Skip to main content

Full text of "Shang Ko : a study of the characteristic weapon of the Bronze Age in China in the period 1311-1039 B.C"

See other formats




A study of the characteristic weapon 
of the Bronze Ape in China in the 
period 1311-1059 B. C. 

James Mellon Menzies, 3. A. Sc. 

Volume II 

A thesi s submitted in conformity v/ith the 
requirements for the degree of Do ct ox of 
Philosophy in the University of Toronto. 


Part II 

Jyntliesis of .Gonciuaions 


Aa The material ond Its provenance. 

Most of the oonmon ttoneo used in the tools and weapons 
found at Anyang oame from the T'ai Hong iXountains or thuir 
foothills* The main range extends north and soath about fifty 
railes west of the Waste of Yin, bat the foothills are not more 
than fifteen miles didtant. The goologicul fosnationa along 
this range yield rnany diffezrent kinds of sto.e and mineral* suited 
to the use of the stone and "Jade" oraftaman: slate suitable for 
sickftes, whetstone and harder stones for finding, polishing and 
sharpening, have been found near Anyang* some ornamental marbles, 
seppentine marbles, and other minerals classed in the western 
trade liats as omaroental building stones, but suitable in ancient 
times for making thin Ko blades, have been found in the T*ai 
Hang range within ordinary carrying distance* Jome atone matorialw 
may have come from the T*ai shan mountain complex in shantung* 

, The real problem concerns the many well authenticated 
examples of mineral substances, such as nephrite, vvaich have 
not yet been found b y the (];eolo^ical survey of China in local- 
ities inside the Gx^eat .Vail of China. The problem has been 
complicated by references to jade, jj^fl, in the most ancient 
classical literature. Llany of these references remain valid, 
after being submitted to the most rigorous literary criticism. 
This has led laay scholars to conclude that Jade must have been 
found in ancient times within easy reach of Anyang, Loyang and 
3ian, the early capitals of ancient China* In the classics the 
terms "jedestone", jgtt aaih . and •*Jade", ^, 7jerQ used to desig- 


nate not only nephrite and the rarer ancient Jadeite, bat ulao 

other jado-like stones. In Chinese litei^ature, therefore, the 

word Jade, j^, caimo bo restricted to nephrite and Jadeite as 

ased in modern miueralOQr.^ 

!• tfr* K. T. Chang of the Geological 3^ rvey of China has 
discussed the references to jade in Chine ae Literature 
from a mineral© fjical point of view ( Layidariura oinicum . 
Peicing 1921, see edit, 1927, pp. lll-li>(i. Chinese text). 
lYhile tiieae refcreiicee in literature cannot bo ifnored, 
it ia evident fi'om Chanii's disouasiou that tho defin- 
iteness of tho torm Jade, ytt, mat:es them insufficient in 
themaelves to determine wheTher true Jade was ever found 
in tho places indicated. All the scientific investit:a- 
tions carried on in the areas now identified with these 
place names have failed to yield any traces of- nophi'ite 
or Jadeite in situ . Jome of the kinds of ^tone called 
Jadestone, yff sh'ifa , used in the Jhaiii-; Dynasty, are illus- 
trated in sickle blade no. 5, ilo nos. 10-22, 2B-;53, 36, 
37, 62, 63 and 80. Tho article on "jade" in the Iiaicyclo- 
paedia Britannloa. 14th edit, by G. F. iLunz, t^ives tne 
06 at summary of tho many minerals mistaken fwr Jade, 
nephrite taid jcdcite, and those commonly used as sub- 
stitutes for them in China, ^unz made an exhaustive 
study of jade ao a raiiioral for H. R. Bishop's Investi- 
gationa and studies in J.Mde , llom York, 1906. ^,veii tke 
white marble, '.Yhlch came from Tine ilsien lii Hopei pro- 
vince, used in i.o I(OS. 25, 26 and 27, was called jade, ytt , 
in the inscriptions on sculptured figures made of this 
same marble about A.S.bOO. Itarble figures of Buddha were 
inscribed "Jade Buddha, jgtt fo", 

13x0 craftsmon of tSie Shang Dynasty used many different 

minerals to manufacture the "Jadestone" iCo and other "Jade" objects 

found at tho .Vaate of Tin, Anyang. A geological map shov/ing the 

quarries inhere these minerals wore found would indicate the great 

distances to which the trade in beautiful stones had extended at 

that time. True Jade or nejhrite was one of the rarer stones. It 

was used in the manufacture of sickle Ito. 5 mid jade Ko Hofj. 10, 

1:3. 14, 15, 17, 2E, 28, 30, 31. 32 and 33.* The more beautiful pieces" 

2. These have not been determined to be nephx-ito by a 

3peciall8t ir. mineraloQr, but the 'writer bolievos them 
to be such. There are many other Shang Dynast;/ jade i:o 
both of ordinary and miniature sizes preserved i; public 
and private oolloctions in China, Europe and America. It 
would add materially to thiu evidence if t/ieso jade Ko 
could bo examined by competent i:inor{.il0;.,i3ti3 to determine 


how many of tliem are made of nephrite, which 1& a 
silicate of oalciam and raaeiieaiam, Ca 1.163(3103)4, 
Jedoite, fel to'ul, la a aillcate of aodium nnd 
alomlnom.Ta 7Tr3r03)2» found iii Burma, It has b en 
ooininonly used In China iiirice the end of tae cii^htoenth 
oentore, v/hen It was Imported into Canton by sea. 
Before t at time It was brought ovorland through Yunnan 
in amall quantities. It i» aometlmes spoiiei. of na 
ooming from Yunnan, but It has not been found In situ 
there, Yunnan traders "discovered" It In Burma In the 
thirteenth century, ho Chen-yfl possessed a sword ponmoL 
made of fel ts'ui said to have been unearthed at Loyanc. 
Judging trom its design it bolonged to the second cen- 
tury B.C., %iien trading missions ore Icnovm to hi^ve 
entered China via the Burma noad. Photographs of this 
object may be seen in Lapidariam opposite p. 1^4, irlate 
III, In western countries Bunnese jadelte, of bright 
green and snow white colour, is believed to be lapcrlal 
Chinese jade, but the Chinese themselves did not consider 

it to bo Jroal jade, yfl, for they called it by a uifforent 
name, fel ts'ui . relTlot, Toung fao . ierie II, Vol, 13, 
p. 436, CUD ting the scholar Chi Yfln ( A. D. 1724-1805) Yueh 

.Yei j's'ao T'ang Pi Chi , oh. 15, sa 3 that jadeits, ^gaT 
ts'ui . from Yunnan, was not true jade, yfl . Its value, 
however, was greater than that of true Jade v/hen Chi Yfln 
was a youth, ca. 1750. Some jadeite is said to be found 
in the ilunlun mountains, but the v.Titer has not recoG- 
nized any among the many ohang Syuasty jades he has 

notably of the white, light green, yellow and gray varieties, were 

used to make scribes* engraving knives, pendants and other ornaments. 

1. Two engraving knives, made in the form of a fish with 
the tall sharpened, one of pure milk white oolour four 
and a half inches long and the other of typical muttoi> 
fat nephrite from Ilhotan, about two inchea loiit;, were 
obtained at ijiyang by the writer in 1930 and tire in his 
colleotlon in Toronto, Many other Jade ornaments from 
iinyang are scattered in public and private collections. 
3ome of Ihem have been published in L:diibition catalogues 
and elsewdiere. The best authenticated group is that 
published by ilarlbeck, Orvar, "Some iirchaic Jade Pendants 
and their Dating" The .iJurllnttQii I'^gaglne . London, 
Vol. L\XIII, llo. Cl).t:V, ..ut^ust I'Joa; pp. 68-74, Plates 
I and II, who says inter alia. 'T'wenty-one of the Anyang 
objects that illustrate the article wex'c obtained by me 
in China, some of then I saw in Anyang", A number of 
these pendants 7/ere typical shang Dynasty scribes' 
engraving loalves. These should all be examined by com- 
petent raineraloeiots to determine hov, many of the Anyang 
jades are nephrite. The characteristic ohang Dynasty 
designs and the scientific determinatioxi of the mineral 
oompoaition would be additional proof of the presence of 
nephrite at Anyang in the 3hang Dynasty. 

The only source of the white varieties of nephrite was in the 

Konlun monntaina south of ihotan, Lat. 37**, Long 80°f in the extreme 


south west oomer of ^inidane or Chinese Turkestan.-^ The fact that 

1, Pelliot, p., "I«3 Pretendua Jades de Sou-Tcheou (iCan-Sou)" 
Tbung Pao . jerie II, Vol, 14, pp. 268-;i60, Loafer, 
Jade . vJ^Bd, quotes the I'.an 3u T*un^^ Clxlh . ch, aO, p.7h. 
"jade is obtained from tSfe~rTver Hang oiiui Pa in 3a Chou"? 
i^lllot, Toupg LtiO, oerie II, Vol. 13, p. 436, in a 
reriev; of this hoolc, says 'Je cormais oette pierre qu'on 
travaille dana la recion; c'est on raarble verte assez 
fineraont viend et non on jade*^. Later i«lliot saw Joaejh 
Martin's letter to M, IJaubr*e written 5 January 1091 
published in La Geographie , Bullotin de la oociety de 
Geosraphie . Vol, 267 19Lii, pp, 376-598, which reported 
Martin's discovery of nephrite in the lian 3han mountains 
near su Chou, Pelliot then requested Ji. L, O^.yeux, 
Professor of Geology in the College de France, to examine 
one of the objects manufactured in 3u Chou which he hio^ 
self had brought back from there. Professor Cayeux in- 
formed him that the object was "Hi du Jade, ni de la 
Jad*ite, mais la serpentine", Cayeoz remarked to Pelliot 
that aer' entine capable of being worked, while not very 
common, wjus much less rare than Jade (neptlirite) and 
Jadeite, Pe Hot then ends his careful note with the 
finding "Le premier giseraent de vrai Jade reste done 
encore a ddcouvrir dans la Chine propre", Laufer, Jade , 
p, 24, says that Lu dung (A, 1,1020-1101), positively 
stated that in his time Jade, ytt , was iuarriod only in 
1310 tan or Ytt T'ien, H, T, Chang, representing the 
Geological durvey of China, after reviewing the vshole 
situation in 1927, came to the same conclusion, Lapidarium ] 

much Jade was found in liliotan or Ytt T'ien was well known in the 

second century B,C,* This was recorded by Sso-ma Ch'ien in Book 

2* Ancient Yft T'ien was at xJiotan, not at ileriya which is 
now called Ytt T'ien, see Ancient Jiotan .p, 155, note 18, 

123 of Ms History, Jhih Chi , on Ferghana or Ta Yuan,^ Ssu-ma 

3, Fr^aderiok Ilirth's translation of this statement may be 
consulted, in the Journal of the American Oriental society . 
Vol, 37, 1917, paragraph 23, This paragraph will boiir re- 
study. It reads "In the west part of Ytt T'ien all v^i^ters 
run west flowing into the western sea", Thiy has usually 
been interpreted to mean the waters west of the city of 
^otan 7/hich of course do not run west up the Pamir mount- 
ains or flow into the western sea. The difficulty has 
often been noted. See Ancient .3iotan p, 167, note 6, The 
writer auggosts that this statement, instead of being co]> 
sidered incorrect, may indicate the upper reaches of the 
Indus aiver on the othur side of the ^larakorara pass ^^ 
the head waters of the i.arakash river. The 3hui Ching Chu , 
oar most accurate early geographical text, says "un top 
of tile mountains south of Ytt T'ien much jadestone is found", 
S,W.Dushell. Chinese Art , sec. edit,, 1U09, Vol.1, p. 124, 
says "The principal x'ivers regularly fished for jade peb- 
bles are the upper wat-ii's of the Yarkand aria and the 


Yorune ilaah, ".Vhite Jade", and ilairakaalx, "Black Jade", 
rlvera of ^Jiotan", Fa Helen, the earlleat Chinese 
Btt. dhist prieat to leave e record of hi3 journey to 
India, describes the gorges of the Indus .dver on the 
other ^'ide of the ranee, and it may well be th t this 
is what Chang Ch'ien reported when he described tho 
country of Ytt T'ien, If this bo so it nay well indicate 
a way of contact between the sjioient civilizations of 
the Indus valley and those of iUicient China. Thi;i brief 
description of Ytt T'ien ooiitinues '•'•n the eaat part of it 
water runs east flowing into the Salt Marsh (Lob IJor), 
The salt marsji aeeps away underground. In the south 
part of it is the source from vhlch the Yellov/ ;iver. 
Ho, flows irto the Iliddle i^incdom, Chnn^ iruo . while the 
cTty of Lou i>an Ku. Shih has its city walla border! n^ 
on the lialt I.larah about five thousand li (sixteen 
hundred and aixty-six Engliah mllea) distant frow 

ChAang An (Sian)", The usual interpretation of this 
passage gives two cities Lou Lan and Zu 3hih, but the 
writer suggests that one only was intended. The ancient 
site of Lou Lan has been discovered by Aurel 3tein at 
Lat. 40°30 Long, 90°, R, A, Smith "The Stone Age in 
Chinese Turkestan", Man . Vol, XI, 1911, p. 81 sqq 
article IJo, 52 anci plate, describes 140 stone age arti- 
facts found at tliis LouLan site, Some of these sre 
nephrite, while others are jasper. This palaeolithic 
Industry has striking similarities to th^t found by 
licent and Teilhard in the Ordos desert in 1923, See 
"On the Discovery of a Palaeolithic Industry in northern 
China", Bulletin of the Geological Jociety of China . Vol. 
3 p. 45-50, Peking 1924, The same industry was found 
in the Yellov; River basin between Shensi and Shansi in 
1928, See Teilhard and C, C, Young, "Preliminary Obsei*- 
vations on the Pre-loessic and Post Pontian Forraations in 
Western Shansi and IJorthern Shensi", Memoirs of the 
Geological .^arvey of China . Series A, Ij'o, 8, pp. .34-36, 
Pel ping 1930, The ancient si^l^w^s visited twice by 
Aurel stein, and some excavations were carried on there, 
Hissreports are given in Serindla and Innermost Asia, 
This site of Lou Lan seems to offer the best op ortunity 
knovm to the writer to discover a sequence of cultui'es 
extending from the time of Christ right back to the 
palaeolithic age. This is represented by sixty knife 
blades of jasper "with single or double ridges showing 
that laiey were struck by people who understood the art 
of detaching regular two edged flakes"; see Serindia 
p, 367 and Plate XIX, The willow- leaf shaped arrow-head (?) 
Of jasper, Cia2.0064, is very similar to a much worn 
blade of flint or jasper obtained by the writer at 
Anyang from a peasant from Hsiao T'un village, who said 
he found it among oracle bones and other artifacts at 
the Vaste of Yin, This is the only chipped implement 
the writer has seen that was said to come from Anyang, 
Its similarity to those found at Lou Lan suggests thut 
it may have been brout';ht from that place in the Shang 
Dynasty, Innermost Asia p. 265, Stein describes some 
graves found at Lou Lan, These v/ere .veil preserved and 
represent the people of LouLan, The grave LF,3 was of 
a young girl, with oval faoe and hair cut round the 
forehead. It contained a large jade bead, green, 9/16 
ins, by 3/8 ins diam,, nlimbered LF,3,04, This is 
figured on plate ZXIV with bone pin LFa,03. The bead 
is elsewhere described as "greenish, translucent, glass- 
like, tubular". Photograph Fig, 173 p, 263 shows -.■. man 
with high bridge, aquiline nose and abundant dark hair on 
head and round the chin and mouth; the head was dolicho- 
cephalous; Stein calls him Homo Alpinus, similar to people 
noted by him in the Hindu i.ush and the Pamirs, The 
purpose of this long note on 3su-ma Ch*ien's record of 
"Much jade found in Ytl T'ien' is toshow how well his 
account of this area accords with geography end with 
arohaeologically ascertained facts. It also shov/s th*t 
he was right in including the people of Ytt T'ien, which 
extended as far east as Lou Lan and Lob nor, along v^ith 
the peoples of Ferghaua on the other side of the Pamirs, 


These same people may have existed on Loa Lan sinoe 
Palaeolithic tiroes, and extended as far oast as the 
Yellow Hiver basin between dhensi and ahansi* 

Ch'ien's History was oompleted in 99 B«C,, and the description 

of Ytt T*ien was based on Arabaasador Chang Ch' ion's field e>:plor- 

ations made in the Western .^et^ions before 128 B.C. 

In modern times Chinese and i:iUropean geolocists and 

geographers, with soientifio training, have searched in vain for 

nephrite and jadeite in sita within the confines of the former 

eighteen provinces inside the Great //all. It follov/s from this 

evidence that the jade merchants of the Jhang Dynasty, 1311-1039 

B«C*, had trade relations with Jade producing places outside 

the Great Vall.^ For two thousand years the nephrite used in 

1» llie word Shang of "Shang Dynasty" means "merchant", 
more particularly "travelling merchant". Dr. Hu >ihih 
has spoken of the acattering of the "merchajit people" 
Shang Jen among the states after tas rise of the Chott 
Dynasty, but it seems probable thut travelling in 
search of merchandise was characteristic of th« .iJhang 
people beforethe fall of that dynasty. Some v;hite 
nepibLrite from jOiotan, as well as "dark, luatrous, indi^^; o 
nephrite" from hurope, reached Troy in the Aegean in the 
time of the first, second third and fifth cities I'^diioh 
have been excavated by Schlieracjm. ThiB uiiitc jade 
probably came over a northern route, and not through the 
ancient centres of civilization in Iran and Mesopotamia. 
These ancieait cities, and those of India, wa^e nearer tae 
mountains southwest of ^Jiotan than was thu capital of the 
Shang Dynasty at Anyang, yet this source of jade supply 
was not tapped by them, but by ohang Dynasty merchants 
who valued jade much more higplly than they did, for a 
large number of jades worked in the second millenium B.C. 
have been found in China, but vei-y few in the ancient 
IJear }i.a8t* It seems probable, from the archaeological 
evidence available, that the territory outside the Great 
<i/all was occupied frcna ancient times by non-Chinese 
peoples, but that in this trade the selection and 
valuation of jade boulders was always carried on by 
Chinese jade connoisseurs at the source of supply. 

China has been reported to have come from the jiunlon mountains, 
most of It forwarded from the most westerly cities of iJiotan, 
Yarkand and i^ashgar. Since the fourth century A.D. the southern 
trade route along the foot of the Kunlun range has not been much 


ased, but it seems poasiblo that it was used in tbe shang l);$imsty» 
for neolithic jade oelta as well ea boulders have been found along 
this route as far east as the deserted ancient oity of Loulan on 
the shores of Lob Kor. 

]7ephrite is found also in the neighbourhood of Manas, 
north of tixe T*ien Shan in northern Si/iklang. This locality 
yields a Jado dark spinach green in colour, and does not appear 
to have been the source of any Shang I^asty Jade. It 7. as from 
this place that the great monolith of Tamerlane at saraarkund 
was brou^t ca« A.D* 1405. Outside the political boundaries of 
China, the region west of Lake Baikal in Siberia and the Sayan 
mountains north of Tannu Tuva both produce some nephrite, but 
the colours of these jades are not duplicated among the Shang 
Dynasty pieces. The jadeite, fei ts ' ui , of Burma oomes from 
the extreme northwest of that country, Lat. a5°46', Long.96°15 • 
It has not been recognized among Shang llynasty objects. All 
these nephrite and jade inaterials are now common on the jade 
markets of Paiping and Shanghai, and great care must be e^cer- 
cised to avoid modem forgeries of ancient objects niade from 

The varieties of jade most highly prized in the Shang and 
early Chou dynasties are revealed by an e^anination of the pend- 
ants and other jade objects from Anyang, Hsdn Haien, liOyang and Sian.' 

1. T'ien Yeh Ila'o :.u lap Kao . Shanghai, No.l, 1936, p. 200, 
platesTT 8 Qrid"15. The ei^ty-five jade objects excava- 
ted from tho Ho tin Hsien Tombs by the Academla :;inica, some 
of \,*ich are illustrated in these r>lates, include two 
niniaturesKo similar to „o 28- .31. i^elliot. P., Jades 
Archaiquaa de Chine were said to come from Loyang. i^aufer, 
li. , ArJiiaio Chinese Jades v/ero also said to come from 
Loyang. .^arlbeck, orvar, ' some Archaic Chinese Jade 
Pendants and their I)ating " distinguishes "clear ly vxe 
provenance of uinpiecea who there from Anyang or Loyang. 
Ilxe Field MuseaTi, Chicago, posoesses some early jades 

^n^ fi8a^eS^«fio^l§9 g?e^^- M^ti^i sfeii^ S^^ f?!^' 
fellow from Fighting Cock Terrace ivest of Sian. 

Among the objects from these sites a cloudy to translucent jade of 

very fine texture in several colourations stands out as the moat 
beaatiful. The most distinctive colours are a light green and a 
yellow. There is also an opaque milk white variety somewhat diff- 
erent from the white nephrite from Liiotan. In the ^^oyal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology Jade Ko IJos. 14 and 15 and miniature Ko No, 
31 are classed as yellow. Ko Wos. 14 and 15 were said to have been 
found together with yellow jade eagle IJB.4039. At Anyang the writer 
obtained a small pierced square ornament of yellow jade which came 
from the xaate of Yin, Thia yellow Jjade is so distinctive that it 

should not be difficult to identify the quarries from w^ioh it came, 
S. ff. Bushell, in hlk Chinese ^rt . eeb, edit, 1909, 

reprinted 1924, Vol. 1, p, 124, states, "llephrite has been found 

to occur in many other rivers flowing from the iCunlun Mountains, 

the traditional source of jade as far east as Lake Lob, It was 

discovered by Russian geologists in situ in 1891 still further 

east in the province of Ilansu on the north of the ilunlun .lange 

between Zuka Uor iKoKo Nor) and the Han Shan Mountains where 

the nephrite A-as cloudy to translucent an^ of light greenimilk- 

white or sulphur yellow colour. This is interesting as the 

first record of yellow jade in situ".^ 

1, This discovery of yellov/ jade in situ by l^ussian 
geologists ill 1891 has been quoTed many times. The 
original source reference used by Bushell does not 
appear to have buen available to those wrio quote his 
statement:- F. W, Rudler, Llncyclopaedia Britannica , 
9th edit., ''Jade"; Una Pope-Hennessy, £^arly Chinese 
Jade , p, 5; H, T, Chang, Lapidartnm , p, 122; Pelliot 
ignores I-ushell's statement in his discussion of Su 
Chou "Serpentine ' reported by Joseph Martin as 
"nephrite" in 1891. Martin was French and not .-iussian, 
but his specimens of jade were sent to the societ* de 
Geographie de Petersbourg, after his death in Central 
Asia and uhis confusion resulted, Pelliot fails to 
report Martin's description of the jade, he says 'II 
y en a de toutes les couleiirs; vert mat, vert d'eau, 
blaac mat, blanc de la it meae tres transparent, jaune 
de soufre, etc, etc," This accords so well with Bushell's 
description that there can be little doubt th t the same 
source of jade is being described, whether by the same 

■ V?;^**} ^'' 


definite acientific deteiTiii nation of the mineral com- 
position of the specimens aent to iissia and in view 
of tile analysis rasdo by Profeofjox* Cayeaux of Pelllot's 
GpRCimena from Sou Chou as 'serpentine ', the question 
of the accuracy of the statement that the yelloiv jade 
of Han Shan is nephrite must be left sub judice . 

It seems possible that the yellow jade of Xo IJos. 14, 
15 and 81, as well es many other Shang Dynasty jade ornaments, may 
haye come from this source in the Han Shan Mountains near 3q Chpu, 
The identity of the material of the jade from Anyang with the lade- 
from the L'an Shan L'ountains can only Ve proved by a careful com- 
parison not only of their colour and physical appearance feut also 
of the mineral composition. The question of whether they are both 
"nephrite" or both /^''serpentine" does not alter the evidence for 
the trade in jade^betv\/een the capital of the Shang Dynasty and the 
Xanstt Corridor provided they are both alike. 

Yellow jade has always been prijred in China and the 
same type appears to have been av: liable in at least three widely 
separated and important periods of time; in the Shang Dynasty, 1311- 
lOsS B.C.; in the Late Chou and Han Dynasties 481 B.C. -,220 . ,, 
and in the recent past. It li-ay be seen in the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology collection in objects of all three periods. 
Besides the Shang Dynasty jades, ^o 14, 15 and 31 and jade eagle 

IIB.4039, it is found in sv;ord pommel disc HB.4887, said to be from 
.. Toral) h of ''IA|« Homo^ ol jlu ijoyan/t at Chin- Ta • un. The beautiful 

W.;;,..4s^^ . :ii judo i:: the rSim iit 

' ' a 1, - -- orfitchli-c Itself ■'^y'i to Mli^* paw" 

approKiiaatoa in colouration and toxtuie jade ^.o .31, . recently mined 

1. Tomba of old Loymig . p. 1.33, plate OwCVII, ilo. ..31i>b. 
yellow jade i.j found in notched oirclot im.1970. Tniti is ali/iilar 
in ai^e end shape to a ycllo;? jade circlet once in the possession 
of vVtt Ta-3h*eng, ana was probably made on 


the basis of his drawing and description published in 1889. •'• 

l.Lu jm T'g llao pp. 52-54, He precariously identified 
it as^an astronomical instrument", suan chl, and the 
yellow jade as the "gem from the wild tri'Ees of the east" 
yi ytt, mentioned in the "Testamentary Charge" Legge III 
p. inr4. Km Iiidex 42, 0325. Laiifer Jade p. 104-112 Fie. 
38, .ifu Ta-ch4eng had per-onally secui'ed an ornament of 
yellow jade said to oome from the Yi Ju LH nountaino '^eat 
of Mul:den on one of his official visits to the place. He 
recognized t le substance to be similar to that in his 
jade circlet and on this ground alont he idciiitificd it as 
the "gem from the wild tribes of the east", Laufer, jade 

pp. 108-110, H. T. Chang, Lapidarium p. 123 note says 

that this mineral substance is not true jade but "serp- 
entine". This raises the question of a second source for 
modern yello";; jade in the mountains west of Mukden, but 
this can only effedt the modern jade, for the soui'ce in 
the ran Shan was on the direct line of the regular jade 
trade route, while that in the north was not accessible 
before the time of Christ, 

It thus appears "ttiat t2iie9e "jrello-.v Jadel octaivlea ir. the 
Han 3han near i a Choa liave px*aciuoed "Jade" ^,t^e iihAZj^ D^t^sty, in 
the late Choa and Han Dynasties, and that they are still open and 
producing yellow Jade today. They have much the same history as the 
Jade mineg at ^hotan, except that they produce leas material and are 
located several thousand li nearer to the ancient centre of Chinese 
civilization at fighting Cock Terrace and dian. This trade in Jade 
from iJiotan was noted in the Ean ].)ynasty by the travellers to the 
••/est, by the early Buddhist travellers to India, by Marco lolo, 
Benedict Goez and a host of others, all down the agee,^ 

2, Ancient I3io tan . p,87, note 10 and pp,lo2 f, ; Yule, Jeireo 
Polo Vol, 1, pp, 191, 193, note; Yule, Gcthay and tW 
/Vay Thither II, p, uG4, 

In 1915 the writer found on the site of the ^i^aste of Yin a 

fragment of a large jade iJ> similar to llo. 17,^ 'She mineral atruo- 

3, 1JB,1812 depOBitod by the writer in the iloyal Ontario 
Mttseura of Archaeology in 1916, 

ture of this fragmfint is very similar to that of Jade Ko No, 17, 

frran Fighting Cock Terrace, ohensi, «,iiich the writer examined 

carefully in Vashington, The ntaterial 

in thiy fragment is also 

'>»- ^ f^fJttA ■'i'^> 


similar to that of a large jade iCo no?; in Cheeloo University 
Maseora, Tsinau, Shantung, vihioh was probably fouzxd in the neigh- 
boorhood of Wei Ubien or Ch*ing Chou Fa, half way between Tsinan 
and the sea coast of Tsinc Tao« The same material oooors a^ain 
in the large Shang Dynasty jade ..o Iio« 53, later reshaped into a 
Icnei and obtained in ^.aifeng* The distx'ibation of this one type 
of nephrite peculiar in structure and colour, all made into the 
same kind of very large jade i^o, suggests the east and west line 
of one of the 3hang Dynasty ijade trade routes, wnich may be 
traced from the ancient Shang sites in ohantung and Tlorth Houan 


as far west as Fighting Cock Terrace in Jhensi and may^^be traced 
even further when the Bource of this particular type of nephrite 
can be more exaotly located in the ::unlan mountains. 

ffe nay sum up the implications of the foregoing study of 
the materials and their provenance as follows; 

Waterworn pebbles and boulders of distinctive \vihite neph- 
rite wero accesuible to iirimitive man as they lay alon£ the banks 
of the Yorung Ilash (<Vhit& Jade lUver) at 1 1)6 western end of the 
Tarim basin north of Tibet. Other distinctive sfoi attaactive stones 
such as yellow nephrite (or precious serpentine) were also available 

at the eastern- end nearer China. Trade in this beautiful stone 
material had already developed in neolithic timeo. The fibrous 
tough nature of jade, as well as the lustrous polish and patination 
which it took on, attracted the aesthetic appreciation of early 
Chinese craftsmen and connoisseurs. They saw the latent artistic 
possibilities in this medium. The passion of the Chinese for jade 
drew the trade in it as far as the capital of the ohang Dynasty 
in Horth Honan, and to the eastern limits of the land at the shores 
of the "i^orthem Sea" in ohantung. •'■ This trade in jade was carried 

1, The northern Jea, or IH) Hai, which was the aiiclent . 
narie of tho aea on the northern side of the 3hantuntS 

on in spite of the intervening physical and ethnic barriers, and 

is attested by the presence of nephrite not only in the excava* 

tions at Anyang, but also in sporadic finds in .Tiany other places 

in this area,*^ iifhile this trade extended to the Tory borders of 

2, An ancient literary tradition uTitton down before the 
baminc- of the booka in 213 B.C. records that "Wa Wang 
captured from the ihonc Dynasty fourteen thousand pieces 
of ancient precious jade and a hondred find eighty thou- 
sand pieces of pendant jades". See Chavannea Les Mem- 
oires ilistoriquea Vol, V, p. 457 note 1 on the date and 
importance of the Yl Choa ^u . This tradition .voultl 
account for the presence of many of the jade pendants 
found in the Choa Dynasty cemetery at Hsfln Hsien and 
others reputed to cone from Loyang and oinn, which 
appear from their designs to be of 3hang Dynasty workman- 
ehip. The adjective "precious" seeria to indicate jade 
£o used An the ritual servicea. Two main features in 
XUxe sk'iiiHx pao are "jade under a roof. Jade j:o and 
pendants ai-e the two natural divisions of ihang Djmaaty 

ancient Iran and India, tiiis does not imply that the Chinese leamei 

the art of carving jade from Iran, India or Mesppotamia, Ho jade 
Kg, scribes* engraving knives, or jade pendants carved with charac- 
teristic 3hang Dynasty designs have been found in the Tarim basin 
by such careful observers and collectors as 3ven Hedin or Aurel 
Stein, who have both covered the area thorouf^xly a number of times. 
Neither of these Jade objects, the i:o and the Itviner's knife for 
inscribing oracle bones, or the designs oharacteristio of the jade 
pendants, are found in these Middle and Sear P^aatorn civilizations. 
Indeed, the people of these vitilizationa valued lapis lazuli and 
gold rather than jade, i^ile the most ancient Chinese set little 
value on these "valuables", if we may judge by their absence from 
3hang Dynasty sites. "Hie place of origin of the dhang rynasty 
oulture complex, vshich developed the jade Ko, Bni\ extended its 
search so far west for the materials from which to make them, was 

ftflnt^^ 4v, *v ^ Ohtnm and not in the v^st. The deteirw(n- 
oentred in the east of • 

ev-a at \n ^ 

-ing^ QCioY in^the Shang Pynasty Jade iro was not Mie Imported 
nephrite from which it was made, but rather the ritual md arti- 
stic conceptions in tho mind of the Jade craftsman who seoeht 
80 far for his material and who so patiently worked it into its 
final fozTQs* 

B» Technique of Manafactore 

The processes ased in the Sh&ng Dynasty to manafactore 
etone axes and adzes were merely refinements of those used in 
the preceeding Lungshan or "Black-pottery"' cplture of the 
neolithic age. Much of the slate used at Anyang was coarse, 
sandy and fL7ll of "shakes'*. Such material did not stand much 
hard aseoe; hence the large proT>ortion of split and broken blades 
foand in the exoavationn of the Aoadomla alnica at that site. In 
the making of sickle blades, the rjlate was first split into flat 
pieces and roughly shape* with a hamincr. Pieces with open seams 
wexre then rejected, sound pieces were placed on the grinds ton 
for shaping, 

Grlndatone !To« 4 was said to have cone from iUayang, The 

writer has seen fragcaentary grinds tcsios on the site of the .vaste 

of Yin,^ 

1, T!h,Q3e \7ev3 somewhat tiimilar to the uarlier tP^lndstones 
excavated by the Acadenia :Unioa at Lunj^ahan, shantuiig. 
In the linclish sujTnary of ttie LJh'cng-tsu-yai publication 
it la called a "polishing; stone'', 11, to dlstiiicuish it 
froti a"crindlr:g stone", no, Uised iTTce an"ink slab**, 
probably to grind HabraaTves", Ch * eng- 1 z u-ya 1 "polishine- 
stone 5, drawing PI, XZXlll, Fif^, 2; photorjraph, iLXXXVIII, 
Fig, 3; "grinding stone "drawing, ^1, aa.:iii, Fic» 3» 
photograph, PI. XJl 7111, Fig. ^, .ngllsh text, pp. 23- 
24, Chinese text pp, 7i5-74, 

The striatlons on the sides of the ohang Iiynasty alate 

sickles lies, 1^ Z andS were made perpendicular to the cutting 

edge when tlao aiekle was first shaped on the grindstone. The 

rooking movement of grinding raede the aides slightly cojivex. 
The top or baok of the sickle was left blunt, but the lower 
side WQ3 tapered to an edge. This edge vii.3 then sharpened by 
pushing the slate on the grindstone at an angle of 45 degrees t> 
to the cutting edge* Tie blade was then turned over and the oti 
other side uharpened at an angle of 4£ degrees to the edge, but 
at a right angle to the stx'oko on the firjt Ude* This produced 
a finely serrated edge. The distance between serrations on some 
twenty examples measur'ad averaged one millimetre • Ihin edge was 
very efficient i;i cutting grain. 

About one percent of thu sickles found at Anyang were madQ 
not of coarse slate, but of finer varieties of slate, ^^^een-stone 
and even sandstone (sickle Uo, 9). The edges on these blades 
were not so definitely serrated, and conformed more closely in 
shape to tho late neolithio typee reported from llorth China. It 
is not poijsible vdLthout a close study of stratification to b 
sure of the date of stone implements found on a site such as 
the vVa8t€i of Yin, ainoe they work their way to the surface of 
the ground whenever the earth is disturbed. It is very probable, 
however, that Nos* 6, 7, 6 and 9 were made in the dhsag Dynasty 
by methods of grinding and sharpening similar to those used for 
coarse slate. 

Once a sickle blade was hafted it could be re^sharpened 
in one of two ways. Sf a serrated edge was desired, tne sickle 
was taken back to the large stationary grindstone at the dwelling 
house f c>uoh grindstones are found today in every Chinese farmers 
courtyard. In the fields, sickles were sharpened by a whetstone 
held in the hand and carried on the peraon, J tone sickle llo. Q 
had clearly been treated In this way. The writex* has seen, on 

the .rnste of Yin, long rounded stones like scythe stones which 


had probably been uaed for this purpose. Originally jade w 

1* Oil a rich site like A23yang euoh stones are rarely 

preserved even by excavators. They are usually thrown 
ev/ay with the mass of rubble and ahapelosa potsherds. 
;.'e must ovftiit the fiiial ^ porta of the iioademia yinica 
ijccavationa at Anyang to learn whether auy hfive been 
recorded. Five Llarly Chou Dynasty r-hetatoiies ?/ere ex- 
cavated by the Academia jinica from c^avea at Hato Hsien 
but no photot^^yapha or nieasurenonta are yet available; 
thz'ee had holes for eueponsion; oi:e had c handle trip, 
and one wao broken. T * ien-Yeh-- ap-jLa- lao-gao Ho, 1, 
p. 193. ^uch a Vi/hcta'^5nc a'ay 'Iil.m.. Tjeba o ailed a ts'o . 
Giles 11770. Ode 164.1 reads 'Cthor hilla have stones 

that can sci-ve as 'whetstones". Tliia translation ia 
supported fey the parallel line at tiie end of vase S which 
reads 'Other hills have stones; that oui. work jede". The 
P.,0,;',A has a numbt.r of finer whetstones from Anysmg; 
l^B,3;-^66, v;ithou"U suojension hole; ID,3oG6 and IIB,4y81 
both with auspension holes. The writer has a nuinber of 
these «4iet»tone3 obtained by iiim at Anyang, it is 
improbable, however, that these were used to sharpen 
ordinary slate sickles, for the corners are quite 
square and not abraded. Any abrasion oartis are found 
on the flat sides. They were not uaed by farmers but 
probably by scribes and diviners, to sharj^en the small 

graving knives loade of jade v^aich they used to 
inscribe oracle bones, 

Origlnaftliy jade was probably cut from the boulders with 

sandstone saws, in much the same way as the Indian tribes of tho 

Frasor liiver Valley in British Columbia, Canada, shaped their 

jade tools. Jade boulders as large as those from British Columbia^ 

Z, 19iie R,0.i:.A, houses a collection of these tools made 

by Lieut, Gtior{ie T, iifjimons; axes, adzes, chisels, scrap- 
ers, and a few knives (lL-,1675, Hi:,1576), The cores 
(e,s, Hi.,lu41 and K-iI,15Sl) show 7.hat remained after long 
strips had been out off. Tiie sandstone saws (IIi:.lu49, 
h:.,1660, IL..1551, H:^,15Ii2, Ux.,l£/53) indicate the ..ind of 
saw to be looked for in China, I'uch sandstone of a 
similar Kind, suitable fox sav/s, vnn found at Anyang; 
sickle ITo, 9 is made from such material, 

.3, Laree jade boulder from British Columbia HK,1720. 

would yield strips Icng enough for large Jhang Dynasty jade Ko, on 

the reverse side of i.o IIo, 13 a crease or uneven step in the jade 

indicates that the boulder was sawn from t7;o sides, probably by a 

stone saw, and that the two planes were not in exact alignment. 

There is a similar cvease on the ii^^scribed side of jade Ilo ITo, 

19,13, whioh is the companion of So liOm 17 and is now housed 

in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, x^rfeot oo/itrol of the 

planes with a .stone saw wxs difficult to :naiiit4&n; when a ridge 

protruded thio oculd bo ground off, but when the faulty saw out 

introdec into the thicknees of the blade it was difficult to 

grind away the depression without ruining the whole • ..hile the 

bow-saw with abrasive was csod in the 3han£ Dynasty and may have 

been employofi to cut the lor^ blades of jade .0, yet the use of 

sandstone saws may well have persisted from times xihen more 

primitive methods were used. Jtonc saws had the important 

advantage of being easily procare< and inexpensive to use, but 

It must be admitted that none have yet been recognized amonf;^ the 

debris at ilnyang, 

Stouo Ko Uos* 23 and 24 seem to have boon cut into roue:^ 

shape Tdth saws and abrasives and then shai>ed into final form on 

a g: indstone* l^iu method was certainly used to shape also .0 

llos, 25, 26, end 27, of white marble. This can be seen in the 

drawing of Ko» 27, ;7here the straight line of the saw mark; was 

left on the obverse side of the blade. In Pei pints the present 

day Chinese lapidary, vAxen sawing up Jade boulders from iJiotoii, 

uses a wire bow-saw. It is made of a simple bow of bamboo, four 

to six feet long, depending on the size of oulders tc be cut. 

The wire is either single or of several fine strands t.visted. 

This tew is operated by two persons, one drawing at each end, a 

third applies the abrasive sludge in the slot cut by the saw, A 

two man toothless iron blade saw in also used with abrasive sand, 

1, A fragment of an iron saw 1 mm, ttiiok was found embedded 
in a flat piece of stone !n,5271, said to bo from Chin 
ts'un, see ,C,.Vhite, Tombs of Old Loyang . one of the Group 
described andor IJo, 344, 

Bronse saws of the same eort may have been uacd in ancient times 
although the writer is aware of no definite evidence of ouch. 


The cuttings on stone objects from Anyang prove that the bow 
string saw was used because of the sharp turns sawn in the open 
fret work,-'- Abrasives for use with saws were ground on grinding 

1. A small stone ornament found by the writer on the anclBnt 
site in 1914-15 (IIB.1813) has a cut 1 ram. wide. The 
comers of the cut are rounded, suggesting the round 
section of cat-cut, twisted cord, fine rattan or perhaps 
copper wire, used as bowstring saw together 7/ith abrasive 
sludge. Other examples in R.O.M.A. are NB.4076 and 

stones, mo, like the one found at Lungshan. The abrasive 

was called "cut-through- Jade-sand".^ All the other essential tools 

2. Chi eh ytt sha ; Giles IJo. 1515; Lapldarium . pp. 128-130. 
In PeipTng today powdered quartz is technically called 
"yellow sand", huang sha ; powdered garnets "red sand", 
hong sha ; v;hile carborundum, a recent introduction now 
widely used with lap wheels, is called "black sand", 

htt sha. See S. W. Bushell, Chinese Art , V41. 1, p.lE8-131. 

now used by the jade craftsman in Pelplng were probably employed 
In the Shang Dynasty. These tools have been briefly but adequately 
described by S. W. Bushell. The tools of the jade craftsman are 

3. "Chinese Methods of Working Jade", Chinese Art , London, 
1st edit, 1904, sec. edit. 1909, Vol. 1, pp. 128-131. 
For Illustrations of the modern tools and process cf. 
H. R. Bishop, Investigations and Studies in Jade , Hew 
York, 1'J06, 2 folio vols.; C S. Uott, Chinese Jade 
Thro u^o at the Ages , London, 1936, Nev/ York, 1937, PI. 
II; Julean xirnold, "Jade" Asia, Vol. JGLiVI, 1936, pp. 

the sfj|me throughout 5hina: Canton, Shanghai, soochow, in Zansu 

province, and even in the far west at Ihotan and iCashgar. It is 
best, however, to describe the Peiplng tools, where the methods 
are still the same as those used when jade objects were made for 
the manchu court. With the exceptions of black diamond, emery 
and carborundum, no modern foreign materials or tools are employed 
that were not available two thousand years ago, when iron began 
to be used. Motor driven machinery has been tried and discarded 
by the best shops, even for the tedious work of cutting large 
blocks of Jade* Besides the bowstring saw and the abrasives, 

these tools conoist mainly of drills. Dx'llls were propelled In 

three different ways. The simplost typo was the bow drill, 

developed from an arrow with a bowstring twisted around It. Hie 

1. Petrle, Tools and ^^gapona. I*ondon, 1917, p. 39, para- 
graph 103, plates XLIII, Figs. M 6 and 7; JO. VII I, Fiea 
M 8, 9, 10 and 11; :a.III, Flga. M la, 13, 14 and 16; 
LI, Fig. M 16. These all lllaatrate the bow di^ill in 
the ancient Near East, particularly Egypt. The Chinese 
\)07} drill was almost Ideutlol^l, and had much the same 
variations of type, according to the use to vdiioh the 
tool wao adapted. 

craftsman operated this drill with his rlghi haAd. Pressure was 


applied by the left hand, v^hloh held the drill cap or head-piece. 

If the left hand was required to manipulate the jade object, 

pressure was applied by special types of drill cap pressed against 

the breast or chin. Continuous heavy pressure was obtained by 

means of a heavy weight suspended from a horizontal adjustable bar 

to which the drill oap was fixed. .>uoh a frar/ievvork, mounted on a 

table, permitted the left hand to manipulate the jade object and 

apply the abrasive, while the ri^t hand wielded the bow.^ The 

2« See Bushell's drawing Pig. 3, in Ilott, Chinese Jade . 
Plate II. 

second t3^pe of drill was the pump drill. ^ Ibis drill Is used for 

3. BBtrle, Tools and /eapons . p. 39, paragraph 102, plate 
-OiVIII, im Ktrie aaya that thla drill was not iaiown 
before Roman times. I have no definite proof of its 
existence in Jhane times, except its simplicity and its 
efficient use in the hands of the jade craftsman of 
today. .ebster's Ijew International pictionary , sec, edit. 
1940, Drill, Fig* 4, l3 slrallai to tha Chinese pump drill. 

boring beads and holes of all types. It is a most efficient tool, 

vdilchaallows the ri^t hand to apply little or much pressure at 

will, while the left hand holds the object being drilled. Most 

jade objects, especially those that are small or frull, are held 

In a hollow frame by means of wor den wedges. This permits a more 

solid grip, and prevents breakage. The third and mist important 


type of drill was the lapidary's treadle lathe, or v.heel. The 
evidence for the use of such a wheel is the iiuture of the 
carving on jade objects excavated at /jayaiie. It is diflicolt t 
believe that the carving on the tv90 sides of the jado blade of 
sickle IIo* 5 could have been done in any other way than with a 
lapidary's wheel. The simple treadle lathe now used in Peking 
is constructed in the simplest manner out of coinnon materials « 
All the iron parts now used could h«ve been replaced in the 
Shang PynfiSty by hardwood or bronze* Indeed such a lathe could 
have been constructed entirely of wood in the neolithic age, 
with quartz points and grindstones mounted on the end of the w 
wooden spindle* This lathe consists of a hardwood spindle or 
rod, about 14 inches long, placed in a horizontal position abov 
a sloping table about two feet wide and four feet long* One 
end of the rod is pivoted in one of a series of holes drilled 
one above the: other in a wooden block fixed to the high end of 
the table* The spindle is cradled in a bearing on an upright 
mount about six inches from the end to vvhitfh the lap vsheels 
or drills are ttaohed* A simple strap around the centre of 
the spindle halfway between the pivot block and the bearing 
X>a3se8 through a hole in the table and is attached to Uio hinged 
treadles* !rihe operator, seated on a stool, revolves the w^heel f 
first forward and then in the reverse as his feet move up and 
down* His two hands are free to manipulate the jade object and 
apply the wet abrasive* The height of the drill point or wheel 
above the table can be adjusted by raovi. g the pivoted end of 
the spindle up or down in the series of holes in the pivot block 
or by raising or loiiering the bearing support* This revolving 
spindle beooraes a magicians wand in the hands of a skilled work- 
man* Yith it he performs artistic miracles in the hardest stone* 


It is unneoessary to describe the various diamond points 

and wheels made of dried gourd, v70od, leather, pewter and bronsse* 

These were mounted on the end of the apindle in various ways 

knowi even in the Shang Dynasty; the simplest was to drive a 

mineral crystal into the end of the wooden spindle or to mount a 

small grindstone wheel on its squared end* The large iron disc 

1» For tlie Lapidary's lathe see Asia . .CQCVI, photoj^rapha 
on pp. 15 and 18; Bushell's drawing in Ilott, Chinese 
Jgfle , Plate II, Fi{-,, 1, which shows the various parts 
and the different spindles used with the lap wheels 

which measures up to twelve inches in diameter is now often used 

instead of the more ancient bowstring saw to cut rough Jade into 

shape* Uo traces of this circular saw have been found on the 

flat surfaces of 3hang Dynasty ^o* It was probably not used at 

that time. 

The modem iiron tubular drill wi^s probably anticipated by 

fire-hardened reed tubes made of bamboo or other hard wood* ISost 

tubular drillings of the Shang Dynasty slope inwards from the 

surface of the Jade* This indicates that the outside edge of the 

bamboo tube was worn smaller as the drilling proceeded* An iron 

tubular drill bores a hole uniform in diameter from top to bottom.*' 

2* Stanley Casson, "Battle-axes from Troy", Anti uity , 
VII, 1933, pp* 337-339, two plates, describes the 
lapidary's technicu of oi'nament on three nephrite and 
one lapis lazuli axes from Troy* Schmidt's catalogue 
of the 3chlieraann Collection, Berlin, IJos* 6056-6058, 
The checquer squares of ornament were rriade with a 
vrtieel of the type used by (near Lastem) gem cutters 
and the knobs of the central band were made by a very 
fine reed drill and abrasive* Casson says the wheel 
or file a very small reed drill and an abrasive point 
are part if not the whole of the tool box of the 
Babylonian seiil-cutter* "TTie shape of the axe is purely 
nordic and the nephrite of which three wero made is a 
European material", Heither this note nor the reference 
to near eastern drills from Pe trie's Tools and ..eepons 
la intended to 3u^;eest the origin of the Chinese crafts- 
man's technique in Babylonia, but to ii.dicate that similar 
techniques and tools were used in both civilizations* we 


have not yet discovered, or at least reoognlzed, the 
examples of the Chinese Jade craftaman's workmanship 
that must have existed long before the' 3hanr II period 

Iftifinlshed tubaler drillings are found on Zo IJo. 10, and completed 

holes on fickle IIo. 7, Zo nos* 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20 and 33. 

A fine file of abrasive or of other material for use with 
abrasive powder may have been used. One must presume that a 
wooden straight edge and the point of a hardened stick with wet 
abrasive were used In decorating stone and Jade with incised or 
raised ornament in neolithic times. The fluting lines of decor- 
ation on the butts of Jade x.o 13, 19 and 33 may have been made in 
this way, but the use of the wheel is more probable, juoh lines 
may have been made by the bow-string saw which cut the inoiaions 
at the end of the butt. 

If one compares the ohang Dynasty Jade craftsman's technique 
with the workmanship found on Jade objects of suooeeding periods 
In China, it seems probable that his kit of tools was in no way 
less In number than, or inferior in efficieniy to, those used by 
his successors. His skill in the use of these tools and the ex- 
pression of his artistic temperament in thivTi most difficult but 
enduring medium, was even greater. 

^ a. The aroaz^^ySt^, In O'ci^a^:,^ 

The bronze work of the 3haixtz dynanty lu Cxiina is one of tiie 

i.ost outstanding features of its material ciilturt;. Thoru are extant 

at least throe tnousand bro^ize ritual ves^jeis with Shang InuoriptiouG, 

Probably as many t.^je uninaoribod v/fsse's ^re !:nov'n, Auout twunt^y 

different kinds v.'t?re uaed in rreperinf^ and serving: foou and drink in 

the oorenoniua, :U'i borate setn contained as ciany as ton kinds and 

fifteen or twenty individual vessels . i.ut bronze was by no i;.eans 

rostriotod to rit-ual use; a still {'iroater nuriiber of aecular objects 

exict: t-ools suoh qa oocketsd azas, adzes and chisels; ohariot 

fittinf^s of many kinds; horse name a s|'^crnamonts and jingles; 

graded rausioal knook^ra and small bells; ar;;our suoa as hciiiiots, 

f orho ff coats a^d luatier -straps. ft>mf5. 

shield bosses and bron'/.e buttona.; wca^jon'^ 3uo:i as spears,, lanoeSj^^c^s a«c^- 

arrows, broad axes, war axes and Ko. This study conct-rna the V_o 
only but it in impossible to understand the Ko apart frori iti? context. 
The technique used in raakini^' and decorating the ^ .vaa eciployed also 
on nany of t*ie impleoonts and above all on the ritual vessels, 

.^ome conception of the general development of tlie bronze age 
in China is necessary for an unde^'standiut: of tho uistory and the 
oraftsmanshin of the Ko . 

'■ffhen King P*au Kon(? moved his capital to Yin iir;ar present-day 
Anyang In 1311 i^.C, the bronze ai>;e in China had already reached its 
heip;h*t. The fact that stono and jade implenonts jvere atili in uije 
at that time does not constituto it a C:;aloolitl:ic age. -ha v/riter 
regards 1300 B.C. as the beginnin?^ of the Lata ,?a'onze Age in China, 
Bronze oastin^ teoiininue snould be considered the basio of tno 
division of tae bronze ap:e into tae three phases, I^arly, L'iddle and 
Late, The "arly Bronze age v/itneased the mastory of tJie ossentlala 
in the manufacture and use of the rdetal, la China this period 

appears to hove ended about iiOOO .C, I.e. about t::o time f^enerally 

ccepted for tjie close oi' tlie iCarly Jronze Are in taleotine, waich 
is the point oi nontact oi' the A.ef:;eaa, Egr-ptian and L-esopotamian 
C! Itures. Tifje Middle i.'.roiize Xg.e, w.dle it added no new essential 
elements, covered tue period of rerinepient in tecimique and the ex- 
pansion of tiie use of bronze into other fields ouch as the decorative 
as opposed to the uerel^- useful. At loOO i<,C;. the end of this ex- 
pansion and of this period ^^as reached, a date sone 5.0 years lator 
than the close of tue corresponf'in'' T;hase in the Nenr '^ast. 'I'^i ^ . 
Late Bronze \r,e was the jieriod oi -leclinf , i is declixie vfas due to 
deteriorating craftsxuansaip and to the use of poorer materir^l--! r^t ■=? 

Less (Soodi ilh ardcopf-er at\d- more, mpore- copper antl-leixii. mark edih-e. dt^ine.'m i»:>meco^p„i,Ln 

trian to the introauctlou oi a new material such ss iron.^Tue end c; 
the Late lironze yVie in Caina must be brought dovai to ca, 500 B.C., 
for there seems to be ao trace of iron Aeat'on.'-' or tooi!^ b<^fore tuis 
titiu;. .icre a^' C-dna lap-citd far behind the v/est, for in "one wear 

ast, iron vi^as comint; into use oa. ILOO .ii.G. ^runze contli.ued in 
comir.on us© iu €■ 5aa alonr vith iron until the third cjntury Hfter 
Christ, The Late I^ronzot /^-.e in Jhiua, oa, ioOG to Ca. tiOO (',0, cover? 
the txix'ee iilstorlcal ciilture j.eriods v lica v/e have called in tais 

onotsraph Siiaui^ II, uu I and Chou II, 

Soaolars have beeii Vf.*!-;; r,lov.f to recoriiiive that the Bronze ki.s mchma. 
be^^an a© early as it did. .'.Uxiy uuoro r^;luct;.;xit oven to coixcede that 
some of the e:icelu.ent broxize ritual vessils extant belong to the 

jUSt a few jea<s 

last dpcedey of tbe Siiang dyrxasty, i..;, ^b ..fcrii 1038 B,G, The in- 
■sori;.-tions on them have been called "totea iiarics" axid "picture v.riting" 

iiich implu that tiieywf;-. too primitive to bo tiven tiiiy equivalexxt 
oderxi name. It is, iiowever, recof*xiized^ they -o "represent" 
tue names "of per ons, families or tribes for whom these bronze 


Ituui vesaoln ware ma^ie. One gianoe a'u ip.h elaborate vo33vala ojcn- 
aelvos, vniioii alicw ao xin . s ru'attjr.y oi' tacaaicai aRiil, siiouiu liav.:; 
oonvinced tJieso sGiioisra ol' fas gro t inooagruity lu their later, r^j- 
tation of insorlptioun. Many of tiiu uajTien inaorlbad on the rii>aal 
a3olj3 are found also ou the froja tho "-.aste of 'ia", 
ivsans of tha datas Bsorlbod to theao bone inoorlptiona (on eutix-j- 
iy other ovirieuca), v;^e arc? cihla to det'jr.miilo tiu time v/hon tueyo 
perscn? or fa^nlll'^s flourished, Froia the bae.iaulxiM of the firsit 
l)one-sori,>t v--riod, siiortly Rftar 131i ,J,, v/-.> find uaraes inacribuvi 
on the bouaa ..■.}icti ai-a also found cast on seta of bronzo ritual 
vessels and the ini'orlljcid t^roazu Ko Qa^3c;ol■i^;:-i v.ita theai, Photograr^hs 
of tiic ritual veGSol?? cil-dd ^ shov<? theta to be aACoiiwut exauALieo of 
ti/O bronZ) oanter'*- nx-t, c< : Mraflo to n^.o best \70rk of othur aL-itioas 

i any ep-^o.. 

These vesswlo oro .ot at all ;x'imitive i.. lonu or ora.tainon- 
snip and j-ivo a uuou bit tar i^'ea of tuo skill of '-he -'hau^; dynasty .i-tisau 

lortly fjftor 1300 '.C. t,.i»3a ^o tlio nimpior uronvio Ko auaociated with 
thon^f lAiioed it iij only ,^o'S£X^>:lo to uaderutaad hovv the bronao oantoro 
oaiae to daoorato tiioir Ko in r^noh hh. aiaborate way and to uay some of 
•3 raethods tnoy did by uxidorataudia/? thti acre intrioote problwirs 

.iVolV3d in oaatiu-- and oecoratiu: these ritual ve38')l^}« It is 
evid :ut that tals art of bronze casting did not originate at Anyang, 
for uiiieaa the Acadeirde '.inloa vnn im'iarthod som^ othor inforaiation 
xiot yot V'Ublished, tho writer ip aware of no oh.j'v-cts or traces whot- 

oovt^r eanomr the r.iany thousoiida of yi'tifaots found at toQ v^aste of 

in tiiat v/ould lndio?^to axiy primitive str^.-roa in the development of 
the art of bronze castinc* Tais art, togetner with tne culture 

oomplex tiiat required the multiplicity of shapes In tlio bronze 
ritual vessels which torn its najor manifestation, must have been 
virevlously develox^ed at other Chinese sites as yet undiscovered, 

A very high teoiinical skill was Involved in caeting these 
bicnso ritual vessels so complex in their structure. Many have hlja;h 
solid feet attached to thin and rounded walls; some have movable 
handles and hinged ^rids; some have solid lugs and knobs oast (not 
rivetted) into iiosltion; incoriptions were oast in the most difficult 

laooS: under the handles, in the bottoms of deep, narrow-necked 
vessois, under the feet. These vessels v/ero decorated with Kaf/:nlfi- 
cent designs oast into the surface. The deep-oast crevices w lich 
formed the daslgae were filled with biaok and sometimes wnite iac^uer 

I^any moulds used in oastinf; t^eso bronze vessels nave been found 
at and near the Waste of Yin. Aixyanf^ Report 4 (after page 696, fi^:';. 
5) illustrates two of these moulds, excavated by the Academla Sinioa. 
The writer has 'fathered many frar;mants of such moulds on the site 
01 a foundry near Hsiao Mln village south of Ssu J »an Mo villap.e about 
a mile due west of ' islao T*un village. These frarments are all from 
i iece moulds which were usually made in quadrants and set several 
tiers deep for tali vasos, Ku. These sections v.'ero fitted together 
both iioriziontally and vertically by means of notches and "noses" cut 
into their -walls. The use of such moulds was obviously the result 
of long experimentation. Tiie moulds v/ere made of well levigated 
loess which had been pressed in little pats at^einst a model. The 
impression of the two fore fingers end thumb of the artisan may be 
seen on the back of these little patches. Uehind these ridged 
■:ieco3 of finest clay, o coarser backing?' mixed with aand was pressed 
until the whole was from 1 to 3 inches thick. On the i-lainer sur- 


races, a black powder vvnicn may have been soot or grajjhlte was 
apparent. This prevented tne molten metal from adhering to the 
mould. In the nundreds of moulds«3d by the writer, covered 
though they v/ere wltxi the crevioos of the designs, only one very 
small particle of bronze„has been found. 

Special devices were employed in preparing moulds for oonplex 
casting. In the case of tripods and othor vessels in v/hich narrow 
bands of desijin were to appear in large plain surfaces, tnin strip 
moulds bearing the design were made of very fine loess and were 
secured in sockets in the face of the master mould by means of knobs 
protr\iding from their backs. Heads which were to protrude from the 
surface of the vessel were added by a second cast. A hole was left 
in the wall of the vessel as it was cast and metal was poured from 
the inside through this hole into the mould for the animal head or 
knob which was firmly attached to the outside. The fusing tempera- 
ture of the second mixture of alloy must have been lov/er than tiiat 
for the oody of the vase w;jich Would otherwise have melted in the 
course of the second casting. It nas often been pointed out 
analyses of samples of bronze taken from uifferent parts of a 
vessel give different proportion.? of co:)por and tin in the alloy. 
Such irregularities are coimuonly attributed to teclmical orudity 
but it should always be noted whether the positions from v/hi^h these 
f^amples are taken may not have been plaaes where a sscondary pouring 
was made. Such points are the Junctions of knobs, lugs, handles 
and legs to the main body of the vessel, Theise will ordinarily be 

at least 2;^ more tin iu the alloy at such places^. The parts of ti 
vessel in which the inncription was oast v.'ill also be found to be 


of a better alloy than tiie reniainder of the veaaol. Tlils is often 

indicated by n golden tinjje in trie reatorlal about tlia inscription. 

.'lie mould for the inscription v/an often iiade separatfaly. If the 

ln3orix>tion v/ere inside the vessel It vms set Into tiio core. A 

separate piece war. pIso used for inscriptions under the handle, 

he square outline of suol: inset niculds can often be at en ia-.prassed 

into the body of the bronr.e vessel, although the ertU^n usually 

attempted to erase the traces by scouring the surface. 

1, The writer has in Gheeloo University I/useun., China, such 
an inset inscription mould obtained at Anyang, 

The same Hiethods as those described above for vessels, apply to the 

casting- of the Ivo. Methods sucii as those would not have been 

developed had the bi'onze casting been restricted to the alirpler ho. 

liie elaborately decorated butts of txie Ko and the cast infjoriptions 

with ti.oir borders and cartouone (cf. nos. 102-107) are applications 

of the Dronze oastin?-: technique developed priacipnlly on t!j6 bronze 



B...,TJje ^.casting of the i>o . 

All ^ exoalnal oy tne writer aiiow tiraocs oi' iiaviiig been oast 
iu double moulds, Ko 79 allows tue overflow v/hioii exuded between 
the upper and lov/er parts of a Tlat double mould. It v/as roured 
from a "gate" at t^*a point ot txiw woa:;ou, Jooketed ao 144 waa 
poured fron tlia butt and where som« or tbe ovorflov reiaains. The 
moulds uocd for Ko ..u.3t have been dii^ilar lu oo.iStxniOtion to tue 
double r.ould3 uso-d I'or caating kulves which were also poured from 
the end as ahowa by knife 1^,0, Li, A, K3,3970 said to ba xroa Anyang, 
R,C,:i,A, !i'A.ai53 and Yeti Chun.c: One Is, '50,6 arc parts of double 
moulds for sacrlfloial kaivws sirallar to !^Uiifo R,0,li,A, NB,'iO«i9, 
aluo said to be froLi Anyang, These raoulda are oonatruuted iu t\ll 
respoota like the sectional moulds for 3hanr; ritual veasels. They 
were uade of the same gray materials fitted toj^ethor with aotchea 
and noses of the same type; and were oovorod on the inner 5:urfaoe 
v/ith the 8aiu2 blaok aoot or ^^raplilte, 

Chai-ache>-i^i7c a crucible <>ihithis 

Ono,^picoe of the bronze caater's eq^iip^yuont io^well represented 

amonicr the artifacts excavated at Anyane* 'eoauae of its shape It 

Is oallod by the peasantB "a p:eneral*s Jielnet, ohian.t; chtin k*ue i. 

The writer aaa found many fragt. :nts of these tnick, hard, reddish- 

ooloui'ed vessels. They are made of u special firo clay coi.talning 

Eiioa flakes and atone cjrlts quite unlike any other clay objects from 

Anyang, They v/ers found in the heart of the '•aste of Yin near 

furnace sites where oharooftl, burnt earth, bron^"^ ^la.-^ and frar^monts 

of bronze moulds were nonnon, Tbe Acadsmia eroavated many fra^^ments 

but none complete. One had a ;;.l;3ce of bronao slagt t*!!:"!?- lien oha , 

attached to it.-*- ? r, Liu nni'J-h.sia*s dlsouseiou of thi3 cruolble, 

1, Liu -isU-hsia, "'\ study 4f. the Yin dynasty art of netal v/orking, 

p, 681-596, v/ith k'ive i>lates and a drawing of a "general's 

hclitet" recoa::; true tad frora tv>o rrajqaents , p. 68& und 
photograph, Plate 2. 

lion Jmo , ba??a<1 en information fained durliip; the e-icovatlou!- at 
Anyang, iviarkn the beginiiinr, of objective atudiea oi" azcavuttsd 
in»iterlalf? mioh ahould lend to v. hbttor uiiaeratanJliij^ of tiiu Sheng 
dynasty bronzo-onater'n toohniqae, 

Tho Yfriter cnco ownod a "general 'i^ hiiiwut" touioL balauoed 
perfectly en itc high foot v;ith a flat base ^^ot uorti oLaii 1*0 i^ja* 
(2 iiir.,) in (Ue;.oter, Auotiitr vessel had a aaoona iiiacr ruujucl- 
liku llaiiiis Wiiich aioped dovvu to ua Oj, cr:uiuL i-.t tho bottou; Ic-auiag 
into thij vo£3sel jropor. TLi:; liiuer part wa^ Jitude of qLc^ ii^it;rior 
to that cf tl^'? thick outside vessel, es Luou£h it wei'e a temporary 
additloi., ether fragiients showed tracya oi this iuiicr liniui;. whioh 
v/as uct rrentioned by i^'r. Liu, Tlq inside of ths fu..ii3l-like lining 
was bleckened, tv'oae of tho fraf;a»cuts of thase veasals is ijiackaned 
outside. In the writer's opinion, tnoy oaanot navj been orucibl<3a 
placed in a furnacj and firod from the outside, laey ctay have 
beeu coutJ2in!3rs into v/iiiah tha c.lloy from th^ atationary furnace 
wa; run mid from wh.lcn it was poured into t.u.3 aioulda, 'iuey would 
have been set in "cups" or tiolsa ia Ui^ enrti^ near tne mouth of 
the furnace aud llftod to i,our Lho alloy, Tha exact balance v/ciad 
have enabled th;:;ra to be set on a flat table aurfeoo if necessary. 
The iiuior, fiumel-liko lining v«ould have scted as a cover to prevent 
oxidization. It would also have held back any intrusive slag during 
pouring. The lipa of these vessels were vvoll made, but t)iere appears 
to have been no narrow spout to guide the molten metal when pouring, 
A siiiali opening may have been made in the funnel-like lining at the 
lip to act as a spout for pouring* 

We know little of the teoojiique used by the Jhan^ artisans. 
Experiments in their methods, based on materials like those found 
on the sites of their v/orkshops, raust be tried in order to deter- 
mine the exact processes followed, Bronze vessels and v/eapons 
such as Ko di;:! net corie perfect frciL the mould, "j surfaces of 
all bronze vessels anl weapons intended for practical uoe show 
traces of a finishing proiSess, As ilo 79 3l-ow3 the point and edges 
niust Tiave been filed off and ground down on whetstones into their 
fiuished form. Filemarks are vi.^ible on many Ko, The writer 
possesses a tempered bronze file waich laay have been used for such 
a purpose. Other files froiu the early Ghou dyna^^ty site at Hstln 
Hsien railv;ay station -.vere in x-he honan Irovinoial Museum in Aaifeng, 
1, Tv/enty five milts wes\:, of rlsun rsien County town. 

The surface of urouze i.^ :aore ductile and more easily annealed 
if cooled suddenly after cadtiny ratner tiian allowed to cool slowly, 
when it becomes hard and briLtla, It seems probar>le to tiid writer 
that, ixaiiied lately tne uictul was joured into the mouiu, Lue wJiole 
wat i,luaged into cold '..ater and the seotiuua of the mould removed 
as sooii. as possible bo that tuey vvoulu noo retain tne heat. This 
w'cuid account for the i^ray colour of tue iiiouluw, Lricks iu.aue in 
i\orth China ax-e turned from ferric red 1,0 xcrrous gray by pouring 
water into the top of the kilxi. The parts of thu moulding cores 
left under the handles and under the bases of Shang vessels, as 
observed by the ic/ritex, are a reddish colour and not the gray colour 
of the sectioiiul moulds, xuese iiave o&en. "fired" red by continued 
contact witn tne hot metal, Tue moulds were removed before they 
turned red again. 


Whether the writer* a deductloxid us to aiiiiliiir iu v.aLer are 
oorreot or liot, tna Jhang vesselo and MiQ&isjun o...ov/ clear traoes cf 
surfaoe icanlpulatioa. Tae featner-bone na.raorlng on _kO 142 attests 
tlic aiuaeaiiag of the blade. Ko i-iS has I'a^ iorouc, tubbly surfao© 
ol txii unfluished weapon. Fo 181-1S5 uii tiie other hand, till e-'.iow 
fiulahed nurl'aoG£3 and soms ladicatiou of the armeRiinn anci i'inishlng 
process ..oa*.; with ti hard poiiyhing etone, Rlfcval vessels were 
finiaiied uy i'ilint: the aeaiaa Ciad polichiae tae whole iiuriaoe v.'ith 
a jacie t: tcue burnifiher. Tuie prouuoed tua skifi-iikti ourlace waioh 
has iAkea on Uie bt>R\itiful patina tloiis of age aad iviiich prevexits 
the des. ruotion of the metal by corrosion, ortjjn the 3upijrrioial 
coiTofciion flekea easily I'roiu. t-.t; surraoe and ioavas tho oriL-iaal 
spouuluiti metai v;itii. tha added t:;io*y oi th^ oxides o£ tho alloy in 
nil snados aii.i coiOt'Dincifcloaa or iuainohite f^r^en, akiuritt; hluu and 
siivar gray. Traceo of thu samcs iiniaiiine procesiies are viijsible 
on iiho dacoratod butts of iIo > 

Vhe HiaioaliiiiC prooesB v.aa ^-ru-jb-vxy ;/j:Uit< uy t,:ib «j(._jjxo33ion 

"ru<\n", as In Logge III, p, Q>ZZi "T8Rip--r your Ku ana your spears, 

Tuau aai xvo mao", i'lie root lueaning of ouaa is "to beat out fibres", 

e.f-. of flax. It forms part of taw graph for "satin cloth". Later, 

when iron carae into M^iii, tuan , was used of haramsrinp, anvl forging 


1, Tuan was deflniid as Ta stone'* by both the -ihuo '^en 
"U ot ionfi rv nnd by the O ii* io n Opr ji.e at a ry of the -Ion dynasty, 
ll'e'uce liGf-pe (IV, 48151 translated 0'i'o" k't)U«6, "arid imtiiered 
wliatsttjnvi" and li'oji, Gh' d ij. oh^d t_u en , '^ add .aley rwnd^-^.red 
the verse "takin/-^ whotutonec and joun'din*' stones". In view 
of the svidcncQ here ad.iuoed, a r:oro j^robabL- rondorla/:; 
would be "taking whetted tooly and aunealed tools. " 

The laborious processes of annealing and grinding were 

reserved for iapluaents in. ended for practical use. ho trace of 

such treatment is apparent on the mlnp,-ch*i vmich were ready for 

the funeral ceremony immediately after casting. 

In the English abstract of "Oaemioal Investigations of 
Ancient V.'eapons of Guina" by Y, Yamanti, '!» Koizumi and 
Dr. S, Komatu in Toho Gakuho, No. 11, iart 2, July, 1940, 
Kyoto, it is stated, "No signs of v/itherinf^ due to hammer- 
ing or any heat treatment being observed afterv/ard, we came 
to the c^^nclusion that all must have been made by casting 
and not subjected to any v/orkings or heat treatments". 
This observation is probably due to the fact that nc^t of 
the vjea-nonp examined by the writers were mlng-oh* i eoti nor ^egpa^g 

A passage in 'ihe Gpeeoh at I'e indicates that old weapons 
could be re-annealed. This was made necessary by the repeated 
grindings in the course of use whereby the edge receded into the 
thicker part of the blade. The metal was made ductile by heating 
and sudden coding in cold v/ater; the edge was then hammered out 
thin and the temper was restored by heating to a cherry red and 
by slow cooling. 

Most Shang vessels and many Ko v'ere inlaid with black lacquer 
some v/ith white lacquer and some with turquoise. Lacquer inlay 
is clearly seen in both the desi.m and inscription of tripod, R,0,M,A, 
NB,2616, and of Ko 54, Vitreous enamel is not found. The depressions 
for tiie inlay were cast and v/ere not made by soldering or fusing 
bronze or copper partitions into position as in modern cloisonne, 
nor was the ground soooped out or engraved as in champleve. The 
method of casting the body of tiiese decorated portions of K£ was 
the same as that used in the casting of ritual vessels. The butts 
of Ko however, were usually inlaid on both sides to a depth of a 
millimetre or more so that a very thin plate of metal remained 
between. This is apparent In the large, turquoise-inlaid Ko 49 and 
50. Great skill as necessary for such v/ork. Ko 36, 37, 62, 63 
and 80 have jade blades inset in bronze sockets vv^ith inlaid designs. 

These also appear to have been cast, altiaou^:h modern repairs in 
soldered copper have been observed by the writer on some examples. 

In the case of turquoise inlay, the pieces of stone were ground 
to fit the space exactly as can be seen on llo 61 and on tv/enty- 
three bronze buttons in Toronto, said to be from /uiyang, (R.O.M.A. 
NB,o997-4019) . It is not possible to say v/hether tae material in 
which the inlay ixow rests, seen in Ko 61, was an adhesive paste or 
merely the corrosion from the surrounding partitions of the design. 
Both tile lacquer and the turquoise were "Keyed into position by 
pressinr^ down the bronze partitions and thus expanding their tops. 
The surplus lacquer or turquoisu was tlieii grouj:id avv-ay until the sur- 
face was perfectly smooth. 

It seems probable tnat all tue skill in technique of the bronze 
caster's art v/as developed before the occupation of the V/aste of Yin, 
Undoubtedly changes in technique took place during; the 273 years of 
the Shang II period. These cnanges have yet to be determined but 
our examination of the technique shows that some of the more diffi- 
cult processes were used in what v/e consider the earliest examples. 
The well shaped sockets of Type VII and Type VIII are Instances in 
point. These sockets ai"e egg-shaped in section, narrov/ in front 
and rounded at the back exactly fitting a shaft wiiich could be held 
easily in the hand. Ko liil-li;6, 150, loS, 133, 138, 141-150, 156 
and many others all show this shape. No Shang dynasty socketed Ko 
has a round or cinidely shaped socket for the si>.aft. Socketed or 
"holed" axes and v/ar hamciers from Lauristan and Minussinsk in the 
west which have been considered near parallels to the socketed 
Shang Ko, are not so well or so uniformly shaped, V/hen the socketed 

Ko was too thiok and heavy ut the fore edt're of the shaft to be well 
balanced the 3hang artisan ooiapensated for t is by leaving a hollow 
hidden Inside the weaj/on in front of the socket G^;9ning. These 
delicate adjustments in balance occur iu our earliest v/eanons. 
Again Ko 84, 92, 98, llc>, 114 and many others obseirved by the writer 

have thin trunnions at the fore edgw of the sbaft just behind theoooaide^ 
>C' the bJ 



oC' the blade v/hich acts as stop rid^e, The^, shafts of Ko were weakened 

■eicessiiz-e. N 

by thick necks of m-etcl under the two sides of the snlit top. Thin 
trunnions and a neck of bronze, thin in front, could be efficiently 
bound into position, but a delicate propojrtion had to be maintained 
between ths thinness desired and the strength necessary to prevent 
breakinr,, Here apain Ko 04 is of early date. Indicating that this 
skill in deslgninji and casting was developed early. 

G. Th^ 'jgojai)osition of Sliang i3ronze. 

The oiior?iioal analyses of tha foilov^iitg 3iiang Ko v/Lloh are 
llcted as siiii^plameutary examploo iindc;!- trie aearest Type xlo 
Tikci", have been publisJieci elsewhere v.'iti: pliotograj^hs. 

1. 'W,I'\ Coll ins: "The Goiroslon oT ilariy Giiinese- '•■ronzes", 
Jour..icl of tr.e Institute ol Metals , Vol. :XV, 1931, pp. £3-55> 
(t'..o fiooaimonfj) , riat« 1, C2 (Ko lo8A) and 017 (K£ 70A; . /dialysis 
by P.cofeasor C.;v.'>usflh of tUe :>ni-erian Copper Coii ittes of the 
> British Aasrjoiation. '-^ee Rgport of thf; Bri jb ish AssoQiation . 1330, 
p. 340: "The o-portiinity has been taken to analyse a nujibor of 
Ohiuese ironzes of datss varying from Cuou to T'ang periods. The 
present writer, .judgins; from the pnotographs, consiaars ;:hat ?<5 1, 
No. Z and 17 are boti:; of 'ihanc; date and not Ghou as i.'r. Collins be- 
lieved thent to be, 

S» Tsurunatsu Dono: "On tue >'=oai .<ar^ .njakiag iu Lno .Licient 
Gnine seen through Cheffical Analysis", j oao ^kuho , JJo. 4, Aov, 1935, 
Tolcyo. Three speoimens, Plate 1, Tin^^' or J4 (156a), <Vu or D5 (-ilD), 
Ciii or D6 (42B), These analyses have also been published in tu^ 
-Bulle tin^ of the Cheniioal So oi^ y of J apan, Vol. 5o, {I'tiJd)^ pp. 135- 
13G,and have been abstr-^cted in Teohnical ".tudics . Vol, 2, (12.''3), 
p. 112. The ribstroct by R.7,0(otexis) states "Three i.alberds of the 
typt: of those iineart: ec! at the Yia cite in lonan Ire vince v;ore t;ua- 
lysed c.;';>iaically. opocinen A ([)4, Ko 15rj/^) is nenrly pare ooyper, 
oontainlnr; only enoufr.: tin *-.o "te det'^oted speotrosoopioaiiy. 

peoi/Aen :3 {D5, 41P) contains 0.60 i^er oent tin, but it ntill must 
be classified as a oo per implenent, Althoup:b speoimen G (D6,42B) 
is of t: s same type as the ether t'"o it ir- tecimioally of bronze since 
it coiit-^dns £.19 por cent tin. The author believes tbat specimen G 
(423) v/ao wanufMCtured in the transitional period between the copper 


and tho bronze ago and these halberds aro representative of typos of 
that late copper and early bronse period," This abotraot niakos no 
mention of the presence of lend, althouf^h the orlcinal report nakes 
it cloiiT tiiftt opeoiiien A (156/i.) had l&w08 ncr oont and apeoirjoa G 
(423) 5. G.J nor ooat. opeclnen A can not be aallod pure copper nl- 
thouf.;!'! tie abaenoe ox* tin r-.'iy tooLnioaliy oxoluda th<-i term '"wrou;;...", 
6, Tsururaatou Dono: "On the aopper Age in '\n3i0nt China III", 
.mlletin of the O'ealoal :>ooS.ety of -Tanaa , IX (1934), pp. la',0-i«:4, 
Iiiu3,; auatraot'id in T eahnical qgd iaa, Vul* III (1954), v* 117. 
Three apeciaons L>a (33A); D9 (iOA); D 10 (91A), The abstract reads: 
•*A spear head and throe halberds fro.u th^' sane site have been analysed 
find it ivas provoa that t.iC epear head and tv;o of the three halberds 
(D6, 53 A) (D9, 40A) ffluat be called co; per imi>ioinoats# The other hal- 
berd (DiO, SIAJ ooatftlna 13,74 per cent tin and nuBt be classed as 
a bronze Imoieraent, Tae existence of a cooper ar^e La China ia thuo 
furtaer emphasized". The abstract does aot mention that th-3 load 
c-nto-nt in 'dS^ and -iOA is 6.64 and 15.05 por cent reapootivaly. 

4. 3, Umahara: "An Arohaeoiofical Obaervat.lou on tae Chemical 
GonBtituenta of iii'oaae ."/eapoan of Aiioient Calna", TohO (l a ku n o , ilo, 11, 
art 3, October, 1940, plntes i-.i, :yoto; bas^d on Y. Yamautl, 3, 
jiziufil and Jr» S, Kojuatu, "Cneniical Investigations of Ancient 
eapono of Oiiina", Tuno Caicuho, iio. il. Part ii, July 1940, ;"yoto. 
peoimens h'l (Ko 116A); U2~Uo 17VA) ; aS IdSlA) ; U4 (Ko lo»A); U13 
(Ko 480); J 14 U76A); U lb (Ko l44A); U 16 (Ko 9ii£i) ; U 17 (Ko 60A,; 
U 19 (Ko 67a); U^7 (Ko lo2A) ; U 28 (Ko 164A). 

The present '.vriter juagos all these Ko to be Shanf, in date im- 
leaa it be Ua (177A) and U 14 (Ko 176 A) waioh are on the border line 


botweeu aiioiig and Ciiou dy.^astios. 

5, Throxi^h tlio good off iocs of t;;y Icjte air. Archlo Prankston 
;ad J-Ir, Jasil Gray, ofricjr iu oliarga of OrX^JX%s^ .^ntUiuili'so at 

(/.^m r»m 8«f,2 Gray /Y'^'t if^Oy P"«ii^iC> IT-?-/,; 

thd lirltir.a liusdin, i\:mi'33ion v/ao granted to preiaent the followiac 

uiipubilsiivJd anaiyoe-3 of .Cragiaoiiti? or Cjilutis^^ bronse ritual vsrsels 

••ade by i)r. A, A, Mojs of 'o.uo 3r.ltiyh Muaau?!, lOtxi Jiaiuary, 1140, 

■ie anaiysea wore laade for l!ir, Brojikstoa v/ao oooured itid da tied the 

-pocimens lio doubt Urora dofl.ilte infonaatlon obtalxiod .vitxi taoin. 

All Aline MptJoimeus aro /.rapcmtad la order to oonpleto the rooord 

aitnou/5h nptijir-itfris i.'.-', £1, 24, and Zd are defiultoly of Lutv Oiiou 

data, riio preaeut writer has oarofuliy exaii^iuo'd full-size pboto- 

graplia of tlie nlno cpaoiraena axid ooii3ider« thoo :... . C, 10 funl 12 

are oertaliily of Suour dfjte and t; at ,,.;. 14, 17 .ina 19^ aye i/e^j 

prcbablj'- of Siiang date . . i- 

1, Tiie early Ohou date of E.M. 1/ :.ik; j. ;? ii:ay i;--; 'jOj.-x*eot 
for Mr, i:^rank3ton vms an informed and careful obaerver. 
dhifx&Be arortaoolo; y suri'ercd a {.-reat lo^a tarougb ids 
clontb flt T'onr Koa;?, 'Taxiuary 29th, 1941, 

3y 2i3axi;5 oi tne«e uiiaxyaes tno coz jOsltion oi' alloya uuod iu 
varioun typos of Ko may be ooj! pax'ed v/itii taat of alioyo used iu 
.rjuze ritual vcoaoln of the aamedbto. 


Cheiuioal Analysis of 3hang Kp 

Type No. Ref . ll&rdnc is Cu on £^I!«N1A§.^£ Total 

IIIA 38A D.3 88.14 T 6,G4 0.08 i.ll :iil - - 94.^0 

IIIA 40A D.f 85.66 T 13.05 0.06 liil iill - - 99,02 

IIIA 41-; D.5 97.60 0.60 0.58 t.08 0.04 1*11 - - 98,93 

IIlA 42B D.6 88.85 2.19 5.85 0,08 N$l T - - 97.03 

IIIA 47B U,18 52 83.05 iill 10.11 1.07 0.07 4.72 Nil 0.44 99.46 

IIIA 480 U.13 34 78.70 0.15 18,09 1.12 0.07 1,65 iUl 0.22 99.98 

IVA 60A U.17 86 80.35 14.16 2.36 0.08 0.11 0.10 0.07 :;11 97.22 

IVC 67A U,19 84 80.49 14.40 id. 81 0.11 w.06 0.08 0.05 "111 93.00 

VA 70A C.17 - 79. GG 1G.67 T T Nil - • - 9G.33 

VF 91A D.IO - 84.92 13.74 0.30 0.12 Nil T iill Kll 99.12 

VI^ 92-E> U.16 ?7 7>}.45 16.58 1.72 0.17 0.08 0.07 0.04 IIll 98.11 

VID 116A U.l 79 89.93 8.23 0.09 0.72 0.09 0.04 0.07 Nil 99.57 

VIIB 121A U.3 80 85.26 13.86 0.13 0.26 IIll 0.05 0.10 Nil y9.66 

VIIIE 138A C.3 - 93.30 T T 1.70 Ull - - 95,00 

VIIE 139A U,4 67 80.36 15.52 T 0.13 lill 0.15 0.04 Nil 9G,20 

VIIF 144A 17.15 38 96.39 0.05 2.97 0.15 0.11 0.04 IUl Nil 99.71 

VIIIA152A U27 70 73.31 9.43 17.00a03 Nil 0.17 0.02 Nil 98.99 

Win D 156 A D.4 - 77.20 T 15.08 S.SOO.OJIill - - 95.15 

IXE 164A U.28 62 88.89 7,09 4.38 0.02 0,09 0,12 Ml - 100,59 

XG 176A U,14 70 81.52 10.50 6,94 0,23 0.08 0.26 0,16 Nil 99,69 

XD 177A U.2 100 84,33 14,71 T 0,20 0.07 0.03 0,07 Nil 99,41 






















Cu. Sn. Pb. Fe. 

62.70 21.30 abs. T 

80.70 17.50 0.10 0.10 

79.20 17.80 T 0.10 

70.30 16.80 6.10 T 

75.80 12.20 8.80 T 

75.10 11.50 10.30 0.10 

61.10 14.70 16.20 1.50 

59.80 7.10 30.50 0.20 

75.70 13.90 3.10 0.50 






































T • 




The twenty-one Ko ^aiay be grouped lu four olaases acoording 
to the oompoaltion of their alloys, lu the opinion of the writer 
these alloys were mixed purposefully with due regard to the intended 
use of the particular weapon. From the ohemioal analyses of these 
alloys it may be possible to trace the sources of the tin, copper 
and lead ores used and to determine the status of tne bronze in- 
dustry at Anyang when King i 'an Keng moved to Yin, 

The four classes of "bronze" are: 

1, Tin-oorper-bronze alloy as in 70A, yiA, 116A, i21A, 139A 
and 177A, This bronze was used for Ko wnioh were to fonu part of 
ritual sets and which were probably oastL from the sane "mix" as tjie 
associated ritual vesstis (see BM 6.10, IB), duoh Ko were used in 
ritual ceremonies where beauty was required but they were also 
stronfc and sharp enou/-ii tor use in war. The Brinell hardneso varied 
from 80 to 100. 

2. Lead-copper mixture as in 38A, 40A, 42B, 47B, 48B and 156A, 
These were uiinr-ch'i , 'carried* by the escort at funerals and 

buried in the tomb. Lead was lni'-er\tLoncin. y sed as a cheap sub- 
stitute for tiii. The resulting weapons were too soft for use in 
war. brinell nardness -vaiifd from. 54^52, 

3, Tln-lead-co_pper alXojj , as in 60A, 67A, 92A, 152A, lG4A, 

This bronze appears to be somewhat similar to the 
purer tin-copper alloy of Group 1, It /s of the same composition 

%i.tnei-al Of 

as^ ritual vessels with load content suca as i^Ji 14, 17, 19, The 
addition of lead facilitated the uniform casting of those sets. 
It seems possible that old vessels were recast by adding lead to 
the earlier" purer tin-copper mix. These Ko were used in ceremonies, 


Brinell hardness varied from 62^^97, 

4. Impure oopper in 138A, 144A and 41B, 

The^ socketed Ko needed tensile strengtn. Only sufficient 

tin, load or iron was added to secure a good oast. Ko 41B, while 

containing only a small quantity of tin and lead, must be classed 

with the lead f-roup (2), for it is cast in the same mlng'.'-oh*l 

mould and the blade is too thin to have been useful. The Brlnell 

hardness of 144A is only 38 so that while it is a tough weapon it 

is not hard. 

It is possible to learn more about the bronze technique of 

the Shang dynasty from ■ detailed study of these four classes of 

alloy than from later literary sources. 
Class /. 

The tin-copper bronze alloy (Class 1) is the most important 

because the Ko and ritual vessuls made from it are among the earliest 

Shang types knovm. This bronze is an almor.t pure tin-copper alloy. 

Ko 70A, 91A, 131A, 139A, 177A contain from 14 to 17 percent tin; 

Ko 116A has a. 23 percent. The small quantities of in purities 

must be assitcned to the tin and conper ore/ A large lump (18.0 

kilograms) of aalachite, a oopper oxide ore conMning spots of 

hematite, ( iron oxide ) , .vas found by the Academia oinica at 

Anyang.^ This, no doubt, had been rejected during the "ore dress- 

1. Anya ng lleport . IV, ^^ 6dl and 696, Plate 1 • 

ing process. It shows the nature of the ore used. This ore 

produced in its purer form a copper with 0.1 percent iron. There 

is a record in the Anyanp. -isien Ohih, Vol, 5, which quotes the Yeh 

Gh'Sn^i; statement that "Copper mountain, T'ung Shan, is 45 11 (15 

miles) north-west (of Anyang city). GoTiper was mined there in 

ancient times". The writer has visited this area and heard local 

stories of ancient mine shafts at txie village of T'ung Yeh wiich 

means "Copper craft". These ancient mines have not been explored. 


The rejected ore foimd at the VJaate of Yin, together with the 
large pieces of slag and the oharooal also found tiiere^ indicate 

1. .^nyanp Report IV, p. 696, Fls. 3 and 4, 

that some copper was smelted at Anyang, The writer once secured 
at Anyang an ingot of co; per in the form of a truncated cone^ about 

2, This was lost in 1937. 

five inohoa in diameter and two and one half inches thick, This^ds 

evidence that the copper was smelted separately, Soiae oo; per ingots 

may have been imported from a distance, V The Acadeiola found ingots 

of tin in the ruins at the Waste of Yin. Members of the Geological 

iS. ?. Teilhard de Chardin and C.G,' Young, "The l^ammalian 

remains fron the Arohaeolov'ical Site of Anyaag**, Palaeon- 
tolo. la oiftioa . Series C, Vol, 12, Fasc, 1; liankiuf, 1936, 
p. 56, 

Survey of China, in referring to this material, state "An extensive 

trade between Anyang and southern China is proven by the discovery 

in the ruins of the city of incrots of tin". They are not likely 


to have made such a statement if the^ had ;, any knowledge of deposits 
of tin nearer Anyang, The early tin routes from far southe^Ohina. 
where tin is mined, to Anyang in nortii China should be searched out. 
The writer believes they were cut off and discontinued shortly after 
the conquest of Shang by the Chou dynasty in 1038 B,C, The south 
land was known as Ching Gh'u State, Meuay inscriptions on early 
Chou bronzes tell of the wars against the south. The state of Ch'u 
was labelled barbarian. The ** 51egies of Ch*u *^ are filled with 
early Chang dynasty tradition. The state of Ch*u seems to have 
restricted access to the supply 4f tin and copper for bronze. In 
6^42 B,C, the eighteenth year of Duke llsi, the Tso Commentary records: 
•*When the Baron of Chenf: first paid a court visit (of allegiance)^ 
®il!ao, to the otate of Cli'u, the Viscount of Ch»u, O h*u Tzu , gave 


him metal, ohln , as a preseut. After he had done so, tlie Vlaoount 
repented of It and made a oovaaant stlpulatiag, *It is uot to be 
used to oaat v/eapons, wu _! oht^ ^'in^ * . For tnis reason the B<.aron 
of Chenf? oaat throe bells from it". 

This historical reference to the attitude of Ch'u regarding 
the export of motal from the south is illuminating^. Metal was very 
scarce in the north. About 450 3,3,, for instance, when Visootint 
Halang of Chao, phao hniarxg. tzu, was living; at Chin Yang (near present 
day T'ai yuan, capital of ohanai province) because of Tung An-yfl he 
took the copper pillars f *uJ4 g ohu of the public palace, Kua£ i^ua£, 
and made them into arrows^. When the First JMperor of Gh»in united 

1. Hocords of tiie arring States, Chan Kuo Ts^^Ohao state, 
the six states under xia sway, 221 B,C,, ho gathered together all the 
v/eapons in the counhy , T'lan hsia ohih T^inf ;, and melted tnem dovm to 
form twelve bronze men2. These and many other references to the 

2» 3^^ Ghi History, ohih IT.uanf. Ti pen ohi section, 
meltinp: down of old broaze in la to tines are common yi^nowledge. But 
it is .,ot realized that t'le source of broiiza in the Tnaair dynasty 
was quite different and that th.i ii-tel vibb t loa ahtaine^. by tae import* 
Qtion of the raw matorialc. 

The analyses of Shang dynasty tla-c50.;per brouze are of primary 
importanrje for a study of the original sources of tne raw materials, 
Vvhen the early mines are discovered we muat search their neif^hbour- 
hood for taa ..ocation of fehe earliest Chinese metal woricin^r furnaces 
and casting sliops. The earliest Gniuese bronze v/ork at present' Kuowh- 
consists of the Ko and the ritual vessels. These Rre ao distinctively 
the product of Chinese culture that this v^riter oonoludes that the 
metal work of China is of- indiit:cnou:' o-rii^Ln and aot an art imported 


even in a primitive phase from the aaoieut Near E&at ,ei/enthou.cth bronze 
was in use there Kiore than two milleinia before the ocoupatlon of 
the Waste of Yin, 

The sources of tin and copper seem to have been accessible 
to the Shang people from the beglnniajj of the ruiang II period 
(1311-1200 j3.G.), waich is the probable date of Ko 70, down to the 
end of tne period, (1038 J,G,), wnicn is the probable date of Ko 
177, A pure tin-copper bronze alloy wfas used for &oJt of the aore 
Important bronze ritual vessels and the v/ar Ko belonging to the 
same sets. The composition of th& bronze seems to been much 
the same in the ritual vessels and in the weapon?. The ai:r>l3''3e3 
of Ko 70A, 'i'ype V, made by ProfesBor Desoh for Mr. Collins, of Ko 
139A, Type vn , made by the Japanese scientists for Professor 
Umehara, as well as of the ritual vessels BM 6, 10 and 12 made by 
Dr. Moss of the British Museum for Mr, Archie I'irankston and by 
Professor Carpenter for the Academia Slnica all yield an alloy of 
17/4 tin or a proportion of about five parts copper and one part 
tin. Tais appears to bo standard, 3oiae other Chinese ritual 
vessels resemble in their composition speculum metal which oontaiua 
32,78 percent tin. 

More analyses of important Ciiinese bronzes should be made^ 
^aut suck should not be restricted to broken fragments of poorer 
Objects, Wt.en this is done a woite^picture of ohan/r dynasty metal 
work should be possible, Uven now we have nore reliable evidence 
for the composition of 3hang bronze than seems to have been 
available to the author of the K*ao Kunr? Ghi wliloh reads: "There 
are six classes, chi . of metal alloy, chin . 31x parts copper, ohin , 
and one part tin, hsl, is called Bell-and-tripod-class metal alloy, 
Chun/?: tinp^ ohih chi, i''lve parts of copper and one ]iart tin is 



oalled^-sooket-Qxe -and- adze tool olass, fu oh*i oliih oul « Four 
parts of co:'per and one part tin is called Ro -and -£hi -weapon 
class, ilo 3id chih ohi . Three parts of coi /or and one part 
tin Is called great-blede or sword class, T a jen cb.lh o'.ii « Five 
parts of copper and two parts tin is called knlvea and killing 
arrow class, .'Isiao atia t3hili chih ohi . Copper and tin one half 
each is called mirror reflector class,' C hi en sui ohih ohl. 
-hese proportions have riven rise to much discussion. Ixi Anyang; 
iiui^ort IV, pages G79 and 693 the proportion five to t//o is inter- 
preted as 40 per cont tin, that is r/./o parts out of Jive. The 
proportions for Ko, four to one, is f-'iven In the Re port as 25 par 
cont oi- one part out of four. An ordinary artizan, however, would 
more likely have taken five linits of copper and added them to two 
of tin, so that the tin would have been tv.-o parts out of seven or 
28,57 percent; while the auiount of tin in the class of alloy used 
for Ko would have been one part cut of five or iiiO.OO percent. 

The six classes of motal alloy accordinf; to the K*ao Kunf ^ Ciii 
should be: 
Bells and tripods^ Chung Tin^ 


-socket axes and adzes Fu Cul 
xlo and Chi v/aapons Ko C hi * 
Great blades (sv/ords) Ta Jen 













Knives and arrows .isiao gha s.iin 
Mirrors and reflectors Chi en sui 

One may Judge the a^e of the K*ao Kunj-: ohi by this table 
of alloy specifications. The very names of tLe objects place 
itvat^tne end of Chou III period, because lairrors . ohiea, reflectors. 

3u _ i , swords ta jen . and t)ie oi;i weapon are all imporl-qf i ons 

l-Most- of t*icm 

into China, datinn; after 300 :>.C. The poorest alloy mentioned is 


for bells and tripods, la the earlier Ciiou and 5hang dynasties 

tripods ware the laost important objects at^d^a nigh content of tin: 

c2 Q pjo^r i^ss b-jllSf oliiuia , v/tu*o^aot ooiumon until Ohou II, 770-481 d^G, 

These tables of the K*ao Kunp : Chi have been taken too seriously 

by students of bronae toohniqua.^ Ta«j text is clear but it gives 


a, lotts lii ...ufliurfopouloa liroazes , p « 34 presents proportions 
different from those of the K»ab PCun,? Ohi and attributes 
tnem zo iiiot's translation. L'hey are oulte v;rong for taey 
link the name of each alloy to the proportions of the one 

almost no olue to tuo metaxlurgy of the ohang dynasty except 
to suggest the fixture of metals and not oi-es. It also usas one 
word, Tin, iisi, to cover all Lh^i motals added to co^por, ihese in- 
clude learl, iicu, nickel, arsoiiio, antimony and, at a later Iian 
date, zinc. The word Ksi translated "tin'J is often used ii. classical 
writings and bronze inscriptions as a luaxi word for the homophone 
"to give" or "bestow". Thus the origiiial iiieaning of tjsi seems to 
mean "That v/hlch is added". It covers both tin and lead and also 
other metals such as nickel, arsenic, antimony, odded to oo i^r to 
maice bronze. The Lfl Ghih Cli'un Gi?iu records ^"Copr or is soft, tin 
is soft, unite the two softs and they bscoflie hard". Other texts 
w.iioh appear to offer cities to the understanding of bronze-casting 
technique are also va^<ua and unsatisfactory. This writer therefore, 
believes that the vroper method of xesearoli is to examine objectively 
all th'j traces of early teohnicue on tho objects themselves and in 
the archaeological strata v»hare they are found. When tiiis data has 
been studied, y/e laay txion seek to construe imcicut texts in tho 
light of arohaeologioal facts rather than viou vursa. 

The results achieved by tho Shang dynasty metal workers show 
a mastery of technique but the reading of ancient taafSs^ieads only 
to confusion about the methods used. 


Class Z 

The metal of Glass 2 is s * mixture'' of lead and 

copperl. The Chinese knew tiiat lead did xiot make an effective 

1, The word "mixture" is used out of deference to those 
metallurgists who restrict the use of the term bronze 
.to a tiii-Gopper alloy. 

alloy. Huai Nan tzu in the section on lessons from the customs of 

the :tate of Gh'i, Cii * i Hsd hstin, sayd ^"Lead must not be used in 

making blades", Ch'ien pu k*o yi v/ei jen ". Lead was considered 

"black tin". The ^ p*ien dictionary says "Lead is black tin", 

Ch*ien wel ho hsi . The whole question of nomenclature for metals 

is very confused not only in China but also in western languages 

right down to modern times. It would be quite wrong to judge from 

the confusion of terras used for metals in classical and Han times 

in China, that early metallurgists could not distinguish between 

tin and lead. Lead was apparently cheap. Many ming-ch'i ritual 

vessels, such as^lead goblet, ohih , R,0,M,A, NB,2722, have been 

found at Anyang, The objects listed in this class contain from 

7 to 18 percent lead and no tin, Ko 423 is an exception to this 

since it has 2,19 percent tin. This can be explained as the tin 

content of older scrap metal used, 4in also has a very small content 

of lead (o,53 percent) and tin (0,60 percent). These two metals 

even in this quantity are assured an easy tlavr and cast, we may 

suppose that all taese specimens were made of poor cheap scrap 

material, 47B and 48D have an arsenic and sulphur content. The 

Japanese analyst suggests that the addition of arsenic sulphide 

indicates a "magic" use of orpiment or realgar both of wi^ich were 

often used by Han dynasty alchemists. This writer considers that 

the lead ore matrix had arsenic sulphide mixed with it and that 

the sulniilde was not entirely removed in the 'bre dressing" since 

the laaterial used was cheap, Some of the ore apparently, contained 

also small quantities of xilckel and autimoay. 

In tiila writer's opinion, the OiiQmlcal aaalysos of these 
two olasaes, the tiu-oopper bronze and the lead-ooiper mixture 
ive us the data for Identifying the ore bodies waich supplied 
these materials, ine soui'oas of copper are comiaon to both these 
groups but the tin and the lead are quite separated in thtj early 
3hang dynasty apeolmens. ^ Later, fov a rnore v/asto scrap was used, 

"fP CffSS-^. The. )mpur-e. ■i:-opf-er cf- Clai£ 4offers no due. as'^otTs source, as ij&t. 

the content could ixOt so earsily be assif^ed to its source,^ 
TT An examination ^of Glass I suggests several obaervaticms: 

1. The copper came from malachite, i,e, oonper oxide ore 
with which some iron oxide ns hematite was associated. This 
beautiful green and blue ore would be easily reoogniaed. Some 

near Ar\\l<lr\^ 

of the copper used no doubt ori-inated^in the north as we learn from 

waste materials discovered at Anyang, On the other nand, we have. 

Tt-ports of 
7M in evalo^i^(7^t;io existence of similar copper ores in the south in 

t:iO viciaity of the tin where we must suppose the bronze industry 

to have begun. These copper ores were not sulphides but oxides 

v;hich were reduced in charcoal furnaces, 

2, The tin in these Shang broxizes aeeius to derive from a 
very pure ore body, possibly "stream tin" such as is ccanmon in the 
far south. This tia was shipped north in ingots, No tin deposits 
are known in the orth. The mines in the Altai mountains do not 
seem to have been the Bouroe of uny Shaiig tixi, 3oiae of the tin- 
copper bronze Ko (llCA, 177 A) contaia small quantities of x.ickel; 
some do not (70A,, 91A, 121A, 139A), It should be osalble for 
expert nilneralOfiists to determine where tnls tin originated, 

IV /In ez-amina-hon o(- •j^.g lead-C^p-et- ''ynii&oy-e'' "?- class Z suc^^zfs ' 

3, The lead ore body apparently is associated with scaae 
orpiment or realgar, i,e, arsexiio sulphide, Uo doubt this was 


exoluded from the better artioles but cheap L:dnr~oh*l aid not 
require great oare aad so these laatorials, v/hioh did not hinder 
the flow in the moulds were tolerated, iiad it been included for 
ita Biagioal powers, it would no aoubL be found in cthor than the 
poorest ming-ohVi, 

The traces apiiiokel and antimony ana the minute quautitiys 
of irola and silver found oy Dono setiin to havo been iai>.9d with 
tiie lead ore. 

Tsatfi for zinc, aocordinf; to Or. ivloas, had negative results. 
Zino was not tised until the han dynasty clthough Chinese Paktoxir 


es imported into .iurope^^had a content of cjpper 40.4, nickel 31.6, 
iron 2.6, and zlno a5,4 percent. 



Animal style forroed the basis of all dhang Dynasty design. 
Foliaf^e and flowers had no part in it.^ Shang Dynasty animal 

1. The so-called plantain leaf or "blade" is in reality an 
isoseles triangle pro|eoted upwards or dovanwards into 
the plain spaces in the bronzes* These triangles are 
filled with conventionalised animal forms and scrolls 

of the cloud or thunder patterns. The square or angular 
"scrolls" are called by the Chinese thunder patterns, 
lei wen , and are supposed to represent the rumbling and 
crashing of thunder as well as the flashing of fort-od 
lightening. The rounded scrolls are called cloud patterns 
yOn wen , and are supposed to represent the whirliiit; storm 
OP the misty floating clouds, when these scrolls are 
united in bands they may be called a meander in j;nt:lish, 
but to the Chinese they still remain cloud and thunder. 

style was not like the later Scythian animal style, nhich depicts 

the huhted animals of the northern nteppes and their cruel struggle 

for life. The conventionalized animal style found on the deoor- 

2, Branches of this same art are called §ino-3iberian and 
Ordos, Among the most striking and frequent raotifes are 
fighting stallions, cnimals biting each other in coraoat, 
the vulture, the wolf, rows of deer on the horizon, the 
ibex, the goat and the oz, 

ative bands of desi^ on most bronze ritual vessels of the shang 

Dynasty reflects the niemories of a still more ancient past, vHxen 

thQse animals were more natnralistically portrayeri.S ,^, .,, - 

|fc ^^HlmH"*lBI^* rrere often riottired na^uriaist^ - jbm^ 

•■•:• \. ■ .)o1j C'^llod ■t^wU.u^ , See 

•*^ . -^ , , . . w.... .,10 :i3,4027, -Torg 

Trfloner, tu Misar ..aaut^^ jjoixin, 1929 and other examples 
scattered in various collections, ohang Dynasty v;ine 
ladle 1IB,4024 has pairs of tigers, elephants, water 
buffalo, deer, snakes, boar, hare and birds placed in 
realistic arpoaition oii the grip of the handle, and a 
selection of throe of them(tigers, water buffalo and deerj 
placed 'lao^: to br^ol: on the^ ase that adjoins the bowl, 
Nestled o.-t the hoilom of the''^^^l'i§ a very lively homed 
dragon in high rtiiifaf , 

were depicted as restful, ^ut powerfully alive, enveloped In a 

background of whiJj'ling cloud and rolling thunder patterns. The 

dominant feature of the atyle was exaggerated round eyes of the 

anim&l, v^ioh were often shaped like the stylized honmn Chinese 

eye. Ihese ayes look out of the desiga as a tiger micAt look out 

1, This eye is e conmori graph in Shaxie Dynasty inscriptions 
on ox-acle bones, rjid bronees, "-here it mesaiB the 3«ryant 
or mini3ter who keeps his eye on thinga for hia aasteT^"*^ 

of his la It* i-t a r.&n. The artist was so absorbed in the eyes and 

fore part of the beast that the body behind the eyes, ]&ve ind fore 

lee:^ was always subordinated and often omitted* The animal face 

was ao convent iontjli zed in the ohang Dynasty that it was difficalt 

to idsntify what type of animal was intended," The fact; or the 

2« This desiga has often been called a mask, out the eyes 
convey the impression of a lirinfc-; aiiimc;! ana net the 
li3iiiniriate akin of a deed one. The writer prefers to 
call it an ^niinal face; r.hoa inien ; cince tlio Sung rcmasty 
l o iLVL T ' q wa3 pabliahed qv., A^V'JTl^b, Chinese ar.thors 
have d?,0(3 the term t'&t> t'ieh to ^ejoriba tliia animal 
face. Tiiig name waf-( a pi artintly based on a '.vroiie iuter- 
pretntion of a chance de^icriptioj of a deoir?'. on e bronze 
tripod Lientioned in the hit §hih Ch'un ah. 'In corapilod 
under the ^lupervialon of Hu Pn-v/e^ \2?0'-Z^& 3,3.), a 
thousand yoary after thig ::hang l^ynaat?^ design vs?aa ooramoiu 
This description of the dosii^n dopcribea r, m^n being 
flavoured , a parontly similar to the riotifc on the 
Sttmltomo wiiie pail figured in the. Loriuon "xhlbition 
Catalogue IIo, :338, or it:-, corspanion^in the Comuuohi 
Kuscum, Tori;?, Uo, PA3, This same motif is found on 
the hanuloj of Jiuei . thn le^s and handler of Huang , and 
elsei^iere. It is quite distinct from the nnlnnl' face 
on th'3 decorative br.nOs of cleoiirii found sonctines on 
theao saine vessels and now popularly callon t'ao t'ieh 
by both i^oropean and Chinese writers rmd collectors, 

tiger aesLia to huvu been dominant in the mind of tho artist, but 
the horns, ears or snout of other animals were also present in 
variations of the theme of decoration. 

The design did not portray the features of any particulsu: 
animal, but the great eyes rather produced the feeling of the 
powerful throbbing life oo^imon to all the great animala sad birds 
that surroonaod the artist oz»ii:inator in his harly Chinese envir- 
onment.^* Shang Djmasty sites producing typical Shang bronzes have 

3. Iliese sreat aniratils were the tiger, the elephajit, the 
water buffalo, tho dragon, whose body seems to reflect 

the ciroGOdilc, tho p;,'thOii or Joa and other araaller snakes. 


the ot;1, tho ea&Le ?dth hooked beak, the rook or common 
bird and the pheaaant or phoenix with ito elaborate tall 
feathers, ilie ox, the rara, the wild boar or pig, and 
the swamp deor were anlmala alauchtered for the ceremonial 
feast whose free heads protruded from, rather than formed 
part of, the tracery design on the yeaaela. One must add 
to thesG the tortoise, the frog, the tadpole, the silkwocn 
the cicada, several varieties of fish, the bear, the hare 
tho monkey, the horse, mule or donkey, for these animals 
are found on small ornamonta made of Jade or bronze, The 
Shang artist was not restricted in his repertory of 
animals, but the habitat of these animals, reptiles, birds 
and fishes calls for a warmer and wetter climate than is 
common now in the dry and dusty region of Anyang, viiiich 
Dr. 7» 11. Ting (see Dibliography general) of the Geolog- 
ical Survey considered to have much the same climatic 
environment in the ohang Dynasty as it has today. If 
this be true then we must look much farther south for the 
habitat \ihioh produced these animal deaims, S«eH«nY(>7Ap;68-g24) 
*'t*i^ Ifi tiie croCodtle" ,-tmnS',£ta'nMeYaa*i , W^nh Styles andOnheSf^ ideal s , 

not yet been discovered ul6nf: the Yangtse rivei^'auutu of it, but 

the writer considers that the designs common on the ohang bronzes 

reflect memories of this area, Chfl Yaan's poem"the Greater Calling 

3aok of ths 301x1", Ta Chao , written about 300 3,C, describes "the 

south'* in oontradistinotioii to the east and west and north, which 

he also describes. The writer was then resident at Chang Sha, or 

.near Hankow, I have translated one verse freely, yet with due 

regard to the animals and climatic environment: 

"Oh thou my soul, thou must not wander to the south. 

The south *a a flaming fire 0, 

For full a thousand miles of slithering, sllnty, serpent's 



.J4. Stretches on and on.O, „ „..,c <r+^^h 
Here goblins, ghouls shriek, and short fox fairies flit. 

^ng python lifts his head, 0, 
Oh thou my soul, thou must not waiider to the south 
vnxere vampires spit disease, 0," 
This southern animal habitat described in words 300 B,C, 
is very similar to the one depicted in the ohang animal design on 
the flat bands of decoration of the bronze ritual vessels. The 

writer considers this hi^ly conventionalized animal t^ttyle of 

decoration to be landed down from a period previous to loll B«C« 

while the free style animals on the wine ladle and small bronzes 

represent animals copied direct from nature. The horse heads of 

the ohaug Dynasty horae jingles picture the horses living at 

Anyang 1311-1039. "Hiey do not form part of the oonvontionaliaed 

animalistyle. The tigers, panthers, elephants, wuter buffalos, 

pythons, snakes, crocodiles, alligators (dragons), cook fov/ls, 

pheasants (phoeni:^), owls and other aaimals, birds and reptiles 

that combine to make up the conventionalised animal patterns with 

the decorative designs, were taken from a southern climate* The 

!• Tlie word south has three distinct meaniiigs or ugages in 

literatore. In Ciiiiieae olaasiot^l literiiture written fmm 
the point of view of Jlaii or Loyang, south slwaye meant 
the area north of ttio Yanestse valley, oomohow in late 
classical times, 500-200 B.C., south vna ver^ vague, and 
seoma to have meant all states south of Loyant^ and the 
Yellov? lUver, In early _aroT)oan litoratore oouth China 
meant Canton in ooiitBadistinction to Ilorta China, t^ich 
began at ihanghai. In recent tiaes r.hen ^school geogra- 
phies are comMOii, Centi*ul China meanj the Hunko.v Chant:3ua 
area tO'^ethex' with the Yangtse valley. Ilortix China means 
the territory north of the Yellow vivor in pai-ticalar, 
and .>outh Chi^m the provinoes of Fa £iei.', .Iiianjj Tang, 
Huang si, Zaeilin and Yunium, th(3 la t tor beii^c often 
iJicladed ii: :e;3t China, and not called !30uth. In the 
writer's opinion the climatic habituo of tau ^Iiang 
Conveiitionalizod designs was south of the Yangtse valley 
area, but Chinese olaayioal rofoi'©s to "tlie uouth" are 
properly interpreted as i..ny teri-itory south of ithe 

YellOV; rUver "tiaainm S^e. Cl\Un HyLo 3.1 .i,^.fJl^hrt>nz& i^^ict^ifhon. 
menhon iA^-th-& sooTh coonr-^jfov^ed. J^^o (7/9,'. Ch\5 y^^t ^robahl^^ Cn'iJ5fe.+e. 

des gns on tbe butts of the Ilo used in the x'itual, especially 
types III and IV, wore similar to thoae on vesaels used in these 
ceremonies. The full face of the animal design on the v^tssels 
divided dovm the (ai<i(31e in nuch a way that each half waa complete 
in itself and pwrtrayed the animal from th^; side. TJieso complete 
half designs «aoh filled one section of the mould used for casting 
Jfour or six sections of this mould placed nose to nose and tail to 
tail formed a complete round of two or three animal faces. 

The desi0i3 on the moulds for each Bide of the butt of 
the So irere alrallar to those on the vessel sections, but the 
outline was adapted to the shape ol' the butt* The noso or oi^n 
mouth of the animal and the beak or claw of the bird were so 
oriented as to face the shaft of the £o when hafted, and leave 
the impression of the blade isaoins from the dosi^* 

This peculiar conventionalized animal design filled every 
part of the area to be ornamented with linear curves and Bcrolla* 
The graceful lines were equally spaced to permit the inlay of 
bands of lacquer or turquoise mosaic* The distinguishing feature 
of Shang Dynasty design was a sense of line effect, which appears 
perfectly free from restraint in spite of the rigorous controls 
exeroi::ed by the medium used and the shapes of the butt of the 
Zo* The artist craftsman knew his materials and used them to 
preserve in unalterable form the beauty of his line* There was 
such an affinity between the lines of desi^ and the script on the 
bone and bronze in the Jhang Dynasty that it seems evident they 
viTore drawn by the seme persons. The diviners were the Tjritora, 
the writers 7;ere the historians, and the same writers of script 
were also the artist designers who canrAed the memories of the 
animals in a more luxurient climate into the ornamenting of the 
bronze ritual vessels and ceremonial Lo which 'v-ere u;3ed in 
memorial seirvices for their ancestors* 

The decorative designs on the butts of the Xo were much 
more restricted in scope than those on the bronze ritual vessels 
and other objects found at Inyang. Animals depicted from nature 
are rarely found on thera,^ On ceremonial Ko Types III and IV tte 

1. The horse on i:o 117 is a name graph, not a desl^. a 
horse ne ad oocars as a knife handle finial aiid on har- 

o^lhing^K^ ^'^^^' ^^®^® ^'"'^'' ^""^^^^ ^^""^ ''°* ^^^"^ ^°"^^ 

animal deaigna were of the conrentiozialized v&rietj, coapresaed inio 
the ahape of the batt. The deaigna retained a llrelj realisJB aolted 
to the ritual ayahollaa of the war dance, Ta ira , or coart cereaony. 
Designs siallar to thoae on the Zo are foond on carred oone hairpins 
from Anyang* The relation of the decorated part of the hairpin pro- 
tradtng froa the wearer's head to the pin inserted in the hair was 
similar to that of the decorated hatt of the Zo to its hlade. Hue 
vigorooa design of the coiled dragon en Zo 49-52 is also found on 
bone hairpins froa Anyang. The blade or pin ia held between the ex- 
posed teeth and proceeds oat of the dragon's aoath, Bi« woo-d pro- 

l.Bie dragon, l^yng design appears to the writer to be inspired 
by the crocodile. These sonsters were atill rampant at 
Ch'ao Choa To. in Zoan^tone province norti of iwaton ca. 
Lat. 23^ t I'Ong 117^ i^en Han Ttl was aagiatrate there ca. 
A.I>.820. The writer has seen the aog^r Oilea 3328} in 
the ponds of Indian princes. Zis aoTeaents in the w£ter 
and his wide open jaws, deTOoring the large pieces of iseat 
thrown to hia by the weeper, aoggested the dragon deaign 
on Zo 508 49-52. The presence of tne crocodile in the spath 
land was well laio-ai. in ancient China. In the Han Dynasty 
an aabassador was sent to Fan EsOn, -ir^g of 7a Ian, a 
country occapyint the lower oaain of the Ije^ong rirer in 
^e region of Saigon, Indo China. Tlie icing had crocodiles 
in a pond ir. a ralley. It was beliered that they had 
power to distinguish guilty persons froa innocent ones. 
The crocodiles devoured the guilty alltrs but aerely rub'bed 
the innocent with their noses and allowed thea to go free. 
The record says that crocodiles aeasare i.0-30 feet (1 foot 
Han aeasnre corresponds to 231 aa. ) They haye 4 feet li^e 
a houae lizsard. See Tin XLSBg p. 233. The blade of tae 
Zo with the dragon ceaien brings death to the guilty in 
the aase aannrr as the crocodile in the pond. Cn the oracle 
bones the word "to paniah', fa , depicts a ilo striiLii-g 'ze 
neck of a aan. Iragon deaigns changed as tiae i?ent on. 
I.C.White, To ab Tile ^ict-irea of Ancient ZzlrA , plate ILZ2 
LXm and iiJJLiii, a-reara to depict the dragon deacribed 
by Har. Fei Tza 1280-233 5.C.). In his book. Chapter HI 
near the end, he says "Sow the dragcn ia a reptile ao 
gentle that he aay be patted and zso anted to ride. ZTerer- 
theleas andemeata iia throat are contrary swalea -jiich 
stick oat a whole foot. If anyone Joiocica against thea the 
dragon will certainly icill that aan, zrictator? of rsen 
also hare contrary scales. If e scholar can Misco^rx Titho4t 
knocking against the contrary scales of the dlcvA.ors of 
aen he aost be astute irideed**. Ihe "contrary scales'* are 
depicted on Plate L' I?!; tbe rider on plates ^/-tt end LTrrTT 
This dragan was still a iciller of aen when angry but h&d 
lost his original crocodile-like body, as pictured on the 
bronxe designs of the .Shang Dynasty or in the oracle bone 
script (variation 1) Menzies 560; 3236, Ch'ien --ien 
4.54.3, 5.36.3; Hou-pien 3.6.15; aaing-haa 11.3; Znlen-gliftn 
5.15. aaae as Hafl-pien 1.31.5: .Shih-yl 1.5; f' aol -rien 483. 
Three other foras have been identified with dragona"Aioh* 


seem to the writer to represent different graphs. Variation 2, 
Ch'ien pien 6.19,5; 6,43.3; 6.59.4 same as Hayashi 2.23.15; 
Shih-yi 5.7; Hayashi 2.23.17; Ts'ane iluei 109,3 same as Hsft 
pi en 6,25,6 and ijoins Had pien ^,33.6, same as T'ien - jan^ 88. 
Chien shoa 8,12. sarne as Hstt pien 5.25.5; 46,3 same as Ilstt 
pien 5.25.5. Is'ai pien 1231; 1260. Variation 3 Manzies 127 
1409; 1861; 2188; Ts^ang - kuei 62.3; Yi- ts'mi 234; 907. Var- 
iation 4 is crcvned '/lith the graph "To judge and punish" 

hsing Menzies 2143; Gj^'icn pien 4,25,3; 4,29,4; 4,54,1; 
4.54.2; 4,^3.4; 7.2lT3n^ii-^en 1.9.5; 1.20.5; 2.33.4; 


placed at iTE head. Other {^ra^Jis into which the dragon of 
variation 4 enters ar e Ili uig "with two hands below" and p'ang 
"under a roof". These appear to be place names. 

Zo 53 depicts an eagle or an owl standing on the butt as though 

the blade were held in its talons. The head of the bird was pointed 

away from the blade. '^ The other oird motifs were disposed on the 

l.Because this jLo had ^ semblance of ta3t3el prongs it ?/as 
classified as Type III c. 

butt in such a^^way that the blade appears to symbolize the striking 
power of the beak or claw. The head of the birds face the blade. 
The cock-fight which is now so common in China, Indo-Chlna and all 
the Malay peninsula ".-as well known in the Shang Dynasty. This suggest 
an interpretation of the 3 different bird designs grouped under 
Type IV as subtypes A,B and C: (1) Type A (ilo 54-60) and Type VIII J) 
ilio 156); a cock vilth claw outstretched below the beak: (2) Type 

IV B (Ho 61*64); a cock v/ith claw upraised in front of the head, 
v/lth faces the blade; (3) Type IV {ko 65-68) a cock with claw 
upraised in front of a head turned away twm the blade. All 3 designs 
are attitudes assumed by cocks 1:1 combat. Taej seem to symbolize 
victory and the death of the enemy. 

The writer considers that these 2 designs, the dragon and tbe 
bird, do not represent a male and female symbolism. Tliis idea came 
into Chinese thought with the dualistic Yin Yang school in the vVarring 
States or Chou III period 481-206 B.C. The bird represents the 
the struggle between equalscombatants in the cock-pit, while the 
dragon-crocodile sug^'ests the Justice anu power of the great animals 
carrying out the will of over ruling Nature. The designs also 
indicate the dread in which such animals were 

aeld in a troploal land like tiie tin country of south China and 
the Malay peninsula. The horned python on Ko 157, a design well 
aiown also on Shang ritual vessels, adds another killer from the 

On the square butts of flat socketed Ko^Type V and Type VII 
there are full-face^ masks (Ko 88, 9?-, 133). These are usually 
grouped under the title T*ao - ±* ieh ^ jften translated '^glutton", 
Giles, Dictionary , 11 159 suggests that "the faca of an animal and 
no body on bronze vessels is to be interpreted as a warning against 

vJaltr on ox 

"gluttony". To the writer these masks wnether ol tiger ,b(/ftW«i dragon 
or pyiiiion <3npeflf rather to re^-req, ey\ t 'devourers" bringing death. 

The uiost common type of design on funereal Ko is found on Type 
IIIA, e,g. Ko 34-48, Compare also the butt of jade sickle Mo 5, 
The writer has called this e three-animal design. It pictures the 
head of an elephant with mongoloid eye, curved trunk, tusks and open 
mouth; below tuis appear the wing, foreclaw and tail of a headless 
bird seated upon the horizontal snaft of the Ko . On the top of 
the elephant *s head a tiger head with pointed ear faoes^the opposite 
direction from the elephant's trunk. Above these again are two 
tassel prongs which have no symbolic connection with the design, ^ 
Traces of the tassel may be part of the encrustation on Ko 39j Many 
Ko with this desircn have been very poorly cast and the elements of 


it have not beea ele- r but Ko,36, 61 ^n-i other -iimilar Lo not re- 

o&»4eci i*i?i'ft clearly show tbe^parts of these three animals. 

The significance of this design on many :Lirig-cn*i Ko seems 

important for the symbolism used in funeral rites. The writer nas 

not been able to find any straight^forward and satisfactory inter- 

pretatlon, Tiie design is found clearly portrayed on Ko 35 v/uich is 


insoribed with the two graphs '♦^he great rainiuaker', ta ytl. Tne 
set of vessols and weapons similarly insoribed iias Oeen disoussed 
under i^ 55, '^ xq date is apparently about lUOO .5,0. "he origin 
ol* this dosiga naat bo Vvjry early, possibly before tiio occupation 
of the '.'aato of Yin in 1311 w,G, l\or<i taan ono tnuusand yoara 
after tliis the Ul puih vii*(ln Ch*ifl .aeotion^ a^iaa ohih .records 
"upon Clioii trifou ther^ wae ea,:jrfived q r*ao T* low . It hnd a hoad 
but iio body. It was devcurlng a raan but had ;iot swallowed him down, 
when dastruotion reaohod its 'oofly. Chon tinp^ oho t*ao t'ich, yu 
shou wu shon shih j_on vei yen, hai c^iI oh'i £hen". The design on 
Ko 36 and on nil of Type IIIA fits t in doacrlptlou. The dovouror 
without body in the elephent, the devoured is a biru^iiot a man; the 
tlgor on the head of the elephant brings destruction to its body. 
This term t*ap t*ieh seems to have been associated with the tradi- 
tion of an ancient people in China called the '*Throe Sprouts" or 
3an V>iao. T*zu--t*uap- Oioti on firy , r. 2467, quotes the comment on 
Jan Miao in ixua i n an t2»j , i (s iu wu oeotion: " T'ao t'ieh means tne 
posterity of the three tribes >an teu wno ei'e tiiererore called the 
"three -Sprouts" ian £i«o. The T ' 2u t'un^-^ uieo quotes under V * ao 

/ fao ciuh 

t'ieh tv/o worus or somev/hut similar souiiu^irOiU the Glas.->io of 
History , ^ "/Numerous Re^iona ' To f^ng^ cf-.Legge ill, ;>, 497 

I . /Ol Judex 5o,Uloor^" 1h^r^Mo Chne^e cktrachirS. 
translates "(nsia) daily nonoui-od tht^ oovetoous anii orudi." ..iis 
document balongs to the bogiiuiin-:] of the Giiou dyaasty.^v -^ne iu- 
soription ( llou pix^n <i,2-6,16) dating about IJ',00 ',0, records the 
words "order the tl\roo tribes i^ Sn aan J^» ^i this sutt^ests 
that tae idea of t'ao t*ieh as^u orutil devourer aaaooifc^jd v/ith 
three tribes saa tMu of the BhBJXi<, dynasty poiatti to some symbollo 


meaning of the three-animal desircn on Ko 34-48 of Type IIIA, 

T.:iis deslP'n nay have to dp ydth tiireo trlu^^^jOi' the r-ncicnt rast 

and may be totenistio in its 3ynooli?»ir^- 1\\C t^^ii^n mau ontj^ ^i^oi-of chourece. 

symboliiie the devouring of death. The tenuThas been very much 

misused by soholars in descriptions of Gi.lnese animal masks. The 

t^ao t ' ieh deVv:)urin?^ on bronze ^0^°^ vessels i.'i nuch nore vividly 

pictured^. It is found on the handles of bronze ritual vessels. 

The so-called "Ghou hook" oft eii shows the claw and tail of the 

bird being devoured. The body aiid v«ings of the bird forn: the 

handle. The aevouring nead is sometimes an elephant but iiiore 

often it is another animal, oome 01 tnese ritual vessels have 

early Chou dynasty in:;criptions. mis does xiot inaicate that 

tills devouring design bef?,in3 in tne Cnou dynasty but points to 

the continuation of tne design from early Jhang II into the tiarly 

Chou dynasty. 

'iie luust however^ look to the Shang dynasty culture complex 
for the origins of this three animal devouring design in Chinese 
art, Tiie ideag ezpressed v;ere symbolic and i^ot realistic for 
t'ae elephant is :iot carniverous. Ko 36, 37 e;nd sickle 5 have 
jade blades witb this three-animal design on the butt in bronze 
inlaid with turquoise. These Vvore fit for ceremonies in the 
royal court as were the elaborate ritual vessel? ha\i\n(^ handles 
wifk siwila/- clesii^n. The fear of animals is often vividly portrayed 
In the collection of southern poems called the Sle'^ios of Ch'U i^^TV'^, 
and it is to this southern region we r.inst look for the atmosphere 
of the symbolism. Here too, is the traditional home of the ancient 
San Miao. 

The square butted Ko of Type V and Type VII are often 


inaorlbed with the f^ra^ih of the ovraer's name, A pair of small 

dragons with open mouths fQcltl{^,the blade are '-laced on eeoh 

side of the graph as in Ko"72, 82» 127, 120 and lol. Headless 

drGfTOJu;^ flank the graphs on Ko 71, 713, 76, 79, bl, 35, 84, 132 

end 133, 

Trlnngi/iar Ko 162 presents en intrioato design in various 

; lanes v/:.lcri ic a three-animal puziilo mask, lu the desirja are 

Wfl'-er hoHalo &T(fio 
Xri^o draf-ons, liin/* , vie\7od oidewice, v/hllo z fcog oocur.ies the 

middle rortion of the deslrn. The whola cnnenible suggests the 

tickler rask. 

Ordinary .-^han'-' dynasty full faoe masks^onn be divided into 
t'.vo halves dov/n the ihiddle so thnt each half su pest?? a aide 
vlow of the aniianl. In tnis oxampl^j, however, thebos fortas the 
oontral part while tljQ sirti-: vif^wii of the dreronfi form the open 
jaws. This may be only a puzzle, the problem being to distin- ' 
guiah the draf.oa, theSos and the tiger in the design. 

The deslf^ns of little nen v;lth pointed oaps qu Ko 168, 169 
and 170 i»resent a different problem. These Ko have been dated 
to Ohou III or the }?an dynasty. The provenance of Ko 169 is 

IiK'o Ohin*^, The shapes of the Mf?de?i conform to the tradition 

a,l;l^e Won* 

of tne ^hanr dynasty ind aro^clt f ferent a * -^' ^IV^ of '{■■?. ^'^^-0^ pre- 
vailed in Ohou III or the ;tan dynasty. ai'iiQ huj:\an fig-ure it r:ust 
be reneradered was not absolutely debarred from 3hang design, A 
tyxjiotii Siianj; dynasty Jinf.i'j, for iustanoe r.nov/o tv/o fifures 
v;ich eianorate iiair ilreasing and bent arias ^^ whic|, ^o^^^itfhe liftje 

1, G,T,Loo, An exaibitioa of r^nlnose 'ronzoa , l'J39, 
plate iCXIl', lio. 5, 

Saoaftin^ nien on ko /68 I^S^nd I70. Lohieh a f>p^/'fo he 2ahe }n doJ-^- bof 

To Cixyru c>i\-'\h€ SnAp-c ar\d hafifn^ o f-^^h-e Slnan^ //o, 


The number of Insoribed Ko . 

OorapnrativQly few Shang Ko were inscribed, osaibly not 
raore^ tluui fivo percent. In mcnotjrap}! the proj^ortiou of 
iaaoribed to lixiliifjoribed gpociraeas does act .Indicate tlie crue 
proportionr. amous- all the extant Ko of the Shan:;:: periott^. Apart 
from the ^ooxitext, vhloh Ih very rnroiy recorded, the grapho are 
the only evidence waion. can asalst^in fixirr the^dateo of the Ko, 

IH^o l)iis corpus 

The v/ritar thoraforH gotUertd together ^ali the iuc.Gx'iood apoai- 

ciena^he oould oDt.ain^ exoludEd- -my that 3c:;iiOv; Uiiroliabi^ end 

ali30 5:et Hwide cony foAr ruobinfce of insari.itions v/hicn wore 

not aoooEi>>aaiod by tne shnpy or iaoacurciaeiits ol" the blades. 

oeventy f./o oi^arinleo v.-ere oDtnlned, "^xoiadin.; du^^lioatos «VoU 

on Ko of different typea and oountlnf: '^H "the /graphs on both 

sides of the same Ko onj^y as 0:10 unit, t.icre a:e f'fty-four 

different inBorlptlonsI 

X, The f;rarh on y_o Ibd Lc oiaitted an t.ic; writta' 
now fears that It is out rattier tliau oaat, 
pnd that it ir; a copy of that, on Ko 72, He 
has not saen. the spaciaien but prefers not 
to inoiude the crap- ler.'t it ;-'ruvo mislead- 
ing for the date of Ko 158. Tiie _^, both 
in form and decoration, r ena Ins*^ valuable 
exanpla of the aax-ro'.v Tyrie I7.ji, 

ihil^faphi en l^a Hl-H^ ore. alsa -raqa^A^ hiTth-e-ViY'ht.r aS false. 
andl io «r< net" I's/-E^. 

Types of Ko nost frequently Liearibed . 

The writer considera that the followin.': analysis of the 


oorij-arative frequency of Inncriptiona foun^^Atho various 

tyi)e3 represents a fair aam!->le of^^ ail^bhanp ^ as, 

known at 

-TATTLE I /(iscribe«i l<p \t\ fKis monoi^rtjph's Catolo<^oe- 
Comparative frequency of inscriptions on various types of Shang Ko 

Gfoup A .^ri-ei.oer\fUi \n5<=rioed- ly pes. 

'^ ^ ilo. of 

Mo. cf ^tifferent 




Ko Gat, Ho. 


















95-112 and 
















jecle Ko 

Group 3 In fr-£i^je.n-tiLj i«Sc>'iO€.d.-rj pe5, 

tasi^eled 55 and 4 

tv>'o slots 159 

Grapii on Ko 15ri is now suspect and^uot listed. Graphs on Ko 
171-174 are believed false and not listed. , ^ _,j , , 

List of t' e more iiii2ort<3nt inscriptions cxi Shang Ko omitted from 
tiie jdates in this monograph for lack of blade share and E^i inurements. 
The type of Ko can often be deternlnod frorti the rubbing of the butt near 
the socket ridge, or the hol^' at the back edge of the shaft, 
1. UbU Yin 2,80.5; .-socketed Tyre Yll 

2« llsfi Yin 2,30.7; ^ocK^^tod ry^e VII 
'5. Iis« Yin 2,80.e; rocketed Type VII 
4. 'Jfc'tl Ylu H.80.9; rocketed Type VII 

.seme graph as Ko 134 (Type VII 


same grspn as Ko 84 (Type V flat) 

additional p.raph, 

same graph as Ko -31 (Type V flat) 

same f^TBvh as Ko 84 (Typo V flat) 

5. dsn Yin 2.L'i.l tind 2; flat Tyre V; 

"it .Is' possi'ile that this Ko is cf Type VII. The rubbing, does not 
rfive H clear iudj cation. 

^* il^H XAP i^.ai.4 and o, same an .jnn- tai and 9; flat Type V; 
adoitional rraph. 

"^^ iiSii Xiit i:i.d2.a and 9, samo as 6an-tai 19. V. 7 and d; flat Type V; 
adcJitionp]. f^rarh. 


Table of Inscribed Ko combining thoae of Tables I and II. 

Qrojp A 'trec^jant- Ij mscnoe^. Tlp&s. 

Type liaftlnp. Butt IIo« of Uo, of different 

exaiiiples inr.oriptions 

28 18 

20 16 

20 14 

5 5 















Types V, 



73 "TT 

dqroo p '2" I n'rr-e.^u^yit 1^ mser, b ed- 7j pes. 

Ill flat tas soled 1 1 

IX flat two slots 4 2 

II flat Jade 1 1 

Total tyioes //, III, IX 6 T 

As more complete information about 3hang Xo beoomea 


available^ additSons will be made to these numbers. The 
vrriter has omitted many other Ko of wnich he v/as doubtful-, 

and u/fimfl^-e/^ 

>5ome of these may,, be proved diutb^At't^. The above tables 
represent presoat knowledge and the writer considers that 
the comparative results will prove w.iiid lor any future 

additions. These a^^i+.ons s^iouo ^<xt "G<^u^ 1^ ^<^^ ^'" ^^'^ 

^Slxty-slx^Ko and fifty different inscriptions belong to 
^Types V, VI, VII and Till, Tiiese four types appear to form a 

group on wbioli inscriptions of a similar nature,^were much more 

frequent thaxi ou other types. Only six Ko and four different 


inscriptions belonfr to^Types TI, III and IX. No example of 
Ko Type IV v/itii the JoDed butt was found to be iascribed. Ko 
with square butts were most frequently inscribed. Types V and 
VII have between thora fort^ two exam^-^les '/fith thirty- two d^ff- 
eront inscribtions, ^ As seen in the individual studies of their 
inscriptions, many of these nooketed Ko v/ere dated earljr in the 
Shang II roriod. This fact seems to indicate tl'at the soclveted 
Ko was well developed before the r"0^/e to Yin in 1311 i'.G. and 
suggests that it had been commonly inscribed before that date, 
A great many unlnsoribed socketed Ko of tnis type have been 
found in many parts of China i?^;^AllU0^.t no archaeological evidence 
regarding them is available. Ten examples in the Hoyal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology (Ko 141-150) aava oeen included in this 
monograph. These co^uaon socketed Ko should be studied in tiieir 
archaeological seti,ings to -determine v/hether they are of the 
same early date as the inscribed examples. 

Date of inscriptions on '^yvea V, VI, VII and VIII . 

It is ira'^ossibie to place the ox'igin of any one of these 
four types, V, Yl , 'ITl or VIII, late in the Snang II period ^f or 
some ini^oriptions in oaou type are definitely of the early part 
of 'hat period. The earliest inscriptions are found on the best 
examples, best, that is, in alloy,^3n/>de3ign, and in having 
inscriptions inlaid with turquoise. All four types V, VI, VII 


and VIII v/ere in common use togetiier soon after the move to Yin, 
Ko 75 of Type V with h square butt has the same graph as I_o 95 of 
Type VI with a rounded hutt and sharp spur. Ti-is Is dei'inite 
proof that tliesc3 two types existed at the same time and Tine graph 
is bone-script period^in datetiau- '|97 '^.'^ J' 

From tho evidence of inscriptions ii.o\f avaiiable the foliowing 
observations may be aii\ja.nced as a basis for further study. At 
the begin^ilng of the ohang II period tiie socketed Ko of Type VII 
was comirionly used in war by ordinary soldiers and was also the 
most frequently inscribed weapon placed v/ith the setf^ of bronze 
ritual vess'^ls belongin-- to important "orsons, 

AoT Flat Fo of typos V an6 VT viere botl; equally coifir-on but those 
with square biitts may have been more coirj^jon in early times* Accord- 
ing to bone inscriptions the graph on sook?;ted Ko 154 with a rounded 
butt and a spur at the bottom edge was of early 3hang II date. It 
seems possible both square and rounded types of butt v/ere in 
use at the same time durin,r^ the 3hang II period. 

Proper sequence in reading, the obverse aud reverne graphs on the 
Shang Ko , 

In ooiapllin<3 the oatnlof^uo, the v/rlter grouped the ICo into 
eubJivif'ioui^ of types aocordlufj to tiio position of the graph on 
the Ko; i.e. according as it occurred on the obverse, or on the 
reverse or on both sides. The study has not rvjvealod an; eooJohonary 
basia for this subdivision. From the point of view of typology^ 
however, this seems to be the iriOst lo^^ical arrangement. It is 
retained ia the hope that future study may discover some explana- 
tion for the placing of the graphs. 

There is no establislied p>raotice to indicate w ilah side of 
the Ko is obvers-j and w..lch reverse, Tne insoi'luod aide of this 
Ko^no matter whioli side the inscription is on, is now usually 
sailed the obverse, Tais tyj'e of aiubi<.';uity suould be avoided. 
The Vi'riter nas therefore adopted the foliovving distinction : the 
obvorse of a ho ia drav.n on the page aa tiioUji-^h the raaaer -Aere 
holding the woarou in hia right hand v/lth the shaft upright and 
the point faclniis left, 

Different graphs ai-e cast on the opposite sides of Ko 70, 71 
117, 118, 119 and 151, It ia inpcrtant to knov/ v.'Lich aide should 
be read first for thit reason. These graphs are probably the 
names of tlio ov/nor. In oi*aol« bone inscriptions the tribal or 
estate murie precedoa tLti name of a nan's office or personal name, 
Tiiif) order probably should apply on the K£ inBoriptions, It is 
diffloult, !iov/evor, to be certain of tt.lp, for or; Ko 117 the praph 
Ko is inscribed on th« reverDo vhllc on Vc llfl the name graph Ko 
is on the obvcrpe. It i? possible, however, that tJ.;e (jranh '*Ko" did 
not mean the same thin,^: on those tv.'c vrna-ons. In Lo_ 117 ""^crse" 
nay bo t{;o tribal noine and " iTp" tiio office of the owner, .ow in 


the Oracle bone inscriptions Ko is sometlis^es a tribal nane so that 

II ;/ 

on ro 113^ Ko may be the tribal r-.;\ine and "Announcer" Kao the office 
of tho Q-fmer, 

Of tna Ko that ara iascriued only on one side about one half 
have thri ,':r?.ph on tlia obvorse and about ono iialf on the reverse, 
Tt iJiie'hfc b'3 suggested that these Ko were inBoribed for ri^jht and 
left f-tutlons in thts teujle service or for a right and left file 
of an jficoi't of /Co bearers. This does not r-eem to be so, liov/ever. 



for the Ko_ln the .^ota cited under Ko 35, 44-4C, 102-107 all 
have the grapii oatit on tho same side. 

The orientation of .graphs oast on 3hen^-. Ko , 

In ruo3t casetj the luooi'ipt/ioas en -Stianf: Ko conrjiot of one 

^;rai:u oajt on ti-e tutt. Tlie orientation of thii .si:: le (-;;rai;rj 


18 sirnificafit for ths au&tom variea in subau nuent-.criofis. All 


the eiaxupltiS iii tikia monograph, nxotpt Ko IG t'jiu threfe apparent 

exoeiitiona to bo notod later, l'ol3 ov oua x-ulo. The f'l ph v.'&s 

upri^rht aoid properly read v.'nen the shaft wys U(:l(.r i.y tue, LVif_j.jt 

down. « o ihaMli^sraph- aftj»g»v& 

hand in a horlzoi^tal position 'with the poiiit-to be tased on 'ohe 
shaft t Jinae the sJiafts arti uow loisaing tho rolnt of the blade 
should 69 helti in th'5 hand with the butt up and the oonoave edge 
to tue ripho Jiand, In this position the A^rapJi on tu© obverse of 
the i.lade will be in the proper position for reading. When this 
rule is act followed jtnese 3impl^i piotOf:J?aphfi aro of to:: nisunder- 
stood 03 has beea the oaye with Ko 1C7, Tu'd e;raph on this speol- 
men really shows a ixiun sT/andinfij on hiii head and not, as haa been 
thouf:ht, a staadlnf, on uis feot, tv/o cuitj difforont ideas. 

The ^^raph •*Mo'* for tha w^.ipon itself anpear.i to be an e. oeption 
to thi rule of oriei/tation. It is foimd on Ko iiO, 117 and IIB, Tho 
drav.-ixif; of the Ko L»la<i9 follo.vs the i^xia of Lite &nt.u(-il blfido and 
the shaft is drawn parallel to the aotufti nhaft, as thouc-h the 
person jtriiiing n bio/.' aiti^ tne £jo wished the drawing of the Ko 
to be pointed iii ti^e dix-eotion of the biOA'. In thi^^; oasa the 
feeling for oongruity in art daait-n o/orrulsii the ordinary ouatoxa. 

Ko 110 has only the single graph but Ko 117 and 113 tiave each 
another ^raph oant on the opposite side of the butt, Each of 
I these otner graphs is rlaced in the customary way. The graph 
"Announcer" Kao on ^ ^'^ is bascd on the shaft as it should be 
On Ko 117 thti .icrye's nead face;3 the point lu the direction of 
the blow oein;;', etruolc and chus at i'irst .t^lanot; api)aars to be 
another oxoeption. iiut it ia to bu aot-dd tiiao the grapn for 
''horse" in Coiuess i3 nevx-r read a^^ though the norso'n feet were 

standing on the horizontal plane of the i-round. In oracle boue 

sentenoers auoh as Is a ;'i;3n 3,40,3, in the succeeding bronze in- 
scriptions and in present day vv-riting tho graph "norse" la drawn 
as though waikinp up tLio perpendicular line of graphs, head up and 
tail clown. Had he heea represented iu tiiis attitude on Ko 117, the 
horaa, v/hioh is possibly a tribal or family name, would have 
appeared to be running away from th3 battle instead of following 
the Ko into action, Uers a>Tai-i o'.ia regard for con-^rult.y in design 
overruled the oi-dlnary prao.tioe. In the oraol3 bone sontucceg and 
in the succoedin^^ bronze Inscriptions trie ori.intatiun of the r^raph 
Ko does not <;ii:ffer froia that of othor graxiho; it alv;aj s stands up- 
right in the perpendicular line of the fientenoe-^. ifron these apparent 

1. Set; Cj.'ib-.n pietxx o.i^l,^); V.lii.i; V,i4r.l and Ts'ul ^ie^ 

exceptions we learn that Cuinoae art desif-n and iJiixnese oalliFraphy 

were closely associated at the beginning of the Shang II period if 

not before, Eo 117 and 118 may even antedate 1311 13, G, These two 

Ko are old finds of early Shang Ko from unknovm sites. Thoir graphs 

are done in the style of bone script of Period I, 


Early in tne Choi I period siUfUe graphs oontinued to be oast 
on the butts of ^^o. ^ov.'^ few followed the old Sxian^ tradition.-^ 

1. San-tai 19.21.2; 19.C5.2; 13.2().l. 

Cn otiiors tii»'; ci'Spu v-au upri^^t wii£;ji the saait was aeid perpendiou- 
Irir.*- Tills rule seeiLS tc have j-redoraiua&ya ^ -tot: on still others 

2. "au - t ^i ig,^?,^; 19.;^9.;3; id.^^..i; ia..i.3,x; 19.^4.ii 
an i a nur.'b'ir of wanpons oxoavatod by the Acadsnla 
•Jinloa at; tho early Cj.»ou .^ite uoar dsiixi Jtaieu railv/ay 

tho .^raph •.''a:-3 orl.;uti;u in a alreoLlon oiv-ogits tc that ot the 3haag. 

Thtj prooli.ion of tha 3haag artisaxi 8n<1 t;.e car*>loasne3P of the Ohou 

are nioeiy iiluBtrattrd by this ninor pvoint, Lat:r in Ohou II and 

aiou III lon':or Inscriptioun v^ere oa;it on the hu or ourvod -^art 

of tiio blade at tuo;^ of the aliaft. In late Choti IIT and 

Han timsa inaori^)tions wero cut on tho weapon.! after f-n^y had been 

cast, Inccription.i on tho blarjo sunn aa thoao on r_o 173-174 v/ore 

..ot found in Ga.v -oriod of aiitl'.iul'o:-. 

Tho rriea.nln.v of th a K^'apiio . 

Tho fiirepht' oaot on these Shang Ko are th-=> uaiii^s of their ov/nors, 

"iiesy person^', worfe important ri,rurea in tne lifv of the bhnng 

dynasty. Sooit? of tneir naicoa xtaye boa/i fcmnd cloo on uracio- bone 

in. oriptious, Tnis su^-f^efto that they were the /xau-eG by viruioh 

thescj ;>er«}ona v/w-re aalled .luring thair lifeLiiae. la the Jhaiig 

nasty Wo know that tuo tenipi«i namea were -'ivv^n afte.r deafn. <■ 

"•lang i.iag was K-auwa by .iiu^uame day and preceded by a tt-iripla title 

in reiorenoca to nim oy his dosceudauta, After thO' ,>5«uera;-ion of 

is aonsar^d ^randSor^s ^^o u%&^'Hie Ootnynon in-iiviiaTe faMiKjn^mes father and 
(frand fathe-r. 

The names found on the Ko appear alao on s^-ts of bronze ritual 

vessels v/ith whloh the Ko wero associated, L'hus Ko 35 and five 


Others were found In the same pit vflth a auinbor of ritual vessels 
similarly iaaoribod, .Jomo of these seta of ritual vessels .iave 
the temple iiamos of inoeavors ii. addition to th'i "livln/^." name of 
the ovmor. These vessels wnra made for the owner in honour of his 
father, fu, ipothor, mu, elder brother, hsl un? , gran-jfather, tsu . or 
f.randcothor, j^l. On th'3 oi'uole bonea tno namss of these fafers, 
motnorc, oldir broti'jrs, grandfathers, //randmothers and other temple 
tl*".l2n are rctifcrioted '-.o tho I'oyal family, jinoo riore than Uvonty 
thousand oi-aolo boxio insorijtioatj have been tj>.aminad 'lithoiit this 
restriction bolnr viola tod, ii: seems probRbit- thwt siailar Foioestral 
nanoB cant on t.^ia bronze ritual v<5'i5a^;ls whioh llkov^lse were used in 
ancealral oorononies , should al.<!0 havo b.-*v«n re^'irioted to the royal 

fanily; Most ao^ioltii':-^ o asider that broaze ritual vessels Inijoribed 

with "fathor" I'oiiowod ))y a^niuae day wicdit belon.- to anyone and 

little ettonticn ba.s been ;>Hl>i lo vhcn a^ a source of roynl qenealo- 

,sioal record, Ibe wrltsir .considers thr»t '.UianR dyna.-ty Innoriptions 

on bronze: ritual ver.Aftl?: arj the aotu«l records of roynl roiatlon- 

ghirs. I'.ost of tiies'o lii-^^sriptioaa ocau-»ist of only t/iree !?;rG,:.hs: 

(1) c. "ilvlnij" name of tho owner vfbloh we will dysi^nnto X, (2) a 


r©latioii?ihlp for vThit^h v.'e will use Tathor'' im-^ (3) ;;;^nair;v; day, one 
of the lyolf? of ten days on v/liloh the "father" is "rennjribor'.Jd", 
possibly V:\9 da/ of ;-'ia J.^irth. 


Consider a hypothetical set of ritual vessels. The "living" 
name of the ovmerXis oast on each article* The set inoludes Ko . 
spears, mao ; horse jingles, luan i socketed axe, fuj butcher knife, 
tao I liquor ladles, £li four-posted torch stand:* cups, ohuehj vases, 
ku," liquor palls, ^, large beakers, tsunj small beakers, ohih * 
square ritual cooking pots, fan ^ tin^ ,' large round-bottomed cooking 
pots, tia 'tine; small-lobed cooking pots 7" ting t hollow-logged cooking 

— A 

pots, lij food bowls, kuei; auimal-covered gravy-boat-^ kuan^ ; large 
liquor heater, chla ; steamer, hslon,* tall liquor jars, rmj large 

^oo^nA Z I i^Oor jaf, jAo and- hii^h (■ood ^Tiin^orbasirj, pan . 

liquor Jar, lei ; ^ Most of these articles have onlyXthe "living" name 

of the owner inscribed on them. Some vessels however, have additional 

graphs such as "X father Chla", "X father Keng", "X father Hsin", 

"X father Yl", "X father KujI", "X father Chi", "X mother Keng", 

"^ ^rand cath.-tr Tso /in'-", "X elder brother v/u", "X elder 

brother xing". 

This appears to be a niaa medley of names witaout m-fhiQ or 

reason, but actually such a set might well have belonged to King 

Wu Ting or to /^ of nis generation. Father Chla is King isiang 

(Yang) Chia; Father Keng is King i-*an ileng; Father Msin is King 

Hsiao Ilsin; Father Yi is King Hsiao Yl; Mother Keng is the wife of 

King lislao Yl; Ancestor Ting is King Tsu Ting; elder brothers .Vu 

and Ting are known from oracle bone inscriptions; Father Chi also 

is known from an oracle bone^ and Father Kuei is known to be his 

!• Gh* len plen 1.27.1 and 3,25.4. Father Chi belonged to 
the generation of King P'an Keng, Tuis is proved by a 
broken scapula bone, two fragments of wnioa have been 
Joined: Ch*ien plen 1,27.1 and 3.23.4. The diviner is 
Yiin 1.9 of the first bone script period, 1255-1197 B.C. 
The bone belongs to King -Vu Ting's reign. In the inscrip- 
tion he addresaes an uncle as Father Chi associated with 
ancestor Tsu Hsin, 14th generation, and ancestor Tsu Ting 
15th generation. Father Chi caniiot be Tsu Cui of tao lath 
generation, since that would put the bone inscription in 


the 19th generation of King Lin iiala and ;'»ane Tsu Ting 
1156-1143 B.C. By this time the script had altered 
Eiaterially and diviner Yiin 1,9 was long ainoo dead. The 
script of thia bone has some similarity ^/itii that of 
oracle bone llou pien 1,25.9 v/iiioh lists in order father 
Chia (Haiang Yan^- Chia); Father Keng (P*an KentO aj^d Father 
Hain (iisiao llsin) side by side. These three kinj^s were 
called fathers in thl« order therefore they were the 
brother kings named. This suiPgested the method of dating 
oracle bone Inscriptions and also of dividing them into 
bone script periods, 

brother from bronze inscriptions of which a number are cited under 
the individual studies of th« Ko , 

The important fact to note here, however, is that X is the 
living name of King V/u Ting or other royal person of his genera- 
tion, sons of his father or his father's brothers. Thus we may 
say that all those "living" names inscribed on Ko which can be 
linked with ancestral names on ritual seta belong to the Shang 
royal family. These "living" names were inscribed even on J^ln£- 
ch*i seta and buried with the owner in his tomb. This interpreta- 
tion of Shang d3masty inscriptions explains the variety of an- 
cestral relationships found on one and the same set of ritual 
vessels. /)// H^ i^aha^ces c.^W. or,^€v>lT,^ xndtyHdual Ho setm 13 ccnfcrm te ih 

On the oracle bones the king is called simply "the King", 
"jVang . He would, of course, have had a private name while still 
prince or son before becoming, king. Many such names have been 
found. They are prefaced by the word "Son", The graphs follow- 
ing "Son" however seem to be the names of offices. The writer 
has gathered more thanfbrty of them from the oracle bones, A 

nuEibar of these are also inscribed on the Ko, e>g, 70, 71, 75, 95, 7i, 

Sl.S^^Other graphs on the bones, aj parently names of generals are 

found also on Kq. 7;^, 98, 112, 129, 136y^and 13^, Several diviners' 

names found on the bones were also cast on the Ko, e.g. 76, 111, 

and 127. The same is true of names of tribes or nations, e.g. 
o 80, River People; Ko 117, horse; Ko 136, Battle Axe; names of 
officials, e.g. Ko 153, Historian; Ko 152, Irime Minister; Ko 134, 
Proteotor; Ko 138, Son; names of places, e.g. Ko 85, 86, 87, 119- 
125; names of women's families, e.g. Ko 154, Fruit-tree, Ko 110, 
118^; Ko 80, River, 2 

1. jvo is sometimes written on the oraoio bones with a 
graph for woman beside the Ko, e.g. Ch*ien njen 

C,ii6.8» ir\dica-t[YM^ il^oi- -j-ha Womans" Pamilu t,0m<. y^as "k'c". 

2. liiver is also v/rittea with woman on bone-end T3*ui 
pien 1483. 

In the Tap Ghuan . eighth year of Duke Yin we read, •» .hen the 

Son of Heaven ohose out virtuous men he gave them surnames, hsinj? ,. 

acoordiaR to thoir origin by birth. He granted them land and 

chartered them, ming , with a title, shih, ""^ The study of surnames, 

3. Logge, V, p. 24, Chinese text, lino 14, English, p. 
25 translates— "Vi'hen the 3on of Heaven would eaoble 
the virtuous he gives thoiu surnames, haim^ , from the 
birth places of their ancestors, yin slieng ; ho rewards 
thera v/ith territory and tiae name of it becomes their 
clan name, shih.** ohih is now traiiclatod "clan" but in 
the begianiu^; it v/as a title or office conferred as 
distinct from origin by birth, 

haing , emd clan names, shlh, has given rise to an immense literature 
in Chinese. It purports to give the origins of these names in the 
time of the Yellow SSnperor, Huangti, and the model emperors Yao, Ilsun, 
and liu. It is quite beyond the range of this study to do xiore than 
indicate that the names on the Shang Ko are one source that should be 
used in the study of the names of people in the Shan^^ dynasty. More 

4. The History Shih Chi, Yin Pen Gai section records, "lita- 
peror Hsiin chartered Gh*i, enfyofflng him v/itii 3aang, 
and giving him "Son" as a surname, J.iiu hsinf? Tzu Gaiu '*. 
The graj-ili "Son" both alone and in corubinatioa";i woman 
is coimon on bone and bronze Inscriptions of the Shang 
dynasty, Ts'aar Kuei 127,1 et al. The surnanie "Son" Tzu 

of the Shang royal fnmily and the descendant state of Sung, 
may originate in the peculiar use of "Son" in the Shang 
^.^ dynasty. S* Ko 138. 
than fifty names cast on the"Tto have been gathered together into one 
co-ordinated group. 

These names are also found on oraole bone inscriptions in definite 
contexts whloli will bring to light still other names of Shang per- 
sons. These can easily be distinguished from place names by the 
context. Most importsmt of all , the names of the owners cast on 
sets of ritual bronzes yield many more names of the same type. 
From t-'iis great number of names, possibly reaching a thousand in 
all, a new study of the prosopography of the Shang dynasty should 
be possible. These names are not restricted to surnames, hsing , 
or clan names, shih. They include tribal names, Tsu , state names, 
Kuo, regional names. Fang , names of office, Kuan ; temple names, ranks, 
titles of estates, place names and ordinary names, ming , tzu , and 
hao . The names on the ritual sets of bronzes and on the Ko should 
however be of a similar nature since they are used in a similar way. 
They include the important name of the owner by which he was Icnown 
when living. This name was cast on iiis Ko and his ritual vessels 

for use in ceremonies and these were buried with him when he died. 
Four types of ornamontal Ko rarely inscribed . 

Jade Ko v/ere manifestly intended for use in ceremonial and 

not for use in war and it was probably for this reason that they 
were not commonly inscribed. Their beauty and value lay in the 
jade itself which was very rare. Stone ming-ch'i imitating jade 
Ko were used for funerals and possi' ly for some ceremonies. Jade 
Ko 16 has an inscription of ten graphs carved at the fore-edge of 
the shaft. The graphs are in the oraole bone script of period V 
which in this writer* s opinion might be dated a hundred years be- 
fore the fall of the dynasty in the reign of V/u Tsu Yi, 1142-1139 
B,C, This inscription mentions the fovinder of the Shang dynasty, 
Ta Yi also known in literature as Gh»eng T»ang, It is therefore 
definitely of Shang date for no person of the Chou dynasty v/ould 


have recorded a ceremonial dance to the memory of a Shang ancestor. 

Tills Inscription might be thought to have heen reproducedl from an 

oracle bone but the writer examined it in New York and does not 

consider it suspect. The last graph shows a man resting on als 

heels in the dance holding a Ko aloft in his two hands. 

In recent years a number of long Shang dynasty insoriptlons 

of this type have been found on bone :ipatulae and on bronze ritual 

vessels. Mr, H.'/.Td reports a long inscription of thirty-seven 

graphs on a pail, ;£u, in honour of Father Ting which this writer 

considers to be K*ang Tsu Ting, 1150-1143 B.C. 

^■5ju>a<rflChjenYj CIV| Yin Ch't, pieji Ch\h Peipit^^ I'^^o p. ^/ :- ^ ^^^^ 

In the inscription mention is made of an elder brother whose i^day 

name is obscured. This writer suggests that it may be Kuei, elder 

brother of King Wu T8u/1142-1139 B.O,, who made the vessel in his 

second year 1141 B.C. This bronze inscription almost parallels 
the inscription on Ko 16 in that the ceremony la offered to Ta 
Yi and it ends with the same graph for "dancing" with the addition 
of the three words "before God above", Wu Yd Shanf^ Ti . This recent 
acquisition from Anyang is a strikinf- confirmation of the genuine ;S 
of the inscription on jade ILo 16. That Ko appears to have been 
inscribed for use in a special ceremony, possibly about the same 
time as the pail, ^, 1141 3,0. 

Only four different insoriptlons have been found on Ko of 
Types II, III, IV and IX, Ko of types III and IV all have orna- 
mented butts for use in ceremonies. Many are thin end frail minp- 
oh'i for use at funerals. No example of Type IV has been found 
inscribed. Two s ts of Ko belonging to Type III, one of them Ko 
35 with six examples, have two different inscriptions inserted in 
the design on the butt. The individual studies of Ko 35 and 44 

indicate tiiat the owners had names somewhat different from those 
of the single graphs of Types V, VI, VII and VIII. The two 
graphs on Ko 35 '•Great rain maker, Ta Ytl'J are also found on a 
large set of ritual vessels and spears, "Great rain maker" must 
be considered the name of the owner as is the case with other 
sets of ritual vessels and Ko of Type V, VI, VII and VIII. The 
"Great Rain Maker" set of vessels has only the name Ta Yfl v/ith- 
out any additional ancestral relationships. This person may 
not have belonged to the royal family. He may have been the 
leader of the wizards who danced before God in prayer for rain. 
There are many reasons for considering that Ko 35 is to be dated 
early in the 3hang II period. Ko of Type III were made in great 
numbers for use in ceremonies and for funeral use. Possibly they 
were carried by court functionaries dressed in ritual robes at 
temple ceremonies. The iiiing-ch'i would have been carried by a 
retinue of servants dressed in mourning-, clothes escorting the 
funeral chariot. Types III and IV are not suited for use by 
soldiers or for the personal use of live generals or nobles. 
They may therefore parallel Types V, VI, VII and VIII in date. 
Inscriptions seem reserved for real weapons of war. But wizards 
like "Great Rain Maker", Ta Ytfand "Great Fire Chief" Ta Huo and 
their followers wnose profession was the ceremonial dance had 
their ceremonial Ko inscribed alon;- with their ritual vessels 
and buried in their tombs. 

Ko 159 of Type IX bears tne inscription "Island in the midst 
of a river, Ghou ". This name seems to belong to the saine group 
of names as those found on Types V, VI, VII and VIII. Oracle 
bone inscription Ts^ui pi en 262 of the Bone script period I, 


diviners Naa I.l and Pin 1,4, mentions "The niaister of tlio island 
in the midst of the river, Chou oh* en ". This insorlptioa dates 
from the beginning of the Shang II period. On the other hand the 
Smaorfopoulos nronzos . Vol. 1, Flate XIV, A, 17 includes Chou as 
one of the ref^lons v/hose people were granted to a noble at the 
beginning of the Chou dynasty. The writer has obtained a triangu- 
lar Ko of the same type as Ko 159, at Anyang, and prefers to con- 
sider Ko 159 of Shani? date rather than early Chou, This single 
inaoription on a Ko of Type IX argues for the existence of this 
type ail through the Shang II period even though the designs on 
them are very much conventionalized and are placed on the blade 
of the weapon. This triangular v/eapon seems to the writer to be 
more of a pointed axe than a Ko and may have been called by 
another name, such as K*uei , The slots for hafting are also 
found on the wide blades of dhang axes, yueh, such as the inscribed 
axe, a companioD piece to Ko 71^ and the inscribed axe associated 
with Ko J54^. These axes both have decoration on the axe blade as 
does another example, 3 These considerations all confirm the 

1, Yah Chung Two 2.19. 

2, Ye'h Chung One 2.9. 

3, Yeh Ghunr, One 2.8. 

writer's opinion that the inscription Chou on Ko 159 refers to 
the same person as T3*ui pien 262 and that Ko of Type IX were 
made at the beginning of Shang II period. 

Composition in the ohan^ dynasty . 

It is often assumed that the Shang dynasty scribes could 
uot write long and connected sentences. The scries of single 
graphs cast on Ko and the brief inscriptions on bronze ritual 
vessels seem to surport this view. The Shang dynasty artisan 


(id aot wish to expose the insoriptioas oa3t on nia bronzes. He 
uid them under handles and under the bases of tall vases. In 
food bowls and oooking pots he oonoealed them inside the vessels. 
He inscribed the lids as well as the vessels so^they could not^ be 
mislaid, but tiie ^k^ not write verbose inscriptions for the sake 
of saying many words. It was sufficient on a ritual bronze to 
cast lihe name of the owner and the temple name of his father if 
he were honouring him. The/name day kept the ancestral remem- 
brance clearly in view to avoid mistakes. Sentences on the oracle 
bones are often long and connected by relative particles showing 
that a previous aeiitenoe is assijsied to have been read. Recently, 
longer sentences on bronzes have been noted. Inscriptions on 
bone spatulae. and even the skulls of animals as found by the 
Aoademia 3inica ,show that the art of composition was practised. 
It Is -vetv-j probable tliat Ioniser nistorioal documents on wood have 
perished. That v/riting was done with a brusa even in the Shang 
tiynasty is proven by examples of artisan's placement notes on 
rftone ornaments in the R.O.M.A.^ftlfhe Aoademia Sinioa has also found 
brush writing on bone. 

The single graphs oast on bronze Ko of the Shang dynasty and 
the laconic inscriptions on their ritual vessels simply illustrate 
the austerity of the Shang people and do not prove their inability 
to compose longer insorl lotions. 



A; Uses In" war,., '-^^"r 

Tile Ko ax^pears to have had its oriplu ia the beaked alaklo 
(Nos, 1, a, 3). Tliis ixaplemeat was usually laade of slate or f-reon- 
stone and v/a8 a] parently still used by the peasaat farmers of the 
Shang dynasty, for raore than a thousand examples have been found in 
the oxoavationa at Anyang by the Aoademia Sinioa, The origins of 
the stone sickle are r.uon earlier. It was in couiaon use in the 
Neolithic cultures c;x north Citina, v/herever grain was; harvested (see 
iSo. i), A sickle of the sane form but v,ith a Slade of jade and haft 
of bronze inlaid with turquoise was used in Jjliaag dynasty ceremonials. 
The royal exauple^in the i'reer Gallery of Art in Washia^^ton (Ko. 5) 
may well have beionr.ed to the King, A oiolcle of similar type, though 
made of iron, remains the nost cjozaaoniy used imnloment in liorth China 

Tho atone sickle was sharpened only on the iov/er cutting edge, 
but the upper edge of the ]>oint was thinned down for easy entry aiaoner 
the stalks of standin/'; p;rain. Because it was always near at hand, 
this imj)leiaent v/aa often used for porsonax dercuse and ia individual 
combat. When tue whole ui)per edge was 3nar])enod (See iJo, 0) it was 
more efficient as a piercing weapon and wati oaiied the Ko, fixcept 
for the roiandin.j;: of the point the j^ has retained iHXiQn of the "beaked** 
fonri of the stone i^ickio. The evolution of tho Ku from the sioKie as 
here aufJifrested oould not have taken place in the 3hang ll period, 1311 
■ iO^S .J,, but must have occurred lont?: before. The slate^ greenstone 
sickle persisted as e cheap and efficient tool even v;hen tho ordinary 
Shang aoldier was armed with an excellent bronze Ko (See iios, i>5, U9, 


If the Ko as a weapon was glmply an adaptation of the sickle, 
thsn, in its early nlstory at Ic-.ast, it May bo presumed to have had 
a short haft Ilka the siolcle. In the abaenoo of fxny report of tne 
diract neasuramont of soiontifioally excavated ICo ahtiftt; (which no 
doubt v/ill soon bo publlahed by the /Voadeniia siuioa from some of the 
nnny Snaofi dynasty .6:raves excovatod at Any^nf^) , a shaft leuf^th of 
470 mn. iliii^ Ins.) ;. ai'erx'sd rrcaa the lollowlnr; er^uments : 

1, 470 rafl, (l^J ; inH.) in tlie lei;<-th.of siolclo^D »»« it hb.^ aoot 
,»l<ausl^vl:- €••: restored, "Jie ooncion iron sickle t-i the North China 
pease.nt to^itiy is about thifj ssne length, 

-. The shaft.? of .'os, F^5, 89 and 90 hnvo been restored as 
470 raiii, in plates "iOT, ":LIV, and )XV, v/hioh are drawn to scale from 
photographs of the jkeletons o.nd objects taken in situ by the Acad- 
ecda 'iiilca, T'ie ends of the Hiiafts arc v'itaiu easy raaoa of the 
soldiers' hand'.?, l^bnf: shafts, 1525 cu:i, (oO inB.) or C fact 6 inches, 
nndlent Guinese, Mnn measure, would not be oongruous iu^these tonbs. 

o, "; he rra^'Li on ^70, ' il.j iiot strlfvtjy to so-jIo, 3.iOv;s a 
'.p uith u sriort aunt't, cihd m -i.,- - -'. ou ■^mZ'^ ritual ve33eia 

in one hon^l 

rdoturo the Ko held^ny the end ofailnorfBhei'tf «.^. 5an-tai^ 11,6.7; 14. 

12.9; 14,iia.a, and tlj-i set of bror-. '.os iu'ujx-lbe<i with lAia f-ra-Ai ''A 

boy with a iCo ou his shoulder, "Ho".l'(<Si?^s /Vo ) 

1. T:ii3 interpretation seens core i^lausible than any of 
those svitv' nested by Yotta, ,'M -jio ri' o ; )culo 3 li ronzo 3 , I, 

Jh&.-se.r consists a^'. ' i / -^ npj' 

(i) ...,<iud ;riu£, i'<.;'.M,A, UJ. 5<;17, (2) Lobed ^Ji££.t i'euiies, (3) 

sien . !lenzies, (4) phia, H.O.I-.!, A., IV3. 3.313, (u) Yu, vftsaol, ' an- 

ta i 12.46.2; lid, Menzies, (6) Kue l without handles, R.O.M.A, IJD. 

3214, (7) Tsun . Meu;:ies, (8) Ku, R,0,^r.A, JIB, 5215, (9) Ku, Monzies, 

(10) Ohuah, ri,0,':.A. iI3, 3216, (11) Chueh . (12 and 13) Two others, 

3hueh, noted posser^nlo of •'^ rfierchnut in .'ar/inf', (14) I.ound 


i.ei vvlth tip lug, without lid, K.O.K.A. NB, 3210, (15) Axe, j(jd 
Cwxinr. Oac 2,0, perliaps - .Liiui , Eutno rf opoulo s ^ . .9. This Mst dates 
froia tr.3 eiid of tlie roirii of King v/u Tlag 1S55-1197 "',0. "iaoh graph 
siiown a i.uit t>i-j;.rtud Ko rtseting on tte shoulder and grasped by the 
ond of tlio shaft. This aiutlt rtiuf-t hove been &bc;ut -i'PO rax. (13^; ins,) 
lonp, riaoo tho am aolrUn - it In 3hov*u v,it..7tjx00w orookad^. T ron tnis 

3 3oe tuat before tuB midolfe! of vjhsnf-- II at ISOO B,o, the Ko had a 
ahoi't nflndle, 

4, Vhe width of ths handle as atterted by the corrosion of 
the Ko outtr. Is alr.cst uxilfcrmly J'-S iim. for Shang dynasty specimens. 
This i? tliy 3iz3 of anciaut and ii^iodsrn aandles about 470 nu;, (Itl:; ins,) 
in leiif^th^ «i3, for ?ixarirlr. , f^-e v.-ar-axe of ancioat Ilgypt and 3umaria, 

nd the iacderji ...aC'ilnlst's haxuner, Ths ordinary waif-ht of the blade 
for uoa'-rlii .sr*3Clmenj5, net niat^ OK*i ,w/'gs from 325 gra^anee (6 ozs.) to 
340 fjraHiiacs (IH ozs.), aithouf:;li soine (ho 86) v/iil weigfj 450 grancias 
(1 ib,). These weights are suita;)ls to a aJiart haadlp) but thoy are 
not heavy eaou/-rh to aave bt*«a sv/unf; on n lonr'; handle. It 3hoald be 

otad that a Shang Ko was uaea to oLrlke a dowmvard blow like a war- 
axa and not for thruotinp ilKe a spear, lae oai wiiioh Is pictured on 

an tiilss and cjtono bas roliafa as uavinf', a ionr uandle v,-a.=. used for 
.-ii'u;itia<; a a •veil ay for rftriJs.lai';, 

5, The anglo at v/hioh 3hang Ko blades are aet to tbo shaft 

uggeata t'ae aro of a cirola vvlth a radiua equal to the leaRth of a 


shaft ic iujj, (minua tne grip) together 'vith tho normal length of 

a fohal of about ^0 mi. 

tne human arm. The angle of hafting would thus seeci to have been 
oaloulated to (Tivt; the noot efficient olow -vnon tiio weapon was used 


litatea i^ei'lod or fron early in the ^ian Dynaaty, aoos, to be 
sure, specify the length of the shaft of the Ko as 6 feet 


6 Ins., i.e. ca. 1525" ram. iiuoh v/ear-'ons are jjeeu on 'h tomb 
tiles, e.g. .Vnlte, Toiab -lie Motures of /oioleut China. lis, 
:CCaX, :a, :ai, L^TI, L'^TEI. nt between tile Ohanr porlod 
and the time of this dociunont (v/itti w:.ici the toiab tiles 
may be approxir.ntely oonteraporary) the gvorcl and da^^^^er had 
come into use in Giilna and had supplrmted the _Ko for close 
oombat. The soldiers on the tomb tiles c^rry sv/ords instead 
of uhort-handled Ko an^i in ;:lace of nr.'^ara^, '^roc, they bear 
lon,-.-handled v/eapon? whinh are lnsorll)o^";iv?;'i".a^incs tJ3 o.ti , 
s .luetimos as Ko, 

The £^ was the oi'iiaary v/eapon of offonoo uaed by the C.dnese 
ooidior of tiio Shanf5 dynasty. It in the only v/eapon^fo;..aid in t.he bur- 
ials of individ\ial soldiers (ifos. 55, 89 and yo). I'ow literary re- 

oorda ,'^o baok t,o the 3han«: dynasty and therefore t/iere ia little 
evidonoo from oontemporory literature, apart from the brief insorip- 
tions on bones and bronzes. ^Soaaiderable oaanyes no doubt took ])lace 
in the uses.of th-s Ko dowzi through the arfts, It ia therefore preoar- 

-the PoHoioin^ 

ious to employ later literary references to explain Shang dynasty 
customs. lJoverth^Jle^3 thsre nm several early Chou dooiiments wuloh 
may carry over tne earlior tradition. In t:ie Cla ssic of "iistor jy, Jim 
Chin^, v/6 find the graph Ko_ used 5 times, 

l.OooiiTicnts 17 and 23 are "n urlcu-, ;^;i , ^ no y..ould not be 

^Of tno riv7{p''f,¥fo are oonoerned with war nnd tb.t; other thre(= are 

all from "Tha Tostameutury Charro" v/hich has to do with court and 

ritual use. Let ue. oc'nsldoi' the references to vmr. 

Ku Index, 22.0074 ;<::fLe6ge III 301: KinR V,u of Gh*ju made G speech 

at Mu before his troops attaokea 3han.r, Mg naid, ''Lift hir.h your 

Ko , try out your shields, set up your spears, jh*^nr. erh :o, .'i erh 

kan. 11 erh ciap " , *'^ 

2. Leggo translates "lift u]i your lanoad, ko, join your 
shields, kaa» raias your spears, mac". 


This waa the order to the man to pi'oparo tiiolr wsa;-ons and stand at 
attention durinir the speeoh, Hov/ a soldioi* with t-vo nands carried 
out these three operations with three different v^'aapons at tho same 
time has purzled t;io vvriter. Tiiu difficulty does uot arise vvita the 
£o or the spear. Ti.e spear was a long-range weapon. The Ko was 
ior oioati ooiibat, Dotii wex'e neceaoary, a no t«nas aipxieu Lo tiie 
Ko and the spoar are lulte different ► For the Ko it is "Lift ilgh, 
Gh*enp -", for tho apear it is '*:>e-c ^ip on and, ii". The writer has 
wondered if the word Kan , usuoJ 1 / treanlRted "snield", re>>,ily means 
"shaft". If", often -ioe.-^ 30 vniaa used aloao aid r;;ay tiean this vnien 
associated v,ritn the f'rapa Ko. T/ai two words would chen mean ''shafted 
Ko". In tiiis n"iot«itioD wnera they are usejd aepnr/'.toiy tiio S'icond 
operation ifi ordinarily translated **t,ry out your 'jhioids", and v/ould 
then mean "nieQsure the reach of your shafts", rue full operation of 
coming to attention v/ould then be: with tiie rlglit riaiid graap the 
_vO (ty t::e oud of its handle), lift it hi^^h, iaoasuring tne reach of 
the shaft; witji the left hand f^rasT, the spear, map , r.ettinp; it straip^ht 
up with tha butt reatinfy on the f^round, A lonf? line of these bronze- 
age soldifjrs nust i.nvQ i^een an impreRsivo aifrut as thoy shook their 
..'eapons in defianrse before the battle. 

TLa second pnrt.i;ient -uotatlon. froiii tin-: ;':^ _ lr.srip of Kictory Is 
Ku Index 49.00c7-, Lec^o 111^ "1'enpcr your flo tud j^ipoars'^, /uan aa i 
.0 taao . •*' 

1, LefTfi;*!.' traxislatas "Texaper your lances end spears". 
This document is much later tnan the first tut may atill uo considered 
early by ooripariaon vflth most classical references, Tae v/ord traiis- 
lated "M;Qi)iper" has to do v/ith the process of resharpenlng blunted 
v/eapons by thinning out the edf^es. It has been discussed under Ko 142. 

In the Odea there ara four iust' aces of tiie use of Ko ; 


Ode 13:5.1: Tror^red^niy <o. ^•'i- 9T>rtar", laiu y/o "o map , rj: Letrge (IV^. 
wOl) ^.raiislates, "I will prepare my lonco cad •ipear'*; aley 
(14c), "I raade r-cjady both axo end opear". 
Ode It'l.i: ''.;:hculder s Ko on service", Jo Ko vu _iri,^.T,oi^p,e (IVp221) 
tranolstea, "Have their cjirritrs or ipaooR aad hniberda"; 

al-y (G5), "Bears balLerc^ aad spear". 
1 uavc rj.idi.r'.id tLo seooud t'v»o -.vordo as tL.« ssooxid two ia Ode 44. 
G6 (Lfjiffri) IV, .. liS) aad oiaav/rure ixJ t-ha Odes , 

Ode «ii;0.i: "Shafted Ko flasliln?; to;:8ther", ..fiu Ko oa*i yau^ . 
(lY i34) , rondors "..'ita anlelds and ypears and azea large and 
SToall", aloy (J?.39), "Shioid and dagger, ^^albord and battle 
exo," The rjeoond tv/o v.'ords are certainly daacriptive of the 
first tv.'o as t.'iey ere in t ;.'3 preccdij^.t line ^-owg and arrows 
at t>.e dr w, 'vun?? ohih bsu ohan.?: ". This line in renloiscent 
of the varriors llnod ut^ for thx^: Speech i^t- '-"iu', rosdy to r;iarci:i 
Odo l;75: ""It uji' „ uur --urb:. >^ur etiafted Ko, te al oli*i Icqn To, 

Le;;fie/yp.5'"3} , "'« has onlleo lr» s.M*ildi> ;ind wsv«ftrfl", .aley (221), 
"Th«?n put away your si-ielda and axes". T ts line in raraliel 
to the foilovinr line ''put into their -j-iver ycur bov/ f>ud 
or rovrs " • 

I have riven nev/ ronderinco to those quotations bocauae of the 
ronp, iranroGoions f^iven in the Chinese ooijnentrtors* :iotc« and the 
coaserii^ent faulty trarifllationa. One oft-ou v/eloomei? Mr. ^Valoy's 
fresh rondorinf3 but LeptC^e ia nora consistent. Surely it is strain- 
ing literary licenss to rendf>r Ko by ♦♦axe" in Odo 133; by "l^alberd" 
in Ode 151; by "dagger" in Odo 250; aa'' by "axe" in Ode 273. 


The olose parallel in ideas betwoai the liues of poetry of 
Odos lo3 and 2i)0 and tlia two y-roaa quotations fron tiie Glasaio of 

]ii3tory oonfirm one another. Odea 151 and 273 show tiio Ko^on x,he 

shoulder^ on sorvioe and under the crotoh of tiie arm \/uen batvle 

is ov^sr. I'ha Ko in seen in its proper onvii-oiiwent ivUn ^ae ooraplete 

are -read 

Odes and uot. isoloted and over-aiapnaalzed as rjuat be the oaae in a 
monop;raph of tris jort. 


B, The use of the Ko in Garenonies 

The Testaneiitary Gaar^e -'- oori^rays oereiUoniGs at the tine 
1. Lfc/?;re 111,0 544-561, Ku Index ^2. 
of the death of KiHi'^ Oh'en.'^ (1053-996 B.C.) anc the investiture 
of I'liug A'aiife, ( i'95-970 3,C.). 'j-.iia d.oounent appears to be as 
nearly ooncemporary v.lth the evenos as if* possible with literary 
texts transnit-tv^d froi... a titAe 30 early. It nss undoubtedly under- 
gone niuy altiTLtiocs £iz t^ie iiaucs of interireters. idtcra;!./ 
evl^iiioe is not. :-.3 snv . hu the archaaolojjio^il , but the ' i? est anient - 
ory OixCxlv.Q hys preserved avaoh or the 3oolal ,-jettia„ w^ioh 3on- 
jjcture frcm the objuotfi alon-c; c;au aever sup^^-ly. The enoiro 
text iiixy be read in Ler,ge*3 ti'analaUion v;hich represeat-s the 
orthodox CMaeje Inttirprotation, Ttio follo-vin^^ idontlficationg 
of the Ko .aa its u.3ea in bho text are baaed on a study 01 all 

flrtH -e-afi^j ^l^oU)(5uch as fl^c^s^ cleavers, ^Jli > &p^fs €/c- 

the kiiov<ii Shang^v/eapons^^as vail as tne various types of Ko con- 
sidered in this Monofiraph, The interpretai:.icns uf cjinEier.tators 
ancient and laodern have oeea consulted, but tho^/ have been oountad 
secondary to tiie arciiaeological evideuoe, 

A study 01 this passage in tuo T^.stfUii.entar y Charge eaobirts us 
to vif:;ufilii:e the pltce of the Ko in ceremonies at the beginning 
or tne C'uou clynR3ty^y95 Jl'.'O. The Cc,reiiiony described fits *vell 
into v;hat v/s i-..ov/ of tne Jhang-dynasty riLus.1 froin the oracle- 
bone in;5criptions. It is j>ossible tjidt it rortravo an actual 
Shang oereiiiony .nodifiad only by a fevr new features iatroduoed by 
the Chou people. Seven different t7i>ea of Ko aa iaclu.^ed in this 
monosraph appear to be i^entioned in the text soTuetines by otncr 

names than Ko. 

1, iymbols of authority held by the -nersonal body guard of 
the King.lf^V/hen King GU'en^^ v/as about to die he called the 
officers of his court to aim and issued the Testaraentary Gharr.e 
for the succession ■''.o pass to his aldest 3aa Cii'ao, The great 
aistoriaii, T^_ai .'3hih , recorded tiie edict on tablets, Th3 groat 
protector jT'al Pao, acted as regent in caarge of tne instailatioii 
of the nev/ King, Ha "ordered the Marquis of Ch'i to take two 
officers bearing Ko ( Ku Index 42.0207) and a hundred men of the 
guard, au pen v>ei jen , and tura buck "oon Gh'ao" (tiio neir 
apparent later inatallcid as King K'ang) outside tne Soutn gate 
and conduct nin to tne mourning room to dwell tnere mourning for 
the clan's loss". In tais case only tv/o Ko-bearers are mentioned 
while the ;.uard numbers a hundred men. I have denoted tixose who 
carried tne Ko as officers; the tv;o men may have been the personal 
body guards of tae deceased King. In any case the pair of them 
are clearly distinguished by their weapons from the general bod;/ 
of the guard, Ko 49 and 50, 51 and 52, may be two pairs of such 
symbolic Ko; Ko 53, 54, 61, 64 and 66 may be isolated examples of 
the same sort. All are so outstanding by reason of tbeir substan- 
tial construction, t.^eir large size and fine quality ao to 
suggest that they had been used in royal service. It ir> to be 
remembered that these Ko are all of ohang date and that some may 
antedate the literary text quoted by more than tv/o hundred years. 

2, Certain Ko belonged to the personal accoutre lent of the 
King. 1? According to the Testamentary Charge , when the new King 
had arrived at the royal court for mourning, the ancestral temple 

hall was prepared by the servants for the ceremony of investitare. 

This hall which opened on the courtyard to the south, was divided 

into three p&rta, ■■'•est, east and middle. Four "beuohes"! were get 

i, Theae v^ere probably lik? the Tuan Fang broiize albar, 
in the Metropolitan ?>JJu3eum, New Tori, 130 mzu, high 
by 900 Eun, long, (.London '.xhibition 1935, No. 319A), 

on thiolc m^t3, "^v^o articlea apiead out in v^arious parts of t'ls 

hall have been the oubjeot of nuoh debate vhisU, nov/ever, is act 

pertinent to this discussion . In the ea>st room, ^i^n^ f an.*^ , a Ko 

a bow, and nrrows vrere Inld out'^, 'Jvlde/itly these wero the personal 

^» 'iu Index 4:::. 0-347. 
accoutriuient of the Kin;^» Han ■zoh.QlaTz snid they were juade by 
faiao'-is artirictiirs oi anoi'j.ait.v nfic'jd Tul, .lo anu vjh'ui". The ^rraph 

3. L^^^; e ./)i. p« f>i>C>, 
Tul"^ iii'iy possibly bo .jqufltcjd .vith lao .K-J^apli -Tui-- /•. Loa mcaus 

^' iy-t Index 4o.054o. 

^'« '-'u ladtix 42.0408. 

"pointed-', Tue writer ocnaiders this? terra to be desoriptivo of 
the :'£. war Ko waioh may have been similar to the better 
inscribed or inlaid specimens of Tyije V, Ko 70-88 or Type vi, Eo 
95-llr;',. There is an lntereeti.n/r rloflcltion of i ro in \hc f^'. ih 
Ldnp; uuder vfaajona, vditc; . acccrdinir, to v^Mcn tte Ko was prinurily 
e poiut-Jd, piercing weapon. In the jjiiih jlinr- appears firct the 
ordinary definition oi 'an Ooiauentators , "a K£ i: ^ i;lnf^:l3 hooked 
Gni", Ohi is tne aarae of the ordiaury iron v^reapon used in the 
Kan dynasty and found picture^.. - :. ■:' ^ l-Ian bas reliers. The 
definition continues 'Ko Litiants to pass throucjh, uC-,jcuc yeh; 
whatevei- is stabbed witJi a poundixi.'> blow will certainly be passed 
through, 3£ tz'u tap tsc- chileb kuo ; v/hatever is hooked and drawn, 
this the point will uot pass through'', s£ kou vi n tse tz'u ohih 


fu te kuo yel : .^ This defiaitlon, while late, seems to refer 

1, I'Jie peasants at Anyaag today pron&tinoe Ko as if 
it were Kuo . 

to the pointed Ko of the Siiang d/naaty such as Type V or VI 

as opposed to the more hooked Chou dynasty Ko with a long hu. 

The King's weapons were "^The pointed Ko, the composite 

bow and the droopin*^ v/ing arrows". These are all ouang weapons 

appropriate tu^caricta. In the courtyard at tae oeromony four 

chariots wer placed ready, Hh^i state carria^':^, the curtained 

clc^'eping or travelling carriage, and a first and second chariot^, 

2, Ku Index 42.0358-383. 

No shield was needed nor v/ere other weapons mentioned. There 

is no dasgejp or sword and no spaar or v/ar axe. The Ko then 

seems to be appropriate for a Kint^, to carry in a chariot along 

with his bow and arrows. 3 

o. In the Near East a s;iort vmr axe was uoed in 

3, Jade Ko were symbols of rank at court,/? Amon ■ the obj 3ots 
spread out in the east part of the hall was a great jade, ta 
yfi^. In classical times it was :.ot known that jade blades had 

^* ^ Index 42,0324. 
been hafted as Ko. Yot the hafting mar^s on Ko 13, 14, 15, 
16, 17, 13 and 19 are all ©vidont. Apparently jade Ko were 
called f:reat jades, ta ^, because of their size and because 
of the value of the jade. These tv/o graphs were misinterpreted 
as two other graphs, chieh kuei, which were slight distortions 
of ta ^. B5any jade Ko of the Sheuig dynasty have been found at 



but uo ''great maco", diiieii kuel » Tne macea aesoribed by './u Ta-cii'eng 
in ills Ku Yil _2\u l.a o aau roio-ov/wd by Jr. .:>. Laui'er in uis booK oade 
are either or iate Oiiou and }lan dates or are fabrioationa of recent 
times, Ko 33 in r/aio monograpiji was recut in iate Chou III or lian 
times- Trom a "great ^ado" Ko, 390 i ^a. {lb 6/3 iua, ) long, iiven in 

its prenent form it reveals the lines cf tiit; orij.;ixial Lo miape. A 

micronooi'ic oxoraination lias shov/n that tnt original and recut sur- 
faces are veathered aljke bo that the blade must have been reshaped 

jrohahlij \\i-e Han Dyna^v 

in ancient times,. The i^raph Kuoi is foiaia in the Tribute of Yttl. 

1. ?:u Index 0G.1192) 
'The riate of ooiBroaition of tliis im; ortant (iocu;.ient lias boeji much 
disi'uteoi, Ii is considered to be later than 770 11,0, and poi'haps 
of Oiiou III ];eriod, 481-20o .i.O, The substitution of tne Kuei , for 
the ^ jade Ko as a syubol of rank probably occurred about at tue time 
of A'ritin'3 of tne Tribute of Yg , In any case tne v/ord Kuei was not 
in use in 995 B.C. The graphs dhleh kuei , hov/ever, are found in the 
Testamentary Charr^e ^ and can only oe explained as a later editor's 

2, Xu ludea. •-ii>,:^'i88. 

alteration from the ori/^inal great Jade 'fa-vrti, to confonn to later 
ideas. Fortunately the editor did not cnange the vvords for tiie 
great Jade t^a-yU v/iiloh was laid cut in tne east ^^art of tne hall*^ 

3, Ku Index 42,0324. 

alon,-; witii other ritual objects which he could uot explain, '\ang 
Kuo-v^ei in '.ils essay on these jade objects, Oh ' en giao ghuo in Kuan 
T'auR Chi , Vol. 1, cc.nfused the matter by sugp-esting tliat the 
red kxiife Oli'lh tao xuid out in the west part of the hall vms 
similar to the great jade Ko 17 (040 mm. 33 iif^r^glt"; fe M"^""^ 
regarding the ceramonial use of the jade Ko stands out a-iiidst all 


tixis confusion. The gi'eat jade Ko was the symbol or rank used in 

the ancestral ceremonies. V/hon the celebrant advanced to the altar 

to present hiy oi'ferinir, <chi the jade Vjo was j^laced upon tnc alt^r. 

In later classical times this was called the "great mace", dbieh 

kii.ei and "pictured as similar to Ko 35 recut. ^Vith it was Hs^^ociated 

a round jade disk, j]_i. *an«; Kuo- ^i amolies that th.; great teachings 

of 'ion and Wu were v/ritten on^pj-.-'- Ths Metal Bound 6offer records 

i, Ku Index 42,0514-;517. This was possibly like tiie jade 
disk in the London Exhibition, ho, blii, v/hicn was 
inscribed v/itfi an iFiperial noera of the Gh' ien Lung 
period. Disks similax* to this have been rouxxa at 
Anyang. They differ from tiie ort:;odox flat ni "Y having 
a wide central uand -iroaocting on each side above the 

flat disk, riovoev-eV >i<57ie of--H,ose (-ouy\Jso faf htn-& bea-n in Scvib-»-d • 

that Ghou Kun,r5: placed o jade _[d and jade kuei on the altar when he 
prayed." If we are to identify tdese national JFide treasures among 

2, Ku Index ^6.GC/J'±-: ;, 26.0183-135; iit-:.0197-199) , 
the jade objects found at 4nyanfi;, then this v/riter considers that 
the K'uei can only be the later classical name derived from theov/^n^l 
grapbs "great jade" Ta yU and^the object can oniy^beci^the great jade 
Ko similar to Ko 1&-S7 ^.nd the orif^iiiais of Ivo 32 and 33. The 
miniature jade Kd 20-31 were more probably used as w dng-ch*i in 
ancestral ceremonies on the altar tann as amilets to be vtrorn 
as ornaments on ttie person. The wearinfc of a miniature jade Ko on 
the person may however have had the same ritual pur: ose as carrying 
large jade Ko in the hands. 

«e arv. now in a ;.c;.:iticn to r.czori'jz the carenony of 1-nvestlturo 
aa recorded iu tue T ss t Ejoent ary Cha r r^^e . Tho hf^il v/an prei"'red and 
the guard aat. The nev Kin^, entered the hall by th.=* -wests* steps 
for le v/as not yot the Kiu,,, The Prime LUnijter ond the rulers of 
states, i.' _ uii i i ohtln took ylaoos in the court. Th<3 ceremony wno con- 
ducted by three persons robed in red, and not In mournlni-. The 


Great i rotoctor '^^^tsi ©ao, fictinp, a.-: rcjrynt fox- tlio deooased Kirif*, 

carried the symbol of Iciu/rly r«rik, viz, h ^••r-■iJit. jado Ko, ra YQ 

Wriutoii in Ih*^ teati aa ",.-raat liauoe", Culeh Kuel , ♦ He vcaa aooom- 

^.ainled by t-ne Great Master oT oerenouios in ttivj .''oioeutrril reniplo, 

T^ai XiiVjiirT, v/iio Vi'as also oaiied tiie liaalur Oirio'^r ui" t^io /moeotral 

■loiapxo, -itau/'T X»aU{.-, » ala fU-jni, A?a.Mti-;r or .'.KJiiior Orfiurir uarriod 

tlio riuu-ii V3U0':>1, t> ' -JL a c^ f^ . -io 'iMiiiv3 liliatiou jns lioiv^al out."*- 

rao px'eayat t.o-\t atkl.T a '.liaoe oovo:-^, . iij if] ?i aarf^inal 
intrii3lon Into thn text oi' an slt^jruntivo v/ori. for the 

Tixe Oroat I-rDtoctor a?!00adt»d fiij ro/s'x «t.o;;u-? <5U ':-ufj joyt eittexided 
by tne 3,^ni.'r Oifloar of the Tea]\li^ aotiag as uofiror of tha xitual 
veasel, rh* C-re"t lilHloriou, lol uiilli, boarinr:' tufc taOj-ots oi t<he 
'^diot of ;;ucocLV3ioii, muurit:! u.v tnc t>^OGt istc^'G on z.y^ rifrUt. '.-q 
read tiio odlot to t'le \ria^ci sayin^^, '•Tiie Kinf^ leaaiu{; on nis jede 
table srok'- out :\iB l^st oornmaiiu, Mo ooun'jU'O yoii to Tollov,' tae 
teeonlnvrs «nd t^eoorift ruler of the Chou nntiou, ooEar.lvin.'T v;itJa Its 
great lawf?» •'ivlnit' i^firiaony to tU*^ world, j 't&fl H??iai r«sT>ond.liU' to 
nnd iuauifestiiif: tte ."iorioup teROlllIlp:^-'. of Kin*? .V«n and Kinf: V/u", 
.'Jte Prluoc raade obolsance tv.'loe, arosf. oud repliod, ''Little, little 
ram I, lest small oiiild, i'.ow oau I rule the foi-r regions in 
reverent awe of tue dread majesty of i.eav^n?" Tue doouii.ont does 
.ot fully lieaorlbe tiie oeremony. -iie Prliioe possibly received from 
.le Great Iroteoi^or tUe great Jade Ko as a sy;iibol of kingly rank v/hen 
e first asoendod 1:0 the ball. He apparently laid the e^eat jade 
iCo and the tablets of the edict on tuo altar table before he Made 
obeisance in reply, iho .Senior Officer of the ^oicestral Temple 
-ave I'iin the ritual vofjsel,'^ ile advauoed tarce times, pouring; out 
a. The laace cov^irTTij a^i iu&riibiv-j iuj.llcotd word at tais 

point*. S-ecoir\<^4-i»ne.(n ordtev fb CdvyespoYid wTtJii^A-fiTif inytiiinfiif ^ 

turee libations and setting dovm tiie rituul vessels three tiiaea, 

Tae .Senior Orflor^r of the fUioestral Tojuple aiiiiouacevi, '"'Lhey (the 

-ncestors) have pRi-tukA-a," Tht ti.rae ohjvioxe u^-,c 1 in i.uia careraony 

3jT£holized the three iihaaon of Oiiinese iiie and »;ovariUicnt ; the 

h"p j'.tood foi hin^jly aut:'Oi.ity and udiitarj' y,cv.'oi» thw tncl^-ts for 

lev/ and c;ivil authority, tae ci*i foi /uiceytrol rciligion. 

Tne; Grand Protector rocoivod the ritual 'vessel, descouUed rrom 

the i-i?.!!, ctu-tiraoniali/ washed uis 'ands and again aaoended to the 

hail vitci fuiotnar ritual ve^.tjel ol' tde same tyxu> ^^'-'- '^'itii" £■. "half 

maco", Ciia;i;3 , in alo naiid^ in urdar Lo uake tne reapoiisive sacri- 

J- • .{-g laclnx 4- "..0592. 

fice, tr^o . "'■■■■ j;ave tl^e ritual /trcisel to tbe Teiiii-la Httendfxnt. lie 

made ooei.?-.'iise to the tCinf,, The Kin.: returned the obeiyanoe. The 

Great Protector descended froc the hall, Tne Iriugahip had been 

handed over. All. the ::oble3 went out of the teinpla gate and v/aited 

outside for t^'ie nav/ king,. 

The Ktnj;; went out and Ptood inside trie Gate of Greeting. 

The Grand Irotector, who had nov/ r-?sumed nis ordinary place as 

a prince oi" the rsaln, 3tood on tne left with all the nobles of 

the Weat Resticns. The nodes of the iast ivegions stood on the 

right; all -.vlth tneir" horses and cnaricts. "Tne guests presented 

jade and otnar presents, pin oiieUfj fea^ y« ohica i)x" , 

Zt here again tne v/ord jad^, ^, dhouid replace the 

'.vord "mace'', Ituei, in t:ie text; i.ian;'- .jade oru-gnonts 
nave been found in the oiian^s touibs at i\nyaxig, bu^/no 
raaoe, Kuei . 

4, Tne Great Protector carried a ^iinif-jn-iice", caan.^ when he 
iiade th-e responsive ^acrifloe.'^No .jf^^e obj.^ct? anawerin;', '^o the 
clasaicai "half niaoe", c hanj'; nave been found :<\. Anyang hut only 


smaller jade Ko sucii as Ko lU, 11, 12, 20 and 21 and marble mlas-oii*l 
like Ko 25, 2G and 27, The writer sugf-esta that tne classical vord 
iialf mace, cLan^, la. tlie text is an intrusion of t later date to 
replace tho v;ord for an ordinary jade Ko, ^m Ko. If ttiis I'O so, then 
tlie lengtn oi' olie jade ao in some way iudioatea tlie rank of tne 
owner, but tiia jade Ko of thin monograph do uot fall 5 oto rs^-uiar 
series of uniform lengths. The naif mace, Ghan£l» does not seem to 
exist as h v/ell defined iade symbol of rnnic in :5hanp; or early Chuu 
times. The synibol used by the Great Protector in tne ceremony was 
probably a jade Ko of ordinary size such as ko 10, 12, 19 and 30. 
The only half jade Ko are Ko '56, :-37, 62, 65, 80 and 116, but these 
might well be acaounted royal in their perfection and in no way 
inferior to the great jades, Ta ^, Ko 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19. 
Because they are made half of jade axid half of bronze they may h.ave 
suggested the classical commentator's definition of a d LiaAg; as a 
half mace, 

5, The puard in the ancestral teiuple numbered eleven men. 
Two soldiox's inside the ^ate carried spears called hui -^ , One officer 

!• Ku Index 4 2.0589. 
at the back steps also held a pointed lance, jui,^. These tv/o types 

^* Ku Index 42.0448, 
of spear possibly correspond to the two types described under Ko '^^b. 
One, probably the hul , is a wide-winged spear and the other a lance 
point with loops on each side of the bronze shaft. One officer v/ho 
stood In the west of the hall held an axe, yueh "^ such as the one 

3. Ku Index 42.0421. 
described under Ko 71. One officer v^ho stood in the east of the 

hall iicld a o leaver/ iheso we.r« apparently two headsmen, one 

1. Ku Index 42,0413. 

v.lth a Shang weapon, the axe, and one with a Gnou weapon, the 

oleaver,'^ It is probable tiint a Sxiang court had two off! o era v/ith 

3» A oleaver in the FTciar Sallery oi* -rt, v.'ut^hinf^ton, No. 
•34: G, iu.':<o.r.i bed '^li'nrquls /'aag", Kliuiji dou ia said to 
have been found soutu of the Oh»i river at HsGn Hsien 
near tht^ villa !'e of Lu 'iU Ta*un« 

axes, Undor tho oavaa stood two other oi'ficers, t;ie one on the 
v;eat carrying a o;i'g . If ir^terpratatloiis oi" tliia weapca as a 
socketed Ko are uorraot, then Type VII, r£ 117-loO and Type 71II, 
Ko 151-156 v/ere oarri&d by offioars of tne p-uarcl ratner than 
soldiers, Tiiia sooketed axe ia a typioai oiaanf: weapon dating from 
the occupation of the ^'aflta of Yin, j^o 119-125 are aimllarly ins- 
oribod and otner examples with the sanw^ are kao/m to tixist. Ordin- 
ary examples like Ko 14C-150 aioo seem to indicate its common use 
in ohang times, but it is possible that ixx tne Chou dynasty it had 
already necome rare. Ho socketed T^ v.-ere found by the Aoademia 
Jinica in the' cxoEveticnc Bt the early Oliou site af Msun Hslen 
station, The oeremonial use of tills Shanf: Gii'ii la a Chou ceremony 
seemf; to i^-dicate th:; fusion of th«.' tvo oultvires in state ceremouies. 
On the v/est nide of the hell, o j ot'ite tae place whtre tl'e Chou King 
asccndod, th« weapons of the officers guard wore of 3hang type, viz, 
the axe, yiieh and socketed Ko, Gh*'u , 

6, On the eart eide under the eaves, s fourth officer stood 
bearing a I'uni ,? This weapon is probably best identified as & 

o, Ku Index 42,0430, 
triauf-ular Ko of Type IX, Ko 157-167, Tbe lian commentator Oiieng 
K'ang-oh'eng states "the i:*uei and the Oh*Q munt be the three- 
pointed spear of today". This is v/ide of the mark, 3ut tne 


tradition of three sides luay bo aaoient. These throe-sided Ko 
of Type IX are Shaug dyuaaty in elate; none \<fiii foimd at ;isttn Haien, 
-;ut their appearaiioo ou tht- east aide of the, hall may indicete that 
they v/ere hI&o vvell kao'vii iu the 01 sou dynasty. Certeiniy Ko 1 68, 169 
170, do uot ;;oUu.'oiiL to Shen^.^ canoits ih. their deeorativb design. In 
later clasalcal tiraen this f-raph K^uei wae writt&n v/itii a aietal Ohin 
dignific aad i.ot a Ko. This craph in Incorlbed as tho nane of thQ^^°^^- 
v/oapoii on tha Kin;, of Yen's v.o-^ v/hloh hea a Ioa'- hu. It is possible 

1, 3gui-tai 19.50.1. 
therefore that a K.*ue:l i:^ a Ohou Ko with a lon^ im. It might even bo 
one of thone pacul5.'\r Ohcu wenpons OBiled o h i found at, Hsfln Haien, 
for they have fc/ar points, a.'Iz. th<» hlade» the lanoe , point, the butt 
and the long, nu or lashinj; bar. The l-Touaa w-^avon nloae without the 
haft has four points like the bone s^aph for A (jet ^^t tne tenth stem ia 
cycle of days. Thia weapon, called by laoderu .vrltors a Ohou dr/cesty 
Chi, is .iot found at the 3iiang site of Anyang but it; vory oorr-rion in 
the Chou sit© of Hafta Helen, 

7, r»'our men In spotted deer-skin caps held Ko on their eho'ilders 
with blades i ointin^'. upwardy ready for actioii^. They ware stationed 

'^» ^-u Inde x 4£.04'. 1, 
on the south platform of the ancestral temple, one ou each siae of 
the tv/o setn of cteps leadiuc up to it, and near the four chariots 

v/hioh stood at tiio foot of the steps. TJiey may have beoji the 

outrunners before the horses, hsien ci a, who nlvmvM oai'ried Kc^. 

3. iiee discussion under Ko o5 and Ko 117. 
From thla placing? of four men bearinr, Ko at the very front of the 
temple we can aeo that the Ko held an Im ortEint place in the cere- 
mony and it is possible that the artific^er wao made many of the 


ornamental Ko of this monograph had In mind suoh ceremonies as 
the one desoribod in the Testamentary Charge . TMe Ko occupied the 
same position in the corer;ioai^l dress of ancient Gi:ina as the 
sword did in recant Surcpsan court dross, lie officer was properly 
droased v/itiiout It. 'Itories of the 'Jtates^ records '*Duke Mu 
put his oarvjd ^ oa iis shoulder and went cut to Juoot the 
airbaasador, Ku EUAg hsa^ tiao Ko . oh*u caien shih ohe . 
•^» I-u.o xU, Chin atnt,o. Jtiia yu, ninth ohai^tor, 
T>.i£? is a latt survival of a k>uan( dynasty ouator.. sucii as is 
vividly pioturijd oxi Yo. '^^- °^^ perh.ops eveix nor=; cl9P7'ly on a net 
of U'oniio vossela/wTKissetAA/irsi found iu a brick kiln near Anyang, 
railway atation and uiksj^ and called tiio "^boy with *yhQ halberd aet". 
In the inscription on t ene vessolo the halberd is held point up 
BS desoribod in tae T es taiUbatary Ihar :^o . It ia of interest to 
note that sonolaatio oosjaentators applied tiAs phrase "grasped a 
Ko point up", phlh Ko a:nonr J^, tc a spear wit>h an extra point 
turned up at on« r?idQ, L c-^,go , 111, p, 556, no iiiterpreted it and 
ffioet Chlnene diotionfries still show piotureu oi Ko carx'iod like 
Hpeara. No wonder a nodern interpreter piaoea :aore oonfidence in 
ar-j.taGolOcr^ioai evidence raiiher tiau in Eaoiont 30hoia^3tio aotej?, 

0. V/hilo not n'otually insntloneil, t'^e presence of the dancing 
Ko is implied in the Testaneatary Charyre . Aocordin'-: to the text, 
tiio hereditary denoing oostiimeo, trie ^roao tortoise shell, and the 
great drnsx were placed In the west rooir.. T'le war-<iaao9^or the 
Chou ritu«il oelebratad in six niovements the conquest of the Shang 
dynasty and the pBcificotion of the country. The war-danoe, 
involving the use of the Ko did not originate with the Chou dynasty; 
it was used already in the Shang ritual. The dancin*^ costumes 


referred to v/ere handed down froiii tne past. The name Yin v/hich 
describes tnem is not the name of the maker as Han cOKimentators 
supposed, but rather "hereditary" as used in the Day of ouppleiuent- 
ary Saorifio e, 

To sum up: Ko were used in ceremonievS mentioned in the Test - 
aaoi^tax"/ GhartJe in eight ways v/_iica ar^j alao representative of its 
ceremonial use p;onerally. 

1, 'iVo special F-o were carried by the Kiixg^s body guards 
as symbols of autiiority. 

2, The larf^e jade Ko wrongly called Chiea r.'uel iu the text 
was t>ie symbol of kin,-;ly rank presented to the Kiup, at his invest- 
iture. It was carried by him in the ancestral ceremonies and as 
one of tjie national treasures from the past, it v/as laid out in 
the /uic9stral nail where it was o&lled f^reat jade, Ta Y*J . 

3, The Great Protector carried a smaller jade Ko to the 
hall v/hen he offered sacrifice on his ov/n ri^ht, Tnis is called 

in the text Ghanf? and defined as balf a K/uei. From this and other 
references we know that L..obles carried jade Ko of different sizes 
-S sifinhols of their rank, fjince liOwevcT, the lengths of jade Ko of 
the Jhan!-; peri d ere ot unifonfly graded, the jade blade with bronze 
haftinp is possibly to be identified with the Shang half-jade^Ko#r cjron.^ 

4, The Kinp carried as bis personal equipment a Ko and bow 
and arrows. This Ko was a s.:ort, well made and beautifully decorated 
weapon called "a pointed KO", tuj. c_uih Ko , 

5, la the v/est pert of the temple hall at the ceremony an 
officer held a socketed Ko cnlled a Gh*u possibly as representative 
of Shang dynasty weapons. The Hitual Li Chi 22,i5,25 says that all 
four officers, ftsi ao ch'en . stationed in the hall carried Ko which 
Is a general name for these weapons. 


6, lu the east part of the temi^le hall at the oeremony an 
offloer hold a triauc'^lfir Ko or perhaps a four-branohed lanoe Koj>*m«hm« 
called a K*uei . possibly a- roi)rQsentatlve of Ghou dynasty weapons. 

7. On tho front platfom on the hall, four guarda held decer- 
ated ordinary oerGmonial Ko "point up" at tne roady. These iien may 
have beeu charioteers cr outrunners called hsien lua who cleared the 
way both aotualiy and ccrencnially ^'or the Kin^. 

8^ Ko Wert: tlso used in the v/er-deiice r&ntoaviice^ performed 
before the ancestors in tno /iioeetral tt>ri].lo. 

In eaoh case these TCo wero appropriately decorated for 
oererionifil use. 


C, Funereal use. 

The classifloation of the Ko is somewhat confused by its 
use anonc the ciinp'»ch*i fouud lii Shang dynastv tombs. 

The Chinese torm minp:''Ch*i should becocae a loan word. There 
1g no GCiulvalent in a iuroptjan lan^ruage, whioh exactly ex- 
presses the idsa. The term deslf^nates those "obvious o'o- 
J sots'* placed iii tombs to show the "filial-rioty" of tno 
mourners. They have been called "'vos;:elG to the eye of 
fanoy**, "s])irlt vosaeis'*, "ghost objoots**. These terms are 
based on later deflnitiono by Chlaeae ooincientators of the 
nail dynasty (.'^•D. 2;>-.;.20) who had the point of viow of 
their Q\Tn time and not thet of the Shang dynast/. This is 
not the plaoe to enter into an e3.TX>!?ition of the religious 
ideas on wiiich the Shang dynasty bui-ial customs wore eased 
except to state that the term nlnf;~oh*i as applied to 3hang 
dynasty objodts is confined to tiiose tiiings which were 
exfjressly made for tlie funeral and burial to completo on 
adequate furnishing? of the tomb. Tho elaborateness of these 
furnishings depended on the atnadin^^ in jjooiety of the person 
burled but also on the degree of filial piuty aiaone, the 
meELhera of tho fsunlly who were conduct ing the funeral. 
Ordinarily in a A-ealthy family the aotua^. ritual vessels 
and objects usod by the deoeaaed were buried in the 
tomb with hiia. His own vessels from his 


altar Inscribed with his own personal name and the names of his 
(ieoeased Tuthers, mothers and elder brothers whom he honoured in 
the ancestral ritual were no longer suitable for the use of !iis 
sons. These '♦real" personal vessels alon:?: with any other fj:eneral 
sacred family vessels w.ioii were broken, iiivinded, outnoded or which 
tne family were willinif^ to use for t.ds puri-ione wore first gathered 
together. The balance of a complete set of tomb furnishinpis suit- 
able to the deceased and to the desire of the mourners to express 
their affection or respect were made up of rdn^-ch^i . 

In the writer* s opinion inia/r;«»ch*i were uot made for the purpose 
of deoelvlnf^ the dead but to express tiiat distinctive virtue of the 
Chinese people which we call filial piotyi hsiap . The raiso^&*etre 
of Minf--oh*i was to put into "'visible form" tue respect for the per- 
son and status of tue deceased. The apritfi of the deceased, .otill 
living and knowing, followed with interest the last expressions of 
human affeotiou. To fail to express it to the full v/as to bo un- 
fllial, pu-asiao . iowevor, the greatest desire of the deceased v/as 
the maintainanoe of his family nmonp, the livin,", and the preservation 
of its proper status in society. To bury all the valued ritual 
vessels from oi'f tlie family altar without replacing then vdth equally 

suitable vessels was .to be still more unlilial, •u~,.t3lao ,PoY Ihn L-rou^hf' '^i^'^raos.. 
IK. Soaie'ty, uj(\e/^ Sviio.iil<i- Anceshral ceremonies Cooldncthecetehratsi^.vjtihojt-svtl'ah'Le bror^ie vessels. 
i'o meet tais situation, mlxir-ch'i were used. These objects met 

all the requirements in appearance, but did aot impoverish the family 

uunooeysarily. Lists of objects buried in the tomb were made and 

"axinounced" to the S] irits of tP^e deceased and those present at the 

funeral. The object aad to conform to the written descriptioii, A 

bronze r.o, mlqjp-oh'i , :iad to be made of bronze if so designated, but 

the quality of bronze might be i)Oor, the workmanship shoddy and the 

size miuiature, Where no material v/as named the vessels raiq;ht be 
made of cheap pewter or clay. Stone or bronze minp;-ch'i m i^ht simu- 
late either elaborate archaic ceremonial Ko or contemporary usable 
weapons. This explains the great variety of shapes amon{7 the mln^- 
oh'i . The quality of the object depended on the remuneration paid 
to the artisan, but an object properly finished and suitable to be 
used "above ground" was not called a minffi-ch'i . There are many sets 
of ritual utexisils in which all the objects including Ko were made 
for f'.noreal use only. In such cases, apparently, the deceased had 
no personal objects otaer tlian those that could properly be used by 
his descendants, or els'^ the "trade in" value of the good bronze in 
them v/as worth theexohangc^ to^a ifiore complete set as a ^ expression of 

In the writer* s opinion the contents of Shang dynasty tombs v/ere 
always consistent^, That is, a vessel inscribed to be used in the 

ritual for a Father or other ancestor would bear the name of the 

actual father or other ancestor of the deceased, but not the names of 

Other pex'sons. The graphs on Ko would be the^name of the deceased ri?;/- 

oii^bi{ J^is I'etainers, Sxxohnanies had been used during his lifetime or we^e 

li\Jin^ Court titles granted aefore burial. One does not find in a 

"^hang tomb vessels that belonged to some other person. 


Ixi a Chou dynasty cemetery at ilsun lisien, hov/ever, vessels and 

Ko inscribed with different names wer found in one and the same tomb, jr^ 

A parently these Gnou people were not concerned that all the burial 

furniture should have been the property of ©r appyaprYiaie .o^ the deceased. 

They were either his own before deatn or mln,:^-Oii' i , made for his burialj 

Dr. G.D, A'u in Ireiiistoric Pottery in China, page 168, writes, 
"So far as I knov/ from modern discoveries ming-ch'i were rarely 
used during the Shang-Yin period, when real objects of daily 
use v/ere deposited in the tomb; they v/ere used more often in 
the Chou, but not till the lian were they common." Dr. ' u is 
here confusing two types of minf--ch*i v/aich are associated with 


two different types of burial custom, /"iccordiur to the custom 
of Han I times there v/ere buried in the tomb ob^jfectslil'neeled by 
the deceased to maintain his physical life and comfort: nouses, 
granarios, grinding mills, wells, pir: stys, sheep folds, i'owls, 
v/atch dogs, servants, cooking-stoves and a great variety of 
taings modelled from clay. No doubt also tilings made of wood 
and straw have disappeared, ouch objects are never found in 
ohang tombs. In them one finds all the Implements and regalia 
waich the deceased used in the Vv'orsnip of his ancestors. To tJie 
man of the .^hanc dj/nasty tae important tning in the after-life 
was to maintain contact v/itu the ancestors who had gone before 
and tais was to be accomplished by burying with him his ritual 
Vessels and personal ritual robes and etiuipment and that of iiis 
escort. In this case not all the objects were minf?-ch*i , but 
only those necessary to make the set of ritual vessels complete. 

The oommon. man of limited means was ordinarily buried with a single 

Ko, presumably his own weapon, by his side. Riohor burials have 

yielded numbers of Ko. There is reason to believe t.iat in such oases 

groups of a certain nuiber of Ko were included in the tomb furnishings 

and that this nui.iber was commonly 6. Thus five sirallar Ko were found 

with Ko 35. These are all min-:'->c i*i . The set of six Ko, Nos. 102- 

107, aro strongly rriade and may have been used for coort ooremonies 

sue:: as are described in the Tostamentary ^. 

l.J Legge III, 544-561; Zu Index 42.0207 and 42.0401). 

Tiils dooument refors to tv*'o officers of the body guard osoort and 

four men vfitli Ko on their shoulders, blade up, who stood guard on 

eaoi- side of the two seta of steps east and i:est of the great iiall. 

This is a total of six. Further evidence to the same effeot is 

given by two oraole boneg which record the '*Ordoring of six Ko men"^. 

2« Oh* ion rien 7.34,2 and :Iayashi 2.i).ll. Date about 
1200 ;;.G. It iias been reported soveral sets of 
ten Ko v/lth ton beheaded men have been found by the 
Aoadonia Slnica In the Great tombs in "ou Ghia Chuang, 
Anyanp" in igiH-i'iS. 

I ■ .5. 

; , OONTRISUl^foWS :^'^'"*'^ > G^UGhAJriiY 

General limitations 

Tills study of the Shang Ko has opened up the way for still 
further researohea Into the history and geography of the Shang 
dynasty. Strictly opeakln,";, these lie outside tiie boundaries 
set for this monograph. The studies of the Inscriptions on the 
Individual Ko have been made with a view to detenainlng their 
more precise dates rather than to discovering historical and 
geographical Information about their owners, Most references 
made In the catalogue to oracle bone Inscriptions merely record 
the diviner* s name In order to determine tne date of the bone 
script periods in which the Ko were made. Therefore many of the 
suggestions advanced In these otudies must be considered as ten- 
tative and uot final. The presentation of the evidence in an 
English form has compelled the v/riter to risk mcuiy translations 
and interx^retations of inscriptions which are open to dlsv-uto. 
It seemed better, however, to venture an Interpretation of the 
graphs in English rather than to remain silent and call them 
merely '* totem marks'*. This difficulty of interpretation does 
not arise in a presentation in the Chinese lanfruage where the 
graphs may be transcribed into modern Chinese script and their 
interpretation left to the reader. 
The nature of tha literary rdoords . 

All extant Ciiinese literature displays only a vague know- 
ledge of the iilstory and geography of the Shang dynasty. The 
orthodox interj)retatlou of tiie laove to Yin was that it represented 
a snift from north of the Yellow Idver to tne south of it. The 
reason is, apparently, tuat the Ohou conquerors of 1038 li.C, 



wished to blot out all romeiabrance of the Shang people as the 
originators of Chinese culture , At first taey oondemned 
especially the last King of Shang and extolled the virtue of 
King v/en and King \'in, emphasizing that Shang had been conquered 
by the mandate of Heaven, T'ien Ming, Confucius, 451-479 }i,G, 
said he admired the ancients, hao ku. He travelled to the 
state of Sung in searoJi of evidence for the ritual and history 
of Shanj-; dynasty but found little. The documentary records 
had all perished,^ He visited tho capital of the state of V/ei 

1, Leg^e I, p,22. Analects III, <!. 

only two days journey from the "'aste of Yin but evidently did 
not l'.^am that the capital of the Shang dynasty was nearby. He 
praised the culture of the 3hou dynasty above that of the pre- 
oeeding two dynasties, .:sia and Shang and said, "I follow Chou, 
>Vu t3*ung Chou",^ Dy Confucius* time the propaganda of the 

2, Le^p:e I, p, 24, Analects III 14. 

Chou conquerors had succeeded. The ClassicL. Qf_Hl story , Shu 
Ching which he is said to have edited was filled with Chou 
dynasty model emperor lore and propagandistio records of the 
Conquest of the Shang dynasty,*^ The of L'enoius (390- 

3, See Ku .i.iih Pi en and A,.', Hummel . , Autobioprapiiy 

of a Chinese Historian Leyden^ h^^,!. 

305 13, C,)^ may be summarized as follows "After the deatii of 

4, Leg^e II, p. 156, dates according to Prof, 

Ch' ion Mu, J«'«5il«lioi^r«ffiy geweral- 

model limperors Yao and Hsiin o pressive soveaigns arose one 
after the other, 3y the time of Chou, the last King of Shang, 
the world was again in a state of great oonfusion. Duke Chou 
assisted King Wu and destroyed Chou, of Shang, He extinguished 
fifty states and the world was glad". The Glasaic of Iiistory 


says, "Great and splendid were the plans of King Wen"', 

It is obviously vain, therefore, to search for the hist- 
orical background of Shang Ko in literary sources only. These 
can be trusted only when supported by primary evidence such as 
that afforded by archaeolorrical excavation and ezplor<ition, 
inscriptions on bronze ritual vessels of the Shang dynasty^and 
oracle bone inscriptions from Anyang. 
The evidence of the inscriptions on bronze ritual vessels 

The inscriptions cast on Shang ritual vessels were intended 
to facilitate their use in ancestral ceremonies. Many of them 
have oixly one graph; some have two or more graphs combined into 
a sort of "monogr8r>n ', often contained in a square cartouche, ya . 
This is the court name of the owner. From the type of graphs 
used, the name often appears to be a court office sucn as "Ko 
Bearer" (Ko 70), "Keeper of the Kitual Vessels" (Ko 71), '•Mounter 
of Chariots" (Ko 72), "Leader of Ten thousand" (Ko 75, 95), 
"(iuiver bearer" (Ko 76), "Controller of Silk" (Ko 77), etc. In 
addition to these name graphs of the ovmer, day names of ancestors 
v/ere frequently added on Shang bronze vessels. Many scholars 
seem still to be uncertain that the inscriptions on these sets 
of ritual vessels are of Shang date. Even so erudite and daring 
a research worker as Kuo iJo-jo in 1933 began his essay, "The 
evolution of inscriptions on ritual vessels in the Chou dynasty" ^ 

1. Chou Tal )[i Minfi Chin llua Kuan, published as a supple- 
ment to volume I of his book, Ku Tai Ming K'o lu K'ao , 
Tokyo, 1933. 

with the following statement, "V/hile some vessels have survived 

from the end of the Shang dynasty and from before the Chou dynasty, 

yet the niamber of those of which 'we can be definitely sure does 

not reach ten". He continues, "It was formerly considered that 



all vessels with the,, day names, ohla y i , eto, belonged to the 
Shang dynasty, but tnis oustom existed even in the middle 
period of the Chou dynasty so this old opinion cannot be entire- 
ly aooepted,** 

The uninitiated reader wouxd infer from the above that 
there are very few authentic Shang dynasty ritual vessels and 
that there is no evidence that ^vessels inscribed with day names 
belong to the Shang dynasty* Such inferences would be quite 
wrong. There are at least 3000 inscribed Shang vessels, most 

1, The two books Yin .en and Ikiil Yin alone list a total 
of over 2400 vessels, IJot less tiian 600 additional 
are found scattered in many other books and in un- 
published collections, 

of them having /day names as well as "owners'* aames. 

It is true that there are only a few long Shang dynasty 

inscriptions on bronze vessels wiiich bear upon them the full and 

unmistakable temple titles of Shang Kings and 3nang dates* A 

bowl, kuQi , with one such inscription is Known to have been above 

ground for over a hundred years.* Its lone text of 35 graphs is 

2. It ixas the seal of the collector Chin Fu-t'ing 
engraved on the bottom of it, :;>:iortly before the 
present war the writer obtained tiiis vessel from 
Mr, ::,T, Loo of New York, The inscription is re- 
corded In Yin vVen 1.19,3 and San-tai 6,52,2 and 
transorlbud i.. tiio writers Chia I'm Yo n Jaiu 
(Oracle Bone Studies) 1933, p, l3x, 

well knovm to Chinese scholars and is undoubtedly one of the 
'*loss than ten" which Mr, Kuo Mo-jo would recognize as definite- 
ly of Shang date. The inscription is composed in the same manner 
as those on oracle bones beginning- with the two cyclical graphs 
of the day Uu oh* en and efij^ifig vfith the month and year of the 
king, **In the elevent^i moon, on the occasion of the kings, wei 
wang . tv/entieth annual sacrifice, sau, the day of the united, 
hsieh, ceremony reaching back, kou, to Queen Pi Wu and King V/u 

(Tau) Yi iilustrloua onoa, ho; ono wild boar". The vespel was 

' made in 1071 B.C. A general, sMh, namei "Goranosite 'iouj " 
gave to oao v/hoso rjersonal name waa Hal "twenty iiails, ^ of 
oaorlficlal liquor and shell tokens Wwioli lie used to make his 

, preolous aaoi'iflcial vessel In honour of ils father Yl**, i'^ather 
Yi was the seoond last King of Shang called la literary reoords 
Emperor ;^(Ti, Yij , The oooasion for v/.loh the ver.soi v/as raade was 

, a special oereaonj' v/oll attested alao on the bones, oouduoted in 
honour of ^ueon Pi Vm anCL her ooasort ICinr; v;u (T;ju) Yi v/aoso 
uniaistakable namos it bears. The Insoriptlou is signed at the 
end with the ''tm:>ortant offioe or faiuily livi^i.^^ name" of the 
''owner". Thl3 graph shows three xaen gathered around a standard 
the top of v.l>ioh supports a suall graph "prisoner" hsingt which 

1, Prisoiior Using is Eisntloned under jjo 76. 
scseiua to be the symbol of authority, Thio ov.aier*s important 
name raay bo transcribed IQ, the aiodera meaninj?; of wriich is "to 
march" or "travel". Had tais vessel been iasoribed in the early 
Shang II fashion, omi all record of the date and the histor- 
ical ocoaaioa on which it was first used, it would have borne 
only the three graphs: .standard bearers, lU, and Father Yi, Iro- 
ciaely these three graphs are foxmd both on the lid and Dody of 
the pail, jTfl, belonging to t.^is set , The a3:?ociated steaiaer, 

S, I'.atl Yin 1,78,6 and 7, same as Jjaa-tal 13,49,1 and 2. 
Hslen , ( Yin /en 1,29,7) la inscribed "standard bearers", iU, 
"Grandfataer iTsu/fing" i,e, Xing V<en Wu Ting, The three vessels 
of this set thus bear the numos of three generations of royal 
ancestors of tae ovmcr, "SLandurs bearers, iti". Standard bearer 
Itt is the important living name of a member of the royai aouse 
beloni'ln;: to the same generation as Ghou i:3iu tne last -ing of 



The genealogioal nature of tiio Insoriptlons on tiieso vesaela 
provides additional proof that inscriptions on ritual vessels 
w.iloh bear only the living name of the owner and the day name of 
an ancestor do belong to the Shang dynasty and moat probably to 
tne royal family. On the bowl made in 1071 i.d, i.e. near the 
end of the Shang dynasty, the use of suoh otiose words as "made 
this saorificial vessel, tso pao yi ** had already become permiss- 
ible* This proves that vessels wliich use these phrases cannot be 
excluded from the Shang dynasty on tuis evidence alone. The 
occasional uae of Inscriptions on one vessel of a ritual 
set probably began as early as the reign of King (Lin) lisin 
Inmediately following the death of Tsu Chia in 1157 D.C,^ In the 

1, 3ee Ko 138, 
writer's opinion, tho three-graph inscriptions without^ such "un- 
necessary words'* are ir.ore often to be dated in the first Ixalf of 
Shang II culture period than near its end. The inscribed Shang 
Ko and ritual vessels with a single graph belong to this group. 

The fact that day names of ancestors artj found on some bronzes 

as late as the middle period of the Ghou dynasty does not preclude 

tho dating in the Shang period of inscriptions which have only the 

name of the owner ana the day name of an ancestor. On Cliou bronzes 

these day names of ancestors are rare and most probably belong to 

the descendants of Shang who cl\mg to 

old traditiona, There is uo eviat;ace that the Chou conquerors 

adopted the Shan,t^ posthumous temple titles which used the day names. 
Inscriptions on bronzes of the very beginning of the Chou dynasty 
call them Elnc v/en and King Vv'u, '»Vhen/day names of ancestors are 
found on Chou bronzes they are associated with long verbose inscrip- 
tions which praise the merits of the owner's ancestors. The Chou 

method of insoribing the date was different from the Shang, 
The year was called liarvest, nien, instead of annual sacrifice 
ssu. The inscription began with the year of the King, the month 
and the phase of the moon followed by the cyclical graphs of the 
day. The compositions were eulogistic, extollinj^; tne virtues of 
King Wen and King Wu and declaring the gift of the mandate from 
heaven to the Chou dynasty. They recorded charters and gifts of 
the Son of Heaven and often covenants and records of conquests. 
It IS tne writer's opinion that;; name days of ancestors found on 

persons d^cehi ei . f-f" ir< 

Chou bronzes are the names of^ members of tlie Shang royal house w/io 
According tc^ tradition the Chou conquerors employed many 
descendants of the Shang dynasty as officials and permitted them 
to remember their Shan ancestors in regiilar ceremoiiies. But 
these later vessels and their inscriptions exhibit tne contempor- 
ary fasnions of the Chou dynasty. 

The philosopher Mo Ti 480-390 3.G,-'- sarcastically described 

1. Mo Tzu, lu wen section. The date is that given by 
Professor Ch*len ku, 

the inscriptions of his time in y/ords which may bo applied to 

all Chou inscriptions. He wrote: "Attack a neighbouring nation. 

Kill its people. Loot its cattle, horsey, e^rain, millot, goods, 

treasure. Write It on bamboo and silk. Carve it on bronze and 

stone. Compose it into an inscription for yjur ceremonial bells 

and tripods. Hand it doivn to your sons and grandsons of future 

generations and say, »Iio one possesses more than I do'". In the 

time of Mo Ti, bells and tripods, Chun^: tin^^., were merely sacred 

objects on vvJiioh to record laiiitary aci'iievements and tiie honours 

granted by the Son of Heaven, Since some of the eveixts Y>e corded oft 

CmU hromesoaiU be identified in the recorded nistory of the Chou 

dynasty, scholars have judged Shang inscriptions by these later 
standards and considered that the number of graphs on them v/ere 
too few to be of use as a source for Shang dynasty history, 

Maay inscriptions on Shang bronzes have boen available to 
scholars for nearly a thousand years, 00-yang llsio published 
his Ghi Ku lu Pa Wei about A.D, 1050, The drawings and inscrip- 
tions of the great Imperial collection of the Sung dynasty Hsuan 
Ho Po Ku T'u Lu were published about A.D, 1125. But only since 
the discovery of the oracle bone inscriptions at Anyang have we 
had the key to the interpretation of these brief inscriptions on 
the Shang bronzes. Up to the present, hov;ever, these tvfo primary 
sources for Shang dynasty history have not been used in conjunc- 
tion. The links between them noted in this study should lead to 
further use of this method in identifying names found on other 
ritual vessels with the names recorded on bone inscriptions. It 
is only by coordinating all the available information from these 
two primary sources that we can rewrite the historical and geo- 
graphical background of the Shang Ko. Before /.e can understand 
the kind of information to be derived from these two primary 
sources we rauat clearly recognize their nature. Inscriptions on 
Shang Ko and the associated ritual vessels have been described 
in a prevlotis chai ter. The only information we can sxpect from 
them is the important living names of the owner and his ancestral 
relationships. From the beauty and elaborateness of his vessels 
we can judge his position in Shang society, Forrnerly, sets of 
Shang vessels were not left together but were dispersed among 
collectors. Recently, seisreral sets have been unearthed at Anyang 
and kept together. The greater part of two such sets^is in the 


Royal Ontario Muaouia. Tho nethod oi* rocordlnj-"!; inscriptions 
hao also obscured tho recognition of oets. The vessels of the 
set were grouped according- to shape in different cections of 
booka of InaorlptlonD, LUxny of the sets recorded in the present 
raonograpri have been Gathered together for the first time. Yet 
It is only by considering^ the whole act that one coii deteruine 
the relationship of the ovmcr to tiic anccntiai liris cf tho Shnng 
roycl fardly. 

The evidence of tlxe oracle bones . 

The nature of the evidence to be gotten iroia the oracle bones 
l3 quite different. These inscriptions are tne oouteraporary re- 
cords of iivination wishes or propositions nade to the "vlsh bone** 
in the name of the kini-. The answer was '-iven^ by the ^divination 
orack, du, produced by singeing the tortoise shell or bone. On 
the bones ttxe living names of people and, ^places as used in ths 
royal oo* rt were recorded, V»hile oraolo bone inaoriptions do uot 

record, ^they are by far the most 
important source for 3han<3 dynasty history and geography. 

In tae endeavour to fix tne dates of the iuaoribad Shang Ko, 

tne oraolo bone Inscriptions were searched for similar names. It 

v^as discovered that- most of the graphs oast on the 3nann> Ko con- 
tained the names of persona mentioned also in Bone script period 
I, tiatiiir; from the laove to Yin in 1311 :i,C, to the end of King 
V'u Tint's reign, 1197 D.C,^ *''^^y ^^ ^^^ ^sTapha on the 3hang,,Eo 

1, Mr, Tung Tao-plu, J riteria^ p, 37o, seems to restrict 
bone sorirt period I to Vki Tia,-.;*y reign, 13?r3-1197 J.C, 
but writer oonaiders that nany praole bone inscrip- 
tions antednte t,'',l:t rf^lrn. Some ii jtioiiatel'"" follow 
1311 B,G. 

were also found to be tiiO nam^s of "ownora" of aetg of bronze 
ritual vessels of v/.iiou tho Ko fomed a part,"^ In this way the 


2. _^ 35, 100, 102-107 were all reported \r- reliauie 
autiiorltles to have been found in th<= aaaa rlta with 
sets or ritual vessels* 

grapna on the oaang Ko became a liiLic oetween tAe thousands of 

oraolo b'jno inasrlptiona vrita tneir wivlo variety o£ aiatorloal 

and geographical infon&ation and thu records o£ tne anoestral 

relationships or tae owners inscribed upon tne, vessels. Thos 

we learn that ths owners of 3han£ l^ whose naaes were oast on the 

butt of the weapon were important persons living ui/kb i>one -script ^ 

period I, [1511-1197 >j«G.) and that they possessed elaborate sets 

of bronze ritual vessels, '^^^ ^« '^^^^'^^ d,,^r,s ,,-r,^ c^t^.^.^s.r zcr.-.:^.pr 

It also becoxes evident that these setG of vessels are to 

ue dated in tiis early part of t.iC Jaan^ XI perio'd^and that a 

considerable Anouut of information about their owners is to be c^ra,^4_ 

, utten I'rou the oracle bone inscriptions • lais has given in 

turn, a renl colour to ths najLes of t..3se persons in the oracle 

bone inscriptions and has supplied us wit^ tL.uir ancestral re- 

xationEhips which could LOt be learned fron the oracle bones 

alone. The ancestral relationsnli 3 indicated on ouc oracle 

ucne inscriptions are those of the reigning king only, Tne 

skeleton of Shang dynasty history Is the genealogy or the Shen^ 

royal house. About one half of tne oracle ^one divination wiahas 

loade on behalf of the roiiyiinfi icijur were concerned with proposed 

royal aaoestral corecicnies, Frou these records it haa been 

possible to reconstruct the genealogy of the ki nfis and queens of 

the Shauf; dynasty based on oon.tejr.porary sources^ and to prove that 

ii, Jee the '.ritcr'a 2:Ab. l' ^ Yen P t „ < ft (Oracle Jtudies) 
1933, pp. 61-125, The nar:ies of the queens are not 
found in the Histories, 

t_t recoras ol ohnne; genealogy preserved in z:it .xm -^ii.asty 
histories are aubstantially correct, Tae &ing3 and f^ueens of 

the Shaiig dynasty are ivuovm bota ia tne Gontemporary ooxie records 
aad in ohe subsequent literary iilGtory jy tiioir posthuraous 
anoeatral ti"oies coupled with tiieir iianie days axid not by the 
"living" names and titles by whiou they were loiown during their 
lifetime, Tiie realization that the "living" names oast upon^ Ico 
and ritual vessels are tue names of important persons frequently 
mentioned on the bones and that liiany of these nad tne same 
ancestors as tne reigning icing leads the writer to believe that 
the genealogical skeleton of pnang dynasty can uov.' be clothed with 
flesh and blood nistory. 

It is true that tue inscriptions on the bones are i^ot histor- 
ical records in the strictest seuse. They are the divination 
wishes made in tne name of the icing, "proposals" for action rather 
than the record of deeds accoaMlished. u'iien o;i Ch'ien pica 7,31,4 
we read that a divination v/ish v;as made "asicing about commanding 
♦standard bearer Cufl' (tbe owner of Ko 137) to follow Marquis of 
Yung (possibly the military title of the owner of Ko 70) and maice 
a looting raid, k'ou . upon the state or capital of GIiou". uJe are 
supplied with considerable historical information even though we 
do not Icnov/ whether this proposal was put into effect or not, 

v"e are just at ttie beginning of oracle bone studies. Ink 
rubbln/;:s of the inscriptions have been published making this 
historical material available for direct study. Tiie graphs have 
been listed under the categories of the 3huo .Ven dictionary com- 
piled about A.D, 100. Unfortunately most Gainese scholars baso 
their interpretations on tiie o.aao n'en definitions v*(uich are filled 
with lian dyna;-3ty theories current 1400 years alter tne flo ruit of 
the graphs they are used to define, 3von granting the marvellous 
continuity of Chinese script, tnis is a wrong mathod to pursue. 

More use iziust be Eiadt; of the bone inscriptions themselves and 
of contemporary archaeological material to detensdne the original 
meanings of the graphs. It will liien be understood wny the 
translation of oryptic divinatiou sentences is so difficult 
especially when ii&ny of them are fragmentary. Many things, how- 
ever, have been aooomolished. The naLnes of over a thousand per- 
sons and places have been separated out althoufjh et times the 
same graph a> pears to do duty for both place and person. The 
bone script hns been olas^ifiod ohronolOf?ioally and the names of 
some 50 diviners have been 3jated. The genealogy of the royal 
house has been reconstructed , including the names of the aueens 
who had descendant kln^s to remember them in oerenonies ^and 
other members of tae royal house who^did liot reign themselves 
but had descendants v/ho did. A cnronology may yet be derived 
from the cycle of 60 days and the months recorded on alrost 
every bone inscription, but in the meantime v/e are forced to 
use a tradition current about 300 B.C. baaed on the anoiont 
text of the PujirIs found with the Bamboo books excavated in A. 
D, 281 fron ti^ie toEib of tTinfj Ilsiang of the woi state in north 
Ilonan about 50 i.iles south of Anyang. .s/hGn the oracle bones 
are grouped accordinti to tiieir bone script periods tv/c; striking- 
ly contrastod groups stand out. They tire (1) the wars v^ritten 
lii large bold {graphs of iJone-soript period I to v/hioh the names 
onst on the iCo belonj^ and {P.) tno hunting , travel and vmrs written 

n the delicate minute graphs of Pone-sorlnt period V for which 
k<m parallels on the Ko have been foiUK^. On each of these croups 
/ t - re are hundreds of nacioa of places and persons which should 
iield much historical and geographical data. The writer has traced 
a punitive expedition from Anyanp to Linchih in ohantung by means 

of tiie inscriptions la uii-j ^ie juim ^rouj^^ tiU'l it should "oa x;o - iibis 
from the jiunting and Journeyin/3 divinations to ma_^^ out t/is area 
covered by oj.iese place names ia tlie latter part of nhang II 
period. -he number of days separating; the divinations at various 
places on a journey. should indicate a iproxiniately the distance by 
which they are separated. In the writer's opinion the travels 
covered uost of the cultivatiJle land area of Ilorth China and many 
of the I laces oorresi oad roughly to t ^e walled cities and adiiiinls- 
trative oentres in ■ today. 5ee Cji£;ilf^i^!Ll^ii>:£i^<'Z,. ^ 

A few of the placrj naunes in the wars of 'Script Period I are 
found among the nfjmes of places recorded in Gfi^ript Period V, but 
many of th( ip are different. This leads the writer to conclude that 
the later':^ were carried on in a different area, Mr. Tuu^;' Tso- 
pin ( Criteria , p. 366) has put dov:a in a general nianner the compara- 
tive locations of a number of the Imf-ortant places and regions, 
faa£, in Sjcript'pericdl. They lie west and ..orth of /myang and appear 
to be tnc names of tribes or uatiouo and places located soaev^here 
along the 300 : m, rainfall line '//rich v/as later fossilized into 
the frreat .vail roparatln{^ the nomadic peoples and the agricultural, 
oity-dv.'ellin^r: people who cultivated the land and developed the irts 
and crafts of ancient China so well illustrated by the elaborate 
bronze Ko and the bronze ritual vessels recorded in this monograph. 

The geograpny of this area represented by the names of places 
and peoples found on the inscribed Eo, and the £?sooiated bone in- 
scriptions extends from the Tibetan, Giian^; , (see Ko 99, 10P--107) 

people in the far v'est to the cost liuportant enemy nation in the 

CGiksW$?jrhea|4ernfll-e.^r6>nDunciahoh ]{o ,ni\-£cc> o[ i('u isusei (oflh-trefoUdh^rlh place o\- Lao Izo 
north-wec-'t transcribed by !.:r, Tung as K'u fang.^ The "earth ncund 

re;:ion" T'u fang poems to be located in the i orth. These are 

apparently all foreign enemies. Relationship with the Tibetans 
seems to have been more intimate than v/ith the other two whose 
names disappear from the oracle bone inscriptions after the bone- 
script period I, These foreign invaders v/ere in China from 1311- 
1197 3.C.1 

1, According to Mr. Tung's "long** dates, the period 
v'onld 'je i;595-1281 '?.C.; accordiii:: to the orthodox 
chronology 1387-1365 B.C. The reader vvill find 
modern -^cholaro referring to this im:^ortaiit period 
by any one of the three chronologies. 

The v/ars of bone-acript period I 

The wart3 of boae-3cript period I have beea call ad "the Wars 
of V.'u Ting" from a ref'irejice to i:heri in the Gla3:3io of Change . 
Hexagram 62.3 records, "High Ancestor Kao Tsung (King Wu Ting) 
punished the terrible (deiaon) region, kuei fang , and in three 
years subdued it'', Tbo nistory of the period preoeeding Y»'u 

2. Lege--e, Yi King or Book of Cnangos, p. ZQb, 
Ting's reign is told in the tareo sections of the P'an Keng 
document in the Classic of histor y*^. In their present form and 

3, Legge, III, pp. 220-id47, 3ee p. 221 for Ldgge's 
preseataLion of tae ox'thodoi: iatex^retatioa of the 
move to Yin. Aooordiag to this view Yin lay south 
of tiio Yellov- ot Yea-r.iiih Ilslea anci the nove 
thither took place from nortn of the river at Keng or 
r.ainij,. This cc.nfusion "Jica bicad oa the luielaterpret- 
ation of a graph in the introduction to the Classic 
of Tistory ;vhioa seened to ideatify Yin v;ita j'o; 
western To was supposed to be at Yen-shih Hsien. The 
graph vie.s uot Fo Yin but 3hai Yin ''to laake a dwelling 
place at Yin". 

according to the orthodox interpretation they portray the move 
to Yin as a peaceful Sxiif t of capital from a land exhausted by 
cultivation and flood to a new and unoccupied Utopia, The 

assijmption that all the vi^ars of Jone-scrlpt period I occurred in 
y^u Ting's reif^n sterna to rest solely on tiiese tv/o literary sugges- 

1, Scholars frequently begin their researches with such 
uistorical traditions, place names or definitions of 
graphs as found in the later clasrsics, i':istories_^,or 
diiJtionaries and tae coinruentaries on tnem, iFeyVa'ii'ohor 
the information found in the r>hani- inscriptions on the 
oracle upnes ,or oronze ritual vessels to these tradi- 
tionH^liRe a drifting kite tied to a broken stick, 

3iiauf/ inpori'-)tions antedate by a thousand years tiie present 
literary records wi ich \fere all collected in the Ilau dynasty 
after the burnlnp^ of the books in 213 3,0« Inaorlntlons should 
be allov/ed to tell their ovrn story, checked only by orcheeolop'ioal 
evidence. The names of places and persons should not be connected 
with literary tradition until all the relationships in the bone 
and bronze inscriptions of that period have been taken into con- 
-''ideration, Tiiis is especially true of bone-script period I with 
./hioh our epigraphic records be^jin. The fTapiison many Ko in tnis 
mono-^raph are the same as those of persona and niaces mentioned 
in references to tue wars of tnis perickd. Tne presumption that 
the graphs are late in date siraply because the/ are oast in bronze 
can not be allowed to prejudge the case, Tae date of tae Ko io 
fixed by the lifetime of the ovmer and tnis is indicated by the 
bone inscriptions. The name of the owner may have ori/?inated in 
the naae (1) of his office at court or in the nation, (2) of the 
nation, state, region, territory, people, tribe or family vhich 
he governed, (3) of the place or city wiilch was nis administrative 
centre. In oracle bone inscriptions tne context alone indicates 
v;]iich was meant. 

There are about 6000 oracle bones from bone-script period I, 


At least 300 of these record the aaiae K*u fain^ who appear as a 

people makliig Inroads into the Shang settleaients. The name 

is ..ot found after this script period and It is a noot question 

at what date within the period these marauders wore driven from 


The only raethod of deciding whether the bone frapxiiants 

belong to the reirns of r»an Kon^, lisif. o Iis«n and Hsiao Yi or 

to that of V*u T5!if>; Is by means of the nanea of ancestors found 

on the frsffinHuts therosdlvos. In all *.hti iii.scriptionc examined, 

only the names of early anoootora sre found, Ch *len p i en 1,28,6 

records the naoie K*u fanr and I'othnT Chi the vife of Teu Tinp . 

Thi? frorment belongs to the earlier reir;:na from llfllto 1E56 

^-* ^^p'A pi en has the ralationslxli "father'' but records 
no day naiae, This is a strange oitissica. 

V.'e may, therefore, say that at least part of these wai's with the 
K'u fang occurred before the rei^n of -Vu Tin,*?, That they con- 
tinued into '<!u Tins* a reign seeits to be indicated by the appear- 
ance of .?;randf fl ther Tsu Ting on Hou pi en l,?y9,4 and M aya 3 hi 2.5, 
14. It is stranfre however that tho nartia of Father Yi for Hsiao 
Yl or any other laemoer of hlo t:eneration which OGour so often on 
oracle bone senteuoes oisewhere should not be found on tLis 
f*roup containing the.etfinic name K»u, fang, ''r, Tung Tso-pin 

lists 12 diviners* Xiames in bone script period I and others are 


known to have lived in this period. Only seve.. of these names 

2. See appendix. 
are fouiid in association with K*u fang and of the seven only 
tiiree, i;«an 1.1, Pin 1.4 and Cheni; 1,5, occur witr. any frequency. 
These diviners* names are associated witii the earliest bone 

The result of tbis study of the date of the '*u fang's in- 

n 1 


roads iato China aud tatslr v/ithdrav/al from its borders is to 
suggest that they oame in the period preoeedinp, Wu Ting's 
reign and departed in the early part of that reit^n, 

Oracle bone Hayashi 25.14 has two santenoes. The lower 
and first of them reads, '•Inquire about the ruattor in a ceremony 
in honour of Ancestor Tsu ring." QiaQap. ohih yd Tsu Tin^ , The 
second records, "Inquire about not callin-^ out troops to war 
with K*u fang". Chenp; wu hu ohan K*u fan^ « "To war" is here 
pictured by the blade of one ilo atrikin,s at tna dade of another, 
their handles being held in oppoaito directions. Although too 
luuch should not be read into auoh a aymbolio x'epreseutation, tae 
form of the graph seems to au^s^st that K'u fan?? also used the 
Ko as a weapon of war. It is an intarestinr fact that among tlie 
ni a-nji Weapons foiind in Cliins the Ko, axe oud spear or 
some variety of them are the ouiy types kuown. The sword and 
dagger so coivuuon in the aacient Hoar 'ast are absent. This 
again suggests that those foreign people who made inroads into 
China and possibly caused King Tan Kong to wove from aouth- 
eastoru China to Anynng to laeet their aggression^ diO. aot come 
froxa the Near East via the i-Iansu corri'or, but that they were 
rather a aorthern people from Central /.r.ia vmo possibly occupied 
the basins of the Ob and Yenisei rivers. The arohaeolor.y of 
this region is boin^? studied by Russian scientists and we may 
expect light on this problem from them lu i..>'e future. This area 
appears to have^aronaeologioa^ m^[--erial m/iIK similarities^ sites in the 
Ferm region of the Urals and so further west to the Baltic. 

The halberd in Bronze Age Europe is said to have spread in 
succession from Spain to Ireland, :;ni land, Gootland, Saxo-Thuringa, 

Sweden, Lithuania and 3iovakia but never to have been adopted in 

Silesia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, southvvaatern Germany or Frauoe,^ 

1. V.a.CliildG, Th e Brouze ,Ay;e. Cambridge, 1930, pp, 87-89; 3ean 
F.O, Riordala ,' The Halberd in .Bronae Af / re Y.nro^e , Arohaeologia, 
Vol. 06, 0xford,"T936, op. 195-521, istribution map, p. 277, 
fig, 58, 

Both Childe and Rlordain (p. 233) ikontion tae supposed halberd with 

gold-oappeci rivet : from Siiaft Gravo "v1 at llyoeaae. They apperently 

depended ou l^vony' Falr^cB of '.'inog , IT, p. 1?::, fi/5, 37, w.iicn gives 

uo itpresaiou that the weapon If os zauoh as 530 ram, long. Of. Karo, 

Die v-.Qhachtpiraber yon : yk enai, NcJ, 938, p. 163, pi. XGV, The v/riter 

atteriptud 00 haft tais v/eapon as a Ko from careful drawings but v/aa 

oonvinctsd that it wad in reality a syciiietrioai but. -vorn aword . 

T}he slautla^; row of rivjtjj my not be lu orlijinal position, 

Froru E-iiro*^: photograph one ailc appanr^ to havo bonn rantorod and to 

have throv.T: the rivets bacik, H^iro notos that the taar; v/as restored, 

Tlie blade shculd bo r9--?xanlne'?. to dotortilju the ccrrsot pOiTltion of 

the rivotB. It besrn no raser.blanoo to the;- buaKcd halberdfl of North 

Europe. ?hf=> t-.'o snail bron7.o niohlcs from '^aaklo end Hama, lentjths 

1 '7^ 


3,2 ^Jii. enC 11 -n.* do not see,-, to be relatftd except Insofar as they 

2. V.G. Cnilde, Davni of ?vtropQan r!i\riii7.P,t'on. p. 7?. 

I'nrald In-noltV > 'arir ^ J.n ~''yr!?."a« /.ob-^ahavn, 19^, 1% 37, note 
5, raatQ 'ni.'o, ' 

are grain cicklag, Tho pioturos on cylinler soal ''l.riurefi from early 

MesopotaHilaii siten uppjar to t iis 'rvrit'?r to represent axes ouoh as 

those fouiid ct :-?r and not beak-.-shaped halberds or Ko . 

Tho S'-iropsart distrlbutio;: of thi halbera noted ab^.^c i^d.ves 

out of account the very early appj-araaoe o?" tiie aalberd in 

north central Russia, in aorthern central Asia anci^in all Chiaa, 

While the European halberd is hafted with ooiper rivetB, iu niiaiO it 

16 very slniilar to the Chinese Ko, .'he upward slo])ing tendency of 

the'' European aalberd approximates more to the shape of tue Ciiou dynas- 
ty blade except that t 3 European blade never developed a hu. i'he Ohou 
blade is to be dated lffl39 ^.C. after the ohang ^ bjit it laay represent 

a development 

of a type that had begun in northwest China at an earlier date. 
If the halberd or Ko v/as a common weapon of offense in northern 
Eurasia and China in the earliest bronze age, the possibility 
of this weapon having spread into Europe from t^e east should 
be explored as an alternative to the theory that the halberd 
originated in Spain. The contiguity of the areas using the 
halberd or Ko from Spain through northern Europe, north Russia 
Southern Siberia to China demands an explanation as much as 
does the absence of that weapon from soutn central Europe and 
the ancient Near iiiastern world, Tne Shang Ko v/as a highly 
developed v/eapon at the beginnin.? of 3hang II (1511 3,0,), It 
is not impossible that the European bronze-age halberd, like 
the Ko, had its origin in tiie Neolithic sicicle of northern 
Eurasia, Tne two weapons mif:;ht be regarded as different expres- 
sions of tne same development from a utilitarian sickle to a 
weapon for war and a symbol of rank and power, Tne presence 
of the sword in bronze-age Europe along with the halberd may 
indicate tv/o streams of influence, one from the Near East and 
one from the Far East by way of the northern steppes and rivers, 

i. ..Lordain'c rlci!;? of Chlnc't^a Ko, p^^.^Jii-J^. f. i^^S,, i'5'/, tiS is a 
very nixsA rrouj:- and somewjet Ei'^TcTaaiug. lh«y are by 
no aoann to ho '•rei3ard9d t\!\ Vit3loU(tia.^ in one wain to the 
Han :>,r:iasty- (aOP> B,0. - A.D. ^20)'*. Only the non-Ci.lx*ose 
oaeu Hte lo latQ# Tiie writer dates oue^e i_lo au loliov/y; 

No. 3 Is ahang TI, Tyre V, 1311-10^-^9 li.C, 

iio. 5 ia 3aaug II, Type VII, 

lo, 6 is Chou I, 10:'aB-V71 r.,c. 

No. 1 is 'possibly Chou I, 

No. 2 iy i50n»ihl7 eu<i of Chou II, 770-482 !3,C, 

No. 4 l3 end of Gnou III, 481-207 'l.C. 

IIos. 7-10 are probably Gnou III to Urn I, 4818.0. -A.D. 220. 

The rivet holes of IJo. 8 are aot ordinarily found in 
Chinese Ko. Wos, 7, 0, ani 10 are iriort. Siberian than 
Chinese in typo. 

There is a marked difference between the Shang Ko and 
the lator 3ib.;rian fom found in the Mlnussiusk area. The 

division line betwoon the Nortu Eurasian broaze age 
cultiire area c.ucl tlio Chinese ll^^y rou.nly cloii( the 
gTUBt v/all of Ciiina and not west at the Ural mountains, 
the' interrelation betweca the Sino-Siberian bronz^i age 
of ca, 1300 ;>.G, and that of the ohan;: 'V'-'^'iigtv has yet 
to 'jo fitudiod; t.hc;re is aa :'et no broar; : a^^^o: so ^arly 
a datfc, available from southsm Siberia, 

Froui the point of view o; ;^tl•iot typoiOc y, ...xjro 
is only one r.rropean halberd which reser.Mas tha fihang 
Ko in shape, size and hafting. It is idor«.!.ain, oo.oit , 
TTg. oti, opoin lio, 19; see ii;rt ^;, 520, also p. -V^Jti and 
p. 291« A halberd in the Pjili colleotion, .=:t, Albaas, 
is very simiia-v in jize a*id s. a,:'e to a i^ookotod Shang 
Ko Typo VI7. oj." VJII except tt-at ii^ has. no butt r-rotrucj-. 
Tng beyond '.ite aocket. 

/according to Tailt^ren, swords are abseut in the 
areas from v/hich the Ural and niborian halberds came, 
1' insk MUvSe'oni, .^IXII , 1911., 90, see Riordain, o^,, cit., 
p. 392. 

Maxiy copjjor '^ickle'=! are found in the fieldy of the 
Yeaisei and the Ob river basins, Tne people of tne 
oldest bronze are in the re«iou v/erfo settled a-rioultur- 
ir.tii a.xi..i ij.i iiOiiiads. ili, i^dinnf;, RU'i Greeka , 
Gajiibridge, i;np;land, p. 246, fig. 162, hafted bronze 
sickld, length, 150 moi. (5 ins.j. 

A. r F E n D 1 c 



A T5HTA1'IV£ CMROwOLOGY OF Tllvi .JHAiJO 12 j. . , 

(1) to r^visi U.ics on.-i,'iO<loi. clix'oaolo j, ■.' :i.;'i. iv^s oa, 1400 :i,G. 
for thxi ooou,.Hiticn of the iVaetci of 'iia at AnynntT and li'i2 B.C. na 
tile dato of the a- strMOtlou of the L-hanicc Dynasty. 

[2] to prosuat a iramev/oric Into '.vhloL nay bo fitted individual 
iiiotoriatd t-vi-'uto rjsorded oii tuo tonoD .a;', (fetod inscriptions in 
order to faoilltato ooT^narlsons f(Otween t./io Whanr; Oyaesty and the 
alr«ady Kuown rnclent world. 

Tills aoYv' o!-rcnolor-y in Di:«.9«d on tarse sets of data: 

(1) the orthodox ayf^tem of 'iftt?83 for the K'l.rr' of the CKou 

7 -+. ' ire oousiderad oorroot ".o 7.-<.l '•.0, ':<:i tnr nr^ the Kin,^,3 
of Oho a fl'i'e oonc«rriec<, 

(i'. ) "Tti'* K-nolrtut tiTiXt of tlie our'oiioloficai record fond nnon^r 


the .5Qj3boo oooK^V, £u ^n §na Suu <3;.>l. ^_ijn, vilisojvtrrod ln^aajC(ra'.^Wi-j^''<') 

yftsr t i« lucjor.?3ot ort.jodojt orxroaolo^y aad V.een c2aloulat3d in tie 

TlieLasf iiemin 
lian d^.aa.'-ti^y, ^t k.^ ''oju.ftv.'j.t w-^ vA;rirt'en m 2998c and buried lu Kini^ .. . 

before t'13 burulnr, of the bocica in il3 ]",?-, 

Data 2 ara la •ihr-ao ptxrt:'-, mado up oi" three s^ts of dat-^B, 

!♦ Tiio rol.;.'irj of tho Ilir^s of taa ohanj: and dhou dyainties until 
the founding of the state of Cnin (nuaasi) In ?31 :-.C. ?ai 3'rBi(i«tion8 
cit: varioua ionr perioda v-;itiiin this tine. 

2. The r'-lgu3 of tha Dia^ys of ViiU. until '.' '^- ^oiuj.lia- of the 
teite of "i/ei. 

^. The rolfrj;r, r.r ♦ ^ r^i^rn of '".^1 '^o-n ^^o t- e ■:urlaJ of ;''iug 
-ianr<, -'i9& ;"i.o, 

liiu second and "i ird parts of data 'M-'red d:' "iat-a 1. 


From tlie very nature of aoo-.iaic.iit the suujaation, '^'o7 

ofihe Choo Cttfireisf^ 

years covers t.c lirst part^ the heeMnUif, of tr.s second part in 781 
B.C. -iving ttte destruotioxi of 3uang as 1058 !].•:;,; £7:5 years 
more until "t;oe tio\f'd to' 'fin" f:ive3 1311 .0.; 495 yyars until 
the beginninc ol' the Ghang Dynasty gives 1534 3.0. 

{■5) luto this iramsv/orit the len;;tii3 of the various rai^^ns 
have -^.-^en fitted according to L'r. Tunr/ T:30-::iii»T calculations 
for the Shang Dynaaty end the aocopted uistorical ,ieta of the 
Bamboo ^amala and tna tian aistorians for the first p-rt of the 

Chou , 

This c.'!roncio''y in not oonnidorad final . o'< , 

nowever, that the detailed presentnticn of exant date;' will 
make it el.^ar ^/nat in Ghiuo there ia a n^.t^s of hintorical and 
epigror^hio records vriiich should ive eai a.;curato cironoloiry 
back to 1300 J.O, 

The ?.73 yoarr- of the Shanp; dynact-; frcu the :.;ove to Yin 
vntil the end r.ave been divided In various v/ays anoni'; th.e 
reifng of the rSn'jn. Ho limn 1 ~ivos tas cl-rcuoloivy tentt.tiv«ly 
adopted by the present >vritor. llr. Tun^ Tso-pin usin^ the 
evidence of the Ht^ie inscriptions f-ivea t.iO best published 
diYit'ion. iTis evidenoo is Rurrmariaed in tha ►iuiirterli' ]lvll%L.':in 
of Chinese .'ll4i o^.ra phy» New Serion, '^ol. 2, Ho. 3, 3opt. 1«40, 
/age\foa^!'" In the wrjtor'3 orinion it :.v unfortuantely presented 
as based on tha aoot^jted orthodox chronolo^'.y wl)lch .^.iveo 1122 13. G. 
as the date of the destruction of Shans«r^ Oolunn a r.Uea tne 
iiu.-ber or years asaii^ned'^^o'^each reitiu \v> . '.^n'l. Column 3 
r.:iveo the uuauijr of voara aocordin ; to ^'"''-^^^^^^v^'f"^, ^'^^^^ .'j^/.^^^!]® 

l\fl^ToY>c(s dahs ore ^^ch ^ye^fsq^ r ^ ^ ^^ ^f_ ,^55'- i 197 8C. 


.^amboo Annals, Tiiis represents an imknown editor's attempt to 
complete the "Anciout teit" available to him in order to iiake it 
correspond to the siu.jnation period of 273 years. It ciay be based 
on more old 'v;a.ta thaa vvc reco.'r^nize. By ooirrparison v/itn Coluraa 4 
vvliioli gives tiia ortliodo^t lengths ascribed to t:ie various kinf^s 
in the Han dynasty it is possible to see soae ol t^ie sources of 
Mr. Tung's adjustUients. Only in the cases of -isiao Yi and (Ti) 
Yi does he differ froirj. both. In Cni^ese reckOiiinr the full yesr 
oi' time in v.idch a hin*?, died was inciuded in nis reign, i'ne new 
Kinr counted lis ovvn reif'^n from the beginuin- of tne new year 
folici;'...::. The remainder of trie ola year v/ac part of the period 
of i^ourniug vhien the ministers of the old King contiixued his rule 
and iiistalled the new king in office. The dates ^^iven in Column 
1 are the first years of each new King, the former Kiufp- h.'.ving died 

during the previous year. ^ ^, ^rr-v ^ 

J ^ Table ofit^e CWronoloc^ies o^^e Shanq Jl t^^nod. 

is. He ift,n lengths, 

Chron olo..-'],- Tuiig 







I' an Keag 


Move to Yin 


Hsiao lisin 


Hsiao Yi 


Wu I'ing 


Tsu F.^ug 

11 9 G 

Tsu C-xia 


(Len) ILsin 


K'ang Tr-u Ting 


Wu Tsu Yi 


Wen Wu Tlnp; 


(Tl) Yi 





















































(Ciiou or Snou or Til iiola 1090 52 52 dZ 1151- '">^ 

Destruction of JJaang 10o8 1122 '^^'^ 

Tiie cLronology oT tiie v'^xiou I fjericd, lOoe-770 J.C, does iiot read- 
ily yisla a satisractory division oi tnt 257 yyara into the 
reii-.;n3 oi the Lings, Tne wricer prefers the iTesont Text of the 
BaiLboo Annals alLhough they have beun iiiutilated oy a latter editor 
because tat. chronology f-iven is based on an ancient text and no 
doubt prea^^rves nuca of it. In a note the editor says he 
the 257 years by adding 24 yec.rj at the beginning-;, before the 
suxpoeed transfer of the Tripods to i.o Yi, niaking 261 years to 
which h'b added 11 years of Xinc 'i'u, niaking a ^rand total of 2v2 
years, s^e Le^^:^ o III, p. 153. {L£;xe's dates are all one ysar 

-iort ?',s a result of a -nisunderstandlng of tae year 1 AJJ, ) The 
Ohineso editor u0v;3«'wr did noL follow his ovvn computation, for tae 
years ho glvCvO tc tho Individual rei;yis to(.«l 3S0 to 770 ,m.C. or 
269 to 781 D.C. Tu« latt-^ir is 12 years in exoei'S of the needed 
257 yea.T"£5, The v/ritsr ho8 taken the length of Fiuf Li's reign to 
be 14 yearn, vriiich is riven as the supposed Ktnn.^, llo Interre{3nuFi 
instead of tiie 26 -.vhich the editor assumed. This difference of 
12 years o. f.3r3 a solution of the problera without altering?; the 
other reif-n lenctha. It seems to tiie v/rlter that this is "»vhere the 
editor became confused and departed from thcj Ancient Text of the 

There are tvnu qjotations givsn in «an^Kuo-Vv«i's edition of the 
■jnt text of the Annals of the Bamboo books, Ku pen chu shu ohi 
-l ien vrhioh refer to Kunp, Ho, 

i, "Ho, flaron of Kung protected the Kino's tl.rone, Kun^^ po 
kan wang wei ", Ytoxd. this v/e loarn that Kunt; Ho ^'as 1 •; name 
of a person and not of an interregnum. 

Z, Tiio second bef-^-liia "ho of Kiuik iu tne l-ith yaar" and 
^uda "ia -Dntit year :.lui. Li of Ciiou died and IZiiirz rlsxi&ii vhs on- 

.i;uan vj'aa^ :; ii"* 

'i'hla I.B ni-..-! evicieaco ziiai Li reifraou il yjar- , loii;,t::i;-=. 

of tliosii reif;n& , rtoorded la tno oi'd ouUour/ , •., 

«"re not to :>o oou-JXil^vad ^uaalt^X'S-.u!':, - --., iiave yet to 

b'.? ad ju.-^ted to tr;« total ocr?u=-- o-.' li^-aoribcd brouaou. jaa-Jj_ai 

4,iji,'.l r.jcor.iS '.i i5t-".i year oi ^.. ..ung Wiiica is aore tli^ji tii€) 

i'3 In the CiiTGnoio'iiS. 'iut tht? existcnoe of mien ^:Tohl'="^'P wuet 

uot bf^ usfc4 as an arguneat for accyptlafj; t;:<: orti odox oiironolof^v 

leu a acre ..rojnbie one ia availa'olo anJ. necoasDry. It must be 

aplinsi^'od ho>.'^'. - •• f\t the v-s-itor^s toain Interest at this time 

♦■'J ?ju.::.';e!}t ■■ or.t probabla d^ato for the destruction of 

■t--u?i i« 1036 .w,, ou '.ud of tlio porlod studied r;ers. 

Ciipy %rta£ty T cnt- r.jve "..wJirt/r. of rJoirn Qrtho iox 

Gi^roAulor.,/ Adopted I'resent/ OrtiiO'-iUX 
















V/.ll. u 



































V.-ang Ho 


•See Cli5,vflni7i?S. Aq /-j 
app^ridue. Ml 
Voi !■ pccVLIi. 


1 oS-0 


10 ^^4 


























4t) 46 e27 ^^1 

Lul 11 781 7?' 

770 "° 

Al'ter Liie aovo to Lo ^1 at tae begixiaiu^j of j:ving Fiup'a 
rcigii tiie oorrtjuo da tea oT Xiiie I-iiigs oi' Oiicu loxio'^v txie o ■b/xuuox 
chronology. i5i uoo Uruo nowover of the dates of the rulers 
of tae various staoes wiaoh were voij i^uci. coarufced in the ortho- 
dox coiaX'Utnticxii: Qua oorres> oiideiice taoies. 

Tiiia atuiiy ±3 liiditeu to the aeooad part of the dyne sty 
for tlie greater part of tho o>:jooty hcjve oono iron the V-aste 
of Yin, Aiiyang, iii Jorth ilonai:. Thia period uta ?. cuit,uro.l 
lUiity vdiich iiiuy ue deai{/^ated bufcu^^ 11 for purposes oi gtiiiertil 
deooriptioa, '.he opah of time is £7'o year:j froiTi. i-Jll-lO^^iO j3.C;, 
These e-i.aot diitea a^e taken froia ths Auci':-nt te--;t of Ciroiiolo^-.i- 
cai reccrac ouixeat ^aouu ouO h.o. They are coasiUored iriorb 
oorrtct ti-uii. UiiC! OxOuoao:.;- caxoawlOj-^i' caloulaued La tue firat 
Ociuturi- A,!;, vyhicj- ;,ivet; lobV-li.-JS ^■,G, The dates lvJ9iJ;-lli;3 
i>,C. aro- a ruod^ixn coiuu.ijiiu ui^-u vv.,ioh adda the ii73 yuurs oi 
/uiolyiiii TejLx, to 11...^ -.^. ..- thw orthodox chroaoloj.y. 

Th'j Ko was already in U9 3 before the osif^inniug of Jhaiig II, 
i.e. iii r,han::j I. T'^e Axiciont Tart ascriLeo to Sharu^ I fia^ year:3, 
iroiii 15;54-1313 . ,J, -hv, :.istoric period ;orecedlng Ghaug I i3 
{^ivGii G3 471 years aad dates back to 200D :;,G. The Anoient Text 
calls tuls uho Hsia Dynasty. It Is n Dioot ;:clnt vhether t'ds 
is a Oi.itable "Gem, The bone uiscrlptiona ref?r to a Ion'-; aeries 
of Idr. Lcrical 5;ateclatin.^ "Iv.ii'^ I; There ia as yet, 
hovjc-ver, no sTire proof of the existence of axujther hlGtorlcal 


dynasty separate from and antedating the 3hang, The writer 
believes that luistorlcal time as recorded on bone Inscriptions 
dates back to 2000 --'.C. This length of time at least is required 
for the development of the high state of bronze culture existant 
at the beginning of Shaixg II and illustrated by i^ in this 
monograph and by the sets of bronze ritual vessels to which they 
belong. The writer would be quite willing to accept the terms 
Hsia I and Hsia II to cover the 471 years attributed to that 
dynasty, for he believes that sckc such term is desirable for 
desife;nating an liistorical period. It is evident that Dr. G.D, 
Wu in his Prehistoric Pottery in China, London, 1956, nad Lhe 
same difficulty about the incluaion or omission of trie hsia 
Dynasty and tue implications of tlie term Prehistoric Krtifacts 
from culture strata of individual aibaa such as those presented 
by Dr. vvu in Table 5 on page 170 are best dejr^ignated by the names 
of the master type site and its stratification of c ilturos. The 
correspondences between tnese sites uud their absolute dates when 
determined can readily be fitted into the general fraiuework of 
the Hir'torioal Culture periods. Botn tnesc series of names are 
necessary to designate artifacts not exactly dated. Thus Ko 55, 
89 and 30, fotxnd in the culture strata at ri3iao T'un would be 
designated by reference to tlie pottery and itc stratification as 
Hsiao T'un II, accordin,- to the terminology adop;tod by Dr. Wu. 
These Ko have been called in this monograph, Shang II. Dr. Vm, 
page 42 says, "Hsiao T*un was not iniia'oited in tiie Red Pottery 
period, but only later in the Blac.-c Pottery period, after which 
there was an interval of perhaps not more than a few centuries 


before the Snang-Yln people came" . This implies that the 
Black Pottery period is to be dated before SLanr I. Dr. V/u's 
thesis was limited to a discussion of "Prehistoric Pottery in 
China" as this thesis is restricted to the "Shang Ko". The 
period of time whicn the two studies have in common is designated 
by Dr, >.'ln as Hsiao T'un II, Ills table of Correspondences on page 
170 is separated into two parts with the sentence "at the sites 
below this line certain pehistoric wares persisted into historic 
times". Below this he enters on the first line as contemporary 
with Hsiao T'un II not only tne nearby site of Hou Kang III, but 
also Sha-Kuo T'un II in South Manchuria, see map facing page 1, 
site 18; Hsi Yin IV, map, site 9, and Ghing-ts'un I, map site 10, 
in Southern Shansi; and Pan-Shan, map, site 13 on the T'ao River, 
a southern tributary of the Yellow River in .Vestern Kan 3u. 
The writer has iio wish to press these correspondences but merely 
to point out the possibility that they are correct and to suggest 
that these culture sites thou^ih widely distributed in area are 
the places to look for Ko, bronze Types III-X and the proto__type I 
stone sickles and jade Ko, prototype- II of the Shang II period. 
The pottery at Tou Chi T'ai in Western Shensi, site 11, where 
jade Ko 17 is stated to have been found is placed in the period 
following Hsiao T'un II. 

These 13 pottery periods of Dr. . u's table (page 170, 7 
before and 6 after tae move to Yin) do not conflict with the 
i-dstorical culture periods used in this study. .'Jixcavated arti- 
facts are best designated by the names of the type site and its 
stratification of culture layers until they can be given absolute 


dates or their corres; ondences in historical culture periods. 

The Ko discussed in tals monograph cannot be given any de- 
signation based on archaeological culture strata, V.e are com- 
pelled therefore to use historical culture rieriods which are 
given below in the suggested chronology and the accepted ortho- 
dox dates. The term Hsla is placed at the beginning for lack of 

any better historical name, , 

Hsia(.?) (I and II) 2005-1535 13. C. 

Shang I 1534-1312 B.C. 

Shang II 1311-1039 B.C. 

Giiou I 1038- 771 B.C. 

Chou II 770- 482 B.C. 

Chou III 481- 207 B.C. 

Han I 206B,C.-A.D,23 

lian II A. D. 23-220 

2205-1767 B.C. 
1766-1388 B.C. 
1387-1123 B.C. 
1122- 771 i3.C. 

770- 482 B.C. 

481- 207 B.C. 
A. D. 23-220 

,1 505 \ 

; ^* 


I -^^^_, ,-::^.,,-o.:., . ..^ ^- - 

The Sixty Dav Gyolo was foi^Qod by oorauiiilxi.'-: tha Tea Jtyras: 
Ctila (1), Yi (2),"rinr; (3), Tixig (4), V7u (mcdem) or Mou (an 
eariiex pronuiioialioi*— jTOiVjldden) (G), Ciii (C;, lleur, (7), a 3:.u 
(8), Jen (9), Kuei (10), and 

Tau (A), Gh'ou (B), Yiu (C). Mao { D) , Ch'cn (f-:), dsu (jf), Wu 
(<1), Wei (11), .^tiSu (I), Yu (j), lia'^ (K), Uai (L). 

4.hc! iiietnod of ca-abinatioa i3 iudlouted in \.iia ioij.ov/iu{j; 
tai^ld by f^inployla'i the Arablo mirteral.s end Roiaan letters in 
propter e«!qudaoQ« 
































25 A 




























10 J 






Tua I'ollov/ing iiS tao diineao Cyclical Taulo as wrl ^^t«)-i on 
tha oi'oolo bonar. of t'no 3han-'; dynasty hy nine-yaar old boys when 

tney uOfeon oo Ivjai-n L-ueir taoios, -at^ L.iul'.jij tziu u^uaii./ ..'ritten 
in two parts of Llilrty days eao^l. 

First Fart. 

1 O.ila T^u 11 Ohia /Isu "I Ohia Shon 

2 Yl Gi.'ou 12 Yi :iai 21^ Yi Yu 

3 rii.« Yin 13 rinfi T2U ;:3 Piu^; h^u 

4 T1.1- JIao 14 Ting Cii'ou ".: Tii*s 'lai 

5 Wu Gh»s:i 15 '■:u Yin :~ "ni Tzu 

6 Jiii 3su IG Ojii lluo -■ '^'ii Oli^ou 

7 KSng '^u 17 Kong Oh'en ,-:7 Keixg Yin 
a .:l3in >/'3i 18 llain ^au </" 'I-jIu '.iao 
9 Jan ~>ht^n - 19 Jan Vm J;i Jen Gh^en 

10 ivUv;i Yu CO Kxiei 'i&i 30 "ru^jl 'vsu 

second Part 

■^1 '^hia Vm 41 ^^^ia Oilmen 51 J-i^ ^in 

5^ Yi^^i 42 Yi 33U 5H Yi Hao 

33 Ping r>tien 43 Ping Wu 6^ J;iiie :3;^ «^i 

•^:^ 'JVu 'iaii 45 Wu 3hen 55 ".u v<u 

~?ar-n 46 Ohi Yu 36 Chi .lei 

^7 Kens'" Tzu 47 Kong Hsu 57 rie-nfr dnen 

*^^ H3ln OMou 48 K3in Tlai 58 Hsin Yu 

3i Jen Yin 49 Jen Tzu 59 -en lisu 

40 Kuei Mao 50 Kuel Gh«oa 60 J-uai ilal 


jouooi-boyo' uoyy \jtiu±jz:. v-jx't.. •jiL.u ./ritteu u^i uiiiuscx'ibed 
spaoos of uded oraoie Doiaqs. Tiio gi'upiis Vioro v/rll,texi one below 
Uio oi.!U;r iu bl.. i^arprtudliculai' (joiUuZiS. Thort; wa.s vury lie tie 
otJaer .'.Titian? ou oraola bouas uot strictly olasaad "divluation 
aeuteuces", jru t * au , These tables v/ere aoins times v/rittexi upside 
dovm vrlion ooirpar'.jd with the original "divixiatioa seivcaaoes", rm 
t * zy , vrlttcii on the seme bone by the divixisr aoribo, Cor.ipared 
witii iiir well forriied r.!;roph3 tiiosG tal-ly.T v/oro orudoly .'/rltten, 
uaturaliy enough in vievt of cue yvath of tiie ..ritcru, r it fc Ki Lual « 
Li C.ii , saye ''At niiic; j-eura i.eaori tuau (boyg) to ooant days, 
ohiu xiieu oniao oh ia ^jxiu J ill , rno iiua Gor.-»r;iOntator, Glieng hsUan, 
says "days" nro t.iti si-^ ^Likia. tabio3 j.-'li* -■-■^ . V ; *-' ' ' if^ .y oU » Ji^i a v/as 
tho siEpioat bcuc graph. It '-vao v/rlttc!u fis tiu uprif^ht oroos, 
Saoh oi tixu ai-\ ooluiuua of tim ufibio of si^^ty days bwgau './Itli a 
ohia grupii, '/'.x. tcu 'jjtj.:^c ;boya; ax'u to ioara to .rrito records, 
3Uih Hi en aauea cxiu oai"l, 

1. Logfo, hi ;.i, 7ol. I, p. '^7G. 


T:IJ: G7.1i£Rk'nOii6 Ox xiiij: mJLE-RS OF 

."";0 oocorapanyia.;-; -uaolo a* ' iciajjy oi' tno .iiiaag ttyiia8r,y la 
brtsjed on oa cariior v.oi'k of tlio vvriters J^iiig Yi-sliih, Caia Ku Yen 

''' » .._..'.. ...:il i^ 

1917, r,p. ::9-et:i, u;-.-:^"" "■"/•'trho ^oneTnoc!rlr.- 

^•our5 — A.:- " ■■:- ■ ■ . .■> G:.'i K»ao O.ii.., 191 • , 

inoiu-l?rl * ' 

from 3hQae ' • . 

Cr'i lUstor. , 

. ^tlt!^rft.'^.t 

■•.>.rjou>*:i- uii waa i'roiii 

• J .UiW iitJ>.."i» 

elltix brotlior to yoiinp»)r bru-.j^u- l.uju;.-,- ^as^ii^f; 
satterfltlon, ?tiG rolatlonsnlpa «iro h^'jre inJ.ioat • i.; ..> 

aaaicB o'* osL-ler brotiiorg, .islviXr . in (jli.roaolo,;ie,a.'. ur>uir ai i-io 
colujnn t^. ■. ■■ ■'JirtjQ-.-j.iAj'* riar ;;::.o iuin<i'-id ou the 

fjurjooaalcii ,.. '. . . ..::-! of yoimf^er bi'otaars, 

tj . , nrf! pine - .;oi.jla.,ivMJ. oiMor ia l.:- ri^iti hand ooivufua. 

Ti-iO orc!<")r of .;jacj:i3iou ^o ti)6 i; .-ou3 Im ludloat'sd ■ ar^tuio 

aur-r.rilg plr.oad In braokets fiftcjr aa.i ' . ' 

subsidiary letters (A, ", 0) nd-'iij ■ -y aia iiOv ufio-uJL 

t^e thros-c, butvriro ranemberud a;5 luiuoci-oi's lu tha boii«3i Insorlr- 
tlona aiid on bronze ritual vessels oj? trio ro/al filially, 

;.''^io uanb«r of kin;;-!i b3giimin,<: witii Zii^aur T'au/;.; i> ' , 

founder of tVie dyiiasty In crivea. In the Siiln Chi l^iatory u3 -.c). -u.: 


present list has 31 names dawn to 3ho\x (Ohou or Tl) liSln (31), 
the last klnp; of Shan/?;, The bone Insorlptlons record Flng Ta Ting 
(2) in thr same manner as other klnp;s. They f'lve uo Icdloatlon 
that he Aid not roi^-^n aa Menoius and the Ghih CM Hif^tory state. 
The niu.brr ~iven tc each klnr in thlP list after Ta Ting is one 
greater taan that piven in other list», ^.f:* ?*an KenR is here 
iist-jd B.S the iiOti. kiiig rather than the 19th frcik Ta VI. V.'u Keng 
[Zki) v., i ;on oi" :>aou Haia (31) i:T jrlaooi at the exid of t/ie iiat. 
He vma pfirmittdd by the Chou conciuarorfi to preaide &h the c))iaug 
a/ioestral Odrorionies v;hich aontlnuod after th'^^ fall of the dynasty. 
No doubt, there wor« acts of ritual voof5«lo bolon«lag to hia 
f--euar^on Ozn.Y) , 

Logioain,- witn .^liasn ?i K^a^, tlia gr indciotaer of Ta Yi, the 
nanoG of the quoons of aaoa kinp, in the direct lino of flucoossion 
wore reoorltKl on tno bones, £h^. lueens of other kinr^a who reipjiad 
thomoolvijs but dirt not aav-? aoiie vvho roir'ned «;•« not. recorded. 
Tnln inforrcetlon It^ aot found in tii^ iatur liternr;'^ rooorda, 

tan H rei'Tinlnr. son presided nt \ji\e o-irei Oiiias rie always mentioned 
tUs '.;utiQU-j from whom he v/aa doa-^ended olon-^ with the kincrs, Wnen 
.aore then oxie que-au vms reoorded ftt loaat one son of '^aoh anoended 
t'le tr.rona In the next renerati on. Thus ia .'.oneratloa :'III Tfju Yi 
(14) h'A'l f'/o nueens, PI O'.xi and Ti Ken/;, and in veneration /'TV there 
^^or8 two brotlvar kin-'.-i, Tsu ?isiu (15) and GUiaafr (Y/o) Chia (iC). 
Tsu Hsin (15) had tv/o queens. Pi Gbia and Pi I'sng, and thoro v/ere 
two brotl'ijr Iiinf^n in generation '.V, Csu /iiif: (17/ and liaa Konr (13). 
Tsu Tins- (17) had tv/o luoens Pi Zhi ai).d Pi ':u3l and there v/ere four 
kinr ' and two other brothers la c-encration ("'Ifl) , Hslan^; [Ytmfr] 
Gbia (19), P»an Kemp (20), lislao Hsin (21), aiher Chi (SIA), 
Father Kuel (21B), and Hsiao YI (38), /'u Tin.'-r had taree queens, 

Pi Hsln, ri iCusl, ri •Vu, and tiioro v/are three brothera la the 
aext eeneraticn: Tsu Ghl (24A) Tau Ker^r (24) and Tsu Chin (PS). 
TLia coiil'ii"iii& the r^^oorc;. ol t.ic ger.eratlcas anci the fcrcthor or 
^cii i'elcitioii£i;ip» of tbo eueoeeding Klnffa, 

Ux iuiocBlrfil title of (Lin) r? '(»r >'.-other Haln (36} is not 
recorded on the bontiB. He v^as slrr.plv crvllcd '*Sl<3ler brotlier" in 
the saao laoidicr na thfj poroous^ ro<jordo<? on sr^A, SSP, riAA, ^ra^ 
riOA, who uid not i*uic! ns kiii^;? but v.'oi*o in Wid joyal succenpion. 
if tiic uuiiber of Jhang kiii^^s <n^e 30 >hw not. ."1 tuen t'tjy evldenoe 
of ti:B hcnec poiiitr to tkr C£i5 ^v-j.'oi- vi' {I.jn) Dldor brotlier ilsin 
{HiL) aiiC wOt Ta ^Ji.-.;? (2; 

"he i^ireeont tal;ie inciiuiOfA He-v«ral fiddltlone to th€. »/x'iter*s 
tailzie o:'" I9?r •.\i(]:f;e«tt=d by t •!£? ytud;- of the i_^. I'fcthor (hd (-JlA) 
( Ci^lea T^l--^n i.27.1 axid '3.^3,4, diviner "lun 1} und rather Ivuei 
-tvoro iann.1 f.^r:t}.y brOv)!'-^rt!, i'^Ciay lironzo inscrij^tlciia rtentlon them 
tO'.:eth^r nr, f'ntliar.M o.? ov.iiers of ro V3, 74, 84-96, ;'.0?.-i0'7, i;.'>0, 
ot f\l, '^n«7 belonr tc tr.9 ifj^n^ration oiT P*an Keufr: (i-iO) •Hifio 
■inJn (iil) and must Hfvo ai'^d bufort^ jifdao Yi {i:>u, 

EVi^v 'U'othtjr Tiiijv {p.ii.'O v/Rfl elder brothf.r oX U'u '.^in£ (iio) 
^ZliL^flil ^iSi l'^i>.'>; yiJ-e.Bj ;>a;^3 ae Hou plt>A l««iii,L»; son i^ "0). 
iiiner nrothoT "•in. (.•i3.0 who w.i.t csalled P'athor '.Vu ;ind {/;nc!SiJtor) 
T^u ; 07 J_at«r genera ijiwa.-», wa.:^ nider hrot.iior or Klut* '^u Ting 
(n?») and not vounfor brother T 3*a"A <'' T-Tual I.^l.'^ (dlvin-jr Nan I.l) 

Zi"I?r Srot'ior Pin^ (vlSA) 'vaa dlder ocot'^ep of (Lin) ''ider 
V.votihoT '!3ir. [ilC) ani ;:"»anft Tsu Tlnrr ('V,0 , aot of Vfu Tsu 71 as 
Kuo ?'o-,jo suggested In nio note ofi T p*_ ui ^plon , 579. 'he script 
ia soicovfhQt earlier than Mr, Kuo ,jud;^':>d, ''iila 1:7 proved b^^ the 
3et of broaxo voi^nel:: btilon .-iar to "Little rini.itar Man with 


elaborate hair drossinfr kneeling before a liquor Jar on an 
alooaol 3tovo,"wUo3o naiao is fouad on doho Inscriptions ( Qh ' len 
|>ien i>«oO,i; llayaaui i,2a,i0). k''ion,'< ;57 veasois reoorded by 
dUiis i^ong, J hen v;ea jioa , li^^, Suppi^uoAio , Vol. 1, p, lu are 
i'ati*er iliifi, -. aa^tai io,»:0»^ uua i; iailier .laiij, ^a4i«tal :j,i7,l; 
7,3,6; aiii a'atujr liag, C«li,2. ■ xu.v, '.vh,3, tiioreloiu, 
^ld3i- l^iotlicir cf (Liii) -aiu U>^ ) -^ii-' J ' ang Tau Tiag (*:7) i:ikl not 
or U xBU Yi (^^?). 

iiiis ^irocouL tuLi^i Laa u(j3ii used t,o Uotern-lao tho dates of 
neto or broiiZw ritual vo8b«1s from tn.; euooatrai relationships 
lii.scritJid en tlica, lu the llg>'t of r<irt..!:;or i-ao\"l^-;j^:^ th'- absolute 
datts indic*;t3d in the hoooBij^aiiyiati table c: 'onolofr.y 

may bii S'^ojoct Ic orja.ais<?, "but ti/o so^r.-r'co , . r.^'onn riven 

in tula Labl-jr xuay be oonsiderad aorxec':, II. la bnrt— i in ^ r.alti- 
tta.3 ox' vjoatdsiporary oruole oua lAaor.i.^.bt.on.i. " '= -.i . -oo_.tion 
to t .ib Va ivit-ier Ka'ji {;^1 ) o:'' -on^ratioji "".'T, .vhoao plaoo in 
t.:6 lig^ itas rl&t'jr.mlnrt J froft hi.-\ aaaool-it.lon ■.'/itii '^''atuer '''\! (.^lA) 
in i^ir^crintions oa det.'s of irons j ritual 7;-n:dc-l3, rijrt fijAJiiae of 
Father Ku.-l (2i' ) troih C-"if} '. ;^:; iancrintlons fliriy bft aaoountod for 
on the 3Ui,'nc3itijn that ..lo was a sou af ^-in,'-: >an Kong (IB): it is 
stat-3:l ill the 3.'?ih T il _ 'ilr>toi'7 tliat :'aa X::a ; (18; 'vasj non of*ti (■.■o) ?i:ia, (IC), tiio noa of Tsu Yi (14), Fatljor Kuei would 
tiien -Kj rulated tc the <iireot liue of jucoosaioii only t..:a"outrli iiia 
g;reat grnadfathor, Tsn Yi (14), If tiiie yftisc- so, .Cuci mxf^nt woll • 
ur'ivg brjn onittad by the rei«^in.:: 3or»3rui;<»A rro.-n tho aaooatrnl 
ceranoniss rtcor-iud on i,L>i oraol.; boue.-i , ■;>.:.. .-ooaug-^ his father 
l^an Khav- (16), I'-f&s a kiuf- hio name y;oii1.'1 liavo beoa Inaoribed by 


his son.3 on their bronze ritual vessels . Tlieir vessels would 
also have beoii iuijcribycl \7ith the names of dsceased kin^:;s of the 
direct line of suocession. In this manner sots of bronze ritual 
v^JKseis would include ti\^ naniiia of tne sons of Kinj/; H<m Iveng (18 J 
wailo is:inf<,3 of tLi direct line nif-Tlit omit tliem from the ceremonies 
as persons wxio .;oal] uO loa^.er lior-j to zn-s cvj r/n-^ t n'oriH to their 


A Table of the Grenerations of the Rulers of the Shaug dynasty 
beginning with Shang Chia, 

Generation Elder brothers Direct Line Queen Younger brotherj 




















IShanp- Chia 


iPao Yi 

Pao iing 

iao Tiuti 

3hih (Ghu) jpi Feng 
Jen j 

Shih (Chu) iFi Chia 

'Ta (T'ion) 
Yi (1) 

iHjiao ('Vo) 
iTing (6) 

flsiao Chia (O) 

jChurif (Y^an,r) 
[Chi (9) 

in Pins 
!Ta Ting {£) Pi V'u 

i I 

iTa Chia (5) IPi Hsin 
I I 

Pu f//ai) Ping (3) 
Nan (Chung Jen (4) 

JTa K^ng (7) ipi Jen I 

ITa Wu (10) Pi Jen 

I ! 

i Chung Ting Hi Kuci 

(11) 1 

Pu C.Vai) Jen (12) 

'Chan (Ho T'an) 
iChia (13) 

Tsu Yi (1.^) Pi Chi j 
iPi i^:^ag i 

Tsu Ilsin (isj Pi Cnia 
] ri Keng 

Chiang (.0) Chia (15) 

Generation Elder brothers Dlreot Line 
XV Tsu Ting (17) 

Queen Younger brotharj 






Halang (Yang) ■ 
Chia (19) 

P'-;n K3ji^" [•IQ] i 

j ilsiao Ksixi (?4) ■ 

' Father Ciii' (£1\) 


i Father Kuei (2LB) 

psiao Yi (£2) 

liilder brother 
Ting (a^A) 

Tsu or Elder 
brotUer ..'a (E5B) i 

;;VIII , Tsu or iiilder 

brother Chi ( ii 4A) 

XVIII . isu iCen.«; (2t) , 









Elder brother 
ling (26 A) 

(Lin) Elder 
brother ilsiji (j36} 

Pi Chi 
Pi Kuei 

Nan iLeng (18) 

Pi King 

Vu Ting (iio) .Pi Hsin 

jPi iluel 


iPi v;u 

;T3U Chia (iJS) il Wu 


Pi I-3ia 

iilluer brotaer 
Kuei (28A) 

j¥u Tsu Yi (20) Pi Wu ! 

Wen Wu ring(2S| Pi Chia (?) 

Wen(Ti) Yi (30) Pi Kuei (?) 

Shou (Tl) Usin pi chi (?) 

(31) ^ 

Vi/u Keng ^32) 

■ 514 

i V. 

..Oi^fi iWaCKIPTiOWS FROM TllE V.'AiiTii: OF Yllf 

The bono iuscrlrtiona, as noted in the pror^ce, provide evid- 
ence for dating the inscribed bronze Ko. These bone inr.criptlons 
have beea divided by ^^cholara into five script j-erlodg oa tha two- 
fold basis of ti-eir developing graph fonas aad of their relation 
to the cenoalopy of the Shang klnrfs. la bono iniioriptious oonoern- 
Ing aric«astral oeremonlaa and in sul'sequeiit hiatory eeoh Shanf: king 
was distinguished by a tsmj.le title and naiae day, poasibiy his 
birthday, one of tna oyola of ten dajd* The Teraple titles uaed 
v;erei "great ** ta, •^rnld'lie", o iuaif- , "littl^i" 'i3iao^ •* Ancestor " tsu , 
'Varrlor'' v^, '^aaaoaful" k * an.g; . and otaers auon as "mover" pan , for 
Kliig I'an Kangl wiit movert tne oppital to the >:aL-te of Yin. >Vh©n a 

1, The word "raovo" pan , is noiv pronounced uiiQsjdrated, the 
later ortaodox ■jrapii of tlie :in^'*3 u»iEie is now pron6unoed 

diviner iuciorlbed for a King a divination oone about ancestral 

ooroiaonies to be oonauoted in nonour cf the !';in/''''s ''Father" fu, 

''LSothcir'* mu or "Zliier brother'' he iiU. np , he wrote these titles of 

blood relationship combined with tne name dav rathei' than the per- 

manont tesiplc tltloo used in 3uooeedin<j; generatioas. In triis rannner 

the naraea of the diviiiera tkeioaeivcs, v/!^ioh ax'e aa integral part of 

moat bone inscriptions, are olosely lixifced with the distinctive 

bone soriiit of a dated eriod. The nanea of persons v/aioh occur 

both on ^Jhang Ko aiid on bone inscriptions are tJiuc wore precisely 

dated by the xiemes and script of the divinero who iuooribed the 


The script periods are listed iii English in the Illustratod 

Catalo-- .o of C. iaese GoveriUiieiit Exhibits for tiio International 


Exhibition of Calaese Art In London . 1936, Vol, 4, p. 128. This 
list gives only tlie names of the reigns and use? the orthodox lit- 
erary names of the kings. In conformity v;ith the usage In this 
monograph, the names of kings are given in the table balov/ as they 
were originally inscribed on the oracle bones and dates have been 
added from the chronological scheae proposed by the v/riter. A de- 
tailed discussion of the namos of diviners Ghenp jen and the evid- 
ence for tx^eir iates is f.iven by mr, Tung Tso-pin ia nis article 
entitled "Criteria that uay be used for a raore exact dating of the 
Oracle bene Records" in Studies presented to Ts*ai Yuan-p'ei , I'eiping, 
1933, pages 323-424 (cellod hereafter Ti-ng Criteria ). On page 373 
Mr. Tung lists tiie diviners cneng jen , who were also the historians 
shih kuan , under tneir respective script periods. The names in the 
table beiov/ are /riven in iir, Tung's order; hi:: article nay be con- 
sulted for the Chinese chRraoters, lu this nonograpn reference will 
be made by giving the Chinese name of the diviner follov/ed by the 
Roman mnueral of the period and the Arabic nuraeral of the sequence. 
This Nan 1,1 means that llK.n Ih the diviner listed first in the first 
script r.eriod. \7here question ciarks are placed in ihe iiet the 
present writer does not Hazard a sound equivalent; the grwphR are 
definite and are not in question. 

Table of Tihe bone-script periods and of tne Diviners, 
script period I Before the reign of Wu Ting, 1311-1256 B.C. 

Keign of Wu Ting, 1255-1197 B.C. 

Diviners: 1, IJan; 2, iiuan; 3, Yung; 4, T-'n; 

5, Cheng; 6, Vvei; 7, Chung; 8 (7); 9 {5); 

10 {?); 11, Fu; 12, Shih. 


Jcript period II Reign of Tsu Keng 1196-1190 B.C. and of 

Tsu Ghia 1189-1157 U.G, 

Diviners: 1, Ta; 2, Lii; 3, Chi; 4, Using; 5, 

K'ou; 6, Ilsuiug; 7, Cu'u, 
Soript period III Rei.'jn of (Lin) iisin, 1155-1151 J,G. and of I 'ang 

Tsu Ting, 1150-1145 i3.C. 

Diviners: 1, /l; £ (?); o (?); 4, Ciiu; 5, Ti; 

6, I'eng; 7, Jnen; b, K'ou (tl'is same as 11,5); 

9, Lu (tae same as II. ^i) 
ooript period IV xteign of .Vu Tsu Yi, ll'i:^-il39 a.O, and of v7en 

/.'u Ting, lio6-lliie . .0. 

Diviners: Aooordiut: to Mr, Tung the fourth script 

period did not record the uanes of diviners on 

the Ifisoriptiona, 
ooript period V I^eign of Yi^, 1125-1091 '3,0. and of ilsin'=^, 1090- 

1059 ..1,0. 

1, Tills kinv was xiot tjiven a tecple title on bone inscriptions 
because the Shans; dynostj'' perished in the reign of his son 
who honoured him with the filial title father, fu. In 
literary historical sources he is caller^ limperor Yi, Ti Yi, 
a title probably given after the Jirst oaperor Snin Hung 
Ti assumed this Shang dynasty name for Ood in 2J1 B.C. 
Certain iaacri^^tions on bronze ritual vessels nake it 
possible that Wen Yi was the temple name of this king. See 
Mint Yi-shin (James M. lAenzies) Gnia Ku Yeji Ohi u (Oracle 
Bone studies) Gheeloo I'niversiby , Tsinan, 195o, pages 123 
and 125. 

?.. 'le is simply called "King" on oracle bono inscriptions 
written during riis reign, Giiou dynasty literary sources 
call nim Ghou Hsin, Tnis is a derof^atory name. Other 
literary sources call him shou Hsin, This is possibly his 
temide aEune, Tne praph onou means "to receive", as it v/ere 
the kingdom. Later when ohang dynastj'' genealogies v/ere 
compiled for the History, ohih Ghi he v/as also called rlmperor i/»,^ 

Diviners: i, Huang; 2, Yung (graph different from 
Yung I,S), 


In the detailed study of the dates of certain Ko in the oata- 
loque above, some few variant oninionn havo been stated. The present 
writer v/ould place sorae diviners and their script in the period 1511- 
1256 r>,C, and would identify the father ling soraetlaes nontioned in 
tiiesc in::'oriptions with Kln£ Tsu ing, father or UDole cf Haiang 
(Yans) Chia; P*an rren^-;; 'Isiao ilsin; and -Lsiac Yi, Tlie lar^e, vitrorous 
script wuloh hag no diviners' names but -.vrites the grapu for king, 
wan£, in its arohaic fonr- v/lthout a stroke on tor» belon^,s to the 
rei£'n of Xing Tbu Keae,, 1196-1190 ii.C, i''ather ling of tr.eae inoorip- 
tions would then be Klns^ V«u Ting and not F'anjc: Tsu Ting as proposed 
by Kr, T>ing, In the writer's opinion, it wsp in the relf.n of Tsu 
CJhia that tne f:i3ript of the graph kiri-, t; a n {? , v/as altered to itsj later 
form with a stroke on top. This is one or the r:.ost characteristic 
features of the script styly of Period II and th^reaff-er it occurs for 
the graph "kint:" iu most bone ICGoriptlons. Scr.e of the norirt in- 
cluded by Mr. Tung in Ferid V lu the writer's opinion belon^.s to 
Period IV, for the intrusion of an arohaloiatio reversion to earlier 
script lorE.3 between Peri; d III and i-eriod V is unnatural sind lacks 
evidence, Oracle bone study Chla Ku hsueh la yet in its infancy. 
Mr. Tung' a arfole v"rj teri a is loundatlon vvork well dooumented. More 
will be built upon it in the future. It has already contributed much 
to the niore precise dating of some Ko in this irtohoei^aph , the names of 
whose owners have been found inscribed in the Oracle Lone records of 
the ohani- dynasty. 

I: c;^ACL£ lX>ilii II^JCiUlTIOilJ 


Material lonoarthod before 1910 




■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ datfi ■■ III ■ 


suih-y: : 




JdVoii J 

Tcill .itle 

Liu 0, T'iet'i Yu n 'la * anr; Kuei, 

Siiantjhei, l<■.•0^.* 

1.0 Cnau-Yu, lion 'liip is^aas Kuci 

GUih Yu, 1915. 

Yeh Yu-sen, Ti'ih Yun Vf;*au,r Kuaj 

•^'/.lli Y i. 3hBii£l)s5, 1^25. 

:.ariff Kuo-v;el, Cwic fi of. oti ?*ax-Lf So 

Ts * axii^- YJAJ. hc'l V.en Tzu, ishanchai, 

191 V . 

Drawn by i-'ranJc H, Chnlfant, editod 

by tiogv/ell 3, rJritton* TiiC 

fant Oonllju; aollor-tloa. .'^iiiafighai, 

1935; nuuibore'1 ■^onneoutively, 

.Tames M, llonzlas (Mine Yi-o}ilb}, 

IQ Ken Oblh Otiii; Is ' a nr; Ohia Ku 

.Ven Tzu . 'Islnan, 1955; nui-bered 


Drawn by I'ranls: Ii, Cualfant, edited 

by Kos'rtell 3, 'irittou, S a va-.-^ 

Goll'jotloug of In^iorlLod O racla 

Honeg . Hew York, 1938 (less "ergen 

collection). ::acti colleotioa is 

nunbored separately, prccsdad by 

koy lottors: 

li^urber of 
lnj3or i j:tiona 









3, Shanghai Muscaa K.C.D.Ti.A..:. 195 

, - -jrgen Goliect ion 

P, Princeton Univerpity 119 

- . ilLelu Collection 72 

. .:>xu -.en-lQii of Lin Ciilh 31 

R, Royal Asiatio oociety, London 6 

Piopklns ; Dravm by Frank II. ^halfant, adltod hy 

Kosv.sll U, Bi'itton, The IiopLina Cc llcctlon 
or Ix;i..(;ribt;d. O;;aolc l-ciie . Hevf York, 1939; 
nUiVibered consecutively, 484 

Yeiioaiu^: Jujir Kfnie: and ..'h'tl Yila Mia. Via J>.'i ru T:. * u , 

I'oipint;, 1953« i'ormerly :isu Feii^, Collectioii^ 
au...ijered ooiiseoutlveiy, 674 

T'ion-.ia np;! r'an^ Lan, T^ion Jan;^ ^ Cilia K\x 'V en Tsu, 

ioipln^i;, 190 'J; rA'Oi-iuereol oonaeeativeiy, 106 

Far^uson: S^iang -Jh'eii^-tso, Fu 3i:lh So Ta * anfl: Chla 

conseoitivoly, o7 

Mntorisl unearthed batwoen 1910 cuid 19^8, 

Gh*len -piQ^ :.o '^tioa-yu, Yin Ilsil luiu Oa'i 3h*icn lien , 

oapaa, i^jiii, xlrst edition, l-ass dupiicatea 2S19 

>i < 

Chin^-hua Lo JUr,u-.':u, Yjji ".au 3hu O h i 0:. lii ^. 'ua , 

Shanc^iai, 1^*14. 68 

Hou^plen Lo Ghea-l'u, Y in )Isu 3au C iJ i ] : ou I iea , 

3hangJ:iai, l9io, 1104 

llstl-piezi ; Lo Choc-yu, 'ilu Hsu Jh u Ch'i ils jl lien , 

."eiron, 193u. Of tne .';016 rubbiacs most 

had already bctm pubilaiied in i, ;3, 4, 19, 

t'.0, 21, but tile rcproduotions wnre olearur 

in ooic'ii;/pe. i.':-Ose unyuoliuued auiL.borod 

about 5C0 

T*u~lu ; liO Chexi-. ii, la Hau ^ C h'i ___u ^ U, ^j^, 

ujhtUigiai , iSio, Cne larAce soaj uia 1 

?: efl?.ios ; Ji?moe ", Menzlos Uvtlxie: /l-sMa) , Oru'.:ie ^ 

Rooorda from the V<aHt a of Yin, Plates 
prlntoa in Keiionv , IVif; , iiitro'luctioa 
Juan :i:al 1917; niy^borea oo.'iseoutivalv, *i369 

!.! egg jes t .Twrftea Isl. »"eni'J.«8, (Min/? Yi~S;..i)i), .'>. -o nd 

Colic ri tic a of ' ^raolo R Hcprd ja rrc;n the 
■ ■ agto of Ylu , '.^ei ning ly2V , l- copies of 
Ink rubblngo, '"ho nuinbora nre oonaocutlve 
Itn tho preoeediug. 2700 

.'.::av-jaa.l : 'i'« h'ayoahl, (Lin rai-fu; , \!-^i ';:i , i «'^ j.'OU 

-JL "^'Q^ Tsu . Japan, 1917. 1023 

f'u -sjvl . : .nag Ilslaar, /u Jniii Yin .'_x i.e.; 7 .on , 

TiGiitsln, 192.'5, I/finy lerge Ink rubbings 
■,vore out Into aavcirol pieces, Cf tlio 1125 
piedeg the unout rubbings nui^bar about ouO 

l!atorial unearther a2 tar 1928. 

Meien-peu: Tung Tao-pin, iisin IIu Vw [rz^* j ;., ; oiping 

19'19; drav.'im:s niJC>.berod couaeojtively. 381 


Ta-kuel ; Tung rso-piu, Ta Kuei Ssu Pan l * ajo Shih, 

Peipinf^ 1931. Photographs and drawings 

nuBibered Gongeoutivelj'. 4 

Yl-ts'im ; Shang Oh'eng-tso, Yin Oh'l Yi Ts'ua . 

Nankin?;, 1933. Rubbin.-r. fron ei^ht 

collections nur.bered conseoutively, lOCO 

T*un^>:'i3h ; iluo ?io-jc, Pu Tz*u T* _ imp ?gu&n Pi eh Lu, 

Tokyo 1953. Unpublished rucbinjes 

a-pended to the T * unf-. Tsuan. 128 

Yeh-chun.-r One ; iluaag ."ilnon, Yali Chun^^: r*iea Yu ZL\u. 

CJil . P>apiug 193C. 241 

Ye'^-ohun n- Two i '\^uanf: Chun, Yen Chung P'ien Yu 3rh 

Ohi, Peiping 1937. 101 

Hqu - ohuan'^ ; Tunfi, Tso-pin, An Yanr: ?Iou » ; hia Ghuan,'-^ 

Jh*u T'u Oiin lia Ku V/en xzu , Shanghai 

1936. Rubbings nunbarod oonoeoutively. 42 
Kaifen£: Jun Hai-no, Quia Ku Wan La, loiping 

19>57; nambered oonaecutively. 930 

T3*ui->pl3a ; :\no I o-jo, Yii: 3-*i r.3 ' td -Lien , Tokyo 

1937; numbered consecutively, 1595 

Ch*enp-ohal ; oun 'iairpo, Uh*3n;^ , Ghai Yin HsU Van Tzu , 

Peipins, 1940; nuiiberei consecutively. 500 



II: Inscribed Chinese Ilronses 

Tlie works aro iisood Ixa order oi . uuxioutioix. 

In tiio Indication of tiic type of rticord, 
"tx'Uiiiicriiits" si,'::Jiiflea '*transoriivti; of tae iui-ci-ii oioaw in 
odern oiiaraoters"; 
'*iiand copies'* meauB 'i-tma-drav/n faosiudlifi.s o* ll:v. iiiyori. Lions"; 
"dravvincs" and "♦photo^rains** refer only to objects, 
Tiie .vord "only" does uot exclude a transcri/t in modora ouarao- 
tora, but indicates, that wliilo the object iiay be uacied, there 
is no drav/iru^ or piiotOf;rar,Ii of it. 


?itlQ and t \ r-e of record 

Tinfi Lu: 

Ou Pa: 

Ou .'!u: 

u'ao i*u: 

Po Ku; 

Chao Pa: 

Yu Li, Tinr Lu. o, A. D, 550, Transcripts 

Ou-yenr:: H.alu, Chi Ku Lu Pa 'vVei . c. A. D, 1050, 
Transcripts only, 

Ou-yang iei, Ghi Ku Lu Mu, A. D. 1063, Trans- 
scripts only, 

Lu Ta-iin, K'ao ilu t*U 4 10 vols.. A, D, 1092, 
rland copies, drawinf^s, 

V/anr Fu et al, " isiuaii ilo £0 Ku T*u Lu, '60 vols, 
c. A, D, lias, !iand copioa, dravings, 
Ghao Minj--ch*eng, CLin 3:'iih Lu Pa V«oi . A, D, 
1152* Transcripts only. 


Kuang Pa: Tung Yu, KuanK Ohou Sb.u ?a , a.D. .11- , 

Trojaaoripts oaiy« 
Hsiao J'aag; ';£*<: .■ 'iu, Hsiao T ' snr Chi ]ai Lu, 'd vols. 

A.D, 1176. Land copies only. 
Iisleh K»uan: Ilsieh SbBiig-kunc , Li. T^i '>-m^f: Tinr Yl Ch*i 

.:*uaa Shih ya T*i^^, > 2' vols. c. A.D. 1200. 

liand copies only. 
lisu ir*ao: /lUthor Unknovm, Hail Iv*ao Ku r*u , 5 vols, 

0. A.D. 1200. Ilantl ooi)i«s, drawings. 
Wang K*uan: Wang Hou-oliih, Chun.i:^ Tiu.? K*uan 3/iih, 1 vol, 

c. A.D, 1200. Hand copies only, 
Hsl Gli'ing; lUx Imperial Gomroiaaion, \ a i C li ' l a^ •.■:u Olaen , 

40 vols, A.D. 1751, iiaad copies, drawiur.s, 
3h*ing lu: An Imperial Coauiiasion, Hs i Gh^inp; Ku Cide n 

i;u Lu, 16 vols. A.D. 1751. Hand oopiea, arawings. 
Cubing Cilia J Axi Irajjerial Comriilsaion, lisi Op'in^ flsu Chi en 

GUia lieu , 20 vols. A, ":, 1793. Iland copies , 

drav/lngs • 
Ch'ing Yi: An Inperlal Copacisoicn, ''si Ch'inr. Hsu Cnien 

Yi Tien , 20 vols. o. A.::. 1^95. Hand copies, 

drav/in-^s . 
Ning Shou: An Inperial CoMclssion, ITln^ Shou Chi en K u, 

16 vols, c. A.n. 1795. Hsuid copies, drawings, 
Ch'ien K»uan: Cii'ian Tien, 3hih Liu Chia ng Lo T'anp Ku Ch*i 

K»uan Shi h, 4 vols. A, D, 1796, Hand copies, 

Juan Chi: Juan Yuan, Chi Ku Ctiai Chun^r Tins Yi Ch'i •^*uan 

Jnih, 10 vols, A.D. 1804, Hand copies only. 


Ch'iu Ku: ::h»en Chlng, Ch*iu Fu ^^he Chin 3hih 

T|u, A,D, 1813, '.laad copies, drawings, 
Ts'ao Kuai: Ts'ao i:»uei, Imai Ml 'liaa Faar. Ghl Giiin T*u . 

1 vol. A.D, 1814. ;;and oo'ries, drawings, 
?eug 3o: iTeug Yaa-p»eng, Ciiin Shiii So, 12 vols, A.D, 

1822, Hand copies, drawim^s. 
Yua Ch*iag: Wu Juag-icuaag, Yua Cli*iag Kuaa Gliia Sliih Lu, 5 

vols, A,D. 1340, ilaad oopies oaly, 
Lua T'lag; Un liln, .Brh Po Laa T*in^ Cliai 3hou Ta * aa : Ghia 

g'.iih Chi . 4 vols, A,D. 1356, ilaad copies, drawiags, 
Huo Ku: Liu Ilsi-iiai, Oh *aai^ Aa Huo Ku Piea . 2 vols, 

A.D, 1872, Haad oopies, drawia-s, 
P»aa Ku: P»aa Tsu-yin, P'aa Ku Lou Yi Cii*i K*uaa 3kili . 

2 vols, A.D. 1372. liaad copies, drawiags. 
-Liaa-s Lei: '.Vu Yua, Liana; Lei Hsjgn Yl Gh* i T'u Siiili. 12 

vols, A.J. 187,5. Hani oopios, dl'awiagD, 
flii'iag Yij Cnang T» Uxf-ohi, Gii'lUf', Yl Ko iiSL '^'^ * ^^' Ku Ch'i 

Wu Wea, 10 vols. G. A.D, 1080, liubbings only. 
Hang iisioa: Wu Ta-oa»;3ar,, liaag Haiea 3o Clxica 3p Ts * aag Chi 

Cnla Lu , 1 vol, A.D, 1885, Ilaad oopies, drawiags, 
Ts*\uig Ku: lisu T*uag-po, Ta * unr. Ku T*aap: K*uaa Shih -Isueh , 

16 vols, A,D, 1886, iiubbiag oaly, 
Chfla Ku: Wu cJhlh-fea, Cnila Ku Lu Ghia V/ea, 9 voi3, 

A,D, 1395, Haad copies oaly, 
K*o Cixai: Wu ?i»-§h»eug, K*o Ohai Ciii Ghia Lu . 50 vols, 

A.D. 1396. Rubbiags only, 
Gri»i Ku: Liu Hsia-yuan, Ch'i Ku 3hih Ghi GhJji a on Jnu . 

20 vols. /v. D. 1902, Hubbiaga oaly. 

5 £5 

Chlng-VVui Ctiu Siian-c}i»i, Gxiing Wu Hsln Shih Yi Cii' l 

K^uan oiiia . 2 vols. A.D. 1908, Rubbings only. 

T'ao Glial : ^uan Faiig, T'ao Oiiai G:il G aln Lu , 8 vols. 
A.iJ. 1903. RuDbiags only, 

T'ao Hau: Tuan Fang, T'ao Cliai Ghi Gliln Hau Lu , 2 vols, 

A.D. 1909, Rubbings, drawings, 

Yi Liu: Ting Liu-nien, Yl Lin Kuan Gai Ghin T'u 3hih . 

c. A.D. 1910. Hani copies, drav/ings. 

Ghou Ta'ua; T3 0u An, Chou Chin Wen Ts_Man, 6 vols. A.D. 
1916-20. Rubbings only. 

Yin Wen: Lo Ciien-yu, Yin .Yea Ts'ua, 2 vols. Rubbings 


Meng Wei: Lo Ciien-yu, Menp; vJei Ts ♦ ao i''*ani°; Giii Ghin T*u . 

3 vols. A.D. 1917. Rubbings, photographs. 

Meng Hsfl: Lo Ghen-yU, IK^np:. 'A' el Ts ' ac T ' an^-^ QVii Chin T*u 

lis^ Pien, 1 vol. A.D, 1918. Rubbings, photographs. 

Chen Fu Ghai: Ch»en Cnieh-ch'i, '£u Ghai Chi Chin Lu, 3 vols. 
A.D, 1913, Rubbings only, 

Sunitomo: Sunitcmo, 3.irou, Jea-oku 3ei-3ho , The Golleo- 
tion of Old Bronzes of Baron Sumitomo, Kyoto, 
1919. Supplement, 1926, extra vol, 1926, 
Photographs, rubbings, iTung Keng's attribu- 
tions of thestj vessels and his discussion of 
inscriptions in Uai v\'ai are best to use, but 
the photographs of tais original edition are 
very well reproduced, 
Tch'ou To-yi: Bronzes Antiques de La Chine Aupartenant a 

G,T, Loo et Cie, Paris, 1924, Photographs only. 



Cheng; Suag: 

Pao Yun: Jung Keng, lao Yun Lou Yi Ch*l .'u Lu, i vol. 

Peiplng, 1929, Ihotograpiis , rubbim^is, 
measureiaents, ctisoussion, 

Yetts, .V,P,, "The Creorge Eiuaorfopoulos Coileo- 
tlon, Catalogue of the Ciiiiiesa and Korean 
Eroiizes", Ixjxidon, Vol. 1 (1929), Vol. II (1930). 
Photographs, new procesE of reproducing inscrip- 
tions in black. Measurements, descriptions. 

Ch^ng Ch'iu: Gh»6n, Fao-Oh»^n, Chenp; Ch'lu Pluan Chi Chin 
T*u , a vols,, 1930, Drawin^rs, rubbings, 
Lo Clitn-yu, Ghunp; jxmir, T*anf; Chi Ku Yi £|n, 
10 vol3, jjairdii, 1931, Mand copies of 
inscriptions only, liacies of ovaiisrs sometimes 
given, A very complete collection to date 
of publtoatiojia. 

Lo Gnen-yu, Choii^-; 3unf, T*ang Chi Ku YI Wen 
Pu Yi, Dairen, 1931, Ilaad copies of inscrip- 
tions Oiiiy, C'wners numbB scaaelilmes given, 
Kuo iio-Jo, Lian^ ; , Cuou Cia .en Tz^u Ta ligl, 
Tokyo, l93iJ, Transcription into nod ern 
Chinese characters aiid disoussiou. A chrono- 
logical and /2;eographical division oi 114 
inscriptions on in; ortant GIiou dynasty ritual 
vessels, 13 plates added, 
Umohara Gueji, c3iiina-kodo oo Ikwa , Selected 
Heliog of iUioient gtiinese Bronzes frpiu Colloo- 
tlons in liiuropo v.n5. Anerioa , 7 voln, Osaka, 
Japan, 1933, Part 1, 243 vessels; Part 2, 
160 mirrors; I^rt 3, 137 misoellaneouu 

Ghdng Pu: 

Ta Hsl: 

Relics : 


broas93, asmh part timbered jonsac!utlv3ly» 
Good photograpUg ; raeaaurerDeuta ; rubbi^i^^a of 
(but aot all) Inaoriptionj. Jjst ^ouroe book 
of Bronzes lu 3urope and Anerlos to 1930 

Sung Chai: Jims J»«ug» >>unfi: Jbal C-^ i Onia r\u Lu, Pelpinf:, 
193^, 1 vol. riaotograplis i rubbin:<a, maasure- 
laenta; diaoussioa, ObjootJ iiiir.ibe'rod oonsecu- 

Ohttag llsu: Lo Giiea-yu, Qiie a.- ^ Sufif; T ^arif^ Chi Ku Yl Wen Hsu 
fioa, 3 vols, VjoI , llamd oopics oiily, najafcj3 of 
ovmara i^iveu wheu known # 

V/u nag: J'-m.3 Keag, Wu Yin,"; Tlea Yi Ch'l r*u Lu, 'd vols. 

leiping, 1934. Photo^^^rapiis, rubbinj^a, neasure- 

r,i:ats, di.'soussloa of IOC ritual vessels in tr.a 

Imperial Colleotio*^,, 

Sliuaag Cliiea Yu liaia^j-'.vu, S xiujoi^ , J .leu /i 3:^1 Cuia I'u Lu, 

2 vols. Pelpln^q;, 192-4. riiotograpiis ; ruobiugs, 

measurouients aud diBcusaion, 

3iian Oiiai: Liu T'l-calh, Jiiaa Chai Jhi Jiiia Lu, Snaaghai, 

i93'4. Drawings, poor iitxiograpiis of ruobines. 

ilai £ai: Inai: Keng, ;"ai '■Vai CLi Cjiia T'u Lu, Teiping, 

1935, 158 plates. .Seleotcd broazes frm 7 
tlapaneae publioatlona on C.iiaes«» Droazes in 
Japan. PhotOf-^rupha , rubbin-s, meaaureinenta and 
disouaslon. This is the host source for broa*5es 
in Japin published whoa this aolsotloa v/an made. 
Vessels auihbersd oonseoutivaly. 


Ilstl Yin: 

t& iisi 2»ia! 


TTslao Chlao: 

Yell Chung 

Wang Chten, Hsu Yin ^^ea Ji3'un « ii vols, Peiplng, 
1925, hubbiags oi' 3hang iyuasty inscriptions 
on bronze vessels additional to those in Yin 
v/en i'o*un , by Lo >Ren-y{i, The reproductions 
by lithof^raph are r.ot ao cooci as the collo- 
types In 3an- tBi« nor is their attribution to 
the proper vesaels as accurate. 
Euo L'o- j , 3. .i"/V i "t^ou Chin V/en Tz*u Ta jisi 
T*u Lu, Tokyo, I9;i5, tubbings, some photo- 
graphs and drawings; Chou dynasty only. 
3hang Ch»en:5-t30, .ihJJi Urh Quia Qu i Chin 
'r*u Lu , lianklue; , 19^55. Photo {graphs , rubbings, 
meusurements and descriptions of 169 bronzes* 
The pages of eaoh ol' the tv/elvo family oeotions 
have bean nut^bered separately, lu citation 
iVrelve lo loliovved by the key ciiaraoter of the 
fninily mnae ana ti.t-. nuLibtr in oi'dur of the 12 
sectiona, follfcv/ed by the psge. In order to 
briaf^ the irubbinf; and photograph together 
face "b" of one page ia associated v/ith face 
"a" of the next page, further complicating 
the citation numbers, 

Liu T'i-ohih, Hsiao Chiao Ohin^ Ko Chin 3hih 
Wen Tza ; GajtA '^V^^n ? * a I en , Shanghai, 1335, 
Rubbings only. 

