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ltEF. & 



I have collated it with the tragedy as it stands in the edition 
of Shakspeare, 179S: and the following remarks, and variou, 
readings, are here assigned to their proper places. ToII. 
The ingenious and accurate 3It. Todd has most obligingly 
collated this tragedy (o. 1600) with that in f, vo. 179,'3. Mot 
of his collations &c. will be found at the bottom of the follow- 
ing pages. SxrrwNs. 


And in the Capitol and senate's right, 
Wholn you pretend to honour and adore,-- 
That you withdraw you, and abate your strength 
Dismiss your followers, and, as suitors should, 
Plead your deserts in peace and humbleness. 
SaT. How fair the tribune speaks to cahn lny 
thoughts ! 
BAs. Marcus Andronicus, so I do affy 
In thy uprightness and integrity, 
And so I love and honour thee and thine, 
Thy nobler brother Titus, and his sons, 
And her, to whom my thoughts are humbled all, 
Gracious Lavinia, Rome's rich ornament, 
That I will here dismiss my loving friends ; 
And to lny fortunes, and the people's fitvour, 
Commit my cause in balance to be weigh'd. 
[Exeunt the Followers " BssINgS. 
SAT. Friends, that have been thus forward in 
lny right, 
I thank you all, and here dismiss you all ; 
And to the love and favour of my country 
Commit myself, my person, and the cause. 
[Exeunt the Followers of SaTs. 
Rome, be as just and gracious unto me, 
As I am confident and kind to thee.- 
Open fle gates, and let me in. 
JBAS. Tribuues ! and me, a poor competito,r,. 
[ST. and Bas. go into the Capitol, and eeunt 
with Senators, Macvs, c. 


With opportunity of sharp revenge 
Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent,  
May favour Tamora, the queen of Goths, 
(When Goths were Goths, and Tamorawas queen,) 
To quit the bloody wrongs upon her foes. 

Re.enter Lucius, QUINTUS, MartTIUS, and Mt. 
TIus, with their ,Swords bloodj. 

.Life. See, lord and father, how we have per- 
form' d 
Our Roman rites : Alarbus' limbs are lopp'd, 
And entrails feed the sacrificing fire, 
Whose smoke, like incense, doth perfume the sky. 

' The self-same gods, that arm'd the queen of Troy 
With opportunit 9 of sharp revenge 
Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, &e.] I read, against 
the authority of all the copies: 
in her tent,--. 
i. e. in the tent where she and the other Trojan captive women 
were kept: for thither Hecuba by a wile had decoyed Polyrn- 
nestor, in order to perpetrate her revenge. This we may learn 
fi'om Euripides's Hecuba ; the only author, that I can at pre- 
sent remember, from whom our writer must have gleaned this 
circumstance. TEonra). 
Mr. Theobald should first have proved to us that our author 
understood Greek, or else that this play of Euripides had been 
translated. In the mean time, because neither of lhese particu- 
lars are verified, we may as well suppose he took it from the 
old story-book of the Trojan War, or the old translation of 
Ovid. See Metam. XIII. The writer of the play, whoever he 
was, might have been misled by the passage in Ovid: " vadit 
ad arti.)qcem," and therefore took it for granted that she found 
him in his tent. Sz.vs. 
I have no doubt that the writer of this play had read Euripi- 
des in the original. Mr. Steevens justly observes in a subse- 
quent note near the end of this scene, that there is " a plain al- 
lusion to the Ajax of Sophocles, of which no translation was ex- 
tant in the time of Shakspeare." Marotz. 


Relnaineth nought, but to inter our brethren, 
And with loud 'larums welcome them to Rome. 
7"17". Let it be so, and let Andronicus 
Make this his latest farewell to their souls. 
[Trumpets sounded, and the Coffns laid in the 
Iu peace and honour rest you here, my sons ; 
Rome's readiest Chalupions, repose you here, ' 
Secure fi'om worldly chances and mishaps! 
Here lurks no treason, here no envy swells, 
Here grow no damned grudges; here, are no storms, 
No noise, but silence and eternal leep : 


In peace and honour rest you here, my sons ! 
L.v. In peace and honour live lord Titus long ; 
My noble lord and father, live in fame! 
Lo! at this tomb my tributary tears 
I render, for my brethren's obsequies ; 
And at thy feet I kneel with tears of joy 
Shed on the earth, for thy return to Rome: 
O, bless me here with thy victorious hand, 
Whose fortunes Rome's best citizens applaud. 
TT. Kind Rome, that hast thus lovingly re- 
The cordial of mine age to glad my heart ! 
Lavinia, live ; outlive fly father's days, 

 --repose :you here,] Old copies, redundantly in respect 
both to sense and metre : 
repose you here in rest. STEEVEIS. 
The same redundancy in the edition 1600, as noted in other 
copies by Mr. Steevem. TODn. 

8U.. I1. 


My lord, be rul'd by me, be won at last, ] 
Dissemble all your griefs and discontents : 
You are but newly planted in your throne; 
Lest then the people, and patricians too, 
Upon a just survey, take Titus' part, 
And so supplant us s for ingratitude, 
(Which Rome reputes to be a heinous sin,) 
Yield at entreats, and then let me alone : 
I'll find a day to massacre them all, 
And raze their faction, and their family, 
The cruel father, and his traitorous sons, 


To whom I sued for ny dear son's life ; 
And make them know, what 'tis to let a| 
Kneel in the streets, and beg for grace in 
Come, come, sweet emperor,--cmne, Andronicus, 
Take up this good old man, and cheer the heart 
That dies in tempest of thy angry frown. 
S,. Rise, Titus, rise; my enpress hath pre- 
TI,. I thank your majesty, and her, my lord: 
These words, these looks, infuse new life in me. 
TAM. Titus, I am incorporate in Rome, 
A Roman now adopted happily, 
And must advise the emperor for his good. 
This day all quarrels die, Andronicus ;- 
And let it be mine honour, good my lord, 
That I have reconcil'd your tiends and you.- 
For you, prince Bassianus, I have pass'd 
My word and promise to the emperor, 
That you will be more mild and tractable.-- 
And fear not, lords,--and you, Lavinia ;-- 

---.-suTplant us---] Edition 1600 :--supplant you. To. 


By my advice, all humbled on your knees, 
You shall ask pardon of his majesty. 
Ltrc. We do; and vow to heaven, and to his 
That, what we did, was mildly, as we might, 
Tend'ring our sister's honour, and our own. 
3Inn. That on mine honour here I do protest. 
Sn'. Away, and talk not; trouble us no more.--- 
TaM. Nay, nay, sweet emperor, we must all be 
fi-iends : 
The tribune and his nephews kneel for grace ; 
I will not be denied. Sweet heart, look back. 
Sn'. Marcus, for thy ske, and thy brother's 
And at my lovely Tamora's entreats, 
I do remit these young men's heinous faults. 
Stand up. 
Lavinia, though you left me like a churl, 
I found a fi'iend  and sure as death I swore, 
I would not part a bachelor from the priest. 
Come, if the emperor's court can feast two brides, 
You are lny guest, Lavinia, and your friends : 
This day shall be a love-day, Tamora. 
7'I7 . To-morrow, an it please your majesty, 
To hunt the panther and the hart with me, 
With horn and hound, we'll give your grace bon- 
Saw. Be it so, Titus, and gramercy too. 


AAR. Clubs, clubs I' these lovers will not keep 
the peace. 
DEM. Why, boy, although our mother, unad- 
Gave you a dancing-rapier by your side, * 
Are you so desperate grown, to threat your fi'iends ? 
Go to; have your lath glued within your sheath, 
Till you know better how to handle it. 
CHt. Mean while, sir, with the little skill I have, 
:Full well shalt thou perceive how much I dare. 
DEM. Ay, boy, grow ye so brave ? [ The.y draw. 
A.R. Why, how now, lords ? 
So near the emperor's palace dare you draw, 
And maintain such a quarrel openly ? 
Full well I wot the ground of all this grudge ; 
I would not for a million of gold, 
The cause xvere known to them it most concerns : 
Nor would your noble mother, for much more, 
Be so dishonour'd iu the court of Rome. 
For shame, put up. 
DM. Not I; till I have sheath'd' 

 Clubs, clubs!] So, in King Henr.y VIII: " --and hit that 
woman, who cried out, clubs!'" 
This was the usual outcry for assistance, when any riot in the 
street happened. SrEEVErS. 
See Vol. VIII. p. 166, n.  ; and Vol. XIII. p. 35, n. 6. 
  a dancing-rapier by your side,] So, in Greene's Quip 
for an Upstart Courtier: "  one of them carryinghis cutting- 
sword of choller, the other his dancing-rapier of delight. ' 
Again, in .4ll's well that ends well: 
-" no sword worn, 
" But one to dance with." STEV.VES. 
See Vol. VIII. p. 57, n. . MLOE. 
 Not 1; till I have sheath'd &c.] This speech, which has 
been all along given to Demetrius, as the next to Chiron were 


She is Lavinia, therefore must be lov'd. 
What, man! more water glideth by the mill  
Than wots the miller of; and easy it is 
Of a ct loaf to steal a shive, 9 we know: 
Though Bassianus be the emperor's brother, 
Better than he have yet worn' Vulcan's badge. 
MAR, Ay, and as good as Saturninus may. 
D2zM. Then why should he despair, that knows 
to court it 
With words, fair looks, and liberality ? 
What, hast thou not full often struck a doe, e 
.And borne her cleanly by the keeper's nose ? 

tIn&'onicus, because he seems to delight in murders and scraps 
of Latin; though I must confess that, in the first of those good 
qualities,. Marlowe's Jew ogf ]llatta mayfairlydispute. . precedence 
with the S19anish Traged. Some few of the obsolete dramas I 
allude to, are, it is true, to be found in the collections of Dodsley 
mad Hawkins : though I could wish that each of those gentlemen 
had confined bls researches to the further side of the year 1600. 
Future editors will, doubtless, agree in ejecting a performance 
by which their author's name is dishonoured, and his works are 
disgraced. RIsOl. 
*  more water glideth b.y the mill &c.] A Scots proverb :. 
" Mickle water goes by the miller when he sleeps." 
" :Non omnem molitor qum fluit unda videt." 
s  to steal a shive, A shire is a slice. So, in the tale of 
Argentile and Curan, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602 : 
" A sheeve of bread as browne as nut.'" 
I)emetrius is again indebted to a Scots proverb 
" It is safe taking a shire of a cut loaf." 
  have yet worn--'] Worn is here used as a dissyllable, 
The modern editors, however, after the second folio, read--have 
yet worn. 
Let him who can read t:orn as a dissyllable, read it so. As I 
am not ot" that description, I must continue to follow the second 
, --struck a doe,] Mr, Holt is willing to infer from this 


AR. Why then, it seems ; some certain snatch 
or so 
Would serve your turns. 
CHr. Ay, so the turn were serv'd. 
DEM. Aaron, thou hast hit it. 
AAR. 'Votdd you had hit it too ; 
Then should not we be tir'd with this ado. 
Why, hark ye, hark ye,--And are you such fools, 
To square for this ?a lVould it offend )rotl then 
That both should speed ? 
Crz. I'faith, not me. 

passage that Titus Andronicus was not only the work of Shak- 
zpeare but one of his earliest performances, because the strata- 
gems of his former profession seem to have been yet fresh in hiu 
mind. I had made the same observation in A'ig Henry 
before I had seen his; but when we consider how many phraseu 
are borrowed from the sports of the field, which were more fol- 
lowed in our author's time than any other amusement, I do not 
think there is much in either his remark or nay own.--Let me 
add that e have here Demetrius, the sou of a queen, demand- 
ing of his brother prince if he has not often been reduced to 
practise the common artifices of a deer-stealer :--an absurdity 
right worthy the rest of the piece. STriVerS. 
Demetrius surely here addresses Aaron, not his brother. 
 'Wouldyou had hit it too;J The same pleasant allusion oc- 
curreth also in Loves Labour's Lost, Vol. VII. p. 83. 
 To square for this .J To square is to quarrel. So, in 
'llidsummer-Night' s Dream : 
" they never meet, 
,' But they do square." 
Again, in Drant's translation of Horace's Art of Poetry, 1567 : 
" Let them not sing twixt act and act, 
 What squareth from the rest. 
But to square, which in both these instances signifies to differ 
ia now ued otaly in the very opposite sense and means to agree. 


When every thing doth make a gleeful boast ? 
The birds chaunt melody on every bush ; 
The snake lies roiled in the cheerfid sun ; 
The green leaves quiver with the cooling wind, 
And make a checquer'd shadow' on the ground : 
Under their sweet shade, Aaron, let us sit, 
And--whilst the babbling echo mocks the hounds, 
Replying shrilly to the well-tun'd horns, 
As if a double hunt were heard at once, ---- 
Let us sit down, and mark their yelling noise ; 
Andafter conflict, such as was suppos'd 
The wandering prince of Dido once enjoy'd, 
When with a happy storm they were surpriz'd, 
And curtain'd with a counsel-keeping cave, 
We may, each wreathed in the other's arms, 
Our pastimes done, possess a golden slumber ; 
Whiles hounds, and horns, and sweet melodious 
Be unto us, as is a nurse's song 
Of lullaby, to bring her babe asleep? 

peech of Tamora. It appeam to me to be the only one in the 
play that is in the style of Shakspeare. M. M,so. 
' a checquer'd shadow--] Milton has the same ex- 
"  many a maid 
" Dancing in the checquer'd shade." 
The same epithet occurs again in Locrine. 
 As if a double hunt were heard at once,] Hence, perhaps, 
a Iine in a well known song by Dryden: 
" And echo turns hunter, and doubles the cry." 
a  as is a nurse's song 
0flullaby, to bring her babe asleep.] Dr. Johnson, in his 
Dictionary, says, " it is observable that the nurses call sleep by, 
by; lullab.[ is therefore lull tosleep." But to lull originally sig- 
nified to eep. To compose to sleep by a pleasing sound is a se- 
condarysense retained after its primitive import became obsolete. 
The verbs to loll and lollop evidently spring from the same root. 

so. xxz. TITUS ANDRONICUS. ,0 

LAIr. Under your patience, gentle emperess, 
'Tis thought you have a goodly gii in horning ; 
And to be doubted, that your Moor and you 
Are singled forth to try experiments: 
Jove shield your husband from his hounds to-day! 
'Tis pity, they should take him for a stag. 
BAs. Believe me, queen, your swarth Cimmerian 9 
Doth make your honour of his body's hue, 
Spotted, detested, and abominable. 
Why are you sequester'd fi'om all your train ? 
Dismounted from your snow-white goodly steed, 
And wander'd hither to an obscure plot, 
Accompanied with a barbarous Moor,  
If foul desire had not conducted you ? 
Lt'. And, being intercepted in your sport, 
Great reason that my noble lord be rated 
For sauciness.l pray you, let us hence, 
And let her 'joy her raven-colour'd love ; 
This valley fits the purpose passing well. 
B,s. The king, my brother, shall have note of 

The old copies have--upon his new-transformed lbnbs. The 
emendation was made by Mr. Rowe. 
It is said in a note by ir. Malone, that the old copies read, 
" upon his new-transformed limbs," and that Mr. Rowe made 
the emendationthy. The edition of 1600 reads precisely thus : 
Should driue on thy new tranormed limbes. To. 
9 --swarth Cimmerian--] Swarth is black. The Moor 
is called Cimmerian, kom the affinity of blackness to darkness. 
swarth Cmmeran] Edition 1600:wartie Cyme- 
ron. TODD. 
 Accompanied w{th  barbarous Ioor,] Edition 1600 reads : 
Accompanied but with a barbarous oore. To. 
  ]ae note hs.] Old copiesnot{ce. 
Thus also the 4to. 1600. Tog. 


Ten thousand swelling toads, as lnany urchins, 6 
Would lnake such fearfifl and confitsed cries, 
As any lnortal body, hearing it, 
Should straight fall lnad, or else die suddenly. 7 
No sooner had they told this hellish tale, 
But straight they told me, they would bind me 
Unto the body of a dismal yew; 
And leave lne to this miserable death. 
And then they eall'd me, ibul adulteress, 
Lascivious Goth, and all the bitterest terlns 
That ever ear did hear to such effect. 
And, had you not by wondrous lbrtune colne, 
This vengeance on tne had they executed: 
Revenge it, as you love your mother's life, 
Or be ye not henceforth eall'd ny children. 
DM. This is a witness that I atn thy son. 
[Stabs B.tssaus. 
Cu. And this for me, struck home to show my 
strength. [Stabbing him likewise. 
LA. Ay come, Semiramis,S--nay, barbarous 
Tamora ! 

 urchins,] i.e. hedgehogs. See Vol. IV. p. $8, n. S. 
 Should straight.fall mad, or else die suddenl, y.] This is said 
in fabulous physiology, of those that hear the groan of the man- 
drake torn up. JorItSos. 
The same thought and almost the same expressions occur in 
Romeo and Juliet. STEEVENSo 
s Ay cone, Semiramis,] The propriety of this address will be 
best understood from the tbllowing passage in P. Holland's trans- 
lation of the 8th Book of Pliny's Nat. Hist. ch. z2: " Queen 
Seniramis loved a great horse that she had, so farre forth, that 
she was content he should doe his kind with her." The incon- 
tinence of this lady has been already alluded to in the Induction 
to the Taming ofa Shrev scene the second. Sxwzv. 


LAg. Sweet lords, entreat her hear me but a 
DEM. Listen, fair madam : Let it be your glory 
To see her tears ; but be your heart to them, 
As unrelenting flint to drops of rain. 
LAg. When did the tiger's young ones teach the 
dam . 
O, do not learn her wrath ; she taught it thee : 
The milk, thou suck'dst from her, did turn to 
marble ; 
Even at thy teat thou hadst thy tyranny.-- 
Yet every mother breeds not sons alike ; 
Do thou entreat her show a woman pity. 
CHI. What ! would'st thou have me prove myself 
a bastard ? 
LAr: 'Tis true ; the raven doth not hatch a lark : 
Yet I have heard, (O could I find it now !) 
The lion mov'd with pity, did endure 
To have his princely paws par'd all away. 
Some say that ravens fbster forlorn children, 
The whilst their own birds famish in their nests : 
O, be to me, though thy hard heart say no, 
Nothing so kind, but something pitiful! 
TAM. I know not what it means ; away with her. 
Lag. O, let me teach thee : for my father's sake, 
That gave thee life, when well he might have slain 
Be not obdurate, open thy deaf ears. 
TAM. Had thou in person ne'er offended me, 
Even for his sake am I pitiless : 
Remember, boys, I pour'd forth tears in vain, 
To save your brother fi'om the sacrifice; 
But fierce Andronicus would not relent. 


Therefore away with her,  and use her as you wily ; 
The worse to her, the better lov'd of me. 
LAr. O Tamora, be call'd a gentle queen, 
And with thine own hands kill me in this place: 
For 'tis not life, that I have begg'd so long i 
Poor I was slain, when Bassianus died. 
TAM. What begg'st thou then ? fond woman, let 
hie go. 
LAy. 'Tis present death I beg ; and one thing 
That womanhood denies my tongue to tell : 
O, keep me fi'om their worse than killing lust, 
And tumble me into some loathsome pit ; 
Where never man's eye may behold my body: 
I)o this, and be a charitable murderer. 
TM. $o should I rob my sweet sons of their fee: 
No, let them satisfy their lust on thee. 
DEM. Away, for thou hast staid us here too long. 
/.r. No grace ? no womanhood ? Ah, beastly 
creature ! 
The blot and enemy to our general name! 
Confusion fall 
Cz.Nay, then I'll stop your mouth :Bring thou 
her husband ; 
[Dragging off LAVINIA. 
This is the hole where Aaron bid us hide him. 
T. Farewell, nay sons : see, that you make her 
sure : 
Ne'er let my heart know merry cheer indeed, 
Till all the Andronici be made away. 

 with her,] These useless syllables, which hurt the 
metre, might well be omitted. Sxvs. 


.It[ART. Why dost not comfort me, and help me 
From this unhallow'd 3 and blood-stained hole ? 
QuIV. I am surprized with an uncouth fear: 
A chilling sweat o'er-runs my trembling joints; 
My heart suspects more than mine eye can see. 
.IIART. To prove thou hast a true-divining heart, 
Aaron and thou look down into this den, 
And see a fearful sight of blood and death. 
Qvzv. Aaron is gone; and my compassionate 
Will not permit mine eyes once to behold 
The thing, whereat it trembles by surmise : 
O, tell me how it is; for ne'er till now 
Was I a child, to fear I know not what. 
MART. Lord Bassianus lies embrewed here, 
All on a heap, like to a slaughtcr'd lamb, 
In this detested, dark, blood-drinking pit. 
QgI2v. If it be dark, how dost thou know 'tis he ? 
J].[ARTo Upon his blood), finger he doth wear 
A precious ring, a that lightens all the hole, s 

 'rom this unhallow'd 'c.] Edition 1600 :From this vn- 
hallow &e. TODg. 
 A precious ring,] There is supposed to be a gem called 
a carbuncle, xvhieh emits not reflected but native light. 
Boyle believes the reality of its existence. 
So, in The Gesta Romanorum, history the sixth : " He farther 
beheld and saw a carbuncle in the hall that lighted all the house." 
Again, in Lydgate's Description o King Priam's Palace., L. II: 
" And for most ehefe all dlrkeness to confound, 
" A carbuncle was set as kyng of stones all, 
" To reeomforte and gladden all the hall. 
" And it to enlumine in the black night 
" With the freshnes of his rude, light," 


Which, like a taper in some monument, 
Doth shine upon the dead man's earthy cheeks, 
And shows the ragged entrails of this pit: 
So pale did shine the moon 6 on Pyramus, 
When he by night lay bath'd in maiden blood. 
0 brother, help me with thy fainting hand,- 
If fear hath made thee faint, as me it hath,--- 
Out of this fell devouring receptacle, 
As hateful as Coeytus' misty mouth. 
Qul2v. Reach me thy hand, that I may help thee 
out ; 
Or, wanting strength to do thee so much good, 
I may be pluck'd into the Swallowing womb 
Of this deep pit, poor Bassianus' grave. 
I have no strength to pluck thee to the brink 

Again, in the Muse's Elysium, by Drayton: 
" Is that admired, mighty stone, 
" The carbuncle that's named; 
" Which from it such a flaming light 
" And radiancy ejecteth, 
" That in the very darkest night 
" The eye to it directeth." 
Chaucer, in the Romaunt of the Rose, attributes the same 
properties to the carbuncle: 
" Soche light ysprang out of the stone." Srv, EVwNS. 
So, in King Henry VIII: 
- a gem 
" To lighten all this isle." 
So also, Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. VI. e. xi; 
"  like diamond of rich regard, 
" In doubtful shadow of the darksome night." 
  all the hole,] The 4to. 1600, reads--all this hole. 
 So pale did shine the moon &c.'l Lee appears to have been 
indebted to this image in his 3lassacre of Paris: 
" Looks like a midnight moon upon a murder." 


/]IRT. Nor I no strenh to climb without thy 
Qvrr. Thy hand once more ; I will not loose 
Till thou art here aloft, or I below: 
Thou canst not come to me, I come to thee. 
[Falls in. 

. nter SATURNINUS and AAoN. 

S.T. Along with me :--I'll see what hole is here, 
And what he is, that now is leap'd into it. 
Say, w.ho art thou, that lately didst descend 
Into this gaping hollow of the earth ? 
MAnT. The unhappy son of old Andronicus ; 
Brought hither in a most unlucky hour, 
To find thy brother Bassianus dead. 
ST. My brother dead ? I know, thou dost but 
jest : 
He and his lady both are at the lodge, 
Upon the north side of this pleasant chase ; 
'Tis not an hour since I left him there. 7 
M.4RT. We know not whereyou left him all alive, 
But, out alas ! here have we found him dead. 

Enter TAMORa, wilh Attendants; TTVS ANDRO- 
Nicus, and Lucius. 

TAM. Where is nay lord, the king ? 
ST. Here, Tamora ; though griev'd with killing 
TAM. Where is thy brother Bassianus ? 

left him there.] Edition 1600 reads :--left them there. 


