman forces. 

PISANIO, servant to Posthumus. 

CORNELIUS, a physician. 

A Roman Captain. 

Two British Captains. 

A Frenchman, friend to Philario. 

Two Lords of Cymbeline's court. 

Two Gentlemen of the same. 

Two Gaolers. 

Queen, wife to Cymbeline. 

IMOGEN, daughter to Cymb 

HELEN, a lady attending on Imogen. 

IMOGEN, daughter to Cymbeline by a former queen. 

Lords, Ladies, Roman Senators. Tribunes, a Soothsayer, 
a Dutchman, a Spaniard, Musicians, Officers, Captains, 
Soldiers, Messengers, and other Attendants. 

SCENE : Britain ; Rome. 


SCENE I. Britain. The Garden of Cymbeline^s Palace. 
Enter two Gentlemen. 

1 Gentleman. You do not meet a man but frowns ; our 


No more obey the heavens than our courtiers 
Still seem as does the king. 

2 Gentleman. But what 's the matter ? 

i Gentleman. His daughter, and the heir of 's kingdom, 


He purposed to his wife's sole son a widow 
That late he married hath referr'd herself 



Unto a poor but worthy gentleman. She 's wedded, 
Her husband banish'd, she imprison'd ; all 
Is outward sorrow, though I think the king 
Be touch'd at very heart. 

2 Gentleman. None but the king ? m 

1 Gentleman. He that hath lost her too ; so is the queen, 
That most desir'd the match ; but not a courtier, 
Although they wear their faces to the bent 

Of the king's looks, hath a heart that is not 
Glad at the thing they scowl at. 

2 Gentleman. And why so? 

1 Gentleman. He that hath miss'd the princess is a thing 
Too bad for bad report ; and he that hath her 

I mean, that married her, alack, good man ! 

And therefore banish'd is a creature such 

As, to seek through the regions of the earth 20 

For one his like, there would be something failing 

In him that should compare. I do not think 

So fair an outward and such stuff within 

Endows a man but he. 

2 Gentleman. You speak him far. 

1 Gentleman. I do extend him, sir, within himself, 
Crush him together rather than unfold 

His measure duly. 

2 Gentleman. What 's his name and birth ? 

i Gentleman. I cannot delve him to the root. His father 
Was call'd Sicilius, who did join his honour 
Against the Romans with Cassibelan, 30 

But had his titles by Tenantius, whom 
He serv'd with glory and admir'd success, 
So gain'd the sur-addition Leonatus ; 
And had, besides this gentleman in question, 
Two other sons, who in the wars o' the time 
Died with their swords in hand ; for which their father, 
Then old and fond of issue, took such sorrow 


That he quit being, and his gentle lady, 

Big of this gentleman our theme, deceas'd 

As he was born. The king he takes the babe 40 

To his protection, calls him Posthumus Leonatus, 

Breeds him and makes him of his bed-chamber, 

Puts to him all the learnings that his time 

Could make him the receiver of; which he took, 

As we do air, fast as 't was minister'd, 

And in 's spring became a harvest, liv'd in court 

Which rare it is to do most prais'd, most lov'd, 

A sample to the youngest, to the more mature 

A glass that feated them, and to the graver 

A child that guided dotards ; to his mistress, 50 

For whom he now is banish'd, her own price 

Proclaims how she esteem'd him and his virtue; 

By her election may be truly read 

What kind of man he is. 

2 Gentleman. I honour him 

Even out of your report. But, pray you, tell me, 
Is she sole child to the king ? 

1 Gentleman. His only child. 
He had two sons if this be worth your hearing, 
Mark it the eldest of them at three years old, 

I' the swathing-clothes the other, from their nursery 

Were stol'n, and to this hour no guess in knowledge 60 

Which way they went. 

2 Gentleman. How long is this ago ? 

1 Gentleman. Some twenty years. 

2 Gentleman. That a king's children should be so con- 


So slackly guarded, and the search so slow, 
That could not trace them ! 

i Gentleman. Howsoe'er 't is strange, 

Or that the negligence may well be laugh'd at, 
Yet is it true, sir. 


2 Gentleman. I do well believe you. 
i Gentleman. We must forbear; here comes the gentle- 
The queen, and princess. \Exeunt. 


Queen. No, be assur'd you shall not find me, daughter, 7 o 
After the slander of most stepmothers, 
Evil-eyed unto you ; you 're my prisoner, but 
Your gaoler shall deliver you the keys 
That lock up your restraint. For you, Posthumus, 
So soon as I can win the offended king, 
I. will be known your advocate; marry, yet 
The fire of rage is in him, and 't were good 
You lean'd unto his sentence with what patience 
Your wisdom may inform you. 

Posthumus. Please your highness, 

I will from hence to-day. 

Queen. You know the peril. 80 

I '11 fetch a turn about the garden, pitying 
The pangs of barr'd affections, though the king 
Hath charg'd you should not speak together. \Exit. 

Imogen. O 

Dissembling courtesy ! How fine this tyrant 
Can tickle where she wounds ! My dearest husband, 
I something fear my father's wrath ; but nothing 
Always reserv'd my holy duty what 
His rage can do on me. You must be gone ; 
And I shall here abide the hourly shot 

Of angry eyes, not comforted to live, 90 

But that there is this jewel in the world 
That I may see again. 

Posthumus. My queen ! my mistress ! 

O lady, weep no more, lest I give cause 
To be suspected of more tenderness 


Than doth become a man. I will remain 

The loyal'st husband that did e'er plight troth ; 

My residence in Rome at one Philario's, 

Who to my father was a friend, to me 

Known but by letter. Thither write, my queen, 

And with mine eyes I '11 drink the words you send, itx> 

Though ink be made of gall. 

Re-enter QUEEN. 

Queen. Be brief, I pray you. 

If the king come, I shall incur I know not 
How much of his displeasure. [Aside] Yet I '11 move him 
To walk this way. I never do him wrong, 
But he does buy my injuries to be friends, 
Pays dear for my offences. [Exit. 

Posthumus. Should we be taking leave 

As long a term as yet we have to live, 
The loathness to depart would grow. Adieu ! 

Imogen. Nay, stay a little ; 

Were you but riding forth to air yourself, no 

Such parting were too petty. Look here, love; 
This diamond was my mother's : take it, heart; 
But keep it till you woo another wife, 
When Imogen is dead. 

Posthumus. How, how! another? 

You gentle gods, give me but this I have, 
And sear up my embracements from a next 
With bonds of death ! [Putting on the ring.'] Remain, re- 
main thou here 

While sense can keep it on. And, sweetest, fairest, 
As I my poor self did exchange for you, 
To your so infinite loss, so in our trifles 120 

I still win of you: for my sake wear this; 
It is a manacle of love; I '11 place it 
Upon this fairest prisoner. [Putting a bracelet upon her arm. 


Imogen. O the gods ! 

When shall we see again ? 

Enter CYMBELINE and Lords. 

Posthumus. Alack, the king ! 

Cymbeline. Thou basest thing, avoid ! hence, from my 

sight ! 

If after this command thou fraught the court 
With thy unworthiness, thou diest. Away ! 
Thou 'rt poison to my blood. 

Posthumus. The gods protect you, 

And bless the good remainders of the court ! 
I am gone. [Exit. 

Imogen. There cannot be a pinch in death 130 

More sharp than this is. 

Cymbeline. O disloyal thing, 

That shouldst repair my youth, thou heap'st 
A year's age on me ! 

Imogen. I beseech you, sir, 

Harm not yourself with your vexation. 
I am senseless of your wrath ; a touch more rare 
Subdues all pangs, all fears. 

Cymbeline. Past grace ? obedience ? 

Imogen. Past hope, and in despair; that way, past grace. 

Cymbeline. That mightst have had the sole son of my 
queen ! 

Imogen. O blest, that I might not ! I chose an eagle, 
And did avoid a puttock. 140 

Cymbeline. Thou took'st a beggar, would st have made 

my throne 
A seat for baseness. 

Imogen. No; I rather added 

A lustre to it. 

Cymbeline. O thou vile one ! 

Imogen. Sir, 


It is your fault that I have lov'd Posthumus; 
You bred him as my playfellow, and he is 
A man worth any woman, overbuys me 
Almost the sum he pays. 

Cymbeline. What, art thou mad ? 

Imogen. Almost, sir; heaven restore me! Would I were 
A neat-herd's daughter, and my Leonatus 
Our neighbour shepherd's son ! 

Cymbeline. Thou foolish thing! 150 

Re-enter QUEEN. 

They were again together; you have done 
Not after our command. Away with her, 
And pen her up. 

Queen. Beseech your patience. Peace, 

Dear lady daughter, peace ! Sweet sovereign, 
Leave us to ourselves ; and make yourself some comfort 
Out of your best advice. 

Cymbeline. Nay, let her languish 

A drop of blood a day, and, being aged, 
Die of this folly ! \Exeunt Cymbeline and Lords. 

Queen. Fie ! you must give way. 

Here is your servant. How now, sir ! What news ? 

Pisanio. My lord your son drew on my master. 

Queen. Ha ! *6o 

No harm, I trust, is done ? 

Pisanio. There might have been, 

But that my master rather play'd than fought, 
And had no help of anger ; they were parted 
By gentlemen at hand. 

Queen. I am very glad on 't. 

Imogen. Your son 's my father's friend; he takes his 


To draw upon an exile ! O brave sir ! 
I would they were in Afric both together. 
Myself by with a needle, that I might prick 
The goer-back. Why came you from your master? 

Pisanio. On his command. He would not suffer me i 7 c 
To bring him to the haven; left these notes 
Of what commands I should be subject to, 
When 't pleas'd you to employ me. 

Queen. This hath been 

Your faithful servant; I dare lay mine honour 
He will remain so. 

Pisanio. I humbly thank your highness. 

Queen. Pray, walk awhile. 

Imogen. About some half-hour hence, 

I pray you, speak with me. You shall at least 
Go see my lord aboard; for this time leave me. \Exeunt. 

SCENE IL The Same. A Public Place. 
Enter CLOTEN and two Lords. 

1 Lord. Sir, I would advise you to shift a shirt; the vio- 
lence of action hath made you reek as a sacrifice. Where 
air comes out, air comes in ; there 's none abroad so whole- 
some as that you vent. 

Cloten. If my shirt were bloody, then to shift it. Have I 
hurt him ? 

2 Lord. [Aside] No, faith; not so much as his patience. 

1 Lord. Hurt him ! his body 's a passable carcass, if 
he be not hurt; it is a throughfare for steel, if it be not 
hurt. 10 

2 Lord. [Aside\ His steel was in debt; it went o' the back- 
side the town. 

Cloten. The villain would not stand me. 
2 Lord. [Aside] No ; but he fled forward still, toward your 



1 Lord. Stand you ! You have land enough of your own; 
but he added to your having, gave you some ground. 

2 Lord. [Aside] As many inches as you have oceans. 
Puppies ! 

Cloten. I would they had not come between us. 20 

2 Lord. [Aside]"$o would I, till you had measured how 
long a fool you were upon the ground. 

Cloten. And that she should love this fellow and refuse 
me ! 

2 Lord. [Aside] If it be a. sin to make a true election, she 
is damned. 

1 Lord. Sir, as I told you always, her beauty and her brain 
go not together; she 's a good sign, but I have seen small 
reflection of her wit. 29 

2 Lord. [Aside] She shines not upon fools, lest the reflec- 
tion should hurt her. 

Cloten. Come, I '11 to my chamber. Would there had 
been some hurt clone ! 

2 Lord. [Aside] I wish not so; unless it had been the fall 
of an ass, which is no great hurt. 

Cloten. You '11 go with us? 

1 Lord. I '11 attend your lordship. 

Cloten. Nay, come, let 's go. together. 3 s 

2 Lord. Well, my lord. \Exeunt. 

SCENE III. A Room in Cymbeline^s Palace. 

Imogen: I would thou grew'st unto the shores o' the ha- 

And question'dst every sail ; if he should write, 
And I not have it, 't were a paper lost, 
As offer'd mercy is. What was the last 
That he spake to thee ? 

Pisanio. It was his queen, his queen !. 



Imogen. Then vvav'd his handkerchief? 

Pisanio. And kiss'd it, madam. 

.Imogen. Senseless linen ! happier therein than I ! 
And that was all ? 

Pisanio. No, madam ; for so long 

As he could make me with this eye or ear 
Distinguish him from others, he did keep J0 

The deck, with glove, or hat, or handkerchief, 
Still waving, as the fits and stirs of 's mind 
Could best express how slow his soul sail'd on, 
How swift his ship. 

Imogen. Thou shouldst have made him 

As little as a crow, or less, ere left 
To after-eye him. 

Pisanio. Madam, so I did. 

Imogen. I would have broke mine eye -strings, crack'd 

them, but 

To look upon him, till the diminution 
Of space had pointed him sharp as my needle, 
Nay, follow'd him, till he had melted from 20 

The smallness of a gnat to air, and then 
Have turn'd mine eye and wept. But, good Pisanio, 
When shall we hear from him ? 

Pisanio. Be assur'd, madam, 

With his next vantage. 

Imogen. I did not take my leave of him, but had 
Most pretty things to say : ere I could tell him 
How I would think on him at certain hours 
Such thoughts and such, or I could make him swear 
The shes of Italy should not betray 

Mine interest and his honour, or have charg'd him, 30 

At the sixth hour of morn, at noon, at midnight, 
To encounter me with orisons, for then 
I am in heaven for him ; or ere I could 
Give him that parting kiss which I had set 


Betwixt two charming words, comes in my father 
And, like the tyrannous breathing of the north, 
Shakes all our buds from growing. 

Enter a Lady. 

Lady. The queen, madam, 

Desires your highness' company. 

Imogen. Those things I bid you do, get them dispatch'd. 
I will attend the queen. 

Pisanio* Madam, I shall. {Exeunt. 

SCENE IV. Rome. Philario's House. 

Enter PHILARIO, IACHIMO, a Frenchman, a Dutchman, and 
a Spaniard. 

lachimo. Believe it, sir, I have seen him in Britain. He 
was then of a crescent note, expected to prove so worthy as 
since he hath been allowed Jhe name of; but I could then 
have looked on him without the help of admiration, though 
the catalogue of his endowments had been tabled by his 
side and I to peruse him by items. 

Philario. You speak of him when he was less furnished 
than now he is with that which makes him both without and 

Frenchman. I have seen him in France ; we had very 
many there could behold the sun with as firm eyes as he. 

lachimo. This matter of marrying his king's daughter, 
wherein he must be weighed rather by her value than his 
own, words him, I doubt not, a great deal from the mat- 

Frenchman. And then his banishment 

lachimo. Ay, and the approbation of those that weep this 
lamentable divorce under her colours are wonderfully to ex- 
tend him; be it but to fortify her judgment, which else an 
easy battery might lay flat, for taking a beggar without less 



quality. But how comes it he is to sojourn with you? How 
creeps acquaintance ? 22 

Philario. His father and I were soldiers together; to whom 
I have been often bound for no less than my life. Here 
comes the Briton ; let him be so entertained amongst you 
as suits, with gentlemen of your knowing, to a stranger of 
his quality. 


I beseech you all, be better known to this gentleman, whom 
I commend to you as a noble friend of mine ; how worthy 
he is I will leave" to appear hereafter, rather than story him 
in his own hearing. 31 

Frenchman. Sir, we have known together in Orleans. 

Posthumus. Since when I have been debtor to you far 
courtesies, which I will be ever to pay and yet pay still. 

Frenchman. Sir, you overrate my poor kindness. I was 
glad I did atone my countryman and you; it had been pity 
you should have been put together with so mortal a purpose 
as then each bore, upon importance of so slight and trivial 
a nature. 39 

Posthumus. By your pardon, sir, I was then a young trav- 
eller; rather shunned to go even with what I heard than in 
my every action to be guided by others' experiences : but 
upon my mended judgment if I offend not to say it is mend- 
ed my quarrel was not altogether slight. 

Frenchman. Faith, yes, to be put to the arbitrement of 
swords, and by such two that would by all likelihood have 
confounded one the other, or have fallen both. 

lachimo. Can we, with manners, ask what was the differ- 
ence ? 49 

Frenchman. Safely, I think. 'T was a contention in pub- 
lic, which may, without contradiction, suffer the report. It 
was much like an argument that fell out last night, where 
each of us fell in praise of our country mistresses; this gen- 
tleman at that time vouching and upon warrant of bloody 



affirmation his to be more fair, virtuous, wise, chaste, con- 
stant-qualified, and less attemptable than any the rarest of 
our ladies in France. 

lachimo. That lady is not now living, or this gentleman's 
opinion by this worn out. 

Posthumus. She holds her virtue still, and I my mind. 60 

lachimo. You must not so far prefer her fore ours of Italy. 

Posthumus. Being so far provoked as I was in France, I 
would abate her nothing, though I profess myself her adorer, 
not her friend. 

lachimo. As fair and as good a kind of hand-in-hand 
comparison had been something too fair and too good for 
any lady in Britain. If she went before others I have seen, 
as that diamond of yours outlustres many I have beheld, I 
could not but believe she excelled many; but I have not 
seen the most precious diamond that is, nor you the lady. 7 

Posthumus. I praised her as I rated her; so do I my stone. 

lachimo. What do you esteem it at? 

Posthumus. More than the world enjoys. 

lachimo. Either your unparagoned mistress is dead, or 
she 's outprized by a trifle. 

Posthumus. You are mistaken : the one may be sold, or 
given, if there were wealth enough for the purchase, or merit 
for the gift; the other is not a thing for sale, and only the 
gift of the gods. 

lachimo. Which the gods have given you? 80 

Posthumus. Which, by their graces, I will keep. 

lachimo. You may wear her in title yours; but, you know, 
strange fowl light upon neighbouring ponds. Your ring may 
be stolen too: so your brace of unprizable estimations, the 
one is but frail and the other casual ; a cunning thief, or a 
that way accomplished courtier, would hazard the winning 
both of first and last. 

Posthumus. Your Italy contains none so accomplished a 
courtier to convince the honour of my mistress, if, in the 



holding or loss of that, you term her frail. I do nothing 
doubt you have store of thieves ; notwithstanding, I fear not 
my ring. 92 

Philario. Let us leave here, gentlemen. 

Posthumus. Sir, with all my heart. This worthy signior, I 
thank him, makes no stranger of me; we are familiar at first. 

lachimo. With five times so much conversation, I should 
get ground of your fair mistress, make her go back, even to 
the yielding, had I admittance and opportunity to friend. 

Posthumus. No, no. 99 

lachimo. I dare thereupon pawn the moiety of my estate 
to your ring, which, in my opinion, o'ervalues it something: 
but I make my wager rather against your confidence than 
her reputation ; and, to bar your offence herein too, I durst 
attempt it against any lady in the world. 

Posthumus. You are a great deal abused in too bold a 
persuasion ; and I doubt not you sustain what you 're worthy 
of by your attempt. 

lachimo. What 's that? 

Posthumus. A repulse; though your attempt, as you call 
It, deserve more, a punishment too. no 

Philario. Gentlemen, enough of this: it came in too sud- 
denly ; let it die as it was born, and, I pray you, be better 

lachimo. Would I had put my estate and my neighbour's 
on the approbation of what I have spoke ! 

Posthumus. What lady would you choose to assail? 

lachimo. Yours, whom in constancy you think stands so 
safe. I will lay you ten thousand ducats to your ring, that, 
commend me to the court where your lady is, with no more 
advantage than the opportunity of a second conference, and 
I will bring from thence that honour of hers which you im- 
agine so reserved. 122 

Posthumus. I will wage against your gold, gold to it: my 
ring I hold dear as my finger; 't is part of it. 



lachimo. You are afraid, and therein the wiser. If you 
buy ladies' flesh at a million a dram, you cannot preserve it 
from tainting; but I see you have some religion in you, 
that you fear. 

Posthumus. This is but a custom in your tongue ; you bear 
a graver purpose, I hope. 130 

lachimo. I am the master of my speeches, and would un- 
dergo what 's spoken, I swear. 

Posthumus. Will you ? I shall but lend my diamond till 
your return. Let there be covenants drawn between 's. My 
mistress exceeds in goodness the hugeness of your unworthy 
thinking. I dare you to this match; here 's my ring. 

Philario. I will have it no lay. 

lachimo. By the gods, it is one. If I bring you no suffi- 
cient testimony that I have enjoyed the dearest bodily part 
of your mistress, my ten thousand ducats are yours; so is 
your diamond too. If I come off, and leave her in such 
honour as you have trust in, she your jewel, this your jewel, 
and my gold are yours; provided I have your commenda- 
tion for my more free entertainment. 144 

Posthumus. I embrace these conditions; let us have arti- 
cles betwixt us. Only, thus far you shall answer: if you make 
your voyage upon her and give me directly to understand you 
have prevailed, I am no further your enemy; she is not worth 
our debate : if she remain unseduced, you not making it ap- 
pear otherwise, for your ill opinion and the assault you have 
made to her chastity you shall answer me with your sword. 

lachimo. Your hand; a covenant. We will have these 
things set down by lawful counsel, and straight away for 
Britain, lest the bargain should catch cold and starve. I 
will fetch my gold and have our two wagers recorded. 155 

Posthumus. Agreed. \Exeunt Posthumus and lachimo. 

Frenchman. Will this hold, think you ? 

Philario. Signior lachimo will not from it. Pray, let us 
follow 'em. {Exeunt. 


SCENE V. Britain. A Room in Cymbeline's Palace. 
Enter QUEEN, Ladies, and CORNELIUS. 

Queen. Whiles yet the dew V on ground, gather those 

flowers ; 
Make haste. -Who has the note of them ? 

i Lady. I, madam. 

Queen. Dispatch. 7 . \ExeuntLadies. 

Now, .master doctor, have you brought those drugs? 

Cornelius. Pleaseth your highness, ay; here they are, mad- 
am. : ; . [Presenting a small box. 
But I beseech your grace, without offence, ' 
My conscience bids me ask wherefore you have 
Commanded of me these most poisonous compounds, 
Which are the movers of a languishing death, 
But though slow, deadly? 

Queen. I wonder, doctor, *> 

Thou ask'st me such a question. Have I not been 
Thy pupil long? Hast thou not learn'd me how 
To make perfumes? distil? preserve? yea, so 
That our great king himself doth woo me oft ...... 

For my confections? Having thus, far proceeded, 
Unless thou think'st me devilish is 't not meet 
That I did amplify my judgment in 
Other conclusions? I will try the forces 
Of these thy compounds on such creatures as 
We count not worth the hanging, but none human, *> 

To try the vigour of them and apply 
Allayments;to their act, and by them gather 
Their several virtues, and effects. ; 

: Cornelius. .. Your highness 

Shall from this practice but make hard your heart ; 
Besides; the seeing. these effects will be vJ . ; 

Both noisome and infectious, 

Queen. O, content thee. 




\Aside\ Here comes a flattering rascal ; upon him 
Will I first work: he 's for his master, 
And enemy to my son. How now, Pisanio ! 
Doctor, your service for this time is ended ; 30 

Take your own way. 

Cornelius. [Aside] I do suspect you, madam; 
But you shall do no harm. 

Queen. \To Pisanio\ Hark thee, a word. 

Cornelius. \Aside\ I do not like her. She doth think she 


Strange lingering poisons; I do know her spirit, 
And will not trust one of her malice with 
A drug of such damn'd nature. Those she has 
Will stupefy and dull the sense awhile; 
Which first, perchance, she '11 prove on cats and dogs, 
Then afterward up higher: but there is 

No danger in what show of death it makes, 40 

More than the locking-up the spirits a time, 
To be more fresh, reviving. She is fool'd 
With a most false effect; and I the truer, 
So to be false with her. 

Queen. No further service, doctor, 

Until I send for thee. 

Cornelius. I humbly take my leave. [Exit. 

Queen. Weeps she still, say'st thou ? Dost thou think in 


She will not quench and let instructions enter 
Where folly now possesses? Do thou work. 
When thou shalt bring me word she loves my son, 
I '11 tell thee on the instant thou art then 50 

As great as is thy master, greater, for 
His fortunes all lie speechless and his name. 
Is at last gasp : return he cannot, nor 


Continue where he is ; to shift his being 
Is to exchange one misery with another, 
And every day that comes comes to decay 
A day's work in him. What shalt thou expect, 
To be depender on a thing that leans, 
Who cannot be new built, nor has no friends, 
So much as but to prop him? [The Queen drops the box; 
Pisanio takes it upJ\ Thou tak'st up 60 

Thou know'st not what ; but take it for thy labour. 
It is a thing I made, which hath the king 
Five times redeem'd from death ; I do not know 
What is more cordial. Nay, I prithee, take it; 
It is an earnest of a further good 
That I mean to thee. Tell thy mistress how 
The case stands with her ; do 't as from thyself. 
Think what a chance thou changest on, but think 
Thou hast thy mistress still; to boot, my son, 
Who shall take notice of thee. I '11 move the king 70 

To 'any shape of thy preferment such 
As thou 'It desire ; and then myself, I chiefly, 
That set thee on to this desert, am bound 
To load thy merit richly. Call my women. 
Think on my words. [Exit Pisanio. 

A sly and constant knave, 
Not to be shak'd ; the agent far his master, 
And the remembrancer of her to hold 
The hand-fast to her lord. I have given him that 
Which, if he take, shall quite unpeople her 
Of liegers for her sweet, and which she after, 80 

Except she bend her humour, shall be assur'd 
To taste of too. 

Re-enter PISANIO and Ladies. 

So, so ; well done, well done. 
The violets, cowslips, and the primroses, 



Bear to my closet. Fare thee well, Pisanio ; 

Think on my words. [Exeunt Queen and Ladies. 

Pisanio. And shall do: 

But when to my good lord I prove untrue, 
I '11 choke myself; there 's all I '11 do for you. [Exit. 

SCENE* VI. The Same. Another Room in the Palace. 

Enter IMOGEN. 

Imogen. A father cruel, and a step-dame false ; 
A foolish suitor to a wedded lady, 
That hath her husband banish'd : O, that husband ! 
My supreme crown of grief! and those repeated 
Vexations of it ! Had I been thief-stol'n, 
As my two brothers, happy ! but most miserable 
Is the desire that 1 s glorious ; blest be those, 
How mean soe'er, that have their honest wills, 
Which seasons comfort. Who may this be ? Fie ! 


Pisanio. Madam, a noble gentleman of Rome, 10 

Comes from my lord with letters. 

lachimo. Change you, madam ? 

The worthy Leonatus is in safety 
And greets your highness dearly. [Presents a letter. 

Imogen. Thanks, good sir; 

You 're kindly welcome. 

lachimo. \Aside\ All of her that is out of door most rich ! 
If she be furnish'd with a mind so rare, 
She is alone the Arabian bird, and I 
Have lost the wager. Boldness be my friend! 
Arm me, audacity, from head to foot ! 

Or, like the Parthian, I shall flying fight ; 20 

Rather, directly fly. 


Imogen. [Reads] * He is one of the noblest note, to whose 
kindnesses I am most infinitely tied. Reflect upon him accord- 
ingly, as you value your truest LEONATUS.' 
So far I read aloud ; 
But even the very middle of my heart 
Is warm'd by the rest, and takes it thankfully. 
You are as welcome, worthy sir, as I 
Have words to bid you, and shall find it so 
In all that I can do. 

lachimo. \ Thanks, fairest lady. 30 

What, are men mad? Hath nature given them eyes 
To see this vaulted arch, and the rich crop 
Of sea and land, which can distinguish 'twixt 
The fiery orbs above and the twinn'd stones 
Upon the unnumber'd beach? and can we not 
Partition make with spectacles so precious 
'Twixt fair and foul? 

Imogen. What makes your admiration? 

lachimo. It cannot be i' the eye, for apes and monkeys 
'Twixt two such shes would chatter this way and 
Contemn with mows the other; nor i' the judgment, 40 

For idiots in this case of favour would 
Be wisely definite; nor i' the appetite; 
Sluttery to such neat excellence oppos'd 
Should make desire vomit emptiness, 
Not so allur'd to feed. 

Imogen. What is the matter, trow? 

lachimo. The cloyed will, 

That satiate yet unsatisfied desire, that tub 
Both filPd and running, ravening first the lamb, 
Longs after for the garbage. 

Imogen. What, dear sir, 

Thus raps you ? Are you well ? 50 

lachimo. Thanks, madam; well. \To Pisani6\ Beseech 
you, sir, desire 

ACT /. SCENE VI. fa 

My man's abode where I did leave him ; he 
Is strange and peevish. 

Pisanio. I was going, sir, 

To give him welcome. \Exit. 

Imogen. Continues well my lord? His health, beseech 
you ? 

lachimo. Well, madam. 

Imogen. Is he dispos'd to mirth? I hope he is. 

lachimo. Exceeding pleasant ; none a stranger there 
So merry and so gamesome : he is call'd 
The Briton reveller. 

Imogen. When he was here 60 

He did incline to sadness, and oft-times 
Not knowing why. 

lachimo. I never saw him sad. 

There is a Frenchman his companion, one 
An eminent monsieur, that, it seems, much loves 
A Gallian girl at home ; he furnaces 
The thick sighs from him, whiles the jolly Briton 
Your lord, I mean laughs from 's free lungs, cries ' O, 
Can my sides hold, to think that man, who knows 
By history, report, or his own proof, 

What woman is, yea, what she cannot choose 7 o 

But must be, will his free hours languish for 
Assured bondage ?' 

Imogen. Will my lord say so? 

lachimo. Ay, madam, with his eyes in flood with laughter; 
It is a recreation to be by, 

And hear him mock the Frenchman. But, heavens know, 
Some men are much to blame. 

Imogen. Not he, I hope. 

lachimo. Not he : but yet heaven's bounty towards him 


Be us'd more thankfully. In himself, 't is much; 
In you, which I account his beyond all talents, 


Whilst I am bound to wonder, I am bound 
To pity too. 

Imogen. What do you pity, sir ? 

lachimo. Two creatures heartily. 

Imogen. Am I one, sir ? 

You look on me ; what wrack discern you in me 
Deserves your pity ? 

lachimo. Lamentable! What! 

To hide me from the radiant sun, and solace 
I' the dungeon by a snuff? 

Imogen. I pray you, sir, 

Deliver with more openness your answers 
To my demands. Why do you pity me ? 

lachimo. That others do 
I was about to say enjoy your But 
It is an office of the gods to venge it, 
Not mine to speak on 't. 

Imogen. You do seem to know 

Something of me, or what concerns me : pray you, 
Since doubting things go ill often hurts more 
Than to be sure they do ; for certainties 
Either are past remedies, or, timely knowing, 
The remedy then born discover to me 
What both you spur and stop. 

lachimo. Had I this cheek 

To bathe my lips upon ; this hand, whose touch, 
Whose every touch, would force the feeler's soul 
To the oath of loyalty; this object, which 
Takes prisoner the wild motion of mine eye, 
Fixing it only here; should I, damn'd then, 
Slaver with lips as common as the stairs 
That mount the Capitol, join gripes with hands 
Made hard with hourly falsehood falsehood, as 
With labour; then by-peeping in an eye 
Base and unlustrous as the smoky light 


That 's fed with stinking tallow ; it were fit 

That all the plagues of hell should at one time no 

Encounter such revolt. 

Imogen. My lord, I fear, 

Has forgot Britain. 

lachimo. And himself. Not I, 

Inclin'd to this intelligence, pronounce 
The beggary of his change ; but 't is your graces 
That from my mutest conscience to my tongue 
Charms this report out. 

Imogen. Let me hear no more. 

lachimo. O dearest soul ! your cause doth strike my heart 
With pity, that doth make me sick. A lady 
So fair, and fasten'd to an empery, 

Would make the great'st king double, to be partner'd 120 
With tomboys hir'd with that self exhibition 
Which your own coffers yield ! with diseas'd ventures 
That play with all infirmities for gold 
Which rottenness can lend nature ! such boil'd stuff 
As well might poison poison ! Be reveng'd ; 
Or she that bore you was no queen, and you 
Recoil from your great stock. 

Imogen. Reveng'd ! 

How should I be reveng'd? If this be true, 
As I have such a heart that both mine ears 
Must not in haste abuse if it be true, 130 

How should I be reveng'd ? 

lachimo. Should he make me 

Live, like Diana's priest, betwixt cold sheets, 
Whiles he is vaulting variable ramps, 
In your despite, upon your purse ? Revenge it. 
I dedicate myself to your sweet pleasure, 
More noble than that runagate to your bed, 
And will continue fast to your affection, 
Still close as sure. 


Imogen. What ho, Pisanio ! 

lachimo. Let me my service tender on your lips. 

Imogen. Away! I do condemn mine ears that have 
So long attended thee. If-thou wert honourable, 
Thou wouldst have told this tale for virtue, not 
For such an end thou seek'st, as base as strange. 
Thou wrong'st a gentleman, who is as far 
From thy report as thou from honour, and 
Solicit'st here a lady that disdains 
Thee and the devil alike. What ho, Pisanio ! 
The king my father shall be made acquainted 
Of thy.. assault; if he shall think it fit, 
A saucy stranger in his court to mart 
As in a Romish stew and to expound 
His beastly mind to us, he hath a court 
He little cares for and a daughter who 
He not respects at all. What ho, Pisanio ! 

lachimo. O happy Leonatus ! I may say; 
The credit that thy lady hath of thee 
Deserves thy trust, and thy most perfect goodness 
Her assur'd credit. Blessed live you long ! 
A lady to the worthiest sir that ever 
Country call'd his ! and you his mistress, only 
For the most worthiest fit ! Give me your pardon. 
I have spoke this, to know if your affiance 
Were deeply rooted, and shall make your lord, 
That which he is, new o'er : and he is one 
The truest manner'd, such a holy witch 
That he enchants societies into him ; 
Half all men's hearts are his. 

Imogen. You make amends. 

lachimo. He sits 'mongst men like a descended god ; 
He hath a kind of honour sets him off, 
More than a mortal seeming. Be not angry, 
Most mighty princess, that I have aclventuf'd 


To try your taking of a false report; which hath 
Honour'd with confirmation your great judgment 
In the election of a sir so rare, 
Which you know cannot err. The love I bear him 
Made me to fan you thus, but the gods made you, 
Unlike all others, chaffless. Pray, your pardon. 

Imogen. All 's well, sir. Take my power i' the court for yours. 

lachimo. My humble thanks. I had almost forgot 
To entreat your grace but in a small request, 180 

And yet of moment too, for it concerns 
Your lord; myself and other noble friends 
Are partners in the business. 

Imogen. Pray, what is 't ? 

lachimo. Some dozen Romans of us and your lord 
The best feather of our wing have mingled sums 
To buy a present for the emperor; 
Which I, the factor for the rest, have done 
In France: 't is plate of rare device, and jewels 
Of rich and exquisite form, their values great ; 
And I am something curious, being strange, 190 

To have them in safe stowage. May it please you 
To take them in protection ? 

Imogen. Willingly, 

And pawn mine honour for their safety; since 
My lord hath interest in them, I will keep them 
In my bedcliamber. 

lachimo. They are in a trunk, 

Attended by my men. I will make bold 
To send them to you, only for this night; 
I must aboard to-morrow. 

Imogen. O, no, no. 

lachimo. Yes, I beseech ; or I shall short my word 
By lengthening my return. From Gallia 200 

I cross'd the seas on purpose and on promise 
To see your grace. 




Imogen. I thank you for your pains; 

But not away to-morrow ! 

lackimo. O, I must, madam. 

Therefore I shall beseech you, if you please 
To greet your lord with writing, do 't to-night; 
I have outstood my time, which is material 
To the tender of our present. 

Imogen. I will write. 

Send your trunk to me ; it shall safe be kept, 
And truly yielded you. You 're very welcome. 



SCENE I. Britain. Before CymbelMs Palace. 

Enter CLOTEN and two Lords. 

Cloten. Was there ever man had such luck ! when I kissed 
the jack, upon an up-cast to be hit away ! I had a hundred 
pound on 't : and then a whoreson jackanapes must take me 
up for swearing; as if I borrowed mine oaths of him and 
might not spend them at my pleasure. 

1 Lord. What got he by that? You have broke his pate 
with your bowl. 

2 Lord. {Aside~\ If his wit had been like him that broke it, 
it would have run all out. 9 


Cloten. When a gentleman is disposed to swear, it is not 
for any standers-by to curtail his oaths, ha ? 

2 Lord. No, my lord; [Aside] nor crop the ears of 

Cloten. Whoreson dog ! I give him satisfaction ? Would 
he had been one of my rank ! 

2 Lord. [Aside] To have smelt like a fool. 

Cloten. I am not vexed more at any thing in the earth. A 
pox on 't ! I had rather not be so noble as I am ; they dare 
not fight with me, because of the queen my mother. Every 
Jack-slave hath his bellyful of fighting, and I must go up and 
down like a cock that nobody can match. 21 

2 Lord. [Aside'] You are cock and capon too; and you 
crow, cock, with your comb on. 

Cloten. Sayest thou ? 

2 Lord. It is not fit your lordship should undertake every 
companion that you give offence to. 

Cloten. No, I know that; but it is fit I should commit of- 
fence to my inferiors. 

2 Lord. Ay, it is fit for your lordship only. 

Cloten. Why, so I say. 30 

1 Lord. Did you hear of a stranger that J s come to court 
to-night ? 

Cloten. A stranger, and I not know on 't ! 

2 Lord. [Aside] He 's a strange fellow himself, and knows 
it not. 

i Lord. There 's an Italian come; and, 't is thought, one 
of Leonatus' friends. 

Cloten. Leonatus ! a banished rascal ; and he 's another, 
whatsoever he be. Who told you of this stranger? 

1 Lord. One of your lordship's pages. 40 
Cloten. Is it fit I went to look upon him ? is there no der- 
ogation in 't? 

2 Lord. You cannot derogate, my lord. 
Cloten. Not easily, I think. 


2 Lord. [Aside] You are a fool granted ; therefore your 
issues, being foolish, do not derogate. 

Cloten. Come, I '11 go see this Italian. What I have lost 
to-day at bowls I '11 win to-night of him. Come, go. 

2 Lord. I '11 attend your lordship. 

[Exeunt Cloten and i Lord. 

That such a crafty devil as is his mother 50 

Should yield the world this ass ! a woman that 
Bears all down with her brain; and this her son 
Cannot take two from twenty, for his heart, 
And leave eighteen. Alas, poor princess, 
Thou divine Imogen, what thou endur'st, 
Betwixt a father by thy step-dame govern'd, 
A mother hourly coining plots, a wooer 
More hateful than the foul expulsion is 
Of thy dear husband, than that horrid act 
Of the divorce he 'd make ! The heavens hold firm 60 

The walls of thy dear honour, keep unshak'd 
That temple, thy fair mind, that thou mayst stand, 
To enjoy thy banish'd lord and this great land ! [Exit. 

SCENE II. Imogen's Bedchamber; a trunk in one corner of it, 

IMOGEN in bed, reading ; a Lady attending. 
Imogen. Who 's there ? my woman Helen ? 
Lady. Please you, madam. 

Imogen. What hour is it ? 

Lady. Almost midnight, madam. 

Imogen. I have read three hours then. Mine eyes are 


Fold down the leaf where I have left : to bed. 
Take not away the taper, leave it burning; 
And if thou canst awake by four o' the clock, 
I prithee, call me. Sleep hath seiz'd me wholly. 

[Exit Lady. 


To your protection I commend me, gods ! 
From fairies and the tempters of the night 
Guard me, beseech ye ! I0 

[Sleeps, lachimo comes from the trunk, 
lachimo. The crickets sing, and man's o'erlabour'd sense 
Repairs itself by rest. Our Tarquin thus 
Did softly press the rushes, ere he waken 'd 
The chastity he wounded. Cytherea, 
How bravely thou becom'st thy bed, fresh lily, 
And whiter than the sheets ! That I might touch ! 
But kiss; one kiss ! Rubies unparagon'd, 
How dearly they do 't ! 'T is her breathing that 
Perfumes the chamber thus ; the flame o' the taper 
Bows toward her, and would under-peep her lids, 20 

To see the enclosed lights, now canopied 
Under these windows, white and azure, lac'd 
With blue of heaven's own tinct. But my design, 
To note the chamber. I will write all down : 
Such and such pictures; there the window; such 
The adornment of her bed; the arras-figures, 
Why, such and such; and the contents o' the story. 
Ah, but some natural notes about her body, 
Above ten thousand meaner movables 

Would testify, to enrich mine inventory. 30 

O sleep, thou ape of death, lie dull upon her ! 
And be her sense but as a monument, 
Thus in a chapel lying ! Come off, come off; 

[Taking off her bracelet 

As slippery as the Gordian knot was hard ! 
? T is mine; and this will witness outwardly, 
As strongly as the conscience does within, 
To the madding of her lord. On her left breast 
A mole cinque-spotted, like the crimson drops 
I' the bottom of a cowslip : here 's a voucher, 
Stronger than ever law could make; this secret 40 


Will force him think I have pick'd the lock and ta'en 

The treasure of her honour. No more. To what end ? 

Why should I write this down, that 's riveted, 

Screw'd to my memory ? She hath been reading late 

The tale of Tereus; here the leaf's turn'd down 

Where Philomel gave up. I have enough ; 

To the trunk again, and shut the spring of it. 

Swift, swift, you dragons of the night, that dawning 

May bare the raven's eye ! I lodge in fear ; 49 

Though this a heavenly angel, hell is here. \Clock strikes. 

One, two, three ; time, time ! 

[ Goes into the trunk. The scene closes. 

SCENE III. An Ante -chamber adjoining Imogen's Apart- 

Enter CLOTEN and Lords. 

i Lord. Your lordship is the most patient man in loss, 
the most coldest that ever turned up ace. 

Cloten. It would make any man cold to lose. 

i Lord. But not every man patient after the noble temper of 
your lordship. You are most hot and furious when you win. 

Cloten. Winning will put any man into courage. If I could 
get this foolish Imogen, I should have gold enough. It 's 
almost morning, is 't not ? * 

i Lord. Day, my lord. 9 

Cloten. I would this music would come. I am advised to 
give her music o' mornings ; they say it will penetrate. 

Enter Musicians. 

Come on; tune: if you can penetrate her with your finger- 
ing, so; we '11 try with tongue too : if none will do, let her re- 
main ; but I '11 never give o'er. First, a very excellent good- 
conceited thing; after, a wonderful sweet air, with admirable 
rich words to it; and then let her consider. 



Hark, hark ! the lark at heaven's gate sings, 

And Phoebus gins arise, 
His steeds to water at those springs 

On chalic' d flowers that lies ; 20 

And winking Mary-buds begin 
To ope their golden eyes ; 

With every thing that pretty is, 
My lady sweet, arise; 
Arise, arise ! 

Cloten. So, get you gone. If this penetrate, I will consider 

your music the better; if it do not, it is a vice in her ears, 

which horse-hairs and calves'-guts, nor the voice of eunuch 

to boot, can never amend. [Exeunt Musicians. 

2 Lord. Here comes the king. 3 o 

Cloten. I am glad I was up so late ; for that 's the reason 

I was up so early : he cannot choose but take this service I 

have done fatherly. 

Good morrow to your majesty and to my gracious mother. 

Cymbeline. Attend you here the door of our stern daugh- 
Will she not forth ? 

Cloten. I have assailed her with music, but she vouchsafes 
no notice. 

Cymbeline. The exile of her minion is too new ; 
She hath not yet forgot him : some more time 4 

Must wear the print of his remembrance out, 
And then she J s yours. 

Queen. You are most bound to the king, 

Who lets go by no vantages that may 
Prefer you to his daughter. Frame yourself 
To orderly solicits, and be friended 


With aptness of the season ; make denials 

Increase your services; so seem as if 

You were inspir'd to do those duties which 

You tender to her; that you in all obey her, 

Save when command to your dismission tends, sc 

And therein you are senseless. 

Cloten. Senseless ! not so. 

Enter a Messenger. 

Messenger. So like you, sir, ambassadors from Rome ; 
The one is Caius Lucius. 

Cymbeline. A worthy fellow, 

Albeit he comes on angry purpose now ; 
But that 's no fault of his : we must receive him 
According to the honour of his sender; 
And towards himself, his goodness forespent on us, 
We must extend our notice. Our dear son, 
When you have given good morning to your mistress, 
Attend the queen and us; we shall have need eo 

To employ you towards this Roman. Come, our queen. 

\Exeunt all but Cloten. 

Cloten. If she be up, I '11 speak with her; if not, 
Let her lie still and dream. [ Knocks ^\ By your leave, 


I know her women are about her; what 
If I do line one of their hands? 'T is gold 
Which buys admittance; oft it doth; yea, and makes 
Diana's rangers false themselves, yield up 
Their deer to the stand o' the stealer; and 't is gold 
Which makes the true man kill'd and saves the thief; 
Nay, sometime hangs both thief and true man : what 70 

Can it not do and undo? I will make 
One of her women lawyer to me, for 
I yet not understand the case myself. 
[Knocks.'] By your leave. 


Enter a Lady. 

Lady. Who 's there that knocks? 

Cloten. A gentleman. 

Lady. No more? 

Cloten. Yes, and a gentlewoman's son. 

Lady. That 's more 

Than some whose tailors are as dear as yours 
Can justly boast of. What 's your lordship's pleasure? 

Cloten. Your lady's person; is she ready? 

Lady. Ay, 

To keep her chamber. 

Cloten. There is gold for you ; so 

Sell me your good report. 

Lady. How ! my good name ? or to report of you 
What I shall think is good ? The princess ! 

Enter IMOGEN. 

Cloten. Good morrow, fairest ; sister, your sweet hand. 

[Exit Lady. 

Imogen. Good morrow, sir. You lay out too much pains 
For purchasing but trouble ; the thanks I give 
Is telling you that I am poor of thanks 
And scarce can spare them. 

Cloten. Still, I swear I love you. 

Imogen. If you but said so, 't were as deep with me ; 
If you swear still, your recompense is still 90 

That I regard it not. 

Cloten. This is no answer. 

Imogen. But that you shall not say I yield being silent, 
I would not speak. I pray you, spare me ; faith, 
I shall unfold equal discourtesy 
To your best kindness. One of your great knowing 
Should learn, being taught, forbearance. 

Cloten. To leave you in your madness, 't were my sin ; 
I will not. 



Imogen. Fools are not mad folks. 

Cloten. Do you call me fool? 

Imogen. As I am mad, I do : 10 

If you '11 be patient, I '11 no more be mad ; 
That cures us both. I am much sorry, sir, 
You put me to forget a lady's manners, 
By being so verbal : and learn now, for all, 
That I, which know my heart, do here pronounce, 
By the very truth of it, I care riot for you, 
And am so near the lack of charity 
To accuse myself I hate you \ which I had rather 
You felt than make 't my boast. 

Cloten. You sin against 

Obedience, which you owe your father. For n 

The contract you pretend with that base wretch, 
One bred of alms and foster'd with cold dishes, 
With scraps o' the court, it is no contract, none ; 
And though it be allow'd in meaner parties 
Yet who than he more mean? to knit their souls, 
On whom there is no more dependency 
But brats and beggary, in self-figur'd knot, 
Yet you are curb'd from that enlargement by 
The consequence o' the crown, and must not soil 
The precious note of it with a base slave, I2 

A hilding for a livery, a squire's cloth, 
A pantler, not so eminent. 

Imogen. Profane fellow ! 

Wert thou the son of Jupiter and no more 
But what thou art besides, thou wert too base 
To be his groom ; thou wert dignified enough, 
Even to the point of envy, if 't were made 
Comparative for your virtues, to be styl'd 
The under-hangman of his kingdom, and hated 
For being preferr'd so well. 

Cloten. The south-fog rot him ! 


