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FROM 1591 TO 1700. VOL. I. 






1 51 

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THESE volumes were not made in a day. Thirty years have 
passed in their compilation, and the thousands of books from 
which their contents have been drawn stretch over three hundred 
years. Many willing hands, too, have lerit assistance. Antiquaries, 
scholars, and friendly readers, have all most kindly helped. 

Clement Mansfield Ingleby, Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith, and 
Dr. Furnivall, who have been the great workers in this matter, 
were assisted by the members of the New Shakspere Society. 
Many of the allusions were discovered by Halliwell-Phillips, as the 
initials printed in the text will show. Mr. P. A. Lyons, Dr. 
Brinsley Nicholson, Professor Dowden, and Mr. P. A. Daniel also 
helped a great deal. To the two latter gentlemen, I, too, have to 
acknowledge indebtedness. To Mrs. Stopes, Miss Spurgeon, 
Professor Manly of Chicago, Dr. Bradley, Mr. R. B. McKerrow, 
and Professor Ker, I am grateful for references and advice. 
Thanks are no less given to all those who have been good enough 
to forward references. 

Through all, from the commencement of these volumes to now, 
the advice and practical help of Dr. Furnivall have been freely 
given, and the frequency of his initials throughout our text testify 
to the splendid way in which he has so ungrudgingly laboured in 
this, as in so many other departments of literary work. 

In this edition, the initials of those responsible for allusions are 
printed beneath them. 



INTRODUCTION ... ... ... 


1649 ... ... ... ... ... ixxiii 

ALLUSIONS, 1591-1649 ... ... ... i 


History of the Allusion Book, p. xi. 
a Allusions to Shakspere 's Works giving Dates, p. xvii. 
Allusions to Contemporary Events, p. xix. 
7 Allusions of Shakspere' s Contemporaries, p. xix. 

a References to Works and Characters, p. xxii. 

b Shakspere, the Man and his Contemporaries, p. xxv. 

c Borrowings from his Works : ShaksperJs Influence over his 

Contemporaries, p. xxxiii. 
5 Allusions of Shakspere' s Successors, p. xlvi. 

a Allusions to Shakspere himself as Poet and Playwright, p. xlviii. 

b Borrowings from his Works, p. Ixiii. 

c References to Works and Characters, p. Ixiii. 

d Alterations of his Plays, p. Ixiv. 
Legends of Shakspere and his Works, p. Ixvii. 

History of the Allusion Book. Many and interesting are the 
parallels which might be drawn in political, religious and literary 
history between the Elizabethan and Victorian times ; yet 
intellectually, the two eras are widely different. In the latter, 
together with other causes, the manipulation of natural forces in 
industrial development and the perfection of locomotion, turned 
intellectual activity into pathways of Science. The necessity for 
absolute accuracy began to be felt on all sides. The Victorian era 
is distinguished by long and patient research, by the methodical 
classification of data, and by the subsequent deduction of laws 
which might assist in the pursuit of knowledge. 

The influence of the exact methods of science is to be traced in 
many departments of intellectual labour, and particularly in what 
one may call the higher criticism, whether it be of literature, art, or 


religion. The application of scientific critical principles and 
research to Piers Plowman, and the works of Chaucer, Gower, 
Lydgate, Shakspere, and other masters in our literature, has led, 
through revolutions of different magnitudes, to a wider and deeper 
knowledge, and a truer and worthier appreciation of the labours of 
our great literary men. The advance made by the Victorian 
Shakspereans on all that had gone before was magnificent, and the 
advance was made through the adoption of correct principles, and 
the subsequent discovery of laws, whose application elucidated 
difficult and complex problems. Properly speaking, we may 
distinguish two Victorian schools, an earlier and a later, 1 the former 
distinguished for its antiquarian illustration, textual emendation and 
verbal criticism (and, unhappily, for deviations in the shape of 
forgeries), and the latter for its exposition of the growth and 
development of Shakspere's art, for illustration of his times, and the 
relation of his work to that of his contemporaries, besides the 
continuation of the labours begun by the earlier school. Adequate 
attention was first given by the later Victorians to the Apocryphal 
Plays which less critical generations had ascribed to Shakspere, and 
to the sources used by the dramatist ; by the establishment of line- 
ending tests, a study of style, and the collection of external evidence 
such as contemporary allusions and entries in the Stationers' Books, 
the chronological sequence of the poems and plays was worked out 
with an approach to accuracy. All manner of records and 
documents were brought together and printed, and a vast literature 
of Shaksperean biography, bibliography and elucidation arose. 

Among all these critical and historical books the publications of 
the New Shakspere Society have a high place. In the words of the 
Society's founder, that indefatigable scholar, Dr. Furnivall, " to do 
honour to Shakspere, to make out the succession of his plays, and 
thereby the growth of his mind and art ; to promote the intelligent 
study of him, and to print texts illustrating his work and times, this 
New Shakspere Society was founded in the autumn of 1873." One 
of the most valuable books published to effect some of these 
purposes, was the Centurie of Prayse^ a collection of Shaksperean 

1 Shakespeare: Life and Work, by F. J. Furnivall and John Munro, 1908, 
PP- 72, 73- 


allusions, edited by Dr. C. M. Ingleby and generously presented by 
him to the members of the Society in 1874. A second edition of 
this book was presented by Dr. Ingleby in 1879, when Miss L. T. 
Smith undertook to edit it, and when the number of allusions to 
Shakspere and his works grew from 228 to 356. Even this, how- 
ever, did not half exhaust the available allusions, for Dr. Furnivall 
in 1886 came out with his Some 300 Fresh Allusions to Shakspere 
from 1594 to 1694 &.T>., gathered by Members of the New Shakspere 
Society. And now in 1908, in this combined edition of the Centurie 
and Fresh Allusions, I have added some 130 new allusions to the 
old stock, and there are still more not in this collection. 

Dr. Ingleby's original idea was to have printed only those 
references to the poet which occurred within his lifetime, a scheme 
practically identical with an unaccomplished design of Dr. Grosart's, 
announced in 1870, for preparing a Contemporary Judgment of 
Poets. Ingleby's work, however, gradually grew into a Centurie, and 
was brought to an end with the allusions of the first great English 
critic, John Dryden, in 1693, it being resolved that formal criticism 
should be excluded. The " pre-critical century," as Ingleby called 
the period his collection represented, was held by him to divide 
itself naturally into four periods : the first extending from the 
earliest allusion (1592) to the poet's death in 1616 ; the second horn. 
then to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 ; the third from the 
closing of the theatres to the Restoration ; and fat fourth from the 
return of the monarchy to the rise of criticism. Miss L. T. Smith 
and Dr. Furnivall abided by these divisions, but the latter included 
also Dry den's Prologue to Love Triumphant, 1694, thus exceeding 
the limit of 1693. 

Dryden's Essay Of Dramatick Poesy was published in 1668, his 
Conquest of Granada, containing critical remarks on Shakspere, in 
1672, his great Preface to Troilus and Cressida in 1679. Before 
then, the remarks on Shakspere by Margaret Cavendish in 1664 
show a good critical appreciation ; Edward Phillips's .Theatrum 
Poetarum, in 1675, much as it eulogises Shakspere, attempts an 
elementary criticism on correct grounds ; Rymer's book was 
published in 1678 ; and even before any of these dates, in 1650 
English criticism had taken a decided step forward in the Gondibert 


of Davenant. In fact, by 1693, criticism was well on its way, and 
had paid its tribute to Shakspere : and even were it possible to 
exclude the results of this critical awakening from these volumes, 
it were not desirable ; for in these days a history of Shakspere 
criticism is just what one would consider valuable. To stop short 
at 1693, moreover, is to suppress valuable evidence, that of Jeremy 
Collier and his supporters, of Congreve, Dennis, Gildon, etc., 
showing the effects of Dryden's critical appreciations, the tendencies 
of criticism, and the development of opinion concerning the drama 
and Shakspere. In order, therefore, to include this evidence, our 
allusions are extended to 1700. 

The divisions which Ingleby made in his Centurie do not seem 
to me either "natural" or necessary. The death of Shakspere, 
which is held to close the first period, made no immediate difference 
to the poet's position in literature. When the " myriad-minded " 
Shakspere, that sweet swan of Avon, died, no contemporary poet 
assailed the dull cold ear of death with metrical lamentations, and 
not then did Shakspere's posthumous greatness begin. The still 
silence in which this greatest of Englishmen came into the world 
is equalled only by the silence in which he left it again. We do 
not consider here the magnificent inscriptions at Stratford, which, 
probably, rather indicate local appreciation and sorrow than the 
sorrow of literary men. In 1616 Robert Anton was reproving 
immodest women for going to see such base plays as Antony and 
Cleopatra; Drummond was assisting his muse with borrowings 
from A Lover's Complaint; Beaumont and Fletcher were having 
a jest at Hamlet and plagiarising from Hotspur ; and Jonson, in 
the newly-acquired greatness of his laureateship, was censuring 
Shakspere's faults in the Prologue of Every Man in his Humour. 
In the following year, 1617, only two allusions, and those by Taylor 
the water poet and Geffray Mynshul, and of little importance, have 
been discovered. Thus, at the passing of the greatest Elizabethan, 
the muse shed not one tear. It is particularly important to 
remember that, of all the poets who had sung the praises of 
Shakspere, and of all those who had plagiarised his works, not 
one was moved by his death, which must have been known 
before long in London, to make any immediate expression of loss 


or sorrow. 1 It seems that Shakspere, in leaving the London of his 
success for the Stratford of his boyhood, passed out of immediate 
notice. A younger generation of playwrights with a new mode 
came forward to take his place. 

But Shakspere's death did ultimately make a difference, in so 
far as it caused the publication of the Folio in 1623. The debt 
that we owe to Heminge and Condell, the port's friends and 
fellow-players, is incalculable, for on the Folio of 1623, as found- 
ation, is built the fair fabric of Shakspere's fame. It was the 
publication of the Folios in 1623, 1632, 1664, and 1685, and of the 
poems in 1640, which familiarised men with Shakspere's plays as 
literature and made Shakspere a great tradition in poetry and 
drama. The splendid panegyrics of Jonson, Holland and Digges 
and the forewords of Heminge and Condell, must have intimated 
to many for the first time the greatness of the man who had died 
seven years before. If, therefore, we needed to have a first period 
at all, it should end in 1623, when the allusions of Shakspere's con- 
temporaries to his personality had ended also, with the exception 
of a few by such men as Jonson. As a matter of fact, however, 
the allusions group themselves conveniently into two series, dis- 
tinguished by different characteristics, and practically coincident 
with the division in our volumes, the first series ending about the 
middle of the century and the second continuing to its end. 

The other divisions made by Ingleby in the Centurie are roughly 
correct, but only roughly. After the publication of the Folio in 
1623, the event of prime importance in its effect upon dramatic 
taste, and hence upon the position of Shakspere, was the formation 
of the Commonwealth in 1649. Subsequently, the Restoration in 
1660 is the most considerable event in its consequences for the 
drama. Yet, in a subject such as ours, divisions of this nature are 
all but useless, though we may refer developments, for their origin, 
to the movements these dates indicate. It is easy to see, more- 
over, that some considerable time would have to elapse after such 
changes as the foundation of the Commonwealth and the Restor- 
ation before their influence on poetic and dramatic taste would be 

1 Taylor in 1620 mentioned Shakspere as one of the great dead, but there 
is no lament. 


clearly manifest as a general tendency ; that before their arrival 
some indication would be discernible of the tendencies their 
influence was to encourage ; and that, in a time so full of conflict- 
ing ideas and opinions as the greater part of the seventeenth 
century, we should expect to find throughout conflict of judgments 
concerning Shakspere, though at different times different judgments 
might predominate. The first Puritan attack on the drama was 
not delivered when Charles the Stuart laid his head on the block 
on January 30, 1649, nor when Prynne published his Hislriomastix 
in 1632 and subsequently had his nose slit ; nor had the last gone 
by when Charles II returned to continue the mismanagement of 
his fathers. Useful, therefore, as divisions are for marking the 
main causes of change, they cannot be held to group the effects, 
and in these volumes they are abolished. 

It was decided in the old books of allusions to exclude the title- 
pages of the quartos of apocryphal plays, whereon fraudulent printers 
had, for the deception of their public and the diversion of modern 
critics, put the embellishment "By W. S.," or "W. Sh.," or 
"W. Shakespeare." But as this rascally use of Shakspere's 
initials or name in recommending a book not by him is as cer- 
tainly an allusion to him as any passage printed in these volumes, 
and as it points most unmistakably to the high appreciation of 
Shakspere's work by his contemporary readers, I see no reason for 
the omission, and therefore include all the quarto title-pages 

Though nothing on the same scale as Ingleby's Centurie had 
been attempted before, yet Garrick, Drake and Malone had made 
smaller collections of tributes to Shakspere. Knight, in his Shak- 
pere Studies, also printed a selection ; and Mr. Bolton Corney, 
Mr. George Dawson, and Dr. Grosart, each had once a similar 
scheme. Latterly, in 1904, Mr. C. E. Hughes printed a volume on 
The Praise of Shakespeare, a collection of passages on the great 
poet, extending up to modern times, with an able Introduction by 
himself and a Preface by Mr. Sidney Lee. Mr. Hughes's book 
owes its existence to a controversy conducted by Mr. Sidney Lee 
and others in the Times, concerning that curious aberration which 
we may call the Baconian heresy, and which, like many other 


heresies, ancient and modern, owes much to the temptation of 
notoriety. Mrs. C. C. Stopes in her Bacon-Shakspere Question, 
1888, printed in its Chapter IV a goodly number of allusions to 
Shakspere. A second and revised edition of this book has appeared. 
Uses of the "Allusion Book." The Allusion Book is a store 
of information on many subjects connected with Shakspere. Apart 
from its mere interest as a chronologically arranged series of refer- 
ences to our greatest poet, the material it contains may be divided 
into the following sections, under which we shall discuss it : 

a Allusions to plays which help us to fix their dates of 

6 Allusions to contemporary events. 

7 The expressions of Shakspere's contemporaries con- 

cerning him and his works. 

8 The expressions of Shakspere's successors concerning 

him and his works, 
e Legends of Shakspere and his works. 

a. Allusions to Plays giving Dates. The external evidence 
used by Shakspereans indeterminingthedatesof the poems and plays 
consists of the entries in the Stationers' Registers, the publication 
of the quartos, and early allusions by contemporaries. The entries 
of Shakspere's works in the Stationers' Registers are printed from 
Arbefs edition in quarto, in our second volume. These entries, 
which are to be considered allusions just as much as the text of our 
volumes, help us to date two poems and eight plays : 

1593 before April 1 8 Venus and Adonis } 

1594 before May 9 Lucrece? 
1598 before February 2 5 \HenryIV? 
1600 before August 4 As you Like It.* 
1600 before August 4 Much Ado. 6 

1602 before July 26 Hamlet? 

1603 before February 7 Troilus and Cressida. 7 

1607 before November 26 King Lear? 

1608 before May 20 Pericles and Antony and Cleopatra? 

1 ii. 525. 2 ii. 525. 3 ii. 526. 4 ii. 526. 

6 ii. 526. ii. 527. f ii. 527. 3 ii. 528. 9 ii. 529. 

SH. ALLN. BK. I. b 


The entry of King Lear in 1607 mentions the performance of 
the play on December 26, 1606, at Whitehall. Other dates in the 
Stationer? Registers are subsequent to the generally accepted 
dates of composition. Much Ado is generally dated 1598, or 
1599-1600. Troilus is given an earlier date, 1603, as above, and a 
later one, when it is thought to have been revised, 1607. 

Contemporary allusions printed in these volumes help us to fix 
the dates of five other plays : 

Romeo and Juliet. Qi of Romeo was published by Banter in 
1597, but the early date of 1591 is generally accepted, from internal 
evidence, for the first draft or version. Weever's Sonnet of 1595 1 
proves conclusively that, by that year, the character of Romeo was 
already famous and associated with Shakspere. 

Julius Ccesar. This play was first printed in the Folio, but 
Weever in his Mirror of Martyr s, i6oi, 2 says : 

The many-headed multitude were drawne 
By Brutus speech, that Ccesar was ambitious, 
When eloquent Mark Antonie had showne 
His vertues, who but Brutus then was vicious ? 

As there is no intimation in Amyot or North of Brutus's speech 
on Caesar's ambition, these lines must refer to Shakspere's play. 

Twelfth- Night. This comedy was first printed in the Folio. Its 
date is fixed as 1601-2 from the entry of John Manningham in his 
Diary that the play was acted at the feast of the barristers of the 
Middle Temple on February 2, i6o2. 3 The play contains a part 
of a song from Robert Jones's Book ofAyres, 1601. 

Winter's Tale. Here again we have a play unprinted till its 
appearance in the Folio. Its date is fixed at 1611, from Dr. 
Simon Forman's note that he saw it performed at the Globe o^ 
May 1 5 of that year. 4 

Henry VIII. Again a play not printed till the Folio text of 
1623, and one in which Shakspere's participation as author may be 
doubted. Its date is settled by records of the accidental burning 
of the "Globe" on June 29, 1613, when Henry VIII was being 
played. See the Sonnet on the conflagration, 6 Sir Thomas Lorkins' 

i i. 24. 2 i. 04. 8 i. 98. 4 i. 228. * i. 240. 


letter of June 30, I6I3, 1 Sir Henry Wotton's of July 6, 2 and Howes' 
continuation of Stovve. 3 

Apart from these allusions Meres in his Palladis Tamia of 1598 
mentions Shakspere's " sugred Sonnets," his Venus and Lucrece, 
six comedies and six tragedies, including Love Labour's Wonne, 
thought to be the play re-written as Alts Well that Ends Well. 
Meres's passage proves that, though the Sonnets were not published 
till 1609, some of them, at least, were in existence in 1598. 

0. Allusions to Contemporary Events. Besides the burning 
of the " Globe," noticed above, other contemporary events, more or 
less connected with Shakspere, are alluded to in these volumes. 
We have, first of all, a number of passages concerning the 
examinations of Sir Gelly Merrick and Augustine Phillips in 
connexion with the Essex Conspiracy, and a valuable passage on 
the same subject which I found in Bacon's Declaration, i6oi. 4 The 
death of Elizabeth in 1603 is mourned by Chettle and an anony- 
mous author. 5 Prince Lewis of Wirtemberg visited the " Globe " 
and saw Othello on April 30, i6io. 6 On March 24, 1613, occurred 
the tilting-match in which Pembroke, Montgomery and Rutland 
took part, and with which Shakspere may have been associated. 7 
Richard Burbage died on March 13, 1618, and we have an elegy on 
him, recording his principal parts. 8 Ben Jonson visited William 
Drummond of Hawthornden in January 1619, and Drummond 
has recorded bits of the conversation. 9 Pericles was played before 
the Marquis Tremouille, Buckingham, Oxford, etc., at Court, in 
May i6i9. 10 For record of other Court performances see the 
accounts of Lord Treasurer Stanhope, i6i3, n and of Sir Henry 
Herbert, 1623-1636. 12 

7. The Allusions of Shakspere's Contemporaries. Much of 
the laudatory verse and prose of the Elizabethans ran, through 
excess of feeling over judgment, into hyperbole, just as their satire 
and criticism, for the same reason, were apt to be too severe. 
In an age when the encomiastic address of patrons was all but 
compulsory, the tendency towards hyperbole was inevitable. Yet, 

i i. 238. 2 i. 239. 3 i. 243. 4 i. 81, 82, 92. 

6 i. 123, 124. 6 i. 215. 7 i. 234. 8 i. 272. 

8 i. 274. 10 i. 276. " i. 241. 12 i. 321, 323. 


hyperbolic as praise of authors and patrons may have been in 
general, it was usually healthy, for it had judgment and belief 
behind it, and, at least, the Elizabethan eulogies of Shakspere 
were greatly superior to the hollow laudations of a future genera- 
tion, with whom praise had become a mere habit, an affectation. 
Any one who cares to examine the verses written concerning 
authors of the past, or addressed by Elizabethans, to their contem- 
porary brothers in literature, must be struck by this exuberance in 
the expression of admiration and esteem. The weary student of 
Lydgate may be glad to know that, in 1614, Thomas Freeman, the 
epigrammist, declared him equal to the great men of that and all 
former ages. 1 George Turbervile in 1570 praised Arthur Brooke, 
the author of that long rambling poem Romeus and Juliet, in the 
highest terms. 2 Not to multiply instances, which are common, the 
verses addressed by Spenser to various noblemen and printed 
with the Faerie Queene, are tinctured with this same character- 
istic. 3 In considering, therefore, the praises of Shakspere by the 
Elizabethans and Jacobeans, we have to remember this tendency 
towards exuberance, born of a splendid enthusiasm for literature, 
but we have also to bear in mind that beneath all their eulogies, 
conventional as these may be in terms and epithets, were great 
admiration of the poet's works and strong appreciation of his great- 
ness among his fellows. To the Elizabethans Shakspere was an 
Elizabethan, not the great heir of universal fame. It was yet too 
early in that busy world with its strong social distinctions, for men 
to realise that one who followed the more or less despised vocation of 
a player and wrote for the stage of those days, could rise to be a 
world-figure in literature, or that his art could challenge comparison 
with that of the cherished tragedians of antiquity. Those who 
ventured to liken him in their eulogies to the classical tragedians 
and writers, likened also lesser men, like Drayton, Daniel and 
Warner ; and it is evident that none of them had any conception 
that his genius was phenomenal or that he stood without compeer 
in English literature. The highest criticism of the time, with the 

1 Rubbe and A great Cast, 1614, Epigram 14, sig. g 2. 

2 Epitaphs, Epigrams, Songs and Sonnets, pp. 1435-1445. 

8 See particularly the verse to Lord Buckhurst, Globe edn. p. 9. 


exception of Ben Jonson's, would have found much in him to dispraise. 
To those, who, like Stephen Gosson, attacked the drama from the 
moral standpoint, Shakspere and his fellows had little to recom- 
mend them, simply because the functions of tragedy and homily 
are widely different. Others who, like Philip Sidney, regarded the 
unities as inviolate and the works of the ancients as unquestionable 
models for all time, could only have condemned the tragi-comedies 
which so delight us. I feel safe in asserting that, to the Elizabethan, 
Spenser was a greater poet than Shakspere ; though he, too, came 
under the censure of criticism for his use of "rustic language." 
Camden in 1606 described Spenser as first of English poets of that 
time (Anglorum Poetarum nostri seculi facile princeps] ; William 
Webbe thought Spenser greatest ; and some even consider him so to 
this day. 1 The allusions to Spenser, whose fame seems never to 
have greatly fluctuated, up to the end of the seventeenth century 
might even outnumber the allusions to Shakspere. 2 Be that 
as it may, those of Shakspere's contemporaries who praised 
him (except Jonson), praised him for his sweetness and those lesser 
qualities which were apparent to them, and in which he excelled 
his fellows ; the great men, like Bacon, Lord Brooke, and subse- 
quently, Lord Clarendon, were silent. A creative age, like the 
Elizabethan, cannot be justly critical ; in particular it cannot be 
critical of one whose work is in progress in its midst : only when 
a man's work is done, or nearly so, can men review it, and notice 
its development ; and only when an age is past, do its men and 
things fall into proper perspective and reveal their proper relations. 
Then too we have to notice that the distinguishing qualities which 
constitute Shakspere's universal eminence, like the great qualities 
of Aeschylus and Sophocles, are those which a studious perusal of 
the text alone can demonstrate. It was only after the publication 
of the Folio that adequate material was provided for such a study, 
and even then, except in a few great minds, like Milton's, recogni- 
tion did not come till systematic criticism had begun to do its work. 

1 As, for instance, Mr. Morton Luce. See his Handbook to the Works of 
Shakspere, 1907, p. xiii. 

2 1 printed a number of references to Spenser allusions in Notes and Queries, 
Series X, vol. x, p. 121. 


Taking these things into consideration, we have not to be dis- 
appointed if the Shakspere we know and revere, was not so known 
and revered by the men of his own day. That he was honoured by 
them, admired by them, and loved by them, we shall see : more, if 
more were needed, were impossible. 

I divide the allusions of Shakspere's contemporaries into three 
main classes : the first (a) is composed of the references to his 
works, showing those on which his reputation was founded ; the 
second (<) consists of references to the poet himself; and those from 
the men who knew him are particularly valuable. These two 
classes of allusions have often been dwelt on before, but a third 
class, (c) consisting of the cases in which the poet's contemporaries 
borrowed from, or plagiarised, his works, has had little attention 
given to it, and is the greatest testimony of all to Shakspere's 
superiority over his fellow poets and playwrights. 

(a) The first reference in these volumes to a play is Nash's 
record of the success of Henry K/, 1 with which Shakspere is 
generally held to have had some small connexion. The second is 
Helmes's account in the Gesta Grayorum of the performance of the 
Comedy of Errors in Gray's Inn Hall on December 28, I594, 2 at 
which performance Bacon and Shakspere may have met. At first, 
however, it was for his poems that Shakspere was known. To be 
a poet was then a greater thing than to be a dramatist, and in 
publishing his poems so early in his career, Shakspere took the 
best means of establishing a good reputation and gaining attention. 
The verses prefixed to Willobie his Aviso, in 1594 mention Lucrece 
and Shake-spectre : in the same year Harbert and Drayton praise 
the poem, and Southwell gives the first intimation of Venus and 
Adonis? Most of the epithets used by contemporaries of Shak- 
spere, " Honie-tong'd Shakespeare" etc., seem to be due to their 
conception of his poems, whose theme is passion, and accordingly 
in Willobie his Avisa, Shakspere is the authority on love. Sir 
William Drummond so mentions him again in i6i4. 4 The refer- 
ences to the poems continue to occur with constancy till about 
the middle of the century, when they decrease in number. In 
1595 comes from Weever the recognition of Shakspere as both 
1 i. 5. 2 i. 7 . 3 i. 8> I4> I5> X 6. 4 j. 2SIi 


playwright and poet. Of his early plays, those which most struck 
his contemporaries were Romeo and Richard III. After 1600 these 
gave place to Hamlet and the Falstaff plays, which, having taken the 
chief place in popular favour, have held it ever since, except that 
Hamlet temporarily declined a little in popularity during the latter 
half of the seventeenth century. Meres's references to Shakspere 
and his works, in I598, 1 are the most valuable of the early allusions. 
Shakspere is here declared to be the most excellent among the 
English for comedy and tragedy and his principal works are 
cited. This declaration of Meres that Shakspere was chief 
dramatic author of his age, and that at a time when a great part 
of his work had not been written, is a testimony to Shakspere's 
success. Meres himself was no great critic, and I regard his utter- 
ances as reflecting the popular estimate as observed by a frequenter 
of the theatre, rather than the tribute of criticism. Meres's state- 
ments were seconded by The Returne from Pernassus? where 
Kempe, speaking of the university playwrights, says, "Shakespeare 
puts them all downe, I and Ben Jonson too." Ben Jonson, in any 
case, was one of the first, in I599, 3 to record the popularity of 
Falstaff ; the authors of Sir John Oldcastle refer to the fat knight 
in 1600, Roger Sharpe in 1610, etc. 4 ; he is mentioned in private 
correspondence, 5 and subsequently references to him turn up un- 
expectedly on many occasions, even in state trials and books of 
controversy. The allusions go to show that this character, which 
sprang into immediate fame in the days of Elizabeth, attained 
still greater notoriety in the days of the Commonwealth and 
the Stuarts after James I. 

Among the first to note the greatness of HamJet was Gabriel 
Harvey about i6oo. 6 Anthony Scholoker praises it in i6o4, 7 and 
notes particulars of its acting. Ratseis Ghost makes a reference 
in 1605, and in the same year the authors of Eastward Hoe, by 
using the name " Hamlet" and making evident borrowings, record 
the play's popularity. After this for some years there is a curious 
dearth of references to the play itself; and yet no play of Shak- 
spere's (except, perhaps, that Hamlet gives place to Falstaff) gained 

i i. 46-49. 2 i. 102. 3 i. 61. * i. 77, 212, 

6 i.88, * i. 56. M. 133. r - i 


more attention. The evidences of the play's profound influence 
are to be seen, not in the ordinary verbal allusions, but in the many 
imitations and plagiarisings to which it was subjected. From no 
other play of Shakspere's, probably from no other similar com- 
position in the world, have so many phrases been borrowed, and of no 
other, probably, have so many passages and scenes been imitated. 

It is difficult to determine which plays after Romeo, Richard III, 
Hamlet, and the Falstafif pieces, were most favoured by Shakspere's 
contemporaries.- The number of allusions to such a play as Love's 
Labour's Lost is doubtless due to its early date and its publication 
in quarto. Probably The Midsummer Nighfs Dream with Bully 
Bottom and his mates held a high place. Julius Ccesar, Othello, 
Macbeth and Lear all ranked high. 

Magnificent as we think Shakspere's art in Antony and 
Cleopatra, containing, as the play does, the poet's most wonderful 
woman-study, done at the zenith of his powers, and fine as its verse 
is, it seems to have been no great favourite with Elizabethans. No 
reference to it occurs before 1616, and after that date allusions are 
extremely rare. The fact that Plutarch's account of Antony's fall 
was so well known to Shakspere's contemporaries may explain in 
part the absence of allusion to the play, but we have to note also, 
that, in the case of this, one of Shakspere's best written plays, 
and on a subject which was so often dramatised, there is almost 
complete absence of borrowing of phrases by other authors. It is 
not enough to say that Antony is not a good acting play. The 
truth appears to be that the cause of this neglect of Antony 
is the secret of the Elizabethan attitude towards Shakspere 
the dramatist. It was not necessarily the finest poetry, nor the 
highest delineation of character, nor evidence of the most perfect 
dramaturgical skill, which made a play successful to the Elizabethans, 
though all these might contribute. The first part of Henry VI 
could be a success without them ; Antony and Cleopatra gained 
little notice in literature with all their aid. The characters which 
held the attention of Shakspere's audiences were strong, command- 
ing men like Tamberlaine and Richard III, and beautiful, gentle 
women, injured and suffering, like Juliet and Desdemona. The 
people who went to the Globe liked plays full of strange vicissitudes 


such as I Henry VI, and Titus Andronicus and Pericles, pieces in 
which life and death were mingled in glaring contrasts, in which 
battles, sieges, duels, murders and revenges found place. They liked 
to have pity and terror awakened within them ; the sweet love of 
Romeo with its tragic end appealed to their hearts ; the gloom and 
mystery, the sorrow and tragedy of Hamlet moved them all ; the 
drollery and rascality of Falstaff were things of their own time, 
immediate to them, familiar. But Antony was another matter ; the 
great conflict in the play is one between duty and licence ; the 
tragedy is the fall of a great soldier ; and this conflict and this 
tragedy were not those which interested Elizabethans. No heart 
is broken in the action by the ruin of a tender and passionate love ; 
the fall of Antony excites no deep feelings of pity or terror ; the 
beauty of Cleopatra wins no compassion for her end ; and the 
character of neither the queen nor Antony is purged of its stains by 
self-inflicted death. Though soldiers pass over the stage and we 
hear the tumult afar off, the battles are given in descriptions. The 
play is sad ; it is distressing ; but it is not a story of woe, or of 
innocent suffering ; and being such as it is, it could not appeal to 
the people of the early part of the seventeenth century as could 
others mentioned above. 

The consideration of Antony bears out our previous statement 
that dramaturgical skill, fine verse, and good character drawing, 
though so many Elizabethan plays possess these things, could not 
alone assure a play's success ; and it is probable that almost all of 
Shakspere's contemporaries failed to appreciate the high character 
of his art, and to value him for it. 

(b} Shakspere, the Man and his Contemporaries. The figures of 
few men could have been more familiar to the citizens of Eliza- 
bethan London than those of the chief actors in the Queen's 
Company, William Kempe, Richard Burbage and William Shak- 
spere. Yet, as men chronicle the rare and extraordinary rather than 
familiar and well-known things, no record has come down to us of 
how Shakspere lived in London ; and we know little of what he did. 
His life seems to have been quiet, almost uneventful, and calm ; 
only rarely do we find records of little incidents in his busy 
career. "To Shakspeare's .friends and daily companions," says 


Furness, 1 " there was nothing mysterious in his life ; on the contrary, 
it possibly appeared to them as unusually dull and commonplace. 
It certainly had no incidents so far out of the common that they 
thought it worth while to record them. Shakspeare never killed a 
man as Jonson did ; his voice was never heard, like Marlowe's, in 
tavern brawls ; nor was he ever, like Marston and Chapman, threat- 
ened with the penalty of having his ears lopped and his nose slit." 
Apart from the legal actions with which Shakspere was connected, 
however, some notices, rare and valuable, have been bequeathed us, 
and from them we learn something of the man and what his fellows 
thought of him. 

And first, as to his personal appearance. John Davies of Hereford, 
in 1603, said that Shakspere and Burbage had wit, courage, good 
shape, and good parts, and that they were generous in mind and 
mood. These two he praised again in 1609 ; and in 1611 he said 
of " our English Terence, Mr. Will. Shake-speare " 

Had'st thou not plaid some Kingly parts in sport, 
Thou hadst bin a companion for a King. 

As for the imputation made by some that Shakspere was lame, 
based on Sonnet Ixxxix, 1. 3 : 

Speak of my lameness, and I straight will halt, 

we can only say that the absence of contemporary reference to 
such an affliction is almost certain proof that it did not exist, and 
that it is little borne out by Jonson's lines in the Folio : 

. . . heare thy Buskin tread, 
And shake a Stage. 2 

From Fuller, who was collecting matter for his Worthies in 1643, 
we learn of the merry meetings at the " Mermaid," of the wit- 
combats between solid Ben and the nimble-minded Shakspere. 3 
Of these meetings Beaumont writes in his letter to Ben Jonson : 

What things have we seen 
Done at the Mermaid ! heard words that have been 

1 Variorum Much Adoe about Nothing, 1899, p. vii. 

2 This, of course, may only be figurative language, but still, is significant, 
* i. 484. 


So nimble, and so full of subtle flame, 

As if that every one (from whence they came) 

Had meant to put his whole wit in a jest ; 

And had resolved to live a fool, the rest 

Of his dull life ! Then, when there hath been thrown 

Wit able enough to justify the Town 

For three days past ! Wit that might warrant be 

For the whole City to talk foolishly 

Till that were cancelled ! And, when we were gone, 

We left an air behind us ; which alone 

Was able to make the two next companies 

Right witty ! though but downright fools, more wise ! 

A piece of Shakspere's conversational impromptu maybe preserved 
in The N ewe Metamorphosis, 1600-12. 

And next we come to notices of the poet's industry. The attack 
of Greene on Shakspere, the upstart Crow, the reviser of other 
men's plays, gives place to Chettle's subsequent apology and 
praise : " Divers of worship have reported his uprightness of 
dealing, which argues his honesty, and his facetious grace in 
writting, that aprooves his Art." l John Webster, in i6i2, 2 refers to 
"the right happy and copious industry of M. Shake-spectre^ M. 
Decker and M. Heywood" (The last two names are usually omitted 
by biographers, and should not be.) In 1599, William Jaggard 
published his piratical first edition of The Passionate Pilgrime, 
described as " By W. Shakespeare." In 1612 was issued another 
edition, where, under Shakspere's name, appeared two verses from 
Hey wood's Troia Britanica, 1609. This, Hey wood resented in his 
Apology for Actors, 1612: "I must acknowledge my lines not 
worthy his patronage," says Heywood of Shakspere, and continues 
that the great poet was "much offended" with the rascally 
publisher. 3 Heminge and Condell in the Folio refer to Shakspere's 
ease in composition : " Wee have scarse received from him a blot 
in his papers," they declare. To this Jonson refers in his Timber, 
1630-37 : the Players had often mentioned that Shakspere never 
blotted out a line ; " would he had blotted a thousand," says Ben. 4 

A good deal of the contemporary praise of Shakspere is couched, 
as we noted before, in the ordinary poetic epithets of the time, and 
is not to be understood to imply a realisation of the poet's true 

1 i. 2, 4. 2 i. 233. 8 i. 62, 231. 4 i. 316, 348. 


greatness. M Sweet " Shakspere, says the author of Polimanteia 
in 1595 j 1 Scoloker speaks of the "Friendly" Shakspere in 1604; 
Thomas Heywood writes, in 1635, of the "inchanting Quill" of 
"mellifluous Shake-speare " ; Weever calls the poet "honie-tong'd"; 
William Barkstead, in 1607, gives Shakspere the laurel, and in self- 
depreciation, takes for himself the cypress ; Thomas Freeman, in 
1614, writes of "that nimble Mercury," the poet's brain; " Ingenious 
Shakespeare? says an early eulogiser in lines afterwards quoted by 

More important than these are a number of references by other 
men. Meres's Palladis Tamia of 1 598 puts Shakspere chief of 
English dramatists, and Parts I and 1 1 of the Returne from Per- 
nassus, 1600-2, do likewise. Richard Barnfeild, as Mr. Charles 
Crawford has observed, was the first of Shakspere's contemporaries 
to write the poet's praise by imitating him, and as it is evident he 
knew the poems well, and greatly admired them, his praise of 1598 
is particularly noteworthy. In his Excellence of the English 
Tongue, 1595-6, Carew cited Shakspere and compared him with 
Catullus ; and Edmund Bolton, in his Hypercritica, names the poet 
as one of the chief writers of good English. 

Ben Jonson stands alone. He is the founder of Shaksperean 
criticism. As the friend of Shakspere, one who talked and 
laughed with him, as the most solid, most learned, and the 
strongest of Elizabethan playwrights, his utterances concerning 
his superior in drama deserve our profoundest respect. Ben was 
too honest, perhaps I may be forgiven if I say he was too arrogant 
also, to give unstinted praise to the man he says he loved ; but 
when we consider what he dispraised we shall see it does not sub- 
tract from the honour of Shakspere ; and when we consider what he 
praised we shall see it adds to the honour of Jonson. He was a 
man of a different calibre from Shakspere ; he loved learning in a 
way that Shakspere did not ; but as he loved learning more, he knew 
men less. More learned as he certainly was, he respected classical 
precedent and symmetry in a way that Shakspere could not: and 
there where he thought his strength lay, to us lies his inferiority ; 
for the free and happy genius of Shakspere, which to him " wanted 
1 Echoed in Part I of the Returne from Pernassus, 1600, i. 67. 


art," carried drama to a height, where all his art could not 
reach it. 

We can dismiss with little comment the mere allusions by 
Jonson to Shakspere's characters. In 1599, in Every Man out of 
his Humour, he alluded to Silence and Falstaff; in 1605 he, with 
others, referred to Hamlet in Eastward Hoe ; in 1609 he mentioned 
Doll Tearsheet in Epicene ; and in 1614 he referred to Titus. 
Andronicus and the Tempest in Bartholomew Fayre. These 
allusions are only such as we find in other contemporaries ; some 
of them are useful (as the Titus note) in other ways ; but none of 
them is particularly valuable, except as showing Jonson's interest 
in Shakspere's works. 

Other references, or apparent references, are more important. 
These commence with the very dubious description of Sogliardo 
and his arms in Every Man out of his Humour, in 1 599, when 
Shakspere's arms were granted. It has been supposed that Jon- 
son may have been girding at Shakspere in this play, but the 
circumstance of an upstart buying arms was too common to 
warrant our lending importance to Jonson's satire of a contemporary 
failing which Harrison had commented on ten years before. In 
1 60 1 -2 The Returne from Pernassus has a fling at Jonson's Poet- 
aster, and represents Shakspere as " having given him a purge that 
made him beray his credit." The Poetaster is thought by some to 
refer to Shakspere, but the matter is so obscure that speculation is 
idle. I will only venture the remark that, if The Returne from Per- 
nassus simply refers to the two chief dramatists as rivals for excel- 
lence, the " purge " may be Julius Ccesar, a Roman play. 

Leaving these misty matters we come to the main body of Jon- 
sonian criticism. The sources from which we draw are the Prologue 
of Every Man in his Humour, 1616; the conversations with 
Drummond, 1619 ; the poems in the Folio, 1623 ; the note De 
Shakespeare nostrat in Timber, 1630-37 (?) ; and Rowe's Preface to 
his edition of 1709, for the anecdote of the debate between Hales 
and Jonson, about I633. 1 The censure of Pericles, in 1629-30, I do 
not consider important ; poor Ben was very sore then over the 
failure of The New Inn, and his verses, as Ingleby remarks, were 
i i. 263, 274, 305, 307, 348, 373. 


a vent for his indignation, and show a certain amount of jealousy. 
Nor do I regard it as possible that the "happy genius" Jonson 
refers to in Sejanus can be Shakspere. The whole of Jonson's 
adverse criticism comes under ftie contention which he advanced to 
Suckling, Hales, and others, that Shakspere was in "want of learn- 
ing," and that he was ignorant "of the Antients." Jonson thus 
insisted on the observance of dramatic proprieties, which he him- 
self could not always observe ; and when he observed them less 
rigorously, he worked most happily : Shakspere, with a freedom 
which Jonson could not imitate, unconsciously asserted the right of 
his genius in making his art a law unto itself. The indifferent eye 
with which Shakspere looked on the many minor errors, the 
anachronisms and the historical inaccuracies which are scattered 
broadcast through his plays could not win Jonson's approval. 
The spontaneity and profusion of Shakspere's genius, with 
its " right happy and copious industry," bursting into creation 
with such facility that his "pious fellows" Heminge and Condell 
received scarcely a blot on his papers, were not such as Jonson 
associated with the art of the dramatist. If Shakspere never 
blotted a line, Jonson thought he should have done, as he himself 
doubtless did freely. That Shakspere broke the dramatic unities was 
due to the fact that he knew no better ; a man of " little Latin and 
less Greek," the mighty stores of ancient drama, the models for the 
emulation of all time, were practically closed to him. Bohemia, of 
course (not to mention other Shaksperean sea-bound countries), 
had no sea-shore, and Caesar should not say foolish and undig- 
nified things. 1 All this is explained when we consider Jonson's writ- 
ings. The dramatic works of Jonson are often possessed with a cold 
solidity, and are constructed in the most elaborate style ; the art 
they display is conscious and deliberate art ; the figures they contain, 
particularly in the case of the Roman plays, are often cold and 
unnatural; and few of his plays, with all their learning, are elevated 
by tenderness or sympathy. In accordance with the foremost 

1 Jonson rebukes Shakspere for this in his passage De Shakespeare nostrati, 
and he pokes fun by repeating Caesar's words in The Staple of News, 1625. 
Taylor in his Travels to Prague in Bohemia, 1630, seems, also, to jest good- 
naturedly over the ' Bohemian ' coast. 


theories of his age, he avoided the mixture of tragedy and comedy, 
and incoherence of plot ; and he attempted, at least, to adhere to 
the dramatic unities. In all these points Shakspere offers a 
decided contrast. None of his plots are elaborated to any degree, 
and some of them are loose in structure. Henry V can hardly be 
said to have a plot at all, and Henry F7, against which Jonson 
declaimed, 1 is, for the most part, a succession of fights and intrigues. 
Tragedy and comedy are found side by side in his plays ; and the 
unities are frequ^iitly broken. The art of Shakspere, like the art 
of all great geniuses, seldom shows evidences of effort or difficulty : 
it is direct and spontaneous. His characters win us always with 
their human appeal, and pulse with the warm blood of life. And 
the whole of his work is imbued with the happiness and the pathos 
which come of keen sympathy with the joys and woes of others, 
is full of pity and tenderness. Considering the work and ideals 
of Jonscm, therefore, and the work and position of Shakspere, 
we sec that the criticism we have is only such as we should 
expect ; and this, at all events, is certain, that Shakspere's works 
are not so remarkable for the absence of that quality which 
Jonson called "art," as Jonson's are conspicuous for the excess 
of it. 

In the personal element in his criticism, Jonson, of course, stands 
alone ; but in the critical principles which underlie his remarks, he 
was in no way original : other men had advocated those principles 
before him, had condemned other poets because of them, and would 
certainly have discovered the same faults in Shakspere as Jonson 
did ; and other men were destined to hold those same principles 
after him, and continue his criticism. 

Where Jonson was original and be it said to his everlasting 
honour, was in his praise of the great dead poet. And his praise 
of Shakspere, the man, is all the more valuable when we remember 
how difficult Jonson was to get on with, how arrogant and quarrel- 
some he was ; how he was received graciously by the king ; after- 
wards thrown into prison ; and afterwards made poet laureate ; how 
he was masque-maker with Inigo Jones, with whom he quarrelled so; 
was finally expelled from court ; and subjected to many misfortunes ; 

i i. 263. 


but to the last was invested by the younger men with an authority 
which must have greatly gratified him. Ben Jonson's lines in the 
Folio are the first adequate recognition of Shakspere's greatness, 
and though, like all his praise, they are rather magisterial, they 
seem to be based on a proper comprehension of those particular 
powers which made Shakspere's immortality. The poet is anxious 
to dissociate his encomiums from the sort of thing which " seeliest 
Ignorance" would have said. He thinks that Shakspere could (as 
he has done) stand proof against the shafts of crafty malice. He 
identifies him with his age ; calls him its very soul ; and declares 
him immortal in his works. He proclaims him superior not only 
to the men of his own time, but to the ancients. He calls on Britain 
to regard her immortal son. He praises that very art which at 
other times he found wanting. He declares that by Shakspere's 
works you may know Shakspere the man. And he records the 
delight that Elizabeth and James derived from his plays. In the 
Timber he tells us of the character of the man ; " he was honest and 
of a free and open nature," he says, " and I lov'd the man, and doe 
honour his memory, (on this side Idolatry) as much as any." Is 
there not something touching in the tenderness of this " I lov'd the 
man," an eloquent testimony to the personal charm of him so often 
called " gentle," and so honoured among his fellows ? 

We come next to the evidences of the spread of Shakspere's 
personal fame. At some time after 1597, and probably before 1603, 
Shakspere's name, together with other scraps connected with him, 
was scribbled on folio I of the Duke of Northumberland's MS. of 
Lord Bacon's Of Tribute! In 1603 Henry Chettle rebuked the 
" silver-tonged Melicert? Shakspere, for not lamenting the death of 
Elizabeth ; again, A Mourneful Dittie of the same year uttered 
a similar rebuke, and this circumstance is referred to in 1604 by 
I. C. in his Rpigrammes. Ratseis Ghost, of about 1605, seems 
to refer to Shakspere's increasing fortune in London, and to 
Richard Burbage. Thorpe, in 1609, could call Shakspere "our 
ever-living poet," and in the address prefixed to the quarto of 
Troilus of that year, the writer declares that Shakspere's works 
please even those who are displeased with plays in general. The 

i i. 40. 


inclusion of quotations from Shakspere in such books as Boden- 
ham's Belvedere in 1600, is an early instance of what became 
common later on in the century the inclusion of many quotations 
in such books as the Academie of Complements, etc. 1 Meantime 
minor quotations are found in books such as Burton's Anatomy, 
Walkington's Optick Glasse^ 1607, and in MSS. In 1620 we 
have a Mr. Richardson, of Magdalen College, Oxford, quoting 
Romeo from the pulpit. 2 More important is the fraudulent use of 
Shakspere's name on the title-pages of piratical quartos of plays 
not by him. The earliest of these was Locrine* " Newly set foorth, 
ouerseene and corrected By W.S." in 1595, when all Shakspere's 
first-period plays were done. The "W.S." was repeated on the 
title-pages of Cromwell in 1602, and the Puritaine in 1607.* There 
can- be little doubt that these initials were used by the publishers to 
deceive their public. In 1605 The London Prodigall has Shak- 
spere's name in full, as has A Yorkshire Tragedy in i6o8. 5 The 
second edition of The Troublesome Raigne of King lohn, in 1611, 
is declared on its title-page to be by " W. Sh.," and the third edition 
has the full name "William Shakespeare." 6 The 1619 edition, for 
Pavier, of The Contention is also declared in the same way to be 
Shakspere's. To complete the list, the 1634 quarto of The Two 
Noble Kinsmen is described as by Fletcher and Shakspere, and 
the 1662 edition of Merlin is described as by Shakspere and 
Rowley. 7 

Some of these plays are most wretched productions ; others have 
greater merit, but that any of them can have anything at all to do 
with Shakspere is extremely doubtful. The use of the poet's name 
in the early quartos is unquestionable evidence of the esteem in 
which he was held, and of the selling powers of his works. We 
have referred to the piratical Passionate Pilgrime above. 

(c) Shakspertfs Influence over his Contemporaries. More 
important even than the references to Shakspere's characters and 
plays by his contemporaries and immediate successors are the 
silent borrowings from his works which commence with the 
appearance of Venus and Adonis, and continue in plenty till the 

1 i. 452 ; ii. 38, 165. 2 i. 279. 3 i. 21. 4 i. 104, 166. 

5 i. 147, 186. 6 i. 226, 284. 7 i. 388 ; ii. 124. 



middle of the seventeenth century, when Puritan supremacy re- 
tarded dramatic activity. The borrowings are either imitations of 
scenes and passages, or they are verbal imitations of lines and 
phrases due to close knowledge of the plays and poems. 

The imitations of scenes, so far discovered, are not many. 
Shakspere, like all the great poets of the world, left no school 
behind him. He was not an initiator ; he invented no new style ; 
he introduced no new vogue. Rather he accepted freely the forms 
and practices laid down by his predecessors and fellows : but he 
transcended them in all things ; he perfected their methods, and 
their forms ; he surpassed them in his style ; in his whole art 
he was inimitable. Both Marlowe and Kyd left behind them 
types which long served for models ; the romantic plays of 
Beaumont and Fletcher continued to exercise a wide influence 
over the stage ; but it was long before the works of Shakspere 
were considered as models which playwrights might profitably 
study. We shall not expect to find, therefore, in Jacobean and 
post-Jacobean drama up to the Restoration, any evidence of plays 
on a Shaksperean model. What we shall find will be inferior 
imitations of certain incidents, passages, or scenes, often, I believe, 
made unconsciously. And we may notice in passing, that the 
dearth of plays of a Shaksperean type is by no means indicative of 
the superiority in any way of such a man as Marston, who seems 
to have exercised an influence over the later Revenge tragedy, 1 but 
is tributive to the subtlety of that art of which no man could win 
the secret. 

The verbal borrowings are of two kinds : they are lines lifted 
more or less intact from the Shaksperean text, or they are imita- 
tions of Shaksperean lines. All of these are due either to the 
retention in the memory of remarkable passages heard in the 
theatre, or to perusal of the printed text. Borrowings which are 
due to reading only, need not greatly detain us : they are interest- 
ing and they are valuable ; but they are common to all times, and 
more or less with the works of all poets. But the borrowings, 
conscious or unconscious, which are due to knowledge of the 
plays in the theatre itself, have a particular importance. 
1 Tragedy, by A. H. Thorndike, 1908, p. 199. 


In 1607 John Marston, in What You Will, quoted that famous 
line, " A Horse, a Horse, my Kingdome for a Horse," 1 and 
continued, " Looke the I speake play scrappes." 2 This, of course, 
is conscious borrowing, and is a fairly common feature. Marston 
himself had parodied the same line in his Scourge of Villanie in 
I598; 3 Richard Brathwaite cited it in his Strappado for the 
Dwell, i6i5- 4 Richard Corbet quoted the line in connexion with 
Burbage, who acted Richard III, in Iter Boreale, before i62i; 5 
and the " play-scrap" is again parodied in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Little French Lawyer? Other play-scraps were well known on the 
Elizabethan stage and were even quoted by Shakspere himself. 
First, there is Pistol's scrap : " haue wee not Hiren here ? " 7 
probably from Peele's lost Turkish Mahomet and the Fair Greek 
Hiren. The phrase is repeated in John Day's Law Tricks, 1608 ; 8 
and again in Eastward Hoe, 1605. And next there is that speech 
of " stalking " Tamburlaine : 

" Holla, ye pampered jades of Asia ! 
What ! can ye draw but twenty miles a day . . . ? " 

once more made part of "the swaggering vaine of Auncient Pistoll? 
and quoted, likewise, in Eastward Hoe. As the Peele and Marlowe 
phrases occur in the same page, the authors of that play may be 
borrowing from Shakspere. Lodovick Barrey in the same way 
quotes Pistol's "die men like dogs," in his Ram-Alley of i6u. u 

So much for play-scraps. We pass next to unacknowledged and 
more or less accurate citations from the text, and imitations of 
passages. These commence in 1594, when Richard Barnfeild, in 
his Affectionate Shepheard, helped his muse with Shakspere's Venus 
and Adonis and probably Lucrece^ It is difficult to determine 
whether Barnfeild borrowed intentionally, or reproduced phrases 
which lingered in his memory : probably the latter is the truth. 
In any case, in the following year Barnfeild made another series of 
borrowings, as we may term them, even more definite than those 

i Richard II I, V. iv : Fol., p. 204. 2 i. I7 6. a j. ^ 

4 i. 256. 5 i. 271. 6 i. 197. 

7 2 Henry IV, II. iv ; Fol., p. 83. 8 i. 190. 

9 2 Tamburlaine, IV. iv. 1-2. w 2 Henry IV t II. iv. ; Fol., p. 83. 

11 i. 221. 12 i 17. 


previous 1 : nevertheless, it is just as difficult to say how far Barnfeild 
consciously followed Shakspere. Exactly similar borrowings to 
these were made by Nicholson in his Acolastus in i6oo. 2 The 
lines he parallels or imitates come from Venus, Lucrece and 3 
Henry VI, the one from the latter being " Oh Tygres Hart, wrapt 
in a Womans Hide," 3 which Greene had previously parodied in 
I592. 4 In 1600 was published Bodenham's Belvedere* the first of 
those collections of citations from various poets, which afterwards 
became fairly common. An enormous number of quotations from 
Shakspere have lately been identified in Belvedere by Mr. Crawford 
(Vol. II., Appendix D.). Subsequently this type of book was repre- 
sented by The Academy of Complements , 1640, Wifs Labyrinth, 
1648, and John Cotgrave's English Treasury, 1655. 

The quotations and imitations of the poems continue till the 
middle of the century, when, probably in consequence of wide- 
spread Puritan feeling, they decrease. Dekker closely imitated a 
passage from Venus in Old Fortunatus, 1600. Hey wood quoted 
part of two stanzas of Venus in The Fay re Mayde of the Exchange, 
1607, and in the following year Markham and Machin quoted 
almost the same passage from that book of " maides philosophic " 
in their Dumbe Knight? The apostrophe of Lucrece, " O Oppor- 
tunity . . . thou notorious bawd ! " has its imitations in Marston's 
Malcontent, " Entic'd by that great bawd, opportunity " ; in Hey- 
wood's Fair Maid of the West, " win Opportunity, Shees the 
best bawd " ; and once more in Ford's Lady's Trial " the 
bawd . . . Opportunity." Alexander Niccholes quoted a passage 
from Venus in his Discourse of Marriage, i6i5, 8 apparently from 
memory. G. Rivers lifted many pieces from Lucrece for his 
Heroine?, in 1639. And while Robert Burton introduced bits of 
the poems in the Anatomy of Melancholy Robert Baron 
made use of Venus in writing his Fortune's Tennis-Sail, 1650, 
much in the same way as Nicholson had used the poem for his 
Acolastus of 1600. 

The Sonnets and the other poems had not this vogue. Not 

1 i. 19. 2 i. 74. 3 3 Henry VI, I. iv ; Fol. , p. 151. 

4 i. 2. 6 i. 72. i. 64. 7 i. 177, 188. 

8 i. 254. i. 436. 1 i. 324. 


dealing so much with incidents, and not so full of picturesque 
description and allusion, they were less quotable and imitable. 
The commencement of the twelfth piece in The Passionate 


Crabbed age and youth cannot live together, 
Youth is full of pleasance, age is full of care, 

finds several imitations and echoes. The first line is quoted in 
Rowley's A Match at Midnight, 1633 5 Ford parodied the first two 
lines in Fancies, Chaste and Noble, 1638 ; the opening line seems to 
be parodied in Lady Alimony, 1659, " Frosty age and youth suit 
not well together " ; and the ballad itself is referred to in Fletcher's 
Womaris Prize. A line in a madrigal of Sir W. Drummond's 
may be an echo of Sonnet 27 x ; bits of Sonnet 47 are introduced 
by Sir John Suckling into his Tragedy of Brennoralt, 1646, and 
that same author made a continuation of some lines from Lucrece, 
printed in Fragmenta Aurea, 1646.2 

There is sufficient evidence here to lead us to believe that most of 
these quotations and imitations were not made directly from consult- 
ing the printed text. The verbal differences between the original 
and the imitator's or copier's version seem to be due to small failures 
of memory, and not to deliberate alteration. For this reproduction 
of phrases and parallelism to exist, the poems must have been 
widely read and well known. 

We must next consider the plays. In our section discussing the 
mere allusions of Shakspere's contemporaries to his dramatic 
pieces, we found that the plays which most interested his fellows 
were Romeo and Richard III, and, subsequently, the Falstaff pieces 
and Hamlet. It is precisely these four productions which most of 
all provided material for minor imitations and borrowings up to 
the middle of the seventeenth century. Of the borrowings made 
from these plays alone, Richard III and FalstafT provide about 
16 and 18 per cent, respectively; Romeo provides about 23 per 
cent.; and Hamlet about 43 per cent. The total number of refer- 
ences to FalstafT outnumber those to Romeo, but the latter is more 
imitated and quoted from. It may be opportune, too, at this 
point, to utter a word of warning in connexion with the allusions 
* i, 260. 2 i. 386, 404. 


to Hamlet. Apart from the fact that a few of the early allusions 
may be to the earlier Hamlet? we have to remember that, even 
before the appearance of Shakspere's play, there existed several 
Revenge tragedies of a Kydian type already characterised by inci- 
dents and parts which figure prominently in the Shaksperean 
tragedy. Almost all the Revenge plays have points of contact in 
their adoption of the minor conventionalities which accompanied 
their theme. The incitement of a son by his father's ghost to 
revenge his father's murder, the son's irresolution/his scholarliness 
and madness, the wooing of the heroine, and her insanity, the scene 
in the churchyard, etc., are by no means the peculiar property of 
Hamlet ; and whenever allusions to some older play are concerned 
with these conventional incidents, it is not always safe to assume 
that Shakspere's tragedy is implied. This notwithstanding, there 
are few passages in our text which offer difficulty in that way. 

In considering the plays, we will deal first with the imitation of 
phrases, and proceed to the imitation of scenes. Capulet's words 
in Romeo? 

At my poor house, looke to behold this night, 
Earth-treading starres, that make darke heaven light ; . . . . 
And like her most, whose merit most shall be : 
Which one more veiw, of many, mine being one, 
May stand in number, though in reckning none, 

are borrowed by Sharpham in Ciipitfs Whirligig, 1607, " where 
so many earth-treading starres adorhes the sky of state"; they 
appear again in Armin's Historic of the two Maids of More-Clacke, 
!6o8 " courtly dames or earth's bright treading starres"; and 
in Fletcher's Noble Gentleman? 

' ' Beauties, that lights the Court, and makes it shew 
Like a faire heaven, in a frosty night : 
And mongst these mine, not poorest." 

Romeo's words, 

" It seemes she hangs vpon the cheeke of night, 
As a rich lewel in an /Ethiops eare," 4 

appear in Acherley's Massacre of Money, 1602 " Like to a 
Jewell in an ^Ethiop's eare " ; and in Scoloker's Daiphantus, 

1 See, for examples, vol. i. p. 182. 2 Romeo, I. ii ; Fol. , p. 55. 

8 i. 202. 4 Romeo, I. v ; Fol. , p. 57. 


1604 "a faire lewell by an Ethiope worne," Other similar 
borrowings may be found in Henry Porter's Historic of the two 
angrie women of Abington, I599 1 ; in the Returne from Pernassus, 
Part I., i6oo 2 ; in Middleton's Blurt, Master Constable, 1602?; 
in Marston's Malcontent, i6o4 4 ; in Tourneur's Atheist's Tragedie, 
1611 (?) ; in Fletcher's Wild Goose Chace ; and in Burton's 
Anatomy? Finally, we will draw special attention to Lodovick 
Barrey's borrowings from Romeo in his Ram-Alley, i6n. 6 Here 
we have a number of Shaksperean phrases in a play which Fleay 
once described as " one continuous parody of Shakespere." But 
once more we seem to have a case of repetition from memory, 
perhaps of unconscious repetition ; the parallelisms which arise 
are not such as one finds in the case of imitation of a printed text. 

With Richard III we dealt in considering the "play-scraps." A 
few quotations and imitations yet remain to be noticed. The 
Returne from Pernassus quoted the opening lines of the play in 
1601-2 ; Christopher Brooke, while paying a magnificent tribute to 
Shakspere, catches a few phrases from his play on the Ghost of 
Richard III, 1614; and lines appear in Webster's White Devil 
and Suckling's Goblins? 

Of the words of Falstaff and his kinsmen rascals there are many 
echoes. We have previously noticed Ancient Pistol as a purveyor 
of play-scraps. The earliest reproduction of any of Falstaff's utter- 
ances is in the Palladis Tamia of Meres, 15988 : " there is nothing 
but rogery in villanous man " ; and the phrase was repeated by 
Shirley in The Example, 1634 : 

" Falstaffe, I will beleeve thee, 
There is noe faith in vilanous man. " 

Shirley, in The Sisters, 1642, reproduced another Falstafifian ex- 
pression : " Hum ! send for a lion and turn him loose ; he will not 
hurt the true prince," and though this idea was common in the 
middle ages, and is recorded in Munday's translation of Palmerin 
d? Olivet, 1588, yet Shirley most probably got it from Shakspere, 
and his phrasing is practically the same. After Meres, the next 
example a somewhat dubious one, perhaps occurs in Middleton's 

i i. 57. 2 i. 67. 3 i. no. 4 i. 129. 

5 i. 324. 6 i. si*. 7 i. 116, 384. 8 i. 49. 


Family of Love, 1607-8, and the same author certainly reproduces 
a speech of Falstaff's in A Mad World, my Masters! " We haue 
heard the Chymes at mid-night, Master Shallow," 2 says the fat 
knight : " I haue scene the stars at midnight in your societies," 
writes Robert Armin, one of Shakspere's fellow actors, in his Nest 
of Ninnies, 1608. In 1614 John Cooke reproduced Prince Hal's 
phrase : " There is a devil has haunted me these three years in 
likeness of an usurer." Massinger reproduced another phrase in 
the Parliament of Love, 1624, and gave an echo of the "honour" 
speech 3 in The Picture, of I62Q. 4 "Rare rogue in Buckram," 
evidently a Falstaffian reminiscence, occurs in Suckling's Goblins? 
and Falstaff's words on instinct are paralleled in Fletcher's and 
Massinger's Love's Pilgrimage? The character of Hal as a com- 
panion of FalstafFs, erroneous as it may be historically, influenced 
John Trussell's account of the prince in his Continuation of the 
Collection of the History of England, i6^6. 7 

Hamlet, as was noticed above, presents more difficulties than the 
other plays, but the certain borrowings from it are very numerous. 
These consist of instances connected with the ghost-scene, with the 
soliloquies, with the churchyard scene, or they are miscellaneous 
borrowings from any part. John Marston's works are frequently 
cited in these volumes. He it was, apparently, who commenced 
the Hamletian borrowings in his Malcontent, in 1604, with the 
ghost-scene phrase, " arte there, old true peny ? " which, as Marston 
certainly copied Hamlet in other passages, he most probably took 
from Shakspere. The dialogue between the ghost and Hamlet is 
again evident in Fletcher's Woman-Hater, in The Merry Divel of 
Edmonton, and in Middleton's Mad World? while in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Womaris Prigefwe have a repetition of the swearing 
and moving of places, again probably from Hamlet, though the 
incident is not peculiar to that play. The agility of the ghost is 
referred to in Anthropophagus, 1624 : " they are like Hamlets ghost, 
hie &> ubique, here and there, and everywhere." A line or two from 
the ghost-scene is caught in Suckling's Goblins, and again in The 

i i. 142. 2 2 Henry IV, III. ii ; Fol., p. 88. 

3 i Henry IV, V. i. 4 i. 299. 5 i. 384. 

6 i. 203. 7 i. 401. 8 \. 180, 169, 142. 9 i. 200^ 


Lady Mother, 1635. The mention of " meditations spotless wings," 
in The Honest Whore, 1 though a similar phrase occurs previous to 
Hamlet in Wily Beguilde? is also probably from Shakspere's play. 
The first echo of the soliloquies is in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Scornful Ladie? " to sleepe to die, to die to sleepe : a very Figure 
Sir." Massinger follows in The Roman Actor, 1626.* "Tremble 
to think how terrible the dream is After this sleep of death." The 
same author in The Maid of Honour, 1632, once more echoes the 
same soliloquy. Dekker's Wonder of a Kingdome, 1636, repeats 
" In such a sea of troubles," and Suckling's Aglaura 5 catches 
another phrase of the same speech, " Hope . . . has so sicklied o're 
Their resolutions." And finally The London Post, of January 1644, 
describing the execution of Laud, says, from still the same soliloquy : 
" the sense of something after death, and the undiscovered country 
unto which his soul was wandering startling his resolution." The 
scene in the graveyard and the moralising over the skull of Yorick 
seem to have inspired a passage in The Honest Whore, 1604, and 
certainly inspired a scene in Randolph's Jealous Lovers, 1632. In 
Ancient Funerall Monuments, 1631, there are likewise borrowings 
from Hamlet's moralising : 

" Bid her paint till day of doome, 
To this fauour she must come." 

Hamlet's ironical speech to Guildenstern, " what a piece of worke 
is a man ! " etc., is paralleled in The Malcontent, and Polonius's 
warning to Ophelia to reject Hamlet seems there to be echoed. 
The authors of Eastward Hoe, in 1605, made several allusions to 
Shakspere's tragedy, and gave another version of Ophelia's song, 
" And will he not come againe." 6 Part of Hamlet's speech with 
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, in Act II, sc. ii, is rewritten into 
The Flea, by Peter Woodhouse, 1605. The first two of the following 
lines spoken by the play queen, 7 

"In second Husband, let me be accurst, 
None wed the second, but who kill'd the first . . . 
A second time, I kill my Husband dead, 
When second Husband kisses me in Bed," 

1 i. 141. 2 i. 29. 3 i. 229. 4 i. 302. 5 i. 385. 

Act IV, sc. v; Fol., p. 274. 7 Act III, sc. ii; Fol., p. 268, 


were, with minor changes, quoted in A Discourse of Marriage, by 
Alex. Niccholes, 1615, and all four were given as "what the Tragic 
Queen but fainedly spake," in The Philosophers Banquet, 1614. The 
player's speech to Hamlet is alluded to in Marston's Insatiate Count- 
esse, I6I3. 1 Phrases are also imitated and echoed in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Philaster and Maids Tragedy"* ; in Massinger's 
Unnatural Combat* ; in Ford's 'Tis Pity shJs a Whore*; in 
Clarke's Paramiologia, 1639, and a passage is quoted in A Helpe 
to Discourse, 1640. The title-page of Pendragon, 1698, contains 
a quotation from Hamlet, probably the earliest citation from 
Shakspere so used. 

Among other Shaksperean characters Hotspur attracted some 
notice. His words in I Henry IV, I. iii, 6 

" By heauen, me thinkes it were an easie leap, 
To plucke bright Honor from the pale-fac'd Moone," etc., 

were quoted in Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning 
Pestle, i6i3, 6 and were imitated in "EIK^J/ ^ Hum?," 1649, while 
another of his lines may be echoed in Fletcher's Captain, i6i3. 7 
Part of Prince Hal's speech over the body of Hotspur, his slain 

rival, 8 

" Thy ignomy sleepe with thee in the graue, 
But not remembred in thy Epitaph," 

is imitated in Dekker's and Webster's Famous History of Sir 
Thomas Wyat? Hotspur's words in i Henry IV, I. iii, 10 

" Three times they breath'd, and three times did they drink 
Vpon agreement, of swift Seuernes flood ; 
Who then affrighted with their bloody lookes, 
Ran fearfully among the trembling Reeds, 
And hid his crispe-head in the hollow banke," 

are paralleled in Fletcher's Loyal Subject ', u and in Abraham Cowley's 
Damdeis, 1656. Other lines from the same play are reproduced 
in Sharpham's Fleire, i6o7, 12 in Massinger's Virgin Martyr, i622, 13 
and in the Great Duke of Flore?ice, i627, 14 and some lines from 
Part 2 of Henry IV are quoted in Suckling's Brennoraltl* 

i i. 236. 2 i. 196. 3 i. 296. * i. 379. s Fol., p. 52. 

6 i. 229. 7 i. 197. 8 Act V. sc. iv; Fol., p. 72. 

9 i. 183. 10 Fol., p. 51. 11 i. 198. 12 i. I73 . 

I 3 i. 296. i* i. 298. is i. 386. 


Othello's words in Act III. sc. iii, 1 "I found not Cassia's kisses 
on her Lippes,' } were copied in The Honest Whore, 1604, and in 
Massinger's Emperor of the East, 1631 ; and Suckling quoted 
some lines from the play in his Goblins. Sam Picke imitated one 
of lago's speeches in his Fes turn Voluptatis, 1639, and lago's 
Rabelaisian phrase in Act I. sc. i 2 is repeated in Sheppard's Loves 
of Amandus and Sophronia, 1650, and in Blount's Academie of 
Eloqtience, 1654. 

A Midsummer-Night 's Dream was even more drawn upon than 
Othello. Titania's words to Bottom, " Come, sit thee downe vpon 
this flowry bed," etc., 3 are imitated in Dekker's Shomakers Holiday, 
1600 ; and different speeches by Bottom were quoted or imitated 
by Ford in 'Tis pity she's a Whore, 1633, and Taylor in the Epistle 
to Sir Gregory Nonsense, 1630. Puck's lines, " He put a girdle 
round about the earth, In forty minutes," 4 are echoed in Chapman's 
Bussy D'Ambois, 1607, and in Massinger's Maid of Hono^tr, 
1631-2 ; while other lines and passages are imitated in Marston's 
Malcontent, 1604 ; in Fletcher's Lover's Progress 5 ; and in 
Massinger's Duke of Milan, i623. 6 

The speech of Coriolanus, 

" Now by the iealous Queene of Heauen, that kisse 
I carried from thee deare ; and my true Lippe 
Hath Virgin'd it ere since," 7 

is imitated in Beaumont and Fletcher's Queen of Corinth? in Mas- 
singer's Bondman? and in Shirley's Coronation 
Longaville's lines in Love's Labours Lost, 11 

" Fat paunches haue leane pates ; and daynty bits 
Make rich the ribbes but bankerout quite the wits," 

are quoted in Walkington's Optick glass of Humors^ 1607, and in 
John Clarke's Par<zmiologia> 1639 ; Berowne's " Pompey the huge " 12 

1 Fol., p. 325. 

2 Fol., p. 311 : " your Daughter and the Moore, are making the Beast with 
two backs." 

3 Act IV. sc. i ; Fol., p. 157. * Act II. sc. ii ; Fol., p. 149. 

5 i. 203. 6 i. 297. 7 Act V. sc. iii ; Fol., p. 27. 

8 i. 198. 9 i. 297. 10 i. 479. 

U Act I. sc. i ; Fol., p. 122. l 2 Act V. sc, ii ; Fol., p. 142. 


is caught in Marston's Malcontent, and Moth's words about 
Samson and the town-gates * are echoed in Middleton's Family 
of Love? Various speeches from Much Ado were imitated in 
Hey wood's Fayre Mayde of the Exchange 3 ; and borrowings from 
Dogberry's utterances by Armin in his Italian Taylor*' first led 
Collier to believe that Armin had acted that character. Benedick's 
acceptance of Beatrice "for pity," is paralleled in The Wild Goose 
Chace, 1621. 

Of the few verbal parallels which remain beyond those just 
detailed, we need not take individual notice. Some of them 
concern Lear, some The Tempest, some Henry VI, some Julius 
CcBsar, and some Henry V. Richard II, Pericles, John, Troilus, 
The Merchant and As You Like It are also drawn from. A few 
cases in which incidents and scenes were imitated remain to be 
considered. The imitation of scenes is a field which has not yet 
been sufficiently explored, and further research would probably 
produce many more cases than those hitherto discovered. Wily 
Beguilde, probably written before I596, 5 imitates the scene between 
Capulet and Juliet, 6 where the old man chides his daughter for 
refusing Paris, and besides echoing a phrase of Shylock's, imitates 
the moonlight scene towards the end of The Merchant of Venice. 
The parting of Romeo and Juliet is likewise imitated in A Pastorall 
Dialogue, by Thomas Carew, before 1638, and the speech of 
Laurence, instructing Juliet to take the potion, is copied by Fletcher 
in The Knight of Malta. 1 Richard 1 1 Ps forgetfulness in his instruc- 
tions to Catesby in Act IV. sc. iii, 8 may be imitated in Lingua,. 
i6o2-7. 9 Beaumont and Fletcher in A King and no King in the 
scene between Arane and Arbaces (III. i), had in mind the scene 
between Volumnia and Coriolanus (V. iii). Ford in his Love's 
Sacrifice- imitated the great scene between Othello and lago in 
Act III. sc. iii. Glapthorne in Wit in a Constable, 1639-40, imitated 
the scene between Dogberry and his watch in Much Ado^ and the 
same scene was imitated in Lady Alimony, 1659. 

1 Act I. sc. ii ; Fol., p. 125. 2 i. 141. 3 i. 177. 

* i. 194. 6 i. 28. 6 Act III. sc. v. 

7 i. 198. 8 Fol., p. 199. a i. 112. 

10 I 197. " i. 379. !2 Act III. sc. iii. 


We have noticed in referring to these examples of borrowing that 
many of them do not appear to be due to book knowledge, but are 
simply the repetition of phrases and passages caught by the ear, 
with such misplacement of words and minor errors as such a 
process would entail. In an age when many playwrights were 
actors, and performed in others' plays, many of them would know 
by heart long passages, at least, from plays by their colleagues. 
Playwrights who frequented the theatres must have retained in the 
memory play-scraps and strong lines spoken by the actors. Thus 
a great deal of the borrowing we have noticed came from the 
theatre itself; it was sometimes conscious borrowing, and some- 
times unconscious. " If," says Anthony Scoloker in his Diaphantus^ 
the author " haue caught vp half a Line of any others, It was out of 
his Memorie, not of any ignorance." Robert Armin, who repro- 
duced several Shaksperean phrases, was a member of Shakspere's 
company. Important as the Quartos and Folios were in establishing 
Shakspere's lasting reputation, this constant repetition of phrases 
from memory shows clearly that, apart from them, Shakespere's 
success in the theatre itself was sufficient to have won him fame 
among his fellows. What the publication of his works did, was to 
make them accepted as literature, to carry on his reputation through 
the turmoil of the seventeenth century, and to preserve his labours till 
their full worth could be appreciated. But apart from Quarto and 
Folio, Shakspere the man, Shakspere the poet, and Shakspere 
the playwright, would not have been unrecorded in Elizabethan 
literature. The allusions to him and his works show that he was 
loved and that he was honoured, and that, though men did not 
recognise in him the greatest literary genius of England, yet in their 
praises, and particularly in their borrowings, they paid a tribute to 
the way in which he excelled them, and corroborated Browning's 
declaration of his most striking characteristic : " The royal ease 
with which he walks up the steps and takes his seat on his throne, 
while we poor fellows have to struggle hard to get up a step or 
two." 2 

In a number of instances the very form of the Shaksperean phrase 
and line is caught and repeated by the imitator. The parallelism 
1 i. 133. 2 sh. Life and Work, 1908, p. 169. 


between the original and the imitation seems to be exactly similar 
to the likeness which exists between the parallel passages often 
cited as proofs of authorship in dubious cases. How much the 
fact that similar parallelism is here proved to be borrowing, would 
invalidate the use of the parallel-passage test, each editor must 
decide for himself in accordance with the nature of the case with 
which he deals ; to us it is sufficient to show that where parallelisms 
are not accompanied by general sameness of treatment and similarity 
of conception, and are not supported by metrical tests, it is 
extremely dangerous to attach importance to them. 

d. Allusions of Shakspere's Successors to the Poet and his 
Works. Some index of the changes which came over poetry and 
drama during the seventeenth century is to be seen in the allusions 
to Shakspere. The latter part of the century, more or less conse- 
quent upon the Commonwealth and identical with the Restoration, 
was a period of decline in the intellectual condition of the nation, 
of decline which ceased at the advent of the eighteenth century, 
when started the rise to the Victorian era. By 1650 all the great 
Elizabethans were dead. Even in Jacobean times, however, the 
Elizabethan spirit was passing away. The old freshness, delicacy, 
richness and wanton joyousness of English verse had all but gone ; 
poetry became, on the whole, more measured, more learned and 
more sententious, and, at the same time, more satirical and vicious. 
Imagination was less powerful and less rich : in a more learned, 
but less wise age, geographical and classical errors in drama were 
well-nigh impossible, and anachronism practically disappeared ; but 
Ariel was dead. No longer the delightful children of myth tripped in 
the green ways of wonderful forests ; no longer the bright spirit of 
the imagination hovered over enchanted islands in the great ocean 
of life, and worked for human weal. 

While these changes were developing, the social status of the 
theatre was raised : it became the favourite amusement of the 
court and of men of leisure. Gradually it grew less in touch with 
national life, and gradually it grew more coarse. The theatre was 
bound to pander to the tastes of its patrons, and to reflect their 
life. And then, while these developments were proceeding, the 
knife-edge of the revolution severed the past from the future. 


A few men remained to carry on theatrical tradition to the 
Restoration stage ; but the men of Dryden's age were effectually 
cut off from the life and thought of their fathers ; and, though 
Restoration plays followed to some extent Elizabethan models, the 
old spirit had gone, the old language had changed, the old society 
had disappeared. Foreign influence and music were brought to 
the stage : the scenery of masques and operas led to the adoption 
of scenery for tragedy and comedy ; the shameless wantonness of 
the court and leisured people tainted the whole of theatrical life and 
became characteristic of plays and players. Courtiers became play- 
wrights, and playwrights became hangers-on of courts. The works 
of Shakspere, in consequence of these changes, were no longer appre- 
ciated or understood by most, and many of them were altered and 
rearranged for the new theatre. In spite of the genius of Betterton, 
who made the tragic characters of Shakspere great stage successes, 
the poet was best known, in a dissolute age that delighted in satire 
and comedy, by his own dissolute Falstaff. He was often declared 
to be inferior to the writers of that time. Since the "refinement" 
of the language, many of his common words, common also in our 
day, were obsolete and incomprehensible ; and such was the state 
of affairs that one writer speaks of "his unfiled expressions, his 
rambling and indigested Fancys, the laughter of the Critical " (Ed. 
Phillips, 1675). 

But amid all this ignorance and corruption one or two men saw 
clearly and held true. If the Puritan thought the poet fit author 
for a renegade king worthy of death, the greatest of Puritans, John 
Milton, paid his whole-hearted tribute to his predecessor. In 
the vitiated atmosphere of the theatre itself, one man, and he, 
"glorious John," the greatest critic so far in English, and the 
greatest literary man of his day, insisted on the pre-eminence of 
Shakspere, and gave good reasons for the faith that was in him. 
If theatrical genius ran riot in elaborately gorgeous displays, and 
taste accordingly degenerated, one man, at least, and he one of 
the few true gentlemen of this unfortunate stage, Thomas Betterton, 
strove after higher ideals, and was greatly instrumental through his 
acting in bringing about the first systematic studies in Shakspere. 

In discussing this latter part of the century, it will be 


convenient to adopt our previous arrangement into sections. 
These will be : 

a. Allusions to Shakspere himself as poet and playwright. 

b. Borrowings from his works. 

c. Mere references to his works and characters. 

d. Alterations of his plays. 

(a) Allusions to Shakspere as Poet and Playwright. Throughout 
the latter part of the seventeenth century the names of Jonson and 
Shakspere are generally bracketed together, and this for two 
reasons. The first is that these two men represented in a way 
that no other authors could, the drama of the age that was gone ; 
and the second is to be seen in the close way in which Shakspere's 
reputation in that age was connected with Jonson's verses con- 
cerning him in the Folio of 1623, and his criticism in Timber, and 
his talks with Drummond. In these verses and this criticism 
Jonson had represented Shakspere as having had little Latin and 
less Greek, as having been ignorant of the Ancients, and as wanting 
art : he, on the other hand, had attempted to regulate English 
drama according to the principles established by classical pre- 
cedent as then understood, and his own art was always conscious 
and deliberate. The men of the Commonwealth and Restoration, 
impressed by the pseudo-classical principles advocated in France, 
found Jonson's criticism confirmed by reading the Shaksperean 
text. They took up that ever-recurring battle between romantic 
freedom and classical propriety ; and when they associated rare 
old Ben and Shakspere, the former represented to them learning 
and art, and was identified with the classical side ; and the latter 
represented natural gen 'us, and was identified with romantic 
freedom. To these two, Fletcher was sometimes added ; and then 
we have the glorious triumvirate in whom the old drama was 
thought to be summed up. A distinction was often drawn between 
Fletcher and Shakspere : the muse of the former was said to be 
more feminine ; the muse of the latter more masculine and strong. 
Flecknoe identifies Jonson with "Judgment" and also "Gravity 
and ponderousness of style," and Fletcher with " Wit " (ii. 85). 

The main points of Jonson's criticism, confirmed by the theory 


imported from France, were accepted on all sides, and were con- 
stantly being stated. The first reference to Shakspere, the natural, 
untrained genius, is in U Allegro of Milton, where, after referring 
to the learned Jonson, the poet proceeds in that often-quoted 

couplet ; 

"Or sweetest Shakespeare, Fancy's child, 
Warble his native wood-notes wild. (i. 372.) 

Fuller comes next, saying of the poet : " He was an eminent in- 
stance of the truth of that Rule, Poet a nonfit* sed nascitur (i. 483) 
a passage afterwards stolen by Winstanley in his Worthies > 1684. 
Denham in his verses on Fletcher in 1647, sa y s that he combines 
the natural genius of Shakspere and the art of Jonson "mixt like 
th' Elements, and borne like twins" (i. 504) a compliment which 
Jasper Mayne afterwards paid to Cartwright (ii. 17), and Nahum 
Tate to Sir Francis Fane, who, he says, " can temper Shakespear's 
Flame with Johnson's Art " (ii. 317). The Prologue to Julius Casar 
in Covent Garden Drollery (ii. 172), sometimes ascribed to Dryden, 
represents Shakspere as writing with a happy genius, excelling 
Jonson by far, and yet committing faults, designing like a master, 
while Jonson dissected humankind, and creating with such facility 
that " 'Twas well in spight of him whate're he writ." " Shakespear," 
says Flecknoe, in 1660 (ii. 85), "excelled in a natural vein"; and 
he then proceeds to remark that a comparison of Shakspere with 
Jonson shows the difference " betwixt Nature and Art." 

This criticism is repeated by Phillips in his Theatrum Poetarum 
(ii. 221), where he says of our poet and his work : "where the polish- 
ments of Art are most wanting, as probably his Learning was not 
extraordinary, he pleaseth with a certain wild and native Elegance." 
Sir Francis Fane, junior, repeats this estimate in complimenting 
Major Mohun of the King's Company in the Epilogue to Love in 
the Dark (ii. 216). The distinction between the two poets is again 
drawn in Margaret Cavendish's Prologue to all her plays (ii. 134) ; it 
is once more uttered by Denham in the well-known lines : 

" Old Mother Wit, and Nature'gave 
Shakespear and Fletcher all they have ; 
In Spencer, and in Johnson, Art 
Of slower Nature got the start." (ii. 159.) 
SH. ALLN. UK. I. d 


Knightly Chetwood says ever the same thing : 

" Shakspeare say'd all that Nature cou'd impart, 
And Johnson added Industry and Art." (ii. 304.) 

And Sedley aptly sums up the popular verdict, but transcends it 
in his bold conclusion, in the prologue to Higden's Wary Widdow 

(ii. 392) : 

" Shackspearvihose frtiitfull Genius, happy Wit, 
Was framed and finisht at a lucky hit ; 
The Pride of Nature, and the shame of Schools, 
Born to Create, and not to Learn from Rules." 

In the Preface to Mountfort's Successful Strangers, a writer 
flatters the author in the usual strain : 

" Hail thou the Shaksphear of our present age, . . . 
Thou art not now, more learn'd then Shakspear then, 
Who to th' amaze of the more Letter'd men, 
Minted such thoughts from his own Natural Brain ; 
As the great Readers, since could ne're attain, 
Though daily they the stock of Learning drain." (ii. 341.) 

Milton's epithet of " sweetest " is referred to in the Athenian 
Mercury, 1691 (ii. 378) ; while the statement that Shakspere was 
probably more learned than the popular estimate allowed, is to be 
found in the Address to Tate's Loyal General (ii. 266). 
1 All of these references, generally drawing a comparison between 
Shakspere and Jonson, identifying the former with natural genius, 
and the latter with " art," show the influence of the latter's criti- 
cism. Other passages in Shakspere's praise likewise show Jonson's 
influence. His " Sweet Swan of Avon '' is repeated in the epistle 
of ten players in the first edition of Beaumont and Fletcher 
(i. 503). George Daniel, of Beswick, designates Samuel Daniel 
as " Sweetest Swan of Avon," in 1647 and George Daniel, as 
Grosart puts it, " idolized Ben Jonson, and set himself resolutely 
against the supremacy of Shakespere " (i. 506). Samuel Sheppard, 
who wrote of making a pilgrimage to Shakspere's tomb every year 
(ii. 12), repeated Jonson's remarks concerning the poet's excel- 
lence over classical tragedies in the lines : 

" This Muse doth merit more rewards 
Then all the Greek or Laline Bards." (ii. 13.) 

And Otway in 1680 (ii. 263), in the Prologue to his degenerate 



version of Romeo, refers to the favour of " Eliza," or " Our James" 
which Jonson mentioned : 

"A gracious Prince's favour chear'd his Muse, 
A constant Favour he ne'er fear'd to lose." 

That a good many of these critical allusions are due to the 
acceptance of a tradition, rather than to adequate personal ac- 
quaintance with the poet's works, is shown in the way in which the 
borrowings from his text, once so common a feature, decrease 
in number, while the mere references to Falstaff, etc., are 
much more common. The same thing is shown in the way in 
which the writers follow the Jonsonian judgment, and the similarity 
in phrasing of their remarks on the subject. Very rarely does one 
find in all this matter the individual judgment of a man who has 
read the poet for himself, and gives his own verdict. That, and 
that alone, constantly sustained by one man, was wanted to raise 
English criticism from its lethargy, and eventually that came. 

A reflection of the great attention given in these times to Falstaff 
and comedy, is to be seen in the frequent references to Shakspere 
as a portrayer of humorous characters. George Daniel refers to 
" Comicke Shakespeare" in 1647 (i. 506); Cokaine writes of 
" Shakespeare, most rich in Humours" in 1653 (ii. 29). Scrope 
says of the "glorious triumvirate" in 1677-8 : 

"They took so bold a Freedom with the Age, 
That there was scarse a Knave, or Fool, in Town 
Of any Note, but had his Picture shown." 

Wilmot, in 1678, says that Shakspeare hits home with "a jeast 
in scorn." Temple declares Shakspere was the first to open the 
vein of humour on our stage (ii. 265). 

It is a dangerous thing for an age to be satisfied with itself ; but 
the age of Dryden was quite certain that it was more refined and 
polished than the age of Shakspere. It looked on its literary pro- 
ductions as more " correct." It was satisfied, too, that since those 
old, rough times, the language had been refined and perfected 
indeed, the subject was so far advanced that the day was nigh 
when men would propound the delightful scheme of " fixing " the 
language. The literati of the Drydenian age often professed to 


strive after the virtues of their predecessors, and to avoid their 
faults. For the faults to be avoided in Shakspere, they took a hint 
from Ben. He had already laid down that the wit of Shakspere 
sometimes defied control, and that far from not blotting a line, he 
ought to have blotted a thousand. Once more in accord with his 
criticism, Dryden and his contemporaries found that Shakspere was 
guilty of " waste of wit," and that in consequence of the early time 
at which he wrote, the uncultured people for whom he wrote, and 
the state of the language he wrote in, Shakspere's plays had 
many rough and unpolished passages, and contained many 
improprieties of language. 

J. Berkenhead, with all the adulation of a first-edition com- 
mendator, eulogises Beaumont and Fletcher in their first folio of 
1647, and remarks of Shakspere : 

" Shakespeare was early up, and went so drest, 
As for those dawning houres he knew was best ; . . . 
Brave Shakespear flow'd, yet had his Ebbings too, 
Often above Himselfe, sometimes below." (i. 512.) 

This is the often-repeated verdict. In 1660 Flecknoe in his 
Short Discourse (ii. 85) says : " For Playes, Shakespear was one 
of the first, who invented the Dramatick Stile, from dull History to 
quick Comedy, upon whom Johnson refin'd " ; and he quotes what 
one said of the poet's writings, " that 'twas a fine Garden, but it 
wanted weeding." Edward Phillips in his Theatrum Poetarum 
refers to Spenser's " Rustic obsolete words," and his "rough-hewn 
clowterly Verses " ; and proceeds to Shakspere's " unfiled expres- 
sions, his rambling and undigested Fancys, the laughter of the 
Critical" (ii. 221). John Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave, says of 
Shakspere and Fletcher, " in many things they grosly fail " (ii. 290). 
The "Athenian Society'' thinks, in 1692, that the reputation of 
Shakspere would not suffer if many things which were printed for 
his were omitted (ii. 384) ; and it then refers, apparently, to an 
expression of opinion by Cowley in the Preface to his Poems, 1656, 
where he remarks on the avarice of some stationers who spoil 
books in giving "mangled and imperfect" versions, or with false 
additions, and then proceeds : " This has been the case with 
Shakespear^ Fletcher, Johnson^ and many others ; part of whose 


Poems I should take the boldness to prune and lop away, if the 
care of replanting them in print did belong to me" (ii. 56). 
Apparently, then, Cowley, like his contemporaries, found un- 
worthy matter in Shakspere, but ascribed it to his publishers, 
or some other persons. 

The widespread acceptance of the Jonsonian critical tradition is 
not surprising when we consider the position of Jonson himself. 
Not only were his plays more congenial to public taste than 
Shakspere's, but he himself was what Shakspere never was to the 
Restoration theatre-goers, a personality. His principal plays were 
the successes of the King's Company, and he had such a reputation 
for " correctness," that it is little wonder that he was sometimes 
considered superior to Shakspere. Thomas Shad well, on several 
occasions, most emphatically expressed the opinion that Jonson 
was peer of playwrights ; he accepts him as his model and directs 
others to imitate him, remarking, "he being the onely person, that 
appears to me to have made perfect Representations of Humane 
Life : most other Authors, that I ever read, either have wilde 
Romantick Tales, wherein they strein Love and Honour to that 
Ridiculous height, that it become Burlesque." Still, in his way, he 
pays the usual tribute to the excellence of Falstaff : " I never saw one 
except that of Falstaffe, that was in my judgment comparable to any 
of Jonson's considerable Humours'' 3 (ii. 157). In the Epistle to his 
Virttioso he further remarks : " Mr.Jo/mson was incomparably the 
best Dramatick Poet that ever was, or, I believe, ever will be " (ibid.\ 
And elsewhere, in a dedication to Sedley, he declares that two of 
Jonson's plays and one of Shakspere's alone, except Sedley's 
Antony, make Romans speak like Romans. John Oldham, in a 
long Ode to Jonson, whom he addresses as " Great Thou," calls him 
the "mighty Founder of our Stage," and gives him chief place 
(ii. 235). So also Cavendish called Jonson " Poet of Poets" in The 
Triumphant Widow (ii. 239). 

There are numerous instances, moreover, where the name of 
Shakspere is disparaged in order to enhance different authors, in 
the commendatory verses before their volumes. This is not only 
to be found in editions of such favourite authors as Beaumont and 
Fletcher, but also in the verses before volumes by indifferent 


poetasters, whose names might otherwise be forgotten. But the 
age was full of this sort of thing. Dryden's State of Innocence, 
according to Lee, was an improvement on Milton's Paradise Lost, 
and of "lofty" Lee, himself, one of his admirers said that his 
" loud thundering flights " should " strike the ears of all posterity." 
In other cases praise was conventional ; some men praised 
Shakspere as Earle's " vulgar spirited Man " praised Chaucer, 
because others did so (Micro-Cosmographie, ed. Arber, 1895, p. 70). 

Having thus noticed the general condition, we come to the 
greatest writer and critic of the time, John Dryden. The very 
nature of the age made Dryden a critic. Criticism had been 
fostered by interminable controversies and wrangles, which, what- 
ever they did for the questions at hand, at least led men to seek 
after first principles, and distinguish what was vital from what was 
immaterial. No great literary man of the time could have escaped 
attack and censure ; and no great literary man could suffer censure 
and fail to consider the principles which underlay his art. 

But Dryden was not the man to rise superior to the errors and 
vices of his age. His faults are due, partly, to his ever-recurring 
difficulties in money affairs. He outstripped his contemporaries in 
the base adulation of his dedications. He excelled them in severe 
invective against those whom he assailed. He stooped to 
indulge the degraded taste of the coarsest of his audience and 
pandered to indecency in his dramatic work. His private life was 
not clean. Time after time he veered round, and deserted the 
fallen cause, for the cause then in the ascendant. The ardent 
eulogiser of Oliver Cromwell speedily welcomed "his sacred 
majesty," Charles II, to a land rejuvenated by his presence. 
Amboyna was written in 1673 to inflame the people against the 
cruel Dutch with whom England was at war, and it was dedicated 
to Shaftesbury's colleague in office, Clifford ; but in 1681, without 
any apparent personal cause, and merely to please the Court and 
the Tories, the poet fiercely attacked Shaftesbury in the Achitopel 
of Absolom and Achitopel, and reviled him for his share in 
promoting the war that he himself had so conspicuously supported. 
In 1 68 1 Dryden inflamed public opinion, already excited by the 
Popish Plot, against the Papacy, in his mordantly satirical play. 


The Spanish Friar; in 1682 he identified himself with Protestant- 
ism in Religio Laid; but on the accession of James II the ardent 
Protestant turned Roman Catholic, and dedicated his pen to his 
new religion, though, perhaps, not against his conscience. 

But the individualism of the man comes out here and there, 
and it was his individualism and his learning which made him a 
great critic. He was one of the very few men who appreciated 
the greatness of Milton. He attempted to judge between French 
theory and English practice. The poor " Sisyphus of the stage," 
he wrote plays to suit the tastes and pleasures of others rather than 
his own ; but he would rather have tried epic, and attempted to 
prevail upon the court to provide him with means to do so. In 
accordance with the taste of Charles and literary practice he used 
rhyme in his plays, but finally followed his own judgment and 
Shakspere, and adopted blank verse. He candidly avowed that his 
works contained bombast, and regretted that he could not destroy 
it. Of all those who came under the stinging lash of Jeremy 
Collier, he made the most honest and the most manly avowal of 

Thus it is with his criticism of Shakspere. He was not always 
consistent. He was not always original. The Jonsonian tradi- 
tional criticism as expanded by his contemporaries, he accepted, 
repeated, and excelled in harshness : but as his literary gift, his 
learning and his critical acumen were greater than those of his 
fellows, he learnt to overlook the little things which they thought 
so important, and he seized on the qualities which made 
Shakspere pre-eminent. 

Dryden's early prologues and epilogues contain no reference to 
Shakspere, though Jonson and Fletcher are mentioned. He tells 
us that he was taught to admire the great dramatist by Sir 
William Davenant. His criticism up to All for Love in 1678 
follows more or less on conventional lines, though it contains some 
of his finest utterances on Shaksperean drama ; and even to the 
very end he never quite relinquished the conventional position, or 
rejected French theory. But about the time of All for Love, he 
seems to have relinquished formalism, and taken a new and 
independent leacj. 


Shakspere,he tells us in the Essay, 1668 (ii. 146), " was the Homer, 
or Father of our Dramatick Poets ; Johnson was the Virgil, the 
pattern of elaborate writing ; I admire him, but I love Shakespeare." 
Elsewhere, in the prologue to The Tempest, he expresses the same 

" Shakespear, who (taught by none) did first impart 
To Fletcher wit, to labouring Johnson Art. 
He, Monarch-like, gave those his Subjects Law, 
And is that Nature which they paint and draw." (ii. 139.) 

Here, of course, we have the " glorious triumvirate " associated 
with the different powers which convention had previously ascribed 
to them, a point which Dryden elaborated on several other occa- 
sions. Jonson, we learn in the Essay, was more " correct " and 
observed all the laws, while Shakspere did not. Beaumont and 
Fletcher's plays had more regular plots than Shakspere's, and were 
far more popular : but in the Preface to Troilus in 1679, Dryden 
declared, in reference to the unities, etc., that the plots of both 
Fletcher and Shakspere were defective (ii. 246). 

But most of Shakspere's faults, Dryden ascribed to the early 
time at which he wrote. Of Shakspere's predecessors and the steps 
which led up to him, Dryden takes no cognisance : to him as to 
most men of his day, it was enough to say that Shakspere was the 
father of the stage, and invented the styles which others copied. 
Since his day, however, the language had been "refined,'' and 
so it follows "that many of his words, and more of his Phrases, 
are scarce intelligible. And of those which we understand some 
are ungrammatical, others coarse ; and his whole stile is so pester'd 
with Figurative expressions, that it is as affected as it is obscure " 
(Preface to Troilus, ii. 244). This was in 1679, after AH for Love; 
but 1674 can tell the same story. We are once more referred to 
the " improvement " of the language, and proceed : " But, malice 
and partiality set apart, let any man who understands English, read 
diligently the works of SJiakespear and Fletcher ; and I dare under- 
take that he will find, in every page, either some solecism of speech, 
or some notorious flaw in sence." But this was due to the ignorance 
of times in which they lived. " Poetry was then, if not in its infancy 
among us, at least not arriv'd to its vigor and maturity : witness 


the lameness of their plots : many of which, especially those which 
they writ first, (for even that age refin'd itself in some measure,) 
were made up of some ridiculous, incoherent story, which, in one 
play many times took up the business of an age. I suppose I need 
not name Pericles, Prince of Tyre, nor the Historical Plays of 
Shakespear" (Conquest of Granada, ii. 174). But not only have 
we refined the language of those rough old times ; we have refined 
their wit also. Truth to tell, Dryden goes on, " the wit of the last 
age was yet more incorrect than their language." Shakspere 
himself, " who many times has written better than any poet, in any 
language, is yet so far from writing wit always, or expressing that 
wit according to the Dignity of the Subject, that he writes, in many 
places, below the dullest Writer of ours, or of any precedent 
age. Never did any author precipitate himself from such heights 
of thought to so low expressions, as he often does." And even 
before the Conquest of Granada, in the Essay of 1668, Dryden 
assures us that ''''Shakespeare's language is a little obsolete." 

Not only was the incorrectness of Shakspere's wit and language 
due to the age in which he had the misfortune to live, but to the 
same cause must we ascribe the superiority of Beaumont and 
Fletcher, who, coming after Shakspere, better understood how 
to imitate "the conversation of gentlemen": "whose wilde 
debaucheries, and quickness of wit in repartees, no Poet can ever 
paint as they have done. 7 ' 

The bulk of the criticism noted above is due to a false conception 
of the Elizabethan age, to inaccurate knowledge of Shakspere's 
relation to his stage, to the classical theories then held, and to 
Restoration taste in drama. Some of it is due to the Jonsonian 
tradition, and the old identification of Jonson with art, and Shak- 
spere with natural genius. To this Dryden refers again in Granada 
(ii. 175). "And what correctness, after this," he asks, "can be 
expected from Shakespear or from Fletcher, who wanted that 
learning and care which Johnson had?" In the Essay he tells us 
that Shakspere is "naturally learn'd. . . . He is many times flat, 
insipid; his Comick wit degenerating into clenches, his serious 
swelling into Bombast." And as this " natural genius " of Shak- 
spere's sometimes soared so high, and sometimes grovelled so low. 


the poet sometimes fell into "a lethargy of thought, for whole 
scenes together " (Granada, ii. 176) ; while in Troilus and Cressida, 
probably " one of his first endeavours on the Stage," there is a great 
falling off as the play proceeds, so that " the later part of the 
Tragedy is nothing but a confusion of Drums and Trumpets, 
Excursions and Alarms," and parts of the piece are " a heap of 
Rubbish" (Troilus, ii. 244-5). To tne extension of the Jonsonian 
tradition likewise may we ascribe the statement in the Preface to 
An Evening s Love that Shakspere was guilty of superfluity and 
waste of wit (ii. 170). 

We have already seen above how Dryden censured the com- 
pression of an age into the compass of a play, and instanced 
Pericles and the historical plays as offenders in that respect. His 
general estimate of the plots of the last age except Jonson's is 
that they were weak, and his general criticism is an enlargement of 
Jonson's in Every Man out of his Humour, in accordance with the 
theories of his time. In the Essay he instances the superiority 
of French plays in that they are not complicated by under-plots ; 
and in the belief that absolute truth can only be obtained through 
the unities, he condemns Shaksperean histories, where thirty or 
forty years are " crampt into a representation of two hours and a 
half." Part of his criticism of Troilus may be traced to the 
influence of the Heroic play : " The chief persons, who give name 
to the Tragedy, are left alive : Cressida is false, and is not 
punish'd" (ii. 245). 

But though, like his contemporaries, Dryden thought Jonson 
more correct than Shakspere, he constantly asserts the superiority 
of the latter : 

" Has not great Johnson's learning often fail'd ? 
But Shakspears greater Genius still prevail'd " : 

and in his Satires of Juvenal he refers to Jonson's Folio verses as 
"An Insolent, Sparing, and Invidious, Panegyrick." 

In and after All for Love he goes back on several of his former 
criticisms. In the Essay he advocated rhyme in tragedies, in 
accordance with the popular taste, and the influence of Charles II ; 
in The Rival Ladies he identified blank verse with prose 


and declared that the English tongue so naturally glides into it, 
'that in writing Prose 'tis hardly to be avoyded.' And in his 
Essay Of Heroick Playes he remarked : " It was onely custome 
which cozen'd us so long : we thought, because Shakespear and 
Fletcher went no further, that there the Pillars of Poetry were to be 
erected. That, because they excellently describ'd Passion without 
Rhyme, therefore Rhyme was not capable of describing it. But 
time has now convinced most men of that Error" (ii. 171). Time 
however, was soon to convince the poet that rhyme was wrong. 
Like Milton, who found rhyme "the Invention of a barbarous Age, 
to set off wretched matter and lame Meeter," he departed from his 
old practices and criticism, and professing "to imitate the Divine 
Shakespeare? disencumbered himself of rhyme in All for Love 
(ii. 243). And a few years later, in 1683, he practically rejected in 
principle his previous insistence on the unities. In The Vindi- 
cation he remarks : " Am I tied in Poetry to the strict rules of 
History ? I have follow'd it in this Play more closely, than suited 
with the Laws of the Drama, and a great Victory they will haue, 
who shall discover to the World this wonderful Secret, that I have 
not observ'd the Unities of place and time . . . 'Twas our common 
business here to draw the Parallel of the Times, and not to make 
an Exact Tragedy : For this once we were resolved to erre with 
honest Shakespear" (ii. 177-8). From the very first he seems, more- 
over, to have resisted the French influence, and to have constantly 
kept Elizabethan drama in view for comparison or example. In his 
praise of Shakspere he refers, like Margaret Cavendish, to the poet's 
universality ; to his splendid characterisation ; to his comprehension 
of the workings of passion ; to the beauty and depth of his thought ; 
to his superiority over all his contemporaries and over all his 

In his alterations of Shakspere's plays he stooped to supply 
current needs. He did what others had done before him, and by 
his example led others to do the same thing far worse after him. 
But " all things work together for good " : alterations were then all 
that was possible, in most of the plays, and they prepared the way 
for a better time coming. 

For the rest, his knowledge was not, and could not be, always 


exact. Troilus he described as an early play ; Pericles was the 
first product of Shakspere's muse, he elsewhere says (ii. 303) ; and 
most of his plots, he remarks in the Preface to An Evenings 
Love, come from the Hecatommithi of Cinthio (ii. 170). 

Dryden's adverse criticism, supported by Rymer, as it was in 
part, could not escape attack. An anonymous writer in The 
Censure of the Rota records that a critic was sorry Mr. Dryden, 
when he charged Shakspere and Fletcher with solecisms, did not 
read his own writings with the same spectacles (ii. 197). Once more 
Dryden is trounced in Clifford's Notes upon Mr. Dryderis Poems 
(ii. 325) : " There is one of your Virtues which I cannot forbear to 
animadvert upon, which is your excess of Modesty ; When you tell 
us in your Postscript to Granada, that Shakespear is below the 
Diillest Writer of Ours, or any precedent Age" etc. And once 
more Mr. Bays is twitted about his criticism in The Reasons of Mr. 
Bays changing his Religio7i (ii. 336). But the most formidable 
critic who rose against Dryden was Gerard Langbaine, who, though 
not gifted with Dryden's critical gifts, certainly had more exact 
knowledge of Shakspere's sources, etc. He repeats the usual 
statements about art and nature, and little learning, though he 
thinks Shakspere knew French and Italian well (ii. 359) ; but he rises 
against this " Poetick Almanzor, to put a stop to his Spoils upon 
his own Country-men " (ii. 347). After reviewing Dryden's various 
statements against the old poets, he likens him, with some little 
truth, to Dr. Charleton's picture of a Malignant Wit, "who, 
conscious of his own Vices, and studious to conceal them, 
endeavours by Detraction to make it appear that others also of 
greater Estimation in the world, are tainted with the same or 
greater." He then accuses the poet of ingratitude to the old 
dramatists, r to whom he owes so much, and proceeds to declare that 
Dryden's improprieties and solecisms are equal to those com- 
mitted by the men he criticises. But he afterwards acknowledges 
that Dryden, in a soberer moment, admitted the superiority of 
Shakspere. Langbaine then proceeds to detail the plays of Shak- 
spere, admitting into the canon all those apocryphal plays now 
generally rejected. 

Jsor did Rymer himself go unscathed. Dryden condemned him 


in 1694. In a letter of that year to Dennis he says, " For my own 
part I reverence Mr. Ry liter's Learning, but I detest his 111 Nature 
and his Arrogance. I indeed, and such as I, have reason to be 
afraid of him, but Shakespear has not" (ii. 402) ; and Dennis, to 
whom the letter was written, in the previous year had published 
his Impartial Critick ; or some Observations Upon . . . A short 
view of English Tragedy (ii. 396). John Oldmixon, in 1665, in a 
letter likewise censured "Mr. Rimer" (ii. 404). 

The great controversy of the end of the century was started by 
Jeremy Collier in 1698. His Short View was a terrific, well- 
deserved and invincible onslaught on the licentiousness of the 
stage. All concerned, from the least considerable offender to 
"glorious John," came under his vigorous lash. And Shakspere, 
too, had to suffer attack. 

Necessary as Collier's book was, and successful as it proved to 
be, it led in some matters to false conclusions, and it was partly 
based on false critical canons. Of its success there can be no ques- 
tion : it helped to purge the drama of its-uncleanness. But it also 
proceeded in parts on the old principle, common to Puritan critics, 
that the office of drama was not, " to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up 
to nature," but to inculcate moral lessons, as a homily would do. 

In the Shaksperean parts of his book, Collier was not fortunate : 
he first of all instituted a parallel between Phsedra and Ophelia, 
saying of Shakspere's heroine, after one of his rare lapses into bad 
taste, "To keep her alive only to sully her reputation, and Discover 
the Rankness of her Breath, was very Cruel." Collier objects to 
the mad songs Ophelia sang. His next Shaksperean passage deals 
with the poet's immodesty, which he considers so great that it is 
not necessary to tender evidence ; and he then proceeds to praise 
the modesty of Jonson. In regard to the profane language of the 
stage he thinks Shakspere is "comparatively sober." In regard to 
the dramatist's clerical characters he remarks that Shakspere, for 
the most part, "holds up the Function" ; and continues that even 
his Sir John, the Parson of Wrotham, in Sir John Oldcastle, has 
his redeeming virtues. And next he instances Falstaff, and 
Flowerdale in The London Prodigall^ as cases in which the 
poet does not encourage vice by rewarding it with success : 


Falstaff " dies like a Rat behind the Hangings " ; and Flowerdale 
is reformed entirely and repents before he gets good fortune 
(ii. 409). 