TiT. High emperor, upon my feeble knee 
I beg this boon, with tears not lightly shed, 
That this fell fault of my accursed sons, 
Accursed, if the fault be prov'd in them,----- 
SAT. If it be prov'd ! you see, it is apparent.- 
Who found this letter ? Tamora, was it you ? 
TAM. Andronicus himself did take it up. 
Ti,. I did, my lord : yet let me be their bail : 
For by my father's reverend tomb, I vow, 
They shall be ready at your highness' will, 
To answer their suspicion with their lives. 
SAT. Thou shalt not bail them ; see, thou follow 
Some bring the murder'd body, some the mur- 
derers : 
Let them not speak a word, the guilt is plain ; 
For, by my soul, were there worse end than death, 
That end upon them shotdd be executed. 
TAM. Andronicus, I will entreat the king ; 
Fear not thy sons, they shall do well enough. 
TtT. Come, Lucius, come ; stay not to talk with 
them. [ Fxeu.nt severalhj. 


Cousin, a word ; Where is your husband ?J 
IF I do dream, 'would all my wealth would wake 
me ! ' 
If I do wake, some planet strike me down, 
That I may slumber in eternal sleep !- 
Speak, gentle niece, what stern ungentle hands 
Have lopp'd, and hew'd, and made thy body bare 
Of her two branches ? those sweet ornaments, 
Vhose circl!ng shadows kings have sought to sleep 
in ; 
And might not gain so great a happiness, 
As half thy love ? Why dost not speak to me ?-- 
Alas, a crimson river of warm blood, 
Like to a bubbling fountain stirr'd with wind, 
Doth rise and tall between thy rosed lips, 
Coming and going with thy honey breath. 
But, sure, some Tereus hath defloured thee ; 
And,lest thou should'st detect him, cut thy tongue.: 
Ah, now thou turn'st away thy Face for shame ! 
And, notwithstanding all this loss of blood,- 
As fi'om a conduit with three issuing spouts, - 
Yet do thy cheeks look red as Titan's Face, 
Blushing to be encounter'd with a cloud. 
Shall I speak for thee ? shall I say, 'tis so ? 
O, that I knew thy heart ; and knew the beast, 
That I might rail at hin to ease my mind[ 

 IfI do dream, "would all mt wealth would wake me !] If this 
be a dream, I would give all my possessions to be delivered from 
it by waking. JoIsSO. 
  lest thou should'st detect him, 8;c.] Old eoples---deteet 
them. The same mistake has happened in many other old plays. 
The eorreetion was made by Mr. Rowe. 
Tereus having ravished Philomela, his wife's sister, cut out her 
tongue, to prevent a discovery. Ma.o. 
  three issuing s_pouts,] Old copiestheir issuing &c, 
Corrected by Sir Thomas Hanmer. 


Sorrow concealed, like an oven stopp'd, 
Doth burn the heart to cinders where it is. 
Fair Philomela, she but lost her tongne, 
And in a tedious sampler sew'd her mind: 
But, lovely niece, that mean is cut fi'om thee ; 
/k craftier Tereus hast thou met withal,  
And he hath cut those pretty fingers off, 
That could have better sew'd than Philomel. 
O, had the monster seen those lily hands 
Tremble, like aspen leaves, upon a lute, 
And make the silken strings delight to kiss them ; 
He would not then have touch'd them for his life : 
Or, had he heard the heavenly harmony, 
Which that sweet tongue hath made, 
He would have dropp'd his knife, and fell asleep, 
As Cerberus at the Thracian poet's  feet. 
Come, let us go, and make thy father blind: 
'or such a sight will blind a father's eye : 
One hour's storm will drown the fi'agrant meads ; 
What will whole months of tears thy father's eyes 
Do not draw back, for we will mourn with thee ; 
O, could our mourning ease thy misery ! [Exeut. 

*--hast thou net withal,] The word withal, is wanting 
edition 1600. ToI)I). 

Thracian poet's--] Orpheu. 



Rome. .,4 Street. 

Enter Senators, Tribunes, and Ocers of Justice, 
wilh MARTIUS and QUINTUS, boltnd passing on 
to the Place of Execution; TITUS going before, 

TZT. Hear me, grave fathers! noble tribunes, 
stay ! 
For pity of mine age, whose youth was spent 
In dangerous vars, whilst you securely slept ; 
For all my blood in Rome's great quarrel shed ; 
For all the fi'osty nights that I have watch'd ; 
And for these bitter tears, which now you see 
Filling the aged wrinkles in nay cheeks ; 
Be pitiful to my condemned sons, 
Whose souls are not corrupted as 'tis thought! 
For two and twenty sons I never wept, 
Because they died in honour's lofty bed. 
For these, these, tribunes,  in the dust I write 
[ Throwbg himself on the Ground. 
My heart's deep languor, and my soul's sad tears. 
Let my tears stanch the earth's dry appetite ; 
My sons' sweet blood will make it shame and blush. 
[Exeunt Senators, Tribunes, 6j-c. with the 
O earth, I will befi'iend thee more with rain, 

 For these, these, tribunes,] The latter these was added for 
the sake of the metre by the editor of the second folio. 


All bootless to them, tlmy'd not pity me. 
Therefore I tell my sorrows to the stones ; 
Who, though they cannot answer nay distress, 
Yet in some sort they're better than the tribunes, 
For that they will not intercept my tale: 
When I do weep, they humbly at my feet 
Receive my tears, and seem to weep with me ; 
And, were they but attired in grave weeds, 
Rome could afibrd no tribune like to these. 
A stone is soft as wax, tribunes more hard than 
stolles :  
A stone is silent, and offendcth not ; 
And tribunes with their tongues doom men to 
Butwherefore stand'st thouwith thyweapon drawn ? 
Lc. To rescue my two brothers fi'om their 
death : 
For which attempt, the judges have pronounc'd 
My everlasting doom of banishment. 
2"T. O happy man ! they have befi'iended thee. 
Why, foolish Lucius, dost thou not perceive, 
That Rome is but a wilderness of tigers ? 
Tigers must prey ; and Rome affords no prey, 
But me and mine: How happy art thou then, 
From these devourers to be banished ? 
But who comes with our brother Marcus here ? 

Enler Mrtcvs and LwL. 

_'/. Titus, prepare thy noble eyes to weep; 
Or, if not so, thy noble heart to break; 
I bring consuming sorrow to thine age. 

 A stone is soft as wax, tribunes nore hard than stones:] The 
author, we may suppose, originally wrote: 
Stone's soft as wax, &e. Sx;vs. 


Thy husband he is dead ; and, for his death, 
Thy brothers are condemn'd, and dead by this :-- 
Look, Marcus ! ah, son Lucius, look on her ! 
When I did name her brothers, then fresh tears 
Stood on her cheeks ; as doth the honey dew 
Upon a gather'd lily ahnost wither'd. 
'IAn. Perchance, she weeps because they kill'd 
her husband : 
Perchance, because she knows them innocent. 
TIT. If they did kill thy husband, then be joy. 
Because the law hath ta'en revenge on them.m 
No, no, they would not do so foul a deed; 
Witness the sorrow that their sister 1hakes.- 
Gentle Lavinia, let me kiss thy lips ; 
Or make some sign how I may do thee ease ; 
Shall thy good uncle, and thy brother Lucius, 
And thou, and I, sit round about some tbuntain ; 
Looking all downwards, to behold our cheeks 
How they are stain'd ; like meadows, 7 yet not dry 
With miry slime left on them by a flood ? 
And in the fountain shall we gaze so long, 
Till the fi'esh taste be taken fi'om that clearness, 
And made a brine-pit with our bitter tears ? 
Or shall we cut away our hands, like thine ? 
Or shall we bite our tongues, and in dumb shows 
Pass the remainder of our hatefill days ? 
What shall we do ? let us, that have our tongues, 
Plot some device of filrther misery, 
To make us wonder'd at in time to come. 
L gc. Sweet father, cease your tears; for, at your 

'  like meadovs,] Old copies--in meadow. Corrected 
by Mr. Rowe. 



See, how nay wretched sister sobs and weeps. 
_I]IAR. Patience, dear niece :mgood Titus, dry 
thine eyes. 
TIT. Ah, Marcus, Marcus ! brother, well I wot, 
Thy napkin cannot drink a tear of mine, 
For thou,poor man, hast drown'd it with thine own. 
Luc. Ah, my Lavinia, I will wipe tby cheeks. 
TT. Mark, Marcus, mark! I understand her 
signs : 
Had she a tongue to speak, now would she say 
That to her brother which I said to thee ; 
His napkin, with his true tears  all bewet, 
Can do no service on her sorrowfifl cheeks. 
O, what a sympathy of woe is this ? 
As far from help as limbo is froln bliss !9 

Etter A..rtoN. 

Ann. Titus Andronicus, my lord the emperor 
Sends thee this word,That, if thou love thy sons, 
Let Marcus, Lucius, or thyself old Titus, 
Or any one of you, chop off your hand, 
And send it to the king" he for the same, 
Will send thee hither both thy sons alive ; 
And that shall be the ransome for their fault. 
TzT. O, gracious emperor! O, gentle Aaron! 
Did ever raven sing so like a lark, 

* with his true tears--] Edition 1600 reads--with her 
true tears. TODD. " 
as limbo is from bliss.] The Lhnbus patrum, as it was 
called, is a place that the schoolmen supposed to be in the neigh- 
bourhood of hell, where the souls of the patriarchs were de- 
tained, and those good men who died before our Saviour's re- 
surrection. Milton gives the name of Limbo to his Paradise of 



O, none of both but are of high desert : 
My hand hath been but idle ; let it serve 
To ransome my two nephews from their death ; 
Then have I kept it to a worthy end. 
AR. Nay, come agree, whose hand shall go 
For fear they die before their pardon come. 
3I. My hand shall go. 
Luc. By heaven, it shall not go. 
TIT. Sirs, strive no more; such wither'd herbs 
as these 
Are meet for plucking up, and therefore mine. 
Lvc. Sweet father, ifI shall be thought thy son, 

" and, Diomede, 
' Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head." 
Wherein Troilus doth not advise Diomede to wear a helmet on 
his head, for that would be poor indeed, as he always wore one 
in battle ; but to guard his head with the most impenetrable ar- 
mour, to shut it up even in a castle, if it were possible, or else 
his sword should reach it." 
After all this reasoning, however, it appears, that a castle did 
actually signii a close hel,et. See Grose's Treatise of Ancient 
Armour, p. 12, from whence it appears that castle may only be 
a corruption of the old French wordcasquetel. Thus also, in 
}Iolinshed, Vol. II. p. 815: "Then suddenlie with great 
noise of trumpets entered sir Thomas Knevet in a castell of cole 
blacke, and over the castell was written, The dolorous castelll 
and so he and the earle of Essex, &c. ran their courses with the 
kyng," &c. 
A remark, however, of my late friend lXlr. Tyrwhitt, has 
taught me to suspect the validity of my quotation from Holinshed: 
for one of the knights in the tournament described, made his 
entry in a fountain, and another in a horse-litter. Sir Thomas 
Knevet therefore might have appeared in a building formed in 
imitation of a castle. 
The instance quoted does not appear to me to prove what it 
was adduced for; wooden castles having been sometimes intro- 
duced in ancient tournaments. The passage in the text is itself' 
much more decisive. 


Become a deluge, overflow'd and drown'd: 
For why ? my bowels cannot hide her woes, 
But like a drunkard must I vomit them. 
Then give me leave ; for losers will have leave 
To ease their stomachs with their bitter tongues. 

Enter a Messenger, with Two Heads and a 
. Hand. 

3lEss. Worthy Andronicus, ill art thou repaid 
For that good hand thou sent'st the emperor. 
Here are the heads of thy two noble sons; 
And here's thy hand, in scorn to thee seut back ; 
Thy griefs their sports, thy resolution mock'd: 
That woe is me to think upon thy woes, 
More than remembrance of my fafler's death. 
]lL4n. Now let hot _TEtna cool in Sicily, 
And be my heart an ever-burning hell[ 
These miseries are more than may be borne ! 
To weep with them that weep doth ease some deal, 
But sorrow flouted at is double death. 

Luc. Ah, that this sight should anake so deep a 
And yet detested life not shrink thereat! 
That ever death should let life bear his name, 
Where life hath no more interest but to breathe ! 
[-L.vllIa kisses him. 
ran. Alas, poor heart, that kiss is comibrdess, 
As frozen water to a starved snake. 

T17". When will tiffs fearfid slumber have an end ? 

]IIAI. Now, farewell, flattery: Die, Andronicus; 
Thou dost not slumber : see, thy two sons' heads i 


Thou map of woe, that thus dost talk in signs! 
When thy p.oor heart beats with outrageous beat- 
Thou canst not strike it thus to make it still. 
Wound it with sighing, girl, kill it with groans ; 
Or get some little knife between thy teeth, 
And just against thy heart make thou a hole ; 
That all the tears that thy poor eyes let fall, 
May run into that sink, and soaking in, 
Drown the lamenting fool in sea-salt tears. 
2L4R. Fye, brother, lye! teach her not thus to 
Such violent hands upon her tender life. 
TT. How now! has sorrow made thee dote al- 
ready ? 
Why, Marcus, no man should be mad but I. 
What violent hands can she lay on her life! 
Ah, wherefore dost thou urge the name of hands;- 
To bid gEneas tell the tale twice o'er, 
How Troy was burnt, and he made miserable ? 
O, handle not the theme, to talk of hands ; 
Lest we remember still, that we have none.-- 
Fye, te, how frantickly I square my talk! 
As if we should forget we had no hands, 
If Marcus did not name the word of hands !- 
Come, let's fall to ; and, gentle girl, eat this :- 
Here is no drink ! Hark, Mreus, what she says ;--- 
I can interpret all her martyr'd signs ;- 
She says, she drinkn no other drink but tears,  

 O, handle not the theme, to talk ofhands;] So, in Troilus 
and Cressida : 
" thou  
" Itandlest in thy discourse, O, that her hand." 
 he drinks no other drink bt tears,] So, in 'ng 
Henr VL P. Ill: 


Mln. Stand by me, Lucius ; do not fear thine 
TIT. She loves thee, boy, too well to do thee 
BoY. Ay, when my father was in Rome, she 
3IAR. What means my niece Lavinia by these 
signs ? 
TIT. Fear her not, Lucius :--Somewhat doth she 
lnean : 
See, Lucius, see, how much she makes of thee : 
Smnewhither would she have thee go with her. 
Ah, boy, Cornelia never with more care 
Read to her sons, than she hath read to thee, 
Sweet poetry, and Tully's Orator.  
Canst thou not guess wherefore she plies thee thus ? 
BoY. My lord, I know not, I, nor can I guess, 
Unless some fit or frenzy do possess her: 
For I have heard my grandsire say full off, 
Extremity of grief would make men mad; 
And I have read that Hecuba of Troy 
Ran mad through sorrow : That made me to fear ; 
Although, my lord, I know, my noble aunt 
Loves me as dear as e'er my mother did, 
And would not, but in filry, fi'ight my youth : 
Which made me down to throw my books, and 
fly ; 

 Tully's Orator.] The moderns.--oratory. The old 
copies readTully's oratour; meaning, perhaps, Tully De 
oratore. TEEVEISo 

 Tully's Orator.-[ Tully's Treatise on Eloquence, ad- 
dressed to Brutus, and entitled Orator. The quantity of Latin 
words was formerly little attended to. Mr. Rowe and all the 
subsequent editors readTtdly's oratory. 5ALONE. 


Causeless, perhaps: But pardon me, sweet aunt" 
And, madam, if my uncle Marcus go, 
I will most willingly attend your ladyship. 
1}I/. Lucius, I will. 
[LAvINIA DO'ItS over the Books which Lucius 
has let fall. 
"/'IT. How now, Lavinia ?--Marcus, what means 
this ? 
Some book there is that she desires to see :- 
Which is it, girl, of these ?--Open them, boy.- 
But thou art deeper read, and better skill'd ; 
Come, and take choice of all my library, 
And so beguile thy sorrow, till the heavens 
Reveal the damn'd contriver of this deed.-- 
Why lifts she up her arms in sequence thus ? 
2I.. I think, she means, that there was more 
than one 
Confederate in the fact ;--Ay, more there was :-- 
01" else to heaven she heaves them for revenge. 
Tn'. Lucius, what book is flint she tosseth so ? 
BoY. Grandsire, 'tis Ovid's Metamorphosis ; 
My mother gave't me. 
lAn. For love of her that's gone, 
Perhaps she cull'd it fi'om among the rest. 
Tn'. Soft ! see, how busily she turns tim leaves ! 
Help her :- 
What would she find ?Lavinia, shall I read ? 
This is the tragick tale of Philomel, 
And treats of Tereus' treason, and his rape ; 
And rape, I fear, was root of thine annoy. 

 Soft .' see, how busily &c.] Old copiesSo.jq, so busily, 
Corrected by Mr. Rowe. MaLOne. 
The edition 1600 also reads--soft, so btsilie. To. 



What God will have discover'd for revenge: 
Heaven guide thy pen to print thy sorrows plain, 
That we may know the traitors, and the truth ! 
[She takes the StajTin her 3louth, and g'uides 
it with her Stumps, and writes. 
TI. O, do you read, my lord, what she hath 
writ ? 
3In. What, what ]the lustfid sons of Tamora 
Performers of this heinous, bloody deed ? 
TT. [(tffe Domhtator floli, 9 
am lentus attdis scelera ? tam lenOts ides ? 
[n. 0, cahn thee, gentle lord although, I 
There is enongh written upon this earth, 
To stir a mutiny in the mildest thoughts, 
And arm the minds of infimts to exclaims. 
y lord, kneel down with me ; Lavinia, kneel ; 
And kneel, sweet boy, the Roman Hector's hope; 
And swear with me,as with the world feere,  

 _Magne Dominator poll, &c.] Jlagne Regnator Deum, &e. 
is the exclamation of Hippolytus when Phaedra discovers the se- 
cret of her incestuous passion in Seneea's tragedy. Sxgvgs. 
Magne Dmnimtor polL] The edition 1600 reads--Magni 
Dominator Toll To. 
' And swear with me,as with the woful feere,] The old 
copies do not only assist us to find the true reading by conjecture. 
I will give an instance, from the first folio, of a reading (incon- 
testably the true one) which has escaped the laborious researches 
of the many most diligent critieks, who have favoured the world. 
with editions of Shakspeare : 
3I!! lord, kneel down with me; Lavinia, kneel; 
And kneel, sweet boy, the Roman Hector's hope; 
And swear with me, as ith the woeful peer, 
And father of that chaste dishonour'd dame, 
Lord Junius Brutus sware for Lucrece" raTe 


And tather, of that chaste dishonour'd dame, 
Lord Junius Brutus sware for Lucrece' rape,-- 
That we will prosecute, by good advice, 
Mortal revenge upon these traitorous Goths, 
And see their blood, or die with this reproach. 
TtT. 'Tis sure enough, an you knew how, 
But if you hurt these bear-whelps, then beware" 
The dana will wake ; and, if she wind you once, 
She's with the lion deeply still in league, 
And lulls hin while she playeth on her back, 
And, when he sleeps, will she do what she list. 
You're a young huntsman, Marcus ; let it alone ; 
And, come, I will go get a leaf of brass, 
And with a gad of steel  will write these words, 

What meaning has hitherto been annexed to tle word peer, in 
this passage, I know not. The reading of the first Iblio isfeere, 
which signifies a companion, and here metaphorically a husband. 
The proceeding of Brutus, which is alluded to, is described at 
length in our author's Rape of Lucrece, as putting an end to 
the lamentations of Collatinus and Lucretius, the husband and 
father of Lucretia. So, in Sir Eglamour of Artods , sig. A  : 
" Christabell, your daughter free, 
" When shall she have afire ." i.e. husband. 
Sir Thomas More's Lamentation on tte Death of Queen Eliza- 
beth, 1Viofe oof Henr.q VII: 
" Was I not a king's fete in marriage ?" 
And again : 
" Farewell my daughter Katharine, late the 3bre 
" To prince Arthur." TYRWHra'. 

The word d-ere or pheere very frequently occurs anaong the 
old dramatick writers and others. So, in Ben Jonson's Silent 
loman, Morose says : 
"  her that I mean to chuse for my 5ed-pheere." 
And many other places. STEV.VErS. 

 let it alone] In edit. 1600, it is wanting. TODD. 

 And oith a gad of steel--] Agad, from the Saxon say, i. e. 
the point of a spear, is used here for some similar pointed in- 
strument. ]VIALoNE. 


And lay it by : the angry northern wind 
Will blow these sands, like Sybil's leaves, abroad,  
And where's your lesson then ?--Boy,what say you. 
BoY. I say, my lord, that if I were a man, 
Their mother's bed-chamber should not be safe 
For these bad-bondmen to the yoke of Rome. 
Man. Ay, that's my boy! thy father hath full 
For this ungrateful country done the like. 
Bo: And, uncle, so will I, an if I live. 
:TIT. Come, go with me into mine armoury ; 
Lucius, I'll fit thee ; and withal, my boy 
Shall carry fi'om me to the elnpress' sons 
Presents, that I intend to send them both: 
Come, come; thou'lt do thy message, wilt thou 
not ? 
Bo: Ay, with my dagger in their bosoms, 
2'2r. No, boy, not so  I'll teach thee another 
Lavinia, come :Marcus, look to my house ; 
Lucius and I'll go brave it at the court ; 
Ay, marry, will we, sir; and we'll be waited on. 
[Exeunt TTus, LAVINIA, and Boy. 
]ln. O heavens, can you hear a good man 
And not relent, or not compassion him ? 
Marcus, attend him in his ecstasy ; 
That bath more scars of sorrow in his heart, 

the angry northern wind 
Will bloo these sands, like Sdbil's leaves, abroad,] 
"  Foliis tantum ne earmina manda, 
" Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ,entis." n. VL 75, 


BoY. That you are both decipher'd, that,s the 
For villains mark'd with rape. [Aside.] May it 
please you, 
My grandsire, well-advis'd, hath sent by me 
The goodliest weapons of his armoury, 
To gratify your honourable youth, 
The hope of Rome; for so he bade me say 
And so I do, and with his gifts present 
Your lordships, that whenever you have need, 
You may be armed and appointed well : 
And so I leave you both, [Aside.3 like bloody vil- 
lains. [Exeunt Boy and Attendant. 
DM. What's here ? A scroll; and written round 
about ? 
Let's see ; 
Integer z.ilce, scelerisque purus, 
Von eget 21Iaurijaculis, tec arcu. 
CH. O, 'tis a verse in Horace; I know it well: 
I read it in the grammar long ago. 
AA. Ay, just Ia verse in Horace ;right, you 
have it. 
Now, what a thing it is to be an ass ! 
Here's no sound jest !7the old man hath 
found their guilt ;  Aside. 
And sends the weapons 8 wrapp'd about 
with lines, 
 Here's no sound jest.t] Thus the old copies. This mode of 
expression was common formerly-, so, in King Henr. 
 Here's no fine villainy !"We yet talk of gvmg a sound 
drubbing. Mr. Theobald, however, and the modern editors, 
read--Here's no fond jest. 
The old reading is undoubtedly the true one. So, in King 
Richard lII: 
" Good Catesby, go, effect tlus business soundl.q. 
See also Romeo and Juliet, Act IV. sc. v. 
* the weal)ons ] Edit. 1600tlwm weapons. To99. 


That wound, beyond their feeling, to the" 
But were our witty empress well a-foot, , Aside. 
She would applaud Andronicus' conceit. 
But let her rest in her unrest awhile.- 
And now, young lords, was't not a happy star 
Led us to Rome, strangers, and, more than so, 
Captives, to be advanced to this height ? 
It did me good, before the palace gate 
To brave the tribune in his brother's hearing. 
DM. But me more good, to see so great a lord 
Basely insinuate, and send us gifts. 
AAn. Had he not reason, lord Demetrius ? 
Did you not use his daughter very fi-iendly ? 
Dzz. I would, we had a thousand Roman dames 
At such a bay, by turn to serve our lust. 
CH. A charitable wish, and full of love. 
AAn. Here lacks but your mother for to say 
C/zz. And that would she for twenty thousand 
DEM. Come, let us go ; and pray to all the gods 
lor our beloved mother in her pains. 
An. Pray to the devils; the gods have given us 
o'er. [Aside. _Flourish. 
D,t. Why do the emperor's trumpets flourish 
thus ? 
Cn. Belike, for joy the emperor hath a son, 
D2v. Soft ; who comes here ? 