Imogen. He never can meet more mischance than come 
To be but nam'd of thee. His meanest garment, 131 

That ever hath but clipp'd his body, is dearer 
In my respect than all the hairs above thee, 
Were they all made such men. How now, Pisanio! 


Cloten. His garment! Now the devil 

Imogen. To Dorothy my woman hie thee presently 

Cloten. His garment! 

Imogen. I am sprited with a fool, 

Frighted, and anger'd worse. Go bid my woman 
Search for a jewel that too casually 

Hath left mine arm : it was thy master's ; 'shrew me, 140 
If I would lose it for a revenue 
Of any king's in Europe. I do think 
I saw 't this morning: confident I am 
Last night 't was on mine arm ; I kiss'd it. 
I hope it be not gone to tell my lord 
That I kiss aught but he. 

Pisanio. 'T will not be lost. 

Imogen. I hope so ; go and search. [Exit Pisanio. 

Cloten. You have abus'd me. 

His meanest garment! 

Imogen. Ay, I said so, sir; 

If you will make 't an action, call witness to 't. 

Cloten. I will inform your father. 

Imogen. Your mother too; 150 

She 's my good lady, and will conceive, I hope, 
But the worst of me. So, I leave you, sir, 
To the worst of discontent. [Exit. 

Cloten. I '11 be reveng'd ! 

His meanest garment! Well. [Exit 


SCENE IV. Rome. Philaritfs House. 

Posthumus. Fear it not, sir; I would I were so sure 
To win the king as I am bold her honour 
Will remain hers. 

Philario. What means do you make to him? 

Posthumus. Not any, but abide the change of time, 
Quake in the present winter's state and wish 
That warmer days would come. In these fear'd hopes, 
I barely gratify your love ; they failing, 
I must die much your debtor. 

Philario. Your very goodness and your company 
O'erpays all I can do. By this, your king 10 

Hath heard of great Augustus: Caius Lucius 
Will do 's commission throughly; and I think 
He '11 grant the tribute, send the arrearages, 
Or look upon our Romans, whose remembrance 
Is yet fresh in their grief. 

Posthumus. I do believe, 

' Statist though I am none, nor like to be, 
That this will prove a war; and you shall hear 
The legions now in Gallia sooner landed 
' In our not-fearing Britain than have tidings 
Of any penny tribute paid. Our countrymen 20 

Are men more order'd than when Julius Caesar 
Smil'd at their lack of skill, but found their courage 
Worthy his frowning at; their discipline, 
Now mingled with their courages, will make known 
To their approvers they are people, such 
That mend upon the world. 

Philario. See! lachimo! 


Posthumus. The swiftest harts have posted you by land, 
And winds of all the corners kiss'd your sails, 
To make your vessel nimble. 

Philario. Welcome, sir. 

Posthumus. I hope the briefness of your answer made 30 
The speediness of your return. 

lachimo. Your lady 

Is one of the fairest that I have look'd upon. 

Posthumus. And therewithal the best; or let her beauty 
Look through a casement to allure false hearts 
And be false with them. 

lachimo. Here are letters for you. 

Posthumus. Their tenour good, I trust. 

lachimo. 'T is very like. 

Philario. Was Caius Lucius in the Britain court 
When you were there? 

lachimo. He was expected then, 

But not approach'd. 

Posthumus. All is well yet. 

Sparkles this stone as it was wont? or is 't not 40 

Too dull for your good wearing? 

lachimo. If I had lost it, 

I should have lost the worth of it in gold. 
I '11 make a journey twice as far, to enjoy 
A second night of such sweet shortness which 
Was mine in Britain, for the ring is won. 

Posthumus. The stone 's too hard to come by. 

lachimo. Not a whit, 

Your lady being so easy. 

Posthumus. Make not, sir, 

Your loss your sport; I hope you know that we 
Must not continue friends. 

lachimo. Good sir, we must, 

If you keep covenant. Had I not brought 50 

The knowledge of your mistress home, I grant 


We were to question further: but 1 now 
Profess myself the winner of her honour, 
Together with your ring; and not the wronger 
Of her or you, having proceeded but 
By both your wills. 

Posthumus. If you can make \ apparent 

That you have tasted her in bed, my hand 
And ring is yours; if not, the foul opinion 
You had of her pure honour gains or loses 
Your sword or mine, or masterless leaves both 60 

To who shall find them. 

lachimo. Sir, my circumstances, 

Being so near the truth as I will make them, 
Must first induce you to believe; whose strength 
I will confirm with oath, which, I doubt not, 
You '11 give me leave to spare, when you shall find 
You need it not. 

Posthumus. Proceed. 

lachimo. First, her bedchamber, 

Where, I confess, I slept not, but profess 
Had that was well worth watching it was hang'd 
With tapestry of silk and silver ; the story 
Proud Cleopatra, when she met her Roman, 70 

And Cydnus swell'd above the banks, or for 
The press of boats or pride : a piece of work . 
So bravely done, so rich, that it did strive 
In workmanship and value; which I wonder'd 
Could be so rarely and exactly wrought, 
Since the true life on 't was 

Posthumus. This is true; 

And this you might have heard of here, by me, 
Or by some other. 

lachimo. More particulars 

Must justify my knowledge. 

Posthumus. So they must, 

Or do your honour injury. 


lachimo. The chimney 80 

Is south the chamber, and the chimney-piece 
Chaste Dian bathing: never saw I figures 
So likely to report themselves ; the cutter 
Was as another nature, dumb, outwent her, 
Motion and breath left out. 

Posthumus, This is a thing 

Which you might from relation likewise reap, 
Being, as it is, much spoke of. 

lachimo. The roof o' the chamber 

With golden cherubins is fretted ; her andirons 
I had forgot them were two winking Cupids 
Of silver, each on one foot standing, nicely 90 

Depending on their brands. 

Posthumus. This is her honour! 

Let it be granted you have seen all this and praise 
Be given to your remembrance the description 
Of what is in her chamber nothing saves 
The wager you have laid. 

lachimo. Then, if you can, 

[Showing the bracelet. 

Be pale. I beg but leave to air this jewel; see! 
And now 't is up again : it must be married 
To that your diamond; I '11 keep them. 

Posthumus. Jove ! 

Once more let me behold it \ is it that 
Which I left with her? 

lachimo. Sir I thank her that. too 

She stripp'd it from her arm ; I see her yet; 
Her pretty action did outsell her gift, 
And yet enrich'd it too. She gave it me, and said 
She priz'd it once. 

Posthumus. May be she pluck'd it off 

To send it me, 

lachimo. She writes so to you, doth she? 


Posthumus. O, no, no, no! 't is true. Here, take this too; 

\Gives the ring. 

It is a basilisk unto mine eye, 
Kills me to look on 't. Let there be no honour 
Where there is beauty ; truth, where semblance ; love, 
Where there 's another man : the vows of women no 

Of no more bondage be, to where they are made, 
Than they are to their virtues, which is nothing. 
O, above measure false ! 

Philario. Have patience, sir, 

And take your ring again ; 't is not yet won. 
It may be probable she lost it; or 
Who knows if one of her women, being corrupted, 
Hath stol'n it from her ? 

Posthumus. Very true ; 

And so, I hope, he came by 't. Back my ring. 
Render to me some corporal sign about her, 
More evident than this ; for this was stolen. 120 

lachimo. By Jupiter, I had it from her arm. 

Posthumus. Hark you, he swears ; by Jupiter he swears. 
'T is true ; nay, keep the ring 't is true. I am sure 
She would not lose it ; her attendants are 
All sworn and honourable. They induc'd to steal it ! 
And by a stranger ! No, he hath enjoy'd her. 
The cognizance of her incontinency 
Is this ; she hath bought the name of whore thus dearly. 
There, take thy hire ; and all the fiends of hell 
Divide themselves between you ! 

Philario. Sir, be patient : 130 

This is not strong enough to be believ'd 
Of one persuaded well of 

lachimo. If you seek 

For further satisfying, under her breast 
Worthy the pressing lies a mole, right proud 
Of that most delicate lodging ; by my life, 



I kiss'd it, and it gave me present hunger 

To feed again, though full. You do remember 

This stain upon her ? 

Posthumus. Ay, and it doth confirm 

Another stain, as big as hell can hold, 
Were there no more but it. 

lachimo. Will you hear more ? 140 

Posthumus. Spare your arithmetic : never count the turns ; 
Once, and a million ! 

lachimo. I '11 be sworn 

Posthumus. No swearing. 

If you will swear you have not done 't, you lie ; 
And I will kill thee, if thou dost deny 
Thou 'st made me cuckold. 

lachimo. I '11 deny nothing. 

Posthumus. O, that I had her here, to tear her limbmeal ! 
I will go there and do 't, i' the court, before 
Her father. I '11 do something [Exit. 

Philario. Quite besides 

The government of patience ! You have won. 
Let 's follow him, and pervert the present wrath 150 

He hath against himself. 

lachimo. With all my heart. [Exeunt. 

SCENE V. Another Room in Philarid's House. 


Posthumus. Is there no way for men to be but women 
Must be half-workers ? We are all bastards ; 
And that most venerable man which I 
Did call my father, was I know not where 
When I was stamp'd ; some coiner with his tools 
Made me a counterfeit : yet my mother seem'd 
The Dian of that time ; so doth my wife 
The nonpareil of this. O, vengeance, vengeance ! 


Me of my lawful pleasure she restrained, 

And pray'd me oft forbearance ; did it with 10 

A pudency so rosy the sweet view on 't 

Might well have warm'd old Saturn ; that I thought her 

As chaste as unsunn'd snow. Could I find out 

The woman's part in me ! For there 's no motion 

That tends to vice in man, but I affirm 

It is the woman's part: be it lying, note it, 

The woman's ; flattering, hers ; deceiving, hers ; 

Lust and rank thoughts, hers, hers ; revenges, hers ; 

Ambitions, covetings, change of prides, disdain, 

Nice longing, slanders, mutability, 20 

All faults that may be nam'd, nay, that hell knows, 

Why, hers, in part or all, but rather, all; 

For even to vice 

They are not constant, but are changing still 

One vice, but of a minute old, for one 

Not half so old as that. I '11 write against them, 

Detest them, curse them : yet 't is greater skill 

In a true hate, to pray they have their will; 

The very devils cannot plague them better. {Exit. 

"' 'Vv " "- 1 --- * 

; *,^;,.H-X^ A V 7, r* " <f' 
Well, madam, we must take a short farewell (iii. 4. 185). 


SCENE I. Britain. A Hall in Cymbeline's Palace. 
Enter in state, CYMBELINE, QUEEN, CLOTEN, and Lords at one 

door, and at another CAIUS Lucius and Attendants. 
Cymbeline. Now say, what would Augustus Caesar with us ? 
Lucius. When Julius Caesar, whose remembrance yet 
Lives in men's eyes and will to ears and tongues 
Be theme and hearing ever, was in this Britain 
xAnd conquer'd it, Cassibelan, thine uncle, 
Famous in Caesar's praises, no whit less 
Than in his feats deserving it, for him 
And his succession granted Rome a tribute, 


Yearly three thousand pounds, which by thee lately 
Is left untender'd. 

Queen. And, to kill the marvel, JQ 

Shall be so ever. 

Cloten. There be many Caesars 

j Ere such another Julius. Britain is 

A world by itself, and we will nothing pay 
( For wearing our own noses. 

Queen. That opportunity 

Which then they had to take from 's, to resume 
We have again. Remember, sir, my liege, 
The kings your ancestors, together with 
The natural bravery of your isle, which stands 
As Neptune's park, ribbed and paled in 
With rocks unscalable and roaring waters, 20 

With sands that will not bear your enemies' boats, 
But suck them up to the topmast. A kind of conquest 
Caesar made here, but made not here his brag 
Of ' Came and saw and overcame.' With shame 
The first that ever touch'd him he was carried 
From off our coast, twice beaten ; and his shipping 
Poor ignorant baubles ! on our terrible seas, 
Like egg-shells mov'd upon their surges, crack'd 
As easily 'gainst our rocks : for joy whereof 
The fam'd Cassibelan, who was once at point 3 o 

O giglot fortune ! to master Caesar's sword, 
Made Lud's town with rejoicing fires bright 
And Britons strut with courage. 

Cloten. Come, there 's no more tribute to be paid. Our 
^ kingdom is stronger than it was at that time ; and, as I said, 
there is no moe such Caesars: other of them may have crooked 
noses, but to owe such straight arms, none. 

Cymbeline. Son, let your mother end. 38 

Cloten. We have yet many among us can gripe as hard as 
Cassibelan. I do not say I am one ; but I have a hand. 


Why tribute ? why should we pay tribute ? If Caesar can 
hide the sun from us with a blanket, or put the moon in his 
pocket, we will pay him tribute for light ; else, sir, no more 
tribute, pray you now. 

Cymbeline. You must know, 
Till the injurious Romans did extort 
This tribute from us, we were free. Caesar's ambition, 
Which swell'd so much that it did almost stretch 
The sides o' the world, against all colour here 
Did put the yoke upon 's; which to shake off 50 

Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon 
Ourselves to be. 

Cloten. We do. 

Cymbeline. Say, then, to Caesar, 

Our ancestor was that Mulmutius which 
Ordain'd our laws, whose use the sword of Caesar 
Hath too much mangled; whose repair and franchise 
Shall, by the power we hold, be our good deed, 
Though Rome be therefore angry. Mulmutius made our 


Who was the first of Britain which did put 
His brows within a golden crown and call'd 
Himself a king. 

Lucius. I am sorry, Cymbeline, 60 

That I am to pronounce Augustus Caesar 
Caesar, that hath moe kings his servants than 
Thyself domestic officers thine enemy: 
Receive it from me, then : war and confusion 
In Caesar's name pronounce I 'gainst thee ; look 
For fury not to be resisted. Thus defied, 
I thank thee for myself. 

Cymbeline. Thou art welcome, Caius. 

Thy Caesar knighted me \ my youth I spent 
Much under him ; of him I gather'd honour ; 
Which he to seek of me again, perforce, 70 


Behoves me keep at utterance. I am perfect 
That the Pannonians and Dalmatians for 
Their liberties are now in arms ; a precedent 
Which rjot to read would show the Britons cold : 
So Caesar shall not find them. 

Lucius. Let proof speak. 

Cloten. His majesty bids you welcome. Make pastime 
with us a day or two, or longer. If you seek us afterwards 
in other terms, you shall find us in our salt-water girdle: if 
you beat us out of it, it is yours. If you fall in the advent- 
ure, our crows shall fare the better for you ; and there 's an 
end. 81 

Lucius. So, sir. 

Cymbeline. I know your master's pleasure and he mine; 
All the remain is, Welcome! \Exeunt. 

SCENE II. Another Room in the Palace. 

Enter PISANIO, with a letter. 

Pisanio. How ! of adultery ? Wherefore write you not 
What monster 's her accuser ! Leonatus ! 
O master ! what a strange infection 
Is fall'n into thy ear ! What false Italian, 
As poisonous-tongued as handed, hath prevailed 
On thy too ready hearing? Disloyal! No; 
She 's punish'd for her truth, and undergoes, 
More goddess-like than wife-like, such assaults 
As would take in some virtue. O my master! 
Thy mind to her is now as low as were 10 

Thy fortunes. How! that I should murther her? 
Upon the love and truth and vows which I 
Have made to thy command? I, her? her blood? 
If it be so to do good service, never 
Let me be counted serviceable. How look I, 
That I should seem to lack humanity 


So much as this fact comes to? [Reading] ' Do V: the 


That I have sent her, by her own command 
Shall give thee opportunity. ' O d am n ' d p ape r ! 
Black as the ink that 's on thee ! Senseless bauble, 20 

Art thou a fedary for this act, and look'st 
So virgin-like without? Lo, here she comes. 
I am ignorant in what I am commanded. 

Enter IMOGEN. 

Imogen. How now, Pisanio ! 

Pisanio. Madam, here is a letter from my lord. 

Imogen. Who? thy lord? that is my lord, Leonatus! 
O, learn'd indeed were that astronomer 
That knew the stars as I his characters; 
He 'd lay the future open. You good gods, 
Let what is here contained relish of love, 30 

Of my lord's health, of his content, yet not 
That we two are asunder, let that grieve him : 
Some griefs are med'cinable ; that is one of them, 
For it doth physic love : of his content, 
All but in that! Good wax, thy leave. Blest be 
You bees that make these locks of counsel ! Lovers 
And men in dangerous bonds pray not alike; 
Though forfeiters you cast in prison, yet 
You clasp young Cupid's tables. Good news, gods! 39 

[Reads] ' Justice, and your father's wrath, should he take 
me in his dominion, could not be so cruel to me, as you, O the 
dearest of creatures, would even renew me with your eyes. Take 
notice that I am in Cambria, at Milford-Haven ; what your 
own love will out of this advise you, follow. So he wishes you 
all happiness, that remains loyal to his vow, and your, increasing 

O, for a horse with wings ! Hearst thou, Pisanio? 
He is at Milford-Haven; read, and tell me 


How far 't is thither. If one of mean affairs 

May plod it in a week, why may not I so 

Glide thither in a day? Then, true Pisanio, 

Who long'st, like me, to see thy lord ; who long'st, 

O, let me bate ! but not like me, yet long'st, 

But in a fainter kind, O, not like me, 

For mine J s beyond beyond! say, and speak thick, 

Love's counsellor should fill the bores of hearing, 

To the smothering of the sense how far it is 

To this same blessed Milford : and by the way 

Tell me how Wales was made so happy as 

To inherit such a haven; but first of all, 60 

How we may steal from hence, and for the gap 

That we shall make in time, from our hence-going 

And our return, to excuse, but first, how get hence. 

Why should excuse be born or ere begot? 

We '11 talk of that hereafter. Prithee, speak, 

How many score of miles may we well ride 

'Twixt hour and hour? 

Pisanio. One score 'twixt sun and sun, 

Madam, 's enough for you, and too much too. 

Imogen. Why, one that rode to 's execution, man, 
Could never go so slow; I have heard of riding wagers, 7 
Where horses have been nimbler than the sands 
That run i' the clock's behalf. But this is foolery. 
Go bid my woman feign a sickness, say 
She '11 home to her father; and provide me presently 
A riding-suit, no costlier than would fit 
A franklin's housewife. 

Pisanio. Madam, you 're best consider. 

Imogen. I see before me, man ; nor here, nor here, 
Nor what ensues, but have a fog in them, 
That I cannot look through. Away, I prithee; 
Do as I bid thee. There 's no more to say; 80 

Accessible is none but Milford way. [Exeunt. 


SCENE III. Wales: a Mountainous Country with a Cave. 
Enter, from the cave, BELARIUS, GUIDERIUS, and ARVIRAGUS. 

Belarius. A goodly day not to keep house, with such 
Whose roof 's as low as ours ! Stoop, boys ; this gate 
Instructs you how to adore the heavens, and bows you 
To a morning's holy office: the gates of monarchs 
Are arch'd so high that giants may jet through 
And keep their impious turbans on, without 
Good morrow to the sun. Hail, thou fair heaven ! 
We house i' the rock, yet use thee not so hardly 
As prouder livers do. 

Guiderius. Hail, heaven ! 

Arviragus. Hail, heaven ! 

Belarius. Now for our mountain sport. Up to yond 


Your legs are young ; I '11 tread these flats. Consider, 
When you above perceive me like a crow, 
That it is place which lessens and sets off; 
And you may then revolve what tales I have told you 
Of courts, of princes, of the tricks in war. 
This service is not service, so being done, 
But being so allow'd: to apprehend thus, 
Draws us a profit from all things we see ; 
And often, to our comfort, shall we find 
The sharded beetle in a safer hold 20 

Than is the full-wing'd eagle. O, this life 
Is nobler than attending for a check, 
Richer than doing nothing for a bribe, 
Prouder than rustling in unpaid-for silk ; 
Such gain the cap of him who makes 'em fine, 
Yet keeps his book uncross'd: no life to ours. 

Guiderius. Out of your proof you speak; we, poor un- 

ACT III. SCENE ///: 91 

Have never wing'd from view o' the nest, nor know not 

What air 's from home. Haply this life is best, 

If quiet life be best ; sweeter to you 30 

That have a sharper known, well corresponding 

With your stiff age: but unto us it is 

A cell of ignorance, travelling a-bed, 

A prison for a debtor, that not dares 

To stride a limit. 

Arviragus. What should we speak of 

When we are old as you? when we shall hear 
The rain and wind beat dark December, how 
In this our pinching cave shall we discourse 
The freezing hours away? W r e have seen nothing; 
We are beastly, subtle as the fox for prey, 40 

Like warlike as the wolf for what we eat; 
Our valour is to chase what flies ; our cage 
We make a quire, as doth the prison* d bird, 
And sing our bondage freely. 

Belarius. How you speak ! 

Did you but know the city's usuries 
And felt them knowingly; the art o' the court, 
As hard to leave as keep; whose top to climb 
Is certain falling, or so slippery that 
The fear 's as bad as falling; the toil o' the war, 
A pain that only seems to seek out danger so 

r the name of fame and honour; which dies i' the search, 
And hath as oft a slanderous epitaph 
As record of fair act ; nay, many times, 
Doth ill deserve by doing well ; what 's worse, 
Must curtsy at the censure. O boys, this story 
The world may read in me; my body 's mark'd 
With Roman swords, and my report was once 
First with the best of note. Cymbeline lov'd me, 
And when a soldier was the theme, my name 
Was not far off: then was I as a tree 60 


Whose boughs did bend with fruit; but in one night, 
A storm or robbery, call it what you will, 
Shook down my mellow hangings, nay, my leaves, 
And left me bare to weather. 

Guiderius. Uncertain favour! 

Belarius. My fault being nothing as I have told you oft 
But that two villains, whose false oaths prevail'd 
Before my perfect honour, swore to Cymbeline 
I was confederate with the Romans: so 
Follow'd my banishment, and this twenty years 
This rock and these demesnes have been my world ; 70 

Where I have liv'd at honest freedom, paid 
More pious debts to heaven than in all 
The fore-end of my time. But up to the mountains! 
This is not hunters' language. He that strikes 
The venison first shall be the lord o' the feast; 
To him the other two shall minister, 
And we will fear no poison, which attends 
In place of greater state. I '11 meet you in the valleys. 

\Exeunt Guiderius and Arviragus. 
How hard it is to hide the sparks of nature! 
These boys know little they are sons to the king; 80 

Nor Cymbeline dreams that they are alive. 
They think they are mine; and though train'd up thus 


I' the cave wherein they bow, their thoughts do hit 
The roofs of palaces, and nature prompts them 
In simple and low things to prince it much 
Beyond the trick of others. This Polydore, 
The heir of Cymbeline and Britain, who 
The king his father call'd Guiderius, Jove ! 
When on my three-foot stool I sit and tell 
The warlike feats I have done, his spirits fly out 90 

Into my story, say 'Thus mine enemy fell, 
And thus I set my foot on 's neck;' even then 



The princely blood flows in his cheek, he sweats, 

Strains his young nerves, and puts himself in posture 

That acts my words. The younger brother, Cadwal, 

Once Arviragus, in as like a figure, 

Strikes life into my speech and shows much more 

His own conceiving. Hark, the game is rous'd! 

O Cymbeline! heaven and my conscience knows 

Thou didst unjustly banish me; whereon, too 

At three and two years old, I stole these babes. 

Thinking to bar thee of succession, as 

Thou reft'st me of my lands. Euriphile, 

Thou wast their nurse; they took thee for their mother, 

And every day do honour to her grave: 

Myself, Belarius, that am Morgan call'd, 

They take for natural father. The game is up. [Exif. 

SCENE IV. Near Milford- Haven. 

Imogen. Thou told'st me, when we came from horse, the 


Was near at hand. Ne'er long'd my mother so 
To see me first, as I have now. Pisanio! man! 
Where is Posthumus? What is in thy mind, 
That makes thee stare thus? Wherefore breaks that sigh 
From the inward of thee? One, but painted thus, 
Would be interpreted a thing perplex'd 
Beyond self-explication ; put thyself 
Into a haviour of less fear, ere wildness 
Vanquish my staider senses. What 's the matter? K> 

Why tender'st thou that paper to me, with 
A look untender? If 't be summer news, 
Smile to 't before; if winterly, thou need'st 
But keep that countenance still. My husband's hand! 
That drug-damn'd Italy hath out-craftied him, 


And he 's at some hard point. Speak, man; thy tongue 
May take off some extremity, which to read 
Would be even mortal to me. 

Pisanio. Please you, read ; 

And you shall find me, wretched man, a thing 
The most disdain'd of fortune. 20 

Imogen. [Reads] ' Thy mistress, Pisanio, hath played the 
strumpet in my bed; the testimonies whereof lie bleeding in me. 
I speak not out of weak surmises, but from proof as strong as 
my grief and as certain as I expect my revenge. That part 
thou, Pisanio, must act for me, if thy faith be not tainted with 
the breach of hers. Let thine own hands take away her life; 
I shall give thee opportunity at Milf or d- Haven. She hath my 
letter for the purpose; where, if thou fear to strike and to make 
me certain it is done, thou art the pander to her dishonour and 
equally to me disloyal? 3 

Pisanio. What shall I need to draw my sword ? the paper 
Hath cut her throat already. No, 't is slander, 
Whose edge is sharper than the sword, whose tongue 
Outvenoms all the worms of Nile, whose breath 
Rides on the posting winds and doth belie 
All corners of the world ; kings, queens, and states, 
Maids, matrons, nay, the secrets of the grave 
This viperous slander enters. What cheer, madam? 

Imogen. False to his bed! What is it to be false? 
To lie in watch there and to think on him? 40 

To weep 'twixt clock and clock? if sleep charge nature, 
To break it with a fearful dream of him 
And cry myself awake? that 's false to 's bed, is it? 

Pisanio. Alas, good lady! 

Imogen. I false! Thy conscience witness! lachimo, 
Thou didst accuse him of incontinency ; 
Thou then look'dst like a villain, now methinks 
Thy favour 's good enough. Some jay of Italy 
Whose mother was her painting, hath betray'd him. 



Poor I am stale, a garment out of fashion ; 50 

And, for I am richer than to hang by the walls, 

I must be ripp'd: to pieces with me! O, 

Men's vows are women's traitors ! All good seeming, 

By thy revolt, O husband, shall be thought 

Put on for villany ; not born where 't grows, 

But worn a bait for ladies. 

Pisanio. Good madam, hear me. 

Imogen. True honest men being heard, like false yneas, 
Were in his time thought false, and Sinon's weeping 
Did scandal many a holy tear, took pity 
From most true wretchedness : so thou, Posthumus, 60 

Wilt lay the leaven on all proper men ; 
Goodly and gallant shall be false and perjur'd 
From thy great fail. Come, fellow, be thou honest ; 
Do thou thy master's bidding. When thou see'st him, 
A little witness my obedience : look ! 
I draw the sword myself; take it, and hit 
The innocent mansion of my love, my heart. 
Fear not 't is empty of all things but grief: 
Thy master is not there, who was indeed 
The riches of it. Do his bidding ; strike ! 70 

Thou mayst be valiant in a better cause, 
But now thou seem'st a coward. 

Pisanio. Hence, vile instrument ! 

Thou shalt not damn my hand. 

Imogen. Why, I must die ; 

And if I do not by thy hand, thou art 
No servant of thy master's. Against self-slaughter 
There is a prohibition so divine 

That cravens my weak hand. Come, here 's my heart. 
Something 's afore 't. Soft, soft! we '11 no defence; 
Obedient as the scabbard. What is here? 
The scriptures of the loyal Leonatus, 80 

All turn'd to' heresy ? Away, away, 


Corrupters of my faith ! you shall no more 

Be stomachers to my heart. Thus may poor fools 

Believe false teachers ; though those that are betray'd 

Do feel the treason sharply, yet the traitor 

Stands in worse case of woe. 

And thou, Posthumus, thou that didst set up 

My disobedience 'gainst the king my father, 

And make me put into contempt the suits 

Of princely fellows, shalt hereafter find oo 

It is no act of common passage, but 

A strain of rareness; and I grieve myself 

To think, when thou shalt be disedg'd by her 

That now thou tir'st on, how thy memory 

Will then be pang'd by me. Prithee, dispatch : 

The lamb entreats the butcher; where 's thy knife? 

Thou art too slow to do thy master's bidding, 

When I desire it too. 

Pisanio. O gracious lady, 

Since I receiv'd command to do this business 
I have not slept one wink, 

Imogen. Do 't, and to bed then. 100 

Pisanio. I '11 wake mine eye-balls blind first. 

Imogen. Wherefore then 

Didst undertake it ? Why hast thou abus'd 
So many miles with a pretence ? this place ? 
Mine action and thine own? our horses' labour? 
The time inviting thee? the perturb'd court, 
For my being absent? whereunto I never 
Purpose return. Why hast thou gone so far, 
To be unbent when thou hast ta'en thy stand, 
The elected deer before thee ? 

Pisanio. But to win time 

To lose so bad employment; in the which no 

I have consider'd of a course. Good lady, 
Hear me with patience. 


Imogen. Talk thy tongue weary; speak : 

I have heard I am a strumpet, and mine ear, 
Therein false struck, can take no greater wound, 
Nor tent to bottom that. But speak. 

Pisanio. Then, madam, 

I thought you would not back again. 

Imogen. Most like, 

Bringing me here to kill me. 

Pisanio. Not so, neither; 

But if I were as wise as honest, then 
My purpose would prove well. It cannot be 
But that my master is abus'd; 120 

Some villain, ay, and singular in his art, 
Hath done you both this cursed injury. 

Imogen. Some Roman courtesan. 

Pisanio. No, on my life. 

I '11 give but notice you are dead and send him 
Some bloody sign of it; for 't is commanded 
I should do so : you shall be miss'd at court, 
And that will well confirm it. 

Imogen. Why, good fellow, 

What shall I do the while ? where bide ? how live ? 
Or in my life what comfort, when I am 
Dead to my husband ? 

Pisanio. If you '11 back to the court 130 

Imogen. No court, no father; nor no more ado 
With that harsh, noble, simple nothing, 
That Cloten, whose love-suit hath been to me 
As fearful as a siege. 

Pisanio. If not at court, 

Then not in Britain must you bide. 

Imogen. Where then ? 

Hath Britain all the sun that shines ? Day, night, 
Are they not but in Britain ? I' the world's volume 
Our Britain seems as of it, but not in 't; 



In a great pool a swan's nest : prithee, think 
There 's livers out of Britain. 

Pisanio. I am most glad 140 

You think of other place. The ambassador, 
Lucius the Roman, comes to Milford-Haven 
To-morrow : now, if you could wear a mind 
Dark as your fortune is, and but disguise 
That which, to appear itself, must not yet be 
But by self-danger, you should tread a course 
Pretty and full of view ; yea, haply, near 
The residence of Posthumus, so nigh at least 
That though his actions were not visible, yet 
Report should render him hourly to your ear J5 o 

As truly as he moves. 

Imogen. O, for such means ! 

Though peril to my modesty, not death on 't, 
I would adventure. 

Pisanio. Well, then, here 's the point : 

You must forget to be a woman, change 
Command into obedience, fear and niceness 
The handmaids of all women, or, more truly, 
Woman it pretty self into a waggish courage, 
Ready in gibes, quick-answer'd, saucy, and 
As quarrellous as the weasel ; nay, you must 
Forget that rarest treasure of your cheek, 160 

Exposing it but, O, the harder heart ! 
Alack, no remedy ! to the greedy touch 
Of common-kissing Titan, and forget 
Your laboursome and dainty trims, wherein 
You made great Juno angry. 

Imogen. Nay, be brief; 

I see into thy end, and am almost 
A man already. 

Pisanio. First, make yourself but like one. 

Fore-thinking this, I have already fit 


'T is in my cloak-bag doublet, hat, hose, all 

That answer to them. Would you in their serving, 170 

And with what imitation you can borrow 

From youth of such a season, fore noble Lucius 

Present yourself, desire his service, tell him 

Wherein you 're happy, which you '11 make him know, 

If that his head have ear in music, doubtless 

With joy he will embrace you, for he 's honourable, 

And doubling that, most holy. Your means abroad, 

You have me, rich; and I will never fail 

Beginning nor supplyment. 

Imogen. Thou art all the comfort 

The gods will diet me with. Prithee, away : i8c 

There 's more to be considered ; but we '11 even 
All that good time will give us. This attempt 
I am soldier to, and will abide it with 
A prince's courage. Away, I prithee. 

Pisanio. Well, madam, we must take a short farewell, 
Lest, being miss'd, I be suspected of 
Your carriage from the court. My noble mistress, 
Here is a box ; I had it from the queen : 
What 's in 't is precious ; if you are sick at sea, 
Or stomach-qualm'd at land, a dram of this 190 

Will drive away distemper. To some shade, 
And fit you to your manhood. May the gods 
Direct you to the best ! 

Imogen. Amen ! I thank thee. \Exeunt, severally. 

SCENE V. A Room in Cymbeline's Palace. 

Enter CYMBELINE, QUEEN, CLOTEN, Lucius, Lords, and At- 

Cymbeline. Thus far; and so farewell. 

Lucius. Thanks, royal sir. 

My emperor hath wrote, I must from hence; 


And am right sorry that I must report ye 
My master's enemy. 

Cymbeline. Our subjects, sir, 

Will not endure his yoke; and for ourself 
To show less sovereignty than they, must needs 
Appear unkinglike. 

Lucius. So, sir. I desire of you 

A conduct over-land to Milford-Haven. 
Madam, all joy befall your grace ! 

Queen. And you ! 

Cymbeline. My lords, you are appointed for that office ; 10 
The due of honour in no point omit. 
So farewell, noble Lucius. 

Lucius. Your hand, my lord. 

Cloten. Receive it friendly ; but from this time forth 
I wear it as your enemy. 

Lucius. Sir, the event 

Is yet to name the winner; fare you well. 

Cymbeline. Leave not the worthy Lucius, good my lords, 
Till he have crossed the Severn. Happiness ! 

^Exeunt Lucius and Lords. 

Queen. He goes hence frowning ; but it honours us 
That we have given him cause. 

Cloten. T is all the better ; 

Your valiant Britons have their wishes in it. 20 

Cymbeline. Lucius hath wrote already to the emperor 
How it goes here. It fits us therefore ripely 
Our chariots and our horsemen be in readiness; 
The powers that he already hath in Gallia 
Will soon be drawn to head, from whence he moves 
His war for Britain. 

Queen. 'T is not sleepy business, 

But must be look'd to speedily and strongly. 

Cymbeline. Our expectation that it would be thus 
Hath made us forward. But, my gentle queen, 


Where is our daughter ? She hath not appear'd 30 

Before the Roman, nor to us hath tender'd 

The duty of the day. She looks us like 

A thing more made of malice than of duty; 

We have noted it. Call her before us, for 

We have been too slight in sufferance. \_Exit an Attendant. 

Queen. Royal sir, 

Since the exile of Posthumus, most retir'd 
Hath her life been ; the cure whereof, my lord, 
7 T is time must do. Beseech your majesty, 
Forbear sharp speeches to her ; she 's a lady 
So tender of rebukes that words are strokes 40 

And strokes death to her. 

Re-enter Attendant. 

Cymbeline. Where is she, sir ? How 

Can her contempt be answer'd ? 

Attendant. Please you, sir, 

Her chambers are all lock'd; and there J s no answer 
That will be given to the loud'st noise we make. 

Queen. My lord, when last I went to visit her, 
She pray'd me to excuse her keeping close, 
Whereto constraint by her infirmity, 
She should that duty leave unpaid to you, 
Which daily she was bound to proffer ; this 
She wish'd me to make known, but our great court so 

Made me to blame in memory. 

Cymbeline. Her doors lock'd ? 

Not seen of late ? Grant, heavens, that which I fear 
Prove false ! [Exit. 

Queen. Son, I say, follow the king. 

Cloten. That man of hers, Pisanio, her old servant, 
I have not seen these two days. 

Queen. Go, look after. [Exit Cloten. 

Pisanio, thou that stand'st so for Posthumus ! 


He hath a drug of mine; I pray his absence 

Proceed by swallowing that, for he believes 

It is a thing most precious. But for her, 

Where is she gone ? Haply, despair hath seizM her, 60 

Or, wing'd with fervour of her love, she 's flown 

To her desir'd Posthumus. Gone she is 

To death or to dishonour; and my end 

Can make good use of either : she being down, 

I have the placing of the British crown. 

Re-enter CLOTEN. 
How now, my son ! 

Cloten. 'T is certain she is fled. 

Go in and cheer the king: he rages; none 
Dare come about him. 

Queen. [Aside] All the better ; may 

This night forestall him of the coming day ! [Exit. 

Cloten. I love and hate her, for she 's fair and royal, 7 o 
And that she hath all courtly parts more exquisite 
Than lady, ladies, woman; from every one 
The best she hath, and she, of all compounded, 
Outsells them all. I love her therefore : but 
Disdaining me and throwing favours on 
The low Posthumus slanders so her judgment 
That what 's else rare is chok'd; and in that point 
I will conclude to hate her, nay, indeed, 
To be reveng'd upon her. For when fools 


Who is here? What, are you packing, sirrah? 80 
Come hither. Ah, you precious pander! Villain, 
Where is thy lady? In a word, or else 
Thou art straightway with the fiends. 

Pisanio. O, good my lord ! 

Cloten. Where is thy lady? or, by Jupiter, 


I will not ask again. Close villain, 
I '11 have this secret from thy heart, or rip 
Thy heart to find it. Is she with Posthumus? 
From whose so many weights of baseness cannot 
A dram of worth be drawn. 

Pisanio. Alas, my lord, 

How can she be with him? When was she miss'd? 90 

He is in Rome. 

Cloten. Where is she, sir? Come nearer; 

No further halting : satisfy me home 
What is become of her. 

Pisanio. O, my all-worthy lord ! 

Cloten. All-worthy villain ! 

Discover where thy mistress is at once, 
At the next word \ no more of ' worthy lord !' 
Speak, or thy silence on the instant is 
Thy condemnation and thy death. 

Pisanio. Then, sir, 

This paper is the history of my knowledge 
Touching her flight. [Presenting a letter. 

Cloten. Let 's see 't, I will pursue her 100 

Even to Augustus' throne. 

Pisanio. [Aside] Or this, or perish. 

She 's far enough; and what he learns by this 
May prove his travel, not her danger. 

Cloten. Hum ! 

Pisanio. [Aside] I'll write to my lord she's dead. O Imo- 
Safe mayst thou wander, safe return again ! 

Cloten. Sirrah, is this letter true? 

Pisanio. Sir, as I think. 

Cloten. It is Posthumus' hand ; I know 't. Sirrah, if thou 
wouldst not be a villain, but do me true service, undergo 
those employments wherein I should have cause to use thee 
with a serious industry, that is, what villany soe'er I bid thee 


do, to perform it directly and truly, I would think thee an 
honest man ; thou shouldst neither want my means for thy 
relief nor my voice for thy preferment. 114 

Pisanio. Well, my good lord. 

Cloten. Wilt thou serve me ? for since patiently and con- 
stantly thou hast stuck to the bare fortune of that beggar 
Posthumus, thou canst not, in the course of gratitude, but be 
a diligent follower of mine ; wilt thou serve me ? 

Pisanio. Sir, I will. 120 

Cloten. Give me thy hand; here 's my purse. Hast any 
of thy late master's garments in thy possession? 

Pisanio. I have, my lord, at my lodging, the same suit he 
wore when he took leave of my lady and mistress. 

Cloten. The first service thou dost me, fetch that suit 
hither: let it be thy first service; go. 

Pisanio. I shall, my lord. [Exit. 

Cloten. Meet thee at Milford-Haven ! I forgot to ask him 
one thing; I '11 remember 't anon. Even there, thou villain 
Posthumus, will I kill thee. I would these garments were 
come. She said upon a time the bitterness of it I now 
belch from my heart that she held the very garment of 
Posthumus in more respect than my noble and natural per- 
son, together with the adornment of my qualities. With that 
suit upon my back, will I ravish her: first kill him, and in her 
eyes; there shall she see my valour, which will then be a tor- 
ment to her contempt. He on the ground, my speech of in- 
sultment ended on his dead body, and when my lust hath 
dined, which, as I say, to vex her I will execute in the 
clothes that she so praised, to the court I '11 knock her 
back, foot her home again. She hath despised me rejoic- 
ingly, and I'll be merry in my revenge. 143 

Re-enter PISANIO, with the clothes. 

Be those the garments? 

Pisanio. Ay, my noble lord. 


Cloten. How long is 't since she went to Milford-Haven? 

Pisanio. She can scarce be there yet. 

Cloten. Bring this apparel to my chamber; that is the sec- 
ond thing that I have commanded thee : the third is, that 
thou wilt be a voluntary mute to my design. Be but dute- 
ous, and true preferment shall tender itself to thee.- 1 My re- 
venge is now at Milford; would I had wings to follow it! 
Come, and be true. [Exit. 

Pisanio. Thou bid'st me to my loss ; for true to thee 153 
Were to prove false, which I will never be, 
To him that is most true. To Milford go, 
And find not her whom thou pursuest. Flow, flow, 
You heavenly blessings, on her! This fool's speed 
Be cross'd with slowness ; labour be his meed ! \Exit. 

SCENE VI. Wales. Before the Cave of Belarius. 
Enter IMOGEN, in boy's clothes. 

Imogen. I see a man's life is a tedious one; 
I have tir'd myself, and for two nights together 
Have made the ground my bed. I should be sick, 
But that my resolution helps me. Milford, 
When from the mountain-top Pisanio show'd thee, 
Thou wast within a ken. O Jove! I think 
Foundations fly the wretched ; such, I mean, 
Where they should be reliev'd. Two beggars told me 
I could not miss my way; will poor folks lie, 
That have afflictions on them, knowing 't is 10 

A punishment or trial? Yes; no wonder, 
When rich ones scarce tell true. To lapse in fulness 
Is sorer than to lie for need, and falsehood 
Is worse in kings than beggars. My dear lord! 
Thou art one o' the false ones. Now I think on thee, 
My hunger 's gone ; but even before, I was 
At point to sink for food. But what is this? 


Here is a path to 't; 't is some savage hold. 

I were best not call ; I dare not call : yet famine, 

Ere clean it o'erthrovv nature, makes it valiant. 20 

Plenty and peace breeds cowards ; hardness ever 

Of hardiness is mother. Ho! who 's here? 

If any thing that 's civil, speak ; if savage, 

Take or lend. Ho! No answer? Then I '11 enter. 

Best draw my sword ; and if mine enemy 

But fear the sword like me, he '11 scarcely look on 't, 

Such a foe, good heavens ! \Exit , to the cave. 


Belarius. You, Polydore, have prov'd best woodman and 
Are master of the feast : Cadwal and I 
Will play the cook and servant ;. 't is our match. 3 o 

The sweat of industry would dry and die, 
But for the end it works to. Come ; our stomachs 
Will make what 's homely savoury : weariness 
Can snore upon the flint, when resty sloth 
Finds the down pillow hard. Now peace be here, 
Poor house, that keep'st thyself! 

Guiderius. I am throughly weary. 

Arviragus. I am weak with toil, yet strong in appetite. 

Guiderius. There is cold meat i' the cave ; we '11 browse 

on that, 
Whilst what we have kill'd be cook'd. 

Belarius. [Looking into the cave] Stay; come not in. 40 
But that it eats our victuals, I should think 
Here were a fairy. 

Guiderius. What 's the matter, sir? 

Belarius. By Jupiter, an angel ! or, if not, 
An earthly paragon ! Behold divineness 
No elder than a boy ! 


Re-enter IMOGEN. 

Imogen. Good masters, harm me not : 
Before I enter'd here, I call'd ; and thought 
To have begg'd or bought what I have took. Good troth, 
I have stol'n nought, nor would not, though I had found 
Gold strew'd i' the floor. Here 's money for my meat; \ 
I would have left it on the board so soon 
As I had made my meal, and parted 
With prayers for the provider. 

Guiderius. Money, youth ? 

Arviragus. All gold and silver rather turn to dirt! 
As 't is no better reckon'd, but of those 
Who worship dirty gods. 

Imogen. I see you 're angry ; 

Know, if you kill me for my fault, I should 
Have died had I not made it. 

Belarius. Whither bound? 

Imogen. To Milford-Haven. 

Belarius. What 's your name? < 

Imogen. Fidele, sir. I have a kinsman who 
Is bound for Italy : he embark'd at Milford ; 
To whom being going, almost spent with hunger, 
I am falPn in this offence. 

Belarius. Prithee, fair youth, 

Think us no churls, nor measure our good minds 
By this rude pjace we live in. Well encounter'd! 
'T is almost night; you shall have better cheer 
Ere you depart, and thanks to stay and eat it. 
Boys, bid him welcome. 

Guiderius. Were you a woman, youth, 

I should woo hard but be your groom. In honesty, 
I bid for you as I 'd buy. 

Arviragus. I '11 make 't my comfort 

He is a man; I '11 love him as my brother; 


And such a welcome as I 'd give to him 

After long absence, such is yours. Most welcome! 

Be sprightly, for you fall 'mongst friends. 

Imogen. 'Mongst friends, 

If brothers. \_Aside] Would it had been so, that they 
Had been my father's sons ! then had my prize 
Been less, and so more equal ballasting 
To thee, Posthumus. 

Belarius. He wrings at some distress. 

Guiderius. Would I could free 't ! 

Arviragus. . Or I, whate'er it be, 80 

What pain it cost, what danger. Gods ! 

Belarius. Hark, boys. 

[ Whispering. 

Imogen. Great men, 

That had a court no bigger than this cave, 
That did attend themselves and had the virtue 
Which their own conscience seal'd them laying by 
That nothing-gift of differing multitudes 
Could not out-peer these twain. Pardon me, gods ! 
I 'd change my sex to be companion with them, 
Since Leonatus ' false. 

Belarius. It shall be so. 

Boys, we '11 go dress our hunt. Fair youth, come in. 90 

Discourse is heavy, fasting; when we have supp'd, 
We '11 mannerly demand thee of thy story, 
So far as thou wilt speak it. . 

Guiderius. Pray, draw near. 

Arviragus. The night to the owl and morn to the lark less 

Imogen. Thanks, sir. 

Arviragus. I pray, draw near. [Exeunt. 


SCENE VII. Rome. A Public Place. 
Enter two Senators and Tribunes. 

i Senator. This is the tenour of the emperor's writ : 
That since the common men are now in action 
'Gainst the Pannonians and Dalmatians, 
And that the legions now in Gallia are 
Full weak to undertake our wars against 
The fall'n-off Britons, that we do incite 
The gentry to this business. He creates 
Lucius proconsul ; and to you the tribunes, 
For this immediate levy, he commands 
His absolute commission. Long live Caesar ! 10 

1 Tribune. Is Lucius general of the forces ? 

2 Senator. Ay. 
i Tribune. Remaining now in Gallia? 

i Senator. With those legions 

Which I have spoke of, whereunto your levy 
Must be suppliant; the words of your commission 
Will tie you to the numbers and the time 
Of their dispatch. 

i Tribune. We will discharge our duty. {Exeunt. 


SCENE I. Wales : near the Cave of Belarius. 
Enter CLOTEN. 

Cloten. I am near to the place where they should meet, if 
Pisanio have mapped it truly. How fit his garments serve 
me! Why should his mistress, who was made by him that 
made the tailor, not be fit too ? the rather saving reverence 
of the word for 't is said a woman's fitness comes by fits. 
Therein I must play the workman. I dare speak it to my- 
self for it is not vain-glory for a man and his glass to con- 
fer in his own chamber I mean, the lines of my body are as 
well drawn as his ; no less young, more strong, not beneath 
him in fortunes, beyond him in the advantage of the time, 
above him in birth, alike conversant in general services, and 
more remarkable in single oppositions; yet this impersever- 


ant thing loves him in my despite. What mortality is ! 
Posthumus, thy head, which now is growing upon thy shoul- 
ders, shall within this hour be off; thy mistress enforced; 
thy garments cut to pieces before thy face: and all this 
done, spurn her home to her father, who may happily be a 
little angry for my so rough usage, but my mother, having 
power of his testiness, shall turn all into my commendations. 
My horse is tied up safe ; out, sword, and to a sore purpose ! 
Fortune put them into my hand! This is the very descrip- 
tion of their meeting-place; and the fellow dares not deceive 
me. [Exit. 

