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Full text of "Shaving made easy; what the man who shaves ought to know .."

SHAVING 

MADE EASY 

What the Man Who 

Shaves 

Ought to Know 



ILLUSTRATED 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE 20th CENTURY 

CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 

NEW YORK 





T 






LIBRARY Of CONGRESS 

Two Copies Received 

JAN 2 1906 

Copyriijrhi Entry 

^^./ ' ^ '0 ' 

CLASS ^ XXc, No. 

1 ^ S /-i 

COPY B. 




COPYRIGHT. 1905 
BY 

The 20th Cenuury 

^CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 





<^ 



Cx 




THIS BOOK 
IS DEDICATED TO THOSE 
MEN WHO HAVE DIFFICULTIES IN 
SHAVING, IN HOPE THAT ITS CONTENTS 
WII.L BE OF ASSISTANCE IN REMEDY- 
ING THEIR TROUBLES. 



PREFACE. 

THE object of this little book is to 
furnish clear and full information about 
the art of shaving. There are few men 
who do not experience more or less dif- 
ficulty in shaving themselves, and many 
who, after a few unsuccessful attempts, 
give it up in dispair and go to the barber 
shop. We believe most of these would 
much prefer to shave themselves if only 
they could do as well as a barber. 

The advantages, indeed, seem to be 
wholly with the man who shaves him- 
self. In the first place the shaving is 
done in the privacy if his own room. He 
has his own razor, cup, soap, brush and 
towels, which can be kept scrupulously 
clean and sanitarv. thus avoidinsf the 



PREFACE. 

constant danger of infection. There is 
no long wait for the call of "next.'' After 
the first cost of the outfit there is noth- 
ing- to pay, either for services or "tips." 
Thus in point of time, money and health,, 
the man who shaves himself is a decided 
gainer. 

There are few things in life that are 
really difficult to perform when one thor- 
oughly knows how to do them. Shaving 
is no exception. The art of shaving can 
be easily acquired if one only has the 
will, and the necessary practical infor- 
mation. This book, which, as far as we 
are aware, is the only one treating the 
subject at all completely, endeavors to 
supply such information ; as well for the 
improvement of men accustomed to 
shave themselves, as for the instruction 
of beginners. We believe that any man 
who will carefully read and follow the 
instructions here given, will, with some 
little practice, soon be able to shave him- 
self easily and even better than the bar- 

1 er cnn do it fin* him. 



CONTENTS. 

I. The Shaving Outfit 9 

II. The Razor n 

IIL Care of the Razor 19 

IV. The Safety Razor 21 

V. The Hone 23 

VI. How to Use the Hone 29 

VII. The Strop 37 

VIII. How to Strop the Razor 41 

IX. The Brush 45 

X. The Cup 48 

XI. The Soap 5o 

XII. The Lather 53 

XIII. Instructions to Beginners 56 

XIV. The Right Way to Shave 61 

XV. Care of the Face After 
Shaving 74 

XVI. Irritation of the Skin — Its 
Cause and Prevention 78 



Shaving Made Easy 

What the Man Who Shaves 
Ought to Know 



I. 

THE SHAVING OUTFIT. 

First-class tools are necessary at the 
very outset. No matter how skillfully one 
may handle inferior tools, they will in- 
variably produce poor results.. 

Probably as many failures have re- 
sulted from the use of poor razors, 
strops, or soap as from the lack of knowl- 
edge how to use them. In order that 
the best possible results may be attained, 



10 SPIAVING MADE EASY. 

good tools and skill in using flicni sliould 
go hand in hand. 

The shaving outfit should consist of 
one or two good razors, a first-class 
strop, a mirror, a cup, a brush, a cake 
of shaving soap, and a bottle of either 
bay nnn. witch hazel, or some other 
good face lotion. These constitute what 
may be considered the necessary articles, 
and to these mav be added a number of 
others, such as a good hone, magnesia or 
talcum powder, astringent or styptic 
pencils, antiseptic lotions, etc. wdiich. 
while not absolutely requisite, will never- 
theless add much to the convenience,, 
comfort and luxury of the shave. 



11. 



THE RAZOR. 



The most important article of the shav- 
ing outfit is of course the razor, and 




AN IDEAL RAZOR. 



Upon its selection your success or failure 
in self-shaving will largely depend. 
Never purchase a razor because it hap- 
pens to be cheap ; a poor razor is dear at 



12 SII.WINC MADK EASY. 

any price. You want not the cheapest, 
l)ut the best. 

A good razor if rightly used, will last 
for years, and will be a source of contin- 
ual pleasure when used, whereas a poor 
razor will do inferior work, irritate the 
skin and make the face sore, and be a 
continual source of trouble and annoy- 
ance. If you have such a razor, the 
sooner you throw it aside and substi- 
tute a good one, the better. 

The principal point to be considered in 
selecting a razor is the quality of the 
steel. By "quality^' is meant its temper 
or degree of solidity, and its conseq^ient 
capability of receiving, even after a series 
of years, a firm and fine edge. This 
is undoubtedly the first point to which 
the purchaser should give attention. By 
what means though, can he judge of the 
temper of a razor without using it ? The 
unassisted eye is not sufficient. Its 
power extends no further than to the 
discovery of defects the most striking 
and injurious. The irregularities in a 



SHAVING MADE EASY. I3 

razor's edge, which arise from improper 
tempering and lack of skill in working, 
are usually so minute, that they may 
remain undistinguished until the razor 
is used. They will nevertheless very sen- 
sibly add to the friction the razor pro- 
duces on the skin and particularly if it 
happens to be thin and tender. There 
are two ways of judging of the temper 
of a razor; one of these is practically in- 
fallible — viz : — the examination of the 
blade and its edge by means of a mi- 
croscope. 

It will be readily admitted that the real 
excellence of a razor is in direct propor- 
tion to the firmness and unbroken regu- 
larity of its edge. When a razor is too 
brittle, in consequence of having been 
either to much heated in the process of 
hardening, or not sufficiently cooled in 
that of tempering, it cannot possibly take 
a good cutting edge, no matter how 
much skill may be employed in honing 
and stropping it. Such defects are 
quickly detected by the use of a micro- 



14 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

scope in the hands of an experienced 
and attentive observer. 

The other method of testing the 
temper, while not infalUble, will never- 
theless be of assistance even to the most 
inexperienced. It consists of catching 
the point of the blade under the thumb 
nail, and then letting the nail slip off 
quickly. If the blade gives a good clear 
ring, you may conclude that it is well 
tempered, but if it does not ring full and 
clear it is an indication that the blade is 
tempered unevenly. 

The Concave Blade. 

The thinnest edge is always the sharp- 
est. A blade ought therefore to be as 
thin as the strength of the metal com- 
posing it will permit. Nearly all razors 
are now made "hollow-ground'^ or **con- 
cave" — a great improvement over the 
old stvle of thick blade. The edo-e of 
the hollow-ground razor is thinner and 
therefore cuts better, and is much easier 
to keep sharp. 

Almost anv desired make of razor mav 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 1^ 

be had in either half, three-quarters, or 
full concave. The full concave blade is 
of course the thinnest. In view of the 
fact that the thinner the edge the sharper 
the instrument, mO'St purchasers of a 
razor ciuite naturally conclude that the 
full concave blade is the best. Our im- 
pression is that this is a mistake; that 
the full concave blade is not so good for 
shaving most beards as the three-quar- 
ters concave. In a very deeply hollow 
ground razor, the blade is ground ex- 
tremely thin, back to a line some dis- 
tance from the edge. When such an 
edge — almost as thin as paper — comes 
in contact with a stiff beard, unless the 
the blade is held very flat upon the face, 
it is quite likely to bend and spring, and 
a cut will be the result. 

Width of the Blade. 
The width of the blade is another 
point that should receive attention. As 
a rule we believe the beginner selects too 
wide a blade. A comparatively narrow 
one, in the size known as the 4-8 is the 



l6 SHAVING MADE EASY. 



Yd 



V5 






SHOWING DIFFERENT WIDTHS OF BLADES. 



S H A \' 1 N G M . \ 1) !•: \i A S N 



17 



bes*^ for most purposes, as it does not 
spring on the face so readily as the wide 
blade, yet it follows the contours of the 
face more closely, and in general is man- 
aged more easily. 

Point of the Blade. 
The point of the razor ought to l^e 
sliehtlv rounded as shown in the illus- 




A. THE ROUND POINTED BLADE. 



B 



B. THE SHARP POINTED BLADE. 



tration. While this is seemingly a small 
matter, yet a sharp point has probably 
occasioned more cuts than almost any 



Ih SHAVlXr. MADI-: KASV. 

Other cause. If you have a razor with a 
sharp point, you can round it off, on the 
edge of the hone. You should not use 
the top surface of the hone for this pur- 
pose, for if you do you are quite Hkely 
to scratch the hone and spoil it. Use 
water freely otherwise the blade will be- 
come heated and that would quickly 
spoil its temper. 



III. 

CARE OF THE RAZOR. 

Take good care of your razor. Many 
a fine razor has been spoiled by care- 
lessness and neglect on the part of the 
user. The life of a razor will depend 
entirely on the care given it. Never put 
it away until it has first been wiped thor- 
oughly dry, using a piece of chamois 
skin for this purpose. Even this will not 
remove all the moisture, so the blade 
should be drawn across the strop a few 
times, or else left exposed to the air for 
a few moments until the little particles 
of moisture not removed by the cloth 
have evaporated. Then you may replace 



20 Sll.WlNG MADE EASY. 

the razor in its case with the expectation 
of finding it in good condition when you 
next use it. 

Rusting must be prevented, especially 
upon the edge, which seems to rust more 
quickly than any other part of the blade. 
A tiny rust spot on this delicate line, by 
causing the metal to soften and crumble 
at that point, will soon end the useful- 
ness of the razor, unless the edge is 
ground back past the rust spot. In such 
a case there is always the liability of not 
getting a good edge. 

In wiping the lather ofif the blade 
never use a glazed or coarse paper. 
Tissue paper is the best. ^lany overlook 
this point and by drawing the blade 
straight across a glazed or hard finished 
paper, turn the edge, and then wonder 
wdiy the razor has lost its keenness. 
Draw the blade over the paper obliquely, 
away from the edge, in the same direc- 
tion as when stropping it. 



IV. 
THE SAFETY RAZOR. 

Of recent years a great number of 
safety razors have been invented and 
placed on the market, the manufacturers 
of each claiming that theirs are superior 
to all others and that they have at last 
produced a razor that is destined to rev- 
olutionize shaving. 

One thing may be said of safety ^ 
razors in general — that if a man uses 
one he is less likely to cut himself, but 
this is all that can reasonably be said 
in their favor. Of course, if it were im-, 
possible to shave with the ordinary ^ 
razor without cutting one's self, then the 



22 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

safety razor would become a necessity. 
The truth is, however, that anyone who 
has a good keen smooth-cutting razor, 
lathers the face thoroughly, and will learn 
— if he does not already know — how to 
handle the razor properly, will run 
almost no danger. Such a man will 
seldom cut himself. 

On the other hand, most of the safety 
razors are difficult to keep clean and dry, 
and therefore free from rust; and owing 
to the difficulty of stropping them, it is 
almost, if not quite impossible to keep 
them sharp. It is also difficult to make 
the correct stroke with them. Probably 
a hundred thousand safety razors have 
been sold in the United States within the 
past few years and it is extremely doubt- 
ful if ten per cent, of them are now in 
use. 



V. 
THE HONE. 

The edge of a razor, whtn viewed 
under a powerful microscope, presents 
an appearance very different from that 
seen by the unaided eye. Unmagnified, 
the edge appears to be a continuous un- 
broken Hue. Such actually is not the 
case, for the microscope reveals the fact 
that, instead of being straight and un- 
broken, the edge is in reality composed 
of a great number of minute points 
much resembling the teeth of a saw. 

These points or teeth follow each 
other throughout the entire length of the 
blade, and bv their extreme minuteness 



;4 SHAVING MADE EASY. 




1:1 )(;]•: ()1~ THE RAZCJR AS IT APPEARS UNDER 
THE MICROSCOPE. 



and unbroken regularity give the edge 
its exceeding keenness. Now if the 
razor becomes dull, these teeth will be 
less even and regular and their edges 
will be rounded and worn away. To 
sharpen the razor, therefore, it is nec- 
essary — by making the edge as thin as 
possible — to restore these little teeth to 
their original condition. This cannot be 
done by stropping, but is accomplished 
only by [he prnct'ss known as honing. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 2^ 

It has been asserted by some, that 
when once the razor has been ground 
and set, the strop alone without further 
honing- or grinding is sufficient to keep 
it in order. This opinion has eminated 
from certain makers of razor-strops, 
who wish to induce the pubhc to pur- 
chase their goods. Thev represent their 
strops as having been "metahzed," or 
otherwise treated with some kind of 
preparation that makes honing unneces- 
sary. As a rule, we would advise the 
reader to beware of these "wonder-work- 
ing-strops." Such preparations may, and 
sometimes do, improve the strop, just as 
lather when applied to a strop will. im- 
prove it, but that they will do more than 
this, w^e deny. When the special offices 
of the hone and of the strop are fully 
understood, it will at once become ap- 
parent that no strop can possibly take 
the place of a hone. 

The object of honing a razor is to 
make its edge as tliiii and flat as a proper 
attention to the degree of firmness re- 



26 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

quired will permit. This is accom- 
plished by the hard fine grit of the hone 
cutting and wearing away the steel. 
The strop cannot do this. On the con- 
trary, stropping a razor, instead of giv- 
ing it a thin and fiat edge, always has a 
tendency to produce a rounded one. This 
results from the very nature of the strop, 
which always ''gives*' or sags more or 
less during the process of stropping, and 
the more the strop is permitted to sag,, 
the sooner will such an edge be produced, 
and in proportion as the edge assumes 
this rounded form, it losses its keenness. 
The flattest and thinnest edge is always 
the sharpest, and the only way to impart 
such an edge to a razor is by means of 
the hone. 

Before explaining the process of hon- 
ing, it may be well to say a word about 
the different kinds of hones, so that 
should the reader wish to purchase one, 
he may do it intelligently. 

There are two distinct classes of hones 
in general use, — one known as the rock 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 2J 

hone, on account of its being cut from 
the natural rock, and the other manu- 
factured. A great number of hones are 
produced in different parts of the United 
States, but few that are really suitable for 
sharpening razors. A razor hone must 



THE HONE. 

be of the very finest quality. The natu- 
ral stones are usually composed princi- 
pally of silica, which is one of the sharp- 
est cutting minerals known. It easily 
cuts the hardest steel and the fine grit 
imparts a very smooth edge to a razor. 
The "Arkansas," found near the famous 
Hot Springs, is one of this variety, but 
owing to the difficulty of obtaining this 
stone, and the great waste in cutting it, 
the supply is limited and the price high. 
Most of the razor hones used in the 



2% SHAVING MADE EASY. 

United States are imported. The most 
noted are the German water hones, the 
oil hones from Belgium, and the Swaty 
hones from Austria. The last named are 
very reasonable in price and quite a fav- 
orite among barbers. They are a manu- 
factured hone, and in some respects the 
manufactured hones are superior to the 
natural stones, in that they are free from 
scams and uneven spots and perfectly 
uniform in texture. 

^lost men have the idea that honing 
is a dit^cult operation and should be un- 
dertaken only by expert cutlers or bar- 
bers. Very few seem to think that they 
can hone there own razors. How this 
impression became current, it is difficult 
to say. \\'e venture to assert, how- 
ever, that honing a razor is at least as 
easy as stropping it. In this case as in 
many others, the difficulty arises from 
su'^posinq- there is a difficulty. 



How to Use the H 



one 



HOW TO USE THE HONE. 

The hone being the only means of 
sharpening a dull razor, its use becomes 
at once of the utmost importance to those 
who wish to keep their razors in perfect 
order. 

Hones are seldom used dry, but are 
usually covered with either water, lather 
or oil : first — to prevent heating the blade 
which would quickly spoil its temper; 
second — to keep the particles of steel 
that are ground off the blade from enter- 
ing the pores of the stone, which would 
soon fill up and result in what is known 
as a glazed surface; and third — to make 



SIIAVINC; MADE EASY. 3 1 

tlie surface of the hone as smooth as pos- 
sible. 

Before commencing tlie operation, 
wipe the hone clean, then put on a few 
drops of oil or else cover it with water 
or lather. This will float the little 
particles of steel ground off the razor, 
thus preventing them from remaining 
directly on the hone to impede its full 
and equal effect. With most hones you 
may use either water, lather or oil ; but 
do not change from one to the other; 
whichever you begin with, use that ex- 
clusively. It requies a longer time to 
produce a keen edge when oil is used 
but the edge is somewhat smoother. 
Most barbers use lather and we should 
advise the beginner to do so. 

Directions for Honing. 

The hone, with its fine surface up, 
should be placed perfectly flat on a table 
or other solid foundation. (The rough 
surface is intended merely as a support 
and not for use.) x\fter covering the 



32 SHAVING MADE EASY. 




HOW TO HONE THE R.\ZOR. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 33 

hone with lather, place the razor flat 
upon it as shown in Fig. A. With the 
thumb and fore finger, grasp the razor 
back of the, heel, so as to have firm hold 
of both the blade and the handle. Draw 
the blade from heel to point, forward 
against the edge, and with a moderate 
degree of pressure, until it comes into 
the position shown in Fig. B. Now, 
without lifting the blade from the stone, 
turn the edge up, so that the razor rests 
on the back of the blade. Slide it for- 
ward on its back from point to heel 
and let it fall into the position indicated 
in Fig. C. Push the blade from heel to 
point against the edge, finishing the 
stroke as in Fig. D. Turn the blade 
on its back, slide from point to heel and 
let it fall into the first position, as shown 
in Fig. A. Continue honino^ until the 
blade is sufiiciently keen and free from 
nicks and inequalities. This may be 
known by drawing the edge, very lightly, 
across the moistened thumb nail. If it 
sticks to the nail sliehtlv, it is an indica- 



34 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

tion that the honing has developed the 
little teeth which constitute the perfect 
razor edge, and that the razor is now 
ready for stropping. 

If the honing be carried too far, a 
"wire edge" will be produced, and this 
must be removed. To do this, draw the 
edge with a steady hand across the 
moistened thumb nail in the manner in- 
dicated above. The blade should then 
be drawn once or twice across the hone 
as before, in order to unite all parts of 
the edge and cause a perfect equality of 
keenness from one end of the blade to 
the other. With this done, the operation 
is in general performed, and the won- 
drous dit^culty of honing the razor van- 
ishes. 

Special Directions. 
The following directions should be 
specially observed. 

First — The blade should be held per- 
fectly Hat on the hone, so that the back, 
as well as the edge, touches the stone. 
If the back is raised from the stone so 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 35 

that only the edge touches, the bevel will 
be short and the edge blunt. 

Second — In drawing the blade across 
the hone diagonally against the edge, 
the heel should be about one and a half 
inches in advance of the point, and care 
should be taken to maintain the same 
angle when the stroke is reversed and 
throughout the entire operation. This 
sets the teeth at the proper angle, that 
is, slightly inclined toward the heel. We 
have likened the edge of a razor to that 
of a saw, but there is this difference: 
saw teeth incline away from the handle 
and toward the point, while the razor 
teeth incline away from the point and 
toward the heel. This is correct in 
principle, for the saw in use is pushed 
away from the handle toward the point, 
while the razor is usually drawn away 
from the point toward the heel. 

Third — Press with equal force on all 
parts of the edge. With a good hone, 
verv little pressure will be required. 

The time required to hone a razor 



36 SII.WIXG MADF. EASY. 

depends nirch on the condition of the 
razor and the hardness of the steel com- 
posing- it. When the edge is in the usual 
condition — that is when it is free from 
nicks and has merely hecome thick in 
consequence of the injudicious use of 
the razor strop — it will need very little 
honing : eight or ten strokes in each 
direction will be quite sufficient. When, 
however, the edge has nicks : though so 
small as to be scarcely perceptible, the 
operation will require more time and at- 
tention. Should the nicks be large, it 
will be better to send the razor to a 
cutler to be ground. 

If the razor is well cared for and pro- 
perly stropped, it will not require very 
frequent honing, probably not oftener 
than once in from six to eight weeks. 
When it is required you will become 
aware of it. from the fact that stropping- 
will not sharpen it. 



VII. 
THE STROP. 

The object of honing the razor, as has 
been explained, is to abraid and wear 
away the edge of the blade so that it 
becomes as thin as possible. But when 
this is done, the process of sharpening 
the razor is still incomplete, for the 
edge, when taken from the hone, is left 
rorgh and unfit to put on the face. An- 
other process is necessary, and that is 
stropping. The object of stropping is 
not to make the blade thinner, but to 
smooth the edge, taking ofif the rough 
surface of the little teeth which have been 
developed, and setting them all in perfect 



38 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

alignment. This gives the razor its ex- 
ceeding keenness. 

Yen should have a first-class strop. 
It little matters how good yonr razor 
may be if your strop is a poor one, for 
it is absolutely impossible to keep a razor 
in good condition if the strop is of poor 
quality or ro-.-gh and haggled. Many 
a razor has been blamed when the 
fault lie entirely with the strop and 
the manner of using it. So called sharp- 
ening preparations, sometimes applied to 
the surface of strops, as a substiti'te 
for the hone, should be avoided. ]\Iost 
of them contain acid or emery, which 
is likelv to gradually spoil th.e temper of 
the razor. 

There are many kinds of strops 
manufact^-red and placed on the market, 
some good and some bad. The most 
common is the swing strop, made of 
leather or hor.^e hide on one side and 
canvas or hose on the other. Some of 
the cheaper grades have a very coarse 
amz'as, and unless vou wish to ruin vonr 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 39 

razor, you should never put it on such a 
strop. In our opinion a good leather or 
horse hide strop is the best, and meets 
every requirement; but if a combination 
strop is used, the hnen or hose side 
shorld be of the finest quahty. 

The strop should be not less than 
twenty inches long and two inches wide. 
Its surface should be very soft and 
smooth — not glazed — and you can tell 
whether it is so, by rubbing the hand over 
it. Do not fold the strop when putting 
it away, for if you do you are likely to 
crack or roughen the surface, and this 
will injure the edge of the blade when 
it is drawn across it. 

Care of the Strop. 

After the strop has been put to a 
great deal of use, it will sometimes be 
found that it will not "take hold" on the 
razor — that is it will allow the blade to 
slip over it with little or no resistance 
and thus fail to impart a keen, smooth- 
cutting edge. The reason is that the 



40 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

Strop has become dry and porous. Do not 
attempt to remedy the matter by apply- 
ing oil or razor paste ; these will only 
make matters worse. Hang the strop 
on a hook, and with the left hand stretch 
as tightly as possible. Apply a good 
thick lather to the surface and rub it in 
with the palm of the hand. Barbers 
sometimes nail the strop to a board and 
rrb tlie lather in with a smooth bottle; 
but the hand will do quite as well, and 
indeed, we think it preferable. What the 
strop requires is to have the pores filled 
with the lather ; so put on and work in 
coat after coat, until the leather will take 
up no more. Thai leave the strop to dry. 
This simple treatment will completely 
change the action of the strop, and the 
next time you use it, you will be sur- 
prised and delighted to note its improved 
effect on the razor. It will have that 
"cling" and ^'resistance'' which barbers 
so much desire in a strop, and which, in- 
deed, is quite essential to its efficiency. 



VIII. 

HOW TO STROP THE RAZOR. 

Place a hook in a door or a window 
casing about four or five feet from the 
floor. Put the ring of the strop over 
the hook, and hold the handle firmly in 
the left hand as shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration. The strop should be 
pulled tight — not allowed to hang loosely 
— otherwise the edge of the razor will 
become rounded and require frequent 
honing. 

Open the razor, so that the handle is 
in line with the blade. Grasp it firmly 
with the right hand, the first two fingers 
and thumb holding the razor just back 
of the heel, so that perfect control is had 



42 SH.WIXC. MADl-: KASV. 

of both the blade and handle. With 
the razor held in this manner it is an 
easy matter to turn the razor back and 
forth from one side to the other. 




TTDW TO STROP TTTF. RAZOR. 



SHAVING MADE EASV 43 

Lay the blade flat on the furth?r end 
of the strop, as shown in Fig. E, with the 
edge away from you. Draw the blade 
toward yon, always keeping the heel of 
the razor in advance of the point. When 
at the end of the strop, rotate the razor 
on its back till the nnstroped side of the 
blade comes in contact with the strop. 
as shown in Fig. F. Then, with the heel 
in advance, push the razor away from 
yon, until it reaches the further end of 
the strop. Again rotate, and continue 
the stropping until the razor is sharp. 

Always hold the blade at the same 
angle, and perfectly flat on the strop. 
You will observe that the stroke is exactly 
opposite to that used in honing. In hon- 
ing, the edge is in advance ; in stropping, 
the back. During the operation tJic hack 
of the razor should never he taken from 
the strop. By observing this, and always 
turning the blade on its back, instead of 
on the edge, you will avoid cutting the 
strop. 

Beginners should not attempt to make 



44 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

a quick stroke. Let the stroke be slow 
and even, developing speed gradually 
until a complete mastery of the move- 
ment is acquired. 

If the razor is in good condition and 
not in need of honing, fifteen or twenty 
strokes in each direction will be suffi- 
citnt. If, however, the razor should re- 
quire honing, no amount of stropping 
will put a keen edge on it. It will us- 
ually be necessary to strop the razor each 
time you shave, and with stiff beards 
more than once may be requires! . 



IX. 



THE BRUSH. 



Purchase a good brush. The cheap 
ones are usually the most expensive in 
the end, and nearly always prove unsatls- 




SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE BRUSH SHOWING 
INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION. 



factory. It shold be remembered that 
the vital part of a brush is in the sdfing, 
and particular attention should therefore 



4fi 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 



be paid to that part of it. Cheap brushes 
are commonly set with gUie, rosin or 
cement, which soon cracks and becomes 
unadhesive ; whereupon tlie bristles fall 
out. We recommend a brush made of 
bristles or badger hair and set in hard 
vulcanized rubber. A brush so con- 




THE BRUSH. 



structed, with wood, bone or ivory 
handle, and hard rubber ferule, will not 
shed the bristles or crack open, and with 
proper care will last for years. 

Do not leave the lather to dry in the 
brush, but after shaving rinse it out 
thoroughly and dry the brush with a 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 4/ 

towel, before putting away. The cup and 
briTsh should be kept clean and away 
from dust. Once a week they should be 
washed with hot water. 



X. 

THE CUP. 

The shaving cup should be of earthen 
ware or china, and large enough to ac- 
commodate the ordinary round cake of 
shaving soap. Some cups are made with 
two compartments, one for soap and the 
other for water, but this arrangement is 
unnecessary, and in fact, not so conve- 
nient as the ordinary cup, for it leaves 
too little room for making the lather. 

If possible, the cake of soap should 
entirely fill the bottom of the crp so that 
no space is left between the soap and 
the sides ; otherwise water will get in 
and keep the bottom of the cake con- 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 49 

tinually soaked. If it is found that the 
cake does not quite fill the space, take the 
soap out and warm it until it becomes 
somewhat soft, then put it back in the 
cup, and with the hand press down the 
sides all around, thus flattening out the 
cake until it quite fills the intervening 
space. If at any time the soap should 
cleave away from the sides of the cup, 
it should be pressed back as at first. 
This will be found the most convenient 
way of using the soap. 

Great care should be taken to keep 
the cup scrupulously clean, rinsing it out 
thoroughly each time after shaving, in 
order to remove any lather that may 
have been left unused. Keep the cup 
away from dust. 

Some use the sticks of shaving soap 
and make the lather on the face. While 
this is permissable, we think the better 
way is to make the lather in the cup and 
put it on with the brush. 



XI. 

THE SOAP. 

Next to the razor, the most important 
article of the shaving outfit is tlie soap. 
In its proper use Hes the real secret of 
easy shaving. The razor may be ever so 
good, but unless the beard is properly 
lathered with a good soap, shaving will 
be anything but a pleasure. Use only a 
regular recognized standard make of 
shaving soap, not, under any circum- 
stances, a toilet soap. The latter is not 
intended for shaving, and is likely to pro- 
duce irritations of the skin and leave 
the face rough and sore. 

A wrong idea prevails regarding the 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 5 1 

use of the soap. The popular impression 
is that the soap is used for the purpose 
of softening the beard, in which condi- 
tion it is supposed to be moist easily cut. 
This is a mistake. The soap is used, 
not to soften the beard, but to produce 
exactly the opposite effect — namely, tc 
make the hair stiff and brittle, so that 
they will present a firm and resisting 
surface to the razor. A hair, as is well 
known, is a tube composed of a hard 
fibrous substance, growing from a bulb 
or root, which secretes an oily matter. 
This oil works its way up through the 
hair, and by permeating all parts, ren- 
ders the hair soft and pliable. Now in 
this natural oily condition, it is very dif- 
ficult to cut the hair with a razor, and it 
becomes even more difficult if the beard 
be made still softer by the application of 
hot water. Many do this, and it is no 
wonder they find shaving difficult. 
When this is done, the hairs become soft 
and limp, and the razor will either slip 
over them entirely, or else cut partly 



52 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

into them, bend them back and sHce them 
lengthwise, all the while pulling and 
straining them at the roots, and making 
the process of shaving most painful. 
Now soap has the opposite effect. It con- 
tains either alkali, potash or soda, which 
when applied to the beard in the form of 
lather, unites with the oil of the hair,, 
neutralizing it and removing it, and ren- 
ders the hairs hard stiff and brittle — in 
which condition they may be easily and 
readily cut. For the sake of cleanliness, 
the face should, of course, be washed 
previous to shaving in order to remove 
any dirt or grit from the beard, which 
might dull the razor ; but before applying 
the lather, the face should be well dried 
with a towel. 



XII. 

THE LATHER. 

To make the lather, see that the soap 
is placed in the cup according to previous 
directions. Fill the cup with water, al- 
lowing it to stand for a few seconds, 
then pour the water out. Usually suffi- 
cient water to make the lather will adhere 
to the cup, soap and brush. Now with 
the brush, mix thoroughly, using a com- 
bined stirring and churning motion, 
until a good thick lather appears. The 
more the brush is rubbed over the soap 
the thicker the lather becomes. A great 
deal depends upon having the lather just 
right. If it is thin and watery, you will 



54 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

have poor success in shaving. The more 
creamy it is, the better will be the effect 
of the alkali in stiffening the beard. 
Some of the poorer qualities of soap 
produce lather very quickly, sometimes 
half filling the cup, but it will be found 
thin and without lasting qualities, so that 
by the time one side of the face has been 
shaved, the lather is all gone from the 
other. A good soap will produce a thick 
creamy lather that will last throughout 
the entire process of shaving. 

Applying the Lather. 
Put the lather on with the brush, 
covering every part of the face that you 
intend to shave. Then with the fingers 
rub it thoroughly into the beard until the 
lather has had sufficient time to stiffen 
the hairs. Next to having the razor in 
perfect condition, this is the most im- 
portant thing to do; for it is impossible 
to shave easily unless the face is well 
lathered and the lather thoroughly work- 
ed into the beard. Go over the face once 
more with the brush, in order to spread 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 55 

the lather evenly, and then begin shaving 
at once, before the lather has time to 
dry. Should it dry while you are shav- 
ing, wet the brush slightly and apply 
fresh lather. If you prepare your face 
in accordance with these instructions, a 
keen razor will slip over the face so 
easily that shaving will become a real 
pleasure. 



XIII. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO BEGINNERS. 

If you are a young man, just begin- 
ning to shave, it is important that you 
commence right. It is quite as easy to 
learn the right way as the wrong 
way. Do not entertain the idea that 
it is a difficult matter for one to shave 
himself — for there is nothing difficult 
about it when you know how. You may 
have previously tried and failed, but if 
you will now follow the instructions con- 
tained in this book, there is no reason 
why shaving may not be performed with- 
out further difficulties. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 



57 




THE RIGHT WAY TO HOLD THE RAZOR. 



The accompanying- illustrji' ..n shows 
the position in which the razor should 
be held. It will be observed that the 
handle is thrown well back past the heel. 
The first three fingers rest on the back 
of the blade, with the little finger over 
the crook at the end, ar.d the thumb on 
the side of the blade, near the middle. 
In this position, with the handle acting as 



58 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

a balance, the razor will be under per- 
fect control, and there will be little dan- 
ger of cutting oneself. This position can 
be maintained throughout most of the 
process of shaving, although it may be 
mcessary to dhange it slightly while 
shaving certain parts, as for instance 
the neck, under the jaw. But whatever 
the position, endeavor to have the razor 
at all times under perfect control. The 
position here indicated, is the one we 
should certainly advise the beginner to- 
adopt, but if a man, from long continued 
use has formed the habit of holding the 
razor in a different way, any change 
will prove difficult and may not be advis- 
able. 

The Stroke. 
Owing no doubt largely to individual 
temperament, there is considerable vari- 
ation in the manner of using the razor, 
with different person^s. Some find a 
long slow stroke best, while others make 
it short and quick. Each man must 
suit the stroke to his own convenience. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 59 

But certain principles are applicable to 
everybody. In the first place you should 
begin with a slow even stroke, gradu- 
ally increasing it as you gain better con- 
trol of the razor. Speed will develop 
naturally with practice. 

Hold the razor quite flat upon the face. 
Do not pull the razor directly down 
against the beard, but hold it obliquely 
to the direction of movement. In gen- 
eral shave in the direction of the growth 
of the beard, like this : 



■ ^^^y^^^y 



Shaving against the growth pulls the 
hairs and thus irritates the skin, and if 
the beard is heavy and wiry the edge of 
the blade is quite liable to catch in the 
hairs and be deflected inward and cut 
the face. 

Position of the Mirror. 

The mirror should hang between two 
windows if possible, so that when you 
look into it the light will fall directly up- 



6o SHAVING MADE EASY. 

on both sides of your face. You will then 
be able to get a good reflection of either 
side. Remove the collar. To prevent 
soiling- the shirt, place a towel around the 
neck in an easy, comfortable manner, 
pinning it at the side. 



XIV. 



The R^ght Way to Shave 




TO SHAVE THE RIGHT SIDE OF 
THE FACE. 



TO SHAVE THE RIGHT SIDE OF 
THE FACE. 

Reach over the head with the left 
hand and with the fingers draw the 
skin upward, thus making a smooth shav- 
ing surface. The ilhistration shows the 
proper position. Shave downward until 
about half of the right cheek is shaved, 
then slide the left hand still further over 
until the fingers rest in the middle of 
the cheek and again pull the skin up- 
ward. Now continue to shave down- 
ward until the entire right side of the 
face is shaved clean, as far as the mid- 
dle of the chin and well under the jaw. 




TO SHAVE THE RIGHT SIDE OF 
THE FACE UNDER THE JAW. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 65 



TO SHAVE THE RIGHT SIDE OF 
THE FACE UNDER THE JAW. 

Hold the head over toward the left 
side with the chin slightly elevated. 
With the fingers of the left hand, draw 
the skin tight under the jaw. Shave 
downward if the beard grows in that 
direction ; if not reverse the stroke. You 
should never shave against the growth 
when going over the face the first time, 
if it can be avoided. Keep the skin as 
tightly drawn as possible, for a better 
shaving surface is thus presented to the- 
razor, and there is less liability of cut- 
ting yourself. 




TO SHAVE THE LEB^T SIDE OF 
THE FACE. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 67 



TO SHAVE THE LEFT SIDE OF 
THE FACE. 

Place the fingers of the left hand in 
front of and just above the ear and press 
upward so as to draw the skin smooth on 
the upper left cheek. With the razor in 
the right hand, toe pointing upward, 
reach across the face as shown above, 
and shave downward. In shaving the 
lower part of the cheek and chin, follow 
downward with the left hand, keeping 
the skin tightly drawn. 




TO SHAVE THE LEFT SIDE OF 
THE FACE UNDER THE JAW. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 69 



TO SHAVE THE LEFT SIDE OF 
THE FACE UNDER THE JAW. 

For many, this is the most difficult 
part of the face to shave as the skin is 
very tender, and unless treated gently will 
soon become irritated and sore. To shave 
easily, raise the chin, incline the head to- 
ward the right, and draw the skin as 
tight as possible with the left hand. 
Shave downward unless, as sometimes 
"happens, the beard grows in the opposite 
direction, in which case you will, of 
course, reverse the stroke. 

To shave the upper lip, draw the lip 
down as much as possible, to tighten the 
skin. Owing to the strong muscle in the 
lip, you will hardly need to use the left 
"hand for this purpose. 




TO SHAVE UNDER THE CHIN. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 7 1 



TO SHAVE UNDER THE CHIN. 

Throw the head backward and elevate 
the chin. Hold the razor in the right 
hand, and with the fingers of the left 
hand draw the skin downward. You 
should always endeavor to keep the skin 
drawn as smooth as possible, for by so 
doing vou will greatly lessen the liability 
of cutting yourself and will be able to 
shave much more easilv. 




TO SHAVE UPWARD AGAINST THE 
GROWTH OF THE BEARD. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 73 

SHAVING OVER THE SECOND 
TIME. 

If you desire a really clean shave, you 
must go over the face the second time. 
Strop the razor a few times before begin- 
ning. Lather the face as before, though 
it is unnecessary to rub the lather in with 
the fingers. Simply put it on with the 
brush. 

In shaving over the face the second 
time, some reverse the stroke. That is, 
they shave upward against the growth of 
the beard, instead of downward, as dur- 
ing the first time over. This gives an 
exceedingly close shave and if the beard 
is stiff and heavy and the skin thin and 
tender, it may make the face sore, and 
cause the hairs to grow inward, under the 
skin. Perhaps the best way will be to 
shave lightly over the face the second 
time, in the same direction as at first. 
Each man should decide this point ac- 
cording to his own experience. 



x\ 



CARE OF THE FACE AFTER 
SHAVING. 

]\Iost men who shave themselves seem 
to think that when they have removed 
the beard, they have nothing further to 
do. This is a great mistake. They un- 
dervalue the importance of a proper 
treatment of the face. A quick and easy 
way of caring for the face after shaving, 
is to remove the lather by a thorough 
washing, then to apply either witch hazel, 
bay rum or some other good face lotion, 
and to follow this with a small quantity 
of talcum powder, evenly applied. This 
is probably about all that the average 
man will usuallv find time to do. 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 75 

In order, however, to keep the skin in 
a healthful condition, a little more elabo- 
rate treatment should occasionally be 
given. We recommend the following: 
Wash the face thoroughly to free it from 
the lather, and then apply a steaming hot 
towel, as hot as can be borne. The heat 
and moisture draw the blood to the face, 
open the pores, and set up a healthful 
action of the skin. Next apply witch 
hazel, and finally give the face a thorough 
massage. There is no other treatment so 
beneficial to the skin. With many per- 
sons the flow of blood to the face and 
scalp is very sluggish, because of en- 
feebled or slow heart action ; and in con- 
sequence, the many small arteries and ca- 
pillaries become clogged. Massage stimu- 
lates the circulation, and brings the blood 
from the inner centers to the surface, 
filling the many minute capillaries just 
underneath the skin, thus producing a 
tonic eflfect, which gives the skin renewed 
vigor and health. 



y6 SHAVING MADE EASY. 

\\^HAT TO DO FOR A CUT. 

If a man cuts himself while shaving, 
it is usually due to certain causes that 
are easily avoidable. The principal 
causes are six in number: 

First — Attempting- to shave with a 
dull razor. 

Second — losing a sharp pointed razor. 

Third — Shaving- with a razor that is 
too hollow ground , so that the edge 
springs and bends on the face. 

Fourth — Holding the razor improp- 
erly. 

Fifth — Shaving upward against the 
growth of the beard. 

Sixth — Shaving in too great a hurry. 

If you will avoid these mistakes and ex- 
ercise proper care, you will seldom cut 
yourself. But when you do, it will be 
well to know how to treat the wound. If 
it be slight, the bleeding- may sometimes 
be checked by using pressure. Covering 
the fingers with a towel, simply press the 
cut together. If this does not stop the 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 



77 



flow, use an astringent. The styptis pen- 
cils, made especially for this purpose, are 
the best, and may be obtained at any store 



W 



^^mx y-<^^ .PENC^ 



-v ' ^ ' wig M BijSg.i a ^- s^x. 



where barbers' supplies are kept. In case 
you should not have the pencils, alum 
may be used. In any event do not be dis- 
couraged, for such accidents sometimes 
happen to the best barbers. 



XVI. 

IRRITATION OF THE SKIN— ITS 
CAUSE AND PREVENTION. 

Sonic men almost always experience 
burning and irritation of the skin after 
shaving. To such, we wish to offer 
some suggestions, which we hope will 
greatly benefit, if not entirely prevent the 
trouble. 

The most common cause of irritation 
is undoubtedly a dull razor. If the razor 
is keen and sharp, the hairs will yield 
readily to the blade and no irritation will 
be produced. But if the blade is dull, 
instead of cutting the hairs easily, it 
passes over some, slices other length- 
wise, and pulls and strains at the roots 



SHAVING MADE EASY. 79 

of all. This necessitates scraping the face 
over and over again, in order to get a 
clean shave, and the result is an irrita- 
tion that perhaps continues until you are 
ready to shave again. Thus the tender 
parts of the skin are kept in a state of 
continual irritation. The remedy is of 
course, to see that the razor is always 
keen and sharp. 

Another cause that may be mentioned, 
is chafing of the neck by the collar. If 
the edge of the collar is worn and rough, 
and comes in contact with the tender 
skin, it is sure to make it sore. 

Too close shaving is a frequent cause, 
and those who are troubled in this way 
will do well to shave over the face but 
once. 

Some of the cheap toilet waters are 
adulterated, and contain ingredients 
which undoubtedly produce a bad effect 
on the skin. In using bay rum or other 
face lotions, use only the best. If much 
trouble is experienced, we should advise 
the use of pure distilled witch hazel, 



8o SHAVING MADE EASY. 

which may be obtained at any drug store. 
This is soothing to the face and allays 
the burning. 

Sometimes the trouble is due to an 
excess of alkali or potash in the soap. 
The best shaving soaps are especially 
prepared and have antiseptic and demul- 
cent properties, which render them prac- 
tically non-irritating. After shaving, 
take care to remove all the soap from the 
face; for during the process, the lather 
has been worked into the pores of the 
skin, and only by means of a thorough 
washing can it all be removed. 

Irritations resulting from constitu- 
tional disease, or impurity of the blood, 
should, of course, be treated by a phy- 
sician. 

Some men are more subject to irrita- 
tion of the skin than others. Those who 
have a thin and tender skin and a heavy 
and stiff beard, are especially liable, but 
with care, even these may prevent most 
of the trouble.