I)EM. I'll broach the tadpole 6 on my rapier's 
Nurse, give it me; my sword shall soon despatch 
Ann. Sooner this sword shall plow thy boweIs 
[Takes the Childd6-om the Nurse, and draws. 
Stay, murderous villains! will you kill your bro- 
ther ? 
Now, by the burning tapers of the sky, 
That shone so brightly when this boy was got, 
He dies upon nay seimitar's sharp point, 
That touches this my first-born son and heir ! 
I tel1 you, younglings, not Eneeladus, 
With all his threat'ning band of Typhon's brood, 
Nor great Aleides, nor the god of war, 
Shall seize this prey out of his father's hands. 
What, what ; ye sanguine, shallow-hearted boys ! 
Ye white-lim'd walls !7 ye alehouse painted signs ! 
Coal-black is better than another hue, 

 I'll broach the tadlgole-- ] A broach is a spit. I'll spit the 
tadpole. JOHSOS. 
So, in Heywood's Rape ofLucrece, 160: 
" I'll broach thee on my steel." 
Again, in Greene's Pleasant Discovery of the Cosenage of Col- 
liers, 159: "with that she caught a spit in her hand, and 
swore if he offered to stirre, she should therewith broach him." 
 Ye white-lim'd walls, t] The old copies have--white limb'd. 
The word intended, I think, was---white lbnn'd. Mr. Pope and 
the subsequent editors readwhite-lbn'd. Maro,'E. 
I readlim'd, because I never found the term--limn'd, em- 
ployed to describe white-washing, and because in A 31idsummer- 
Night's Dream, we have-- 
" This man with lime and rough-east, cloth present 
" Wall." 
A layer-on of white-wash is not a limner. Limning compre- 
hends the idea of delineation. Sv,v, vv.s. 


Here's a young lad fi'am'd of another leer : 
Look, how the black slave smiles upon the fither  
As who should say, Old lad, I ant thine own. 
He is your brother, lords; sensibly fed 
Of that self blood that first gave life to you ; 
A nd, fi'om that womb, where you imprison'd were, 
He is enfranchised and come to light: 
Nay, he's your brother by the surer side, 
Although my seal be stamped in his face. ., 
NUR. Aaron, what shall I say unto the empress ? 
Dzm Advise thee, Aaron, what is to be done, 
And we will all subscribe to thy advice ; 
Save thou the child, so we nlay all be safe. 
AR. Then sit we down, and let us all consult. 
My son and I will have the wind of you : 
Keep there : Now talk at pleasure of your safety. 
[ The sit on the Groud. 
DEM. How many women saw this child of his? 
An. Why, so, brave lords ; When we all join in 
I am a lamb : but if you brave the Moor, 

 another leer:] Leer is complexion, or hue. So, in 
As /ou like it: "a Rosalind of better leer than you." See 
Mr. Tollet's note on Act IV. sc. i. In the notes on the Canter- 
bury Tales of Chaucer, Mr. Tyrwhitt's edit. Vol. IV. 
ler is supposed to mean skin. So, in lszmbras, i8P.'cott. 
Cal. 11. fol. 159: 
" His lady is white as wales bone, 
" Here lere brygte to se upon, 
" So faire as blosme on tre." 
Again, in fle ancient metrical romance of the 8ovdon of 
I3abloyne, MS : 
" Tho spake Roulande with bevy cheere 
" Woordes lamentable, 
" When he saugh the ladies so whyte of/ere 
" Faile brede on theire table." 
 that womb,] Edition 1600your womb. TODD. 


The chafed boar, the mountain lioness, 
The ocean swells not so as Aaron storms.- 
But, say again, how many saw the child ? 
NtrR. Cornelia the midwife, and myself, 
And no one else, but the deliver'd empress. 
AR. The emperess, the midwife, and yourself: 
Two may keep counsel, when the third's away:  
Go to the empress.; tell her, this I said :- 
[Stabbing her. 
Weke, weke !so cries a pig, prepar'd to the 
DM. What mean'st thou, Aaron ? Wherefore 
didst thou this ? 
A,a. O, lord, sir, 'tis a deed of policy: 
Shall she live to betray this guilt of ours ? 
A long-tongu'd babbling gossip ? no, lords, no. 
And now be it known to you my fidl intent. 
Not far, one Muliteus lives,  my countryman, 
His wife but yesternight was brought to bed ; 
His child is like to her, fair as you are : 
Go pack with him, 7 and give the mother gold, 

 Two may keep counsel, when the third's awa "] This'pro- 
verb is introduced likewise n Romeo and JulLt, Act II. 
  one _[uliteus lives,] The word lives, which is wanting 
in the old copies, was supplied by Mr. Rowe. MLOr. 
 lf_uliets] This line being too long by a foot, 
teus, no lIoorish name, ( or indeed any name at all, ) and the verb 
lives wanting to fle sense in the old copy, I suspect the desig- 
nation of Aaron's friend to be a corruption, and that our author 
wrote : 
Not ar, one Muley li-ves, m',y. countryman.. . 
3luley lives was easily changed by a blundering transcriber, or 
printer, into--lluliteus. STrrvs. 
7 Go pack with him,] Pack here seems to have the meaning 


For it is you that puts us to our shifts : 
I'll make you feed on berries, and on roots, 
And feed  on curds and whey, and suck the goat, 
And cabin in a cave ; and bring you up 
To be a warrior, and command a camp. [Exit. 


The same. A tublick Place. 

Enter TITUS, bearing Arrows, with Letters at the 
ends of them; with him Mncus, oung Lucius, 
and other Gentlemen, with Bows. 

T'. Come, Marcus, come ;--Kinsmen, this is 
the way:- 
Sir boy, now  let me see your archery ; 
Look ye draw home enough, and'tis there straight: 
Tetras A strcea reliquit : 
Be you remember'd, Marcus, she's gone, she's fled. 
Sir, take you to your tools. You, cousins, shall 
Go sotmd the ocean, and cast your nets ; 
Happily you may find her in the sea;  
Yet there's as little justice as at land :- 
No ; Publius and Sempronius, you must do it ; 
'Tis you must dig with mattock, and with spade, 

 And feeds] This verb having occurred in the line imme- 
diately preceding, Sir T. Hanmer, with great probability, reads: 
And feast on curds &c. Sxrrvrs. 
  now] This syllable, which is necessary to the metre, 
but wanting in the first tblio, is supplied by the second. 
 find her in the sea.] Edition 1600: Catch her &c. the 
better reading, I think. To,x. 


pigeons to the tribunal plebs,  to take up a matter 
of brawl betwixt my uncle and one of the empe- 
rial's men. 
3IAR. Why, sir, that is as fit as can be, to serve 
for your oration ; and let him deliver the pigeons 
to the emperor from 3Tom 
TT. Tell me, can you deliver an oration to the 
emperor with a grace . 
CLO. Nay, truly, sir, I cold never say grace in 
all my life. 
TI'. Sirrah, come hither: make no more ado, 
But give your pigeons to the emperor: 
By me thou shalt have justice at his hands. 
Hold, hold ;--mean while, here's money for thy 
Give me a pen and ink.- 
Sirrah, can you with a grace deliver a supplication ? 
CLO. Ay, sir. 
TZT. Then here is a supplication for you. And 
when you come to him, at the first approach, you 
must kneel; then kiss his foot ; then deliver up 
your pigeons ; and then look for your reward, I'll 
be at hand, sir ; see you do it bravely. 
CLO. I warrant you, sir ; let me alone. 
TT. Sirrah, hast thou a knife ? Come, let me 
see it. 
Here, Marcus, fold it in the oration ; 
For thou hast made it like an humble suppliant : 

' --the tribunalTlebs, ] I suppose the Clown means to say, 
Plebeian tribune, i. e. tribune of the people; for none could fill 
.this office but such as were descended from Plebeian ancestors. 
Sir T. Hanmer supposes that he means-.-tribunus llebis. 



And now he writes to heaven for his redress : 
See, here's to Jove, and this to Mercury ; 
This to Apollo ; this to the god of war: 
Sweet scrolls to fly about the streets of Rome! 
What's this, but libelling against the senate, 
And blazoning our injustice every where ? 
A goodly humour, is it not, any lords ? 
As who would say, in Rome no justice were. 
But, if I live, his feigned ecstasies 
Shall be no shelter to these outrages: 
But he and his shall know, that justice lives 
In Saturninus' health i whom, if she sleep, 
He'll so awake, as she in fury shall 
Cut off the proud'st conspirator that lives. 
TAM. My gracious lord, my lovely Saturnine, 
Lord of any lifb, commander of my thoughts, 
Cahn thee, and bear the faults of Titus' age, 
The effects of sorrow for his valiant sons, 
Whose loss hath piere'd him deep, and scarr'd his 
heart ; 
And rather comfort his distressed plight, 
Than prosecute the lneanest, or the best, 
For these eontempts. Why, thus it shall become 
High-witted Tamora to gloze with all: [Aside. 
But, Titns, I have touch'd thee to the quick, 
Thy life-blood out: if Aaron now be wise, 
Then is all safe, the anchor's in the port. - 

JEnter Clown. 

How now, good fellow ? would'st thou speak with 
us ? 

"----. the anchor's in the port.] Edition 1600 reads--the 
anchor in the port. To. 


CLO. Yes, forsooth, an your mistership be impe- 
TAM. Empress I am, but yonder sits the em- 
CLO. 'Tis he.--God, and saint Steplmn, give you 
good den: I have brought you a letter, and a couple 
of pigeons here. [SATURNINUS reads the Letter. 
ST. Go, fake him away, and hang him pre- 
CLO. How much money must I have ? 
T. Come, sirrah, you must be hang'd. 
CLO. Hang'd! By'r lady, then I have brought 
up a neck to a fair end. [Exit, guarded. 
S.,tT. Despiteful and intolerable wrongs ! 
Shall I endure this monstrous villainy ? 
I know fi'om whence this same device proceeds ; 
May this be borne?--as if his traitorous sons, 
That died by law for murder of our brother, 
Have by my neans been butcher'd wrongfully.-- 
Go, drag the villain hither by the hair ; 
:Nor age, nor honour, shall shape privilege :- 
For this proud mock, I'll be thy slaughter-man ; 
Sly frantick wretch, that holp'st to make me great, 
In hope thyself should govern Rome and lne. 

Enter ./EMILIUS. 5 

What news with thee, zZEmilius ? 

 Enter Emilius.] [Old copy--Nuntius 2Emilius.] In the 
author's manuscript, I presume, it was writ, Enter Nuntius; 
and they observing, that he is immediately called _/Emilius, 
thought proper to give him his whole title, and so clapped in-- 
]Enter Nuntius 2Emilius.Mr. Pope has very critically followed 



When as the one is wounded with the bait, 
The other rotted with delicious feed. 
SAT. But lie will not entreat his son for us. 
TAM. If Tamora entreat him, then lie will : 
For I can smooth, and fill his aged ear 
With golden promises; that were his heart 
Almost impregnable, his old ears deaf, 
Yet should both ear and heart obey my tongue.--- 
Go thou before, be our embassador :e 
[To 2Emr    vs. 
Say, that the emperor requests a parley 
Of warlike Lucius, and appoint the meeting, 
:Even at his father's house, the old Andronicus. 
ST. Z:Emilius. do this message honourably: 
And if he stand on hostage  for his safety, 
Bid him demand what pledge will please him best. 
EMZr,. Your bidding shall I do effectually. 
[Exit 2ZMILIUS. 
TM. Now will I to that old Andronicus ; 
And temper him, with all the art I have, 
To pluck proud Lucius fi'om die warlike Goths. 
And now, sweet emperor, be blithe again, 
And bm'y all thy fear in my devices. 
SAT. Then go successfully, * and plead to him. 

may be, are described as rotting file sheep, not as bursting them; 
whereas clover is the wholesomest food you can give them. 
M. Msor. 
Perhaps, the author was not so skilful a farmer as the com- 
mentator. MALONE. 
*  be our em3assador:] The old copies read--to be &c. 
Corrected by Mr. Steevens. MALONE. 
  on hostage] Old copiesin hostage. Corrected by 
Mr. Rowe. !IAL ONE. 
  successfidl/,] The old copies read--successantl$ ; a 
mere blunder of the press. 


That highly may advantage thee to hear : 
If thou wilt not, befall what may befall, 
I'll speak no more  But vengeance rot you all! 
L uc. Say on; and, if it please me which thou 
Thy child shall live, and I will see it nourish'd. 
/AR. An if it please thee . why, assure thee, 
'Twill vex thy soul to hear what I shall speak ; 
For I must talk of nmrders, rapes, and massacres, 
Acts of black night, abominable deeds, 
Complots of mischief, treason ; villainies 
luthful to hear, yet piteously perform'd:' 
And this shall all be buried by nay death, 2 
Unless thou swear to me, nay child shall live. 
Luc. Tell on thy mind; I say, thy child shall 
MAR. Swear, that he shall, and titan I will begin. 
Luc. Who should I swear by ? thou belier'st no 
god ; 
That granted, how canst thou believe an oath 
.4AR. What if I do not ? as, indeed, I do not : 
Yet,--for I know thou art religious, 
And hast a thing within thee, called conscience 
With twenty popish tricks and ceremonies, 
Which I have seen thee careful to observe,-- 
Therefore I urge thy oath ;--For that, I know, 
An idiot holds his bauble a for a god, 
' Ruthfd to .hear'. yet piteously perform'd..] I suppose we 
should read--1ozhlessly , not piteously. M. Mso. 
Is there such a word as that recommended ? Piteously mean% 
in a manner exciting pittj. 
"  buried by my death,] Edition 1600 :in my death. 
"  his bauble--] See a note on Alt's well that ends well, 
Vol. VIII. p. 37, n. 7. 


JEnter TITUS, above. 

TIT. Who doth molest my contemplation ? 
Is it your trick, to make me ope the door i 
That so my sad decrees may fly away, 
And all my study be to no effect ? 
You are deceiv'd : for what I mean to do, 
See here, in bloody lines I have set down ; 
.And what is written shall be executed. 
:Tn,. Titus, I am come to talk with thee. 6 
TIT. No ; not a word : How can I grace my talk, 
Wanting a hand to give it action . 
Thou hast the odds of me, therefore no more. 
:FM. If thou did'st know me, thou would'st talk 
with me. 
:TIT. I am Iiot mad; I know thee well enough: 
Witness this wretched stump, these crimson lines ;  
Witness these trenches, made by grief and care ; 
Witness the tiring day, and heavy night ; 
Witness all sorrow, that I know thee well 
For our proud empress, mighty Talnora- 
Is not thy coming for my other hand ? 
TM. Know thou, sad man, I aln not Tamora ; 
She is thy enemy, and I thy friend: 
I am Revenge ; sent fi'om the infernal kingdom, 

 Titus, &c.] Perhaps this imperfect line was originally com- 
pleted thus : 
Titus, I am come to talk vith thee awhile. SEEvEs. 
7  action ?] Thus the folio. The quarto, perhaps unin- 
telligibly,--that accord. STEEVEIS. 
  stump, these crimson lines;] The old copies derange 
the metre by reading, with useless repetition : 
--stum_p, witness these crimson lines:--. 


To ease the gnawing vulture of thy mind, 
By working wreakfifl vengeance on thy foes. 
Come down, and welcome me to this world's light; 
Confer with me of mm'der and of death : 
There's not a hollow cave, or lurking-place, 
No vast obscurity, or misty vale, 
Where bloody murder, or detested rape, 
Can couch for fear, but I will find them out ; 
And in their ears tell them my dreadful name, 
Revenge, which makes the foul offender quake. 
TT. Art thou Revenge ? and art thou sent to me, 
To be a torment to mine enemies ? 

T,M. I am; therefore come down, and welcome 

TIT. Do me some service, ere I come to thee. 
Lo, by thy side where Rape, and Murder, stands ; 
Now give some 'surance that thou art Revenge, 
Stab them, or tear them on thy chariot wheels ; 
_And then I'll come, and be thy waggoner, 
And whirl along with thee about the globes. 
Provide thee proper palfi'ies, black as jet, 9 
To hale thy vengeful waggon swif away, 
_And find out murderers in their guilty caves :  
_And, when thy car is loaden with their heads, 
I will dismount, and by the waggon wheel 
Trot, like a servile footman, all day long ; 

 Provide thee proper palfries, black as jet,] The old copies 
poorly, and with disregard of metre, read: 
Provide thee two proper palfries, as black as jet,. 
The second folio indeed-omi-ts t-he useless and redundantas 

' And37nd out murderers ;c.] The old copies read--murder 
and cares. The former emendation was made by Mr. Steevens; 
the latter by the editor of the second folio. 


I'll make him send for Lucius, his son ; 
And, whilst I at a banquet hold him sure, 
I'll find some cunning practice out of hand, 
To scatter and disperse the giddy Goths, 
Or, at the least, make them his enemies. 
ee, here he comes, and I must ply my theme,. 

Enter Twos. 
TIT. Long have I been forlorn, and all for thee.: 
Welcome, dread fury, to my woful house ;m 
lapine, and Murder, you are welcome too :---, 
ttow like the empress and her sons you are! 
Well are you fitted, had you but a Moor :- 
Could not all hell afford you such a devil ?-- 
For, well I wot, the empress never wags, 
But in her company there is a Moor ; 
And, would you represent our queen aright, 
It were convenient you had such a devil : 
But welcome, as you are. What shall we do? 
:TAM. What would'st thou have us do, Andro- 
nicus . 
DM. Show me a murderer, I'll deal with him. 
CH. Show me a villain, that hath done a rape, 
And I am sent to be reveng'd on him. 
TM. Show me a thousand, that hath done thee 
And I will be revenged on them all. 
:TIT. Look round about the wicked streets of 
Rome ; 
_And when thou find'st a man that's like thyself, 
Good Murder, stab him ; he's a nurderer. 
Go thou with him ; and when it is thy hap, 
To find another that is like to thee, 
.Good Rapine, stab him ; he is a ravisher.--- 
Go thou with them ; and in the emperor's court 


There is a queen, attended by a Moor ; 
Well may'st thou know her by thy own proportion, 
For up and down she doth resemble thee ; 
I pray thee, do on them some violent death, 
They have been violent to me and mine. 
Ta. Well hast thou lesson'd us; this shall we do. 
But would it please thee, good Andronicus, 
To send for Lucius, thy thrice valiant son, 
Who leads towards Rome a band of warlike Goths, 
And bid him come and banquet at thy house : 
When he is here, even at thy solemn feast, 
I will bring in the empress and her sons, 
The emperor himself, and all thy foes; 
And at thy mercy shall they stoop and kneel, 
And on them shalt thou ease thy angry heart. 
What says Andronicus to this device ? 
T2T. Marcus, my brother !m'tis sad Titus calls. 

Enter MaRct:s. 

Go, gentle Marcus, to thy nephew Lucius ; 
Thou shalt inquire him out among the Goths : 
Bid him repair to me, and bring with him 
Some of the chiefest princes of the Goths ; 
Bid him encamp his soldiers where they are: 
Tell him, the emperor and the empress too 
Feast at my house : and he shall feast with them. 
This do thou for my love ; and so let him, 
As he regards his aged father's life. 
MAR. This will I do, and soon return again. 
TAM. NOW will I hence about thy business 
And take my ministers along with me. 
:T2T. Nay, nay, let Rape and Murder stay with 
me ; 

$c. ix. TITUS ANDRONICUS. 125 

Or else I'll call my brother back again, 
And cleave to no revenge but Lucius. 
:TnM. What say you, boys ? will you abide with 
Whiles I go tell my lord the emperor, 
How I have govern'd our determin'd jest ? 
Yield to his humour, smooth and speak him fair, 
And tarry with him, till I come again. 
T. I know them all, though they suppose me 
mad ; 
And will o'er-reach them in their own devices, 
A pair of cursed hell-hounds, and their dam. 
DM. Madam, depart at pleasure, leave us here. 
TriM. Farewell, Andronicus : Revenge now goes 
To lay a complot to betray thy foes. 
[Exit Taon. 
Tr. I know, thou dost ; and, sweet Revenge, 
C. Tell us, old man, how shM1 we be em- 
ploy'd ? 
m. Tut, I have work enough for you to do.- 
Publius, come hither, Caius, and VNentine  

Jnter PUBLIUS, and Others. 
lv. What's your will ? 
TT. Know you these two ? 
Ptr. Th' empress' sons, 
take them, Chiron and Demetrius? 
IT. ye, Publius, lye! thou art too much de- 
' -----and Demetriu.] nd was inserted by Mr. Theobald. 


Cannot induce you to attend my words,- 
Speak, Rome's dear friend i [To Lucus.] as erst 
our ancestor, 
When with his solemn tongue he did discourse, 
To love-sick Dido's sad attending ear, 
The story of that baleful burning night, 
When subtle Greeks surpriz'd king Priam's Troy ; 
Tell us, what Sinon hath bewitch'd our ears, 
Or who hath brought the fatal engine in,. _.. 
That gives our Troy, our Rome, the civil wound. 
My heart is not compact of flint, nor steel ; 
Nor can I utter all our bitter grief, 
But floods of tears will drown my oratory, 
And break my very utterance ; even i'the time 
When it should move you to attend me most, 
Lending your kind commiseration : 
Here is a captain, let him tell the tale ; 
Your hearts will throb and weep to hear him speak. 
Luc. Then, noble auditory, be it known to you, 
That cursed Chiton and Demetrius 
Were they that murdered our emperor's brother ; 
And they it were that ravished our sister : 
For their fell faults our brothers were beheaded ; 
Our father's tears despis'd ; and basely cozen'd s 
Of that true hand, that fought Rome's quarrel out, 
And sent her enemies unto the grave. 
Lastly, myself unkindly banished, 
The gates shut on me, and turn'd weeping out, 
To beg relief among Rome's enemies ; 
Who drown'd their enmity in my true tears, 
And op'd their anus to embrace me as a fi-iend : 
And I am the turn'd-forth, be it known to you 
That have preserv'd her welfare in my blood ; 

 ,-----and basely cozen'd] i.e. and he basely cozened. 


O, take this warm kiss on thy pale cold lips, 
[Kisses TiTuS. 
These sorrowfid drops upon thy blood-stain'd face, 1 
The last true duties of thy noble son! 
MR. Tear for tear, and loving kiss for kiss, 
Thy brother Marcus tenders on thy lips : 
O, were the sum of these that I should pay 
Countless and infinite, yet would I pay them ! 
L uc. Come hither, boy ; come, come, and learn 
Of US 
To melt in showers : Thy grandsire lov'd thee well: 
Many a time he danc'd thee on his knee, 
Sung thee asleep, his loving breast thy pillow ; 
Many a matter hath he told to thee, 
Meet, and agreeing with thine infhncy ; 
In that respect then, like a loving child, 
Shed yet some small drops from thy tender spring, 
Because kind nature doth require it so : 
Friends should associate fi'iends in grief and woe: 
Bid him farewell ; commit him to the grave ; 
Do him that kindness, and take leave of him. 
Bor. 0 grandsire, grandsire! even with all my 
'Would I were dead, so you did live aeaino .I--- 
0 lord, I cannot speak to him for weeping; 
My tears will choke me, if I ope my mouth. 

'--thy 151ood-stain'd face,] The old copies have--thy 
blood-slain face. Corrected in the fourth folio. MaLolr. 
 Shed 3]et some small drops. 
Because kind nature doth require it so:] Thus, in Romeo 
and Julia: 
"  fond nature bids us all laments." 


Enter Attendants, a, ith AARon. 

1 tOM. You sad Andronici,have donewithwoes; 
Give sentence on this execrable wretch, 
That hath been breeder of these dire events. 
L vc. Set him breast-deep in earth, and famish 
him ; 
There let him stand, and rave and cry for food: 
If any one relieves or pities him, 
For the offence he dies. This is our doom : 
Some stay, to see him fasten'd in the earth. 3 
Aem. O, why should wrath be mute, and fury 
dumb ? 
I am no baby, I, that, with base prayers, 
I should repent the evils I have done ; 
Ten thousand, worse than ever yet I did, 
Would I perform, if I might have my will  
If one good deed in all my life I did, 
I do repent it fi'om my vry soul. 
L tyc: Some loving friends convey the emperor 
And give him burial in his father's grave : 
My father, and Lavinia, shall forthwith 
Be closed in our household's monument. 
As for that heinous tiger, Tamora, 
No funeral rite, nor man in mournful weeds, 
No mournful bell shall ring her burial ; 
But throw her forth to beasts, and birds of prey: 
Her life was beast-like, and devoid of pity ; 
And, being so, shall have like want of pity. 