SCENE II. Before the Cave of Belarius. 

Enter ; from the cave, BELARIUS, GUIDERIUS, ARVIRAGUS, and 


Belarius. \To Imogen] You are not well: remain here in 

the cave ; 
We '11 come to you after hunting. 

Arviragus. [To Imogen] Brother, stay here; 

Are we not brothers? ' 

Imogen. So man and man should be; 

But clay and clay differs in dignity, 
Whose dust is both alike. I am very sick. 

Guiderius. Go you to hunting; I '11 abide with him. 

Imogen. So sick I am not, yet I am not well ; 
But not so citizen a wanton as 
To seem to die ere sick. So please you, leave me; 
Stick to your journal course: the breach of custom 10 

Is breach of all. I am ill, but your being by me 
Cannot amend me ; society is no comfort 
To one not sociable. I am not very sick, 
Since I can reason of it. Pray you, trust me here ; 
I '11 rob none but myself, and let me die, 
Stealing so poorly. 

Guiderius. I love thee; I have spoke it: 


How much the quantity, the weight as much, 
As I do love my father. 

Belarius. What ! how ! how ! 

Arviragus. If it be sin to say so, sir, I yoke me 
In my good brother's fault. I know not why 2 o 

I love this youth; and I have heard you say, 
Love's reason 's without reason : the bier at door, 
And a demand who is 't shall die, I 'd say 
My father, not this youth, 

Belarius. \_Aside\ O noble strain ! 

worthiness of nature! breed of greatness! 
Cowards father cowards and base things sire base. 
Nature hath meal and bran, contempt and grace. 
I' m not their father ; yet who this should be, 
Doth miracle itself, lov'd before me. 

'T is the ninth hour o' the morn. 

Arviragus. Brother, farewell. 30 

Imogen. I wish ye sport. 

Arviragus. You health. So please you, sir. 

Imogen. [Aside] These are kind creatures. Gods, what 

lies I have heard ! 

Our courtiers say all 's savage but at court; 
Experience, O, thou disprov'st report! 
The imperious seas breed monsters, for the dish 
Poor tributary rivers as sweet fish. 

1 am sick still, heart-sick. Pisanio, 

I '11 now taste of thy drug. [Swallows some. 

Guiderius. I could not stir him: 

He said he was gentle, but unfortunate; 
Dishonestly afflicted, but yet honest. 40 

Arviragus. Thus did he answer me ; yet said, hereafter 
I might know more. 

Belarius. To the field, to the field! 

We '11 leave you for this time ; go in and rest. 

Arviragus. We '11 not be long away. 


Belarius. Pray, be not sick, 

For you must be our huswife. 

Imogen. Well or ill, 

I am bound to you. 

Belarius. And shalt be ever. 

\Exit Imogen, to the cave. 

This youth, howe'er distress'd, appears he hath had 
Good ancestors. 

Arviragus. How angel-like he sings ! 

Guiderius. But his neat cookery ! he cut our roots 
In characters, 50 

And sauc'd our broths, as Juno had been sick 
And he her dieter. 

Arviragus. Nobly he yokes 

A smiling with a sigh, as if the sigh 
Was that it was, for not being such a smile; 
The smile mocking the sigh, that it would fly 
From so divine a temple, to commix 
With winds that sailors rail at. 

Guiderius. I do note 

That grief and patience, rooted in him both, 
Mingle their spurs together. 

Arviragus. Grow, patience ! 

And let the stinking elder, grief, untwine 60 

His perishing root with the increasing vine! 

Belarius. It is great morning. Come, away! Who's 

Enter CLOTEN. 

Cloten. I cannot find those runagates ; that villain 
Hath mock'd me. I am faint. 

Belarius. Those runagates ! 

Means he not us? I partly know him; 't is 
Cloten, the son o' the queen. I fear some ambush. 
I saw him not these many years, and yet 
I know 't is he. We are held as outlaws; hence! 



Guiderius. He is but one. You and my brother search 
What companies are near: pray you, away; 70 

Let me alone with him. {Exeunt Belarius and Arviragus. 

Cloten. Soft! What are you 

That fly me thus? some villain mountaineers? 
I have heard of such. What slave art thou? 

Guiderius. A thing 

More slavish did I ne'er than answering 
A slave without a knock. 

Cloten. Thou art a robber, 

A law-breaker, a villain ; yield thee, thief. 

Guiderius. To who? to thee? What art thou? Have 

not I 

An arm as big as thine? a heart as big? 
Thy words, I grant, are bigger, for I wear not 
My dagger in my mouth. Say what thou art, 80 

Why I should yield to thee? 

Cloten. Thou villain base, 

Know'st me not by my clothes? 

Guiderius. No, nor thy tailor, rascal, 

Who is thy grandfather; he made those clothes, 
Which, as it seems, make thee. 

Cloten. Thou precious varlet, 

My tailor made them not. 

Guiderius. Hence, then, and thank 

The man that gave them thee. Thou art some fool; 
I am loath to beat thee. 

Cloten. Thou injurious thief, 

Hear but my name, and tremble. 

Guiderius. What 's thy name? 

Cloten. Cloten, thou villain. 

Guiderius. Cloten, thou double villain, be thy name, 90 
I cannot tremble at it ; were it toad, or adder, spider, 
'T would move me sooner. 

Cloten. To thy further fear, 


Nay, to thy mere confusion, thou shalt know 
I am son to the queen. 

Guiderius. I am sorry for 't, not seeming 

So worthy as thy birth. 

Cloten. Art not afeard? 

Guiderius. Those that I reverence, those I fear, the wise ; 
At fools I laugh, not fear them. 

Cloten. Die the death ! 

When I have slain thee with my proper hand, 
I '11 follow those that even now fled hence, 
And on the gates of Lud's town set your heads. TOO 

Yield, rustic mountaineer. \Exeunt, fighting. 


Belarius. No companies abroad? 

Arviragus. None in the world ; you did mistake him, sure. 

Belarius. I cannot tell : long is it since I saw him, 
But time hath nothing blurr'd those lines of favour 
Which then he wore; the snatches in his voice, 
And burst of speaking, were as his. I am absolute 
'T was very Cloten. 

Arviragus. In this place we left them ; 

I wish my brother make good time with him, 
You say he is so fell. 

Belarius. Being scarce made up, no 

I mean, to man, he had not apprehension 
Of roaring terrors; for defect of judgment 
Is oft the cause of fear. But, see, thy brother ! 

Re-enter GUIDERIUS, with CLOTEN'S head. 
Guiderius. This Cloten was a fool, an empty purse j 
There was no money in 't. Not Hercules 
Could have knock'd out his brains, for he had none; 
Yet I not doing this, the fool had borne 
My head as I do his. 


Belarius. What hast thou done? 

Guiderius. I am perfect what: cut off one Cloten's 


Son to the queen, after his own report; 120 

Who call'd me traitor, mountaineer, and swore 
With his own single hand he 'd take us in, 
Displace our heads where thank the gods! they grow, 
And set them on Lud's town. 

Belarius. We are all undone. 

Guiderius. Why, worthy father, what have we to lose, 
But that he swore to take, our lives? The law 
Protects not us; then why should we be tender 
To let an arrogant piece of flesh threat us, 
Play judge and executioner all himself, 
For we do fear the law? What company no 

Discover you abroad? 

Belarius. No single soul 

Can we set eye on, but in all safe reason 
He must have some attendants. Though his humour 
Was nothing but mutation, ay, and that 
From one bad thing to worse, not frenzy, not 
Absolute madness could so far have rav'd 
To bring him here alone. Although perhaps 
It may be heard at court that such as we 
Cave here, hunt here, are outlaws, and in time 
May make some stronger head ; the which he hearing 
As it is like him might break out, and swear 141 

He 'd fetch us in ; yet is 't not probable 
To come alone, either he so undertaking, 
Or they so suffering: then on good ground we fear, 
If we do fear this body hath a tail 
More perilous than the head. 

Arviragus. Let ordinance 

Come as the gods foresay it; howsoe'er, 
My brother hath done well. 



Belarius. I had no mind 

To hunt this day; the boy Fidele's sickness 
Did make my way long forth. 

Guiderius. With his own sword, ijo 

Which he did wave against my throat, I have ta'en 
His head from him. I '11 throw 't into the creek 
Behind our rock; and let it to the sea, 
And tell the fishes he 's the queen's son, Cloten. 
That 's all I reck. {Exit. 

Belarius. I fear 't will be reveng'd. 

Would, Polydore, thou hadst not done 't! though valour 
Becomes thee well enough. 

Arviragus. Would I had done 't, 

So the revenge alone pursued me ! Polydore, 
I love thee brotherly, but envy much 

Thou hast robb'd me of this deed ; I would revenges, 160 
That possible strength might meet, would seek us through 
And put us to our answer. 

Belarius. Well, 't is done. 

We '11 hunt no more to-day, nor seek for danger 
Where there 's no profit. I prithee, to our rock; 
You and Fidele play the cooks : I '11 stay 
Till hasty Polydore return, and bring him 
To dinner presently. 

Arviragus. Poor sick Fidele! 

I '11 willingly to him; to gain his colour 
I 'd let a parish of such Clotens blood, 
And praise myself for charity. \Exit. 

Belarius. O thou goddess, no 

Thou divine Nature, how thyself thou blazon'st 
In these two princely boys ! They are as gentle 
As zephyrs blowing below the violet, 
Not wagging his sweet head ; and yet as rough, 
Their royal blood enchaf d, as the rud'st wind, 
That by the top doth take the mountain pine, 


And make him stoop to the vale. 'T is wonder 

That an invisible instinct should frame them 

To royalty unlearn'd, honour untaught, 

Civility not seen from- other, valour 180 

That wildly grows in them, but yields a crop 

As if it had been sow'd. Yet still it 's strange 

What Cloten's being here to us portends, 

Or what his death will bring us. 

Re-enter GUIDERIUS. 

Guiderius. Where 's my brother ? 

I have sent Cloten's clotpoll down the stream, 
In embassy to his mother ; his body's hostage 
For his return. {Solemn music. 

Belarius. My ingenious instrument ! 
Hark, Polydore, it sounds ! But what occasion 
Hath Cadwal now to give it motion ? Hark ! 

Guiderius. Is he at home ? 

Belarius. He went hence even now. 

Guiderius. What does he mean? since death of my dear'st 
mother i 9I 

It did not speak before. All solemn things 
Should answer solemn accidents. The matter ? 
Triumphs for nothing and lamenting toys 
Is jollity for apes and grief for boys. 
Is Cadwal mad ? 

Belarius. Look, here he comes, 

And brings the dire occasion in his arms 
Of what we blame him for. 

Re-enter ARVIRAGUS, with IMOGEN, as dead, bearing her in his 


Arviragus. The bird is dead 

That we have made so much on. I had rather 
Have skipp'd from sixteen years of age to sixty, 200 


To have turn'd my leaping-time into a crutch, 
Than have seen this. 

Guiderius. O sweetest, fairest lily ! 

My brother wears thee not the one half so well 
As when thou grew'st thyself. 

Belarius. O melancholy ! 

Who ever yet could sound thy bottom ? find 
The ooze, to show what coast thy sluggish crare 
Might easiliest harbour in ? Thou blessed thing! 
Jove knows what man thou mightst have made ; but I, 
Thou diedst, a most rare boy, of melancholy.- 
How found you him ? 

Arviragus. Stark, as you see : 

Thus smiling, as some fly had tickled slumber, 
Not as death's dart, being laugh'd at; his right cheek 
Reposing on a cushion. 

Guiderius. Where ? 

Arviragus. O' the floor, 

His arms thus leagued; I thought he slept, and put 
My clouted brogues from off my feet, whose rudeness 
Answer'd my steps too loud. 

Guiderius. Why, he but sleeps : 

If he be gone, he '11 make his grave a bed ; 
With female fairies will his tomb be haunted, 
And worms will not come to thee. 

Arviragus. With fairest flowers 

Whilst summer lasts and I live here, Fidele, 
I '11 sweeten thy sad grave ; thou shalt not lack 
The flower that 's like thy face, pale primrose, nor 
The azur'd harebell, like thy veins, no, nor 
The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander, 
Out-sweeten'd not thy breath : the ruddock would, 
With charitable bill, O bill, sore-shaming 
Those rich-left heirs that let their fathers lie 
Without a monument! bring thee all this; 



Yea, and furr'd moss besides, when flowers are none, 
To winter-ground thy corse. 

Guiderius. Prithee, have done; 230 

And do not play in wench-like words with that 
Which is so serious. Let us bury him, 
And not protract with admiration what 
Is now due debt. To the grave ! 

Arviragus. Say, where shall 's lay him ? 

Guiderius. By good Euriphile, our mother. 

Arviragus. Be 't so ; 

And let us, Polydore, though now our voices 
Have got the mannish crack, sing him to the ground, 
As once our mother ; use like note and words, 
Save that Euriphile must be Fidele. 

Guiderius. Cadwal, 240 

I cannot sing: I '11 weep, and word it with thee; 
For notes of sorrow out of tune are worse 
Than priests and fanes that lie. 

Arviragus. We '11 speak it, then. 

Belarius. Great griefs, I see, medicine the less; for Clo- 


Is quite forgot. He was a queen's son, boys; 
And though he came our enemy, remember 
He was paid for that : though mean and mighty, rotting 
Together, have one dust, yet reverence, 
That angel of the world, doth make distinction 
Of place 'tween high and low. Our foe was princely; 250 
And though you took his life, as being our foe, 
Yet bury him as a prince. 

Guiderius. Pray you, fetch him hither. 

Thersites' body is as good as Ajax', 
When neither are alive. 

Arviragus. If you '11 go fetch him, 

We '11 say our song the whilst Brother, begin. 

\Exit Belarius. 


Guiderius. Nay, Cadwal, we must lay his head to the east; 
My father hath a reason for 't. 

Arviragus. 'T is true. 

Guiderius. Come on then, and remove him. 
Arviragus. So, begin. 

Guiderius. Fear no more the heat o* the sun, 

Nor the furious winter's rages ; 260 

Thou thy worldly task hast done, 

Home art gone, and t a' en thy wages: 
Golden lads and girls all must, 
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust. 

Arviragus. Fear no more the frown o* the great; 

Thou art past the tyrant's stroke ; 
Care no more to clothe and eat ; 

To thee the reed is as the oak : 
The sceptre, learning, physic, must 
All follow this, and come to dust. 270 

Guiderius. Fear no more the lightning-flash, 
Arviragus. Nor the all-dreaded thunder- stone ; 


Guiderius. Fear not slander, censure rash; 
Arviragus. Thou hast finished joy and moan: 
Both. All lovers young, all lovers must 

Consign to thee, and come to dust. 

Guiderius. No exerciser harm thee! 
Arviragus. Nor no witchcraft charm thee ! 
Guiderius. Ghost unlaid forbear thee! 

Arviragus. Nothing ill come near thee! 280 

Both. Quiet consummation have; 

And renowned be thy grave! 

Re-enter BELARIUS, with the body ^/"CLOTEN. 
Guiderius. We have done our obsequies. Come, lay him 


Belarius. Here 's a few flowers; but 'bout midnight more: 
The herbs that have on them cold dew o' the night 
Are strewings fitt'st for graves. Upon their faces. 
You were as flowers, now wither'd ; even so 
These herblets shall, which we upon you strew. 
Come on, away; apart upon our knees. 
The ground that gave them first has them again ; 290 

Their pleasures here are past, so is their pain. 

\Exeunt Belarius, Guiderius, and Arviragus. 

Imogen. [Awaking'] Yes, sir, to Milford-Haven ; which is 

the way? 

I thank you. By yond bush ? Pray, how far thither ? 
'Ods pittikins! can it be six mile yet? - 
I have gone all night. Faith, I '11 lie down and sleep. 
But, soft ! no bedfellow! O gods and goddesses! 

\_Seeing the body of Cloten. 

These flowers are like the pleasures of the world ; 
This bloody man, the care on 't. I hope I dream, 
For so I thought I was a cave-keeper, 

And cook to honest creatures: but 't is not so ; 300 

'T was but a bolt of nothing, shot at nothing, 
Which the brain makes of fumes. Our very eyes 
Are sometimes like our judgments, blind. Good faith, 
I tremble still with fear : but if there be 
Yet left in heaven as small a drop of pity 
As a wren's eye, fear'd gods, a part of it ! 
The dream 's here still : even when I wake, it is 
Without me. as within me ; not imagin'd, felt. 
A headless man ! The garments of Posthumus ! 
I know the shape of 's leg : this is his hand ; 310 

His foot Mercurial ; his Martial thigh ; 
The brawns of Hercules : but his Jovial face 
Murther in heaven? How! 'T is gone. Pisanio, 
All curses madded Hecuba gave the Greeks, 
And mine to boot, be darted on thee ! Thou, 

ACT IV. SCENE If. 123 

Conspir'd with that irregulous devil, Cloten, 

Hast here cut off my lord. To write and read 

Be henceforth treacherous ! Damn'd Pisanio 

Hath with his forged letters, datnn'd Pisanio 

From this most bravest vessel of the world 320 

Struck the main-top ! O Posthumus ! alas, 

Where is thy head? where 's that? Ay me! where 's that? 

Pisanio might have kilPd thee at the heart, 

And left this head on. How should this be? Pisanio? 

'T is he and Cloten ; malice and lucre in them 

Have laid this woe here. O, 't is pregnant, pregnant ! 

The drug he gave me, which he said was precious 

And cordial to me, have I not found it 

Murtherous to the senses ? That confirms it home ; 

This is Pisanio's deed, and Cloten's. O! 330 

Give colour to my pale cheek with thy blood, 

That we the horrider may seem to those 

Which chance to find us ! O, my lord, my lord ! 

[Falls oft the body. 

Enter Lucius, a Captain and other Officers, and a Soothsayer. 

Captain. To them the legions garrison'd in Gallia, 
After your will, have cross'd the sea, attending 
You here at Milford-Haven with your ships ; 
They are in readiness. 

Lucius. But what from Rome ? 

Captain. The senate hath stirr'd up the confiners 
And gentlemen of Italy, most willing spirits, 
That promise noble service ; and they come 340 

Under the conduct of bold lachimo, 
Sienna's brother. ^ 

Lucius. When expect you them ? 

Captain. With the next benefit o' the wind. 

Lucius. This forwardness 

Makes our hopes fair. Command our present numbers 


Be muster'd; bid the captains look to 't. Now, sir, 
What have you dream'd of late of this war's purpose ? 

Soothsayer. Last night the very gods show'd me a vision 
I fast and pray'd for their intelligence thus: 
I saw Jove's bird, the Roman eagle, wing'd 
From the spongy south to this part of the west, 350 

There vanish'd in the sunbeams ; which portends 
Unless my sins abuse my divination 
Success to the Roman host. 

Lucius. Dream often so, 

And never false. Soft, ho! what trunk is here 
Without his top? The ruin speaks that sometime 
It was a worthy building. How! a page! 
Or dead, or sleeping on him? But dead rather; 
For nature doth abhor to make his bed 
With the defunct, or sleep upon the dead. 
Let 's see the boy's face. 

Captain. He 's alive, my lord. 360 

Lucius. He '11 then instruct us of this body. Young 


Inform us of thy fortunes, for it seems 
They crave to be demanded. Who is this 
Thou mak'st thy bloody pillow? Or who was he 
That, otherwise than noble nature did, 
Hath alter'd that good picture? What 's thy interest 
In this sad wrack? How came it? Who is it? 
What art thou ? 

Imogen. I am nothing ; or if not, 

Nothing to be were better. This was my master, 
A very valiant Briton and a good, 370 

That here by mountaineers lies slain. Alas! 
There is no more such masters; I may wander 
From east to Occident, cry out for service, 
Try many, all good, serve truly, never 
Find such another master. 



Lucius. 'Lack, good youth ! 

Thou mov'st no less with thy complaining than 
Thy master in bleeding. Say his name, good friend. 

Imogen. Richard du Champ. \Aside\ If I do lie, and do 
No harm by it, though the gods hear, I hope 
They '11 pardon it. Say you, sir? 

Lucius. Thy name? 

Imogen. Fidele, sir. 

Lucius. Thou dost approve thyself the very same; 381 

Thy name well fits thy faith, thy faith thy name. 
Wilt take thy chance with me? I will not say 
Thou shalt be so well master'cl, but, be sure, 
No less belov'd. The Roman emperor's letters, 
Sent by a consul to me, should not sooner 
Than thine own worth prefer thee ; go with me. 

Imogen. I '11 follow, sir. But first, an 't please the gods, 
I '11 hide my master from the flies, as deep 
As these poor pickaxes can dig; and when 390 

With wild wood-leaves and weeds I ha' strew'd his grave, 
And on it said a century of prayers, 
Such as I can, twice o'er, I '11 weep and sigh, 
And leaving so his service, follow you, 
So please you entertain me. 

Lucius. Ay, good youth. 

And rather father thee than master thee. 
My friends, 

The boy hath taught us manly duties : let us 
Find out the prettiest daisied plot we can, 
And make him with our pikes and partisans 400 

A grave ; come, arm him. Boy, he is preferr'd 
By thee to us, and he shall be interr'd 
As soldiers can. Be cheerful; wipe thine eyes: 
Some falls are means the happier to arise. \Exeuni. 


SCENE III. A Room in Cymbeline 1 s Palace. 
Enter CYMBELINE, Lords, PISANIO, and Attendants. 

Cymbeline. Again ; and bring me word how 't is with her. 

\Exit an Attendant. 
A fever with the absence of her son, 
A madness, of which her life 's in danger. Heavens, 
How deeply you at once do touch me ! Imogen, 
The great part of my comfort, gone ; my queen 
Upon a desperate bed, and in a time 
When fearful wars point at me; her son gone, 
So needful for this present : it strikes me, past 
The hope of comfort. But for thee, fellow, 
Who needs must know of her departure and o 

Dost seem so ignorant, we '11 enforce it from thee 
By a sharp torture. 

Pisanio. Sir, my life is yours, 

I humbly set it at your will ; but, for my mistress, 
I nothing know where she remains, why gone, 
Nor when she purposes return. Beseech your highness, 
Hold me your loyal servant. 

i Lord. Good my liege, 

The day that she was missing he was here ; 
I dare be bound he 's true and shall perform 
All parts of his subjection loyally. For Cloten, 
There wants no diligence in seeking him, 20 

And will, no doubt, be found. 

Cymbeline. The time is troublesome. 

\To Pisanio} We '11 slip you for a season; but our jealousy 
Does yet depend. 

i Lord. So please your majesty, 

The Roman legions, all from Gallia drawn, 
Are landed on your coast, with a supply 
Of Roman gentlemen by the senate sent. 



Cymbeline. Now for the counsel of my son and queen ! 
I am amaz'd with matter. 

i Lord. Good my liege, 

Your preparation can affront no less 

Than what you hear of; come more, for more you 're ready. 
The want is but to put those powers in motion 3 i 

That long to move. 

Cymbeline. I thank you. Let 's withdraw, 

And meet the time as it seeks us. We fear not 
What can from Italy annoy us, but 
We grieve at chances here. Away ! \Exeunt all but Pisanio. 

Pisanio. I heard no letter from my master since 
I wrote him Imogen was slain. 'T is strange : 
Nor hear I from my mistress, who did promise 
To yield me often tidings ; neither know I 
What is betid to Cloten, but remain 40 

Perplex'd in all. The heavens still must work. 
Wherein I am false I am honest; not true, to be true. 
These present wars shall find I love my country, 
Even to the note o' the king, or I '11 fall in them. 
All other doubts, by time let them be clear'd ; 
Fortune brings in some boats that are not steer'd. [Exit. 

SCENE IV. Wales : before the Cave of Belarius. 

Guiderius. The noise is round about us. 

Belarius. Let us from it. 

Arviragus. What pleasure, sir, find we in life, to lock it 
From action and adventure ? 

Guiderius. Nay, what hope 

Have we in hiding us ? This way, the Romans 
Must or for Britons slay us, or receive us 
For barbarous and unnatural revolts 
During their use, and slay us after. 


Belarius. Sons, 

We '11 higher to the mountains, there secure us. 
To the king's party there 's no going ; newness 
Of Cloten's death we being not known, not muster'd 
Among the bands may drive us to a render 
Where we have liv'd, and so extort from 's that 
Which we have done, whose answer would be death 
Drawn on with torture. 

Guiderius. That is, sir, a doubt 

In such a time nothing becoming you, 
Nor satisfying us. 

Arviragus. It is not likely 

That when they hear the Roman horses neigh, 
Behold their quarter'd fires, have both their eyes 
And ears so cloy'd importantly as now, 
That they will waste their time upon our note, 
To know from whence we are. 

Belarius. O, I am known 

Of many in the army; many years, 
^Though Cloten then but young, you see, not wore him 
| From my remembrance. And, besides, the king 
' Hath not deserv'd my service nor your loves, 

Who find in my exile the want of breeding, 
' The certainty of this hard life ; aye hopeless 
To have the courtesy your cradle promis'd, 
But to be still hot summer's tanlings and 
The shrinking slaves of winter. 

Guiderius. Than be so 

Better to cease to be. Pray, sir, to the army : 
I and my brother are not known ; yourself 
So out of thought, and thereto so o'ergrown, 
Cannot be question'd. 

Arviragus. By this sun that shines, 

I '11 thither ! What thing is it that I never 
Did see man die ! scarce ever look'd on blood, 



But that of coward hares, hot goats, and venison ! 

Never bestrid a horse, save one that had 

A rider like myself, who ne'er wore rowel 

Nor iron on his heel ! I am asham'd 4 o 

To look upon the holy sun, to have 

The benefit of his blest beams, remaining 

So long a poor unknown. 

Guiderius. By heavens, I '11 go! 

If you will bless me, sir, and give me leave, 
I '11 take the better care ; but if you will not, 
The hazard therefore due fall on me by 
The hands of Romans ! 

Arviragus. So say I ; amen ! 

Belarius. No reason I, since of your lives you set 
So slight a valuation, should reserve 

My crack'cl one to more care. Have with you, boys ! S o 
If in your country wars you chance to die, 
That is my bed too, lads, and there I '11 lie. 
Lead, lead. [Aside] The time seems long; their blood 

thinks scorn, 
Till it fly out and show them princes born. \Exeunt. 




SCENE I. Britain. The Roman Camp. 
Enter POSTHUMUS, with a bloody handkerchief. 

Posthumus. Yea, bloody cloth, I '11 keep thee, for I wish'd 
Thou shouldst be colour'd thus. You married ones, 
If each of you should take this course, how many 
Must murther wives much better than themselves 
For wrying but a little ! O Pisanio ! 
Every good servant does not all commands ; 
No bond but to do just ones. Gods ! if you 
Should have ta'en vengeance on my faults, I never 
Had liv'd to put on this ; so had you sav'd 
The noble Imogen to repent, and struck 10 


Me, wretch more worth your vengeance. But, alack ! 

You snatch some hence for little faults; that 's love, 

To have them fall no more : you some permit 

To second ills with ills, each elder worse, 

And make them dread it, to the doers' thrift. 

But Imogen is your own ; do your best wills, 

And make me blest to obey ! I am brought hither 

Among the Italian gentry, and to fight 

Against my lady's kingdom. 'T is enough 

That, Britain, I have kill'd thy mistress; peace ! 20 

I '11 give no wound to thee. Therefore, good heavens, 

Hear patiently my purpose. I '11 disrobe me 

Of these Italian weeds and suit myself 

As does a Briton peasant : so I '11 fight 

Against the part I come with; so I '11 die 

For thee, O Imogen, even for whom my life 

Is every breath a death ; and thus, unknown, 

Pitied nor hated, to the face of peril 

Myself I '11 dedicate. Let me make men know 

More valour in me than my habits show. 30 

Gods, put the strength 'o' the Leonati in me ! 

To shame the guise o' the world, I will begin 

The fashion, less without and more within. [Exit. 

SCENE II. Field of battle between the British and Roman 


Enter, from one side, Lucius, IACHIMO, and the Roman Army ; 
from the other side, the British Army ; LEONATUS POSTHU- 
U\3S following, like a poor soldier. They march over and go 
out. Then enter again, in skirmish, IACHIMO and POSTHU- 
MUS ; he vanquisheth and disarmeth IACHIMO, and then leaves 

lachimo. The heaviness and guilt within my bosom 
Takes off my manhood. I have belied a lady, 



The princess of this country, and the air on \ 

Revengingly enfeebles me ; or could this carl, 

A very drudge of nature's, have subdued me 

In my profession ? Knighthoods and honours, borne 

As I wear mine, are titles but of scorn. 

If that thy gentry, Britain, go before 

This lout as he exceeds our lords, the odds 9 

Is that we scarce are men and you are gods. [Exit. 

The battle continues; the Britons fly; CYMBELINE is taken: 
then enter, to his rescue, BELARIUS, GUIDERIUS, and ARVIRA- 


Belarius. Stand, stand ! We have the advantage of the 


The lane is guarded; nothing routs us but 
The villany of our fears. 


Stand, stand, and fight ! 

Re-enter POSTHUMUS, and seconds the Britons ; they rescue 

CYMBELINE, and exeunt. Then re-enter Lucius and IACH- 

IMO, with IMOGEN. 

Lucius. Away, boy, from the troops, and save thyself; 
For friends kill friends, and the disorder 's such 
As war were hoodwink'd. 

lachimo. 'T is their fresh supplies. 

Lucius. It is a day turn'd strangely; or betimes 
Let 's reinforce, or fly. \Exeunt. 

SCENE III. Another Part of the Field. 
Enter POSTHUMUS and a British Lord. 

Lord. Cam'st thou from where they made the stand ? 
Posthumus. I did; 

Though you, it seems, come from the fliers. 


Lord. I did. 

Posthumus. No blame be to you, sir; for all was lost, 
But that the heavens fought. The king himself 
Of his wings destitute, the army broken, 
And but the backs of Britons seen, all flying 
Through a strait lane ; the enemy full-hearted, 
Lolling the tongue with slaughtering, having work 
More plentiful than tools to do J t, struck down 
Some mortally, some slightly touch'd, some falling 10 

Merely through fear; that the strait pass was clamm'd 
With dead men hurt behind, and cowards living 
To die with lengthen'd shame. 

Lord. Where was this lane? 

Posthumus. Close. by the battle, ditch'd, and wall'd with 


Which gave advantage to an ancient soldier, 
An honest one, I warrant, who deserv'd 
So long a breeding as his white beard came to, 
In doing this for 's country. Athwart the lane, 
He, with two striplings lads more like to run 
The country base than to commit such slaughter; 20 

With faces fit for masks, or rather fairer 
Than those for preservation cas'd, or shame, 
Made good the passage, cried to those that fled, 
4 Our Britain's harts die flying, not our men ; 
To darkness fleet souls that fly backwards. Stand! 
Or we are Romans and will give you that 
Like beasts which you shun beastly, and may save, 
But to look back in frown : stand, stand !' These three, 
Three thousand confident, in act as many 
For three performers are the file when all 30 

The rest do nothing with this word ' Stand, stand/ 
Accommodated by the place, more charming 
With their own nobleness, which could have turn'd 
A distaff to a lance, gilded pale looks, 


Part shame, part spirit renew'd; that some, turn'd coward 

But by example O, a sin in war, 

Damn'd in the first beginners! gan to look 

The way that they did, and to grin like lions 

Upon the pikes o' the hunters. Then began 

A stop i' the chaser, a retire, anon 40 

A rout, confusion thick; forthwith they fly 

Chickens, the way which they stoop'd eagles; slaves, 

The strides they victors made. And now our cowards, 

Like fragments in hard voyages, became 

The life o' the need; having found the back-door open 

Of the unguarded hearts, heavens, how they wound ! 

Some slain before, some dying, some their friends 

O'er-borne i' the former wave; ten, chas'd by one, 

Are now each one the slaughter-man of twenty: 

Those that would die or ere resist are grown 50 

The mortal bugs o' the field. 

Lord. This was strange chance: 

A narrow lane, an old man, and two boys. 

Posthumus. Nay, do not wonder at it ; you are made 
Rather to wonder at the things you hear 
Than to work any. Will you rhyme upon 't, 
And vent it for a mockery? Here is one: 
( 'Two boys, an old man twice a boy, a lane, 
\ Preserv'd the Britons, was the Romans' bane/ 

Lord. Nay, be not angry, sir. 

Posthumus. 'Lack, to what end ? 

Who dares not stand his foe, I '11 be his friend ; 60 

For if he '11 do as he is made to do, 
I know he '11 quickly fly my friendship too. 
You have put me into rhyme. 

Lord. Farewell; you 're angry. 

Posthumus. Still going? [Exit Lordl\ This is a lord ! 

O noble misery, 
To be i' the field, and ask 'what news?' of me! 


To-day how many would have given their honours 

To have sav'd their carcases! took heel to do 't, 

And yet died too! I, in mine own woe charm'd, 

Could not find death where I did hear him groan, 

Nor feel him where he struck. Being an ugly monster, 70 

'T is strange he hides him in fresh cups, soft beds, 

Sweet words, or hath moe ministers than we 

That draw his knives i' the war. Well, I will find him; 

For being now a favourer to the Briton, 

No more a Briton, I have resum'd again 

The part I came in. Fight I will no more, 

But yield me to the veriest hind that shall 

Once touch my shoulder. Great the slaughter is 

Here made by the Roman; great the answer be 

Britons must take. For me, my ransom ? s death ; 80 

On either side I come to spend my breath, 

Which neither here I '11 keep nor bear again, 

But end it by some means for Imogen. 

Enter two British Captains and Soldiers. 

1 Captain. Great Jupiter be prais'd! Lucius is taken. 
'T is thought the old man and his sons were angels. 

2 Captain. There was a fourth man, in a silly habit, 
That gave the affront with them. 

1 Captain. So 't is reported ; 
But none of 'em can be found. Stand! who 's there? 

Posthumus. A Roman, 

Who had not now been drooping here if seconds <P 

Had answer'd him. 

2 Captain. Lay hands on him; a dog! 
A leg of Rome shall not return to tell 

What crows have peck'd them here. He brags his- service 
As if he were of note. Bring him to the king. 



SANIO, Soldiers, Attendants, and Roman Captives. The 
Captains present POSTHUMUS to CYMBELINE, who delivers 
him over to a Gaoler ; then exeunt omnes. 

SCENE IV. A British Prison. 
Enter POSTHUMUS and two Gaolers. 

1 Gaoler. You shall not now be stol'n, you have locks 

upon you; 
So graze as you find pasture. 

2 Gaoler. Ay, or a stomach. 

\Exeunt Gaolers. 

Posthumus. Most welcome, bondage ! for thou art a way, 
I think, to liberty; yet am I better 
Than one that 's sick o' the gout, since he had rather 
Groan so in perpetuity than be cur'd 
By the sure physician, death, who is the key 
To unbar these locks. My conscience, thou art fetter'd 
More than my shanks and wrists; you good gocls, give 


The penitent instrument to pick that bolt, 10 

Then, free for ever! Is 't enough I am sorry? 
So children temporal fathers do appease ; 
Gods are more full of mercy. Must I repent? 
I cannot do it better than in gyves, 
Desir'd more than constraint ; to satisfy, 
If of my freedom ? t is the main part, take 
No stricter render of me than my all. 
I know you are more clement than vile men, 
Who of their broken debtors take a third, 
A sixth, a tenth, letting them thrive again 20 

On their abatement; that 's not my desire. 
For Imogen's dear life take mine: and though 

ACT V. SCENE IV. ! 37 

'T is not so dear, yet 't is a life ; you coin'd it. 

'Tween man and man they weigh not every stamp ; 

Though light, take pieces for the figure's sake: 

You rather mine, being yours; and so, great powers, 

If you will take this audit, take this life, 

And cancel these cold bonds. O Imogen ! 

I '11 speak to thee in silence. \Sleeps. 

Solemn music. Enter, as in an apparition, SICILIUS LEONA- 
Ttrs, father to Posthumus, an old man, attired like a warrior; 
leading in his hand an ancient matron, his wife, and mother 
to Posthumus, with music before them : then, after other music, 
follow the two young LEONATI, brothers to Posthumus, with 
wounds as they died in the wars. They circle POSTHUMUS 
round as he lies sleeping. 

Sicilius. No more, thou thunder-master, show 30 

Thy spite on mortal flies; 
With Mars fall out, with Juno chide, 

That thy adulteries 

Rates and revenges. 
Hath my poor boy done aught but well, 

Whose face I never saw? 
I died whilst in the womb he stay'd 

Attending nature's law; 
Whose father then- as men report 

Thou orphans' father art 40 

Thou shouldst have been, and shielded him 

From this earth-vexing smart. 

Mother. Lucina lent not me her aid, 

But took me in my throes; 
That from me was Posthumus ript, 
Came crying 'mongst his foes, 
A thing of pity 1 


Sicilius. Great nature, like his ancestry, 

Moulded the stuff so fair, 

That he deserv'd the praise o' the world, & 

As great Sicilius' heir. 

1 Brother. When once he was mature for man, 

In Britain where was he 
That could stand up his parallel, 

Or fruitful object be 
In eye of Imogen, that best 

Could deem his dignity? 

Mother. With marriage wherefore was he mock'd, 

To be exil'd, and thrown 

From Leonati seat, and cast 60 

From her his dearest one, 
Sweet Imogen? 

Sicilius. Why did you suffer lachimo, 

Slight thing of Italy, 
To taint his nobler heart and brain 

With needless jealousy; 
And to become the geek and scorn 

O' the other's villany? 

2 Brother. For this from stiller seats we came, 

Our parents and us twain, 7 

That striking in our country's cause 

Fell bravely and were slain, 
Our fealty and Tenantius' right 

With honour to maintain. 

i Brother. Like hardiment Posthumus hath 

To Cymbeline perform'd; 
Then, Jupiter, thou king of gods, 

Why hast thou thus adjourn'd 
The graces for his merits clue, 

Being all to dolours turn'cl? So 


Sicilius. Thy crystal window ope, look out ; 

No longer exercise 
Upon a valiant race thy harsh 
And potent injuries. 

Mother. Since, Jupiter, our son is good, 
Take off his miseries. 

Sicilius. Peep through thy marble mansion; help! 

Or we poor ghosts will cry 
To the shining synod of the rest 

Against thy deity. 90 . 

Both Brothers. Help, Jupiter; or we appeal, 
And from thy justice fly. 

JUPITER descends in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an 
eagle; he throws a thunderbolt. The Ghosts fall on their 

Jupiter. No more, you petty spirits of region low, 

Offend our hearing; hush! How dare you ghosts 
Accuse the thunderer, whose bolt, you know, 

Sky-planted, batters all rebelling coasts? 
Poor shadows of Elysium, hence, and rest 

Upon your never-withering banks of flowers : 
Be not with mortal accidents opprest ; 

No care of yours it is ; you know 't is ours. roo 

Whom best I love I cross; to make my gift, 

The more delay'd, delighted. Be content; 
Your low-laid son our godhead will uplift: 

His comforts thrive, his trials well are spent. 
Our Jovial star reign'd at his birth, and in 

Our temple was he married. Rise, and fade. 
He shall be lord of lady Imogen, 

And happier much by his affliction made. 



This tablet lay upon his breast, wherein 

Our pleasure his full fortune doth confine; no 

And so, away! no further with your din 

Express impatience, lest you stir up mine. 

Mount, eagle, to my palace crystalline. [Ascends. 

Sicilius. He came in thunder; his celestial breath 
Was sulphurous to smell: the holy eagle 
Stoop'd, as to foot us. His ascension is 
More sweet than our blest fields; his royal bird 
Prunes the immortal wing and cloys his beak, 
As when his god is pleas'd. . 

All. Thanks, Jupiter! 

Sicilius. The marble pavement closes, he is enter'd 120 
His radiant roof. Away! and, to be blest, 
Let us with care perform his great behest. 

[The Ghosts vanish, 

Posthumus. [ Waking\ Sleep, thou hast been a grandsire, 

and begot 

A father to me; and thou hast created 
A mother and two brothers. But, O scorn ! 
Gone ! they went hence so soon as they were born ; 
And so I am awake. Poor wretches that depend 
On greatness' favour dream as I have done, 
Wake and find nothing. But, alas, I swerve: 
Many dream not to find, neither deserve, 130 

And yet are steep'd in favours; so am I, 
That have this golden chance and know not why. 
What fairies haunt this ground? A book? O rare one! 
Be not, as is our fangled world, a garment 
Nobler than that it covers ; let thy effects 
So follow, to be most unlike our courtiers, 
As good as promise. 

[Reads] ' Whenas a lion's whelp shall, to himself unknown, 
without seeking find, and be embraced '_ by a piece of tender air ; 
and when from a stately cedar shall be lopped branches, which, 

ACT V. SCENE IV. 14 ! 

being dead many years, shall after revive, be jointed to the old 
stock, and freshly grow; then shall Posthumus end his miseries, 
Britain be fortunate and flourish in peace and plenty? 143 

T is still a dream, or else such stuff as madmen 
Tongue and brain not; either both or nothing; 
Or senseless speaking or a speaking such 
As sense cannot untie. Be what it is, 
The action of my life is like it, which 
I '11 keep, if but for sympathy. 

Re-enter Gaolers. 

i Gaoler. Come, sir, are you ready for death? 150 

Posthumus. Over-roasted rather; ready long ago. 

i Gaoler. Hanging is the word, sir; if you be ready for 
that, you are well cooked. 

Posthumus. So, if I prove a good repast to the spectators, 
the dish pays the shot. 

i Gaoler. A heavy reckoning for you, sir. But the com- 
fort is, you shall be called to no more payments, fear no more 
tavern-bills, which are often the sadness of parting, as the 
procuring of mirth. You come in faint for want of meat, de- 
part reeling with too much drink; sorry that you have paid 
too much, and sorry that you are paid too much ; purse and 
brain both empty; the brain the heavier for being too light, 
the purse too light, being drawn of heaviness: of this con- 
tradiction you shall now be quit. O, the charity of a penny 
cord! it sums up thousands in a trice: you have no true 
debitor and creditor but it; of what 's past, is, and to come, 
the discharge. Your neck, sir, is pen, book, and counters ; 
so the acquittance follows. 168 

Posthumus. I am merrier to die than thou art to live. 

i Gaoler. Indeed, sir, he that sleeps feels not the toothache : 
but a man that were to sleep your sleep, and a hangman to 
help him to bed, I think he would change places with his offi- 
cer; for, look you, sir, you know not which way you shall go. 



Posthumus. Yes, indeed do I, fellow. 

i Gaoler. Your death has eyes in 's head then ; I have 
not seen him so pictured. You must either be directed by 
some that take upon them to know, or take upon yourself 
that which I am sure you do not know, or jump the after in- 
quiry on your own peril ; and how you shall speed in your 
journey's end, I think you '11 never return to tell one. i&> 

Posthumus. I tell thee, fellow, there are none want eyes to 
direct them the way I am going, but such as wink and will 
not use them. 

i Gaoler. What an infinite mock is this, that a man should 
have the best use of eyes to see the way of blindness! I am 
sure hanging 's the way of winking. 

Enter a Messenger. 

Messenger. Knock off his manacles; bring your prisoner 
to the king. 

Posthumus. Thou bring'st good news; I am called to be 
made free. 190 

i Gaoler. I '11 be hanged then. 

Posthumus. Thou shalt be then freer than a gaoler; no 
bolts for the dead. [Exeunt all but i Gaoler. 

i Gaoler. Unless a man would marry a gallows and beget 
young gibbets, I never saw one so prone. Yet, on my con- 
science, there are verier knaves desire to live, for all he be a 
Roman : and there be some of them too that die against 
their wills ; so should I, if I were one. I would we were all 
of one mind, and one mind good. O, there were desolation 
of gaolers and gallowses! I speak against my present prof- 
it, but my wish hath a preferment in 't. [Exit. 


SCENE V. Cymbeline 1 s Tent. 

NIO, Lords, Officers, and Attendants. 

Cymbeline. Stand by my side, you whom the gods have 


Preservers of my throne. Woe is my heart 
That the poor soldier that so richly fought, 
Whose rags sham'd gilded arms, whose naked breast 
Stepp'cl before targes of proof, cannot be found. 
He shall be happy that can find him, if 
Our grace can make him so. 

Belarius. I never saw 

Such noble fury in so poor a thing, 
Such precious deeds in one that promis'd nought 
But beggary and poor looks. 

Cymbeline. No tidings of him ? 10 

Pisanio. He hath been search'd among the dead and liv- 
But no trace of him. 

Cymbeline. To my grief, I am 

The heir of his reward ; \To Belarius, Guiderius, and Arvira- 

gus\ which I will add 

To you, the liver, heart, and brain of Britain, 
By whom I grant she lives. 'T is now the time 
To ask of whence you are. Report it. 

Belarius. Sir, 

In Cambria are we born, and gentlemen. 
Further to boast were neither true nor modest, 
Unless I add, we are honest. 

Cymbeline. Bow your knees. 

Arise my knights o' the battle; I create you 20 

Companions to our person, and will fit you 
With dignities becoming your estates. 


Enter CORNELIUS and Ladies. 
There 's business in these faces. Why so sadly 
Greet you our victory? you look like Romans, 
And not o' the court of Britain. 

Cornelius. Hail, great king ( 

To sour your happiness, I must report 
The queen is dead. 

Cymbeline. Who worse than a physician 

Would this report become? But I consider, 
By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death 
Will seize the doctor too. How ended she? 30 

Cornelius. With horror, madly dying, like her life, 
Which, being cruel to the world, concluded 
Most cruel to herself. What she confess'd 
I will report, so please you; these her women 
Can trip me, if I err, who with wet cheeks 
Were present when she finished. 

Cymbeline. Prithee, say. 

Cornelius. First, she confess'd she never lov'd you, only 
Affected greatness got by you, not you; 
Married your royalty, was wife to your place, 
Abhorr'd your person. 

Cymbeline. She alone knew this; 40 

And, but she spoke it dying, I would not 
Believe her lips in opening it. Proceed. 

Cornelius. Your daughter, whom she bore in hand to love 
With such integrity, she did confess 
Was as a scorpion to her sight; whose life, 
But that her flight prevented it, she had 
Ta'en off by poison. 

Cymbeline. O most delicate fiend! 

Who is 't can read a woman ? Is there more ? 

Cornelius. More, sir, and worse. She did confess she had 
For you a mortal mineral, which, being took, 50 

ACT V. SCENE V. ! 45 

Should by the minute feed on life and lingering 

By inches waste you ; in which time she purpos'd, 

By watching, weeping, tendance, kissing, to 

O'ercome you with her show, and in time, 

When she had fitted you with her craft, to work 

Her son into the adoption of the crown : 

But, failing of her end by his strange absence, 

Grew shameless-desperate; open'd, in despite 

Of heaven and men, her purposes ; repented 

The evils she hatch'd were not effected; so 60 

Despairing died. 

Cymbeline. Heard you all this, her women ? 

i Lady. We did, so please your highness. 

Cymbeline. Mine eyes 

Were not in fault, for she was beautiful; 
Mine ears, that heard her flattery, nor my heart, 
That thought her like her seeming; it had been vicious 
To have mistrusted her: yet, O my daughter! 
That it was folly in me, thou mayst say, 
And prove it in thy feeling. Heaven mend all ! 

