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Shenandoah Valley 

Pioneers and Their 


A History of 
Frederick County, Virginia 


From its Formation in 1738 to 1908 

Compiled Mainly from Original Records of Old 

Frederick County, now Hampshire, Berkeley, 

Shenandoah, Jefferson, Hardy, Clarke, 

Warren, Morgan and Frederick 

T. K. Cartmell 
Clerk of the Old County Court 

LiS /7sr^ L' 3 o 


MAR 24 1914 












The title of this volume should indicate to 
the reader, what he will find for his edification. 
Our County has never had her history published. 
Successive generations for one hundred and fifty 
years, were busy in their day making history; 
but no period produced the man who would turn 
aside from his daily avocations, to collate the 
facts and place them before the public in form 
for convenience and preservation. We had such 
men as Kercheval, Howe, Foote, Norris and 
several others, to publish many historical facts; 
but none of these writers ever gave us a history 
of Frederick County. Their treatment of histor- 
ical facts was so general in character, that we 
gather very little from their attractive style, that 
can be utilized as county history. Our County 
had useful history; her subdivisions have the 
same. Much of it has been gradually hidden 
away in the accumulation of old files and old 
records of the county and the nine counties em- 
braced in Old Frederick. 

The State can best preserve her history 
through the labor and skill of the county his- 
torian. Some of the Virginia Counties have 
published histories, prepared by competent men. 

The writer, many years ago, while County 
Clerk, discovered so much unpublished history 
of the Old County, that he was induced to adopt 
some plan to preserve its identity; and out of 
the multitude of memoranda, to secure a con- 
venient hand-book of reference for his office. 
He had no intention to publish a history; know- 
ing full well that much additional effort would 
be required to gather matter for a comprehen- 
sive history of the County. However, he hoped 
that some gifted son would appear and take up 
the matter, and in this way produce a volume of 
interesting facts. For twenty-five years he wait- 
ed; but no one seemed inclined to undertake the 
task. In 1904, the opinion was so decidedly ex- 
pressed that the Old Qerk was the proper one 
to use the matter collected, that he was induced 
to undertake the authorship of the volume he 
now presents to the reader. The descendants 
of the pioneers will find much to interest them; 
and the general reader will be astonished to see 
the valuable matter in easy form for his study. 
The author has avoided fiction, and traditionary 
history unless corroborated to his satisfaction. 

He has given much from his personal knowledge 
of facts, as they occurred during his long inter- 
course with the people of his native county. The 
work has been intensely interesting to him, 
though one of great labor. In the course of 
study, he has spent much time in all the clerk's 
offices of the Valley and other parts of the State. 
The State Library and Land Office were syste- 
matically examined, as only an old clerk could, 
to obtain matter to settle long-disputed questions 
pertaining to the history of Royal and Minor 
Grants. Such evidence was required to deter- 
mine who were the pioneers and first settlers in 
the Valley. Old musty records were brought 
forth, that many had thought were destroyed in 
the evacuation of Richmond in the Spring of 
1865; on which the author had spent several 
days in finding a clue, and then many more be- 
fore he found the record. (These valuable rec- 
ords are now being indexed and will be more 
accessible to students). The History Building 
at the Jamestown Exposition contained much to 
show who hundreds of the pioneers were, and 
whence they came. Several weeks were profit- 
ably spent there. This induced the author to 
visit Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 
New York, to follow clues. Ulster County, New 
York, has a mine of information concerning the 
early settlers in the Shenandoah. The Jerseys 
gave much that the author has used in various 
forms. From these sources, we have much mat- 
ter not heretofore published. National and 
State Libraries, through efficient officers, ex- 
tended rare courtesies. The War Department 
extended special privileges. Mt. Vernon was 
visited, where unusual privileges were given. 

In addition to thes^ sources of information, 
the author has been assisted in the preparation 
of his work by a careful study of the works of 
Washington Irving and Sparks' Life of Wash- 
ington; Washington's Diary and Letters; Jeffer- 
son's Notes; Macaulay's History of England; 
Gabriel Muhlenburg's Life of General Muhlen- 
burg; Meade's History of Old Families, Minis- 
ters and Churches; Hawk's History of Episco- 
pal Church; Sprague's Annals of the Lutheran 
Church ; J. F. Sachse's German Element of Penn- 
sylvania; Herman Schuricht's Germans of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia; Max von Eelking's Ger- 




man Allied Troops, Hessians, etc. ; (translated) ; 
Kirchner's History of Emmigrants; Bishop As- 
bury's Journal; Fithian's Journal; James R. 
Graham, D.D., Planting of Presbyterianism in 
the Northern Neck; Footers Sketches of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina; Popp's Journal, Re- 
lating to Hessian Soldiers in Virginia; Staple- 
ton's Huguenots; Bowman's History of the 
George Rogers Clark's Expedition; Hinke's Ger- 
man Reformed Colony in Virginia; W. T. Saf- 
feir^ Records of the Revolutionary War, and 
3rd Edition by Charles C. Saffell; Thirty Thous- 
and Names of Emigrants, 1727 — 1776, published 
by Leary, Stuart & Co., Philadelphia; John 
Lederer's Discoveries of Wild Countries in Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina; Hening's Virginia 
Statutes; Saml. Shepherd's List of Old Soldiers; 
W. G. and Mary M. Stanard's Colonial History; 
Keith's History of the Quakers; Calendar of 
Virginia State papers; Virgil A. Lewis' History 
of the Virginias; John P. Hale, Notes of Histor- 
ical Society, West Virginia; Rev. Christian 
Streit's Diary; Drs. Krauth & Gilbert's Church 
History; J. A. Waddell's Annals of Augusta; 
J. L. Peyton's History of Augusta; W. W. 
Scott's History of Orange County; Crozier's Vir- 
ginia Colonial Militia; Boogher, Nelson & Ro- 
maine, Genealogical Works in National Library; 
Henderson's Life of Stonewall Jackson; Dab- 
ne/s Civil War; Col. William Allen on Valley 
Campaign; Alexander & Sorrell, Recollections of 
Staff Officers ; Thomas Nelson Page's and J. Es- 
tcn Cooke's Civil War Incidents; E. H. McDon- 
ald's Laurel Brigade ; Generals Geo. H. Gordon & 
Carl Schurz, Histories and Sketches of Union 
Officers, Battles, ex.; oldest newspapers publish- 
ed in the Valley, and those of subsequent per- 
iods; Holmes Conrad (of Martinsburg) Letters 
and Notes; William G. Russell's Notes; William 
H. English's Conquest of the Northwest; Prof. 
J. W. Wayland's The German Element of the 
Shenandoah Valley; Standard Histories of Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Mis- 
souri, and North ^ *olina. 

The study of the u ry of the Old County and 
movements of the Shenandoah Valley pioneers, 
has been fascinating. The Colonial homesteads 
have been visited; many have been familiar to 
the author for a half century; following the de- 
scendants through many stages of development 
to the present, was instructive. The author has 
personal acquaintance with thousands of the 
present population of the Great Valley. For 
thirty years, the citizens of every community of 

Frederick County have been in close touch with 
him; he has enjoyed their friendship and confi- 
dence. This induced the numerous biographical 
sketches found in the volume. He is conscious 
of the fact that some families have been over- 
looked, as from his office-chair he scanned the 
County from memory. 

The Old County, founded in 1738 — once the 
home of the Redmen, with their tomahawk and 
scalping-knife, saw them subjugated; heard the 
tramp of Washington's and Morgan's men; wit- 
nessed the building of Fort Loudoun in the i8th 
Century, and the Star and other forts in the 
19th, when she bared her breast for conflict be- 
tween the armies of the North and South, mar- 
shalled by Stonewall Jackson and his dauntless 
leaders on the one side, on the other, by Banks, 
Sheridan and hosts of others; — witnessed the 
burning of the Valley by Hunter. 

The history now offered, gives organization 
of first courts in all the counties in the Lower 
Valley; origin of the towns; sketches of their 
growth; the ferries, when and where establish- 
ed on the Shenandoah and Potomac; old and 
new roads, when, where and by whom opened; 
turnpikes, their charters and when first used; 
railroads, data in full; old homesteads and fami- 
lies; personal sketches of men of all classes; 
history of the princely estate of Lord Fairfax 
in the Northern Neck; sketch of the Fairfax 
family; history of Winchester from formative 
period to date; the old market and public square, 
that caused litigation of rights between the coun- 
ty and city; history of the celebrated suit and 
results ; Indian, French, and Revolutionary Wars ; 
study of military engagements in the Shenan- 
doah Valley during the Civil War; location of 
battle-fields; dates of battles; lists of Valley 
Regiments; closing scenes at Appomattox; the 
John Brown raid; history of the churches, show- 
ing when and where the first was located West 
of the Blue Ridge; old courts, their officers, 
legal battles fought in their forums; history of 
the Fairfax & Hite suits, and many other nota- 
ble suits and criminal trials; gleanings from old 
courts from their first organization. 

The author commends his effort to the stu- 
dent of history or casual reader, who will find 
it a store-house of information, and a hand- 
book of reference on all subjects pertaining to 
the counties of the Lower Valley. 

"Ingleside," near Winchester, 

December, 1908. 

T. K.C. 


Chapter Pags 

I. Shenandoah Valley Settled, How and by Whom i 

II. The Minor Grants lo 

III. Van Meter and Hite Grants 12 

IV. Old Frederick County, Organization of ; Gleanings from Old Courts 17 

V. Boundaries of Old Frederick County 27 

VI. Frederick County, Physical Features of 31 

VII. Frederick County, Typography of 39 

VIII. Frederick County, Natural Points of Interest of 44 

IX. The Lower Valley; Old Frederick in the Early Days 47 

X. Old County Roads and Turnpikes 50 

XI. Railroads, Their Charters, etc 59 

XII. Public Ferries 66 

XIII. Mills and Other Developments 69 

XrV. Gleaning^ from Old Courts, Continued 71 

XV. The Indian and French War 78 

XVI. Gleanings from Old Courts, Succeeding Revolutionary War 89 

XVII. County Roads, List of, and Overseers, 1788-89, and Gleanings from Courts 91 

XVIII. Revolutionary War, Officers and Enlisted Men of 98 

XIX. Morgan and his Men; George Rogers Clark Expedition; List of Old Justices 102 

XX. The War of 1812-14 106 

XXI. Old Courts, Justices', District and Circuit; Notable Trials; Naturalized Aliens 108 

XXIL Valley Banks, Old and New 112 

XXIII. Revolutionary War Heroes; Court Gleanings Continued up to Civil War 114 

XXIV. Justices* Courts, from 1862 to Underwood Constitution; County Court Judges and 

Officers ; Criminal Trials 117 

XXV. The County Court, Continued ; Lynching of Wm. Shorter 122 

XXVI. End of County Court System ; Beginning of New u 124 

XXVIL City of Winchester, 1743-1850 126 

XXVIII. Winchester, Water Supply of, Gas, Electricity and Manufactures; Criminal Trials.. 147 

XXIX. Newspapers of Winchester, 1787-1908 152 

XXX. Winchester, Educational Developments, Fire Companies 158 

XXXI. Winchester Old Taverns and Streets, Mayors from 1804 162 

XXXII. The Churches in the Lower Valley 165 

XXXIII. Presbyterian Church 174 

XXXIV. Episcopal Church • > 180 

XXXV. Parish of Hampshire 187 

XXXVI. Lutheran Church 189 

XXXVII. German Reformed Church 197 

XXXVIII. Methodist Episcopal Church 201 

XXXIX. Baptist Church 208 

XL. Society of Friends 211 

XU. Roman Catholic Church 216 

XLII. The Cemeteries of Winchester 219 

XLIII. Town and City Government ; The Market Square Suit 223 

XLTV. Towns in Old Frederick County 228 

XLV. Towns in Old Frederick County, Continued 237 

XLVI. Notabilities of Old Frederick, Fairfax 244 

XLVII. Notabilities of Old Frederick, George Washington 250 



Chapter Page 

XLVIII. Notabilities of Old Frederick, Joist Hite, Pioneer 252 

XLIX. Daniel Morgan, Life of 270 

L. Homesteads, Colonial and Others 274 

LI. Homesteads of Frederick County 282 

LIT. Homesteads and Biographical Notices 286 

LIII. Homesteads and Biographical Notices, Continued 296 

LIV. The John Brown Raid 301 

LV. The Civil War ; Army at Harper's Ferry and First Manassas 306 

LVI. Jackson at Winchester ; Bath Campaign ; Loring and Jackson 321 

LVII. Jackson's Evacuation of Winchester and Valley Campaign 329 

LVIII. Battle of Port Republic 344 

LIX. Battle of Winchester ; Jackson and Banks 335 

LX. Jackson Reinforces General Lee at Chickahominy ; 2nd Battle of Manassas; Battle 

of Sharpsburg; On the Rappahannock ; Fredericksburg 349 

LXI. Emancipation Proclamation, Effect on Both Armies; The Campaign in Spring of 

'63 ; Death of Stonewall Jackson 374 

LXII. The Valley Army After Jackson's Death 384 

LXIIL Gettysburg 388 

LXIV. Army of Northern Virginia on the Rappidan, Winter Quarters ; Genl. Early in the 

Shenandoah Valley 394 

LXV. Battle of The Wilderness; Hunter, Early and Sheridan in the Valley; Battle of 
Winchester; Early's Retreat; Battle of Cedar Creek; Early Relieved of 

Command 398 

LXVI. Fall of Richmond ; Appomattox and Surrender 407 

LXVII. Biographical Sketches 411 

LXVIII. The Pioneers of the Upper Valley 508 

LXIX. Frederick County at this Writing 509 

Appendix No. i — House of Burgesses; House of Delegates; State Senate, from 

1743-1908; List of Members of 511 

Appendix No, 2 — Governors of Virginia, Colonial and State 513 

Appendix No, 3 — Board of Supervisors, 1870-1908, List of Members of 516 

Appendix No. 4 — Colonial Soldiers and Pensioners 516 

Appendix No. 5— Fairfax and Hite Suit 518 

Appendix No. 6 — The Hessian Prisoners 518 

Appendix No. 7 — James Rumsey and the First Steamboat 519 

Appendix No. ^— The Negro 520 

UEnvoi 522 


Facing Page 

Old Frederick County Clerk's Office and Clerk Frontispiece 

Home of Col. John Hite (Springdale) 253 

Hite's Fort 7 

"Homespun/* 1771 418 

"Greenwood," 415 

Opecquon Memorial Church 169 

"Old Chapel," near Millwood 182 

Ruins of Old Lutheran Church 194 

Hopewell Meeting House 211 

"Cherry Hill," Dr. Robt. White's Home 441 

Washington's Headquarters, 1755 250 

"Retirement," 1780 423 

The Court House, Winchester 138 

The Old Market Square, Winchester 223 

Rouss City Hall, Winchester 227 

Cartmell Parish Church, England 417 

Mountain House, Capon Springs 57 

Pack Horse Ford, near Shephcrdstown 31 

Opeckon Churchyard 168 

Handley Library 300 


I - 


How and by Whom the Shenandoah Valley was Settled 

The first families to settle in the Lower Shen- 
andoah Valley, were generally known as the 
sixteen families who came with Joist Hite in 
1732. None questioned this for many decades. 

The Valley historian, Kerchcval, and others 
following him, gave Hite credit as the first settler ; 
and from this standpoint we introduce him as 
such. Though it may appear in the study of this 
question, that he had contestants, their claims 
will be treated later on. 

Hite and his colony crossed the Cohongoroota 
River, where a village was started named Meck- 
Icnberg. Old records confirm this. The village 
bore this name for many years, until finally 
changed to Shepherdstown. Closely following 
Hite, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians began to settle 
in other sections within the boundaries of Old 
Frederick County, which then embraced all that 
is known now as Shenandoah, Page, Warren, 
Garke, Jefferson, Berkley, Morgan, Hampshire 
and parts of Hardy and Rockingham Counties. The 
families who came with Hite, have caused untold 
trouble to the enquirer, as to who they were. 
Some have thought the record of their names and 
dates of arrival could be found in the records of 
Old Frederick County; and resorted to them, to 
be disappointed by not finding individual grants 
to these families. Hite held a grant to enter 
and locate twenty families, survey his tracts, and 
then give them his certificate, which the Colo- 
nial Council would ratify; and then, for the first 
time, the family name would appear. At the 
same time, just prior to 1734, we find many deeds 
to settlers who were not of the sixteen other 
families, who soon became landowners in the 
new settlements, as shown by court records. We 
may be pardoned in heading the list with the 
name of Fairfax as one of the actual inhabi- 
tants, though not the first. 

One source of valuable and interesting facts, 
for which the author is indebted to Mr. Marion 
Bantz, concerning this family, is in his posses- 
sion. He has quite a treasury of antiquities, 
kindly placed at the writer's disposal, of what 
can be termed Lord Fairfax's papers. Mr. B., 
a resident of Winchester, was present during 
the demolition of the well-known house on Pic- 
cadilly Street in Winchester, in which had been 

stored for many years relics of Fairfax's prop- 
erty. The new owner cared nothing for what 
he termed "rubbish;" and the original owner 
being long since dead, one of his surviving child- 
ren, who had occupied the house during her entire 
life and only left it because of changed conditions, 
gave Mr. B. permission to search through the old 
wasting papers; and out of the wreck, he found 
the original "patent for the Northern Neck/' 
and many other papers not recorded in any office. 
From these relics, the author will avail himself 
in the proper place, under the subject head of the 
Fairfax Family. 

Next we might add the name of Washington, — 
George being the first member, coming as a strip- 
ling sixteen years old, (1748) "to measure out 
plantations for Thomas Lord Fairfax, the reputed 
owner of the northern neck." It was due to a 
desire on the part of Thomas Lord Fairfax, that 
young Washington became identified with Frederick 
County; for we find it recorded that in 1748 he 
visited his estates in Virginia, which he desired 
to "explore and lay out plantations." Lord 
Fairfax was not the first Fairfax to come to Vir- 
ginia. Several of them lived in the section ad- 
jacent to the Mt. Vernon estate. An attachment 
between them was soon apparent to all; 
and none were surprised when his Lordship pro- 
posed to the stripling to undertake the work. 
Washington accepted, and together with an assist- 
ant, proceeded to Frederick County and took the 
buildings at Greenway Court for their headquart- 
ers. Lord Fairfax not yet having taken his abode 
at that historic and secluded place. His Lordship 
returned to England about this time, to prepare 
for his residence in the wilds of the new country; 
so we find him at Greenway Court in his mansion 
house in 1750, terming it " The Lord Proprietor's 
Office;" executing leases to many new settlers, 
and having same recorded in his own office. 

The writer, in his experience among the 
old records of the County, found many traces 
to the history of the Northern Neck of Virginia. 
Many people have regarded the original grant for 
this proprietary, as from some crowned head 
in England to our Lord Fairfax, who bestowed 
upon him the title of Lord. We will have occa- 
sion to mention this more fully in a personal 


sketch of the Virginia Fairfaxes. The present 
object is simply to show where the family settled 
in Frederick County and what they settled on; 
to give the true history of this grant, and the 
reasons for Lord Fairfax's visit to England. 
His Lordship found his title in Virginia disputed 
by many persons, who produced what were 
distinguished as Minor Grants. He hoped to lay 
this matter before the Crown, and have his rights 
definitely settled. 

The grant from King Charles H, March 12, 
1664, to Lord Colepepper, was at an early day 
in the history of the Virginia Colony, and meant 
much for the settlers at Jamestown, and other 
places along and near the James, and York Rivers, 
and other streams that had confluence with the 
majestic Chesapeake. We are often asked, who 
was Lord Fairfax? Of course, the answer is 
promptly given: He was the proprietor of the 
Northern Neck of Virginia and Baron of Cam- 
eron in that part of Great Britain called Scot- 
land, which answer is not sufficient in many 
^ases. To one who by his education and associa- 
tion with historical events is already informed, 
these notes perhaps will convey no new knowl- 
edge; but the compiler hopes to place before all 
readers, facts that will easily answer such ques- 

Lord Fairfax, as we will show later on, ar- 
rived in America for the first time in 1736, when 
he visited his agent, William Fairfax, who was 
located in the region later known as Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. William Fairfax, the agent, 
erected a house that became not only his resi- 
dence, but also the Lord Proprietor's Office. His 
Lordship spent nearly three years at this court, 
which the owner called Belvoir; and then re- 
turned to England to present his grievances to 
the Crown. He desired fuller definition of his 
grant. During his stay in England, he learned 
the conditions of the Colepepper Grant, which 
became one of the holdings of the Baron of 

Lord Fairfax was born in England. His fa- 
ther was Thomas Fairfax, who married Lady 
Catharine Colepepper, the daughter and only 
heir of Lord Thomas Colepepper, who was last 
surviving heir of the Lord Colepepper to whom 
King Charles granted "all of the country known 
at that time as the Colony of Virginia; except- 
ing therefrom such other grants theretofore 
made" and "other reservations" boundaries of 
which were set out and required to be entered 
in the record of the infant colony at Jamestown, 
and subsequently at Williamsburg. Though many 
of the old records were destroyed, the writer 
now has in his hands the original Colepepper 

Grant, found among the old papers previously 
mentioned. Our Thomas, however, was the 
Seventh Fairfax to inherit the title of Lord 
Cameron, a title of which he ever seemed proud, 
and never failed to mention in all his papers 
relating to his holdings in America. 

As has been stated, there were special grants 
for certain parts of Virginia; but Lord Fairfax 
believed he was the owner of all. The King had 
reserved for himself certain quit rents, not only 
from the special patents, but also from Colepep- 
per. The latter, however, exercised arbitrary 
rule and power in his proprietary, collecting 
rents and gathering much from the parish allow- 
ances. This tyrannical treatment aroused the 
American blood ; and petitions went to the King ; 
and in consequence, the Great Grant was limited 
to the Northern Neck. (See boundaries else- 
where: also Hening*s Statutes, 1748, pp. 198-9, 
confirming smaller grants to settlers.) 

So far as known. Lord Thomas Colepepper 
had but one brother, Alexander, who was joint 
heir in the grreat grant. But the two brothers 
had an agreement that Thomas was to take in 
his name the entire grant, and then convey to 
Alexander a certain interest in the vast territory 
embraced in the original grr^nt. But Thomas, 
the father of Catharine, died before this con- 
veyance was completed; so this explains the 
sweeping conveyance made to Alexander Cole- 
pepper by Catharine Fairfax, sole heir of her 
said father, "reserving to herself what she term- 
ed the Northern Neck in the Old Dominion of 
Virginia in America." This deed of conveyance, 
dated 1710, contained some i^liable history con- 
cerning the early settlers. She recites many 
things that throw light on the holdings of many 
families in large tracts of lands all over Vir- 
ginia. Our valley settlers have the history of 
their grants fully set out therein. It was held 
at one time, that the first settlers had poor title 
to their homesteads; but this voluminous deed, 
starting out to convey a large and well-defined 
territory in the Tidewater country to her uncle 
Alexander, explains the case fully. Lord Fair- 
fax, having possessed himself with this knowl- 
edge, was content to take his g^'^nt for the 
Northern Neck, understanding that the minor 
grants must be respected. He returned to Amer- 
ica, as already stated, in 1748; and, upon his 
arrival, proceeded to Greenway Court, a point 
12 miles southeast from Winchester, Virginia, 
where he established his home and offices. There 
he lived and there he died, according to reliable 
information, in 1782, at the advanced age of 92 
years — ^not in Winchester, in 1781, as so often 
stated in magazine articles. 


We arc indebted to Mr. William C. Kennerly, 
whose grandmother lived at Greenway Court 
at that time, for his inimitable reproduction of 
what she related to him: "The hearse was 
brought from Alexandria. The cortege was com- 
posed of relations and friends from Fairfax 
County, and his neighbors from every settlement 
along the Shenandoah, and proceeded to Win- 
chester with considerable pomp. His remains 
were placed in the Episcopal Church Yard on 
Loudoun Street, now the site of the business 
block on east side of the street, north of the 
comer of Water and Loudoun streets." When 
Christ Church (Episcopal) was erected on the 
comer of Water and Washington Streets, his 
remains were removed and buried 'neath the 
chancel of that church. 

The boundaries of the Northern Neck, as re- 
served by Catharine, the mother of Thomas 
Lord Fairfax, are as follows — (actual survey 
too lengthy to be given) : Beginning on the 
Chesapeake Bay, lies between the Potomac and 
Rappahannock Rivers, crossing the Blue Ridge, 
or rather passing through the Gap along the 
Potomac at Harpers Ferry, then with the "Co- 
hongomta" to its source in the Alleganies; 
then by a straight line, crosses the Great North 
Mountain and Blue Ridge to the head waters of 
the Rappahannock, wherever that might be. 

We will find the closing up of the boundary 
lines resulted in serious trouble to Fairfax, for 
at that point he runs against the large grants 
to the VanMeter brothers. Carter, Hite and 
others. As previously stated, the Fairfax con- 
veyance recognizes the rights of certain inhabi- 
tants, sparsely settled throughout the Virginia 
domain. In many cases, names are given (See 
Call. 4, 42), stating that many persons had ac- 
quired rights to hold vast tracts by reason of 
special grants from the Crown at different stages 
in the history of the country, so as to encour- 
age emigration to the New World, when it was 
found desirable for England to enter in and 
possess the land, and no longer allow the Ply- 
mouth and Jamestown Colonists to feel they had 
any right except such given and granted them 
by the Crown. And thus we have such settlers, 
with special grants, for slices out of what had 
already been embraced in the original grant to 
Lord Colepepper for Virginia, Lord Baltimore, 
for what is now Maryland and Delaware, the 
Duke of York for all the territory lying between 
the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. The last 
named was James Duke, of York, and brother to 
King Charles II, who, growing tired of his wild 
and far-away estates, conveyed his entire inter- 
est in what is termed the Territory above the 

Hudson and Delaware Rivers, to John Lord 
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, with the ap- 
proval and confirmation of the King. 

Some digression is usually allowed all writers; 
and as Virginia was to become the home of 
many inhabitants of numerous Maryland and 
Jersey grants, it is well to give brief mention 
of certain conditions prevailing in those sec- 

King Charles II, March 12, 1664, saw his op- 
portunity to parcel out in the New World, large 
estates for his nobility; and, as already stated, 
the grants referred to soon grew to be powerful 
aids to his plan of making a New England on 
this side the Atlantic. This encouraged emigra- 
tion, not only from England, but from Ireland, 
Scotland and France. The Dutch, Swedes and 
Hollanders soon sought homes in the new world 
—the last named landing on the Jersey coast; 
the former, chiefly looking for those who had 
settled along the Maryland, Virginia and Caro- 
lina Coasts, found homes among the early set- 
tlers. Now began a new trial. These settlers 
desired titles to their homes; and much confu- 
sion arose. We find King Charles in the latter 
part of his reign, and James II, who ascended 
the English throne in 1685, making special 
grants to families who had become permanent 
settlers in Lord Colepepper's dominion, but de- 
clining to do so in the domains of Lord Balti- 
more and the Duke of York. The Duke of 
York adopted the plan of subdivision of his 
grrant, and conveyed to Lord John Berkley and 
Sir George Carteret what was above the Hudson 
and Delaware Rivers. This appears to have 
been at the suggestion of the King; for the 
Duke seemed displeased, and pleaded with the 
King to know "what he did own in America." 
Accordingly we find in 1674, Charles renewed 
his grant to the Duke for the remainder, who 
was "to hold under such terms as he prayed." 
Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret soon 
divided their grants into what they termed East 
and West Jersey, and a boundary was establish- 
ed between them which shows its line of monu- 
ments to this day. Then was formed the Proprie- 
tor's government, — to own and control the soil 
without taxation, so long as they held in their 
own right, or their heirs, but not so with any 
purchaser, under whom it became taxable by the 
State. This proprietary ownership and govern- 
ment of vast tracts in America, was extended not 
only to those of Jersey and York, but to Lord 
Baltimore in Maryland and Delaware, and to 
Lord Colepepper in Virginia. Lord Berkley 
offered inducements to immigrants. One, John 
Fenwick, induced Lord Berkley to allow him to 


establish a colony, — which was then and is now 
known as Fenwick Colony. The deed was re- 
corded at old Salem by John Fenwick, March i, 
1682, for a moiety of his Proprietary which he 
originally purchased from Lord Berkley. This 
deed of conveyance is to Governor William Penn 
for this moiety, reserving for himself the said 
John Fenwick, all the tract called Fenwick 
Colony, supposed to contain 150,000 acres. Men- 
tion is made in these pages of this Fenwick 
Colony, by reason of its having furnished many 
emigrants to the Valley of Virginia in the early 
part of the Eighteenth Century, when its dis- 
covery had been made by Governor Spottswood — 
he of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition. What he 
saw filled his party, not only with wonder and ad- 
miration, but a desire to hastily return and spread 
the news, inviting immigration from the settlement 
lying along the Jersey coast and the more thickly 
settled parts of Pennsylvania. These Northern 
settlers soon began to seek the wonderland; 
and at this point we must state, many of these 
settlers were beginning to feel oppression from 
the Lord Proprietors. And as they had learned 
through Governor Penn, that King William HI, 
during his reign from 1638, for thirteen years, 
had offered grants to a certain number of famil- 
ies who wanted to go into Virginia and make 
homes out of the forests, Mary H joined the 
king in this new effort to people the new lands. 
This was carried into effect; and good Queen 
Anne, in her reign of fourteen years beginning 
1701, confirmed all such grants, and promised 
to protect them. So we find about 1725, many 
persons in those northern settlements seeking 
information how they could obtain grants in the 
new country. The tide set in about 1730; some 
crossing the Potomac East of the mountains, and 
a few families crossing the Cohongaroota West 
of the mountains. The latter made a settlement 
in 1732 near the river, and called it Mecklcn- 
berg. As has been stated, others followed the 
Opecquon Creek, and settled about thirty miles 
further South; others at the confluence of the 
two rivers, Potomac and Shenandoah. Some 
writers on the subject of the first settlement in 
the great Valley, think it was at the latter place 
where Robert Harper and others in 1736, stop- 
ped and built log cabins, and a ferry boat to 
accommodate those who were still coming and 
often found no way to cross over. Now we 
have come to the point, who were these people 
who came from the cold North? We have 
recorded evidence of their courage, ambition, 
energy, skill, good morals and sufficient means 
to develop the newly discovered valley; so that 
it was possible for its hills and dells to become 

renowned for their fertility, and afford homes 
for the thousands who fill every avenue of life; 
and its history shows who were jurists, states- 
men and professional men of every class, and 
whose farmers have in trying times, made it 
possible for armies to subsist and recruit their 
depleted stores, while her artisans and inventors 
furnished other sinews of war. These will ever 
be recognized as equal to any other people; and 
as for the warriors, who have won fame from 
friend and foe, beginning with the invincible 
Morgan, and coming on down through every 
military exploit of the country, to Stonewall 
Jackson and his foot-cavalry — ^none suggests the 
thought that their fame will ever fade or be 
forgotten by succeeding generations. 

The reader will excuse such digressions as 
may seem too often to creep in, as we attempt 
to lead him along through the various phases of 
the history of Old Frederick County. 

Joist Hite has had the credit given him by other 
writers, of being the first white man to settle 
in the Lower Valley, which was then known as 
Spottsylvania. In 1734, Orange was formed from 
Spottsylvania. In 1738, an Act of the House of 
Burgesses directed two new counties to be form- 
ed, one to be Frederick and the other Augusta, 
and taken from Orange, as was stated in the 
opening of these sketches. Hite also has the 
credit of bringing sixteen families with him; 
but since no court was organized until Nov. 11, 
I743» we have no record of the minor grants 
referred to in the records of Frederick County 
prior to the first court. Many were recorded in 
old Spottsylvania and also in Orange. We will 
for the present, treat this as the first immigra- 
tion, and endeavor to name them all and locate 
them in the sections of the County where they 
began their work as pioneers. It must be borne 
in mind, that so soon as they crossed the Poto- 
mac at what is Harpers Ferry, or at some point 
West of the Blue Ridge, they entered the country 
to be known as Old Frederick County. We 
must not forget that these first pioneers had en- 
tered the proprietary of the Colepepper grr^nt, 
which at this coming had descended to the Fair- 
fax, who was to bring contention and confusion 
to many whom our Lord Thomas found, as he 
thought, squatters in his realm. So having this 
understood, we will start with the Hite settlers. 
Some of the sixteen families were Joist Hite*s 
immediate family, for he had several sons of 
full age and three married daughters. Thus 
we have four out of the sixteen within his own 
circle, which enabled him to assert a right to 
rule and direct the movement of his new colony. 
His sons inter-married with the other families. 


Hite speaks of his sons-in-law, Paul Froman, 
George Bowman and Jacob Chrisman. 

While Hoge, Allen, Wilson, White and others, 
represent in part the English contingent, and 
Van Swearingen, Van Meter and others, repre- 
sent the sturdy Dutch, Germans, Swedes and 
Hollanders, a more extended notice will be given 
in this work of all the families referred to and 
their descendants, in a chapter on schools and 
churches. Our attention at present must be 
given to the location of the sixteen families, and 
what they had in their hands to give them a 
legal right to enter at will the new country, and 
possess the land and build a log cabin. So, as 
has been previously stated, William Penn had 
pointed the way. He it was and the good John 
Fenwick, who had secured from the English 
rulers the minor grants referred to; and when 
they started out for their new home, Joist Hite 
carried with him the "parchments," granting 
rights to such families as could find suitable 
location; then to survey their homestead, de- 
scribing accurately and erecting monuments of 
boundaries, so that it could be shown the king 
who the actual settler was and his name. And 
the crown recognized these in treating with Lord 
Thomas Fairfax. (Hen. Statutes, 1748, p. 198). 

As has been intimated, many of these grants 
gave Fairfax much trouble later on, and annoy- 
ance to the settlers. Many ejectment suits were 
instituted by his Lordship, availing him nothing, 
however, in any claim against the settler, where 
he had fully complied with the provisions of 
the grant But where he failed to set out fully 
his boundaries, so that his lines could be fully 
established, then he suffered loss. Many of the 
ejectment suits of Fairfax against the settlers 
in the Valley and elsewhere, grew out of the 
leases that had been made by William Fairfax 
as the agent of the actual heir and owner of the 
Colepepper grant, so far as it applied to the 
Northern Neck. Many such leases had been 
made by him and other agents previous to the 
time of vesting the title in our Lord Thomas. 
And be it remembered, the latter emanating from 
the Fairfax family, were only temporary leases 
to run for a term of years, mostly twenty years, 
jdelding to the proprietor "On each recurring 
Lady's Day one Pepper Com." The lessee to 
nse his tract as he saw, to his own interest: the 
object being to encourage settlement and offer 
inducements for substantial development of much 
of the trackless waste. Some of these short 
leases were renewed by Fairfax when he landed 
at the Greenway Court and took control in 
1750; the other leases mentioned were the stum- 
bling blocks to the new Proprietor; for when 

he, with his youthful surveyor, began to make 
surveys for tracts to persons to whom he was 
making leases for a term of one hundred years, 
and to be renewable under certain complied con- 
ditions, he found other claimants who had long 
before become actual settlers and standing on 
their "Clearing" beside their own "Log Cabins," 
as they exhibited their leases bearing unmistak- 
able evidence of authority, not only from the 
Colonial authorities, but with the stamp and ap- 
proval of the reigning Monarch of England. 
Fairfax could not have been unaware of the 
legality of the last-named leases for in his in- 
heritance of the Northern Neck, he took what 
his mother, Catharine Colepepper, had under the 
great Colepepper grant, with its provisions: the 
King reserving the right to make grants within 
the territory to settlers, requiring in each case 
that proof should be given the government that 
such person had settled on his grreat tract with 
so many families, and that the tract had been 
subdivided, and surveys of the subdivisions 
actually made and conveyance made to an ac- 
tual settler on his part. Such grants were to be 
perpetual, and not to be interferred with by 
Fairfax or his heirs. 

The original plan of the King, "ordained for 
the purpose of planting colonies in America," 
worked well, and was the cause of large de- 
velopment of many sections of Virginia. So this 
condition of the settlement should not have sur- 
prised Fairfax; but it apparently did; for he 
treated such as squatters on his soil, who must 
yield to him a rental and take his lease, and be 
subject to his demand or vacate. This meant 
much to these families who had felled the for- 
est for the good homes they had planted, with 
virtually the rifle in hand, to protect the settle- 
ment from the powerful tribes of Indians, who 
were disputing every effort to make white set- 
tlements. We find when this demand was made 
by Fairfax through his agents, he met opposi- 
tion. He was confronted by men who knew 
they were right; who, in full faith in their 
claims, had not only builded their homes and 
reared sturdy families, but had organized 
churches and schools, which at that period were 
flourishing. Many things occurred to mar the 
peace of his Lordship. He soon found litiga- 
tion on his hands. In his surveys to lessees, 
he found monuments marking boundaries of 
large and extensive areas, such as were claimed 
by Joist Hite and his settlers, and those of Van 
Meter, Russell and Carter; the latter resulting 
in the most famous legal battles fought to a 
conclusion in the early history of the Virginia 


As this chapter is intended to mention Hite 
and his colonies, we will dispose of Hite's claim 
as the first settler, and then give names, so far 
as we know, of the families who came with him. 
We may appropriately state here that Hite, in 
failing to comply with his agreement made 
through Governor Penn, suffered much annoy- 
ance in holding to his claim when attacked by 
Fairfax. For when it was developed that he 
obtained his grant, stipulating that twenty fam- 
ilies was to be the number, while he could only 
show sixteen, he at once began repairing his 
weak points. Being a man of gieat nerve, and 
of no small ability as a lawyer without the pro- 
fession, he at once undertook to cure in part the 
mistake he had made, and to fortify against the 
attacks of Fairfax. Thus we find him recogniz- 
ing the Van Meter g^rants to be, not only better 
than his, but ante-dating his. The writer is well 
aware how this statement will be received by 
many readers; but he must endeavor to state 
facts in this history of the early and first settlers 
of the Lower Valley; and if it detracts from 
the glory of Hite, who has always had the credit 
of being the first white man to plunge into the 
unexplored forests of the Old County of Fred- 
erick, even before its formation in 1738, it must 
be done; though the writer was tempted to pass 
it by, desiring this old pioneer should have all 
the glory. He believed he was the first to con- 
front the savage tribes on their native soil; 
and over many "Clearings" did he and his neigh- 
bors contend with the warriors of "Opek- 
enough" — he who held sway along the streams 
of his own naming, which afterwards the white 
man abbreviated to what we have to-day — 
"Opeckon" — a stream to become famous, not 
only for struggles made by the Redmen in pro- 
tecting his wigwams and hunting grounds from 
the White invaders, but in later years when the 
descendants of these invaders were compelled 
to take their stand in battle array along its his- 
toric banks to stem another invasion from the 
same country from whence the first invaders 
came, and in their peculiar way accomplished 
the object sought — both being for subjugation: — 
the first driving before them the wigwam and 
tomahawk, to result in subjugation only after 
nearly two hundred years of steady warfare and 
treaties; — the new invasion requiring only four 
years of terrific carnage and bloodshed to dev- 
astate the Lower Valley, ultimately resulting 
in the subjugation planned from the first. How 
strangely differing the causes of the invasions 
and their results! The former came to do their 
part in developing a continent in the wilds of 
America, offering an asylum for liberty-loving 

people from every clime and nation, to be one 
of the mighty host sweeping Westward, to some 
day land upon the shores of the Pacific Ocean, 
leaving marks of civilization in their wake, as 
the states and cities with their teeming millions 
were ever attesting the wisdom of the first in- 
vader. Not so with the last ! They swept the land 
with a besom of destruction — ^they leveled homes 
as well as forests; but never builded homes and 
cities. They invaded for desolation! And in 
their wake, as they pressed southward and 
westward, left ashes and ruin. But the descend- 
ants of those grand old first settlers, followed 
the example of Joist Hite, and made the best 
of their mistake. Hite had underestimated the 
strength of his contestants. And when he 
found his position, the wily old chief used his 
diplomacy and held his ground. Referring again 
to Hite and the Van Meter grants, we will state 
here that Hite obtained by purchase forty thous- 
and acres of the Van Meter grant, and imme- 
diately began to make deeds for tracts of land 
to the many settlers who were now, in 1734, 
seeking homes; and having located many who 
had come subsequent to the arrival of his colony, 
thus showing his good intentions to carry out 
his agreement to locate at least forty families. 
Then he turned his attention to the Hite grant, 
as it has been called, — ^to have it renewed, so 
as to protect those of the sixteen families he 
had located before Fairfax raised his point for 
ejectment. Many suits followed, as has already 
been stated; and Fairfax prevailed in some of 
the latter class; so that some of the sixteen will 
not appear in the list of those who owned their 
own land. v 

Lest there he confusion in regard to the hold- 
ings of Hite, the author deems it best to give 
a condensed statement at this point. Hite, 
through the influence of Governor Penn, receiv- 
ed a conditional grant from the Virginia Coun- 
cil in 1730, for one hundred thousand acres of 
land, to be located West of the Great Mountains, 
not therefore granted, — upon which he was to 
locate forty families, within a certain time. 
This number was reduced to twenty families — 
and not sixteen, as has been so often stated by 
tradition. Finding the Van Meter g^'^nt in his 
way, he purchased from them, and proceeded 
to comply with the conditions, — which required 
the Van Meters to locate one hundred families. 
This seemed a prodigious undertaking; and he 
went to the Governor's Council for an extension 
of time. This he obtained. He now had vir- 
tually about two hundred thousand acres of 
land. He saw his chance to comply. Immi- 
grants had followed in his wake, seeking land 


At a Court held for Frederick County on Tues- 
day the Third day of September, 1745. 

Jost Kite in Open Court acknowledges these 
his Articles of Agreement made between him 
and Maria Magdalena his wife before marriage, 
which on his motion is admitted to record to- 
gether with an account of goods brought by 
the said Maria Magdalena Endorsed on the back 
of said Articles. 

TEST: Thos. Wood, CI Cur." 

The original is in German, signed in German; 
was recorded first in Orange County, then in 
Frederick, 1744. We find no evidence of any 
children bom by this marriage. 

The reader will excuse this extended notice 
of the famous Joist Hite, since he was the chief 
figure in the early settlement of the Lower Val- 
ley; and also excuse the brief notices in the fol- 
lowing pages of many other settlers who became 
far more famous in their lives, as they struggled 
to plant the colony under so many adverse cir- 

Having thus briefly disposed of the Hite fam- 
ily, we will turn attention to some of the other 
families who came with Hite. We mention 

merely the names of those who settled upon 
tracts of land that Hite set off for them from 
the original grant to him for himself, and the 
twenty families he was to locate. We find Wil- 
liam Hogue on the Opecquon, John White on 
Hogue Creek, Nathaniel Thomas at the head of 
the Opecquon, Benjamin Borden near Shepherds- 
town, "binding with its western line on the Bull- 
skin Run," David Vaunce on the Opecquon, Steph- 
en Hansbella, Christian Nisewanger, etc., (fuller 
mention later on.) 

Hite located the Irish immigrants on the 
Opecquon. This was known as the Irish immi- 
grant party that arrived between 1737 and 1740. 
This is somewhat misleading; for the ships' lists 
show the English, Irish, French, Scotch and 
Welsh made up the list; and those who sought 
homes in the Shenandoah under the guidance 
of Hite's son, were John Bruce, Patrick Berry, 
Denis Dough, Patrick Daugherty, Thomas Dos- 

ter, John Littler, John Fitzsimmons 

0*Guillon, and three Riley families representing 
the Scotch, English and Irish, the Morgans from 
Wales; Louis Dumas and his two sons, Charles 
and Thomas, the French; — many more of this 
class, eighty in all: not a German among them. 


The Minor Grants 

In the preceding pages, mention has been made 
of Minor Grants, The author finds in unravel- 
ling many incidents of the early settlement of 
Frederick County, that so much inconsistency is 
revealed in writings claiming to be historical 
facts that it becomes necessary to give the his- 
tory of these minor grants, and thus prove who 
were the first settlers. It must be remembered 
that the reigning English Monarch always claim- 
ed the right to create colonies in the New World ; 
and form colonial governments, and did so exer- 
cise this right; and Virginia being the colony 
with which we arc now treating, these notes ap- 
ply to this colony. Large grants emanating from 
the Crown direct, were chiefly to that part of 
the colony known as Tidewater. One large grant, 
known as the Colepepper Grant, embraced what 
is generally called the Northern Neck. As al- 
ready stated, the Crown always reserved the 
right to make special grants to certain companies 
or individuals who could give some assurance of 
becoming actual settlers ; and when this was shown, 
such persons were even allowed to enter the 
domain of the large grants. There had to be 
some tribunal in the colony to regulate this: so 
at an early day, the Governor was associated 
with certain gentlemen to be known as his coun- 
cil; and persons desiring to locate in the new 
country, must secure from the Governor and 
Council an order to have surveyed for settle- 
ment, a certain number of acres of land, stating 
the locality; and this order required that fam- 
ilies should be located within a specified time; 
and when so proven to the Governor and Coun- 
cil, a grant or deed should be made to the ap- 
plicant or his assigns, or such persons as he 
would name. These individual grants or deeds 
were known as the Minor Grants. 

We find that Isaac and John Van Meter as- 
signed their order, dated 17th of June, 1730, to 
Joist Hite in 1731, who was required to seat his 
requisite number of families; and when this was 
done, Hite filed his surveys with the Secretary 
of the Council, and a list of persons to whom 
he desired patents, deeds or grants to issue; and 
thus we have a number of such grants, that will 
receive fuller mention later on: Hite had grants 
made to himself for many thousand acres; and 

from these tracts he made many deeds himself 
to certain families. A list of such will be given 
later on. In executing the order of Governor 
and Council, Hite was not required to locate his 
surveys and families in one tract of forty thous- 
and or one hundred thousand acres, but allowed 
to make selections from Cohongoruta on the 
North, southward through the Shenandoah Val- 
ley. There were large intervening tracts, left as 
ungranted land, afterwards granted by Lord 
Fairfax to other immigrants, after 1744. We 
now approach an interesting period in the his- 
tory of the early settlers, for when Hite entered 
upon the subdivision of his grant of one hun- 
dred thousand acres of land, to be entered by 
actual settlers on tracts not heretofore granted 
in the special grants already mentioned, for be 
it remembered, Hite held no such grants as has 
often been stated by persons not fully informed, 
"that he had a grant of one hundred and fifty 
thousand acres in one body, and this had as its 
southern boundary the Shenandoah river." 
This is mere fallacy; yet many believe it. He 
found obstacles that were almost as troublesome 
to the pioneer as the Indian. He found '^blazed 
trees," planted monuments, and other marks, in 
the forests and along rivers and creeks, which 
indicated to him at once, that some surveyor had 
'been on the ground before his entry. This was 
appalling to Hite and his people, but he was 
equal to the occasion; and as stated in the early 
part of this subject of Hite and his grants, we 
find him diligently at work repairing his fortune. 
He soon found from other immigrr^nts coming 
in, who had run these strange lines; for these 
new people carried with them deeds from Isaac 
Van Meter, for tracts of land to be measured 
out of his grant. Hite at once saw from reci- 
tals in these deeds, that some one had the prior 
right; and when he saw that Isaac Van Meter 
was the man to deal with, he knew what course 
to pursue. He had known Van Meter back in 
old Salem, New Jersey, where Isaac was a 
prominent resident How, when, or where Hite 
had his first interview with Van Meter as to 
what was apparent to him: (A dispute over 
their titles), is not known. Sufficient for our 
purpose, however, we can assert they had an in- 




terview in some way; and as evidence of this, 
we find a compromise settlement between them 
in 173 1, by which Hite became the purchaser of 
the celebrated grants, which he takes in regular 
conveyances from the Van Meters, and also as- 
signment for grants to issue from the Governor 
and Council, and enters them for record at 
Williamsburg and Orange Courthouse, seven 
years before the court of record was organized 
in Frederick County. Hite, in order to carry 
out his original plans, began the work in 1736 
of making deeds to certain of the settlers who 
either came with him in 1732 or soon followed 

in his wake. Such deeds are to be found re- 
corded in the Clerk's Office of old Orange, thus 
giving the names of many of these first settlers 
which will appear in these pages, so as to show 
clearly who many of the people were who first 
settled West of the Blue Ridge and North and 
West of the Sherando River. We have stated, 
under the head of Hite and his family, that he 
found it necessary to purchase the Van Meter 
Grants. In the next Chapter, we will show what 
these grants were, and more fully prove that 
Hite was not the first white man to plant his 
foot on the soil. 


The Van Meter Grants, their History and the Proof 

that Van Meter preceded Hite — as the First 

White Man to Cross the Potow-mack 

The records of the two grants of forty thous- 
and acres each, to John and Isaac Van Meter, 
as will be seen in this Chapter in the original 
grants to both are dated 17th June, 1730, and arc 
of record on page 363 of the Mss. Journal of the 
Governor and Council of Virginia, 1721-1734. 
Isaac Van Meter at this time lived in Old Salem, 
New Jersey, (as heretofore stated), while his 
brother, John Van Meter, was living on a tract 
of two hundred acres granted him by Lord Bal- 
timore, November 3rd, 1726, which he located 
at or near what is now Monocacy Junction, near 
Frederick, Maryland. Lord Fairfax's grant from 
the crown ante-dated these and all other grants; 
but at that date it was supposed that the great 
Colepepper Grant, which had been curtailed to 
the Northern Neck, then Fairfax's grsLXit, did 
not extend beyond the Blue Mountains, and that 
the Potow-mack River was wholly East of these 
mountains; and it was not until about 1736-7, 
that Lord Fairfax, the father of our Lord 
Thomas through his agents, discovered by sur- 
vey that his gn'snt covered an empire, more than 
he supposed. This will be better understood by a 
study of his map made at that time, a photo 
copy of which the writer has and hopes to have 
appear later on. From a careful study of this 
question, the writer has no doubt but that the 
Van Meters well knew what Lord Fairfax and 
Governor and Council of Virginia did not know 
at that time, as to what was the extent of the 
Fairfax Grant; hence Van Meter resorted to 
what would be called to-day "sharp practice," 
by transferring his entire grant into the posses- 
sion of an innocent third purchaser. Joist Hite, 
and then to become holders of such portion 
as they desired for themselves by transfer and 
purchase from Hite. This became later, as Van 
Meter no doubt anticipated, a subject of litiga- 
tion, — and it was not finally settled until after 
principals and their children had been dead 
many years. The courts sustained Van Meter, 
and confirmed title to all assigns for interest in 
the Van Meter grants purchased from "Jost 
Heitd," the legal battles were fought to a finish 

in 1800, which the author hopes to treat fully if 
space will admit. There are many details in this 
transaction that could be more fully set forth in 
this work, which would lend a tinge of romance 
to this interesting period, but we must avoid ro- 
mancing, and try to state facts in a brief and plain 
way. But, inasmuch as Van Meter is to be 
proven an actual first settler, though it has often 
been asserted that Van Meter never lived on his 
grants, it might be well to sketch his movements 
at this point, trusting to give them more prom- 
inence in another Chapter. John Van Meter was 
an interesting character he and his family, — his 
own ancestry and his descendants, will make a 
most interesting chapter, giving the details of his 
life, leading as they do from Marbletown, Ulster 
County, New York, where he was born in 1683, 
following his removal down through New Jer- 
sey into Maryland in 1726, and his final settle- 
ment in the Valley of Virginia soon after 1730, 
where he died in 1745. "Jost Heyt" is also 
traceable in like manner, almost year by year, 
with such minute detail as to show conclusively 
that he followed John Van Meter, who led him 
into this land of promise. 

(Here follows the copy from the original Van 
Meter Grants). MSS Journal of the Governor 
and, Council of Virginia, session 172 1- 1734, 
page 363.) 

"On reading at this board the petition of John 
Van Meter setting forth that he is desirous to 
take up a tract of land in this colony — on the 
west side of the great Mountains for the settle- 
ment of himself and eleven children and also 
divers of his relations and friends living in 
the government of New York are also desirous 
to move with their families and effects to settle 
in the same place if a sufficient of land may be 
assigned them for that purpose and praying 
that ten thousand acres of land lying in the 
fork of the Shenado River including the places 
called by the names of Cedar Litch and Stony 
Lick and running up between the branches of 
said river to complete the quantity and twenty 
thousand acres not already taken up by Robert 




Carter and Mann Page, Esqus. or any other 
lying in the fork between the river Shenado: 
and the river Cohonguroota and extending there- 
to to Operkon and up the South branch thereof — 
may be assigned for the Habitation of himself 
his family and friends. 

The Governor with the advice of the Council 
is pleased to give leave to the said John Van 
Meter to take up the said first mentioned tract 
of ten thousand acres for the settlement of him- 
self and family; That as soon as the petitioner 
shall bring on the last mentioned tracts twenty 
families to inhabit: or that this board is satis- 
fied so many arc to remove thither: Leave be 
and it is hereby granted him for surveying the 
last mentioned tract of twenty thousand acres 
within the limits above described in so many 
several Dividends as the petitioner and his part- 
ners shall think fit; and it is further ordered that 
no person is permitted to enter for or take up 
any part of the aforesaid Land in the mean- 
time: Provided the said Van Meter and his 
family and the said twenty other families of his 
Relations and friends do settle thereon within 
the space of two years according to his proposal." 

("MSS: Journal of the Governor and Coun- 
cil of Virginia, 1721-1734, page 364.) 

"Isaac Van Meter of the Province of West 
Jersey having by petition to this Board set forth 
that he and divers other German families are 
desirous to settle themselves on the West side 
of the Great Mountains in this colony; he the 
petitioner has been to view the lands in those 
parts and has discovered a place where further 
such settlement may conveniently be made and 
not yet taken up or possessed by any one of the 
English Inhabitants and praying that ten thous- 
and acres of land lying between the lands sur- 
veyed for Robt. Carter, Esq., and the fork of the 
Shenado river and the river Operkon in as 
many several tracts or Dividends as shall be 
necessary for the accommodation and settlement 
of ten families (including his own) who pro- 
poses to bring to the said Land: 

The Governor with the advice of the Council 
is pleased to order as it is hereby ordered that 
the said Isaac Van Meter for himself and his 
partners have leave to take up the said quantity 
of ten thousand acres of Land within the limits 
above described and that if he bring the above 
number of families to dwell there within two 
years; Patent be granted him and them for the 
same in such several tracts or Dividends as they 
shall think fit and in the meantime the same 
be referred free from entry of any other per- 
son: Dated at Williamsburg, 17th June, 1730." 

These Van Meter grants in themselves prove 

that they preceded Hite and his colony. Since 
the best we can do for Hite is, that he started 
from his last stopping place in Pennsylvania in 
1 731, and as the grrant to Isaac Van Meter re- 
cites conclusive proof, the Council sitting at 
Williamsburg from 1721 to 1734 expressly sets 
forth in their order dated 17th June, 1730, that 
Isaac the Petitioner had been to view the lands 
in those parts— *"those parts" — are described in 
the survey made within the two years — as lying 
along both sides of the Shenandoah — one to John 
and one to Isaac And these surveys embrace 
forty thousand acres each, and were confirmed 
to these brothers, May 12th, 1732— (See old files 
in State Library, Richmond, Virginia). John 
must have spied out the land about the time 
of its first discovery by the Spottswood expedi- 
tion,— for in tracing John from Ulster County, 
New York to his stop on the Monocacy River in 
Maryland, the writer finds him in 1727, over in 
Old Spottsylvania, lending his advice to the 
German settlers at (Jermania, — "skilled artisans" 
who had come in answer to the scheme adopted 
by the (jovernor. And it is barely possible that 
John, in his desire to roam and find new places, 
was tempted to try the summit of the Blue 
Mountain lying to the West, and see what was 
beyond. Tradition tells us that he blazed his 
way through the dense forests, so as to point 
his way of return to the Germana settlement; 
and, as he and Isaac represented to the Council 
afterwards, that they viewed the lands. They 
surveyed their lands chiefly from the forks of 
the Shenandoah (near Front Royal) westward; 
thus showing that they entered the valley through 
the gaps of the Blue Ridge at that point, hugging 
the line forming the northern boundary of the 
Robt. Carter and Mann Page grant. This set- 
tles the question as to whether he or Hite was 
the first white man to visit the country South 
of the Cohongoroota ; so while giving Van Meter 
credit for this honor, it leaves the impression, 
then, that Hite was the first man to cross the 
Potomac. We would be glad to give him this 
honor without further question, but, as we are 
trying to state facts in relation to these old 
pioneers, all bent upon finding the promised 
land, the writer must confess that in all his 
investigations and careful study, he finds some 
circumstantial evidence that almost settles the 
questions. We have seen that Hite purchased 
large portions of the Van Meter grants, and the 
records show that Hite in 1734 conveyed land to 
purchasers for tracts in the vicinity of Shep- 
herdstown, and recites that the lands conveyed 
by him were parcels embraced in the Isaac Van 
Meter Patent; thus showing that Van Meter's 



grant also embraced land near the Potomac, — 
and the question naturally arises, how did Van 
Meter first reach that point — Did he cross the 
Potomac West of the Blue Ridge in the vicin- 
ity of Shepherdstown, and there locate part of 
his patent? If so, he crossed the Potomac be- 
fore Kite; thus leaving Kite with a doubt as to 
whether he is entitled to what we hope to give 
him, — the credit of being the man who first 
stood on the South banks of the Potomac West 
of the Blue Ridge. And may we not pass this 
and record it as a fact; for we have this lan- 
guage in the survey of Isaac Van Meter's grant: 
"Survey extended from the north bank line of 
the Sherando river northward to the Operkon 
river then following its flow embracing the land 
and prairies, forests and streams and their sources 
lying betwixt thereof — ^said Operkon and ye said 
Sherando: Both lines showing monuments for 
courses and measures." This certainly is the 
patent referred to in Hite's first deed to settlers; 
and we may conclude that when the Van Meters 
entered the Valley at the forks of the Shenan- 
doah, that Isaac proceeded northward to lay off 
his patent; and ultimately found himself on the 
Potomac near the site of Shepherdstown, having 
"followed the flow of the Operkon river." As 
already stated, it has been the desire of the wri- 
ter to settle this moot question; but to do so 
and give sufficient proof, required the most dili- 
gent search and investigation, with the assis- 
tance of old Virginia Qerks, Librarians of sev- 
eral states, Secretaries of Historical Societies, 
and welcome access to the files of the colonial 
days. And these aids, helping to verify the hun- 
dreds of incidents recorded in various forms in 
the old County Clerk's office, where the writer 
has spent more than a quarter of a century, is 
his reason for submitting the foregoing to the 
casual reader, or to the student of history of this 
part of the Valley known as Old Frederick 
County, as satisfactory proof as to who should 
have the credit for blazing the first tree in the 
Virginia forests or crossing the Potomac. While 
many may feel disappointed that the case has 
been so proven against the claim so long made 
for Hite, we hope they will find in these pages 
full proof that he was ever at the front, and did 
more than any one in planting colonies and 
bringing civilization out of the newly discovered 
country; and to prove this, we will now pro- 
ceed to state who composed his colonies, start- 
ing with those whom he first located on land 
through the deeds he executed. 

We find in the old records of Orange County, 
that Hite started the work of parceling out to 
the families who claimed to belong to his colony. 

tracts of land all located West of the Blue Ridge, 
making forty-six conveyances, and all admitted 
to record in March, 1736. Some refer to his own 
grants, dated June 12th and Oct. 3rd, 1734; some 
to his grants through his Van Meter purchase, 
dated 17th June, 1730; in the proper place, will 
appear names and location of families who came 
with Hite and also those who followed and en- 
tered the Country about that time, and awaited 
grants to come through him, no grant being 
made to any one prior to 1734, at which time 
Hite and the Van Meter Grants having matured, 
the seating of the one hundred families and 
even more, is fully proven by the records. 

We must take it for granted that many of 
these conveyances were made to the sixteen 
families so often spoken of as coming with Hite ; 
as it was understood by the terms of Hite's 
grant that he would be required to locate twenty 
families and convey to them the tracts of land 
they could select and have surveyed, and as this 
was done, the same must be certified to the gen- 
eral Council at Williamsburg. 

The first deed from Hite referred to, was to 
one of his German friends, Stephen Hansonbella 
(afterwards written in the Frederick County 
Records, Hotsinpeller) and four hundred and 
fifty acres near head of Opecquon Creek, next to 
Christian Nisswanger, four hundred and thirty 
five acres to Thomas Wilson for one hundred 
and sixty-seven acres on Operkon Run to John 
Van Meter for four hundred and seventy-five 
acres, being the lowermost part of that tract 
whereon John Lilburn resided on Operkon 
Creek, part of the Van Meter Grant; to Thomas 
Chester one hundred acres on North side of 
North River; to Louis StuflFey for three hundred 
and thirty-nine acres on West side of Sherando 
River near head of Crooked Run to Robt. Desarfe 
for three hundred acres near place called Long 
Meadows adjoining Isaac Hite, son of Joist 
Hite, to Christian Blank, for sixty acres on 
North side of North branch of Sherando River, 
''being within the bounds of ten thousand acres 
granted to John Van Metre on June 6th, 1730, 
and sold to Hite, Oct., 1734;" from Hite to 
Hendery Hunt for one hundred and twenty 
acres on West side of Sherando River '^being 
part of the forty thousand acre grant purchased 
by Hite from John Van Meter, (Note: part 
of the sixteen families and Hite's six families 
and the full number of sixteen is obtained.) 
This brief mention of the conveyances by Hite 
at that period, is given here for two reasons: it 
settles one point, that Hite actually purchased 
the Van Meter grant which ante-dated his by 
four years, and t)iat he also found it necessary 



to use the same to give title to his fellow- 
colonists. As has been stated elsewhere, the 
specific terms of the original Hite grant required 
him to make a settlement in the new country 
of not less than twenty families; and having 
this accomplished, he must allow them to make 
selection for their habitations such parcels of 
land not theretofore granted to actual settlers, and 
then convey to them, out of his g^rant, good 
title for their home. When some of these selec- 
tions were made and reported to the Council at 
Williamsburg for approval, Hite was informed 
that his grant could not embrace many of these 
tracts, — as they were either within the Van Meter 
grants already surveyed, or they were parts of 
tracts leased by agents of the Fairfax estate. 
These leases were to run twenty years in most cas- 
es; and just at that point began the question of 
who was owner. Some of the colonists preferred 
to take their chances with the Fairfax claim; 
and held on to their selection, and became what 
was known after as squatters; and they and 
their descendants were at law with Lord Fair- 
fax after his arrival in 1749. Many of these 
suits were pending in our courts after Lord 
Fairfax's death, many of them losing their 

The names of the grantees from Hite, as 
has been stated, were familiar in that day, and 
are given to show who composed the twenty 
families. No record was ever made by Hite, 
who his colonists were, except by such convey- 
ances mentioned; and we have sufficient of 
these to prove that he had more families on the 
ground as settlers in 1736, — ^and they West of 
the Blue Ridge than his grant required, — ^most 
of them taking their deeds through the Van 
Meter Grant, the conveyances to Christian Blank 
and Hendery Hunt were dated and admitted to 
record in February, 1739. These conveyances 
disclose to us some interesting facts. Several 
writers on the subject of the coming of Joist 
Hite and, as they stated it, "with his sixteen 
families, fixed his settlement on the Opequon in 
the vicinity of Bartonsville and Kemstown; and 
this seemed reasonable enough. As we have 
already shown, Hite and many of the people 
coming to the Valley about that period, settled 
on land along the Opecquon Creek principally to- 
wards its source. This, then, would embrace 
the Cartmell and Glass family with their large 
grants of land lying on either side of the stream, 
beginning at the head and following its course 
eastward to the Bartonsville neighborhood, 
where Hite had chosen his home. But we can- 
not claim that Hite settled the two last named 
families in 1735, — the emigrant, Samuel Glass, 

and his family coming direct from the North 
of Ireland,— and Nathaniel Cartmell and his 
large family coming from Westmoreland Coun- 
ty, England, who at once entered upon their 
lands and were entirely independent of the Hite 
emigration. But it must be admitted that they 
followed in the wake of Hite. Glass secured a 
minor grant through Hite for nine hundred 
acres of land at the head springs of Opecquon 
Creek; Cartmell relied upon his entry, and was 
never disturbed but once by suit of ejectment by 
Fairfax, and then won the case. The convey- 
ances referred to show where the families were 
located, extending from the junction of the 
North and South branches of the Shenandoah, 
near the present site of Front Royal,— westward 
towards the Little North Mountain and along 
the Opecquon towards its mouth near Shep- 
herdstown. This indicates that the twenty fam- 
ilies were not settled in close proximity for 
mutual protection from attacks from Indians, 
but they were locating in good sections on good 
lands, and willing to take their chances with the 
denizens of the virgin forests, whether wild ani- 
mal or Redskin. It is fair to claim, however, 
that the first conveyances made by Hite in 
March, 1736, and recorded in the old Orange 
court, were made to his colonists, who compris- 
ed his twenty families; and for this reason the 
names of the grantees have been given. We 
will give the names of the grantees at this point 
who subsequently received deeds for their 
tracts, as their surveys had been reported to the 
Governor and Council; they having made their 
selections and reported that they "were seated." 
All of the following deeds were recorded in the 
Orange Court prior to the holding of the first 
term of court in Frederick County, and are from 
Joist Hite: 

Oct. 26th, 1737, to John Seaman for one thous- 
and acres adjoining Benj. Borden — ^James Wood 
April 25th, 1738, for one hundred acres on West 
side of "Opequon run." 

William Williams, April 27th, 1738, for two 
hundred and twenty-five acres on "Opequon run," 

Louis Stevens, April 28th, 1738, for three hun- 
dred and thirty-nine acre.*; — Crooked run. 

Peter Writtenhouse, May 21st, 1740, for four 
hundred and fifty acres adjoining Long Meadow. 

Jacob Christman, May 14, 1740, for seven 
hundred and fifty acres. 

John Hite, May 21, 1740, for five hundred 
and sixty-eight acres, part of Hite's grant and 
also one hundred acres adjoining, purchased by 
Joist from Richard Pendall on "Opequon." 

William Reed, May 14, 1740, for two hundred 



and ten acres on southwest side of "Opequon 
run," part of Kite's grant— 1734- 

John McCormick, May 26, 1740, for three 
hundred and ninety-five acres adjoining the Bor- 
den, Griffith and Hampton, etc. tract of eleven 
hundred and twenty-two acres. This grant was 
for land north of the point where White Hall 
village stands. 

Samuel Walker, May 21st, 1740. for one hun- 
dred acres on "west side of Sherrando river." 

Chas. McDowel, July 20, 1740. ^or six hun- 
dred acres. 

James Burns, May 24, I74i» ^or one hundred 
and twenty-eight acres on "west side of Sher- 

Robert Allen, May 21, 1742, for six hundred 
and eighty-five acres on "south side of Opequon 
run." This tract was west from the Bartons- 
ville section. 

John Harrow, May 19, 1742, for two hundred 
and ninety acres on "north side of Opequon run." 

Abram Wiseman, June 23, 1734, ^or one hundred 
and seventy-two acres on "west side of Opequon 
run"— part of the five thousand and eighteen 
acres Hite Grant. It will be seen that some of 
the descriptions fix the North, South and West 
side of Opecquon. It must be remembered the 
Opecquon flows nearly due East from its source 
for about four miles, and along this course lie 
the tracts described as on the North and South 
side; then the general course is North, and this 
accounts for certain tracts mentioned that lie on 
the East, North and West sides of the Opecquon. 

"James Vance, June 25, 1742, for two hundred 
and fifty acres on both sides of small meadow 
near Opequon Pr-esbyterian meeting house." 

Peter Make, June 23, 1742, for one hundred 
and sixty-eight acres on "Opequon run." 

David Vance, May 20, 1742, for one hundred 
acres on both sides of the "Opequon run." 

James Hoge, May 26, 1742, for seven hundred 
and sixty acres. This was near the present site 
of Kemstown, lying West — ^and was part of 
Joist Hite's grant for thirty-three hundred and 
ninety-five acres, known as the Springdale Set- 
tlement, where Col. John Hite lived. 

Jacob Hite, October 20, 1742, for twenty-six 
hundred and sixty-eight acres on "south side of 

John Pentz, Oct. 20, 1742, for one hundred 
and eighty-nine acres on "north side of Sherando 



Thomas Brown, Oct. 20, 1742, for eight hun- 

dred and eighty-two acres on west side of Sher- 
ando river. 

Samuel Glass, Nov. 26, 1742, for nine hundred 
acres on the head of Opequon on west side of 
said creek, meaning south at that point. 

David Logan, Nov. 26, 1742, for eight hun- 
dred and sixty acres on "west side of Bufflow 
Meadow" — known for years as Buffalo Marsh. 

Paul Froman, Nov. 22, 1742, for one hundred 
and twenty acres on North fork of Sherando 
river, adjoining Thomas Chester. 

Emanuel Grubb, Aug. 26, 1742, for two hun- 
dred and fifty acres on north side of Shenandoah 

John Grubb, Aug. 26, 1743, recorded same 
day, for two hundred and sixty-five acres on 
"north side of S. river." 

Thomas Ashby, Feb. i, 1742, for two hundred 
acres on north side of Shenandoah river. 

Robert McKay, from Just Hite, William DuflF 
and Robert Green, June 28, 1744, for five hun- 
dred acres on Linvell's Creek, being part of a 
g^ant to Robert McKay, Just Hite, William 
Duff, and Robt. Green for seven thousand and 
nine acres, dated March, 1736. 

This makes it appear that part of this g^ant 
was located in the lower and western part of 
Rockingham County, — ^before the Augusta line 
was established. The larger part of this g^rant 
embraced the vicinity of Front Royal. The 
grant made as late as 1739, was peculiar in its 
provisions, in that this company had a g^ant 
for land wherever they could locate a survey 
on land not theretofore located. Several other 
small tracts were afterwards surveyed and con- 
veyed by the company to purchasers; but it docs 
not appear that the company ever fully complied 
with the terms, which were, that as they found 
unsettled lands and a settler to take tracts, to 
report the survey to the Council, and then the 
Company to make deeds; until they thus used 
up the seven thousand and nine acres, for which 
the order was made. A number of minor grants 
were issued to the Shepherd, Morgan, Swearin- 
gen, Stephen, Boyd, Dark, Harper, Porterfield, 
and other families, as early settlers, on the 
South side of Cohongoroota River, now embraced 
in the Counties of Berkley and Jefferson, while 
Joliffe, Lupton, and others, in the north end of 
Frederick; Helm, Calmes and others, along the 
Shenandoah; WVx>d, Rutherford and others near 
Winchester, had their experience with the "Mi- 
nor Grants," and as the first settlers will receive 
fuller notice in this volume. 


Old Frederick County 

To write the history of Frederick County in 
Virginia, which at one time embraced so much 
of the territory lying East of the Blue Ridge, 
the writer finds its early history so closely in- 
terwoven with Tidewater Virginia, that he can 
scarcely make it complete, without introducing 
much that may appear at many stages as an 
attempt to give the history of Lower Virginia. 

The reader must at the outset rest assured, 
that incidents are only mentioned when they con- 
nect the two sections, so that the formation of 
the new County of Frederick could become a 
fact. Tidewater Virginia referred to, must not 
be considered as only the territory embraced in 
the original creation of the first colony, which 
included all of North America between Nova 
Scotia on the North to Florida on the South, 
and for many years after the first English land- 
ing, was known as Virginia. 

Indeed, it may be said this title dates from the 
discovery of the Carolina coasts by Sir Walter 
Raleigh; for we have English history recording 
the pleasure afforded Queen Elizabeth when 
Raleigh gave his report of that celebrated sea- 
going expedition, when he had named that great 
territory Virginia, in honor of the Virgin Queen, 
This was in 1585. The failure of Sir Walter 
to colonize the Carolina shores, and the myster- 
ious disaster to what was known as the "Roan- 
oke Colony" — a disappearance so complete, that 
no ray of intelligence has ever thrown light on 
their fate — chilled the spirit of adventure. 
Other efforts of the Virgin Queen to colonize 
the shores of America, were dismal failures; and 
it remained for James I to successfully plant the 
first English colonies. The Virginia Company 
of London, obtained a charter in 1606, for one 
hundred miles square of the territory lying be- 
tween Hudson River on the North, and Cape 
Fear River, North Carolina. The Virginia 
Company of Plymouth, obtained a charter for 
one hundred miles of territory between the Po- 
tomac River on the South and Nova Scotia on 
the North. Of course, the geographical lines 
were destined to overlap, and produce conten- 
tions between the chartered companies. On 
this, we have no comment to make here. The 
first named companies developed Tidewater Vir- 

ginia, and discovered the country West of the 
Blue Ridge, some of which became Frederick 
County, the subject of the present study. The 
author deems it proper to outline the first steps 
of this Company. The first settlement made at 
Jamestown, May 13, 1607, was attended with 
difficulties, privation and destitution, until about 
1620. The London Company seemed determined 
to secure a foot-hold; and obtained a second 
charter in 1609, extending their holdings for 
two hundred miles North and South from Point 
Comfort — "up into the land throughout from 
sea to sea; west and northwest; and also all 
the islands within one hundred miles along the 
coasts of both seas." The general reader knows 
this Company never extended its rights from sea 
to sea. The immigration that subsequently 
sought homes in the new world, pushed slowly 
westward and southward, until the tide not only 
reached the great mountains, but swept over 
them shortly after 1732. That tide, which ex- 
tended into the northwest territory, untimately 
gave to Virginia what was called The North- 
west, which Virginia soldiers penetrated, and 
founded the Ohio and Illinois country under 
the leadership of Col. George Rogers Clark, who 
planted the Virginia standard on the border 
posts; and reported to Patrick Henry, Governor 
of the Colony, the result of his expedition. 

It will be shown in other chapters what was 
acquired, and what was ceded to the Govern- 
ment in 1784, after reserving what would be 
necessary to satisfy the officers and men, for 
their services. This is more fully treated in 
chapters on the Valley Men during the Colonial 
wars; where it will appear who many of the 
men were, and amounts of land granted by the 

In Vol. I, p. 224, Hening's Statutes, we have 
the first legislation in reference to a subdivi- 
sion of the Virginia Colony into counties, enact- 
ed in 1634. "The country was divided into 
eight Shires, which were to be governed as the 
shires in England, and Lieutenants to be appoint- 
ed the same as in England; sheriffs to be elect- 
ed as in England, to have the same powers 
as sergeants and bailiffs needs require." The 
list of shires, or counties, formed in 1634, viz.: 




James City County, Warwick, Elizabeth City 
County, North Hampton, Isle of Wight, Henri- 
co, York and Mecklenburg, is inserted here to 
lay the foundations for subdivisions that made 
it possible to create counties one hundred years 
later West of the Blue Ridge. It may be of 
interest, as matter of reference, to trace the 
dismemberment of the old Colony, starting 
with York County, from which New Kent was 
erected in 1754: 
Old Rappahannock from Lancaster . . 1656 

Essex from Old Rappahannock 1692 

King and Queen from New Kent. . 1691 
King William from King and Queen 1710 
Spottsylvania from Elssex, King Wm., 

and King and Queen 1720 

Orange from Spottsylvania 1734 

Frederick and Augusta from Orange. . 1738 
Referring again to Hening*s Statutes, Vol. IV, 
p. 450, we quote from Act of General Assembly, 
1734, the following, to define the boundaries of 
Orange so far as it relates to the territory so 
soon to be known as Frederick and Augusta: 
"Bounded northerly by grant of Lord Fairfax; 
and westerly by utmost limits of Virginia, to be 
called and known by the name of Orange." And 
as Frederick in her first formation, embraced 
the country comprising all of the Shenandoah 
Valley from the Augusta line, which crossed the 
Valley near the site of Harrisonburg, we must 
treat all of the Valley thence northward to the 
Potomac, and then westward to the French 
boundary, to give a history of Old Frederick; 
this would include the history of a large part 
of West Virginia. This volume will not claim 
to be a complete history of Old Frederick to its 
western boundary. Only a few incidents will 
appear which connected that section with the 
Lower Valley. The writer is well aware that 
some reader will regard the statement as infring- 
ing upon the rights of the West Augusta Dis- 
trict. This, however, will be fully explained. 
Much conflict of authority appeared between 
Augusta and Frederick, all of which was ami- 
cably determined by legislation when the divid- 
ing lines were defined. 

When we come to chronicle many incidents in 
the development of the Lower Valley, the wri- 
ter may often appear as writing the history of 
the Lower Shenandoah Valley, so attractively 
written by J. E. Norris, 1890. The writer knew 
Mr. Norris well; and was associated with him 
for more than six months, giving him the bene- 
fit of his long experience in the old clerk's of- 
fice, as he prepared his work, regarded by many 
as valuable for any library. To aid Mr. Norris 
in his effort to give us a history of the Lower 

Valley, the writer freely gave him the use of 
a large collection of notes he had constantly 
made, as they would be unfolded to him in his 
daily routine of searching titles to estates, or 
for incidents of interest to correspondents; and 
thus in this gradual way, he possessed the chief 
material used in his History of the Lower Val- 
ley. The writer since that day found much un- 
written history, which will be embraced in these 
pages. Some incidents may differ from those 
given by Mr. Norris; but we must use many of 
the original notes in this work; and if the reader 
should feel that we fail to credit Mr. Norris as 
our authority, he should remember that Mr. 
N. seldom referred to his authority in using 
the notes of his author. The writer has in his 
hands a letter from Mr. Norris, written from 
Texas, where he died shortly after, stating that 
a large collection of the notes furnished by the 
writer, was in his trunk at Hagerstown, Md., 
and that his son would return them to the au- 
thor. With this explanation, we will now pro- 
ceed to condense incidents, and so weave them 
into a book of reference. The public feels the 
need of a volume that will quickly answer the 
many questions daily asked concerning the for- 
mation and development of the county, so it 
may be a ready hand-book for all. 

By an Act of the House of Burgesses, 
Nov., 1738, Old Orange County, which embraced 
so much more territory than we can compre- 
hend, was divided into three counties — viz. : 
Orange, Frederick and Augusta, Frederick being 
named for Frederick, then Prince of Wales; 
Augusta for Princess Augusta, the wife of the 
Prince, who was the oldest son of George II, 
but died before his father. 

"Owing to some delay of the population in 
these parts, not being able to report a sufficient 
number of competent men able to officer the new 
County," the Courts for all this section were 
held at Orange C. H., until Nov., 1743, when 
the first Court was held for Frederick County; 
and as this was an important feature in the 
organization of Frederick County, embracing (as 
will be more fully shown elsewhere) the terri- 
tory afterwards subdivided into the counties 
of Rockingham, Shenandoah, Jefferson, Berkley, 
Morgan, Hampshire, part of Page, part of 
Hardy, and finally Clarke and Warren Counties. 
And when we remember that only a few settle- 
ments were to be found at that time, and they 
considerable distances apart, we need not be 
surprised that the "population" was slow in 
reporting a sufficient number of men from these 
settlements for Justices and other officers, and 
preferred to attend court at Orange C. H. for 



five years after their formation. We give the 
authority for holding this first court, as entered 
at that time in the old records of the county; and 
as it was beyond any doubt the first record made 
in the courts of Frederick County, it is well 
worthy a place in this work, in all the style of 
that period and apparent dignity of the occasion; 
and we can readily imagine the Gentlemen Jus- 
tices who appeared at that time in answer to 
the distinguished authority, exhibited much 
dignified solemnity in assuming the judicial con- 
trol of the growing population. The record is 
in the hand writing of one who became familiar 
in the history of the State, and is well preserved 
in a well bound volume, with the simple words 
on the cover: "Order Book No. i, 1743." This 
order book, comprising 480 pages, is altogether 
in the handwriting of James Wood, the Clerk. 
He dignifies his first entry by using the large 
size letters, sometimes called "German Text" 

"Be it Remembered, That on the eleventh day 
of November, Anno Domini, MD,CCXLIII- 


A commission of the Peace dated the twenty- 
second day of October, MD.CCXLIII, under the 
hand of the Honorable William Gooch, Esq., 
His Majesties Lieutenant Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief of the Colony and Dominion 
of Virginia, and the seal of this Colony; Di- 
rected to Morgan Morgan, Benjamin Borden, 
Thomas Chester, David Vaunce, Andrew Camp- 
bell, Marquis Calmes, George Hoge, John White, 
and Thomas Little; Gents, and a Dedimus for 
administering the oaths to said Justices being 
read, the said Morgan Morgan and David 
Vaunce, pursuant to the said Dedimus, adminis- 
tered the oaths appointed "by Act of Parliament 
to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance 
and Supremacy, and the oath of abjuration unto 
the said Marquis Calmees, Thomas Rutherford, 
William McMahon, Meredith Helms, George 
Hoge and John White, who severally subscribed 
the Test and then said Morgan Morgan and 
David Vaunce administered the oaths of a Jus- 
tice of the Peace and of a Justice of ye County 
Court in Chancery imto the said Marquis Cal- 
mees, Thomas Rutherford, William McMahon, 
Meridith Helms, George Hoge and John White, 
and afterwards the said Marquis Calmees, 
Thomas Rutherford, William McMahon, Meri- 
dith Helms, George Hoge and John White 
pursuant to the said Dedimus, administered all 
and every the said oaths unto the said Morgan 
Morgan and David Vaunce, who severally sub- 
scribed the Test and were sworn in the Com- 
mission accordingly." 

Court Proclaimed 

At a Court held for Frederick County on Fri- 
day the Eleventh day of Nov., 1743. 
Present : 

Morgan Morgan, 

David Vaunce, 

Marquis Calmees, 

Thomas Rutherford, 

William McMahon, 

Meridith Helms, 

George Hoge, 

John White. 

Gent Justices. 

A Commission to James Wood Gent under 
the hand and seal of the Hon. Thomas Nelson, 
Esq., Secretary of Virginia, bearing date twenty- 
second day of October, MD,CCXLIII, to be 
Clerk of County Court of this county being 
produced and read in Court the said James 
Wood having taken the oaths appointed by Act 
of Parliament to be taken instead of the oaths 
of allegiance and supremacy, and the oaths of 
abjuration made, and subscribed the test, was 
sworn Clerk of this court accordingly;" 

And the Court being thus organized by "all 
of the Justices then present taking their seats," 
proceeded to qualify court officers as provided 
for in the Commission from the Governor; 
James Wood was sworn Clerk of this Court, 
Thomas Rutherford — High SheriflF, and George 
Home, County Surveyor. As it may be of inter- 
est to many, the names of the first Lawyers to 
appear in the court to practice their profession 
will be given at this point, though they will ap- 
pear in their proper order in the list of attorneys 
of the county Court throughout its history to 
the present date: James Porteous, John Steer- 
man, George Johnston, and John Newport — 
strange names to the people of this day. These 
gentlemen appeared and "being duly qualified to 
practice the art of the law," desiring that privi- 
lege be entered in the minutes of the court that 
they be granted the use of the courthouse to 
attend to legal wants of such persons who may 
desire professional service." Some will enquire 
where and what was the Courthouse mentioned 
in this order! This will be treated under the 
head of the Courthouse and Market Place. 

The business at the first term was confined 
chiefly to making orders to put the government 
in motion. The clerk was ordered to procure 
books for the purpose of keeping a minute of 
the proceedings — and to enter orders of court 
and this rule held for fifty years of keeping two 
separate books for the court, one called "Min- 
utes," and the other "Court Order Book." Many 
enquiries have been made of the writer as Clerk, 



to explain this ; and much of the unpublished his- 
tory of the early days is found, in the Minute book 
— We will have occasion to quote frequently, inci- 
dents from their musty leaves. Few persons 
have ever seen them; for one hundred years 
they were packed away, out of sight and out 
of use. The Clerk was directed to "employ a 
suitable person to fetch the law books from 
the house of Mr. Parks for the use of the Jus- 
tices;" and this order was entered "that no con- 
stables or overseers of the poor be appointed 
at this term, but those who have been serving 
as such officers of the Orange Court as it ex- 
tended within the limits of Frederick County, 
be continued in their respective offices until an- 
other term of this court." We will use some 
space in producing copies of other orders, that 
doubtless will contain matter of interest to some 
readers who may chance to read these pages. 
The reason will appear satisfactory, when we 
consider that only about ten years had passed 
since the first settlements were made; — and the 
reader of the old "minute book" of that period 
will be astonished to see how many names ap- 
pear — some to reveal the fact, for the first time, 
to many a far-away descendant, whose ancestor 
was prominent in the organization. Some names 
within a few decades entirely disappeared from 
the "population;" others became still more prom- 
inent in the affairs of their State as artizans, 
statesmen, soldiers, etc. Taking this order enter- 
ed at this term, we find names then prominent — 
some afterwards more so— but to-day not one 
of the names are to be found in our records 
as citizens of the county, except the well-known 
Robinson family. One name, however, that of 
McNamee is now known in the county as a 
resident, but not on any record; and it seems 
strange that this name is represented in the 
person of a widow, connecting the incidents 
with this late day. The minute shows it to be 
the first will probated in Frederick County; 
"The Last Will and Testament of Bryant Mc- 
Namee, dec*d., was presented into court by 
Elizabeth McNamee, Executrix therein named, 
who made oath thereto according to law, and 
being proved by the oaths of Israel Robinson 
and William Richie, two of the witnesses there- 
to, the same admitted to record; and the said 
Israel Robinson and William Richie also further 
made oath that they saw Edward Hughes, an- 
other witness to the said will, sign the same 
as an evidence — ^and on the motion of the said 
executrix her performing what is usual in such 
cases, certificate is granted her for obtaining a 
probate thereof in due form; and the said Eliza- 
beth McNamee together with Evan Watkins and 

William Richie her securities, acknowledged 
their bond for the said Elizabeth McNamee's 
faithful and true administration of the estate 
of "said Bryant McNamee dec'd, which Bond is 
admitted to record." 

The next order was a grant of Letters of Ad- 
ministration to Elizabeth Seaman, on the estate 
of Jonathan Seaman, "she being the widow and 
relict of the dec'd, with John Denton as secur- 
ity." The appraisers named for the McNamee 
estate are Morgan Bryan, Richard Beason, Ed- 
ward Hughs, and Israel Robinson — all new names 
to this generation except the numerous families 
of the last named. 

The next minute — "Abram Pennington in open 
court acknowledged his Deed of Lease for land 
to Christopher Beeller" — no such names in Fred- 
erick at this date. 

At the December Term of this court held on 
"Fryday the ixth day of December, MD,CCXLIII," 
four of the Justices were present: Morgan Mor- 
gan, Wm. McMachen, David Vaunce, and 
George Hoge. It will be observed the clerk 
learned how to spell the name of McMachen, 
the name will appear later on as McMickin. The 
writer had a personal friend many years ago— 
Mr Samuel McMicken of Moorefield, West 
Virginia, and he claimed his line of descent 
from the old Justice. 

First minute at this Term is the filing of a 
petition by John Wilcox and others for a Road 
from John Funks mill to Chesters Ferry — and 
from thence to where the road takes out of 
Chesters Road to Manassas Run. Viewers were 
appointed. Many readers will have no difficulty 
in locating the route for this new and first road 
asked to be opened. Starting from what was 
soon known as Funkstown, now Strasburg, and 
the heading for the celebrated Gap in the Blue 
Ridge to the historical "Manassas." How many 
old comrades can be named who are survivors 
of many weary marches over this well known 
road! Few realized its importance when it was 
"marked" and laid off by "Thomas Chester, 
John Wilcox and Jacob Funk." Observe how 
careful the Court was in the selection of the 
viewers, starting with Thomas Chester at one 
end, coming to the forks of the Shenandoah 
River near Front Royal, and then to West end 
of Funks Mill. This road was used in various 
ways by the contending armies during the Civil 
AMar. Other mention of this road will appear 
in Chapter on Battlefields. The next minute 
should be of interest from the fact that the 
principal features relate to the first settlers near 
Shepherdstown. The next minute shows that 
the last will and testament of Benjamin Borden 



was presented by his widow, Zeruiah, and Ben- 
jamin Borden — his son — who it will be seen was 
then, in 1743, of lawful age. The father without 
doubt being the Benjamin Borden who followed 
the Hite Colony. This will should have been 
read and studied by historians of Augusta Coun- 
ty. The celebrated Burden Grant located on 
the "upper" James River, is disposed of by the 
testator, and settles many errors in relation to 
this grant. At this Term, James Porteous was 
named as King's Attorney — "until his honor, the 
Govemour's pleasure is known." At the January 
Term (13th) the following order is entered 
"Ordered that the Surveyor of this county run 
the dividing line between this and Augusta coun- 
ty, according to the Act of the Assembly, from 
the head springing of Hedgeman river to Patter- 
sons Creek." Referring to the "Act of Assem- 
bly," we find very little to determine either its 
starting or terminal points. Many persons differ 
as to what is the head springs of a river. Suffi- 
cient for our purpose, however, that the spring 
mentioned was in the mountains East of the Luray 
Valley, and point of Pattersons Creek, West from 
Moorefield, — while supposed to be a straight line 
and "marks erected," many are confounded when 
they consider certain high mountains encounter- 
ed, some summits of which had not been scaled 
until in recent years. 

We find in the minutes of this Term, evidence 
of settlements on Capon River, — ^this one entry 
being sufficient: "On petition of Noah Hamp- 
ton and others for a road from Noah Hamp- 
ton's mill into a road on Great Ca-Capon near 
James Codd/s Ftt, ordered that Jonathan Co- 
bam, Isaac Thomas, Peter Kuykendall and 
James Delheryea, or any two of them, view, 
mark and lay off the road petitioned for by the 
said Hampton &c., and make return of their 
proceedings to this court." When we consider 
in this day of rush and bustle, the brief period 
since Governor Spottswood proclaimed to the 
world what he had discovered beyond the Great 
Mountains, — we must be impressed with the 
quick attention people gave to his glowing de- 
scription of the wonderful land, abounding with 
game, studded with virgin forests, and watered 
with mountain streams. They seemed to be 
settling everywhere. On the Great Ca-Capon — 
we find they had a mill, and needed roads for a 
growing settlements, and mention Coddy's Fort, 
standing to this day — a suitable fortress — Na- 
ture's own formation — which answered well their 
purposes as a place of safety in defending the 
settlements from frequent attacks of roving tribes 
of Indians. This historical Rock, known to-day 
as "Codd/s Castle," offered nothing as a place 

of safety from other hands during the Civil War. 
At same term, James Wood presented a bill for 
plank he bought of Isaac Perkins for use of the 

We also have in evidence the first appearance 
of a "Pedlar," in Frederick County; and it might 
be well to give a copy of the order: "John 
Dooues on his motion is permitted to Trade as 
Pedlar in this Colony, he having paid the Gov- 
ernor's fee and together with Thomas Ruther- 
ford Gent, his security entered into Bond ac- 
cording to law and acknowledged the same, the 
said Bond is admitted to record." The Pedlar 
in that day was a much needed trader in the 
Colony — and most likely, as he sold his wares, 
he proved very often an interesting visitor; for 
he travelled from settlement to settlement; and 
no doubt his news of the distant neighbors, as 
he imparted it, was of much interest to his will- 
ing listeners. At the same court. License was 
granted for the first Ordinary — or House of En- 
tertainment, in the county. "On the petition of 
William Hoge, Jun. for leave to keep Ordinary 
at his House in the County, License is granted 
him for one year, he having paid the Governor's 
fees, together with James Wood Gent, his se- 
curity, entered Bond according to law." Where 
this first "Ordinary" afterwards called "Tav- 
ern" was located, we only have to find he was 
located and is shown in his deed, as being about 
where Kernstown now stands, and very near the 
old Opeckon Church. 

Second day of same term, January, 1744, Pat- 
rick Riley, was granted a similar license, also 
Tomas Hart, Lewis Neil, Andrew Campbell, 
and Morgan Morgan were granted licenses to 
keep Ordinaries at their respective houses, all 
located in the county, and were required to "fur- 
nish lodgings and food and Liquors at prices fixed 
by the court." 

We have more attorneys appearing at this 
term, offering their services, viz.: William Rus- 
sell, John Quinn and Gabriel Jones, — ^having 
taken the oaths, took their places at the Bar. 
On another day of the same term, William Jol- 
liffe and Michael Ryan appeared and having tak- 
en the oaths, took their places at the bar; one 
Constable was appointed for each Justice — Ben- 
jamin and Robert Rutherford qualified as Deputy 
Sheriffs. Business for Lawyers and Constables 
came very fast; — many petty depredations com- 
plained and actions to recover from some fieeing 
debtor, — all small amounts, however. No crime 
of any importance. When these cases were ex- 
amined by the court "and evidence being suffi- 
cient," the defendants were committed to Jaoil 
until they could furnish security for their ap~ 



pearance "before His Magestys Court holden 
at Wms Burgh." No trial of felony by the new 
court. The first Coroner for the new County 
was qualified, he having produced his Commis- 
sion from the Governor, dated Oct., 1743. At 
this Term, we have this about the first Ferry — 
the County Court takes interest in. Such grants 
may have been made by the Court at Orange: 
"John Kersey by his Petition set forth that by 
an order of Orange county Court he had leave 
to keep Ferry over Sherandoe river near the 
wagon Road where he liveth, and Prayed leave 
to continue the said Ferry; Its ordered that same 
be continued accordingly." Upon enquiry, we 
are led to believe that this Ferry was below 
Front Royal. However, we will let some des- 
cendant of the enterprising Mr. Kersey follow 
this out. Another road is requiring attention 
of the Court, — thus showing that the settlements 
were desirous of opening communication with 
each other, — bringing about much intercourse 
and trade; and to locate these sections for the 
reader of to-day, we give a few orders of Court, 
which show in some cases a little light that may 
do much to answer inquiries from so many per- 
sons to know. "If the old Plantation still stands 
on the old wagon Road from Winchester to other 
parts; that their ancestors had often told them 
of such old places they left behind them when 
they sought new homes in the West." 

"On petition of John Wood, it is ordered that 
John Hardin, Samuel Timmons, and Edward 
Rogers, or any two of them, view the Road from 
Blue Ball to Ashbies bent branch and make 
Report" "On petition of Patrick Riely, its or- 
dered that the Road be cleared from the head 
of the spring by The Chappel to Johns Evans, 
as it has been formerly laid off by order of 
Orange Court," where this Chappel was in 1743, 

(We will treat this under the head of Churches, 

"On petition of Thomas Province and others 
for a Road from John Frost's mill to the main 
road between John Littlers plantation and John 
Millbums"— Ordered John Littler, William Dil- 
lon, and Joseph Burchham — lay off the same &c." 

An order was made at this term requiring 
Ordinary keepers to sell "Liquors" at same rating 
granted by the Orange court — to continue until 
a rating is fixed at the next Mch ct. Richard 
Morgan moved the court to "discharge him 
from the bond as surety for Elizabeth Perkins, 
as she was squandering away the estate of her 
Father," the bond having been given in the 
Orange court — The case was continued to next 
term, — when we find the Court repremanding 
Mr. Morgan for having made statements to the 

court without first ascertaining what the Oran^ 
Court would show, and confronted him with a 
copy of a satisfactory accounting by said Eliza- 
beth — of her administrators estate, and that he 
be adjudged to pay all costs of this enquiry. 
At the next term, Feb., 1744, we find another 
road is needed. The minute is copied to show 
the locality, "Ordered that George Bowman, An- 
drew Falkenborough and Robert McKay Junr — 
view and lay off the road from John Funk's mill 
across Cedar run Creek ford, to the said Robert 
McKay's junr and to Branston's Gap, according 
to the petition of Jacob Teeters." At the next 
term we are informed of the localities through 
which this road passes. This minute is entered; 
George Bow^man and Robert McKay, jur. — ^made 
their report for viewing and laying off the road 
from John Funks mill, — "have laid off the road 
from John Funks mill back of George Helm's, 
and from thence to Cedar Creek ford and Rob- 
ert McKays, thence Gregories* ford upon the 
River." "George Dellener, (Bellinger) Robert 
McKay, and George Bowman, appointed Over- 
seers." In the report of commissioners to open 
the road from Funks Mill to Chester's Ferry, to 
where the road takes off to Manassas Run, — 
Jacob Funk, overseer, seems to be another road, 
heading from Cedar Creek Settlements towards 
the Manassas Settlements, than the road petition- 
ed for in the first minute given. At the Febru- 
ary term we find a long order, directing John 
Littler — the Yorkshireman and Wm. Dillon to 
lay out the road from John Frosts Mill to the 
main road between Littlers and Millburns, in 
these words: — "We have laid off the road from 
Captain Frosts mill thence to BufflerAic^i, thence 
to the Backside of John Bossers' field, thence to 
David Shringers, thence to the usual ford, thence 
on east side of Wm. Frosts' Plantation, thence 
along a good Ridge by a course of marked trees 
to Matthias Elmores, thence along said Elmores 
creek to the head — the best conveniensts way 
that can be had by widow Dillons, by the said 
marked trees to the main road leading to Rap- 
pahannock — between John Littlers and Mill- 
bums." This road started from the settlements 
along Red Bud and that part of Opecquon Creek, 
passing them, and now found on the two streams 
in that section, crossed the Opecquon at Dix's Eord, 
at the farm now owned by Lucien Carr, of Win- 
chester, and thence along the main road leading 
to one of the gaps in Blue Ridge. We think 
it well to take some space along the line of 
opening roads, — ^because in this simple way we 
locate many families, giving their names in the 
petitions and orders; and may thus awaken en- 
quiry and such investigation along such lines. 



that will tend to unravel many mysteries sur- 
rounding the old ancestors regarding their homes, 
etc. The road asked for at a former term, — 
to run through the Ca-Capon country, is heard 
from again at this term. The Report, which was 
confirmed, — says "that a road from the north 
Branch of Ca-Capon to James Cody's is needed." 

Here is authority shown by the Court in the 
matter of handling Liquors. It seemed to be 
much needed in that day so that the retailer of 
the beverage should be regulated to suit the re- 
sources of those who cared to indulge in a so- 
cial glass; the long order will be abbreviated. 
The court fixed a price on every class of drinks; 
and a very important rule was made: the bever- 
ages must be pure, and were to be inspected 
regularly. We may infer that the honorable Justices 
placed this burden on themselves; for they failed 
to name the inspector, possibly one of the at- 
torneys relieved them; for it will be seen later 
on that Gabriel Jones and his lusty friend of 
the Emerald Isle were concerned about the wel- 
fare of those who handled the spirrits; Heavy 
bonds were required for a full compliance with 
the law. 

February 11, 1744, Gabriel Jones was recom- 
mended as Kings Attorney, and proceeded to 
prosecute — Dooues for assault and battery on one 
Samuel Isaacs; the first trial in the new court 
March Court, 1744 — Henry Munday was admitted 
to practice law. The Clerk was directed to pro- 
cure from England setts of standard weights 
and measures. One of the new attorneys, Mich- 
ael Ryan, was debarred the practice of law for 
two months, for "drunkenness." At this term, 
March 10, Gabriel Jones presented his commis- 
sion as Kings attorney for this court; and having 
taken the oaths of office — which were very bind- 
ing and impressive — we soon find him busy pros- 
ecuting every offender of the law, and became 
such a successful prosecutor, — that page after 
page of the old minute books for a long time 
are taken up in recording who the offenders 
were, nature of the offense, and ultimate results 
of many interesting trials. The efficient Kings 
Attorney not only changed the order of the trans- 
gressors living, but had the court adopt the 
new style for computing time — or at least the 
change was made, and from that time courts 
began the year on the first day of January in- 
stead of the first day of April. At the April 
term, 1744, we have the first mention of a Jury, 
which was called to actually try a "charge" of 
Commonwealth versus Michael Ryan, for assault 
and battery. The minute reads thus: "This day 
came the parties by their attorneys, and a Jury 
also came, to wit: James Hoge, foreman, (no 

other Jurymen named) who being Tryed and 
sworn to try, &c., &c., one of the Indictments for 
a Felony, etc." At this term occurs an incident 
that will be of interest to many, as it meant much 
to the whole "Population," as we have occasion 
to treat more fully under head of Churches, etc. 

"Ordered that the Clerk of this court write to 
his Hon., the Governor, for a power to Choose 
a Vestry for the Parish of Frederick, in this 

The Court having in their first experience 
found the Jury system some relief in deciding 
questions of facts, — the Hon. Justices to pass 
upon the law points — ^we find them ever ready 
to call a Jury. At another day of this term we 
have for the first time the names of a Jury, and 
give them here as a matter that may be of interest 

to some ; Edward Rogers, Robert Allan, 

Thomas Cherry, Thos. Berwick, Morgan Bryan, 
John Bruce, Peter Woolfe, John Olford, George 
Hobson, Colbert Anderson, Gerge Martin, 
James Bruce, James Hoge, Robt. Smith, John 
Linzey, John Hite, Francis Ross, Samuel Isaacs, 
Robert Willson, William Davis, Jno. Frost, and 
John Richardson; they were all land owners. 
This gives the reader the names of families 
then resident of the county, and he may get a 
clue to his old ancestor. 

"At the May term (11) 1744, a Commission 
from Governor Gooch — was presented to the 
court by the Qerk. This was the appointment 
of the Justices for ensuing year, the old Jus- 
tices being reappointed and others newly com- 
missioned. We give the names of the new Jus- 
tices: Thomas Little, John Linzy, Jacob Hyte, 
Thomas Swearingen, Israel Robinson, Solomon 
Hedges. The first Grand Jury for the county 
was summoned for this term. Their names and 
their findings, are given in full and show many 
new names coming to the front to make history 
for the county: — ^John Hardin, foreman; Robt. 
Allan, George Hobson, James Vance, John Wil- 
cox, Peter Woolfe, Isaac Pennington, David 
Logan, Robert Worth, Joshua Hedges, Robt. 
Willson, Samuel Norris, Hugh Parrell, James 
Hoge, Jacob Niswanger, Charles McDowell. 

The following persons were indicted "for sell- 
ing liquors without License: Robert Craft, James 
Findley, Shinn, and Cuthbert Harrison, and 
James Burns, a Constable, for swearing oaths 
and otherwise disturbing the peace and dignity 
of the Community; Jonathan Curtis, for plow- 
ing on Sunday;" the old Justices seemed deter- 
mined to maintain a rigid observance of the 
Sabbath. Noah Hampton, who succeeded at a 
former term in having a road opened from his 
mill on Great Capon, was presented for taking 



more toll from his customers than the law al- 
lowed. One other deserves special mention, and 
the minute is copied: "We present Coll. James 
Wood for getting drunk and swearing two oaths 
within six months." It is surmised, the Clerk 
was then reformed, as in his long service after, 
he was noted for his dignity and decorum. 

"June term — 8, — " Duncan Oguillion was gfrant- 
ed a license to keep an Ordinary, and since he was 
awarded the contract for building the jail, we 
may assume he was a resident of the village. It 
appears later on that Duncan partook too freely of 
his refreshments; for we find him imprisoned 
in the jail he had recently built. At this term 
we find the Sabbath-breaker, Jonathan Curtis, 
in deep trouble. He was indicted for writing 
and publishing several articles against the Es- 
tablished Church. Evidently this Quaker was 
not willing to be governed in his new field of 
freedom. At the same court wc have this inci- 
dent: Rev. Wm. Williams was fined 4 pounds 
and costs, to pay for "joyning in the holy bonds 
of matrimony, several persons, he being no or- 
thodox minister," the minute shows that he re- 
sented the unjust action of the court, and he was 
fined 26 shillings for "behaving indecently be- 
fore the court." Doubtless he was a visiting 
Presbyterian minister, and joined in wedlock 
some of the Scotch-Irish in the vicinity of 
"Old Opeckon" meeting house. The Church of 
England at that time recognized no Ministers 
other than those ordained by that Church; as by 
reference to chapter on churches is more fully 
explained. On the same day, two Attorneys in- 
curred the displeasure of the justices, — ^the 
court fined James Porteous and John Quinn 
for "indecently behaving and swearing before 
the court;" caused by disagreement of the at- 
torneys over the trial of a case. At this term, 
the first naturalization papers were gr2Lnted; 
Peter Mauk, a German, being the first. He was 
one of the Adam Mueller Settlement in the 
"Massanuttin" region, fully treated elsewhere. 
Not long after this act of the old settler, 
quite a number of Protestants appeared and sub- 
scribed to the oaths prescribed by Acts of Par- 
liament Some of their names are given; Philip 
and Michael Boucher (afterwards written 
Boogher) ; Henry and George Lough Miller, 
Valentine and Christopher Windle, John Har- 
man, George Dellinor, John Frederick, V. Helm. 
One of the minutes of this term must be given 
by reason of the significant allusion to where 
the first Courts were held: The court laid the 
first Levy at this term and specified how the same 
should be distributed: 






960 " 






To James Wood, Qerk, extra services 

tobacco 1248 lb 

as per account 2015 " 

" same for four record books and one 
law book from Wm-burgh 8 shill- 
ings or 128 " 

James Wood, 6 Webbs Justices for 

use of county £3, 5s. or 1040 " 

Mr. Secretary Nelson 670 " 

James Wood, for use of Court house, 

£4, or 1280 " 

" Thomas Rutherford, Sheriff— extra 

services 1248 " 

as per account 20923 " 

" Isaac Perkins for 526 feet of plank 

for use of court house 315 " 

" Gabriel Jones as Kings attorney. . 2000 " 
" John Bruce, for building the Stocks 

& Pillory 1840 " 

" John Harrow, for iron work on 

Stocks & Pillory 320 " 

James Porteous, for public services 1000 " 
Andrew Campbell, pay for three men 
going to South Branch concern- 
ing Indians 

John Jones, constable 

James Wood, for standard weights 

and measures 5440 " 

George Home, for running dividing 

line 24416 " 

By 1283 tithables at 59 lbs. Tobacco 

per poll 75697 " 

This minute is a valuable record, showing the 
number of persons who had been found by dili- 
gent officers and required to pay the poll tax. 
The number 1283 shows the county to be sparse- 
ly settled; for it must be borne in mind, the old 
County had not yet been subdivided, then again 
that Tobacco was a staple crop, and also a legal 
tender. The minutes will repay careful reading 
and study. The minutes of court for several 
subsequent terms contain many interesting in- 
cidents. We will add this minute, "Mr. James 
Wood produced his commission as Surveyor, 
signed by the President and Masters of William 
and Mary College." At this term George Home 
surveyor of the county, made return of his 
report "That he had run the county line ac- 
cording to an order of this court, marking the 
Augusta line, same is admitted to record." The 
writer has been unable to find this record. The 
original was returned to Williamsburgh and later 
destroyed by fire in Richmond. This court for 
the first time made an order for having person- 
al property "Listed for Taxation;" and certain 
of the Justices to take these "Lists." Later on, 
the office "of Comr. of the Revenue" was created. 



— ^but we find Justices continued to perform this 
service — of course they were not required by 
Statute to perform it. They seemed to treat the 
office as one of the emoluments of the Hon. 
Court. This was the case in the office of High 
Sheriff; the senior Justice always being named 
by the Governor for this office after the Justices 
had formally recommended one of their number 
for appointment. This gave the court the right 
to pass upon the fitness of their President. We 
find the court asking the High Sheriff to re- 
commend several persons for Deputies; the 
court would then appoint one of the Justices who 
seemed willing to help along, for many were 
needed to serve processes in the sparsely settled 
country : 

At the October Term, 174S, we have this 
minute to show how work on the public build- 
ings is progressing: 

"Levied to James Bruce for mending 
the seats in the Court house to be 

paid in Tobacco 64 pounds 

To John Littler for plank for prison. . SgoVt 
" Marquis Calmes for iron work on the 

Prisons 3200 " 

" Duncan O'Guillon for work on Goal, 

tobacco 6400 " 

*' Hugh Campbell for digging the Dun- 
geon of the Prison ii2p " 

We are unable to account for the distinction 
between the Prison and Goal, doubtless the one 
building embraced both. From the next item, 
we infer the Justices were fortifying their judi- 
cial positions; 

"Levied to Giles Chapman for bringing to the 
court 13 Acts of Assembly." The foregoing min- 
utes dearly indicate a completion of the Jail or 
prison just prior to this term. Norris in his 
History, gives the date of completion Septem- 
ber 8th 1748^ (an error;) 

The Court held Monthly terms; and from this 
period each term indicated new settlements 
springing up, to receive attention from the courts. 
The tide of immigration had turned towards 
the famed country lying South of the "Cohon- 
gnruta," where families were seeking homes 
West of the Blue Ridge. As has already been 
said, petitions for opening roads were pouring 
in at every term; and the ten years succeeding 
this term from which the last minutes were 
gathered, witnessed enormous development, A 
full list of roads opened prior to 1753, is given 
in chapters on the topography and physical fea- 
tures of the County. The court was also grant- 
ing mill rights on the various streams. A num- 
ber of superior mill sites were soon appropriated; 
and rude, but useful structures sprang up in 

all sections. We will try to locate the more 
prominent as this study progresses. The nucleus 
for villages being formed will be located — 
Churches or Meeting Houses were going up 
which will be found in Chapters on Churches. 
The Field notes of Washington show many sur- 
veys for tracts of land which were returned to 
Court, and ordered to be recorded or filed. 
Deeds were then made to many settlers at vari- 
ous places, extending from the Shenandoah to 
Great Capon, and along South Branch, Some 
were located in what is called, "Washington's 
Pattersons Creek Survey," embracing many 
thousand acres. Many found homes in what was 
known as "South Branch Manor," the old sur- 
veys are very instructive. They locate the tracts, 
names of grantees, and dates of entry. As it 
may serve to show who many of the arrivals 
were, brief notices of the names and regions 
where they settled about 1749-50, will be given, 
though some doubtless had erected the squatters 
cabin several years previously, and waited for some 
Lord of the Manor to come and give them title. 
Some names appear with surveys, who had other 
tracts and resided on such as the very earliest 
settlers. Andrew Campbell, one of the Justices, 
lived in the vicinity of the Baths northwest of 
Winchester; George Wm. Fairfax, survey for 
land on Long Marsh, John Anderson on same, — 
Captain Thos. Ashby on Shen. River above Bur- 
rells Island, Henry and Robt Ashby on the Fair- 
fax Road, Jas. Blackburn lived on his land on 
Long Marsh, Capt. George Neavill had survey 
on Long Marsh, Thos. Colston's survey on same, 
John Cozen's on same, Richard Carter for sev- 
eral large tracts on same, Isabella Jump, survey 
on same, John Vane and John Madden at Joe's 
Hole on Long Marsh, Saml. Isaacs and Isaac Pen- 
nington on Long Marsh, Thos. Johnston owned 
land on same, adjoining Col. Blackstone; George 
Smith, on the same; Jeremiah Wood, Patrick 
Rice, Nathaniel Daugherty, John Loftin, Hannah 
Southerd, Maj. L. Washington, had surveys on 
Long Marsh made by Washington and his chain 
carriers. Long Marsh has ever been noted for its 
fertile soil and Colonial Homesteads, and is to- 
day the name of one of the Magisterial Districts 
in Clarke County. The Bullskin Creek offered 
attractions for the following named persons, who 
were settling in that section, and the Washing- 
ton surveys, embraced them. Henry Bradshaw, 
Lawrence Washington, Marquis Calmes, the Jus- 
tice; Richard Stephenson, Wm. Davis; G. W. 
Fairfax; Joshua Haynes, George Johnston (in 
another tract he is mentioned as Capt Creorge 
Johnston) Thos. Lofton, & Dr. James McCor- 
mick are mentioned as "abutting owners" to 




Capt Johnston's tract. Johnston sold his tract 
to George Washington. Patrick Mathews was 
on the South side the Bullskin; Capt. Isaac Pen- 
nington, mentioned as a resident, on the Bull- 
skin: — Washington in his notes says, "I lodged 
there, the first night in first survey cam- 
paign," and Anderson Pitts had been pre- 
viously on his patent, also Capt Thos. Ruther- 
ford "was seated and desired no survey," like- 
wise Nathaniel Thomas, also Saml. Walker 
(written in notes Waker,) Robt. Worthington 
was on a large grant. The following surveys 
were along the Shenandoah River; Robt. Fox, 
Edward Musgrove, George Neavill, adjoining 
Wm. Vestal who owned the Vestal Iron Works 
at base of Blue Ridge; Saml. Knisman, Henry 
Enoch, John Newton; Henry Harris's survey 
near the "Manor Line," "John Vestall, previous- 
ly seated on Pattent." The following named 
persons had surveys made them on the South 
Branch. Washington, says John Collins had 
settled in the Manor — near the Indian Village 
(North of site of Moorefield,) and that he and 
Mr. (jcorge Wm. Fairfax spent the night with 
Collins. This note also appears "James Rutledge 
was settled about seventy miles above mouth of 
South Branch, where they spent a night. Mich- 
ael Stump, Henry Venable, need surveys, for 
lands settled on prior to 1748. This note is 
dated April, 1758. The young surveyor evident- 
ly made one mistake in his life; for at that date, 
Col. Washington was in the Fort Duquesne cam- 
paign, and also interested in his election cam- 
paign on his return in June. This survey must 
have been made in 1753, while on his surveying 
expedition. In same note book this appears: 

"surveyed a tract of land acres for William 

Baker on Lost River, November 10, 1749, which 
adjoins Barnaby McHandry," John Kioson had 
his survey on Lost River, several surveys are 
mentioned. Jonathan Arnold and David Woods 

on North River of Ca-Capon, Darby McKcever, 
Sen., for survey on Ca-Capon River, and several 
others; Abram Johnston and others were on 
Pattersons Creek in 1748, supposed to have come 
from Penn, via. Fort Cumberland. That was 
dangerous ground at that period, for many im- 
migration trains were attacked by roving bands 
of Indians, as will be shown later on. Washing- 
ton and Fairfax name their chain carriers and 
markers for each tract, and this will furnish 
some names that will not appear elsewhere. The 
list is given for reference. Frequently he select- 
ed men who were adjoining owners; the follow- 
ing represent several sections; John Anderson, 
Henry & Robt. Ashby, Capt. M. Calmes, markers 
on their own lands, Francis & Thos. Carney, 
Joshua Haynes, Henry Henricks, Tos. Jones, 
John Keith, Timothy McCarty, Thos. McClana- 
han, Dr. James McCormick, John Miller, Jno. 
& Ned Musgfrove, Hgh. Rankin, Ruben Ruther- 
ford, Stephen Sebastian, Richard Taylor, Lewis 
Thomas, Owen Thomas, Jno. Urton, Alexander 
Vance, Wm. Wiggons, Jeremiah Wood, and 
Worthington. For much interesting matter re- 
lating to surveys, the old deed books deserve 
careful study; and for personal matter relating 
to Surveyor Washington — see Field Notes, 
among the Washington Papers, and especially, 
one marked "A Journal of my Journey over the 
Mountains." His companion in this "Journey" 
was (jeorge Wm. Fairfax. There is some evi- 
dence that he was Senior Surveyor in this work, 
begun in 17^, one year prior to Washington's 
appearance with Lord Fairfax. One other field 
book and journal, contains notes indicating that 
Washington's first appearance as a surveyor was 
in 1749, where he continued in the work until 
1753- We offer this for no speculation, but sim- 
ply quote from old Washington papers, as 
matter that must interest the reader. 


Boundaries of Old Frederick County 

The last Chapter, with gleanings from Old 
Courts, brought us to 1750; — and as settlements 
were rapidly forming over the vast territory, 
the author deems it wise to suspend notices of 
the proceedings of the Court, and endeavor in 
this Chapter to give more definite description of 
the old County. The importance of this will be 
seen in the study of the following Chapters. 
The settlements were already harrassed by In- 
dian raiders, and the time drawing near when 
the old County was to be the scene of Indian 
Wars; and soon came what were known as the 
French and Indian Wars. 

A considerable digression may be instructive 
to the reader, whose ancestors probably were on 
the frontier in 1750; Chapters on these wars will 
follow in proper order. Frederick County, at 
its formation in Nov., 1738, was distinguished 
in the Act, as "Everything west of the Blue 
Ridge — north of a certain line." This always 
seemed so indefinite, and has occasioned much 
confusion even in the experience of the author, — 
that he felt it his duty in preparing these pages, 
to give a more definite boundary to the gfreat 
Territory embraced within the limitations of the 
County, — or more strictly speaking her limits 
on the East, North and South. As to her west- 
em limits — which seemed to have no limit, much 
speculation has been written and said concerning 
it ; some insisting that it only ended at the shores 
of the Pacific Ocean. Others were willing to 
confine it to the territory East of the Mississippi 
River; while others gave the Ohio River as the 
western boundary, and still others fixed the Al- 
legany Mountains, as the western line. Of 
course all these geographical questions have been 
laid open to the eye of the student who has in- 
formed himself of these boundaries. But neither 
the general reader, nor the school children ever 
meet with the matter so condensed, as to give 
any satisfactory settlement of the question. As 
has been stated elsewhere in this work, the 
boundary on the East is plainly defined by the line 
of mountains or range of hills, called the Blue 
Ridge, the northern boundary followed the Po- 
tomac River to a point in the "High Moun- 
Uins," — ^meaning a point beyond Cumberland, — 
then in a straight line to the "Great Waters," 

meaning the Ohio River at a point above Wheel- 
ing. To understand what this meant, one must 
see the Map of that section and follow this 
straight line, and he will find many encroach- 
ments on what is Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
At that time the lines between the three States 
had not been fully determined; and, we might 
add, never have been settled to the satisfaction 
of the incredulous. Not all the solemnity and 
dignity attaching to the "Mason and Dixon" line 
could fully please everybody. The Congress, 
Courts of Justice and State Legislatures, have 
worked over it, and still the line in some meas- 
ure is incomplete. Recent legislation in the 
three States sustains this claim. A Commission 
has been, and is now, engaged in erecting monu- 
ments of division line. 

The Author had his curiosity aroused years 
ago by contact with officials and citizens of sev- 
eral border counties of Pennsylvania, — ^finding 
among the files and records of those Counties, the 
final disposition by the District Court, of suits liti- 
gated in what was in that day regarded as Vir- 
ginia territory, of course within the bounds of 
Frederick County, and what was at one time re- 
garded as West Augusta District. Of course, this 
was interesting ; but it was perplexing, and the 
question arose, how came those papers there ? The 
answer is, the old border Counties along the 
supposed Pennsylvania and Virginia line, em- 
braced much Pennsylvania territory, which was 
regarded as being within the jurisdiction of our 
District Courts; and when the line was run to 
determine the question in 1776-1785, the territory 
lying on the Pennsylvania side, within those Coun- 
ties continued to hold the "Files," etc. of old suits, 
which more nearly affected the Pennsylvania citi- 
zen than those on the Virginia side. The running 
of this line suddenly stopped all suits pending 
between Fairfax and the squatters on his ** North- 
ern Neck." He discovered that his "Neck" must 
be confined to Virginia. Some interesting his- 
tory is connected with those squatters on the 
Pennsylvania side, — requiring many Acts of the 
State Legislature, and even the Congress, to deter- 
mine their rights, but of their history, this work 
need not further treat. We will now follow the 
line westward, as then claimed by Frederick Coun- 




ty from its point on the Ohio above Wheeling, ex- 
tending northwestward to the Great Lakes, un- 
til a point is fixed on the line of Longitude 87 
degrees West from Greenwich (now 10 degrees 
West from Washington) West and North of the 
present site of Chicago, thence South to the 37th 
deg^ree of Latitude; the point on the Lakes, and 
the line South, being along the boundaries of 
the ''French Possessions," questions then un- 
settled — and only determined later on by the cap- 
ture of "Old Fort St. Vincent"— now "Vincen- 
nes," by the celebrated Clark's French and In- 
dian Campaigns. Then it became desirable to 
move the line further West, so as to include the 
latter point, so the Frederick and Augusta County 
line was extended to the 89th degree of Longi- 
tude; — and this latter was adhered to for many 
years, — and was frequently the subject that Con- 
gress felt called upon to enact some unwarrant- 
ed laws governing the Virginia territory of the 
Great West. It will be seen on our present 
Maps, that these lines embraced nearly all of 
Ohio, all of Indiana, and about half of Illinois. 
Following the line from about where Cairo on 
the Mississippi River is to-day, eastward, we take 
nearly all of Kentucky. It was believed at that time, 
to be all of that territory, and the question was 
not raised;— 4)ut subsequent claims of West Au- 
gusta County, — so-called — resulted in a division 
line being established between the Magisterial 
Districts of Tennessee, and Kentucky, — which 
resulted in Frederick County losing a portion of 
the "dark and bloody battle gfround." Wc now 
have the geographical position of Old Frederick 
County, including part of Augusta; — and for 
many years her authority was respected within 
this vast territory; frequent mention being made 
in old records of her jurisdiction in her "Ken- 
tucky Magisterial District," and of her Colonies 
in the "Ohio portion," and those at "St. Vincent" 
Old Order Books show that processes were serv- 
ed on "dwellers in the Ohio portion," and those 
within the Illinois District." Frequent orders 
appear in the old Minute Books of the old Jus- 
tices* Court, continuing Court from day to day, 
to await the arrival of the Justices from the 
Kentucky District, who had been delayed by re- 
ported high waters," or of Indian hostilities. 
Often additional Deputy Sheriffs were appointed 
by the Court and ordered "to proceed to render 
such aid as might be required to escort the 
honorable Justice to this Worshipful Court." In- 
vestigations clearly prove that the Justices men* 
tioned, did not live in Kentucky proper; they 
resided somewhere in Western Virginia, and their 
jurisdiction was supposed to embrace the regions 
referred to. Augusta County exercised similar 

jurisdiction. This produced confusion, and was 
cured finally by the General Assembly defining 
the lines of the Districts. When the line entered 
Virginia from the Kentucky region at a point 
on the Kanawha River, it intersected the bound- 
ary line of Augusta County through the moun- 
tains, to a point on the South Branch, below 
the present site of Moorefield in Hardy County, 
then following an unsettled line between the two 
counties, — "to a head Spring of Robinson river 
east of the Blue Ridge." This answered the 
purpose for awhile. There seemed to be a desire 
for an established line between the Counties, — 
and that Augusta should extend her terminal 
point on the Ohio River to a point up that stream 
a greater distance, as is shown by extracts from 
the MSS Journal of the House of Burgesses. We 
find in 1744, an Act directing the Courts of the 
two counties to have their County Surveyors run 
and establish the line. So, as already stated, at 
the January term of the Frederick co. ct 
1744, the order was promptly entered; but as 
will be seen, this order directed the Surveyor 
to run the dividing line between this and Au- 
gusta County — from the Head spring of Hedge- 
man river, to Pattersons Creek; and a report 
later on shows this line to have been run. Noth- 
ing to show of any effort to run the 
line through the unsettled mountains "beyond 
the power of man to penetrate and scale." Some 
years later, these difficulties were overcome ; and 
the line was established,-— even changing the 
point on Pattersons Creek; and starting from 
that point higher up the stream, found a new 
point on the Ohio, and the new territory taken 
from Frederick was styled and recognized as 
West Augusta District. Soon this vast territory 
was opened up for White settlers; and Colonists 
appeared on Pattersons Creek, and other water 
courses, and "grew strong along the Ohio river," 
and formation of new Counties desired. So we 
find the first lopping process, to reduce the size 
of Old Frederick took place in May, 1753, when 
an Act of the Assembly at Williamsburgh, direct- 
ed a new county to be formed, and to take it 
from the western parts of Frederick & Augusta, 
and named it Hampshire. Doubtless many of 
the good people of that section were thinking 
of their "Hampshire Hills" in England — from 
whence many of the Colonists came, chiefly pre- 
ferring to locate among the hills and mountains 
that constantly reminded them of the appro- 
priateness of the name for their new county. 
We find in their Petition, many English names 
of the actual citizens, — requesting the name of 
Hampshire be given their new County. As this 
is an important event in the history of Frederick 



County, and certainly of Hampshire, we give a 
copy of the Act relating to this matter. 

In the General Assembly Of Virginia, 
November, 1753, 27th yr. of the Reign of 
George II. 

"An Act for adding part of the county and 
parish of Augusta that lies within the territory 
or tract of land, called the Northern Neck be- 
longing to the right honourable Thomas Lord 
Fairfax, Baron of Cameron, and it will be more 
convenient, if the dividing line between the said 
territory, and the other part of the said county 
be added to the county and parts of Frederick, 
and, whereas, the said county and parish of 
Frederick are of a very long and large extent, 
and inconvenient to the inhabitants thereof, — 

"II. Be it enacted by the Lieutenant Governor, 
Council and Burgesses, of this present General 
Assembly, and it is hereby enacted by authority 
of the same, That on the first day of May next 
ensuing, all that part of the county of Augusta 
which lies within Northern Neck, be added to, 
and made part of the county of Frederick; and 
that from and immediately after the said first day 
of May, the said county of Frederick and the 
said part of the county of Augusta so to be added 
to, and made part of the county of Frederick, as 
aforesaid, be divided into two counties; and 
all that part thereof, lying to the westward of 
the ridge of Mountains, commonly called and 
known by the names of the Great North Ca- 
Capon mountain and Warin Spring mountains, 
extending to the Potomack riv^r, be one dis- 
tinct county, and called and by the name of 
Hampshire; and all that other part thereof, lying 
to the eastward of the said ridge of mountains 
be one other distinct County, and retain the 
name of Frederick; — "III. And for the due ad- 
ministration of justice in the said County of 
Hampshire, after the same shall take place. Be 
it enacted by the authority aforesaid. That after 
the first day of May. a court for the said county 
of Hampshire, be constantly held by the Justice 
thereof, upon the second Tuesday in every month 
in such manner as by the laws of this Colony is 
provided, and shall be by their Commissioners 
directed, IV. And be it further enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, That all that part of the 
parish of Augusta in the county of Augusta, 
which after the division aforesaid, will be with- 
in the said counties of Frederick and Hampshire, 
shall be added to, and made part of the parish of 

"V. Provided always. That nothing herein con- 
tained shall be construed to hinder the sherriffs 
or collectors of the said counties of Augusta 

and Frederick, or the collectors of the parish of 
the county of Augusta, as the same now stands 
intire and undivided, from collecting and making 
distress for any public dues or officers fees, 
which shall remain unpaid by the inhabitants of 
that part of the county of Augusta to be added 
to the county of Frederick, as aforesaid, and the 
inhabitants of the said county of Hampshire, 
respectively, at the time the same shall take 
place; but such sherriff or collectors, respectively, 
shall have the same power to collect and dis- 
train for the said fees and dues, as if this Act 
had never been made. 

"VI. Provided also. That the courts of the 
said counties of Augusta and Frederick, shall 
have jurisdiction of all actions and suits, both in 
law and equity, depending before them, respec- 
tively, at the said division shall take place, and 
shall try & determine such actions and suits, and 
lssu« process and award executions against the 
body or estate of the defendant in any such action 
or suit, in the same manner as if this act had 
not been made, any law usage or custom to 
the contrary. 

"VII. And be it further enacted. That from 
and after the first day of May, which shall be 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand, seven 
hundred and fifty-six, the said parish of Freder- 
ick shall be divided into two district parishes, by 
the line dividing the said county of Frederick, 
from the said county of Hampshire, and that 
all that part of the said parish of Frederick, 
which, after such division, will be within the 
said county of Frederick, shall retain the name 
of the parish of Frederick; and all the other 
part thereof, shall be called and known by the 
name of the parish of Hampshire; 

"VIII. Provided always, That nothing herein 
contained shall be construed to hinder the officers 
the benefit of the law as herein provided, ; 

"IX. And be it further enacted by the author- 
ity, aforesaid. That the freeholders and house- 
keepers of the said parish of Hampshire, shall 
meet at some convenient time and place, to be 
appointed and publickly advertised at least one 
month before, by the sherriff of the said county 
of Hampshire, before the first day of July, 1756, 
and then and there, elect twelve of the most able 
and discreet persons of the said parish to be 
vestry men thereof, which said persons so elected 
having in the court of the said county of Hamp- 
shire, taken and subscribed the oaths appointed, 
to be taken, by an act of Parliament, made in 
the first year of the reign of his Majesty King 
George the first, "intitled" An act for the further 
security of his Majesty's person and Govern- 
ment and the succession of the crown in the 



heirs of late princess Sophia, being Protestants, 
& for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended 
prince of Wales, and his and secret abettors, and 
taken and subscribed the oath of abjuration and 
repeated and subscribed the test, and also sub- 
scribed to be conformable to the doctrine and 
discipline of the Church of England shall to all 
intents and purposes be deemed and taken to be 
vestrymen of the said parish; — ^X. And be it 
further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That 
upon the death, removal or resign^ation of any 
of the said vestrymen, the remaining vestrymen, 
shall be, and they are hereby impowered to 
choose and elect another vestryman, in the room 
of such vestryman, so dying, removing or resign^- 
ing — ; — This act was not fully applied to Hamp- 
shire county until 1756— when the new county 
organized its Court — ^and proceeded to execute 
its orders and judgments without the aid of the 
Frederick county sheriff &c. The county Seat was 
established by an act of the Assembly in 1762, 
and chartered as the borough of Romney. Ref- 
erence has been made to some confusion about 
Courts on the Pennsylvania border. In the con- 
struction of Augusta and Frederick, the line 
between the two counties was not understood 
by them. Augusta construed the northern line to 
be, that it took a straight course due northwest 
from the head springs of Hedgeman River to the 
Ohio, and claimed her terminal was on the river 
at a point above Pittsburgh; while Frederick 
was described in her northern line, as extending 
to the Great water beyond the Ohio. Of course 
this was confusion; the territory of one over- 
lapping the other; and as both courts had co- 
existent legal rights along the Pennsylvania bor- 
der, this is why orders of both courts appear as 
above mentioned. This was all cured when the 
line was finally run; when the Augusta line ter- 
minated far down on the Ohio, while the Freder- 
ick Territory beyond the Ohio was not affected ; — 
In 1772 — Frederick was called Upon to lop off 
more of her vast territory. We find the Genl. 
Assembly entertaining petitioners from both the 
southern and northern borders, resulting in an 
act to form the County of Berkley on the North, 
and the County of Dunmore (Shenandoah) on 
the South, Dunmore embraced the territory South 
of Cedar Creek and the North Fork of the 
Shenandoah River from its junction with Cedar 
Creek, to its junction with the South Fork, near 

the site of Front Royal, (this line was in dis- 
pute several times, but finally settled by legal 
survey.) A change of name was made in 1777, 
on motion of one of the members of the House 
of Burgesses, under peculiar circumstances — 
Lord Dunmore was regarded as a Tory, so offen- 
sive to the loyal citizens of Virginia, who had 
grown weary under his tyranical usurpation, that 
before the moving member could take his seat, 
his resolution was adopted, and the name of Dun- 
more, ordered to be obliterated from the records, 
and substituted Shenandoah in its stead, giving 
the county a name after the historic river passing 
through it. The town of Woodstock which had 
been established in March, 1761, by Act of the 
Genl. Assembly, was chosen as the county seat, 
and the county government was soon under way. 

Berkley embraced what is now Berkley, Jef- 
ferson and Morgan Counties, — the boundary line 
defined by survey. No such natural boundaries 
of water courses or mountain ranges, as was 
the case in other subdivisions of the old county. 

Martinsburg was a small town at this forma- 
tion, being laid out by Adam Stephen, and was 
adopted as the county seat. Clarke County was 
formed from Frederick in 1836; the Blue Ridge 
forming its eastern boundary, and the Opecquon 
mostly its western boundary, giving it an area 
of 17 miles in length and 15 miles wide; the 
Shenandoah running along and near its eastern 
boundary. Berry ville was the county seat. 

Warren was formed in 1836, from Frederick, 
taking in a portion of Shenandoah to give it an 
area of 20 miles in length by 12 miles in width. 
The Shenandoah River runs through it at the 
base of the Blue Ridge, and takes in its course 
the waters of the north fork coming out of Shen- 
andoah County. Cedar Creek runs through its 
northern border. Front Royal, established in 
1888, on 50 acres of land taken from the Van 
Meter Grant, became the county seat. 

Having briefly given the boundaries of Old 
Frederick, as well as the subdivisions, thus re- 
ducing the Old County to its present area, — 26 
miles in length and 22 miles for its mean width, 
Winchester being the county seat, a distinction 
she has held for 165 years, we may now regard 
the geographical position settled, and proceed in 
the next chapter to dwell at some length upon 
many of her celebrated physical features. 



prietor, Charles F. Nelson, son-in-law of our 
deceased friend, Capt. Sale, is successful in 
maintaining its enviable reputation as one of the 
best summer resorts to be found in the Vir- 
ginia mountains. We must pass on to other 
features, from this attractive place, for a stop 
at the celebrated "Ice Mountain," already al- 
luded to. This is a veritable mountain, and is 
found on North River a branch of Ca-Capon, 
about 27 miles northwest from Winchester, ten 
miles north of Capon Bridge, and is entitled to 
mention as a natural curiosity. The reader must 
not be incredulous. While it is not an "iceberg," 
it is entitled to the name borne by it for genera- 
tions. This mountain is composed chiefly of 
loose mountain rock, rising to a height of about 
800 feet from its western base on the river. 
From this point we have the best view of this 
wonder. By its peculiar shape and general for- 
mation, with but little shrubbery or vegetation 
on its rocky sides — nearly perpendicular on the 
river side, one is reminded of Old Storm King 
Mountain on the Hudson above West Point 
The stupendous grandeur of both, impresses the 
beholder. Some good climbing is required to 
scale the steep sides and be rewarded by dis- 
covering actual ice in mid-summer. Upon re- 
moving some of the loose, heavy sand, and gray 
granite stones, you will find this strange, natural 
phenomenon — ^pure and perfectly formed pieces of 
ICC, weighing often several pounds. As might 
be supposed, a very strong spring of cold water 
gushes from near the base of the mountain, 
where doubtless at this day is an ideal place for 
picnic parties. The writer remembers several 
such parties that he joined in the long ago. It 
is easy to recall these incidents in his life, but 
not so easy to find the survivors of that company. 
He knows of but three of that party of forty 
who enjoyed the day at the Ice Mountain! 

Another natural curiosity of Hampshire is 
found about two miles above the forks of Capon, 
and it is known to-day as Caud/s Castle. 
Strange stories are told of this real curiosity, 
which stands out independent and alone from 
other mountains scattered around. Its eastern 
base rests upon the river, and, similar to the 
Ice Mountain, is a solid mass of granite, per- 
pendicular to the height of at least 500 feet. 
Kercheval gives it this description : "A line drawn 
around its base, would probably not exceed one 
thousand or twelve hundred yards. From its 
western side, it may be ascended by a man on 
foot to within about ninety or one hundred feet 
of the summit; from thence the rock suddenly 
shoots up something in the form of a comb, 
which is about ninety or one hundred feet in 

length, eight or ten feet in thickness, and rims 
about North and South. On the eastern face of 
the rock from where the comb is approached, 
a very narrow undulating path is formed, by 
pursuing which, active persons can ascend to 
the summit." On this table rock several feet 
square, and from this point, the author was in- 
formed by several venturesome mountain climb- 
ers, that the view of the little valley, the winding 
river and broken mountain ranges, can only be 
surpassed in beauty by similar scenes in the great 
mountains of New Hampshire. We find in Ker- 
cheval's study of Candy's "Castle" he treats it 
as a tradition. Can it be possible that so pains- 
taking a compiler of interesting incidents of the 
early history of Old Frederick, which then in- 
cluded this very wonderful castle, could have 
mistaken actual fact for tradition! as the records 
of the Old County have revealed to the writer 
of these pages. If the reader will refer to the 
chapter on the organization from Orange, he 
will find a copy of the order of our County 
Court held Dec., 1743, directing that a road be 
opened on the petition of Noah Hampton, James 
Coddy ic, from Hamptons Mill into a road, 
ic, near Col. Coddy's Fort, &c. Later on we 
find the House of Burgesses and the General 
Council of Virginia, voting him a grant of his 
tract of land, in consideration of his founding 
and maintaining a post of protection on Ca- 
Capon at Codd/s Fort. This establishes beyond 
any doubt the connection between Candy's Cas- 
tle and "James Coddy's Fit" 

We will now briefly touch upon the develop- 
ment of the County, as it relates to towns, vil- 
lages, highways, minerals, etc As already stated, 
Romney was the county seat, located in the heart 
of the County on the eastern bank of the South 
Branch, forty-three miles distant from Winches- 
ter, by way of the Northwestern Turnpike. Other 
towns in the county that started in its early his- 
tory, were Frankfort, Springfield, Cold Stream 
Mill (Bloomery in later years) and Paddy Town — 
none of which have grown in importance, hin- 
dered doubtless by the innumerable cross-roads' 
stores found in every section. In later years, 
quite a village started at Capon Bridge, where 
the Northwestern Turnpike crosses Capon River 
over the wooden-covered bridge. Several stores 
— one owned by Samuel Cooper — the post office, 
stage office, shops, etc. made it a village offering 
inducements to a traveler to stop and rest; and 
this he was sure to get in the early days at old 
Mag. Bell's Tavern; still later on, at the delight- 
ful hotel owned by our old friend John A. Smith, 
the stage-line man frqm Winchester to Romney. 
The traveler would forget his weariness while 



Mr. Smith recounted his experiences as an old 
stage driver; in more recent years this Hotel 
has undergone changes that make it a real home 
for the guest who stops with Mrs. Smith and 
her estimable daughters. Many other places of 
interest along the line of development of this 
large county could be mentioned. Local histor- 
ians have covered the ground in this respect; 
and the author can well afford to trust to their 
fuller description, and not cumber these pages 
with what is familiar to many. However, it may 
be well to make a note of the comparatively new 
industries. Large veins of Bituminous coal have 
been found, and are receiving the attention of 
miners who hope to reap fortunes for themselves 
and work wonders for the population of that 
section. Some years ago. Mineral County was 
formed from the northwestern part of Hampshire 
and its wealth of ore and coal deposits are fast 
becoming famous. The Hampshire County Fruit 
Growers* Association — ^have for several years en- 
joyed the distinction of having converted many 
of the Hampshire hills and mountain tracts of 
land into a wonderful network of orchards, — 
where the peach, plum and similar fruit has been 
produced in abundance. Having thus briefly 
sketched the outlines of the topography of the 
first county formed from old Frederick, along 
with glimpses of its development. We will treat 
the remaining portion of old Frederick as a 
whole in the following chapter. 

To write an outline of the natural features of 
The Valley — embraced in old Frederick County, 
is no light task; — ^but to write an intelligent and 
comprehensive description of the physical fea- 
tures of this immense territory, — her surface so 
diversified with river, mountain, valley and glen, 
is a prodigious task — and the author makes the 
attempt with misgivings. To many of our read- 
ers, this part of his work will appear unnecessary 
— for everything is familiar to their eyes and they 
have no need to search these pages for a de- 
scription of the scenes about them. But we must 
not forget, that if this effort to produce a history 
of this historic section is even a partial success, 
we must recogn^ize the fact that these pages will 
be searched by many readers, more for a descrip- 
tion of the land than of the men who have develop- 
ed the resources of the County. So understanding 
this as a duty imposed on author and reader, an 
effort will be made to point out and briefly de- 
scribe many such natural features, presenting 
the topography of the country — in simplicity of 
statement. One needs no spur to the imagina- 
tion, to picture scenes of wonder, as we behold 
the natural points of interest from some well 
selected point; and when this point is found, no 

pen can describe the scenes that lie before him 
in quiet grandeur; nothing short of the talent 
found in a gifted landscape painter, could do 
justice to the vision presented to one who may 
chance to try the summit of Massonuttin, or the 
cone of the old Round Hill, northwest from 
Winchester — both presenting views North and 
South. Is it any wonder then, when one who has 
no such talent for painting pictures, — ^find him- 
self on the summit of the Blue Ridge — looking 
over the picture that filled the soul of the chiv- 
alrous Spottswood and his knights of the Gol- 
den Horseshoe with awe, wonder and gladness, — 
hesitating for fear of failure, and retiring to his 
former place in the valley — as those spirited 
knights and bold Leader returned to their places 
in Tidewater, to exclaim "Too wonderful to 
describe, is that country beyond the mountains I" 
we who have never known any other place as home 
but the home our ancestors, located in some de- 
lightful spot out yonder in the Valley — find 
pleasure and profit in lingering on this summit 
of the celebrated Blue Ridge. From this sum- 
mit can be seen the four grand boundaries of 
the county — the summit of this Ridge being the 
dividing line between old Orange and Fairfax, 
on the East side southward lining up to the 
summit, are Madison, Rappahannock, Fauquier 
and Loudoun; these four having been formed 
from the two first named ; — Loudoun 1757, Madi- 
son, 1792, Fauquier, 1759, Rappahannock, 1^3 1. 
Orange and Fairfax are mentioned as the coun- 
ties from which the present neighboring counties 
were taken to make them join old Frederick 
along this summit It must be remembered that 
Prince William and Spottsylvania had a claim 
to this boundary long before Orange and Fair- 
fax, Madison and Green brings us to the old 
line between Augusta and Frederick; Loudoun 
resting on the Potomac, makes the North 
and East corner of Old Frederick in the vicinity 
of Harpers Ferry; the river thence westward 
for the North boundary, with the State of Mary- 
land to the line of old Hampshire, about 40 miles 
distant; thence along mountain and stream to 
form the western line in the distance between 
Hampshire and Frederick. This chain of moun- 
tains, sometimes called Big North, Big Sandy, 
and other misapplied names. Big Timber Ridge 
being more properly the accepted name, as the 
divide of waterways that flow East and West — 
those on the West to Great Capon, and those on 
the East forming Back Creek flowing into the 
Potomac many miles away — while on this moun- 
tain boundary we find the four Knobs, between 
this point and Paddy Mountain are two coves, one 
noted for its walled mountains on every side» 



except the narrow entrance on the North, within 
which natural enclosure are hundreds of acres 
utilized by the owners for grazing purposes. The 
other cove further South is a complete fastness, 
and affords a home for sturdy hunters, many 
of whom will be mentioned in another chapter. 
The county line continuing South along another 
range of mountains called the Divide, extends 
to the old Augusta line. This water-shed sending 
its streams into Cedar Creek and North branch 
of the Shenandoah. On the West side, the waters 
find their way from the divide to Lost River. 

Having thus given the grand outlines of the 
old county, we will now locate and describe 
some of the natural points within these lines, 
that can be seen from the Blue Ridge sunmiit. 
Looking southward along this eastern line, the 
eye takes in a chain of mountains forming the 
western line of what is known as Page — or Luray 
valley, extending upwards of forty miles to a 
point called Swift Run Gap, thence southward, 
to the Port Republic Battlefield, where we find 
the Old Augusta line. Keeping now within this 
line, we have enough in the Page Valley to fill 
much space. The chain of mountains — has been 
known to some as the Fort Mountains — to others 
as the Massanuttin Range; locally it has several 
names. At its eastern base, flows the South 
River for about fifty miles. The Blue Ridge Range, 
forming the eastern line are mountains with 
many local names, — well known for rich depos- 
its of mineral ores — some of which have been 
converted into iron by the prosperous smelting 
furnaces in that vicinity. This Valley is of rare 
beauty, with its fertile river bottoms — flowing 
streams, famous springs and clustered mountains. 
Following the western side of this valley, — the 
mountain range seems to have been thrown into 
great confusion at sometime in their history; — 
many groups of high mountains rising from the 
plain to bewilder beholders. This range of 
mountains abruptly terminates on the North bank 
of the Shenandoah where it flows eastward, soon 
to unite near Front Royal with South River. 
The Massanuttin and Fort mountains, mean all 
the mountains in the main valley lying south- 
east of the North Fork, where it flows down the 
valley East of Woodstock and Strasburg. Of 
course this chain has its local names, chief of 
which must be Massanuttin, as it is seen from every 
point in the Valley, rising in abrupt grandeur 
to an altitude of nearly two thousand feet at 
several points — breaking off to the right and left 
into strange and peculiar formations presenting 
a scene that tempts the imagination to fix a 
cause for this sudden ending of the great range. 
It may be that in some great upheaval of nature. 

the cluster of mountains was formed by the dis- 
placement of the regular range, and the ponder- 
ous masses torn from their original lines, were 
deposited in other places nearby, and thus the 
change covered a plain with new creations of na- 
ture — which have become one of the wonders 
of the Valley. We can easily fall in with this 
opinion, so often expressed by scientists, and 
sometimes by amateur geologists, who have at 
different times studied the formations of the en- 
tire Valley, — ^and given as their solution of such 
natural features and the soil strata of the Valley 
as it extends northward to the Potomac. The 
distinct lines are sharply drawn, as we follow 
the flow of the river and smaller streams — the 
general formation being Limestone. This lime- 
stone formation does not extend from the Shen- 
andoah flowing along the base of the Blue Ridge 
to the mountain ranges to the West; but, as stat- 
ed, this surface is broken by the distinct lines 
mentioned. Following the course northward 
from the Massanuttin cluster, we find a most 
singular slate formation; in some places, several 
miles wide, ending on either side of the Opeckon 
Hills with the limestone formations; the soil 
having but little natural fertility. This peculiar 
feature is found on both sides of the Opeckon 
Creek, where it flows northward into the Potomac, 
upwards of forty miles away. A study of this 
slate formation tempts the searchers to follow 
this up to the base of its abrupt ending of the 
mountains. There they discover that the base 
is of slate formation, while the mass of moun- 
tains, piled up in such confusion, arc of the 
mountain sandstone and Granite formations, that 
compose the regular chain which so suddenly 
terminates at this point. So they have argued, 
that at some time, — may-be before our Centur- 
ies began their numbers — the mountain proper 
was swept from its base — possibly by a remnant 
of the great flood as its waters receded to the 
Ocean, — and as they swept forward, — the chain 
that once rested on the slate base was washed 
way, — leaving the almost barren slate bed to 
mark the place where the mountains once ex- 
tended northward, — ^leaving Old Massanuttin a 
solitary sentinel to mark the spot where the 
floods, and upheavals of nature, changed the for- 
mations from what they must have been in the 
dim past — to what they have been for ages. This 
change caused a gate-way for waters of the 
Upper Valley to pass out and onward forever, 
under the brow of this broken mountain. While 
the grandeur of these mountains impress us, 
and we stand in admiration as we view their 
outlines — and the Fort of Nature's own making, 
and slake our thirst from sylvan streams thread- 



ing their way through vale and dell, — perhaps 
we dwell too long on the beautiful picture as 
we beheld it from our perch on the Blue Moun- 

Looking off to the West, we see gleaming in 
the evening sunlight, many silver threads, as it 
were, appearing and disappearing among the 
hills and dales lying between our great boun- 
daries, until with anxious rapture, we grow im- 
patient to have an explanation, and with a strong 
field glass find they are the mountain streams 
coming on from their distant sources, to form 
the swirling river that rushes along at the base 
of this mountain. The music of its torrents, 
bursting over its rocky bed, is echoed far up in 
the mountain; and while the eye feasts upon the 
transcendent loveliness of the Valley stretching 
out far away in every direction, the ear feels the 
effect of the river's song as it rushes on forever; 
and so, impressed with both, lingers and solilo- 
quizes, too long perhaps for the reader, who is 
enquiring about the sections of most interest to 
himself. Looking again westward and south- 
ward from the sources of those shining streams 
— Cedar Creek, coming from the Big Divide, at 
least thirty miles to its mouth, — Hawks Bill, — 
North River coming out of the Upper Valley from 
its source near Staunton, where South River has 
its source. Trout run is seen in the distance, as 
a silver thread only at one point, and then emp- 
ties into upper Cedar Creek. Dry River, with its 
broken lines, only traceable by the dim outlines 
now and then, on its course to the river. Nar- 
row Passage Creek is seen with a strong glass, — 
but no glass can reveal the lovely stream "Lin- 
ville Creek" as it flows through Edom Valley, — 
hidden from view by a range of hills, running 
not far away from the Big North Mountain, West 
of New Market. Only a glimpse is seen of the 
beautiful valley bordering on this stream, — that 
will ever have a strange interest to the writer; 
for it was when charging with his Cavalry Bat- 
talion, the battle line of Stoneman's Cavalry, — 
that he, with several comrades, were thrown by 
the shock of battle headlong into this same 
stream, and there lay for several hours, — result- 
ing in an injury felt now after a lapse of forty- 
five years. Deprived of a glimpse from this 
summit, — ^he must be content with the recollec- 
tions. This digression was not intended — too 
much reverie! 

In looking over those shining streams, the eye 
falb upon such a multitude of landscapes — that 
it is difficult to make any selection to touch with 
the pen, in order to give an idea of the natural 
topography of the outstretched valley. In the 
distance we take in the Big North and Capon 

Mountains, running in broken lines southward, 
to form the boundary line on the West; — passing 
through the big cove — under the shadow of 
Paddy Mountain along the meanderings of Cedar 
Creek, we pass through the lower rim of the 
Little Cove, out upon a mountain running south- 
erly to and beyond the Augusta line. Tradition, 
as given from father to son, has it that Washing- 
ton surveyed this boundary line, while in the 
employ of Lord Fairfax prior to 1755. The 
Acts of the House of Burgesses, enacted a law 
in 1752, directing a survey to be made "through," 
to the Augusta line, and define the same by suit- 
able monuments, etc.," — thus verifying the state- 
ment of the mountaineers that the line was run 
just prior to 1755. This shows their memory 
good as to dates. May it not be just as good as 
to who was the surveyor? In this region for 
miles in length, are to be found the most lofty 
mountains East of the Alleghany Range. Some 
of their summits have never been scaled, but 
in their sides and their base extensive iron work- 
ers have found it profitable to reduce the 
rich ores. Large tanneries have used up thous- 
ands of acres of fine chestnut oak bark found 
throughout the mountain region. No valley is 
found of any value between these mountains. 
Many places of abrupt ending and broken ranges, 
with independent high mountains, — seemed to 
have tumbled over and closed some of the valleys 
at many points; thus forming the Coves — afford- 
ing good homes for the large game that has al- 
ways abounded and is much hunted in these 
parts. Sportsmen recount wonderful stories of 
their experiences, not only of the chase for the 
game — ^but of other strange beings found in such 
mountain fastness. The mountaineer, in all tlie 
primitive style of dress and general living habits. 
These strange but necessary characters will re- 
ceive fuller notice in the proper place; for they 
and their ancestors did their part in the great 
development of the old county. 

While we endeavor to point out some of the 
mountains in this northwestern section of the 
county, as found within the boundary line refer- 
red to,— it is well to state that in the subdivision 
of Frederick, when Hampshire was formed, and 
from which Hardy was formed in 1786, Dunmore 
from Frederick in 1772, a grand corner was es- 
tablished. In more recent surveys by the County 
Surveyors of the four counties, when they fixed 
well defined monuments furnished by each county, 
planted them on the summit of the "highest 
point of the group, locally known as the 'Four 
Knobs/" This group is often called Capon 
Mountain, and we may add that residents men- 



tion it as at the head of the Big Cove, or Vance's 
Cove, — ^the name of a family now in this cove, — 
descendants of one Samuel Vance, who has left 
through family tradition, graphic accounts of the 
early days. The old settler along with others 
of his venturesome spirit knew of several In- 
dian battles and massacres. From this group of 
high points, can be seen many other mountains — 
such as the "Three High Heads,"— Tea Moun- 
tain — and "Cupola Mountain" of rare grandeur. 
As already stated, their summits are but little 
troubled by lumbermen. Fairly good, rough wag- 
on roads have made these places accessible, 
through the combined efforts of the furnace men, 
tannery and Lumbermen, the Iron furnaces, 
known as the Vanburen & Newman furnaces, 
are found in this rich ore belt, (idle at this 
time). Much of the brown Hematite ore is 

found, and one mountain, the Cupola — has been 
distinguished among this extensive group — ^as the 
"Manganese mountain," many predictions are 
made of what this mountain and ore belt will 
yield when the long expected occurs — ^the rail- 
road that must come some day from the Coal 
Fields of West Virginia to this mountain coun- 
try and thence to the Virginia Seaboard. The 
area comprised within the mountains referred to 
in the western part of Shenandoah County extend- 
ing far up the valley is an agricultural belt, al- 
though broken by ridges and hills — Shaving local 
names. This belt is noted for its extensive river 
plantations, studding the north branch of the 
Shenandoah on either side with splendid homes. 
Much wealth abounds, and the country is in a 
high state of cultivation. 


Topography of Old Frederick North of the Line Between Shenandoah 

and Frederick 

The lower or northern portion of the old 
County, is void of the mountain grandeur 
found throughout the upper portion briefly 
treated in the last Chapter; and this being 
so evident from a glance at the territory 
towards the North, we deem it best to 
describe it briefly in a separate Chapter. The 
reader must not be deceived by the intimation 
given, that no landscape beauty presents itself as 
the undulating section rolling off to the Potomac 
is viewed from the same summit of the Blue 
Ridge; for while we miss the great range of 
mountains to the South, and northwest of this 
point, and the groups of lofty and unsealed tops 
of those gigantic sentinels — we still have suffi- 
cient mountain scenery along the western border, 
to attract the beholder. For in that steadfast, 
unbroken range of the Big North unbroken, in so 
far that no independent mountains appear along 
this range, the seeming impenetrable fastness is 
broken in several places by the waterways that 
drain the contiguous sections — these breaks, or 
Gaps, as they are commonly called, afford an 
outlet for nature that her gushing springs de- 
mand, — as their individual rivulets wind through 
hill and dale to mingle with similar outpourings, 
forming bold streams, to rush on through the 
deflles of that apparently impenetrable mass 
'THE Big North" it must be remembered is not 
a dividing line all along the western border, the 
line going South along its summit at a point 
just East of Capon Springs; then following the 
divide to the comer of the four counties men- 
tioned in the last chapter. The line running 
South from the summit on the Big North follows 
this summit for several miles, then leaving it 
to run east war dly over the High Knobs, crossing 
Paddy's Creek twice before it first touches Cedar 
Creek at a point one mile southwest from Star 
Tannery, then taking the boundary of western 
Shenandoah, going southwardly within the angle 
formed in The Cove, within which is found the 
"Half Moon Mountains," and Paddy's Range with 
its High peaks and comers, East of Capon Springs, 
the line falls away abmptly, crossing the head 
spring streams of Back Creek — to find the water- 
shed along the summit of Big Timber Ridge for 
a few miles, to Little Timber Ridge, leaving it 

at a point near, Acorn Hill P. O., then in a 
straight line over Big and Little Sandy Ridges 
through to the old Berkley line (Morgan), on 
to the Potomac, the old northern boundary. 
Flowing along the western base of the Big North 
is Back Creek; and of a truth it is a hack creek 
— hidden from view for miles — hemmed in on 
one side by the rock-ribbed mountain, on the 
other by hills of many names — the foot hills, as 
it were, of Big Timber Ridge. To see this moun- 
tain stream in all its natural attractions, one must 
follow its bed for about ten miles over the public 
highway leading from Capon Springs, by Rock 
Enon, out into Back Creek Valley, where the 
Northwestern Tumpike Crosses this creek eleven 
miles from Winchester. The public road, in 
following this creek until recent years, crossed 
and re-crossed it seventeen times in traveling 
this nine miles. Its clear water and rocky fords, 
gave the stream a peculiar interest to the many 
persons coming from crowded cities, seeking the 
celebrated mountain resorts found in this section. 
West of this creek and tributary to the same 
watershed, are Isaacs, Sleepy, and Brush Creeks. 
They flow through Timber Ridge— a queer forma- 
tion in many places. Sandy soil seems to be the 
character of a large area between the North Moun- 
tain and the Capon Range,— suddenly running into 
blue and yellow slate formations, giving a sur- 
face soil for cultivation, far superior in many 
respects to other slate surfaces found in the 
eastcm part of the county. Suddenly the blue 
and grey Limestone ridges crop out, with a soil 
similar to Limestone regions. Then, again, ap- 
pears a red sandy loam — ^known as Red-lands, — 
distinguishing it from all other sections. Sturdy 
and prosperous people have for many years oc- 
cupied and tilled this fertile section. Around 
and in full view of Red-lands, are groups of moun- 
tains off to the North and West, that have much 
local history. It was through this section that 
Braddock, Washington, Morgan and others march- 
ed, who were identified with the French and 
Indian Wars, and roadways made and cut —by the 
soldiers of their respective commands, have kept 
their individuality to this day. No modern en- 
gineer ever felt he could improve a plan mapped 




out by young Washington. Tradition gives 
many interesting incidents of those marchings, 
and road-makings, some of which are fully sus- 
tained by our old records. 

Having followed the western boundary to the 
point where we joined Maryland, we follow the 
Potomac River to Harper's Ferry. From Har- 
pers Ferry, we follow the summit of the Blue 
Ridge to the point where the two counties of 
Augusta and Frederick cut the Valley in twain. 
As their boundary line was established, the line 
from Harpers Ferry southward was the eastern 
line of all this territory. To the East of this line 
are the subdivisions of the older counties al- 
ready mentioned. 

We will now point and locate some of the most 
prominent natural features of the old County, 
seen plainly in some instances, and dimly in 
others, from the same point on the Blue Ridge; 
Kercheval, in his description of the surface of 
the old county — says, "That from two points on 
the Blue Ridge — the observer can see Harpers 
Ferry — all of the northern boundary, nearly all 
of the western and southern boundaries, and the 
chief features distinguishing one locality from the 
other, and thus have a good understanding of 
the geography of the country, without visiting 
the various sections, and that was proven by his 
personal visits to every section embraced within 
the boundaries." The writer has enjoyed the 
same experience. Some interesting features seen 
from the points referred to, are the Gaps in the 
Blue Ridge, as they are commonly called. The 
first to the South is known as Swift Run Gap. 
Other gaps appear, but of not much importance, 
until we reach the region of Chesters, Thorough- 
fare, and Ashby's Gaps in the vicinity of Front 
Royal. At these points, we find mountain roads 
leading over and beyond, to Rappahannock and 
Fauquier Counties. "Happy Creek" has found its 
way through the Ashby's-Bent Pass, and was 
once the scene of the bivouac of great armies — 
as well as fierce struggles at other times between 
contending factions. The remembrance of those 
incidents, forced the writer to conclude that its 
name should be changed; but a glimpse at the 
peaceful homes seen along its way, changed the 
impression; and doubtless it is best to let this 
stream retain its name for the distance it flows, 
on its happy way through this gorge in the moun- 
tains, to be swallowed in the river. The next 
Gap of importance is Berry's Ferry Gap, afford- 
ing a road-way through the Blue Ridge to enter 
Fauquier County. On the summit of the pass, al- 
most in touch is the "Big Poplar," the corner 
of the four counties — Loudoun and Fauquier on 
the East side, and Clarke and Warren on the West 

This point is on a table land stretching far to 
the North and South. Approaching from either 
side, the first impression made — is, that we are 
not at the summit of a mountain — but on the 
ridge of some elevated plain — for around on 
every side are farms, and the grazing lands for 
which this section is famous. But gradually 
impression changes — as we gaze around toward 
every point of the compass — the great Piedmont 
Country, stretching out to the East, the nearby 
eastern slopes revealing many villages — partly 
hidden by the broken hills of forest glens — yet 
we can locate Upperville, Paris, Middleburg, 
Leesburg, Aldie, and other well known towns: 
Looking to the West and North, we have a com- 
prehensive view of the great Valley of Virginia. 
The effect of the altitude is soon felt. While 
not great, it is sufficient to give a commanding 
view embracing many counties, with their splen- 
did population. Following the line of vision along 
this Ridge are the passes or gaps. Off to the 
North the first of importance is Snickers Ferry 
Gap, now commonly called Castleman's Ferry 
Gap — so named from the Ferry over the Shenan- 
doah, 1SV2 miles from Winchester. The pass 
then leads on through many defiles, and over the 
mountain benches — until finally we emerge on to 
high and extended plains — the traveller has to be 
told that he has attained the summit of another 
point on this Ridge — five and a half miles of climb- 
ing from the Ferry. Here again he beholds the 
country on either side. Many changes appear 
along this route over the mountain. The de- 
mands of progress required the removal of the 
historic Ferryboat, and in its stead the river is 
crossed at this point on the modern Steel Bridge, 
erected in 1904-5. On the summit the U. S. 
Government has taken advantage of this conspi- 
cuous elevation, and erected during the last five 
years suitable buildings for the Weather Bureau's 
Signal Station. South from the road-way can 
be seen the Bluemont Hotel, of considerable at- 
tractions to guests in summer months. At the 
eastern base of the mountain where the road 
descends to Loudoun County, is the Village of 
Bluemont, (formerly Snickersville), terminal of 
the Washington and Ohio Railroad, (Old Lou- 
doun and Hampshire). No other gaps appear to 
the North, of sufficient importance to notice here 
until we arrive at Harper's Ferry, the point of 
confluence of the two Rivers, one flowing from 
the West, draining the Allegany Ranges — the 
other from the South hugging the base of the 
Blue Ridge in its course, draining the Upper 
Valley. Both of these rivers in their approach 
to this confluence, as might be supposed, become 
rugged mountain rivers, coming as they do from 



opposite directions, gathering their forces from 
mountain and glen — draining a vast area. It 
might be supposed they would become deep, 
navigable streams at their exit from such a great 
valley. Not so, however. They grow broader 
and more turbulent as they approach each other 
for the final struggle for an outlet through the 
mountains. These approaches are over the rock- 
ribbed channels forming through the Centuries. 
The blue limestone formations of both the upper 
and lower stratas of this region offer impregna- 
ble barriers to navigation — especially is this true 
of the river coming from the South. In its ap- 
proach to this Gap, the bed of the river at low 
water, reveals a picture of the under strata of 
this section wonderful to behold — ledges, tables, 
cones and piles of huge limestone formations pro- 
jecting themselves through the splashing, surging, 
tumbling torrents, forming wonders of crea- 
tion only to be found in the ending of the Shen- 
andoah. While no attempt has ever been made 
to convert this river into a navigable stream to 
suit modern times, the author remembers dis- 
tinctly — when the old log rafts found their way 
from the Upper Valley in times of high water, 
loaded with products of that section, to find the 
markets of Georgetown and Alexandria. Some 
day, however, the raft with all its cargo, would 
go to pieces by accidentally colliding with some 
submerged reef. The hopes of the owners were 
dashed to ruin; and the swirl of waters some- 
times swallowed up members of the venturesome 
crew. These rivers, now familiarly known as 
the Potomac and Shenandoah, seem to have 
had many struggles in establishing their names. 
For many years the Potomac was known from 
this point westward as the Cohongoroota, as the 
continuation of the "Quiriough," alias "Powtow- 
mack,"— to the Head Springs in the Alleghaney 
Mountains (see Colonial Statutes 1736), receiv- 
ing in its flow through the mountains the waters 
of "Wappacomo," the Indian name of the South 
branch. The name was used in the Colonial 
statutes, long before Fairfax raised his conten- 
tion with Maryland regarding the boundar>' of 
his Grant, Maryland holding that Wappacomo, 
was the Cohongoroota; Fairfax holding, as did 
the Colonial Government, that the Wappacomo 
was the South branch of the Cohongoroota (Po- 
tomac), River which extended nearly due West 
to its source in the mountains beyond Cumber- 
land. This stream was sometimes designated the 
North branch of Potomack. Diligent search of 
old statutes, — and a full review of Reports made 
to the Colonial Assembly, — ^as well as those sub- 
sequently made up to 1832, establishes fully that 
the North Branch, so called, was and has be- 

come the Potomac proper; the name Cohongoru- 
ton and Cohongoruta of ten appears in this connec- 
tion. During all these contentions, the river 
from Harper's Ferry running eastward, bore 
many names which, though queer, seem prefer- 
able to the Indian name Quiriough — and thus we 
have Pawtaw-mak, Pot-0-Make, Po-co-moke, 
Po-to-Moke, Pot-ow-moke, — and several others 
too numerous to mention. Why these odd names 
should be used by the Crown or the Colonial gov- 
ernment to distinguish the historic stream we 
know not. All must haye been happy when all 
contestants settled down to Potomac, as the 
name to dignify the far-famed river, on its way 
from mountain to Sea — gathering from its tribu- 
taries a force of waters sufficient to float many 
Navies, — and a water-way for commerce from 
Washington to the sea-board. The *'Sherando" 
also had its share of names. For instance — Ger- 
ando-Gerundo, Shendo, Sherundo Shennandow — 
at last we find the euphonious Shenandoah. This 
Indian name, according to traditions, had its 
origin with the old Iroquois tribe when they 
held sway in the celebrated Hunting Grounds. A 
thrilling story is told of war between "Opeck- 
enough" and the Iroquois chief "Gherundo." 
The former, in one of his annual forays for 
game, found a small band of warriors West of 
the mountains, who proved to be part of the Iro- 
quois tribe. After the hunt was over, Opeck- 
enough returned to his villages on the Chicka- 
hominy below Williamsburg, but left his son 
Shee-lVa-a-Nee and a band of warriors to watch 
the hunting grounds. It was not long until the 
main body of the Iroquois returned and gave 
battle, and Gherundo drove the chief East of the 
mountains. Opeckenough left the lowlands as 
soon as he was informed by runners, and within 
a few days he came with a large force and fell 
upon Gherundo in great fury ; defeated and drove 
him from his Sherando, never to return from 
his home on the New York Lakes. Shee-Wa-a- 
nee was left again in charge; and from that day 
the Shawnee Tribe held the Sherando Valley 
until driven out by white settlers. The pioneers 
found the Shaw-a-nese tribe clinging to the 
Opeckenough name for the Creek that has be- 
come famous. The tragic ending of the old 
blind Chief in his "Lowlands" is matter for gen- 
eral history. Having traced the rivers from their 
sources to their confluence, we should give some 
special notice to their exit from the Shenandoah 
Valley. As the new stream the Potomac, mages- 
tically sweeps through this gap — made in the 
world's history by the pent up waters of the 
great Valley lying South and West; looking up 
from the river side to the jagged ends of the 



broken mountains, the head grows dizzy in the 
effort to take in the points of interest Fully 
1200 feet above this point on the river — ^looking 
to the North or South, are beheld many objects 
that have attracted thousands, as they were 
suddenly confronted with this grand creation of 
nature. Many points of view present themselves, 
— from which the sublimity of the scenery stands 
out so prominently; one or two are conspicuous 
above all others. From the Maryland side of 
the river a stupendous rock overhangs the Po- 
tomac, claimed to be a striking likeness of Wash- 
ington. After much gazing, a semblance is form- 
ed by the gradual development of the nose, lips 
and chin, until an admirable picture is formed, 
which being hard to discover, is harder to efface 
from gaze or memory. While the statue is of 
large proportions and magestic in its location, it 
fixes an impression that you can see a mildness 
of feature, so familiar to all in every picture by 
the artist of the great man. The other point of 
special interest is Jefferson's Rock on a hill over- 
hanging the river. From this rock one not only 
has a rapturous view of the grand scenery — ^but 
may gather scraps of unwritten history told by 
accommodating 'liabitants" of the Village near- 
by. The top of this rock, as seen by the author 
many years ago, is flat and about twelve or four- 
teen feet square. Its base which does not exceed 
five feet in width, rests upon the top of a larger 
rock, its height not quite six feet. The whole 
so well balanced, that slight effort with an ordin- 
ary lever, causes it to vibrate perceptibly. On 
this rock we are told there was another rock of 
smooth surface which attracted the attention of 
Mr. Jefferson when visiting this place, and it 
was on this rock where he inscribed his name — 
the writer had often heard of this incident in Mr. 
Jefferson's life, and of course was disappointed 
in not finding the name; and upon enquiry, was 
informed that the capstone referred to, that 
bore the inscription, had at one time been hauled 
from its place; and thus the name was gone. 
For an explanation of this, we were told that it 
was the act of some vandal, — an enemy of Jeffer- 
son, who hoped to destroy the name of a states- 
man that will never be forgotten while America 
has a history. The name of the vandal could 
not be obtained then, — but the story has been 
confirmed long since, — for in a study of the legis- 
lation of the new State prior to and embracing 
the period of 1800, we find that the General As- 
sembly was called upon by some enthusiastic 
friend of Mr. Jefferson — to take some action to 
show that ** Virginia resented an act of discour- 
tesy shown one of her sons, offered by the un- 
warranted conduct of a Federal officer, by the 

name of Henry." It was then easy to find an 
explanation of the incident. In the political and 
exciting "presidential" campaign of 1798-9, be- 
tween the Federal and Democratic parties, a Cap- 
tain Henry, who was stationed at this place with 
a squadron of U. S. Troops, headed a band of 
his men, all being federalists, no doubt, — rolled 
off this capstone that contained the inscription; 
and thus put out of sight a name from his poli- 
tical standpoint that was detestable, — ^Jefferson's 
name will never be disassociated from this rock, 
and sight-seers still hunt for the name. The 
lone rock on the mountain side will ever bear 
his name — while the name of the "Henry," (who 
bore no trace of kin to the immortal Patrick) 
would be forgotten except for this vandal act Mr. 
Jefferson so immortalized the scenery of this 
break in the mountains, affording passage for 
the Rivers, that we give a portion of his eloquent 
description, as seen by him from a point on the 
Blue Ridge overlooking the whole picture — Gap, 
Rivers and Valley. We are told, as he stood 
on this high point he gave to the world his 
graphic reasons for such creations. Here is 
what he said: "The passage of the Potomac 
through the Blue Ridge, is perhaps, one of the 
most stupendous scenes in nature. You stand on 
a very high point of land. On your right comes 
the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot 
of a mountain a hundred miles to seek a vent. 
On your left approaches the Potomac, in quest 
of a passage also; in the moment of their junc- 
tion, they rush together against the mountain, 
rend it asunder, and pass off to the sea. The 
first glance of this scene hurries our senses into 
the opinion that this earth has been created in 
time, that the mountains were formed first; that 
the rivers began to fiow afterwards; that in this 
particularly, they have been dammed up by the 
Blue Ridge of mountains, and have formed an 
ocean which filled the whole Valley; that, con- 
tinuing to rise, they have at length broken over 
at this spot, and have torn the mountain down 
from its summit to its base. The piles of rock 
on each hand, particularly on the Shenandoah — 
the evident marks of their disrupture and avul- 
sion from their beds by the most powerful agents 
of nature, corroborate the impression. But the 
finishing which nature has given to the picture, 
is of a very different character; it is a true con- 
trast to the foreground; it is as placid and de- 
lightful as that is wild and tremendous; for the 
mountain being cloven asunder, she presents to 
your eye, through the clefts, a small catch of 
blue horizon, at an infinite distance in the coun- 
try, inviting you, as it were. Here the eye ulti- 
mately composes itself; and that way, too, the 



road happens actually to lead. You cross the 
Potomac above the junction, pass along its side 
through the base of the mountain for three miles, 
its terrible precipices hanging in fragments over 
you, and within about twenty miles, reach Fred- 
erickstown, and the fine country round that This 
scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic; yet 
here, as in the neighborhood of the Natural 
Bridge, are people who have passed their lives 
within half dozen miles, and have never been to 
survey these monuments of a war between rivers 
and mountains, which has shaken the earth itself 
to its center," 

The first impulse of the writer after reading and 
studying this comprehensive description given us 
by this great genius, who had studied works of 
Nature as well as arts and sciences, is to with- 
draw quietly from the scene, and leave the reader 
to dwell over the rapturous picture given us; 
but we are reminded that all this creation has 
had its practical side, — and as we make this 
effort in the direction of describing the natural 
creations, it is plainly our duty to see what man 
has accomplished; though he waited long, to take 
advantage of some of these natural features. 
And it was thirty years after Mr. JeflFerson's visit, 
before the pass was used for the great highways 
of traffic now so familiar to the visitor: The 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Canal hard- 
by, — with the McAdamized turnpike threading its 
way over the bridge and along the base of the 
broken mountains struggling to maintain their 
rights — all crowded to supply the demand made 
by man to transport the products of a country 
where nature has been so lavish in her forma- 
tions, and man so boastful of what he has done 
to open the store-houses of nature — and rush away 
the wonders of her bosom, as well also, to give 
the world an opportunity to partake of the pro- 
ducts of a soil well tilled. This point will be 
more fully treated under the head of Railroads, 
Towns, etc. Proceeding from this point, to locate 

the northern boundary — we need only follow the 
course of the "Cohongoruta" westward, into the 
great mountains. The Valley lying between the 
Blue Ridge and the Great Mountains is cut in 
twain by this river ; the section to the South being 
the Shenandoah Valley— that to the North, has 
been known for many years as the Cumberland 
Valley. The river for twenty-four miles — air 
line — ^performs some peculiar movements across 
the valley — ^hesitating, as it were, which course 
to pursue, — whether to lop oflF at many points 
sections for either valley; — ^plunging often to the 
North, — ^then South, — then East, making so many 
changes in its tortuous course, that the distance 
is about doubled, as it fixes the line between 
Virginia and Maryland. And, if one takes a 
position on the first mountain going West — he 
will have a view of the winding river that pre- 
sents a picture of apparently several rivers, run- 
ning in much confusion along the eccentric bends 
and turnings, are alluvial soils. The region at 
some points appears as a valley, and again, a 
hill country with its suggestive features, general- 
ly, however, the country on either side impresses 
the beholder with a wealth of agriculture. The 
river in many places is broad and beautiful, giv- 
ing an idea that it is a navigable stream; and, 
as will be shown in this volume, was navigable, 
for experiment, once. 

W« find on its southern banks Shepherdstown, 
12 miles above Harper's Ferry, which not only 
marks the point alluded to, but also the old Mec- 
lenburg crossing of the river by the first settlers. 
West from this point, the river describes many 
forms and shapes in its course; passing Williams- 
port, we approach the mountain gorges and wind- 
ing ways; reach later on, the elevations leading 
past Paw-Paw, — Greenspring, — Sir Johns Run, — 
crossing South Branch, and up to Cumberland — 
where the altitude is very perceptible. For the 
purpose of defining the northern boundary we 
need go no further West. 


Natural Points of Interest of Old Frederick County 

In treating the topography of this great section 
of the Lower Valley, the author may at times 
make some departure from his scheme; the in- 
tention being to keep separate the creations of 
nature from those of man; and having disposed 
of the natural features, then to take up th€ at- 
tractive development of this wonderful surface. 
We may at times find a blending of the two; 
but in this chapter we hope to avoid as much 
as possible any mention of the development other 
than to aid in distinguishing some locality, by 
mentioning the name of a town or other promi- 
nent feature. 

Th€ surface of this great section is broken 
by mountains, hills and bold streams. Of the 
former, the Big North along the western border, 
has already been mentioned as forming part of 
the western boundary. This mountain is in full 
view from so many points in the valley, that we 
naturally conclude it is entitled to its name. Its 
splendid proportions are not its chief attractions; 
for it affords inexhaustible supplies of lumber 
of many varieties ; and has been the base of sup- 
ply of the celebrated chestnut-oak bark, which 
has made several large tanneries famous for 
their superior products. In the early days it 
afforded shelter for large game — bear, panther, 
wolf and deer. Family traditions have been 
given the writer to study— the hope being he 
would in some way weave into his work many 
exploits of the forefathers, who not only reveled 
in the chase, but found much profit in gathering 
pelts from these animals, which, in the early days, 
was their stock-in-trade; as orders of court show 
that rewards were offered and liberal prem- 
iums paid for the destruction of such animals. 
The pelts found sale at good prices. The fur 
dealer in that day made frequent shipments of 
his packs. The courts, however, required the 
packs to be inspected. No explanation of this 
that the writer has ever seen, but in one in- 
stance. The Sheriff reported one condemned 
pack, he having discovered that "the pelts were 
overlaid with the brown Tobacco leaf," the pack 
was ordered to be sold at publick auction in 
front of the jail on the Publick Lotts!" The 
traditions mention combats with Indian hunters, 
who claimed the first right to use the trails and 
crossings. Generally these Indian hunters at 

that period were peace Indians. They never 
hesitated to claim their rights, and this resulted 
in many sharp fights. In other pages, some ac- 
count of these hunters' battles may appear. The 
writer reluctantly omits giving them further 
mention here, as they abound with much to 
show the character of those early mountain set- 
tlers which would furnish names of many, whose 
descendants have become noticeable factors in 
the political history of the county. On the east- 
ern slopes of the Big North, many famous springs 
are found; some noted for the strength and 
gush of the fountain, others for their medicinal 
qualiti€s. Among the latter, is found Jhe cluster 
of springs in the Cove section; and while in that 
section, coming down the eastern slope, we 
must mention The Gravel Spring, now owned by 
G. Wash Pifer, Esq. This spring is truly one 
of the gems of the mountain. Pembroke- 
Springs, still further North are susceptible im- 
provements, which should give them prominence 
as a mountain resort. We pass on now to find 
the head streams of a famous creek known as 
Hogue Creek (pronounced Hog). In tracing the 
Pioneers to their settlements on the various 
streams, the origin of this name will be given. 
This is a real mountain stream, drawing its sup- 
plies from the East and W€st. Wolf Spring 
away up on the slopes of the North Mountain and 
numerous springs on the eastern slopes of Lit- 
tle North, all wend their way to form Hogue 
Creek, which, ere its ford is reached, where the 
Northwestern Turnpike crosses it, six miles West 
from Winchester, becomes very often a mountain 
torrent with destruction in its way, not only to 
fencing and growing crops, but it has swept 
away within the writer's recollection, human 
lives and teams of horses. Such disasters should 
encourage the authorities to erect bridges over 
this and Back Creek. Certainly Frederick Coun- 
ty, with all her resources, should be able to pay 
for bridging the principal streams, since she has 
never been called upon to expend a dollar for 
this purpose in a hundred years. 

Some of the springs on the eastern slope of 
the Little North are found within three and half 
miles of Winchester. Some flowing to the Po- 
tomac via Hogue Creek, and others sending their 
streams to the same river tna Opecquon Creek. 




Following the streams flowing to Hogue Creek 
from the point named, the course is now fol- 
lowed over the Northwestern Turnpike and 
through a gap in these Little North Mountain 
ranges, that from the earliest time in its history 
has been known as Hoop-Petticoat Gap, so dub- 
bed by reason of the "lasses" of that section 
adopting the hoop skirt and making their hoops 
from the hickory poles found in that section. 
Some wag applied the name in jest, never dream- 
ing of its duration. The hoop skirt became pop- 
ular at a subsequent period, when not only the 
lasses of the Gap adopted the style, but all the 
social realm. The writer remembers the charms 
of this style, modernized by the crinoline skirt 
about 1850 and used for a considerable time 
thereafter. This Gap is entitled to its old name. 
Records speak of roads being opened to the Great 
Road leading through Hoop-Petticoat Gap; and 
deeds for land in that region describe boundaries 
etc., in this Gap. Hogue Creek flows generally 
in a northeasterly course, going through some 
good sections. The bottom lands are narrow 
and subject to overflow. Some productive farms 
are seen along its banks, principally in the vicin- 
ity of Pughtown. Near this point, the creek re- 
ceives the waters of Indian Hollow. The coun- 
try along Hogue Creek, where it empties into 
Back Creek, at a point three miles East of Pugh- 
town, is hilly and broken; and in some places 
nature seemed inclined to make a mountain 
range to fringe its banks. Returning from the 
creek region to the mountain range, within four 
miles West of Winchester, we find what is 
locally known as Chambers Mountain, so called 
as being a section of mountain land granted to 
John Chambers by the Governor and Council. 
Chambersville post office is named for this man. 
The Gap passes along the abrupt ending of the 
mountain leaving off to the northeast nearby 
what was once the extension of this mountain, 
a conical-shaped mountain, called Round Hill. 
This spur rises majestically at the North end 
of the first valley seen as you emerge from the 
mountains over the Great Road leading from 
the Ohio to Winchester. The traveler, so ac- 
customed to mountains of every form, height, 
grandeur and confusing ranges, over turbulent 
creeks and rivers, has the mountain scenery and 
pictures of nature so suddenly transformed by 
this other work of nature, that he is brought 
to a halt, impressed with this wonderful change. 
Back of him are the mountains, miles upon 
miles of them. At no moment in all the travel 
for days, whence so ever he came or whither 
he went, had he a glimpse of an open country. 
Now in full view, without an effort, he beholds 

the open country. Not even the lines of the 
Blue Ridge are seen from this point. No, noth- 
ing but table land lying under the eastern shad- 
ows of the Little North, (Chambers) fringed 
on the East by strips of woodland, with gently 
undulating ridges of limestone, just enough to 
draw distinctive features, forming a line be- 
tween this and the great valley. Looking to the 
South, the eye rests upon a fringe of the moun- 
tain forests, extending along a slight eminence 
scarcely perceptible, but sufficient to shut oflF 
the view of the upper valley; while on the 
North, rising gradually from the road-way is 
old Round Hill, to shut off the northern view; 
and thus the vision is confined to this sooth- 
ing scene of this first open country. The area 
is not great; only about two thousand acres of 
land can be seen from the first point of obser- 
vation. Several homes of prosperous farmers are 
seen to the East and South. Directly in front 
are seen two brick churches, situated on either 
side of the Great Road leading to Winchester; 
the one off on the green hillock in a grove of 
forest trees, is the Presbyterian Church, with a 
small cemetery hard-by. Off to the North, and 
nestling under the shadows of Round Hill, is 
the M. E. Church, South. The country store 
and post office of Chambersville at the forks of 
the Roads are new features, and belong to the 
period known as "Since the War." Lying off to 
the South, in the midst of many acres of luxuri- 
ant meadow lands a half mile away, is a promi- 
nent homestead, a veritable Colonial Home, the 
domain of which extends from the horizon on 
the South, to the Northwestern Turnpike, from 
which the traveler is taking his view. Old Re- 
tirement is the name by which it has been known 
since 1782, when the writer's grand sire, Nathan- 
iel Cartmell, took it as his allotment of the 
large Cartmell grant. Here several generations 
of this family first saw the light, the author be- 
ing one of the second generation. Little North 
Mountain is a range of mountains, starting in 
its first distinctive formations, far up towards 
the southern boundary to be broken in twain by 
Cedar Creek, and again by a smaller stream, 
tributary to this creek, forming Fawsett's Gap, 
in early days Carr's, and later, as Longacre*s 
Gap. From this gap no other break is made in 
this range for five miles. Passing Round Hill, 
the range is much broken leading northward. 
Now and then are spurs and ridges, the charac- 
ter so changed, that following its course, the 
mountain features are so blended with the hill 
country, that one would suppose that we have 
a lost mountain. Soon, however, as we approach 
the Potomac at a point above Martinsburg, we 
find this range again taking on strong mountain 



features. Here a high point is seen, distinguish- 
ed now as North Mountain Depot, a station on 
the main line of the B. & O. R. R. 

The country between the two mountains, may 
be styled the Hill Country, broken, as it is, for 
many miles. One never feels that it could be 
distinguished as a valley, though it is natural 
that those unacquainted with the country would 
conclude that it is. Very many prosperous far- 
mers are found throughout this region, giving 
evidence that there is much fertility in the slate 
and mountain soil, when intelligent labor is be- 
stowed. Though the section is not regarded as 
generally favorable to agriculture, the land not 
commanding the prices found in the section 
East of the Little North, much was done in 
former years for the development of some of the 
mineral resources found in the upper section, 
such as smelting furnaces. One feature of this 
section, worthy of notice is a cataract found 
near the Old Furnace, near the eastern base of 
the Big North Mountain, locally known as 
Mountain Falls. We find this beautiful cataract 
but little known to the outside world, though 

only about fourteen miles southwest from Win- 
chester. The Falls as they are called, are form- 
ed by a beautiful little mountain stream, coming 
from a large spring near the summit. The 
stream grows very restless and bold, as it finds 
its way through a mountain gorge and through 
a glen between the mountain and Falling Ridge, 
running in a northerly course for more than a 
mile from the mountain spring, where it sud- 
denly swings to the East for its first plunge over 
a solid mountain granite rock, about one hun- 
dred feet high. At this point it is about twenty 
feet wide; then a second plunge is made. The 
last water-fall shoots entirely free from the 
perpendicular wall of granite; more than one 
hundred feet in length is the granite bed of the 
stream, which falls away in slopes for a final 
plunge, thence it passes with gradual descent, 
and at once becomes a smooth and quiet stream, 
supplying Mr. R. M. Cooper's farm with abun- 
dance of water. The mist rising from the base 
of the fall and many other features, impress the 
beholder. Reader, go see this Niagara in min- 
iature f 


The Lower Valley — Old Frederick in the Early Days 

The observer should occupy points on the Blue 
Ridge in the morning, and on the Little North in 
the evening. The morning view being heighten- 
ed by the early sunbeams rising over the Blue 
Mountains on which he stands, and watches their 
rays gradually seeking out and disclosing to view 
the many little valleys, hill tops and rolling sur- 
face, and marking the tiny rivulet and babbling 
brook, shining like silver threads. And, as the 
eye endeavors to follow their tracings, — the little 
lines often lost to sight as they wind their way 
along the base of some hill, showing that the sur- 
face of the placid picture is broken by ridge and 
dell. Though looking down upon the scene from 
the mountain point, the first impression is that 
the surface is smooth ; but in watching the chang- 
ing scene revealed by stronger rays of sunshine, 
the markings become distinct The rivulets have 
found their way around the hills and through 
the vales, and enter the larger streams; and as 
they gather all their silver threads into the lar- 
ger line, the sheen of waters is so increased, 
as to be dignified with names. Some of them 
have become historic for a thousand reasons. 
The most prominent of these water lines has 
now become so well defined by its flashing and 
rushing waters, that it deserves first mention. 
The Opecquon, as it is called at this writing, is 
so well defined in its tortuous course, that it can 
readily be traced to the Potomac; though some- 
times the unpracticed eye confuses the many 
broad gleams of water, and the impression is 
given that several distinct streams are forming 
a confluence. Not so, however; it is the same 
distinct stream from head to flow. So many en- 
quiries have been made of the writer as to the 
source of the Opecquon Creek, that it is well to 
give it at this point. And as the source has 
always been familiar to him, he may be pardoned 
for giving the location so plainly, that no ques- 
tion need arise hereafter to cast a doubt. The 
head springs forming this creek, are found at 
the base of the Little North Mountain, about 
four miles (air line) southwest from Winchester. 
Off in the vale below this base, are many springs 
within a radius of five hundred yards; and this 
cluster of springs was for many years regarded 
as the head springs, and were designated as the 
Cartmell and Glass Springs; thus called by rea- 

son of their grants of land lying on either side 
of the stream which embraced all these springs. 
The stream formed a line between their grants 
for a mile of its eastern course. These springs 
afforded such water power, that the stone mill, 
only a few hundred yards below (still standing), 
was erected by Mr. Glass. Following the early 
period, it was claimed that the large springs 
were on the side of the smaller stream coming 
from the mountain. To set at rest the point 
so often raised, it was found that other springs 
above were entitled to recognition. These were 
embraced in the grant also, and owned in the 
early da3rs by same owners. They were for many 
years known as the Cartmell and Tavenner 
Springs, more recently the property of Levi G. 
Miller and John H. Cochran. But even above 
these springs, is found one other, and the only 
one. It is noted for its cold and delightful wa- 
ter, and is owned by the author. 

The Opecquon from its source, for three miles 
flows due East, and continually receives the 
waters given out by the wealth of springs in its 
course; so that it becomes a formidable stream 
'ere it passes from the limestone belt into the 
slate section at Bartonsville, six miles South of 
Winchester, where the Valley Turnpike crosses 
it on, or rather through, an old historic wooden 
bridge. The creek from this point runs through 
the slate belt, which extends from the Massa- 
nutten to the Potomac, and finds so many ob- 
stacles in the strongly-marked slate ridges and 
deep veins, that many changes occur in its course. 
Sometimes we trace it flowing South; then sud- 
denly curving one of the ridges, it flows north- 
ward; then, as suddenly, due East; then north- 
east. By this time it has made the point where it 
was once marked by a large mill (Parkins), 
where the Front Royal Turnpike crosses, five 
miles from Winchester. From this point, it 
plunges boldly into a thickly wooded country, 
called the Pine Hills. The growth, generally 
stunted, here gives evidence of weaker soils than 
the alluvial limestone lands found along its first 
three miles. Its devious way through these hills 
is interesting to behold, so many difficulties are 
encountered in its apparent struggle to reach 
the Potomac. The writer has often wondered 
why this creek did not find an outlet to the 




Shenandoah, which seemed to be the natural out- 
let for all this water; and how it should have 
turned from what seemed its natural course, to 
seek an outlet to the Potomac many miles away, 
breaking through those formidable slate ridges, 
was a mystery only to be explained by the de- 
mands of Nature. When we, however, find that 
this bold creek heads for the Potomac in a more 
northerly course, the problem is partly solved. 
Some such water-way was required to drain and 
water this peculiar slate section, otherwise it 
would have been a glaring waste, extending far 
through this rich Valley. Without it much of 
the Lower Valley would never have received its 
grandeur. Nature's formation of this great slate 
belt, separating these two limestone sections, 
must have been no accident. At any rate, the 
once barren slate belt has been transformed. 
Whether it will ever become as fertile as its 
limestone neighbors, is doubtful. But the trans- 
formation has ever offered attractions to those 
who have followed its course, seeming to pre- 
fer them to others on either side. This creek, 
where it starts on its northerly course, is cross- 
ed again by the Millwood Turnpike, six miles 
from Winchester. Later on, it is crossed by the 
Berryville Turnpike, at a point known as Spout 
Springs. This spring is on the eastern bank, 
where the traveler from Winchester to Berry- 
ville slakes his thirst, and watches the movements 
of the hydraulic ram, sending a goodly supply of 
cold water to the home of Mt. Daniel T. Wood 
on the West side, where his large flour mill is 
situated on Redbud. This stream, one of the 
three tributaries of the Opecquon, flows from the 
West. Abrams Creek and Ash Hollow Run, 
form their junction near this mill, emptying into 
the Opecquon just below this Spout Spring Ford 
and Redbud Run — a strong stream flowing from 
its head springs along the base of Applepie Ridge, 
and finding its way into the Opecquon below 
this ford. Redbud has become historical in the 
part she played when armies lined its banks 
awaiting the shock of battle. 

The Opecquon for several miles from a point 
below the Parkins Mills, forms the boundary of 
Clarke County, and continues as such to the three 
Counties of Frederick, Clarke and Jefferson. From 
this Spout Spring Ford, the creek takes as its 
general course a northeast direction, picking up 
on its way the small streams coming from either 
side — those from the West being Lick Run, flow- 
ing through the grounds of the Jordan White 
Sulphur Springs; Littler's Run and Turkey Run 
flowing through Brucetown. 

The Opecquon has here become quite a majestic 
little river; many places presenting rugged scen- 
ery, as she rushes through overhanging cliffs; then 

falling away into broad, placid basins, where her 
bosom grows broader, and presents the idea of 
miniature lakes; then, as if longing to get away 
and reach the Potomac, the swirls again appear, 
and a turbulent creek is seen forcing its way 
through many formidable slate ridges. The Old 
Charlestown Road, often called the old Baltimore 
Road, crosses this creek northeast from Winches- 
ter. In tracing the meanderings of this stream, 
the reader will observe that at none of the road- 
crossings mentioned, do we find the Opecquon at 
a distance exceeding six miles from Winchester. 
In its tortuous course, every point of the com- 
pass seems to woo its waters ;— describing in 
these courses, a crescent around Winchester, from 
whence all of her great roads leading out in 
every direction, except due West, must, within 
six miles, cross this historic stream. 

In tracing the Opecquon from source to flow, 
mention is made of Abrams Creek. This stream 
is entitled to fuller description, while treating of 
the waterways of the County. The creek, doubt- 
less, is entitled to the name tradition has given it. 
One of the first settlers of this section was 
Abram Hollingsworth, who located himself at 
a large spring southeast from the original site 
of the Borough of Winchester, but some time 
before it was thus known. The spring has ever 
been known as Hollingsworth Spring; and at 
this writing, in part the property of the family 
of that name and the City of Winchester. Why 
this family should have preferred naming the 
stream Abram rather than the family name, 
might raise some question for speculation. This 
stream comes from springs West of the City of 
Winchester, the most notable being, of course, 
what is known as the Town Spring near the sub- 
urbs, and on the roadside of the Northwest 
Turnpike. From this spring, Winchester drew 
her water supply for more than a century. Still 
to the southwest, about a mile distant, is the 
cluster of springs on the properties now owned 
by James B. Russell and Jacob £. Baker, on the 
main course of the creek. Still further to the 
northwest are found three other springs, imme- 
diately on the divide of the watershed between 
Hogue Creek and Opecquon. The first is at the 
home of Dr. John S. Lupton, two miles from 
Winchester on the northwest side of the Turn- 
pike; the others are near the eastern base of the 
Round Hill— one of them on the very summit of 
the divide, on the property owned for many 
years by the Hodgson family. From this spring 
can be seen the stream flowing westward to form 
Hogue Creek — all within three miles of the first 
cluster mentioned; and from that point on, it is 
known as Abrams Creek, — a stream noted for 
its splendid mill sites, where factories and mills 



were erected in the early part of the Nineteenth 
Century. The first was the large stone mill 
erected by Isaac HoUingsworth in 1827 near the 
Valley Turnpike, one mile South from the Court- 
house. A short distance below on the East side of 
the Pike, was the Nathan Parkins Mill. Below 
this and in full view are three other mills — ^the 
first for many years the property of Jonathan 
Smith ; — next the Kern's Mill ; then the Swartz 
Mill, near the South side of the Front Royal 
Turnpike, now the William Brothers' Woolen 
Mill. Up to this point, the course of this stream 
was first southeast; then East; then due South 
for a short distance; then due East to the last 
named mill. At this point, it abruptly turns its 
course North for a quarter of a mile, where it 
meets the town run near the Abram Rollings- 
worth Spfing, where David HoUingsworth for 
many years maintained a prosperous mill. In 
after years, about 1870, it became the property 
of Ober & Sons, who used it as a phosphate, or 
fertilizer, factory under the management of U. L. 
Dorsey. Then in 1884, it was used as a creamery 
or dairy plant for the manufacture, of butter — 
E. R. Thatcher and John V. Tavenner proprietors. 
Falling into disuse in a few years, it became the 
property of the City of Winchester, to form a 
basis for additional water supply. Below this 
point, tb« stream flows northeast through a hill 

country. Other mills appear. The first was the 
property of James McCallister, but was abandon- 
ed many years ago. One other, just below, was 
also the property of the McCallister family, who 
gave it the name of Greenwood Mills. 

The reader will see that Abrams Creek is en- 
titled to distinction, as an important factor in the 
interests of Winchester, and for the country many 
miles around. It should be mentioned here, that 
the Winchester Paper Mill Company became the 
owners of the Jonathan Smith Mill property in 
1874, erecting large and suitable buildings for 
the manufacture of strawboard paper. The en- 
terprise was successful. It is now owned by the 
American Strawboard Company — ^known as the 
Trust. The plant is operated now to its fullest 
capacity. The subject of mills and factories will 
be treated under their own particular head and 
not continued here. The digression made in the 
case of Abrams Creek, was deemed necessary to 
give it some prominence, owing to its relation 
to the old county seat Having pointed out the 
course of the Opecquon and some of its tributar- 
ies, further mention of the waterways of the 
country will be postponed for the present; and 
some of the highways that have been made as 
the country developed, will be treated in the next 


Old County Roads and Turnpikes— Their Charters, &c. 

The author has bestowed much time and labor 
in his endeavor to give some intelligent under- 
standing of the important highways of the Coun- 
ty, showing their markings in such way, that 
the reader may trace them to and from the 
many settlements; and even beyond the boundary 
lines, where such roads enter adjoining counties. 
Much of this matter was given in the chapter on 
the organization of the first courts, as the court 
orders related to the petitions presented to the 
court, asking for the right to open roads through 
the county; so some repetition may occur. 

A careful description is given in Chapter I, 
of the important roadways opened by order 
of court for the first two years, the orders of 
court being copied in full. 

Several roads from the Valley passed through 
gaps in the Blue Ridge over to Orange Court- 
house, and other points East of the Blue Ridge; 
others from the settlements of the "Bullskin" and 
Cohongoroota, and from settlements on the Opec- 
quon near Shepherdstown to the county seat, and 
then along Great Capon, and along Pattersons 
Creek, do not require mention here. As the 
settlements were made in many sections and 
population rapidly increased, a demand was made 
for roads at every monthly term; and the courts 
were very prompt in complying with the requests 
of the petitioners. Very soon the settlements had 
ways of intercourse, and also roads to attend 
monthly courts as litigants, jurors or witnesses. 

In order that the reader may see briefly what 
progress the new settlers were making along 
this line, the author will give a list of many of 
the roads laid out in the county, embracing every 
section within its boundaries; giving names of 
many persons, and suggesting localities that, if 
he cares to do so, he may examine the old order 
books of the court for the first ten years, even 
before the town of Winchester was established 
by law in 1752, — and he will find much of interest 
in every order. But let him take warning, lest 
some important matter escape his attention. For 
be it known, that those old courts, through their 
clerk being more economical with the space in 
their books than with lang^uage employed to ex- 
press their meaning, much is so closely written 
and interspersed with other minutes of the terms ; 
and not being indexed, are only found after care- 







ful reading of every page. The writer has spent 
many hours and even days, to make it possible 
to place before the reader the following list. 
We take them in their order: 
From the Courthouse to Morgan Morgans. 
" the meeting house at the Gap of the Moun- 
tain above Hugh Paul's to Warm Spring. 
Courthouse to Littler's old place. 
Smith's to John Littler's. 
Parkin's Mill to Jones* Plantation. 
Sturman's Run to Johnson's Mill. 
" John Milton's to John Sturman's. 
" Cunningham's Chapel to the River. 
" Hite's Mill to Chrisman's Spring. (Old 
Camp Meeting Ground), 
the County Road to the Chapel and to Mc- 
Coy's Spring (McKay). 
Opecquon to the Courthouse. 
" Cedar Creek to McCoy's Run. 
" Spout Run to John Sturman's. 
" Opecquon to Sherando River. 
" Ckddings' plantation to Littler's Mill, (later 

Wood's mill). 
" Hite's mill to Nation's run. 
" Mill Creek to LitUer's old place. (Old Tav- 
ern stand). 
" Ferry to the County Road. 
" Stephen's Mill to McCoy's Chapel. 
" Wm. Hughes plantation to Jeremiah Smith's. 
" Simon Linder's to Old Lloyd. 

Branson's Mill to Gregory Ford. — (Shenan- 
doah County). 
Cunningham's to Borden Springs. 
" Capt. Rutherford's to Potomac. 

to John McCormick. 
*' Howel's Ford to the top of the ridge. 
David Lloyd's to top of Blue Ridge at Ves- 
tal Gap. 
lower part of Patterson's Creek to the 

wagon road, 
the mouth of Patterson's Creek to Jobe 

Watkins Ferry to Falling Waters. 
• " Hite's Spring to Middle of Swamp in Smith 
" Gap on Little Mountain to Kersey's Ferry. 
" Littler's old place to Opequon. 

stone bridge, to Parker's on the North River 
of Cap Capon. 
























From Richard Sturman's to Cunningham's Chapel. 
" the Courthouse to Ballinger's plantation. 
" Funk's Mill to Cedar Creek. 
" Funk's Mill to the Augusta line — (route of 
the Valley Turnpike), 
the town to Dr. Briscoe's (evidently Steph- 

bridge near Lindsey's to Cunningham's 
" Stover's Mill to Gabriel Jones' plantation. 
Frederick Town to mouth of South Branch. 
Long Marsh to Vestal's Iron Works. 
Wm. Frosts' to John Frosts' Mill 
Hoop Peticoat Gap to Hite Mill. 
" Branson's Mill to Kite's Mill. 

Ross's Fence by the great road to Opequon. 
Johnson's house to road to Fairfax County. 
Caton's house to Jacob Kite's. 
Watkinson's Ferry to Vestal's Gap. 
John Ratchlies to John Fossetts. 
" Stephens Mill to Mary Littler's. 
Chester's to Branson's Mill. 
North River to Great Capon. 
Cunningham's Chapel to Neill's Ford. 
" Cedar Creek to Cross Roads at John Duck- 
John McCormick to main road to town. 
On the river side from Long Marsh to Ves- 
Sleepy Creek to Widow Paul's. 
Morgan's Chapel to Opequon. 
Lloyd's crossing at the river to top of Ridge. 
Burwell's Mill to Fox Trap point. 
Kersey's to the Ferry Road of Sherando. 
river at Edge's Ford to Francis Carney, 
the head of the pond in Sherando to Worm- 
ley Quarter, 
bridge to head of great pond on Sherando. 
Sturman's Bridge to Burwell's Mill. 
Nation's Run to Capt. Kite's. 
Town to the Opecquon. 
head spring of Stribling's to Cunningham's 

Mark Harman's Mill to Isaac HoUings- 
Many of the roads mentioned in the foregoing 
list are worthy of more extended notice than 
others; and referring to the first chapters of 
this work, will be seen sufficient description of 
the important Kighways to readily locate their 
route, and also give the names of the landowners 
through which the proposed road passes. If any 
should desire to follow the description more 
fully; they would do well to select the names 
of the land owners and resort to the deed books 
of that period, for the deeds for the lands in the 
section; — and they will find satisfactory evidence 
















to verify all statements briefly made as to the 
location, etc. 

One of the roads mentioned in the foregoing 
list was destined to become famous; — but in the 
order of court receives the usual attention: no 
mention made for the necessity for the highway 
other than to afford communication between out- 
laying settlements and the county seat. The peti- 
tions simply ask for the cutting out and open a 
way "from Frederick Town the county seat, to 
the Mouth of the South Branch." This evident- 
ly was the first direct road opened from the coun- 
ty seat to the settlements beyond the great Moun- 
tains; — ^though on several occasions the settlers 
on the South Branch had petitioned the court 
for roads in their section. Same in the case of 
Great Capon and Patterson's Creek. Some came 
to court from those sections. Processes had been 
served on the inhabitants of all those "outlying 
settlements" — and the attendances at court show 
that they found some route to travel, — but no 
evidence given to locate the way of their coming. 
Those outl)ring settlements were not off-shoots 
from the Shenandoah Valley Settlements, but 
were independent settlements, — made by persons 
and families following the course of the Cohon- 
goroota, seeking a valley no doubt which would 
equal the Shenandoah. And as they found the 
upper Potomac unpromising for settlement, ow- 
ing to the rugged country along its course — they 
eagerly looked for some better country; — and in 
the Valley extending up the Great Capon and 
South Branch and Patterson's Creek they en- 
tered upon what they called the "Tomahawk" or 
"Squatters Right," and began to settle up those 
promising sections; and lived by their own com- 
munity laws. They, however, were soon discov- 
ered; — and "hunters and trappers" gave glowing 
accounts of the new country and new people. 
They were within the jurisdiction of the Freder- 
ick County government; and we find them often 
at the county seat, asking for aid to build 
"Forts," open roads, and for appointment of 
Dep. Sheriffs, etc. Thb new roadway to those 
settlements is easily traced from the Courthouse 
in a northwest direction to the head of "Indian 
Creek" ("Indian KoUow") to "Hog Creek," then 
out to the "Sand Mountains" — along "any acces- 
sible Valley to the Gap in the great mountain," 
and beyond this to the mouth of Great Capon — 
No mention is made of any landowner after 
leaving Back Creek, until the route touches the 
entrance to Capon Valley. From the Courthouse 
to Back Creek, the names of land owners are 
given, so that the route is easily located. From 
Great Capon westward, no name appears. But 
mention is made of certain settlements through 
which the route is to take, — to end at the mouth 



of South Branch, where it passes through the 
lands of Garret, Reese and others, to where the 
road leaves the river ford (meaning the Poto- 
mac) going out to the southwest. Having thus 
briefly touched the general direction of this new 
road, — we may add that this direction was fol- 
lowed by those who opened the way for better 
communication between the lower valley and 
those sections West of the Great mountains. By 
reference to the minutes of the Courts subse- 
quent to the first order made to open this road — 
we find within three years the report from the 
Commissioners shows the road opened, and al- 
lowances made in Tobacco to the Commissioners 
and other persons for their services. No land- 
owner coming for damages. It appears this new 
road was of such use when opened, that its fame 
as an important highway was soon established. 
We find that George Washington was in Win- 
chester 1753, on his way to the French Authori- 
ties along our western boundaries, — enquiring for 
a way to reach the vicinity of "Will's Creek," 
that would be more direct than the route North 
of the Cohongoroota. Fortunately the youthful 
Washington was much given to writing notes — 
not only of surveys he made — but of himself and 
the many incidents occurring on such expeditions 
he was then making. Throughout his eventful 
life, he was ever ready with his pen to note much 
that has become historically interesting. Wash- 
ington's "Journal" fixes the date of his arrival 
in Winchester on the occasion of the incident 
mentioned; and from it the author will collect 
much to explain the object of his seeking. The 
Journal of the Governor's Council, and Acts of 
the old General Assembly of that period, — afford 
much more information on the necessity of this 
expedition. As mentioned in a former Chapter, 
the English Government claimed the country 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific; — and Virginia 
claimed within her boundaries the territory West 
of the Potomac; and Old Frederick claimed a 
large portion of the western country. The Jour- 
nal of the Council shows that many persons ask- 
ed for an incorporation of the "Ohio Company" 
authorizing them to locate on lands West of the 
Ohio. The petition was denied; — ^but a grant 
was secured from the Crown for the location of 
settlements on any lands between the Ohio and 
Mississippi River not to exceed 700,000 acres; as 
settlers were located, same to be reported to the 
General Council at Williamsburg, where proper 
record was made in what we to-day would call 
the Land Office. The "Statutes at Large" refer 
to these grants, and mention Acts of the Assem- 
bly creating laws for their government. Prior to 
this period, it was well known that the French 
from their seat of Colonial Government in Louis- 

iana, were pushing up the Mississippi Valley, and 
making treaties with the notable Indian tribes, 
enabling them to fix strong outposts at St. Louis 
and along the Lake region. England began to 
resent these encroachments of the French; and 
empowered the Governor of Virginia (Dinwid- 
dle) in 1752, to take the proper course through 
the Councils of the Virginia Colony, to notify 
the French settlers and commandants of their 
outposts if found, within her boundaries, — that 
England's claim had not been surrendered to 
any of the territory in question ; and such settlers 
would be subjected to the laws of the Colony of 
Virginia; and that all armed forces must im- 
mediately withdraw, together with all Indian al- 
lies, — excepting such tribes as chose to make peace 
Treaty with the Governor and his Council, — sub- 
ject to approval of his Majesty King of Eng- 
land, etc. So we find the General Assembly of 
Virginia diligently at work in the next session, 
considering plans to protect the frontier people. 
The fur traders filed complaints of depredations 
of the French and Indians on the Virginia set- 
tlement. The Assembly promptly authorized the 
Governor to send by proper persons, formal no- 
tice to the French outposts, of the Acts of the 
Assembly. The governor entrusted this import- 
ant work to young George Washington, who held 
a commission as Major of Militia in the Virginia 
lines. To Major Washington's Journal, we are 
indebted for information of dates, etc. "We 
started from Williamsburg the last day of Oct., 
^7S3f came to Alexandria and thence to Win- 
chester where horses were supplied and baggage 
and other needs were packed." This was con- 
sidered at that period the "outposts" of the Vir- 
ginia villages. The Redman still held out for 
his rights in mountain regions to the West; and 
it was natural that the youthful Envoy should 
enquire of those who might know, the easiest 
and safest route leading from Winchester to 
Will's Creek Station, then a trappers fort or 
Lodge. We find the expedition fully made up 
at Winchester, and ready for their start on this 
hazardous work. This entry is made in the 
Journal; — "On Ye 17th day of Ye Month of 
Novemo, — ^the party consists of one guide and 
packer, one Indian interpeter, one French inter- 
peter, and four gentlemen,** Strange to say no 
mention in this entry in his Journal appears of 
the names of any of this party. Later on, be- 
fore the completion of this expedition, he men- 
tions frequently — "Gist, and "Van-braam" as the 
guide and French "interpeter," while he was at 
the French fort holding Council with the Com- 
mandant " St. Pierre." This Mr. Gist was 
the guide certainly at the French fort, and on his 
return down the river to Venango after six days 



hardships, and further on to the Alleghany River, 
must have been the guide from start to finish. 
Who composed the expedition no mention is 
made. Tradition has it, that young Dan Morgan 
had just arrived in town from the western set- 
tlement on the South Branch — as a driver of a 
pack for the fur men offered his services to 
Washington as a guide, and was accepted, — and 
it was on this perilous journey that the future 
Generals saw in each other the traits that made 
strong ties between them when they encountered 
more perilous times. The author will postpone 
further mention of the expedition for succeeding 
Chapters. He only presents the aforesaid inci- 
dents, to show the wisdom of those who selected 
the route to the outljring settlements. Washing- 
ton frequently mentioned certain points seen on 
his way to the mouth of the South Branch, and 
the easy crossings of the Sandy Mountains, and 
safe fords over the mountain streams. He was 
pleased to note in his Journal that "the skill of 
the engineer manifested itself along the entire 
route." He makes a note in his Journal while 
at Will's Creek Station, "that a goodly number 
of very sturdy settlers are building houses at 
this point, and that this should be encouraged 
by better protection in the erection of a fort 
with stockades; as Indian tribes were crossing 
this way from the 'Susqeuhannas' to the Hunt- 
ing grounds on the upper waters, and in case 
they would attack the settlements without this 
protection they would have no means of escape, 
and must suffer massacres." Fort Cumberland 
was erected at this point within the following 
year, through the joint efforts of Maryland and 
Virginia. This road became useful in transport- 
ing supplies to the Militia who occupied this 
fort. The Companies being made up at Win- 
chester, marched over this road, which later on 
was known as Braddock's Road, by reason of 
his army taking their line of march to meet the 
foe, and returning by the same road after their 
disaster on the Monongalia. This road was in- 
tersected by the Pack Horse Road, just before 
its entrance of the Gap leading to Great Capon, 
and known at this writing as Bloomery Gap, 
Pack Horse Road is still pointed out, and became 
what was afterwards called the Old Baltimore 
Road. The Old Braddock Road in time had its 
general course changed somewhat by the con- 
struction of the North Frederick Turnpike, which 
was Chartered in 1854, one of the principal chang- 
es being near Winchester, where the new route 
abandoned the "Indian Hollow Route to Hog 
Creek" — to afford facilities of access to the mar- 
kets of the better and more thickly settled sec- 
tion. Thus we find historic Indian Hollow as 
sparsely settled at this writing, as it was one 

hundred and fifty years ago; and very few of 
the good dwellers of that section ever think of 
the stirring events that one time made the place 
more famous than any other section. 

The author has given this roadway more prom- 
inence than can be given to many others. It 
seems appropriate, however, to mention another 
roadway — leading from the county seat to the 
south west ward. At the March term, 1745, an 
order was entered, appointing Samuel Glass, Na- 
thaniel Cartmell, Vance Marks, Paul Froman 
and others "to lay out the best and nearest route 
to the County seat, and mark the way through 
the big timbers, said road to commence at Fro- 
man's Run on Cedar Creek, pass by the Cartmell 
Springs at the head of Opequon, — ^and thence to 
the County seat" At a subsequent term, the re- 
port from the Commissioners was confirmed. 
This report mentions a road being made "on 
the Trail from the head of Cedar Creek across 
the mountains to the heads of the South Branch ;" 
and recommends that a juncture should be made 
between the two, the Court makes no minute but 
the simple order confirming the report. Whether 
this juncture was formed then is not known; but 
in after years the two sections were connected 
by these roads; and armies marched over them 
as they did over the road to the mouth of the 
South Branch. The fact is established by the 
language of the Commissioners in reports in both 
cases, that settlers at both ends of the South 
Branch were seeking a way through the moun- 
tains to the county seat of the old County about 
the same period. The old road established by 
the order 1745, leading from Winchester to the 
upper Cedar Creek Country, was for many years 
called the Cartmell Road. It never became a 
highway noted for its smooth surface; but had 
some renown for its long stretches through shady 
forests and over clear streams coming from the 
nearby mountain springs. In 1851 the Cedar 
Creek Turnpike Company was chartered, grant- 
ing them the right to construct a turnpike from 
a point on the Valley Turnpike two miles South 
of Winchester, to Cedar Creek. Their engineers 
followed very closely the old route laid out in 
174s, — thus showing that the early settlers pos- 
sessed considerable knowledge for locating roads. 
This applies to hundreds of other roads, many 
of the best public roads travelled to-day are over 
the very routes laid out one hundred and fifty 
years ago. For instance, the roads leading from 
the center valley to the gaps in the Blue Ridge, 
can be traced over the exact old route for miles. 
As the population increased, there was demand 
for more roads ; and as they became so numerous, 
— ^the author will group them, giving name of 
new road — and in some cases names of overseers. 



of old roads. These references can be followed 
up easily by those who may look into the route 
taken from localities namedi and may thus identi- 
fy some that have peculiar interest. As will be 
seen in the grouping of these roads, the spirit 
of improvement prevailed to a great extent. 
The list shows the number of roads opened in 
the early part of the Eighteenth Century to have 
been very great; and then in the latter part of 
the same century, beginning with the period 
of the trying time of the Revolutionary War, and 
during the reconstruction period thereafter, the 
same spirit is seen. Beginning at the March term 
1788, closing Oct. 1789— a little over eighteen 
months, about fifty new and difficult roads were 
opened and put in condition for travel, and no 
complaint of high taxes or burdens. This is in 
marked contrast with this period where we have 
not an average of two new roads in any year; 
and there seems to be more discussion, and ef- 
fort made to keep the roads in repair, than the 
fathers spent in the Eighteenth Century to con- 
struct them in the first instance. They had no 
road plows, stone crushers, or any other road 
machinery. They had to hew their way through 
the virgin forests, make fords over difficult 
streams — sometimes erecting rude bridges. They 
knew nothing of the vast resources enjoyed by 
the succeeding generations. We will see later 
on that the fathers not only excelled in making 
roads to open communication with all the set- 
tlements, but they developed the country along 
other great lines. While studying the question 
of roads of the Eighteenth Century it may be 
well at this point to mention another class of 
roads made in the early part of the Nineteenth 
Century. Two great thoroughfares are shown 
in this class, both of which are replete with his- 
toric interest, both applying for charters about 
the same time, 1830-31 ; the one sweeping through 
the great valley with its McAdamized track, — 
forming a cemented bed, the limestone on either 
side throughout its entire length of one hundred 
miles, furnishing material for the concrete. This 
was called the Valley Turnpike. However, this 
road was shut off, as will be seen, and required 
to wait for several years. Its name has gone 
into every Hamlet in every State in this broad 
land. This was the way the Southrons came, 
when their army was organizing at Harper's 
Ferry in 1861. Battalions and army corps, 
marched and counter marched along this great 
highway, until its name became familiar in a 
million homes. This Turnpike was not author- 
ized by law until March 24th, 1838, though the 
charter for its right to construct the road was 
in the batch of public improvements when the 
charter was granted the N. W. T. P. March 17. 

1831; so we find this Charter slept for seven 
years in the dusty files of bills and petitions in 
the Secretary's office. 

The long preamble accompanying the petition 
sent to the General Assembly recites, "that the 
proposed route for the Pike would take the gen- 
eral course of a great Stage Road running from 
Winchester via Staunton to the Tennessee Roads. 
This "Big Road," having been the travel way 
for a great many years for the wagon line of 
commerce from Baltimore to Knoxville and other 
points in Tennessee," previous to the Valley 
Turnpike period, this "Big Road" as it was gen- 
erally called, had local names for its long stretch- 
es. The first, from Winchester, ended at Stover's 
or Funkstown (latterly Strasburg), crossing the 
Opecquon at Col. John Hite's plantation ;— cross- 
ing Cedar Creek at Major Briscoe's lower ford, 
and the Shenando River at the ford to Funk's 
Mill, and was called the Briscoe Road. (Let the 
reader look for further explanation at old Court 
orders to find who the tihtables were along this 
road, — who were required to work four days dur- 
ing the year to keep up repairs. There he will 
find names of land owners who peopled this sec- 
tion and will also be able to follow the exact 

From the Stoverstown point, the old road was 
called the Funkstown and Branson's Mill Road, 
and the overseer for eleven miles was (Jeorgc 
Bowman, who held his important office for many 
years. From Woodstock the old roadway held 
to the high ground; and from the best informa- 
tion obtained on this point, old residents claim 
that the Pike followed the old route to Mt. Jack- 
son. At this point, some material changes were 
made to gratify the owners of the celebrated 
river bottom land. Information on this point may 
be obtained by examination of the records of 
Shenandoah County. All the way to this river 
point, the roadway has held to the most fertile 
part of the Valley, bridging streams from the 
Opecquon— over Cedar Creek — winding its way 
along the river and over "Fisher's Hill," through 
the "Narrow Passage." The whole route affords 
interest to the traveler. Tourists from other 
States have enjoyed the traverse of this far- 
famed road since the war period; and at this 
writing no summer day passes that the Automo- 
bile is not seen on this Pike, whirling along — 
passing the front gate of the author's home. 

The other great thoroughfare, is the highway 
leading from Winchester, northwesterly to the 
Ohio River. It secured a Charter March 19, 
1831, after many years had been frittered away 
in efforts to defeat this measure. The first effort 
to secure a Charter was made in 1819, when a 
general law was enacted defining the limitations 



and restrictions of the proposed company. The 
plans were so unsatisfactory to the western coun- 
ties, by reason of a failure to secure sufficient 
aid from the State, that the project was held 
up for several sessions; renewed in session of 
1827; and not until the session of 1830-31, was 
the effort fought to a finish. Then the Charter 
was encumbered with certain provisions, not en- 
tirely satisfactory. Some interesting incidents 
relating to that period were revealed to the 
writer in his study of the House Journal of the 
General Assembly which granted the charter for 
these two great highways. The Western Vir- 
ginia Counties through their state senators and 
delegates, had been making themselves heard on 
the subject of "Internal Improvements" for 
some years; — claiming that the section beyond 
the Valley counties was not receiving their share 
of the State revenues, in making public improve- 
ments; and for several sessions this subject 
occupied the closest attention of the Tidewater 
Statesmen, — lest they would lose some coveted 
prize — such as new roads, and bridges, and addi- 
tional expenditures of money on canal projects, 
etc. Plans had been forming for several years, 
to have the state make a great road from the 
Potomac River through the Shenandoah Valley, 
to cross the headwaters of the James far South 
in the Valley. The burning issue between the 
parties in every campaign was "Internal Im- 
provements," and this at the expense of the 
State. Statesmen sprang from every section, 
either to combat or favor this measure; and 
when the plans matured for the General Assem- 
bly to grant a Charter for the Valley Turnpike, 
it was found the improvement party was strong 
enough to carry it through — and when the mat- 
ter was taken up, a new and unexpected feature 
presented itself. The western counties held the 
balance of power. They came to the Legislature 
pledged for internal improvements at the state's 
expense; and when their wily and astute Dele- 
gates announced their position, great consterna- 
tion fell on all; and for a while the party of 
economists felt sure that all would fall through 
and the State treasury would escape depletion 
for another session. But the old politicians of 
Western Virginia took advantage of their op- 
portunity, and agreed to carry the Valley Turn- 
pike Charter through, — provided a public im- 
provement be made from the Great Valley to 
some point on the Ohio River. The valley peo- 
ple could have their road to the headwaters of 
the James, but Western Virginia must have a 
road from the eastern counties, through the 
mountains to the Ohio. The whole session was 
alive with these tremendous questions; and when 
the western counties found they could control 

Legislation, — they secured all they asked for, — 
and even more. The committees in charge of 
these enterprises, reported only one of the bills — 
the one for the construction of the Northwestern 
Turnpike from Winchester westward to the Ohio. 
The overwhelming expenditures necessary to con- 
struct two such roads at the same time, and the 
promoters of the Northwestern Road knowing 
that frequent calls would be made on the State 
for money to conduct the work, adopted a scheme 
to secure this aid by holding up the Valley Turn- 
pike for several sessions; during this time secur- 
ing appropriations from the State — or rather using 
her credit to affect loans. We find the Road well 
on the way before the Valley Company was 
granted a charter, — ^and when their charter was 
granted March 3rd, 1834, and then amended 
March 24, 1838, the northwestern people secured 
an Act April 7th, 1838, providing for the com- 
pletion of the Northwestern Turnpike to Parkers- 
burg. So, as has been stated, — these great thor- 
oughfares were struggling to appear before the 
public at the same time, though the Valley was 
held in check by what might be termed sharp 
practice. We find both roads in traveling condi- 
tions to their respective terminals at almost the 
same time. The magnitude of the undertaking 
to make a passable road from the Valley to the 
Ohio must have been appalling. The Acts of 
the Assembly Feb. 6th, 1834, authorizing the 
company to "borrow on credit of the Common- 
wealth from time to time such sums of money 
not exceeding the total of $86,000.00 was sufficient 
no doubt to keep the enterprise from lagging. We 
find again by an Act of the Assembly dated 
March 30, 1837, the company was again authoriz- 
ed to use the credit of the State for an additional 
sum of $50,000.00. An Act passed April 7th, 
1838, placed the unfinished section of the North- 
western Turnpike under the direction of the 
Principal engineer; the whole road now being 
under the general control of the Board of Public 
Works, — through the President and Directors of 
the said road. Tolls were fixed by law for "Road 
travel and special rate for Bridge travel." The 
Bridge across the South Branch near Romney, 
was erected and put into service in 1837 — and the 
Act of the Legislature April 7th, 1838, provides 
for the "rebuilding of the bridge which was 
recently erected and destroyed; and that the sum 
required therefor be paid from the tolls that 
may be received on said road." The Valley Turn- 
pike Company was organized as a joint stock 
company. The State, through the Board of Pub- 
lic Works, to subscribe to three-fifths of the 
shares of stock, — and the private stockholders 
two-fifths of the stock, until the sum of $300,000.- 
00 was subscribed ; — which was to be divided into 



shares of $25.00 each; and when this sum was 
subscribed, the President and Board of Directors 
of said company were authorized to construct 
the road. Beginning at Winchester and to end 
at Staunton. Books for subscriptions were to 
be opened at Winchester, Woodstock, Harrison- 
burg and Staunton. Winchester was authorized 
to subscribe for 400 shares of the stock on be- 
half of the Corporation. The General Assembly 
by several Acts, designated the persons to receive 
subscriptions to the stock, and named the places 
where such stock could be taken for the two 
roads. It would be interesting to some, no 
doubt, if the names of all such were given here, 
but as they can be seen by referring to Acts of 
Assembly we will pass them by. 

It must be understood stock was taken in the 
Northwestern Road, subscribed by individuals upon 
the faith and credit of the State to be redeemed 
by the State. This was done; and the great road 
became strictly a state road; and thus the wes- 
tern counties secured a prize well worth their 
shrewd legislation. The Northwestern Turnpike 
was, and is yet, a much traveled highway, for 
many years connecting Ohio and our own wes- 
tern counties with the country seat east of the 
great mountains. 

The Board of Public Works long since relin- 
quished control of that portion West of the 
Hampshire County line, and finally Feb. 26, 1884 
released that part within Frederick County, and 
placed its management under the control of the 
Board of Supervisors of said County. The road 
is still maintained by moderate tolls. To appre- 
ciate the work of making a turnpike from Win- 
chester to Parkersburg one should travel over 
its well graded bed, — follow its devious ways over 
the streams, — cross the mountains, — ^penetrate the 
Glades and great timber and coal belt, and wit- 
ness the results of the engineer's skill, and, stand- 
ing somewhere on the Alleghany Ranges, he will 
have some conception of the great work. The 
writer, in his day, has seen Emigrant trains pass 
out of sight into the mountain country over this 
old road, as they went seeking new homes be- 
yond the Ohio; and also has seen droves and 
droves of cattle, horses and sheep, wending their 
way over this same road, seeking the eastern 
markets. All this traffic has ceased; for the rail- 
road has diverted it their way. There are those 
of the long ago who still look for the bellowing 
herds and the Emigrant's old covered wagon. 
The whistle of the Locomotive denotes progress, 
— but the memory of those "drovers*' soothes the 
spirit, akin to the feeling of him, who "drank 
from the old Oaken Bucket." 

The General Assembly by an Act April 7, 1838, 
granted a charter for a turnpike to be construct- 

ed from Moorefield to the Northwestern Turn- 
pike at Chas. Blue's in Hampshire County, by 
the name and style of "The North River and 
Moorefield Turnpike Company." This road was 
completed; and is maintained in good condition 
to this writing. 

Another important Turnpike in the Valley is 
"The Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike." A 
charter was granted this company March 24, 1838, 
"with all the rights, powers and privileges, and 
subject to all the restrictions and liabilities herein 
given to and imposed upon the Valley Turnpike 
Company," the state giving same aid as granted the 
Valley Turnpike Company. This road is too well 
known to need any description; it being a con- 
tinuation of the Valley system. It is managed and 
controlled by its own President and Directors. 
The route is through one of the most highly cul- 
tivated sections of the Valley — gorgeous scenery 
to tHe right and left; — and the great Valley ly- 
ing to the south gives the traveler full satisfac- 
tion in his effort to study the landscapes so well 
known to thousands, who once in the line of duty 
marched over this Pike; when the armies of the 
North and South frequently used this highway. 
It has been estimated that more than a million 
soldiers marched over this road within the space 
of three years — with attendant artillery and army 
trains; that fully one hundred thousand horses, 
wagons, etc., also traveled it. The close of the 
war found it in bad condition. The company, 
however, rallied to their work, and had the Pike 
pass through its reconstruction period, long be- 
fore the U. S. Government allowed the county 
government to pass beyond that period in her 

Three other Turnpike Companies were granted 
charters subsequent to those mentioned, to con- 
struct roads from Winchester to other places, 
to-wit: the Berryville and Winchester Turnpike 
Chartered first 183 1, under the general law, and 
amended March 30, 1839. The Front Royal Turn- 
pike was chartered March 27, 1848. Then the 
Millwood Turnpike. The North Frederick Turn- 
pike chartered Feb. 24, 1851, along with the 
Hampshire and Morgan Turnpike Company. 
These are all useful highways, affording easy 
travel to the Courthouse and the Winchester mar- 
kets. Mention has already been made of the 
North Frederick Turnpike. The State had an 
interest in this road; and Feb. 16, 1901, granted 
this to the Board of Supervisors. An Act of 
the General Assembly authorized the Board to 
use the surplus fund arising from tolls to pur- 
chase the private stock. This was done, and the 
Turnpike formally turned over to the Board of 
Supervisors for their management and control. 
Tolls are still collected for repairs. 



line to a point on the Valley Turnpike (Hillman's 
Tollgate) — distance being twelve miles. Running 
as it did through liniestone ridges, the grade was 
difficult and expensive to construct; the Com- 
pany was unable to adopt the plan fully, and 
succeeded partly in paving the road. The com- 
pany had an expensive road to maintain; and 
after keeping up repairs from tolls and no sur- 
plus to pay the stockholders, — ^the road was aban- 
doned in 1873; when the County court appointed 
overseers, and the road was maintained at the 
expense of the County. From that time to pres- 
ent writing, — the road is in better condition now, 
than at any time in its existence. 

The Welltown Turnpike fills a long needed 
want of the fine sections through which it passes, 
from the village of Welltown North from Win- 
chester to its intersection with the Winchester 
and Martinsburg Turnpike. This Pike is main- 
tained by moderate tolls, under the management 
of the Winchester and Martinsburg Turnpike 

Another road, though not a chartered one, is 
known as the Apple Pie Ridge Road. This has 
been a noted thoroughfare for many years; and 
is becoming more prominent among the roads of 
the County by reason of the great fruit belt 
through which it passes, from its intersection 
with the North Frederick Turnpike two miles 
from Winchester, to connect with the Berkeley 
County roads. This old road is always expected 
to furnish its usual number of snow blockades 
in winter. It was opened by an order of court 
about the middle of the Eighteenth Century, and 
called the Ridge Road — ^''to lead from the Brad- 
dock Road into the Quaker settlement to the 
Northward." The road is kept in good repair 
by the District Road Board. Another old Coun- 
ty road not chartered is the Middle Road, — and 
might be termed a ridge road, for it follows partly 
the extension of the Apple Pie Ridge southward 
from Winchester, leaving the Valley Turnpike 
near Hillman's Tollgate; running thence about 
southwest along this ridge for a number of miles, 
to ultimately terminate at Old Forge. As its 
name denotes, it runs about midway between the 
Valley and Cedar Creek Turnpike, for about 
eight miles; then it and the Cedar Creek Road 
gradually converge to the same terminal — Old 
Forge. This road is much traveled by the many 
prosperous farmers living in the rich section 
through which it passes. 

The foregoing sketches of the turnpikes and 
other public roads, embrace such roads chartered 
and opened subsequent to the subdivision of the 

old County. It must be remembered at this per- 
iod the other counties, once part of Frederick, 
were busy with their improvements, and had up 
to that time accomplished such wonders of devel- 
opment, that the author deems it best not to 
embrace their roads and Turnpikes in this 

The demand for Turnpikes in this territory 
comprising old Frederick was astonishing. 
When the great movement was started by the 
Valley, and Northwestern Turnpikes, this spirit 
caught hold upon all of these subdivisions; — ^and 
soon they were clamoring for Pikes, for Hamp- 
shire, Berkeley, Jefferson, and Shenandoah Coun- 
ties. And in a study of the Acts of the General 
Assembly for years after, the various sections 
found the State was giving aid to such enter- 
prises. Every session was deluged with petitions 
for charters for turnpikes; and it looked at one 
time, the state would become bankrupt unless 
this flood were cut off. We find that the old 
State was tossing on such billows that no party 
was strong enough to rescue her from financial 
ruin. Millions of dollars of a bonded debt, piling 
up year after year; — so that nothing but the war 
period could call a halt. Many who may read 
these sketches will recall the "Readjuster his- 
tory" of this great bonded debt; and how many 
innocent holders of such bonds felt the shrinkage 
of their value. To give some idea how eagerly 
all sections were dipping into the Public Crib, we 
will mention the charters granted to the territory 
of Old Frederick at the session when the last 
Turnpike was chartered, to-wit: the short session 
of 185 1, when the following Turnpike Companies 
received charters. Their names will enable the 
reader to locate them, and be able to identify 
them with our Counties: 

New Market and Sperryville Turnpike Company. 
Luray and Front Royal " 

Cross Roads and Summit Point " 
Jefferson and Frederick 
North Frederick 
Morgan and Frederick 
Cedar Creek and Opequon 
Hampshire and Morgan 
North River 

Berkeley and Hampshire 
Hedges ville and Potomac 
Harpers Ferry and Hillsboro 

All of these in one session, besides many ap- 
propriations made to aid the weak companies 
who held older charters, and had suspended work 
for lack of funds to complete their roads. 
























Railroads, CharterSt Locations, Etc. 

The last chapter having disposed of the sketch- 
es and location of old county roads and turn- 
pikes, the author deems it best to treat the sub- 
ject of the other great highways in this chapter. 

The old county was well abreast of the times 
with the railroad and its early history. One of 
the first railroads to make successful an effort 
to make it possible for the new idea to prevail 
and attract capitalists, to bring the products of 
the interior country to the seaboard, was the 
Baltimore and Ohio. In its infancy, it saw the 
great possibilities of connecting the western coun- 
try with the eastern, and that with an interchange 
of products, a great commercial era would be 
created. So we find the new company of capi- 
talists feeling their way towards the Ohio, be- 
fore the smoke had cleared away from the first 
trial locomotive near Baltimore. There seemed 
to be no way to the Ohio but through Virginia. 
We find in the early history of the B. & O., 
many plans were proposed; and as success 
crowned the undertaking on the first section near 
Baltimore, the people of that enterprising city 
became enthused, and pressed for an extension, 
of their line ; little dreaming of the success which 
ultimately crowned their efforts and made it pos- 
sible for their little city to rise in grandeur and 
become the great commercial city of to-day. The 
projectors of the extension, favored striking Vir- 
ginia at some point West of the Blue Ridge, 
then taking as direct a route as possible through 
the mountains, to some point on the Ohio River, 
near the mouth of the Kanawha River. The 
engineers never gave encouragement to this 
route, but favored one entirely through the 
State of Maryland to Wheeling on the Ohio. 
Then came the first dissension; and for several 
years progress was delayed. Finally a compro- 
mise was made, and the route chosen to enter 
Virginia at Harpers Ferry, from that point to 
take the most accessible way to Wheeling. For 
present purposes it may be added, this plan was 
adopted; and charters secured from Maryland 
and Virginia for the route to be located. So 
we find the northern boundary of the Old Coun- 
ty was taken, through Jefferson, Berkley, Mor- 
gan and Hampshire Counties leaving the last 
named at Greenspring to enter Maryland, and 
again entering Virginia between Cumberland and 

Keyser; and thence through Virginia to the 
Ohio at Wheeling. After years developed the 
fact, that those who once favored a route to 
some lower point on the Ohio, were wise in 
their view; for the well known route to Parkers- 
burg, made later on by the B. & O., proves the 
wisdom of the Company in adopting the original 
suggestions. In the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, Session 1826-7, we find the first mention 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The caption 
of the Act is here given, to establish the date 
of the charter granted by Maryland: "An Act 
to confirm a law, passed at the present session 
of the General Assembly of Maryland, entitled, 
"An Act to incorporate the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company." Following is the Virginia 
Act— passed March 8th, 1827— Preamble : "Where- 
as, An Act has passed the Legislature of Mary- 
land, entitled an Act to incorporate the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad Company, in the follow- 
ing words and figures, viz.:" 

The Act then proceeds to give the full text 
of the Act passed by the Maryland Legislature, 
much of which would interest the reader, but 
our space forbids its entry here. The second 
section of the Act employs this language — ^That 
"the Capital Stock of the said Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, shall be Three Millions 
of Dollars in shares of One Hundred Dollars 
each, of which ten thousand shares shall be 
reserved for subscription by the State of Mary- 
land and five thousand for the City of Balti- 
more." The twenty-second section reads thus: 

*That if this road shall not be completed in 
two years from the passage of this Act, and 
shall not be finished within this State in ten 
years from the time of the commencement there- 
of, then this Act shall be null and void." 

The Virginia Act is embraced in one section, 
and in part reads thus: "Therefore, be it en- 
acted by the General Assembly. That the same 
rights and privileges shall be and are hereafter 
granted to the aforesaid Company within the 
territory of Virginia, as are granted to them 
within the territory of Ma£yland. The said 
Company shall be subject to the same penalties 
and obligations imposed by said Act, and the 
same rights, privileges, and immunities which 
are reserved to the State of Maryland or to the 




citizens thereof, are hereby reserved for the 
State of Virginia, and her citizens. That the 
said road shall not strike the Ohio at a point 
lower than the mouth of the Little Kanawha on 
said river." 

The work on this road was soon under way, 
after the charters were granted; engineers mak- 
ing surveys. The Company adopted some and 
rejected others — contractors submitting bids for 
work, etc. 

Harpers Ferry was soon chosen as a point to 
cross the Potomac River; where work was be- 
gun to span the river with a bridge. The route 
westward from this point followed very nearly 
along the northern boundary of the Old County. 

The General Assembly of Virginia, session 
1831, was confronted with a peculiar situation 
regarding the new idea, — The making of railroads. 
There seemed to be much rivalry between the 
Valley people; for we find that an Act was pass- 
ed the 22nd of March, 1831, to "Incorporate the 
Staunton and Potomac Railroad Company." The 
provisions indicate that the object was to make 
Staunton and Martinsburg the terminals. Strong 
men were named in the Act, representing Staun- 
ton, Harrisonburg, Woodstock, Winchester, 
Charlestown and Martinsburg, to receive sub- 
scriptions to "the Capital Stock of One and one 
half Million Dollars." Whether this Act sug- 
gested the movement for a railroad from Win- 
chester to Harpers Ferry is not shown. At the 
same session, by Act passed April 8th, 1831, a 
charter was granted to the Winchester and Poto- 
mac Railroad Company. The projectors of this 
railroad, seemed to have faith in their ability to 
secure the capital for the enterprise. The Act 
named John R. Cooke, Alfred H. Powell, Alex- 
ander S. Tidball, John Gilkeson, Henry W. Ba- 
ker, M. B. Cartmell, Joseph H. Sherrard, Henry 
M. Brent, John Brome and John Heiskill, for 
the purpose of receiving subscriptions to the 
amount of "Three Hundred Thousand Dollars 
in twelve thousand shares of 25 Dollars each, 
to constitute a joint Capital Stock, for the 
purpose of making a railroad from the town of 
Winchester to some convenient point on the 
Potomac River, at or near Harpers Ferry." The 
first of these two Acts which provided a plan 
for subscription to the first railroads in the Val- 
ley proper, was slow of movement, and failed 
to materialize, while the second Act, was eagerly 
accepted by the promoters of the W. & P. R. R., 
and subscriptions were rapidly made; and all 
the initial steps taken to secure the right to make 
the road, etc. They were before every session of 
the General Assembly for years — March 1832 — 
January, 1833, and February, 1834. This is the 
preamble of the Act passed Feb. 6, 1834: 

"Whereas, it is represented to the General As- 
sembly of Virginia, that the President and Di- 
rectors of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad 
Company have placed under contract nearly the 
entire line of the road, from Winchester to the Po- 
tomac, upon terms highly advantageous to the Com- 
pany, to the community at large, and to our 
State, the latter holding an interest of two-fifths 
of the stock; that the work is now rapidly and 
actively prosecuted; that the installments due 
from private stockholHers have been promptly 
paid, and that owing to the vigor with which 
the work has been conducted, the number of 
laborers employed, and the consequent heavy de- 
mands upon the Company, the funds of the 
private stockholders are nearly exhausted." This 
shows the promptness of the promoters of this 
road to press their progress to completion. The 
State at this session, under same Act, made it 
the duty of the Board of Public Works to pro- 
ceed at once to take steps to furnish the State's 
quota of her installment, and thu9 enable the 
Company to continue their work without em- 
barrassment. The Stockholders must have been 
remarkable in their faith in the enterprise, and 
their compliance with the terms of their sub- 
scription; for it will be seen by the statement 
made in the preamble, that they paid their in- 
stallments promptly. The writer has in his 
hands the original list of the stockholders, and 
the amount of stock subscribed; and it has been 
an interesting study. The list comprises the 
names of many of the leading citizens of that 
day, prominent actors in the drama of life dur- 
ing that period, representing every class of busi- 
ness. To-day many of those names are not to 
be found in the population of this section; their 
places of business long since closed; while others 
appear in the business affairs of the county; 
and not a few of their descendants have been 
prominently before the public as politicians, law- 
yers, merchants, farmers and tradesmen, some of 
whom in the same family names have enjoyed 
the advantages of this railroad from its comple- 
tion to the present time. Wonderful revolutions 
have occurred in railroad-making, since the ar- 
rival of the first railroad car in Winchester. 
The Writer has before him, the reports of the 
President and Directors of this Company, one 
dated Aug. ist, 1835, signed by John Bruce, 
President, setting forth fully how the rail track 
was made — differing entirely from the cross tie 
and steel rail of to-day. The President congratu- 
lates the stockholders and the county at large 
upon the great improvement nearing completion; 
mentions several reasons for delay at the Har- 
pers Ferry terminal; says the Company was hin- 
dered by the general government not acting 



promptly, to grant the right of way through the 
public property at Harpers Ferry, increased the 
difficulties, always considerable, of carrying the 
work over the only rugged path, through that 
village, left by nature for the passage of such 
an improvement/' The report says: "A very 
small portion of the gradation yet remains un- 
finished at Harpers Ferry." There was some 
trouble to form a junction with the Baltimore 
and Ohio Road. The two Companies finally 
agreed to jointly construct a viaduct, to trans- 
mit the trade of the two improvements. It ap- 
pears, however, that the B. & O. constructed the 
viaduct and provided accommodations for the 
expected business. Mr. Bruce in his report says: 
"We have derived much good counsel and en- 
couragement in many ways from this enterpris- 
ing Baltimore Company." He further says: 
"Nearly two-thirds of the railway have been 
laid — and materials are gradually deposited and 
in a state of rapid preparation along the re- 
maining portion of the line." This was given 
in the report dated Aug. ist, 1835, yet the Au- 
thor in seeking some incident of the opening of 
the line into Winchester, has been told by sev- 
eral old men that they remembered when the first 
train came into the Winchester Station in the 
Spring of 1835. Such statements have made him 
very chary in accepting tradition as his authority in 
the preparation of this work, that there was no 
station at Winchester at that date. The Presi- 
dent says: "A large and substantial depot in the 
vicinity of Winchester is in progress, and will 
be ready in time to accommodate the trade of 
the Company and provision has been made for 
the construction of burthen cars, as well as those 
for passengers.'* The report fixes another mat- 
ter of interest in the history of the two Rail- 
roads, and is of sufficient importance to justify 
this transcript: "Already have our farmers and 
merchants enjoyed a foretaste of the advantages 
to be justly expected from the improvement in 
which we are engaged, since the opening of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Harpers Ferry 
in December last (1834)." This event stimulat- 
ed the Winchester Company, as it was generally 
called during that period; and we find the B. & 
O. anxious to assist the Valley Branch of the 
system in many ways, her engineers affording 
the necessary aid in locating the terminal for 
intersection of the main line. The arrival of 
the Baltimore road at Harpers Ferry made that 
the shipping point of the Lower Valley. The 
report referred to, mentions this as the chief 
reason for an early completion, so that the Win- 
chester and Potomac could make Winchester the 
shipping point; and estimates the traffic by the 
wagon trains to be immense — that these trains 

will seek the nearest shipping point of the Rail- 
road, that shippers have learned of the lessened 
expense; and another great feature to be con- 
sidered is the passenger traffic. That since Har- 
pers Ferry has become the station on the Balti- 
more road, two daily lines of stages were requir- 
ed to accommodate the traffic from that point 
to Winchester — all of which was so enlivening 
to the communities along their way, that the 
stockholders should take much comfort in the 
prospect of their road securing this from its 
first opening. Winchester being the shipping 
point, commanded control of trade in a far reach- 
ing sense. The hundreds of tented wagons, com- 
ing from Southwest Virginia and Tennessee, 
were glad to make Winchester their discharg- 
ing and receiving depot. This required additional 
accommodation — warehouses had to be built to 
care for the wares changing transportation; 
wagon yards and tavern stands were to be found 
in various places in town, offering inducements 
to the incoming wagon trains — ^the Valley Turn- 
pike and Northwestern Road were pressing every 
point to attract the wagon trains over their high- 
way when completed; so that Winchester be- 
tween 1830 and 1840 had much promise from 
the three great highways struggling through that 
period to make her their terminal. All three of 
these highways became important factors in the de- 
velopment of the Country for miles around. Busi- 
ness men in Winchester became prominent, and 
grew prosperous. The agricultural interests were 
stimulated and products from the splendid farms 
found a cheaper way to reach the distant mar- 
kets. For many years the railroad used the 
primitive burthen cars — and passenger coaches 
drawn by a locomotive that, at this writing would 
be a curiosity to attract attention, as it was to 
those who first beheld the iron horse puffing 
and snorting into the old station over the old 
flat rails, more than three score years ago. As 
time wore on, the old engine was laid aside 
with the old burthen and queer-looking passen- 
ger cars, and the "T" rail substituted for the 
old flat rail, that so often sprang from its bed 
and penetrated the floor of the coach, much to 
the discomfort and safety of the passengers, as 
well as to the inconvenience of the conductor 
and his crew. The new style of rail, secured 
to cross ties, with the improved car wheel un- 
der better and larger cars, brought a great 
change in the road both for speed and comfort. 
A day came, however, when still greater changes 
occurred. In the early sixties, the writer saw 
hundreds of these rails taken from both the 
B. & O. and W. & P. Roads, together with sev- 
eral of the locomotives, and hauled away with 
great teams to the southward, this was consid- 



cred a war measure. The Confederate govern- 
ment needed such sinews of war, to be used on 
other railroads for transportation of government 
supplies; and if the Union armies needed these 
broken places to be repaired, the U. S. Govern- 
ment had unlimited resources to draw from. 
Some of this war measure business proved to 
be a serious inconvenience to this section for 
several years after the war closed; for the gap 
or break extended from Winchester to Stephen- 
son's Station, five miles North of Winchester. 
Stages and wagons filled this gap; and traffic 
soon started in this way. The rebuilding of this 
road in every respect was a burden on the 
Company; but the day came when the road was 
in working order, and new life given the old 
Company. Steel rails found their way to sup- 
plant the iron; but we regret to say that at this 
writing, very little improvement in the car ser- 
vice. The B. & O. Company leased the road 
after the war, rebuilt what was necessary, and 
continued to run the line as the Valley Branch 
of the main line. In recent years the B. & O. 
Company purchased the stock and became the 
real owners, but have not changed the name. It 
is needless to add, the dividends now are very 
satisfactory to the new stockholders. The B. & 
O. abandoned the old passenger station, and 
erected the one now in use, corner of Piccadilly 
and Kent Streets, which is an attractive build- 
ing well supplied with modem improvements and 
more accessible than the old. The B. & O. Road 
being on the border line of the contending 
sections North and South, suffered heavily dur- 
ing the war by frequent raids from the Confed- 
erate side; the object being to tear up the track, 
destroy the rails and cross ties, and thus delay 
the transportation of armies to different points; 
cut off supplies, and if any train could be cap- 
tured, carry needed supplies back to the main 
army. The writer witnessed several of these 
dangerous exploits. The line was struck at some 
point generally West of Greenspring and Cum- 
berland Stations; the rails were rapidly torn 
up; cross ties piled in heaps, and great fires 
made. On these, the rails were thrown and soon 
mis-shapen and useless iron rails were tumbling 
around. Then the troopers would jump into their 
saddles again, and move rapidly to another point 
and await the arrival of the long freights, so 
rich with the things the soldiers needed; and in 
the rear of this train at a safe point, more track 
would be torn up, and the raiders waited for the 
big freight to hurry back from the scene the 
Rebels had so lately made for them. On their 
backward movement, they would run into the 
break last made, and while the train men were 
in confusion, the cavalry boys dashed up with 

yells and pistol firing that demoralized the B. & 
O. crew. But these dashing cavalrymen some- 
times caught a surprise, by picking up a Govern- 
ment train heavily guarded; and sometimes they 
would make some show of resistance ; and skirm- 
ishing would ensue that made it best for the 
raiders to go elsewhere. Sometimes the Con- 
federate leader was a man of more valor than 
prudence, and occasionally one of these dashing 
fellows would get the stray bullet ; and this mar- 
red the pleasure of the raiders. These raids 
changed the plans of several great battles. Re- 
inforcements were delayed, and a new order of 
battle planned. This will be mentioned again 
in the war periods of Old Frederick. The B. 
& O. was equal to the emergency, and with the 
aid of the Government soon got their road bed 
in shape, but too late to deliver reinforcements 
and supplies on time. This road was a great 
loser in one sense by the war, but she was also 
a great gainer. It was in constant use, the Gov- 
ernment paying millions for the transfer of shift- 
ing armies from E^st to West. Oftener, how- 
ever, from West to East, to recruit the great 
army of the Potomac. When the war closed, 
the B. & O. had a worn-out track; but she was 
fortunate enough to have the U. S. Government 
to re-imburse her for her war claim for dam- 
ages; and thus with these millions she soon put 
her splendid highway in such condition, that it 
is now the popular route from the East to the 
West and vice versa. 

Manassas Gap Railroad 

This Railroad incorporated by an Act of the 
General Assembly, March gth, 1850, amended by 
Act of Feb. 10, 185 1, while not originating in 
old Frederick County, soon becomes of special 
interest to two of the subdivisions of the Old 
County. Starting from Alexandria, passing 
through Fairfax, Prince William and Fauquier 
Counties, on through Manasses Gap in the Blue 
Ridge into Warren County, in the vicinity of 
Front Royal; thence through Warren County, 
crossing the Shenandoah at Rivcrton, running 
near the boundary line between Warren and Fred- 
erick, crossing the North fork of the Shenan- 
doah below Strasburg — it entered Shenandoah 
County and made Strasburg its southern termi- 
nal for several years. Then the road was ex- 
tended to Woodstock, and on to Harrisonburg. 
This road was in active and profitable opera- 
tion from Alexandria to Strasburg at the out- 
break of the war, when the Valley trade was 
interrupted. The road was used at various times 
by both armies: the Valley end extending to 
Harrisonburg being of great service to the South- 
erners. The line from Strasburg to Harrison- 
burg was stripped of its rolling stock by General 



Jackson, when falling back from Gen. Banks' 
army in 1862. The battles of Bull Run and 
Manassas were fought along its line — places fa- 
miliar to many old "Vets" of both armies. At 
the close of the war, the road was ready for the 
Valley trade, and received a large portion of it, 
flowing from points South of Strasburg. This 
road has been for several years, merged in the 
Southern Railway System, and controls a large 
traffic; its carrying trade going tHa Washington 
City, and on to the sea board. 

Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad 

While Frederick County was, and is yet, inter- 
ested in this railroad; aided in securing its char- 
ter, and promised a large subscription to the 
stock of the company when the road entered the 
county from some point in the Blue Ridge — all 
that has been seen of this road West of the 
Blue Ridge was the markings of a well defined 
route, passing through Frederick and on to the 
coal fields of Hampshire. When that genial- 
hearted man and accomplished engineer, Maj. 
Blytht, with his competent corps, in the early 
fifties came to locate a route through Frederick, 
the writer recalls many incidents connected with 
their work. Land owners were fearful their 
farms would be cut in twain, and damages re- 
sult that could not be repaired, and many suffered 
anxiety concerning their crops, fearful they could 
not save them from the pick and shovel brigade 
which they looked for every day to appear in 
their midst. No need to worry over such pros- 
pects, they were often told. Some, glowing with 
hope that the Locomotive would soon come puff- 
ing from some gap in the Blue Ridge, were also 
told to be patient. Alas, for many human fears 
and hopes! Nearly all of those who were thus 
aflFected by the new enterprise, have long since 
passed from our midst; and we who survive are 
still looking for the locomotive. We may add, 
that in recent years this road now known as the 
Washington and Ohio, has reached .the eastern 
base of the Blue Ridge, and at old Snickersville 
has its "Bluemont Station." 

Winchester and Strasburg Railroad 

A charter was granted by the General Assem- 
bly April 23t 1867, to this Company to construct 
a railroad from the town of Winchester to the 
town of Strasburg, with authority to connect the 
same with the Winchester and Potomac and 
Manassas Gap Railroads. We find by an Act 
of the General Assembly passed Feb. 26, 1877, 
some interesting matter relating to the connec- 
tion at Strasburg; and as much controversy has 
arisen in recent years concerning the inconven- 
ience given the passenger and shipper, it is con- 
sidered proper to give the leading features of 

this last Act. The Act reads: "Whereas, the 
said Winchester and Strasburg Railroad Com- 
pany have constructed and completed under pro- 
visions of said Act a Railroad from the said 
town of Winchester to a point on the Manassas 
Gap Railroad near the town of Strasburg, and 
by means of the use of the track of the said 
Manassas Gap Railroad are willing to run, or 
procure to be run, by its lessee or other person, 
or corporation operating its said road, trains to 
said town of Strasburg at or near the Capon 
crossing, and is willing to treat and regard the 
said depot when so erected as a regular station 
on its road, for such trains as are accustomed 
to stop at stations of a similar character and 
dignity on its own road—." Other provisions of 
this Act, when accepted by the W. & S. Com- 
pany, fixed the responsibility upon this company 
to provide proper accommodation for the pat- 
rons of this road, and save them from the an- 
noyance that so frequently occurs at Strasburg 
in making transfer of passenger and freight 
traffic. It is unfortunate that the railroad sys- 
tem in the valley is so broken. The B. & O. 
operating the W. & S. from Winchester to Stras- 
burg— the Southern from Strasburg to Harri- 
sonburg, and the B. & O. from the latter town 
to Staunton— and all this on a single track 
through this great Valley. The Winchester and 
Strasburg Road has one of the best tracks in the 
country, and rolling stock ample to carry the in- 
creasing business. 

The Martinsburg and Potomac. (Cumberland 

Valley Railroad) 

This railroad was incorporated by an Act of 
the General Assembly July 9th, 1870, and the 
enterprising Company, under the management of 
Mr. Thomas B. Kennedy, President of the Cum- 
berland Valley R. R. from Hagerstown to Har- 
risburg. Pa., secured prompt support from 
Frederick County and City of Winchester in 
1881. Many citizens subscribed liberally to the 
stock; thus giving an earnest of their support 
to the movement. The road was soon con- 
structed, and opened for use 1885, and with full 
equipment of cars and other rolling stock, won 
plaudits from its patrons, affording the passen- 
ger many railroad comforts, as he sped his way 
out of the Shenandoah into the Cumberland Val- 
ley to enjoy the attractive features of both val- 
leys as seen from the well conducted train. The 
coming of this road was hailed with delight by 
people of all classes. It meant cheaper coal! 
This great agricultural section had felt the need 
of a competing line to get their products to the 
great markets. Freights were high, and profits 
on close margin. The advantage of competition 
was soon felt by the community, better facilities 



were offered the public, and cheaper rates soon 
produced larger shipments. We only voice the 
Lower Valley when we add, this new railroad 
has been a success from the day it entered this 
section. New and increasing agricultural and 
horticultural industries, have made it an actual 
necessity; for as will be seen in other pages of 
this work, both railroads were taxed to their 
utmost capacity to handle the products of 1905. 
Frederick County subscribed $30,000.00 and City 
of Winchester $20,000.00 to the capital stock, all 
of which was paid promptly, and in return, they 
received certificates that were purchased by the 
Cumberland Valley Railroad Company in 1905 
at a discount on their par value. Private stock- 
holders sold their stock at the same rate. Both 
County and City have used the money, received 
from sale of their stock enough to retire the 
most of their bonds. This closes the data of the 
railroads as now found in operation within the 
present bounds of the County. 

Shenandoah Valley Railroad Company. 

We should be interested in this great improve- 
ment sweeping through four subdivisions of old 
Frederick. A brief sketch will be given at this 
point. The company was incorporated by Act 
of the General Assembly Feb. 23, 1867, the pros- 
pective route surveyed, and numerous routes 
proposed. Many Winchester people felt sure 
that this new railroad must make her a point on 
its line. A few prominent business men, however, 
opposed it; arguing that if this road touched 
Winchester, it would detract from the prosperity 
of this section, and there was danger that the 
growing little city might become a way station. 
These same business men saw the day when the 
city in a great measure lost a large volume of 
Clarke County trade that had always sought 
this market. 

This railroad starting from Hagerstown, 
crosses the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, 
passing entirely through Jefferson County, cross- 
ing the W. & P. R. R. at a point South of Char- 
lestown, running thence in nearly a straight line 
to enter Clarke, making Berryville a prominent 
station on its line. Next important station, 
Boyce near Millwood; then into Warren County, 
crossing the Manassas Gap R. R. (The South- 
em) and Shenandoah River West of Front Royal; 
then into Page County, through the Luray Val- 
ley. Beyond this point the road soon passes 
over the original boundary between the two old 
Counties Augusta and Frederick. The work of 
construction commenced in 1872. The road was 
completed and opened for business from Hagers- 
town to Berryyille first day of October, 1879. 
This railroad has been operated for several 
years by the Norfolk and Western system; which 

has made it one of the great competitive South- 
em lines of commerce. 

These brief sketches of the railroads mention- 
ed, are given as matter of reference to those 
who would like to answer the question so often 
asked the writer: When was some one of these 
railroads chartered? when constructed, and 
where located? 

Next to the railroads, came another develop- 
ment somewhat akin to the railroad system; for 
without it they would be practically helpless; 
and for this reason we think it might be of in- 
terest to many to mention the "Telegraph Sys- 
tem." Very few persons are able to give an in- 
telligent answer relating to questions asked 
about the first appearance of the "Telegraph" 
in the Valley of Virginia; (and if in operation 
elsewhere in Virginia, let some one answer when 
and where). It must be remembered that the 
B. & O. and W. & P. Railroads were the first 
railroads operated in Virginia; and that the B. 
& O. Company claims the honor of being the 
pioneer in this wonderful public improvement. 
Alongside of the B. & O. was the old Winches- 
ter and Potomac Railroad; and it was but nat- 
ural that they should encourage the infant en- 
terprise, so urgently pressed by the inventor, 
Samuel F. B. Morse. To this end, they gave 
aid to the inventor when he appeared before 
the General Assembly of Virginia in the sessions 
1848-9, when he presented the plan of his great 
work. The General Assembly passed an Act 
January 17, 1849, "authorizing Samuel F. B. 
Morse and John F. Pickeral and their associates, 
who have or may become owners of Morse's 
Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, to put up and 
maintain a line of said Telegraph from Harpers 
Ferry to the Ohio River — through the territory 
of this State upon the ground of the Baltimore 
and O. R. R. Company so far as it extends." 
A charter was granted them to incorporate this 
proposed line, under the name and style of the 
Western Telegraph Company "for the purpose 
of building and managing said line of Tele- 
graph." At this session we find the W. & P. 
Company too, seeing the need of the Telegraph 
for their business, gave their aid for the forma- 
tion of a company to secure the right to use 
the telegraph. An Act was passed March 12, 
1849, granting a charter to Jacob Baker, Henry 
M. Brent, John Bruce, (^o. W. Hammond, Jo- 
seph H. Sherrard, Wm. L. Clark, Sen., and their 
associates, "who have acquired from Samuel F. 
B. Morse and others the right to construct and 
carry on the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, in- 
vented and patented by said Morse, from the 
town of Winchester to Harpers Ferry — ^the char- 
ter name being The Valley Telegraph Company. 



It will be seen the old Railroad Companies were 
dealing with Morse in person. Few if any of 
those old actors ever dreamed of what their in- 
itiative steps were destined to do with the great 
net-work of Electro-Magnetic currents encircling 
the globe, and enlivening the life of millions of 
hamlets and villages throughout the universe; 
even transmitting intelligence on waves of at- 
mosphere and light between distant points^ un- 
seen from each other. 

The Western Telegraph Company and Valley 
Telegraph Company were later on gathered up 
into the folds of the great monopoly, The West- 
ern Union which has covered America with her 
lines. The B. & O. and all other great railroads, 
have for many years operated their independent 
lines, strictly for railroad purposes. We find 
in addition to the enterprises and public improve- 
ments embraced in the foregoing accomplished 
facts, another enterprise occupying the at- 
tention of the public-spirited men of that per- 
iod; and this, too, when it was regarded that 
railroad construction was so stupendous an un- 
dertaking, that only great capitalists could hope 
to accomplish it. But here we had a class of 
men composed of farmers, tradesmen, lawyers 
and mechanics, undertaking a work then new 
to the world and actually working it out This, 
too, during its infancy. Others had conceived 
the idea that the Shenandoah Valley should have 
an enterprise similar to the one fast approach- 
ing the Potomac border of the Old County. Be- 
fore the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was fully 
completed to Harpers Ferry, many public-spirited 
men were agitating the building of a canal from 
Harpers Ferry, along the Shenandoah River, to 
some point far up the Valley. We find an inter- 
esting account of the first meeting of the promo- 
ters of this scheme, held in Winchester as early 
as 183 1 — the full account published in the Win- 
chester Republican. Strong reasons were given 
not only why a canal should be made, but that 
one could be made. Steps were taken to secure 
the opinions of experts, such as the engineers 
who had entered largely into the work of the 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The President and 
active men of that corporation, were in close 
touch with the proposed enterprise. We find a 
very satisfactory paper from Hon. Charles F. 
Mercer, President of the Canal Company then 
seeking its way from Georgetown to Cumberland 
(who was Member of Congress from this Dis- 
trict) in which he makes very plain the possi- 
bility of the plan, and the consequent profits re- 
sulting to a country so resourceful as the Shen- 
andoah Valley. The promoters became so en- 
couraged, that we find them before the General 
Assembly, 1831, attracting such attention, that 
the whole Valley delegation was in solid line to 
not only secure the charter then granted, but 
to secure aid from the State. Later on, we find 
surveys were made for the section of five miles 
near Harpers Ferry, and reports made by such 
engineers as Fulton and Latrobe — men of na- 
tional reputation, and also by the State engineers 
of the entire river. Mr. Mercer became so en- 
thused, that he introduced a bill in Congress 
asking for an appropriation to deepen the chan- 
nel of the river and make the Shenandoah navi- 
gable for better boating. Congress made an ap- 
propriation to pay the cost of survey — ^but none 
for the great work of deepening the channel. 
This seems to have satisfied the projectors of 
the proposed canal, who, doubtless thought what 
the U. S. Government proposed to do would an- 
swer the demand for a water highway; and their 
project was never agitated again. The Hon. 
James G. Blaine, related to the writer many in- 
teresting incidents concerning this U. S. Gov- 
ernment undertaking; and stated that after the 
reports were made of these preliminary surveys. 
Congress took the matter up again, and the 
Omnibus Bill asking for appropriations, had the 
Shenandoah River named as one of the places to 
spend Government money; but by some work of 
the Committee, Shenandoah and many other 
rivers and harbors were stricken out. The U. S. 
Government was freely spending money at Har- 
pers Ferry, where the U. S. Armory and Na- 
tional Arsenal were maintained. 


Public Perries 

It may be of interest to some readers to leam 
how and when the great waters were crossed 
in the early days of the first settlers. 

The House of Burgesses at a very early day 
made provisions for ferries to be maintained at 
designated points on the waters East of the Blue 
Ridge. We find that in 1736 the Colonial Gov- 
ernment had been apprised of the necessity for 
ferries along the Shenandoah River; and by an 
Act, provided for the first ferries over this 
river. The first being "for a ferry from the land 
of William Russell on Sherando to cross into 
the fork or cross main river, be established and 
maintained by the Justice's Court until the Ferry- 
men receive sufficient tolls to pay his time.'' 
This Ferry was located near the site of Front 
Royal. The Second, "On Sherando River from 
the land of William Russell next above the mouth 
of Happy Creek, in the County of Orange across 
into the fork — the price for man three pence, 
and for one horse three pence, or across the 
main river the same; and that the courts of the 
several counties wherein such ferries shall be 
kept, shall have power to appoint proper boats 
to be kept at the said ferries for the convenient 
transportation of coaches, wagons and other 
wheel carriages." This 'very significent lan- 
guage, conveys the impression that wagons and 
other wheel carriages were in use between set- 
tlers on West side of the Blue Ridge and the sec- 
tions on the East side — and this, seven years be- 
fore the first court was held in Frederick Coun- 
ty, and two years before its erection as a County, 
less than four years after the first appearance of 
Joist Hite as a settler in the Shenandoah Valley, 
the lands of William Russell lay altogether on the 
South and East side of the main river and South 
Fork, and were part of a grant to him. He was 
of the number nf settlers of the immigration 
from the East side of the Ridge, who found 
other settlers in the Valley desiring intercourse 
with the East side, and especially so with the 
County seat at Orange Courthouse, and needed 
some way to cross the rivers with their wagons 
etc. We must remember that this was only 
about sixteen years after Governor Spottswood 
proclaimed the Valley a wilderness of grandeur 
unknown to the white man. The first settlers seem- 
ed to be as eager to possess the new country and re- 

main on the ground, as the Oklahoma settlers 
have exhibited in their efforts in recent years. 
There can be no doubt about the Russell Ferry 
being the first ferry established over any river 
West of the Blue Ridge. Tradition has it that 
ferries were established at Harpers Ferry and 
Shepherdstown about this period. This claim is 
not sustained by any record evidence; and as 
will be shown later on, no such ferries existed 
as early as 1736. At this point it is well enough 
to show in part one of the reasons why the new 
County of Orange was formed in 1734. The 
House of Burgesses had the matter presented to 
them, that settlements were being made on the 
West side of the Great Mountains, and should 
have greater attention than could be given by 
Spottsylvania County; that it was desirable to 
erect a new county, and have a county seat 
nearer the new settlements. Orange County was 
formed from the latter. In one of the sections 
of the preamble; this language is used to show 
the concern the Colonial Government had for 
the new settlements: Section 3, "And for the 
encouragement of the inhabitants already set- 
tled, and which shall speedily settle on the west- 
ward of Sherando River; Be it enacted, that 
all the inhabitants which shall be settled there 
the 1st day of January, 1735, shall be free and 
exempt from the payment of public, county and 
parish levies, by the space of three years, from 
thence next following." 

The House of Burgesses, 1748, passed a gen- 
eral law declaring the streams as part of the 
general domain, and that no rights existed in any 
inhabitant to convert any such streams to their 
private or for public use. The Justices* courts 
were instructed to take jurisdiction and control 
in tlie several counties; and to either grant or 
restrict the uses, when not in conflict with the 
right of general control vested in the Governor's 
Council. So the court put itself in evidence, 
that the right should be guarded. In the case 
of John Kersey, the Orange Court gave him the 
ferry right over the "Sherando" River, 1736, 
and Frederick County confirmed this by an order 
January 13, 1744. The land at the Kersey Ferry 
was owned by Thomas Ashby, of Prince Wil- 
liam County, who conveyed it to Joseph Berry 
in 1757; and very soon it was called Berry's 




Ferry. Berry was then a resident of Prince 
George County. Joseph Berry secured fuller 
rights to run this ferry, by an Act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly Dec. 11, 1790. Up to that time, 
he had conflict with the ferry established by the 
Court, and tradition says that two ferries were 
operated there. 

The first ferry established on the Potomac, 
West of the Blue Ridge, was in 1755, and this 
was near what was then known as Mecklen- 
burg. Thomas Swearingen upon his application, 
endorsed by quite a number of settlers on the 
South side of the "Cohongoluta," was granted 
the right to establish a ferry over said river 
from his land to a point opposite in the Province 
of Maryland. 

Robert Harper was granted a right to estab- 
lish and maintain a ferry March, 1761, ''to cross 
the "Powtomack" from the point in Frederick 
County to the land of said Robert Harper on the 
opposite side — ^being in the Province of Mary- 
land.** This would indicate that Robert Harper 
did not start this ferry from his land on the 
South side, to land on his land on the Maryland 
side. This led the Author to search carefully 
for Harper's deed for land on the Virginia side, 
hoping to be able to determine what point on 
his land on the South side was the starting 
point. Assuming that he would start from some 
point on his land and not on the land of an- 
other, and thus settle the question of a ferry 
being in use at or near the confluence of the 
Powtomack and Shenandoah. Strange to say, 
however, no such deeds can be found; and no 
evidence appears that Robert Harper owned any 
land in Frederick prior to 1780. This casts a 
shadow over the claim that Harper's ferry was 
the oldest ferry West of the Blue Ridge. Some 
have argued that the ferry could not have been 
from the point now known as the Village of 
Harper's Ferry (as there was not sufficient water 
at that point) and that it was below the con- 
fluence that the ferry was established. This is 
not true; for the Act says it is from a point in 
Frederick County, etc., and the boundaries of this 
county did not extend far enough East to make 
it possible for the provision to apply. Others 
give good reason for a point up the river where 
sufficient water was found; and this is sustained 
by the evidence that Harper owned land on the 
opposite side from the last named point; while 
there is no evidence that he owned land on either 
side, below the union of the two rivers, where 
sufficient water could have been found. 

October, 1755, Thomas Shepherd was given 
the right "to erect and maintain a ferry from 
the town of Mecklenburg in Frederick County — 
from his land to cross the Cohongoroota and 

find suitable landing on the Maryland side." This 
right he did not enjoy long, for we And that in 
November, 1766, this grant was withdrawn and 
the ferry discontinued, in the following language, 
"The Ferry is discontinued — found unnecessary 
— same being at a very small distance from a ferry 
already established from the land of Thomas 
Swearingen— crossing the Cohongoroota from a 
convenient point over to the Maryland side.** 

We also And that Abraham Shepherd in 1778, 
secured a charter for a ferry from Shepherds- 
town over the "Potowmack" to the land of 
Thomas Swearingen on the opposite side in 
Maryland. This Act was repealed in 1779. This 
shows that Swearingen was ever ready to con- 
trol the Shepherds whenever they appeared on his 
preserves. The records show Swearingen owner 
of land at this point in 1748, on both sides of 
the river. The old court records show that a 
road was evened in 1744 from Shepherd's Ferry 
to the Bullskin; so some Shepherd was there 
with a ferry at an early day. 

1792, Edward McSheary, in the County of 
Berkley secured ferry rights across the Poto- 
mack, to the Iron works on the Maryland side. 

Snicket^s Ferry on the Shenandoah River 
where one of the old county roads leads from 
Frederick County through the Blue Ridge to 
connect with roads to points East of the Ridge, 
was laid out by order of Court at a very early 
day. "A ferry being needed for the much in- 
creasing travel" — the court granted ferry right, at 
that point, 1766. 

1789, Charles Buck, by an Act of the Assem- 
bly, erected a ferry in Frederick County across 
the North Fork of Shenandoah River, at the 
mouth of Passage Creek, to the land of Isaac 
Hite on opposite shore. Thomas Buck at the 
same time secured ferry rights across the North 
fork of Shenandoah River, to the lands of George 
Hardin and Rowley Smith. 

The Charles Buck mentioned above was be- 
fore the court June term, 1767, for insulting 
the court, and the Sheriff was ordered to put him 
into the "Stocks" and keep him there a half 
hour. Same punishment was meted out to 
Thomas Martin for like offense. The old Jus- 
tices were firm men, and some times severe. 

1784, Ralph Humphreys was granted right for 
public ferry from his land in Hampshire County 
across the South Branch of "Potowmack." 

1789, Luther Martin was granted a charter for 
a public ferry from his land in the County of 
Hampshire across the "Potowmack" River, at 
the confluence of the North and South Branches 

1790, George Glaize was granted ferry rights. 


by General Assembly, from his land in County 1790, Rees Pritchard by Act of Assembly, 

of Hampshire across the South Branch of the erected a ferry across the North Fork of Great 

Potowmack, to the land of Conrod Glaize. Ca-Capon to his land on opposite shore. 

1790, by an Act of Assembly, John Chenowith, Having briefly pointed out some, if not all, 

secured a right for a public ferry from his land the highways, including ferries, the author deems 

in Hampshire County across Great Ca- Capon it of sufficient importance to notice the question 

Creek, to the opposite shore. of mills in a separate chapter. 


Mills and Other Developments 

We find in studying the first settlers, they were 
in direst straits for several years, while the im- 
portant provision was being made to supply 
the wants of the whites with meal and fiour. On 
the arrival of the pack horse train, this necessary 
of life was amply cared for; but such tedious 
modes for supplying the settlers with breadstuffs, 
soon became too uncertain. The original stock 
once consumed, their old pack trains expected to 
come with other settlers, seldom if ever arrived 
in time to relieve their wants. Many families 
were not to be disconcerted. They resorted to 
the Indian mode of preparing commeal — the 
mortar and pestle became a necessary part of 
the household effects. This old mortar was 
generally of stone, hollowed out to receive the 
com; then the pestle was vigorously used, and 
the corn reduced to meal. The author saw one 
of the old mortars many years ago, carefully 
guarded and retained as a relic of the early 
days. The increasing demand, caused enterpris- 
ing men to seize the natural power found in so 
many creeks; and rude grist mills were erected 
as one of the first developments. Old orders of 
court previously mentioned relating to roads, 
revealed the location of the first mills. It will 
be seen that Funk's Mill, Kite's, Frye's, Friend's 
and others were on Cedar Creek and the North 
fork of the Shenandoah ; while the Opecquon kept 
the wheels running for many famous mills. 
Samuel Glass, the emigrant, erected a stone mill 
near his house about 1736, using water from two 
large springs. This building is now used as a 
residence for the Steck family's tenant, a photo- 
graph of which will appear in this connection. 

Lower down, Marquis and Allen had mills. 
Van Horn also erected a mill. This was in af- 
ter years known as Neill's mill (Huck's). 
One of the first mills was erected by Joist Kite 
and his son, Col. John, and occupied a space 
known as Stockade, hardby the site of the Bar- 
tonsville property now owned by L. R. Dettra. 
This was built of stone, and served as an im- 
promptu fort, which has been mentioned else- 

The two mills on Cedar Creek near Marlboro 
are successors to very early grist mills. Fre- 
quent notice to parties concerning roads, locate 
these and give names of owners. Lower down 

the creek, a very large mill was erected by Val- 
entine Rhodes, occupying the site of the Col. 
Briscoe Mills. 

The mills owned at this writing by Mr. Daniel 
T. Wood are on the same foundation where a 
mill and distillery were operated in 1767. Several 
mills were on other streams flowing into the 
Opecquon at that point, notably the Greenwood 
mills, erected about 1785 by John and James Mc- 
Calister, who had a large business in Winches- 
ter. John built a substantial house at that point 
and lived there. The mills along the North 
Mountain stream were erected at an early day. 
Maj. White had two mills on the drains of 
Hogue Creek; the one near his old residence 
remains in fairly good condition, but not run- 
ning. The Russell and Richard's mills were 
famous in their early days. In another chap- 
ter, a number of mills arc mentioned. Abram 
Hollingsworth started one of the first mills near 
Winchester, at his large springs now the city 
water power. The Milltown Mills erected by 
Isaac Hollingsworth in 1827, took the place of 
one erected by Isaac Perkins prior to 1756. 

A reference to order of Court found in a 
previous chapter, shows that Noah Hampton had 
a mill on Capon, 1744, known as the old Stack- 
house mill. 

The old time country water mill has virtually 
become a thing of the past. The new process 
for making flour by the "Roll System," where 
the grain is conducted through a succession of 
rollers, instead of the old burr millstone pro- 
cess, has revolutionized the mill business to such 
an extent, that nine-tenths of the old style have 
become poor investments and have gone into 
disuse. Many old mill owners grappled with 
the new style and were driven out of the lucra- 
tive business they previously enjoyed. The mill- 
ing business is now confined to very few per- 
sons, who are men of means; and by concen- 
trating capital with an intelligent handling of 
the new system, it proves a good investment. 
There are several in the County one known as 
the Keckley Mill on the Valley Turnpike near 
Winchester; one at Bartonsville ; one near Mid- 
dletown, known as the D. J. Miller mill; one at 
Marlboro, the owner, Dorsey Brill; one at 




GraTcl Springs, L4stlicr Brill, owner; one at 
Bnscctown; one at Whitacre. 

The nun near the bead of Opecqoon owned 
now by Salem E, Cooper, wbo soccecded Cas- 
per Rtnker, was erected by permission obtained 
from die County Coart March 3rd, 1812, to-wit: 
''On petition of Joseph Glass stating he was 
desirons of erecting a water Grist mill upon the 
"Opeckon'' Credc in this County, the lands at 
that point on both sides belonging to him," 
granted with usual restrictions. This mill was 
the cause of much litigation with a co-terminous 
owner. Mr. Glass made the tail-race near the 

line of Martin Cartmefl, owner of Hom espun . 
On the Cartmell land was a famous spring and 
dairy. The tpnng stream was cut in twain by 
the de^ tail-race; the spring simply ceased. 
Cartmell demanded damages. Glass failed to 
respond. A suit was instituted, which was on 
the dodcet for ten years. Cartmdl lost, upon 
the ground that he had signed Glass's petition, 
with an understanding that Glass should cut his 
race of such deptfi as would p re i ent overflow 
of waste water. The useless old stone dairy re- 
mained intact until about 1890^ when Mr. Miller, 
the owner removed it. 


Gleanings Prom Old Courts, Continued 

The author in his promised digression has 
probably wandered too far from the period 
where the minutes of court were drawn upon 
for the incidents given in former chapters. He 
deemed it best to follow out the development of 
the country by the numerous county roads, and 
in the same connection dispose of the railroads 
and ferries, so there would be continuous narra- 
tion throughout; and passed over the stirring 
years from 1750, and into the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. During that time, the Old County was 
girding herself for tremendous events in her 
history — preparation for the Indian Wars, and 
following this closely, came the Revolution in 
1775. and her transformation from a Colony to 
one of the great States of the New Union. 

The new order of government, demanded the 
action and counsel of wise men. The old courts 
continued to record many incidents that are of 
exceeding value as part of our historical life; 
some of which may find place in these pages, 
if space permits. We must now retrace our in- 
vestigations, and disclose some of the stirring 
acts of the courts. Sept. 4th, 1753, this minute 
is made at this term. "A Treaty between the 
Indians is in progress; It is ordered by the 
Court, for preventing disturbance during the 
Treaty with the Indians at the town of Win- 
chester, that no Ordinary keeper, or other person 
presume to sell or give to the Indians, strong 
Liquors of any sort, unless those persons who 
shall be appointed to supply them with what shall 
be thought necessary." 

Five Great Chiefs with a small following, 
spent many weeks near the town trying to work 
a scheme to have the white settlers vacate their 
territory West of the Great Mountains. This 
was refused; but a treaty was made to allow 
the Indians to remain in their villages on the 
Ohio River undisturbed, and that they should 
have the right to sell land on their reservation 
to peaceable white settlers. This treaty was 
basely violated by unscrupulous adventurers; 
and a bloody war was the result. (See French 
and Indian War sketches in this Volume.) 

As will be seen in chapter on Winchester, the 
town was fully established when Maj. Washing- 
ton appeared before the court in Jan., 1756, with 
his authority to organize the Militia, and an- 

nounced his plans. He needed officers to form 
companies for his expedition against the In- 
dians; and after stating the emergency, the 
Court, upon this recommendation, designated the 
following men to serve as Captains in the Vir- 
ginia Regiment; George Mercer, Robert Stew- 
art, Thomas Cocke, William Bronaugh, Joshua 
Lewis, John Mercer, William Peachy, and David 
Bell. Walter Stewart, John Williams, and Au- 
gustine Brockenbraugh, were Lieutenants; and 
Charles Smith, Lehaynsius DeKeyser, and Wil- 
liam Crawford, Ensigns. This is more fully 
treated in the sketch of the French and Indian 
War. All took the required oath to His Majesty 
the King of England. 

The sudden disclosure to the Justices caused 
consternation; and as stated elsewhere, they or- 
dered an adjournment to the house of Enoch 
Pearson. The Grand Jury failed to appear, 
owing to the Indian forays in the mountain sec- 
tions to the West; they were excused. Follow- 
ing November Court, Captains Thomas Swearin- 
gen, William Cocke, John Funk, Cornelius 
Ruddell, and William Vance presented claims 
before the Court for public services for them- 
selves and detachments sent under their com- 
mand — on an expedition to protect outlaying 
settlements. The court promptly allowed their 
payment. Some of the officers mentioned here 
figured in the Revolution. 

The following year, the Court makes an entry 
of the expenses of the election, and required 
Washington and other candidates to file a re- 
port of what their outlay had been, and for what 

June Court, 1755, "Ordered that Isaac Perkins, 
Gent, the Representative from this County at- 
tending House of Burgesses, be allowed pay for 
eleven days in June and nineteen days in August, 

Nov. 3rd, 1756, "Ordered that Hugh West and 

Thomas Swearingen be allowed pay as repre- 
sentatives from this County to House of Bur- 
gesses in 1756." This shows that each county 
paid their representatives for serving them in 
the General Assembly. 

March Court, 1758. "Ordered that William 
Miller do procure a Silver Seal for the County 
court, to be about the size of an English Half 




Crown with words, 'Frederick County/ engraved 
thereon, and the Arms of Virginia." 

(This will be more fully mentioned in closing 
order of the County Court about two years ago.) 

At this term John Hite, Robert Allen and 
Samuel Pritchard, were ordered, "To mark a 
road from Col. Hite's through the town out on 
Lewis Stephen's plantation." 

Col. Washington had his tithables entered on 
tax lists Oct. 4, 1757 — preparing them for his 
election campaign. 

Nov. 4, 1757, "Sheriff ordered to get furniture 
for Courthouse and other fixtures." 

Feb. 3rd, 1758, Special term held "to examine 
etc., Edward Doyle, charged with having de- 
stroyed part of the nose of Joseph King." 

October, 1758, "Ordered that stone steps be 
placed up the hill to the courthouse." 

1758 "Ordered that the Court be moved to the 
town of Winchester from Stephensburg on ac- 
count of Smallpox." 

August, 1757, "Ludwig Castleman charged with 
the murder of James Haines, a soldier ; committed 
for Grand Jury." 

Thomas Speak, Gent., Captain of Company of 
Militia, Marquis Calmes, Captain; John Hardin 
and Bayliss Earle, Lts. took the oaths. James 
Littlepage was recognized to appear at next term. 
Henry Spear, Captain, and Wm. Morgan and 
Archibald Ruddell, also appeared at the Nov. 
Term and were qualified. 

James Keith, who was soon to be the Clerk 
of the Court, was admitted to practice law. 
Thomas Melbourne was paid one pound, five 
shilling^, for services as guard in taking crimi- 
nal to Williamsburg jail — less than six dollars 
for the long and uninteresting journey. The 
Sheriff and guards of to-day by improved modes 
of travel, would require about $20.00. 

This next minute shows the Justices were un- 
certain whether their records and scalps were 
not equally in danger. "The Gerk is ordered 
to remove the records to Fort Loudoun there 
being imminent danger from the enemy— or else- 
where as the case may require; and the Justices 
do seek a place of safety for further session, 
of the Court." 

Isaac White, a bold mountain man, was added 
to the list of constables at this term, doubtless 
to give extra service to his Lordship Thomas 
Lord Fairfax the presiding Justice. This was 
October 5, 1757, and it determines the question 
as to when the Fort was completed. Some writ- 
ers claim that Col. Washington was not in 
Winchester when the Fort was built; that he 
was with his command in the Fort Duquesne 
campaign. This command was in active service 
in the summer and fall of 1758— one year after 

the order was entered Oct., 1757. This is fully 
shown in chapters on that war. The authority 
for erecting Fort Loudoun is fully given in chap- 
ters relating to Winchester, also the style of 
the fort when first used by the Virginia Regi- 

Passing over this period for several sessions 
of the Court without comment, we find a min- 
ute entered at the Feb. term, 1760, which is 
given here as a matter of reference: "The last 
will and testament of James Wood, late Gerk 
was produced and proved by Thomas Wood, who 
deposed that he saw James Porteous and Kath- 
arine Fitzsimmons sign their names as witnesses, 
said will is ordered to be recorded." 

Archibald Wager had been appointed by 
Deputy Secretary Nelson, acting for the Gov- 
ernor, Clerk of the Court; and we find that 
James Wood, the son was, qualified as Deputy 
May 7, same year. For reasons that do not ap- 
pear. Wager's term was terminated when James 
Keith on the 4th of May, 1762, produced a com- 
mission as Clerk from the Secretary, and was 
duly sworn and qualified. Further notice will be 
given these old Clerks in the proper place. 

The Old County Court from 1757 for about 
eight years, was continually called upon for as- 
sistance to protect outlying settlements. The 
Indians in every foray approached nearer the 
county seat, and the exposed places were calling 
for aid to build rude forts and stockades. The 
Governor and his military aids responded; and 
as will appear elsewhere, protection was given, 
but massacres continued to occur. The reader 
can well imagine from the character of the brief 
minutes already given, that the Court was much 
disturbed for its own safety. We must remem- 
ber too, that the old Justices were thinking of 
their homes in the various sections. They were 
well apprised of the frequent battles along the 
Great Capon and South Branch, and what had 
occurred in the settlement North of Woodstock; 
but when the roving bands appeared on Hogue 
Creek and on Cedar Creek, and carried away 
not only many scalps, but many prisoners, we 
can well see why they were anxious to seek 
Fort Loudoun for safety to the old records, also 
their friends and families in peril. If space can 
be given for brief accounts of some of the 
Indian raids and massacres, the author will gladly 
lay them before the reader, so as to show how 
the old settlers struggled to maintain a foot- 
hold. Some of these settlers had been in this 
struggle for more than twenty years; and often 
whole families were swept away by the torch 
and tomahawk without a moment's warning ; and 
reader, it may be we will name some who suffer- 
ed who were your ancestors. 



There is abundant evidence to support the 
course pursued by the justices, in relation to the 
Indians and their expected depredations. As 
stated already, they were duly apprised of such 
depredations, which had become too frequent to 
pass unnoticed. One of the roving bands was 
led by their Chief, the notorious "Killbuck." 
This chief survived all the wars, and was visited 
by several citizens of Great Ca-Capon, South 
Branch and Patterson's Creek settlements. He 
lived to a great age. He was a Shawanese sav- 
age, mentally strong, and brutal in his instincts. 
We arc indebted to Kercheval for the reliable 
incidents he has so carefully preserved. He re- 
lates in detail conversations had with "Killbuck" 
long after all treaties had been signed, and when 
the Old Chief was living in the Indian villages 
in Sciota Valley, Ohio. The men who visited 
"Killbuck," were sons and kinsmen of those who 
had been massacred; and from the Old Chief 
they gathered much information relating to who 
had been killed and who carried away captives. 
The Shawnee tribe knew every foot of the coun- 
try mentioned. They resented the encroachments 
of the Whites, and when they had apparently 
abandoned the country East of the Alleganies and 
moved their villages, and professed to be peace- 
ful, yet they frequently recrossed the Allegan- 
ies, and suddenly descended upon the settlers to 
murder and pillage. Col. Vincent Williams, 
Benj. Casey, two of the Wei tons. Van Meter 
and several others composed the party seeking 
this information. They relate the old Chiefs 
conversation in full, but we lack space to in- 
clude them here. However, we mention briefly 
that much light was given concerning the mur- 
der of Mr. Williams on Patterson's Creek in 
1756; how Williams had killed five out of the 
seven of the warriors in the first attack and he, 
"Killbuck" with another band, approached the 
house in rear, lifted a warrior high enough to 
shoot through a crevice between the log^ and 
thus killed the old hero who had withstood sim- 
ilar assaults. He was then quartered, and a 
quarter hung on each corner of the house. Mr. 
Williams left children that distinguished this 
family in the development of Hardy County. 
One grandson James, lived at the scene of the 
murder on Patterson's Creek, one hundred years 
subsequent to the tragedy. One son, Mr. Ed- 
ward Williams, was Clerk of Hardy County 
1850, being then an aged man. 

Much has been told through tradition of the 
Indian battle of The Trough. Killbuck told much 
about their attack on the small fort about seven 
miles above Romney. The whites were defeated 
in an open engagement, but held the fort; the 
Indians committed deviltry on the unprotected, 
lower down the river. The remains of the old 

fort were standing near the home of the old 
Daniel McNeil place on the river. Old logfs and 
other material used in this blockhouse, were 
well preserved when the author last saw it. 
There was another fort not far away on the Van 
Meter land: This was Fort Pleasant Tradi- 
tions concerning the battle of the Trough are 
treasured among the families in that section. 
There was a fort on Big Capon near the North- 
west Turnpike, that relics have been taken from 
in recent years. This was "Edward's Fort." 
Capt. Mercer was stationed there in 1757, and 
his report of the disaster corroborates all that 
"Killbuck" told of his wily attacks. The Indians 
entered the Ca-Capon Valley in small parties to 
take observation. Killbuck's party of forty war- 
riors visited a mill and killed the two men found 
there. They carried away meal and com and 
passed along a stream at the base of a high 
mountain, strewing meal in several places on the 
route, to lure the whites in their pursuit. Kill- 
buck selected a high point for his ambuscade, 
and awaited the arrival of the garrison from the 
Fort. Capt. Mercer, with forty-five men follow- 
ed the trail; and supposing the scattered meal 
indicated disorder and haste in the Indian band, 
the whites rushed on and suddenly received a 
most destructive fire from the Indians. Sixteen 
of Mercer's men fell dead; and as the others 
made hasty retreat, they were pursued by Kill- 
buck and slaughtered. Only six men got back 
to the fort. Kercheval says that Mr. George 
Smith, residing on Back Creek, told him in 1833 
that one of the men escaping death from the 
Indians in the battle, was desperately wounded 
but succeeded in making his way over the moun- 
tains to his neighborhood, and he knew him 
for years. The Valley historian gives us some 
other interesting matter relating to this fort. He 
says Mr. William Carlisle, now 95 years old 
(1833), who lived near the battle ground, re- 
moved and settled on Capon soon after the bat- 
tle was fought. The garrison was strengthened, 
for it was well known the Indians would return 
with larger forces and endeavor to destroy the 
fort. Some color is given a tradition that cred- 
its Daniel Morgan with being present at the 
next assault on the fort; for we find the Court 
allowed payment to Daniel Morgan and others 
for claims produced for supplies taken by them 
to the settlers on Great Ca-Capon. The same 
old Mr. Carlisle states further that he had fre- 
quently heard that "Dan" Morgan was in the 
battle that soon followed the first. This time 
two Frenchmen accompanied the Indians; the 
garrison defeated this force, causing great slaugh- 
ter, with slight loss to the whites. The failure 
on the part of those reporting the battles with 
the Indians to give details is greatly to be re- 



gretted. Had they done so, many descendants 
to-day could point with pride to the old pioneer 
fathers and give their names; but we must re- 
member that this custom is practiced in all re- 
ports of battles — nothing more said than some 
field officer lost, and the number of privates 
fallen or captured. 

Just previous to the battle of The Trough, 
some depredations on the South Fork by a band 
of warriors led by KiUbuck were also mentioned 
by the old Chief, which Dr. Charles A. Turley 
reduced to writing. He says the first attack 
was upon a well fortified dwelling of a Mrs. 
Brake, when she and a Mrs. NeflF were carried 
away. The former was Tomahawked and 
scalped. The latter escaped and gave the alarm, 
and a body of men from "Buttermilk Fort" led 
by John Harness, (Great-grandfather of Col. 
William Henry Harness of the Laurel Brigade). 
This pursuit led to the battle at The Trough. 
About this period, Indian bands raided the neigh- 
borhood of Gerardstown; killed a man by the 
name of Kelly and several of his family, and 
carried away several women and children. 
George Stockton and Isabella, his sister, were of 
this number. Charles Porterfield about 20 years 
old, was killed in a running fight with the band. 
A man named Cohoon, made his escape; his 
wife was killed. The Stocktons were carried far 
North, but both finally returned to their former 
home. Similar bands about this time which were 
in the vicinity of Winchester, killed a man nam- 
ed Flaugherty and his wife. Several members 
of the MacCracken family on Back Creek, twelve 
miles from Winchester, were killed, and two of 
his daughters carried away captives. After an 
absence of four years, they found their way back 
to their former home, and related their exper- 
iences to Mr. Neill, who related these facts to 
Mr. Kercheval. Jacob Havely and several of 
his family were killed near Mountain Falls, about 
fifteen miles southwest of Winchester. Dispen- 
nette and several of his family were killed, and 
Vance and his family. It appears from the col- 
lection referred to, that the same marauding 
band appeared in the neighborhood of Belle 
Grove, the residence of Maj. Isaac Hite, and 
attacked the family of a Mr. Nicholls composed 
of eighteen persons, killing most of them, and 
carried away the remainder to meet a worse 
fate. At that time, there was a small fort near 
the present site of Middletown. Many persons 
were saved by taking refuge there. In 1758, a 
band of fifty Indians and four Frenchmen, en- 
tered the neighborhood of Mill Creek about nine 
miles South of Woodstock. The people took 
refuge in the house of George Painter. Painter 
was killed and the other whites surrendered. 
Four infants were toni from their mothers, and 

were hung up in trees and brutally shot, and left 
hanging. The Indians then moved away with 
forty-eight prisoners, among whom were Mrs. 
Painter, five daughters and one of her sons; a 
Mrs. Fisher and several of her children. Two 
of the Painters escaped capture. One young 
man ran over that night to Powell's Fort, fifteen 
miles distant, and to Keller's Fort, and secured 
the services of a body of well mounted men; 
but they failed to overtake the savages, who es- 
caped to their villages West of the Allegany 
mountains. There they burned young Jacob 
Fisher at the stake. After an absence of three 
years, Mrs. Painter with her son and two of 
her daughters and Mrs. Smith with her Indian 
son, Fisher, and his surviving sons, and several 
other prisoners returned home. Three of Mrs. 
Painter's daughters remained with the Indians; 
two never returned. Many later on returned 
with Michael Copple, they were afterwards mar- 
ried and raised a family. She always conversed 
with her husband in the Indian language, that 
both had acquired while prisoners. Mr. Ker- 
cheval says Mrs. Rebecca Brinker the daughter 
of George Bowman, son-in-law of Joist Hite, 
lived to a great age in the neighborhood where 
the atrocities last named occurred, and related 
the incidents to him, she having personal knowl- 
edge of their occurrence. 

In 1758, the Indians killed a number of people 
in the Hawksbill settlement: John Stone, Jacob 
Holtman's wife, and her children. The house 
of John Brewbaker was burned; Stone's wife 
and child about eight years old, and George 
Grandstaff, about sixteen, were carried away. 
The Indians murdered Mrs. Stone and her in- 
fant on the South Branch Mountain. Grandstaff 
returned in about three years. It was about this 
date that word came to the Justices' Court, that 
the Indians were at the old Zane Iron Works, 
and had entered the house of a man named 
Young, killed several of his family, and carried 
away two of his daughters. 

NOTE: On the loth day of April, 1908, Mr. 
Aiken Robinson found five skeletons on his farm 
a mile South of the old Zane Furnace, two were 
adults and three smaller sized. It is fully sub- 
stantiated in several ways, that the skeletons 
represent the massacred Young family mention- 
ed. Mr. Robinson, prepared a vault near by, and 
in presence of many neighbors, removed the 
skeletons to it and erected a slab with suitable 
inscriptions to mark the spot.) 

Kercheval says that Lieut. Samuel Fry raised 
a force of about forty men and overtook the 
band on Short Mountain, a spur of the Allegany, 
and recaptured the prisoners; killing several In- 
dians. Mr. Kercheval tells us that in 1753, Wil- 
liam Zane and several of his family were taken 



prisoners on the South Branch and carried away. 
Isaac Zane, one of his sons, remaining during his 
life with the Indians; and that he saw this Isaac 
Zane at Chillicothe in the autumn of 1797, ^^^ 
had conversations with him upon the subject of 
his captivity. He stated that he was captured 
when about nine years old; was four years 
without seeing a white person, had learned the 
Indian Tung quite well, but never lost his knowl- 
edge of English. That when he grew up to 
manhood, he married a sister of the Wyandott 
King, and raised a family of eight children. His 
sons were all Indian in their habits. The daugh- 
ters married white men and became civilized, 
and their progeny doubtless became prominent 
Ohio citizens. This man was instrumental in ef- 
fecting desirable treaties of peace. The United 
States Government granted him a patent for ten 
thousand acres of land. He was a near relative 
to Gen. Isaac Zane of Frederick County. 

There were two forts on Lost River, one on 
the land afterwards owned by Jeremiah Inskeep' 
called "Riddles Fort" where a man name Ches- 
ter was killed; the other was Warden's Fort, 
where William Warden and a Mr. Taft were 
killed and the fort burned. So it appears the 
little forts were not always an assurance of 
safety. In 1756 the Indians made a brutal at- 
tack upon a party of harvesters near Petersburg, 
West Virginia, when Jonathan Welton, and a 
man named Delay were killed after a desperate 
encounter. Jobe Welton received a fearful 
wound from a tomahawk, severing several ribs. 
He was left as dead, but later reached the little 
fort. Three of the whites were butchered; a 
Mr. Kuykendall escaped by remaining in the 
camp. In 1758, a band of Indians surprised Fort 
Seybert, located near the site of Franklin in 
Pendleton County. The bloodthirsty Killbuck 
was the Chief; he demanded surrender. Sey- 
bert, after a parley with the savage, agreed to 
surrender on terms that all would be spared. 
The savages violated every promise, and mur- 
dered all except a young man named James 
Dyer, who made a miraculous escape, and re- 
turned to live on South Fork, where the writer 
saw some of his descendants several years since. 

Ill the study of Indian wars and the forts need- 
ed to protect the settlers, the writer was aston- 
ished to find the remains of an old Fort on Pat- 
terson's Creek near the present site of Frank- 
fort, known as Ashby's fort; and he was im- 
pressed with the coincidence that in the Civil 
War, Dick Ashby, one of the Ashby brothers, 
was killed in its vicinity. Capt. John Ashby 
owned the property and a great many traditions 
belong to this fort. Near it Charles Keller was 
killed. His descendants were numerous in 
Hampshire County a few years ago, and possess- 

ed much historical matter. Logan, the renowned 
Indian warrior, killed Benj. Bowman in a hand- 
to-hand encounter near this fort, and took his 
companion, Humphrey Worsted prisoner. Thomas 
Higgins, one of the first settlers on the Cohon- 
goroota, erected his cabins near Bath Springs; 
but was driven out by Indians, and settled near 
Gerardstown; and there his home was looted by 
Indians and three of his sons were taken away 
prisoners. Nothing was ever heard from them; 
and it is likely they perished at some unknown 
point. Two men of this name were living on 
the upper Cohongoroota in the early part of the 
Eighteenth Century; they were related to this 
family. There is a tradition that one of the sons 
was seen at Wheeling after the Dunmore War; 
and some have thought the two referred to^ 
were the sons, but nothing has been found by the 
writer to verify this. 

The Maj. White Fort was on the West side 
of Hogue Creek about seven miles from Win- 
chester. This place was known for more than 
a century as the White Homestead. Dr. White, 
son-in-law of Wm. Hogue, had settled there as 
one of the first settlers. In 1763 Maj. Robt 
White, son of the Doctor, lived there, and for 
the safety of the many families who had settled 
along the Big North Mountain, he had erected 
a small fort and stockade around his residence. 
At the July term of that year, the Major ap- 
peared in person before the Justices. He was 
then a Justice himself— and startled his brethren 
by announcing that Indians had appeared in his 
neighborhood the day previous, but disappeared 
without molesting anyone; and that he also had 
been informed that a large band was marauding 
the settlements on Great Ca-Capon. The Court 
was moved to convene and take steps to protect 
the settlements. No action was taken, and the 
Major returned to take charge of the situation 
himself. He warned the families, and went 
along the mountain for fully six miles as far as 
Owen Thomas's home, and advised all to come 
to his Fort. As this raid involved families and 
neighborhood so near to Winchester, it is well 
to give the narrative as related by Maj. John 
White a son of the owner of the Fort property. 
Some little confusion as to dates appears. One 
statement gives July, 1763, as the time; another 
June, 1764. This may have occurred by two 
raids, having been made, for we have evidence 
that Indians raided that settlement twice. Some 
of the families took no heed to the warning. 
Owen Thomas being one, saying he could not 
leave his harvest, and then rode to his neighbor 
Jacob Keckley, who had several sons, to propose 
that they arm themselves and work together at 
their han'est. He was shot dead on this trip. 
This was certainly the next day after Major 



White had visited the Justices. In June, 1764, 
Maj. White went again to warn the people that 
they had better come to the Fort; that he was 
reliably informed that a large band was on the 
war path. Now the narrative becomes intensely 
interesting to many people who live in Frederick 
County to-day, and especially in that section. 
This warning was heeded, but the families mov- 
ed slowly. Mrs. Thomas, the widow, Mrs. Jones, 
and a man named Clowser started with their 
families, but stopped at the house of a man nam- 
ed Lloyd, two miles from the fort, and spent the 
night, the next morning at an early hour they 
resumed their journey, and before they were out 
of sight of the house, the Indians attacked them, 
and killed, wounded or took away as prisoners 
twenty-three persons. A young son of Owen 
Thomas who had been killed in the previous raid, 
ran back into the house and hid himself, and es- 
caped detection, although the Indians brought 
his mother and sister back into the house bound, 
and kept them there while they fried bacon and 
ate breakfast. They then set fire to the house 
and moved off. The boy managed to escape from 
the fire and the Indians, although he rambled 
about for two days before he found any person 
to whom he could tell his direful story. The 
families had fled to the Fort, Lloyd and several 
of his children, David Jones and wife, two old 
people, some of the Thomas family also, Henry 
Clowser and two of his sons were killed; Mrs. 
Qowser and four of her daughters taken away 
captives. The youngest child about two years 
old, was horribly butchered while crossing the 
North Mountain, the band heading for the South' 
Branch. They halted one night near Furman*s 
fort; the men at the fort fired upon them. The 
next morning they moved away, and while cross- 
ing the river, which was dangerous fording, 
Mrs. Thomas escaped, and lived for many years, 
to tell her neighbors thrilling stories. The 
wounded who were left near Major White's 
were gathered up after the departure of the In- 
dians and carried to the Fort, where they were 
cared for. Out of the seven so found, only one 
survived. This was Hester Lloyd, who had two 
scalps taken from her. A Dr. McDonald at- 
tended her; he trepanned her head and she re- 
covered, and lived many years. Kercheval says 
that Gen. Smith, Maj. R. D. Glass, Mrs. Susan 
Glass, Mrs. Shultz, and Mrs. Snapp severally 
stated to him that they frequently saw this 
woman after she recovered from her wound. 
Mrs. Thomas's daughter and Mrs. Qowser and 
her three small daughters were taken to the In- 
dian town, and after an absence of about six 
months were released from captivity and all re- 
turned home safely. There is something in Ker- 
cheval's narrative about the three Miss Clowsers, 

who were prisoners at the same time. They 
were aged respective 10, 7 and 5 years. After 
their return they grew up in their old neighbor- 
hood; were married, and raised families of chil- 
dren, and they were all three widows when Ker- 
cheval knew them, and lived not more than five 
or six miles apart; two of them were Mrs. 
Shultz and Mrs. Snapp, who lived about one and 
a half miles from his residence, and a third, 
Mrs. Frye, not exceeding six miles. Such his- 
tory must be accepted as entirely reliable. De- 
scendants of all these families reside in Frederick 
County at this writing. Major White reported 
a list of those killed and obtained assistance 
from the Court to relieve the wants of the 
wounded and helpless. 

The writer finds the name of Thomas appear- 
ing in some traditionary history that is confusing 
in one respect. He is given the name of Evan, 
Owan, and Ellis Thomas, evidently confounding 
him with some other than the man Maj. White 
reported as being killed in the first raid. 

In 1764, William Furman and Nimrod Ashby 
left the Furman fort near the Hanging Rock be- 
low Romney and crossed the country to hunt deer 
in the Jersey Mountain. They were overtaken 
by a band of Delawares, and both were killed. 
This was the band which had been in Frederick 
County, and penetrated as far as Cedar Creek. 
On their way through Hampshire County, they 
Killed Oliver Kremer, and took his wife prison- 
er. The band divided; one undertook the settle- 
ments under the base of the North Mountain, 
and the others started for Cedar Creek. The 
latter neighborhood was saved by a singular in- 
cident: A woman who was fleeing from the 
white settlement, ran South for about eight or 
nine miles, and thus kept in advance of the In- 
dians. She met two brothers named Fawcett, 
near their homes, and told them what had hap- 
pened. They gave the warning to others, and 
the families hastened to Stephen's Fort, where 
Old Forge was afterwards started by Zane. The 
Indians found the people prepared, and turned 
away and joined the other party, after plunder- 
ing some vacant houses. It has often puzzled 
many persons to find a reason why the Indians 
did not bum every house. It might be, the vari- 
ous tribes expected to gather enough strength 
and combination to some day utterly destroy the 
whites, and then they would occupy the deserted 

In 1765, a roving band attacked a settlement on 
Narrow Passage Creek, not far from Woodstock, 
killing an old man named Geo. Sigler. In 1766, 
they tried the Narrow Passage settlement again, 
this time killing two men named Sheetz and 
Taylor. The same year, the Powell's Fort was 
visited, but passing on, they went to the residence 



of John Gatewood on South River and there 
murdered a Menonist preacher named John 
Roads, and also his wife and three sons. The 
other children were made captives. The Court 
made an allowance for these children. This is 
supposed to have been the last massacr-e East of 
the North Mountain. Many more well estab- 
lished incidents of Indian warfare and sufferings 
of the early settlers could be given, but want of 
space forbids further notice. Some names of 
the settlers who were conspicuous, that have not 
been mentioned, may receive notice in other 

pages. We must close this chapter of such 
stirring events, so that we may introduce to the 
reader the old settlers in their new role, as en- 
listed soldiers, to fight battles with the Indian 
and his French allies. In the next chapter it 
will be seen that the fearful visitations to Freder- 
ick County related in the foregoing chapter, 
were during the French and Indian War, and 
the massacres were committed by roving bands 
of savages, who, skulked regular war-fare, and 
chose one of murder and pillage. 


The Indian and French War 

The reader will remember that it was in 1753 
that Governor Dinwiddie arrived in Virginia to 
assume control of the infant colony that had 
for some time been threatened with invasion 
from the French, who claimed all territory 
wheresoever the French standard was planted. 
France had at that time a line of forts from 
New Orleans to Quebec. In this line was the 
famous Fort du Quesne on the Ohio River, the 
site of the City of Pittsburg. Of course, all 
the forts were garrisoned, and communication 
kept open along the whole line. 

The French made their first appearance in 
North America in 1534, forty years after the 
landing of Columbus with his Spaniards. En- 
tering the St. Lawrence River, Jacques Cartier, 
commanding the expedition, laid claim to all the 
territory for France. In 1608 Quebec was found- 
ed by the French. Large immigrations encourag- 
ed advances through the country to the West 
and South as far as the Great Waters — meaning 
the Gulf of Mexico on the South and the Pacific 
Ocean on the West — so far as they knew. In 
June, 1673, the upper Mississippi was discovered 
by Marquette, a Monk of the Franciscan order. 
Six years later, La Salle made other explora- 
tions by way of the Great Lakes. Entering a 
river on Lake Michigan, he finally sailed down 
the Illinois River and erected a fort at a point 
where Peoria now stands, calling it Creve Coeur, 
signifying "broken heart/' his difficulties had 
been so hopeless. In 1682, La Salle pushed his 
expedition to the Gulf, by way of the Mississippi 
River, claiming all territory on either side. He 
named the vast claim Louisiana, after his royal 
master Louis XIV. The garrisons and all French 
officers and soldiers from the St. Lawrence to 
the Gulf, adopted every measure needed to make 
friends with the Indian tribes. They taught 
them that the French would protect their rights 
and drive out their natural enemy, the British. 
The French were well informed of the frequent 
conflicts between the colonists and the Indians, 
all of which went to show oppression and cruelty 
on the part of the British invader, who had no 
regard or respect for the rights of the Abo- 
rigines. The Indians had shown some evidences 
of open hostility, and were ready to form the 
alliance proposed by the French. Then it was 

that the Indian villages and towns were gradual- 
ly moved towards the French lines, having learn- 
ed of the approach of a friendly power from the 
West They were always careful, however, to 
not abandon their villages entirely; always send- 
ing bands of warriors to the hunting grounds 
beyond the great mountains. The lowland tribes 
had friendly relations with the colonists, and 
never voluntarily left the tidewater section. The 
great valley lying West of the mountain range 
called the Blue Ridge, extending through from 
Georgia, the edge of North Carolina, Virginia, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, was regarded by 
colonists and the savage tribes as the hunting 
grounds of the natives, extending through the 
Seventeenth and far into the Eighteenth Cen- 

There had been many treaties between the 
Virginia colonists and the Indians, both at home 
and abroad, that the whites were to make no 
encroachments on the rights reserved for the 
use of any tribe who chose to hunt or range in 
this territory. Some of the agreements and stip- 
ulations were very severe, to-wit: If any strange 
Indian was found hunting or roaming in the 
country East of the Great Mountains, "he could 
be killed or captured and sold as a slave:" and 
if any white man was found in the section West 
of the Big Mountains, he should not appeal to 
the Colony of Virginia for redress in case he 
suffered at the hands of the Indians. So it 
can be safely stated, that no white settlers ever 
ventured to enter the forbidden country until 
about 1728, being about twelve years after Gov- 
ernor Spottswood announced to the world that 
the great hitherto unknown country was now 
open for settlement. 

It must be understood that all the tribes had 
some kind of understanding between themselves; 
that certain regions with imaginary lines, were 
claimed by the individual tribes as their domain, 
until some breach occurred between them when 
bloody encounters often destroyed such rights; 
and in several instances were exterminated. As 
the more powerful increased in strength, it was 
but natural that they should dominate in royal 
fashion in their respective sections. The author 
has with much difficulty discovered who the 
tribes were, of interest to this section ; and where 




they were located. The following list is given 
to preserve their history. Consulting the best 
authorities on the Aborigines, we find these tribes 
had a common language; and while their dia- 
lects differed somewhat, yet they could communi- 
cate with each other. The tribes here mentioned 
made regular forays from about 1710 to 1734, with 
their bands of hunters, into what was then known 
as the Indian Country, which embraced every- 
thing West of what was called the Big Moun- 
tains — ^the Blue Ridge Range. 

I. The Shawanese (Shawnee), the most pow- 
erful and warlike of all, claimed all the hunting 
ground between the Blue Ridge and the AUe- 
ganies, and as far South and West as the Mis- 
sissippi. They had three large villages in this 
section: one near where Winchester now stands, 
one on the North River, now Shenandoah Coun- 
ty, and one on the South Branch below the 
present site of Moorefield. The Shawanese were 
ever ready for bloodshed; but they allowed 
other tribes to visit them, demanding tribute 
from them in their expeditions. The Valley 
country was regarded as the battle ground for 
many visiting tribes. All writers agree that the 
French movement along the western boundary, 
resulted in relief to the colonists. This tribe 
(Shawanese) gave untold trouble to the first 
settlers, while they moved their villages towards 
the West, as the white immigration rapidly in- 
creased after 1736. The outlying settlements 
suffered from many attacks; the settlers finding 
it necessary to erect numerous small forts and 
stockades. Sometime prior to 1753, the French 
kept in close touch with all the tribes; and par- 
ticularly did this apply to the Shawanese. The 
prospect of bloody wars on the colonists, sup- 
ported by their French neighbors, attracted their 
attention towards a new settlement on the Ohio 

Kercheval says: "In the spring of 1754, the 
Indians suddenly and unexpectedly moved off, 
and entirely left the Valley." 

II. The next tribe was the "Tuscaroras." 
Their villages were near the Cohongoroota — 
now Berkley County. The Creek and Church 
bear the name of this tribe to this day. 

III. The Senedos, who occupied the village 
on the river in Shenandoah County, was an off- 
shoot from the Shawanese, one of the young 
chiefs having colonized at that point. In 1732 
the Cherokees from the South exterminated 

IV. The Catawbas, were South Carolina In- 
dians, having several villages on the Catawba 

The Delawares, had their villages on the Sus- 
quehanna River, Pennsylvania. 

VI. The Susquenoughs, who have been con- 
founded with the Susquehanna River tribes, was 
a large and friendly tribe. They were first found 
along the Chesapeake Bay; but the warlike Cen- 
cla tribe drove them from the tidewater section. 
They finally settled along the Upper Potomac. 
Many evidences of their villages are to be 
seen at this day. 

VII. The Cenelas, also moved westward; and 
they too started villages on the upper Potomac 

VIII. The Pascataway tribe, remained on the 
head waters of the Chesapeake. 

IX. The Cherokees, who had villages on the 
Tennessee River, and in certain sections of Caro- 
lina, (jeorgia and Alabama, were noted for their 
great stature, in complexion resembling the white 
race. This tribe made annual forays to the up- 
per Valley. They were part of the Six Nations 
of the South, having for their central tribe the 
"Muscogulges ;" the Seminoles, Chickasaws, 
Choctaws and Creeks forming the Nation, as the 
organization was called. 

The nine tribes mentioned were regular visit- 
ors to the Valley country up to 1740, as also 
were hunters from the five Nations (often called 
the Six Nations in treaties), who had their vil- 
lages scattered along the rivers and lakes of 
middle and Western New York: The Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. As 
previously mentioned, the Indians who claimed 
the right to hunt in the territory West of the 
Blue Ridge, had a language common to all the 
tribes. The French have several interesting his- 
tories, descriptive of the French expeditions in 
North America prior to the Revolutionary War. 
From studies of these histories, much has been 
learned concerning the Indian, both as to his 
traits and dialect — the latter being styled by the 
French writers as the "Algonquin" language, who 
assert that it was in common use by all Indians 
between the Carolinas and Massachusetts. 

We have well written traditions, entitled to 
credit for accuracy, that confirm the above state- 
ment; and many proofs that the colonists, having 
learned the language from Powhatan, had but 
little difficulty in understanding the language of 
the other tribes. The reader will readily see that 
when the white settlers began to assert and main- 
tain their rights under grants from the Colonial 
government, they found numerous bands of rov- 
ing Indians to contend with; and consequently 
many collisions occurred, resulting in death to 
the settlers and also to many Indians. For al- 
though the savages were stubborn and vengeful, 
and yielded slowly to the encroachments upon 
their favorite hunting grounds, the old pioneers 
had come into the promised land to stay; and 
every new arrival of immigrant trains pressed 
farther West; so the old denizens of the wild 



regions had many wrongs to redress. They be- 
lieved they were the natural and lawful owners 
of the soil, and the British had no right to wrest 
it from them by right of discovery or settlement 
of her people — though they might by conquest 
have a claim. But the Indian had now become 
fully aroused, and was ready to meet the issue. 
And thus was inaugurated the first Indian war. 
Supported by the French, a bloody and cruel 
war continued from 1754 until 1766. At no time 
during the twelve years, could the border set- 
tlers feel safe from massacre. Many occurred; 
whole settlements were driven back from the 
Allegany region whither many had penetrated; 
whole families frequently disappeared forever, — 
the victims of the tomahawk and scalping knife. 
The Colonial government took prompt action; 
raised an army, and placed at its head Col. Fry 
and Lt. Col. Washington. We gather from the 
Washington notes, that this army numbered three 
hundred good and tried frontiersmen. The march 
was made from the village of Winchester, through 
the mountains to what was then known and is 
still, as Great Meadows. Near this point, Lt 
Col. Washington opened the war in earnest, by 
surrounding an encampment of the French, kill- 
ing the commanding officer and several others 
and capturing the remainder of the force. Capt. 
Fry having died shortly after this capture, Wash- 
ington made Great Meadows his base; built what 
he called Fort Necessity, and then advanced with 
his main force toward the French Fort Du- 
quesne. Ramsey, in his biography of Washing- 
ton, gives a complete and graphic account of 
this first failure of Washington to accomplish a 
victory. His retreat to Fort Necessity before 
the advancing French, the attack on his garri- 
son and capitulation to the French commander, 
securing terms for the safe return of "his army 
to the inhabited parts of Virginia" are historical 
facts too well known to require further mention. 
This movement against the French, produced 
a sensation. The French and their Indian allies 
grew desperate. The British government in 
I75S» hastened Genl. Braddock with two regi- 
ments of regulars across the ocean and on to 
the struggling colonists. Braddock arrived at 
the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Feb. 20, 1755. 
Genl. Craighill in his exhaustive work on the 
movements of Genl. Braddock, says: "Two regi- 
ments of British troops arrived at Hampton 
Roads about the same time, and were sent at 
once to Alexandria, and there quartered. Sir 
John St. Qair arrived about six weeks before 
Braddock, and assumed the office of Quarter- 
master General and Engineer of Roads, and 
made a reconnoissance of the country as far 
West as Cumberland, in company with Gov. 
Sharpe of Maryland. Fort Cumberland, then 

called Fort Mt Pleasant, had been built in 1754; 
and they found it occupied by the Virginia, 
Maryland and South Carolina troops. The Penn- 
sylvania troops that had been promised, failed 
to put in their appearance. St Clair returned 
to Williamsburg by way of Winchester, travel- 
ing over and inspecting the road that Col. Wash- 
ington had previously opened from Winchester 
to Wills Creek and Forks of Capon; and hav- 
ing had a conference with Washington, proceeded 
to Williamsburg to meet Genl. Braddock. (See 
the Washington letters and Diary). The gov- 
ernors of the several colonies were in convention 
at Alexandria early in April, and tendered Brad- 
dock and his staff a noted reception, and — 
doubtless, offered some good advice. Winchester 
was selected as the base of operations, and the 
point for letters to be sent to the General. Ten 
days after the convention, Braddock was at 
Frederick, Maryland, and there had interviews 
with Washington and Franklin; and it was there 
that Washington (who had previously resigned 
his commission as Colonel) was offered a place 
on the General's staff; though Sparks says 
"Braddock marched into the interior and was 
joined by Washington at Winchester, when the 
latter assumed the duties and station of aide." 
The Washington letters state that he rode from 
Winchester and overtook the General at Freder- 
ickton May 5, 1755, and then returned to Win- 
chester. Sargeant's History says: "By St Clair's 
advice, the army was to start from Alexandria 
in two divisions: one regiment and a portion of 
the stores to Winchester, Virginia, whence a 
new road was nearly completed to Fort Cumber- 
land; and the other regiment with the remainder, 
by way of Frederick, Maryland. 

On the 8th and 9th of April, the Provincials 
and six companies of the 44th regiment under 
Sir Peter Halkett, set out for Winchester, and 
Lt. Col. Gage and four companies remained to 
escort the artillery. April i8th, the 48 regt. un- 
der Col. Dunbar, set out for Frederick, Md. The 
Maryland Governor and many Maryland citizens 
urged the General to move the whole force 
through Maryland, knowing a road would be 
opened to Fort Cumberland or Wills Creek; and 
as this was impracticable, causing too much de- 
lay. Col. Dunbar on May ist, headed his divi- 
sion for the Potomac, so as to enter Virginia 
and strike the road already opened. Washing- 
ton in a letter dated May 14th, says: "Col. Dun- 
bar's regiment recrossed at Connogogee and came 
down within six miles of Winchester to take the 
new road to Wills Creek." Irving says that 
Braddock went from Frederick to Winchester; 
that the road on the Maryland side had not 
been made. Returning to the division under Sir 
Peter Halkett, when he left Alexandria, (Jenl. 



Craighill says their first day's march took the 
command to old C. H. (Fairfax) i8 miles, then 
to Colemans 12 miles — Nourse*s 15 miles — 
Thompsons, 12 miles — Keys 17 miles — to Win- 
chester 23 miles; crossing the Shenandoah at 
Keys Ford and the mountain at Keys Gap; stop- 
ping near the site of Charlestown, and then to 
Winchester. So nlany erroneous impressions be- 
ing held regarding Braddock's march to Win- 
chester, the author deemed it wise to give the 
matter space for a brief statement of facts. It 
must be added here, that the British government 
urged all the American colonies to adopt meas- 
ures for mutual protection, and to be prepared 
to act in concert with the British troops under 
British generals. A union was formed in 1754. 
We will only mention what was done by Virginia 
as a result of this agreement; and keep in view 
that this work is intended to show the connec- 
tion the old Frederick County and the upper 
Shenandoah settlers had with the Indian and 
French War. Virginia was ready with eight 
hundred volunteers to support Braddock on his 
arrival at Alexandria. This force was divided 
into eight Companies, all officered by experienced 
Indian fighters, who were familiar with Indian 
warfare, and the force composed of settlers who 
had been constantly alert for years defending 
their homes from Indian forays. It is to be re- 
gretted that no authentic list of that eight hun- 
dred was preserved. The writer will in suc- 
ceeding pages; give the names of quite a num- 
ber who were certified by the old county court 
as soldiers entitled to a liberal bounty that the 
Virginia government granted them in land along 
the Ohio River, for their service in the Indian 

The following are the names of the captains 
of the nine companies: Stephen, Mercer, Lewis, 
Waagener, Stewart, Hogg, Peyronny, Poulson 
and Cocke. The three first named became dis- 
tinguished generals with Washington in the Rev- 
olution against Great Britain, 1776-00. General 
Braddock on his arrival in the village of Win- 
chester, headed a formidable army, as it appeared 
to the Valley settlers. The regular troops were 
well equipped; and they with the Virginians as 
guides and skirmishers, together with Maryland's 
quota, gave hope that the Indian war must soon 
end. The British General, however, failed to 
rely on the troops the colonies offered him; and 
used them as rear guards and laborers to make 
the roads suited to his lofty ideas of his line of 
march into the Monongohela country, where he 
arrived and crossed the river July 9th, 1755, with 
his army of about 2,000 men. 

Before leaving Winchester, Braddock detached 
one of the Virginia companies, with Capt. 

Thomas Lewis, for the purpose of making a 
forced march to the Greenbrier country, and 
there building block houses and stockades, to in- 
tercept the movements and raids of the Indians, 
who Col. Washington had learned were then 
moving from the Ohio River villages toward 
Staunton. We must not attempt a description 
of the disaster and utter defeat that overwhelmed 
Braddock and his army, after they crossed the 
Monongohela on that fateful day. The am- 
buscade was complete. Braddock disregarded 
the opinions of experienced frontiersmen such 
as Washington, Stephen, Stewart and many 
others; and madly rushed on, to fall mortally 
wounded in the midst of 700 of his army who 
fell dead in the first terrific attack. The remain- 
der were put to flight. The General was carried 
off the field of carnage in his own silk sash, 
which was converted into a hammock. Tra- 
dition says that this hammock was fastened to 
the pommels of two saddles, and the General 
carried between the troopers* horses. Another 
account is, that his British officers, by relays, 
carried him in his sash the entire distance, ex- 
cept when crossing the river, he was placed in 
a wagon. 

The Braddock sash incident deserves fuller 
notice, by reason of its close association with 
the historical events of the County. The sash, 
which was large and of perfect weave, carefully 
preserved as one of the many relics of this 
disastrous war, was presented to Genl. Zachary 
Taylor in 1846, when he was engaged in the 
Mexican War, with the understanding that he 
should present it to the bravest man in the army. 
The General, however, never understood it that 
way, and deemed it best to retain and endeavor 
to preserve it. At this writing it is in the pos- 
session of his daughter Mrs. Bettie Dandridge 
(formerly Mrs. Maj. Bliss). The Author has 
seen it; and feels safe in pronouncing it the 
sash used on the occasion mentioned. 

Genl. Braddock died July 13th, at 8 P. M., 
near the Great Meadow Fort. He was buried 
in the middle of the road, and the troops and 
wagon trains passed over the grave, so that it 
could not be found to disturb and mutilate his 

The tragic end of this man gave the event 
such notoriety, that each succeeding generation 
of the Valley people handed down the oft re- 
peated story of Braddock's defeat, until it has 
become part of the history of the Old County 
and her subdivisions. 

Some writers have described him as desperate 
in his fortunes, brutal in his behavior, obstinate 
in his sentiments, but withal a capable captain. 



He has been called a gallant bull-dog. Another 
says he was profligate, arrogant, and a bigot to 
military rules. 

Washington's coolness and experience suc- 
ceeded in making a retreat that became as fa- 
mous as the defeat. The withdrawal of the 
British army left all the western borders of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania exposed to untold 
cruelties perpetrated by the Indians, who had 
become more infuriated than ever before. The 
French were willing allies in much of the de- 
vastation that swept over that region. Indians 
in great numbers forced their way into the Val- 
ley at several points. Many settlers in the ex- 
posed places fled from the Valley over into eas- 
tern Virginia. War between England and France 
was the result of this defeat. Great Britain de- 
clared war against France May 9th, 1756. This 
put an end to what was known as the French 
and Indian War; and opened what has been 
distinguished by historians as the British and 
French War for the conquest of North America. 
The poor colonists were in trying straits; and 
when the great need for men on the border, 
was the daily cry, they were called upon for 
soldiers, to protect their settlements from the 
savages. The French soon discovered that their 
Indian allies must be used in regular warfare, 
and not for the butchery of women and children; 
and this new movement by the French, gave re- 
lief eventually to the outlying settlements. Vir- 
ginia furnished 1,600 men for the new army. 
Washington was made Colonel, Adam Stephen 
Lt. Col., and Andrew Lewis, Major. England 
was alarmed at the successful campaigns of the 
French along the entire border line. The dark 
days seemed to portend the end of England's 
claim. The French and Indians had glowing 
prospects of conquest of all North America, which 
were not diminished until 1758, when the scales 
began to show the weight of the Colonists and 
British forces; and when 1760 dawned upon the 
country, victory shone upon the British arms, 
resulting finally in England's conquest of Canada, 
after a struggle extending over 150 years. The 
French were driven from the Ohio Valley, and 
their Indian allies were left to bear the brunt 
of vengeance that the old settlers were now 
ready to wreak upon them, wherever found. 

The treaty of peace between England and 
France was signed at Fontainbleau, 1762. 

Returning to the defeated and retreating 
Braddock army, we find them dispirited. The 
British regulars followed Col. Dunbar to Fort 
Cumberland, thoroughly demoralized. Although 
their flight was rapid, they would have been 
overtaken by the pursuing enemy and doubtless 

destroyed, had it not been for the coolness and 
experience of Washington, who headed the Vir- 
ginians, all of whom were accustomed to Indian 
warfare. They made frequent stands during 
that terrible retreat of one hundred and twenty 
miles through the mountains, and from ambush 
hurled many of the advancing bands of murder- 
ous savages to their death; and thus their re- 
treat was covered. Many of the Eight Hundred 
were left strewn along this line of retreat The 
troops under Washington, knew what it meant 
to their homes in the Great Valley, if the French 
and Indians were allowed to reach their home 
country. So we find the "Washington Notes 
and Diary" full of the most pathetic statements 
concerning the valor and desperation the Valley 
soldiers displayed along the line of march. Dun- 
bar never halted to render any aid. Sir Peter 
Halkett is mentioned as on two occasions hav- 
ing rallied his Hibernians, and fought them val- 
iantly. Dunbar having sent his supply train to 
the front, the rear-guard never saw this train 
or received any rations until they arrived at 
Fort Cumberland. Hunger and hardship de- 
pleted the ranks of the dauntless Eight Hundred 
as badly as did the pursuing foe. The names of 
many who fell by the wayside on this retreat, 
were years afterwards presented to the old Fred- 
erick County court by the survivors, asking that 
their widows and children should receive aid 
from the Court, which promptly made provision 
for this class. Many descendants of this noble 
band have no knowledge of the service their an- 
cestors rendered in those trying days. The Au- 
thor in some cases has been able to locate some 
such descendants, from whom he received grate- 
ful acknowledgments. More than one Colonial 
Dame owes her membership in her Society, to 
such accidental information. And, reader, it 
might be well for you to some day enquire of 
a successor of the old Clerk who now incident- 
ally mentions these facts, and learn from him if 
your ancestors can be traced to this Spartan 
band which saved the Great Valley in the middle 
part of the Eighteenth Century, from untold 

Col. Dunbar left the wounded and sick at Fort 
Cumberland, exposed to the enemy, and with 
the remnant of his Royal Regiments, marched 
away to Philadelphia. One of Washington's let- 
ters says that St. Clair, who was in the village 
of Winchester, in charge of the base of this mili- 
tary movement, also moved towards Philadel- 
phia, claiming that he had not received orders 
from Col. Dunbar. Washington, who was only 
a staff officer on this expedition, was without au- 
thority to further act, and leaving the Virginians, 
South Carolinians and the remnants of two 



Maryland companies, to be governed and used 
as the surviving company officers should deter- 
mine, returned to Winchester; and there wrote 
two characteristic letters to Gov. Dinwiddie, 
which resulted in his going to Williamsburg 
during the latter part of the Winter of 1756. 
There he reported to the Governor. He received 
a commission from the Colonial Government as 
Colonel, and was given the command of all the 
Virginia forces then in the field and others who 
were to make up Virginia's quota, for the great 
struggle rapidly approaching between France and 

Col. Washington returned to Frederick Coun- 
ty; and once more assumed command, making 
Winchester his base. As previously stated, his 
associate officers were Lt. Col. Adam Stephen 
and Major Andrew Lewis. Here he organized 
his army. The old border companies were re- 
cruited and mustered in to serve during the war. 
So once more, the Valley people felt secure. Fort 
Loudoun was built; and other forts and stock- 
ades were hastily erected all through the settle- 
ments, and preparations made once more for 
renewed hostilities. This time desperation seiz- 
ed the whole country. This brutal war was to 
be terminated. An active campaign was conduct- 
ed by the British and Colonists. Washington 
once more started on his march to Fort Cumber- 
land in July, 1758, with 3,000 men in his divi- 
sion. There he was to form part of the army 
of 6,000, with Genl. Forbes in command. 

We have the inclination but not the space to 
recount the disasters of this army, in their in- 
tended attack on Fort Duquesne. Washington, 
however, on November 25th, with about 1,000 
men, succeeded in capturing the Fort, which was 
demolished by the retreating enemy. 

November 25th, 1758, Fort Duquesne passed 
from the Frtnch to the English. On the 26th, 
Genl. Forbes wrote William Pitt, who had been 
instrumental in supplying reinforcements to as- 
sist the Virginian Colony in repelling the savages 
and their French allies, of the fall of the fort and 
retreat of the enemy down the Ohio. The Gen- 
eral found the f6rt burned; but he changed the 
name to Pitt, and built a new fort on the site. 
He also announced another important incident, 
that on this day, being Sabbath, Rev. Mr. Bcatty, 
a Presbyterian Chaplain, preached a Thanksgiv- 
ing sermon. 

Owing to bad generalship on the part of 
Forbes, heavy losses to his army occurred in 
his preliminary movements. The reader will re- 
member this was the third campaign made by 
Washington and his Valley companies; and must 
be reminded at this point, that Washington found 
time during this period, to be a candidate for 

election to the House of Burgesses, when he 
was defeated; again a candidate in 1758, while 
in active service, and was elected; again in 1761, 
was re-elected. (This is more fully treated else- 

In recounting the occurrences of this last 
movement against the French — ^known as the 
Forbes Expedition — the reader, if he be a stu- 
dent of history, will remember that the British 
also moved against the fortified lines of the 
French from the St. Lawrence, Niagara, and the 
Ohio, at the same time, with well equipped 
armies; and although reverses fell to the lot of 
the British and Colonial troops in all these pre- 
liminary movements, the French lines were brok- 
en when Fort Duquesne was captured by the 
army that had Winchester for its base of opera- 
tions. A similar attack was made on forts lower 
down the Ohio, after great struggles in the 
mountain regions, the Indian allies pursuing their 
mode of warfare of skirmishing from ambush. 
The army under Genl. Forbes often wavered, 
and suffered severe losses. Whole companies 
were destroyed or captured; and before the 
French finally gave way and abandoned the 
country, the British army had suffered such 
losses, that at the close* of the long and bloody 
campaign, it lacked the spirit and efficiency to 
pursue and destroy the retreating foe. 

The Indian tribes, then known as the Six 
Nations, and the Shawanese and their neighbor- 
ing tribes who had been drawn into the war, 
concentrated their forces and retired to what 
was known as the Big Woods, across the Ohio 
opposite the point known as Point Pleasant, 
soon to become famous for one of the last great 
battles the Indians fought. In the Big Woods 
were many Indian villages. There the Indians 
sullenly waited further movements; and stub- 
bornly contested every advance made toward 
the country they held as their own. The con- 
federated tribes were governed and controlled 
by great warriors, as Cornstalk (a Shawnee 
chief). Blue Jacket, Red Hawk (a Delaware) 
and chiefs of the Mingo tribe, and Wyandottes, 
and the celebrated Logan of the Cayugas. The 
Colonists and British generals were anxious to 
treat with these great warriors, and have the 
inhuman war to close. England was too much 
engaged in her war with France, to send further 
aid to the Colonists, to protect them from the 
warring tribes; and while the Colonists, espe- 
cially the Virginia border settlers West of the 
Blue Ridge, were unable to wage successful war- 
fare across the Ohio, they succeeded in holding 
back in great measure any heavy advance into 
the outlying settlements. But it must not be 
concluded that the Indians were inactive; for 



we have many authentic accounts of massacres 
occurring during the period prior to the Foun- 
tainbleau Treaty of Peace. The Indian warriors 
were often wily enough to penetrate far into 
the settlements both in the upper and lower 
Valley, on hunting expeditions, and to plunder 
the country, and carry back not only horses and 
provisions for their villages, but many white 

Finally, the day came when the British made 
peace with France, and could aid the colonies; 
and the Indians, seeing their French allies had 
deserted them, were ready to make peace. But 
the terms they offered, were regarded by the 
Colonial governments as too objectionable to be 
considered; and concessions demanded of the 
tribes, once more aroused them to frenzy; and 
all the savagery of their wild nature blazed forth 
in alarming symptoms. The long looked-for 
peace had not come to the border people; the 
great war-like tribes would not yield. They re- 
garded the white man as the invader of their 
soil and the murderers of their women and 
children. They were alarmed by the determined 
encroachments of England. All the old French 
forts were manned with ^British troops; and new 
forts built far out along the great lakes, formed 
lines in their rear. So it was, that these renown- 
ed warriors felt that a great effort must be made 
to exterminate the whites and drive them be- 
yond the Great Mountains, leaving to the old 
owners of the Great Valley, hunting grounds and 
all to the West, including their Big Woods ter- 
ritory beyond the Ohio. The time had come 
for them to defend their rights and recover them 
from the whites, or be driven out and become 
wandering tribes forever. History is so full of 
the destructive war these tribes plunged the 
country into, 1764-65, that we cannot give space 
for more than a brief mention, to show the con- 
nection of the Lower Valley with another Indiail 
war. The object was now to recover all the 
country from the Lakes to the Carolinas. Hos- 
tilities were opened by wholesale murders of the 
Indian traders, only two out of 120 escaping. 
Whole garrisons along the great Lakes, were 
slaughtered. Furious attacks were made on Fort 
Pitt. That garrison was reinforced, and held 
out, though they suffered a loss of over one hun- 
dred in killed and wounded. We may briefly add 
here, that it was during this war that the Wyom- 
ing massacre occurred, and many settlements 
were desolated on the Susquehanna. 

Several battalions of Virginians — ^men of the 
Valley region — were engaged in this new and 
most destructive of all the Indian wars; which 
terminated in the Aiftumn of 1764, after more 
than a year of butchery along the entire border 

settlements, which was especially destructive to 
the western sections of the two Valley counties, 
Frederick and Augusta. A peace was effected 
that was to leave all the territory embraced in 
the two counties, forever free from the Indian 
claim. The Indian Confederacy entered into a 
treaty with the British and Colonists. This 
treaty, the chiefs endeavored to have their tribes 
live up to, and no more enter the white man's 
country. Some excursions were made, but only 
to hunt and wander over their old haunts; and 
they were very peaceably disposed for several 
years. But in 1773, some white men who desired 
revenge for the murder of their wives in the wars 
previous to this period, killed several Indians. 
The Indians retaliated, and made preparations 
for an uprising. This brings us to what has 
been called Dunmore's War. He was then Gov- 
ernor of Virginia; and regarding the situation 
as one requiring his personal attention, he called 
for volunteers from the Valley counties — Freder- 
ick and her three new offsprung counties, Shenan- 
doah, Hampshire and Berkley, and also Augusta. 
Very soon. Col. Andrew Lewis had a force of 
1,000 men moving from Augusta towards the 
Ohio and Kanawha Rivers; while the Governor 
with ten companies from the lower counties, 
proceeded towards Fort Pitt, where there seem- 
ed to be some conflict of authority. In the 
spring of 1774, Kercheval says: "Daniel Morgan 
and James Wood, commanded two of the com- 
panies." The names of other officers of the ten 
companies may appear later on, under the head 
of "Sketches of certain families." Several prom- 
inent men on the frontier have been held re- 
sponsible for this unfortunate event. Chief 
among them were Capt. Michael Cresap, com- 
manding the port at Wheeling, and Col. Crogh- 
an and his nephew. Dr. John Connolly, both am- 
bitious and strong men — true and loyal to Vir- 
ginia concerning her claim as to certain disputed 
territory around Pittsburg, then unsettled be- 
tween Virginia and Pennsylvania, (which subject 
will be fuller treated in other pages of this 
work). Connolly took possession of Fort Pitt, 
and partly razed and dismantled it, and then 
built one to his own liking on the old founda- 
tion, calling it Fort Dunmore. 

Capt. Cresap was a willing ally of Connolly's 
in his independent war on the Indians. He had 
not believed in sparing life, so far as concerned 
the Indians, and now exhibited desire to exter- 
minate the race if possible. A careful study 
of the causes and instigators of this Dunmore 
War, will repay the reader, and enable him to 
place the blame where it rightfully 1>elongs. 
This war resulted in great loss of life, principally 
in Col. Lewis's command, in his marches through 



the mountains and frequent ambuscades, finally 
ending with great loss of life at Point Pleasant, 
October 10, 1774 — a memorable day. Some of the 
survivors have left recorded facts relating to 
the deperate fighting on both sides. The far- 
famed Shawnee Chieftain Cornstalk, commander- 
in-chief; Logan, renowned as well for his ora- 
tory as for his adroitness as a captain in battle 
and other chiefs, supported by brave Red war- 
riors on the one side; and the Lewis brothers 
with their famous captains and the White heroes 
of the other wars, on the other, made this final 
struggle along the Ohio, one that has become 
famous the world over. Col. Lewis won a vic- 
tory and drove the Tribes across the Ohio; 
pursued them some distance, and was overtaken 
by Dunmore with his Lower Valley Companies, 
and was informed that he, the Governor, had 
already effected arrangements for a new treaty. 
Viewing this final struggle of the Cresap-Con- 
nelly-Dunmore War, as we see it now, shorn of 
all prejudice and hatred between the races, we 
are forced to the conclusion that it was precipi- 
tated by the Crcsap-Connelly Confederation for 
no other motives than greed and revenge; their 
ambition being to plant new colonies on cap- 
tured territory regardless of all treaties, and 
secure from the complaisant Governor grants for 
thousands of acres of the Ohio country, and 
then parcel it out to the new settlers at their 
own price and terms. Dunmore frustrated their 
plans by his treaty; thus securing the friendship 
of the hostile tribes so far as he was concern- 
ed, but leaving bitterness and discontent between 
the Colonists who had been drawn into the war. 
Dissensions soon arose between Lewis's branch 
of the service and the Cresap factions; and the 
border was again inflamed with fearful results. 
The brave Lewis and his whole force believed 
that Dunmore had deliberately planned for the 
annihilation of the gallant little army that had 
crossed over from the Greenbrier country, to 
aid the settlers along the Ohio to repel invasions 
from the Redmen. More than one writer has 
charged Dunmore with duplicity with the Cre- 
sap-ConnoUy factions, to incite feuds and jeal- 
ousies between the Colonists, to blind them to 
his British master's oppressions, by whom the 
rights of the struggling colonists were disre- 
garded. But his plans were broken by the ter- 
rible battle of the Point. Lewis and his noble 
survivors emerged from that conflict to become 
household words through succeeding generations, 
for their heroism, while the name of Dunmore 
was expunged from the records of the Valley 
for his perfidy and brutality. That there was 
discontent among the settlers along the Ohio, 
there can be no question of doubt. The line 

between the two colonies of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, had not been fully determined. The 
conflict of ruling authority in the territory ad- 
jacent to Fort Pitt, was giving much concern. 
The two Colonial governments were at wordy 
war; and when Dunmore marched with his army 
to Fort Pitt, with the declared purpose of 
aiding the Cresap-Connolly factions to suppress 
the Indian uprising, he, immediately upon his ar- 
rival, sanctioned what Connolly had done, in 
usurping the claim to all the country around 
Fort Pitt and to the West. This he had claimed 
as within the jurisdiction and control of Vir- 
ginia, ignoring all claims of Pennsylvania, whose 
citizens were made prisoners and punished for 
their refusal to recognize him as the Assistant 
Governor of Virginia. This question grew so 
serious, that the Congress in session at Phila- 
delphia in 1775, was appealed to by many set- 
tlers along the Ohio, to carve out another State 
and recognize their grants. The members of 
that Congress from Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
issued an address to the complaining sections of 
the western border, and urged them to aban- 
don all contentions and animosities, and devote 
their united efforts to sustaining the country 
in the great struggle for independence, and save 
the infant Republic from British rule. 

This address was signed by P. Henry, Rich- 
ard Henry Lee, Benjamin Harrison, 
Thos. Jefferson, John Dickinson, Geo. 
Ross, B. Franklin, Jas. Wilson and 
Charles Humphreys, 
dated Philadelphia, July 25th, 1775. 

This patriotic effort failed to quiet the claims 
of the border people; but the love of country 
drew their attention to the impending conflict 
between the colonies, — now States, and England; 
and the disputed claims were allowed to rest 
until the close of the great Revolution : of which, 
more anon. 

Returning to the treaty effected by Dunmore 
at Camp Charlotte, on the Ohio River, the Gov- 
ernor immediately set out for Williamsburg, the 
seat of Government, leaving behind him Cresap 
and Connolly bitter enemies — each bent upon the 
overthrow of the other. Genl. Lewis, chagrined 
at the domineering conduct of the Governor, 
who showed no appreciation of the terrible sac- 
rifices made by the Point Pleasant heroes, obeyed 
the order to return to Greenbrier and there dis- 
band his forces. 

Of the treaty something should be said: The 
principal chiefs and warriors assembled in grand 
council, to consider Dunmore*s offers. Many 
were sullen, and not disposed to yield to Long 
Knives, as they called the White commander. 
Cornstalk, the Shawanese Chief and acknowledge 



ed King of the Northern Confederacy, had given 
his word that peace could be effected with his 
people. He had in battle given his orders, which 
were implicitly obeyed; but in this council, his 
warrior tribes had to be dealt with by argument; 
and being gifted with eloquence, he had great 
power over them. One of Dunmore's staff of- 
ficers. Col. Richard Willson, in his interesting 
history of the Dunmore expedition, speaking of 
the august attitude of the great chief, pending 
the many discussions of the articles of peace, 
says : "I have heard the first orators in Virginia, 
Patrick Henry and R. H. Lee, but never have I 
heard one whose power of delivery surpassed 
that of Cornstalk.'' 

Cornstalk succeeded in obtaining consent from 
nearly all the tribes of his confederacy. The 
other chief, of equal renown, was Logan. He 
refused to leave his tent to take part in the 
peace proceedings — He had no faith in the bor- 
der White settlers. He believed they were bent 
upon the complete overthrow and destruction 
of the Indian — He had agreed to more than one 
treaty, broken by the Whites. Their villages 
had been destroyed, and many peaceable men 
of his tribe had been recently murdered; and 
he was sore in heart. The loss of his forest 
home, to be taken by the White stranger, his 
kindred all killed. No wonder that he hesitated 
to enter into treaty with the same people. The 
Governor knew the importance of securing this 
Chiefs assent to the peace settlement; and com- 
missioned several of his officers to visit Logan 
in his tent and use every effort to have him 
come before the council. He declared he would 
not oppose the treaty made by Dunmore, but 
refused to meet the Whites in council. We are 
indebted to one of these officers for preserving 
an incident in this warrior's life, that gave him 
more fame, perhaps, than any other Redman 
ever attained, for the pathetic picture he drew 
of the Race and their traits. It will be remem- 
bered that it has been shown that the Tribes 
composing this Northern Confederacy, spoke a 
language that had become somewhat familiar 
to the Colonists. So we need not be surprised 
to learn from one of these officers, that Logan 
impressed him so much with his statement of 
the wrongs he had suffered from the White man 
in his onward march westward, and what he 
had offered to the friendly settler when he went 
his way, that they understood every word he 
uttered, and gave his speech in his reports of 
the treaty. 

Mr. Jefferson, the gifted orator of Virginia, 
in his celebrated notes on the Indian Wars, 
speaking of his treaty, says: "I may challenge 
the whole orations of Demosthenes and Cicero, 

and of any more eminent orators, if Europe has 
furnished more eminent, to produce a single 
passage superior to it." Doubtless this oration 
has often been repeated by the reader, when a 
school boy; and here it is to remind him of 
an era he may have forgotten: 

'7 appeal to any White to say if he ever en- 
tered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him 
not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and 
he clothed him not. During the course of the 
last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle 
in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was 
my love for the Whites, thai my countrymen 
pointed as they passed and said: * Logan is the 
friend of the White man,' I had even thought 
to live with you, but for the injuries of one 
man. Colonel Cresap the last Spring, in cold 
blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations 
of Logan, not even sparing my women and chil- 
dren. There runs not a drop of my blood in the 
veins of any living creature. This called on me 
for revenge. For my country I rejoice at the 
beams of peace; but do not harbor a thought 
that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt 
fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his 
life. Who is there to mourn for Logon; not one.*' 

it is a matter of history that the two distin- 
guished warriors mentioned, were faithful to 
the terms of the treaty, though some writers 
charge them with treachery and a return to 
deeds of butchery. This is not sustained by facts. 

We have traditional history to acquaint us 
with their lives during the next three years; 
but it is not of material interest to relate. They 
were friendly with the Whites, and lived on 
peaceful terms with all the border people. Corn- 
stalk often related how the warlike tribes were 
in a state of discontent, and felt that the Whites 
were disregarding the terms of the treaty, and 
claimed that his powerful tribe, the Shawanese, 
were not disposed to redress their wrongs ex- 
cept by the mode the treaty provided. It must 
be remembered that the country was on the 
threshold of the Revolutionary War. England 
held the captured army posts lying beyond the 
Chillicothe Indian villages, all manned with reg- 
ular British troops. She had viewed with anxiety 
the spirit of independence manifested in the 
colonies; and hoping to allay this spirit, encour- 
aged the discontented Indians to resist encroach- 
ments made along the border, principally along 
the (^hio River settlements. So when the spring 
of 1777 came, the Indians were looking to the 
British officers for help; and refused to further 
treat with the colonists. Cornstalk viewed this 
state of affairs in the Indian encampments, with 
so much uneasiness, that he and Red Hawk 
visited the Point Pleasant Post, then held by the 



Virginians under Capt. Arbuckle, an old Indian 
fighter who had been the celebrated guide for 
Genl. Lewis's expedition three years previous. 
Cornstalk told the Captain that all the nations 
had joined the English except himself and the 
Shawanese, and that unless they were protected 
by the Whites, "they would have to swim with 
the stream." Capt. Arbuckle blundered in his 
decision. He determined not to allow Corn- 
stalk and his friends to return, but held them 
as hostages for the good conduct of his power- 
ful tribe. This was unfortunate: Cornstalk felt 
that the post had violated the rules of war. 
They came with good intentions, and he virtu- 
ally as the accredited agent for his tribe; and 
he should have been allowed safe return; and 
more than likely the friendly relations might 
have been maintained; and the influence of this 
powerful tribe on the other nations, might have 
resulted in beneficial changes in the next few 
years. It was natural that the Shawanese peo- 
ple grew anxious when their chief and his peo- 
ple failed to return. His son and two young 
warriors grew suspicious, and came to the op- 
posite side of the river; and the son succeeded 
in attracting the attention of some of the garri- 
son who rowed over and brought the son over to 
see his father. He too was made a prisoner 
upon his arrival at the Fort; and it is related 
that Cornstalk then said he had been betrayed; 
and if the Whites desired to kill him, to do so; 
that he was not afraid to die. To be fair in 
this statement concerning the affair, it must be 
mentioned that the two warriors who remained 
on the other side of the river, killed a man 
named Gilmore, a returning hunter from the 
Indian reservation. His body was found and 
brought over to the Fort. Then the cry was 
heard: "Let us kill the Indians in the Fort" 
The party was led by one, Capt Hall, a man 
who had boasted of his triumphs in many per- 
sonal encounters with Indians. They rushed into 
the fort and poured deadly volleys upon the un- 
protected and helpless Cornstalk and his six com- 
panions. This was no triumph for Hall to boast 
of. More than once has his name been men- 
tioned in condemnation of the man who insti- 
gated the cold-blooded murder of a warrior, far 
superior to himself in prowess of arms, as well 
as honor. This brilliant Indian warrior had in 
more than one foray, other than regular war- 
fare, been the leader in atrocious massacres of 
innocent settlements in the great Valley and the 
mountains; but we must remember, this mode 
of savage warfare was practiced to overcome 
the Whites and drive them back from their 
hunting grounds, as well as to glut their ven- 
geance. Their grievances were hard; and fear- 
fully did this chieftain avenge them; tragically 

did he atone for his misdeeds. It may be added 
that Logan met a similar fate at the hands of 
trusted friends later on. These occurrences clos- 
ed the friendly relations between the two races 
that had existed for about three years; and the 
Indians became the useful allies of the British 
wherever they could be used to harrass the 
colonies. The dusky warrior was once more 
in the field so attractive to him. All their nat- 
ural instincts were for war. But the Indian 
wars with the Colonies that had been ruthlessly 
conducted for nearly thirty years, had now ceas- 
ed; and the war of the Revolution was upon 
the war-stricken Valley. 

The Author has already taken too much space 
to show the connection of the Valley people with 
the celebrated Indian Wars; and realizes that he 
has left untold many interesting and historic 
incidents of the great struggle for supremacy 
between the two races, in his meagre account 
of the general engagements. Later on he will 
recount more fully some of the Indian battles 
and massacres, in which the names of the vic- 
tims may be given, and also the habits and cus- 
toms prevailing among the Redmen of the 
Eighteenth Century. 

Having previously shown the trials, privations 
and losses to the Shenandoah Valley settlements, 
in their struggles to make good their gradual 
conquest of territory from Indian tribes; doubt- 
less the reader will conclude that warfare was 
the prime feature in the life of the first set- 
tlers; and having apparently returned to their 
peaceful avocations, that they were content to 
know war no more. But their history reveals 
them as ever alert to redress a wrong, coming 
from whatsoever source; and we are prepared 
to accept what has been told of their readiness 
to investigate the grievances complained of 
against their own government Strange rumors 
were afloat concerning the situation around Wil- 
liamsburg. The Royal Governor of Virginia had 
for some time been regarded with suspicion. His 
actions along the Ohio border were well remem- 
bered; and it was known that he had determined 
to oppress and overawe the colonists, and force 
them to submit to increasing demands made by 
the Crown. Dunmore knew the discontent en- 
gendered by the act of the British Parliament 
in 1764, taxing certain articles imported for Am- 
erican consumption, and disapproved by them. 
They regarding it as a tax without their consent. 
The Colonies grew indignant, but no act of re- 
bellion occurred. Dunmore was preparing for 
any move made by the Virginians. In the fol- 
lowing year when the celebrated Stamp Act was 
passed, a general revolt of the Americans was 
disclosed. Virginia in the most pronounced man- 



ner» declared her position through the Patrick 
Henry resolutions, which were supported with 
such fervor and zeal by the distinguished men 
who composed the General Assembly, that their 
adoption became a matter of warning to the 
British Crown. The people of Virginia were 
anxious to avoid a conflict, and seemed unwill- 
ing to declare any intention that could be con- 
strued into a desire to become independent of 
the mother government. England misconstrued 
this apparent loyalty; and believed that the Colo- 
nies through fear of chastisement and oppres- 
sion, would never resort to arms to defend their 
rights. And, aside from this, the Royal Govern- 
ors were loyal to the Crown, and could keep in 
subjection those who were inclined to rebel. Be- 
ing thus deceived, England was led to commit 
the overt act, when her Parliament adopted the 
notorious Boston Port Bill, and prepared to 
enforce the collection of the tariff tax on the 
cargoes of tea then afloat in that harbor. Then 
it was that the fires of Rebellion were kindled 
in every hamlet. The Continental Congress in 
1776, as it is well known, declared for Indepen- 
dence; and the call went out for volunteers to 
defend their action; and thus the old Valley was 
again drawn into a war that taxed their patriot- 
ism as well as their resources. How they re- 
sponded will be shown later. We must follow 
the Virginia Governor; and see if he developed 
the infamous traits of character that Genl. 
Lewis and his followers had charged. Dunmore 
acting in concert with Genl. Gage, who was in 
command at Boston in the spring of 1775, l>y 
strategem undertook to carry out the order sent 
him by Genl. Gage; and the reader need not be 
surprised that the trusted messenger was Con- 
nolly of the Dunmore War notoriety. The object 
was to secure all the gunpowder in the Virginia col- 
ony, and thus prevent the colonists from supply- 
ing the soldiers who might arise in rebellion; 
so that without ammunition, they could be sup- 
pressed. Accordingly, the Governor contrived 
to have several English war-ships in easy call: 
One was sent up York River and anchored near 
Williamsburg. On the 20th of April, 1775, Dun- 
more seized the powder. This was done in the 
night. The English ship's captain with an army 
of soldiers marched from the landing over to 
Williamsburg and easily secured every keg of 
powder in the magazine and carried them to his 
ship. The next day, the Governor was openly 
charged with connection with the scheme; and 
to escape vengeance, answered that he feared an 
uprising of the slaves and was preparing for 
such an emergency. The people soon realized 
the extent of his dastardly work, and were 
aroused from mountain to sea. The volunteer 
companies hastened towards Williamsburg. Pat- 

rick Henry at the head of one body of men, 
boldly marched upon the Governor and offered 
him battle unless he returned the powder. To 
avoid a conflict, the Governor offered money in 
lieu of powder, which was accepted. He then 
had troops to land from the ships, to come and 
guard his palace. The Virginians never halted 
They were there for revenge; and the Governor, 
being a coward, fled from the scene of his re- 
cent perfidy and the palace where he had lived 
in regal splendor for years; and with his fam- 
ily hastened aboard one of the English ships, 
and with other ships that he gathered from 
the Chesapeake Bay, sailed into the Norfolk 
port, a town of about 7,000 people. From that 
point he sent messengers through the surround- 
ing country, to urge the negroes to insurrection, 
and aid him to destroy the rebellious population. 
Many slaves joined his army. His wanton de- 
struction of property and brutal treatment of 
helpless citizens revealed his true character. A 
battle was fought at a place called Great Bridge ; 
and after a desperate flght, the English fell back 
to Norfolk. The Governor was compelled to 
seek shelter in his ships once more. The Vir- 
ginians fired upon the ships. Dunmore then fired 
upon the town, which resulted in the total de- 
struction of the beautiful little seaboard city. 
Dunmore then sailed away to become a terror 
to other towns along the Chesapeake. He once 
sailed up the Potomac as far as Mount Vernon. 
After several other battles with the Colonial 
troops along certain shores, he sailed away with 
his fleet, carrying much plunder, and, as has 
been said by several historians, took with him 
about one thousand of the poor deluded slaves 
and sold them to the West Indies* planters. His 
case seems fully proven. His infamy and treach- 
ery to the Virginians was complete; and as al- 
ready stated, the Old Dominion did what she 
could to obliterate his name from her records, 
leaving only enough to tell of his double dealing. 
Had Dunmore forsaken his Royal master and 
been true to the Virginia Colony, he would have 
been her largest land owner. He had procured 
grants of land in many sections for many thous- 
and acres. He had Ave tracts in Hampshire 
County, viz.: 400 acres on both sides of North 
River and Great Ca-Capon; 229 on Little Capon, 
100 on Short Mountain; 284 on drains of South 
Branch; 129 on South Branch on the Great 
Wagon Road. These tracts were regarded as 
vacant after the Revolutionary War, and titles 
given to actual settlers. The 400 acres, after 
frequent changes, finally became the property of 
John A. Smith of Capon Bridge in 1879. In one 
of the deeds from Fairfax, he says: "This is 
one of the tracts surveyed by George Washing- 
ton," lying on East side of North River. 


Gleanings from the Old Courts, Succeeding 
the Revolutionary War 

In the preceding chapters relating to the wars, 
which terminated with American independence 
for the colonies, it is appropriate in this chapter 
to once more refer to the court proceedings and 
place in evidence the prompt recognition of the 
valued services of some of the old soldiers of 
the colonial period, — we do this to not only give 
the names of those recognized, but also to give 
dates of court orders as a reference where, by 
diligent search, others may be found not named 
in this limited list. It was during the Indian 
Wars that the General Assembly appointed Genl. 
James Wood, Capt. John Hite and Robert Ruth- 
erford, commissioners for Frederick County, to 
settle the accounts of troops for their services 
in the Colonial Wars and to persons for damages 
done by the Indians, and for supplies furnished 
the Continental Line Soldiers. A list was partly 
made and submitted to the Court; but before 
their work was completed. Col. Wood died. This 
list was not fully taken up until after peace was 
declared, though a few cases were considered 
during the Revolutionary War. We find this mat- 
ter taken up by the Court in 1788, when these 
and similar minutes appear at different Terms 
for several years: 

"Lieut Col. George Muse is allowed pay for 
services in the ist Va. Regiment prior to 1758." 

"James Jack allowed pay in Colonial Wars 
prior to 1758." 

"James MaGill, allowed pay in Colonial Wars 
prior to 1758." 

"Sept. 7, 1779, Francis Austin proved he was 
a Sergeant in the ist Old Ills. Regiment." 

"Rebecca Shanks, wife of Samuel Shanks, a 
soldier, is with two children allowed 25 pounds 
for her support for the ensuing year." 

At the Court held in 1780, old minutes con- 
tained the following, that may prove of suffi- 
cient interest to some reader as to induce him 
to examine those old records for traces of his 
ancestors. The minute submitted is to show what 
was required by the Virginia laws to obtain proof 
of services in the Continental Line and Colonial 

"Feby. 2, 1780, David Kennerly proved in 
Court his military service in Continental Army; 
was Quartermaster in Light Horse Troop in the 

Company of Capt. Robert Stewart in 1755, and 
was commissioner under Dr. Thomas Walker to 
the Troop on the Va. frontier; in 1758 was 
Q. M. to Va. Regiment commanded by Col. 
George Washington, and also Ensign; and in 

1762 served in Regiment command by Col. Adam 
Stephen; appointed Lieut, and served as Q. M. 
and asked for certificate for obtaining a Land 

"March 8, 1780, Adam Stephen appeared in 
Court; made oath that in 1754 he was appointed 
eldest Capt. in Col. Fry's Corps, and that upon 
death of Col. Fry, he was promoted to rank a 
Major in said Corps, and was at the battle of 
the Meadows : and with Genl. Braddock as Lieut- 
Col, of The Virginia Regiment and served un- 
der Col. Washington and then under Col. Bird; 
and was in command of the Regt. in the Spring 
of 1762 when disbanded, and has had no land 
except the 5,000 acres gotten by the King's pro« 
clamation of 1763." 

"March 8, 1780, Gabriel Throckmorton proved 
he was Sr. Lieut, in Col. Byrd's Regiment in 
1758, and that in 1759 served as Captain in Bat- 
talion commanded by Col. Peachy, for protec- 
tion of the frontier, and had never received but 
3,000 acres." (The old warriors placed high es- 
timates on their service, or very low on the 
thousands of acres they received as Indian 

At the same Court, "James McCallister proved 
that in May, 1763, he was a Lieut in the Penn. 
Regiment, and served during the French War, 
and produced his commission under the hand of 
James Hamilton, Lieut Gov. of Pennsylvania; 
and that he is an inhabitant of Virginia and has 
been for four years past." 

"George Rice proved that he had served as 
Captain on Staff in Brigade of the Pack-Horse 
War in Col. Boquet's expedition in 1756 to the 
westward, in the late War between Great Britain 
and France." 

"James Anderson proved he was Captain of 
the Jersey Blues in 1756 commanded by Col. 
Johnston, and that he has been an inhabitant of 
this State for the eight years past" 

"Daniel Hunsicker proved that in the year 

1763 he served as Lieut, in Col. French's Penn. 




Regiment, and that he is now an inhabitant 
of Virginia." 

"Mary Beatty whose husband is a soldier in 
the Colonial Army and has three children and 
unable to support them — is allowed 5 bushels 
of com and 50 lbs. of bacon." 

"Nov. 2, 1779, on motion of Major Genl. Chas. 
M. Lee, it is certified that he served as a Lieut, 
in the British Army in America in the year 
1755- (Note: This was the Genl. Lee who be- 
came Washington's enemy. Of him we will fur- 
ther speak.) 

*' Sarah Mounts, widow of Richard Mounts, a 
soldier in the Continental Line, allowed pen- 

"Francis Austin, Sergeant in the first Old Reg- 
iment, assigned his interest to Bryan Bruin." 

Feby. 29, 1780, we have a soldier receiving the 
attention of the Court: James Lane, arraigned 
for stealing a sum of money was adjudged guil- 
ty — and that the prisoner (being a soldier) be 
taken to the Public Whipping Post, and that 
the Sheriff do there give him thirty-nine lashes 
on his bare back, and Roland Baker, his accom- 
plice, for like reason be given the same punish- 
ment. These soldiers escaped a worse fate 
through the leniency of the stern Justices." 

"March 18, 1780, Christopher Fry proved he 
was a non-commissioned officer in 1756, and 
served in Col. Byrd's Regiment." 

"April, 1785, William McMuUin proved that 
his son John was a soldier in the Continental 
Line, and died in service, and never married — 
was allowed pay, etc." 

"John Smith, James Smallwood and (George 
Calames — allowances made for flour, etc., for 
use of the troops, and to Isaac Hite for one 

"Charles Magill and Francis Whiting qualified 
as attorneys at law." 

"Jany. 1786, Edward McGuire, President Jus- 
tice, was recommended by the Court as appoint- 
ment for Sheriff." 

The minutes of the Court from 1781 to 1784 
contain similar orders. 

"Nov. Court, 1784, Joseph Holmes produced 
his commission as Lieut Col., and at the May 
Court, 1785, was sworn as Sheriff." 

"June Ct, 1785, Isaac Hite Jr., sworn as Major. 

"Nov., 1784. John Kercheval Jr., and Samuel 
Kercheval and Wm. Taylor sworn as Deputy 

1788-89 Minute Books of County Court. 

"Ordered, That the Sheriff pay to Andrew 
Dent eight pounds, it being the amount of his 
Pension the last year, agreeable to a certificate 
from, under the hand and seal of his Excellency 
the Grovemor, — ^he having made oath according 
to law." 

"Ordered that it be certified that Mary Cook, 
a pensioner, continues an inhabitant of this 
County and in indigent circumstances, and the 
widow of Wm. Cook, deceased." 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do pay unto Leonard 
Cooper the sum of Fifty Pounds, it being the 
amount of his pension the last year." 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do pay unto George 
Hite the sum of Forty Pounds, it being the 
amount of his pension the last year." 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do pay to Catherine 
Helphinstine the sum of Twenty Pounds in full 
for two years Pension due to her on the 12th 
day of June last, 1788, as per certificate." 

"Ordered that it be certified that Catherine 
Helphinstine a pensioner, is still living in this 
County, in indigent circumstances and continues 
a widow." 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do pay unto Robt. 
Sherrard, agt., of John Wilson and Francis Wil- 
son, Orphans of John Wilson, deceased, the sum 
of Twenty Pounds, it being the amount of their 
Pension the last year." 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do pay unto Mar- 
garet Kreamer Eight Pounds, it being the 
amount of her pension the last year, agreeable 
to a certificate. 

"April Court: Ordered that the Sheriff do pay 
to Hannah Crawford One hundred and thirty- 
five Pounds, being the amount of her Pension 
the last year., etc." 

"Ordered the Sheriff pay William Rodering 
Twelve Pounds the amount of his Pension. 

"Ordered the Sheriff do pay George Hite Forty 
Pounds, it being amount of his Pension." 

"Ordered the Sheriff pay Arthur Dent Eight 
Pounds, it being the amount of his Pension the 
last year." 

"Ordered the Sheriff pay Peter Rust Ten 
Poundis, the amount of his Pension the last year." 

"Ordered the Sheriff pay to James Keeling 
Eight Pounds, it being the amount of his Pen- 
sion the last year." 

"Ordered the Sheriff do pay unto Mary Cook 
Twelve Pounds, it being the amount of her Pen- 
sion the last year, etc" 

"Ordered the Sheriff pay Leby Hellion 

it being the amount of her Pension the 

last year." 

"Ordered that John Hockman be recommended 
to be appointed Capt. of Militia of the County, 
Solomon Van Meter his Lieutenant, and Argyle 
Ashby his Ensign." 

"Ordered that Wm. Elzey be recommended to 
be appointed Capt of the Militia." (These are 
given as samples of many orders of Court en- 
tered in reorganizing the military establishment 
under the laws of new State.) 


Roads Opened and Overseers Appointed 1788-89 



Order Book— 1789-89 p^^^ 

From Haynes's tan yard to Crooked Run- 
Joseph Haynes, overs'r i 
Newton to Christman's Spring— John 

S. Williams, overs'r yj 

Kendrick's Upper Ford to Bucks 

Ford— John S. Williams, overs'r j8 
** Wiley's sawmill to Ashby's Gap — 

John S. Williams, overs'r 38 

" Brown's Lower Mill to Newton — John 

S. Williams, overs'r 40 

** Battletown to Lewis Lower Mill— John 

S. Williams, overs'r 84 

" From Lewis Neill's Mill to the road 

leading to Snicker's Ferry— ^William 

Tyler, overs'r 84 

" Newton to Chesters— William Tyler— 

overs'r 85 

" Colvin's Ford to Shenandoah River — 

Isaac Hite, Jr., overs'r 90 

•* Kite's Mill to Fry's Gap— Isaac Hite, 

Jr., overs'r 104 

" Stephensburg to Williams fence — Henry 

Stephens, overs'r 150 

" Winchester to Berrys Ferry — Henry 

Stephens, overs'r 151 

The New Road to Berkley line and to 

Brices — Henry Stephens, overs'r 15a 

The top of Little Mountain to Marlboro 

Forge — Henry Brill, overs'r 154 

Brown's tanyard to Newton — ^Jacob 

Leonard, overs'r 154 

" The Blue Ball Tavern to Berkley line- 
James Bruce, overs'r 159 
" Brown's Ferry to Front Royal— James 

Bruce, overs'r 170 

" Island Ford to Morgan's Ford — James 

Bruce, overs'r 171 

" Stephensburg to Chesters Gap — ^James 

Bruce, overs'r 173 

" Capt. Steads to the Warm Spring 

Road — Isaac Smith, overs'r 185 

" Zane's Forge towards Stover Town — 

Martin Haggy, overs'r 187 

" Buck Marsh Bridge to Old Chappel — 

Thos. Byrd., overs'r 187 

" Hekns Mill to the Main Road— Thos. 

Byrd, overs'r 226 










From Stephensburg to Chester Gap— Thos. 

Byrd, overs'r 226 

Gregory's Ford to the forks of Manas- 
sas Run, William Hood, overs'r 233 

Browns Lower Mill to Stephensburg, — 
William Hood, overs'r 241 

" Stephensburg to Williams — Discow, 

overs'r 242 

Through George Braxton's Planta- 
tion, Ord. 311 

" Langley's Spring to the Chappel 

Road — ^John Colvin, overs'r 312 

Helm's Mill to the Main Road— John 

Colvin, overs'r Ord. 321 

Philip Carpers to David Brown's New 

Mill— Ord. 321 

Buffaloe Lick to the road from 
Brown's Mill, Ord. 326 

" Livingstone's Lane to Hite's Mill- 
Edward Howe, overs'r. 326 
" Neills Mill to the Little North Moun- 
tain, Ord. 327 
" Colvin's Ford to Hites Ford— Isaac 

Hite, Jr., overs'r. 330 

Parkin's Mill to Redd's Ford— Robt. 

Allen, overs'r. 330 

Opecquon to the Forge— John Allan, 

overs'r. 331 

The Forge to Cedar Creek— Martin 

Haggy, overs'r. 331 

The Berkley line to Littlers Run — 
Abraham Branson, overs'r. 334 

" The School House in Stephensburg to 

Sutherlands field, Ord. 406 

" Philip Carpers to David Browns New 

Mill, Ord. 409 

" Stephensburg to Myers Mill, Ord. 409 
" Widow Coopers to Browns Mill — 

Ord. 409 

" Christopher Becks to Henry Lewises' 

Ord. 414 

" Lextons Mill to Josiah Ballingers 

Ord. 415 

The Road to Chesters Gap, to Manas- 

sa Gap — ^Wm. Vanort, overs'r 426 

Battletown to Snickers Ferry — Math-> 
ew Wright, overs'r. 502 

















From Romney Road to Hunting Ridge — 

Isaac Steer, overs V. 502 

" Sir Johns Road to the Berkley Line — 

William Catlett, overs'r. 502 

" Neills Mill to Lextons Mill — Andrew 

Shrack, overs'r. 503 

'* Brown's Orchard to the Chappel 

Road — John Lavore, overs'r. 503 

Road leading from Stroups Mill to 

Bruce Mill, Ord. 503 

Christopher Becks to Stephensburg 

Ord. 507 

Lextons Mill to Isaac Browns, Ord. 507 
Stephensburg to Bucks Ford, Ord. 507 
Road from Stone Bridge to Thurstons 

Mill. Ord. 508 

Littler's Mill to Grapes Ford — Ord. 511 
" Col. Briscoes to Winchester, Ord. 511 

" Winchester to Hoop Petticoat Gap — 

Saml. Carter, overs'r. 513 

The full minutes entered relating to the fore- 
going roads, describe the route taken, and give 
names to land owners affected by the new roads. 

August Term, 1788: 

This list of Grand Jurors at this Term is giv- 
en to show some of the old families serving the 
War, and ready to serve their country in a civil 
capacity : 

Thos. Byrd, Foreman; Francis Stribling, Jacob 
Grapes, Lewis M. Shaver, Jacob Roher, Jacob 
Bowen, Vance Bush, David Wilson, James Hen- 
ning, John Emmitt, Henry Catlett, Joseph King, 
Stephen Pritchard, Mabra Madden, Joseph An- 
derson. Seven of this number have entirely dis- 
appeared from our records, though the descend- 
ants, under other names, are residents of the 
Lower Valley at this writing. 

The Grand Jury presented several persons for 
various offences: several overseers of roads for 
not keeping their roads in repair. One is given 
to show the interest old Courts took in requir- 
ing good roads to the meeting houses: This 
appears at the November Term, 1788: 

"The Overseer of Road from Capt. Samuel 
Glass to Opecquon Meeting House presented, 
and indicted for not keeping said road in re- 

March Ct., 1789, 

"Alexander White, Esq., having been elected a 
member of Congress in the United States, which 
under a late Act of Assembly, it is the opinion 
of this Court vacates the office of Deputy States 
Attorney for this County, Whereupon the Court 
proceeded to the appointment of a person to act 
in that capacity, when Charles Magill, Sr. was 

unanimously appointed, and thereupon took the 
oath accordingly. 

It will be observed that the minutes of the 
Court, briefly given, embrace the entire period 
known as the War period. Although British 
rule was changed to that of Independent States, 
and a new order of government was gradually 
taking place, and fully inaugurated when the 
first Constitution was adopted by the Thirteen 
Colonies, the Colonies having in joint convention 
in Philadelphia, 17th day of September, 1787, 
fully established and ordained the celebrated 
Constitution and submitted it to the Stat^ for 
ratification, unavoidable delays occurred. Sev- 
eral States could not act promptly, owing to 
conflicting opinions. Virginia, however, soon had 
her government conform to the Articles of Un- 
ion and Confederation; and under her own Con- 
stitution, adopted June 29th, 1776, the courts had 
been recognized. But without any interruption 
so far as related to Frederick County prior to 
this radical change, the Courts were held in 
accordance with the spirit and authority of the 
Declaration of Independence. The only percep- 
tible change appearing to the casual reader, 
would be the disappearance of the usual open- 
ing Order: "By the Grace of God and of our 
Lord and Sovereign King, etc.;" and, taking its 
place. "By the Grace of God and authority of 
the Commonwealth of Virginia" — the Court was 
opened without comment. The first Court to 
convene after the Colonies had declared for In- 
dependence, was August 6th, 1776; and it may 
be well to enter here who composed this first 
Court, and what was presented for action: Pres- 
ent, John Hite, Isaac Hite, Chas. Mym Thrus- 
ton, John McDonald, John Smith and Edward 

"An Ordinance of the Honorable, the Conven- 
tion of the Commonwealth of Virginia, direct- 
ing that the different members named in the 
former Commission of the Peace, should con- 
tinue to act in the said office, upon their taking 
the oath prescribed in the said Ordinance:" 

"Whereupon Isaac Hite and Chas. Mynn 
Thurston administered the oath to John Hite; 
who took and subscribed the same, and then the 
said John Hite administered the said oath to all 
the aforesaid members, who took the same as 
Justices of the said Commonwealth." 

"James Keith took the oath as Clerk of Court — 
Henry Peyton took the oath as Deputy Qerk — 
Angus McDonald took the oath as Sheriff — 
Nathaniel Cartmell Jr., took the oath as Dep. 
Sheriff — Gabriel Jones, Alexander White, George 
Roots, Dolphin Drew, John Magill and Henry 
Peyton, Jr., took the oath as attorney." Such 
men deserve special mention, their patriotism 



being fully emphasized by this prominent action. 
The infant Republic had arrayed herself against 
the Mother Government; and to many doubtless, 
the declaration meant ruin for those who so 
boldly avowed their rebellion. Lord Fairfax, 
who had been the Presiding Justice and County 
Lieutenant under the Colonial Government, was 
noticeably absent. 

At a subsequent Term, the Court discovered 
that quite a number of the old Justices declined 
to appear and take the oath ; and in order to com- 
plete the list of Justices, the following gentle- 
men were named in this order: 

"Ordered, That Marquis Calames, Robert 
Wood, Wm. Gibbs, Philip Bush, Robt White. 
Joseph Holmes, Thomas Helm, Edward McGuire; 
and Edward Smith be recommended to his Ex- 
cellency, the Governor of the Commonwealth of 
Virginia as proper persons to be added to the 
Commission of the Peace for this County." 

William Booth, Warner Washington and 
Thomas Bryan Martin, three of the old mem- 
bers, declined to serve. 

During the War period, a number of persons 
were arraigned before the Court, charged with 
treason to the new Government. Fines were 
imposed, and in some cases jail sentences were 
executed. In consideration of the fact that many 
descendants of the Tory element were fully iden- 
tified as loyal supporters of the cause of Freed- 
om, names of such are omitted. Owing to this 
state of affairs, the Court proceeded to execute 
the law in relation to the loyalty of citizens; and 
at the November Term, 1777, we find this order: 

"Ordered, that Edward McGuire is appointed 
to administer the Oath of Fidelity, prescribed by 
law, to the inhabitants of Winchester, pursu- 
ant to the directions of an Act of the Genl. 
Assembly," (Dec, 1775, May, 1776). 

Thomas Helm, to administer oaths, etc., in 
the Districts of Captains Barrett, Ball and Mc- 

Joseph Holmes in the Districts of Captains 
Gilkerson, Nisewanger and Barron. 

Robert Throckmorton, in the Districts of 
Captains Wilson and Longacre. 

Wm. Gibbs, in the Districts of Captains Reyn- 
olds and Baldwin. 

Robert White, in the Districts of Captains 
Babb and Rinker. 

Edmund Taylor, in the Districts of Captains 
Farron and Catlett. 

John Hite in the Districts of Captain Helm. 

The law provided punishment for any who re- 
fused the oath. Fuller mention will be made 
about this Tory element. The reader will rec- 
ognize a singular coincidence of places and names 
in the following. Kercheval in his History of 

the Valley, says: "That while Genl. Morgan 
was taking a little needed rest near Winchester, 
after defeating Tarleton at the Battle of the 
Cowpens, the General was informed of a nest 
of Tories holding out in some force, on Lost 
River and South Fork in Hardy County, and 
was requested to lead an expedition to that sec- 
tion and quell the rebellion. The old warrior 
was soon on the march; arriving in the Lost 
River Valley, he found that John Claypole and 
his two sons were defying the authorities of that 
County. They were suppressed; and the expe- 
dition then proceeded to the stronghold of the 
other insurgents on the Fork, about fif- 
teen miles above Moorefield, where they 
found John Brake, a well-to-do German well 
fortified and determined ^to resist an attack. 
Brake and his insurgents had previously with- 
stood several attacks from the Militia, and had 
become very bold, and his band had increased in 
numbers. But they were now confronted by 
men who had come to subdue and not to parley. 
The house was surrounded; many Tories es- 
caped to the woods, however, and were not cap- 
tured; but the moving spirit, Brake, capitulated, 
and Morgan and his little army feasted on the 
products of the old Tory — farm, mill, distillery, 
beeves, pigs, lambs and poultry — while their 
horses enjoyed the unmown meadows, oat fields, 

Coincident with the foregoing, is the follow- 
ing, which occurred eighty-one years subsequent 
to the period referred to: It was while Genl. 
Turner Ashby was enjoying a needed rest after 
his arduous achievement, guarding and protecting 
the rear of Genl. Jackson's Army, as he slowly 
fell back from Banks' advance on Winchester 
in the Spring of 1862. The Valley Army was in 
camp in the vicinity of Lacey Springs, North 
of Harrisonburg. Ashby was informed that it 
was important to the Service to send a small 
force of Cavalry to Moorefield and take observa- 
tions of any Federal columns moving from West 
Virginia points towards the Valley; and while on 
this expedition, to discover certain parties in 
that section that had been reported to Jackson 
as enemies who secretly reported every movement 
of the Confederates to the Washington Govern- 
ment; and that when discovered, the system 
must be destroyed. Ashby proceeded at once 
to select men who were by their residence famil- 
iar with the country. For this service the author's 
Company was detailed — Company B, of the 17th 
Battalion, Ashby's Brigade, W. H. Harness, Cap- 
tain. The officers and men were enjoined to 
avoid engagements with the enemy. The Com- 
pany, by circuitous marches, crossed the moun- 
tains and Lost River; thence over the mountain 



via Howard's Lick, and halted at Gunpowder 
Springs near MooreBeld, fully obscured from 
view either by citizens or the Federal troops then 
occupying the Moorefield Valley. The next day 
the Company was divided into three detach- 
ments, to reconnoitre the Post Information had 
been obtained from trusted persons that there 
was a nest of Swamp Dragons far up on South 
Fork, on Brake's Run, and that they must be 
the men we were expected to capture. Capt. 
Harness was too well known in that section to 
take the lead; and he detailed the writer to 
head the detachment, composed of as wary and 
brave men as ever bestrode a horse. They start- 
ed out well aware that prudence was the better 
part of valor. It was well known the Federal 
scouts wore grey uniforms and it was deemed 
best to approach the house and play the Jesse 
Scout trick of war. This was regarded by some 
as reckless, as the detachment might be am- 
bushed. The writer was allowed to try the ex- 
periment of deception. The few men found in 
the house readily accepted the situation, and 
eagerly told what they knew about Rebels, ex- 
pressing a desire that we would some day cap- 
ture that Captain Harness, Samuel Alexander, 
Jim Lobb and several others, members of our 
Company. They had just returned from the 
Federal Camp and had heard this scouting party 
had gone in that direction, and were fully pre- 
pared to expect their arrival any hour. This 
was a bit of news that had to be heeded; and 
the party was preparing to move off, when Brake 
the owner of the property insisted the boys must 
have dinner. This was hastily taken by a few, 
the remainder standing guard to give notice of 
the approach of Federals. Brake was informed 
that he and his party must accompany the detach- 
ment to camp and there be identified as loyal and 
true; which was agreed to. Brake, his son-in- 
law. Pope, and several others were soon on the 
trot, marching towards Moorefield, but when 
within three miles of the camp, our little cohimn 
filed to the right, crossing the mountains to Lost 
River, and thence to the Valley Headquarters, 
where the prisoners were interviewed by Genl. 
Jackson. It is needless to say they soon dis- 
covered the trap they had fallen into. They 
were kindly treated by our party; and when a 
squad of Co. A, of Ashby's Command, made a 
dash to take them from our g^uards while rest- 
ing at Cootes' store in Shenandoah County, Cap- 
tain Harness and the writer and one Guard, 
Jim Cunningham, had bullets to pass through 
our clothing, and a man named Mason of Co. 
A, one of the attacking party, was badly wound- 
ed in the foot. This Co. A recognized two of 
the prisoners as members of a gang that had 

killed one of their men. This digression must 
now end. The author hopes some survivors of 
the old Company may read these incidents and 
be able to recall the hardships of that expedition. 
Fuller notice may be given this expedition later 

The incidents narrated above, suggested to the 
writer another, in which Tarleton, the notorious 
British Colonel that Morgan had defeated, made 
himself famous in his effort to capture Mr. Jef- 
ferson, the Virginia Governor, and the General 
Assembly then at Charlottesville. We have sev- 
eral versions of this exploit of the Colonel — one 
from Howe, p. i66, and one from Tucker's Life 
of Jefferson. We will take the liberty to draw 
from both: 

In May, 1781, when Comwallis invaded Vir- 
ginia, the Legislature adjourned from Richmond 
to Charlottesville, as a place of greater safety. 
In June, Tarleton was detached to Charlottes- 
ville, with 180 Cavalry of his legion and 7 
mounted Infantry, with directions to surprise the 
General Assembly, seize the person of Jefferson, 
then the Governor, and do such other things as 
the partizan Colonel chose. A gentleman who 
was in the neighborhood of the British Army, 
suspected Tarleton's object and was able to give 
Jefferson two hours' notice. Quite a commotion 
occurred; the Governor hastened to make his 
escape, but took time to adjourn the Assembly 
to re-assemble on the 7th of June at Staunton. 
All escaped capture except seven members. Tarle- 
ton entered Monticello, Jefferson's mansion, ten 
minutes after the Governor had gotten away 
with his family. The British soldiery perpetrat- 
ed the most wanton acts of destruction, pillage 
and robbery— cattle and horses driven off, and 
unbroken horses killed, barns and fences burn- 
ed, and growing crops of corn and tobacco de- 
stroyed. The surrounding country for miles suf- 
fered. Tucker says: "Thirty thousand slaves 
were taken from Virginia by the British in these 
invasions, of whom it is computed twenty-seven 
thousand died of the small-pox, or camp fever. 
The whole amount of property carried off and 
destroyed during the six months preceding Com- 
wallis' surrender, has been estimated at 3,000,000 
pounds sterling." Similar wanton destruction 
occurred in later years, conducted by such de- 
mons as David Hunter. Tarleton entered Char- 
lottesville on the 4th day of June ; Mr. Jefferson's 
Term as Governor expired four days after. Ex- 
Governor Patrick Henry had been the Governor's 
guest during the session, but now hastened to- 
wards Staunton to join the General Assembly. 
Mr. Henry has been distinguished for many en* 
viable traits; but here is an incident that has 
not been told so often that it may not be re- 



peated. Governor Gilmer has left many inter- 
esting stones relating to the dispersion of the 
statesmen at Charlottesville. One is that Mr. 
Jefferson concealed himself in Carter's Mountain, 
and that Patrick Henry, in his flight to Staun- 
ton, met Col. Lewis in one of the streets, to 
whom he related the adjournment and flight of 
the Legislature, then on their way to Staunton. 
Col. Lewis, not knowing who the stranger was, 
said to him: "If Patrick Henry had been in 
Albemarle, the Birtish Dragoons never would 
have passed over the Rivanna River." 

The legislators were badly demoralized; for 
we And they felt Staunton was unsafe, and 
dreaded Tarleton might suddenly appear in their 
midst. Quite a number left during the night, 
and sought the hospitable home of Col. Geo. 
Moffett, near which there was a cave that would 
afford a safe retreat. During Mr. Henr>''s hasty 
changes, he had the misfortune to lose one of 
his boots. While partaking breakfast the next 
morning, the hostess, Mrs. Moffett, who was an 
enthusiastic Whig, remarked: "There was one 
member of that Legislative body she knew would 
not run." The question was asked by one of the 
party: "Who is he;" Her reply was "Patrick 
Henry." At that moment a gentleman with one 
boot colored perceptibly. The party soon left, 
and after their departure a servant rode up with 
the lost boot and enquired for Mr. Henry, stat- 
ing that Patrick Henry had left Staunton in 
such haste that he had forgotten his boot Of 
course, Mrs. Moffett knew at once who it was 
the boot fitted. 

The foregoing incidents serve to show the 
frenzied condition of the period which we now 
treat of, 1776-1788. 

The Fathers of the Revolution possessed many 
traits that we fail to appreciate at this late 
day; and it might be well to briefly state their 
situation, when they wrote the memorable words: 
"The regal government is totally dissolved." 
No other form of government had then been 
adopted. Henning tells us: "The militia laws 
had been suffered to expire; the revenues of the 
Crown were in the hands of its late officers, from 
which they were not extracted until a late per- 
iod; and when they dared that hazardous enter- 
prise of Revolution, found themselves without 
a government — without men — and without money. 
Indeed, they had nothing to support them in the 
awful contest, but their own virtue and talents, 
and a firm reliance on the Sovereign Disposer 
of all events." But there was no halting — On- 
ward was their slogan in Council or in the armies. 
The wheels of government could not turn with- 
out money, and many schemes were adopted 
to husband the products of the farms and mills; 

Committees of Safety were created; stringent 
laws enacted by all the Colonies to prevent waste 
of supplies, and to encourage economy in all 
things but brain and muscle. The Continental 
Congress saw the need of issuing paper money, 
which they styled continental money. It became 
necessary to resort to the scheme five times 
during the War. The dates and amounts of is- 
sue were as follows, and its value at certain 
periods : 

I775» June 22, issued $2,000,000, and together 
with other issues to 1781, $2,000,000, were issued, 
and of this none redeemed. 

^777f January, paper currency 5 per cent, dis- 
count; in July, 25 per cent., and before the end 
of the year $3 in paper would not purchase one 
in silver. 

1778, April, $4 in paper to one dollar in coin. 

September, $5 to one in coin, and in Dec., 
$6.50 to one in coin. 

i779» Feby., $8.50; May $12; Sept., $18 to 
one in coin. 

1780, March, $1 in paper three cents; May, 
two cents; and Dec, $74 in paper was worth 
one dollar in silver. 

This worked havoc among the soldiers at 
Valley Forge and elsewhere. Old Confederate 
soldiers will see from the foregoing similar trials 
experienced by the soldiers of Lee in the Winter, 


The Prohibitionists of the present day, in their 
sweeping efforts to suppress traffic in intoxicat- 
ing beverages, may be surprised to learn that 
their movement is not more radical than meas- 
ures adopted by the State one hundred and twen- 
ty-nine years ago. The Act of Assembly speaks 
for itself: 

"October, 1778 — ^3rd year of the Common- 
wealth — 

Whereas the great quantity of grain consumed 
in the distilleries, will increase the present alarm- 
ing scarcity. Be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly, That no kind of spirituous liquors shall 
be distilled from Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, 
barley, buckwheat, meal or flour, within this 
Commonwealth, between the fifteenth day of 
February next and the fifteenth day of October 
next." Severe penalties were provided for all 
violators of the law. This was regarded as an 
emergency act. The law was repealed in 1779, 
whether by reason of a surplus of grain ob- 
tained by the prohibitive Act, or because the 
legislators became alarmed at the scarcity of 
spirits around their base of operations; for be 
it remembered that lawmakers then, as now. were 
cautious concerning their individual wants. 

The General Assembly, during the trying War 
period, was confronted by grave issues that 




emanated from the States of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. These had to receive much at- 
tention; and as Frederick County was directly 
concerned in those issues, brief mention will 
be given: The issue was the Cession of the 
North-West Territory, that Frederick and Au- 
gusta had fought singly and alone to wrest from 
the grasp of the Redmen and their French al- 
lies, and had maintained their supremacy over, 
up to the time when the two States objected to 
such claims of Virginia. They hesitated in sign- 
ing the Articles of Confederation between the 
States, until Virginia should yield her rights 
(which the two States denied she had), and 
cede her pretended interest in all territory West 
of the Ohio River. Maryland was a stumbling 
block to confederation, refusing to take any step 
until a guaranty was given that all the States 
should have joint interest in the territory through 
the United States Compact. The situation was 
perilous. British statesmen watched the contro- 
versy with increasing interest. One of the states- 
men, in a familiar address to Parliament, pre- 
dicted that the jealousies and discord between 
the States would result in disruption and inter- 
nal strife, and that the cause of American free- 
dom must become a myth, and for this reason 
if for no other, war should be waged more vig- 
orously. Virginia had patriotic statesmen who 
were willing to make greater sacrifices, if need 
be, to secure a compact between the States; and 
has left in evidence her acts and her reasons. 
The Genl. Assembly, Jany. 2, 1781, after ex- 
hausting all plans for settlement, finally yield- 
ed and published the following: "The General 
Assembly of Virginia, being well satisfied that 
the happiness, strength and safety of the United 
States depend, under Providence, upon the rati- 
fication of the Articles for a Federal union be- 
tween the United States, heretofore proposed by 
Congress for the consideration of the said States, 
and preferring the good of their country to every 
object of smaller importance — 

Do Resolve, That this Commonwealth will 
yield to the Congress of the United States, for 
the benefit of said United States, all right, title 
and claim that the said Commonwealth hath 
to the territory northwest of the river Ohio, 
upon the following conditions, to-wit: That 
the said territory so ceded shall be laid out and 
formed into States containing a suitable extent 
of territory, and shall not be less than one hun- 
dred nor more than one hundred and fifty miles 
square." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Other provisions were made to protect per- 
sons already seated in the territory, and West 
Virginia Soldiers in locating their land war- 
rants, especially those of the Col. George Rogers 

Clarke expedition. The Articles, being ratified 
after this Act of Virginia, harmony prevailed; 
and the United Colonies laid aside their internal 
dissensions, and gathered renewed strength to 
overcome the invaders and secure peace. 

During the War period, church dissensions 
had increased; and the element known as Dis- 
senters had become prominent throughout the 
Colony for their patriotism and zeal in the Cause 
of Freedom, while the established church ex- 
hibited such a htke-warm interest in the Cause, 
that many of the ministers who had received 
support from the State, deserted their standard 
and also refused assistance to the Cause. This 
produced such intense feeling as to require no- 
tice by the Assembly. Beginning in 1776 with 
remonstrances, the clergy were notified that dis- 
senters would not be required to contribute to 
their support. This allayed in part the feeling 
of discontent; but this measure once inaug^urat- 
ed, other demands were made, and the subject 
threatened disaffection. Many good churchmen 
were in active service, and felt agrieved at the 
Acts of the legislative body, while the dissen- 
ters demanded that the Church and State should 
separate, and let all religious bodies have an equal 
right. So we find these issues agitated the body . 
politic to such an extent that various compro- 
mises were tried. Kone, however, would satisfy 
the dissenters, who now had become a power 
in the land, but an adherance to their demand. 
The ministers of the Established Church must 
depend upon their parishioners for their support 
The Assembly hesitated to repeal the law, and 
continued from session to session to suspend 
payment; and thus it continued until the close 
of the War. The wedge had entered, however, 
and the time was approaching when this tower 
of strength, the Established Church had clung 
to so tenaciously, must be riven from base to 
cone. These and other dissensions not men- 
tioned, often gave serious admonitions. The 
zeal and patriotism of the masses prevailed, and 
the Glorious Independence was finally achieved. 

During the great struggle, the State was com- 
pelled to resort to a most trying plan to recruit 
the depleted regiments ; the militia was thoroughly 
organized, and the scheme for drafting men that 
has always dampened the ardor of many quasi 
supporters of war, was regarded as a burden, 
and rigorous measures were adopted. Commis- 
sions were created in every County, which were 
required under penalty to list the able-bodied 
men and draw therefrom, as the exigencies re- 
quired. At first it was every twenty-fifth man; 
then the twentieth; finally resorting to every 
tenth. The counties were required to equip the 



new levies, who were hurried away to the Con- 
tinental Line. The Quakers and Menoists were 
required to furnish substitutes, and their socie- 
ties compelled to pay what was agreed upon by 
the Commission. All of this was harrassing, and 
produced distress. We are glad to say that the 
Draft fell lightly on the Valley section. Her 
citizens seem to have been soldiers and patriots; 
for we find Frederick had furnished her quota 
by volunteers, while in some counties the Draft 
exceeded one hundred men. 

During this period, the General Assembly 
found it uncomfortable to remain at Williams- 
burg; so we find that body in May, 1779, passed 
an Act to remove the Capital to Richmond, and 

provided that six whole squares should be se< 
cured for the public buildings, and accommoda** 
tions found as soon as practicable for the ses- 
sions to be held at that town. The Fathers 
were more expeditious in those days than now; 
for we find at their next session, about twelve 
months after they passed the above Act, this 
language. "At a General Assembly begun and 
held at the Public Buildings in the Town of 
Richmond on Monday the first day of May, 
1780." This indicates their fitness for those stir- 
ring times. We must add, however, that Henri- 
co County placed her Court House at the disposal 
of the Assembly, and in the Public Building 
the sessions were held. 


Revolutionary War Period (Continued) — Officers and 
Enlisted Men Prom Old Prederick 

The author has been frequently asked who 
were the Shenandoah Valley men to render ser- 
vice in the dark days of the War 1775-83; and 
desiring to give some answer, submits the fol- 
lowing, which doubtless will be disappointing, 
because of its incomplete list. Efforts have been 
made by hundreds of chroniclers to find dates 
pertaining to that period, all of whom acknowl- 
edge their inability to collect such desirable in- 
formation, owing to the irregular records of the 
official army reports that found their way to 
what became in after years the Bureau of Mili- 
tary Records. It is a reasonable conclusion that 
many of the old leaders were not as efficient in 
making military reports as they were in making 
battle against their English foes; consequently 
many branches of the service have no place in 
the records. Seekers for such knowledge are 
embarrassed often, and fail to obtain what they 
had good reason to believe was obtainable. Many 
old files and rosters of troops give nothing but 
the surname of enlisted men, without reference 
to the section of country from which they en- 
listed; while whole regiments are only mention- 
ed by numbers, without giving the names of of- 
ficers or men. And as the commissioned officers 
and enlisted men aggregated many thousands 
during the Seven Years' War, the reader will ap- 
preciate the difficulty presented, when the con- 
fused and unsatisfactory mass is laid before the 
student of such history. The enlistments were 
made in different sections, en masse, and not 
generally by Companies; they were marched 
away from their sections in squads — called Com- 
panies — and on their arrival at the several mili- 
tary posts, were assigned to the various regiments. 
Many Virginians were found in S. Carolina, New- 
Jersey, Maryland and Pennsylvania regiments. 
Thus their individuality was broken. Captains 
from Frederick and other counties, did not in 
all cases enlist men and organize companies. 
Captains received their commissions from their 
respective Colonies or States, and were authoriz- 
ed to procure men for the service. Colonels 
were likewise commissioned, but in many cases 
were authorized to raise Regiments; and when 
the requisite number was raised by Companies, 
Captains would be assigned by the Colonel, and 

he would assume command and report for duty. 
Sometimes the Colonel procured a sufficient num- 
ber to comprise two regiments. We find, for 
instance, Daniel Morgan appearing in Winches- 
ter in the spring of 1777, with a commission and 
authority from the American Congress to enlist 
and organize two regiments of riflemen, to be 
known as the Eleventh and Fifteenth Virginia 
Regiments. Enlistments were quickly made; for 
we find him with the two regiments on the march 
May 31st, 1777, and reporting the following as 
the line officers: 

Daniel Morgan, Col. 

Abram Buford, Sec'd. Col., (succeeded Morgan 
May 15, 1778). 

John Cropper, Lieut. Col. 

Geo. B. Wallace, Lieut Col. 

David Stephenson, Major. 

Philip Slaughter, Capt. find Paymaster. 

Saml. Jones, Lieut, and Paymaster. 

Albudyton Jones, Adjutant. 

Robt Porterfield, Lieut, and Adjutant. 

John Barnes, Lieut, and Q. M. 

Mace Clements, Surgeon. 

Joseph Davis, Surgeon. 

John Crutc, Q. M.'s Sergt. 

Wm. Death, Q. M.'s Sergt. 

Chas. Erskine, Sergt. Major. 

Thos. Pollock, Sergt. Major. 

Robt. Sharman, Fife Major. 

Col. Morgan also reported twelve regular Com- 
panies and their company officers; and also 
names of captains of four independent rifle com- 
panies of his same command. The Companies 
were designated by numbers (not by letters as 

Company No. i. 

James Calderhead, Capt. (One citizen by this 

name living now in Frederick County). 
Thos. Lucas, Lieut. 
Thos. Burd, Lieut. 
Wm. Hood, Ensign. 
Elijah ReflFey, Sergt. 
James Weir, Sergt. 
Wm. Karns, Sergt 
John Foster, Drummer. 
John Shields, Fifer. 




Company No. 2. 

Chas. Gallagher, Capt. (Died May 24, 1777). 
Joseph Davis, Lieut 
Robt. Young, Lieut 
Chas. Tyler, Ensign. 
Thos. Roberson, Sergt. 
Francis Langfelt, Sergt. 
John H. Johnson, Sergt 
Robt Mills, Sergt 
Richard Marshall, Corporal. 
John Quint, Corporal. 
Aquilla Naval, Corporal. 
Yelverton Reardon, Corporal. 
John Farrell and Robt. Shannon, Drum and 

Company No. 3. 

Wm. Johnston, Capt. (Everard Meade, assign- 
ed as Capt., March i, 1778). 

Wm. Powell, 1st Lieut (Jas. Wood, ist Lieut 
Mch. I, '78— Keith, 2d Lieut) 

Robt Porterfield, Lieut 

John Townes, Ensign. 

Peyton Powell, Sergt 

Archibald Botts, Sergt. 

Wm. Oldrid, Sergt. 

Michael Logsett, Sergt. 

John Means, Corpl. 

Wm. Palmer, Corpl. 

Shadrick Reader, Corpl. 

John McCart, Corpl. 

John Harris, Drummer. 

The list of privates of this Company bears 
the names of old Frederick County men: Pey- 
ton — Graham — Thomas — Rutherford, etc. The 
Company is mentioned Nov. i, 1778, as the 
"Light Horse," and gives the name of: 

John Crittenden and Timothy Feely as now 

John Bruce and John Lyon as Sergts. 

Company No. 4. — ^June i, 1777. 

Chas. Porterfield, Capt. 

Thos. Tabbs, Capt. 

John Blackwell, Capt. 

Peyton Harrison, Lt. 

Valentine Harrison, 2d Lt. (Assigned Apl. i, 


Wm. Edmondson, Sergt. 
Geo. Greenway, Sergt. 
James Dunbar, Sergt. 
Sol. Fitzpatrick, Sergt. 
Duncan Meade, Fifer. 

This Company, composed in part of privates 
detailed from other Companies, to-wit: Beckett, 
Davis, Viol, Duncan, Crown, Anderson, Round- 
sifer, Gevenger, Stump, Bartlett, Ray, Adams, 
Robinson, Middleton, Groves, Hopewell, Giles, 

Jacobs, the following year, December i, (1778) 
had suffered severely in loss of men, and was 
recruited with 48 men — many of them being fa- 
miliar Valley names: Jno. Wood, Augustus 
Berry, Clement Richards, Adam Sheets, Jas. 
Holmes, Jas. Noland, Ed. Clevenger, Jno. Kelly, 
Geo. Wolf, Wm. Roe, Thos. Lee, Jno. Bell, Robt. 
Green, Lewis Stump, Jno. Philips, Wm. Beason, 
Wm. Hicks. 

(Note. For full list of officers and men com- 
prising the Morgan Regiments, Eleventh and 
Fifteenth, See Saffell's "Men of the Revolution." 
Cong. Library.) 

Company No. 5. 

Wm. Smith, Capt (Apl. i, '78, Robt Powell, 

Isaiah Larks, Lt 

Thos. Lomas, Ensign, (Apl. i, '78 Roy Ensign). 
Isaac Brown, Sergt. (Apl. i, '78, Thos. Keane, 

Jno. Owsly, Sergt 
Thos. Owsly, Sergt. 
John Bruce, Corp. (Apl. i, ^78, Jas. Armstrong, 

Randall Morgan, Corp. 
Mathew Byram, Corp. 

Privates Jno. Miller, Richard Lee, two Rich- 
ard Jones. No other familiar Valley names in 
list of privates. 

Company 6. — ^June i, '77. 

Thomas Blackwell, Capt (Apl. i, '78, Reuben 
Briscoe, Capt. 

John Marshall, Lt 

James Wright, 2d Lt. 

Thos. Randall, 3d Lt. (Apl. i, '78, Thornton 
Taylor, Ensign. 

John Morgan, Sergt. (Apl. i, '78, Peter Bon- 
ham, Sergt. 

Saml. Philips, Sergt. 

John Anderson, Sergt. 

Joseph Cramer, Sergt. (Apl. i, '78, Jno. Side- 
bottom, Corp. 

This enlistment for this Company was from 
East of Blue Ridge. 

Company No. 7. — -June i, '77. 

Peter Bryn Bruin, Capt 

Geo. Calmes, Lt. 

Chas. Magill, 2d Lt. 

Timothy Feely, Ensign. 

James Dowdall, (Cadet). 

The list of privates shows the following as 
Valley men: Bowen, Blair, Hill, Handshaw, 
Glass, Legg, Crum, Sparks, Thompson, White, 
Lovell, Meade, Black, McGuire, Vance, Davis, 
James Gamble, Moore, Wm. and Jno. Holmes,. 
Jno. White, and many other Valley names. 



Company No. 8. — Nov. jo, '78. 

Thos. Willis. Capt. (Feb. 14, '78, PhU. R. R. 
Lee, Capt) 

Luke Cannon, Lt. (Saml. Love, Lt.) 

Saml. Love, Sergt. 

Privates: A. Foster, Jno. Russell, Peter Larue, 
Henry Webb, Jno. Young, Henry Russell, R. 
Abbott, Ward, Robt. White, And. Harrison, 
Stephen Ham, Elisha Hawkins — all Valley names. 

Company No. 9. 

Geo. Rice, Capt 

James Wright, Lt. 

John Barnes, 2d Lt. 

Richard Marshall, Sergt. Major. 

(This Company was composed of Eastern Vir- 

Company No. 10. 

Samuel Booker, Capt. 

Lance Butler, Lt. 

Daniel Vasser, Sergt. 

Wm. Cook, Sergt 

James Ryalls, Corp. 

Saml. Ryals, Corp. 

John Lewis, Drummer, 

No Valley men for privates. 

Company No. it, 
James Gray, Capt. 
Saml. Jones, Lt 
Thos. Davis, Ensign, 
Robt Craddock, Serg^. 
Willis Wilson, Sergt. 
Spratley Simmons, Sergt 
Richison Booker, Sergt. 
Henry Tillar, Sergt. 
Holt Sublett, and Trent, Corporals. 
No Valley names in list of privates. 

Company No. 12. 
John Gregory, Capt 
David Mason, Lt. 
Thos. Holt, Lt 
Louis Best Sergt 
Wm. Pryor, Sergt. 

The four Independent Rifle Companies of Mor- 
gan's Command report names of the four cap- 
tains, to-wit: 

Capt Gabriel Long, (Phil. Slaughter, Lt) 

Capt Shepherd, (James Harrison, Lt). 

Capt West (Reuben Long, Ensign). 

Capt Bradys. 

The four captains were evidently Valley men. 

Col. Alexander Spottswood commanded a Vir- 
ginia regiment from Jany. i, to June i, 1777 — 

Number of regiment not given. 

Richard Parker, Lt. CoL 

Benjamin Day, Adjt 

Ambrose Madison, Paymaster. 

Robt Bell, Q. M. 

Many changes in the personnel during the 

The Third Virginia Regiment was commanded 
by C^l. Wm. Heth. Col. Tom Marshall was 
with the regiment, but soon detailed for other 

James Hansbrough, Q. M. 

David Griffith, Chaplain and Surgeon. Some 
Valley names in this regiment. 

A Virginia regiment — number not given — com- 
posed of Ave companies, was commanded (1777) 
by Col. Nathaniel Gist. Jno. Gist Capt of ist 
Company, Strother Jones, Capt of one of the 
five companies; Thos. Bell, C^ipt of one (No. 
3). Names of other officers not familiar West 
of the Blue Ridge. Some Valley men privates in 
Col. Gist's Regiment were David Luckett, Arch 
Bartlett Jos. Nail, Thomas Griffin, and Saml. 

There was another Virginia Regiment, the 
Eighth, composed chiefly of Valley men, a ma- 
jority of whom were of the (German stock, that 
had settlement from the Potomac to the Augusta 
line, and had been conspicuous in the formation 
of the new counties taken from old Frederick. 
Rev. Peter Muhlenberg, the historic Gospel 
preacher at Woodstock, had been recognized by 
the Colonial (Government as a man of war-like 
spirit He had fanned the spark of patriotism 
for more than twelve months; and no surprise 
was expressed when the flame suddenly burst 
forth in the Winter of ^T^i^ with their preacher 
fully uniformed and with his commission of Col- 
onel, authorized to enlist men and organize a 
regiment to serve in the ''Virginia Line." Some 
strange fatality followed this regiment, so far 
as the records show. Except for letters (not 
official), that Genl. Muhlenburg addressed to the 
CSenl. Assembly of Virginia in 1777, when he had 
been commissioned Brigadier (Jenl. — ^wherein he 
mentioned some of the "efficient officers fitted to 
command the Eighth Regiment" — we would have 
no evidence who any of the officers were. He 
only mentions a few as in the line of promotion: 
Capt. Abraham Bowman, Capt Peter Helfen- 
stein, and Capt. Philip Slaughter. Capt Bow- 
man was commissioned Colonel in Jany. 1777; 
Peter Helfenstein, Major. From some cause, the 
Eighth Regiment has no muster roll in existence. 
Men were detailed from this regiment in 1778, 
to recruit the Rifle Companies ; and thus we have 
the names of many which will appear later on, 
if space permit. Only one Company roll has been 



preserved, so far as the records show. This was 
known as Buck's Minute Men. The Company 
was composed of Valley men, and mustered into 
service at Woodstock by Col. Muhlenburg in 
1777. Thos. Buck was Captain, and filed the 
original muster roll in the Pension Office in 
Washington when Congress passed the first law 
to issue bounty land warrants to soldiers of the 
Revolution. The list bears the certificate of 
County Lt. Joseph Pugh, dated Sept. 16, 1777. 

List of Officers 

Thomas Buck, Capt. 
John Crookshank, ist. Lt. 
Lionel Branson, Ensign. 
Wm. Reed, Sergt. 
Jacob Lambert, 2d Sergt 
Jno. Steel, 3d Sergt. 
Jeremiah Philips, 4th Sergt. 

List of Privates 

Fredk. Honaker, Wm. Hoover, Jno. Bently, 
Wm. Black, Valentine Lock Miller, Philip Smith, 
Martin Gay, Gasper Lutz, David Piper, C. Sap- 
ington, Martin Miller, Abram Gable, Wm. More- 
lock, Jno. Middleton, Geo. Lockmiller, Wm. Bag- 
nail, Geo. Miller, Henry Shumaker, Herbert 
Stockbridge, Wm. Copeman, Christian Boseman, 
Andrew Copeman, Michael Setsar, R. Bizant, 
Jno. Snider, Jno. Somers, Saml. Dust, John 
Hoover, Elijah Aadcll, Conrad Hansberger, Wm. 
Harris, Thos. Price, Zachariah Price, Jno. Mar- 
shall Taylor. 

We find good reason given why this Company 
was mustered into service without the requisite 
number — sixty-five — "provided for" by former 
Acts of the Virginia Assembly, in the formation 
of the Virginia regiments: At the sessions held 
in the Spring of 1777, provision was made to 
form militia companies of not less than 32 nor 
more than 58 in number. These companies were 
to be supplied with suitable accoutrements. Non- 
commissioned officers and privates to carrj' rifle 

and tomahawk, good firelock and bayonet with 
pouch and horn, or cartouch, and with three 
charges of powder and ball." (See Henning*s 
Statutes, May 5, 1777) and required to assemble 
weekly for drill and other exercises. The en- 
listments mentioned were in compliance with an 
Act of the Assembly, Oct. 18, 1776, providing 
for six new battalions of Infantry, strictly for 
Continental Service, and also provided for the 
completion of the nine battalions previously rais- 
ed to constitute the regular regiments, which 
were offered additional bounty, etc. (See Am- 
erican Archives, 5 series, Vol. 2, p. 11 12.) Un- 
der this Act of Oct. 18, we have the following 
names appear as (Colonels whose commissions 
are dated Nov. 15, '76: Edward Stevens, Daniel 
Morgan, James Wood, Saml. Meredith, Charles 
Lewis, and David Mason. (See Am. Archives, 
5 series, Vol. 3, p. 695). 

There is some confusion of dates in this con- 
nection, for it will appear in the chapter relating 
to Daniel Morgan, that he and his riflemen were 
in the Autumn of 1775 on their march from 
Massachusetts to Canada — ending at Quebec with 
his capture. Yet we find him in Virginia the 
following November organizing a rifle regiment, 
to reinforce (}enl. Gates in his campaign against 
(jcnl. Burgoyne, and fighting the battle that re- 
sulted in the surrender of the latter 17th Octo- 
ber, 1777. We must conclude that Genl. Morgan 
was not in Virginia in the Autumn of 1776, on 
his mission to raise rifle regiments, but in the 
Spring of 1777. The Author finds several his- 
torians in their treatment of the incidents of the 
Revolutionary War, give conflicting dates as to 
the Morgan Campaign; and he has most studi- 
ously endeavored to collect facts; and is indebt- 
ed to officials having custody of the War Archi- 
ves in the War Dept. in Washington and those 
in the Virginia State Library, and had the per- 
sonal aid of such experienced compilers as Mr. 
Chas. E. Kemper, Geo. H. Saffell, W. F. Boogher 
and others. 


Morgan and His Men. George Rogers Clark Expedition 

Old Justices, Marriages, etc. 

In the foregoing chapter, reference is made 
to Capt. Daniel Morgan and his Company, who 
marched from Winchester, Virginia, in the Sum- 
mer of 1775, with orders to report at headquar- 
ters of the Northern Army, then being organized 
at Boston by the Conmiander-in-Chief, Genl. 
Washington, who, having received his commis- 
sion June 15, 1775, proceeded to select men who 
were known to him for their efficiency, and have 
them commissioned to raise rifle companies as 
they were called, and hasten to the Northern bor- 
der where war was well established by the Brit- 
ish at all forts. 

Daniel Morgan of Frederick County, Va., was 
the first to receive a Captain's commission, — at 
least, he was the first to respond from Virginia. 
Tradition gives him the credit of raising his 
company within ten days after receiving his com- 
mission. The men who undertook that march 
were imbued with patriotism surpassed by none. 
They were not called upon to remain in their 
own Valley, and conduct a warfare against the 
savages who *had troubled their mountain set- 
tlers, and to defend their own homes. This new 
service meant a severance of ties and endurance 
of hardships that would have appalled many 
brave men. Then, too, they were to form part 
of the "Continental Line," liable to service any- 
where and everywhere. Unfortunately, no evi- 
dence in our County records shows who composed 
this Company; and for more than a century, 
all that is known to the Valley people concerning 
the Ninety-six Riflemen and the famous "Dutch 
Mess," who marched to Quebec and suffered de- 
feat, was that transmitted from father to son. 
The author in his researches, found among the 
files of the State Department at Washington, 
matter of much interest concerning the campaign 
in Canada in the Winter of 1775-6. As is well 
known, Benedict Arnold was in command of the 
invading army, Genl. Montgomery conducting 
the unsuccessful attack upon the British garrison 
at Quebec. Montgomery was killed after gallant- 
ly storming and carrying the outer walls. His 
detachment suffered severely, and fell back. Ar- 
nold then appeared ; and under his rally, the Con- 
tinental lines achieved temporary victory. At 
this juncture, Arnold was severely wounded and 

carried from the front Capt. Morgan then as- 
sumed command, and made a desperate charge; 
but he and his gallant Virginians were overpow- 
ered and forced to surrender, leaving over 100 
of the 800 Continentals dead, lying in the snow 
around the ramparts, joo men, including Maj. 
Morgan, were prisoners; the remnant escaped 
capture, and undertook a straggling retreat 
through the snow and forests of Maine, resulting 
in untold suffering to all and death nearly half 
their number. We must conclude that of the 
latter, were several of the Winchester Company; 
for as will be seen later on, only about 65 are 
accounted for of the 96 that tradition fixes as 
the number that started from Winchester July 
i4» I775> And bivouaced the first night at the 
"Morgan Springs" near Shepherdstown. The 
files referred to become valuable at this late date, 
because they reveal the names of many of this 
old Company that have never been mentioned 
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant of 
the Lower Valley. We can afford to accept the 
list here given, for Major Morgan aided the 
British officer in obtaining a description of all 
the dead, wounded and prisoners, so far as re- 
lated to his own Company. 

The U. S. Government record shows that on 
the 4th day of January, 1776, Col. Allan Maclean, 
of the 84th Regiment of "Royal Emigrants" in- 
spected the prisoners, and with the aid of officers, 
took their names and places of nativity. Those 
of British birth were required to enlist in his 
regiment, under the threat of being sent to Eng- 
land and tried as traitors. Under this threat, 
many enlisted. Inasmuch as the Valley people 
are especially interested in the Morgan Com- 
pany, these pages will not be encumbered with 
the names of the heroes from other sections than 
Old Frederick. 

List of killed, wounded and prisoners of Capt 
Daniel Morgan's Company of Riflemen at Que- 
bec, Canada, 1775-6. 


Lt John Humphrey, Wm. Rutledge, Cornelius 
Norris, David Wilson, Peter Wolf, John Moore, 
Mathew Harbinson, Richard Colbert. 





Benjamin Cackley, Solomon Fitzpatrick, Dan- 
iel Anderson, Spencer George, Daniel Durst, 
Hezekiah Philips, Adam Heizkill (Heiskell) 
John McGuire, Jesse Wheeler. 


Capt. Daniel Morgan, Lt. Wm. Heath (or 
Heth), Lt. Bruin (slightly wounded), Sergt. Wm. 
Fickhis, Sergt. Charles Porterfield, Sergt John 
Donaldson, John Rogers, Corporal; Benjamin 
Grubb, Corp.; John Burns, John Connor, Solomon 
Veal, Jacob Sperry, Adam Kurtz, John Shoults 
(Shultz), Chas. Grim, Peter Locke (Lauck) ; 
John Stephens, David Griffith, John Pearce, Ben- 
jamin Roderick, Thomas Williams, Gasper De 
Hart, Benjamin Mclntire, Jeremiah Gordon, 
Roland Jacobs, Daniel Davis, John Brown, John 
Oran, John Maid, John Harbinson, Jedediah 
Philips, Jacob Ware, Absolon Brown, Thomas 
Chapman, Charles Secrists, Jeremia Riddle, Wm. 
Flood, William Greenway, Robert Mitchell, 
George Merchant, John Cochran, Curtis Bram- 
ingham, Timothy Feely, Conrad Enders, Patrick 
Dooland, Christopher Dolton and Robert 
Churchill. Seven of the number closing this 
list, enlisted in the King's service, while George 
Merchant, who had been captured on picket and, 
attired in his rifleman's uniform, was sent to 
England for exhibition as a specimen of the 
troops of the Colonies. He was liberated and 
sent home the next Summer. 

The traditions of Winchester have always men- 
tioned the following as well-known members of 
the Rifle Company who started to Quebec with 
Capt. Morgan, to-wit: ist Lt. John Humphrey, 
2d Lt. Wm. Heth, ist Sergeant Geo. Porterfield. 
Privates: George Greenway, Wm. Greenway, 
Seth Stratton, John Schultz, Jacob Sperry, Peter 
Lauck, Simon Lauck, Frederick Kurtz, Adam 
Kurtz, Charles Grim, George Heiskell, Robert 
Anderson, Wm. Ball and Mark Hays. We ob- 
serve some discrepancy in the name of George 
Porterfield as ist Sergeant. Charles Porterfield 
was the ist Sergeant of this Company; George 
Porterfield "was a sergeant" in a company en- 
listed in Winchester by Col. Morgan in the 
Spring of 1777. We also notice that Morgan 
did not report to the British officer the names 
of George Greenway, Seth Stratton, Simon 
Lauck, Frederick Kurtz, George Heiskell, Rob- 
ert Anderson, Wm. Ball and Mark Hays; so we 
must conclude that these eight men of the rem- 
nant who escaped capture and ultimately arriv- 
ed in Winchester, and were regarded by the 
prisoners on their return as part of their old 
company: or, it may be, they were confounded 
with the enlistment in the Spring of 1777, ^or 

the rosters of the two regiments organized then 
by Col. Morgan, show their names; and it may 
be added here that Timothy Feely either escaped 
after his enlistment in the King's service, or was 
soon exchanged, for he appears in the Sununer 
of 1777 in Capt Charles Porterfield's Company. 
This was Sergeant Charles Porterfield, a native 
of Frederick County, Va., mentioned by Genl. 
Arnold in his report to Genl. Washington as 
the first man to scale the walls at Quebec, and 
recommended by him for promotion. When ex- 
changed, he received a commission as Captain, 
and recruited a company from the Lower Val- 
ley and equipped it at his own expense. He 
was killed at Camden, S. C, while leading a regi- 
ment, as Lt. Col. of the Virginia Line. His 
brother George was Sergeant in his Company, 
afterwards Captain by promotion for gallant con- 

A scrap of local history can appropriately be 
mentioned here. It appears that some of the 
survivors of the Rifle Company, very soon after 
the Revolutionary War, organized a society styled 
the "Dutch Mess," — thus perpetuating a title be- 
stowed upon certain members of the Company 
by their companions during their Northern cam- 
paign. How many composed the original organ- 
ization, none can tell; though regular observance 
of the anniversary of the Quebec campaign and 
capture, continued for a half century, no record 
appears to show who they were. Doubtless those 
familiar with the association in the early days, 
had no dreams of its perpetual observance and 
recognition; and though the old heroes have long 
since answered the final roll-call, the memory of 
the Dutch Mess is retained at this time by one 
or two old citizens of Winchester. The Author 
for many years during his boyhood period, had 
recounted to him many incidents connected with 
the annual celebrations, and heard much that 
would interest the reader now; but possibly some 
would not be inclined to accept such traditionary 
incidents. Fortunately, however, it is a well es- 
tablished fact that some of the Old Mess were 
well remembered by quite a number of intelli- 
gent elderly citizens towards the close of the 
Nineteenth Century, and would frequently men- 
tion the names of the survivors ; and thus we are 
enabled to give a partial list At this point it 
may be well to give authority for the foregoing 
statement Mr. Wm. G. Russell, noted for his 
fund of information, when an old man twenty 
years ago, derived much pleasure in recounting 
to the writer many incidents of historical value; 
and he stated that he knew many of the old 
96 Riflemen, and had vivid recollection of such 
anniversaries. Mr. Russell's statement, however, 
confined the Society or Mess to a membership 



of six, viz: John Schultz, Jacob Sperry, Simon 

Lauck, Charles Grim, Heiskcll, and Peter 

Lauck, some of whom he had known intimately; 
and from his knowledge of the Society, the old 
soldiers only intended to keep up the associations 
formed on the march and in the camp; that they 
were well known as the Dutch Mess during the 
campaign. Mr. Russell also stated that as the 
number grew less, many citizens would be in 
line on the recurring anniversary, and did much 
to show their appreciation of the distinction giv- 
en the old heroes. Should any reader feel in- 
clined to learn something concerning the fate 
of other troops than those given as the Mor- 
gan Company, he is referred to "The Invasion 
of Canada in 1775;" by Edward Martin Stone, 
published at Providence, R. I., which is to be 
found in the National Library. He may there 
see that his ancestors were among the unfortu- 
nate invaders. 

The Genl. George Rogers Clark campaign to 
the Illinois Forts in 1778, should be of sufficient 
interest to the Old Frederick County's history, 
to entitle it to mention here. As is well known 
to many readers, there were two forts on the 
frontier occupied by British officers and their 
Indian allies, that became a burden to all settlers 
in the territory eastward and along the Ohio 
River. Genl. Clark was chosen to command the 
expedition fitted out to capture those forts. We 
will briefly state that this little army equipped 
for light marching, was composed of men who 
had endured hardships and were fully acquaint- 
ed with Indian warfare. We will only mention 
that two of his companies were commanded by 
Captain Joseph Bowman of Frederick County, 
and Leonard Helm, of Fauquier County, and will 
only give the names of other officers and privates 
that may be familiar to Valley people. Many 
of their names appear in the records of the Old 
County prior to her subdivision; many of their 
descendants are to be found in the Counties from 
Shenandoah to the Potomac River. The enlist- 
ments were made in the dead of Winter, Janu- 
ary, 1778; and when the expedition encountered 
the hardships of the march and the warfare need- 
ed to capture Old Fort St. Vincent and Kaskas- 
kia, they stamped themselves heroes, and receiv- 
ed from the government substantial recognition 
for their services by g^rants of land in the cap- 
tured country: 

Company Officers 

Capt. Joseph Bowman, Capt. Leonard Helm; 
1st Lt Isaac Bowman; 2d Lt. Abram Keller; 
1st Sergt. Daniel Dust; 2d Sergt. Isaac Keller; 
2d Sergt. Jacob Speers; Sergt. Buckner Pittman; 
Sergt. Wm. Rubey; Sergt. Saml. Strode; Sergt. 
John Bneeden. 


Abraham Miller, Wm. Slack, Thomas Perry, 
Robt McClanihan, Thomas Cartmell, Edward 
Bulger, Abram James, Barnaby Walters, Thomas 
H. Vance, George Millar, Patrick Doran, Nathan 
Cartmell, Isaac McBride, Edward Murrey, Jo- 
seph Simpson, Van Swearingen, Isaac Vanmeter, 
John Bender, Lewis Bender, Robert Bender, 
Christian Bowman, Christopher Coontz, Jacob 
Detering, Geo. Hite, Barney Master, John Set- 
ser, John Bentley, Henry Honaker, Fred. Hona- 
ker, Henry Funk, Alex. Mclntire, Wm. Berry (i) 
Wm. Berry (2), Philip Long, George King, Zebe- 
niah Lee, John Isaacs, Wm. Myers, John Peters, 
Geo. Shepard, Peter Shepard, John Sitzer, Peter 
Brazer, Richard Breeden, John Bush, John Conn, 
Francis Haller, Fredk. Sowers. 

The foregoing is not a complete list of the 
men in the two companies. It is intended only 
to preserve the evidence that the Valley was 
called upon, and her sons responded; and when 
the campaign closed with the Northwest Terri- 
tory virtually as their trophy, the survivors were 
discharged in August, 1778. Many of their num- 
ber never returned. Capt. Bowman died at a 
fort in the Summer of 1779; a number were 
killed in battle and found graves on the wilds 
of the frontier, Thomas Cartmell being one, and 
was buried at St. Vincente (now Vincennes). 
The Author has a fac-simile copy of his signa- 
ture to a paper written prior to his death, the 
original being on file with the State Historical 
Society of Indiana. The Author is indebted to 
the Hon. Wm. H. English, President of the So- 
ciety for many years, and also the author of the 
comprehensive and interesting history, "The 
Conquest of the North- West," for many courte- 

In the Winter of 1781, the Congress was pe- 
titioned for reinforcements for the northwest 
forts. The Valley again responded. Virginia, 
in supplying her quota, recruited two companies 
from the "State Line," and the men were as- 
signed to Capt. Benjamin Biggs and Capt Uriah 
Springer's Companies. Only the familiar Valley 
names are given here: Wm. Barr, Richard Car- 
ter, James Smith, Jacob Conrad, Samuel Osbum, 
Wm. Bailey, Michael Kaimes (Kerns), Robert 
Crawford, John Lockhart, James Lockhart, Dav- 
id Clark, John Morrison, John Connor, Chas. 
Morgan, John Bean, John Daugherty, Jacob 
Rhodes, Jacob Rinker. 

(jenl. George Rogers Clark, who commanded 
the Western expedition already referred to, died 
Feby. 18, 1818. 

Capt. Wm. (joodman of Berkley County, one 
of his officers, died July 10, 1825. 



Capt Wm. Sommerville, one of his officers, 
died March 18, 1826. 

Lt. Nathaniel Henry, of Frederick, one of his 
officers, died Jany. 14, 1824. 

Capt Robt. White, of Frederick, one of his of- 
ficers, died July 26, 1828. 

Capt. Thomas Cartmell, of Frederick, one of 
his officers, died in the campaign. 

Lt. Wm. Eskridge, of Frederick, one of his 
officers, died Oct 9, 1830. 

Ensign Reese Pritchard, of Hamp., one of his 
officers, died Sept 25, 1824. 

The following were some of the Valley men 
who suffered at Valley Forge, and gave such 
signal service to Genl. Washington in that try- 
ing Winter, that Congress recognized them in 
Special Act. They were members of an Artil- 
lery Company recruited at Winchester: 

Capt John Dandridge, commissioned Feby. I, 

Capt Nathaniel Burwell, Aide to Genl. Robt 

Capt John Blair. 

Lt. William Campbell. 

Lt Wm. Stephenson. 

Capt. Anthony Singleton. 

Capt James Pendleton. Several Maryland of- 
ficers and men mentioned. 

The celebrated Legion of Cavalry commanded 
by Lt Col. Henry Lee (Light Horse Harry) 
was raised East of the Blue Ridge. Major Henry 
Peyton recruited men from the Valley, however. 
The following are given, thinking they may be 
connected with the reader: 

Maj. Peyton (died in service), Maj. Jos. Eg- 
gleston; Lt and Surgeon Alexander Skinner, 
Wm. Winston, Adjt, and Lt. Patrick Games, 
Capt. Mathew Irwin, Surgeon Michael Rudolph, 
Capt. (Jeorge Handy, Lt. Wm. Lewis, Robt. Pow- 
ers, Albion Throckmorton, Wm. B. Harrison, 
Qement Carrington, John Champe. A number 
of cadets were taken from the military school 
and distributed among the following companies, 
to drill the men: Captains, Johnson Oliver Tow- 
Ics, Thomas Patterson, Wm. Gregory, Saml. 
Hopkins, Saml. Cabell, Thos. Ruffin, Thos. Mas- 
sie, Thos. Hutchins and John Jones. (See Mili- 
tary Archives, War Dept., Washington, D. C.) 

At the December Term, 1796 of the County 

Court, Henry Beatty and many others were re- 
commended for appointment as officers in the 
Virginia Line of Militia. 

The reader doubtless feels that we have linger- 
ed long in our story of the Revolutionary War 
period. This effort required many weary days 
of travel and search; and out of the mass of 
records and historic collections, we submit the 
following chapters with as much brevity as pos- 
sible in condensing incidents that apply to Fred- 
erick County. Many more could, be narrated 
from the thousands now in hand; but the pa- 
tience of the reader and our limited space must 
be considered. 

The Court, 1784, directed the Clerk to record 
all marriages returned by ministers who had 
performed marriage rites. This was pursuant 
to an Act of Assembly, 1784, requiring all such 
persons to make a list of marriages they had 
solemnized and return same to clerk's office. 
The old marriage record is in the County Clerk's 
Office. Previous to the Revolution, the Estab- 
lished Church kept a register of all marriages. 
Dissenters were required to make return to that 
church. The marriage record is an important 
County record. 

For other gleanings from the County Court 
records, subsequent to the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, the reader is referred to the chap- 
ter pertaining to the history of Winchester. 

The following is given as a list of Justices 
composing the Court from 1795 to 1813, inclusive : 

John Smith, Wm. Vanmeter, Cornelius Bald- 
win, Wm. Snickers, James Singleton, Wm. Lynn, 
Jno. B. Tilden, Dolphine Drew, John S. Ball. 
Isaac Hite, Robert Berkley, George F. Norton, 
Bushrod Taylor, Chas. Smith, Jacob Heironimus, 
Joseph Baker, Thos. Buck, James Ware, Nathan- 
iel Burwell, Mandley Taylor, Geo. Blakemore, 
Chas. Brent, Joshua Gore, Beaty Carson, Robt 
C. Burwell, Edward McGuire, Lewis McCoole, 
Moses Russell, Griffin Taylor, James M. Marshall, 
Philip Nelson, John Bell, Joseph Gamble, Jno. 
Jolliffe, Robt Vance, Edward Smith, Elijah Lit- 
tler, Wm. McCoole, John Bell, Thomas Stribling, 
Saml. Baker, Benj. O'Rear, Jno. McCoole, Jo- 
seph Tidball, Wm. Castleman. 

Order Books for the period mentioned, record 
the date of appointment and much matter of in- 


The War of 1812-14 

The author has made strenuous efforts to 
secure sufficient data to produce a brief sketch 
of the part Frederick County had in this war; 
but owing to the carelessness on the part of those 
who could have preserved much to interest suc- 
ceeding generations, we have very little in our 
home records to show who were the moving 
spirits to respond to the appeals made for volun- 
teers to redress wrongs that Great Britain had 
perpetrated on the high seas and to our coast- 
wise mercantile interests. Mr. Jefferson, during 
his term as President, remonstrated with the 
British Government, protesting against the out- 
rages upon American vessels, and the impress- 
ment of American citizens into unwilling service 
in British fleets; and endeavored to avoid another 
war with England. But the British lion shook 
his mane in defiance, and England proceeded 
to maintain her claim as mistress of the seas; 
and when President Madison virtually declared 
war, a majority of the American people were 
ready when the call came for each State to fur- 
nish her quota. James Barbour then Governor 
of Virginia, called for volunteers. Winchester 
immediately became the scene of war prepara- 
tions. Recruiting stations were established in 
the Lower Valley; and in a short time companies 
were organized, and marched away. This we 
know from tradition and clippings from news- 
papers of that period; but no record was made 
by this County of who her sons were that so 
quickly responded; and what the Author offers 
now has been taken from the Military Archives 
at Washington, where much confusion confronts 
the student in his efforts to secure a list of those 
who enlisted in Frederick County. We are able 
to state, however, that several companies were 
accredited to this section, and Winchester named 
as the recruiting station for companies command- 
ed by Capt. Willoughby Morgan, Capt. Thos. 
Roberts, Capt. Wm. Morris, Capt. Henry Beatty, 
and Capt. Michael Coyle. From the military files 
the writer, so far as he could, arranged the lists 
in the following order: 

The First Infantry Company was recruited by 
Capt Morgan, who was promoted, and entered 
the regular Array. The Company was then re- 
organized and used as Mounted Infantry, and 

became known as Cavalry Company Number 


Capt. Thos. Roberts. No other officers named. 
Members of Company, as the record says: 

Thomas Roberts, Wm. Roberts, Alexander 
Holliday, Wm. Ball, William Campbell, James 
Campbell, Solomon Heister, Wm. C. Holliday, 
Jacob Baker, Charles Conrad, Nicholas Burwell, 
Augustus Streit, Peter Bowers, Jno. Bowley, James 
Bennett, Joshua Reed, John Denny, Andrew Bush, 
Presley Hansbury, James Vance, Sandy Hutchin- 
son, Jno. M. Magson, Richard Beckwith, James 
Barr, Stewart Grant, Isaac Lauck, Jno. Sloat, 
James Meredith, Philip Sherer, John Foster, 
Philip Hoff, John Price, Isaac Kurtz, John Mil- 
ler, Richard Holliday, Philip Bowers, James 
White, John Carter, George Rice, Jno. C. Qarke, 
Robert Jack, Geo. Swallum, Solomon Spengler, 
Jonas Ashby, Wm. Kane, Lewis Beatty, John 
Everly, John W. Miller, Alexander Newman. 

Artillery Company (No Number). 

Officers: Capt. Wm. Morris; ist. Lt. Geo. W. 
Kiger; 2d Lt. Isaac Lauck; 3d Lt. Wm. Streit; 
4th Lt. Jno. Poe; ist corporal Wm. Van Horn; 
2d Corp. Wm. Young; 3d Corp. Nathan Parkins; 
4th Corp. Wm. Macfee; Fifer, John Day; Drum- 
mer John Everly. Privates: Danl. Gray, Jno. 
Allen, Thomas Austin, Wm. Barnes, Levi Book- 
er, Francis Beckwith, David Gather, John Cooley, 
Ix>uthan Cochrane, Jos. Kremer, Robt. David- 
son, Wm. Dalby, John Fenton, Jno. Farmer, 
Thomas Foster, Roger Fulkerson, Richard 
Gibbs, Jno. Hoffnagle, Samuel Herdsman, Wm. 
Hutchison, George Heinrick, John Johnson, John 
Haas, Jno. Hoffman, John Hesser, Asa Joyce, 
Richard Jones, Daniel Kiger, John Keeler, John 
Klyfustine, Thos. Lafferty, Jno. Miller, John 
Morris, James McCann, Craven Shaw, John 
Schultz, George Schreck, Elisha Winn, Henry 

Infantry Company No. 5. 

Officers: Michael Coyle, Capt.; Wm. Throck- 
morton, 1st. Lt. Privates: Michael Copenhaver, 
Jacob Copenhaver, Henry Sloat, Jacob Mesmer, 

Robert Long, Isaac Russell, Jacob Lauck, 

Brill, Daniel Brown, Frederick Aulick, Benjamin 


THE WAR OF 1812-14 


Scrivncr, Jno. V. Brown, John Magson, Henry 
Crebs, John Coyle, S. Hester, Wm. and Stephen 
Jenkins, J. Foster, John Jenkins. 

The files show other names, but none appear 
as familiar names in this section; therefore are 
left ottt. A few names listed, are in doubt as to 
their residence. All the Companies named were 
sent to Norfolk and Point Comfort. Some of 
the Frederick County men died of yellow fever, 
—one being James Campbell, who was promoted 
to 1st Lt. in Co. 4. Lt. Campbell was a son of 
Wm. Campbell and uncle of the Author. Some 
other fatalities from the same fever. No other 
Frederick County men reported. It is known 
that other companies were raised in this section. 
Judge Henry St. George Tucker recruited a caval- 
ry company and marched to Norfolk. No list, 
however, appears. The following are to be found 
on the pay-roll, but their names are not con- 
nected with the Winchester Companies. They 
were what was known as Emergency Soldiers, 
enlisted for ninety days — what we would now 
term Reserves. We find that Simeon Hillman, 
Simpson Touchstone, Henry Glaize, Zachariah 
Crawford, Evan Thatcher, Richard Jones, James 
Welch, Simon Owen, Jackson Ryan, Nat. Ryan, 
Nicholas Perry substituted for Abner Hodgson, 
a drafted man. Many more of the latter class, 
but not familiar names in this section. The Au- 
thor knew quite a number of those mentioned, 
and knew some who secured pensions under Act 
of Congress in 1846, whose widows were con- 
tinued on the pension roll for many years: Two 
notable cases being Mrs. Charlotte Hillman, 
widow of Simeon, and Mrs. Eliza Russell widow 
of Isaac, — they being the last survivors to re- 
ceive pensions. The former died about 1896, 
the latter 1900. The reader will readily connect 
many of our present-day business men with the 
old patriots who answered their country's call 
nearly one hundred years ago: For instance, 
Jacob Baker who was Quarter Master for his 
Company ; whose carefully kept accounts, as such, 
are in possession of his daughter, Miss Portia 

Baker. Mr. Baker was founder of the house of 
Baker & Company, whose sons succeeded him for 
many years, while his grandsons and great- 
grandsons are daily seen at the old stand, pur- 
suing the same methods established by their il- 
lustrious sire. Mr. Isaac Russell transmitted to 
his sons James B. and Isaac W. Russell his thrift 
and integrity, who are prominent business men. 
Many others will be recognized by many citizens 
as men who in their day discharged their duties 
faithfully in their various avocations. Many of 
the names sound strange in the ear to-day, for 
time has worked many changes. Some families 
have become extinct, and the places they once 
filled, others now occupy; but it would be well 
for us to remember their deeds and virtues. If 
they had their faults and failures, we have none 
to tell them now. Peace to their ashes! 

The author has on his table at this writing 
the Discourse of Rev. Wm. Hill, D.D., which 
he delivered in the Presbyterian Church in Win- 
chester, Feby. 20, 1815, the occasion being a day 
set apart by common consent as a day of 
"Thanksgiving" by the Citizens of Frederick 
County for the Peace just concluded between 
this country and Great Britain. Dr. Hill's ora- 
tory and graphic arraignment of Great Britain 
for causing the war which resulted in loss of 
life and wanton destruction of property by the 
British, including the capitol at Washington, and 
many valuable records, is a literary gem, rare 
indeed. Every word of the sermon would edify 
the reader; but lack of space forbids further 
notice. Its brief mention is made to show the 
feeling of the Valley people as they once more 
rested under the banner of Peace. The sermon 
was published by Mr. John Heiskell, Editor of 
one of the newspapers of the town. 

The Author is indebted to Miss Laura Gold, 
daughter of Mr. Wm. H. Gold, deceased, (who, 
in his day had many valuable collections of this 
character), for use of the pamphlet and other 
interesting publications. 


The Old Justices' Court 

From 1743 to 1776, the old Justices* Court was 
the only court holding jurisdiction in the terri- 
tory embraced in Old Frederick. From 1776, 
there were two courts of Law and Equity in the 
State, which had jurisdiction in this section of 
the Valley. In 1802, the Court was increased 
from two judges to three, and Districts appor- 
tioned. In 1809 another change occurred; and 
the "Superior Courts of Law," known as the Old 
Law and Chancery Court, was set in motion. 
One judge to hold terms twice a year in every 
County, superceding what was the old District 
Court — virtually the same court, but the records 
kept at some central point in the District. Win- 
chester for many years was this point, being 
chosen by Act of Assembly in 181 1; and old 
Order Books of this Court, now in the county 
clerk's office, are interesting to study. The Dis- 
trict embraced among other counties, Loudoun 
County. Full minutes of the Chancery trials for 
the counties appear in these records. The first 
judge to preside in this court was Judge Robert 
White, succeeded by Judges Wm. Brockinbough 
and John Scott. They were not regularly as- 
signed. The General Assembly, Apl. 16, 1831, 
established a Court of Law and Chancery in 
each of the counties. Hon. Richard E. Parker, 
Judge of the General Court, was assigned to this 
Circuit. After his death in 1836, Hon. Isaac R. 
Douglas was appointed Judge of this Circuit. 
After his death in 1850, Hon. Richard Parker, 
son of the former Judge of this name, was ap- 
pointed for the Circuit. Gleanings from this 
Court give us some matters which will show the 
jurisdiction of this Court. The trial of Com- 
monwealth cases changed from the County 
Court. At the November Term, 1844, the Grand 
Jur>' presented Daniel Anderson for perjury at 
the election held in Newtown: witnesses G. L. 
White, R. W. Barton and J. L. Johnson. John 
M. May son, Conrad Kremer and Peeter Kreemer 
constable, for "abase" of their office by influenc- 
ing voters. Joseph Long, a tavern keeper in 
Newton, for partiality as Comr. of Election, etc., 
and twelve other persons presented for stoning 
Bushrod Taylor's tavern in Winchester, and for 
riotous conduct on night of election, Nov., 1844. 
David G. Danner was keeper of the tavern. This 
was the exciting election of Franklin Pierce for 
President. Whigs and Democrats waged a mem- 

orable campaign; and the victors were too jubi- 
lant to suit the temper of the defeated Whigs, 
who presented the cases before the Grand Jury. 

The first clerk to the first chancery court was 
John Peyton, 1793 — Daniel Lee, 1804. 

In 1809, Circuit Courts were substituted for 
District Courts, and one judge of the General 
Court assigned to each Circuit This system 
prevailed for many years, the sessions held in 
April and September in Frederick. 

By an Act of the General Assembly, the first 
Term of the Superior Court of Chancery to be 
held in Winchester, was on the 7th of July, 1812, 
Hon. Dabney Carr, Judge; Daniel Lee, Qcrk, — 
Judge Carr's long service continued until another 
change was made in the circuit, when Hon. Henry 
St. George Tucker presided from 1824— Daniel 
Lee, Clerk— until 1831, when another change was 
made in the Districts; and, as has been shown. 
Judge Richard E. Parker appeared and was 
Judge until 1837. It was during Judge Carr's 
term that a celebrated criminal trial occurred. 
This was known as the Doct. Berkly murder 
case. Three of his negroes, one woman and 
two men, committed the horrible murder in the 
Spring of 1818. His body was boiled and re- 
duced to a mass, then burned, together with his 
clothing. His brass buttons were found in the 
ashes; and through the efforts of his overseer, 
Robinson, the negroes were brought to trial and 
convicted, and hung in July of same year. The 
other slaves were transported to the Dry Tor- 
tugas. Berkly's home passed to John Rust. 
This was in the section now Warren County. 

The clerks were Joseph Kean, W. G. Single- 
ton. Since the latter's term closed by the Civil 
War, the courts were reorganized: E. S. Brent, 
Clerk, 1865; James B. Burgess, 1871; J. A. Nul- 
ton, 1881; Wm. L. Clark, Phil H. Gold. 

The judges of the Circuit Courts under the 
constitution of 1850, appointed a Commonwealth's 
attorney for their Districts, who attended the 
Judges around their circuits. The Old Justices 
Court appointed same officer generally to serve in 
their courts. 

This Circuit Court tried many famous cases 
during the term of Judge Douglas. The old 
minutes afford interesting reading and study; 
but want of space forbids their mention here. 




After Judge Parker's appearance in 1851, one 
of the cases tried by him in Nov., 1851, was 
known on the docket as Bennett Russell vs. 
Negroes Juliet, etc. This case had tortuous 
course through the courts — many hearings, and 
was not closed until Feby. Term, 1856. The 
plaintiff was the son of Bennett Russell, who by 
several clauses in his will, provided for the eman- 
cipation of a large family of his slaves. Russell 
lived in Clarke County; the case was ably con- 
ducted on both sides ; the legal lights from Clarke 
and Frederick attracting large crowds of people 
at every trial, and was one of the most hotly 
contested cases heard in our courts. The Rus- 
sell heirs sought to annul the will, while the 
negroes through their able counsel, met the issue 
in a determined way, holding that the will plain- 
ly indicated what the jury should do. The case 
was started in the Qarke Court, but by agreement 
was transferred to Frederick. The Court ruled 
that the jury should pass upon the facts relative 
to certain clauses of the will, and no more. 
Counsel for plaintiff strove to prove the clauses 
were too vague and indefinite, and should not 
be regarded as binding upon the executors. Coun- 
sel for defendants urged the execution of the in- 
tention of the testator. The jury, after many 
days of patient attention to testimony, and the 
able arguments of counsel, rendered a verdict 
favorable to the negroes. They considered the 
emancipation clauses sufficiently plain, and the 
will should stand. The Court ordered the will 
to be recorded in Clarke County, and let the case 
rest. The executors resorted to delays, and the 
negroes waited long for their freedom. 

The trial of Thomas Cain for rape, which 
started in 1850, and was concluded before Judge 
Parker, was a famous case and created much 
feeling in the community. Men of to-day well 
remember the epithet Wicked Cain, that was ap- 
plied to this man, who expiated his crime by a 
term in the penitentiary. 

At the June (15) Term, 1856, the famous mur- 
der trials of Spurr and Copenhaver was before 
the Court. The Grand Jury indicted Wm. H. 
Spurr and Andrew Jackson Copenhaver for the 
murder of Isaac Smith. Smith lived at the mill 
property South of Winchester now owned by 
the paper mill company. On his visit to Win- 
chester on a certain night, he entered the old 
Massie Tavern, just South of the Presbyterian 
Church on Loudoun Street, where he met the 
accused men. There was some drinking, and 
then a quarrel, which resulted in the killing of 
Smith. Spurr stabbed him fatally, and Copen- 
haver, using brass knuckles, struck the blow that 
felled their victim. They then rushed from the 
house; Spurr disposed of the dirk, which was 

afterwards found, while Copenhaver flung his 
knuckles on the roof of J. B. T. Reed's residence 
on opposite side of the street. The only witness 
to the tragedy was Jacob W. Kiger the young 
bartender. Through him it was learned who 
committed the fatal act. The two men were ap- 
prehended and promptly brought before the 
Court. They were arraigned and the same day 
indicted for the murder. They waived all tech- 
nical delays and elected to be tried separately; 
and, strange to say, the case was called the 
next day. Spurr was tried first; he had secured 
the services of Mr. Robt. Y. Conrad and his 
partner, J. Randolph Tucker. Fred W. M. Hol- 
liday was Commonwealth Attorney. The jury 
in the box were the following well known men: 
John Cather, George Kern, Solomon Pitman, 
Alfred Clevenger, Jas. W. Sibert, James Lewis, 
Alfred Garrett, Robt. B. Smith, Jercmich D. 
Smith, Jno. W. Muse, Martin B. Muse and Henry 
Crumly. Intense excitement prevailed every- 
where. All could sec that the young attorney 
for the Commonwealth was impressed with his 
responsibility. Ambitious, courageous, possessed 
of remarkable mental and physical ability, and 
with a strong case, he was well aware the con- 
test was to be one that required all he had. He 
knew the able counsel for the defense, Mr. 
Conrad, was acknowledged by all to have no 
superior, and perhaps no equal, for the conduct 
of such a serious case. The quiet demeanor of 
this able lawyer was enough to disconcert an 
enthusiastic prosecutor like Holliday; and when 
his eye rested upon the brilliant Tucker then in 
his prime, he knew he had to contend with 
weighty strokes from Conrad and the marvelous 
eloquence of Ran Tucker. The recollection of 
this trial enables the writer to recall the picture 
vividly; the handsome figure and manner of 
young Holliday attracted attention from all. The 
court room was crowded in every conceivable 
way — the bar full of the men who made the Win- 
chester bar famous for so many years. The pa- 
thetic side to the picture were the venerable fa- 
thers of the prisoners and the murdered man. 
Mr. Spurr sat near his boy, and old Mr. Jonathan 
Smith sat with bowed head near the man who 
was expected to convict the slayer of his son. 
Smith was noted for his towering form and warm 
temperament. The sympathy of the people was 
with the father of such a son, stricken down in 
the prime of such remarkable manhood. At the 
close of the first day's trial, the Sheriff, Wm. D. 
Gilkeson, and his three deputies, Robt. M. 
Cartmell, Wm. D. Gilkeson, Jr., and James 
Gilkeson, were sworn to take the jury 
in their custody and return them to court 
the next morning, and not allow them to 



hold cominunication with any person. Every 
day, then, until the conclusion of the trial, 
there was no abatement of interest. The wea- 
pons and bloodstained clothing were all arrayed 
before the jury in Holliday's dramatic style. The 
spectators were aroused; intense feeling prevail- 
ed, requiring constant vigilance of the officers to 
restrain. As may be supposed, the argument was 
the great feature; and seldom if ever had the 
old court room heard such eloquence. The im- 
pressions made on the youths of that day as 
they watched the parries and thrusts of the skill- 
ful trio and heard the pathetic pleadings of coun- 
sel for the prisoner, laid the foundation for the 
reputation that Ran Tucker had as an orator, 
which never left him. 

June 2i8t, 1855, the jury handed in the verdict: 

"We, the jury find the prisoner guilty of murder 
in the second degree and fix his punishment at 
18 years in the penitentiary. 

(Signed) John Gather, Foreman." 

Andrew Jackson Copenhaver was put upon his 
trial for same offence immediately at the con- 
clusion of Spurr's. A jury was in waiting; ad- 
ditional counsel employed by old Mr. Smith to 
assist the Commonwealth. Senator James M. 
Mason appeared in the case, and Mr. Philip Wil- 
liams appeared with Conrad and Tucker for the 
prisoner. The following persons composed the 
jury: Moses Nelson, H. B. Pitzer, Daniel Car- 
ver, Samuel Roland, Solomon Glaize, Wm. 
Frieze, Elijah Shull, Geo. H. Lewis, Martin 
Frieze, Thos. S. Sangster, Martin M. Adams 
and John Ewing. 

The case was conducted along the same lines 
as the one just closed; the two new lawyers — 
both distinguished for their legal ability, ably 
assisted in the trial, which continued for eight 
days. Mr. Conrad and Senator Mason had many 
legal tilts on admissibility of evidence; and it 
was remarked by many that Mr. Conrad gained 
rather than lost ground. Mr. Williams made 
himself famous in his cross-examination of the 
witness Kiger, and wrung from him an admis- 
sion that Copenhaver had some degree of pro- 
vocation. These great lawyers were attractive 
in every line of the case; and when the jury 
returned the verdict late in the evening of the 
29th of June, none were surprised at this finding: 
"We, the jury find the prisoner guilty of mur- 
der in the second degree and fix his punishment 
for the term of 15 years in the penitentiary." 

The prisoners were sentenced on the 2d of 
July, and hurried away to Richmond. The Court 
named two guards to assist Deputy Sheriffs 
Cartmell and Gilkeson to conduct the prisoners 
safely to the penitentiary. Some one may ask, 

did the prisoners serve their terms which would 
extend through the War that ended in 1865. We 
answer no. There has always been some mys- 
tery about the sequel of these celebrated cases. 
Mr. Tucker was soon called to Richmond as 
Attorney General for Virginia, Henry A. Wise 
being Governor ; and during his term, he granted 
a pardon to both prisoners. Spurr and Copenhaver 
became useful citizens during the remainder of 
their lives, which terminated a few years ag^. 
All the jurors, officers of court and every mem- 
ber of the Winchester bar living at that period, 
have long since passed beyond earthly tribunals. 

The Circuit Court had concurrent jurisdiction 
with the Justices' Court in what was called 
Naturalization of Aliens. This occasioned much 
confusion, and often men lost their right to 
vote because their names did not appear in pro- 
ceedings of the County Court. The majority 
of such cases were disposed of in that Court, 
and it was natural some politicians would con- 
clude it was the only court where evidence could 
be found to sustain the claim. The writer deems 
it desirable to give the names of a few well- 
known citizens in their day, of this class. At 
the Nov. Term, 1851, Robert Hamilton and Pat- 
rick Brady, natives of Ireland, and Henry Kin- 
zell, native of Darmstadt, Germany; and May i, 
1852, John Kater of Scotland, Patrick Moore, 
Dennis and Michael Saunders of Ireland, James 
Donaldson and Thos. Dixon of England, and 
Andrew McCarthy of Ireland. 

At the June Term, 1855 are several interesting 
minutes of this character : John Kerr of England, 
Robert Steel of Scotland, James Tipping of Ire- 
land, Samuel Hardy of Great Britain (son of 
Charles, was bom in Britain), John Wild of Ba- 
varia. Of this number, Robert Steel proved that 
he declared his intentions in the Justices' Court 
May 15, 1839; John Kerr satisfied the Court that 
he many years previous declared his intentions 
to become a citizen, but the evidence of the date 
could not be produced: the Court, however, final- 
ly admitted him to full citizenship. James Tip- 
ping produced proof that his declaration was 
entered Nov. 2, 1840; Samuel Hardy proved that 
he was a minor when he arrived in America 
and he was now 36 years of age. 

At the Nov. Term, 1855, Alexander Steel of 
Scotland and Michael Hassett of Ireland receiv- 
ed their papers. This may suggest to some 
reader one mode to discover something about 
his ancestor that would be of interest. 

At the June Term, 1858, we find the Cir- 
cuit Court spending many days over the trial 
of another murder case. This was the notable 
case of James Catlett alias Jim Wells, a well 
known negro of the County, who killed Sam 



Brock an inoffensive and much esteemed negro 
of the town. Catlett was found guilty of mur- 
der in the first degree, and sentenced June 26th 
to be hung. Lewis A. Miller, Sheriff, and his 
deputy John G. Miller, erected the gallows in the 
jail-yard and executed the order of court Au- 
gust 6, 1858. 

At this Term the Grand Jury indicted quite 
a number of free negroes for remaining in the 
State without lawful permission. At that time 
a law on our statute books required all free 
negroes to report to the Clerk for registration, 
and then to obtain certificates from the court 
to remain for one year only, when they were re- 
quired to repeat the process. If they could prove 
good character and were in the employ of some 
responsible person, they were allowed to remain. 
In the southern end of the County there was 
one family that gave much trouble from their 
influence among the slaves. Mundy Robinson 
and his large family were indicted, and this led 
to the indictment of many others. These cases 
remained on the docket until the Civil War vir- 
tually closed all proceedings. 

At the June Term, 1859, John McVicar was 
naturalized. This man became a noted scout for 
Stonewall Jackson, as will be more fully shown. 
At this Term we find that Powell Conrad, Lewis 
N. Huck and Charles L. Ginn were admitted to 
practice law. Margaret Lucas, a free negress, 
as the minute reads, was convicted of murder in 
second degree. 

In the Spring of 1861, the Court tried Rob- 
inson for murder. She was one of the Mundy Rob- 
inson free negroes mentioned above. This woman 
was employed by Benjamin Cooley, who then 
lived at Belle Grove. She murdered Mrs. Cooley 
while the two were in the meat house, using 
a meat cleaver. The woman was promptly tried ; 
the verdict was "guilty of murder in the first 
degree." The prisoner was remanded to jail 
without being sentenced. Her counsel. Col. 
Richard E. Byrd, moved the court to set aside the 
verdict. During the same Term, the prisoner 
was brought into Court. As sentence was being 
pronounced, Col. Byrd raised a point of law that 
brought the Court to a standstill and every mem- 
ber of the bar to their feet. Col. Byrd announc- 
ed to the court that the prisoner raised no ob- 
jection to the verdict of the jury; but did object 
to any judgment of the Court that would en- 
danger the life of the unborn child. Col. Byrd's 
law was sound, but evidence must be produced 
to the Court that such conditions existed. Old 
authorities were produced; and the Court being 
satisfied as to what course to pursue, ordered a 
jury of eight women to be summoned by the 
Sheriff to appear forthwith in court, to be sworn 
to visit the jail and enquire into the prisoner's 

condition, and report their verdict to the court. 
When the writ de ventre inspiciendo was issued, 
old attorneys declared it was the first to issue 
in Virginia; and the author has never found in 
any court in the State any record of such issue. 
Our old friend John G. Miller was sheriff. With 
his usual promptness, he proceeded to execute 
the strange writ, while the Court and^ anxious 
spectators awaited results. Mr. Miller returned 
after an hour's absence, greatly excited, declaring 
he could find no woman who would obey his 
summons, and that some of the Potato Hill wo- 
men threatened him with bodily harm. He was 
informed by the Court that he and his deputy 
must execute the order at once. Mr. Miller stat- 
ed that his deputy, James B. Russell, was out 
of town, and that he would resign before he 
would endure another experience. The Court 
announced that his resignation would not be 
accepted until he had executed the writ; the jury 
was summoned, and after due deliberation re- 
turned their verdict: whereupon the prisoner 
was remanded to jail without sentence; and we 
may add, she was never executed. Pending the 
occupancy of the town by the first Federal troops, 
this prisoner disappeared. 

At the November Term, 1858, Washington G. 
Singleton made first appearance as Clerk of this 

November 16, i860, this minute appears and is 
given as a sample of the action of Court relat- 
ing to this class of persons : 

"Mary Phelps a free negro woman," filed her 
petition to be reduced to slavery. Notice was 
posted at the front door of the court house for 
one month, that she would move the Court to 
direct that she and her children become the prop- 
erty of the wife of John Avis. The emancipated 
slaves were required to remove to some free 
State; failing to do this from choice, by reason 
of their attachment to the white family who had 
been their owners, they selected some member 
of that family and secured permission to return 
to their former state of slavery. This indicates 
how the old slaves regarded their owners,— 
prefering to remain with those they loved rather 
than enjoy the boon of freedom in a strange 
land where the people did not understand the 
relations between master and slave. 

At the Nov. Term, 1861. James Shipe was 
tried for the murder of Henry Anderson, of 
Winchester, Va. The murder occurred in an old 
stone house on the farm near the old Gold 
homestead now the property of Phil. H. Gold. 
Anderson was fatally stabbed with sheep shears. 
Dr. G. L. Miller informed the writer that this 
was his first case, and he used a knife to cut 
the weapon from the body. Shipe was sentenced 
to 18 years in penitentiary. 


Banks, Etc. 

The financial panic experienced by Virginia 
during the Revolutionary War and for several 
years subsequent thereto, caused the busi- 
ness men and statesmen to consider the sub- 
ject, so as to avoid a repetition of such 
troubles to the commercial life of the 
State. Much time and several sessions of the 
Assembly were frittered away before a solu- 
tion of the difficulty found favor. At last, in 
the Winter of 1804, the General Assembly set- 
tled upon the plan of having their first Bank, 
styled The Bank of Virginia, to be established 
at Richmond; capital stock not to exceed $1,- 
500,ooaoo, divided into shares of $100 each. Sub- 
scriptions to be opened at Richmond the first 
Monday in May next, in Norfolk, Petersburg, 
Fredericksburg, Winchester, Staunton and Lynch- 
burg on same day, each point being limited in 
number of shares — Winchester's quota being 
Five hundred and twenty-five shares. Commis- 
sioners were named to superintend the issuance 
of the shares: Hugh Holmes, Edward Smith, 
Robt. Mackey, Adam Douglas, Wm. Davidson, 
John Ambler, Archibald Magill and John Mil- 
ton were named for Winchester. This stock was 
quickly taken and the scheme was satisfactory. 
The infection seemed to spread rapidly, for we 
find the Farmers Bank of Virginia was incor- 
porated Feby. 13, 1812 (during the war period, 
it will be observed) ; Richmond to be the place 
of location; shares to be $100 each, paid in gold 
or silver coin. Winchester was allowed to take 
sixteen hundred and sixty-six shares in this sec- 
ond Bank; the commissioners appointed to issue 
stock being Gerard Williams, Edward Smith, 
Chas. Magill, Beattie Carson, Edw. McGuire, 
Daniel Lee, Daniel Gold, Isaac Baker, Joseph 
Gamble, Abraham Miller, Peter Lauck, Henry 
St. George Tucker, Alfred H. Powell, Lewis 
Wolfe and Lemuel Bent. This Bank was incor- 
porated so that the capital should be distributed 
among the several towns named as follows: to 
Richmond one- fourth; to Norfolk one-fourth; 
Winchester one-eighth, and same to the other 
three towns. This, then, was the origin and es- 
tablishment of the Farmers Bank of Winchester, 
— ^being a branch of the mother bank. 

The Valley Bank was chartered 1817, to be 
located at Winchester, under the name of The 

Bank of the Valley in Virginia, Provision was 
made in the charter that the stockholders of said 
bank might appoint places of deposit and dis- 
count in the counties of Jeflferson, Berkley, Hamp- 
shire and Hardy, and one in either Loudoun 
or Fauquier, to the amount of $100,000^ to be 
known as the branch banks of the mother bank. 
The board of directors of both The Farmers, and 
Bank of the Valley, were required to visit each 
branch at semi-annual periods and make full 
settlements, etc. The writer remembers well 
those interesting visits. They were notable 
events; much rivalry was maintained in each 
town, when lavish hospitalities were dispensed. 
They were occasions for universal entertainment. 
Romney and Moorfield seem then to have been 
favorites with the Board of Directors; there was 
something in the mountain air perceptibly exhil- 
arating. Both banks grew to be influential in- 
stitutions, presided over by men in every local- 
ity, competent to wield influence and to main- 
tain the credit and marvelous success they achiev- 
ed. Nothing seemed powerful enough to disturb 
them ; and only the Civil War, with its four years 
of disastrous work, could cause them to close 
their doors. This they did, and moved their ef- 
fects South to escape destruction. The old Far- 
mers Bank could never rally; the Bank of the 
Valley was placed in the hands of a receiver 
named Fant; and if he ever received anything 
by virtue of his office, there is no evidence of 
it in these parts. The writer, while gathering 
data for this notice, conversed freely with offi- 
cers of one of the banks now doing business on 
the same site; and learned that the books, papers 
and old bank notes remained in the old Valley 
Bank building for years. Out of the debris of 
this wrecked bank, many relics of former days 
were rescued. Mr. W. Douglas Fuller, now 
Cashier of the Farmers and Merchants Nat. 
Bank of Winchester, presented the writer with 
three of the old bank notes. One, of the denom- 
ination of $20.00, was issued at Winchester May 
7, 1856, and reads: The Bank of the Valley in 
Virginia will pay on demand twenty dollars at 
its Banking House in Leesburg to J. Janney or 
Bearer. No. 218-C H. M. Brent, Cashier; T. A. 
Tidball, President. 




This shows how the mother bank at Winches- 
ter managed her branch banks in other towns. 

The Bank of Winchester 

This banking institution was in successful oper- 
ation when the Civil War made it necessary to 
close its doors and secure its funds and papers. 
The writer has been informed by one acquainted 
with the circumstances, that the money and pa- 
pers were securely placed in boxes and buried 
in the cellar of Doctor William Miller's resi- 
dence; and when peace was declared and it was 
safe to reproduce the effects of the bank, Mr. 
Robt B. Wolf, the youthful cashier, was able 
to account for every dollar; the result being that 
the stockholders were in a much more comfort- 
able situation than could be expected. This 
bank was started as a savings institution — with 
Mr. Robert Y. Conrad, president, and Robert B. 
Wolf, cashier. They first occupied the building 
on West side of Loudoun Street, nearly opposite 
Court House Avenue. From there they went to 
the building cornering on Loudoun and Water 
Streets, now the property of S. Hablc; from 
there to the law office of Mr. Conrad, several 
doors South of the Evans Hotel. Vaults were 
there made, with other changes, that converted 
the first floor into a comfortable banking room; 
and there the Bank closed about 1862, and has 
not since resumed business. 

The capital stock was estimated at $100,000. 

There are three banks of deposit and discount 
now doing business in Winchester. 

The Shenandoah Valley National Bank, having 
obtained a charter, with capital stock of $130,000, 
which was promptly taken, the Board of Direc- 
tors purchased the old Valley Bank property, 
and opened its doors and vaults for business in 
January, 1866: Mr. Philip Williams, president, 
Henry M. Brent, Sr., cashier. This institution 
continued to use the old property until about 
1900, when it was decided the volume of busi- 
ness and profits justified the erection of the 
magnificent palace now seen on the old site, 
northwest comer of Loudoun and Piccadilly 
Streets. The building is complete in all its 
equipments — modem business offices, vaults, etc., 
adorn the interior. The affairs of the bank are 

perfectly handled by the efficient corps of officers 
and clerks. Mr. S. H. Hansbrough, president; 
John W. Rice, cashier, J. Few Brown, assistant, 
G. G. Baker, teller, T. Walter Gore, clerk. The 
capital stock has been increased to $200,000. 

The Union Bank of Winchester obtained a 
charter as a banking institution with the capi- 
tal stock of $50,000, and opened its doors on West 
side of Main Street, March 30, 1870. Wm. L. 
Clark, president; Robert B. Holliday, cashier. 
For many years after Mr. Holliday's death, M. 
H. G. Willis was cashier. Jas. B. Russell, Esq., 
has been president for many years ; Lee R. Grim, 
Esq., is cashier, succeeding Mr. Willis after his 
death. This bank has always maintained a safe 
and profitable management of its affairs, and 
ranks high among banking institutions, stock- 
holders and depositors. The efficient young 
clerks Summers and Cooper. 

Just across Loudoun Street is the other bank: 
The Farmers and Merchants National Bank. 
The imposing building attracts the eye; and the 
visitor beholds magnificence in its architecture 
and style. The interior has every modern device 
for comfort and safety. This bank was started 
Jany., 1902, with capital stock of $100,000, fully 
taken, being organized as follows: 

R. T. Barton, president, John Keating, vice- 
president; H. D. Fuller, cashier; Lewis N. Bar- 
ton, assistant cashier. Directors: Daniel Annan, 
Dr. W. P. McGuire, Wm. C. Graichen, German 
Smith, Jno. M. Steck, S. M. Chiles, E. D. New- 
man, Perry C. Gore, Jas. W. Rhodes, Thomas 
M. Nelson, H. H. Baker, M. M. Lynch, W. E. 
Barr, J. S. Haldeman. Mr. Gore and Mr. Nel- 
son having since died and Mr. Smith resigned, 
the Board continues as organized. The corps 
of clerks and assistants are Randolph McGuire 
and T. Y. Kinzel, tellers; J. H. Gather, note 
clerk, Frank G. Walter, bookkeeper; Eugene 
Chiles and Clinton Haddox, clerks. 

The success of this enterprise has been marvel- 
ous, exceeding the expectations of its most san- 
guine promoters. 

The brief notices given of the banks might 
properly belong to the sketch of Winchester, 
where only a reference is made to their existence. 


Revolutionary War Heroes 

The Congress by the Acts, 1832- 1834, voted 
certain allowances to soldiers of the Revolution- 
ary War who could produce sufficient proof of 
service to the courts of their respective counties; 
and upon the certificate of such courts, the sol- 
dier to receive what was termed bounty land 
warrant, graded as to rank of officers, and pri- 
vates of the rank and file. Acting upon this, 
many old soldiers appeared before the County 
Court of Frederick, and had their applications con- 
sidered. We give the following as matters that 
may interest the reader and induce him to read 
the mintnes 1834-1858, and he may find his an- 
cestor was of the noble band. 

June Ct., 1835, Cecelia Archer, wife of Wm. 
Archer, proved she was the only child of Wm. 
Morrell deceased, who was a soldier in Genl. 
Anthony Wayne's Army, and was killed in ex- 
pedition against the Indians. 

Darius Grubb proved his service. Wm. Pen- 
nybaker proved he was the heir of Conrad Penny- 
baker a deceased soldier. Francis Brown prov- 
ed by heirs. His son died 1833. See list of 
children, Ann Bartlett, wife of Joseph C. Bart- 
lett, being one. 

Carter B. Chandler proved his service. 

Col. John Smith proved his service. His cer- 
tificate secured a pension in money of $600 year- 
ly. He died 1836, when his children made an 
unsuccessful effort to secure land warrant; for 
the Colonel had accepted his grant in money, 
and not in land, which ceased at his death. He 
left no widow. This was Col. John Smith of 
Hackwood. Daniel Cloud's service was proved 
by his heirs, he having died Feby., 181 5. Names 
of the heirs given would be interesting to this 
family. (See p. 215 O. B., 1835). 

Samuel Wright proved his service, Oct., 1836. 

George Wright's service proved by heirs. He 
died Feby. 3, 1832. Names of children given. 

The Marple, Elliott, Wright and Chrisman 
families in western part of Frederick given as 
his children. 

Sept., 1838, John Williams proved his service 
and mentions his wife Susannah. 

John B. Tilden an aged Revolutionary officer, 
proved that Robert Chambers of Kentucky, Jo- 
seph Chambers of Cincinnati, Mary wife of 
John Cain of Philadelphia, Catherine wife of 

Wm. Nichols of Philadelphia, and Jane deceased 
wife of Jno. B. Tilden, were brothers and sisters 
and only heirs of Annie McKnight of Berkley 
County, widow and devisee of Doct. Humphrey 
FuUerton of Fredk. County, a soldier of the 
Revolution. Jno. Bell Tilden died July 21, 1838 
— Was a pensioner of $26.66 per month. His 
children, Martha Reed, Mary A. J. Victor, Jno. 
B. Tilden, Asburyna T. Phelps, Ann B. Mc- 
Leod, Eltha Tilden and Richard, appeared in 
Court May 6, 1839 ^^^ produced proof as to 
age, etc. 

At the May Term of the County Court, 1835, 
the following persons were granted Barroom 
License: To Michael Fizer at his house in Petti- 
coat Gap; John Beemer, Kemstown; Henry 
Swann at the Forge Works; James Seevcrs at 
Littler's mill; David Rhinehart, Pugh's Town; 
Tread well Smith at Battletown; Sarah Chapman, 
Capt. Joseph Long, Newtown ; David Davis at his 
house; John Wm. Morrison, his house; Abram 
Watson, his house. 

At the November term, 1838, a very remark- 
able trial occupied the attention of the Court 
for several days. The Court required the evi- 
dence to be entered in the Minute book, where 
is shown a complete history of the celebrated 
case, which the writer will briefly mention: The 
murder of William Brent, a well known gentle- 
man of Winchester, — by a runaway slave, was 
an oft repeated story during the boyhood days 
of the writer. Mr. Brent was the son-in-law of 
the venerable Robert Long, who lived on the 
comer of Washington and Amherst Streets, 
where for many years he conducted a popular 
school for young men. Mr. Brent lived with Mr. 
Long; he left home in the morning of Nov. 2nd, 
1838, to hunt through the forests northwest of 
the town. Later in the day he was found by 
Robert Affleck in the woods near the Pughtown 
road, suffering from several fatal wounds, hav- 
ing been stabbed with a knife. Brent related the 
incidents of the attack. He had found a strange 
negro man in the woods partly covered with 
leaves, and asked the man to give an account 
of himself. He answered that he was on his 
way to Pughtown, and asked for directions. 
Brent told him to follow him and he would 
show him the road. They had proceeded but a 




few steps, when the negro seized the muzzle of 
the gun, and with the other hand plunged an 
ugly dirk knife into his body several times; 
then hurried away with the gun. He soon met 
a negro boy and questioned him about the road. 
This interview resulted in his identification with 
the murder. Brent was taken to Mr. Affleck's 
home nearby; Drs. Hugh McGuire and Stuart 
Baldwin were summoned, but could not save 
his life. He gave a clear account of the tragedy. 
On the 9th, he died. Several days after, Syl- 
vester Monroe, of Hampshire County, arrested 
a negro man whom he regarded as a runaway 
slave; and while in the Romney jail, he was 
visited by two officers of Frederick County, 
George Kreemer, Jr., and Henry Daniel. They 
felt sure he was the murderer, and securing a 
writ, the prisoner was brought to Winchester 
and placed in custody of Robert Brannon, the 
Jailor. The prisoner was indicted and tried on 
the 19th of Nov.; found guilty, and sentenced to 
be hung on the 28th day of Dec, next. The boy 
had no trouble in recognizing the man he met 
on the road. The prisoner in his confusion, dif- 
fered somewhat with the statement of Brent; 
the negro claiming he did the killing to prevent 
his return to his master, Benjamin Lillard of 
Rappahannock County. The murderer's name 
was Benjamin Pulley. He was hung on the 
Commons near the site of the "Sacred Heart" 
Catholic Cemetery. 

Mr. Brent's widow married Mr. John Cooper, 
who is still living. Mrs. Cooper was the mother 
of the well known Cooper-Brothers of Winches- 
ter. Wm. Brent was the son of Innis Brent, 
brother of Henry M. Brent, Sen. 

Extracts from Minutes of County Court from 
1850 to 1856. 

List of Justices elected under the new Con- 
stitution — the first time magistrates were elected 
by the people — Formerly they were appointed by 
the Governor and Genl. Assembly: 

Jas. P. Riley, Sr., James Brooking, Wm. A. 
Bradford, Jos. E. Payne, A. Nulton, M. B. Cart- 
mell, Robert J. Glass, Henry P. Ward, Daniel 
Hinckle, Daniel Collins, Felix Good, James Gath- 
er, Jacob Senseny, Andrew Kidd, Jos. S. Davis, 
Henry W. Richards, Isaac Russell, Jno. B. Mc- 
Leod, David L. Clayton, Robt. L. Baker, Wm. J. 
Roland, Henry H. Baker, Joseph Brumback, Ma- 
ger Steel, Robt. C. Bywaters, Edward R. Muse, 
Joseph Richard, Annanias D. Russell, Jno. S. 
Magill, Isaac Hite. 

Three vacancies occurred during the period. 
Dr. W. A. Bradford removed to Clarke County; 
Henry P. Ward, resigned. David L. Clayton 
died, and David Timberlake elected in 1854. 
These were representative men of that period; 

all were men of intelligence, and owners of 
good property. The County Court, with such 
justices on the Bench, reflected credit upon the 

The County officers to qualify at the first term, 
1850 were: T. A. Tidball, clerk, Fred W. M. 
Holliday, Commonwealth's Attorney, Mahlon 
Gore, County Surveyor (father of our late Sher- 
iff Perry C. Gore), Chas. H. Barnes and A. A. 
Robinson, commissioners of the Revenue (ap- 
pointed by the Court). 

Sept. Terra, 1850— 

The iron picket fence enclosing the courthouse 
yard and courthouse, was ordered to be erected. 
John Bruce, Jacob Baker and John S. Magill 
were appointed commissioners to execute order. 
The kind of fence and boundary lines were well 
defined. The fence was completed the following 
Summer. Since the War, several sections near 
the courthouse, including three gates, have been 

Jany. Court, 1851. The Sheriff was ordered 
to hire out a list of delinquent free negro tax- 
payers, 46 in number — names all given. This 
was in accordance with an Act of Assembly pro- 
vided for by the Constitution. The Sheriff at a 
subsequent term, reported to Court that he had 
offered the negroes for hire, but had not receiv- 
ed bids offered, and asked for instructions. 

At this Term, Dr. Robert T. Baldwin who 
was recommended to the (Governor for appoint- 
ment as Sheriff, he being the Senior Justice, pro- 
duced his commission and was duly qualified. 

Nathaniel M. Cartmell, sworn as Deputy. 

Joseph Tidball, qualified as Attorney for Com- 

Oct. 6, 1851, Wm. L. Clark, Jr., was granted 
certificate, to present himself before the Supreme 
Court for examination and for license to practice 

Thos. S. Sangster and Joseph O. Coyle were 
appointed commissioners of the revenue for the 
County. It will be seen this power was vested 
in the Justices under that Constitution. 

November, 185 1 — 

Elections held to elect members of Congress. 
The following were the only voting places at 
the time: 

Winchester Courthouse, Gainsboro, Newtown, 
Brucetown, Swhiers's Tavern, Middletown. 

Same Term, the heirs of Rev. Joseph Glass 
deceased. On motion, the estate was relieved from 
payment of taxes and levies on "Cuff' an aged 
and infirm negro man. This is given as a sam- 
ple of what was done in many similar cases. 

March i, 1852 — William Wood produced his 
commission as sheriff from the Governor of Vir- 



ginia — N. M. Cartmell and Wm. D. Gilkeson 
sworn as deputies. 

Wm. McKay (McCoy) a well known Irish 
citizen of Back Creek, was granted his natural- 
ization papers ; and to the knowledge of the wri- 
ter, he was always an enthusiastic voter. 

May, 1852, the following persons were licensed 
to keep private entertainments. This meant that 
grogs of liquors could only be dispensed to those 
who took lodgings. 

To David L. Clayton, David Dinges, Susan 
Carter, Zachariah Kerns, B. Ridgeway, and Philip 

August, 1852. All the Justices assembled and 
elected Jno. S. Magill presiding justice. The 
justices were apportioned for the various terms 
of court,— <three gentlemen justices to sit with 
the president. 

The Court also established new precincts or 
voting places, viz. : at Winchester, the Court- 
house, Grim's Tavern, Engine House on Cork 
Street. (This was the Old Friendship) Hoover's 

In the County, Coe's School House, Anderson's 
Tavern on Back Creek (known as No. 6) Rus- 
sells (Old Dumb-Furflc) . 

At stated terms, the Justices assembled to pass 
upon all claims presented against the County. 
This included allowances for keeping roads in 
repair. These occasions always brought a crowd 
of claimants and spectators. Those were the 
halcyon days of the Old Justices Courts. Hun- 
dreds of the country people could be seen on 
the Green and in the old Market Square, where 
politicians renewed acquaintances and freely pat- 
ronized the old taverns. No saloons then — No 
such scenes are witnessed now. A vast major- 
ity of the population never know when courts 
are held, under our new system. 

J any. Court, 1855. Evan R. Thatcher was made 
jailor; Samuel Coe was qualified as justice in 
place of Daniel Collins, resigned. 

John R. Cooke, a former distinguished mem- 
ber of the Winchester Bar, died recently in Rich- 
mond. Resolutions of respect entered. 

June Court, 1855, Luke Riely a native of Ire- 
land, was naturalized. Mr. Riely made his home 
with the writer's father for 13 years — a conscien- 
tious man. 

June 2, 1856, F. W. M. HoUiday, who had been 
elected Commonwealth's Attorney in May, took 
oath, etc. 

Jno. M. Magson appointed Superintendent of 
Courthouse, etc. 

June 30, 1856, Wm. D. Gilkeson sheriff for 
several years, required to give new bond and al- 
lowed to hold his term until January, when he 
would be required to settle. N. M. Cartmell, 
R. M. Cartmell and Jno. W. Correll appointed 
deputies to collect the taxes for him. Gilkeson 
failed and his sureties suffered seriously, — sev- 
eral of them made bankrupt. 

Richard W. Burton, new justice, sworn; also 
the following constables qualified: James Z. 
Smith, Geo. H. Keiter, Jno. M. Magson, Thos. 
O. Clark, E. H. Scrivner and Saml. Williams. 

August 5, 1856, Thos. A. T. Riely elected clerk 
in May, qualified — ^Jas. P. Riely his deputy. 

October 6, 1856, Michael Ryan, native of Ire- 
land, naturalized. He was well known for many 
years for his integrity. At same Term, resolu- 
tions of respect were entered for Mr. L. J. C. 
Chipley, member of the Bar, who had recently 
died in Newtown. 

Nov. 21, 1856. Lewis A. Miller, who had been 
elected sheriff, qualified, with John G. Miller as 
Deputy. The latter is living at this time and 
active, at the age of eighty-four. 

Patrick Dolan, native of Ireland, naturalized. 


Gleanings from Old Justices' Court from i86a to the First Court under the 

Underwood Constitution. 

Judges, Officers, Criminal Trials. 

The Order Book used by the County Court up 
to the evacuation of Winchester by Genl. Jack- 
son March ii, 1862, was mislaid or stolen. This 
is the only record book of the old office lost. 
This has been a source of inconvenience, for it 
contained minutes of the Court for about four 
years. Many important orders, therefore, will 
not appear in this connection. Under the dis- 
turbed condition, the Court found considerable 
embarrassment at the Term held March 31, 
1862, for it will be remembered by some that 
Stonewall Jackson and Commissary Banks were 
contending for supremacy over this section. This 
Term was held with Hon. Jno. S. Magill presi- 
dent, "pro tem," J. R. Bowen and R. J. Glass on 
the bench. This order speaks for itself: 

"Ordered that the Sheriff do summon the mag- 
istrates of the County to appear at the next 
term, to consider the propriety of changing the 
place for holding court. All cases on the Docket 
continued. Jno. S. Magill, Pro tem." 

June 2, 1862. Court convened again, and en- 
tered a long order describing the sanitary con- 
dition of the courthouse and courthouse yard, 
requesting the town authorities to have same 
cleaned, limed, etc., and bring bill to the court 
for payment. The courthouse and hall had been 
in constant use as a hospital: Robt. L. Baker, 
Pro tem, etc. 

No other term held until Oct. 6, ('62). 

Hon. Geo. W. Ward, presiding justice. 

T. E. McCoole and R. L. Baker, justices. 

This order appears: The Court being inform- 
ed by the Clerk that the records of this office 
which were conveyed for safe-keeping to the 
office of the court of Page County, had been 
partly destroyed by Federal troops, that what re- 
mains of them may be damaged by further in- 
vasions. He is ordered to take such measures 
as may be necessary to remove the said records 
back to the county or otherwise to dispose of 
them for safe keeping * * * and for him to 
confer with Messrs. Barton & Williams in refer- 
ence to the proper course, etc. 

We will say now, that all the records were 
removed by the clerk, by order of court, at the 
suggestion of Genl. Jackson a few days previous 
to the evacuation, through the writer, who was 
'then Acting Provost Marshal. 

December i, 1862, the court makes this signifi- 
cant order: "Jno. M. Miller, W. B. Walter and 
J. H. Kemp are appointed Salt Agents for this 
County, who shall pay out of the fund hereafter 
provided, and receive the County's quota of salt 
from the Salt Agent for the loth Congressional 
Dist. as provided by the Governor's proclama- 
tion, and have it transported from Staunton to 
some convenient and safe place near this County, 
and then distribute it among the inhabitants of 
the County, viz. : seven pounds of salt to each 
member of a family, and to collect 6 cts. per 
pound, etc. * * * H. M. Brent, Philip Wil- 
liams and H. B. Streit appointed comrs. to bor- 
row $7000.00 to pay State Agent for same, said 
sum to bear interest at 6 per cent, until Jany. 
1st, 1866. August 31, 1863, same Commissioners 
were directed to borrow $12,000.00 on same terms, 
so as to secure more salt. This gives some idea 
of the conditions then prevailing — County records 
out of County, and unsafe, and people without 

Nov., 1863, the Court requested all the justices 
that could be found to appear and consider what 
should be done as to the support of many famil- 
ies, where husbands and sons were in the army, 
and also to consider the question of protection 
of crops, where much fencing had been de- 

Feby. 24, 1864, the Court entered an order for 
W. G. Singleton, Deputy (J. Chap. Riely the 
Clerk being absent) to collect the scattered rec- 
ords and return them to the clerk's office. At 
the June Term ('64), Mr. Singleton reported 
that he collected part of the records and had 
placed them in the vault of the Bank of Win- 
chester, in back part of Bank. Sheriff was di- 
rected to pay Mr. S. $20.00 in Virginia Bank 
money, if convenient. 

Sept. 5, 1864, Court adjourned to meet at the 
house of W. G. Singleton in Winchester, until 
otherwise ordered. Robt. L. Baker, pres. The 
Court convened several times after this term 
and admitted wills to probate. 

In the Spring of 1865, when Peace was de- 
clared, an election was held in pursuance of the 
Proclamation by the Pierpont State Government, 
then seated at Alexandria. At this election, none 
but well known Union or Loyal men could be 




voted for. Voters at this election could be none 
other than well-known Union men. This meant 
Carpet Bag Citizens and the few Union men in this 
section. The vote was light, but the new officers 
were recognized by the Military Governor Scho- 
field, and ordered to organize courts, etc., under 
what was known as the Iron Clad Oath. The 
newly-elected officers were notified to assemble 
at the courthouse; and we find the whole num- 
ber present on July 3, 1865. George W. Ginn, 
who had the ear of the new government, was 
master of ceremonies; and under his supervi- 
sion, the following justices were sworn into of- 
Hce: George W. Ginn, J. Fenton Jackson, Daniel 
T. Wood, Alfred Seal, Geo. B. Diffenderffer, 
Thos. McCardell, Samuel R. Atwell, Jos. S. Den- 
ny, Henry B. Pitzer, David Lupton, Geo. Y. Fries, 
Wm. Brown, Isaac DeHaven, John Lamp, Wm. 
Gather, Jonathan Jenkins, Edward Eno, Wm. R- 
Smith, Jr., James Bean, Moses R. Richard, Al- 
fred Williams, Jno. S. Magill, Jno. N. Meade 
and D. J. Miller. 

Mr. Wood and Mr. Smith are the only sur- 
vivors of this list. No shadow of doubt existed 
as to the loyalty of a large majority of the men 
named. Some were well known for their radi- 
cal sentiments, and were regarded by the help- 
less citizens as unfit to sit as a court to try is- 
sues that might be joined between Confederate 
soldiers and the Union element of the County. 
The minutes of that meeting do not show that 
any were questioned as to their loyalty. The 
oath of office they were required to take should 
settle that point; but when the writer enquired 
of one who was present, how several of the list 
could pass inspection of the lynx-eyed manager, 
the answer was given that several of them were 
severely criticized and pronounced by several 
leaders as sympathizers of the South. Much 
bitter feeling and inflammatory language flowed; 
and it seemed at one time that at least three of 
the list would be rejected, but a vote was taken 
and a majority voted that all should be allowed 
to serve. It may be asked, what right had any 
of the Justices to determine who was eligible. 
Answer can be given that the men who assumed 
that right were so violent in their actions regard- 
ing Southern sympathizers, that they had no re- 
gard for consequences, knowing full well that 
the bogus government would sustain any act of 
theirs, and, if need be, the military was within 
easy call 

Mr. Ginn informed the justices they must elect 
the presiding justice, and moved the vote be by 
ballot. George W. Ginn was appointed teller. 
The vote being thus cast, the teller discovered 
that Geo. W. Ginn was elected president 

C. W. Gibbens, who was elected clerk at May 
election, was duly sworn, etc. 

Samuel Trenary — sworn as sheriff. 

Edwin S. Brent, who was elected clerk of cir- 
cuit court*, was sworn. 

Frederick Gross and Stacy J. Tavenner, comrs. 
of the revenue, were sworn. 

Jas. P. Riely and L. N. Huck, first attorney to 
appear, and sworn to practice law. W. G. Sin- 
gleton also allowed to practice law, all having 
taken the Amnesty oath. 

The Court directed the Clerk to send some 
trustworthy person to Luray to collect all books 
and papers he could find belonging to Frederick 
County, and return them to the office of this 

During the Term, Robt. T. Barton granted 
certificate to appear before the Supreme Court 
for examination to practice law. 

Court then adjourned, to meet in the court 
house at the next term. 

July 31, 1865, John Pollock appeared with a 
certificate from the Ohio court, and moved to 
be admitted to practice law in this Court — 
Granted. He was then, at the suggestion of the 
president, appointed to act as Commonwealth's 
Attorney, being the first carpet bagger to take 
office. He soon gave promise of the unpopular- 
ity that shone forth in his many hostile acts. 
He was a shyster lawyer of the lowest order. 
His efforts to force litigation against a helpless 
people, did more to secure what was known as 
the Stay Law, than any other agency. The 
General Assembly was powerless without the 
sanction of the military governor; and he was 
induced to adopt this remedy. This was one 
redeeming trait in the character of Genl. Scho- 
field. Pollock, having succeeded in fleecing a 
number of his faithful friends, skipped out one 
day, leaving his clients to mourn over their loss; 
while others rejoiced at his departure. 

This Stay Law afforded relief to hundreds of 
impoverished people. The order issued by the 
Military Governor, December, 1868, operated as 
a stay of executions relating to sale of personal 
property until Jany. i, 1869. J^ne 29, 1869, 
Gen. Canby, by this order, No. 80, extended the 
time to Jany. ist, 1870. This order also required, 
when real estate was sold under decree of court, 
no sale to be valid where the bid was less than 
two-thirds of its last-assessed value. This rule 
prevailed as to real estate for many years. Per- 
sons regarded it as safe practice. 

This order was signed by command of Brevet 
Major Genl. Canby, attested by Lawrence E. 
Bennett, Capt. 17th Infty. U. S. A., Military 
Comr. Dist. of Va. 

At above Term, Wm. L. Clark, Jr., and Col. 



L T. Moore and Joseph S. Carson were admitted 
to practice law. Chas. H. Kamp produced his 
commission as notary public, signed by Gov. 
Geo. H. Pierpont. 

Court ordered repairs to courthouse, and ad- 
journed to meet in the clerk's office. 

Sept. 4, 1865. Robert Y. Conrad, Uriel Wright, 
U. L. Boyce, Andrew G. Kennedy, R. T. Barton, 

T. T. Fauntleroy, Jr., Watrous (a 

carpet-bagger) appeared and took the attorney's 
oath, and were admitted to practice law. Many 
wills and estate accounts were produced to the 
court, probated, and entered for record,— quite 
a number having been held by parties until there 
was some assurance of safety in bringing them 

Overseers for nearly all the roads were ap- 

Sept 5 — Chas. L. Ginn, son of the president, 
appeared as the Commonwealth's attorney by 
appointment of the military. 

August 31, 1868, C. M. Gibbens produced his 
commission as clerk of court to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of his father C. W. Gib- 
bens, — the commission signed by the Major Genl. 
commanding Military Dist. of Virginia. 

Similar minutes appear in the courts for the 
years intervening between this date and the 
Spring of 1870, when the Old Justices Court 
system disappears (Chap. 25.). In accordance 
with the New Constitution, the General Assem- 
bly elects judges for County courts. Joseph S. 
Carson was elected April 2, 1870, to serve Freder- 
ick County Court. We find that as soon as he 
took and subscribed the oaths of office, his first 
official act was a vacation order dated April 22, 
1870, when he appointed the first registrars for 
the County, preparing for an election to be held 
in May, when county and district officers were 

At this first term, J. Vance Bell, the one-armed 
Confederate soldier, who was appointed sheriff 
for hb term of office, to take effect at the ad- 
journment of the May court, was duly qualified, 
also his deputies, Chas. B. Hancock, Perry C. 
Gore and Robt. I. Kurtz (who became jailor). 

Joseph H. Sherrard qualified as cl«rk, having 
been elected at the May election. 

Judge Carson's service on the bench terminat- 
ed suddenly. Stricken with apoplexy while horse- 
back riding up Water Street, he was judge less 
than one year, as the following minute in the 
order book of the county court shows: 

April 6, 187 1. The court failed to meet to- 
day, pursuant to the adjournment, because of 
the sudden death of Judge Jos. S. Carson on 

Tuesday evening April 4, 1871, after the ad- 
journment of court. 

TEST: Jas. P. Riely, Clerk. 

Joseph H. Sherrard received the appointment 
as Judge from the (Governor, to fill the vacan- 
cy. He held his first term May i, 1871. No 
other change in court until Judge Sherrard re- 
signed the office, to take effect after the adjourn- 
ment of the December court, when he signed 
the adjourning order December 3, 1883. The 
Judge had been troubled for several years with 
impaired eyesight; in fact, was totally blind for 
one year. The writer guided his hand when af<« 
fixing his signature to court papers in many 
cases for the last year of his term. 

William L. Clark was appointed by the (jov- 
ernor to fill out Judge Sherrard's unexpired 
term. His first appearance on the bench was De- 
cember 31, 1883. His term, which terminated 
December 14, 1891, was noted for the number 
of criminal trials. For six years the criminal 
docket was never cleared of* trials for every 
kind of felony; it being frequently remarked 
that an epidemic of crime had fastened its fangs 
upon the hitherto peaceful section. But the stern 
and energetic efforts of this Judge, aided by his 
faithful officials, and especially by the skill and 
ability of the youthful attorney for the (Common- 
wealth, Richard E. Byrd, who unceasingly bent 
every effort to successfully ferret out the sus- 
pected violators of law, and ultimately brought 
men to the bar of court to give an account of 
the misdeeds with which they were charged. And 
there the accused and others learned that this 
young representative of the Commonwealth, 
shielded none by subterfuge and compromise; 
and thus the Docket eventually appeared in its 
normal state. Some of these trials will be briefly 

After disposing of such cases as arson, bur- 
glary, housebreaking, plundering country stores, 
and in several cases church property, two mur- 
der cases, one near Brucetown and one in north- 
west part of the County, the guilty parties paid 
the penalty by terms in the penitentiary. There 
was a lull in such activities for awhile; and of- 
ficers and court enjoyed the change. In the 
Autumn of 1886 the Commonwealth was in- 
formed of a crime that had been committed 
several miles East from Newtown. This was a 
mysterious case. The body of young Andrew 
Broy was found in the woods of Mr. S. Ridge- 
way; an investigation made, resulting in a cor- 
oner's inquest; and a verdict rendered that death 
was caused by pistol shots dealt by persons un- 
known to the jury. The case was submitted to 
Mr. Byrd, who soon had a chain of circumstan- 
tial evidence started, with but one or two links 



missing. The evidence pointed to Ashby Ride- 
nour as the slayer. He had been seen in com- 
pany with the murdered man on the morning 
of the day that young Broy had been seen alive. 
They had been close friends; and it was asked 
what motive induced the killing. Mr. Byrd dis- 
covered that Broy held the bond of the suspected 
Ridenour, and a search of the body failed to pro- 
duce this bond; but in the same woods, the bond 
was accidently found by the searching party. 
Mr. Byrd's theory was that the murderer had 
secured the bond, and in his flight from the 
body, had hidden it in a ravine and accidently 
lost it among the leaves. This was the motive 
relied on. The arrest of Ridenour was ordered, 
and a special grand jury ordered for January 
court. A number of witnesses were summoned, 
and Jany. 4, 1887, a true bill was returned by 
the grand jury, fixing the murder upon the ac- 
cused, signed by David B. Dinges, foreman. This 
was the first step towards the celebrated trials 
of T. Ashby Ridenour, running through the court 
for more than two years. The prisoner secured 
the services of the talented young criminal law- 
yer Wm. R. Alexander, who, from the start, 
made the most determined defence to save the 
prisoner's neck. 

The two young rival lawyers, realizing at once 
that reputation was to be made in the case, 
measured up the work. Their skill in handling 
their respective sides of the case, was eagerly 
watched by their many friends. As the prelim- 
inary steps were taken for the trial, each side 
needed delays. The Commonwealth had to fill 
the missing links in its chain, while prisoner's 
counsel hoped such delays would allay excited 
prejudice. Finally, on the 4th of April, 1887, 
both parties announced to the Court they were 
ready for trial. 140 witnesses had been sum- 
moned; a jury was secured who were found free 
of prejudice, and the first trial opened. For 
seventeen days of strenuous effort on the part of 
the counsel, patience of the worn jury, and ac- 
tive services of the officers, and dignified rulings 
of the august court, the multitude of spectators 
heard the reading of the verdict by the clerk 
when the jury had taken their seats, after hav- 
ing spent the day in their room considering their 
verdict, at last, in the afternoon of April 21, 
1887, — "We the jury find the prisoner guilty of 
murder of the first degree, C. R Graves, fore- 
man." Mr. Alexander moved for a suspension 
of judgment and for new trial, and for an ap- 
peal. The whole Summer was used up by tak- 
ing the case to the Court of Appeals. A new 
trial was granted, which was started Jany. 2, 
1888, with a jury from Shenandoah County, it 
being impossible to secure one from Frederick. 

This trial continued for nineteen days, when the 
jury returned from their room on the evening 
of Jany. 21st, with the verdict: "We, the jury 
find the prisoner guilty of murder in the first 
degree. (Signed) E. Nisewanner, Foreman." 

Mr. Alexander felt his disappointment equally 
as much as the prisoner. Very few young or 
old lawyers would have made further effort. 
Not so with young Alexander. He promptly 
asked for a new trial, and for his bill of excep- 
tions to be examined and signed by the Judge 
preparatory to an appeal ; and, the writer will 
add, this exceeded in the number of exceptions 
any bill he has ever handled in his long exper- 
ience. Officers, prisoner, members of the bar 
and spectators were dismayed at what seemed 
to be a futile attempt to save the prisoner from 
the gallows. In due course, however, the Qerk 
was called upon for a copy of the record. This 
seemed a burden too heavy to bear a third 
time. The record now amounted to about five 
hundred pages; and he had never received a 
cent for the other copies. At this juncture, Chas. 
B. Rouss sent his check to Mr. Alexander to aid 
him in the Appellate Court. The Clerk, however, 
failed to get his portion of the generosity of Mr. 
Rouss — all was required for other purposes. The 
case was handed down just in time to have the 
third trial Jany. ist, 1889. This trial required 
seventeen days. A jury was summoned from 
Loudoun County, and resulted in this verdict, 
that surprised many people: 

"We, the jury find the prisoner not guilty as 
charged in the indictment. 

(Signed) Chas. P. McCabe, Foreman." 

During these trials, of course, the lost bond 
was an important feature. This bond was sign- 
ed by T. A. Ridenour, and the other writing al- 
together in the hand of Broy. Experts were pro- 
duced by the Commonwealth to prove Ridenour's 
handwriting. The defence met this by experts 
to prove the contrary. The former stated posi- 
tively that the bond was signed by Ridenour, 
comparing his signature with other well-known 
writings of his; while the latter expressed grave 
doubts on the subject Alexander used some 
sharp practice on the expert for the Common- 
wealth. He secured the services of an expert 
penman, and had him make a clever copy of the 
bond, — imitating the entire form of the writing; 
discolored the paper, and had it resemble the 
original in every point. The day he recalled the 
expert to cross-examine him as to one or two 
points in the handwriting, he asked the Clerk 
for the bond, which was handed him. He con- 
trived to make exchange, holding the original 



and handing the imitation to the Washington 
expert, who then had become very dignified and 
important He had so fully and learnedly dis- 
sected the writing already, that he declined to 
answer questions; but the Court directed him to 
answer. Mr. Alexander asked him to examine 
the bond carefully and then say if he was posi- 
tive that the writing was in the hand of Broy 
and the "T. A. Ridenour" was that of the prison- 
er at bar. After a careful examination, his an- 
swer was **l say now what I said when examined 
touching this writing, that Broy wrote the note 
and T. A. Ridenour wrote the signature." Mr. 
Alexander then handed him the original and 
asked witness "Who wrote that note and the 
signature?" The Court demanded explanations 
from counsel, while the expert was covered with 
confusion. The Court censured the practice but 
declined to censure counsel. The incident pro- 

duced its effect on the jury doubtless. But the 
jury, after the trial, told the clerk that one link 
in Mr. Byrd's chain had been broken by the de- 
fense; and this was the pivotal link. One wit- 
ness, Miss Mamie Birmingham, who never hesi- 
tated in the former trials to state she saw the two 
men pass her door and finally enter the woods 
together, and said she had no doubt as to who 
they were. On cross-examination in the last 
trial, Mr. Alexander plied her carefully with the 
question of absolute certainty. She began to 
waver; and when told she must say she had or 
had not a shadow of doubt, she admitted that 
she might have been mistaken. The case rested 
at this point; and the argument began, which 
became famous for many years. The two rivals 
received the plaudits of the crowd, while the 
prisoner wandered around in his freedom, be- 
wildered at the change. 


The First Lynching in The County 

Wm. M. Atkinson, a member of the Winches- 
ter Bar, was elected by the General Assembly to 
succeed Judge Wm. L. Clark. Judge Atkinson's 
first term was held Jany. 4, 1892. Nothing more 
than the ordinary business of courts occupied the 
attention of the new Judge for several terms. 
Several misdemeanors were tried by his Honor, 
which plainly indicated his ability to try graver 
offences when brought into his court. The June 
Term, 1893, was to britig the Judge's attention 
to one of those kind of cases that produce ex- 
citement with all classes: WilliaAi Shorter, a 
young negro about 19 years old, had been ar- 
rested charged with an attempted rape upon a 
highly respected young white girl in the vicinity 
of Stephensons station. At this term the case went 
before a special grand jury, which resulted in 
indictment for the heinous offence. Upon his 
arraignment the same day, it was discovered 
that a mob was forming to take the law in their 
hands and save the Court this trouble. This 
was the 5th of June. The officers of the court 
after consultation with the Judge, advised that 
the prisoner should not remain in the jail while 
the usual crowds of people would be in town 
and next day observing the Sixth of June Me^ 
morial, etc. The Judge ordered the Sheriff, 
Perry C. Gore, Esq., to take the prisoner to 
Staunton and confine him in that jail until a 
jury could be secured and preliminaries arranged 
for trial. Every precaution was used to secure 
the prisoner a fair trial, the day fixed for trial 
being June 13th. The jailor, Adam Forney, was 
sent the night before, so that he might have the 
prisoner in court the next morning by 10 o'clock. 
When that hour arrived, the court was in session, 
awaiting anxiously the appearance of the jailor 
and his prisoner. It was not long before wild 
rumors were in the air. The train had arrived 
in Winchester, and passed on schedule time. 
The writer and Judge were seated near each 
other at the Clerk's desk endeavoring to account 
for the non-appearance of the jailor. At this 
juncture several persons came to the desk and 
under great excitement stated: The prisoner 
had been taken from the train at Kernstown and 
lynched by a mob. This was a surprise; some 
fears had been entertained that some reckless 
persons might be at the station in Winchester 

on the arrival of the train, and that an effort 
would be made to do the prisoner bodily harm, 
and the sheriff planned to have the train halt 
at Water Street and land the prisoner there, 
and then hurry him to the court room. The 
waiting judge and clerk would not have been 
surprised to hear that the sheriff met trouble 
on his way to the courthouse. As soon as pos- 
sible, Mr. Byrd and Mr. Gore were dispatched 
to Kernstown to investigate the situation. There 
was no telephone communication at that time 
with Kernstown, and the mob had cut the tele- 
graph lines. For nearly two hours the surging 
crowds around the courthouse exhibited intense 
excitement. The negroes were seen in groups 
sullenly discussing the case, Which increased the 
intensity of feeling. The writer, at the request 
of the Judge and many citizens, approached the 
crowds of excited men and urged them to dis- 
perse so as to avoid a collision with the excited 
negroes. Passing on to Main Street, he recog- 
nized two men riding up and down the Street 
in the most defiant manner. He called them to 
the curb and urged them to leave the Streets and 
tell others to do the same, and pointed out the 
danger. They promptly disappeared; he then 
approached several groups of negroes that were 
favorably known to him, and told them plainly 
they must go to their homes and keep quiet, that 
this was the only thing that would prevent a 
wholesale massacre of many good negro citizens 
by the frenzied crowd, — that one word from them 
now would precipitate riot, and bloodshed would 
follow. The sober-thinking negroes acted prompt- 
ly, and for several hours they prudently with- 
drew from the streets, and few persons knew 
at the time the narrow escape Winchester had 
made from the horrors of a reign of terror. The 
sheriff on his arrival at the Kernstown railroad 
station, acquainted himself with the fact and 
returned with his report for the Court, which 
was virtually the following: That when the 
train neared the station, several strange men 
signalled the engineer to stop. The engineer was 
guarded, while others of the party boarded the 
train and proceeded to rescue the prisoner. The 
resistance by Adam Forney the jailer was re- 
markable. He had Shorter handcuffed to his 
arm, and refusing to release his prisoner, the 




lynching party resorted to rough means, when 
Forney was overcome and the prisoner, with rope 
fasted around his neck, was dragged from the 
car and across the station yard to the West side 
of the Valley turnpike to a stunted locust tree. 
He was soon hoisted to a limb to dangle in the 
air, while some of the party fired several shots 
into the writhing body. The work was quickly 
done; the lynchers, having wreaked their ven- 
geance on the miserable wretch, hastily moved 
away, taking the various roads leading from the 
place, and none could aver whence they came 
or whither they went. The party was composed 
of about thirty quiet but resolute men. No riot- 
ous conduct and no confusion of plans. The 
Commonwealth's Attorney, R. E. Byrd being pres- 
ent, ordered a coroner's inquest, which was delay- 
ed several hours. Their verdict was **that the 
death was caused by persons unknown to the 
jury." The court promptly ordered the arrest 
of all suspected persons; the sheriff returned his 
writs with no arrests; the excitement gradually 
subsided; and for some time the community felt 
that the tragedy would be wholesome to certain 
classes. This was the first and only case of 
Lynch Law in the County. It may be shown in 
other pages that soldiers were lynched during 
the Civil War. 

The natural conclusion would be that the 
prompt discovery of the crime and terrible re- 
tribution, with all its abhorrent details, was suf- 
ficient to appall all evil-doers and deter them 
from indulging in similar fiendish acts. Not so, 
however, for in less than two years we find 
the court once more confronted with an outrage 
committed near Middletown. This was the case 
of Thornton Parker, a negro of that locality. 
He was arrested, taken before Justice Wm. Davi- 
son, who found the charges well sustained, and 
promptly turned the prisoner over to the County 
Court. A special grand jury was called for 
March 11, 1895. An indictment was returned to 
court, charging Parker with assault and vicious 
attempt to commit rape upon a married woman 
living a little West of Middletown. The court or- 
dered a venire facias to issue, summoning a jury 
for the 15th to try the case. Every precaution 
was taken to avoid a repetition of the unlawful 
proceedings witnessed in the case of Shorter. The 
Governor ordered Col. James C. Baker, com- 
manding the 2d Virginia Refitment, to detail the 
Woodstock Company to proceed to Winchester, 
to aid the Sheriff in protecting the prisoner. Col. 
Baker and Capt. Magruder promptly arrived 
with the Company and assumed the responsibility, 
to quell any uprising or disorder. The trial was 
quiet and orderly in every respect, though intense 

excitement prevailed outside the court room. 
Guards were doubled, and the court room scene 
was one long to be remembered — the bristling 
bayonets of infantry, the testimony of the out- 
raged lady, and that of witnesses who detected 
and ran down the brutish creature who now sat 
in the dock, guarded by the jailor. The attentive 
jury in the box, the scathing prosecution by Mr. 
Byrd, the just judge on the bench and breathless 
crowds eagerly listened to catch every syllable 
uttered for or against the prisoner, grew intense. 
Some relief came when the jury were handed 
the papers, as the sheriff conducted them to the 
jury room. In twenty minutes they filed slowly 
back, and taking their seats in the box, were 
asked by the clerk if they had agreed upon a 
verdict. The answer was yes, and the verdict 
handed to the writer, who read this finding: 

"We, the jury find the prisoner guilty as charge 
ed in the indictment and fix his punishment with 
death by hangnng." 

(Signed) Jno. W. Harper, Foreman" 

The judge promptly sentenced the prisoner, 
and fixed the day of execution between the 
hours of 8 and 10 o'clock in the morning of the 
19th of April next. The outraged people seemed 
satisfied that the forms of law had been observ- 
ed, and the prisoner was remanded to jail, guard- 
ed by the military. He soon was in the cell 
and surrounded by a death-watch. When the 
19th of April came, Mr. Gore and his deputies 
were fully prepared to execute the sentence. At 
9 o'clock Mr. Gore detailed James W. Stottle- 
myer, a prominent constable from Stonewall 
District, to spring the trap; and in twenty min- 
utes, one more of this wretched class of criminals 
was a dead carcass, ready to be carted away. It 
may be asked was this the only retribution? We 
cannot answer. The effect of this judicial exe- 
cution must have been greater than the other 
mode, for thirteen years have passed without 
a repetition of this crime in the Lower Valley. 

The court disposed of the usual number of 
misdemeanor cases for the remaining t^rm of 
Judge Atkinson. No more death penalties. The 
reader would be interested in a patient study of 
the court proceedings. Many incidents of much 
interest to the County have long since been for- 
gotten. Indeed, in his recent re-study of them, 
the writer was astonished to see the volumes 
of matter once familiar to him and written out 
by his own hand. We have arrived at that point 
in this disjointed narrative, when another change 
was to occur to the County Court. This will re- 
ceive attention in the next chapter. 


Old County Court Abolished 

The reader will notice that the County Court 
was known as the Justices' Court until the Spring 
of 1870, when it ceased to exist by virtue of the 
provision in the Underwood Constitution framed 
in 1867-68. 

The Justices during the colonial period were 
often called Justices of the Crown, signifying 
their mode of election or appointment ; the Crown, 
through representatives at the capitol, creating 
the first bench of justices in each county; and 
as vacancies occurred, this bench would recom- 
mend some suitable gentleman for appointment, 
when commissions were issued from the Gov- 
ernor and his Council. And thus the Justices 
Court, comprised of the choice gentlemen of 
their respective counties, produced a court re- 
nowned for their judicial acts. As already 
shown, some of the justices could not subscribe 
to oaths required after 1776; and for several 
years, the remaining justices composed the courts. 
After the new State framed and adopted its first 
Constitution, justices were elected by the Gen- 
eral Assembly until 1851, when a sweeping change 
was made, and another Constitution framed by 
what was known as the great Reform Conven- 
tion. This Convention met for the purpose of 
revising the Constitution framed in 1829-30; and 
the revision cut the old instrument so rudely, 
that it could not be recognized by its friends. To 
use the language of W. W. Scott, historian of 
Orange County. "The old Constitution was ut- 
terly cast aside, except that George Mason's Bill 
of Rights was retained almost word for word." 
The right of suffrage was extended to every 
white male citizen 2T years of age; all officers 
were made elective by this class of new voters; 
so the Justices were elected by the people from 
1850, and as such, composed the County Court 
until 1870, when Justices or Magistrates as they 
were termed, no longer composed a bench of 
Justices, but acted in judicial capacity to a limited 
extent in their respective Districts. The office 
is void of emoluments, and none seek the office, 
though generally some good men are found who 
will accept it. For any service rendered, they 
receive a mere pittance. 

The County judges, elected by the General As- 
sembly for terms of six years, received small 
salaries. The judge for Frederick County was 

paid $350.00 annually. He was also Judge of the 
Corporation Court of Winchester, with a salary 
of $500.00. 

About the year 1900, another Convention 
craze struck the country through the mouth- 
piece of some ambitious politicians. Their la- 
mentations over the evils of the Underwood Con- 
stitution, found lodgment with many good peo- 
ple, who were pursuaded to believe they had 
borne the burden long enough. The fact was 
patent to many older men who had borne the 
brunt of political strife, that such burdens had 
been removed by healthy amendments, and the 
chief objection to that Constitution .was the 
name. The people had become accustomed to the 
Judge system, and really had no desire for 
change; but appeals came to the Valley coun- 
ties, for aid to have a Convention that would 
virtually eliminate the objectionable negro vote 
that was the cause of corrupt elections. The 
Valley people reluctantly yielded; and the Con- 
stitution was not only framed by the Convention 
but proclaimed, and refused to be submitted to 
the people for ratification. This was in violation 
of sacred pledges. Well, it is true the negro 
was eliminated; but in doing this, thousands of 
old white voters were offended by the provisions, 
and have become indifferent to results; and many 
are of the opinion the Democratic party has lost 
good ground which is being occupied by the Re- 
publicans. The lack of enthusiasm in both par- 
ties is evident; while a new and third party is 
gathering up the discontented, preparing to sweep 
the State from mountain to sea. This is called 
the Anti-Saloon party. 

When the change came for the Judge of the 
Circuit Court to try all causes, the County Court 
clerks did in most cases become the County 
Clerk and also Clerk of the Circuit Court until 
1906, when the office would be filled by the clerk 
elected at the general election held in Nov., 1905. 
The writer thus became the new clerk, with Phil. 
H. Gold as Deputy, who had been Clerk of the 
Circuit Court. 

When the time approached for the County 
Court to cease, universal regret was felt. The 
sentiment was expressed tenderly. The old land- 
mark established in the Eighteenth Century, now 
to be obliterated in the Twentieth, produced re- 




flections that threw new light on the shadowy 
past. The last term was held in January, 1904. 
Every member of the Winchester bar then in 
the city, by common sentiment, was in the court 
room. Mr. R. T. Barton, in well chosen re- 
marks, made the motion that the bar be allowed 
to adopt suitable resolution touching the last 
hours of the Court, at whose bar his and per- 
haps ancestors of other members present, had 
appeared from its foundation through its long 
life. The resolutions were ordered to be spread 
on the minutes. All the attorneys, by request, 
signed the record; the Clerk was then requested 
to produce the old seal of court, which had been 
in constant use since its adoption in March, 
1758; the Court directed the writer to certify to 
the signatures and acts under seal of Court; 
and on that page of the Order Book the reader 
will see the last legal impression of the old seal, 
which by motion of the bar, the Court commit- 
ted to the custody of the writer, to hold subject 
to order of the proper authorities of the County. 
The old Court was finally adjourned January 
JO, 1904, Judge Atkinson signing the orders. 

The Circuit Court, with its new jurisdiction, 
convened Feby. i, 1904, with Judge Thos. W. 
Harrison Judge of the Circuit on the bench, and 
the writer at the desk as clerk. During the 
Summer of 1903, the clerk's offices were trans- 
ferred from the old building; the County Court 
records placed in the Court room, while those of 
the Circuit Court occupied the room in the city 
building known as the Circuit Clerk's office. This 
change was made to enable the Board of Super- 
visors to fire proof the Qerk's Office building 
and rearrange it for convenience and safety. 

The first minute of this First Term, noted the 
filing by the Judge his commission, and the fact 
of his having taken and subscribed the oaths of 
office; and that T. K. Cartmell, ex-officio-clerk 
of the Circuit Court, announced that he had as- 
sumed charge of the Clerk's Office of said Court, 
and appointed Phil. H. Gold deputy. 

The Court appointed Wm. M. Atkinson, Jno. 
M. Steck, Robt. M. Ward, R. E. Byrd, H. S. 
Larrick commissioners in chancery — all members 
of the bar, and also D. S. Glaize and Robert 
Worsley — the two last not attorneys. 

R. E. Byrd was appointed Examiner of Rec- 
ords for this 17th Judicial Circuit 

At this term Briscoe C. S. Shull and Julian W. 
Baker were appointed to re-assess lands and lots 
for Frederick County. 

The County Clerk was clothed with new pow- 
ers by the new constitution, being given concur- 
rent jurisdiction with the Judge in fiduciary mat- 
ters. Provision made for probate of wills by 
the Clerk in his office; to appoint and qualify 
executors, administrators, etc., — was required to 
keep what is known as 'The Clerk's Fiduciary 
Order Book," wherein he should record all such 
proceedings. The first entry made in this book 
was the proof and orders pertaining to probate 
of the will of Mr. Henry Stephenson, Feby. 22, 

By the Constitution, the Board of Supervisors 

was constituted a court to try all road cases. 

This applied to new roads or alterations, with 

power to award damages. This being a new 

feature with the Board, the Clerk was expected 

to give it the benefit of his experience. All road 

cases had been tried in the old County Court. 

Thus it will be seen the Clerk virtually held 
four offices: County Clerk (who is custodian 
of all County records) ; by virtue of this office 
he is Clerk of the Circuit Court, Probate Judge, 
and also Clerk to the Board of Supervisors. All 
these duties imposed upon one man great re- 
sponsibility, and onerous mechanical work. The 
proper care of Court papers ever ready for pro- 
duction of the proper file, is perplexing; the 
minutiae of all the departments requires patience, 
skill and ability; the nervous strain becomes dan- 
gerous. Despite all this, the writer, in a re- 
trospect of the many years service rendered in 
all these departments, takes rapturous delight 
in his recall of pleasant intercourse with the 
splendid people of old Frederick. 

It will be seen elsewhere in this work, that the 
Board of Supervisors have entire control of the 
Northwestern Turnpike and North Frederick 
Turnpike to the Hampshire line. This branch 
of their service requires much time and thorough 
knowledge of the needs of such useful thorough- 
fares. This chapter must close without fuller 
notice of proceedings of the Court and Board 
of Supervisors. 


City of Winchester, 1743-1850 

Winchester, may well be called the historic 
City of the Shenandoah Valley — made so by 
incidents full of interest to the actors in the 
great drama, through all the stages of her pro- 
longed life. She has always been the county seat 
of Frederick County since its "erection." Be- 
Cnnning with the first court in 1743, her life 
has been interspersed with many changes that 
sound strangely in our ears of to-day. During 
her infancy, the name of "Fredericktown" and 
"Opeckon" frequently appear in the minutes of 
the first courts, to designate the place for hold- 
ing court. James Wood, the first clerk of this 
court, saw the necessity for organizing a town 
where the court was being held; and asked per- 
mission of the court on the 9th day of March, 
1744, (new style) to allow him to dedicate a 
number of lots of land, to be taken from his 
home farm for the use of the County; but at 
the same time informed the court that his title 
to the tract where he resided, was not completed, 
as some question had already arisen that the 
grant he had obtained from the Governor and 
Council of Virginia, might conflict with the old 
grants to the Fairfax family. The Justices of 
the Court were cautious enough to take from 
their clerk a bond for one thousand pounds to 
indemnify them against damage or loss. This 
bond was executed with due formalities, and is 
here given: "Know all men by these presents 
that I, James Wood, of Frederick County, am 
held and firmly bound unto Morgan Morgan, 
Thomas Chester, David Vance, Andrew Camp- 
bell, Marquis Calmes, Thomas Rutherford, Lewis 
Neill, William McMachen, Meredith Helm, 
George Hoge, John White and Thomas Little, 
gents, Justices of the said County and their suc- 
cessors. To the which payment well and truly 
to be made, I bind myself, my heirs, executors 
and administrators firmly by these presents, seal- 
ed with my seal, and dated this 9th day of March 
1743. (old style). 

"The condition of the above obligation is 
such that whereas the above bound James Wood 
having laid off from the tract of land on which 
he now dwells at Opeckon, in the County afore- 
said, twenty-six lots of land containing half an 
acre each, together with two streets running 

through said lots of the breadth of thirty-three 
feet, as will more plainly appear by a plan there- 
of in the possession of the said Morgan Morgan, 
Marquis Calmes and William McMachen, and 
whereas the said James Wood, for divers good 
causes and consideration of the sum of five shill- 
ings current money to him in hand paid, the re- 
ceipt whereof he doth hereby acknowledge, Hath 
bargained and sold, on the conditions hereafter 
mentioned, all his right, title, interest, property 
and claim, to twenty-two of the said lots to the 
aforesaid Morgan Morgan, etc.. His Majesties 
Justices of the said County, for the time being 
and their successors, to be disposed of by them 
for the use of the said County as they shall judge 
most proper, the said lots being numbered in the 
before mentioned plan as follows: Nos. i, 2, 3, 
6, 7, 8» 9» 10, II, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 
23, 24, 25, and 26, on the following conditions, 
viz. : that they the justices or their assigns, shall, 
within two years from the day of the sale of 
the said lots, build or cause to be built on each 
lot one house either framed work or squared 
logs, dovetailed, at least of the dimensions of 20 
feet by 16, and in case any person in possession 
of a lot or lots fail to build within the time 
limited, the property of the said lot or lots to 
return to the said James Wood, his heirs or 
assigns. Now if the said James Wood, his heirs, 
executors and administrators, shall from time 
to time at all times hereafter maintain, protect 
and defend the said Justices, their successors 
and assigns, in the peaceable and quiet posses- 
sion of the before mentioned lots of land from 
all persons whatsoever, Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
his heirs, or any other person claiming under 
him only excepted, And further if the said 
James Wood, his heirs, etc. shall hereafter ob- 
tain either from His Majesty by patent or from 
the said Thomas Lord Fairfax or his heirs, etc., 
shall within one year, if required, make such 
other title for the said lots to the said Justices 
or their successors, as their counsel learned in 
the law shall advise so far forth as his own title 
shall extend. Now if the said James Wood, 
his heirs, executors, and administrators, shall 
well and truly perform all and singular the above 
conditions then this obligation to be void, other- 




wise to be and remain in full force and virtue. 
Sealed and delivered in the J- Wood. 

presence of: 

Wm. Joluffe, 

Jno. Newport, 

Thos. Postage. 

At a court continued and held for Frederick 
County, on Saturday the loth day of March, 
1743 (old style) (new style 1744), James Wood, 
gent, in open court, acknowledged this his bond 
to his Majesties Justices which is ordered to be 
recorded. TEST : J. Wood, CI. Ctr 

The reader will observe that the Justices in 
accepting the offer made by James Wood, were 
fully aware of the difficulty that might arise 
concerning the title to the land; and while they 
required Wood to indemnify them, they made 
an exception to the Fairfax claim. It must be 
remembered that our Thomas Lord Fairfax had 
not arrived in America, but was represented here 
by his agents and attorneys; and they doubtless 
were well informed of the regular demands 
made by these agents of the Fairfax family, upon 
those who had settled upon lands granted them 
by the Governor and Council of the Colony of 
Virginia. All of which being within the do- 
main of Fairfax, must some day result in liti- 
gation. And the Justices were not willing to 
ignore the Fairfax claim. No doubt they felt 
that if Mr. Wood could make good his gener- 
ous offer, that Lord Fairfax might either con- 
firm the Wood transaction, or himself would be 
pleased to set off a portion of his land for pub- 
lic uses. As will be seen later on, Fairfax not 
only recognized the James Wood dedication, 
but added to it in a substantial way. 

Mr. Wood was hindered in securing his title 
for several years, owing to contentions raised 
between the Lord Proprietor's agents and all 
the settlers of that period. The settlers in many 
cases — Wood being one — yielded to these de- 
mands for yearly rents — some stoutly held out 
and refused to recognize any claim as better than 
what was known as the Minor Grants (already 
explained in the first chapters of this work). 
And this explains in part the delay in securing 
a charter for the town of Winchester until 1752 
—eight years after the lots had been surveyed 
and offered by Mr. Wood. As stated previously. 
Lord Fairfax arrived in America in 1749; and 
very soon appeared in the vicinity of the county 
seat with the youthful Washington, to make 
surveys, etc. Mr. Wood being an English gen- 
tleman of prominence in the new County that 
was to become the future home of his Lordship, 
it was natural that some social relations existed 
between these gentlemen relative to the de- 

velopment of the country. Mr. Wood was own- 
er of a grant from Lord Fairfax for land on 
the South side of Opecquon Creek, located near 
the point where Stephensburg was laid off by 
Lewis Stephens. For some reason. Lord Fair- 
fax desired to become owner of this tract of 
land. He and James Wood effected a settlement 
of these claims, and Wood sold his Opecquon 
tract to Fairfax, giving him a "quit rent title 
to any other land the said James Wood had had 
previously surveyed to him the said Wood." 
Fairfax took every occasion in all his convey- 
ances, quit rent deeds, or any other writing, to 
style himself "the Lord Proprietor;" and that 
he still held the fee in all the land, as the 
British Crown had transferred it to him; and 
that he must be consulted as to the propriety of 
making towns, etc. So we see him appear in 
the House of Burgesses, in sessions of 17S1-2, 
to direct the provisions in the proposed charter. 
Strange as it may appear, it is nevertheless true, 
that although Fairfax had settled the claims be- 
tween himself and James Wood — giving him a 
quit-rent title — he never granted his fee to Wood ; 
and we find him with such influence — not only 
with Wood who virtually was the owner of the 
land — as to have him submit to the acknowl- 
edgment that the Lord Proprietor had the right 
to determine upon a plan for the town, but he 
also had the wording of the Act of the General 
Assembly made to satisfy him. The County 
Justices also were impressed with the importance 
of this right; and whenever they took action in 
regard to this new town, were careful to say 
"subject to the approval of his Lordship the 
Right Hon. Thomas, Lord Fairfax, etc." The 
charter, as has been stated, was granted in 1752; 
and because of its importance, and to take its 
place in this book of reference, and for the 
language used to define the Fairfax relation to 
the town, — we give an exact copy: "An Act 
for establishing the town of Winchester, and ap- 
pointing Fairs therein, February, 1752. 

"I. Whereas it has been represented to this 
General Assembly that James Wood, gentleman, 
did survey and lay out a parcel of land, at the 
Court House in Frederick County, in twenty-six 
lots of half an acre each, with streets for a town, 
by the name of Winchester, and made sale of 
the said lots to divers persons, who have since 
serttled and built, and continue building and 
settling thereon; but because the same was not 
laid off, and erected into a town, by Act of 
Assembly, the freeholders and inhabitants there- 
of will not be entitled to the like privileges, en- 
joyed by the freeholders and inhabitants of other 
towns in this Colony. 



"II. Be it enacted by the Lieutenant Governor, 
Council and Burgesses, of this present General 
Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the au- 
thority of the same, That the parcel of land late- 
ly claimed by the said James Wood, lying and 
being in the fifty-four other lots of half an acre 
each, twenty-four thereof to be laid off in one 
or two streets on the East side of the former 
lots, the street or streets to run parallel with 
the street already laid off, and the remaining 
thirty lots to be laid off at the North end of the 
aforesaid twenty-six, with a commodious street or 
streets, in such manner as the Proprietor thereof, 
the Right Honorable Thomas Lord Fairfax shall 
think fit be, And is hereby constituted, appoint- 
ed, erected, and established, a town, in the man- 
ner already laid out, to be called by and retain 
the name of Winchester, and that the freeholders 
of the said town, shall, for ever hereafter, en- 
joy the same privileges, which the freeholders 
of other towns, erected by Act of Assembly 

"III. And whereas allowing fairs to be kept, 
in the said town of Winchester, will be of great 
benefit to the inhabitants of the said parts, and 
greatly increase the trade of that town. Be it 
therefore enacted, by the Authority aforesaid. 
That for the future two fairs shall and may be 
annually kept, and held, in said town of Win- 
chester, on the third Wednesday in June, and 
the third Wednesday in October in every year, 
and to continue for the space of two days, for 
the sale and vending all manner of cattle, vic- 
tuals, provisions, goods, wares, and merchandizes, 
whatsoever; on which fair days, and two days 
next before, and two days next after, the said 
fairs, all persons coming to, being at, or going 
from same, together with their cattle, goods, 
wares and merchandizes, shall be exempted, and 
privileged, from all arrests, attachments, and exe- 
cutions, whatsoever, except for capital offences, 
breaches of the peace, or for any controversies, 
suits, or quarrels, that may arise and happen 
during the said time, in which case process may 
be immediately issued, and proceedings had, in 
the same manner as if this act had never been 
made, any thing herein before contained, or any 
law, custom, or usage, to the contrary thereof, 
in any wise, notwithstanding. 

"IV. Provided always. That nothing herein 
contained, shall be construed, deemed, or taken, 
to derogate from, alter, or infringe, the royal 
power and prerogative of his Majesty, his heirs 
and successors, of granting to any person or per- 
sons, body politic and corporate, the privileges 
of holding fairs, or markets, in any such manner 
as he or they, by his or their royal letters patent. 

or by his or their instructions, to the Governor, 
or Commander in Chief of this domain, for the 
time being, shall think fit." 

This may sound strange to some of our patriot- 
ic readers ; but we must not forget that the Colo- 
nies were still wearing the yoke of their Royal 
Master without daring to murmur. Indeed, if 
one takes the trouble to study the phraseology 
of any Act of the Governor's, Councils, General 
Assembly, or courts — he will be impressed with 
feelings akin to disgust. Mark the abject humil- 
ity of a people who had sought the wilds of 
America, hunting some spot where they could 
cherish the idea of freedom! While they sub- 
mitted for the time and acknowledged the power 
of the Royal George II, the spark of freedom 
never entirely died out — as his successors grad- 
ually learned! 

The custom of holding fairs in all the towns 
of the Colony, was one that followed the Eng- 
lish settler to America. He had enjoyed the 
privileges of fairs in his old country. We have 
record evidence, such as orders of court, sher- 
iff's returns, etc., to show that the fairs provided 
for in the charter, were regularly held for many 
years, conflicting often with the sessions of court 
— Litigants, officers and witnesses claiming the 
immunities saved to them by the law in relation 
to fairs. These fairs were a necessity in the 
early days of the country. The increasing pop- 
ulation required some scheme to enable them to 
dispose of their surplus, such as horses, cattle, 
etc. — the mechanic coming in for his share of 
benefits. People came from the surrounding 
country in such numbers, with their animals, 
products, wares, etc., that the Court— or Justices 
— were frequently called upon to give aid for 
the accommodation of those ivho came illy pro- 
vided. And often Deputy Sheriffs were appoint- 
ed to assist the Superintendents, to keep good 
order, etc. The increased sales of property, and 
exchanges of same between the people as they 
thus assembled twice yearly, brought about an 
intercourse with the outlying settlements that 
proved of great advantage. No telegraph; no 
regular mails in the border country. Letter writ- 
ing was rare; and letters generally sent by some 
friend or by some person "intending shortly to 
visit certain parts." These fairs contributed 
largely toward developing the new town of Win- 
chester. Her many vacant lots were rapidly 
purchased by visitors; and thus the town be- 
came the central market for the lower section 
of the Valley. The old deeds from Wood and 
Fairfax show that persons came from all the 
settlements to start some kind of business; and 
we find quite an increase of licenses for the 
"Ordinary Keeper" — and other enterprises. When 



Winchester was founded by Mr. Wood in 1744, 
we have no evidence that any foundation for a 
village had been laid. The whole country for 
miles around was in virgin forest. Indeed, early 
orders of Court make mention of the impene- 
trable forests, and make careful orders that cer- 
tain commissioners shall proceed to cut a roadway 
through the dense forests out to the grass land 
both to the North and the South from the coun- 
ty seat. But in many cases these continuous for- 
ests were of great advantage to those who were 
building the new village, furnishing the rude 
material for the log-cabins. The court had al- 
ready appointed persons to elear the ground for 
the courthouse — saving such logs as would be 
suitable for a substantial building. So we have 
it fully settled that the first courthouse was a 
log structure; and so also was the jail. In- 
structions given that the logs so used should be 
uniform in size and the building so constructed, 
the corners should have each and every log dove- 
tailed in to add strength to the same. The old 
deeds reveal to us some interesting features re- 
garding the young village. In most cases, the 
lots remote from the "marshy ground" were the 
first to be made habitable, with their log-cabins; 
but very few in the North and South ends of 
the survey were built on until about 1748, when 
orders of court extend to the houses at the South 
end of Loudoun Street "recently erected;" the 
owners thereof notified that they had not complied 
in building such chimneys as required of set- 
tlers who erect houses for dwellings on the town 
lots. Outlying lots excluded from this requirement 
These outlying lots were a feature in the plan 
of the town, to provide every purchaser of a lot 
down town, with lots ranging from three to five 
acres on the South and North ends of the town ; 
to furnish ground for gardens, pasturage for 
stock, etc., and these lots as they passed to the 
villager, were enclosed. A great many of the 
outlots remained open for a number of years, 
and were called the "common," where village 
cows were expected to roam at will; and the 
boys of that period had no limitations to their 
sports, when once on the "common." No fears 
of interference from the "cops" from down-town. 
For there were no such useful officers in the 
early life of Winchester. As the population in- 
creased, the boys waxed warm; and tradition 
furnishes glowing accounts of the battles royal, 
fought to a finish on the old Common. The 
Common on the South was for many years un- 
enclosed. Indeed, at least ten acres was not 
embraced in any grant or in the plan of the town, 
though within the boundaries; and because no 
owner appeared, it was known as the Common 
for more than one hundred and twenty years; 

and was designated by the Courts as the place 
for public executions. It was the place for hold- 
ing general muster of the militia. The Common 
on the South was generally called Sheep Hill; 
and became so well known, that an order of 
court directs the sheriff to erect a "suitable build- 
ing on Sheep Hill Common to be used for the 
safe keep of persons sick with the smallpox." 
This Hill or Common must not be confounded 
with that part of the town proper, which has 
had for many years its local distinction "Potato 
Hill." Many old citizens of to-day relate inci- 
dents told by the fathers of the origin of this 

The North Common was distinguished as Fort 
Hill, — by reason of the erection of Fort Loudoun 
there in 1756-7. The North end of the town was 
not laid off into streets at that time. No street 
North of Piccadilly, or rather Fairfax Lane. 
James Wood conveyed parcels of land, ranging 
from five to twenty acres, to be taken from his 
tract where it adjoins Rutherford's grant. One 
such five acres was conveyed to Robert Craik. 
The survey fixes this as adjoining the lots laid 
off for town lots, and adjoins the town lots pre- 
viously conveyed to said Craik and Enoch Pear- 
son. (Town lots not be confounded with "Pub- 
lic Lots.") 

This survey was once part of the stockade of 
the Fort. Being all of Loudoun Street at that 
point, and extending eastward toward present 
tracks of the W. & P. R. R. When Col. Wash- 
ington surveyed and laid out the plan of the Fort, 
he evidently had an informal grant from James 
Wood, and the consent of the Lord Proprietor 
Fairfax, to erect a fort on the site he had select- 
ed. For be it remembered that while James 
Wood's grant embraced the land where Winches- 
ter now stands, Fairfax always claimed his year- 
ly rents, and the right to locate sites for towns 
within his dominion. He doubtless exercised the 
same right in relation to the erection of forts. 
Be that as it may, Washington was not embar- 
rassed by any claimant; the welfare of the pub- 
lic demanded this protection; and doubtless, the 
entire population endorsed his adoption of what 
was known as the North Common for the site of 
his fortification. He was fully empowered by an 
Act of Assembly March 17, 1756. In Henning's 
Statutes, Vol. 7, p. 34, we find this clause of the 
law: "And whereas it is now judged necessary 
that a fort should be immediately erected in the 
town of Winchester, County of Frederick, for 
the protection of the adjacent inhabitants against 
the barbarities daily committed by the French and 
their Indian allies; be it therefore enacted, that 
the Governor or Commander-in-Chief of the 
Colony for the time being, is hereby empowered. 



and desired to order a fort to be built with all 
possible dispatch, in the aforesaid town of Win- 
chester; and that his honor give such orders and 
instructions for the immediate effecting and gar- 
risoning the same, as he shall think necessary 
for the purpose aforesaid." The Act appropriates 
£i,ooo. ($5,000) for carrying the provisions into 
effect. This fort was called Fort Loudoun, in 
honor of Lord Loudoun who had been appointed 
Commander in Chief of the British armies, then 
in America. The Virginia Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society, many years ago, had an engrav- 
ing made of the old fort, which shows it in a 
good state of preservation, showing it to have 
been a field work, or redoubt, having four bas- 
tions, whose flanks and faces were each 25 feet, 
with curtains 96 feet. When Loudoun Street 
was extended beyond Piccadilly, going North, 
it was necessary to cut through the South and 
North walls, leaving the larger part containing 
the old well, on the West side. A small part of 
the two walls, with the two eastern bastions and 
end wall, was left on the East side of the street. 
We have reliable tradition that Col. Washington 
had his own Regiment, then stationed at Win- 
chester, to throw up the earthworks and sink the 
well, through a solid rock to the depth of 103 
feet, which afforded an ample supply of good 
water. (The well at this writing is in a good 
state). The fort embraced a half acre; many 
of its embankments and mounds are to be seen, 
and have been carefully preserved. Howe says: 
"The fort contained a strong garrison; and, as 
was stated by one of the oldest inhabitants of 
Winchester in 1843, that he had been informed 
by Washington's officers, that Washington mark- 
ed out the site of this fort, and superintended 
its erection; that he bought a lot in Winchester; 
and had a blacksmith shop erected on it, and 
brought his own blacksmith from Mt. Vernon 
to make the necessary iron work; and when the 
work was completed, Washington had it mount- 
ed with six i8-pounders, six 12-pounders, six 
6-pounders, four swivels and two howitzers." 
This fort doubtless, was much needed to afford 
protection to the inhabitants of outlying dis- 
tricts. The French and Indians had combined 
to destroy the settlers in those districts ; and they 
were compelled to flee for safety. So Winches- 
ter at that early period became a great rallying 
point. The Blue Ridge at that time was con- 
sidered the frontier line; and settlers to the West 
of that line stood in great danger from the fre- 
quent incursions from the French forts along 
the Ohio, etc. So we can readily see that a well- 
equipped fort, with Col. Washing^ton on the 
ground, was the initial step toward the making of 
the western empire. Ever after this event, the 

desire to go still deeper into western wilds, seem- 
ed to become part of the ambition of many 
Valley settlers; and later on their emigrant 
trains passed over the mountains and across the 
Ohio into the country that was to afford homes 
to Virginia families, whose descendants are now 
continuously returning to see the birth places of 
their ancestors. 

After the town was extended by reason of the 
demand made by persons who had received grants 
from Fairfax for certain of the eighty lots he 
had set apart in 1752, as an addition to the town 
lots, previously surveyed by James Wood the 
founder of the town, — there were misunderstand- 
ings, existing to-day, concerning both Wood and. 
Fairfax, in relation to the laying out of the town 
— ^much difference of opinion regarding the ques- 
tion of priority. We are frequently asked how 
much land did Lord Fairfax give to the people 
for a town; and when did Wood give his addi- 
tion; and where were the boundaries thereof? 
Briefly answered. Lord Fairfax never gave the 
town anything! He seized the opportunity; and 
made the most of it. But fairness to the reader, 
as well as the performance of a self-imposed 
duty in compiling the history of the town, re- 
quires a statement of facts that may grrate harshly 
on sentiment, and leave some to grieve over a 
wrong impression. We know that many of the 
present inhabitants of the old town have had 
handed down to them the belief that Lord Fair- 
fax actually sliced off from his immense hold- 
ings a sufficient quantity of land, and gave, or 
dedicated, it for the use of the citizens of the 
County for the purpose of a county seat, that 
eventually developed into the far-famed Valley 
City. Such impressions are wrong; and should 
have been corrected years ago. To prove this, 
the reader need only study record evidence,— dis- 
regarding all traditions relating thereto in the 
town's history — ^the records of the County and 
of the State, the Acts of the General Assembly* 
and files and reports of District and Appellate 
courts for a period of thirty years prior to 1808, 
and he will have revealed to him a litigant, who 
was unceasing in his efforts to disturb and de- 
stroy the first settlers in the Valley of Virginia, 
by his exactions in collecting his rents, etc. 

As has already been stated, Lord Fairfax made 
his first appearance in Frederick County in 1749, 
though he had previously made himself well 
known through his agents. Chief of these were 
Robert Carter and William Fairfax (a cousin). 
They had powers delegated them to lease lands 
to settlers, and in many cases to make actual 
grants — all to be ratified by the proprietor, or 
to be annulled. Many of these leases and grants 
were held by inhabitants of the vicinity, where 



the little village had been founded by James 
Wood. The courthouse and jail were already 
erected on what was known as the public lots 
(or public square), having its boundaries well 
defined — Loudoun Street on the West, Boscowan 
(Water) Street on the South, Cameron on the 
East, and private lots on the North '(Court House 
Avenue now being latter boundary). Lord Fair- 
fax on his arrival in Frederick County, estab- 
lished his court and recorder's office at Greenway 
Court; and at once opened his office to transact 
business with his retainers (as he often termed 
them), who were making the wilderness a habit- 
able country. About this time, he frequently 
visited the county seat; and soon joined Wood 
in his efforts to enlarge the town. His Lordship 
took possession of the situation, and had an ad- 
dition surveyed, to be laid off in lots of a half 
acre each, eighty in number, together with eighty 
out lots of five acres each, with streets. This 
addition is the same mentioned in the charter 
of 1752. The map, or diagram, of this addition, 
together with the charter, was kept in the Lord 
Proprietor's office until after his death, when it 
was found by Mr. Robert Mackey, who produced 
it in the county court at the December Term, 
1794, it being fully proven, and ordered to be 
recorded ; and was entered in Deed Book 24 (No. 
2) on page 91. Every effort was made to find 
some evidence in the proprietor's office, of his 
dedication, or a deed for the public lots to the 
County; but none were ever found. He had 
made deeds or grants for all of the eighty lots 
in the new addition, and had them on file and on 
record in his office. Many of them were never seen 
until after his death. They were removed from 
his office in 1797 to the -Office of the Register of 
Land, at Richmond, Va. 

To show the spirit animating his Lordship, 
when undertaking to relieve Wood in his second 
effort to build the old Winchester, the author 
feels it necessary to give space for a copy of one 
deed. All are alike in description, requirements, 
consideration, etc These grants were the sul>- 
ject of much litigation by Fairfax, his heirs and 
assigns; therefore it is well for the reader to 
see the relations between the holders of the 
town lots and Fairfax. Some references will 
be made to the suits waged against the lot-hold- 
ers, to compel them to pay the stipulated rents. 
The inhabitants of the town in some cases de- 
nied the right of Fairfax to collect his annual 
rent of five shillings and, in some cases, quit 
rents. As will be seen by the terms of the grants 
referred to, and fully set forth in the grant to 
James Wood for Lot No. i, a copy of which is 
introduced here, the grantees were liable to eject- 
ment suits. Some of the inhabitants had enjoyed 

quiet possession of tracts of land contiguous to 
the newly laid out town, under grants and leases 
formerly made them by the Colonial Government, 
requiring them to pay to the Lord Proprietor 
an annual rent of one shilling for every 50 
acres; and where the grant was from Fairfax 
for tracts of land, one shilling sterling money 
for every 50 acres, regarded as quit rents; and 
it was very reasonable for such grantees to re- 
fuse compliance with this new order of things; 
for it will be seen that Fairfax by his ruling, 
ignored the Crown grants — sometimes called 
Colonial or Minor Grants, and arbitrarily re- 
quired the lotholder to pay him the yearly rent 
of Ave shillings sterling money for the half-acre 
lot in the town proper, including the five acre 
lot out on what Fairfax called the "Common." 
Although in every deed or grant, he says he had 
set apart a tract of land containing 439 acres 
as a common, here we find persons required to 
pay excessive rents for the use of lots on the 
Common, when Fairfax says he had given this 
land on the Common, for the use of the town — 
or, if they had free use of the lot on the Common 
that always went with the lot down town, then 
the latter was charged five shillings for the ^ 
acre, while only required by the Crown Grants 
to pay at the rate of one shilling for every fifty 

Injustice and unfairness seemed to be apparent 
in this new scheme of Fairfax's for adding to 
the town that Wood had founded eight years be- 
fore. These conditions were calculated to en- 
gender bad feeling between the Lord Proprietor 
and the town's people. And as the years went 
by; and the spark of freedom had been kindled 
into a flame that burst forth all over the land 
in 1776, it is not to be wondered at that old 
Frederick County, including Winchester Town, 
was ready to throw off the yoke of the British 
Lord, and refuse to pay any kind of rent This, 
of course, resulted in almost endless litigation, 
which will be treated more fully in the (Chapter 
on The Fairfax Suits. In the following grant, 
the reader has the exact language of all other 
grants for the eighty lots, by changing name of 

"The Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fair- 
fax, Baron of Cameron in that part of Great 
Britain called Scotland, Proprietor of the North- 
ern Neck of Virginia; To All to Whom This 
present Writing shall come sends greeting: 
Know ye that for good causes for and in Con- 
sideration of the Rents and Covenants hereafter 
reserved and expressed, I have given, granted and 
confirmed, and by these presents for me, my 
heirs, and assigns, do give, grant and confimk 
unto Mr. James Wood of the County of Frederick 



and Colony aforesaid, a certain Lott or half acre 
of Land heretofore waste and ungranted, scituate, 
lying and being in the Town of Winchester in 
the said County, Numbered (i) and bounded as 
in the survey and plat of the said town made 
by Mr. John Baylis. Also one other Lott or 
Tract containing five acres of Land Num. (53) 
heretofore waste and ungranted scituate in the 
County aforesaid, contiguous to the said Town 
being part of and included in a Tract of land 
containing (439) acres, given by me as a Com- 
mon for the use and benefit of the Inhabitants 
of the Town aforesaid and is bounded as by a 
plat of the said Common made by the said Baylis. 
To Have and to Hold the said two recited 
Lotts of Land, together with all and singular ap- 
purtenances unto the said James Wood, his heirs 
and assigns forever, upon the conditions follow- 
ing (to- wit:) That the said James Wood, his 
heirs, etc., shall not build or cause to be built on 
the Lott No. (i) in the Town aforesaid, any 
dwelling-house, whose dimensions shall be less 
than sixteen by twenty feet, with a chimney 
thereto of brick or stone; neither shall the said 
James Wood his heirs, etc. erect or build, or 
cause to be erected or built any dwelling house, 
storehouse, warehouse, or other buildings of any 
nature or kind so ever, upon the said Lott (No. 
53) in the Common aforesaid nor by any Act or 
Deed of his the said James Wood, his heirs, etc., 
or his or their last will and Testament in Writ- 
ing, suffer or permit the said Lott No. (53) in 
the Common aforesaid, to be separated or divid- 
ed in property from the said Lott No. (i) in the 
Town aforesaid, but that the same shall be kept 
with; and whenever the property of the said 
Lott No. (i) is altered, by Bargain, Sale, Gift, 
Mortgage, Execution, Will, or otherwise, pass, 
descend and go with the same, as parcel of, in- 
cident to and as an appurtenant thereof forever, 
for the benefit and advantage of the said Town, 
and shall be subject to the same Rules and Or- 
ders that other Lotts in the Common afore- 
said are subject to; Furthermore, yielding and 
paying to me, my heirs, etc., the yearly Rent or 
Sum of five shillings sterling Money, for the 
aforesaid two Lotts; provided also that if the 
said annual Rent should be behind and unpaid 
by the space of thirty days next after the same 
is become due and payable in any year and no 
sufficient distress upon the premises can be found, 
whereof the same may be levied, Then and in 
case the said Lotts shall become forfeit and vested 
again in me, my heirs, etc. In Witness Whereof 
I have hereunto sett my hand and seal. Dated 
this fifteenth day of May, in the twenty-sixth 
year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George 



the Second, etc. Dmi. one thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty-three. 
Mr. James Wood Deed For 
Lott No. (i) in the Town J. Fairfax.' 
of Winchester 

In the foregoing grant to James Wood, it will 
be seen that Lord Fairfax describes the Lot No. 
I as "part of and included in the Tract of Land 
containing 439 acres, given by me as a Common 
for the use and benefit of the Inhabitants of the 
Town aforesaid." As already stated in previous 
pages. Lord Fairfax never made a grant to the 
Borough or Town of Winchester in any form. 
While he says he designates the certain tract of 
439 acres for the use of the inhabitants of the 
town, he had his surveyor John Baylis in 1752 
to survey and lay off his addition of 439 acres to 
the town into 80 lots, from No. i to 80 inclusive, 
and into streets and alleys; and to each lot ht 
added an "out-lot" of five acres — requiring 400 
acres to comprise the out-lots, that he designated 
as the Common. As each of the town lots proper 
contained one half acre, they would require forty 
acres — altogether 440 acres instead of the 439, 
for the lots alone; and nothing for streets and 
alleys. And as Fairfax granted his lots to per- 
sons and required them to pay exhorbitant ren- 
tals annually, it is clearly seen that the assertion 
that Lord Fairfax never gave the town of Win- 
chester any part of his vast domain, is borne 
out by the simple statement of facts. The ground 
occupied by the Episcopal Church and graveyard, 
fronting on Loudoun and Boscawan Streets, was 
embraced in the original grant from Wood to 
the Justices for a County Seat. No record in 
any office, county. State or the Lord Proprietor's 
of any such grant. Strange to say, Fairfax made 
but one grant other than those to individual pur- 
chasers, and this was to the "Reformed Calvin- 
ists," dated May 15, 1753. It will be noticed this 
grant bears same date as the grant to James 
Wood, and to the following persons, — ^the list 
of whom is given to show who many of the lot- 
owners were at that date. It is proper, however, 
to state that some were not residents of the 
town : 


Name Lot No. Lot No. 

Lemon .... 2 46 

Alexander McDonald 3 19 

Wood 4 10 

Wood 5 31 

Weitreit . . 6 71 

Henry Brinker 7 47 

William Cocks 8 77 

Thomas Woods 9 59 

Hope 10 67 




Name Lot No. 


Parkins . . 13 

William Cockran 14 

Isaac Perkins 15 

Marquis Calmes 16 

Lewis (N«ill 17 

Thomas Bryan Martin 18 


James Pilcher 20 

John Jones 21 

Caldwell . . 22 

George Bruce 23 

John Jones 24 

John Howard 25 

Thomas Ryan Martin. . .26 




John Hite 30 

John Hite 31 


Samuel Earle 33 






James Lemon 39 

Merder Palb 41 





Capt. Geo. Mercer 45 

David Stephens 46 

Andrew Fretley 47 

John Steward 48 

Lodowick Castleman . . 49 


Lewis Stephens 51 

Lewis Stephens 52 

Lewis Stephens 53 

John Feif 54 



William Cochran 57 

Tobias Otto 58 


John Greenfield 60 

Edward McGuire 





Thos. McCloun 67 

Common Common 

Lot No. Name Lot No. Lot No. 

Robt. Craigen 68 58 

65 Jesse Bratten 69 3 

25 Godfrey Hambert 70 60 

22 Martin Bostin 71 17 

15 John Steward ^2 

42 1Z 

63 John Carlyle 74 34 

John Harrow 75 29 

51 John Greenfield 76 18 

80 George Washington . . 77 . 16 

76 Christopher Wetsell . . 79 5 

61 Peter Sperry 80 74 

9 The foregoing list was copied from the record 

21 and files of the Land Office, Richmond, Va. The 

59 blank spaces show no names or numbers on the 

record that can be filled, owing to their illegible 

state. It embraces every grant made by Lord 

Fairfax for any land within the boundaries of 

69 the Town of Winchester. 

30 The present populace will be searched in vain 

for any of the names on this old list. All have 

^ disappeared from the archives of the town with 
the exception of three — McGuire, Wood and 

The author at this point deems it consistent 
with his plan, to follow the foregoing line of 
vested titles, by a brief reference to the change 

25 wrought by the Revolutionary War, so far as 

13 relates to Lord Fairfax, who barely survived the 
War. By his will, of record in the Old County 
office 5th of March, 1782, he constituted his 
nephew. Rev. Denny Martin, then a citizen of 
England, the heir to his title and the remnant of 
his possessions in the Northern Neck. The point 

66 was raised at once that he, being a British sub- 

52 ject, could have no legal rights in America; and 
78 the estate so devised by Lord Fairfax was sub- 
48 ject to escheat laws, as will be more fully treated 

elsewhere. We simply add that this claim was 
dropped. Denny Martin — afterward Denny Mar- 
tin Fairfax — ^being an old man of 71 years, with 
no desire to change his residence from England 
to America; and his American possessions need- 
ing his personal attention, which he could not 
give, and "for divers other good causes and val- 
uable considerations," he, by his deed of Aug. 
30, 1797, (of record in the Genl. Court at Rich- 
mond) conveyed to James M. Marshall "all and 
every of those divers tracts, pieces and parcels 
of land, being part and parcel of the proprietary 
of the Northern Neck of Va., with all benefi- 
cial right and interest of whatsoever nature the 
same may be." Of course, this embraced all 
the claims for rent then remaining unpaid for a 

70 number of years. Mr. Marshall the new Amer- 
2 ican owner of the remnant of the once great 






Northern Neck» guided by his legal knowledge^ 
his glowing patriotism, and his high regard for 
equity, discovered that no legal title was vested 
in Frederick County and the town of Winchester, 
for what has been designated the Public Lotts, 
or court house and market square — the Public 
buildings, consisting of the Court House, two jails, 
clerk's offices, market house, public warehouse, 
etc., having had the uses thereof since 1744, when 
Wood laid out the ground for this purpose as the 
county seat Mr. Marshall acted promptly; and 
brought the status of this case before the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1799, suggesting a plan by which 
a legal title could pass. And the General As- 
sembly by an Act authorized him as the holder 
of the legal title, to make conveyance thereof 
to such persons designated by the Act to receive 
the title. And as there is but little known by 
the public generally relating to this transaction, 
we deem it best to give the full copy at this 
point : 

(Thomas Lord Fairfax, Will. Book No. 4, page 

Right Honorable Thomas Lord Fairfax, Baron 
of Cameron, in that part of Great Britain called 
Scotland and Proprieter of the Northern Neck 
of Virginia, do make and ordain this my Last 
Will and Testament in manner following, that 
is to say, I do hereby subject all my real and 
personal estate to the payment of my debts and 
legacies give and devise all that my undivided 
sixth part or share of my lands and plantations 
in the Colony of Virginia, commonly called or 
known by the name of the Northern Neck of 
Virginia, with the several advowsons right of 
presentations thereto belonging or appurtaining 
I have therein with ye Messuages and Tenements 
buildings hereditaments and all other the appur- 
tenances thereto belonging, all or any part where- 
of^eing formerly the estate of the Honourable 
Alexander Culpeper Esquire, deceased together 
with all other lands and tenements. I have am 
possessed of, or have a right too in the said 
Colony of Virginia, to the Rev. Denny Martin, 
my nephew now of the County of Rent in Great 
Britain to him his heirs and assigns for ever 
if he the said Denny Martin, should he be alive 
at the time of my death, but in case he should 
not. Then I give and devise the same and every 
part and parcel thereof to Thomas Bryan Martin, 
Esquire, his next brother now living with me 
to him his heirs and assigns forever and in case 
of his death before me, I give and devise the 
same and every part and parcel thereof to my 
other nephew Philip Martin, Esquire, brother 
to the aforesaid Denny and Thomas and to his 

heirs and assigns forever provided always and 
upon this condition, that the said Denny Martin 
if alive, at the time of my decease, or in case of 
his death, the said Thomas Bryan Martin, if he 
should be alive at the time of my death, the said 
Philip Martin, if he should be alive at the time 
of my decease, shall pay or cause to be paid to 
my nieces Frances Martin, Syvella, and Ann Su- 
sanna Martin, and to each and every of them 
that shall be living at the time of my decease an 
annuity of one hundred pounds sterling during 
their and each of their natural lives and further 
that he the said Denny Martin, or he to whom 
the said sixth part of the said Northern Neck 
shall pass by this my will shall procure an act 
of Parliament to pass to take upon him the name 
of Fairfax and Coat of Arms and whereas I 
some time since gave to aforesaid Thomas Bryan 
Martin, the Plantation or tract of land I pur- 
chased of John Borden, containing upwards of 
six hundred acres which gift I hereby confirm, 
and ratify to him his heirs and assigns forever 
I also give and bequeath to him the said Thomas 
Bryan Martin, all the stock of cattle, sheep, hogs, 
implements of husbandry household goods and 
furniture now or shall be at the time of my de- 
cease, on the farm or plantation whereon I now 
live called Greenway Court, I give devise and 
bequeath to my aforesaid three nephews or such 
of them that shall be alive at the time of my 
decease, to-wit Denny Martin, Thomas Bryan 
Martin, and Philip Martin, all my negro slaves 
that I shall die possessed of to be equally divided 
between them share and share alike, and whereas 
I did in a late will now cancelled give a con- 
siderable pecuniary legacy to my brother the 
Honourable Robert Fairfax, Esquire, which sum 
of money at his earnest desire and request I 
have since paid him therefore I now only gfive 
him the further sum of five hundred pounds 
sterling as memorial of my affection and to buy 
him mourning. I also give and bequeath to my 
sister Francis Martin, five hundred pounds sterl- 
ing to buy her mourning. All the rest and resi- 
due of my estate both real and personal not here- 
inbefore disposed of I give devise and bequeath 
to my elder nephew the aforesaid Rev. Denny 
Martin, his heirs and assigns forever AND 
LASTLY I do nominate and appoint my said 
nephew Thomas Bryan Martin, Peter Hog, and 
Gabriel Jones, both of the County of Augusta 
in the Colony of Virginia, my executors fully 
relying on their fidelity and integrity to see said 
trust hereby reposed in them faithfully and 
truly executed. I do hereby give and bequeath 
to each of the said Peter Hog, and Gabriel Jones 
the sum of five hundred pounds current money 
of Virginia, apiece, and do direct that my execu- 



tors aforesaid give no other security to the 
Court where this my will shall be proved but 
their own bonds and that they shall not be lia- 
ble for each others transactions but only for 
their own nor be liable for any unforseen casual- 
ties or unavoidable accidents but only for willful 
negligence and malfeazance I likewise direct my 
estate may not be appraised but only inventoried. 
In witness that this my last will and testa- 
ment containing two sides and part of a third of 
a sheet of paper, I have hereunto set my hand 
and affixed my seal the eight day of No- 
vember one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
seven. Fairfax, (SEAL). 

Signed sealed and published by the testator 
the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax as 
and for his last will and testament in the pres- 
ence of us, who in his presence and in the pres- 
ence of each other, have hereunto set our names 
as witnesses: 

John Hite, 

Angus McDonald, 


John Sargeant, 
Thomas Smythes. 

5th October, 1778, Republished by the Right 
Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax in the pres- 
ence of Isaac Zane, Daniel Field. 

WHEREAS since the making of my last will 
and testament dated the eight day of November, 
1777, which I hereby confirm excepting the alter- 
ations herein after mentioned in this instrument 
of writing which I intend as a codicil and to be 
taken as such and as part of my said will First 
That the negro slaves left in my said will to 
be equally divided between my nephews Denny 
Martin, Thomas Bryan Martin, and Philip Mar- 
tin, Esquires, shall be divided into four equal 
parts instead of three one-fourth part thereof I 
give and devise to Bryan Fairfax, Esquire, my 
intent and meaning being that he shall have an 
equal share or part of my said negroes with my 
aforesaid three nephews AND WHEREAS in 
my aforesaid will I have bequeathed an annuity 
of one hundred pounds sterling to each of my 
three nieces Frances Martin, S)rvella Martin, and 
Ann Susannah Martin, during their several lives 
I do hereby devise and bequeath that upon the 
death of Francis Martin her annuity of one hun- 
dred pounds sterling be given and continued to 
the second child of the aforesaid Bryan Fairfax, 
during his or her natural life and that upon the 
death of S3rvella Martin, the annuity of one 
hundred pounds sterling bequeathed to her be 
gfiven and continued to the third child of the 
aforesaid Bryan Fairfax, during her or his nat- 
ural life, and further upon the death of my other 

niece Ann Susannah Martin, the annuity of one 
hundred pounds sterling bequeathed to her be 
given and continued to the fourth child of the 
said Bryan Fairfax, during his or her natural 
life, and further and lastly I do hereby direct 
the sum of five hundred pounds sterling money 
of Great Britain to be paid to each of my two 
executors mentioned in my said will instead of 
the sum g^iven them in current money. 

In witness that this codicil is to be annexed 
and taken as part of my aforesaid will, I have 
set my hand and affixed my seal this 27th day 
of November, 1779- Fairfax, (SEAL). 

Signed, sealed and published by the testator 
The Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
in the presence of us, the subscribers as a codicil 
to his last will and testament and annexed there- 

Robert Macky, 

Peter Catlett, 

John S. Woodcock, 

John Hite. 

At a Court held for Frederick County the 5th 
day of March, 1782. This last will and testament 
of the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
deceased, was proved by the oaths of John Hite, 
Richard Riggs, Thomas Smyther, witnesses 
thereto and the codicil thereunto annexed was 
also proved by the oaths of Robert Macky, Peter 
Catlett, John S. Woodcock, and John Hite, wit- 
nesses thereto are ordered to be recorded and 
upon the motion of Thomas Bryan Martin, and 
Gabriel Jones, surviving executors therein named 
who made oath according to law, certificate is 
granted them for obtaining a probate thereof in 
due form whereupon they entered into and ac- 
knowledged bond conditioned as the law directs. 

By the Court, Jas. Keith, C. C." 

"THIS INDENTURE made the second day 
June in the year of Our Lord One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and One Between James M. Mar- 
shall of the City of Washington in the District 
of Columbia in the United States of America and 
Hatty, his wife, of the one part, and Charles 
Mynn Thruston, John Smith, Robert White, Sen'r., 
Edward McGuire Sen'r., James Gam'l. Dowdall, 
Joseph Longacre Sen*r., John S. Woodcock, Dav- 
id Kennedy, Thomas Massie, Robert Macky, 
Thomas Buck, Goviard Briscoe, John Kean, 
Isaac Hite, Jun'r., Rawleigh Colston. Matthew 
Wright, Cornelius Baldwin, Nathaniel Burwell, 
Thomas Parker, John Hickman, George F. Nor- 
ton, James Singleton, Strother G. Suttle, Mere- 
dith Helm, George Blackemore, Charles Smith 
and Daniel Conrad, Gentlemen Justices now in 
the commission of the peace in and for the 



County of Frederick in the Commonwealth of 
Virginia, and Henry Beatly, Mayor, Lewis Wolfe, 
Recorder, William Davison, William Ball, Jo- 
seph Gamble and Peter Lauck, Aldermen of the 
Corporation of Winchester of the other part, 
Witnesseth Whereas the General Assembly of 
Virginia on the thirty first day of December in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hun- 
dred and ninety nine passed an Act concerning 
the Public Square in the Borough of Winchester 
(reciting therein that it had been represented 
that James M. Marshall is willing to convey to 
such persons as may be empowered by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia to take a conveyance, 
all his right, title and interest in and to the pub- 
lic square in the Borough of Winchester in the 
County of Frederick except that part on which 
the church stands and the church yard annexed 
thereto) and thereby enacted that any Deed of 
Conveyance made and executed by the said 
James M. Marshall for the public square as 
aforesaid to the Justices of the County aforesaid, 
the Mayor and Aldermen of the said Borough 
of Winchester and their successors (to and for 
the use of the said Borough of Winchester and 
County of Frederick) shall be as good and valid 
in law as if such conveyance had been made 
to an individual. 

that the said James M. Marshall and Hatty his 
wife, in pursuance of the will heretofore express- 
ed and of the said Act of Assembly in this par- 
ticular case made and provided Have Bargained, 
Sold and Conveyed unto the aforesaid Justices 
of Frederick County and the said Mayor and 
Aldermen of the said Borough of Winchester 
and their successors to and for the use of said 
Borough of Winchester and County of Frederick 
all the right, title and interest of them the 
said James M. Marshall, and Hatty his wife, 
either in Law or Equity in and to the public 
square in the Borough of Winchester in the 
County of Frederick except that part of which 
the Church stands and the Church yard annexed 
thereto which said Public Square of Ground con- 
tains four Lots and each Lot is one hundred and 
nineteen feet in front and one hundred and eighty- 
nine feet nine inches deep and said Square is 
bounded by Loudoun on the Westward, by Lots 
No. 19 and 26 on the Northward, by Cameron 
Street on the Eastward and by Bocowan Street 
on the Southward, on which said Public Square 
stand a Court-House, Market-House, two Jails, two 
Engine-Houses, a black-smith shop and the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church and Church-Yard annex- 
ed thereto (which part of the said ground on which 
the said Church stands and the Yard annexed 
thereto enclosed by a stone wall is expressly ex- 

cepted out of this conveyance) TO HAVE AND 
TO HOLD the said Public Square of Ground 
with the buildings and improvements thereon and 
all other the appurtenances (except as before 
excepted) unto the aforesaid Justices of Freder- 
ick County and the Mayor and Aldermen of the 
said Borough of Winchester and their succes- 
sors (to and for the use of the said Borough 
of Winchester and County of Frederick) for- 
ever according to the true intent and meaning 
of the Act of Assembly before in part recited. 
And the (said) James M. Marshall and his heirs 
the land and other premises hereby conveyed 
unto the Justices of Frederick County and the 
Mayor and Aldermen of the Borough of Win- 
chester and their successors to and for the use 
of the said County and Corporation against them, 
the said James M. Marshall and Hatty, his wife 
and their heirs and all and every other person 
and persons claiming or to claim by, from or un- 
der him, them or any of them shall and will war- 
rant and forever defend by these presents. IN 
WITNESS whereof the said James M. Marshall 
and Hatty, his wife have hereunto set their hands 
and seals the day and year first hereinbefore 
written. j's. M. Marshall, (l. s.). 

(u s.). 
Signed, sealed and delivered 
in the presence of: 

J. Peyton, 

Griffin Taylor, 

Obed Waite." 

It must not be forgotten that James Wood, 
by an Act of the (^enl. Assembly, 1758, laid off 
other lots as an addition to the town founded 
by him in 1744 and added to by the Fairfax 
Addition in 1752. That portion referred to in 
the Act of 1758 comprised 106 acres taken from 
his other land contiguous to the town of Win- 
chester. This is properly called Wood's Addi- 
tion and lies in western part of the City, through 
which the streets and alleys, running at right 
angles, are shown in the plat of the town, — now 
part of the files of the Corporation Clerk's office. 

Having given much space to show fully the 
topography of the town, whose boundaries thus 
established, continued without change. No more 
additions (Two others to be hereafter mention- 
ed, one in 1782; the other 1905). The area and 
plan well adapted to any demand made for any 
class of trade or business, as well as for the pala- 
tial residences that adorn the city of to-day. 
We must now show as briefly as possible, how 
this territory or parcel of land was used; and 
who many of the users were. As already stated, 
the old Justices Court appropriated quite a large 
space in the central part as early as 1744 in ac- 



cepting the offer of Col. Wood, and proceeded 
to erect the necessary buildings required for a 
county seat. They evidently chose the site them- 
selves; and from that date on through many 
years, the court made frequent orders concern- 
ing the proper management and control of their 
"Public Lotts." These orders are replete with 
valuable historic incidents — too numerous, how- 
ever, to make it desirable to include them in this 
work. Proper reference will be given, however, 
to show authority for statements hereafter made. 
To the present inhabitants of Winchester, the 
Public Lotts mentioned in the old court minutes, 
means the courthouse square and what was once 
the old market square — the former containing the 
Court House and clerk's offices, for the use of the 
county; the latter adorned by the handsome and 
spacious building with frontage on Cameron 
Street (Market), known as the Rouss Memorial, 
for the use of the City. This much would doubt- 
less be sufficient for the present, but as our office 
is to write history, the reader will see the neces- 
sity for more explicit description, and future gen- 
erations will expect us to have compiled inci- 
dents in such form as to give ready answer to 
such enquiries as are now being continually made 
in relation to the subject matter now being treat- 
ed. The writer has been deluged with such en- 
quiries for the last quarter of a century — 
many so simple, yet difficult to answer. 
For instance, how few there be who could 
answer the oft repeated questions: When 
was your court house built? Is it the first that 
was used by the courts? What is the history of 
the old building? While such questions may have 
quick answer from an old Clerk of court, grown 
familiar with such incidents, he is astonished to 
find the general lack of information on this and 
similar subjects. And so the author feels it his 
duty to compile in this work much matter for 
reference, gathered from time to time from out 
of the musty records of by-gone periods. As 
elsewhere stated, the early courts took the first 
steps toward the county seat buildings by plain 
orders, directing certain persons to clear the 
ground for the erection of a "log-house," and 
report to court; then the site selected, and dimen- 
sions of the court house given into the hands of 
several of the Justices, to proceed to build, etc. 
This log-house for the court was erected on the 
ground now occupied by the West end or vesti- 
bule of the present court house. The length must 
have been forty feet, for in the instructions to the 
persons executing the order, is this language "The 
logs must be 40 feet with even dimensions and 
well shapen on two sides" and as no other lengths 
were given, it is safe to assume that the build- 
ing was square. Those virg^in forests must have 

had "tall timber" to furnish the Justices* bill. 
The first court house faced South. Orders of 
court show the anxiety to have the space in front 
of the court house to Boscowan Street (Water) 
cleared of all obstructions. One minute shows 
the impatience of the court, requiring the Jus- 
tices who had charge of this improvement, to re- 
port the cause of delay in removing the stumps, 
so as to afford better entrance to the court house 
from Boscowan Street. Later on report was 
made that the court's order had been executed. 
The committee reported the new jail ready for 
occupancy. This building was located towards 
the southeast of the court house front, toward 
Water Street, and "44 feet from the line there- 
of," "with an enclosure for jail-yard in the rear;" 
the site being about 40 feet South from the en- 
trance to the city hall from the plaza. No report 
as to the clerk's office for several years; mention 
being made at some terms of the court about 
the records being in the court house. Tradition 
has it that Mr. Wood, the clerk, kept the office 
at his own house near the town, — the property 
now owned by Col. W. W. Glass. The site for 
the first office had been selected, however, and 
this was to be near the southwest comer of the 
foundation of the court house and 11 feet distant 
therefrom. This must have embraced part of 
the ground occupied by the West end of the 
present clerk's office and the two law offices now 
owned by Mr. Bantz. As will be shown later 
on, the Public Lotts embraced all ground between 
the present court house yard and Water Street 
No building of any kind on that space until 1762, 
when a stone building was erected fronting on 
Loudoun Street, ten feet distant from the Loudoun 
Street comer. This stone building was for a 
number of years the home of the Episcopal 
Church of Winchester, (of which fuller mention 
will be given under the head of churches, 
etc.) Sometime prior to the erection of this 
edifice, a considerable space directly South 
of the old Clerk's Office was used as a burial 
ground for a number of persons — the whole 
comer lot receiving some sort of dedication 
from Lord Fairfax. No one doubting his 
authority to do what his Lordship desired in his 
own proprietary. So, doubtless, the townspeople 
and authorities were cognizant of his act — it may 
have been but the wave of his magic hand; suf- 
ficient, however, to settle the question. And the 
Court no more concerned itself in relation to 
that part of what had been called the "Public 
Square," except, however, on several occasions, 
the court had its attention called to the fact that 
some encroachments were being made on the 
"burial ground" from the extension of the clerk's 
office. Then it was that the line was determined 



between the county property and the corner lot 
referred to. A stone wall was erected, running 
from Loudoun Street to the clerk's office, which 
afterwards became the subject of much attention 
from the court No mention made of who paid 
the cost of erection; but the court ever after- 
wards kept this wall in repair, and protected it 
from the raids of the village boys, who seemed 
to enjoy feats so gymnastic in their character, 
as to bring condemnation on the wayward youths. 
The reward offered for their apprehension and 
conviction produced a profound sensation. The 
court making orders to pay cost of needed re- 
pairs, etc. 

The North wall of the present Bantz building, 
was built on the foundation of the old party 
wall, by Jacob Senseny; he appearing in court, 
and securing permission to remove the old wall 
and to erect his building wall on the same foun- 
dation. Only a portion of this wall was removed 
at that time; the remainder continued unbroken 
for many years, when it also gave way for the 
erection of the law offices which now join the 
West end of the clerk's office; Mr. Bantz secur- 
ing permission from the Board of Supervisors of 
the county to use this foundation and to make 
openings on the court yard, under same restric- 
tions imposed on Jacob Senseny by the County 
Court, June 3, 1828. From the southeast corner 
of the old clerk's office, a stone wall was extended 
to Boscowan Street, thus enclosing the whole of 
the lot then being used as the "grave yard," and 
the church lot adjoining. 

The first old log clerk's office was reported to 
court frequently as being inadequate for the in- 
creased demand for the "transaction of business 
and proper and convenient care of the books and 
court files." The court took no action until 1780, 
when "complaint was laid before the court that 
the clerk's office was in bad repair." Action was 
promptly taken, and commissioners appointed to 
report a plan for a one-story brick building of 
suitable size and probable cost : This office build- 
ing occupied the ground due West from the old 
log office, and was strictly a brick building, walls, 
floor and roof — ^the chief object being to make a 
fire-proof office: The building afforded a safe 
place for records — ^but not popular with officers 
and persons who were required to spend much 
time within its cold, damp walls; and frequent 
efforts were made to have the court make many 
changes suggested. But the court gave no heed 
to the appeals. The writer was informed by a 
gentleman who spent fourteen years prior to 
1827 with Mr. T. A. Tidball, Dep. Clerk of the 
County Court, while Judge Keith was Clerk, 
that the only attention the court gave to the com- 
plaints concerning the discomforts of the brick 

vault, as it was then termed, was when Mr. Tid- 
ball produced several of the old record books, 
badly mildewed, to the court, showing the old 
office to be unsuited for records. This was in 
1827. The court at once took steps to build the 
third clerk's office. This was erected on a new 
site, being the present building known as the 
County Clerk's Office. This was finished during 
the Autumn of 1832. (At June Ct., 1832, $974.50 
was appropriated to pay for completing office.) 
The new office was two-storied; the lower floor 
occupied by the Gerk of the County and Circuit 
Court — the room on the East end used by the 
County Court, the one on the West by the Cir- 
cuit; the two large rooms on second floor used 
by the officers respectively for storing old records. 
This large building was ample in every way for 
many years ; but the accumulation of papers, 
books, etc. taxed its capacity, and in 1886 large 
brick vaults were added to the South side, and 
afforded fire-proof rooms for a large amount of 
the valuable records, etc. The author was then 
serving his first years as clerk; and finding the 
danger the records were in, presented the case 
to the Board of Supervisors, who very promptly 
complied with his request, and erected the annex 
on the South side, which is still in use. The 
whole building was thoroughly remodeled in 
I904-5* The two lower rooms were thrown into 
one office, to conform to the change made by 
the New Constitution, — ^to be known as the Coun- 
ty Qerk's Office; the Clerk to be ex-officio Clerk 
of the Circuit Court. The building was made 
fire-proof; the upper floor to be in two rooms, 
the East room for old records, the West room 
fitted up for the Board of Supervisors to hold 
their meetings in. At the present writing, the 
county has an office building sufficient to accom- 
modate the increasing business for several de- 

The present court house was erected on the site 
of the first log structure which was used for many 
years, fronting on Boscowan Street. In the Spring 
of 1826, the old log building was remodeled and 
repaired. Then it was that the front was changed 
to open toward Loudoun Street, with only a 
small vestibule "20 by 20 feet square, and the out- 
side walls to be covered with boards neatly nailed 
on ; and interior walls to be covered with hardened 
mortar, with white lime finish." During the 
Spring terms, held monthly, orders of court were 
made, directing certain of the Justices to super- 
intend the changes being made; court being held 
in the same court-room until the July term, when 
the order appears: "It appearing to the court 
that it will be impracticable to hold the sessions of 
this court in the court house of this county during 
the time it is undergoing repairs, it is ordered 



near the courthouse. The latter is now occupied 
as law offices; and the remainder of the large 
yard North of the offices in use by the city. We 
have no record evidence to determine what was 
on the space long known as the Market Square, 
so far as a market house appears, until June 
6, 1821. Then a record appears in the minutes 
of the county court, to-wit: "A resolution of the 
Common Council of the Corporation of Winches- 
ter passed on the ist day of June, 1821, calling 
upon the court for aid in erecting the New Mar- 
ket House in said Corporation, was produced 
* * ♦ Same was declined." This language 
would imply that the new market house was sub- 
stituted for an older one. The ordinances of the 
council, entered of record by the council, fail 
to state that they were erecting a new market 
house. The building was in use during the Sum- 
mer of 1821. We find an ordinance of the city 
council dated June 15. 1821, sets out fully how 
the market shall be conducted, showing that it 
was ready for use. While the County Court de- 
clined to aid the Town in building the new mar- 
ket house, we find by an order of that court in 
1822, $300.00 was appropriated to reimburse the 
town for expense incurred in reducing the rock- 
ribbed hill on which the old stone house stood, 
and grading it to the level of Cameron Street. 
The writer was informed by Mr. Wm. G. Rus- 
sell during his lifetime — he then being of great 
age — but with intellect untouched by the usual 
infirmities of age, that the old stone fort house 
stood on the same hill, extending from Major 
Conrad's residence to the old court house; and 
that what was afterwards Cameron Street, was 
not opened until 1819; and that teamsters had a 
driveway through the old Rust wagon-yard 
around the base of the limestone ridge, crossing 
what was for three-fourths of a century after- 
wards the market square, entering Water Street 
at the West end of the old jail wall. Mr. Rus- 
sell's statements were so clear on all such facts 
pertaining to the early history of the town, as 
to attach no doubt to his numerous statements. 
The author availed himself of the opportunity, 
and has copious notes from which he has drawn 
much that is given in these pages; and desiring 
to gather other incidents not mentioned by his 
venerable friend, he has frequently interviewed 
many of the oldest citizens, and been surprised 
several years ago by old persons who gave inter- 
esting accounts of how the "old hill" had been 
removed, and "they had earned their first money 
as boys working about the quarries, receiving 
six pence per day for their services;" thus con- 
firming the minute statement made by Mr. Rus- 
The market house extended from Court House 

Avenue, along Market Street to a point about op- 
posite the window of the police station "lock- 
up:" it being two stories of brick. The walls 
of the ground floor were in large arches on the 
two sides, the arch-ways being closed with lat- 
tice work, affording light and ventilation to the 
whole of the first story, used exclusively by mar- 
ket people — butch€rs stalls and blocks; stands or 
tables, to display the fresh vegetables from the 
farms adjacent to the town, and also from the 
celebrated gardens operated at the West end of 
the town by the two well-known Scotchmen, 
Robert Steele and Thomas Allen. The floor of 
this building was paved with good brick; annexes 
were extended from each end westward, to sup- 
ply the demand for more space. The first erect- 
ed on the North end in 1840; the South end in 
1848. After the old Hay scales were moved to 
near the County Clerk's office, an open court way 
was left, which was enclosed with an iron rail- 
ing. Within this court, live poultry, pigs, lambs, 
etc., were exposed for sale; and it was within 
this court or open space that Charles Broadway 
Rouss, when a boy, sold pins and needles to 
those who attended market. The friendships 
formed in those days were never forgotten; and 
the millionaire Rouss delighted to renew his 
acquaintances during his periodical visits to the 
scenes of his early life; and often did he request 
the writer to point out "the old timers," as he 
called them. Later on will be shown more fully 
his unflagging interest in the town. For the 
present, we are trying to locate the market-house 
and space, which by such incidents have become 
sufficiently historic to justify this extended de- 
scription. The second story was approached by a 
stairway from the broad pavement on Market 
Street. From the stair landing above, entrance 
to the three rooms on that floor was made under 
some restrictions: The large room at the North 
end was always known to the rising generation 
as a very mysterious place, it being for many 
years the home of the "Blue Lodge;" and those 
old Masons jealously guarded the interior so 
well, that perhaps no boy ever had a glimpse of 
the queer found therein, until he some day found 
himself "A free and Accepted Mason." The 
two rooms in the South end were used for many 
years ; the first entered being known as the Town 
Hall, where the Corporation or Recorders Court 
was held; and the room in the extreme South 
end, as the Council Chamber. The latter was 
used by the Council for a long time after the 
markets were abolished. The old building proper 
survived the ravages of the Civil War — at least, 
it was not destroyed. The annexes, being wooden 
buildings, disappeared by degrees. For the first 
two years of the War, all the building except 



the Masons Room, was used for quarters for 
troops, guard-houses, etc. To anticipate any 
question arising as to the occupancy by troops of 
the market house during the war, the author 
gives the following extracts from the minutes of 
the common council : "March 17, 1862, On mo- 
tion of H. S. Baker, Resolved that a Committee 
be appointed to wait upon the proper Federal 
military authority and endeavor to get the mili- 
tary to vacate the market house or a portion of 
it. So that it may be used for market purposes; 
and thereupon the President appointed H. S. 
Baker, P. Williams, Geo. Keller and Wm. L. 
Hollis, Committee." The Federals referred to as 
taking such liberties, were of Genl. Banks* Army, 
doubtless; for the writer remembers well that 
Genl. Jackson evacuated Winchester on the nth 
of March, 1862, and the Federals promptly moved 
in. During the whole of that Winter, the writer, 
while Provost Marshal of the Post, used part of 
the market house— the town hall upstairs and the 
northern annex, for his provost guard quarters; 
and no protest ever came from the citizens' coun- 
cil. The only evidence we can give that the 
Federals vacated the market house, is furnished 
by the reports made to Genl. Jackson, that the 
writer's command had captured a large lot of 
small arms and military stores and some prison- 
ers in the market house, and were guarding the 
same, and asked for orders. The General, by 
his surprising march, had given Banks no time 
to hear and receive the Committee from the 
Council ; and our happy band for two days had 
no intimation from the Council that they were 
unwelcome occupants of the market house. 

We give the following, to show the condition 
of the old building towards the close of the War 
July 30, 1864: 

"On motion of Wm. H. Streit, it is ordered, 
that the Committee on Market and Market-house, 
be and it is hereby authorized to take down the 
middle portion of the market house, using such 
materials as they may need, and sell the remain- 
der at public sale for current Bank or Corpora- 
tion money and that the police keep special watch 
on said remainder until sold." 

Sept. 12, 1864. "The Committee on Market and 
Market House who were directed to sell the mid- 
dle portion of the Market House, reported that 
before any sale was made the South Wing of 
the Quadrangle had fallen down, and that it was 
believed that the other wing would be destroyed. 

♦ »» 

"Ordered that the Committee sell the brick in 
the pillars of the wings of the market house 

♦ ♦ ♦ Same Committee is ordered to have 
the doors and windows of the West and North 

sides of the second story of the market house 
planked up." 

As already stated, the old building's annexes, 
or wings, were badly damaged, but not entirely 
destroyed. The following extract from proceed- 
ings of the town council, after peace was de- 
clared, may be of sufficient interest to justify its 
appearance in this connection. 

Oct. 30, 1865. "The Bill for appropriating 
money for the repairs of the Market house 
proper, was taken up as the unfinished business 
of the last Council, and after it was discussed, 
on motion of Dr. McCormick, the blank was 
filled with two thousand dollars and on motion 
the bill was read a third time ♦ * * and the 
Committee on Markets and Market House, to- 
wit: That said Committee proceed forthwith 
to cause said Market House proper (the brick 
structure as it now stands) to be well and per- 
manently repaired * ♦ * And if said com- 
mittee deem it expedient to do so, they are in- 
structed to cause to be erected a shed on West 
side of said Market House to its full extent dur- 
ing the present fall and ensuing winter. The 
records show that the improvements were made 
as fast as the strained Treasury would justify. 
A long and substantial wing was built from the 
North end along Court House Avenue, furnish- 
ing ample accommodation for years. 

We find the "Blue Lodge" survived the shock 
of war. The following extract from the Common 
Council's records may be of sufficient interest to 
some readers to justify entry here: 

Dec. 7, 1865. "A communication was received 
from J. B. T. Reed, John Kerr and Wm. R. Denny, 
on behalf of the Order of Free Masons, having 
reference to the improvement of the Market 
Square, and erecting buildings thereon, etc. Re- 
ferred to Committee." 

Jany. 8, 1866. The Committee for Improvement 
of the Market Square, etc., made their report: 
"The Committee of Council and the Committee 
on behalf of the Masonic Fraternity of Winches- 
ter have met and have had a free, full and har- 
monious conference." This resulted in the Coun- 
cil agreeing to build pillars and place girders 
under the North end of the old brick building, 
and then under certain conditions, the Masons 
were to construct their hall on the arches, and 
thus have a new home on the old site. These 
agreements were complied with by the parties 
concerned; the market house put in good order; 
and the Masons occupied their new lodge room 
until the Masonic Temple "On Loudoun Street," 
was dedicated July 22, 1868, the corner stone was 
laid May 29th, 1867. The old lodge room was 
not abandoned, however, until the old market 
house was condemned, to give place to the city 



hall erected on part of the old site. The Council 
again occupied their renovated quarters on the 
second floor. The market continued for about 
fifteen years, gradually falling off in patronage 
by producer and consumer; the market regula- 
tions relaxed, and the retail business found its 
way to shops, etc. in different sections of the 
town. The old abandoned market space was 
used by county people as a hitching yard. The old 
building, from disuse, became an object of de- 
rision for years; the city using it — partly for 
police quarters, in the South end; the remainder 
occupie.d by farm implement dealers, sheds, etc. 
for the debris, wood, etc, for the city's uses. 
This occupancy was much criticized and cen- 
sured; and all were glad to see the old walls 
and rubbish disappear during the Spring and 
Summer of 1900, to give place for a building that 
would adorn and benefit the town. The average 
citizen who desired the change, often delighted 
in recounting the incidents that belonged to the 
old market house and space. Nearly all the 
old actors on that stage where the Old Market 
Drama was enacted semi-weekly, have passed 
to the great beyond. The survivors are growing 
few, and ere another decade, there will be none 
to tell of the interesting history of the Old 
Winchester Market 

The engine houses referred to, are next in or* 
der. The common council at a meeting held 
Oct. 28, 1825, passed an ordinance, appointing 
Beaty Carson, John Bell and Saml. H. Davis 
a committee to erect an engine house fronting 
on Water Street, in the comer formed by the 
walls of the Episcopal Church yard and the 
court house yard — the said walls to form part of 
the building, and the new walls to be of brick. 
This doubtless occupied the ground where the 
Bantz shoe store building now stands, inside 
of the church yard wall on Main Street to Water 
Street comer; "the space from the engine house 
to be gravelled to Water Street," and was the 
first engine house erected by the town. The first 
fire engine was stored for several years prior 
to this date in other buildings, the owners re- 
ceiving rent for same. This ordinance provides 
for the erection of a new engine house. Tradi- 
tion has it that the first engine house occupied 
some other point — location, however, not fixed. 
Mr. Russell thought the engine house built in 
the Church yard in 1825, was the first This 
building was removed in the Summer of 1829 to 
accommodate Jacob Senseny, who had become 
the owner of the old church yard, and desired 
the space for his new buildings. We have rec- 
ord evidence for this in Ordinance of Council, 
Oct I, 1829, from which the following extracts 
are taken: "Mr. Heiskell, Mr. Sherrard, Mr. 

Bell and Mr. Gold appomted to superintend the 
erection of house of the dimensions of twenty- 
one feet by twelve at the southwest comer of 
the jail wall, for the reception of the fire engine, 
and there be erected upon the same an additional 
story of the height of eight feet, with three win- 
dows to be well secured with iron bars, which 
said additional room shall be used as a watch 
house, or place of temporary confinement for 
all vagrants or other disorderly persons, who may 
be legally taken up by patrols * * *; and the 
said committee to ascertain from competent work- 
men the expense of erecting a house of similar 
construction and dimensions of the one lately oc- 
cupied as an engine house which was removed 
for the accommodation of Jacob Senseny, and to 
receive from the said Senseny the amt as- 
certained to be the value of said building/' This 
new building occupied twelve feet of the space 
between the old jail wall and the tobacco ware- 
house, leaving an alley way from Water Street 
to the Market Square, 12 feet in width. This 
building is not mentioned in the records as an 
eng^ine house again until 1843, when it is desig- 
nated the "watch-Tower" building, in payment of 
incidental expenses, such as fuel and furniture. 
Mr. Russell and several other well-informed old 
men stated that the "Sarah Zane" engine, when 
changing its domicile on the Senseny lot referred 
to in the foregoing pages, was taken to the ground 
floor of the new engine house near the jail. Mr. 
Russell thought this use was of short duration, 
until other quarters could be prepared. 

By a resolution adopted by Council Feby. 18, 
1843, it was "Resolved the Fire Engine called 
the 'Star' Engine be put under the charge of Ed- 
ward S. Anderson, Captain of the Star Fire Com- 
pany, and the said Company be allowed to oc- 
cupy the room in the house on Water Street ad- 
joining the jail wall, to keep their engine in." 
It will be observed that the Council does not 
speak of it as the Engine house; and it is rea- 
sonable to conclude that part of the building, if 
not all, was used by Council for such public pur- 
poses, until they later on erected another and a 
larger building. To dispose of the house on Water 
Street, see Minutes of Council, July 6, 1844. "The 
President of Council is directed to sell for the 
best price that can be had, the brick engine 
house near the remains of the old jail ♦ ♦ *." 
A short life! The order for its erection Oct i, 
1829, and for its removal July 6, 1844. 

We notice next a building that was famous in 
its day, and a subject for contention between the 
town and county authorities throughout its en- 
tire existence, and of much criticism from nearby 
property owners — generally called the "Golden 
Temple." The first record concerning this build- 



ing will be found in proceedings of Town Coun- 
cil, Spring of 1832; and in County Court, June 
4, 1832. An application was made by the Council 
to the County Court for permission to erect a 
building on the northwest comer of the court 
house square, "to be used for containing a fire 
engine." This was promptly granted. There 
seemed to be no exception taken to this building, 
as it was intended for the new fire engine pur- 
chased just subsequent to this action. The county 
court made an appropriation towards the purchase 
of this engine. Council became slightly inflated 
by the good start. Exhibited some extravagant 
ideas at their meeting June 25, 1832 ; and decided to 
erect a building for many purposes. Appointed 
commissioners, to contract for and superintend the 
erection of a building on the northwest corner 
of the public square, of the following dimen- 
sions: 23 feet on Loudon Street, in a line with 
the present wall which encloses the public square, 
and running back forty-one feet with the avenue 
leading from Loudon Street to the market house, 
and running back 23 feet into the court house 
yard. To be two stories high, and to be built of 
brick." This plan was changed by Ordinance of 
July II, 1832: "The building to be 38 feet long, 
and 30 feet wide." This building had two rooms 
of equal size in the lower story, both fronting on 
Loudoun Street, with a door leading into each 
room. These rooms became the engine houses 
for the two fire engines until 9849. A gate was 
made in the wall of the court house yard, "front- 
ing the Isaac Hoff building (now Farmers and 
Merchants Bank) to admit entrance of engines 
into Ct. House Yd. for protection to Ct. 
House in case of fire." It seems strange the 
gateway was not enlarged at the main entrance 
from Loudoun Street to the court house. The 
change of plan provided for a portico to be erect- 
ed on the South side of the building, with stair- 
way from the ground floor to the second floor 
of the portico; and the second story divided into 
two rooms, with doors entering same from the 
portico. The order provides that one of the upper 
rooms shall be used for a clerk's office. The 
records show that the room in East end, on the 
second floor, was in use as the office for the 
corporation clerk, and also contained the records 
of the town in 1840: and had been so used for 
several years. We find this record in the county 
court, June 4, 1838: "Ordered that Jacob Senseny 

and Daniel Gold a committee to confer 

with the corporate authorities of the town ♦ * 
* about the removal of the brick building on 
the public square now used as a clerk's office for 
the Corporation Court, and to take such meas- 
ures, etc." This building, which was erected 
1832-3, soon became troublesome to the county 

court. Frequent notices for several years, how 
objectionable it had become, on account of its 
"general uses and prominence on the court of 
the court house grounds." The Council had evi- 
dently exceeded the limit for space granted them 
by the county court, to build an engine house. 
The room fronting on Loudoun Street had been 
converted into a hatter's shop — and other pur- 
poses. One of the rooms on the first floor was 
reserved for the engine; and the other rented 
to some parties, who soon converted it into an 
objectionable place — ^using it as an eating house, 
bar-room, etc. Several ordinary keepers (who 
were afterwards hotel men in the town) pro- 
tested to the court and urged its discontinuance. 
The Court was so goaded, that finally an order 
was taken at the August Term, 1840— just seven 
years after the building was erected — which shows 
the mood of the court: "Ordered that Taliefero 
Stribling, Joseph G. Gray, and Robert T. Baldwin 
be appointed a committee to examine the records 
of this court and ascertain upon what authority 
the Yellow brick building on the northwest cor- 
ner of the public square was erected by the cor- 
porate authority of the town and report to first 
day of next court." This committee made a re- 
port that shows the position of the Council. 
They refused to take any steps toward removing 
the Yellow building. The court added Wm. 
Stephenson and Richard W. Barton to the com- 
mittee, with instructions to enforce the court's 
order. Council stood upon the right granted 
them by the court in 1832, and continued the 
uses objected to. On July 19, 1841, Council, by 
a resolution adopted, shows the authorities had 
troublesome tenants, to-wit: "Resolved, That the 
Treasr. do take such measures as may be deem- 
ed necessary to collect or secure the rent of the 
house on the Northwest corner of the public 
square, which was rented from the first day of 
January last to John P. Bentley, and to employ 
one or two attorneys, if necessary ♦ ♦ ♦." On 
Dec. 31, 1841, action was taken as follows: "Re- 
solved that the Treasurer be a committee to rent 
out on tomorrow at public renting for one year 
the building on the N. W. cor. of the pub- 
lic square, commonly called the (jolden Temple 
* * *." Later on the committee reported the 
building rented; and it appears that up to this 
time, the rooms intended for the fire engines had 
not been used for that purpose; but that all the 
building had been rented except the room used 
by the Clerk of the corporation court. The fric- 
tion between the authorities continued for many 
years ; the county court insisting through its com- 
mittees that Council did not need the building 
for engines, as they were not yet moved from the 
Tower House on Water Street near the jail 



wall. The Council at their meeting, March 12, 
1842, for the first time took action for the removal 
of the engine; appointed a committee "to have 
such alterations made in the Southern room of 
the building on the northwest corner of the pub- 
lic square, for the safe-keeping of the Sarah 
Zane engine and hose carriage and such other 
apparatus as may be convenient to deposit there." 
It will be remembered that the Tower House 
was used in part as an engine house until 1844, 
when it was made untenable by the burning of the 
old jail in January, 1843. A change of the Coun- 
cil in 1845, brought about a better state of feeling 
between the authorities. A new committee from 
the Council, to-wit: Jos, H. Sherrard, Geo. R. 
Long, and Wm. G. Russell, conferred with the 
committee from the court; and they determined 
upon the removal, and so made their reports in 
harmony. Council, at their meeting June 23, 
1845, directed the Treasurer to notify all the ten- 
ants in occupancy of the Yellow building, that 
their tenancy as tenants and sub- tenants would 
cease on the first day of Jany. next (1846). On 
June 29, 1846, Mr. Sherrard asked leave to in- 
troduce an Act to remove the brick building on 
the northwest corner of court house square, and 
to cause two engine houses to be erected. Then 
again Sept. 24, 1846, the Act to remove the brick 
building in front of the C. H. was again taken 
up; then a committee appointed to select a site 
for the erection of two engine houses. The coun- 
ty court during this time was not idle; and often 
had their committees to appear before Council, 
and urge the removal of what had become a 
nuisance to the public — the court going so far 
as to offer another space for fire-engine house 
strictly. After repeated failures to have the ob- 
noxious building removed, Council at a meeting 
held Oct. 26, 1847, decided to move the building, 
and to erect two fire engine houses. We find at their 
meeting Dec. 9, 1847, Mr. Logan asked leave 
to introduce an Act to repair the engine house 
building on corner of Ct. H. Square. The county 
court became very impatient; and at the Feby. 
Term, 1848, when Mr. Streit made his report, 
showing that Council would remove the building 
when suitable houses could be obtained for the 
fire engines, the Court accepted the proposition. 
Council, at a meeting Mch. 11, 1848, appointed 
a committee "to see no harm was done to their 
fire engines from any quarter claiming a right to 
the ground upon which the engine house now 
stands * * *." The old Golden Templie was 
nearing its close. Council offered as one reason 
for holding on to the building, because they had 
no place for a clerk's office. So we find Council 
in their meeting April 22, 1848, answering a 
communication from the county court in refer- 

ence to this building, and appointing a conmiittee 
to confer with committee from the court upon 
the subject of procuring a site for the corpora- 
tion clerk's office. The court, at its March Term, 
had offered the site referred to. At the June 
term, the court extended the time agreed upon 
for removal until Sept. 15 next (1848), and 
leave given Council to erect suitable buildings for 
fire engines on any part of the public square, ex- 
cept on the West or northwest of the court- 
house. It may be added here, that the building 
was not removed by the 15th Sept. It was still 
standing at the March term, 1849. During that 
Spring, the records of the court were placed in 
an office near the extreme East end of the Far- 
mers and Merchants Bank, then occupied by 
Mr. W. L. Bent. There the corporation clerk's 
office remained until in 1850, when the Council 
purchased an office, of one story, on courthouse 
avenue ; and the office was continuously kept there 
until the new office was prepared in the city 
building. Mr. James B. Russell purchased the 
then old office, and on its site erected his present 

The author offers a word in explanation of the 
extended notice given the old brick buildings 
formerly occupying the ground known as the 
Public Lotts. This pen picture of the old public 
property, as it appeared prior to 1850, has been 
given at the request of many citizens of Winches- 
ter, hoping therebjjto secure a brief history of it. 
Careful and patient perusal will show the reader, 
that every building and site here trieated, answers 
numberless questions asked the author and others 
in these latter years, which could only otherwise 
be answered accurately by reference to the hun- 
dreds of minutes entered in the records of the 
public offices. The facts are briefly given, and 
the rough draft of the picture is submitted, in 
the hope some readers may be enlightened, and 
learn the value of the old records, preserved by 
the painstaking fathers who, having performed 
their duties, trustingly committed their records 
to succeeding generations. 

We must mention another fact in connection with 
the old court house yard, which has always been 
enclosed. A stone wall formed its protection for 
nearly fifty years. It was changed to more mod- 
ern style in the Fall and Winter of 1829, when 
Jacob Senseny, desiring to improve his property 
adjoining the square, entered into a contract with 
the court, to remove the old wall which had been 
in bad condition for several years, and substi- 
tuted a brick wall two feet high, with a wooden 
railing thereon, all the timbers of which were 
to be of locust. He also secured permission to 
widen the pavement on Loudoun Street, falling 
back from the old wall seven feet, — ^thus account- 


ing for our wide pavement Then it was that elsewhere. This wall, Mr. Russell informed the 

gates were placed on the front, and in the wall author, was very ornamental, and Mr. Sensen/s 

between the East end of the court house and the work was highly approved. (See orders of county 

old graveyard wall. The wall on the South ct, Aug. term, 1829). This wall was in time 

side was removed, to allow the first brick build- removed, to give place to the present iron fence 

ing erected by Senseny, to occupy the foundation seen on the three sides. It was erected prior 

for his North wall. This is treated more fully to the Civil War. 


Water Supply, Etc., Gas, Electricity, Manufactures, Etc. 

Some Criminal Trials, Etc. 

The next matter of interest may be styled, the 
water supply of the village of the Eighteenth 
Century and city of the Nineteenth and Twen- 
tieth Centuries. 

As may be supposed, the village had abundant 
water for the half century of its existence, drawn 
from numerous springs and wells. The former 
became objectionable, by reason of their natural 
drainage interfering with the streets; and fre- 
quently the old courts curtailed many privileges, 
which were finally willingly abandoned. There 
were several public wells sunk by order of court 
Four were carefully guarded for many years, and 
stringent rules enforced for their protection. 
One of these wells was near where the Kerr 
school building now stands, and was called the 
Helphenstine well; one was on a vacant lot 
South from the old jail, which afforded supply of 
water for the public buildings. This received spe- 
cial attention, as also did the one on Piccadilly 
Street, near what was known for many years as 
the Dunbar corner. One, William Miller, who 
lived on the spot, exercised some control in 1756, 
and enclosed it with his lot. The court, upon 
complaint of many citizens, promptly ordered the 
enclosure torn away, and fined Mr. Miller for 
encroaching on the street. The writer was shown 
many years ago the location of this well, which 
was in the pavement, just West of the corner. 
The other was near the old wagon yard between 
Braddock and Main Streets, and South of the 
town run. There was a private well near the 
old tavern that stood near where the law offices 
now are due North of Market Square. Then 
there was the famous well at Fort Loudoun, 
sunk by the soldiers in 1756. As the population 
increased, the inhabitants had their private wells. 
We have no record of when water pipes were laid 
to conduct water from the springs, to supply 
the town. The late Mr. John N. Bell told the 
writer many years ago, he remembered that when 
the pipes were laid in Water Street in 1840, 
workmen found old logs, that were formerly 
used to convey water from the springs; and old 
men told him that these logs were first laid 
about 1810; and that an ancestor of the late Oliver 
Brown used some new device to bore them. 
(Note: Mr. Russell fixed the date as 1808.) 

The court records show that Council directed 
commissioners to ''allow the public hydrants to 
run constantly to overcome the foulness com- 
plained of J* This was in 1826. Then in 1829, 
John Heiskell, A. S. Tilball, John Bell, Wm. L. 
Clark, and Henry M. Brent were appointed com- 
missioners to purchase iron pipes of six inch 
diameter to be laid from the spring to the jail, 
and other sizes for the streets. This afforded 
an ample supply, doubtless, for several years; 
in fact, no other mention is made on this score 
until 1836, when a question was raised about 
the purchase of the Tidball Spring. Some delay, 
from some cause, occurred in completing this 
purchase, — one being the necessary legislation to 
empower council to issue bonds, etc In 1840 we 
have the following record in the old County Of- 
fice: Deed from T A. Tidball, dated June 15, 
1840 'To the Mayor and Commonalty of the 
Town of Winchester" for the spring and house, 
Tidball to forever have ^ inch pipe of water 
from same spring, etc. (Deed Book 68, p. 407). 
From that date the town was secure in her water 
supply, receiving an abundance of water by grav- 
ity system, for all purposes; and no one of that 
period in the history of the town, ever imagined 
the day would come when the Old Tidball spring 
would prove inadequate to supply the demands 
of succeeding generations. They little dreamed 
it would be necessary to resort to the expensive 
system now used to supplement the old. Of this 
new system, we will now speak, though somewhat 
in advance of other subjects to be given, that oc- 
curred at an earlier period. About 1890, Charles 
B. Rouss offered to the city a proposition to in- 
crease the water supply that the modes of modern 
living demanded. That he would donate $30,000 
for the purpose, if the City would appropriate a 
similar sum. The city accepted the liberal offer, 
and proceeded to first find a good source of sup- 
ply. After many efforts, the old Hollingsworth 
Spring was selected, and purchased at a high 
price, and then began the outlay and reckless 
expenditure of money to convey the water to a 
reservoir, on a hill West of the town. This was 
finally accomplished; engines and pumps were in- 
stalled at the Spring; pipes laid through the city; 
and in a short time, the town was enjoying an 




overflow of water. After several years exper- 
ience, it was found new and more powerful en- 
g^ines were needed, and of course, expense of 
running increased; and at this writing, the city 
is casting about to find soft water in the moun- 
tains West of it If this be done, the gravity sys- 
tem can be used, and thus the cost of maintain- 
ing the present water supply, reduced. Some one 
was to blame in the adoption of the plan now 
in use. Ex-Governor Holliday, who was the con- 
fidential friend of Mr. Rouss, advised against any 
plan offered, that would prevent the purchase 
of the spring. So many well-informed men were 
compelled to yield, or abandon the project and 
thus lose Mr. Rouss's liberal offer. The water 
tax derived from the new system, is sufficient to 
pay all running expenses; but there is a demand 
for soft water that will be heeded, doubtless, by 
the city fathers. The present abundant supply 
of water has induced enterprising men to locate 
here, — two mills already enjoying its advantages. 
The first was the large knitting mill on Kent 
Street; and then the Woolen mills, a little to the 
East. The large ice plant North of the B. & O. 
R. R. station, enjoys unexcelled facilities on this 

Since the introduction of this new supply, the 
question of sewerage has agitated the public; and 
at this writing, an engineer has been engaged to 
make surveys and measurements; and upon his 
favorable report, the council may proceed to sup- 
ply a much needed luxury to the inhabitants. It 
will be a desirable change from the cess-pools 
and surface drainage — the former a constant 
menace to health; the latter a trial to pedestrians. 

In this connection it will be well to say that, 
as far back as 1813, the town authorities had 
some negotiations with Mr. Edward Smith, who 
owned a tract adjoining the western suburbs of 
the village, where the C. V. R. R. station now 
stands. This tract adjoined James Wood on the 
West. Smith sold 4^^ acres of this land to 
Major Wm. Davidson and John Richardson, and 
mentioned that in their use of the spring at this 
point, they should observe contracts made by 
him with the mayor, and also certain private 
owners. Smith and Richardson erected a mill 
and distillery at that point, and made provision 
for the private owners to convey water by pipes 
through their lots on the run below. In 18 19, 
Hugh Holmes and Joseph C. Baldwin purchased 
the 4^2 acres together with the mill and distillery 
thereon, subject to the contracts previously made. 
Holmes conveyed his interest to Baldwin, who 
continued as owner until his estate was settled 
in 1826, when Nicholas Fitzsimmons, trustee, 
sold it to James Stackhouse. The deed describes 
accurately the 4^ acres and the buildings, con- 

sisting of a grist mill, distillery, stables, dwell- 
ing, etc Mr. Stackhouse added his cabinet- 
maker's shop, lathes, etc., and must have dis- 
continued the distillery, for nothing further is 
said about it in subsequent transactions with 
coterminous owners, relating to water pipes. All 
speak of the mill-race. James Stackhouse was 
succeeded by his son Stephen, who sold the en- 
tire property to the railroad company. He then 
had removed to Florida. It will be seen that 
other writers have erred in stating that Col. Wood 
erected the first mill during the Colonial period, 
and that it was the first mill in operation in this 
locality. Col. Wood's grant from Fairfax em- 
braced this mill site. The provision for securing 
water from the spring at that point for the in- 
habitants of the town, are fully set out in the 
grant dated 1753; and when Mary Wood and 
her son Robert in 1797, conveyed 37 acres of their 
land including this mill-site, the same reservations . 
are recited in the deed to Edward Smith. (These 
may be found in Deed Books of the old District 
Court, county clerk's office). 

About the year 1850, Chas. Welch and George 
Legg erected a large mill known as the "Steam 
Mill." This was on West side of Market Street 
near the town run, and was in successful opera- 
tion until destroyed by Federal troops during the 
War. The firm succeeded in securing a rail track 
down Market Street, connecting their mill with 
the W. & P. R. R. depot. The next mill is that on 
North Market Street, established by Wm. B. Bak- 
er since the War and popularly known as the mill 
of Baker & Co. Mr. Baker's two sons, Messrs. 
Albert and Alexander Baker, inherited the prop- 
erty, and have for many years maintained its 

Illuminating Gas Introduced into Winchester 

The Winchester Gas Company was a prosperous 
corporation organized by Act of Assembly, March 
2, 1853; capital stock $60,000; shares $50. The 
gas house on East Water Street was and yet re- 
mains the generating power-house. The stock was 
purchased 1905-6 by a new corporation, known 
as the Winchester Gas & Electric Light Com- 
pany. The streets are now lighted by electricity 
furnished by a corporation which, a few years 
ago, built great dams across the Shenandoah, 
and from their immense power-plant near Mill- 
ville, are able to turn the wheels of large fac- 
tories, mills, etc., and are now arranging pre- 
liminary plans for an electric car-line to connect 
Winchester with Washington City. 

In 1827, a Medical College was inaugurated in 
Winchester, continuing only a few years. It was 
again, under a new charter, put in operation in 
1847, and remained in successful operation until 



the beginning of the Civil War. In 1862, its 
buildings, which stood on the northwest corner 
of Water and Stewart Streets, were burned by 
the Federal army, because the college contained 
the dissected body of the son of John Brown of 
Harpers Ferry notoriety. Mr. Chas. L. Crum 
purchased the lot and erected the handsome resi- 
dence seen there now, occupied by his widow 
and her two daughters. The faculty of the col- 
lege, as it existed in 1859, was: Hugh H. Mc 
Guire, Prof, of Surgery, Bushrod Taylor, Prof, 
of Materia Medica, J. Philip Smith, Prof, of 
Medicine and Obstetrics; Hunter H. McGuire, 
Prof, of Anatomy, etc. 

At a very early period in the history of Win- 
chester, we find special attention was given to the 
fur trade. The pelts of animals received such 
treatment by the old skin dressers, that won 
preference in the far-away markets. This was a 
noted place for the tanning business; and for 
one hundred and fifty years, the town could boast 
of one or more tanneries. They were land- 
marks of the town. Streets were opened to the 
tan yards, and surveys to lots made respecting 
the rights of the tan yards along* the old town 
run. The old bark mill and vats were curiosities 
to school boys, and proved very remunerative 
to the owners and operators. We could name 
several who amassed what was in those days 
considered fortunes. All have disappeared; and 
at this writing not a vestige remains of the once 
lucrative trade. Glove making has, for many 
years, been quite a feature in the town. The 
large factories of W. C. Graichen on N. Market 
Street, the F. A. Graichen factory on Water Street 
opposite Frederick Plaza, and D. H. Anderson on 
South Main Street, are successors to those who 
were here early in the 19th century, when Seemer, 
Brown, and others laid the foundation for the 
reputation which the products of the present 
operators still enjoy. The output from these 
factories is immense; the W. C. Graichen Com- 
pany being called upon to supply the demand 
from the home and abroad, with its foreign trade 
steadily increasing. 

For many years prior to 1900, the manufacture 
of boots and shoes on a large scale, attracted the 
attention of local capitalists; and the Winchester 
Boot & Shoe Company was organized. Business 
was started in the large brick building, comer 
Main and Cork Streets; but the project was not 
remunerative. Competition was too strong; and 
after many fitful struggles, it was sold to pri- 
vate parties, who later on reduced the force. 
The owner finally closed his doors, sold his 
lasts, and entered Government service, receiving 
a lucrative salary in his declining years. We al- 

lude to Henry Schneider, who is still a resident of 

The manufacture of stoves, plows and mill 
machinery, was successfully conducted prior to 
the War by George W. Ginn, who amassed 
quite a snug property, and supplied a great home 
demand. His cook-stoves and the old ten-plate 
were his specialties. The writer remembers well 
when the first cook-stoves were sold in the sur- 
rounding country, through which Daniel Chap- 
man, with his wagon loaded with the new device 
for cooking, could be seen frequently, using great 
persuasion to induce the good housewives to 
take one on trial. The old-time colored cooks 
rejected the stove for a long while, preferring 
the old fire-place, with its spit and ovens. 

The Snapp family of Winchester for many 
years conducted similar works. They own the 
only foundry now in Winchester. 

Clippings from the Winchester Virginian, pub- 
lished by Robinson & Hollis, March 5, 1834. 

Election Notices. Notice is hereby given that 
an election will be held on Monday the 30th June 
inst. at the several places appointed by law in 
Frederick County, to choose three fit persons 
to represent the County of Frederick in the next 
House of Delegates, viz: at Winchester, under 
direction of Sheriff, at Berry ville, Middletown, 
Stephensburg, at Geo. Ashby*s, Pughtown, and 
Moses Russell's. Thomas Buck, SherifF. 

The candidates were Maj. James Gibson, Rich- 
ard W. Barton, Jno. B. D. Smith, Jacob Heironi- 
mous, Wm. Castleman and Dr. James Hay. The 
county then included Clarke and Warren terri- 

Lewis Eichelberger advertises his Angerona 
Institute, as a young ladies' boarding and day 

A. C. Smith has a lengthy advertisement of 
Smith's Seminary for boys and girls — all branches 
taught. Jacob Senseny, trustee, offers for sale 
a coach-makers shop, blacksmiths shop, coach 
house, and, in Wood's addition, lot No. 7 on 
South side of Water Street. Lloyd Logan offers 
50,000 Spanish segars for sale, and Tidball's mix- 
ture snuff. Geo. and Tilden Reed say they had 
just covered the new dwelling house of Col. 
Joseph Tuley with tin. Brome and Ball offer a 
piano and suitable music for sale. Stewart Grant 
has general merchandise, hardware, china, etc. 
Isaac Pennington manufactures bar iron at his 
works on Capon River 28 miles from Winchester, 
for sale at $100.00 per ton, delivered at any point 
within 60 miles from his forge. J. Harrison & 
Company are one door South of Taylor Hotel, 
and have clothes, etc. Thos. Philips & Co., 
Brome & Bell, and Wm. Miller have garden seeds. 



J. Kean, C. C, has a number of legal ads. The 
old Massie Tavern offered for sale by Isaac S. 
Lauck. Danner's Hotel and Stage Line Office, 
adjoining Middletown, offer inducements to the 
traveller, — just opened. Trustee's sale in front 
of Taylor's Hotel of tract of land 2 miles East 
of W. & P. R., near Seevcr's Tavern. James 
Castleman, trustee, will sell in front of court 
house several valuable likely negroes. James 
Haney has his tailoring establishment in front 
of court house. This paper contains a spirited 
correspondence between Col. Josiah W. Ware 
and citizens of Winchester, in relation to a divi- 
sion of the county, so that a county should be 
formed East of the Opecquon. This controversy 
was brought about by what was presented to the 
General Assembly in the form of petitions. The 
citizens of Winchester resented the action of 
Col. Ware, and published what they styled a 
manifesto. Col. Ware, in defending his position, 
charged the town justices with unlawfully and 
unjustly using the county levies to pave the mar- 
ket square and represents that the sections of 
the county remote from this market, should not 
be taxed to improve the town of Winchester; 
and that the section East of the Opecquon, where 
he lived, received no benefits. This culminated in 
bitter feeling, that increased; and that section 
waged a fight for the new county, and succeeded 
in having the county of Qarke taken from Fred- 
erick. This feeling found its way to the coqntry 
people, and for years the contention between town 
and county continued. Both corporations were 
confused as to their respective rights and obliga- 
tions. The town authorities generally appeared 
before the County Court, and secured permission 
to erect certain buildings and lay certain pave- 
ments on the "public lotts." The court, as shown 
in the first pages of this sketch, never relaxed 
its control. The contention existed, however, for 
many years. As time wore on and the town 
became stronger, the council felt constrained to 
take action in regard to her public improvements, 
that often savored of a disregard for the coun- 
t/s jurisdiction. Such, however, were always 
settled to the satisfaction of the County Justices. 
The Civil War coming on in 1861 obliterated for 
a time all rights, and contentions subsided. The 
entire population was too much absorbed with 
the sweeping devastation of both private and 
public rights and property, to advance any claims 
as to who should rule. The first few years sub- 
sequent to the War were full of trials to an im- 
poverished people; and all struggled together to 
repair the waste places. The writer recalls with 
sincere pleasure his recollections of the harmony 
of effort manifested by the survivors of the great 
conflict. Then the social life began to revive ; and 

while all struggled to get a firm footing once 
more, he has never known so much social inter- 
course to exist in the community. But new con- 
stitutions and new laws came that wrought many 
changes. The Pierpont government assumed the 
right to take possession of the State buildings 
in Richmond, in the Spring of 1865. Military 
Government asserting control, the Civil govern- 
ment had little to do. The Military re-organized 
the courts. Then followed the celebrated Under- 
wood Constitution, with sweeping changes. The 
old courts gave way to the County and Corpora- 
tion Judge system. 

Court Trials 

In the range of litigation, Winchester has had 
her full share; and several very important and 
interesting suits could be mentioned, if space 

Winchester derives much comfort and many 
advantages from the enterprises that were usher- 
ed in with the Twentieth Century; notably, the 
Winchester Ice Plant, has filled the place of the 
natural ice-dealers, Geo. W. Hillyard & Sons, who 
for many years in stentorian notes apprised the 
citizens that Summer had come and along with 
it also their ice. This old-style luxury has been 
supplemented by the large crystal blocks of ice. 
Added to this plant, just North of the B. & O. 
R. freight station, are cold storage buildings, 
where fruit and food stuffs are preserved for 
months, awaiting better prices, etc. 

The telephone system came earlier, but not so 
satisfactory, until the Bell System was inaugu- 
rated about eight years ago. The United and Bell 
companies now supply the city with wonderful 
advantages, both in business and social ways; 
while both systems have connections throughout 
the Valley. 

The Winchester Creamery, located on South 
Kent Street, Jacob W. Haldeman, owner and 
manager, makes butter by the most modern 
methods, producing this table delicacy in large 
quantities and in most attractive styles; the far- 
mers for many miles around supplying rich fresh 
milk, which being treated by large separators, 
gives the creamery a daily supply of cream un- 

We may properly mention at this point a char- 
itable institution, that was established by the 
county and town as a home for indigent persons. 
This was called the Poor House, and stood boldly 
out on the western suburbs. A lot of five acres 
was conveyed to Richard K. Meade and others. 
Overseers of the Poor for Frederick County and 
the Corporation of Winchester by Christopher 
Fry, Nov. 6, 1793. The recital in this deed says 
"For a lot at the West end of Piccadilly Street, 



on the West side of the Warm Spring Road* 
being an out-lot containing five acres, adjoining 
the land of Genl. Wood. On this lot was erected 
a large brick building to accommodate the desti- 
tute poor and insane persons. This building was 
used for this purpose until 1821. In 1820 an Act 
of the GenL Assembly passed Feby. 9th, empower- 
ed the Overseers of the Poor to sell this prop- 
erty, and reinvest the fund for similar purposes. 
The property was sold to Fleet Smith for $4,000; 
the overseers having purchased from Fleet Smith, 
of Loudoun County, two tracts of Land, which 
he conveyed by deed dated Jany. 1820^ to the 
Overseers of the Poor, viz : David Ridgway, Phil- 
ip Burwell, Wm. Campbell, Bennet Hall, Robert 
Bryarly, Obed Waite and others. Overseers of 
Poor of Frederick County and Corporation of 
Winchester. The two tracts of land were near 
the Round Hill, adjoining Weaver, Glaize and 
Campbell, containing in the aggregate 321^ acres. 
This land was formerly owned by Wm. Holliday, 

deceased; his heirs, Robert, Wm. M., James W. 
Holliday and Wm. Davison and wife, having 
conveyed their undivided interest to Fleet 
On this land the overseers erected the brick build- 
ing used at this writing, on what has been 
called the Parish Farm* at a cost of $4,000. 
In the Smnmer of 1821, the inmates of the Ange- 
rona Poor House were removed to their new 
quarters; and from that time the property has 
been continuously used for charitable purposes; 
presided over by a superintendent and matron. 
Some of the superintendents have been John 
Harman, Caspar Rinker, Findley Geo. W. Chris- 
more, James H. Canter, M. H.' Albin, and the 
present incumbent James H. Affleck, with his 
efficient wife as matron. In 1828, Wm. Daniel 
conveyed to the Overseers of the Poor, 51^ 
acres of wood land West of the Poor House. 

The Angerona building, erected in 1794, forms 
part of the handsome mansion now occupied by 
Thomas Cover. 


The Newspapers of Winchester 

The first newspaper published in the Shenan- 
doah Valley was shown the author several years 
ago, from which he made many notes that after- 
wards appeared in the history written by Mr. 
J. E. Norris. The paper referred to was the 
"Virginia Gazette and Winchester Advertiser." 
The first number bears date July ii, 1787, with 
the announcement that the proprietors Henry Wil- 
cox & Co. will supply the "latest information 
from the seats of government, statements of the 
markets, etc.," and offers it columns for corre- 
spondents to furnish the public with reliable 
news." The editor announces to his readers, that 
he is prepared by experience in the foreign cities 
to give the readers such publications as will win 
their respect and support. The lengthy and force- 
ful "salutatory" declares for such style and prin- 
ciples as would ornament some periodicals of to- 
day. Doubtless the survivors of the Revolution- 
ary struggle needed strong food; for the coun- 
try had not recovered from the direful effects of 
the war. Just why the Gazette changed its firm 
name, we are not told; but we find that August 
29th Bartgis & Wilcox announce the change. 
Bartgis seemed to be an enterprising publisher, 
for we find in a notice Jany., 1788, the firm is 
Bartgis & Co. The success of the Gazette en- 
couraged a similar enterprise; for April 2, 1788, 
Richard Bowen & Co. issued their first number 
of the Virginia Centinel. The rivalry that exist- 
ed between these newspapers, furnish interesting 
matter for sensational readers; but we have not 
space to justify a copy of many notes in the 
writer's hands. An advertisement appears in one 
of the Weekly issues, that we can afford to enter, 
which indicates the spirit of the period. The full 
text will not be given as it appeared May 4, 1786. 
After giving the authority granted by Act of the 
Genl. Assembly to certain citizens of Winchester 
for holding a public lottery, for the purpose of 
raising a sufficient sum to furnish the German 
Lutheran Church in Winchester, two thousand 
tickets at $3.00 apiece were offered for sale, and 
the names of the managers given to-wit: Col. 
Chas. M. Thruston, Mr. Edward Smithy, Maj. 
Thomas Massie, Col. Joseph Holmes, Col. James 
G. Dowdall, Mr. John Peyton, Rev. Christian 
Streit, Mr. Lewis Hoff, Mr. Philip Bush, Mr. Geo. 
Kiger, Mr. Harry Baker, Mr. Adam Heiskell, Mr. 

Geo. Linn, Mr. Peter Lauck, Mr. Frederick Haas — 
all representative men regardless of denomina- 
tion. Note how they regarded the undertaking! 
Part of the advertisement reads: "It is hoped 
the pious purpose of this lottery, will be a suffi- 
cient recommendation, and the friends of all 
Religion, of all denominations, will cheerfully 
help to promote it by becoming adventurers." The 
result must have proven satisfactory. The follow- 
ing appeared in the issue of the Centinel of May 
14, 1788: "Last week we had the pleasing satis- 
faction to behold the old roof of the English 
Lutheran Church, in this town, taken off for the 
purpose of replacing it with a new one. This 
was much wanted, as divine service could not, 
for sometime past be performed there without 
endangering the safety of the congregations. 
While we congratulate our fellow-citizens on the 
prospect they have of worshipping their creator 
in this commodious edifice, we are happy in pro- 
nouncing that the public spirit in this town, tho* 
situated in the woods, is equal to that of the most 
populous towns or cities on the Continent." 

The Gazette of July 23, 1788, has this advertise- 
ment "The subscribers for the purpose of building 
the Presb)rterian Meeting House in the town and 
borough of Winchester, are requested to meet at 
the house of Mr. John Donaldson, on Saturday 
next, the 26th inst. precisely at 3 o'clock P. M. 
in order to adopt and fix upon a plan for erect- 
ing the same, where all persons of undertaking 
to build said church will please attend with their 
plans and estimates. William Hollidav, 

James Holliday, 
Robert Sherrard, 


The foregoing, aside from showing when the 
first newspapers were published, is of interest to 
the present citizens of Winchester, as it establishes 
and corroborates dates and incidents, mentioned 
in sketches of the churches, which were obtained 
from other sources by the author. 

The two newspapers were favored with numer- 
ous and somewhat varied advertisements. For 
instance, the Methodists* Society gives notice in 
the Centinel August 26, 1788, "that they had es- 
tablished a Quarterly Meeting, which would be 
held at the house of John Milburne, on Satnr- 




day and Sunday 30 and 31st of August at 11 
o'clock, each day." 

The Gazette of Nov. 23, 1787, had this an- 
nouncement: "Notice is hereby given that the 
"^^niichester Dancing Assemblies will commence on 
Wednesday, the 28th inst. at the house of Mr. 
Edward McGuire." 

(Signed) Cornelius Baldwin, 
John Peyton, 
John Conrad, 
Philip Dalby, 
Chas. McGill, 
James Ash. 

One other notice appears that "Mr. J. Moriar- 
ity informs the ladies and gentlemen that he will 
teach Dancing in the Modern Method of Europe 
at Mr. McGuire's Ball Room. 

The Gazette in its issue October 12, 1787, con- 
tains the following card, so significant, that it is 
deemed best to have it in full. 

"Messrs. Printers: As the welfare of the 
borough of Winchester in a great measure de- 
pends on the exertions of its inhabitants, in guard- 
ing against the most dangerous of elements, by 
forming a Second Fire Company, in this place; 
it is earnestly requested, that those who wish to 
become members, will meet, at Mr. Edward Mc- 
Guire's tavern, on Saturday the 13th inst, at 5 
o'clock in the evening, to propose rules and regu- 
lations for the government of the same. 

Winchester, Oct. 9, 1787. Civis. 

This card clearly shows that one other Fire 
Company was organized and already using its 
best efforts to protect the citizens; and it has 
been settled by investigation, that the first com- 
pany was supplied with ladders and buckets; and 
did not have an engine. A minute in the old 
order book, 1784, shows they were allowed space 
for ladders and buckets in a shed adjoining the 
old jail. The engine is spoken of in two other 
issues of the newspapers in the Summer of 1788; 
and doubtless this was the engine we have al- 
luded to in connection with the old engine 
house. Who gave it the euphonious name of 
"The Goose Neck," the writer cannot say. Suc- 
ceeding fire companies will be mentioned later 
on. We will dispose of other publications while 
the old newspaper notes lie before us. 

Judging from the following advertisements of 
places of business, "The Tavern" branch of en- 
terprise claims considerable space. Edward Mc- 
Guire leads the list, "offering his services and his 
capacious tavern house for patronage to none 
other than gentlemen and ladies; that his hos- 
telry was open for "assemblies" and societies on 
notice, and his spacious Ball room at the disposal 
of dancing committees approved by him." This 

hotel or tavern occupied the site where the Tay- 
lor Hotel now stands, and most probably erected 
just prior to 1770. It was once known as the 
Heth Tavern, Mr. McGuire succeeding Heth as 
lessee about 1765, when the house was remodeled 
and enlarged, and grew famous under McGuire*s 
control until about 1800. 

Thomas Edmonson appears in the Centinel 
with his announcement that his new and mod^ 
em tavern "has unsurpassed accommodations for 
travellers and other visitors," standing on his 
lot opposite Fort Loudoun, sign of the Big Ship. 
He also offers his ball table for the use of his 
guests "who are players of the ball and stick." 
"The Black Horse tavern" kept by John Walters 
on the "Marsh" (supposed to have been Water 
Street) presented his sign. So also Philip Bush 
with his "Golden Buck" sign, on Cameron Street 
South of Water. This famous house occupied a 
large space on West side of Cameron Street, South 
of the Town Run or Marsh, as it was then called, 
adjoining the property now the residence of Mr. 
Baetjer and others, formerly known as the Wm. 
Streit property. (The Streit property was the 
home of Rev. Christian Streit. Danl. Morgan and 
wife conveyed this property to Rev. Streit Feby. 
17, 1787, and is described as on New or Cameron 

When this property was yet owned by Mr. 
Bush's estate, the County Court secured quarters 
in a portion of the old building, to house the pris- 
oners taken from the jail that had been destroyed 
by fire; and later on the Presbyterian congrega- 
tion used it for Divine services, pending the build- 
ing of the Loudoun Street Presbyterian Church. 
It was at this hotel or tavern that the incident 
occurred between Prince Louis Philipe of France 
and Landlord Bush that caused the latter to cut 
down the sign of the Golden Buck. (This tradi- 
tion may receive further notice, if space permit.) 

Philip Dalby in same paper, gives notice of his 
tavern, which stood on East side of Loudoun 
Street, below Cork, with the sign of the house 
in a rude picture at the head of his advertise- 

Many odd advertisements appear in both papers, 
and show who many of the business men were 
immediately after the Revolutionary War. And 
for this reason, they are entitled to brief notice: 
James Ridley had a factory "to manufacture stays 
(corsets) for ladies to suit any figure." 

The Winchester Hemp and Flax Factory was 
started on Piccadilly Street, and able to fur- 
nish linen threads, ropes and bolting cloths. 

Jonah Hollings worth and George Mathews offer 
their fulling mill, at Abraham's Delight southeast 
from Winchester, for work in their line. Book- 
binders were operated in connection with one of 



the newspapers. Archibald Magill has large as- 
sortment store, among many articles mentioned — 
"a large stock of patent medicines/' 

Philip Bush Jr., at the sign of the Golden Urn, 
opposite Mr. William Holli day's dwelling house, 
was jeweler and goldsmith. Robert Wells ad- 
vertises to make watches and repeating eight-day 
clocks. The following is suggestive. Who can 
locate the mills mentioned? Richard Gray "wants 
all kinds of country produce, and will receive 
all grain delivered at fifteen mills, in the sur- 
rounding country, viz. : Morgan's Brown's, Helm's, 
G. Bruce's, Hite's, Perkins', Stroop's, Gibbs', Lew- 
is', Bull's, Snicker's, Wormley's, W, Helm's, and 
Wilson's. Daniel Norton & Co. offer "Fall goods 
just imported in the "Dado," Capt. James Gray- 
son, Master." This store was on the corner of 
Loudoun and Piccadilly Streets. Miss Maria Smith 
offers her services to teach English studies and 
"Dresden Embroidery." John and James Mc- 
Alister opened a store at the sign of the Tobacco 
Hogshead opposite the bridge in Winchester. This 
was one of the largest stores in town, and aside 
from their regular grocery business, bought large- 
ly "leaf tobacco, genseng, deerskins, military cer- 
tificates." They also secured privilege to erect a 
building South of the old clerk's office for a 
nail factory. Court required them to make it of 
"heavy stone and shun risk for fire." Doubtless 
the old building can be seen at East end of alley 
where it enters the county property. The court 
ordered the old stone shop called McAllister Nail 
Factory to be removed many years ago. The 
order was never executed. Subsequently it was 
used for a bakery house by Mr. Ganslen. They 
were Revolutionary soldiers. The late Peter 
Kurtz possessed the bound copies of the old pa- 
pers, from which these notes are taken. On the 
inside cover was written "This binding is the 
property of James McAlIester." Query. Where is 
now the old "binding?" John Hite, Jr., adver- 
tises his "new and elegant mill on the Opeckon." 
J. G. Dowdal, a merchant, offers, silks, linens, 
rum, wine, bar-iron and steel. Robert Sherrard's 
new store "offers a beautiful assortment of spring 
goods." Col. John Peyton orders a muster of the 
Militia of Frederick County. Thomas Eagan of- 
fers for sale "a valuable and convenient stone 
house opposite the Church on Loudoun Street." 
(The Episcopal Church) J. H. Jones "thanks the 
public for patronizing his school so liberally. Wil- 
liam Holliday offers for rent "his elegant two 
story stone house," and in same adv. offers for 
sale "a likely Negro woman, with two children 
and a sign for a tavern keeper." Adam Kiger 
reduced his price "for making suits of clothing 
to twelve shillings." Archibald Magill had a 
fine grocery, liquor and hardware on corner of 

Loudoun and Piccadilly Streets. Adam Hock- 
man puts himself up "as post rider from Win- 
chester to Staunton — Will carry letters and pack- 
ages and deliver to Newtown, Stovers Town, Mil- 
lers Town, (Woodstock) New Market, Rocking- 
ham Town, Keesel Town, etc. Fifty-nine letters 
remained in the Postoffice held for postage — 
twenty-five cents due on each," and person re- 
ceiving required to pay postage. 

Meshach Sexton established an oil mill and 
hemp mill, 1788; Daniel Miller and Hank Calvert 
offer to make suits of clothing for twelve shill- 
ings; John Kean offers merchandise at his store 
adjoining McGuire's tavern. Rewards are offered 
by Hamilton Cooper for the return to him of his 
servant man Dennis Wheelen. James Rumsey, 
inventor of the first steamboat, describes several 
of his runaway servants, one of whom, Francis 
Murray, had his eyebrows shaved and wore an 
iron collar. The next advertisement appeared at 
the same time, which may startle some readers: 

"Just received from Cork, and to be disposed 
of for ready cash, or crop of tobacco on short 

A few healthy men and women who have from 
three and one half to four years to serve under 
indentures. Among the men are laborers, wait- 
ers, weavers, shoemakers, taylors, whitesmiths, 
coopers, plasterers and tilers, hair dressers, shin- 
ers and breeches makers. The women are wash- 
ers, seamstresses, etc Hooe & Hahwson. 

Alexandria, Oct. 23, 1788." 

Since the "startled reader" may be perplexed 
for an explanation of this, we add at this point, 
that this peculiar condition of domestic affairs 
of the old settlers, prevailed throughout the en- 
tire colony, and found necessary in the develop- 
ment of the Country, was sanctioned by the 
Crown at a very early period, and a record kept 
by the Colonial government. And we find the 
State of Virginia, after the Revolutionary War, 
recognized the trade in indentured servants. So 
far as the custom relates to the Old County, our 
old records furnish the proof. And the reader is 
referred to the old Court Order Book for brief 
mention of the fact of such importations. And 
if he be curious and patient enough to learn who 
composed the class of citizens arriving, to be- 
come in later years in many cases useful and 
even prominent citizens, let him open some of 
the mouldy files of that period, and see many 
names that are familiar in our population now — 
the descendants of many of whom the author has 
had occasion to trace. No disgrace should be 
attached to the class referred to. They had heard 
of the Liberty over in America; and being with- 
out means to pay their transportation, were will- 



ing to endure the terms required by men and 
masters of the sailing craft, and thus work out 
their own freedom. Lack of space and other 
reasons forbid insertion of their names in these 

The following is given as a matter of refer- 
ence: Order Books, Oct 5, 1779: "J^mts Wil- 
son came into court and made oath that he in 
partnership with Samuel McChesney, Imported 
into this State twenty-seven Indentured Servants 
in the year 1771. Said list to be recorded; And 
same Ct James Wilson and James Kelso and 
Samuel McChesney Imported into this State 
twenty-one Indentured Servants in 1772; and 
James Nelson and James Kelso Imported into 
this State One Hundred and Thirty-Six Inden- 
tured Servants in years 1772-3-4 and '75." Same 
Ct. James Kelso came into court and made oath 
that he in the year 1777 brought into this State 
his family consisting of twelve persons in num- 
ber; Same ordered to be recorded." 

The Kelso family have it settled in the brief 
minute, the date of their arrival in Frederick 
County. They became citizens of Hampshire 
County. The author was once called upon to 
show, if possible, the date of their arrival, and 
gratified one of the descendants, then a resident 
of Wyoming, with a copy of the minute. 

The two old newspapers give extended notices 
and editorial comment on an election held in 
Winchester on Tuesday, March 4, 1788, the only 
voting place for all the county, embracing what is 
now Frederick, Garke and Warren. The County 
was entitled to two delegates to the Convention 
which was to convene in Richmond, to consider 
the ratification of the First Federal Constitution. 
Four candidates were in the field ; ratification was 
in the air; 541 votes were polled, and resulted in 
John S. Woodcock receiving 191 votes, Alex. 
White 162, Charles M3mn Thruston 71, John 
Smith 117. The first two were favorable to rati- 
fication. The Gazette notes in its issue July 2, 
1788, that delegate White had sent a letter to 
Frederick by the hands of Col. R. Humphreys 
and Col. E. Zane, informing his constituents that 
Virginia had ratified the Constitution. It then 
devoted several columns to its report of the de- 
monstrations that followed. Capt Heiskell's 
Company of Infantry joined in a parade with 
the citizens and the organized societies of the 
place, all under the marshalship of Maj. Mc 
Guire; and the McGuire tavern gfave supper to 
representatives of all organizations, where toasts 
were drunk to the number of thirteen, in honor 
of the thirteen States forming the first Federal 
Union. And it would seem that all had indulg- 
ed in sufficient demonstration to give the Union 
a start on its future course. But the Centinel, 

in its issue of July 9, 1788, gives an account of 
the Ratification and Fourth of July Celebration, 
and says the Village could not satisfy the demand 
for hilarity: "That all the crafts of the town, 
the citizens and Military commanded by Capt. 
Heiskel, with Maj. McGuire, Chief Marshal, 
marched in procession through the streets to the 
Federal Spring at Genl. Wood's home, and there, 
were served with a Barbeque dinner." 

The newspapers furnished much that would 
show many features of society and mode of liv- 
ing in that day; and we have endeavored to make 
a few selections that help to picture the old 
Town in that day, showing who were then in ac- 
tive life, and some of their vocations. But we 
must lay aside such old notes and take up an- 
other line from the old records of the county, 
and show what others did. 

The old records referred to have been drawn 
upon to furnish matter in preceding pages, which 
brought us to the period mentioned in the old 
newspapers. Lack of space forbids much more 
that could have been added. 

The Court had never up to that period been 
confronted with trial of murder cases. Though 
crimes of g^ave character were disposed of by 
the Old Justices with deliberation and prompt- 
ness, it was not until 1791, that they were called 
upon to pass the death sentence. At the August 
Term, 1790, James Medlicot was tried for the 
murder of William HefTerman on the night of 
July 29th. His trial was brief. He was convict- 
ed of murder in the first degree, and sentenced 
to be hung. The sentence was executed after 
some delays, occasioned by the efforts of counsel 
for prisoner, to obtain a new trial. The day of 
execution cannot be given. An order of court 
in Spring of 1792 appears for the Sheriff to pay 
Edward Smith and Isaac Miller £1.10.0 each 
for erecting the gallows, showing that the execu- 
tion took place shortly prior to that court. 

The second murder trial in the old county 
court, was called at the June term, 1798, for the 
trial of Ralph, a negro man slave, the property 
of James Strother, for the murder of said James 
Strother and Elizabeth his wife, on the 5th of 
May last "by administering to them the seed of 
a certain Noxious and Poisonous Herb called 
James Town Weed." The Court was composed 
of Charles Mynn Thruston, James G. Dowdal, 
Thomas Buck, Gerrard Briscoe, Matthew Wright 
and Charles Smith, Gentlemen, Justices. Mr. 
Archibald Magill was assigned as counsel. The 
prisoner was found guilty and condemned to be 
hung on the 20th of July next, at the usual place 
of execution. This sounds as if there had been 
executions more than one; but as no evidence 
appears of but the one, we must conclude the 



court adopted the language found in the old 
book of forms. This matter is entered in con- 
nection with notes on Winchester, because the 
executions occurred within its jurisdiction. 

The newspapers published in Winchester may 
properly here receive notice again. The two ri- 
val sheets, referred to, passed under the control 
of Richard Bowen, who started the Centinel. 
And he for many years just prior to and after 
1800, published one paper. The Gazette. The 
office was on Water Street in the old stone build- 
ing (second floor) comer of Water Street and 
Lutheran Church Alley. He was succeeded by 
Mr. Collett, and he successively by John Haas, 
John Heiskell, Freeland, Eichelberger and several 
others. John Foster and James Caldwell publish- 
ed the Constellation about 1810, and also con- 
ducted a book-publishing house. The Constella- 
tion passed into the hands of several successors; 
Mr. Cashell, J. G. Brooks, S. H. Davis, then to 
Gallagher and Towers. Peter Printz issued first 
copy of the Winchester Republican in 1824, Jo- 
seph H. Sherrard (Judge Sherrard) started the 
Virginian in 1827, which appeared weekly. Dur- 
ing this period Lewis F. Eichelberger was editor 
from about 1834 2ind for several years thereafter, 
when R C. Bruce became the owner, and later 
sold out to J. J. Palmer, the last owner. This 
was always a JeflFersonian Democratic paper. 
The Republican changed owners several times; 
Geo. E. Senseny being the accomplished Whig 
editor for a number of years. He was succeeded 
by Nat. B. Meade a year before the Civil War, 
and was the owner when Banks' soldiers destroyed 
the plant in 1862. For three years during the 
War, Winchester had no one willing to venture 
on the news line. In the Summer of 1865, (Jeo. 
R. Henry, and P. L. Kurtz, practical printers, 
with H. K. Pritchard as editor, started the Win- 
chester News, and conducted a useful weekly 
until 1888, when the plant was purchased by Bailey 
& McAuliffe. During that period, Mr. E. Bruce 
gave much interest to the paper through his at- 
tractive editorials. In 1888, Dr. J. F. Ward and 
Robt. M. Ward purchased the plant, and started 
a book-bindery enterprise in connection with the 
News. They had several associates as managers 
and local editors: B. M. Wade, then John M. 
Silver, and C. H. Purcell. The plant changed 
hands and continued for several years by G. F. 
Norton. On Jany. 12, 1895, the City was sur- 
prised by the appearance of the first daily news- 
paper — the Evening Item, a sprightly single sheet, 
launched by John I. Sloat, who sold his interest 
to the Ward Bros. They sold the entire outfit 
to Mr. Norton, who gave it a start as the Win- 
chester News-Item. Mr. Sloat, July 4, 1896, 

started the Evening Star. This proved a success ; 
and the two dailies flourished for several years. 

The Winchester Times first appeared in 1865; 
Goldsborough and Clark editors and owners. 
Clark soon sold his interest, and Goldsborough 
and Russell became owners. Maj. Robt. W. Hun- 
ter succeeded to the control of this paper, and 
produced an attractive weekly. Henry D. Beall, 
afterwards of the Baltimore Sun, purchased one- 
half interest, and for several years Hunter and 
Beall conducted a strong Democratic organ, and 
continually sounded keynotes for the rally of the 
party that reconstructed the country. Capt. E. G. 
Hollis succeeded Beall, and with Hunter and 
Hollis, many remember the excellent paper issued 
by them, and can recall many interviews had with 
the genial Hollis. Hunter afterwards sold his 
interest to T. W. Harrison (now our circuit 
Judge). R. E. Byrd purchased a half interest, 
and Wm. Riely became manager and local editor. 
In 1883, the Winchester Times Publishing Com- 
pany was established; and with R. E. Byrd as 
editor, gave the public such additional newspaper 
advantages as no other point in the Valley en- 
joyed. In 1902, the Times purchased the Evening 
Star; and then a lively contest continued between 
the dailies, much to the edification and amuse- 
ment of the many readers. This contest ended in 
1907, when the Times Publishing Company pur- 
chased the News and Item plant and good will 
from Mr. Norton. The latter continued his job 
press work, and added a large stationery supply 
business, which he conducts in the old Star of- 
fice — the old stone building on Water Street, op- 
posite the clerk's office. 

The first Republican paper to issue in Winches- 
ter was called "The Journal," A. M. Crane, edi- 
tor. This also started in 1865. It was short- 
lived, and sold in 1869 to N. B. Meade, who 
started the Sentinel, a Democratic paper. After 
about two years circulation, publication suspend- 
ed. A third paper was too much for the com- 
munity. In 1884, T. H. Goshorn started another 
Republican paper called the Leader. It continued 
for a few years, under the editorship of E. D. 
Root, and then succumbed for lack of support. 

The Republican newspaper project has never 
been a success here. 

The City of Winchester, since the merger of 
the News-Item with the Times and Evening Star, 
has but one paper and that "The Evening Star," 
H. F. Byrd, manager, D. B. Conrad, local edi- 
tor. This is a Democratic paper, bold and ag- 
gressive, receiving spice and stimulus from the 
brain and pen of Richard E. Byrd, now Speaker 
of the Virginia House of Delegates. The Star 
enterprise is successful, the paper having an im- 
mense circulation for an interior city. The plant 


has been fully equipped, with every up-to-date floor of the old Senseny building, now the Bantz 
appliance for a first class daily. The paper is property, and the old Republican and Winchester 
now (1907) firmly planted in the large brick News on second floor of the Henry Kinzel build- 
building on Water Street opposite the City Hall, ing, on corner of Main and Courthouse Avenue, 
The old Virginian was once published on same occupied now by the Farmers and Merchants 
street west of this point, and also on the second Bank. 


Educational Developments in Winchester. 

Fire Companies 

As briefly stated heretofore, the question of 
education received attention prior to 1787. We 
have evidence of the successful management of a 
classical school firmly established on Boscowan 
Street near Cameron, at that time; and so many 
conclude that it was the nucleus of the Winches- 
ter Academy. Certain it is that steps had been 
taken then to establish the Academy. An Act of 
the Genl. Assembly, passed Dec. 9, 1789, seems 
to settle this. The language of the Act is given 
as a matter of proof: 

Sec. I. "Whereas it is represented to this pres- 
ent Genl. Assembly, that the mode directed by 
law for appointing trustees of the Winchester 
Academy is found from experience highly incon- 
venient," etc. The Act then provides that the 
Trustees of the Winchester Academy holding office 
on the first Monday in Feby. next, "shall be and 
remain trustees of said Academy until they shall 
be removed by death, resignation; inability or 
refusal to act." ♦ ♦ ♦ and for the better sup- 
port of said Academy." Then the Act goes on to 
set apart certain school lands for that purpose, 
1st, a certain lot or half-acre of ground in town 
of Winchester of which a certain Adolph Strole 
died seized — a tract of land in the County of 
Frederick, 200 acres that James Hamilton died 
seized, etc., and one other tract of 520 acres, late 
the property of Thos. Spear. This land was di- 
rected to be sold and proceeds to be used by 
the Trustees "most conducive to the interest of the 
Institution." Several places were pointed out 
to the writer many years ago where the "Insti- 
tution" or Academy conducted its course of learn- 
ing for the youths of that day, until its establish- 
ment on what was familiarly called for half a 
century "Academy Hill." This was an old land- 
mark until the Civil War terminated its further 
use. The old foundation is to be plainly seen on 
the hill West of the Winchester Hospital, and 
on the North side of that street, once called Acad- 
emy. Lane. The old building was an imposing 
structure of brick and stone. 

From this school went men thoroughly equip- 
ped for the many places of trust they afterwards 
filled: The writer can recall the names of hun- 
dreds — ^honored in all the professions: the minis- 
try, law, medical and surgical, fine arts, — states- 

men and jurists; whose voices and acts have 
made history, interesting for the whole land. The 
present populace of Frederick County and the 
City of Winchester shows many of the Old Acad- 
emy boys holding places in the esteem and con- 
fidence of their fellow citizens. The writer recalls 
many of his old class of 1855-8, who went down 
on the battle-ground, hard by the Old Academy 

A few years after the War, the property once 
owned by Bushrod Taylor, now the site of the 
Winchester Inn, was used as the Winchester 
Academy, principal A. Magill Smith, later on by 
Dr. Minor and Jas. B. Lovett. Mr. Richard A. 
Robinson, of Louisville, Ky., a native of Freder- 
ick County, devised a sufficient sum to endow 
what is now the Shenandoah Valley Academy, 
located on a still higher point to the Northwest, 
on the same ridge. A provision was made by Mr. 
Robinson, that Professor James B. Lovett should 
be principal; and that Frederick County and the 
City of Winchester should always be entitled 
to a limited number of scholarships, — all of 
which have been complied with; and the Acad- 
emy is in a flourishing condition. The feature of 
uniforming the students and requiring military 
drills, was inaugurated in 1907. 

There were several other schools in the early 
part of the Nineteenth Century, justly entitled 
to special attention ; but old notes have been mis- 
laid, and the author will pass them by for the 
present. Rev. Joseph Baker, a Baptist Minister, 
conducted a young ladies seminary on Fort Hill 
until about 1845. 

The York School for young ladies, was on Mar- 
ket Street (the same building after the War was 
known as Fairfax Hall). S. P. York, the prin- 
cipal, by his strong Union sentiments and utter- 
ances in the early part of 1862, was induced to 
hastily abandon his school. 

The Winchester High School was instituted 
and conducted by a Mr. Thorpe, at the West 
end of Piccadilly, then called "Angerona." It 
was very successful for several years until closed 
by the opening of the Civil War. Mr. Thorpe was 
succeeded by two other principals. The school 
never rallied after the War. 

A young ladies seminary was successfully con- 




ducted in the old Fort Loudoun property, subse- 
quent to the War, under the management of Rev. 
James B. Avirett, D.D., for several years. He 
was once Chaplain of the Fourth Ala. Regiment 
His marriage to Miss Mary Williams, daughter 
of Mr. Philip Williams, identified him with in- 
fluential families. He was not only a successful 
educator but an eloquent preacher. 

Fairfax Hall was founded by Rey. Silas Bill- 
ing^ and his daughters, in 1869. This school was 
ably conducted by these principals for many 
years; its reputation attracted a large attend- 
ance of pupils from distant sections. It was pop- 
ularly known as a denominational school, — Rev. 
Mr. Billings being a distinguished Presbyterian 
Divine. After his death, his daughters, the Misses 
Cornelia and Mary Billings, continued the school 
for many years. These accomplished ladies left 
the impress of their work and skill on the com- 
munity, that outlasts their useful lives. They 
were assisted by their brother-in-law. Prof. Geo. 
C. Shepard, who finally succeeded them; and to- 
gether with his well-trained and highly esteemed 
daughter. Miss Nina Shepard, maintained the 
high character of Fairfax Hall, until in 190a, 
inducements were offered Prof. Shepard to re- 
move to the Winchester Inn, where the school 
was continued for several years, and then dis- 
continued, regfretted by many. 

The Episcopal Female Institute was started in 
1874 by the Rev. J. C. Wheat, D.D., as principal. 
This was an incorporated school. The Lloyd 
Logan mansion-house and grounds attached, on 
comer of Braddock and Piccadilly Streets, was 
purchased by the corporation. Dr." Wheat be- 
came famous as an educator; and worked the 
seminary up to a high standard. Mr. A. Magill 
Smith succeeded him, and for several years, as- 
sisted by Mr. Wm. Marshall and a competent 
corps of teachers, maintained its high standard. 
Mr. Smith, retiring several years thereafter to 
private life on his farm in Fauquier County, Mr. 
Marshall continued the system adopted by his 
predecessors; and thus by his peculiar fitness, is 
successfully conducting the institution at this 

One other school that grew famous as a ladies 
seminary, was started in 1866. Mrs. Ann Magill 
and her accomplished daughters. Miss Mary T., 
and Miss Eva, conducting it as a private enter- 
prise of high order, they soon attracted the at- 
tention of influential families, and it rapidly at- 
tained a reputation that crowned their efforts 
with gratifying success. The school was started 
in the large brick building on comer of Main 
and Cork Streets. 

This first effort was simply to provide means 
of support — the fearful consequences of the War 

having wrought such changes, that Mrs. Magill, 
like so many of the old families of Virginia, saw 
the necessity of taking up the burden; and by 
efforts never known to many of her class, this 
energetic and saintly woman was strengthened 
for her new trails. She lived to enjoy success in 
her undertaking; and her many pupils have risen 
at the mention of her name, in this writing, to 
call her blessed. The writer recalls with sincere 
pleasure, his impressions when viewing this body 
of pupils led by Mrs. Magill, as they entered the 
precincts of the old Kent Street Church on each 
recurring Sabbath morning; and can record here 
the feeling that others have experienced, that the 
sanctity of the place was heightened by the pres- 
ence of this remarkable woman. Her birth, edu- 
cation and associations fitted her for any high 
station. Daughter of Judge Henry St. George 
Tucker, one of the most distinguished men of his 
day; and her husband. Dr. Alfred T. Magill, the 
peer of any! The school was later removed to 
Angerona. After her death, her daughters con- 
tinued the school, until failing health required 
a cessation. Miss Mary Tucker Magill became 
the author of the history adopted by the Schools 
of Virginia. Other' productions from her pen are 
well known. 

The Valley Female College, which had its be- 
ginning at old Angerona, with Prof. Arbogast, 
principal. Dr. Hyde succeeding him, removed 
the school to Fort Hill, occupying the large prop- 
erty known as Fort Loudoun. Dr. Jno. P. Hyde, 
the principal having secured the fostering care 
of the Methodist Conference, it became very 
prosperous in its new quarters; and for many 
years Dr. Hyde was instrumental in securing a 
large patronage from his own church. While 
it was regarded as denominational in character 
and name, much liberality was shown, and sub- 
stantial support came from other quarters. Dr. 
Hyde's failing health, warned him to heed the 
advice of his physician, and he virtually closed 
the college. One or two efforts were made by 
others to continue the work; but it was soon evi- 
dent the master mind and hand had been with- 
drawn, and the college had to succumb. Dr. 
Hyde enjoys the honor, not only of being Chap- 
lain of Tumer Ashby Camp, but Grand Chap- 
lain of the Grand Camp of Confederate Veter- 
ans of Virginia, — an office he fills with credit to 
himself and satisfaction to his old comrades. The 
affliction of impaired eyesight never prevents his 
attendance on all re-unions. 

Winchester of to-day has another seminary that 
has become marvellously successful in its short 
history. This is Fort Loudoun Seminary, Two 
young ladies — graduates of old Fairfax Hall, and 
other colleges — Miss Glass and Miss Gold, inau- 



gurated this school in 1905; and chose the old 
Fort Loudoun property for their first eflForts. Suc- 
cess attended every step; a liberal patronage 
was enjoyed the first session. Miss Katherine 
Glass, one of the principals, purchased the prop- 
erty, and proceeded to fit up the capacious build- 
ing according to her own plans and ideas. Her 
experience in other institutions noted for their 
equipment, qualified her for the task of produc- 
ing an attractive home for young ladies. These 
accomplished principals, with vigorous woman- 
hood to aid them, soon had a circle of instruc- 
tors equal to any, and an increase in attendance 
at each session. The high class of culture ob- 
served, and location, gives this seminary many 
advantages, and increasing hope for a brilliant fu- 
ture. It may be observed, so far as Miss Glass is 
concerned, she may properly attach some senti- 
ment to their location. Her ancestors started the 
town, James Wood, her maternal grandsire, being 
the first clerk of the county; and later, her other 
kinsman James Wood, Jr., was stationed at Fort 
Loudoun as a Colonel of the Virginia Line, and 
was afterwards Governor of Virginia. From the 
old bastions and parapets of the Fort, one views 
a full sweep of the Lower Valley, as he casts 
his eye along the horizon, where the outlines of 
seven counties can be traced; while in closer 
touch, the beautiful landscape — revealing the old 
homesteads, fertile valleys, green ridges and blue 
hillocks, a restful feeling pervades the soul of 
the beholder, and the exclamation comes, what 
a wondrous place Fort Loudoun seems for tutor 

and pupil I 

The Public Schools 

In treating of this branch of education in Fred- 
erick County, the writer feels called upon to of- 
fer some explanation of what is often called the 
Free School System in Virginia; and to endeav- 
or to correct erroneous impressions formed from 
what other writers have given to the public. 
For instance, one writer says: "Until the close 
of the Civil War, Virginia had no public school 
system. All were select schools, except here and 
there a school for the very poor known as the 
'charity' school. These 'charity' schools were some- 
times kept up at the expense of the city or town 
where located, and sometimes established through 
the generosity of an individual ; and none but 
extremely poor parents ever thought of sending 
their children to them, they being patronized 
mostly by orphans of very indigent persons." 
This is an unfortunate misrepresentation of the 
case. The writer can state there never was any 
such plan, or a "charity" school in Frederick Coun- 
ty, for the education of the class referred to. 
And a careful inquiry reveals none such in the 
State prior to the Civil War. The General As- 

sembly, by Act passed February 25, 1846, laid 
the foundation for Free Schools in such counties 
as chose to avail themselves of the right. This 
law provided for the election in any county; 
when the qualified voters could decide for or 
against the free school, for said county: if in 
favor, the taxpayers to be assessed with a school 
tax equal to not more than fifty per cent, on the 
aggregate amount of the State revenue, county 
levy, etc. Free persons of color not to be as- 
sessed. When such fund was acquired, the school 
commissioners to open schools in the districts, 
where all children between six and twenty-one 
years, could enter and be educated at the expense 
of said fund, when in the judgment of the com- 
missioner, they were so entitled. Those not en- 
titled, would be required to pay six cents for each 
school day. This law was never in force to any 
great extent in the State. Clarke County tried it 
successfully for several years. Other counties ob- 
jected; and as it was not compulsory, four-fifths 
of them never tried the experiment. 

There was no occasion for the Charity School. 
The class mentioned was provided for by an- 
other scheme; and children of the poor were 
never ostracized and shut off from other schools 
and society, as this writer emphatically states; 
and no such stigma should be allowed to pass un- 
noticed. It is true that the children of indigent 
parents were provided for, as we will show. The 
State of Virginia had in her treasury what was 
known as the "Literary fund;" and from this 
fund all the counties annually received their re- 
spective quotas, to be ascertained by what was 
known as the School Census, taken by a Com- 
missioner holding office in each county, who also 
was treasurer of the county fund. His report had 
to show the probable number of children that 
would require its use. There never was any dis- 
crimination made in any of the schools. All chil- 
dren attended the neighborhood school; and very 
seldom did any pupil know who would receive 
benefit from the Literary Fund. This was a mat- 
ter between the teacher and the commissioner, 
the former being paid a fixed sum for each day 
such pupils attended school. Joseph S. Carson 
was the commissioner for many years up to and 
prior to 1862. We must add also, what consti- 
tuted this Literary Fund. The foundation was 
laid just subsequent to the Revolutionary War; 
and it is noticeable that the Civil War virtually 
ended the scheme. In consideration of Virginia 
ceding to the United States a large slice of her 
Western territory, the General Government was 
to pay annually a certain sum to the State, which 
she, by an Act of the General Assembly prior 
to 181 1, constituted the Literary Fund — said fund 
to be used for certain well-defined educational 



purposes. To this fund was added all revenues 
arising from sales of escheated lands and town 
lots, or personal effects of any estate liable as 
escheat. This Act was passed February gth, 1814. 
The fund increased rapidly, and afforded a satis- 
factory method for the education of the class men- 
tioned. The Act of Assembly of 1819 provided 
that such children ''shall with the assent of par- 
ents or guardian be sent to such school as may 
be convenient, to be taught reading, writing and 
arithmetic." This appears to have been a pretty 
liberal provision. We may add that it was in the 
same year 1819, that the University of Virginia 
was established, and $15,000 of this fund was 
used for erecting buildings, etc. 

When the Civil War closed, the changed con- 
ditions of the State, with her new Constitution, 
provided for a free school system through spe- 
cial taxation. We may endorse freely the prin- 
ciple, though we condemn much of the mis- 
management, throughout the State; but in late 
years the subject has received more careful 
attention by our legislators; and rapid strides 
are now being made in this laudable work. 

The Public School in Winchester is a model 
in its work; and from its introduction, it has 
made a good record. 

The first school was in the basement of the 
Braddock Street M. E. Church, with Capt J. C. 
Van Fossen as principal. The attendance jus- 
tified combining the schools for boys and girls, 
and for several years it was conducted at Fort 

The Public School of Winchester at this writ- 
ing is conducted in the large four-story build- 
ing on the corner of Market and Cork Streets — 
with the several departments on each floor crowd- 
ed. This building was erected in 1883, cost- 
ing $20,000; and is known as the John Kerr 
School for White Children. Mr. Kerr donated 
about $10,000 for its erection, provided the city 
would supplement it with an equal amount. By 
the liberality of Mr. Kerr, it became possible 
for the city to possess the handsomest school 
edifice in the Valley; and under the efficient 
management of a Board of Trustees, the city 
enjoys unusual advantages under the Public 
School System. This school has the credit of 

graduating young men who have taken promi- 
nent places in the commercial life of the coun- 
try; some becoming popular practitioners of the 
law, and others engaging in various pursuits. 
Capt. Van Fossen continued as principal, until 
death terminated his useful life a few years 

The public schools of the county will be 
mentioned in connection with chapters on Fred- 
erick County developments. 

Fire Companies 

Winchester has a national reputation for its 
well-equipped fire department, surpassing many 
large cities in the State in this respect. This 
was effected through the liberality of Charles 
Broadway Rouss, who always had a tender re- 
gard for his old home town. The three com- 
panies: Union, Friendship, and Sarah Zane, 
through this source, own their own splendid 
steamers; while the Union and Friendship can 
also boast of engine houses that would adorn 
any city. The Union, on comer of Water and 
Braddock Streets, has a commodious hall on 
second floor, where Mr. Rouss's birthday is an- 
nually observed on the nth day of February, 
with an elaborate banquet, and orations from 
distinguished speakers. 

The Friendship has its home on Cork Street, 
opposite the Baptist Church. It also has a fine 
hall for the use of its large company. 

The Sarah Zane Company is located on cor- 
ner of Main and Fairfax Lane. This company 
handles its steamer with a pair of fine horses. 

In addition to these efficient engine companies, 
are the Hook and Ladder Company, on Water 
Street, and the South End Hose Company lo- 
cated on Monmouth Street between Braddock 
and Main Streets. Considerable rivalry has 
always existed between the three engine com- 
panies, not only as to service but as to priority 
of organization. The Friendship fixes 183 1 as 
the time when they first responded; the Union 
1833, and Sarah Zane 1840. The several com- 
panies are referred to notes on Winchester in 
preceding pages. They will see that, as far 
back as 1787, efforts were made to organize a 
"Second Fire Company." 


Old Taverns and Streets. Mayors from 1804 

From old court records and other reliable 
sources, we find much that relates to ye olden 
times. The author is often in a quandary what 
to relate that would be desirable for these pages. 

The names and locations of many of the old 
taverns in Winchester, that secured license after 
1800, is briefly given, to preserve the names of 
owners who were active in early part of the 
igth century. We find Daniel Linn opposite 
McGuire's; Wm. Van Horn, comer of Loudoun 
and Fairfax Lane. The old printer, Peter Kurtz, 
on Main Street South of the Marsh Run; Henry 
Bush, son of Philip, on Loudoun Street, where 
the Presbyterian Church now stands; Elisha £. 
Russell John C. Clark, Mrs. Edmund Pendle- 
ton and John Pitman succeeded Bush for the 
next twenty ^ears. On Potato Hill, comer 
Loudoun and Monmouth Streets, the ''Wagon and 
Four Horses" was kept by Elijah Walker, Bcnj. 
Richards, and Wm. Hurr respectively. This 
place became famous as the Negro Traders' 
Jail. The author recalls some memorable scenes 
there. Opposite, on West side was Philip Amick 
(now the home of Mrs. Spotts). L. T. F. 
Grim, Henry Fridley and Robert Brannon had 
their place on East side of Cameron Street, and 
Grim, Brannon and Haymaker kept a famous 
old tavern on the North side of Market Square, 
occupied now by the Holliday office buildings. 
In the rear were extensive wagon yards. This 
old house was first occupied by Conrad Kreemer; 
then by A. Rust Kreemer was an old Revolu- 
tionary soldier who had deserted from the Brit- 
ish. He was the father of the John and Con- 
rad Kreemer families. The Krcmer Bros., 
grocerymen, are of this line. 

Peter Lauck's Red Lion on 'the comer of Lou- 
doun and Cork Streets, was famous in its day. 
He was succeeded by popular landlords in their 
time — Edmund Pendleton, James Bryarly, Col. 
James Kiger and Josiah Massie. This old 
building passed to John Fagan, and is partly 
the residence of one of his descendants, Mr. 
Haines. Mr. Wm. G. Russell related many in- 
cidents of great interest concerning these gen- 
tlemen and the popular hostelry, which extend- 
ed from the corner of Cork to the other tavern 
just North ; and there was great bustle and rival- 
ry, when the old stage coaches came in from 
distant points. Edward McGuire owned a stage 

line in connection with his tavern; and conten- 
tion arose who should entertain the guests. Bush- 
rod Taylor purchased this line when he suc- 
ceeded McGuire in the tavern, and continued to 
wage war against the other taverns. Mr. Tay- 
lor was widely known as the proprietor of the 
old Taylor Hotel. He had the rare opportunity 
of entertaining many of the most distinguished 
men in their day. After the old McGuire build- 
ing was destroyed by fire, it was rebuilt as it 
now appears. This also was badly damaged by 
fire several times. Mr. Taylor being discour- 
aged, felt inclined to abandon the place, but was 
prevailed upon to organize a joint stock com- 
pany for the purpose of strengthening the en- 
terprise. This was accomplished in 1846. The 
house was remodeled, with Mr. Taylor man- 
ager, but his death occurred shortly thereafter. 
The settlement of his estate showed he owned 
88 shares of stock valued at $3520.00, and owned 
all the furniture valued at several thousand 

Geo, W. Seevers succeeded Taylor. The house 
was successfully run by such proprietors as 
Geo. W. Hammond (Mr. Taylor's son-in-law), 
N. M. Cartmell, and P. C. L. Burwell, until GenL 
Banks took possession of it for a hospital in the 
Stunmer of 1862. Stonewall Jackson had his 
headquarters in the house for a short time. Then 
Genl. Banks, Sheridan and others. The old 
building has now been closed for several years. 
Prior to the War, the Union was a rival hotel, 
situated on the corner of Market Street and Fair- 
fax Lane, where the Glaize lumber yards and 
planing mills now stand. 

Philip Hoover had the tavern on the comer 
of Fairfax Lane and Loudoun Street, when the 
Civil War came. The old house is in good re- 
pair at this writing, and kept by Steve Mc- 

Some strange fatality attended the proceed- 
ings of the town government of Winchester, from 
the day of its incorporation as a town in Oc- 
tober 1779, until 1804. No record can be had 
of the acts of the Common Council, neither the 
minutes of any court held by the mayor. Noth- 
ing, in fact, to show who composed the august 
body, the common council. Neither do we find 
who filled the office of mayor until 1804. Con- 
sequently, we must conclude the record was 




kept, but lost in some way now unaccountable. 
The existing record is well preserved, embrac- 
ing the period from 1804 to 181 1. Then another 
break. The records are well arranged in the 
fire-proof vaults of the City Hall, and so ac- 
cessible, that we will not attempt to enumerate 
many details of the Acts of Council and Court, 
but refer the curious reader to the city clerk's 

The Corporation authorities have always zeal- 
ously watched over the affairs of the town. At 
an early day in the 19th century, the engineer 
had to solve two street problems: one was to 
drain the marshes and confine the water to one 
channel, to make the streets passable. Loudoun 
Street was opened as a road from Cork to Picca- 
dilly in 1761 — through what they termed quag- 
mire, and which required a lottery scheme to 
accomplish. It was not until after 184a that 
Loudoun Street was extended from Fairfax Lane 
North and through the stockade on Federal Hill. 
A roadway had been cut through the timber and 
hill, but the road or street received its first over- 
seer and work in 1843. The street from Cork 
to Piccadilly was filled with stone and drained 
on each side. The other problem referred to, 
was the limestone ridges, from North to South, 
on a line immediately East of the court house, 
as has been stated elsewhere in these pages. In 
many places they were higher than the site of 
Major Conrad's residence. The removal of the 
ledges of limestone is more fully mentioned else- 
where. The lottery scheme was authorized by 
an Act of Genl. Assembly December 7, 1791. 
Geo. Kiger, Edward Smith, Joseph Tidball, John 
Kean, John Peyton, Lewis Huff and Isaac Stit- 
ler were authorized "to raise by one or more 
lotteries a sum not exceeding two hundred 
pounds, to be by them applied towards defray- 
ing the expenses of paving the Main street in 
borough of Winchester." Considerable delay fol- 
lowed this; and it was more than twelve years 
before the court passed the final order to ac- 
cept the paved street and appoint an overseer, 
etc. The council proceeded cautiously for many 
years subsequent to the opening and paving Lou- 
doun Street The next street to receive the pav- 
ing treatment was Boscowen, which was often 
called the Water Street, by reason of the fre- 
quent overflows from floods. There were numer- 
ous springs through the marshy section out as 
far as the Wood plantation. Finally a scheme 
was adopted to drain the marsh; and then it 
was the old town run became a landmark (more 
fully shown under head of Water Supply to 
the Town). 

Mayors of Winchester from 1804 — date of the 
first record, to 181 1, and from 1843 to 1907: 

Lewis Wolf 1804; Chas. Magill 1805; Wolf 
again 1806; Chas. Brent 1807; Beatty Carson 
1808; Brent again 1809; Carson 1810; Joseph 
Gamble 181 1. The records from this date to 
1843 are not to be found. 

Jas. P. Riely, Mayor 1843; next Geo. W. 
Seevers held office to 1847; Joseph H. Shearard 
held the office until 1865, when Robt Y. Con- 
rad was elected. He was succeeded by Geo. W. 
Ginn 1868; Capt Lewis N. Huck 1870; J. B. T. 
Reed from 1872 to 1876; Wm. L. Qark to 1884; 
then John J. Williams until 1886. 

F. A. Graichen 1886; Wm. Atkinson 1888; Wm. 
R. Alexander 1890; T. N. Lupton 1891 to 1896; 
Jno. J. Williams 1896-98; R. T. Barton 1899 to 
1902; Wm. C. Graichen 1902; Harry H. Baker, 
June 14, 1904. 

Criminal Trial 

The writer has been requested to include in 
these notes a notice of the trial of two men 
for murder. Two young negro men Westley 
Honesty and Tabby Banks, were indicted at the 
November Term, 1884, for causing the death of 

McFall. They had been charged with 

conspicuous misbehavior during a memorable 
Democratic celebration of the recent victory gain- 
ed by the Party in the election of Grover Qcve- 
land, Nov., 1884. The streets were full of jubi- 
lant processions; noisy bands joined in, regard- 
less of party lines; and all the surging crowds 
of people, hundreds mounted on prancing steeds 
— ^plow-horses or what not — ^were supposed to be 
in uninterrupted enjoyment of the night hours. 
Not so, however. Some of the processions were 
stoned from several dark alleys; and quite a 
number of persons had been injured before it 
was generally known. When once discovered, 
many of the visiting bodies declared that the 
guilty parties should suffer. The negroes were 
charged with everything, and the tumult grew 
serious. One of the assaults occurred nearly 
opposite the Taylor Hotel Several persons 
saw two young negroes hastily enter the stable 
yard of the Haddox Building. Others who were 
in the yard dimly saw through the darkness, two 
men scale the fence; and just at this time, others 
on the street saw a young white man in a dazed 
condition. Friends hastened him to his room, 
without knowing what caused his trouble. Physi- 
cians called in, found his skull fractured; and 
the man unable to say more than that he had been 
struck by a brick. This incident was not gener- 
ally known until the crowds dispersed. This^ 
saved the town from bloodshed, for the masses 
of offended white men could not have been re- 
strained. The young man McFall. 



was well known for his quiet demeanor and good 
habits. His death demanded that the guilty par- 
ties should be found and brought to trial. Quite 
a number of young negroes had been arrested 
for disorderly conduct. Of this number, Hon- 
esty and Banks were suspected as the murderers. 
Further investigations pointed clearly to them; 
witnesses appeared to identify them as the two 
men seen fleeing through the stable-yard. Others 
saw them in a scuffle with a young white man 
near the spot where their victim was found. The 
case coming on for trial at the December Term, 
of the corporation court, Banks was tried first 
Judge Richard Parker appeared for the prisoners, 
and ably defended them. Banks was found guilty 
of murder in the first degree, and day fixed for 
execution. A stay of execution was granted, and 
case went to Court of Appeals. Honesty, on his 
trial, met the same fate. Judge Parker got both 

cases before the Appellate court, by reason of 
several strong legal points which the court sus- 
tained, though Wm. R. Alexander, prosecuting 
attorney, ably combatted every point raised, — 
Major Holmes Conrad assisting in the prosecu- 
tion. The cases were not called in Corporation 
Court until March 18, 1886, when the opinion of 
the Appellate court was handed down and made 
part of the proceedings of the March Term. The 
Appellate court sustained the judgment of the 
lower court ; whereupon the court passed sentence 
upon the prisoners, fixing the 4th day of June, 
1886, as the day of execution for both. The exe- 
cution was in the jail-yard — Westley Honesty and 
Tabby Banks were the only murderers hung un- 
der judgment and sentence of the Hustings court 
of Winchester. Several other murder cases have 
been tried, resulting in long terms in the peni- 



was then acting Governor; and it was through 
his influence that the Dissenters were allowed 
greater privileges than those of the Tide-water 
sections; and doubtless this was why the Scotch- 
Irish and other Presbyterians flocked to the Val- 
ley of Virginia during the i8th century." Mr. 
Anderson leaves no record of his pastorate. Dr. 
Foote says "That in 1739 Mr. John Thompson, 
as an evangelist, preached at Opecquon and the 
new settlements on the frontiers of Virginia, and 
that Mr. Wm. Robinson, on his long-to-be-re- 
membered tour through Virginia and North Car- 
olina, repeatedly preached at Opecquon in 1742." 
The Presbyterial Records of Old Donegal Pres- 
bytery furnish the names of Rev. John Hind- 
man, Samuel Caven, Wm. Bertram, Linn, 

and Alexander McDowell, as frequent visiting 
Ministers from their Presbytery to do Mission- 
ary and Evangelistic work at Opecquon, Ced^r 
Creek, and elsewhere. This was continued at 
intervals until 1754, when we find Opecquon with 
her first Pastor, who was Rev. John Hoge, grand^ 
son of Wm. Hoge (Hogue), who gave the land 
on which the first Meetfng House was built 
Mr. Hoge's pastorate continued for eighteen 
years. The Presbytery records show that his 
salary was scarcely adequate. He made com- 
plaints of privations and great labor while he 
rendered efficient service to the early settlers, 
and that he did not receive sufficient support 
from the two churches to justify his further ser- 
vice in this ' field. This last statement to his 
Presbytery, produced prompt action in that body, 
for this language appears: "Mr. Hoge is re- 
leased from his pastoral charge on account of 
non-payment of salary." We find these churches 
for some years after the withdrawal of Mr. Hoge, 
were supplied by Revs. Vance, McKnight, Thomp- 
son, Slemmons, Craighead, Balch, Linn and oth- 
ers who had pastorates in other sections. We 
have evidence of Mr. Hoge being a resident of 
the Opecquon Valley up to 1775. In 1781, Rev. 
John Montgomery received a call from three 
churches — the Opecquon, Cedar Creek and Win- 
chester. In 1789, Rev. Nash Legrand succeeded 
Mr. Montgomery, and continued his acceptable 
service until 1809. Dr. Graham says: "Legrand 
was never installed in the Opecquon field, though 
he continued his labors for nineteen years, when 
impaired health compelled him to resign." Dr. 
Graham further says: "Mr. Legrand died in 
1814, while on a visit to his old friends in Fred- 
erick County, and his unmarked grave is in the 
burying-ground of his old Stone Church in Win- 

Unfortunately no church records were pre- 
served for many years; and this state of affairs 
narrows the history of the church to either 

tradition or Presbyterial reports. After Mr. Lc 
grand's ministry closed, the church was sup- 
plied by many distinguished ministers: A. A. 
Chapman, John Lodor, David H. Riddle, J. D. 
Mathews, Dr. Wm. Hill, Mr. Kilpatrick and oth- 
ers. The church in Winchester increased as 
the population grew, and exercised some kind 
of control; and the congregation received atten- 
tion from the Winchester Church. Especially 
was this the case after the organization of the 
New School Church (Loudoun Street), under 
the pastorate of Dr. A. H. H. Boyd and by Rev. 
Silas Billings from Cedar Creek. The old church 
was never without regular preaching, the con- 
gregations however diminishing as removals oc- 
curred, and disposition on the part of many fam- 
ilies to attend the Winchester churches, though 
the old Opecquon was never closed until the Bat- 
tle of Kemstown, with its attendant devastations, 
which put the old stone buildmg in such condi- 
tion, that services were discontinued until the 
close of hostilities. Then it was soon overhauled 
by Rev. Wm. A. Crawford, who had recently 
become a resident of the neighborhood, and 
through his efforts, aided by his accomplished 
and saintly wife, converted one end of it into 
a habitable place. Sunday School and Gospel 
Services were eagerly enjoyed by the neighbor- 
ing families, irrespective of Creed; and for sev- 
eral years regular services were held. However, 
a day came when fire destroyed the old temple. 
For many years thereafter, the walls were tumb- 
ling in, and the old graveyard so long neglect- 
ed, was at last hidden out of sight by bush and 
briar. All lost hope of restoring the old place, 
excepting Mr. Crawford and his family. At 
last the day came, when the descendants of the 
old ancestors, whose graves were hidden in the 
wilderness, agitated the subject, often discussed, 
and as often abandoned it Finally it was sug- 
gested that an effort be made to erect a Memorial 
to the first settlers of the Lower Shenandoah 
Valley. Plans were at once adopted; the author 
was made chairman of the "Church-Erection 
Fund." He immediately addressed a circular 
letter to the descendants of the old families, 
whose names were found on the monuments and 
broken slabs in the old graveyard, stating the 
object The descendants alone were expected 
to contribute funds to reclaim the old place, and 
erect a suitable memorial on the foundation of 
the old church. This circular was sent to the 
Middle West, Northwest and other States, to 
the newspapers in many cities and towns. Con- 
tributions were to be sent direct to the cashier 
of the Shenandoah Valley National Bank at Win- 
chester, to be placed to the credit of the Church 
Erection Fund; the sender to notify T. K. Cart- 



mell, Clerk of Frederick County Court. Inter- 
esting and encouraging letters, with liberal con- 
tributions, came from every section. This first 
step was taken in January 1896, and in the Spring 
the work of cleaning away the old foundation 
began; and soon new walls were started on part 
of the old foundation, which was 60 feet in 
length and 45 feet in width — the Memorial Build- 
ing to be much smaller. The committee chose 
the foundation on the West and South sides, 
Workmen and committees worked cheerfully, and 
in a short time, the blue limestone walls were 
run up to a point where the Corner-Stone was 
.to be laid ; and quoting from The Evening Star, a 
Winchester daily, we have the following notice 
written by some visitor: 

"Corner Stone Laid. — Accepting the invitation 
of some friends, the writer joined a party to 
visit the Old Opecquon Church yesterday after- 
noon, where we found quite an assemblage of 
interested persons, irrespective of sect or creed, 
the occasion being to place the comer stone in 
position. The Memorial Building, which is rap- 
idly going up, is a most artistic piece of work, 
the limestone rock from the old ruin being used 
as far as practicable. The services yesterday 
afternoon were intended to be informal. Rev. 
Henry M. White, D.D., pastor of Loudoun Street 
Presbjrterian Church, read appropriate Scrip- 
tures, also a paper prepared by him recounting 
some incidents of the early history of the church, 
as well as the names of the ministers who have 
from time to time preached in the old Church, 
and also matters incident to the present effort 
to erect this Memorial to the departed people. 
Mr. C. G. Crawford, Ruling Elder of the pres- 
ent Church, read a list of the membership, and 
also the names of the contractors and workmen 
engaged on the new work. Rev. Wm. A. Craw- 
ford offered a most impressive prayer; Mr. T. 
K. Cartmell next announced a list of the con- 
tents of the box, which included copies of the 
Star, all placed in the Stone by Master Frank 
Crawford, then the Willey Brothers, contrac- 
tors, laid the Corner-stone to the satisfaction of 
all present; the inscription on the stone being: 

"Organized about 1738 Built 1790 Re- 
built 1870—73 Rebuilt 1896. Visitor." 

Work proceeded steadily until the structure 
with its walls of hewn stone, unique tower — 
home for the sweet toned bell — (a special me- 
morial) gothic style of architecture, memorial 
windows, etc., fully completed in October 1897. 
The dedication service October 30th, was a mem- 
orable event. Descendants from far and near, 
were early on the ground, members of Win- 

chester Presbytery from various churches were 
present. Dr. Jas. R. Graham opened the ser- 
vices with an invocation; Rev. A. C. Hopkins, 
D.D., of Charlestown, in a happy address, pre- 
sented the keys of the church to Elder C. G. 
Crawford; prayer by Rev. Wm. A. Crawford. 
Dr. F. M. Woods, of Martinsburg, preached the 
sermon, after which luncheon was served on the 
grounds. In the afternoon Dr. H. M. White, 
who has had the pastoral care of the Opecquon 
Congregation for several years, made an address 
full of historical events relating to the Old Opec- 
quon. Dr. Jas. P. Smith, editor of the Central 
Presbyterian, well known to many as Stonewall 
Jackson's Aid and Chaplain, was the bearer of 
a letter from Rev. Moses D. Hoge, D.D., ad- 
dressed to the writer, chairman of the finance 
committee. This letter contained a liberal con- 
tribution to be used in the memorial to his an- 
cestors; and the writer was requested to read 
the letter to the audience. Rev. A. G. Link, of 
Strasburg, Cedar Creek, and Cedar Cliff church- 
es, Rev. W. Mc. White, of Lewisburg, were pres- 
ent. Ministers from other denominations were 
present and entered into the services with great 
cordiality. One pleasing incident of the day oc- 
cured when one of the Winchester artists ap- 
peared on the grounds, and desired views of the 
scene. He was fortunate in securing several of 
these. The old graveyard, recently reclaimed 
and with its old grave-stones in better position 
than they had been for a number of years, and 
the sacred acre enclosed with a wrought iron 
fence on the West, South and East sides, on the 
North end with a limestone wall formed from 
the remnants of the old yard fence, supplement- 
ed by rocks from the old church walls, pre- 
sented a picture that was inviting to the eye of 
the artist; so he soon adjusted portions of the 
crowd, to give in the photograph a picture of 
the church, the old graveyard, and also those 
who were prominent in the day's services. Many 
of these photographs found their way into many 
distant homes. The old graveyard was visited 
during the day by many visitors. About the 
center of this plat stands a rude and odd-shaped 
sand stone, bearing marks of time, as the crum- 
bled edges show, caused by bullets during the 
battle that once surged through the grounds, 
or from atmospheric influences. Whatever be 
the cause, the stone itself attracts attention from 
its jagged edges and rude appearance. But the 
strange inscription is startling. The writer many 
years ago, made a fac-simile copy, so that it could 
be preserved before further defacement would 
destroy its history; and to better preserve it, 
gives this space. On one side is the following: 



"John Willson 

Intered here The Bodys of 

His 2 Childer & Wife Ye Mother 

Mary Marcus, Who Dyed Ag'st The 4—1742 

Aged — ^22 Years 

On the opposite side are these letters: 



July Vi, th 1737 

Co y A r g ma 

G H" 

Dr. Foote in "Sketches of Virginia" (1855) 
says: "This stone was the first reared in the 
Valley of Virginia to mark the resting place of 
an emigrant, and the inscription should be pre- 
served; the stone was erected by the husband 
who inscribed the letters himself, to be a me- 
morial to his young wife and children, and tra- 
dition also says he was the School-Master." 

On the North side of this yard, we find much 
space occupied by the Glass family, and a lime- 
stone monument tells its own story. "Erected 
to the memor>' of Samuel Glass and Mary Gam- 
ble his wife, who came from Ban Bridge, County 
Down, Ireland, taking their abode on the Opcc- 
quon in 1736." (See Glass Family Sketch.) 
In the plat surrounding this Glass monu- 
ment lie several generations of this family, 
some marked by simple marble slabs bearing 
names and dates. Dr. Foote in his Sketches, 
gives place for a poem in connection with his 
visit to this monument, written by a young lady 
who had so often charmed the worshippers in 
the Old Church with the melody of a voice that 
ever softened the heart and fastened impres- 
sions upon the memory of all, of the lovely life 
that was so soon to close, and she to take her 
place by the ancestors. One simple slab bears 
the name of Miss Sarah A. Glass, the authoress 
of the poem;. We give the first and last lines 
of this lengthy poem : 

"Hear you not the warning sigh 
On the breeze that passes by; 

Lingerers near this solemn ground. 
To our silent home yeVe bound." 

"Lingerers! idle not your day; 
Fly and seek Him while you may." 

Another monument attracts attention, stand- 
ing directly South of the Glass shaft. On this 
Mshite marble shaft, we read that it was erected 
in memory of the Gilkeson family. On one side 
is "John Gilkeson died June 1793; Sarah Gilke- 
son died March 1810." On the other side — 

'*Col. John Gilkeson Sept. 15, 1783 Feby. 27, 

1856. Sarah L. Gilkeson Aug. 21, 1781 May 

30, 1847." Around this monument are many 

slabs marking the resting places of several gen- 
erations of this large and influential family. 
The writer will mention here that the Col John 
mentioned, was the father of Mr. John Gilke- 
son who so liberally contributed to erect the Me- 
morial Church; and also by the generous efforts 
of his widow, the Church bell and graveyard 
fence were their joint memorials. The Church 
bell deserves special mention here, lest it be for- 
gotten. Mrs. Gilkeson wrote the author that she 
desired a bell to be made according to her own 
plan, and entirely at her expense; that she would 
have her husband's friend, who had been his 
secretary for thirty years, proceed to Albany 
N. Y. and carry with him valuable jewels that 
were valued highly by her and her husband, and 
have the founder fuse them into the molten mass, 
which was to be cast into this Memorial bell. 
The finished work was carefully brought to the 
writer, with letters from Mrs. Gilkeson request- 
ing **That we bear in mind that if any accident 
occurred in fitting it in its home, a broken bell 
meant a broken sentiment." 

Our committee was greatly rejoiced and re- 
lieved when the cords were drawn and the sweet 
tones of this memorial were heard twelve miles 
away. Its music is now heard on each recurring 
Sabbath, reverberating among the Opecquon vales 
and dells. The writer trusts that readers of these 
lines will pardon this digression. Such senti- 
mental incidents are often forgotten, and told in 
after years, would be as mere tradition, with 
none to vouch for the real incident. East of 
the Gilkeson shaft, are marks of the resting 
places of many others. Mention of any of the 
names in the group will interest the reader — 
Willson, White, Hoge, Vance, Marquis, Hite, 
Davis, Simerall, Chipley, Ashby, Ashley, Mc- 
Auley, Massie, and many others who represent 
pioneer classes, whose names will more fully 
appear in other pages. The old Cemetery has 
been considered filled many years ago; many 
graves have no marks now, their old markings 
destroyed; for war devastates the most sacred 
of all places; and now much of the old place 
will forever remain a blank. 

BulUkin Church 

According to the most reliable information ob- 
tained from old county and church records and 
other sources, we find this church entitled to 
recognition as one of the old places of public 
worship. Dr. Graham says "The name of Bull- 
skin Congregation appears in the old Donegal 
Records for April i, 1740, and that Mr. Caven 
is directed to visit Bullskin and that he should 
preach at 'Upekin,' the Friday before going to 
Bullskin." The church stood near the head- 



spring of Bullskin Creek. This spring is nearly 
a mile South from Summit Point, in Jefferson 
County, W. Va., near a turnpike road to Berry- 
ville. Many evidences are to be found that this 
church was well supplied by able Ministers for 
many years; but to-day, strange to say, not a 
vestige of the old church remains, and very few 
of the old residents can recall an3rthing connect- 
ed with it. The name seems to have disappeared 
from among the Presbytery records very soon 
after 1795. Dr. Graham also says Mr. Legrand 
was there in 1791, and that Dr. Archibald Alexan- 
der (then a licentiate), accompanied him from 
Winchester, and they held services in the Old 
Church on the hill ; and that services began to be 
held at other and more central points, which 
gradually drew away the members from the old 
place. Dr. Wm. Hill was called by the Charles- 
town and Smithfield Churches to be their pastor, 
and doubtless this hastened the abandonment of 
the old church; for Dr. Hill at that time was 
attracting wide attention." 

South Branch Church 

We have evidence of the existence of a Pres- 
byterian preaching place at some point in the 
South Branch Valley, as shown in the church 
records of Donegal Presbytery, Dec 11, 1740, 
and again May 30, 1741. Old county records 
show that several settlements were petitioning 
the court for roads, etc. The location of this 
church is not known at this writing. It is well 
known, however, that there were several preach- 
ing places near the mouth of South Branch Riv- 
er in the early days, but no regular churches. 
Dr. Graham says no such church was ever or- 
ganized. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Church 

This old Church deserves special mention. The 
writer has been familiar with that section of the 
county and the incidents of the church history 
throughout his entire life; and the many tradi- 
tions told in his hearing as a child, verified by 
repetition in later years, all led him to believe 
that the antiquity of this old stone church, stand- 
ing near one of the grandest springs in all the 
country, on the edge of the Glebe Lands, ante- 
dated all other churches excepting Opecquon. 
But we must yield to Dr. Graham's Church His- 
tory, and have Cedar Creek come in as number 
4, though so many things have occurred in the 
relations between Opecquon and Cedar Creek, 
that we still hold to the belief that the Opecquon 
pastor preached at this point. In the very early 
records of the Old County, may be found a 
reference to the Meeting House lot near the Big 
Spring. In Deeds for lands surrounding this 
place, this language is used in one to define the 
boundary: "On the south end of the Meeting 

House property near the Big Spring." This 
deed was dated 1736, and recorded in 1745; so 
we see there was a Meeting House there in 1736. 
This date corresponds with one tradition, which 
was, that when the first meeting house was built, 
it was before there was a Frederick County, 
The stone church building now in use was the 
one that was rebuilt since the Civil War, and 
on the site of the old stone church erected prior 
to the Revolutionary War. The front was 
changed. It will be observed this was not the 
site of the old Meeting House which stood north- 
west about one hundred yards distant. There is 
a deed dated 1762, made by Lord Fairfax, in 
which he conveys 100 acres of land to Wm. 
Vance, Wm. Evans, James Colville, James Hogg 
and Andrew Blackburn, elders of the Presby- 
terian Congregation of Cedar Creek, for the pur- 
pose of building a meeting house thereon. 

The writer recalls many delightful seasons in 
the history of this church, especially so when 
Rev Silas Billings was Pastor of the Woodstock 
Church. He also served this church so accep- 
tably, that many of the older residents take de- 
light in recounting incidents of the old Pro- 
tracted Meetings Mr. Billings often held. It was 
an ideal place in the Summer months for such 
services. The fine spring near-by, the rocky 
cliffs well shaded by the old forest trees, the 
woodman's axe had spared, all lent a charm to the 
place; and good cheer came when heavy bas- 
kets were carried to the many rock-brakes, where 
natural rock tables were found, to spread the 
lunch that so bountifully served the many coup- 
les under the boughs of the oaks. Mr. Billings 
was not only a good preacher, but renowned 
for his splendid church music. His voice strong 
and well trained, was so full of melody of the 
old time singing, that listeners never grew tired. 
At those meetings could be seen many people from 
Round Hill, and the head of Opecquon and other 
sections. The Hoge family lived in that section 
at one time, when Rev. John Hoge was pastor 
of this church. This church is near Marlboro 
Post Office, in the South end of the county, dis- 
tant from Winchester about twelve miles. 

Tuscarora Church 

The author at one time was much concerned 
in relation to a claim set up by friends of this 
old church. It was when engaged in working out 
the history of Old Opecquon, he received a let- 
ter from a friend, the scholarly writer of "Sketch- 
es of West Virginia," announcing that he had 
discovered the point where the Gospel was first 
preached West of the Blue Ridge, and that the 
point so found was where the old Tuscarora 
church stood, arguing that it was one of the 



earliest settlements in the Valley, with many 
good reasons given to sustain the claim, and 
referred to Howe's History of Virginia. His 
"Sketches of Virginia" gives the reader many 
pleasing incidents; and the Tuscarora incident 
is one. We give in full what he says: "Many 
of the early settlers of Berkly County were 
Scotch-Irish who were Presbyterians," and then 
adds: "It is said the spot where Tuscarora 
Meeting House now stands, is the first place 
where the Gospel was publicly preached and Di- 
vine Service performed West of the Blue Ridge. 
This was and still remains a Presbyterian edi- 
fice." Howe gives no other explanation. He 
gathered his information in the usual way — from 
interviews with residents of the sections he vis- 
ited in 1843. No mention made of county or 
church records. This presented a question that 
to be settled in a more authentic way. The rec- 
ords of the county and church were studied, 
but revealed nothing to sustain the claim. Old 
county records refer to church property in 1764, 
in certain deeds conveying lands on Tus- 
carora Creek from Beeson and others, one of 
the recitals being, "The parcel or lot of land 
for the Meeting House is hereby excepted." 
It is fair to assume that the meeting house was 
the old Presbyterian Church, known as Tusca- 
rora, and has been so regarded in all these years. 
Old Church records fail to give a word con- 
cerning Tuscarora until 1760; and here we quote 
Dr. Graham, who says: "The name of this 
church does not appear in any existing Ecclesi- 
astical Record until 1760. This will excite some 
surprise, as the accepted local tradition is that 
its existence precedes that date by at least fif- 
teen, if not twenty years." Dr. G. also says: 
"Supplications from 1762 until 1771 were made 
regularly for supplies for Tuscarora at nearly 
every stated meeting of the Old Donegal Pres- 
bytery," and that the following ministers were 
sent as supplies — for a number of years, viz, 
Messrs. McGann, Roan, Hemmons, Cooper, Craig- 
head, Alexander, McCreary, Hoge, Balch, Lewis, 
Lang, Vance, Thompson, Duffield, and Rhea. For 
sketches of the pastorates of these ministers, see 
Dr. Jas. R. Graham's "Planting of Presbyterianism 
in the Northern Neck." This Church had a large 
membership when the Winchester Presbytery 
was organized in 1794. This membership lost 
much of its strength in after years, as the Mar- 
tinsburg church grew in strength. The church 
is one of the country appointments of Rev. Dr. 
F. M. Woods, Pastor of the Martinsburg Church. 
The present old stone building was erected about 
181 1 and is the third building erected at this 

Back Creek Church 

From church records, this is an old church, 
receiving attention from the old Presbytery at 
same period that Tuscarora first appears, 1760. 
It is located in a rich valley about eight miles 
West of Martinsburg, and about four miles south- 
west of Hedgesville. The large stone building 
now in use by this rich and prosperous congre- 
gation, stands on the West side of the Creek, 
near the celebrated Tomahawk Spring, and was 
erected more than a hundred years ago. This 
church had for its pastors such men as Hoge 
and Vance. (It was once called Vance's Meet- 
ing House.) The author has in his possession 
part of the Diary of "Fithian," a man remark- 
able for his Evangelistic work among the early 
churches of Virginia and North Carolina. This 
diary has been carefully preserved by the fam- 
ily of Rev. Joseph Glass, who for many years 
labored in that section. Mr. Fithian was sent 
out by the Donegal Presb3rtery to do special 
work; and being thoughtful enough to keep a 
diary of his travels, and what churches he vis- 
ited, his notes can be regarded as reliable and 
very useful. His Presbytery so regarded it; 
and from this source the author is aided in 
these sketches. We give one of his notes in 
full, to show his brevity and accuracy. This 
was several years after his first great "Rambles 
through Virginia and Carolina.*' "Sunday, June 
18, 1775, over the North mountain I rode to 
Mr. Vance's Meeting House at Back Creek. The 
Sacrament was administered. Ninety-three com- 
municants, vast assembly. The North moun- 
tain is very high, at the top it is almost bare. 
The view below on each side is rich and beau- 
tiful, on each side we see ridges of hills, and 
ridges on ridges still succeed until you cross 
the Alleghancy." 

Ca-Capon Church 

Says Dr. Graham, "This Congregation asked 
the old Presbytery to give them a separate Or- 
ganization in 1768, and Mr. Hoge was appoint- 
ed to supply the Forks of Cape Capon." Tradi- 
tion has it that a Presbyterian church was main- 
tained at this point, but was abandoned in the 
early part of the 19th Century; and the member- 
ship drifted to the Bloomery Church about four 
miles from the Forks. The Bloomery Church 
barely exists at this writing. 

Falling Waters Church 

This old Church has a history very familiar 
to the Presbyterians of the Lower Valley. For 
some reason its record places it as the ninth 
church in point of date to receive recognition 



by the Donegal Presbytery. However, it has 
such traditionary history as makes it very reason- 
able that the Irish settlers who were there in 
1745, organized a church at what is known as 
Lower Falls. Old county records show that a 
large colony of Irish and Scotch immigrants set- 
tled near the "Ford," on the South side of the 
Potomac, and were there in 1744, contending 
for titles to their "preempted lands." Says Dr. 
Graham, "The name of this church appears for 
the first time in Church records, April 28, 1762. 
But the first appearance proves that this church 
was strong, and had evidently enjoyed minis- 
trations of the Gospel for a long time; and 
when Presbytery appointed ministers to give this 
church attention evidence appears that this con- 
gregation tendered a liberal support. Mr. Fi- 
thian says, "In 1775 Mr. Andrew Hunter and 
myself visited this church — having crossed the 
Potomac May 19th — on our way from Hagers 
Town and arrived among Mr. Hunter's rela- 
tives, and was introduced to Mr. Hunter's Moth- 
er, sisters and brothers." Mr. Fithian gives this 
interesting note: "Sunday, May 21 (1775), Mr. 
Hunter and I preached at Falling Waters Meet- 
ing House. It stands on the Potomake, is well 
situated, and I am told is a numerous society. 
The people gave good attention, sang the Scotch, 
or as they called them David's Psalms. The 
congregation is chiefly made up of country Irish 
and half Scotch, most of them Presbyterians. 
We dined at one Bowland." The Church records 
show that the ministers who were preaching at 
several of the churches heretofore mentioned, 
were the "Supply" for this church until about 
1792. Subsequent to this period. Dr. Graham 
says the following named ministers were pastors: 
Jno. B. Hoge, 1811-1822; Jas. M. Brown, 1834; J. 
E. Woodbridge, 1835-36; Lewis F. Wilson, 1837; 
Henry C. Brown, 1875-1877; J. H. Gilmore, 
1878-89; S. M. Engle, 1891-94; Edward R. Ley- 
burn, 1895-1902; J. C. Leps, 1902. 

Pattersons Creek Church 
The Scotch-Irish settlers on the Pattersons 
Creek Manor in their conveyances at an early 
day, mention the Meeting House property, — 
nothing to show what sect or society. By refer- 
ence to Dr. Graham, we are able to say the Pres- 
byterians occupied a church on this creek in 
1768, and had a prosperous congregation in 1781, 
and that Rev. Mr. Waugh was their first Supply. 
The first regular pastor. Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, 
was there in 1777-1779. Dr. W. H. Foote was 
Pastor 1846- 1860, while he had the field embrac- 
ing Romney and Springfield. M. W. Wood- 
worth, 1865- 1887; J. M. Duckwall, 1889; I. N. 
Campbell, 1891-93. Other Ministers supplied this 
Church at various times. 

Shepherdstown Pres. Church 

This Church has many claims for distinction, 
one being that they entertained the Virginia Syn- 
od in 1799. They also claim it to be the oldest 
Church Organization in the Valley of Virginia. 
This has often been discussed by other claim- 
ants. No record evidence can be found to sup*- 
port the claim. Dr. Graham gives some strong 
reasons in support of the claim. He says, how- 
ever, "that it was in 1768 the name first appears 
in the old Donegal Presbytery records, and from 
this date to 1783, the church had no regular pas- 
tor, but was supplied no doubt by such men as 
Rev. John McKnight. This continued to 1787, 
when Rev. Moses Hoge settled there and min- 
istered to this church as their Pastor for twen- 
ty years." Next came Rev. John Mathews, 
1808-1830; E. C. Hutchinson, 1830-33, also John 
D. Mitchell, 1830-31, both being "supply;" John 
T. Hargrave, 1834-39; Joseph M. Atkinson, 
1845-49, pastor; A. C. Heaton (supply), 1851-54; 
Henry Mathews, 1853-60; Robt. L. McMurran, 
1860-66; K W. Bedinger, 1867-70; Henry C. 
Brown (supply), 1873-74; Jas. A. Armstrong, 
1880-83; Charles Gheislin, 1883. Under his pas- 
torate this church enjoys great prosperity. 

Elk Branch Church 

This Church is located at what is known as 
Duffields Station on B. & O. R. R., about six 
miles West of Harpers Ferry. The building is 
on the North side of Elk Branch. This place 
had some notoriety in the early days. A small 
fort was there, and the stockade enclosed the 
large spring and it was at this point where the 
first Church stood. For convenience of site, 
the congregation erected the present building, 
which is about a half mile East. Church his- 
tory says this Church first appears 1769. Tra- 
dition gives a much earlier date, and many ac- 
cept the latter as reliable. Dr. Graham says, 
"The same Ministers supplying other churches 
in the Lower Valley, were supplies of Elk 
Branch." John McKnight was the first pastor, 
1776, served until 1782. No other chufch rec- 
ords of this church until 1833. Since then the 
church has prospered under the pastoral care 
of Rev. Silas Billings, 1858-1869; John A. Scott, 
1870-90; Robt. B. Woodworth, 1891-93; J. E. 
Triplett, 1893. 

Hopewell (Smithfield) Presb. Church 

This is the name given to the Smithfield Church 
in Jefferson County. The writer was much con- 
fused several years ago while collecting these 
notes — two Hopewell Meeting Houses in Quak- 
er settlements in same county — the old stone 



Hopewell house a few miles North of Winches- 
ter, on East side of Apple-pie Ridge, and the 
Hopewell Church mentioned in the old Presby- 
terial records, raised the question if the Hope- 
well (now Smithfield) might not have been a 
Quaker Meeting House. But a careful investi- 
gation cleared the atmosphere around this old 
Presb)rterian point. With a few exceptions, this 
church has been regularly supplied, and has 
prospered. Its first record is 1773; the first 
stated supply was Rev. Jas. Martin and John 
Hoge, 1780. Dr. Wm. Hill served this church 
during his eight years ministry at Charlestown 
and Bullskin, 1791. Other Ministers supplied the 
church for several years, covering the gfround 
until Rev. Wm. C. Walton came, 1818-23; J. M. 
Atkinson, 1845-49; Edwin L. Wilson, 1875-93; 
Chas. R. Stribling, 1893-97; R- Ashlin White, 


Springfield Church 

This church is in Hampshire County. The 
record does nothing more than to reveal the 
fact that a church was at this point in 1792, when 
Rev. John Lyle served the church for fifteen 
years, living at that point. Dr. Foote says Mr. 
Lyle was ordained by the Presbytery of Lex- 
ington, at Springfield, Nov. 30, 1793. His per- 
manent residence until his death was at Spring- 
field, dividing his time between Springfield, Rom- 
ney, and Pattersons Creek. That he established 
a classical school at Springfield, which attained 
great celebrity. Mr. Lyle married a sister of 
Rev. Joseph Glass, a granddaughter of Samuel 
Glass the emigrant. Other ministers serving this 
church as pastors, were Dr. Wm. H. Foote, 
1845-1860; George W. Finley, 1870-91; Carson W. 
Hollis, 1893-94; G. A. Gilbortzer, 1895- 1902; Ed- 
ward A. Snook, 1902. 

Romney Presb, Church 

For more than a hundred years this church 
has been prominent in the records of the Win- 
chester Presbytery, always presenting features 
of strength and influence in the Hampshire Coun- 
ty Ecclesiastical field. Composed of men of zeal, 
wealth and intelligence, the membership in gen- 
eral being above the average; supplied with min- 
isters of marked ability, the impression was eas- 
ily made that the Romney Church ranked with 
the oldest churches West of the Blue Ridge. 
The writer was astonished and confused, when 
investigating the origin of this church, that no 
early record could be found— cither church or 
county — to throw any light on the subject. It 
was well understood that no county record was 
expected to be found concerning the town itself 
earlier than its incorporation as a town in 1762, 
as the county seat was elsewhere. Therefore 

the first public record of the town, gave no 
encouragement that a search of the court rec- 
ords would reveal anything relating to the Rom- 
ney Church prior to this date; and indeed quite 
a long time elapses after that date before men- 
tion is made of it. Tradition has a church or- 
ganization on the South Branch at a very early 
day; and that, too, within the bounds of what 
was afterwards Romney, the county seat The 
first Church record is to be found in the Minutes 
of the Old Donegal Presbytery, October 1781, 
when this Presbytery was requested to send an 
Ordained Minister to assist the congregation in 
completing an Organization, and to ordain Elders. 
And in this request, this congregation was joined 
by the congregation of Pattersons Creek. This 
indicates that both places were occupied by Pres- 
byterian congregations at a period much earlier 
than this Presb)rterian Record shows. The au- 
thor not being able to find more, thought it 
wise to consult such authority as Dr. Foote, 
and finds in a work styled by him "The Session- 
al Records of Mount Bethel Church," the fol- 
lowing statement: "Until the year 1833, the 
members of the Presb)rterian Church in Hamp- 
shire County were all with the exception of 
those living convenient to Bloomery, enrolled in 
one church under one Eldership. During the 
year 1833, according to the direction of Pres- 
bytery, the necessary steps were taken for the 
division of the church, and in the Fall of 1833, 
the Presb)rtery divided the church at Mt. Bethel 
and directed four new ones to be organized, 
one on the Jersey mountain, one on the North 
River, one in Springfield, and one on Patter- 
sons Creek, the church in Romney not requir- 
ing an organization. The reason for this divi- 
sion was, that the members had become so num- 
erous, that in their scattered situation the church 
was unwieldly." Mt. Bethel is mentioned by 
Dr. Graham who throws additional light on the 
division mentioned by Dr. Foote, viz, the follow- 
ing minute found in the Winchester Presbjrtery 
for October 17, 1812 : "Mr. Black informed Pres- 
b)rtery that the Congregations heretofore known 
on these Minutes by the names of Springfield 
and Romney, having become disorganized, have 
been by him organized into one congregation, 
hereafter to be known by the name of Mt 

Dr. Graham also gives a list of pastors of 
the Romney Church: Rev. John Lyle, 1793-1807; 
James Black, 1812-1833; Robt. B. White, 1836- 
1844; Dr. Wm. Henry Foote, 1845-1860; George 
W. Finley, 1870-1891 ; E. D. Washburn, 1893-1905. 
Dr. Frank Brooke is the Pastor at this writing. 
He succeeded Dr. Washburn after the latter's 
lamented death. 


Winchester Presbsrterian Church 

In giving a sketch of Presbyterianism in Win- 
chester, the writer is confronted with much that 
would be tedious to the general reader, and em- 
barrassing to others, who may be descendants 
of the Presbyterians who in the early part of 
the 19th Century had many conflicts in the old 
Stone Church, erected in 1790 at the East end of 
Piccadilly Street. Some of the conflicting opin- 
ions entertained by the large and influential con- 
gregation, were too often expressed by the old 
Scotch-Irish members, in manner and language 
that frequently threatened ruptures between Pas- 
tor and people. Much of this has become famil- 
iar to the writer in his study of the history of 
this Church; but he sees that no good can result 
from rehearsing it in this connection; and will 
endeavor to give matter for useful reference 

Much has been said in the sketch of Old Opec- 
quon, relating to this church. There it will be 
seen that Winchester Presbyterians were mem- 
bers of the parent Church — (Opecquon) from its 
flrst establishment; and continued to attend 
church services there for many years after the 
town was incorporated in 1752. About this per- 
iod, the Ministers serving Opecquon and Cedar 
Creek churches, occasionally preached at some 
place in the Winchester village; and later on, 
preached by regular appointments. The con- 
gregation increasing as the Town grew, a de- 
mand was made for an independent organiza- 
tion; so that they might be supplied with a regu- 
lar pastor. The Old Presbytery in 1781 has this 
minute: "That Winchester be added to the 
Opecquon and Cedar Creek churches, and that 
the Minister appointed to supply the latter, give 
an equal part of his time and service to Winches- 
ter." We And this was done for about ten years. 
It appears that Rev. John Montgomery was the 
Minister during this period; and his service so 
acceptable, that the church increased not only 
in numbers, but also in its desire to have inde- 
pendent Organization, and a new house of wor- 
ship. The records show that both movements 
were well on towards completion in 1790, when 
Rev. Nash Legrand was called and began his 
celebrated pastorate in the new stone ohurch. 
This stone building, now about 118 years old, 
can be seen to-day in fairly good condition. Says 

Dr. Graham — "The old Church no longer used 
for Presbyterian worship, is a building of unusual 
historical interest Besides the distinguished 
men who as pastors, have occupied its pulpit — 
Legrand, Hill, and Riddle, nearly all the famous 
Presbyterian Ministers of our country from 1790 
to 1834, liave preached within its walls. It was 
honored by a Meeting of the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church, 1799 — ^the only place 
out of Philadelphia (with a single exception) 
in which for a period of almost fifty years, that 
venerable Court had ever met. The Synod of 
Virginia has met in it Eleven times, — ^more fre- 
quently than in any other Church whatever. In 
it Oct, 1791, during a session of the Synod, the 
Rev. Archibald Alexander was licensed to preach 
the Gospel. In it also the Presbytery of Win- 
chester was Organized in 1794." 

Truly this old Church has a history that 
should be preserved. It is now occupied by the 
"Colored Public School." The Presbyterians in 
1834 sold the old stone building, together with 
ten feet of ground at each end, and fifteen feet 
in the rear, to the Baptist Church for their church 
purposes, for the term of 500 years, who sold it 
in 1858 to the Colored Baptist Church, who con- 
tinued their use until broken by the Civil War 
1863, when it was used as a stable by Federal 
troops. At the close of the War, it was leased 
to the School Board of Winchester for the use 
of Colored Schools. The School Board nude 
repairs required, and proceeded to use the old 
Church property at variance with the privileges 
granted in the first deed. Some encroachments 
have been made in converting this property to 
the present uses. In the old Graveyard, that 
once was part of the Church lot, many old fami- 
lies buried their dead; immediately East of the 
Church. The ashes and bones of many noble 
men and women repose beneath the play-ground 
of this School. Neither the remains of the dead 
nor the scholars are disturbed by the change 
that less than one hundred years has wrought 
in this noted place. For several years prior to 
the sale of the old Stone building, dissensions 
arose in the old Church, some having their ori- 
gin between Pastor and people, some between the 
Oflicial body and people and Pastor combined. 
Suflice it to say, however, there was a rupture 




in 1826, forboding no good to the Presbyterians. 
Steps were taken to build a new church, which 
was completed in 1827, and called Kent Street 
Presbyterian, taking its name from the street at 
its intersection with Water Street. David H. 
Riddle, a young licentiate, preached for the new 
congregation for several months, and was or- 
dained Pastor Dec. 4, 1828. The other fraction 
adhered to the old name and continued services 
in the Old Stone Church until 1852, when a 
union was made between the factions. This un- 
ion produced harmony, and they then became 
known as The Presbyterian Church of Winches- 
ter. The united church continued its joint ser- 
vices in the Old Stone Church until in 1834, 
Dr. Hill the Pastor resigned; the Church called 
Rev. John J. Royall, who served until 1838. Rev. 
Wm. M. Atkinson succeeded him; and it was 
during his pastorate that the division occurred 
in the Presbyterian Church, designated Old and 
New Schools. .This division found its way into 
the Winchester Church, resulting in the with- 
drawal in 1839 of four Elders and forty mem- 
bers from the old organization, who organized 
what was known as the Loudoun Street Church. 
They purchased the northern half of lot number 
14 on southeast side of Loudoun Street, receiving 
a deed from Joseph Neill, dated Nov. 9, 1839. 
The board of trustees to whom this lot was con- 
veyed, was so changed that in 1848 it became 
necessary to reorganize; and the following were 
appointed by the Court, Dr. Wm. Hill, A. H. H. 
Boyd, Geo. W. Ginn, Geo. Keller, Wm. D. Gil- 
keson, R. M. Campbell, Jas. P. Riely, David Rus- 
sell, and M. B. Cartmell. The New School 
branch received the ministrations of Dr. Hill for 
several years. In 1842, Rev. A. H. H. Boyd was 
called. His ministry was noted for the accepta- 
ble service rendered, endearing him to the chil- 
dren of the third and fourth generations. His 
pastorate terminated at his death, Dec. 16, 1865. 
Jonah W. Lupton succeeded Dr. B — , serving 
until 1867; George L. Leybum, pastor from 1867 
to 1875 ; then Dr. Henry M. White, 1875 to Nov. 
21, 1899, when he resigned on account of failing 
health. During the early ministry of Dr. Boyd, 
the two churches, Round Hill three and a half 
miles West from Winchester, and Hajrfield about 
eight miles West from Winchester, were erect- 
ed. The latter stood on the Northwestern turn- 
pike, where the residence of Boyd P. Ramey now 
stands. The building was badly damaged dur- 
ing the Civil War, and was rebuilt on the South 
side of the pike. The neat brick church is in 
good repair; but owing to changed conditions 
and removals of Presbyterian families, services 
arc discontinued. The Round Hill Church was 
erected 1845-6, in a beautiful grove of virgin 

oaks, on ground dedicated by M. B. Cartmell, 
(the author's father). This place was long fa- 
mous for the Annual Protracted Meetings held 
in the old Grove, large congregations spending 
the whole day on the grounds, attending ser- 
vices rendered by many of the most distinguish- 
ed Ministers of their day. These Annual meet- 
ings were largely attended by families from every 
section of the county. The generous supply of 
refreshments served by the hospitable membership 
of this Church, continuing for more than a week, 
made these occasions memorable to all. Fain 
would the writer digress here, and pen many 
of his personal recollections of that interesting 
period in his life; but the line of duty calls his 
attention to the Kent Street Church where we 
left Dr. Atkinson in charge in 1846. Rev. Bev- 
erly Tucker Lacy, an eminent and forceful 
preacher, succeeded him in 1846, was installed 
June 19, 1847, served until 1851; then Rev. Jas. 
R. Graham came in Oct., 1851. His long service 
in this Church ended March 20^ 1900, in the 
Union of the two Churches, with Dr. Graham as 
Pastor-Emeritus, but chosen to render such ser- 
vice to the new organization as would be agree- 
able to him. Kent Street Church suffered heav- 
ily during the Civil War; but was fortunate in 
having Dr. Graham as its shepherd. His faith- 
ful service has become an interesting part of the 
history of Winchester. It was in this Church 
where Stonewall Jackson worshipped when sta- 
tioned at Winchester. The Presbyterians in the 
Southern States were firmly cemented by the 
events of the Civil War; and when the oppor- 
tunity came in 1865, Old and New School Church- 
es in the Southern General Assembly obliterat- 
ed their lines of difference. Thenceforth the 
two Town Churches pressed their work with 
perfect harmony; and continued their relations 
as separate organizations. When the resigna- 
tion of Dr. White's long pastorate of twenty- 
four years was tendered, his congregation was 
seriously affected, and endeavored to secure a 
plan that would continue the relations of Pastor 
and people. Dr. White's pastorate had not only 
been dear to his own large congregation, but 
useful in its influence to the entire community. 
When his Church finally submitted, and the pul- 
pit became vacant, the congregation decided to 
confer with Kent Street Church in relation to a 
union of the two Churches. After many pre- 
liminary conferences, both congregations entered 
into the necessary details, resulting in a union 
under one Pastorate. This was effected March 
20, 1900, after a separation of sixty years. Rev. 
Julian S. Sibley was called in Sept., 1900, and 
served until July, 1904, when he resigned. The 
church was without a regular Pastor until the 



Autumn of 1905. Dr. Graham filled the pulpit 
until Rev. J. Horace Lacey, D.D., entered upon 
his work with marked unanimity of feeling from 
the large congregation. 

At this union of the two Congregations all 
the church property was merged and placed in 
hands of new trustees. Dr. Wm. S. Love, George 
W. Kurtz, Jas. B. Russell, Loring A. Cover, Wm. 
H. Smith, and T. K. Cartmell. The new Organi- 
zation elected as Ruling Elders: Dr. P. W. 
Boyd, W. W. Glass, T. N. Lupton, George C. 
Shepard, George W. Kurtz, and T. K. Cartmell ; 
and as Board of Deacons, W. S. White, Wm. H. 
Smith, Henry S. Baker, M. Lohr Capper, John 
W. Myers, Henry Moling, Harry C. Baker, and 
Jno. E. Padgett. 

The Church is now in a flourishing condition. 
The old edifice was remodeled, the large and 
comfortable Sunday School building seen in the 
rear of the main building, takes the place of the 
old basement, and the Sabbath School and Wed- 
nesday-night services are conducted there. The 
floor of the church building was lowered, and 
the auditorium, with its attractive changes, was 
completed in the spring of 1908. The cost of all 
the improvements amounted to about $28,000. 

The old Kent Street building and lot was sold, 
and is now occupied by The Winchester Laundry. 

The Round Hill Church 

The reference made to this church in preced- 
ing pages, embraced its history while a branch 
of the Loudoun Street Church ; and for conveni- 
ence, this mention will now be made. During 
the pastorate of Dr. White, he preached regu- 
larly at Round Hill and Hasrfield in the Sunday 
afternoons, and found the Congregations desired 
separate organizations. With his assistance, this 
object materialized in 1879, when a separate or- 
ganization was accomplished, and steps taken to 
call a pastor. Rev. Alexander Sprunt, a young 
licentiate, came as an Evangelist in 1879 (Rev. 
W. H. Wood was assistant to Dr. White prior 
to this). The first regular Pastor was A. S. 
Moffett from January, 1881, to Dec., 1884. He 
was succeeded by Rev. L. E. Scott, from May, 
1886, to May 10, 1892, who was highly esteemed 
by the congregation. Robert W. Carter was in 
charge from 1893 to Sept, 1898W He was succeeded 
by Rev. John J. Fix, whose service was very 
effective in alleviating some of the unfortunate 
trials this congr-egation had so recently endured. 
His resignation was reluctantly accepted the latter 
part of 1902, to enable him to accept a call to 
the Church at Manchester near Richmond, Va. 
Since then this Church has had the service of Dr. 
White, pastor of Opecquon Memorial. 

Gerardstown Church 

Dr. Graham says: "This Church was an estab- 
lished Church in 1783, and was known for many 
years as Cool Spring, and was about five miles 
from Gerardstown, on what is known as the 
Runny-Meade farm, which has been owned by 
Mr. Wilson Coe for a half Century." No date 
is griven when Presbyterian Worship was first 
conducted; but being an established Congrega- 
tion in 1783, it is evident that services had been 
regfularfy conducted there for a considerable 
time, for in their appearance in Presbytery at 
that date, they asked that the services of an emi- 
nent minister be appointed a supply, with a view 
to his being called as the pastor. This request 
coming from Cool Spring and Bullskin, proves 
that this church was well on the way to the suc- 
cess it attained within the next ten years. We 
have evidence in hand that having secured the 
services of eminent Ministers, many advances 
were made in the church work. About 1793, the 
church was removed to the growing Village of 
Middletown, afterwards changed to Gerardstown. 
This change, however, pending the erection of 
the first church in the Village, and the death of 
Rev. Thomas Poage, the promising young minis- 
ter who had been called to the new Church, must 
be the reason why this church was without a 
pastor for the next six years. In 1799, the 
Church took front rank among her sister churches 
when the Rev. Joseph Glass received the call, 
and at once entered upon his notable service, ter- 
minating 1817. He also served the Back Creek 
Church during this pastorate. This first church 
building was large, being brick and in the old 
style of architecture. The attractive edifice re- 
cently erected on the site of the old church, sur- 
rounded by extensive grounds and picturesque 
old Village Graveyard near-by, lends an in- 
terest to this historic place, that impresses every 
visitor, very dear to descendants of the old fami- 
lies who laid the old corner stone, and buried 
their loved ones in the long ago. This Church 
has had distinction in the able Ministers serv- 
ing faithfully in all these years. The first Ruling 
Elders were Wm. Wilson, Mathew Rippey, and 
Samuel McKown. The venerable Lewis F. Wil- 
son was their pastor 1837- 1853, and his son. Rev. 
E. L. Wilson, served this church from 1874 until 
1893. He was succeeded by Rev. R. Ashlin White, 
son of Rev. George White, D.D. 

Charlestown Church 

This is one of the old churches in Old Freder- 
ick County. The Presbytery records show that 
in 1787 the congregation was calling for help, 
in the order of a "Minister to Supply them ser- 
vice." This was answered, and soon the supply 



came, and a small building was erected on a 
lot purchased from Charles Washington. In the 
early part of the 19th Century, a large stone 
building was erected, which was used until 1852, 
when the present handsome church was erected 
on the original site. The first Pastor was Rev. 
Wm. Hill. Charlestown has always been re- 
garded as one of the strongest Churches in the 
Winchester Presbytery, gaining much renown 
in late years for having its distinguished and 
universally esteemed Pastor, Rev. A. C. Hop- 
kins, D.D., who experienced hardships and ser- 
vice as soldier and chaplain through the entire 
struggles of the Stonewall Brigade, 1861-1865. 
This church, after Dr. Hill's resignation, for some 
unaccountable reason, had no regular pastor until 
1825, when it was reorganized. Rev. Wm. C. 
Walton, pastor from 1825 to 1827, then Rev. 
Septimus Tustin, 1833-37; Thos. W. Simpson, 
1838-41; Warren B. Button, 1842-66; A. C. Hop- 
kins, D.D., Dec, 1866. During the preparation 
of this work Oct. 7, 1906, the 40th anniversary of 
Dr. Hopkin's pastorate was celebrated with ap- 
propriate services, not only by his own congrega- 
tion, but by the entire community; thus show- 
ing the appreciation of his fellow citizens for 
the faithful service he has rendered them. 

Berryznlle Presbyterian Church 

This Church was organized June 10, 1853, start- 
ing out with a small membership and no church 
building. Some embarrassment might be expect- 
ed in the progress of this weak Presb3rterian 
plant, nurtured in a community previously held 
by the Episcopal and Baptist Churches, both 
having large memberships. The first house of 
worship was dedicated in the summer of 1854, 
Rev. Charles White being the first Pastor. This 
active and beloved pastor rendered service to the 
Harpers Ferry and White Post congregations 
until 1875, when he accepted a call to a Church 
in West Hanover Presbytery. Rev. C. S. Lingem- 
felter pastor from Nov. 1875 to 1880: Rev. A. B. 
Carrington, from 1881 to Jany. i, 1884, then Rev. 
J. Harry Moore came from a strong church in 
Louisville, Ky.. and took charge in Nov., 1885, 
and served until the summer of 1890. During 
this pastorate, he revived the old Stone Chapel 
congregation. Mr. Moore had spent his early 
life in the Counties of Jefferson and Garke, and 
to the manor born, was very successful in his 
work. Rev. Charles R. Stribling came in the 
spring of 1891, and his pastorate closing Jany. 
18, 1897, together with his faithful ministrations 
to the weak churches at Stone Chapel and Smith- 
field, are recalled by his many friends with much 
pleasure. Rev. David H. Scanlon, the present 
active and faithful pastor, entered upon his work 

Nov. 18, 1900. He also supplies the pulpit in the 
recently remodeled Stone's Chapel, and has or- 
ganized a church near Stephenson's Station. This 
Congregation erected a neat church edifice near 
Qear Brook. Since Dec. 8, 1901, Mr. S. preaches 
at this point regfularly. 

Front Royal Presbyterian Church 

No Church record is full enough to fix defi- 
nitely the date of this organization; it must have 
been about 1800. Some evidence of this is found 
in old county records, when the Church lot was 
conveyed to trustees. Following the trend of 
Dr. Graham's Sketch of this Church, it was 
known in 1796 as South River, at which time 
the Winchester Presbjrtery was in session, and 
adjourned to hold an afternoon session "at the 
School House in Front Royal." A few years later 
the name of South River disappears from the 
Church records, and that of Front Royal takes 
its place. 

The first Pastor was William Williamson, his 
pastorate beginning in 1794. At this date, he 
established an English and Classical School at 
Front Royal, this being his home; and for many 
years he preached at all points in the surround- 
ing country where his service could do good, 
from Woodstock on the West to Middleburgh 
and Warrenton to the East. In 1841, Rev. Rob- 
ert S. Bell was installed, and served until 1845. 
We are unable to show whether Mr. Williamson 
was the only pastor from his installment to the 
time of his death, which occurred about the 
time of Mr. Bell's appearance. Rev. Jas. E. 
Hughes was stated supply from 1850 to 1855; 
Rev. T. Berry came in 1856, Rev. S. M. Lough- 
head being for one year; Rev. Henry Hirdie was 
there from 1859 to 1861, as supply, and same for 
Woodstock church. No church record gives the 
name of any pastor for this church from 1861 
until 1876, when Rev. Carson W. Hollis, was 
installed; he resigned Sept., 1893. Rev. A. F. 
Laird was installed Oct. 7, 1894, resigned 1901. 
Rev. Jas. A. McClure installed June 12, 1903. 
This Church is no longer a weak member of the 
Winchester Presbytery, but has been very un- 
fortunate in the many vacancies in her pulpit. 

Martinsburg Presbyterian Church 

The early Church records are generally sought 
for reliable information regarding organization 
of the many churches through the entire Valley, 
though sometimes we are disappointed. Such is 
the case now before us. The Presb)rtery records 
give only vague notices prior to 1800 ; consequent- 
ly, it must be accepted as a fact, that the Martins- 
burg Village Presb3rterians attended Old Tusca- 
rora, two miles West. Some organization must 



have had a home as early as 1807, for the Church 
record shows that Rev. John Mathews was 
preaching regularly, i8o7-'o8. In 1808 and iSjo 
he was at Shepherdstown, and also at Charles- 
town 1809-1827, seeming to be in demand. In 
1827, he returns to Martinsburg and is the Pastor 
until latter part of 1830, when succeeded by W. C. 
Mathews for six years. In 1837, Rev. Peyton 
Harrison came and served the church success- 
fully for seven years. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Jno. Boggs in 1845, remaining but one year. Rev. 
W. H. Love seems to have been on the ground 
before Mr. Boggs left for S. Carolina, which was 
the 5th of May, 1847, while Mr. Love*s call was 
extended to him first of Jany. same year. The lat- 
ter was pastor until 1849. Rev. Robt. T. Berry 
came in 1850, as stated supply, and remained in 
charge until 1859. We now have a minute in 
the church record that is fuller of interest than 
the entry indicates to the casual reader of church 
history. Rev. A. C. Hopkins was installed as 
Pastor Dec. 6, i860; his pastorate terminated 
Sept. I, 1865. Nothing in the record to show he 
had been given his extended leave of absence 
during the War period of 1861-65. This youth- 
ful Parson heard his country's call; folded his 
church vestures, and laid them aside to don the 
gray uniform and soon became a faithful soldier, 
to follow the new Banner as it was carried to 
victory or defeat. The author several years ago, 
while taking a vacation from his office, enjoyed 
the delightful companionship of this Rev. gentle- 
man, spending a vacation from his Charlestown 
Church. We were in the foothills of the Alle- 
ganey Mts., at the hospitable home of mutual 
friends. Old war experiences were related; the 
atmosphere of that lovely lawn was laden with 
the aroma we both had enjoyed in the monoto- 
nous life of a soldier in Winter quarters. No 
rude summons broke the momentary enchant- 
ment — no sudden ending of furloughs or leave 
of absence. However, we answered a familiar 
summons where we were expected to not only 
enjoy the viands on the hospitable board wait- 
ing for us inside, but to join a party who repre- 
sented so much in each of our lives, — two of them 
daughters of the distinguished Minister, Dr. 
Foote, one, the companion of our mutual friend — 
who bore the title The Just Judge. His genial 
spirit no longer gave us cheer; the dark mantle 
had fallen across his pathway and left a pall of 
sadness over this home. Around that board 
were others, forming a party possessed of more 
than average intelligence. All had enjoyed more 
than the usual advantages and were well equip- 
ped with interesting incidents and events belong- 
ing to the long ago, one of the ladies being a 
daughter of Dr. Wm. M. Atkinson, once a dis- 

tinguished pastor of several Presbyterian Church- 
es; another, member of the party being the grand- 
daughter of Rev. Joseph Glass. The author trusts 
to the charitably-inclined for an excuse for this 

Returning to the subject of the Martinsburg 
Church, which had been without a regular pastor 
during the war period, when the church suffered 
greatly from the distracted conditions of a bor- 
der town, many differences arose in the congre- 
gation. Lines were sharply drawn between Un- 
ionists (as they were called), and the families 
who were represented in the Southern Cause. 
Many husbands and sons in peril on the firing 
line; many of whom found rest in a hero's 
grave. This accounts for the long silence. At 
last, however, in June, 1866, Rev. Jas. E. Hughes 
came from Baltimore and undertook the ardu- 
ous task of healing dissensions, and had made a 
fair start, when death closed his efforts Sept. 23, 
1867. Then came Rev. David H. Riddle in the 
Spring of 1868, and continued a useful pastorate 
which ended May 25, 1879, caused by failing 
health. He was succeeded by the Rev. Frances 
M. Woods, who was installed Pastor Oct 15, 
1879, and has continued with success in all these 
years, he being the present pastor, full of vigor, 
endowed with splendid intellectual powers, grace 
of manner and dignity of style — eloquent of 
speech, fervid and zealous in his pastoral life, 
fully imbued with the doctrine of his Master 
whom he serves. His labors have been richly 
rewarded. A few years ago, he and his har- 
monious congregation succeeded in remodeling 
the old church, and produced a handsome edifice. 

Woodstock Presbyterian Church 

Some surprises came while investigating the 
early history of this Church. As early as 1794, 
we find references to the services of certain Min- 
isters, but no light thrown on the Organization 
until a much later period. Church records fail 
to establish dates until 1820, when a record is 
made. Rev, Wm. Henry Foote was located there 
as Stated Supply, and continued as such until 1827. 
During this time he also served the Strasburg 
Church. During the years 1824-1830, Rev. John 
Lodor served this church in the same capacity. 
Rev. Lewis F. Wilson appears as the first regular 
Pastor Dec. 13, 1834; and continued as such until 
Oct., 1836. In 1837, Rev. Silas Billings was in- 
stalled pastor and served the church for several 
years — how long is not stated. Daniel G. Mal- 
lory was there 1855-56; Robt, Gray, 185S-59. 
From 1859 to 1861, Henry Hardie was pastor. 
Rev. John M. Clymer accepted a call Nov. 25, 
i860, and had a prosperous pastorate to 1871. 
In 1871 Thos. E. Converse was pastor to 1875. 



Rev. Robt. H. Fleming was installed pastor July 
29, 1876; continued as such until Nov. 11, 1886. 
He was succeeded by T. P. Epes Oct. 29, 1887; 
served until 1890. Then came Geo. E. Henderlite 
1890; resigned 1893 to enter Foreign Mission 
field in S. America; Rev. P. D. Stephenson, D.D., 
accepted a call 1895 and is the present popular 

Cedar Creek Church 

This Church has had frequent mention in con- 
nection with the Old Opecquon Church, having 
been grouped at different times with the churches 
of Strasburg, Woodstock, Opecquon and latterly 
with Cedar-Cliff. Rev. Nash Legrand served 
this Church from 1790 to 1809; Andrew Shan- 
non, 1810-1818; John Lodor, S. S., 1836. Wm. 
H. Woods came in May, 1878; resigned Nov. 
3, 1887. He served the group. A. G. Link, 
the present popular Pastor, was installed for 
this group Oct. 13, 1889 (Strasburg and Cedar 
Cliff), at Cedar Creek, July i, 1904. Rev. 
Mr. Clymer also preached at Cedar Creek 
i860. Rev. Silas Billings frequently preached 
there during the years his Seminary was in 

operation in Winchester. Dr. A. H. H. 

Boyd conducted several protracted meetings at 
this church for several years prior to the Civil 
War. A number of other churches within the 
bounds of Winchester Presbytery might properly 
receive notice in this connection. Many such are 
in the territory of Old Frederick County, they 
being the prosperous Churches of Piedmont, 
Keyser, Davis, Gormania, Moorefield, Petersburg, 
and elsewhere; but this allotted work will not 
admit of fuller sketches. Doubtless, some read- 
ers will think that the Presbyterian Church has 
had fuller notice than necessary. This may be 
explained. It was well equipped with a record 
from the establishment of its first place of Wor- 
ship at Old Opecquon; and with its claim as the 
oldest Organization in the Shenandoah Valley, 
it seemed to be a necessary part of this work. 
In the treatment of other Churches in this con- 
nection, every effort has been exhausted by the 
author to obtain data from all the Churches, with- 
out respect to Creed; so that a condensed history 
may be had in this compilation, affording a refer- 
ence to the student who may be in search of the 
matter now offered him. 


The Episcopal Church in Old Frederick County 

The author, in introducing this subject to the 
reader, confesses to some hesitancy in present- 
ing this Church next in priority of organization 
to the Presbyterian Church. This hesitancy is 
natural, when the reader will consider that one 
of the very oldest church organizations in our 
New World was the Centenary Reformed Church. 
This Church, represented by a bold and deter- 
mined body of Reformed Calvinists, that braved 
the waves of the Atlantic, leaving their German 
homes and kindred, to land on the shores of a 
land they believed would be an asylum of peace, 
or a grave of rest from persecution. Tradition 
and reliable historians have placed them in an 
organized body in America in the earliest days; 
and indeed, tradition locates this devoted sect in 
the Shenandoah Valley prior to 1738. But inas- 
much as no record appears to substantiate this 
claim, and as it is well known the Episcopal 
Church was regarded as the Established Church, 
wherever the white settlers founded their homes, 
it is fair to conclude that the latter was strongly 
in evidence, when the first County Court was 
opened; for we find the Court taking steps to 
secure a Vestry, and an order entered and certi- 
fied at a subsequent (April) Term, 1744. 

"Ordered that the Clerk of this Court, write 
to his honor the Governor for a Power to Choose 
a Vestry for the Parish of Frederick in this 
County." The Frederick Parish was created, and 
boundaries defined, by Act of House of Bur- 
gesses when the County was formed. Vestrys 
were chosen by qualified voters resident of the 
Parish, after being duly notified of the day for 
an election. None but freeholders and house- 
keepers were allowed to vote. The law pro- 
vided for the election of "twelve of the most 
able and discreet persons of the Parish," who 
when elected, must appear before the Court and 
take the oaths required by Act of Parliament. 
The Vestrymen so instituted and installed, were 
authorized to collect the assessments for the sup- 
port of the Established Church; to erect suitable 
houses of worship, etc. The first Vestry was so 
chosen after the Court received the order of 
the Governor in answer to the Court's order. 
There is much evidence that the "freeholders and 
housekeepers" made an unfortunate selection; 
for after eight years in office, the House of 

Burgesses placed upon its statute books a severe 
condemnation of the entire body, charging them 
with oppressive and corrupt practices — "That they 
had collected upwards of fifteen hundred pounds 
sterling, on the pretence of building and adorning 
Churches in their parish." A remarkable fact 
is presented in the study of this case. Although 
this body of supposed able and discreet per- 
sons had in their hands, a sum equal to nearly 
$8,000.00 they were unable to point to a single 
log cabin that had been erected by them. Bishop 
Meade in his criticism of the first Vestry in 
Frederick Parish says "The Churches of that day 
were log houses costing from thirty to fifty pounds. 
There must have been much misspending of 
money." The old Legislators were not so charit- 
able. The Act contains their language — "They 
have misapplied or converted the same to their 
own use." Aside from the wrong done the Church 
and the oppression infiicted on the tax-payers, 
the Episcopal Church lost its opportunity to make 
history during the interesting period embracing 
the early settlement of old Frederick County. 
Had it not been for the unfaithful acts of the 
persons claiming the high honor of being Vestry- 
men the Church to-day could point with pride 
to more than one edifice and be assured that 
they stood on ground made sacred by the "Chappel" 
erected there in the early days of the Colony. 
This starts the enquiry, what is known of these 
"Chappels," so often mentioned? Tradition lo- 
cates three, McCoy's, Cunningham's and Morgan's. 
Some writers differ as to location and date of 
erection, and even assert that several more are 
found at prominent points. The question must 
be raised here, that if such are facts, and if the 
Chappels were in use prior to 1755, why is it 
that the old Vestry records do not show the fact? 
It is well known that the Established Church was 
noted for its record of events, such as marri- 
ages, deaths, baptisms and births, and an annual 
report of the support given the minister. Taking 
the history of nearly every Episcopal Church in 
the old Colony East of the Blue Ridge, such 
reports were not only required, but actually 
made. The officiating minister and church war- 
dens were able to show church records so 
replete with the history of the Colonial period, 
that the student must ever regret that, so much 




unwritten history is folded away in the musty 
files and records of those old Parishes. Not so 
with Frederick Parish; — no church record to be 
found prior to 1764, to give in detail the impor- 
tant incidents constantly occurring in the life 
of the Church. 

An act of the General Assembly, Feby. 1752, 
authorized an election to be held, "At some 
convenient time and place to elect twelve 
persons able and discreet, to serve as Vestry- 
men for the Parish, this election to be held 
before the 15th day June next" At this election 
the following persons were chosen ; Thomas Lord 
Fairfax, Isaac Perkins, Gabriel Jones, John Hite, 
Thomas Swearingen, Charles Buck, Robert Lcm- 
mon, John Lindsey, John Ashby, Jas. Cromley, 
Thomas Bryan Martin, and Lewis Neill. This new 
body put in motion a spirit of Church enlarge- 
ment, at least evidences spring up from several 
sections; and the parishioners scattered over the 
large Parish, seem to have taken their first and 
only start to erect places of worship. No trouble 
to find several of these through the proper chan- 
nel, — the Church record. Bishop Meade says, "The 
Vestry book commences in 1764." The question 
might be asked, what were the Vestrymen doing 
in this Church during the twelve years they had 
served? While they failed to preserve a record, 
they doubtless were at work. Evidences found 
in the old court order books, show their diligence 
to provide necessary means to support the minis- 
try and to care for the poor. Some are named as 
trustees to hold the ground at the various places 
where Church buildings were going up, commenc- 
ing at Winchester in 1752-3, Mecklenburg and 
Mill-creek. Later on, we have Bunker-Hill (or 
Morgan's) and one in a small village, afterwards 
Charles-Town; and when the new Vestry was 
formed in 1764, the foundation was laid for quite 
a number of churches in Frederick Parish. As 
matter of interest to some readers who may not 
see it elsewhere, a list of this famous Vestry is 
given here. List of Vestrymen instituted in 1764 : 
Isaac Hite, John Hite, John Greenleaf, Thomas 
Rutherford, James Keith, John Neville, Charles 
Smith, James Wood, Jacob Hite, Thomas Wad- 
lington. Burr Harrison, Thomas Swearingen, Van 
Swearingen, Angus McDonald, Philip Bush, Fred- 
erick Conrad, George Rice, Alexander White, 
James Bamett, Marquis Calmes, John McDonald, 
Edward Snickers, Warner Washington, Joseph 
Holmes, Benjamin Sedgewick, Edmund Taylor, 
John Smith, and Samuel Dowdal. It will be 
remembered that Vestrymen were elected at spe- 
cial elections, by Acts of the General Assembly, 
the Courts to fix the dates and places of election. 
At that time the country was mentioned as The 
Settlements', and each settlement was expected 

to select one or more persons to be voted for in 
that settlement, "to serve in the Vestry of Fred- 
erick Parish." So the list was composed of re- 
presentatives from every Settlement. The Win- 
chester settlement, or church, had John Hite, 
James Wood, White, Holmes, Conrad, Bush, 
Rutherford, Keith, and John Smith; while Jacob 
Hite the two Swearingens, Wadlington and 
Charles Smith, were in the North end of the 
parish, serving as trustees and church wardens for 
the churches at Mill Creek (Morgan's) Sheperds- 
town and Martinsburg. Warner Washington and 
the two McDonalds came from the Charles Wash- 
ington Village. The line of this district extended 
to within seven miles of northern limit of the 
Winchester district. For the Burwell Chapel (Old 
Chappel), Calmes, Neville, Bamett and Snickers; 
For Cedar Creek and Long Meadows embrac- 
ing McCoy's Chapel and Leith's Ferry, the latter 
being near the forks of North and South rivers 
(Front Royal vicinity). We have Isaac Hite, 
Greenleaf, Taylor, Sedgewick, Rice and Dowdal 
in the district embracing the settlements South of 
the Opecquon Creek, to the river boundary South 
and East. Several of these Vestrymen must have 
resigned after a short service, for their names ap- 
pear in church records of other denominations; 
James Bamett being a promoter of the Baptist 
Organization, called Old Zion, near Nineveh Vill- 
age; Bush and Conrad tmstees for the Reformed 
Calvinists. This Vestry, with the exceptions men- 
tioned, continued their services until 1780. The 
Revolutionary War brought a new order of things 
in the Church life. The new CJeneral Assembly 
enacted laws that were not only embarrassing to 
the old Vestrys, but declared all Vestrys dissolv- 
ed; and defined the restricted powers of the new 
Vestrymen, who were to be chosen by their re- 
spective parishioners, or members of the Protes- 
tant ^iscopal Church, and no more to be elected 
by all the freeholders and housekeepers. The 
church had been shorn of support from direct 
taxation. Surely this was a new order of things. 
All religious sects, denominations or churches 
placed on equal footing and "could be supported 
by their respective Congregations." Many good 
churchmen allowed their zeal to waver in 1776, 
when an Act of The (kneral Assembly suspended 
payment of salaries to their ministers by special 
taxation. But when another Act in 1802, con- 
fiscated their Glebe lands, many succumbed and 
seemed to give up in dispair, and allowed a gloom 
of inertness to settle over the Episcopal Church 
that was deeply regretted. Many years of trial 
were required to get the Church accustomed to its 
changed conditions. What was regarded then as 
disastrous to the Church, proved to be a blessing ; 
for new men with new aspirations appeared on the: 



threshold of the new Church in Virginia; and 
the first decade marked a comforting change. The 
Old Establishment was gone, and the firm founda- 
tion laid for the magnificent history this church 
has made in the land, upholding the tenets of the 
new Establishment, her eminent ministry and con- 
scientious laymen have marked the continent with 
monuments of success in her new policy of reli- 
gious freedom to all. 

The old Vestrymen who ended their service in 
1780, became distinguished in their day as states- 
men, soldiers and citizens; and left descendants 
to follow lines marked out which led many to even 
greater distinction than the fathers ever attained. 

In taking up the work of the individual churches 
in Frederick Parish, it is proper to state that the 
earliest date found in any record, fixes the Bur- 
well Chapel, (sometimes called the Spring Chapel, 
and finally Old Chapel), as the first place of wor- 
ship set up in Old Frederick Parish for Episcopal 
services. We have abundant proof of this. As 
shown elsewhere, there was a "Chappel" on a road 
that was opened in 1743, passing by the Bur well 
Spring, and as the name Chappel was given by the 
l^iscopal Church for the small place designed for 
Gospel services, it should be accepted as an Epis- 
copal Church "point." Later on, the Court records 
refer to Cunningham's Chappel, in the vicinity 
of the Big Spring. It has been thought by many 
that some Cunningham erected the Chappel referr- 
ed to in the order of Court. The county records 
show the Cunningham name frequently as owners 
of land at two points on the Opecquon Creek at 
a very early day. The same records reveal the 
fact, however, that one of the name was not a 
good churchman, though he may have erected the 
little Chappel ; for he is found in open court i745f 
defending a charge brought by his wife for abuse 
and ill treatment. The Case being proved, the 
court adjudged him guilty, a fine of 20 pounds, 
assessed-bond given for good behaviour, and he 
required to give his injured wife separate support. 
The church records show that the Vestry in 1772 
decided to build a church on land of Charles 
Smith, at some point near the site of the Village 
of Berryville, and several hundred pounds were 
promised as building fund. In 1773, the Vestry 
for some reason changed their plan, and decided 
to build the church at Cunningham's Chappel, 
where two acres of land had been dedicated by 
Col. Hugh Nelson, of York, owner of the large 
tract afterwards known as the Burwell tract, 
or Carter Hall tract. Bishop Meade says, "The 
plans for this building failed and no such church 
was built." This incident is narrated to show 
the connection of the Chappel and two acres, 
mentioned as the Col. Nelson dedication, subse- 
quently known as the Burwell Graveyard and Old 

Chapel — identically the Cunningham Chappel men- 
tioned in the order of court in 1743. Still further 
evidence is given of the identity, as will be seen 
in Deed book 28, in old Frederick Clerk's Office. 
The following extract is given: 

"May loth, 1791, By request of Mr. Samuel 
Baker, agent for Col. Nathaniel Burwell of James 
City County, Va, I surveyed two acres of land 

on Chappel Run, etc. , ^ 

John Cordell, 


The object of this survey is shown in a Deed 
dated Nov. 25, 1792, from Nathaniel Burwell 
of James City County, to the Minister and Ves- 
try of Frederick Parish, "as Trustees for the 
benefit of the Protestant Ei)iscopal Church in 
said Parish, for two acres of land lying on both 
sides of Chapel Run, (signed) Nathaniel Burwell. 

Winesses ^ 

Phiup Nelson 

Samuel Baker 

Walter Burwell 


An interesting incident may be mentioned in 
this connection. Two lineal descendants of Samuel 
Baker, who had the survey made in 1791 for Col. 
Burwell Madison H. Baker and his sister Miss 
Lelia Baker, own and occupy the Chappel Green 
homestead adjoining the Old Chapel Cemetery. 

The Old Stone Chapel as seen to-day was built 
in 1793. The foregoing statement may seem 
tedious to many readers ; but when it is consider- 
ed that much contention has arisen in regard to 
what was meant in the original Order of Court 
touching this first "Chappel" of "which" there is 
any evidence, and this contention made by strong 
testimony that one other Chapel had priority over 
all others for date of erection and use in the Old 
Parish. The writer was compelled to take this 
course to collate facts found in both Church and 
County records, and submits them for the reader 
to determine if the case is fully proven. It is well 
to mention in this connection, that several writers 
on this subject and several historians have given 
Morgan's Chapel as the first building erected for 
public worship in the territory West of the Blue 
Ridge, and that Richard ap Morgan, a devout 
Welchman, had the distinction accorded him by 
tradition, as being the first white man to settle in 
this territory, and that he erected his log Chapel 
in 1726, on his grant near the Potomac River. 
Some locate him at Old Mecklenburg; some 
on Mill Creek, and others at Morgan's Spring. 
Some fix the date of his grant in 1730, and state 
it for a fact, as being the first grant for land in 
the Shenandoah Valley. Hawks, in his History 
of the Episcopal Church in Virginia, falls into 
the grave error that many church historians have 

arm' . % *■ '■ ' ^ 



Bishoprick. The division of the old parish in 
1769, resulted in the three parishes, with Beckford 
on the South, Frederick, comprising several chapels 
and other places in the Central division ; the other 
was Norbomc, and embraced nearly all that terri- 
tory now comprising Berkeley, Jefferson and Mor- 
gan Counties. Very few churches were found 
in this parish until after the Revolutionary War. 
It seems the first church was built in Martinsburg, 
then a small village; though several Chapels were 
in use from 1755, and probably the Morgan Chapel 
once known as the Mill-Creek Chapel, was in use 
in 1752. (This is mentioned in the road order, re- 
ferred to elsewhere). The Martinsburg Church 
was regarded as an old, unsafe building in 1835. 
However the new church was not completed until 
1843, when it was solemnly dedicated by Bishop 
Meade. He mentions the Clergymen present as 
assistants: Revs. Alexander Jones and J. Chis- 
holm of Virginia, and James A. Berck and Theo- 
dore B. Lyman of Maryland. There seems to 
have been very few ministers in this parish for 
a number of years. Either the Church records 
are at fault for not recording the names and 
terms of service of the Ministers — if any were in 
the large field, or the Ministers were too indiffer- 
ent concerning such matters that now appear 
of great interest in all the Churches ; the demand 
being to keep a strict record of every event in 
the churches. The conclusion must be that there 
was a scarcity of clergymen. This is well known 
to have been the case from 1785 to 1820 owing to 
the severe changes brought about by the War 
with England. However after 1785, the names of 
Vcasy, Wilson and Page frequently appear as 
very active in their work. Bishop Meade, speak- 
ing of these Ministers, says, "They were deeply 
pious, zealous and far beyond the ministerial 
standard of the Parish." For a few years after 
1800, Heath, Price, and Allen seem to be the only 
active clergymen. From 1816, more activity is 
discernible, and parish records give the names 
of the following ministers, who seemed to dis- 
tribute their work all over the parish, starting 
from Martinsburg, which had at the latter date 
become quite prominent by reason of many dis- 
tinguished citizens then resident there. The 
first Rector at Martinsburg in 1816 was Thos. 
Horrell, then Enoch Lowe, and Edward R. Lippit 
to 1823; John T. Brooke to 1826, Jas. H. Tyng 
to 1830, Wm. P. Johnson to 1832, Cyrus H. Jacobs 
to *2l^, C. C. Tallefferro to 'y;, Jas. Chisholm to 
'42, D. F. Sprigg to '50; Richard T. Davis to 
'55; W. D. Hanson to '60; John W. Lee to '75; 
Robert D. Roller to '79; Henry Thomas to '88. 
It is difficult to determine the dates of erec- 
tion of the several old church buildings in Nor- 
bome Parish. Kt Shepherdstown as early as 
1785, the County records show that a church lot 

was there and location of a division line between 
a coterminous owner and the new Episcopal 
Church lot. This evidently was Trinity Episcopal 
Church, as it was called, in 1840, when it was 
removed and a larger edifice was erected on 
same ground, and finished with great taste and 
care. The question arises, was this the church 
that was consecrated April 5th, 1859, by Bishop 
Johns ? Did it require nineteen years to complete 
this splendid building? Dr. Charles W. Andrews 
was Rector at the time. The same ministers 
whose names have already been given as those 
of Norborne Parish, were Rectors of this Church. 
Rev. John P. Hubard was there from 1875 to 1880 ; 
Rev. L. R. Mason came in 1881. Over in Jeffer- 
son County can be seen to-day the ruins of the 
most noted church structure in Norborne Parish, 
and possibly the oldest of them all. No record 
to tell. Even Tradition is silent as to definite 
dates. Old men have said it was built before 
the Revolutionary War, but unable to give dates. 
Bishop Meade says, "It was a ruin when I was 
a boy," and places the date of its erection be- 
tween 1760 and 1770— giving no reason for this 
conclusion, however. This ruin has always been 
known as Old St. George's Chapel, and stands 
on natural limestone foundations in a rock- 
bound spot, in an open field on the farm of Col. 
Davenport, one mile from Charlestown. This 
was supposed to have been the most costly church 
building in the Parish, and it is unfortunate 
that no record can be produced to unfold its 
interesting history, which would show who of 
the old families are buried in the old burial 
ground hard-by all of which has long since 
been abandoned, and none to tell whose dust 
is beneath the surface. Who can tell what the 
cycles of time have in store for many more of the 
sacred places found in our midst ! A Century is a 
great leveler. The writer has witnessed in his 
day the passing out of sight of several sacred 
spots, so dear to some of the old Ancestors. 

Zion Episcopal Church, Charlestown, cannot be 
regarded as an old church, but has been one of 
importance; second building replaced the first 
church in 1817. From this date, churches at 
Harpers Ferry, Bunker Hill, Smithfield and Hed- 
gesville have all advanced in their work, receiv- 
ing attention from the ministers of neighboring 
churches, all being called parishes. The subdivi- 
sions of the old parish can scarely be named. 
Bishop Meade says, "Rev. Mr. Allen exercised 
his ministry at twelve points included in the 
Parishes." He was succeeded by Rev. B. B. Smith 
as Rector of Zion Church Alexander Jones was 
also there. The old Church was destroyed by 
fire, and then rebuilt and dedicated in 1852. 
Rev. Dr. W. H. Meade grand-son of Bishop 



Meade, became Rector of this Church in 1867. 
The building suffered from use and wanton abuse 
by Federal soldiers during the Civil War. The 
Church repaired the losses, and has also an 
attractive chapel in Charlestown, Rev. Dallas 
Tucker succeeded Dr. Meade April, 1883. 

For many years the "Old Chapel" was the 
principal place of worship for that section of 
old Frederick embraced now by the Wickliffe, 
Berryville and Millwood Churches. Mr. Tread- 
well Smith and Genl. Thomas Parker undertook 
the work of establishing a convenient place of 
worship for the neighborhood known as Wickliffe, 
and succeeded. A stone building was erected, 
and services held there for several years. Owing 
to the unsafe condition of the walls, a very 
handsome brick building was erected in its stead. 
Later on, the Church at Berryville was erected, 
to accommodate the increasing membership; thus 
lopping off gradually the services at Old Chapel, 
which had long since not only become too small 
for the large congregations, but inconvenient, the 
roads being impassable during inclement seasons. 
In 1834, there seems to have been a well arranged 
plan to abandon the Old Chapel altogether; and 
a movement made to have a church near the 
attractive village of Millwood. Mr. George 
Burwell, of Carter Hall, offering a site for the 
building. All went well until a canvass was 
made in the congregation for sufficient funds 
to erect the more modern and commodious 
edifice known now as the Millwood PaHsh 
Church. It was soon found that too much 
sentiment lingered around the Old Chapel and 
its grounds, hallowed by the incidents of nearly 
a Century; for be it remembered. Old Chapel 
and its graveyard had been the most prpminent 
point mentioned in the Old County records re- 
lating to Frederick Parish; and it was natural 
for the descendants of the long buried Ances- 
tors to oppose its abandonment. A compro- 
mise was effected, both points to receive equal 
attention from the Minister. As time wore on, 
the services at Old Chapel became less fre- 
quent. Finally an agreement was effected, that 
continues to this day: there should be an an- 
nual pilgrimage of the two congregations, when 
interesting services were held. To many this 
was a sacred day, hallowed by the memories 
revived. After a few decades, the links be- 
tween the past and the present dropped out of 

the chain one by one, until the service is now 
one of duty. The old burial ground found there 
during the last two Centuries, with its many 
unkept graves on both sides of the "Chappel- 
run," has undergone a magic change. Family 
plats of g^round in regular order, marked by 
either the simple slab and simple inscription, 
or the imposing shaft and massive monuments, 
with brief histories of the many noted persons, are 
seen on every side, as the visitor stands 'neath 
the bending bough of the great forest giants, 
as they cast their shadows over this romantic 
and historic spot. The State and Church are 
well represented here. Men of four war periods 
lie under this sod. Family records note the burial 
place of some who have no mark at the grave 
to tell who the hero was. In recent years, the 
people of the adjoining communities honored 
themselves and their country by erecting a suit- 
able monument to the gallant Clarke soldiers 
who fell at their respective posts during the 
War between the States 1861-65; their names 
and branch of service artistically inscribed upon 
the sides of this shaft of honor — many of them 
well known to the author. On this shaft is 
the name of one that brings vividly to him a 
scene of carnage never to be effaced from the 
memory of those who witnessed it. This was 
Capt W\n. N. Nelson, who carried marks of 
the bullet that passed entirely through his breast, 
entailing lingering years of weakness and suf- 
fering. Many were dazed at his survival of 
the ghastly wound. The gallant, gentle chief- 
tan, saintly man, warm hearted friend, has an- 
swered the last call. While his comrades say 
peace to his ashes, all have fresh memory of 
his glorious deeds. 

In Beckford Parish, in South end of Old Fred- 
erick, the brick Church in the Village of Mid- 
dletown was erected through the efforts and 
liberality of such distinguished men as Strother 
Jones, Senr., and the three Hitc Families liv- 
ing in that vicinity. This Parish was supposed 
to be distinct from other parishes, but for many 
years the White Post Meade Memorial, Zion, 
and one other point formed a separate Parish; 
all these points ministered to by the same Min- 
ister. In recent years Middletown and Steph- 
ens City have been under the care of Christ 
Episcopal Church, or properly speaking, Win- 
chester parish, as Mission points. 


Parish of Hampshire 

The Episcopal Church had opportunities af- 
forded it by the Colonial Government in this 
Parish at a very early day. The Parish was 
formed in 1753, and every step taken to sup- 
port a ministry in that hill country. The tithes 
were laid and collected, and the church fund 
was ready, but Ministers failed to respond. In 
1771-72, three men were ordained in England for 
this work in Hampshire Parish, viz: Ogilvie, 
Manning, and Kenner. Bishop Meade says, "Mr. 
Manning alone ever reached there, the others 
settling in Parishes below the Ridge." Rev. Mr. 
Reynolds seems to have been the first Episcopal 
clergyman to officiate in marriage ceremonies 
in the parish, and this chiefly in that part later 
known as Hardy County; old family records 
show this. Later on, the names of Revs. Nor- 
man and Sylvester Nash celebrated marriages 
in the Episcopal form, as shown by family rec- 
ords. So these three seem to have been the only 
Ministers of the Established Church that made 
the venture to plant churches among the nu- 
merous Dissenters who held the hill country. 
The church records are without reference to 
the work of these Ministers, except that dur- 
ing the time of Mr. Nash's labors, he succeed- 
ed in building two log churches in the parish — 
no mention however of their location. Tradi- 
tion fixes Romney as one point. Mr. Sylvester 
Nash is accredited with having been instrumen- 
tal in building a brick Church at Romney in 
the place of the log church, and that his servi- 
ces were appreciated, but the interest waned, 
and he retired, and for many years other Min- 
isters went into this Parish and failed to accom- 
plish much. Rev. Dr. Walker says in an arti- 
cle he was kind enough to send the author, "I 
held mission services in the Romney Church 
prior to the Civil War, and it seemed to be un- 
certain who had the rights of use, the Presby- 
terians or my Church, for I had been informed 
that the building was the property of the Epis- 
copal Church, thus showing that very little had 
been done by the Episcopal Church prior to the 
mission work." The author has been informed 
by old citizens of Romney, daughters of Dr. 
Wm. H. Foote, that the brick church mentioned, 
was beyond a doubt the property of the Epis- 
copal Church, and at the time Dr. Walker held 

his mission services, the Presbyterians owned 
and used their own Church property, and never 
had any need for the use of the Episcopal 
Church building; but the Methodists used it 
for many years as their preaching place, and 
have always had the use of it. A Mr. Hedges 
and also Mr. Irish made efforts to keep alive 
the Episcopal services after Mr. Nash left the 
parish. Bishop Meade says, "Their efforts were 
unsuccessful; and we will not dispair of see- 
ing her old bare walls clothed again with gar- 
ments of praise, and a crown once more on her 
head." The Saintly Bishop never had his hopes 
realized, so far as the old brick building goes; 
but through some sublime mode, he may know 
that his sacred Episcopacy is enjoyed in the 
attractive church erected since the War in the 
old town in the vicinity of the Public Institu- 
tion, and has for years worn the crown he 
prayed for. 

Moorefield has its mark of progress for the 
Church, in its comfortable church property and 
increase of membership. 

Beckford Parish, heretofore mentioned as com- 
prising the Southern sections of the old Fred- 
erick Parish, embraced all of the country known 
as Shenandoah County. In the study of the 
origin and progress of the Episcopal Church in 
the Shenandoah section of Beckford Parish, the 
author has found much confusion. There is 
very little doubt as to the location of the first 
church. All writers agree that Woodstock was 
the central point for more than one Congrega- 
tion of Protestant Christians, a large Congre- 
gation of German Lutherans being the chief, dif- 
fering somewhat from what was known about 
that period as the Swedish Congregation. The 
country adjacent for many miles had been set- 
tled by what was generally supposed a sturdy 
class of Germans; but along with this German 
immigration came quite a number of Swedes, 
not differing materially from the Germans. So 
the Settlement was regarded as the German Set- 
tlement. In 1772, a number of persons had form- 
ed an independent Society and made an effort 
to have trustees appointed by the old Justices 
Court, to hold property for the use of the "Swed- 
ish Congregation," as they styled their organiza- 
tion. No differences between the two Congre- 




gations appear, all worshiping in the same build- 
ing. This state of affairs existed until the dark 
clouds of the Revolution appeared on the horizon. 
The old German Lutherans adhering strictly to 
their form of worship, the Swedes making some 
departure, and were holding separate services, 
observing the ritualistic forms. Just at this 
juncture, before any friction occurred in the 
large Congregation, there appeared in their 
midst one of the most remarkable men of that 
period, Rev. Peter Muhlenburg, a man equal 
to any emergency, as will be seen later on, a 
German, possessing all the peculiar traits that 
characterized the German settlers with whom 
he was to mingle; and also equipped with the 
rites and forms of worship that captivated the 
Swedish contingent^ Nothing more 'is heard 
of a separate organization. This young Minis- 
ter had received a training that fitted him for 
the critical condition existing in this Congre- 
gation. A student of German Lutheran Theol- 
ogy, ordained as a Minister by his own father, 
he had ministered to a Lutheran Church, and 
knew the needs of the German Lutherans. With- 
out forsaking his Creed, he had also been or- 
dained to the Ministry by a Bishop of the Es- 
tablished Church in England; and he had the 
rifi;ht given him to return to America and con- 
duct^ the Episcopal services. Thus equipped, he 
entered upon his memorable ministry at Wood- 
stock. His strong character was soon felt; and 
it is no wonder that he grasped the situation, 
and laid the foundation for the first Episcopal 
Church in Shenandoah County. Still, some con- 
fusion exists in relation to this Church. Episcopal 
Church writers always mention it as the Muhlen- 
burg Swedish Episcopal Church, and the Lutheran 
Church writers never show any reason why it 
could in any sense be other than Lutheran. Pro- 
minent descendants of the old Swedes have held 
tenaciously to the tenets of their fathers, and 
aided by other Episcopalians, succeeded after 
many failures, in placing the Church of their an- 
cestors on a firm foundation in that part of Old 
Beckford Parish. It seems strange, however, 
that while all other denominations made marvel- 
lous advances throughout all that region, that this 
branch of the church should fail in its efforts to 
plant churches in the section where the old Swe- 
dish Church had laid the foundation. Howe in 
his History of Virginia, mentions it as a fact 
coming under his own observation. "There was 
no Episcopal Church in that section in 1843, and 
the Town of Woodstock had only three Churches 
at that date, German Reformed, Lutheran and 
Methodist." Whatever the contention may be 

between the Lutherans and Episcopalians, in re- 
gard to the old Church in Woodstock, and what- 
ever claim cither may advance as to the Muhlen- 
burg Ministry, a perusal of the Deed for the 
Lots numbers 113 and 114, found recorded in 
Shenandoah County Qerk's Office, bearing date 
Sept. 27, 1774, should settle the question of vest- 
ed title to the church property— the grant being 
expressed in unmistakable language: "Doth by 
these presents alien and make over to the said 
Vestrymen of the said Parish of Beckford and 
their successors in office, on behalf of said Par- 
ish, * * * and for use and purpose of build- 
ing and supporting a Church for public Wor- 
ship." And as to his ministry, whether Episco- 
pal or Lutheran, his biographer, Dr. Henry 
Muhlenburg, whose wife was a granddaughter 
of Genl. Muhlenburg, and himself a grand- 
nephew, he should be accorded credit for what 
he writes of this Minister, over whom the con- 
tention arose. He says, "That in hunting for 
a Minister who could speak German, the name 
of a young Lutheran Minister, Peter Gabriel 
Muhlenburg, was suggested, and that the mem- 
bers of the Vestry of the Episcopal Church of 
Winchester, and Dr. Peters, of Philadelphia, 
offered to pay the expenses of young Muhlen- 
burg to England if he would be ordained an 
Episcopal Minister. Hugh Mercer and James 
Wood (the latter afterwards Governor of Va,), 
were the Vestrymen of Winchester who made 
the offer." The present church building is on 
the original site; was erected in 1882, and was 
consecrated while Rev. Wm. Walker was Pas- 
tor. Succeeding him in the following order were 
Rev. J. T. L. H3mes, Dr. James Grammar, 
Dabney C. C. Davis, and Wm. H. Darbe, the 
present Minister. The membership is small. 
The Parish embraces St. Andrews Church and 
Mt. Jackson, Va. As a matter of reference, the 
following is entered here in connection with the 
Episcopal Church. In other pages of this vol- 
ume, the subject of Glebe Lands is fully treat- 
ed. The Winchester Parish owned tracts of 
land from which the Minister received the rents 
and profits. Jany. 12, 1802, the Genl. Assembly 
directed the Overseers of the Poor to sell cer- 
tain of the Glebe Lands. Pursuant to an Amend- 
ment 1821, the Overseers of the Poor sold to 
David Castleman and Chas. McCandless, trus- 
tees, one of the Glebe tracts, on Feb. 4, 1822, 
containing 156 acres, price $3,930. This recital 
appears in the deed, "Whereas said tract had 
become vacant by death of Rev. Alexander Bal- 
main, D.D., which took place i6th June, 1821." 
This land had been held by the Minister, Church 
Wardens and Vestry for many years. 


The Lutheran Church 

The Planting of Lutheranism in Old Freder- 
ick County, Va., presents a subject of no ordi- 
nary interest to any writer who desires to em- 
body in a brief sketch an outline history of its 
first appearance with the white man in the wil- 
derness West of the Blue Ridge. In the very 
earliest court records, petitions came up from 
certain German Lutheran Settlements for the 
opening of roads. Two of these Settlements 
seemed so remote from each other, that the 
conclusion often forces itself upon the gleaner 
of incidents from the old records, that they had 
but little intercourse with each other. Indeed, 
it often appears that they entered the Valley 
from different points, one of these being Funk's 
Settlement near the site of the present town of 
Strasburg. They were struggling to have a road 
from their Settlement to Orange Court House; 
and later for a ferry across Sherando River, and 
also a road to the county seat of Frederick 
County. Strange coincidences here. Borden's 
Settlement in the North end of the county want- 
ed a road from Operkon Creek to the ferry on 
the Cohongoruta River, and also from their set- 
tlement, crossing Mill Creek to the county scat 
of Frederick County. Tradition fixes no very 
early date for church services at either of these 
Settlements, and the county records show the 
names of Funk and Borden to be of the very 
I first persons holding land as Homesteads in the 
' new County; and same records show their signa- 
tures in German. So it plainly appears that these 
German settlers planted their religious creed 
along with their log cabins; and so thoroughly 
lived their religion that they were easily dis- 
tinguished as German Lutheran Settlements. 
No county record reveals the name of any min- 
ister at that early day conducting Gospel ser- 
vices in these Settlements. As to who they were, 
the author must rely upon such authority as 
the Church affords, in its own irregular his- 
tory covering the latter half of the i8th Cen- 
tury. The writer, in his effort to compile his- 
torical events relating to this church, makes no 
claim to present anything new to the clergy or 
even to the laity, for it is well known that much 
has been written and said by those competent 
in every way to present details of the rise and 
progress of the Lutheran Church, much of it 

in most attractive form; but the writer was 
much embarrassed in his effort to obtain de- 
tails, to learn that only a few persons could pro- 
duce the reliable sketches, written by Rev. Drs. 
Gilbert and Krauth, that were so full of infor- 
mation concerning the church they had served 
so faithfully in various fields. Their ministry 
and their brief attractive sketches go hand in 
hand, and should be revered as treasures for 
their church. The author could have rendered 
satisfactory service to the church and the coun- 
try by reproducing the memorable discourses of 
the ministers just mentioned and thus have them 
preserved in this publication, and probable cir- 
culation. The records of the Lutheran Synod 
of Virginia, are not as full and satisfactory as 
they should be; — indeed, such records give evi- 
dence of carelessness and a lack of knowledge 
concerning the importance of preserving church 
history. This does not simply apply to the old 
fathers who were making history for the pop- 
ulation of all these counties, but it applies in a 
great measure to these generations. They have 
learned to know the value of preserving histori- 
cal events, yet they fail in many cases to record 
incidents that will be sought for by those who 
follow us. 

Consulting Sprague's Annals of the Lutheran 
Pulpit, we have some light thrown on an im- 
portant feature in the history of this Church. It 
appears that the Lutheran Church was not only 
planted in the North end of the Old County at 
New Mecklenburg, but had a house of Worship 
there in 1760, and a regular pastor in 1776, in 
the person of Rev. Mr. Bauer. This was about 
the time the German Lutheran Church was es- 
tablished in Shenandoah County, which had been 
part of Frederick. No evidence that either of 
these points had the services of a regularly or- 
dained minister. The church records observe 
complete silence when any reference is made to 
Lutheran Congregations, as to who the minis- 
ters were, and except for the contents found in 
the old comer-stone of the old Lutheran Church 
in Winchester, none would know who laid the 
foundations of the historic old Stone Church. 
And strange to say, no other church record shows 
the name of the minister who officiated on that 
occasion. The Synodical record shows that a 




German Lutheran Congregation was in an or- 
ganized state in 1762 at Winchester, and makes 
a brief note, stating "that upon their application 
they were received into regular Synodical con- 
nection with the Synod of Pennsylvania." This 
Synod was the only Lutheran Ecclesiastical body 
in the Country. The records of this Congre- 
gation — found in the Comer-stone, — may have 
mentioned many things of interest relating to 
the planting of this Church in the Village of 
Winchester. None have been preserved so far 
as known, except the valuable document which 
gives in full the names of the founders of the 
church they proposed to build, and also the date 
of the beginning of this great work, as well as 
a declaration of their principles as fearless and 
determined men holding the faith of Martin 
Luther. This document which has been so care- 
fully preserved in all these years, is given at 
this point in full in the English translation; 
the original is written in Latin, and not in Ger- 
man, as has been stated by several writers. 

"In the name of God the Father, Son and 
Holy Ghost, Amen. 

The foundations of this Temple, by the Grace 
of God, were laid in the year of Christ 1764, 
on the Sixteenth day of April. The Hearers 
and Founders of this Temple are all and each 
members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
at this time residing in this City of Winchester, 
to-wit: Thomas Schmidt, Nicholas Schrack, 
Christopher Henockel, David Deitrick, Chris- 
topher Weteel, Peter Helfenstein, George Michael 
Laubinger, Heinrich Becker, Jacob Braun, Ste- 
phen Franckel, Christopher Altrilk, (this name 
was afterwards Aldrich and Eldridge, as old 
records show) Tobias Otto, Eberhard Doring, 
Andreas Friedly, Christopher Heintz, Imanuel 
Buger, Donald Heizel, Jacob Trautvein, Joh Sig- 
mond Haenh, Johannas Lemly, Johannes Lentz, 
Christian Schumacher, Michael Roger, Michael 
Waring, Christopher Lambert, Samuel Wendel, 
Michael Gluck, Julius Spickert, Balthaser Po, 
Jacob Koppenhaber, (Copenhaver) Heinrich 
Weller, under whose care and inspection and at 
whose expense this Temple is built. 

At that time bore rule George III, King of 
Great Britain, Our most Clement Master, and 
his Officers and Governors in Virginia, Francis 
Fauquier in Williamsburg, presiding with high- 
est authority, and Thomas Fairfax Chief Mag- 
istrate of this whole District, at that time re- 
siding not far from this City, who has given 
to us gratuitously and of good will two lots of 
ground, embracing one acre, for Sacred uses. 

This Temple has been Consecrated to the Tri- 
une God and to the Evangelical Lutheran Re- 
ligion alone; all sects whatever name they may 

bear and all others, who either dissent from or 
do not fully assent to our Evangelical Lutheran 
Religion, being forever excluded: 

As a permanent record of which to our pos- 
terity this paper is here placed, and has been 
deposited for everlasting remembrance in this 
Comer-Stonc ; 

Drawn up in Winchester April i6th MDCC- 

Johann Casper Kirchner, At that time Minis- 
ter of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Scribe Ludwig Adams, 
Anthony Ludi, School-Master in City." 

Efforts have been made to discover what re- 
lation Rev. Kirchner bore to this Congregation, 
whether he was regular Pastor, or only a visi- 
tor requested to attend these special services. 
No church reveals anything more than his sig- 
nature to this document. Dr. Gilbert says in 
his pamphlet on the "Fathers of the Church," 
that he was Pastor of the first Lutheran Church 
in Baltimore in 1762, and that he died in 1773. 
Dr. Gilbert adds "I am unable to produce any 
other record of this Minister, whose name is 
given as the first Lutheran Minister to appear 
in the Shenandoah Valley. It will be enquired 
by some who may chance to read these pages, 
how were the old Congregations maintained by 
any regular service, so as to preserve their Or- 
ganization and be able to enjoy the Gospel ser- 
vice of the Faderland? No Minister to give a 
Shepherd's care in all these years! Yes, this 
sounds strange to the Churches of to-day. Not 
many could survive the peculiar conditions ex- 
isting in those old Congregations for thirty 
years. It must be remembered, however, that 
wherever a Lutheran Congregation was found, 
there was their cherished "Augsburg Confession," 
and like the "Shorter Catechism and Confession of 
Faith" has been to the Presbyterian in his exile, 
it was a guide to them for all things. The Luth- 
eran Church had in its old Constitution, ample 
provision for the School-Master of the Settle- 
ment, in the absence of the Minister, to con- 
duct Gospel services and perform duties in the 
burial service. He was also "enabled for proper 
observance of Worship at stated times;" and 
when accessions were made to their member- 
ship, there is but little doubt that such men as 
are named in the record found in the comer- 
stone of the old Stone Church on the eastern 
side of the little "City," in 1764, were fully ca- 
pable of testing the fitness of all who desired 
to become one of their number. And may it 
not be accepted as a fact, that all these Luth- 
eran Congregations that preserved their Or- 
ganizations for so many years without the pas- 



toral care of any minister were bands of Chris- 
tians well worthy the service of such men as 
Bauer, Streit and Muhlenburg when they came 
with regular Church Orders, to accept Calls 
made for their services. Bauer at Mecklen- 
burg, 1776; Muhlenburg at Woodstock, and Streit 
at Winchester, 1785. Between the years 1770 and 
1776, some missionary work was done in the Low- 
er Valley by Rev. J. C. Hartwick, Henry Moellcr, 
and C. F. Wildbahn. County records show that 
Trustees held a lot in Stephensburg 1770, for 
the use of the German Lutheran Cong^regation ; 
and Church notes show they had a log house 
on this lot. Old deeds show that adjoining lot 
owners had lines to adjoin the graveyard; and 
church records show that a brick church was 
erected on the old site in 1813. Some may en- 
quire at this point, who were these regular pas- 
tors who came to these congregations, and what 
did they do to distinguish them from many other 
men? The names of Muhlenburg and Streit 
have grown familiar to each succeeding genera- 
tion; and the writer hopes to make them more 
so to the readers of this volume in other chap- 
ters. At this point it is proper to set forth what 
the ministers found awaiting them at their re- 
spective locations. Mr. Bauer, when he took 
charge at Shephcrdstown in 1776, found the 
Congregation well organized and worshiping 
in their peculiar way without a regular minister, 
in a building comfortable and suitable for church 
purposes, which the new Pastor and Congrega- 
tion dedicated for church services. Services 
were conducted in this church by succeeding pas- 
tors until 1795, when the comer stone for a new 
church was laid with imposing ceremonies. Rev. 
David Young having assumed the pastors work, 
labored acceptably for several years. He died 
in 1801, after a protracted illness. His minis- 
trations were strictly to the English style which 
became popular; perhaps some of the good old 
German Lutherans felt the effect too much; and 
this may account for the appearance among 
them in 1802 of a new pastor with the unmistak- 
able German form of worship, if the name is 
any index to his view of what service this Con- 
gregation should have to cure what disaffection 
had crept in through the English form; so Rev. 
Mr. Gausinske undertook to give his lessons in 
German. But the little English leaven was too 
much for him to overcome; his short stay only 
fanned the flame that had started, and he soon 
left the field. The Church suffered with these 
useless dissensions for years. During this time, 
Rev. Mr. Rabonack, another German, tried the 
field for about two years; he gave way to a Mr. 
Kehler, who combined the English and German, 
but failed in less than one year. Fortunately on 

the first day of July, 1819, Rev. C. P. Krauth, 
whose reputation as a sublime Christian Min- 
ister had long since been known to this Congre- 
gation, accepted their call and preached an 
effective sermon in pure English; and his daily 
contact with the people soon won their confi- 
dence, and gradually the storm abated and good 
fellowship prevailed, and for the eight years 
of his service, the Church took new life; the 
English service was fully established, and has 
been maintained to this day. After Dr. Krauth's 
retirement in 1827, the Church has prospered 
under thq ministry of Revs. Mcdtart, Weir, 
Martin, Speecher, Seiss, and several others. The 
Church is considered strong in the Virginia 
Synod of to-day. 

The next in order of the trio of Ministers 
mentioned, is Rev. Peter Gabriel Muhlenburg. 
He arrived at Woodstock when the church to 
which he had been called— like the country, 
had some unrest that bordered on dissensions. 
As we have seen in the sketch of the Episcopal 
Church, there were two distinct sects in the 
Congregation — the Swedish being one, and the 
German Lutheran the other; the former desir- 
ing more ritualism in the service. Both had 
certain forms; and a disinterested observer once 
remarked, "It was plain they had a distinction, 
but he failed to see the difference." There was 
a difference however, which was being felt by 
this large body of people, with no shepherd to 
take oversight. Just at this juncture came Muh- 
lenburg, fully equipped to meet the emergency. 
Doubtless he was a Lutheran like his father, 
but he had conceived the idea that he could be 
more effective in his ministry if he had church 
orders bestowed on him by the Established 
Church; — at least he would not be embarrassed 
or hindered in his service by any Vestry, who 
seemed to think in that day that their duty was 
to annoy other churches, instead of devoting 
themselves to their own and exercising proper 
influence over the struggling membership, and 
providing suitable edifices for their own people 
to worship in. Mr. Muhlenburg was not dis- 
turbed by any Vestry. He knew the wants of 
the German Lutherans, and was well fitted to 
serve the Swedish faction. He proved himself 
able to cope with the conflict, and all went well, 
differences subsided, and his brief ministry has 
been a wonder and a puzzle to many, — how he 
could lay the foundation for an Episcopal Church, 
and serve the Lutherans so acceptably. From 
the time he laid aside his church vestures and 
donned the uniform of an officer in the great 
struggle for freedom from British tyranny, he 
has been claimed by both Churches as their 
Minister; and as he never returned to the min- 



istry when hostilities ceased, none will ever 
know what he was. The Congregations at Wood- 
stock and other points in Dunmore County, had 
great reverence for his good deeds and useful 
and successful ministry. The churches, of course, 
suffered loss during the Revolutionary War, 
with no pastor for any of the neighboring church- 
es. Many of the best members entered their 
countr/s service; many of them never returned. 
In 1790, Rev. Paul Henkel came from his native 
State, North Carolina, and began a ministry 
in several vacant churches. Beginning where 
New Market was soon to become a village, Mr. 
Henkel seemed to have the whole of Shenan- 
doah as a mission field for several years. No 
regular minister had charge of the Woodstock 
Church until 1829, when the first Convention 
was held that year. Dr. Gilbert says this was 
August lo-iith, and mentions Rev. J. Nicho- 
las Schmucker, of the Woodstock and Stras- 
burg Charge, also the Laity was Jacob Ott, of 
Woodstock, and Lawrence Pitman, of Mt. Jack- 
son. Nov. 5th, 1838, Rev. J. B. Davis was or- 
dained at Strasburg. Dr. Gilbert says that 
Messrs. D. F. Bittle and Isaac Baker had been 
recommended as suitable persons for licensure 
and obtained the same. According to the best 
Church records, the churches in Shenandoah dur- 
ing all the years prior to 1850, received very 
irregular service, very few mim'sters appearing 
in the churches, and no record to show any 
Stated Pastor. For more than forty years the 
Church has prospered throughout the Shenandoah 
section, seeming to take new life after the Civil 
War. The next of the trio is Rev. Christian 
Streit, who had settled in Winchester on the 
19th day of July, 1785, according to Wolfe in 
his interesting work, The Lutherans of Amer- 
tea. Mr. Streit had seen service in the Revolu- 
tionary War as Chaplain, and was taken pris- 
oner by the British while he was pastor at 
Charleston, South Carolina. Mr. Streit in his 
new field, assumed the pastoral oversight of a 
large congregation of sincere and devoted Luth- 
erans, but of such admixture of German and 
English, that he was confronted with grave re- 
sponsibilities, and was embarrassed somewhat 
by lack of proper place of worship; for stand- 
ing out in bold relief were the massive bare 
walls of the new Stone Church, whose corner- 
stone had been laid i6th day of June, 1764; and 
now full 21 years had passed and the building 
was unfinished. No adornments, not even win- 
dows or doors. The unfinished building indi- 
cated a state of affairs in this Congregation that 
was enough to discourage some men. Mr. Streit 
at once set to work to know the cause of this 
long delay of completion. One good reason was 

the six years of war that had unhinged every- 
thing in the country, — even the power of King 
George. The building had been used as bar- 
racks for soldiers, as they occasionally assem- 
bled at Winchester for formation of the new 
regiments. (The Author will say at this point, 
this building could not have been used as bar- 
racks for Genl. Braddock's Regiments, as claim- 
ed by some writers, going so far in one case as 
to say, "Genl. Braddock was attracted by its 
peculiar location, situated on an eminence that 
commanded a view of the surrounding country, 
he appropriated it for his Head Qrs. ; and in this 
building he and Col. Washington planned the 
march and details of the campaign which was 
to end in his death and disaster to his splendid 
army," — all of which must of course be noth- 
ing more than the fanciful touch of a reckless 
pen for magazine articles. As is well known, 
the foundation of this building had not been 
selected, even, when Braddock was in the vil- 
lage in I7S5)- 

The spirit that prompted the old Germans in 
'64, to lay the foundation of the massive struc- 
ture, seemed lacking in the people that Mr. 
Streit found in '85; and he was compelled to 
preach his first sermon as Pastor on Sunday, 
July 25th, 1785, in the old log church on the 
same hill, the building which had for years been 
used alternately by the Reformed Calvanist and 
German Lutheran Congregations. Mr. Streit 
soon learned that the former were the real own- 
ers of the property; and he at once stirred a 
lively spirit in his congregation; the result be- 
ing that all sprang to the work of completion, 
and together with a Lottery scheme provided 
for by an Act of the Genl. Assembly, 1788, they 
secured funds sufficient, not only for the com- 
pletion and adornment of the church, but to 
justify an order for two bells to be cast in 
Germany; and later on in 1793 the spire went 
up; and in 1795, an organ was purchased. Mr. 
Streit had his congregation comfortably seated 
1789 in what has been known for more than a 
Century as the Old Stone Church on the Hill. 
All this proved his wonderful efficiency; and 
his long pastorate made it possible for this 
church to attain the prominence it has held for 
the last century. It must be remembered that 
Mr. Streit had all the requirements needed for 
his great work, his learning, piety, energy, and 
youthful vigor, together with his supreme integ- 
rity, secured the devotion of his entire congre- 
gation. He preached able, sincere and often 
eloquent sermons, either in the German or Eng- 
lish, as seemed to him desirable — which marked 
him as a man who commanded the respect and 
esteem of all, regardless of creed or social status. 



His pastorate continued until his death, which 
occurred loth March, 1812, lacking a few months 
to make it 27 years, that he had served this 
congregation. His old diary shows that he 
preached 386 times during the first three years — 
156 at Winchester, 58 at Stone's Chapel, 52 at 
Newtown, 26 at Strasburg, 28 at Old Furnace, 
26 at Pine Hills, (Bethel) 6 at Capon, 4 at Wiarm 
Springs, (Whitehall) and 30 at various places 
in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. The 
author as Clerk of Court, was often called upon 
to give certificates of marriages of the old an- 
cestors, and name of the minister celebrating 
the ceremony. The name of Christian Street 
appearing so often, he has recently taken the 
trouble to find how many marriages were sol- 
emnized by him. The first marriage was that 
of Wm. Law and Mary Peterson, Oct 5th, 1785. 
The last marriage was that of Adam Haymaker 
and Sally Grim, Dec 2Sth, 181 1. During that 
time he officiated at 617 marriages. 

Rev. Abram Reck succeeded Mr. Streit Jany. 
1st, 1813. During his pastorate, the church build- 
ing had many changes. The old style high pul- 
pit which occupied the East side like a high 
loft, or miniature tower, was reduced in height 
and set up on the South end. The spire was then 
found to be in the wrong place and it was re- 
built in 1821. The church provided for a manse 
for their pastor, by converting the old stone 
school-house which for many years had stood 
on the northwest corner of the church lot, into 
a comfortable dwelling. Here Mr. Reck resided 
during the remainder of his ministry, which 
terminated in 1827. The church was much dis- 
turbed during his ministry by reason of his 
inability to convince many of his members of 
the wrongs they were charging to others. Counter 
charges prevailed; and the Pastor found it best 
to resign. They needed a Streit at the helm. 
The disaffection was afflictive, but since it was 
an affair of this church, and not that of this 
generation, there is no need of giving any rea- 
sons for their trials. While they were gfrievous 
and hard to bear, there came a man in 1828 — 
Rev. Lewis Eichelberger, who succeeded in bring- 
ing the church back to its safe moorings ; and for 
years his good counsel and faithful service not 
only renewed the life of the old Congregation, 
but tightened the cords and strengthened the 
stakes of every Lutheran point in the county. 
In 1833 he resigned his charge of the Winchester 
Church, so that he might give more time to the 
other charges, with whom he laboured for many 
years. Many persons still living, can, and do, 
recall his successful work in this field, from 
mountain to river. 

Rev. N. W. Goertner having accepted a call 

from this Church, became the Pastor, preach- 
ing his first sermon Feby. ist, 1834- While his 
sermons were good and his service faithful, 
there was an apparent lack of harmony between 
pastor and people. Perhaps his doctrine was 
more Calvinistic than Lutheran; and discover- 
ing this himself, he resigned in 1836, and later 
on connected himself with the Presbyterian 
Church. Rev. Mr. Stork, a young man of much 
promise, preached his first sermon as pastor 
of this church Oct. 9th, 1837. Rev. J. R. Keisee 
succeeded Mr. Stork in 1843, serving as pastor 
during 1843, when he resigned. The church had 
become strong both financially and numerically. 
A strong feeling had shown itself for several 
years among a certain class of the congrega- 
tion, to make changes, to acconunodate a senti- 
ment for a down town church. This was ob- 
jected to, of course, by the dder members who 
had an equally strong sentiment to cling to the 
Old Stone Church on the Hill. Compromises, 
however, were made, and the Council decided 
to provide a lecture-room at some convenient 
place down town to be used for night services, 
Sunday school, etc. Before proceeding to erect 
the room for lecture service, it became apparent 
that the demands for a change of location must 
be met; and the congregation decided in the 
latter part of 1839 to purchase the lot on Water 
St, where the present church now stands. On 
this lot work was started in the summer of 1840 
to build a lecture-room. The trustees received 
further instructions from the congregation and 
the original plans were changed, and one adopt- 
ed that would give a building suitable for all 
church purposes. During the erection of the 
new church, the older members were becoming 
reconciled to the change; and when the day came 
for the dedication of the new church home that 
had cost the congregation nearly $7,000; it was 
stated in a local newspaper of that date, "The 
entire congregation was present and gave evi- 
dence of their approval of the great change 
they had made." Rev. F. W. Conrad preached 
the dedicatory sermon on the first Sunday in 
Jany. 1843. No record shows who filled the 
pulpit in the new church during the following 
Spring and Summer. Rev. J. Few Smith was 
installed Nov. i, 1843. He was a man of abil- 
ity; and his ministry was fruitful of much good. 
After nearly five years service, he resigned, much 
to the regret of the congregation, who spread 
upon their minutes their appreciation of his 
pastorate. Mr. Smith entered the ministry of 
the Presbyterian Church, and was noted for his 
eloquence and power. The new church was 
now at that point where she entered upon her 
great career, which she has maintained to this. 



day. April gth, 1848^ Rev. C. P. Krauth be- 
came their Pastor and remained as such until 
in the Autumn of 1855. Mr. Krauth's success- 
ful services to this church were such as could 
be expected from a man of his endowments. 
His learning and devotion to the duties of his 
sacred office, gave him a hold upon the affec- 
tions of the congregation which never lost its 
influence. It was during Dr. Krauth's ministry— 
185a that many costly improvements were made 
to the edifice— an imposing bell-tower was erect- 
ed for the old bell which was brought from the 
old stone building, and there it is in use at this 
writing. The writer remembers well when the 
new pipe organ gave forth its first volume of 
music to the large waiting congregation. It was 
quite an event at that time for a church to in- 
vest the large sum of $i,ooa for such purposes- 
total expenditures about $3,ooa The following 
year the church continued its evidence of pros- 
perity, in the purchase of a home for their pas- 
tor on Loudoun St., due West from the Jail. 

The year 1854 was one of historic interest 
to the Lutheran Church of Winchester. She 
seemed to have almost reached the zenith of 
her glorious progress. The large congregation 
had come up through many tribulations, and 
were happy and prosperous in their new home 
on Boscowan St, well equipped for every ser- 
vice. Their faithful pastor, after years of anx- 
iety and service, was safely housed in the com- 
fortable Manse; pastor and congregation enjoy- 
ing their occasional pilgrimages to the old Stone 
Church on the Hill, which had furnished a home 
for the fathers and succeeding generations, 
through many well remembered episodes. Their 
cup of joy was well nigh full, — ^the old stone 
bulwark standing as it were a sentinel, to not 
only give watch over the new edifice and as- 
sembling congregations on each recurring Sab- 
bath, as her old bell sent forth her musical call 
for service, but also as the guardian and keep- 
er of the sacred grounds where their loved ones 
had been gathered for their eternal sleep. The 
glare of the mid-day sun and tornado storms 
produced no change in the old guardian. Dwell- 
ers in the town below g^ew to feel that it was 
an imperishable land-mark dear to all; little 
dreaming that the hour was near at hand when 
sombre clouds would cast their shadows over 
not only this happy congregation, but the en- 
tire community would be aroused to a sense of 
irreparable loss. The night of Sept. 27th, 1854, 
became memorable as the time when from some 
unknown cause, the old stone land-mark was 
destroyed by fire. The great stone wall crum- 
bled on the North, South and East sides, leaving 
the West wall to mark the spot where sacred 

services were held, and where sacred ashes had 
lain for a half Century. The entire population 
was so stirred over their loss, that Dr. Krauth 
made the incident the subject of a discourse 
on the third Sabbath in Oct, 1854, so full of 
pathos, eloquence, and reflex of the feeling of 
the assembled community, that it has been treas- 
ured through all the passing years. At the ear- 
nest solicitation of the people of every Creed 
through their representatives, as will be seen 
in the following correspondence. The Address 
was published in pamphlet form, Dr. Krauth 
chose as his Text— ''Our holy and beautiful 
house, where our Fathers praised Thee, is burn- 
ed up with fire,— Isaiah UCIV, 11." 


Winchester, Va., Oct 35th, 1854. 

Rev. C. p. Ksauth, 

Dear Sir, We desire to express the pleasure 
which we in common with a very large audi- 
ence, derived from the instructive and beati- 
tiful discourse delivered by yoti on Sunday last 
and suggested by the burning of the venerable 
edifice to which every citizen of our town has 
been attached by strong ties from infancy. We 
but express a general wish, when we ask that 
you would place in our hands a copy of your 
discourse for publication. It is the more proper 
that you should comply, from the fact that such 
an event deserves to be made memorable, and 
such a building, with so many hallowed asso- 
ciations clustering about it, should not perish 
without the perpetuation of its history in a form 
durable and worthy of the theme. We say no 
more than it merits, when we add that your 
discourse was eminently worthy of the subject, 
We are, with high regard, your friends, 
WiLUAM Miller J. R. Tucker 

jAa» Baker Ja Tidball 

Thos. B. Campbell H. J. Mesmer 

RoBT B. Holliday J. S. Carson 

F. W. M. Holliday" T. A. Tidball . 

''Lutheran Parsonage, Winchester, Va. 
J. R. Tucker Esq., and others. 

Gentlemen — I am not less willing to conunit 
the discourse you so kindly ask for publication, 
because I feel that your estimate of it is one of 
the heart and not of the judgment I meant 
but to lay a garland on an Altar, and I thank 
you that your reverence of the memories to 
which I meant to do homage, has given value 
to so inadequate an offering, 

I am truly and gratefully yours 

Charles P. Krauttt 

. The author is indebted to the publicatic:« 7e- 
ferred to, for much valuable data as his i.'iide 



The German Reformed Church in Frederick County 

This Church in the early settlement of Old 
Frederick County, was known as the "Reformed 
Calvinists Congregation." Old Orders of Court 
and other public records, mention no other name 
for this Church; and the Church records men- 
tion them as the Reformed CalzHnist Ministry 
from the Palatinate, Germany. Their local Church 
record shows that their first Gospel services were 
held in the Opcckon, where at that time, 1743, 
was forming a nucleus of a village known as 
Opecquon, for many years— certainly as late as 
1770. In the immediate vicinity, quite a number 
of Presbyterian families were there as early as 
1736. Mr. Hoge conveyed them a lot (as shown 
elsewhere) of ground to erect a Meeting House 
on, and soon thereafter conveyed a lot for the 
"Graveyard" — the boundaries being given, "That 
it adjoins the lot whereon the Meeting House 
now stands." No record to show that the Re- 
formed Calvinists had any claim upon this or 
any lot in "Opecquon." Tradition has always 
shown that they worshipped where the Presby- 
terians worshipped — Indeed, it was the same place 
where the Quakers had quarterly meetings for 
years and continued to meet until the points 
of Hopewell and Crooked Run, were adopted as 
place for "Meetings." It is unfortunate that the 
reckless writer will appear so often on such in- 
teresting subjects, which leads to confusion and 
misapprehension. Quoting the language found 
in a publication bearing the date 1890, the reader 
will have before him what is termed "An histo- 
rical fact about this Church:" "The crumbling 
foundation of the little Stone Church near Kerns- 
town is supposed to be the locality where this 
Congregation Worshipped. The Church was 
abandoned in 1753-4 when a Presbyterian Con- 
gregation occupied it, and by long occupation 
by them it has since been known as a Church of 
that denomination." If the reader will turn to 
the sketch of the Presbyterian Church in this 
volume he will find facts derived from the most 
reliable records, concerning the origin of the Old 
Opeckon Church — and a description of the old 
grounds, graveyard, etc. In the article just 
quoted, the writer deals in supposition; and is 
in error when speaking of the "little stone 
church." If he had seen the foundation of those 
crumbled walls, he never could have made this 

statement. The marks of the old foundation are 
plain at this writing. There he could have seen 
where the largest stone church in all the region, 
had stood for ages. Such statements do injustice 
to the noble band of Christians known as the 
Reformed Calvinists, who have ever maintained 
their reputation for integrity, sincere and un- 
varnished religion, and devotion to their me- 
thods. This Church has never wavered in her 
march through all the past; never at any time 
having a large Congregation, but always able to 
preserve their individuality among her sister 
Churches, with whom cordial relations existed 
at all times. The Fathers in the early lays wor- 
shipped at several other points in the Old County, 
one being at what is now called Old Furnace, 
St. John's where for many years they and the 
German Lutherans had joint ownership in a lot 
of ground near the site of the present church at 
that point. The place was then called "Zane," 
and the lot long since has formed part of the 
cemetery lot adjoining. Another point was 
Stone's Chapel, which was for many years 
prior to 1793 known as Jacob's church, and 
supposed to have been the property of the Re- 
formed Calvinists and Lutherans. The deed sasrs 
"To the Calvinists and Lutheran Societies." The 
Presbyterians and Calvinists were regarded by 
all as the same body of Christians ; and when the 
deed was found by the writer, the Reformed 
Calvinists yielded, and have not raised the point 
since. The first evidence of this Congregation 
having Church services in Winchester, was very 
soon after 1753; for it was in that year they 
secured a deed from Lord Fairfax for the 
ground forming the site of their first church 
building which conveyance is dated May 15, 1753, 
and for Lots No. 82 and 83. This seems to be 
the only Deed that can be produced by any 
Church in the Lower Valley in which Lord Fair- 
fax was grantor. The author has instituted 
search through every available source— county 
records as well as State and Church, and has had 
the aid of competent and experienced persons. 
The old records kept by Lord Fairfax at Green- 
way Court, were removed to the Office of Regis- 
ter of Lands in Richmond after his death, and 
there they have been carefully filed and preserved, 
and special effort was made to find deeds to 




other church property, and none could be found. 
As this is the only one found, it is well to have 
it appear in this connection. Why the trustees 
named should have been more fortunate than 
their neighbours, is not shown. Some have 
claimed that his Lordship was one of the Re- 
formed Calvinists, and this is why he singled 
them out Fairfax was not inclined to make such 
instruments; he preferred to appear as the Lord 
Proprietor, and where he allowed privileges of this 
character, he refrained from dealing with Church 
sites, burial grounds, etc., as he did with indivi- 
duals. The latter were required to show his 
papers, or be ejected. 

"The Right Honourable, Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
Baron of Cameron in that part of Great Britain 
called Scotland Proprietor of the Northern Neck 
of Virginia, To all to whom this writing shall 
come sends Greeting. Whereas Messrs. Philip 
Bush, Daniel Bush, Henry Brinker, Jacob Sow- 
ers, and Frederick Conrad of Frederick County, 
having set forth to my Office in behalf of the 
Reformed Calvinists, that Lotts Numbered (82) 
and (83) in the addition to the Town of Win- 
chester in the Said County are conveniently sit- 
uated for erecting and building a Meeting house 
for the use of the said Congregation, Know ye 
that for the causes aforesaid for and in con- 
sideration of the annual Rents and Covenants 
herein after reserved and Expressed I have 
given, granted and confirmed and by these pres- 
ents for me, my Heirs and Assigns, Do give, grant 
and confirm unto the said Philip Bush, Daniel 
Bush, Henry Brinker, Jacob Sowers and Fred- 
erick Conrad, as Trustees appointed by the said 
Congregation the said recited Lotts of land for 
the use aforesaid and for no other purpose what- 
soever as bounded by a survey and Piatt of the 
said addition made by Mr. John Bayliss as fol- 
lows, on the Southern side by Philpott Lane, on 
the Westw'd end by East Lane, on the Northern 
side by Abbchurch Lane, on the Eastw'd end by 
the East line of the said addition— To have and 
to hold the said Recited Lotts of land No. (82) 
and (83) Together with all and singular the Ap- 
purtenances thereunto belonging. To them the 
said Daniel Bush, Philip Bush, Henry Brinker, 
Jacob Sowers and Frederick Conrad and Suc- 
cessors for ever they the said Philip Bush, Da- 
niel Bush, Henry Brinker, Jacob Sowers and 
Frederick Conrad and their Successors appointed 
Trustees as aforesaid, therefore yielding and pay- 
ing to me, my Heirs and Assigns or to my cer- 
tain Attorney or Attorneys Agent or Agents or 
to the certain Attorney or Attorneys of my Heirs 
or Assigns, Proprietors of the said Northern Neck 
yearly and every year on the feast day of St 
Michael the Archangel the fee rent or sum of 
Ten Shillings Sterling money for the Said Lotts 

of land. Provided that if the Said Philip Bush, 
Daniel Bush, Henry Brinker, Jacob Sowers and 
Frederick Conrad and their Successors shall not 
pay the said Reserved annual as aforesaid, so 
that the same or any part thereof shall be 
behind or unpaid by the space of thirty days next 
after same shall become due if Legally demanded, 
that then it shall and may be lawful for me, my 
Heirs or Assigns, Proprietors as aforesaid, my 
or their certain Attorney or Attorneys, Agent or 
Agents into the above granted premises to Re- 
enter and hold the same so as if this Grant had 
never passed. Given under my hand and Seal, 
Dated the fifteenth day of May in the twenty- 
sixth year of his Majesty King George the 
Second Reign, A. D., one thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty three 

Registered in the Proprietors Office 
In Book L folio 75 


No record has been found to give the exact 
location of the first building erected on the lots. 
Tradition, and Church records fully establish the 
fact, that the first building was in the most pri- 
mitive style, and was in use by the Reformed 
Calvinists and Lutheran Congregations as early 
as 1758. By reference to the sketch of the Luth- 
eran Church, it will be seen — Rev. Mr. Streit 
preached in this church in 1785; and it was 
known at the time as the Old Log Church, not 
far away from the unfinished structure known 
afterwards as the Old Stone Church. The loca- 
tion of the lots is easily found by reference to 
the records, situated on the eastern part of the 
Village of Winchester, bounded by Philpot Lane 
and East Lane. Who the Ministers were who 
preached for this Congregation from the erection 
of the log Meeting-House to about 1790, is not 
known to any of the membership of the present 
congregation. It is well established that Mission- 
aries of this faith preached at various times 
throughout the Valley for many years after the 
first settlement Such traveling ministers were 
careful to keep note of their work and travels in 
pocket diaries. These have been preserved by 
the Church in some way, but are not always ac- 
cessible. A prominent Minister of this Church 
related "To the Author" many interesting in- 
cidents embraced in those notes, pertaining to 
the eariy life of the Reformed Calvinists along 
the waters of the Sherando River, that prove 
entertaining to the reader; but inasmuch as his 
informant had never seen these valuable "pocket 
diaries" — these pages need not be cumbered with 
what may appear doubtful to some readers. 

The Winchester Church from about 1790, un- 
dertook through the efforts of several enter- 
prising ministers, to preserve a record of the 
church, and some of the recorded incidents 



would be interesting to all. Rev. G. M. Schney- 
der seems to have been the first regular Pastor, 
at least the record kept by himself or Rev. Willey 
for the years 1790 and 1800 inclusive indicate this. 
Some have thought that a succeeding Pastor, Rev. 
Dr. John Brown, wrote the whole up to 1804. 
From this date, nothing is recorded to show that 
this Congregation continued services; indeed, 
but little mention is made other than to main- 
tain evidence of ownership of the property. 
Notes appear that permission had been granted 
the Baptists to preach in the old Church. The 
name of Robert Sedgewick appears as a Baptist 
Minister in charge for a number of years. The 
most diligent enquiry of Officers and laymen of 
this Church, resulted only in the answer, that 
they had no authentic record covering the period 
of at least twenty-five years prior to 1840. Just 
previous to 1840, an effort was made to repair 
the old log Meeting-House, that had withstood 
the ravages of time for nearly one hundred years. 
An appeal was made to the Synod, comprised of 
this and other Congregations in Virginia, Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania, for aid. To this appeal, 
a generous response was given; and that influential 
body advised the Congregation to erect a Memo- 
rial edifice, one to commemorate the **One hun- 
dreth anniversary of the Organization of the Re- 
formed Calvinist Church in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley. This was a happy thought, one that filled 
the struggling band with inspiration. Their new 
zeal manifested itself to such an extent, the whole 
community was stirred with generous emotions; 
and it became possible for this revived remnant 
of the noble band, that had been scattered for so 
many years, to rally under their old banner, and 
when once planted on their new position, they 
began at once to fortify it. With aid from the 
Synod, and indefatigable efforts of the faithful 
men and women, the walls went up and a bul- 
wark was soon offered for the little fold. Their 
beautiful Memorial received the name of the 
"Centenary Reformed Church." For twenty 
years they were undisturbed. Standing on the 
comer of Market and Cork Streets, it became 
a prey to the legions of Banks, Milroy and Sheri- 
dan — Federal Generals — who always encouraged 
wanton destruction of Church and private prop- 
erty. This little monument of so much zealous 
Christian effort, was first converted into a hos- 
pital, and then a stable for officer's horses — re- 
sulting in total destruction of all the adornments 
of the Memorial. The bare walls and a shattered 
roof alone, marked the spot where the Centenary 
Reformed Church had stood. The same old zeal 
which shone out from the fathers, caught hold 
of the survivors. So soon as the first sad days 
of a Peace that can never be forgotten, settled 
over the land that had been torn asunder, and 

with great sacrifice and untold effort, the little 
Church on the Comer, received such repairs as 
it was possible to give, and the scattered Con- 
gregation once more entered their sacred portals. 
Many additional repairs were made from time to 
time. The great strong Government at Washing- 
ton was appealed to for redress, to cover the 
damages the church had sustained. No heed was 
given to constant effort. At last, however, when 
nearly all of the participants in the havoc of des- 
truction had supk out of sight, along with much 
of the animosity that existed so long between 
the two sections North and South, there came a 
day when new rulers and almost a new people 
recognized the justice of the claim for damages, 
that went up not only from this church but from 
similar Organizations. The Government had 
taken strong measures to redress in part such 
terrible wrongs. This Church in 1904-5 was al- 
lowed a reasonable sum for damages. The Con- 
gregation decided to erect an entirely new build- 
ing on the old site; and to-day as you pass the 
old comer, you will observe this congregation has 
made good use of their opportunity, and spent 
their money and labor in a judicious way. The 
beautiful modern edifice is attractive to the eye, 
and gives great comfort to this deserving band 
of faithful men and women. Long may they be 
sheltered within its walls, and neither they nor 
their generations to follow, be ever again driven 
out from its sacred precincts, by any foe, be he 
Man or Devil 

The Church has been faithfully served since 
1840, by the following named Ministers: Rev. 
Geo. A. Leopold came then and was succeeded 
by Rev. D. H. Bragonier, Robert Douglas fol- 
lowed him and assumed the work of several 
Churches; in 1845 he became sole Pastor; in 
1847, Rev. G. W. Willard entered as pastor, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. J. O. Miler in 1850, 
who was succeeded by Rev. Seibert Davis in 
1854. He remained until 1857; and was succeeded 
by a Mr. Fentzell, whose pastorate ended in 1861. 
Just as the War clouds appeared along the hori- 
zon, he hastened to a more congenial clime. In 
1862, the church was closed for church purposes 
and occupied by Union Soldiers. After its re- 
novation in 1866, Rev. Hiram Shaull became the 
Pastor, serving until 1873; Rev. Chas. G. Fisher 
came in 1874, and resigned in 1880; when Rev. 
A. R. Krener came and remained four years; S. 
L. Whitmore came next; and was followed by 
Mr. Shontz and others, as visiting supplies. Rev. 
J. B. Stonesifer was installed as regular Pastor 
May 1st, 1892, whose ministry was productive of 
much good. His resignation Dec. 29th, 1900, was 
regretted by his many friends. The present Pas- 
tor, Rev. T. K. Cromer has made his pastorate 
very acceptable, not only to his own Church, but 



to the community in general. To him is given 
the credit for untiring zeal in creating the hand- 
some edifice. Some one may be interested in the 
Old Log Meeting House that was left on the 
hill, when the new church was erected down town 
in 1840- 1, and will enquire what was its end. 
Answer is given by quotation from a Newspaper 
published on 14th Febry., 1844. ''Last night, the 
whole population was aroused to behold a spec- 
tacle so alarming, so weird and full of grandeur, 
that its like may never appear again, though for 
quite a long time the stoutest heart was affected. 
A strange light filled the dark Eastern sky; then 

the whole heavens were illuminated, from flaming 
light ascending from the Old Graveyards on the 
hill. This proceeded from the burning of the 
Old Log and frame house, for many years the 
former home of the German Reformed Church, 
the peculiar scene was heightened by the reflec- 
tion of the fire light on every house-roof in town 
all covered with many inches of snow." 

Around this old building the dead of many 
generations had been buried ; and the Lots deeded 
by Fairfax have for many years been used as a 
burial place for the dead friends of this Church, 
which continues its control. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church 

The first Methodist Church building erected in 
Winchester was in 1793, on Cameron St., between 
Water and Cork Sts. The lot was purchased in 
1791. Where the Methodists held Church services 
prior to this date is not positively known. It is 
well established that Ministers of this Faith fre- 
quently preached in various sections of the Lower 
Valley as early as 1788, but no building is re- 
corded as their property or place of worship. The 
lot purchased was owned by Wm. Beaty, and by 
reference to this deed, will be seen the exact loca- 
tion. Winchester Church was one of a large 
Circuit — the Congregation must have been very 
small for years. No ministers were stationed at 
Winchester until about 1825; after 1830, it was 
continued on the list as a Station and the minister 
resided in the town — ^but preached over a large 
Circuit. The Methodist Church has made aston- 
ishing strides within the last Century. The first 
appearance of the Methodists in America was 
about 1770; and we are told by Rev. Francis As- 
bury in his Journal that when he arrived in 
Philadelphia, from England on 27th Oct., 1771, 
there were Methodists all told in America not 
exceeding Six hundred, who were unorganized. 
He also says, ''the Conference was held in Phila., 
July 14th, i6th, 1773 — the first held in America." 
At this Conference ten ministers reported being 
present and eleven hundred and sixty members 
of the "Society* were reported by the Ministers. 
This Journal shows that Mr. Asbury visited 
Frederick County, Va., during the summer of 
1772 as Missionary, to spy out the land for this 
great Society; so that they could come over and 
possess the promising field. A special note is 
made that he was in the Village of Winchester, 
Tuesday Nov. 24, 1772 — and "preached in an un- 
finished house, the rain beating in upon me, the 
people beheld the stranger with great astonish- 
ment." He records this important fact, that there 
were not one hundred Methodists in Virginia at 
that time. When we consider that this young 
man afterwards became the distinguished Bishop 
Asbury, whose reputation knew no bounds, his • 
name and service being familiar in the Original 
Thirteen States, the notes he made of the pro- 
gress of Methodism in this section of Virginia, 
should be interesting to all readers. In his Jour- 
nal, the following entry is made, "Saturday June 

21, 1783, preached to a few people in Winchester; 
For seven days past I have had to ride the whole 
day, and preach without eating until five or six 
o'clock in the evening, except a little biscuit; this 
is hard work for man and horse, this however 
is not the worst, religion is greatly wanting in 
these parts. The inhabitants are much divided; 
made up, as they are of different nations, and 
speaking different languages ; they agree in scarce- 
ly anything, except it be to sin against God." 
This great and good prelate in his effort to plant 
his Church in Old Frederick County, came at a 
time when Winchester was the theatre of Church 
work memorable for the harmony that existed 
between the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Re- 
formed Calvinists, German Lutherans, Baptists 
and even the Roman Catholics, all on the ground 
moulding character and principles for the noted 
men and women of that day. And doubtless the 
good man was appalled at the remnant of the 
population with whom he had to deal. Wickedness 
in this class did not deter his Society in their 
great work. The history of this Church shows 
that their ministers, as the grand old Circuit riders 
of the long ago, sought this class; and by their 
marvelous work from their first appearance, rode 
their Circuits extending from the Blue Ridge to 
the Alleganies and secured a foothold for Me- 
thodism, that made it possible to produce astonish- 
ing results. Behold her numerical strength of to- 
day, outstripping all other denominations, and to 
be reckoned with now as a power in the land! 
Grand, glorious Soldiers of the Cross ! the World 
salutes you this day, as you have attained the 
summit from which you can see on every hand the 
mighty work of your dauntless hosts; Your As- 
bury had his day of despondency; but he never 
wavered, for we find an entry in his Journal dated 
July 21, 1784 when he seems encouraged about 
the Winchester people. He says, "We had many 
to hear at Winchester ; they appeared to be orderly 
and solemn, and I hope it will appear that some 
were convicted ;" The Bishop must have had great 
concern for the mixed population, for we find him 
in Winchester Sunday, June 4th, 1786, he says in 
one note, "The Lutheran Minister began a few 
minutes before I got into Winchester; I rode 
leisurely through the town, and preached under 
some spreading trees on a hill, on Joshua XXIV, 




19, to many white and black people. It was a 
solemn, weighty time; all was seriousness and at- 
tention." At this point the author is reminded of 
many incidents in the lives of the old slaves with 
whom he was on familiar terms in the happy past 
Some of these incidents may find place in these 
pages. One that he recalls may be appropriately 
entered here; doubtless it had its origin in the 
sermon preached under the spreading trees. It 
is well known by a few persons of to-day that 
among the large number of slaves owned by Rev. 
Joseph Glass, there was a woman of powerful 
stature, and one of the original Africans, known 
far and near as "Aunt Chloey," whose African 
dialect was so peculiar that no attempt will be 
made to imitate it. She had many traits that 
marked her as a woman of strong mental capacity, 
showing her knowledge of the habits and customs 
of the people she knew in her early life. She was 
communicative on such subjects only to those for 
whom she had the highest respect and regard. 
Her young mistress. Miss Anne Glass, asked her 
on one occasion if she remembered General Wash- 
ington when he was in Winchester? Quickly 
came the answer, "No honey, I never see Genl 
Washington, but I see that other great preacher. 
Bishop Asbury." Aunt Chloey lived to a great 
age — 109 years. She died in 1856. 

The Bishop was determined to see that the 
people of Winchester should have good counsel. 
We find this note, "On Sunday, August 23, 1789— 
having made a tour of the Berkeley Circuit, I came 
to Winchester. We had alarming Words from 
Ezekiel XXXIII, 11, I feel the worth of souls and 

their disobedience gives me sorrow "He 

records another incident and it is given as a re- 
ference for answer to the question. When was the 
first Methodist Church in Winchester erected? 
"Winchester, June 6th, 1793, They have built an 
excellent house, and we have better times than I 
expected; here nothing would do but I must 
preach, notwithstanding the lanes and streets of 
the town were filled with mire, owing to the late 
rains." Again in May 1794, he records his ar- 
rival in Winchester. He continued his visits to 
Winchester, and at last the Church records show 
in 1805, that he had been no idler in the wild 
Vineyard since his first appearance in 1783. The 
22 years had produced wonderful results as shown 
by the Church record. 

"Saturday, March 30th, 1805 — Bishop Asbury 
came to Winchester to hold the Conference — Mon- 
day, April 1st, We opened the Baltimore Con- 
ference, sitting five days in very great order and 
peace, We had Seventy- four Preachers present" 
This is the first great event in the history of this 
Church. Within the writer's memory differences 
arose in the Methodist Church which resulted in 
separation into two Conferences. In 1844 the first 

step was taken; of which we will not now speak. 
Returning to the first Church on Market St, 
this was sold in 1818 to Peter Ham. The second 
church was built on a lot on same side of the 
street and was used until 1852, when it was sold ; 
and the Female Seminary conducted by S. P. 
York was in successful operation until the War 
clouds in 1861 drove Mr. York out of business. 
After the War, Rev. Silas Billings and Daughters 
reopened the place for a young Ladies' Seminary. 
In 1853, Sept. 1 2th, the comer-stone of the magni- 
ficent building on the Comer of Market and Cork 
streets— diagonally opposite the Centenary Re- 
formed church — was laid with imposing cere- 
monies. The congregation had then become so 
large, that it required a building of large di- 
mensions. Some of the most distinguished Meth- 
odist Divines have swayed great audiences as- 
sembled there, with a style of oratory well re- 
membered by the writer. How easy it is to 
recall the impressive Norval Wilson, who won 
the esteem of all, and John S. Martin with his 
overwhelming arguments that brought convic- 
tion to many hearers; And the inimitable Tom 
Sewell — ^with his flashes of oratory, that stirred 
emotions which could be done only by this pop- 
ular speaker. From the day this church was 
dedicated, the congregation was fortunate in 
having such strong men to minister to them; 
and it was mainly due to their influence that the 
disturbing questions were held in check for 
several years. The Methodists had been strug- 
gling with the Slavery question since 1844 — when 
there was an agreement in the General Confer- 
ence upon a plan of separation. Two Organi- 
zations were created to be known as the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and the M. R Church 
South. The Southern membership was slow to 
become too distinctive, desiring to cling to the 
old Mother Church for many reasons; and this 
is why we find the one Church in Winchester 
until a year or two before the impending Crisis 
came. While it was well known for many years, 
that differences existed in the Winchester con- 
gregation, no overt act occurred to produce a 
separation. All were disposed to worship to- 
gether; but it finally became apparent that har- 
mony was affected, and although many regretted 
the necessity, yet all felt there was a principle 
to stifle if this condition continued. At last the 
momentous step was taken, when on July 5th, 
1858, thirty members withdrew from the Market 
street church, and were granted Certificates "As 
being persons of good report, and consistent 
members of the M. E. Church." The movement 
was headed by the late Col. Wm. R. Denny; 
(whose son. Rev. Collins Denny, D.D., has been 
for several years a distinguished member of the 
Faculty of the Vanderbilt University — Nashville.) 



This band of thirty, who stood for the principles 
as they viewed the situation, were no laggards — 
they proceeded to organize as a separate Church, 
and on the 24th of the same month. Rev. W. W. 
Bennett, Presiding Elder of the Washington 
District duly organized them as a Congregation 
under the Virginia Conference, M. E. Church 
South. The writer remembers the reception 
given their first Pastor, Rev. George H. Ray, 
when he came the following November, and held 
his first services in the Court House Hall. No 
other man could have suited the critical period 
so well as did Mr. Ray. His success in shaping 
the course of this new congregation was marvel- 
ous. He commanded the respect of the com- 
munity and was highly esteemed by all. The 
site for the new building was selected on Brad- 
dock Street, and a neat and comfortable edifice 
was soon erected. The following Christmas, the 
building was far enough on the way, to make 
the basement possible to have their Christmas 
services held in it The work was pressed, and 
the church was completed by July, 1859, and de- 
dicated. Rev. John C. Cranberry, D.D., con- 
ducted the services. This Church enjoyed a few 
years of remarkable progn'css — Organized two 
Missions outside the Town. Mr. Ray conducted 
a series of services far out in the country, at a 
well known point Lamp's School House — where 
there is a noted Spring and an inviting grove of 
forest trees. Here Mr. Ray, aided by some of 
the old time Gass Leaders of that section, held 
the first Bush Meeting held in the memory of 
the writer. The distinction beween this and 
what was once out-door "Grove Meetings" was, 
that the former had a few tents on the gn'ound, 
not of sufficient number to entitle it the distinc- 
tion of the Old time Camp meeting. At this 
Bush Meeting, Mr. Ray was instrumental in 
giving the large crowds who daily assembled, a 
good time, though he may have failed to make 
all his hearers good Christians. Succeeding Mr. 
Ray, came Rev. E. M. Peterson, P. F. August, 
Lester Shipley, all members of the Virginia Con- 
ference. Mr. Shipley while Pastor, entered the 
Confederate army and the Church was without 
a Pastor during Gen'l Banks' stampede through 
the town in the Spring of 1862. This renowned 
Genl. had seized the church upon his arrival in 
Winchester, and converted it into a hospital. The 
Union army always used it when the town was 
in possession of the Federals, and was so badly 
wrecked by such use, that it required years of 
stint and labor after hostilities ceased, to put 
the building in condition for Church services. 
The present handsome Braddock St. M. E, 
Church South, with its Annex for Sunday school 
work, is now the home of the revived Church, 
the main building was greatly improved and en- 

larged in 1898-9, and when the U. S. Govern- 
ment made allowance of $2,560 for damages, in 
1904, the Church erected their annex. Since the 
close of the Civil War, the following Ministers 
have successively rendered effective service to 
this church: Rev. Norval Wilson served as Pas- 
tor until Conference could make the regular ap- 
pointment. During his ministry this Church was 
greatly strengthened by accessions from the Mar- 
ket Street Congregation. Quite a number of the 
old congregation had felt the effects of an atmos- 
phere engendered by the episodes of the war, caus- 
ing a desire to seek what was more congenial to 
their feelings; and thus the old Market Street 
Church looked desolate for several years. Some 
very strange sights were presented the old citizens 
on Sabbath mornings for the first year or two af- 
ter the war. A few men from almost every other 
church in the town, were seen wending their 
way to the old comer where they had heard so 
much that was congenial to their lacerated feel- 
ings, not from sorrow that the Union had been 
saved, but that so many Rebels had been spared 
to return and re-enter their old churches. It 
looked strange in that day to see Elders and 
Deacons, Stewards and good lay members, seek- 
ing the recesses of the Northern Methodist 
Church — where they could unburden their woes, 
and remember the Boys in Gray, who were fit 
subjects for their special pleadings. Rev. R. S. 
Hough was appointed by the Baltimore Confer- 
ence of M. E. Church South, and came as pastor 
in Spring of 1866. Succeeding him, came I. R. 
Finley, J. R Armstrong, T. R. Carson, Samuel 
Rodgers, J. S. Gardner, H. H. Kennedy, J. W. 
Shoaff, W. P. Harrison, D. M. James, S. S. 
Martin, G. T. Tyler, T. R Carson, (second term), 
J. N. McCormack, W. H. D. Harper, S. R. Cox, 
W. H. H. Joyce, Chas. D. Bulla, and D. H. Kern, 
present pastor. 

The Market Street Church has had the follow- 
ing Ministers since the Civil War: Revs. Crever, 
Ward, Welsh, Gardner, Courtney, Fergusson, 
France, Bishop, Koontz, Eldridge, West, Weed, 
and the present Pastor Mr. Beale. The congre- 
gation has increased in the last few years; but 
it is doubtful if the old Tabernacle will ever see 
the old time crowds that assembled there in the 
long ago, and heard with rapturous delight Rev. 
Ben. Brooke, when at his zenith as an Orator. 
The old Church has witnessed many interesting 
events; being the largest Church edifice in Win- 
chester for many years, it was frequently used 
to accommodate large bodies, where addresses 
on religious subjects were delivered by renowned 
Orators. During all the years through which 
the Winchester Methodist Churches were forging 
their way up to the present point, it must not be 
forgotten that in the country many churches were 



seen to arise from the Potomack on the North, 
to the sections South and from the Blue Ridge 
to the Green slopes of the Allegany. All this 
great territory was once in one circuit; and for 
many long weary years the lone horseman had 
been seen wending his way in and out, through 
the settlements, and later on the primitive vil- 
lage and remote places, to disseminate the doc- 
trines of Free Salvation. The old circuit-rider 
rendered service, not only to his own church, but 
was largely instrumental in keeping the sparsely 
settled country in touch with the outer world; 
and thus his influence grew. His appearance 
among the rugged mountaineers was hailed with 
delight, for he was their mail-carrier and news 
gatherer. They were men of great courage, as 
well as energy. In this way, the frontier and 
destitute regions were taught Methodism pure 
and unadulterated The little Meeting-houses 
soon became the important place among these 
people. As the interest increased, others came 
to share the labours; and in a few decades the 
territory abounded with working Methodists; and 
in all the regions round, evidences sprang up to 
show that they were gradually possessing the 
land. One of the oldest preaching places for the 
Methodists, was Stephensburg. The Family re- 
cord of Col. John Hite's family tells of his daugh- 
ter Elizabeth and her husband, Rev. Mr. Phelps, 
building the first Methodist church at that point 
as early as 1794. The substantial brick struc- 
ture now used by the Methodists at that place, 
stands on the old site. In the graveyard found 
in the rear, are buried the remains of the founders 
of this church, the grand-daughter of Joist Hite 
and her husband Mr. Phelps. A Congregation 
of Methodists had a preaching point at Sen- 
seney Town (Middletown) at a very early day, 
and worshipped in the single Meeting-house, 
where other denominations had joint use. As 
the Methodists increased at this point, and at 
such places as Funkstown, McKay's (Nineveh) 
and Stephensburg, the circuit-rider was taxed 
to serve so many other points remote from those 
named. It was but natural that he should de- 
vise some plan for contracting the work and have 
the scattered Congregations rally at some point, 
where closer ties could be formed by continued 
conferences with each other, where ministers 
from neighboring circuits could come, and there 
enjoy the Love-feast that was promised. There 
was no suitable building at any point in the cir- 
cuit, nor accommodations for the assembling 
Congregations. These conditions in the large 
Circuit increased as the zeal of the Minister in- 
creased, as he traveled from point to point; all 
of which was to culminate in the primitive 
Camp-Meeting. There was an ideal place near 
the centre of the "Upper Circuit" for such an 

assemblage. No Meeting-house could be selected, 
lest that point be regarded as more favoured 
than others. The place, above all others — well 
known in the circuit — was "Chrisman's Spring," 
known as such since 1735, taking its name from 
Jacob Chrisman, son-in-law of Joist Hite. The 
former and his descendants owned the vast tracts 
adjoining, on which was the old homestead, 
where liberal hospitality was offered to Ministers 
of the Gospel. The famous spring and adjacent 
forests were freely offered by this generous 
family. The oldest inhabitant to-day has no re- 
collection of the first Camp-Meeting, with the 
old tent wagons on the ground and roughly im- 
provised annexes, to offer shelter to the families 
who had come well provided with food- The 
scanty sleeping accommodations were sufficient 
to induce the Campers to remain on the "Grounds" 
for about ten days. Who can tell of or measure 
the results of this first "Love-Feast" in the 
Lower Valley. The impetus given the work of 
the Methodists, had its first wave of progress 
to start from this first assembly of Congrega- 
tions. Their conferences crdated strong ties 
between them, and from that day, coming on 
down to the period when the writer, with thou- 
sands of the population for miles around an- 
nually, in the Month of August— repaired to the 
Camp-Meeting at Christman's Spring. Then it 
was when the modem Camp had come to take 
the place of the primitive. The appearance on 
the ground of a half hundred tents, with luxuri- 
ous appointments, standing in village style — 
streets and alleys— the old tented wagon there — 
but in the rear of the tent lines, supplies for the 
multitude. The hollow square, amply supplied 
with seats fronting the Preacher's Stand, always 
crowded with respectful audiences during ser- 
vices — day and night, formed an arena, that in 
itself was enough to inspire the preacher, as he 
stood before the people to tell the Old Story 
of the Cross. In addition to this, there were the 
grand old Oaks with their goodly boughs, the 
growth of Centuries casting their shadows over 
the multitude that waited upon his words; people 
and preacher felt the influence of the scene that 
was thus produced in what had been the solitude 
of a great forest. Whatever the source of in- 
spiration, the good and holy men never failed to 
impress the audience with their marvelous elo- 
quence. Kercheval says, "The first Camp Meet- 
ing held in the Valley in my memory, was at 
Chrisman's Spring, about two miles South of 
Stephensburg, on the Great Highway from Win- 
chester to Staunton; this was probably in the 
month of August 1806." He adds that he travel- 
led through the Southwest Counties in 1836, and 
often saw where Camp-meetings had been held. 
The Methodist Church of the present day need 



not rely upon the primitive plan for gathering 
accessions from remote places, or the hedges and 
highways. In the early efforts the camp-meeting 
plan was regarded as a necessity. Many people 
were slow to attend formal church services. 
There was something about the solemn church 
building, and the congregations in Sunday attire, 
and the minister with his pious dignity, that was 
not inviting to the class who preferred spending 
Sunday, the day of rest, in a way more congenial 
to their view of the Sabbath, consequently this 
large body of non-church goers was becoming an 
object of concern to the itinerant preacher; and 
when he had once evolved the plan for gathering 
in this class, the success of this Church was as- 
sured. The careless and indifferent were at- 
tracted by the novelty, and found their way to 
the Camp-ground, where many attractions were 
offered to encourage his attendance and stay; 
and ere many years had passed with this great 
experiment, the non-church-goer was as much 
in evidence at the camp-meeting, as the most de- 
vout class-leader, and every one of these great 
seasons of special effort, marked the date of 
conversion of many ungodly men, who from that 
day experienced a new era in their lives. Many 
of the brightest lights of the Church saw the 
first flash of the new existence at the old time 
Camp-meeting. Towers of strength they were in 
Evangelizing the land. We must say, however, 
that abuses crept in unawares during these great 
gatherings, for it is well known that many were 
drawn thither from no other motive but pleasure; 
and often gave trouble; but that august ''Com- 
mittee" seemed to possess the mysterious power 
of omnipresence. The refined pleasure-seeker, 
as well as the turbulent fellow, suffered rebuke; 
and good order prevailed. The ten days spent on 
those old camp-grounds, in some old forest near 
some noted spring, surpassed all the ocean-re- 
sorts of the present day for genuine pleasure and 
lasting memories. It might be said that the life 
of this great work, that loomed up on the horizon 
of the 19th Century, gradually faded away after 
an experience of three score years. The Civil 
War period made quite a break in this out-door 
service; but very soon after the restoration of 
peace, the hosts assembled again annually; and 
for twenty years much enthusiasm prevailed in 
favor of this form of worship. But the Church 
no longer felt the need of such auxiliaries; and 
it is a rare thing now in the Lower Valley. To- 
day every village and hamlet is supplied with 
regular church service in neat edifices, of modern 
style; and in most cases, congregations are there 
to receive the message with as much formality as 
other churches. 

The Middletown M. E. Church South is of 
such design and architecture, as to attract the 

attention of all admirers of beautiful church 
buildings. It is an ornament to the Country; and 
one must conclude that Methodism at the old 
"Senseney-town" had been strengthened by its 
contiguity to the original camp-meeting. The 
point has attracted several Superanuated Minis- 
ters and their families, to make permanent 
homes there; and the visitor to this attractive 
little gem of the Lower Valley will be well re- 
paid by the courteous reception by the towns- 
folk, and enjoy interviews with the grand and 
good men who, worn out in the service of their 
Church, are now waiting the summons that must 
soon come. In such society, many delightful 
hours can be enjoyed as reminiscences are un- 
folded, and here you will find men who had been 
faithful to the trust of conducting the oldest 
camp-meetings, ever ready to entertain you with 
thrilling incidents in the life of the old Circuit- 
rider. This could and should fill a volume of 
interesting reading. Doubtless some one will pre- 
serve notes of the past, relating to such men, and 
in some way give to the public what the writer 
cannot properly do in this volume. 

Stephensburg Methodist Church. 

The little Village of Stephensburg was one of 
the earliest places in old Frederick for the New 
Sect, called Methodists, to make an effort to 
organize for church work. Long before her 
neighbouring town, Winchester, ever dreamed 
of the approaching Methodists, this little village 
had been visited by such men as Richard Owings 
and John Hagerty in 1775, and Francis Asbury 
in 1778, itinerant preachers of that period. In 
the notes on the M. R C, at Winchester, the 
reader will see quotations from the Journal of 
Bishop Asbury, to confirm the claim made for 
Stephensburg and also in the sketch of CoL John 
Hite and family, where it will be seen his daugh- 
ter Mrs. Phelps, and her brother John Hite, jr., 
have the credit of building the first Methodist 
Church at Stephensburg. Taking this in con- 
nection with Church history and reliable tradi- 
tions, it is shown that very soon after the ap- 
pearance of the "two Strangers" that Kercheval 
mentions as being there in 1775, "preaching their 
strange doctrine of free Grace." Mr. Asbury was 
there 1778, and preached in an unfinished church. 
This was the first church built there, and was 
where the first church was organized by the fol- 
lowing persons viz, Rev. Elisha Phelps and wife, 
John Hite, Jr., John Taylor and wife, Lewis 
Stephens, sen., and wife, and several others. We 
find in the record of Col. John Kite's family, 
that Mr. Phelps and his wife lived and died near 
the village and both were buried in the rear of 
the little church of their founding. We have the 
proof of this on the Slab found in the Church- 



yard showing the grave of Elisha Phelps and 
Elizabeth, his wife, bearing date 1815. Mrs. P. 
lived just North of Newtown. The Chiplcy 
family lived for years on the property. 

The Methodists steadily increased at Stephens- 
burg, and while many trying ordeals have fallen 
to the lot of the little town on the Valley's great 
highway, the Church at Stephens city of to-day, 
is one that has a place of honor in the Conference 
to which it belongs. Many godly men have arisen 
to high places in the Church at large, who had 
their beginnings here. The writer recalls several 
local preachers of great power, who took delight 
in recounting incidents of the early history of 
this Church. One was "Father Walls," as he 
was generally known; starting in the latter part 
of the i8th Century and receiving new impulses 
in the dawn of the 19th. He was an actor on the 
stage of that wonderful era; and his life and 
work were given wholly to the cause he had 
espoused. His grandson. Dr. Wm. Walls, and 
the writer had many experiences in the class- 
room of the old Winchester Academy, wrestling 
with "Euclid" the school-boys horror. Rev. 
John Allemong, of more recent memory, was a 
man of "good report" His life was of that 
exemplary kind that leaves a good impression 
on the community in which he had a long and 
useful ministry, beginning in 1820, ending in 
1872. Prior to 1827, the congregation worshipped 
in their original log church — loth to give it up. 
About this time, the brick church was built on 
the old site— ^ith many modern appendages, 
such as the high pulpit, bell fry-galleries, etc. 
This building suffered much unnecessary damage 
during the Civil War. The brick parsonage was 
burned, as a retaliation for some imaginary 
wrong done to Hunter's army. In 1882, the 
church building became unsafe and was removed 
from its foundation, and the present large and 
attractive church was erected on the old site. The 
congregation extended its borders, and through 
the joint efforts of Rev. F. A. Strother two new 
churches were built — one at Relief, and one to 
the S. E., called Lost Comer. This old Win- 
chester Circuit was supplied by noted men in 
its day, such as John S. Martin, Wm. G. Eggle- 
ston, David Bush, Wm. Wheelright, and others. 
They were some of the grand old itinerants of 
the by-gone days. The Winchester Circuit was 
divided into what has been called two charges — 
Stephens City and Middletown. This change oc- 
curred in 1891. 

The next M. E. C, in order as to date within 
the bounds of the old County, is found at Bruce- 
town, where there has been for many years a 
large and prosperous Congregation. Gainesboro 
has maintained a strong standing in the Circuit 
to which it belongs. The old Greenspring Church 

has a good history, which may receive fuller 
notice. On Timber-Ridge in the Western part 
of the county, are several churches doing good 
work,— Rock Enon M. R church on Back-Creelg 
was built to supply a long felt want in that neigh- 

The Round Hill M. E. Church, standing on 
the north side of the Northwestern Turnpike, is 
not the original building, it being virtually the 
third house erected on that site. In 1844-5 the 
first building was erected on the lot purchased 
from Elijah Hodgson (see deed dated June ist, 
1844 to M. R C. trustees). The first church 
had an interesting history when Methodism had 
become a factor for good in every neighbour- 
hood, it was found desirable to organize a church 
at this point This was to be associated with 
organizations in several other places, notably the 
little preaching point— known in that day as 
Lamp's School-house. Living in that neighbour- 
hood was a man but little known to the outside 
world, but was destined to take place among the 
prominent Methodists in his day; but he always 
desired his work should be confined to his own 
Hills; this was "Henry Milhon," the founder of 
the M. R church at Round Hill, from his own 
Pine forests came the huge logs for that first 
building, hewn and shaped by himself with the 
utmost precision, every one in perfect dress; and 
when the day came to raise the building, the 
writer was there as a boy spectator. The tall, 
gaunt, wiry man was at every point, and with 
willing neighbours, his first church went up; and 
before the winter came, this strange man as the 
Local preacher, conducted a successful meeting. 
His rugged but sincere sentences were rounded 
out with such zeal and originality, that his 
hearers seemed transfixed. This man was then 
in his prime — was a convert of the old Camp- 
meeting, and received such inspiration, that he 
never faltered in his work, telling others of the 
"story about the Cross," which had changed his 
reckless life. Without the advantage of the 
simplest rudiment of education, he set about by 
the aid of his wife, who could read, to learn 
suitable scriptures and hymns, and from such 
studies, the knowledge came that he never forgot 
He was always ready with appropriate "Texts," 
from which he gave his hearers the most ex- 
haustive explanations. While no orator, his ori- 
ginal ideas were moulded into expressions that 
alarmed, and then soothed the convicted sinner. 
Let it be told, he grew famous among the many 
persons that were awakened by his strange power. 
He was known far and near as Father Milhom, 
tho' never more than the Local Preacher— all 
Methodists know what this title implies! How- 
ever, his services were in demand all over the 



Circuit. It was during the close of his career, 
that his little church was damaged by fire (i860). 
Such men as Wm. Hodgson, A. W. Hodgson, 
John and Chas. Hawkins, Jacob Spillman, Wm. 
Milhon, and others promptly aided Father Mil- 
hon in repairing the building. His son-in-law, 
Rev. Wm. Hodgson, had then become a local 
preacher, and he for many years gave his life's 
best work to this service; and it may be added 
that during the life-time of Father Milhon, Mr. 
Hodgson was generally mentioned as the "Little 
Preacher." During the four years of the Civil 
War, his services were in demand and freely 
rendered to many of the destitute places in the 
surrounding country, while Mr. H. was one of 
the non-combattants, he was well known to the 
Southrons, as one in full sympathy with their 
cause; and many returning Confederates at the 
close of the war felt the grasp of his strong 
hand, that told of his sympathy. The writer 
knew him well. The second building was des- 

troyed during the winter of 1864-5. A portion 
of Gen. Sheridan's Cavalry Corps wintered in the 
vicinity of this church and soldiers during that 
severe winter carried it in pieces to their camps 
— for winter quarters, as they did all the out- 
buildings from the adjoining farms, with the 
notable exception of a few families who were 
spared by reason of their loyalty to the Union, 
After a few years had passed by, the Methodist 
congregation, which had use of the old Presby- 
terian church in full view, outgrew some of the 
bitter feeling that War had engendered, and 
quickened the emotions that existed with some 
of the old members to return to their old place 
of worship. This resulted in the erection of the 
present brick church on the old site. The con- 
gn'cgation has never attained its old prestige for 
Church work; the old church leaders are no 
longer at the helm. Some have answered the 
great summons, and some have removed beyond 
the bounds of the old Circuit. 


The Baptist Church 

This Church has been unfortunate, in that no 
church record can be produced that relates to 
the first appearance of this denomination of 
Christians in Frederick County. The first Bap- 
tist Meeting House of which any record ap- 
pears, was at a point now the site of Gerards- 
town. There was a small Congregation at that 
point as early as 1773. No evidence of any pas- 
tor. Doubtless services were conducted in the 
Meeting-House by visiting ministers. The sect 
was called Old School, and sometimes Hardshell 
Baptists. One of this class was reported to the 
Justices' Court for disorderly conduct. This case 
went to the Grand- Jury. Upon investigation, it 
appeared that the offence most complained of, 
was his effort "to hold meetings in the Night time 
and in a boisterous manner, violating the Act 
of Parliament, to the great annoyance of the 
Established Church." The old Grand-Jurors 
failed to see that the complaint was such as to 
justify punishment About this period a Congre- 
gation of this society secured a deed for land 
near a point, now Nineveh, near the Warren 
County line. There they had a house of worship, 
and always maintained an Organization, and 
were regarded throughout the last Century as 
Primitive Baptists in reality. 

Winchester was slowly recognized by this 
Church as congenial to their creed. Other church 
records show that the Baptists had a preacher to 
stop in Winchester in 1790, who preached in the 
Lutheran and Presbyterian churches. Many years 
later, they procured use of an abandoned school- 
house, and held regular services. The Congrega- 
tion was composed of zealous people, but in- 
creased slowly in numbers. Many years would 
intervene between regular pastorates; but they 
never disbanded. Rev. Joseph Baker who con- 
ducted a large and successful school on Fort 
Hill, where Fort Loudoun Seminary is located, 
was a Baptist minister. He was instrumental in 
securing the Old Stone Presbyterian church in 
1834, for the use of the Baptist Church, "Lease 
to extend said uses for 500 years." Mr. Baker 
drew around him some very active church work- 
ers, which resulted in accessions to this Church. 
This denomination had its intervals of dis- 
couragement. Frequently the church had no 
regular pastor. The field was visited by an ac- 

complished young man in 1854, Rev. Mr. Ryland, 
who was very active in his ministry, preaching 
at Winchester, Cedar Creek, Back Creek, Head 
of Opecquon and other points. The congregations 
increased and the Church was being revived, 
when the Civil War broke in upon such work. 
Mr. Ryland entered the Confederate Army. 
After the War, the Baptists made another effort 
through Rev. Mr. Willis; and from that time, 
this Church has held its renewed position. Mr. 
Willis for several years conducted a young 
ladies' seminary in what was called the "York** 
building, formerly the old Methodist church; 
and while thus engaged, gathered the denomina- 
tion together and succeeded in building a church, 
nearly opposite, on Market Street; and there for 
several years preached to increasing congrega- 
tions. Later on Mr. Willis removed to another 
field; the church building was sold to the "Dis- 
ciples" Sect; and once more the Baptists were 
forced to find another home. Securing a lot, 
they located their church on South side of Cork 
Street, between Main and Market. The neat little 
church where they now worship was erected 
1885 ; the first Pastor, Mr. Davison, was succeeded 
by D. Qark, Jackson and Murdock; Rev. Mr. 
Northern is the present Pastor. The Church has 
sustained serious losses in the deaths of such 
men as M. H. G. Willis, P. C. Gore and others, 
and is struggling to maintain its work. 

The Baptists have a strong Church in Berry- 
ville, which has been fortunate in securing such a 
pastor as the distinguished Divine, Dr. Broaddus, 
who has so acceptably ministered to this congre- 
gation for many years, his pastorate covering 
a longer period than that of any other Minister 
of this Church in the Lower Valley, so far as 
known to the writer. Other points in Clarke 
County are within his field. The Berryville 
Church was what might be called an off-shoot of 
the old Buckmarsh Church, where the Baptists 
had worshipped for at least sixty years. In 1840, 
the Congregation for several good reasons, 
changed their place of worship to Berryville, 
where they had erected a suitable building, and 
changed the name from Buckmarsh to that of 
Berryville. The Church grew much stronger, 
and has always maintained a strong position 
with her sister churches of other denomina- 




tions. The handsome church building now in 
use» situated so prominently, as an ornament to 
the town, was erected 1885. Everything in its 
appointments— 'Minister, people, edifice and situa- 
tion, indicate prosperity. 

The Baptists who first appeared in the lower 
part of Frederick, now Berkeley County, never 
made much progress in that section. In their 
principal town, Martinsburg, their first organi- 
zation was not effected until 1858 or '59. A 
small congn'egation held services in an old unoccu- 
pied building, until they very soon purchased a 
lot on King Street and expected to build their 
church ; but the war of 1861-65 checked all 
their ardor; and it was not until 1869 that an- 
other impetus was given by starting the new 
building. The weak, struggling congregation 
was fully five years erecting the present suitable 
church. The membership steadily increased, and 
they have had the services of some eminent men. 

There has never been advanced by any Bap- 
tists authorities, any good reason for the slow 
progress made by their denomination in the 
country West of the Blue Ridge. No such pro- 
gress as is shown by other Churches. The his- 
tory of this Church is one of success in many 
sections of Virginia. Eastern Virginia, especially, 
fairly teems with large congregations and costly 
churches. Not so in the Shenandoah Valley, 
although they appeared and seemed co-existent 
with the formation of Frederick in 1743, then 
they came with a large "immigrant train" from 
New Jersey, and settled at the Gerardstown 
point, when Rev. John Gerard organized them. 
Semple's history, Early Baptists, says they came 
from Maryland. One other immigration came 
from Maryland later on, and joined a large num- 
ber from New England, and settled on Capon 
River in 1754, where they purchased land and 
soon gave considerable impetus to their church 
movement. The leader, Mr. Stearns, however, 
became dissatisfied, and together with a large 
number of the society removed to North Carolina, 
where he joined the well known Baptist move- 
ment, which resulted in marvelous success. 
However, this very success gave them serious 
trials. At that time, the Established Church 
adopted strong measures to repress the "noisy 
dissenters," and with the aid of the courts, suc- 
ceeded in checking their advance. Prosecutions 
followed persecution; many distinguished leaders 
were imprisoned "as disturbers of the peace." 
Had Mr. Stearns and his friends remained on 
Capon, where no such prosecutions occurred, and 
made the same efforts for the propagation and 
spread of their doctrines, who can tell what the 
results might show to-day. It must not be un- 
derstood that those who remained in the Shenan- 

doah section were unmolested; for it is well 
known to many what befell the Rev. James Ire- 
land, the Scotch Baptist preacher, who became 
so famous for his eloquence and zeal, that he 
attracted crowds of people. He also attracted 
the attention of many who became his persecu- 
tors. Fighting over every effort he made, he 
was the object of special concern to the Estab- 
lished Church. While the persecutions never 
assumed the character of those shown in Eastern 
Virginia, other methods were employed to drive 
him and his Sect out of the Country; but the old 
Scotchman met every such effort in the same 
spirit that characterized his people wherever 
found, whether in the Motherland, or in the 
Virginia Valley. 

Extract from the Winchester, Va., Gazette, 
published June 17th, 1806. "Departed this life on 
the 5th, ult., in his 58th year, Elder James Ire- 
land, Pastor of the Baptists Congregation at 
Buck's Marsh, Happy Creek and Water Lick in 
Frederick and Shenandoah Counties, Va." "On 
Sunday the first inst, a suitable and affecting 
discourse was dehvered at Buck's Marsh Meet- 
ing-house, the place of his interment." James 
Ireland's church work from 1780, was chiefly 
West of the Blue Ridge. In his work East of the 
Ridge, he was hindered by persecutions, suffered 
imprisonment and insult from several ministers of 
the Established Church. 

The United Brethren Church. 

This Denomination for many years maintained 
several churches in the surrounding country, but 
not until 1873 were they sufficiently strong in 
Winchester to venture a separate Organization. 
This was accomplished, however, by Rev. G. W. 
Howe, and by his energy and perseverance, 
aided by the country Brethren, a Congregation 
was formed for the great work of building a 
suitable house for Public Worship, and for sup- 
port of a Station Pastor. This was successfully 
accomplished in 1873; the work has steadily in- 
creased, and at this writing, the congregations are 
large and composed of that class who enjoy the 
progress this church has made. Many families 
who lived in the outlying field, have purchased 
homes in the city, and are strong supporters of 
this church, which is located on the East side of 
Braddock St., between Piccadilly and Peyton 
Streets. The ministers who have served this 
church were Revs. G. W. Howe, Mr. Crowell, 
Mr. Skelton and Mr. Wine. 

Several points in the County have been oc- 
cupied by the Brethren for many years, and a 
number of good families are prominent and ac- 
tive members of this Church. The well known 
Hott family has furnished several ministers to 
serve this church. The Parlett and Fries fami- 



lies have also furnished men who have become 
widely known for their pastoral services and 
educational work. The Western part of the 
county can show several attractive buildings. 
There the U. B. Congregations have made large 
accessions. At and near Stephens City this 
Church has supported its regular Pastor. The 
U. B. Church has had its share of dissensions, 
growing out of divisions in their Church at large, 
and for several years, very unfortunate differ- 
ences have arisen in two or three congregations, 
concerning their vested rights in Church property. 
What these differences are, and who to blame for 
this interruption of harmony in three of the Con- 
gregations, need not be discussed in this sketch. 

The Christian or Disciples Church. 

This Denomination several years ago occupied 
the old Baptist Church on Braddock St. Rev. 
Mr. Pirkey, a very popular preacher of Stras- 
hurg, preached in Winchester for several years 
and organized a Church at a point in the county 
known as Welltown, and through his efforts and 
the generous aid of Jas. T. Clevenger, Jno. W. 
McKown and others, that congregation was able 
to erect its neat church building, (Galilee), and 
have maintained Church relations that resulted 
in much good to the community. The denomina- 

tion has four other churches in the County, built 
within the last twenty years — Ebenezer on Tim- 
ber Ridge, near Whitacre; Rock Enon, Jubilee 
on Front Royal Pike, near Winchester, and one 
at Bartonsville. The Church name properly is 
"The Disciples." The old Christian Church, 
which has for many years maintained a place of 
Worship in the Western part of the county, is 
still in existence. These denominations differ as' 
to Creed and discipline, and are entitled to dis- 
tinction, though they are regarded by the un- 
informed as the same denomination. 

The Christian Baptists, 

This Church has often been called the Tunkard 
denomination. This is erroneous. We have two 
places of Worship in the county under the con- 
trol of the Christian Baptists, Salem Church, near 
Vaucluse was organized in 1866, Elders Daniel 
Baker and Daniel Brindle. Mr. Baker donated 
the site. The other Church, Peach Grove, is 
about two miles East of Winchester, built in 1892. 
Prof. N. D. Cool is the Minister in charge of 
these Churches. Prof. Wayland of the University 
of Virginia, and L. R. Dettra, of Frederick 
County are Ministers in this Church. The mem- 
bership is small in this section, but they have 
large Congregations in the Upper Valley. 



and Vitious person Whether men shall be safe, 
laws established, and Govemours rule, hereby 
disturbing the Publiquc peace and just interest; 
to prevent and restrain which Mischeif, It is 
Enacted, etc." 

This Act goes on to provide for their arrest 
and punishment, and forbids any Captain of any 
vessel to land any Quaker on the Shores of Vir- 
ginia. That no person be allowed to consort with 
or entertain them; No person allowed to publish 

any of their books, or sell the same , (see 

Henning's Statutes at Large, Vol. i, pp. 532-3). 

Here again in their new home they incurred 
the displeasure of the Colonists to such an ex- 
tent, that their life might seem a burden. Not 
so, however. They plodded on in their quiet 
way, acquired comforts, and even wealth in many 
cases; and it may be said this is characteristic 
of the Quaker— they are frugal, enconomical, 
resourceful, and helpful to each other. Poverty 
is a stranger to their families. They have ever 
claimed exemption from service as Soldiers — 
being opposed to war; and have been recognized 
by State laws, as non-Combatants and required 
to do no act in conflict with their conscience. 
The question may now be asked, has he always 
adhered to this rigid rule? History gives an 
answer that throws doubt on the whole subject, 
and places the sect in an attitude never assumed 
by any other class. While their position has 
been that of the non-combatant during every 
war period in his old home from which he had 
been driven to the wilds of America, where he 
proclaimed his desire to be allowed exemption 
from participation in any struggle in his adopted 
country, they were accorded the exemption; and 
thus they were regarded as conscientiously op- 
posed to conflicts and litigation. Historians who 
have traced the Quaker through his wanderings, 
show that he had emotional periods similar to 
other classes, and that he was not, strictly speak- 
ing, non-partisan in the war periods through 
which he passed— never emerging from them 
without incurring the displeasure of the com- 
batants. He is found suffering privation and 
punishment, for the aid and sympathy he freely 
gave to his old British oppressors, when that 
power sought to subjugate American patriots. 
If he had remained neutral, and stood on his 
creed of perpetual peace, he could not have been 
criticised, for in his adopted country the new 
populations fought for one of his principles, 
"That conscience should dictate all actions" But 
it seemed impossible for the silent and peace 
loving Quaker to be passive when the upheavals 
of War had encompassed hamlet and town. The 
oppressive rule of Britain, so sorely felt in the 
Colonies, made it necessary for patriots to de- 
fend their sacred rights. The Sect knew the 

sting of British rule; they had suffered persecu- 
tion from every officer in the Colonies who 
executed the edict of Royalty. And it would 
have been perfectly natural for the persecuted 
Quaker to extend his sympathy to the struggling 
patriots who had undertaken to shake off the 
oppressive yoke. None would have required him 
to forsake his creed, and participate in the bloody 
strife to which they were so averse. Strange to 
say, however, he was so pronounced in his 
views regarding the Revolution, that he became 
an object of wonder, not only to the American 
soldiers, but also to the British invaders, the 
latter regarding him with suspicions of doubt, 
because of his unstinted aid; and the former be- 
cause of his unreasonable hostility to their cause. 
No writer has succeeded in clearing this mystery. 
While the Patriot Army in the early part of 
1777, had its Battalions and Regiments occupy- 
ing many important points in Pennsylvania, it 
was discovered that these silent and peaceful 
people, (opposed to war in every form) had be- 
come secret enemies of the cause of Freedom 
and Independence. The most damaging service 
they could render was discovered; their com- 
munications to the British Commanders were 
intercepted and implicated many prominent 
Quakers in the surrounding country, and also in 
Philadelphia. This discovery enraged the Colo- 
nists, for the Quaker was found to be more 
dangerous than whole Battalions of Redcoats. 
Posing as a peace-loving citizen within the Pa- 
triot camps, yet taking the most offensive part as 
a partisan. Their removal or extermination 
must be prompt, else wholesale destruction would 
soon come from the enemy who had thus learned 
the secrets of the American forces. It was de- 
cided that their removal to some distant point 
would accomplish better results than their ^.rr- 
cution as spies. Writers of much force have 
written extensively and exhaustively on this epi- 
sode; and all agree that the**Offense would have 
been punished with death, had it been committed 
by any other class." The Military took the mat- 
ter in hand and placed a number of those who 
were fully proven to be the offenders, under 
arrest. A few suspected persons were included 
in the squad of prisoners. The following named 
persons comprised the principal offenders: Joshua 
Fisher, Abel James, James Pemberton, John 
James, John Pemberton, Henry Drinker, Israel 
Pemberton, Samuel Pleasants, Thomas Wharton, 
Thomas and Samuel Fisher. It has always been 
a matter of speculation as to the number of 
prisoners that were sent out of Pennsylvania, 
under guard. Some have given the number as 
many as thirty; others twenty, and others fifteen. 
No military report gives the number. They were 
marched through Maryland and into Virginia. 



and confined at the Army-post near Winchester, 
where several hundred of the captured enemy 
were confined. They were delivered to Col. John 
Smith who had command of this District. Col. 
Smith in his reports concerning the Prison under 
his control says, 'T deemed it proper to parole 
the prisoners other than soldiers, but the Civili- 
ans refused any terms offered them." One report 
shows that quitea number grew sick and were 
placed in a building in the town, for treatment. 
No mention made of any deaths — ^though tradi* 
tion says that several of them died while im- 
prisoned. Tradition says the Quaker prisoners 
were confined along with three hundred Hessian 
prisoners in a building in the southern part of 
Winchester, which was standing unchanged about 
fifteen years ago. This seems too unlikely to be 
true. No such building of sufficient size to hold 
over three hundred prisoners, stood in the south- 
ern part of the old town in 1777. During the 
confinement of the civilian prisoners, they ap- 
pealed to a distinguished Lawyer of that day, 
Alexander White, Esq., to aid them in securing 
their release. After the British evacuated Phila- 
delphia, and the Patriot army changed positions, 
Mr. White secured their release upon their affir- 
mation that they would henceforth live by their 
Creed and be at peace zmth all men. Of course, 
the Society of Friends was sorely tried during the 
remainder of the war; and were the subject of 
malignant ridicule for many years. The Society 
had, before the period alluded to, made permanent 
settlement in Frederick County, and many fami- 
lies became useful and highly respected citizens, 
forming part of some successful enterprises. 
Many of this Sect settled on the most productive 
lands in the county, and enjoyed the distinction 
of prosperous farmers, persons of wealth and in- 
fluence. The Quakers of old Frederick bore 
none of the names of the Pennsylvania prisoners ; 
nor did they ever seem to depart from their creed 
of peace, or meddle with any of the conflicts 
attending the forward movement of a great 
country. But strange to say in later years the 
same old spirit which animated the Philadelphia 
Quakers to step aside and enter silently into 
war's terrible experiences, wooed some of these 
non-combatants to seize the first opportunity to 
enter into intrigue with the devouring foe, and 
sacrifice those who had been companions and 
neighbours. The most notable of this small 
number who forsook the tenets of their faith, 
throwing the peace creed to the winds, was a 
young Quakeress, who secretly offered herself 
as an emissary between the contending armies — to 
supply the Federals with such information that 
would enable the Commanding General to take 
the struggling Southrons unawares (for many 
of whom she still professed an ardent affection) 

which resulted in carnage appalling to all, ex- 
cept the silent damsel, who so ignominiously en- 
deavoured to sacrifice human life. Was it for 
love of her departure from the doctrines of her 
grand old fathers, or was it for the promised 
reward offered her by Gen'l Sheridan, which she 
afterwards received? (a gold watch and chain). 
The writer knew this young woman, and was 
familiar with this incident when it occurred. She 
is now a resident of Washington. The writer 
refrains from giving her name in consideration 
of the respect he has for her many relatives. 
It can be truly said, this was an exception. None 
can point to a single other member of this sect 
who carries the odium of such an act Doubtless 
many of this highly esteemed class, known as 
the Friends, were the most loyal Union men in 
all the regions around; none however can be 
found willing to give approval to such a departure 
from their faith. 

The author familiar with the Quaker, and his 
peacefully disposed life, can recall many pleasant 
and interesting incidents, as they occurred during 
his unbroken intercourse with them, from his 
childhood to the present writing. Their friend- 
ship has often been a comfort. On one occasion, 
however, this friendship resulted in much em- 
barrassment. It was during the war period in 
the Winter of 1861-2 that the Confederate Army 
under command of Genl. Jackson (Stonewall) 
lay in WSnter Quarters for miles around Win- 
chester. The author was then Acting Provost 
Marshal for the Army Post with office located in 
what was then called the Senseney building (now 
Bantz's). Col. Lawson Botts of the 2nd Virginia 
Infantry, was Commandant of the Post. The 
duties of the Provost were well defined by Cienl. 
Jackson in his general orders, as well as in a 
personal interview, when the Genl. called his at- 
tention to the General Order, forbidding per- 
sons to pass beyond the lines without a Pass 
from the Provost Marshal — whether civilian or 
soldier; stating that too much freedom was ac- 
corded citizens to pass beyond the lines, that the 
U. S. troops were then on the border line, along 
the Potomack, and he had been informed that 
quite a number of persons, whose loyalty to the 
Confederate cause had been doubted, were al- 
lowed to enter his lines from that quarter and 
allowed to return in the evening; that it must be 
understood that no person should be given a 
pass unless his loyalty to the South was beyond 
question; and where suspicion existed, the person 
must have some loyal friend to vouch for his 
conduct; (this was a special order) and no 
soldier to have the office pass, unless he could 
produce regimental pass. The closing of that 
first day brought untold numbers of people to the 
office — soldiers and citizens. A majority of the 



former were refused passes. Of the civilian class, 
very few appeared that were not favorably known 
at the office, and they were readily disposed of. 
At this juncture, the young Provost was brought 
to a stand-still by the appearance in the door-way 
of a Man of striking figure, whose garb, style 
and language were sufficient to mark him a 
quaker. His quiet demeanor denoted a strong 
will. The writer easily recognized this dignified 
quaker as one of the many Friends from whom 
he had always received tokens of kindness and 
esteem. Embarrassment seized both; it was 
known that there in that door-way stood the only 
man in Frederick County who had voted for 
Abraham Lincoln; this Friend was Joseph N. 
JoUiffe, whose home lay about six miles due 
North from the army lines. He saw the situa- 
tion and quietly met the issue, simply saying: 
"Friend, thee will give me a pass to return to my 
home," the Officer still embarrassed, made no 
answer until his demand was repeated. There 
was no request for the pass; simply a demand. 
His attention was called to the General Order 
posted on the walls of the Office. He quietly re- 
marked that it could not apply to him; that he 
was non-partisan. Then the question was asked, 
are you loyal to the Confederate cause? His 
reply was "Neither loyal nor disloyal ; the up- 
rising forbodes evil; I refuse to take part, and 
wish to be governed by my own conscience." He 
was then asked if the vote he had cast for Lincoln, 
who had declared war against the Southern 
States, would not justify the Provo in refusing 
him a pass, until he was vouched for by some 
loyal friend. Then for the first time his eye 
flashed fire, drawing his tall form to its most 
dignified height, he replied — "Then thou art not 
my friend," and suddenly left the office; but re- 
turned in a few minutes with his friend, T. T. 
Fauntleroy, Esq., (afterwards Judge Fauntleroy) 
who desired to know "why his friend Jolliffe was 
deprived of his liberty." The Genl. order was 
shown Mr. F., who hastily said he would apply 
to Genl. Jackson in person, and together they 
went to Headquarters; the Genl. told them the 
Order should not be changed, and that nothing 
but a pass signed by the Provo would pass 
persons through the lines. Mr. Jolliffe remained 
in Winchester that night. The next morning, 
Mr. F. appeared again, and with changed manner 
asked that a pass be given, and that he would 
endorse Mr. J. The reply was, that the Special 
order was, that he must vouch for his loyalty. 
This he refused in his characteristic style, creat- 
ing a breach in the relation of two friends that 
required years to heal. Several years after the 
War, Mr. F. moved by impulses that could be 
awakened only in such impulsive men, generously 
offered apologies, and declared that the perform- 

ance of the duty imposed on the officer, was an 
act he would ever admire, and nothing could 
affect his friendship again. Mr. Jolliffe never 
mentioned the incident, though the writer under- 
stood the meaning of the warm grasp of hand 
during the closing years of his life. Mr. Jolliffe 
was never molested by the Confederate authori- 
ties. He survived the war, the Reconstruction 
period, and lived to see his country re-united; 
going down to his grave respected and esteemed 
by all who knew him. This digression may be 
allowable, when it is considered that it shows an 
incident of the times when the silent quakers 
who lived by their creed, were accorded the 
privilege of non-combatants, and were never call- 
ed upon to render military duty, and received as 
much protection from the Confederate army as 
from the Union. 

The impartial reader in his study of the creed 
of the Society of Friends, may conclude that the 
motives of the Quaker prisoners were greatly 
misunderstood; that they meant to impress both 
powers with the enormity of guilt resting upon 
those who had gone to war, and that they in- 
tended no harm to befall the Patriot soldiers, 
though they condemned the "uprising of the 
people." The Quaker prisoners were humanely 
treated by the Virginians, who were in no sense 
responsible for their arrest and exile. To their 
own State, Pennsylvania, the friends of the pris- 
oners must be cited, to learn that their own 
State Supreme Executive Council refused to con- 
sider their remonstrance, and directed the Presi- 
dent of the Council to write to the Congress and 
let them know that "The Council has not time 
to attend to that business, in the present alarm- 
ing Crisis." "Exiles in Virginia^' gives inter- 
esting incidents concerning the Quaker prisoners, 
from which we take the following: "On the nth 
of Ninth Month 1777, the prisoners started on 
their march by Wlaggon train seventeen being 
quakers, three being persons suspected of trea- 
son." The list is given at this point, though it 
may include the names of some already given; 

James Pemberton, Edward Pennington, Henry 
Drinker, Mrs. Fisher, Wm. Drewet Smith, Elijah 
Brown, Samuel Pleasants, Charles Eddy, Wm. 
Smith (broker), Thos. Gilpin, Israel Pemberton, 
Thos. Wharton, Samuel R. Fisher, John Hunt, 
Charles Jarvis, Owen Jones Jr., Thos. Pike, Thos. 
Afflick, John Pemberton, Thos. Fisher. 

We learn from the diary of one of the prison- 
ers, James Pemberton, that John Hunt and John 
Pemberton frequently held Meetings at their lodg- 
ings in Winchester. This makes it appear that 
the Quakers had no Meeting-house in Winchester 
at that date. Same diary says they held Meetings 
at Hopewell during their exile; and then re- 
cords that John Hunt and Thos. Gilpin died 



during their exile and were buried at Hopewell. 
The writer has carefully examined the Hopewell 
graveyard, and finds no slabs to mark graves of 
those who were buried there prior to 1800. 

On the i6th of March 1778, the Congress, then 
sitting at Yorktown, passed a resolution to deliver 
over to the President and Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, the prisoners sent from the State of Vir- 
ginia. They were, after some delay, brought to 
Pottsgrove in Pennsylvania, and there discharged, 
(see Janney's History of the Friends). 

It has been claimed as a well settled fact these 
many years, that the quakers were opposed to 
slavery, and had never been guilty of the crime 
of owning slaves. This however, is not true. For, 
consulting several authorities, it can be seen that 
the Friends of Chester Quarterly Meeting, held 
1730, made this minute, "The Friends of this 
Meeting resuming the proposition of Chester 
Meeting, relating to the purchasing of such Ne- 
groes as may hereafter be imported; and having 
reviewed and considered the former minutes in 

relation thereto Are of the opinion that 

Friends ought to be very cautious of making any 
such purchases for the future." 

The Friends for many years maintained three 
Meetings, and for some reason they were all 
designated as Hopewell Meeting; the first being 
Hopewell on Apple-pie Ridge, one at Pugh's 
town (Gainesboro), and one on Crooked-run, 
(East of Stephens City). 

Old Hopewell is and has been for many years 
a massive stone building, accommodating large 
crowds at the yearly Meeting; drawing members 
of the sect from other counties, and even States, 
while Frederick and near-by counties sent 
throngs. The day was regarded as a meeting 
place for every class; and abuses of the privilege 
was practiced by the thoughtless. This condition 
prevailed to such an extent, that a change was 
desirable, and the Yearly Meeting was transferred 
to Winchester, where the Society has a large 
house and grounds, Cor. Piccadilly St. and Fair- 
mont Ave. 

The Hicksites and Orthodox branches, how- 
ever, hold one Yearly meeting for one day at 
Hopewell, while only the Hicksites own and 
occupy Centre Meeting-house in Winchester. 
Two other Meetings were held on Apple-pie 
ridge — one at the Ridge meeting-house, and one 
in the vicinity of White-hall. For many years 
there was a Meeting at what was known as the 
Quaker School-house on the Cedar Credc turn- 
pike, near Fawcelts Gap, which was aband- 
oned many years ago. The Meeting at "Pughs- 
town" was well attended for many years; but the 

Methodist Church has gradually strengthened 
its Congregation by accessions from the families 
of the old Society who were once numerous on 
Back-creek. There is an old gravyard adjoining 
this place that contains the remains of many of 
the pioneers. Crooked-run Meeting has been 
abandoned so long, that very few young quakers 
of to-day are aware that a large Meeting was 
once a part of that section. Prior to the Civil 
war the quakers had a Meeting-house in the 
South end of Winchester, which is mentioned 
in notes on Cemeteries. This was known as 
Centre Meeting. The Meeting-house was on the 
West side of Washington Street, comer of Stew- 
art, German and Monmouth Streets. A whole 
square was conveyed by Sarah Zane of Phila- 
delphia to Joshua Lupton, Samuel Brown and 
Samuel Swayne in 1814, ''for the purpose of 
erecting a Meeting-house thereon, and for a 
burial ground on part thereof for use of the 
Friends society." The site is now occupied by 

The quakers of to-day are reduced in numbers 
to such an extent, that their Meetings are slimly 
attended. Some families adhere to their faith 
more than to the old time customs. In the olden 
time they were easily distinguished from other 
classes by their quiet demeanor and peculiar 
style of dress; but we never see the broad brim- 
med hat, or the shad-belly coat in these days. 

The Mennonist Society, 

Very few readers of these Sketches are aware 
of the early appearance of this Sect They were 
in small groups — South of the North-fork of 
the Shenandoah River — alongside the first Luther- 
ans, extending up the Luray Valley and also 
South up the main Valley, towards Harrison- 
burg, where they also had the Tunkers for neigh- 
bours. This sect was certainly represented in 
the Massanuttin region, but no evidence of Meet- 
ing-houses. They were found by German Evan- 
gelists and Moravian Missionaries. The Shenan- 
doah County section, and Rockingham have had 
small settlements for many years. In recent 
years this Society had several preaching places 
in Frederick County, and until within the last 
five years, maintained a church near Kemstown 
Railroad station. This has since closed, and the 
property sold to S. M. (Thiles, who converted it 
into a tenant-house. All the members of this 
Church, known to the writer, were exemplary 
Christian citizens. Many of them men of means. 
They came into.this section chiefly from Pennsyl- 
vania, since the Civil war. A Menonist preacher 
lived near Massanuttin, and was killed by the 
Indians about 1760 (see reference in War notes).. 


The Roman Catholic Church 

In writing a history of the Catholic Church in 
the territory of Old Frederick, the author ap- 
proaches the subject with many misgivings, 
knowing this Church has a history; but the 
records showing what part this Church had in 
the development of this county are so meagre, 
that justice cannot be done her. Where such 
limited knowledge prevails, many incidents of 
self sacrifice which the first Catholic settlers 
endured, may never be told. We know they 
were here in the forming of the county; they 
were land owners, good citizens, and as loyal to 
American institutions as they ever were to their 
Mother Church. They, too, had their struggles. 
Deprived of the accustomed ministrations of their 
Church, they never faltered, but waited for the 
time when a service of Matins and Vespers might 
be enjoyed. 

The Shenandoah region had a strange infatua- 
tion for emigrants. Hastening from the seaboard 
landings, through sections of country equal in 
soil and climate, and more congenial to their re- 
ligion, they crossed the Cohongoruta; erected 
their log-cabins and — we may say, their altars 
too, in what was a wilderness. Pennsylvania 
offered inducements to the German Protestants; 
Delaware and Jersey to Scotch-Irish Presbyteri- 
ans, and Maryland to the Catholics. We have 
endeavored to show in preceding pages, what 
the former did in the new country; we will now 
try to show what the latter did in his new en- 

We have evidence that several Priests visited 
this section prior to 1800; and that Mass was 
said at Richard McSherry's Jr. at his homestead 
called '^Retirement farm" ; and that it was a well- 
known stopping-place for Priests. Wm. McSherry 
who lived near Martinsburg, was also a devout 
Catholic; and Mass was said in the house of 
John Timmons, a resident of Martinsburg. There 
was no church at that date; and the visiting 
priests came from Maryland — Revs. Denis Cahill, 
Frambach, Gallitzin and others are named. It is 
well established that there were no resident 
priests prior to 1840 in all this section. We find 
Rev. Richard Whclan and Rev. Jos. S. Plunkett 
visited all the towns in Frederick, Berkeley, Jef- 
ferson, Hampshire, Hardy and Shenandoah. There 
must have been a regular place of worship in 

Martinsburg as early as 1820, for the church 
record kept by Rev. James Redmond, has several 
entries in it as early as 1820. This appears "In 
the chapel room 1820,'' Father Redmond married 
a couple in this chapel on that date. It has been 
asserted by some writers that he started the 
building of what was known as the old stone 
church, doing much of the work himself. The 
following named priests served this church un- 
til 1840: Rev. John Mahony, Geo. Flautt, F. B. 
Jamison, Richard Wheelan, Jos. Strain, P. Dan- 
aker; and from 1842 to 1856, Revs. John O'Brien, 
Jos. H. Plunkett, and Andrew Talty. It is more 
than likely the church proper was erected about 
1830. We find by frequent reference tc the work 
of Mr. John T. Reily, that about fifty Catholic 
families lived in Martinsburg at the time, who 
aided in the erection of the church, as did also 
"many Protestant friends." The church was lo- 
cated on the ground of the present cemetery, at 
a cost of $4,000. This was known as St. Joseph. 
The present imposing church property, with its 
parochial school, was completed in 1883. Mr. 
Reily says the Laity's Directory, 1822, has this 
entry: "The Catholics of Martinsburg, Win- 
chester, Bath and Shepardstown were formerly 
attended by priests from Maryland, but in future 
would be in charge of the priest stationed at 
Winchester." This corroborates the statement 
made by old Catholics to the author many years 
ago, that there was a church in Winchester Ipng 
before 1800. This church was at the East end 
of Piccadilly Street, North of the old Presby- 
terian Church. Near it was the consecrated yard 
that contained their dead. This old place has 
been mentioned in chapters on Cemeteries. When 
the War closed in 1865, the little church was in 
ruins; and the old yard contained many defaced 
and broken slabs — evidence that vandals had been 
there in the garb of soldiers. The first services 
were held in Michael Hassett's house. About 
this time came Rev. J. J. Kain, who ministered 
and worked in his congregation with such zeal, 
that it became possible to erect the imposing 
edifice now the home of many Catholics. Stand- 
ing on South Loudoun Street, it is an ornament 
to the city; and offers many inducements to 
members of this church to change their country 
homes for homes in the city. Father Kain was 



". ♦ 'T 

the distinguished Bishop of his Church soon after 
leaving Winchester. Father Van De Vyver came 
next and succeeded in completing the edifice. 
The church was dedicated by Bishop Kain, 1875, 
under the special patronage of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus. They now were ready to enjoy the 
services of their first resident pastor. Up to this 
time, Winchester was an out-mission under the 
care of the Harpers Ferry Church. Rev. J. 
Hagan came first; a comfortable home for the 
priest was built, and also the towering steeple 
for the ponderous bell, whose tones are so strong 
and withal so melodious, the entire city feels a 
just pride in the sonorous tones it daily wafts 
over every home. The next pastor was Rev. D. J. 
O'Connell, D.D., who for many years was Rec- 
tor of the American College at Rome. In 1883, 
Rev. J. B. O'Reilly came. Under his pastorate, 
the site for the new cemetery was purchased; 
and removals made from the old graveyard. It 
may be proper to say that several old tombs 
were not disturbed. Quite a number of the 
graves were unmarked; and the unknown tenants 
remain in blissful ignorance of the abandonment 
of the old graveyard that had been consecrated 
a century ago. Certainly the dust of the donor 
of the ground, Edward McGuire, was left; the 
marks that once distinguished the spot where he 
had lain so long, were obliterated ; and the writer 
was informed by Father O'Reilly that it would 
have been impossible to identify the remains of 
such; and he deemed it best to level the surface 
and turn it over for other purposes. Genl. I>enver 
protested against the removal of his grandfather 
Patrick I>enver, and requested the writer to 
present his views; but Mr. O'Reilly was unyield- 
ing, and insisted upon the removel of all found 
in graves that were marked. 

Rev. Father McVerry is now pastor of Sacred 
Heart Church, and a most consistent and devout 
priest, held in high esteem by all who know him. 
The writer appreciates his courtesies. 

The Catholics in 1889 erected a church prop- 
erty in Charlestown. Harpers Ferry for many 
years before the War had a prosperous, church, 
and the priests resided there. 

Shepardstown was slow in establishing a church 
at that point, though there is one there now, 
which has gathered strength since 1890. 

The Catholic Church at Harpers Ferry escaped 
destruction during the Civil War; and has had 
reasonable success. Priests of note have cele- 
brated Mass in the old church. It was in this 
old church where the author many years ago, 
first saw the Crucifix, the Virgin Mary and the 
Holy Child — figures of worship occupying a place 
near the chancel. His youthful impressions re- 
main to this day. The church occupies one of 

the most prominent and picturesque height^ -t 
that hilly town. 

Front Royal and Strasburg were early mission 
fields for the Catholics. Not even a nucleus for 
churches was formed, however, until after the 
Civil War. Front Royal has had for several 
years a growing church. An incident associated 
with this church is worth relating : It was during 
the Civil War, that a young soldier of the Con- 
federate Army, a member of the celebrated Mary- 
land Line, was disabled and languished for many 
weary days in the home of a friend in Front 
Royal. He was tenderly cared for by a lady 
whose name cannot be recalled, but she was a 
devout Catholic, and so was the young soldier, 
Carroll Jenkins, whose life was slowly ebbing 
away, far removed from his luxurious home in 
Baltimore. His grateful acknowledgment for the 
attentions given him by his Catholic nurse, and 
the ministrations of such church rites as she 
could render, prompted him to give substantial 
evidence of his appreciation. He informed his 
newly-made friends that he was the son of Mr. 
Thomas C. Jenkins of Baltimore, who was well 
known for his wealth and association with the 
Michael Jenkins family of that city; and he di- 
rected that after his death, when communication 
was open with Baltimore, that his father be in- 
formed and requested, that he desired of what- 
ever estate he possessed, or that his father in- 
tended he should share had he lived, that a 
sufficient sum should be appropriated for the 
purpose of erecting a memorial church in Front 
Royal, and on the spot where he had succumbed 
to the fate of war. The church now in Front 
Royal stands as the memorial to the young sol- 
dier. The father and family had complied with 
his wishes. The membership is small. The 
church is under the care of the Sacred Heart 
Church of Winchester. Father McVerry ministers 
the Holy Sacrament to this mission. 

It may be added, that the same Jenkins family 
contributed liberally to the completion of the 
Sacred Heart Church in Winchester. 

In closing the sketches of the various churches 
fotmd in Old Frederick County and her sub- 
divisions, the author submits their perusal and 
study to the indulgent reader of this volume, 
trusting that he may find many historical inci- 
dents of value, and be compensated for his time; 
and thus understand why so much space has been 
devoted to this part of the development of the 
great territory the fathers found West of the 
Blue Ridge in the early part of the i8th Century. 
In this the 20th Century, but few if any readers 
can afford to entertain a thought that the church 
development was not a necessity; and, indeed, 
it must be conceded that it was necessary; for 



without it, the far-famed Shenandoah Valley 
would have presented a spectacle of chaos, and 
even barbarism, that is beyond the ken of man 
to comprehend. Each and every denomination 
carrying the banner of the Christian faith, has 
had its part in the great drama; and to-day as 
they take the retrospective along with the prospec- 
tive view, they must feel emboldened in their 
efforts to press the work forward, encouraged 
by the hope that the Church will ultimately 
triumph over all other creations. It is the only 
institution to survive the upheavals of time. Its 
first appearance indicated no such results. Found- 
ed at a period in the world's history; few indeed 
could appreciate its origin, and only a few were 
present at its birth. The humblest of a mighty 
nation, stood awed by the demeanor and langu- 
age of a young Hebrew who, standing in their 
midst, made the most fearless and unequivocal 
announcement ever made by man; and though 
only spoken in the presence of the humble, and 
that in an obscure place, the utterance has never 
lost any of its power: — "Upon this rock I will 
build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against it." This was Jesus of Nazareth; 
and how well the Church to-day attests the ful- 
fillment of that astounding declaration. No 
scheme of destruction has ever been devised by 
man to destroy or overcome the Church. Every 
atom of creation perishes; nations, and their 
thrones, have been extinguished; generations 
come and go; the mighty law of change and de- 
cay will ultimately remove the earth and its 

firmament; but time in her cycles is giving proof 
that the Church thus founded, will survive all 
the wreck of matter. History marks the rise and 
fall of many civilized powers. She also marks 
the increasing power of that church. She also 
marks the rise of false religions, only to show 
their final overthrow. She also marks an era, 
when philosophy offered its tenets of false rea- 
son, that perished in the using. 

This Church was founded at a time when the 
world's population had full knowledge that ob- 
literation and decay stood boldly out in every 
known land, to prove that nothing was imperish- 
able. Perhaps they pointed to a few exceptions, 
to be seen in the massive columns some of the 
mighty rulers had builded, and to their pyramid- 
monuments on the borders of an Egyptian desert. 
All other creations had vanished under the hand 
of the universal destroyer. No wonder, then, 
that the announcement of this stranger should 
be received with doubt and derision. All civilized 
nations to-day acknowledge that the strange He^ 
brew was the Christ; and the Institution he 
founded has defied, and will forever to the end 
defy all destructible agencies. And on this foun- 
dation, all the denominations treated in the fore- 
going sketches, openly declare there is where 
their banner has been planted; and under it 
they are making rapid strides to encircle the 
earth. The benign influence of this great de- 
velopment has become an integral part in the de- 
velopment of Civilization of the Universe, result- 
ing in the Christianizing of the untold millions. 


The Cemeteries 

In the olden time, the villagers knew nothing 
about the necessity of providing some general 
place where the whole community could dedicate 
some appointed spot for the burial of their de- 
ceased friends, which would be under some sys- 
tematic control. The church yard was deemed 
sufficient; and as the several churches had suffi- 
cient space, the members of the different de- 
nominations appropriated this space. And thus the 
old church-yard gradually filled to over-flowing. 
For instance, as previously stated, the old grave- 
yard in the rear of the first Episcopal Church, 
comer of Loudoun and Boscawen Streets, was 
found at an early day, inadequate to meet the 
wants for this purpose. Many removals were 
made to a new plot of ground southwest from 
where the hospital now stands. The old ground 
was converted to other uses. The old Lutheran 
and German Reformed Churches on the hill had 
ample space adjacent to the churches. There we 
find the early settlers resting undisturbed; while 
to the North, the old Presbyterian Church at 
the East end of Piccadilly Street continued the 
use of their adjoining lot until 1840. The grave- 
yard was carefully guarded for many decades. 
Some of our most noted persons rested there for 
a century undisturbed; some removals were made 
to Mt. Hebron about the middle of the 19th Cen- 
tury; the monuments and enclosures yielded to 
the ravages of war, and tombs lost all evidence 
of their identity. A recent visit to this once 
sacred place impressed the writer with the feeling 
that the descendants had forgotten the ancestors 
who will soon be in nameless gravte; the old 
slabs have been displaced in many instances; 
and some slabs bear inscriptions that would startle 
many of our busy men and women if they re- 
alized the inexcusable neglect. Go, reader, some 
day to this place, and take warning, lest you re- 
ceive at the hands of your descendants similar 
neglect of a righteous duty! The once gifted 
Rev. Nash LeGrand, and many others of his 
class, lie beneath that sod without the vestige of 
a marker. The invincible Daniel Morgan was 
buried here in July, 1802. Genl. Roberdeau, the 
Powells, Magills, Beatty, Smiths, Whites, Holmes, 
Baldwins, Grays and others were laid to rest 
here. Some were removed to Mount Hebron. 
Just to the North are other plats, one where the 
Roman Catholic Church had a consecrated place 

for their dead; but the limits of the Eastern 
suburbs of the City pressed on, until this, too, 
was abandoned; and, maybe, all that remained 
of the old pioneers of this Church, were gathered 
up and carried to their new cemetery at the 
South end of Market Street The Methodist 
congregation, for many years, interred their dead 
in the other lot. Some were removed to Mt. 
Hebron. The Friends had their gravesrard near 
their old Meeting House that stood between 
Stewart and Washington Streets. Some removals 
were made prior to the Civil WJar. During the 
War, hundreds of Confederate soldiers were 
buried on the same lot, in the Episcopal grave- 
yard, and afterwards removed to Stonewall Ceme- 
tery; likewise, many Union soldiers were buried 
there. The Society of Friends for many years 
interred many of their dead in the two graveyards 
South of Winchester, one on the Valley Pike 
near the Hollingsworth Mill property, and the 
other N. W. from the paper mill. 

It was found desirable about the year 1840, 
that there should be some common place of burial, 
provided and maintained on some legal plan. 
Steps were taken to organize a company to pro- 
vide the necessary funds. This being assured. 
The Mount Hebron Cemetery Company was 
chartered; and when the present location was 
adopted, a large lot was purchased adjoining the 
old Lutheran and Reformed Calvinists grave- 
yards on the East. The grounds having been 
suitably laid off in plats and driveways by an 
accomplished landscape engineer. Mount Hebron 
was ready for dedication June 22, 1844. The 
impressive services were conducted by Rev. Dr. 

A. H. H. Boyd, pastor of Loudoun Street Pres- 
byterian Church, with an introductory address, 
reading of Scriptures by Rev. Dr. Wm. Rooker, 
rector of Christ Church, and dedicatory prayer 
by Rev. Dr. Wm. M. Atkinson; address by Wm. 
L. Qark, Esq., concluding prayer by Rev. Wm. 

B. Edwards; Rev. D. H. Bragonier read one 

After the singing of three hymns. Rev. Joseph 
Baker pronounced the Benediction. The first 
interment was made August, 1844, the wife of 
Dr. Atkinson. The newspapers of that date gave 
extended notices of the dedication services. Dr. 
Foote, in his sketches, says: "The first interment 
in the graveyard was the body of Mrs. Atkinson, 




wife of Rev. Wm. M. Atkinson, D.D., pastor oi 
the old school Presbyterian Church, Winchester." 
The lots were sold at a reasonable price; and *erc 
long, the removals from the old graveyards pro- 
duced the appearance of a cemetery of long 
standing. The transfer of old slabs and monu- 
ments with old inscriptions, gave the impression 
often felt by visitors, that Mt. Hebron started 
with the 19th Century. Genl. Daniel Morgan, 
and the Huguenot General Roberdeau, were re- 
moved from their old places and became part 
of Mt. Hebron history; and as the century 
closed, nearly all the participants in the dedica- 
tion had been laid to rest in the various lots. 
Previous to this, however, every lot had been 
taken, and other additions required to meet the 
increasing demand. The original plans were ex- 
tended to new purchases; and before the Twen- 
tieth Century was ushered in— less than sixty 
years since the first interment — the Cemetery 
embraced thirty-five acres. The first addition, 
lying between the original plat and Stonewall 
Cemetery, started about 1870, has long since been 
well filled with imposing monuments, and simpler 
slabs, that speak to the passer-by volumes for 
reflection. The silent city is increasing in num- 
bers that may soon equal the living city, that 
nestles so beautifully between the hills a few 
hundred yards West. (The number of interments 
arc 4485 at this writing). The site was well 
chosen for this city on the hill, the elevation 
being suflicient to command a view of the entire 
lower Valley. To the East is that transcendent 
prospect, the Blue Ridge, at whose base one can 
outline the turbulent Shenandoah, hastening on 
to meet the Potomac at Harpers Ferry; out on 
that Western horizon are the foot-hills of the 
Alleganies; and to the South the inimitable 
scenery of the Alps of America, the Massanutton 
peaks and ranges. The skill of man has done 
much to bring out the attractions that Nature 
had founded. The sighing evergreens and wav- 
ing foliage of towering trees, enhance the lines 
of beauty; and the quiet visitor strolls 'neath the 
overhanging boughs, and really learns to enjoy 
the impressive solitude. The sacred place, with 
each succeeding year, becomes the mecca of many 
new visitors, seeking communion of kindred 
spirits, where so many hallowed memories cluster, 
that can never be imparted to others. 

The Mount Hebron Cemetery comprehends the 
entire grounds now enclosed by an iron fence, 
the gift of Mr. Rouss. This incloses Stonewall 
and also what is generally known as the Old 
Lutheran Graveyard, with the ruins of the old 
Lutheran Church standing near the centre, a 
description of which will be found in the sketch 
of the church, elsewhere in this volume. 

Stonewall Cemetery. 

Immediately to the East and adjoining Mt. 
Hebron, is Stonewall Cemetery, beautiful in situ- 
ation, and sacred by reason of what it contains. 
Here are entombed the Confederate soldiers who 
succumbed to disease or went down in the shock 
of battle on the fields lying in full view in every 
direction. This has the distinction of being the 
first Memorial offered to the soldiers who perish- 
ed in the Civil War; and the noble women of 
this section are entitled to the honor, for they 
sank not when the Banner was furled; they who 
had been in camp and hospital, and cheered the 
marching columns, scarcely allowed the smoke 
and din of War to pass from the Valley, before 
they rallied to their support willing helpers, to 
gather together the thousands of fallen brave; 
and succeeded after untold trials, in transferring 
all to this plat of ground secured for that pur- 
pose, until, with continued perse