 ------to see himfasten'd in the earth.] That justice and coo- 
ery may go hand in hand to the conclusion of this play, in Ravens- 
croft's alteration of it Aaron is at once racked and roasted on tho 
tage. Srv.v.w.s. 



Antiochus, Kitg of Antioch. 
Pericles, Prince of Tyre. 
Helicanus, } 
Escanes, two Lords of Tyre. 
Simonides, Ki" of Pentapolis. 1 
Cleon, Governor of Tharsus. 
Lysimaehus, Governor of Mitylene. 
Cerimon, a Lord of Ephesus. 
Thaliard, a Lord of Antioch. 
Philemon, Servant to Cefimon. 
Leonine, Servant to Dionyza. Marshall. 
A Pandar, ad his lVife. Boult, their Servant. 
Gower, as Chortts. 

The Daughter of Antiochus. Dionyza, lV to Cleon, 
Thaisa, Daughter to Simonides. , 
Marina, Dm'hter to Pericles and Thaisa. 
Lychorida, Nurse to Marina. Diana. 

Lords, Ladies, Kig'hts, Gen tlemen, Sailors, Pirates, 
Fishermen, and Messengers, 'c. 

SCENE, dispersedlg in various Countries. 

_  Penta'polis.] This is an imainarv, . city,, and its name. might 
have been borrowed from some romance. XYe meet ndeed in 
history with Pentapolitana regio, a country in Africa, consisting 
ofjTve cities ; and from thence perhaps some novellist furnished 
the sounding title of Pentapolis, which occurs likewise in the 
37th chapter of Kjng lopoln of Tyre, 1510, as well as in 
Gower, the Gesta Romanorum, and Twine's translation from it. 
It should not, however, be concealed, that Pentaloolis is also 
found in an ancient map of the world, MS. in the Cotton Li- 
brary, British Museum, Tiberius, B. V. 
That the reader may know through how many regions the 
scene of this drama is dispersed, it is necessary to observe that 
Antioch was the metropolis of Syria; T!lre, a city of Phcenicia 
in Asia; Tarsus, the metropolis of Cilicia, a country of Asia 
Minor ; Miljlene, the capital of Lesbos, an island in the _Egean 
Sea ; and Ephesus, the capital of Ionia, a country of the Lesser 
Asia. Sws. 




Enter GowEn. 

Before the Palace of ANTIOCH, 

To sing a song of old was sung,- 
From ashes ancient Gower is come, 
Assuming man's infirmities, 
To glad your ear, and please your eyes. 
It hath been sung at festivals, 
On ember-eves, and holy ales ; 

  of old was sung,] I do not know that oM is by any 
author used adverbially. We might read: 
To sing a song of oM was snng,. 
i. e. that of old &c. 
But the poet is so licentious in the language which he has at- 
tributed to Gower in this piece, that I have not entured to make 
any change. 
I have adopted Mr. Malone's emendation, which was evidently 
wanted. Sxzvs. 
s  Gorer is come;'i The defect of metre (su',g and come 
being no rhymes) poitats out, in my opinion, that we should 
read : 
From ashes ancient Go,vet's sprung; 
alluding to the restoration of the Phoenix. Svss. 
 It hath been suing at festivals, 
On ember-eves, and holg-ales ;] i. e. says Dr. Farmer, by 




If you, born in these latter times, 
When wit's more ripe, accept my rhymes, 
And that to hear an old man sing, 
May to yore" wishes pleasure bring, 
I life would wish, and that I 1night 
Waste it for you, like taper-light.- 
This city then, Antioch the great 
Built up for his chiefest seat, 

oned; being dead, in its present form, to all purposes of the 
stage, and of no very promising life in the closet. 
The purl;ose is to make men glorious, 
Et bonum quo antiquius eo melius.] The original saying is 
Bonum yuo communius, eo melius. 
As I suppose thes.e lines, with their context, to have originally 
stood as follows, I have so given them: 
And lords and ladies, of their lives 
Have read it as restoratives : 
Purpose to ma'e en glorious ; 
Et quo antiquius, eo melius. 
This innovation may seem to introduce obscurity ; but in hud- 
dling words on each other, without their necessary articles and 
prepositions, the chief skill of our present imitator of antiquated 
rhyme appears to have consisted. 
Again, old copy: 
" This Antioch then, Antiochus the great 
" Built up; this city, for his chiefest seat." 
I suppose the original lines were these, and as such have printed 
them : 
" This city then, Antioch the great 
" Built up for his chiefest seat." 
Another redundant line offers itself in the same chorts: 
" Bad child, worse father ! to entice his owns" 
which I also give as I conceive it to have originally stood, thus : 
" Bad father! to entice his owns." 
The words omitted are of little consequence, and the artificial 
comparison between the guilt of the parent and the child, has 
no resemblance to the simplicity of Gower's narratives. The 
lady's frailty is sufficiently stigmatized in the ensuing lines. See 
my further sentiments concerning the irregularities of Shako 
speare's metre, in a note on The Tempest, Vol. IV. p. 7, n. ; 
and again in Vol. X. 19, n. 1. SrEvwgs. 
 for his chiefest seat ;] So, in Twine's translation :-- 



ACI' I. 

The fairest in all Syria; 
@1 tell you what mine authors say :s) 
fis king unto him took a pheere, 9 
Who died and left a female heir, 
So buxom, blithe, and full of face, 1 
As heaven had lent her all his grace ; 
With whom the father liking took, 
And her to incest did provoke : 
:Bad father! to entice his own 
To evil, should be done by none. 
:By custom, what they did begin, ' 
Was, with long use, account no sin. 3 

" The most fmnous and mighty King Antiochus, which builded 
the goodlie city of Antiochia in Syria, and called it after his 
owne name, as the chiefest seat of all his dominions." 
s (I tell you what miue authors say :)] This is added in imi- 
tation of Gower's manner, and that of Chaucer, Lydgate, &c. 
who often thus refer to the original of their tales.--These cho- 
ruses resemble Gower in few other particulars. STv.wvv.s. 
9 unto him took a pheere,] This word, which is fre- 
quently used by our old poets, signifies a mate or companion. 
The old copies have--peer. For the emendation I am answer- 
able. Throughout this piece, the poet, though he has not closely 
copied the language of Gower's poem, has endeavoured to give 
his speeches somewhat of an antique air. 
See Vol. XXI. p. 86, n. 1. STwwvns. 
 -- full qfface,] i. e. completely, exuberantly beautiful. 
A full fortune, in Othello, means a complete, a large one. See 
also Vol. XV. p. 997, n. 1. MALow. 
 By custom, what they did begin,] All the copies read, un- 
intelligibly,--But custom &c. MLor. 
  account no sin.] Account for accounted. So, in King 
John, waft for afted: 
" Than now the English bottoms have a o'er." 
Again, in Gascoigne's ComplMnt fP]dlomene, 
" And by the lawde of his pretence 
" His lewdness was acquit." 
The old copies read account'S. For the correction I am an- 
swerable. MALONE. 

168 PERICLES, ,let Z. 

Drawn by report, advent'rous by desire, 
Tell thee with speechless tongues, and semblance 
That, without covering, save yon field of stars, 6 
They here stand martyrs, slain in Cupid's wars ; 
And with dead cheeks advise thee to desist,  
For going on death's net, s whom none resist. 
P.n. Antiochus, I thank thee, who hath taught. 
My frail mortality to know itself, 
And by those fearful objects to prepare 
This body, like to them, to what I must : 
For death remenber'd, should be like a mirror, 
Who tells us, life's but breath ; to trust it, error. 
I'll make my will then ; and as sick men do, 
Who know the world, see heaven, but feeling woe, 1 

 --without covering, save yon field of star,,] Thus, Lu- 
can, Lib. VII : 
"  ecelo tegitur qui non habet urnam." STrivers. 
 And with dead cheeks advie thee to desist,] Thus, in Romeo 
and Juliet: 
" think upon these gone; 
' Let them affright thee." SEvrs. 
*For going on death's net,] Thus. the old copies, and. rightl3,, 
]ir. Malone would read--From going &c. but for going means 
the same asforfear of going. So, in The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, Lucetta says of the fragments of a letter : 
" Yet here they shall not lie fir catching cold." 
i. e.forfear of it. See Vol. IV. p. 195, n. . 
It were easy to subjoin a eroud of instances in support of the 
original reading. STEEVErS. 
I would read--in death's net. PErtcv. 
9 like to them, to what I must:] That is,to prepare 
this body for that state to which I must come. Mayoral 
 Who kno the world, see heaven, but feeling woe, &c.] The 
meaning may be/will act as sick men do; who having had 
experience of the pleasures of the world, aud only a visionary 
and distant TrosTect of heaven, have neglected the latter for the 

172 PERICLES, nc. z. 

Sharp physick is the last :8 but O you powers! 
That. give heaven countless eyes to viewmen's acts, 9 
Why cloud they not' their sights perpetually, 
If this be true, which makes me pale to read it ? 
Fair glass of light, I lov'd you, and could still, 
 Ta.kes hold of the hand of the P'incess. 
Were not this glorious casket stor'd with ill : 
But I must tell you,--now, nay thoughts revolt ; 
For he's no man on whom perfections wait,  
That knowing sin within, will touch the gate. 
You're a fair viol, and your sense the strings ; 
Who, finger'd to make man his lawfid musick, n 
Would draw heaven down, and all the gods to 
hearken ; 
But, being play'd upon before your time, 
Hell only danceth at so harsh a chime :a 
Good sooth, I care not for you. 

 Sharp physick is the last:] L e. the intimation in the last llne 
of the riddle hat his life depends on resolving it ; which he pro- 
perly enough calls sharp Thysick, or a bitter potion. P.acY. 
 That give heaven countless eyes to view men's acts,] So, in 
A 2lidsummer Night's Dream: 
" who more engilds the nigl)t, 
" Than all yon fiery oes and eyes of light." 
  countless eyes 
Why cloud the d not---] So, in lacbeth  
" -- stars, hide your fires, 
" Let not light see," &c. ST.v.Is. 
 _For he's no man on whom perfections wait,] Means no more 
than--he's no honest man, that knowing, &c. 
s  to make man--] i.e. to produce for man, &c. 
Hell only danceth at so harsh a chime :] Somewhat like 
thi.s occurs in Milton's Ode at a Solemn 31usick: 
" disproportion'd sin 
" Jarr'd against nature's chime and with harsh dirt 
' Broke the fair musick----." Sxvzs. 

zc. . PRINCE OF TYRE. 175 

Kings are earth's gods: in vice their law's their 
will ; 
And if Jove stray, who dares say, Jove doth ill ? 
It is enough you know; and it is fit, 
What being more known grows worse, to smother 
All love the womb that their first beings bred, 
Then give my tongue like leave to love my head. 
.4'T. Heaven, that I had thy head ! he has 
found the meaning ;- 
But I will gloze with him. z [Aside.] Young prince 
of Tyre, 
Though by the tenour of our strict edict, a 
Your exposition misinterpreting,  

'  and the poor worm doth diefor't.] I suppose he means 
to call the mole, (which suffers in its attempts to complain of 
man's injustice) a oor vorm, as a term of commiseration. 
Thus, in The Tempest, Prospero speaking to Miranda, says : 
" Poor worm! thou art infected." 
The mole remains secure till he has thrown up those hillocks, 
which, by pointing out the course he is pursuing, enable the 
vermin-hunter to catch him. STEVrSS. 
 Heaven, that I had thy head!] The speaker may either 
mean to say, O, that I had thy ingenuity .' or, O, that I had thy 
h. ead, sever'd from thy body: The latter, I believe, ia the mean- 
rag. MtOrE. 
 But I will gloze with him.] So, Gower: 
" The kinge was wondre sorie tho, 
" And thought, if that he said it oute, 
" Then were he shamed all aboute: 
" With slie ordes and ithfelle 
"' He sayth: My sonne I shall thee relic, 
" Though that thou be of littel witte," &e. Mar.or. 
4  our strict edct,] The old copy has your strict edict. 
Corrected in the folio. Maro.. 
 Your e.zTosition misinterpreting,] Your exposition of the 
riddle being a mistaken one; not interpreting it rightly. 


If he suspect I may dishonour him : 
And what may make hina bhtsh in being known, 
He'll stop the course by which it might be known ; 
h " ' ' 
With ostde forces he ll o erspread the land, 
And with the ostent of war will look so huge, s 
Amazement shall drive courage fi'om the state ; 
Our men be vanquish'd, ere they do resist, 
And subjects punish'd, that ne'er thought offence : 
Which care of them, not pity of myself, 
(Who am no more but as the tops of trees, 
Which fence the roots they grow by, and defend 
Makes 9 both my body pine, and soul to languish, 
And punish that before, that he would punish. 

s And with the ostent &c.] Old copies-- 
And with the stent of war will look so huge." 
Should no this be :-- 
.4rid with th' ostent of war &c.. TYRWHITT. 
The emendation made by Mr. Tyrwhitt is confirmed by a 
passage in The 3lerchant of Venice: 
" Like one well studied in a sad ostent, 
" To please his grandam." 
Again, in K/ng Richard 11: 
" With ostentation of despised arms." 
Again, and more appositely, in Chapman's translation of 
Homer's Batrachomuomachia : 
" Both heralds bearing the ostents of war." 
Again, in Decker's Entertaimnent of James L 160- : 
'" And why you bear, alone, th' ostent ofwarre." 
 Which care of them, &c.] Old copy-- 
Which care of them, not pity of myself, 
( IVho once no more but as the tops of trees, 
IVhich fence the roots they grow by, and defend them,) 
3lakes &c. 
I would read--Who am no more &e. 
Pericles means to compare the head of a kingdom to the upper 
branches of a tree. As it is the office of the latter to screen the 





Room hz the Governor's House. 

CLEON, DIoNYzn, and Attendants. 

CLE. My Dionyza, shall we rest us here, 
And by relating tales of others' griefs, 
See if 'twill teach us to forget our own ? 
DIo. That were to blow at fire, in hope to 
quench it; 
:For who digs hills because they do aspire, 
Throws down one mountain, to east up a higher. 
O my distressed lord, even such our griefs ; 
Here they're but felt, and seen with mistful eyes,  
But like to groves, being topp'd, they higher rise. 
CLE. 0 Dionyza, 

 ttere they're but felt, aud seen with mistful eyes,] Old 
Here thej're but,felt and seen with mlschief's eyes. 
'VIr. Malone reads--unseen. 
The quarto 1609, reads---and seen. The words and seen, and 
that which I have inserted in my text, are so near in sound, that 
theymight easily have been contbunded bya hastypronunciation, 
or an inattentive transcriber. By mischief's ejes, I understand, 
' the eyes of those who would feel a malignant pleasure in our 
naisfortunes, and add to them by their triumph over us." The 
eye has been long described by poets as either propitious, or ma- 
lignant and unlucky. Thus in a subsequent scene in this play 
" :Now the good gods throw their best eyes upon it 
I suspect this line, like many others before us, to be corrupt, 
and therefore read--mis.tfid instead of mischiefs. So, in tng 
Henmj V. Act IV. sc. w: 
" For, hearing this, I must perforce compound 
" With mistoful eyes, or they [tears] will issue too." 
The sense of the passage will then be,--Withdrawn, as we now 


And wanting breath to speak, help me with tears. 
Dlo. I'll do my best, sir. 
CLF,. This Tharsus, o'er which I have govern- 
(A city, on who.n plenty held fidl hand,) 
For riches, strew'd herself even in the streets ; 1 
Whose towers bore heads so high, they kiss'd the 
clouds, = 
And strangers ne'er beheld, but wonder'd at ; 
Whose men and dames so jetted and adorn'd, a 

 For riches, strew'd herself even in the streets; ] For, in the 
present instance, I believe, means--vith redirect to, with regard 
to riches. Thus, in Coriolanus: 
" Ilather our state's defective J'br requital, 
" Than we to stretch it out." 
" Strew'd herself," referring to city, is undoubtedly the true 
reading. Thus, in Timon of Athens: 
" Thou'lt give away thyself in paper shortly." 
Shakspem'e generally uses riches as a singular noun. Thus, 
in Othello: 
" The riches of the ship is come ashore." 
Again, ibid: 
" But riches fineless is as poor as winter." 
Again, in his 87th Sonnet: 
" And for that riches where is my deserving ." 
I should propose to read richness, instead of riches, which ren- 
ders the passage not only correct, but much more poetical. 
Malone nmst also prove that he uses riches to express aperson 
or it will not agree with the word herse or answer in this place. 
This last line should be in a parenthesis. M. Masor. 
 bore heads so high, they kiss'd the clouds,] So, in 
"  like the herald Mercury, 
" New-lighted on a heaven-kissing hill." 
Again, in The Rape of Lucrece, 159a;: 
" Threat'ning doted-kissing Ilion with annoy." 
Again more appositely, in Troilus and Cressida : 
" Yon towers whose wanton tolos do buss the clouds.'" 


Like one another's glass to trim them by: * 
Their tables were stor'd fidl, to glad the sight, 
And not so much to feed on, as delight; 
All poverty was scorn'd, and pride so great, 
The name of help grew odious to repeat. 
Do. O, 'tis too true. 
CLE. But see what heaven can do! By this our 
These mouths, whom but of late, earth, sea, and 
Were all too little to content and please, 
Although they gave their creatures iu abundance, 
As houses are defil'd for want of use, 
They are now starv'd for want of exercise : 
Those palates, who not yet two summers younger,  
Must have inventions to delight the taste, 

" so jetted and adorn'd,] To jet is to strut, to walk 
proudly. So, in Twelfth-Night: " Contemplation makes a 
rare turkey-cock of him: how he .jets under his advanced 
plumes !" S:avrs. 
" Like one another's glass to trim them by:] The same idea is 
found in Hamlet: Ophelia, speaking of the prince, says he was: 
" The glass of fashion, and the mould of tbrm, 
" The observ'd of all observers." 
Again, in Combeline: 
" A sample to the youngest, to the more mature 
' A glass that feared them." 
Again, in The Second Part of King Henrj I V: 
" He was indeed the glass, 
" Wherein fle noble youth did dress themselves." 
 Those palates, &c.] The passage is so corrupt in the old 
copy, that it is difficult even to form a probable conjecture upon 
it., It readswho not yet two savers younger. The words [not 
us d to h.uger's savour] which I have inserted in my text, afford 
sense, and are not very remote fi'om the traces of the original 
letters; and savour and hunger might easily have been trans- 
posed. We have in a subsequent scene: 
" All viands that I eat, do seem unsavourff." 
I do not however propgse this emendation with the smallest 


Would now be glad of bread, and beg for it; 
Those mothers who, to nousle up their babes, s 
Thought nought too curious, are ready now, 
To eat those little darlings whom they lov'd. 
So sharp are hunger's teeth, that man and wife 
Draw lots, who first shall die to lengthen life: 
Here stands a lord, and there a lady weeping ; 
Here many sink, yet those which see them fall, 
Have scarce strength left to give them burial. 
Is not this true ? 

confidence ; but it may remain till some less exceptionable con 
jecture shall be offered. MALOne. 
The old reading is evidently erroneous, but the change of a 
single word, the reading of summers, instead of saers, gives us 
what certainly the author wrote: 
Those palates who not ltet two summers jounger, &c. 
That is, " Those palates, who less than two years ago, re- 
quired some new inventions of cookery to delight their taste, 
would now be glad of plain bread." M. MAson. 
I have inserted Mr. M. Mason's emendation in the tcxt. In 
t?omeo and Juliet our author also computes time by the same 
number of sumn'.ers: 
" Let two more summers wither in their pride," &c. 
 --to nousle up their babes,]_ I would read--nursle. A 
fondling is still called a nursling. To nouzle, or, as it is now 
written, nuzzle, is to go vith the nose down like a hog. So, 
" The blessed benefit not there confin'd, 
" Drops to a third, who nuzzles close behind." 
In an ancient poem entitled The strange Birth, honourable 
Coronation, and most unhappie Death of famous Arthur, King 
of Brytaine, 1601, I find the word nuzzle used nearly in the 
same manner as in the text: 
" The first fair sportive night that you shall have, 
" Lying safely nuzled by faire Igrene's side." 
Again, more appositely, ibidem : 
" Being nuzzled in effeminate delights--." 
I have therefore retained the reading of the old copy. 


Dzo. Our cheeks and hollow eyes do witness it. 
CLF.. O, let those cities, that of Plenty's cup 7 
And her prosperities so largely taste, 
With their superfluous riots, hear these tears ! 
The misery of Tharsus may be theirs. 

Enter a Lord. 

LORD. Where's the lord governor ? 
CLE. Here. 
Speak out thy sorrows s which thou bring'st, in 
For comfort is too far for us to expect. 
Lomg. We have descried, upon our neighbour- 
ing shore, 
A portly sail of ships make hitherward. 
CLE. I thought as lnuch. 
One sorrow never comes, but brings an heir, 
That lnay succeed as his inheritor ; 9 
And so in ours: some neighbouring nation, 
Taking advantage of our misery, 

r O, let those cities, that of Plent.y's cups] A kindred 
thought is found in 1,.ng Lear: 
"  Take physick pomp ! 
" Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel, 
" That thou may'st shake the superflux to them, 
" And show the heavens more just." 
Again, ibidem: 
" Let the supeUuous and lust-dieted man," &c. 
  thy sorrows] Perhaps--the sorrows. SVNS. 
 One sorroo never comes, but brings an h.eir, 
That naj succeed as his inheritor;] So, in Hamlet: 
'  sorrows never come as single spies, 
" But in battalions." Svs. 
Again, ibidem: 
" One woe doth tread upon another's heels, 
" So fast they follow." 



He knowing so, 3 put forth to seas, 
Where when men been, there's seldom ease 
For now the wind begins to blow  
Thunder above, and deeps below, 
Make such unquiet, that the ship 
Should house him safe, is wreck'd and split 
And he, good prince, having all lost, 
By waves frorn coast to coast is tost ; 
All perishen of man, of pelf, 
Ne aught escapen but himself;  
Till fortune, tir'd with doing bad, 
Threw him ashore, to give him glad: 6 

* tte knowing so,] i.e. says Mr. Steevens, by whom this 
emendation was made, " he being thus informed." The old 
copy has--He doing so. Mo. 
"  that the ship 
Should house him safe, is wreck'd and split ; ] Ship and split 
are such defective rhymes, that I suppose our author wrote fleet. 
Pericles, in the storm, lost his.fleet as well as the vessel in which 
he was himself embarked. 
 Ne aught escapen. .but himself;] [Old copyescapen'd] 
It should be printed ether escapen or escaped. 
Our ancestors had a plural number in their tenses which is 
now lost out of the language; e. g. in the present tense, 
I escape We escapen 
Thou escapest Ye escapen 
He escapeth They escapen. 
But it did not, I believe, extend to the preter-imperfects, other- 
wise than thus: They didden [for did] escape. PttcY. 
I do not believe the text to be corrupt. Our author seem, 
in this instance to have followed Gower : 
"  and with himselfe were in debate, 
" Thffnkende what he had lore," &c. 
I think I have observed many other instances of the same 
kind in the Con.fessio Amantis. 
Thinl'ende is a participle, and therefore inapplicable to the 
present question. 
  to give him glad:] Dr. Percy asks if we should not 
reado make him glad. Perhaps we should: but the language 


Let it suffice the greatness of your powers, 
To have berett a prince of all his fortunes ; 
And having thrown him fi'om your watry grave, 
Here to have death in peace, is all he'll crave. 