Enter Lucius, IACHIMO, the Soothsayer, and other Roman 

prisoners, #0rdfe/; POSTHUMUS behind, and IMOGEN. 
Thou com'st not, Caius, now for tribute; that 
The Britons have raz'd out, though with the loss 70 

Of many a bold one ; whose kinsmen have made suit 
That their good souls may be appeas'd with slaughter 
Of you their captives, which ourself have granted: 
So think of your estate. 

Lucius. Consider, sir, the chance of war : the day 
Was yours by accident ; had it gone with us, 
We should not, when the blood was cool, have threaten'd 
Our prisoners with the sword. But since the gods 
Will have it thus, that nothing but our lives 
May be call'd ransom, let it come; sufficeth So 



A Roman with a Roman's heart can suffer. 

Augustus lives to think on 't ; and so much 

For my peculiar care. This one thing only 

I will entreat: my boy, a Briton born, 

Let him be ransom'd; never master had 

A page so kind, so duteous, diligent, 

So tender over his occasions, true, 

So feat, so nurse-like. Let his virtue join 

With my request, which I '11 make bold your highness 

Cannot deny ; he hath done no Briton harm, 9< 

Though he have serv'd a Roman. Save him, sir, 

And spare no blood beside. 

Cymbeline. I have surely seen him ; 

His favour is familiar to me. Boy, 
Thou hast look'd thyself into my grace, 
And art mine own. I know not why nor wherefore, 
To say live, boy: ne'er thank thy master; live. 
And ask of Cymbeline what boon thou wilt, 
Fitting my bounty and thy state, I '11 give it; 
Yea, though thou do demand a prisoner, 
The noblest ta'en. 

Imogen. I humbly thank your highness. i<* 

Lucius. I do not bid thee beg my life, good lad ; 
And yet I know thou wilt. 

Imogen. No, no: alack, 

There 's other work in hand. I see a thing 
Bitter to me as death. Your life, good master, 
Must shuffle for itself. 

Lucius. The boy disdains me, 

He leaves me, scorns me; briefly die their joys 
That place them on the truth of girls and boys. 
Why stands he so perplex'd? 

Cymbeline. What wouldst thou, boy ? 

I love thee more and more ; think more and more 
What 's best to ask. Know'st him thou look'st on ? speak. 
Wilt have him live? Is he thv kin ? thv friend? n 



Imogen. He is a Roman j no more kin to me 
Than I to your highness, who, being born your vassal, 
Am something nearer. 

Cymbeline. Wherefore eyest him so? 

Imogen. I '11 tell you, sir, in private, if you please 
To give me hearing. 

Cymbeline. Ay, with all my heart, 

And lend my best attention. What 's thy name? 

Imogen. Fidel e, sir. 

Cymbeline. Thou 'rt my good youth, my page ; 

I '11 be thy master. Walk with me ; speak freely. 

\Cymbeline and Imogen converse apart. 

Belarius. Is not this boy reviv'd from death ? 

Arviragus. One sand another 

Not more resembles that sweet rosy lad 121 

Who died, and was Fidele. What think you? 

Guiderius. The same dead thing alive. 

Belarius. Peace, peace ! see further ; he eyes us not ; for- 

Creatures may be alike ; were 't he, I am sure 
He would have spoke to us. 

Guiderius. But we saw him dead. 

Belarius. Be silent ; let 's see further. 

Pisanio. [Aside] It is my mistress ! 

Since she is living, let the time run on 
To good or bad. [Cymbeline and Imogen come forward. 

Cymbeline. Come, stand thou by our side ; 

Make thy demand aloud. \To Iachimo~\ Sir, step you 
forth ; 130 

Give answer to this boy, and do it freely, 
Or, by our greatness and the grace of it, 
Which is our honour, bitter torture shall 
Winnow the truth from falsehood. On, speak to him. 

Imogen. My boon is, that this gentleman may render 
Of whom he had this ring. 


Posthumus. [Aside} What 's that to him ? 

Cymbeline. That diamond upon your finger, say 
How came it yours ? 

lachimo. Thou 'It torture me to leave unspoken that 
Which, to be spoke, would torture thee. 

Cymbeline. How! me? 140 

lachimo. I am glad to be constraint! to utter that 
Which torments me to conceal. By villany 
I got this ring ; 't was Leonatus' jewel, 
Whom thou didst banish ; and which more may grieve 


As it doth me a nobler sir ne'er liv'd 
'Twixt sky and ground. Wilt thou hear more, my lord ? 

Cymbeline. All that belongs to this. 

lachimo. That paragon, thy daughter, 

For whom my heart drops blood, and my false spirits 
Quail to remember Give me leave; I faint. 

Cymbeline. My daughter! what of her? Renew thy 
strength ; 150 

I had rather thou shouldst live while nature will 
Than die ere I hear more. Strive, man, and speak. 

lachimo. Upon a time, unhappy was the clock 
That struck the hour ! it was in Rome, accurs'd 
The mansion where ! ? t was at a feast, O, would 
Our viands had been poison'd, or at least 
Those which I heav'd to head! the good Posthumus 
What should I say? he was too good to be 
^AVhere ill men were, and was the best of all 
S Amongst the rar'st of good ones, sitting sadly, 160 

Hearing us praise our loves of Italy 
VFor beauty that made barren the swell'd boast 
Of him that best could speak ; for feature, laming 
The shrine of Venus, or straight-pight Minerva, 
Postures beyond brief nature ; for condition, 
A shop of all the qualities that man 

ACT V. SCENE V. 149 

Loves woman for, besides that hook of wiving, 
7 &' 

Fairness which strikes the eye 

Cymbeline. 1 stand on fire ; 

Come to the matter. 

lachimo. All too soon I shall, 

Unless thou wouldst grieve quickly. This Posthumus, 170 
Most like a noble lord in love and one 
That had a royal lover, took his hint ; 
And, not dispraising whom we prais'd, therein 
He was as calm as virtue he began 
His mistress' picture ; which by his tongue being made, 
And then a mind put in 't, either our brags 
Were crack'd of kitchen-trulls, or his description 
Proved us unspeaking sots. 

Cymbeline. Nay, nay, to the purpose. 

lachimo. Your daughter's chastity there it begins. 
He spake of her, as Dian had hot dreams, 180 

And she alone were cold ; whereat I, wretch, 
Made scruple of his praise, and wager'd with him 
Pieces of gold 'gainst this which then he wore 
Upon his honour'd finger, to attain 
In suit the place of 's bed and win this ring 
By hers and mine adultery. He, true knight, 
No lesser of her honour confident 
Than I did truly find her, stakes this ring; 
And would so, had it been a carbuncle 

Of Phoebus' wheel, and might so safely, had it 190 

Been all the worth of 's car. Away to Britain 
Post I in this design ; well may you, sir, 
Remember me at court, where I was taught 
Of your chaste daughter the wide difference 
'Twixt amorous and villanous. Being thus quencrTd 
Of hope, not longing, mine Italian brain 
Gan in your duller Britain operate 
Most vilely, for my vantage, excellent, 


And, to be brief, my practice so prevail'd, 

That I return'd with simular proof enough 200 

To make the noble Leonatus mad, 

By wounding his belief in her renown 

With tokens thus, and thus ; averring notes 

Of chamber-hanging, pictures, this her bracelet, 

cunning, how I got it ! nay, some marks 
Of secret on her person, that he coulcl not 
But think her bond of chastity quite crack'd, 

1 having ta'en the forfeit. Whereupon 
Methinks, I see him now 

Posthumus. \Advandng\ Ay, so thou dost, 
Italian fiend ! Ay me, most credulous fool, 210 

Egregious murtherer, thief, any thing 
That 's due to all the villains past, in being, 
To come ! O, give me cord, or knife, or poison, 
Some upright justicer ! Thou, king, send out 
For torturers ingenious ; it is I 
That all the abhorred things o' the earth amend 
By being worse than they. I am Posthumus, 
That kill'd thy daughter ; villain-like, I lie 
That caused a lesser villain than myself, 
A sacrilegious thief, to do 't : the temple 220 

Of virtue was she, yea, and she herself. 
Spit, and throw stones, cast mire upon me, set 
The dogs o' the street to bay me ; every villain 
Be call'd Posthumus Leonatus, and 
Be villany less than 7 t was ! O Imogen ! 
My queen, my life, my wife ! O Imogen, 
Imogen, Imogen ! 

Imogen. Peace, my lord ; hear, hear 

Posthumus. Shall 's have a play of this ? Thou scornful page, 
There lie thy part. [Striking her ; she falls. 

Pisanio. O, gen tl e m e n , h e 1 p ! 

Mine and your mistress ! O, my lord Posthumus ! 230 

ACT V. SCENE V. j^i 

You ne'er kilPd Imogen till now. Help, help ! 
Mine honour'd lady! 

Cymbdine. Does the world go round ? 

Posthumus. How comes these staggers on me ? 

Pisanio. Wake, my mistress ! 

Cymbeline. If this be so, the gods do mean to strike me 
To death with mortal joy. 

Pisanio. How fares my mistress ? 

Imogen. O, get thee from my sight ; 
Thou gav'st me poison : dangerous fellow, hence ! 
Breathe not where princes are. 

Cymbeline. The tune of Imogen ! 

Pisanio. Lady, 

The gods throw stones of sulphur on me, if 24 

That box I gave you was not thought by me 
A precious thing ; I had it from the queen. 

Cymbeline. New matter still ? 

Imogen. It poison'd me. 

Cornelius. O gods ! 

I left out one thing which the queen confess'd, 
Which must approve thee honest; 'If Pisanio 
Have,' said she, 'given his mistress that confection 
Which I gave him for cordial, she is serv'd 
As I would serve a rat.' 

Cymbeline. What 's this, Cornelius ? 

Cornelius. The queen, sir, very oft importun'd me 
To temper poisons for her, still pretending 25 

The satisfaction of her knowledge only 
In killing creatures vile, as cats and dogs, 
Of no esteem. I, dreading that her purpose 
Was of more danger, did compound for her 
A certain stuff, which, being ta'en, would cease 
The present power of life, but in short time 
All offices of nature should again 
Do their due functions. Have you ta'en of it ? 


Imogen. Most like I did, for I was dead. 

Belarius. My boys, 

There was our error. 

Guiderius. This is, sure, Fidele. 260 

Imogen. Why did you throw your wedded lady from 

you ? 

Think that you are upon a rock, and now 
Throw me again. [Embracing him. 

Posthumus. Hang there like fruit, my soul, 

Till the tree die ! 

Cymbeline. How now, my flesh, my child ! 

What, mak'st thou me a dullard in this act? 
Wilt thou not speak to me ? 

Imogen. \Kneeling\ Your blessing, sir. 

Belarius. \To Guiderius and Arviragus] Though you did 

love this youth, I blame ye not; 
You had a motive for 't. 

Cymbeline. My tears that fall 

Prove holy water on thee ! Imogen, 
Thy mother's dead. 

Imogen. I am sorry for 't, my lord. 270 

Cymbeline. O, she was naught ; and long of her it was 
That we meet here so strangely : but her son 
Is gone, we know not how nor where. 

Pisanio. My lord, 

Now fear is from me, I '11 speak troth. Lord Cloten, 
Upon my lady's missing, came to me 
With his sword drawn, foam'd at the mouth, and swore, 
If I discover'd not which way she was gone, 
It was my instant death. By accident, 
I had a feigned letter of my master's 

Then in my pocket, which directed him 280 

To seek her on the mountains near to Milford ; 
Where, in a frenzy, in my master's garments, 
Which he enforc'd from me, away he posts 


With unchaste purpose and with oath to violate 
My lady's honour. What became of him 
I further know not. 

Guiderius. Let me end the story ; 

I slew him there. 

Cymbeline. Marry, the gods forfend ! 

I would not thy good deeds should from my lips 
Pluck a hard sentence; prithee, valiant youth, 
Deny \ again. 

Guiderius. I have spoke it, and I did it. 

Cymbeline. He was a prince. 

Guiderius. A most incivil one ; the wrongs he did me 
Were nothing prince-like, for he did provoke me 
With language that would make me spurn the sea, 
If it could so roar to me. I cut off 's head, 
And am right glad he is not standing here 
To tell this tale of mine. 

Cymbeline. I am sorry for thee. 

By thine own tongue thou art condemn'd, and must 
Endure our law; thou 'rt dead. 

Imogen. That headless man 

I thought had been my lord. 

Cymbeline. Bind the offender, 

And take him from our presence. 

Belarius. Stay, sir king ! 

This man is better than the man he slew, 
As well descended as thyself, and hath 
More of thee merited than a band of Clotens 
Had ever scar for. [To the Guard} Let his arms alone; 
They were not born for bondage. 

Cymbeline. W r hy, old soldier, 

Wilt thou undo the worth thou art unpaid for, 
By tasting of our wrath ? How of descent 
As good as we ? 

Arviragus. In that he spake too far. 


Cymbeline. And thou shalt die for 't. 

Belarius. We will die all three, 

But I will prove that two on 's are as good 3 n 

As I have given out him. My sons, I must, 
For mine own part, unfold a dangerous speech, 
Though, haply, well for you. 

Arviragus. Your danger 's ours. 

Guiderius. And our good his. 

Belarius. Have at it then, by leave. 

Thou hadst, great king, a subject who 
Was call'd Belarius. 

Cymbeline. What of him ? he is 

A banish'd traitor. 

Belarius. He it is that hath 

Assum'd this age ; indeed a banish'd man, 
I know not how a traitor. 

Cymbeline. Take him hence ; 320 

The whole world shall not save him. 

Belarius. Not too hot ! 

First pay me for the nursing of thy sons ; 
And let it be confiscate all, so soon 
As I have receiv'd it. 

Cymbeline. Nursing of my sons ! 

Belarius. I am too blunt and saucy; here 's my knee. 
Ere I arise, I will prefer my sons; 
Then spare not the old father. Mighty sir, 
These two young gentlemen, that call me father 
And think they are my sons, are none of mine; 
They are the issue of your loins, my liege, 33 o 

And blood of your begetting. 

Cymbeline. How ! my issue ! 

Belarius. So sure as you your father's. I, old Morgan, 
Am that Belarius whom you sometime banish'd. 
Your pleasure was my mere offence, my punishment 
Itself, and all my treason ; that I suffer'd 

ACT V. SCENE V. ! 55 

Was all the harm I did. These gentle princes 

For such and so they are these twenty years 

Have I train'd up: those arts they have as I 

Could put into them ; my breeding was, sir, as 

Your highness knows. Their nurse, Euriphile, 340 

Whom for the theft I wedded, stole these children 

Upon my banishment. I moved her to 't, 

Having receiv'd the punishment before 

For that which I did then ; beaten for loyalty 

Excited me to treason. Their dear loss, 

The more of you 't was felt, the more it shap'd 

Unto my end of stealing them. But, gracious sir, 

Here are your sons again ; and I must lose 

Two of the sweet'st companions in the world. 

The benediction of these covering heavens 350 

Fall on their heads like dew! for they are worthy 

To inlay heaven with stars. 

Cymbdine. Thou weep'st, and speak'st. 

The service that you three have done is more 
Unlike than this thou tell'st. I lost my children ; 
If these be they, I know not how to wish 
A pair of worthier sons. 

Belarius. Be pleas'd awhile. 

This gentleman, whom I call Polydore, 
Most worthy prince, as yours, is true Guiderius. 
This gentleman, my Cadwal, Arviragus, 
Your younger princely son ; he, sir, was lapp'd 360 

In a most curious mantle, wrought by the hand 
Of his queen mother, which for more probation 
I can with ease produce. 

Cymbeline. Guiderius had 

Upbn his neck a mole, a sanguine star; 
It was a mark of wonder. 

Belarius. This is he, 

Who hath upon him still that natural stamp. 


It was wise nature's end in the donation, 
To be his evidence now. 

Cymbeline. O, what, am I 

A mother to the birth of three ? Ne'er mother 
Rejoic'd-deliverance more. Blest pray you be, 370 

That, after this strange starting from your orbs, 
You may reign in them now! O Imogen, 
Thou hast lost by this a kingdom. 

Imogen. No, my lord ; 

I have got two worlds by 't. O my gentle brothers, 
Have we thus met? O, never say hereafter 
But I am truest speaker: you call'd me brother, 
When I was but your sister ; I you brothers, 
When ye were so indeed. 

Cymbeline. Did you e'er meet? 

Arviragus. Ay, my good lord. 

Guiderius. And at first meeting lov'd; 

Continued so, until we thought he died. 380 

Cornelius. By the queen's dram she swallow'd. 

Cymbeline. O rare instinct! 

When shall I hear all through? This fierce abridgment 
Hath to it circumstantial branches, which 
Distinction should be rich in. Where? how liv'd you? 
And when came you to serve our Roman captive? 
How parted with your brothers? how first met them? 
Why fled you from the court? and whither? These, 
And your three motives to the battle, with 
I know not how much more, should be demanded, 
And all the other by-dependances, 390 

From chance to chance ; but nor the time nor place 
Will serve our long inter'gatories. See, 
Posthumus anchors upon Imogen, 
And she, like harmless lightning, throws her eye 
On him, her brothers, me, her master, hitting 
Each object with a joy ; the counterchange 

ACT V. SCENE V. 1 $j 

Is severally in all. Let 's quit this ground, 
And smoke the temple with our sacrifices. 
\To Belarius\ Thou art my brother; so we '11 hold thee 

Imogen. You are my father too, and did relieve me, 400 
To see this gracious season. 

Cymbeline. All o'erjoy'd, 

Save these in bonds; let them be joyful too, 
For they shall taste our comfort. 

Imogen. My good master, 

I will yet do you service. 

Lucius. Happy be you! 

Cymbeline. The forlorn soldier, that so nobly fought, 
He would have well becom'd this place, and grac'd 
The thankings of a king. 

Posthumus. I am, sir, 

The soldier that did company these three 
In poor beseeming; 't was a fitment for 
The purpose I then follow'd. That I was he, 410 

Speak, lachimo; I had you down, and might 
Have made you finish. 

lachimo. \Kneeling\ I am down again; 
But now my heavy conscience sinks my knee, 
As then your force did. Take that life, beseech you, 
Which I so often owe ; but your ring first, 
And here the bracelet of the truest princess 
That ever swore her faith. 

Posthumus. Kneel not to me ; 

The power that I have on you is to spare you, 
The malice towards you to forgive you. Live, 
And deal with others better. 

Cymbeline. Nobly doom'd! 420 

We Ml learn our freeness of a son-in-law ; 
Pardon 's the word to all. 

Arviragus. You holp us, sir, 


As you did mean indeed to be our brother; 
Joy'd are we that you are. 

Posthumus. Your servant, princes. Good my lord of 


Call forth your soothsayer. As I slept, methought 
Great Jupiter, upon his eagle back'd, 
Appear'd to me, with other spritely shows 
Of mine own kindred. When I wak'd, I found 
This label on my bosom, whose containing 43 

Is so from sense in hardness, that I can 
Make no collection of it ; let him show 
His skill in the construction. 

Lucius. Philarmonus! 

Soothsayer. Here, my good lord. 

Lucius. Read, and declare the meaning. 

Soothsayer. [Reads] ' Whenas a lion's whelp shall, to him- 
self unknown, without seeking find, and be embraced by a piece 
of tender air; and when from a stately cedar shall be lopped 
branches, which, being dead many years, shall after revive, be 
jointed to the old stock, and freshly grow; then shall Posthumus 
end his miseries, Britain be fortunate and flourish in peace and 
plenty? 441 

Thou, Leonatus, art the lion's whelp; 
The fit and apt construction of thy name, 
Being Leo-natus, doth import so much.- 
\To Cymbeline~\ The piece of tender air, thy virtuous daughter, 
Which we call ' mollis aer ;' and ' mollis aer ' 
We term it 'mulier:' which ' mulier ' I divine 
Is this most constant wife; who, even now, 
Answering the letter of the oracle, 

Unknown to you, unsought, were clipp'd about w 

With this most tender air. 

Cymbeline. This hath some seeming. 

Soothsayer. The lofty cedar, royal Cymbeline, 
Personates thee; and thy lopp'd branches point 

ACT V. SCENE V. ! 59 

Thy two sons forth, who, by Belarius stol'n, 
For many years thought dead, are now reviv'd, 
To the majestic cedar join'd, whose issue 
Promises Britain peace and plenty. 

Cymbeline. Well, 

My peace we will begin. And, Caius Lucius, 
Although the victor, we submit to Caesar 
And to the Roman empire, promising 4 6 

To pay our wonted tribute, from the which 
We were dissuaded by our wicked queen ; 
Whom heavens, in justice, both on her and hers, 
Have laid most heavy hand. 

Soothsayer. The fingers of the powers above do tune 
The harmony of this peace. The vision 
Which I made known to Lucius, ere the stroke 
Of yet this scarce-cold battle, at this instant 
Is full accomplish'd ; for the Roman eagle, 
From south to west on wing soaring aloft, 470 

Lessen'd herself, and in the beams o' the sun 
So vanished : which foreshow'd our princely eagle, 
The imperial Caesar, should again unite 
His favour with the radiant Cymbeline, 
Which shines here in the west. 

Cymbeline. Laud we the gods; 

And let our crooked smokes climb to their nostrils 
From our blest altars. Publish we this peace 
To all our subjects. Set we forward. Let 
A Roman and a British ensign wave 

Friendly together; so through Lud's town march, 4 8o 

And in the temple of great Jupiter 
Our peace we '11 ratify, seal it with feasts. 
Set on there! Never was a war did cease, 
Ere bloody hands were wash'd, with such a peace. \Exeunt. 



Abbott (or Gr.), Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar (third edition). 
A. S., Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V., Authorized Version of the Bible (1611). 

B. and F., Beaumont and Fletcher. 
B. J., Ben Jonson. 

Camb. ed., " Cambridge edition" of Shakespeare, edited by Clark and Wright. 

Cf. (confer), compare. 

Clarke, " Cassell's Illustrated Shakespeare," edited by Charles and Mary Cowden- 
Clarke (London, n. d.). 

Coll., Collier (second edition). 

Coll. MS., Manuscript Corrections of Second Folio, edited by Collier. 

D., Dyce (second edition). 

H., Hudson (" Harvard" ed.). 

Halliwell, J. O. Halliwell (folio ed. of Shakespeare). 

Id. (idem), the same. 

J. H., J. Hunter's ed. oiCymb. (London, 1878). 

K., Knight (second edition). 

Nares, Glossary, edited bv Halliwell and Wright (London, 1859). 

Prol., Prologue. 

S-, Shakespeare. 

Schmidt, A. Schmidt's Shakespeare- Lexicon (Berlin, 1874). 

Sr., Singer. 

St., Staunton. 

Theo., Theobald. 

V., Verplanck. 

W., R. Grant White. 

Walker, Wm. Sidney Walker's Critical Examination of the Text of Shakespeare 
(London, 1860). 

Warb., Warburton. 

Wb., Webster's Dictionary (revised quarto edition of 1879). 

Wore., Worcester's Dictionary (quarto edition). 

The abbreviations of the names of Shakespeare's Plays will be readily understood ; as 
T. N. for Twelfth Night, Cor. for Coriolanus, 3 Hen. VI. for The Third Part of King 
Henry the Sixth, etc. P. P. refers to The Passionate Pilgrim ; V. and A . to Venus 
and Adonis ; L. C. to Lover's Complaint ; and Sonn. to the Sonnets. 

When the abbreviation of the name of a play is followed by a reference to page, 
Rolfe's edition of the play is meant. 

The numbers of the lines (except for the present play) are those of the " Globe " ed. 
or of the American reprint of that ed. 




THE following extracts from Holinshed (see p. n above) include all 
the portions of the chronicle which Shakespeare can have used in writ- 
ing the play : 

" After the death of Cassibelane, Theomantius or Lenantius, the young- 
est son of Lud, was made king of Britain in the year of the world 3921, 
after the building of Rome 706, and before the coming of Christ 45. 
Theomantius ruled the land in good quiet, and paid the tribute to the 
Romans which Cassibelane had granted, and finally departed this life 
after he had reigned twenty-two years, and was buried at London. 

" Kymbeline or Cimbeline, the son of Theomantius, was of the Brit- 
ains made king, after the decease of his father, in the year of the world 
3944, after the building of Rome 728, and before the birth of our Saviour 
33. This man (as some write) was brought up at Rome, and there made 
knight by Augustus Caesar, under whom he served in the wars, and was in 
such favour with him that he was at liberty to pay his tribute or not. . . . 
Touching the continuance of the years of Kymbeline's reign some writers 
do vary, but the best approved affirm that he reigned thirty-five years 
and then died, and was buried at London, leaving behind him two sons, 
Guiderius and Arviragus. But here is to be noted that, although our 

1 64 NOTES. 

histories do affirm that as well this Kymbeline, as also his father Theo- 
mantius, lived in quiet with the Romans, and continually to them paid 
the tributes which the Britains had covenanted with Julius Caesar to pay, 
yet we find in the Roman writers, that after Julius Caesar's death, when 
Augustus had taken upon him the rule of the empire, the Britains refused 
to pay that tribute : whereat, as Cornelius Tacitus reporteth, Augustus 
(being otherwise occupied) was contented to wink; howbeit, through 
earnest calling upon to recover his right by such as were desirous to see 
the uttermost of the British kingdom ; at length, to wit, in the tenth year 
after the death of Julius Caesar, which was about the thirteenth year of 
the said Theomantius, Augustus made provision to pass with an army 
over into Britain, and was come forward upon his journey into Gallia 
Celtica, or, as we may say, into these hither parts of France. 

" But here receiving advertisements that the Pannonians, which inhab- 
ited the country now called Hungary, and the Dalmatians, whom now we 
call Slavons, had rebelled, he thought it best first to subdue those rebels 
near home, rather than to seek new countries, and leave such in hazard 
whereof he had present possession ; and so, turning his power against the 
Pannonians and Dalmatians, he left off for a time the wars of Britain, 
whereby the land remained without fear of any invasion to be made by 
the Romans till the year after the building of the city of Rome, 725, and 
about the nineteenth year of Theomantius' reign, that Augustus with an 
army departed once again from Rome to pass over into Britain there to 
make war. But after his coming into Gallia, when the Britains sent to 
him certain ambassadors to treat with him of peace, he staid there to set- 
tle the state of things among the Galles, for that they were not in very 
good order. ... But whether this controversy, which appeareth to fall 
forth betwixt the Britains and Augustus, was occasioned by Kymbeline, 
or some other prince of the Britains, I have not to avouch : for that by our 
writers it is reported that Kymbeline, being brought up in Rome, and 
knighted in the court of Augustus, ever showed himself a friend to the 
Romans, and chiefly was loth to break with them, because the youth of 
the British nation should not be deprived of the benefit to be trained and 
brought up among the Romans, whereby they might learn both to be- 
have themselves like civil men, and to attain to the knowledge of feats 
of war. . . . 

" Mulmucius Dunwallo, the son of Cloten, got the upper hand of the 
other dukes or rulers : and after his father's decease began his reign over 
the whole monarchy of Britain, in the year of the world 3529. This Mul- 
mucius Dunwallo proved a right worthy prince. He builded within the 
city of London, then called Troinovant, a temple, and called it the Tem- 
ple of Peace. He also made many good laws, which were long after 
used, called Mulmucius' laws. After he had established his land, and 
set his Britains in good and convenient order, he ordained him by the ad- 
vice of his lords a crown of gold, and caused himself with great solemni- 
ty to be crowned, according to the custom of the pagan laws then in use : 
and because he was the first who bare a crown here in Britain, after the 
opinion of some writers, he is named the first king of Britain, and all the 
other before rehearsed are named rulers, dukes, or governors." 

ACT I. SCENE I. l6 r 


SCENE I. i. Bloods. Temperaments, dispositions; as in 2 Hen. IV. 
iv. 4. 38: "When you perceive his blood inclin'd to mirth," etc. The 
plural is used, as often, because more than one person is referred to. Cf. 
Rich. II. p. 206, note on Sights. 

3. Still seem as does the king. The folios have " kings," and some 
modern editors read " king's " (that is, the king's blood). King is Tyr- 
whitt's conjecture (also in the Coll. MS.), and is adopted by K., Coll., I)., 
W., Clarke, and others. 

The sense is : Our temperaments are not more surely controlled by 
planetary influences than the aspect of our courtiers is by that of the 
king ; their looks reflect the sadness of his. Cf. 13 just below. 

4. Of 's. Such contractions are especially frequent in the latest plays 
of S. See many instances below. 

10. None but the king? "Are all but the king in outward sorrow 
only ? none else touched at heart ?" (J. H.). 

13. To the bent. According to the cast or aspect Cf. A. and C. i. 3. 

** " Eternity was in our lips and eyes, 

Bliss in our brows' bent," etc. 

23. Outward. For the noun, cf. Sonn. 69. 5 : " Thy outward thus with 
outward praise is crown'd ;" T. and C. iii. 2. 169 : "Outliving beauty's 
outward," etc. 

24. But he. Changed by Rowe to " but him." Cf. A. Y. L. i. 2. 18 : 
5< my father hath no child but I." See also Gr. 205 fol. 

You speak him far. You go far in what you say of him. Cf. v. 5. 309 

25. I do extend him, sir, within himself. That is, far as I speak him, 
I keep within the bounds of his merit. Malone paraphrases the passage 
thus : " My eulogium, however extended it may seem, is short of his real 
excellence ; it is abbreviated rather than expanded." 

29. Did join his honour. Gave his noble aid or alliance. The passage 
has troubled many of the commentators, who have suggested " win," 
"gain," and "earn" for join, and "banner" for honozir ; but no change 
seems really called for. 

30. Casstbelan. Lud's younger brother, while Tenantius, whom Hoi ins- 
hed (see p. 163 above) calls " Theomantius or Lenantius," was Lud's son. 
On the death of his brother, Cassibelan usurped the throne. 

31. But had his titles, etc. That is, though he had joined the party of 
the usurper, he was forgiven and honoured by the rightful king. 

33. Sur-addition. Surname ; used by S. only here. " The name of 
Leonatus he found in Sidney's Arcadia. Leonatus is there the legitimate 
son of the blind King of Paphlagonia, on whose story the episode of 
Gloster, Edgar, and Edmund is formed in King Lear" (Malone). Cf. 
Lear, p. 159. 

37. Fond of issue. The Coll. MS, has " of 's " for of; but, as Coll. re- 
marks, the change is needless. 

41. Leonatus. Omitted by Pope for the sake of the metre ; but proper 

1 66 NOTES. 

names are often used in this loose way at the end of a line. See Gr. 

43. Learnings. The only instance of the plural in S. His tt'me=his 

46. In '.r. See on 4 above. Pope changed in *s to " his." 

47. Which rare it is to do. " This encomium is high and artful. To 
be at once in any degree loved and praised is truly rare " (Johnson). 

49. Feated. Fashioned, " featured " (Rowe's reading) ; used by S. only 
here. Sr. quotes Palsgrave, 1530: "I am well feted or shapen of my 
lymmes ; je suis bien aligne." 

Steevens compares 2 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 21 [see also 31] : 

" he was indeed the glass 
Wherein the noble youth did dress themselves ;" 

and Ham. iii. i. 161 : "The glass of fashion and the mould of form.' T 

50. To his mistress. Mason says that to is "a.? to." We prefer to 
consider the passage an instance of " construction changed by change of 
thought" (Gr. 415). 

58. Mark it. " Shakespeare's dramatic art uses this expedient, natu- 
rally introduced into the dialogue, to draw special attention to a circum- 
stance that it is essential should be borne in mind, and which otherwise 
might escape notice in the course of narration " (Clarke). 

63. Conveyed. Stolen. Cf. Rich. II. iv. I. 317 : " O, good ! Convey ? 
conveyers are you all ;" and see our ed. p. 206. 

70. Enter the Queen, etc. The folio begins " Scena Secunda" here, 
and some modern editors follow it. Rowe was the first to continue the 

74. Posthumus. Accented by S. on the second syllable. V. remarks : 
"Well-educated men in England have an accuracy as to Latin quantity, 
and lay a stress upon it, such as are elsewhere found only among pro- 
fessed scholars. On this account Steevens and other critics have con- 
sidered the erroneous quantity or accentuation of Posthumus and Ar- 
viragus as decisive of Shakespeare's want of learning. But the truth is, 
that in his day, great latitude, in this respect, prevailed among authors ; 
and it is probable that Latin was taught in the schools, as it still is in 
Scotland and many parts of the United States, without any minute at- 
tention to prosody. Steevens himself has shown that the older poets 
were careless in this matter. Thus the poetical Earl of Stirling has 
Darius and Euphrates with the penultimate short. Warner, who was, I 
believe, a scholar, in his 'Albion's England,' has the same error with 
Shakespeare, as to both names." 

78. Leaned unto. Bowed to, submitted to. 

86. Something. . , nothing. Both often used adverbially. Cf. i. 4. 66, 
101, i. 6. 190, iv. 4, 15, etc., below. Gr. 55, 68. 

87. Always reserved my holy duty. " So far as I may say it without 
breach of duty" (Johnson), 

96. Loyalist. For the contracted superlative, cf. iii. 5. 44, iv. 2. 175, 
191, etc., below. Gr. 473. 

101. Gall. Johnson says: " Shakespeare, even in this poor conceit, 
has confounded the vegetable galls used in ink with the animal gall, sup- 

ACT I. SCENE I. !6 7 

posed to be bitter ;" but Steevens reminds him that the vegetable gall 
is also bitter. Cf. T. N. iii. 2. 52 : " Let there be gall enough in thy 

105. He does btiy my injuries to be friends. " He gives me a valuable 
consideration in new kindness (purchasing, as it were, the wrong I have 
done him), in order to renew our amity and make us friends again " 

113. Till you woo another wife. Mrs. Jameson says on this and what 
follows : " Imogen, in whose tenderness there is nothing jealous or fan- 
tastic, does not seriously apprehend that her husband will woo another 
wife when she is dead. It is one of those fond fancies which women are 
apt to express in moments of feeling, merely for the pleasure of hearing 
a protestation to the contrary. When Posthumus leaves her, she does 
not burst forth in eloquent lamentation ; but that silent, stunning, over- 
whelming sorrow, which renders the mind insensible to all things else, 
is represented with equal force and simplicity." 

116. Sear. "Cere" and "seal" have been suggested, but we think it 
probable, with Clarke, that "sear is here used to express the dry wither- 
ing of death, as well as the closing with wax by those bonds of death, 
cerecloths [cf. M. ofV. ii. 7. 51], sometimes written seare-cloths" 

118. While sense can keep it on. Steevens took this to be "While 
sense can maintain its operations, or continues to have its usual power ;" 
but it probably refers to the ring, as others have explained it. For the 
change of person, Malone compares iii. 3. 103 below : 

" Euriphile, 

Thou wast their nurse ; they took thee for their mother, 
And every day do honour to her grave." 

Pope reads " thee " for it, and W. conjectures " it own " (cf. W. T. p. 

124. When shall we see again ? Cf. Hen. VIII. i. I. 2 : " Since last we 
saw in France." See also T. and C. iv. 4. 59. Gr. 382. 

125. Avoid! Begone ! Cf. C. of E. iv. 3. 48 : " Satan, avoid !" See 
also Temp. p. 137. 

126. Fraught. Burden. Cf. Temp. i. 2. 13: "The fraughting souls 
within her" (that is, the ship). See also M. of V. p. 145. Freight is not 
used by S. or Milton, either as verb or noun. 

129. The good remainders, etc. "That is, the court which now gets 
rid of my umvorthiness " (Schmidt). 

130. A pinch. A pang. Cf. Temp.v. I. 77: "Whose inward pinches 
[the pangs of remorse] therefore are most strong." 

133. A year's age. As the passage stands this seems an impotent con- 
clusion, and the defective measure of the preceding line suggests that 
something may have been lost. Hanmer gave " heapest many," and 
Capell "heap'st instead." Theo. changed year's to " yare " (=speedy), 
and Johnson conjectured " Years, ages." Schmidt would read " a years' 
age" = "an age advanced in years, old age." V. accepts the old read- 
ing, and says : " The aged king, to whom every added year is a serious 
burden, tells his daughter that in her present act of fond sorrow she 
takes away a year of his life." 

1 68 NOTES. 

135. Senseless of. Insensible to. Cf. A. Y. L. ii. 7. 55 : " to seem 
senseless of the bob " (that is, seem not to feel the blow), etc. 

A touch more rare. A more exquisite sensibility. Malone quotes 
Lear, iii. 4. 8 : 

" But where the greater malady is fix'd, 
The lesser is scarce felt." 

140. A puttock. A kite, or a worthless species of hawk. Cf. 2 Hen. VI. 
iii. 2. 191 : 

" Who finds the partridge in the puttock' s nest 
But may imagine how the bird was dead, 
Although the kite soar with unbloodied beak?" 

and T. and C. v. I. 68 : "a toad, a lizard, an owl, a puttock," etc. 

146. Overbuys me, etc. Pays a price that exceeds by almost the full 
amount what he gets in return ; that is, he gives himself worth any 
woman, even the best of her sex, and gets only my almost worthless self 
in return. 

153. Beseech your patience. That is, / beseech it; a common ellipsis. 
Cf. prithee I pray thee. See Gr. 401. 

156. Your best advice. Your most careful consideration. Cf. Rich. 
II. i. 3. 233 : " Thy son is banish'd upon good advice " (that is, after due 
deliberation) ; M. of V. iv. 2.6: " upon more advice " (upon reflection), 

157. A drop of blood a day. Steevens compares Oth. v. 2. 155 : 

" may his pernicious soul 
Rot half a grain a day ! " 

164. On V. Of it. Cf. v. 5. 311 below: "two on 's," etc. Gr. 182. 
167. In Afric. That is, where no one would be at hand to part them. 
Cf. Cor. iv. 2. 23 : 

" I would my son 

Were in Arabia, and thy tribe before him, 
His good sword in his hand!" 

Macb. iii. 4. 104 : " And dare me to the desert with thy sword ;" and 
Rich. II. iv. i. 74: "I dare meet Surrey in a wilderness" (see our ed. 
p. 202). On Afric, cf. Cor. p. 21 1. 

171. Bring: Accompany. Cf. W. T. iv. 3. 122 : " Shall I bring thee 
on the way ?" See also Gen. xviii. 16, Acts, xxi. 5, 2 Cor. i. 16, etc. 

176. Walk. Retire, withdraw. See Lear, p. 222. 

SCENE II. 5. Then to shift it. Then I would shift it. Some follow 
Rowe in pointing " then to shift it " 

8. Passable. Affording free passage ; no more to be wounded than 
" the still-closing waters " in Temp. iii. 3. 64. 

9. Through/are. Thoroughfare ; as in M. of V. ii. 7. 42. Thorough- 
fare does not occur in the folio, though many of the modern eds. follow 
Pope in reading it here. Cf. Gr. 478. 

14. He fled forward. Steevens compares T. and C. iv. I. 20 : 

"And thou shalt hunt a lion, that will fly 
With his face backward." 


17. Having. Possession, property. Cf. T. A T . iii. 4, 379 : " My having 
is not much." See also A. Y.L. p. 178. The quibble in gave you some 
ground is obvious. 

19. Puppies. Referring to " his disgust at the swagger of Cloten and 
the sycophancy of the first lord, who plies the swaggerer with spaniel 
flattery and fawning " (Clarke). 

25. A true election. A right choice. W. thinks there is an allusion to 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election. 

27. Her beauty and her brain, etc. Johnson conjectured " beauty and 
brain ;" but the meaning is simply that her beauty and wit are not 

28. She 's a good sign, etc. " She has a fair outside, a specious appear- 
ance, but no wit" (Edwards). Cf. Much Ado, iv. I. 34 : " She 's but the 
sign and semblance of her honour." Malone cites what lachimo says of 
Imogen in i. 6. 15 : 

"All of her .that is out of door, most rich! 
If she be furnish 1 d with a mind so rare, 
She is alone the Arabian bird." 

SCENE III. 4. As offered mercy is. " As a pardon that has miscarried, 
or arrived too late to stay the execution of a prisoner " (J. H.). St. would 
read "deferr'd." 

9. This. The folios have " his ;" corrected by Theo. (the conjecture 
of Warb.). Coleridge suggests "the," and W. "or." Hanmer reads 
"mark me with hiseye, or I," etc. 

12. Of J s. See on i. i. 4 above. 

1 6. After-eye. Look after ; used by S. only here. 

17. Crack "d. Not a weaker word than broke, as S. uses it. Cf. Cor. 
i. i. 72 : 

" Cracking ten thousand curbs 
Of more strong link asunder than can ever 
Appear in your impediment ;" 

and see our ed. p. 196. 

1 8. The diminution of space. The diminution due to space, or dis- 

24. Vantage. Opportunity. Cf. ii. 3. 43 below. 

29. Shes. Cf. i. 6. 39 below : " two such shes." See also A. Y. L. 
p. 170. Gr. 224. 

32. 71? encounter. To meet, or join with. 

33. I am in heaven. My prayers will be rising to heaven. 

35. Two charming words. Imogen does not tell us these words, but 
Warb. informs us that they were "Adieu, Posthumus !" Charming^ 
that should be as a charm to preserve him from evil. 

36. The north. Cf. Oth. v. 2. 220 : " No, I will speak as liberal as the 
north ;" that is, as freely as the north wind blows. 

37. Our^buds. " Our buds of love," as Malone is kind enough to tell 
us. Warb. wanted to read "blowing" for growing; which drew forth 
this ponderous comment from Johnson : " A bud without any distinct 
idea, whether of flower or fruit, is a natural representation of any thing 

I7 o NOTES. 

incipient or immature ; and the buds of flowers, if flowers are meant, 
grow to flowers, as the buds of fruits grow to fruits." Cf. R. and J. ii. 

2. 121 * 

"This bud of love, by summer's ripening breath, 
May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet." 

SCENE IV. " It has been observed that the behaviour of the Spaniard 
and the Dutchman, who are stated to be present during this animated 
scene, is in humorous accordance with the apathy and taciturnity usually 
attributed to their countrymen. Neither the Don nor Mynheer utters a 
syllable. * What was Imogen to them, or they to Imogen,' that they 
should speak of her ?" (V.). W. remarks that " their mere presence has 
a dramatic value, as indicating the mixed company of travellers in which 
this scene takes place." 

2. A crescent note. A growing reputation. For crescent, cf. Ham. i. 3. 
II and A. and C. ii. I. 10; and for note ( = distinction), i. 6. 22 below: 
" of the noblest note," etc. The 3d and 4th folios have " none " for 
note; and Pope (ed. 2) reads : "then but crescent, none expected him," 

4. Admiration. Wonder, astonishment; as in i. 6. 37 below. 

8. Makes him. " In the sense in which we say, This will make or mar 
you" (Johnson). 

14. Words him . . . a great deal from the matter. "Makes the de- 
scription of him very distant from the truth" (Johnson). Forfrom = 
away from, see Rich. III. p. 233, or T. N. p. 130. Gr. 158. 

18. Under her colours. " Under her banner ; by herinfluence " (John- 

Are wonderfully to extend him. Tend greatly to increase his reputa- 
tion. Cf. the use of extend in i. i. 25 above. Are is probably an in- 
stance of "confusion of proximity " (Gr. 412), as Malone explains it ; but 
Steevens includes the preceding matter (in 12) and banishment in the sub- 
ject. The Coll. MS. has " are wont." 

20. Without less. Changed by Rowe to " without more." W. con- 
jectures " with less " or " without this," and Lloyd " without other." It 
is probably one of the peculiar " double negatives " of which so many 
examples are to be found in S. See Lear, p. 210 (note on You less know 
how, etc.), or A. Y. L. p. 156 (on No more do yours}. Cf. Schmidt, p. 1420. 

26. Knowing. Knowledge, experience ; as in ii. 3. 95 below. 

30. Story. Cf. V.and A. 1013 : "and stories His victories;" and R. of 
L. 106 : " He stories to her ears her husband's fame." S. uses the verb 
only three times. 

32. Have known together. Have been acquainted. Cf. A. and C. ii. 6. 
86 : " You and I have known, sir." Pope thought it necessary to read 
"been known." 

34. Which I will be ever to pay, etc. Malone misquotes A. W. iii. 7. 16 : 
" Which I will overpay [" ever pay," he gives it] and pay again." 

36. Atone. Make at one, reconcile ; as in Rich. II. i. i. 202 : " Since we 
cannot atone you," etc. See our ed. p. 156. For other meanings of 'atone, 
see A. Y. L. p. 199. 

37. Mortal. Deadly ; as in iii. 4. 18, v. 3. 51, v. 5. 50, 235 below. 


38. Importance. Import, matter, subject. Malone and Steevens make 
it = importunity ; as in T. N. v. i. 371 and K. John, ii. i. 7. 

41. Go evert. Agree, act in accordance. It is used without with 
( = agree, coincide) in T. N. v. 1.246: "Were you a woman as the rest 
goes even," etc. 

43. Offend not. The not is omitted in the folios; inserted by Rowe. 
The Coll. MS. has " not offend " (cf. Gr. 305). 

46. Such . . . that. Cf. W. T. i. 2. 263 : 

"these, my lord, 

Are such allow' d infirmities that honesty 
Is never free of." 

See also i. 6. 129, etc., below. Gr. 279. 

47. Confounded. Destroyed ; as often. See Macb. p. 189. Cf. confu- 
sion in iii. i. 64 and iv. 2. 93 below. 

51. Which may without contradiction, etc. " Which, undoubtedly, may 
be publicly told " (Johnson). 

54. Upon warrant of bloody affirmation. That is, pledging himself to 
seal the truth of it with his blood. S. uses affirmation nowhere else. 

55. Constant-qualified. Faithful. The folios have "Constant, Quali- 

56. Attemptable. Liable to be attempted, or seduced ; the only instance 
of the word in S. 

63. Though I profess myself her adorer, not her friend. This may be 
though I profess to be only her disinterested admirer, not her personal 
friend. Johnson explained it thus : " Though I have not the common ob- 
ligations of a lover to his mistress, and regard her not with the fondness 
of a friend, but with the reverence of an adorer." Mason suggested trans- 
posing adorer znd friend. Steevens took friend to be = lover (as in A. 
and C. iii. 12. 22, etc.), and Schmidt gives the same explanation. W. 
reads "adorer and her friend;" making friend=" accepted lover." 
Clarke takes not her friend to be = " not merely her friend," and though = 
"inasmuch as, since." St. says : " Posthumus, we apprehend, does not 
mean, I avow myself, not simply her admirer, but her worshipper ; but, 
stung by the scornful tone of lachimo's remark, he answers, Provoked 
as I was in France, I would abate her nothing, though the declaration of 
my opinion proclaimed me her idolater rather than her lover." 

69. Could not but. The folios omit but, which Malone supplied. 

77. If there were, etc. The folios have "or if," etc. If it were not for 
the or immediately preceding, which probably led to the accidental repe- 
tition of the word, we might take "or if" to be=" either if," as J. H. 

89. To convince. As to overcome. For the ellipsis of as, see Gr. 281 ; 
and for convince, cf. Macb. i. 7. 64 : 

" his two chamberlains 
Will I with wine and wassail so convince 
That memory, the warder of the brain, 
Shall be a fume," etc. 

90. Nothing. For the adverbial use, see on i. i. 86 above. 

172 NOTES, 

93. Leave. Leave off, desist. Cf. ii. 2. 4 below. See also Rich. II. 

p. 211. 

97. Go back. Give way. Cf. A. and C. v. 2. 155 : " What, goest thou 

98. To friend. For my friend, to befriend me. Cf. J. C. iii. 1. 143 : " I 
know that we shall have him well to friend," etc. See Temp. p. 124, note 
on A paragon to their queen. Gr. 189. 