Of the truth to life of Ophelia's songs we need not remark. J. 
Drake, in 1699, professed to "set in a true light " Collier's book, in 
his Ancient and Modern Stages Surveyed, and devoted some space 
to the cause of Ophelia, the supposed rankness of whose breath he 
none too amiably ascribes to " a bad nose, or a rotten Tooth " of 
Mr. Collier's own. His apology for Hamlet, of which he garbles 
the story and which he does not understand, is once more based 
on the same old ground of " moral" lessons. " The Criminals," he 
notes, " are not only brought to execution, but they are taken in 
their own Toyls." He then proceeds to draw a general " Moral " 
from the play, and continues : " The Tragedies of this Author in 
general are Moral and Instructive, and many of 'em such as the 
best of Antiquity can't equal in that respect. His King Lear, 
Timon of Athens, Macbeth, and some others are so remarkable 
upon that score," etc. (ii. 425). 

Collier's mention of Sir John Oldcastle and the Parson therein 
and of Flowerdale in the Prodigall is unfortunate, since those 
plays are not Shakspere's ; but such a consideration was not, 
and could not have been, urged by * Congreve in his reply to 
Collier (ii. 410). That writer in his Amendments, 1698, sheltered 
himself behind Shakspere and Jonson, and criticised Collier's 
conclusions concerning Sir John the cleric. To Congreve's 
book an anonymous writer replied in Animadversions, etc., 
1698, and Collier in his Defence, 1699 (ii. 415, 423). One of the 
most sensible books which this controversy produced is the 
anonymous Defence of Dramatick Poetry, 1698, where the 
author's remarks on the unities are worthy of special attention 
(ii. 412). 

The attitude of the Restoration playgoer towards the old drama 
is best shown in the diary of Pepys (ii. 89-97). His slashing con- 
demnation of some of our most treasured Elizabethan plays " the 
most insipid ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life " is only 
parallel to the statements of which even Dryden was sometimes 
capable. "Now the old plays began to disgust this refined 


age," says Evelyn (ii. 108). This refined age loved shows and 
spectacles, and the old plays had to compete with newer and 
racier pieces in which machines and modern contrivances were 
used, and in which the female parts gave more scope to Mrs. Ellen 
Gwyn and her sister-actresses. 

(b] Borrowings from Shakspertfs Works. After the year 1650 
there is a very great falling-off in the number of borrowings. Of 
the plays so quoted in the earlier half of the century, Romeo, 
Richard III, the FalstafF pieces, and Hamlet, the Falstaff plays 
lead with seven instances ; Romeo and Hamlet follow, each with 
three ; and Richard III has none. The poems had gone out of 
fashion ; only two borrowings from the Venus are recorded, and 
none from Lucrece and the Sonnets, i Henry IV and Miich Ado 
each provide two cases ; Richard 77, the Dream, the Merchant, 
Othello, The Winter's Tale, and Cymbeline, only one each. All 
this shows declining interest in Shaksperean plays. 

(c) References to Skakspere's Works. The mere references to 
characters and plays indicate what most gained attention. 
Falstaff greatly predominates. It is not desirable or necessary to 
enumerate the instances in detail. Falstaff is referred to, by way 
of satire, humour, or illustration, some forty times, far surpassing 
in number the first play, which is Hamlet. The Tempest is 
alluded to often ; this was partly due to Dryden's alteration ; but 
it was most of all due to the political aspirations of master Trinculo 
and his colleague Stephano, characters which had a particular 
interest for the writers of those times. The majority of the 
Tempest allusions concern Trinculo. Othello equals Hamlet in 
references, due greatly to the play's revival, by Killigrew's com- 
pany, when Betterton probably took the leading part. The other 
plays come below these. Many of the allusions were due to the 
Restoration alterations of the plays : this was particularly so in 
the case of Macbeth, Romeo, Lear, Troilus, and Timon, while 
Henry VIII was made popular by Davenant, and the Dream 
and Shrew contained two favourite comedy characters, Bottom 
and Sly. Richard III, at one time so popular, is only referred to 
once other than in lists ; only one allusion is made to the old 
favourite Hotspur ; and the Errors, Venus, Henry V, Pericles, and 


Lear, are likewise seldom referred to, except for notices in lists of 
the plays ; and a great many of the allusions in our second volume 
are merely mentions in play-lists. It is interesting and important 
to notice that, in this age, when most of the legends about 
Shakspere had their origin, his best-known character was Falstaff. 

(d} Alterations of Shakspere's Plays. We have already noticed 
the critical objections which Restoration writers urged against Shak- 
spere : how his language was obsolete, because of the refinement 
which had taken place since the barbaric times in which he wrote ; 
how many of his scenes were weak, and he was guilty of lethargy of 
thought ; how his plots lacked coherence and neglected the unities. 
The age was attached to the heroic play, and loved scene and 
spectacle, and, owing to the short run of plays, dramatists had diffi- 
culty in supplying the demand. All this helped playwrights to 
indulge in the alteration of Shakspere's plays. They went to 
Spanish and to French for their plots : and why not to Elizabethan 
drama ? If they wanted a precedent for the alteration of the plays 
of their predecessors, they could cite the age whose plays they pro- 
ceeded to adapt, and name among others, Shakspere. 

With genius, the ends always justify the means : but woe to the 
ordinary mortal who dares walk in the charmed circle where genius 
treads. And when we come to consider the desecration of supreme 
romantic drama by men more or less blind to its beauties, the case 
is worse than their renovation of mere indifferent plays. 

All the Restoration alterations are not born of critical blindness, 
and are not base by nature. Some of them, and some of the best 
of them, perhaps, were made in deference to a public who liked 
spectacles and heroic plays ; and some of them were made by the 
very persons who fought the cause of Shakspere, and who alone 
were competent to realise his greatness. On their worth individu- 
ally, we have not here the space to make lengthy remarks ; it 
should be sufficient to enumerate them in chronological order. We 
should notice that other Elizabethan plays than Shakspere's were 
altered, though Shakspere suffered most ; and that though Lear 
was tampered with, Hamlet and Othello were untouched. Before 
the commencement of the recognised dramatic alterations, several 
alterations and adaptations of various plays had been made. 


Thomas Jordan in the Royal Arbor (1660-4 ?) printed ballads on the 
plots of the Winter's Tale, the Merchant, and Much Ado (ii. 87) ; 
and about the time of the Restoration The Merry conceited Humors 
of Bottom the Weaver appeared as a drollery, detached from the 
Dream and somewhat altered. 

If The Tameing of a Shrew which Pepys saw on April 9, 1667, 
and in which, he mentions, Lacy played " Sawney, 5 ' is Lacy's 
Sawney the Scot, an adaptation of Shakspere's Shrew not published 
till 1698, then Lacy commenced the Restoration adaptations of 
Shaksperean drama (ii. 97). 

Dryden and Davenant, in 1667, produced their joint adaptation 
of The Tempest, with its famous prologue (ii. 139). Their play was 
described by Richard Head in 1675 as " tne * ate rectified inimitable 
Tempest" (ii. 220) ; but the "rectification" is by no means an in- 
disputable advantage. Uryden wrote a preface to the edition of 
the play in 1669, by which time Davenant was dead. 

Before his death Davenant, " Cousen," as one called him, to 
Shakspere, blended together Measure for Measure and Much 
Ado as his Law against Lovers (ii. 150). In 1668 was published 
The Rivals, by the same author, founded to some extent on The 
Two Noble Kinsmen, the parts of the play most used being the 
Fletcherian parts (ii. 151). It is doubtful whether the Henry VIII, 
known as Davenant's, is an alteration in the ordinary sense, or 
merely means his staging of the play (ii. 97). 

In 1674 Thomas Duffett "hog" Duffett, as Dr. Furnivall called 
him, and once a milliner, mutilated and burlesqued parts of 
Macbeth in his Empress of Morocco j and in 1675 he degraded 
The Tempest, through its Dryden and Davenant version, into a 
"bawdy burlesque," The, Mock-Tempest (ii. 207, 209). Oldys notes 
that on one occasion ladies and persons of quality left the play- 
house because of the scurrilous ribaldry in the latter play (ii. 212). 

Thomas Shad well, in 1678, produced his History of Timon of 
Athens, founded on Shakspere's Timon, in which play Betterton 
acted the leading part (ii. 239). 

In 1679 was produced Dryden's version of Troilus and Cressida, 
the prologue of which Betterton spoke, representing the ghost of 
Shakspere. We have already referred to the remarkable preface 

SH. ALLN. BK. I. 6 


which introduced the printed text. In the preceding year, 1678, 
in All for Love Dryden had abandoned rhyme, and professed to 
follow Shakspere. 

Dryden's example and influence in 1678 and 1679 seem to have 
been responsible for the number of adaptations of Shaksperean plays 
which speedily followed. In 1680 Thomas Otway produced his 
History and fall of Caius Marius, altered from Romeo, of which 
it is a sad debasement, wherein Betterton and Mrs. Barry took 
the leading roles (ii. 263). For many years this play continued to 
be a favourite. In the same year and the following year were 
published the three civil-war plays of John Crowne, founded on 
Henry VI (ii. 259, 277). The first part was suppressed through 
the Popish faction, who opposed its representation (ii. 346). 

In 1 68 1, likewise, Nahum Tate made his alteration of King 
Lear, and wrote for it an apologetic prologue. Until Macready 
"ventured upon a modern heresy in favour of Shakspere," Tate's 
Lear was the accepted play at the theatre (ii. 268). The result of 
Lear encouraged Tate to alter Richard II 'in 1681 into The Sicilian 
Usurper; and in the following year he altered Coriolanus into the 
Ingratitude of a Commonwealth, where he once more pays his 
tribute, in the dedication, to the greatness of Shakspere. 

In 1682 Durfey's Injured Princess, founded on Cymbeline, was 
published. Durfey's version is shorter than Shakspere's play, and 
nowhere does Durfey acknowledge his indebtedness to the great 

Four years later, in 1686, Ravenscroft published his alteration of 
Titus Andronicus, a play which he thinks " seems rather a heap 
of Rubbish then a Structure" (ii. 319). 

John Sheffield, earl of Mulgrave, in 1692 made his alteration of 
Julius CcEsar (ii. 382) ; and in that year The Midsummer Night's 
Dream was made into an opera " with additions, Songs and Dances, 
twenty-four Chinese, and Juno 'in a Machine drawn by Peacocks/" 

(ii. 385). 

In 1700 Measure for Measure was played at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Theatre, " now very much alter'd : With Additions of several 
Entertainments of Musick" (ii. 432). 

Killigrew's suggestions for the alteration of Julius Ccesar we 



have reserved to the last, because of uncertainty in regard to the 
date. The MS. preserved in the British Museum, and which we 
print (ii. 98), appears to be the draft of a letter. His suggested 
alterations are exceedingly poor, and are the result of an absolute 
misunderstanding of the character of Brutus, of whom he says : 
" Brutus certainly is a directive charrecter at best, and therefore I 
thought wanted all the Assistence poetical liberty woud allow 
him" (ii. 101). 

e. Legends of Shakspere and his Works. The death of 
Shakspere so early in the seventeenth century, the scarcity of 
biographical details concerning him, the interest which his works 
aroused and the almost complete severance from the past caused 
by the civil wars, all contributed to the formation of a consider- 
able body of legends concerning the poet. Before considering 
how we may attempt to determine the value of the various stories 
bequeathed us, it would be well to give their import. 

The highest honour that Stratford can boast of, as Phillips said 
(ii. 222), is the birth there in April, 1564, of William Shakspere. 
Reliable evidence tells us that John Shakspere, the poet's father, 
was a glover and a farmer. He is described again as a glover in 
the Plume MSS. (ii. 68), by Aubrey as a butcher (ii. 260), and by 
Rowe as a dealer in wool J (Gray, 75-79). Only one notice has come 
down to us of his appearance, and his opinion of his son. "Sir 
John Mennes," says the Plume MSS., "saw once his [Shakspere's] 
old father in his shop a merry-cheekt old man, that said, * Will 
was a good honest fellow, but he darest have crakt a jesst with him att 
any time.' " From Rowe we learn that Shakspere went to the free- 
school in Stratford : this would be in 1571, when the boy was seven 
years old. 

On leaving school, says Rowe, he followed the occupation his 
father proposed to him ; Aubrey's account is that he followed his 
father's trade, as butcher : and tc when he kill'd a Calfe he would 

1 Rowe wrote in 1709, and is, therefore, without the scope of our volumes ; 
but as his traditions come from Davenant and Betterton, it seems proper to 
consider his remarks. An excellent book on these and other questions, is J. W. 
Gray's Shakespeare's Marriage, 1905. Mr. Gray quotes Rowe, Gibber, and all 
the writers of traditional matter quoted in our volumes. For Rowe and Gibber, 
I give references in Mr. Gray's volume. 


doe it in a high style, and make a Speech " ; and also that he was a 
schoolmaster in the country. Dowdall says (ii. 391) that he was bound 
apprentice to a butcher before he ran away to London. Another 
butcher's son in the town, we learn from Aubrey, equalled him in 
wit, but died young. From Richard Davies, about 1688 (ii. 335), 
we first learn that Shakspere got into trouble through stealing 
venison and rabbits from Sir Thomas Lucy, who had him often 
whipped, and whom he satirised in Justice Clodpate (Shallow). 
Rowe repeated the story in 1709, remarking that Shakspere 
had fallen into ill company, and adding that he wrote a 
ballad on Lucy, and was then so prosecuted that he was obliged 
to leave his affairs and family in Warwickshire, and depart for 

Aubrey dates his departure 1 582, when the poet was eighteen years 
of age. Dowdall says Shakspere was received into the London 
playhouse as a servitor ; Rowe describes his position as "mean" ; 
Ward says merely that he frequented plays in his youth ; but the 
most elaborate version is recorded by Colley Gibber, who derived 
his information from a certain gentleman, who was informed by 
Dr. Newton (Milton's editor), who was told by Pope, and he by 
Rowe, and Rowe by Betterton, and Betterton by Davenant (Gray, 
79-80). According to this story Shakspere held horses' heads at 
the theatre door, and even became eminent in that profession, for 
he gained notice, and hired boys under him to do the work, who 
were known as " Shakspere's boys " : and so he afterwards was 
introduced into the theatre itself. Malone records a stage-tradition 
that he was call-boy. 

Aubrey says that he became an actor, and did very well, and that 
he wrote plays which were successful. Rowe records that the " top 
of his performance" was the ghost in Hamlet. Ward writes (ii. in) 
that Shakspere supplied the stage with two plays every year, and 
derived such an income from it that he spent at the rate of ^1000 
per year. According to a line by Randolph, in 1651 (ii. 19), it was 
through his comedies that Shakspere became rich. Aubrey states 
that he returned to Warwickshire once a year, and that on the way 
he stopped at the Crowne Taverne kept by John Davenant, the 
father of William ; and according to Aubrey, also, William 


Davenant would sometimes, over a glass of wine, countenance the 
current gossip that he was Shakspere's natural son. John Manning- 
ham, a barrister of the Middle Temple, records an intrigue that the 
poet was supposed to have had with a citizen's wife in London, 
which, again, may only be gossip of the day (i. 98). A tradition 
handed down by Davenant, and recorded by Rowe, is that 
Southampton at one time gave Shakspere a thousand pounds where- 
with to make a purchase he had a mind to. 

The legends which seem to have been most prevalent were those 
which associated Jonson and Shakspere almost invariably 
associated by the writers of the latter part of the seventeenth 
century in their reference to the men and the drama of " the last 
age." Rowe relates that, out of his gentleness and sincerity, 
Shakspere helped Ben Jonson when his work had been refused, and 
recommended him. Various stories are told of the two poets in 
taverns. According to an Ashmolean manuscript (ii. 3), it was in 
a tavern that Ben and Shakspere jointly composed the former's 
humorous epitaph. Aubrey tells us that Jonson and Shakspere 
" did gather Humours of men dayly wherever they came," and says 
that, in a tavern at Stratford-on-Avon, the latter made the 
extempore epitaph on Combes the usurer. The anecdote of the 
encounter between Jonson and the poetic highwayman who alluded 
to Shakspere, seems to have been greatly liked, and is printed in 
Witts Recreations , 1640 (i. 441), and in a miscellaneous MS. volume 
in the Diocesan Registry at Worcester (ii. 224). Another anecdote 
represents Shakspere as the godfather of one of Jonson's children, 
when the poet said, " I have beene considering a great while what 
should be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my God-child, and I 
have resolved at last ; . . . Pie e'en give him a douzen good Lattin 
Spoones, and thou shalt translate them." Versions of this are given 
in Merry Passages and Jeasts^ by Sir Nicholas L'Estrange (ii. 8), 
and in the Plume MSS. (ii. 68). Ward states that Shakspere died 
through a fever contracted at a merry meeting between Dray ton, 
Jonson, and himself, where "itt seems [they] drank too hard." 
Davies says that he died a papist. He was buried at Stratford on 
April 25, 1616 (and April 23, the day of his death, has been assigned 
by tradition as the day of his birth also), and, according to Dowdall, 


his wife and daughters earnestly desired to be buried by him. 
Dugdale notes that his monument was made by Gerard Johnson, 
and Aubrey writes that he was told that the poet left two or 
three hundred pounds per annum to a sister. 

Ward repeats the usual statement of late seventeenth century 
authors, that Shakspere was a natural wit, without any art ; Aubrey, 
incorrectly repeating Jonson's statement concerning Shakspere's 
never having blotted a line, gives a remark from Shadwell and 
Davenant that he was a prodigious wit, and says that he was very 
good company, and a handsome, well-shaped man. 

The legend of the Bidford drinking, which represents the poet as 
having a convivial time with the Bidford " sippers," is even less 
authentic than any of the legends mentioned above, as no trace of 
it occurs before the middle of the eighteenth century (Gray, 252). 

A few legends have come down to us concerning the plays. 
Aubrey's note that Shakspere got the humour of the Constable in 
A Midsummer-Night's Dream from an original at Grenden, Bucks, 
must refer to Much Ado. Dryden remarks that Shakspere him- 
self said he was forced to kill Mercutio in the third act of Romeo 
to prevent being killed by him (ii. 176). Rowe records that 
Elizabeth was so pleased with Falstaff that she ordered the poet 
to show him in love, and he then wrote The Merry Wives. Dryden 
also says that Ben Jonson, " in reading some bombast speeches of 
Macbeth, which are not to be understood, . . . used to say that it was 
horrour" (ii. 175). And lastly Gildon writes (ii. 417) that he was 
told that Shakspere " writ the Scene of the Ghost in Hamlet, at his 
House which bordered on the Charnel-House and Church- Yard." 

Some of these legends have no great claim to acceptance. In 
examining them we should consider the idea of Shakspere which the 
late seventeenth century writers held, the sources from which they 
were said to be derived, and the character of the men who recorded 
them. The survival of traditions is in no way connected with the 
authenticity of their sources ; traditions survive and grow according 
to their acceptability to the people who transmit them. The 
Bidford story may be at once rejected : it is not recorded till a 
century and a half after the poet died, and is not authenticated. 

Aubrey derives some, at least, of his information from William 


Beeston, son of Christopher Beeston, who, according to Malone, was 
one of Burbage's company (Historical Account, 1821, iii. 221). 
Aubrey notes that Beeston knew most of Shakspere from Mr. Lacy. 
But Aubrey himself journeyed to Stratford to get material, and 
various statements by him have the appearance of local traditions. 
The value of Aubrey's remarks depends greatly on the character of 
the man himself, and a list of the subjects on which he wrote Day- 
Fatality, Ostenta, Blows Invisible, Visions in a Beril, Converse 
with Angels and Spirits, etc. is in no way calculated to reassure 
us. Mrs. Stopes says of him, " He was credulous and inexact to an 
extraordinary degree." (See her lists of his writings, Bacon- 
Shakspere Question, 1888, no.) 

Ward was vicar of Stratford-on-Avon, and appears to have known 
Shakspere's daughter, Judith. The earliest of his notes was not 
made until at least forty-five years after Shakspere died. 

Richard Davies, who is thought to have annotated Fulmans's 
MS., was rector of Sapperton in Gloucester. He gives no 
authority for his statements and is apparently recording local 

Dowdall remarks in his letter to Southwell, that he derived his 
information from the clerk at Stratford, then above eighty years 
old. The letter is said by its first editor to have come from the 
papers of Lord de Clifford, sold in 1834. This editor is said by 
Lowndes to be J. P. Collier. The MS. has not since been found 
(Gray, 250). Rowe derived most of his information from Betterton 
the actor, to whom the Elizabethan stage-tradition was handed from 
the old actors by Davena/it, and who, out of his regard for 
Shakspere, made a journey to Warwickshire to gather up "remains." 
Thus Rowe's information was gained at some considerable time 
after Shakspere's death. The story that Southampton gave the 
poet ; 1,000, some third person assured Rowe, came from 

Gibber's account is less trustworthy . H e does not write until nearly 
a century and a half after the poet died, and his story is transmitted 
to him through six successive persons, the last of whom is unknown. 

The late part of the seventeenth century prized Shakspere as a 
writer of comedy ; he was famous, above all other things, for that 


merry roysterer Falstaff. Very little of his biography was known, 
even to the best informed of men. He was associated principally 
with Jonson, who was known to be no puritan ; and, outside of his 
works, he was known mostly from Jonson's remarks concerning him, 
and thought to be a man of great natural wit, but no learning. 

This was a chance for tradition. The gods never lack biography. 
The few stories which the later-day actors could collect concerning 
a departed and almost forgotten hero, would be accepted, with 
interest and gratitude. It would be natural to believe, in the 
absence of other information and in a day when less attention was 
given to other plays of his, that the creator of Falstaff would 
himself delight in the " misrule of tavernings." And it would be 
natural in a little place like Stratford that every tradition should 
be cherished concerning the town's one great man. 

The majority of these traditions may have had their remote 
origins in facts : what these facts might have been, it is now quite 
impossible to say ; and the only safe method is to keep these 
traditions entirely apart from the ascertained biography of 



VOL. I. 1591-1649. 

The asterisks denote allusions which are more or less doubtful. 

1591-94. *Edmund Spenser . I 

1592. Robert Greene . 2 
Henry Chettle . _4 
,, Thos. Nash . . 5 

1593. Ancient MS. Diary 6 

1594. Henry Helmes . 7 
Willobie his Aviso, 8 

*Henry Willobie . 9 

Sir Wm. Harbert . 14 

* Michael Dray ton . 15 

Robt. Southwell . 16 

Richard Barnfeild . 17 

1595- ,i '9 
Locrine . . .21 

William Clarke . 23 

John Weever . . 24 

Thos. Edwardes . 25 

1595-6. Richard Carew . 27 

1596. Wily Beguilde . 28 

1597. *Joseph Hall . . 32 
1597-1603. In a Bacon MS. . 40 

1598. *John Marston . 32 

I. M. . . . 42 

,, Francis Meres . 46 

,, Robert Tofte . . 50 

,, Richard Barnfeild . 51 

,, John Marston . 52 

*R. S. ... 55 

1598 or after. Gabriel Harvey . 56 

1599. Henry Porter . 57 
,, *Ben Jonson . . 58 
Ben Jonson . . 61 
,, Passionate Pilgrim 62 

1599-1636. Thos. Dekker . 64 

1600. Returne from Per- 

nassus, Part I. . 67 
*Nicholas Breton . 70 
*John Lane . . 71 
John Bodenham . 72 
Sam. Nicholson . 74 
A Munday, etc. . 77 
MS. (Essex Rebel- 
lion) . 81 

1600. MS. (Essex Rebellion) 82 

1600. *Chr. Middleton. . 84 
,, Sir Wm. Cornwallis . 85 
Charles Percy . . 86 
Thos. Dekker . . 64 

1 600- 10. Two Letters . . 88 
1600-12. *J. M , . . .89 
1 600- 1 6. Nicholas Breton . 90 

1 60 1. Lord Bacon . . 92 
,, *Ben Johnson . . 93 
John Weever . . 94 
Robert Chester . . 95 
* Robert Chester . . 96 
,, W. J. . . .97 
,, John Manningham . 98 
,, Wm. Lambard . . 100 

1601-2. Returne from Pernas- 

sus . . . IO2 

1602. Thomas Lord Crom- 

well . . . 104 

Thomas Dekker . 106 

,, *John Marston . .108 

*Thomas Middleton . no 

Thomas Acherley . in 

1602-7. * Lingua . . .112 

1602-7 etc - John Webster . . 115 

1603. Father Parsons . .120 
,, *Michael Dray ton . 121 
*Henry Chettle . .123 
,, A Mourneful Dittie . 124 
*L C. . . .125 
,, John Davies of Here- 
ford . . .126 

William Camden . 127 

1604. Thomas Dekker . 128 
,, John Marston . .129 
,, Anthony Scoloker . 133 
,, Meeting of Gallants . 136 
*T. M. ... I 3 7 
Sir W. Cope . .139 

I. C. ... 140 
Thos. Middleton . 141 
Thos. Dekker . . 65 



1605. Peter Woodhouse 
,, *Thos. Heywood 
,, London Prodigall 

,, Chapman, Jonson and 


John Marston . 
Ratseis Ghost . 
*Sir Thos. Smith 

1606. *Wm. Warner . 

John Raynolds . 
Barnabe Barnes 

1606, etc. Wm. Drummond of 

1606. Thos. Heywood 

1607. Puritaine . 

Merry Divel of Ed- 
monton . 

Geo. Chapman . . 
Geo. Peele (?) . 
T. Walkington . 
Ed. Sharpham . 
Wm. Barkstead 
John Marston . 
Thos. Heywood . 
John Fletcher . 
Thos. Dekker . 
*Dekker and Webster 
*Beaumont and Flet- 
1607-8. T. Middleton . 

1608. Thos. Dekker . 

,, Yorkshire Tragedy . 
, , Markham and Machin 
Thos. Middleton 
, , *John Day . 

1608. *Robert Armin . 
1608-9. Robert Armin . 

1 608-10. Beaumont and Flet- 

1609. John Davies of Hereford 204 

Samuel Rowlands 
Thomas Thorpe 
Troilus and Cressida, 

Address . 
Pimlyco . 
Ben Jonson . 
MS. copy of Sonnet . 
Roger Sharpe . . 
Thomas Dekker 

1610. Edmund Bolton 

,, Wurmsser von Ven- 
denheym . 

MS. reference . 

Beaumont and Flet- 
cher . . 




Cyril Tourneur . .217 



John Davies of Here- 


ford . . . 219 


,, 220 


*Lod. Barrey . .221 



John Speed . . 224 



Troublesome Raigne of 


John, Q. 2. . . 226 

I 5 8 


Simon Forman . . 228 



Beaumont and Flet- 


cher 197, 229 


*Sir John Hayward . 230 



Thomas Heywood . 231 



John Webster . . 233 



*Belvoir MSS. . . 234 

John Marston . . 236 


> j 

Joseph Fletcher . 237 
Thos. Lorkins . . 238 


Sir Henry Wotton . 239 



Sonnet . . . 246 


Lord Treasurer Stan- 


hope . . . 241 



Beaumont and Flet- 


cher . .197, 229 



Edmund Howes . 243 



Thomas Freeman 32, 156,245 



*John Cooke . . 246 


Ben Jonson . . 247 



Robert Tailor . . 248 


Christopher Brooke . 249 



Wm. Drummond of 

1 86 

Hawthornden . 252 

1 88 


Thomas Porter . . 252 



W.B. . . . 253 



Alex. Niccholes . 254 



Richard Braithwaite . 256 



John Boys . . 258 


New and Choise Cha- 


racters . . .259 



*Wm. Drummond of 


Hawthornden . 260 



Robert Anton . . 262 

Ben Jonson . . 263 



Inscription over Grave 266 
Beaumont and Flet- 


cher . . . 198 



Inscription under Bust 267 



John Taylor . . 268 

I 5 6 


Geffray Mynshul . 269 
Nathaniel Field . 270 


Beaumont and Flet- 


cher . . .198 



Richard Corbet . .271 


Elegy on Burbage . 272 



Ben Jonson . . 274 






Sir Gerrard Herbert . 



Sir Hy. Herbert ' 


Beaumont and Flet- 


John Milton . . 




*John Taylor , r 



T. Middleton . 



John Taylor 



John Taylor 


Owen Feltham . 



Hose Vir . 


Banquet of feasts 


j 5 

*Sam. Rowlands ' 



Ben Jonson . 



Mr. Richardson 



*R. Henderson . 



Choyce Drollery 


Wye Saltonstall 

35 1 


John Fletcher . 


*John Spencer . 



Philip Massinger 



Richard Braithwaite 




Robert Burton . 281-82 


Peter Heylyn . 



Troublesome Raigne, 


And. Funerall Monu 

Q. 3 . 


ments . 



Wm. Basse 



*James Shirley . 



Thos. Robinson 


Thomas Heywood 


John Taylor 



Philip Massinger 299 

, 302 


Thos. Walkley . 



>, 33 



John Fletcher 200, 



Chapman and Shirley 

* *''' 



Thos. Randolph 



Philip Massinger 296, 

~-7 J 



Verses before Fol. 2. 




Ben Jonson 



I. M. S. . 



William Prynne . 


Heminge and Condell 



Sir Aston Cokaine . 







Thomas Heywood 



Hugh Holland . 
Leonard Digges . 
I. M. 



bef. 1633. 

John Milton 
John Hales 
*William Rowley 


Philip Massinger 


James Shirley . 



Sir Henry Herbert . 

3 2I 


Thomas Nabbes 



Robert Burton . 


Thomas Bancroft 



E. S. 


John Ford 


John Gee . 



Philip Massinger 


Philip Massinger 



Sir John Suckling (a 


> j> 


number of allusions) 


bef. 1625 

John Fletcher . 



Two Noble Kinsmen . 



*John Fletcher . 



William Habington . 



Beaumont and Flet- 


James Shirley . 


cher . 199, 200, 202, 


Thomas Randolph 



Richard James . 



Lady Mother 


Ben Jonson 



Thomas Heywood . 



*Ben Jonson 






Beaumont and Flet- 

Sir H. Mildmay 





Thomas Cranley 



Philip Massinger 


John Swan 



Michael Drayton 


James Shirley . 



*John Milton 



William Sampson 



Philip Massinger 


John Trussell . 






Booke of Bulls baited . 



Robert Cell 


Philip Massinger 


J 9 



j j 

Thomas Dekker 



Abraham Cowley 



Sir John Suckling . 



*Philip Massinger 






Philip Massinger 





Ben Jonson 











Peter Woodhouse 



Cyril Tourneur . 



*Thos. Heywood 



John Davies of Here- 

> t 

London Prodigall 




Chapman, Jonson and 

> M > 

2 2O 


John Marston . 



*Lod. Barrey 
John Speed 



Ratseis Ghost . 



Troublesome Raigne of 


*Sir Thos. Smith 


John, Q. 2. . 



*Wm. Warner . 

I S 8 


Simon Forman . 



John Raynolds . . 

1 60 


Beaumont and Flet- 


Barnabe Barnes 


cher 197, 


1606, etc. 

Wm. Drummond of 


*Sir John Hayward 





Thomas Heywood 



Thos. Heywood 


J J 

John Webster . 



Puritaine . 

1 66 


*Belvoir MSS. . 



Merry Divel of Ed- 


John Marston . . 

2 3 6 

monton . 


> J 

Joseph Fletcher 



Geo. Chapman . 


) > 

Thos. Lorkins . . 


Geo. Peele (?) . 



Sir Henry Wotton . 


T. Walkington . 




Ed. Sharpham . 



Lord Treasurer Stan- 

Wm. Barkstead 




John Marston . 



Beaumont and Flet- 

Thos. Heywood . 


cher . . 197, 


John Fletcher . 



Edmund Howes 


Thos. Dekker . 



Thomas Freeman 32, 1 56 


*Dekker and Webster 



*John Cooke . 


*Beaumont and Flet- 


Ben Jonson 





Robert Tailor . 



T. Middleton . 



Christopher Brooke . 



Thos. Dekker . 



Wm. Drummond of 


Yorkshire Tragedy . 

1 86 



j ) 

Markham and Machin 



Thomas Porter . 



Thos. Middleton 






*John Day . 



Alex. Niccholes 



*Robert Armin . 



Richard Braithwaite . 



Robert Armin . 


John Boys 


1 608- 10. 

Beaumont and Flet- 

J j 

New and Choise Cha- 



racters . 

2 59 


John Davies of Hereford 



*Wm. Drummond of 

Samuel Rowlands 




Thomas Thorpe 


3 ) 

Robert Anton . 


Troilus and Cressida, 


Ben Jonson 


Address . 


5 J 

Inscription over Grave 


Pimlyco . 



Beaumont and Flet- 

Ben Jonson 



I 9 8 

MS. copy of Sonnet . 



Inscription under Bust 


Roger Sharpe . 



John Taylor 


Thomas Dekker 



Geffray Mynshul 



Edmund Bolton 



Nathaniel Field 



Wurmsser von Ven- 

Beaumont and Flet- 



cher . . . 


MS. reference . 



Richard Corbet . 



Beaumont and Flet- 
cher . 



Elegy on Burbage 
Ben Jonson 





1619. Sir Gerrard Herbert . 276 

1629-31. Sir Hy. Herbert 

3 2 3 

,, Beaumont and Flet- 

1630. John Milton 


cher . . . 198 

*John Taylor . 


,, T. Middleton . . 142 

,, John Taylor , 


1620. John Taylor . . 278 

,, Owen Feltham . 


Hac Vir . . .281 

,, Banquet ofjeasts 


,, *Sam. Rowlands . 157 

1630-37. Ben Jonson 


1620-21. Mr. Richardson . 279 

1631. *R. Henderson . 


1620-36. Choyce Drollery . 280 

Wye Saltonstall 

35 1 

1621. John Fletcher . . 283 
,, Philip Massinger . 296 

*John Spencer . 
,, Richard Braithwaite 


1621-28. Robert Burton . 281-82 

,, Peter Heylyn . 


1622. Troublesome Raigne, 

, , A net. Funerall Monu 

Q. 3 . . .284 

ments . 


Wm. Basse . . 286 

*James Shirley . 


,, Thos. Robinson . 290 

Thomas Heywood 


John Taylor . .291 

Philip Massinger 299 

, 302 

,, Thos. Walkley . . 292 

1632. 303 

, 359 

John Fletcher 200, 294 

,, Chapman and Shirley 


,, ,, ,, . 295 

} , Thos. Randolph 


,, Philip Massinger 296, 301 

,, Verses before Fol. 2. 



1623. Benjonson . . 305 

I. M. S. . 


> 37 

,, William Prynne 


,, Heminge and Condell 313 

Sir Aston Cokaine . 


,, 315 

,, Thomas Heywood 


Hugh Holland . .317 

1632-38. John Milton 


,, Leonard Digges . 318 

bef. 1633. John Hales 


I. M. 319 

163*5- *William Rowley 


,, Philip Massinger . 297 

,, James Shirley . 


1623-36. Sir Henry Herbert . 321 

,, Thomas Nabbes 


1624. Robert Burton . . 324 

Thomas Bancroft 


E. S. 326 

John Ford 


,, John Gee . . . 327 

,, Philip Massinger 


,, Philip Massinger . 297 

1633-41. Sir John Suckling (a 

1624-34. ,, ,, .300 

number of allusions) 


bef. 1625. John Fletcher . . 328 

1634. Two Noble Kinsmen . 


*John Fletcher . . 329 

,, William Habington . 


,, Beaumont and Flet- 

,, James Shirley . 


cher . 199, 200, 202, 203 

Thomas Randolph 


1625. Richard James . . -330 

1635. Lady Mother 


,, Ben Jonson . . 332 

,, Thomas Heywood 


1626. *Ben Jonson . . 333 

> > 


,, Beaumont and Flet- 

, Sir H. Mildmay 


cher . . . 202 

, Thomas Cranley 


,, Philip Massinger . 302 

, John Swan 


1627. Michael Drayton . 334 

, James Shirley . 


*John Milton . . 335 

1636. William Sampson 


,, Philip Massinger . 298 
1628. MS 336 

John Trussell . 
,, Booke of Bulls baited . 


Robert Cell . . 337 

Philip Massinger 


,, Newsletter . . 338 

,, Thomas Dekker . 


1628-31. Abraham Cowley . 339 

1636-41. Sir John Suckling . 


1629. *Philip Massinger . 340 



,, Philip Massinger . 299 

> > 


1629-30. Benjonson . . 341 






Abraham Wright 




Martine Parker 



*Thomas Heywood 



Charles Butler 


j 5 

Jasper Mayne . 



John Milton 


Owen Feltham . 



Sir Thos. Browne 



Richard West . 



*John Taylor 



H. Ramsay 



James Shirley . 


*Shakerley Marmion . 



Northern Nuntio 



Sir W. Davenant 





9 9 

T. Terrent 



Sir Richard Baker . 



Verses in Poems ( 1 640) 



Thomas Fuller 483 


bef. 1638. 

Thomas Carew 



London Post 



Egerton MS. 2421 . 


Mercurius Britanicus 



Henry Adamson 



John Cleveland . 



James Mervyn . 



j> . 



William Chillingworth 



Thomas Prujean 



Thomas Randolph . 


Vindex Anglicus 



Richard Brome 



Paul Ay 1 ward . 



J. Ford . 


Daniel Breedy . 



John Clarke 



George Withers (?) . 


9 9 

G. Rivers . 


Sir Richard Baker . 


9 9 

Robert Chamberlain . 



Samuel Drake 



Thomas Bancroft 



Samuel Sheppard 


Witts Recreations 440, 



Robert Wild . 



Sam Picke 



Ten Players 



Mrs. Ann Merricke . 


Sir John Denham 



Henry Glapthorne . 



James Howell . 






George Daniel . 



Lewis Sharpe 





Richard Goodridge . 



William Cartwright . 


George Lynn . 


J. Berkenhead . 


Academy of Compli- 


George Buck 

ments . . 


T. Palmer 


Nich. Downey 



*Samuel Sheppard 



John Benson 



J. s. . 514-5 


Leonard Digges 



Perfect Occurrences, 

John Warren . 





Verse in Poems . . 



Henry Tubbe . 

5 X 7 

James Shirley . 




5 T 9 




Famous Tragedie of . 

Helpe to Discourse . 


Charles 7 . 



Nicholas Dixon 






Captain Underwit 



John Milton . 



Richard Braithwaite . 



J. Cook . 



*Shakerley Marmion . 


Wm. Cavendish, Duke 


Abraham Cowley 


of Newcastle . 



John Johnson 



Humphrey Moseley . 


* EDMUND SPENSER, 15911594. 

And there, though laft not leaft is Aetion, 
A gentler fhepheard may no where be found : 
Whole Mufe, full of high thoughts invention. 
Doth like himfelfe Heroically found. 

Colin Clouts come home againe. 1595- sign. C 2. [4/0.] 
(See New Shakspere Society, Allusion- Books, I- pp. xxiv, 168.) 

That Spenser's stanza on Aetion really refers to Shakespeare is established 
by the fact that no other heroic poet (/. e. historical dramatist, or chronicler 
in heroic verse) had a surname of heroic sound. Jonson, Fuller, and 
Bancroft have similar allusions to our bard's warlike name. Mr. J. O. 
Halliwell-Phillipps remarks that " the lines seem to apply with equal pro- 
priety to Warner": (Life of Shakespeare : 1848 : p. 142.) But Warner 
is not an heroic but a premonitory name. 

Malone's two attempts (Ed. 1821, vol. ii, p. 274) to explain the meaning 
of Aetion are equally unfortunate. He seems not to have known that 
'Aeriwv was a Greek proper name, borne, in fact, by the father of Cypselus 
of Corinth, and by two famous artists. It should be written Aetion, and 
pronounced (like Tiresias in Milton) with accents on the first and last 
syllables. Its root is surely deros, an eagle ; and it is, therefore, appropriate 
to one of "high thoughts'' and heroic invention. 

Three verses in Colin Clout 's come home againe, viz. those on Amyntas 
(who is Ferdinando Earl of Derby), must have been written after April 16, 
1594, when Lord Derby (formerly Lord Strange) died. Todd and others 
have inferred from this that the poem, which was first printed in 1595, was 
really written in the preceding year : and that in the date, 27 December, 
1591, appended to the dedication, 1591 is a press-error for 1594. We 
adopted this view ; but we are now convinced that Spenser had finished 
the first draft of his poem in December, 1591, and subsequently amplified 
it. Some have seen a discrepancy between the date appended to that 
dedication, and that appended to the dedication of Daphnaida, January 
I, 1591 : but if, as Mr. Hales believes, the latter work be alluded to in 
the former, January and December, 1591, must be the Gregorian or historical 
dates, the year beginning with the former and ending with the latter month. 
This supposition of the use of dates, unusual at that time, is supported by 
Spenser's division of the year in his Shepherd's Calender. 

[I have placed the date above doubtfully, because the stanza quoted may 
have been one of the amplifications. L. T. S.] 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. B 


Base minded men a\ three of you, if by my miferie ye be 
not warned : for unto none of you (like me) fought thofe 
burres to cleave : thofe Puppits (I meane) that fpeake from our 
mouths, thofe Anticks garnimt in our colours. Is it not ftrange 
that I, to whom they al have beene beholding : is it not like that 
you, to whome they all have beene beholding, mall (were ye in 
that cafe that I am now) be both at once of them forfaken ? Yes, 
truft them not : for there is an upftart Crow, beautified with our 
feathers, that with his Tygers heart wrapt in a Players hide, 
fuppofes he is as well able to bumbaft out a blanke verfe as the 
beft of you: and being an abfolute Johannes fac totum, is in his 
owne conceit the onely Shake-fcene in a countrie. O that I 
might intreate your rare wits to be imployed in more profitable 
courfes : & let thefe Apes imitate your paft excellence, and never 
more acquaint them with your admired inventions. I know the 
beft hulband of you all will never prove an ufurer and the 
kindeft of them all wil never proove a kinde nurfe : yet, whilft 
you may, feeke you better Maifters j for it is pittie men of fuch 
rare wits, ihould be fubiect to the pleafures of fuch rude 

In this I might infert two more, that both have writ againft 
thefe buckram Gentlemen j but let their owne works ferve to 
witneffe againft their owne wickedneffe, if they perfever to main- 
taine any more fuch peafants. For other new commers, I leave 
them to the mercie of thefe painted monfters, who (I doubt 
not) will drive the beft minded to defpife them -, for the reft it 
fkils not though they make a jeaft at them. 

Green's Groats-worth of Wit ; bought with a Million of Repentaunce. 1596. 
Reprinted from Mr. HutWs copy by New Shakspere Society, Allusion- 
Books, 1. p. 30. (See also Introduction to that vol., p. ii.) 


The three ' ' base-minded men " whom Greene thus addresses on his 
death-bed have been identified as Marlowe, Nash, and Peele. That Shake- 
speare was the " upstart crow," and one of the purloiners of Greene's plumes, 
is put beyond a doubt by the following considerations : (i) That there was 
no such a word as Shake-scene (i. e. a tragedian : cf. Ben Jonson's lines, 

"to heare thy Buskin tread, 
And shake a Stage " , 

and also a passage in The Puritaine (1607, sign. Fi) where Pye-boord 
says, " Have you never scene a stalking-stamping Player, that will raise 
a tempest with his toung, and thunder with his heeles "). (2) That the line 
in italics is a parody on one which is found in The True Tragedie of Richard 
DukeofYorke, 1595, and also in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part III, Act I, 
sc. 4, viz. : 

" Oh Tygers hart wrapt in a womans hide." 

(3) That Marlowe and Robert Greene were (probably) the joint authors of 
The two Parts of the Contention and of The True Tragedie, which furnish 
Parts II & III of Henry VI with their prima stamina, and a considerable 
number of their lines. 

Shakespeare, as the "upstart crow," seems to be one of those alluded to 
by "R. B. Gent." in Greene's Funeralh, 1594 (Sonnet ix, sign. C), where 
he writes : 

"Greene, is the pleasing Object of an eie : 
Greene, pleasde the eies of all that lookt uppon him. 
Greene, is the ground of everie Painters die : 
Greene, gave the ground, to all that wrote upon him. 
Nay more the men, that so Eclipst his fame : 
Purloynde his Plumes, can they deny the same ? " 

The strange terms huddled upon the players by poor Greene are paralleled 
by what we find in other works of the time : e. g., 

"Out on these puppets, painted images," &c. 

The Scourge of Villanie, by J. Marston, Sat. VII. 

" 'Good manners,' as Seneca complaines, 'are extinct with wantonnesse, 
in tricking up themselves men goe beyond women, men weare harlots 
colours and doe not walke, but jet and daunce,' hie mulier, hoec vir, more 
like Players, Butterflies, Baboones, Apes, Antickes, then men." Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621. [4to.] Part 3, sec. 2, memb. 2, subs. 3, 
page 571. (Ed. 1676, p, 295.) 

As to the extract from The Groaf s--worth of Wit, knowing no edition earlier 
than that of 1596, \ve have followed the text of that. A copy is in the 
library of Mr. Henry Huth. Greene died in Sept. 1592, and as Chettle's 
Kind Harts Dreame, which alludes to this book, was registered in December 
1592, The Groatsworth of Wit must have been printed before that date. 
(See next extract.) The British Museum Library has copies of the editions 
of 1617, 1621, and 1637. The two copies in the Bodleian Library are of 
the editions of 1621 and 1629, the former of which, by a very common error 
of the press, reads "Tygres head," instead of "Tygers \heart." C. M. I. 

or Tygres/ 


He {hew reafon for my prelent writing. * * About three 
moneths lince died M. Robert Greene, leaving many papers in 
fundry Booke fellers hands, among other his Groatfworth of wit. 
in which a letter written to divers play-makers, is offennvely by 
one or two of them, taken ; and becaufe on the dead they cannot 
be avenged, they wilfully forge in their conceites a living Author, 
and after tolling it to and fro, no remedy, but it mull light on 
me * * * With neither of them that take offence was I 
acquainted, and with one of them I care not if I never be : The 
other, whome at that time I did not fo much fpare, as fince I 
wifh I had, for that as I have moderated the heate of living 
writers, and might have ufde my owne difcretion (efpecially in 
fuch a cafe) the Author beeing dead, that I did not, I am as fory, 
as if the originall fault had beene my fault, becaufe my felfe 
have feene his demeanor no lefTe civill than he exelent in the 
qualitie he profefles : Befides, divers of worlhip have reported, 
his uprightnes of dealing, which argues his honefty, and his 
facetious grace in writting, that aprooves his Art. 

Kind-Harts Dreame. [n. d. 4/0.] 7b the Gentlemen Readers, p. 2. 
Reprinted in Allusion- Books, New Sh. Soc., I. pp. viii, 38. 

[The manuscript of the Groatsworth of Wit must have been put into 
Chettle's hands for publication, for he goes on to say after the above extract, 
that he copied it out, ' ' Greene's hand was none of the best, " and it could 
not be read by the licenser; "but in the whole booke " he (Chettle) put 
"not a worde in." The " one of them " referred to by Chettle is Marlowe, 
" the other " appears to be Shakespere. L. T. S.] 

Kind- Harts Dreame is undated: but the address "To the Gentlemen 
Readers " and the entry in the Stationers' Books, 8th December, 1592, prove 
that the tract was written between the date of Robert Greene's death and 
December in the same year, i. e. 1592. It was, probably, published in 
the following year. We were under the impression that the British Museum 
copy which we used was not the first edition. We are now disposed to 
believe that it is. C. M. I. 


How would it have joyed brave Tallot (the terror of the 
French) to thinke that after he had lyne two hundred yeares 
in his Tombe, hee mould triumphe againe on the Stage, and 
have his bones newe embalmed with the teares of ten 
thoufand fpe6tators at leaft, (at feverall times) who, in the 
Tragedian that reprefents his perfon, imagine they behold him 
frefh bleeding ! 

Pitrce Penilesse his supplication to the Diuell. 1592. Sign. F 3. [4/0.] 

We have here doubtless an allusion to the play of Henery the vi mentioned 
in Hemlowds Diary (March 3, 1591-2 : Shakespeare Society's print, 1845, 
p. 22) : and this may or may not be identical with the First Part of Henry 
the Sixth in the Folio Edition of Shakespeare, 1623. Whether Shakespeare 
had any share in this latter play is, to say the least, problematical. Nash's 
work was reprinted, from theory/ edition of 1592, for the Shakespeare 
Society in 1842 under Mr. J. P. Collier's superintendence. That gentleman 
reprinted it again from the second edition of 1592, for his series of 
"Miscellaneous Tracts," generally known as his Yellow Series, in 1870. 
Many variations occur in the second edition. The extract above given from 
the first, is the same in both editions. C. M. I. 

Anonymous, 1593. 

1 2th of June, 1593- For the Survay of Fraunce, with the 
Venus and Athonay p r Shakfpere, xii.d. 

[An Ancient MS, Diary. ] 

[This note about Venus and Adonis is given by Malone in his Inquiry 
into the Authenticity of Certain Miscellaneous Papers, etc., 1796) p. 67, 
where he says in a foot-note : 

' Venus and Adonis, i6mo. 1596. This poem was entered in the 
Stationers' Books, by Richard Field, April 18, 1593 ; and I long since 
conjectur'd that it was printed in that year, though I have never seen an 
earlier edition than that above quoted, which is in my possession. Since I 
published that poem my conjecture has been confirmed, beyond a doubt ; 
the following entry having been found in an ancient MS. Diary, which 
some time since was in the hands of an acquaintance of Mr. Steevens, by 
whom it was communicated to me.' He then quotes as above. 

Mr. H. A. Evans, in Notes and Queries, x. vol. I, p. 310, remarks : 
'Afterwards, as he states in a note to the second edition of his Shakespeare 
(vol. xx, p. 9), Malone acquired a copy of the 1593 edition, the existence 
of which he had conjectured, but he now says nothing of the " ancient MS. 
Diary." Under the circumstances it was not necessary that he should ; it 
is, however, possible that he had come to have doubts of its existence. I 
have not been able to find any allusion to it by any subsequent writer.' 

The Diary may be a myth, but there is nothing so far to prove its non- 
existence, and under the circumstances it seems better to reproduce the 
note, with a warning as to its acceptance, than to omit it entirely. M.] 


In regard whereof. . it was thought good not to offer any 
thing of Account, faving Dancing and Revelling with Gentle- 
women -j and after fuch Sports, a Comedy of Errors (like to 
Plautus his Menechmiis] was played by the Players. So that 
Night was begun, and continued to the end, in nothing but 
Confufion and Errors j whereupon, it was ever afterwards called 
The Night of Errors. 

Gesta Grayorum, 1 p. 22, ed. 1688. (Nichols's Progresses 
of Queen Elizabeth, iii. 279 (2nd ed. 1823). 

This Comedy of Errors was, without doubt, Shakspere's. It was playd 
in Gray's Inn Hall on the night of Innocents' Day, Dec. 28, 1594, and 
most probably Shakspere and Bacon were both at the performance. 
See Spedding's Letters and Life of Bacon, i. 326. There was such a row 
and such crowding by Gentlewomen and others on the Stage, that the 
Temple visitors to Gray's Inn went away disgusted, and so the Gray's-men 
had only dancing and Shakspere's play. F. J. F. 

1 The full title of the book printing its red letters in italics is : Gesta 
Grayorum : \ Or, the / History / Of the High and mighty Prince, / Henry \ 
Prince of Purpoole, Arch-Duke of Stapulia and / Bernardia, Duke of High 
and Nether Holborn, / Marquis of St. Giles and Tottenham, Count / Palatine 
of Bloomsbury and Clerkenwell, Great / Lord of the Cantons of Islington, 
Kentish-] Town, Paddington and Knights-bridge, / Knight of the most 
Heroical Order of the / Helmet, and Sovereign of the Same ; j Who Reigned 
and Died, A.D. 1594. / Together with / A Masque, as it was presented (by 
His Highnesses Command) for the Entertainment of Q. Elizabeth ; / who, 
with the Nobles of both Courts, was present / thereat. / London, Printed 
for W. Canning, at his Shop in /the Temple- Cloy 'sters, / MDCLXXXVIII. / 
Price, one Shilling. / It's a jocose account of the Gray's-Inn men's enter- 
tainment to their brethren of the Temple, the Queen, &c. Slapulia and 
Bernardia are Staples Inn and Barnards Inn. It includes only the first 
Part of Helmes's MS. Nichols first printed the second Part in the ist e.4. 
of his Progresses of Q. Eliz, 

Anonymous, 1594. 

In Lavine Land though Livie loft 
There hath beene feene a Conjlant dame r 
Though Rome lament that me have loft 
The Gareland of her rarer! fame, 

Yet now we lee, that here is found. 

As great a Faith in Engli/li ground. 

Though Collatine have deerely bought, 

To high renowne, a lafting life, 

And found, that moft in vaine have fought, 

To have a Fairs and Conjlant wife, 

Yet Tarquyne pluckt his glittering grape, 
And Shake-fpeare, paints poore Lucrece rape. 

Commendatory verses prefixed to Willobie his Aviso,. 1594. Sign. A iiij. 
Reprinted in Alhtsion- Books, New Sh. Soc., /, pp. xxxi, 170. 



Henrico fPillobego. Italo-Hifpalenfis. 

H. W. being fodenly infe&ed with the contagion of a fantafticall 
fit, at the firll light of A, pyneth a while in fecret griefe, at 
length not able any longer to indure the burning heate of fo 
fervent a humour, bewrayeth the fecrefy of his difeafe unto 
his familiar frend W. S. who not long before had tryed the 
curtesy of the like paffion, and was now newly recovered of 
the like infection -, yet finding his frend let bloud in the fame 
vaine, he took pleafure for a tyme to fee him bleed, & in fteed 
of (lopping the iffue, he inlargeth the wound, with the lharpe 
rafor of a willing conceit, perfwading him that he thought it 
a matter very eafy to be compafled, & no doubt with payne, 
diligence & fome coft in time to be obtayned. Thus this 
miferable comforter comforting his frend with an impoffibilitie, 
eyther for that he now would fecretly laugh at his frends folly, 
that had given ocean* on not long before unto others to laugh at 
his owne, or becaufe he would fee whether an other could play 
his part better then himfelfe, & in vewing a far off the courfe of 
this loving Comedy, he determined to fee whether it would fort 
to a happier end for this new a6tor, then it did for the old player. 
But at length this Comedy was like to have growen to a Tragedy, 
by the weake & feeble eftate that H. W. was brought unto, by a 
defperate vewe of an impoflibility of obtaining his purpofe, til 


Time & Necefiity, being his beft Phifitions brought him a plafter, 
if not to heale, yet in part to eafe his maladye. In all which 
difcourfe is lively reprefented the unrewly rage of unbrydeled 
fancy, having the raines to rove at liberty, with the dyvers & 
fundry changes of affections & temptations, which Will, fet loose 
from Reafon, can devise &c. 

H. W 

H. W. 

What fodaine chance or change is this, 

That doth bereave my quyet reft ? 

But yonder comes my faythfull frend, 

That like aflaultes hath often tryde, 

On his advife I will depend, 

Where I mail winne, or be denyde/ wheth * rj 
And looke what counfell he mall give, 
That will I do, where dye or li V e. [whethef J 

W. S. 

Well met, frend Harry, what's the caufe 
You looke fo pale with Lented cheeks ? 
Your wanny face & lharpened nofe 
Shew plaine, your mind fome thing millikes, 

If you will tell me what it is, 

He helpe to mend what is amiife. 

What is me, man, that workes thy woe, 
And thus thy tickling fancy move ? 
Thy droulie eyes, & lighes do moe, 
This new difeafe proceedes of love, 

Tell what me is that witch't thee fo, 

I fweare it lhall no farder go. 


A heavy burden wearieth one, 

Which being parted then in twaine, 

Seemes very light, or rather none, 

And boren well with little paine : 

The fmothered flame, too clofely pent, 
Burnes more extreame for want of vent. 

So forrowes fhrynde in fecret breft, 
Attainte the hart with hotter rage, 
Then griefes that are to frendes expreft, 
Whofe comfort may fome part aflwage : 

If I a frend, whofe faith is tryde, 

Let this requeft not be denyde. 

Exceffive griefes good counfells want, 

And cloud the fence from fharpe conceits ; 

No reafon rules, where forrowes plant, 

And folly feedes, where fury fretes, 
Tell what {he is, and you lhall fee, 
What hope and help fhall come from mee. 


H. W. 

Seeft yonder howfe, where hanges the badge 

Of Englands Saint, when captaines cry 

Victorious land, to conquering rage, 

Loe, there my hopeleife helpe doth ly : 
And there that frendly foe doth dwell, 
That makes my hart thus rage and fwell. 


W. S. 

Well, fay no more : T know thy griefe, 
And face from whence thefe flames aryte, 

12 HENRY W1LLOBIE, 1594. 

It is not hard to fynd reliefe, 

Jf thou wilt follow good advyfe : 
She is no Saynt, She is no Nonne, 
I thinke in tyme me may be wonne. 

veteratoria At firft repulfe you muft not faint, 
Nor flye the field though Ihe deny 
You twife or thrife, yet manly bent, 
Againe you muft, and ftill reply : 

When tyme permits you not to talke, 
Then let your pen and fingers walke. 

(cJSKu) Apply her ftill with dyvers thinges, [plyl 
honiinesq; (For giftes the wyfeft will deceave) 
Sometymes with gold, fometymes with ringes, 
No tyme nor fit occafion leave, 

Though coy at firft (he feeme and wielde, 
Theie toyes in tyme will make her yielde. 

Looke what me likes 5 that you muft love, 
And what me hates, you muft deteft, 
Where good or bad, you muft approve, [ whether ' 
The wordes and workes that pleafe her belt : 
If ihe be godly, you muft fweare, 
That to offend you ftand in feare. 

You muft commend her loving face, 
women. For women joy in beauties praise, 
You muft admire her fober grace, 
Her wifdome and her vertuous wayes, 
Say, t'was her wit and modeft {hoe, [show; 
That made you like and love her fo. 

You muft be fecret, conftant, free, 
Your fiient fighes & trickling teares, 


Let her in fecret often fee, 

Then wring her hand, as one that feares 

To fpeake, then wifh fhe were your wife, 

And laft delire her lave your life. 

When flie doth laugh, you muft be glad, 
And watch occafions, tyme and place, 
When fhe doth frowne, you muft be fad, 
Let fighes & fobbes requeft her grace : 

Sweare that your love is truly ment, 

So fhe in tyme muft needes relent. 

Willobie his Avisa, or the true picture of a Modest Maid and of a chast 
and constant wife. In hexamiter verse. The like argument wheroj 
was nevtr heretofore published. 1594- [4^-] Sig. Li, back. 

Reprinted in Allusion-Books, /, New Sh. Soc., p. 169. 

Henry Willobie's W. S. is referred to Shakespeare on two distinct 
grounds: (i) Because W. S. appears in this "imaginary conversation" as 
a standard authority on Love ; and assuredly Shakespeare was the amatory 
poet of the day, and, to judge by his Sonnets, "had tried the curtesy of the 
like passion," and had come unscathed out of the ordeal. [Compare also his 
counsel to the wooer in the poem No. XIX, beginning, "When as thine 
eye hath chose the dame," of the Passionate Pilgrim, to which Willobie's 
verses bear a strong and curious resemblance in metre, subject, and treat- 
ment, L. T. S.] (2) Because it is said that this W. S. "in vewing the 
course of this loving Comedy determined to see whether it would sort to a 
happier end for this new actor, then it did for the old player" v/ith other 
theatrical imagery specially applicable to a player and dramatist. Assuredly, 
no other contemporary poet of the same initials, whether lyrist or dramatist 
(and five or six might be named), had any claim to this distinction. 
C. M. I. 

[SIR] WflLLIAM] HAR[BERT], 1594, 

You that to fhew your wits, have taken toyle 

In regift'ring the deeds of noble men j 

And fought for matter in a forraine foyle, 

As worthie fubje&s of your filver pen, 

Whom you have rais'd from darke oblivion's den. 

You that have writ of chafte Lucretia, 

Whofe death was witnerTe of her fpotlefle life : 

Or pen'd the praife of fad Cornelia, 

Whofe blameleife name hath aiade her fame fo rife, 

As noble Pompey's moft renoumed wife : 
Hither unto your home direft your eies, 
Whereas, unthought on, much more matter lies. 

Epicedium. A funerall Song, upon the vertuous life and godly death of 

the right ivorshipfiill the Lady Helen Branch. 
Signed, W. Har. 
Reprinted in Sir Egerton Brydges 1 Rcstituta (1815), -vol. in. pp. 297 

299, also in Allusion- Books, /, New SA. Soc., p. 177. 

This Epicedium is of uncertain authorship. Sir Egerton Brydges assigns 
it to Sir William Harbert (Restituta, vol. iii. p. 298). The lines 

" You that have writ of chaste Lucretia, 
Whose death was witness of her spotlesse life : " 

seem to refer to Shakespeare's poem. The line 

" Hither unto your home direct your eies" 

recals two lines (163, 164) in Lycidas ; where, by the way, Milton im- 
plicitly compares Lycidas with Melicert (Paloemon), invoking the dolphins 
to waft his body into port. C. M. I. 


Lucrece, of whom proude Rome hath boafted long 
Lately reviv'd to live another age, 
And here ariv'd to tell of Tarqums wrong, 
Her chaft deniall, and the Tyrants rage, 
A6ting her paffions on our ftately ftage. 
She is remembred, all forgetting me, 
Yet I, as fayre and chaft as ere was She. 

The Legend of Mathilda the chast, daughter to the 

Lord Robert Fitz'water. 1594- Sixth Stanza, 
(See Allusion-Books, 7, New Sh. Soc., pp. xxxi, 178.) 

Shakespeare's Rape of Lucrece was published in the same year as Drayton's 
Matilda (the above passage is found in the editions of both 1594 and 1596). 
Hey wood's drama of the same name did not appear till 1608. The fifth 
line seems to imply a dramatic representation : and, in confirmation of this 
view, we find almost the same words in Drayton's Mistress Shore to Edward 
IV. (England's Heroical Epistles, 1598, p. 73) : 

" Or passionate Tragedian, in his rage 
Acting a love-sicke passion on the stage. " 

[Eut this very line, taken literally, appears to offer strong proof that 
Drayton did not here refer to Shakespeare's Poem of Lucrece. L. T. S.] 



This makes my mourning Mufe refolve in teares, 
This theames my heavie penne to plaine in profe j 
Chrift's thorne is fharpe, no head His garland weares ; 
Sdl fineft wits are 'frilling Venus' rofe, 
In Paynim toyes the fweeteft vaines are fpent j 
To Chriftian workes few have their talents lent. 
* * * * * 

O facred eyes ! the fprings of living light, 

The earthly heavens where angels ioy to dwell, 


Sweet volumes, ftoard with learning fit for faints, 
Where blifffull quires imparadize their minds } 

Wherein eternall ftudie never faints 

Still finding all, yet feeking all it finds : 

How endlefle is your labyrinth of blifTe, 

Where to he loft the fweeteft finding is ! 

Saint Peters Complaint, with other Poemes. The Authoui 
to the Reader, 1595. [4/0.] (Grosarfs Ed., 1872, pp. xii, 
xc, 9, 25.) 

1 Southwell was executed Feb. 20, 1594/5. 

[The allusion in the first of these stanzas is to Venus and Adonis ; the two 
next contain, as pointed out by Dr. Grosart, the application to the spiritual 
eyes of Christ of the idea contained in the humorous thesis on women's 
eyes maintained by Biron in Love's Labours Lost, Act IV. sc. iii. L. T. S.] 


[i] Wilt thou deceaue the deep-earth-deluing Coney? 

[The Affectionate Shepheard, stanza xi.] 

[2] Oh foule Eclipfer of that fayre fun-mine, 
Which is intitled Beauty in the befl ; 

[Ibid, stanza xxix.] 

[3] Humillity in mifery is relieu'd, 

But Pride in neede of no man is regarded j 

[Ibid, stanza xxxiv.] 

[4] The wealthie Merchant that doth crofle the Seas, 
To Denmarke, Poland, Spaine, and Barlarie, 
For all his ritches, Hues not Hill at eafe ; 
Sometimes he feares fhip-fpoyling Pyracie, 
Another while deceipt and treacherie 
Of his owne Factors in a forren Land -, 
Thus doth he ftill in dread and danger Hand. 

[The Shepherds Content ', stanza xii.] 

[5] Monfter of Art, Baftard of bad Defier, 
Il-worihipt Idollj falle Imagerie. 

* * # * * 

Sly Bawd to Luft, Pandor to Infamie. 

[ The Complaint of Chastitie> stanza iii. ] 

[6] Thou fetft dilfention twixt the man and wife 

[Ibid, stanza v.] 

[7] Thole times were pure from all impure completion j 

stanza vi.] 

The Affectionate / Shepheard. / Containing the Complainie 
of Daphnis for / the loue of Ganymede. / . . . London, I 

SH. ALLN. BK. - 1. C 


[These borrowings by Barnfeild from Shakspere were pointed out by 
Charles Crawford in Notes and Queries, Qth Series, vol. viii, pp. 277-279. 
In the Complaint of Chastitie the borrowings are from Venus and Adonis, 
though the theme is that of Lucrece. In The Affectionate Shepheard, and 
its continuation, The Shepheards Content, while Barnfeiid uses principally 
the Venus there are yet evident verbal traces of the influence of Liicrecc. 

No. I echoes I. 687 of Venus : 

And sometime where earth-delving conies keep. 

No. 2 seems to be suggested by Lucrece, 57 : 

But beauty, in that white intituled, etc. 

No. 3 calls to mind the famous couplet in Vemis, 707-8 : 

For misery is trodden on by many, 
And being low never relieved by any. 

No. 4 may have been inspired by Lucrece, 334-6 : 

Pain pays the income of each precious thing ; 

Huge rocks, high winds, strong pirates, shelves and sands, 

The merchant fears, ere rich at home he lands. 

No. 5 refers to Venus, 211, 212, and 792 : 

Fie, lifeless picture, cold and senseless stone, 
Well painted idol, image cold and dead, . . . 

* * * * 

When reason is the bawd to lust's abuse. 

No. 6 is from Venus, 1160 : 

And set dissension 'twixt the son and sire. 

No. 7, with its play of "pure" and "impure," etc., seems to owe 
something to Venus, 735-6 : 

To mingle beauty with infirmities 

And pure perfection with impure defeature. 

This is the earliest certain "allusion" to Shakspere's Venus, for 
Southwell's reference to Venus in 1594 (see p. 16) may be considered 
somewhat doubtful, though it is highly probable that Shakspere was 
intended. The earliest allusions we previously had to Lticrece were a 
'probable one by Sir William Harbert, and another one by Michael 
Drayton (pp. 14, 15), both in 1594. The Complaint of Chastitie was 
published in November, 1594. See also Crawford's Collectanea, First 
Series, 1906, pp. 10-16. M.] 


[i] This laid : he iweetly doth imbrace his lone, 
Yoaking his armes about her luory necke : 

[stanza 18.] 

[2] Looke how a brightfome Planet in the fkie, 
(Spangling the Welkin with a golden fpot) 
Shootes fuddenly from the beholders eie, 
And leaues him looking there where me is not : 
Euen fo amazed Phcelus (to difcrie her) 
Lookes all about, but no where can efpie her. 

[st. 25.] 

[3] Then angry Phoebus mounts into the fkie : 

Threatning the world with his hot-burning eie. 

[st. 26.] 

[4] Whofe deadly damp the worlds poore people kils. 

[st 27.] 

[5] Heerewith awaking from her llumbring lleepe, 
(For'feare, and care, are enemies to reft :) 

[st 32.] 

[6] Now filent night drew on ; when all things fleepe, 

Saue theeves, and cares ; and now ftil mid-night came : 

[st. 69.] 

[7 ] Here ended fhee j and then her teares began, 

That (Chorus like) at euery word downe-rained. 

[st. 74.] 

Cynthia; / and the / Legend of Cassandra / . . . At 

London : / . . . 1595. 


[These borrowings by Barnfeild from Shakspere were pointed out by 
Charles Crawford in Notes and Queries, Qth Series, vol. viii, pp. 277-279. 
"In Cassandra" he says, "the leading ideas of Lucrece are manifest at a 
glance ; and the description of Cassandra in her bed, and the poetical 
conceit of Phoebus gazing at her whilst she sleeps, and noting her beauties, 
recall at once the visit of Tarquin to Lucrece's chamber and Shakespeare's 
description of the bed and its tenant." 

No. i is from Venus, 592 : 

And on his neck her yoking arms she throws. 

No. 2 is from Venus, 815-6: 

Look, how a bright star shooteth from the s'ky, 
So glides he in the night from Venus' eye. 

No. 3 suggests Venus, 1778 : 

And Titan, tired in the mid-day heat, 
With burning eye did hotly overlook them. 

No. 4 borrows a phrase from Venus, 925 : 

Look, how the world's poor people are amazed. 

No. 5 imitates Lucrece, 673-4 : 

This said, he sets his foot upon the light, 
For light and lust are deadly enemies. 

No. 6 shows borrowing from Lucrece, 124-6 : 

Now leaden slumber with life's strength doth fight ; 

And every one to rest themselves betake, 

Save thieves and cares and troubled minds that wake. 

No. 7 repeats Venus, 360 : 

With tears, which chorus-like her eyes did rain. 

That Barnfeild ardently admired Shakspere we knew from his Poems in 
Divers humors, 1 598 ; these passages of a date three or four years 
earlier show that he knew thoroughly the poems of the man he praised so 
highly. See also Crawford's Collectanea, First Series, 1906, pp. 10-16. M.] 


Lamentable Tragedie of 

Locrine, the eldeft fonne of King Brutus, difcour- 

ling the warres of the Britaines, and Hunnes, 

with their ditcomfiture ; 

The Britaines victorie with their Accidents, and the 

death of Albanaft. No lefje pleafant then 


Newly fet foorth, ouerfeene and correded, 
By W. S. 



Printed by Thomas Creede, 

22 LOCRINE, 159$. 

[Locrine was entered in the Stationers' Registers on July 20, 1594 : 
"xx die lulij. Thomas Creede Entred for his Copie vnder thandes 
of the Wardens The lamentable Tragedie of Locrine, the eldest Sonne of 
Kinge Brutus. . . . yjd." 

Mr. C. F. Tucker Brooke in his admirable Shakespeare Apocrypha, 1908, 
says, p. xvi : " We may conclude with tolerable assurance . . . that the 
initials ' W. S.' on the title-pages of Locrine, Cromwell, and The Puritan 
may well stand for ' William Shakespeare,' " having been put there by a 
none too scrupulous bookseller to recommend his wares. Locrine was 
subsequently included in the third Folio. M.] 

A.II praise Let divine Bartajft, eternally praife-worthie for his 

'weetshak wee ^ s worke, fay the beft thinges were made firft : 

W. C[OVELL], 1595. 
t divine Bartajft, eternally p 
s worke, fay the beft thin 
Let other countries (fweet envie. (yet 


Adon? s n admire) my Virgil, thy petrarch, divine Spenfer. 
heyr s e? ns And unleffe I erre, (a thing ealie in fuch fimpli- 

So well gra- 

nfe d deser.' citie) deluded by dearlie beloved Delia, and 
tail praise fortunatelic fortunate Cleopatra : Oxford thou 

from the hawd 

vfne Lady who maifl extoll thy courte-deare-verfe happie Daniell, 

fweete refined mufe, in contra6ted ihape, 
were fufEcient amongft men, to gaine pardon of 


the finne to Rofemond, pittie to diftrefled Cleopatra, 
and everliving praife to her loving Delia: 

Polimanteia, or the meanes lawfull and unlawfull to judge of tJu 
fall of a commonwealth, against the frivolous and foolish con- 
jectures of this age, etc. 1595. sign. R 2, bk. [4/0.] 
(See Allusion- Books, /", New Sh. Soc., pp. xxodi, 180.) 

On the title-page of the Grenville copy of Polimanteia, 1595, is a pencil 
note, in the well-known handwriting of Mr. J. P. Collier, which runs thus : 
"Q if the notice of Shakespeare in this book be not the oldest known." 
This query must have been long ago answered in the negative by the querist 
himself. Mr. C. Elliot Browne, in a note on the side-note (Notes and 
Queries, 4th S. xi. 378), falls into the same error. Shakespeare's name 
occurs in a work printed in 1594. (See before, p. 8.) The construction 
of the side-note is not (as Mr. Halliwell read it in his Life of Shakespeare : 
1848: p. 159) that "all praise worthy Lucretia [of] sweet Shakespeare," 
but that " All-praiseworthy [is the] Lucretia [of] sweet Shakespeare." In 
fact the epithet is used just above of Du Bartas ; and Spenser applies it to 
nine of his heroines in Colin Clout's come home again. Mr. C. E. Browne 
would also identify "Watson's heyre ;> with "Sweet Shakespeare," and 
give him "Wanton Adonis," as well as "Lucretia." Others contend that 
the "heyre" was Henry Constable. Probably, it was on the strength of 
this side-note that the late Rev. N. J. Halpin arrived at the rather hazardous 
conclusion that Shakespeare was a member of " one (or perhaps more) of 
the English Universities." See his Dramatic Unities of Shakespeare, 1849, 
p. 12, note. C. M. I. 

[The "Cleopatra" here mentioned is Daniel's, published in 1594; he 
addressed his prefatory verses to the Couutess of Pembroke, to whom W. C, 
refers in the margin. L. T. S.] 

2 4 


Ad Gulielmum Shakespeare. 

Honie-tong'd Shakefpeare, when I faw thine ilme, 

I fwore Apollo got them and none other, 

Their rolie-tainted features cloth'd in tilTiie, 

Some heaven born goddefle faid to be their mother : 

Rofe-checkt Adonis with his amber trefles, t cheeked1 

Faire fire-hot Venus charming him to love her, 

Chafle Lucretla virgine-like her dreffes, 

Prowd lull-flung Tarquine feeking ftill to prove her : 

Romea- Richard; more, whofe names I know not, ^ Romeo ^ 

Their fugred tongues, and power attra6tive beuty 

Say they are Saints, althogh that Sts they mew not 

For thoufands vowes to them fubje&ive dutie : 

They burn in love thy childre Shakefpear het the, [heatedl 

Go, wo thy Mufe more Nymphifh brood beget them. 

Epigrammes in the oldest cut, and newest fashion. A twite seven 
houres (in so many iveekes] studie. No longer (like the fashion} not 
unlike to continue. The first seven. John Weever. 1599. 
\i2nto.~\ The ^th week: Epig. 22, sign. 6. 

(See Allusion-Books, I, New Sh. Soc., p. 182.) 

[From Malone's copy in the Bodleian.] 

The children of Shakespere's muse het or heated themselves with love ; 
so Chapman says of Hero, that 

" Her blushing het her chamber." 

Hero and Leander, Third Sestyad -(Chapman's 
Works, 1875, volume of Poems, p. 73, 
col. 2). C. M. I, 

2 5 


Poets that divinely dreampt 
* * * 

Collyn was a mighty fwaine, 
In his power all do flourish, 
We are fhepheards but in vaine 

There is but one tooke the charge, 
By his toile we do nourim, 

And by him are inlarg'd. 

He unlockt Allions glorie, 

He twas tolde of Sidneys honor, 

Onely he of our ftories, 

Must be fung in greateft pride 
In an Eglogue he hath wonne her, 

Fame and honor on his fide. 

Deale we not with Rofcnnond, 
For the world our fawe will coate, 
Amintas and Lednders gone, 

Oh deere fonnes of ftately kings, 
BleiTed be your nimble throats 

That fo amorouny could fing. 

Adon deafly mafldng thro, 
Stately troupes rich conceited, 
Shew'd he well deferved to 

Loves delight on him to gaze 
And had not love her felfe intreated, 

Other nymphs had fent him baies. 

26 THOMAS EDW\RBES, 1595- 

Eke in purple roabes diftaind, 
Amid'ft the Center of this clime, 
I have heard faie doth remaine, 

One whofe power floweth far, 
That mould have bene of our rime 

The onely object and the ftar. 

Well could his bewitching pen, 
Done the Mufes objects to us 
Although he differs much from men 

Tilting under Frieries, 
Yet his golden art might woo us 

To have honored him with baies. 

1} Envoy to Narcissus. 1595. Unique copy in Peterborough 
Cathedral Library. Reprinted for the Roxburghe Club by 
Rev. W. E. Buckley, 1878, pp. 61, 62. 

[Edwardes here speaks of the poets under the names of their best known 
works at that day. The mighty swaine Collyn is Spenser, he who sang of 
Colin Clout, and glorified Albion in the Faerie Queen, and gave an Elegy 
to Sidney. Samuel Daniel wrote the poem of Rosamond ; Thomas Watson 
published his Latin poem of Amintas in 1585 ; and the Hero & Leander of 
Kit Marlowe was entered on the Stationers' register, 28 Sept. 1593, a few 
months after he died. (It came out, completed by Chapman, in 1598. 
See Works of George Chapman : Poems, 6-v., with Introduction by A. C. 
Swinburne, 1875, p. 58.) 

The verse devoted to Adon is another of the early tributes that are found 
to the great popularity Shakespere's Venus and Adonis attained at once. It 
reached seven editions between 1593 (the date of first publication) and 1602, 
two of which belong to the latter year. (See Mr. C. Edmonds' reprint from 
the Isham copy of 1599, Editor's Preface.) 

The two stanzas referring to "one whose power floweth far " I insert, 
but he has not been identified. L. T. S.] 

2 7 


Adde hereunto, that whatfoever grace any other language 
carrieth in verfe or Profe, in Tropes or Metaphors, in Ecchoes 
and Agnominations, they may all bee lively and exactly repre- 
fented in ours : will you have Platoes veine ? reade Sir Tho?nas 
Smith, the lonicke ? Sir Thomas Moore. Ciceroes ? Afcham, 
Varro ? Chaucer, Demofthenes ? Sir John Cheeke (who in his 
treatife to the Rebels, hath comprifed all the figures of Rhetorick. 
Will you reade Virgill ? take the Earle of Surrey. Catullus ? 
Shakefpheare and Marlows l fragment, Ovid ? Darnell. Lucan ? 
Spencer, Martial ? Sir John Davies and others : will you have 
all in all for Profe and verfe ? take the miracle of our age, Sir 
Philip Sidney. 

The Excellencie of the English tongue, by R. C. of Anthony Esquire 
to W.C. Inserted by W. Camden in the second edition of his Remaines 
concerning Britaine, 1614, p. 43. 

(See Allusion-Books, 7, New Sh. Soc. p. 183.) C. M. I. 

printed Barlows in original, but unquestionably a mistake for Marlows. 


Anonymous, 1596. 

Sophos. See how the twinkling Starres do hide their borrowed 


As halfe aiham'd their lufter fo is ftain'd. 
By Leilas beauteous eyes that (hine more bright, 
Than twinkling ftarres do in a winters night : 
In fuch a night did Paris win his love. 

Lelia. In fuch a night, jfEnceas prov'd unkind. 

Sophos. In fuch a night did Troilus court his deare. 

Lelia. In fuch a night, faire Phyllis was betraid. 

Sophos. He prove as true as ever Troylus was. 

Lelia. And I as conftant as Penelope. 

Wily Beguilde, 1606, sign. I, back. 

(In the Bodleian, Malone, 226. Part of the leaf torn off.) 

[The unknown author of this play seems to imitate Shakespere's Romeo 
and Juliet and Merchant of Venice in several places. This dialogue would 
surely never have been written but for the moonlight rhapsodizing of 
Lorenzo and Jessica, Merch. of Venice, Act V. sc. i. The Merchant of 
Venice vf as probably written in 1596 (see Dowden's Shakspere Primer, p. 96). 
The first edition of Wily Begvilde came out in 1606, but Dr. Furnivall states 
that there is no doubt, on account of the allusions in it to the taking of 
Cadiz, that it was on the stage in or soon after 1596 ; though he has 
shown that there is no real ground for the old theory that Nash referred to 
it in his Have -with you to Saffron Walden (printed 1596 ; sign. 24, back), 
where he makes Respondent say of Anthonie Chute " But this was our 
Graphiel Hagiels tricke of Wily Beguily herein " (see Notes 6 Queries, vol. 
iv. 1875, p. 144; vol. v. p. 74). Wily beguily was a current phrase, 
meaning the wily man beguiled, or, as we should say, the biter bit. L. T. S.] 

2 9 

'WILY BEGUILDE; before 1596. 


* * 

Juggler. . . He make him flie fwifter then meditation. 

\_sig. A 2, b.} 
[2] Lelia. Father, did you fend for mee ? 

Gripe. I Wench I did : come hither Lelia, giue mee thy 


Maifter Churms, I pray you beare witnefle, 
I here giue Lelia to Pe. Ploddall. she piucks a-way her hnd. 

How now ? 

Nurfe. Sheele none, ihe thankes you fir. 
Gripe. Will me none ? Why how now, I fay ? 
What? you pewling peeuifh thing, you vnto ward baggage 
Will you not be rul'd by your Father ? 
Haue I tane care to bring you vp to this ? 
And will you doe as you lift ? 

Away I fay, hang, ftarue, begge -, be gone, packe I fay : 
Out of my fight, 

Thou nere gets Penny-worth of my goods, for this : 
Thinke out, I do not vfe to ieft : 
Be gon I fay $ I will not heare thee fpeake. 

\sig. 4.] 

[3] Fortu[natus] . . . 
He can conuey her forth her fathers gate, 
Vnto a fecret friend of hers j 
The way to whom lyes by this forreft fide, 

That none but he mall haue her to his bride. 

[sig. F 4, .] 


* * * 

Le/ia. But to be Ihort : 

I haue a fecret Friend that dwels from hence, 
Some two dayes iourney, thats the moft, 
And if you can, as (well I know) you may, conuey me thither 

fecretly : 

For company I delire no other then your owne : 
Here take my hand : 
That once perform'd my heart is next. 

[nil. G^,b,H.-\ 

[4] Gripe. I am vndon, I am robd : my daughter, my mony ! 
Which way are they gone ? 

A / Pleasant Comedie, / Called, / Wily Begvilde. / . . . 
Imprinted at London by W. W. for Clement Knight. . . . 
[1606 ?] 

[Prof. Moore Smith was kind enough to send us these references in 
Hazlitt's Dodsley. They are supplementary to the allusion printed on the 
previous page. 

Extract No. I is referred by Prof. Moore Smith to Hamlet, I, iii : 

with wings as swift 
as meditation, or the thoughts of Loue, 

though there is difficulty in the date. The Wily Beguilde passage may be 
coincidence ; it may be a borrowing from Hamlet in its earlier form. 

No. 2 is exactly parallel to Romeo and Julie f^ III, v, where Capulet 
chides Juliet. Here the phrases are the same : 

Lady [Capulet]: I sir ; 
But she will none, she giues you thankes. 

Cap. Soft, take me with you, take me with you, wife. 

How, will she none ? 

Out you greene sicknesse carrion, out you baggage, 

You tallow face . . . 

And you be mine, He giue you to my Friend : 

And you be not, hang, beg, startle, die in the streets, 

For by my soule, He nere acknowledge thee, 

Nor what is mine shall neuer do thee good. 


No. 3 Prof. Moore Smith refers to Midsummer Night's Dream, I, i : 
I haue a Widdow Aunt, . . . 

From Athens is her house remou'd seuen leagues, . . . 
There gentle Hermia, may I uiarrie thee . . . 
If thou lou'st-me, then 

Steale forth thy fathers house to morrow night : 
And in the wood, a league without the towne, . . . 
There I will stay for thee. 

No. 4 seems to be from The Merchant of Venice, II, viii : 
My daughter, O my ducats, O my daughter ! . . . 
I quote from the Folio. M.] 




[i] SAT[IRE] in. 

[p. 6] \ T T Ith ibme Pot-fury, rauifht from their wit, 

V V They fit and mule on fome no-vulgar writ : 
As frozen Dung-hils in a winters morne, 
That voyd of Vapours feemed all beforne, 

Soone as the Sun fends out his piercing beames, [5] 

Exhale out rilthie fmoke and ftinking fteames : 
So doth the bafe, and the fore-barren braine, 
Soone as the raging wine begins to raigne. 
One higher-pitch'd doth fet his foaring thought 
On crowned kings that Fortune hath low brought : [10] 

Or fome vpreard, high-afpiring fwaine, 
As it might be the Turkifli Tamberlaine. 
* -x- * 

[p. 7] Now, leaft fuch frightfull Ihowes of Fortunes fall, 
And bloudy Tyrants rage, iliould chance appall 
fp. 8] The dead ftroke audience, mids the filent rout, 
Comes leaping in a felfe-mif formed lout, 

And laughes, and grins, and frames his Mimick face, [35] 

And iuftles ftraight into the princes place. 
Then doth the Theatre Eccho all aloud, 
With gladfome noyfe of that applauding croud. 
A goodly hoch-poch ; when vile Ruffe t tings, 
Are match't with monarchs and with mighty kings. [40] 

A goodly grace to fober Tragick Mufe, 
When each bafe clown, his clumbfie fifl doth bruife, 

JOSEPH HALL, 1597. 33 

And mow his teeth in double rotten-row, 

For laughter at his felfe-refembled fhow. 

[Liber I] 

[2] LIB. ii. SAT. i. 

[? 2 5l T~?Qr fhame write better Laleo, or write none, 

JL Or better write, or Laleo write alone. 
Nay, call the Cynlck but a wittie foole, 
Thence to abiure his handfome drinking bole : 
Becaufe the thirftie fwaine with hollow hand, [5] 

Conueyed the ftreame to weet his drie weafand. 
Write they that can., tho they that cannot do : 
But who knowes that, but they that doe not know. 
Lo what it is that makes white rags fo deare, 
That men muft giue a teflon for a queare. [10] 

Lo what it is that makes goofe -wings fo leant, 
That the diflreffed Semfter did them want, 
So, lauifh ope-tyde cau-feth fafting-lents, 
And ftaruling Famine comes of a large expence. 
[p. 26] Might not (fo they were pleafd that beene aboue) [15] 
Long Paper-aljlinence our death remoue ? 
Then many a Loller would in forfaitment, 
Beare Paper-fagots ore the Pauement. 
But now men wager who mall blot the moft, 
And each man writes. Thersfo much labour lojl. [20] 

That's good) that's great : Nay much is feldome well, 
Of what is lad, a littVs a greate deale. 
Better is more : but left is nought at ail. 
Leffe is the next, and lejfer criminaU. 

Little and good, is greatejl goodfaue one, [25] 

Then Labeo, or write little, or write none. 
Tufh but fmall paynes can be but little art, 
Or lode full drie-fats fro the forren mart : 
With Folio volumes, two to an Oxe hide, 
Or etfe, ye Pawpheter go fland alide, [3] 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. D 

34 JOSEPH HALL, 1597. 

Reade in each Schoole, in euery margent coted, 

In euery Catalogue for an authour noted. 

There's happinefle well giuen, and well got, 

Lefle gifts, and leffer gaines I weigh them not. 

[p. 27] So may the Giant rome and write on high, [35] 

Be he a Dwarfe that writes not there as I 

But well fare Strabo, which as ftories tell, 

Contriu'd all Troy within one Walnut fhell. 

His curious ghoft now lately hither came. 

Arriuing neere the mouth of luckie Tame, [4] 

I faw a Pifmire ftrugling with the lode, 

Dragging all Troy home towards her abode. 

Now dare we hither, if he durft appeare, 

The fubtile Stithy-man that liu'd while eare : 

Such one was once, or once I was miftaught [45] 

A Smith at Vulcans owne forge vp brought, 

That made an Iron-chariot fo light. 

The coach-horfe was a Flea in trappings dight. 

The tame-lefTe Heed could well his wagon wield, 

Through downes and dales of the vneuen field. [50] 

Striue they, laugh we : meane while the black ftorte 

PafTes new Strabo, and new Straboes Troy. 

Little for great : and great for good : all one : 

For fhame or better write, or Labeo write none. 

[p. 28] But who coniur'd this bawdie Poggies ghoft, [55] 

From out thejlewes of his lewde home-bred coaft : 

Or wicked Rablais dronken reuellings, 

To grace the mif-rule of our Tauernings ? 

Or who put Bayes into blind Cupids fift, 

That he mould crowne what Laureats him lift ? [60] 

Whofe words are thofe, to remedie the deed, 

That caufe men flop their nofes when they read ? 

Both good things ill, and ill things well : all one ? 

For fhame write cleanly Labeo, or write none. 

JOHN MARSTON, 1598. 35 

Virgidemiarvm / Sixe Bookes. / First three Bookes, of 7^ooth- 
lesse Satyrs. 

( i Poeticall. 
\ 2. Academicall, 
I 3. Mora II. 

[Device] London f Printed by 7^homas Creede,for Robert / 
Dexter, 1597. 


[i] So Laleo did complaine his loue was ftone, 
Obdurate, flinty, fo relentleffe none : 

\5igC 2\ 

[2] SAT i. 

Quedam videntur, et nonfunt. 
But oh ! the abfolute Cajlilio, 
He that can all the poynts of courtfhip (how. 
He that can trot a Courfer, breake a rufh, 
And arm'd in proofe, dare dure a ftrawes llrong pu{h. 
He, who on his glorious fcutchion 
Can quaintly ihewe his newe inuention, 
Aduancing forth fome thirftie Tantalus, 
Or els the Vulture on Prometheus, 
With fome fhort motto of a dozen lines. 
He that can purpofe it in dainty rimes, 
Can fet his face, and with his eye can fpeake, 
Can dally with his Miftres dangling feake, 
And wiili that he were it, to kifle her eye 
And flare about her beauties deitie. 
Tut, he is famous for his reueling, 
For fine fet fpeeches, and for fonetting ; 
He fcornes the violl and the fcraping fticke, 
And yet's but Broker of anothers wit. 


Certes if all things were well knowne and view'd, 
He doth but champe that which another chew'd. 
Come come Caftilion, fkim thy poflet curd, 
Show thy queere fubftance, worthleffe, mofl abfurd. 
Take ceremonious complement from thee, 

Alas, I fee Caftilios beggary. 

[rigs C 4, 

The I Metamorphosis of Pigtnalions / Image / And Co-- 
taine Satyres / \by John Marstori\ London / . . . I598/. 



For tins eft quife &c. 
Ad Labeonem. 

BEleeue me Laleo, this were fortitude, 
Ouer thy felfe to get a victory ; 
To fee thy foule affedions fubdude, 
This were a triumph worthy memory j 
Though fome will hold, true valour doth confift 
In refolution and an actiue bodie, 
of iniuries not fuffering the leaft, 
But who fo thinkes, I thinke him but a noddie. 
Achilles was commended, wot you why ? 
Not for the valiant deeds he did performej 
But then he fhewd his magnanimity, 
When gainfl great Agamemnon he did ftorme: 
Others perhaps with hafty infurrecltons 
Would take reuenge of an iniurious offer, 
Well could he temper our affections, 
And (what the valiant feldome can) could fuffer. 
[sig E. 3] True valour, Laleo, if I reade aright, 
Muft not be onely A8tiue to attempt : 


For why the Lyon and the Bull can fight 

And mew great mindes too, and much hardimentj 

But the Irrationall can onely grieue : 

Ours muft not be fo Beaft-like furious, 

But readier fometime, wrong to take then giue, 

Elfe manhood might prooue too iniurious, 

Where it muft be confederate and carefull, 

Betwixt extreames to keepe the merry meane, 

Not to be rafhly bold, not bally fearefull, 

Not too too milde, not too too full of ipleane, 

Who thought one world too little to fubdue, 

Found 'twas too much t'orecome a furious mindej 

Then, as at firft, fo here conclude we now : 

Labeo, this were true fortitude I finde, 

This were a triumph worthy memory, 

Ouer thy felfe to get a victory. 

Rvbbe, I and / A great Cast / Epigrams / By / Thomas 
Freeman, Gent. / . . . London, 1614. sigs. 26. ET>. 

I print all these passages together as all of them, except the second from 
John Marston, are concerned with a person or with persons, called 
' Labeo ' (which means * thick-lipped '). 

The first extract from Marston was printed by Chas. A. Herpich in 
Notes and Queries, 9th Series, vol. x, p. 63, as a seeming allusion to 
Venus and Adonis, 199-200 : 

Art thou obdurate, flinty, hard as steel ? 

Nay, more than flint, for stone at rain relenteth. 

Mr. Herpich remarks : ' Although numerous phrases of the same idea are 
to be met with in Elizabethan poetry, in no other lines is there so pro- 
nounced a similarity of language. The chief interest of the passage, 
however, is in the fact that if he is girding at Shakspere, Marslon 
has sketched for us one of the dramatist's features. According to Smith's 
Latin-English Dictionary, Labeo = " the one who has large lips.'" 

Mr. Herpich then proceeds to link up, accommodatingly with this, part 
of Marston's Scourge of Villany : 

Nay, shall a trencher-slave extenuate 

Some Lucrece rape, and straight magnificats 

Lewd Jovian lust, etc., 


which he describes as a reply to some attack of Shakspere's, who ' must 
have taken offence ' at the above supposed allusion to him, ' or a quarrel 
may have arisen from some other cause, not now to be discovered.' 

Mr. Herpich further remarks that Joseph Hall devotes some space to 
' Labeo,' whom he considers again to be Shakspere. The passages from 
Hall, which are earlier than those of Marston, I have printed first. And 
finally I print Epigram 84, by Thos. Freeman, being lines to Labeo, 
which nobody seems to have noticed before. Freeman matriculated at 
Magdalen Coll., Oxford, June 22, 1610, at the age of 19, and took 
his B.A. on June 10, 1611. After this he came to London, and turned 
poet, publishing his double volume in 1614. 

The lines of Hall must have preceded those of Freeman by 14 or 
17 years. And although it does not seem impossible, from their words, 
that the same individual may be referred to by each of them, it must 
yet appear highly incredible. ' Labeo ' I take to be a descriptive 
appellation which might have been applied to any one possessing the 
characteristics it implies. A very similar form of the word was so 
used. John Bulwer in his Anthropometamorphosis, 1650, p. 175, 
remarks : ' The same or worse must befall these artificial Labions, 
for their Lips must need hang in their light, and their words stick 
in the birth,' p. 175 ; and the word is similarly used elsewhere (see 
N. E. Z>.). It follows that the mere term 'Labeo' itself need not 
necessarily connect up the persons intended by Marston, Hall and 
Freeman. The identification of Hall's Labeo is a very difficult matter, 
but it is certain that Shakspere was not meant. 

Grosart determines that lines u, 12 of Satire III point 'unmistakably to 
Marlowe' (The Complete Works of Joseph Hall, D.D., ed. Rev. Alex. 
Grosart, privately printed for subscribers, 1879, p.-xx). Lines 31-44 he 
takes to be a hit at Shakspere's ' introduction of his Fools and Clowns 
and "russet-clad" personages into his " high tragedies." ' This seems to 
be clear. Discussing the question whether Hall intended Marston in his 
' Labeo ' (and Hall and Marston certainly quarrelled), Grosart decides that 
Marston cannot have been the writer implied, and the fact that Marston 
himself subsequently used the term ' Labeo ' bears out this decision. I 
have not printed all Hall's references to Labeo. A significant passage 
occurs in Book VI, Satire I : 

Tho Labeo reaches right : (who can deny?) 
The true straynes of Heroicke Poesie : 
For he can tell how fury reft his sense 
And Ph^is fild him with intelligence, 
He can implore the heathen deities 
To guide his bold and busie enterprise ; 
Or filch whole Pages at a clap for need, 
From honest Petrarch, clad in English weed j 


While bigge But ohs ech stanzae can begin, 
Whose trunke and tayle sluttish and hartlesse bin ; 

It is patent that these lines can in no way be held to apply either to 
Marston or to Shakspere, and Grosart adds in a note ' I hasard a 
conjecture that if the lost works of Thomas Watson ever be recovered, 
he may prove to be the thief from Petrarch and the utterer of ' c big But 
ohs," etc., etc.' (p. xxv). 

Neither can the first ' Labeo ' passage of Hall apply to our poet. 
Hall there refers to one who has written copiously, poorly and uncleanly, 
whose works are widely circulated, and who graces the misrule of 
'tavernings.' Two folio volumes, moreover, cannot be associated with 
Shakspere. Under these circumstances we seem quite safe in dismissing 
the suggestion that Hall's Labeo and Shakspere are one. 

Marston's ' Labeo ' is one who complained his love was stone : the words 
in Shakspere which Marston is thought to echo are spoken by Venus to 
Adonis. This hardly seems Labeo's complaint about his love. Either 
therefore Marston was using a phrase similar to Shakspere's about some 
other writer, or there is a case of borrowing between Shakspere and the 
writer Marston referred to, in the words which are quoted. 

Mr. C. S. Harris in printing the Castillo passage in Notes and Queries, Qth 
Series, II, p. 183, seeks to identify Castilio with Shakspere, remarking 
that ' He that can trot a Courser ' appears to refer to Shakspere's horse- 
holding days, and ' his glorious scutchion ' to his grant of arms. The 
horse-holding is a tradition that comes through Pope, Rowe, Betterton and 
Davenant ; it may or may not be true ; in any case, one cannot feel safe 
in taking the line mentioned above as referring to it. As for the ' glorious 
scutchion,' Shakspere's arms were not granted by Dethick and Camden 
till 1599, one year after Marston wrote. What, too, are we to under- 
stand by the ' thirstie Tantalus,' the 'short motto of a dozen lines,' and the 
dallying with 'his Mistres dangling feake ' (curl)? Did Shakspere scorn 
the viol, when Thaisa is charmed back to consciousness partly by help of 
it, and when we know of his love of music? And while the emphatic 
statements that Labeo stole others' labours, might be taken by some to 
refer to Shakspere's work in Henry VI, yet few will urge that, stripped of 
' ceremonious complement,' he had nothing but beggary of wit. 

In conclusion, I believe there is a possible reference to Venus and 
Adonis in Marston's Pigmaliotts Image [i], that in no case does 'Labeo' 
mean Shakspere, and that Castilio refers to another man ; but that Hall, 
in Liber I, Satire III, lines 31-44, alludes to Shakspere's introduction of 
fools into his tragedies. M.] 


William Shakefpeare 
Rychard the fecond Shakefpeare 

Rychard the third 
hakfpeare reuealing 

day through 

euery Crany by Thomas Name & inferior places l 
peepes and < 
lee ^ 

William Shakefpeare 

Shak h Sh Shake hakefpeare 

Sh h Shak ^ 

williara Shakefpeare 
vvilliam Shakefpeare 


will Shak 

Title-page of the Duke of Northumberland 's MS. of Lord 
Bacon's " Of Tribute, or giving what is dew," facsimiled in 
the late James Spedding's edition of "A Conference of 
Pleasure, composed for some Festive Occasion about the 
year 1592 by Francis Bacon," p. xxxiii. (Longmans, 1870). 

The MS., now incomplete, containd several Essays, Speeches and Tracts 
by Bacon. After the list of these on the title, follows, among other 
words and scribbles, the names of Shakspere's two plays and himself, and 
(as Dr. Ingleby notes) line 1086 and part of 1087 of the Rape of Lncrece, 
with one word wrong, peepes (? caught by error of memory from 'peeping,' 

1 ? for ' plaiers/ 

1. 1089) for spies. If the scribbler meant to put Shakspere's name to his 
Lucrece bit, this is the earliest quotation from S . with his name to it. Mr. 
Spedding says, Introdtiction, p. xxii : 

" That ' Richard the second ' and ' Richard the third ' are meant for the 
titles of Shakespeare's plays so named, I infer from the fact of which the 
evidence may be seen in the facsimile that, the list of contents being now 
complete, the writer (or more probably another into whose possession the 
volume passed) has amused himself with writing down promiscuously the 
names and phrases that most ran in his head ; and that among these the 
name of William Shakespeare was the most prominent, being written eight 
or nine times over for no other reason than can be discerned 1 . . (p. xxiii) . . 
the date of the writing . . I fear cannot be determined with any approach to 
exactness. All I can say is, that I find nothing in these later scribblings, 
or in what remains of the book itself, to indicate a date later than the reign 
of Elizabeth 2 ; and if so, it is probably one of the earliest evidences of the 
growth of Shakespeare's personal fame as a dramatic author ; the beginning 
of which cannot be dated much earlier than 1598. It was not until 1597 
that any of his plays appeared in print ; and though the earliest editions of 
Richard II, Richard III, and Romeo and Juliet, all bear that date, his 
name is not on the title-page of any of them. They were set forth as plays 
which had been ' lately,' or 'publicly,' or 'often with great applause ' acted 
by the Lord Chamberlain's servants. Their title to favour was their 
popularity as acting plays at the Globe 3 ; and it was not till they came to 
be read as books that it occurred to people unconnected with the theatre to 
ask who wrote them. It seems, however, that curiosity was speedily and 
effectually excited by the publication ; for in the very next year a second 
edition of both the Richards appeared with the name of William Shake- 
speare on the title-page ; and the practice was almost invariably followed by 
all publishers on like occasions afterwards. We may conclude, therefore, 
that it was about 1597 that play-goers and readers of plays began to talk 
about him, and that his name would naturally present itself to an idle 
penman in want of something to use his pen upon." F. J. F. 

1 It does not seem to have been written at the same time with the titles, 
or by the same hand. 

2 I agree. F. 

3 That is, the " Theatre" : the Globe or transferrd and rebuilt "Theatre" 
was not built till 1598-9. 

I. M. 1598. 

I verily beleeue his preferment mould be rather a Remunera- 
tion then a Guerdon, if he get any in this Leaden and laft age. 
But what is the difference betwixt the Remuneration and the 
Guerdon, may fome fay, we would faine know : otherwife we 
can not tell how you meane this well qualited Seruingmans 
defartes mould be rewarded. Your queftion is reafonable, and 
therefore I will diftinguifh them as their difference was tolde 
me not long fince by a friende of mine. 

There was, fayth he, a man (but of what eftate, degree, or 
calling, I will not name, leaft thereby I might incurre difpleafure 
of any) that comming to his friendes houfe, who was a Gentleman 
of good reckoning, and being there kindly entertayned, and well 
vfed, as well of his friende the Gentleman, as of his Seruantes: one 
of the fayd Seruantes doing him fome extraordinarie pleafure 
during his abode there j at his departure he comes vnto the fayd 
Seruant, and faith vnto him, Holde thee, heere is a remuneration 
for thy paynes, which the Seruant receyuing, gave him vtterly for 
it (betides his paynes) thankes, for it was but a Three-farthinges 
peece : and I holde thankes for the fame a fmall price, howfoeuer 
the market goes. Now an other comming to the faid Gentle- 
mans houfe, it was the forefayd Seruants good hap to be neare 
him at his going away, who calling the Seruant vnto him, fayd, 
Holde thee, heere is a Guerdon for thy defartes: Now the Seruant 

I. M. 1598. 43 

payde no deerer for the Guerdon then he did for the Remuner- 
ation, though the Guerdon was xi. d. farthing better, for it was 
a Shilling, and the other but a Three-farthinges. 

A I Health to the / Gentlemanly pro- \ fession of Seruing 
men: or, The Seruingmans / Comfort: / With other 
ihinges not impertinent / to the Premisses, as well pleasant \ 
as profitable to the cour- / teous Reader. \ Felix qui socij 
nauim perijsse procellis / cum vidit, in tutum flectit sua 
carbasaportum.\ Imprinted at London by W.W.\ 1598. 
Sig. I. (Roxburghe Library Reprint, p. 159.) 

Steevens quoted this passage as the original of Costard's remarks 
(Z. Z. Lost, III. i.), giving the date 1578. Farmer afterwards stated that 
this date was incorrect. The true date is 1598 ; and perhaps some of the 
wording and the rather elaborate introduction of the story, in the first para- 
graph, seem to point to I. M.'s " friend " having been Costard himself, 
who was introduced to the reading public by the first Quarto of L. L. L. in 
1598, and no doubt played long before he " was presented before her High- 
ness this last Christmas," at Whitehall, 1 1597. B. Nicholson. 

In his Mem. on L. L. Z., &c., 1879, Mr. Hall.-Phillipps says on p. 65 
" In MS. Addit. 14,047 in the British Museum is preserved a copy of 
a play called Love's Hospital dated in 1636. On the flyleaf of this manu- 
script is written, 

Loues Hospitall. 
Loues Labores Lost. 

a circumstance which would appear to show that about that period there 
was in existence a manuscript transcript of Shakespeare's comedy originally 
bound up with the other play." 

This is a mere maresnest. I have examind the Addit. MS. It is one origin- 
ally of 3 plays by George Wilde, LL.B., Fellow of St. John's, Oxford ; and 
contains these 3 plays by him, written in this order in the MS.: "Loves 
Hospitall as it was acted before the Kinge & Queens Majestyes by the 
students of S l Jo. Baptists Coll. in Oxon : Augustij 29. 1636," " The 
converted Robber A Pastorall Acted by s l Johns College. 1637" (If 44 bk), 
and a Latin comedy " Eumorphus sive Cupido Adultus. Comcedia Acta 

1 to Richard Brakenburie, for altering and making readie of soundrie 
chambers at Whitehall against Christmas, and for the plaies, and for making 
ready in the hall for her Majestic, and for altering and hanging of the 
chambers after Christmas daie, by the space of three daies, mense Decem- 
bris, i$97, viij./z. xiij.j. \\\}d. Hll.-P.'s Memoranda, p. 59. F. 


A Joanwensibwj. Oxon. Feb. 5. 1634." On the blank leaves are written 
poems by later hands ; and on the first flyleaf are some lines, names, and 
scribblings, in three or four hands. Among the names, in one of the later 
hands, is, under an older "Loves Hospitall," 

" Loues Hospitall, 
Loues Labores Lost " 

The entry therefore no more implies the existence then of a MS. of Shak- 
spere's play, than it does that all later readers of the entry should be reason- 
able beings. Wilde's ' Loves Hospitall ' is followd by his * Converted 
Robber,' and there is no possibility of 'Loues Labores Lost' having 
followd the former play, or the Eumorphus, in the MS. 

Another suggestion by Mr. Hall. -P. with regard to Z. Z. Z. must also 
be set down as worthless. He says (Mem. on Z. Z. Z., &c., p. 70) l 

" I have a memorandum that the name of the comedy was perhaps sug- 
gested bylines in the Handful of Pleasant Delights, 1584, "ye loving 
wormes," &c., sig. C 6, but I have no convenient means just now of refer- 
ring to that work." 

The little Handful, by Clement Robinson and others, is known to Shak- 
spere students from Ophelia's supposd allusion to a line of its first poem 
"A Nosegaie alwaies / sweet, for Louers to send for Tokens, / of loue, at 
Newyeres tide, or for fairings, / as they in their minds shall be disposed to 
write," namely 

"U Rosemarie is for remembrance, 

betweene vs daie and night : 
Wishing that I might alwaies haue, 
you present in my sight." 

The " labour lost " passage on C 6 comes thus : 

"IF A warning for Wooers, that they be not ouer hastie, nor deceincd with 
ijuomens beautie. To, Salisburie Plaine. 


E louing wormes come learne of me 
The plagues to leaue [for loue] that linked be : 
The grudge, the grief, the gret anoy, 
The fickle faith, the fading ioy : 
in time, take heed, 

1 Before accepting the copy of a possibly correct copy of the possibly 
genuine audit accounts of 1605 as "authentic" (ib. p. 62) evidence of the 
playing of Z. Z. Lost on New Years Day and Twelfth Day 1605 before 
James T, T must see the original accounts. 


In fruitlesse soile sow not thy seed : 
buie not, with cost, 
the thing that yeelds but labour lost. 
# * # 

Flie baits, shun hookes, 
Be thou not snarde with louely lookes 
* * # * * 

But hie or lowe, 
Ye may be sure she is a shrow. 
IT But sirs, I vse to tell no tales, 
Ech fish that swims doth not beare scales, 
In euerie hedge I finde not thornes : 
Nor euerie beast doth carie homes : 

I saie not so, 
That euerie woman causeth wo : 

That were too broad, 
Who loueth not venom must shun the toade. . . /' 

The object of the poem has nothing to do with that of Shakspere's play. 
He sets up women as the teachers of men, wiser and truer far than they, 
and shows the treasure of their love, only to be bought at the cost of self- 
control and humanizing work. F. J. F. 