Enter Three Fishermen. 9 

1 fflSH. What, ho, Pilchc[' 

Again, in Chapman's version of fle fifth Book of Homer's 
Odyssey, where the shipwrecked Ulysses is described: 
" . Two nights yet and days 
" He spent in wrestling with the sable seas : 
" In which space often did his heart propose 
" Death to his eyes." STEEVENS. 
 Enter three Fishermen.] This scene seems to have becn 
formed on the following lines in the (bn.fessio Amantis: 
" Thus was the yonge lordc all alone, 
" All naked in a poure plite..-- 
" There came a fisher in the wcye, 
" And sigh a man there naked stondc, 
" And when that he hath understonde 
" The cause, he hath of hym great routh ; 
" And onely of his poure trouth 
" Of such cloflms as he hadde 
' "vVith great pitee this lorde he cladde : 
" And he hym thonketh as he sholde, 
" And sayth hym that it shall be yolde 
" If ever he gete his state ageyne ; 
" And praith that he would hym seyne, 
" If nigh were any towne for hym. 
" He sayd, ye, Pentapolim, 
" Where both kynge and quene dwellen. 
" Whan he this tale herde tellen, 
" He gladdeth him, and gan beseche, 
" That he the weye hym wolde teche."-- 
Shakspeare, delighting to describe the manners of such people, 
has introduced three fishermen instead of one, and extended 
the dialogue to a considerable length. MALONE. 
 IVhat, ho, Pilche !] All the old copies read--What to pelche. 
The latter emendation was made by Mr. Tyrwhitt. For the 
other I am responsible. Pilche as he has observed is a leathern 


Re.enter the Two Fishermen, drawing ut a Net. 

"2. FISH. Help, master, help ; here's a fish hangs 
in the net, like a poor man's right in the law ; 
'twill hardly come out. Ha! bots on't,  'tis come 
at last, and 'tis turned to a rusty armour. 
P2R. An armour, fi'iends! I pray you, let me 
see it. 
Thanks, fortune, yet, that after all my crosses, 3 
Thou giv'st me somewhat to repair myself: 
And, though it was mine own, * part of mine heri- 
Which my dead father did bequeath to me, 
With this strict charge, (even as he left his life,) 
Keep it, m d Pericles, it hath been a shield 
"Twixt me and death; (and pointed to this brace :) 
ffor that it sav'd me, keel it; in like necessity, 

  bots on't,] The bots are the worms that breed in horses, 
This comick execration was formerly used in the room of one 
less decent. It occurs in King Henr31 IV. and in many other 
old plays. MALOIV,. 
See The Relques of Ancient English Poetr3t , in the old song 
of The 31iller oflilaneld, Part II. line 65 : 
" Quoth Dick, a bots on you." Pv.rtc:. 
  after all my crosses,] For the insertion of the word 
I am answerable. 
 And, though it was mine oon,] i.e. And I thank 
though it was my own. 
 this braee:] The brace is the armour for the arm. 
$o, in Troilus and Cressida : 
" I'll hide my silver beard in a gold beaver, 
" And in my vant-brace put this wither'd brawn." 
#xvant bras. Fr. SxEEVEIS. 
See Vol. XV. p. 283 n. 2. Mar,oz. 

c. t. PRINCE OF TYRE. 219 

lVhieh gods protect thee from .t it may defend theeY 
It kept where I kept, I so dearly lov'd it; 
Till the rough seas, that spare not anyman, 
Took it in rage, though cahn'd, they give't again :7 
I thank thee for't; my shipwreck's now no ill, 
Since I have here nay father's gift by will.  
1 Fsz. What mean you, sir ? 
Pea. To beg of you, kind fi'iends, this coat of 
For it was sometime target to a king ; 
I know it by this mark. He lov'd me dearly, 
_And for his sake, I wish the having of it; 
_And that you'd guide me to your sovereign's court, 
Where with't I may appear a gentleman ; 
_And if that ever nay low fortunes better, 9 
I'll pay your bounties ; till then, rest your debtor. 

 Which gods _protect thee from ! ;c.] The old copies read, 
unintelligibly : 
The which the gods protect thee, fame nay defend thee. 
I am answerable for the correction.The licence taken 
omitting the pronoun before have, in a subsequent line oft his 
speech, was formerly not uncommon. See note on the following 
passage in Othello, Act III. sc. iii: 
" Give me a living reason she's disloyal." MarOlE. 
Being certain that the metre throughout this play was once 
regulm', I correct the line in question thus: 
in like necessity, 
lVhich gods _protect thee from ! it nag defend thee. 
 though cabn'd, theq give't again :] Old copies: 
 though calm'd, have given it again. 
 by will.] Old copy--in his will. For the sake of 
metre I readb.y will. So, in As 3ou like it : " 
poor thousand crowns." 
 4nd if that ever n,y low fortunes better,] Old copy: 
And iof that ever zny low fortune's better,. 
We should read--" My low fortunes better." Better is in this 
place a verb and fortunes the plural number, hi. 

220 PERICLES, c 

1 FIszz. Why, wilt thou tourney for the lady ? 
_PER. I'll show the virtue I have borne in arms. 
1 FsH. Why, do ye take it,' and the gods give 
thee good on't ! 
2 FSH. Ay, but hark you, my fi'iend ;2 'twas 
we that made up this garment through the rough 
seams of the waters: there are certain condole- 
ments, certain vails. I hope, sir, if you thrive, 
you'll remember fi'om whence you had 
_PR. Believe't, I will. 
Now, by your firtberance, I am cloth'd in steel 
And spite of all the rupture of the sea,  

 Whff, do e tae it,] That is, in plainer terms,--Why, 
take it. ST.vs. 
 Ay, but hark .you, nyfriend; &c.] Thus, in Twine's 
translation: " And in the meane time of this one thing onely 
doe I putte thee in minde, that when thou shalt be restored to 
thy former dignity, thou do not despise to thinke on the base- 
hesse of the poore piece of garment." STrnv.s. 
 --.firom whence you. had it.] For this correction I am an- 
swerable. The old copras read--had them. M,o. 
* Now, by your furtherance, I am cloth'd in sted;] Old copy 
Bff our furtherauce, I am cloth'd in steel ;. 
I either read: 
By #our forbearance I an, cloth'd in steel; 
i. e. by yot.rforbearance to claim the armour, which being just 
drawn up n your net, might have been detained as your own 
property ;--or, for the sake of metre also : 
Now, by ffour3eurtherance, &c. STEEVIs. 
 And sTite of all the rupture of the sea,] We might read 
(with Dr. Sewel) : 
--sTite of all the rapture &the sea. 
That is--notwithstanding that the sea hath ravish'd so much 
frown me. So, afterwards: 
" Who looking for adventures in the world, 
" Vas by the rough seas re.ft of ships and men." 
Again, in The Life and Death of Lord Cromwell, 160.'2 : 


[ The fourth Knight passes. 
Stilt. What is the fourth ?v 
TTmr. A burning torch,  that's turned upside 
down ; 
The word, Quod me alit, me extinguit. 
StM. Which shows, that beauty hath his power 
and will, 
Which can as well inflame, as it can kill. 
[ The fifth ItSffght passes. 
T/3z. The fifth, an hand environed with clouds ; 
Holding out gold, that's by the touchstone tried : 
The motto thus, Sic spectamIa tides. 
[The sixth Knight passes. 
St;t. And what's the sixth and last, which the 
knight himself 
With such a gracefifl com"esy deliver'd ? 

knights on many various occasions ; so that its particular claim 
to honour on the present one is not very clearly ascertained. 
If" the wreath declares of itself that it was once the ornament of 
Pompeff's helm, perhaps here may be some allusion to those par- 
ticular marks of distinction which he wore after his bloodless 
victory over the Cilician pirates : 
" Et victis cedat piratica laurea Gallis." STriVerS. 
Steevens is .clearly right in. reading. 19ompa,. instead, of Pompeff 
and the meaning of the Kmght n the choice of hs device and 
motto seems to have been, to declare that he was not incited by 
love to enter the lists, but by the desire of glory, and the ambi- 
tion of obtaining the wreath of victory which Thaisa was to be- 
stow upon.the conqueror. M. MAson. 
 What is the fourth .-] i.e. What is the fourth device 
  burnbg torch, &c.] This device and motto may have 
been taken from Daniel's translation of Paulus Jovius, in 1585, 
in which they are found. Signat. H. 7. b. 
The same idea occurs again in King Henry VI. P. I : 
" Here dies the dusky torch of Mortimer, 
" Chok'd" &c. STE.vrs. 


THAI. He seems a stranger; but his present is 
A wither'd branch, ' tlmt's only green at top ; 
The motto, In hac spe vivo. 
SZM. A pretty moral; 
From the dejected state wherein he is, 
He hopes by you his fortunes yet may flourish. 
1 LORD. He had need mean better than his out- 
ward show 
Can any way speak in his just commend: 
For, by his rusty outside, he appears 
To have practis'd more the whipstock,' than the 
 LOAD. He well may be a stranger, for he 
To an honour'd triumph, strangely furnished. 
3 LORD. And on set purpose let his armour rust 
Until this day, to scour it in the dust. " 
Szr. Opinion's but a fool, that makes us scan 
The outward habit by the inward man.  

o He seems &c.] Old copy: 
He seems to be a stranger; but his Trescnt 
Is a wither'd branch,--. 
For reasons frequently given, I have here deserted the ancient 
text. STEEVENS. 
i  the whipstock,] . e. the carter's whip. See note on 
Twelfth-Night, Vol. V. p. 88, n. 5. SE.VES. 
  let his armour rust 
Until this day, to scour it in the dust.] The idea of this ill- 
appointed knight appears to have been adopted from Sidney's 
Arcadia, Book I : " His armour of as old a fashion, besides the 
rustic poornesse &c.--so that all that looked on measured his 
length on the earth already," &c. 
 The outward habit b the inward man.] i.e. that makes us 
scan the inward man by the outward habit. 
This kind of inversion was formerly very common. So, in 
The Merchant of Venice: 


Tyre. 4 Room in the Governor's House. 

//L. No, no, my Escanes ; know this ofme,-- 
Antiochus from incest liv'd not fi'ee ; 
For which, the most high gods not nfinding longer 
To withhold the vengeance that they had in store, 
Due to this heinous capital offence ; 
Even in the height and pride of all his glory, 
When he was seated, and his daughter with him, 
In a chariot of inestimable value, 
A fire fi'om heaven came, and shrivell'd up 
Their bodies,  even to loathing ; for they so stunk 
That all those eyes ador'd them, ere their fall, 
Scorn now their hand should give them burial2 

 No, no, my Escanes ; &c.] The old copy: 
No, Escanes, know this of me,. 
But this line being imperfect, I suppose it should be read as 
have printed it. 
No, Escanes ;] I suspect the author wroteKnot,, Escanes ; 
* A3refrom heaven came, and shrivell'd up 
Their bogies,] This circumstance is mentioned by Gower 
" they hym tolde, 
' That for vengeance as God it wolde, 
' Antiochus, as men male witte, 
" With thonder and lightnyng is forsmltte. 
 His doughter hath the same chance, 
' So ben thei both in o balance." 
s That all those eyes ador'd them, ere their fall, 
Scorn nmo &c.] The expression is elliptical : 
That all those ejes which ador'd them &c. /laLOm 


Est.4. 'Twas very strange. 
HzL. And yet but just ; for though 
This king were great, his greatness was no guard 
To bar heaven's shaft, but sin had his reward. 

scA. 'Tis very true. 

Enter Three Lords. 

1 LORD. See, not a man in private conference, 
Or council, has respect with hiln but he2 
 LORD. It shall no longer grieve without re- 
 LORD. And curs'd be he flat will not second it. 
1 LORD. Follow me then: Lord Helicane, a 
H. With me ? and welcome : Happy day, my 
1 LORD. Know, that our griefs are risen to the 
And now at lengfl they overflow their banks. 
H. Your griefs, forwhat ? wa'ong not the prince 
you love. 
1 LORD. Wrong not yourself then, noble He- 
licane ; 
But if the prince do live, let us salute him, 
Or knowwhat ,round s made happy by lns breath. 
If in the world he live, we'll seek him out ; 
If in his grave he rest, we'll find him there ; 

 See, not a nan &c,'l To what this charge of partiality was 
designed to conduct, we do not learn ; for it appears to have 
inttucncc over the rest of the dialogue. Srvzz. 



Pentapolis. A Room in the Palace. 
Enter SONDES, reading a Letter,  the Knights 
neet him. 

1 K2'IGHT. Good morrowto the good Simonides. 
StM. Knight, fi'on my daughter this I let you 
fhat for this twelvemonth, she'll not undertake 
A married life. 
Her reason to herself is only known, 
Which fi-om herself by no means can I get. 
 K2vGH'. May we not get access to her, my 
lord ? 
StM. 'Faith, by no means ; she hath so strictly 
tied her 
To her chamber, that it is impossible. 
O.'m twelve tnoons more she'll wear Diana's livery; 

* In The Hislorie of hng Aplgolun of Thyre, " two nges 
sones" pay their court to the daughter of Archstrates, (the Si- 
monides of the present play). He sends two rolls of paper to 
her, containing their names, &c. and desires her to choose which 
she will marry. She writes him a letter (in answer), of which 
Appolyn is the bearer,that she will have the man " which 
hath passed the daungerous undes and perylles of the sea  all 
other to refuse." The same circumstance is mentioned by 
Gower, who has introduced three suitors instead of two, in which 
our author has followed him. 

In Twine's translation, these suitors are also three in number, 
Ardonius, Munditius, and Carnillus. STv.s. 



I came unto your court, for honour's cause, 
And not to be a rebel to her state ; 
And he that otherwise accounts of me, 
This sword shall prove he's honour's enemy. 
Here comes my daughter, she can witness it. 

Enter TI-IAISA. 

PER. Then, as you are as virtuous as fair, 
Resolve your angry father, if my tongue 
Did e'er solicit, or nay hand subscribe 
To any syllable that nmde love to you ? 
THAz. Why, sir, say if you had, 
Who takes offence at that would make me glad ? 
SIM. Yea, mistress, are you so per6mptory ?-- 
I am glad of it vith all my heart. [Aside.] I'll 
tame you ; 
I'll bring you in subjection. 
Will you, not having my consent, bestow 
Your love and your affections on a stranger ? 
(Who, for aught I know to the contrary, 
Or think, may be as great in blood as I.) [Aside. 
Hear therefore, mistress; fi'ame yourwill to mine,- 
And you, sir, hear you.Either be rul'd by me, 
Or I will make youman and wife. 
Nay, come; your hands and lips must seal it too. 
And being join'd, I'll thus your hopes destroy ; 
And for a thrther grief,God give you joy! 

Here comes my daughter, she can t, itness it.] Thus all the 
copies. Simonides, I think, means to say--Not a rebel to our 
state !--Here comes nff daughter: she can prove, thou art one. 
Perhaps, however, the author wroteNow, Here comes, &e. 
In Othello, we find nearly the same words: 
" Here comes the lady, let her witness it." Mar.olw. 



Come not, in twice six moons, home, 
He obedient to their doom,  
Will take the crown. The sum of this, 
Brought hither to Pentapolis, 
Y-ravished the regions round, 6 
And every one with claps, 'gan sound, 
Our heir apparent is a Mng: 
lVho dream'd, who thought of such a thing? 
Brief, he must hence depart to Tyre : 
His queen with child makes her desire 
(Which who shall cross ?) along to go ; 
(Omit we all their dole and woe ;) 

The mutinff he there hastes t'oppress; 
Says to them, if king Pericles . 
Surely both sense and rhyme direct us to read : 
The m,ttimj here he hastes t'appease; &e. Srwvs. 
 Come not, &e.] Old copy: 
Come not home in twice six moons, 
He obedient to their dooms,--. 
Moons and dooms are very miserable rhymes;nor do I recollect 
that a plural of the substantive doom is ever used.--A slight 
transposition will remedy the present defect-- 
Come not, in twice six noons, home, 
He obedient to their doom, 4-c. SEvs. 
 Y-ravished the regions round,] From the false print of the 
first edition, Iranished, the subsequent editors formed a still 
more absurd reading: 
Irony shed the re.gions round,--. 
Mr. Steevens's ingemous emendation, to which I have paid 
due attention by inserting it in the text, is strongly confirmed 
by the following passage in Gower, De Cofessione Amantis 
" This tale after the kynge it had 
" Pentapo6n all oversprad, 
" There was no joye for to seche; 
" For every man it had in speehe, 
" And saiden all of one aeeorde, 
" A worthy kynge shall ben our lorde. 
" That thought us first an heavines, 
" Is shape us nowe to great gladnes. 
" Thus goth the tydige over all." 

ac. z. PRINCE OF TYRE. 2s7 

Upon the winds command, bind them in brass, 
Having call'd theln fi'om the deep! O still 8 thy 
Thy dreadful thunders ; gently quench thy nimble, 
Sulphureous flashes !--O how, Lychorida, 
How does my queen ?--Thou storm, thou! ve- 

stood above the mountains ;--at thy reulce they fled; at the 
voice of thy thunder they hasted away." It should be remem- 
bered, that Pericles is here supposed to speak from the deck of 
his ship. Lychorida, on whom he calls, in order to obtain some 
intelligence of his queen, is supposed to be beneath, in the cabin. 
--This great vast, is, this wide expanse. See Voh IX. p. 21, 
This speech is exhibited in so strange a form in the original, 
and all the subsequent editions, that I shall lay it before the 
reader, that he may be enabled to judge in what a corrupted 
state this play has hitherto appeared, and be induced to treat 
the editor's imperfect attempts to restore it to integrity, with 
the more indulgence: 
" The God of this great vast, rebuke these surges, 
" Which wash both heaven and hell; and thou that hast 
" Upon the windes commaund, bind them in brasse; 
" Having call'd them from the deepe, 5 still 
" Thy deafning dreadful thunders, gently quench 
" Thy nimble sulphirous flashes, 5 How Lychorida  
" How does my queene ? then storm venomously, 
' Wilt thou spear all thyself? the sea-man's whistle 
" Is as a whisper in the eares of death, 
" Unheard Lychorida ? Lucina oh ! 
" Divinest patrioness and my wife gentle 
" To those that c by night, convey thy deitie 
" Aboard our dauncing boat, make swift the pangues 
" Of my queenes travayles ? now Lychorida." 
" Havng call'd them om the deep I 0 stfll] Perhaps a 
word was omitted at the press. e might read : 
Having call'd Hem rom th" enchafed deep,. 
The present regulation of the lines, by the mere repetition of 
the pronounsth and tou, renders, perhaps, any ther inser- 
tion neeess. STEEVNS. 
VOL. XXI. 8 

so. z. PRINCE OF TYRE. 26. 

Where, for a monument upon thy bones, 
And aye-remaining lamps,  the belching whale,  

I believe we should read, with that violence which a copy so 
much corrupted will sometimes tbrce upon us: 
3lust cast thee, scarcely con'd, in the ooze ; 
Where, &c. 
Sha.kspeare, in The Tempest, has the same word on the same 
occasion : 
" My son i' the ooze is bedded." STzEvms. 
Again, iidem : 
" I wish 
" Myself were mudded in that oozy bed, 
" Where my son lies." 
Again, in Shakspeare's Lover's Complaint: 
" Of folded schedules had she many a one, 
" Which she perus'd, sigh'd, tore, and gave the3%od , 
" Bidding flem find their sepulchres in mud." 
" And aye-remaiMng lamps, &c.'l Old copies : 
The air-remaining lavs,. STEEVENSo 
Air-remaining, if" it be right, must mean air-hung, suspended 
for ever in the air. So, (as Mr. Steevens observes to me,) in 
Shakspeare's lst Sonnet : 
"  those gold candles j'Tx'd in heaven's air." 
In lxTng Richard 11. right-drawn sword is used for a sword 
drawn in a just cause; and in Macbeth we meet with air-drawn 
dagger. Perhaps, however, the author wrote--aye-remaining. 
Thus, in Othello: 
" Witness, you ever-burning lights above,--." 
2kgain, in Troilus and Cressida: 
" To feed for aye her lamp, and flames of love." 
Thus also, Milton, in his Comus, v. 197 : 
" - the stars 
" That nature hung in heaven, and fill'd their lamps 
" With everlasting oil." 
The propriety of the emendation suggested by Mr. Malone, 
will be increased, if we recur to our author's leading thought, 
which is founded on the customs observed in the pomp of ancient 
sepulture. Within old monuments and receptacles for the dead, 
perpetual (i. e. aye-remaining) lamps were supposed to be lighted 
lap. Thus Pope, in his ;Eloisa: 

so. zz. PRINCE OF TYRE. 275 

It is a good constraint of fortune, that 
It belches upon us? 
2 GENT. 'Tis so, nay lord. 
CER. How close 'tis eaulk'd and bitum'd 
Did the sea east it up ? 
SERf. I never saw so huge a billow, sir, 
As toss'd it upon shore. 
CER. Come, wrench it open ; 
Soft, soft !--it smells most sweetly in my sense. 
2 GENT. A delicate odour. 
CER. As ever hit nay nostril ;7 so,--up with it. 
O you most potent god! what's here ? a corse! 
1 GENT. Most strange! 
CER. Shrouded in cloth of state ; bahn'd and 
With bags of spices fifil ! A passport too 
Apollo, perfect me i'the characters !  
[ Unfolds a Sc'oll. 

 It is a good constraint qffortune, that 
It belches upon us.] This singular expression is again applied 
by our author to the sea, in The Tempest: 
" You are three men of sin, whom destiny 
" (That hath to instrulnent this lower world, 
" And what is in't,) the never-surfeited sea 
" Hath caused to belch up !" IIALOL 
 How close 'tis caulk'd and bitum'd !] Bottom'd, which is 
the reading of all the copies, is evidently a corruption. We had 
before : 
" Sir, we have a chest beneath the hatches, caulked and 
bitumed ready." MALone. 
7 As ever hit my nostril; ] So, in The J/Ierry lVives of l-Vind- 
sot: "--as ever offended nostril." SV,lS. 
 ATollo , perfect me i' the characters!] Cerimon, having 
made physick his peculiar tudy, would naturally, in any emer- 




ttere I give to understatd, [-Reads. 
(If e'er this con drive a-land, ) 
I, 1,'tag Pericles, have lost 
This queeb worth all our vtumlae  cosL 
lVho finds her, give her buritg, 
She was the daughter a Mg:  
Besi&s this treasure jbr a e, 
The gods requite his chart 0  

If thou liv'st, Pericles, thou hast a heart 
That even cracks for woe i--This chanc'd 
2 GENt'. Most likely, sir. 
CErt. Nay, certainly to-night ; 

gency, invoke Apollo. Ou the present occasion, however, he 
addresses him as the patron of learning. MALOne:. 
9 (Ife,er this co.ffin drive a-land,) ] Tiffs uncommon phrase is 
repeatedly used in Twine's translation : " Then give thauks unto 
God, who in my flight hath brought me a-land into your costes." 
Again: "--certaine pyrats which were come a-land." 
' --nmndane--] i.e. worldly. MALONE. 
 Who 37nds her, give her burjing, 
She was the dauhler of a king : ] The author had, perhaps, 
the sacred writings m his thoughts: " Go see now this cursed 
woman and bury her, for she is a king's daug]der." 2 Kings_ 
ix. 36. 
The following, in Twine's translation, are the first words of 
Lucina on her recovery : " -- touch me not otherwise than thou 
oughtcst to doe, for I am a king's daughter and the wife of a 
king." SEEVES. 
 thou hast a heart 
That even cracks for woe !] So, in Hamlet: 
" Now cracks a noble heart. ' 
Even is fle reading of the second quarto. The first has ever. 



Of general wonder.  But alack! 
That monster ellv) r, oft the wrack 
Of earned praise, 5 Marina's life 
Seeks to take off by treason's knife. 
And in this kind hath our Cleon 
One daughter, and a wench full grown, 6 


" Which makes her both the heart andplace 
Of general vonder.] The old copies read: 
Whi.h makes high both the art and place &c. 
The emendation was made by Mr. Steevens. 
Which makes her both the heart and place 
Of general wonder.] Such an education as rendered her the 
center and situation of general wonder. We still use the heart 
of oak for the central part of it, and the heart of the land in 
much such another .ense. Shakspeare in Coriolanus says, that 
one of his ladies is--" the spire and to T of praise." 
So, in Twelfth-Tght: 
" I will on with my speech in your praise and then show you 
the heart of nay message." 
Again, in Antony and Cleolgatra : 
"  the very heart of loss." 
Again, in The Rape of Lucrece : 
" On her bare breast, the heart of all her land." 
_Place here signifies residence. So, in A Lover's Comlglaint: 
" Love lack'd a dwelling, and made him her place." 
In this sense it was that Shakspeare, when he purchased his 
house at Stratford, called it The New _Place. MALONE. 
  oft the wrack 
Of earned praise, ] Praise that has been well deserved. The 
ame expression is found in the following lines, which our author 
has imitated in his Romeo and Juliet: 
" How durst thou once attempt to touch the honor of his 
name ? 
" Whose deadly foes do yeld him dew and earned praise." 
Tragicall H3/storie of Romeus and Juliet 156e. 
So, in / Midsummer-Night's Dream : 
" If we have unearned luek." 
 And in this kind hath our Cleon 
One daughter, and a wench full grovn,] The old copy reads : 
And in this kind our Cleon hath 
One daughter, and a full grown wench. 