100. Moiety. Here half, but often used for other fractions. See Ham. 
p. 174. 

101. Something. See on i. i. 86 above. 

103. Herein too. The reading of the 3d folio. The earlier folios have 
" to " for too. W. reads " herein-to," and " hereunto " is an anonymous 
conjecture noted in the Camb. ed. 

105. A great deal abused. Much deceived. Cf. Much Ado, v. 2. 100: 
" Hero hath been falsely accused, the prince and Claudio mightily 
abused," etc. See also iii. 4. 102, 120 below. 

115. Approbation. Proving, establishing. Cf. Hen. V. i. 2. 19 : 

" For God doth know how many, now in health, 
Shall drop their blood in approbation 
Of what your reverence shall incite us to !" 

See our ed. p. 146. 

117. Whom in constancy ^you think stands, etc. For the "confusion of 
construction," cf. Temp. iii. 3. 92 : " Young Ferdinand whom they sup- 
pose is drown'd ;" K. John, iv. 2. 165 : " Of Arthur whom they say is 
kill'd to-night," etc. Gr. 410. 

123. Wage. Wager, stake. Cf. Lear, p. 172. 

125. Afraid. The folios have "a friend;" corrected by Theo. (the 
conjecture of Warb.). The Coll. MS. has " afeard." Clarke retains **a 
friend," as a sneering allusion to what Posthumus has said in 63 above, 
and takes the meaning to be : " You are a friend (or lover), not an ador- 
er, and therein the wiser, since women are not worthy of adoration and 
worship, as immaculate beings." He considers that the use of religion 
favours this interpretation. 

131. Undergo. Undertake, maintain. Cf. iii. 5. 109 below. 

134. Between J s. Changed by Pope to " between us." See on i. i. 4 above. 

137. Lay. Wager ; as in Oth. ii. 3. 330 : " my fortunes against any lay 
worth naming," etc. 

138. If I bring you, etc. " This is in accordance with lachimo's design- 
ing manner. He affects to state the terms of the wager on both sides ; 
but he, in fact, proposes them so that they shall suggest, either way, Post- 
humus's winning " (Clarke). 

142. Jewel. Applied in the time of S. to any personal ornament of 
gold or precious stones ; as here, and in M.ofV.v. i. 224, to a ring. In 
ii. 3. 139 below it means a bracelet. Cf. C. of E. p. 117. 

143. Provided I have, etc. That is, provided you will commend (or in- 
troduce) me to her so that I may be readily received or entertained. Cf. 
119 above. J. H. explains it thus : "Provided I shall receive commen- 
dation from you, in the event of my obtaining a more free reception." 

145. Articles. A written agreement. Cf. 152 just below. 


147. Your voyage upon her. " Your venture upon her " (W.). Cf. M. 
W. ii. i. 189 : "If he should intend this voyage towards my wife," etc 
See also T. N. iii. i. 86. 

154. Starve. Perish with cold ; as in 2 Hen. VI. iii. i. 343 : 
' I fear me you but warm the starved snake, 
Who, cherish'd in your breasts, will sting your hearts." 

See also Spenser, Shep. Kal. Feb. : " The rather Lambes bene starved 
with cold" (where rather^ earlier- born), etc. The 1st and 2d folios 
have "sterue," for which form see Cor. p. 233, or M. of V. p. 158. 
158. Will not from it. Will not recede from it, will not "back out." 

SCENE V. i. Whiles. Used by S. interchangeably with while, which 
Rowe substituted here. Gr. 137. 

2. Note. List ; or perhaps " prescription, receipt," as Schmidt explains 
it. It has this latter sense in A. W. i. 3. 232. 

5. Pleaseth. If it please. See 2 Hen. IV. p. 184. Gr. 361. 

12. Learned. Taught ; as often. See Rich. II. p. 203, or Gr. 291. Cf. 
Ps. xxv. 4, 8, cxix. 66 (Prayer-Book version). 

1 8. Conclusions. Experiments ; as in A. and C. v. 2. 358 : 

"her physician tells me 
She hath pursued conclusions infinite 
Of easy ways to die," etc. 

22. Act. Action. Cf Oth. iii. 3. 328: 

" Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, 
Which at the first are scarce found to distaste, 
But with a little act upon the blood 
Burn like the mines of sulphur." 

26. Content thee. Be at ease, do not trouble yourself. It is generally 
= compose yourself, keep your temper. See R. and J. p. 160. 

32. Hark thee. Here thee is probably a corruption of thou. Gr. 212. 

33. I do not like her, etc. Johnson criticises this soliloquy as " very in- 
artificial," merely "a long speech to tell himself what himself knows ;" 
but, as Clarke remarks, it is characteristic in "a reflective man, a stu- 
dent, one accustomed to ponder upon his experiments, and to render him- 
self an account of the effects they will produce." It also serves the pur- 
pose of" informing the audience what is the nature of the drugs thus en- 
trusted to the queen's power, and prepares for the incident of Imogen's 
return to life after having swallowed them." 

43. Truer. Truer to myself, more honest. 

47. Quench. " That is, grow cool " (Steevens). 

54. Shift his being. " Change his abode " (Johnson). 

56. Decay. Destroy. For the transitive use, cf. T. N. i. 5. 82: "in- 
firmity, that decays the wise," etc. 

58. That leans. " That inclines towards its fall " (Johnson). 

64. Cordial. Reviving ; as in iv. 2. 327 below. 

68. What a chance thou changest on. " With what a fair prospect of 
mending your fortunes you now change your present service " (Steevens). 
Rowe has "chancest " for changest, and Theo. "change thou chancest." 
W. adopts the latter, which is very plausible. 



76. Shatfd. For the form cf. Hen. V. ii. I. 124, and T. and C. i. 3. 101. 
See also tinshak'd in ii. I. 61 below. Shaken occurs five times, but the 
common form in S. is shook. Cf. Gr. 343. 

77. The remembrancer, etc. "One who admonishes her to maintain 
the matrimonial pledge towards her lord" (J. H). Hand-fast is used by 
S. only here and in W. T. iv. 4. 795, where it means confinement, custody. 

80. Liegers. " A lieger ambassador is one that resides in a foreign court 
to promote his master's interest " (Johnson). Cf. M.for M. iii. i. 59 : 

" Lord Ahgelo, having affairs to heaven, 
Intends you for his swift ambassador, 
Where you shall be an everlasting lieger." 

83. The violets, cowslips, etc. " The art with which the poet and dram- 
atist has placed these words in the mouth of this queen miscreant is 
worthy of remark. He makes her use these beauteous and innocent 
products of earth as mere cloaks to her wickedness ; she concocts 
'perfumes' and 'confections' from them as a veil to the 'drugs 'and 
'poisonous compounds' which she collects for the fellest purposes. It 
enhances the effect of her guilt, her thus forcing these sweet blossoms to 
become accomplices in her vile schemes ; and we loathe her the more for 
her surrounding her unhallowed self with their loveliness. Moreover, 
she is untouched by their grace ; she has learned no lesson from their 
exquisite structure, colour, fragrance ; she looks upon them as mere 
means to an end and that end a bad one. Observe, too, how skilfully 
S. has made this evil woman order her ladies to ' gather these flowers ' 
how she desires that they shall be borne to her closet her laboratory ; 
not gathering or c.aring for them herself; not caring for the touch, and 
scent, and sight of these gentle things that all good people instinctive- 
ly love, and cherish, and caress. How different is the poet's treatment 
of the subject, where he makes the virtuous Friar Laurence rise with the 
dawn, himself to gather the 'precious-juiced flowers,' ' ere the sun advance 
his burning eye ;' and dilating with fond enthusiasm on their 'many vir- 
tues excellent,' and philosophizing on their varied qualities and purposes ! 
Supplementary to this higher ethical teaching of the great moralist, how 
truly we see the man of rural natural knowledge, in his being aware of 
the fact that morning-gathered flowers remain longest fresh and unwith- 
ered .'" (Clarke). 

SCENE VI. 4. Supreme. Accented on the first syllable, as regularly 
before a noun. Cf. Cor. p. 268. See also on divine, ii. I. 55 below ; and 
cf. profane in ii. 3. 122. 

6. Most miserable, etc. " Most doomed to disappointment is the exalt- 
ed aspiration" (Clarke). The 1st folio has "desires;" corrected in the 
2d. Hanmer changed the word to " degree." 

8. That have their honest wills, etc. " Who gratify their innocent 
wishes with reasonable enjoyments" (Johnson). " Who have the power 
of gratifying their honest inclination, which circumstance bestows an ad- 
ditional relish on comfort itself" (Steevens). Seasons comfort is clearly 
=gives a zest to happiness. Cf. T. and C. i. 2. 278 : " the spice and salt 
that season a man." 


II. Change you, madam ? " How by these three little words the dram- 
atist lets us behold the sudden pallor and as sudden flush of crimson 
that bespread the wife's face at this instant" (Clarke). 

17. The Arabian bird. The phoenix. Cf. A. Y. L. p. 189, note on As 
rare as phoenix. 

22. Note. See on i. 4. 2 above. 

24. Truest. The folios have " trust," which some retain, pointing it as 
an unfinished sentence (" trust ") ; but on the whole Hanmer's emen- 
dation of truest seems preferable. As W. remarks, "what Imogen reads 
is certainly the end, not the beginning, of the letter ; the first word that 
she reads, he, necessarily implying a previous mention and introduction 
of lachimo." So far, as he adds, may very properly be taken as = "so 
much ;" and the rest may refer as well to what has gone before as to what 
comes after. If "your trust " be what S. wrote, it must mean, as Clarke 
makes it, " the trust I repose in you ;" but, even with that interpretation, 
the expression seems an odd one here. 

31. What, are men mad? Mrs. Jameson remarks on this scene : " In 
the interview between Imogen and lachimo, he does not begin his attack 
on her virtue by a direct accusation against Posthumus ; but by dark 
hints and half-uttered insinuations, such as lago uses to madden Othello, 
he intimates that her husband, in his absence from her, has betrayed her 
love and truth, and forgotten her in the arms of another. All that Imo- 
gen says in this scene is comprised in a few lines a brief question, or a 
more brief remark. The proud and delicate reserve with which she veils 
the anguish she suffers is inimitably beautiful. The strongest expression 
of reproach he can draw from her is only, ' My lord, I fear, has forgot 
Britain.' When he continues in the same strain, she exclaims in an ago- 
ny, * Let me hear no more.' When he urges her to revenge, she asks, 
with all the simplicity of virtue, 'How should I be revenged?' And 
when he explains to her how she is to be avenged, her sudden burst of 
indignation, and her immediate perception of his treachery, and the mo- 
tive for it, are powerfully fine : it is not only the anger of a woman whose 
delicacy has been shocked, but the spirit of a princess insulted in her 
court. It has been remarked [by Hazlitt] that ' her readiness to pardon 
lachimo's false imputation, and his designs against herself, is a good les- 
son to prudes, and may show that where there is a real attachment to vir- 
tue, there is no need of an outrageous antipathy to vice.' This is true ; but 
can we fail to perceive that the instant and ready forgiveness of Imogen 
is accounted for, and rendered more graceful and characteristic, by the 
very means which lachimo employs to win it? He pours forth the most 
enthusiastic praises of her husband, professes that he merely made this 
trial of her out of his exceeding love for Posthumus, and she is pacified 
at once ; but, with exceeding delicacy of feeling, she is represented as 
maintaining her dignified reserve and her brevity of speech to the end 
of the scene." 

32. Crop. Produce. The word troubled Warb., who substituted 
" cope." 

34. Twinrfd. " As like as twins " (Steevens). Johnson did not " un- 
derstand" the word, and conjectured "twin'd" = " twisted, convoluted," 

I7 6 NOTES. 

though, as he added, "this sense is more applicable to shells than to 

35. The unnumber'd. The folios have " the number'd ;" corrected by 
Theo. Cf. the parallel passage in Lear, iv. 6. 21 : 

"The murmuring surge 
That on the unnumber'd idle pebble chafes, 
Cannot be heard so high." 

Some, however, retain " number'd," which Clarke explains as " composed 
of numbers," and Schmidt as "rich in numbers, abundantly provided." 
Other emendations proposed are " the humbled," " the humble," " the 
umber'd," " the cumber'd," and " Unnumber'd, on the beach." 

36. Spectacles. Organs of vision, eyes ; as in 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 112: 

'"And even with this I lost fair England's view, 
And bid mine eyes be packing with my heart, 
And call'd them blind and dusky spectacles, 
For losing ken of Albion's wished coast." 

37. Makes your admiration. Causes your astonishment. See on i. 4. 
4 above. 

39. Shes. Cf. i. 3. 29 above. 

40. Mows. Grimaces. Cf. Temp. iv. i. 47 : 

" Each one, tripping on his toe, 
Will be here with mop and mow." 

We find the verb in Id. ii. 2. 9 : " Sometime like apes, that mow and chat- 
ter at me." See also Lear, p. 234, note on Mopping and mowing. 

41. Favour. Beauty ; as in Ham. iv. 5. 189 and Oth. iv. 3. 21. It is 
often personal appearance, aspect ; as in iii. 4. 48 and iv. 2. 105 below. 
Cf. y. C. p. 131, note on Your outward favoiir. 

42. Be wisely definite. Be wise in deciding, or " wisely free from hesi- 
tation " (Schmidt). S. uses definite nowhere else. 

44. Vomit emptiness. Warb. explained the passage thus : " That appe- 
tite which is not allured to feed on such excellence can have no stom- 
ach at all, but, though empty, must nauseate every thing." Johnson, on 
the other hand, interpreted it thus : " Desire, says he, when it approached 
sluttery, and considered it in comparison with such neat excellence, would 
not only be not so allured to feed, but, seized with a fit of loathing, would 
vomit emptiness, would feel the convulsions of disgust, though, being un- 
fed, it had no object." Later, in defending his explanation, he added this 
thoroughly Johnsonian definition : " To vomit emptiness is, in the language 
of poetry, to feel the convulsions of eructation without plenitude." Ma- 
lone remarks that " no one who has been ever sick at sea can be at a loss 
to understand what is meant by vomiting emptiness." Johnson evidently 
had the right idea of the passage, which must mean that desire would 
turn to disgust and nausea, not from satiety, but before it was gratified. 
The Coll. MS. has "to emptiness," which W. adopts. 

48. Ravening. Ravenously devouring. Cf. Macb. p. 204, note on Rav- 
in up. Here the spelling of the folio is " Rauening." Cf. R. and J. iii. 
2. 76, where it has " Woluish-rauening Lambe." 

50. Raps. Apparently the verb of which rapt ( transported) is the 

ACT I. SCENE VI. ! 77 

participle, though rarely found in the indicative. Cf. Wb. W. reads 
" wraps." 

51. Desire my marts abode. That is, ask him to remain. 

53. Strange and peevish. "A foreigner and a simpleton" (Clarke). 
For strange, cf. 190 below ; and for peevish=- silly, foolish, see Hen. V. p. 
171. For a very clear instance of this sense, see Lyly, Endymion (quoted 
by Nares) : "There never was any so peevish to imagine the moone 
either capable of affection or shape of a mistris." Steevens explained 
strange as "shy, or backward," 

58. None a. Changed by Hanmer to " Not a." Cf. i. 4. 88 above : 
" none so accomplished a courtier," etc. 

60. Briton. The folios have " Britaine " or " Britain." 

65. Gallian. The word occurs again in I Hen. VLv.^. 139. S. does 
not use Gallic. 

Furnaces. The only instance of the verb in S. Cf. A. Y. L. ii. 7. 148 : 

"And then the lover, 
Sighing like furnace," etc. 

67. From V. See on i. I. 4 above. 

69. Proof. Experience ; as in iii. 3. 27 below. 

71. Languish for* As arranged by Steevens; in the folio for begins 
the next line. Pope reads "languish out For assured," etc. Clarke 
thinks that his may be a misprint for " in 's." 

75, 76. And hear . . . blame. Pope's arrangement ; two lines in the 
folio, the first ending with Frenchman. 

79. Account his. The Coll. MS, omits his* Clarke points the line 
thus : " In you, which I count his, beyond all talents " (that is, heaven's 
bounty is in you " beyond all sums of wealth"). 

83. Wrack. The only spelling of wreck in the early eds. It rhymes 
to alack in Per. iv. prol. 12, and to back in V, and A. 558, R. of L. 841, 965, 
Sonn. 126. 5, and Macb. v. 5. 51. 

84. Deserves. For the omission of the relative, see Gr. 244. 

85. Solace. Find solace or happiness, Cf. Rich, III. ii.3. 30 : "This 
sickly land might solace as before ;" and R. and J. iv. 5. 47 : " But one 
thing to rejoice and solace in." 

86. Snuff. That is, a snuffed candle. Cf. Ham. iv. 7. 116; and see 
also Lear, p. 244. 

91. Venge. Not " 'venge," as often printed. Cf. Rich. II. p. 158. 
94. Doubting things go ill. Suspecting or fearing that things go ill. 

Cf. K.John,\v. i. 19: 

"but that I doubt 
My uncle practises more harm to me." 

See also Ham. pp. 187, 202. 

96. Or, timely knowing, etc. Elliptically expressed, though the sense 
is clear. Hanmer changed knowing to " known," and remedy to " rem- 

98. What both you spur and stop. " What it is that at once incites you 
to speak and restrains you from it" (Johnson) ; or " what you seem anx- 
ious to utter, and yet withhold" (Mason). Cf. W. T. ii. I. 187: "Shall 
stop or spur me." ' 


I? 8 NOTES. 

100. Every. Changed in the 3d folio to "very." 

103. Fixing. The reading of the 2d folio; the ist has "Fiering." 

107. By-peeping. Giving sidelong glances. The hyphen was inserted 
by K. The Coll. MS. has "bo-peeping." 

108. Unlustrous. Rowe's emendation of the " illustrious " of the folios. 
Coll. reads " illustrous ;" but, as D. notes, that word, in the only instance 
that has been cited (in Chapman's Odyssey), is illustrious. 

in. Encounter such revolt. " Meet such apostasy " (J. H.). Revolt is 
often used of faithlessness in love ; as in R. and J. iv. 1. 58, Oth. iii. 3. 188, 
etc. Cf. iii. 4. 54 below. 

115. Mutest. That would otherwise be most silent. Abbott (Gr. 8) 
thinks it may mean "the mutest part or corner of my conscience." 

116. Charms. The plural relative often takes a singular verb. See 
Gr. 247. 

1 19. Empery. Empire ; as in Rich. III. iii. 7. 136 : " Your right of 
birth, your empery, your own," etc. 

1 20. Greafst. See on i. i. 96 above. 

121. Tomboys. Hoidens ; the only instance of the word in S. 

That self exhibition. "The very pension which you allow your hus- 
band " (Johnson). For se!f=same, cf. M. of V. i. 1. 148 : " that ^elf way ;" 
C. of E. v. i. 10 : " that self chain," etc. Gr. 20. For exhibition allow- 
ance (the only sense in S.), cf. T. G. of V. \. 3. 69 : 

"What maintenance he from his friends receives, 
Like exhibition thou shalt have from me." 

See also Lear, \. 2. 25, Oth. i. 3. 238, iv. 3. 75, etc. 
123. Play. The Coll. MS. has "pay." 
127. Recoil. Fall off, prove degenerate ; as in Macb. iv. 3. 19 : 

"A good and virtuous nature may recoil 
In an imperial charge." 

129. As. For. For suck . . . that, see on i. 4. 46 above. Gr. 279. 

130. Abuse. Deceive. See on i. 4. 105 above. "Noble Imogen!" 
exclaims Clarke, "model to your sister women, for love with warmth 
of impulse in it, yet not such impulse as carries temper and judgment 
away !" 

131. Me. W. reads "thee;" but lachimo is putting himself in Imo- 
gen's place. The change of person in the latter part of the sentence is 
not uncommon in S. Cf. 31-35 above, and see on i. i. 118. 

132. Priest, betwixt. Changed by Hanmer to "priestess, 'twixt ;" but 
cf. Per. v. i. 243 : " my maiden priests," etc. 

133. Ramps. " Leaps " (Schmidt). Cf. Milton, S. A. 139 : " Fled from 
his lion ramp " (spring, or attack). So the verb = leap, in P. L. iv. 343 : 
" Sporting the lion ramp'd." Cf. K. John, p. 154. Some take the noun 
here to be = harlots. S. uses it nowhere else. 

138. What ho, Pisanio! "Observe how, upon the villain revealing 
himself, she does not even answer him, but calls her faithful servant to 
her side before replying" (Clarke). 

148. Acquainted of. Cf. Much Ado, iii. i. 40: " to acquaint her of it," 



150. Saucy. Often used by S. in a stronger sense than the modern 
one. Cf. Oth. \. I. 129 : " bold and saucy wrongs ;" J. C. i. 3. 12 : 

" Or else the world, too saucy with the gods, 
Incenses them to send destruction," etc. 

151. Romish. Apparently contemptuous for Roman, but not always so 
used. Steevens cites Glapthorne, Wit in a Constable: "A Romish cirque 
or Grecian hippodrome ;" and Drant, Horace : " The Romishe people 
wise in this," etc. 

153. Who. Changed to " whom " in the 2d fol. Cf. iv. 2. 77 below, and 
see Gr. 274. 

154. Not respects. A common transposition. Cf. Temp, ii. I. 121 : " I 
not doubt," etc. See also iv. 4. 23 below. Gr. 305. 

159. Sir. Cf. 174 and v. 5. 145 below. It is sometimes ironical, as in 
i. i. 1 66 above. 

161. Most 'worthiest. For the double superlative, see Gr. u. Pope 
" corrected " it into " most worthy." Cf. ii. 3. 2 and iv. 2. 319 below. 

162. Affiance. Faith, fidelity. ' Cf. Hen. V. ii.2. 127 : "The sweetness 
of affiance," etc. 

165. Witch. For the masculine use, cf. C. of E. iv. 4. 160 and A. and 
C. i. 2. 40. 

166. Into. Changed by Hanmer to *' unto." Clarke remarks that the 
word " accords with the image presented of enchanting those around him 
into his magic circle." 

168. Descended. The first folio has "defended ;" corrected in the 2cl. 

169. Sets. For the omission of the relative, cf. 84 above. 

171. Adventured. Ventured; as in W. T. iv. 4. 470, R. and J.v.-$. II, 

176. Fan. The metaphor is taken from the process of winnowing 
grain, as chaffless shows. Cf. Hen. VIII. v. i. ill : 

** I humbly thank your highness ; 
And am right glad to catch this good occasion 
Most throughly to be winnow'd, where my chaff 
And corn shall fly asunder." 

190. Curious. Careful. Cf. A. W. i. 2. 20 : " Frank nature, rather curi- 
ous than in haste ;" and see our ed. p. 138. For strange, see on 53 

199. Short. Impair, infringe. For the antithesis, cf. P. P. 210 : " Short, 
night, to-night, and length thyself to-morrow." 

206. Outstood. " Outstaid " (the reading of the Coll. MS.). S. uses the 
word only here, and outstay only in A. Y. L. i. 3. 90. 

207. The tender of our present. The presentation of our gift. 


SCENE I. I. Kissed the jack^ etc. " He is describing his fate at bowls. 
The/#<:/is the small bowl at which the others are aimed. He who is 
nearest to it wins. To kiss the jack is a state of great advantage " (John- 

l8o NOTES. 

son). Upon an up-cast means "by a throw from another bowler directed 
straight up," 

3. Take me up. Rebuke, scold ; with a play upon the expression. Cf. 
Much Ado, p. 148, and A. W. p. 154 (note on 205). 

16. Smelt. For the quibble on rank, cf. A. Y. L. i. 2. 113. 

20. Jack-slave. A term of contempt ; like Jack in Rich. III. i. 3. 72 : 

" Since every Jack became a gentleman, 
There 's many a gentle person made a Jack." 

See also Much Ado, p. 164. 

22. And capon too. Perhaps with a play on " cap on," that is, the fool's 
coxcomb (Schmidt). See Lear, p. 186. 

24. Sayest thou ? What do you say ? Cf. iv. 2. 379 below : " Say you, 
sir ?" See also Oth. iii. 4. 82, etc. 

25. Undertake every companion. Give satisfaction to every fellow. For 
the contemptuous use of companion, see Temp. p. 131, note on Your fel- 
low. Johnson transferred this speech to the first lord, but it is probably 
an ironical reply to Cloten's question as to what he is saying to himself. 

46. Issues. Proceedings, acts. 

50. As is. Pope omitted is. 

53. For his heart. For his life, as we should say. Cf. M. of V. v. I. 
165, T.ofS.i. 2. 38, etc. 

55. Divine. Accented on the first syllable, probably because preced- 
ing the noun. Cf. iv. 2. 170 below, and see Cor. p. 255. See also on 
supreme, i. 6. 4 above. 

61. Unshak'd. Cf. J* C. iii. I. 70: " Unshak'd of motion." Elsewhere 
(twice) we have unshaken. Cf. sha&d in i. 5. 76 above. 

SCENE II. 4. Left. Left off; as in i. 4. 93 above. 
9. Fairies. For malignant fairies, cf. Ham. i. I. 163, C. of E. ii. 2. 191, 
iv. 2. 35 (see our ed. p. 136), etc. 

13. Rushes. In the time of S. floors were strewn with rushes. See 
Rich. II. p. 167, note on The presence strew 1 d. S. transfers the custom to 
Rome, as in R. of L. 316 : " He takes it [a glove] from the rushes where 
it lies." 

14. Cytherea. Venus. Cf. T. of S. ind. 2. 53 and W. T. iv. 4. 122. 

15. Bravely. Well, admirably ; as in ii. 4. 73 below. Cf. the adjective 
in iv. 2. 319 below. 

1 6. Whiter than the sheets. Cf. V. and A. 398 : " Teaching the sheets 
a whiter hue than white ;" and R. of L. 472 : ** Who o'er the white sheets 
peers her whiter chin." 

22. Windows. The eyelids; as in R.and J. iv. I. 100 (see our ed. p. 
172, note on Grey eye}, Rich. III. v. 3. 116, etc. The white and azure, 
etc., refers to the white skin laced with blue veins. Exquisite as the de- 
scription is, the commentators have not been willing to let it alone. Han- 
mer reads "those curtains white with azure lac'd, The blue," etc. ; and 
Warb. " these windows : white with azure lac'd, The blue," etc. 

23. Tinct. Dye; as in Ham. iii. 4. 91 : "will not leave their tinct." 
In A. W. v. 3. 102 and A. and C. \. 5. 37, the word means the "tincture " 
or " grand elixir " of the alchemists. 



Design. In the 1st folio some copies have an interrogation-point and 
some a period after the word. The 3d folio has " designe's," and the 
4th " design's." 

26. The arras -figures. The folio has " the Arras, Figures," which is 
followed by some of the modern editors ; but Mason's emendation in the 
text is to be preferred. It is \h& figures of the tapestry that he wishes 
articularly to note ; though he remembers the material also, as we see 
y ii. 4. 69 below. 

31. Ape. Cf. W. T. v. 2. 108 : "Julio Romano, who . . . would beguile 
Nature of her custom, so perfectly he is her ape." 

32. As a monument. S. was thinking of the recumbent full-length fig- 
ures so common on the tombs of his day. Cf. R. of L. 391 : " Where 
like a virtuous monument she lies." 

34. The Gordian knot. Cf. Hen. V.\. l. 46: "The Gordian knot of 
it he will unloose." 

37. Madding. Cf. iv. 2. 314 below. S. does not use madden. 

38. Cinque-spotted. Having five spots. For the position of the mole 
see p. ii (foot-note) above. 

41. Force him think. For the omission of the infinitive to, see Or. 349. 
45. The tale of Tereus. Cf. T. A. ii. 4. 26 fol., iv. i. 48 fol., and R. of L. 


48. Dragons of the night. Cf. M. N. D. iii. 2. 379 : " For night's swift 
dragons cut the clouds full fast ;" T. and C. v. 8. 17 : " The dragon wing 
of night ;" Milton, // Pens. 59 : " While Cynthia checks her dragon 
yoke," etc. 

49. Bare. The folios have " beare " or " bear." Pope reads " ope," 
and the Coll. MS. has "dare." 

50. This. Walker plausibly conjectures " this' " (this is). See Lear y 
p. 246. 

SCENE III. 2. Most coldest. See on i. 6. 161 above. 

13. So. Be it so, well and good ; as often. See M. of V. p. 136. 

15. After. Often = afterwards. See Gr. 26. 

17. At heaverfs gate sings. Cf. Sonn. 29. II : 

" Like to the lark, at break of day arising 
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate." 

See also Milton, P. L. v. 198 : 

" ye birds, 
That singing up to heaven-gate ascend." 

Reed suggests that S. had Lyly's Alexander and Campaspe in mind : 

"who is 't now we hear? 
None but the lark so shrill and clear; 
Now at heaven's gate she claps her wings, 
The morn not waking till she sings. 
Hark, hark," etc. 

18. Gins. Begins; but not a contraction of that word. See Macb. p. 

20. Lies. For the form, see on charms, i. 6. 116 above. Cf. V. and A. 
1 128: " two lamps, burnt out, in darkness lies." 

l8 2 NOTES. 

21. Winking. Often=with shut eyes. Cf. ii. 4. 89, v. 4. 182, 186 be- 
low. Mary -buds marigolds. 

23. With every thing that pretty is. Hanmer reads " With all the things 
that pretty bin ;" and Warb. also has " bin " for is. The rhyme is not nec- 
essary in this ballad measure. 

26. Consider. Pay, requite ; with possibly a quibbling reference to the 
other sense, as Clarke believes. Cf. W. T. iv. 4. 825 : " being something 
gently considered [if I have a gentlemanlike consideration given me], I '11 
bring you where he is aboard." So in The lie of Gulls, 1633 : "Thou 
shalt be well considered, there 's twenty crowns in earnest." 

27. Vice. The folios have "voyce" or "voice;" corrected by Rowe. 
The Coll. MS. has "fault." 

28. Calves' 1 -guts. Changed by Rowe to " cat's-guts ;" but, according 
to Sir John Hawkins, Mersennus, in his De Instrtimentis Harmonicis, 
says that chords of musical instruments are made of " metal and the in- 
testines of sheep or any other animals." 

33. Fatherly. Adjectives in -ly are often used adverbially. Gr. I. 
39. Minion. Favourite, darling (Fr. mignon)', with a touch of con- 
tempt. See Temp. p. 136, or Macb. p. 153. 

43. Vantages. Opportunities ; as in i. 3. 24 above. 

44. Prefer. Recommend ; as in iv. 2. 386, 400 below. Cf. M. of V. p. 

45. Solicits. The reading of the 2d folio ; the ist has " solicity." Coll. 
reads "soliciting." For be friended, Pope has "befriended," referring to 
solicits: "with solicitations not only proper but well timed" (Mason). 

51. Senseless. "The cunning queen uses this word with the significa- 
tion of unconscious ; her obtuse son affrontedly disclaims it, as signifying 
stupid, devoid of sense. The angry susceptibility and tetchiness of igno- 
rance, just sufficiently aware of its own incapacity to be perpetually afraid 
that it is found out and insulted by others, blended with the stolid conceit 
that invariably accompanies this inadequate self-knowledge, are all ad- 
mirably delineated in Cloten : he is a dolt striving to pass for an accom- 
plished prince, a vulgar boor fancying himself, and desirous of being taken 
for, a thorough gentleman " (Clarke). 

52. So like you. If it please you. Cf. M.for-M. ii. I. 33 : " Here, if it 
like your honour," etc. Cf. Ham. p. 202, note on Likes. Gr. 297. 

57. His goodness forespent on us. "The good offices done by him to 
us heretofore " (Warb). Else where forespent means past, foregone (Hen. 
V. ii. 4. 36) and exhausted (2 Hen. IV. i. I. 37). " According to, before the 
honour, allows according to or for the sake of to be elliptically understood 
before his goodness" (Clarke). 

65. Line. Cf. Per. iv. 6. 63 : " He will line your apron with gold." 

67. Diana's rangers. Diana's nymphs ; literally, her forest rangers, or 
game-keepers. Yor false as a verb, cf. C. of E. ii. 2. 95 : "a thing falsing ;" 
and see our ed. p. 120. 

68. Stand. "The station of huntsmen waiting for game" (Schmidt). 
Cf. iii. 4. 108 below. See also M. W. v. 5. 248, L. L. L. iv. I. 10, etc. 

69. True. Honest. For the antithesis to thief, cf. V. and A. 724 : 
" Rich preys make true men thieves ;" M.for M. iv. 2. 46 : " Every true 


man's apparel fits your thief;" Much Ado, iii. 3. 54 : " If you meet a thief, 
you may suspect him, by virtue of your office, to be no true man," etc. 

73. Yet not understand. For the transposition of yet, see Gr. 76. Cf. 
v. 5. 468 below. 

79. Is she ready ? Is she dressed ? Ready was often used in this spe- 
cial sense (cf. Macb. p. 202, note on Put on manly readiness), but the lady 
chooses to take it in its more general signification. 

85. You lay out too much pains, etc. Mrs. Jameson remarks : " Cloten 
is odious ;* but we must not overlook the peculiar fitness and propriety 
of his character, in connection with that of Imogen. He is precisely the 
kind of man who would be most intolerable to such a woman. He is a 
fool, so is Slender, and Sir Andrew Aguecheek : but the folly of Cloten 
is not only ridiculous, but hateful ; it arises not so much from a want of 
understanding as a total want of heart ; it is the perversion of sentiment, 
rather than the deficiency of intellect ; he has occasional gleams of sense, 
but never a touch of feeling. Imogen describes herself not only as 
'sprighted with a fool,' but as 'frighted and anger'd worse.' No other 
fool but Cloten a compound of the booby and the villain could excite 
in such a mind as Imogen's the same mixture of terror, contempt, and 
abhorrence. The stupid, obstinate malignity of Cloten, and the wicked 
machinations of the queen 

' A father cruel, and a step-dame false, 
A foolish suitor to a wedded lady' 

justify whatever might need excuse in the conduct of Imogen as her 
concealed marriage and her flight from her father's court and serve to 
call out several of the most beautiful and striking parts of her character : 
particularly that decision and vivacity of temper which in her harmonize 
so beautifully with exceeding delicacy, sweetness, and submission. 

" In the scene with her detested suitor, there is at first a careless majes- 
ty of disdain, which is admirable. . . . But when he dares to provoke her, 
by reviling the absent Fosthumus, her indignation heightens her scorn, 
and her scorn sets a keener edge on her indignation." 

89. ^Twere as deep with me. It would make as deep an impression 
upon me. Deep is elsewhere associated with swearing ; as in Sonn. 152. 
9 : " I have sworn deep oaths ;" JR. of L. 1847 : " that deep vow ;" and 
K. John, iii. I. 231 : " deep-sworn faith." 

94. Equal discourtesy, etc. That is, discourtesy equal to your best kind- 
ness. For the transposition, see Gr. 4190. 

95. Knowing. See on i. 4. 26 above. 

* The character of Cloten has been pronounced by some unnatural, by others incon- 
sistent, and by others obsolete. The following passage occurs in one of Miss Seward's 
letters, vol. iii. p. 246 : " It is curious that Shakspeare should, in so singular a character 
as Cloten, have given the exact prototype of a being whom I once knew. The unmean- 
ing frown of countenance, the shuffling gait, the burst of voice, the bustling insignificance, 
the fever-and-ague fits of valor, the froward tetchiness, the unprincipled malice, and, what 
is more curious, those occasional gleams of good sense amidst the floating clouds of folly 
which generally darkened and confused the man's brain, and which, in the character of 
Cloten, we are apt to impute to a violation of unity in character ; but in the sometime 
Captain C , I saw that the portrait of Cloten was not out of nature." 

1 84 NOTES. 

96. Should learn, being taught, etc. " A man who is tattgkt forbearance 
should learn it" (Johnson). 

99. Fools are not mad folks. " This, as Cloten very well understands 
it, is a covert mode of calling him fool. The meaning implied is this: 
If I am mad, as you tell me, I am what you can never be, ' Fools are 
not mad folks ' " (Steevens). Theo. (at the suggestion of Warb.) changed 
are to " cure," which W. adopts. It certainly gives a simpler sense, and 
is favoured by the cures just below, but no change is imperatively de- 

104. Verbal. " Verbose, full of talk " (Johnson). Schmidt makes it = 
" plain-spoken, wording one's thoughts without reserve ;" and Clarke 
thinks it implies " so explicit, so expressing in speech that which I think 
of you." 

105. Which. Changed by Pope to "who;" but which is often =who 
in Elizabethan English. Gr. 265. 

117. Self -figured. Formed by themselves (Johnson). Warb. called 
it "nonsense," and adopted " self-fingered" (the conjecture of Theo.). 

1 1 8. Curb d from that enlargement. Restrained from that liberty. 

119. Consequence. Succession. Schmidt thinks it may possibly mean 
" considerations affecting the crown." 

For soil the folios have " foyle ;" corrected by Hanmer. 

120. Note. Distinction, eminence. Cf. i. 4. 2 and i. 6. 22 above. 

121. Hilding. Hireling, menial. See R. and J. p. 172 ; and for the ad- 
jective use, Hen. V. p. 1 76. For = only fit for. A squire 's clotk = a. lackey's 

122. Pantler. The servant who had charge of the pantry. Cf. W. T. 
iv. 4. 56 : " pantler, butler, cook ;" and 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 258 : " a' would 
have made a good pantler, a' would have chipped bread well." 

Profane. Accented on the first syllable, because preceding the noun. 
Cf. Oth. i. I. 115 : " What profane wretch art thou?" See on divine, ii. 

1. 55 above. 

127. Comparative for yonr virtues. That is, if the office were given you 
in comparison with, or with regard to, your merits. 

129. Preferred. Promoted, advanced ; as in v. 5. 326 below. See also 
Oth. p. 175. 

The south-fog rot him! Cf. T. and C.v. I. 21 : "the rotten diseases 
of the south ;" 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 392 : " the south borne with black vapour," 
etc. See also iv. 2. 350 below, and cf. Cor. p. 206. 

132. Clipfd. Embraced. Cf. v. 5. 450 below; and see W. T. p. 210, 
or Oth. p. 192. 

133. Above. Changed by Sr. (2d ed.) to "about." 

134. How now, Pisanio. Hanmer transferred Plow now ? to Cloten. 

136. Presently. Immediately ; the most common sense in S. Cf. iii. 

2. 74 and iv. 2. 167 below. So present^ immediate ; as in ii. 4. 136 be- 

137. Sfirited with. Haunted by. For wtiti=by, see Gr. 193. 

139. Jeivel. See on i.4. 142 above. 

140. 'Shrew me. Beshrew me ; a mild form of imprecation, often used 
as a mere asseveration. See M.N.D. p. 152. 

ACT 77. SCENE 7K jg^ 

141. Revenue. Accented by S. on the first or second syllable, as suits 
the measure. See M. N. D. p. 125, or Gr. 490. 

142. King's. The folios have "kings," and Pope reads "king." 
King's is due to Rowe. 

144. Kiss'd. Pope reads " kissed " (dissyllabic) for the measure, and 
Keightley "for I kiss'd it." 

149. If you, etc. Hanmer reads " Call witness to 't, if you will make 't 
an action." 

151. She^s my good lady. She 's my good friend; spoken ironically 

SCENE IV. 2. Bold. Confident ; as in A. W. v. i. 5 : "Be bold you 
do so grow in my requital," etc. 

6. Fear'd. Mingled with fear. K. and Clarke adopt Tyrwhitt's con- 
jecture of "sear'd." 

12. Throughly. Thoroughly; as in iii. 6. 36 below. Cf. through/are 
in i. 2. 9 above. 

14. Or look upon. Before he will face. For 0r=before, cf. Ham. i. 2. 

" Would I had met my dearest foe in heaven 
Or ever I had seen that day, Horatio!" 

It is often combined with ere, as in iii. 2. 64 and v. 3. 50 below. See Temp. 
p. 112, note on Or ere, and cf. Gr. 131. 

1 6. Statist. Statesman. Cf. Ham. v. 2. 33 : " as our statists do ;" and 
see our ed. p. 268. 

18. Legions. The folios have "legion ;" corrected by Theo. 

21. More ordered. Better disciplined. 

24. Courages. For the plural, see on i. I. I above. D. reads "courage." 
For mingled the ist folio has "wing-led ;" corrected in the 2d. 

25. Their approvers. Those who make trial of their valour. Cf. ap- 
provetry ; as in M. N. D. ii. 2. 68, W. T. iv. 2. 31, etc. The noun is used 
by S. only here. 

26. That. For its use with such, see on i. 4. 46 above. Cf. 44 below. 
28. Winds of all the corners. Cf. Much Ado, ii. 3. 103 : " Sits the 

wind in that corner ?" 

37. Was Cams, etc. The folios give this speech to "Post;;" corrected 
by Capell. 

39. But not approached. To fill out the line Hanmer reads " But was 
not yet approach'd." 

49. Must not continue friends* See i. 4. 149 fol. above. 

56. Apparent. Evident. See Rich. II. p. 150. 

58. Is. Changed in the Coll. MS. to "are ;" but the singular verb is 
often found with two singular subjects (Gr. 336). Cf. iii. 3. 99 and v. 2. 2 

61. My circumstances. That is, the particulars I shall give. 

68. Watching. Keeping awake for. Gr. 394. For watching, cf. T. of 
S. iv. i. 208: " She shall watch all night," etc. See also the noun in iiie 
4. 40 below. 

70. When she met her Roman, etc. Cf. A. and C. ii. 2. 191 fol. 

!86 NOTES. 

Johnson remarks : " lachimo's language is such as a skilful villain 
would naturally use a mixture of airy triumph aud serious deposition. 
His gayety shows his seriousness to be without anxiety ; and his seri- 
ousness proves his gayety to be without art." 

73. Bravely. See on ii. 2. 15 above. 

That it did strive, etc. That is, it was doubtful whether the workman- 
ship or the value was the greater. 

76. Since the true life on V was . This is the folio pointing, and re- 
moves all difficulty from the passage. Capell reads " Since the true life 
was in it;" and the Coll. MS. has "on 't 't was." Other attempts at 
emendation are unworthy of notice. 

83. So likely to report themselves. That is, they were so lifelike that 
one might expect them to speak. 

84. Was as another nature, etc. "The sculptor was as nature, but as 
nature dumb ; he gave every thing that nature gives but breath and mo- 
tion. In breath is included speech " (Johnson). 

88. Cherubins. The folio reading, changed by Rowe to " cherubims." 
For the singular cherubin, see Temp. p. 115. Fretted= embossed. See 
Ham. p. 205. 

89. Winking. With eyes shut or blind. See on ii. 3. 21 above. 

91. Depending on their brands. Leaning on their inverted torches. 
Cf. Sonn.i$$. i : " Cupid laid by his brand and fell asleep ;" and Id. 154. 
2 : " Laid by his side his heart-inflaming brand." Some have taken 
brands to mean the part of the andirons on which the wood for the fire is 

This is her honour! The expression is ironical: "And the attain- 
ment of this knowledge is to pass for the corruption of her honour !" 

95. Then, if you can, etc. K., followed by V., points the passage thus : 

" Then, if you can 
Be pale, I beg but leave to air this jewel;" 

that is, seeing that he has produced no effect upon Posthumus as yet, he 
now says, " If you can be pale, I will see what this jewel will do to make 
you change countenance." 

97. '7V.r up. That is, put up. 

102. Oiitsell. The verb occurs again (the only other instance in S.) in 
Hi. 5. 74 below. 

107. Basilisk. The fabulous serpent that was supposed to kill by its 
look. Cf. W. T. \. 2. 388 : " Make me not sighted like the basilisk." See 
also Hen. V. p. 183 (note on The fatal balls], or R. and J. p. 1 86 (on 
Death-darting eye}. 

III. Bondage. Binding force, fidelity. 

116. One of her. The reading of 2d folio ; the 1st omits of. 

117. Hath stoFn. Hanmer reads "Might not have stoPn." 

127. Cognizance. " The badge, the token, the visible proof" (Johnson). 
Cf. I Hen. VI. ii. 4. 108 : " As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate." 

146. Limbmeal. Limb from limb ; a compound like dropmeal, inch- 
meal (see Temp. ii. 2. 3), and piecemeal^ which is still in use. 

150. Pervert. Avert, turn aside. 


SCENE V. I. Is there no way, etc. Steevens compares Milton, P. L. 
x. 888 fol. 

8. Nonpareil. Paragon ; as in Temp. iii. 2. 108, T. N. i. 5. 273, etc. 
II. Pudency. Modesty ; the only instance of the word in S. 
14. Motion. Impulse. Cf. K. John, p. 137. 

19. Change. Caprice ; as in Lear^ i. i. 291, etc. Perhaps change of 
prides = variety of prides, as W. explains it. Cf. " change of honours " in 
Cor. ii. i. 214, and see our ed. p. 222. 

20. Nice. Squeamish, affected. Cf. A. Y. L. p. 185. 

21. That may be nam'd. The reading of the 2d folio ; the 1st has 
" that name." D. conjectures " that have a name," and Walker " that 
man can (or " may ") name." 

26. Write against them. " Denounce them, protest against them " 


SCENE I. n. There be. Cf. Temp. iii. I. I : "There be some sports 
are painful," etc. Gr. 300. 

15. From 'j-. See on i. 1.4 above. 

18. Bravery. " State of defiance " (Schmidt). 

19. Paled in. Enclosed. Cf. A. and C. ii. 7. 74: " Whate'er the 
ocean pales, or sky inclips," etc. 

20. Rocks. The folios have " Oakes " or " Oaks ;" corrected by Han- 

24. Came and saw and overcame. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 45 : " I may 
justly say, with the hook-nosed fellow of Rome, I came, saw, and over- 

27. Ignorant. " Unacquainted with the nature of our boisterous seas " 

30. At point. On the point, about; as in iii. 6. 17 below. See also 
Cor. p. 240. 

31. Giglot. False, fickle. For the noun (= harlot), see M.for M. v. i. 
352 : " Away with those giglots," etc. Cf. K. yohn> iii. I. 61 (and Ham. 
ii. 2. 515): "strumpet fortune." 

As Malone remarks, S. has here transferred to Cassibelan an advent- 
ure which happened to his brother Nennius. " The same history," says 
Holinshed, "also maketh mention of Nennius, brother to Cassibellane, 
who in fight happened to get Caesar's sword fastened in his shield by a 
blow which Caesar stroke at him." Nennius died a fortnight after the 
battle of the hurt he had received at Caesar's hand, and was buried with 
great pomp. Caesar's sword was placed in his tomb. 

32. Lud's toivn. London. Cf. iv. 2. 100, 124, and v. 5. 480 below. 

36. Moe. More ; used only with a plural or a collective noun. See 
A. Y. L. p. 176. 

37. Owe. Own ; as often. Gr. 290. 

46. Injurious. Often used as a personal term of reproach = unjust, in- 
solent, malicious, etc. Cf. iv. 2. 87 below, and see Cor. p. 247. 

!88 NOTES. 

49. Against all colour. Contrary to all show of right. Cf. I Hen. IV. 
iii. 2. 100 : " of no right, nor colour like to right," etc. 

52. We do. The folios make this a part of Cymbeline's speech : " Our 
selues to be, we do. Say then to Ccesar" etc. The reading of the text 
is that of the Coll. MS., and is adopted by D. and others. It is very like 
Cloten to break in thus ; but W. prefers to follow Malone in reading 
" Ourselves to be. We do say then to Caesar," etc. 

55. Franchise. Free exercise. Whose refers of course to laws. 

58. The first of Britain, etc. The title of the first chapter of the third 
book of Holinshed's England is, " Of Mulmucius, the first king of Britain 
who was crowned with a golden crown, his laws, his foundations, etc." 

62. Moe. See on 36 above. The form was going out of use in the 
time of S., as is evident from the frequent substitution of more in the 
2d folio, printed in 1632. 