Huang Chun, Yah Chunr F*ien Yu Ch*u Chi , 2 
vols. ?«ipin£:, 1935.' Thotographs and rubbings 
only, '-ronze ritual vessels, clay casting 



Tatta Ku; 

Shan T'u: 

Sung Cha!^ HstL 

Yfth Chung Two 

Hafln Ch'l 

moulds, vyeapons, jados, oracle bones and 
carved bone, from Anyang. 
Lo Ch%n-yu, San lUi Chi Chin .^n Ts'un . 20 " 
vols., Dairen, 1936-7. Collotypes of rubbings 
only. The most complete collection of clear 
rubbi'^.gs, well arranged under the shapes of 
the vessels. Includes inscriptions of both 
the Shang and Chou Dynasties, 
Huang ChtXn, Tsun Ku Chai So Chi en Chi Chin 
T'u Ch*u Chi . 4 vols., Peiping, 19S6. 
Photographs find rubbings only. 
J\mg KSng, Shan Chai Yi Chi T*u Lu . 3 vols. , 
Peiping, 1936. PhotOf,;raphs, rubbings, 
meaaureaments, '.md discussion of 175 objects . 
Numbered consecutively. Much to be preferred 
to Shai^ Chai . although not so complete. 
Jung Keng, Sung; Chai Chi Chin HsQ Lu, £ vols. , 
Peiping, 1936. Photographs, rubbings, measure- 
ments, discussion of 134 objects numbered 
Huang Chun, Yeh Chung P*ien YG Erh Chi, 2 vols. , 
Peiping, 1937. Photographs and rubbings only. 
Bronze ritual vessels, clay casting moulds, v/hite 
pottery, v/eapons, jades, oracle bones and carved 
bone from Anyang. 

Sun Hal-po and Kuo Pao-chtln, Hstln Hsien Yi Ch*i . 
Peiping, 1937. Photographs, collotypes of 
rubbings, measurements, descriptions of 76 objects 
excavated by the Academla Sinica from 88 tombs 


In 193E-33 at Hsin Ts'un near Hstin ilslen 

railv/ay station, North Honaa, 
Cvill Yetts, »V, Perceval, The Cull Cr.lness Bronzes . 

London, 1939, Photographs, hleok reproductions 

of graphs, aeesurements, deaoriptlons. 35 

plates. 10 Shang vessels* 
Shuang Chi en Two Yfl Hslng»wu, Shu&ng Chlen Yl Ku C^.'l \<n V*u Lu . 

2 vols,, Peiplng, 1940, Photographs and 

rubbings only, 
Chlh >ja ^^ T«al-fen, Chlh A^ Ts'ang Chin . Polping, 

1940, Many inscriptions doubtftil. Photographs, 

rubbings and measur^nents. 



An-rlsrasoii, J.G., .la Early Chlriese Oul.c,^ . :Lcxciu^, 1CLL5. 
Ka; xlnt Trori j"ull&lla of tha Geolof^ical 
kjk^rvGy Qi C^iiXiU i ilc. I; , iu^iil. i-lato '/, 
jJevoiox'iacno of K^, ^io 1, soono Lo, 'j.ype II. 
no, i^ and ij, Oiiang II ilo, Type V, i-io. 4, Ciiou 
1, Type XI, JMO. 5, Onoii III, Type XVI. l.'o. 6, 
Ciiou III, Type XVII, Plate 1 i\!o, ci, stone 
Fields, Type I, 

Andersaon, J.G. , rrelininar^ Report on Arohaeoloc -. ical Research 

la Kansu . Peking, 1925, The GeolOc:ical Survey 
of Gnirn l!t;moir£>, Series A, Number 5, The 
off'ioial Goleatiric report of Yang Shao and 
succeeding cultures in Ilansu and the Kokono 
region. Page <£9, iniormation obtained by Dr. 
V,K, Ting from Lo Gaen-yil about turquoise inlaid 
bronze Ko^ 51, "boup.nt in 1910 in the village of 
Hsiao T'un, The villagers explained that they 
were excavated togetiier with the inscribed bones." 

Anderss on , <T . G . , Children of the Yellow iiarth; Stuaies la Pre- 
historic Chin a, translated from the Swedisii by E. 
Claesen, London, 1954. 

Andersson, J.G., "The Goldsmith in Aiicient China", The Museum of 
Far Eastern Antigi.ities . Stockholm, Bulletin, No, 

7 (1935), pp. 1-38, plates 21. 

Bishop, Carl '.Viiiting, "The ChronolocY of Auoient China", 

Journal of the Aiaericau Oriental -iocioty , Vol. 

52, 1932, pp, 232-247. 
Carpenter, H.C.H,, '•Prelliainary Report ou C-.ine3e jronza" 

Preliminary Reports of Sxoavations at Anyang, 4 vols. 

I, II, J]', 1-734, 33 articles paged oonaecutively. 

Vol. I, II, Peiping, 1929, Vol. Ill, Peiping, 1931. 

Vol, IV, Shangaai, 1931, 
Chon*.^, U.T. , Lapidariui;: Jinioum, A Study of the Rooks, xossils 

aiia Metals as kuowu in Qninese Literature , second 

edition (Ohinese text), lelcing, 1927. iiemoir of 

the GeolOr^ioal Siirvey of China, 1927. Series B. 

No, 2, Illuminating prefaces by V.K. Tinf^ and 

V/onf; Yven-hao in Sn^^lish and French with a table 

of contents in English, Abbreviation used, 

Lapldarium , 
Chatlsy, II. "The True Era of the Chinese Sixty Year Cycle," 

T'oun^r, Pao . :X?:iV, 1938, pp. 138-145. 
Chavannes, 3douard, trans, Les MecLoires Ilistorigues de 3e- 

Lia Ts^ien . 5 vols. Paris, ld95Tl905,4|bi'i'«i'iahort /W.ri ■ 
Ch'ien Mu, Hsien Oh* la Ghu Tzu Hsi Niea ( An IntOf^rated Gnrono- 

logy of the Pre-Ch*in Philsophers ) , Shanghai, 1935. 
Chikashige, l.lasujGii, "The Composition of Ancient Eastern 

Bronzes", Journal of the Chenical Society , London, 

Vol. 117, 1930, pp. 917-922. 
Chinese Coiamittee , Illustrated Catalorue of Chinese Government 

lilxhibits f or the International Jxhibition of 

Chinese Ar t in London , 4 vols. Shanghai, 1935. 


Chu C:.*i-reng, T2*u T*lla^: , S^ianghai, 1954, 
Ohuap: K'uO Jen LAnf- Ta Tz*u Tloii t Shanghai, 7tii ed,, 19G0, 
Chun^ lixxo Ku Cnlri Ti l-'.iixt\ Ta I'z'u Tloa , Siienghal, 19,3o, 
Golllnf , W.F,, "4.'n<> Corrosion of iarl/ Ohiuuse Bronzes", 

Joaraal oi' the liistituto of Utjtala , Vol. 45, 
19 Jl, pp. 2^-55, 
Croel, -i.G., "On tno QriQins of the i:lanuf a c tare and Decora- 
tion of Jronze in trie 3x-an?§ Period", rionumenta 
Jerloa, Vol. i {19L'.0) lio. 1, ^ip, 39-70, 
Grrsel, ;i.G,,l,rhe irth of C.iina, a 3urve of the Fonnative 
Period of Chinese Civili'/.ation, London, 1936, 
^ •St u dies in Earl;/ Cl> inesg e_ G ult ure , Baltiiaura , 1937 , 
Greaaey, George B, , CainB 's Ge ograpu i o '/'ounda tiona; A Surv oy 

PX_H*-?--^5i.'^-.-?J?A_4'A? i'®9.P--!:®» ^^®*' iork, 1934, 
D'^ Chr.rdlii, P. Tellhp.rd «ind 0.0. Ycm'?, On T^he .M arrimal iaxi P.e- 
najns fron t'iO ^p^ ? fKilog j oHl S_i_te_ o^ Any an g , 
Ilaxikin-;, 1936 • ral aeontclo'^ia Ginic a , Gerieo C, 
VoliL-r; XII, yar^oil.. 1. (^.'efersnoc to Tin and 
auliiQl bonog), 
Jt;3ch, C,*-., GuL-ieriun Ocpjer Gor^nlrtcc, . rl'ir..-: A.-icooiat.ion 
fox the A'-ivr.nceMr i.t o: IxpceeAliHrs ; (1) 
1926, :„ ic7; (a} 19;:9, i, 2r:-l; (3) 19,:0, p, 267; 
(4) 1931, p, 269; (5) 1932, p. 302; (G) 1935, 
p, o'iO J (V; 1330, p* C/OS, 
Doiio, Tdurmoatsu, "C the iljtal '.Vare i'v.kln£ lu tY-e Ancient 

China soon through Chccdcal Analysis" {tTax^anese 
Te;vt) Toho (^kuho ( Journal of Oriental tuiies ) 
Tokyo, Ilov. 1933, p. 1-63. 2. "On the Copper 
Age in Ancient C: ina III", Bulletin of the 


CiieaJQal dOolety of Japan , Vol, IX, (19o4), p. 120. 

Drako, Rov, F,3, 1, '^SUang Dynast;.'- Find at Ta-hsin Ghuang 

Shantung'*, The China Journal , Vol, XXXI, xnIo, 2, 
Aur;. 1939, pp. 77-80. 2, "Tn-iisin Chuang Again", 
The Ci.ixie Journal , "cl, ^'y.XIII, I.o. 1, Julj , 19<!:0, 
pp. 1-10. "Stcne :.. -^ .._......: :. ..... '.^utioit^", The 

China Journa l, Vol. ."UXEII, iio. o , Ja.jt. 1940, 
pp. y4-99. 

Dubs, Homer H, , trans. 1, The v/orks of Hsiki.tze, London, 1928, 
2, Tno Uiotory of the Former Han Dynast;/ by Pan 
Ku, Vol. 1, i3alt,lmore, 19L58, 

ligaiul, rJanlo ana others, "Suiyuan xironze^", Inner .'." ont7,olia and 
the Region of tae G r eat v/all , Tokyo and Kyoto, 
1935. iio Ko r^portad araou™ all the bronze objects 
ooll^.i^te''. , '^q.ny kilv.^g ^ r;orae (ia^/jers, all after 

c'o ,••, , 

Peking, 1924. A ijooKlet of x9 pages tind Cidnese 

text describin^i; bite luan Fang altar fjet, 
Ferguson, JohnG., "Recent JcUolarsnip in Cilna", The China 

Journal, Vol, XI, Iio. 6, Dec. 1929, pp. 277-283, 
Ferguson, John 0,, "Ixiscriptiouis of JJronaeB", Jouriial , i'lorth 

China Braac h , Ro yal A^_ia t i c Sooi ety , Vol. LXVI , 

1935, pp. 64-72. 
Fox, :?ir C.vrJl, "The socketed Mroaze Sickles of the British 

I a 1 e s , " lTocee dinp;g of the Irehis toric oociety , 

Caiiibridge, Sec. 3er. Vol, V, Part 2, Dec, 1939. 


Fraser, Everard D.R, and Lockhart, J, U.S., Index to t he Tso 
Cliuan , Oxford, 1950, 

Gardner, Giiarles Sidney: piilnese Traditional l il storiography , 
Cambridge, Mass., 1938. 

Gardner, Charles Sidney, A Jnion List of oeleoted Ciiinese books 
in Aiiierioan Libraries. Snd ed, revised and en- 
larged, Washington 1938, 

Giles, K.A. , A Chinese jJiog^raplaical Dictionary , London, 1893. 

Giles, H,A, , A Chin«se-Snglish Diotionary, Se-jonl edition, London 
and Shanghai, 1913. A breviation used, Giles , 
followed by the nuLmber of the character. 

Giles, I-i.A, , trans. Ghuan^ Tzu Myotic Moralist and Social Re - 
former . Shanghai, 2nd ed, 1926, 

Grousset , Ilene, L^i^japire des Steppes . Paris, 1939. 

Harada, Y.and Komal, K, , Chinese Antiquities (Jhina Koki Zuko) 
Part 1, Arms and Armour, Tokyo, 1932,53 plates, 
Japanese text, 44 pages, 

Harvard-Yenohlng Index Series: 

1. Wo, 27, Li Chi . Pelping, 1937. 

2. Supplement Ho, 9, a concordance to Shih Chinf^ , 
Poiping, 1934, 

3, Supplement rio, 10, a concordttnce to Yi Ghing , 
Peiping, 1935, 

4, Supplement No, 11. Combine^ Concordances to 
Ch*iin-chin. Kunp-yan^. and Tso-chuan . 4 
Vols., Peiping, 1937. Valuable introduction of 
112 pages by William liung. 


IIsu Shen, 


Janae, Olov, 

Hopkins, L.C, "The sovereigns of the Shang Dynasty iJ.C, 1766- 
11 54", Journal of the Royal Asia t ic Sool ety, 
London 1917, pp. 70-89. 

Hopkins, L.C, "The Royal Genealogies of the ''onan Relics and 
the Record of the S'".pi'' ■)'ai«-^+. '" , Asia , ft lor , 
1932, pp, 194-205. 

Shuo Wea Chloh Tzu ( ca. A.D, 100). Ssu Txx 
Is* Inf^ K.*an edition. 

i.'u Yu T'u Lii Ch*u Gii it 4 vols. Peiping, 1939, 
i .iiotograpris of Jadeai including jade Ko . 
"Une groupo de broiizes ancitms propres a I'Ex- 
trene-Aaie L'.oriciionale (17 planches)". Th e 
I!useuni of Far Saat er n Antiquities , Stoo holi u, 
Bulletin IJo. '6, 1951, pp. 99-139, 

.Tjian Yuan, editor, 3hih San dhin^ Chu ou , 41G ohuan with 

oritloal apparatus', Chiao K:*an Gai ; 

l.T'-n^,, dynasty, K'ung Yint~-tQ} Chou Yi Chans Yi i 
10 ohuon . 

S.T'an^T Dynasty, K»ung Ying-ta; Shaag 3hu Cheng 
Yl, 20 ohflan . 

3.T'eng l^masty, Kling Ying-'-a; I!ao SUih Chon'-^ Y l. 
70 ohdan . 

4.T'anf: Dynasty, Chia Kinf_';-Yen; Ciiou Li C-'?u 3u, 
42 ohtlan . 

S.T'an^: Dynasty, Chia Kung-Yen; Yi Li Chu 3u , 
50 Qhtlan . 

6,T»ang Dynasty, K»ung Ying-ta; Li Gal Chtenr^ Yl , 
63 chilan . 

7.T»an,'^ Di'nasty, K'ung Yin^-ta; G.^ ^un Cr.'in Tso 
Cnuan Ghon;^ Yi . GO chUan . 

8,T»auj3 Dynasty, iisu Yen; Ch*un Cli'in irunc: Yan<y 
CI; dan Chi 3u . 23 chuan. 

9.T'ang D:;nasty, Yang Shili-hsxln; Ch'uti Ch^iix Ko 
Liang Ch{ian Gh a Su, 20 chilan . 

I€b»t^iiB)g Dynasty, ilslng Ping; Lun Yu Chu 3u « iO oliuaa . 
ll,3ung Dynasty, Using Ping; Hsiao Ghinp; Gau 3u; 9 chflan. 
13. Su.. '^ty, Hsins ring; Erh Ya Ghu ou . 10 onuau. 

13.3iing Dynasty, Suii 3iiili; UeiijA Tau Cliu 3u ; 14 olu'Ian , 
Tiiese uontain the notes oi tiie earlier cjoramentators and 
are tiie source of aioat inroimation on Anoiexit Gliina, 
Similar notes by ooraiiLnntators on the PhilosopiiGrs and 
ilistorians are too numerous to be recorded in tais 
brief bibliograyny, 

Chinp. Old Chvlan Ku, 1796. The befit dictionary of 
Chixiese obaraoters in olassioal literature v;ith tlio early 
definitions of the {-graphs, 
Jung, Kens, Shin Pien , Peking, 1935; 2nd ed,, revised, Shanghai, 
1939, Glossary of gra hs in bronze innoriptions of 
Shane and Chou Dynasties. 
Jung, KeUf-', "^Yin Chou Li Yo Gh'l K'ao Liao", Yen Cliinr Hr>ueh Pao 

( Yenchinp; J ournal ) Mo. 1, 1927, pp. 83-142. 
Junr-f Ken^T, lisi Gh'lnr. J in Jen Ciion Wei Ts*un 3nih Piao, "A 
Classified List of Autlientlo aiid Forged, Logt and 
iiitaat I3ronzes with Inscriptions as Recorded in the 
Imperial OatalOini.s of the Antiques in the Palace'*, 
Yenohinf; tfcurnal of Chine so Studie;^ , IIo, 5, Junj, 
i 1929, pp. eii-676. A uost valuable survey of the 


bronze ritual vesseli: in the Icperifil oollootionK. 
Of 1176 vessels, G57 are classed ^^.c-nuine, 190 as 
doubtful and 329 as false. 
Junp, Kenr, "Sung Tal Chi Ciiin Shu Gni Gnu Ping", Ts*ai Aoniver- 
sary Volu m e , pp. 661-687. 


Jung -K-eng, Jiija Wen -lau Pien , dnangliai, 19o5. Glossary of graphs 
in bronze insorintions of the Ch'iu and lian dynasties, 
Karlteck, Orvar, ''Ancient Chinese Bronze Weapons", The Ciaa 

Journal, Vol. Ill, JMo. 3, March, 1925, pp. i^V-13^ and 
i^o. 4, April, 1925, p,). 199-200. 
Karlbaok, 0,, ''i^iotes un tud Aro^iaeolOf-y of Cuina", The Iviugeum of 
JTax' i^aatorn Aatlquitiea, JtoGKholifi, Jjulletin xjc« 2 , 
19o0, pp. 19»3-a07 and 6 olatrfs. 
Karl I) e c k , , , " Anyan p; Mo ul ds " , Ths l«iur^eun; of J?'ar aa atern Antiguitiea 

otockh olm, ou lleti iij:>io. 7 (19.65) pp. 39-00 and 7 plates. 
Kariffren, Bernherd, 1. Aaalytlc Diction ar y of JJiese and Sinp- 

Jgpanese, Paris, 19P.3. 2, On the Authent ioity and Nature 
of the so C hi 1. 9 n , Go t e bort" , 1986; 
Kar.lcren, ^ernhr.rd, "'■^ir ?.nc'. Oh ou in CMne?e I'-ro flzep , 56 rlates. 

The ''.v ipon n of Fa r Eacitarn. An t inuiti es, St ockh o Im, .'iulle- 
tin Vo, P. fl97C), -p, 1-15^.:. "ll^^v ---'t'j^i.le.-. cr. Chinese 
T^^onsc?", ^'ullgtin '^o. 9 , 1937, fv* 1-117, rlates 1-64, 
KarlGra/i, :;«:nihnru, S<cyi^B , "cript -rsA Phonetics in 
Cinoso rnr! 31jjo— Japar^ess" 7':.-s TJIusmr of Ft "astern 
Antiquities, Ztc:^'.hol\:' , ullelli:. .>, 1 3. Stock'ioiii, 
1^40, ip. 1-471. 

uijtoiicai criti^iuiu of tne Cla&oic, -nu ii^icicnt ^^istory 
debated ij^- ;ii&u^ ' riu^rs l^id '.. . " -ien-'.aii^;. 


Ku Chieh-kang, 3uanr Shu T*unp; GiileQ , Conoordanoe to the 

Classic or ;-iF,tory« This iiioludes all the vvord3 
in tfas "received text" thun coufualng the early 
aad later v/ords. AbLreviatiou used, Ku Inde/v . 

..uo ..o-„o, Yin Qhou Ch*inp. I'uitg. Gt:*i ..iur, 'Veu Yea Quia, 
Shanghai, 1930, Pp. 'JO-lLli for the Ko. 
Quia l"u :-'oa Tau You Chiii , 3iian{;nai, 1931 • Early 
studies Uk oracle bono iusorlptioas* 

Kuo Mc-jo, 1, Chill >.8i:. Ts'uu'-'. r.*ao . Tokyo, 1932, Studies in 
iucoriptioxts on bronze. 

2» lOi T2*u T*unf' T';uan . To'<yo, 1933, Studies in 
oracle bone inccriptions, A luost valuable oorapendium, 

Kuo Mo- jo, 1. ru lai MitifT ^'o hui h*ao , i vols; Tokyo, 195.., 
2« Ku Tai Ma ^ >.*o ;'ul K*ao ^.su Fion. Tokyo. 19v>-^ . 

Kuo -'.lo-Jo, Lian^^ Qhou '■lej.i Ta hsl K*ao S.iih, Tokyo, lOliS. 
Stuoias in the Ta hsi, inscriptions or the C^-ou 

Kuo, lao Cnun, "Prelioilnary Keport on the i^cavations of tne 

Anoient Gematary at iisin Ts*un, Hsfln Hsieu, ''onan**, 
T' ien-xt^n-Kao-- u~I'ao- -ao , ilo. 1, 3hanchai, 193e, pp, 
167-200, la platOG, 

Latouretto, Kenneth Soott: The Ohinese: Their history and 

£ulturc, Nu'rf York, 1934, Bibliog^raphies at tae end 
of each chapter, 

Latticiore, 0¥.'en, Iimer Asian Front iars of Ciiin a, iiew York, 1940. 

Laufer, 13erthold, 1, Jade; a ^^tudy in Oaiuese archaeolo;- y and t Gtiica^o, 1912, 

2, Archeio Culuese jedea collected in China b.v A.'vV , 
3ahr, Kew York, 1927. 

Ldggo* '^eaaes (traas.): The Chinese Glassios, 5 vols, in 8. 
Kong Kong, 1861-72; 2nd ed. Oxford, 1893-95, 
I Confucian Analects, tbo Great L^jarnlng and the 
Doctrine of the liean, 
II /us Works of Mono i us, 
III The Shoo King, (Shu C^lng) or the Book of idstori- 
oei Dooujaents, in :^ parts, 
IV Tile She xling (Snih Cniag) or the Book of Poetry 
(Odea), in L parts, 
V The Jii^xui Ta'eu (Ch»{in Ch'iu) \'/ith the Tso Chuen, 
in w parts, Tiie Cinose text anc JSii^lish trana- 
lauiou -itii tra;i3iation3 end uotos oa tiie coinmon- 
tator;;, Le^e*s Oniuesc oolicngue v/as V.'ang, r*ao, 
ALbrevxa'olon uscjd.: Lps^;o 1, II, I-lI, IV, or V, 
L««8t>» Jaii«ss ('iirana); x'au -'i >".ix:^^ (^jacred Liooica of the- i^aet XVI) 
Uxforl, laOiJ, abbreviation, Lnjij^p % ;^i ^ K i ue,, 
The Li Ki (Li O.ii} or.oi-ed .3ookf-; of the East, 
X:iVII, :Ow"\'III, .u vo^a. C^wforcl, 1885, abcroviation, 
Le fy;o, id tCl , 
Li Chi, editor. An Yaat/ ]''s Gbueu Tao Ka o (rrellniiu.ry Reports 

of Excavations at AnynnF;). Vol, I and II, leiping, 
1939; Vol, III, Peipla;',, 1931; Vol. IV, >31\anfchai, 
19161 • Thirty-tiiree art.icxea and reports by 
various tiUthors, j)agad coneeoutively in four 
volumes, Abbroviatioxi, Ai^vanf; Kfe.^oi't , 
T * leu-Yeii-i: * ao- ■ u-I QO-i:ao , i'ield Reports of 
jixoiiaeoloi ioai work conducted by th^ National 
Resoaroh luatitute of idstory ana Philology, No, 
1, Shanghai, 1936, 6 arCioles by various authors. 

Li Chi, "Fu ahen Taang (i'aoo down buriaJ.a)", Anyone Re;ort . 

pp. 447-400. 
LI Ghl, '♦Yin Ilau T»uiif; Ch»i Wu Ghun(; Ghi OhU /iaiang Kuan 

Otiih Wan TU**, Taai A.u.iiv. Vol .. p-. 75-104, 
Liang, Ssu-ynng, "Tlie Lungahan Oulture: the Preliiotorlc Phase 

of Chinese Glviliaation", Quarterly iiullotin of 

C ninoae iJi.iiograph y (English Edition), New Series, 

Vol, 1, i.'o, »5, .Septenber, 1940, pp, S51-362. 
Liang 38U Yung, "'isiao T*uii, Lung Shan^i Yu Yang SiiaC* (On tne 

RolatJ,on of tie Kaiao T'uu, Lung Sliang and Yang Shao 

Cultures) 'I'sfeti Aani;. Vol ., pp, 555-567, 
Liu, Ilsd-lisia, "Yin Tai GLiii T'unf; 3hu Ohih Yen Chiu", Anvou^ 

Koport , jj]), 681-0'JG, 5 plP.tes, 
Lo Chen-yu, 1, Yin 3han/- Cheiu^-. .,Pn v^ea Tzu K'ao , 1910, 

2. Yi.: hs^ 311V. Ch'i ? ai wgn pjen . 1916, 

3, Yin Hsu 32m Gh*i >:*ao 31'. ih .. 191 4. revised aiid en- 
larged, 19'7. 

Loo, 0,T,, 1, An IJxulisitioxi of Ghinoao bronze s, liew York, 1939, 
Pnoto^^rapn.s and neasureiaents v>aly, 

2, An Jxl.ibioion of iU:oi:Tint G.':iiiOse Kitual I^r>.;a2e8 , 
Detroit, 1940. liJtroduction on '♦lue appreoiatioii of 
Oriinese' ISrcnaes" by Jaraea 14, Menaies, paotogra^iiu, 
meaaurcflaanta, rubbia^is raduoed In size. 
Loo, O.T,, aiicalbitioxi Of Chin;.se 'Vrt,3, .Jjtr.v York, 1943. luoiudes 
photograpJia and xeasurea^jnts; ?5 ritual bronzos and 
v/eapons , 
Lu Mao-teh (Lull .f'av.der) , "Ghuos Kuo Shan^: ::u T»uag PinfC /i'ao" 

(On tiie Bronze Woapo..- of Ano?.'3nt Cr.iaa) in luo ilsSefa 
Cnl ::»aa . Pelpinij, Vol. :i; ^^o. 2, Dec. 1^29, pp. 387- 


897 • This paper diaousses t.le names .■:*uel , Q.i' u. 

Ko and Chi, 3om6 of tiis ahapes disousaed aro tliose 
of aiiang Ko, Ty-jjii VIX and Type IX. Unfortunately the 

insorintions r noted as authority for the names ■:*uei 

and Ch*u are false. 
"a Hei\.<i:, "."-lo Ciii Ghlh Yen Cnii'' (.\ncient vJpearo) oio, YenoainF; 

Jourxtal of Oi.lnese 3tudleo, relplar,, .40 • 5, Juue, 1929, 

pp. 740-753. T'jIs artlclt^ deals with tha wron*: Ideas 

htjla I'i thtty^dynasLy and Ic. ter aiKUt tho htftiag of 

tiis Ko, rio ?haa45 dynasty Ko arc '1 out tho 

arp-unant a.;>;liea to tiussi as v.'q11. Too much confidence 

is placed in the r*ao K'^nf; Chi ss the acuro3 of 

Criter a, 
Masnero, -.onrl, Lp Chine Anti que. Ftrin, 19::.7, 
Maapei'O, Honri, '*I^ OhronolOKiii des roir do Ty*l au IVo cJeole 

?Yan't notra iiib'\ In T*oun Pao , 1927, 
-•.'.oi, ifi-Jao, traac, The r.tliic a l cjxr] roliti oal v/orks of Motae , 

London, IQ^^iO. 
• enjjies, J^jnes ?',, "The Culture of the Snnnp; Dynasty", The 3niith- 

^ oaian Renort for 193 1, :>p. 549-J55C, Was^iiif^toii, D,C, 
i'Bnzlaa, James M, , "Shanp, Tal "'en -lua", Cni Ta Gh i _ r-*an , Huoeloo 

Unlveralty, Tainan, Vol, 1 (1923), pp. 1-7. 
2-g.jl^ Ky Yen Chlu (Ornftl.i ?■(,[!« .qtiid^flffi^ CheelOO 

University, Taiuaii, 19^3, 
Nott, ^5t4inley C, Guinooe JB.d.e pitougho tttlhe Oj ^ i s^k rovlevf of its 

harao tur istio s d ec orat i on ,_f oik -lo re and 3:>aiib oli3Di, 

London, 1936, 
leiliot, Paul, Jadoe arona i ques de Oiine , ai^partenant a i.'.C.T. 

Loo, Paris, 1925, 
Fetrie, W.M, Flinders, Tools axid 'ea;-onn. Illustrated by tao 

Sgyptlan Jolleotlon In Vulverslty JolJ.ege London 

and 2000 Outlines from otner Sources , London, 1917, 
Pope-Hen.-ess7, Una, Zarly Gr.ix^e35 Jades , . 1923, 

Royal Acaden/ o. /^rto, London, 3stalOi^:'a3 of the Interne tjcTtf.l 

^nibition of Jl^inese .'j^ . 1935-5, T^rd i^ditioa, 

London, 1936, 
3!iang Ch'eng-tso, Ti»: isu rfen Tzu Lei lien . 19E3, A rearrangcaent 

of lia .is" 3Lu C .1 £*ao 3-1":: wit2. additions. 
Siren, -.o.-^l^i, A .istor/ of ^^larly J-u.:^e3- .A^rt , 4 toIs., London, 

1925, Vol, 1, lie Pra^^istorio ^.^^ > re-ha.. reriods, 

108 plates, "itual vassexs, '.axred tones, Jades, 

a^ea^oas , ; j^otograpns • 
Saitn, R,A, , j-ritisa Vu^eoa: A Cr^.ide ^o ^::e Aatiquitlos of t:ie 

~rcnx3 A~3 , London, 1920. 
Scwerty, A.DeGarle, "Horns ' ^-eer a_.l otaer relics fro« 

tile :.'a3te of "Tiii, iLonan, Czina**.. C'ine Jouroal , 7ol, 

illX, Ho, 3, Se:;t, 193c, . :.-i-i4. Objects de-osi- 

ted iii Sliantc^al kuseu^L c/ Janas «»■• lieiiziea, 19^* 

a« -tig* <:, i'^'o* 1, £^ue sijJde. 

b« INro pieces oi quart:. cOw^^er v^re. 

i. Slag froB sBslting oopoer ore, 

J« £>iaelted copper. 
Steele, John, trans., Hhe I Li or Book of i^wiquette and Ceremonial , 

2 Tols. London, 1917, 
Sun 2iai-p«, Chia Ku if en Pi en . Peipin.?, 1954. Glossary of 

oracle cone grapks. 
Sun Yi-jai^c, Qn'i ..en C^g Li , 1504, TL a first stud;- of oracle 

bone grapns. 


3ylwan, Vivi, "Silk from tne Yin Dyxiasty", The Musevin of Far 
aastem /uttiqultles, Stockholia i'ulletin 9, 
Stookiiolxa, 19o7, pp. 119-126, 4 plates, I^ioro- 
photograi>as aliow tiio silk on a Sliang Dynasty axe. 

Tctianj:, Iiuti^ias, Syno-'ironis pg: Ghin ois: ClironolOKie Cortipleto et 
Concordaaoe aveo I'Ere Cretienne de toutes lea 
Dates oonoern aiit l*histolre c l e IMixtrome-Orient 
(33 57 av. J«G. - 1904 Apr. J.C) , Shangiiai, 1901. 
The orLiiodox ciiroiioiop;y» 

Toggart, ii'5deriok, J"., Uocie and Clhltin, A _. Study in Gorrelotiona 
in lilstoiloal Kvents. ":^«rkiey, California, 1939« 
Eviileaoe for Influflucws from CairAe in tiiis JIan dynasty 
ra'.'-iTJGats yiniilar in ohari'^ arid prenistorio 
timea . 

Tin, , V.F.J "'. .'oi. Craiitita 'i.u 3ivilizai/iofl Oiiiuolse* ", C dxiooe ail'.' Political vo loxioo Revl ,'v. t Z'&kiag, Vol, 
IV, 2 ('July, 1931) iiG5-230. The bost viow of the 
life ?iud snvironaant oi '.-Qclont Oi.ina by one of 
C*:*ina's: greatest ji;ooio.sir;t3 ai"*d literary scholaro, 
A trenchant cfltiol^; or ioiiia t/i)oa uL v;estern 

Ts^&i Anniv. V ol ; .itudico presented to Ts^ai Yuan-^j*ol on :ii3 

Jixty-firth birthday, by Fallovjs ana Assiatant s of 
the national Rescaaro.' lastituto of iilatory and 
Ihilology . Pelpinfr, 195C:., 

Tuan Yu-ts»ai, ahuo *»en Oliieh Tzu Qiiu , 1306, Goileoted uotes 

of early ooi jmentatorri on this early dictionary of 
graphs together with the v;riter*s oonolunions, A 
valuable source book» 


Tun(5 Tso-pin, 1. '^Kuei Mao Shuo", Anyanp, Report . 1951, pp. 697- 
704, 2, '*?rank li, Chalfant's Gontrlbiitlons to 
the study of Oracle Bone", (Quarterly Dulleblu of 
Chinese Biblio graphy (Chinese ealtion) , Uev; Series, 
Vol. 2, No. 3, Sept. 1910, pp. 297-324. Contains 
Tuni;'s cioct recent crjronolO{r^y of the Sixan^- kings. 

Tung Tso-pin, "Chia Ku '"'en Tuan Tai Yen Chiu Li" (Criteria That 
May fle Used for the ^ore Exact Dating; of the 
Oracle Bone Records), Ts'ax Anniv. Vol . 1933, pp. 
323-424. Tiiis study presents the fundainental 
oritoria used in datinfr; the vsrlous types of bone 
script used in 5 rinriods of time from 1311-1038 
B.C. -iuii oth3r hir-.torical Ijuplications of the 
Oracle bon--^ inccriptions. 

Umehara, 3, "vhe/ulcsl .''JialysiJS of the /jioient Brcnv.os of China", 
Artibus Asiau , Vol. 4, 1927, pp. 249 ff, 

Umehara, 3, , j^tude arch'jgologiquo 3"r le Pien-chin, ou seri e 

•Ae bro nze s a vec une t a b I s pour I'usage ri'^uel dans 
lii Chine an tique, ILyoto, 19oo, The T'uan Fang 
altar set in the Wctropclitan Museum l-lew York. 
Photof^raphs , rubbings, meaHureiaents, study in 
Japanese, snlentifie drawin.3S, I'odern preaentation 
of available data. Abbreviation used: Piexi-chin . 

Umehara, 3,, "/m Arohaeolocloal observation oxi the chemical 

constituents of bronzo v/eapons in ancient China", 
Toho Oakuho (Journal of Orioxital Studies) Kyoto, 
Oct., 1940, pp. 1-34. 

Voretzsch, E.A. , Altc.iinesisc-ie Ji-onzen , /icrlln, 1924, Photo- 
graphs of Imperial Bronvies thexi in Mukden. 

.Valey, Arthur, trans, 1, Tlie »a.y and Its I-o /er, a 3 tti(i,;^_of 

tlie Tac Te Cliig;:^ aad it s j.-la oe in Ohlx iese 

thouylit , Loudon, 1934. 

S, The .'^'OOk of Sonf^,3 . Loiidon, 19o7, ubbrevjation 

used, .*:aley , 

V.aiif-, r.uo-wei (1677-19^7), i. ::r1 Linf!; Vfanr C>iun,— ohUo Kua.r 

VI 3ti.u (c;ollect,ed v;orlc3 of Wan/? K uo-wel ) ,/ Kr. 

'.^aa^'^'s iaportont studies are toe nu.m©rou3 to 

liat so;-a*ately. 
'-•• Sail Tai Cu'iu l-aa _ piiin eii Cnu Lu i'iao rovirjod 

and axicnientecl bv L<> ra-7i. Dairoa, 19oo. Index 

cf iiiscribed bronze ve-T9el3 with supplemants of 

raise find loubtXul i -.yoriptiona. 
^urnyj, E.T.C, Orxiaaac .Yeapo na, oh^ingnai, 1932, /Ji unoritioul 

uoiutilation I'ron OMlnRse eno^'clopae'lic ouarccG 

vTiiioii cluaonairatoa ta-i ■;o;ii'u3-iLl lueaa of literary 

^ohola^s ia Gnliua, 
''-■'■lit--^, vVii:..;.ti.. ,;,, Toi.u -, ,o f Old Lo-ya. t:-. ^..fuii^hai, 19oi, iYc ifo irouM^. 

Of tiic ;lu iu t^Uv. ^iUiiUn cy! ro.j'jO. oi'T^. .^ialo iii latwi' 

,.^ Oh'i-ch'riJp, "-fin Hsu 3hu Cii»i Oiileh 'Ai" iSlx part^, ;..v.ii3la- 

tions of Ch*ion _i.i;ia to 1,20,3, 'eu Ch»j CJUi Kan 

( (^uartfcirl : Journal of Libt-rni .Vrtrs ) . .'Julian 

IJnivarsity, V/uohanf,, Ohina, Vol, V. i^u, 4, i9o6, 

part 6, 
Wu, O.D. , P re:)lstoiio lor.ter:/ in :;Ml.i.; , JA^i^i*, 19:53, 

^iu 'lln-dlar and ooiiers, Chsn-^-t. zu -yai A Tcp^ort o? axoavatlons 

of the j'ro t q''rJ.:itori('; •■-• it. e a t Cl i*3nr'." ti :u';^ ai , 

Li-oti* on^ Ilsisn « Sfiantunf, Haakinr, 1934. 

vVu, Ta-ch'eng, 1. Ku Yu T'u K»ao 1885. The source of Laul'er's 

Jade , 

a* Shuo nVefi Ku Ohou In, 1896. TUe glossary of 

graphs on bronze wiiich formed the basis of Jung 

Keng's Ghl.n .Ve:. Fieri . 
Yaraauti, Y; Koizumi, S; Konatu, d. , "Cueirdcal Investigations of 

iuioient Weapons of Ghiria" T6h6 Gakuho (Journal of 

Oriojutal Jtudies ), Kyoto, Jul^ , 1940, pp. 1-12. 
Yang, /un-ju, Jhane Shu xo Ku , Feipin?, 1934. ^Foreword by Wang 

K.U0 "Oi, 1927, A p:oori ■loderfi conjjnentary on the 

Classic of History. 
Yeh, Yu-seu, Yin Hsu Sliu Gh *l g'iM. qn Pi-^n Ghi Shl^v . Shanghai, 

1934, Tran5',lHtlonj5 of g'i' ien-:>ieii oraoie bone 

Yetts, '#. Percival, I' n e Ge orje Kuj-orfcpoulon Collectio n: Gatalo^^'ue 

of the Chinese and Jorean broxizea, sculpture jades 

jov/ellery aud inisoellaneou;^ objects . 1, r^ronzes: 

ritual and other vessels, vrcRpoas, etc., London, 

Yetts, W.P., The Shaji,' -Yin Dynasty and the An-yan,c; finds in 

J.R.A.S. . 1953, j^p, 657-685, 
Yu lising-vm, 1, Shuanc G hi en Yi Sh anp^ Shu Hs in Gtien g, Pol ping, 

1934. ilotes on the text of the Classic of History 

based on inscriptions on oracie bones and ritual 


3, Shuanr. C i iien Yi Chi CUin Wen Hsuan , Peipine, 1932. 

6, Shuanp: Ghien YiTYin Gh'i pi en Chih . Feiping, 1940. 



Private collections in China are preceded by their "Studio** 
names vvhen these are knovm. The ovmer's place of origin is 
considered an essential pert of his name. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 

James M, Plumer collection. 

Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

The Museum of Fine Arts. 
49, 58. 



The Academia Sinica. 

55, 56, 89, 90, 91, 156. 

Location unknown. 

45, 79, 85, 86, 96, 97, 101, 110, 118, 119, 
120, 131, 137, 139. 

The Hsfleh T'ang collection: 
Lo Ch§n-ytl of Shang-YQ. 

Ill, 11£, 171, 172, 173. 

Collection of Mr. Pao Hsi of Ch*ang Pai. 

Hanoi, Indo China. 


The Musfee de l*Ecole i^rancaise de 1* Extreme-Orient. 

A private collection. 

Kaifeng, Honan, China 

The Honan Provincial Museum. 
3, 54, 176. 


Kashing, Chekiang, China 

The Ch*lng Yi Ko collection: 
Chang Tlng-chi of Chia Hsing. 

New York City, N.Y., U.S.A. 

The Mrs. Dagny Carter Collection. 

The C. T. Loo coll<?ction. 
68, 115, 116, 124. 

The Grenville L. Winthrop collection. 
16, 36, 37, 50, 62, 63, 66, 80. 

Paris, France 

The D. David-Weill collection. 


The Edgar Gutman collection. 

The Alphonse Khan collection. 

Peiping, China 

The Tsun Ku Chai collection: 

P. C. Huang, i.e. Huang ChOn of Chiang Hsia. 

4, 35, 46, 75, 76, 78, 83, 87, 99, 128, 129, 134, 
135, 136, 140, 152, 154, 158. » » » ' 

The Suno; Chai collectioa: 
Jung Keng of Tung Kuan. 
73, 74. 

The^Ch'ih An collection: 
Li T»ai-fen of Yang Yuan. 
59, 82. 

The Chu An collection: 
i*ang~S!r^n of Peiping. 

102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107. 

The Shuang Chi en Yi collection: 
Ytl Hsing- Wu of Hai ChSng. 

71, 77, 100, 108, 109, 153, 157. 


Shanghai , China 

The Shan Chai collection: 
Liu H^hih of Lu Chiang, 
72, 174. 

Soochow, Kiangsu, China 

The 6heng An collection: 
Fan Tsu-yin of V;u Hsien. 

Stockholm, i^y/eden 

The Ostasiatiska SMmllngama (Museum of Far Eastern 
Antiquities) . 

51, 130, 170. 

Toronto, Ontario Canada 

The James M. Menzies (Ming yi-shih) collection. 
125, 177. 

The Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, 

1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 
34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47, 48, 53, 57, 61, 64, 
67, 69, 70, 84, 88, 92, 93, 95, 98, 113, 114, 121, 
122, 123, 126, 133, 13d, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 
146, 147^^8149;' 150, 160, 162, 163, 164, 1G5, 166, 
167, 168, 175. 

Tsinan, Shantung, China 

The F.- S. Drake collection, Cheeloo University. 
60, 94, 161. 

Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

The Freer Ciallery of Art. 
5, 17, 132. 



i:v«0>M»A« No, 

Ko No, 

H,O.M,A, i;©. 

Ko wO. 

HI;, CI , .142 

NL, 110 48 

«B, 1020 93 

NB. 1029 114 

NB. 1231 150 

HB, lo9G 149 

NB, 1449 145 

NB, 1599 141 

WiJ. 1731 167 

ND, 1732 41 

UB, 1733 148 

'u^, 1734 146 

lid, 1735 147 

WB, 1791 2 

HB. 1805 - .1 

NB. 1890 10 

WB, 1915 13 

MB, 1992 31 

:j:3, 2100 144 

2129 1G5 

Wii, 2139 143 

ilB, 21^i9 12 

lili, 2153 33 

i^iJ. 2156 18 

Wis, 2197 21 

1^3, 2350 30 

WB. 2774 47 

:^B, 2775 57 

NB, 2776 21 

NB, 2777 25 

NB. 2895 175 

Ni3. 2960 43 

:.'B, 2961 38 

-U3, 2962 40 

uL, 2963 92 

ijii. 2964 113 

ilD. 2966 34 

NB, 2967 53 

2968, . . . 


3056,,. , 


3247... . 











Otitii- . . • • 

3260. . . . 



. . ...162 
. .... .67 





3362. • • c 






33G7, . . . 



3480.. . . 




3879 ... 



3c)81 .... 




3890. . . . 





3974. . . . 




3975. . . . 



3976. . . . 









3980.. . . 



3981 .... 


4038 .... 



4040 .... 




4052. . . . 




4056, ,. . 






4058 .... 



4083, . . . 



5282. , . . 



5283 ... 




A study of the characteristic weapon 
of the Bronze Age in China in the 
period 1311-1039 B.C. 

James Mellon Menzies, B.A. Sc. 


A thesis submitted in conformity v/ith the 
requirements for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy in the University of Toronto. 


Type I ^ 

Type i A. 


type 1 ^ 



Type I B 




Type 1 A 




Type I B 





Type H B 





Type Ji B 





T^pe IT B 






Type H B 

Type J C 






Type X D 













5 IZ 


Type. n_p 





I 1 




S 14 

Type m. A 









) \ 




TVpe lUA 























Type niS 





Type TIL S 




v:v---' -'' 


I Ype iiL fc 










Yp€. iy.A 



N 0*W 10 




•ypc IV f\ 





Type l^A 








T^pe E 8 






lype lY IS 










U 3 




Type \vc 



Typ^ ^'^ 







T-^fe. \£ 






Type V A 




P -f 




TyP-e V_A 















Ype. VC- 



















T-^pe V c 











Tvpc \^ D 



















Typev F 






/. ^ 


TYpe,y F' 

















Type "SLA 










Type yj.6 





Type VI S 













Type \ac 





Ype VI D 




Ype ^/LLA 






^Ypg- VIA 


















— — 'i-^ 






Type Yii' 

















Ype )IAC 

































Type "SI F 
















Type yiu G 



Type yui D 





Ty pe ix A 




T^pe lj(. 









^YP€- 1^^ 


( ; 


Type lip 





/ 1 


"^Ype ix._E 




^Ype dlE- 







Type IX, ^ 






V. . _ ^ IV I 


iv^ oe i^L F 


U) ' 






55 • f X • a 
Q a Q o o a £ 
^^^ ^ W V f 


5 ^X J<XXX^^\ ^8 






■Ss >fe^. 


'S'P^ -^ ^ 








in -p 

e s 

3 r 

n <■; • 

ti <v 
n • 

n > 

PQ • 
C 0) . 

«M to 

I o o 
a I 

O O r-l 

r-1 ftrH 

f-H 0) to 

0» «) iH 

CO o o 
0) ^ ^ 

ffi a (i> 
•^ T« P< 

•p ^ 





University of Toronto 











- ■''■ i