And not as given. Tiffs so darks 
In Philoten all gracefid marks, 6 
That Cleon's wife, with envy rare,  
A present murderer does prepare 
For good Marina, that her daughter 
Might stand peerless by this slaughter. 
The sooner her vile thoughts to stead, 
Lychorida, our nurse, is dead; 
And cursed Dionyza hath 
The pregnant instrmnent of wrath s 
Old copy : 
The dove of Paphos mht with the crow 
Vie feathers white. 
The sense requires a transposition of these words and that we 
should read : 
With the dove of Paphos might the crow 
Yie feathers white. M. MasoN. 
I have adopted Mr. M. Mason's judicious arrangement. 
  This so darks 
In Philoten all graceful marks,] So, in Coriolanus: 
" --and their blaze 
" Shall darken him for ever." 
Again, ibidem: 
" -- You are darken'd in this action, sir, 
" Even by your own." MaLow. 
 -- tvith envy rare,] Envy is frequently used by our ancient 
writers, in the sense of malice. See Vol. XVI. p. S01, n. . It 
is, however, I believe, here used in its common acceptation. 
 The pregnant instrument ofwrath--J Pregnant, in this in- 
stance, means prepared, instructed. It is used in a kindred sense 
in 1leasure for lleasure. See Vol. VI. p. 191, n. 5. 
Pregnant is ready. So, in Hamlet: 
" And crook flae pregnant hinges of the knee,." 


And, clasping to the mast, endur'd a sea 
That almost burst the deck, 7 and fi'om the ladder- 
Wash'd off a canvas-climber :s HaWsays one, 
lVilt out? and, with a dropping industry, 
They skip from stem to stern :9 the boatswain 
7 That almost burst the deck,] Burst is fi'equently used by 
our author in an active sense. See Vol. XII. p. 152, n. 5. 
8 J'rom the ladder-tackle 
Wash'd off a canvas-climber :] A ship-boy. So, in King 
Henry V: 
" --and in them behold 
" Upon the hempen-tackle ship-boys climbhg." 
I suspect that a line preceding these two, has been lost, which 
perhaps might have been of this import: 
O'er the good ship the foaming billow breaks, 
And frown the ladder-tackle &e. MALov.. 
A canvas-climber is one who climbs the mast, to furl, or unfurl 
the canvas or sails. Srv.v.VV.lS. 
Malone suspects tha some line preceding these has been lost, 
but that I believe is no the case, this being merely a continua- 
tion of Marina's description of the storm, which was interrupted 
by Leonine's asking her, When was that ? and by her answer, 
lVhen I was born: never were waves nor wind more violent. 
Put this question and the answer in a parenthesis, and the 
description goes on without difficulty : 
endur'd a sea 
That abnost burst the deck, 
And from the ladder-tackle washes 
M. Mso. 
In consequence ot" Mr. M. Masons remark, I have regulated 
the text anew, and with only the change of a single tense 
aWaSh'd for washes,) and the omission of the useless copulative 
rid. The question of Leonine, and the reply of Marina, which 
were introduced after the words,- 
That almost burst the deck, 
are just as proper in their present as in their former situation; 
but do not, as now arranged, interrupt the narrative of Marina. 
 --.-.from stem to stern :] The old copies read--From stern 


LEo2v. To satisfy my lady. 
IAR. Why would she have me kill'd ? 
Now, as I can remember, by my trofl, 
I never did her hurt in all my life; 
I never spake bad word, nor did ill turn 
To any living creature : believe me, la, 
I never kill'd a mouse, nor hurt a fly: 
I trod upon a worm against my will, 
But I wept for it2 How have I offended, 
Wherein my death might yield her profit, or 
My life imply her danger ? 
LEov. My commission 
Is not to reason of the deed, but do it. 
BIER. You will not do't for all the world, I hope. 
You are well-favour'd, and your looks foreshow 
You have a gentle heart. I saw you lately, 
When you caught lmrt in parting two that fought : 
Good sooth, show'd well in you; do so now: 
Yonr lady seeks my life ; come you between, 
A-ad save poor me, the weaker. 
LEON. I am sworn, 
And will despatch. 

hope for lne to escape my life, give me licence to say my 
prayers betbre I die. I give thee license, saide the villaine. 
And I take God to record, that I am constrained to murther 
thee against my will." STEVNS. 
 I trod upon a worm against my will, 
But I wept for it.] Fenton has transplanted this image into 
his Mariamue : 
" when I was a child, 
" I kill'd a linnet, but indeed I wept; 
" Heaven visits not for that." ST-vrs. 





Enter Pirates, whilst MARINA 8 strugglbtg. 

1 _PIRATE. Hold, villain ! 
[LEoN,NE runs awag. - 
2 PZn.TE. A prize ! a prize ! 
3 -PIRATE. flail-part, mates, half-part. Come, 
let's have her aboard suddenly. 
 Exeunt Pirates with MalINa. 


LEON. These roving thieves serve the great 
pirate Valdes ; 
And they have seiz'd Marina. Let her go : 

 Leonine runs awag.] So, in Twine's translation: " When 
the villain heard that, he ran away as fast as he could.Then 
came the Pyrats and rescued Tharsia, and carried her away to 
their ships, and hoised sailes, and departed." Sa'rvrs. 
 Th.ese roving thieves serve the great pirate Valdes ;] [Old 
copyroguing.] The Spanish armada, I believe, furnished our 
author with this name. Don Pedro de YaMes was an Admiral 
in that fleet, and had the command of the great galleon of An- 
dalusia. His ship being disabled, he was taken by Sir Francis 
Drake, on the twenty-second of July, 1588, and sent to Dart- 
mouth. This play therefore, we may conclude, was not written 
till after that period.The making one of tiffs Spaniard's ances- 
tors a pirate, was probably relished by tim audience in those 
days. MALONE. 
In Robert Greene's Spanish llasyuerado, 1589, the curious 
reader may find a very particular account of this Valdes, who 
was commander of the Andalusian troops, and then prisoner in 


BAw  o. Come, other sorts offend as well as we2 

Ephesus: " Either get thee from the door, or sit down at the 
VChen the top of a tmtch was guarded by a row of pointed 
iron spikes, no person could reach over, and undo its fimtening, 
which was always within-side, and near its bottom. 
This domestik portcullis perhaps was necessary to our ancient 
brothels. Secured within such a barrier, Mrs. Overdone could 
parley with her customers; refuse admittance to the shabby 
visitor, bargain with the rich gallant, defy the beadle, or keep 
the constable at bay. 
From having been therefore her usual defence, tim lmtch at 
last became an unequivocal denotement of her trade ; for though 
the hatch ith a flat top was a constant attendant on butteries 
in great families, colleges, &c. the hatch with slies on it was 
peculiar to our early houses of amorous entertaimnent.Nay, as 
I anl assured by r. Walsh, (a native of Ireland, and one of the 
compositors engaged on the present edition of Shakspeare,) the 
entries to the Royal, Halifax, and Dublin bagnios in the city of 
Dublin, still derive convenience or security fi'om hatcles, the 
spikes of which are unsurmountable. 
This long explanation (to many readers unnecessary) is impu- 
table to the preceding wooden cut, from the repetition of which 
I might have excused myself. As it is possible, however, that I 
lnay stand in the predicmnent of poor Sancho, who could no 
discern the enchanted castles flint were so distinctly visible to 
his master's opticks, I have left our picture of an ancient brothel 
where I found it. It certainly exhibits a house, a lofty door, a 
wicket with a grate in it, a row of garden-rails, and a draw- 
bridge. As for l, atcl,let my readers try if they can find one. 
I must suppose, that my ingenious fellow-labourer, on future 
consideration, will class his t, atch with the air-drawn dagger, 
and join with me in Macbeth's exclamation" There's no such 
Let me add, that if the Ruan (as here represented) was an 
ostensible appendage to broflmls, they must have been regulated 
on very uncommon principles ; for instead of holding out allure- 
ments, they must have exhibited terrors. Surely, the Ran 
could never have appeared nisi dignus vindice nodus inciderat, 
till his presence became necessary to extort the wages of prosti- 
tution, or secure some other advantage to his employer. 
The representation prefixed to Holland's Leaguer, has, thcre- 

se. nz. PRINCE OF TYRE. 313 

_PAND. Well, follow me, my masters; you shall 
have your money presently. Wife, take her in ; 
instruct her what she has to do, that she nmy not 
be raw in her entertainment. 8 
[Ealeunt Pander and Pirates. 
BAWD. Boult, take you the marks of her; the 
eolour of her hair, complexion, height, age, 9 with 
warrant of her virginity ; and cry, He that will give 
ost, shall have herdqrst. ' Such a naidenhead were 
no cheap thing, if nen were as they have been. 
Get this done as I comlnand you. 
Bour,. Performance shall follow, lEa'it Bov. 
MAn. Alack, that Leonine was so slack, so slow! 
(He should have struck, not spoke ;) or that these 
(Not enough barbarous), had not overboard 
Thrown me, to seek lny mother ! 

to Boult. -- I cannot get them to bate ne one doit of a thousand 
pieces. M^LOl. 
s that she ma!] not be raw in her entertainment.] Unripe, 
unskilful. So, in Hamlet: " -- and yet but raw neither, in re- 
spect of his quick sail." MArOle. 
 -- age,] So the quarto, 1619. The first copy has-- her 
age. IALOIWE. 
 and crd, He that will give most, shall have her first.] 
The prices of first and secondary prostitution are exactly settled 
in the old prose romance already quoted : "Go thou, and make 
a crye through the citye that of all men that shall enhabyte with 
her carnally, the fyrst shall gyve me a pounde of golde and 
after that echone a peny of golde." SrErVlS. 
 or that these pirates 
(Not enough barbarous,) had not o,erboard 
Thrown me, to seek my mother !] Old copy : 
(Not enough barbarous,) had not o'erboard thrown me, 
For to seek &e. 
I susp.eet the second not was inadvertently repeated by the 
eompomtor. Marina, I think, means to say, Alas, how unlucky 

sc. iii. PRINCE OF TYRE. 15 

JIAR. Are you a woman ? 
B.wD. What would you have me be, an I be 
not a woman ? 
MAR. An honest woman, or not a woman. 
BAw. Marry, whip thee, gosling: I think I 
shall have something to do with you. Come, you 
are a young foolish sapling, and must be bowed as 
I would have you. 
_MAR. The gods defend me! 
Bw. If it please the gods to defend you by 
men, then men must Comtbrt you, men must feed 
you, men must stir you np.Boult's returned. 

Enter ]3OULT. 

Now, sir, hast thou cried her through the mar- 
ket ? 
BOULT. I have cried her ahnost to the number 
of her hairs i I have drawn her picture with my 
BWD. And I pr'ythee tell me, how dost thou 

a Now, sir, hast thou cried her through the market e. 
 I have drawn her picture with my voice.] So, in The 
Wife for a llonth, [-by Fletcher, Vol. V. p. o.85, edit. 1778,] 
Evanthe says,- 
" I'd rather thou had'st deliver'd me to pirates, 
" Betray'd me to uneurable diseases, 
" Hung up her picture in a rnarket-plaee, 
" And sold her to vile bawds !" 
And we are told in a note on this passage, [by Mr. Reed] that 
it was formerly the eustorn at Naples to hang up the pictures of 
celebrated eourtezans in the publiek parts of the town, to serve 
as directions where they lived. Had, not Fletcher the story of Ma- 
rina in his mind, when he wrote the above lines ? M. Masor. 
The Wife for a llonth was one of Fletcher s latest plays. It 
was exhibited in blay 162:. Mar,o. 


Much less in blood than virtue, yet a princess 
To equal any single crown o'the earth, 
I'the j ustice of compare ! O villain Leonine, 
Whom thou hast poison'd too! 
If thou hadst drunk to him, it had been a kindness 
Becoming well thy iat: 1 what canst thou say, 
When noble Pericles shall demand his child ? 
Dzov. That she is dead. Nurses are not the 
To foster it, nor ever to preserve? 

' If thou hadst drunk to him, it had been a kindness 
Becomhg well thy feat :] Old copy--face : which, if this 
reading be genuine, must mean--hadst thou poisoned thyself by 
pledging him, it would have been an action well becoming thee. 
For the sake of a more obvious meaning, however, I read, with 
Mr. M. Mason, feat instead of face. 
Feat, i. e. of a piece with the rest of thy exploit. So, in The 
Two Noble Kinsmen, PaIamon says: 
" Cozener Areite, give me language such 
" As thou hast shewed me.feat." M. Mnsom 
So, in Holinshed, p. 756: " aiders and partakers of his 
.feat and enterprize." STEEVENSo 
 what canst thou sa, 
When noble Pericles shall demmd his child?] So, in the 
ancient romance already quoted: " --tell me now what reken- 
ynge we shall gyve hym of his doughter," &e. 
Again, in Twine's translation : " Thou reportedst that Prince 
Appollonius was dead ; and loe now where he is come to requir.e 
his daughter. What shall we now doe or say to him ?" 
So also, in the Gesta Romanorum : " Quem [-Apollonium] 
cum vidisset Strangulio, perrexit rabido cursu, dixitque uxori 
sure Dyonisidi---Dixisti Apollonium naufragum esse mortuum. 
Ecce, vcnit ad repetendam filiam. Ecce, quid dicturi sumus 
fili ?" MALONE. 
 --Nurses are not the fates, 
To foster it, nor ever to preserve.] So King John on re. 
ceivin the account of Arthur's death: 


(Attended on by many a lord and knight,) 
To see his daughter, all his life's delight. 
Old Escanes, whom Helicanus late 3 
Advanc'd in time to great and high estate, 
Is left to govern. Bear you it in 1hind, 
Old Helicanus goes along behind. 
Well-sailing ships, and bounteous winds, have 
This king to Tharsus, (think his pilot thought; 
So with his steerage shall your thoughts grow 
To fetch his daughter home, who first is gone,  

The wayward &c. is the reading of fle second quarto. The 
fu-st has--thff. In the next llne but one, the old copies read-- 
all his lives delight. MALOne. 
 Old Escanes, whom Helicanus late &c.] In the old cople 
.these lines are strangely misplaced : 
" Old Helicanus goes along behind 
" Is left to governe it, you beare in mind. 
" Old Escanes whom Helicanus late 
" Advancde in time to great and hie estate. 
" Well sailing ships and bounteous winds have broght 
" This king to Tharsus," &c. 
The transposition suggested by Mr. Steevens, renders the whole 
passage perfectly clear. IaLow. 
  (think his pilot thought; 
So with his steerage shall your thoughts grow on,) 
To fetch his daughter home, who first is gone.] The old 
copies read : 
. think this pilot thought, 
So with his steerage shall your thoughts groan, 
but they are surely e.orrup.t..I his pilot t.hought; 
suppose that your magmatmn s his pilot. So, an King 
Henry V: 
"  'Tis your thoughts, that now must deck our kings 
" Carry them here and there; jumping o'er times." 
Again, ibidem: 
" Heave hin away upon dour winged thoughts 
" Atlztvart the seas." 

sc. n: PRINCE OF TYRE. 831 

Dumb shou,. 

Enter at one door, PERICLES 7C'il]l h$ T]'(lilt ; CLEON 
and DIONYZA at the other. CLEON ShO'S 
rtICLES the Tomb of MARINA ; u, hereat PERICLES 
,takes lamentation, pats on Sackcloth, and in a 
night# passion departs. Then CLEON and DIo- 
Yz retire. 

Gory. See how belief may suffer by foul show[ 
This borrow'd passion stands for true old woe i s 
And Pericles, in sorrov all devour'd, 
With sighs shot through, and biggest tears 
LeavesTharsus, and again embarks. He swears 
Never to wash his face, nor cut his hairs ; 
He puts on sackcloth, and to sea. He bears 
A tempest, which his mortal vessel tears, v 
_And yet he rides it out. Now please you wit s 
The epitaph is for Marina writ 

 d-'br true old voe;] So, in Ktng Henry Y: 
" Sit and see, 
" Minding true things by what their mockeries be." 
for true old woe;] i.e. for such tears as were shed when, 
the world being in its in[hncy, dissimulation was unknown. All 
poetical writers are willing to persuade themselves that sincerity 
expired with the first ages. Perhaps, however, we ought to 
read--true told woe. STEEVENS. 
 A tempest, which his mortal vessel tears,] So, in_King 
tichard III: 
" O, then began the tempest to my soul !" 
What is here called his mortal ,essel, (i. e. his body,) is styled 
by Cleopatra her mortal house. STEEVENS. 
  Now please jou wit--] Now be pleased to know. $o, 
in Gower: 
" In whiche the lorde hath to him wrltte 
" That he would understonde and witte,--." 


1 GENT. I'll do any thing now that is virtuous ; 
but I am out of the road of rutting, for ever. 


The same. .4 Room in the Brothel. 

Enter PANDER, Bawd, and BOtLT. 

_PATD. Well, I had rather than twice the worth 
of her, she had ne'er come here. 
B.4WD. Fye, lye upon her; she is able to fi'eeze 
the god Priapus, 5 and undo a whole generation. 
We must either get her ravished, or be rid of her. 
When she should do for clients her fitment, and do 
me the kindness of our profession, she has me her 
quirks, her reasons, her master-reasons, her prayers, 
her knees; that she would make a puritan of the 
devil, if he should cheapen a kiss of her. 
BOULT. 'Faith, I must ravish her, or she'll dis- 
furnish us of all our cavaliers, and make all our 
swearers priests. 
PVD. Now, the pox upon her green-sickness 
for me ! 
BAWD. 'Faith, there's no way to be rid on't, but 
by the way to the pox. Here comes the lord 
simachus, disguised2 

  Priapus,] The present mention of this deity was per- 
haps suggested by the following passage in Twine's translation = 
' Then the bawde brought her into a certaine chappell where 
stoode the idoll of Prialous made of gold," &c. Sxvs. 
 Here comes the lord Lsimachus, disguised.'] So, in the an- 
cient prose romance already quoted :" Than anone as Anthy- 


Re-enter Bawd. 

I?,tVD. How now! what's the lnatter ? 
I?ouL'. Worse and worse, mistress; she has here 
spoken holy words to the lord Lysimaehus. 
BAw2). 0 abominable ! 
BouLe'. She makes our profession as it were to 
stink afore the face of the gods.  
B,lwzh Marry, hang her up for ever! 
BouLe'. The noble,nan would have dealt with 
her like a nobleman, and she sent him away as 
cold as a snowball ; saying his prayers too. 
BAwz. Boult, take her away ; use her at thy 
pleasure: crack the glass of her virginity, and 
make the rest malleable? 

" She makes our profession as it were to stink afore the face of 
the gods.] S% in 3leasure .for Measure the Duke says to the 
" Canst thou believe thy living is a life, 
" So stinkingly depending ? 
"' Clown. Indeed, it does stink in some sort sir--." 
 cra& the glass  her irginit, and make the rest 
malleable.] So, in the Gesta Romanorum: " Altera die, adhue 
earn virginem audiens, iratus [leno] vocans villicum pudlarum 
dixit, duc earn ad te, et frange nodum virginitatis us.'" 
Here is perhaps some allusion to a fact recorded by Dion 
Cassius and by Pliny, B. XXXVI. ch. xxvi. but more circum- 
stantially by Petronius. See his Satgricon, Variorum edit. 
p. 189. A skilful workman who had dcovered the art of 
making glass malleable, carried a specimen of it to Tiberius, who 
asked him if he alone was in possession of the secret. He re- 
plied in the armative; on which the tyrant ordered his head to 
be struck off immeately, lest his invention should have proved 
injurious to the workers in gold, silver, and other mes. The 
same story, however, is told in fle Gesta Romanorum cap- 
ter . STrivers. : 


Since they do better thee in their command. 
Thou hold'st a place, for which the pained'st fiend 
Of hell would not in reputation change: 
Thou'rt the damn'd door-keeper to every coystrel 
That hither comes enquiring tbr his tib ;a 
To the cholerick fisting of each rogue thy ear 
Is liable ; thy very food is such 
As hath been belch'd on by infected lungs. 'z 

.BOULT. What would you have me ? go to the 
wars, would you ? where a man may serve seven 
years for the loss of a leg, and have not money 
enough in the end to buy him a wooden one ? 

MAR. Do any thing but this thou doest. Empty 
Old receptacles, common sewers, of filth ; 
Serve by indenture to the common hangman ; 

1 to everg coystrel 
That hither comes enquiriug for his fib ;] To every mean 
or drunken fellow that comes to enquire for a girl. Cogsterel is 
properly a wine-vessel. Tib is, I think, a contraction of Tabitha. 
It was formerly a cant name for a strumpet. See Vol. VIII. 
p. 272, n.S. MALONE. 
Tib was a common nick-name for a wanton. So, in 'osce 
(Humours) by Richard Turner, 1607: 
" They wondred much at Tom, but at Tib more, 
" Faith (quoth the vicker) 'tis an exlent whore." 
Again, in Churchyard's Choise : 
" Tushe, that's a toye, let Tomkin talke of Tibb." 
Coystrel means a paltry fellow. This word seems to be cor- 
rupted fi'om kestrel, a bastard kind of hawk. It occurs in Shak- 
speare's Twelfth-Night, Act I. sc. iii. Spenser, Bacon, and 
Dryden, also mention the kestrel; and Kastril, Ben Jonson's 
angry boy in The Alchemist, is only a variation of the same term. 
The word coystrel in short, was employed to characterise any 
worthless or ridiculous being. 
 As hath been belch'd on by infected lungs.] Marina, who is 
designed for a character of juvenile innocence, appears much too 
tnowing in the impurities of a brothel ; nor are her expressions 
more chastised than her ideas. 





Enter GOWER. 