70. He to seek of me, etc. His seeking of me, etc. Perforce =by force ; 
as in A. Y. L. i. 2. 21 (see our ed. p. 141), etc. 

71. Keep at utterance. Keep at the extremity of defiance (the Fr. a 
outrance], or defend to the uttermost. See Macb. p. 208, note on Champion 
me to the utterance. 

I am perfect. I am assured, I know well. Cf. W. T. iii. 3. I : 

"Thou art perfect, then, our ship hath touch'd upon 

The deserts of Bohemia?" 
See also iv. 2. 119 below. 

75. Let proof speak. Let -the trial show. 

84. Remain. For the noun, cf. Cor. i. 4. 62 : "make remain " (r=stay). 

SCENE II. 2. Monster' 's her accuser. The folios have "monsters her 
accuse ;" corrected by Capell. Pope reads " monsters have accus'd 

6. Hearing. Changed by Pope to "ear." 

9. Take in. Subdue. Cf. Cor. i. 2. 24: " To take in many towns " (see 
also iii. 2. 59) ; A. and C. i. 1. 23 : " Take in that kingdom and enfranchise 
that" (see also iii. 7. 24 and iii. 13. 83), etc. The phrase occurs again in 
iv. 2. 122 below. 

10. Thy mind to her, etc. " Thy mind, compared to her fine nature, is 
as low as were thy fortunes in comparison with her rank " (Clarke). 

21. Fedary. Accomplice, confederate ("foedary" in the folios). Cf, 
M.for M. ii. 4. 122: "If not a fedary," etc. We find federary in the 
same sense in W.- T. ii. i. 90 : "A federary with her." 

23. / am ignorant in what I am commanded. " I will appear not to 
know of this deed which I am commanded to perform" (Clarke). We 
have no doubt that this is the meaning ; but Steevens explains it, " I am 
unpractised in the arts of murder." 

27. Learn 'd. The usual form in S. is learned (dissyllabic), as now. Cf. 
Cor. p. 238. 

28. Characters. Handwriting. Cf. W. T. v. 2. 38 : " the letters of An- 
tigonus, which they know to be his character," etc. 

33. Medicinable. Spelt " medcinable " in the first three folios, indi- 
cating the pronunciation. See Oth. p. 210. 


34. For it doth physic love. " That is, grief for absence keeps love in 
health and vigour " (Johnson). 

35. Good wax, thy leave. Cf. T. N. ii. 5. 103 : " By your leave, wax ;" 
and Lear, iv. 6. 264 : " Leave, gentle wax." 

38. Forfeiters. That is, those who forfeit the bonds to which they 
have set their seal. 

As V. remarks, the allusion shows technical familiarity with the laws 
of that day. The seal was essential to the bond, though a signature was 
not; *to& forfciters was the technical term for those who had broken a 
contract and become liable to the legal penalty. 

39. Tables. Tablets, letters. Cf. T. G. of V. ii. 7. 3 : 

" Who art the table wherein all my thoughts 
Are visibly character'd and engrav'd ;" 

and T. and C. iv. 5. 60 : 

" And wide unclasp the tables of their thoughts 
To every ticklish reader." 

41. Could not be so cruel to me, as you . . . would even renew me with 
your eyes. If this is what S. wrote, the meaning seems to be : could not 
be so cruel to me but that the sight of you would revive me. Pope 
changes as to " but," and K. to " an ;" and Capell reads " would not 
even." W. has " could not be cruel to me, so as you," etc. Clarke may 
be right in assuming that " the phraseology is purposely obscure and enig- 
matical, and conveys a double idea" the one given above, and "a sec- 
ondary one (perceptible to the reader of the play), .'could not be so cruel 
to me as you ' (in the supposed wrong she has'done him who writes to 
her)." St. also thinks that the passage may have been "intended to be 

47. O,for a horse, etc. Mrs. Jameson remarks : " In the eagerness of 
Imogen to meet her husband there is all a wife's fondness, mixed up 
with the breathless hurry arising from a sudden and joyful surprise ; 
but nothing of the picturesque eloquence, the ardent, exuberant, Italian 
imagination of Juliet, who, to gratify her impatience, would have her her- 
alds thoughts ; press into her service the nimble-pinioned doves, and 
wind-swift Cupids ; change the course of nature, and lash the steeds of 
Phoebus to the west. Imogen only thinks * one score of miles, 'twixt sun 
and sun,' slow travelling for a lover, and wishes for a horse with wings." 

49. Mean affairs. Ordinary business. 

53. Bate. Abate (but not that word contracted), qualify what I say. 
Cf. Temp. i. 2. 250 : " bate me a full year," etc. 

55. Beyond beyond. " Further than beyond ; beyond anything that 
desire can be said to be beyond" (Reed). It is not a mere repetition 
of beyond, as pointed in the folios and some modern eds. 

Speak thick. Speak fast. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. ii. .3. 24: "And speaking 
thick, which nature made his blemish," etc. See our ed. p. 165. 

63. And our return. Changed by Pope to "Till our return," and by 
Capell to "To our return." Cf. Cor. ii. I. 240: 

" He cannot temperately transport his honours 
From where he should begin and end;" 


and see our ed. p. 225. In the present passage the irregular construction 
is in keeping with the rest of the speech. " The elliptical style, the par- 
enthetical breaks, the fluttering from point to point in the varied clauses, 
all serve admirably to express the happy hurry of spirits and joyous 
impatience of the excited speaker " (Clarke). 

64. Or ere. Before. See on ii. 4. 14 above. The meaning is : " Why 
should I contrive an excuse before the act is done for which excuse will 
be necessary ?" (Malone). 

72. That run f the clock's behalf. That is, the sands of the hour-glass, 
which serve instead of a clock. Warb. calls it a " fantastical expression." 
The Coll. MS. has "clocks by half/' 

76. Franklin's. A franklin is literally a freeholder, with a small es- 
tate, neither villain nor vassal" (Johnson). Cf. W. T. v. 2. 173: "Not 
swear it, now I am a gentleman ? Let boors and franklins say it, I '11 
swear it." 

You \e best consider. You were best (it were best for you) to consider. 
Cf. W. T.v. 2. 143 : "you were best say these robes are not gentlemen 
born," etc. See also J. C. p. 166, or Gr. 230, 352 (cf. 190). 

77. I see before me, etc. I see the course that lies before me; no oth- 
er, whether here or there, nor what may follow, but is doubtful or ob- 
scure. Mason would explain it thus : " When Imogen speaks these 
words she is supposed to have her face turned towards Milford, and 
when she pronounces the words nor here, nor here, she points to the 
right and to the left. This being premised, the sense is evidently this : I 
see clearly the way before me ; but that to the right, that to the left, and 
that behind me, are all covered with a fog that I cannot penetrate. 
There is no more therefore to be said, since there is no way accessible 
but that to Milford." This is ingenious, but prosaic withal ; and it is 
hardly possible that what ensues can mean " that behind me," though 
Johnson explained it in the sam~ way. 

SCENE III. i. Keep house. Stay in the house. Elsewhere we find 
keep the house (M.for M. iii. 2. 75), keep his house (T. of A. iii. 3. 42), etc. 
Cf. the use of housekeeper ( = one who stays at home) in Cor. i. 3. 55 : 
" You are manifest housekeepers." 

2. Whose. For the relative after such, see on i. 4. 46 above. For Stoop, 
the folios have " Sleepe" or Sleep ;" corrected by Hanmer. 

5. Jet. Strut, stalk. Cf. T. N. ii. 5. 36 : " Contemplation makes a rare 
turkey-cock of him ! how he jets under his advanced plumes !" See our 
ed. p. 142. 

6. Turbans. As Johnson notes, giants in the time of S. were generally 
represented as Saracens. The word is " Turbonds " or " Turbands " in 
the folios, and Johnson spells it " turbants." 

10. Yond. Not a contraction of yonder, as often printed. See Temp. 
p. 121. 

12. Like a crow. That is, "as little as a crow" (i. 3. 15 above). 

16. This service, etc. " In war it is not sufficient to do duty well ; the 
advantage rises not from the act, but the acceptance of the act " (John- 
son). Pope changed This to "That." 

ACT III. SCENE ///. ! 9 r 

20. The sharded beetle. Cf. Macb. iii. 2. 42 : " The shard-borne beetle ;" 
and A. and C. iii. 2. 20 : " They are his shards, and he their beetle." The 
reference is to the horny wing-cases of the insect. 

21. Full-whig 1 d. "This epithet sufficiently marks the contrast of the 
poet's imagery ; for whilst the bird can soar towards the sun beyond the 
reach of the human eye, the insect can but just rise above the surface of 
the earth, and that at the close of the day" (Henley). 

22. Attending for a check. Doing service only to get a rebuke for it. 
Cf. Oth. iii. 3.67: "To incur a private check," etc. So the verb re- 
buke ; as in J. C. iv. 3. 97 : " (Jheck'd like a bondman," etc. V. explains 
it : "attending his prince only to suffer rejection or delay of his suit." 

23. Doing nothing for a bribe. The folios have "for a Babe." Bribe 
is Hanmer's emendation, and is adopted by K., D., V., W., Clarke, and 
others. Rowe gave " bauble," which the Camb. editors prefer. Sr. reads 
"brabe," a conjecture of Johnson's, and reward (Latin, brabium}. The 
Coll. MS. has " bob" (a rap, or blow), for which see A. Y. L. p. 164. Chal- 
mers suggests "baubee." V. defends bribe thus : " It corresponds better 
than any other word with the preceding word richer ; and the mistake 
might easily have been made even in copying or printing from clearer 
manuscript than most authors make. The sense is good : * Such a life 
of activity is richer than that of the bribed courtier, even though he pock- 
et his bribe without rendering any return.' Such a thought is natural in 
Belarius, who had seen the vices of the great, and was perfectly intelligi- 
ble to Shakespeare's audience, who lived in those 'good old times' when 
the greatest, and sometimes the wisest, were not only accessible to bribes, 
but expected them ; while every concern of life was dependent upon the 
caprice or the* favour of those in power. A note in Knight's edition de- 
duces the whole passage from some well-known lines of Spenser, in his 
Mother Hubberds Tale, much resembling this train of thought. Our 
Poet had seen enough of this sort of life not to be obliged to describe it 
at second-hand ; yet he may have had Spenser's verses in his mind, and 
they certainly throw light on his meaning and corroborate the proposed 
correction of the text. The ' doing nothing for a bribe ' corresponds with 
Spenser's satirical glance at court life : 

'Or otherwise false Reynold would abuse 
The simple suter, and wish him to chuse 
His Master, being one of great regard 
In Court, to cqmpas anie sute not hard. 
In case his paines were recompenst with reason^ 
So would he worke the silly man by treason 
To buy his Master's frivolous good will, 
That h<id not power to doo him good or ill ' ?> 

The passage in Spenser referred to by K. is the following : 

" Full little knowest thou. that hast not tride, 
What hell it is in suing long to bide : 
To loose good dayes that might be better spent ; 
To wast long nights in pensive discontent ; 
To speed to day, to be put back to morrow ; 
To feed on hope, to pine with feare and sorrow ; 

I9 2 NOTES. 

To have thy Princes grace, yet want her Peeres ; 
To have thy asking, yet waite manie yeeres ; 
To fret thy soule with crosses and with cares ; 
To eate thy heart through comfortlesse despaires ; 
To fawne, to crowche, to waite, to ride, to ronne, 
To spend, to give, to want, to be undonne. 
Unhappie wight, borne to desastrous end, 
That doth his life in so long tendance spend!" 

24. Prouder than rustling in unpaid-for silk. K. remarks : " As we 
have had the nobler and richer life, we have now the prouder. The moun- 
tain life is compared with that of rustling in unpaid-for silk. The illus- 
trative lines which are added mean that such a one as does rustle in un- 
paid-for silk receives the courtesy (gains the cap] of him that makes him 
tine, yet he. the wearer of silk, keeps his, the creditor's, book uncrossed. 
To cross the book is, even now, a common expression for obliterating the 
entry of a debt. It belongs to the rude age of credit." 

25. Cap. Cf. Cor. ii. i. 77 : " You are ambitious for poor knaves' caps 
and legs" (that is, for their obeisance) ; i Hen. IV. iv. 3. 168 : "The 
more and less came in with cap and knee," etc. 

The folios have "makes him;" corrected by Capell. K. retains 
"makes him," changing gain to "gains." Him refers of course to the 
merchant who has sold the silk which makes them fine. Cf. T. of S. ii. I. 
319 : "my Katherine shall be fine ;" and Id. iv. i. 139 : 

"There were none fine but Adam, Ralph, and Gregory; 
The rest were ragged, old, and beggarly." 

26. No life to ours. That is, that can be compared with ours. For to 
in this sense, see Gr. 187. 

27. Proof. Experience ; as in i. 6. 69 above. 

29. What air V from home. What the air is away from home. For 
from, see on i. 4. 14 above. 

34. Prison for. The folios have " prison, or ;" corrected by Pope. 

35. To stride a limit. " To overpass his bound" (Johnson). 

What should we speak of, etc. Johnson remarks : " This dread of an 
old age unsnpplied with matter for discourse and meditation is a senti- 
ment natural and noble. No state can be more destitute than that of 
him who, when the delights of sense forsake him, has no pleasures of the 

40. Beastly. Like mere beasts. 

41. Like warlike. Cf. Temp. iii. 3. 66 : "like invulnerable, etc. 
58. Note. See on i. 4. 2 above. 

63. Hangings. That is, the fruit hanging on the tree. 

73. Fore-end. Earlier part ; used by S. only here. 

83. /' the cave wherein they bow. That is, which is so low that they 
must bow or stoop in entering it. Cf. 2 above. The folios have " 
Caue, whereon the Bowe" (or "Bow") ; corrected by Warb. 

85. Prince it. Play the prince, bear themselves like princes. Gr. 226. 

87. Who. Changed to "whom" in the 2d folio. See on i. 6. 153 

go. Spirits. Monosyllabic (-sprite] ; as often. Gr. 463. 

99. Knows. Changed by Pope to " know ;" but see on ii. 4. 58 above. 



100. Whereon. We should now use whereupon. 

103. Reffst. The folios have "refts." For similar euphonic forms, 
see Gr. 340. 

105. Her grave. Changed by Hanmer to " thy grave ;" but see on i. 
6. 131 above. Malone compares Acts, xvii. 2, 3. 

SCENE IV. i. When we came from horse. "Serving to show that 
they have performed the previous portion of their long journey by riding, 
and have now alighted on account of the more rugged and mountainous 
district through which their way lies" (Clarke). 

3. Have now. That is, have now longed. 

6. Inward. For the noun, cf. Sonn. 128. 6: "To kiss the tender in- 
ward of thy hand." So outward in i. I. 23 above. 

9. Haviour. As Steevens notes, this should not be printed as a con- 
traction of behaviour. Cf. JR. and J. p. 1 66. 

11. Tender" si . . . untender. This kind of jingle or play upon words 
of the same or similar sound is common in S. See Dr. Ingleby's Shake- 
speare Hermeneutics, p. 26 fol. Pope changed tender" st to " offer'st." 

12. Summer news. Cf. Sonn. 98. 4: 

" Yet nor the lays of birds, nor the sweet smell 
Of different flowers in odour and in hue, 
Could make me any summer's story tell." 

15. Dnig-damifd. Alluding to the notoriousness of Italian poisoning 
(Johnson). Cf. iii. 2. 5 above. 

Out-craftied. The folio form; changed by some to "out-crafted." S. 
uses the word only here. 

17. Take off some extremity. That is, may break the bad news more 
gently than the letter. 

22. Lie bleeding in me. That is, " my heart bleeds inwardly " (2 Hen. 
IV. ii. 2. 51) on account of them. 

25. With. By. Gr. 193. 

32. What shall I need, etc. Why need I, etc. This use of what 
(=why) is especially common with need. Cf. C. of E. iii. 2. 15, Hen. 
VIII.\\. 4. 128, J. C. ii. i. 123, etc. Gr. 253. 

34. Worms. Serpents. Cf. A. and C. v. 3. 243, 256, 261, 268, 282, etc. 
See also Macb. p. 215. 

Nile. Like Nihts, always without the article in S. except in A. and C. 
ii. 7. 20. Cf. Tiber in Cor. iii. i. 262, J. C. i. I. 50, 63, i. 2. 114, iii. 2,254, 

35. Posting winds. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. ind. 4 : " making the wind my post- 

36. States. Explained by Johnson and Steevens as " persons of high- 
est rank." Cf. K. John, ii. i. 395, etc. 

39. False to his bed! Mrs. Jameson remarks here: "In her first ex- 
clamations we trace, besides astonishment and anguish, and the acute 
sense of the injustice inflicted on her, a flash of indignant spirit, which 
we do not find in Desdemona or Hermione. This is followed by that 
affecting lamentation over the falsehood and injustice of her husband, 


I 9 4 NOTES. 

in which she betrays no atom of jealousy or wounded, self-love, but ob- 
serves in the extremity of her anguish, that after his lapse from truth, 
'all good seeming would be discredited,' and she then resigns herself to 
his will with the most entire submission." 

40. In watch. Awake. Cf. Ham. ii. 2. 148 : " Thence to a watch," etc. 
See our ed. p. 204. Cf. also the verb in 11.4. 68 above. 

41. If sleep charge nature, etc. "And if sleep take hold of nature, 
then to break," etc. (J. H.). 

42. Fearful. Full of fear, anxious. Cf. Rich. II. p. 190. 

43. Favour 's. See on i. 6. 41 above. 

Jay. Used as a term of reproach ( harlot) ; as in M. W. iii. 3. 44 : 
"we '11 teach him to know turtles from jays." Warb. notes that the 
Italian /Z///0 (=jay) is used in the same figurative sense. 

49. Whose mother was her painting. Who owed her beauty to her 
painted face ; a figure not unlike that in iv. 2. 82 below: 

" No, nor thy tailor, rascal, 

Who is thy grandfather; he made those clothes, 
Which, as it seems, make thee." 

Cf. Lear, ii. 2. 60 : "a tailor made thee." Theo. conjectured " planting " 
for painting, and Hanmer changed mother to " feathers " (Capell, "feath- 
er"). Coll. adopts the reading of the Coll. MS. : " Who smothers her 
with painting." The Camb. editors remark : " If the text be right, the 
meaning probably is, whose mother aided and abetted her daughter in 
her trade of seduction." K. suggests " muffler " for mother. 

51. For I am richer, etc. Because (Gr. 151) I am too valuable to be 
hung up like an old-fashioned garment. Malone saw an allusion to 
tapestry hangings which " being sometimes wrought with gold and sil- 
ver, were, it should seem, occasionally ripped and taken to pieces for 
the sake of the materials;" but the preceding line shows plainly enough 
that the reference is to ripping up an old garment. The play on ripp'd 
is obvious. Cf. iii. 5. 86 below. 

58. Sinotfs weeping. It was Sinon who persuaded the Trojans to ad- 
mit the wooden horse into their city. On iveeping, cf. Virgil, sEn. ii. 195 : 

* c Talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis 
Credita res, captique dolis lacrimisque coactis, 
Quos neque Tydides, nee Larissaeus Achilles, 
Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinae." 

For other allusions to Sinon, see R. of L. 1521, 1529, 3 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 
190, and T. A. v. 3. 85. 

61. Wilt lay the leaven on all proper men. That is, "wilt infect and 
corrupt their good name (like sour dough that leaveneth the whole 
mass), and wilt render them suspected " (Upton). Cf. Hen. V. ii. 2. 126 : 

" O. how hast thou with jealousy infected 
The sweetness of affiance ! . . . 

And thus thy fall hath left a kind of blot 
To mark the full-fraught man and best indued 
With some suspicion.'* 


Proper is explained by the goodly and gallant in the next line. Cf. 
M. of V. p. 132, note on A proper man 's picture. 

63. Fail. Upton conjectured "fall ;" but S. has fail several times as 
a noun. Cf. W. T. ii. 3. 170, v. 1. 107, Hen. VIII. i. 2. 145, ii. 4. 198, etc. 

65. A little witness, etc. Bear some little testimony to, etc. 

76. There is a prohibition so divine, etc. Cf. Ham. \. 2. 132 : 

" Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd 
His canon 'gainst self-slaughter." 

See our ed. p. 182. S. uses self -slaughter only in these two passages. 

For the relative after so, see Gr. 279. 

78. Afore 't. The folios have " a-foot ;" corrected by Rowe. The 
Coll. MS. has " in front." 

80. Scriptures. Imogen uses the word for the antithesis to heresy. 
Rowe inserts here the stage-direction, " Pulling his letter [Pope, "let- 
ters "] out of her bosom." 

87. Set up. Instigate. Set on is more common in this sense. Cf. i. 5. 
73 above. 

90. Princely fellows. Those who were fellows or equals with myself 
in princely rank. The Coll. MS. has " followers." 

91. Common passage. Common occurrence. Cf. A. W.\.\.2Q\ "how 
sad a passage 't is !" 

93. Disedg^d. Surfeited (having the edge of one's appetite taken off). 
Cf. Temp. iv. I. 28 and Ham. iii. 2. 260. 

94. 7Wst on. To tire was to feed on ravenously, like a bird of prey. 
Cf. V. and A. 56 : 

" Even as an empty eagle, sharp by fast, 
Tires with her beak on feathers, flesh, and bone, 
Shaking her wings, devouring all in haste, 
Till either gorge be stuff' d or prey be gone;" 

" like an empty eaj 
and of i 

and 3 Hen. VI. i. i. 269 : 

Tire on the flesh of me and of my son.' 
95. Pangd. Cf. Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 15 : 

" 't is a sufferance panging 
As soul and body's severing." 

101. 7 '// wake mine eye-balls blind first. The folios read " He wake 
mine eye-balles first." Hanmer inserted blind. Johnson conjectured 
" out first." The Coll. MS. has " crack mine eye-balls first." 

105. The perturb" d court, etc. That is, the court perturbed ori account 
of my absence. See on ii. 3. 94 above. 

108. To be unbent. To have thy bow unbent. Stand is used in the 
same technical sense as in ii. 3. 68 above. 

109. The elected deer. The chosen deer. Cf. P. P. 300 : 

" When as thine eye hath chose the dame 
And stall'd the deer that thou shouldst strike," etc. 

ill. Considered of. Cf. Hen. V. ii. 4. 113, iii. 6. 133, y. C. iii. 2. 114, 
Macb. iii. I. 75, etc. 

I9 6 NOTES. 

115. Ttnt. Probe; as in Ham. ii. 2. 626: "I '11 tent him to the 
quick," etc. See also the noun in T. and C. ii. 2. 16 : 

" the tent that searches 
To the bottom of the worst." 

120. Abused. Deceived, deluded. See on i. 6. 130 above. 

125. For V is commanded, etc. Some of the critics say that this is not 
in the letter ; but it is implied in the injunction, "to make me certain it 
is done," which Pisanio is left to interpret in his own way. 

126. Shall. Will. Cf. Gr.3i5. 

132. With that harsh, noble, etc. This line is evidently defective, though 
the sense is clear. The Coll. MS. inserts "empty" after simple. Theo. 
has " simple nothing, Cloten." Nicholson conjectures " ignoble " for 

136. Hath Britain, etc. K. remarks : "It seems probable that here, 
as also on a similar occasion in Rich. II. [see i. 4. 275 fol.], S. had in his 
thoughts a passage in Lyly's Euphues : * Nature hath given to no man 
a country, no more than she hath house, or lands, or living. Plato would 
never account him banished that had the sun, air, water, and earth, that 
he had before : where he felt the winter's blast, and the summer's blaze ; 
where the same sun and the same moon shined : whereby he noted that 
every place was a country to a wise man, and all parts a palace to a 
quiet mind.' " 

140. There 'j. Cf. iv. 2. 372 below: " There is no more such masters," 
etc. See also iv. 2. 284, v. 5. 233, etc. Gr. 335. 

144. Dark as your fortune is. As impenetrable to others, as your 
fortune is doubtful or obscure. 

145. That which, etc. Her personal identity as woman and princess 

147. Pretty, and full of view. Fair and full of promise. Pretty has 
been suspected, and the Coll. MS. substitutes " Privy ;" hut the emenda- 
tion, though specious, has met with little favour among the editors. Full 
of view may mean " affording an ample prospect, a complete opportunity 
of discerning circumstances which it is your interest to know" (Steevens) ; 
or that meaning, as Clarke suggests, may be combined with the one 
given above. A Yankee might say " with a good look-out " in the same 
double sense. 

152. Though. Rann reads " Through" (the conjecture of Johnson and 
Heath), but the ellipsis is not unlike many others in S. 

153. Adventure. Venture, run the risk. See on i. 6. 171 above. 

155. Niceness. Coyness; the only instance of the word in S. Cf. the 
adjective in T. G. of V. iii. i. 82, A. W.v. I. 15, Hen. V. v. 2. 293, 299, etc. 

157. It pretty self. For this old possessive it, cf. W. T. iii. 2. 101 : "in 
it most innocent mouth ;" and see our ed. p. 155. Gr. 228. 

159. Quarrellous. The word is used by S. only here, and quarrelsome 
only in A. Y. L. v. 4. 85, 99, and T. of S. i. 2. 13. For the simile, ct. 
I Hen. IV. ii. 3. 81 : 

" A weasel hath not such a deal of spleen 
As you are toss'd with." 

ACT HI. SCENE V. ! 97 

Steevens says that " this character of the Weasel is not warranted by 
naturalists." The animal was formerly kept in houses instead of a cat 
for ihe purpose of killing rats and mice. 

161. The harder heart! " This too hard heart of mine !" (J. H.). Cf. 
the use of the comparative in Latin. Johnson makes it refer to Posthu- 

163. Common-kissing Titan. The sun that kisses any body and any 
thing. Cf. I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 133 : " Didst thou never see Titan kiss a 
dish of butter?" Steevens cites Oth. iv. 2. 78: "The bawdy wind that 
kisses all it meets." 

164. Laboursome. Elaborate. Cf. Ham. i. 2. 59 : " laboursome peti- 
tion." Trims (^apparel) is the only instance of the plural in S. 

168. Fore -thinking. Anticipating; as in I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 38 : "Pro- 
phetically do fore-think thy fall." 

170. In their serving. With the help they may give you. 
174. Happy. Fortunate, gifted. Cf. T. G. of K iv. I. 34 : 

" 2 Outlaw. Have you the tongues ? 
Valentine. My youthful travel therein made me happy." 

You Y/ make him know. The folios have " will make him know." 
Theo. reads " will make him so." The reading in the text is Hanmer's. 
St. conjectures " will make him bow." 

177- Your means abroad. For your means, as to your means. 

179. Supplement. " Continuance of supply " (D.) ; used by S. only here. 

lot. We '// even, etc. " We '11 make our work even with our time; 
we '11 do what time will allow " (Johnson) ; or " we '11 profit by any ad- 
vantage offered " (Schmidt). Cf. A. W. \. 3. 3 : " to even your content ;" 
and see our ed. p. 140. 

183. lam soldier to. " I have enlisted and bound myself to it " (Warb.), 
or " I am firmly and constantly devoted to it " (Schmidt). Steevens 
thinks it is simply = " I am up to it, I have ability for it;" and that ex- 
planation is perhaps to be preferred. 

187. Your carriage. Carrying you off. 

190. At land. This might seem suggested l>y the preceding at sea, 
but we find it in other connections ; as in A. and C. iii. 7. 54, iv. 5. 3, etc. 
Cf. Or. 143, 144. 

SCENE V. 3. And am. For the ellipsis of the subject, see Gr. 400, 
401. For ye, see Gr. 236. 

7. So, sir. For the " acquiescent" use of so, cf. iii. I. 82 above. The 
pointing is that of the folios. Some follow Capell in connecting the 
words with what follows : " So, sir, I desire," etc. 

8. Conduct. Safe-conduct, escort. 

9. And you! The folios join this to the preceding speech. We fol- 
low the Camb. editors (Globe ed.) in giving it to the Queen. Rann reads 
" his grace and you." 

14. The event. The issue ; as in T. of S. iii. 2. 129 : " I '11 after him, 
and see the event of this," etc. 

21. Wrote. Cf. 2 above. The common form in S. is writ or written. 
22. Fits. Befits, becomes ; as in v. 5. 98 below. 

198 NOTES. 

Ripely. Promptly (the time being ripe for it) ; the one instance of the 
adverb in S. 

25. Drawn to head. Gathered in arms. Cf. X. John, v. 2. 113 : " Be- 
fore I drew this gallant head of war ;" and see our ed. p. 174. 

32. Looks its like. Seems to us like. The us is the dative, as in " do 
us the favour," etc. Cf. Gr. 220. The ist folio reads "looke vs like," 
which the 2d changes to "lookes as like." 

35. Slight in sufferance. The 2d folio changes slight to " light." The 
meaning is, We have been too easy or careless in allowing it. 

36. Exile. Accented by S. on either syllable, according to the meas- 
ure. Cf. ii. 3. 39 above and iv. 4. 26 below. See also A. Y. L. p. 149. 

40. Tender of. Sensitive to. 

44. Loud' st. See on i. I. 96 above. The folios read " lowd (or "loud ") 
of noise;" corrected by Capell. Rowe gives "loudest noise," and the 
Coll. MS. "loud'st noise." 

50. Our great court, etc. Our important court business (with the Ro- 
man ambassador) made me forget it. 

56. Stand 'st so for. Dost stand up so for, as we say ; art so earnest a 
partisan of. Cf. M. W. in. 2. 62 : " I stand wholly for you," etc. 

69. Forestall him of. That is, prevent his living to see. 

71. And that. And/^r that, and because. Gr. 151, 285. 

72. Than lady, ladies, woman. An elliptical climax="than any lady, 
than all ladies, than all womankind " (Johnson). Hanmer reads " Than 
any lady, winning from each one ;" and Warb. " Than lady ladies ; win- 
ning from each one." 

74. Outsells. Outvalues ; as in ii. 4. 102 above. Coll. conjectures 
" Excels." 

80. Are you packing? Explained by some, and perhaps rightly, as = 
are you plotting? Cf. T. of S. v. i. 121 : "Here's packing, with a wit- 
ness, to deceive us all," etc. It may, however, mean (as Schmidt and 
others make it), Are you running off? Cf. I Hen. VI. iv. i. 46, Ham. 
iii. 4. 211, etc. 

83. Good my lord. See Gr. 13. 

85. Close. Sly, secret. Cf. Macb. iii. 5. 7 : " The close contriver of all 
harms," etc. 

86. Rip Thy heart. Cf. Lear, iv. 6. 265 : " To know our enemies' minds, 
we 'd rip their hearts." 

92. Home. Thoroughly, fully. Cf. Temp. v. i. 71 : "I will pay thy 
graces home." See also Ham. p. 232, note on Tax him home. 

99. This paper. The " feigned letter " of v. 5. 279 below. It seems to 
have been prepared by Pisanio to account for Imogen's absence in case 
he should be charged with aiding and abetting her flight. 

101. Or this, or perish. I must resort to this trick, or fall a victim to 
his fury. Johnson conjectured that the words belong to Cloten. 

log. Undergo. Undertake. Cf. i. 4. 153 above. See also W. T. p. 202. 
. 137. Insultment. The only instance of the word in S. 

140. Knock. Changed by Hanmer to " kick." 
.153. My loss. The Coll. MS. has " thy loss." 

155. Most true. " It is characteristic of the faithful-hearted Pisanio that 



he never swerves from his conviction that Posthumus is good and true, 
notwithstanding the cruel letter commanding Imogen's destruction. He 
believes what he has told her; that Posthumus has been deceived by 
' some villain,' who has worked this 'injury ' to both " (Clarke). Hanmer 
changed him to " her." 

SCENE VI. 6. Within a ken. Within sight, as in 2 Hen. IV. iv. i. 
151 : "within a ken our army lies." 

7. Foundations. " Quibbling between fixed places and charitable estab- 
lishments " (Schmidt). 

13. Sorer. " A greater or heavier crime " (Johnson). 

16. Even before. Just before ; as in K. John, iii. I. 233 : "And even 
before this truce, but new before," etc. 

17. At point. See on iii. I. 30 above. For food fa* want of food. 
Cf. A. Y.L. ii. 7. 104: " I almost die for food." See our ed. p. 159, note 
on Faints for succour. 

19. I were best. See on iii. 2. 76 above. 

20. Clean. Quite, entirely. See Rich. II. p. 188. 

21. Breeds. Changed by Hanmer to "breed;" but see on ii. 4. 58 

Hardness = hardship ; as in Oth. i. 3. 234: 

"A natural and a prompt alacrity 
I find in hardness," etc. 

22. Hardiness. Bravery; as in Hen. V. i. 2. 220 : "hardiness and policy." 
For the jingle, cf. iii. 4. 1 1 above. 

23. Civil. Civilized ; as the antithesis of savage shows. Cf. Oth. 
p. 196. 

24. Take or lend. Take pay for food, or lend it ; as Malone explains 
it, referring to 47 below. Johnson wanted to transpose civil and savage ; 
and Schmidt conjectures " take or leave " (that is, " destroy me or let me 

25. Best draw my sword. Steevens quotes Milton, Comus, 487 : " Best 
draw and stand upon our guard." 

27. Such a foe, good heavens ! " Exquisitely feminine throughout is this 
speech. Its confession of limb- weary fatigue, of faintness from exhaus- 
tion, its moral strength amid physical weakness, its tender epithet for the 
husband whose cruel injustice is felt none the less deeply for the irremov- 
able love she still cherishes for him, its timid hesitation in calling for help, 
its vague thought of defence in best draw my sword, its avowal of greater 
dread at the very sight of the sword than the sword-drawer can hope to 
inspire by use of the weapon, together with the final softly smiling, half 
self-pitying exclamation, half aspiration for divine aid, are all intensely 
true to the mingled mental courage and bodily delicacy of such a wom- 
an as Imogen, who is the very embodiment of supreme womanhood " 

28. Woodman. Hunter ; the common acceptation of the word in the 
time of S. (Steevens). Cf. R. of L. 580 : 

" He is no woodman that doth bend his bow 
To strike a poor unseasonable doe ;" 

200 NOTES. 

and M. W. v. 5. 30: Am I a woodman, ha? speak I like Herne the 
hunter ?" 

30. Match. Agreement, compact; as in W. T. v. 3. 137, Cor. ii. 3. 86, etc. 

34. Resty. Too fond of rest, lazy, torpid. Cf. Sonn. 100. 9 : " Rise, 
resty muse." We find " resty-stiff " in Edw. III. iii. 3. 

36. Throughly. See on ii. 4. 12 above. 

44. An earthly paragon. Cf. T. G. of K ii. 4. 146 : " No ; but she is an 
earthly paragon." 

50. /' the floor. Changed by Hanmer to "o' th' floor;" but in was 
sometimes --on. Cf. Gr. 160. 

52. Parted. Departed ; as in Cor. v. 6. 73 : " when I parted hence," 
etc. See M. of F. p. 145. 

55. Of. By. Gr. 170. 

58. Made it. Cf. W. T. iii. 2. 218 : " All faults I make," etc. See our 
ed. p. 178. 

64. /;/. Into ; as very often. Cf. Oth. v. 2. 292 : " Fallen in the prac- 
tice of a cursed slave," etc. Gr. 159. 

66. Well encountered! Well met ! Cf. i. 3. 32 above. 

70. But be. For the use of but, see Gr. 126. 

71. I bid for you as I V buy. "I bid for you with a sincere desire to 
have you" (J. H.); "I bid for your affection as I do buy it with mine 
own to you " (Clarke). Hanmer has " I'd bid." 

75. Sprightly. In good spirits. 

77. Prize. Estimation, value. Clarke paraphrases the passage thus : 
" then would the prize which Leonatus gained in winning the heiress to 
the crown have been lessened by my being but sister to the royal heirs." 
Heath explains it : " Then had the prize thou hast mastered in me been 
less, and not have sunk thee, as I have done, by over-lading thee ;" but 
this is pressing the metaphor too far. 

79. Wrings. Writhes, as in anguish. Cf. Much Ado, v. I. 28: " those 
that wring under the load of sorrow ;" and Hen. F. iv. I. 253 : 

" whose sense no more can feel 
But his own wringing.'' 

85. Laying by, etc. Setting aside that worthless tribute of obsequious 
adoration which the fickle crowd pay to rank. Johnson explains differing 
multitudes as = "the many-headed rabble;" but it seems rather to be^ 
" the still discordant, wavering multitude " of 2 Hen. IV. ind. 19. 

87. Otit-peer. Excel, surpass ; used by S. only here. 

89. Leonatus" 1 . The folios have simply " Leonatus," which V, and W. 
retain ; but we prefer to print Leonatus'' , as D., Sr., and Clarke do. Cf. 
Lear, p. 246, note on This\ or Gr. 461. 

90. Hunt. That is, the game taken in the hunt. 

92. Mannerly. Adjectives in -ly are often used adverbially. Cf. Miich 
Ado, ii. i. 79: "mannerly modest;" and M. of V. ii. 9. 100: "Cupid's 
post that comes so mannerly." See also on ii. 3. 33 above. 

SCENE VII. 4. And that. And since that. See on iii. 5. 71 above. 
6. Fair n off. Revolted. Cf. I Hen. IV. i. 3. 94 : 


"Revolted Mortimer! 
He never did fall off, my sovereign liege, 
But by the chance of war," etc. 

9. Commands. Changed by Theo. to "commends ;" but the meaning, 
as Johnson remarks, may be " commands the commission to be given to 
you." The expression is not more elliptical than many in the present 
play. K., V., W., Clarke, and others retain commands. 

14. Suppliant. Supplementary, auxiliary ; the only instance of the 
adjective in S. Capell and some other editors spell it " supplyant." The 
accent is of course on the penult. 


SCENE I. 4. Saving reverence of. Begging pardon of. Saving your 
reverence was a common apology for an offensive or unseemly word. Cf. 
M.for M. ii. I. 92, Much Ado, iii. 4. 32, M. of V. ii. 2. 27, 139, etc. 

12. Single oppositions. Single encounters or combats. Cf. I Hen. IV. 
' 3- 99 : " I 11 single opposition, hand to hand," etc. Schmidt explains 
it as = " when compared as to particular accomplishments;" which per- 
haps suits the context quite as well. 

Imperseverant. " Giddy - headed, flighty, thoughtless " ( Schmidt ). 
Some explain it as "obstinately persevering, stubborn." The folios 
spell the word " imperseuerant," which D. and others change to "im- 
perceiverant ;" but that is hardly an admissible derivative from per- 

What mortality is ! What a thing mortality is ! Cf. M. of V. \. 3. 
162 : " O father Abram, what these Christians are !" Gr. 256. 

15. Enforced. Cf. M. N. D. iii. i. 205 : " enforced chastity," etc. 

Hanmer changed thy face to " her face ;" but the confusion of pro- 
nouns, as Clarke remarks, is "in Cloten's usual blundering, headlong 

17. Spiirn her home. Cf. iii. 5. 141 above. 

Happily. The folio reading, changed by Johnson to "haply." Cf. T. 
of S. iv. 4. 54 : " And happily we might be interrupted," etc. See T. N. 
p. 158, or Gr. 42. 

19. Power of. Control over ; as in Ham. ii. 2. 27 : " the sovereign 
power you have of us." 

SCENE II. 8. Citizen. " Cockney-bred, effeminate " (Schmidt). For 
wanton (=one brought up in luxury), cf. K. John, v. I. 70: "a beardless 
boy, A cocker'd silken wanton ;" and Rich. II. v. 3. 10 : " While he, 
young wanton and effeminate boy " (where wanton is a noun, as here). 
See also Ham. p. 275, note on Make a wanton of me. 

10. Journal. Diurnal, daily; as in M. for M. iv. 3. 92 : "Ere twice 
the sun hath made his journal greeting," etc. Johnson paraphrases the 
passage thus : " Keep your daily course uninterrupted ; if the stated plan 
of life is once broken, nothing follows but confusion." 

202 A r OTS. 

14. Reason of it. Talk about it. Cf. M. of V. ii. 8. 27 : "I reason'd 
with a Frenchman yesterday," etc. 

17. How much, etc. However much, etc. See Much Ado, p. 141, and 
cf. Gr. 46. Capell changed How to " As." 

24. Strain. Explained by Schmidt as "impulse," but the context 
shows that it carries with it the idea of hereditary disposition. Cf. its 
use=stock, race ; as in J. C. v. i. 59 : " the noblest of thy strain." See 
also Hen. V. p. 160. 

26, 27. Cowards father . . . and grace. In the folio these lines are 
printed thus : 

u Cowards father Cowards, & Base things Syre Bace ; 
" Nature hath Meale, and Bran ; Contempt, and Grace. 

It must not, however, be inferred that the couplet is a quotation. D. has 
shown (Remarks, etc., 1844, p. 207) that maxims, apothegms, etc., used 
often to be printed in this way. Cf. T. and C. i. 2. 319, where the line 
("Achievement is command," etc.) has the inverted commas in the folio, 
because, as the preceding line states, it is a "maxim." See the note on 
the passage in W., vol. ix. p. 142. 

29. Miracle. Schmidt is in doubt whether this is verb or noun ; but it 
can well enough be explained as the latter. The meaning seems to be : 
yet this youth, whoever he may be, accomplishes a very miracle in being 
loved before me. For who, cf. y. C. i. 3. 80 : " Let it be who it is," etc. 

31. So please yoii, sir. Tyrwliitt wished to transfer these words to 
Imogen, as a " courtly phrase " out of place in the mouth of Arviragus ; 
but, as Capell suggests, they are probably addressed to Belarius, who, 
after saying ' T is the ninth hour, etc., takes down some of their hunting 
weapons and hands one to Arviragus. The three men may be supposed 
to be equipping themselves for the hunt during the following speech of 

35. Imperious. "Imperial" (Malone). Cf. Ham. v. i. 236: "Im- 
perious Caesar" (the quarto reading) ; T. and C. iv. 5. 172 : " most im- 
perious Agamemnon," etc. 

38. Stir him. " Move him to tell his story " (Johnson). 

39. Gentle. Of gentle birth, well-born. 

40. Dishonestly afflicted. The victim of others' dishonesty, or dis- 
honourable conduct. 

45. Huswife. The usual spelling in the early eds., indicating the pro- 
nunciation. Cf. Cor. p. 205. 

46. And shalt be ever. Belarius plays upon the word bound. It 
would hardly be necessary to refer to this, if Warb. had not changed 
shalt to "shall." Heath, besides making this change, joined the words 
to Imogen's speech. 

47. Appears he hath had. A "confusion of construction" (Gr. 411). 
K. reads : " howe'er distress'd he appears, hath had." Clarke makes 
appears^" shows, makes manifest ;" but we cannot believe that the word 
is ever used transitively. See Cor. p. 251, note on Is well appeared. 

49. His neat cookery ! Mrs. Lennox has objected to this as inconsist- 
ent with the rank of Imogen ; but see p. 22 above. The folios give what 


follows to "Arui. t " but Capell is clearly right in continuing the speech 
to Guiderius. 

50. In characters. In the shape of letters. Steevens quotes Fletcher, 
Elder Brother: " And how to cut his meat in characters." 

51. As. As if. Gr. 107. 

52. Dieter. The only instance of the word in S. 

53-57. As if . . . rail at. Put in the margin as spurious by Pope 
and Hanmer. 

58. Him. The folios have " them ;" corrected by Pope. 

59. Spurs. " The longest and largest leading roots of trees " (Malone). 
Cf Temp. v. I. 47 : 

" and by the spurs pluck'd up 
The pine and cedar." 

61. With. The preposition has troubled some of the commentators, 
but the twined implied in untwine is " understood " before with ; or we 
may say, with Malone, that untwine = " cease to twine." Hanmer 
changed with to " from." 

62. Great morning. Late in the morning. The expression occurs 
again in T. and C. iv. 3. I. Steevens compares the Fr. grand jour. So 
de grand matin = very early. 

67. Saw him not. Have not seen him. Cf. 191 below. Gr. 347. 

75. A slave. That word slave; including perhaps the other meaning 
also : a slave who calls me a slave. 

77. To who ? See on iii. 3. 87 above. Cf. Oth. pp. 160, 200. 

80. My dagger in my mouift. Cf. for a different use of the figure Much 
Ado, ii. i. 255: "She speaks poniards;" and Ham. iii. 2. 414: "I will 
speak daggers to her." 

84. Make thee. See on iii. 4. 49 above. 

87. Injurious. Insolent. See on iii. i. 46 above. 

91. Or adder, spider. Omitted by Capell. Hanmer ends the line at 
toad, and begins the next with " Adder, or spider, it would," etc. 

93. Mere. Absolute. See J. C. p. 129, note on Merely upon myself. 
Cf. v. 3. n below. 

95. Afeard. Used by S. interchangeably with afraid. See Macb. p. 
163, note on Nothing afeard. 

97. Die the death. The form of a judicial sentence (cf. M.for M. ii. 4. 
165), and hence used of a violent death. See also M. N. D. p. 126. 

98. Proper. Own ; as in Temp. iii. 3. 60 : " Their proper selves," etc. 
100. Lad's town. See on iii. I. 32 above. 

105. Favour. Personal appearance. See on i. 6. 41 above, and cf. 
iii. 4. 48. 

107. Absolute. Positive, certain ; as in Ham. v. i. 148 : " How abso- 
lute the knave is ?" Cf. perfect in 1 19 below. 

1 10. Fell. Fierce, cruel ; as in T. and C. iv. 5. 269 : "-fell as death," 

in. Apprehension. Conception, appreciation ; not = dread. Cf. Hen. 
V. iii. 7. 145 : " If the English had any apprehension, they would run 
away ;" and see our ed. p. 171. 

112. Defect. Changed by Theo. to "effect." Hanmer changed cause 



in the next line to " cure." Sundry other emendations have been pro- 
posed, none of which seem to us at all satisfactory. The passage, as it 
stands, appears to say the opposite of what is meant ; but we are in- 
clined to think it one of those inadvertencies in the use of negatives 
to which the poet appears to have been prone. He not unfrequently 
got in one too many (see on i. 4. 20 above), and sometimes one too 
few (cf. A. Y. L. iii. 2. 31, and see our ed. p. 156, note on No more do 
yours}. The present instance seems to us to belong to the latter list. 
Fear is elliptically defect of fear, the word in the former part of the 
sentence being made to do duty by implication in the latter. Schmidt 
does not include this passage among his examples of a negative "want- 
ing, as being borne in mind, though not expressed" (Lexicon, p. 1421), 
but we think it is clearly analogous to some that he does give especially 
the one in A. Y. L. iii. 2. 31. See, however, p. 226 below. 

117. / not doing this. If I had not done this. Gr. 377. 

119. Perfect. See on iii. I. 71 above. 

122. Take us in. Overcome us. See on iii. 2. 9 above. 

130. For. Because ; as in iii. 4. 51 above. 

132. Safe. Sound ; as in Lear, iv. 6. 81 : " The safer sense," etc. 

133. Humour. The folios have " honor " or " honour ;" corrected by 

137. To bring him here. For the ellipsis of as, see Gr. 281. 

139. Cave. The only instance of the verb in S. 

140. Head. Armed force. See on iii. 5. 25 above. 

142. Fetch us in. Capture us ; as in A. and C. iv. I. 14 : ' Enough to 
fetch him in." Cf. 122 above. 

146. Ordinance. That which is ordained by the gods. Cf. Rich. III. 
iv. 4. 183 : " by God's just ordinance," etc. 

147. Howsoever. However this may be. 

150. Did make my way long forth. "Made my walk forth from the 
cave tedious " (Johnson). 

155. Reck. Care. The word is spelt " reake " or " reak " in the folios. 
Cf. A. Y. L. p. 159 ; and see also Cor. p. 237, note on Reckless. 

159. Brotherly. See on mannerly, iii. 6. 92 above. 

1 60. Revenges, etc. " Such pursuit of vengeance as fell within any 
possibility of opposition " (Johnson). 

161. Seek us through. Seek us out, follow us up. 

168. To gain his colour. " To restore him to the bloom of health " 

169. Let . . . blood. Cf. J. C. iii. I. 152 : " Who else must be let blood," 

Parish is evidently = " as many as would fill a parish" (Johnson), but 
Hanmer changed it to "marish." Edwards takes the trouble to inform 
us that the meaning is not " I would let out a parish of blood ;" and Ma- 
lone says : " Mr. Edwards is, I think, right '"for, as he adds, we find " a 
band of Clotens " in v. 5. 304 below. 

171. Divine. For the accent, see on ii. I. 55 above. 

175. Enchafd. Excited, enraged. Cf. Oth. ii. I. 17: "On the en- 
chafed flood," See J. C. p. 131, on The troubled Tiber chafing, etc. . 


For rudest, see on I. i. 96 above and cf. 191 below. Pope has "rude." 
176. By the top doth take, etc. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. iii. i. 22 : 

" the winds, 
Who take the ruffian billows by the top," etc. 

178. Instinct. For the accent, cf. Rich. III. ii. 3. 42, Cor. v. 3. 35, etc. 
See also 2 Hen. IV. p. 149. Gr. 490. 

180. Other. Cf. iii. i. 36 above. Gr. 12. 

185. Clotpoll. Head. For its contemptuous personal use (=block- 
head), see Lear, p. 184. 

187. Ingenious. The folios have " ingenuous ;" corrected by Rowe. 
The words are used indiscriminately in the early eds. 

192. It did not speak. See on 67 above. Gr. 347. 

193. Answer. Answer to, correspond to. Cf. v. 5. 449 below. 

194. Toys. Trifles. Cf. I Hen. VI. iv. I. 145 : "a toy, a thing of no 
regard," etc. 

199. Made so much on. Cf. Cor. iv. 5. 203 : " he is so made on here," 
etc. For the interchange of on and of, see Gr. 181. 

V. quotes Mrs. Radcliffe here : " No master ever knew how to touch 
the accordant springs of sympathy by small circumstances like our own 
Shakespeare. In Cymbeline, for instance, how finely such circumstances 
are made use of to awaken, at once, solemn expectation and tenderness, 
and, by recalling the softened remembrance of a sorrow long past, to pre- 
pare the mind to melt at one that was approaching ; mingling at the same 
time, by means of a mysterious occurrence, a slight tremor of awe with 
our pity ! Thus, when Belarius and Arviragus return to the cave where 
they had left the unhappy and worn-out Imogen to repose, while they are 
yet standing before it, and Arviragus speaking of her with tenderest 
pity as 'poor sick Fidele' goes out to inquire for her, solemn music 
is heard from the cave, sounded by that harp of which Guiderius says, 
4 Since the death of my dearest mother it did not speak before. All 
solemn things should answer solemn accidents.' Immediately, Arvira- 
gus enters with Fidele senseless in his arms : 

' The bird is dead that we have made so much on. ... 
Guiderius. Why, he but sleeps. . . . 
Arviragus. With fairest flowers, 
While summer lasts, AND I LIVE HERE, FIDELE, 
I '11 sweeten thy sad grave.' 

Tears alone can speak the touching simplicity of the whole scene." 

206. Crare. A kind of small vessel. The folios have "care," and 
crare is the emendation of Steevens (the conjecture of Simpson). Theo. 
and Hanmer have "carack" (the suggestion of Warb.), for which see 
Oth. p. 1 60. Steevens gives many examples of crare (also spelt craer, , 
cray or craye, crea, etc.) from B. and F., Drayton, Heywood, and other 
writers of the time. It occurs also in Holinshed, North's Plutarch, Hak- 
luyt's Voyages, etc. Malone cites Florio, Ital. Diet. : " Vurchio. A hulke, 
a crayer, a lyter, a wherrie, or such vessel of burthen." 

208. But I. That is, but I know. Rowe (2d ed.) reads "but ah !" 
210. Stark. Cf. the effect of the sleeping-potion in A*, and J. iv. i. 

2 o6 NOTES. 

" Each part, depriv'd of supple government, 
Shall, stiff and stark and cold, appear like death." 

215. Clouted brogues. Heavy shoes strengthened with clouts, or hob- 
nails (Steevens). Cf. 2 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 195 : "clouted shoon." Accord- 
ing to others, clouted patched. This would seem to be the meaning in 
Josh. ix. 5 : " old shoes and clouted." Cf. Latimer, Sermons : " he should 
not have clouting leather to piece his shoes with." See also Wb. 

219. To thee. Changed by Hanmer to "near him," and by Rann to 
" to him ;" but we have already had several examples of this confusion of 
pronouns in the present play. See on iii. 3. 105 above. " Here Guide- 
rius replies to his brother's remark upon Fidele's looking but as if 
asleep, and continues speaking of the gentle lad in the third person until, 
looking upon the beautiful form that lies apparently dead before him, a 
sense of its loveliness and his own impassioned regret at having to con- 
sign it to the grave comes full upon him, and he ends with addressing it 
rather than speaking of it " (Clarke). 

With fairest flowers, etc. V. remarks here : " ' The White Devil, or 
Vittoria Corombona, a tragedy by John Webster,' is one of the most re- 
markable productions of Shakespeare's contemporaries. The principal 
character is a bold and beautiful conception of daring female guilt, which 
may almost vie with Lady Macbeth, and may have been suggested by 
her", though in no respect a copy. But the play contains several passages 
in which the author is certainly indebted to his recollections of ' Master 
Shakspeare,' whose ' right happy and copieous industry ' he commends 
in his preface. One passage is directly from Hamlet. A lady, resem- 
bling Ophelia in her grief and distraction, thus addresses her friends : 

'you're very welcome. 
Here's rosemary for you, and rue for you; 
Heart' s-ease for you : I pray you make much of it : 
I have left more for myself.' 

" Imogen's apparent soft and smiling death, as described in the text, 
has been supposed to be the origin of the following beautiful lines : 

4 Oh, thou soft natural death ! thou art joint-twin 
To sweetest slumber : no rough-bearded comet 
Stares on thy mild departure : the dull owl 
Beats not against thy casement : the hoarse wolf 
Scents not thy carrion: pity winds thy corse, 
While horror waits on princes!' 

" Cornelia's distraction over her dead son, again, owes something to the 
last scene of Lear ; while the funeral dirge for young Marcello, sung by 
her, is still more directly borrowed from this scene : 

'Call for the robin-redbreast and the wren, 

Since o'er shady grove they hover, 

And with leaves and flowers do cover 
v The friendless bodies of unburied men. 

Call unto his funeral dole, 

The ant, the field-mouse, and the mole, 
To raise him hillocks that shall keep him warm, 
And (when gay tombs are robb'd) sustain no harm ; 
But keep the wolf far hence, that 's foe to men, 
For with his nails he'll dig them up again,' etc. 



"The last generation of critics perceived the resemblance, but were 
perplexed by the fact that Webster's play was printed in 1612, eleven years 
before the first edition of Cymbeline ; so that it was not quite clear to 
them whether Shakespeare had not himself borrowed from the two last- 
quoted passages. But since their day we have learned from Dr. Forman 
that Cymbeline was acted at least one year before Webster's White 
Devil, so that Webster, who was originally an actor, was doubtless fa- 
miliar with its poetry as represented, and had, perhaps, himself delivered 
the lament of Arviragus. Indeed, his imitations are not direct copies, 
like those of a plagiarist from the book, but are rather the vivid results 
of the impression made upon the younger poet, by the other's fancy and 
feeling thus reproducing themselves, mingled with the new conceptions 
of a congenial mind." 

222. Pale primrose. Cf. W. T. iv. 4. 122 : 

"pale primroses, 
That die unmarried ;" 

and 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 63 : " Look pale as primroses." 

224. Whom. Often used " to personify irrational antecedents "(Gr. 264). 

225. Ruddock. The redbreast ; spelt " raddocke " or " raddock " in the 
folios. Cf. Spenser, Epithalamion : "the Ruddock warbles soft." 

230. Winter-ground. This seems to have been a term for covering 
plants with straw, etc., to protect them during the winter. Theo. changed 
it to "winter-gown" (the suggestion of Warb.), and the Coll. MS. has 

The notion that the redbreast covered the dead with leaves appears to 
be older than the ballad of The Babes in the Wood. Reed quotes Thos. 
Johnson, Cornucopia, 1596 : "The robin redbrest if he find a rnan or 
woman dead, will cover all his face with mosse, and some thinke that if 
the body should remaine unburied that he would cover the whole body 
also." Cf. Drayton, The Owl: 

"Cov'ring with moss the dead's unclosed eye, 
The little red-breast teacheth charitie." 

231. Wench-like. Womanish. 

233. Admiration. The word combines here the senses of wonder and 
veneration. For the former, see on i. 6. 37 above. 

234. Shall 'j. Shall us ; that is, shall we. Cf. Cor. iv. 6. 148 : " Shall 's 
to the Capitol ?" See also W. T. i. 2. 178, Per. iv. 5. 7, and v. 5. 228 be- 
low. Gr. 215. 

238. Our. The folios have " to our ;" corrected by Pope. 
244. Great griefs, I see, etc. See on i. i. 135 above. For medicine as 
a verb, cf. Oth. iii. 3. 332. 

247. Paid. Punished ; as in v. 4. 161 below. 

248. Reverence, etc. " Reverence, or due regard to subordination, is the 
power that keeps peace and order in the world " (Johnson). 

253. Thersites\ Cf. T. and C. i. 3. 73, etc. ; and for Ajax\ Id. i. 2. 14, 

254. Are. The Coll. MS. has " is." For the plural, cf. L. L. L. ii. I. 
133 : " But say that he or we, as neither have," etc. 

208 NOTES. 

256. To the east. For old superstitions concerning the position of 
graves, etc., see Brand's Popular Antiquities (Bohn's ed.), vol. ii. p. 295 
fol. Cf. p. 37 above ; and also Ham. p. 259, note on Straight. 

259. Fear no more, etc. Several of the editors quote Collins's imitation 
of this dirge, which, as V. observes, " exhibits his usual exquisite taste and 
felicity of expression, although inferior to the original in condensation and 
characteristic simplicity :" 

"To fair Fidele's grassy tomb 

Soft maids and village hinds shall bring 
Each opening sweet of earliest bloom, 
And rifle all the breathing spring. 

No wailing ghost shall dare appear 

To vex with shrieks this quiet grove ; 
But shepherd lads assemble here, 

And melting virgins own their love. 

No withered witch shall here be seen ; 

No goblins lead their nightly crew ; 
The female fays shall haunt the green, 

And dress thy grave with pearly dew. 

The red-breast oft, at evening hours, 

Shall kindly lend his little aid. 
With hoary moss and gathered flowers, 

To deck the ground where thou art laid. 

When howling winds and beating rain 

In tempests shake the sylvan cell ; 
Or, midst the chase, on every plain, 

The tender thought on thee shall dwell : 

Each lonely scene shall thee restore ; 

For thee the tear be truly shed ; 
Beloved till life can charm no more, 

And mourned till pity's self be dead." 

K. remarks : " There is nothing to us more striking than the contrast 
which is presented between the free natural lyric sung by the brothers 
over the grave of Fidele and the elegant poem which some have thought 
so much more beautiful. The one is perfectly in keeping [' barring,' say 
we, the closing couplets of the stanzas] with all that precedes and all that 
follows ; the other is entirely out of harmony with its associations. 4 To 
fair Fidele's grassy tomb ' is the dirge of Collins over Fidele ; ' Fear no 
more the heat o' the sun' is P'idele's proper funeral song by her bold 

263, 264. Golden lads, etc. St. remarks (and we fully agree with him) : 
"There is something so strikingly inferior, both in the thoughts and ex- 
pression of the concluding couplet to each stanza in this song, that we 
may fairly set them down as additions from the same hand which fur- 
nished the contemptible Masque or Vision that deforms the last act." 

or girls all the Coll. MS. has "lasses." 

272. Thunder-stone. Thunder-bolt. Cf. J. C. p. 138. 

276. Consign to thee. Come to the same state, submit to the same 
terms. Johnson conjectured " this " for thee. 



277. Exerciser. Conjurer, one who raised spirits. Cf. exorcist in A. 
W. v. 3. 305 and J. C. ii. I. 323 (see our ed. p. 150). 

281. Consummation. The final summing-up or end of mortal life. Cf. 
Ham. ill. I. 63 : a consummation 

Devoutly to be wish'd." 

Steevens quotes Edw. III. : " To darkness, consummation, dust, and 

286. Faces. Malone objected to the plural, as Cloten's corpse was 
headless, and Hanmer gave " Upon the face " Clarke takes it to re- 
fer to " the faces of corpses generally." 

288. Herblets. The only instance of the diminutive in S. 

291. So is. The folio has "so are ;" probably in this instance an ac- 
cidental repetition of the are just before. 

294. 'Ods pittikins! One of the petty oaths of the time, corrupted 
from " God's pity !" Cf. 'Ods pity (Oth. iv. 3. 75), "Ods heartlings (M. W. 
iii. 4. 59), 'Ods lifelings ( T. N. v. i. 187), etc. 

For mile, cf. Macb. v. 5. 37 : " within this three mile," etc. See Rich. 
II. p. 182, note on a thousand pound. 

299. Cave-keeper. Dweller in a cave ; like housekeeper, etc. Pope 
changes so to "sure," and the Coll. MS. gives " lo !" 

302. Fumes. Vapours, phantoms ; as in Temp, v. I. 67 : 

"their rising senses 

Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle 
Their clearer reason ;" 

and Macb. i. 7. 66 : 

"memory, the warder of the brain, 
Shall be a fume," etc. 

306. Fear' d gods. Changed by Pope to "oh gods !" 

311. Mercurial. " Light and nimble like that of Mercury " (Schmidt) ; 
the only instance of the adjective in S. 

312. Brawns. Brawny arms. Cf. Cor. iv. 5. 126: "to hew thy tar- 
get from thy brawn," etc. Pope changes the word to " arms." 

Jovial. Like that of Jove ; used by S. only here and in v. 4. 105 below. 
314. Madded. See on ii. 2. 37 above. For Hecuba, cf. Ham. ii. 2. 523, 
584, T. and C. i. 2. i, etc. 

316. Irregulous. Apparently = irregular, lawless; a word found no- 
where else. Johnson conjectured " th' irreligious.' 1 

317. Hast. The folios have " Hath ;" corrected by Pope. 
320. Most bravest. See on i. 6. 161 above. 

324. This head. Evidently=the head belonging to this body; but 
changed in the 3d folio to " his head," and by Hanmer to "thy head." 

326, Pregnant. Full of probability. Cf. M.for M. ii. I. 2'3 : " 'Tis 
very pregnant," etc. See also Lear, p. 198. 

329. Home. Fully. See on iii. 5. 92 above. 

333. Which. Who. Cf. ii. 3. 105 above. Gr. 265. 

334. To them. In addition to them. Cf. K. John, i. I. 144 : " And, to 
his shape, were heir of all this land," etc. Gr. 185. 

338. Confiners. Probably = inhabitants (Schmidt), not "borderers," 



as generally explained. - Cf. the use of confines territory ; as in A. Y. L. 
ii. i. 24, Rich. II. i. 3. 137, J. C. iii. I. 272, etc. 

342. Sienna's brother. Brother to the ruler of Sienna. 

343. Benefit o 1 the wind. Cf. Ham. \. 3. 2 : " as the winds give benefit." 
348. Fast. Fasted. " In verbs in which the infinitive ends in -/, -edis 

often omitted in the past indicative for euphony" (Gr. 341). Cf. lift in 
John, xiii. 18 (lifted in the "Revised Version" of 1881), roast in Exod. 
xii. 8, etc. 

350. Spongy south. See on ii. 3. 129 above. 

352. Abuse. Corrupt, pei vert. 

361. Instruct us of. Equivalent to inform us of'm next line. 

363. Crave to be demanded. Call for investigation. 

365. That, otherwise than nature, etc. " Who has altered this picture, 
to make it otherwise than nature did it ?" (Johnson). 

367. Wrack. See on i. 6. 83 above. 

372. There is. See on iii. 4. 140 above. 

378. If I do lie, etc. "Into the mouth of the pure-souled Imogen S. 
has characteristically put this shrinking from the necessity for untruth, 
and the appeal to Heaven for divine forgiveness for her reluctantly com- 
mitted error. He has depicted the same -aversion to falsehood in the 
innocent and royal-natured Perdita; while he has made even the princely 
Florizel condescend to misstatements for the sake of needful conceal- 
ment. Thus clearly does the man and poet Shakespeare denote his 
genuine perception and appreciation of the sacredness of truth, at the 
very time that the dramatic Shakespeare allows of equivocation as a 
necessary part of dramatic disguise" (Clarke). 

380. Say you, sir? See on ii. I. 24 above. 

381. Approve. Prove ; as in v. 5. 245 below. 

387. Prefer. Recommend. See on ii. 3. 44 above, and cf. 401 below. 

390. Pickaxes. " Meaning her fingers " (Johnson). 

392. Century. Hundred. Elsewhere (Cor. i. 7. 3 and Lear, iv. 4. 6) it 
means a company of a hundred men. 

395. Entertain. Employ, take into service ; as in Much Ado, i. 3. 60 : 
" entertained for a perfumer ;" Lear, iii. 6. 83 : " You, sir, I entertain for 
one of my hundred," etc. 

400. Partisans. Halberds. Cf. Ham. p. 176. 

401. Arm him. Take him in your arms. Steevens cites Fletcher, 

Two Noble Kinsmen : 

"Arm your prize ; 
I know you will not lose her." 

SCENE III. Pope and Hanmer made this scene the 8th of act iii. 
6. Upon a desperate bed. That is, hopelessly (or very dangerously) sick. 
II. Enforce. " Force " (Pope's emendation). Cf. R. and J. v. 3. 47 : 
"Thus I enforce thy rotten jaws to open," etc. See also iv. i. 15 above. 

21. And will. For the ellipsis of the subject, see Gr. 399, 400. Han- 
mer reads " He will," and Capell " And he '11." 

22. Slip you. Let you go. Cf. 3 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 162 : " Had slipp'd our 
chain until another age," etc. 

23. Depend. Impend; or perhaps = remain in suspense. 

ACT IV. SCENE IV. 2 r r 

28. Amaz'd. In a maze, bewildered, confused. Cf. V. and A. 684 : " a 
labyrinth to amaze his foes;" K. John, iv. 3. 140: "I am amaz'd, me- 
thinks, and lose my way," etc. Matter business. 

29. Affront. Confront, encounter ; as in Ham. iii. I. 31 : 

"That he, as 't were by accident, may here 
Affront Ophelia," etc. 

The meaning is : " Your forces are able to face such an army as we hear 
the enemy will bring against us" (Johnson). 

36. I heard no letter. I have heard nothing (that is, by letter], as we 
still are in the habit of saying. For the use of the past tense with since, 
cf. iv. 2. 191 above. Hanmer changes I heard to " I 've had," and Coll. 
to "I had" (Mason's conjecture). Malone and Schmidt take letter in 
the alphabetical sense. I heard no letter is then = I have heard no jot, I 
have not heard a syllable. But, on the other hand, as W. notes, we say 
" I have not heard a line" 

40. Betid. Befallen (from betide]. For the form, cf. Rich. II. v. i. 42 : 
"long ago betid," etc. 

44. Even to the note rf the king. " I will so distinguish myself, the 
king shall remark my valour" (Johnson). 

SCENE IV. 2. Find we. The ist folio has " we finde ;" corrected in 
the 2d. 
4. This way. If we take this course. 

6. Revolts. " Revolters " (Pope's reading), or deserters. Cf. K. John, 
v. 2. 151 : " And you degenerate, you ingrate revolts ;" and Id. v. 4. 7 : 
"Lead me to the revolts of England here." 

7. During their use. While they can use us, while they have need of 
us. For the adverbial use of after, see Gr. 26. 

II. May drive us to a render, etc. May compel us to render an ac- 
count of where we have been living. For render as a noun, cf. v. 4. 1 7 
below. Johnson remarks : " This dialogue is a just representation of 
the superfluous caution of an old man." 

13. Answer. Penalty, punishment ; as in T. of A. v. 4. 63 : " At 
heaviest answer," etc. 

1 8. Their quartered fires. Their camp fires, the fires in their quarters. 

19. So cloy" d importantly. So momentously and completely occupied. 
Importantly is used by S. only here. 

20. Upon our note. In taking note of us. 

23. Not ivore him. For the transposition of not, see on i. 6. 154 above. 
Gr. 305. 

27. The certainty. " The certain consequence " (Malone). Clarke 
thinks it may also mean " the actual experience." 

29. But to be still, etc. " But doomed to be still," etc. Tanlings is used 
by S. nowhere else. 

33. Thereto so overgrown. In addition thereto so overgrown with 
hair ; referring to his beard and bushy head. Cf. v. 3. 17 below. For 
//fcmtf0= besides, cf. W. T. i. 2. 391 and Oth. ii. i. 133. Schmidt thinks 
that overgrown may possibly mean grown old ; as in M. for M. i. 3. 22. 


35. What thing is it, etc. What a thing it is, etc. Cf. J. C. i. 3. 42 : 
" What night is this !" etc. Gr. 86. 

38. Bestrid. Cf. Rich. II. v. 5. 79 : " That horse that thou so often hast 
bestrid," etc. 

48. Of. Changed by Capell to " on ;" but, as we have seen, the two 
prepositions are often interchanged. Gr. 175, 181, 182. 

50. Have with you! Take me with you, I '11 go with you ; a common 
idiom. Cf. M. W. ii. I. 161, 229, 239, iii. 2. 93, Cor. ii. I. 286, etc. 

53. Thinks scorn. Disdains the thought of any thing else. 


SCENE I. I. I wished. The folios have "I am wisht;" corrected by 
Pope. Sr. (2d ed.) reads " I e'en wish'd." 

5. Wrying. Going astray. Cf. the verb in bed-swerver ( W. T. ii. 

I- 93)- 
9. Put on. Incite, instigate (Johnson). Cf. Ham. pp. 257, 277. 

14. Each elder worse. Here elder seems to be = later, or " committed at 
a more advanced age " (Schmidt). Rowe reads " worse than other," Coll. 
(from his MS.) "later worse," and Sr. (2d ed.) "alder-worse." 

15. And make them dread it, to the doers'' thrift. If this be what S. 
wrote, Mason's explanation seems on the whole the most in keeping with 
the context : " Some you snatch from hence for little faults ; others you 
suffer to heap ills on ills, and afterwards make them dread their having 
done so [dreading the consequences, or the punishment, we should prefer 
to say], to the eternal welfare of the doers." He adds : "It is not the 
commission of the crimes that is supposed to be for the doers' thrift, but 
his dreading them afterwards, and of course repenting, which ensures his 
salvation." J. H. takes to to be=in addition to (cf. iv. 2. 334 above), and 
paraphrases the line thus : " And make it a dread to them, along with 
any advantage they may have gained by it." The passage may be cor- 
rupt, but the emendations seem to us less intelligible than the original 
text. Theo. changes dread it to "dreaded;" the Coll. MS. has "make 
men dread it ;" and Sr. (2d ed.) reads "dreaded, to the doers' shrift." 

23. Weeds. Garments ; as in M. N. D. ii. 2. 71 : " Weeds of Athens he 
doth wear," etc. Suit myself dress myself; as in A. Y. L. i. 3. 118: 
"suit me all points like a man," etc. 

26. For whom my life, etc. " One of Shakespeare's paradoxically and 
powerfully expressed sentences ; the paradoxical phraseology aiding to 
make the powerful effect the more striking. Intense is the expression 
thus produced of the ever-living agony that pierces the husband's re- 
morse-stricken heart, and stabs him with perpetual regret for. his loss of 
her whose excellence he involuntarily recognizes. This survival of Post- 
humus's sense of Imogen's true worth over his sense of her supposed 
fault is precisely one of Shakespeare's subtleties in indirect tribute to 
virtue and innocence " (Clarke). 

30. Habits. Dress; or perhaps^ out ward appearance, in a more gen- 
eral sense. 


- 32. The guise o 1 the world. The way or fashion of the world, which is 
to make the most of the outward show, to seem better than one really is. 

SCENE II. 4. Carl. Churl, peasant; the only instance of the word 
in S. Cf. carlot in A. Y. L. in. 5. 108. 

5. Nature's. "Natures" in the folios; changed to "nature" by Pope. 

10. Is. Cf. Cor. iii. I. 245 : " 't is odds beyond arithmetic," etc. On 
the other hand, we find " these odds " in M.for M. iii. I. 41. 

1 6. As. As if. Cf. iv. 2. 51 above. 

SCENE III. 4. The heavens fought. Steevens quotes Judges, v. 20. 

The king himself, etc. S. found this incident in Holinshed's Scotland, 
where it is told of the Hays, father and two sons. This is evident from 
the following coincidence in phraseology : " Hay, beholding the king, 
with the most part of the nobles, fighting with great valiancy in the mid- 
dle ward, now destitute of the wings" etc. The scene of the fight is, 
moreover, " a long lane fenced on the side with ditches and walls made of 

7. Full-hearted. Full of courage and confidence. 

1 1. That. So that. Gr. 283. Cf. 35 below. 

15. Ancient. Aged. Cf. W. T. p. 189. 

1 6. Who deserved, etc. Who deserved as long a life as his white beard 

20. Base. The game called " prison-base," in which he who runs the 
fastest is the winner. Cf. V. and A. 303 : " To bid the wind a base he 
now prepares " (that is, challenges the wind to run a race) ; and T. G. of 
V. i. 2. 97 : " Indeed, I bid the base for Proteus " (where there is a play 
upon the word). Steevens quotes Drayton, Polyolbion : " At hood-wink, 
barley-brake, at tick, or prison-base; and The Antipodes, 1638: "my 
men can run at base." See also Spenser, Shep. Kal. Oct. 5 : "In rymes, 
in ridles, and in bydding base." 

22. Shame. Modesty ; the "bashful shame" of V.andA. 49. Cas'*d= 
masked, covered. 

26. Will give you that, etc. " Will give you that death like beasts, 
which you shun like beasts, and which you might save yourselves from, 
only by looking back with a bold frown of defiance" (Clarke). For 
beastly, cf. iii. 3. 40 above. 

29. Three thousand confident. Three thousand in confidence or courage* 

32. More charming. Charming others ; that is, influencing them as by 
enchantment. Cf. i. 3. 35 above. 

35. That. So that; as in n above. 

37. Can. Began. See on ii. 3. 18 above. 

40. Retire. Retreat. Cf. K. John, ii. I. 326 : " the onset and retire ;" 
Id. v. 5. 4 : " In faint retire," etc. 

42. Stooped. The folios have " stopt ;" corrected by Rowe. 

43. The strides they victors made. That is, retracing as slaves the on- 
ward strides they had made as victors. The folios misprint " the " for 
they ; corrected by Theo. 

44. Fragments. Doubtless referring to the last remnants of food on 



board. J. H. explains it as " spars and other pieces of timber ;" as if 
hard voyage meant a shipwreck and not merely a voyage prolonged by 
bad weather or other difficulties. 

49. Slaughter - man. Cf. Hen. V. iii. 3. 41: "Herod's bloody-hunting 
slaughter-men." See also I Hen. VI. iii. 3. 75, 3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 169, etc. 

50. Or ere. Sooner than. See on iii. 2. 64 above. 

51. Mortal bugs. Deadly bugbears. Cf. Ham.v. 2. 22: "such bugs 
and goblins ;" and see our ed. p. 267. 

53. Do not wonder, etc. " Posthumus first bids him not wonder, then 
tells him in another mode of reproach that wonder is all that he was 
made for" (Johnson). Theo. changed not to "but," and St. conjectures 
" Ay, do but," etc. 

60. Stand. Face, withstand. Cf. i. 2. 13 above. 

64. Still going? Running away from me also? "Said in contemptu- 
ous allusion to his having * come from the fliers," 1 and to his being one 
that will ' quicklyy^/' a poor-looking man's friendship" (Clarke). 

This is a lord! Ritson conjectured "This a lord !" Noble misery is 
= miserable nobility. 

68. Charm 1 d. Protected as by a charm, or bearing "a charmed life" 

72. Moe. See on iii. i. 36 above. The 3d folio has "more." 
74. To the Briton. Hanmer changed Briton to " Roman ;" but now is 
=just now, and No more a Briton is opposed to the preceding clause : 
Having been on the side of the Briton, but no longer a Briton, I have 
resumed, etc. V. says : " In the original reading I understand Posthu- 
mus as continuing his figurative search of Death. As a Briton, he could 
not find Death where he 'did hear him groan,' etc. But he 'will find 
him,' for he (Death) is now a favourer of the Britons, and therefore Post- 
humus, ' no more a Briton,' resumes again his Roman character, in order 
thus to reach his wished-for death." This explanation is due to Capell, 
but we cannot accept it. 

78. Once touch my shoulder. In token of arrest. Cf. shoulder-clapper 
= bailiff, in C. of E. iv. 2. 37, and see our ed. p. 136. 

79. Answer. Reprisal, retaliation. 

86. Silly. Simple, rustic. Malone quotes the novel on which the play 
is founded as it appears in the translation of the Decamerone, 1620: "The 
servant, who had no great good will to kill her, very easily grew pitifull, 
took off her upper garment, and gave her a poore ragged doublet, a silly 
chapperone " [hood], etc. 

87. Gave the affront. Faced or confronted the enemy. Cf. affront in 
iv. 3. 29 above. The noun occurs nowhere else in S. 

90. Seconds. Others to second or aid him. Cf. Cor. \. 4. 43 : "now 
prove good seconds ;" and Id. i. 8. 15 : 

" Officious and not valiant, you have sham'd me 
In your condemned seconds." 

91. Had answered him. Had done like him. 

SCENE IV. i. You shall not ncnv be stoVn, etc. " The wit of the gaoler 


alludes to the custom of putting a lock on a horse's leg when he is turned 
to pasture " (Johnson). 

10. The penitent instrument, etc. The penitential means of freeing my 
conscience of its guilt. 

14. I cannot do it better, etc. This passage has been a stumbling-block 
to the commentators, but Dr. Ingleby's explanation (Shakes. Hermeneutics, 
p. 100) seems to us perfectly satisfactory. He says : " Posthumus re- 
joices in his bodily thraldom, because its issue will be death, which will 
set him free : certainly from bodily bondage, and possibly from spiritual 
bondage the worse of the twain. So he prays for * the penitent instru- 
ment to pick that bolt,' the bolt which fetters his conscience worse than 
the cold gyves constrain his shanks and wrists : that is, for the means of 
a repentance which may be efficacious for pardon and absolution. He 
then enters into these means in detail, following the order of the old 
Churchmen: namely, sorrow for sin, or attrition: 'Is 't enough I am 
sorry ?' etc. : then penance, which was held to convert attrition into con- 
trition : * Must I repent ?' etc. : then satisfaction for the wrong done. As 
to this last he says, if the main condition of his spiritual freedom be that 
(* To satisfy '), let not the gods with that object require a stricter render 
than his all his life. These are the three parts of absolution. The 
third he expands in the last clause. He owns that his debt exceeds his 
all. He says, in effect : * Do not call me to a stricter account than the 
forfeiture of my all towards payment. Take my all, and give me a re- 
ceipt, not on account, but in full of all demands. Earthly creditors take 
of their debtors a fraction of their debt and less than their all, " letting 
them thrive again on their abatement;" but I do not desire that indul- 
gence of your clemency. Take life for life my all : and though it is not 
worth so much as Imogen's, yet 't is a life, and of the same divine origin ; 
a coin from the same mint. Between man and man light pieces are cur- 
rent for the sake of the figure stamped upon them : so much the rather 
should the gods take my life, which is in their own image, though it is 
not so dear, or precious, as Imogen's.' 

" The old writers compared the hindrances of the body to gyves. So 
Walkington in the Optick Glasse of Humors, 1607 : ' Our bodies were the 
prisons and bridewils of our soules, wherein they lay manicled and fet- 
tered in Gives,' etc. And when Posthumus says * Cancel these cold 
bonds,' he means free the soul from the body, as in Macb. iii. 2. 49 : 

' Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond 
Which keeps me pale ! ' 

(where Mr. Staunton plausibly reads paled] ; but the epithet cold has 
reference to the material gyves, which were of iron. Cf. The Two Noble 
Kinsmen, iii. I, where Palamon says ' Quit me of these cold gyves ' that 
is, knock off my fetters." 

30. Solemn music, etc. Pope, who put 30-201 in the margin as spuri- 
ous, remarks : " Here follow a vision, a masque, and a prophecy, which 
interrupt the fable without the least necessity, and unmeasurably lengthen 
this act. I think it plainly foisted in afterwards for mere show, and ap- 
parently not of Shakespeare." Malone calls it " contemptible nonsense," 

2i6 NOTES. 

and Ritson considers the margin " too honourable a place for so imper- 
tinent an interpolation." The editors and critics, almost without excep- 
tion (see p. 1 1 above), have been of the same opinion. Schlegel remarks : 
" Steevens accedes to the opinion of Pope respecting the apparition of 
the ghosts and of Jupiter in Cymbeline, while Posthumus is sleeping in 
the dungeon. But Posthumus finds, on waking, a tablet on his breast, 
with a prophecy on which the denouement of the piece depends. Is it 
to be imagined that Shakspeare would require of his spectators the be- 
lief in a wonder without a visible cause ? Is Posthumus to dream this 
tablet with the prophecy? But these gentlemen do not descend to this 
objection. The verses which the apparitions deliver do not appear to 
them good enough to be Shakspeare's. I imagine I can discover why 
the poet has not given them more of the splendour of diction. They are 
the aged parents and brothers of Posthumus, who, from concern for his 
fate, return from the world below : they ought, consequently, to speak 
the language of a more simple olden time, and their voices ought also to 
appear as a feeble sound of wailing, when contrasted with the thunder- 
ing oracular language of Jupiter. For this reason Shakspeare chose a 
syllabic measure, which was very common before his time, but which was 
then getting out of fashion, though it still continued to be frequently used, 
especially in translations of classical poets. In some such manner might 
the shades express themselves in the then existing translations of Homer 
and Virgil. The speech of Jupiter is on the other hand majestic, and in 
form and style bears a complete resemblance to the sonnets of Shak- 
speare." But, as K. replies, the objection to the passage is not that its 
language is that of " a more simple olden time," but that it is not the 
language of poetry, such as S. would have chosen " to express a feeble 
sound of wailing." 

38. Attending. Awaiting. 

43. Lucina. The goddess who assisted women in labour. Cf. Per. i. 
I. 8, iii. i. 10. 

45. That. So that. See on v. 3. 1 1 above. On the passage, cf. Macb. 
v. 8. 1 6. 

60. Leonati seat. Cf. J. C. v. 5. 19 : " Philippi fields;" T. of S. ii. i. 
369 : " Pisa walls," etc. Gr. 22. 

67. And to become, etc. And suffer Posthumus to become, etc. Geck= 
dupe ; as in T. N. v. i. 351 : "And made the most notorious geek and 
gull," etc. 

75. Hardiment. " Hard fighting, valorous service " (Clarke). Cf. 
I Hen. IV. p. 152, note on Changing har dim ent. 

78. Adjourned. Delayed, deferred. 

89. Synod. The word refers to an assembly of the gods in five out of 
six instances in which S. uses it. See A. Y. L. p. 173, note on Heavenly 

102. Delighted. Delightful ; as in Oth. \. 3. 290 : " If virtue no de- 
lighted beauty lack." See Gr. 294, 374. 

105. Jovial. See on iv. 2. 312 above. 

116. As. As if. Cf. iv. 2. 51 and v. 2. 16 above. Foot us = se\ze us in 
his talons. 


1 1 8. Prunes. That is, picks off the loose feathers, to smooth the rest. 
See i Hen. IV. p. 142. 

Cloys. Claws, or strokes with his claws ; " an accustomed action with 
hawks and eagles" (Steevens). 

125. Scorn. Mockery. 

129. Swerve. Err. 

133. Book. The tablet of 109 above. 

134. Fangled. " Gaudy, vainly decorated ; perhaps the only instance 
in which the word occurs without new being prefixed to it " (Malone). 

138. Whenas. When. Cf. C. of E. p. 142. 

145. Tongue and brain not. Speak without understanding. Cf. M. 
for M. iv. 4. 28 : " How might she tongue me !" S. does not use brain 
elsewhere as a verb, except in the sense of beat out the brains. 

147. Be what it is. Be it what it may. Gr. 404. 

148. Action. Course. 

155. The shot. Cf. Falstaff's play upon the word in I Hen. IV. v. 3. 
31 : " Though I could scape shot-free at London, I fear the shot here." 

158. Often. Some one has conjectured "as often," but the ellipsis is 
a common one. See Gr. 276. 

161. Are paid. With a play on the sense of punished. Cf. iv. 2. 247 

163. Drawn. Drawn dry, emptied. The metaphor is probably taken 
from drawing off the contents of a cask, not from removing the entrails 
of a fowl, as Steevens makes it. 

166. Debitor and creditor. An account book (Johnson and Schmidt). 
Delius hyphens the words, which formed the title of certain old treatises 
on book-keeping. Cf. Oth. p. 156. 

167. Counters. Round pieces of metal used in calculations. Cf. W. T. 
i v - 3- 38 : "I cannot do 't without counters." See also A. Y. L. p. 164 ; 
and cf. Oth. p. 156, note on Counter-caster. 

176. So pictured. Being represented as a skeleton. 

177. Or take. The folios have " or to take ;" corrected by Capell. 

178. Jump. Risk, hazard. Cf. Macb. \. 7. 7 : "jump the life to come." 
See also Cor. p. 239. 

179. How you shall speed. How you shall fare, what luck you shall 
have ; as in T. of S. ii. i. 283, K. John, iv. 2. 141, etc. 

182. Wink. Shut their eyes. See on ii. 3. 21 above. 
195. Prone. That is, eager for the gallows. 

200. Gallowses. Doubtless intended as a vulgar plural. Elsewhere 
we find gallows; as in I Hen. IV. ii. i. 74: "a fat pair of gallows," 

201. Hath a preferment in V. Apparently = hath the prospect of pro- 
motion in it ; that is, in a better state of society he would probably have 
a better office than that of gaoler. 

SCENE V. 2. Woe is my heart. That is, to my heart. Cf. " woe is 
me " in Ham. iii. i. 168, etc. 

5. Targes. Targets, shields. Cf. Z. Z. Z. v. 2. 556 : " with targe and 
shield," etc. Here the word is a monosyllable. See Gr. 471. For 


proof resisting power (a technical term with reference to armour), cf. 
Rich. II. p. 162. 

II. Searched. Sought. 

13. The heir of his reward. That is, the reward meant for him re- 
verts to me. 

27. Who. Changed to " Whom " in the 2d folio. Cf. iv. 2. 77 above. 

28. Consider. Remember, bear in mind. 

30. How ended she ? For *;/*/= die, cf. T. N. ii. I. 22, 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 
80, Hen. VIII. v. i. 20, etc. 

38. A/ected. Loved ; as in T. G. of V. iii. I. 82 : 

" There is a lady in Verona here 
Whom I affect," etc. 

43. Bore in hand. Pretended. Cf. Macb. iii. I. 80 : " How you were 
borne in hand " (flattered with false hopes) ; and see our ed. p. 208. 

47. Delicate. Explained by Schmidt as " ingenious, artful ;" but it is 
probably = lovely (cf. 63 below), and put in strong antithesis to fend. Cf. 
R. and J. iii. 2. 75 : " fiend angelical !" 

50. Mortal mineral. Deadly poison. Cf. Oth. ii. i. 306: "like a poi- 
sonous mineral," etc. W. remarks : " There can be little doubt that the 
slow poisons of the i6th and I7th centuries were all preparations of 
white arsenic, the mortal mineral still most effectual for the poisoner's 
purposes." For took) cf. iii. 6. 48 above. 

54. And in time. The 2d folio has " yes and in time." Walker con- 
jectures " and in due time," and Jervis " and so in time." 

55. Fitted you. Prepared you, got you into a fit frame of mind. 

58. Shameless - desperate. For compound adjectives in S., see Gr. 2. 
The hyphen was first inserted by Capell. Operfd= disclosed, revealed. 

62. Mine eyes. Hanmer reads " Yet mine eyes." 

64. Heard. The reading of the 3d folio ; the ist and 2d have " heare." 

70. Raz'd. The folios have " rac'd ;" corrected by Theo. 

74. Estate. State, condition. See M. of V. p. 151. 

80. Sufficeth. It suffices. For the ellipsis, cf. T. of S. i. I. 252, iii. 2. 
108, 2 Hen. VI. iv. 10. 24, etc. Gr. 404. 

83. Peculiar. Personal ; as in Ham. iii. 3. n : "The single and pe- 
culiar life ;" Oth. i. i. 60 : " for my peculiar end," etc. 

87. Over his occasions. H. thinks this is = " beyond what the occasions 
required ;" but it may mean in regard to what was required. Cf. W. T. 
ii. 3. 128 : "tender o'er his follies." Schmidt strangely explains it : "so 
nicely sensible of his wants." 

88. Feat. " Ready, dexterous in waiting " (Johnson). Cf. Temp. p. 120, 
note on Foot it featly. See also on the verb, in i. i. 49 above. 

Clarke remarks : " This gentle adaptation of herself and her womanly 
accomplishments to her assumed office of page crowns the perfection of 
Imogen's character. Her power, too, of attracting and attaching all who 
come near her her father, who loves her in spite of the harshness he 
has shown her under the influence of his fiendish queen ; her husband 
who has been her * play-fellow ' when a boy, and her lover in manhood, 
even after her supposed death ; her faithful servant, Pisanio ; her broth- 


ers, who know her but as a poor, homeless boy; Belarius, whose sym- 
pathy for the sick youth makes the way forth seem tedious ; and Lucius, 
who pleads for the gentle lad's life with so earnest a warmth, while bear- 
ing so affectionate a testimony to his qualities as a page this power of 
hers speaks indirectly, but indisputably, in testimony of her bewitching 

93. Favour. Face. See on i. 6. 41 above. 

94. Looked thyself into my grace. Won my favour by thy looks. 

95. Nor wherefore. The nor, omitted in the folios, was supplied by 

103. A thing, etc. " The ring on lachimo's finger " (J. H.). 

119. Walk with me. Withdraw with me. See on i. 1. 176 above. 

120. One sand another, etc. This has been suspected of corruption, 
but it is probably only one of the many elliptical constructions in the 
play. Hanmer reads : 

" One sand 

Another doth not more resemble than 
He the sweet rosy lad who died, and was 
Fidele ; 
and Capell : One sand 

Another not resembles more than he 

That sweet and rosy lad who died, and was 


Johnson put a period after resembles. K., D., W., the Camb. ed., Clarke, 
and others retain the old text. 

126. Saw. The folios have "see ;" corrected by Rowe. 

135. Render. State, tell. Cf. ii. 4. 119 above. 

143. Jewel. See on i. 4. 142 above. 

145. Sir. See on i. 6. 159 above. 

154. Struck. The folios have "strooke" or "strook," as in many 
other passages ; oftener than struck, which Rowe substituted here. 

1 60. Rarest. See on i. I. 96 above. 

Sitting sadly, etc. This does not exactly agree with the circumstances 
as they appear in i. 4 above ; but such variations are not uncommon in 
S. " In the present case," as Clarke remarks, " he may either have 
made it to give the effect of that inaccuracy of memory which often 
marks the narration of a past occurrence even in persons habitually 
truthful, or in order to denote lachimo's innate untruthfulness and un- 
scrupulousness, which lead him to falsify in minor matters as in those of 
greater moment." 

163. Feature. Shape, figure ; as often. Cf. T. G. of V. ii. 4. 73 : " He 
is complete in feature and in mind," etc. Laming making seem lame 
or deformed. 

164. Shrine. Image, statue. Cf. M. of V. ii. 7. 40 : " To kiss this 
shrine, this mortal-breathing saint." See also R. of L. 194 and R. and J. 
\. 5. 96. 

Straight-pight. Straight-fixed, erect. Cf. pig/it (-fixed, in a figura- 
tive sense) in Lear, ii. i. 67 ; and see our ed. p. 197. 

165. Postures beyond brief nattire. " Postures of beings that are im- 
mortal " (J. H.). 

220 NOTES. 

Condition disposition, character. Cf. M. of V. i. 2. 143 : " the condi- 
tion of a saint, and the complexion of a devil," etc. 

1 66. Shop. Storehouse. 

172. Lover. For the feminine use, cf. T. G. of V. i. I. 116, A. Y. L. iii. 
4. 46, A. and C. iv. 14. 101, etc. 

177. Were cracked of kitchen-trulls. Were made in praise of mere 
kitchen -wenches. Crack was sometimes ^bluster, swagger. Cf. the 
noun in K. John, ii. I. 147 : " What cracker is this same that deafs our 
ears," etc. ; and see our ed. p. 143. 

178. Unspeaking sots. Fools incapable of speech. For sots, cf. Temp. 
p. 132, or C. of E. p. 123. 

1 80. As. As if. See on v. 4. 116 above. 

182. Made scruple. Expressed doubt. Cf. the play on scritple in 
2 Hen. IV. \. 2. 149 : " the wise may make some dram of a scruple, or 
indeed a scruple itself." 

190. Of Phoebus'* wheel. Cf. A. and C. iv. 8. 28 : 

"He has deserv'd it, were it carbuncled 
Like holy Phoebus' car." 

193. Taught of. Cf. Isa. liv. 13, John, vi. 45, I Thess. iv. 9, etc. 

197. Can. See on ii. 3. 18 and v. 3. 37 above. 

198. Vantage. Advantage. See K. John, p. 150. 

199. Practice. Artifice, stratagem. Cf. Ham. p. 255, or A. K L. p. 156. 

200. Simular. Counterfeited, false. Cf. Lear, iii. 2. 54 : " Thou per- 
jur'd and thou simular of virtue ;" where the quartos have " simular 

203. Averring. Alleging. Some make it an adjective = confirmatory. 

205. It. Omitted in the 1st folio. 

206. That. So that. See on v. 3. 1 1 above. 

207. Crack? d. Broken ; as in i. 3. 17, and iii. I. 28 above. 

214. Justicer. Judge ; as in Lear, iii. 6. 59 : " False justicer, why hast 
thou let her scape ?" See our ed. p. 226. Steevens quotes Law Tricks, 
1608 : " No ; we must have an upright justicer ;" and Warner, Albions 
England, 1602 : " a justicer upright." 

216. Amend. Improve upon, surpass; or perhaps = " make to seem 
less vile " (J. H.). 

221. And she herself. " That is, she was not only the temple of Vir- 
tue, but Virtue herself" (Johnson). 

222. Spit. The 2d and 3d folios have " spet," for which see M. of V. 

P- 135- 

223. Bay me. Bark at me. Cf. J. C. iv. 3. 27 : "I had rather be a 
dog, and bay the moon," etc. The 3d and 4th folios have "bait." 

228. Shall J s. See on iv. 2. 234 above. 

229. There lie thy part. Play thy part by lying there. 

233. Comes. The folio reading ; changed by Rowe to " come." See 
on iii. 4. 140 above. 

These staggers "t\i\s wild and delirious perturbation" (Johnson). 

238. Tune. Voice, accent. Cf. Sonn. 141. 5 : " thy tongue's tune ;" 
Cor. ii. 3. 92 : " the tune of your voices," etc. 


245. Approve. Prove ; as in iv. 2. 381 above. 

249. Importuned. Accented on the second syllable, as regularly in S. 
Gr. 492. 

250. Temper. Compound, mix ; used vi poisons in Much Ado, ii. 2. 21, 
R. and J. iii. 5. 98, and Ham. v. 2. 339. 

259. Dead. Insensible, like one dead. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 7. 9 : 

" For she, deare Ladie, all the way was dead 
Whilest he in armes her bore ; but when she felt 
Her selfe downe soust, she waked out of dread," etc. 