4 6 


As the Greeke tongue is made famous and eloquent by 
Homer, He/iod, Euripedes, Aefchilus, Sophocles, Pindarus, Pho- 
cylides and Ariftophanes ; and the Latine tongue by Virgill, 
Ovid, Horace, Silius Italicus, Lucanus, Lucretius, Aufonius and 
Claudianus : fo the Englifh tongue is mightily enriched, and 
gorgeouilie inverted in rare ornaments and refplendent abili- 
ments by fir Philip Sidney, Spencer, Daniel, Drayton, Warner, 

Shakefpeare, Marlow and Chapman. 


As the foule of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pythagoras : 
fo the fweete wittie foule of Ovid lives in mellifluous & hony- 
tongued Shakefpeare, witnes his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his 
fugred Sonnets among his private friends, &c. 

As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the belt for Comedy and 
Tragedy among the Latines ? fo Shakefpeare among y e Englifh 
is the moft excellent in both kinds for the ftage 5 for Comedy, 
witnes his Getleme of Verona, his Errors, his Love labors loft, his 
Love labours wonne, his Midfummers night dreame, & his Merchant 
of Venice : for Tragedy his Richard the 2. Richard the 3. Henry 
the 4. King lohn, Titus Andronicus and his Romeo and luliet. 

As Epius Stolo faid, that the Mufes would fpeake with Plautus 
tongue, if they would fpeak Latin : fo I fay that the Mufes would 
fpeak with Shakefpeares fine filed phrafe, if they would fpeake 


* # * 

As Ovid faith of his worke ; 

\aniq\io. opus exegi, quod nee \ovis ira, nee ignis t 
Nee poterit fcrrum, nee edax abolere vetustas. 

FRANCIS MERES, 1598. 47 

And as Horace faith of his j Exegi monumentum cere perennius ; 
Regalique ; Jitu pyramidum altius ; Quod non imler edax ; Non 
Aquilo impotens pojjit diruere ; aut innumerabilis annorum feries 
&c fuga temporum : fo fay I feverally of fir Philip Sidneys, 

Spencers, Daniels, Dray tons, Shakefpeares, and Warners workes ; 

As Pindarus, Anacreon and Callimachus among the Greekesj 
and Horace and Catullus among the Latines are the belt Lyrick 
Poets : fo in this faculty the bell amowg our Poets are Spencer 
(who excelleth in all kinds) Daniel, Dray ton, Shakefpeare, Bretton. 

As fo thefe are our beft for Tragedie, the Lorde 

Buckhurft, Do6tor Leg of Cambridge, Do6tor Edes of Oxforde, 
maifter Edward Ferris, 1 the Authour of the Mirrour for 
Magiftrates, Marlow, Peele, Watfon, Kid, Shakefpeare, Drayton f 

Chapman, Decker, and Benjamin Johnfon. 

* * * # -x- * 

. . . fo the beft for Comedy amongft us bee, Edward Earle of 
Oxforde, Doctor Gager of Oxforde, Maifter Rowley once a rare 

1 [It was George Ferrers who wrote six of the historical poems in the 
Mirrour for Magistrates, four of which appeared in the first edition of 1559 ; 
two more came out in the edition of 1587 ; three of these bore the title of 
Tragedy, though none of them were plays. It is singular (see Wood's 
Athen. Oxon., i, 340, 445) that Puttenham, writing in 1589, and Meres in 
1598, both appear to have made the same mistake, of naming Edward 
Ferris (or Ferrers) for George Ferrers. Puttenham says (Arte of English 
Poesie, 1589 (4to.), p. 49 ; Arber's Reprint, p. 74) that " Maister Edward 
Ferry s" " wrate for the most part to the stage, in Tragedie and some-times 
in Comedie or Enterlude, wherein he gave the king [Edward VI] so much 
good recreation, as he had thereby many good rewardes." None of the 
plays of either George Ferrers or Edward Ferrers appear, however, to be 
now in existence. Edward Ferrers died in 1564, George in 1579. Meres 
may have intended to mention them both in the sentence given above. 
G. Ferrer's name was not on the title of the Mirrour in the edition of 1587, 
and his initials only were attached to his portions of the work. But that 
Puttenham really meant George, and not Edward, seems to be shown by the 
words of Stowe, who says, " George Ferrers gentleman of Lincolns Inne, 
being lord of the merry disportes all the 12 dayes [of Christmas, I553> at 
Greenwich] : who so pleasantly and wisely behaved himselfe, yt the K. had 
great delight in his pastymes." Chronicle, ed. 1615, p. 608. L. T. S.] 

48 FRANCIS MERES, 1598. 

Scholler of learned Pembrooke Hall in Cambridge, Maifter 
Edwardes one of her Maieflies Chappell, eloquent and wittie 
John Lilly, Lodge, Gafcoyne, Greene, Shakefpeare, Thomas Nqfti> 
Thomas Heywood, Anthony Mundye our befl plotter, Chapman, 

Porter, Wilfon, Hathway, and Henry Chettle. 


. . . fo thefe are the moft paflionate among us to bewaile ana 
bemoane the perplexities of Love, Henrie Howard Eaiie of Surrey, 
firThomas Wyat the elder, lir Francis Brian, fir Philip Sidney, fir 
Walter Rawley, fir Edward Dyer, Spencer, Daniel, Dray ton, 
Shakefpeare, Whetjlone, Gafcoyne, Samuell Page fometimes 
fellowe of Corpus Chrifti Colledge in Oxford, Churchyard, 

Palladis Tamia. Wits Treasury, Being the Second part of Wits 
Common wealth. 1598. \_I2M0.] Fols. 280, 281-2, 282, 283, 284. 

{Reprinted in Allusion- Books, /, New Sh. Soc. pp. xxiii, 151.) 

Of these extracts from Meres' Palladis Tamia, the second has been 
repeated ad nauseam, while the other five have been usually ignored. One 
matter of interest in the second extract is the mention of a play by 
Shakespeare under the name of Love Labours Wonne. If this be a superseded 
or an alternative name for one of those included in our "canon," it is 
important to identify it, as affording some addition to the scanty evidences 
on which we have to determine the chronological order of the plays. Farmer 
identified Love Labours Wonne with All's -well that ends well ; and his dictum 
has been acquiesced in by many critics. The Rev. Joseph Hunter gave 
the preference to The Tempest, which, for his purpose, had to be antedated 
some ten or a dozen years ; and Mr. A. E. Brae, in his Collier, Coleridge 
and Shakespeare, advocates the claims of Much ado about Nothing. But as 
that play was entered on the Stationers' Books on August 23, 1600, Meres 
could hardly have referred to it. Professor Craik argued in favour of The 
Taming of the Shrew (English of Shakespere, 1865, Proleg. II. p. 8, note). 
The German critics Emil Palleski, E. W. Sievers, and W. Hertzberg, also 
take this view. (See Tieck and Schlegel's translation of Shakespere, 
published by the Deutsche Shakespere Gesellschaft, 1871, vol. ii. p. 355.) 

The language of the first extract from Meres, which was quoted by Singer 
(Pref. to Hero and Leander, 1821, pp. xiii, xiv), recalls two lines in Ben 
Jonson's magnificent eulogy of Poetry in the first edition of Every Man in 
his Humour : 

" But view her in her glorious ornaments, 
Attired in the majestie of arte," &c. C. M. I. 



Michael Drayton (quern toties honoris & amoris caufa nomino) 
among fchollers, fouldiours, Poets, and all forts of people, is helde 
for a man of vertuous difpofition, honefl converfation, and wel 
governed cariage, which is almoft miraculous among good wits 
in thefe declining and corrupt times, when there is nothing but 
rogery in villanous man, & whe/z cheating and craftines is counted 
the cleaneft wit, and foundeft wifedome. 

Palladis Tamia. Wits Treasury, Being the Second part of Wits 
Commonwealth, 1598, fol. 281. [i2mo.] 

We have here an expression quoted from the First Part of Henry IV, Act 
II. sc. iv, where Falstaff says : 

"You Rogue, heere's Lime in this Sacke too: there is nothing but 
Roguery to be found in Villanous man," 

The First Part of Henry IV was entered on the Stationers' Register, 
Feb. 25, 1597-98. C. M. I. 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. 


R[OBERT] T[OFTE], 1598. 

Loves Labour Loft, I once did fee a Play 

Y-cleped fo, fo called to my paine. 

Which I to heare to my fmall loy did ft ay, 

Giving attendance on my froward Dame : 
My mifgiving minde prefaging to me ill, 
Yet was I drawne to fee it 'gainft my will. 
* * * * 

Each Actor plaid in cunning wife his part, 
But chiefly Thofe entrapt in Cupid's fnare } 
Yet All was fained, 'twas not from the hart, 
They feemde to grieve, but yet they felt no care : 
'Twas I that Griefe (indeed) did beare in breft, 
The others did but make a mow in left. 

The Months Minde of a Melancholy Lover, divided into three parts. 
By R. T. gentleman. 1598. [8.] sign. G 5. In the library of 
Mr. Henry Huth. 

(See Allusion-Books, /, New Sh. Soc. p. 184.) 

As to the date of Love's Labour s Lost, see after, p. 139 ; it was first 
printed in 1598. C. M. I. 


A Remembrance of fome Englifli Poets. 

Live Spenfer ever, in thy Fairy Queene : 
Whofe like (for deepe Conceit) was never feene. 
Crownd mayft thou bee, unto thy more renowne, 
(As King of Poets) with a Lawrell Crowne. 

And Daniell, praifed for thy fweet-chaft Verfe : 
Whofe Fame is grav'd on Rofamonds blacke Herfe. 
Still mayft thou live : and ftill be honored, 
For that rare Worke, The White Rofe and the Red. 

And Drayton, whofe wel-written Tragedies, 
And fweete Epiftles, foare thy fame to fkies. 
Thy learned Name, is aequall with the reft j 
Whofe ftately Numbers are fo well addreft. 

And Shakefpeare thou, whofe hony-flowing Vaine, 
(Pleafmg the World) thy Praifes doth obtaine, 
Whofe Venus, and whofe Lucrece (fweete, and chafte) 
Thy Name in fames immortall Booke have plac't. 
Live ever you, at leaft in Fame live ever : 
Well may the Bodye dye, but Fame dies never. 

Poems in Divers humor s 1598. [4^.] Sign. E 2, back. 

1 [This tract is fourth in a volume of which the first tract only bears Barn- 
feild's name : signatures begin afresh with the second tract, they do not run 
on throughout (my error in Sh. Allusion-Books, I, New Sh. Soc. p. 186), 
L. T. S.] 


A hall, a hall, 

Roome for the Spheres, the Orbes celeftiall 
Will daunce Kemps ligge. They'le revel with neate iumps 
A worthy Poet hath put on their Pumps. 
* * * * 

Lufcus, what's playd to day? faith now I know 

I fet thy lips abroach, from whence doth flow 

Naught but pure luliat and Romio. 

Say, who acts beft ? Drufus or Rofcio ? 

Now I have him, that nere of ought did fpeake 

But when of playes or Plaiers he did treate. 

H'ath made a common-place booke out of plaies, 

And fpeakes in print : at leaft what ere he fayes 

Is warranted by Curtaine plaudeties. 

If ere you heard him courting Lefbias eyes j 

Say (Curteous fir), fpeakes he not movingly, 

From out fome new pathetique Tragedy ? 

He writes, he railes, he iefts, he courts what not, 

And all from out his huge long fcraped ftock 

Of well-penn'd playes. 

The Scourge of Villanie. 159^- Satyre 10. 

Sign. HT back. i6 mo - 
[Malone's copy in the Bodleian.] 

(See Allusion-Books, 7, New Sh. Soc. pp. xxxiv, 187. 

[Romeo and Juliet was first printed in 1597, but was probably performed 
a year sooner. (See Dowden's Shakespere Primer, p. 83.) 

The first lines above contain a common phrase of the day, "A hall ! a hall ! 

JOHN MARSTON, 1598. 53 

give room ! " See Rom. and Juliet, Act I. sc. v : " A hall ! a hall ! give room 
and foot it, girls." So also Davies of Hereford has, "A hall, my 
masters, give Rotundus roome" {Scourge of Folly, Epig. 10, ed. Grosart, 
Chertsey Worthies Library, pp. 9, 66). L. T. S.] 

"Kemp's jigge" was one of those diversions, of combined singing and 
dancing, of which several were written and performed by him and Tarlton. 
(See Dyce's Introduction to Kemp's Nine days wonder, p. xx, and Collier's 
Memoirs of Actors, Shakespeare Society, 1846, pp. 100 102.) The 
" worthy poet" was Sir John Davies, the author of Orchestra or a Poeme of 
Daunting, 1596. 

" Roscio" w&ssiso&rttjuefof Burbage, which convinces Mr. Gerald Massey 
that John Davies' epigram, entitled Of Drusus his deere Deere-hunting (No. 
50 in The Scourge of Folly), was meant to allude to Shakespeare's escapade at 
Charlecote or Fulbroke. To help his case, however, Mr. Massey has to 
omit the epigram and to alter its title. ( The Secret Drama of Shakespeare's 
Sonnets unfolded, 1872: Supplemental Chapter, p. 40.) Besides, Davies 
does not apply Roscius solely to Burbage ; he has " To the Roscius of these 
times, Mr. W. Ostler," in The Scourge of Folly, Epigram 205. C. M. I. 



A man, a man, a kingdomefor a man, ! 
Why, how now, currifli, mad Athenian V 
Thou Cynick dogge, fee' ft not ftreets do fwarme 
With troupes of men ? 

The Scourge of Villanie. 1598. Satyre']. (A Cynicke Satyre.) 

Reprinted by Mr. J. 0. Halliwell in Marston's Works, Library of 
Old Authors, 1856, vol. Hi, p. 278. 

(See Allusion-Books, I, New Sh. Soc. p. 188.) 

The first line is a parody on the well-known line in Shakespeare's King 
Richard III, literally quoted by Marston in his What you Will, 1607, 
Act II, sc. i. (See after, p. 176.) The speech had probably attracted popular 
attention, and seems to have already become a fashionable cant phrase. 
(See also Brathwaite, 1615, after.) Marston also parodies the same line in 
his Parasitaster, or the Fawne, 1606 : 

"A foole, a foole, a foole, my Coxcombe for a foole !" (Sign. H $, bk], 

where, too, we find another line taken almost literally from Richard III, Act 
I, sc. i : 

" Plots ha' you laid? inductions, daungerous." (Sign. 6*3, bk.) 

[In this same Cynicke Satyre Marston repeats the part phrase "a man, 
a man ! " three times, but it is as a forcible sneer, to open a new phase of 
his subject, it is not used in the sense of Shakespere's call. 

Richard ///was first published in quarto in 1597, but was probably written 
as early as 1593. (See Dowden's Shakespere Primer^ p. 78.) L. T. S.] 


* R. S. 1598. 

[Flora] . . Who on a welthy Palfrey vaunted .... 
Young and in dainty fhape dygefted, 

His Lookes with Pride, not Rage inuefted : 
His Mayne thin haird, his Neck high crefted, 

Small Eare, Ihort Head, and burly Brefted. 
His brode Backe ftoopt to this Clerks-loued, 

which with hir preffure nought was moued 
Strait Legd, large Thighd, & hollow Houed, 

All Natures Ikill in him was proued. 

Phillis and Flora. J The sweete and f ciuill contention of / 
two amorotts Ladyes. / Translated out of Latine : by / 
R. S. Esquire. Aut Marti vel Mercuric./ Imprinted 
at London by W. W./ for Richarde lohnes./ 1598.; 
sign. C. 2, back, 3. 

It has been suggested (Appendix B., from elsewhere?) that this is more 
or less imitated from Shakspere's description of the horse in Venus and 
Adonis (1593), st. 50, 1. 295-300 : 

Round- hoofd, short-jointed, fetlocks shag and long, 
Broad breast, full eye, small head, and nostril wide, 

High crest, short ears, straight legs, and passing strong, 
Thin mane, thick tail, broad buttock, tender hide : 

Look what a horse should have, he did not lack, 
Save a proud rider on so proud a back. 

But as no one could describe a horse without noting most of the points in 
him that Shakspere does, one need not suppose that R. S. referrd in any 
way to his predecessor. F. J. F, 

GABRIEL HARVEY 1598 or after 1600 P 1 

The younger ibrt take much delight in Shakefpeare's Venus 
and Adonis j but his Lucrece, and his tragedy of Hamlet, Prince 
of Denmarke, have it in them to pleafe the wiier fort. 1598. 

Manuscript Note in Speghfs Chaucer [now lost ; see Allusion-Books, /, 
New Sh. Soc. pp. xxii, xxiii]. First printed in Johnson and Steevens* 
Shakspeare, 1773. (Reed, xviii, 2; BoswelFs Malone, vii, 168; 
Drake, ii, 391, &c.} 

1 We- are unable to verify Steevens' note, or collate his copy : for the book 
which contained Harvey's note (a copy of Speght's Chaucer, 1598) passed 
into the collection of Bishop Percy ; and his library was burnt in the fire at 
Northumberland House. [Malone, who saw the volume, doubted whether 
the note was written by Harvey before 1600 (Boswell's Malone, ii. 369). 
He does not, however, say whether the date, 1598, is really written at the 
end of the note and in Harvey's hand. L. T. S.] The editors of the 
Clarendon Press edition of Hamlet (Preface, p. ix) remark : " Steevens 
attributed to the note the date of the book, but Malone has shown that, 
although Harvey may have purchased the volume in 1598, there is nothing 
to prove that he wrote the note till after 1600, in which year Fairfax's 
translation of Tasso, mentioned in another note, was published." 

The First Quarto of Hamlet was printed in 1603. C. M. I. 



Mif. Bar\nes~\. How fir your wife ? wouldft thou my daughter 

haue ? 
He rather haue her married to her graue. 

The I Pleasant / Historic of / the two angrie women / of 
Abington. / With the humourous mirthe of Dick Coomes / 
and Nicholas Prouerbes, two / Seruingmen / ... By 
Henry Porter Gent. . . London ... 1599, sign. G 2, back. 

'A recollection perhaps of Shakespeare's " Romeo and Juliet," act iii. 
sc. 5- 

" I would the fool were married to her grave." ' 

A. Dyce, in Hazlitt's Dodsley, vii. 329. 

FalstafFs "good manhood 1 " is used by Coomes in this play, ib. vii. 318 : 
"I am sorry for it ; I shall never see good manhood again, if it [sword - 
and-buckler fight] be once gone ; this poking fight of rapier and dagger will 
come up then." 

F. J. F. 

1 Go thy ways, old Jack ; die when thou wilt ; if manhood, good man 
hood, be not forgot upon the face of the earth, then am I a shotten herring. 
I Henry IV. II. iv. 139-142. 

The reference in the Variorum Shakspere, 1821, xxi. 393, and Collier s 
Memoirs of E. Alleyn (1841), p. 122, to a play of 1599 in which Rich. III. 
appears see sc. 2, and sc. 5 : " K. Rich. Catesb. Lovell, Norf. Northumb. 
Percye,"isno doubt, as Mr. P. A. Daniel says, to 'The Second Part of 
Henry Richmond, by Robert Wilson/ Nov. 1599, named in the Variorum^ 
iii. 323, and in Henslowe's Diary, p. 159. 

" The playe of John agante," by "Mr. hathwaye," also in Var. xxi. 393, 
Mr. Daniel identifies with " the conqueste of spayne by John a Gant," on 
which Henslowe made three advances of money to "Mr. Hathwaye and 
Mr. Rankens " in the spring of 1600-1. The date 1601 is on Var. xxi, 391. 

*BEN JONSON, 1599. 


* * * 

Car\J,o\. I came from him but now, hee is at the Heraulds 
Office yonder : he requefted me to goe afore, and take vp a 
man or two for him in Paules, againft his Cognifance was 

Punt\aruolo\. What? has he purchaft armes then ? 
Car. I, and rare ones too : of as many colours, as e're you 
fa we any fooles coat in your life. He go looke among yond 
Billes, and I can fit him with Legs to his Armes. 

Pun. With Legs to his Armes ! Good : I will go with 
you fir. 

fr . <* * 

Sogliardo, Punt. Car. walke. 

Sog. Nay I wil haue him, I am refolute for that, by this 
parchment gentlemen, I haue bene fo toylde among the Harrots 
yonder, you wil not beleeue, they do fpeak in the flrangeft 
language, and giue a man the hardeft termes for his money, 
that euer you knew. 

Car. But ha' you armes ? ha' you armes ? 

Sog. Yfaith, I thanke God I can write my felfe Gentleman * 
now, heeres my Pattent, it coft me thirtie pound by this breath. 

Punt. A very faire Coat, well chargde, and full of Armorie. 

Sog. Nay, it has as much varietie of colours in it, as you haue 
feene a Coat haue, how like you the Creft fir ? 

Punt. I vnderftand it not well, what is't ? 

1 O. Gentlemen. 

BEN JONSON, 1599. 59 

Sog, Marry fir, it is your Bore without a head Rampant. 

Punt. A Bore without a head, that's very rare. 

Car. I, and Rampant too : troth I commend the Heralds wit, 
he has deciphered him well : a Swine without a head, without 
braine, wit, any thing indeed, Ramping to Gentilitie. You can 
blazon the reft Signior ? can you not ? 

Sog. O I, I haue it in writing here of purpofe, it coft me two 
millings the tricking. 

Car. Let's heare, let's heare. 

Punt. It is the moft vile, fooliih, abfurd, palpable,, and 
ridiculous Efcutcheon that euer this eye furuifde. . . . 

Sog. GYRONY of eight pieces, AZVRE and GVLES, between 
three plates a CHEV'RON engrailed checkey, OR. VERT and 
ERMINES ; on a chiefe ARGENT betweene two ANN'LETS, fables 
a Bores head PROPER. 

Car. How's that ? on a chiefe ARGENT ? 

Sog. On a chiefe ARGENT, a Bores head PROPER betweene 
two ANN'LETS fables. 

Carl. Slud, it's a Hogs Cheeke and Puddings in a Pewter 
field this. 

Sog. How like you them fignior r 

Pu. Let the word 1 be, Not without mujlard, your Creft is 
very rare fir. 

Car. A frying pan to the Crelt, had no fellow. 

The comicall Satyre of I Every Man / Ovt Of His / Hvmor. / 
As it was first composed by the Atithor B,\eri\ I.[pnsori\ / 
Containing more then hath been piiblikely spoken or acted / 
. . . London^ / Printed for Nicholas Linge. / 1600. 

[Mr. E. F. Bates kindly refers me to this passage, and considers that 
Jonson's "Not without mustard " may be a jocular reference to the motto 

1 Original world, 

60 BEN JONSON, 1599. 

of Shakspere's crest, " Non sanz droict." One may consider the reference 
dubious, though Shakspere obtained his grant of arms in 1599, when the 
play was produced. Certainly the arms of Sogliardo cannot be associated 
with those of Shakspere, (Or, on a band sable, a spear of the first, 
steeled argent, with crest, a falcon, wings displayed, argent, supporting a 
spear or, steeled as in the arms.) The " mustard," of course, is intended 
to be associated with the "swine." Mr. R. B. MKerrow very kindly 
points out that "Not without mustard" may well have been derived from 
a story in Nashe's Pierce Pennilesse. (See his edition of Nashe, i. 171-21. ) 
The allusion is possible, but doubtful. M.] 


BEN JONSON, 1599. 

Saviolina. What's he, gentle Mounlieur Briske ? not that 
Gentleman ? 

Fastidius. No Ladie, this is a Kinsman of Justice Silence. 

(Act V. sc. ii.] 
* * * * 

Marie, I will not do as Plautus in his Amphitryo for all this, 
(Summi lovis caufa Plaudite ;) begge a Plaudit e for Gods fake ; 
but if you (out of the bountie of your good-liking) will beftow it, 
why, you may (in time) make leane Madlente as fat as Sir John 

(Second " Catastrophe or Conclusion " to the play, sign. Q 4, back.'] 
Every Man out of his Humor. 1600. [4/0] 

["This Comicall Satyre was first acted in the yeere 1599." Jomon's 
Works, 1616, vol. i. p. 176. 

The speech of Mitis in the same play, Act III, sc. ii, suggesting that the 
argument of the comedy might have been based on cross -wooings, has been 
supposed to be a hit at Twelfth Night. But that play is not placed earlier 
than 1600, as its probable date. 

The First and Second Parts of Henry IV, in which Justices Silence and 
Shallow appear, were probably both written before Feb. 25, i597-9 8 > when 
the First Part was entered on the Stationers' Register. L. T. S.] 




By W- Shakefpeare. 


Printed for W. laggard, and are 
to be fold by W. Leake, at the Grey- 
hound in Paules Churchyard. 



[This is the title-page which the notorious Jaggard issued in 1599 to his 
filched collection of poems from various authors, including Barmfeild, 
Marlowe, Weekes, etc. It is a testimony to the market- value of Shak- 
spere's name. Five of the twenty pieces in the book were by Shakspere 
himself. The third edition in 1612 still retained the poet's name, but 
included two other pieces, from Heywood's Troia Britannica. The 
remonstrance of Heywood, recording Shakspere's displeasure at this new 
villainy, is printed below, p. 231. M.] 

THOS. DEKKER, 1599-1636. 

Enter Rofe alone making a garland. 
" Roje. Here lit thou downe vpon this flowry bank 
And make a garland for thy Lades head. 
Thefe pinkes, thefe rofes, and thefe violets, 
Thefe blufhing gilliflowers, thefe marigoldes, 
The faire embrodery of his coronet, 
Carry not halfe fuch beauty in their cheekes, 
As the fweete countnaunce of my Lacy doth." 

The I Shomakers \ Holiday. / or \ the Gentle Craft. \ . . . 
1600. Works, 1873, i- J 6, 17. 

[" Come, sit thee down upon this flowery bed, 

While I thy amiable cheeks do coy, 

And stick musk roses in thy sleek smooth head." 

Mid: s Nights Dream, IV. i. H. C. HART.] 

" Cypr[us\. The Ruby-coloured portals of her fpeech 
Were clofde by mercy." 

The I Pleasant Comedie of \ Old Fortunatus. . . 1600. 
Works, 1873, i. 132. 

[" Once more the ruby coloured portal opened, 
Which to his speech did honey passage yield." 

1593. Venus and Adonis, 1. 451, 2. H. C. HART.] 

" Genius. 
( T am the places Genius, whence nowjprings 

A Vine, whofe yongeft Braunchjhall produce Kings : 
This little world of men ; this precious Stone t 
Thatfets out Europe : 

THOS. DEKKER, T 599 1636. 65 

This lewell of the Land : Englands right Eye : 
Altar o/"Loue and Spheare of Male/lie" 

1604. The Kings Entertainment through the City of 
London, 15. of March 1603. Works, 1873, i. 274. 

[Evidently borrowed from Gaunt's speech in Richard II. Act II. sc. i. H.] 

" Hip\olito\. Oh, you ha kild her by your cruelty. 
Du[ke~\. Admit I had, thou kill'fl her now againe ; 
And art more favage then a barbarous Moor." 

1604. The Honest Whore. Works, 1873, ii. 4. 

[Conjecturally an allusion to Aaron in Titus Andronicus, who is twice 
called the "barbarous Moor" in that play; II. iii. 78, "Accompanied but 
with a barbarous Moor " ; V. iii. 4, ' ' Good uncle, take you in this barbar- 
ous Moor." H. C. HART.] 

What's here ? 

Perhaps this flirewd pate was mine enemies : 
Las ! fay it were : I need not feare him now : 
For all his braves, his contumelious breath, 
His frownes (tho* dagger-pointed) all his plot, 
(Tho ne're ib mifchievous) his Italian pilles, 
His quarrels, and (that common fence) his law. 

And muft all come to this ; fooles, wife, all hither, 
Muft all heads thus at laft be laid together : 

But here's a fellow ; that which he layes on, 
Till domes day alters not complexion : 
Death's the bell Painter then : 

1604. The Honest Whore. Part I. Works, 1873, ii. 56. 

[Though no passages are exactly similar, yet the whole idea of moralizing 
thus upon a skull (especially as it would show upon a stage) seems to me 
unmistakably taken from Hamlet 's gravedigger's scene, and therefore worthy 
of insertion as Shakespeare's Prayse. H. C. HART.] 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. F 

66 THOS. DEKKER, 1599 1636. 

Wife. Sure, I mould thinke twere the leaft of fin. 

To miftake the Mafter, and to let him in. 

Geo[rge]. Twere a good Comedy of Errors that ifaith. 

The Honest Whore, ib. ii. 62. 

["An allusion probably to Shakespeare's play of that name." Note in 
Dekker's Works, 1873, ii. 372. See the same phrase, p. 141, below.] 

(Has the jealous husband Candido's saying in this play, ii. 40-1, about 
his wife's brother Fustigo's kissing her " when I touch her lip, I shall not 
feele his kisses "anything to do with Othello's "I found not Cassio's 
kisses on her lips " ? III. iii. 341- Othello dates in 1604? F.) 

May\Jbury\. Of what ranck was (he I befeech you. 
Leth[erjlone\. Vpon your promife of fecrefie. 
Bel\_lamont\. You mall clofe it vp like treafure of your owne, 
and your felfe mall keepe the key of it. 

North- Ward] Hoe.\ Sundry times Acted by the children / 
of Paules./ By Thomas Decker, and \ John Webster. / 
. . 1607. Works, 1873, iii. 5. 

[" From Shakespeare : 

' 'Tis in my memory lock'd 

And you yourself shall keep the key of it.' Hamlet, act. i. sc. 3." Note 
in Dekker's Works, iii. 361.] 

lasp [ero\. I never heard 'mongft all your Romane fpirits, 

That any held fo bravely up his head, 

In fuch a fea of troubles (that come rouling 

One on anothers necke) as Lotti doth. 

The Wonder I of I A Kingdome.} . . . 1636. Works, 

1873, iv. 230. 

["/ such a sea of troubles. In all probability borrowed from Hamlef* 
famous soliloquy." Note in Dekker's Works, 1873, iv. 438.] 

Flo\rence] nay, nay, pray rife, 

I know your heart is up, tho* your knees down, Ib. iv. 28 J. 
["So Shakespeare in Richard II. : 

' Up, cousin, up ; your heart is up, I know, 
Thus high at least, although your knee be low.' " 

Note, ib. p. 440]. F. J . F. 


Gull. Pardon, faire lady, thoughe ficke-thoughted Gallic 

maks amaine unto thee, and like a bould-faced futore 'gins to 

woo thee 1 . 1008 

Ingen. (We {hall have nothinge but pure Shakfpeare and 

fhreds of poetrie that he hath gathered at the theators !) 

Gull. Pardon mee, moy mittrefTa, aft 2 am a gentleman, the 
moone, in comparifon of thy bright hue 3 a meere flutt, Anthonio's 
Cleopatra a blacke browde milkmaide, Hellen a dowdie. 1013 
Ingen. (Marke, Romeo and Juliet ! O monftrous theft 4 ! 
1 thinke he will runn throughe a whole booke of Samuell 
Daniell's !) 

Gull. Thrife fairer than myfelfe ( thus I began ) 
The gods faire riches, fweete above compare, 
Staine to all nimphes, [m]ore lovely the[n] a man. 
More white and red than doves and rofes are ! 1020 

Nature that made thee with herfelfe had 5 ftrife, 
Saith that the worlde hath ending with thy life 6 . 
Ingen. Sweete Mr. Shakfpeare ! 

Act III. sc. i. pp. 56, 7. 

1 ' Sick-thoughted Venus makes amain unto him, 
*And like a bold-faced suitor 'gins to woo him.' 

Venus and Adonis, st. I. 

2 for as I. 3 for hue's. 4 Cf. Romeo and Juliet, ii. 4. 

6 sic : for at. 6 Venus and Adonis, st. 2. 


In gen. My pen is youre bounden vafTall to comma nde. But 
what vayne woulde it pleafe you to have them in ? 1049 

Gull Not in a vaine veine (prettie, i'faith !) : make mee 
them in two or three divers vayns, in Chaucer's, Gower's and 
Spencer's and Mr. Shakfpeare's. Marry, I thinke I ihall enter- 
taine those verfes which run like thefe : 

Even as the funn with purple coloured face 

Had tane his lafle leave on 1 the weeping morne, &c. 1055 

O fweet Mr. Shakfpeare ! I'le have his picture in my ftudy at 
the courte. 

Act III. sc. i. p. 58. 

Gull. Let mee heare Mr. Shakfpear's veyne. 1212 

Ingen. Faire Venus, queene of beutie and of love, 
Thy red doth ftayne the blufhinge of the morne, 
Thy fnowie necke fhameth the milkwhite dove, 
Thy prefence doth this naked worlde adorne; 
Gazinge on thee all other nymphes I fcorne. 
When ere thou dyefl Howe fhine that Satterday, 
Beutie and grace mufle fleepe with thee for aye ! 1219 

Gull. Noe more ! I am one that can judge accordinge to 
the proverbe, lovem ex unguibus. Ey marry, Sir, thefe have 
fome life in them ! Let this duncified worlde efteeme of 
Spencer and Chaucer, I'le worfhipp fweet Mr. Shakfpeare, and to 
honoure him will lay his Venus and Adonis under my pillowe, as 
wee reade of one (I doe not well remember his name, but I am 
fure he was a kinge) ilept with Homer under his bed's heade. 

Act III. sc. i. p. 63. 

1 ' of : Venus and Adonis, 1. 2. 


6 9 

Ing. Our Theater hath loft, Pluto hath got, 

A. Tragick penman for a driery plot 295 

Beniamin lohnfon 1 . 

/M^. The wittieft fellow of a Bricklayer in England. 

Ing. A meere Empyrick, one that getts what he hath by 
obferuation, and makes onely nature priuy to what he indites, 
ib flow an Inuentor that he were better betake himfelfe to his 
old trade of Bricklaying, a bould whorfon, as confident now in 
making a 2 booke, as he was in times paft in laying of a brick. 
William Shakefpeare' 6 . 

lud. Who loues [not Adons loue, or Lucrece rape ? 4 ] 304 
His fweeter verfe contaynes hart [throbbing line 5 ], 
Could but a grauer fubiect him content, 
Without loues foolifh lazy 6 languiftiment. 

Act IV. sc. ii. p. 87. 

The Pilgrimage to Parnassus, with the Two Parts of the Returnc 
from Parnassus. Three Comedies performed in St, John's 
College, Cambridge, A.D. MDX VIIMDCL Edited from 
MSS. by the Rev. W. D. Macray, F.S.A. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press. 1886. F. J. F. 

The Rev. W. D. Macray of the Bodleian c. 1885 found among Thomas 
Hearne's volumes of miscellaneous collections in the Bodleian, the long 
missing couple of Plays which preceded The Returne from Pernassus [Part 
II.] so long known to us. The first play is ' The Pilgrimage to Pernassus ', 
and the second is the first part of * The Returne ' from it. It is the most 
interesting dramatic find for very many years, as it sets Shakspere at the 
head of English Poets above Chaucer and Spenser so early as A.D. 1600. 

I 'B.I.,'B. 2< ofa,'MS. 3 Mis-spelt ' Shatespeare ' in A. 

4 * Who loves Adonis love or Lucres' rape,' edits. 

6 'robbing life, 'edits. 

6 ' lazy ' omitted in B. 



LOVELY kinde, and kindly louing 
Such a minde were worth the mouing : 
Truly faire, and fairely true, 
Where are all thefe but in you ? 

Wifely kinde, and kindely wife, 
Bleffed life, where fuch loue lies : 
Wife, and kinde, and faire, and true, 
Louely Hue all thefe in you. 

Sweetely deare, and dearely fweete, 
Bleffed, where thefe bleffings meete : 
Sweete, faire, wife, kinde, bleffed, true, 
Bleffed be all thefe in you. 

Melancholike / Htimours, / In Verses of Di- / verse Natures, j 

Set down by / Nich: Breton, gent, j London / . . . 1600. 
Reprinted Chertsey Worthies^ Library, ed. Grosart, 1879, 

[Mr. C. Haines in Notes and Queries, loth Series, vol. vii, p. 247, says 
these lines appear to be inspired by Shakspere's Sonnet, cv : 

Kind is my love today, tomorrow kind, 

Still constant in a wondrous excellence ; 

Therefore my verse, to constancy confined, 

One thing expressing, leaves out difference. 

" Fair, kind, and true " is all my argument, 

" Fair, kind, and true," varying to other words ; 

And in this change is my invention spent, 

Three themes in one, which wondrous scope affords. 
" Fair, kind, and true," have often lived alone, 
Which three till now never kept seat in one. 

Nothing could better describe Breton's theme than Shakspere's lines 
" * Fair, kind, and true,' varying to other words " : if Shakspere's Sonnet 
was not written before 1600, he must have been the borrower, and not 
Breton. M.] 

*JOHN LANE, 1600. 

When chaft Adonis came to mans eftate, 
Venus ftraight courted him with many a wile ; 
Lucrece once feene, ftraight Tarquine laid a baite, 
With foule inceft her bodie to defile : 

Thus men by women, women wrongde by men, 

Give matter ftill vnto my plaintife pen. 

To m Tel- Troths Message, and his pens Complaint. 1600, /. 4 
(Reprinted by the New Shakspere Society, 1876, /. 132.) C. M. I. 


To the Reader : 

\T ihall be needlefle (gentle Reader) to make any 
Apologie for the defence of this labour, becaufe the 
fame being collected from fo many fingular mens 
workes j and the worth of them all hauing been fo efpecially 
approued, and paft with no meane applaufe the cenfure of all in 
generall, doth both difburden me of that paines, and fets the 
better approbation on this excellent booke. ... A 3. 

[A 4] Now that euery one may be fully fatiffied concerning 
this Garden, that no one man doth aflume to him-felfe the 
praife thereof, or can arrogate to his owne deferuing thofe things 
which haue been deriued from fo many rare and ingenious 
fpirits ; I haue fet down both how, whence, and where thefe 
flowres had their firft fpringing, till thus they were drawne 
togither into the Mufes Garden, that euery ground may chal- 
lenge his owne, each plant his particular, and no one be iniuried 
in the iuftice of his merit 
. . . out of. . . 

[A 5] Edmund Spencer. 

Henry Conftalle Efquier. . . . 
[A 5, bk] lohn Mar/lone. 

Chriftopher Marlow. 
Eeniamin lohnfon. 
William Shakfpeare. . . . 
Thefe being Moderne and extant Poets, that haue liu'd 

JOHN BODENHAM, l6oo. 73 

togither ; from many of their extant workes, and fome kept in 


il. p. 30. 

Loue goes toward loue like fchoole-boyes from their bookes : 
But loue from loue, to fchoole with heauie lookes. 

Bel-vedere / or \ The Garden of f The Mvses.f . . . 
Imprinted at London by F. K. for Hugh Astley, 
dwelling at \ Saint Magnus corner. l6oo./ 

The two 'Loue 'lines are from the first Quarto, 1597, of Romeo and 
Juliet, II. ii. 160-1, p. 58, Daniel's Parallel-Text. N. Sh. Soc. 1874: 

Ro. Loue goes toward loue like schoole boyes from their bookes, 
But loue from loue, to schoole with heauie lookes. 

Quarto 2, 1599, has as for like in 1. 160, and toward for to in 1. 161. 

The author's name, 'M. lohn Bodenham,' is given by A. M. 1 in the title 
of his verses on sign. A 7. The mere fact of there being a Rom. & Jul. 
quotation in Bodenham, was stated by Mr. Hll.-P. in his Outlines, p. 
115- F. J. F. 

Belvedere consists entirely of quotations from the poets and dramatists. 
Mr. Charles Crawford, who has recently been working upon the book, has 
identified more than 200 from Shakspere. Of these 92 are from Lucrece 
and 35 from Venus and Adonis. Richard II seems to have been 
Bodenham's favourite play; he quotes from it 47 times. Richard III 
comes next with 13 quotations. Mr. Crawford prints the results of his 
investigations in an appendix in vol. ii. M. 

Anthony Munday? 





Or wher's the soules Atturney, when 
the hart. 

Being once corrupted, takes the 
worser part ? (p. 12, 1. 185.) 

O woolvish heart wrapt in a womans 
hyde (p. 16, 1. 265). 

Thus all askaunce thou holdst me in 
thine eye (1. 300). 

Hence idle words, servants to shallow 

brain es, 
Unfruitfull sounds, wind-wasting 


Your endles prattle lessens not my 

His suite is cold, that makes you 

mediators (1. 559). 

Witnes faire heauens she, she, 'tis 

onely she, 
That guides this hand to give this 

wound to me (1. 647). 

A prettie while this prettie creature 

Before the engin of her thoughts 

began (1. 853). 


the heart's attorney* 
(Ven. and Ad. 1. 335.) 

But with a pure appeal seeks to the 

Which once corrupted takes the 

worser part (Lucrece,\. 293). 

O tigers heart wrapt in a woman's 
hide (3 Henry VI, I. iv). 

For all askaunce he holds her in his 
eye ( Ven. and Ad. 1. 342). 

Out idle words, servants to shallow 

Unprofitable sounds, weak arbi- 
trators ! 

Busy yourselves in skill-contending 
schools : 

Debate where leisure serves with dull 
debaters : 

To trembling clients be you medi- 
ators (Lucrece, 1. 1016). 

She utters this : ' He, he, fair lords, 

'tis he, 
That guides this hand to give this 

wound to me (Lucrece, I. 1721). 

A pretty while these pretty creatures 
stand (Lucrece, 1. 1233). 

Once more the engine of her thoughts 
began (Ven. and Ad. 1. 367). 


Acolastus. Shakespere. 

Heart-slaine with lookes, I fell upon Or like the deadly bullet of a gun, 

the ground, 

Her meening strooke me ere her His meaning struck her ere his words 

words were done, begun, 

As weapons meet before they make And at his look she flatly falleth 

a sound, down, 

Or as the deadly bullet of a gunne For looks kill love and love by looks 

(p. 62, 1. 1369). reviveth ( Ven. and Ad. 1. 461). 

And pining griefe still thinkes it For lovers say, the heart hath treble 

treble wrong wrong 

When heart is barr'd the aydance of When it is barr'd the aidance of the 

the tongue (1. 1433). tongue (Ven. and Ad. 1. 329). 

Acolastus his afler-witte. By S. N. 1600. Reprinted by Rev. 
A. B. Grosart, 1876. Introduction, pp. xiv xxi. 

[The quotations here given are but a few out of many passages in Nicholson's 
Acolastus, in which the author has, like Robert Baron fifty years later, 
woven into his own verse quotations and recollections from Shakespere's 
Poems. Dr. Grosart and Dr. B. Nicholson, setting aside the accusation of 
literary theft and impudence in this striking use by the lesser poets of the 
ringing words of the greater, explain that "precedents of high excellence 
were much more looked to in those days, and copyings and imitations were 
not merely more common but allowed, especially when the sources were in 
all hands, and so ' plagiarism ' out of the question. . . . Those familiar with 
Nicholas Breton and Samuel Daniel find frequently and silently introduced 
into their own poems [i. e. the poems of those authors] well-known sonnets 
and lines of others." Introd. p. xxi. L. T. S.] 

7 6 

* SAM. NICHOLSON. 1600. 

Dr. Grosart has given in his Memorial Introduction to his reprint of 
Sam. Nicholson's Acolasttis, his After-witte, many instances of that writer's 
borrowings from Shakspere's Venus and Adonis, Lucrece, &c. Of these 
the most certain are quoted in pp. 74, 75. 

We of all people once that were the pelfe 

Thruft in a frozen corner of the North. 

Sign. B. 1. 44, p. 7, reprint. 

This he compares with " the frozen bosome of the North," in Romeo and 


Which is as thin of substance as the ayre, 

And more inconstant then the wind, who wooes 

Euen now the frozen bosome of the North. 

1599. Rom. &Jul. Qo. 2, I. v. 93. 
1597. Qo. i. 

Which is as thinne a substance as the aire, 
And more inconstant than the winde 
Which wooes euen now the frosew bowels of the north. 



A. MUNDAY, &c, 1600. 

Pri[efi\. Sirra, no more ado ; come, come, giue me the money 
you haue. Difpatch, I cannot ftand all day. 

Kin[g Hen. Vl\ Well, if thou wilt needs haue it, there it is J : 
iuft the Prouerbe, one theefe robs another. Where the diuelare 
all my old theeues 2 ? Falftaffe that 3 villaine is fo fat, hee can- 
not get oil's horfe, but me thinkes Poines and Peto mould bee 
ftirring hereabouts. 4 


6 Pr'i. Me thinkes the King mould be good to theeues becaufe 
he has bin a theefe himfelfe, though I thinke now hee be turned 
true man. 

Kin. Faith I haue heard indeede h'as 6 had an ill name that 
way in's 7 youth ; but how canfl thou tell that he 8 has beene a 
Theefe ? 

Prie/i. How ? becaufe he once robb'd me before I fell to the 

1 there tis V. S. ed.t 

2 theeues that were wont to keepe this walke? V. S.| 

3 the V. S. 4 here abouts. 

6 For Pri. read Sir John throughout, z. e. Sir John Butler, parson of 
Wrotham (Sig. B). 

6 he has V. S. 7 in his V. S. 

8 till he V. S. (Smaller differences of spelling and punctuation are not 
noted. F.) 

t The first part / Of the true and honor/able historic, of the life of Sir / 
John Old-castle, the good I Lord Cobham./ As it hath been lately acted 
by the right / honorable the Earle of Notingham / Lord high Admirall of 
England his / seruants./ LONDON / Printed by V. S. for Thomas Pauier, 
and are to be solde at / his Shop at the Signe of the Catte and Parrots / 
neere the Exchange./ 1600. 4to. sign. 2. 

yg A. MUNDAY, &C.. l6oO. 

trade my felfe, when that foule villanous guts, that led him to 
all that Roguery, was in's company there, that Falftaife. 

King qfide. Well, if he did rob thee then, thou art but euen 
with him now, He be fworne : Thou knoweft not the King 
nowe I thinke, if thou faweft him ! 

The first part / of the true and honourable history of the 
Life of I Sir John Old-castle, the good / Lord-Cobham.\ 
As it hath bene lately acted by the Right / honorable 
the Earle ofNotingham / Lord High Admiral I of Eng- 
land,/ his Servants. I Written by William Shakespeare./ 
London printed for T. P. 1600. 4to. sign. F 2. 

The edition " Printed by V. S. for Thomas Pauier, and are to be solde at 
his shop at the signe of the Catte and Parrots neere the .Exchange, 1600," 
differs somewhat from this edition, and seems the better one, tho I 
have only collated it. A 'longer extract from this scene is given by M r . 
Halliwell in his 'Character of Sir John Falstaff,' 1841, p. 31-4. The 
earlier scene at the Inn with Doll, (the Priest's or Wrotham Parson's wench,) 
old Harpoole, 'a most sweet old man,' the kissing, &c. (sign. C. 4) 

"harp. Imbracing her. Doll canst thou loueme? a mad merie Lasse, 
would to God I had neuer scene thee. 

Doll. I warrant you you will not out of my thoughts this tweluemonth, 
truely you are as full of favour, as a man may be. -Ah these sweet gray 
lockes, by my troth, they are most louely." 

and the quarrel following, are evidently from Falstaff s tavern-scene with his 
Doll, 2 Henry IV, II. ir. 

In Henslowe's Diary, p. 158, are the following entries : 

" This 16 of October [i5]99 

Receved by me, Thomas Downton, of phillip Henslow, to pay M r . 
Monday, M r . Drayton, and M r . Wilson and Hathway, for the first p^rte 
of the lyfe of S r Jhon Ouldcasstell, and in earnest of the second parte, for 
the use of the compayny, ten pownd, I say receved 10". 

[On or after Nov. I, and before Nov. 8] Receved of M r . Hinchloe, for 
M r . Mundaye and the Reste of the poets, at the playnge of S r John Old- 
castell, the ferste time. As a gefte x s . 

[p. 162. Between Dec. 19 and 26, 1599] Receved of M r . Henchlow, 
for the use of the company, to pay M r . Drayton for the second parte of S 
Jhon Ouldcasell, foure pownd : I say receved ,.... iiij 11 - 

A. MUNDAY, &C, l6oO. 79 

[p. 166] Dd unto the litell tayller, at the apoyntment of Robart Shawe ? 
the 12 of marche !599[-i6oo] to macke thinges for the 2 parte of owld 
castell, some of xxx s ." 

Before this last date I thought that Shakspere might probably have acted 
in the play, which might have been lent, before its publication, to the Lord 
Chamberlain's Company, by the Lord Admiral's Company : 1 see the 
following : 

"Baynards Castell, this Saturday, 8 of March, 1599 " [-1600]. "Row- 
land Whyte, Esq.; to Sir Robert Sydney " . . . "All this Weeke the 
Lords haue bene in London, and past away the Tyme in Feasting and 
Plaies ; for Vereiken dined vpon Wednesday, with my Lord Treasurer, who 
made hym a Roiall Dinner j vpon Thursday my Lord Chamberlain feasted 
hym, and made hym very great, and a delicate Dinner, and there in the 
After Noone his Plaiers acted, before Vereiken, Sir John Old Castell, to his 
great Contentment." ^Letters and Memorials of State, ed. Arthur Collins, 
1746, ii. 175, 176, 4, 17 (noted in the Variorum). 

But Mr. P. A. Daniel suggests " that the Admiral lent his Company to 
the Chamberlain on this occasion. It seems altogether improbable that 
Shakspere and his company should have taken the places of the Admiral's 
Company for one single performance only." 

Both Parts of the play were enterd to Thos. Pavier in the Stationers' 
Register on Aug. n, 1600. Arber's Transcript, iii. 63 

" The firste parte of the history of the life of Sir JOHN OLCASTELL lord 


Item the second and last parte of the history of Sir JOHN OLDCASTELL lord 
COBHAM with his martyrdom " 

The second Part of the Play is not now known. 

By Aug. 17, 1602, "my Lorde of Worsters players " (afterwards Queen 
Anne's James I.'s wife) had evidently become entitled to Sir John Old- 

1 They had both acted together or alternately at Henslowe's Newington 
Theatre for 2 years and 6 days in 1594-6. Collier's Pref. to Henslowe's 
Diary, p. xviii. The names of the Admiral's Company in 1600 (eleven 
sharers in profits) are given in Henslowe, p. 172 

J. Singger. Robt. Shaa. 

Thomas Downton. Thomas Towne. 

Humfry Jeffes. W. Birde. 

Anthony Jeffes. Richard Jones. 

Charles Massye. Edward Jubye. 
Samuell Rowlye. 

go A. MUNDAY, &C., l6oO. 

castle, and Henslowe lent them 40^. " to paye unto Thomas Deckers, for 
new adicyons in Owldcaselle " (Diary, p. 236), and los. more on Sept. 7, 
1602 (p. 239). 
On the attributing of spurious plays to Shakspere, note this by Baker : 

" THE THREE BROTHERS. Trag. by Wentworth Smith. Acted by the 
Lord Admiral's servants, 1602. Not printed. This author wrote, or 
assisted in, several other plays ; and by only using the initials of his name, 
it is supposed that many of them were obtruded on the public as the pro- 
ducts of Shakspeare's pen." 1812. Baker's Biogr. Dram. Hi. 333. 

F. J. F. 

If the following passage had been written after Macbeth instead of 4 years 
before it, should we not all have said that the writers had recollected Shak- 

"Come, seeling night, 
Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day" (III. ii. 46-7)? 

And if so, ought we not in like wise to hold that in Macbeth Shakspere 
recollected his predecessors' work? E. PHIPSON. 

War\nian~\. The man is blinde. Muffle the eye of day, 
Ye gloomie clouds (and darker than my deedes, 
That darker be than pitchie sable night) 
Muster together on these high topt trees, 
That not a sparke of light thorough their sprayes, 
May hinder what I meane to execute. 

[A. Munday & H. Chettle] The I Downfal f of Robert,! 
Earle of Huntington, / afterward Called / Robin 
Hood of merrie Shetwodde: / with his loue to chaste 
Matilda, the / Lord Fitzwaters daughter, afterwardes / 
his faire Maide Marian./ . . . Imprinted at London, 
for William Leake, 1601, sign. 14, back. 


Sir Gelly Meyricke ijth Feb. 1600. 

The Examination of S r Gelly merick Knyght taken the xvij th 
of Februarij, 1600. He fayeth that vpon Saterday laft was 
fennyght he dyned at Gunter's in the Company of the L. 
monteegle, S r Chriftoffer Blont, S r Charles percye, Ellys Jones, 
and Edward Buffhell, and who elfe he remembreth not and after 
dy nner that day & at the mocyon of S r Charles percy and the 
reft they went all together to the Globe over the water wher the 
L. Chamberlens men vfe to play and were ther fomwhat before 
the play began, S r Charles tellyng them that the play wold be of 
harry the iiij th . Whether S r John davyes x were ther or not 
thys exanimate can not tell, but he fayd he wold be ther yf he 
cold, he can not tell who procured that play to be played at 
that tyme except yt were S r Charles percye, but as he thyncketh 
yt was S r Charles percye. Thenne he was at the fame play and 
Cam in fomwhat after yt was begon, and the play was of Kyng 
Harry the iiij th , and of the kyllyng of Kyng Richard the fecond 
played by the L. Chamberlen's players 

Ex. per Gelly Meyricke 

J. Popham 
Edward Fenner 

MS in the Public Record Office. Domestic 
State Papers, Elizabeth, Vol. 278, No. 78. 
(Mrs. Green's Calendar, 1 598-1 60 1,/. 575.) 

1 Misread Danvers in the Calendar. 


Augujtine PhilLipps 18 Pel., 1600. 

The Examination of auguftyne phillypps fervant vnto the L 
Chamberlyne and one of hys players taken the xviij th of February 
1600 vpon hysoth 

He fayeth that on Fryday laft was fennyght or Thurfday S r 
Charles percy S r Jofclyne percy and the L. montegle with fome 
thre more fpak to fome of the players in the prefans of thys 
exammate to have the play of the depofyng and kyllyng of Kyng 
Rychard the fecond to be played the Saterday next promyfyng 
to gete them xly. more then their ordynary to play yt. Wher 
thys Examinate and hys fellowes were determyned to have played 
fome other play, holdyng that play of Kyng Richard to be fo old 
& fo long out of vfe as that they mold have fmall or no Company 
at yt. But at their requeft this E\aminate and his fellowes were 
Content to play yt the Saterday and had their xls. more then their 
ordynary for yt and fo played yt accordyngly 

Ex. per Augulline Phillipps 

J. Popham 
Edward Fenner 

MS. in the Public Record Office. Domestic State 
Papers, Elizabeth, Vol. 278, No. 85. (See Mrs. 
Green's Calendar, i598-i6oi,/. 578.) 

[The above examinations were thus summed up in the Report of The Trial 
printed from Le Neve's MS. : 

" And the story of Henry IV being set forth in a play, and in that play 
there being set forth the killing of the King upon a stage ; the Friday before 
Sir Gilly Merrick and some others of the Earl's train having an humour to 
see a play, they must needs have the play of Henry IV. 

" The players told them that was stale, they should get nothing by playing 
of that, but no play else would serve ; and Sir Gilly Merrick gives forty 
shillings to Philips the player to play this, besides what soever he could get. " 
(The Trial of Sir Christopher Blunt, Sir Gilly Merrick and others, for High 
Treason, 5 March, 1600. F. Hargrave's State Trials, 1778, vol. vii. 
column 60.) I have not succeeded in tracing Le Neve's MS., it does not 


appear to be in the British Museum, and Mr. J. Nicholson, the courteous 
Librarian of Lincoln's Inn, informs me that it is not in the Library 
under his charge (to which Margrave's MSS. and books were originally 
assigned). But the examinations of Merrick and Phillipps show that what 
seemed to be the error of Henry IV instead of Richard 77, as the name of 
the play, is so in the original. The account given of this trial in Camden's 
Annals (ed. Hearne, 1717, p. 867) has it as follows, " exoletam Traggediam 
de tragica abdicatione Regis Ricardi secundi in publico theatro coram 
conjurationis participibus data pecunia agi curasset." 

Richard II was published in Quarto in 1597 and 1598, the Deposition 
scene (11. 154318 of. Act IV. sc. i) was not printed till 1608, though, from 
the allusions in the lines before and after the omission, which are in the 
Quarto of 1597, it is clear that this scene must have been in the original 
play ; it was probably struck out on account of its political significance. 
That there is room for doubt whether the play ordered by Sir Charles 
Percy was Shakespere's Richard 77, or another on the same subject, is 
seen by Professor Dowden's comment, " that this was Shakespere's play is 
very unlikely " (Sh. Primer, 1877, p. 87). l But Mr. Hales (Academy, Nov. 
20, 1875), endorsed by Dr. Furnivall (Leopold Shakspere, Introd. p. xxxvi), 
asks that " considering the facts that the company employed by the Essexians 
was that to which Shakespere belonged, and that the play asked for answers 
in description to Shakespere's Richard 77, can we hesitate to believe that 
the play was indeed Shakespere's?" See later, pp. 100 101. L. T. S.] 

1 See also Clark and Wright's Richard 77, Clarendon Press Series, 
1869, p. v, "it is certain that this was not Shakespeare's play." 

* CHR. MIDDLETON, 1600. 

[The following uses of "famine, sword and fire," and "Soul-killing 
witches," should perhaps be quoted rather as illustrations than recollections 
of Shakspere's like words in the Prologue to Henry V, line 7, 1 and Comedy 
of Errors, I. ii. loo. 2 H. C. HART.] 


What time this land difquieted with broyles, 

Wearied with wars and fpent for want of reft, 

Sawe her adioyning neighbours free from th' fpoyles, 

Wherewith her felfe had difpofeft 

Of peace and plenty, which men moft defire, 

And in their fteeds brought famine, fword and fire. 


They charge her that (he did maintaine and feede, 
Soul-killing witches, and conuers'd with deuils, 
Had conference with fprits, who mould fucceede 
The King. 

The / Legend / Of Hvmphrey / Dvke of C70-/cester./ By 
Chr: Middleton.\ London / Printed by E. A. for 
Nicholas Ling, and are / to be solde at his shop at the 
west doore of/ S. Paules Church. i6oo./ 

1 and at his heels 

Leasht in like hounds, should famine, sword and fire 
Crouch for employment. [A.D. 1599.] 
* Soul-killing witches that deform the body. [? A.D. 1591.] 


" Malicious credulitie rather embraceth the partiall writings of 
indifcreet chroniclers, and witty Play-Makers, then his [Richard 
Ill's] lawes and actions, the moft innocent and impartiall 



Yet neither can his blood redeem him [Richard III] from 
injurious tongues, nor the reproch offered his body be thought 
cruell enough, but that we muft ftil make him more cruelly 
infamous in Pamphlets and Plays. 

Essay es of Certaine Paradoxes. 1617. Second edition. The Pray se 
of King Richard the Third. Sign. C 3 and D 3. \In the 
Bodleian.] Reprinted in a Collection of Scarce and Valuable 
Tracts, by Lord Somers, 2nd ed. 1810. Vol. 3,//. 321, 328. 

[Mr. Elliot Browne pointed out the first extract given above, in the 
Atliencetim, 13 Nov. 1875. The title of this second impression of Essayes 
of Cei'taine Paradoxes does not contain the addition "in prose and verse" 
said to belong to the edition of 1600. It is quite a different work from 
Cornwallis' Essayes, which passed through several editions. I have not 
been able to find a copy of the edition of 1600, but give the date on the 
authority of Leumdes* Bibliog. Manual, Bohn's edition, vol. iv. p. 2312. 
L. T. S.] 



Mr. Carlington : 

I am heere fo peftred with contne bufineffe that I fhall 
not bee able as yet to come to London : If I flay heere long in this 
fafhion, at my return I think you will find mee fo dull that I fliall 
bee taken for Juftice Silence or Juftice Shallow, wherefore I am 
to entreat you that you will take pittie of mee, and as occurrences 
(hall fearue, to fend mee fuch news from time to time as fhall 
happen, the knowledge of the which, thoutgh perhaps thee will 
not exempt mee from the opinion of a iuftice Shallow at London, 
yet I will aflure you, thee will make mee paffe for a very fufficient 
gentleman in Gloceftrfhire. If I doe not alwaies make you 
anfwere, I pray you doe not therefore defift from your charitable 
office, the place being fo fruitfull from whence you write, and 
heere fo barren, that it will make my head ake for invention, but 
if anything happen heere that may bee unknown unto you in thofe 
parts, you fhall not faile but to heare of it. I pray you direct 
your letters to thee three cups in breed-street, where I haven 
taken order for the fending of them down : And fo in the mean 
while I will ever remain 

your affured friend 

Charles Percy 
Dumbleton in Gloceftthire 
this 27 of December 

You need not to forbeare fending of news hither in refpect of 
their ftalenes, for I will afTure you, heere they will be very new. 

MS. Letter in Public Record Office, Domestic State Papers, 
Elizabeth, Vol. 275, No. 146, 

CHARLES PERCY, 1600? 87 

[The late Mr. Richard Simpson left an unprinted note on this letter which 
I here give as it stands : 

"As this letter was part of the papers seized upon the companions of 
Essex in his attempt upon London, the date of it may be any year before 

" Sir Charles Percy, 3rd son of Henry 2Oth Earl of Northumberland, 
married one of the family of Cocks, and through her was lord of Dumbleton 
in Gloucestershire, near Campden, and not far from Stratford- on- A von. 
He was with Essex in Ireland, and accompanied him in his fatal ride 
into the City in Feb. 1601. He was the man who bespoke the play of 
Richard II. at the Globe on Saturday, Feb. 7, 1601. He was evidently one 
of Shakespere's admirers, perhaps one of his friends. Through him the 
dramatist may have got some of the vivid stories about the Percies in I 
Henry IV. Possibly he may be ' chaffed ' in the passage where Falstaff 
asks what Master Dumbleton says to his satin, and is told that he wants 
better assurance than Bardolph." L. T. S.] 



For I muft tell you I never dealt so freelie with you, in anie j 
and, (as that excellent author, Sr. John Falftaff fayes,) what 
for your bufinefle, news, device, foolerie, and libertie, I never 
dealt better, fince I was a man. 

A Collection of Letters made by Sr. Tobie Matthews, Kt. 1660, 
/. loo. " One friend to another ; who showes much trouble for the 
miscarriage of a letter" 

Countess of Southampton to Earl of Southampton. 

Al the nues I can fend you that I thinke wil make you mery 
is that I reade in a letter from London that Sir John Falftaf is by 
his Mrs. Dame Pintpot made father of a godly milers thum, a 
boye thats all heade and veri litel body 5 but this is a fecrit. 

Postscript to a letter, without other date than " Charily %th July," 
printed in the Appendix to %rd Report of the Historical MSS. 
Commission, p. 148. 

[I put these two extracts together, as they both show the wide-spread 
popularity of Falstaff, even to the familiar personation of him : the late Mr. 
Simpson believed that they refer to Shakespere himself under the name of 
Falstaff {Academy, Feb. 6, 1875). The names and circumstances of many 
of the writers of the letters in Matthews' collection point to the approximate 
date of the first extract. L. T. S.] 

8 9 

*J. M., 16001612. 

who hath a lovinge wife & loves her not, 

he is no better then a witlefle fotte j 

Let fuch have wives to recompenfe their meritc, 

even Menelaus forked face inherite. 

Is love in wives good, not in hufbands too ? 

why doe men fweare they love then, when they wooe? 

it feemes 't is true that W. S. faid, 

when once he heard one courting of a Mayde, 

Beleve not thou Mens fayned flatteryes, 

Lovers will tell a bufhell-full of Lyes ! 

The News Metamorphosis, or A Feaste of Fancie, or 
Poeticall Legendes. Brit. Mtts. Add. MSS. 14,824, 
14,825. -$vols. 4fo. Vol. I. Pt. II. p. 96 (old No.}. 

[The first volume of this MS. bears the date 1600 on the title-page. The 
work, however, was added to, emended, and probably continued from time 
to time ; in the second volume (in which the above extract occurs) is a 
passage which puts the date of part of it at least as late as the end of 1612, 
the date of Prince Henry's death and Princess Elizabeth's marriage. 

" But H. vntymely in his prime of yeares 
must hence departe, & passe through funerall fyres 
iust at that tyme when gieatest ioye's intended 
at bright E's nuptials, wfth all mirth portended." (p. 215, old nos.) 

The author's name is quite conjectural ; he says (I. leaf 4, b) : 

" My name is Frenche, to tell you in a worde 

yet came not in wzth Conqueringe williams sworde." 
See further on this manuscript, Appendix C. L. T. S.] 
The W. S. above must stand for a name which gives two trochees (like 
William Shakespeare), and is, probably, identical with the W. S. in 
Willobie his Avisa, before, pp. 9 13. It is not wonderful that the concluding 
couplet is not found in Shakespeare's works, seeing that it is quoted as a 
conversational impromptu. [Polonius' advice to Ophelia contains an 
expansion of the idea found in them. See Hamlet, Act I, sc, iii. 11. 115 
120, 127. L. T. S.] 

9 o 


The chattering Pie, the Jay, and eke the Quaile, 
The Thruftle-Cock that was fo blacke of hewe. 

The Arbor of Amorous Devises, 1597, /. 4, col. 2. 

the gewtlemaws brains were much troubled, as you may fee by 
his perplexities j but with ftudying how to make one line levell 
with another, in more rime then perhaps fome will thinke 
reafon, with much adoe about nothing, hee hath made a piece of 
worke as little worth 

Melancholike Humours : 1600. To the Reader, p. 5. 

Matter Wyldgoofe, it is not your huftie tuftie can make mee 
afraid of your bigge lookes : for I faw the Play of Ancient 
Piftoll, where a Cracking Coward was well cudgeld for his 
knavery : your railing is fo neare the Rafcall, that I am almoft 
aihamed to beftow fo good a name as the Rogue on you. 

A Paste with a Packet of Mad Letters (Part 1. 1603). [No. 22, A 
"coy Dame's" answer to a "Letter of scorne"~\ p. u, coL 2. 

Grimello. Why fir, I fet no fprings for Woodcocks, and 
though I be no great wife man, yet I can doe fomething elfe, 
then fhooe the Goofe for my liuing : and therefore, I pray you 
neither feare your Purfe, nor play too much with my folly. 

GrimtttJs Fortttnes, 1604, p. 5, col. i. 

An vnlearned and vnworthily called a Lawyer, is the figure of 
a foot-poft, who carries letters but knowes not what is in them, 
only can read the fuperfcriptions to direct them to their right 
owners, * * But what a taking are poore clients in when this 

NICHOLAS BRETON, 1600 l6l6. 91 

too much trufted cunning companion, better redde in Pierce 
Plowman then in Ploydon and in the Play of Richard the Third 
then in the Pleas of Edward the Fourth j perfwades them all is 
fure when hee is fure of all ! 

The Good and the Badde, 1616, No. 19, An Vnworthy Lawyer. 

The Complete Works in Prose and Verse of Nicholas Breton. 

Rev. A. B. Grosarfs Chertsey Worthies' Library, 1876-1878. 

[In the third of the above extracts, Breton turns to good account the 
"swaggering rascal" of Second Part of Henry IV; in the fourth we have 
Polonius' contemptuous exclamation (Hamlet, Act I. Sc. iii. 1. 115) ; in the 
first a line of Bottom's song in the Midsummer Nights Dream, Act III. 
Sc. i. 1. 128. The others seem to name two of Shakespere's plays. The 
Rev. Dr. Grosart, who kindly points out these allusions, believes that 
Breton's works contain many words and phrases which bear the mark of 
Shakespere's influence. L. T. S.] 

LORD BACON, 1601. 

And further to prooue him [Sir Gilly Merrick] priuie to the 
plot, 1 it was giuen in Euidence, that fome few dayes before the 
Rebellion, with great heat and violence hee had difplaced 
certaine Gentlemen lodged in an houfe fall by EJJex houfe, and 
there planted diuers of my Lords followers and Complices, all 
fuch as went foorth with him in the Action of Rebellion. 

That the afternoone before the Rebellion, Merricke, with a 
great company of others, that afterwards were all in the Action, 
had procured to bee played before them, the Play of depofing 
King Richard the fecond. 

Neither was it cafuall, but a Play befpoken by Merrick. 

And not fo onely, but when it was told him by one of the 
Players, that the Play was olde, and they fhould haue lofle in 
playing it, becaufe few would come to it : there was fourty 
{hillings extraordinarie giuen to play it, and fo thereupon playd 
it was. 

So earned hee was to fatiffie his eyes with the fight of that 
Tragedie, which hee thought foone after his Lord iliould bring 
from the Stage to the State, but that GOD turned it vpon their 
own heads. 

A I Declaration / of the Practises 6 Treasons / attempted 
and commit ed by Robert late Earle of Essex. . . . / IT Im- 
printed at London by Robert / Barker^ Printer to the 
Queenes / most excellent Maiestie / Anno 1601. 

A valuable find. The above was disclosed at the trial of "Sir Christopher 
Blunt> Sir Charles Dauers, Sir lohn Danies, Sir Gillie Mericke & Henry 
Cuffe" in the Court of the Queen's Bench, March 5, 1600. M. 

Essex's plot, for which he was executed. 


* i6oi. BEN JONSON. 

MINO. Sir, your oathes cannot ferue you, you know I haue 
forborne you long. 

CRTS. I am confcious of it, fir. Nay, I befeech you, gentle- 
men, doe not exhale me thus ; 

Poetaster, / Or / His Arraignement./ A Comicall Satyre.f 
Acted, in the yeere 1601. By the then / Children of 
Queene Elizabeths / Chappel./ The Author B. I./ Mart. / 
Et mihi de nullo fania rubore placet.] London,/ Printed 
by William Stansby, / for Matthew Lownes. \ M.DC.XVI./ 
Act. III. Scene III. B. J.'s Workes, 1616, p. 301. 

On the word exhale, Gifford says "i.e. drag me out." This is the 
language of ancient Pistol, and corroborates the conjecture of Malone 
on the meaning of the expression in Henry V, act ii. sc. I. Jonson's 
Works, 2-col. ed. Cunningham, i. 228, note 2. 

Fist. O Braggard vile, and damned furious wight, 

The Graue doth gape, and doting death is neere, 
Therefore exhale. Henry V. II. i. 58. 

F. J. F. 



The many-headed multitude were drawne 
By Brutus fpeech, that Cafar was ambitious, 
When eloquent Mark Antonie had fhowne 
His vertues, who but Brutus then was vicious ? 
Mans memorie, with new, forgets the old, 
One tale is good, untill another s told. 

The Mirror of Martyrs, or The life and death of Sir 
lohn Oldcastle Knight, Lord Cobham, 1 60 1. Stanza 
4, sign. A 3, back. 

[In Plutarch? s Lives, on which Shakespere founded his Julius Ccesar, there 
is no speech by Brutus on Caesar's ambition ; and though in Appian's 
Chronicle of the Roman Wars (englished in 1578) speeches on the killing 
of Caesar are put into Antony's mouth 1 (see extracts in Transactions of the 
Neiu Shakspere Society, 1875-6, pp. 427 439), yet none fit the words above, 
which must allude to those in Shakespere's play. F. J. F.] 

1 [Anthony's oration in Appian's Chronicle was quoted at length by 
Charles Gildon in his Remarks on the Plays of Shakespere, appended to his 
edition of Shakespere's Works, 1714, vol. ix, p. 336. L. T. S.] 




fhadowing the truth of Loue,/ in the conftant Fate of the Phoenix/ 
and Turtle./ A Poeme enterlaced with much varietie and 
raritie ;/ nowfirft tranjlated out of the venerable Italian Torquato/ 
Caeliano, by ROBERT CHESTER./ With the true legend of 
famous King Arthur, the laft of the nine/ Worthies, being the 
firft EJfay of a new Brytijh Poet : collected/ out of diuerfe 
Authenticall Records./ To thefe are added fome new compactions, 
of feuerall moderne Writers/ whofe names are fulfcriled to their 
feuerall workes, vpon the/ Jirft fulie6l : vi%. the Phoenix a?id/ 
Turtle./ Mar: Mutare dominum non potejl liber ?iotus./ 
LONDON/ Imprinted for E. B./ i6oi./ 

HEREAFTER/ FOLLOW DIVERSE/ Poeticall Eflaies on the former 
Sub-/ie& ; viz : the Turtle and Phoenix./ Done ly the left and 
chief ejl of our/ moderne writers, with their names fub-/fcribed to 
their particular workes :/ neuer lefore extant./ And (now nrft) 
confecrated by them all generally,/ to the loue and merits of the 
true-noble Knight, / Sir lohn Salisburie./ Dignum laude virum 
Mufa vetat mori./ MDCI 

[The first of these is the entire title to Chester's poem of 1601, mentioning 
"some new compositions of seuerall moderne Writers " upon the first subject 
treated of by Chester. The next is the secondary title to those "new 
compositions" (at p. 165, so mis-paged for 169), a collection of short poems 
in which Shakespere's Pkcenix and Turtle and Threnos (lament over the 
dead) first appeared. The names or quasi-names subscribed to the poems 
are, Vatum chorus, Ignoto, William Shake-speare, John Marston, George 
Chapman, and Ben : Johnson. 

The unsold copies of Love's Martyr were issued in 1611, with a different 
principal-title, which omitted all mention of the supplementary poems. 
The book has lately been reprinted by Dr. Grosart from the late Rev. Thos. 
Corser's copy of the edition of 1601, for his fifty subscribers and for the 
New Sh. Society, 1878 ; with an Introduction arguing that the Phoenix was 
Queen Elizabeth, and the Turtle dove the Earl of Essex. This theory has 
been strongly protested against. L. T. S.] 


To the kind Reader. 

Of bloudy warres, nor of the facke of Troy, 
Of Pryams murdred fonnes, nor Didoes fall, 
Of Hellens rape, by Paris Troian boy, 
Of Ccesars victories, nor Pompeys thrall, 
Of Lucrece rape, being rauiiht by a King, 
Of none of thefe, of fweete Conceit I fing. 

R[obert] Ch[ester]. 

Loves Martyr : or, Rosalins Complaint, sign. A 4, bark. 
1 60 1. Reprinted by Rev. Dr. Grosart, 1878, and by 
the New Sh. Society, 1878-9. 

This is the first of the two stanzas by which Chester introduces his poem 
to the reader. (See I. C.'s lines, after, p. 125.) 

[We here find the author of Lucrece associated with Homer and Virgil, 
or more probably with those English writers who sang of all these classical 
subjects. (It is sufficient to recall Barbour's arid Lydgate's Poems on 
Troy ; Lydgate's Falls of Princes, followed by the popular collection of 
histories in verse in The Mirour for Magistrates, both of which went 
through several editions in the sixteenth century. The story of Pompey 
was also set forth by Thomas Kyd in his tragedy of Cornelia, 1594.) It is 
true that Chaucer and Lydgate in fragments of larger works both sang of 
Lucrece, as did Ovid ; but that Chester more probably referred to Shakespere 
seems shown, (i) By the fact that his was the only separate poem on the 
subject. (2) By the recent publication of the Rape of Lucrece (1594), 
which, following on the previous excellence of Venus and Adonis (1593), 
had at once made its mark. (3) Because Chester calls Shakespere one of 
" the best and chiefest of our moderne writers," evidently from these two 
poems as I think, for in those days " a mere playwright" was hardly con- 
sidered a true poet. (4) Because Chester was under an obligation to this 
chief poet, having obtained from him and adjoined to his LovJs Martyr a 
Phoenix and Turtle poem " never before printed" and probably written at 
Chester's entreaty. (5) By the reminiscences in Chester's otherwise poor 
poem of Shakespere's wordings, and especially of his rhythm. B. N. ] 

W. J., 1601. 

I dare here fpeake it, and my fpeach mayntayne, 
That Sir lohn Falftaffe was not any way 
More grofle in body, then you are in brayne. 
But whether fhould I (helpe me nowe, I pray) 
For your grofle brayne, you like I. Falftafte graut> 
Or for fmall wit, fuppofe you lohn of Gaunt ? 

The Whipping of the Satyre. 1601, sign. D 3. \2rno. 
Bridge-water House, and dynes 865 (Bodl. Libr.}.~\ 

Mr. J. P. Collier (New Particulars, &c., 1836, p. 68) remarks on this 
allusion, ' ' ' Small wit ' means here weak understanding^ which certainly is 
not a characteristic of Shakespeare's John of Gaunt." But W. J. does not 
make "small wit" a characteristic of John of Gaunt, any more than he 
makes "gross brain" a characteristic of Sir John Falstaffe. All he does 
is, with a humorous pun on gross, and with another on gaunt (i. e. John of 
Gaunt, John the thin), to suppose a fanciful proportion between the body and 
the mind. C. M. I. 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. 

JOHN MANNINGHAM, 2 Febr. and 13 March, 

At our feaft wee had a play called Twelve Night, or what 
you will, much like the co?medy of errors, or Menechmi in 
Plants, but moft like and neere to that in Italian called Inganni. 
A good practife in it to make the fteward beleeve his lady 
widdowe was in love with him, by counter fay ting a letter as from 
his lady, in generall termes, telling him what mee liked beft in 
him, and prefcribing his gefture in fmiling, his apparaile, &c., and 
then when he came to pra&ife making him beleeve they tooke 
him to be mad. 


Vpon a tyme when Burbidge played Rich. 3. there was a 
Citizen greue foe farr in liking wzth him, that before mee went 
from the play fhee appointed him to come that night unto hir 
by the name of Ri : the 3. Shakefpeare overhearing their 
conclunon went before, was intertained, and at his game ere 
Burbidge came. Then merTage being brought that Rich, the 3? 
was at the dore, Shakefpeare <:aufed returne to be made that 
William the Conquerour was before Rich, the 3. Shakefpeare's 
name William. (Mr. Curie ?) 

Diary of John, Manningham, of the Middle Temple, and of Brad- 
bourne, Kent, Barrister- at- Law, 1602-1603. Harl. MS. 5353, 
fos. 12 bk, 29 bk. Edited by John Bruce, for the Camden Society, 
1868, //. 1 8 and 39. 

[Rev. J. Hunter in his New Illustrations of Shakespeare, 1845, vol. i. pp. 
39 * 393> tells us that there were two Italian plays bearing the title 
GF Inganni (The Cheats), one by Nicholas Secchi, printed in 1562, the 
other by C. Gonzaga, 1592. A third, a comedy entitled GF Tngannati, 
1585, is the nearest of all to Shakespere's Twelfth Night. L. T. S.] 


As to the second extract, we will add to it one from John Earle's Micro- 
cosmographie ; or, a Peece of the ivorld discovered in Essays* and characters, 
1628, 22. A Player, (sign. E 4) : 

"The waiting women Spectators are over-eares in love with him, and 
Ladies send for him to act in their Chambers," 

only remarking that the difference of rank between ladies and citizen's 
wives was strongly marked in those days. 

The story is given on the authority of " Mr. Curie," i. e. the Mr. E. Curie 
whom Manningham so often cites. But the name has been tampered with 
in the MS. (fo. 29 b], to make it appear Toole (or Tooly, the actor). A 
dark line has been drawn over the top of the C, to suggest a T ; and similar 
touches are seen in the two succeeding letters. Accordingly Mr. J. P. 
Collier (History of Eng. Dramatic Poetry, I, 332) gives the name as Tooly. 
Mr. John Bruce, reading the name so touched up, gives it as Touse, a name 
which does occasionally occur in the Diary. He again mistakes the name 
on the next page. 

The same story, in a somewhat different shape, is quoted by Mr. Halliwell 
from the Saunders Manuscript. (Life of Shakespeare, 1848, p. 196-7, note.) 
C. M. I. 



That which pajfed from the Excellent Majeftie of Queen 
Elizabeth, in her Privie Chamber at Eajl Greenwich, 4 Augufti 
1 60 1, 43 Reg.fui, towards WILLIAM LAMBARDE. 

He prefented her Majeftie with his Pandefta of all her rolls, 
bimdells, membranes, and parcells that be repofed in her Majeftie's 
Tower at London $ whereof me had given to him the charge 2ist 
January laft part. 

* * * * 

She proceeded to further pages, and afked where (he found 
caufe of ftay * * he expounded thefe all according to their 
original diverfities * * fo her Majeftie fell upon the reign of 
King Richard II faying, " I am Richard II, know ye not that ? ' 

W. L. " Such a wicked imagination was determined and 
attempted by a moft unkind Gent, the mofl adorned creature 
that ever your Majeftie made." 

Her Majeftie. " He that will forget God, will alfo forget his 
benefactors ; this tragedy was played 4o tie times in open ftreets 
and houfes." 

Printed in John Nichols* Progresses and Processions of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1823, Vol. III. p. 552. 

[A copy of the document from which this is an extract was sent to Mr. 
Nichols "from the original, by Thomas Lambard, of Sevenoaks, Esq." 
After the burning of the Birmingham Shakespeare Library in Jan. 1879, 
another copy of the same, from a manuscript, was anonymously sent to the 
Library Committee from Rugeley ; there are probably therefore two MSS. 


of it in existence. William Lambard, a well-known antiquary and lawyer, 
at one time Keeper of the Records in the Tower, was a Kentish man, and 
died Aug. 19, 1601, a few days after his conversation with the Queen. 
His "Pandecta Rotulorum," probably the book presented to the Queen, 
was published in 1600. 

The extract is important in its bearing upon the story of the Essex 
rebellion, and the use made by the conspirators of the tragedy of 
Richard 1 7. See pp. 81, 82, 92. I am indebted to my friend Mr. Sam. 
Timmins of Birmingham for pointing it out. L. T. S.] 


Anonymous, 1601-2. 

Ingeniofo. What's thy judgment of * * William 

Judicio. Who loves Adonis love, or Lucre's rape, 
His fweeter verfe containes hart robbing life, 
Could but a graver fubje6t him content, 
Without loves foolilh lazy languiihment. 

Act I. sc. i. 

* * * * 

Kempe. Few of the univerfity pen plaies well, they fmell too 
much of that writer Ovid, and that writer Metamorphqfis, and 
talke too much of Projerpina & luppiter. Why heres our 
fellow Shakefpeare puts them all downe, I and Ben Jonfon too. 
O that Ben Jonfon is a peftilent fellow, he brought up Horace 
giving the Poets a pill, but our fellow Shakefpeare hath given 
him a purge that made him beray his credit : 

Burlage. Its a mrewd fellow indeed : I wonder thefe fchollers 
flay fo long, they appointed to be here prefewtly that we might 
try them : oh, here they come. 

* * * * 

Bur. I like your face, and the proportion of your body for 
Richard the 3. I pray, M. Phil, let me fee you act a little of it. 
Philomufus. " Now is the winter of our difcontent, 

Made glorious fummer by the fonne of Yorke." 

Act IV. sc. v. 

The Returne from Pernassus ; or the Scourge of Simony. 1606, sign. 

B 2, back; G 2, bk ; G 3, bk. [4/0.] 
(Reprinted in Mr. Arber's English Scholar's Library, 1879.) 

ANONYMOUS, T6oi-2. 103 

Judicio's censure on Shakespeare's Poems is reiterated by John Davies of 
Hereford : see after, p. 220 ; and justified by Peele, Machin, Heywood, 
and Freeman : see pp. 171, 177, 188, and 245. . 

If we except such anthologies as Allot's England's Pernassus, Bodenham's 
England? 's Helicon, and his Belvedere, all issued in 1600, we may venture on 
the assertion that these two lines from Richard III constitute the earliest 
acknowledged quotation from Shakespeare. 1 

The passage, "O that Ben Jonson is a pestilent fellow ; he brought up 
Horace, giving the poets a pill ; " alludes to Jonson' s Poetaster, Act V, sc. iii 
(1602). The subsequent remark, " but our fellow Shakespeare hath given 
him a purge, that made him beray his credit," is mysterious. Where did 
our bard put Jonson to his purgation ? Assuredly neither Stephano nor 
Malvolio could have been a caricature of Jonson, who was neither a sot nor 
a gull. [On the other hand Dr. Nicholson points out that Malvolio is 
gulled solely through his overweening vanity, the very characteristic of 
Jonson, and thinks that there is no character in Shakespere which, in various 
ways, so well stands for Jonson. L. T. S.] 

Two imprints of The Retnrne from Pesnassus were published in 1606. 
We have followed the text of the second : the first omits the word " lazy " 
in the sixth line. [Though the date of publication is 1606, it was probably 
written and acted at Christmas, or New Year, 1601-2. Mr. Arber has gone 
carefully into this point, and shows (in his reprint, 1879) that several con- 
temporary references point to this. In the scene of the examination on the 
almanac [sign. E, back] C and D are taken as the dominical letters ; now 
D and C are the letters for the year between 25 March, 1601, and 24 March, 
1602 ( 1 60 1 -2, old style). In other scenes (sign. F 3 and E 4, back) we 
have references to Ostend and to the Irish troubles ; the siege of Ostend by 
the Spaniards began 5 July, 1601 ; the English succours arrived there under 
General Vere, 23 July, 1601 ; General Vere departed on 7 March, 1602 (new 
style). (See A True Historic of the Memorable Siege of Ostend. Translated 
from the French by Ed. Grimeston. London, 1604. pp. 6, 7, 139.) The 
fighting in Ireland extended over several years, but the references to the 
queen scattered through the play fix it to a date before her death, which 
occurred in March, 1603. The date of this play is important, in its bearings 
upon the relations between Shakespere and Ben Jonson. See APPENDIX 
A, Mistaken Allusions, Jonson's Poetaster. L. T. S.] 

1 But parodies on well-known lines and unacknowledged quotations 
occur several times before this date, as in Greene, 1592 ; Meres, 1598 ; 
Marston, 1598; Nicholson, 1600. (See before, pp. 2, 49, 54, 74-.) 
L. T. S. 



True Chronicle Hi 

ftorie of the whole life and death 
of 'Thomas Lord Cromwell. 

As it hath beene fundrie times pub- 
likely Acted by the Right Hono- 
rable the Lord Chamberlaine 
his Seruants. 

Written by W. S. 

Imprinted at London for William lones, and are 

to be folde at his houle neere Holbourne coii- 
clui6t, at the figne of the Gunne, 


[Thomas Lord Cromwell was entered in the Stationers* Registers on 
August n, 1602 : 

"William Cotton Entred for his Copie vnder thandes of master lackson 
and master waterson warden A booke called the lyfe and Deathe of the 
Lord Cromwell, as yt was lately Acted by the Lord Chamberleyn his 
servantes vjd." 

Q2 appeared in 1613 when " W. S." again appeared on the title-page, 
by which initials the public were, doubtless, intended to understand 
"William Shakspere." (See Tucker Brooke's Shakespeare Apocrypha* 
1908, pp. xvi, xxviii.) The play was printed in the third Folio, 1664. 



All the men. Faire Caeleftine ! 
Ladies. The Bride ! 

Ter. She that was faire, 

Whom I cal'd faire and Caeleftine. 

Ornnes. Dead ! 

Sic qitia. Dead, fh's deathes Bride, he hath her maidenhead. 

Satiro-mastix. / Or / The vntrussing of the 

Poet. / As it hath bin presentfd publiquely, / by the Right 
Honorable, the Lord Cham-/berlaine his Seruants ; and 
priuately, by the / Children of Poules./ By Thomas 
Dekker ./.... London, / Printed for Edward White, 
and are to bee / solde at his shop, neere the little North 
doore of Paules / Church, at the signe of the Gun. i6o2./ 
sign. K. 3, back. 

(Sent to Dr. Ingleby from a later edition, by J. O. Hll.-P.) 
In this Play, and another of I6O2, 1 a 'somniferous potion ' is given to a 
woman who seemingly dies from its effects, and is buried, but i - evives again. 
Mr. Daniel hesitates with me to consider this as necessarily borrowd from 
Shakspere's Romeo and Juliet. Sh. didn't invent the incident ; and his con- 
temporaries may have taken it from the same source as he did. In the 
second play named below, the fool-husband thinks he has poizond his true 
wife with the potion. He at once marries the strumpet he is in love with. 
She turns-out a shrew and adulteress. And when he mourns for the loss 
of his first loving wife, she has revived, to release him from his suppozed 
second marriage. F. ]. F. 

1 A Pleasant conceited Comedie, Wherein is showed how a man may 
chuse a good Wife from a bad. As it hath been Sundry times Acted by 
the Earle of Worcesters Seruants. London. Printed for Matthew Lawe, 
and are to be solde at his shop in Paules Churchyard, neare vnto S. 
Augustines gate, at the signe of the Foxe. 1602. (By Joshua Cooke.) 



Ad Lectorem. 

Inftead of the Trumpets founding thrice, before the Play 
begin : it mall not be amiffe (for him that will read) rirft to 
beholde this mort Comedy of Errors, and where the greateft 
enter, to give them inftead of a hiffe, a gentle corre6tion. 

(Sign. A 4, back.} 

Horace. I have a let of letters readie ftarcht to my hands, which 
to any frem fuited gallant that but newlie enters his name into 
my rowle, I fend the next morning, ere his ten a clocke dreame 
has rize from him, * * * we muft have falfe fiers to amaze 
thefe fpangle babies, thefe true heires of Ma. Juftice Shallow. 

As'mius. I wod alwaies have thee fawce a foole thus. 

Satiro-Mastixy or the untrussing of the Humorous Poet. 1602, 
sign. E 3. [4/0.] 

[Decker places three things at the beginning of this play, a few Latin lines 
Ad Detractorem, an address " To the World," and a list of errata headed by 
the above witty lines Ad Lectorem. 

A slight allusion to Henry IV. (See before, p. 61, note. ) 
The Comedy of Errors (written ? 1589, Furnivall; or 1591, Dowden) was 
first published in the First Folio of 1623. L. T. S.] 



And[rugio]. Andrugio lives, and a faire caufe of arnies, 

Why that's an armie all invincible ! 

He who hath that, hath a battalion 

Royal, armour of proofe, huge troups of barbed fteeds, 

Maine fquares of pikes, millions of harguebufh. 

O, a faire caufe ilands firme, and will abide. 

Legions of Angels fight upon her fide. 

1602. JOHN MARSTON. Antonio and Mellida. Mars- 
ton's Works, 1856,1. 33. (Works, 1633, vol. i. sign. C 6, 

Seeing how often the author of What you will copied Shakspere, we can 
hardly be wrong in saying that the passage above is an expansion of Henry 
VI. 's 

" What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted? 
Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. " 

2 Hen. VI, III. ii. 233-4. 

The following are illustrations of Coriolanus's " beast with many heads " 
(IV. i. 1-2) in 1607 (?), and Brutus's 'tide in the affairs of men' (Jul. Ctzs. 
IV. iii. 218) : 

' I' faith, my lord, that beast with many heads, 
The staggering multitude recoiles apace, 
Though thorow great men's envy, most men's malice, 
Their much intemperate heat hath banisht you ; 
Yet now they find envie and mallice neere 
Produce fainte reformation.' 
1604. Marston. The Malcontent, III. iii. Works, 1856, ii. 248. 

' There is an hour in each man s life appointed 
To make his happiness, if then he seize it. ' 

Beaumont & Fletcher. The Ciistom of the Country- 

' There is a nick in Fortune's restless wheel 
For each man's good.' 

Chapman. Bits-sy (TAmbois. See I Notes 6 Queries, 
vol. i. p. 330. 



The following bits from Joshua Cooke, 1602, may serve as illustrations of 
the description of Pinch in The Comedy of Errors, V. i. 237-241, and Rosa- 
lind's account of a Lover with * hose ungartered . . bonnet unbanded, ' &c. 
in As you like it, III. iii. 377-8. Cooke's making his good wife take a sleep- 
ing potion, be buried, and then wake up when her strumpet-successor turn'd 
out ' a Bad Wife ' is a parallel rather than an imitation of Romeo andftiliet. 

" When didst thou see the starueling Schoole-maister ? That Rat, that 
shrimp, that spindleshanck, that Wren, that sheep-biter, that leane chitti- 
face, that famine, that leane Enuy, that all bones, that bare Anatomy, that 
lack a Lent, that ghost, that shadow, that Moone in the waine." 

A / Pleasant / conceited Comedie,"/ Wherein is shewed / 
how a man may chuse a good / Wife from a bad./ 
[Written By loshua Cooke in later MS.} As it hath bene 
sundry times acted by the Earle of j Worcesters Seruants.] 
London / Printed for MatKew La we, and are to be solde 
at his / shop in Panics Church-yard, neare vnto S. 
Au-/gustines gate, at the signe of the Foxe. / i6o2./ 
sign. E. back. 

B 3 back. 

I was once like thee, 

A sigher, melancholy, humorist, 

Grosser of armes, a goer without garters, 

A hatband-hater, and a busk-point wearer, 

One that did vse much bracelets made of haire, 

Rings on my fingers, Jewels in mine eares, 

And now and then a wenches Carkanet, 

That had two letters for her name in Pearle : 

Skarfes, garters, bands, wrought wastcoats, gold, stitcht caps, 

A thousand of those female fooleries. 

But when I lookt into the glasse of Reason, strait I beganne 

To loath that femall brauery, and henceforth 

Studie to cry peccaui to the world. 

F. J. F. 



Fontinelle. Lady, bid him whofe heart no forrow feels 
Tickle the ruflies with his wanton heels : 

I've too much lead at mine. 

(Act I. sc. i; sign. A 4, back.} 

Camilla. And when the lamb bleating doth bid good night 
Unto the doling day, then tears begin 
To keep quick time unto the owl, whofe voice 
Shrieks like the belman in the lover's ears. 

(Act II 7. sc. i; sign. E.) 
Blurt, Master Constable, or the Spaniard?* Night-walke, 1602. 

[Middleton's sorrowful Frenchman, bidden to dance, closely follows the 
expression in Romeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. iv, 

" Let wantons, light of heart 

Tickle the senseless rushes with their heels." 

The second extract might, as* Dyce says, recall the line in Macbeth, Act II, 

" It was the owl that shriek' d, the fatal belman 

Which gives the stern' st good night." 

But Macbeth was probably written later, in 1606. Another play by Decker 
and Middleton jointly, bears traces of Shakespere's influence. The Honest 
Whore, 1604, has a passionate passage which seems moulded on that speech 
of Constance in King John, Act III, sc. i, which begins, " A wicked day, 
and not a holyday." It runs : 

" Curst be that day for ever that robb'd her 

Of breath and me of bliss ! henceforth let it stand 

Within the wizard's book, the calendar, 

Mark'd with a marginal finger, to be chosen 

By thieves, by villains, and black murderers, 

As the best day for them to labour in. 

If henceforth this adulterous, bawdy world 

Be got with child with treason sacrilege, 

Atheism, rapes, treacherous friendship, perjury, 

Slander, the beggar's sin, lies, sin of fools, 

Or any other damn'd impieties, 

On Monday let 'em be delivered. " 

(Middleton's Works, ed Dyce, 1840, vol. Hi, p. 9.) 

Two or three other lines in the same play contain phrases made use of by 
Shakespere ; Reed believed that Shakespere imitated Middleton in Othello, 
Act III, sc. iii, 1. 341. See Dyce, vol. iii, p. 56, also pp. 79, 213. See 
also after, Appendix B, as to Middleton's Witch. L. T. S.] 


Whilft that my glory midfl the clouds was hid, 
Like to a Jewell in an ^Ethiop's eare. 

7'he Massacre of Money. 1602. Sign. B 2. 

[In his poem Acherley here borrowed an idea and a line from Romeo and 
Juliet ' 

" O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright ! 
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night 
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear." Act I. sc. v. 

L. T. S.J 


*LINGVA, 1602 1607 [?]. 

ACTVS .1. SCENA .2. 

MENDACIO, attired in a Taffatafute of a light colour changeable, 
like an ordinary page, Clones, Hamper. 


LING. Witnefle this lye, 1 Mendacious with me now, 
But firra out of iefting will they come ? 

MEND. Yes and it like your Ladyfhip prefently : 
Here may you haue me preft to flatter them. 

LING. He flatter no fuch proud Companions, 
'Twill doe no good, therefore I am determined 
To leaue fuch bafenefle. 

MEN. Then (hall I turne and bid them flay at home. 

LING. No, for their comming hither to this groue, 
Shall be a meanes to further my deuife, 
Therefore I pray thee Mendacio go prefently, 
Run you vile Ape. 

MEN. Whether? 

LING. What dooft thou Hand ? 

MEN. Till I know what to doe. 

LING. S'pretious 'tis true, 
So might thou finely ore-run thine errand. 
Haft to my cheft. 

MEN. I, I, [Ay, ay] 

LING. There (halt thou find, 
A gorgeous Robe, and golden Coronet, 
Conuey them hither nimbly, let none fee them. 

(Sig. B, and back. ) 

1 His previous speech. 

LINGVA, 1602 1607 [?]. 113 

ACT I. SCEN. 5. 

TACTVS, in a darke coloured Sattin mantle ouer a paire ofjilke 
Safes, a Garland of Bayes mixt with white and red Rofes, 
vpon a blacke Grogarum, a Faulchion, wrought Jleeues, 
Bujkins, 6c. 


MEN. Now chaft Diana grant my netts to hold. 
TACT. The blafting Child-hood of the cheerfull morne 
Is almoft growne a youf;h. and ouer-climbes 
Yonder gilt Eaflerne hills, 

(Sig. 2, back.) 

Lingvo, : / Or / The Combat of the / Tongue, / And the fate 
Senses / For Superiority. / A Pleasant Comcedie. / At 
London / Printed by G. Eld, for / Simon Water son. / 1607. 

We are indebted to Prof. Moore Smith for these references. The play 
is ascribed to A. Brewer in the British Museum Catalogue, but is now 
thought to be the work of Thomas Tomkis. The first of the above passages 
Prof. Moore Smith considers a doubtful allusion to Julius Cczsar, II, iv, I : 

Portia. I prithee boy run to the senate-house : 
Stay not to answer me but get thee gone : 
Why dost thou stay ? 

The passage is also reminiscent of Richard III, IV, iii : 

Rich. Catesby, come hither, post to Salisbury. 
When thou com'st thither : Dull unmindful villain, 
Why stay'st thou here, and go'st not to the duke ? 

Cat\esby\. First, mighty liege, tell me our highness' pleasure, 
What from your Grace I shall deliver to him. 

Rich. O true, good Catesby, bid him levy straight, etc. 

The second quotation from Lingua seems to refer to Hamlet, I, i, 167-8 : 

But look the morn in russet mantle clad 
Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastward hill. 

Both of these passages are dubious allusions, but the play contains other 
strange similarities to Shakspere. The eloquent Lingua pleading reminds 
us of Portia in the Merchant, but her language is greatly different : 

Ling. My Lord, though the Imbecillitas of my feeble sexe, might drawe 
SH. ALLN. BK. 1. I 

114 LINGVA, 1602 1607 [?]. 

mee backe, from this Tribunall, with the habenis to wit Timoris and the 
Catenis Pudoris, notwithstanding beeing so fairely led on with gratious 
eVte/fem of your iustissima 5i/cato<ruj/7js, etc. 

After which fustian she proceeds to Italian, more Latin and Greek, and 
French. Comnmnis Sensus then demands: " Whats this? here's a 
Gallemaufry of speech indeed." 

MEM[ORIA]. I remember about the yeare 1602. many vsed this skew 
kind of language, etc. 

The humors of Auditus in Act 3. Seen, vltima., and his words on music 
remind one of the Duke in Twelfth Night and Jacques in As You Like It. 
All these, however, are very dubious in their connexion with Shakspere. 

The author oX. Lingua described the actor's apparel, etc., at the beginning 
of each scene, and the play is valuable as showing the properties used on 
the Elizabethan stage. The play is reprinted in Dodsley's Old English 
Plays. M. 

JOHN WEBSTER, 1602-7, 1612, 1616, 1623. 

Guildford. Peace rest his soul ! 
His sins be buried in his grave, 
And not remember'd in his epitaph. 

The Famous History of Sir Thomas Wyatt. Works, ed. 
Dyce, 1871, p. 195, col. 2. 

From Shakespeare, says Dyce, 

" Thy ignomy sleep with thee in the grave, 
But not remember'd in thy epitaph. 

First Part of Henry IV, act V. sc. iv." 

This play was first printed, as " Written by Thomas Dickers and John 
Webster," in 1607, but, says Dyce, Webster's Works, 1871, p. 182, " There 
can be no doubt that The Famous History of Sir Thomas Wyatt consists 
merely of fragments of two plays, or rather, a play in Two Parts, called 
Lady Jane, concerning which we find the following entries l in The Diary 
of Henslowe ... Pp. 242-3, ed. Shakespeare Soc. (old) : 

" Whether the present abridgment of Lady Jane was made by Dekker 
and Webster (see its title page [Written by D. and W.]), or by some other 
playwright, cannot be determined ; that it has suffered cruelly from the 
hands of the transcriber or printer, is certain." 

1 "Lent unto John Thare, the 15 of October 1602, to geve unto harey 
chettell, Thomas Deckers, Thomas Hewode, and M r Smyth, 
and M r Webster, in earneste of a playe called Ladey Jane, the 
some of .......... 1 s 

"Lent unto Thomas Hewode, the 21 of octobr 1602, to paye unto 
M r . Dickers, chettell, Smythe, Webester, and Hewode, in fulle 
payment of ther playe of ladye Jane, the some of . v 1 ' x s 

" Lent unto John Ducke, the 27 of octobr 1602, to geve unto Thomas 

Deckers, in earneste of the 2 part of Ladye Jane, the some of . v s 

tt6 JOHN WEBSTER, l6o2-J, l6l2, l6l6, 1623. 

(i) Pit. Cor. . . . You did name your duchess. 
Brack. Whose death God pardon ! 
Vit. Cor. Whose death God revenge ! 

The White Devil; or, Vittoria Corombona, p. 31, col. 
ed. Dyce, 1857. 

" A recollection of Shakespeare ; 
' Glo. Poor Clarence did forsake his father, Warwick ; 
Ay, and forswore himself, which Jesu pardon ! 

Q. Mar. Which God revenge ! 'RICHARD III., act i. sc. 3 " [1. I35-7]. 1 

A. Dyce. 

tn this Vittoria Corombona, p. 45, ed. Dyce, the madness of Cornelia, her 
singing with prose remarks intersperst and her flowers, seem suggested 
by Ophelia's according to Steevens's reference to Hamlet, IV. v, in Dyce 

" Cor. O reach mee the flowers. 

Moo. Her Ladiships foolish. Worn. Alas ! her griet 
Hath turn'd her child againe. . Cor. You're very wellcome. 
There's rosemarie for you and rue for you, 
Hearts-ease for you. (Quarto, sign. L.) " ' z 

Dyce also says that Reed calls Cornelia's 

"here's a white hand : 
Can blood so soon be wash'd out ?" p. 45, col. 2, 

1 Reed, as cited by Dyce, compares the following lines in The White 
Devil, p. 39, col. i 

Cor. Fetch a looking-glass ; see if his breath will not stain it : or pull 
some feathers from my pillow, and lay them to his lips. Will you lose 
him for a little pains-taking ? 

with "Shakespeare in King Lear, A. 5. sc. 3 
* Lend me a looking-glass , 
If that her breath will mist or stain the stone, 

Why, then she lives 

This feather stirs ; she lives ! ' . . " 

2 " He [a Gardener] cannot endure a great frost, for that kils his Rose- 
mary, and makes him rue for it the chiefe flower in his Garden is 

heartease, because tis very scarce in the world. ' 1635. Wye Sal'onstall. 
Pictitrcc Loquentes (2nd ed.), sigr. F II, back. 

JOHN WEBSTER, 1 602-7, l6l2, l6l6, 1623. n'; 

"an imitation of Lady Macbeth's sleeping soliloquy;" and that Reed 
charges Webster with imitating part of the following dirge from the well- 
known passage in Shakspere's Cymbeline, IV. ii. 224, "The ruddock would 
With charitable bill," &c. : 

" Call for the robin red-breast and the wren, 
Since o'er shady groves they hover, 
And with leaves and flowers do cover 
The friendless bodies of unburied men," &c. 

The Duchess of Malfi, ab. 1616. 

The Duchess of Malfi, " first produced about l6i6,"and printed 1623, 
has many echoes of Shakspere. Dyce compares Puck's "I'll put a girdle 
round about the earth," M. N. Dr., II. ii, with Webster's 
" He that can compass me, and know my drifts, 
May say he hath put a girdle 'bout the world, 

And sounded all her quick-sands." (III. i.) Works, p. 75, col. I. 
Webster's "He could not abide to see a pig's head gaping" (III. ii. p. 
78, col. 2) with Shylock's " Why he cannot abide a gaping pig " (Merchant, 
IV. i.); Webster's 

*' O, the secret of my prince, 
Which I will wear on the inside of my heart " (IV. ii. p. 80, col. i), 

with Hamlet's "I will wear him In my heart's core," III. ii. On the 
following lines, IV. ii. p. 89, col. 2 

" Yet stay ; heaven-gates are not so highly arch'd 
As princes' palaces ; they that enter there 
Must go upon their knees " 

Dyce remarks, " When Webster wrote this passage, the following charming 
lines of Shakespeare were in his mind : 

' Stoop, boys : this gate 

Instructs you how to adore the heavens, and bows you 
To a morning's holy office : the gates of monarchs 
Are arch'd so high, that giants may jet through 
And keep their impious turbans on, without 
Good morrow to the sun.' Cymbeline, Act III. sc. 3." 

On the end of Act IV. sc. ii., when Bosola has, at her brother Ferdi- 
nand's bidding, had the Duchess and her children strangled, and Ferdinand 
has refused his reward and bidden him 

) l8 JOHN WEBSTER, l6o2-J, l6l2, l6l6, 1623. 

" Get thee into some unknown part o' the world, 
That I may never see," p. 91, col. I, 

like King John to Hubert, after Arthur's supposed murder, "Out of my 
sight, and never see me more," IV. ii. 242, Dyce says : " In composing this 
scene, Webster seems to have had an eye to that between King John and 
Hubert in Shakespeare's King John, Act IV. sc. 2." And just after, when 
the strangled Duchess revives, to utter "Antonio" and "Mercy!" (p. 91, 
col. 2), Dyce remarks, "The idea of making the Duchess speak after she 
had been strangled, was doubtless taken from the death of Desdemona in 
Shakespeare's Othello, Act V. last scene." The latter is due to Desdemona's 
having been beaten nearly to death with a stocking full of sand, in the 
foundation story of the play, and not smotherd (once and for all, as it ought 
to be,) as Shakspere makes her. 

In Act V. sc. ii. of the Duchess of Malfi, p. 93, col. 2, Ferdinand says, 
" What I have done, I have done : I'll confess nothing" ; and Dyce notes 

' Demand me nothing : what you know, you know ; 
From this time forth I never will speak word.' 

Othello, Act V. last scene." ] 

Again, on the Cardinal's speech to Julia, in the Duchess, V. ii. p. 96, 

col. I 

" Satisfy thy longing, 

The only way to make thee keep my counsel 
Is, not to tell thee." 

Dyce comments : "So Shakespeare, whom our author so frequently imi- 
tates : 

' and for secrecy, 

No lady closer ; for I well believe 
Thou wilt not utter what thou dost not know.' 

First Part of Henry IV., Act II. sc. 3." 

Lastly, Malatesti's " Thou wretched thing of blood," V. v. p. 101, col. I, 
is compard by Dyce with Shakspere's " from face to face He was a thing of 
blood." Coriolanus, Act II. sc. 2. 

1 On the Cardinal's speech to the Doctor, a little lower down, " How 
now ! put off your gown !" Dyce remarks, "A piece of buffoonery simi- 
lar to that with which the Grave-digger in Hamlet still amuses the galleries, 
used to be practised here ; for in the 4to. of 1708, the Doctor, according to 
the stage -direction, * puts off his four cloaks, one after another' What 
precedes was written in 1830 : since that time, the managers have properly 
restricted the Grave-digger to a single waistcoat." A later note of this kind 
is in Mr. Hall.-Phillipps's Mem. on Hamlet, p. 68-9, 

JOHN WEBSTER, 1602-7, 1612, 1616, 1623. ng 

In the Devil's Law-Case, 1623, Dyce says, on Webster's " O young quat," 

II. i, p. 115, col. 2, "Quat means originally a pimple. Compare Shake- 
speare, ' I have rubb'd this young quat almost to the sense,' Othello, Act 
V. sc. i." 

In Webster's Appius and Virginia, date unknown, but printed in 1654, 
occurs the passage, 

" The apparel and the jewels that she were, 
More worth than all her tribe," IV. i. ; Works, p. 171, col. 2; 

and Dyce notes that this "Reads like a recollection of Shakespeare ; 

' Whose hand, 

Like the base Indian, threw a pearl away, 
Richer than all his tribe.' Othello, Act V. sc. ii." 

Again, in Ap. and Vir., V. iii. p. 179, col. i, Virginius's line "This 
sight hath stiffen' d all my operant powers" is compard by Dyce with 
Hamlet's father's " My operant powers their functions leave to do," Hamlet, 

III. ii. In Westivard Ho, V. iv., Tenterhook's "Let these husbands play 
mad Hamlet, and cry Revenge," p. 241, col. 2, has been separately noted, 
p. 182. Several other uses in common of phrases by Webster and 
Shakspere occur. 

In Northward Ho, 1607, IV. i. p. 268, col. i by Dekker and Webster 
Dyce compares the Servingman's " Here's a swaggering fellow, sir, that 
speaks not like a man of God's making," with the Princess's " He speaks 
not like a man of God's making " in Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. sc. ii. ; 
and Bellamont's words to Doll (p. 269, col. 2), " Would I were a young 
man for thy sake," with Shallow's " Would I were young for your sake, 
Mistress Anne ! " Merry Wives, I. i. 

Mr. Hall.-Phillipps (Mem. on Hamlet, p. 62-3) thinks that " there is 
another allusion to Shakespeare's tragedy [of Hamlet} in the following lines 
in Fletcher's Scornful Ladie,^ 1616," 

" Safyill, the Steivard}. Now must I hang my selfe, my friends will looke 

for 't. 

Eating and sleeping, I doe despise you both now : 
I will runne mad first, and if that get not pitty, 
lie drowne my selfe to a most dismall ditty " (Finis Actus tertij. sign. G). 

But, tho' he quotes from Qi the Stage-direction ' Enter Ofelia playing on 
a lute, and her haire downe singing,' ed. 1603, I doubt the allusion to her. 
-F. J. F. ^^^ 

1 A Comedie./ As it was Acted / with great applause / by / the Children 
of Her Maiesties / Reuals in the Blacke / Fryers./ 

[From The Academy, Aug. 23, 1879, p. 142.] 


Ilkley: Aug. 18, 1879. 

Since my letter upon this subject (ACADEMY, March 8, 1879), I have 
ascertained that some copies of the third volume of Parsons' Three Conver- 
sions have a division headed " Of th' Examen of the First Six Monthes," 
in which occurs the following passage : 

" The fecond moneth of February is more fertile of rubricate 
Martyrs, then January, for that yt hath eight in number, two 
Wickliffians, Syr John Oldcastle, a Ruffian-Knight as all England 
knoweth, and commonly brought in by comediants on their 
ftages : he was put to death for robberyes and rebellion under 
the forefaid K. Henry the Fifth, and Sir Roger Onely, Prieft- 
martyr," &rc. 

The dedication of the third volume is dated 1603. I doubt whether this 
is the passage to which allusion is made by Speed in his History of Great 
Britaine. Except in the number of the page it does not correspond with 
his reference, and the language appears too indefinite to account for Speed's 
scornful invective against "his [Parsons'] poet." 

It is suggestive to note the gradual development of Oldcastle's turpitude 
in Parsons' book. He is introduced in the first volume as a sectary who 
made his peace with the Church by recanting his errors. In the second 
volume he is a traitor, and his life is " dissolute; " while in the third he has 
blossomed into the notoriety whom "all England knoweth." 

We can readily understand the indignation of Speed and the Puritans 
at this quoting of the authority of "comediants," and their desire to pay 
him back in his own coin. It was a favourite contention of Parsons (as in 
the Warn- Word to Sir F. Hastings] that among the Protestants all sorts of 
books were allowed to be "read promiscuously of all men and women, even 
the Turks' Alcaron itself, Machemle and Boden tending to atheisme, and 
bawdy JBoccace, with the most pestilent English Pallace of Pleasure * (all for- 
bidden among us Catholyks)." 

Another point about Oldcastle wants clearing up. What were his personal 
relations to Henry V. ? Speed says of him that "he was a man strong and 
valorous, and in especiall favour with his Prince" (History of Great Britaine, 
1627, p. 637), and again calls him par excellence " his [the King's] knight." 


1 Is there any evidence that Painter's Palace of Pleasure was officially for- 
bidden to English Catholics ? It was of course mainly a compilation from 
authors who were upon the Index. 



Such one he was,, of him we boldly fay, 

In whole rich foule all foveraigne powers did fute, 

In whom in peace th' elements all lay 

So mix'd as none could foveraignty impute, 

As all did governe, yet all did obey, 

His lively temper was fo abfolute, 

That t' feemd when heaven his modell firft began, 

In him it ihowd perfection in a man. 

The Barrons Wars in the raigne of Edward the 
second, 1603. Stanza 40, /. 61. 

[The Barons Wars was an enlargement of Mortimeriados, an historical 
poem published by Dray ton in 1596, and the above passage is one among 
the fresh additions. In four following editions the stanza remained 
unchanged, but in that of 1619, canto 3, stanza 40, he altered it thus : 

" He was a Man (then boldly dare to say) 

In whose rich Soule the Vertues well did sute, 
In whom, so mix'd, the Elements all lay, 

That none to one could Sou'raigntie impute, 
As all did gouerne, yet did all obay ; 

He of a temper was so absolute, 
As that it seem'd, when Nature him began, 

She meant to shew all, that might be in Man." 

(I am unable to see a copy of the edition of 1619, but give this on the 
Authority of Mr. Aldis Wright.) 

Julius Caesar was produced by 1601 (as fixed by Weever's Mirror of 
Martyrs, before, p. 94), and these lines nearly resemble the description of 

" His life was gentle, and the elements 
So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world ' This was a man.' " Act V. sc. v. 


But though some have supposed that Drayton here borrowed from Shake- 
spere, Mr. Aldis Wright, supported by Mr. Grant White, has pointed out 
that "the old physiological notion of the four humours which entered into 
the composition of man, their correspondence to the four elements, and the 
necessity of an equable mixture of them to produce a properly-balanced 
temperament, was so familiar to writers of Shakespeare's day that in giving 
expression to it they could hardly avoid using similar if not identical lan- 
guage." (Clarendon Press edition of Julius Casar, 1878, pp. vii, 203.) 
This is well illustrated by Mercury's description of Crites in a play of Ben 
Jonson's, acted in 1600" A creature of a most perfect and divine temper. 
One, in whom the humours and elements are peaceably met, without emula- 
tion of precedencie : * * in all, so compos'd and order'd, as it is cleare, 
Nature went about some full work, she did more than make a man, when 
she made him." (Cynthia's Revells, Act II, sc. iii.) Many examples con- 
firming the same thing are given in Skeat's Notes to Piers Plowman, Part 
IV, pp. 216, 217, Early English Text Society, 1877 ; and in the Note to 
Tale XXXV. (Add. MS. 9066) of Gesta Romanorum, ed. Herrtage, E. E. 
T. S., 1879. 

See other instances of similar concurrence of Shakesperian phraseology, 
after, I. M., 1623, note. L. T. S.] 

I2 3 


Nor doth the filver tonged Melicert, 
Drop from his honied mufe one fable teare 
To mourne her death that graced his defert } 
And to his Jaies opend her Royall eare. 
Shepheard, remember our Elizabeth, 
And fing her Rape, done by that Tarquin, Death. 

Englandes Mourning Garment. [Anon. n.d. (1603.) 

4/0.] sign. D 3. 

Reprinted in Allusion- Books, /, New Sh. Soc., 1874, 
pp. xm, 98. 

Strictly speaking, Englandes Mourning Garment is undated and anonymous. 
But The order and proceeding at the Funerall, &>c. (which follows the main 
work), has the date of Queen Elizabeth's burial, "28 of April, 1603;" 
and the postscript thereto, " To the Reader," is signed " Hen : Chetle." 

It is probable that Chettle had more rhyme than reason in calling 
Shakespeare Melicert. No allusion could have been intended to the story 
of Palsemon. C. M. I. 


Anonymous, 1603. 

You Poets all brave Shakfpeare, Johnfon, Greene, 
Beftow your time to write for Englands Queene. 
Lament, lament, lament you Englifh Peeres, 
Lament your lofle poffeft fo many yeeres. 
Returne your fongs and Sonnets and your fayes : 
To fet foorth fweete Elizabeth\a\ s praife. 
Lament, lament, &c. 

A mourneful Dittie, entitttled Elizabeths losse, together ivith .? 
welcome for King James. [Anon. n.d. Heber Collection oj 
Ballads and Broadsides in possession of S. Christie Miller : see 
Shakespere Allusion- Books, p. 117 (JVew Shakspere Society, 1876).] 

The Green mentioned here is Thomas Green, not the more famous 
Robert. The author of this ballad is unknown. It was first noticed by 
Mr. J. P. Collier in his Edition of Shakespeare, 1844, vol. i, p. cxciv, note. 
C. M. I. 

*1. C, 1603. 

Of Helens rape and Troyes befeiged Towne, 

Of Troylus faith, and Creffids falfitie, 

Of Rychards ftratagems for the englifh crownc, 

Of Tarqmns luft, and lucrece chaftitie, 

Of thefe, of none of thefe my mule nowe treates, 

Of greater conquefls, warres, and loves (he fpeakes. 

Saint Marie Magdalens Conversion. 1603, sign. A 3. [4/0* ] 

[These lines, cast in the same mould as Chester's, hefore, p. 123, contain 
a more certain allusion to Shakspere than these, inasmuch as they may refer 
to three of his works. Troilus and Cressida is believed to have been out 
in 1603, though not printed till 1609 (Dowden's Sh. Primer, 127, 128). 
Richard 111 w& first printed in 1597, Lucrece in 1594. L. T. S.] 



Players, I love yee, and your Qua/itie, 
As ye are Men, that pafs time not abufd: 

And Tome I love for d painting, poejie, 

d Simonides 

And % fel1 Fortune cannot be excuf d, 
sya es speakg e ~ That hath for better ufes you refuf d : 


Wit, Courage, goodJJiape, good par tes, and all good, 
As long as al thefe goods are no worfe uf 'd, 
ceTie f c r in s his " And tnou gh the^age doth ftaine pure gentle lloud, 
Yet ' generous yee are in minde and moode. 

to come on 
the stage, and 

Sy to s b h emo"r e Microcosmos. The Discovery of the Little World, 

W com h e y theron to with the Government thereof . 1603, /. 215. [4/0.] 

Reprinted by Rev. A. B. Grosart, in the Chertsey 
Worthies Library, 1878. 

Just as Drusus and Roscio are associated by Marston (see before, p. 52), 
so here we find W. S. and R. B. [Shakespere and Richard Burbage] in 
company; and the text of both passages is sufficiently explicit to show 
whom Davies had in mind. Possibly, too, in the former he had been 
thinking of Hamlet's description of the player's vocation. C. M. I. 



Thefe may fuffice for fome Poeticall defcriptions of our ancient 
Poets j if I would come to our time, what a world could I 
prefent to you out of Sir Philipp Sidney, Ed. Spencer, Samuel 
Daniel, Hugh Holland, Ben. Johnfon, Th. Campion, Mich. 
Drayton, George Chapman, lohn Marfton, William Shakefpeare, 
and other moft pregnant witts of thefe our times, whom fucceed' 
ing ages may jultly admire. 

Remaines concerning Britaine (ist edition). 1605. [4/0.] 
Poems, p. 8. 

[The Epistle Dedicatorie is dated "From my Lodging xii lunii, 1603. 
Your worships assured M. N." Though Camden did not publish his 
Remaines till 1605, he must have had it in manuscript before he could get 
his friend " M. N." in 1603 to write an Epistle dedicatory for it. L. T. S.] 



Oh lamentable ! neuer did the olde buikind tragedy beginne 
till now : for the wiues of thofe hulbands, with whom me had 
playd at faft and loole, came with nayles fharpened for the 
nonce, like cattes, and tongues forkedly cut like the flings of 
adders, firft to fcratch out falfe Creflidaes eyes, and then (which 
was worfe) to worry her to dath with fcolding. 

The I Wonderful year e I 1603. / -wherein is shewed the picture 
of London, ly-fing sicke of the Plagtte . . . [1604?] 
sig. E 4. 

"False Cressida" seems to be an allusion to Shakspere, whose Troilus 
was composed 1603-4. The pamphlet is very interesting. Here we read 
of a cobbler in his leathern apron, who stroked his beard like "some 
graue headborough," who lived "altogether amongest wicked scales," 
whose provident care always was "that euery man and woman should goe 
vpright," and who put his finger on his lip and cried paucos palabros, all 
of which reminds us of passages in Shakspere. Jeronimo is referred to, 
sig. E 4, and "stalking Tamberlaine," sig. D. The Wonderful Year is 
now acknowledged to be Dekker's from his claim in the Seven Deadly Sins 
(Grosart's edition, ii, 12). M. 



[Enter Mendoza] 
Celfo Hee's heere. 
Malevole Give place. 

lllo, ho, ho, ho ! arte there, old true peny ? [Exit Celfo. 
Where haft thou fpent thy felfe this morning ? I lee flattery in 
thine eyes,, and damnation i' thy foule. Ha ye huge Rascal ! 

The Malcontent, Act III. Sc. iii. 

Cf. Hamlet, I. v. 11. 118, 150. [This and similar quotations show the 
fame and reputation of Shakespere, being popularly known lines quoted 
or imitated for the purpose of causing a good-humoured laugh at their mis- 
appropriation. Malone (vol. ii. p. 356) long ago said that Marston has in 
many places imitated Shakespere, and that this is the case, any one, with a 
previous moderate knowledge of Shakespere, who reads his plays, will at 
once acknowledge. B. N.] (See note after, p. 176. See other extracts 
from Marston, pp. 32, 52, 108 : also Appendix B.) 

[Two editions of The Malcontent appeared in 1604, the second augmented 
by Marston, with an Induction by Webster. The above quotation is from 
the first edition. 

In Webster's Induction Sly begins a speech, much like Osric in Hamlet 
(Act V. sc. ii), with the phrase, " No, in good faith, for mine ease." 

Hamlet was entered on the Stationers' Register in July, 1602, but was 
not printed (quarto) till 1603. See, however, Gabriel Harvey's note, before, 
p. 56. L. T. S.] 


1 3 o 

JN. MARSTON, 1604. 

Men[doza (fpeaking of the Duchefs, and after much other praife, 
. . . in body how delicate, in foule how wittie, in dif- 
courfe how pregnant, in life how warie, in favours how iuditious, 
in day how foci able, and in night how ? O pleafure unutterable ! 

The I Malcontent./ Augmented by Marston.j With the 
Additions played by the Kings / Maiesties servants./ 
Written by Ihon Webster.] i6o4./ At London / Printed 
by V. S. for W T illiam Aspley, and / are to be sold 
at his shop in Paules / Church-yard./ Actus Primus. 
Scena Quinta. sign. C, back. (Act I. sc. i., end. Web- 
ster's Works, ed. Dyce, 1871, p. 333, col. 2.) 

Dyce notes, " The author had here an eye to the well-known passage ot 
Shakespeare ; ' What a piece of work is man ! How noble in reason, how 
infinite in faculties ! in form, and moving, how express and admirable ! in 
action, how like an angel ! in apprehension, how like a god ! the beauty of 
the world ! the paragon of animals ! ' Hamlet, Act II. sc. ii." 

And in an earlier part of this scene, p. 330, col. 2, Malevole uses the 
phrase "Pompey the Huge," which Dyce notes is Shakspere's in Love's 
Labour's Lost, Act V. sc. ii., 'Greater than Great, great, great, great 
Pompey 1 Pompey the Huge I ' In Act III. sc. ii. p. 345, on Malevole's 
" Entic'd by that great bawd, opportunity," Dyce quotes from Shakspere's 
Lucrece, as he does for Ford's like lines, p. 118, below, 

"O Opportunity, thy guilt is great ! 

Thou foul abettor ! thou notorious bawd I " 

Steevens's identification of Oseric's " No, in good faith, for mine ease," 
in Webster's (?) Induction to The Malcontent, and of Mendoza's " Illo, ho, 
ho ho ! art there old truepenny?" III. ii, p. 346, col. I, are given before, 
p. 129, and should have Steevens's name to them. Malone too had (I find, 
Variorum Shaksp., 1821, xvi. 412) spotted the Oldcastle allusion (see p. 136 
below) before I saw it in the Percy Soc. reprint and sent it to Dr. Ingleby. 

I think that we may likewise fairly see echoes of Shakspere in at least the 
following ' Damnation ' and ' traps to catch polecats ' bits from this Mal- 
content of Marston's: 

JN. MARSTON, 1604. 

Aur. . . . looke where the base wretch 

ib. Scena Sexta. sign. C. back. 
Men. God night : to-morrow morne. 

[Exit Mendozo. 

Mai. I, I wil come, friendly Damn- 
ation, 1 I will come. 

Actus Secundus, Scena Quinta. 

sign. D. 4 back. 

Maq. On his troth la beleeue him 
not . . . promise of matrimony by 
a .yong gallant, to bring a virgin 
Lady into a fooles paradise ... of 
his troth la, beleeue him not, traps to 
catch polecats. 

Actus Quintus, Scena Quarta. 
sign, H. 4 back. 

Quee. But looke where sadly the 
poore wretch comes reading. 
Hamlet, Q 2. II. ii. 168. 

Ju. Auncient damnation, 6 most 
wicked fiend. 

Rom. &Jul. III. v. 245. 

Pol. Doe you believe his tenders, 

as you call them ? . . . 103 

Marry I will teach you, thinke your 

selfe a babie 
That you have tane these tenders 

for true pay 

Which are not sterling . . . 107 
Doe not believe his vowes, for they 

are brokers 127 

I, spring[e]s to catch Wood- 

cockes 115 

Hamlet, I. iii. Quarto 2. 

1 "make her a great woman and then cast her off: tis as common, as 
naturall to a Courtier, as jelosie to a Citizen . . pride to a Tayler, or an 

empty handbasket to one of these sixpenny damnations." 

ib. sign. H 4 back. 

F. J. F. 


Fer[neze]. Your fmiles haue bin my heaue, your frowns my 


O pitty then ; Grace mould with beautie dwell. 
Maq[uereUe]. Reafonable perfe6t, bir-lady. 

The I Malcontent / By lohn Marston / 1604 / sig. C. 

From Midsummer Nighfs Dream, I. i, 207-8 : 

O, then, what graces in my love do dwell, 
That he hath turn'd a heaven into a hell ! 

Noted by Chas. A. Herpich in Notes and Queries, loth Series, I. p. 6. 
Maquerelle's "Reasonable perfect" may refer to the imitation of 
Shakspere. M.] 



It 1 fhould be like the Never-too-well read Arcadia, where the 
Profe and Ferce (Matter and Words) are like his MiftreJJes eyes, 
one ftill excelling another and without Corivall : or to come 
home to the vulgars Element, like Friendly Shakefpeare's Trage- 
dies, where the Commedian rides, when the Tragedian Hands on 
Tip-toe : Faith it fhould pleafe all, like Prince Hamlet. But in 
fadneffe, then it were to be feared he would runne mad : Infooth 
I will not be moone-ficke, to pleafe : nor out of my wits though 
I difpleafed all. 

(Epistle to the Reader. 

* * * * 
[Daiphantus in love] To quench his third : 

Runs to his Inke-pot, drinkes, then flops the hole, 

And thus growes madder, then he was at firft. 
Tajfo, he finds, by that of Hamlet, thinkes 
Tearmes him a mad-man than of his Inkhorne drinks. 

Calls Players fooles, the foole he judgeth wifeft, 

* * * * 
Puts off his cloathes -, his fhirt he onely weares, 

Much like mad- Hamlet ; thus as Paffion teares. 

(sign. E 4, lack) 

Daiphantus, or the Passions of Love. 1604. [4/0. ] Reprinted for 
the Roxburghe Club in 1818. 

1 "It," that is, an "Epistle to the Reader," should be like, &c. 

[The last two lines give a curious glimpse of how Hamlet appeared on the 
stage in Shakespere's day ; the writer probably means that he wore nothing 
over his shirt, or, as we should say, appeared "in his shirt-sleeves, ' 
t. T. S/j 



(1) Fortune, Oh be fo good to let me finde 
A Ladie liuing, of this conftant minde. 

Oh, I would weare her in my hearts heart-gore, 

And place her on the continent of ftarres : 

Sig. E, st. 3, 4. 

(2) As a black vaile vpon the wings of morne, 
Brings forth a day as cleere as Venus face, 
Or, a faire lewell by an Ethiope worne, 
Inricheth much the eye, which it doth grace, 

Such is her beautie, if it well be told, 

Plac'ft in a lettie Chariot fet with gold. 

Sig. 64, st. 4. 

Daiphantus> or The Passions of Loue, by An\thony\ Sc[o- 
loker] Gentleman. 1604. 4to. Sigs. E and B 4. 

1. F 'or gore read of course core. Mr. Hl.-Phillipps in his Memoranda on 
Hamlet, p. 54, 1 says" the corresponding passage in Shakespeare [III. ii. 79 
9] being found in the edition of 1604, not in that of 1603." The charac- 
ter of the lady he desires, should be, it may be remarked, as constant in love 
as Hamlet says that Horatio is in his whole character. 

2. As also line 3 resembles that in Rom. and Jul. (I. 5), so also the gene- 
ral thought and wording are similar, and Scoloker in his Dedication says 
" Also if he [Scoloker] haue caught vphalf a Line of any others, It was out 
of his Memorie, not of any ignorance. " 

1 He (Mem. on Hamlet, p. 54) quotes both stanzas in full, and prints 
Will learne them action, in italics. P. A. LYONS. 


I am inclined also to increase the quotation, No. 2 on p. 133, above, 
by one line 

" Calls Players fooles, the foole he iudgeth wisest, 
Will learne them Action out of Chaucer's Pander. " 

I would do this because there appears to me to be here a remembrance of 
Hamlet's speech to the players. I the more think so, because there are 
other bits, besides the run of tlie story, which show remembrances of the 
play of Hamlet. See, for instance, st. 4, 11. I 4, Sig. F ; and st. 4, Sig. 
E 4, back. 

Dr. A. B. Grosart would print a much longer extract from Daiphantus 
than that already given (above, p. 133), but though interesting to the Shak- 
spere student in other ways as is indeed the piece generally the two stanzas 
and these two bits give all that the object of these volumes requires. 

When also Dr. Grosart quotes the " in his shirt " as proof determinative 
that Hamlet was then considered mad, I would note that it does not do so ; 
for whether Hamlet's madness were real or assumed, he would dress in 
character, indeed the more so if the madness were assumed. B. N. 

[There are two Revenge passages in Scoloker's book, but they can hardly 
allude to Hamlet: 

" Then like a spirit of pure Innocence, 
He be all white and yet behold He cry 
Reuenge, Oh Louers this my sufferance, 
Or else for Loue, for Loue, a soule must die." 

Sig. F, st. 4, 11. i -4. 

" Who calls me forth from my distracted thought ? 
Oh Serberus, If thou* I prethy speke ? 
Reuenge if thou ? I was thy Riuall ought, 
In purple gores He make the ghosts to reake : 
Vitullia, oh Vitullia, be thou still, 
He haue reuenge, or harrow vp my will.' 

Sig. 4, back, st. 4. P. A. L.] 

Anonymous, 1604. 

Sig. Shuttlecock. 

Now Signiors how like you mine Hoft? did I not tell you he 
was a madde round knave, and a merrie one too : and if you 
chaunce to talke of fatte Sir John Old-cqflle, he wil tell you, he 
was his great Grandfather, and not much unlike him in Paunch 
if you marke him well by all descriptions. 

The Meeting of Gallants at an Ordinarie : or, The Walkes in 
P0wles. 1604, sign . B 4, back. [ Unique copy in Bodleian Library. 
Edited for the Percy Society by J. 0. Hattiwell, in Early English 
Poetry -, vol. v. 1841, p. 1 6.] 

See as to Oldcastle and Falstaff, note, p. 509. C. M. I. 


* T. M., 1604. 

Whereupon entered mafter Burfebell, the royal fcrivener, 
with deeds and writings hanged, drawn, and quartered for the 
purpofe * * * (p. 569.) Well, this ended, mafter Burfebell, 
the calves' -fkin fcrivenei, was royally handled, that is, he had a 
royal put in his hand by the merchant. And now I talk of 
calves' -fkin, 'tis great pity, lady Nightingale, that the {kins of 
harmlefs and innocent beafts fhould be as inftruments to work 
villany upon, entangling young novices and foolifh elder 
brothers, which are caught like woodcocks in the net of the 
law .... (p. 572.) 


I appeared to my captain and other commanders, kiffing my 
left hand, which then flood for both (like one a6tor that plays 
two parts) * * Neverthelefs, for all my lamentable aclion 
of one arm, like old Titus Andronicus, I could purchafe no more 
than one month's pay for a ten month's pain and peril (p. 590.) 

Father Hubburd"s Tales : or the Ant, and the Nightingale. 

1604. [Second edition, 4/0.] 
Reprinted among the Works of Thomas Middleton by Rev t 

A. Dyce, 1840, Vol. V, pp. 547 603, /m which these 

extracts are taken. 

[The second edition of this tract (copies of which are in Bridgewater 
House, and in Malone's collection in the Bodleian) was " Printed by T. C. 
for William Cotton, and are to be solde at his Shop neare adjoyning to Ludgate" 
" The first edition," says Mr. Dyce, "in which several verses and the whole 
of ' The Ants Tale when he was a scholar ' are omitted, made its appear- 
ance during the same year in 4to, entitled The Ant and the Nightingale : or 
Father Hubburds Tales. London Printed by T. C.for Bro : Eushell, and 
are to be solde by Jeffrey Chalton, at his Shop at the North doore of Paules. * * 

" Mr. J. P. Collier (Bridgewater House Catalogue, p. 199 [see2?#/. Cat. i, 
537]) mentions it as the second edition ; but a careful examination of both 
the impressions has convinced me that it is the first " (vol. v. p. 549) . 
Dyce assigns the tract to Thomas Middleton on account of " expressions 
which remind us strongly of his dramatic dialogue " (Preface, vol. i. p. xviii), 
as well as the signature T. M. Mr. W. C. Hazlitt thinks the author wa? 

138 T. M., 1604 

Thomas Moflfat. But if Mr. J. P. Collier is right in identifying T. Moffat oi 
the poem on Silkworms in 1599 with Dr. Mouffet, and this Dr. Mouffet is the 
man that wrote the ; Theater of Tracts in Topsell's Fourfooted Beasts and 
dedicated it to Q. Elizabeth (see Rowland's preface), then the style of these 
books shows he is not our T. M. 

The first passage, referring to a scene at the lawyer Prospero's, where a 
young man had signed away his estate, may perhaps be taken as a recollec- 
tion of Cade's speech in 2 Henry VI, Act IV, sc. ii. 

" Dick. The first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers. 

Cade. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a lamentable thing, that of the 
skin of an innocent lamb should be made parchment! that parchment, 
being scribbled o'er, should undo a man ? Some say the bee stings ; but 
I say 'tis the bee's wax, for I did but seal once to a thing, and I was never 
mine own man since." 

On the second passage, that on Titus Andronicus, Dyce says : "See the 
tragedy so called, which, though now printed among the works of Shake- 
speare, was assuredly written by some other dramatist probably, by Marlowe. 
In Act III, sc. i, Aaron cuts off the hand of Titus ; and in Act V, sc. ii, the 
latter says, 

" How can I grace my talk, 
Wanting a hand to give it action ? " 

The Tales have other passages which may possibly be echoes of Shak- 
spere, but most likely are not : the poet's "carnation silk riband " and the 
" remuneration " he did not get, p. 602, have these terms in common with 
Costard's "How much carnation ribbon may a man buy for a remuneration ? " 
L. L. Lost, III, i. 

"kings in that time 
Hung jewels at the ear of every rhyme," p. 599, 

may refer to Romeo's rhapsody ; the battle and "points . . once let down " to 
Poins's joke on Falstaffin I Henry IV, II. iv. 238-9 : " the submissive flexure 
of the knee," p. 566, to Henry V's " flexure & low bendi&g " (IV. i. 272), and 
Hamlet's " crook the pregnant hinges of the knee," &c., but all these were 
no doubt common to the Elizabethan world. And we surely cannot adopt 
the suggestion (Athencsum, Sept. 14, 1878) that the passage on p. 374, 
praising the nest of boy-actors at the Blackfriars, * was a recollection of the 
" aery of children " sneered at by Shakspere (in a passage of Hamlet not in 
the Quartoes, but first printed in 1623), when we find that T. M. applies the 
term nest also to " a nest of ants," who typify man (p. 562), " a whole nest 
of pinching bachelors, " p. 577, and "my honest nest of ploughmen," p. 
580. F.J. F.] 

1 "if his humour so serve him, to call in at the Blackfriars, where he 
should see a nest of boys able to ravish a man," p. 574. [Compare, too, 
Jonson's " nest of antiques," Bartholomew Fair, Induction, leaf 3. L. T. S.] 




I have fent and bene all thys morning huntyng for players 
Juglers & Such kinde of Creaturs, but fynde them harde to finde, 
wherfore Leavinge notes for them to feeke me, burbage ys come, 
& Sayes ther ys no new playe that the quene hath not feene, but 
they have Revy ved an olde one, Cawled Loves Lalore loft, which 
for wytt & mirthe he fayes will pleafe her excedingly. And 
Thys ys apointed to be playd to Morowe night at my Lord of 
Sowthamptons, unlefs yow fend a wrytt to Remove the Corpus 
Cum Caula to your howfe in ftrande. Burbage ys my meflenger 
Ready attendyng your pleafure. 

Yours moft humbly, 


Letter dated "From your Library," written by Sir Walter Cope, 
addressed " To the right honorable the Lorde Vy count Cranborne 
at the Courte." Endorsed : 1604, Sir Walter Cope to my Lord. 
Hatfield House MSS. See Third Report of the Royal Commission 
of Historical Manuscripts. 1872. p. 148. 

[" The quene " here mentioned is Anne of Denmark, the Queen of James I. 
Loves Labours Lost was first published in 1598 (4to.), "newly corrected and 
augmented." It is supposed by many critics to be Shakespere's first play, 
written about 1588-90. L. T. S.] 


I. C., 1604 circa. 

Who'e're will go unto the preffe may fee, 
The hated Fathers of vilde balladrie : 
One lings in his bafe note the River Thames 
4 Shal found the famous memory of noble king lames ; 
Another fayes that he will, to his death, 
Sing the renowned worthineffe of fweet Elixaleth, 
So runnes their verfe in fuch difordered ftraine, 
8 And with them dare great majefty prophane, 
Some dare do this j fome other humbly craves 
For helpe of Spirits in their fleeping graves, 
As he that calde to Shake/peare, lohnfon, Greene, 
12 To write of their dead noble Queene ; 
But he that made the Ballads of oh hone. 
Did wondrous well to whet the buyer on : 
Thefe fellowes are the flaunderers of the time, 
1 6 Make ryming hatefull through their baftard rime. 
But were I made a judge in poetry, 
They all mould burne for their vilde herefie. 

Epigrames. Served out in 52 severall Dishes for every man to fast 
without surfeting. (From Malones Copy in the Bodleian Library. ) 
Epig. 12, sign. B. [n. d. \2moJ\ 

The compiler is indebted to Mr. J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps for this curious 
epigram, which was overlooked by Malone's continuator. Malone saw in 
this epigram an allusion to Englandes Mourning Garment. (See p. 123.) 

[It is difficult to fix the date of the epigram. Line 4, speaking of the 
" famous memory " of James, seems to point to the time of his death, March 
1625 ; but the printer of the volume, G. Elde, died before I3th November, 
1624. Line n refers to the Mournful Dittie, before, p. 124, and this, 
coupled with the possible reference to England 's Mourning Garment, and 
with the appearance of ballads on the death of Essex (1601-2), containing 
the burden of O hone !, make it probable that 1604 is the approximate date. 
See Allusion-Books, I, New Sh. Soc. pp. xxi, 122, note. L. T. S-] 



1604 : The Honest Whore, Part I. (Works, ed. Dyce, iii. i 122). 

Candida. No matter, let 'em : when I touch her lip 
I shall not feel his kisses, 1 no, nor miss 
Any of her lip. 

Hippolito. ... I was, on meditation's spotless wings, 
Upon my journey hither. 2 ib. IV. i. p. 79. 

George. 'Twere a good Comedy of Errors, 3 that, i' faith. 

ib. Act IV. sc. iii. p. 85, 

1607-8. The Family of Love. 

Believe it, we saw Sampson bear the town-gates on his neck 
from the lower to the upper stage, with that life and admirable 
accord, that it shall never be equalled, unless the whole new 
livery of porters set [to] their shoulders. 4 

The Family of Love (licenst 12 Oct. 1607, publisht 1608), Act I. 
sc. iii. Middleton's Works, ed. Dyce, 1840, ii. 125. 

1 " Imitated by Shakspeare in Othello, Act III. sc. iii. 

' I slept the next night well, was free and merry ; 
I found not Cassia's kisses on her lips? " REED. 

If there be any imitation in the case, I believe it to be on the part of 
Dekker or Middleton [to whom Henslowe assigns this play, p. 3]. Dyce : 
ed. Middleton's Works, iii. 56. 

2 So in Hamlet^ Act I. sc. i. 

' ' Haste, let me know it ; that I, with wings as swift 
As meditation" &c. Reed : Dyce's Middleton, iii. 79. 

3 An allusion, probably, to Shakespeare's play of that name. Dyce. 
See too p. 314-15, note, ib. ; and p.^66 above. 

4 Middleton seems to have had in his recollection a passage of Shake- 
speare's Loves Labour's Lost, . . " Sampson, master, he was a man of good 
carriage, great carriage ; for he carried the town-gates on his back, like a 
porter." Act I. sc. ii. [1. 73-5]. Dyce. 

142 THOMAS MIDDLETON, 1604 1619. 

(ib. Act V. sc. iii. p. 203.) . . Mistriss Purge. Husband, I see 
you are hoodwinked in the right use of feeling and knowledge 
as if I knew you not J then as well as the child knows his own 

A Mad World, my Masters. 

(Act I. sc. i.) Follywil. Hang you, you have bewitched me 
among you ! I was as well given 2 till I fell to be wicked ! my 
grandsire had hope of me : I went all in black ; swore but a' 
Sundays ; never came home drunk but upon fasting-nights to 
cleanse my stomach. 'Slid, now I'm quite altered ! blown into 
light colours ; let out oaths by th' minute ; sit up late till it be 
early ; drink drunk till I am sober ; sink down dead in a tavern, 
and rise in a tobacco-shop : here's a transformation ! (&c., &c.) 

(Act IV. sc. i. p. 386.) Shield me 3 you ministers of faith and 
grace ! 

ab. 1619 (pr. 1662). Any thing for a quiet Life. 

Lord Beaufort. And whither is your way, sir ? 
Water- Camlet. E'en to seek out a quiet life, my lord : 

1 Imitated from Falstaff s " I knew ye, as well as he that made ye." 
Shakespeare's Henry TV, Part I, Act II. sc. iv. Dyce. 

With Goldstone's "Yes, at your book so hard?" Middleton's Your 
Five Gallants, Works, iii. 274, Dyce compares in 3 Henry VI, Act V. sc. 
vi, Gloster's "what, at your book so hard;" and with Pursenet's "he'd 
away like a chrisom," ib. 276, Mrs. Quickly's " 'a made a finer end, and 
went away an it had been any christom child," Henry V, Act II. sc. iii. 

2 Imitated from Shakespeare's First Part of K. Henry IV, Act III. sc. iii, 
where Falstaff says, "I was as virtuously given as a gentleman need to be ; 
virtuous enough : swore little, diced not above seven times a- week ; went 
to a bawdy-house not above once in a quarter of an hour ; paid money that 
I borrowed, three or four times ; lived well, and in good compass : and now 
I live out of all order, out of all compass." Reed. Dyce's Middleton, ii. 
331, n. 

5 See Hamlet [" Angels and ministers of grace defend us!" Act I. 
sc. iv]. Steevens, ib. 

THOMAS MIDDLETON, 1604 1619. 143 

To hear of a fine peaceable island. 

L. Beau. Why 'tis the same you live in. 

W. Cam. No ; 'tis so fam'd, 
But we th' inhabitants find it not so : 
The place I speak of 1 has been kept with thunder. 

I do not look on the words "Alas, poor ghost ! " in The Old Law printed 
in 1656, and stated on its title to be "by Phil. Massinger. Tho. Middleton. 
William Rowley " as borrowd from Hamlet, I. v. 4. The young courtier 
Simonides is telling the old husband Lysander, that he, Simonides, has come 
to Lysander's house "to beg the reversion of his wife," a loose young 
woman, after his death : " thou are but a dead man, therefore what should 
a man do talking with thee ? " 

" Lysander. Impious blood-hounds ! 
Simonides. Let the ghost talk, ne'er mind him ! 
Lys. Shames of nature ! 
Sim. Alas, poor ghost ! consider what the man is ! " 

Massinger's Works, ed. Cunningham, p. 571, col. 2. 

Nor do I think anything of Mr. Hall.-Phillipps's suggestion, that if this 
" play was really written in the year 1599, as would seem from an allusion 
in it, those three words may have been taken from the earlier tragedy of 
Hamlet" (Mem., p. 55). The Clerk is telling Gnotho that his (Gnotho's) 
wife Agatha, the daughter of Pollux, was "born in an. 1540, and now 
'tis 99." III. i : Massinger's Works, p. 573, col. I. From this, the theory 
was started, that The Old Law was first written in 1 599, and then re-cast by 
Massinger before his death in 1640. The internal evidence of the play seems 
to me against the 1 599 date. Middleton died in 1626. The year of Rowley's 
death is not known. F. J. F. 

The following, considering Gifford's authority, may be worth noting : 

" Cook. That Nell was Helen of Greece too. 

Gnotho. As long as she tarried with her husband, she was Ellen ; but 
after she came to Troy, she was Nell of Troy, or Bonny Nell, whether you 
will or no. 

Tailor. Why, did she grow shor[t]er when she came to Troy ? 

Gnotho. She grew longer,* if you mark the story. When she grew to be 

1 Evidently 'the Bermothes,' p. 450. 

* " This miserable trash, which is quite silly enough to be original, has 

144 THOMAS MIDDLETON, 1604 1619. 

an ell, she was deeper than any yard of Troy could reach by a quarter ; 
there was Cupid was Troy weight, and Nell was avoirdupois ; f she held 
more, by four ounces, than Cressida." 

The Old Law, or A New Way to please you, 1656. 

yet the merit of being copied from Shakespeare." Gifford. This is on the 
supposition that the play, which was not printed till 1656, was not acted in 
1599, as has been suggested. Dyce gives the title, p. I, " The Excellent 
Comedy, called The Old Law, or A new ^vay to please you. By Phil. Mas- 
singer. Tho. Middleton. William Rowley .... 1656," and says, " Steevens 
(Malone's Shakespeare, by Bos well ( Variorum of 1821), ii. 425) remarks, that 
this drama was acted in 1599, founding the statement most probably on a 
passage in Act iii. Sc. r, where the Clerk, having read from the Church- 
book, ' Agatha, the daughter of Pollux born in an. 1540,' adds, 'and now 
'tis 99 ' ... Gifford (Introd. to Massinger, p. Iv, 2nd ed.) inclines to 
believe that The Old Law was really first acted in 1599, and that Massin- 
ger (who was then only in the fifteenth year of his age) was employed, at a 
subsequent period, to alter or to add a few scenes to the play. What por- 
tion of it was written by Middleton cannot be determined . . . Gifford . . 
published The Old Law in the ivth vol. of his Massinger. " 
f Old ed. "haberdepoyse." DYCE. 


Extoll that with admiration, which but a little before thoti 
didft rayle at, as moft carterly. And when thou -fitteft to con- 
fult about any weighty matter, let either luftice Shallowe, or his 
Coufen, Mr. Weathercocks, be foreman of the lurie. 

Epiftle Dedicatorie, sign. A 2 back. 
The / Flea : / Sic parva componere magnis.\ London \ 
Printed for lohn Smethwick and are to be solde at his 
Shop / in Saint Dunstanes Churchyard in Fleet-street, 
vnder / the Diall. 16057 

I but true valour neuer danger fought, 
Rafhnes, it felfe doth into perill thruft : 
Thats onely valour where the quarrel's iuft. sign. D. 
A Shadowe of a fhadow thus you fee, 
Alas what fubftance in it then can bee ? 
If anything herein amilfe doe feeme: 
Confider, 'twas a dreame, dreamt of a drearne. 

In 1877 Dr. Grosart reprinted this Poem from the unique copy in Lord 
Spencer's library at Althorpe, and in his Introduction, p. vii, cald attention 
to the above three bits, comparing the second with Shakspere's 2 Henry 
VI, III. ii. : 

" Thrice is he arm'd that hath his quarrel just," 

and the third with Hamlet, II. ii. : 

" Guil. What dreams indeed are ambition, for the very substance of the 
ambitious is merely the shadow of a dream. 

Ham. A dream itself is but a shadow. 

Ros. Truly, and I hold ambition of so airy and light a quality that it is 
but a shadow's shadow." 

Prof. Dowden sent me the first Allusion, and later, Mr. Hll.-P. quoted 
the latter part of it. 

The phrase " bombast out a blank verse" of Greene's Groatsworth occurs 
again in ' Verlves Common-wealth: or The Highiuay to Honoor, by Henry 
Crosse, 1603: 

"Hee that can but bombast out a blancke verse, and make both the 
endes iumpe together in a ryme, is forthwith a poet laureat, challenging 
the garland of baies " (Grosart's reprint, p. 109). E. DOWDEN. 



Glo. Let me awake my fleeping wits awhile : 
Ha, the marke thou aimft at Richard is a Crowne, 
And many ftand betwixt thee and the fame, 
What of all that ? Doftor play thou thy part, 
He climbe by degrees through many a heart. 

The First and Second Parts of King Ediuard the Fovrth . . . 
As it hath diuerse times been publickly Acted. The fourth 
Impression^- London, Printed by Humfrey Lownes. 
Anno 1626. sign. Q 2. (Hey wood's Works, 1874, i. 135.) 

The 1st edition of 1605 is in the Douce Collection at South Kensington. 

Heywood may have had in his mind Gloucester's lines in 3 Henry VI, 
III. ii. 168-181 : 

" I'll make my heav'n to dream upon the crown, 
And, whiles I live, to account this world but hell, 
Until my mis-shaped trunk that bears this head 
Be round impaled with a glorious crown. 171 

And yet I know not how to get the crown, 
For many lives stand between me and home. 
And I ... 

Torment myself to catch the English crown : 
And from that torment I will free myself, 1 80 

Or hew my way out with a bloody axe. " 


T H E 



As it was plaide by the Kings Maie- 
fties feruants. 

By William Shakefpeare, 



Printed by T. C. for Nathaniel Butter, and 

are to be fold neere S Aujl'ms gate, 

at the figne of the pyde Bull. 



[Of all the doubtful plays The London Prodigall has greatest external 
evidence in favour of Shakspere's authorship, and least internal. Modern 
criticism entirely denies that Shakspere could have been responsible for a 
production so utterly alien to the spirit and form of his undoubted work. 
The poet's name on the title-page is but another testimony to his fame as a 
playwright. The London Prodigall was printed in F. 3, 1664. M.] 




Enter Hamlet afoote-man in haste. 

Ham. What Coachman ? my Ladyes Coach for mame , her 
ladifhips readie to come downe. 

Enter Potkinn, a Tankerd leare-. 

Pot. Sfoote Hamlet ; are you madde ? whether run you nowe, 
you fhould brume vp my olde Miftrefle ? 

Enter Syndefye. 

Syn. What Potkinn? you muft put off your Tankerd and put 
on your blew coat and waite upon miftris Touchftone into the 
countrie. * * 

Enter Mistress Fond & Mistresse Gazer 

Fond. Come fweete Miftreffe Gazer, lets watch here, and fee 
my Lady Flo/he take coach. * * * 

Fond. Shee comes, me comes, me comes. 

Gaz. Fond. Pray heaven bleffe your Ladilhip. 

Gyrtrude. Thanke you good people j my coach for the love of 
heaven, my coach ? in good truth I mall fwoune elfe. 

Ham. Coach ? coach, my Ladyes coach. 

* * * * 

Gyr. I marie how my modeft Sifter occupies her 

felfe this morning, that (hee can not waite on me to my Coach, 
as well as her mother ! 


Quick Jilver. Mary Madam, fhee's married by this time to 
Prentife Goulding ; your father, and fome one more, ftole to 
church with 'hem, in all the hafte, that the colde meate left at 
your wedding, might ferve to furniih their Nuptiall table. 

Eastward Hoe, Act III, Sc. n. 1605, sign. D and D i, back. 

[The unusual name Hamlet, 1 the question "are you madde?", the frequent 
references to the coach (possibly in reference to the anachronism committed 
by Shakespere in making Ophelia call for her coach, Act IV. Sc. v), and 
the reference to the cold meate for the nuptial table, all seem to shew that 
Shakespere's Hamlet was here pointed at. Eastward Ho was played by the 
Children of her Majesty's Revels, that "aeyry of children" of whom Rosen- 
crantz speaks, and who, by Shakespere's own confession, had driven his 
company to travel in the country. Syndefie's call upon Potkinn to wait 
upon Mistris Touchstone into the country may be the Children's out-cry of 
triumph at having thus beaten their rivals, a suggestion which gains its 
point from this, that Mistris Touchstone, the mother who has successfully 
helped her scheming daughter to marry above her station, is immediately 
turned upon by that daughter and made to defer to her. The only 
passages in which Marston might be said to sneer at Shakespere are 
these allusions to 'and parody on Hamlet, and a stage direction, also in 
Eastward Hoe, Act I. Sc. i., "Enter . . . Bettrice leading a Monkey after 
her. " Bettrice is a dumb character, who never speaks nor does anything 
else. Hence Dr. B. Nicholson believes she is simply introduced to ridicule 
" Beatrice leading apes to Hell" in Much Ado about Nothing, and a dumb 
"Hero's Mother" in the same play. The name of Bettrice is never 
mentioned, and therefore she would be Bettrice to the spectators only 
because she would be dressed like Shakespere's Beatrice. 

Eastward Hoe was "made by" Chapman, Jonson and Marston. It is 
quite probable therefore that these allusions were not from Marston's pen, 
they may be from Jonson's. L. T. S.] 

1 It is perhaps worth noting that Hamlet, as a Christian name, was other- 
wise not unknown in the sixteenth century. " Hamlet Rider " occurs in the 
Muster Roll of Calais, about 15331540. Cotton AfS. E VII, fo^ 
76 (in the British Museum). 

GEO. CHAPMAN, &c., 1605. 

Enter Quickjiluer vnlaid, a towell about his necke, in his flat Cap, 


Quick. Eaftward Hoe j Holla ye pampered lades of Afia .... 
Goul[ding\. Fie fellow Quickjiluer, what a pickle are you in? 
Quick. Pickle ? pickle in thy throat zounes pickle . . . 
Lend me fome monye 

Gould He not lend thee three pence. 

Quick. Sfoote lend me fome money, hajl thou not Hyfen here 9 

Eastward / Hoe. / As / It was playd in the / Black-friers. I 
By I The Children of her Maiesties Reuels./ Made by j 
Geo : Chapman, Ben : lonson, loh : Marston./At London/ 
Printed for William Aspley.\ i6o5./ Actus secundi. 
Scena Prima. sign. B 3. 

As we have "Hamlet; are you madde?" in this play, sign. D. see 
above, p. 149 and as Quicksiluer's language, says Gifford, "like Pistol's, 
is made up of scraps from old plays" (B. Jonson's Works, ed. Cunningham, 
2-col., i. 233, col. 2 n.\ the authors of Eastward Hoe no doubt allude, in 
the passage above, to Pistol's speeches in 2 Henry IV, II. iv. : 

"downe Dogges, downe Fates: haue wee not Hiren here? . . Shall 
Pack-horses, and hollow-pamper'd lades of Asia, which cannot goe but 
thirtie miles a day, compare with C<zsar, and with Caniballs, and Troian 
Greek es? . . . Have we not Hiren here?" F. J. F. 

G. CHAPMAN, &c., 1605. 

Gyr[tred]. His head as white as milke, All flaxen was his haire .- 

But now he is dead, And laid in his Bed, 

And neuer will come againe. God be at your labour. 

Eastward / Hoe./ As / It was playd in the / Black-friers. I By 
The Children of her Maiesties Reuels./ Made by \ Geo : 
Chapman. Ben : lonson. loh : Marston. / At London / 
Printed for William Aspley.\ 1605.7 A ctus tertii. Scena 
Secunda. Sign. D2. 

[This is from Ophelia's No, no he is dead, 

Go to thy death-bed ; 
He never will come again. 
His beard as white as snow, 

All flaxen was his poll: 

. . I pray God. God be wi' you. 

Hamlet, 189197. 

H. C. HART.] 



Tis. Then thus, and thus, fo Hymen fhould begin : 
Sometimes a falling out proves falling in. 

The Dutch Courtezan, as it was playd in the Blacke Friars 
by the Children of her Maiesties Reuels. Act IV. sc. i. 
Vol. ii. p. 164, ed. Halliwell, 1856. 

Probably from Shakspere's Troilus, III. i. 112 

Pand. Hee ? no ? sheele none of him : they two are twaine. 
Hel. Falling in after falling out may make them three. 

Teena Rochfort Smith. 


Anonymous. About 1605. 

Get thee to London, for if one man were dead, they will have 
much neede of fuch a one as thou art. There would be none 
in my opinion fitter then thyfelfe to play his parts : my conceipt 
is fuch of thee, that I durft venture all the mony in my purfe on 
thy head, to play Hamlet with him for a wager. There thou 
malt learne to be frugall (for Players were never fo thriftie as 
they are now about London) & to feed upon all men, to let 
none feede upon theej to make thy hand a ftranger to thy 
pocket, thy hart flow to performe thy tongues promife: and 
when thou feeleft thy purfe well lined, buy thee fome place or 
Lordlhip in the Country, that growing weary of playing, thy 
mony may there bring thee to dignitie and reputation. 
Sir, I thanke you (quoth the Player) for this good counfell, I 
promife you I will make ufe of it, for, I have heard indeede, of 
fome that have gone to London very meanly, and have come in 
time to be exceeding wealthy. 

Ratseis Ghost, or the second Part of his madde Prankes and 
Robberies, [n.d. qto. Unique copy in the Althorp Library. 
Sign. B I.] 

[This tract bears no date, but it is found in a volume of contemporary 
binding with several other tracts of 1603, 1604, and 1605. L. T. S.] 

Here, too, we find Burbage and Shakespere associated, as they were by 
Marston and by Davies : " if one man were dead" identifies the former ; 
while, " some that have gone to London," &c., unmistakeably points to the 

ANONYMOUS, 1605. 155 

We might have quoted as a pendant to this extract the following from 
The Returnefrom Pernassus, 1 606 (played 1602, see before, p. 103) : 

Stiidiofo. Fayre fell good Orpheus, that would rather be 
King of a mole hill, then a Keysars slave : 
Better it is mongst fidlers to be chiefe, 
Then at [a] plaiers trencher beg reliefe. 
But ist not strange this mimick apes should prize 
Unhappy Schollers at a hireling rate. 
Vile world, that lifts them up to hye degree, 
And treades us downe in groveling misery. 
England affordes those glorious vagabonds, 
That carried earst their fardels on their backes, 
Coursers to ride on through the gazing streetes, 
Sooping it in their glaring Satten sutes, 
And Pages to attend their maisterships : 
With mouthing words that better wits have framed, 
They purchase lands, and now Esquiers are made. 

Philomusus. What ere they seeme being even at the best, 
They are but sporting fortunes scornfull jests. 

Stud. So merry fortune is wont from ragges to take, 
Some ragged grome, and him some gallant make. 

(Actus 5, scena I ; Sign. G 4, back.) 

[But Shakespere never was an Esquire, he was in his Will plain William 
Shackspeare gentleman. (See for example the extract from Edm. Howes, 
1614.) In his day the distinction was real. See Sir Thomas Smith, quoted 
in Transactions of New Sh. Soc., 1877-9, Part I, pp. 103, 104. L. T. S.J 



This falling away of them, * * haftied the laft breath of the 
once hoped-for Prince, as from him that muft notorioufly know 

* * that his fathers Empire and Gouernment, was but as the 
Poeticall Furie in a Stage-a6iion, compleat yet with horrid and 
wofull Tragedies: a firft, but no second to any Hamlet; and 
that now Reuenge, iuft Reuenge was comming with his Sworde 
drawne againft him, his royall Mother, and deareft Sifter, to fill 
up thofe Murdering Sceanes. 

Voiageand Entertainment in Rushia. With the tragicatt ends 
of two Emperors, and one Empresse, within one moneth 
during his being there : And the miraculous preservation of 
the now raigning Emperor, esteemed dead for 1 8 yeares. 
1605. Sign. K. 


[In his account of the Gipsies and their thefts, and killing of 
sheep, pigs, and poultry], 

The bloudy tragedies of al thefe, are only acted by y e Womew 

# * The Stage is fome large Heath, or a Firre bum Common, 
far from any houfes : Upow which cafting them-felves into a 
Ring, they inclofe the Murdered, till the Maflacre be finilhed. 
If any paflenger come by, and wondring to fee fuch a corajuring 
circle kept by Hel-hou/zdes, demaund what fpirits they raife 
there > one of the Murderers fteps to him, poyfons him with 
fweete wordes and mifts him off, with this lye, y* one of the 
wome?z is falne in labour. But if any mad Hamlet hearing this, 
fmell villanie, & rum in by violence to fee what the tawny 
Pivels are dooing, thera they excufe the fact, &c. 

Lanlhome and Candle-light. Or, The Bell- 
Mans second Nights-Walke. Sign. ff2. 



I will not cry Hamlet Revenge my greeves, 
But I will call Hang-man Revenge on theeves. 

The Night-Raven. Sign. D 2. 

[The three previous bits were classed in Dr. Ingleby's first edition as 
" irrelevant," or mistaken. But it seems to me that considering their dates, 
it is open to doubt whether they do not as likely refer to Shakespere's play 
as to the older Hamlet, and that therefore they are of sufficient interest to 
warrant my printing the extracts in full. Our authorities for the existence 
of the pre-Shakesperian play of Hamlet are Nash's Epistle prefixed to Green's 
Menaphon (referred to in Appendix A, vol. ii, and Lodge's Wifs Miserie 
(see vol. ii, p. 20). Professor Dowden, agreeing with me that there is 
no sufficient reason for setting down the above three passages decidedly 
as mistaken references, or for deciding that they refer to the old Hamlet, 
remarks upon the latter, "I think, considering the probable date of the 
old Hamlet, and the remarkable impression apparently made by the ghost 
crying ' Revenge, ' that it is not unlikely to have been a bloody drama in 
which the central motiv was revenge, and that the Hamlet of that old 
play was a close kinsman of the Hamlet of the Historie [of 1608, translated 
from Belleforest's Histoires Tragiques], capable of all kinds of vigorous action. 
In the old play he probably assumed his antic disposition manifestly for a 
purpose" (Private letter]. He therefore thinks it possible, though not 
certain, that the two "revenge" passages above given may be connected 
with the old play. L. T. S.I 

*WM. WARNER, 1606. 

ONe Makebeth, who had traitroufly his fometimes Souerefgne 

And like a Monfler not a Man vfurpt in Scotland raigne, 
Whofe guiltie Confcience did it felfe fo feelingly accufe, 
As nothing not applide by him, againft himfelfe he vewes - } 
No whifpring but of him, gainft him all weapons feares he 


All Beings iointly to reuenge his Murthres thinks he fworne, 
Wherefore (for fuch are euer fuch in felfe-tormenting mind) 
But to proceed in bloud, he thought no fafetie to find. 
All Greatnefle therefore, faue his owne, his driftings did in- 

feft * * * * 

One Banquho, powrefulft of the Peers, in popular affection 
And prowefTe great, was murthred by his tyrannous direction. 
Fleance therefore this Banquhos fonne fled thence to Wales for 

Whome Gruffyth kindly did receiue, and cherifht nobly there. 

Booke 15. Chap. 94 of A Continuance of Albions England, 
1606. By William Warner, being Books 14 16 of his 
Albions England, ed. 1612,* p. 375-6. 

As the date of Shakspere's Macbeth must be late in 1605 or early in 1606, 
Warner may well have been led to deal with King Macbeth by the popular- 
ity of Shakspere's play. And though he in no way follows Shakspere's 
lines, but instead, the chronicler's history of Fleance's amour with Griffith's 

* There is no copy of the 1606 edition in the British Museum, unless the 
titleless Continuance of the 1612 copy is in fact the 1606 book. (Jan. n, 
1 88 1.) 

WM. WARNER, 1606. 159 

daughter and his death for it,* I yet believe that his introductory lines above, 
and specially the ' bloud' one, refer to Shakspere's play, and his lines 

" I am in blood 

Stept in so far, that, should I wade no more, 
Returning were as tedious as go o'er." 

Macbeth, III. iv. 136-8. 

The editions of Warner's Albion's England run thus : 

1586 Part I. 4 Books, 22 Chaps, with Prose Addn. for Bk. 2. 

1589 Parts I. and II. 6 33 

1592 (enlarged) 9 1 44 

ti596 I2 2 77 

1597 (reprint of '1596) I2 2 77 

1602 (enlarged) 13 ,, 79 ,, And a prose Epitome of 

the whole Historic of 
t 1606 A Continuance. Books 14 16, ch. 80107. 

1612 (The Whole Work) 16 Books, 107 Chaps. ,, 

The late Prof. G. L. Craik (died June, 1866) pointed out the Warner 
passage to Mr. S. Neil, who printed a few lines of it in his edition of Mac- 
beth (1876), p. 9, note (Collins's School and College Classics). Mr. Joseph 
Knight noted the allusion independently, and I quoted the lines from his 
Warner of 1612 in the Academy, Jan. I, 1881, p. 8, col. I. In the next 
Academy, Jan. 8, Mr. Neil claimd his priority. F. J. F. 

* His son Walter afterwards goes back to Scotland, and there founds the 
royal strain from which James I. descended. 
f Not in the British Museum, Jan. n, 1880. 

1 But Bk. 9, ch. 44, has only 8 lines. 

2 Bk. 9 really for the first time. It incorporates the 8 lines of ed. 1592. 



[The old Hermit, entertaining his guest at meat, takes a skull 
in his hand, ] 

He held it ftill, in his finifter hand, 

And turn'd it foft, and ftroakt it with the other, 

He fmil'd on it, and oft demurely faund, 

As it had beene, the head of his owne brother : 

Oft would h'have fpoke, but fomething bred delay j 
At length halfe weeping, thefe words did he fay. 

This barren fcull, that here you do behold, 
Why might it not, have beene an Emperours head ? 
Whofe flore-houfe rich, was heap'd with mafly gold, 
If it were fo, all that to him is dead : 

His Empire crowne, his dignities and all, 

When death tooke him, all them from him did fall. 

# * * # 

And might it not, a Lady fometimes ioye, 
T'haue deckt, and trim'd, this now rainbeaten face, 
With many a trick, and new-found pleating toye ? 
Which if that now, (he did behold her cafe. 
Although on earth, ihe were for to remaine, 
She would not paint, nor trimme it up againe. 

Why might not this, have beene fome lawiers pate, 
The which fometimes, brib'd, brawl'd, and tooke a fee, 

JOHN RAYNOLDS, 1606. l6l 

And lawe exa&ed, to the higheft rate ? 
Why might not this, be fuch a one as he ? 

Your quirks, and quillets, now fir where be they, 

Now he is mute, and not a word can fay. 

Dolarnys Primerose, Or the first part of the passionate Hermit. 

1606. Sign. D 4, back, E. In Mr. Henry Huth's Library. 
Reprinted for the Roxburghe Club, 1816. [Dolarnys=Raynolds~\ 

[Compare with this Hamlet, Act V. sc. i. Raynold's verses are perhaps a 
closer parallel than Thomas Randolph's reminiscences of the same scene in 
his Jealous Lovers, 1632, see later, pp. 361, 362. 

If these verses may be taken as an undoubted allusion to Hamlet, not the 
least interesting is the first quoted above, which describes exactly the action 
of Hamlet on taking up the skull in use on the stage at the present day, and 
may fairly be supposed to bear reference to what Raynolds and the play- 
goers of his day had before their eyes in the grave-digger's scene. It is to be 
observed that no authority for this action, the turning soft, stroking, smiling, 
&c., is to be found in the play itself. 

The last verse given above was quoted in the Athenaeum, May 22, 1875, and 
in Mr. H. H. Furness' Variorum Hamlet, Vol. I. p. 386. Mr. Haslewood 
printed portions of the poem in the British Bibliographer', 1810, Vol. I. 
p. 153. L. T. S.] 




I will not omit that which is yet frefh in our late Chronicles ; 
and hath been many times reprefented vnto the vulgar vpon our 
Englifh Theaters, of Richard Plantag'met, third ibnne to Richard 
Duke of Yorke, who (being eldeft brother next furuiuing to 
King Edivard the fourth), after hee had vnnaturally made away 
his elder brother, George Duke of Clarence (whom he thought a 
grieuous eye-fore betwixt him and the marke at which he 
leuelled), did vpon death of the King his brother, take vpon him 
protection of this Realme, vnder his two Nephewes left in his 
butcherly tuition : both which he cauled at once to be fmothered 
together, within a keepe of his Maiefties Tower, at London : 
which ominous bad lodging in memoriall thereof, is to this day 
knowne, and called by name of the lloodly Tower. Hereupon, 
this odious Vncle vfurped the crowne ; but within little more 
then two yeares was depofed, & confounded in the Battell at 
Bofworth in Ley cejierjliire : 1485. by King Henry the feuenth, 
fent by God to make reftitution of the peoples liberties ; and 
after fo long and horrible a fhowre of ciuill blood, to fend a 
golden fun-fhine of peace, clofed vp in the princely leaues of 
that fweet, & modeft Rofe of Lancajler ; which being worne 
in the beautifull bofome of Lady Elhaletli the daughter of King 
Edward, (late mentioned of the Family of Yorke} difperfed thofe 
feditious cloudes of warre which had a long time obfcured our 
firmament of peace, baniming that fulphurous fmoke of the 
newly deuifed Cannon, with the diuine odour of that blelTed 
inoculation of Rofes : yeelding by their facred vnion the Lady 
Margaret, the first flower of that conjunction ; and great Grand- 

1606. BARNABE BARNES. 163 

mother (as I declared) to our Soueraignes Maieftie, in thefe 
happy bodyes raigning ouer vs : whofe blefled raigne, I befeech 
God to lengthen as the dayes of heauen. 

Fovre Bookes / of Offices : / Enabling Privat / persons for 
the spedall sendee of / all good Princes and Policies.] 
Made and deuised by Barnabe Barnes. / London / Printed 
at the charges of George Bishop, / T. Adams, and C. 
Burble. / i6o6./ p. 113. F. J. F. 

1 64 

1606 & 1611. 

Bookes red be me y anno 1 606 

* * * * * 

Romeo and Julieta, tragedie. [1^97, 1599.] 

Loues Labors Loft, comedie. [1598.] 


The Paffionate Pilgrime [1599.] 

The Rape of Lucrece [1^94, 1598, 1600.] 


A Midfommers Nights Dreame, comedie. [1600.] 

Table of my Englijh bookes, anno 1611. 

Venus and Adon. by Schaksp. [6 th and 7 th ed. 1602.] 

The Rap of Lucrece, idem, [two eds. in 1607] 


The Tragedie of Romeo and Julieta 

4^. Ing 


A Midfumers Night Dreame. 

Extracts from the Hawthornden Manuscripts, by David 
Laing, Archceologia Scotica, vol. iv. Edinburgh. 
1831-2. pp. 20, note, 21. 

[It is curious that after 1606, the first year in which Drummond gives a list 
of his year's readings, up to 1614 when they end, there is no other mention 
of Shakespere than those above. It is also curious, especially when one 
looks to the dates of the editions, that all should have been read (except the 
V. and Ad.} in the one year of 1606. B. N.] [Young Drummond was, 
however, staying in London in the summer of 1606. whence he went abroad^ 
not returning till 1609, the bent of his studies would therefore naturally 
follow his place of residence for the time. (See D. Masson's Life, 1873, 
pp. II, 14, 18.) He paid fourpence for Romeo 6 Juliet, the only one of 
Shakespere's books to which he marks a price. L. T. S.] 


Leic. But, madam, ere that day come, 
There will be many a bloody nofe, ay, and crack'd crown : 
We fliall make work for furgeons. 

1606. Hey wood's If You Know Not Me, You Know 
Nobody, 2nd Part, Old Sh. Soc. eel., p. 157. 

This may refer to 

* We must have bloody noses and crack'd crowns, 
And pass them current too.' 

I Hen. IV., II. iii. 96. 

Or it may be a common phrase. W. G. Stone. 






of Watling-ftreete 
Acted by the Children of Paules. 

Written by W. S. 


Imprinted at London by G. ELD. 

THE PVRITAINE, 1607. 167 

\The Puritaine was entered in the Stationers' Registers on August 6, 

" George Elde Entred for his copie vnder thandes of Sir George Bucke 
knight and the wardens a book called the comedie of the Puritan Widowe, 

The Puritaine was next printed in Folio 3. As in the cases of Thomas 
Lord Cromwell and Locrine, " W. S." was assuredly meant to be 
interpreted as "William Shakspere." See C. F. Tucker Brooke's 
Shakespeare Apocrypha, 1908, pp. xvi, xxx. M.I 


W. S. 1607. 

in ftead of a letter, weele ha the ghoft ith white iheete fit at 
upper end a' th Table. 

The Puritaine, or the Widdow of Watting- Strecte. 
1607, sign. H, back. [4/0.] 

A slight allusion to the ghost of Banquo in Macbeth. 

Macbeth was probably written in 1605-6, though not printed till the first 
Folio of 1623. 

[Mr. Fleay (Shakespere Manual, 1876, p. 20) considers that The Puritan 
" is filled with allusions to Shakespere." He only instances, however, the 
above line, and a portion of Act IV. sc. iii, as being imitated from Pericles, 
Act III. sc. ii, the scene of the recovery of Thaisa. But we have no earlier 
date for Pericles than 1608, when it was entered on the Stationers' Register. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, 1613 (written 
j6ji), Jasper, personating his own ghost, threatens the Merchant, 

" When thou art at the Table with thy friends 
Merry in heart, and fild with swelling wine, 
Il'e come in midst of all thy pride and mirth, 
Invisible to all men but thy selfe, 
And whisper such a sad tale in thine eare, 
Shall make thee let the Cuppe fall from thy hand.' 

(ActV. sc. i; sign. 73.) 

Mr. Aldis Wright points out that this too may be a reminiscence of the 
ghost of Banquo {Macbeth, Clarendon Press Series, p. viii.). L. T. S.] 


Anonymous ', 1607. 

Fabell. What meanes the toling of this fatall Chime, 
O what a trembling horror ftrikes my heart ! 
My ftifrened hayre flands vpright on my head, 
As doe the briftles of a porcupine. 

The Merry Divel of Edmonton. 1617, sign. A 3, back. 

[Fabell makes this exclamation at the approach of the evil spirit Coreb, 
with whom he has covenanted for his soul. So the ghost tells Hamlet- 

" I could a tale unfold whose lightest word 
Would harrow up thy soul," and make 
" each particular hair to stand on end 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine." (Act I. sc. v.) 

Evidently the author of the Merry Divel of Edmonton had this in his 
mind, though he did not, like Marston, acknowledge that he made his puppet 
" speake play scrappes " (see after, p. 176). 

The author of this play is unknown, though Kirkman (Exact Catalogue oj 
Comedies, &*c., 1671, p. 9) attributed it to Shakespere. It was entered on 
the Stationers' Register, 22 Oct. 1607, the first edition being printed in 1608. 
L. T. S.] 


GEO. CHAPMAN, 1607. 

great Seamen, ufing all their wealth 

And fkills in Neptunes deepe invifible pathes, 
In tall ihips richly built and ribd with brafle, 
To put a Girdle round about the world. 

Bussy D'Ambois. A Tragedie : As it hath been often pre- 
sented at Paules. London. Printed for William Asfley, 
1607 (ed. 1657, sign. AS), I. i. 20-3. Works, ed. 
Shepherd, 1874, p. 140, col. 2. 

Pucke. He put a girdle about the iearth, in forty minutes. A Midsomer 
nights Dreamt* Folio, p. 149, col. 2 ; II. i. 175. 

Was not Chapman considering the fate of Duncan's horses in Macbeth, 
II. iv, when he wrote the following in his Byrons Tragedie, 1608, Works, 
1874, p. 256, col. I : 

' ' And to make this no less than an ostent, 
Another that hath fortun'd since, confirms it: 
Your goodly horse Pastrana, which the Archduke, 
Gave you at Brussels, in the very hour 
You left your strength, fell mad, and kill'd himself ; 
The like chanced to the horse the great Duke sent you ; 
And, with both these, the horse the duke of Lorraine, 
Sent you at Vimie made a third presage . . . 
Who like the other, pined away and died. 

The matchless Earl of Essex, whom some make 
A parallel with me in life and fortune, 
Had one horse likewise, that the very hour 
He suffer'd death, (being well the night before,) 
Died in his pasture." H. C. HART. 

GEORGE PEELE, ? 1607. 

How he ferved a Tapfter. 

George was making merry with three or foure of his friends 
in Pye-corner, where the Tapfter of the houfe was much given to 
Poetry : for he had ingrofled the Knight of the Sunne, Venus and 
Adonis, and other Pamphlets which the ftrippling had collected 

Merrie Conceited Jests of George Peele. (Earliest kncnvn edition, 1607.) 
[Bodleian Lib., Tanner 734, p. 19. Date cut off. Works, by Rev. A. 
Dyce, 1828. Vol. II. p. 213.] 

[It is believed that George Peele died in 1598. There is little doubt that 
the collection of "Merrie conceited Jests" was published shortly after, though 
the earliest recorded edition is of 1607. The book is of little authority ; 
Peele was a scholar, though a needy scrupulous man, and the use of his name 
to father such a book finds a parallel in a worse book assigned to the great 
Scottish scholar and statesman, George Buchanan. (See Dyce's edition of 
Peele's Works, 1828, vol. i. p. viii.) L. T. S.] 



Fat paunches make 1 leane pates, 6 groffer 2 lits 
Enrich 3 the ribs but bankrupt 4 quite the wits. 

The I Optick glasse / of Hvmors, Or / The touchstone of a 
golden I temperature / . . . by T. W\alkington\ Master { of 
Artes \\tori\, p. 42. 

[We are indebted to Prof. Dowden for the reference. The reference is 
Loues labors lost, I, i, 26. M,] 

1 haue in Quarto. 2 daynty in Q. 

* make rich in Q. * bankerout in F.; banerout in Q. 


Old Lord. And hee is welcome, what fuddaine guft (my 
Sonne) in haft hath blowne thee hither. & made thee leave the 
Court, where fo many earth-treading ftarres adornes the sky of 


1607. Edward Sharpham. Cupids Whirligig / As 
it hath bene sundry times Acted / by the Children 
of the Kings Majesties / Reuels./ Sign. B I, back. 

Compare Romeo 6 Juliet, Act I. sc. ii. 1. 25 : 

" At my poor house look to behold this night 
Earth-treading stars that make dark heaven light." 

and y faith he was a neate lad too, for his beard was newly 
cut bare; marry it fhowed fomething like a Medow newly 
mowed : ftubble, ftubble. 

1607. E. Sharpham. The Fleire.] As it hath beene often 
played in the / Blacke- Fryers by the Children of / the 
Reuells./ Sign. B 3, back, at foot. 

Compare I Hen. IV, Act I. sc. iii, on the fop's beard : 

" and his chin new reap'd 
Show'd like a stubble-land at harvest-home." 

(The following passage illustrates one of Shakspere's words : 

"I can no longer hold my patience 
Impudent villaine, & lascivious Girles, 
I have ore-heard your vild convertions ; 
You scorne Philosophy : You'le be no Nunne, 
You must needs kisse the Purse, because he sent it, 
And you forsooth yo\ijlurgill, minion 
You'le have your will forsooth." 

1578. Wm. Haughton. A Woman Will ffane 

Her Will, ed. 1631. 

Compare the Nurse in Romeo & Juli'et, II. iv. 162 : " Scurvy knave ! 
I am none of \^5 flirt-gills ; I am none of his skains-mates.") 




Kni[ght]. And how Hues he with am. 

F/epre]. Faith like Thifbe in the play, a has almoft kil'd him- 
felfe with the fcabberd : 

Thef Fleire.\ As it hath beene often played in the / Blacke-Fryers by 
the Children of\ the Reuells.\ Written by Edward Sharpham of 
the Middle Temple, Gentleman. At London.] Printed and are to 
be solde by F. B. in Paules- Church\yard, at the signe of the Flower 
de Luce and the I Crowne, 1607. Actus Secundus. Sign. E, back. 

This bit of business, to which Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps calld attention in 
his Memoranda, M. N. Dr. , 1879, p. 35, and which must have been due to one 
of Shakspere's fellows, if not to Shakspere himself, became a tradition on 
the Stage, and was folio wd by the actor who playd Flute with Charles Kean 
between 1850 and 1860 (?). But Mr. Righton, the last actor who playd 
Flute to Phelps's Bottom at the Gaiety in I875, 1 tells Mr. E. Rose that 
he didn't follow the custom : he stabd himself with the sword hilt, his own 
thumb, or anything that came handiest. 

I doubt whether the following mention of Pyramus and Thisbe, cited by 
Mr. H1L-P., p. 10, is a reference to Shakspere's M. N. Dr., tho the lines 
occur in the next poem to one containing an allusion to the old play of 
Hamlet : 

I note the places of polluted sinne 
Where your kind wenches and their bawds put in. 
I know the houses where base cheaters vse, 
And note what Gulls (to worke vpon) they chuse : 
I take a notice what your youth are doing, 
When you are fast a sleepe, how they are woing, 
And steale together by some secret call, 
Like Piramus and Thisby through the wall. 
I see your prentises what pranks they play, 
And things you neuer dreame on can bewray : 

(t 1620. Sam. Rowlands.) The Night-\ Raven.] By S. R.j London.] 
Printed by G : Eld for lohn Deane and Thomas Baily. 1620. 4to. sign. 
D 2, back ; p. 28, Hunterian Soc. reprint, 1872. F. J. F. 

1 It was produced on Febr. 15, 1875. E. Rose. 

f It was popular, and having been first published, as far as we know, in 
1618, it was reprinted in 1620 and 1634, each time with a wood-cut of a 
raven on the title-page. (Bibliographical Index to the Works of Samuel 
Rowlands (Hunt. Soc.), p. 37.) P. A. L. 



But flay my Mufe in thine owne confines keepe, 

& wage not warre with fo deere lov'd a neighbor, 
But having Tung thy day fong, reft and fleepe 

preferve thy fmall fame and his greater favor : 
His Song was worthie merrit (Shakfpeare hee) 
lung the faire bloflbme, thou the withered tree 

Laurell is due to him, his art and wit 

hath purchaft it, Cypres thy brow will fit. 

Mirrha, the Mother of Adonis ; or Lustes Prodegies. 1607. 

Last stanza. [4/0.] In the Bodleian Lib. (Malone, 393.) 
Reprinted by Dr. Grosar.t in Poems of William Barksted, 

1876, p. 65. C. M. I. 



Ha he mount[s] Chirall on the wings of fame. 
A horfe, a horfe, my kingdom for a horfe, 
Looke the I fpeake play fcrappes. 

What You Will. Act II. Sc. i. 1607, 
sign. C i. [4/0.] 

[Richard III, Act V. sc. iv, 1. 7. (See before, p. 52.) It is possible that 
the first line of this extract contains two printer's errors, "he" for " ile " 
(the old way of printing " I'll "), and Chirall for Chevall ; the line would 
thus run, 

" Ha, Ile mount Chevall on the wings of fame. 1 ' 

The s would not then be required to help out "mount ; " and Marston, 
mounting Pegasus in writing his Satire, naturally calls out for "A horse," 
&c. It should be noted, however, that the play is unusually well printed, 
in better type than many of the quartos of the time. L. T. S.] 



Bawdier. I never read any thing but Venus and Adonis. 

Cripple. Why thats the very quinteffence of love, 
If you remember but a verfe or two, 
He pawne my head, goods, lands and all 'twill doe. 

Bow. Why then, have at her. 
Fondling I fay, fince I have hemd thee heere, 
Within the circle ofthis ivory pale, 
He be a parke. 

Mall Berry. Hands off fond Sir. 

Bow. And thou malt be my deere ; 
Feede thou on me, and I will feede on thee, 
And Love mall feede us both. 

Mall. Feede you on woodcockes, I can fail awhile. 

Bow. Vouchfafe thou wonder to alight thy fteede. 

Crip. Take heede, ihees not on horfebacke. 

Bow. Why then me is alighted. 
Come fit thee downe where never ferpent hifTes, 
And, being let, ile fmother thee with kiffes. 

The Fayre Mayde of the Exchange. 1607, sign. G 3. [&<? 

Heywood is quoting stanzas 39th and 3rd of Venus and Adonis ; but the 

" Feed thou on me, and I will feed on thee, 
And love shall feed us both," 

are not Shakespeare's, but Heywood's parody ; and "Come, sit thee down, " 
is an error for " Here come and sit." Machin also is quoting stanzas 39th 
and 3rd ; and he also misquotes from both : " on dale " should have been " in 
dale," " when those mounts are" should have been " if those hills be," and 
"Here sit thee down," is inaccurate. That Shakespeare may have dissem- 
inated a first draft of his poem, differing from that known to us, is, perhaps, 
countenanced by the varies lectiones in the old copies of Shakespeare's Poems : 
especially considering that we know one stanza of the Rape of Lucrece 
(quoted after with the addition of Sir J. Suckling, 1636) which is not only 
different, but in a different measure from ours. C. M. I. 




Crip[ple] . What Mailer Bawdier, have you let her pafle un- 

Bow[dler~\. Why what could I doe more? I look'd upon her 
with judgement, the firings of my tongue were well in tune, my 
embraces were in good meafure, my palme of a good conftitu- 
tion, onely the phrafe was not moving j as for example, Venus 
her felfe with all her fkill could not winne Adonis, with the fame 
words ; O heavens ? was I fo fond then to think that I could 
conquer Mall Berry ? O the naturall influence of my owne 
wit had beene farre better. 

The I Fayre Mayde of the / Exchange : With / the pleasaunt 
Humours of the / Cripple of Fanchurch. / Very delectable, 

and full of mirth. / London . . . 1607. Thos. Heywood's 

Dramatic Works, 1874, ii. 56. 

This passage should of course have been printed with those above, p. 177, 
after the Venus and Adonis extract there. 

The Fayre Mayde is full of echoes of Shakspere. Berry and the forfeit of 
Barnard's bond for a loan for 3 months, Works, ii. 23, 28, are from Shylock ; 
Franke Golding's soliloquy on himself, the scorner, falling in love, p. 20, is 
from Berowne's in L. L. Lost, III. i. 175-207, and Benedick's in Much Ado, 
II. iii. 27-30 ; Fiddle's " 'tis most tolerable and not to be endured," p. 57, is 
Dogberry's; Fiddle's leave-taking, "you, Cripple, to your shop," &c., is 
Jaques's in As you like it, V. iv. 192-8 ; and the plot of Flower and his wife 
each promising their daughter to a different man, while a third gets her, is 
more or less from the Merry Wives. The play or full passages should be 
read. I quote only a few lines : 




1 could not indure the carreir of her 
wit for a million .... 

I tell thee Cripple, I had rather 
encounter Herctdes with blowes, than 
Mall Berry with words : And yet by 
this light I am horribly in love with 
her. Vol. ii. p. 54. 

but the name of Russetting to Master 
Fiddle . . .'tis most tolerable, and 
not to be endured. Works, ii. 57. 

and so gentlemen I commit you all : 
you Cripple to your shop ; you sir, to 
a turn-up and dish of capers ; and 
lastly you, M. Bernard, to the tuition 
of the Counter-keeper : Works, ii. 58. 


I cannot endure my Ladie Tongue. 
M. Adoe, II. i. 284. 

I will go on the slightest arrand now 
to the Antypodes . . . rather than 
holde three words conference with 
this harpy. II. i. 273-9. 
I will be horribly in loue with her, 
Much. Adoe, II. iii. 245. 

you shall also make no noise in the 
streetes : for, for the watch to babble 
and to talke, is most tollerable, and 
not to be indured. Much Adoe (Qo 
i), III. iii. 37. 

you to your former Honor I be- 
queath . . . 

you to a loue that your true faith 
doth merit . . 

you to your land, and loue, and great 
allies . . . 

And you to wrangling . . 

As you like it, V. iv. 192-5. Fol. 
p. 207, col. 2. F. J. F. 



Count. Lazarello, beftirre thy felfe nimbly and fodainly, and 
here me with patience. 

Laza. Let me not fall from my felfe - 3 fpeake I am bound 
to heare. 

Count. So art thou to revenge, when thou malt heare the 
filh head is gone, and we know not whither. 

(Act II. sc. I") 
* * * * 

It comes againe ; new apparitions, 
And tempting fpirits : Stand and reveale thy felfe, 
Tell why thou followest me ? I feare thee 
As I feare the place thou camft from : Hell. 

(Act IIJ. sc. /.) 

The Woman-Hater. 1607. [4/0.] Sign. D 2, D 4. 

[See the dialogue between the Ghost and Hamlet (Hamlet, I. sc. v.), two 
lines (6, 7) in which Fletcher has here quoted, 

' ' Ham. Speak ; I am bound to hear . 

Ghost. So art thou to revenge, when thou shalt hear." L. T. S.] 


Jupiter feeing Plutus difperfing his giftes, amongft none but 
his honefl brethren, ftrucke him (either in anger or envie) ftarke 
blind, fo that ever fince hee hath play'de the good fellowe, for 
now every gull may leade him up and downe like Guy, to make 
fports in any drunken aflemblie, now hee regards not who thrufts 
his handes into his pockets, nor how it is fpent, a f oole mall have 
his heart nowe, as foone as a Phylition : And an ArTe that cannot 
fpell, goe laden away with double Duckets from his Indian ftore- 
houfe, when Ibis Homere, that hath layne rick feventeene yeeres 
together of the Vniverfitie plague, (watching and want), only in 
hope at the laft to finde fome cure, fliall not for an hundred waight 
of good Latine receive a two penny waight in filuer, his ignorance 
(arifing from his blindenes) is the onely caufe of this Comedie 
of errors. 

A Knights Coniuring done in earnest : discouered 
in iest. 1607. Chapter VI., sign. F 4, back. 

Reprinted for the Percy Society, Early English 
Poetry, vol. v. pp. 52, 53. 

[This may be taken as proof that the Cowcdy of Errors was at least still 
in mind in 1607. L. T. S.] 

3 82 


Par. . . when women are proclaymed to bee light, they ftriue 
to be more light, for who dare difproue a Proclamation. Tent. 
I but when light Wiues make heauy hulbands, let thefe 
hulbands play mad Hamlet ; and crie reuenge, come, and weele 
do fo. 

West-ward / Hoe. I As it hath beene diuers times Acted / by the 
Children of Patties. / Written by Tho : Decker, and lohn 
Webster. I Printed at London, and to be sold by lohn Hodgets \ 
dwelling in Patties Churchyard. / 1607 / 4to., sign. H 3. 

Tho it is very doubtful whether the above refers to Shakspere's Hamlet, 
yet as the three Hamlet allusions excluded by Dr. Ingleby from his first 
edition of the Centurie were let into the second (pp. 453-4), this West- 
ward Hoe one may keep them company. Dr. Ingleby tells me that he 
gave it to Miss Smith for the 2nd edition, but it was inadvertently overlookt, 
and returnd to him. F. J. F. 


That pleasing piece of frailty that we call woman. 

The Woman-hater, III. i. 

Possibly from Hamlet's " Frailty, thy name is woman," Hamlet, I. ii. 
146, Q.2. E. H. HICKEY. 


(0 The Fox is futtle, and his head once in, 
The (lender body eafily will follow. 

sign. Di, back. 

(2) Gwz/[ford]. Peace reft his foule, his finnes be buried in his 

And not remembred in his Epitaph: 

sign. 03. 

(3) lane. Is greefe fo fliort ? twas wont to be full of wordes, 

sign. D3, back. 1 

The / Famovs / History of Sir Tho-/rnas Wyat, / With The 
Coronation of Queen Mary, / and the coming in of King / 
Philip. / As it was plaied by the Queens Maiesties / 
Seruants./ Written by Thomas Dickers, / and John 
Webster.] 'London / Printed by'E.A. for Thomas 
Archer, and are to be / solde at his shop in the Popes- 
head Pallace, nere the Roy all Exchange./ i6o7./ 

(1) is a recollection of Shakspere in 3 Henry VI, IV. vii. 

" Gloucester [Aside] But when the fox hath once got in his nose, 
He'll soon find means to make the body follow." 

(2) is from Prince Hal's speech over Douglas's corpse, I Henry IV> V. 

iv. 99 101 : 

" Adieu, and take thy praise with thee to heaven ! 
Thy ignominy sleep with thee in the grave, 
But not remembred in thy epitaph ! " 

1 Perhaps Guilford's 

" We are led with pomp to prison, 
O propheticke soule," (sign. A4) 
may be a recollection of Hamlet. F. J. F. 

184 THOS. DEKKER & JN. WEBSTER, 1607. 

(3) is perhaps a recollection of the Duchess of York and Queen Elizabeth's 
talk in Richard III, IV. iv. 124131 : 

" Q. Eliz. My words are dull ; O, quicken them with thine. . . . 

Duch. Why should calamity be full of words ? 

Q. Eliz. Windy attorneys to their client woes, 
Airy succeeders of intestate joys, 
Poor breathing orators of miseries ! 
Let them have scope ! though what they do impart, 
Help not at all, yet do they ease the heart." EMMA PHIPSCN 

T. DEKKER, 1608. 

Their faces therefore do they turne vpon Barn-well (neere 
Cambridge) for ther was it 1 to be acted : thither comes this 
counterfet mad man running : his fellow lugler following 
aloofe, crying ftoppe the mad-man, take heed of the man, hees 
madde with the plague. Sometimes would he ouertake him, 
and lay hands vppon him (like a Catch-pole) as if he had 
arreited him, but furious Hamlet woulde prefently eyther breake 
loofe like a Beare from the flake, or elfe fo fet his pawes on this 
dog that thus bayted him, that with tugging and tearing one 
anothers frockes off, they both looked like mad Tom of Bedlam 
... At length he came to the houfe where the deade man had 
bin lodged : from this dore would not this olde leronimo be 
driuen, that was his Inne, there he woulde lie, that was his 
Bedlam, and there or no where muft his mad tricks be plaid. 

The I Dead Tearme./ or,/ Westminsters Complaint for long 
Fa/cations and short Termes./ Written in manner of 
a Dialogue betweene / the two Cityes London and 
Westminster./ . . . London./ Printed and are to be 
sold by John Hodgets at his house in Pauls / Churchyard. 
i6o8./ Sign. 

Part quoted in Mr. Hall.-P.'s Mem. on Hamlet, p. 20. F. J. F. 

1 The Comedy or trick of 2 London Porters, of whom one shammd 
mad, getting the goods out of the bedroom of a young London tradesman, 
who had died suddenly at Stourbridge Fair, Barnwell, and whose corpse 
the two porters had carried to the grave. 




1 ragedy. 

Not Jo New as Lamentable 
and true. 

Acted by his Mate/ties Players at 
the Globe. 

Written by VV. Shakfpeare. 


Printed by R. B. for Thomas Pauier and are to bee fold at his 

{hop on Cornhill, neere to the exchange. 



[Thomas Pavier, the piratical publisher, entered A Yorkshire Tragedy 
in the Stationers' Registers, on May 2, 1608, as a "Tragedy written by 
Wylliam Shakespere." 

The concensus of critical opinion denies the Shaksperean authorship. 
The play, as a whole, is poor in characterisation, and the verse cannot have 
been Shakspere's at the time of the tragedy's composition, possessing too 
great a proportion of end-stopped lines and rhyme. The ascription of 
passages of prose to Shakspere still leaves unexplained his connexion 
with a play, which can only be called poor. See Tucker Brooke's 
Shakespeare Apocrypha^ 1908, pp. xxxiii-xxxvi. 

Thomas Pavier was probably only using Shakspere's name to 
recommend his book. The play was printed in F. 3, 1664. M.] 




Feloups. 1 This is his chamber, lets enter, heeres his clarke. 

President. Fondling, faid he, fince I have hem'd thee heere, 
Within the circuit of this Ivory pale. 

Drap. I pray you fir help us to the fpeech of your matter. 

Pre. lie be a parke, and thou fhalt be my Deere. 
He is very bufie in his ftudy. 
Feed where thou wilt, in mountaine or on dale j 
Stay a while, he will come out anon. 
Graze on my lips, and when thofe mounts are drie, 
Stray lower, where the pleafant fountaines lie. 
Go thy way thou beft booke in the world. 

Ve. I pray you, fir, what booke doe you read ? 

Pre. A book that never an Orators clarke in this kingdomb 
but is beholden unto ; it is called maides philofophie, or Ve.nm 
and Adonis. Looke you, gentlemen, I have divers other pretty 

Drap. You are very well ftorde, fir; but I hope your mailer 
will not ftay long. 

Pre. No, he will come prefently. Enter Mefhant. 

Ve. Who have we heere ? another Client fure, crowes flock to 
carkafles : O tis the lord Mejhant. 

Me. Save you, Gentlemen ; fir is your matter at any leafure ? 

Pre. Heere fit thee downe where never ferpent hiflfe;, 
And being fet ile fmother thee with kifles. 
His bufinefles yet are many, you mutt needes attend a while. 
The Dumbe Knight. 1608, sign. F. [4/0.] 

1 We here find Machin quoting almost the same passages from Venus 
and Adonis as Heywood. See the extract, p. 177. C. M. I. 




" I have conveyed away all her wanton pamphlets j as Hero 
and Lean der, Venus and Adonis; O, two luscious marrow-bone 
pies for a young married wife ! " 

A Mad World, my Masters. Middleton 's Works, ed. Dyce, 
1840, ii. 340. 

The jealous Harebrain is speaking of his newly-married wife. H. C. 

rvlr. Hll.-Phillipps, in his Discursive Notes on Rom. andjul., p. 115, says 
that there is a quotation from R. 6 J. in John Day's Humour otit of 
Breath, 1608. Not being up in his Ovid, he no doubt alludes to this 
passage : 

" Oct. Tut, louers othes, like toyes writ down in sands [F 2. 

Are soone blowne ore, contracts are common wiles, 
T' intangle fooles, loue himselfe sits and smiles 
At louers periuries, " 

Humour out of breath./ A Comedie / Diuers times latelie 
acted, / By the Children / Of / The Kings Reuells.l 
Written / By / lohn Day./ Printed at London for lohn 
Helmes, and are to be sold / at his shop in Saint Dunstans 
Church-yard / in Fleet-street. i6o8./ Actvs Quartos, 
sign. F 2, and back (p. 55, ed. A. H. Bullen, 1881). 

But, as Mr. Bullen notes in his Introduction, p. 95, this is one of the 
many allusions to Ovid's lines, Ars Am. 1. 633-4 : 

" Juppiter ex alto perjuria ridet amantum, 
Et jubet Aeolios irrita ferre notos." 

'Shakespeare, as everybody knows, has alluded to this passage of Ovid in 
Rom. and JuL ii. 2.' [95.] 

" At Louers periuries they say loue smiles." Q I. ' laughes,' Q 2. 

F. J. F. 


* JOHN DAY, 1608. 

Joculo. But Madam, doe you remember what a multitude 
of rimes we faw at Sea? and I doe wonder how they can all 
live by one another. 

Emilia. Why foole, as men do on the Land, the great ones 
eate up the little ones. 


Polymetes. What ominous news ' can Polimetes daunt i 
Have we not Hyren heere ? 

Law Tricks, a comedy, 1608, signs. B 3 and F '2. 

[Mr. A. H. Bullen (Athenaum, Sept. 21, 1878) points out that John Day 
here copies a part of the Fishermen's talk in Pericles^ Act II. sc. i. 

" 3 Fish. Master I marvel how the fishes live in the sea. 
I. Fish. Why, as men do a-land, the great ones eat up the little ones." 

Pericles was entered on the Stationers' Register on 20 May, 1608*. Day's 
Law Tricks was entered on the Register 28 March, 1608. 

George Wilkins' novel, The Painfull Adventures of Pericles, which 
appeared in the same year, "in great measure founded upon" Shakespere's 
play, says Dr. Dowden (Shakespere Primer, 1877, p. 145), gives the same 
passage in a different form, " Againe comparing our rich men to Whales, 
that make a great shew in the worlde, rowling and tumbling up and downe, 
but are good for little, but to sincke others : that the fishes live in the sea, 
as the powerfull on shoare, the great ones eate up the little ones." (Prof. 
Mommsen's reprint, Oldenburg, 1857, p. 27. Fourth chapter.) 

Pistol's exclamation "Have we not Hiren here?" (2 Hen. IV, Act II. 
sc. iv.) is also used by Day ; it seems to have been a popular " play-scrap," 

* Pericles, of which Shakespere probably wrote only the main parts of the last 
three acts, was printed in quarto in 1609 (twice), and was reprinted from the 
sixth quarto of 1635 in the second issue of the Third Folio of Shakespere's 
Plays, 1664. See Furnivall's Introd. to the Leopold Shakespere., 1877, 
p. Ixxxviii (where 1644 is a misprint for 1664) ; and the Cambridge 
Shakespere, 1866, Vol. I, p. xxvii ; vol. IX, p. ix. 

JOHN DAY, 1608. I9 I 

one of the current phrases of the day ; Dyce considers that it was probably 
taken by Shakespere as well as by other writers from George Peele's lost 
drama, The Turkish Mahomet and Hiren the Fair Greek (ed. of Shakespere, 
1864, vol. iv. p. 344, note). Steevens gives the quotation as occurring in 
Massinger's Old Law, T. Heywood's Love's Mistress, and Satiromastix 
(Malone and Steevens' Shakespere, 1821, vol. xvii. p. 83). It is also found 
in Chapman, Jonson, and Marston's Eastward Hoe, Act II. sc. i, spoken 
by Quicksilver, who is constantly quoting scraps of plays. William Barksted 
published his Poem Hiren, or the faire Greeke in 1611. See Dr. Grosart's 
Reprint of the Poems of W. Barksted, 1876. L. T. S.] 

* ROBERT ARMIM, 1608. 

Ther are, as Hamlet faies, things cald whips in ftore. 

A I Nest of Ninnies 1 / Simply of themselves without I Com- 
pound I Stultorum plena sunt omnia./ By Robert 
Armin.l London:/ Printed by T. E. for lohn Deane. 
l6o8./ Repr. Old Shakespeare Soc. 1842, ed. J. P. 
Collier, p. 55, /. 8. 

Mr. Collier's note, p. 67, is : "No such passage is to be found in Shake- 
speare's Hamlet, as it has come down to us, either in the editions of 1603, 
1604, or in any later impression, Possibly Armin may refer to the old 
Hamlet which preceded Shakespeare's tragedy ; but this seems unlikely, 
as he was an actor in the same theatre as that for which Shakespeare 
wrote. 2 " 

Mr. Hall. -P. says that the sentence above seems to have been well-known 
and popular, for it is partially cited in the Spanish Tragedie, 1592, and in 
the First Part of the Contention, 1594 (Mem. on Hamlet, 1879, p. 19). 

On looking up the latter of these vague references, the reader will find 
that the passage is : 

" Hum.[phrey\. My Maisters of saint Albones, 

Haue you not Beadles in your Towne, 

And things called whippes ? " 3 

(ed. Halliwell, Old Shakespeare Soc. 1843, p. 23), with a note on p. 87, 
quoting Mr. Collier's comment, and making the following suggestion, 
doubtless long since repented of: "It is not impossible that Armin may 
have confused the two plays together, and wrote incorrectly ' as Hamlet 
saies,' instead of ' as Gloster saies.' " 

1 The Nest of Ninnies is but "a reprint of Armin's Foolevpon Foole, 1605 
(Mr. Huth, unique), with certain alterations," according to Mr. Hazlitt. 
Handbook, p. 12. 

* Armin belonged to Lord Chandos's Players : see Collier's Lives of 
Actors, p. 196, &c. B. N. 

3 Collier, Shakespeare s Library, Vol. V. p. 445. Second Part of K. 
Hen. VI, II. i. 

ROBERT ARMIN, 1608. 193 

The first reference is not, I assume, to Isabella's speech in Span. Trag. 
Act IV, ed. 1594, Sign. F4, back (Hazlitt's Dodsley, v. 94-5) 

Isa\bell\. " Why, did I not giue you gowne and goodly things, 
Bought you a whistle and a whipstalke too ; 
To be reuenged on their villanies." 

though that is the only one I see in the (7)1592 play, but to two later 
lines (ib. p. 105) of Hieronimo's in Ben Jonson's ' Additions ' of 1601 (see 
note there, p. 103) : 

"Well, heauen is heauen still, 
And there is Nemesis and Furies, 
And things called whippes. 
And they do sometimes meete with murderers, 
They doe not alwayes scape, that's some comfort. " 1 

So 1623, 4. G2, back, 63, and 1633 ed., ibid. P. A. L. 
May not this phrase, as well as the 'trout with four legs,' from Jn. Clarke's 
Par&miologia, 1639, p. 432, below, be part of some actor's gag not 
Burbage's, I hope. [K. J. F.] 

1 The Spanish Tragedy, 1610 (04). Actus Tertius. Hieronimo. 


ROBERT ARMIN, 1608, 1609. 

(1) Likewife moft affable Lady, kinde and debonere, the fecond 
of the rirft which I fawcily lalute, pardon I pray you the bold- 
nes of a Begger, who hath been writ downe for an Afle in his 
time, & pleades under forma pauperis in it ftill, not-withftanding 
his Conftablefhip and Office : 

(2) / hauefeene the Jiars at midnight in your focieties, and might 
have Commenjl like an Affe as I was, but I lackt liberty in that, 
yet I was admitted in Oxford to be of Chrifts Church, while they 
of Al-foules gaue ay me : Juch as knew me remember my meaning.^ 

(3) tho not fo quaint 

As courtly dames or earths bright treading ftarres, 
They are maids of More-clacke, homely milke-bob things, 
Such as I loue, and faine would marry well. 

(4) Scarlet is fcarlet, and her fin blood red, 
Wil not be wafht hence with a fea of water, 

(1) Dedication of The Italian Taylor, and his Boy, 1609. 

(2) Epistle-dedicatory before A Nest of Ninnies, 1608. 

(3) The Historie of the two Maids of More-clacke (S\g. C, bk.). 

(4) Ibid. (Sig. E 2). 

Mr. J. P. Collier first noticed (i) as proof that R. A. had played Dog- 
berry. 1 I would add (2) as a second evidence, because like the first it is 
brought as it were by head and shoulders into the context. (3) is a remem- 
brance of Rom. & jul, I. ii. 1. 25,2 and (4) of Macbeth, II. ii. 60-3 

t The old Shakespeare Soc. reprint, 1842, p. 3, reads 'measures,' not 
' meaning.' 

1 O that I had been writ down an ass ! Much Ado, V. ii. 89-90. 
2 At my poor house, look to behold this night, 
Earth-treading stars that make dark heaven light. 

ROBERT ARMIN, 1608, 1609. 


Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean from my hand ? No, this my hand will rather 
The multitudinous seas incarnadine, 
Making the green one red. 

There are other expressions in Armin which recal Shakespeare, notably 

The divell has scripture for his damned ill. Two Maids. 

What is thy haste in leathe steept. Ibid. 

which maybe paralleled by The Mer. of Ven., I. iii. 89, l Twelfth Night, 
IV. i. 66, 2 and An. and Cleop., II. vii. II4, 3 but these, like others, may 
have been ordinary phrases of the day. B. N. 

1 Mark you this, Bassanio, 
The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose. 

2 Let Fancy still my sense in Lethe steep. 

3 Till that the conquering wine hath steep'd our sens 
Tn soft and delicate Lethe. 

NOTE. The identification of 2 above with Dogberry's words in Muck 
Ado is somewhat dubious. It seems rather to refer to Falstaff's words on 
Justice Shallow's career in Grays Inn. See 2 Henry IV, III, iii, 229 : 

" Falstaff. We have heard the chimes at midnight, Master Shallow. 
Shal. That we have," &c. M. 


(died 1625), 1608-25. 

[The quotations are from Dyce's edition, in eleven volumes, 8vo, Moxon, 
1843-6. In the left-hand column are B. and F.'s words ; in the right, the 
parallel passages, from Dyce's notes. I have left out a few which seem to 
me straind beyond bearing. F. J. F.] 

But how can I 

Look to be heard of gods that must 

be just, 

Praying upon the ground I hold by 
wrong ? 

? 1 608-10 (printed 1620). Phi- 
faster, II. iv. Works, i. 

But there is 

Divinity about you, that strikes dead 
My rising passions : as you are my 

I fall before you. 

? 1610 (printed 1619). The 
Maid's Tragedy, Act III. 
sc. i. Works, i. 369. 

Arane [the penitent Queen-mother 
of King Arbaces, kneels to him] 

As low as this I bow to you ; and 

As low as to my grave, to shew a 

Thankful for all your mercies. 

' In this sentiment our authors seem 
to be copying Shakespeare, in a 
noble passage of his Hamlet : 
" Forgive me my foul murder ! 
That cannot be; since I am possess'd 
Of those effects for which I did the 

My crown, mine own ambition, and 

my queen. 
May one be pardon'd, and retain the 

offence?" &c. Theobald. 

' So Shakespeare said, before our 
poets, in his Hamlet : 
" Let him go, Gertrude ; do not fear 

our person : 
Therms such divinity doth hedge a 

That treason can but peep to what it 

Acts little of his will." Theobald. 

"There is a fine passage, upon a 
similar occasion, in Shakespeare's 
Coriolanus, to which our authors 
might possibly have an eye : 

' Volumnia. Oh, stand up bless'd 
Whilst with no softer cushion than 
the flint 

BEAUMONT (d. l6l6) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 197 

Arbaces Oh, stand up, 

And let me kneel ! the light will be 

To see observance done to me by 


Arane. You are my king. 
Arbaces. You are my mother : 

1611 (printed 1619). A King 
and no King, III. i. Works, 
ii. 275. 

Arb. If there were no such instru- 
ments as thou, 

We kings could never act such wicked 

ib. III. iii, end. Works, ii. 

tell me of a fellow 
That can mend noses ? and complain, 

so tall 
A soldier should want teeth to his 

stomach ? 

And how it was great pity, that it was, 
That he that made my body was so 


He could not stay to make my legs 
too. ... 

1613. Fletcher's Captain 
(printed in ist Folio, 1647), 
II. i. Works, iii. 246. 

"Base is the slave commanded:" 
come to me 

The little French Lawyer, IV. 
vi. Works, iii. 541. 

Look up, brave friend. I have no 

means to rescue thee : 
" My kingdom for a sword ! " 

I kneel before thee ; and unproperly 
Show duty, as mistaken all the while 
Between the child and parent. 

Coriolanus. What is this ? 
Your knees to me? to your corrected 

[act v. sc. 3]. Theobald." 

'The Editors ot 1778 cite the 
passage in Shakspere's King John, 
IV. ii. : 

It is the curse of kings to be attended 
By slaves that take their humours 

for a warrant 
To break within the bloody house of 

life; &c.' 

' Weber says, " Perhaps the poet 
had the following line of Hotspur's 
speech in King Henry IV, Part I, 
in his mind : 

And that it was great pity, so it 
was," &c.' 

' A parody on Pistol's exclamation 
"Base is the slave that pays!" 
Shakespeare's Henry V, act ii, sc. I.' 

'Another parody on Shakespeare ; 
" My kingdom for a horse ! " 
Richard III, act v. sc. 4.' 

198 BEAUMONT (d. 1616) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 

Zanthia. Then know, 

It was not poison, but a sleeping 

Which she receiv'd ; yet of sufficient 


So to bind up her senses, that no sign 
Of life appear'd in her ; and thus 

thought dead, 

In her best habit, as the custom is, 
You know, in Malta, with all cere- 

She's buried in her family monu- 
In the Temple of St. John : I'll 

bring you thither, 
Thus, as you are disguis'd. Some 

six hours hence, 
The potion will leave working. 

before March 1 61 8- 1 9 (printed 
1647). Fletcher. The Knight 
of Malta, IV. i, end. Works, 
v. 177- 

Beliza by my life, 

The parting kiss you took before 

your travel 

Is yet a virgin on my lips, preserv'd 
With as much care as I would do 

my fame, 
To entertain your wish'd return. 

1616-18 (printed 1647). The 
Queen of Corinth, I. ii ; 
Works, v. 403. 

I yet remember when the Volga curl'd, 
The aged Volga, when he heav'd his 

head up, 
And rais'd his waters high, to see 

the ruins, 

The ruins our swords made, the 
bloody ruins : 

1618 (printed 1647). Fletcher. 
The Loyal Subject, I. iii. 
Works t vi. 1 6. 

' This speech bears an obvious 
similitude to one of Friar Laurence 
in Shakespeare's Romeo and Jidiet 
[act iv. sc. 5. 1 D.]. Ed. 1778.' 

1 See too IV. i. 92 115. 

[Then gave I her, so tutor'd by my 

A sleeping potion ; which so took 


As I intended, for it wrought on her 
The form of death. V. iii. 242-5] 
[ and, as the custom is, 

In all her best array bear her her to 

church. IV. v. 80- 1.] 

[meantime I writ to Romeo, 
That he should thither come as this 

dire night, 
To help to take her from her bor- 

row'd grave, 
Being the time the potion's force 

should cease. V. iii. 245-9] 

4 The writer was thinking here of a 
passage in Shakespeare's Coriolamis ; 
44 Now by the jealous queen of 

heaven, that kiss 
I carried from thee, dear ; and my 

true lip 
Hath virgin'd it e'er since." Act v. 

sc. 3.' 

4 Here, as Reed notices, Fletcher 
seems to have had an eye to a pas- 
sage in Shakespeare's Henry IV. 
(First Part) act i. sc. 3 ; 
44 Three times they breath'd, and 

three times did they drink, 
Upon agreement, of swift Severn's 

flood ; 
Who then, affrighted with their 

bloody looks, 

BEAUMONT (d. l6l6) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 1 99 

Ran fearfully among the trembling 

And hid his crisp head in the hollow 

Blood-stained with these valianr 


sure, to tell 
of Caesar's amorous heats : and how 

he fell 
In the Capitol *, 1 can never be the 

To the judicious : nor will such 

Those that penn'd this for barrenness, 

when they find 
Young Cleopatra here . . . 
We treat not of what boldness she 

did die,t 

Nor of her fatal love to Antony . . . 

(printed 1647) The False One. 

Prologue. Works, vi. 217. 

* An allusion to Shakespeare's 
"Julius Ccesar [wherein he is made to 
die in the Capitol, instead of in the 
Curia Pompeii, where the Senate 
met, in the Campus Martius.j 

f An allusion to Shakespeare's 
Antony and Cleopatra. [? F.] 

1 " So in Fletcher and (?) Shirley's Noble Gentleman, (licenst after 
Fletcher's death in 1625 on Feb. 3, 1625-6, pr. 1647,) V. i. Works, 
1846, x. 186 

" So Caesar fell, when in the Capitol 
They gave his body two-and-thirty wounds." 

' Here we have two blunders,' says Sympson ; 'the first with respect 
to the place where Caesar fell, which was not in the Capitol, but in Curia 
Pompeii ; the other as to the number of wounds he fell by : as to the first, 
it was a blunder peculiar to the playwrights of that time ; Shakespeare began 
it in Hamlet, act iii. sc. 2 . . . . 

'* Polonius. I did enact Julius Caesar : I was killed i' the Capitol" 

' Our authors, treading in their master's steps, took up the same mistake 
here ; and after them Shakerley Marmion, in his Antiquary, inadvertently 
continued the same error, making Veterano say, 

"And this was Julius Caesar's hat when he was killed in the Capitol" 

( As for the second fault, 'twas made no where but at the press, for the 
number (I suppose) in the original MS. was wrote in figures, thus, 23, 
which, by an easy [mistake,] shifting place, was altered to 32, and thus we 
have nine wounds more than Caesar ever received,' SYMPSON. 'The 
notion that Julius Caesar was killed in the Capitol is as old as Chaucer's 
time : see Malone's note on the above-cited passage of Hamlet,'' " Dyce, 

200 BEAUMONT (d. 1616) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 

Celia How does he ? 

Governess. Oh, God, my head ! 
Celia. Prithee be well, and tell me, 
Did he speak of me since he came ? 
(printed 1647). Fletcher. The 
Humorous Lieutenant, III. 
ii. Works, vi. 467 [see the 
whole scene.] 

' A recollection of Shakespeare's 
Romeo and Juliet, act ii. sc. 5 
Nurse. Lord, how my head aches, 

Petronius. Thou fond man 

Hast thou forgot the ballad, Crabbed 


Can May and January match- to- 
And never a storm between 'em ? 

(pr. 1647). Fletcher. The Wo- 
man! s Prize, or The Tamer 
Tamed [" avowedly intend- 
ed to form the Second Part" 
of Shakspere's Shrew\ IV. 
i. Works, vii. 172. 

Rowland. Swear to all these . . . 

Tra. I will .... 

Let's remove our places.* 

Swear it again. 

ib. V. iii. Works, vii. 206. 

Petruchio. Come : something I'll 
do ; but what it is, I know not. 

Woman" 's Prize, II. iv, end. 
Works, vii. 142. 

' The well-known lines by Shake- 
speare, contained in his Passionate 
Pilgrim.'' [And though this collec- 
tion was by no means all Shakspere's 
(see Introd. to Leopold Shaksp., p. 
xxxv, and after, p. 231), yet I in- 
cline to think that Crabbed Age may 
be his. F.] 

* "This is plainly a sneer at the 
scene in Hamlet [i. 5] where (on ac- 
count of the Ghost calling under the 
stage) the prince and his friends two 
or three times remove their situa- 
tions. Again, in this play, p. 142, Pe- 
truchio's saying [opposite] seems to 
be meant as a ridicule on Lear's pas- 
sionate exclamation [act ii. sc. 4], 

1 will do such things 

What they are, yet I know not." 

J. N. Ed. 1778. 

' Nonsense : there is more of com- 
pliment than "sneer "in these recol- 
lections of Shakespeare.' Dyce. 
' And so say all of us. ' F. 

Mirabel. Well ; I do take thee ' Here our poet was thinking of 

upon mere compassion ; what Benedick 1 says to Beatrice at 

And I do think I shall love thee. the conclusion of Shakespeare's Much 

1621 (pr. 1679). Fletcher. Ado about Nothing; 

The Wild-Goose Chase, V. " Come, I will have thee ; but by 

vi. Works, 1845, vin '- 20 5- this light, I take thee for pity." 

BEAUMONT (d. l6l6) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 2OT 

[For the "Farewell, pride and pomp ! " &c. from Fletcher's Prophetess, 
licenst May 14, 1622, pr. 1647, see p. 295, set before Dyce's edition was 
referrd to. ] 

t . [on the last line opposite,] 
says Steevens, " there seems to be a 
sneer at this character of Bottom [in 
AT. N. Dr.] ; but I do not very 
clearly perceive its drift. . ." Note 
on M. N. Dr. act v. sc. I. 

Higgen. Then bear up bravely 

with your Brute, t my lads ! 
Higgen hath prigg'd the prancers in 

his days, 
And sold good penny-worths : we 

will have a course ; 
The spirit of Bottom is grown bot- 

(pr. 1647). Fletcher. Beggars' 
Bush,% V. ii. Works, ix. 103. 

Chatillton. Sir, you shall know This seems a flirt on the English 

My love's true title, mine by marriage, king's title to France, in Henry the 

[He then sets it forth, 1 more Fifth.' Theobald. 'Not a flirt, 

J I put in a note the following lines from this play, Beggar's Bush, II. i 
Works, viii. 29, 

' ' under him, 

Each man shall eat his own stoln eggs and butter, 
In his own shade or sun-shine, and enjoy 
His own dear dell, doxy, or mort, at night, 
In his own straw, with his own shirt or sheet 
That he hath filch'd that clay. " 

as I'm certain that Fletcher is here only parodying his own lines in that 
Henry VIII which he completed from Shakspere's unfinisht leaves. Dyce 
does not give Shakspere the lines, but calls them " the words of Cranmer 
concerning Q. Elizabeth in Shakespeare's Henry the Eighth, act v. sc. 4 ; 

" In her days every man shall eat in safety, 
Under his own vine, what he plants, and sing 
The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours." 

1 Setting aside the first race of French 

Which will not here concern us, as 

With Clodion, Meroveus, and Chil- 


And to come down unto the second 

Which we will likewise slip .... 

of M artel Charles 

The father of king Pepin, who was 


202 BEAUMONT (d. l6l6) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 

shortly than, tho after the manner of, certainly, but an innocent parody.' 

the Archbishop in Shakspere'sJ&tt?? Weber. 

V. I. ii.] 

1626 (pr. 1647). ? Shirley & 
Fletcher. The Noble Gen- 
tleman, III. iv. B. & F.'s 
Works, x. 1 60. 

Take, oh, take those lips away, 
That so sweetly were forsworn, 

And those eyes, like break of day, 
Lights that do mislead the morn ! 

But my kisses bring again, 

Seals of love, though seal'd in vain. 

Hide, oh, hide those hills of snow, 
Which thy frozen bosom bears, 
&c., &c. 

(pr. 1639) Fletcher & Row- 
ley (?) . The Bloody Brother, 
or, RolloDtike of Normandy, 
V. ii. Works, x. 459. 

" The first stanza of this song (with 
two very trifling variations) occurs in 
Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, 
act iv. sc. i, and both stanzas are 
found in the spurious edition of his 
poems, 1640. In a long note to 
which I refer the reader (Malone's 
Shakespeare, xx. 417 [Variorum, 
1821]), Boswell urges the probability 
that the song was composed neither 
by Shakespeare nor Fletcher, but by a 
third unknown writer : I am inclined, 
however, to believe that it was from 
the pen of the great dramatist.'' 
Dyce. It is now generally given to 
'Kit Marlowe,' on Isaac Walton'? 

Clarange. Myself and (as I then 

deliver'd to you) 
A gentleman of noble hope, one 

Both brought up from our infancy 

One company, one friendship, and 

one exercise 
Ever affecting, one bed holding us, 

' In this description of the friendship 
of Clarange and Lydian, our author 
seems to have intended an imitation 
of the excellent, account of female 
friendship in Shakespeare's M. N. 
Dream, Hi. 2.' REED. 

O ! is all forgot ? 

All school-days' friendship, childhood 
innocence ? 

To Charles, the great and famous I Hugh Capet was the first ; 

Charlemagne ; I Next his son Robert, Henry then, 

And to come to the third race of 

French kings, 
Which will not be greatly pertinent 

in this cause 

Betwixt the king and me, of which 
you know 

and Philip, 

With Louis, and his son, a Louis too, 
And of that name the seventh : but 

all this 
Springs from a female, as it shall 


BEAUMONT (d. 1616) AND FLETCHER (d. 1625), 1608-25. 2O 3 

One grief, and one joy parted still 

between us, 
More than companions, twins in all 

our actions, 
We grew up till we were men, held 

one heart still. 
Time call'd us on to arms ; we were 

one soldier . . . 
When arms had made us fit, we were 

one lover, 
We lov'd one woman 

(pr. 1647) Fletcher & (?) Mas- 
singer. The Lovers' Pro- 
gress^ II. i. Works, xi. 46. 

Diego. . . . instinct, signior, 
Is a great matter in an host. 

(pr. 1647) Fletcher & Mas- 
singer; Lovers Pilgrimage, 
I. ii. Works, xi. 247. 

We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 
Have with our needles created both 

one dower, 
Both on one sampler, sitting on one 

Both warbling of one song, both in 

one key, 
As if our hands, our sides, voices, 

and minds, 
Had been incorporate. So we grew 

Like to a double cherry, seeming 


But yet an union in partition ; 
Two lovely berries moulded on one 

stem ; 
So, with two seeming bodies, but 

one heart ; 

Two of the first, like coats in her- 
Due but to one, and crowned with 

one crest. 

' Steevens has observed, that this 
is the same phrase used by Falstaff 
. . . "but beware instinct ; the lion 
will not touch the true prince. , In- 
stinct is a great matter" [i Hen. IV. 
II. iv. 299-300.] The passage in the 
text seems to have been suggested by 
the one quoted from Shakespeare.' 



stage piaiers. Some followed her * by *a6ting all mens parts, 
Thefe on a Stage fhe raifd (in icorne) to fall : 
And made them Mirrors, by their ating Arts, 
vi C + es S of e Km e e . Wherin men law their f faults, thogh ne'r fo imall : 

: W.S.R.B. Yet fome ihe guerdond not, to their $ defarts ; 
But, otherfome, were but ill-A6tion all : 
Who while they afted ill, ill ftaid behinde, 
(By cuftome of their maners) in their minde. 

The Civile Warres of Death and Fortune, [being the "Second Tale " 
in the -volume of which "Humours Heav'n on Earth" is the 
first}. 1609, /. 208, stanza 76. [sm. 8vo.] 

Reprinted by Rev. A. B. Grosart in the Chert sey Worthies Library, 
1876, /. 37. 

1 The "her " is Fortune. For W. S. and R. B., see John Davies, quoted 
before, p. 126. C. M. I. 



In a new mould this woman I will cast, 

Her tongue in other order I will keepe, 

Better she had bin in her bed afleepe, 

Then in a Taverne, when those words fhe fpake j 

A little paines with her I meane to take : 

For fhe mall find me in another tune, 

Between this February and next June : 

In fober fadnefle I do fpeake it now, 

And to you all I make a solemne vow, 

The chiefeft Art I have I will beftow 

About a worke cald taming of the Shrow. 

Whole Crew of Kind Gossips. 1609. p. 33. 
Reprinted by the Hunterian Club, 1876. 

[This is part of the answer of the fifth of the " Six honest Husbands " who 
are all accused by their wives or " Gossips " He was "complained on by 
his wife to be a common Drunkard." 

The old play of The Taming of A Shrew, on which Shakespere's play is 
founded, was printed in 1594 ; his play of the Taming of the Shrew 'was not 
printed till 1623, but it seems most likely to have been written not later than 
1597. L. T. S.j 














T. T. 

Shakespeards Sonnets. 1609. [4/0.] Dedication. 

The entry of this edition of the Sonnets in the Stationers' Registers runs 

20 Maij L z 6o9] 

Thomas Thorpe. Entred for his copie under thandes of master Wilson 
and master Lownes Warden a Booke called SHAKESPEARES sonnettes. 
C. M. I. 


A never Writer to an ever Reader. NEWES. 

Eternall reader, you have heere a new play, never ftal'd with 
the Stage, never clapper-clawd with the palmes of the vulger, 
and yet paffing full of the palme comicall ; for it is a birth of 
your tthat] braine, that never under-tooke any thing commicall, 
vainely : And were but the vaine names of commedies changde 
for the titles of Commodities, or of Playes for Pleas j you mould 
fee all thofe grand cenfors, that now ftile them fuch vanities, 
flock to them for the maine grace of their gravities ; efpecially 
this authors Commedies, that are fo fram'd to the life, that 
they ferve for the moft common Commentaries of all the 
actions of our lives, mewing fuch a dexteritie and power ot 
witte, that the moft difpleafed with Playes, are pleafd with 
his Commedies. And all fuch dull and heavy-witted worldlings, 
as were never capable of the witte of a Commedie, comming 
by report of them to his reprefentations, have found that witte 
there, that they never found in themfelves, and have parted 
better-wittied then they came ; feeling an edge of witte fet upon 
them, more than ever they dreamd they had braine to grinde 
tt oil. So much and fuch favoured fait of witte is in his 
Commedies, that they feeme (for their height of pleafure) to be 
borne in that fea that brought forth Venus. Amongft [Venus & Adonis] 
all there is none more witty then this : And had I time I would 
comment upon it, though I know it needs not, (for fo much as 
will make you thinke your teiterne well beftowd) but for fo 

2 o8 1609. 

much worth, as even poore I know to be ftuft in it. It deferves 
fuch a labour, as well as the belt Commedy in Terence or Plautus, 
And beleeve this, that when hee is gone, and his Commedies out 
of fale, you will (bramble for them, and let up a new Englifh 
Inquifition. Take this for a warning, and at the perrill of your 
pleafures lofle, and Judgements, refuie not, nor like this the 
lefle, for not being fullied, with the fmoaky breath of the 
multitude ; but thanke fortune for the fcape it hath made amongft 
you. Since by the grand poffeflors wills, I beleeve you mould 
have prayd for them rather then beene prayd. And fo I leave 
all fuch to bee prayd for (for the Hates of their wits healths) that 
will not praife it. VALE. 

Address prefixed fo Troilus and Cressida. [Some copies only o) 
the first issue of 1609. First 4/0.] 

[There is here an ingenious and delicate allusion, after the far-fetcht fashion 
of the day, to one of Shakespere's previous pieces, i. e. Venus and Adonis, 
when the writer speaks of Shakespere's comedies having so much of the salt 
of wit that they seem to be born in the sea that brought forth Venus. L. T. S.] 


Anonymous, 1609. 

Amazde I flood, to fee a Crowd 

Of Civill Throats ftretchd out fo lowd ; 

(As at a New-play) all the Roomes 

Did fwarme with Gentiles mix'd with Groomes, 

So that I truly thought all Thefe 

Came to fee Shore or Pericles. 

Pimlyco or Runne Red- Cap. Tis a mad world 
at Hogsdon. 1609. [4^.] Sign. C /, line 6. 
9 (BodL Libr.}} 

The play referred to under the name of "Shore " may be one by Henry 
Chettle and John Day, circa 1599, entitled Shore's Wife. It is mentioned 
by Henslowe in his Diary (1603), Shakespeare Society's Edition, p. 251 ; 
Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Knight of the Burning Pestle (Induction, 
1613, probably written 1611), speak also of a Play on the same story : the 
Wife says, 

" I was nere at one of these plays as they say, before ; but I should have 
scene Jane Shore once," 

and Christopher Brooke in The Ghost of Richard the Third (His Legend] : 
"But now her fame by a vild play doth grow." 

(Fuller Worthies Library, 1872, p. 94.) The play is not extant. 

[The play referred to as "Shore " may be one by T. Heywood, printed 
in 1600, entitled The first and second parts of King Edward the Fourth, &>c. 
It contains the whole history of Jane Shore. P. A. D.] 

The first edition of Pericles came out in 1609. See before, p. 190. 
C. M. I. 



BEN JONSON, 1609. 

Morofe. Your knighthood * * * (hall not have hope to 
repaire it felfe by Conjlant'mople, Ireland, or Virginia ; but the 
beft, & laft fortune to it Knight-hood lhall bee, to make Dol 
Teare-Jlieet , or Kate-Common a Lady: & fo, it Knight-hood may 

Epicene; or, The Silent Woman, Act IL sc. v. end. 1609. [4/</.] 

[Doll Tear-sheet, of the Second Part of Henry IV, was long in the popular 
mind. See extract from Ligon's Voyage, in 1657- L. T. S. ] 

? About i6lc. A MS. copy of Shakspere's 8th Sonnet. 



Muficke to heare, why heareft thou Mulicke fadly 
Sweete w l . h fweetes warre not, Joy delights in Joy 

Why loueft y" that w^ h thou receauefl not gladly 
or els receaueft w 4 . h plealure thine annoy 


If the true Concord of well tuned Sounds 

By Vnions maried doe offend thy eare 
They doe but Iweetlie chide thee, whoe confounds 

To iinglenes a parte, w^ 1 1 thou Ihouldfl beare 

Marke howe one tiringe, fweet huiband to another 

Strikes each on 2 each, by mutuall orderinge 

Refemblinge Childe, & Syer, 3 and happy Mother 

w? h 4 all in one, this Jingle note dothe 5 finge 

whole fpeechles longe beeinge many ieeming one 
Sings this to thee, Thou lingle, lhalt 6 prouenone. 

(Readings of the Quarto, 1609.) 

1 the parts that. 2 in. 3 sier, and child. 

4 who. 5 one pleasing note do. 6 wilt. 

This occurs in a little miscellany of Poems, &c., the Addit. MS. 15,226 
in the British Museum. It is in a hand of the earlier part of James I's 
reign, and has some worthless various readings. As I'd not seen a print of 
it before, and it wasn't notist in the Cambridge Shakspere, I copied it and 
sent it to the Academy, and then found it in Halliwell's Folio Shakspere. 
F. J. F. 



In Fir of urn. 

HOw Fal/lqflike, doth fweld Pirqfus looke, 
As though his paunch did fofter euery finne : 
And fweares he is iniured by this booke, 
His worth is taxt he hath abufed byn : 
Swell Hill yj/rdjuSf burft with emulation, 
I neither taxe thy vice rior reputation. 

MORE FOOLES yd. Written by R. S. [Small 
Plate. ] At LONDON, Printed for Thomas Castleton, 
and are to be sold at his shop without Cripple-gate. An. 
1 6 10. Bodleian (M alone 299) 4/0. sign. E 3. "To 
the Reader " is signed ''Roger Sharped 

Quoted (and partly modernizd) in Mr. Halliwell's Character of Sir John 
Falstaff, 1841, p. 41. The quotation there on p. 42, from the document 
printed by Mr. Collier, was evidently made in that innocence of incapacity 
to distinguish between a genuine and a forgd MS. which Mr. Halliwell, 
oddly enough, often showd in former days. I quote the bit x only to show 
what sham old-spelling is like : A character is to be dressed " ' Like*. Sr Jon 
Falsstaff : in a roabe of russet, quite low, with a great belley, like a swolen 
man, long moustacheos, the sheows shorte, and out of them great toes like 
naked feete : buskins to sheaw a great swolen leg.' " New Facts regarding 
the Life of Shakespeare in a letter to Thomas Amyot, &c., from J. Payne 
Collier, London, 1835, 8vo. p. 39.2 See further extracts on Falstaff, under 
Anon, 1640; John Speed, 1611 ; Anon. 1600. F. J. F. 

1 From Collier, and not with Halliwell's mistakes in reprinting from 
Collier's New Facts?. A. L. 

2 Ingleby's 'Complete View (of the Shakspere Forgeries), p. 310-11; 
N. E. S. A. Hamilton's Inquiry, p. 84 ; Collier, 1860 ; New Facts, p. 




The Choife of Englifh. As for example, language & flyle 
(the apparell of matter) hee who would penn our affaires in 
Englilh, and compofe unto us an entire body of them, ought to 
have a finguler care ther of. For albeit our tongue hath not 
received dialects, or accentuall notes as the Greeke, nor any 
certaine or eftablifhed rule either of gramer or true writing, is 
notwithstanding very copious, and fewe there be who have the 
moft proper graces thereof, In which the rule cannot be variable : 
For as much as the people's judgments are uncertaine, the books 
alfo out of which wee gather the moft warrantable Englim are 
not many to my remembrance, of which, in regard they require 
a particuler and curious tract, I forbeare to fpeake at this prefent. 
But among the cheife, or rather the cheife, are in my opinion 

S r Thomas Moore's works 

George Chapmans firft feaven books of Iliades. 

Samuell Danyell. 

Michael Drayton his Heroicall Epiftles of England. 

Marlowe his excellent fragment of Hero and Leander. 

Shakefpere, M r Francis Beamont, & innumerable other 

writers for the ftage j and prefle tenderly to be ufed in this 

Southwell, Parfons, & fome fewe other of that fort. 

[Hypercritica ; or a Rule of Judgment for writing or reading our 

i histories. Addresse the fourthe.'\ l \ 1 1. Concerning Historicall 

language and Style. An Enumeration of the best Authors for 

written English. Rawlinson MSS. (Oxford}. #.13. D I. 

(formerly Misc. I.) 

1 [The part of the title between [ ] is taken from Haslewood's reprint, it 
is not found in the MS. 

Edmund Bolton's treatise long remained in manuscript, and was first 


printed by Dr. Hall, in 1722, at the end of Nic. Trivetium Annalium Continu- 
atio. Mr. Joseph Haslewood reprinted it, together with what he considers 
the original outline of " Addresse the fourthe" from the Rawlinson MS. 
This outline differs considerably from the printed text, in it Bolton could 
show his high opinion of Shakespere's language, and could press him and 
other stage writers into his service for " the most warrantable English ; " 
but he thought differently when he wrote his fuller work, and the mention 
of Shakespere and Beaumont is there left out. (See Haslewood's Ancient 
Critical Essays upon English Poets and Poesy, 1815, vol. ii. pp. 221, 246.) 

The date 1610 is given to Hypercritica on the authority of a note by 
Antony Wood ; it might possibly be that of the outline, but is probably too 
early for the final version, in which he cites Bishop Montagu's edition of 
King James's works, which came out in 1616 ; he sums up the fourth address 
as " Prime Gardens for gathering English : according to the true Gage or 
Standard of the Tongue, about 15 or 16 years ago." L. T. S.] 



Lundi, 30. S. E[minence]. alia au Globe, lieu ordinaire ou 
Ton Joue les Commedies, y fut reprefente 1'hiftoire du More de 

Journal of Prince Lewis Frederick of Wirtemberg, Representative of 
the United German Princes to France and England, in 1610. 
Written by his Secretary Wurmsser. (British Museum. Add. 
MS. 20,001, fo.(),back.) Printed in W. Brenchley Rye's England 
as seen by Foreigners. 1865. pp. xciv xcix, cxii, 6 61. 

It is not improbable that " cosen garmombles " in the first quarto (1602) 
of the Merry Wives of Windsor (called " Cozen -Jermans " in other editions) 
is a direct reference to Count Mompelgard (in French Montbeliard), Duke 
of Wurtemberg, who visited England in 1592, and the visit of whose second 
son to the Globe Theatre is here recorded by his secretary. 1 In fact, Gar- 
momble is Mombel-gar by metathesis ; and the designation of the Duke as 
" cosen " is an evident allusion to Queen Elizabeth's letters to him. In the 
play the plural ' ' cosen garmombles " seems to be a generic term for the 
suite of the Duke. In the compiler's opinion, Mr. W. B. Rye has 
perfectly identified the allusions in the Introduction of his capital work, 
England as Seen by Foreigners, 1865, p. Iv ; and a more interesting bit of 
Shakespearian illustration has never been recovered than the first visit of the 
Duke to London, Windsor, Maidenhead and Reading, in 1592. (See, also, 
Halliwell's reprint of the First Sketch of the Merry Wives of Windsor, for 
the Shakespeare Society, 1842, Introduction, pp. xii xiv.) 

1 [It seems rather strong to call this a ''direct reference" in a play 
published in 1602 to a visit which happened ten years before. Dr. Dowden, 
however, considers that " such an event would be remembered " (Sh. 
Primer, p. 104). Some think that Shakespere was alluding to a gang of 
cozeners or sharpers who may have been personating the Duke's followers. 
L. T. S.] 


Anonymous, about 1610 {rather after than before). 

In a thick and early small-4to MS. of Latin Treatises in the British 
Museum, Royal MS. A XXI, are 2 lines of Venus and Adonis written 
at the top of the blank 2nd column of leaf 153, back: 

Payer flowers / that are not / gathered in their / prime 
Rot and / confume them/felues in littill / Tyme. 

We owe the reference to Mr. Gilson of the MS. Department of the 
British Museum. M. 


CYRIL TOURNEUR, 1611 (?). 

Soqu(ette). But we want place and opportunity. 

Snu(ft'e). We haue both. This is the backe fide of the Houfe 
which the fuperftitious call Saint Winifred's Church, and is verily 
a conuenient unfrequented place. Where vnder the close Cur- 
taines of the Night ; 

Soq. You purpofe i' the darke to make me light. 

1 The Atheist's Tragedie, IV. iii. Sign. H4. (Tour- 
neur's Plays and Poems. Ed. Churton Collins, 
1878. Vol. I, p. 109.) 

The " close Curtaines of the Night" is an unmistakeable allusion to Rom. 
and Jnl. III. ii. 5, or rather a plagiarism from it. Langenhean Snuffe is 
the hypocritical stage Puritan of the time 

The following speech seems to have been modelled on that of Portia in 
the Merchant of Venice : 


D'Am. Daughter, you doe not well to vrge me. I 

Ha' done no more than lustice. Charlemont 
Shall die and rot in prison ; and 'tis iust. 
Casta. O Father ! Mercie is an attribute 

As high as lustice ; an essentiall part 

1 The- I Atheist's / Tragedie: for, / The Honest Man's Reuenge.f As in 
diuers places it hath often beene Acted / Written I By I Cyril Tourneur./ 
At London, I Printed for John Stepneth and Richard Redmer, / and are to be 
sold at their Shops at / the IVest End of Patties. / 161 1. 4to. 

The play is entered in the Stationers' Books on September nth of the 
same year, but was probably written earlier. The dates of Tourneur's plays 
are very uncertain, but it seems probable that he wrote nothing before 1600. 
Nothing of his is quoted in " England's Parnassus " (1602), and he is not 
named by Henslowe. 

2l8 CYRIL TOURNEUK, l6ll (?). 

Of his vnbounded goodnesse, whose diuine 

Impression, forme, and image man should beare. 

And (me thinks) Man should loue to imitate 

His Mercie ; since the onely countenance 

Of Justice, were destruction ; if the sweet 

And louing fauour of his mercie did 

Not mediate betweene it and our weakenesse. 

The Atheist's Tragedie, III. iv. Sign. 64. ( TourneuSs 
Plays and Poems, ed. Churton Collins ; vol. i. p. 93.) 

What follows is suggestive of the words of Proteus : 

Say that upon the altar of her beauty 

Yow sacrifice your tears, your sighs, your heart 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, III. ii. 73-4 

..... be not displeas'd, if on 
The altar of his Tombe, I sacrifice 
My teares. They are the iewels of my loue 
Dissolued into griefe : and fall vpon 
His blasted Spring ; as Aprill dewe, vpon 
A sweet young blossome shak'd before the time. 

The Atheist's Tragedie, III. i. (1878, vol. i. p. 79). 
Sign. F4, back. 

The whole of the churchyard scene in IV. iii. is suggestive of the church- 
yard scene in Hamlet, and the speech of Charlemont (see p. 5) seems an 
echo of Hamlet's meditations : 

C/for/[emont]. " This graue, Perhappes th' inhabitant was in his life time 
the possessour of his owne desires. Yet in the midd'st of all his greatnesse 
and his wealth ; he was lesse rich and lesse contented, then in this poore piece 
of earth, lower and lesser then a Cottage. For heere he neither wants, nor 
cares. Now that his bodysauours of corruption ; Hee enjoyes a sweeter rest 
than e'er hee did amongst the sweetest pleasures of this life. For heere, 
there's nothing troubles him. And there. In that graue lies another. He 
(perhaps) was in his life as full of miserie as this of happinesse. And here's 
an end of both. Now both their states are equall." Sig. H3, back, H^ 
(ed. 1878, vol. i. p. 106-7). J. N. HETHERINGTON. 



To our Englifh Terence, Mr. Will. 

Some fay (good WiW) which I, in fport, do fing, 
Had'il thou not plaid fome Kingly parts in fport, 
Thou hadft bin a companion for a King ; 
A.nd, beene a King among the meaner fort. 
Some others raile j but, raile as they thinke fit, 
Thou haft no rayling, but, a raigning Wit : 
And honefty thoufow'Jl, which they do reape , 
So, to increafe their Stocke which they do keepe. 

The Scourge of Folly, consisting of Satyricall 
Epigramms and others, <5rv. About 1611. 
[Svo.] Epig. 159,^. 76. 

Reprinted by Rev. A. B. Grosart, in the Chertsey 
Worthies Library, Davies 1 Works, /. 26. 

The commencing lines may refer to a fact related in a letter from John 
Chamberlaine to Winwood, dated December 18, 1604. 

" The Tragedy of Goivry, with all the Action and Actors hath been twice 
represented by the King's Players, with exceeding Concourse of all sorts of 
People. But whether the matter or manner be not well handled, or that it 
be thought unfit that Princes should be played on the Stage in their Life- 
time, I hear that some great Councellors are much displeased with it, and so 
'tis thought shall be forbidden." (Winwood's Memorials, 1725, ii. 41.) 

[It seems likely that these lines refer to the fact that Shakespere was a 
player, a profession that was then despised and accounted mean. For evi- 
dence of this feeling see before, pp. 3, 126, and after, Sir Richard Baker's 
Chronicle, 1643. L. T. S.] 



Another (ah, Lord helpe) mee vilifies 

With Art of Love, and how to fubtilize, 

Making lewd Venus, with eternall Lines, 

To tye Adonis to her loves defignes : 

Fine wit is fhew'n therein : but finer twere 

If not attired in fuch bawdy Geare. 

But be it as it will : the coyell Dames, 

In private read it for their ClofTet-games : 

For, footh to fay, the lines fo draw them on, 

To the venerian fpeculation, 

That will they, nill they (if of flefh they bee) 

They will thinke of it, fith loofe Thought is free. 

Papers Complaint, compiled in truthfull Rimes 

Against the paper- spoylers of these Times. [In 

the Vohtme containing The Scourge of Folly, 

and other poems. About 1611. /. 231.] [4/0.] 

Reprinted by Rev. A. B. Grosart in the Chertsey 

Worthies Library, Dairies' Works, p. 75. 

The first line here quoted is thus given by Drake (who follows Brydges 
Censura Literaria, 1808, vol. vi. p. 276) in his Shakespeare and his Times, 
vol. ii. p. 30 : 

"Another (ah, harde happe) me vilifies 
With art of love," c. C. M. I. 


*LOD. BARREY, 1611. 

[Sir Oliuer Smalefhanke, to his Ion Thomas Smalefhanke] 
I am right harty glad, to heare thy brother 
Hath got fo great an heire: [= has carried off an heirefs], , . 
A, firra, has a borne the wench away. 
My fonne ifaith, my very fonne ifaith, 
When I was yong and had an able back, 
And wore the briflell on my vpper lippe, 
In good Decorum I had as good conuayance, 
And could haue ferd, and ferkt y* away a wench, 
As ioone as eare a man aliue j tut boy 
I had my winks, my becks, treads on the toe 
Wrings by the fingers, fmyles and other quirkes, 
Noe Courtier like me, your Courtiers all are fooles 
To that which I could doe, I could haue done it boy, 
Euen to a hare, and that iome Ladies know. 

Ram- Alley : / Or \ Merrie- Trickes. / A Comedy / Diners 
times here-to-fore acted. / By / the Children / of / the 
Kings Reuels.j Written by Lo : Barrey./ At London f 
Printed by G. Eld, for Robert Wilson, / and are to be 
sold at his shop in Holborne, \ at the new gate of Grayes 
Inne.\ i6n./ sign. C, back. 

The "fer'd" in line 8 above is modernizd into "ferk'd" in Hazlitt's 
Dodsley, x. 292, The phrase writes Dr. Ingleby, who referd me to Barrey 
is probably from PistoFs play on " Mounsieur le Fer " 's name in Henry 
V, IV. iv. 29. " M. Fer: He fer him, and firke him, and ferret him :" 
firk occurs, in one sense or another, some dozen times in the play : thrice 
in two pages, Hazlitt's Dodsley, x. 328-9. See too p. 373. 

222 LOD. BARREY, l6ll. 

In ' Actus 3. Scaena I.' line 13, sign. D 3, back, is the phrase " will still 
be doing l " of Henry V, III. vii. 107 (Hazlitt's Dodsley, x. 313) : 

I likewise haue a sonne, 
A villanous Boy, his father vp and downe, 
What should I say, these Veluet bearded boyes 
will still be doing, say what we old men can .... 
. . . the villaine boy . . . has got the wench 

And a little further on, sign. E, occurs Pistol's "die men like dogs," 
2 Henry IV, II. iv. 188, as is noted in Hazlitt's Dodsley, x. 319 : 2 

" IV, S. Whats the matter Leiftenant. 2. Gen. Your Lieftenants an asse. 
Bea\\$\. How an asse ; die men like dogs. W. S. hold gentlemen. 
Bea. An asse, an asse." 

In The Merry Devil of Edmonton, licenst Oct. 22, 1607, printed 1608, 
and mentiond in T. M.'s Blacke Booke, 1604, there is a speech by the 
Host, with some phrases recalling Falstaff's, as in 2 Henry IV, II. i. 66 
" I'll tickle your catastrophe :" " I'll tickle his catastrophe for this . . 
The villanous world is turned mangy . . . Have we comedies in hand, 
you whoreson villanous male London lecher?" Hazlitt's Dodsley, x. 259, 

And, as is noted on p. 225, ib, the phrase is used there too " a plague of 
this wind ! O, it tickles our catastrophe ! " No doubt there were plenty 
of Elizabethan wits able to call a man's hinder ' end ' his catastrophe ; 
but I don't know the phrase earlier than Shakspere. Banks's ' Take me 
with you ' in the Merry Devil, p. 224, is uzd by at least Peele, before 

F. J. F. 

1 The use of doing in this sense is common of course : see Throate's 
speech in Ram Alley, D 4, back, Schmidt's Shaksp. Lexicon, &c, 
2 Die men like dogs ; give crowns like pins, 
Have we not Hiren here ? 




Lodovic Barrey. 

Now to the next tap-house, there 
drink down this, and by the 
operation of the third pot, 
quarrel again (Act II. sc. ii ; sign. 

Dash, we must bear some brain 
(Act II. ; sign. D 3). 

Is there no trust, no honnesty in men ? 
(Act II. ; sign. D 2.) 

He stirreth not, he moveth not, he 
waggeth not (Act IV. ; sign. G 2} . 

Ram Alley, or Merrie- Trickes, 
a Comedy, 1611. 


He enters the confines of a tavern * 
* * and by the operation of 
the second cup draws on him 
the drawer (Rom. and Jul. Act 
III. sc. i. 1. 6). 

Nay, I do bear a brain (Rom. and 
Jul. Act I. sc. iii. 1. 29). 

There's no trust, no faith, no honesty 
in men (Rom. and Jul. Act III. 
sc. ii. 1. 86). 

He heareth not, he stirreth not, he 
moveth not (Rom. and Jul. Act 
II. sc. i. 1. 16). 

[Mr. Fleay in his Shakespeare Manual, 1876, p. 19, says that this " play 
is one continuous parody of Shakespere," and that it contains, besides the 
above, allusions to Hamlet, Othello, Much Ado about Nothing, Sec. L. T. S.] 

JOHN SPEED, 1611. 

3? That N- D- 1 author of the three conuerlions hath made 
Ouldcaftle a Ruffian, a Robber, and a Rebell, and his authority 
taken from the Stage-plaiers, is more befitting the pen of his 
flanderous report, then the 2 Credit of the iudicious, being only 
grounded from this Papift and his Poet, of like confcience for lies, 
the one euer faining, and the other euer fallifying the truth : . . 
I am not ignorant : 

The I History j of I Great Britaine I Under the Conquests 
of y e I Romans, Saxons, / Danes and \ Normans.] 
. . . by John Speed. . London. . . . 1611. Book 
9, chap. 15, p. 637 (p. 788, ed. 1632), col. I, par. (47). 

That Shakspere was at first one of the dramatists who degraded Old- 
castle into Falstaff is certain (see after, p. 510), though he afterwards 
declared that Oldcastle was ' not the man.' And that the actors of Shak- 
spere's Falstaff were among the $tage-plaiers alluded to by Speed, admits of 
no reasonable doubt. The extract above is given by Ritson ( Var. Shaksp. 
1821, xvi, 411), and Mr. Elliot Browne, Academy, March 8, 1879, p. 217, 
col. 3. 

Mr. Browne (ib, p. 218) says that " Henry Care, in the Pacquet of Advice 
from Rome, March 31, 1682, alludes to the aspersions upon Oldcastle's mem- 
ory 'by Parsons the Jesuit and others.' " He quotes part of what follows : 

' Having given this Succinct Relation of this Affair of Sir John Old- Castle, 

1 Nicholas Doleman, that is, Robert Parsons, the celebrated Jesuit, author 
of " A Treatise of three Conversions of England from Paganism to Christian 
Religion. . . Divided into three partes . . . (wherunto is annexed . . another 
. . treatise called ; A review of ten publike disputations, or Conferences, 
held in England about matters of religion, especially about the Sacrament 
.... of the Altar, etc.}. By N. D., author of the Ward- word. . . . [St. 
Omers?] 1603, 1604, 8." B. Mus. Catal. 

2 ed. 1632 has credit with c. 

JOHN SPEED, l6ll. 225 

I am not Ignorant what rubbs have been thrown in the way, and Scandals 
rais'd upon his Memory, by Parsons the Jesuit, and others, which are reduc- 
ible unto Two sorts, viz. 1st. That he was a Traitor to his Soveraign. 2ly. 
That he was a Drunken Companion, or Debauchee. 

' As to the First, being a very material and heinous Charge, we shall refer 
the confutation thereof to our next Racquet. But this last being as ground- 
less as Trivial wee'l dispatch it at present. 

' That Sir John Old-Castle was a Man of Valour, all Authentick (though 
prejudic'd) Histories agree, That he was a Gentleman, both of good Sense, 
sober Life, and sound Christian Principles, is no less apparent by his Con- 
fession of Faith, delivered under his own hand, (Extant in Foxe,} and his 
Answers to the Prelates. But being for his Opinions hated by the Clergy, 
and suffering such an Ignominious Death ; Nothing was more obliging to 
the then Domineering Ecclesiastick Grandees, then to have him [Oldcastle] 
represented as a Lewd fellow ; in compliance thereof to the Clergy, the 
Wits (such as they were) in the succeeding Ages brought him in, in their 
Interludes, as a Royster, Bully or Hector : And the Painter[s] borrowing the 
Fancy from their Cozen Poets have made his Head commonly an Ale-house 
Sign with a Brimmer in his hand ; and so foolishly it has been Tradition 'd 
to Posterity.' 

The Weekly Pacquet / of / Jslbbitt from $bme. Vol. 
IV. p. 117. n. 15. Friday 31. Mar. 1682. 

" And he goes on to quote the remarks of Fuller in his Church History." 
(See Thomas Fuller, 1655.) F. J. F. 

[I cannot verify either Speed's or Care's references (p. 31, 2nd part, p. 
197). The Second Part begins at p. 173, and is paged continuously to p. 
658. Sir John Oldcastle and Sir Roger Acton are spoken of in Part 2. 
chap. 9. par. 13 to 23, pages 490 to 498. Parsons says they were by act of 
parliament "condemned of open treason and confessed rebellion," p. 491. 

P. A, LYONS.] 

SH. ALLN. BK.~ I. 



Firft and fecond Part of 

the troublefome Raigne of 
John King of England. 

With the difcouerie of King Richard Cor- 

delions Bafe fonne (vulgarly named, the Bastard 

Fawconbridge :) Alfo, the death of King lohn 

at Swinftead Abbey. 

As they were (fundry times) lately acted by 
the Queenes Maiefties Players. 

Written by W. Sh. 

Imprinted at London by Valentine Simmes for lohn Helrne, 

and are to be fold at his fhop in Saint Dunftoiis 

Churchyard in Fleeteftreet. 

i 6 i i. 


[Title-page of the second edition of The Troublesome Raigne, where 
"W. Sh." is meant to convey "William Shakespere." The first edition 
of 1591 was anonymous. A reprint of the title-page of the 1622 edition, 
where the poet's name appeared in full, is given below, p. 284. M.] 


hi Richard the 2 at the glob 161 1 the 30 of April!. 

(fo. 201.) 

In the Winters Talle at the glob 161 1 the 15 of maye 

(fo. 201 1>.) 
Of Cimbalin King of England 

(fo. 206.) 
In Mackbeth at the glob 1610 the 20 of Aprill 

(fo. 207.) 

Forman MSS. Ashmolean 208. In the Bodleian Library. 

[Dr. Forman began this " Bocke of Plaies and Notes therof per Formans 
for Common Follicle " a few months before his death (he died September 
1611) ; it consists of a thin paper folio, of which only six pages are filled with 
notes on the four plays indicated by the above heads ; he got no further. 
The " notes " are nothing more than a short relation of the story of what 
he saw, and are in no way critical. They have been printed by Mr. J. P. 
Collier, " New Particulars regarding the Works of Shakespere, " 1836, pp. 
6 26 : by Mr. Halliwell, who also gives facsimiles of them, in his Folio 
edition of Shakespere's Works, 1853 65, vols. viii. p. 41 ; ix. p. 8 ; xiv. 
p. 61 ; xv. p. 417 : and in the Transactions of the New Shakspere Society, 
1875-6, Part II, pp. 415418. 

The description of Richard If. shows that the play seen by Dr. Forman 
was not Shakespere's play of that name. See Halliwell as above, Vol. ix. 
p. 8, also Dr. E. Dowden's Shakespere Primer, p. 87. C. M. I.] 


[B. died i6J. F. died 1625.] 

Welford. - .- /.- But fhall wee fee thefe Gentleweomen 
to-night ? 

Sir Roger. Have patience Sir, untill our fellowe Nicholas bee 
deceaft, that is, a fleepe j for fo the word is taken $ to fleepe 
to die, to die to fleepe : a very Figure Sir. 

Wei. Cannot you caft another for the Gentleweomen ? 

Ro. Not till the man bee in his bed, his grave j his grave, 
his bed j the very fame againe Sir. Our Comick Poet gives 
the reafon fweetly 5 Plenus rimarum eft, he is full of loopeholes. 

The Scornful Ladie, Act II. Sc.i. [4/0.] 1616, sign. C 4. 

By heaven me thinkes it were an eafie leape 

To plucke bright honour from the pale-fac'd Moone, 

Or dive into the bottome of the fea, 

Where never fathome line touch't any ground, 

And plucke up drowned honor from the lake of hell. 

Knight of the Burning Pestle. Prologue. 1613. [4/0.] Sign. B 2. 

[The date when the Scornful Ladie was written is uncertain, it was first 
printed in 1616. Hamlet's Soliloquy (Act III. i.) seems to have given rise 
to some merriment here, not dreamt of perhaps by "our Comick Poet." 

The Knight of the Burning Pestle was probably written in 1611, though 
not printed till 1613. Ralph, the 'Prentice, being called in to "speak a 
huffing part " to show his powers, spouts Hotspur's lines (First Part Henry 
IV, Act I. sc. iii. 1. 201). Steevens infers that this or a similar passage was 
" used as a common burlesque phrase for attempting impossibilities," and 
quotes W. Cartwright's satirical poem on Mr. [William] Stokes' Book on 
the Art of Vaulting. 

1 ' Then go thy ways, Brave Will, for one, 
By Jove 'tis thou must Leap or none, 
To pull bright honour from the Moon" {Poems, 1651, p. 212). 

See another quotation from The Knight, before, p. 168. L. T. S.] 



[Harl. MS. 6021, leaf 69, lack] Excellent Queene ! what 
doe my wordes, but wrong thy worth ? what doe I but guild 
gold ? what, but fhew the Sunne with a candle in attempting to 
prayfe thee, whofe honor doth fly ouer the whole world vppon 
the two winges of magnanimity, and juftice, whofe perfe&ione 
mall much dimme the Luftre of all other, that {hall be of thy 

The late Director of the Camden Society, John Bruce, when editing the 
copy of Hayward's MS. for his Society, "Annals of the first four Years of 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, By Sir John Hayward, Knt. D.C.L." 1840, 
put the following note to this "guild gold" passage, p. 8 : 

"We have here a proof that Shakspeare's King John was written before 
1612, the date of the present composition. It does not appear to have been 
printed until included in the first folio edition of the plays in 1623. The 
words referred to 

* To gild refined gold 

or with a taper light 

To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish ' 

(King John, Act IV. scene 2), are not to be found in 'The Troublesome 
Raigne of King John,' the play which Shakspeare used in the composition 
of his noble drama, and which some persons [the Lord forgive them !] have 
thought to be Shakspeare's first rough draft, as it were, of the play which we 
now possess." 

Miss E. Phipson sends the extract from the printed book. 

Mr. Hall.-Phillipps quotes Hayward's words, evidently from Mr. Bruce's 
edition, but without referring to it or its note. F. J. F. 

2 3 I 


Here likewife, I muft necessarily infert a manifeft injury done 
me in that worke, 1 by taking the two Epiftles of Paris to Helen, 
and Helen to Paris, and printing them in a lefle volume, under 
the name of another, which may put the world in opinion I 
might fteale them from him; 2 and hee to doe himfelfe right, 
hath mice publifhed them in his owne name: but as I muft 
acknowledge my lines not worthy his patronage, under whom he 
hath publifht them, fo the Author 3 I know much offended with 
M. Jaggard that (altogether unknowne to him) prefumed to 
make fo bold with his name. 

An Apology for Actors. 1612. Epistle " To my approved good 
Friend, Mr. Nicholas Okes, " [the printer} at the end. 

1 That worke, "my booke of Britaines Troy.'" 

2 i. e. the printer of Britaines Troy. 
8 Shakespere. 

[" The Passionate Pilgrim, by W. Shakespeare, was first publish! in 1599. . . 
The Pilgrim is a collection, made by the piratical publisher, William 
Jaggard, of some genuine Sonnets, &c., by Shakspere, Richard Barnfield, 
Bartholomew Griffin, Christopher Marlowe, and other writers unknown, 
got from divers printed books and other sources. Thirteen years afterwards, 
in 1612, the same pirate Jaggard reprinted The Pilgrim as Shakspere 's, 
and put into it, under Shakspere's name, and to his disgust, two poems by 
Thomas Heywood, for which the latter publicly reproacht Jaggard " (as 
above). Furnivall, Introd. to the Leopold Shakspere, p. xxxv. Only eleven 
out of the twenty-one songs in the collection are certainly or possibly 
Shakespere's. (See Dowden's Shakespere Primer, p. in.) L. T. S.] 


*THO. HEYWOOD, 1612. 

To come to Rhetoricke, it not onely emboldens a fcholler to 
fpeake, but inftructs him to fpeake well, and with iudgement, 
to obferue his comma's, colons, & full poynts, his parenthefes, his 
breathing fpaces, and diftinctions, to keepe a decorum in his coun- 
tenance, neither to frowne when he mould fmile, nor to make 
vnfeemely and difguifed faces in the deliuery of his words, not to 
flare with his eies, draw awry his mouth, confound his voice in 
the hollow of his throat, or teare his words haftily betwixt his 
teeth, neither to buffet his defke like a mad-man, nor ftand in 
his place like a liuelefle Image, demurely plodding, & without 
any fmooth & formal motion. It inftru6ts him to fit his phrafes 
to his action, and his action to Jiis phrafe, and his pronunciation 
to them both. 

An I Apology I for Actors,! Containing three briefe / Trea* 
tises.l I Their Antiquity./ 2 Their ancient Dignity./ 
3 The true vse of their quality./ Written by Thomas 
Hey wood.// London,/ Printed by Nicholas Okes.\ 
1612, sign. 6*3, back, C 4. 1 (ed. 1658, p. 14, 15.) 

The last lines (noted in Mr. Hall.-P.'s^/^w. on Hamlet, p. 65) should have 
been quoted on p. 231, above. They are perhaps founded on Hamlet's 
"suit the action to the word, the word to the action," III. ii. 19, 20. 
F. J. F. 

1 The Historical plays of Casar and Richard III, alluded to on F 3, back, 
F 4, back, are not Shakspere's. The ' Countesse of Salisbury ' on G I, 
back, is the heroine of Edw. Ill, 



Detraction is the fworne friend to ignorance : For mine owne 
part I have ever truly cherifht my good opinion of other mens 
worthy Labours, efpecially of that full and haightned ftile of 
maifter Chapman : The labor'd and underftanding workes of 
maifter Johnfon : The no lefle worthy compofures of the both 
worthily excellent Maifler Beamont & Maifter Fletcher: And 
laftly (without wrong laft to be named), the right happy and 
copious induftry of M. Shake-fpeare, M. Decker, & M. Heywood, 
wifhing what I write may be read by their light : Protefting, 
that, in the ftrength of mine owne judgement, I know them fo 
worthy, that though I reft filent in my owne worke, yet to moft 
of theirs I dare (without flattery) fix that of Martiall. 

non norunt, Haec monumenta mori. 

The White Divel. 1612. [4*0.] Dedication (last paragraph}. 

C. M. I. 


*Belvoir MSS. March 31, 1613. 

12 Martii. Paied to Knight thatdrewe the armes with helmet, 
creft, and mantlinges in 4 efchocheons upon 2 banners for 2 
trumpettes, and making them up, being 20 coates, viii li. Ryban, 
xvi d . . . . viii li i s. iiii d. 

31 Martii. To Mr Shakfpeare in gold, about my Lordes 
imprefo, xliv s ; To Richard Burbage for paynting & making y t, 
in gold, xliv s . . . . iiii li viii s. 

The Steward's Account, Duke of Rutland's Household Papers, 
Belvoir MSS. 

[This allusion to "Mr. Shakspeare" was discovered by Mr. W. H. 
Stevenson in the course of his labours on the Historical MSS. Commission, 
and was announced in that commission's I7th Report, 1907, p. 23. The 
entry immediately awoke great interest, and as it was considered to refer 
to the poet, and would deal with work done by him, it is reprinted here. 
A description of the tilting match, which took place on March 24th, 1613, 
and for which the " impresa " was made, is given by Sir Hy. Wotton in a 
letter to Sir Edmund Bacon, March 31, 1613, where the names of 20 of the 
tilters are recorded, and among them Rutland, and where the devices are 
described of Wm. Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and his brother Philip 
Herbert, Earl of Montgomery. Rutland's device is not described. 
(Reliquia Wottoniance., 1685, 405-6 : see L. Pearsall Smith's letter in the 
Times, Jan. 3, 1906, col. 5.) 

"The impresa," says Mrs. Stopes (Athen(zum } May 16, 1908, p. 604), 
"was a private and personal device, as distinguished from the family coat 
of arms, and was especially used in tournaments and masques when there 
was some attempt at concealing one's identity." In what way could the 
poet have been associated with Burbage in making an impresa ? Did he 
create the design, or, as some have suggested, could he have written some 
suitable motto or verses to be spoken ? We cannot say. . He is not likely 
to have received 44^. for either of these latter services. The word " about" 
might mean that he was consulted in connexion with the affair, or, as Mrs. 
Stopes suggests, this Shakspere might have been an agent for another man. 

Mrs. Stopes was the first to show the possibility that the Shakspere 

BELVOIR MSS. MARCH 31, 1613. 235 

referred to might not have been William, the poet. There was attached 
to the court at that time a John Shakspere, the royal bit-maker, to whom 
the king, when he died, owed the considerable sum of ^1,692 iu. a 
fortune in those days. It would not be surprising to find this John 
associated with an impresa ; and he must have done a great deal of 
designing in one form and another. The connexion with Burbage is a 
difficulty, but Mrs. Stopes says that " there is more than a possibility 
that this John is the [poet's] cousin who disappears from Snitterfield." 
(Athenaum, art. quoted above, p. 605). Under those circumstances the 
connexion between John Shakspeare and Burbage would come through 
William Shakspere. The poet, himself, at that very time (March 10, ii) 
was buying from Henry Walker, for ^140, a house and ground in 
Blackfriars, London, and mortgaging the property back to its vendor, 
having paid only 80 of the purchase price, and letting the house to a 

The occurrence together of the two well-known names of Shakspeare and 
Burbage is, moreover, not altogether conclusive evidence that the poet was 
implied, for coincidences such as this might be, are not rare. Prof. Manly 
refers me, on this point, to Report VI, Historical MSS. Commission, App. 
p. 541 by where there is record that in 1456, John Craye and Thomasa 
Nasshe, Wardens of the Play of the Resurrection, made plaint against John 
Lylye in a plea of account ; and a Robert Grene was Queen's Fool about 
1569 (Nichol's Progresses of Eliz. i. 270). 

On the other hand, Dr. Jusserand has evidence that Ronsard and another 
French poet were consulted in a matter similar to this of the Duke of 
Rutland. This proves that poets were consulted in such cases, and is 
valuable evidence. 

Decisions in a case of this character are dangerous, but it seems safe to 
regard it as possible, until more certain evidence is adduced to the 
contrary, that the Belvoir allusion does not refer to William Shakspere. M. ] 



Count Arf[ena\. Sancta Maria, what thinkft thou of 

this change ? 

A Players paffion He beleeue hereafter, 
And in a Tragicke Sceane weepe for olde Priam t 
When fell revenging Pirrhus with fuppofde 
And artificiall wounds mangles his breafl, 
And thinke it a more worthy act to me, 
Then truft a female mourning ore her loue. 

The / Insatiate / Countesse / A / Tragedie : / Acted at 
White-Fryers./ Written / By lohn Marston. / London, I 
Printed by /. N. for Hugh Perrie, and are to be / sould 
at his shop, at the signe of the Harrow in Brittaines~ 
burse. 1631. sign. A. 3 back. Act I. ed. Halliwell, 
iii. 109. [First printed, 1613.] 

Alluding to the Player's speech in Hamlet, II. ii. 494, &c., 577-8. Noted 
by K. Elze, Hamlet, 1882, p. 168. On p. 249 is a note that the following, 
alluding probably to " Flights of Angels," &c., Hamlet, V. ii. 371, was not 
admitted into the Centurie of Pray se: 

" Cardin\all\. An host of Angels be thy conuey hence." 

Marston. The Insatiate Countesse, sign. I. 2, Act V. 
(M.'s Works, ed. Halliwell, iii. 188.) 

F. J. F. 

There are heaps of echoes from Hamlet in this play ; and one passage 
very closely modelled on some lines in Richard //, Act I. sc. i. 




He di'd indeed not as an actor dies 

To die to day, and live againe to morrow, 

In fhew to pleafe the audience, or difguife 

The idle habit of inforced forrow : 

The Crofle his ftage was, and he plaid the part 
Of one that for his friend did pawne his heart. 

His heart he pawnd, and yet not for his friend, 
For who was friend to him, or who did love him ? 
But to his deadly foe he did extend 
His deareft blood to them that did reprove him, 
For fuch as tooke his life from him, he gave 
Such life, as by his life they could not have. 

Christens Bloodie Sweat, or the Sonne of God in His Agonie. 

1613. p. 31. [4/0.] 
Reprinted by the Rev. A. B. Grosart in the Fuller Worthies' 

Library, 1869. p. 177. 

This is perhaps the most curious allusion to a work of Shakespeare's 
made during his lifetime : 

" the part 
Of one that for his friend did pawn his heart " 

was assuredly the part of Antonio, in the Merchant of Venice. That play 
was probably written in 1596, it was entered on the Stationers' Register in 
1598 and 1600, and published in 1600 in two editions, the first by James 
Roberts, the second by Thomas Heyes. C. M. I. 

[According to Greg (Library ', April 1908) the 1600 quarto of Roberts is 
fraudulently dated 1600 for 1619. M.] 


London this laft of June 1613. 

No longer lince then yefterday, while Bourbege his companie 
were acting at y e Globe the play of Hen : 8, and there {hooting 
of certayne chambers in way of triumph $ the fire catch'd & 
fattened upon the thatch of y e houfe and there burned fo furiouily 
as it confumed the whole houfe & all in leffe then two houres 
(the people having enough to doe to fave themfelves). 

Letter from Thomas Lorkins to Sir Thos. 
Puckering. Harl. MS. 7,002, fo. 268- 

[Another contemporary account of the burning of the Globe theatre says 
that the play going on at the time was a new play called All is true. (See 
Furnivall's Introduction to the Leopold Shakspere, p. xviii.) "Chambers" 
were small cannon or mortars. L. T. S.] 


SIR HENRY WOTTON, July 2, 1613. 

Now, to let matters of State fleep, I will entertain you at the 
prefent with what hath happened this Week at the Banks fide. 
The King's Players had a new Play, called All is true, repre- 
fenting fome principal pieces of the Reign of Henry the 8th, 
which was fet forth with many extraordinary Circumftances of 
Pomp and Majefty, even to the matting of the Stage ; the 
Knights of the Order, with their Georges and Garter, the Guards 
with their embroidered Coats, and the like : fufficient in truth 
within a while to make Greatnefs very familiar, if not ridiculous. 
Now, King Henry making a Mafque at the Cardinal Wolfey's 
Houfe, and certain Cannons being mot off at his entry, fome of 
the Paper, or other iiuff, wherewith one of them was flopped, 
did light on the Thatch, where being thought at firft but an idle 
fmoak, and their Eyes more attentive to the fhow, it kindled 
inwardly, and ran round like a train, confuming within lefs than 
an hour the whole Houfe to the very ground. 

This was the fatal period of that virtuous Fabrique j wherein 
yet nothing did perilh, but Wood and Straw, and a few forfaken 
Cloaks ; only one Man had his Breeches fet on fire, that would 
perhaps have broyled him, if he had not by the benefit of a 
provident wit put it out with Bottle- Ale. 

Letter from Sir Henry Wot ton to his nephew Sir Edmund 
Bacon, reprinted in Reliquiae Wottonige, 1685, pp. 425-6. 

[Wotton's All is true is Henry VIII ; possibly the play had a double 
title and Wotton gave the second. See pp. 238, 240, 244. M.] 


Anonymous, about 1613. 

All yow that pleafe to understand, 

Come liften to my ftoryc, 
To fee Death with his rakeing brande 

'Mongft fuch an auditoryc : 
Regarding neither Cardinall's might, 
Nor yet the rugged face of Henry the eight. 

A Sonnett upon the Pittifull Burneing of the Globe Play House 
in London. Second Stanza. First printed by Mr. Haslnvood 
in the Gentleman' s Magazine, Vol. 86, /. 114. Reprinted in 
IV. C. Hazlitfs Roxburghe Library, The English Drama 
and Stage, 1869, p. 225. 

[See the Letter from Thomas Lorkins, before, p. 238, as to the burning of 
the Globe Theatre, which took place on 29 June, 1613. L. T. S.] 



The Accompte of the right honourable the Lord Stanhope of 
Harrington, TrGafurer of his Maje/h'es Chamber, for all fuch 
Somes of money as hath beine receaved and paied by him within 
his Office from the feafte of St. Michaell Tharchangell, Anno 
Regni Regis Jacobi Decimo (1612), untill the feafte of St. 
Michaell, Anno Regni Regis Jacobi undecimo (1613), conteyning 
one whole yeare. 

Item paid to John Heminges uppon lyke warranty dated att 
Whitehall ix die Julij 1613 for himfelf and? the reft of his 
fellowes, his Maje/lzes fervauntes and' Players for prefentinge a 
playe before the Duke of Savoyes Embafladour on the viij th daye 
of June, 1613, called? Cardenna, the Ibme of vjli. xiijs. iiijd. 

Item paid to John Heminges uppon the Cowncells warrant 
dated att Whitehall xx die Maij 1613, for prefentinge before 
the Princes Highnes the Lady Elizabeth and the Prince Pallatyne 
Elector fowerteene feverall playes, viz : one playe called Filafter, 
One other called the Knott of ffooles, One other Much adoe 
alowte nothinge, The Mayeds Tragedy, The merye dyvell of 
Edmonton, The Tempejl, A kinge and no kinge/ The Twins 
Tragedie/ The Winters Tale, Sir Johnjaljlaffe, The Moor of 
Venice, The Nobleman, Ccefars Tragedye,/ And one other called 
Love lyes a bleediuge, All which Playes weare played wzth-in 
the tyme of this Accompte, viz: paz'd the fome of iiij" xiijli, 
vjs. viijd [^93 : 6 : 8]/ 

Item paid to thefaid John Heminges uppon the lyke warrant, 
dated att Whitehall xx die Maij 1613, for prefentinge fixe 



feverall playes, viz : one playe called a badd beginininge (sic) 
makes a good endinge, One other called the Capteyne, One 
other the Alcumift./ One other Cardenno/ One other The 
Jfolfpurj And one other called Benedicte and Betteris, All 
played? within the tyme of this Accompte viz: paid Fortie 
powndes, And' by waye of his Majejlies rewarde t wen tie powndes, 
In all Ix li. 

Rawl. MS., A. 239, leaf 47 (in the Bodleian}. Printed in 
New S/i. Soc.'s Transactions, 1875-6, Part II, p. 419. 

[Lord Stanhope's accounts give six of Shakespere's plays as acted in 
1613 (those printed in italics above). It is believed that Sir John Falstaffc 
refers to I Henry IV, or The Merry Wives of Windsor ; Caesars Tragedye to 
Julius Caesar; The Hotspur possibly to I Henry IV; while Benedicte and 
Betteris must be Much Ado About Nothing. L. T. S.] 

As for Cardenna, above, can it be identified with the Cardenio entered 
in the Stationers' Registers, September 9, 1653, and described as "by Mr. 
Fletcher and Shakspeare"? See Richard Flecknoe, 1653. M. 


Our moderne, and prefent excellent Poets which worthely 
florifh in their owne workes, and all of them in my owne know- 
ledge lived togeather in this Queenes raigne, according to their 
priorities as neere as I could, I have orderly fet downe (viz) 
George Gafcoigne Efquire, Thomas Churchyard Efquire, Sir 
Edward Dyer Knight, Edmond Spencer Efquire, Sir Philip Sidney 
Knight, Sir John Harrington Knight, Sir Thomas Challoner 
Knight, Sir Frauncis Bacon Knight, & Sir John Davie Knight, 
Matter lohn Liliie gentleman, Maifter George Chapman gentle- 
man, M. W. Warner gentleman, M. Willi. Shakefpeare gentle- 
man, SamuelL Daniell El quire, Michaell Draiton Efquire, of the 
bath, M. Chrijlopher Mario gen., M. Benjamins Johnfon gentle- 
man, lohn Marfion Efquier, M. Abraham Frauncis gen., matter 
Frauncis Meers gentle, matter Jofua Siluejter gentle, matter 
Thomas Deckers gentleman, M. John Flecher gentle., M. John 
IVebfter gentleman, M. Thomas Hey wood gentleman, M. Thomas 
Middlcton gentleman, M. George Withers. 

John Slaw's Annales, or generall Chronicle of England ; continued 
to the end 0/1614. by Edmond Howes. 1615. /. 811. [Reign 
of Queen Elizabeth.] 

Deckers became Decker in the 1631 edition of Stow's Annals; no other 
alteration was then made in this list. C. M. I. 


If I fhuld here fet down the leuerall terrors & damages 
done this yeere by fire, in very many and fundry places of this 
kingdome, it would containe many a fheete of paper, as is 
euident by the inceflant collections throughout all churches of 
this realme for fuch as haue bin fpoyled by fire. Alfo vpon 
S. Peters day laft, the play-houfe or Theater called the Globe, 
vpon the Banck-fide neere London, by negligent difcharging of 
a peale of ordinance, clofe to the fouth fide thereof, the Thatch 
tooke fier, & the wind fodainly difperfl y e flame round about, & 
in a very fhort fpace y e whole building was quite confumed, & 
no man hurt : the houfe being filled with people, to behold the 
play, viz. of Henry the 8. And the next fpring it was new 
builded in far fairer manner then before. 

The Annales, / or / Generall Chro-]nicle of England, begun 
first by I maister lohn Stow, and / after him continued and 
augmented / with matters forreyne, and do- / mestique, 
auncient and moderns, / vnto the end of this / present 
yeere 1614 by Edmond / Howes, gen-pieman / Londini f 
. . . 1615, /. 926, col. 2, //. 50-66. M. 



To Matter W. Shakefpeare. 

Shakefpeare, that nimble Mercury thy braine, 

Lulls many hundred Argus-eyes afleepe, 

So fit, for all thou famioneft thy vaine, 

At th' horfe-foote fountaine thou haft drunk full deepe, 

Vertues or vices theame to thee all one is : 

Who loves chafte life, there's Lucrece for a Teacher : 

Who lift read luft there's Venus and Adonis, 

True modell of a moft lafcivious leatcher. 

Befides in plaies thy wit windes like Meander : 

When needy new-compofers borrow more 

Thence Terence doth from Plant us or Menander. 

But to praife thee aright I want thy ftore : 

Then let thine owne works thine owne worth upraife, 
And help t' adorne thee with deferved Baies. 

Runne, and a Great Cast. The Second Bowie. (Being the 
second part of Rubbe, and a Great Cast, 1614.) Epigram 
92, sign. K 2, back. [4/0.] C. M. I. 

*JOHN COOKE, 1614. 

" Staines. There is a devil has haunted me thefe three years 
in likenefs of an ufurer -, a fellow that in all his life neuer eat 
three groat loaves out of his own purfe, nor ever warmed him 
but at other mens fires j " &c. 

Greene's Tu Quoque, Or, The Cittie Gallant: in Anc. 
Brit. Drama, II. 541. 

"there is a devil haunts thee in the likeneis of an old fat man." 
I Henry lV t Act II. Sc. iv. 1. 492-3. 


Mr. Hll.-P. (Cursory Memoranda on Macbeth, 1880, p. 10) says that 
Barnabe Rich's Hag of Hell in the following lines probably alludes to the 
Witches of Macbeth. But this is very doubtful. F. 

" My lady holdeth on her way, perhaps to the tire-makers shop, where 
she shaketh out her crownes to bestowe upon some new-fashioned attire, 
upon such artificial deformed periwigs, that they were fitter to furnish a 
theatre, or for her that in a stage-play should represent some hag of hell, 
than to be used by a Christian woman. " Honestie of this Age, 4to. I ,ond. 
1615 [the ist ed. is 1614]. 


BEN JONSON, 1614. 

It is alfo agreed, that every man heere, exercife his owne 
Judgement, and not cenfure by Contagion, or upon trufl, from 
anothers voice, or face. * * * Hee that will fweare 
leronimo or Andronicus are the beft playes, yet {hall pafle unex- 
cepted at, heere, as a man whofe Judgement fliewes it is conftant, 
and hath flood ftill, thefe five and twentie, or thirtie yeeres. 

(fourth page.} 
* * # # 

If there bee never a Servant-monjler i' the Fayre, who can 
helpe it? he 1 fayesj nor a neft of Antiques? Hee is loth to 
make Nature afraid in his Playes, like thofe that beget Tales, 
Tempejls, and fuch like Drolleries, to mixe his head with other 

mens heeles. 

(fifth page) 

Bartholomew Fayre. Induction. Worses, 1640 (the publication 
of this play being dated 1631). 

1 " He " is the Author, Ben Jonson. 

In the first extract from the Induction to Bartholomew Fair we have 
Titus Andronicus ; in the second the mention of "a servant monster" recals 
Caliban in Shakespeare's Tempest : and the expression " to mix his head 
with other men's heels " recals a scene in that play where Trinculo takes 
refuge from the storm under Caliban's gabardine. Antiques means antics, 
cf. the cavalier Cleveland, 30 years later, 

" A jig, a jig, and in this antick dance " 

(Mixt Assembly. Poems. 1687. p. 34.) 

There can be no doubt that Jonson was alluding to the Tempest. 

[Whalley supposes that some words on the second page of this Induction, 
" and then a substantial watch to have stolen in upon them, & taken 
them away, with mistaking words, as the fashion is in the stage-practice," 
are a sneer upon Shakespere alluding to the Watch and their blunders in 
Much Ado about Nothing. But, as Lieut. -Col. Cunningham points out 
(Jonson's Works, 1871, vol. ii. p. 144, note), "the guardians of the night had 
been proverbial for their blundering simplicity before Shakespere was born," 
and he does not think this comedy was referred to. Dr. B. Nicholson, how- 
ever, does, and thinks that the conjunction of the three bits in this Induction 
prove that a sneer aeainst Shakespere was intended by Tonson. L. T. S.I 



And if it prove fo happy as to pleafe, 
Weele fay 'tis fortunate like Pericles. 

The Hogge hath lost his Pearle. 1614. [4/0.] Last two 
lines of Prologue. [Bodleian Lib. Malone 169.] 

As to date, &c., of Pericles^ see before, p. 190, note. C. M. I. 



My tongue in firie dragons' fpleene I fteepe, 

That acts, with accents, cruelty may found ; 

(Part i. St. viii.) 

To him that impt my fame with Clio's quill, 

Whofe magick raif 'd me from oblivion's den j 

That writ my ftorie on the Mufes hill, 

And with my actions dignifi'd his pen : 

He that from Helicon fends many a rill, 

Whofe nectared veines, are drunke by thirftie men j 

Crown'd be his ftile with fame, his head with bayesj 
And none detract, but gratulate his praife. 

Yet if his fcaenes have not engroft all grace, 
The much-fam'd action could extend on ftage 

(Part 2. Stanzas i, ii.) 

My working head (my counfell's confittory) 
Debates how I might raigne, the princes living : 

(Ibid. St. xxvi.) 

The devlifh fury in my breft entends, 
In fpite of danget and all oppolite barrs j 

To cut this knot the miftick fates conteyne, 
And fet my life and kingdome on this mayne. Lcast] 

(Part T). St. xxxviii.) 

The Ghost of Richard the Third. Expressing himselfe in these three 
Parts, i. His Character 2. His Legend 3. His Tragedie 
Containing more of him than hath been heretofore shewed : either 
in Chronicles, Playes, or Poems. 1614. [Unique copy in Bodleian.] 

Reprinted by Rev. A. B. Grosart in the Fuller Worthies' Library, 
Complete Poems of Christopher Brooke, 1872, in -which see pp. 62, 
79, 88, 134. Also for the Shakspere Society, by Mr. J. P, 
Collier, 1844. 

250 C[HRISTOPHER] B[ROOKE], 1614. 

Besides the direct allusion to the play of Richard III, in Christopher 
Brooke's poem, there are several lines caught from Shakespeare's work. 
The three most striking are here given. The first refers to these lines in 
Act V. Sc. iii : 

" Our ancient word of courage, fair St. George 
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons ! " 

The third refers to a line in Act II. Sc. ii : 

" My other self, my counsel's consistory." 
The fourth refers to these lines in Act V. Sc. iv : 

' ' Slave, I have set my life upon a cast, 
And I will stand the hazard of the die." 

[The second quotation is pointed out by Mr. Collier and Dr. Grosart as 
a " clear allusion to Shakespere and to his play on the history of Richard 
III." (Grosart's reprint, p. I eo.) It is Richard's " Ghost " himself who 
speaks. L. T. S.] 



The authors I have feen on the Subjed of Love, are the Earl 
of Surrey, Sir Thomas tVyat (whom, becaufe of their Antiquity, 
I will not match with our better Times) Sidney, Daniel, 
Dray ton, and Spenfer, * * The laft we have are Sir William 
Alexander and Shakefpear, who have lately publilhed their 

Works: Fo: 1711. p. 226. 

This note of Drummond's must belong to the period of 1614-1616 ; for 
Alexander was not knighted till 1614, and Shakespeare, who died in 1616, 
is here spoken of as a living author. The word " lately " induces us to give 
the earliest date possible to the note. See Drummond of Hawthornden ; 
the Story of His Life and Writings. By David Masson, 1873, P- 81, n tt' 
C. M. I. 



Quot lepores in Atho tot habet tua mufa lepores 
Ingenii vena divite metra tua. 

[Epigram on Shakspere in Epigrams to Sir John Heveningham in the 
Earl of Leicester's MSS., at Holkham Hall, Norfolk, MS. 436. See the 
Ninth Report of the Royal Historical MSS. Commission, p. 362, col. i. 
The collection also contains epigrams on Ben Jonson, Spenser, Sydney, 
Harrington, the Earl of Essex, etc. M.] 

W.B., 1614 

The daughter of Marcus Cato, when fhee had bewayled the 
death of her Hufband a month together, the longeft date of our 
times : Ihee was afked of fome of her Friendes which day Ihould 
haue her laft teare, Ihee anfwered, the day of her death. 

Truely intending what the Trag. Q. but fainedly fpake, 

In fecond Hufband, let me be accurft : 
None weds the fecond, but who kills the firft. 
A fecond time, I kill my Hufband dead, 
When fecond Hufband kiifes me in bed. 

The I Philosophers / Bctnqvet / . . . The second Edition, f 
newly corrected and inlarged, to almost as / much more. 
By W. B. Esquire ', / London, / . . . 1614, p. 150. 

This is a quotation from the play in Hamlet where the * Tragic Queen ' 
says : 

In fecond Hulband let me be accurft, 

None wed the fecond, but who kill'd the firft. 

* * * % 

The inltances that fecond Marriage move 
Are bafe refpe6ts of Thrift, but none of Love; 
A fecond time I kill my Hufband dead. 
When fecond Hufband kiffes me in Bed, 

III, ii, 169-175. 

The reference is given by G. Thorn Drury in Notes and Queries, loth 
Series, i, p. 44. The Philosophers Banquet is evidently founded on the 
Mensa Philosophica, sen Enchiridion. . . . Auctore Michaele Scoto. [really 
by Anguilbertus, and edited by N. Steinius] Lipsice t 1603, where the 
Shakspere quotation does not occur. M.] 



(i) one thus writeth/. 

Loue comforteth like funne-lhine after raine, 
But Lufts effect is tempeft after funne. 
Loue's golden fpring doth ever frefh remaine, 
Lufts winter comes ere fummer halfe be done. 

(p. 31-2, ed. 1620 : Harl. Misc. ii.) 

(2,) For me I vow, if death depriue my bed, 
I neuer after will to Church be led 
A fecond Bride, nor neuer that thought haue, 
To adde more weight vnto my hulbands graue, 
In fecond hufband let me le acurjt, 
None weds the fecond, but who kits thejirft. 

(p. 40, ed. 1620 : Harl. Misc. ii.) 

A / Discovrse, / of Marriage / And Wiving : / and / Of 
the greatest Mystery therein / contained : how to chuse a 
good / Wife from a bad./ ... By Alex. Niccholes, 
Batchelour in the Art he / neuer yet put in practise./ 
He that stands by, and doth the game suruey, 
Sees more oft-times then those that at it play. 
Si voles disce, si vales doce : 
Si voles cape, si velles carpe. 

London, / Printed by G. Eld, for Leonard Becket, and are 
to be sold / at his Shop in the Temple. 1620. 

The first lines are taken from Venus and Adonis, 11. 799 802, with the 
words 'gentle' altered to 'golden,' and 'always' to 'ever.' (Venus and 
Adonis seems to have been known by heart to every poet and poetaster of 
the time.) 

The second lines (in italic) are quoted from Hamlet, III. ii. 189-90, with 
the words 'weds' and 'kills' altered from 'wed' and ' kill'd.' H. C. 

ALEX. NICCHOLES, 1615. (Illustr. for Rom. &ful.) 255 

[In the same work of Niccholes is a good illustration of the following 
passage in Romeo and Juliet, I. iii. B. 

"La. Cap. (to J.) Well, think on marriage now j younger than 


Here in Verona, ladies of efteem, 
Are made already mothers : by my count 
I was your mother much upon these years 
That you are now a maid 

So shall you share all that he [Paris] doth possess 
By having him, making yourself no less 
Nurse. No less ! nay bigger; women grow by men." 
Juliet's age is fourteen. 

Compare with this, " A Discourse of Marriage and Wiving, &c., by Alex. 
Niccholes, 1615 (Harleian Miscellany, 1809, vol. ii. p. 164), quoted here 
(with my italics) from the edition of 1620*, that of 1615 not being in the 
Brit. Mus. Catalogue : 

" What*yeares are mofl conuenient for marriage./ 

" r I A He forward Virgins of our age are of opinion,, that this 
commodity can neuer be taken vp too foone, and 
therefore howfoeuer they neglect in other things, they are fure to 
catch time by the forelock in this, if you afke them this queftion, 
they will refolue you fourteene is the left time of their age, if 
thirteene bee not better then that, and they haue for the moft 
[part] the example of their mothers before them, to confirme and 
approue their ability, and this withall they hold for a certaiiie 
ground, that be they neuer so little they are fure thereby to become 
no lefle ; " 


A Discovrse, / of Marriage / and Wiving : / London 1620. 

2 5 6 


He be thy Venus, pretty Ducke I will, 

And though leffe faire, yet I have farre more (kill, 

In Loves affaires : for if I Adon had, 

As Venus had : I could have taught the lad 

To have beene farre more forward then he was, 

And not have dallied with to apt a laffe. 

(The Civill Devill, pp. 44, 45.") 

If I had liv'd but in King Richards dayes, 

Who in his heat of paflion, midft the force 

Of his Affailants troubled many waies 

Crying A horfe, a Kmgdomefor a horfe. 

O then my horfe which now at Livery ftayes, 

" Had beene fet free, where now hee's forc't to ftand 

" And like to fall into the Oftler's hand. 

(Upon a Poets Palfrey, p. 154.) 

No cure he finds to heale this maladie, 
But makes a vertue of neceflity. 

(The Wooer, p. 95.) 

A Strappado for the DivelL Epigrams and Satyres alluding 
to the time, with divers measures of no lesse Delight. 1615. 

Reprinted by R. Roberts, Boston, 1878. 

[Brathwaite's Strappado thus gives us recollections of four of Shakespere's 
works, Venus and Adonis, Richard III (Act V, sc. iv, 1. 8), Two Gentlemen 
of Verona (Act IV, sc. i, 1. 62), and in the extract next following, to a part 
of Pericles, although that part is not Shakespere's. A verse on p. 82 of 
the reprint may refer to the "park" of 1. 231 of Venus and Adonis. 
L. T. S.] 



A cage of uncleane birds, which is poflefft, 
Of none fave fuch as will defile their neft. 
Where fires of Hell hounds never come abroade, 
But in that earthly Tophet make aboade. 
Where bankrupt Factors to maintaine a ftate, 
Forlorne (heaven knows) and wholy defperate, 
Turne valiant Boults, Pimps, Haxtars, roaring boyes, 
Till flefht in bloud, counting but murders toyes, 
Are forc't in th' end a dolefull Pfalme to ling, 
Going to Heaven by Derick in a firing. 

Strappado for the Diuell (The Conyburrow], 1615, p. 151, 

[Rev. J. W. Ebsworth on p. xxv of his Introduction to a Reprint of the 
above by R. Roberts, Boston, 1878, says, " In a Satyre, called ' The Coni- 
borrowe,' we find a palpable allusion to one of the characters in Shakespeare's 
Pericles, [but not in Shakespere's part of the play] the damned door- 
keeper " Boult. The public hangman is mentioned in the proverbial saying 
of "going to Heaven by Derick in a string: " there was a tune known 
about that time, with a burden " Take 'im, Derrick ! " Bagford Ballads, 
printed for the Ballad Society (p. 778). F. J. F.] 


*JOHN BOYS, 1615. 

Of all herbes in the garden (as one wittily) Revv is the herbe 
of grace. 

An I Exposition / of the Dominic all / Epistles and Gospels I 
. . By lohn Boys, Doctor in Diuinitie t [and Deane of 
Canterburie /.]... London / . . . 1615, p. 163. 

This supposed allusion is pointed out in Wm. Dunn Macray's Register 
of St. Magdalen College, Oxford, New Series, vol. iii, 1901, pp. 144-5. 
The words in brackets in the title above are from the folio edition of Boys' 
Works, 1629-30, where the quotation will be found at p. 152. The 
reference in Shakspere is to Hamlet, IV, v, ' there's rue for you ; and here's 
some for me ; we may call it herb of grace o' Sundays,' but as ' herb of 
grace' was a fairly common term for rue, the Shakspere reference is 
dubious. Mr. Macray also points out that Boys at p. 921 of the folio 
edition says : ' The writing of the learned are called their works, opera 
Hieronymi, the workes of Hierome, Augustine, Gregorie : yea the 
of a moderne Poet, are called in print his workes.' M.] 

2 59 

Anonymous, 1615. 

A Purveiour of Tobacco. 

Call him a Broker of Tobacco, he fcornes the title, hee had 
rather be tearmed a cogging Merchant. Sir John Faljlqffe 
robb'd with a bottle of Sackej fo doth hee take mens purfes, 
with a wicked roule of Tobacco at his girdle. 

New and choise Characters : of sever all Attthors, with the Wife, 
written by Syr Thomas Overburie. 1615. Sign. M 8. [Bodleian 
Lib. Bliss 2. 2140.] 

This curious passage is taken from the Edition of 1615, a copy of which 
is now to be found in the British Museum. The "Characters" were 
added to Sir Thomas Overbury's Wife, in the second edition of 1614 (in 
which year there were five editions) : by 1664 The Wife &> Characters 
appear to have run to seventeen editions, of which thirteen are in the 
British Museum ; but the " Purveiour of Tobacco" does not occur in any, 
except in that of 1615. C. M. I. 



*W. DRUMMOND, 1616. 

EAR night, the ease of care, 

Untroubled seat of peace, 

Time's eldest child, which oft the blind do see, 

On this our hemisphere 

What makes thee now so sadly dare to be ? 

Poems : by William Drummond of Hawthorne- Dennc. 
The Second Impression. Edinburgh : Printed by 
Andro Hart. 1616. Modernizd, in his Poetical 
Works, ed. W. B. Turnbull (J. R. Smith, 1856), 
p. 58. 

The third line may allude to Shakspere's Sonnet 27, 1. 8, 
And keep my drooping eyelids wide, 
Looking on darkness, which the blind do see. E. PHIPSON. 



Ah Napkin, ominous Prefent of my Deare, 
Gift miferable, which doth now remaine 
The only Guerdon of my helplefle Paine, 
* * * 

deare Napkin doe not grieve 
That I this Tribute pay thee from mine Eine 
And that (thele porting Houres I am to live) 
I laundre thy faire Figures in this Brine. 

Poems by William Drummond of Hawthorne-dennt. 
Second Impression. Edinburgh, 1616, sign. H 3, 
back (eleventh Sonnet in the Second Part}. 

[Drummond in this sonnet made use of an idea which appears in the 
second and third lines of the 3rd Stanza of Shakespere's Lover's Complaint, 
first printed in 1609. 

" Oft did she heave her Napkin to her eyne, 
Which on it had conceited characters : 
Laundring the silken figures in the brine, 
That seasoned woe had pelleted in teares." 

(Shakespere's Sonnets, 1609, sign. K, back.) L. T. S.] 



Or why are women rather growne fo mad, 
That their immodeft feete like planets gad 
With fuch irregular motion to bafe Playes, 
Where all the deadly Jinnes keepe hollidaies 
There fhall they lee the vices of the times, 

Orejles inceft, Cleopatres crimes. 

* -* * * 

Sooner may mamelefle wives hate Brai?idfordfeqfts, 
Albert us Magnus, or the pilfred Jejis 
Of fome fpruce Skipjack Citizen from Playes, 
A Coach, the iecret Baudihouje for waie.\, 
And riotous wajle of fome new Freeman made, 
That in one yeere to peices breakes his trade, 
Then warn the toad-like fpeckles of defame, 
That fwell the world with poyfon of their Jhame : 
What Comedies of errors fwell the Jlage 
With your moft publike vices, when the age 
Dares perfonate in action, for, your eies 
Ranke Sceanes of your /z(/?-fweating qualities. 

The Philosopher's Satyrs. 1616. [4/0.] Pp. 46 & 51 
Fifth Satyr. Of Venus. C. M. I. 

26 3 

BEN JONSON, 1616. 

[The author will not] 

purchafe your delight at fuch a rate 
As, for it, he himfelf muft juftly hate : 
To make a child, now fwadled, to proceede 
Man, and then fhoote up, in one beard, and weede, 
Paft threefcore years : or, with three ruftie fwords, 
And helpe of fome few foot-and-halfe-foote words, 
Fight over Yorke, and Lancafters long jarres : 
And in the tyring-houfe bring wounds, to fcarres. 
He rather prayes, you will be pleaf'd to fee 
One fuch, to-day as other playes Ihould be j 
Where neither Chorus wafts you ore the feasj 
Nor creaking throne comes downe, the boys to pleafe 
Every Man in his Humour. Prologue. 1616. /. 3. 

In this Prologue, according to Hunter, Jonson censured Shakespere 
pointing especially at several of his plays : (i) Infancy and maturity in the 
same character, Winters Tale; (2) the Wars of York and Lancaster 
with their duels and battles, Henry VI ; (3) the shifting the scene from 
one country to another, Henry V ; (4) the descent of a creaking throne, 
the masques in the Tempest and in Cymbeline. The final line of the prologue 
in which Jonson assures his audience that, if they laugh at popular errors, 

" You that have so graced monsters, may like men," 

is supposed to refer to Caliban. 

(Hunter's New Illustrations of Shakespere, 1845, I. 136. Stokes' Chrono- 
logical order of 'Shakespere 's Plays, 1878, p 177.) L. T. S.] 

[The first or Italian version of Every Man in his Humour was published 
in 1 60 1 without a prologue. The second or English version in 1616 with 
the prologue. This states that the play (not this second version) was acted 
by the Lord Chamberlain's servants in 1598. 

Gifford would make out that the 1601 edition was edited, not by B. 
Jonson, but from the copy used at Henslowe's theatre in 1596, and hence 
that the prologue was really existent in that year. To his assertions may be 

264 BEN JONSON, l6l6. 

opposed these facts. I. There may be a possibility, but not a shadow of proof, 
that "The Humours " or " The Comedy of Humours " had anything to do 
with Jonson or with his play. The word " Humours " was then fashionable 
cant. 2. The 1601 410. bears on its title-page, " as it hath been . . acted 
by . . the Lord Chamberlaine his servants." Are we to believe without 
proof that there was here printed a direct lie ? 3. And can we believe that 
Jonson, an irascible man, would in the same year, 1601, give his Fountaint 
of Self Love to the publisher who had just brought out Every Man in his If., 
against his interests, and with a lying title-page, for Henslowe who had 
quarrelled with him ? 4. The 1601 edition also bears on its title-page 
" Written by Ben Johnson," asserted by GifTord to be a mis-spelling. It is so 
spelt in three plays, and he never spelt it Jonson till 1604, when he printed 
with a Latin title-page his part of the celebration of James' entry into 
London. 5. The 1601 4to. has none of the blunders of a spurious edition, 
but like all by Jonson, is very carefully punctuated. 6. That " this play " on 
the title-page of the 1616 folio does not mean " this new version " is shown 
by the parallel case of Sejanus. Before it Jonson says " this play was first acted 
in 1603," while shortly after he tells us it was a different version. 7. Laslly, 
this second or now known version cannot, by internal evidence, have been 
written before 1605 or 1606. For, I. Bobadil in the 1601 4to. speaks of 
the taking of Ghibelletto some ten years back, and of that of Tortosa ; but 
in the later version he alters the names to " Strigonium" and "what do 
you call it.-" Now Strigonium (Graan) was taken from the Turks in 1596, 
which makes the date of speaking 1606 ; while, unable to find a parallel for 
Tortosa, he makes Bobadil pretend to forget the name he would say. 2. In 
the 1616 version Act I. sc. ii. is introduced for the first time " Our Turkey 
Company never sent the like [present] to the Grand Seignor," clearly an 
allusion to a recent event. But the only occasions when they sent such a 
present were, one too early in Elizabeth's reign to be alluded to in a familiar 
letter, and one of the value of ^5,322 given them by James for a present 
to the Porte, in December, 1605, soon after the re-constitution of the 

If these facts be correct there can be no reason for assigning the prologue 
to a date earlier than 1606, as shown by internal evidence to be that of the 
version with which it first appears. B. N.] 

[Another passage was quoted from Jonson (Sejanus] in the first edition of 
the Centurie (p. 330), which, though believed by some critics upon merely 
supposititious grounds to refer to Shakespere, is now omitted in the text, 
Dr. Brinsley Nicholson having pointed out in the Academy, Nov. 14, 1874, 
that the "second Pen" was in all probability that of Samuel Sheppard. 
Jonson says in the Preface to Sejanus (1605), 

" Lastly I would informe you, that this Booke, in all nuwbers, is not the 
same with that which was acted on the publike Stage, wherein a second 
Pen had good share : in place of which I have rather chosen, to put weaker 
(and no doubt lesse pleasing) of mine own, then to defraud so happy a 
Genius of his right, by my lothed usurpation." 

BEN JONSON, 1616. 265 

In 1646 Samuel Sheppard published The Times Displayed in Six Sestyads 
(see after, under date). The sixth sestyad is a series of verses in praise of 
the greater poets, Daniel, Draytou, Shakespere, Jonson, and others. The 
eleventh encomium runs thus : 

" So His that Divine PLAUTUS equalled, Ben Johnston 

Whose Commick vain MENANDER nere could hit, 
Whose tragick sceans shal be with wonder Read 
By after ages for unto his wit 
My selfe gave personal ayd / dictated 
To him when as Sejamts fall he writ, 
And yet on earth some foolish sots there bee 
That dare make Randolf his Rival in degree." 

On these Dr. Nicholson remarks, "As Sheppard is not a master of 
English verse or style, so his ' dictate * is not happily chosen, but the 
meaning and intent of it and its context are clear. Read by the light of 
Jonson' s words, they are not only clear, but distinct, and we see Sheppard's 
disappointment, and the strugglings of his self-conceit to record the fact 
that he had been a part-author in Sejanus strugglings which are shown in 
his 'And yet,' and 'for,' and which destroy his encomium by making it 
ridiculous." Dr. Ingleby, however, asks me to add that he regards 
Sheppard's authorship in Sejanus as impossible, and that, with Mr. Fleay, 
he is now disposed to assign the " second pen " to Chapman. L. T. S.] 


APRIL 25, 1616. 


E T 



Inscription on the J^ablet over Shakespeare s Grave, given 
in HalliwelFs Life of Shakespere, 1848, /. 286. 

The inscription on Shakespeare's grave-stone is feebly parodied in the 
Apology prefixed to Graves' Spiritual Quixote. (Ed. 1773. Vol. i, p. vii.) 
C. M. I. 


1617 1622. 









OBIIT ANO DO 1 l6l6 

^ETATIS, 53. DIE 23 AP. 

Inscriptions upon the Tablet under ShakesperJs Bust, in the 
Chancel-north-wall of Stratford Church ; heliotyped in Shake- 
spere' 1 s Home and Rural Life, by Major James Walter, 1 874, /. 
17. See also Hallvwell 's Life of Shakespere, p. 289. 

Steevens conjectured that the scribe wrote Sophoclem, not Socratem. 
Assuredly one who had scholarship enough to compose the verses could 
hardly have believed that the o in the latter word had a common quantity. 
Besides, the comparison of Shakespere to Sophocles is significant : to 
Socrates trifling : Ben Jonson and Samuel Sheppard compare Shakespere 
to Sophocles. (See i. 308, 501; ii. II.) If Sheppard wrote Sophocles 
in an English verse, that would be irrelevant ; for he would not have 
written it in a Latin one. 

The converse misprint occurs in The Playhouse Pocket Companion, 1779, 
p. 47, in the first line of the Catalogue of which " Sophocles " is an error for 
Socrates. (See Biog. Dram. 1812. Int. Ixxiii.) 

[Admitting Dr. Ingleby's criticism to be correct, I can but endorse the 
remark of a friend that the likening of Shakespere to Socrates, one of the 
wisest of men, seems the right reading in the first line. The comparison 
to Virgil, the representative poet, next following, renders the allusion to 
Sophocles unnecessary, whereas Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil, make a grand 
trio of ideal men. The bust (by G. Johnson, see after, Dugdale, 1653) 
was set up before 1623, as we know from the mention of it by Leonard 
Digges. (See after, p. 318.) L. T. S.] 

2 68 


[Defcription of the hang-man at Hamburgh] His poft-like 
legges were anfwerable to the reft of the great frame which they 
iupported, and to conclude, fir Bevis, Afcapart, Gog-magog, or 
our Englilh fir John Faljlaff, were but fhrimpes to this bezzeling 
Bombards longitude, latitude, altitude, and craffitude, for hee 
pafles, and mrpaffes the whole Germane multitude. 

Three Weekes, three dales, and three houres observations and travel* 
from Lonaon to Hamburg. London, 1617. [4/0.] Sign. C. 
C. M. I. 



[Addressing a creditor]. 

If nothing will make thy ftony heart relent, thou in being 
cruell to thy debtor art worfe then the hang-man j * * But it 
may be thy eftate is ficke, thy credit much ingaged, and to fave 
thy felfe thou art forced to doe this. In fo doing thou doeft 
well; if another weare thy coate, and thou goeft cold, thou 
maift plucke it from his moulders. * * but if he which hath 
borrowed thy coate hath worne it out, and hath not a ragge to 
cover him with, wilt thou trample vpon his naked body ? If 
with the Jew of Malta, inftead of coyne, thou requireft a pound 
of flefh next to thy debtor's heart, wilt thou cut him in pieces ? 

Essayes and Characters of a Prison and Prisoners. Of Creditors. 
1618. Reprint, Edinburgh, 1821, //. 30, 31. 

[Mynshul wrote his Essayes while confined in the King's Bench Prison for 
debt, where he filled up his idle time by acute observations on the characters 
of those around him : he gives a melancholy picture of the miseries of 
unfortunate debtors in the seventeenth century. He seems to have con- 
founded Marlowe's Jew of Malta with Shakespere in his memory, but the 
mention of the pound of flesh shows that it was Shylock to whom he 

The " Epistle Dedicatory" is dated 27 January, 1617. L. T. S.] 



I doe heare 

Your Lordfhip this faire morning is to right, 

And for your honor : Did you never fee 

The Play where the fat Knight, hight Old-caftle, 

Did tell you truly what this honor was ? 

Amends for Ladies. 1618. [4/0.] Sign. G. 

Nathaniel Field (like Alexander Brome, in his Epistle to the Five' new 
Plays of Richard Brome, 1653, in a passage quoted in a subsequent page) 
here refers to the speech of Falstaff, which concludes the first scene of 
I Henry IV, Act V. See as to Oldcastle and Falstaff, after, note on 
George Daniel, 1647. C. M. I. 


RICHARD CORBET, 16181621. 

Mine hoft was full of ale and hiftoryj 
Why, he could tell 

The inch where Richmond flood, where Richard fell : 

Befides what of his knowledge he could fay, 

He had authenticke notice from the Play ; 

Which I might guefle, by's muftring up the ghofts, 

And policy es, not incident to hofts -, 

But cheifly by that one perfpicuous thing, 

Where he miftooke a player for a King. 

For when he would have fayd, King Richard dyed, 

And call'd A horfe ! a horfe ! he, Burbidge cry'de. 

Iter Boreale. pp. 193, 194 (see also p. 170). Poems of 
Richard Corbet, Bishop of Oxford 6 of Noruich, 
Edited by Octavius Gilchrist. 1807. 

[Gilchrist remarks that " from this passage we learn that Richard Burbage 
was the original representative of Shakespeare's Richard the Third" 
L. T. S.] 







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H. ABOUT 1618-19. 273 

[A controversy in the Academy, in January, 1879, as to the meaning of lines 
17 to 24 of this elegy led to the discovery of two original MSS. of it in the 
library of the late Mr. Henry Huth, which was pointed out by Mr. Alfred 
H. Huth in the Academy of April 3, 1879. As in the first edition of the 
Centurie Dr. Ingleby declared his belief that lines 13-16, printed by Mr. 
Collier, were spurious, an opinion at first shared by D r. Furnivall, it is 
satisfactory now to find that both MSS. of the poem are undoubtedly 
genuine, and acknowledged to'be so by those critics (see Dr. Furnivall in 
Academy of 19 April, 1879). By the kindness of Mr. Alfred H. Huth, and 
of Mr. F. S. Ellis, who is preparing the Catalogue of the library, I have 
carefully collated both versions with the MSS., and give the dozen lines 
which relate to Shakespere, the rest of the poem consisting in all of 82 
lines in the octavo and 86 lines in the folio being a eulogy upon the excel- 
lence of the acting of Burbage in general. The only sign of authorship is 
the letter H affixed to the title in the Octavo copy. Both MSS. belonged to 
Mr. Haslewood, and the discrepancies between Mr. Collier's print and 1. 
15 ("King Lear," "creuel Moore") may be owing to the copy which an 
autograph note in one of them says that he sent Mr. Collier. 

In his New Particulars, 1836, and Memoirs of Actors, 1846, Mr. Collier 
quotes other MSS. by which the poem is extended to 124 lines. These have 
not yet come to light. 

It was pointed out by Mr. Moy Thomas {Academy, Jan. 4, 1879) that the 
imperfect quarto Hamlet of 1603 is the only authority for making Hamlet 
leap into Ophelia's grave to out-face Laertes (Act V. sc. i. 1. 281); the above 
lines, however, show that Burbage was in the habit of doing so. Kemble in 
his acting edition of Shakespere, and Mr. Irving in his present representation 
of Hamlet, omit the leap into the grave. The rest of the lines seem to allude 
to the close of the last scene in the play. 

While treating on the acting of Burbage, I may recall a reminiscence 
(though a late one) of the comparative merits of Shakespere as Actor and 
Poet. James Wright, in his interesting little tract Historia Histrionica, 
1699, which is a " Dialogue of Plays and Players," thus speaks through his 
personages : 

" Lovewit. Pray Sir, what Master Parts can you remember the Old 
Black-friers men to Act, in Johnson, Shakespear, and Fletcher's Plays. 

Truman. What I can at present recollect I'll tell you ; Shakespear (who 
as I have heard, was a much better Poet, than Player) Burbadge, Hemmings, 
and others of the Older sort, were Dead before I knew the Town." (p. 4. 
Reprinted in Hazlitt's edition of Dodsley t 1876, vol. 15, p. 400.) L. T. S.] 



BEN JONSON, 1619. 

His cenfure of the Englilh Poets was tbis j 

That Shakfpeer wanted arte. 

Sheakfpear, in a play, brought in a number of men faying they 
had Buffered (hip-wrack in Bohemia, wher y r is no lea neer by 
fome 100 miles. 

Notes by William Drunimond of Conversations with Den 
Jonson, at Haivthornden, January ; 1619. Extracts 
from the Hawthornden MSS. by David Laing, Archa- 
ologia Scotica, vol. iv. Edinburgh, 1831-32, //. 81, 89. 

Also edited by the same for the Shakespeare Society, 1842, 
pp. 3, 16. 

f First published, incorrectly, in Drummond's Works, 1711.} 

Sir William Drummond was evidently a weak-minded man, whose memory 
had the knack of retaining only what was trivial or worthless. We may be 
quite sure that Jonson's assertions were not given in this naked form. No 
one understood Shakespeare's art better than Jonson ; and he could hardly 
have basec. the charge of wanting art on geographical or on chronological 
errors, which Shakespeare took, not ignorantly, but as he found them in 
the current stories. [Ben probably meant that Shakespeare did not 
observe those Rules of Art in dramatic writing to which he himself rigidly 
adhered. The word -wanted here means lacked, rather than the modern 
sense, which would imply "that Shakespere ought to have had art" (see- 
the extract from Dryden, 1672, for his use of the word). The word 
censure too should not be taken as necessarily meaning condemnation, it 
meant opinion or judgment, cf. 

" Madam, and you, my mother, will you go 
To give your censures in this weighty business?" 

Richard III, Act II sc. iii. 

BEN JONSON, 1619. 275 

The remark was made of Shakespere's work by others. L. T. S.] Fuller 
asserts that "Nature itself was all the Art which was used upon him" 
(see under date 1643): which Cartwright echoes in 1647: "Nature was 
all his art. " Milton has 

" Sweetest Shakespere, Fancy's child, 
Warble his native wood-notes wild " (after, p. 372) ; 

and forty-two years after its utterance we meet it once more in the Diary of 
the Rev. John Ward, who had "heard that Shakspeare was a natural wit 
without any art at all " (date 1661). But Ben Jonson and L. Digges allow 
Shakespeare a sort of art. The former writes : 

" Yet must I not give Nature all : Thy Art, 
My gentle Shakespeare, must enjoy a part " (p. 309). 

And Digges assigns him : 

" Art without Art unparaleld as yet " (date 1640). 

[So also the Epitaph before, p. 267, and John Taylor, after, p. 278, credit 
him with art. The report of Jonson's sayings relating to Shakespere, as 
found in Drummond's Works of 171 1, is shown in its true form in Mr. Laing's 
print of the MS. As regards the accusation against Shakespere's geography, 
it may be worth noting that in 1262 Ottocar II was king of Bohemia and 
Austria, " and soon obtains possession of Styria, Carinthia, and Istria, when 
his dominions extend from the Baltic to the Adriatic " {Manual of Dates}. 
Bohemia then at one time had a sea-board, and no date being necessary to 
the play, it may be said that " the shipwreck in the Winter's Tale is no breach 
of geography " (see the Monthly Magazine, Jan. I, 1811, vol. xxx. p. 538). 
But that it was understood as an error in Shakespere's time, and that others 
besides Jonson laughed at him for it, seem to be shown by the quotation from 
Taylor the Water Poet, after, p. 344. L. T. S.] 



"The Marquife Trenell [Tremouille], on thurfday laft 
tooke leaue of the Kinge : that night was feafled at white hall, 
by the duke of Lenox in the Queenes greate chamber : where 
many great Lordes weare to keep them Company but no ladyes. 
the Sauoy Imbaffadour was alfo there : The englifh Lordes, 
was the Marquife Buckingham my lord Pryuy feale, my lord of 
lenox, my lord of Oxford, my lord Chamberlayne, my 1 : 
Hamelton, my lord Arundell, my Lord of Leycefter : my lord 
Cary, my lord Diggby, m r . Treafurer, m r . Secretary Callvart : 
my lord Beaucham, and my Lord Generall, the reft Englifh 
Gallantes, and all mixed w th the french alonge the table : the 
Marquife Trenell fittinge alone at the tables ende : at the right 
hande, the Sauoy Imbaffador, by him the Marquife Bucking- 
ham, then a french Counte, &c. mixt : on his left hand my lord 
Priuy feale, the earle of Oxford, a french Marquife, my lord 
Chamberlayne, & fo forth mixed w th french & Englifh. The 
fupper was greate & the banquett curious, ferued in 24 
greate Chynay worcke platters or voyders, full of glafTe fcales 
or bowles of fweete meates : in the middft of each voyder a 
greene tree of eyther, lemon, orenge, Cypers, or other refem- 
blinge. After fupper they weare carried to the queenes pryuy 
chamber, where french finginge was by by the Queenes Mulitians : 
after in the Queenes bedd Chamber, they hearde the Irifh harpp, 
a viol), k m r Lanyer, excellently finginge & playinge on the 

. SIR GERRARD HERBERT, 24 MAY, 1619. 377 

lute. In the kinges greate Chamber they went to fee the play of 
Pirrocles, 1 Prince of Tyre, which lafled till 2 aclocke. after two 
a&es, the players ceafed till the french all refreshed them w th 
fweetmeates brought on Chinay voiders, & wyne & ale in 
bottells, after the players, begann anewe. The Imbaffadour 
parted next morninge for Fraunce at 8 aclocke, full well pleafed 
beynge feafted alfo at Tiballes & exceedinge gracioufly vfed of 
the kinge, who at taking leaue gaue him a very rich chayne of 
Diamondes, w th a wach donne aboute w th Diamondes & wherein 
the kinges effigie was very excellently donne." 

" wi th the remembraunce of my fervice to my Lady 

Carlton & yo r Lo : I take leaue allwayes refting : 

Yo r Lo : afluredly to Comande : 

Gerr : Herbert. 

London, Munday 24 May. veteri. 

From a Letter " To the right honorable Sir Dudley Carlton, knight : 
Lord Imbassadour for his Ma tie at y e Hage." State Papers. 
Domestic. James I. Vol. 109, No. ^o- (p. 2 of MS.) 

[W. D. SELBY. Part printed in 
Halliwell's Folio Shaksfi.] 

1 Mr. Hall, wrongly prints * Pirracles.' 


Baker says, Biogr. Dram. ii. 289, of "134. THE HEIR. Com. by 
Thomas May. Acted by the company of Revels, 1620. 4to. 1622 ; 
second impression, 4to. 1633. . . . 

"The demand of the king that Leucothoe shall yield to his desires, as 
the sole condition upon which he would spare the life of her lover, appears 
to be borrowed from Shakspeare's Measure for Measure ; as the constable 
and watch who seize Eugenio seem to have had their language and manners 
from those in the same author's Mitch Ado about Nothing ; and the enmity 
of the two houses reminds us of Romeo and Juliet" 

27 8 


In paper, many a Poet now Jurvives 

Or elfe their lines had perilh'd with their lives. 

Old Chaucer, Gower, and Sir Thomas More, 

Sir Philip Sidney, who the Lawrell wore, 

Spencer, and Shakejpeare did in Art excell, 

Sir Edward Dyer, Greene, Najh, Daniell. 

Silvejler, Beumont, Sir John Harrington, 

Forgetful nefle their workes would over rui\ 

But that in paper they immortally 

Doe live in fpight of death, and cannot die. 

The Praise of Hemp-seed. 1620. [4/0. ] /. 26 
Works, 1630, Hi. p. 72. [Fa.] 

Farmer says it is " impossible to give the original dates " of many of John 
Taylor's pieces. ' ' He may be traced as an author for more than half a 
century" (Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare, 1821, p. IOT, note], 
C. M. I. 


MR. RICHARDSON, 1620, 1621. 

'Tis almoft morning I would haue thee gone 
And yet no further then a wantons bird, 
That lets it hop a little from his hand, 
Like a poore prifoner, in his twilled gyues, 
Then with a filken thread plucks it back againe 
So iealous louing of his liberty. 

Tragedy of Romeo and lulwt. 4: pag: 84. This M' 
Richard* 014 Coll. Magd. inserted hence into his Sermon, preached 
it twice at S* Maries 1620, 1621, applying it too to gods loue 
to his Saints either hurt with iinne, or aduerlity neuer forfaking 

Commonplace Book, Bodleian Library, MS. Eng. Misc. 
d. 28, p. 359, col. 705. 

[This allusion is noted in Wm. Dunn Macray's Register of the Members 
of St. Mary Magdalen Coll., Oxford, 1901, and was announced in the 
Clarendon Press Periodical for December 1901. I am indebted to Mr. 
C. F. Tucker Brooke for kindly copying the extract from the Bodleian MS. 
The MS. citation from Shakspere is inaccurate. M.] 


Anonymous, 1620 36. 

On the Time-Poets. 

One night, the great Apollo, pleafd with Ben, 
Made the odde number of the Mules ten ; 
The fluent Fletcher, Beaumont rich in fenfe. 
In complement and courtfhips quinteflence ; 
Ingenious Shakefpeare ; MaJJinger, that knowes 
The ftrength of plot to write in verfe and profe, 
Whofe eafie PegafTus will arnble ore 
Some threefcore miles of fancy in an houre : 
Cloud-grapling Chapman, whofe Aerial minde 
Soares at Philosophy, and ilrikes it blinde ; &c. 

Choyce Drollery, .Songs, and Sonnets, being a collection of divers 
excellent pieces of poetry of several eminent authors, never befon 
printed. Anon. 1656. The piece is reprinted in the Shakespeare 
Society's Papers, Vol. III., 1847, p. 172. 

The lines 5 8 are quoted by Gerard Langbaine in his Account of the 
English Dramatick Poets, 1691 (vol. ii), where they are merely assigned 
to "an old poet"; and Rev. J. W. Ebsworth, in his reprint of Choyce 
Drollery, 1876, says, "we must confess that nothing is yet learnt as to 
the authorship," though as to the date he believes "it was certainly written 
between 1620 and 1636" (pp. 270, 271). Langbaine's version has "ram- 
ble" for amble ; an error which we conjecturally set right, before we had 
collated it with the text reprinted in the Shakespeare Society s Papers. It 
is in this piece that we meet with a couplet on Ben Jonson's servant and 
amanuensis, Richard Brome, or Broom, which in another form did duty 
for W. Broome, Pope's assistant. Here we have, 

' ' Sent by Ben Johnson, as some authors say, 
Broom went before, and kindly swept the way ; " 

which a century later assumed this form : 

' ' Pope came off clean with Homer ; but they say, 
Broome went before, and kindly swept the way." 

(See Johnson's Lives of the Poets, William Broome, in wh'ch the couplet is 
attributed to Henley.) Isaac D'Israeli supposed that epigram to be borrowed 
from a line in Randolph's Ode, "Ben, do not leave the stage," &c., st. 4, 
1. 4. Curiosities of Literature, 1839, p. 139. C. M, I, 


ANON. 1620. 

GoodnerTe leave mee, if I have not heard a man court his 
miftris with the fame words that Venus did Adonis, or as neere 
as the booke could inftruft him. 

Hac Vir, or the Womanish- Man, 1620. 

J. O. H.-P. 

ROBERT BURTON, 1621 (?). 

Young Men will do it when they come to it." 

Robert Burton's Anatomy, ed. 1651, p. 563. 

This is a quotation from Ophelia's Valentine Song, Hamlet, IV. v. 



ROBERT BURTON, 1621, 1628. 

For now, as z Saliflurienfis faid in his time, 
totus mundus hiftrionem agit, the whole world plaies the foole, 
we haue a new Theater, a new Sceane, a new comedie of errors. 
a new companye of perfonat A6tors. 

[p. 26, ed. 1621, 1628. p. 22, ed. 1624.] 

For Princes are the glaffe, thefchoole, the booke, 
Where JHbie8is eyes doe learne, doe read, do looke. 

- Velotius &c citius nos 
Corrumpunt vitiorum exempla domejlica, magnis 
Cum Jubeant animos authoribus - 

[/ 39> e d- 1624. p. 48, ed. 1628.] 

Like an Affe, he weares out his time for prouender, and can 
ihew a ftumpe rod. 

[sig. Q 2 b. Part 1. Sect. 2., Memb. 3, Suds. 15, ed. 1624, 

The Anatomy of Melancholy. 

[We are indebted to Miss Margaret A. M. Macalister for these references 
in Shilleto's edition, 1904, i., 54, 91, 355, where the Salisburiensis of the 
first extract is corrected to Sarisbtirtensis. There is no difference between 
the 1621 and 1628 editions in this passage, except in minor spellings and in 
the fact that capitals are used in the latter in the initials of the title, Comedie 
of Errors, and small type in the former. The second edition, 1624, has 
Comedy of errors. 

The second extract is from Lucrece, 615, 616, and is not in the 1621 

The third Miss Macalister compares with Othello, I. i. 46 : 

Weares out his time, much like his Masters Asse, 
For naught but Prouender. 

This also is not in the 1621 edition. M.] 


Oriana. Are all my hopes come to this ? Is there no faith 
No troth, nor modefty, in men ? 

Wild Goose Chace, 1652 [>/.], /. 16. 

[This passage recals the words of the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet (Act 
III. ii.) imitated earlier by Barrey, see before, p. 223: 

"There's no trust 
No faith, no honesty in men." 

Fletcher's Wild Goose Chace is placed under date 1621, on the authority 
of Malone, who says " it appears from Sir Henry Herbert's manuscript " 
(see after, p. 321) that this play is "found among the court exhibitions of 
the year 1621 " ( Variorum, vol. iii. p. 225). But the play was lost in 1647, 
and was first printed in folio, separately, in 1652. L. T. S.] 

[In another play Fletcher has evidently imitated Hamlet (I. v) : 

" Hie et ubique? then we'll shift our ground * * 
Once more remove good friends ; " 

viz. in The Woman's Prize, or the Tamer tam'd (Act V. iii). Rowland, 
having received a statement on oath from his friend Tranio, makes him 
swear to it again : 

"Let's remove our places. Sweare it again." 

This play was first printed in the Works of Beaumont and Fletcher, folio, 
1647, its date is uncertain. It is said to have been written in ridicule of The 
Taming of the Shrew, but there is not in it a single line or word that can by 
any kind of ingenuity be so interpreted. It is, as Steevens remarks, a sequel 
to it, in which the plot is reversed, and Petruchio tamed by a second wife ; 
but the notion of ridictfle is quite unfounded- P. A. Daniel. ] 



Firft and fecond Part of 

the troublefome Raigne of 
JOHN King of England 

With the difcouerie of King Richard Cor- 

delions Bafe forme (vulgarly named, the Baftard 

Fauconbridge :) Alfo the death of King 

lohn at Swinftead Abbey. 

As they were (fundry times) lately acted. 

Written by W. SHAKESPEARE. 


Printed by Aug: Mathewes for Thomas Dewe, and are to 
be Ibid at his {hop in St. Dunftones Church- 
yard in Fleet-ftreet, 1622, 


[Title-page of the third edition of The Troublesome Raigne. It is copied 
from that of the 1611 edition, and here the " W. Sh." is expanded into 
"W.Shakespeare." M.] 






3 &4( 




PQ ,2 


i IS 



H <1 fa h > PQ 


* a ,<u 
n 0? S Q 

<U DH 

"S |^| 

< > Eo H & 

O s -r- 

67 b. 

WILLIAM BASSE, 1622. 287 

These lines, which are usually attributed to the elder W. Basse, have 
come down to us in so many discrepant versions, manuscript as well as 
printed, that it is difficult to determine their original or their finished form. 
The version [no. 2] selected for this work is derived, at second-hand, from a 
manuscript which, unfortunately, the compiler has not had an opportunity of 
inspecting. But the choice was made for cogent reasons. The original 
was certainly a sonnet, of the usual number of lines ; to which two lines 
(now standing as the I3th and I4th) were subsequently added. The addition, 
probably, occasioned changes in other lines ; and some of the manuscript 
and printed versions we possess are merely experimental ways of making 
the augmented elegy hold together. The couplet 

Thy unmolested rest, I 


Possess as lord, not tenant, to ( thy \ 

grave ' 

introduced an absurdity, which the lines in Donne's Poems do not contain : 
for, first, Shakespeare's peace would not be unmolested simply because his 
grave was unshared ; and secondly, it would not be unmolested at all, if 
others were in after time to be laid by him. Why not, then, adopt the 
version in Donne's Poems ? Because it is evident that at least one line in 
it was altered from one in a version which had the additional couplet : viz. 
line 1 1. The Ashmole copyist had written curved for carved, as the word 
stands in the Brander copy, and in both the Rawlinson copies : and it was 
evidently from a version like that or the Ashmole copy, which read curved, 
that the Donne copyist obtained his singular blunder of curled. We believe 
that the Fennell version (adopted as our text), "In this uncarved marble," 
is an earlier, as it is unquestionably a much finer, reading than either " Under 
this cawed marble, " or " Under this sable marble," which last occurs in the 
Sloane copy. As much might be said in defence of the other portions of 
the Fennell version. Yet it is quite certain that it is not the original, but 
\hzfinished form of the elegy. 

None of the versions comport with the status quo in Westminster Abbey, 
where Chaucer's tomb is pretty central between Spencer's and Beaumont's : 
whereas, in the Fennell copy, Donne's version, and the Harleian and 
Phillipps MSS. Beaumont is the central figure ; in all the rest Spencer lies 
between Beaumont and Chaucer. 

In the original draft it is most likely that lines 9-12 ran (as in the Sloane 
copy, with one exception) thus : 

" If your precedencie in death doeth b'arre 
A fourth to have place in your sepulchre, 
Under this sacred marble of thy owne [sable, Sloaiie\ 

Sleep, rare Tragedian, Shakespeare, sleepe alone, 
That unto others," &c. 

2&& WILLIAM BASSE, l622. 

Perhaps Donne or Basse improved upon them, thus : 

"But if precedencie in death doe ) , 

or doth \ 

A fourth place in your sacred sepulchre, 
Under this [ ] marble of thy owne 

Sleep, rare Tragedian, Shakespeare, sleep alone," &c. 

and further it seems not improbable that the third of these lines became, 

"fn this unshartd marble of thy owne," 

before the additional couplet was added, when unshared was supplanted 
by uncarved. 

[Not quite agreeing with Dr. Ingleby in his view of this Epitaph, I have 
left his remarks, as they stood, and append a few of my own ; I print the 
version from Lansdowne 777, because it is an early MS., probably of the 
end of James I, and because it closely agrees with the two other earliest 
copies, viz. that given by Malone, and Mr. Halliwell's fac-simile. We 
therefore are likely here, as I think, to get the nearest approach to the 
original. An argument in favour of this is, that the names of the poets in 
the first three lines of these, as in nearly all the versions (Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
9, II, III, IV), are placed in chronological order, Spencer is to go nearer 
Chaucer, and is to be followed by Beaumont ; thus, besides avoiding the 
repetition of Beaumont in line 2, giving more force to the allusion in line 9. 
This is confirmed by the quotation from the epitaph given by Jonson (after, 
p. 315). The variations in the different versions are considerable, but are 
generally such as would arise from the lines having been written down 
from memory, rather than errors of a copyist ; the verses evidently were 
popular, on a popular subject, and hence are found in common-place-books 
and miscellaneous collections. Two only of our fifteen copies omit lines 
13, 14 (those in Donne's Poems, and Harl. 1749), they therefore probably 
were in the poem as first written, with the rest of which they seem to 
me quite consistent. Perhaps the most curious variation falls upon line 1 1 ; 
besides the two texts above we find "In an uncarued", "curved" (badly 
written for carved in the Ashmole copy), "curled" (Donne), "cabled" 
(which I think badly written for " curled," Harl. 1749), this copy closely 
follows Donne's ; "sacred," and " sable," instead of "carved." It seems 
to me that " Under this carved marble " has more sense, either figuratively, 
or positively, with a possible reference to Shakespere's tomb at Stratford, 
than to suppose him buried in marble, carved or uncarved. L. T. S .] 

The following is a list of all the manuscript copies that are known to us. 

* (i.) Brit. Mus. MS. Lansdowne 777, fo. 67 b. 

f* (2. ) A collection of Miscellaneous Poems in a handwriting of the early 
part of the reign of Charles I ; from which these verses are printed in 
Fennell's Shakespeare Repository, p. 10. 

* (3.) A MS. copy inserted in the Halliwell Collection of printed Pro- 
clamations and Broad-sides, in the Chetham Library, Manchester. See 

WILLIAM BASSE, 1 62 2. 289 

fac-simile of it in the catalogue (London, 1851, privately printed), 
No. 2757. 

* (4.) A collection of manuscript poems, formerly in the possession of 
Gustavus Brander, Esq., containing these verses. Cited by Malone, who 
says "the MS. appears to have been written soon after the year 1621." 
Shakesperfs Works, 1821, vol. i. pp. 470 472. 

* (5.) A volume of manuscript poems composed by W. Herrick and others, 
and inter alia Basse's lines ; in the Rawlinson Collection, Bodleian Library, 
Oxford. (Cited by Malone, but a diligent search has failed to discover it.) 

* (6.) A volume of manuscripts, containing poems by Bishop Corbet, and 
inter alia Basse's lines ; also in the Rawlinson Collection. MS. Poet. Vol. 
117, p. 40 (resembles Lans. 777). 

* (7.) British Museum MS. Sloane 1792 (not 1702 as Malone quotes it), 
fo. 114. 

f (8.) Phillipps MSS ; at Cheltenham (formerly Middlehill), No. 9569 : 
printed at the end of The Marriage of Wit' and Wisdom, edited by J. O. 
Halliwell for the Shakespere Society, 1846 ; p. 92 (written about 1638). 

* (9.) A volume of manuscripts, containing six poems by W. Herrick, 
and also Basse's lines. Vol. 38, No. 421, in the Ashmole Collection* 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

f (10.) Harl. MS. 1749, fo. 289 b (a corrupt version: it wants lines 13, 14). 
To these may be added the following five early printed versions. 

f I. Donne's Poems. 1633. [4to.] p. 149. (Sign. Y 3 ; the paging is 
wrong, it should be 165.) 

* II. Verses appended to Shakespeare's Poems. 1640. [i2mo.] Sign. 
K 8, back. 

* III. Witt's Recreations : selected, &c. 1640 [i2mo.], wheVe Basse's 
lines are numbered Epitaph 5, sign. A A 2. 

* IV. Witt's Recreations Augmented, &c. 1641 [i2mo.], where Basse's 
lines are numbered 144 of the Epitaphs. 

* V. Poems : by Francis Beaumont [with additions by various writers], 
1652. [sm. 8vo.] Sign. M. The Epitaph is not in the edition of these 
Poems of 1640, it is among the additions of 1652. 

Of these, II, III, and IV are substantially the same, and follow in the 
main, No. (i). The * and f show the type to which each copy belongs 

As to the evidence of authorship : In (i) the lines are subscribed, 
"Wm. Basse," (2) headed "Mr. Basse," and (3) "Mr. Willm. Basse": 

(4) "Basse his elegie one Poett Shakespeare, who died in April, 1616": 

(5) "Shakespeare's Epitaph," without author's name. (6) "Basse his 
elegye on Shakespeare" : (7) Headed "vponshackpeare"; no author'sname. 
(8) Headed "On Shakespeare, Basse." (9) Subscribed " finis, Dr. Doone." 
(10) Nothing. In I. they are assigned to Dr. Donne ; but they are omitted 
from the next edition of his Poems. In II. they are subscribed W. B. : in 
III, IV, and V, they are anonymous. They are not included in "The Pas- 
torals and other Workes of William Basse," printed in 1653. C. M. I. 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. U 



And when he is merrily difpofed (as that is not feldom) then 
muft his dearling Kate Knightley play him a merry fit, and 
fitter Mary Brooke, or fome other of his laft-come Wags, muft 
fing him one bawdy fong or other to digeft his meat. Then 
after flipper it is ufuall for him to reade a little of Venus and 
Adonis, the iefts of George Peele, or fome fuch fcurrilous 
booke: for there are few idle Pamphlets printed in England 
which he hath not in the houfe. 

The Anatomy of the English Nunnery at Lisbon in Portugal! : 
Dissected and laid open by one that was sometime a yonger 
Brother of 'the Covent. 1622. p. 17. [4/0.] 

By the use of the expression "idle pamphlets" Brother Robinson did 
not necessarily intend (as Mr. Collier supposes, Bibliog. and Crit. Account, 
ii. 274) to depreciate Shakespeare's poem. An "idle pamphlet," at that 
time of day, meant one which afforded diversion rather than edification. 
Surely "scurrilous booke " (to which Mr. Collier takes no exception) implies 
a much graver charge. C. M. I. 



And laft he laughed in the Cambrian tongue, and beganne to 
declare in the Ftopian fpeech, what I haue heere with jnojl diligent 
negligence tranjlated into the Engli/h Language, in which if the 
Printer hath placed any line, letter orjillable, whereby this large 
volume may be made guilty to bee vnderftood by any man, I would 
haue the Reader not to impute the fault to the Author, for it was 
farrefrom his purpofe to write to any purpofe, fo ending at the 
beginning, I fay as it is applawsfully written and commended to 
pojlerity in the Midfommer nights dreame. If we offend, it is with 
our good will, we came with no intent, but to offend, andjhow our 



Sir Gregory Nonsence. His Newes from no place. . . . for the 
vndestanding of Nobody. By lohn Taylor. Printed in 
London, and are to bee sold betweene Charing-Crosse, and 
Algate. 1700. \The real date is in the colophon: Finis. 
Printed at London by N. 0. 1622.]' A 4, back. 

In Mr. Hall.-P.'s. Mem. on M. N. Dr., p. 35. The words meant to be 
quoted are those of Manager Quince, the Prologue, in M. N. >r. t ist Folio, 
p. 1 60, col. I : 

"Pro. If we offend, it is with oure good will. 
That you should thinke, we care not to offend, 
But with good will. To show our simple skill." 

The word ' intent ' was recollected from the later lines 

"We do not come, as minding to content you, 
Our true intent is. All for your delight. 
We are not heere." F. J. F. 



The Stationer to the Reader 

Jet forth a booke without an Epijlle, 
were like to the old Englifh prouerle, 
A blew coat without a badge, & 
the Author being dead, I thought good 
to take that piece ofworke vpon mee : 
To commend it, I will not, for that 
which is good, I hope euery man will 
and I am the lolder, lecaufe the 
Thus leaning euery 

commend, without in treaty 

Authors name isfufficient to vent his worke. 

one to the liberty ofiudgement : I haue venter -ed to print this Play, 

and leaue it to the generall cenfure. 


Thomas Walkley. 

The / Tragcedy of Othello, / The Moore of Venice. / As it 
hath beene diuerse times acted at the / Globe, and at the 
Black-Friers, by / his Maiesties Seruants.j Written by 
William Shakespeare./ London, / Printed by N. O. / 
for Thomas Walkley, and are to be sold at his / shop, at 
the Eagle and Child, in Britans Bursse./ i622./ sign. 
A 2. 

Mr. Herbert A. Evans calld my attention to Walkley's Foreword not 
being in the Centurie. 

At the end of 'The Fourth Edition' of Othello, 1655, in its publisher's 
List of Books, "Printed or sold by William Leake, at the signe of the 

THOMAS WALKLEY, 1622. 293 

Crown in Fleetstreet between the two Temple Gates : These Bookes follow- 
ing," are 


" Hen the Fourth 

"The Merchant of Venice." 

In the alterd version of Othello printed in 1687 ' for Richard Bentley and 
S. Magnes in Russel-Street near Covent-Garden,' a Catalogue of some of 
their Plays is on the 2nd leaf, A2 ; and in it are 

"Henry the 6th. with the Murder of the Duke of Glocester, in 2 parts . . 

King Lear . . . 

Othello, the Moor of Venice." 

F. J. F. 



Hig. Then beare up bravely with your Brute my lads 
Higgen hath prig'd the prancers in his dayes, 
And fold good peny-worthes ; we will have a courfe, 
The ipirit of Bottom, is growne bottomlefle. 

1647. Beggars Bush, Actus Quintus, Scsena Secunda. 
p. 95, col. 2 of ' Comedies / and / Tragedies / Written 
by Francis Beaumont And lohn Fletcher Gentlemen. 
Never printed before, / And now published by the 
Authours/ Originall Copies. / Si quid habcnt veri Vatum 
prasagia, vivam. / London, / Printed for Humphrey 
Robinson, at the three Pidgeons, and for / Humphrey 
Moseley at the Princes Armes in S e . Pauls / Church-yard. 

J. O. H11.-P. 

The date of the play is 1622, tho it was not printed till long after 
Fletcher's death in 1625. Beaumont died in 1616. A. H. Bullen. 



Let it fuffice, 

I have touch'd the height of humane happinefle, 
and here I fix Nil ultra. 1 Hitherto 
I have liv'd a fervant to ambitious thoughts, 
and fading glories : what J remains of life, 
I dedicate to Vertue ; and to keep 
my faith untainted, farewell Pride and Pomp, 
and 1 circumftance of glorious Majeftie, 
farewell for ever. 

The Propheteffe, Actus Quartus, Scena Sexta, No. 18, in 
B. & F.'s Comedies and Tragedies, Folio, 1647, p. 42, col. I. 

Mr. Leslie Stephen sends the last two lines, saying that they are " obvious 
recollections of Othello" ("Farewell. . . Pride, Pomp, and Circumstance 
of glorious War." III. iii. 354). 

The first seem also recollections of Fletcher's own Wolsey lines in Henry 
VIII, III. ii. 221, &c. 

" Nay then, farewell ! 

I have touch'd the highest point of all my greatness ; 
And, from that full meridian of my glory, 
I haste now to my setting." 

F. J. F. 

1 A later edition, " The Prophetess . . . London, 1690," reads 
p. 55, " And fix here my Non ultra? and 

p. 56, " ; my Remains of Life," and 

p. 56, " farewell Pride and Pomp, 

''All Circumstance of glorious Majesty, 
Farewel for ever." P. A. LYONS. 



(Gifford's Notes] 

Massinger was a great reader and 
admirer of Shakspeare ; he has here 
not only adopted his sentiment but 
his words : 
' Come, brother John, full bravely 

hast thoujfey&W 

Thy maiden sword* [i Hen. IV,* 
V. iv. 133.] 

* Gifford adds : " But Shakspeare is in every one's head, or, at least, in 
every one's hand ; and I should therefore be constantly anticipated in such 
remarks as these. I will take this opportunity to say, that it is not my 
intention to encumber the page with tracing every expression of Massinger 
to its imaginary source ..." 


for know, your son, 
The ne'er-enough commended An- 

So well hath flesh d his maiden sword. 

1622. The Virgin Martyr, 

I. i. Massinger's Works, 

Gifford's 2 nd ed n , 1813, i. 9. 

In a word, 

Thy plurisy of goodness is thy ill. 
?i62i, pr. 1639. The Unnatural 

Combat, IV. i. Works, 

1813, i. 197. 

the thought is from Shakspeare : 
' For goodness, growing to a plurisy, 
Dies in his own too much.' 

\Hamlet, IV. vii. 118.] 

Let his passion work, and, like a This is from Shakspeare: 

hot-rein'd horse, 
'Twill quickly tire itself 

ib. IV. ii. Works, i. 204. 

Marcella. For you, puppet 
Mariana. What of me, pine-tree ? 
. . . . O that I could reach you ! 
The little one you scorn so, with her 

' Anger is like 
' A full hot horse, who being allow' d 

his way, 
Self-mettle tires him.' [Henry VIII, 

I. i. 133.] Coxeter. 

Puppet and maypole, and many 
other terms of equal elegance, are 
bandied about in the quarrel between 
Hermia and Helena, in Midsummer 
Nights Dream [III. ii. 289298], 

^ There are many more Sh. imitations in Massinger. The list of some 
made by Mr. D. B. Bright well follows on pp. 301-4. 



Would tear your painted face, and 
scratch those eyes out. 

1623 (pr. 1638). The Duke 
of Milan, II. i. Works, 
1813, i. 268-9. 

Let me wear 
Your colours, lady ; and though 

youthful heats, 

That look no further than your out- 
ward form 
Are long since buried in me ; while 


I am a constant lover of your mind, 
That does transcend all precedents. 
1624 (pr. 1638). The Bond- 
man, I. iii. Works, ii. 30. 

Cleora* I restore 
This kiss, so help me goodness ! 

which I borrow'd 
When I last saw you. 

The Bondman, IV. iii. Works, 
ii. 86. 

Then, with a kind of state, I take my 

Command a sudden muster of my 


And, after two or three majestic hums, 
It being known all is mine, peruse 

my writings, 

Let out this manor, at an easy rate, 
To such a friend, lend this ten thou- 
sand crowns, 

which is here too closely imitated. 
I forbear to quote the passages, 
which are familiar to every reader of 

This is evidently copied from that 

much contested speech of Othello, 

act I. sc. iii. : 

" I therefore beg it not 

[To please the palate of my appetite ; 

Nor to comply with heat, the young 

In me defunct, and proper satisfac- 
tion,] &c." 

as is the following passage, in the 

Eair Maid of the Inn [Fletcher's] : 

' Shall we take our fortune ? and 
while our cold fathers, 

In whom long since their youthful 
heats were dead, 

Talk much of Mars, serve under 
Venus' ensigns, 

And seek a mistress.' 

This is a modest imitation of Shak- 
speare : 
' Now by the jealous queen of heaven, 

that kiss 
I carried from thee, dear j and my 

true lip 
Hath virgin'd it e'er since.' 

Coriolanus [V. iii. 48]. 

This is imitated from the soliloquy 
of Malvolio, in Twelfth Night; which 
is itself an imitation [?] of the reverie 
of Alnaschar, in the Arabian Nights 



For the redemption of his mortgaged 


Give to each by-blow I know of mine, 
a farm. 

1624. The Parliament of 
Love, II. i. Works, ii. 253. 

Lidia. O the difference of natures ! 

A prince in expectation, when he 

lived here. 
Stole courtesy from heaven, and 

would not, to 
The meanest servant in my father's 

Have kept such distance. 

1627 (pr. 1636). The Great 
Duke of Florence, II. iii. 
Works, 1813, ii. 468. 

Sanazarro. I have seen a maid, 

But, if that I have judgment, no such 

As she was deliver'd to you. 

ib. III. i. Works, ii. 478. 

Cozimo. So : come nearer ; 

This exercise hath put you into a 

sweat ; 
Take this and dry it. 

ib. III. i. Works, ii. 480. 

Ruardo. . . This military art, 
I grant to be the noblest of profes- 

sions ; 
And yet, I thank my stars for 't, I 

was never 

This is from Shakspeare, and the 
plain meaning of the phrase is, that 
the affability and sweetness of Gio- 
vanni were of a heavenly kind, i. e. 
more perfect than was usually found 
among men ... the commentators on 
our great poet have altogether mis- 
taken him ; 
"And then I stole all courtesy from 


And dress'd myself in such humility, 
That I did pluck allegiance from 
men's hearts." 

Hen. IV. Part I. Act III. 
sc. ii. 

. . an expression of Shakspeare might 
not improbably have hung on Mas- 
singer's mind : 

Mir. No -wonder, sir j 
But certainly a maid. Tempest. 

This is from Shakspeare; if he 
had been suffered to remain in quiet 
possession of it, the reader would 
have little to regret on the score of 
delicacy : 

" He's fat, and scant of breath : 
Here. Hamlet, take my napkin, rub 
thy brow?' 

In this passage .... Massinger, 
as Coxeter observes, had Shakspeare 
in his thoughts, and principally Fal- 
staff s humorous catechism. 



Inclined to learn it ; since this 

bubble honour 
(Which is indeed the nothing soldiers 

fight for,) 
With the loss of limbs or life, is, in 

my judgment, 
Too dear a purchase. 

1629 (pr. 1630). The Picture, 
I. ii. Works, 1813, iii. 126. 

Theodosius. . . Can you think 
This masterpiece of heaven, this pre- 
cious vellum, 

Of such a purity and virgin white- 
Could be design'd to have perjury 

and whoredom, 
In capital letters, writ upon 't ? 

1 63 1 (pr. 1632). The Emperor 
of the East, TV. v. Works, 
1813, iii. 328. 

Was this fair paper, this most goodly 

Made to write whore upon ? 


There are several other short pas- 
sages in this scene copied or imitated 
from the same play ; which, as suffi- 
ciently obvious, I have forborn to 
notice. l 

Theodosius. Wherefore pay you 

This adoration to a sinful creature ? 
I am flesh and blood, as you are, sensible 
Of heat and cold, as much a slave unto 
The tyranny of my passions, as the meanest 

1 The scene between Theodosius and Eudocia about the apple he sent 
her, is modelld on that of Othello and Desdemona about his mother's hand- 
kerchief that he gave her : 

Theo. Did not Philanax 
From me deliver you an apple ? 

Eud. Yes, sir; 

Heaven ! how you frown ! pray 

you, talk of something else. 
Think not of such a trifle. 

Theo. How, a trifle ! 

.... I prized it, lady, 
At a higher rate than you believe ; 

and would not 
Have parted with it, but to one I 

Prefer before myself. 

Eud. It was indeed, 

The fairest that I ever saw. 

Theo. It was ; 

And it had virtues in it, my Eu- 

Not visible to the eye . . . 
What did you with it? tell me 

punctually ; 

I look for a strict accompt. 
Eud. What shall I answer ? 
Theo. Do you stagger ? Ha ! 
Eud. No, sir. I have eaten it : 
[a lie.} 

Works, iii. 326-7. 

300 PHILIP MASSINGER, 1622-36. 

Of my poor subjects. The proud attributes, 

By oil-tongued flattery imposed upon us, 

As sacred, glorious, high, invincible, 

The deputy of heaven, and in that 

Omnipotent, with all false titles else, 

Coin'd to abuse our frailty, though compounded, 

And by the breath of sycophants applied, 

Cure not the least fit of an ague in us. 

We may give poor men riches, confer honours 

On undeservers, raise, or ruin such 

As are beneath us, and, with this puff d up, 

Ambition would persuade us to forget 

That we are men : but He that sits above us, 

And to whom, at our utmost rate, we are 

But pageant properties, derides our weakness : 

In me, to whom you kneel, 'tis most apparent. 

Can I call back yesterday, with all their aids 

That bow unto my sceptre ? or restore 

My mind to that tranquillity and peace 

It then enjoy'd ? Can I make Eudocia chaste, 

Or vile Paulinus honest ? 

1631. The Emperor of the East> V. ii. Works, 1813, iii. 339. 
" In this fine speech Massinger has ventured to measure weapons with 
Shakspeare [in Henry V, IV. i. 250301, Macbeth, and Lear\ and if I 
may trust my judgment, not ungracefully. The feelings, indeed, are more 
interested by the latter, but that arises from the situation of his chief 

Slave. I'll make them real, "There be land-rats and water- 

And you the Neptunes of the sea ; rats (says Shylock,) I mean pirates." 

you shall Hence, I suppose, the allusion. 

No more be sea-rats. 

? 1624-1634. A very Woman, 
V. i., Works, iv. 329. 

Grave, sir, o'er-rule your passion, and There are several incidental resem- 

defer blances to Shakspeare in this scene, 

The story of her fortune. of which the reader must be well 

1636 (pr. 1655). The Bashful aware. 1 

Lover, III. i. Works, iv. 401. F. J. F. 

1 Compare the following with Capulet's speech in Rom. 6 Jul.> III. v. 
165-9, and Leonato's in Much Ado, IV. i. 129 131 : 

Octavio. My only child ; I murmur'd against heaven 
Because I had no more, but now I find 
This one too many. p. 401. 




Queen of fate, O love 
Imperious Fortune ! mix some light Be moderate ; allay thy ecstasy ; 


In measure rein thy joy ; scant this 

With my so many joys, to season excess 

them, &c. 

I feel too much thy blessing : make 

1622. Virgin Martyr, Act I. sc. i. it less, 
p. 4, col. 2, ed. Cunningham. For fear I surfeit. 

M.ofVen. III. ii. in. 

As the sun 
Thou didst rise gloriously, keptst a 

constant course 
In all thy journey : and now, in the 

When thou shouldst pass with honour evening 

from that full meridian of my 

I haste now to my setting: I shall 

Like a bright exhalation in the 

to thy rest, 

Wilt thou fall like a meteor. 
1622. Virgin Martyr, V. ii. p. 33, 

COl. 2. 

And no man see me more. 

[Fletcher in] Henry VIII. 

'tis said, At lovers' perjuries 

And truly, Jupiter and Venus smile They say Jove laughs. 
At lovers' perjuries. [Ovid : see p. 56 above]. Romeo 

and Juliet, II. ii. (Var. Sh., 
Vol. VI. p. 83.) 

1624. Parliament of Love, V. i. 
p. 192, col. I. 

I will have thee And I have not ballads made on 

Pictured as thou art now, and thy you all, and sung to filthy tunes, &c. 

whole story I Henry IV. 

Sung to some villainous tune in a 

lewd ballad. 
1624. Parliament of Love, IV. v. p. 

1 86, col. i. So also the Bondman^ 





Look not on me 

As I am Cleremond : I have parted 

The essence that was his, and enter- 

The soul of some fierce tigress, or a 

New-hanged for human slaughter. 
1624. Parliament of 'Love, p. 182, 
col. 2. 

thy currish spirit 
Governed a wolf, who hanged for 

human slaughter 
Even from the gallows did his fell 

soul fleet 

And while thou layest in thy unhal- 
lowed dam 
Infused itself in thee. 

Merchant of Venice, IV. i. 

Tremble to think how terrible the 

dream is 
After this sleep of death. 

1626. The Roman Actor, III. ii. 
p. 208, col. i. 

in that sleep of death what dreams 
may come. 


Are you on the stage, 
You talk so boldly? 

Par. The whole world being one 
This place is not exempted. 

1626. Roman Actor, I. iii. p. 198, 
col. I. 

All the world 's a stage. 

As You Like It, II. vii. 
(Var. Sh., Vol. VI. p. 408.) 
(See also p. 340.) 

Pray you, believe, sir 
What you deliver to me shall be 

lock'd up 
In a strong cabinet of which you 

Shall keep the key : for here I pawn 

my honour 

* * It shall not be discovered. 
1627. The Great Duke of Florence, 

III. i. p. 235, col. 2. 

'Tis in my memory lock'd 
And you yourself shall keep the key 
of it. 

Hamlet, I. iii. 

( Var Sh ., Vol. VII. p. 221. Decker, 

What is he? 

At his best but a patrician of Rome 
His name Titus Flaminius ; and 

speak mine 

Berecinthios, arch-flamen to Cybele 
It makes as great a sound. 
1631. Believe as You List, I. ii. (p. 

598, col. I, Cunningham's Ed.) 

What should be in that " Caesar " ? 
Why should that name be sounded 

more than yours ? 
Write them together, yours is as 

fair a name : 
Sound them ; it doth become the 

mouth as well : &c. 

Julius Cczsar, I. ii. 142. 
(See Var. Sh., 1821, Vol. XII. p. 17. 

Hey wood. ) 

PHILIP MASSINGER, 1622-36. 33 


pomp and circumstance Pride, pomp and circumstance of 

Of glory. glorious war. 

1631. Believe as You List, I. i. p. Othello, III. iii. 354. 

596, col. i. (Var. Sh., 1821, Vol. IX. p. 382. 

D'Avenant, Fletcher.) 

Take heed, lord Philanax, that for Take good heed 

your private spleen, You charge not in your spleen a 

Or any false conceived grudge against noble person 

me . . And spire your nobler soul. 

you do not that Henry VIII., I. ii. 173. 

My royal master must in justice 

1 63 1 . The Emperor of the East, V. i. 

p. 347, col. 2. 

Methinks I find Paulinus on her lips. I found not Cassio's kisses on her 
1 63 1 . The Emperor of the East, IV. lips, 
iv. p. 345, col. i. Othello, III. iii. 341. 

Putting a girdle round about the I'll put a girdle round about the 

world. earth 

1631-2. Maid of Honour, I. i. p. 256, In forty minutes. 
col. i. Mids. Nights Dream, II. i. 

( Var., 1821, Vol. V. p. 228. Shirley, 

Will it ever be, Take note, take note, O world, 

That to deserve too much is dangerous, To be direct and honest is not safe. 
And virtue, when too eminent, a Othello, III. iii. 

^ for learn this, Silius, 

1631-2. Maid of Honour, III. m. Better to kave und than b our 

P- 270, col. 2. deed 

Acquire too high a fame when him 
we serve's away . . . 


The soldier's virtue, rather makes 
choice of loss, 

Than gain which darkens him. 
Ant. and Cleop,, III. i. 13-24. 





I will help I will tread this unbolted villain 

Your memory, and tread you into into mortar. 

mortar ; King Lear, II. ii. 70. 

? 1632. New Way to Pay Old (Noted by Stevens, in Var.Sh., 1821, 

Debts, I. i. p. 389, col. 2. Vol. X. p. 91). 

Heaven be pleased O Helicanus, strike me, honoured 
To qualify this excess of happiness sir ; 

With some disaster, or I shall expire Give me a gash, put me to present 
With a surfeit of felicity. pain ; 

1633. The Guardian, II. iii. p. 468, Lest this great sea of joys rushing 
col. I. upon me 

O'erbear the shores of my mortality 
And drown me with their sweetness. 

Pericles, V. i. 192. 
(Far. Sh,, 1821, Vol. XXI. p. 205.) 

My only child ; I murmured against Wife, we scarce thought us blest 

heaven That God had lent us but this only 

Because I had no more, but now I child ; 

find But now I see this one is one too 

This one too many. much. 

1636. The Bashful Lover, III. i. Rom. and Juliet, III. v. 165. 

p. 542, col. i. 

Much Ado, IV. i. 129-132. 

B[ENJ J[ONSON], 1623. 

To the Reader. 

This Figure, that thou here feeft put, 

It was for gentle Shakefpeare cut ; 
Wherein the Graver had a ftrife 

With Nature, to out-doo the life : 
O, could he but have drawne his Wit 

As well in Brafle, as he hath hit 
His Face; the Print would then furpafle 

All, that was ever writ in Brafle. 
But, fince he cannot, Reader, looke 

Not on his Picture, but his Booke. 

B. I. 

Facing Droeshoufs portrait of Shakespeare prefixed 
to the First Folio Edition of his Works. 

[Jonson here contrives to pay both Engraver and Poet the highest compli- 
ment ; if the former could have drawn the \vit of the latter as well as he has 
drawn his face, the print from his drawing would be the finest thing ever 
done. It seems to be the engraver's brass to which Digges refers on p. 318. 
L. T. S.] Dr. Grosart (Ed. of Sir John Beaumont's Poems, pp. 194 & xxv) 
hears in Ben's lines "an echo " of some in Beaumont's Elegiac Memorials 
of Worthies : 

" Or had it err'd, or made some strokes amisse, 

For who can pourtray Vertue as it is ? 

Art might with Nature have maintain'd her strife, 
By curious lines to imitate true life. 
But now those pictures want their lively grace ; 
As after death none can well draw the face : " 

Mr. Hain Friswell notices the resemblance " with a certain back twdst " 
(as he writes it) of Ben's lines to the elegiac couplet under an old portrait 
(1588) of Sir Thomas More, in the Tres Thomce of Stapleton : 


306 B[EN] J[ONSON], 1623. 

" Corporis effigiem dedit senea lamina. At 6 si 
Effigiem mentis sic daret iste liber. " 

And in Venus and Adonis, we read, 

' ' Look when a painter would surpass the life, 
His art with nature's workmanship at strife" (ll. 289, 291) ; 

which Dryden echoes in his Epistle to Sir Godfrey Kneller : 

" Such are thy pieces, imitating life 

So near, they almost conquered in the strife." 

We need not, however, go out of Shakespeare's " Booke " to find an 
instance of this common conceit : 

" the cutter 

Was as another Nature, dumb, outwent her, 
Motion and breath left out." 

Cymbeline, ii. 4. 

Mat. Smalwood, in his commendatory verses prefixed to some copies of 
Wm. Cartwright's Works, 1651, thus comments on the wretched print of 
Cartwright's face, which serves as frontispiece to the volume : , 

" Then, do not blame his serious Brow and Look, 
'Twill be thy Picture if them read his Book." C. M. I. 

[Jonson not improbably took the conceit in his last lines from the verses 
appended to the portrait of Du Bartas in Sylvester's eds. of 1621, &c., a work 
to which Jonson himself had contributed a commendatory poem. They 
run thus : 

" Ces traits au front, marquez de Scavoir & ft Esprit 
Ne sont que du BARTAS un ombre exterieur. 
Le Pin9eau n'en peut plus : Mais, de sa propre Plume 
II s'est peint le Dedans, dans son divin Volume" 

Englished thus : 

"This Map of Verities in a Muse-Mi Face ; 
Are but a blush of BARTAS outward part. 
The Pencil could no more : but his owne Pen 
Limns him, with-in, the Miracle of Men." 

(Du Bartas his Diuine Weekes and Workes : translated by 
Josuah Sylvester. \_fo.~\ 1633. Verses placed under 
the portrait of Du Bartas, A 5, back.} 

L. T. S.] 

BEN JONSON, 1623. 

To the memory of my beloved, the AUTHOR 


and what he hath left us. 

To draw no envy (Shakefpeare) on thy name, 

Am I thus ample to thy Booke, and Fame : 
While I confefle thy writings to be fuch, 

As neither Man, nor Mufe, can praife too much. 
'Tis true, and all mens fuffrage. But thefe wayes 

Were not the paths I meant unto thy praife : 
For feelieft Ignorance on thefe may light, 

Which, when it founds at befl, but eccho's right ; 
Or blinde Affection, which doth ne're advance 

The truth, but gropes, and urgeth all by chance j 
Or crafty Malice, might pretend this praife, 

And thinke to ruine, where it feem'd to raife. 
Thefe are, as fome infamous Baud, or Whore, 

Should praife a Matron. What could hurt her more ? 
But thou art proofe againft them, and indeed 

Above th' ill fortune of them, or the need. 


I, therefore will begin. Soule of the Age ! 

The applaufe ! delight ! the wonder of our Stage ! 
My Shakefpeare, rife j I will not lodge thee by 

Chaucer, or Spenfer, or bid Beaumont lye 
A little further, to make thee a roome : 

Thou art a Moniment, without a tombe, 
And art alive Hill, while thy Booke doth live, 

And we have wits to read, and praife to give. 
That I not mixe thee fo, my braine excufes j 

I meane with great, but difproportion'd Mufes : 
For, if I thought my judgement were of yeeres, 

I mould commit thee furely with thy peeres, 
And tell, how farre thou didftft 1 our Lily out-mine. 

Or fporting Kid, or Marlowes mighty line. 
And though thou hadft fmall Latine, and leffe Greeke, 

From thence to honour thee, I would not feeke 
For names -, but call forth thund'ring JEfchilus, 

Euripides, and Sophocles to us, 
Paccuvius, Accius, him of Cordova dead, 

To life againe, to heare thy Bufkin tread, 
And (hake a Stage : Or, when thy Sockes were on, 

Leave thee alone, for the comparifon 
Of all, that infolent Greece, or haughtie Rome 

fent forth, or lince did from their afhes come. 

1 Sic in original. 


Tritimph, my Britaine, thou haft one to fhowe, 

To whom all Scenes of Europe homage owe. 
He was not of an age, but for all time ! 

And all the Mufes Hill were in their prime, 
When like Apollo he came forth to warme 

Our eares, or like a Mercury to charme ! 
Nature her felfe was proud of his defignes, 

And joy'd to weare the dreffing of his lines ! 
Which were fo richly fpun, and woven fo fit, 

As, lince, me will vouchfafe no other Wit. 
The merry Greeke, tart Ariftophanes, 

Neat Terence, witty Plautus, now not pleafe j 
But antiquated and deferted lye 

As they were not of Natures family. 
Yet muft I not give Nature all : Thy Art, 

My gentle Shakefpeare, muft enjoy a part. 
For though the Poets matter, Nature be, 

His Art doth give the fafhion. And, that he, 
Who cafts to write a living line, muft fweat, 

(fuch as thine are) and ftrike the fecond heat 
Upon the Mufes anvile : turne the fame, 

(And himfelfe with it) that he thinkes to frame ; 
Or for the lawrell, he may gaine a fcorne, 

For a good Poet's made, as well as borne. 


And fuch wert thou. Looke how the fathers face 

Lives in his iflue, even fo, the race 
Of Shakefpeares minde and manners brightly mines 

In his well torned, and true-filed lines : 
In each of which, he feemes to {hake a Lance, 

As brandifh't at the eyes of Ignorance. 
Sweet Swan of Avon ! what a fight it were 

To fee thee in our waters yet appeare, 
And make thofe flights upon the bankes of Thames, 

That fo did take Eliza, and our James ! 
But flay, I fee thee in the Hemifphere 

Advanc'd, and made a Conftellation there ! 
Shine forth, thou Starre of Poets, and with rage, 

Or influence, chide, or cheere the drooping Stage ; 
Which, fince thy flight fro hence, hath mourn'd like night, 

And defpaires day, but for thy Volumes light. 

Ben : Jonfon. 

Prefaced to the First Folio Edition of Shakespeare* s Works. 

It has not, hitherto, been observed, that Ben Jonson's forty couplets have 
a regular structure. The compiler has ventured upon an innovation to 
indicate this. S8SOSH3 Fortunately the three marks of division, to which 
he has had recourse, fall on the top of each page, so that they serve 
indifferently as paginal decorations, or as the headings of the second, third, 
and fourth divisions. By virtue of the latter function, they indicate the 
following constituent parts of the poem. 

(I.) An Introduction ) . . . . 

(4.) A Peroration j each of eight couplets. 

(2.) An Address to Shakespeare ) . ri 

, \ * .,, ^T,-- \ eacn of twelve couplets. 

(3.) An Address to Britain 

3 11 

In the third, however, is a passing deviation, viz. " Thy Art, my Shake- 
speare," &c. A few obscurities in the course of this piece may be noted. 
" To draw no envy" &c., certainly does not mean what the editor of 
Brome's Five New Plays, 1659 (To the Reader, p. 4), imputes to it ; as if 
Ben thought to lower Shakespeare by extravagantly praising him. He 
meant to say, that while Ignorance, Affection, or Malice, by excessive, 
indiscriminate or unjust praise, would be sure to provoke the detraction of 

"these ways 
Were not the paths I meant unto thy praise j " 

for he could with full knowledge and strict impartiality award him the 
highest praise that could be expressed. One is reminded (especially by the 
seventh couplet) of what Ben wrote in Cynthia's Revels, where Crites is 
made to say, 

" So they be ill men, 

If they spake worse, 'twere better : for of such 
To be dispraised, is the most perfect praise." (Act III. sc. iii.) 

" I will not lodge tkee," &c., refers to Basse's lines, and means that he will 
not class Shakespeare with Chaucer, Spenser, and Beaumont, because he is 
out of all proportion greater than they men "of yeeres" or "for an age." 
Nor will he praise him by declaring how far he excelled Lily, Kid, and 
Marlow. Shakespeare, indeed, like them (yet beyond them) was, for the 
age in which he flourished ; but he was also for all time, and not 0/~an age. 
It is worth remarking, that on the occasion of the Tercentenary Celebration, 
in London, when " blinde Affection" worshipped the gigantic bust of 
Shakespeare, at the Agricultural Hall, " seeliest Ignorance " had surmounted 
the proscenium with the abominable travestie, HE WAS NOT FOR AN AGE, 
BUT FOR ALL TIME ; and the same evil genius presided over Mr. John 
Leighton's " Official Seal for the National Shakespeare Committee," when 
he engraved on the scroll at the base of the device the same discreditable 
perversion, NOT FOR AN AGE, BUT FOR ALL TIME. Mr. Frederick Brett 
Russell is to be congratulated on his fidelity and sense in surrounding his 
memorial salver with the actual line of Jonson. 

"Leave thee alone for the comparison" &c., is almost repeated verbatim in 
Jonson's Timber, where he points to Bacon as 

" he who hath fill'd up all numbers, and perform'd that in our tongue, 
which may be compar'd, or preferr'd, either to insolent Greets, or haughty 
Rome" (Jonson's Works, fol. 1640, p. 102.) 

It is indeed as applicable to Bacon's prose as to Shakespeare's verse. 
Mr. W. H. Smith endeavours to make capital out of the coincidence, in 
his Bacon and Shakespeare. 1857. pp. 35-36. 

"For though thou had'st" &c. Here hadst is the subjunctive. The 
passage may be thus paraphrased : 

3I 2 

" Even if thou liadst little scholarship, I would not seek to honour thee 
by calling thee, as others have done, Ovid, Plautus, Terence, &c., *.*., by 
the names of the classical poets, but would rather invite them to witness 
how far thou dost outshine them." 

Ben does not assert that Shakspeare had "little Latine and less Greek," 
as several understand him, though doubtless, compared with Ben's finished 
scholarship, Shakespeare's was small : but, that the lack of that accom- 
plishment could only redound to Shakespeare's honour, who could be 
Greek or Roman, according to the requirements of the play and the 

One could wish that Ben had said all this in Shakespeare's lifetime ; and 
one is reminded of what Horace says of the great Poet (Epist. II, i. 13-14). 

" Urit enim fulgore suo, qui praegravat artes 
Infra se positas : extinctus amabitur idem. " 

In the verses prefixed to Cartwright's Works, 1651, signed W. Towers, 
it is said, 

" Thy skill in Wit was not so poorely meek 
As theirs whose little Latin and no Greek 
Confin'd their whole Discourse to a Street phrase, 
Such Dialect as their next Neighbour's was." C. M. I. 

This was in allusion to Jonson's critique on Shakespeare. 



Right Honourable, 

Whillt we ftudie to be thankful in our particular, for the many 
favors we have received from your L. L. we are falne upon the 
ill fortune, to mingle two the moft diverfe things that can bee, 
feare, and ramneffe ; ramnefle in the enterprize, and feare of the 
fuccefle. For, when we valew the places your H. H. fuftaine, 
we cannot but know their dignity greater, then to defcend to the 
reading of thefe trifles : and, while we name them trifles, we 
have depriv'd our felves of the defence of our Dedication. But 
fince your L. L. have beene pleaf'd to thinke thefe trifles fome- 
thing, heeretofore ; and have profequuted both them, and their 
Authour living, with fo much favour : we hope, that (they out- 
living him, and he not having the fate, common with fome, to 
be exequutor to his owne writings) you will ufe the like 
indulgence toward them, you have done unto their parent. 
There is a great difference, whether any Booke choofe his 
Patrones, or finde them : This hath done both. For, fo much 
were your L L. likings of the feverall parts, when they were 
afted, as before they were publifhed, the Volume afk'd to be yours. 
We have but collected them, and done an office to the dead, 
to procure his Orphanes, Guardians ; without ambition either of 
felfe-profit, or fame : onely to keepe the memory of fo worthy a 
Friend, & Fellow alive, as was our SHAKESPEARE, by humble 
offer of his playes, to your moft noble patronage. Wherein, as 
we have juftly obferved, no man to come neere your L. L. but with 
a kind of religious addreffe ; it hath bin the height of our care, 
who are the Prefenters, to make the prefent worthy of your 
H. H. by the perfection. But, there we muft alfo crave our 
abilities to be confiderd, my Lords. We cannot go beyond our 


owne powers. Country hands reach foorth milke, creame, fruites, 
or what they have : and many Nations (we have heard) that had 
not gummes & incenfe, obtained their requefts with a leavened 
Cake. It was no fault to approch their Gods, by what meanes 
they could : And the moft, though meaneft, of things are made 
more precious, when they are dedicated to Temples. In that 
name therefore, we moft humbly confecrate to your H. H. thefe 
remaines of your fervant Shakefpeare ; that what delight is in 
them, may be ever your L. L. the reputation his, & the faults 
ours, if any be committed, by a payre fo carefull to fhew their 
gratitude both to the living, and the dead, as is 

Your Lord/nappes moft lounden, 
John Heminge. 
Henry Condell. 

Dedication to William, Earl of Pembroke, and Philip, Earl of 
Montgomery. (Prefixed to the First Folio Edition of Shakespeare" s 
Works, 1623.) 

The first part of the peroration of this address is so good as to evoke the 
suspicion that it is not original. Malone quotes from Morley's Dedication 
of a Book of Songs * to Sir Robert Cecil, 1595, a very similar passage. 
But in truth the beginning of the peroration is literally translated from 
Pliny's dedicatory epistle to Vespasian, prefixed to his Natural History (\ 1 1, 
ed. Sillig), which runs thus : 

"dis lacte rustici multseque gentes supplicant, et mola tan turn salsa litant 
qui non habent tura ; nee ulli fuit vitio deos colere quoquo modo posset." 

That is, 

"country people and many nations offer milk to their gods ; and they who 
have not incense obtain their requests with only meal and salt ; nor was it 
imputed to any as a fault to worship the gods in whatever way they could." 

The writer of the address of 1623 added " cream and fruits " in one place, 
and " gummes " in another : and for mola salsa appears to have, not 
unskilfully, caught up Horace's "farre pio " (Odes III, 23, 11. 17-20). He 
adds, too, very gracefully, that "the meanest things are made more precious 
when they are dedicated to temples." If he employed Philemon Holland's 
translation of Pliny (1635) he did not reproduce its words. C. M. I. 

1 " Cantvs. Of Thomas Morley the first booke of ballets to five voyces " 
is the real title. [L.T.S.] 


To the great Variety of Readers. 

From the moft able, to him that can but fpell : There you are 
number'd. We had rather you were weighd. Efpecially, when 
the fate of all Bookes depends upon your capacities : and not of 
your heads alone, but of your purfes. Well ! It is now 
publique, & you wil ftand for your priviledges wee know : to 
read, and cenfure. Do fo, but buy it firft. That doth beft 
commend a Booke, the Stationer faies. Then, how odde foever 
your braines be, or your wifedomes, make your licence the fame, 
and fpare not. Judge your fixe-pen'orth, your (hillings worth, 
your five Shillings worth at a time, or higher, fo you rife to the 
juft rates, and welcome. But, what ever you do, Buy. Cenfure 
will not drive a Trade, or make the Jacke go. And though you 
be a Magiftrate of wit, and lit on the Stage at Black-Friers, or 
the Cock-pit, to arraigne Playes dailie, know, thefe Playes have 
had their triall alreadie, and flood out all Appeales ; and do now 
come forth quitted rather by a Decree of Court, then any 
purchaf'd Letters of commendation. 

It had bene a thing, we confefle, worthie to have bene wifhed, 
that the Author himfelfe had liv'd to have fet forth, and overfeen 
his owne writings 3 But mice it hath bin ordain'd otherwife, 
and he by death departed from that right, we pray you do not 
envie his Friends, the office of their care, and paine, to have 
collected & publifh'd them 5 and fo to have publim'd them, as 
where (before) you were abuf d with diverfe ftolne, and furrep- 
titious copies, maimed, and deformed by the frauds and ftealthes 


of injurious impoftors, that expofd them : even thofe, are now 
offer'd to your view cur'd, and perfect of their limbes j and all 
the reft, abfolute in their numbers, as he conceived the. Who, 
as he was a happie imitator of Nature, was a moft gentle 
exprefler of it. His mind and hand went together : And what 
he thought, he uttered with that eafinefle, that wee have fcarfe 
received from him a blot in his papers. But it is not our province, 
who onely gather his works, and give them you, to praiie him. 
It is yours that reade him. And there we hope, to your divers 
capacities, you will finde enough, both to draw, and hold you : 
for his wit can no more lie hid, then it could be loft. Reade 
him, therefore -, and againe, and againe : And if then you doe 
not like him, furely you are in fome manifeft danger, not to 
underftand him. And fo we leave you to other of his Friends, 
whom if you need, can bee your guides : if you neede them not, 
you can leade your felves, and others. And fuch Readers we 

wifh him. 

John Heminge. 

Henrie Condell. 
Address prefixed to the First Folio Edition of Shakespeare" s Works. 

The statement of these editors "that what he [Shakespeare] thought, he 
uttered with that easiness, that wee have scarce received from him a blot 
\liturd\ in his papers," is seemingly confirmed by Ben Jonson (p. 348). 
[But if by this they intended to convey to the reader the notion that the text 
of the folio 1623 was printed from the author's own manuscript, they must 
stand convicted of a suggestio falsi ; for five at least of the plays included in 
that volume are little more than reprints of the previous quarto editions, 
characterised by them as "surreptitious copies, "&c.; others of these quartos 
must also have been used in preparing the folio for press, and for the 
remainder, with perhaps a few exceptions, the corrupted stage-copies were 
probably used. See Prefaces and Notes of Cambridge Editors, of Dyce, 
Staunton, and others. P. A. D.] 

[In all probability, say the Cambridge editors, not one of Shakespere's 
Works was corrected by himself, " nor, with few exceptions, vrere they 
printed from the author's manuscript "( Works, vol. ix, preface, p. xxi). 
L. T. S.] 



Upon the Lines and Life of the Famous Scenicke Poet, 

Thofe hands, which you fo clapt, go now, and wring 
You Britaines brave ; for done are Shakefpeares dayes : 
His dayes are done, that made the dainty Playes, 
Which make the Globe of heav'n and earth to ring. 
Dry'de is that veine, dry'd is the Thefpian Spring, 
Turn'd all to teares, and Phoelus clouds his rayes : 
That corp's, that coffin now befticke thole bayes, 
Which crown'd him Poet firfl, then Poets King. 
If Tragedies might any Prologue have, 
All thofe he made, would fcarfe make one to this : 
Where Fame, now that he gone is to the grave 
(Deaths publique tyring-houfe) the Nuncius is. 

For though his line of life went foone about, 

The life yet of his lines fhall never out. 

Hugh Holland. 

Prefixed to the First Folio Edition of Shakespeare' s Works. 


of the deceafed Authour Maifler 


Shake-fpeare, at length thy pious fellowes give 
The world thy Workes : thy Workes, by which, out-live 
Thy Tombe, thy name muft : when that ftone is rent. 
And Time diflblves thy Stratford Moniment, 
Here we alive mail view thee ftill. This Booke, 
When Brafie and Marble fade, fhall make thee looke 
Frefh to all Ages : when Pofteritie 
Shall loath what's new, thinke all is prodegie 
That is not Shake-fpeares ; ev'ry Line, each Verfe, 
Here fhall revive, redeeme thee from thy Herfe. 
Nor Fire, nor cankring Age, as Nafo faid, 
Of his, thy wit-fraught Booke mall once invade. 
Nor fhall I e're beleeve, or thinke thee dead 
(Though mift) untill our bankrout Stage be fped 
(Impoflible) with fome new ftrain t' out-do 
Paflions of Juliet, and her Romeo ; 
Or till I heare a Scene more nobly take, 
Then when thy half-Sword parlying Romans fpake, 
Till thefe, till any of thy Volumes reft 
Shall with more fire, more feeling be expreft, 
Be fure, our Shake-fpeare, thou canft never dye, 
But crown'd with Lawrell, live eternally. 

L. Digges. 

Prefixed to the First Folio Edition of 'Shakespeare } s Works. 

I. M, 1623. 

To the memorie of M. W. Shake-fpeare. 

Wee wondred (Shake-fpeare) that thou went'ft fo foone 
From the Worlds-Stage, to the Graves-Tyring-roome. 
Wee thought thee dead, but this thy printed worth, 
Tels thy Spedators, that thou went'ft but forth 
To enter with applaufe. An A6tors Art, 
Can dye, arid live, to a&e a fecond part. 
That's but an Exit of Mortalitie j 
This, a Re-entrance to a Plaudite. 

Prefixed to the First Folio Edition of 'Shakespeare 's Works. 

These lines have been attributed to John Marston, Jasper Mayne, and 
James Mabbe. Those who know Marston feel assured they are not his. 
Mr. Bolton Corney, who first preferred a claim on behalf of Mabbe, sup- 
ported it by the following extract from Mabbe's translation of Guzman de 
Alfarache, Part I, p. 175 ; a work published by Edward Blount, 1623, and 
attributed to Mateo Aleman. (See Notes and Queries : 2nd S., XI, 4.) 

" It is a miserable thing, and much to be pittied, that such an Idoll as one 
of these [a proud courtier], should affect particular adoration ; not considering, 
that he is but a man, a representant, a poore kinde of Comedian that acts his 
part upon the Stage of this World, and comes forth with this or that Office, 
thus and thus attended, or at least resembling such a person, and that when 
the play is done (which can not be long) he must presently enter into the 
Tyring-house of the grave, and be turned to dust and ashes as one of the 
sonnes of the Earth, which is the common Mother of us all." C. M. I. 

[The simile of the "tyring house " was not uncommon; Holland uses it, 
before, p. 317, and Davies of Hereford (Scourge of Folly, p. 229) says to 
Robert Armin, "When th' art in the tyring house of earth," and repeats 
it elsewhere. 

It is a question whether such ideas and phrases as those printed in italics 
in this extract from Mabbe were not the common property of the age 
(they differ from the "play-scraps" which caught the popular ear and 
tongue). Here is another from the same writer, p. 13, lecturing women for 

320 I. M., 1623, 

painting their faces he says, ' ' O affront, above all other affronts ! that 
God having given thee one face, thou shouldst abuse his image, and make 
thy selfe another," which resembles Hamlet's objurgation of Ophelia (Act 
III, sc. i), "I have heard of your paintings too, well enough ; God has 
given you one face, and you make yourselves another " ; both evidently 
follow the biblical arguments of the "stricter sort" against this vice, the 
strongest expression of which was given by Philip Stubbes in his Anatomie 
of Abuses, 1583. Citing St. Ambrose he has, " For what a dotage is it 
(saith hee) to chaunge thy naturall face which God hath made thee for a 
painted face, which thou hast made thyself" (see Reprint for the New Sh. 
Soc., 1877, pp. 6466). 

Compare also the extracts from Law's Day Tricks, before, p. 190, and 
pp. 121, 122. 

The last line alludes to the ancient practice of approbation given at the 
close of a performance or new play. See Ben Jonson, before, p. 31, and 
in the Histrio-mastix, a play of 1610, we have "wher's the Epilogue must 
beg the plaudite ? " (sigr;. C I, back). When Jonson's play The Silent 
Woman was first acted, verses were afterwards found on the stage concluding 
that it was well named the Silent woman, because there was "never one 
man to say plaudite to it." Drummond's Works, 1711, p. 226. L. T. S.] 



To the Duchefs of Richmond, in the kings abfence, was given 
The Winter s Tale, by the K. company, the 18 Janu. 1623. Att. 

Upon New-years night, the prince only being there, The Fir (I 
Part of Sir John Falftaff, by the king's company. Att Whitehall, 
1624 [Page 228] 

For the king's players. An olde playe called Winter s Tale, 
formerly allowed of by Sir George Bucke, and likewyfe by mee 
on Mr. Hemmings his worde that there was nothing profane 
added or reformed, thogh the allowed booke was miffingej and 
therefore I returned it without a fee, this 19 of Auguft, 1623. 

[Received] from Mr. Hemmings, in their company's name, 
to forbid the playing of Shakefpeare's plays, to the Red Bull 
Company, this u of April 1627, ^5. o. o. [Page 229] 

On Saterday the if h of Novemb. [miftake for i6 th ] being the 
Queen's birthday, Richards the Thirde was acted by the K. 
players at St. James, wher the king and queene were prefent, it 
being the firft play the queene fawe fince her M. tys delivery of 
the Duke of York. 1633. 

On tufday night at Saint James, the 26 of Novemb. 1633, 
was acted before the King and Queene, The Taminge of the 
Shrew. Likt. 

On Wenfday night the firft of January, 1633, Cymleline was 
acted at Court by the Kings players. Well likte by the Kinge. 

[pages 233, 234] 

The Winter s Tale was acted on thurfday night at Court, the 
1 6 Janua. 1633, by the K. players, and likt [page 236] 

Julius Caesar, at St. James, the 31 Janu. 1636 [page 239] 

Sir Henry Herbert s Office Book, manuscript quoted in Ma/one's 
Historical Account of the English Stage, Variorum vol. Hi, 
pages as given above. 
SH. ALLN. BK. I. y 

322 SIR HENRY HERBERT, 1623 1636. 

[" The office-book of Sir Henry Herbert contains an account of almost 
every piece exhibited at any of the theatres from August 1623, to the com- 
mencement of the rebellion in 1641 " (Malone, III, p. 59), but it " does not 
furnish us with a regular account of the plays exhibited at court every year " 
(p. 228). The above are all the entries which relate to Shakespere's plays 
from this manuscript as quoted by Malone (see note, after, p. 323) ; but Sir 
Henry Herbert left several other papers, from which Malone gives us the 
following notices of Shakespere's plays. Out of twenty "stock-plays" of 
the Red Bull actors (afterwards called the King's servants), from 1660 to 
1663, three were Shakespere's, viz. Henry the Fourthe, Merry Wives oj 
Windsor, and Othello. Out of a list of sixty-seven plays entered by Sir H. 
Herbert from 5 Nov. 1660 to July 23, 1662, only three were Shakespere's, 
viz. 8 Nov. 1660, Jfenry the Fourth ; g Nov., The Merry Wives of Windsor ; 
8 Dec., 77ie Moore of Venise. In another of his lists dated Nov. 3, 1663, 
we have Henry the $th, Taming the Shreiv, Macbeth, and K. Henry 8, the 
last three marked as "revived" plays. Downes the prompter's list of the 
stock-plays of the king's servants, from the Restoration to 1682, gives only 
Henry IV, Part I, Merry Wives of Windsor, Othello, and Julius Ccesar, of 
Shakespere's. All these particulars seem to belong to the company of Red 
Bull actors, afterwards called the king's servants (Malone, III, pp. 272 
276). Sir Wm. Davenant's company acted between about 1660 and 1671, 
Pericles, King Lear, Hamlet, King Henry VIII, Romeo and Juliet, Twelfth 
Night, and as altered by Davenant, Macbeth and The Tempest (ib. p. 277) : 
after 1671, they acted King Lear, as altered by Davenant and Shad well, 
Timon of Athens, Macbeth, and The Tempest. The " United companies " 
acted between 1682 and 1695, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, Othello, Midsummer 
Night's Dream, and The Taming of the Shrew the two last being altered. 
" Dryden's Troilus and Cressida, however, the two parts of King Henry IV, 
Twelfth Night, Macbeth, King Henry VIII, Julius Casar, and Hamlet, were 
without doubt sometimes represented in the same period : and Tate and 
Durfey furnished the scene with miserable alterations of Coriolanus, King 
Richard II, King Lear, and Cymbeline. Otway's Caius Marius, which was 
produced in 1680, usurped the place of our poet's Romeo and Juliet for 
near seventy years. * * * Dryden's All for Love, from 1678 to 1759, 
was performed instead of our author's Antony and Cleopatra; and Davenant's 
alteration of Macbeth in like manner was preferred to our author's tragedy, 
from its first exhibition in 1663, for near eighty years" (ib. pp. 287-291). 

We thus get official notices of fifteen of Shakespere's plays, that were 
acted or accustomed to be acted between 1623 and 1663, by the king's 
players and the Red Bull actors. The notes for the next thirty years show 
us ten of Shakespere's own (of which five were other than the previous 
fifteen), and ten of Shakespere's plays altered by various writers, which were 
performed before the end of our century 1692). L. T. S.] 



1629. The benefit* of the winters day from the kinges company 
being brought mee by Blagrave, upon the play of The 
Moor of Venife, comes, this 22 of Nov. 1629, unto gt. 
i6s. od. 

1631. Received of Mr. Benfielde, in the name of the kings 
company, for a gratuity for ther liberty gaind unto them 
of playinge, upon the ceflation of the plague, this 10 of 
June, 1631 3/. Jos. od. This was taken upon Pericles 
at the Globe. 

1631. Received of Mr. Shanke, in' the name of the kings 
company, for the benefitt of their fummer day, upon y e 
fecond daye of Richard y e Seconde, at the Globe, this 1 2 
of June, 1631 <J/. 6s. 6d. 

MS. of Sir Henry Herbert, printed by Malone is his Historical 
Account of the English Stage, 1821. Variorum, Hi. 177. 

[Sir Henry Herbert was Master of the Revels to James I, Charles I, and 
Charles II. From his Office Book, now lost, Malone printed many 
interesting details, from which I gather those which refer to the acting of 
Shakespere's plays during the period over which its entries extend, from 
1623 to 1642. Under date 1628, Herbert notes that the king's company 
" have given mee the benefitt of too dayes in the yeare, the one in summer, 
thother in winter, to bee taken out of the second daye of a revived playe, 
att my owne choyse." (Malone, iii. p. 176.) Three of these benefits, as seen 
above, were taken on plays of Shakespere. See before, pp. 321, 322. 
L. T. S.] 



When Venus ranne to meet her rofe-cheeked Adonis, as an 
elegant * Poet of ours fets her out, " shakes P eare - 

the lushes in the way 

Some catch her necke,fome kifle her face, 
Some twine about her legs to make her flay, 
And all did covet her for to embrace. 

Part 3. Sec. 2. Memb. 2. Subs. 2. 

And many times thofe which at the firft light cannot fancy or 
affe6t each other, but are harm and ready to difagree, offended 
with each others carriage, [like Benedict and Better is in the 
* Comedy] & in whom they finde many faults, by * shakes P eare - 
this living together in a houfe, conference, kiffing, colling, & 
fuch like allurements, begin at laft to dote infenfibJy one upon 

Part 3. Sec. 2. Memb. 2. Subs. 4. The words in [ ] 
appear for the first time in the ^rd Edition, 1628. \Fo. ] 

Who ever heard a ftory of more woe, 
Then that of Juliet and her Romeo ? 

Part 3. Sec. 2. Memb. 4. 

The Anatomy of Melancholy. 2nd Edition. 1624. [Fo.] 
pp. 371 (misprinted 372), 380, 427. Edition 1676. [Fo.~\ 
pp. 284, 298, dr> 332, the "Members" differ in this 

ROBERT BURTON, 1624. 325 

For the lines quoted in the first extract Burton trusted to his memory, for 
in his own copy in the Bodleian Library, [8. M. 9. Art. BS.,~\ they run thus : 

"the bushes in the way, 
Some catch her neck, some kisse her face, 
Some twine about her thigh to make her stay : 
She wildly breaketh from their strict embrace." 

Venus and Adonis, 1602. 8vo. st. 146. (Sign. C v.) 

The second line, which is exactly as Burton quotes it, has lost the words 
" by the." In the British Museum copy of the same edition, that line runs 
thus : 

" Some catch her by the neck, some kisse her face." (Sign. C v.) 

The omission was probably detected after a few copies had been pulled, 
and corrected before the edition was worked off. The Edinburgh edition 
1627 was evidently printed from one of the uncorrected copies of the edition 
of 1602, for it reads 

" Some catch her neck, and some doe kisse her face " (p. 36), 

eking out the line by the addition of "and" and "doe." 

In the second extract, the parenthesis, "like Benedict and Betteris in the 
comedie," was added in the third edition of Burton's book, issued in 1628. 
We get Benedicte and Betteris for Much ado about nothing, ante, p. 242. 
" Betteris " is phonetic spelling : Beatrice was doubtless vulgarly so pro- 
nounced. The Duchess of Newcastle, in one of her Sociable Letters, printed 
in our second volume, spells the name Bettrice ; so also in Eastward Hoe, 
before, p. 150. D'avenant, too, in The Man's the Master, has the name 
Bettris. Leonard Digges, however (under date 1640), gives her three 

The third extract quotes the concluding couplet of Romeo and Juliet. 
They run thus in the old folio : 

" For never was a story of more woe 
Than this of Juliet and her Romeo." 

The old editions of The Anatomy of Melancholy bear the dates, 1621, 
1624, 1628, 1632, 1638, 1651-2, 1660 and 1676. The British Museum has 
copies of all of them. That of 1651-2 was the first published after Burton's 
death (January, 1639). The first edition (1621) only contains the second 
of the passages quoted, without the words in [ ]. C. M. I. 

3 26 

E. S. (B. of D.) 1624 

Thefe ambi-dexter Gibionites, are like the Sea-calfes, Croco- 
diles, Otters & Sea-colt, Aristotle & Plinie fpeake of, which are 
one while in the water, other-while a land for their greater 
booties : juftly tearmed Dulia by Ifodore, in that being Natatilia- 
& Grassalilia, men know not where to find them : for they 
are like Hamlets ghost, hie & ulique, here and there, and every 
where, for their owne occafion. 

Anthropophagus : the Man- Eater. London. 1624. /. 14. 

[The author is here speaking of time-servers and flatterers ; the probability 
that he had himself seen the play gives the allusion additional interest. Mr. 
Elliot Browne conjectures from this that the stage business of the ghost 
' ' was as prominent a feature of the early representation as it has been in 
later times" (Athenaeum, Nov. 13, 1875). L - T - S -J 


JOHN GEE, 1624. 

The Jefuites being or having A6lors of luch dexteritte, I fee 
no reafon but that they fhould fet up a company for themfelves, 
which surely will put down The Fortune, Red-lull, Cock-pity 
.& Globe. Onely three exceptions fome make againft them 
* * * * The tn j rc i abatement of the honor and continuance 
of this Scenicall company is, that they make their fpeftators pay 
to dear e for their Income. Reprefentations and Apparitions from 
the dead might be feene farre cheaper at other Play-houfes. As 
for example, the Ghoft in Hamllet, Don Andreas Ghojl in 
Hieronimo. As for flames of light, we might fee very cheape in 
the Comedie of Piramus and Thifbe, where one comes in with 
a Lanthorne and Ads MooneJJiine. 

New Shreds of the old Snare. Containing The Apparitions offri'o 
new female Ghosts, &>c. 1624. pp. 17, 20. 

As to the ghost in Jeronymo, see after, Randolph, 1651. C. M. I. 


JOHN FLETCHER (died 1625). 

It was not poyfon, but a fleeping potion 

Which she received, yet of fufficient ftrength 

So to bind up her fences, that no figne 

Of life appeard in her, and thus thought dead 

In her beft habit, as the cuftome is 

You know in Malta, with all ceremonies 

She's buried in her families monument, 

In the Temple of St. John ; i'le bring you thither, 

Thus, as you are difguifd ; fome fix howers hence 

The potion will leave working. 

The Knight of Malta, Act IV. sc. i ; Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Works, 1647. 

[The Knight of Malta is by Fletcher only, according to Dyce ; by Fletcher 
and Middleton, according to Fleay, who says it was written before 1619. 
The above passage is certainly in imitation of Friar Lawrence' speech, 
Act IV. sc. i. of Romeo and Juliet. P. A. Paniel.~J 
[See ante, p. 198.} 


*JOHN FLETCHER (and another) (died 1625). 

" the f aire dames, 

Beauties, that lights the Court, and makes it Ihew 
Like a faire heaven, in a frofty night : 
And mongft thefe mine, not pooreft, ' 

The Noble Gentleman. Act I. sc. i. Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Works. Fol. 1647. 

[The date of this play is uncertain, as well as the name of the second writer 
who had a hand in it. The lines given above seem to be in imitation of the 
following from Romeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. ii. 

" At my poor house, look to behold this night 
Earth treading stars, that make dark heaven light : 

Such amongst view of many, mine being one," etc. 

P. A. Daniel.'] 

[See also ante, p. 202.] 


RICHARD JAMES, 1625. circa. 

To my nolle friend S* Henry Bourchier. 

Sir Harrie Bourchier, you are defcended of Noble Aunceftrie, 
and in y e dutie of a good man loue to heare and lee fair repu- 
tation prelerved from ilander and oblivion. Wherefore to you 
I dedicate this edition of Ocleve, where S r lohn Oldcaftel 
apeeres to have binne a man of valour and vertue, and only loft 
in his own times becaufe he would not bowe under the foule 
fuperftition of Papiftrie * * 

A young Gentle Lady of your acquaintance, having read y e 
works of Shakefpeare, made me this queftion. How S r John 
Falftaffe, or Faftolf, as he is written iny e Statute book of Maudlin 
Colledge in Oxford, where everye day that fociety were bound 
to make memorie of his foul, could be dead in y e time of Harrie 
y e Fift and again live in y e time of Harrie y e Sixt to be baniQied 
for cowardice : Whereto I made anfwear that it was one of 
thofe humours and miftakes for which Plato banifht all poets out 
of his commonwealth. That S r John Falftaffe was in thofe times 
a noble valiant fouldier, as apeeres by a book in y e Heralds 
Office dedicated unto him by a Herald who had binne with him, 
if I well remember, for the fpace of 25 yeeres in y e French 
wars - 3 that he feems alfo to have binne a man of learning, 
becaufe, in a Library of Oxford, I find a book of dedicating 
Churches fent from him for a prefent unto Bifhop Wainflete, and 
infcribed with his own hand. That in Shakefpeares rirft mew 
of Harrie the fift, 1 the perfon with which he undertook to playe 

1 [The ist Part of Henry IV is here meant. The words " Harrie the 
fift " are the same in both MSS. L. T. S.] 

RICHARD JAMES, 1625. circa. 33! 

a buffone was not Falftaffe, but Sir Jhon Oldcaftle, and that 
offence beinge worthily taken by Perfonages defcended from his 
title (as peradventure by many others allfo whoe ought 1 to have 
him in honourable memorie, the poet was l putt to make an 
ignorant fhifte of abufing Sir Jhon Falftophe, a man not inferior 
of Vertue, though not fo famous in pietie as the other, who 
gave witnefle unto the truth of our reformation with a conftant 
and refolute Martyrdom, unto which he was purfued by the 
Priefts, Biihops, Moncks, and Friers of thofe days. 

Dedication to Sir Henrye Botirchier, prefixed to The Legend and 
Defence of the Noble Knight and Martyr Sir Jhon Oldcastle 
James MS. 34, Bodleian Library, Oxford. Printed by Mr. 
J. O. Halliwell Phillipps in his work, entitled, On the Character 
of Sir John Falstaff, as originally exhibited by Shakespeare in 
the two parts of King Henry IV. 1841. [izmo.] pp. 19, 20. 

A line omitted in Grenville MS., to have was. 

Compare this extract with the following : 

" One wortf more, I beseech you ; if you be not too much cloid with Fat 
Meate, our humble Author will continue the Story (with Sir John in it) and 
make you merry, with faire Katherine of France: where (for any thing I 
know) Falstaffe shall dye of a sweat, unlesse already he be kill'd with your 
hard Opinions : For Old-Castle dyed a Martyr, and this is not the man." 

Epilogue to 2 Henry IV. 

[John Weever, in the dedication of his Mirror of Martyrs, 1601, speaking 
of his poem, says that it " some two yeares agoe was made fit for the Print ; 
that so long keeping the corner of my studie, wherein I vse to put waste 
paper : This first trew Oldcastle thought himselfe iniurde, because he might 
not bee suffered to sustaine the second Martyrdome of the Presse." Mr. 
Collier sees in this an allusion to "the second false Oldcastle," of 
Shakespeare's creation. Bibliographical Account, vol ii. p. 498. (See 
note as to Oldcastle and Falstaff, after, George Daniel, 1647.) 

Occleve's Legend <Sr Defence of Sir John Oldcastle appears never to have 
been printed, a fate which Richard James' edition of the poem also shared, 
though he added many notes to its 73 stanzas. The British Museum 
Grenville MS. XXXV, is another copy, the dedication in it differing 
slightly in spelling from the Bodleian MS. L. T. S.] 


BEN JONSON, 1625. 

Prologue. Wee afke no favour from you j onely wee would 
entreate of Madame Expe6tation 

Expett. What, Mr Prologue ? 

Pro. That your Ladi-fhip would expe6t no more then you 

Expei. Sir, I can expe6t enough. 

Pro. I feare, too much, Lady, and teach others to do the like 

Evpefil. I can doe that too, if I have caufe. 

Pro. Cry you mercy, you never did wrong, but with jujl 

The Staple of News. Printed 1631. Induction. [In folio edition 
of Jonson's Works, Vol. 77, with title-page, dated 1640.] 

["This is meant as a satire on a line in Shakespeare's Julius Casar, 
though it nowhere occurs as it is here represented." Whalley's edition of 
Ben Jonson's Works, 1756, vol. iv. p. 128. See also Gifford's edition of 
Jonson's Works, 1816, vol. v. p. 162, note ; see also note, after, p. 349. 
L. T. S.] 


*BEN JONSON. 1626. 

Enter SKOGAN, and SKELTON in like habits, as they livd. 

1626. Ben Jonson. The Fortunate hies. Masques 
Works, Vol. ii. p. 136, ed. 1640. 

From ' in his habit as he liv'd.' Hamlet, III. iv. 135. 

F, J. F. 



Shakefpeare thou hadft as fmooth a Comicke vaine, 
Fitting the focke, and in thy natural braine, 
As ftrong conception, and as Cleere a rage, 
As any one that trafiqu'd with the ftage. 

" To my most deardy -loved friend HENERY REVNOLDS, Esquire, 
of Poets. and Poesie." Elegies, at the end of the Battaile of 
Agincourt [and other poems~\. 1627. p. 206. 

Professor David Masson in his admirable Life of Sir William Drummond, 
1873 (P- r Z 3) appears to refer this epistle to the date 1619-1620. Langbaine 
and others refer to it as "a Censure of the Poets," but the above is the 
correct title. There is a copy of the Edition of Dray ton's " Poems collected 
into one volume," with title bearing date 1620, in the Grenville Library, 
and a copy of the same Edition, with titles bearing date 1619, in the British 
Museum Library : but the Epistle " on Poets and Poesie " is not in either. 
We believe it was first printed in this collection of 1627, which contains an 
entirely different set of poems to that of 1620. C. M. I. 


*JOHN MILTON, 1627. 

Seu puer infelix indelibata reliquit 

Gaudia, & abrupto flendus amore cadit, 
Seu ferus e tenebris iterat Styga criminis ultor, 

Confcia funereo pe&ora torre movens. 

Elegia prima ad Carolum Diodatum. 
Elegiarum Liber primus. Poems of 
Mr. John Milton, both English and 
Latin, compos d at several times. 
1645. p. 13 of second paging. 

[Warton, in his edition of Milton's Poems, 1791, p. 425, points out that 
Milton, describing tragedy on the stage, perhaps intends Romeo in the first 
couplet here given ; and either Hamlet or Richard the Third in the second. 
Warton, however, confesses that the allusions are loose and do not exactly 
correspond. Dr. Ingleby sends the passage for insertion. Cowper thus 
renders these lines : 

" As when from bliss untasted torn away, 
Some youth dies, hapless, on his bridal day, 
Or when the ghost, sent back from shades below, 
Fills the assassin's heart with vengeful woe." 

Latin and Italian Poems of Milton, translated 
into English Verse, 4*0. 1808. p. n. 

L. T. S.] 


The Pr 
ince of 
his spec 


[I. ii. 199 


[i Hen. 7F.] 




I Know you all, and will l a while 
vphold, the vnyokt humor of youre 
idlenefle yet herein will I immitate the 
funne who doth permit the bafe contagio- 
us clouds, to fm other vp his beauty from 
the world that when hee pleafe againe to 
be him felfe, being wanted -, he may be 
more wondered at ; 2 of vapours that did 
feeme to jftrangle him, If all the yeare 
were playing holy dayes, to fport would 
be as tedious as to worke, But when thay 
feldum cum, that wifht fro 3 cum and no- 
thing pleafeth but rare accidents, fo when 
this loofe be hauiour I throw off, and 
pay the debt I neuer promifed by how 
much better than my word I am, by fo 
much mail I fal[f]ifie mens hopes, and like 
bright mettell one a fullen ground, My re- 
fromation 4 glittering ouer my fault, mall 
mow more goodly, and attract more eyes, 
than 5 that wich hath no 6 foile to fet it forth 
lie fo offend to make offence a {kill, redemi- 
ng time, when men think leaft I will, 

Egerton MS. 2446, British Museum, leaf 13. [This leaf only from Shak- 
spere. Catalog of Addit. MSS., 1882, p. 295.] F. J. F. 

1 * I ' here, crost out. 

2 The copier has left a line out here : 

' By breaking through the foule and vgly mists.' 

3 they wisht for. 4 reformation. 6 ? MS. when. 

6 Qi reads ' soile ', Fi ' soyle '. I think the MS. writer meant ' foile '. 


ROBERT GELL, 9 August, 1628. 

On teufday his Grace was prefent at y c a6ting of 1 K. Hen. 8 
at y e Globe, a play befpoken of purpofe by himfelf ; whereat he 
ftayd till y e Duke of Buckingham was beheaded, & then departed. 
Some fay, he fliould rather have feen y e fall of Cardinall Woolfey, 
who was a more lively type of himfelf, having governed this 
kingdom 18 yeares, as he hath done 14. 

Letter from Robert Cell to Sir Martyn Stutevillc, Harl. 
MS. 383, fo. 65. Printed in the Shakespere Society's 
Papers, 1845, v ^- '/ I 5 I - 

1 "of" repeated twice in MS. 

["His Grace" who bespoke the performance of Henry VIII. was the 
Duke of Buckingham, " Baby Charles' " " Steenie." The " fall of Cardinall 
Woolsey " is perhaps Chettle's play of Cardinal Wolsey mentioned in 
Henslowe's Diary (Shakespere Society, ed. 1845, pp. 189, 194). Dr. 
Furnivall, however, thinks that Gell did not mean that Buckingham might 
have appropriately seen another play, but that he might have staid to see 
the end of Henry VIII, and the fall of Wolsey in it. L. T. S.] 



A Newsletter t 1628. 

Part of the passage quoted on the previous page, from Robert Cell's 
letter of Aug. 9, 1628, occurs, says Mr. George Bullen, Keeper of Printed 
Books in the British Museum, in an earlier newsletter from " Lond. August 
I, 1628," among the MSS. of Sir Charles Isham, Bart., at Lamport Hall. 
It is followd by a second notice of the Duke of Buckingham having seen 
Henry VIII: 

" On Teufday his Grace was p'fent at y e acting of King Henry 
8 at y e Globe, a play befpoken of purpofe by himfelfe, w r at he 
ftayed till y e Duke of Buckingham was beheaded & then departed. 

" On Wenefday his Grace was alfo fpectator of y e Rape of 
Lucrece at y c Cocke-pitt. . . . 

" Another Dicto. . . . 

" This day fevennight his Grace was at Cheefwick to vifit y e 
Earles of Somerfett & Banbury, and on y e L ds day affnoon againe 
there w th y e Earle of Somerfett at bowles. At his going thith r 
he fent for y e Earle of Holland being at the fermon to have come 
forth & rid w th him, but he came not forth. On munday they 
dined at Cheefwick w th y e Earle of Somerfett & aft r bowled 

" On teufday was a play at y e Globe of y e downfall of y e great 
Duke of Buckingham, w'unto y e Savoian Ambaffadour, y e Duke, 
Earle of Hollande & oth came, yet ftayed only y e difgracing 
not v e beheading of y e great Duke of Buck." 

Athenaeum, Oct. 18, 1879, p. 497, col. 2. See also Mr. 
Bullen' s letter in The Athenaeum of Oct. 25, p. 529. The 
Rape of Lucrece was by Tho. Heywood. F. J. F. 



Away got 1 J ; but e'er I farre did goe 

I flung (the Darts of wounding Poetrie) 

Thefe two or three fharpe curfes backe : may hee 

Bee by his Father in his itudy tooke, 

At Shakefpeares playes, inftead of my L. Cooke. 

A Poeticall Revenge. Minor poem, in Silva, or Divers copies oj 
Verses made ttpon sundry Occasions. Added to Poeticall 
Blossomes. 2nd edition, 1636, sign. E 6, back. 

1 [The point of this is, the pert school-boy Cowley in Westminster Hall 
flinging his " darts " against the foppish young lawyer who has thrust him 
from his seat. The poems in " Silva " are among those which Cowley himself 
says, "I wrote at school from the age of ten years, till after fifteen" 
(Preface to Poems, leaf a. 3, back, ed. 1656), and which he first printed in 
1633 and 1636. They are afterwards found in the " Second Parte " of his 
" Works." L. T. S.] 



Paris. Sir, with your pardon, 

I'll offer my advice ! I once oblerv'd 
In a Tragedie of ours, in which a murther 
Was a6ted to the life, a guillie hearer 
Forc'd by the terror of a wounded confcience 
To make difcoverie of that, which torture 
Could not wring from him. Nor can it appeare 
Like an impoflibilitie, but that 
Your Father looking on a covetous man 
Preiented on the Stage as in a mirror 
May lee his owne deformity, and loath it. 

The Roman Actor. A Tragedie. 1629, sign. D 2. 

See Hamlet, Act II. scene ii. : 

" The play's the thing 
Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king." 

[This may or may not be an allusion to Hamlet : Massinger may have 
had in his mind some of the incidents in real life which probably suggested 
the scene to Shakespere himself, or have remembered the same ideas in the 
old play, A Warning to Fair Women, 1599. See R. Simpson's School of 
Shakspere, 1878, Vol. II, pp. 212 216, 311, where some tales of the 
kind are narrated. L. T. S.] 

BEN JONSON, 16291630. 

No doubt fome mouldy tale, 

Like Pericles ; and ftale 
As the Shrieve's cruffts, and nafty as his fifh- 

fcraps, out [of] every diih 

Throwne forth, and rak't into the common tub, 
May keepe up the Play-club : 

There, fweepings do as well 

As the beft order'd meale. 
For, who the relifh of thefe ghefts will fit, 
Needs fet them, but, the almes-bafket of wit. 

Ode [first line, Come leave the lothed stage\ appended to The 
New Inn, or The Light Heart. 1631. [i2mo.] Sign. H 2. 

Ben Jonson's verses were written as a vent for his indignation, after the 
failure of The New Inn in 1629 had left him straitened and discomfited. 

Owen Feltham's verses, p. 346, are a clever parody on Jonson's : Jug, 
Pierce, Peck, and Fly, are characters in Jonson's play. "Discourse so 
weighed " refers to the third and fourth Acts of The New Inn. 

T. Randolph, T. Carew, and J. Cleveland all wrote odes to console Ben 
for his disappointment, and to win him back to his work. What an 
irritable, self-seeking, praise-loving old genius he was ! 

[The word ending the third line is usually printed with a dash after it, 
scraps in the next line beginning with a large S. The above is the form of 
the print of 1631. L. T. S.] 



An Epitaph on the admirable Dramaticke Poet, 

What neede l my Shakefpeare for his honour' d bones, 
The labour of an Age, in piled ftones 
Or that his hallow'd Reliques fhould be hid 
4 Under a flarre-ypointing Pyramid ? 

Dear Sonne of Memory, great Heire of Fame, 
What needft thou fuch dull 2 witnefle of thy Name? 
Thou in our wonder and aftonilhment 
8 Haft built thy felfe a lafting 3 Monument : 
For whil' ft to th' lhame of llow-endevouring Art 
Thy eafie numbers flow, and that each part, 4 
Hath from the leaves of thy unvalued Booke, 

12 Thofe Delphicke Lines with deepe Impreffion tooke 
Then thou our fancy of her 5 felfe bereaving, 
Doft make us Marble with too much conceiving, 
And fo Sepulcher'd in fuch pompe doft lie 

[6 That Kings for fuch a Tombe would wiih to die. 

Prefixed to the Second Folio Edition of Shakespeare's Works, 1632 : 
appended to Shakespeare s Poems, 1640, sign. K 8, and republished 
in Miltoris Poems, 1645, p. 27. 

[In the edition of Milton's Poems, 1645, these lines are headed, " On 
Shakespear, 1630," this is our only authority for giving them that date. 

The following variations are found in the three editions : Shakespere's 
Poems, 1640, is referred to as A ; Milton's Poems, 1645, as B. 

1 needs for need, B. 2 -weake for dull, A, B. 

3 live-long for lasting, A, B. 4 heart to* part, A, B. 

5 our selfe A, it self&, for her selfe. L. T. S.] 

JOHN MILTON, 1630. 343 

We have the choice of three early printed versions of Milton's lines : 
I. The commendatory verses prefixed to the Folio Edition of Shakespeare, 
1632. 2. Those appended to the unauthorised edition of Shakespeare's 
Poems, published in 1640. 3. The edition of Milton's poems published in 
1645. We have preferred the first and least pleasing of the three, as being, 
unquestionably, Milton's first draft of the lines : allowing, of course, that 
part is a press-error for "hart" (i. e. heart). 

The expression " star-ypointing pyramid "was doubtless intended to 
signify, pointing to the stars : and the prefix y is similarly used by Sackville, 
in his legend, entitled, The Complaint of Henry Duke of Buckingham 
{Sackville- West's Ed., 1859, p. 140). 

" Sans earthly guilt ycausing both be slain." 

(See Notes and Queries, 4th S., iv, p. 331.) Had the line in Milton run 
" Under a star-y pointed pyramid," 

the sense would have been, under a pyramid surmounted with a star. (See 
Marsh's Lectures, edited by; Dr. Wm. Smith, 1862, Lecture xv, p. 232, note.) 
One is reminded of some lines attributed to Shakespeare, quoted by many 
editors and biographers of Shakespeare. 

"Not monumentall stone preserves our fame, 
Nor skye-aspiring piramids our name," 

and the assertion, that each heart hath 

" Those delphic lines with deep impression took," 
recals a passage in Shakespeare's Lucrece, where he speaks of 

"The face, that map which deep impression bears, 
Of hard misfortune carved in it with tears." 

Coleridge wrote lines 7, 8, 15, 16, on the margin of one of Donne's letters 
to the Lady G. , opposite the following passage : 

" No prince would be loath to die that were assured of so fair a tomb to 
preserve his memory." (Notes Theological, Political, and Misc., 1853, 
p. 258.) 

Milton's meaning, however, is this. Every heart, by the plastic power 
of fancy, takes deep impression of Shakespeare's lines. Then, by depriv- 
ation of fancy, we are turned to marble ; and we thus become an inscribed 
monument to Shakespeare. But the conceit is affected, and the conjugate 
use of "whilst" and "then" in these verses is, to say the least, very 
unusual. C. M. J. 



I am no fooner eafed of him, but Gregory Gandergoofe, an 
Alderman of Gotham, catches me by the goll, demanding if 
Bohemia be a great Towne, and whether there bee any meate in 
it, and whether the laft fleet of mips be arrived there. 

Taylor's Travels to Prague in Bohemia. Works, 1630, Hi. p. 90. 

[This seems to be a good-humoured laugh at Shakespere's blunder in the 
Winters Tate, in placing Bohemia near the sea, in which he followed 
Greene's Pandosto, the story on which he founded his play. See before, 
p. 275- L.T.S.] 



And laft he laughed in the Cambrian tongue, & began to 
declare in the Utopian fpeech, what I have here with moft 
diligent negligence Tranflated into the Englifh Language, in 
which if the Printer hath placed any line, letter or tillable, 
whereby this large volume may be made guilty to be underftood 
by any man, I would have the Reader not to impute the fault 
to the Author, for it was farre from his purpofe to write to any 
purpofe, fo ending at the beginning, I fay as it is applawfefully 
written and commended to pofterity in the Midfummer nights 
dreame. If we offend, it is with our good will, we came with no 
intent, but to offend, and mew our fimple {kill. 

To Nobody. Epistle prefixed to Sir Gregory Nonsense ; his news 
from no place. Works (collected by himself \ 1630. [Fol.~\ [Firsi 
piece in the Second Part.} C. M. I. 



Jug, Pierce, Peck, Fly, and all 

Your Jefts fo nominal, 
Are things fo far beneath an able Brain, 

As they do throw a ftain 

Through all th* unlikely plot, and do difpleafe 
As deep as Pericles, 

Where yet there is not laid 

Before a Chamber-maid 

Difcourfe fo weigh'd, as might have ferv'd of old 
For Schools, when they of Love & Valour told. 

Lusoria or, Occasional Pieces, first printed as an addition to the 
eighth edition of Feltham's Resolves, 1661, folio. No. xx. An 
answer to the Ode, Come leave the loathed Stage, &>c. (See 
extract and note on p. 341.) 

[This verse was subsequently printed, with minor alterations, in Parnassus 
Biceps, 1656. See vol. ii, p. 64. M.] 


" Anonimos" 1630. 

One travelling through Stratford upon Avon, a Towne moft 
remarkeable for the birth of famous William Shakefpeare, and 
walking in the Church to doe his devotion, efpyed a thing there 
worthy observation, which was a tombeftone laid more then three 
hundred years agoe, on which was ingraven an Epitaph to this 
purpofe, I Thomas fuch a one, and Elizabeth my wife here under 
lye buried, and know Reader /. R. C. and /. Chryftoph. Q. are 
alive at this houre to witnefle it. 

A Banquet of Jeasts or Change of Cheare. 1630. No. 259. 
Bodleian Lib., 8 L. 78, Art., and 8 M. 27. Med. Se 
Collier's Bibliog. and Crit. Ac -count ', . //. 335-6 
C. M. I, 


BEN JONSON, 1630-37. 

De S noS! eare 1 remember, the Players have often mentioned it 
as an honour to Shakefpeare, that in his writing, (whatfoever he 
penn'd) hee never blotted out line. My anfwer hath beene, 
would he had blotted a thoufand. Which they thought a 
malevolent fpeech. I had not told pofterity this, but for their 
ignorance, who choofe that circumftance to commend their 
friend by, wherein he moil faulted. And to juftifie mine owne 
candor, (for I lov'd the man, and doe honour his memory (on 
this fide Idolatry) as much as any.) Hee was (indeed) honeft, 
and of an open, and free nature : had an excellent Phant/ie ; 
brave notions, and gentle expreffions : wherein hee flow'd with 
ihat facility, that fometime it was neceflary he mould be ftop'd : 
Sufflaminandus erat ; as Augujlus faid of Haterius. His wit was 
in his owne power $ would the rule of it had beene fo too. Many 
times hee fell into thofe things, could not efcape laughter : As 
when hee faid in the perfon of Ctsfar, one fpeaking to him 5 
C&far thou dqfl me wrong. Hee replyed : Ctzfar did never 
wrong, but with juftcaufe : and fuch like ; which were ridiculous. 
But hee redeemed his vices, with his vertues. There was ever 
more in him to be prayfed, then to be pardoned. 

Timber : or, Discoveries made upon men and matter : as they have 
flowed out of his daily Readings ; or had their refluxe to his peculiar 
Notion of the Times. Works : 1641. [Fo.~\ vol. ii. pp 97-98. 

In the remarks de Shakespeare nostrati we have, doubtless, Ben's clos-et- 
opinion of his friend, opposed as it seems to be to that in his address to 
Britain (p. 309), where Ben appears to praise him for that very quality 

BEN JONSON, 1630-37. 349 

"wherein he most faulted : " for evidently Shakespeare did not dream of 
conforming to the Horatian precept (Sat. I, x. 72-73) : 

' ' Saepe stylum vertas, iterum quse digna legi sint 

Though Ben regretted and condemned his friend's rapidity of execution, 
it does not appear that he assumed (like Cowley, in a passage quoted in the 
second volume) the right " to prune and lop away " what did not square 
with his canons of criticism. 

In his Timber, under the head, De Stylo, et optima scribendi genere, Ben 
expatiates on the duty of self-restraint in composition. He says (inter alia 
dicta), "No matter how slow the style he at first, so it be labour'd and 
accurate ; " and again, " So that the summe of all is, ready writing makes 
not good writing ; but good writing brings on ready writing : yet, when 
wee thinke wee have got the faculty, it is even then good to resist it ; " &c. 

Ben's critique on the passage (as it must have originally stood) in Julius 
Casar is captious. The justice of the cause is not inconsistent with wrong 
inflicted on others beside the expiator. Mr. J. O. Halliwell-Phillips- 
rightly observes, "If wrong is taken in the sense of injury or harm, as 
Shakespeare sometimes uses it, there is no absurdity in this line. [Cf.] ' He 
s'lall have wrong.' 2 Henry VI, v. I." (Life of Shakespeare, 1848, p. 
185.) Again, in A Winter s Tale, v. I, Paulina, speaking of the hapless 
Queen, says, 

" Had she such power, 
She had just cause. 

Leontes. She had, and would incense me 

To murther her I marryed." 

That is, she had just cause to incite him to do another a grievous wrong. 
This is even more amenable to Jonson's censure than the passage which fell 
under it. 

[The line as it stands at present, with the punctuation of the Globe 
edition, is as follows, 

" Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause 
Will he be satisfied." Act III, Sc. i, 1. 47. 

There arc no words of Metellus answering to those cited by Jonson, 
" Caesar thou dost me wrong." If he quoted correctly (he has the words 
twice over, see before, p. 332), the folio contains an alteration (the folio of 
1623 being the first authority we have for Julius Casar). Whatever the 
exact words, it seems to me highly probable that Shakespere in putting this 
sentiment on Caesar's lips, had in his mind the well known maxim, " the 
King can do no wrong," a phrase which means that the king is but the 
mouthpiece of the law ; and it is consistent with this that Cassar founds his 
refusal to pardon Cimber upon the law,^-" Thy brother by decree is 
banished." L. T. S.] 


*R. HENDERSON, 1631. 

Many Engli/h and Romijh lezabels, Italian Curte^ans, frying, 
boyling, and broiling in their luxurious defires, as did that 
flrumpet mentioned by Saint AMBROSE, (after her converted 
companion) after fuch as they are enamoured on, yet prevailing 
no more than that entiling PHRINE with cold ANAXAGORAS, or 
then wanton Venus with Adonis in the Fable ; 

The I Arraignment / of the whole / Creatvre / Att the Bar-re 
of Religion Reason / and Experience / . . . By R. 
Henderson / ... 1631. p. 44. 

[A remarkable book, full of varied allusions to classical, scriptural and 
contemporary literature. At p. 84 we read: "Yea as carnall men, like 
that politique Prince in the Poet, are most sad in heart, when they seeme 
most glad in face." Chaucer is mentioned pp. 199, 256 ; the Ship of 
Fooles, p. 253 ; Fatistus, p. 51, etc. ; " King Leir " and his two unnaturall 
Daughters, p. 53; "an Eutopian man," p. 62; and the ways of con- 
temporary lovers, p. 263. Our extract is a possible allusion to Shakspere's 
Venus. It was noted by G. Thorn Drury in Notes and Queries, 9th Series, 
vol. x, p. 465. M.] 

35 1 


1 8. A Chamlerlaine. 

IS the firft Squire that gives entertainement to errant ft rangers. 
At your firft alighting hee ftraight offers you to fee a 
Chamber, but has got the tricke of tradefmen to {how you 
the worft firft. Hee's as nimble as Hamlets ghoft heere and 
everywhere, and when he has many guefts, ftands moft upon his 
pantofles, for hee's then a man of fome calling. 

PidurfB Loquentes. / Or / Pictvres / Drawne forth in ' 
Characters. \ With a Poeme of a / Maid. \ By Wye 
Saltonstall. / Ne Sutor ultra crepidam./ London, \ 
Printed by Tho. Cotes, and are to be sold / by Tho. 
Slater, at his shop in the / Blacke Fryars. i63i./ sign. 
E 3, back, E 4. 

Quoted ( with is for Hee's) from the 2nd ed. of 1635 in Mr. Hall.-P.'s Mem. 
on Hamlet, p. 22. The first words of the text, B 5, " I . The World is a Stage, 
men the Actors," are too common to be taken as a reference to Shakspere's 
like saying. 

In no. ' 21. A Petty Countrey Faire,' is a bit for Autolycus : " A Ballet- 
singer may be sooner heard heere than scene, for instead of the violl hee 
sings to the croud. If his Ballet bee of love, the countrey wenches buy it, 
to get by heart at home, and after sing it over their milkepayles. Gipsies 
flocke thither, who tell men of losses, and the next time they looke for their 
purses, they find their words true." F. J. F. 



Likewife wee doe order that Mr. Wilfbn becaufe hee was a 
fpeciall plotter and Contriver of this bufines and did in luch a 
brutiihe Manner a6l the fame wzth an AfTes head, therefore hee 
fliall vppon Tuifday next from 6 of the Clocke in the Morning 
till fixe of the Clocke at night fitt in the Porters Lodge at my 
Lord Biihopps houfe with his feete in the ftockes and Attyred 
wzth his Aife head and a bottle of haye fett before him and this 
fuperlcripczon on his breaft j 

Good people I have played the beafl 

And brought ill things to paife 
I was a man, but thus have made 

Myfelfe a Silly Affe. 

Lambeth MS. 1030, art. 5, p. 3. 

[Among the MSS. at Lambeth Palace is an Order made by the Commis- 
sary-General, John Spencer, against John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, for 
having had " a playe or Tragidie " acted in his house on Sunday, 27 
September, 1631. The Order includes censure of several other persons 
who appear to have been present, the last one being as above. A letter 
from Spencer, censuring one of the ladies present, occupies the other leaf 
of the same sheet, in which he notices that she went " to heare such excel- 
lent Musicke, such rare Conceits, and to see such Curious Actours." I 
give this doubtful "allusion" because several, following Collier's A nnals of 
the Stage, Vol. II, p. 27, have taken for granted that it refers to the 
Midsummer Nighfs Dream. Beyond these notices, however, there is nothing 
to tell with certainty what the play was. Near the bottom of page 3, in the 
margin have been written the words " the play M Night Dr," but these are 

JOHN SPENCER, 163!. 353 

evidently the work of a later hand and have been written over an erasure : 
they are not in the hand of either Laud, Lincoln, or Spencer, or of the 
endorser of the paper, but look like a bad imitation of old writing. No 
reliance can therefore be placed upon them. 

Elsewhere Spencer speaks of the play as a comedy ; if Wilson were not 
the author, at least he had a large share in the arrangement of it. In a 
Discourse of Divers Petitions, 1641, p. 19, speaking of Bp. Lincoln and 
this presentment, Spencer says, "one Mr. Wilson a cunning Musition 
having contrived a curious Comodie, and plotted it so, that he must needs 
have it acted upon the Sunday night, for he was to go the next day toward 
the Court ; the Bishop put it off till nine of the clock at night." L. T. S.] 




Thirdly, Books treating of light fubiects, are Nurferies of 
wantonneffe : they inftru6t the loofe Header to become naught j 
whereas before, touching naughtinelfe, he knew naught. A 
ftory of the rape of Ganimedes, or of light Lais in Eurypedes, 
are their daily Lectures. Plato's Diuine Philofophy, or Dice- 
archus pious Precepts of Morality, mud vaile to Alcceus, or 
Anacreons wanton Poelie. Venus and Adonis are vnfitting Con- 
torts for a Ladies bofome. Remoue them timely from you, if 
they euer had entertainment by you, left, like the Snake in the 
fable, they annoy you. 

The English Gentlewoman [Engraved Title, in 10 com- 
partments] . . . by Richard Brathwait . . . London./ 
Printed for / Michaell Sparke / and are to be / Sould, at 
the / Blew Bible / in / Greene Arbor./ 1631. / p. 139. 

J. O. H11.-P. (revized). 

Loves enteruiew betwixt Cleopatra and Marke Anthony, pro- 
mifed to it felfe as much fecure freedome as fading fancy could 
tender; yet the lalt Scene clozed all thofe Comicke paflages 

with a Tragicke conclufion. il. p. 197. 

F. J. F. 



Sir lohn Faftolfe ... (as certainly he was a wife and valiant 
Captaine, however 1 on the ftage, they haue beene plea fed to 
make merry with him). 

The] Historic] Of] That most famous Saint and Souldier\ of Christ 
lesus ; I Si. George / of Cappadoda ; / . . . . The Institution 
of the most Noble Order of \ St. George, named the Garter. / A 
Catalogue of all the Knights thereof until! this present. \ By Pet. 
Heylyn. / . . . . London. / Printed for Henry Seyle, and are to 
be sold at his ] Shop, the signe of the Tygei's-foead in St. Pauls / 
Church-yard. 1631. (qto.) p. 308. 

Noted in B. Quaritch's General Catalogue, p. 2,235, no. 22,827. F. J. F. 

1 The third edition of 1633, P- 344> reads 'though' for 'however', and 
begins the parenthesis with ' though '. 


ANON. 1631. 

One lately hauing taken view of the Sepulchres of fo many 
Kings, Nobles, and other eminent perfons interred in this 
Abbey of Weftminfter, made thefe rimes following, which he 

A Memento for Mortalitie. 

Then bid the wanton Lady treac^ 
Amid thefe mazes of the dead. 
And thefe truly vnderftood, 
More mail coole and quench the blood. 
Then her many fports a day, 
And her nightly wanton play. 
Bid her paint till day of doome. 
To this fauour me muft come. 

Ancient Fvnerall Monuments .... composed by the 
Studie and Travels of John Weever. London, 1631, p. 
492-3 (partly quoted in Mr. Hall. -P. 's Memoranda on 
Hamlet, 1879, p. 64). 

The last two lines are from Hamlet's prose (V. i. 181-3, Camb.) : " Now 
get you to my lady's chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to 
this favour she must come." 

Is it likely that the following stanza in an " Ode ad B: J: " (Ben Jonson), 
by "Jo : Earles," ab. 1630 A.D., MS. Addit. Brit. Mus. 15,227, If. 44, bk, 
alludes to the Pericles of which Shakspere wrote part ? 
" Sat est, si anili tradita de colo 
Fabella lusit murcida Periclem. 
Jocosq#<? semesos, et ipso 
Dicta magis repetita mimo." 

Mr. HalL-Phillipps calld attention to it in N. & Q., Oct. 30, 1880, p. 
343, col. 2. -F. J. F. 


The Schoole of Complement. 

A6tus quartus, Scena prima. 
Bul\ulcus\. O that I were a flea vpon his lip, 
There would I fucke for euer, and not fkip. 

The / Schoole / of / Complement./ As It Was Acted / by 
her Maiesties Seruants at the / Priuate house in Drury 
Lane. / Hcec placuit semel.\ By J. S. / London, / 
Printed by E. A. for Francis Constable^ and are to be 
sold at / his shop in Pauls Church-yard, at the signe of 
the Crane. 1631. / (The play was afterwards cald 
Love- Tricks.} 

Probably parodying Romeo and Juliet, II. ii, 23 : 

O that I were a gloue vpon that hand, 
That I might touch that cheeke. 

J. O. H11.-P. 


Goodl[ack~\ . You are not mad lir ? You fay you love her. 
Spenc\_er~] . Never queftion that. 

GoodL Then put her to't, win Opportunity, Shees the beft 

The I Fair Maid / of the West, Or \ A Girle worth Gold. / 
The first part / . . . Written by T\_homas'} H\eywood\ / 
London / . . . 1631, p. 4. 

[This last bit is borrowed from Lucrece, 876, 886, ' O Opportunity, 
. . . thou notorious bawd ! ' 

We are indebted to Mr. D. L. Thomas, of the University of Kansas, 
for this reference. M.] 



Livio. To dye the beggers death with hunger, made 
Anatomies while we live, cannot but cracke 
Our heart-firings with vexation. 

Ferdinand. Would they would breake, 
Breake altogether, how willingly like Cato 
Could I teare out my bowells, rather then 
Looke on the conquerors infulting face, 
But that religion, and the horrid dreame 
To be fufter'd in the other world denyes it. 

The Maid of Honour. 1632. [4/0.] Sign. E 3. 

[See Hamlet, Act III. scene i. 11. 7880. 

Part of the two last lines seem to be a reminiscence of Hamlet's famous 

"But that the dread of something after death, 
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn 
No traveller returns, puzzles the will 
And makes us rather bear those ills we have 
Than fly to others that we know not of." 

L. T. S.] 

[Noted by Dr. Elze, in his edition of Hamlet, 1882, p. 256, as alluding 
to Hamlet's Soliloquy in Act III. sc. i. 65-7, 78-80. F. J. F.] 


SHIRLEY, 1632. 

Lady Lucina. I did propound a bufineffe to you fir. 

CoronelL And I came prepar'd to anfwer you, 

Luc. Tis very well, He call one to be a witnefle. 

Co. That was not I remember in our Covenant, 
You fhannot neede. Luc. He fetch you a booke to fware by. 

Co. Let it be Venus and Adonis then, 
Or Ovids wanton Elegies, Ariftotles 
Problemes, Guy of Warwicke, or Sr. Beavis, 
Or if there be a Play Booke you love better, 
He take my oath upon your Epilogue. 

The Ball, a Comedy. 1639, sign. //. 

[This play, according to Gifford, was licensed in 1632, and first printed in 
1639 (Works of James Shirley, with notes by Gifford and Dyce, 1833, vol. 
Hi. p. 3). L. T. S.] 


Afotus [addreffing the Poets fkull] 

I fcorn thy Lyrick and Heroick ftrain, 

Thy tart lambick, and Satyrick vein. 

Where be thy querks and tricks ? {how me again 

The ftrange conundrums of thy frifking brain, 

Thou Poets fkull, and fay, What's rime to chimney? 

(p. 60.) 

Sexton. It had been a mighty favour once, to have kifTd thefe 
lips that grin fo. * * Oh ! if that Lady now could but behold 
this phyfnomie of hers in a looking-glafle, what a monfter would 
me imagine herfelf ? Will all her perrukes, tyres and dreffes, 
with her chargeable teeth, with her cerufle and pomatum, and 
the benefit of her painter & doctor, make this idol up again ? 
Paint Ladies while you live, and plaifter fair, 
But when the houfe is fallne 'tis paft repair. 

(p. 61.) 

Afotus. Phoebus whip 
Thy lazy team, run headlong to the Weft, 
I long to tafte the banquet of the night. 

(p. 19.) 

Simo. That I mould have fo ravifhing a face, 
And never know it ! 'Mifer that I was ! 


I will go home & buy a looking glaffe 
To be acquainted with my parts hereafter. 

(p. 46.) 

Tyndarus. Pamphilus, welcome : Shake thy forrows off, 
Why in this age of freedome doft thou lit 
A captiv'd wretch ? I do not feel the weight 
Of clay about me. Am I not all aire ? 
Or of fome quicker element ? I have purg'd out 
All that was earth about me, and walk now 

As free a foul as in the feparation. 

(p. 24.) 

The Jealous Lovers. A Comedie. 1632. 

[The whole scene (sc. iii. Act IV.) from which the two first of these 
extracts are taken recalls strongly the grave-digger's scene in Hamlet, and 
is worth reading with it ; though the expressions are not absolutely repeated, 
the author must have had Shakespere in his mind when he wrote. The 
third extract is another use of the idea expressed in the first three lines of 
Juliet's speech, Rom. 6 JuL, Act III, sc. ii. The fourth may recall the 
last part of Gloucester's soliloquy, Rich. Ill, Act I. sc. ii. 

The fifth resembles the sentiment in Cleopatra's ecstatic words at her 
death (Ant. and Cleop.^ Act V. sc. ii. 1. 292), but need not necessarily have 
been borrowed from Shakespere. See notes before, pp. 121, 319. There 
is some interest, as Prof. Dowden remarks, in noting the involuntary tribute 
to Shakespere from Randolph, a professed pupil of Jonson, who would 
probably look on him as the dramatist by art, and who talked of Shakespere 
as having written for money. See extracts from his Hey for Honesty, 1651. 
L. T. S.] 

Anonymous, 1632. 

Upon the Effigies of my worthy Friend, 

the Author 

Majier William Shakefpeare, 
and his Wor&es. 

Spectator, this Life's Shaddow is ; To fee 
The truer image and a livelier he 
Turne Reader. But, obferve his Comicke vaine, 
Laugh, and proceed next to a Tragicke ftraine, 
Then weepe j So when thou find' ft two contraries, 
Two different paffions from thy rapt foule rife, 
Say, (who alone effect fuch wonders could) 
Rare Shake-fpeare to the life thou doft behold. 

Prefixed to the Second Folio Edition of Shakespeare's 
Works; 1632. C M. T. 


I. M. S., 1632. 

On Worthy Majler Shakefpeare 
and his Poems, 

A Mind reflecting ages paft, whofe cleere 
And equall furface can make things appeare 
Diftant a Thoufand yeares, and repreient 
Them in their lively colours juft extent. 

5 To outrun hafty time, retrive the fates, 

Howie backe the heavens, blow ope the iron gates 
Of death and Lethe, where (confufed) lye 
Great heapes of ruinous mortalitie. 
In that deepe duikie dungeon to difcerne 

i o A royall Ghoft from Churles ; By art to learne 
The Phyfiognomie of mades, and give 
Them fuddaine birth, wondring how oft they live. 
What ftory coldly tells, what Poets faine 
At fecond hand, and picture without braine 

15 Senfelefle and foulleffe ihowes. To give a Stage 
(Ample and true with life) voyce, action, age, 
As Plato's yeare and new Scene of the world 
Them unto us, or us to them had hurld. 
To raife our auncient Soveraignes from their herfe 

20 Make Kings his fubjects, by exchanging verfe 
Enlive their pale trunkes, that the prefent age 
Joyes in their joy, and trembles at their rage : 
Yet fo to temper paflion, that our eares 
Take pleafure in their paine j And eyes in teares 

2$ Both weepe and fmile j fearefull at plots fo fad, 
Then, laughing at our feare ; abufd, and glad 

I. M. S., 1632. 365 

To be abuf'd, affe&ed with that truth 

Which we perceive is falfe ; pleaf 'd in that ruth 

At which we flart ; and by elaborate play 

30 Tortur'd and tickled j by a crablike way 
Time paft made paftime, and in ugly fort 

Difgorging up his ravaine for our fport 

While the Plebeian Impe, from lofty throne, 

Creates and rules a world, and workes upon 

35 Mankind by fecret engines ; Now to move 
A chilling pitty, then a rigorous love : 
To ftrike up and ftroake down, both joy and ire j 
To fteere th' affections ; and by heavenly fire 
Mould us anew. Stolne from ourfelves 

40 This, and much more which cannot be expreft, 

But by himfelfe, his tongue and his owne breft, 
Was Shakefpeares freehold, which his cunning braine 
Improv'd by favour of the ninefold traine. 
The bufkind Mufe, the Commicke Queene, the graund 

45 And lowder tone of Clio ; nimble hand, 
And nimbler foote of the melodious paire, 
The Silver voyced Lady 5 the moft faire 
Calliope, whofe fpeaking filence daunts. 
And me whofe prayfe the heavenly body chants. 

50 Thefe joyntly woo'd him, envying one another 
(Obey'd by all as Spoufe, but lov'd as brother) 
And wrought a curious robe of fable grave 
Freih greene, and pleafant yellow, red molt brave, 
And conftant blew, rich purple, guiltleffe white 

55 The lowly Buffet, and the Scarlet bright ; 

Branch' d and embroydred like the painted Spring 
Each leafe match' d with a flower, and each firing 
Of golden wire, each line of lilke j there run 
Italian workes whofe thred the Sifters fpun j 

366 I. M. S., 1632. 

60 And there did fing, or feeme to ling, the choyce 
Birdes of a forraiue note and various voyce. 
Here hangs a mofley rocke j there playes a faire 
But chiding fountaine purled : Not the ayre, 
Nor cloudes nor thunder, but were living drawne, 
65 Not out of common Tiffany or Lawne. 
But fine materialls, which the Mufes know 
And onely know the countries where they grow. 

Now, when they could no longer him enjoy 
In mortall garments pent ; death may deftroy 
70 They fay his body, but his verfe mail live 

And more then nature takes, our hands lhail give. 
In a leffe volumne, but more ftrongly bound 
Shakefpeare mall breath and fpeake, with Laurell crown'd 
Which never fades. Fed with Ambrofian meate 
75 In a well-lyned vefture rich and neate. 

So with this robe they cloath him, bid him weare it 
For time (hall never ftaine, nor envy teare it. 
The friendly admirer of his 

I. M. S. 

Prefixed to the Second Folio Edition of Shakespeare 1 s Works. 

The compiler has followed the example of all his predecessors in treating 
the letters I. M. S. as the initials of the author's name : so he has placed them 
at the head of this noble composition. But it has not been without com- 
punction that he has made this concession : for he is inclined to believe that 
those letters signify the words In Memoriam Scriptoris, The fact is what 
has been often recognised that this magnificent tribute to Shakespeare's 
worth is a sort of rival to that of Ben Jonson, thus ennobling the second 
folio, as Jonson's had graced the first. Now Jonson declared his poem to 
be In Memory of the (deceased") Author, &c. ; so it is natural to look for some 
echo of this description in the rival poem : and these words might be precisely 
rendered by In Memoriam Scriptoris (decessi), the last word being quite 
unimportant. This reading leaves the field clear for conjecture on the 
identity of the Friendly Admirer. Aoart from all attempt to fit the initials 
on a poet's name, only one conjecture has been made ; viz. that of Boaden, 

I. M. S., 1632. 3 6 7 

in his Inquiry, 1824, pp. 1 06, 119. After dismissing the view that I. M.S. 
meant Jasper Mayne (Student), John Marston (Student, or Satirist), or John 
Milton (Senior), he advocates the claims of George Chapman, and makes 
out a plausible case for that admirable poet. A correspondent in Notes and 
Queries (2nd S., VII. 123) suggests J. M. (Scotus), identifying I. M. S. with 
the person who presented Chapman with the plate prefixed to his Iliad, and 
the probable author of the subscribed couplet, signed " Scotise Nobilis." 
Some time back the editor privately proposed to father this poem on Dr. 
John Donne. There are similarities of diction which countenance this 
view, and surely Donne was equal to the effort. 1 On the other 
hand, it is impossible to extract from Donne's poems a piece of equal 
length which is not disfigured by some lines of amazing harshness ; while 
in the poem of the Friendly Admirer there is little or no interruption to 
the majestic flow and delicious smoothness of the verse. Its reigning fault is 
a certain looseness of metaphor. It might serve to lament and praise any 
great dramatic poet ; nothing is accurately significant of Shakespeare's 
peculiar genius : in this view the "curious robe" woven by the muses is 
an eye-sore : but the description of it is so exquisitely beautiful, that it provides 
the compensating eye-salve. William Godwin (Life of E. 6 J. Phillips, 
1815, p. 171, note} suggested that I. M. S. meant John Milton Senior : 
Mr. Collier (S hakes per e* s Works, 1858, i. p. 257, note} attributed the poem 
to John Milton, Student. The latter view has found an able advocate 
in Professor Henry Morley. But it is easily shown that the structure of the 
verse belongs to an earlier period than that of Milton. 

The late Mr. Dyce (Ed. of Shakespeare, 1864, vol. i. p. 169) appears 
to favour the claim preferred for Jasper Mayne : but such an opinion only 
serves to show how little reliance can be placed upon Mr. Dyce's critical 
deliverances. The best of Mayne's verses, such as those pointed out by 
Mr. Dyce, and those praised by the late Mr. Bolton Corney (Notes and 
Queries, 4th S., II. 147) are merely respectable. His worst verses make 
us wonder what could have been the vanity that prompted them, and the 
flattery that praised them ! Mayne might just as well have composed a 
poem comparable to Paradise Lost, as have written the elegy of the 
Friendly Admirer. But Mr. Dyce had as little sensibility to the higher 
graces of poetry as Samuel Johnson. Mr. Hunter's idea, adopted by Singer, 
and arrived at independently by Watkiss Lloyd, was that I. M. S. were 
the consonants of the surname of Richard James. If such a poet were to 
be discovered, the conjecture would still be out of court, for it is not a poet 

1 [Dr. B. Nicholson has read Donne carefully and often, and can affirm 
that these lines cannot be by him. This poem seems in some degree to 
have followed Donne's style, he had various imitators ; there is a slight 
imitation of his pauses and cadence, and in the first part of the poem of 
his roughness of wording. L. T. S.] 

368 I. M. S., 1632. 

that we require, but a very great poet. Besides, in the editor's judgment, 
" The Friendly Admirer" implies that the author was an eminent rival of 
Shakespere's who bore him no envy. 

A few notes on the text of this poem may be helpful. (It should be 
remarked that the punctuation of the original print, though somewhat 
defective, is followed.) The first nineteen couplets consist of six substantive 
clauses (neither governed by nor governing any verb), terminated by full 
points, or signs of aposiopesis. These serve to convey the finest possible 
description of the dramatic function. 

Line 20. Read : 

" Make Kings his subjects by exchanging verse : " 

i. c., by verse which effects the exchange. Lines 40, 41, are echoed by 
Digges : 

" Some second Shakespeare must of Shakespeare write." 

Line 43. Though " the ninefold train " is mentioned, only eight Muses 
seem to be specified : unless, indeed, "the melodious pair" be intended 
to designate Euterpe, Erato and Terpsichore. A pack of cards used to be 
called " a. pair of cards " ; and we still say " a. pair of stairs " : pair being 
a set of matched things. 

Line 63. " Purled " : not purfled (i. e., embroidered, as Boaden understood 
by it), but rippled ; the poet could not say of a picture purling. But purled 
seems to have had also the sense of embroidered. 

Line 64. ' ' Living drawne " i. e. , drawn as if they were substantial 

It may be safely asserted that no English encomiastic poem has ever come 
near this for graceful melodious verse and mastery of language. It is, besides, 
so free and unstudied, that one might well believe it was written ' ' without 
blot." C. M. I. 


Ben Johnsons, 

Shackspeers, and 


f- Shackspeers 

Plaies are 

printed in 

the best 


paper, far 

better than 

most Bibles. 

} Above forty 



have been 

printed and 

vented within 

these two yeares. 

* Some Play-books lince I firft undertooke this 
fubject, are growne from Quarto into Folio ; which 
yet beare fo good a price and fale, that I cannot 
but with griefe relate it, they are nowf new- 
printed in farre better paper than moft O6tavo or 
Quarto Bibles, which hardly finde fuch vent as 
they : And can then one Quarto Tractate againft 
Stage-playes be thought too large, when as it muft 
affault fuch ample Play-houfe Volumes ? Befides, 
our Qz/arfo-Play-bookes lince the firft fheetes of 
this my Treatife came unto the Preffe, have come 
forth in fuch J abundance, and found fo many 
cuftomers, that they almoft exceede all number, 
one iludie being fcarce able to holde them, and two 
yeares time too little to perufe them all. 

Histrio-Mastix. The Players Scourge or Actors 
Tragcedie. 1633. [4/0.] (Address " To the 
Christian Reader." fo. I, back,} 

[In 1648-9 was printed Mr. William Prynn, his defence of Stage plays, or 
a Retractation of a former Book of his called Histrio-Mastix, which he indig- 
nantly declared to be "a meere forgery and imposture," and, notwithstanding 
the sufferings he had undergone for the book, declared his adhesion to 
Histrio-Mastix, in a broad-side sheet, dated lojan. 1648, headed : The Vindi- 
cation of William Prynne Esquire, From some Scandalous Papers and Im- 
putations newly Printed and Published, &c. (Brit. Museum, Press-mark 669 
f. 13/67.). The " forgery " bears testimony to the custom in acting women's 
parts, "men or boyes do wear the apparel of women, being expressly 
forbidden in the Text. To this I answer, first, that if this be all, it is 
a fault may be easily amended ; and we may do in England, as they do in 
France, Italy, Spain, and other places, where those which play womens 
parts, are women indeed." (p. 7.) L. T. S.] 



Thou more then Poet, our Mercurie (that art 

Apollo's Meflenger, and do* ft impart 

His beft expreffions to our eares) live long 

To purifie the flighted Englifh tongue, 

That both the Nymphes of Tagus, and of Poe, 

May not henceforth defpife our language fo. 

Nor could they doe it, if they ere had feene 

The matchlefle features of the faerie Queene ; 

Read Johnfon, Shakefpeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, or 

Thy neat-limnd peeces, ikilfull MaJJinger. 

Commendatory Verses prefixed to MassingeSs Emperour of 
tfie East. 1632. [4/0,] C.M.I. 


[i] Guy. Brother, if I knew where to go to warre, 
I would not flay in London one houre longer. 
Char[les] . An houre ! By heauen I would not ftay a 

Eust[ace~\. A minute, not a moment. Would you put 

a moment 

Into a thoufand parts, the thoufandth part, 
Would not I linger, might I go to warre. 

[> B 3, b] 
* * * 

[2] Clow\ne\. Captaine, a prize ! wee two were affailed by 
two hundred, and of them two hundred, we kild all 
but thefe two : thefe are the remainder of them that 
are left aliue. 

\sig. D 2, 6} 

The Foure Prentises of / London / With the Conquest 
of Jerusalem. / ... Written and neivly revised by 
Thomas Hey wood, / . . . 1632. 

The first passage refers to 

As You Like it, IV, i. * He that will divide a minute into a 
thousand parts, and break but a part of the thousandth part of a minute 
in the affairs of love,' etc. 

The second refers to FalstafFs exaggerations to Prince Hal in I ffenry 
IV, iii. 

We are indebted to Mr. D. L. Thomas, of Kansas University, for these 
references. M.] 


JOHN MILTON, 16321638. 

Then to the well -trod ftage anon, 
Iffonsons learned fock be on, 
Or fweeteft Shakejpeare, Fancy's child, 
Warble his native wood-notes wild. 

V Allegro, II. 131134. Poetical Works of John 
Milton, by David Masson. Vol. 77, pp. 205, 422, 
Milton's Poems. 1645 [12 mo.~\, p. 36. 

C. M. I. 


JOHN HALES, OF ETON. Before 1633. 

In a Converfation between Sir John Suckling, Sir William 
D'Avenant, Endymion Porter, Mr. Hales of Eaton, and Ben 
Johnfon, Sir John Suckling, who was a profefTd admirer of 
Shakefpear, had undertaken his Defence againft Ben. Johnfon 
with fome warmth $ Mr. Hales, who had fat ftill for fome 
time, hearing Ben frequently reproaching him with the want 
of Learning, and Ignorance of the Antients, told him at laft, 
"That if Mr. Shakefpear had not read the Antients, he had 
like wife not ftollen any thing from 'em ; [a fault the other 
made no Confcience of] and that if he would produce any one 
Topick finely treated by any of them, he would undertake to 
Ihew fomething upon the fame Subject at leaft as well written 
by Shakefpear." 

Some Account of the Life of Mr. William Shakespear, prefixed to the 
edition of his Works by Nicholas Rowe. 1709. Vol. I, p. xiv. 

[Rowe gives no authority for this anecdote, but we find another version of 
it given as from the mouth of Dryden by Charles Gildon in an essay 
addressed to Dryden in 1694. 

"To give the World some Satisfaction, that Shakespear has had as great 
a Veneration paid his Excellence by men of unquestion'd parts, as this I now 
express for him, I shall give some Account of what I have heard from your 
Mouth, Sir, about the noble Triumph he gain'd over all the Ancients by the 
Judgment of the ablest Critics of that time. 

" The Matter of Fact (if my Memory fail me not) was this, Mr. Hales, of 
Eaton, affirm'd that he wou'd shew all the Poets of Antiquity, outdone by 
Shakespear, in all the Topics, and common places made use of in Poetry. 

374 JOHN HALES, OF ETON. Before, 1633. 

The Enemies of Shakespcar wou'd by no means yield him so much Excellence : 
so that it came to a Resolution of a trial of skill upon that Subject ; the place 
agreed on for the Dispute, was Mr. Hales' 's Chamber at Eaton ; a great many 
Books were sent down by the Enemies of this Poet, and on the appointed 
day, my Lord Falkland, Sir John Suckling, and all the Persons of Quality 
that had Wit and Learning, and interested themselves in the Quarrel, met 
there, and upon a thorough Disquisition of the point, the Judges chose by 
agreement out of this Learned and Ingenious Assembly, unanimously guve 
the Preference to Shakespear. And the Greek & Roman Poets were 
adjudg'd to Vail at least their Glory in that to the English Hero. I cou'd 
wish, Sir, you wou'd give the Public a juster Account of this Affair, in 
Vindication of that Poet I know you extreamly esteem, and whom none but 
you excels." (Some Reflections on Mr. Rymer's ' Short View of Tragedy ' 
and an Attempt at a Vindication of Shakespear. Miscellaneous Letters and 
Essays, 1694, pp. 85, 86.) 

The anecdote seems to have had some foundation in truth, for Dryden 
himself reports Hales's saying, " That there was no subject of which any 
poet ever writ but he would produce it much better done in Shakespeare." 
{Essay of Dramatic Poesie, 1668, Scott's ed. of Dryden, 1821, Vol. 15, p. 
351.) And Nahum Tate, in the Dedication to his Loyal General, 1680, 
addressed to Edw. Tayler, says, ' ' I cannot forget the strong desire I have 
heard you express to see the Common Places of our Shakespear compar'd with 
the most famous of the Ancients. * * Our Learned Hales was wont to 
assert ' That since the time of Orpheus and the Oldest Poets, no Common 
Place has been touch'd upon, where our Authour has not perform'd as well. ' " 
P. Des Maizeaux, who collects three of these versions together, in his Life of 
the Ever-memorable Mr. John Hales, 1719 (p. 6l, note), adds: "But neither 
of them [Dryden nor Tate] take notice of the conversation above mention'd, 
nor do they tell us how that saying came to their knowledge." If the 
conversation or "disquisition" did take place, as seems highly probable, 
it must have been before 1633, the year in which Falkland died ; all the 
other partakers in it survived him. Hales was born in 1584, he died in 
1656. L. T. S.] 



Alexander. Good fir, be fatisfied, the Widdow and my lifter 
fung both one fong, and what was't, but Crabbed age and youth 
cannot live together. 

A Match at Midnight. Act v. sc. I. 1633. 
Sign. /2, back. 

[This is the first line of the twelfth song in the Passionate Pilgrim 
{Globe edition of Works), which is one of those in that collection perhaps 
written by Shakespere. The song is included in Percy's Reliques, Gilfillan's 
edition, 1858, vol. i., Book ii. 16. 

The star * is appended to this extract, not because there is any doubt 
about the allusion by Rowley, but because it is not only now doubtful 
whether Shakespere wrote the song, but after Hey wood's printed protest 
(see before, p. 231) it may not have been generally attributed to Shakespere 
in 1633, though published under his name. L. T. S.] 


JAS. SHIRLEY, 1633. 

There Gold and tram was impudently inferred, 
i\nd. Courtier]. And 'twas a tafke too infolent, in that point 

You'd willingly give a pound of your proud fleih 

To be releaft. 
Roll[iardo.] I heard a pound of flefh, a lewes demand once, 

Twas gravely now remembred of your Lordihip releaft ? 

Fortune, and courtefie of opinion 

Gives many men Nobility of Birth, 

That never durft doe nobly, nor attempt 

Any deligne, but fell below their Honors. 

The / Bird in a cage./ [II. i.] A Comedie. As it hath 
beene Presented at the Phoenix in Drury Lane. The 

Author lames Shirley, / Servan to Her Majesty 

London / Printed by B. Alsop, and T. Fawcet : for 
William Cooke, and are to be sold at his Shop neere 
Furnivals-InneGz.te,'mHolbonie. 1633. 4to. sign, E, 3. 

A reference to Shylock, no doubt. Miss E. PHIPSON. 



fam[es\. How {hall we fpend the day Sam? 

Sam. Let's home to our ftudies and put cafes. 

lam. Hang cafes and bookes that are fpoyl'd with them. Give 
me lohnfon and Shakefpeare ; there's learning for a gentleman. 
I tell thee Sam, were it not for the dancing-fchoole and Play- 
houfes, I would not ftay at the Innes of Court for the hopes of 
a chiefe luftice-fhip. 

Tottenham / Covrt./ A Pleasant / Comedie : / Acted in the 
Yeare MDCXXXIIL/ At the private House in Salisbury- 
Court. I The Author / Thomas Nabbes./ At London,! 
Printed by Richard Ovlton, for / Charles Greene ; and are 
to be sold / at the Signe of the White Lyon, in / Pavls 
Church-yard. I i638./ Act. 3 Sccen. I. p. 27. 

In the list of "The Persons," James and Sam are thus described : 
" I AMES. A wild young gentleman of the Innes of Court, 

SAM. A fine Gentleman of the Innes of Court, and Brother to BELLAMIE." 



TH. BANCROFT, 1633. 

But the chqfl lay not euery fongjler weares y 
Nor of Appollo 's fonnes prooue all his heires ; 
'Tis not for all to reach at Shakefpeares height, 
Or think to grow to f olid lohnfons weight, 
To lid fo fair e as Chapman for a fame, 
Or match (your family} the Beaumonts name, 

Th. Bancroft, before his Glutton's Feaver, 1633, 
To the Nobly accomplisht Gentleman, Wolstan 
Dixie, Esquire. (Roxb. Club reprint, 1817, 
sign. A2.) 

B. N. 


JOHN FORD, 1633, 1638. 

I am wise enough to tell you I can board where I see occa- 
sion ; 17 

'Tis pity she's a Whore (1633). Act II, sc. iv. Ford's 

Works, ed. Dyce, 1869, i. 144. 

17 /. e. jest . . The words in the text are borrowed from Nic. Bottom, 
confessedly a very facetious personage. Gifford. 

z. Act V. sc. iv. p. 195-6, let my hot hare have law ere he be 
hunted to his death, that, if it be possible, he may post to hell in 
the very act of his damnation. 9 

9 " This infernal sentiment has been copied from Shakespeare [Hamlet, 
act iii. sc. 3] by several writers who were nearly his contemporaries. Reed" 

Love's Sacrifice, printed 1633. 

On p. 65 of Ford's Works, ed. Dyce, vol. ii, Gifford says in a note, 
" Ford has contrived, by several direct quotations from Shakespeare, to put 
the reader in mind of lago, to whom, for his misfortune, D'Avolos bears 
about the same degree of resemblance that the poor Duke does to Othello." 
Parts of Act III, scenes ii. and iii. are evidently modeld on Oth. III. iii, 
and the Rev. W. Harrison has kindly noted the following touches in proof 
of Gifford' s remark : 

Ford, Love's Sacrifice, Act III, Shakspere, Othello, III. iii. 

Works, vol. ii. 

D'Avolos. A shrewd ominous lago. Ha ! I like not that. 

token ; Othello. What dost thou say ? 35 

I like not that neither. lago. Nothing, my lord : or if I 
Duke. Again ! What is't you like know not what. 


III. ii. Works, ii. 63. 

Duke. I hear you, Sir ; what is't ? 
Nothing, I protest to your highness. 
ib. p. 65. 

JOHN FORD, 1633, 1638. 

D'Av. Beshrew my heart, but 

that's not so good. 
Duke. Ha, what's that thou mis- 

likest ? 
D'Av. Nothing, my lord : but I 

was hammering a conceit of 

mine own. ib. p. 62. 

I'll know 't, I vow I will. 
Did not I note your dark abrupted 

Of words half spoke ? your " wells, 

if all were known " ? 
Your short " I like not that " ? your 

girds and "buts"? 
Yes, sir, I did ; such broken language 

More matter than your subtlety shall 


Tell me, what is't ? by honour's self, 
I'll know. 

ib. III. iii. Works, ii. 67. 
D?Av. What would you know, my 


... I know nothing. 
Duke. Thou liest, dissembler ! on 

thy brow I read 
Distracted horrors figur'd in thy 


Speak, on thy duty ; we thy prince 

D'Av. I trust your highness will 

pardon me ... 

Should I devise matter to feed your 
distrust, or suggest likelihoods 
without appearance. p. 67 

Duke. The icy current of my 

frozen blood 

Is kindled up in agonies as hot 
As flames of burning sulphur. 

Oth. Why dost thou ask ? 

lago. But for a satisfaction of my 

No farther harm. 

By heaven, he echoes me, 

As if there were some monster in his 

Too hideous to be shown. Thou 

dost mean something. 
I heard thee say but now, Thou 

likedst not that, 
When Cassio left my wife; What 

didst not like ? 
And, when I told thee he was of 

my counsel 
In my whole course of wooing, thou 

criedst, Indeed I 
And didst contract and purse thy 

brow together, 
As if thou then hadst shut up in thy 

Some horrible conceit : If thou dost 

love me, 

Shew me thy thought. 
Therefore these stops of thine fright 

me the more. 

lago. Good my lord, pardon 

me. 133 

I am to pray you, not to strain my 


To grosser issues, nor to larger reach 
Than to suspicion. 220 

Oth. Never, lago. Like to the 

Pontic sea, 
Whose icy current and compulsive 

Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps 

due on 

JOHN FORD, 1633, 1638. 381 

To the Propontic, and the Helles- 
pont ; 
Even so my bloody thoughts, with 

violent pace, 
Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to 

humble love, 

Till that a capable and wide revenge 
Swallow them up. 

Take heed you prove this true. Villain, be sure thou prove my love 

D'Av. My lord. (p. 69) a whore. 359 

Dtike. If not, Be sure of it j give me the ocular 

I'll tear thee joint by joint. Phew ! proof. . . . 360 

methinks Make me to see 't. 364 

It should not be : Bianca ! or woe upon thy life ! 366 

hell of hells ! 
See that you make it good. 

Secco . . . Keep your bow close, vixen.* \Pinches Morosa.] 

The Fancies, Chast and Noble. 1638. III. iii. 

Ford's Works ; ed. Dyce, 1869, ii. 277. 

* " This is taken from Ancient Pistol's injunction to his disconsolate 
spouse at parting ['keep close' in Shakespeare's Henry V, act ii. sc. 3, 
where the 4to (not the folio) has " buggle boe." Dyce], and with her it 
might have been safely left." Gifford, ib. 

Crabbed age and youth t 
Cannot jump together / 
One is like good luck, 

' Tother like foul weather. 

Fancies, Act IV. sc. i. Ford's Works, 1869, ii. 291. 
f* This is patched-up from a despicable ditty in the Passionate Pilgrim, 
foolishly attributed to Shakespeare. GifFord, ib. ii. 291. I don't agree 
with Gifford's ' despicable. ' F. 

Neither the lord nor lady, nor the bawd, 
Which shuffled them together, Opportunity, 
Have fasten'd stain on my unquestion'd name. 

The Lady's Ttial (licenst May 3, 1638, publisht 
1639), Act III. sc. iii. Ford's Works, ed. 
Dyce, 1869, iii. 57. 

Here Ford had in his thoughts some lines of Shakespeare's Lucrece, 
"O Opportunity, thy guilt is great ! .... 
Thou foul abettor ! thou notorious bawd ! " Dyce. 

3&2 JOHN FORD, 1633, 1638. 

With frightful lightnings, amazing noises ; 

But now, th' enchantment broke, J 'tis the land of peace, 

Where hogs and tobacco yield fair increase. 

T. Middleton. Anything for a Quiet Life, V. iii. Works, iv. 499. 

% Treated by Malone (Variorum Shakspere, 1821, xv. 424-5)33 an allu- 
sion to Prospero's island, in The Tempest. The reference is Dyce's. 

For the Middleton- Witch and Shakspere-Macdeth references, &c., see 
Appendix B. F. J. F. 

In Middleton's Mayor of Queenborough, (Works, i. 197,) which Dyce 
thinks 'was among the author's first attempts at dramatic composition,' but 
which mentions in Act V. sc. i. ' a play called the Wild Goose Chase, that 
may be Fletcher's,' produced about 1621, Reed says on the following pas- 
sage, p. 197, 

Methinks the murder of Constantino 

Speaks to me in the voice of 't, and the wrongs 

Of our late queen, slipt both into one organ. 

" Shakespeare seems to have imitated this in the Tempest, A. 3. S. 3. 

. . . Methought the billows, spoke, and told me of it ; 

The winds did sing it to me ; and the thunder, 

That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounc'd 

The name of Prosper." 

But, says Dyce, ' The date of The Tempest must be settled before we can 
determine whether Shakespeare or Middleton was the imitator.' 

F. J. F. 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, (?) 163341. 

The Prince of darknejffe is a Gentleman, 
Mahu, Mohu is his name, 

The Goblins, III. i. ed. 1646, p. 25. 

The 1643 ed. has " Maha, mahu," p. 26 ; but the words are rightly 
" Mahu, Mohu " in Fragtnenta Aurea, ed. 1658, p. 112 : 

(" The Prince of darkness is a gentleman, 
Modo he's called and Mahu." 

Lear, III. 148-9.) 

" Pel\legrln\. /'ft ee'n fo ? Why then, 
Farewell the plumed Troops, and the big Wars, 
Which made ambition vertue." 

The Goblins, IV, i. p. 43, ed. 1646. 

(Othello, III. iii. 349-50, altering ' That make* to 'which 

" i Th[ief.] You mall Sir. 

Let me fee the Author of bold Beauchams, and Englarids 

" Po[et.] The laft was a well writ peice, I aflure you, 
A Brittane / take it -, and Shakefpeares very way : 

/ defire to fee the man," 

The Goblins, IV. i. p. 45, ed. 1646. 

[Other likenesses occur in the play, as,] 
" Orsa. The Have of Chaunce 
One of Fortune's fooles ; 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, (?) 1633 4 1 - 

A thing me kept alive on earth 
To make her fport." 

The Goblins, III. i. p. 33, ed. 1648. 

("so we profess 
Ourselves to be the slaves of chance." 

Winters Tale, IV. iv. 551. 
" Rom. O, I am fortune's fool." 

R. <^y. III. i. 141.) 

" And give out that Anne my wife is dead." 

" Na\_JJuras\. Rare Rogue in Buckram, 
let me bite thee," 

The Goblins, III. i. p. 26, ed. 1646 ; p. 27, ed. 1648. 

(The ' Anne ' quotation of Suckling's is meant for 

" give out 
That Anne my wife is rick and like to die." 

Rich. Ill, IV. ii. 57-8. 

The second phrase is from Falstaff's " two rogues in buckram suits. "- 
I Hen. IV, II. iv. 213.) 

"No, no, it muft be that 
His anger, and the fearch declare it ; 
The secret of the prison-house mall out I fweare." 

The Goblins, V. i. p. 49, ed. 1646. 

(Cp. Hamlet, I. v. 14 : 

" But that I am forbid 
To tell the secrets of my prison-house.") 

H. C. HART. 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, (?) 163341 

(Died Way 7, 1641.) 

[King]. . The qtieftion is, whether we {hall rely 

Upon our Guards agen ? 

" Zir[iff]. By no meanes Sir ? 

Hoffe on his future fortunes, or their Love 

Unto his perfon, has fo ficklied o're 

Their refolutions, that we muft not truft them, 

Befides, it were but needlefTe here ; " 

Aglaura, Act IV. sc. i. Fragmenta Aurea, 1648, p. 33. 
(A reminiscence of Hamlet's (III. i. 84-5) 

" And thus the native hue of resolution 
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought." 


(I also think that in the Epilogue to Aglaura, 

" Plays are like Feafts, and every A61 mould bee 
Another Courfe, and ftill varietie : 
But in good faith, provifion of wit 
Is growne of late fo difficult to get, 
That do we what we can, we are not able, 
Without cold meats to furnifh out the Table." 

Fragntenta Aurea, 1646, p. 82. 

Suckling, as such a perpetual plagiarist from Shakspere, may have had an 
eye, in the last line above, to 

" The funeral baked meats 
Did coldly furnish out the marriage Tables." 

Hamlet, I. ii. 180-1.) 

Aglaura was published in 1638 (Poems, play, etc., of Sir John Suckling, 
ed. Hazlitt, 1874, I, p. xxxvi.). 

H. C. HAPT. 


3 86 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, (?) 163341. 

" G\raineverf]. So pale and fpiritlefle a wretch, 
Drew Priam's curtaine in the dead of night, 
And told him halfe his Troy was burnt " 

Brennoralt, A Tragedy, II. i. p. 16 (in Fragmenta 
Aurea), ed. 1646. 

(A plagiarism from 2 Henry IV, I. i. 70-3 : ^ 

" Even such a man, so faint, so spiritless, 
So dull, so dead in look, so woe-begone, 
Drew Priam's curtain in the dead of night, 
And would have told him half his Troy was burnt.") 

" Iph\igeni\. Will you not fend me neither, 

Your picture when y' are gone ? 

That when my eye is famimt for a looke, 

It may have where to feed, 

And to the painted Feaft invite my heart." 

The Tragedy of Brennoralt, V. i. ib. 1646, p. 44. 

Betwixt mine eye and heart a league is took 
And each doth now good turn unto the other 
When that mine eye is famished for a look, 
Or heart in Jove with sighs himself doth smother, 
With my loves picture then mine eye doth feast 
And to the painted banquet bids my heart." 

Shakspere, Sonnet 47.) 

Sir John Suckling, baptized Feb. 10, 1608-9, died 7 May, 1641 (Lysons, 
Environs of London, iii. 588-9). 

Brennoralt is supposed to have been published in 1639 (Poems, &c. I. xi.), 
and appears to have been written about the time of the Scotch rebellion in 
1639. It was first printed among Suckling's works in 8 VO 1646 (Halliwell, 
Diet, of Old Plays). 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, (?) 1633 41. 


" Iph Shee's gone : 

Shee's gone. Life like a Dials hand hath ftolne 
From me the faire figure, e're it was perceiv'd." 
The Tragedy of Brennoralt, V. i. {in Fragmenta Aurea], ed. 1646, p. 48. 

( " Ah ! yet doth beauty like a dial-hand 

Steal from his figure and no pace perceived." 

bhakspere. Sonnet 104.) 
H. C. HART. 






Prefented at the Black friers 

by the Kings Maiefties fervants, 
with great applaufe : 

Written by the memorable Worthies 
of their time - 

M r . John Fletcher, and 1 G . 
William Shakfpeare.j 

JM r . 
\M r . 


Printed at London by Tho. Cotes, for lohn Waterfon : 

and are to be fold at the figne of the Crowne 

in Pauls Church-yard. 1634. 


\_The Two Noble Kinsmen was entered in the Stationers' Registers on 
April 8, 1634 : " Master lohn Waterson Entred for his Copy vnder the 
hands of Sir Henry Herbert and master Aspley warden a Tragi Comedy 
called the two noble kinsmen by lohn ffletcher and William Shakespeare 

Shaksperean critics are divided into two main camps concerning Shak- 
spere's part-authorship of the play. The Fletcherian parts are well defined, 
and generally accepted. The un-Fletcherian parts have been of late 
ascribed to Massinger, and the tendency nowadays is more and more to 
discredit the ascription to Shakspere of a share in the play's creation. 
Mr. Tucker Brooke in his Shakespeare Apocrypha, 1908, p. xliii, says : 
" That portion of The Two Noble Kinsmen which is obviously not 
Fletcher's contains some of the most brilliant of Jacobean poetry. It is 
not less certain, I think, that it contains no spark of psychological insight 
or philosophy of life which can in sober moments be thought either worthy 
of Shakespeare or even suggestive of him." The play is rich in language 
and poor in structure. M.] 



To a Friend, 
Inviting him to a meeting upon promife. 

May you drinke beare, or that adult'rate wine 
Which makes the zeale of Amjlerdam divine j 
If you make breach of promife. I have now 
So rich a facke, that even your felfe will bow 
T' adore my Genius. Of this wine mould Prynne 
Drinke but a plenteous glafle, he would beginne 
A health to Shakefpeares ghoft. 

Castara. 1634. The Second Part. [4/0.] 8/// Poem, />. 52. 

Habington refers to William Prynne, the author of the Histrio-Masti.\ 
of 1633, from which we have given an extract. He supposes Prynne, under 
the genial stimulus of his rich sack, to put off the Puritan, and to toast 
the prince of playwrights. This Prynne is probably the second saint 
described in Hudibras, Part III. C. ii. 11. 421-4 & 11. 1065-6. 

There was a former Histrio-Mastix, published in 1610, which is said to 
contain an allusion to Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, 1. iii. 1. 73 : but 
there is evidence to prove that it had, by some years, precedence of Shake- 
speare's play. Some critics have seen in the expression " mastick jaws" an 
allusion by Shakespeare to the Histrio-Mastix of 1610 : others an allusion 
to Decker's Satyro-Mastix. Such fancies are wholly without foundation. 
The word "mastick" in Troilus and Cressida means either slimy, or 
gnashing, in either case conveying a singularly forcible and offensive image 
of Thersites' jaws. " Mastick " is either from the Greek /iaerr/XJ?, the gum 
of the lentisk tree, or from the Latin mastico, the equivalent of the Greek 
HcuTTixaa), from naarat,, the jaws : certainly not from mastix, which means 
a whip or scourge. C. M. I. 

[See on this subject Mr. R. Simpson's arguments in his School of 
Shakspere, 1878. Vol. I. p. Q.I 


[Jacintha, after listening to her several suitors who mutually 
dispraise each other to her, exclaims], 

Falftaffe, I will beleeve thee, 
There is noe faith in vilanous man. 

The Example, 1637, Act II, Sc. i, sign. C 4, back. 

Shirley's play, The Example, was licensed in 1634, though not printed till 
later. Jacintha here refers to Falstaffs answer to Prince Hal, I Part Henry 
IV, Act II. sc. iv. 

"You rogue, here's lime in this sack too : there is nothing but roguery to 
be found in villanous man." Compare the same sentiment in Romeo and 
Juliet, III. ii, where the nurse says, 

"There is no trust 
No faith, no honesty in men." 

(See before, p. 283.) 


THO. RANDOLPH, 1634 (?). 

Pen. Who would carry you up to London, if the Waggon- 
driver ihould think himfelf as good a man as his mafterr 

Die. Why we would ride thither on our own Hackney- 
Con fci en ces. 

Pen. Nay if this were fo, the very Tailers though they damn'd 
you all to hell under their Ihop-boards, would fcorn to come to 
the making up of as good a man as Pericles Prince of Tyre. 
Tho. Randolph. Hey for Honesty, ed. 1651. 

(R. died 1634. See Thomas Randolph, 1651.^;. O. H.-P. 


Hulh, where is this fidle? in the ayre ? I can perceave nothing. 

The Lady Mother. 1635. Act II. sc. i. Bullen's Old 
Plays, vol. ii. p. 132. 

Warme charity, no more inflames my breft 
Than does the glowewormes ineffectual fire 
The ha[n]d that touches it. 

Ibid. Act IV. sc. i. p. 178. 

The allusions are to Tempest, I. ii. 387, and Hamlet, I. v. 89-90. The 
1 file ' = defile, Macbeth (III. i. 65), occurs later : 

Send him (Death) to file thy house, 
Strike with his dart thy Children and thyselfe. 
Ibid. Act V. sc. ii. p. 193. 


Till doomfday alters not complexion : 
Death's the belt painter then: &c. &c. 

Besides the other passages referred to in the above, pages no and 137, 
these may be added : A Mad World, III. i., with Rom. andjul., I. iv. 35 ; 
The Honest Whore, IV. i., with Hamlet, I. v. 29; Ibid. IV. iii., with 
Falstaffs exclamation, I Henry IV., V. iii. 51. 

One or two of these may be coincidences of expressions used at that time. 
But none can doubt that Middleton was influenced by Shakspere, and I add 
these references, because they bear on the question Which was the more 
(likely to borrow "Black spirits and white," &c..? though for my own part, 
,1 believe it can be shown that these lines were ooDularlv known. B. N. 



Our moderne Poets to that paffe are driven, 
Thofe names are curtal'd which they firfl had given j 
And, as we wifht to have their memories drown'd, 
We fcarcely can afford them halfe their found. 
Rob. Greene. Greene, who had in both Academies ta'ne 
Degree of Mailer, yet could never gaine 
To be call'd more than Robin : who had he 
Profeft ought fave the Mufe, Serv'd, and been 


After a feven yeares Prentifelhip ; might have 
(With credit too) gone Robert to his grave 

Christ. Mario. Mario, renown'd for his rare art and wit, 

Could ne're attaine beyond the name of Kit ; 
Although his Hero and Leander did 

Thomas Kid. Merit addition rather. Famous Kid 

nom. watson. Was call'd but Tom . Tom Watfon, though he wrote 
Able to make Apollo's felfe to dote 
Upon his Mufe -, for all that he could ftrive, 
Yet never could to his full name arrive. 

Thomas Nash. Tom Nofti (in his time of no fmall efteeme) 
Could not a fecond fyllable redeeme. 

Fran mont' Excellent Bewmont, in the formoft ranke 

Of the rar'ft Wits, was never more than Franck. 
*. Mellifluous Shake-fpeare, whofe inchanting Quill 
Commanded Mirth or Paffion, was but Will. 

394 THOMAS HEYWOOD, 1635. 

B yKon. And famous Johnfon, though his learned Pen 

Be dipt in Ca/ialy, is ftill but Ben. 
r 'Fletcher and Welfter, of that learned packe 

None of the mean' ft, yet neither was but Jacke. 

Deckers but Tom ; nor May, nor Middle ton. 

And hee's now but Jacke Foord, that once were l John. 

The Hierarchic of the Blessed Angells. Lib. 4. 1635. 
p. 206. [/&.] 

[In the affectionate familiarity of his friends Shakespere "was but Will" 
or *' good Will " (see John Davies of Hereford, before, p. 219), though they 
did not often express his "curtal'd" name in print. He himself made 
delicate and skilful use of this common abbreviation in his Sonnets 135 and 
136. L. T. S.] 



A Catalogue offundry Helluoes, and great quaffers amongst 
the Grecians : Infamous for their vinojity. 

Come now to fpeake of the ancient Carowfers : 1 will 
firft begin with the merry Gree&es. From whom the 
Good-fellowes of this age would borrow that name, and 
fee what frollike healthers I can find amongfl them .... 
He that dranke immoderately, and above his ftrength, had the 
denomination of Philocothomfta : Among whom Nestor a great 
* Old JVeftor, even in his third age, was numberd; drinker. 
He was obferved to take his rowfe freely, and more at the liege 
of Troy, then the Generall Agamemnon, whom Achilles up- 
braided for his immoderate drinking : Neither, in the hotteft 
of the battell, was hee ever knowne to venter further then within 
fight of his Bottle : To whom Sir lohn Falflqffe may not unfitly 
be compared, who never durft ride [p. n] without a Piftoll, 
charg'd with Sacke, by his fide. 

Philocothonista, / Or, The / Drvnkard, / Opened, Dis- 
sected, and Anatomized. / [woodcut: see next page\ 
London,/ Printed by Robert Rawor -^/and are to be sold 
at his house / neere the White-Hart Taverne in 
Smithfield. 1635.; 



"Curious if an allusion to old play of Tr. 6 >." J. O. Hll.-P. 
Part sent by Dr. Ingleby. The Title to this little book has the well-known 
foreign cut of some old drunkards 1 at table. I got it from the Ballad 
Society some time ago to use elsewhere for certain swinish Shakspereans of 
our own day, whose performances it represents ; but as the occasion has 
past by, I may as well add the cut here. Falstaff's pistol, or bottle of 
sack, is in I Henry IV, V. iii. 51-4. F. J. F. 

1 There is an odd list of 25 euphemistic names of a Drunkard, on p. 44, 45. 


SIR H. MILDMAY, 1635. 

1635. . Maij. . 6 : not farre from home all day att the 
bla : ffryers & a play this day Called the More of Venice. 

Sir H. Mildmay's Diary, 1633-1651. MS. Harl. 

454, leaf 10, back, 5 lines from foot. 

Given mainly in Halliwell's Folio Shakespeare . . . where the editor says 
of Othello: 

' ' It was acted before the King and Queen at Hampton Court on 
December 8th, 1636. ... A year or two previously, an actress had 
appeared on the English stage in the character of Desdemona." 

Unluckily there is no entry in Sir H. Mildmay's accounts at the other end 
of the MS., of what he paid to hear Othello, but I suppose it was 3^., or 
that some friend paid for him. In the account for April, 1635, MS. leaf 
173, back, lines n, 12, are the entries 

s d 

Expended att the bla : fryers 28 oo 03 =. oo =. 

for wine to Supper & before oo 01 = oo = 

And on turning back to the Diary, leaf 10, back, I find under April 28, 
" this after Noone, I spente att a playe w th good Company " and so forgot 
to say what the play was : probably not one of Shakspere's, or it would 
have overpowerd the recollection of the 'good company.' 

Two or three other items from the account (If. 273, back), including is. 
for Fletcher's Elder Brother, may interest the reader. 

^ d 

To Hughe Ap : Jones for the hire of : 2 : Coache 

horses to the Justice seate oo 10 r= oo = 

To him for the haye of my horses oo zr: 04 =. 06 = 

To Ann Mannfeilde for Cowe heeles oo = 01 = 06 = 

To Henry Pinsor In full for his pickture 01 = oo = oo =r 

To a playe eodem Called the Elder Brother 00 = 011=00:= 

To the poore of bridewell with Mr. Caldewell oo = oo = 06 = 

To Besse Preston In parte for a bottle of stronge 

waters : 2 : Maij oo = 05 = oo = 

To El : Preston In full for stronge waters oo = 06 = oo = 

To Mr. Lea : his Man for a shagge hatt and bands oo = 14 = oo 
Expences In boates etc. this : io th [of May] oo = 02 == 06 

[F. J. F.] 



[The defcription of Amanda's room] 

And then a heape of bookes of thy devotion 

Lying upon a fhelfe clofe underneath, 

Which thou more think'ft upon then on thy death. 
They are not prayers of a grieved foule, 
That with repentance doth his finnes condole. 

But amorous Pamphlets, that beft likes thine eyes, 

And Songs of love, and Sonets exquifit. 

Among thefe Venus, and Adonis lies, 

With Salmacis, and her Hermaphrodite : 

Pigmalions there, with his transform'd delight. 
And many merry Comedies, with this, 
Where the Athenian Phryne acted is. 

7he Converted Courtezan. . . . shadowed under the name of 
Amanda. 1639. /. 32. [4^.] 

[The reference to Venus and Adonis in the description of Amanda's room 
and its contents is a proof of the popularity of that poem among ladies of 
the day. See also other examples, after, pp. 430, 471. Cranley's book was 
licensed by Dr. William Hayward, chaplain to Archbishop Laud, in 1635. 
L. T. S.] 


JOHN SWAN, 1635. 

I conclude j and with him who writeth thus, cannot but 

Oh mickle is the pow'rfull good that lies 

In herbs, trees, ftones, and their true qualities ; 

For nought fo vile that on the earth doth live, 

But to the earth fome fecret good doth give. 

And nought fo rich on either rock or fhelf, 

But, if unknown, lies ufelefle to it felf. 

Therefore who thus doth make their fecrets known, 

Doth profit others, and not hurt his own. 

Speculum Mundi. Or A glasse representing the face of the 
world. Cambridge, 1635, p. 299. 

[Swan's work, a prose one, is somewhat on the plan of the first week of 
Du Bartas' Divine Weeks, and is a kind of epitome of the natural science of 
the day. He concludes that part of the "third day's work" which relates 
to precious stones, with these four lines quoted from Friar Laurence' speech, 
Romeo and Juliet, Act II. Sc. iii. 1. 15. The last four lines appear to have 
been added by himself. Swan has ' ' good " instead of Shakespere's ' ' grace ' ' 
in the first line, "trees" for "plants" in the second, and "secret" for 
"special " in the fourth. 

The quotation was pointed out by Mr. C. E. Browne in the Athen&um, 
22 May, 1875. L. T. S.] 



Croflfe]. Will he bedrunke ? 

Bal[t\. Molt fwine-like, and then by the vertue of his good 
liquor hee's able to convert any Brownifticall lifter* 

Crof. An excellent quality ! 

Bal. Nay, in that moode, you lhall have him, inftead of 
prefenting Pyramus, and Thifle, perfonate Cato Cenforious, and 
his three fons, onely in one thing he's out, one of Cato's fons 
hang'd himfelfe, and that he refer's to a dumbe {how j 

The I Vow I Breaker. / or, / The Faire Maide \ of Clifton. I 
In Notinghamshire as it hath beene diuers times Acted 
by / severall Companies with great applause. I By 
William Sampson.] . . . London./ Printed by lohn 
Norton and are to be sold by / Roger Ball at the sign* 
of the Golden / Anchor in the Strand, neere Temple- 1 
Barre, 1636. / Sign. /, back. 

Perhaps this alludes to the sub-play in M. N. Dr. F. J. F. 



After the folemnitie [Henry V.'s Coronation] part, the next 
day hee caufed all his wonted Companions to come into his 

prefence, to whom hee ufed thefe words j It is 

Kin? Henry [ V\ ., ~ . . _ 

taketh leave fufficient, that for many yeares together, I have 

of his antient f aihioned my felfe to your unruly difpoiitions. and 

have (not without fome reluctation, in the very 

action) followed you in your debofht and fwaggering courfes, I 
have to my forrow and fhame, I may fay to thinke of it, irregu- 
larly wandered, in all rude and unfeemely manner in the vaft 
wildernefle of ryot and unthriftinefle, whereby I was almoft 
made an alian, to the hearts of my Father and Allyes, and in 
their opinions violently carried away by your meanes from grace, 
by keeping you company, therein I have fo vilified my felfe that 
in the eyes of men, my prefence was vulgar and Hale, and like 
the Cuckow in lune, heard but not regarded. One of you being 
con vented before the Lord chiefe luftice for mifufing a fober- 
minded Citizen, I went to the publique Seffions houfe, and 
ftroke him on the face, and being by him defervedly committed 
to the Fleet, (for which aft of juftice I mail ever hold him 
worthy the place, and my favour, and wifh all my Judges to 
have the like undaunted courage, to puniih offenders of what 
ranke foever) it occafioned my Father to put mee from my place 
in Councell, appointing it to bee fupplyed by my younger 
Brother, how often have I by your animation committed thefts, 
even on my Fathers and my owne Receivers, and robd them of 
the mony provided for publicke appointments, to maiiitaine your 
midnight revellings and noone befelings ; But it is time now to 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. D D 


.1 period to thefe exorbitant, and unbefitting courfes, and to 
lalve the wounds my intemperance hath made in my [p. 93] 
reputation, and to turne over a new leate, and not only to decline 
the company of fuch miileaders of yours, but defert their con- 
ditions, of all therefore I ftraightly charge and command you, 
and every one of you, that from henceforth untill you haue 
fettled your felves in a more orderly courfe of life, and redeeme[d] 
your pawnd credits, with faire and regarded behauiour, here- 
after upon paine of forfeiture of your heads, not to appeare in 
mv prefence, nor to come within the verge of my Court j For 
what is paft I will grant you my pardon, and vvithall, becaufe I 
know fometimes neceflitie will cripple honefty, I will allow each 
of you a competency of maintenance, as a flocke to begin a 
courfe whereby to live orderly hereafter j But take heed of 
relapfing, for the leaft complaint of ill-behauiour of any of you 
hereafter, if proved, mall forfeit your pardons, and exclude my 
favour for ever : which refolution of mine I will never breake, 
and fo without attending any reply hee departed. 

A / Continuation / Of The Collection / Of The History of/ 
England, Beginning Where / Samvel Daniell / Esquire 
ended, /. By I. T. London, / Printed by M. D. for 
Ephraim Dawson, / and are to bee sold in Fleet-street 
at the signe of the Rainebowe / neere the inner Temple-/ 
gate. 1636.; p. 92-3. 

The passages alluded to are (i) in the Prince's speech, as King, to 
Falstaff, i Henry IV, II. iv. 491, "hence forth nere looke on me, thou art 
violently carried awaie from grace, there is a diuell haunts thee in the like- 
nesse of an olde fat man ; " and (2) in Henry IV's speech to Prince Hal in 
r Henry IV, III. ii. 41 and 75-6 : 

Had I so lauish beene, 

So common hackneid in the eyes of men, 

So stale and cheape to vulgar companie, 4' 

Opinion that did helpe me to the crowne, 


Had still kept loyall to possession, 

And left me in reputelesse banishment, 44 

A fellow of no marke nor likelihoode. 
* * * * * 

So when he had occasion to be scene, 
He was but as the Cuckoe is in lane, 
Heard, not regarded .... 76 

That some, if not much of the speech put by Trussell into Henry V's 
mouth is due to the perversion of History in Shakspere's plays, few readers 
will doubt. How unjustly Prince Hal's character was represented in these 
plays, Mr. Alex. Ewald has shown, from contemporary documents, in his 
late book, Stories from the Record Ojfice, a collection of articles that have 
appeard in divers journals. Mr. Hll.-P. noted the fact of there being a 
I Hen. /Fallusion in the 1685 edition of TrnsselL F. J. F. 

ANON., 1636. 

One alkt another whether or no hee had ever read Venus & 

Tht Booke of Bulls baited with two Centuries of bold Jests, 1636. 

J. O. H1L-P. 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING, about 16361641 

A Supplement of an imperfel Copy of Verjes 
of Mr. IVil. Shakef pears. 

One of her hands, one of her cheeks lay under, 

Cozening the pillow of a lawful kifTe, 
Which therefore fwel'd and feem'd to part afunder, 
As angry to be rob'd of fuch a blifle : 

The one lookt pale, and for revenge did long, 
Whilft t'other bluih't, caufe it had done the wrong. 


Out of the bed the other fair hand was 

On a green fattin quilt, whofe perfect white 

Lookt like a Dazie in a field of grafle, 

1 And shew'd like unmelt fnow unto the fight, staKjSt 
There lay this pretty perdue, fafe to keep 
The reft o th' body that lay f aft afleep. 

Her eyes (and therefore it was night) clofe laid, 

Strove to imprifon beauty till the morn, 
But yet the doors were of fuch fine ftufFe made, 
That it broke through, and fhew'd itfelf in fcorn. 
Throwing a kind of light about the place, 
which turnd to fmiles ftil as 't came near her face. 

SIR JOHN SUCKLING, 1636 1641 405 


Her beams (which fome dul men call'd hair) divided 

Part with her cheeks, part with her lips did fport, 
But thefe, as rude, her breath put by ftill j fome 
Wifelyer downwards fought, but falling fhort, 
Curl'd back in rings, and feem'd to turn agen 
To bite the part fo unkindly held them in. 

Fragmenta Aurea. A Collection of all the Incomparable 
Peeces, written by Sir John Suckling. And published 
by a Friend to perpetuate his memory. Printed by his 
iwne Copies. 1646. p. 29-30. [Sz><?.] 

The first nine lines are from the Rape of Lucrece, 11. 386 396. 

Suckling would appear to have employed a version of Shakespeare's 
poem which materially differs from that known to us. Each stanza of The 
Rape of Lucrecc, in all the old copies, has seven lines : the complete one 
given by Suckling has but six. But it is more likely that he curtailed and 
otherwise altered Shakespeare's lines. The relative stanzas run thus in 
England's Parnassus, 1600, p. 396 : as they do in the Quarto of Lucrece, 
1594, except that the latter has "cheeke lies " in the first line, and slight 
differences of spelling and punctuation. 

" Her Lilly hand her rosie cheekes lie under, 
Coosning the pillow of a lawful kisse, 
Who therefore angry, seemes to part in sunder, 
Swelling on eyther side to want his blisse, 
Betweene whose hills her head entombed is ; 
Where, like a vertuous monument she lyes, 
To be admirde of lewd unhallowed eyes. 

Without the bed her other fayre hand was 
On the greene Coverlet, whose perfect white 
Shewd like an Aprill daisie on the grasse, 
with pearlie sweat, resembling dew of night." 

It is almost impossible to date many of Suckling's pieces. He died on 
7 May, 1641, having lived but thirty-two years. C. M. I. 

[It may be doubted whether Suckling "curtailed and otherwise altered 
Shakespeare's lines." The verses are entituled, "A Supplement of an 
Imperfect Copy of Verses of Mr. Wil Shakespeares" and at the commencement 

406 SIR JOHN SUCKLING, 1636 1641. 

of the tenth line is an asterisk with the note, "Thus far Shake-spear." 
Not only too are the stanzas in a different form from those of our present 
Lucrece six. lines instead of seven but lines 5 and 6 of the first stanza 
differ from lines 5-7 of the present version, not merely in wording but 
wholly in thought. Neither if the verses were originally in seven-line 
stanzas would they be imperfect, being merely a different version of lines 
long before completed in Lucrece (Lucrece published 1594, Suckling 1636- 
41). It is more probable, as appears tome, that Shakespere at first thought 
of composing his Lucrece in the stanza of Venus and Adonis, and for a trial 
commenced not at the beginning but at the central point of importance 
and interest, namely, at Tarquin's view of Lucrece after forcing her door, but 
that he, for some unknown reason, after writing about a stanza and a half, 
threw it aside and took to the seven-line stanza. B. N.I 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING, about 16361641. 

The fweat of learned Johnforis brain, 
And gentle Shakefpear s eaf 'er ftrain, 
A hackney-coach conveys you to, 
In fpite of all that rain can do : 
And for your eighteen pence you fit 
The Lord and Judge of all frelh wit. 

Fragmenta Aurea : &c. 1646. /. 35. [8vo.] 

[This is part of a letter in verse addressed to Mr. John Hales of Eton, 
" Sir John invites him to come to Town, and enjoy the company of his 
friends." (Life of Mr. John Hales, by P. Des Maizeaux, 1719, p. 58.) 
U T. S.] 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING, about 16361641. 

I muft confeffe it is a juft fubjeft for our forrow, to hear of 
any that does quit his ftation without his leave that placed him 
there; and yet as ill a Mine as this A6t has, 'twas a-la-Romanfd, 
as you may fee by a Line of Mr. Shakefpears, who bringing in 
Titinius after a loft battel, fpeaking to his fword, and bidding it 
find out his heart, adds 

By your leave, Gods, this [is] a Romanes Part. 

Fragmenta Aurea: Letters, 1646. /. 61. 

We are at length arriv'd at that River, about the uneven 
running of which, my Friend Mr. William Shakefpear makes 
Henry Hotfpur quarrel fo highly with his fellow Rebels j and 
for his Sake I have been fomething curious to confider the 
Scantlet of Ground that angry Monfieur wou'd have had in, but 
can not find it cou'd deferve his Choler, nor any of the other 
Side ours, did not the King think it did. 

Letters ; printed in Works. Dublin, 1766. p. 142. 

[Both the above passages occur in Suckling's Letters, a part only of 
which were printed in the Fragmenta Aurea of 1646 ; the letter containing 
the second extract is among the additions made to them in 1766. 

The line quoted by Suckling occurs in Julius Ccesar, Act V, Sc. iii, 1. 
89. Hotspur's objection to the winding of the Trent comes in I Henry IV, 
Act III, Sc. i : 

" See how this river comes me cranking in 
And cuts me from the best of all my land 
A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out," &c., &c. 

L. T. S. j 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING, about 16361641. 

Wit in a Prologue, Poets juftly may 

Stile a new imposition on a Play. 

When Shakefpeare, Beamont, Fletcher, rul'd the Stage, 

There fcarce were ten good pallats in the age, 

More curious Cooks then guefts j for men would eat 

Moft hartily of any kind of meat ; 

And then what ftrange variety each Play, 

A Feaft for Epicures, and that each day. 

But marke how odly it is come about, 

And how unluckily it now fals out : 

The pallats are growne higher, 1 number increaf d, 

And there wants that which mould make up the Feaft j 

And yet y'are fo unconfcionable. You'd have 

Forfooth of late, that which they never gave, 

Banquets before j and after. 

(Prologue to The Goblins.) 
Th\ief\ I. We have had fuch fportj 
Yonder's the rareft Poet without, 
Has made all his confeflion in blanke verfe j 
Nor left a God, nor a GoddefTe in Heaven, 
But fetch 't them all downe for witnefles j 
Has made fuch a defcription of Stix, 
And the Ferry, 

And verily thinks has paft them. 
Enquires for the bleft {hades 

growne, higher in original 

4TO SIR JOHN SUCKLING, 1636 1641. 

And afkes much after certaine Brittifh blades, 

One Shakefpeare and Fletcher : 

And grew fo peremptory at laft, 

He would be carried, where they were. (p. 35.) 

The Goblins. A Comedy. Printed ivith 
Fragmenta Aurea. 1646. 

[ The Goblins contains one or two other allusions (see Fragmenta, pp. 26, 
45), but enough is given from Suckling's works to show the close acquaint- 
ance he had with " my friend Mr. William Shakespear." Dryden considers 
(Preface to The Tempest ', or the Enchanted Island, 1676) that Sir John 
Suckling, "a profess'd admirer of our author" (Shakespere), has follow'd 
his footsteps in the Goblins; that his Reginella is an open imitation of 
Shakespear's Miranda ; and that his spirits, though counterfeit, are copied 
from Ariel. But, though Warburton echoes this idea, the student must 
judge for himself how feeble an imitator Suckling was. L. T. S.] 

[See ante, pp. 383-4-] 


ABRAHAM WRIGHT, about 1637 (or earlier). 

Othello by Shakfpeare. 

A very good play, both for lines and plot, but efpecially the 
plot. Jago for a rogue, and Othello for a jealous hufband, two 
parts well penned. Act 3, the fcene between Jago and Othello, 
and the firft fcene of the fourth act, between the fame, {hew 
admirably the villanous humour of Jago when he perfuades 
Othello to his jealoufy. 

Manuscript Common-place book of Abraham Wright, Vicar of 
Okeham, in Rutlandshire. Quoted in Historical Papers, 
Part /, edited for the Roxburghe Club by Bliss and Bandinel. 
1846. Introduction, p. in. C. M. I. 


* THO. HEYWOOD, 1637 (?).i 

A young witty Lad playing the part of Richard the third : at the 

Red Bull: the Author lecaufe hee was intereffed in the Play 

to incourage him, wrot him this Prologue and 


The Boy the Speaker. 
If any wonder by what magick charme, 
Richard the third is fhrunke up like his arme : 
And where in fulnefTe you expected him, 
You fee me only crawling, like a limme 
Or piece of that knowne fabrick, and no more .... 
Let all fuch know : . . . . 
Hee's tearmed a man that fhowes a dwarfilh thing, 

have you never read 

Large folio Sheets which Printers over-looke, 
And caft in fmall, to make a pocket booke ? 
So Richard is transform 'd : . . . . 

1 Pleasant / Dialogves/ and / Dramma's, / selected ovt of / Lucian, Erasmus* 
Textor, / Ovid, &c./ With sundry Emblems extracted from / the most 
elegant lacobus Catsius.] As also certaine Elegies, Epitaphs, and / Epi- 
thalamions or Nuptiall Songs ; Anagrams and / Acrosticks ; With divers 
Speeches (upon severall / occasions) spoken to their most Excellent / 
Majesties, King Charles, and / Queene Mary./ With other Fancies trans- 
lated from Beza, / Bucanan, and sundry Italian Poets./ By Tho. Hey wood./ 
Aut prodesse solent, aut delectare.\ London, / Printed by K. 0. for R. ff. 
and are to be sold by Thomas / Slater at the Swan in Duck-lane. 16377 
p. 247. 

THO. HEYWOOD, 1637 (?). 413 

The Epilogue 

Great I confefie your patience hath now beene, 
To fee a little Richard : who can win, 
Or praile, or credit ? eye, or thinke to excell, 
By doing after what was done fo well? 

The Dramatic Works of Thomas Heywood, London, 1874, 
vol. vi. pp. 35 2 ~3- Prologues and Epilogues. 

P. 248. 

This is partly quoted, with the extract in oar vol. i, p. 9, in Halliwell's 
Folio Shakespeare, xi. 333, where the editor says: "It may, however, be 
too much to assume that the two notices last mentioned refer to Shake- 
speare's play," inasmuch as there were other plays on the same king The 
True Tragedie of Richard the Third, 1594, and that of Henslowe's Company 
about 1599, with Banister in it, and perhaps alluded to in " A New Booke 
of Mistakes, or Bulls with Tales, and Buls without Tales, but no lyes by 
any meanes*," 1637. "As late as the year 1654, Gayton speaks of a play 
of Richard the Third in which the ghost of Jane Shore is introduced." 
ib. p. 330. F. J. F. 

4 i4 


Elfe, (though wee all confpir'd to make thy Herje 
Our fo that 't had beene but one great Verfe, 
Though the Priefl had tranflated for that time 
The Liturgy, and buried thee in Rime, 
So that in Meeter wee had heard it faid, 
Poetique daft is to Poetique laid : 

And though that duft being Shakf pears, thou might 'It have 
Not his roome, but the Poet for thy grave ; 
So that, as thou didft Prince of Numbers dye 
And live, fo now thou mightft in Numbers lie, 
Twere frailejblemnitie; Verfes on Thee 

And not like thine, would but kind Libels be 5 


Who without Latine helps had' ft beene as rare 
As Beaumont, Fletcher, or as Shakefpeare were : 

And like them, from thy native Stock could'ft fay, 

Poets and Kings are not borne every day. 

Jonsonus Virbius : or, The Memorie of Ben. Johnson revived by 
the Friends of the Muses. 1638. pp. 29, 33. [4/0.] 

[There are two copies of this little book in the British Museum, professing 
to be of the same impression and apparently agreeing in all particulars, save 
that in only one of them is the signature I. Mayne found to the verses whence 
the above extract is taken. The book was entered on the Stationers' 
Register, 3 Feb. 1637. L. T. S.] 

It is the author of this finger-counting doggrel who is credited by some 
with the splendid elegy on Shakespeare, which we have given on page 
319. We had some compunction in reproducing Mayne's trashy verses at 
all : and the italics in these extracts from Jonsonus Virbius could have 
had no possible meaning : it was a fantastical trick of the time. See, for 
instances, Sir Roger L'Estrange's lines prefixed to Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Works, 1647 : those of Alexander Brome on Richard Brome, in the 
Five Neiv Plays, 1653 : and the first edition, 1682, of Dryden's Religio 


So in our Halcyon dayes, we have had now 
Wits, to which, all that after come, muft low. 
And fhould the Stage compofe her felfe a Crowne 
Of all thofe wits, which hitherto Ih'as knowne: 
Though there be many that about her brow 
Like fparkling ftones, might a quick luftre throw : 
Yet Shakefpeare, Beainnont, Johnfon, thefe three (hall 
Make up the Jem in the point Vertical I. 
And now lince JOHNSONS gone, we well may fay, 
The Stage hath feene her glory and decay. 

Jonsonus Virbius- 1638. pp. 42, 43. [4/0.] 

C. M. I. 



Shakefpeare may make griefs merry, Beaumont* ftile 

Ravifh and melt anger into a fmile -, 

In winter wights, or after meales they be, 

I muft confefle very good companie : 

But thou exad'ft our befl houres induftrie j Unson] 

Wee may read them ; we ought to ftudie thee. 

Jonsonus Virbius. 1638. /. 56. [4*0.] 

West was probably thinking of A Winter's Tale: " A sad tale's best for 
winter," ii. I, and " Upon a barren mountain, and still winter," iii. 2. 
C. M. I. 


H. RAMSAY, 1637. 

What are his fauls (O Envy !) that you fpeake [jonsons faults] 
EngliQi at Court, the learned Stage afts Greeke . 
That Latine Hee reduc'd, and could command 
That which your Shakefpeare fcarce could underftand ? 

Jonsonus Virbius. 1638. p. 60. [4/ 

"Faul," for fault, occurs in The Merry Wives of Windsor, \. I, "the 
faul is in the 'ort dissolutely." [Dyce's Shakspere, 1866, Vol. I, p. 351. 
The Cambridge edition and the folio of 1623 have "fall."] In the mention 
of Jonson's command of Latin, Ramsay is probably thinking of his reflection 
on Shakespeare's "small Latin and less Greek." C. M. I. 

SH. ALLN. BK. 1. E E 


You much diiTemble, or you have forgot 

His forme, and fun&ion, or you know them not. 

A Morall Poem, / Intituled the Legend of / Cvpid / and 
Psyche./ Or Cvpid and his / Mistris.] . . . Written by 
Shackerley Marmion, Gent. I . . . London; / Printed 
by N. and /. Okes, and are to be sold by / H. 
Sheppard, at his shop in Chancery lane neere / Serjants 
Inne, at the Bible. i637./ sign. E 4. 

Now if this uncouth life, and folitude 
Pleafe you, then follow it, and be ftill flew d 
In the ranke luft of a lafcivious worme : 

sign. E 4, back. 

["imitates a passage in Hamlet, Act III. sc. iv, and bears the trace of 
another (?) in Act II. sc. ii. 11. 582, 583." See Appendix B.] 

Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect 

A broken voice, and his whole function suiting 

With forms to his conceit. 

Hamlet, II. ii. 528-530. 

Nay, but to live 

In the rank sweat of an enseamed bed, 
Stew'd in corruption, honeying and making love 
Over the nasty sty. 

Hamlet, III. iv. 91-4 Camb. 

C. M. I. 



In Remembrance of 

Matter William Shakefpeare. 



Beware (delighted Poets !) when you ling 
To welcome Nature in the early Spring j 

Your num'rous Feet not tread 
The Banks of Avon -, for each Flowre 
(As it nere knew a Sunne or Showre) 

Hangs there, the penfive head. 


Each Tree, whofe thick, and fpreading growth hath made, 
Rather a Night beneath the Boughs, than Shade, 

(Unwilling now to grow) 
Lookes like the Plume a Captive weares, 
Whofe rifled Falls are lleept i' th teares 

Which from his laft rage flow. 


The piteous River wept it felfe away 
Long fince (Alas !) to fuch a fwift decay j 

That reach the Map j and looke 
If you a River there can fpie j 
And for a River your mock'd Eie, 

Will finde a mallow Brooke. 

Madagascar, with other Poems. 1638. p. 37. [i2mo.] 
(Imprimatur Feb. 26, 1637.) 


In the last line of the first verse, D'Avenant seems to be recalling a line 
in Milton's Lycidas : 

" And cowslips wan that hang the pensive head." 

The third verse is sufficient to prove that D'Avenant had an ear. 

The late Mr. George Jabet (Eden Warwick) believed that here 
'delighted' meant 'deprived of light,' and employed this instance to 
enforce his interpretation of ' the delighted Spirit,' in Measure for Measure. 
Dr. Brinsley Nicholson takes the same view of the latter (see N. dr 3 Q. t 
3rd S., L, Ap. 5, 1862, & 5th S., X., 1878, pp. 83, 182, 303). But 
though, doubtless, 'delighted' means the same in these two passages, it is, 
in Davenant, very plainly opposed to ' pensive.' He is checking the poets 
in their delight, and bidding them shun the banks of Avon as being a region 
of sorrow which even dimmed 

" The radiant looks of unbewailing flowers." 

In connection with Davenant we must not omit to notice the tradition of 
a letter written oy the King to Shakespeare. 

In the Advertisement to Lintott's edition of Shakespeare's Poems, 1709 
[8vo.], we read : 

" That most learn'd Prince, and great Patron of Learning, King James 
the First, was pleas'd with his own Hand to write an amicable letter to 
Mr. Shakespeare ; which Letter, tho now lost, remain'd long in the Hands 
of Sir William D'Avenant, as a credible Person now living can testify." 
C. M. I. 


T. TERRENT, 1637. 

Haud aliter noftri praemiffa in principis ortum 
Ludicra Chauceri, claffifq j incompta fequentum ; 
Nafcenti apta parum divina haec machina regno, 
In noftrum fervanda fuit tantaeq decebat 
Prselufiire Deos aevi certamina famae ; 
Nee geminos vates, nee Te Shakfpeare filebo, 
Aut quicquid facri noftros conjecit in annos 

Confilium Fati. 

Jonsonus Virbius, 1638. /. 64. [4/0.] 

[Terrent was educated at Christ Church Oxford, where he took the degree 
of Master of Arts, and was tutor of the College, according to Gilchrist 
(see Cunningham's edition of Gi/orcfs Works of Jonson. 1872. Vol. 
iii. p. 521). L. T. S.J 

This obscure but excellent poet writes that 

" the tales of Chaucer heralded the rise of our Chief (Jonson), as did also the 
unpolished band (of poets) who succeeded him. This god-like device (the 
Jonsonian comedy), but little suited to (the taste of) an early age, was to be 
reserved for ours ; and it was fitting that the gods should rehearse the 
contests of that age, as a preparation for so great a genius ; nor will I pass 
over in silence the twin-bards (Beaumont and Fletcher) nor Thee Shakespeare, 
or whatever (other) sacred (name) the plan of Fate has cast upon our 

It was in Comedy that Jonson professed to have introduced new laws, 
that is, he brought back the rigid use of the old classic laws of unity in time 
and place. He compliments Richard Brome, in verses prefixed to The 
Northern Lasse, 1632, on the applause he had gained 

"By observation of those Comick Lawes 

Which I, your Master, first did teach the Age." 

Some years later Sir John Suckling (Sessions of the Poets, Fragmeiita 
At4rea, 1646, p. 7) represents Ben asserting that 

" he had purg'd the stage 
Of errors that had lasted many an age." C. M. J. 


Anonymous. About 1637. 

An Elegie on the death of that famous Writer 
and Attor, M. William Shakfpeare. 

I dare not doe thy Memory that wrong, 
Unto our larger griefes to give a tongue j 
He onely figh in earneft, and let fall 
My folemne teares at thy great Funerall ; 
For every eye that raines a fhowre for thee, 
Laments thy lofie in a fad Elegie. 
Nor is it fit each humble Mule mould have, 
Thy worth his fubjet, now th' art laid in grave ; 
No its a flight beyond the pitch of thofe, 
Whofe worthies Pamphlets are not fence in Profe, 
Let learned Johnfon fing a Dirge for thee, 
And fill our Orbe with mournefull harmony : 
But we neede no Remembrancer, thy Fame 
Shall flill accompany thy honoured Name, 
To all pofterity ; and make us be, 
Senfible of what we loft in lofing thee : 
Being the Ages wonder whofe fmooth Rhimes 
Did more reforme than lafh the loofer Times. 
Nature her felfe did her owne felfe admire, 
As oft as thou wert pleafed to attire 
Her in her native lufture, and confefle, 
Thy drefling was her chiefeft comlinefle. 
How can we then forget thee, when the age 
Her chiefeft Tutor, and the widdowed Stage 


Her onely favorite in thee hath loft, 

And Natures felfe what fhe did bragge of moft. 

Sleepe then rich foule of numbers, whilft poore we, 

Enjoy the profits of thy Legacie ; 

And thinke it happinefle enough we have, 

So much of thee redeemed from the grave, 

As may fuffice to enlighten future times, 

With the bright luftre of thy matchleflb Rhimes. 

Appended to Shakespeare's Poems. 1640. 
Sign. L. [i2mo.] 

a creditable copy of verses, reminding one of Ben Jonson. The 

" Let learned Johnson sing a Dirge for thee," 

proved that they were written in Jonson's lifetime : and he died 1637 
The best lines m it, "Nature herself," &c, closely resemble a couplet in 
oen s elegy : 

" Nature herself was proud of his designs, 
And'joy'd to weare the dressing of his lines." C. M. I. 




See Love the blufhes of the morne appeare . . . 
Sweet, I muft ftay no longer here. 


Thofe ftreakes of doubtfull light ufher not day, 
But fhewe my funne muft fet ; . . . 
The yellow planet and the gray 
Dawne mall attend thee on thy way .... 

............. Shepherd, arife, 

The fun betrayes us elfe to fpies ...... 


Harke ! Ny. Aye me ! ftay. Shep. For ever ? Ny. No, arife, 
Wee muft be gone. 

Poems./ By / Thomas Carew / Esquire./ . . . 
London . . . 1640. A Pastorall Dialogue. 
p. 77 (ed. W. C. Hazlitt, Roxb. Libr. 1870, 
p. 58). 

"This Pastoral Dialogue seems to be entirely an Imitation of the Scene 
between Romeo and Juliet, Act iii. Sc. 7. The time, the persons, the sen- 
timents, the expressions, are the same." T. Davies. Carevfs Poems, Songs, 
and Sonnets, 1772, p. 67-8, n. (with 3 of the following lines) : 

Rom look, love, what envious streaks 

Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east 

I must be gone and live, or stay and die. 1 1 

Jul. Yon light is not day-light, I know it, I : 
It is some meteor that the sun exhales, 
To be to thee this night a torch-bearer, 
And light thee on thy way to Mantua . . . 
Rom. ... I am content . . . let's talk ; it is not day. 
Jul. It is, it is : hie hence, be gone, away ! . . . . 
O, now be gone ; more light and light it grows. 

Noted in Appendix B. F. J. F. 



[Five Songs from the Tempest are in a little (? I2mo) paper MS., Egerton 
2421 (dated 1638), in the British Museum, bought of " J. Harvey, 8 Dec. 
1877." The 46 leaves of the volume contain epigrams and poems from Dr. 
Donne and other writers, some printed, others seemingly unprinted. On 
the first page are the following lines 

"To the reader of this booke. 
Kind curteous reader looke not to behold 
Here Indian iewells set in [r]inges of gold, 
Or swanlike Musicke in assorted straines, 
or the rare issue of inspiring braines ; l 
No Orphan 2 aeries or Amphions laies 
Neither Orion nor yet Lucius swaies 
These rurall sonnets made for mirth & sport 
Fitting the Vulgar, not the wiser sort ; 
But yet Kind Reader, if yu please to looke [y u = thou] 
Within the couert of this idle booke, 
Then turne not critique, least thy iudgment be 
By nicer wits brought into obloquie. 
This booke is like a garden in w ch growes 
Herbes good and bad : he that the goodnesse knows 
May freely gather, and the bad he may 
Vse at his leasure, or else cast away. 
Be not too cruell, then, in thine election, 
But please thou thine, thou pleasest mine affection. : '] 

[leaf 6, Songes [out of] Shakefpeare. 

lack] &c. 


Tempeft Ariel. 

[beg.] Full fadome 5 thy father lies 

1 The writer's opinion of Shakspere was evidently not a high one. 

2 Orphean, of Orpheus. 


i6 3 8. 

[ends] Seanimphes hourely ring his knell 

Burthen ding dong &c. 

Hearke now I heare them ding, dong, bell 


[leg.'] The matter y e Swabber y e Botefwaine & I 
[ends] Then to fea boyes & let her go hange 
Then to fea c. 



[beg] No more dams He make for fiili 
[ends] Ban Ban Cacalyban 

Has a new m after get a new man. 

[leaf 7, headed " Songes "] 4 


[beg.] Honor, riches, marriage, blefiing, 

[ends] Ceres bleffings fo bie on you. 




[beg.] Where y e bee fucks there fuck I 

[ends] Vnder y e bloflbme y* hanges on y e bowe. 


[No more given. The reference to Shakspere's songs in this MS, is in 
the Additional MSS' Catalogue, Brit. Mus. F. J. Furnivall.] 



Forteviot. Right over to Forteviot did we hy, 

And there the ruin'd caftle did we fpy 

K. Malcoime Of Malcolme Ken-more, whom Mackduff, then Thane, 
Of Fife, (fo cald) from England brought againe, 
And fiercelie did perfue tyrant Makleth, 
Ufurper of the Crowne, even to the death. 
Thefe catties ruines when we did confider, 
We faw that wafting time makes all things wither. 

The Muses Threnodie, / or, / Mirthfitll Mournings, on the 
death / of Master Gall / Containing varietie of pleasant 
Poeticall descriptions, historicall narra-//<?j and divine 
observations, ^vith the / most remarkable antiquities of 
Scot / land, especially at Perth. / By Mr. H. Adamson \ 
Horat. in Arte. / Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile 
dulci. / Printed at Edinburgh in King James College, / 
by George Anderson, 1638. The eight Muse, p. 82. 

Neere this we did perceave where proud Makleth, 
Makbeths Who to the furies did his foul bequeath, 

castle on 

Dusinnen His caftle mounted on Dunjinnen hill, 

Caufing the mightieft peeres obey his will, 
And bow their necks to build his Babylon .... 
Who had this ftrange refponfe, that none Ihould 

catch him 

That borne was of a woman, or mould match him : 
Nor any horfe mould overtake him there, [p. 85] 
But yet his fprite deceav'd him by a mare, 
And by a man was not of woman borne 

Makduf. For brave Makdujfwas from his mother ihorne .... 
Up to Dunjinnen s top then did we clim, 
With panting heart, weak loynes and wearied limme. 
Ibid. p. 84. 

Quoted, (2) before (i), and with no dots ... at the omissions, in 
J. O. Hll.-P.'s Cursory Memoranda on Makbeth, pp. 7-8. F. J. F. 



There are fome men doe hold, there is a place 
Cal'd Limlus Patrum, if fuch have the grace 
To wave that Schifme, and Poetarum faid [\\cQpatntm] 
They of that faith had me a member made, 
That Limlus I could have beleev'd thy braine 
Where Beamont, Fletcher, Shakefpeare, & a traine 
Of glorious Poets in their active heate 
Move in that Orbe, as in their former feate. 
When thou began'ft to give thy Matter life, 
Me thought I faw them all, with friendly ttrife 
Each catting in his dofe, Beamont his weight, 
Shakejpeare his mirth, and Fletcher his conceit, 
With many more ingredients, with thy fkill 
So fweetely tempered, that the envious quill 
And tongue of Criticks mutt both write and fay, 
They never yet beheld a fmoother Play. 

Lines prefixed to The Roy all Master ', a play by 
James Shirley. 1638. Sign. B 2. [4/0.] 

C. M. I. 



So that as a foolifh fellow who gave a Knight the Lye, defiring 
withall leave of him to fet his Knighthood alide, was anfwered 
by him, that he would not fuffer any thing to be fet alide that 
belonged unto him : So might we juftly take it amifle, that 
conceiving as you doe ignorance and repentance fuch neceflary 
things for us, you are not more willing to confider us with them, 
then without them. 

The Religion ' of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation, &c. 
Chap. i. Part I. 5. p. 33. 1638. [Fo.] 

Chillingworth refers to 2 Henry IV, i, 2, where the Chief Justice's 
attendant says, 

" I pray you Sir, then set your knighthood and your soldiership aside ; 
and give me leave to tell you, you lie in your throat," &c., to which 
Falstaff replies, " I give thee leave to tell me so ! I lay aside that which 
grows to me ! " &c. C. M. I. 



Corn. Venerem etiam & Adonidem, petulantem fatis Librum 
In finu portat, eoque multb peritior evafit 
Quam probae neceffe eft : fed ifta parum movent, 
Eduxi, nee vana lactavi fpe, ut fpero. 
Eludere difcat, aut pereat. 

Corndianum Dolium, 1638. [i2mo.] Act I, sc. v, p. 22. 

[Douce has ingeniously conjectured that T. R. is Thomas Randolph, and 
the initials and the words on the title-page " Auctore, T. R. ingeniosissimo 
hujus sevi HELICONIO." support his conjecture. But there are some 
things against it. Cornelius is here speaking of one of his illegitimate 
daughters, of whose tendencies and tastes he does not give a very favourable 
account. B. N.] 
[Cornelius here says, 

" She carries in her bosom too a rather wanton book (called) Venus and 
Adonis, and through it has become much more knowing than is meet for 
an honest girl ! But these things move me little ; I have brought her up, 
and not deluded her, I hope, with vain expectations. Let her learn to 
behave better, or perish." 

This is a particular instance of what John Johnson, Academy of Love, 1641 
(see after, p. 471), says was the general practice. C. M. I.] 

[Mr. Roberts points out another reference to the habit in The English 
Gentleman, by Richard Brathwait, 1630 (410, p. 28) : 

" But alas ; to what height of licentious libertie are these corrupte time.' 
growne ? When that Sex, where Modesty should claime a native preroga- 
tive, gives way to foments of exposed loosenesse ; by not only attending 
to the wanton discourse of immodest Lovers, but carrying about them (even 
in their naked Bosomes, where chastest desires should only lodge) the 
amorous toyes of Venus and Adonis: which Poem, with others of like 
nature, they heare with such attention, peruse with such devotion, and 
retaine with such delectation, as no subject can equally relish their unsea- 
soned palate, like those lighter discourses." L. T. S.] 


Thefe lads can a6l the Emperors lives all over, 
And Shakefpeares Chronicled hiftories, to boot, 
And were that Ccefar, or that Englifh Earle 
That lov'd a Play and Player fo well now living, 
I would not be out-vyed in my delights. 

Antipodes. 1640. Sign. C 2. [4/6'.] 
(" Acted in the yeare 1638.") 

C. M. I. 



Thought is free. ( p . 63 .) 

A trout hamlet with four e legs. 

An honejl man and a good 



Fat paunches make leane pates 
andgrqffer bits enrich the ribs, 
but bankerupt quite the wits. 

Soterichi lecti. (p. 71.) 

Non licet afle mihi qui me non 

afle licetnr. (p. 72.) 
Pinguis venter non gignit fen- 

fura tenuem. (p. 135.) 

Parcemiologia f Anglo-latinaJ in usum Scholarum concin nata, I or I 
Proverbs / English, and Latins, methodically disposed according to the 
Common-place / heads, in ERASMUS his / Adages./ Very use-full and 
delightfull for all sorts / of men, on all occasions./ More especially 
profitable for Scholars I for the attaining Elegancie, sublimitie, and / 
varietie of the best expressions.! . . . London,! Imprinted by Felix 
Kyngston for Robert / Mylbourne, and are to be sold at the signe 
of / the Vnicorne neere Fleet bridge. 1639. 

* The Epistle to the Reader ' is signd ' John Clarke? He was Master of 
the Grammar- School at Hull, and wrote several school-books. The present 
one is not in the British Museum. Mr. Reynell of Forde House, Putney, the 
owner of the old staind glass from Charlecote House, has kindly lent me 
his copy. Clarke says : " I have gleaned and gathered these Proverbs out of 
all writers, I could read or meet withall, and have used herein the help of 
sundry scholars, and worthy friends : over and beside my owne observation 
of many golden proverbs, dropping now and then out of vulgar mouthes 
inid deplebe" His book, he says, " hath lien by me now these eight yeares, 
and been so long vn. fieri : now 'tis thine (if thou please va. facto ;.for to the 
Presse I manu-mise it, nonum ut prematur in annum}." 

That Shakspere was one of the writers from whom Clarke or his helpers 
had gleand and gatherd, seems clear. " Thought is free" may well be 
Stephano's, in The Tempest, III. ii. I32, 1 while the 'honest man and good 
bowler ' may be Costard's " an honest man . . . and a very good bowler " in 
Love 's Labours Lost, V. ii. 585-8, which play, in its lines 26-7 of Act I. sc. i. 
also gave Clarke its couplet. 

"Fat paunches have lean pates, and dainty bits 
Make rich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits." 

1 ' A moone-calfe, or wind-egge.l Menia columna.' Clarke, p. 70. 

JOHN CLARKE, 1639. 433 

Mr. J. P. Collier was the first to print the 2nd and 4th of the quotations 
above, in his Farther Particulars regarding Shakespeare and his Works, 
London, T. Rodd, 1839, p. 68, and on the hamlet one he remarks 'But 
there is one saying, where Hamlet is named, which I cannot understand ; 
it is this : 

"A trout, Hamlet, with four legs." p. 71. 

Can it have any reference to the scene between Hamlet and Polonius 
(Act III. Sc. ii. [1. 394-9]), where the latter humours the prince by saying 
that a cloud is like a camel, a weasel, or a whale ? Has it been some 
absurd interpolation of the players, substituting "trout" for "whale?" is 
it from the older Hamlet, or has it nothing whatever to do with either play?' 1 

Before trying to give an answer to these questions, one has first to ask, 
What does ' Soterichi ledi ' mean ? 

Our member, the Rev. W. A. Harrison, of St. Ann's Vicarage, answers, 
by Forcellini's help z : 

" The phrase ' Soterici lecti* is found in Aulus Gellius (xii. 2, 5? Del ph. 
Ed.). He is quoting as ' a joke ' of Seneca's an opinion that he expresses 
on some verses of the poet Ennius. ' Qui hujuscemodi, inquit [Seneca] 
versus amant, liqueat tibi eosdem admirari et " Soterici lectos" Dignus sane 
Seneca videatur lectione se studio adolescentium : qui honorem coloremque 
veteris orationis Soterici lectis compararit, quasi minimae scilicet gratise, et 
relictis jam contemptisque.' 

" He who can admire the verses of Ennius, is capable even of admiring the 
couches of Sotericus." 

The Scholiast says that Sotericus was a coarse, clumsy workman, who 
made and carved couches in such a rude, unfinished style, that the phrase 
"like Sotericus's couches" came to be applied to anything clumsy and 
rough, or to bad art generally. "Hsec locutio (i.e. Soterici lecti) in vul- 
garem jocum abiit de re vili." 

As then the Latin was applied to res vilis, and Clarke puts his proverb into 
his section " Contemptus 6 vilitatis" (p. 68), 3 so was the English trout 
employd, says Mr. Hessels. Maria uses the word for Malvolio ( Twelfth 

1 Mr. H.-P. quotes this passage from Collier, in his Mem. on Hamlet, p. 
21, and agrees with Dr. Ingleby that 'it is in all probability taken from the 
older play of Hamlet.' 

2 " Sotericus, gen. ci. m., artifex lignarius valde rudis, unde Soterici 
lectus ponitur pro impolito, et nulla arte facto." And he quotes Seneca 
[as above]. Erasmus conjectures that Sotericus was some workman whose 
productions were very primitive and rude. Afterwards, of course, it became 
a proverb. J. H. HESSELS. 

3 The 2 sentences before, are, " Goe shake your eares. fie not foule my 
fingers with him;" the 2 after, " Vie not medle with him hot or cold. A 
rogues -ward-robe is harbour for a louse'* 


434 JOHN CLARKE, 1639. 

Night, II. v. 25-6) coming to be foold, " here comes the trout that must be 
caught with tickling ; " and Latham's Johnson follows up this quotation by 
two others : " This \thetrouf\ is in some kinde a foolish fish, and an embleme 
of one who loves to be flattered : for when he is once in his hold, you may 
take him with your hands by tickling, rubbing, or clawing him under the 
bellie. Swan, Speculum Mundi, 1635, ch. viii. I, p. 389. Leave off 
your tickling of young heirs like trouts. Beaumont and Fletcher." * 

Granting then that there is a sneer in the words, and that they are spoken 
to Hamlet of some third person, I would make them, if they were used 
in Shakspere's play, 2 a bit of gag in the mouth of the man who playd 
Horatio shortly before 1639, and I would apply them to Hamlet's " water- 
fly . . beast . . and chough . . spacious in the possession of dirt " (V. 
ii. 84-90), even Osric, and either put them in after the words last cited, or 
add them to one of Horatio's like remarks on the 'beast : ' " His purse is 
empty already ; all's golden words are spent " (1. 136-7) ; " This lapwing 
runs away with the shell on his head.'' Or they might follow Osric's " The 
carriages, sir, are the hangers," 1. 164. (Possibly they might have been used 
of the Grave-digger, in answer to Hamlet's " Has this fellow no feeling of 
his business, that he sings at grave -making ? ") 

Of Clarke's other saws, " All shall be well, and Jack shall have Jill," p. 
63, is hardly Puck's "Jack shall have Jill :/ Nought shall go ill." Mids. N~. 
Dr. III. ii. 461-2 ; and under " Magnified Promissa," p. 193, " Court holy 
water I Incantatione quavis efncacius " is probably not from Lear, III. ii. 10 ; 
as " He must have a long spoon that willeate with the Devill," p. 127, dates 
from before Dromio of Syracuse, Errors*, IV. iii. 64 ; and " It's merry i' th' 
hall when beards wag all," from before 2 Hen. IV., &c., &c. 3 

Mr. Collier says of Clarke's book : ' Farther on (p. 192) we have " Fat 
paunches and leane pates." 4 In the same volume we have " Much ado about 

1 Compare too, in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and have a Wife (licenst Oct. 19, 
1624, pr. 1640), Act II. sc. iv. (B. & F.'s Works, ed. Dyce, 1845, vo1 - ix 
p. 419), Estefania's 

What, dost thou think I fish without a bait, wench ? 
/ bob for fools : he is mine own ; I have him : 
I told thee what would tickle him like a trout ; 
And as I cast it, so I^caught him daintily ; 
And all he has, I have stow'd at my devotion. 

2 I don't take to the notion of their being part of the old play, because 
of the late date at which they were used. Surely all trace of the old Hamlet 
had disappeared from the currency by 1639. 

3 "Much water goes by th' milne, that the milner knowes not off," is before 
Tit. Andron. II. i. 85. 

4 " Pinguis venter, macer intellectus." 

JOHN CLARKE, 1639. 435 

nothing," l " All's well that ends well 2 ," and " To take your ease in your 
inn," 3 which were proverbial long before the time of Shakespere.' 

On p. 34 of the Parcemiologia is an illustration of Buckingham's ' Trem- 
ble and start at wagging of a straw? Rich. Ill, III. v. 7 : 

Angry at the wagging of a straw I Ne move festucam, 

I A lasso rixu quaeritur. 

1 p. 51, " You make much adoe about nothing.] Quid de pusillis magna 
procemia ? " 

2 p. 117, " Finis non pugna coronat." 

3 The earliest use I know is ab. 1536, and is given in my Thynne's 
Animadversions, p. 77. F. J. F. 

43 6 

G. RIVERS, 1639. 

"They, as frolick as youth, and wine that made them fo j unlock 
the treafures of their hearts, their Wives, and their beauties to 
the admiration of unfound eares." 

Heroina, pp. 45-46. [Shakspere's Lucrece, 1. 16.] 

" Tarquin divided between aftonifhment & rage, that Collatine 
his fervant, mould be his Soveraigne in happinefle : mounted 
upon the wings of luft and fury, flies to Rome" 

p. 46. [Sh., 1. 2, and 11. 41-42.] 

" shee affrighted at the fword and blafted by the light that luft 
gave life to, trembling like a prey with more horrour then a'ien- 

tion, hears him thus befpeak her." 

p. 47. [cf. Sh., 11. 442460.] 

This night I muft enjoy thee Lucrecia, 

P . 48. [Sh., 1. 512.] 

The lin unknown is unacted, 

p. 49. [Sh., 1. 527.] 

In Tarquines (hape I entertain'd you ; wrong not the Prince 
fo farre, as to proftrate his fame to fo inglorious an a6tion. 

p. 50. [Sh., 1. 596.] 

Firft they faw her face ftand in that amazed filence, that they 
could read, not heare the full contents of forrow. 

p. 52-3. [Sh., 11.590-596.] 

her foule too pure for her bodie, difclogg'd it felfe of clay, and 

broke the vault of mortalitie. 

p. 56. [?] 

G. RIVERS, 1639. 437 

now when the brother of death had fummon'd to ftill mufick 
all but foule ravifhers, theeves, and cares j 

p. 61. [Sh., 1. 126.] 

The / Heroinse : / Or / The lives / of / Arria, / Paulina, / 
Lucrecia, / Dido, / Theutilla, / Cypriana, / Areta- 
phila./ London^ / Printed by R. Bishop for John 
Colby, I and are to be sold at his Shop under the / 
Kings head Tavern, at Chancery-/ lane end in Fleet- 
street. 1 6397 

There may be other bits from Shakspere in the Heroina. This interest- 
ing little book is dedicated to the Lady Dorothy Sydney, Waller's ' Sachar- 
issa,' and is written by G. Rivers, almost certainly one of the brothers 
Rivers of whom one is addressed by Milton in his line, long a crux in the 
Vacation Exercise, 

"Rivers arise!" 




One afked another what Shakefpeares works were worth, all 
being bound together. He anfwered, not a farthing. Not 
worth a farthing ! faid he 5 why fo ? He anfwered that his plays 
were worth a great deale of mony, but he never heard, that his 
works were worth any thing at all. 

Conceits, Clinches, Flashes, and Whimzies. Newly studied, ivith 
some Collections, but those never published before in this kinde. 
1639. [Reprinted by J. O. Halliwell, 1860, /. 30; also m 
Hazlitfs Shakespeare Jest-Books ; Third vohime, last article 
1864. /. 49.] 

[Since Mr. Hazlitt reprinted the " Conceits, "he has found that there was 
a second edition printed under the title of "Jocabella, or a Cabinet ot 
Conceits, whereunto are added Epigrams and other Poems " in 1640, and 
has accordingly placed the two books together under the name of Robert 
Chamberlaine in his "Hand-book," 1867. 

The "conceit" recalls that which Sir John Suckling puts into the mouth 
of "good old Ben" Jonson (see note, after, p. 457). L. T. S.J 



To Shakefpeare. 

Thy Mules fugred dainties feeme to us 
Like the fam'd Apples of old Tantalus : 
For we (admiring) fee and heare thy {frames, 
But none I fee or heare, thofe fweets attaines. 

To the fame. 

Thou haft lo ufd thy Pen, (o? Jhocke thy Spear e) 
That Poets ftartle, nor thy wit come neare. 

Two Bookes of Epigrammes y and Epitaphs* 
1639. [4/0.] Nos. llSand 119. 

C. M. I. 


Anonymous ', 1639. 

To Mr. William Shake-fpear. 

Shake-fpeare, we muft be filent in thy praife, 
'Caufe our encom ion's will but blaft thy Bayes, 
Which envy could not, that thou didft fo well j 
Let thine own hiflories prove thy Chronicle. 

Witts Recreations Selected from the finest Fancies 
of Moderne Muses. With A Thousand out- 
Landish Proverbs. Epigram 25. 1640. 
(Imprimatur, 1639.) . M. I. 



121. B. J. anfwer to a thief e lidding himjland. 
Fly villaine hence or be thy coate of fteele, 
He make thy heart, my brazen bullet feele, 
And fend that thrice as thievifh foul of thine, 
To hell, to weare the Devils Valentine. 

122. The Theefes replie. 

Art thou great Ben ? or the revived ghoft 

Of famous Shake-fpear ? or fom drunken hoft ? 

Who being tipfie with thy muddy beer, 

Doft think thy rimes mall daunt my foul with fear [?] 

Nay know bafe Have, that I am one of thofe, 

Can take a purfe afwell [so] in verfe as profe, 

And when th'art dead, write this upon thy herfe j 

Here lies a Poet that was robb'd in verfe. 

Witts I Recreations / Selected from / the finest Fancies I of 
Moderne Muses / . . . London. Printed for Humph: 
Blunden at y* Castle in Corn-hill. 1640. 

\Sigs. D2b,D 3.] 

[This is a good version of a fairly common piece. It occurs also in the 
MS. Commonplace Book in the Diocesan Registry of Worcester. See 
John Pryce, 1676. The allusion was noted by Brinsley Nicholson in Notes 
and Queries, 7th Series, XII, Nov. 28, 1891, p. 426. M.] 


SAM. PICKE, 1639. 

Of womens Metamorphofis, according to the time and place. 

SOme women are in Churches Saints or more, 
Angels abroad, at home too like the Devill, 
At windowes Syrens, Parrots at the dore ; 
And in their gardens Goates, or more uncivill : 
And Tradefmen that nere match till they have much, 
In deadly danger are to meet with luch. 

Festum Voluptatis, / Or the / Banquet I of I Pleasure / . . 
By S[am.] P[icke} Gent. / London: . . . p. 40. 

[This I take to be an imitation of lago's speech, Othello, II. i. 109-12 : 

Come on, come on ; you are pictures out of doors, 
Bells in your parlours, wild-cats in your kitchens, 
Saints in your injuries, devils being offended, 
Players in your housewifery, and housewives in your beds. 



MRS. ANN MERRICKE, January 21, 1639. 

Faire Mrs. Lydall, 

. . . for truelie I endeavor as much, to looke well by 
night, as by daye, in the houfe or a-broad and (for I dare tell 
you any thing) I conftantly drefse my felfe by my glafse, when I 
goe to bed, leafl fhu'd a gentleman prefle in my Chamber in the 
morneing (and gentlemen you knowe fometymes will bee un- 
civill) I fhu'd appeare to him, though not ill favoured, yet lefle 
pleafeing. I cu'd wifh my felfe with you, to eafe you of this 
trouble, and with-all to fee the Alchymift, which I heare this 
tearme is revis'd, and the newe playe a freind of mine fent to 
Mr. John Sucklyn, and Tom : Carew (the beft witts of the 
time) to correct, but for want of thefe gentile recreationes, I muft 
content my felfe here, with the ftudie of Shackfpeare, and the 
hiflorie of woemen, All my countrie librarie . . . 

[From the MS. in the Record Office. Mrs. Slopes and Mr. E. F. Bates 
kindly gave me the reference to the above letter, printed in the Calendar of 
State Papers, Domestic Series, 1638-9. An extract of the letter is printed 
in Mrs. Alec Tweedie's Hyde Park, its History and Romance^ 1908. M.] 



A6tus Quintus, Scena prima. 
* * * 

Buf[ie~]. Well faid neighbours, 
Y'are chatting wifely o're your Bils and Lanthorns, 
As becomes Watch-men of difcretion : pray you 
Let's have no wit amongft you : no difcourfe 
O' the Common- wealth ; 1 need not neighbours give you 
Your charge to night : onely for fafhion fake. 
Draw neare and be attentive. 

3 Men. I have edified 

More by your charge I promife you, than by 
Many a mornings exercife. 

Buf. Firft then, 

You fhall be fure to keep the peace j that is, 
If any quarrell, be ith' ftreets, fit ftill, and keepe 
Your rufty Bills from blood-fhed j and as't began 
So let it end : onely your zeales may wifh 
The Devill part them. 

i Wat[cK\. Forward Mr. Conftable, 

Buf. Next, if a thiefe chance to pafie through your watch, 
Let him depart in peace j for fliould you ftay him, 
To purchafe his redemption he'le impart 
Some of his ftolne goods, and you're apt to take them, 
Which makes you acceflary to his theft, 
[sig. H] And fo fit food for Tiburne. 

Men. Good advife, 
I promife you, if we have grace to follow it. 

Buf. Next if a drunkard or a man difguifd, 

tlENRY GLAPTHORNE, 1639 40. 445 

Defire to pafle the gate, by all means open't, 
You'l run your felves into th' premunire, 
For your authority ftetches but to men, 
And they are beads by ftatute. 

i Wat. Such as we are, 
Horn'd beafts he means. 

Buf. How's that j you carry lanthornes, 
Thou haft wit, and He reward't, there's foure tokens 
To buy the cheefe : next for the female creatures, 
Which the feverer officers ith' fuburbs 
Terme girles, or wenches, let them pafle without 
Examining where they been : or taking from them 
A fingle taken : lafle good foules, they get 
Their mony hard, with labours of their bodies, 
And to exact on thofe were even extortion 
Beyond a brokers. 

Men. Yet they doe't 

Without the City, I have heard a brewer, 
Being one yeare in office, got as much from thefe 
Good foules as bought him a new mam-fat, 
And mended all his coolers. 

Buf. How's that ? we are bidden 
Not to take ill examples, for your felves you have 
Free leave for th' good oth' common wealth to 
Sbepe after eleven : meane time you may play at 
Tray trip, or cockall for blacke puddings, 
So now your charge is fmifh'd. 