Go. Marina thus the brothel scapes, and 
Into an honest house, our story says. 
She sings like one immortal, and she dances 
As goddess-like to her admired lays: s 
Deep clerks she dumbs i ' and with her neeld 
Nature's own shape, of bud, bird, branch, or 
berry ; 
That even her art sisters the natural roses 2 
Her inkle, silk, twin with the rubied cherry: 3 

s and she dances 
As goddess-like to her admired lays:] This compound epi- 
thet (which is not common) is again used by our author in C2/m- 
beline : 
", and undergoes, 
" More goddess-like than wife-life, such assaults 
" As would take in some virtue." 
, Again, in The Winter's Tale: 
"  most goddess-like prank'd up." 
 Deep clerks she dumbs ;] This uncommon verb is also found 
in Antony and Cleopatra : 
" --that what I would have spoke 
" Was beastly dumb'd by him." Srw.vqs. 
8o, in It lidsummer-Night's Dream : 
" Where I have come, great clerks have purposed 
" To greet me with premeditated welcomes ; 
" Where I have seen them shiver and look pale 
,, Make periods in the midst of sentences, 
,' Throttle their practis'd accents in their fears, 
" And, in conclusion, dumbly have broke off, 
"' Not paying me a welcome." 
These passages are compared only on account of the similarity 

350 PERICLES, .cT r. 

Where we left him, on the sea. We there 
him lost ; 
Whence, driven before the winds, he is arriv'd 
Here where his daughter dwells ; and on this 
Suppose hiln now at anchor. The city striv'd 
God Neptune's annual feast to keep :6 from 
Lysimachus our Tyrian ship espies, 
His banners sable, trimm'd with rich expence 
And to him in his barge with fervour hiesY 
In your supposing once more put your sight 
Of heavy Pericles think this the bark 
Where, what is done in action, more, if might, 9 
Shall be discover'd; please you, sit, and hark. 
 Where we left him, on the sea. We there him lost ;] The 
first quarto readsWe there him lest. The editor of that in 
1619 finding the passage eorrupt altered it entirely. He reads 
Where we left him at sea, tumbled and tost ;. 
The corresponding rhyme, coast, shows that lest, in the first 
edition was only a misprint for lost. 
 The city striv'd 
God Neptune's annual feast to keep:] The citizens vied 
with each other in celebrating the feast of Neptune. This harsh 
expression was forced upon the author by the rhyme. 
I suspect that the author wrote : 
The citq's hiv'd 
Good Neptune's annutl, feast to keep :. 
i. e. the citizens, on the present occasion, are collected like bees 
in a hive. Shakspeare has the same verb in The Merchant of 
Venice:" Drones hive not with me." 
 And to him in his barge with fervour hies.] This is one of" 
the few passages in this play, in which the error of the first copy 
is corrected in the second. The eldest quarto reads unin- 
telligiblywith former hies. MA,o.. 
 In tour supposing once more put ]our sight ; 
Of heavy Pericles think this the bark:] Once more put 
your sight under the guidance of your imagination. 8u2lose 


HEL. Sure, ali's effectless; yet nothing we'll omit 
That bears recovery's name. But, since your kind- 
We have stretch'd thus far, let us beseech you fur- 
That for our gold we may provision have, 
Wherein we are not destitute for want, 
But weary for the staleness. 
Lrs. O, sir, a courtesy, 
Which if we should deny, the most just God 

been placed. In the Confessio Amantis, she is summoned, by 
order of the governor, from the honest house to which she had 
retreated.The words with and is which I have inserted, are 
no in the old copy. 
If any alteration be thought necessary, I would read: " And 
is now about the leafy shelter," instead of upon. M. M,sor. 
Mr. M. Mason's alteration cannot be admitted, as the words 
about and abut would be so near each other as to occasion the 
most barbarous dissonance.I have at least printed the passage 
so as to afford it smoothness, and some apparent meaning. 
9 Exit Lord, in the Barge of Lysimachus.] It may seem 
strange that a fable should have been chosen to form a drama 
upon, in which the greater part of the business of the last Act 
should be transacted at sea ; and wherein it should even be neces- 
sary to produce two vessels on the scene at the same time. But 
the customs and exhibitions of the modern stage give this objec- 
tion to the play before us a greater weight than it really has. It 
appears, that, when Pericles was originally performed, the thea- 
tres were furnished with no such apparatus as by any stretch of 
the imagination could be supposed to present either a sea, or 
ship; and that the audience were contented to behold vessels 
sailing in and out o'f port, in their mind's eye only. This lieenee 
being once granted to the poet, the lord, in the instance now 
before us, walked off the stage, and returned again in a few 
minutes, leading in Marina, without any sensible impropriety ; 
and the present drama, exhibited before such indulgent spec- 
tators, was not more incommodious in the representation than 
any other would have been. See The Historical Account of the 
English Stage, Vol. III. 


Can draw hhn but to answer thee in aught, 
Thy sacred physick shall receive such pay 
As thy desires can wish. 
Man. Sir, I will use 
My utmost skill in his recovery, 
Provided none but I and nay companion 
Be suffer'd to come near him. 
LYS. Conic, let us letve her, 
And the gods make her prosperous! 
[MARINA sings. 6 

I read as in the text. Our author has many compound epi- 
thets of the same kind; for instance,--dismal-fatal, nortal- 
Staring, childish-foolish, senseless-obstinate, &c. in all of which the 
fir$t adjective is adverbially used. See Vol. X. p. 19, n. S. 
 Marina sings.] This song (like most of those that were 
sung in the old plays) has not been preserved. Perhaps it might 
have been formed on the following lines in the Gesta Romanorum, 
(or some translation of it,) which Tharsia is there said to have 
sung to King Apollonius : 
" Per scorta If. heu !] gradior, sed scorti conscia non 
sum ; 
" Sic spinis rosa If. quze] nescit violarier ullis. 
' Corruit et If. en] raptor gladii ferientis ab ictu ; 
" Tradita lenoni non sum violata pudore. 
" Vulnera cessassent animi, lacrimzeque deessent, 
" Nulla ergo melior, si noscam certa parentes. 
"' Unica regalis generis sum stirpe creata; 
" Ipsa, jubente Deo, letari credo aliquando. 
" Fuge If. Terge] modo lacrimas, curam dissolve mo- 
lestam ; 
"' Redde polo faciem, mentemque ad sidera tolle: 
" Jam If. Nam] Deus est hominum plasmator, rector, et 
t' Non If. Nee.'] sinit has lacrimas casso finiri labore." 
I have subjoined this song (which is an exact copy of the 
Latin hexameters in the Gesta Romanorum) from Twine's trans- 
The song is tlms introduced : " Then began she to record i. 


Lrs. Mark'd he your musick ? 
]ll/R. No, nor look'd on us. 
LYS. See, she will speak to him. 
]liaR. Hail, sir! my lord, lend ear :- 
PER. Hum ! ha ! 
]ll.aR. I am a maid, 
My lord, that ne'er before invited eyes, 
But have been gaz'd on, comet-like :7 she speaks 

verses, and therewithal to sing so swetely, that Apollonius, not- 
withstanding his great sorrow, wondred at her. And these were 
the verses which she soong so pleasantly unto the instrumento '* 

7 comet-like.'] So, in Love' Labour' Lot; 
" So, porte, t-like" &c. 
The old copy of Pericle has---/ie a come. 

" Amongst the harlots foul I walk, 
' yet harlot none am I: 
" The rose among the thorns it grows 
' And is not hm't thereby. 
 The thief that stole me, sure I think 
" Is slain before this time : 
" A bawd me bought, yet I am not 
" Defil'd by fleshly crime. 
' Were nothing pleasanter to me 
" Than parents mine to know : 
" I am the issue of a king, 
" My blood from kings doth flow. 
" I hope that God will mend my state, 
" And send a better day: 
" Leave off`your tears, pluck up your heart, 
" And banish care away. 
Show gladness in your countenance, 
" Cast up your cheerful eyes: 
That God remains that once of nought 
' Created earth and skies. 
He will not let, in care and thought, 
You still to live, and all for nought." Sxzzvzs. 



Her stature to an inch ; as wand-like straight ; 
As silver voic'd ; her eyes as jewel-like, 
And cas'd as richly :  in pace another Juno; 6 
Who starves the ears she feeds, and makes them 
The more she gives them speechY---Where do you 
live ? 

It i observable that some ot" the leading incidents in this play 
trongly remind us of the Rudens. There Arcturus, like Gower, 
r/00h0),e.--In the Latin comedy, fishermen, as in Pericles, are 
brought on the stage, one of whom drags on shore in his net the 
wallet which principally produces the catastrophe; and the he- 
roines of Plautus and Marina fall alike into the hands of a pro- 
curer ; a circumstance on which much of the plot in both these 
dramatick pieces depends. Ho[. 
s  her eyes as 
And cas'd as richly :] So, in Ang Lear 
" and in this habit, 
" Met I my father with his bleeding rings, 
" Their precious tones new-lost." 
Again, ibidem : 
" What, with this case of eyes ." 
o, in the third Act, Cerimon says "- 
" She is alive ;behold 
" Her eye-lids, cases to those heavenly jewels, 
' Which Pericles has lost, 
" Begin to part their fi'inges of bright gold." 
M. MAson, 
' -- in pace another Juno ;] So, in The Tenvest : 
"  Highest queen of state 
" Great Juno comes ; I know her by her gait." 
 Who starves the ears she.feeds, and makes them hungry, 
The more she gives them sTeech. ] So, in Antony and Cleoo 
patra : 
' other women cloy 
" The appetites they feed, but she makes hungry 
' Where nmst she satisfies." 
Again, in Hamlet : 
" As if increase of appetite did grow 
*' By what it fed on," 


I.4R. The name Marina, 
Was given me by one that had some power ; 
My father, and a king. 
PER. How ! a king's daughter 
And call'd Marina ? 
3IR. You said you would believe me 
But, not to be a troubler of your peace,  
I will end here. 
PER. But are you flesh and blood ? 
Have you a working pulse ? and are no fairy ? 
No motion ?s--Well i speak on. Where were you 
born ? 
And wherefore call'd Marina ? 

7  a troubler o.fyour peace,] Thus the earliest quarto. 
So, in King Richard III 
" And then hurl down their indignation 
" On thee, the troubler of the poor world's peace." 
The folios and the modem editions read--a trouble of ltour peace. 
 No motion ?] i.e. no puppet dress'd up to deceive me. $o 
ha The Two Gentlemen of Verona : 
" 0 excellent motion ! 0 exceeding puppet !'" 
This passage should be pointed thus : 
That is, " Have you really life in you, or are you merely a 
puppet formed by enehantmeut ? the work of fairies." The 
present reading cannot be right, [br fairies were supposed to be 
animated beings, mad to have working pulses as well as men. 
M. Msom 
If Mr. M. Mason's puuctuation were followed, the line would 
be too long by a foot. Pericles suggests three images in his 
questionl. Have you a worldng pulse . i.e. are you any thing 
lmman md really alive ? o. Are you a fairy . 3. Or are you a 
puppet ? 
In the old copy this passage is thus exhibited: 
" But are you flesh and blood 
" Have you a working pulse, and are no fairy 
" Motion well, speak on," &c. MALOIIE. 

8.70 PERICLES, c, r. 

PEn. I will believe you by the syllable  
Of what you shall deliver. Yet, give me leave :--- 
How came you in these parts? where were you 
bred ? 
MA/. The king, my father, did in Tharsus leave 
me ; 
Till cruel Cleon, with his wicked wife, 
Did seek to murder me: and having woo'd 
2t villain to attempt it, who having drawn, a 

The False priuts in this play are so numerous, that the greatest 
latitude must be allowed to conjecture. MALONE. 
 I will believe you by the syllable gyc.] i.e. I will believe 
every word you say. So, in 3Iacbeth : 
' To the last syllable of recorded time." 
Again, in All's well that cuds well: 
" To the utmost syllable of your worthiness." 
 who having drawn,] Mr. Malone supposes tile old 
copy meant to read--Whom haviug drawn, &c. 
This mode of phraseology, though now obsolete, was common 
in Shakspeare's time. So, in The Tempest: 
' Some tbod we had', and some iesh water, that 
** A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo, 
" Out of h:s" charity, (who being. . then,,appointed 
" Master of this design,) did give us, &c. 
Again, in The Winter's Tale : 
" This your son-in-law, 
*' And son unto tile king, (whom heavens directing,) 
" Is troth-plight to your daughter." 
See also Vo]. XVI. p. lzbS, n. . 
When the former edition ot" this play was printed, I imagined 
the original copy printed in 1609, read--who having drawn to 
do't, not observing the nmrk of abbreviation over the letter o 
{wh5 ) which shows the word intended was whom. MALONE. 
I have now two copies of this quarto 1609 before me, and 
neither of them exhibits the mark on which Mr. Malone's sup- 
position is founded. I conclude therefore that this token of ab- 
breviation was an accidental blot in the copy which that gentle- 
man consulted. 
Old copy--havlng drawn to do't--. I read: 

$7 PERICLES, c'' r. 

Who, hearhg of your melancholy state, 
Did come to see you. 
PEtt. I embrace you, sir. 
Give me my robes ; I am wild in my beholding. 
O heavens bless my girl! But hark, what muo 
sick ?- 
Tell Helieanus, my Marina, tell him  
O'er, point by point,  for yet he seems to doubt,  
How sure you are my daughter.mButwhat musick ? 
//Er. My lord, I hear none. 
PER. None ? 
The musick of the spheres: list, my Marina, 
LYS. It is not good to cross him ; give him way, 
PE. Rarest sounds ! 
Do ye not hear ? 
LYS. Musick ? My lord, I hear-- 
/ER. Most heavenly musick: 
It nips me unto list'ning, and thick slumber 
Hangs on mine eye-lids ; let me rest.  [He sleeps, 

 -- But hark, what musick ? 
Tel! Helicanus, my Marina, tell him--] Thus the earliest. 
qum to, 1619, and all the subsequent editions read: 
But hark, what musick's this Helicanus . my 
'ffarina, &c. M._o. 
 O'er, point by point,] So, in Gower: 
" Fro po.ynt to poynt all she hym tolde 
" That she hath long in herte holde, 
" And never durst make hit mone 
" But only to this lorde allone." 
 ------.for yet he seems to doubt,] The old copies read--fo 
yet he seems to doat. It was evidently a misprint. 
 l"llost heavenly musick : 
It nips me unto list'ning, and thick slumber 
Hangs &e.] So, in Love's Labour's Lost : 
' Makes heaven drowsy with the harmony," 

sc. . PRINCE OF TYRE. 375 

LYs. A pillow for his head; 
[The Curtain before the Pavilion of PERICLES 
is closed. 
So leave him all.--Well, nay compauion-friends, 
If this but answer to nay just belief, 
1'11 well remember you? 
and attendmtt Lady. 

See Vol. VII. p. 1'2.6, n. 6. Consult also Pindar's First P,jthian 
Ronsard, Gray, &c. 
Tim version of Ronsard is worth transcribing : 
" Et au caquet de tes cordes bien jointes 
" Son aigle dort sur la foudre a trois pointes, 
" Abbaissant l'aile: adonc tu vas channant 
" Ses yeux aigus, et lui en les ferment 
" Son dos herisse et ses plumes repousse, 
" Flatt6 du son de ta corde si douce." 
Ode , edit. 1632, folio. STEEVENSo 
So, in King Henr.y IV. Part II: 
" Let there be no noise made, my gentle fi-iends, 
' Unless some dull and favourable hand 
' Will whisper musick to my weary spirit." 
,See Vol. XII. p. 197, n. 
  Well, m d companlon-friends, 
I.f this but answer to mujust belief, 
I'll well remember you.] These lines clearly belong to Ma- 
rina. She has been for some time silent., and Pericles having 
now fallen into a slumber, she naturally turns to her companion, 
and assures her, that if she has in truth found her royal father, 
(as she has good reason to believe,) she shall partake of her 
prosperity. It appears from a former speech in wltich the same 
phrase is used, that a lady had entered with Marina 
" Sir, I will use 
" My utmost skill in his recovery; provided 
" That none but I, and my companion-maid 
" Be suffer'd to come near him." 
I would therefore read in the passage now before us : 
tVell, my companion-friend; 
or, if the text here be right, we might read in the fonrer in- 
stance--my companion-maids.--In the preceding part of this 


been thus new-modelled by our poet, and enriched with-many 
happy strokes fi'om his pen, is unquestionably entitled to that 
place among his works which it has now obtained. MArONE. 
After Mr. blalone's retraction, (which is no less honourable to 
himself than the present editor of Pericles,) it may be asked why 
the dissertations mentioned in the foregoing note appear a second 
ime in print. To such a question I am not unwilling to reply. 
My sole motive for republishing them is to manifest that the skill 
displayed by my late opponent in defence of what lie conceived 
to have.been.right, can only be exceeded by the liberality of hi 
concession since he has supposed himself in the wrong. 
In a former disquisition concerniug this play, I mentioned, that 
the dumb shows, which are found in it, induced me to doubt 
whether it came fi'om the pen of Shakspeare. The sentiments 
that I then expressed, were suggestld by a veryhasty and transient 
survey of the piece. I am still, however, of opinion, that this 
consideration (our author having expressly ridiculed such exhibi- 
tions) might in a very doubtful question have some weight. But 
weaker proofs must yield to stronger. It is idle to lay any great 
stress upon such a slight circumstance, when the piece itself fur- 
nishes internal and irresistible evidence of its authenticity. The 
congenial sentiments, the numerous expressions bearing a striking 
similitude to passages in his undisputed plays, the incidents, the 
situations of the persons, the colour of the style, at least through 
the greater part of the play, all, in nay apprehension, conspire to 
set the seal of Shakspeare on this performance. What then shall 
we say to these dumb shows ? Either, that the poet's practice 
was not always conformable to his opinions, (of which there are 
abundant proofs) or, (what I rather believe to be the case) that 
this was one of his earliest dramas, written at a time when these 
exhibitions were much admired, and before he had seen the ab- 
surdity of such ridiculous pageants ; probably, in the year 1590 
or 1591.  
Mr. Rowe, in his first edition of Shakspeare, says, "It is 
owned that some part of Pericles certahdy was written by him, 
particularly the last Act." Dr. Farmer, whose opinion in every 
thing that relates to our author has deservedly the greatest 
weight, thinks the hand of Shakspeare may be sometimes seen in 
the latter part of the play, and there only. The scene, in the last 
Act, in which Pericles discovers his daughter, is indeed emi- 

* If this play vas written in the year 1590 or 1591, with what colour of 
truth could it be styled (as it is in the title-page to the first edition of it, 4to. 
1609,) " the late and much admired" &c. ? 



would be found to have availed himself of the same licence in 
his other tragedies; nor perhaps, would an individual writer 
have called the same characters and places alternately Pericles 
and Pericles, Thaisa and Thaisa, PenlapSlis and PentapSlis. 
Shakspeare never varies the quantity of his proper names in the 
compass of one play. In Cumbeline we always meet with Post- 
hfmus, not Posthfimus, Arvirfigus and not Arvirgus. 
It may appear singular that I have hitherto laid no stress on 
such parallels between the acknowledged plays of Shakspeare and 
Pericles, as are produced in the course of our preceding illus- 
trations. But perhaps any argument flint could be derived frorri 
so few of these, ought not to be decisive; for the same reason- 
ing might tend to prove that every little piece of coincidence of 
thought and expression, is in reality one of the petty larcenies 
of literature ; and thus we might in the end impeach the original 
merit of those whom we ought not to suspect of having need 
to borrow from their predecessors.  I can only add on this 
subject, (like Dr. Farmer. ) that the world is already possessed 
the Marks of Initatzon; and that there is scarce one English 
tragedy, but bears some slight internal resemblance to another, 
I therefore attempt no deduction from premises occasionally fal- 
lacious, nor pretend to discover in the piece before us the draughts 
of scenes whid were afterwards more happily wrought, or the 
slender and crude principles of ideas which on other occasions 
were dilated into consequence or polished into lustre.- Not 

* Dr. Johnson once assured me, that when he wrote his Irene he had never 
read Othello; but meeting with it soon afterwards, was surprized to find he had 
given one of his characters a speech very strongly resembliug that in which 
Cassio describes the effects produced by Desdemona's beauty on such inani- 
mate objects as the gutter'd rocks and congregated sands. The Doctor added, 
that on making the discoveD', for fear of imputed plagiarism, he struck out this 
accidental coincidence from his own tragedy. 
 Though I admit that a small portion of general and occasional relations 
may pass unsuspected |i'om the works of one author into those of another, yet 
when multitudes of minute coincidences occur, they must have owed their 
introduction to contrivance and desi. The surest and least equivocal marks 
of imitatioa (sa.vs Dr. Hurd) are to be found in peculiarities of phrase and 
diction ; an identity in both, is the most certain note of plagiarism. 
This observation inclines me to oiler a few words in regard to Shakspeare' 
imputed share in The Two Noble Kinsmen. 
On llr. Pope's opinion relative to this subject, no great reliance can be 
placed ; for he who reprobated The Winter's Tale as a performance alien to 
Shakspeare, could boast of little acquaintance vith the spirit or manner of the 
author whom he undertook to correct and explain. 
Dr. Warburton (Vol. I. after the table of editions) expresses a belief that our 
great poet wrote "the first Act, but in his worst manner." The Doctor indeed 
only seems to have been ambitious of adding somewhat (though at randon) to 
.qm decision of his predecessor. 
VOI,. XXI.  D 



Were I disposed, with controversial wantonness, to reason 
against conviction, I might add, that as Shakspeare is known to 

been so poor in language as well as ideas, that he was constrained to borrow 
in the compass of hal t" the Noble Kinsmen from above a dozen entire plays 
of his own composition, advance some hypothesis more plausible than the 
tbllowing ; and yet I flatter myself that readers may be found who will concur 
with me in believing this tragedy to have been ,'ritten by Fletcher in silent 
imitation of our author's manner. No other circumstance could well have oc- 
casioned such a frequent occurrence of corresponding phrases, &c. ; nor, in my 
opinion, could any particular, but this, have induced the players to propagate 
the report, that our author was Fletcher's coadjutor in the piece.--There is 
nothing unusual in these attempts at imitation. Dryden, in his preface to 
All Jbr Love, professes to copy the style of Shakspeare. Rowe, i, iris Jane 
Shore, arrogates to himself the merit of having pursued the same plan. How 
thr these poets have succeeded, it is not my present business to exmnine ; but 
Fletcher's imitation, like that of many others, is chiefly verbal ; and yet (when 
joined with other circumstances) was perfect enough to have misled the judg- 
ment of the players. Those people, who in the course of their profession 
must have had much of Shakspeare's language recent in their memories, could 
easily discover traces of it in this performance. They could likewise observe 
that the drmna opens with the same characlers as first enter in A Midsummer- 
Night's Dream ; that Clowns exert themselves for the entertainment of Theseus 
in both ; that a pedagogue likewise directs the sports in Love's Labom"s Lost ; 
that a character of female frenzy, copied t?oln Ophelia, is notorious in the 
Jailor's Daughter; and that this girl, like Lady Macbeth, is attended by a phy- 
sician who describes the difficulties of her case, and comments on it, in ahnost 
similar terms. They might therefore conclude that the play before us was in 
part a production of the same writer. Over this line, the criticks behiad the 
scenes were unable to proceed. Their sagacity was insufficient to observe that 
the general current of the style was even throughout the whole, and bore no 
marks of a divided hand. Hence perhaps the sol geminus and duplices Thbm 
of these very incompetent judges, who, like staunch match-makers, ,vere de- 
sirous that the widowed muse of Fletcher should not long remain without . 
Lest it should be urged that one of my arguments against Shakspeare's co- 
operation in The Two Noble h'insmen would equally militte against his shm'e 
in Pericles, it becomes necessary for me to -ard off any objection to that 
purpose, by remarking that the circumstances attendant on these two dramas 
are by no means exactly parallel. Shakspeare probably furnished his share in 
the latter at an early period of his authorship, and afterwards (having never 
o,-ned it, or supposing it to be forgotten) was willing to profit by the most 
valuable lines and ideas it contained. But he would scarce have been consi- 
dered hilnself as an object of imitation, before he had reached his meridim 
fame ; and in my opinion, The Noble Kinsmen could not have been com- 
posed till atier 1611, nor perhaps antecedent to the deaths of Beaumont and 
our author, when assistance and competition ceased, and the poet  !1o resem- 
bled the latter most, had the fairest prospect of success. During the life of 
14eaumont, which concluded in 1615, it cannot well be supposed that Fletcher 
would have deserted him, to write in concert with any other dramatist. Shak- 
speare survived Beaumont only by one year, and, during that year, is knovn 
to have lived in Warwickshire, beyond the reach of Fletclwr, who continued 
to reside in London till he fell a sacrifice to the plague in 1625 ; so that there 
was no opportunit tbr thcm to have joined in personal conference relative to 


any other argument that can be adduced. If we are to form our 
judgment bythose unerringcriterionswhich have been established 
by the learned author of The Discourse on Poetical Imitation, 
the question will be quickly decided ; for who can point out two 
writers, that without any communication or knowledge of each 
other ever produced so many passages, coinciding both in senti- 
ment and expression, as are found in this piece and the undis- 
puted plays of Shakspeare ? * Should it be said, that he did not 
scruple to borrow both fables and sentiments fi'om other writers, 
and that therefore this circumstance will not prove this tragedy 
to be his ; it may be answered, that had Pericles been an anony- 
mous production, this coincidence might not perhaps ascertain 
Shakspeare's title to the play; and he might with sufficient pro- 
bability be supposed to have only borrowed fi'om another; but 
when, in addition to all the circumstances already stated, we 
recollect the constant tradition that has accompanied this piece, 
and that it was printed with his name, in his lilt-time, as acted 
at his own theatre, the parallel passages which are so abundantly 
scattered throughout every part of Pericles and his undisputed 
performances, afford no slight proof, that in the several instances 
enumerated in the course of the preceding observations, he bor- 
rowed, as was his fi'equent practice, from himself; and that this 
contested play was his own composition. 
The. testimony, of Dryden to this point does not appear to me 
so Inconsiderable as it has been represented. If he had only 
meant to say, that Pericles was produced before Othello, the 
second line of the couplet which has been already quoted, would 
have sufficiently expressed his meaning ; nor, in order to convey 
this idea was it necessary to call the former thejTrst dramatick 
performance of Shakspeare; a .particular which he lived near 
enough the time to have learned trom stage-tradition, or the more 
certain information of his friend Sir William D'Avenant?f If 

 " Considering the vast variety of words which any language, and espe- 
cially the more copious ones furnish, and the infinite possible combinations of 
them into all the forms of phraseology, it would be very strange, if two persons 
should hit on the same identical terms, and much more, should they agree in 
the same precise an'angement of them in whole sentences." Discourse 
Poetical Imitation, Hurd's Horace, Vol. III. p. 109, edit. 1766. 
t Sir William ])'Avenant produced his first play at the theatre in Black- 
fryers, in 1629, when be was twenty-four years old, at which time his passion 
for apple-hunting, we may presume, bad subsided, and given way to more 
manly pursuits. That a young poet thus early acquainted with the stage, who 
appears to have had a great veneration for our author, who was possessed of 
the only original picture of Shakspeare ever painted, who carefullE preserved 



he had only taken the folio edition of our author's works for his 
guide, without any other authority, he would have named The 
Tempest as his earliest production ; because it happens to stand 
first in the volume. But however this may be, and whether, 
when Dryden entitled Pericles our author's first composition, he 
meant to be understood literally or not, let it be remembered, 
that he calls it his PErCLES ; and he speaks of it as the legiti- 
mate, not the spurious or adopted, offspring of our poet's muse ; 
as the sole, not the partial, property of Shakspeare. 
I am yet, therefore, unconvinced, that this drama was not 
written by our author. The wildness and irregularity of the 
fable, the artless conduct of the piece, and the inequalities of 
the poetry, may, I think, be all accounted for, by supposing it 
either his first or one of his earliest essays in dramatick compo- 
sition. Mar.OE. 
On looking into Roscius Anglicanus, better known by the 
name of Downes the Prompter's Book, originally printed in 1708, 
and lately republished by the ingenious Mr. Waldron of Drury 
Lane Theatre, I was not a little surprized to find, that Pericles, 
Prince of Tyre, was one of the characters in which the famous 
Betterton had been most applauded.--Could the copy from which 
this play was acted by him and his associates, be recovered, it 
would prove a singular curiosity; at least, to those who have 
since been drudging through every scene of the original quarto, 
1609, in the hope of restoring it to such a degree of sense and 
measure as might give it currency with the reader. 
As for the present editor, he expects to be 
" Stopp'd in phials, and transfix'd with pins," 
on account of the readiness with which he has obeyed the second 
clause of the Ovidian precept: 
" Cuncta prius tentanda; sed immedicabile vulnus 
" Ense recidendum." 

a letter written to him by King James, who himself altered four of his plays 
and introduced them in a new form on the stage, should have been altogether 
incurious about the early history and juvenile productions of the great luminary 
of the dramatick world, (then only thirteen years dead) who happened also to 
be his god-father, and was by many reputed his father, is not very credible. 
That he should have never made an enquiry concerning a play, printed with 
Shakspeare's name, and which appears to have been a popular piece at the 
very time when D'Avenant produced his first dramatick essay, (a third edition 
of Pericles having been printed in 1630) is equally improbable. And it is still 
more incredible that our author's friend, old Mr. Heninge, who was alive in 
169, and principal proprietor and manager of the Globe and ]31ackfryars 
play houses, should not have been able to give him any information concerning 
a play, which had been produced at the former theatre, probably while it was 
nder his direction, aud had been acted by his company with great applause tbr 
more than thirt S sears. 