262. Think that you are upon a rock. This has perplexed some of the 
critics, and sundry changes have been proposed ; but if we suppose that 
Imogen here throws her arms about her husband's neck (according to 
the stage-direction first inserted by Hanmer), all is clear enough. Hav- 
ing done this, she says, "Now imagine yourself on some high rock, and 
throw me from you again if you have the heart to do it." This action 
is necessary also to explain the reply of Posthumus, Hang there, etc. 

265. Mak'st thou me a dullard, etc. " Do you give me in this scene, 
the part only of a looker-on? S. was thinking of the stage" (St.). 

271. Naught. Worthless, wicked. See A. Y. L. p. 142, or Rich. III. 
p. 182. 

Long of her. Because of her, owing to her. Cf. M. N. D. iii. 2. 339 : 
" You, mistress, all this coil is long of you," etc. Long is equivalent to 
along, but not a contraction of it. See Wb. 

274. Troth. Truth ; as in M. N. D. ii. 2. 36 : " And to speak troth, I 
have forgot our way," etc. The 4th folio reads " truth." 

283. Enforced. Got by force. Cf. iv. 3. n above. 

284. With unchaste purpose. Some critic has objected that Cloten 
does not tell his purpose while Pisanio is on the stage in iii. 5 above ; but 
in line 149 he intimates that he intends to make the latter a confidant of 
his design, and we may assume that he does so afterwards. 

287. For/end. Forbid. See Oth. p. 206. 

292. Incivil. Changed by Capell to " uncivil ;" but S. uses incertain, 
ingrateful, infortunate, insociable, etc., as well as the forms in un-. Cf. Gr. 

305. Scar. The word has been suspected, and " sense," " score," etc., 
have been proposed as emendations ; but, as Clarke notes, the expres- 
sion is " a very characteristic one for a veteran soldier to use, who can 
conceive no better claim to merit than having plenteous scars to show." 
W. prints " scarre " (as in the folio), which he takes to be the same ob- 
scure word that has perplexed the critics in A. W. iv. 2. 38. 

308. Tasting of. Testing, trying. Cf. T. N. iii. 4. 267 : " men that put 
quarrels purposely on others, to taste their valour," etc. See also the 
noun in 2 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 52, Lear, i. 2. 47, etc. 

310. We will die all three, etc. We will all die if I do not prove, etc. 
We follow the pointing of the folio, as Clarke does. The editors gener- 
ally put a colon after three. 

313. For mine own part, etc. That is, dangerous for myself. For the 
transposition, see Gr. 419^. Cf. ii. 3. 94 above. 

222 NOTES. 

315. Have at it then. Here 's for it then, I '11 tell the story. Cf. IV. T. 
iv. 4. 302 : " Have at it with you," etc. 

319. Assumed this age. That is, assumed or acquired it with the lapse 
of time. He speaks thus, as Henley suggests, with reference to the change 
in his appearance since Cymbeline last saw him. Tyrwhitt wanted to 
read " this gage." 

323. Confiscate. For the form, cf. C. of E. i. i. 21, i. 2. 2, M. of V. iv. i. 
311, 332, etc. S. accents the word on either the first or second syllable, 
as suits the measure. 

326. Prefer. Promote, advance. See on ii. 3. 129 above. 

334. Your pleasure, etc. " My crime, my punishment, and all the trea- 
son that I have committed, originated in and were founded on your 
caprice only " (Malone). For mere the folios have " neere " or " near ;" 
corrected by Rann (the conjecture of Tyrwhitt). Johnson suggested 

338. Those . . . as. See Gr. 280. 

344. Beaten. My being beaten. 

345. Dear loss. Loss so deeply felt. See Rich. II. p. 164, or Temp. 
p. 124. 

346. Shaped Unto my end. Shaped itself to, or suited, my purpose. 
349. Sweetest. See on i. i. 96 above. 

352. Thou weep'st, and speak X etc. " Thy tears give testimony to the 
sincerity of thy relation ; and I have the less reason to be incredulous 
because the actions which you have done within my knowledge are more 
incredible than the story which you relate " (Johnson). 

360. Lapped. Wrapped. Cf. Rich. III. ii. i. 1 15 : 

" he did lap me 
Even in his garments," etc. 

362. Probation. Proof, evidence; as in Ham. i. i. 156 : 

" and of the truth herein 
The present object made probation." 

See also Oth. iii. 3. 365, Macb. iii. i. 80, etc. 

364. A mole, etc. " Most poetically, as well as with most subtle philo- 
sophical knowledge of Nature's workings -in the matter of kindred and 
inherited distinctive marks, has S. given to the prince brother an almost 
precisely similar personal badge-spot with the one which lies upon the 
snow of the princess sister's breast. Imogen's * mole cinque-spotted, 
like the crimson drops i' the bottom of a cowslip,' and Guiderius's * mole, 
a sanguine star,' are twinned in beauty with a poet's imagination and a 
naturalist's truth" (Clarke). -Cf. p. 35 above. 

369. Mother. The object of the verb, deliverance being the subject. 

370. Pray. Needlessly, not to say badly, changed by Rowe to " may." 
The elliptical construction is quite like many others already noted in the 

371. Orbs. Orbits, or, more properly, the " spheres " of the old Ptole- 
maic astronomy. See I Hen. IV. p. 194, or Ham. p. 254 (note on Sphere). 

378. When ye. The folios have " When we ;" corrected by Rowe. 
380. He died. As Clarke notes, the use of the pronouns in this line 

ACT V. SCENE V. 223 

and the next is very natural, though Hanmer tried to spoil it by changing 
he to "she." Guiderius is so accustomed to think of his sister as a boy 
that, in reverting to their experiences in the forest, he inadvertently 
speaks of her as he ; while Cornelius, who has known her only in her 
true sex, of course calls her she. 

381. Instinct. For the accent, see on iv. 2. 178 above. 

382. Fierce. Either^" vehement, rapid " (Johnson), or = " disordered, 
irregular " (Schmidt). Perhaps it combines the ideas of hurried and wild 
or disordered. 

384. Distinction should be rich in. " Ought to be rendered distinct by 
a liberal amplitude of narrative" (Steevens); or, a more distinct and de- 
tailed statement ought to bring out fully. 

388. Your three motives. The motives of you three. 

392. Inter 1 gatories. The folios have " interrogatories ;" but the con- 
tracted form (for which see M. of V. p. 165, or A. W. p. 170) suits the 
measure better, and was introduced by Malone at Tyrwhitt's suggestion. 

393. Anchors. For the figure, cf. M.for M. ii. 4. 3 : 

"Whilst my invention, hearing not my tongue, 
Anchors on Isabel." 

395. Her master. That is, Lucius. 

396. The counter change, etc. This is reciprocated each by each. 

405. Forlorn. Accented on the first syllable before the noun, as in 
Sonn. 33. 7 and T. G. of V. i. 2. 124 ; but on the last when in the predi- 
cate, as in R. of L. 1500, etc. Cf. ii. I. 55 above. 

406. Beconi'd. Changed by Warb. to "become;" but the form oc- 
curs also in R. and J. iv. 2. 26 and A. and C. iii. 7. 26. Cf. misbecomed in 
L. L. L. v. 2. 778. 

408. Company. The only instance of the verb in S. 

409. Beseeming. Seeming, appearance. Fitment = equipment. The 
former is used by S. only here ; the latter occurs in Per. iv. 6. 6 (not 
Shakespeare's part of the play), where it is=what is fit, or duty. 

412. Alade you finish. Put an end to you. Cf. 36 above. 

418. The power that I have on you. Cf. R. and J. v. 3. 93 : " Hath had 
no power yet upon thy beauty." See also T. G. of V. iii. i. 238, Macb. 
v - 3- 7> etc. Elsewhere have power is followed by in (Much Ado, iv. I. 75, 
etc.), by over (Rich. III. i. 2. 47, etc.), and by unto (A. and C. ii. 2. 146, 

419. Forgive you. The plays of Shakespeare's " fourth period " (see 
Mr. FurnivalFs classification, A. Y. L. p. 26) are " all of reunion, of rec- 
onciliation and forgiveness." Even lachimo "a kind of less absolutely 
evil lago," as Dowden calls him repents in time to share in the general 

422. Holp. Used as the past tense of help, except in Rich. III. v. 3. 
167 and Oth. ii. i. 138 ; also the common form for the participle. 

424. Joy^d. For the transitive use, cf. Rich. III. \. 2. 220 and Per. i. 

428. Spritely shows. Ghostly apparitions. 

431. From. Away from, far from. Cf. i. 4. 14 above. 



432. No collection of it. No inference from it. S. uses collection else- 
where only in Ham. iv. 5. 9 and v. 2. 199, where the sense is similar. 

435- Whenas. When; as in v. 4. 138 above. W. considers that the 
scroll and the four following speeches are " plainly not from Shake- 
speare's pen." It is not improbable that this part of the scene was 
" tinkered " to make it jibe with the interpolated masque in v. 4. Coll. 
suggests that both vision and scroll formed part of an older play. Such 
riddles were popular on the earlier stage. 

_ 447. Mulier. It is hardly necessary to say that the word is not de- 
rived from mollis aer. 

448. This. Changed by Capell to " thy," and by Keightley to " this 
thy." Delius conjectures " your." These emendations are intended to 
furnish an antecedent for who in the next line ; but it is better to assume 
that who refers to wife, and that there is a change in construction in were 
clipped, perhaps due to the you in the same line. Cf. Gr. 415. 

450. Clipped. Clasped, embraced. See on ii. 3. 132 above. 

453. Point . . . forth. Cf. W. T. iv. 4. 572 : " The which shall point 
you forth," etc. 

463. Whom heavens, etc. Another example of confused construction 
in a relative clause. See Gr. 249, and cf. 394. Hers=\isx son Cloten. 

468. Yet this. Changed by Theo. and the more recent editors (except 
W.) to "this yet," the reading of the 3d folio; but the transposition of 
yet is so common in S. (cf. Gr. 76) that we are not justified in altering 
the original text. See on ii. 3. 73 above. 

471. Herself. For the feminine eagle, cf. Hen. V. i. 2. 169 : 

" For once the eagle England being in prey, 
To her unguarded nest the weasel Scot 
Comes sneaking," etc. 

480. Friendly. For the adverbial use, cf. iii. 5. 13 above. 

483. Set on. Like set forward in 478 above, march on. Cf. Rich. II. 
p. 197, or Hen. VIII. p. 180. 

Did cease. For the ellipsis of the relative, see Gr. 244. 

Johnson (cf. p. 15 above) sums up his estimate of Cymbeline thus : 
" This play has many just sentiments, some natural dialogues, and some 
pleasing scenes, but they are obtained at the expense of much incongruity. 
To remark the folly of the fiction, the absurdity of the conduct, the con- 
fusion of the names and manners of different times, and the impossibility 
of the events in any system of life, were to waste criticism upon unresist- 
ing imbecility, upon faults too evident for detection, and too gross for 


THE " TIME-ANALYSIS " OF THE PLAY. We give below the summing- 
up of Mr. P. A. Daniel's " time-analysis " in his valuable paper " On the 
Times or Durations of the Action of Shakspere's Plays " (Trans, of New 
Shaks. Soc. 1877-79, p. 247), with a few explanatory extracts from the 
preceding pages appended as foot-notes : 


" The time of the drama includes twelve days represented on the stage; 
with intervals. 

" Day I. Act I. sc. i.-iii. 

An Interval. Posthumus's journey to Rome. 
" 2. Act I. sc. iv. 

An Interval. lachimo's journey to Britain. 
" 3. Act I. sc. v.* and vi., Act II. sc. i. and part of sc. ii. 
" 4. Act II. sc. ii., in part, and sc. iii. [Act III. sc. i. also belongs 

to this dayt]. 

An Interval. lachimo's return journey to Rome. 
" 5. Act II. sc. iv. and v. 

An Interval. Time for Posthumus's letters from Rome to 

arrive in Britain. 
[Act III. sc. i. See Day No. 4.] 
" 6. Act III. sc. ii. and iii. 

An Interval, including one clear day. Imogen and Pisanio 

journey to Wales. 
:IILs ' 

" 7. Act III. sc. iv. 

An Interval, including one clear day. Pisanio returns to 

" 8. Act III. sc. v. and vi. 

[Act III. sc. vii. In Rome. Time, between Days 5 and 6.J] 
An Interval, including one clear day. Cloten journeys to 

" 9. Act IV. sc. i. and ii. 

An Interval -A. few days perhaps. 
" 10. Act IV. sc. iii. 
" n. Act IV. sc. iv. 
" 12. Act V. sc. i.-v." 

Truest (p. 175). Since the note on this passage was in type, it has oc- 
curred to us that the interpretation there given is confirmed by the fact 
that Imogen has been reading the letter to herself during the preceding 

* " Another possible arrangement in time for this sc. v. would be to make it concur- 
rent with Day No. 2 ; or again, it might have a separate day assigned to it, to be placed 
in the interval marked for lachimo's journey to Britain. ... Its position as the early 
morning of Day 3, ' whiles yet the dew 's on ground,' is, however, quite consistent with 
my scheme of time." 

t "Act III. sc. i. Britain. Cymbeline and his Court receive in state Caius Lucius, 
the ambassador, who comes to demand the tribute till lately paid to Rome. The tribute 
is denied, and Lucius denounces in the Emperor's name war against Britain. His office 
discharged, he is welcomed to the court, and bid ' make pastime with us a day or two, 
or longer.' The time of this scene is so evidently that of Day No. 4, that I am com- 
pelled to place it here within brackets, as has been done in other cases where scenes are 
out of their due order as regards time." 

i "Act III. sc vii. Rome. Enter two Senators and Tribunes. We learn that Lucius 
is appointed general of the army to be employed in the war in Britain. This army is to 
consist of the forces ' remaining now in Gallia,' supplemented with a levy of the gentry 
of Rome. This scene is evidently out of place. In any time-scheme it must come much 
earlier in the drama. ... It may be supposed to occupy part of the interval I have 
marked as ' Time for Posthumus's letters from Rome to arrive in Britain.' " 

22 6 ADDENDA. 

speech (aside) of lachimo. Having come to the end of it, she now turns 
to him and reads aloud the closing lines with their reference to himself. 
It was, moreover, natural that Pisanio should first write the loving mes- 
sages that would form the substance of an absent husband's letter to his 
wife, and then close with commending the bearer to her courtesy. We 
can imagine that what Imogen reads aloud was preceded by something 
like "I send you this by my friend lachimo, who is going to Britain." 

Doing nothing for a bribe (p. 191). Since this note was written, we 
see that Dr. Ingleby (Shakespeare : the Man and the Book, Part II. p. 10) 
reads "badge" for bribe. He says : "Badge is one of those very slight 
and effective alterations of the text which deserve the name of emenda- 
tions. The badge was an ornamental cognizance worn by the clients 
and hangers-on of a great nobleman or courtier, and was valued as peo- 
ple now value a blue or red ribbon. This felicitous emendation was 
due to the sagacity of Mr. A. E. Brae." It is certainly very plausible, 
and perhaps suits the context better than bribe. 

On sharded, just above, Dr. Ingleby remarks : " Observe that when 
Shakespeare speaks of the crawling beetle he calls him sharded, that is, 
covered by his shards ; but when he speaks of the flying beetle he calls 
him shard-borne, that is, supported in air by his outstretched shards." 

Command into obedience, etc. (iii. 4. 155). Dr. Ingleby (p. 36) puts this 
among the instances in which S. seems to say the reverse of what he 
means. He says : "if she were bid to * change fear and niceness into a 
waggish courage,' she must be bid to 'change obedience into com- 
mand.' " But is not Pisanio thinking of her forgetting to be a princess 
as well as a woman, and entering the service of Lucius, as he goes on to 
suggest ? 

Defect of judgment, etc. (p. 203). In writing the note on this passage, 
we overlooked Dr. Ingleby's explanation (Part I. of the work cited 
above, p. 151), which clears it up in a simpler and better way. He says : 
"'Defect of judgment,' which all commentators have taken to mean the 
total absence of judgment, means the defective use of judgment. They 
were betrayed into this mistake by another : interpreting the phrase 
* scarce made up to man ' as if it referred to Cloten's youth (' before he 
arrived to man's estate,' says Knight), whereas Cloten was a middle-aged 
man. ... On the contrary, the phrase made up to man signified in the 
full possession of a man's judgment ; and when it is said that a certain 
person is 'scarce made up,' it means that he had not a man's judgment. 
Cloten, being scarce made up, took no heed of terrors that roared loud 
enough for men with their wits about them, and thus he braved dan- 
ger ; for it is the defective use of judgment (when men have any) which 
is oft the cause of fear. Cf. 'defect of judgment' in Cor. iv. 7. 39, and 
' defects of judgment ' in A. and C. ii. 2. 55." On scarce made up, cf. 


absolute (certain), 203. 
abuse (^corrupt), 210. 
abuse (^deceive), 172, 178, 


acquainted of, 178. 
act (=action), 173. 
action (course), 217. 
adjourned (delayed), 216. 
admiration (=wonder), 170, 

176, 207. e 
adorer, not friend, 171. 
adventured ( = ventured ), 

179, 196. 

advice(=consideration), 168. 
afeard, 203. 
affected (=loved), 218. 
affiance, 179. 
affirmation, 171. 
affront (=confront), 211. 
affront (noun), 214. 
Afric (= Africa), 168. 
after (= afterwards), 181,211. 
after-eye, 169. 
against all colour, 188. 
Ajax, 207. 

amazed (=in a maze), 211. 
amend (=surpass), 220. 
anchors (figurative), 223. 
ancient (=aged), 213. 
answer (=answer to), 205. 
answer (=penalty), 211. 
answer (=reprisal\ 214. 
answered (done like), 214. 
ape, 181. 
apparent, 185. 
appears he hath had, 202. 
apprehension, 203. 
approbation (^proving), 172. 
approve (=prove), 210, 221. 
approvers, 185. 
Arabian bird, 175. 
arm (take in arms), 210. 
arras-figures, 181. 
articles, 172. 
as ( =as if), 203, 213, 21 


as (=fpr), 178. 
as (omitted), 204. 


assumed this age, 222. 

cave (verb), 204. 


at heaven's gate, 181. 

cave-keeper, 209. 

'2, i y8, 

at land, 197. 

century (^hundred), 210. 

at point, 187, 199. 

chance thou changest on, 1 73. 

atone, 170. 

change (=caprice), 187. 

attemptable, 171. 

characters (^letters), 203. 

attending (^awaiting), 216. 

characters (=writing), 188. 

), 216. 

attending for a check, 191. 

charmed, 214. 

r), 17* 

averring, 220. 

charming, 169, 213. 

avoid (= begone), 167. 

check (=rebuke), 191. 


cherubins, 186. 

tured ), 

base (prison-base), 213. 

cinque-spotted, 181. 

basilisk, 186. 

circumstances ( -details ), 


bate (abate), 189. 


bay (=bark at), 220. 

citizen (=effeminate^, 201. 


be what it is, 217. 

civil (civilized), 199. 

beastly, 192, 213. 

clean (adverb), 199. 

becomed, 223. 

clip (^embrace), 184, 224. 


benefit o' the wind, 210. 

close (=secret), 198. 

bent, to the, 165. 

clotpoll, 205. 

beseech your patience, 168. 

clouted brogues, 206. 


beseeming (noun), 223. 

cloy (=claw), 217. 

best, you 're, 190, 199. 

cloyed importantly, 211. 

bestrid, 212. 

cognizance, 186. 

betid, 211. 

collection (inference), 224. 

, 211. 

beyond beyond, 189. 

common-kissing Titan, 197. 

bloods, 165. 

companion (fellow), 180. 


bold (that), 185. 
bondage (=fidelity), 186. 
bore in hand, 218. 

company (verb), 223. 
comparative for, 184. 
conclusions ( experiments^, 


bound (play upon), 202. 



brain (verb), 217. 

condition ( = disposition ), 

e), 214. 

brands (=torches), 186. 


bravely, 180, 186. 

conduct (=escort), 197. 

bravery (=defiance), 187. 

confiners, 209. 


brawns, 209. 

confiscate (accent), 222. 

bring (accompany), 168. 

confounded, 171. 

0, 221. 

brotherly (adverb), 204. 
bugs (=bugbears), 214. 

consequence, 184. 
consider, 218. 

by-peeping, 178. 

consider (=requite), 182. 

considered of, 195. 


calves' -guts, 182. 

consign to thee, 208. 

cap (^obeisance), 192. 

constant-qualified, 171. 

capon (play upon), 180. 

consummation, 209. 

3> 216, 

carl, 213. 

content thee, 173. 

carnage (=carrying off), 197. 

conveyed (^stolen), 166. 

cased (masked), 213. 

convince (^overcome), 171. 

Cassibelan, 165. 

cordial (^reviving), 173. 


counters, 217. 

estate (=state), 218. N 

gain his colour, 204. 

courages, 185. 

even (verb), 197. 

gall, 1 66. 

court (=court affairs), 198. 

even before, 199. 

Gallian, 177. 

crack (=bluster), 220. 

event (=issue), 197. 

gallowses, 217. 

cracked (^broken), 169, 220. 

exhibition (^allowance), 1 78. 

gan, 213, 220. 

crare, 205. 

exile (accent), 198. 

gave the affront, 214. 

crave to be demanded, 210. 

exorciser. 209. 

gave you ground (play upon), 

crescent note, 170. 

extend him, 170. 


crop (verb), 175. 

extend him within himself, 

geek, 216. 

cross the book, 192. 


gentle (= well -born), 202. 

curbed from enlargement, 

giglot, 187. 


fail (noun), 195. 

gins, 1 8 1. 

curious (careful), 179. 

fairies (malignant), 180. 

go back, 172. 

Cytherea, 180. 

fallen off (=revolted), 200. 

go even, 171. 

false (verb), 182. 

S)od wax, thy leave ! 189. 

dagger in my mouth, 203. 

fan (metaphor), 179. 

ordian knot, 181. 

dead (as if dead), 221. 

fangled, 217. 

groat morning, 203. 

dear loss, 222. 

fast (=fasted), 210. 

great' st, 178. 

debitor and creditor, 217. 

fatherly (adverb), 182. 

guise of the world, 213. 

decay ( destroy), 173. 

favour (=beauty), 176. 

deep (of swearing), 183. 

favour (= personal appear- 

habits (=dress), 212. 

defect, 203, 226. 

ance), 194, 203, 219. 

hand-fast, 174. 

definite, 176. 

feared, 185. 

hangings, 192. 

delicate, 218. 

fearful (=full of fear), 194. 

happily (=haply), 201. 

delighted (^delightful), 216. 
depend (impend), 210. 

feat (adjective), 218. 
feated, 166. 

happy (=fortunateS 197. 
harder (=too hard), 197. 

depending on their brands, 

feature (=shape), 219. 

hardiment, 216. 


fedary, 188. 

hardiness, 199. 

desire my man's abode, 177. 

fell (=cruel), 203. 

hardness (=hardship), 199. 

desperate bed, 210. 

fetch u> in, 194, 204. 

hark thee, 173. 

Diana's rangers, 182. 

fierce, 223. 

have at it, 222. 

die the death, 203. 

fitment, 223. 

have with you ! 212. 

dieter, 203. 

fits (=befits), 197. 

having (noun), 169. 

differing multitudes, 200. 
diminution of space, 169. 

fitted (prepared), 218. 
fled forward 168. 

haviour, 193. 
head (armed force', 204. 

disedged, 195. 

fools are not mad folks, 184. 

heard no letter, 211. 

dishonestly afflicted, 202. 

foot us, 216. 

Hecuba, 209. 

distinction should be rich in, 

for (^because), 204. 

herblets, 209. 


for food (=for want of food), 

hilding, 184. 

divine (accent), 180, 204. 


holp, 223. 

doers' thrift, to the, 212. 

for his heart, 180. 

home (adverb), 198, 209. 

doing nothing for a bribe, 

fore-end, 192. 

how (=however), 202. 

191, 226. 

forespent, 182. 

howsoe'er, 204. 

doubting things go ill, 177. 

forestall him of, 198. 

hunt (=game), 200. 

dragons of the night, 181. 

fore-thinking, 197. 

huswife, 202. 

drawn (emptied), 217. 

forfeiters, 189. 

drawn to head, 198. 

forfend, 221. 

I am in heaven, 169. 

drive us to a render, 211. 

forlorn (accent), 223. 

I bid for you as I 'd buy, 200. 

drug-damned, 193. 

foundations (play upon), 199. 

gnorant, 187. 

dullard, 221. 

fragments, 213. 

mperceiverant. 201. 

during their use, 211. 

franchise, 188. 

mperious (imperial), 202. 

franklin, 190. 

mportance (import), 171. 

each elder worse, 212. 

fraught (noun), 167. 

mportantly, 2 1 1. 

eagle (feminine), 224. 

fretted (^embossed), 186. 

mportuned (accent), 221. 

elected deer, 195. 

friend (Clover), 171. 

n (=into), 200. 

election, a true, 169. 

friendly (adverb), 224. 

n (-on). 200. 

empery, 178. 

from (=away from), 170, 192, 

' the clock's behalf, 190. 

enchafed, 204. 


n their serving, 197. 

encounter, 169, 200. 

full of view, 196. 

n watch, 194. 

encounter revolt, 178. 

full-hearted, 213. 

ncivil, 221. 

end (die), 218. 

full-winged, 191. 

ngeniovss, 205. 

enforce (force), 210, 221. 

fumes, 209. 

njurior.r., 187, 203. 

entertain (=employ), 210. 

furnaces (verb), 177. 

instinct (accent), 205, 223. 



instruct of, 210. 

make them dread it, to the outsell, 186, 198. 

insultment, 198. 

doers' thrift, 212. j outstood, 179 

inter gatories, 223. 

makes him, 170. j outward (noun\ 161;. 

inward (noun), 193. 

makes your admiration, 1 76. 

o'ergrown, 2 it. 

irregulous, 209. 

mannerly (adverb), 200. 

over his occasions, 218. 

issues (=acts), 180. 

Mary-buds, 182. 

owe (=own), 187. 

it (possessive), 196. 

match (=compact^, 200. 

matter (=business), 2 1 1. 

packing, 198. 

jack (in bowling), 179. 
Jack-slave, 180. 
jet (=strut), 190. 

mean affairs, 189. 
medicinable, 188. 
medicine (verb\ 207. 

paid (play upon), 217. 
paid (^punished), 207. 
paled in, 187. 

jewel, 172, 184,219. 

Mercurial, 209. 

panged, 195. 

join his honour, 165. 

mere (^absolute), 203. 

pantler, 184. 

journal (=diurnal), 201. 

mile (plural), 209. 

parish, 204. 

Jovial, 209, 216. 

mineral (=poison), 218. 

parted (^departed), 200. 

joyed (transitive\ 223. 

minion (=darling), 182. 

partisans (=halberds), 210. 

jump (risk), 217. 

miracle, 202. 

passable, 168. 

justice r, 220. 

keep at utterance, 188. 
keep house, 190. 

moe, 187, 1 88, 214. 
moiety, 172. 
monument, as a, 181. 
mortal ( deadly), 170, 214, 

passage (occurrence), 195. 
peculiar (=personal),2i8. 
peevish (=silly), 177. 
perfect (assured), 188,204. 

ken, within a, 199. 


perforce, 188. 

kissed the jack, 179. 

most bravest, 209. 

pervert (avert), 186. 

kitchen-trulls, 220. 

most coldest, 181. 

Phcebus' wheel, 220. 

knowing (noun), 170, 183. 
known together, 170. 

most worthiest, 179. 
motion (=impulse), 187. 

pickaxes (=fingers), 210. 
pinch (=pang), 167. 

laboursome, 197. 

mows (^grimaces), 176. 
mulier (derivation^, 224. 

pleaseth (=if it please), 173. 
point forth, 224. 

lady, ladies, woman, 198. 

Mulmucius, 164, 188. 

Posthumus (accent), 166. 

laming, 219. 

mutest, 178. 

posting winds, 193. 

lapped, 222. 

postures beyond brief nat- 

lay (=wager), 172. 

naught, 221. 

ure, 2 19. 

leaned unto, 166. 

nice (^affected), 187. 

power of, 201. 

learn'd (^learned), 188. 

niceness, 196. 

power on you, 223. 

learned (= taught), 173. 

Nile (without article?, 193. 

practice (^artifice), 220. 

learnings, rf>6. 

noble misery, 214. 

prefer (=recommend), 182, 

leave (=leave off), 172, 180, 

none a, 177." 


Leonati seat, 216. 

nonpareil, 187. 

preferment, 217. 

Leonatus 1 , 200. 

north (=wind), 169. 

preferred (^promoted), 184, 

let blood, 204. 

not (transposed), 179, 211. 


let proof speak, 188. 

note (^distinction), 170, 175, 

pregnant (=probable), 209. 

lie bleeding in me, 193. 

184, 192. 

presently, 184. 

liegers, 174. 

note (=list), 173. 

pretty and full of view, 196. 

like (^equally), 192. 

nothing (adverb \ 166, 171. 

priest (feminine), 178. 

like (=please), 182. 

now (=rjust now), 214. 

prince it, 192. 

like a crow, 190. 

princely fellows, 195. 

likely to report themselves, 

odds (number), 213. 

prize (=value), 200. 

1 86. 

'od? pittikins, 209. 

probation (=proof), 222. 

limbmeal, 186. 

of (=by), 200. 

profane (accent), 184. 

line, 182. 

of (=on), 212. 

prone, 217. 

long of, 22 1. 

of 's, 165. 

proof (experience), 1 77, 192. 

look upon (=face), 185. 

offered mercy, 169. j proof (of armour), 218. 

looks us like, 198. 

on (=of), 1 68, 205. proof (=trial). 188. 

loud'st, 198. 

opened (disclosed), 218. proper (=goodly), 195. 

lover (feminine), 220. 

oppositions, 201. proper (=own), 203. 

loyal'st, 166. or (=before), 185. prunes (verb), 217. 

Lucina, 216. | or ere (before), 190, 214. pudency, 187. 

Lud's town, 187, 203. j orbs (Ptolemaic), 222. 

put on (incite), 212. 

' ordered (=disciplined), 185. 

puttock, 168. 

mad (verb), 181, 209. 1 ordinance, 204. 

made fault, 200. other (plural), 205. 

quarrellous, 196. 

made much on, 205. ! out-craftied, 193. ' quartered fires, 211. 

made scruple, 220. out-peer, 200. ' quench (intransitive), 173. 



ramps, 178. 

simular, 220. 

tender (= presentation), 179. 

rangers, 182. 

single oppositions, 201. 

tender of, 198. 

rank (play upon), 180. 

Sinon's weeping, 194. 

tent (=probe), 196. 

raps, 176. 

sir, 179, 219. 

Tereus, 181. 

rar'st, 219. 

slaughter-man, 214. 

that (affix), 198. 

ravening, 176. 

slight in sufferance, 198. 

thee (=thou), 173. 

ready (=dressed), 183. 
reason (=talk), 202. 

slip you, 210. 
snuff, 177. 

then to shift it, 168. 
there be, 187. 

reck (=care), 204. 

so (=be it so), 181, 197. 

thereto (^besides), 211. 

recoil (=fall off', 178. 

so (omitted), 213, 216, 220. 

Thersites, 207. 

refts (=reft'st), 193. 

solace (intransitive), 177. 

thinks scorn, 212. 

remain (noun), 188. 

soldier to, 197. 

those ... as, 222. 

render (noun), 211. 

solicits (noun), 182. 

three thousand confident, 

render (=state,, 219. 

something (adverb), 166, 172. 


resty, 200. 

sots ( fools', 220. 

throughfare, 168. 

retire (noun), 213. 

south-fog rot him ! 184. 

throughly, 185, 200. 

revenue (accent), 185. 

speak him far, 165. 

thunder-stone, 208. 

revolt (faithlessness), 178. 

speak thick, 189. 

tinct, 1 80. 

revolts (= deserters), 211. 

spectacles- (=eyes), 176. 

tir'st on, 195. 

rip thy heart, 198. 

speed (=fare), 217. 

to (=compared with), 192. - 

ripely, 198. 

spirits (monosyllable), 192- 

to (=in addition to), 209. 

Romish, 179. 

spongy south, 210. 

to (omitted), 181. 

ruddock, 207. 

sprightly, 200. 

to friend, 172. 

rud'st, 205. 

sprited with, 184. 

to the note o' the king, 

rushes (for floors), 180. 

spritely shows, 223. 


spur and stop, 177. 

tomboys, 178. 

safe (=sound), 204. 

spurs (of trees), 203. 

tongue (verb), 217. 

saucy, 179. 

squire's cloth, 184. 

touch more rare, a, 168. 

saving reverence of, 201. 

staggers (noun), 220. 

touch my shoulder, 214. 

say you, sir? 210. 

stand (in hunting), 182, 195. 

toys (=trifles), 205. 

sayest thou? 180. 

stand (^withstand), 214. 

trims, 197. 

scar, 221. 

stand for, 198. 

troth (=truth),22i. 

scorn (=mockery), 217. 

starve (with cold), 173. 

true (^honest), 182. 

scriptures, 195. 

states (persons), 193. 

tune (=voice), 220. 

sear, 167. 

statist, 185. 

turbans, 190. 

searched (=sought), 218. 

stir him, 202. 

twinned, 175- 

seasons comfort, 174. 

story (verb), 170. 

seconds (noun), 214. 

straight-pight, 219. 

under her colours, 170. 

see (=see each other), 167. 

strain (race), 202. 

undergo (^undertake), 172, 

seek us through, 204. 
self (same), 178. 

strange (^foreign), 177. 
stride a limit, 192. 

undertake every companion, 

self-figured, 184. 

such . . . that, 171, 178, 185, 

1 80. 

senseless (double meaning), 


unlustrous, 178. 


sufficeth (=it suffices), 218. 

unnumbered (beach), 176. 

senseless of, 168. 

summer news, 193. 

unshaked, 180. 

set on (^march on\ 224. 

suppliant (^auxiliary), 201. 

unspeaking, 220. 

set up (instigate), 195. 

supplyment, 197. 

untwine with, 203. 

shaked, 174. 

supreme (accent), 174. 

up (=put lip), 1 86. 

shall (=will), 196. 

sur-addition, 165. 

up-cast, 1 80. 

shall 's, 207, 220. 

sweet' st, 222. 

upon a desperate bed, 210. 

shame (=modesty), 213. 

swerve (=err), 217- 

upon our note, 211. 

shameless-desperate. 218. 

synod, 216. 

utterance, at, 188. 

sharded beetle, 191. 226. 

shes, 169, 176. 

tables (letters^, 189. 

vantage, 169, 182, 220. 

shift his being, 173. 

take in (subdue), 188, 204. 

venge, 177. 

shop (^storehouse), 220. 

take me up, 180. 

verbal (= verbose), 184. 

short (verb), 179. 

take off some extremity, 193. 

vomit emptiness, 176. 

shot (= reckoning), 217. 

take or lend, 199. 

voyage upon her, 173. 

: shrew me, 184. 

targes, 217. 

shrine (=image), 219. 
Sienna's brother, 210. 

tasting of, 221. 
taught of, 220. 

wage (=wager), 172. 
wake mine eyeballs blind, 

sign (=outward show), 169. 
silly (^rustic), 214. 

temper (=mix), 221. 
Tenantius, 165. 

T 95- 
walk (^withdraw), 168, 219. 



wanton (masculine), 201. 

warrant of bloody affirma- 
tion, 171. 

watching, 185. 

weeds ( garments', 212. 

wench-like, 207. 

what (why 1 , 193. 

what mortality is! 201. 

what thing is it! 212. 

whenas, 217, 224. 

whereon, 193. 

which (who), 184, 209. 

whiles, 173. 

whiter than the sheets, 
1 80. 

who (whom), 179, 192, 203, woe is my heart, 217. 


woodman ( hunter), 199. 

whom (=which), 207. 

words him, 170. 

whom (=who), 172. 

worms (=serpents), 103. 

whose mother was her paint- wrack, 177, 210. 

ing, 194. ; wrings (--writhes), 200. 

will not from it, 173. 

write against, 187. 

windows (=eyelids), 180. 

wrote (= written), 197. 

winds of all the corners, ; wrying, 212. 


winking, 182, 186,217. 

ye, 197. 

winter-ground, 207. 

year's age, 167. 

wisely definite, 176. 

yet (transposed), 183, 224. 

witch (masculine), 179. 

yond, 190. 

with (by), 184, 193. 

you 're best consider, 190. 



The Merchant of Venice. 

The Tempest. 

Julius Caesar. 


As You Like It. 

Henry the Fifth. 


Henry the Eighth. 

A Midsummer -Night's Dream. 

Richard the Second. 

Richard the Third. 

Much Ado About Nothing. 

Antony and Cleopatra. 

Romeo and Juliet. 


Twelfth Night. 

The Winter's Tale. 

King John. 

Henry IV. Part I. 

Henry IV. Part II. 

King Lear. 

The Taming of the Shrew. 

All >s Well That Ends Well. 


Comedy of Errors. 


Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Measure for Measure. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

Lore's Labour 's Lost. 

Timon of Athens. 

Henry VI. Part I. 

Henry VI. Part II. 

Henry VI. Part III. 

Troilus and Cressida. 

Pericles, Prince of Tyre. 

The Two Noble Kinsmen. 



Titus Andronicus. 


In the preparation of this edition of the English Classics it has been 
the aim to adapt them for school and home reading, in essentially the 
same way as Greek and Latin Classics are edited for educational pur- 
poses. The chief requisites are a pure text (expurgated, if necessary), 
and the notes needed for its thorough explanation and illustration. 

Each of Shakespeare's plays is complete in one volume, and is pre- 
ceded by an Introduction containing the " History of the Play," the 
" Sources of the Plot," and " Critical Comments on the Play." 

From HORACE HOWARD FURNESS, Ph.D., LL.D., Editor of the "New Vario- 
rum Shakespeare" 

No one can examine these volumes and fail to be impressed with the 
conscientious accuracy and scholarly completeness with which they are 
edited. The educational purposes for which the notes are written Mr. 
Rolfe never loses sight of, but like "a well-experienced archer hits the 
mark his eve doth level at," 

Rolfe's Shakespeare. 

From F. J. FURNIVALL, Director of the New Shakspere Society, London. 

The merit I see in Mr. Rolfe's school editions of Shakspere's Plays 
over those most widely used in England is that Mr. Rolfe edits the plays 
as works of a poet, and not only as productions in Tudor English. Some 
editors think that all they have to do with a play is to state its source 
and explain its hard words and allusions ; they treat it as they would a 
charter or a catalogue of household furniture, and then rest satisfied. 
But Mr. Rolfe, while clearing up all verbal difficulties as carefully as any 
Dryasdust, always adds the choicest extracts he can find, on the spirit 
and special " note " of each play, and on the leading characteristics of its 
chief personages. He does not leave the student without help in getting 
at Shakspere's chief attributes, his characterization and poetic power. 
And every practical teacher knows that while every boy can look out 
hard words in a lexicon for himself, not one in a score can, unhelped, 
catch points of and realize character, and feel and express the distinctive 
individuality of each play as a poetic creation. 

From Prof. EDWARD DOWDEN, LL.D., of th* University of Dublin, 
Author of '" Shakspere : His Mind and Art" 

I incline to think that no edition is likely to be so useful for school and 
home reading as yours. Your notes contain so much accurate instruc- 
tion, with so little that is superfluous ; you do not neglect the aesthetic 
study of the play ; and in externals, paper, type, binding, etc., you make 
a book " pleasant to the eyes " (as well as " to be desired to make one 
wise ") no small matter, I think, with young readers and with old. 

From EDWIN A. ABBOTT, M.A., Author of '" Shakespearian Grammar.' 1 '' 
I have not seen any edition that compresses so much necessary infor- 
mation into so small a space, nor any that so completely avoids the com- 
mon faults of commentaries on Shakespeare needless repetition, super- 
fluous explanation, and unscholar-like ignoring of difficulties. 

From HIRAM CORSON, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon and English 

Literature, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

In the way of annotated editions of separate plays of Shakespeare, for 
educational purposes, I know of none quite up to Rolfe's. 

Rolfe's Shakespeare. 

From Prof. F. J. CHILD, of Harvard University. 

I read your " Merchant of Venice" with my class, and found it in every 
respect an excellent edition. I do not agree with my friend White in the 
opinion that Shakespeare requires but few notes that is, if he is to be 
thoroughly understood. Doubtless he may be enjoyed, and many a hard 
place slid over. Your notes give all the help a young student requires, 
and yet the reader for pleasure will easily get at just what he wants. 
You have indeed been conscientiously concise. 

Under date of July 25, 1879, Prof. CHILD adds : Mr. Rolfe's editions 
of plays of Shakespeare are very valuable and convenient books, whether 
for a college class or for private study. I have used them with my 
students, and I welcome every addition that is made to the series. They 
show care, research, and good judgment, and are fully up to the time in 
scholarship. I fully agree with the opinion that experienced teachers 
have expressed of the excellence of these books. 

From Rev. A. P. PEABODY, D.D., Professor in Harvard University. 

\ regard your own work as of the highest merit, while you have turned 
the labors of others to the best possible account. I want to have the 
higher classes of our schools introduced to Shakespeare chief of all, and 
then to other standard English authors ; but this cannot be done to ad- 
vantage, unless under a teacher of equally rare gifts and abundant leisure, 
or through editions specially prepared for such use. I trust that you 
will have the requisite encouragement to proceed with a work so hap- 
pily begun. 

From the Examiner and Chronicle ', N". Y. 

We repeat what we have often said, that there is no edition of Shake- 
speare's which seems to us preferable to Mr. Rolfe's. As mere specimens 
of the printer's and binder's art they are unexcelled, and their other 
merits are equally high. Mr. Rolfe, having learned by the practical ex- 
perience of the class-room what aid the average student really needs in 
order to read Shakespeare intelligently, has put just that amount of aid 
into his notes, and no more. Having said what needs to be said, he stop: 
there. It is a rare virtue in the editor of a classic, and we are propor- 
tionately grateful for it. 

Rolfe's Shakespeare. 

From the N. Y. Times. 

This work has been done so well that it could hardly have been clone 
better. It shows throughout knowledge, taste, discriminating judgment, 
and, what is rarer and of yet higher value, a sympathetic appreciation of 
the poet's moods and purposes. 

From the Pacific School Journal, San Francisco. 
This edition of Shakespeare's plays bids fair to be the most valuable 
aid to the study of English literature yet published. For educational pur- 
poses it is beyond praise. Each of the plays is printed in large clear type 
and on excellent paper. Every difficulty of the text is clearly explained 
by copious notes. It is remarkable how many new beauties one may dis- 
cern in Shakespeare with the aid of the glossaries attached to these books. 
. . . Teachers can do no higher, better work than to inculcate a love 
for the best literature, and such books as these will best aid them in 
cultivating a pure and refined taste. 

Front the Christian Union, N. Y. 

Mr. W. J. Rolfe's capital edition of Shakespeare by far the best edi- 
tion for school and parlor use. We speak after some practical use of it 
in a village Shakespeare Club. The notes are brief but useful ; and the 
necessary expurgations are managed with discriminating skill. 

From the Academy, London. 

Mr. Rolfe's excellent series of school-editions of the Plays of Shake- 
speare. . . . Mr. Rolfe's editions differ from some of the English ones 
in looking on the plays as something more than word-puzzles. They give 
the student helps and hints on the characters and meanings of the plays, 
while the word-notes are also full and posted up to the latest date. . . . 
Mr. Rolfe also adds to each of his books a most useful " Index of Words 
and Phrases explained." 


&3F* Any of the above "Works will be sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the 
United States, on receipt of the price. 


with Notes, by WILLIAM J, ROLFE, A.M., formerly Head 
Master of the High School, Cambridge, Mass. Illus- 
trated. i6mo, Paper, 40 cents ; Cloth, 56 cents. (Uni- 
form with Rolfe's Shakespeare.} 

The carefully arranged editions of " The Merchant of Venice " and 
other of Shakespeare's plays prepared by Mr. William J. Rolfe for the 
use of students will be remembered with pleasure by many readers, and 
they will welcome another volume of a similar character from the same 
source, in the form of the " Select Poems of Oliver Goldsmith," edited 
with notes fuller than those of any other known edition, many of them 
original with the editor. Boston Transcript. 

Mr. Rolfe is doing very useful work in the preparation of compact 
hand-books for study in English literature. His own personal culture, 
and his long experience as a teacher, give him good knowledge of what 
is wanted in this way. The Congregationalist, Boston. 

Mr. Rolfe has prefixed to the Poems selections illustrative of Gold- 
smith's character as a man and grade as a poet, from sketches by Ma- 
caulay, Thackeray, George Colman, Thomas Campbell, John Forster, 
and Washington Irving. He has also appended, at the end of the 
volume, a body of scholarly notes explaining and illustrating the poems, 
and dealing with the times in which they were written, as well as the 
incidents and circumstances attending their composition. Christian 
Intelligencer, N. Y. 

The notes are just and discriminating in tone, and supply all that is 
necessary either for understanding the thought of the several poems, or 
for a critical study of the language. The use of such books in the school- 
room cannot but contribute largely toward putting the study of English 
literature upon a sound basis ; and many an adult reader would find in 
the present volume an excellent opportunity for becoming critically ac- 
quainted with one of the greatest of last century's poets. Appleton's 
Journal, N. Y. 


H3T" Sent by mall, postage prepaid, to any part of the United States, on receipt of 

the Price, 


Notes, by WILLIAM J. ROLFE, A.M., formerly Head 
Master of the High School, Cambridge, Mass. Illus- 
trated. Square i6mo, Paper, 40 cents; Cloth, 56 cents. 
(Uniform with Rolfe's Shakespeare.} 

Mr. Rolfe has done his work in a manner that comes as near to per- 
fection as man can approach. He knows his subject so well that he is 
competent to instruct all in it ; and readers will find an immense amount 
of knowledge in his elegant volume, all set forth in the most admirable 
order, and breathing the most liberal and enlightened spirit, he being a 
warm appreciator of the divinity of genius. Boston Traveller. 

The great merit of these books lies in their carefully-edited text, and in 
the fulness of their explanatory notes. Mr. Rolfe is not satisfied with 
simply expounding, but he explores the entire field of English literature, 
and therefrom gathers a multitude of illustrations that are interesting in 
themselves and valuable as a commentary on the text. He not only in- 
structs, but stimulates his readers to fresh exertion ; and it is this stimu- 
lation that makes his labors so productive in the school-room. Saturday 
Evening Gazette, Boston. 

Mr. William J. Rolfe, to whom English literature is largely indebted 
for annotated and richly-illustrated editions of several of Shakespeare's 
Plays, has treated the " Select Poems of Thomas Gray " in the same way 
just as he had previously dealt with the best of Goldsmith's poems. 
The Press, Phila. 

Mr. Rolfe's edition of Thomas Gray's select poems is marked by the 
same discriminating taste as his other classics. Springfield Republican. 

Mr. Rolfe's rare abilities as a teacher and his fine scholarly tastes ena- 
ble him to prepare a classic like this in the best manner for school use. 
There could be no better exercise for the advanced classes in our schools 
than the critical study of our best authors, and the volumes that Mr. Rolfe 
has prepared will hasten the time when the study of mere form will give 
place to the study of the spirit of our literature. Lotiisville Cotirier- 

An elegant and scholarly little volume. Christian Intelligencer, N. Y. 


JSP" Sent by mail, postage, prepaid, to any part of the United States, on receipt of th& 
price and one sixth additional for postage. 


YB 77458