Wit in a Constable by Henry Glapthorne, 1640, sigs. G 4 b, H. 

[Reprinted in Pearson's edition of Glapthorne, 1874, vol. i, 226-7. The 
scene is in imitation of Dogberry's Watch scene in Much Ado. M.] 


ANON. 1640 (?i628). 

The Gluttons Speech. 

A Chaire, a Chaire, fweet Mafter Jew, a Chaire : All that 
I fay, is this, I'me a fat man it has been a Weft-Indian voyage 
for me to come reeking hither ; A Kitchin-ftufFe-wench might 
pick up a living, by following me, for the fat which I loofe 
in ftradling : I doe not live by the fweat of my brows, but am 
almoft dead with fweating, I eate much, but can talke little ; 
Sir lohn Old-castle was my greatgrandfathers fathers Uncle, I 
come of a huge kindred, And of you defire to learne, whether 
my Fortune be to die a yeere, or two, hence, or to grow bigger, 
if I continue as I doe in feeding, (for, my victuals I cannot leave :) 
Say, fay, merciful! Jew, what mall become of me. 

The Wandering-Jew, / Telling / Fortones / to I English- 
men, \\Woodcut\ London ; / Printed by lohn Raworth, 
for Nathaniel Butter. 1640. 4/0. (4, A. 14. Art.), 
p. 38. Reprinted in Halliwell's Books of Characters, 
1857, p. 42. 

Sir John Old-castle was Shakspere's first name for Falstaff (below, 
p. 510, &c.), and this passage evidently alludes to him by it. The passage 
(now re-read with the original by Mr. Parker) is quoted by Reed ( Variorum 
Shakspere, xvi. 418) and in Mr. Halliwell's Character of Sir John Falstaff, 
1841, p. 26-7, without reference to Reed. F. J. F. 

The Preface is signed ' ' Thy wandring friend Gad Ben-arod, Ben Baalam 
Ben-Ahimuth, Ben-Baal, Ben-Gog, Ben-Magog." 

The British Museum copy has a MS. note by E. Malone. "This tract 

ANON. 1640 (? 1628). 447 

must have been written before 1630, for in p. 52 Spinola and Tilly are 
spoken of as living. Spinola died in 1630, and Tilly in 1632. l 

"In p. 39 ' this plentiful year' is mentioned. 3 I believe therefore it was 
written in 1628, the most plentiful year between 1620 and 1640. Wheat 
was in that year sold in Windsor Market for 285. a qr., and elsewhere in 
England probably for 22s." 

Passages referred to by Malone above. 

1 p. 52. [The Banckrupts speech] " to be call'd a weathy Citizen, is my 
minde, as great an honour as to bee call'd Bethlem-Gabor, or Spinola, or 
Tilley, they fight for glory, (and we Citizens striue for Riches) 

Bethlen Gabor, i. e. Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, died 15 

Nov. 1629, 

John Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly, died 30 Apr. 1632, 
Marquis Ambrosio de Spinola died 25 Sep. 1630." 

2 P- 39- [The Glutton's Fortune] " Pray for a Famine, for if that Surgeon 
cannot worke upon your body, and eate away the proud flesh, such a plen- 
tifull yeere as this, must put you to the charge of a longer- girdle." 




Pup[illus]. Tis wonderfull provocative, believe me: fure 
it came out of Quids Ars Amandi: oh for the book of Venus 
and Adonis, to court my Mistris by : I cou'd dye, I cou'd dye in 
the Eli-zi-um of her Armes : no fweets to thole of Love : 

The I Noble / Stranger. I As it was acted at the Private 
Hotifse in / Salisbury Court, by her Maiefties / Servants. / 
The Attthor, L\ewis\ S[/iarpe]./ Imprinted at London by 
I. O. for James Becket . . . i 640, sig. G 3. 

M he following song in the same play (sig. H 3 b. ) is said to be a 
metrical imitation of "Take, O ! take those lips away," 

, oh charme, thou god ofjleep, 
Her fair e eyes, that waking mourne ; 
Frighlfull vi/ionsfrom her keep, 
Such as are ly forrowes borne : 
But let all thefweets that may 
Wait on rejl, her thoughts obey. 
Flye : ohJLye, thou god of love , 
To that breajl thy dart did wound, 
Draw thyjhaft, the f mart remove, 
Let her wonted joy es be found: 
Raife up pleafure to a flood, 
Never ebbing ; new joyes bud. 

At sig. G 3 b. is the following interesting dialogue on the theatre : 
Mer[cutio, A Poet,']. How doe you find yourfelfe affe&ed 

LEWIS SHARPE, 1640. 449 

Pup\illus\. Oh that I were in a Play-houfe I wou'd tell 
the whole Audience of their pittifull, Hereticall, Criticall 
humours Let a man, ftriving to enrich his labours,, make 
himfelfe as poore as a broken Citizen, that dares not fo much as 
mew the tips on's Homes -, yet will thefe people crye it downe, 
they know not why: One loves high language, though he 
underflands it notj another whats obfcaene, to move the blood, 
not fpleene : a third, whofe wit lyes all in his gall, muft have a 
Satyre : a fourth man all ridiculous : and the fift man not 
knowing what to have, grounds his opinion on the next man ith' 
formall Ruffe ; and fo many heads fo many feverall humours -, 
and yet the poor Poet muft find waies to pleafe 'hem all. 

Mer. It workes ftrangely. 

Pup. But when they fhal come to feed on the OrFalls of wit, 
have nothing for their money but a Drumme, a Fooles Coat, and 
Gunpowder; fee Comedies, more ridiculous than a Morrice 
dance j and for their Tragedies, a bout at Cudgells were a brave 
Battalia to 'hem : Oh Phoebus, Phoebus, what will this world 
come to ? 

The first reference above to Venus and Adonis was printed in the second 
edition of the Centurie of Prayse, p. 230. Miss Toulmin Smith there 
remarked: " Pupillus makes this exclamation after having swallowed one 
of Mercutio's paper pills, containing a 'wanton lovers rapture.' In this 
amusing scene Mercutio undertakes to furnish Pupillus * with as much wit 
as shall serve for a Country Justice, or an Alderman's heire,' by means of 
* certaine Collections out of learned and witty Authors, for all humours in an 
accomplished wit. Now sir, you must eate every one of hem one by one.' 
Surely Lewis Sharpe fore-saw the ' cramming ' of modern days ! " M. 




Were thy Jlory of as much direfull woe, 
As that, of luliet and Hieronymo : 
Here's that would cure you . . . . 

('To the Authour upon his Love-Melancholy.') Commendatory Verses, 
sign, a 3, back, in 

EPQTOMANIA / or / A Treatise / Discoursing of the 
Essence, / Causes, Symptomes, Prog- / nosticks, and Cure 
of / Loue, / or / Erotiqve \ Melancholy. / Written by [ 
lames Ferrand * / Dr of Physick / [Englisht by E. Chil- 
mead] Oxford. \ Printed by L. Lichfield and are to be / 
sold by Edward Forrest. 164.0.! 

[Two of the other Christ Church commendators mention 'Lucrece' (b. kk ; 
b. 5 bk), but evidently without reference to Shakspere. (Richard West of 
Christ Church, on sig. b 7, treats Ben Jonson as the great poet of the day : 

"As twere the only office of a Friend 
To Rhyme, and 'gainst his Conscience to commend ; 
And swear e like Foets of the Post, This Play 
Exceeds all Johnson's Works : " 

Noted by Mr. Hll.-P.) 

The extract above is printed in Hunter's Illustrations, i.] F. J. F. 

Jacques Ferrand. 

GEO. LYNN, 1640. 

To his Friend the Author, on his Fancies Theatre. 


For, when th' inticing pleafure of thy Line, 
And teeming Fancies unexhaufted Tk/yne 
I view, me thinks the Genius of thofe Three 
Admired Laureats are enfphear'd in Thee, 
Smooth Shakefpeare, neat Randolph, and wittie Ben. 
Flow in a mutuall fweetnefTe from Thy Pen : 

The I Fancies / Theater. / by / lohn Tatham \ Gent.) . . . 
London,/ Printed by lohn Norton, for / Richard Best, 
and are to be / sold at his Shop neere Grayes-Innc-\ gate 
in Holborne./ i64O./ Sign. (*) 8. 

W. Ling, who writes the last fore-praise poem to this play, doesn't deign 
(like so many other poetasters) to mention Shakspere : 

" Had I Chapmans Line or Learning, lohnsons Art, 
Fletchers more accurate Fancie, or that part 
Of Beaumont that's divine, Dun's profound skill, 
Making good Verses live, and damning ill : 
I then would prayse thy Verses, which sho'd last 
Whilst Time ha's sands to run, or Fame a blast." 

F.J. F. 


The Academy of Compliments ', 1640. 

On her Ireajls. 

[i] T T Er brefts thofe Ivory Globes circled with blew, 
A A Save of their Lord no bearing yoake they knew. 

[/ I35-] 

The quality of Love. 
[2-] T Ove is a fpirit all compact of fire, 

1 rfNot groffe to linke but light, and will afpire. 

[/. 138.] 

The Conftancy of Lovers. 

[3] T Ove goes to love as fchoole boyes from their books, 
J *But love from love towards Schoole with heavy looks. 
O 141-] 

The parting of Lovers. 
ie to love, the leffon is I 
And being learnt is never loft againe. 

[4] S~\Nce learne to love, the leffon is but plaine, 


I ^Aire flowers that are not gathered in their prime, 
A Rot and confume themfelves in little time. 

[p. 148.] 

The I Academy I of I Complements / . . . . London. . . . 

The Preface to the Reader is signed Philomusus. No. I is a quotation 
from Lucrece, 407-8; No. 2 from Venus and Adonis, 149-150; No. 3 
from Romeo and Juliet ', II. ii. ; No. 4 from Venus, 407-8, where "Once 
learne " is " O, learne " ; and No. 5 from Venus, 131-2. 

There are quotations from many other poets in the book, which is 
designed to assist Ladies, Gentlewomen, Scholars, and Strangers to 
"accomodate their Courtly Practice with most Curious Ceremonies, 
Complementall, Amorous, High expressions, and formes of speaking, or 
writing." M. 


NICH. DOWNEY, 1640. 

But fad Melpomene, (who knowes her right 
And title to the matter that you write,) 
Cafts off the heavy buskins, which fhee wore, 
Quickens her leaden pace, and runnes before j 
Hyes to pale Shakespeares urne, and from his tombe 
Takes up the bayes, and hither ihe is come ; 

* * * 

BEN is deceas'd, and yet I dare avow, 
(Without that looke) BEN'S redivivus now, 

Sicily I and I Naples, / or, the I Fat all Vnion. / A Tragady. } 
By S. H\arding\ A. B. e C. Ex: . . . Oxford . . . 
1640. Dedicatory Verses sig. 2 b. 

Ben Jonson is referred to again, sigs. A, A b. M. 



To the Reader. 

I here prefume (under favour) to prefent to your view, fome 
excellent and fweetely compofed Poems, of Matter William 
Shakefpeare, Which in themfelves appeare of the fame purity, 
the Authour himfelfe then living avouched j they had not the 
fortune by reafon of their Infancie in his death, to have the due 
accommodatio of proportionable glory, with the reft of his ever- 
living Workes, yet the lines of tbemfelves will afford you a more 
authentick approbation than my aflurance any way can, to invite 
your allowance, in your perufall you mail finde them Seren, cleere 
and eligantly plaine, fuch gentle ftraines as mall recreate and not 
perplexe your braine, no intricate or cloudy ftuffe to puzzell 
intellect, but perfect eloquence j fuch as will raife your admira- 
tion to his praife : this affurance I know will not differ from 
your acknowledgement. And certaine I am, my opinion will 
be feconded by the fufficiency of thefe enfuing Lines $ I have 
beene fome what folicirus to bring this forth to the perfect view of 
all men j and in fo doing, glad to be ferviceable for the continu- 
ance of glory to the deferved Author in thefe his Poems. 

Tfu Publishers address, prefixed to Shakespeare" i 
Poems. 1640. [i2mo.} C. M. L 



Deceafed Authour, and his POEMS. 

Poets are borne not made, when I would prove 
This truth, the glad rememberance I muft love 
Of never dying Shakefpeare, who alone, 
Is argument enough to make that one. 
Firft, that he was a Poet none would doubt, 
That heard th' applaufe of what he fees fet out 
Imprinted j where thou haft (I will not fay 1 
Reader his Workes for to contrive a Play 
To him twas none) the patterne of all wit, 
Art without Art unparaleld as yet. 
Next Nature onely helpt him, for looke thorow 
This whole Booke, thou malt find he doth not borrow, 
One phrafe from Greekes, nor Latiues imitate, 
Nor once from vulgar Languages Tranilate, 
Nor Plagiari-like from others gleane, 
Nor begges he from each witty friend a Scene 
To peece his A&s with, all that he doth write, 
Is pure his owne, plot, language exquifite, 
But oh ! what praife more powerfull can we give 
The dead, then that by him the Kings men live, 
His Players, which mould they but have fhar'd the Fate, 
All elfe expir'd within the fhort Termes date j 
1 say) in the original, but it is a misprint 

456 LEONARD DIGGES, 1640. 

How could the Globe have profpered, mice through want 

Of change, the Plaies and Poems had growne fcant. 

But happy Verfe thou malt be fung and heard, 

When hungry quills {hall be fuch honour bard. l> arr>d l 

Then vanifh upftart Writers to each Stage, 

You needy Poetafters of this Age, 

Where Shakefpeare liv'd or fpake, Vermine forbeare, 

Leaft with your froth you fpot them, come not neere 5 

But if you needs mufl write, if poverty 

So pinch, that otherwife you ftarve and die 

On Gods name may the Bull or Cockpit have 

Your lame blancke Verfe, to keepe you from the grave : 

Or let new Fortunes younger brethren fee, 

What they can picke from your leane induflry. 

I doe not wonder when you offer at 

Blacke-Friers, that you fuffer : tis the fate 

Of richer veines, prime judgements that have far'd 

The worfe, with this deceafed man compar'd. 

So have I feene, when Cefar would appeare, 

And on the Stage at halfe-fword parley were, 

Brutus and Coffins : oh how the Audience 

Were ravifh'd, with what wonder they went thence, 

When fome new day they would not brooke a line, 

Of tedious (though well laboured) Catiline l ; 

Sejanus too was irkefome, they priz'de more 

Honeft lago, or the jealous Moore. 

And though the Fox and fubtill Alchimift, 

Long intermitted could not quite be mift, 

Though thefe have fham'd all the Ancients, and might 


Their Authours merit with a crowne of Bayes. 
Yet thefe fometimes, even at a friends defire 
Acted, have fcarce defrai'd the Seacoale fire 
1 Catalines in the original. 

LEONARD DIGGES, 1640. 457 

And doore-keepers : when let but Faljlaffe come, 

Hall, Pomes, the reft you fcarce mall have a roome 

All is fo pefter'd : let but Beatrice 

And Benedicke be feene, loe in a trice 

The Cockpit Galleries, Boxes, all are full 

To hear Malvoglio, that crofle garter 'd Gull. 

Briefe, there is nothing in his wit fraught Booke, 

Whofe found we would not heare, on whofe worth looke 

Like old coynd gold, whofe lines in every page, 

Shall paffe true currant to fucceeding age. 

But why doe I dead Sheakfpeares praife recite, 

Some fecond Shakefpeare muft of Shakefpeare write j 

For me tis needleife, fince an hoft of men, 

Will pay to clap his praife, to free my Pen. 

Prefixed to Shakespeare's Poem s. 1640. [i2mo.] 

In his verses of 1623 (before, p. 318) Leonard Digges speaks twice of Shake- 
speare's Works. In the above lines he refuses that term to the plays, because 
it was to Shakespeare no work "to contrive a play." H. Fitzgeoffrey thus 
writes in his Certaine Elegies, 1618 (Book i, Sat. i. sign. A 8) : 

" Bookes, made of Ballades : Workes, of Playes," 

and Sir John Suckling, in his Sessions of the Poets {Fragmenta Aurea, 1646, 
p. 7), writes, 

" The first that broke silence was good old Ben, 

Prepar'd before with Canary wine, 
, And he told them plainly he deserv'd the Bays, 

For his were call'd Works, where others were but Plaies." 

The fact is that Jonson had in 1616 issued his Plays under the title of 
Workes. Perhaps the joke at page 438, in the extract from Conceits^ 
Clinches, &c., had no reference to' this ; the works there referred to seem to 
be Shakespeare's good works; still there is the same opposition to plays and 
books. In 1633 Wm. Sheares published John Marston's plays ; and 
prefixed an "Epistle Dedicatory," in which he asks, Why are "Playes 
in generall " "so vehemently inveighed against " ? " Is it because they are 
Playes? The name it seemes somewhat offends them, whereas if they 
were styled Workes, they might have their Approbation also." Whalley, 
in his Life prefixed to his edition of Jonson's Works, 1756 (p. xlv), records 
that some one addressed to him this Epigram, 

45$ LEONARD DIGGES, 1640. 

" Pray tell me, Ben, where does the myst'ry lurk? 

What others call a Play, you call a work " ? 
to which the following answer was returned, 

" The author's friend thus for the author says ; 

Ben's plays are works, when others works are plays." 
When Digges writes 

" Vermine forbeare, 

Least with your froth you spot them, come not neere ; 
But if you needs must write, if poverty 
So pinch, that otherwise you starve and die," &c. 

he is specially referring to Ben Jonson's " apologeticall dialogue " at the end 
of the Poetaster, where Ben says of the Marston faction, 

" If it gave 'em Meat, 
Or got 'em Clothes, 'tis well " (Works, 1616, p. 351). 

And there is also a remembrance of A Midsummer Nights Dream, and in 
particular of the words 

" Newts and blindworms do no wrong, 
Come not near our fairy queen." 

Digges' verses are curious and valuable, as a testimony to the supreme 
popularity of Julius C&sar, Othello, Henry IV, Much Ado About Nothing, 
and Twelfth Night. They also show that Ben Jonson had reason for viewing 
Shakespeare's success with jealousy. We know that his New Inn was a 
complete failure, as it deserved to be. We learn from Digges, that even 
Catiline and Sejanus were found tedious and irksome. C. M. I. 



Of Mr. William Shakejpeare. 

What, lofty Shakefpeare, art againe reviv'd ? 
And Firlius like nowfhow'ft thy felfe twife liv'd, 
Tis [Benfon's] love that thus to thee is ihowne, 
The labours his, the glory flill thine owne. 
Thefe learned Poems amongft thine after-birth, 
That makes thy name immortall on the earth, 
Will make the learned ftill admire to fee, 
The Mufes gifts fo fully infus'd on thee. 
Let Carping Momus barke and bite his fill, 
And ignorant Davus flight thy learned {kill : 
Yet thofe who know the worth of thy defert, 
And with true judgement can difcerne thy Art, 
Will be admirers of thy high tun'd ftraine, 
Amongft whofe number let me ftill remaine. 

Prefixed to Shakespeare's Poems. 1640. [i2mo.] 

And VIRBIUS like : Virbiiis is the name borne by Hippolytus, after his 
revival. See Virgil's JEneid, lib. vii. Conington (1867, p. 251) thus 
renders the relative passage : 

" But Trivia kind her favourite hides, 
And to Egeria's care confides, 
To live in woods obscure and lone, 
And lose in Virbius' name his own." 

There may be an allusion to the little volume called Jonsonus Virbius 
(Jonson Revived), a collection of verses in praise of Ben Jonson, published 
m the next year after his death, and two years before the publication of 
Warren's verses (see before, p. 414). The title, Jonsonus Virbius, was, 
according to Aubrey, given to this little work by Lord Falkland. Cf. the 


" Whose Pious Ccemetery shall still keep 
Thy Virbius waking, though thy Ashes sleep." 

which occurs in a copy of verses by Robert Gardiner prefixed to Cartwright's 
works, ed. 1651. 

'Tis [Benson's} love, &c. The publisher's name has been conjecturally 
added, to eke out the verse, and complete the sense. C, M. I. 

4 6o 

Anonymous , before 1640. 

An Addition of fome Excellent 

Poems, to thofe precedent, of 

Renowned Shakefpeare, 

By other Gentlemen. 

* * * 
His Mi/Iris Shade. 

* * * 
Then ftately J^rgi/, witty CM by, 

Whom faire Cormna Hands, and doth comply 

With Ivory wrifts, his Laureat head, and fteepes, 

His eyes in dew of kifles while he fleepes. 

Then foft Catullus, fharpe fang'd Martiall, 

And towring Lucan, Horace, luvinall ; 

And fnakie Perfeus -, thefe and thofe whom rage, 

(Dropt from the larre of heaven) fill'd to enrage 

All times unto their frenfies, thou malt there 

Behold them in an Amphitheater. 

Amongfl which Synod crown'd with facred bayes, 

And flattering joy weele have to recite their playes. 

Shakespeare and Beamond, Swannes to whom the Spheares 

Liften, while they call backe the former yeares * 

To teach the truth of Scenes, and more for thee, 

There yet remaines brave foule than thou canft fee 

By glimmering of a fancie : doe but come, 

And there He fhevv thee that illuftrous roome, 

1 Original yeare. 


In which thy father Johnfon mall be plac'd, 
As in a Globe of radiant fire, and grac'd, 
To be of that high Hyrarchy, where none 
But brave foules take illumination : 
Immediately from heaven, but harke the Cocke, 
(The Bell-man of the night) proclaimes the Clocke, 
Of late ilrucke one, and now I feele the prime 
Of day breake through the pregnant Eafl, tis time 
I vanim : more I had to fay, 
But night determines here, away. 

Printed at the end of 

Poems: / Written / By / Wil. Shake- spear e. / Gent, j 
[Device'] / Printed at London by Tho. Cotes, and are / to be 
sold by lohn Benson, dwelling in / S e . Dunstans Church- 
yard. 1640. 

\Sigs. L 2, L 5, L 6.] 

[See Maurice Jonas's extracts in Notes and Queries, 7th Series, XI, 

June 13, 1891, and 7th Series, XII, July n, 1891, where he points out 

that the above lines were omitted from the Centurie and Fresh 
Allusions. M.] 



Does this look like a Term ? I cannot tell, 

Our Poet thinks the whole Town is not well, 

Has took fome Phyfick lately, arid for fear 

Of catching cold dares not falute this Ayr. 

But ther's another reafon, I hear fay 

London is gone to York, 'tis a great way 5 

Pox o' the Proverb, and of him fay I, 

That look'd ore Lincoln, caufe that was, muft we 

Be now tranflated North ? I could rail to ttot>:i 

On Gammar Shiptons Ghoft, but 't wo' not doe, 

The Town will ftill be flecking, and a Play 

Though ne'r fo new, will flarve the fecond day : 

Upon thefe very hard conditions, 

Our Poet will not purchafe many Towns ; 

And if you leave us too, we cannot thrive, 

I'l promife neither Play nor Poet live 

Till ye come back, think what you do, you fee 

What audience we have, what Company 

" To Shakefpear comes, whofe mirth did once beguile 

"Dull hours, and lujkind, made even forrow fmile, 

" So lovely were the wounds, that men would fay 

" They could endure the bleeding a whole day : 

He has but few friends lately, think o' that, 

Hee'l come no more, and others have his fate. 

" Fletcher the Mufes darling, and choice love 

" Of Phoebus, the delight of every Grove ; 


(t Upon whofe head the Laurel grew, whofe wit 

" Was the Times wonder, and example yet, 

'Tis within memory, Trees did not throng, 

As once the Story faid to Orpheus fong. 

" Johnfon, ? whofe name, wife Art did low, and Wit 

" Is only jaftified by honouring it : 

" To hear whofe touch, how would the learned Quire 

" With Jilence Jloop ? and when he took his Lyre, 

''Apollo dropt his Lute, ajhamd to fee 

" A Rival to the God of Harmonic. 

You do forfake him too, we muft deplore 

This fate, for we do know it by our door. 

How muft this Author fear then, with his guilt 

Of weaknefs to thrive here, where late was fpilt 

The Mufes own blood, if being but a few, 

You not confpire, and meet more frequent too i 

There are not now nine Mufes, and you may 

Be kind to ours, if not, he bad me fay, 

Though while you carelefs kill the reft, and laugh, 
Yet he may live to write your Epitaph. 

The Sisters. 1652. [8w.] Prologue at the Black- Fryers 

[It is suggested by Genest (Account of English Stage, iii, p. 143) that the 
words " London is gone to York " indicate a date when the King and 
Court were at York, in 1640, and that The Sisters was probably acted then, 
at Blackfriars. L. T. S.] 



The Arcadia. 

Dame\tas\. Ime out of breath, let me walke my felfe a little. 
Paw[ela\ What hafte does tire you ? 

Dam. Tire me, I am no woman, keepe your tires to your felfe 
Nor am I Pericles prince of Tyre. 

A / Pastoral / Called / The / Arcadia. / Acted by her 
Majesties Servants / at the Phoenix in Drury / Lane./ 
Written by lames Zhirly Gent. / London, f Printed by 
/. D. for lohn Williams, and E. Eglesfield / and are to be 
sould at the signe of the Crane / in Pauls Church-yard. 
1640. / sign. B 4 back. 

J. O. H.-P. 

ANON., 1640. 

Q. JFhat Birds are thofe, that are called Prophets twice lorne ? 

A. The Cocke : firft an egge from the Henne, after a Cocke 
from the Egge : they foretell feafons and changes of weather, 
according to the Verfe : 

Some fay for ever 'gainft that feafon comes, 
Wherein our Saviours birth is celebrated, 
The Bird of dawning lingeth all Night long, 
And then they fay no Spirit dares walk abroad, 
So facred and fo hallo w'd is that tune, [sic] 
W. Shakefp. 

A Helpe to Discourse. 1640. 

C. M. I. 


NICHOLAS DIXON, March 4, 1640-1. 

Noble kinfemen 1634 . . . 
Ben Jonfons Poems 4 oo oo 06 
Beaumont's poems 4 oo oo 06 . . . 
Shakefpeare's poems 8 oo i oo . . . 
Received upon this Bill y e 4th of march 1640, for y e vfe of 

mr mofely my maifter ... I fay Received 

Per me Nicholas Dixon. 

[Noted in the Catalogue of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1640-1. From 
the MS. in the Record Office, a bookseller's account of books supplied to 
a customer (probably Lord Conway). M.] 



ANONYMOUS, ab. 1640 or 1642. 

Act the first. 
Enter Captaine Vnderwit and his man Thomas. 


Tho : and fo the Land has parted you, [leaf i, back} 

Vn. thou faift right, Thomas, it lies betweene both our houses 
[leaf 2} indeed, but now I am thus dignified, (I thinke that's a 
good word) or intituled is better, but tis all one, since I am made 
a Captaine 

Tho : by your owne defert, and vertue. 

Vn. thou art deceaud, it is by vertue of the Commiffion, the 
Commifion is enough to make any man an Officer without defert 
Thomas, I muft thinke how to prouide mee of warlike accoutre- 
ments, to accomodate, which comes of Accomodo. Shakefpeare 
the firft, and the firfl 

Tho : No Sir it comes of fo much money dilburf 'd 


Vn : let me fee now, the bookes of Martiall dif- 

cipline. \leaf iS\ 

[// 18, 6k.} Tho : I bought vp all, that I found haue relation to 
warr, and fighting . . . 

Vn: . . . Item, the fword falue, ... the Buckler of 
faith ... A booke of mortification . . . Item the gunpowder 
treafon, and the Booke of Cannons .... Shakefpeares 
workes why Shakefpeares workes ? 

Tho : I had nothing for the pikemen before, 

Vn : they are playes, 

ANONYMOUS, 1640 OR 1642. 4 6 7 

Tho : Are not all your muflerings in the Countrey, fo, fir? 
pray read on. 

Harleian MS. 7650 (in MS. at the end of the printed Catalog, 
vol. iii), formerly Sloane or Additional MS. 5,001 : A 
Comedy without name or date, but probably soon after 
1640, as it says, on leaf 2 back, " considering the league at 
Barvvick 1 , and the late expeditions wee may find some of 
these things [books on Tacticks] in the North, or else 
speake with some reform'd Captaine, though he be a 
Catholicke, and it may bee wee may haue them at 
cheaper rates." 

The " accomoclate, accomodo" is Shallow's comment on Bardolph's "a 
Souldier is better accommodated, then with a wife : " 2 Henry IV, III, 
ii, 72 : " Better accommodated, it is good, yea indeede is it : good phrases 
are surely, and euery where commendable. 'Accommodated', it comes of 
Accommodo : very good, a good Phrase." 

The only treaty called the Pacification of Berwick known to me is dated 
June 18, 1639. When the Scotch, aided by the French, were in insurrec- 
tion and had taken the Covenant, Charles advanced to the North with 
23,000 men. The camp came to Berwick, and Charles himself negotiated a 
peace, and soon after disbanded his army. 

The Scotch Parliament advanced, a few months later, other claims, and 
Charles had to renew the war, and in May 1640 an English army went 
North again to resist the Scotch advance into England. 

The mention in the play of Tarleton, 'No Jokes since Tarleton died,' or 
something of the sort, would not be likely after 1660. SIDNEY L. LEE. 

The play was attributed by Bullen to James Shirley. The play is called 
Captain Underwit, a Comedy, in Bullen's Collection of Old Plays, London, 
1882-3, ii. 320. M. 

1 Supposed to refer to the Pacification of Berwick : Charles Fs agreement 
with the Scotch in arms against him. 



wee will now defcend to fuch particulars, wherein thefe cen- 
ibrious Timonifts (whofe poore degenerate fpirits are ever 
delighted moft in detracting from women, or afperfing fome 
unworthy difgrace upon their fexej) ufurpe this liberty, to lay 
upon their pureft reputes a lafting infamy. Wee mail in every 
place heare calumnious tongues . . . inveighing againft them in 
this manner : What vice is there extant, which is not in the 
pra&ife of women frequent ? . . If young, they are lafcivious : 
if old they are covetous. Their whole life a Comedy of errors : 
their formall feature a fardell of famions. Alas poore Girles ! 
Have you no Defence againft fuch viperous tongues? 

A / Ladies / Love- Lecture : / Composed, / and From The 
Choi- / cest Flowers of/ Divinitie and Humanitie / Cttlled, 
and Compiled : / As it hath beene by sundry Personages 
of emi- / nent qualitie, upon sight of some Copies di- / 
spersed, modestly importuned : / To the memory of that 
Sexes honour ; for whose sweet / sakes he originally 
addressed this Labour. / By Ri. Brathwait Esquire . . . 
London, / Printed by lohn Dawson, 1641. / Section VII. 
p. 419 of " The English Gentleman . . . The third 
Edition revised, corrected, and enlarged. 1641." 

Reference to the book sent by Dr. Ingleby. F. J. F. 



Oh that I were a vail upon that face, 

To hide it from the world ; methinks I could 

Envie the very Sun, for gazing on you! 

The / Antiquary. / A Comedy, / Acted by Her Maiestie's 
Servants / at / The Cock-Pit. / Written / By Shackerly 
Mermion, Gent. / London, / . . . 1641. Actus Secundus, 
sign. C 4 back 

Probably referring to Romeo's 

O that I were a gloue upon that hand, 
That I might touch that cheeke ! 

Romeo and Juliet^ II. ii. 24. 

J. O. 1111, -P. 


1. Bla[de], Fare ye well Gentlemen. I fhall fee thee 
Cutter a brave Tapfter fhortly; it muft be fo i' faith, Cutter; 
thou muft like Eardolph i' the play, the fpiggot weild. (D 3, col. 2) 

2. Aur[elia~] * * * I mall never hear my Virginals when I 
play upon 'um, for her daughter Talythas finging of Pfalms. 
The nrft pious deed will be, to banifh Shakefpear and Ben 
Johnfon out of the parlour, and to bring in their rooms Mar- 
prelate, and Pryns works. You'll ne'er endure 't, Sir. You 
were wont to have a Sermon once a quarter at a good tirne; you 
(hall have ten a day now. 

The Guardian. / A Corned ie / Acted before / Prince Charles 
His Highness / at TVrB&x-Colledge in Cambridge, / upon 
the twelfth of March, / 1641. Written by / Abraham 
Cowley : / London, Printed {Q\ John Holden, at the Anchor 
in / the New Exchange. i65o./ 

But it is worth noting that in his revision of the Guardian, "printed in 
1663, the scene London in the year 1658" and called "Cutter of Coleman 
Street", (i) was wholly omitted, and the Shakespear of (2) altered to 

In i (Act IV. sc. iii.) the reminiscence is to the M. Wives of W., I. iii., 
and the last words to Pistol's 

" O base Hungarian wight ! wilt thou the spigot wield ? " 

In 2 (Act IV. sc. vii.) we have some evidence that Shakespeare and Ben 
Jonson were then the most popular dramatists, more popular than Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, so often classed with them as the excelling tri- or 
quadr- umvirate. B. N. 

47 1 


In fpeaking of this we entred Loves Library, which was very 
fpacious, and compleatly filled with great variety of Bookes of 
all faculties, and in all kindes of Volumes. 


There was alfo Shakefpeere, who (as Cupid informed me) 
creepes into the womens clofets about bed time, and if it were 
not for fome of the old out-of-date Grandames (who are fet over 
the reft as their tutorefles) the young fparkifh Girles would read 
in Shakefpeere day and night, fo that they would open the Booke 
or Tome, and the men with a Fefcue in their hands mould point 
to the Verfe. 

The Academy of Love, describing y e folly ofyounge men 6 
y e fallacy of women. 1641, pp. 96, 99 (mis-paged, pages 
97, 98 are left out}. [4*0.] c. M. I. 



All Poets (as adition to their fames) 

Have by their Works eternized their names, 

As Chaucer, Spencer, and that noble earle, 

Of Surrie thought it the moft precious pearie, 

That dick'd his honour, to Subfcribe to what 

His high engenue ever amed at [,] 

Sydney and Shakfpire, Dray ton, Withers and 

Renowned Jonfon glory of our Land : 

Deker, Learn' d Chapman, Hay wood al thought good, 

To have their names in publike underftood, 

And that fvveet Seraph of our Nation, Quarles 

(In fpight of each planatick cur that fnarles) 

Subfcribes to his Celeftiall harmony, 

While Angels chant his Dulcid melodic. 

And honeft John from the water to the land 

Makes us all know and honour him by's hand 

The Poets blind mans Bough, or, Have among you 
my blind Harpers. 1641, sign. A 4. [4^?.] 

C. M. I. 



Rhythmi genera partim fyllabarum luarum numero, partim 
varia fonorum refonantium difpofitione diftingui poffunt : fed ea 
(4) optimorum poetarum obfervatio optime docebit. 


(4) Quales sunt apud nos Romero, (4) Quales sunt apud nos Homero, 

Maroni, Ovidio, cceterisque melioris Maroni, Ovidio, cceterisque melioris 

notse priscis sequiparandi, D. PHIL- notae priscis sequiparandi, D. Phi- 

iPPUsSiDNEY,EDMUNDUS SPENCER, lippus Sidney, Edmundus Spencer, 

SAMUEL DANIEL, MICHAEL DRAY- Samuel Daniel, Michael Drayton, 

TON, JOSUAH SYLVESTER, &, quern Josuah Sylvester, ingeniose plus 

cum honore memoro, Divinus ille Franciscus Quarles, & quern cum 

Vates GEORGIUS WITHER, aliique honore memoro, Divinus ille vates 

ingenio & arte florentes, quorum hsec Georgius Wither, aliique ingenio & 

setas uberrima est : atque inprimis arte florentes, quorum hsec astas 

horum omnium magister, unicum uberrima est. Quibus accedat ex 

caligantis sui seculi lumen, D. GAL- Poetis scenicis, Senecse, Plauto, Ter- 

FRIDUS CHAUCER. entio neutiquam inferior, tragicus 

{Edition, London, 1629, sign, comicus historicus Guilielmus Shake- 

E 3. ) speare: aliique singularis illius artificii 

oemulatores non pauci. 

{Editions, London, 1642, p. 41 ; 
and Leyden, 1642, //. 38, 39.) 

Rhetorics Libri Duo. Quorum Prior de Tropis 6 Figuris, 
Posterior de Voce 6 Gestu prcscipit : in usum scholarum 
postremo recogtiiti. Quibus recens accesserunt de oratoria 
Libri duo. Lib. I. cap. 13. 

[Edmund Bolton (before, pp. 213-4) cites Shakespere for a model of 
English, as does Charles Butler for a model of rhythm. Butler snys, 

" The kinds of rhythm may be distinguished, partly by the number of their 
syllables, partly by the different arrangement of the echoing sounds ; but 
observation of the best poets * teaches these things best. 

* Such among us, fit to be compared to Homer, Virgil, Ovid and others 
of the better ancient fame, are Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, Samuel 
Daniel, Michael Drayton, Josuah Sylvester, the naturally serious Francis 
Quarles, and he whom I name with honour, that Divine poet George Wither, 
and others now eminent in genius and in skill of whom this age is most 
fruitful. To whom is added of the dramatic poets, in no whit inferior to 
Seneca, Plautus, Terence, the tragi-comic-historic William Shakespeare : and 
not a few others professing that special art." L. T. S.] 



(i). But fince there is fuch neceflity to the hear-fay of a Tire, 
a Periwig, or a Vizard, that Playes muft have bin feene, what 
difficulty was there in that ? when in the Colleges fo many of 
the young Divines, and thofe in the next aptitude to Divinity, 
have bin feene fo oft upon the Stage, writhing and unboning 
their Clergie limmes to all the antick and difhonefl geflures of 
Trinculo's, BufFons, and Bawds j proftituting the mame of that 
miniftery, which either they had, or were nigh having, to the 
eyes of Courtiers and Court Ladies, with their Groomes and 

p. 14, ed. 1642. [Miltotfs Prose Works, ed. Symonds. 
1806, ii. 221.) 

(2). I had faid, that becaufe the Remonflrant was fo much 
offended with thofe who were tart againft the Prelats, fure he 
lov'd toothlefTe Satirs, which I look were as improper as a 
toothed Sleekftone. This Champion from behind the Arras 
cries out that thofe toothlefle Satyrs were of the Remonftrants 
making -, and armes himfelfe here tooth and naile, and home to 
boot, to fupply the want of teeth, or rather of gumms in the 
Satirs. And for an onfet tels me that the fimily of a Sleekftone 

JOHN MILTON, 1642. 475 

Jhewes I can be as bold with a Prelat as familiar with a 

An / Apology / Against a Pamphlet / call'd / A Modest Con- 
futation / of the Animadversions upon / the Remonstrant 
against / Smectymnuus./ (Y/z MS. by m r Milton / ex dono 
Authoris /] London, / Printed by E. G. for lohn Rothwell, 
and are / to be sold at the signe of the Sunne / in Pauls 
Church-yard. 1642.! Sect. 6, p. 32. (M.'s Prose Works, 
Bonn's Stand. Libr. iii. 140.) 

In (i) sent by H. E. S. Milton's Trinculo is from Shakspere's Tem- 
pest ; in (2) his Champion crying out from behind the Arras, is from Shak- 
spere's Polonius, Hamlet, III. iv. 22. 

"Smectymnuus was a pamphlet written by 5 Presbyterian divines Stephen 
Marshall, .Edmund Calamy, TTiomas Koung, 71/atthew ^Vewcomen, 
William .Spurstow (of whose initials the name is a compound) against 
episcopacy." Bp. Hall answerd it. Milton answerd him. Then Hall (?) 
rejoind, declaring that Milton's phrazes showd he had pikt em up in 
Brothels and Playhouses. This malignant libel fired Milton, and he lasht 
his traducer in the way that such scoundrelly insinuations deservd. 
Milton's indignant vindication of the purity of his early manhood is very 
fine. F. J. F. 



If their 1 be any truth in Aftrology, I may outlive a Jubile, 
as yet I have not feene one revolution of Saturne, nor have my 
pulfe beate thirty yeares, and [yet 2 ] excepting one, have feene 
the aflies, and left under ground, all the Kings of Europe, have 
been contemporary to three Emperours, foure Grand Signiours, 
and as many Popes; me thinkes I have out-lived my felfe, and 
begin to be weary of the Sunne. 3 

Religio Medici. Printed for Andrew Crooke. 1642. p. 
78-9. ( 40, p. 93, ed. 1643.) 

Macbeth, V. v. 49 : I gin to be a weary of the sun. 

E. PHIPSON and F. J. F. 

1 there, ed. 1643. 2 an d yet. 1643. 

3 same, 1st. ed. 1642 (spurious]. The first authorized edition of 1645, 
reads ' Sunne,' p. 87, 40. 


*JOHN TAYLOR, 1642. 

[Morris Jonas in Notes and Queries, 7th Series, ix, January 18, 1890, 
p. 48, considers that one of the heads in the woodcut on the title-page of 
Taylor's Heads of all Fashions, is copied from the Stratford bust. The 
lines 'To the Gentle Reader 'are signed 'J. M.' They conclude] : 

By this meanes fame hath got a monfters head, 
Yea many heads, whereof I found a few, 
And here have laid them open to thy view, 
Perufe them all, in earneft or in jeft, 
And tell me which amongft them is the beft. 
If Round-head mould be found the beft to be, 
Farewell all other heads, Round-head for me. 
But gentle Reader, give me thy good word, 
And then I care not what Round-heads afford. 

Thine without hypocrifie. I. M. 

[The verse which Morris Jonas associates with the head considered as 
Shakspere's is No. 10, described on page 2 as 'a long-head.' The 
verse reads :] 

10 A Long-head cannot weare a little cap, 
The forehead is fo diftant from the nap, 
This head hath many whimfies in the Braine, 
Yet wonders much at Rome, at France, and Spaine : 
Thefe many plots have wrought againft our Land, 
But this Long-head hopes they mall nere long ftand. 

[P- 51 

[The head which appears to me most to resemble the Stratford bust 
(and the resemblance is very poor), is the third from the left on the top 
line. The verse No. 3 reads :] 

478 JOHN TAYLOR, 1642. 

3 A Solid-head is one whofe every part. 
Is furnifhed with nature and with Art, 
Hath all the faire endowments can be given 
By the aufpicious Stars or powers of Heaven : 
If this head be well guarded with Gods Grace, 

Tis l fit for Church or State, or any place. 

[P- 4l 

[One may be forgiven, perhaps, for doubting whether Shakspere is 
alluded to at all, and, certainly, for disbelieving that the woodcut of a 
common type of face can be copied from the Stratford bust. Dr. Furnivall 
and Dr. Wylie consider that the long head on the left of the cut is perhaps 
intended for Shakspere. M.] 

Original Tit. 


JAMES SHIRLEY, 1642, 1635. 

" Stand off, gentlemen, let me see which ? Hum ! this ? 
no j th' other ! Hum ! send for a lion and turn him loose j he 
will not hurt the true prince." 

The Sisters (licenst in April, 1642, printed in 1652), 
Act V. sc. ii. Works, ed. Gifford, by Dyce, 
1833, v. 421. 

These are Piperollo's words when he's in doubt whether Farnese (the 
Prince of Parma) or the disguised Frapolo, the chief bandit, is the true 
prince. Gifford says ironically, " A sneer at Shakspeare ! unnoticed by the 
commentators." A good-humour'd allusion, there no doubt is, to Fal- 
stafFs "but beware instinct: the lion will not touch the true prince" 
(i Henry IV, II. iv. 300), but no sneer. 

Arcadius. Thou art jealous now j 

Come, let me take the kiss I gave thee last ; 
I am so confident of thee, no lip 
Has ravish'd it from thine. 

1635. The Coronation, Act II. sc. I. Works, ed. 
Gifford, & Dyce. 1833, vol. iii. p. 474. 

' This pretty thought,' says Gifford, without any need for the remark, 
is from Shakespeare : 

" this kiss 

I carried from thee, dear, and my true heart 
Hath virgin'd it e'er since." Coriolanus? 

The Coronation "was licensed in February 1634-5, as the production of 
Shirley ; but from some cause or other it is attributed to ' John Fletcher,' 
in the title-page of the first edition, (" Written by John Fletcher, Gent") 
printed in 410 in 1640, though Fletcher had been dead ten years prior to 
its first appearance on the stage." ib. p. 457. 

See too iv. 36, 437, 462 (Varges). F. J. F. 


'NORTHERN NUNTIO,' August 8, 1643. 

I prefume I deferve a fee for my counfel as well as their 
Doctor of the Committee at Nottingham deferved to be kicked 
out of the town (as he was the other day), the caufe I have 
almofl forgot, except the king's late victories have awaked the 
Atheifl, and made him now think there was a God, whom 
he not feared nor ferved before, but gloried in the contrary, 
fetting Shakefpear's plays at a better pitch of authority than the 
Gofpel of Chrift. 

The Northern Nuntio, published at York, Angiist 8, 1643. 

[The Northern Nuntio was a royalist newspaper published at York, and 
it here alludes to Dr. Plumptre (the author of two books of epigrams, 
published in 1629), about whom the reader may be referred to C. H. 
Firth's edition of the Memoirs and the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, 1906, 
where the above passage is quoted, p. 128. See also Prof. Firth's print of 
the passage in Notes and Queries t 7th Series, v, p. 386. M.] 


* A nonymous, 1 643 . 

[addrefiing the Parliament] 

We will not dare at your ftrange Votes to Jear, 
Nor perlbnate King Pym with his State-flear , 
Afpiring Cataline (hall be forgot, 
Bloody Sejanus, or who e're would Plot 
Confufion to a State ; the Warrs betwixt 
The Parliament, and just Henry the fixt, 
Shall have no thought or mention, caufe their power, 
Not only plac'd, but left him in the Tower ; 
Nor yet the Grave advice of learned Pym 
Make a Malignant, and then Plunder him. 
* * * * 

Methinks there mould not fuch a difference be 

'Twixt our profeflion and your quality, 

You meet, plot, talk, confult, with minds immenfe, 

The like with us, but only we fpeak fenfe 

Inferiour unto you 5 we can tell how 

To depofe Kings, there we are more than you, 

Although not more then what you would. 

An Exact Collection of the choycest Poems and 
Songs relating to the late Times, from Anno 1639 to 
Anno 1 66 1. The Players Petition to the Parliament. 
1662. Part I. p. 33. [8vo.~\ 

[The Players Petition was not included in the first edition of this collection, 
which came out in 1660, nor is it contained in the reprint of the work 
published in 1731. It, however, appears to have been written in 1643, from 
the following lines near the beginning : 


4^2 ANONYMOUS, 1643. 

" O wise mysterious Synod, what shall we 
Do for such men as you e're forty three 
Be half expir'd, and an unlucky season 
Shall set a period to Triennial Treason ; " 

and the numerous allusions in it to " King Pym," who died 8 Dec., 1643. 
The Long Parliament made an Order for closing the theatres, 2 Sept. 1642 
(see after, p. 490, and this poem seems to have been a protest against such 
severity. The writer may have alluded to Shakespere's Henry VI. and 
Richard II. in the lines quoted above. 

Mr. Hazlitt (Roxburghe Library, English Drama and Stage, 1869, p. 
273) prints the last word in the second line State-Bear, which conveys no 
sense ; the fl is slightly blurred, but it is plainly flear =. fleer, a scornful look. 
L. T. S.J ' 

THOMAS FULLER, 16431662. 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE was born at Stratford on Avon in this 
County, in whom three eminent Poets may feem in fome fort 
to be compounded. 

1. Martial, in the Warlike found of his Sur-name (whence 
fome may conjecture him of a Military extraction) Hajli-vilrans, 
or Shake-fpeare. 

2. Ovid, the mofl naturall and witty of all Poets - } and hence 
it was that Queen Elizabeth, coming into a Grammar-School, 
made this extemporary verfe, 

' Perfius a Crab-ftaffe, Bawdy Martial, 
Ovid a fine Wag.' 

3. Plautus, who was an exact Comoedian, yet never any 
Scholar, as our Shake-fpeare (if alive) would confeffe himfelf. 
Adde to all thefe, that though his Genius generally was jocular 
and inclining him tofejtivity, yet he could (when fo difpofed) 
be folemn and ferious, as appears by his Tragedies 3 fo that 
Heraclitus himfelf (I mean if fecret and unieen) might afford to 
fmile at his Comedies, they were fo merry ; and Democritus 
fcarce forbear to ligh at his Tragedies, they were fo mournfulL 

He was an eminent inftance of the truth of that Rule, Poeta 
not Jit, fed nafcitur ; one is not made, but born a Poet. Indeed 
his Learning was very little, fo that, as Cornish diamonds are not 
polifhed by any Lapidary, but are pointed and fmoothed even as 
they are taken out of the Earth, fo nature it felf was all the art 
which was ufed upon him. 

THOMAS FULLER, 1643 1662. 

Many were the wit-comlates betwixt him and Ben John/on ; 
which two I behold like a Spamjh great Gallion and an Engli/h 
man of War: Matter Johnfon (like the former) was built far 
higher in Learning; Solid, but Slow in his performances. 
Shake-fpear, with the Engli/h man of War, lefler in bulk, but 
lighter in failing, could turn with all tides, tack about, and take 
advantage of all winds, by the quicknefs of his Wit and Invention. 
He died Anno Domini 16 . . , and was buried at Stratford upon 
Avon, the Town of his Nativity. 

The History of the Worthies of England : Warwickshire. 
1662. [Fo.] p. 126. 

[Fuller was collecting the materials for his " Worthies " in 1643, hut the 
work was not published till after his death, by his son in 1662. See Biog. 
Brit. ed. 1750, p. 2055, and Memorials of Thos. Fuller, by Rev. A. T, 
Russell, 1844, p. 152. L. T. S.] 

We find Shakespeare treated as a name of "high qualitie" (/. <?. a heroic 
name) in a work called Polydoron, mentioned by C. B. Carew in Notes and 
Queries, 3rd Ser., vol. i. p. 266. [Polydoron is perhaps the secondary title, 
no work appears to be known under that name. L. T. S.] 

"Names were first questionlesse given for distinction, facultie, consan- 
guinitie, desert, qualitie : for Smith, Taylor, Joyner, Sadler, &c., were 
doubtlesse of the trades ; Johnson, Robinson, Williamson, of the blood ; 
Sackville, Saville, names of honorable desert ; Armestrong, Shakespeare 
of high qualitie : " 

And R. Verstegan, in the chapter "Of the Sirnames of our ancient 
Families" in his Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1634, p. 294, says: 

" Breakspear, Shakspear, and the like, have beene sirnames imposed upon 
the first bearers of them for valour, and feates of armes" 

Shakespeare, as Fuller says, is Hastivibrans in Latin. In Greek it is 
AoptVaXroe and 'Eyx ff7ra '^ C- Cf. Spenser's Faery Queen, b. iv, c. iii, 
st. 10 : 

"He, all enrag'd, his shivering speare did shake, 
And charging him afresh thus felly him bespake." 

[Mr. Ruskin's remark (Fors Clavigera : Letter 15, p. 12) of the coin- 
cidence, "that the name of the chief poet of passionate Italy [was] 'the 
bearer of the wing,' and that of the chief poet of practical England, the 
bearer or shaker of the spear," fails as regards Dante, whose family name 
Alighieri, with its softened form Aldighi&?, is Germanic, reappearing in 

THOMAS FULLER, 1643 1662. 485 

the French form Audigier. 1 Two other instances of our phrase are as 

" They laught to scorne the shaking of the Speare." 

(Davies of Hereford, Triumph of Death, p. 47, ot 
Humours Heaven on Earth, Grosart's Chertsey 
Worthies Library, 1876.) 

"And he laugheth'at the shaking of the speare." 
(Job xli. 21, Genevan Version, 1560 : v. 29 Authorized Version.) 

See also before, p. 439, Thomas Bancroft's Epigrams. L. T. S.] 
As we have given an example of the heroic employment of the phrase to 
shake a spear, we add one of the mock-heroic, from Histrio-mastix, or the 
Player Whipt, 4to, 1610, the work mentioned before, page 390. 

" Enter Troylus and Cressida. 

Troy. Come Cressida my Cresset light, 
Thy face doth shine both day and night, 
Behold, behold, thy garter blue, 
Thy knight his valiant elboe weares, 
That When he shakes his furious Speare, 
The foe in shivering fearfull sort, 
May lay him downe in death to snort. 

Ores. O knight with vallour in thy face, 
Here take my skreene weare it for grace, 
Within thy Helmet put the same, 
Therewith to make thine enemies lame. 

Landulpho. Lame stuffe indeed the like was never heard." 

(Sign. C. 4.) 

In Post-haste, the Poet, who accompanies the Players of the mock-play 
"Troylus and Cressida," Mr. Richard Simpson sees a caricature of 
Shakespeare. (School of Shakspere, vol. ii. pp. 1114.) Tne first four 
lines here spoken by Troylus contain the supposed allusion to an incident in 
Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, Act IV. Sc. iv. 11. 72, 73, which we 
believe to be rebutted by the dates. 

See also, Edmund Gay ton on Sancho Panza, under date 1654. C. M. I. 

1 Mr. Ruskin probably had in view the fact that the Alighieri family, on 
their removal to Verona, changed their arms to azure, a wing or. See H. 
Clark Barlow's Contributions to the Study of the Divina Commedia. 1864, 
p. 9; and K. Witte, Dante Forschungen (1879), p. 25. 


THOMAS FULLER, 16431662. 

John Fajlolfe, Knight * * the Stage hath been overbold 
with his memory, making him a Thrafonical Puff, & emblem of 

True it is, Sir John Oldcaftle did firft bear the brunt of the 
one, being made the make-fport in all plays for a coward. It is 
eafily known out of what purfe this black peny came. The 
Papifts railing on him for a fferetick, and therefore he muft allb 
be a coward, though indeed he was a man of arms, every inch of 
him, and as valiant as any in his age 

Now as I am glad that Sir John Ideas tie is put out, fo I am 
forry that Sir John Fasto/fe is put in, to relieve his memory in 
this bafe fervice, to be the anvil for every dull wit to ftrike upon. 
Nor is our Comedian excufable, by fome alteration of his name, 
writing him Sir John Falftafe (and making him the property oj 
pleafure for King Henry the fifth to abufe) feeing the vicinity 
of founds intrench on the memory of that worthy Knight, and 

few do heed the inconfideraule difference in fpelling of their 

The Worthies of England. 1662. Norfolk, p. 253. 

See further on this subject, after, p. 509. L. T. S. 

4 8 7 


Men of Note in her time [Elizabeth]. 

After fuch men 1 , it might be thought ridiculous to fpeak of 
Stage-players j but feeing excellency in the meaner! things deferve 
remembring, and Rofdus 2 the Comedian is recorded in Hiftory 
with fuch commendation, it may be allowed us to do the like with 
fome of our Nation. Richard Bourbidge and Edward Allen, two 
fuch A6tors, as no age muft ever look to fee the like : and, to 
make their Comedies compleat, Richard Tarleton, who for the 
Part called the Clowns Part, never had his match, never will 
have. For Writers of Playes, and fuch as had been Players 
themfelves, William Shakefpeare, and Benjamin Johnfon, have 
fpecially left their Names recommended to pofterity. (p. 120.) 

William Shakefpeare an excellent writer of Comedies. 

(Index, referring to the above passage.) 

Sir Richard Bakers Chronicle. 1643. [fo.] The Raigne 
of Queen Elizabeth. C. M. 1. 

1 Statesmen, Writers and Divines. 
3 Misprinted Boscius. 


Anonymous, 1644. 

Although he came with confidence to the fcarTbld, and the 
blood wrought lively in his cheeks, yet when he did lye down 
upon the block he trembled every joint of him j the fenfe of 
fomething after death, and the undifcovered country unto which 
his foul was wandering flartling his refolution, and pofTeffing 
every joint of him with an univerfal palfey of fear. 

London Post, January, 1644. 
of Archbishop Laud.) 

the Execution 

[This forcible passage contains an evident reference to Hamlet, ii. 2 : 

"But that the dread of something after death, 
The undiscovered Country, from whose Borne 
No Traveller returnes, Puzels the will," &c. 

(Fo. 1623.) 
It is quoted in the Academy, January 31, 1874, p. 121. L. T, S.] 

4 8 9 

Anonymous, 1644. 

Aulicus keeps to the old way of devotion, and that is the 
offering up the incenfe of fo many lies and intelligence every 
Sonday morning : one would thinke that the Judgements which 
have been writ from heaven againft the prophanation of that 
day, recorded by our protomartyr, Matter Burton, mould be able 
to deterre a Diurnall maker, a paper-intelligencer, a penny worth 
of newes, but the Creature hath writ himfelfe into a reprobate 
fenfe, and you may fee how it thrives with him, for his braines 
have been wonderfully blafted of late, and plannet-ftrucke, 
and he is not now able to provoke the meaneft Chriftian to 
laughter, but lies in a paire oifoulejheets, a wofull fpectacle and 
object of dullnefle, and tribulation, not to be recovered by the 
Proteftant or CathoLique liquour, either Ale or ftrong beer, or 
Sack, or Claret, or Hippocras, or Mufcadine, or Rofafolis, which 
hath been reputed formerly by his Grandfather Ben Johnfon and 
his Uncle Shakefpeare, and his Couzen Germains Fletcher, and 
Beaumont, and nofe-leffe Davenant, and Frier Sherley the Poets, 
the onely bloflbms for the brain, the reftoratives for the wit, the 
(i sic) Da thi n g f or the wine 1 mufes, but none of thefe are now able 
either to warme him into a quibble, or to inflame him into a fparkle 
of invention, and all this becaufe he hath prophaned the Sallath 
by his pen. 

Mercurius Britanicus : Numb. 20 (January 4-11, 1644). 
Communicating the affaires of Great Britaine: For the 
better Information of the* People. 

490 ANONYMOUS, 1644. 

This curious extract from one of the Mercuries, or Newspapers, of the 
Rebellion is a Puritanical attack on "the old way of devotion," viz., the 
publication of a Sunday Newspaper. It must be borne in mind that the 
Theatres were now closed by order of the Parliament, though in point of 
fact the prohibition had not succeeded in wholly putting down theatrical 
performances. The Theatres had been partially closed in June, 1600, and 
again, on account of the plague, in May J-2-, 1636. Civil war broke out in 
August, 1642 ; the first battle being fought on September 22 in that year. 
The first order of Parliament for closing the Theatres was dated September 
2, 1642 ; and this being found ineffectual to suppress stage-plays, a more 
stringent order was promulgated in 1647, bearing date Oct. 22. The theatre 
was thus practically in abeyance till the performance of Davenant's Siege of 
Rhodes in 1656. Our Third Period, however, is continued till the Restora- 
tion, 1660 : when the floodgates of pleasure were once more opened, and 
the stage was deluged with theatrical licentiousness. 

The "Master Burton" here referred to was the Rev. Henry Burton, the 
Puritan author, who suffered (with Prynne and Dr Bastwicke) in 1637, for 
publishing a tract entitled " For God and the King." See A New Discovery 
of the Prelates Tyranny. 1641. [4to.] Restored to liberty in 1640, he 
wrote his life, published in 1643. He died m 1648. 

The extract was quoted by Mr. G. Bullen in the Athentzum of Aug. 13, 
1870. C. M. I. 


JOHN CLEVELAND, about 1644. (DIED 1658.) 
Strange Scarlet Doctors thefe -, they'll pafs in Story 
For Sinners half refin'd in Purgatory -, 
Or parboyl'd Lobfters, where there joyntly rales 
The fading Sables, and the coming Gules. 
The Flea that Falftqff damn' d thus lewdly fhows 
Tormented in the Flames of Bardolptis Nofe j 

The Mixt Assembly (p. 33). 

The terror of whofe [Rupert's] Name can out of feven 
Like Faljlqfs Buckram-men, make fly eleven. 

Rupertismus (p. 53) ; To Prince Rupert (p. 275). 
The Works of Mr, John Cleveland, 1687. Edition 1677, //. 43, 67, 101. 

[Cleveland warmly espoused the king's side, and was evidently well 
acquainted with Shakespere's works. The first extract is from The Mixt 
Assembly, a sharp satire upon the Westminster Assembly of Divines, one 
of the great objections to which by the episcopal party was that "there 
was a mixture of laity with the clergy." The Assembly first met on 
i July 1643, and continued till Feb. 22, 1648-9 ; we may presume that 
Cleveland wrote his satire in the early days of their meeting, and assign 
1644 as a probable date for it. " The character of a Diurnal maker," in 
which he says that "a Diurnal-maker is the sub-almoner of History, Queen 
Maffs Register" ( Works, 1687, p. 78), belongs to the same time (see Nichols' 
History and Antiquities of Leicester, Vol. Ill, Part II, pp. 913916). 
Cleveland may have had Mercutio's famous speech in mind when he spoke 
of Queen Mab, or he may have thought of Hotspur's speech in I Henry IV 
when he wrote 

" He that the noble Piercie's Blood inherits 
Will he strike up a Hot- Spur of the Spirits ? " 

(Mixt Assembly, p. 34.) 

But there is nothing to show that he alluded to Shakespere in naming these 
well-known mythological and historic personages. 

The Elegies upon Ben Jonson at pp. 310 314, and p. 330, of the 1687 
edition of Cleveland's Works, falsely attributed to him, are by Jaspar Mayne 
and Richard West. Extracts from both are given before, pp. 414, 416. 

Sir John Fastolf (died 1459) bequeathed estates to Magdalene College, 
Oxford, part of which were appropriated to buy liveries for some of the 
senior scholars. But this, in time, yielding but a penny a week, the scholars 
" were called, by way of contempt, Falstaff's Buckram-men." (See I Henry 
IV, Act II. sc. iv.) Warton, Hist, of English Poetry, ed. 1840, vol. ii. 
p. 17. L. T. S.] 


JOHN CLEVELAND, ? about 1644 (died 1658). 

But once more to tingle out my embofs'd Committee-man; 
his Fate (for I know you would fain fee an end of him) is either 
a whipping Audit, when he is wrung in the Withers by a Com- 
mittee of Examinations, and fo the Spunge weeps out the 
Moifture which he had foaked before ; or elfe he meets his 
Paffing-peal in the clamorous Mutiny of a Gut-foundred 
Garrifon : for the Hedge-fparrow will be feeding the Cuckow, 
till he miftake his Commons and bites off her head. 

The Character of a Country -Committee-man, with the Ear- 
mark of a Sequestrator. Clievelandi Vindiciag ; or Clieve- 
lancCs Genuine Poems, Orations, Epistles, &c. . . . 
London . . . 1677, p. 100. 

The allusion is, I suppose, to Lear, I. iv. 235 

" Foole. For you know Nunckle, the Hedge-Sparrow fed the Cuckoo so 
long, that it's had it head bit off by it young, so out went the Candle, and 
we were left darkling." I Folio, p. 288, col. 2. 

For the probable date, see the previous page. F, J, F. 



The Argument of Romeos and Juliets : 

Romeo and Juliet, iflues of two enimies, Mountegue and 
Capulel, Citizens of Verona, fell in love one with the other : hee 
going to give her a vifit meetes Tybalt her kinfman, who urging 
a fight was flaine by him : for this Romeo was banifhed and 
relided at Mantua, where he received an Epiftle from Juliet. 

Aurorata, \having as a second par{\ Loves Looking Glasse Divine 
and Humane. The Divine one in Christs Birth and Passion 
faithfully showne: The Humane one. in foure Epistles of Juliets, 
Romeos, Lisanders, Calistas. (Argument to Epistles from Juliet 
to Romeo, and from Romeo to Juliet.} Sign. E. 1644. \i2mo.~\ 

[The above extract is the Argument to two poems entitled Juliet to Romeo 
and Romeo to Juliet, of too lines each. There is nothing in them specially 
referring to or drawn from Shakespere, but the recent popularity of his 
great love -play makes it more likely that Prujean referred to the remem- 
brance of Shakespere in the minds of his readers, than of Arthur Brooke's 
earlier version of the story. Neither, however, made epistles pass between 
the lovers. Mr. P. A. Daniel, editor of Brooke's poem and Shakespere's 
play for the New Sh. Society, who has kindly examined Prujean's work for 
me, concurs in these remarks. L. T. S.] 



There is no fort of verfe either ancient, or modern, which we 
are not able to equal by imitation j we have our Englifti Virgil, 
Ovid, Seneca, Lucan, Juvenal, Martial, and Catullus : in the Earl 
of Surry, Daniel, Johnfon, Spencer, Don, Shakefpear, and the 
glory of the reft, Sandys and Sydney. 

Vindex Anglicus; or the Perfections of the English language 

defended and asserted. Oxford, 1644. 
Reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, 8vo, edition, VoL v. 

P- 431- 

[No author's name is given for this tract in the reprint, x nor in Hazlitt or 
Lowndes. None of these seem to be aware that it is an ingenious re-cast 
of Richard Carew's essay on " The Excellencie of the English Tongue," 
printed in the 1614 and subsequent editions of Camden's Remaines concerning 
Britain, into which the writer has also worked passages from Camden's 
chapter on "Languages" which precedes Carew's essay. He even has 
stolen thoughts if not expressions from Sidney's Apologie for Poetrie. We 
have here a clear case of literary theft, for Carew died in 1620, and Camden 
in 1623, and 1644 must be about the true date when Vindex Anglicus was 
written, from the author's exclamation "What matchless and incomparable 
pieces of eloquence hath this time of civil war afforded ? Came there ever 
from a prince's pen such exact pieces as are his majesty's declarations ? " 
and his reference to Digby's speeches (p. 431). The passage above is copied 
and altered from the passage quoted from Carew, before, p. 27. L. T. S.] 

1 I owe the reference to Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 



To his deere friend Mr. Henry Burkhead, upon his 
Tragedy of Cola's fury. 

You I preferre. Johnfon for all his wit 
Could never paint out times as you have hit 
The manners of our age : The fame declines 
Of ne're enough prayf'd Shakefpeare if thy lines 
Come to be publifht : Beaumont and Fletcher s fkill 
Submitts to yours, and your more learned quill. 


[To the fame] 

Deere friend iince then this peece fo well limn'd 
As moft would thinke 'twas by Ben. Johnfon trirnm'd, 
That Shakefpeare, Fletcher, and all did combine 
To make Lirenda through the Clouds to mine. 

Commendatory lines prefixed to A Tragedy of Cold s Furie 
or Lirendas Miserie. Kilkenny, 1645. C. M. I. 


John Taylour, then the Courts fhrill Chanticleer e 

Did fummon all the Jurours to appeare : 

Hee had the Cryers place : an office fit, 

For him that hath a better voyce, then wit. 

Hee, who was called firft in all the Lift, 

George Withers hight, entitled Satyriftj 

Then Cory, May, and Davenant were call'd forth 

Renowned Poets all, and men of worth, 

If wit may pafle for worth. Then Sylvefter, 

Sands, Dray ton, Beaumont, Fletcher, MqJJinger, 

Shakefpeare, and Heywood, Poets good and free ; 

Dramatick writers all, but the firft three : 

Thefe were empanell'd all. 

(/ 9-) 

* ***** 

Thefe were the crimes, whereof he 1 was accuf d 
To which he pleads not guilty, but refuf d 
[fie] By Hiftriomicke Poets to be try'd, 

'Gainft whom, he thus malicioufly enveigh'd 
Juftice (fayd he) and no finifter fury, 
Difwades me from a tryall by a jury, 
That of worfe mifdemeanours guilty bee, 
Then thofe which are objected againft mee : 
Thefe mercinary pen-men of the Stage, 
That fofter the grand vices of this age, 

1 The Intelligencer. 

GEORGE WITHERS?, 164^. 437 

Should in this Common-wealth no office beare, 
But rather ftand with vs Delinquents here : 
Shakefpears a Mimicke, Maffinger a Sot, 
Heywood for Aganippe takes a plot : 
Beaumount and Fletcher make one poet, they 
Single, dare not adventure on a Play. 
Thefe things are all but th' errour of the Mules, 
Abortive witts, foul fountains of abufes : 
Reptiles, which are equivocally bred, 
Under fome hedge, not in that geniall bed 
Where lovely art with a brave wit conjoyn'd, 
Engenders Poets of the nobleft kind. 
Plato refuf 'd fuch creatures to admit 
Into his Common-wealth, and is it fit 
ParnaJJus mould the exiles entertaine 
Of Plato ? ' 

Thus fpake the Prif 'ner. 

\Plautus, Terence, Menander, Aristophanes mutter among the 


And while 'mongft thefe the murmure did encreafe, 
The Cryer warn'd them all to hold their peace. 

The Court was filent, then Apollo fpake : 
If thou (faid He) chiefly for vertues fake, 
Or true affection to the Common-weale, 
Didft our Dramatick Poets thus appeale, 
We fhould to thy exception give content, 
But fince we are aflur'd, 'tis thy intent, 
By this refufall, onely to deferre 
That cenfure, which our juftice muft conferre 
Upon thy merits ; we mufl needs decline 
From approbation of thefe pleas of thine, 
And are refolv'd that at this time, and place, 

SH. ALLN. BK. I. K K. 

498 GEORGE WITHERS?, 1645. 

They fliall as Jurours, on thy try all pafle, 

But if our Cenfour mall hereafter find, 

They have deferved ill, we have defign'd 

That they likewife fhall be to judgement brought, 

To fuffer for thofe crimes, which they have wrought, 

Thus fpake the Soveraign of the two-topp'd Mount. 

The Great Assises Holden in Parnassus. London. 1645. 
// 9, 3133- 

[The title of this curious Satire on the newsletters and newspapers of the 
day runs as follows ; "The Great Assises holden in Parnassvs by Apollo 
and his Assessovrs : At which Sessions are Arraigned Mercurius Britanicus, 
Mercurius Aulicus, Mercurius Civicus, The Scout, The writer of Diurnalls, 
The Intelligencer " and six others. The constitution of the court is set out 
on the second page, Apollo is president, the judges, Lord Verulam, Sidney, 
Erasmus, &c., follow, then two lists, one of "The Malefactours " (the same 
as those given on the title-page), the other of "The Jurours," whose names 
are George Wither, Thomas Gary, Thomas May, William Davenant, Josuah 
Sylvester, Georges Sandes, Michael Drayton, Francis Beaumont, John 
Fletcher, Thomas Haywood, William Shakespeere, Philip Massinger. The 
other officers of the court are, "Joseph Scaliger, the Censour of manners in 
Parnassus, Ben. Johnson, Keeper of the Trophonian Denne, John Taylour, 
Cryer of the Court, Edmund Spencer, Clerk of the Assises." 

The jurors are successively hit at by the challenging of the prisoners. In 
Apollo's defence of the " Dramatick Poets" given above, Withers gives a 
cautious opinion. 

This book does not bear Withers' name, but it was ascribed to him on 
the authority of Dalrymple and Hearne by Bliss in his edition of Wood's 
Athena Oxnnienses, vol. iii. p. 773. But the Rev. Mr. Ebsworth is of 
a contrary opinion, not believing that any man would describe himself so 
insultingly as some lines in this poem do Withers. See " Choyce Drollery," 
Boston, 1876, pp. 405, 406. L. T. S.] 



and therefore where he [Prynne, author of ' Hiftriomastix '] 
hath entituled his Book, A Tragedie of Aftours; he fhould, if he 
had done right, have entituled it, A Comedie of Errours. 

Theatrum Redivivum, (a posthumously published work : 
Sir R. B. died in Feb. 1645). 1662. p. 96. 

This book, an answer to Prynne, is singularly wanting in contemporary 
references or allusions of any kind, English or European. B. N. 

It was reprinted in 1670 under the title of " Theatrum Triumphans j or 
a / Discourse / of / Plays / . . . Wherein all Scruples are removed, and the 
vain / objections of Histro-mastix and others fully / Answered and confuted, 
. . . Written by the Learned / Sir Richard Baker, Kt. / London / . . . 
1670." Allen and Bourbidge are mentioned by the author, whose allusions 
are mostly classical. M. 



Troth 1 tooke him for the Schoole Matter of the place y* 
made mee grow fo bould with him, but no more of y* good 
Hall, & thou loue mee, for this veniall fin when I come to bee 

thy ConfefTor I 'le pardon thee a mortall one./ 

[p. 68*.] 

And for the boeke hee mail receaue it when you do Arnoldus. 
For the Apothecarys bill 'tis a fniueling in considerable furame j 
what fd Falftaffe in y l cafe to Lieft: Peto, lay out Lay out Hall 
I 'le bee refponfable to all when 

* * * 

Normanton. S. Drake. 

Monday morning. [p. 69.] 

Letter from Rev. S. Drake at Wakefield to Dr. Power in 
Papers of William Conrten and Dr. Power. Sloane MS. 
3515, Brit. Mus. Noticed by Edward J. L. Scott, 
Athenaum, 5 March, 1898, /. 32, col. 2. 

The first extract refers to Falstafif s words, I Henry IV, II, iv ; fol. 
p. 57 : ' A, no more of that Hall, and thou louest me.' 

The second appears to refer to I Henry 1 V, IV, ii : 

Bard. Will you give me money, captain? 

Fal. Lay out, lay out. . . . Bid my lieutenant Peto meet me at the 
town's end. M. 


See him whofe Tragic Sceans EURIPIDES 
Doth equal, and with SOPHOCLES we may 
Never like him, his Fancy could difplay, 
Witnefs the Prince of Tyre, his Pericles, 
His fweet and his to be admired lay 
He wrote of luftful Tarquins rape mews he 
Did underftand the depth of Poefie. 

The Times Displayed in Six Sestyads, 1646. The sixth 
Sestyad: St. 9, /. 22. [4/0.! C. M. I. 


ROBERT WILD, 1646 (?). 


Invent[ion\. His Quill as quick as Feather from the Bow! 
O who can such another Faljlqff mow ? 
And if thy learning had been like thy Wit, 
Ben would have blufht, and Johnfon never writ. 
Fur[or Poeticus]. Pifh. I never read any of him but in 
Tobacco papers and the bottom of Pigeon-Pies. But he had 
been a Curate to the Stage fo long, that he could not choofe but 
get fome ends and bottoms - } I, and they were his Fees too j 
But for the fine and true Dramatick Law, 
He was a Dunce and fcribled with a Straw. 

The Benefice. A Comedy. By R\pber(\ W\_ild\ D.D. 
Author of Iter Boreale. Written in his Younger Days : 
Now made Publick for Promoting Innocent Mirth .... 
London. MDCLXXXIX. p. 10. 

Internal political allusions prove this play to have been written about 
1646. It is obviously imitated from the anonymous ' Returne from Per- 
nassus ' first published in 1606. Besides the Shaksperean criticism, are 
passages dealing with Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, and ' Tom 
Randolph's Poems.' For an account of the author see Poems by Robert 
Wilde, D.D., one of the ejected ministers of 1662, with a historical and 
biographical preface and notes by the Rev. John Hunt. London, 1870. 
S. L. LEE. 

Anonymous, 1647. 

But directed by the example of fome, who once fleered in our 
qualitie, and fo fortunately afpired to choofe your Honour, joyned 
with your (now glorified) Brother, Patrons to the flowing com- 
pofltions of the then expired fweet Swan of Avon SHAKESPEARE j 
* * we have prefumed to offer to your Selfe, what before 
was never printed of thefe Aulhours. 

The dedicatory epistle of ten Players "to Philip Earle of Pembroke 
and Mountgomery." Prefixed to the first edition of Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Works: 1647. [Fo.}. 

The writer here adopts Ben Jonson's graceful sobriquet for Shakespeare : 
" Sweet Swan of Avon" (p. 310). 

[Prefixed to the first folio of Beaumont and Fletcher there is, besides this 
Epistle of the ten players, whose names are subscribed to it, an address 
" To the Reader " signed Ja. Shirley, and one by " The Stationer to the 
Reader," signed Humphrey Moseley. There is nothing to show who wrote 
the ten Players' epistle. L. T. S.] 



Then was wits Empire at the fatall height, 

When labouring and finking with its weight, 

From thence a thoufand lelfer Poets fprong, 

Like petty Princes from the Fall of Rome, 

When JOHNSON, SHAKESPEARE, and thy felfe did lit, 

And fway'd in the Triumvirate of wit - 

Yet what from JOHNSONS oyle and fweat did flow, 

Or what more eafie nature did beftow 

On SHAKESPEARES gentler Mufe, in thee full growne 

Their Graces both appeare, yet fo, that none 

Can fay here Nature ends, and Art begins 

But mixt like th' Elements, and borne like twins, 

So interweav'd, fo like, fo much the fame, 

None this meere Nature, that meere Art can name : 

'Twas this the Ancients meant, Nature & Skill 

Are the two topps of their Pernaffus Hill. 

Commendatory Verses on John Fletcher, prefixed to the first 
edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's Works. 

[On the contrast between the nature and art of Shakespere and of Jonson 
see before, p. 275, and after, Winstanley, 1684. On " the elements so 
mix'd" see before, p. 121. L. T. S.] 


Had now grim Ben bin breathing, with what rage 
And high-fwolne fury had Hee lafh'd this age, 
SHAKESPEARE with CHAPMAN had grown madd, and torn 
Their gentle Sock, and lofty Eujkins worne, 
To make their Mufe welter up to the chin 
In blood ; 

Commendatory Verses " upon Master Fletcher's Dramaticall 
Workes." Prefixed to the first edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Works. C. M. I. 


The Sweeteft Swan of Avon, to y e faire 
And Cruel Delia, paffionatelie Sings j 
Other mens weakeneffes and follies are 
Honour and witt in him ; each Accent brings 
A Sprig to Crowne him Poet ; and Contrive 
A Monument, in his owne worke, to live. 
Draiton is fweet and Smooth 5 though not exact 
Perhaps, to ftricter Eyes; yet he lhall live 
Beyond their Malice. To the Sceane, and Act, 
Read Comicke Shakefpeare ; or if you would give 
Praife to a Juft Defert, crowning the Stage 
See Beaumont, once the honour of his Age. 

Poems. Vindication of Poesie. Add. MS. 19,255, p. 17 {British 
Museum], Privately printed by Dr. Grosart, 1878, 4 vols. [4^-] 
Vol. 7, pp. 28, 29. 

[By the " sweetest Swan of Avon " is intended Samuel Daniel (no relation 
to George, the Royalist poet). Upon the " Swan of Avon" see Jonson and 
the ten Players, before, pp. 310, 503; and Appendix A). George Daniel rated 
Jonson above all, saying of him, 

"Hee was of English Drammatickes, the Prince." 

Dr. Grosart says that "he idolized Ben Jonson, and set himself resolutely 
against the supremacy of Shakespere," and he finds a consciousness of this 
in the lines, 

" I am not tyed to any general ffame, 
Nor fixed by the Approbation 
Of great ones." (Vindication of Poesie, p. 30.) 

L. T. S.] 



The worthy S r whom Falftaffe's ill-vs'd name 
Perfonates, on the Stage, left fcandall might 
Creep backward, & blott Martyr, were a shame, 
Though Shakefpeare, Story, & Fox, legend write ; 
That Manual, where dearth of Story brought 
Such S*s worthy this Age, to make it out. 


Another Knight but of noe great Account 
(Soe fay his freinds) was one of thefe new Saints 
A Prieft ! but the fatt Mault-Man ! (if yo u don't 
Remember him, S r lohn has let his rants 1 

Flye backward), the firft Knight to be made 
And golden Spurres, hee, in his Bofome had. 

(MS., pp. 464, 465 ; reprint, pp. 1 1 2, 113. 


Here, to Evince the Scandall, has bene throwne 
Vpon a Name of Honour, (Charactred 
From f wrong Person, Coward, and Buffoonej) 
Call in your eafie faiths, from, what y 'ave read 
To laugh at FalftarTe, as an humor fram'd 
To grace the Stage, to pleafe the Age, misnam'd. 


But thirike, how farre viifit ? how much below 
Our Harrie's Choice, had fuch a Perfon bene ? 

lr The MS. has the ) after "rants," but the sense requires it aftei 
" backward." 


To fuch a Truft ? the Town's a Taverne now 
And plumpe S r lohn, is but the Bum f ar-feene j 
As all the Toyle of Princes had beene Spent 
To force a Lattice, or Subdue a Pinte. 1 [ x p e nt root! 


Such Stage-mirth, have they made Him; Harry law 
Meritt -, and Scandall but purfues the Steps 
Of Honour, with ranke Mouth, if Truth may draw 
Opinion, wee are paid; how ere the heapes 
Who crowd to See, in Expectation fall 
To the Sweet Nugilogues, of Jacke, and Hall. 


Noe longer pleafe your felves to iniure Names 
Who liv'd to Honour ; if (as who dare breath 
A Syllable from Harrie's Choice) the fames 
Conferr'd by Princes, may redeeme from Death r 

Live Falflaffe then ; whofe Truft, and Courage once 
Merited the firft Government in France 5 


This may Suffice, to right him ; let the Guilt 
Fall where it may ; unqueftion'd Harrie Stands 
From the foure Points of vertue, equall built, 
Judgment Secur'd, the Glorie, of his Hands ; 

And from his bountie, blot out what may rife 
Of Comicke Mirth, to FalftafF's prejudice. 

(MS., pp. 477, 478 ; reprint, pp. 135-6.) 

Poems, 16161657. Privately printed from the MS. (Add. 
19,255) in the British Museum by Dr. Grosart, 1878. 
Trinachordia, The Raigne of Henrie the Fifth, vol. iv. 

[Doubtless the popularity of the Plays [7. and II. King Henry IV. and 
Merry Wives of Windsor}, and so the universal acceptance of Falstaff, stung 
the Royalist Poet thus to reprimand Shakespere. See end of note, p. 510. 

In stanza 138, Nugilogues-=. triflings or banter, i.e. nugce, trifles. Jacke 
and Hall are of course Falstaff and Prince Hal. A. B. Grosart.] 


[In stanza 50, the Priest probably refers to Sir John of Wrotham, and the 
fatt Mault-Man to William Murley the Malt-man of Dunstable, the would- 
be knight, both in the play called The First Part of Sir John Oldcastle, 
1600, sign. F 4, D I, bk, G 2. 

From stanza 47 it is evident that George Daniel was aware that Falstaffe 
was formerly called Oldcastle on the stage, and that this ' ' ill-used name " 
had been suppressed and changed "lest scandall might" "blott Martyr." 
He, however, like Thomas Fuller (see before, p. 486), speaks out in vindi- 
cation of the fair fame of Fastolf, the Norfolk knight to whose "trust and 
;ourage," as distinguished captain and governor in France in the 1 5th 
century, he alludes in stanza 139. 

The prologue of the First Part of the Life of Sir John Oldcastle, two 
editions of which came out in 1600, contained the following lines : 

"It is no pamper'd Glutton we present, 
Nor aged Councellour to youthfull sinne, 
But one, whose vertue shone above the rest, 
A valiant Martyr, and a vertuous Peere ; 
In whose true faith and loyalty exprest 
Unto his soveraigne and his Countries weale : 
We strive to pay that tribute of our love 
Your favours merit. Let faire Truth be grac'd, 
Since forg'd invention former time defac'd." 

which seem clearly to point to the popular misapprehension of Oldcastle 
under the character of Falstaff, and the desire of the author of this play to 
clear Oldcastle's memory. (The name of Shakespere was affixed by the 
bookseller to one of the two 1600 editions of the play. See Chas. Knight's 
Studies of Shakespere, 1849, p. 270272.) L. T. S.] 

[In justice to Shakespere I would add a word on an error begun ignorantly 
in his own day, and continued spite of Theobald and others by literate 
names in this nineteenth century, namely, that Shakespere's plump Jack and 
the historical Sir John Fastolf were one. 

When Shakespere substituted Falstaff for Oldcastle he perhaps chose the 
name because it was existent at the time of his plays, but in Elizabeth's day 
extinct, and because he thought he could not further vilify the name of one 
who had, as he believed (see I Henry VI.}, proved himself a coward. But 
fat Sir Apple- John was an old man in the latter days of Henry IV, and died 
just before Henry V. embarked for France. The Falstaff [Fastolf] of history 
had a government in France under Henry V, and was accused of cowardice 
in the next reign, as shown in I Henry VI. It matters not to this question 
whether I Henrj VI. be Shakespere's or not. The play was at least known 
to him, and was acted before the change was made from Oldcastle to Falstaff 
in Henry IV. Shakespere therefore not only knew the difference between 
the two Talstaffs, but intended it to be known. Hence perhaps the reason 
^vby he in his Henry V. never even alludes to the historical Sir John, thus 


allowing a long break between the death of one and the appearance of the 
other. B. N.] 

[The case seems to be this : in I Henry IV, as acted at first, the jovial 
boon companion and coward (a lollard) bore the name of Sir John 
Oldcastle, who had suffered martyrdom as a Lollard in the days of Henry 
V ; this giving offence to the family of Oldcastle (see Dr. James, before, 
p. 33O), Shakespere changed the name before the play was printed to Falstaff 
(Stationers' Registers, Feb. 25, 1 597-8). l Falstaff was but a modification of 
the name of Sir John Fastolf, who was a noted warrior and brave commander 
under Henry V. and Henry VI. ; he was also a lollard, and having passed 
under the imputation of cowardice (though afterwards triumphantly cleared, 
see Mr. Jas. Gairdner's article in Fortnightly Review, March 1873, Vol. 13, 
p. 343), and being a somewhat unpopular man in his own day, Shakespere 
found that he fitted the character for whom he wanted a name. He disguised 
the name slightly by the common change of letters (see what Fuller says, 
before, p. 486), yet the confusion crept into the common mind, so that the fat 
jovial coward was remembered by the name of Oldcastle as late as 1618 
(see Field's Amends to fair Ladies, before, p. 270), perhaps even down to 
1651. (See after, T. Randolph's Hey for Honesty, Vol. ii.) The testimony of 
Dr. Richard James, George Daniel, and Fuller, taken together, show clearly 
that the distinction between Sir John Oldcastle, Sir John Fastolf, and 
Falstaff in their historical and poetical characters was well understood cer- 
tainly by some. (See authorities cited in Dyce's Shakespere, 1 866, Vol. iv. p. 
204, and Mr. Gairdner's article as above.) L. T. S.] 

1 The Epilogue to 2 Henry IV, in which Falstaff is to die of a sweat, 
" for Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is not the man," shows that Shake- 
spere was disclaiming the identity in the Second play (1597-8) about the 
same time that the First was being printed. 

"That Falstaff was first calld Oldcastle in the play, we know also 
from Old having been printed at the head of the speech, ' Very well, my 
lord, very well,' in the quarto 1600, of 2 Henry IV, Act I, sc. ii, and fronv 
Prince Hal calling Falstaff in I Henry IV, Act I, sc. ii, ' My old lord of 
the castle,' " &c. Furnivall's Introduction to Leopold Shakspere, p. 1, 
note. Dyce and Prof. Dowden point out that Shakespere borrowed the 
name of Oldcastle in the first instance from The Famous Victories of Henry 
V, a popular play acted before 1588, in which one of the Prince's wild 
companions is a Sir John Oldcastle. 

As this sheet goes to press, Dr. Grosart sends me the following from John 
Trapp, M. A., to the same effect as Fuller and Daniel : " If dirt will stick 
to a mudwal, yet to marble it will not * * N. D. , Author of the three 
conversions, hath made Sr. John Oldcastle the Martyr, a Ruffian, a Robber, 
and a Rebel. His authority is taken from the Stage-players, of like con- 
science for lyes as all men know." Commentary upon Nehemiah, 1657. 
Chap. VI., v. 6. 


Twixt Johnfons grave, and Shakefpeares lighter found 
His mufe fo fleer' d that fomething ftill was found, 
Nor this, nor that, nor both, but fo his owne, 
That 'twas his marke, and he was by it knowne. 
* # * * * 

Shakefpeare to thee was dull, whofe beft jeft lyes 
I* th Ladies queftions, and the Fooles replyes ; 
Old fafhion'd wit, which walkt from town to town 
In turn'd Hofe, which our fathers call'd the Clown j 
Whofe wit our nice times would obfceannefs call, 
And which made Bawdry pals for Comicall : 
Nature was all his Art, thy veine was free 
As his, but without his fcurility j 

Upon the Dramatick Poems of Mr. John Fletcher; prefixed to the 
first edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's Works, and included 
(under that title] in Cartwrighfs Comedies, Tragicomedies, and 
Poems, 1651 \sm. 8zw.], pp. 2700^273. 

Canon Kingsley calls Cartwright a "wondrous youth." (Essays, 1873, 
p. 58. ) The fact is, he was not a good poet ; but for his manifold and 
precocious accomplishments he might have been nicknamed Drusus. Like 
Jasper Mayne, he was a dramatist in Holy Orders ; but he wrote twice as 
many plays as Mayne : viz., four. C. M. I. 

Brave Shakefpeare flow'd, yet had his Ebbings too, 
Often above Himfelfe, fometimes below j 
Thou Al waves Beft j if ought feem'd to decline, 
'Twas the unjudging Rout's miftake, not Thine. [mob ' sl 

Prefixed to the First Folio Edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Works t 1647. C. M. I. 


Shakefpear was early up, and went fo drefl 
As for thofe dawning houres he knew was beft ; 
But when the Sun fhone forth, You Two thought fit 
To weare juft Robes, and leave off Trunk-hofe-Wit. 


Let Shakefpeare, Chapman, and applauded Ben, 
Weare the Eternall merit of their Pen, 
Here I am loye-ficke : and were I to chufe, 
A Miftris corrivall 'tis Fletcher s Mufe. 

Prefixed to the first edition of Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Works. 1647. 

T. PALMER, 1647. 

I could prayfe Hey wood now : or tell how long, 
Faljlaffe from cracking Nuts hath kept the throng : 
But for a Fletcher, I muft take an Age 
And fcarce invent the Title for one Page. 

Prefixed to the first edition of Beaumont 
and Fletcher' s Works. 1647. 

C. M. I. 



* SAM. SHEITARD, 1647. 

Suck[-dry']. We are in an excellent humour lets have the 
tother quart. 

<7o7[mon-curfe]. Rare rogue in Buckram thou malt goe out 
a wit, and vie with Martin Parker, 1 or John Tailor. 2 

The I Committee~\Man Curried. A Comedy presented 
to the view of all Men. Written by S. Sheppard, 
.... Printed Anno Dom. 1647. 4to. Act. 3, p. 7. 

F. J. F. 

Having regard to the great popularity of Hen. IV, this may be an allusion 
to Falstaff's * rogues in buckram ' : though a buckram lord, rogue, man, &c. 
was a common phrase. C. M. I . 

1 The Ballad- Writer. 2 The Water-Poet. 

J. S., 1648. 

With reference to Mr. Bullen's letter printed on the next page, and issued 
in my Stubbes, Part I, 1879, a note of mine appeard in the Atheiuzum of 
April 3, 1880, saying that I had chanced to take up Wits labyrinth "in 
the British Museum, and opening it at p. 19, my eye caught at once a line 
of Petruchio's remonstrance with Kate before she touches his meat : 
The poorest service is repaid with thanks. 

Taming of the Shrew, IV. iii. 45. 

As this line is not in the ' Taming of a Shrew,' 1594, it negatives Mr. 
Bullen's supposition that J. S., the compiler of ' Wit's Labyrinth,' had 
access only to Shakspere's historical plays and 'Titus.' That J. S. was 
Shirley the dramatist I don't for a moment believe. There are other J. S. 
initial books in 1639, 1643, 1660, 1664, &c." F. J. F. 

1648. J. S. 

" * Wit's labyrinth. Or a briefe and compendious Abstract of most witty, 
ingenious, wise and learned Sentences and Phrases. Together with some hundreds 
of most pithy, facetious and patheticall, complementall expressions. Collected, 
compiled, and set forth for the benefit, pleasure, or delight of all, but principally 
the English Nobility and Gentry. Aut prodesse aut delectare potest. By J. S. 
Gent. London, printed for M. Simmons, 1648,' 410, 53 pages. 

"The quotations which [this volume] contains are strung together apparently 
without any order or arrangement, and without any indication of the sources from 
which they are derived. No name, in fact, of any author whatever is mentioned. 
The following, however, I have identified as being from Shakspeare, and, with the 
aid of Mrs. Cowden Clarke's valuable Concordance, I have appended to them 
the exact positions which they occupy in the Shakspearean dramas : 

' Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind.' 3 Henry VI., Act v. sc. 3. 

' Discretion is the better part of valour.' i Henry IV., Act v. sc. 4. 

' Uneasie lyes the head, that wears a Crowne.' 2 Henry IV., Act iii. sc. i. 

Thieves are ' Diana's Foresters or Gentlemen of the Shade.' i Henry IV., Act L sc. 2. 

' No beast so fierce but knows some touch of pity.' Richard III., Act i. sc. 2. 

' That wrens may prey where eagles dare not perch.' Richard III., Act i. sc. 3. 

' O Tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide.' 3 Henry VI., Act L sc. 4. 

' Better than he have yet worn Vulcan's badge.' Titus Andronicus, Act ii. sc. T. 

' Even such kin as the parish heifers are to the town-bulL' 2 Henry IV., Act ii. sc. 2. 

'The Fox barks not when he would steal the lamb.' 2 Henry VI., Act iii. sc. i. 

'Did ever Raven sing so like a Lark?' Titus Andronicus, Act iii. sc. i. 

' The Raven doth not hatch a Lark.' Titus Andronicus, Act ii. sc. 3. 

' Thanks, the exchequer of the Poor.' Richard II., Act ii. sc. 3. 

" I have thus verified thirteen distinct quotations from Shakspeare in this little 
work, and I believe that there are still more. Of those which I have traced, it is 
singular that all except three are from the English historical plays, and that the 
three exceptions are from ' Titus Andronicus. This would almost show that the 
compiler, whoever he was, had access only to those particular dramas, and not to 
any complete edition of Shakspeare's plays, either the 1623 edition or the 1632 
edition. Otherwise we might have expected passages from the greater dramas, 
' Hamlet,' ' Macbeth,' ' Lear,' 'Romeo and Juliet,' ' Othello,' The Tempest,' &c. 

"And now the question arises, Who was the compiler? Who was 'J. S. 
Gent.'? The first name one thinks of is that of James Shirley, a dramatist 
himself, and the last of the glorious band in whom there survived somewhat of 
the genius of Shakspeare, Marlowe, Webster, and Beaumont and Fletcher. 

" Shirley, besides being a dramatist, was a clergyman of the Church of England 
who turned Catholic. He was also a schoolmaster, and the Latin quotation of 
the title-page, together with another Latin quotation in the preface, might lead 
one to suppose that the compilation was his. But the style and manner of the 
preface are altogether unworthy of him. Here is a passage from it : 

" ' And lastly although this Poem [work ?] is but a collection of divers sentences, 
phrases, &c., as appeareth in the Title (not methodically composed or digested), 
it being unpossible in a subject of this nature so to doe, but promiscuously 
intermixt with variety and delight, which many yeares since, in times of my better 
prosperity, I gathered out of some hundreds of Authors, never having the least 
thought of putting it to Presse : yet now,' &c. Then he goes on, in the style 
usual then as at present, to say that he was prevailed on by the importunities of 
friends ' to put it into print,' &c. 

" Perhaps some one else may be more fortunate in discovering the name of the 

lAthenaum, Sept. 6, 18790 G. BUT LEN. 

A nonymoiiSy 1 64 8 . 

IVednefday the 27 of December* 

From Windfor came to White-Hall this day thus. That the 
King is pretty merry, and fpends much time in reading of 
Sermon Books, and fometirnes Shakfpeare and Ben : Johnfons 

Perfect Occur ences of Every Dates iournall in Parliament, Proceed- 
ings with His Majesty, and other moderate intelligence. No. 104. 
Fry day Dec. 22 to Fry day Dec. 30 1648. 

[It is well known that the cultivated taste of Charles I. delighted in 
Shakespere ; we here see how he could thus find distraction from his 
troubles within a month of his death. See also after, J. Cook, p. 525. 
L. T. S.] 

HENRY TUBBE, 1648-54. 

Th' Example of his Converfation 
With fuch an high, illuftrious vigour Ihone, 
The blackeft Fangs of bafe Detraaion 
Had nothing to traduce or faften on. 
His very Lookes did fairely edifie ; 
Not mafk'd with forms of falfe Hypocrifie : 
A gracefull Afpe6t, a Brow fmooth'd w th Love, 
The Curls of VemiS, with the Front of Jove ; 

An Eye like Mars, to threaten & command 
More than the Burnifh'd Scepter in his Hand : 

A Standing like the Herald Mercuric ; 

A Gefture humbly proud, & lowly high j 

A Mountaine rooted deepe, that kifTd the Skie, 

A Combination and Formalitie 

Of reall Features twifted in a String 

Of rich Ingredients, fit to make a King. 

Harleian MS. 4126, leaf 50 (or 51 by the 2nd numbering], 
back. Epistles, Poems, Characters, <SrV., 1648-1654, by Hy. 
Tubbe of St. John's College, Cambridge : from Eleg. VI on 
" The Roiatt Martyr," Charles I. 

[The Passage was first pointed out by Mr. Halliwell, and was sent by me 
to the first number of the new monthly, the Antiquary. It is somewhat 
odd, that though Tubbe uses Shakspere's lines on Hamlet's Father- 
See what a grace was seated on his Brow, 
Hyperions curies, the front of loue himselfe, 
An eye like Mars, to threaten or command 
A Station, like the Herald Mercuric 

518 HKNRY TUBBB, 1648-54. 

New lighted on a heauen-kissing hill : 
A Combination and a forme indeed, 
Where euery God did seeme to set his Scale, 
To giue the world assurance of a man. 

1st Folio, Trag.) p. 271, col. i, 

yet he doesn't name Shakspere as one of the Learned Ghosts who are to greet 
him and his friend in Elysium, If. 37 (or 39), back : "the great Shadow of 
Renowned BEN," and "Ingenious Randolph" are the only two specified 
for that honour. F. J. F.] 

Epistles I. 137,39. 

Our Spirits shall intermix, & weaue their knots ; 

Free from the trouble of these earthly Grotts ; 

Thence winged flic to the Elyaian groves, [pack} 

Where, whilst wee still renew our constant Loves, 

A Thousand Troops of Learned Ghosts shall meet 

Us, and our Comming thither gladly greet. 

First the Great Shadow of Renowned BEN 
Shall giue us hearty, joyfull Wellcome : then 
Ingenious Randolph from his lovely Arms 
Shall entertaine us with such mighty charma 
Of Strict Embraces, that wee cannot wish 
For any comforts greater than this Blisse. 

ANON. 1649. 

Here to evince thatfcandal has been thrown 
Upon a name of honour ; charactred 
From a wrong perfon, coward and buffoon ; 
Call in your cafy faiths, from what youve read 
To laugh at Falftaffej as a humour f rani d 
To grace thejlage, to pleafe the age, mifnanCd. 

No longer pleafe y out f elves to injure names 
fVho lived to honour : if, as who dare breathe 
A fy liable from Harry's choice, the Fames, 
Conferred by Princes, may redeem from death ? 
Live Faltolffe then; whofe Truft and Courage once 
Merited thejirjl Government in France. 

S/ansa 136. 139 

Tptvapx<i>$ta : The several Reigns of Richard //, Henry 
/r, and Henry V t MS. 8vo., 1649, in Hen. V. 

howe'er the heaps 

May crowd, in hungry expectation all, 
To thefweet Nugilogues of Jack and Hal. 
ib. Stanza 138. 

Then, from his bounty, blot out what may rift 
Of comic mirth, to Faljloffs prejudice. 

Stanza 140. 

The first two stanzas above are from William Oklys's Life of Sir John 
Fastolf in "A General / Dictionary, / Historical and Critical : / in which / 
A New and Accurate Translation / of that of the Celebrated / Mr. Boyle, / 

520 ANON. 1649. 

with the Corrections and Observations printed / in the late Edition at Paris, 
is included, and interspersed / with several thousand Lives never before 
published. / . . . London. M D CC XXXVII. vol. 5, p. 195, note. 
Oldys says that as Shakspere's trespass was poetical, we shall end with a 
poetical animadversion taken from an original Historical Poem on Three of 
our Kings ; in the possession of the writer of this article. Herein the Poet 
has five stanzas of reproof for this liberty taken on the Stage in derogation of 
our Knight ; but, for brevity, shall at present repeat only these two," those 

In his article on Fastolff 1 in the Biographia Britannica, 1793, Oldys 
quotes the few more lines, given above, from two more of the 5 stanzas 
he names in his first article. Yowell, in .his account of Oldys in 3 N. <Sr Q. 
i. 85 (Feb. I, 1862), has a note by Bolton Corney, saying that the MS. of 
the Trinarchodia passt into the hands of "J. P. Andrews: Park describes 
it, Restituta, iv. 166." 

The first 2 stanzas above were quoted by Mr. Halliwell in his Character 
ofFalstaff, 1841, p. 44, as from " An anonymous and inedited poet of the 
early part of the seventeenth century, whose MS. works were formerly in 
the possession of Oldys," with no other reference. This designedly vague 
way of referring to other men's quotations when he refers to em at all is 
Mr. Halliwell's normal one, and cannot be too strongly condemnd. It is 
unfair to the original quoter, and unfair to the reader, on whom is thrown 
the nuisance of a long search when he wants to find the original quotation, 
and remove Mr. H.'s later needless alterations of italics, &c. in it. F. J. F. 

Said in the B. Mus. Cat. to be revised and enlarged by Nicols. 


Anonymous, 1649. 



T Hough Joknfon, Shakefpeare, Gqffe, and Devenant, 
Brave Sucklin, Beaumont, Fletcher, Shurly want 
The life of a6tion, and their learned lines 
Are loathed, by the Monfters of the times 3 
Yet your refined Soules, can penetrate 
Their depth of merit, and excufe their Fate : 

[Sig. A 2, /. 3.] 

The Famous / Tragedie j of j King Charles I. / ... In 
which is Included, / The several Combinations and 
machinations / that brought that incomparable Prince to 
the Block, / . . . Printed in the year, 1649. P- 4- 
[Dated in ink May 26.] 

The play is full of classical allusions of all kinds, but particularly with 
allusions to the Trojan War. The references to Venus and her son (pp. 4, 
34), to Thersites (p. 25), to Cleopatra, said to "dissolve inestimable 
precious Stones in every glasse of luscious Wine " (p. 33), and to Paris 
(P- 38)> cannot be considered allusions to Shakspere. The fourth line of 
the passage printed above is a reference to the Puritan hatred of the stage. 

This Allusion was pointed out by Morris Jonas in Notes and Queries, 
7th Series, vol. x, p. 4, col, 2. M. 

El/c(&i> f) nYorrj, 1649. 

What do'ft thou mean to ftand behind the noon 
And pluck bright honour from the pale fac'd moon ? 

Et/cc6j/ ^ Uiffrrj, or The Faithfull Pourtraicture of a Loyall 
Subject, 1649, sig. A 4 b. 

[Noted by Mr. G. Thorn Drury in Notes and Queries, gth Series, x, p. 
465. The passage quotes Hotspur's words, 7 Henry IV, I, ii, 222 : 

To pluck bright honour from the pale-faced moon. M.j 

5 2 3 


From Stories of this nature both Ancient and Modern which 
abound, the Poets alfo, and fome Engliih, have been in this 
Point fo mindful of Decorum, as to put never more pious Words 
in the Mouth of any Perfon, then of a Tyrant. I (hall not 
inftance an abftrufe Author, wherein the King might be lefs 
converfant, but one whom we well know was the Clofet 
Companion of thefe his Solitudes, William Shakefpeare : who 
introduces the Perfon of Richard the Third, fpeaking in as high 
a ftrain of Piety, and mortification, as is uttered in any paflage of 
this Book [Etfcwv Ba<nXm)] ; and fometimes to the fame fenfe and 
purpofe with fome words in this Place, / intended, faith he, not 
only to oblige my Friends, but mine Enemies. The like faith 
Richard, Aft 2, Seen. i. 

" I do not know that Englijh Man alive, 
With whom my Soul is any jot at odds, 
More then the Infant that is lorn to night ; 
I thank my God for my Humility" 

Other ftuff of this fort may be read throughout the whole 
Tragedy, wherein the Poet uf d not much Licence in departing 
from the Truth of Hiftory, which delivers him a deep DifTembler, 
not of his affections only, but of Religion. 

'EneovocXa<yrjj, in Answer to a Book intituVd EIKWV fiafftXiKi) 
1690 [8w], i,//. 9-10. 



In the compiler's judgment Malone was in error in taking these remarks to 
imply a rebuke to Charles I for making Shakespeare his closet-companion. 
Milton merely takes a book which he knew was a favourite with the king, 
and out of it reads him a lesson. Apart from the single word " stuff," there 
is nothing like disparagement of Shakespeare in his remarks ; and the con- 
temptuous use of that word is the growth of a later age. Milton uses it also 
in the Introduction to Samson Agonistes, 1671. Having alluded to a tragedy 
named Christ Suffering, attributed to St. Gregory Nazianzen, Milton writes, 

' ' This is mention 'd to vindicate Tragedy from the small esteem, or rather 
infamy, which in the account of many it undergoes at this day with other 
common Interludes ; hap'ning through the Poets error of intermixing Comic 
stuff with Tragic sadness and gravity ; or introducing trivial and vulgar 
persons, which by all judicious hath bin counted absurd ; and brought in 
without discretion, corruptly to gratifie the people." Of that sort of 
Dramatic Poem which is calfd Tragedy. Q M. I. 


J. COOK, 1649. 

Had he [King Charles] but fludied Scripture half fo much as 
Ben : Johnfon or Shakefpear, he might have learnt, That when 
Amaxiah [&c.] 

King Charls his Case : or, an Appeal to all Rational Men, 
concerning his Tryal. 1649. p. 13. [4/0.] 

[Sam. Butler, the author of Hudibras, wrote an answer to Cook's 
pamphlet, entitled The Plagiary exposed : or an Old answer to a Newly 
revived Calumny against the memory of King Charles I (published 1691, 
but written " above forty years since"), in which he retorts upon Cook for 
the affectation of his language, "therefore you do ill to accuse him of 
reading Johnsons and Shakespears Plays, which should seem you have been 
more in yourself to much worse purpose, else you had never hit so right 
upon the very Dialect of their railing Advocates, in which (believe me) to 
have really outacted all that they could fansie of passionate and ridiculous 
Outrage " (p. 2). L. T. S.] 




Fhd[erwit\ Thefe things are very right Thomas, let me fee 
now the bookes of Martiall difcipline. 

Tho[mas~\ I bought up all that feeme to have relation to warr 
and fighting. 

Fnd. That was well done ; well done; Item, the Sword- 

Tho. Sir if you bee hurt you neede goe no further then the 
blade for A furgeon. 

Fnd. The Buckler of faith. 

Tho. You had thefworde before, Sir. 

Vhd. A booke of Mortification. 

Tho. I Sir, that is a kinde of killing, which I thought very 
neceflary for A Captaine. 

Vhd. Item the Booke of Cannons ; Shakfpeares workes. Why 
Shake/pears works ? 

Tho. I had nothing for the Pike men before. 

Vnd. They are playes. 

Tho. Are not all your mufteringes in the Country so, Sir ; 
Pray read on. 

The I Country Captaine, / A Comoedye / Lately Presented I By 
his Majesties Servants / at the Blackfryers / ... In 's 
Grave van Haghe. / . . . 1649, p. 25. 

[Bound with Newcastle's " Varietie" of the same date, a common title- 
page being printed for the two plays, 1649. M.] 



Courteous Reader, these Books fol- 
lowing are printed for Humphrey Mofeley, 
and are to be fold at his Shop at the Prince s 
Armes in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
* * * * 

95. Poems written by Mr. William Shakfpeare gent. 8. 
* * * 

1 08. Comedies and Tragedies written by Francis Beaumont 
and lohn Fletcher, never printed before, and now publifhed by 
the Authors Originall Copies, containing 34 plays, and a 
Mafque, Fol. 

109. The Elder Brother, 
no. The Scornful Lady. 

in. The Woman Hater. 

112. Thierry & Theordoret 40 

113. Cupids Pevenge. 

114. Mounfieur Thomas. 
11. The two Noble kinfmen. 

Francis Beaumont 
by & 

lohn Fletcher. 

Printed at the end of The Country / Captaine, / And the / 
Varietie, Two f Comedies, / [By William Cavendish, Duke 
of Newcastle^ 1649. M. 







I c, 

o <x