When it is proved, however, that a gentle process might have 
been employed with equal success, let the actual cautery be 
rejected, or applied to the remarks of him who has so freely 
used it. S:EEVErS. 




Vol. IV. p. 71. TEMPEST. 
this lord-----hath here almost persuaded 
(For he's a spirit of persuasion onlg,) 
The king, his son'dalive;] Tills is fi'om the Bible, 
! Kings, ch. xxii. ver. 21. " And there came forth a spirit and 
stood before the Lord, and said, I will persuade him." 
IBID. p. 214. Two GENrLEMV, I OF VEROna. 
--like a wood woman ;] A wood woman is a mad wo- 
man, and is so called at this day in Scotland. 

Sir Hugh Evans.] In 1564 was published a translation 
Horace by Lewes Evans, schole-master; from which it is very 
probable Shakspeare took the name of his Welch school- 
master. HARRIS. 

She toolc the ring of me; I'll none of it.] This line should 
be pointed thus, 
She took the ring of me ? Pll none of it. 
This punctuation renders the passage intelligible, and will 
iave all the observations made upon it. HARRIS. 


Vol. XVII. p. 49(;. KING LEAR. 
Bind fast his corky arms.] Cory is deceitful. HAlnS. 
Vol. XVIIL p. 491. CYBELINE. 
Andirons, ] 1VIr. Steevens has rightly explained 
the ornaments of the Andirons: Mr. Whalley, not knowing 
that dogs and andirons are different names for the same thing 
has run into a mistake. HAIRS. 
Vol. XIX. p. 290. OTHELLO. 
Let housewives nmke a skillet ofnq helm.] i.e. a skillet of 
my hehnet. A skillet is a snall kettle with three legs, for the 
purpose 6f using on wood fires made on hearths. HARaIS. 
IBID. p. 502. 
She was false as water.] So, in the Book of Genes[s 
eh. xlix. ver. 4. "Unstable as water." 



coy, iv. 440. 
coyed, xvi. 211. 
coystril, v. 248. 
.... xxi. 345. 
coziers' catches, v. 298. 
crab, iv. $51. 
crabs, vii. 21:3. 
crack x. 22. 
- - - xii. 129. 
- - - xvi. 32. 
crack of doom, x. 217. 
cracked crowns, xi. 267. 
cracked in the ring, xviii. 145. 
eraftied, xviii. 524. 
craftily qualified, xix. SSS. 
eraking, xi. $22. 
cranks, xvi. 14. 
crate, xviii. 57S. 
craven, ix. 
.... xviii. 274. 
cravens, xviii. 528. 
cream, vii. 2S8. 
create, xii. SSS. 
eredent, v. $9S. 
- - vi. $77. 
- - ix. 299. 
creep, xv. $67. 
crescive, xii. 285. 
cressets, xi. S17. 
Cressid's kind, xii. :37. 
crewel, xvii. &16. 
cries on, xix. 483. 
crisp, iv. 1S4. 
- - - xi. 22"2. 
- - - xix. 154. 
crisped, vii. :314. 
Crispin, xii. 456. 
critical, iv. 467. 
.... xix. :315. 
critick, vii. 11S. 
.... xv. 442. 
crocodile tears, xix. 449. 
crone, ix. 277. 
crooked, xi. 51. 
Crosby-place, xiv. 295. 
cross, viii. 53. 

cross bow, xiv. 99. 
cross gartered, v. SS2. 
crossed, xix. 46. 
crosses, vii. 25. 
.... xii. 4.0. 
crow-keeper, xvii. 541. 
....... xx. 46. 
crovn up, xv. S5S. 
crowned, xix. 72, 159. 
..... xxi. S65. 
crowner's quest law, xviii. 
crownet, xvii. 2S0. 
crowns, xxi. $17. 
crush a cup, xx. S5. 
crushed, xv. 244. 
eruzadoes, xix. 41:3. 
cry, xvi. 165, 205. 
- - xviii. 21S. 
cry aim, v. 106, 120. 
.... x. $8S. 
cry, havock, x. S92. 
....... xvi. 1S6. 
cry woe, xvii. 45S. 
cry'd game, v. 106. 
crys on, xviii. 
cub-drawn, xvii. 445. 
cuckoo, xi. 40'2. 
cuckoo buds, vii. 209. 
cudgel thy brains, xviii. $23. 
cue, xii. 
- - - xiv. :396. 
- - - xviii. 158. 
cues, iv. :397. 
cuisses, xi. :381. 
cunning, ix. 
..... xi. S08. 
..... xix. 209, 36S. 
..... xxi. 271. 
cunning of a carper, xix. 157. 
curb, xviii. 251. 
curfew, xvii. 471. 
curfew bell, xx. 209. 
curled, xix. 251. 
curious, ix. 162. 
.... xvii. 1S6. 



good life, v; 290. 
good masters, ix. 411. 
good morrow, xix. 556. 
good name, xix. S74. 
good time, iv. 199. 
...... vi. 809. 
...... xiv. $67. 
good year, xii. 82: 
gorbellied, xi. 257. 
gorged, ix. 155. 
gospe!ler, x. 153. 
goss, iv. 141. 
gossips, iv. 251. 
gossomer, xvii. 537. 
..... xx. 130. 
government, iv. 472. 
....... xiv. 42. 
goujeers, xvli. 579. 
goujere, vi. 
gourds, v. 45. 
gouts, x. 100. 
grace, iv. 588. 
- - - xvii. 58:5. 
grace exact, xv. 275. 
grace of kings, xii. 316. 
graced, xiv. 458. 
grac.eful, ix. 398. 
gracious, iv. 256. 
..... vi. 125. 
..... vii. 313. 
..... x. 454. 
..... xv. 308. 
..... xix. 281. 
gracious silence, xvi. 74. 
grained, xviii. 246. 
.... xx. 455. 
gramercy, xxi. 89. 
grandsire.phrase, xx. 49. 
grange, Vl. 513. 
.... xix. 254. 
grant, xvii. 132. 
grapple, x. 504. 
.... xviii. 55. 
gratulate, vi. 416. 
Graymalkin, x. 17. 
grave, xi. 96. 

grave, xix. 155. 
grave charm, xvii. 229. 
grave man, xx. 157. 
graze, xix. 451. 
great measure, vi. 7. 
great morning, xv. $91. 
........ xviii. 561. 
great sort, xii. 486. 
greaves, xii. 158. 
Greek, xv. 248. 
green, vii. 29. 
- - - xix. 12S, 924. 
- - - xx. 207. 
green eyes, iv. 489. 
green sleeves, v. 64. 
greenly, xii. 515. 
.... xviii. 284. 
greet the time, xvii. 573. 
greets, xxi. 325. 
grew tog.ether, xv. 10. 
grey, XXl. 42. 
grey eyes, xx. 107. 
grief, xi. 217, 392. 
- - - xii. 19, 165. 
- - - xiii. 178. 
griefs, iv. 505. 
- - - xii. 159. 
- - - xvi. 574. 
- - - xvii. 74. 
grievances, iv. 278. 
gr!ping grief, xx. 222. 
grlse, v. 345. 
- - - xix. 275. 
Grissel, ix. 88. 
grize, xix. 154. 
gross and scope, xviii. 12. 
grossly, xii. 337. 
groundlings, xviii. I82. a poiut, iv. 555. 
growing, xx. 410. 
growth, ix. 312. 
grunt, xviii. 172. 
guard, vi. 27, S00. 
.... x. 470. 
guard of safety, xix. 545. 
guarded, vii. 272. 



guarded, xii. 156, 449. 
guerdon, vi. 170. 
.... vii. 63. 
guerdoned, xiv. 128. 
Guiana, v. 43. 
guiled, vii. S14. 
guilty to, ix. 
Guinea hen, xix. 293. 
Guinever, vii. 82. 
gules, xviii. 151. 
- - - xix. 140. 
gull, xix. 57. 
gummed velvet, xi. 252. 
gun stones, xii. 312. 
gust, xix. 111. 
gust it, ix. 236. 
guts, xviii. 258. 
Guy of Warwick, xv. 202. 
gyve, xix. 318. 
gyves, xi. 387. 
H. vi. 110. 
haberdasher's wife, xv. 204. 
haggard, y. 329. 
..... x. 155. 
..... xix. $87. 
hair, xi. $74. 
- - - xx. 404. 
hair against, v. 108. 
...... xv. 245. 
...... xx. 113. 
halcyon, xvii. 402. 
half caps, xix. 75. 
half faced, xi. 230. 
half faced groat, x. 851. 
half kirtles, xii. 248. 
halfpence, vi. 72. 
hall ! a hall, xx. 65. 
ttallowmas, iv. 204. 
...... xi. 142. 
hand, x. 138. 
handiest, xv. 236. 

hands not hearts, xix. 414. 
handsaw, xviii. 1S9. 
handy dandy, xvii. 547. 
hangers, xviii. 359. 
hangman, vi. 87. 
happily, ix. 163. 
.... xv. 154, 178. 
happy, xv. 6. 
.... xviii. 535. 
happy man be his dole, v. 145. 
............ ix. 46, 
happy time, xx. 179. 
haps, xviii. 271. 
hardiment, xi. 221. 
hare, xi. 201. 
hare lip, iv. 496. 
harlocks, xvii. 527. 
harlot, xx. 449. 
harlotry, xi. 302. 
harness, x. 284. 
.... xvii. 220. 
.... xix. 37. 
harp, x. 212. 
Harper, x. 2QS. 
harrows, xviii. 10. 
harryed, xvii. 14S. 
hart of Greece, ix. 84. 
hart of ten, ix. 96. 
harvest home, xi. 215. 
haste post haste, xix. 48, 
Hastings, Lord, xiv. 40S. 
hatch, xv. 265, 266. 
.... xxi. S09. 
have with you, xiv. $88. 
........ xix. 250. 
having, v. 128. 
.... viii. 109. 
.... x. 40. 
.... xv. 79. 
.... xix. 477. 
haviour, xviii. 523. 
havock, xvi. 347. 
haught, xi. 133. 
.... xiv. 57. 



nad, xix. 4q2. 
made, v. 77. 
.... ix. SIO. 
.... xv. 99. 
made intent, xvii. 560. 
made it good, ix. 19. 
made means, xiv. 510. 
made up, xix. 191. 
Madona, v. 262. 
magot pie, x. 187. 
magnificent, vii. 65. 
magnifico, xix. 245. 
Mahomet, xiii. 27. 
Mahu, xvii. 476. 
Maid Marian, xi. $63. 
mailed, xiii. 253. 
..... xvi. S0. 
maimed rites, xviii. $84. 
main, xvii. 444. 
main des.c!-y, xvii: 55S. 
main opmmn, xv. 287. 
main top., xviii. 585. 
major, xu S11. 
make, viii. 7, 153, 176. 
.... xviii. 427. 
make a grave, xv. 64 
make a man, iv. 83. 
make incision, viii. 86. 
make means, iv. S05. 
make my match, xv. 405. 
make my play, xv. 5S. 
nmke remain, xvi. 40. 
make the doors, viii. 144. 
make up, xvii. $23. 
make we, xix. 109. 
make you, xviii. 42. 
make you here, v. 162. 
making, xxi. $27. 
male, vii. 57. 
male varlc.t, xv. 426. 
malkin, xvi. 77. 
..... xxi. 3.'23. 
mallet, xii. 101. 
Blall's picture, v. 254. 
malmsey nose, xii. 51. 
maltworms, xi. 247. 

mammering, xix. 364. 
mammocked, xvi. $2. 
mammets, xi. 267. 
man at arms, vii. 122. 
man of salt, xvii. 552. 
man of wax, xx. 4.1. 
manacle, xviii. 
manage, x. S46. 
mandragora, xvii. 51. 
........ ix. $95. 
mandrake, xii. 25, 149. 
....... xiii. 297. 
....... xx. 208. 
mankind, xvi. 172. 
mankind witch, ix. 275. 
manner, ix. 382. 
mannered, xxi. 282. 
Manningtree, xi. 507. 
man queller, xii. 52. 
many, xv. 
.... xvi. 120. 
many headed, xvi. 99. 
mar, xvi. 359. 
marble, xix. 155. 
marble heaven, xix. 408. 
marble pavement, xviii. 
March, Edward, earl of 
xiv. 55. 
march pane, xx. 
marches, xii. 297. 
Marcheta, xiii. $52. 
Margaret, Queen; xiv. 90. 
marg.ent, xviii. 60. 
margin, xx. 42. 
mark of favour, xvi. 96. 
market, xviii. 74. 
marr'd, xx. 26. 
married, xv. 270. 
marry trap, v. 25. 
marshal, iv. $89. 
martial hand, v. $50. 
martlemas, xii. 66. 
mawellous xiv. 298. 
Mary buds xvlii. 476. 
Mary Frith . 55. 



mettle, v. 41zb. 
.... xiv. 467. 
mew, xiv. 280. 
mewed, xx. 168. 
micber, xi. $04. 
iaiching mallicho, xviii. 200. 
microcosm, xvi. 67. 
middle earth, v. '2-08. 
midsummer madness, v. 
milch, xviii. 155. 
Mile-end Green, xii. 11.3. 
milled sixpences, v. 22. 
mimick, iv. 4_08. 
mince, v. 193. 
minces, xvii. 
mind, xii. 459. 
.... xvii. 24O-. 
.... xix. a7. 
mind of honour, vi. 287. 
minding, xii. 42. 
mind's eye, xviii. 
mine own, xxi. 37. 
mineral, xviii. 61. 
minikin, xvii. 
minim, v. :39. 
..... xx. 105. 
minnow, vii. 21. 
...... xvi. 122. 
minstrd, xx. 221. 
minute Jacks, xix. 121. 
minutes of the night, xviii. 8. 
misanthropo: xix. 1-0. 
mscreate, xn. 288. 
misdoubt, xiv. 201, 88. 
mser, xiii. 165. 
msery, xvi. 95. ' 
msprised, iv. 413. 
nuspr!sing, i. 80. 
mss, v. 7. 
nussingly noted, ix. 816. 
nussion, xv. 871. 
missives, x. 61. 
nustake, xviii. 210. 
mstempered, xx. 14. xiv. 87. 

mistery, vi. g47. 
mistful, xii. 476. 
mobled, xviii. 153. 
mock, xix. 975. 
mode; xii. _o09. 
model, xi. 97, 198. 
modern, viii: 74, 276, z01. 
..... x. o-45, 452. 
..... xvii. 28.o. 
..... xix. O-67. 
..... xx. 155. 
modesty, ix. O-1. 
..... xviii. 148. 
Modo, xvii. 476. 
module, viii. 
.... x. 532. 
moe, iv: 81. 
moiety, xi. 
.... xvii. 306. 
moist star, xviii. 19; 
moldwarp, xi. 526. 
mome, xx. 589. 
momentany, iv. 
monarch, viii. 1 $. 
Monarcho, vii. 77. 
monarchs of the north, xiii. 
moneyers, xi. o47. 
Monmouth caps, xii. 485. 
monopoly xvii. 361. 
monsters, xvii. 925. 
blontacute, Lord, xv. 25o 
Montante, vi. 7. 
Montjoy, xii. 405. 
months mind, iv. 196. 
mood, iv. 268, 413. 
.... viii. 582. 
moody, xvii. 98. 
moones, iv. 
moonish, viii. 110. 
mope, xviii. 245. 
mops and moes, iv. 119. 
moral, vi. 1 
.... ix. 16. 
.... xii. 522. 
.... xv. 898. 



reason, xvi. 198, 
.... xviii. 55. 
reasoned, vii. 294:. 
reasoning, iv. 210. 
rebeck, xx. 223. 
recheate, vi. 2:3. 
reck, vi. 288. 
recking, iv. 278. 
reckless, iv. 296. 
reckoning, xx. :31. 
recks, viii. 57. 
.... xviii:_ 54:. 
recollected, v. :305. 
record, iv. 297. 
.... xxi. 291. 
recorded, x. 280. 
recorder, iv. 472. 
recorders, xviii. 218. 
recover the wind, xviii. 219. 
recourse, xv. 4:5:3. 
recure, xiv. 4:20. 
red-breast, xviii. 577. 
red lattice, v. 85. 
...... xii. 65. 
red plague, iv. 4:2. 
reduce, xiv. 525. 
reechy, vi. 102. 
.... xvi. 78. 
.... xviii. 25. 
reel, xvii. 126. 
refelled, vi. :387. 
refuse, xv. 94. 
reg!ment,, xvii. 156. 
region, xx. 4:39. 
regreet, x. 4:31. 
regreets, vii. :302. 
reguerdon, xiii. 9:3, 111. 
relapse, xii. 4:61. 
relative, xviii. 162. 
relish, xxi. 247. 
remembrance, xii. 228. 
remembered, viii. 80. 
....... xiv. :362. 
remiss, xviii. :312. 
remorse, iv. 154:. 
..... vi. 250. 

remorse, vii. :34:2'. 
..... viii. :36. 
..... x. 65, 4:94. 
..... xiii. 170. 
..... xiv. 4:2:3. 
..... xvi. 288. 
..... xix. 4:00, 4:09. 
remorsefid, iv. 277. 
...... xiii. :309. 
remotion, xix. 169. 
removed, vi. 213. 
..... viii. 107. 
..... xi. :371. 
..... xviii. 74,. 
removes, viii. :396. 
remuneration, vii. 64:. 
render, viii. 158. 
..... xviii. 594:. 
..... xix. 197. 
reneges, xvii. 5. 
rent, x. 24:5. 
repair, viii. 227. 
.... xiii. 3960 
.... xxi. :316. 
repeal, xvi. 175. 
repeals, xix. :353. 
reports, xvii. 69., xiii. 118. 
reqmem, xviii. 536. 
reserve, xvii. S17. 
..... xxi. 501. 
resist, xxi. 2:31. 
resolve, x. 516. 
..... xiii. 24:. 
..... xvii. 34:1. 
..... xviii. :38. 
resolved, vi. :3:32. 
...... xiii. 111. 
...... xxi. 241. 
respect, vii. 579. 
..... xviii. 169. 
respective, iv. 290. 
....... vii. 083. 
....... x. :359. 
....... xx. 139. 
respectively, xix. 78. 



wage, xvii. 26`2-, 437. 
- - - xix. `2-59. 
wage agai.nst, xvii. 318. 
wages, xxu 309. 
waist, iv. `2-8. 
.... xviii. 45. 
wake your patience, vi. 150. 
walk, v. `2-00. 
waned, xvii. 59. 
wann'd, xviii. 157. 
wannion, xxi. ,2,10. 
wanton, xviii. 874. 
wanton dulness, xix. `2-90. 
wappened, xix. 135. 
ward, v. 96. 
.... viii. 203. 
.... xv. `2-56. 
warden pies, ix. 3'2.4. 
warder, x. 90. 
..... xi. -'26. 
wardrobes, xviii. 526. 
warn, xiv. 301. 
.... xvi. 395. 
warped, viii. 78. 
washing at meals, ix. 
wassel, x. 89. 
.... xvii. 49. 
.... xviii. 64. 
wassel candle, xii. 6. 
wassels, vii. 165. 
waste, xix. 470. 
wasteful, xix. 70. 
watch, xi. 162. 
.... xiv. 49`2-. 
watch case, xii. 115. 
watch him tame, xix. 361. 
watched, xv. 342. 
watches, v. 
water, xiii. S12. 
water fly, xviii. 553. 
water work, xii. 58. 
watrv moon, xiv. 350. 
wax, v. 3`2-8. 
- - - vii. 145. 
wax, writing on, xlx. 1. 
waxen iv. 52. 

waxen, xi. `2-4. 
..... xii. 307. 
weak list, xii. 5`2-0. 
weaken motion, xix. 
we01th, vii. 88. 
weather bitten, ix. 404. 
weavers, psalm-singers, xi.28. 
weazel, xviii. ,2,21. 
web and pin, xvii. 47`2-. 
wed, xviii. 406. 
wedding knives, xx. 206. 
wee, v. 49. 
weed, xxi. '2-97. 
week, by, vii. 147. 
ween, xv. 180. 
weigh, viii. 318. 
.... xv. 180. 
weigh out, xv. 109. 
weighed, iv. 63. 
weird sisters, x. . 
welkin, vii. 56. 
welkin eye, ix. `2-`2-8. 
welkin roar, xii. 9. 
well, ix. 90. 
well advised, vii. 175. 
well a near, xxi. `2-55. 
well appointed, xii. 156, . 
well found, viii. `2-62. 
well liking, vii. 160. 
well proportioned, xiii. ,2,91. 
well reputed, xvi. S11. 
well said, xxi. `2-77. 
well shot, xiv. `2-77. 
well struck, xiv. `2-77. 
Welsh hook, xi. ,2,91. 
wench, xix. 514. 
wend, vi. 371. 
.... xx. 56. 
Westward Hoe, v. 
wether, viii. 87. 
whalesbone, vii. 166. 
what though, viii. 116. 
wheel, xviii. 293. 
whelked, xvii. 539. 
whelks and knobs, xii. 44}1. 
when, iv. 1: