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/\/a- ^^n.G 



Subscription Fund 

BEGUN IN 1858 






with eight plates 
and a sketch map 

Philadelphia, pa. 

the board of foreign missions of 

the united presbyterian church of n. a. 


Pi(r 3S\n.^ 

OCT 17 1913 



^ \ 


The Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presby- 
terian Church of N. A. desires to express to the Trustees 
of the Arthington Fund its profound appreciation for finan- 
cial help which made it possible to carry on linguistic in- 
vestigations in Southern Sudan and then to give pubHcity 
to their findings by the pubUcation of this book. 





Iq the Bummer of 1910 the PnuBian Board of Education provided me with 
the means to undertake a journey to the Northern Sudan. My object was to 
make linguistic studies. During my stay in the Sudan the material for diis work 
was collected. My studies in the Shilluk language and people are due to a 
request made to me by the Reyerend C. R. Watson D. D., of Kiiladelphia Pa., 
Corresponding Secretary of the Mission of the United Presbyterian CSburch of 
North America. Mr. Watsto, haying heard of my intended journey to Egypt 
and the Sudan, asked me to yisit the United Presbyterian Church's Mission 
on the Sobat, and to study the language of that district which lies widiin the 
sphere of their activity. By supplying the necessary funds for this part of the 
journey and for my stay in the Sudan, I was enabled to cany out this propo- 
sition, which was at the same time of importance for my linguistic studies. 

I left for the Sudan at the beginning of August 1910, where I staid in 
Khartum and on the Sobat till the middle of November. 

The results of my work obtained during this comparatively short time would 
not have been possible had it not been for the extremely active and kind 
support rendered me everywhere in the Sudan by the American missionaries. 
Not only was I able to profit by their kind hospitality, but they also most 
generously placed at my disposal their extensive knowledge of the country^ 
people and language. I owe my practical introduction to the language to Br. 
Thomas A. Lambie, medical missionary at Khartum, in whose house I was 
privileged to stay for over a month. In addition to the contributions signed 
by him he also supplied me with several native texts from his collection which 
will be found incorporated in this book. 

The missionaries on Doleib Hill, Mr. C. B. Guthrie and the Reverend D. 
S. Oyler also helped me on all possible occasions; above all they introduced 
me to the Shilluks and put me into touch with those natives who were necess- 
ary and useful to me in my researches. Both these gentlemen and the Reverend 
E. McCreery and Mr. R. W. Tidrick have supplied me with very valuable 
information in answer to questions addressed to them since my return to Ger- 
many, some of which appears as signed contributions. Part of it has been 
included in the introduction. During the winter of 191 1 I had the pleasure of 
receiving the Reverend McCreery while he was in Berlin, and thus had an 
opportunity of discussing grammatical questions with him. 

I must express my sincere thanks to all those who have assisted me in their 

VIII Preface 


cooperation and by placing the necessary funds at my disposal, which enabled 
me to complete this work. 

I am indebted to the Arthington Trustees, who by their financial support 
made the printing of this book possible. 

My gratitude is also due to Mr. L. Hamilton of the Oriental College, Berlin, 
who has read and corrected the English text. 

The Reyerend C. R. Watson was kind enough to read and correct that part 
of the work which relates to Folklore. 

Berlin, August 1912. DDEDRICH WESTERMANN. 

Contents ix 









The Vowels, i— 8 1—4 

The Consonanta. 9 — 1 1 4 — 6 

Change of Vowels. 12 — 27 7 — 12 

Change of Semivowels. 28 — 36 13 — 14 

Change of Consonants. 37 — ^46 14 — 18 

Intonation. 47 — 60 18 — 22 


Form of the Stem. 61 — 76 23 — 27 

Composition of Words, 77 — 85 27 — 29 




The Dialects or Divisions. 86 — 89 30 — 32 

//^e Position of Shilluk among other African Lan- 
guages. 90—101 33—45 

Comparatiye Lists of Words. 98 — lOi 36 — 44 

Appendix : Names of Languages 44 — 45 



THE NOUN. Singular and Plural. 102—124 . . . 46—55 
Examples showing plural-formation. 113 — 124 . . 49 — 55 

Gender. 125— 126a 56 — 57 

Case. i27-r-^i29 57 — 59 

X Contents 

THE PRONOUN. The Personal Pronoun. 130 

— 137 .^ 59—64 

DemonBtrative Pronouns. 138 — 141 64 — 66 

Interrogatiye Pronouns. 142 — 144 66 — 6^ 

Relative Pronouns. 145 67 

The Reflexiye Pronoun. 146 67 — 68 

The Reciprocal Pronoun. 147 68 

THE ADJECTIVE. 148— 151 68—71 

Comparison. 151 70 — 71 

THE NUMERALS. 152—154 71—72 

THE VERB. Conjugation of the Verb. 156—196 72—90 

Examples of Conjugation. 157 — 178 73 — 79 

Present. 157 — 158 73 — 74 

Perfect. 159 — 161 74 — 75 

Future. 162 75 

Habitual. 163 75 

Imperative. 164 j6 

The Verb with a Noun as Object. 165 — 169 76 

Verbal Noun. 170 76 — JJ 

Noun Agent. 171 yy 

The Passive Voice. 172 — 177 a 77 — 79 

Doubling of a Verb. 178 79 

Change of Sounds in Verbs. 179 — 193 79 — 89 

Changes in the second consonant. 179 — 185 .... 79 — 84 

A List of Verbs in tiieir different forms. 181 .... 80 — 81 

Changes in the stem-vowel. 186 — 188 84 — 86 

Changes in tiie semivowel 189 — 193 86 — 89 

Auxiliary Verbs. 194 — 195 89 — 90 

Negation of the Verb. 196 90 — 91 

ADVERBS. 197—203 91—93 

PREPOSITIONS. 204 93—94 




4/1. HouBebuildiiig 96 — 98 

2. SoU 98 

3. Field-produce »•#«•••• 98 

Contents XI 

4. Ejnds of doras 98 — 99 

Agricuhiire 99 — 102 

5. Foods 102 — 103 

6. Seasons 103 

7. Months * 103 

8. Day-times 103 

9. Stars 104 

10. Household-things 104 

l^t\. Handicrafts 105 — 106 

^/^. Tools 106 

13. Clothings and ornaments 106 — 107 

[^4. Names for cows 107 — 108 


\2^. Marriage 109 

j/l6. Burial 1 11 

//J'7. Inheritance 113 

<-/i8. Murder 114 

l/l^. Blood Revenge 115 

20. Quarrel between Husband and Wife 116 

21. The Husband who wanted to cook 117 


22. Treatment of Sick People 119 

23. Another Report on Sickness 119 

24. Sicknesses 120 


25. Election of a King 122 

^ 26. Another report on Election 123 

1^. Clothes for the Royal Court 125 

28. Boats for the King 126 

29. Provinces of the ShiUuk country 127 

The Clans or Divisions of the ShiUuk People ... 127 

30. The ShiBuk Kings 135 

«^3i. Burial of a King 135 

32. The Man who took the Law into his own Hand . 136 

33. A killed Crocodile is the Property of the Hagistrate 137 

XII Contents 


34. How Fashoda became the Royal Residence .... 138 

35. A Law-suit about Dowry 139 


36. Nyadwai 141 

37. Golit 141 

38. Nyimo 142 

39. Nyadoke 142 

40. King Dokot 143 

41. Nyakwach 144 

42. The False Prophets 146 

43. The Prince who refused to be King 147 

44. The Cowardly King 148 

45. Queen Abudok 149 


46. War 151 

47. Tribal War 153 

48. The War of Nyeker 153 

49. The War of Deng 153 


^ 50. Nyikang's Parents 155 

The Origin of the Shullas 157 

1. Early Wanderings of Nyikang 158 

2. Different Doings and Adventures of Nyikang . . . 161 

13. The Man who sacrificed himself 165 

14. N}rikang and the River-people 165 

5. The Lost Low 165 

;6. The Liar 166 

17. Nyikang's Quarrel with Duwat 166 

8. The Pish Ocholo 167 

\g. Nyikang and the Sorcerers 168 

60. A War against Turtles 169 

61. Praising Nyikang 170 



62. A Prayer to God 171 

63. A Prayer for Rain 171 

Contents xiii 

64. A Religious Ceremony 172 

65. How Cattle is brought across the River 172 

66. Preparation for War 173 


67. The Cruel King 175 

68. King Nyadwai trying the Sorcerers 175 

69. The Vision of the Sorcerer 176 

70. Agok 177 


71. The Creation of Man 178 

71 a. On Totemism 178 


72. Hare and Hyena 180 

73. Monkey and Lion 184 

74. Dog and Fox 185 

75. Hare and Hyena . 185 

76. Lion and Fox 186 

TJ. Starling and Centipede 188 

78. Hare and Tapero 189 

79. Who is King 190 

80. The Hare 193 

81. Camel and Donkey 196 



82. The Country of the Dogs 201 

83. Akwoch 202 

84. Girl and Dog 205 

85. Anyimo and the Lion . . 208 

86. An Adventure in the Forest 210 

87. Boy and Hyena 211 

88. Nyajak 213 

89. Ajang 217 

90. The Snake 219 

91. The Crocodile Hunter 221 


92. The Travellers 224 

XIV Contents 

93. A Goat-story 225 

94. The Glatton 225 

95. Bachet 226 

96. The Country where Death is not 228 

97. The King and the People 23a 

98. Wealth cannot be imitated 231 

99. Increase of Catde 232 

100. The Haughty Prince 232 

loi. The Hyena with the Bell 233 



102. Elephant Hunting 234 

103. A Journey 235 


104. War Songs 237 

105. Mourning Songs, and others 239 


106. Riddles 241 


ShiQuk — ^English 244 

EoglUh — Shilluk 290 



a: The Goldencrested Crane. Young Warriors 
with Clubs and Spears. Shilluk Dug-out. Typical 

Shilluk pose. The Marabou-stork XXIV 

2: A Typical ShiUuk XXXU 

3 : Boys and Maidens Dancing. View of Sobat 

River XXXVI 

4: Shilluk war dance XXXVI 

.5 : Village scene. ^House of Nyikang". A Shilluk 

giant. Group of Shilluks XL 

Contents xv 

^6: Shilluk GHlils showing the way they wear the 

skin dress. Lotas flower XLVIII 

, 7 : Group of Native Huts. Ghroup of Boys. Girls 

Sewing Schoo^ XLVIH 

^ : ShiDok Women in arms. Two men in arms. 

A ShiUuk Warrior LVI 


' Sketch map of Tribes of the ShiUak Cluster indi- 
cating their principal migrations as shown by 
traditions and language, compiled and drawn by 
Bemhard Struck LXIII 

XVI Abbreviations 


a. = adjectiye ff. = and the foUoMring 

adv. = adverb * before a word means that the 

A. E. S. = The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; word or form is not really 

vide "Authors Quoted"" existing, but hypothetical 

interr. = interrogative - standing between two nouns 

n. = noun, ako verbal noun designates the first of the two 

prep. = preposition as a singular, the second as a 

rel. = relative plural, e. g. hdirlt-hd^r means : 

V. = verb hdtr^ is the singular, hd^ the 

V. a. = verb active plural 

V. n. = verb neuter ^ means : is derived firom 

verb. n. = verbal noun ) means : changes into. 

The verb in the present tense has generaUy low tone on both syllables, 
therefore the tones are not designated in this case. 

Names of Languages and Dialects abbreviated. 
Al. = Aluru Ju. = Jur 

Any. = Anywak La. = Lango 

Ba. = Bari Nu. = Nuba 

Bo. = Bongo Nr. = Nuer 

Di. = Dinka N. = Nupe 

E. = Ewe * Shi. = ShiUuk 

Ef. = Efik T. = Twi 

G. = G« Y. = Yoruba 

Qa. = Gang V. = Vai 

Ja. = Ja-LuQ (Nyi£wa). 

Authors XVII 



AnthropoB 191 o. (Hofineyer.) 

O. Baumann, Darch Massailand zur Nilquelle. Berlin 1894. 
J. Bruce, Reise nach Abyssinien (Translated from the English). From: Samm- 
lung merkwtb'diger Reisen in das Innere von Afrika. Leipzig 179 1. 

F. Cailliaud, Voyage k M^ro^. Paris 1826. 

S. Crowther, Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language. London 1843. 

K. Giffen, The Egyptian Sudan. Second Edition. Newyork 191 1. 

Count Gleichen, The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. London 1905. Quoted: A. E. S. 

C. R. Hall, English-Teso Vocabukry. 
R. Hartmann, Die Nigritier. Berlin 1876. 
, Die Killftnder. Leipzig 1883. 

A. C. HoUis, The Masai. Oxford 1905. 

Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate. London 1904. 

A. L. Eitching, An Outline Grammar of the Gang Language. London 1907. 
R. Lepsius, Nubische Grammatik. Berlin 1880. 

E. Mamo, Reisen im Gebiet des Weifien und Blauen Nil. Wien 1874. 
J. C. Mitterrutzner, Die Dinka-Sprache. Brixen 1866. 
L. Reinisch, Die Kuba-Sprache. Wien 1879. 

E. Rtlppell, Reise in Abessinien, Frankfurt (Main) 1838 — 40. 

J. V. Russegger, Reisen in Europa, Asien und Afrika. Stuttgart 1841 — 50. 

G. Schweinfurth, Lod Herzen von Afrika. Leipzig 1878. 
Schweitzer, Emin Pascha. 1897. 

B. Struck, An Unlocated Tribe on the White Kile, Journal of the African 
Society. London 1908. 

, Ober die Sprachen der Tatoga und Lrakuleute. Mitteilungen aus den 

Deutschen Schutzgebieten, Erglbizungshefit 4, 19 10. 
H. L. Tangye, In the Torrid Sudan. London 1910. 

F. Weme, Reise durch Sennaar. Berlin 1852. 

D. Westermann, Die Sudansprachen. Hamburg 191 1. 

, The Nuer Language. Mitteilungen des Seminars fUr Orientalische 

Sprachen. Berlin 191 2. 

WKSTKRMAN5, Th« SliiUnk Peopl*. ^^ 




XX Introduction 

Mllllimillllllllllllllllll W IIIIIIIIIIWiilWWIMIIIWI M IIIW^^^^ 



NAME The inhabitants are called: dchdl^, "a Shilluk**, plural xvaU chbly "children 
of Shilluk", "Shilluks" ; the country is caUed fb^ ch^l "country of the Shilluks." 
The word cKol perhaps means "black'', vide below. A second name of the people 
is okanQs "descendants of kanQ^^ this name is connected with Nyikang, the 
national hero of the Shilluks. The name "ShiUuk*' (sin^ar Shilkawi) is given 
to them by the Arabs, and has now become their common designation; it is 
of course derived from ocholQ^ Other appellations, which are in use among the 
neighbours of the Shilluks, vide page 44. 
EXTENSION The Shilluk country is situated on the western banks of the White Nile, from 

Eaka to Lake No, that is from about 10^5' to 9^5' northern latitude, a 
length of nearly 350 km, and a width of 5 to 6 hours. Near the mouth of the 
Sobat (Bahr El Asraf, "Yellow River*") a number of Shilluks live on the 
eastern shore of the White Nile, on both sides of the lower Sobat, chiefly on 
its northern bank. They extend about 35 miles up the Sobat, the last Shilluk 
village up river being Nagdyeb. There is also a group of Shilluk settlements 
at Shakwa El Shilkawi (= Shilluk), near Bahr El Zeraf, on the right bank of 
the Nile, and on Khor Atar, south of Tonga (Tuno). North of Eaka the first 
Shilluk settlements are found on Aba Island, on the north- and south-end of 
which there is a small Shilluk village each. Near Masran Island there is also 
a Shilluk village on the right bank of the Nile. Again single settlements are met 
with on Masran Island, Wad Dakona Island, and on the north-end of the Gezira 
Wad Beiker. 

The Shilluks themselves designate the extension of their country by naming 
the most northern and the most southern village and district of their Kingdom, 
viz. Mwomo and Tonga (MwQmQ, TunQ), which term corresponds exactly to the 
expression of the ancient Hebrews : from Dan unto Bersheba. 

In former times the country of the Shilluks seems to have been larger than 
it is now. According to older reports it not only extended farther northwards, 
whence they were driven back by Arab tribes, but they are also said to have, 
in the 17 th century, inhabited both sides of the White Nile south of Eawa; 
Kawa is situated a little south of El Dueim; so, provided this report is right, 
they owned at that time a trait of territory nearly three times as great as that 
they inhabit to-day. 
CX.1MATE From January to April the climate of the country is dry and warm. April is 

Coun try an d People xxi 


the hottest month of the year. June to September constitutes the rainy season, 
and from October to December the larger part of the country is flooded with 
water, but the marshes and smaller Ehors > all dry up by April. From November 
to April the climate is not unhealthy for Europeans. During the wet season 
mosquitoes are numerous. Malaria and black water fever are the diseases most 
dangerous to white people. 

The country is a plain with only inconsiderable elevations, on which the vill- SOIL 
ages of the natives are built. The soil is black and fertile near the river and the 
khors, back from the water courses it is in most places poorer, sometimes 

The chief vegetation is high grass, interspersed with shrubs. A light forest of VEQETATION 
acacia trees is found mainly along the Nile. The acacia is the chief represen- 
tative of the tree-flora : heglig (Balanites aegyptiaca), sont-acacia (Acacia ara- 
bica), Talh (Acacia Seyal), different kinds of gum-acacias, etc. A characteristic 
feature of the landscape are groups of deleib- and dom-palms (Borassus fla- 
beUifer and Hyphaena Thebaica) ; a beautiful tree is the mahogany tree (Elhaya 
senegalensis) ; it is most useful as timber, but seems to be rather rare in the 
Shillnk country; other notable trees are : different kinds of E^cus (Sycomore 
fig), the ardeib tree (Tamarindus indicus), nabag (a fruit tree) etc. The vege- 
tation on the river is most luxuriant. Though this is not the region of the sudd, 
yet the river is at most times largely covered with single plants and swimming 
islands, formed of papyrus, ambach (Herminiera Elaphroxylon). several kinds 
of reeds, lotus, Umm Suf (Vossia procera), Potamogeton, Ottelia, and many 
others. The floating vegetation often serves birds for a fishing place. Trees are 
much hampered in their growth by the fires which the natives light while the 
grass is dry ; the reason for burning the grass is to hunt up game, and to get 
the ground cleared for cultivation. 

The country being thickly populated, game is not very numerous. But at ANIMALS 
some distance from the settlements large animals are still frequent, chiefly near 
the river towards Lake No ; the neighbourhood of Eaka and north of it are also 
rich in game. Elephants, giraffes, buffaloes are met with, though not very 
frequency; antelopes and gazeUes abound: bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), 
reedbuck (Cervicapra bohor), white-eared cob (Cobus lencotis), ariel (Gazella 
soenmieringi), dorcas (G. dorcas), isabelline gazelle (G.isabella), oryx, waterbuck 
(Cobus defassa), Mrs. Gray's waterbuck (Cobus maria), gazella rubifrons, 
roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus bakeri), hartebeest (Bubalis jacksoni), 
tiang or Bastard Hartebeest (Damaliscus tiang), Oribi antelope (Ourebia) etc. 
Of the carnivorous family the most notable are : lion, leopard, jackal, hyena, 
fox, ZoriUa (a litde black-and-white animal resembling the American skunk), 

^ Khor (Arab) = water course drying up in the rainless season. 


XXII Introduction 

ichneumon (mangouste). The natiyes ako hunt the hare, porcupine, gronnd- 
gquiirel, rat, and hedgehog. The rivers and khors, and chiefly their sidearms, 
are populated by crocodileB, hippos, and numerous fish, some of which weigh 
up to lbs. 200. The birds are mainly riverain: cranes, storks, herons, egrets, fish- 
eagles, marabous, pelicans, ibises, ducks, geese ; the guinea-fowl is very com- 
mon; numbeiiess swarms of dura-birds (Fjrromelana firancbcana) are a great 
nuisance to the farmer; besides them quails, pigeons, turtle-doves, hawks, 
crows, swallows, owls, and starlings are firequent. Of snakes the largest ist 
python; of poisonous species the puff-adder and some others occur; harmless 
snakes are numerous. 
POPULATION The population amounts to about 60000 souls,' who live in a litde more 

than 1200 villages, and 10 000 "domiciles^, each of which consists of three 
to five huts. Accordin^y the average number of people living in a village is 50, 
and one domicile is inhabited by about six persons. The largest village is 
Atwadoi in a district of the saihe name north of Kodok; it consists (1903) of 
1 20 domiciles. The villages generally lie in the belt between the swamp of the 
Nile-bank and the forest. There are, however, eight groups of villages 12 — 22 
miles inland, away firom the river. The country is, for its size, and considering 
the fact that only in the higher parts setdements are possible, thickly populated. 
"Bight away firom Eaka to Lake No is a continous string of villages lying about 
a mile firom the river* There are only two points in the whole of this distance, 
at which the interval between villages exceeds two miles, and these are the 
points where grazing is bad, between Akurwar and Nun, and between Nielwag 
and Nyagwado.** A. E. S., p. 193. 

According to Schweinfurth, the population was much larger formeriy. In 
1 87 1, when the Egyptians had conquered the country, a census was taken; the 
villages on the lefi; bank of the Nile were almost exactly 3000. The inhabitants 
of this part numbered one million, each village consisting of 45 — 200 huts, a 
hut comprising four persons. No part of Afiica, not even of the world, is so 
densely populated. "The whole western Nile bank, as far as the boundaries of 
the country reach, is like one single village, whose parts are separated by a 
distance of only 500 to looo steps. The hut-clusters are buUt in an astonishing 
regularity, and are so crowded together that firom a distance they look like a 
cluster of mushrooms.^ 

The statement of a population of more than one million is probably too high; 
the Shilluks have doubtlessly suffered cruelly firom wars and raids, but in spite 
of this a decrease firom one million to 60000 within a time of forty years is 
hardly thinkable. 

Since the time the people live under the peace of Anj^o-Egyptian rule, they 

1 This is the number of the White Nile and Sobat Shilluks only; if all the Shillok speaking people 
are included, the population will amount to seyeral hundreds of thousands. 


Country and People xxin 

are increasing in numbers. The average number of children reared in one family 
may be from three to four. The number of children bom by one woman is not 
low; women with ten children are no exception. But as a rule no more than 
three or four children grow up to maturity in one fEunily, the rest dying from 
want of reasonable nucsing. If in course of time the natives are taught to take 
better care of their children, the population will no doubt strongly increase. 
A cause of the low birth rate in many funilies is the fact that a man is not 
supposed to have intercourse with his wife while a baby is nursing, that is, till ^ 

the baby is from two to two and a half years old. They consider it a great 
shame for a woman to become pregnant before this time has elapsed. If such 
a case happens, they generally will say that the woman has conmiitted adul- 

The Shilluks are tall in figure, the average height of the men being nearly OUTWARD 
1 . 80 m.' They «re generdly lean, rather mitow in the shoulders, and have but JJ™g^^ 
thin calves; their arms and legs are long, especially the legs below the knees 
and the forearms; hands and feet are small. A characteristic posture of the 
ShiSuk man is to stand on one leg, and bending the other, press the sole of 
his foot against the inner surfitce of the knee, while one hand holds a spear 
stack into the ground; he will stand thus for hours, looking admiringly at his 
cattle. They are very clever in running and jumping, and are capable of 
sustuning considerable fiitigue. 

Their skin is dark, almost black; albinoes seem to be rare. The physical 
appearance of the Shilluks is not -that of pure negroes, they might rather be 
called negroids, in spite of their dark colour. Most of them have a fierce, some- 
times a proud, haughty look. The cheek-bones and lips are protruding, but not 
excessively; the nose is flat, but high noses are not infrequent. Toung people 
of both sexes are finely built, while in old age they generaDy become very thin 
and bony. Their gait is erect and elastic. 

What makes the Shilluks look most ugly and almost firightful in the eyes of PAINTING 
a newcomer, is their habit of smearing the whole body. While the lower part is '^'"^ BODY 
covered with ashes, the breast and head are painted with red earth or with 
chalk, or, if they can afford it, with^oil or butter. Sometii&es the whole body is 
painted white or red, and lines or figures are drawn across the frtce. 

Like most Nilotic negroes the Shilluk remove the lower incisors; this b done EXTRACTION 
in early childhood; its omission would, in the belief of the natives, cause sick- ^^ iNCISOBa. 
ness; for instance, a case occurred where the teeth were taken out to cure sore 
eyes; a woman who had just had them removed from her child, said that un« 
less they were taken out, her child would undoubtedly be deformed in some 
way, when it grew to maturity. Another explanation for extracting &e theeth 

^ ^y^ feet ten inches. 


XXIV Introduction 

is, that this will keep them from using abusive language. — Some natives say, 
members of the royal family do not remove the incisors ; but of this I am not 
TRIBAL MASKS The tribal marks of the Shilluks, women as well as men, are from three 

to five rows of dots across the forehead. The regular instrument for tattooing 
these dots into the skin is a crude iron similar in shape to our scalpel. But not 
infrequently individuab are met with who have not these marks. Sometimes 
women have from one to three rows of small scars across their foreheads. These 
are in most or aD cases simply caused by wearing bands of buttons drawn 
tighdy across the forehead. Tattoeings on other parts of the body are seldom. 
SHAVING The women wear either no or only short hair on the head; they shave their 
heads with a razor consisting of a straight piece of thin iron, whose edge is 
sharpened, or with a short piece of iron with cue side beaten out to a thin edge. 
But lacking a razor they use almost any metal instrument they can get hold 
of for this purpose. Both sexes scrupulously remove any hair on the body by 
pulling it out with a kind of pincers ; the men even puU out their beard and 
eyelashes. — They do not circumcise. 
HAIR-DRESSINOS The men, chiefly youths, indulge in elaborate hair-dresses of varied forms. 

Such hair-dressing takes several hours to arrange, and has to last for weeks, 
the natural occassion for renewing it being a village-dance, where eveiyone 
wants to appear at his best; in dressing it, the hair is first loosened with a stick, 
which serves at the same time for scratching the head. Then it is twisted and 
brought into the right form by means of a mixture of gum, mud, and sometimes 
cow-dung; from time to time oil or butter is poured on it. In order not to spoil* 
V the hair-dressings while sleeping, the neck is supported by neck -supports. 
Sometimes the hair is bleached either yellowish-red or grey. Bleached hair is 
generaUy not twisted or dressed, but is left standing out in all directions "like 
the feathers of a fighting cock.^ Bleaching is done by smearing a thick plaster 
of ashes, chalk and cow-dung on the hair and leaving it there for about two 
or three weeks. Another mode of bleaching is to rub the plaster well into the hair, 
then gathering it up from the back, and bringing it forward, forming it into the 
shape of a horn. While in this state, they must be very carefrd not to break it, 
lest the hair is broken off. The same result is obtained by washing the hair 
continually with cow-urine. These processes take the kink as well as the colour 
out of the hair. This bleached bristle-like hair together with their tall, thin 
body covered with ashes or brick-dust, and the want of eyelashes sometimes 
gives the people, in the eyes of one who has never seen them before, a rather 
frightful appearance. Boys wear their hair in litde knobs, formed with red earth 
and fat. Cowrie-shells, in strings or single, are often twisted into the hair, and 

Country and People xxv 


youg men are very fond of adorning their hair with ostrich or other fine 


The men and generally also unmarried girls go naked. In recent times many CLOTHING t 
men wear a cotton cloth, which is knotted on the left shoulder, and slung round q^aments 
the right hip; chiefly people living near the mission have partly adopted this 
clothing; the desire to possess such a cotton-cloth is a stimulus for many 
a Shilluk to work for a few days or weeks in the mission-compound; the number 
of those who do so is apparently increasing. Animal-skins are generally not 
worn by men as an every-day dress. Women, and sometimes girls are dressed 
in cow, calf, or antelope skins, which are either wrapped round the body, or 
hung over the shoulder. 

[The full dress of a woman is described by Mrs. Giffen in ''The Egyptian 
Sudan" as follows: First of all there is a small apron. This is a piece of 
coarse cloth — originally white — about two feet long and eighteen inches 
wide. It is made of two thicknesses, and it is tied by strings fastened to 
two comers around the waist, but just below the abdomen,- and falls 
down to the knees. 

Then there are two skins, of sheep, goat, calf, gazelle or whatever it may 
be, tanned with the hair on, and worn with the hair side out. One of 
these is tied around the waist, using one foreleg and one hindleg of the 
skin for strings to tie with. The tail and the other two legs — or the skin 
of them — dangle and flap around the legs as ornaments. Indeed these 
are sometimes ornamented with beads, brass or iron rings. This skin is 
tied in front so as to show the white apron underneath. 
The other skin is worn on the upper part of the body. The fore and 
hind legs on one side are fastened together at their very tips ; this is then 
slipped over the head, the legs of the skin thus tied together resting on 
the right shoulder, and the other side passing under the left arm. This 
is the full dress of a woman. Of course in addition to this they may 
wear as many beads and other ornaments as they can afford; strings of 
beads around the waist, neck, and arms, and armlets, of brass; some- 
times as many as ten or twelve brass or iron rings, weighing several 
pounds, and extending from the hand half way to the elbow. These are 
not loose, but drawn tight to the flesh, and each made fast by the black- 
smith. Similar rings of iron are often worn by the elder women on the 
ankle. These are very heavy and produce great knots in the flesh. 
The litde girls wear the apron only, and when a little older, put on the 
shoulder skin, and when full grown wear the skin about the waist.] 
When meeting for a dance both sexes are richly dressed. While present at 

XXVI Introduction 

a great dance. I have noted the omamentB and dothings worn bj the young 
men and girls on the occasion. Thej are a) for the men : above the ankles a 
strip of sheep or goat skin with the hair on it outside; the same just below the 
knee; above it are the knee-bells, a number of metal bells each consisting in 
a hollow, oblong piece of iron, in which a smaU iron baU moves, thus producing 
a rattling noise; about the loins there is a skin of leopard, gepard, wild cat, or 
jackal, suspended on a eight to twelve-fold girdle of ostrich egg shells; the 
girdle may also consist of European beads; on the wrist a bracelet of brass or 
iron, above the elbow an ivory ring, above it a six- to eight-fold ring of ambach; 
about the neck they wear one or more necklaces of beads; on the head orna- 
ments of horse-tail or other long hair« and ostrich feathers ; round the forehead 
strips of red or white bristles are fastened; each man holds two lances, two dubs, 
one dub-shield, the lances generaUy being adorned with ostrich-plumes ; some- 
times the skin-cloth round the wabt is adorned with bells or iron chains. Face, 


arms, and the upper part of the body are smeared with red earth, over wich 
melted butter is poured and stripes of ashes are drawn. Several, if not all, of 
the dancers carry a dancing-stick, a long stick, bent at its upper end like the 
handle of a walking stick, and covered with brass or some other metal h) The 
girls present the following appearance : above the ankles a bundle of heavy 
iron rings, on the loins a large antelope- or more firequently calf-skin sus- 
pended by a bundle of ostrich egg shell chains ; round the neck and hanging 
down on the breasts a large bundle of blue or green beads; on the wrists 
bracelets of beads; round the forehead a string of beads; the hair is sometimes 
dressed on the occasion; in the hair an ostrich or some other good feather is 
stuck, in one or two cases I saw even flowers instead of a feather; the giris are 
not painted, only anointed with oiL 

The most characteristic adornments of the men are thick, heavy bracelets 
and armlets of iron, brass, ivory, twisted ambach, tree-bark, and cowrie shells. 
A wreath consisting of a strip of skin with the hair on the outside is laid round 
the head. Rings of metal, ambach, cowrie or bark are worn above the ankle. 
Women and girls also wear armlets, but not ivory ones. The legs below the 
knee are loaded with heavy metal rings. Men as well as women, but chiefly 
the latter, pierce their ears at the top, and wear rings of brass or iron in them ; 
sometimes merdy a piece of metal or a stick is fastened in them. Both sexes 
wear strings of ostrich egg shells about the loins ; besides these chains of cowries, 
of river shells, of leather, and of varied beads are frequent. Many grown-up 
men and youths wear a necklace of a peculiar kind of small, well-shaped^ and 
marble-like stones, which have about the sise of a pigeon-egg; they are very 
much valued, and the natives always ask an ox in exchange for them. These 

Country and People xxvil 

Btones are collected by the Arabs of Eordofian about the numerouB mountains 
there. The amount of labour required to work them into the proper shape 
accounts for their high value, as well as their scarcity among the Shilluks. 

A Shilluk man hardly leaves his home without carrying a spear or two, and akms 
a club. They have two kinds of spears, one whose blade has the form of a 
laurel-leaf^ another with a cylindric blade, ending in a sharp point, the sur&ce 
being either smooth or barbed. The shafts are of common wood .without any 
ornaments. The spears often have a tuft of short ostrich feathers or of wool, near 
the butt. The cylindrical (round) spears are used not only as arms, but also 
in fishing. Besides the spears, they have two species of clubs, at least one of 
which a man always carries with him. One is simply a thick stick about one 
meter long, and heavy at one end. The other is about two feet and a half long, 
made in one solid piece of hard, heavy wood, with a big round knob at 
one end. 

The Shilluks are a haughty, proud people. They are much inclined to consider CHABACTER 
thenaselves and everything belonging to them as superior to the strangers, 
indnding the white men. ''The things of the Shilluks are good, and the things 
of the strangers are bad^, is a conmion saying among them. They do not in 
any way want the foreigners and their mode of life. This strong disinclination 
is not only due to their innate character, but also to the evil experiences they 
have had with Arabs, Turks, Abyssinians, the Dervishes etc. 

The well-founded feeling of suspicion and even of contempt for white people 
win grow less intensive or may disappear altogether in consequence of the 
peaceful intercourse they now have with the representatives of the white race. 
In conversing with a white man they at the best treat him as their equal, but 
hardly ever as their superior. It requires therefore considerable tact to deal 
with them. Once having gained confidence they are firank, open-minded, and 
always ready for a joke, but they are also quickly offended. 

As warriors the Shilluks are brave; they make excellent soldiers in colonial 
troops, and are renowned as the best soldiers in the Sudan; generally they be- 
come really attached to their leaders, whether white or black. 

Working for the white man is done only in times of dearth, when no food is 
obtainable in other ways. But in spite of this difficulty the mission has, during the 
last few years, had remarkable results in educating the natives to regular voluntary 
work. — If one sees a Shilluk standig for an hour or longer almost without ever 
moving, except now and then scratching his head or chewing his tooth-stick, 
or if one meets them lying in the ashes of the village place for hours together, 
one might believe them to be an extremely lazy people. But this would be 
only partly right. Indeed during the dry season they have not much work 

X XVIII ___ Int rodu ction 


to do except hunting, fishing, building or repairing the houses, or practising 
some crafit: their chief occupation in this time is idling about, seeing friends, 
dancing, etc. But in the rainy season all people, including women and children, 
are engaged in fiarm-work; during these months they are really hard-working. 
To give an opinion on the mental abilities of the natives would require a long 
and intimate acquaintance with them. From my personal experiences I can only 
say that I feel an admiration for the few men who have been working with me 
during my studies. They were never tired in giving explanations, in procuring 
folklore and helping me to acquire a thorough knowledge of the language. 
Whenever their store of tales was exhausted, they used to go to their families in the 
evening to get new informations; historical reports being provided by old men, 
chiefly from those belonging to the royal family, while for stories, riddles, etc. 
women were the best source. Though we were at work day after day, which 
meant for them a considerable and quite unaccustomed mental exertion, they 
never showed any unwillingness, but were really interested in the work. I con- 
sider them an intelligent, quick-witted people. This is confirmed by their folk- 
'lore. They have a decided sense and predilection for historical traditions, being 
^ the only black people of the Eastern Sudan who are able to trace back their 
own history for centuries. The fitct that they have had, up to the European 
occupation of the country, a kingdom with a well-ordered provincial government, 
shows no doubt certain political capabilities. 


HOUSEBUILDING Vide page 96 and 97. 

The homestead is surrounded by a fence of dura-stalks. The villages are 
built in a circle, the open space in the centre containing sometimes a meeting- 
house for the men, and a small, narrow hut which is dedicated to N3nkang or 
some other ancient king. 

AGRICULTUKE Vide page 99. 

CATTLE- / The favourite occupation of the Shilluks is cattle-breeding; cattle mean 
BREEDING health and a social position, while the cultivation of the ground is merely the 
tmoans of procuring daily food. Besides cattle goats and sheep are kept. The 
number of cattle has in earlier times undoubtedly been much larger than it is 
to-day, the desire of robbing cattle being one of the chiefreasons for the raids 
of Arabs, Turks, and other enemies. The cattle census of 1903 showed 12 173 
head of cattle and 63473 sheep and goats, which is very little compared with 
that of the Dinkas. But the number of cattle is increasing now. 

The cattle are of the zebu race, with a hump behind the neck; they are tall. 

Occupations xxix 


with rather long legs, a slender body, and large horns. The horns, while young, 
are dressed into most manifold strange forms, this being the business of a par- 
ticular craftsman, the ''dresser of horns^. Sometimes in a large herd one seesf 
hardly any cattle with the horns in their natural shape. An illustration of how I 
cattle are cherished and almost regarded as personal beings is the fact that they \ 
have ab out 40 different names for catde, according to their colour, the configuration 
or size of the horns, etc. Vide page 107. — Domestic animab are not butcher- 
ed, except when sick or exceedingly old. Oxen and goats are killed on festal • 
occasions, such as funeral or marriage meals, or as sacrifices to Nyikang and Jwok. \ 
Neither do they seU cattle ; for a stranger it is practically impossible to purchase "^ 
a cow or an ox. The price of a cow is about £ 5 ; an ox is half the value of a 
cow which has calved; a young heifer has double the value of a cow. — Slaying 
a cow is done by stabbing it with a spear in the nape, so that the aorta is 
pierced. The blood is collected and cooked as food. 

The cows are milked morning and evening, usually by boys, sometimes also 
by old men, but not by women, the latter having nothing to do with cattle. The yM 
quantity of milk obtained is but poor. A gourd is the usual milk vessel. These are 
washed with cow-urine, which gives the milk an unpleasant flavour. They also 
wash their hands in cow-urine ; but they do not mix the milk with it, as is the 
custom with Dinkas and Nuers. 

Each viUage possesses a common cow-shed, but into it the herd is put at 
night during the rainy season only, when the mosquitoes are very bad. The 
rest of the year they are kraaled in the open yard, where they are tied with 
ropes to short pegs driven into the ground. This cattle-court is a semi-circular 
enclosure ; at the entrance to it there is a small circular place built of com 
stalks and covered with ashes, in which the young men who watch the herd 
sleep. A fire of dried cow dung is kept smouldering all night in this place. Sick 
cattle are nursed in the cow-shed during the daytime, to keep them out of the 
sun and away from food, but not in the night, unless it is the season when all 
the cattle are housed. Many cattle die every year, from intestinal worms and 
other diseases. A considerable number of cows are barren. 

The cattle are herded by young men and boys. As soon as the dew has dried off 
the grass, the herd is driven into the pasture. During the dry season, when 
grass is getting rare, the herds migrate into the lower and swampy parts of I 
the country, where the grass is still flourishing; the Shilluks along the White > 
Nile cross over to the east bank; likewise the cattle of the Sobat Shilluks 
descend to the lagoons south of the Sobat. So in both cases they have to cross 
the rivers, which is, on account of the many crocodiles living in them, not 
undangerous, and is therefore done with much care and accompanied by 

XXX Introduction 

weighty ceremonies, in order to keep the crocodiles awaj; this forms an im- 
portant part of the duties of the witch-doctor; vide page 172. All the youths and 
boys over ten years accompany the herds, leaving their homes for several weeks 
or even months, and enjoying the free life in temporary huts. When after the 
first rains the new grass springs up, they return home. The struggle for the 
best pasture grounds very often becomes the cause of bitter quarreb, and has 
in the past not unfrequently led to tribal wars. 
GOATS The Shilluk goats have rather high legs, they almost unvariably look thin 
and not well fed; their colour is mostly grey, but black ones too are not un- 
8HCEP frequent. The sheep have no wool, but hair. They have a kind of mane on 
shoulder, neck and breast, the rest of the body being covered with short hair. 
FOWLS Most sheep are white, brown-white, or black-white. — A race of small fowb 
is kept, but the natives do not make much of them; many chickens are stolen 
DOGS by snakes and other small animals. — Dogs are very numerous, they are a 
kind of greyhound, of red or yellow colour, and have a black, long snout. They 
are exceedingly quick in running and most clever in jumping. They overtake 
gazelles with easiness, and are much used in hunting. 
HUNTING Hunting is practised by all men occasionaUy, but is, as a rule, not very 
successful. They use spears, clubs, and traps in killing or catching animals. 
Sometimes, chiefly in procuring animals whose skins form part of the revenue 
of the king, all the people of a village assemble for a hunting match, vide page 125; 
a large circle is formed, and the animals inside it, when wishing to escape, are 
killed. When an animal is wounded, but runs away, they will persecute it for 
V days, till it breaks down. The skin of a killed leopard belongs to the king, 
and could, at least formerly, be worn by privates only by special permission 
of the king. A lion's skin is considered as evil, and is not worn. 

Hippopotamus hunting is done by combined parties in canoes, harpooning 
the animal and dispatching him with spears, when he comes to the surface 
to breathe. 
FISHING Their way of fishing is that with the round barbed spear, and with traps, 
which are made of com stalks and reed. Fish-spearing is done in muddy water, 
where they cannot see anything below the surface, and therefore cannot aim. 
But nevertheless by this rude mode they sometimes have good results, the fish 
in the White Nile and Sobat being numerous and large. Sometimes they carry 
on fishing during the night time by holding burning grass-torches over the 
water, and thus enticing the fish, which are then speared. In recent time nets 
and fishhooks are bought from the white people, and are employed in fishing. 
HANDICRAFTS 1^^ Shilluks practise a great number of crafts, which are carried on in families 

for generations, the father and mother imparting their skill to their children. 

Occupations xxxi 


A list of craftsmen and their trade vide page 105 . A few words may be added here 

on some particular crafts. They have skilful blacksmiths ; these make spears, BLACKSMITHS 

hoes, axes, harpoons, picks, arm-rings of brass and of iron, bells, chains. Their 

handicraft, which is carried on chiefly during the dry season, is a travelling 

one; they take their tools and go about from one place to another. While 

among the Dinkas the blacksmiths are considered a low, despised class of 

people, who live separate from the villages in the bush, with the Shilluks they 

are respected persons, and accordingly their pay is good. The employer has 

to support the blacksmith working for him, and pays him a sheep beside. Iron 

is not found in the Shillnk country. Previous to the opening up of the country to 

the traders the iron secured by the Shilluks came from the Dinkas and Nuers, 

who seemed to buy it from the natives of the Upper Nile regions (Jurs, Bongos), 

where iron is smelted; some may also have come from Darfur through Eordo- 

fan. In recent years, however, nearly all of it is procured from the north, and 

is of European origin. A remarkable proof of the growing willingness on the 

side of the natives to work for wages is the fitct that during the last two years the 

American missionaries have introduced and sold to the natives some thirteen 

tons of raw iron, together with a great number of good iron tools, as axes, etc. 

Not only the raw material, but even the finished articles of native manufacture 

are gradually being replaced by European imports. Their good spears are still 

made by their own blacksmiths, but many cheap spears are bought from the 

traders; so are their crude axes, mattocks and hoes. Iron bracelets and other 

ornaments are made by their blacksmiths from iron rods. K the rod is too 

large, it is heated and beaten out. Whatever the Shilluk blacksmith makes, is 

superior to the imported article that he gets from the Arab or Greek trader. 

It may be mentioned that the word hqd^ which means originally and properly 

"blacksmith^, has also the wider sense of "craftsman^, and has become a 

designation for all other crafts they practise. 

An important craft is that of the thatch-maker. The roofs of the Shilluk OTHER CRAFTS 
houses are of a peculiarly neat description. While the Dinkas generally leave 
the roof with the appearance of being unfinished, the grass not being smoothed 
down and cut at the ends, the Shilluk thatcher makes his thatch with a 
neatness which really excites admiration. The framework of the roof is always 
made on the ground and pliCced on the circular wall like a great conical cap. 

Halting is pratised by both sexes. Men make the large, coarse mats for 
enclosing yards, and also the large grain baskets. Women plait small fancy 
mats for covering food, and also very nice small coloured baskets, sieves, etc. 

Most of the men make their own ostrich shell girdles. The shells are first 
broken into irregular pieces, which are pierced in the center with an awl- 

XXXII Introduction 


shaped iron instrument. The hole is made by holding the sharpened point of 
the iron on the piece of shell and rapidly revolving it between the pahns of 
the hand. The pierced pieces are then rounded by crushing the edges against 
a stone with a cow's hoof. 

Skins for wearing apparel, such as the hides of calves, goats, gazelles and 
other small animals are usually prepared by drjring them first and dressing, 
then curing in ashes. After this they are stretched tight on poles stuck in the 
ground, and grease or oil is rubbed on them; then they are rubbed and worked 
for several hours, till they are soft, and the oil well worked into them. The 
hair is left on ; a skin with a large amount of the hair gone would be consi- 
dered very poor. The skin is worn with the hair on the outside. 

Ropes are made from plant fibres, grass, and the leaves of the dom palm. 
BOATS Canoes are hollowed out of trees ; this is, considering the poor toob they have, 
a very tiresome work, but the boats they make are fitirly well; they are pro- 
pelled by means of long sticks. A peculiar kind of boat or raft is made of the 
ambach tree; it is composed of a thick bundle of that pith-like, light cane 
tied together, turned up at the bows, and propelled by a paddle. These boats 
are so light that they are easily carried by one man. 

MUSICAL Their musical instruments are small and large drums, a stringed instrument 
INSTRUMENTS ciJIq^j ^ygf^ ^n^ ^ wind instrument consisting in a cow's or antelope's horn ; 

this is used in wars and in war-dances. The drums are logs of wood hollowed 
out and braced with skin ; they are beaten either with the flat hand or with a 
stick. The pm is made by splitting in the middle a small section of a log and 
hoUowing out the flat side a little. A piece of raw cow hide is stretched wet 
over this, and the flat side becomes the face of the instrument. A round stick 
some 1 8 inches long is fastened at each end. The ends of these two upright 
pieces pass through a cross-stick, which is large enough in diameter to allow 
them to pass this and still be quite strong. The holes are made in it by burning. 
The strings are made of tendons of animals or of the root bark of a certain 
plant. These are attached to the head, drawn across the fsu^e over a small 
wooden bridge, and wound about the cross-stick. They are then tightened, and 
the instrument is tuned by wettening these strings and tightening or loosening 
them about the crosspiece. They are tied to this stick, and by winding over 
themselves, keep from slipping. 

POTTERY Pottery is the handicraft of women. They make pots of different kind and 
size for carrying water, cooking, brewing beer; they also make pitchers, cups 
for drinking beer, heads for smoking pipes, etc. Gourds and caliU)ashes are 
also much used household tools. The pipe-heads are made of clay; they are 
large and rather clumsy, and are generally ornamented with some simple designs, 

f » 

Occupations xxxiii 

mostly consisting of ring-shaped lines with dots in them. The pipe-stem is a 
long, thick, hollow reed of about i V2 — 2 cm in diameter. The juncture be- 
tween the stick and the head is tightly closed with a leather cover. On the 
upper end of the stick a small, oblong gourd with a pointed head is fastened; 
here again the juncture is made tight by a leather cover wrapped about it Along 
the stick four or five strings are fitstened, by which the pipe is carried ; a long, 
pointed stick for cleaning the pipe is tied to the stem with a string. They are 
exceedingly fond of smoking, both men and women. The smoking materials is a SMOKB^G AND 
little tobacco and much charcoal. The pipe being rather heavy, they usually sit xOBACCO 
down, bowing their head deep over the pipe while snioking. When sitting in a 
circle they take only one or two draughts, and after that hand the pipe over 
to their neighbour. — Tobacco is not only smoked, but also chewed passionate- 
ly; this habit is more common among women and girls than among men. 

In cases of sickness the doctor is called. His chief means of curing consists 
in charms, but they also know some reasonable medicines, among which cutt- 
ing stands in the first place; but although they inflict much pain, they often heal 
a sickness. — Sick people are nursed by their relatives with care ; temporary 
residences are fixed for them by screening off a place in the yard. 

Building houses, making fences, dressing skins, working neck supports, carv- 
ing and polishing clubs and spear sticks, making ambach boats and other 
common work is understood by every Shilluk. The neck supports are "invented i^oK 8UPP0BTS 
by Nyikang.^ They are carved of wood, and are made to resemble the forms 
of animals, viz. of hippopotamus, giraffe, tiang, camel, ostrich and another bird, 
which seems to be an ibis. The Shilluks have no chairs or stools ; old men 
sometimes sit on a piece of ambach wood, young people squat or lie on the 

The craftsmen do not practise their trade with the exclusion of all other kind 
of work; each one of them cultivates his farm and tends his catde, and only 
during the time there is no farm-work, he works at his craft. 

There are villages which are renowned in practising certain crafts; some in 
fishing or hunting, some in cattle-breeding or cultivating dura, some in making 
pots or baskets, etc. As these goods are exchanged between the villages, a little 
trade is going on; but in this trade among the natives no money is used, and 
it is practised only occasionally; they have no markets. The very litde develop- 
ment of trade is illustrated by the expression used for it : ngawQ, which means 
"to sell*" as well as "to buy^ ; all trade being done by barter, selling and buying 
are identical actions; the native cannot "buy*' anything without at the same time 
"seUing^ another thing; he exchanges one thing for another. In trading with 
the Arab or Greek merchant they have, however, learnt the use of money { 

WBBTBRMANN, TU Sliillnk People. Ill 

XXXIV Introduction 

here articles of purchase and sale are calculated in silver currency. 

The daily work of the women is cooking, carrjring water, cleaning the house 
and yard, etc. During the time of farmwork they help the men in cultivating 
the fields. 
FOOD The staple food is dura. It is cooked, baked into a bread (kwffi), roasted, 
brewed and, when green, eaten raw. For different kinds of food vide page 102. 
Their diet is rather monotonous, dura being its constant chief component. The 
dura is pounded and ground. The mortar is either a log of wood hollowed out, 
or a flat excavation in the ground, limed out with clay. The mill-stones — a 
large and a small one, with the latter the grinding is done — are secured from 
districts west of the Shilluk country. — Fire is made by twirling a hard stick 
on a sofl piece of wood. 

Besides dura they eat sesame, duchn, maize, beans, some onions, various 
grass seeds, the seeds of the lotus plant and of some kinds of nymphaeae. The 
fruit of several trees, as deleib, nabag, etc. also serve as food; they even rob 
ant hills to procure the winter store of hoarded seeds. White ants, when in tiie 

I winged state, are a delicacy to them. — Milk is used in the household in many 
ways: it is drunk fresh, sour, or boiled, or dura meals are prepared with it. 
They also make butter, by shaking or rolling the milk in a gourd. — As dome- 
I stic animals are almost never slain, meat forms no part of the daily food, but 
is rather an exceptional deHcacy, which is, however, sought for with eagerness ; 
of game they hardly leave any piece uneaten, skin and bowels not excepted; 
they do not even despise dead animals. The blood of killed animab is kept 
and cooked, but they do not tap the blood from living cattie, as is the custom 
with the Bari and Masai. — Generally they prefer the meat of castrated animals. 
Two chief meals are taken daily; one from nine to ten in the morning, and 
the second at sunset. 
BREWIN G OF A large quantity of the dura the people reap is used in cooking merisa or 
BEER lyQ^Y^ rj^i^Q grain is put into jars and water poured on it. Thus it is left till the 
grain begins to sprout. Then it is spread in the sun to dry, and then pounded 
or ground; this wet meal is mixed with flour from the fresh grain and put a 
second time into jars which are filled with water. After stirring and mixing well, 
a littie diy meal is sprinkled on it; the jars are covered with small mats and 
allowed to remain a day or two, until it begins to ferment, when a little more 
water and meal are added. When the whole mass is well fermented it is filtered 
through a grass funnel, and the following day is ready for use. It will keep 
about a week. Though this drink is slightly intoxicating, it does not seem to do 
great harm; it is very nourishing, and the natives regard it rather as a food 
than a beverage. 

Family Life ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ xxxv 


When a young man wants to many, he himself asks the girl he has selected; MARRIAGJB 
if she assents, she directs her lover to her parents and the old people of the 
village; if these also do not object, they ask him to bring the dowry, which 
consists of cattle. From four to six head of oxen and one milch cow is the 
ordinary price for a woman, besides a number of sheep and goats. But the 
whole of this dowry is in most cases not paid to the fitther-in-law at once, be- 
fore the marriage takes place. One ox is paid to the elders of the village when; 
they arrange the marriage business, one or more at the celebration of the 
marriage, another when the first child is bom. The ox which is slaughtered at 
the marriage festival is driven to die village of the bride by all the young men 
of the bridegroom's village. They decorate this ox by tying tassels of cows' 
tails on the top of the horns. In case the horns have not a good shape for tying 
these tassels, they are pierced and the tassels are fastened in the holes. A 
young man in buying an ox is always particular about the shape of the horns 
for this reason. On the marriage festival vide page 109. — A man cannot reach 1 
a social positidn without being married, and he cannot get a wife without! 
cattle; so every young Shilluk's highest ambition consists in procuring cattle in I 
order to buy a wife. But, as ahready mentioned, they usually marry before the 
full dowry is paid, and in such a case the debts of the young husband may be- 
come the source of quarrels between husband and wife, and still more between 
husband and father-in-law. As long as the price is not paid, the father has a 
legal right to take his daughter back from her husband; but this, though often 
threatened, is seldom done. Those who have sufficient means will as a rule not 
be satisfied with one wife, but marry a second and a third ; only a very few 
exceed this number. 

A young man may not marry a girl from his own division or clan, (vide page 
127 ff.) but from any other division; the girl may live in the same village or in 
any other village, but they prefer to marry in a distant viUage. These marriage 
laws are a well established tribal custom, and people fear to break them, lest 
death follow marriage. 

The position of the woman is no doubt a higher one than with most Moham- POSITION OF 
medan peoples of the Sudan. She is generally well treated and is shown remark- ^^^^^^ 
able respect The women sometimes take part in public assemblies with the men, 
discuss the affairs that interest them and partake in dances and religious cere- 
monies. Even in their war-dances the women play an active rdU^ vide page 
XXXIX. — Krefractory or lazy, the man may give his wife a thrasing with a rope. 


XXX VI Introduction 

REABINGAND On the average number of children in a family vide page XXIII. The birth 
nv^ Rnvn iRKN ^^ twins is regarded as the greatest of good fortune. 

Affection of parents for their children is not wanting. The mother often places 
the infant in a long basket or bed made of grass; this she carries on her head 
or covers with a mat in some secure place, while the child sleeps. Education 
is limited to teaching the children the work and skill which the parents com- 

The naming of the children is done by some member of the family, in most 
cases by the parents or grandparents. The name generally has some connection 
with circumstances attending the birth. The name A^u ("she died") is often 
given when the birth occurs in close proximity to a death in the funily. Natoailo 
is a veiy common name; it indicates that the mother of the child has prayed 
for a child by sweeping a sacred house (a temple of Nyikang or of some other 
ancient king) with a bunch of straw. Men often acquire a second name when 
grown up; this one is in most cases called after the name of a cow or an ox. 

When the boys are from thirteen to fifteen years old, they start the cultivation 
of a small field of their own, for the result of which they try to acquire cattle. 
— The boys and young men of a village bom in the same year form a com- 
panionship, all member of such a "class" having a common name. The young 
men of a village do not sleep in their parents' houses, but their common sleep- 
ing place is in the cow-shed of the village. The act of sleeping in the barn is 
called "sleeping in the ashes'' from the fe^t that they during this time sleep in 
the ashes of the fire kept smouldering in the barn. 
SLAVES The Shilluks have some slaves secured before the present regime. Some of 
these are Shilluks, others are from the Eordofttn and also from farther up the 
Nile. They were secured in war or purchased from the Arabs. In single cases 
Shilluk parents sold their childrea for food in time of famine, or gave them 
away to chiefr. 
BURIAL When a grown-up man dies, he is buried in or just before his hut An ox is 
killed as a ftineral feast, and its horns are planted on the grave so that they are 
visible from without. Women and children are buried in the bush. — For a 
description of a burial vide pages iii and 135. 

Some time after the death of a man a funeral ceremony 16 held; it takes 
place when the property of &e deceased is divided among his heirs; this may 
be from about one month to one year after the person has died. The warriors 
of the neighbouring villages are invited. An ox is killed on the occasion. The 
ceremony consists in dancing, making displays of arms, feasting on the meat of 
the slain ox, and drinking merisa. The women also partake in it. Whether any 
religious actions are connected with it, I do not know. 

1. 2. Boys and Maidens Dancing; the Maidens in i-ow skius 
3. View of Sobst River vrith Doleib Hill in the distance 

Family Life xxxvii 


The sons inherit the property of their father. The wires of the deceased INHERITANCE 
father are divided among the children, who may, and in most cases do, marry 
them, except their own mother. It is said that sometimes, when a husband is 
very old and infirm, his wives put him to death, in order to get a younger com- 
panion. On inheritance vide page 113. 

Their chief amusement is dancing. The houses of a village are built in a DANCING AND 
circle, leaving an open place in their midst. Here the inhabitants assemble in WAR-PLAYS 
the evening, stretching themselves in the warm ashes or on a skin, or squatting 
on a piece of ambach; several small fires of cow dung are burning and spread 
a smoke of strong smell, which is the best protection from mosquito-stings. 
The events of the day are discussed here, the tobacco pipe and merisa pot 
going from hand to hand. In the middle of this open place the trunk of a large 
tree is erected, in which the drums are suspended. With them signals are given 
in times of danger, but more frequently they are used to accompany the 
dances of the young people. These public dances are among the greatest events 
in the lives of the young ShiUuks ; even old men and women, though not tak- 
ing an active part, are highly interested in them; sitting before the huts in front 
of the dancers they constitute a chorus, who Accompanies the transactions of 
die younger generation with loud acclamations or blamings. The dances gene- 
rally take place during the dry season; they begin at about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, or, in case there is moonshine, later in the evening, and last from 
three to five hours or longer. As a rule one village invites its neighbours by a 
drum signal given in the early morning of the day fixed for a dance. On hearing 
this signal the young people show a great zeal in preparing their body, hair- 
dress and the ornaments worn on the occasion. They go to the village in groups 
or single, men and girls separately. Usually the youths perform some war-dance 
in full arms at first, in which the girls do not partake ; they form a large circle 
in four or two rows, and while the drum is being beaten, begin dancing and 
singing war songs. The dance consists in jumping on the toe and at the same 
time moving slowly forward. These rhythmical movements are from time to 
time interrupted by a group of dancers violently rushing out of the circle, 
howling and shouting aloud, brandishing their spears with fierce looks, and per- 
forming mock fights or playing pantomimes, in which they exhibit very remar- 
kable ability. Scenes from the hunting, pastoral and agricultural life are represen- 
ted with such a dramatic vivacity that they richly deserve the applause they earn. 

On a given signal, spears, clubs and shields are laid aside and put together 
in one place, and now the second part, in which the girls partake, begins. The 
latter have till then been waiting in a separate place, where the female lookers- 
on are gathered. Each girl selects her own dancer. First the men form again a 

XXXVIII Introduction 

circle. Then the girls rush into this ring, each looking out for the man she 
intends to favour. She draws up in front of him, so that they look each other 
in the face ; again two or four rows are formed, and the same dance begins 
anew, accompanied by drumming and singing. 

The dances are in many cases repeated on four successive afitemoons or 
nights ; on the fourth day they frequently end in quarrels or real fights. The 
cause of this is the young men of one village castuig their eyes on the giris of 
another village, and thus arousing jealousy. In such fights clubs are used, in 
exceptional cases also spears. 

[Of a great war-play which was performed in honour of the missionaries, 
Dr. Giffen in "The Egyptian Sudan'' gives the following description: 
"The first intimation we had of their coming, or rather of their presence, 
was a whoop and the sound of a horn that sent a chill, and kept it shoo- 
ting up and down the spinal column. We rushed out on the veranda, and 
saw at the foot of our hill, and only a few rods away, that the clans had 
assembled. There were about one hundred men and boys widi their 
spears and war clubs, their bodies shining with oil, and their spears shining 
from vigorous rubbing, while their faces were hideous with white and 
red paint of brick-dust and ashes. They kept leaping in the air, yelling 
and blowing that soul-sickening horn. Little by litde they came toward 
us, stooping low, hiding behind trees, gliding back and forth until they 
were in front of the house. Then I stepped out and smiled at them, while 
suddenly with a yell that was not earthly, they sprang in the air, the 
first line made as if throwing the spear, and suddenly dropped down 
for the following ranks. Again they all sprang up into the air, yelling, 
dancing, singing, and brandishing spears, then circled around the house 
and attacked from another quarter. 

These manoeuvers were kept up for some time, and they grew more 
excited and more wild all the while. Then, at a command from their chief^ 
tiiey ceased and began to dance. Dancing with the Shulla (Shilluk) means 
jumping up and down in the same spot, accompanied with a sort of 
chanting sing-song, throwing the arms over their heads and flourishing 
spears and clubs. 

Again they formed in line of battie, five ranks deep, with a front of 
twenty, each man with spear and shield. The horn sounded the advance^ 
and away they charged to the Doctor's house. They seemed to get the 
very spirit of murder in their faces. They charged in good order; tiie 
front rank, striking at an imaginary foe, dropped to their knees to allow 
tiie other ranks to strike over their heads, and then tiie horn sounded the 

retreat Around our house they went in a regular stampede, and forming 
in a line again in front of the house for another charge. 
This they repeated a number of times. Then a crowd of women, who 
had followed their husbands and sweethearts to battle, acted the part of 
foe, only to be overcome by the brave warriors and driven back. This 
part was very amusing. One old body with great bravery marched out 
and charged, using her pipe as her weapon. The men were a bit rough 
in driving her back, and she was evidently afraid her dear pipe would 
come to grief, so she took it inside our house and when next we saw 
her she was in the thick of a fray with a long weed as her weapon of 
offence and defence''.] 
The diy season is also the time for travelling. Relatives pay mutual visits, 

and marriageable young men go to the Nuers and Dinkas with spears, wire, 

stuffs, and dura, which they exchange for sheep and calves. 


In the religion of the Shilluks three components ary clearly distinguishable : 
I. Jwok (jwitk) or God; 2. Nyikang (Nikdni)^ the progenitor and national 
hero of the Shilluks; 3. ajwogo (hjwig^)^ the witch doctor or sorcerer. These 
three do not exist separate from each other, but have many relations amongst 
one another. There are stiU other forms of religious service, but they are not 
so prominent as the three mentioned. 

"Jwok (jw^k) is a supreme being, residing above''. Whether he is regarded JWOK 
as creator is not sure. According to the sayings of some natives he surely is, 
but it seems probable that this belief, if there is such a one, is young, and must 
be traced back to Mohanmiedan or Christian influences. — On certain occasions 
an ox is killed as a sacrifice to Jwok, though tiiis is done more frequently to 
Nyikang; prayers are also offered to Jwok, but according to my information, 
tiiey have only one prayer to Jwok (for which vide page 171), while to Nyikang 
there are many. "Praying" to Jwok is expressed by a different word from that 
which serves for designating a prayer to Nyikang; tiie first is tamg, "to pray"; 
its original meaning is probably: to conjure. In praying to Nyikang kwctc/iQ "to 
ask for, to beg" is used. While the prayers to Nyikang are sung, and accom- 
panied by dances, that one to Jwok is only spoken, not sung, and not accom- 
panied by dancing. Jwok has no visible symbols or temples, nor are tiie prayers 
to him offered by a priest or sorcerer, but by the chief or village-elder. 

In tiie heart and mind, of the Shilluk Jwok does not possess a deep-rooted 
rank. In some way tiiey do attribute good and evil to him, and chiefly the 

XL Introduction 

latter; when a person is ill, they may say: &rtjv3qk ''Why, Jwok?" The sudden 
and violent death of a man is regarded as being caused by Jwok. But I do not 
think there is any ethical motive in our sense underlying this belief; Jwok has 
simply killed the man for having offended him, probably without knowing it. 
The name of Jwok is used in a favourable sense in the following phrases of 
salutation: when a person arrives, he is saluted :y/ k^ljtvok "you have brought 
Jwok^ ; to one starting on a journey they say : i/i nnfejwQk" you may hold £&st 
Jwok^. — Jwok has also the meaning of "sickness** ; the reason for this is the 
conviction that Jwok is the causer of sickness; "he is sick**, they express by 
"he has Jwok", "Jwok is upon him**. 

Although the Shilluk does certainly not connect with the word Jwok the same 
notion as we do with "God**, Jwok is doubtiess the only word fit for being 
used in the Christian sense* It is true the word occurs in stories in rather a 
disrespectful sense, any being with more than natural powers being called a Jwok; 
but this is so in analogous cases with many African peoples, and will almost 
always be so in heathen languages; it can therefore not form a real obstacle 
for using the word in Christian preaching and literature. 

[In older literature the name Eelge appears as that of the "creator of tiie 
Shilluks.** I have never heard this namej. 
NTIKANO,AND The tradition on the origin of man or rather of the Shilluks leads to the 
THE OMGIW second and most important part of the religious practice of tiie people, viz. 
SHILLUKS the worship of Nyikang. This tradition runs thus : A white or rather greyish cow, 
^an aduk, came out of the river; she brought forth a gourd; when this gourd 
split, a man and animals came forth out of it (vide page 178). The name of this 
man was KqI^; KqIq begat Omarq, who begat Wat Alol ("son of M^l^) ; Wat 
if oZ begat Okwa. Okwa used to go to the riverside; here he met repeatedly two 
maidens who had come from out the water, they were very beautiful and had 
long hair, but the lower part of their bodies was like the form of a crocodile. 
One day Okwa seized the girls and carried them away. Their screams brought 
out their father, who tOl then had not been seen by Okwa. EQis face and the left 
side of his body were like human, but his right side was green of colour and had 
the form of a crocodile. When asked he declared his name to be Odiljil, he pro- 
tested against his daughters being taken away by force, but afterwards consented. 
Okwa married the girls. The names of the two maidens were Nyakayo and Ong- 
wht (NakdyQ and Onwat). One of Nyakayo's sons was Nyikang; according to some 
tills was the eldest child, while others say he was the youngest. Nyakayo had more 
children beside Nyikang; of one son the name is known, he was OmQi; the names 
of her daughters are (according to A. E. S.) Ad Dui, Ari Umker, and Bunyung. 
Okwa's second wife Ongwat gave birth to one son, Ju or Bwotq. Okwa married 

•a -3 

Religion XLI 


a third wife, whose eldest child, a son, was called Duwat (JDuwQt). The name 
Dimo ako occurs as that of a son of Okwa, but I could not make out who his 
mother was. Nyikang was in form partly a man, and partly a crocodile. 

[The exact pronunciation of Nyikang is Nikdn^, but the final o is often 
omitted: Nikdn; the form Ndkdn also occurs; in older literature the name 
is written Nyakam, Nyekom. N4kdni^ is a composition from lii, fia "son'' 
and KanQ, which is probably a proper name; thus N{kdnQ means: ''son 
of KanQ.^ The name Kano occurs also in Ohano^ which is composed from 
and KdnQ and means "descendant of Kdnn; OkanQ is another name 
designating the Shilluk people. But about KanQ the traditions, as far as 
they are kown, say nothing. — Frequently Nyikang is simply called ri^ 
Nyakayo (NakayQ), the mother of Nyikang, exists up to the present time. NYAKAO, THE 
Her residing place is about the junction of the Sobat and the White Nile. This ^S^]^S5 ^^ 
is remarkable, as according to the tradition she did not emigrate with her son 
Nyikang, and yet does not now live in her original place, but in the Shilluk 
country. She sometimes appears from out the river, generaUy in the form of a 
crocodile, but at times in other forms. No worship or sacrifices are offered to 
her, but when a man or animal is taken by a crocodile, this is attributed to 
Nakat/Q.Wheu she does this, the people must not complain; it is rather an honour, 
when she takes her sacrifice from a village. 

In dubious judicial cases Nyakayo is resorted to as judge. The accused one 
is tied in a river, and a goat is bound and laid on the river-bank near by. This 
latter is done to allure a crocodile. K the accused one is taken by the croco- 
dile (i. e. by Nyakayo), he was guilty. But not infrequently the delinquent, from 
fear of being lacerated by the crocodile, confesses his crime. 

Between Nyikang and one of his brothers, probably Duwat, there arose a NYIKANO'S 
quarrel after their father's death; according to some, about who should follow 
the father in the chieftainship, others say it was a quarrel about cattle. As 
they did not come to an agreement, Nyikang together with OmQi, his brother, 
and his half-brother Ju (and his three sisters), left the country, ^ seeking for a 
new abode; when he started, Duw^t threw a digging stick after him, wherewith 
to dig the ground (or to bury the dead). Several tribes whom he met on his 
way, joined him, thus increasing the band of his followers. Nyikang settled 
about the mouth of the Sobat, and here founded the kingdom of the Shilluks. 
To increase the population of his new foundation, he changed animals and 
fabulous beings whom he found in the place, into men, built villages for them, 
and made them his subjects. 

While residing in the Shilluk country, Nyikang fought many wars, among nyikANO'S END 

t n 

acquiring wings and fljing awaj to the mouth of the Sobat^S A. E. S. 

XLII Introduction 

others one against the sun and his son; vide page 159. 

When he felt his end approaching, he assembled all the chiefs of his king- 
dom for a splendid festival. While all were mezry, suddenly a great wind arose, 
and scattered all those present. In this moment Njikang took a cloth, wound 
it tightly round his neck, and thus choked himself.^ 

But many ShiUuks firmly believe that Nyikang is stiU alive. The Rev. Oyler 
writes to me : "When I asked how Nyikang died, they were filled with amazement 
at my ignorance and stoutly maintained that he never died. K he dies, aU the 
Shilluks will die. He, Dak^ and five other kings ascended to heaven, where 
Nyikang prays for the Shilluks (!). They say that he disappeared as the wind**. 
HOW NYIKANG Nyikang is the ancestor of the ShiUuk nation and the founder of the ShiUuk 

dynasty. He is worshipped, sacrifices and prayers are offered to him ; he may 
be said to be lifted to the rank of a demi-god, though they never forget that 
he has been a real man. He is expressly designated as "litde'' in comparison 
with God. 

In almost every village there is a little hut dedicated to Nyikang, or to 
some other ancient king. In form it is like the conmion houses, but much 
smaller and more slender. On its walls sometimes rough drawings in white, red, 
and black colour are seen, consisting simply in line-ornaments or representing 
animals. These drawings are made by women, with white, red and black 
earth, and are renewed every year before the chief prayers are offered. These 
huts are commonly called Ai^ii r^ "place of the king'' i. e. of Nyikang. Besides 
these small huts they have a number of greater temples, which are in form like 
the Shilluk-hut, but of much larger sixe. They are found in most of the villages 
devoted to Nyikang. These "sacred villages'' are, Akuruwar, Wau,' Fenyikaog, 
Nyibodo (Nibo!^), Otgno, Nyelwal, OshdrQ^ O^q, IHdigQ. These houses, the 
small as well as the larger, are the places where Nyikang is worshipped. In them, 
at least in some, a number of reliques are preserved, which are considered holy 
and are held in great veneration. Among these are a statue of Nyikang made 
of ambach-wood; the holy 4spear, drum, and shield of Nyikang, a digging stick, 
ancient metal ornaments and clothes, etc. Spoils from wars are also dedicated 
to Nyikang, and are preserved in the temples. 

In times of need, when sickness or war are threatening, but above all when 
rain does not come in due time, the people assemble round the house of Nyikang 
and pray to him. This is done by dancing and at the same time singing prayers. 
At the beginning of the rainy season, when they are about to plant dura, the 
regular chief prayers take place ; on this occasion an animal is slain as a sacri- 
fice to Nyikang. Before the transaction of any serious business the elders of 
the village assemble around the temple of Nyikang, to ask for his counsel. 

^ Till the rabjeddoii of the ShiUuks by the British all succeeding Shilluk kings have finished 
their liyes by tiie same form of death. 

* This Wau is not the place in the Bahr Ghasal ProTince, but is situated on the left bank of the 
White Nile between Taufikia and Kodok. 

Religion XLlli 

By Nyikans also oaths are sworn. The expressions mostly used in swearini? SWEARING 

' . • ' OATHS BY 

an oath are : Nikan sh§tl i. e. : "Nyikang indeed**, "by Nyikang!** Nikan anant nyikang 
i. e. "Nyikang here!** or: "Nyikang now!^ Another form is to couple his name 
with any of the sacred villages, as Isikan a Waul i. e. "by Nyikang of Wau!** 
Likewise Nikan a NelwaU etc. In their conversations they are constantly using 
these oaths; they often make promises under oath, which they, however, readily 
break without any fear of penalty. They swear also by Dak, or any other of 
the ancient kings. 

Another mode of swearing, which is used in judicial cases only, is to swear 
by the holy spear (of Nyikang): the ajwogq who keeps the spear, sacrifices a 
sheep and puts the blood upon the accused and the accuser, and offers a prayer 
that justice may follow. Now the accuser or the accused or both swear by the 
holy spear. T£ a person perjures himself, death is sure to follow as penalty. 

Nyikang at times appears in the forms of certain animaLs, as ichneumons, rats, HOW 
snakes, lizards, or in birds. The tree on which such a bird alights, is considered APPEARS 
holy, and is henceforth dedicated to Nyikang; beads and pieces of doth are 
suspended on its branches, sacrifices and prayers are offered below it. When 
once the Turks felled such a tree without knowing its destination, terror fell 
on the by-standing Shilluks ; they walked in procession round the tree, filled 
the air with lamentations, and killed an ox to propitiate their ancestor. 

Though Nyikang is considered inferior to Jwok, sometimes the names of NYIKANG AND 
both are called simultaneously in the same prayer. In some prayers the name >troph£TS" 
of Dak, a son of Nyikang, is also invoked beside that of Nyikang; but this is 
not frequent. It seems, however, that in some measure the nearest descendants 
of Nyikang, or rather the ancient kings of the Shilluks, enjoy some kind of 
veneration, though perhaps this may not be called religious. They sometimes 
talk about the ror^ which is the plural of rifl king, and has in this connection 
the meaning of "Prophets*^, or one analogous to that of the "Judges** of the 
ancient Hebrews. In several villages there are huts, like those of Nyikang, 
dedicated to one of these ancient kings or '*rdr*\ 

In die political, religious and personal life Nyikang takes a feurmore important JWOK AND 
place than Jwok. Nyikang is the national hero, on whom each Shilluk feels 
proud, who is praised in innumerable popular songs and sayings; he is not only 
a superior being, but also a man. He is the sublime model for every true 
Shilluk; everything they value most in their national and private life, has its 
origin in him : their kingdom and their fighting as well as catde-breeding and 
farming. While Nyikang is their good father, who only does them good, Jwok 
is the great, uncontrollable power, which is to be propitiated, in order to 
avoid his inflictions of evil. 

XLIV Introduction 

THE cows The natives frequently speak of the "cows of Nyikang**. This expression is 
used in two different meanings, one mythological and one real. 

Once Nyikang caught a cow in the river in a fish-net. It had no ears or 
horns. This cow was the beginning of a sacred herd; if anyone touched them 
who was not of their attendants, he died. They live in the river and come out 
to feed at night. This herd was carried away; some say the Dervishes took 
them, while others afiSrm that it was the Turks. From the dung of this herd 
the "ashes of denying** were gained. The ashes were made by burning the 
dung of the sacred cattle. They are preserved at Wau and other villages dedi- 
cated to Nyikang, and are applied in ordeals, when cases of adultery are to be 
tried. When the woman has confessed, but the man denies, they take recourse 
to the "ashes of denying**. An old chief, taking a spear in his hand, stands 
erect and offers the following prayer: "You Nyikang, the ashes are yours! K 
this man has not had intercourse with this woman, may he escape ! But if he 
has had intercourse with the woman, may he die! K this woman accuses falsely, 
may she escape !** After this the chief takes some of the ashes on his hand and 
strikes the man with it. Then the one who has sworn falsely, will die. 

The other application of the term is to cows devoted to Nyikang by the 
king. Each year the king gives a steer and a cow to the villages in which the 
I cows of Nyikang are kept The male is killed and used for food. If any person 
^ not belonging to the attending herdsmen, eats of the meat of these animals, he 
becomes a servant of Nyikang, and must take up his residence in that village. 
The female is kept for breeding purposes. The Kwa ObogQ (vide page 1 30) herd 
these cattle. The chief of these villages of Nyikang seems to be Wau. If an 
outsider tried to milk one of these cows, he would die. 
SORCERY ^^ third factor in the religion of the Shilluks is the igwigiy and what is 
connected with him; djwiffi is the witch doctor or sorcerer; the word is pro- 
bably derived from jwok "God**, and would then mean: "one who is dependent 
on God**, or "who has to do with God**. As his most prominent business is to 
procure rain, Europeans generally call him rain-maker. He is the mediator 
between the people and Nyikang; he leads the dances and prayers to Nyikang, 
and presides at the sacrificial ceremonies. He heals also sicknesses by admini- 
stering charms. Sick people apply to him with the present of a sheep or goat, 
or even an ox; the animal is killed, and the contents of its stomach are laid on 
the sick person's body; or the skin of the animal is cut into strips and these 
are fastened below the knee of the patient. This is also applied as a protection 
against dangers on a journey. When in the dry season the cattle are brought 
across the river, the sorcerer has to prepare charms to protect them from 
being seized by crocodiles. Besides this he is able to perform miracles, to kill 

Religion XLV 

a man bj witchcraft, to prevent rain, and to cause the cattle to be barren. — 
There exist two kinds of sorcerers, the one whose functions are just mentioned, 
who plays an important and mostly beneficient roU in public life and the 
official religion of the community, and another one whose doings are secret 
and who works for mischief. If this latter is convicted of his evil doings^ he 
may be severely fined, or even sentenced to death. — Besides these the word 
jci yat^ ''man of medicine'' is sometimes used ; whether this is a synonym to ajtooffQ, 
or whether it designates stiU a third class of ''witch*'-, or ordinary "doctor", I 
do not know. 

When possessed by a spirit (or by Jwok?) the sorcerers become ecstatic; ECSTASY 
the same seems to be the case with a newly elected king ; here it seems to be 
the spirit of Nyikang, which falls on his follower, vide page 149. 

The texts contain many mythological tales and allusions, which may in former MYTHOLOGY 
times have formed part of the strictly religious belief of the people, but exist 
now merely as historical traditions, without having any active meaning to the 
present generation; this domain of their mental life is, however, not sufficiently 
known as yet to allow a decisive judgment A reminiscence of sun-service is 
evident from 55, page 166. The Nile and Sobat are populated by water-people, 
who in figure are partly like men, partly like crocodiles or fish. They had, in the 
past, many intercourses with men. — According to some older writers the 
spirits of the Nile are worshipped. They have their own cattle-herds, which live 
with them in and on the banks of the Nile. They often dive up from the water, 
chiefly in misty weather. When a cow is fished out of the river, it is placed 
under the protection of the Nile-spirits and the sun-god ^ 

The Shilluks have two expressions which may be translated by "soul" or SOUL, SPmiT 
"spirit of a living person: wei and tipQ; wei means "breath", and is the life- 
giving fruiter in man ; the meaning of tipq is "shadow" of a man, or "image", 
as seen when looking into clear, still water. — The spirit of a dead person is 
called anek^; the word is derived from nQgo to kill; anekq probably means "one 
who kills", or "who is killed". The anekq is feared. 

On the abode of deceased persons the Shilluks have but vague ideas; in one ABODE OF 
of the texts the dead are called "the people of the village otQod'^^jepajwok. '^™^ DECEASED 
Whether they have a general belief in a life afiier death, is not known. lar am 

Islam does up to now not find much sympathy with the Shilluks. They 
prefer their own religion to that of foreigners. Only a few people who have for 
a longer time lived in close touch with Mohammedans, chiefly those who have 
served as soldiers, adopt the religion of Mohammed, or at least wear Moham- 
medan amulets beside their own charms. It is admirable that these people, 
Shilluks, Dinkas Anywaks, and Nuers, though having lived for centuries side 

' Tliis donbtlestly relates to the cows of Nyikang, vide the preceding. 

/ t 




>e with Arabs and other Mohammedan people, shoold have preserved 

own heathen form of worship, and shoold, with a few exceptions, look 

m rather with contempt on the religion of the foreigners. Partly this is ex- 

itined by their conservatiyeness and self-confidence, and partly by the fact 

iiat their intercourse with Mohammedans was almost exclusively hostile. Whether 

now that the Pax Britannica makes slave-dealing and raiding impossible and 

new ideas slowly penetrate the country, Islam will make greater progress, the 

future will show. A gradual peaceful conquest of the country by Islam is not 

improbable, because civilisation, as it comes to these people, wears an outspoken 

islamic stamp. 

On Christian Mission work among the Shilluks vide the end of Introduction. 


RESIDENCE The Shilluks are the only people of the Sudan who have a Kingdom >. The 

OF THE KING • • • f 

king resides at Fashoda. His residence consists in a large number of huts for 
himself^ his numerous wives and other members of his family and for guests. 
He possesses large herds of cattle, goats and sheep. When a person of some 
respect pays him a visit, the king presents him with an ox. — The royal robe 
consists in a leopard skin. They have also a coronation robe of leopard skin 
and ostrich feathers, which has been handed down from many generations. 
The present king has a gorgeous red robe presented by the governor, which 
he wears on occasions when he meets the higher English officials. 
ELECTION The kingdom of the Shilluks is hereditary in so £Eur as the king must always 
be a member of the royal family, that is, of the descendants of Nyikang, and 
only a person whose father has been a king, may be elected. There are three 
houses of the royal family, and the king is elected from each of these royal 
branches in turn. K there are several brothers in the branch whose turn it is to have 
the kingship, upon the death of the king one of these brothers will be elected. 
But in case there is no vacancy during the life of these three brothers, then 
the sons of the eldest will be In line for the throne. 

Fadyst is the present king. He is of the house of Ewat Eer. When he dies, 
the kingship will pass to the house of Yo; at the death of the king from the 
house of Yd it will be the turn of the house of Nedgk, Thence it will return to 
the house of Ewat Eer, but not to a son of Fady^t^ but to one of the king's 
brothers. When it has gone around the circle again^ it will be the turn of a son 
oiFady^, There seem to be two branches of each house, so that when a king 
dies, it will be the turn of his eldest son to become king, after five kings have 
reigned and died. There have been other royal houses, but they have lost their 

*) "king'' is in Shillok lij^ or re^; in older literature the word "bonda'' is given as the ShiUok 
name for king. Bj Europeans the king is commonlj called mek, which is a contraction of the Arab 

Political In stitutions XLVii 

right to the throne. If all the sons of a king die, before it is the turn of one of 
them to become king, that family loses its royal prerogatives. A left-handed or 
otherwise deformed man cannot be crowned. When from such or a similar 
reason the son of a king fails to be crowned, his posterity loses the right to 
the throne. 

As a rule only a man can be king; though once a queen reigned, she ap- 
parently did not command a great authority, vide page 149 ; and it is characteristic 
that in the lists given by Banholzer and Dr. Giffen her name is not mentioned. 

The way in which the king is elected, vide page 122 ff. Of course frequentiy 
party intrigues are at work on these occasions, and it may have been not quite an 
uncommon occurrence that there were several candidates for the tiirone, sup- 
ported by different factions ; sometimes there were even two kings, residing in 
different places of the country. 

The power of the king was, previous to the British occupation, absolute ; POWER OF 
he disposed on life and death of his subjects. The subjects had to pay heavy 
taxes in cattie, dura, boats, skins for clothes, and under certain circumstances, 
in persons also. 

All judicial cases may be brought before the king, with whom lies the final JURISOICTION 
decision. They have an unwritten code of law, providing fixed penalties and 
fines. Cattle thieves were formerly killed on tiie spot by the owner of the stolen 
property. If tiie thief escaped, but was located witii tiie stolen thing, the owner 
demanded it. In case the thief refused to give it up and the owner was unable 
to get it by force, he then reported to his chief, and if he failed there, the matter 
went to the king, who punished tiie man perhaps by taking his property and 
some girls firom his village for himself. 

In the case of certain infiractions of the law the convict became the slave of 
the king, and could no more return to his home. These slaves are known as 
iyffi orqk ("men of crime") or ad^o. The king gives to such a man a wife. 
Their children are skves at tiie royal court and are called aOiro. To tiie male 
descendants of such the king gives wives, and the females are taken to be given 
to male members of the ad^q, class as wives. If the king does not have enough 
girls in the adiro, class to supply all the young men witii wives, he buys firee 
girls for the purpose, their descendants become also slaves. 

In some cases the criminal becomes the slave of a chief; these are also 
called Qjit^q^, 

Murder cases were tried by a court of chiefs and the king. K tiie man was 
condemned, he was disgraced in many ways before the people. Sometimes he 
was led about the village with a cow-rope around his neck, and then executed 
by haoging. K a man was executed on account of a crime, his whole fftmily 

XLViii Introduction 


and everything he poBsessed became the property of the king. 
DIVISION OF The country is divided into 63 districts (vide page 127), every one of which 

is presided by a district chief; each village again has its own cluef. The district 
and village chiefs are appointed and may be deposed by the king. Quarrels 
and law-suits may be judged by the local or district chief, but an appeal to 
the king is always possible. Common affairs of a village and minor judicial 
cases are judged by the local chief together with the old men of the village. 
They sit on such occasions in a circle in the village yard, in the shade of a tree, 
if there is one. If the meeting is secret, or if the weather is bad, they assemble 
in the cow-house. 



f^ARLY When Nyikang arrived in what is now the Shilluk country, the latter was 
OF THE inhabited by other tribes, who probably were partly of dark, and partly of 
COUNTRY fair colour. These inhabitants were either expelled or subdued and then in- 
corporated into the Shilluk nation. This process is clearly reflected in the 
traditions. Among others Nyikang found the ''red strangers'* in the country, 
which he either defeated and made them tributary, or drove out of their re- 
sidences (vide page 163 ff). These "red strangers^ seem to be Arabs. But apart 
from them the traditions speak of fabulous beings who were partly man and 
partly animal; Nyikang fought with them, and when defeated, transformed 
them into real men and settled them in villages. They are probably the original 
negro inhabitants of the present Shilluk country, who up to this day form the 
essential part of the Shilluk people, a discrimination being made between 
them and the "people of Nyikang. ** 
SOCIAL The latter form, so to say, a nobility. The first in rank is the royal family and 
all members of it, that is all persons who can claim descendency from Nyikang. 
The male members of the royal funily bear the title Kwa rij( "descendant of 
the king*', and are shown special deference. In several of the historical traditions 
the king or the royal family expressly distinguish themselves from the common 
Shilluks; in these connections the name "Shilluk*' is even used in an abusive 
way : "merely a Shilluk**, vide page 233. Probably the name of the Shilluks cKoIq, 
means "black** ; in some nearly related languages the word has this meaning. 
This makes it probable that Nyikang and his people, or, the members of the 
royal family, were originally of lighter colour, as only this would give them a 
reason for calling the population they found inhabiting the country, "blacks**. 

1. Shilluk Girls showing the way they wear the bMd dress 
2. Lotus flower along the Sobat Itiver 

1. Oroup of Nadve Huts 2 Group of Boys 

3. Qirls SewiDg School at Doleib HiJl 

Ethnical Components XLIX 

So the coming of Nyikang into the Shilluk country would in fact mean an 
immigration of light-coloured people into a region abreadj inhabited by black 
tribes. — Probably the word OArang^ which, as is shown on page XLI, is connected 
with N{kdn^9 and means a descendant of Kano, also designates only or mainly 
members of the royal family, and not the common Shilluks; on the Sobat the 
word is rarely used; but it is well known at Fashoda, the seat of the royal 

There live among the Shilluks a number of ''Nubians'', called by them Bon; BELATIONS 
the word is derived from Dongola, and designates the Nubians (and perhaps ^jbians 
other tribes) living west of the White Nile. These Nubians came into the coun- 
try as captives, during wars, others came as fugitives. They are exceptionally 
Dumerous in Faina, a sub-district of Nyagir; they are known here as good 
cultivators of dura. Originally these were driven into this district by the Khalifa's 
people, and inhabit five villages, consisting of 104 domiciles; they are subject 
to the Shilluk chief of the district. — The Nubians play a certain rdle in the 
election of the king, vide page 122 ff. They bear the title Nadwai. 

The Shilluks do not, as a rule, agree well with the Dinkas, their northern RELATIONS 
aud eastern neighbours. The Dinka possesses more cattle than the Shilluk, and ^_li? ™^ 
therefore looks down on the latter rather contemptuously. The Dinkas are said 
to have formerly lived on the right bank of the lower Sobat, but were driven 
inland by the Shilluks. Incited by Arabs, the Shilluks in former times fre- 
quently raided the Dinkas and carried away their women and cattle. They 
however live peaceably now, thanks to the fear they have of the new Govern- 
ment. The two tribes now and £hen pay mutual visits and also intermarry 
occasionally; a certain amount of trade is carried on between them. 

There are a few Selim Baggara in the neighbourhood of Eaka, but these BELATIONS 
people appear to visit the district only after the harvest to purchase dura firom ^|^ THE 
the Shilluks, which they are too indolent to cultivate themselves. The Eenana 
Arabs occupy the wells at Atara. They are disliked by the Shilluks on account 
of their dirty habits. Another branch of the Eenana Arabs inhabit a village close 
to Fadiang {Fa 4ean "village of cattle"*). 


South of &e Shilluk country there live, under different names, a number of OBIQINAL 
tribes who likewise speak the Shilluk language (vide page 30 ff.), and who, in their gl^^T^ ^^^ 
physique, show strong resemblances to, and in some cases identity with, the WANDERINGS 
Shilluks of the White Nile. It must be supposed that originally all these tribes 
lived in one place. Some of them stOl have traditions pointing to a common 

WESTBRMAKN, The ShiUak People. IV 


origin and a common home. The southern mass of the ShiOuk speaking people, 
the Gang, pretend to have come firom north (vide Schweitzer, Emin Pascha ; Beiiln 
1898, page 155), and, as will be seen below, the White Nile Shilluks have mi- 
grated into their present seats from south; so the original habitat of the whole 
people will have been in the country situated about the middle of their present 
seats, that is, along the shores of Bahr el Jebel. Here one division of the 
Shilluks, the Beri (^W, also written Beir), are still living. The rest of ihe 
Shilluks were forced to emigration probably by the arrival of more powerful 
and warlike tribes coming from east, viz. the Ban and Latuka, who up to 
the present time inhabit this country. The Shilluks, being thus expelled from 
their seats, emigrated in three directions : south, north-east, and north-west. 
The division wandering southwards are now known as Gang or Acholi, Shuli 
(on the identity of the names Acholi, Shuli, and CKoIq, vide page '30; ^^ 
north-eastern branch are the Anywaks (Anuaks). These two branches, viz. the 
Gang and the Anywak, have practically almost no differences in their dialect; 
they may be said to speak the same dialect, which differs from the rest of 
Shilluk dialects by the relative primitiveness of its sounds; to give one example, 
they have generally preserved eh and |?» where other dialects have adopted the 
younger corresponding sounds aA and /. So these two may be regarded as 
direct branches of the original stock, who both must have branched off al out 
the same time. That Gang and Anywak have been separated from the north- 
western section at an earlier period than that in which the latter was agiun 
divided into different sub-groups (vide below), is evident from the fact that all 
these north-western sub-groups still know of their common origin, whereas I 
have never met with a tradition pointing to relationship with the Anywaks and 

The Anywaks have again been divided into three sections, whose residences 
vide pageTo. From the G«.g a number of smiOler division, hav branched 
off into south-west, south and south-east: the Lur, (Alum), Jafalji (Jafaluq, 
JapaluQ)^ Lango, Ja^Lun (Nyifwa Eavirondo), Wagaya. 

The third division first wandered north-westward, crossing the Bahr el Jebel, 
and subsequently probably resided in a place situated about the 10^ eastern 
long, and 7^ northern lat. That they have settled and lived in this region for a 
considerable time, is practically proved by the fact that on older maps a num- 
ber of villages are situated here whose names begin in Pa, Fa; e. g. Fatil in 
the Dinka district Rol; Fayot, Fawer, Fayak, in the Dinka district Rich, and 
Fagak, in the Dinka district Twi (Twich) . Pa, i^a is a word of the Shilluk language 
meaning village, home (Many villages in the Shilluk country have this same 
prefix pa, fa, vide 80; it is also freqent in the Jur country: Famir, Fabuchak, 

Migrations and History Ll 

Fashien, and in the Acholi country: Fanyikuara, Fandikir, Faggeir, Fadjulli, 
Fadibek (from Schweitzer, Emin Pascha). This district is now inhabited by 
Dinkas, and their occupation of &e country no doubt forced the Shilluks to 
emigrate once more. From here they went in north-eastern direction and thus 
came into their present seats on the White Nile and Sobat These last wanderings 
were carried on under the leadership of Nyikang; they form the object of the 
traditions on pages 1 58 £f. Another part of this north-western section went west- 
wards and formed the Ber (= Ben, vide 87) and Belanda or rather B^, vide 
page 44. The third part of this branch are the Jurs and the Dembos. Jur is a 
nickname given to the people by the Dinkas, it means ^uncivilised tribe^, 
"bushman*^. They call themselves Iaaq, a name which occurs again among seve- 
ral sou&em Shilluk tribes, vide 89; by the Bongos they are called Ber (vide 
above), thus showing in their very names the near relationship they have with 
other Shilluk divisions. — The Jurs have no catde, they are renowned as iron 

According to Schweinfurth (page 63) the Jurs themselves say that they are 
a part of the Shilluk people who (on account of over-population) emigrated 
from north (i. e. The White Nile region) into their present habitat, and that 
they call the name of their ancestor Oshuola == OcHoIq. But on the other hand, 
Hofioneyer states that the White Nile Shilluks call the Jurs Odimn, that is des- 
cendants of IXmQ. Now Dimq is a brother of Nyikang, whom the latter left. 
All the Shilluk traditions are unique in the assertion that Nyikang did not go 
northwards together with Dime. So this would mean that the Jurs never 
wandered into the White Nile country, but went their way directly westward 
into their present seats. 

[The suggestion on the migration of the north-western section, viz. that 
of the White Nile Shilluks, Jurs, Dembos, Belandas and Bers, as it has 
been oudined above, is in a remarkable way supported by traditions of 
the White Nile Shilluks, which Hofineyer gives ^ according to these the 
origin of the nation was in the far east (i. e. east of the Bahr el Jebel). 
Nyikang led his people from the east towards north-west. After a long 
march they crossed the Nile (i. e. the Bahr el Jebel) and came into that 
region which is now called Bahr el Ghazal. From here the Belanda went 
westwards, the rest, after some time, travelling farther northwards.] 
While nothing is known concerning the time of the earlier Shilluk migrations, THE BUUNO 
we are able to fix the approximate date of the wanderings which resulted in the AMONG THE 
final settlement of the "Proper Shilluks'' on the White Nile and Sobat. Mr. B. SHHiLUKS 
Struck, by taking into consideration all the available (written or unwritten) 
chronicles of Afidcan dynasties, has made a calculation on the average duration 


Lii Introdu ction 

of the reign of an African ruler. The number of years thus reached at is between 
13 and 14 for each king. Now from the reign of Nyikang, who was the first 
Shilluk king, till to-day the Shilluks have had 28 to 30 kings ; 29 multiplied with 
13Y2 leads back to the first quarter of the sixteenth century. About this time^ 
then, the Shilluk kingdom was founded, or, in other words, during this period 
a probably fair-skinned tribe or clan became in some manner united with 
the Shilluks, and made itself the ruling factor among the latter. The first of 
these leaders and rulers was Nyikang, or possibly Nyikang is only a per- 
sonification — the heros eponymos — of the foreign element in the Shilluk 
population. From those early days up to the present never a "Shilluk*", i. e. 
a member of the original population, has been king, solely the ''descen- 
dants of Nyikang^ forming the royal family, from which the king is elected. 
Even to-day the descendants of Nyikang do not intermarry with the "Shilluks'', 
they live in districts and Tillages of their own and enjoy certain priyileges, thus 
forming the aristocracy of the nation. Second in rank are those Shilluks which 
migrated into the country together with Nyikang as his "followers^ or "ser- 
vants.*' They also possess several social privileges and state functions. The 
lowest class of Shilluks are the natives found in the country, when Nyikang 
and his adherents arrived. They may be designated as the "common people**, 
the "subjects** in the state conmiunity. The second and third categories, and also 
the first, have no doubt been mixed by intermarriage. From the earlier centuries 
of the Shilluk dynasty but scanty historical data are known. The only reports we 
have are the list of kings (vide page 135), and a considerable store of traditions, 
dealing with prominent acts of single kings and important events which occurred 
during their reign. Some of these native records are printed on pages 141 ff. 
^^^^^^TIQNS The first time the Shilluks enter history is about the beginning of the sixteenth 
Yimj century, that is at the same time when they took possession of their present 
seats. Beginning at this period they have, during almost two centuries, played 
an essential part in the history of the Funj people. The question of the origin 
of the Funj is as yet unsettled. In order to introduce the reader into the problem, 
I shall give a short survey of this remarkable people and their history. 

The most common form of the name is Funj or Fonj, and Fung. Funj is in 
phonetic writing probably Foii, ending in a palatal n, and Fung = Fun, ending 
in a velar n. Of these two forms I suppose Fonj = Foii to be the older one. 
Foreigners who are not used to a palatal n standing at the end of a word, find 
its pronunciation difficult, and frequently substitute n for #&, a mispronunciation 
which I myself have often heard in the Sudan. This Funj, Fonj is probably 
identical with the Shilluk word bwoii "stranger** ; in Shilluk as well as in Nubian 
b and f are interchanged; in Nuer the word for "stranger** sounds /oii, and in 

Migrations and History Liii 


the Funj language the word "bunj" means ''Arab", i. e. stranger; the identity 

of this bunj with Shilluk bonj, Nuer fonj and the name Funj can hardlj be 

doubted. Now Bruce gives the singular of the name by "fungo", and the plural 

"fungi". This is a pure Shilluk form^* o being in Shilluk the ending of the noun 

in singular, and i that of the plural. The meaning of the word "fungo" Bruce 

renders by "free citizen". (R. Hartmann [Die Nigritier] identifies the word Funj 

with the Ptoemphanae of the ancients, and morever compares it with a great 

number of African names of similar sounding; but his deductions have not 

convinced me.) 

The present Funj are a negro people living in Sennar. Their colour is dark, 

but somewhat lighter than that of the Shilluks ; they are of a strong, tall figure, 

with thin legs. Both sexes wear most artful hair dresses. They have leather 

shields in form almost like those of the Shilluks; their fighting arms are swords 

and missiles. The huts of the Funj consist in round walls with conical roofs. 

Their chief occupation is agriculture, but they have also some cattle. They are 

clever in smelting and working iron and other metals. 

Their religion is Islam, but the older records are unique in stating that at 

the end of the 1 5 th century they were heathens, and even when Bruce was in 

the country, many pagan practices had survived; it almost seems that at that 

time the people still were in their hearts rather pagans than true followers of 

Islam, though the latter had long before become the official religion. 

The Funj country, Dar Fung, stretches on both sides of the Blue Nile. Its 

present boundaries are: on the north, Jebels Gereiwa and Rera; on the east, 

Jebel Agadi and the Fazogli district. Southwards, it extends to the Abyssinian 

frontier, and including the district of Keili and the northern Burun country, 

extends westwards towards the Dinkas of the White Nile. In the days when 

the Fung were a great power of the Sudan, their country included parts of 

Abyssinia, and large districts west of the White Nile. 

About the beginning of the i6th century the Funj appear in history. At this 

time they founded the kingdom of Sennar, which, from then till about the end 

of the 1 8 th century, was governed by a Funj dynasty. 

Since the early days of their history the Funj must have lived in some connection 

with the Shilluks. This fact is stated by all travellers and explorers who have 

been in the country and have written on the subject. Sir James Bruce, a 

distinguished English traveller and writer, who visited Sennar in 1770, asserts 

the identity of the Shilluks and Funj, In his Travels into Abyssinia he says that 

in 1504 a hitherto unknown negro nation, which had till then inhabited the 

western shores of the Bahr el Abiad about the 13 <> northern lat., landed in 

canoes in the Arab provinces of the Gezira; they defeated Wed Ageeb, the 

Liv Introduction 

king of Sennar, and forced a treaty upon him by which the kingdom of Sennar 
became subject to the Funj, who subsequendj took posseesion of the whole 
Gezira. "jTUs negro nation is in their oum country called ShiUooh', > In 1 504 
Amru, the son of Adelan, who was the first of their regents, founded his mo- 
narchy on the eastern shores of the Blue Nile, and built Sennar, which ever 
since has been the capital ^From this period until the time of my sojourn 
(1770) 266 years had passed, during which twenty kings had reigned^. When 
the monarchy was founded, the king and the whole nation of the ShUlook were 
pagane. Soon after they accepted Mohammedanism, and took the nime Fungi, 
which they sometimes translate by ^lord^ or "yictor'', and s<mietimes by ''free 
citizen'' .... but this term should be applied to those bom east't>f the Bahr el 
Abiad only''. 

So the essence of James' report is this: The Funj are a portion of the 
Shilluk people, which, in the beginning of the i6th century, crossed tiie White 
Kile, conquered Sennar, founded a kingdom tiiere, and henceforth were called and 
called themselyes Funj. The source from which Bruce got this information, was 
the executioner of the royal court, whose chief office it was to put the king to 
deatii, as soon as in tiie opinion of tiie state ministers he was, from old age 
or on account of his misdoings, no more apt to goyem.tiie country. This same 
practice has been in use with the Shilluks up to the nearest past, with die sole 
difference that die Shilluk kings were strangled by their chief wife, not by an 
official. Bruce, having cured tiie executioner from a severe disease, gained the 
full confidence of this important person, who no doubt was well acquainted 
witii the history of his people. Bruce also mentions the presence of Nubian 
(heatiien) priests at tiie court of Sennar, who were, according to die executioner's 
statement, ''great conjurers and sorcerers^. 'Sr^nt ^ese Nul)iivQS Bruce heard 
of the "large mountains Tegla and Dyre" (= Jebel Tagale and Jebel Eliri in 
south-eastern EordofEin), from which their, the Nubians', forefatiiers had come 
into this country a long time ago, after they had been escaped there from a 
great flood. 

According to the report given in The A. E. S. die rise of die kingdom of 
Sennar began in 1493. ^ ^^ 7^^ Amara Dunkas (= Amru of Bruce?), the 
Sheikh of a sub-section of die Fung, eidier dirough die fortune of war or his 
superior capacity, succeeded in getting himself declared king of all the Fung 
tribes. These districts were inhabited by negroes belonging to die Nuba tribes, 
some of whom after die conquest remained in die country, while odiers emi- 
grated into the mountains of Fasogli and EordofEin. Those who remained, em- 
braced Islamism, intermarried widi their conquerors^ and, losing dieir language 
and nationality^ were soon lost in the tribes known collectively under die name 

' Bruce has never been in the Shilluk conntiy, and had probably never before heard the name 

"Shillnk'', he can only have learned it in Sennar from the natives. 

' Thns the average reign of each king was a little more than thirteen years ! vide above. 

Migrations and History LV 

wmmmmmmmmmMmmmmmmmmm mwm t w mmmm 

of Fang. King Baadi Abu Dign, who reigned from 1635 — 1671, attacked the 
Shilluk negroes and took a large number of slaves. The Shilluks at that time in- 
habited the country on both sides of the White Nile south of Eawa. Thence 
he invaded the mountains of Tagale and destroyed EordofEm, where he again 
took a large number of slaves. On his return to Sennar he built a number of 
villages in that district for his prisoners. The prisoners named these villages 
after Aose they had left, hence the number of villages now near Sennar with 
names similar tho those in Jebel Nuba, Tagale, and other districts about Eor- 
do£Eui. In time Aese slaves supplied the kings of Fung with recruits for their 
armies. — In 17 19 a king whose name was Gaadi Abu Shilluk ascended the 

In the first half of the i8th century the Fungs drove the Darfurians back, 
which had at that time dominion over the country east of the White Nile as far 
as the Atbara ; the Fungs then again established their own authority on the 
banks of the White Nile. In 1770 they even wrested the province of Eordofan 
from the Darftir kings, but it was retaken by the latter five years later. This 
was about the time when the Dinkas emigrated from the Bahr el Ghazal and 
took possession of the right bank of the White Nile, under their great chief 
Akwai Chakab ; by them the Fungs were expelled from the eastern shores of the 
White Nile into the Blue Nile region. 

According to Cailliaud, a French writer, who was in Sennar about 1820, the 
'^Foungi*' came from the Sudan, crossed the White Nile and arrived at ''Ar- 
baguy^ (== Herbagi of Bruce); here a great battle was delivered, in which the 
Fnnj were victorious, so that Aey became lords of the country ; "they gave 
their name to a part of the Sennar kingdom in the Bouroum (=Burun) country, 
called also Jebel Fungi, where the soldiers of the mek live'*. 

R. Hartmann, who visited the country in 1859/60, is of the opinion that the 
original home of the Funj is in Sennar. "They recruited their (black) soldiers 
from their military colonies, which were situated at the foot of the Sennar hills, 
and from Eordofan Nubas.*" "Between 1499 and 1 530 the christian state of Aloa 
(Aiwa) succumbed under the invasion of the Funj, who broke forth from the 
south of Sennar, and whose military force consisted partly of Shilluks**. "The 
Shilluks are relatives of the Funj, whose intimate allies they were during the 
conquest of Sennar in the i6th century.'' 

Cailliaud and the A. E. S. as well as Bruce give a list of the Funj kings, 
which, though differing in severel items, is on the whole consistent. Bruce 
fixes the beginning of the dynasty in the year 1504, Cailliaud in 1484, and 
A. £. S. in 1493. 

Leaving the question of the provenience of the Funj alone, the following can 

LVi ..............«...«......_„^ Introduction 

be regarded as sure : i . The kingdom of Funj was founded in the beginning of 
the 1 6th, or at the end of the 1 5th centoxy. 2. the political influence of the Funj 
extended at times westward beyond the White Nile, as far as Darfur and 
Kordofan; consequently the Shilluks must also have been under the dominion 
of the Funj, as their country is situated on the way to Eordofan. 3. All writers 
confirm that the Funj have repeatedly transplanted great numbers of Shilluk 
and EordofEin prisoners into the Funj country, where they were settled, formed 
large colonies of their own, and finally submerged in the ''Funj^ nation. It was 
these large numbers of new settlers who formed the bulk of the I^mj armies 
and enabled them to carry on their great conquests. 4. But it is not at all un- 
probable that portions of the Shilluk people should have emigrated into Sennar 
of their own will ; the coincidence of the arrival of the Shilluks in the White 
Nile region and the foundation of the Funj kingdom is remarkable ; both events 
took place about the beginning of the i6th century; at that time the Shilluks 
inhabited hoih shores of the White Nile as far north as Eawa ; consequently 
they lived in close contact with the people of Sennar, and it seems not unlikely 
that parts of them should have pushed forward into Sennar, the more so as 
they had only just arrived in the country and were not yet finally settled ; such 
an emigration would also explain their now being limited to a relatively small 
district compared with the former much larger size of the Shilluk country. 
5. The Shilluks Aemselves tell in their traditions of repeated and severe fights 
against the people of Sennar ; they call the place where these wars were fought, 
Chai, and say it is close to Roseires on the Blue Nile, that is east of Jebel 
Oule, where the old capital of the Funj was situated. 6. Cailliaud in his book 
''Voyage k M^ro^, names 50 villages beginning in Fa^ in the Bertat and Fazoql 
country on both sides of the Blue Nile; as shown above, Fa is the characteristic 
prefix of Shilluk villages, being an abbreviation of /a, pa "village". It seems 
evident that these villages are originally settlements of the Shillluks who 
emigrated into these regions. 7. The Shilluks living in Sennar called the ab- 
original inhabitants ''hwoA or fwoii** (= Fonj, Funj) that is "strangers", just 
as to-day they call every one who is not a Shilluk: bwoii (= bwonj)^ and 
finally this became the name of the "Funj nation". 8. It is possible that 
this Shilluk population in Sennar came to political influence and took part 
in the government of the state. This becomes even highly probable by a very 
curious remark of Bruce ; where he translates the name Fungi by "free citizen'^ 
he continues: "Methinks they should not boast of the title "free citizen", because 
the first name of nobility in this country is that of 'slave^, indeed they have no 
other title except this. Ka man in Sennar feels himself not sufficiently respected, 
he will ask at once : 'Do you not know who I am ? Do you not know I am a 

Migrations and History .....,...,...............^^ LVil 

slave ?' Connectiiig with this word the same notion of pride, as one in England 
would say : 'Do you not know I am a peer of the kingdom ?^ All titles and 
offices are not respected, if they are not in the hands of a man who is a slave. 
Slavery is in Sennar the only true nobility^. This subversion of social ranks 
becomes intelligible, if we assume a state of facts as suggested above, viz. that 
the Shilluks, and perhaps ako, in a limited number, the Nubians, who lived in 
the coimtiy as a kind of military caste and still were designated as slaves, had 
in fact become the ruling race. They may even at times have possessed the 
throne, as the name of one of the Funj kings indicates : Gaadi Abu Shilluk. — 
Thus we understand ako the report of the executioner from whom Bruce got 
his information : he was a descendant of the Shilluk immigrants, and considering 
the position the latter held at that time, he was not wrong in saying the f\mj 
were originally Shilluks. The same is to be said of the Nubian priests, who 
claimed for their home the region of theEliri mountains. 9. The present language 
of the Fxmj, of which Mamo gives some 1 50 words, is not identical with the 
Shilluk language, but it shows unmistakable signs of a connection with the 
latter, a number of words being common to both, notably 

Funj. Shilluk. 

lunj Arab hwoik stranger, Arab 

ihihia ant Vi white ant 

kamas to eat chamQ to eat 

lian hippo lian crocodile 

lei giraffe la% game 

jok God jtoQk God 

kllu star kyilQ star 

mine dumb min dumb 

kaj an to-day kach an this time 

ko^eong spear ton spear 

lus8 stick loi^ lofi stick, club. 

Thus out of a number of about 1 50 Funj words given by Mamo 1 1 are 
Shilluk words ; and, what is remarkable, these eleven words the Funj has not 
in common with its neighbouring languages Tabi and Bertat, they can there- 
fore not be borrowed from these languages. 

In 1 786 the kingdom of the Funj totally disappeared. King Adlan was deposed 
by the Hameg (Hamej), a tribe living south of Roseires. Anarchy prevailed 
throughout the country, and the kings succeeded each other in such rapid 
succession that in the year 1788 four kings successively reigned. During the 
succeeding 33 years of anarchy the Hameg continued supreme, and under 
Sheikh Nasser they devastated the northern and eastern part of the Sudan with 

' LViii Introduction 


fire and sword. 

In 1820 the Turkish-Egyptian troops under Ismail Pasha occupied the country 
and defeated the Funj in the batde of Abu Shoka. 

Apart from these expansions towards the Blue Nile the Shilluks of die 

White Nile have frequendy waged wars against the Dinkas and Nuers, of 

which their traditions tell. More severely they suffered from never-ending raids 

by Arabs and Turks, undertaken for the purpose of stealing catde and slaves. 

CONQUEST OF a) By the Turks. As early as 1820—1830 the Sudan was conquered by the 

THE R TTTTjTj TTIC * ^ ^ ** ^ ^ 

COUNTBY Turko-Egyptian government, and was considered as part of the Turkish empire ; 
but this hardly affected the political situation of the Shilluk kingdom, the Tur- 
kish rule not being strong enough to make its influence felt, except in levying 
at intervals heavy taxes in cattle and com, and in making slave raids. 

b) By the Baggara Selim. In 186 1 the Baggara Selim under Faki Mohammed 

ELher invaded the Shilluk coimtry and plundered it thoroughly. Mohammed 

Eher married the daughter of the Shilluk king and practically made himself tbe 

SIB SAMUEL ]^er of the country. — > In the same year Sir Samuel Baker started for his 

EXPEDITION expedition into the Sudan. His description of the Sudan at this period gives a 

melancholy picture of the results of Egyptian rule. He describes the provinces 
as utterly ruined and only governed by military force, the revenue unequal to 
the expenditure, and the country paralysed by excessive taxation ; the existing 
conditions rendered these countries so wortiiless to the State tiiat their annexation 
could only be accounted for by the fruits of the slave trade. — On this expe- 
dition Baker founded the military post of Taufikia on the right bank of the 
White Nile, near the mouth of the Sobat; this place has since then consistently 
been continued as a station for troops. 

On Ismail Pasha coming to the throne in 1863 orders for the suppression 
of the slave trade were issued and on Baker's return journey in 1865, he found 
an Egyptian camp of 1000 men established at Eodok in the Shilluk country 
for the purpose. — ELhartum was at that time the headquarters of the slave 
traders, who carried out their traffic under the cloak of lej^timate commerce. The 
traders organised armies of brigands, and formed chains of stations, of about 
300 men each, throughout their districts, which they had leased from Govern- 
ment. Raids were made on native tribes, who were obliged to submit, fly the 
country, or ally themselves to the slave hunters, to be used against other tribes. 
CONQUSTBY In \%'i\ the ShiUuk country was finally conquered by the Egyptians and 

THE EGYPTIANS , . ^ 1 r« 1 . t . 

1 3^ I became a province of the Turkish empire. 

In 1874 Charles Gordon was appointed Governor of the Equatorial Pro- 
vinces, and at the close of the same year he could report to the Egyptian Go- 
vernment that the slave trade on the White Kile had received a deadly blow. 

' The following data have with few exceptions been taken from The A. E. S. 

Migrations and History Lix 

During Gordon's absence in 1875, the ShiUuk tribes in the neighbourhood BE BELIJ ON 
of Kodok rose in rebellion against the oppression of the Govemment, and, had gHiLLUKS 
it not been for the presence of Gessi, an Italian adventurer who had joined 1875 
Gordon's staff, Eodok would probably have been lost. 

A great cause of disturbance in the Sudan was the appearance of the Mahdi DIS TURB ANCES 
Mohammed Ahmed, a native of Dongola; he began his career in 1881. The beoinkino ' 
Shilluks and their country were in many ways affected by these troubles; not IN 188 1 
only did they with their own troops fight against the Mahdi, but their young 
men ako formed a considerable and valuable part of the Anglo-Egyptian army. 

TheMahdists extended their invasions far into the Sudan and took possession 
also of the Shilluk country. But in 1890 the ShiUuks rebelled against their 
oppressors: an Emir of the Mahdi Zeki, Tumal, was sent thither to quell the 
rebellion, with a force chiefly consisting of the Gallabat men who had fought 
bravely against the Abyssinians in 1889. During the whole of 1891 the war 
against the Shilluks continued, the Mahdists ("Dervishes'') on more than one 
occasion being heavily defeated, and the communications between Omdurman, 
the residence of the Khalifa, and Bahr el Jebel being completely interrupted. 
Two steamers had stuck in the sudd in the winter of 1888, and had been taken 
by the Shilluks; desperate efforts were now made by the Dervishes to effect 
their recapture. In August, 1891, the Nuers were used as allies by the Dervishes, 
and succeeded in killing the king of the Shilluks. Soon afterwards, however, 
die Nuers turned against their allies and expelled them from the country south 
of Eodok, whilst the Shilluks inflicted a severe defeat on their enemy near 
Kodok, in December, 1891, and again in January, 1893. The war was waged 
with indecisive results till 1894, when the Dervishes finally crushed the Shilluks 
and murdered their king's wife. After that the Dervishes merely kept a smaU 
tax-collecting outpost at Kodok. 

On the loth September, 1898, Kitchener left Omdurman for the south with 
five gunboats and troops, and having destroyed a Dervish force of 700 at Renk, 
arrived at Kodok on the 19th, where he found the French expedition under 
Marchand. He left a garrison at Fort Sobat. This place has been relinquished 
since as a military post. 

On 19th January, 1899, an agreement was signed between Great Britain and 
Egypt, defining the status of the Sudan, and laying down broad principles for 
its govemment 

In the same year, on the 24th November, the power of the Khalifa Abdallah, FINAL 


who was the successor of Mohanmied Ahmed, was utterly defeated by the Anglo- khaufa 1899 
Egyptian army at Um Dubreika; the Khalifa himself was killed. This victory 
finally stamped out the Dervish dominion in the Sudan. 

LX Introduction 


EXPEDI TION In summer 1808 an AbyssiniaD force came down the Sobat. It arrived at 


ABYSSINIANS >^obftt month at the end of June, but, owing to the death of the leader, the ex- 
1898 pedition returned ahnost immediately, without having a hostOe encounter with 
the Shilluks. 
LATEST In April, 1903, the Shilluk king Kur Wat Nyedok (Nedok) was deposed for 
malpractices ; his successor, Fadyet Wat Kwat Eer (JTsr), is now limited in power, 
and is subservient in most things to the Oovemor of the Upper Nile Province, 
a Britisch ofiScer resident in the town of Eodok (Fashoda). Gradually the whole 
Shilluk population was now brought under the more direct control of the Anglo 
Egyptian Government The election of their king is now subject to the approval 
of the Governor General. 



The '^American Mission^ of the United Presbyterian Church of North America 
and the Church Missionary Society of Great Britain are the two missionary 
agencies representing Protestant Christendom in the Egyptian Sudan. Both 
Missions began their work after the opening up of the Sudan through Eitchener's 
victory over the Mahdi forces at Omdurman: the Church Missionary Society 
in 1899 and the American Mission in ipcx). In Northern Sudan they labor 
alongside of each other in a spirit of comity and cooperation, each developing 
such missionary work as the other may not have taken up at each station 
occupied by both societies. 

The stations occupied by the American Mission in Northern Sudan and the 
forces and work maintained at these stations in 191 1 were as follows: 

Ehartum: An ordained American missionary; a native ordained native 
pastor; an organized native congregation with 142 members; a boys' school 
with an enrolment of 210; regular congregational services; a clinic; a boys' 
orphanage or home. 

Ehartum North: Two unmarried American women missionaries and bxl 
American doctor; a girls' boarding school with an enrolment of 133 in both 
day and boarding departments; a boys' day school with an enrolment of 143 ; 
a clinic; regular preaching services. 

Omdurman: An ordained American missionary; a boys' school with an 
enrolment of 80; regular preaching services. 

WadMedani:A colporteur evangelist with regular preaching services; a 
mixed school with an enrolment of 8 boys and 12 girls. 

Christian Missions LXI 


At bar a: A boys' school with an enrohnent of 87; also informal services. 

Wadi Haifa: A girls' school just opened, and informal services. 

Port Sudan, Merowe, Suakin and Dueim: There are native Evan- 
gelical Church members at these centers, and informal services are held at the 
first three places. 

The stations occupied by the Church Missionary Society in Northen Sudan 
and the forces and work maintained at these stations in 191 1 were as follows : 

Khartum: One unmarried English missionary ; four native Christian women 
workers ; a girls' school with an enrolment of 68. 

Omdurman:A medical English missionary ; two unmarried English women 
missionaries; three native Christian women workers; a girls' school with an 
enrolment of 5 1 ; a hospital and a clinic. 

Atbara: An unmarried English woman missionary; two native Christian 
women workers; a girls' school with an enrolment of 38. 

In Southern Sudan, among the pagan tribes, each Mission labors in a distinct 
territory. The American Missions's sphere of work and influence lies along the 
Sobat River; that of the Church Missionary Society lies along the upper reaches 
ofthe White Kile. 

The American Mission opened work at Doleib Hill, in 1902 on the Sobat 
River just six miles from where this river empties into the White Kile. The 
American force here consists of two industrial missionaries, an ordained missio- 
nary and a doctor. A regular Sabbath morning service is held, and those 
engaged in industrial work, ranging in number from ten to two hundred, attend 
daQy morning service. Evangelistic itinerating is done in adjoining villages. 
A boys' school has been maintained but with some irregularity. Some 3600 
clinic patients have been treated. Agricultural and industrial training forms the 
chief feature of the Mission's work. The population of this region is from the 
Shilhik tribe, but Dinka and Kuers are also reached. The Mission is about to 
open another station fSBui;her up the Sobat River in the vicinity of Kasser, and 
a doctor and an evangelistic missionary have been appointed to this task. 

The Church Missionary Society began its work at Malek, on the White Kile, 
about 1000 miles south of ELhartum, in 1908. The Britisch missionary force 
consists of two ordained men, a lay worker, and a doctor. The work is chiefly 
among the Thain, Bor and inland Dinkas. 

The following sketch of the early missionary efforts of the American Mission 
will be of interest In 1899, the Rev. Andrew Watson, D. D., and the Rev. J. 
E. Qiffen, D. D., were commissioned to visit the Egyptian Sudan and investi- 
gate the possibilities for missionary work. This missionary reconnaissance 
resulted in a reconmiendation that the American Mission, whose work in Egypt 

LXII Introduction 

extended from Alexandria to Assoan and whose Evangelical Church members 
and adherents were going into the Sudan in considerable numbers as Ooyem- 
ment employes, should extend its work to the Sudan. Accordingly, the Rev. 
J. H. Giffen, D. D., and Dr. H. T. McLaughlin were commissioned as die 
first missionaries of the proposedMission. They reached Omdurman in December, 
1900. For some time, a rigorous prohibition of the Government forbade all 
missionary work among the Moslems of Northern Sudan. The work was there- 
fore limited to the Evangelical and other Christian communities. In March, 1902, 
work was begun at Doleib Hill, among the black tribes of Southern Sudan. 
In establishing this mission station practically everything remained to be done. 
Houses needed to be provided; at first of mud, later of burnt brick, and later 
still of concrete. Provisions needed to be secured and gardening became a 
necessity, for no vegetables or fruit were to be had unless grown by the missio- 
naries themselves. Problems of health became acute, as life and work were 
thus undertaken in a region and a climate where hitherto no white community 
had established itself. To these difficulties were added those of safety from wild 
animak, and especially innumerable snakes which infested the place until the 
land was somewhat cleared by agriculture. There were also the problems of 
establishing just and sympathetic relations with the people of the neighborhood. 
The early attitude of suspicion which prevailed is well illustrated by the follow- 
ing incident narrated by the Rev. Dr. Giffen in his interesting book "The 
Egyptian Sudan. "* 

"We had been there for some months, and thought we had gained much 
confidence from the people. We had a friend visiting us and this chief^ Ariu, 
had called in honor of our guest. After some conversation, our friend said to 
Ariu: 'Now you have a good and righteous Government; it will protect you, 
and will help you; it will fight your battles if need be. And these missionaries 
will teach your children, will help you to cultivate your lands, will find a market 
for your grain, and they have The Book and will teach you of God; you ought 
now to be quiet and peaceable. Till your lands and care for your herds/ 

"After a good deal of deliberation and smoking, Ariu laid his pipe aside and 
replied: 'Master, you speak well. We had here the Turks (the old Egyptian 
Government) and they said, "Be submissive to us; we will protect you, we will 
fight your battles four you, we will teach you of God.^ But they took our 
cattle, they destroyed our villages, and carried our women and children into 
slavery, and they are gone. Then came the Ansar (the Mahdists) and they 
said: "Come with us, we have a great army; we will care for you and protect 
you; we will give you plenty to eat and a good place to live ; we have The 
Book and we will teach you of God*'. But they slew our men, and right here 

Christian Missions LXlli 


where these missionaries built their houses many of our men fell fighting for 
their women and children. They took away our cattle, destroyed our villages, 
carried off our women and children, and they too have gone. Now you come 
and say: "We will care for you; we will protect you; we will fight for you ; 
we have The Book; we will teach you." Master, you speak well; but we will 

"This brief^ pathetic story, a review of their whole history, reveak everything." 

The supreme problem in the new work was, however, the language, for the 
Shilluk language had never been reduced to writing, neither was any grammar 
of the language in existence. The missionaries sent to the Southern Sudan 
mission field labored successively to reduce the language to writing and to 
work out its grammar and vocabulary, but they were greatly hampered both 
by the burden of other work and by an entire lack of acquaintance with cog- 
nate Afijcan languages. However, the Rev. Ralph Carson and the Rev. Elbert 
McCreery especially were able to bring together considerable material bearing 
upon the structure and vocabulary of the Shilluk language, but it remained for 
the efforts with which this book is connected to setforth with adequate definite- 
ness the grammatical structure of the language. These efforts became possible 
through a generous grant made by the Trustees of the Arthington Fund, to the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America 
under whose care the American Mission in the Sudan is operated. 

Among the successes of missionary work during the brief period of about 
a decade which has elapsed since this work was begun, may be enumerated 
the following important achievements: the ministry to the religious Ufe of many 
Christians, Egyptians, Levantines and Europeans who entered the Sudan in 
Government service; the establishment of preaching* centers and of both 
edccational and medical nuBeionary institutions whose Christian influence is 
steady and fEur-reaching; the solution of problems of health, of residence and 
of agricultural possibilities; the solid foundations laid for the mastery of the 
language ; the winning of the sympathy of the people ; and, finally, a hopeful 
beginning in the winning of some to Christianity and in the awakening of a 
spirit of inquiry in a much larger circle. 

The most serious problem is the rapid advance of Islam into pagan territory 
through the aggressive efforts of Moslem traders and the pervasive influence 
of military posts at which are stationed Moslem troops. 



The Sounds 



Enumeration of the Vowels and their Pronunciation. 

1 • The quality of Towels is marked by signs below the letters, the quantity is 

marked by signs above the letters. Long vowels are marked by a line, thos: 
a = long a. All vowels which have no mark above, are short. 

2 • a is the pure short "Italian" a, the same sound as in English father, only short, 

while a in father is long. The short pure a does not exist in Ekiglish, bat in 
French, as ami, and in German hatte. Ex.: kal fence, male catch! 

^ is a litde narrower than a, but wider than £. The ShiUuk a sometimes, especi- 
ally when pronounced rapidly, has a tendency to turn into (i^ for instance ika 
''child", and md ''which", when standing in compound words, are generally 
spoken tiq,, i/ta or even i/ie; m^e, m^. 

t (Bell ae low-front), as in English fat, man, perhaps a little more tending to- 
wards e, as in Ekiglish let, weU. Ex. : it^ go ! bsf^ fish-spear. 

e (BeU e mid-front) as in French iti. This sound is not frequent Ex.: aiet 

e (Bell eh mid-mixed), a very short, and almost voiceless sound, like e in below, 
fishes, or like a in idea. It is the so-called 'helping vowels The short e 
does not occur at the end of a word, whereas e very often finishes a word. 
In all these cases e is written instead of e. Thus e at the end of a word is 
always to be read e. Only where e stands in the middle of a word, it is 
marked e; ex.: nek killed. 

i (Bell % high-front) like i in bit, pity; ex.: wiii Anived, kinau thus. 

i as in beer, keen, he, but shorter; ex. : abikt/il six. 

g (Bell a mid-back), a sound between a and q, like u in but; ex.: gat river. 

o (Bell low-back), as in not, folly; ex. : gQ him, gql court, nul cut. If q stands 
at the end of polysyllabic words, it is pronounced very faintly, so that often 
merely an ^ is heard. But on close attention one will in most cases hear the 
Q. In analogy with e, this q ought to be written p, but as it occurs at the end 
of words with more than one syllable only (and q never occurs here), I always 
write Q instead of p. 

like o in note, mote, but shorter and narrower, and without the final soimding 
of u, which the English o in note has. In French seau, German so, ital. dolore. 
Ex.: loi club. 

The Vowels 

y (Bell u high-back), as in EngUsh fuU, put, ex. : 6if to have not. 

u like En{^. fool, mood, but shorter. French sou. Ex. : kud^ to be silent. 

System of the Vowels. ^ 

Q a 


u { i 

u i 

Long Vowels. A 

All vowels, including e, may be long. 
a (Bell a mid-back) eu^. father, ital. padre, German Vater. 
S between a and g, almost as u in further; ex. : fa^St to faU. 
I almost as a in careful, ai in laird, ei in heir; ex. : i^Q people, n^iq much. 
€ as a in saye, bale; en.: yejQ to sweep. 
i: yft roads, 
f: chin bowels. 

i (Belli high-front) as in meal, bear; ex.: finq to run. 
(Bell o mid-back), as o in mole, note, but narrower, and without the final 

sound of u, which is peculiar to this English o; ex. : chd^i it is finished. 
11 : nfi^ not yet 
« as 00 in fool, cool; ex.: rumQ to think. 

Remarks. C, 

1 . The vowels are pronounced with a sofi; aspiration (the so-called gradual 

2. i and u, when standing in a closed syllable, that is a syllable ending in a 
consonant, generally are pronounced almost i and u- 

3. In forming ^ and i the mouth is wider opened than in the formation of u 
and 1; If and i may therefore be called wide vowels, while u and i are 
narrow. (In forming u the hind-part of the tongue is raised, in forming u 
it is lowered; likewise in the formation oft the forepart of the tongue i§ raised, 
and in forming t it is lowered. 

4. According to their place of formation in the mouth u, u and are back (or 
velar) vowels, i, ie, i, are front (palatal) vowels. 

5. The language has no nasal vowels. 

•6. and q, e and ^ are not so stricdy distinguished as is done in some other 

WKSTIBMAinr, The BUUak People. I 

The Sounds 




at at y in spy. au as ow in fowl. gi ba aiin oil. 

ou at in note, bat the u sound is more distinct than in the English o. 

ei almost as ei in eight, but the i is heard more distinctly than in En^ish; n 

and ou are almost two-syllabic. 
/ • The sounds ch^jf sh and iH, when following a vowel, generally have a slight 

% sound before them, which combines with the preceding vowel to a diphthong. 
This i sound is, however, not expressed in writing, because i. it occurs regnlaify 
before the said consonants, and 2. some individuals pronounce it so slightiy, diat 
in some cases one may doubt, whether it really exists. Thus pacA "home'' is to 
be pronounced patch; goch "beaten'' : ggieh; baiiQ "to refuse'* : baiiiQ. 

This i sound is best heard in those cases, where the preceding vowel is a, q 
or ^ 

K, however, a vowel follows the above mentioned consonants, so lliat tiie 
word does not end in a consonant, but becomes two-syllabic, the % sound some- 
times disappears altogether. The reason for this is, the connection between the 
first vowel and the second consonant not being so narrow here as is the case 
in a monosyllabic word. Thus ^'goch** is pronounced ^^ggieh^^ but^o;g hardly hat 
any i sound. Likewise *^lach" = '^laichf^y but laJQ = Iu^q without an i sound. 

y as y in yes; it has never the vocalic value as in the English spy. 
to as u; in well ; to is sometimes pronouDced with almost unrounded lips. 
y and to are unsyDabic t and u. 

When following a vowel, also when beginning a word, y and to have a slight 
t and u sound before them ; thus t/iyq to believe almost sounds iyit/Q, tour night 
and atoa yesterday almost sound utoQr, autoa. These t and u sounds are not 
expressed in writing. 

Combinations of consonant and semivowel are very frequent 


Enumeration of the Consonants and their Pronunciation. 

9* 6 as in English; Ex.: baiiQ to refuse. 

eh is a palatal t; in phonetic writing t'; it is therefore not quite the same sound 
as in church, child. The sound is articulated further back in the mouth, and 
therefore is thinner. Ex.: ch^l Shilluk. See ako^ and sh. 

The Consonants 5 

d as in English; Ex.: i^f^fio to fall; when standing between two vowels, it is 
birdly distinguishable from n 

^ is an interdental e2; put the tongue between the teeth-rows, so that it is visible 
from without between the teeth, then press it lightlj against the upper teeth, 
and pronounce a d, Ex.: ^j; mouth. 

/as in English; sometimes/, that is, an / pronounced with both lips (while/ 
is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth, in forming /both 
lips are pressed together) is used instead of/. Ex. : /ffng to divide. 

g always hard, as in garden, gold, never as in George. Ex. : gqa him. 

A occurs only in some exclamations; it is sounded a little stronger than the 
English A in he ; e. g. 6^A exclamation of surprise (i^ followed by a strong 
aspiration). " 

X might be called a fricative gi it is in the same relation to ^^ as v is to b. It 
might be compared with the Arabic Ghain, but is much softer, and its place 
of articulation does not lie so far back in the throcU as that of Ghain. Ex. : 
ysn him, Y^m thigh. In forming y the back part of the tongue has nearly the 
same position as in the pronunciation of u, but the lips are of course not 

y is a palatal d; in phonetic writing d'; it is therefore not quite the same sound 
as the English j in jest, just. It is articulated a little further back in the mouthy 
and therefore sounds thinner. Ex. ijagu chief. — ch hudj have the same place 
of articulation; the middle of the tongue's back is pressed against the hind- 
part of the hard palatum. 

k I mn are as in English. But I, when standing at the end of a word, is rolled, 
almost as the English pronounce the II in well. 

7i is a palatal n; it is pronounced like n in canon, or like Italian and French 
gn in signore, seigneur. Its pronunciation is somewhat difficult, if it stands 
at the end of a word; here sometimes foreigners pronounce n instead of li. 
This can easily be avoided by adding the so-called 'helping vowel' to li; 
instead of saying leii war, say leiie. Compare also such French words as 
Compi^gne, Champagne, where also ti ends a word. Ex. : lia child. 

1^ is an interdental r^, pronounced by putting the tongue between the teeth, as 
in ^. Ex.: yaj^ sni this tree. 

It is a velar n; it is pronounced like ng in singer, or like n in Con-go. Its pro- 
nunciation is only difficult at the beginning of a word. Divide: si-nger, and 
pronounce ^nger** only; this ng is exactly the sound of n. Ex. : f^nn to 
divide, AoIq to cut. 

p hBin English. 

r is formed with the tongue's end. It is not rolled (trilled), but pronounced 

The Sounds 

yeiy aligfallj, so that often between two voweLi, r and d are hardly distiiigui- 

$h is formed ftrther back in Ihe month than the En^^h sh. It is nearly the 
same sound as the Oerman eh in ^Heh, dieh**; in phonetic writing jf . When cA, 
sh undj stand before die Yowels a qouu, they are accompanied by a his- 
sing sound, so tiiat they tend somewhat more to Ihe Ekiglish ch, sh and j, 
but liiey are never identical widi them. 

jf is an interdental s, it is pronounced as the sharp th in thing. 

< as in En^^h. 

i is Ihe interdental t; it is formed just in the same way as ^ only Ihe tongue 
is pressed more tightly between the teetli, and thus a t is produced. 

^ is an interdental z, like th in diese. 


1 1. 

System of the Consonants. 


















































1. The consonants my n, I and r may form a syllable, thus having the quality 
and function of a vowel; in these cases they are designated thus : m, ^f, /; 
they may then also have their own tones. 

2. The consonants g, k may have a twofold pronunciation. When standing before 
a velar vowel they are articulated further back in tiie moutii than before a 
palatal vowel; the ^ in ^u and A in ibu lie fiEU*ther back than the g in gin^ and 
k in kinau; but this difference in pronunciation is not marked by different 

3. Double consonants are rare, but are sometimes pronounced, for instance tiie 
I in Chfikt '^Shilluk^ is frequentiy pronounced distinctiy long: ChQUn; I also 
heard |>^n2 lum to weed grass, besides pgng,; k^tt i mmltkit it is raining. 

Chanze of Sounds 


The change of sounds takes a large and important part in the grammar of 12. 
the Shittok hinguage. 

In order to show the changes which certain sounds have undergone, it is in 
some cases necessary to take the neighbouring related languages into conside- 
ration; they in many instances help to dear up transformations of sounds and 
to demonstrate older forms of sounds which from the Shilluk alone cannot be 

Change of Vowels. 

Quantity. J O^ 

Long and short vowels are in Shi. not always so strictly distinguished as is 
done in other Sudan languages. There is, in certain cases, some liberty in using 
a long or a short vowel; but in other cases again the lengthening or shortening 
of a vowel means different grammatical functions. The most important of the 
changes will be given here. 

Frequently a vowel is long when standing in an open syllable, tiiat is, a syl- 
lable ending in a vowel, but it becomes short, when standing in a closed syl- 
lable (a syllable ending in a consonant) of the same word: ydn I, but yt I ; yin 
you, but yt you ; ilial boy, ikara my boy; jal man, joIq, man; ft not, fit{ not. 

The demonstrative n (see 138) causes the preceding vowel to become long. 
The reason for this may be tiiat n was originally an independent word (in)^ 
with a vowel of its own, the quantity of this vowel being added to the vowel 
preceding n: note man, nan this man. 

A vowel may be lengthened at will, in order to intensify the meaning of a 
word, e. g.: i hudit he was silent; i Mtd^ he was silent for a long time, he re- 
mained in a deep, musing silence ; i Hgh he is strong, e nit^ he is (something) 
in a high degree; e tiffi yi rc^Q, or: 4 nit^ yi raJQ he is very, very strong in 
badness, he surpasses everything in badness, is exceedingly bad. Chiefly some 
adjectives may lengthen their vowel exceedingly, so that instead of one line 
above the vowel, two or three ought properly to be written: k^ch strong t4ch 
very strong, ritch bad, rdch or rdd^ very bad; often when such an adjective is 
sBid twice (see 151), the second time the vowel is lengthened: kick kick, raeh 

Interjections also may have short, long or very long vowel according to the 
degree of excitement which is to be expressed. 

In fluent speech frequently a vowel is shortened, which is pronounced long, 
if the word is spoken alone. 

8 The Sounds 

In the Yocadye case die (last) vowel becomes long: nhik man, nbxk o man! 
(see also 129). 
I 4* Begolar changes of vowel-qnantity take place in forming singular and pfannal 

of noons, and in forming the tenses of die verb. Of these only a few examples 
are given here, for more see 123, 156 ss. 

Singular short vowel Plural long vowel 

oib^ib-^ib egret; hri^h^n^ astuteness. 

Singular long vowel Plural short vowel 

dbiji^b^k albino; ffiji-ffdchl sword. 

In Verbs: 
yA ffQJQ, lambeadng yi ff$ch I was beaten yi n^iffQ I kill 

yi neka ^^ I killed a man. 
Frequendy a change of quantity coincides with a change of quality; see below. 


'^ ^ • Here again die changes in die formadon of singular and plural and in the 

tenses and modes of the verb are of prominent importance; a few examples 

will suffice here; for more see 124. 

It is particularly to be observed in die following examples diat, as mentioned 

above, frequendy change of quality and of quantity coincide, and diat in some 

cases a change of tone is added to diese two. No doubt diese changes have 

influenced each other, one causing, or cooperating in causing, the odier. 
A most prominent change is that of a long or short a or a, and in some cases 

^ being reduced to e: 

a y e: cig&h^iki crow dgwiiUdgwiU^ frog iywak-^ywilci crane 

dl&h^Uhi, a fish. 

a y e: 6lim^Umi sycomore f^W^^ spoon kwdr^kw^ pole. 

ay e: rat l^S (older form), r^ (properly re() ' king (present form); ra| is still 
used in a composition : rai lahq king of the people, and when possessive 
pronouns are added: ra4^ my king. 

toatQ A^d ^ftm ^ Arrive; wai heads, wefe nu heads of lions; dak third, 
(idek three. Here always a represents the older, e the younger form. 

a y e: bago. to boil past hik fadg, to be tired past fit 

fann to hide past fhi kadQ to bring past kil 

kOgQ to ache past kik kada to twist past kil 

nOffQ to kill past nik kabq to take n. kip^ 

paf^ to fiU and pekq to fill kadQ to bring and kelQ to bring 

/odQ to be tired and ffdQ to be tired 
kadft to twist and kedQ to twist. 

^ In some words mj materials glye {, where e was to be expected; this is doubtless miaheaid. 
For "king'' r^ being introduced already, I keep this orthogn^hj instead of writing ref, whlok 
would be more correct 


Chancre of Sounds 


^ i) «: ddth-idSH a mat 6tit'6t{li a pot dtw^l^twiU. a fish 

al^bfi^lipi a bird 6tit^lSti hawk. 

In aD these cases except a few, the vowel e has high or high-low tone. Even 
in the verbs with doable forms, e. g-fydq BudfedQ to be tired, the second form 
originates from a form with high tone, see i88. It is therefore hardly to be 
doubted that the high tone is the cause of the vowel being reduced to e. 
ny ^y f. The singular of the noun, and the present tense of the verb end in ^ 
which was no doubt originallj fi. This g. is very often pronounced e. The 
reason for this is that the emphasis (stress-tone) always lies on the stem-syll- 
able, consequently the pronunciation of ^ (f) is neglected and is reduced to e. 
In the first instances it is the high tone, in the last the absence of a stress, 
which causes the reduction of a full vowel to e. 

A short, pure a^ when lengthened, often becomes 3 ; there is a general ten- I H . 
dency in the language to pronounce a long a as 3^ so that it is sometimes diffi- 
cult to decide, whether one ought to write a or 3; often there are no doubt 
individual differences. 

adwodtritehwi^ guinea-fowl kaUhili fence ddk^Qk pot 

ch^bQ to mix past chapa IsgQ to inherit past laka. 
But mark the opposite: liwalq to touch past iiv)ati ndrQ to gnarl past nari. 

Long or short a or a ) short £. Here the coincidence of change of quantity I O • 
with change of quality^ is the rule: a long a or 3 becomes a short ^. The shorte- 
ning of the vowel is probably the prius; its consequence was a and a be- 
coming f . 

md and mi which lia and ti^ child 

kepa and kepi, because jagQ andjifcQ to rule 

ka^ and k^dQ to go kwalo, and kw^tQ to steal 

IwaA and lw£fi poor, worthless gwatiQ to err, past gwsti 

gwoTQ to snatch, past gwffr md^mfik aunt 

yafryG^ tree ya and ysna (from yana) to be 

ISgQ and 2^ to dream ySbd and y^ to open 

p^tnQ and p^ko to fill IqBq and IgpQ mud. 

But mark: rdch bad rliiQ to become bad; at^-aUtii hat; yei-ySi boat. 

In the double forms of verbs the form with a is the primitive, from which 
that with i is derived; see 188. 

a and e change in: naJQ and nejn to know. I Q. 

e and ^ change in : iiiit^t^t mangouste anhilf^n^ red ant dwet^dw^ a mat. 
% and e change in : wi^ to exchange past wela 

RbQ to come stealthily past tepa. 

vice versa: yi^-yli scorpion, yH'yH ^ ^®U* 

IP The Sounds 

i and ^ change in: rinit to run; past a rgtL 

2 and Ut u change in: goro, and g^rg, to tattoo, rgmo, and rum{{ to meet 

bhititt^hu^ hedgehog mqgif^m^hi beer ifegcA^X;iu:Aiaxe. 
vice versa : hudu to ptdl out, past kglay fu^ \ to pull 

nud/Q, to cut, past ngla fgr^ j oat 

lugq to torn past Iqgi; rwrn-wgrn nose, 

o and g change in : (imM-an^i a knife cKor^hitr yolture 

bir-b^ boil; and: toch-toachgon] this last example suggeats 
• that was changed into (^ by an inserted a. 
and u change in: hodn to fasten n. k6d^; chudQ and eAoZ^ to avenge, 

kuno and iko^ to blow up. 

20. The vowels ^ and £ can in many cases be shown to be not primitive. 

Igk tooth Any. lak wiUt to travel Ba. wala 

kffiQ, gourd Ju. kano hseh I bitter, Nu. 1 io^oJ 

nt«^A smeU Any. fitrat } shaip /shiUT) 

n^nj2 to sleep Nu. na^ nino to see Nu. naf^ 

ibtr^ bread Ju. kwqn Nr. j^u^n^ Bo. hod n^tio much Nr. nwan 

h/ffi horse Ju. aJbo/a Otm, koAa; (ehwe &t Nr. ehwaO 

aniw^ four Nr. nti^n ngffi metal Ju. gan^cu 

In these words the form with a is doubtless the older one; in Shi. a has, 
from reasons not known, changed into ^ (or e), 

21. f < ta. 

^^j; to be heavy Any. pyai 

tik to be hard Di. tyek (tyikf) Bo. tigo 

picJiQ, py§cho to ask Ba. jdja 

rsmq blood, Ba. rinuif Bo. tramaf ' Nr. ryffn. 

These words have originaDy the vowels ia, of which t probably is ihe oldest; 
see Bo. iigo and Ba. pija, rima^ here the second vowels a, is not yet added. 
When a was suffixed, the first vowel, i, became unsyllabic, that is, it toraed 
into y; this form is preserved in pyak; a was then assimilated to t (y) and liioa 
turned into §,: ty§k^ pyicho, f"yen%9 finally in Shi. the y was absorbed wholly by 
S, and i remained ; but, as the examples show, in many words both forms, ^ 
and yc, are still existing. 

22. Q (^wa OT ua. 

to OT u preceding an a has often assimilated the a, so it became g; in certsdn 
cases the u or u^ has then been wholly absorbed by o, so that ua^ toay logy q. 
Compare the following examples: 
wd and wiwe^tod is the primitive, wq the influenced form; likewise: gufotkQ 

abwQk maize 

Any. abach 

kmfQTQ cotton 

Ga. waro 

gOJQ to beat 

Any. gwai 

Bo. gba 

ehwQu man 

Qc9k. ehwa 

Nr. chau 

ehwi^ to caU 

Nr. chal 

Change of Sounds ii 

and gwc^ to scratchy nudo, to cut, nalo to batcher, nqf^ to cut. 

jg to die Ba. tuan roiiQ to dive Di. ruKiii 

ywqna to cry 6a. ywak ItbokQ to wash Nr. ^A Ba. ^Zo/u 

bQTQ afiemoon Oa. (ibwar racfQ thirst Ga. orwarJn. ryau 

litDQld \ to bear, Ga. litoala 
I beget 
anQ what Nr. nu, Di. 0na 
yg road yu toch narrow road 
ogwgk fox Nr. gtoak. 

In these words q is evidently an original a; in Shi. the a has in aD cases 
been assimilated by the preceding u or w, while in other languages the primitive 
a is preserved. In Shi. nuda "to cut*", the vowel, a, is not yet added; in ndlQ 
"to butcher^, the sufifixed a has dropped the u; here is no assimilation, but sim- 
ply the elision of u; whereas in nQtQ both vowels are contracted to one; an 
moalogouB case is ohq what; the primitive vowel is u: Nr. nu what; later an 
a was added; before this a the primitive vowel u dropped in Di.: ena what; 
in Shi. bolh vowels were first assimilated and then contracted : nq (the be- 
ginning a does not belong to the stem, see 124) what. Note also ya road, but 
yu toeh narrow road, and yu Fakoi the way to F., from original yu; this older 
form is preserved in connections of the word with a determinative; later an a 
was added, which united with u to q. 

Compare also the following words: 2 3 • 

omQrQ roan antelope Ju. omar 
ygrnQ wind Ga. yamo 

ohok blossom Di. gak. 

These either have the same origin as the examples given above, the w^ u 
having been dropped in both respective languages, or the original vowel is 
■imply a, which, for reasons unknown, has become ^ in Shi. 

It is of course probable that, in analogy with the development shown above, 
many, if not all, words with wq, yi^, and perhaps also those with g, t had the 
original vowel a, or %uiy ia^ though this a may no more be visible now in any 
of the related languages. 

Some of Ihese words show that the first of the two vowels (ta, t«a) was t» u, 2 A* 
and tiiat the a was added later; compare nudo, ndlq, nQiq; ando^udg goose, 
Di. twol (iwQlf)y Nr. twor; nudo, and atud(t are the eldest forms; then a was 
sa£Sxed, see above; in Nr. twor^ ua became uq ) wf^, whereas in Shi. (xtudq was 
preserved, no .second vowel being added here. 

If a is a secondaiy vowel, it must of course have been added for a certain 
purpose, by adding it the meaning of the word must undergo a change; this is 




12 The Sounds 

the case in nudo, to cut and nalu to butcher. For more examples of the additioB 
of a second vowel see 70. 

A good example for w being dropped altogether in Shi. is this : niagu to catdi, 
Ga. mako, Ba. moh^ Di. mwqk ^ *mua or *mwa. 

A different evolution have 
pjDQj^ male, Di. wton; chgnu to heap up, assemble, Di. wehan. Here agun tbe 
primitive vowel is a^ as is evident from wchan; now an u — in DL preserved 
as ti7 — was j>r0fixed to the stem, and in Shi. was received into the stem, so 
wchan y chtoQrif wton ) poQji- See also the formation of the passive 173 ss. 

So we have two forms of adding a second vowel to the stem : 

a) consonant + vowel + vowel: < + u -[- « ) ^«^* ^fi> Ul> 

b) vowel + consonant + vowel: t* + ^ -}" ^ ^ *^^ ^^^^9 ^^^ ^* 

Assimilation of Vowels. 

Some assimilations are treated above: ia") i^ y^; ua y uq^ tc^. Others are: 
wich head and touch; wiiQ, to arrive, and U7|^: t has been assimilated by tbe 

preceding w and thus become u; 
ya i "I shall'' is often pronounced yo m^ yq u; 
bugin "there is not**, and Hgin; 
bu "not to be", and boggn "there is not** < 6^ + jr^n; 
yig2 to become, and y^gn; 
tysl foot, tyala my foot ; 
bitn^ it is, and b^nin; 
ki r^ "with its body** becomes k^ rf ; 
y{ ri why you, but i r^ why he; 

H "and*", but: um hi &o^ you and the smith: 1 is assimilated to the preceding u. 
^n this, ^{ that; an t has been afiSxed to an, and has tamed the a to £. (Note 
the change of tone in this last example : the low tone designates the nearer, ihe 
high tone the farther distance). 

Contraction and Elision of Vowels. 

Some have been shown above: ia ) ya, yf ) ^; ua ) w<i, wq ) fi. Others are: 
y{ u "you will** y yi. mi sn his mother ) mgn, m ^ his father ) wffi. 

Where two vowels of different words meet together, generaDy one is dropped: 
kwarQ a my grandfather ) kwara. 

kwoTQ i thy grandfather ) kwari, and likewise all these connections. 
afoachi ah these rabbits y afoach ak. 
yi guiQk oAq what are you doing y yi gwq nQ? 
yi kobq adi what do you say y yi kob adi, or: yi ko dif 

In the nasalization of final consonants a final vowel is dropped : jago, chief ) 
jan; see 127. 

Change of Sounds 13 

Change of Semivowels. 


Id forming the singular and plural of nouns and the tenses of verbs, frequent 
changes of semivowels are to be observed. As is said above, the semivowels 
voiihin a word are probably original vowels, w (^Uyy (^u In manj of those 
cases where the t< or t had a high tone, it has not become a semivowel, but has 
retained its original form. If the u, i with a high tone did become a semivowel, 
its tone was transferred to the following vowel ; it is sometimes difficult to decide 
whether one ought to write u\t or voq. 

A few examples of the changes maj be given here; for more see 124 '^ '^ 2Q. 
g and 1^: go go, to work passive gw&c l^obq, to speak passive hoQ^p 
dgtv^h-^giH jackal ^t^itJ^-^il^ cock 

hotQ and kwQto to drive okwQr^Ii^ serval. 

vice versa: m^h-mu^k dog-head fish. 

o and wo: hMQ and kwoiiQ to help notq and niDotQ to spit 

▼ice versa: ktodt^kot shield. 
WQ, too and uQ,tu>: tiwofQ, iiuotQ, and liuj^ to show. 

The vowel u has been preserved in : 3^* 

hiiinft to taste, past a kwqna; kwcJQ to sew, n. hibji^. 
fiwQbQ to knead, n. liu^b^; 
gwbh^ibh dog; kwbm^huhtni chair; tojQ, and tuhjlt to tie. 

Changes between ^ and y^: 3 ^ * 

ge^Q And gyido, to buQd; k§dQ, and ktfsdo, to dig 
fyb^ftri back-bone; n^ro, to let the milk down, nyi^Q. ^ milk. 

The vowel % has been preserved in: 
geffi to sacrifice, and gi^; hh^eh^biieh reed 
Ufeeh'Ukh elephant; kyf^ to refuse, n. kl^dtt. 

y ^ w: yet soul Di. wei gwilQ and gyilq ring 3 

gy&iQ fowl Any. gwsno, kyf^ to refuse Ga. hvero 

lyilQ to save Nr. luiil fyou heart Di. fV)ou 

hysj/i horse Any. okwffi* 

In most of these words the cause of w being transformed into y may be the 
following vowel ^ «> which, being palatal, assimilated w into the palatal y. 
Elision of an original w: 

woTQ and otq to send, ir^ relative by marriage Oa. toor. 3 3 * 

leti war Ga. Iwe^ Ju. Iwiii fi people Ba. gwea 

dtl skin Ga. odwel tgn egg. Nr. twQn 

nffkq, much Nr. nwan fnagg, to catch Di. mwQk 

fillip is probably < *ny£>i < ♦liw^ < ♦liwafi. 

14 The Sounds 

In many of these examples it is to be noted diat often a vowel preceded 
by a semivowel is short, but when the same word appears without a semivowel, 
die vowel is long: the quantity of the semivowel is added to diat of the voweL 

34** Elision of ;^: x^ ^^^ ^ ^®' 

Change between Wy y and r. — Though r is not a semivowel, it is to be 
treated here. 

In a considerable number of words these three sounds may be interchanged 
at will. Compare what is said of the nature of ;^ in 9. x ^uad w are closely related 
(they are interchanged in just the same way in Ewe); now the friction whidi 
is produced in forming x is? hy some individuals, transferred from the back- 
mouth to the point of the tongue, the velar friction becoming a lingual one, 
that is, instead of ;^ an r is pronounced. 

w^tf XQty rwQt house ummQ, yumo and rumq, to finish 

wumQj pimQ and rumo to cover vfomQ^ T^f^q <^d romQ to carry water 

feJQ and rejQ fish war and ror kings 

wa, WQ we, Di. yQk YqAQ- '^^ rQ!i^ to elect. 

Y does not stand before i, o, and seldom before u; here w takes its place: 
fiaxolit^tvuli axe ; 71^^ and w6f a season, fodQ and undQ to pound. 
In yir-wdr the change from yta w has caused a change from e to 0. 
3 5 • Change between y and y: 

yi and y^ he ; yi\ Di. ya, 

y sometimes corresponds to j in Nr. and Any. : 
yan I Nr. jan yafl tree Nr. jaf^ 

yin you Nr. jin yiep tail Nr. jip 

yQ road Any. jq yoPiQ wind Any. jamQ 

ywono to cry Any. jtookQ hndjunQ. 

Here probably j is the older sound ; compare the analogous case, where in 
^ Shi. Aj turns into y : 46. 
30. When a noun ending in u receives a vowel-sufifix, a u; is inserted between 

both; nu lion nutoi lions; or, if u is part of a diphthong, it becomes to: fyiu 
hearty fydwA my heart; see 135. 

Change of Consonants. 

3 / * Some consonants may be interchanged at will, one individual preferring Ihe 

one, another the other consonant; often the same individual in the same words 
now uses the one, a little while later the other consonant. The younger generation 
of the people, and chiefly all strangers speaking the language, prefer the frica- 
tive sounds. 

Change of Sounds 15 

These conBOiuuits are : 

eh and tth d and g { and ^ p and / or/. 

According to the general laws of evolution in African languages, eh l^p are 
to be regarded as the older, sh g g and // as the jouoger sounds. — t never 
changes wilh its corresponding sound, which would be s; the natives are not 
able, unless expressly taught, to pronounce an 8, 



The consonants k ch t fp^ when standing at the end of a word, can be pro- 
nounced in two ways. They are voiceless, that is a real k chtlp\%%o\ie pro- 
nounced, if I. the word stands alone or at the end of a sentence; 2. if it is 
followed by a voiceless consonant They are voiced, that is, they are to be 
pronounced g j d ^b i. i£ they are followed by a voiced consonant, 2. if they 
are followed by a vowel (an exception to this rule see 139 and 143). BtU these 
consonants are always written voiceless. This rule is suggested merely by practical 
regards: it would, for instance in school-practice, be troublesome, to write the 
same word with different sounds. 

Real pronunciation Usual writing 

^g jal dgk jal the catde of the man 

^k t^TQ ^k tsTQ the catde of the people 

ri^ l^bq r^ IqBq the king of the people 

r^ |o f^fo the king died 

kwQb obwoik kwQp obwoA the talk of the stranger 

kwqp f^r^ kwQp iffrq the talk of the people. 

If one consonant of a word is interdental, the rest of the consonants in the 39* 
same word, i£t,doT n, become in most cases likewise interdental: 

ifaj^ man, ^i^ to make straight, ^Qcfin hot season, ^^ to suck, 4^uo^ to rise, 
tafe^ a pole for pulling boats ; in some connections even the consonant of 
another word may become interdental : ya^ tree, dtign large, yajf, ^ugn a large 
tree; between ^t and ^ the tongue does not change its position. But observe: 
(a tyifQ heel, literally "'base of the foot'', here each of the two words is still 
felt as independent, therefore no assimilation takes place. 

Assimilation is also to be observed in the law of nasalization : ^O* 

k -{- ny n ch -{- ny ii 

t + n}n | + n>ji 

p + n} m yfi + n>ri 

JQ + n} ii d2 -{- n} n 

Examples see 140. 

i6 The Sounds 

Consonants influenced by vowels. 

A I • Ik) A mute voiceless consonant standing between vowels generaOj ahowt a 
tendency of becoming voiced. Thus neariy in all verbs in the present tense 
die second consonant is voiced: hodfi, ffodo, gogo^ kobo etc.; and in those 
which have preserved a voiceless consonant, often, when die word is spoken 
rapidly, the consonant is pronounced almost voiced, or at least not takt etc., 
but as a somewhat hard g, d, etc. (what in German phonology is called 
"voiceless lenis''). 
b) See 38. 

42. Change between voiced and voiceless consonants. 

1 . See 26, Assimilation. 

2. See 41, Consonants influenced by vowels. 

3. Sometimes the consonant beginning a word shows a change between voiced- 
ness and voicedlessness: 

B€iehodQ and Pachodo, Fashoda d^kigt and tiMg^ dura-stick 

bA and pi^ or /A not ^k mouth Any. tQk; dak pot Nr. (flJ: 

gi they, probably reduced from kw^; see 131. 

4. In the formadon of plural a voiced consonant often turns voiceless : afudit 
pi. afuti; see 107. 

43* Combination of Consonants. 

The Shi. does not combine two or more consonants in a word widiout an 
intervening vowel. A consonant may be combined only with one or more vo- 
wels or widi a semivowel, never widi a second consonant 
A A. Kin die connecdon of noun and possessive pronoun or in die formation of 

plural two consonants meet togedier, one is always dropped: 
ikil boy lial ra my boy ) tiara yiriQ fisherman plural y^ ^ *yv^ 

lial ri thy boy y fiari j/ech belly plural yfl( < *}/^H 

pack village pack r^ his village ) pars^ dyiJL goat plural dy§k ^ *dy^lk 
wich head plural vxit (, *toacAj[ Iwitl gourd plural tot ^ ^IwqIl 

An n has been dropped in certain cases of genedve-formation, ^k n ^ra 
becoming ^k t^rQ; see 127. 
AC, If two consonants of two different words meet together, 

a) both consonants may be preserved; this is generally die case, when die first of 
die two consonants is a liquid or a nasal one ; jal fniku some man ; Ool baskg, 
a proper-name, Agun jwgk a proper-name ; but igitn gin ''where are they** 
becomes Agit gin; and kal wun your fence y kal tin. 

b) die ^he^ing voweP is inserted: Uch toodi, Isdie Jyech die toodi of die ele- 
phant; see 127. 

Change of Sounds 17 

c) a mute consooant is sometimes dropped: 
d/sik cattle, ^ ryj^ cattle of the king 

foch village jia r^ village of the king 
hat arm ha jal arm of the man. 

d) ch turns into y, that is, an unsjilabic t: 
toieh head %oiy p^m head of the table 
yeeh middle yey nam middle of the river. 

Changes of single consonants. AX). 

k. An original k is dropped in : 
tvCf wn we Nr. kgn < *kw^ wavQ shoe Nu. kwari 

vfiiiQ bird Ba. kwen orap spider Nu. korabe 

um nose Ju. kum ummQ to cover and kumq ^ *kummQ. 

The opposite state is in : 

kwgro cotton Ga. waro kMQ to pour out Ga. 0^0 ^ ^kwoiiQ^, 

Perhaps the primitive state in all these words is a beginning kw. 

An original k has turned into ch m 

chQfi2 to walk Di. kat, kawt k§ch bitter Nu. kagal, stem *kak 

hwaeh leopard Bo. kqgoy Ba. koka. 

An original k has turned into t in alilit bat, Di. alich^ Ga. oZti; here ib ) cA 

"} Uk being the oldest, ^ the youngest form. 
g. A primitive g has turned into j: 

jt people, Ba. gwea tribe. 
cL ch has become y in connections described in 127. 
j. j has become y in uro/g aunt, and toai (way), 
i d, and { ^ 

1. At the beginning of a word; t ) r. 

rsf^Q blood Bo. trama rgmo and igmQ to fetch water, Ga. twomo. 
Hy r: pirnQ and rumQ to finish. 

2. Within or at the end of a word. 

ty r: dwcUQ and dwffrQ to wish, tystQ and t^ro to cany; ^^ and got comer. 
^ dy 1: 16^2 and kllQ to throw X:u7a^2 <^d A^tiraJg to steal 

j»rg^ to drive past kwqla t^dQ to shave and lyilQ 

notQ to spit past nol yQdQ to curse and y^lQ 

godo to scratch past gol gmdo to wink with the lips, gtoelo to 

h 4y ^* ^^ to laugh, n. nyir^ y^sdQ to cut, past a yiffr 

r^ king pi. ror, ob^ and bysrQ womb 

ffi^ diirst Ga. arwor 

vfQfi steer, but uH^r^ got, and tr^r nam tat a certain kind of steer. 

WBBTSBMAUlf , The BhiUmk People. 2 

i8 The Sounds 

Concerning ^ ) r (and O ^ '^) ^^ '^'^J ^® remarked that in Nr. a final t 
is followed by a strong hissing sound, which sometimes turns into a rolled r, 
and thus makes the t disappear altogether. In the same way t may have be- 
come r in Shi., the tr in Bo. meaning an intermediate stage between t and r. 
l^y I: ta^ to cook, past 01 loufQ to change, past wela. 

More examples for these changes are to be seen in 182 ; there also the func- 
tions of some of the changes are described. The changes of consonants into 
the corresponding nasal sounds are treated in 140. 

The changes o£td,t^toi,rf2.l, and 3. n are doubtless to be traced back 
to different causes. — Observe also that t j( at the beginning of a word change 
into r only, in the middle or end of a word they may change to r or to 2. 


4 / • As in other Sudan languages, the intonation is an important and essential part 

in Shilluk grammar. Without paying close attention to it, it is not possible to 
master the language. Intonation is not to be confounded with accentuation, 
which means the stress laid on a particular syllable or word. Intonation means 
exclusively the highness or lowness of a syllable compared with other syllables. 
Each syllable has its own tone, which cannot, as is the case in European lan- 
guages, be changed at will, but is altered only under certain conditions. 

The tone can lie on vowels, and on consonants which have the function of 
vowels : x^ m } f.lfin diphthongs only the first vowel has a tone-mark, it is 
understood that the second vowel has the same tone. 

Ao. The Shi. has three original tones: a high tone, marked thus: d, a low tone: 

a, and a middle tone : i. Two tones, and in some cases even three, may com- 
bine on one syllable. Generally it is the high and the low tone, which unite on 
one syllable ; so we have the combinations low-high d (rising tone) and bil- 
low d (falling tone). In the first case the vowel begins with a low tone and 
then rises ; in d it is the reverse : at first a high tone, which is lowered at the 
close of the sound. According to my observation in both cases the high tone 
is of longer duration than the low, and it seems to me that a particular stress 
lies on it (see below). 

There are also combinations of the high and middle tone d, these are fedrly 
frequent, while I have not met with a middle and high tone. One example of 
three tones on one syllable is given below. 

AQ. The rising and the falling tone generally occur on syllables with a long vowel, 

but they are also met with on short vowels, just the falling tone often does so. 

Intonation 19 

In this case the high tone is clearly prevalent, only just before the sound is 
stopped, the tone is lowered. 

It is difficult to describe the tones or to give analogies for their pronunciation ^ O. 
from European languages. In this particular case it is still less advisable, as the 
Auliior of this book does not write in his own language, and does not feel suffi- 
ciently acquainted with EngUsh to give examples from it for iUustrating the 
pronunciation of the tones. 

[The English as well as other Emropean languages does have different 
tones, one syllable or word being pronounced higher than others. The 
difference between European and Sudan languages is, that in the first 
the observation of the tone is not indispensable in speaking, the mean- 
ing of a word is not altered, whether it be pronounced with a high or 
a low tone; but in Sudan languages the tone is just as essential and inte- 
gral as are vowels and consonants. Two words with the same sounds, 
but different tones, are quite different words, which in their etymology 
and meaning have nothing to do with each other, the conformity in the 
sounds is in this case to be considered as mere accidental. — On the 
other hand in European languages the itre^B or strength laid on a word is 
essential, it distinguishes the syllable or word which conveys the chief 
thought from those which are less important.] 
Only some examples of each tone and combination of tones are given here ; 
their pronunciation must be acquired by hearing them from the natives. The 
student should let a native pronounce these and other examples repeatedly, 
so long till he is not only able to hear the differences, but to imitate them to 
the satisfaction of the native. (To do that, one must really try to wholly quit 
the European mode of pronouncing a word; to give one example: When we 
pronounce a single word, or, the last word of a sentence, we generally lower 
the tone of the sound ; the Shi. cannot do so, unless the word has a low tone ; 
if it has a high tone, he will pronounce it high, whether it stands at the end of 
a sentence or not ; just mark the first examples which follow here.) 

Examples. ^ I • 

High tone: IM war, /M ground, t/dn I, gin they, dySl goat, 6b6t foam. 
Low tone: ttr^ people, dniin now; ^an cattle, pi water. The high and low 
tone are easily distinguished, when both meet together: dh/tl one, ddik three, 
tgiUt foot, pi. tgil; kd i kb and he said; ^'dj; ctk these chiefs. 

Middle tone: is not so easily distinguished, and may be confounded with the 
high tone. Examples : dpoiijf, cock ; the second tone is a Utde lower than the 
first, yet it is distinctly not low ] git pi. git riverbank; k^i in order that. 
Biting tone: gi b^ aD of them, 6pvQ^ hyena; (these examples are easy, be- 


20 The Sounds 


cause a high tone precedes the risiDg one, the tones are like this : <«; mark the 
difference between "cock'' and ''hjena^ !) ; fHk a vrater-pot, yi road, DSk a 

Falling tone: i t^c he is absent, lik is hard. When a high tone is followed 
by a low tone in the following syllable, the high tone itself sometimes is lowered 
at its end, so that instead of ^dbht sometimes *cibh is heard. 

High and middle tone: dtoin when? tou kf min jou and who ? i jes. 
IKgh'low'high tone: dut dowry. 

In the texts and dictionary the high-middle tone is generally rendered by 
high-low tone. 
C 2 • Examples of words which have the same sounds but different tones : 

6pjo^ cock it^l^ hyena l^ hot season 1^ a small lisard 

Hini nebbak-tree Idn^ to spend the md which m& aunt 

night mhr green mdr because 

Hu skin Hit spitde ikik a fish bViik e^ret 

lai^ flint-stone ^2^ to be smooth wdA year wdh eye. 

3 3 * ^^^ ^^^^ words are not nearly so frequent here as they are in western Sudan 

languages ; this is so chiefly from three causes : 

I. the words consisting of only one consonant and one vowel, which prevail 
in the western Sudan, are not numerous in the eastern languages, these last 
having augmented the primitive stem by prefixes and chiefly by suffixes; 
see 63. These additions were in most cases a sufficient means for distingui- 
shing the stems from each other, thus the distinction by tone became in 
many words superfluous, and consequently disappeared, or was mechanised. 
34"* ^' I^ ^® eastern languages, at least in some of them, the tone developed into 
quite a different function, which the western Sudan languages do not have. 
Here the tone is exclusively etymological, that is two or more words which 
have the same sounds but are of quite different etymology, are distinguished 
from each other by different tones. In the eastern languages this function ia 
ako preserved, but it is almost being suppressed by the grammatical function 
of the tone, that is, grammatical categories are expressed by difference of tone. 
Copious examples for this rule, which is a characteristic feature of the Shi.^ 
are given in 122 ss. 
3 3 * ^ ^^^ illustrations will suffice here : 

a) singular and plural by different tones : 

hy^ pi. hyifi, horse dak pi. dik pot 

bylUt pi* byil dura jhch pi. jack shoulder 

bii pi. 6^t net 6ffQr pi. 6^ ford 

dik pi. d^k mouth aluh pi. aliin somersault. 


Intonation ?£ 

b) the Yocatiye always receives high tone on the last syllable : 

l^dSti smith, but in addressing: i^^/ o smith I 
mdy^ mother, but in addressing: vnAyftl o mother! 
nbJti man, but in addressing: ikaiil o man ! 
Dlik a proper-name, but in addressing : DAgil o Dftk ! 

c) The personid pronouns have high tone; see 130. Note also the mechanized 
tone in the possessive pronouns and the numerals, 134, 152. 

d) the tenses and modes of the verb are distinguished by tone : 
to eat: present active chhm^, passive chdm^ verbal noun: ehiLm 
to work: present active ghgh, passive gtogky verbal noun: gwitk. 

3. Into the Shi. the accentuation or stress (the dynamic tone) has, probably by 
hamitic influence, been introduced, and it is often dijGGcult to distinguish 
intonation from accentuation. This is not so much the case in single words, 
but in groups of words, in which stress is laid on a particular word ; generally 
this is a word with high tone, so that high tone and stress unite on the same 
word or syllable; and on the other hand, a stress falling on a low tone, raises 
the tone of the syllable. 

Oh ange of Tones. 5 7 • 

The intonation is in Shi. not of that regularity which is found in the western 
Sudan languages. Though most changes obey fixed laws, yet many seem rather 
arbitrary, and I have sometimes met with the baffling fact that a word or a 
connection of words were, at different times, pronounced with different tones. 
Generally a word, when pronounced single, has its fixed tone, but in connection 
with other words the intonation changes veiy stron^y, adapting itself to or 
contrasting with, its neighborhood {rhythmical tone). 

Most of the changes may be classified under two headings, viz. assimilations 
and dissimilations. 

Assimilation of Tones. S^* 

yit pL yi{ ear; but yij^i ky^ ears of the horse 
bkjtk pi. bk^k flower, but bk^H ya^ blossoms of the tree 
^j^ pi. ^/> bag; but hf^i nhH the bags of the man. 

In all these words tiie plural has low tone; but in connecting the words witii 
a genetive^ a high-toned i is added; the high tone of this e causes the preceding 
syllable to become ako high. 

gtibk dogs d my, gidkd my dogs ; tins is analogous to the preceding examples. 
kA "and"", i '*he*', kb "said"* but connected : kA i kb. 
yA I gttgh work, yfi gftgb I lun working; the low tone oi gftgh causes the i of 

22 The Sounds 

yd to add a low tone to its high tone; this low tone on i is, however, pro- 
nounced but veiy faintly, sometimes only A is heard. 

Dissimilation of Tones. 
59* 9^^ thing iin this, but gin hn this thing, gik itk these things. 
liin crocodile an this, but Adn dn this crocodile. 

Here the reason of the low-toned noun becoming high-toned is the stress 
which is laid on the noun. 

Many references to intonation will be found in the following paragraphs, thej 
are treated there together with the grammatical functions they exercbe. 


OO. In words with more than one syllable the accent (or stress) lies on the stem- 

syllable. When a syllable with low tone has the accent, this low tone frequendy 
becomes high. 

Formation of Woras 23 





The stems of the Shillak- words are monosyllabic. A word may consist in 

1. a Yowel. 
d sign of the past, A it is, d which, i forming the future; and the personal 
pronouns when suffixed: a^ i, §,; but these last, being unseparably connected 
with another word, are not independent words ; and the rest are likewise 
mere particles ; no noun or verb in Shi. consists in a vowel only. 

2. a consonant and a vowel. ^ 
This is the oldest form of the word in the Sudan-languages (comp. Die 03* 
Sudansprachen, page 14), but is not veiy frequent in Shi. now. Examples: 

hh, fti not^ bt in order to. Ha to have not, cha time, cha to be going to, chi 
wife, ch^ to begin, chu bones, dd, to have, dk sign of perfect, di, but, 'ga piece, 
copy, gi they, gn him, gu a big fish, ji people, ha to go, JcA place, hi with, 
ko to say, hu thief^ tn& aunt, ma because, mi mother, ful as, n^ as, fi/ to use, 
1^ child, nu lion, pt water, ri why, xod we, wi you pi., yi I, yi you, yi 

Kot in all these words the primitive form, consonant -|- vowel, is original, 
some are apparently shortened from longer forms, but in others it is not 
clear, whether the short forms are mutilated from longer ones, or whether 
the words consisting in more than one consonant and one vowel have evol- 
ved from the corresponding primitive forms. Compare these examples : 
th, ft not, /dl it is not chi wife — chyek wife 

bt in order to, probably from bia ch^ to begin — chagq to begin 

to come chu bones, sing. cKqgQ 

bi to come — bia to come gi thing — gin thing 

bu to have not — bunQ to have not ka place — kach place 
cha time — from chan "day, sun'' ika to go — kd^ to go 

cha to be going to — chamQ to be iko to say — kobq to say 

going to ma because — mar because. 

3. a consonant and a diphthong. ^ 
bai buttermilk, bgi mosquito, b(ii net, lai game, Idu doth, liu far, lau spitde, O^ • 
nau thus, liau cat, ygi boat, ysi hair. 

4. a consonant and two vowels. Uv). 
bia to come ; this is probably derived from bi to come. 

5. a consonant, vowel, and consonant. This is by far the most fre- 




24 Formation of Words 

quent form ; it may be called the characteristio fonD of the word in ShL, 
about 90 % of all tiem% of the language having this form. 
hai arm, hiik fence, hiuk a cow, hiin behind, hq,r long, h^ch bundle, h^ spear, 
hql a mat, gql fence, hd fence, ibgl rain, etc. 

In my comparative study "Die Sudansprachen*', I have shown the original 
word in Sudan to consist in one consonant and one vowel, all other ele- 
ments in a word being later additions. As is seen under 2., this original form 
is not frequent in Shi., the standard form being here consonant -|- vowel 4- 
consonant. Accordingly these words ought to be demonstrated as having 
evolved from words with one consonant and one vowel only; the second 
consonant should be traced as a later element. That is, however, until now 
possible only in a small minority of cases. This may be explained from the 
fact that the eastern Sudan languages have, for a comparatively long time, 
had their own development, separate frt>m that of the western languages, and 
under the influence of languages of different character. 

I have found, however, a number of words which, being identical in their 
first consonant and vowel, and differing only in the second consonant, have 
the same or a similar meaning, which makes it probable that they are of one 
origin, and consisted originally in one consonant and one vowel, but diffe- 
rentiated their meaning by adding a second consonant. In some of die 
examples there is a semivowel between the first consonant and the vowel, 
which, according to 21, 22, has arisen from a vowel, so that here two vowels 
are to be supposed. 

hagq, to make a fence 1 _ /ScAfi, I \ (*ft»*fi<h with 

baJQ to tie together j \ ^ fyifiho, j *® I the supposed 

bono, \ \ f&^ to gainsay? meaning of "to 

jj^ J to make •mistake K,j_ y^ to Ue ]^r 

baJQ to err j foffQ to be bruised) 

cJiok it is finished 1 _ foJQ to rub, brush! ^ •^ ^* ^^*^ 

choii it is finished I ^ godQ to loosen \ 

chwobQ to pierce | ggiiQ, to loosen J ^ ^^ ^''^ 

chwayn to pierce J ^ ^ ^^^ lodgut \ \ 

ffoda to scratch, dig^ kagQ ] ^ *^^®' P*^ i < ♦Jfea 

ggiiii, \ ^ L ^ %fi *o bite, ache pain j 

gwaiiQ J*^ ^^'^^^^ [< •i'^ kitQ to throw 1 

gobq to scratch j Jc^ to dash, shatter, split] ^ ^ 
figQ to be sharp I ika to go ) _ 

ySfe knife j<*f^ ka4Q,k^ to go f<*^ 


'on of 


ho^ to blow I 
kona to blow/ <**^ 

kwavQ f Vol^ < •^^ 

ku thief 1 
toafe to steal) < •^^^ *^ 
kuKuiit to take) 
Jfcu;o<7fi to take/ <**^ 
kwayQ to herd i 

ihiKKfc to drive, herd / < **^ 
mwQnQ to plaster 
fi»ii^ to plaster 
md because \ 
mdr because / ^ 


'muy mua 


noffQ to vomit i 
rio<& riJo<2 to spit /<*"«« 
kdgQ^ kefQ split ^ *A^ 

paka [to thank <*pt*a 

robQ to string beadsi 
TQtQ to se^ / \ ^fi 

^ing to pour out drop] 

by drop i < ♦tg 

tinQ to strain beer I 
tQUQ to pick I 

twara to pick, gather, i / *^|^ 

clean ) 

wo^ to pull outi 

WQTQ to puU out) < ^'^^^ ^^- 


awa yesterday ^ 
aioar-atra the day before i / 
yesterday j 

6. Consonant, semivowel, and vowel, which may again be followed 
by another augment. 
These forms are also veiy frequent. 

iht^gnmdfather, ibt&tsome, it»ao< shield, ^ti^gibwork, ibta^p talk, Iwak cow-house, 
hogl gourd, kwach leopard, kwalq to steal, kwalcQ to embrace, kwanQ to swim; 
fysch^ to ask, hf^ to refuse, gyinQ fowl, tyelm foot, etc. 

In 21, 22 I have, with the help of related languages, tried to show that in 
many, if not in all, cases the semivowel is to be traced to an original vowel, 
so that here also the primitive stem would be one consonant and one vowel. 
Compare : 

nudQ to cut \ 

ndlQ to butcherl ^ *fiu + a 

AqIq to cut j 

ku thief I 
kwak to steal) <**«* + « 
kumnQ to swim | 
Nu. ku^e to swim )< **" + ^' 

For more examples see 69. 
7. The forms 5 and 6 may have a vocalic suffix, which consists 
a) in the vowel 2; it is added to the verb in the present tense, and to the sin- 
gular of many substantives. 

giffQ to work, ka^ to go ; jtiffl^ chief, jalu man, obwgiiQ white man, anMt 
an ant, ^hwdtlt loin-cloth, etc. 

In certain words this q may be pronounced or dropped at will: obtoQi'iQ or 
obwQiif jalq or jal; moreover it is sounded so slightly, that one very often 




Formation of Words 




overhears it. — In the Nuer language q,\a% snfifixed demonstrative pronoun; 
it may originally have had the same meaning in Shi. 

In the following cases a verb is formed from a noun by adding g: vsich. 
head, wiJQ, to make a roof ("a head'') lack urine, Vajg, to piss. 

b) in the vowel i: stem rum to cover, rumi a cover; stem chJam to eat, cAomt- 
chami a bait; stem g^ to strike giji-ghch^ word. 

c) the plural-suffixes see. 

8. Words with prefixes. 
The Shi. has two vocalic prefixes, a and 0. In most cases these prefixes have 
a distinct function : hy fvtfixing a or o to a verb^ the verb becomes a noun. This 
is a law prevailing in very many Sudan languages, eastern as well as western. 

bit to have not — itbit poor 
cftoffQ to compose a song — 

aehak poet 
chffTiQ to make straight, to aim 

— iu:him straight 

gUSi to bless — i^gii^ blessed 
gwfffiq to pick up — itgwin a 
bastard child (a child 
''picked up") 
kdrQ to branch off — akar 
kwQTQ to winnow, akwor husk 
lunQ to be turned upside down 

— alun somersault 

mflj (to be) slow — dmdi a 
nQgq to kill — dndk^ spirit of 
a deceased person 

bugQ to press the bellows — 

6buk bellows 
chddQ to break off — dchidit a 
cow whose horns are 
broken, a hornless cow 
dikQ to darken (said of the sun) 

— odinQ cloud-shadow 
rqgQ to hollow — dr^gii hollow 
tioQ to raise, lift up — 6tini 

stones raised up, dam 
jgrg to make a ford — dfiSrioid 
^Iq to swing — ^^^swin^g 
kogo, to blossom — dib^ib flower 
koriQ to stimulate — dissimu- 
ronQ to be astute — ^ifc 

t§ufQ to wag — bttu wagging. 

The prefix often designates persons as descendants of other persons, as 
members of a tribe or nation : 

waJQ sister owajo the child of the 

naj/Q the mother's brother, onaj/Q 

the mother's brother's child 
chol ShiUuk dchdUi a ShiUuk man 
janQ Dinka ojanQ a Dinka man 

muf/Q the mother's sister orhayn 
the mother's sister's child 

Ddk name of a king Od&k the 
son of D&k. 

bwQfi foreign o6trgiig a stranger, 

In some cases a or o are prefixed to a nounf thus giving it a pecuMar sense: 

Composition of Words 27 

mmmHmmm mm w m k wmmmmmmmKm \ ^ ^^ 

IwidQ finger — alwidQ a dura mat front — dmdl(t the first 

which has four ears, like tun horn — atunaky§l "uni- 

the four (long) fingers of com'' : rhinoceros, 

the hand 
Not all words with a prefix can be derived from words without a prefix, 
for example : 

iibieh a certain cow, dbdii hammer, dbich fiye, abiirb bushbuck, and many 
In some words the prefix may be omitted at will : 

(xfiffQ, and {^ffQ bead oylno and ylnq fisherman. 

There are some other words beginning with a vowel, but here apparently 7 4-* 
die vowel is not a prefix: 

iJk these, in this, dchd these, d/& in order that, in he, him, otq to send, dr^ 
relative by nuuriage, in^ what? 

In some of these a beginning consonant can be shown to have been dropped : 
^ (, T^9 OTQ to send ^ toovQ; ir^ relative by marriage is in Qa. wor*^ in Anh 
"what" i is evidently the deictic particle : "it is". 
9. Reduplication is very rare. I have only met with one single example: *1 1^^ 
yiyi to be possessed by a spirit. 

The Shilluks like to repeat a word or grammatical form which is to be 
emphasized : i hsdQ% h^j^ k^ he was going, going, going : was going on 
for a long while; gs. b^nit bind btni bini they came all, aU, all: all of them 
came; I4u J4u liu very far away; 6 chdki chiki he approached slowly, steal- 
thily; yi ntn, yi n^ I looked closely. 

Recapitulation. ^ 

The word in Shi. may have the following forms : V%. 

I. a, 2. ba, 3. bau, 4. bia^ 5. bat^ 6. btoa, btoat, 7. batQj bwatQ, 8. obat, obatQ, 
obtDotQ; 9. baba. 


Nearly all compound words in Shi. consist in two or more nouns, which / / ' 
stand to each other in genetive relation ; they are, properly speaking, no com- 
pound words, but two distinct, independent nouns ; compare : 

toan dgdh "eye of the crow" a kind of red dura 
wanrfiMn "eye of Nyikang" east 

wan nu "eye of lion" a kind of red dura 

wiy nu "head of lion" story, tale 

wiy kyffi "head of horse" riddle 

28 Formation of Words 

man w^ ''eye of house^ window 

(a tyV^ "basis of foot** heel. 

^O. Sometimes the single part of combinations cannot be identified : 

wd jbl lii ndHi a kind of red dura i^Hi^ & pole for palling boats 

Iran wure Iwal south tdkug^^ * litde axe (these last three 

idyi di gak a cow, black with white are compounds with {a "ba- 

throat sis**). 

Proper-names are often compounds: Kwafl Kgr, Koyilewgn, Afwi^^witi, AlAru^ 
wdvy AwarejwQkf Ohhydbwij^p^ etc. 

Many of these combinations are no doubt whole sentences, which have been 
united into one word. 
^Q. Some nouns, being frequently combined with other words, help to form 

certain grammatical categories: 

fia, in compositions often i^ ''child, young one** forms deminutiyes, it fre- 
quently ako designates nouns with a certain quality, similar to the Arab abu 
"fi^ther** : 

i^a ya{ a smaU, young tree lia roJQ a young heifer, a calf 
lia fij^ son of a king, prince lia korQ cotton seed 
fia ffol "child of the enclosure** : wife 
lia bin "child behind** : slave, servant liege-man 
ria kwdch^ lia lei, ^ felwQt names for cows ; 

Nhlwdk, ISeniriy NijwUdltt Nigir, Nelysch, proper names of persons and places. 
OO. P^ (, fi^^pdch "village, setdement, home** is frequently used in forming 

names of places : 

Pdchm, Fdmai, FAdkt, Fdf^h, FdbUr, Fii4ean,^ Fa^ikan (ako Fe$iikan), 
Fdkdn, etc. 
O I • y^^ P^ M^ "man** may designate the acting person or a possessor, it can be 

combined with a verbal noun or an original noun : 

jale IwqIc "man of washing** washerman 

jal nal "man of butchering** butcher 

jal IM "man of war** warrior 

jal ya^ "man of tree** medecine man, doctor 

jal kir "man of richness** rich person. 

O 2 • naUi pi. tysn man, person, is used in the same way as jal: 

nate nek "man of killing** murderer 

nate kwhyit "man of herding** herdsman 

nate nal "man of butchering** butcher 

nate kir "man of richness** rich man 

natejwQk "man of sickness** sick person. 

* Note the Msimflatioii of tone I 

Composition of Words 29 

■■■■■■■■HMHMMHninaMnM^ q 

A peculiar kind of compound nouns is formed by vJan^ the nasalized form of ^3 • 
iwte "man, person^ ; Han is properly ^ihe man'', ''this man**, see 138. It may 
be combined with a noun, or, what is more frequent, with a verb in the present 
tense, and with a verb in the passive : 

fian e ^cliQ, nan a ^aeho "the person is a woman'' the woman 

nan Iojq "the man (is) black" a black man 

nan ^hwQr^ nan e chwqr "the man is blind" a blind person 

nan e l^do, nan Ijdq "the man (he) is shaying" one who is shaving 

nan e kgk "the man (he) is hired" a hired person. q 

In the following compound nouns the first part of the composition is known, O^. 
but no more existing independently in the language. 

tediffQ a red-brown cow, teduk a grey cow, t^ian a black cow, from *te cow; 
compare Nu. ii cow, Ba. ki-ten cow. Compare ako : ^ean cow ^ *^ yan^ Nr. 
yan; ^k ^ *de ygk cows, 17r. yok. In both cases the word in Shilluk has two 
components: *^ and yan^ ^fiiEr. q 

The last consonant of the ruUng noun undergoes a change in these words: ^5* 

wQmamtai a certain cow^ 

wQreght a certain cowl from tcfll "steer". 
toityibyik a certun cow] 

30 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Lattf^uage 




OO. 1^® Shilluk language is not confined to one single territoiy, but is spoken 

in different parts of the White Nile region, some of which are situated at con- 
siderable distance from one another. The largest section of Shilluk-speaking 
people live in what is generally called the Shilluk country, and only this part 
is known under the name of Shilluk people. The rest of the tribes speaking 
the same language have each their own name, both' for people and language, 
but their languages are essentially one in structure and yocabulary with the 
Shilluk proper. There are, of course, dialectical differences, which are the natural 
consequences of the language being separated into locally different branches, 
so that each branch had its own way of development, and was in some measure 
influenced by its respective neighbour; but the following examples will make 
it evident that they are to be regarded as dialects of one language. It is to be 
noted that not only the selection of words given below are identical, but, as 
fiftr as I have been able to judge, about 90 Vo of all words in these dialects are 
uniform, and so is the grammatical structure; the only remarkable deviation is 
that Oang (Acholi) has a noun-forming prefix la-, pi. Zu-, which is Hamitic and 
corresponds to the Masai ''article'* ol pi. il. 

0*1 . The dialect's or divisions of the Shilluk language are: 

1 . Shilluk proper. 

2. Anywak (Aiiioak, also Antiak); it is spoken a) on both sides of the Sobat 
between the Dinka Tribe Ghiok (J^Qk) and the Nuers, south-east of Abwong; 
b) in Abyssinia on both sides of the river Bare ; c) in Abyssinia between the 
rivers Gelo and Akobo. 

The Anywak has been somewhat influenced by its neighbour, the Nuer; 
some granmiatical formations coincide with those of Nuer. But during my 
stay in the Shilluk country I have convinced myself that it is possible without 
considerable difiSculty to converse with an Anywak man in Shilluk. The 
Abyssinians call the Anywaks Jambo. 

3. Jur; is spoken between the 7^ and 8^ degree of n. lat. and about the 28^ 
and 29^ degree of eastern longitude. 

The Dialects or Divisions. 31 

4. Dembo; is spoken to the north-west of Jar, on both sides of the Bahr Dembo. 

5. Belanda; is spoken south to south-west of the Jur, the habitat of both being 
separated bj the Bongo or Dor. 

6. Ber (Ber); is spoken south of the Bongo country and east of the Belanda, 
on the right bank of the Sud riyer. 

7. Bert (B&ri) is spoken in the province of MongaUa, on the right bank of the 
Nile, north-east of Lado. 

On the map of A. E. S. the Ben (''Bern*') are also called Beir; from this 
it is probable, that Beri and Ber are identical, Beri being the plural form of 
Ber. Again according to Schweinfiirth' the Bongo designate the Jur by the 
name of ''Behr*', and on the map of A. E. S. in the habitat of the Ber the 
name "Jur*' is put in ; this seems to show the very near relationship of Jur, 
Ber and Beri ; and as Belanda lies close to Ber, these two can also be nearly 
or totally identical.^ 

8. Gang (Gan) or Acholi; is spoken in the country situated east, north-east 
and north of the Nile between Lake Victoria and Lake Albert. — The 
name Acholi, also ShuU, is evidently identical with the name of the Shilluk : 
CholQy the t in Acholi, Shuli denoting the plural. 

9. Nyifwa (Nifwa) or Ja Luo, also called Eavirondo ; is spoken in part of the 
Kavirondo-country, in the north-east coastlands of Lake Albert, round the 

10. Lango (Eitching : Umiru) ; is spoken in the Bukedi district, north and north- 
east of Lake Eioga. Eitching in his Granmiar of the Gang Language page VH 
says : "The northern Bakedi or Lango seem to be distinct from the Umiru, 
and their dialect is unintelligible to the Acholi.*' But the words which John- 
ston gives under "Lango*', are clearly a dialect of Acholi and Shilluk proper. 

1 1 . Aluru (Eitching : Alur) ; is spoken in the country north and north-west of 
Lake Albert and west of the Nile. 

12. Chopi; is, according to Etching, spoken between Bunyoro and the Victoria 
Nile. Sir Harry Johnston does not mention this name in "The Uganda Pro- 
tectorate**, but he says that the name Iaiq, which is given to several Shilluk 
dialects, also occurs in the north of Unyoro. 

13. South of Nyifwa, on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria, lives a small tribe 
called Gay a; they seem abo to speak a dialect of Shilluk; but it is not sure. 

14. The same is to be said of the JafcUu^ who live to the north-east of Lake 

These are the dialects or divisions of the Shilluk which are known to-day. OO 
It is, however, to be observed that the word "dialect** is not employed here 
quite in its usual meaning, as of some "dialects**, chiefly Ber, Beri, Belanda, 

' Lingnistiscbe Ergebnisse einer Reise nach Central-Afrika (Berlin 1873) P* 61. 

* Compare also B. Stmck "An Unlocated Tribe on the White Nile", in Journal of the African 

Societj 1908 page 75—78. 


Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Language 


The orthography of the origi- 
nal has been retained. 

Dembo, it is not known whether they do at all differ from each other, or 
whether they are rather divisions of one identical dialect. The distinctionfi 
which do exist between some of the divisions will best be seen from die 
examples following in the list below. In this list most of the dialects or divi- 
sions are illustrated : 

Anytoak from my own unpublished materials ; 
Jur in Schweinfurth, Linguistische Ergebnisse ; 
Ber is represented by a few words' in Petherick, Egypt, the Sudan and Central 

Africa, p. 481 : 

forehead uny Shilluk wieh 
eye loang Shilluk toan 
nose koum Shilluk toum 

lip dock Shilluk dQk 

tooth lack Shilluk l^k 

tongue laeb Shilluk l^p 

Ganff in Kitching: An Outline Grammar of the Oang Language, London 1908. 

Nyifwa in O. Baumann, Von Masailand zur Kilquelle, ako in Sir H. Johnston, 

The Uganda Protectorate. 
Lango and Aluru in Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate. 

Of DembOf Belanda, Bert and Chapi I have not found any materials. Dembo 
and Belanda I include amongst the Shilluk dialects on the strengtli of Schwein- 
fiirth's statement Clm Herzen von Afrika*" page 63) : north of the Jurs the 
more numerous Dembo and some smaller tribes of the same origin have their 
residence ; and the Belanda live 80 (German) miles south of the Jur ; they, in 
spite of the great differences in their habits, which have evidently been influen- 
ced by the Bongo, still have preserved the Shilluk language in a more or less 
pure form.*' The native traditions ako designate the Belanda as belonging to 
the Shilluks. 

Of Bert Emin Pasha says that they speak the same language as the 

Chopi is mentioned by Kitching as belonging to the Shilluk group. 

It is remarkable that many dialects bear the same name. As stated above, 
Acholi, ako called Shuli, is doubtless identical with Ctidlo, the name of the 
Shilluk proper. Likewise the name Lug occurs repeatedly: the Jurs call them- 
selves LuQ ; the Aluru of Albert Lake, according to Johnston, more often pro- 
nounce their name Alug, and this form appears again in the north of Unyoro 
and among the Ja-LuQ (Nyifwa). Note ako the names Bir, B^ry B^r, (this 
last name is given to the Shilluk proper by the Dinkas), and Bgr, which is the 
proper name of the Belanda. 

^ These words are also giyen by Stmck, An Unlocated Tribe. 

The Position of Shilluk 33 


The Shilluk belongs to a dearly circumscribed group of African Languages, QO» 
which is usuallj styled "Kilotic Languages". It is difficult to give the characte- 
ristic marks of the languages belonging to this group, as sufficient materials of 
an of them are not available. Some chief points are : 

1. Mute and fricative sounds are in some cases interchangeable, chiefly p and 
/ are often so. 

2. Many, if not all, of the languages have interdental sounds (\ ^ fi). I have found 
diem in Shilluk, Anywak, Kuer and Dinka, and according to some German 
authors Masai and Ndorobo also have them.' 

3. The stem in most cases consists in a consonant, vowel, and consonant, gene- 
rally ending in a consonant. 

4. Stems with a semivowel between the first consonant and the vowel are fre- 
quent. The stem-vowel is often a diphthong. 

5. Probably in most of them intonation plays an important rdle. 

The Nilotic languages consist of two sub-divisiods : Q I • 

a) The Kiloto-Sudanic group. 

b) The Niloto-Hamitic group. 

It is probable that the ^otic languages originally belong to the family of 
the Sudan-languages (vide below 95). The phonology, the form of the word 
and some grammatical peculiarities in all Nilotic languages point to this conmion 
origin. The vocabularies of all of them have certain sudanic elements. But at 
a certain former period all these languages have more or less strongly been 
influenced by languages of a different character, which are generally called 
Hamitic languages. They differ from the' Sudanic languages chiefly in the 
grammatical gender, in the prevalence of accentuation instead of intonation, 
and in their more extensive possibilities of expressing formative elements. 
Rudiments of the granmiatical gender are found in Shilluk also, see 126; like- 
wise accentuation exists in Shilluk, but the means of forming words are scanty. 
On the other hand numerous Shilluk-words, which most probably are Sudanic, 
are found in languages generally counted as Hamitic. 

So the line between Niloto-Sudanic and Niloto-Hamitic languages is not 
easy to define ; they all have components of Sudanic and of Hamitic origin, 
only that in some cases the first is prevalent, in others the latter. But never- 
theless the groups may be distinguished; the languages belonging to the Niloto- 
Sudanic group having a large number of words common to aU of them, and 

* Boe for instanoe Meinbof on Ndorobo in Mitteilnngen des Seminars f&r Orientalische Sprachen, 
Band X, 1 1 1 ; and Struck in i,Die goographischen Namen im Qebiet der ostafrikaniBchen Bnich- 
stofe". Reprinted from „Bfitteihingen aos den dentschen Schntsgebieten", Nr. 2, 191 1. 

WBSTSBMAllIlf, Tlie ShiUnk People. 3 

34 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Language 

many of which are dearly genealogically connected with the Western Sudan 
languages. In the formation of words and in the stmctore of their grammar 
they are essentially uniform ; they have not the grammatical gender or only 
faint traces of it. On the o&er hand the Niloto-Hamitic group has not nearly so 
many words in common with the Sudanio group, as the idioms of the Sudaoic 
group have with each other; in formation of words and in the wealth of for- 
mative elements they considerably deviate from the Sudaoic group ; and they 
have the grammatical gender. Whether accentuation is more, and intonation 
less prevalent in them than in the Sudanic group, is as yet unknown, but it is 
Q 2 • To the Kiloto-Sudanic group belong : 

a) Shilluk with its divisions or dialects. 

b) Dinka and Nuer. 
c) Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaya (Abo-Eaya), Abaka, Lmba, Wira, Lendu, Moru. 

Dinka is spoken a) in the northern part of the Bahr Ghazal province, b) on 
both sides of the White Nile between the 6^ and ;^ o n. 1. (Bor), c) on both 
sides of the lower Sobat, d) on the right bank of the White Kile from near the 
mouth of the Sobat to Jebelein. Bahr Ghazal and Bor are probably the eldest 
seats of the Dinkas, from here they emigrated northwards. The dialect of Bor 
(Bqt) seems to differ considerably from the dialects of the north. Dinka has 
in its vocabulary remarkable similarity with Ban ; in accordance with this the 
Dinkas seem in their bodily appearance and their culture to be more stronj^y 
influenced by Hamitic tribes than the Shilluks are. 

The Nuers live a) on the White Nile north of Bor, b) south of Tonga and of 
the lower Sobat, c) on both sides of the Sobat near Nasser. 

Dinka and Nuer differ in their phonology and structure but slighdy from the 
Shilluk dialects; they have, in common with Acholi and Anywak, the partides 
chi and bi for expressing past and future; these particles are not found in 
Shilluk proper. A great, probably the greater part of the words of both lan- 
guages are essentially the same as in Shilluk, but to a considerable extent Ihe 
vocabularies differ, so that both are to be considered as separate languagea. 
They are nearer related to each other than to Shilluk. 

c) Some tribes lying between the upper course of the rivers Rohl and Sue 
speak languages which seem to be in some broader way connected with die 
Niloto-Sudanic group, so that they are perhaps to be regarded as a sub-group 
of these. To this sub-group belong: Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaya (Abo-Eaya), 
Abaka, Luba, Wira, Lendu, Moru. According to Schweinfurth and A. E. S. the 
six first-named of these tribes have really one language, which differs only 
dialectically, so that individuals of the different tribes understand each odier. 

The Position of Shi link 35 

In Aeir Tocabnlaries these languages considerably distingaish themselves 
from the Shillok dialects as well as from Dinka and Nuer» 

According to their topograpEical situation the three groups of Niloto-Sudanic 
laugnages may be designated thus : 

a) The High Nilotic Ghroup, comprising Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaya, Abo-Eaya, 
Abaka, Luba, Wira, Lendu, Mom. 

b) The Middle Nilotic Ghroup, comprising the Shilluk cluster. 
e) The Low Nilotic G^oup, comprising Dinka and Nuer. 

The NiloUHHamitie ffraup may, according to B. Struck,^ be divided into the Q '^^ 
sub-groups of Ban-Masai and Nandi-Tatoga. To the first belong: Masai, Ngishu, 
FJgnmi, Teso, Sok, Earamojo, Turkana, and Ban; to the latter: Tatoga, Ndo- 
robo, Nandi, Ejtmasia, and Burkeneji. All these languages are situated in British- 
and German East-Africa. 

The NilotO'Sudanic languages are a sub-group of Ae Eastern Sudan Lan- Q4-* 
guages, to which belong Nuba, in the north, Eunama in the nortfa-easl, most lan- 
guages of the southern Gesira (between White and Blue Nile), and others. 

The Eastern together with the Central and Western Sudan-languages form Q ^ • 
the fisunily of the Sudan Languages, which extend from near the Red Sea and 
Abyssinia through the whole continent to the Atlantic Ocean from the northern 
Cameroons to Senegambia. 

In order to demonstrate the genealogical connection between Shilluk, the QO« 
Niloto-Sudanic group and the Eastern Sudan languages on one side and the 
Western Sudan languages on the other side, the chief characteristics of the 
Sudan languages, as shown in my "Sudansprachen'' may be given here: 

1. Aey are monosyllabic, each word consisting in one syllable; 

2. each sjdlable or word consists in one consonant and one vowel; 

3. they are isolating, that is they have no inflection, and only few formative 
dements ; the ^dass-prefixes** of the Bantu-languages and of some Hamitic 
languages are absent; 

4. Aey have no grammatical gender; 

5. intonation is prevailing in a higher degree than it is in Bantu- and Hamitic 

These characteristics are not preserved in their pure form in all Sudan lan- 
guages, almost all of them showing some marks of development from the pri- 
mitive stage to a more developed state, chiefly by adding augments to the ori* 
giual stem ; this is stiU more the case, where a language has been strongly in- 
fluenced by an idiom belonging to a different frmiily. But in each Sudan lan- 
guage it wiU, to a certain extent, be possible to trace the later additions to a 
stem as such, that is to show that these words were originally simple stems 

' B. Straek, t^er die Sprachen der Tatoga und Iraknleute. Beprinted from the ^^Mitteflungea ani 
4mk Devtocheii Sehuti^bieteii'', Ergiiiisiingsheft 4, 1910. 


36 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Languaf^e 

consisting in one consonant and one vowel, to which certain elements were 
added at a later time. 
Q ^ . In Shillok the characteristics mentioned above can easilj be traced : 

1. the stems are monosyllabic; see 6i; 

2. though the majority of tiie words do not consist in one consonant and one 
vowel, it is shown in 68 tiiat a number of stems can be traced to tiie original 
primitive form; 

3. the language has no inflection; the vowel-changes occurring in the verb and 
noun, which come near to what might be called inflection, are most probably 
of Hamitic origin. The nouns have no class-prefixes ; 

4. grammatical gender is absent; tiie rudiments of it which do exist, are of 
Hamitic origin; 

5. Intonation dominates in the language. 

Comparative Lists of Words. 

Qo. Their object is to show in a number of words: 

a) tiie identity of Shilluk proper and its dialects or divisions. 

b) die genealogical relation between Shilluk and other Niloto-Sudanic languages, 
viz. Dinka and Nuer. 

c) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and other Eastern Sudan languages. 
Of tiiese Nuba is treated in die list; it has a good number of words in com- 
mon with Shilluk; in other Eastern Sudanic languages such common words 
are rarer. 

d) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and Bongo; diis language, thou^ 
having its habitat amidst die Shilluk languages, shows remarkable connections 
with Central Sudanic languages, particularly with Bagirmi. Some of die 
Bongo-words which it has in common widi Shilluk, may of course be loan- 

e) die genealogical relation between Shilluk and a Niloto-Hamitic language, 
viz. Ban. 

f) die genealogical relation of Shilluk and some odier Eastern Sudan languages 
to the Western Sudan-languages. 

a) — e) are comprised in one group; f) forms a group for itself. Both groups 
might without difficulty have been multiplied, but the examples given will suffice. 
[In order to show more fiilly die affinities in vocabulary between the 
Niloto-Sudanic and the Niloto-Hamitic group, a number of words common 
to languages of both groups are given in dieir Hamitic form in die Dio^ 
tionary. It will be seen that the conformities with Shilluk are more nume- 

The Position of Shilluk 37 

rouB in the Bari-Masai than in the Nandi-Tatoga group. The Dictionary 
contains also some hints regarding the very few words which are identical 
in Shilluk and in the High Niloto-Sndanic group.] 

In the comparative lists some letters are used, which do not occur in Shilluk, QQ* 

and need therefore an explanation. 

q is the German d in ndtig "necessaiy" ; it is pronounced in rounding the lips 
as if pronouncing an o and then saying an e. — Mitterrutsner's d I render by 
fi. '-^ is the mark for nasalization: a is nasalized a as in French an "year*'. 
^ is a palatal g, it sounds almost like j. In Nuer and Anywak the pronunciation 
of final mute consonants and even of y is in certain cases followed by a pressing 
of the larynx, so that the consonant sounds very abrupt, and is sometimes 
hardly audible. These sounds are rendered by ' : £» y\ etc. (Some divisions 
of Shilluk as well as Masai and Niuidi have the same sounds ; see Johnston 
page 888.) — Eitching frequently writes ^or^ at the end of a word, where 
oAer languages have g; I suppose that here ^or^ simply expresses q, **or^ 
being frequently used by English speaking authors for q. 

Most of the authors quoted do not distinguish o and q, e and £, some not 
even long and short vowels; none has marked interdental sounds; thus the 
differences between Shilluk and the other languages look greater than they 
really are, the difference being only one of orthography. 

The following remarks belong to the second group only. 

H, i are narrow vowels ; u, 1 are wide vowels. 

4 and / are cerebral sounds ; they are formed a litde further back in the 
mouth than where the usual d and 1 are articulated. 

jf is a transformed k; the changes which it undergoes in certain languages 
are different from those of the usual k, 

/ is the German ch in "ach'^. 

V is the English v. 

y is an i with rounded lips, as in German "tLbt^. 

1^ is V with a following short y. 

First Group. I OO. 

Shi. bfir long Any. b(U arm Ju. bgt sharp, pointed 

Oa. bar long Ju. bat arm Any. b^ sharp, pointed 

Ju. bar long Ja. bat arm Di. bit fish-spear 

Di. bar long La. bat arm Nr. bin fish-spear 

Nr. bar long gy j^ figh-spear Shi. dbich five 

Shi. bdi arm Ga. bit sharp Ottk. abich five 

Qa. bat arm Ju. b^ fish-spear Ju. abich five 

38 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk L,anguaf[e 

Any. alAyit five 
Ja. afticA five 
AL ahi five 
Ba. hu five 

Shi. hqdii artist, smidi 
Ju. ftodo artist, smith 
Bo. hgro artist, smith 
Ba. hodo artist, smith 

Shi. hul dram 
Ga. iti2 drum 
Ju. h\il drum 
Any. hul drum 
Nr. £uZ drum 
Ja. hul drum 
La. &uZ drum 
Al. 9uZ drum 

Shi. huT ashes 
Ga. frtiru ashes 
Ju. huT ashes 
Nu. ohurti ashes 
Bo. fturuJbu ashes 

Shi. hutQ to lie down 
Ga. huto to lie down 
Ju. hudo to lie down 
Any. hutii to lie down 
Di. htU to waylay 

Shi. &y^/ dura 
Ga. hel com 
Ju. hel dura 
Any. iy^Z dura 
Nr. 5i/ dura 
Di. &«Z dura 

Shi. ehak milk 
Ghk. ehak milk 
Ju. oAaJb milk 
Any. chdk milk 
Nr. cAdi milk 

Di. eha milk 
Nu. icM milk 

Shi. cAaiTH^ to eat 
Ga. chamo to eat 
Ju. shame to eat 
Any. ehama to eat 
Nr. cAam to eat 
Ja. ehamo, ehyffnq to eat 
La. eamQ to eat 
Di. cham to eat 

Shi. ehul penis 
Ju. «AuZ penis 
Any. ehul penis 
Nr. ehul penis 
La. «uZ penis 
Al. ehul penis 
Ba. ^oZuto testicles 
Nu. sorot penis 
Di. ehul penis 

Shi. cAufi, c/luTtfi liver 
Ga. ehwin liver 
Ju. shwin liver 
Nr. chtooii liver 
Di. cAu?«ii liver 

Shi. cAung to stop 
Ga. chuno to stop 
Ju. chun to stop 
Any. ehunq to stop 
Nr. (Aun to stop 

Shi. cA«7(^ vulture 
Ga. ochur vulture 
achut vulture 
Ju. achut vulture 
Nr. ehwQT vulture 
Di. ehwor vulture 

Shi. ddkk three 
Ga. adek three 

Ju. addk three 

Any. ciddffi diree 

Ba. bu^k ei^t, that is: 

five and three 
Ja. adek three 
La. €uUk three 
Al. adek tfuree 

Shi. ^ak pot 
Ga. dak pot 
Ju. dcJc pot 
Any. dak pot 
Nr. |s£ pot 
Ba. dak pot 

Shi. ^1^ man 
Ga. dano man 
Jur. dano man 
Any. ^^ man 
Ja. ddnQ man 
La. danfi man 
Al. danQ man 
Di. ran man 
Nr. ran man 

Shi. ^k mouth 
Ga. dok month 
Ju. tio mouth 
Any. ^k mouth 
Ja. dok mouth 
La. d^k mouth 
Al. dQk mouth 
Di. wtoeh mouth 
Nr. iqk mouth 
Nu. ak mouth 
Bo. ndu language 
Ba. ka^tok mouth 

Shi. goJ2 to beat 
Ju. goi to beat 
Any. gwai to beat 

The Position of Shi I Ink 


J&- gojQ, to shoot 
Bo. gha to beat 
Ba. gwai to beat 

Shi. ogwal frog 
Ghk ogwal frog 
Ja. ogwal frog 
Any. ogwal frog 
Nu. guglaii frog 

Shi. ^tffoA: dog 
Ga. ^tiroib dog 
Jo. ^iu>J: dog 
Adj. ^tffoifc dog 
Ja. gwok dog 
La. ^tfoib dog 
AL gudk dog 
DL ^'o dog 
Nr. ^j^i dog 
Ba. dyon dog 

ShL gt/ifid hen 
Ga. gweno hen 
Jn. gyeno hen 
Any. gwffkQ, hen 
Ja. gweno hen 
La. gweno hen 
AL gweno hen 
Bo. ngono hen 

Shi. ^'1 people 
Ghk jt people 
Any. ^o people 
Bo. j«, ^ people 
Ba. ^t06a tribe 

Shi. ^*M?fiife God 
Ga. joh demon 
Any. jwQk God 
Jn. jwoh fortune 
Ja. juogi gho8t 
La. zqIc God 

Al. jgk God 

Di. a/yeity ajoh demon 

Ba. ajwoky jwek demon 

Shi. JcQbQ to take away 
Ga. kabo to bring 
Ju. kabi to bring 
Di. kap to bring, take 
Nr. kip to take 

Shi. kadQ salti 
Ga. kado salt 
Jn. kada salt 
Any. ifcaef|2 s^tt 
Nr. ibd^ salt 

Shi ito^fi to split 
Ga. kak to split 
Nu. kage to split 
Ba. kagu to split 

Shi. kick bitter 
Ga. ifc^A bitter 
Ju. kick bitter 
Any. ifcA bitter 
Nu. kag^al sharp 
Di. kech bitter 
Bo. it:^ bile 

Shi. kick bee 
Ga. X:tc& bee 
Ju. kick bee 
Any. kick bee 
Ja. JfcicA' bee 
La. kite bee 
AL AicA bee 
Di. kyech bee 
Nu. kit, kuti bee 
Ba. cA«5 chiwo bee 

Shi. ifegj^rain 
Ga. kot rain 
Jn. Ig^ rain 

Any. kgjl rain 
Ja. io< rain 
La. kqt rain 
Al. kQt rain 
Nr. ifegj^ rain, God 
Ba. kudu rain 

Shi. akur pigeon 
Ga. akuri pigeon 
Di. kure pigeon 
Nr. kitr pigeon 
Nu. kuru pigeon 
Ba. gtire pigeon 

Shi. kwalg] 

Ga. kwalo to steal 
Any. kwstQ to steal 
Ja. kwalq to steal 
La. kwalo to steal 
Di. kwal to steal 
Nr. kwal to steal 
Ba. kolornit theft 

Shi. kw&^a to count 
Ga. kwano to count 
Ju. kweno to count 
Nr. kw^ to count 
Di. kwen to count 
Ba. ken to count 

Shi. iu^anfi to swim 
Ga. kwano to swim 
Ju. kwan to swim 
Any. kwal to swim 
Nu. ku^e to swim 

Shi. iu^grg cotton 
Ga. waro cotton 
Ju. wara cotton 
Ba. waro cotton 

' Bih made of grass-ashes. 


Geneaioirical Relations of the Shilluk Lansruasre 




Shi. hxiaTQi grandfather 
Ga. hwoTO grandfather 
Ju. hwa grandfather 
DL hghoar grandfather 
Nr. kmoTO chief 
Ba. iia^kvoati grandchild 

Shi. hwoTQ, red 
Ga. hwar red 
Ju. hwar red 
Nr. hoiLT red 
Nu. kor^oa yellow 

Shi. kvD€u:h leopard 

Ga. kwaeh leopard 

Ju. hoaeh leopard' 

Any. kwach leopard 

Ja. hwach leopard 

La. kwach leopard 

Al. kwaeh leopard 

Di. kwcLch leopard 

Nr. kway* leopard 

Bo. k^go leopard 

Ba. kcka \ 

^t^^j leopard 

Shi. kw^ bread 
Ga. kwon bread 
Ju. kwsn bread 
kwgn bread 
Any. kwon bread 
Nr. kwQfi bread 
Bo. koa bread 

Shi. dky^l one 
Ga. achel one 
Ju. akt/sfo one 
Any. itehyil^ one 
Ja. achyel one 
Al. achyel one 
Bo. kotu one 

Shi. kyiii horse 
Ga. kana horse 
Ju. akaja donkey 
Any. okwffi horse 
Ja. koAima horse 
Bo. akaea horse 
Nu. kach horse, donkey 
Ba. kaine horse 

Shi. laeho, to piss 
Ga. layo to piss 
Ju. alaeh urine 
Any. la to piss 
Ja. lacK urine 
La. tea urine 
Al. ^A urine 
Di. lach to piss 
Ba. lode urine 

Shi. 2ffi game 
Ga. le game 
Ju. lai game 
Any. 2ffi game 
Nr. Iffi game 
Ba. ^t game 

Shi. tdmQ, to pray 
Ga. lamo to sacrifice 
Di. lam to pray 
Nr. 2am to pray 
Bo. loma God 
Ba. l{tfn to insult 

Shi. Uik war 
Ga. Zu^^n war 
Ju. Imii war 
Ja. Zu^ war 
Any. leili war 
Bo. laA gun 

Shi. aZOt^ bat 

Any. aUgd bat 
Di. aZicA bat 
Ba. lukuluU bat 

Shi. IwokQ to wash 
G«. ZuToifco to wash 
Ju. Iwok to wash 
Any. IwQJk to wash 
Di. Igk to wash 
Nr. lah to wash 
Bo. cio^u to wash 
Ba. lalaju to wash 

Shi. maeh fire 
G«. maeh fire 
Ju. mocA fire 
Any. may 2 fire 
Ja. fnocA* fire 
La. maeh fire 
Al. mMh fire 
Di. fnai fire 
Nr. mocA fire 

Shi. infl^ to 
Ghk. fnoto to drink 
Ju. mMe to drink 
Any. ma^ to 
Ja. iiuu^ to 
La. maio to drink 
Di. mat to 
Nr. mflj^ to 

Ba. bu-'ker six = five -}- i Ga. oZiJk bat 

Shi. wMgQ to catch 
Ga. mako to catch 
Ju. mou to catch 
Any. mak to catch 
Di. mwQk to catch 
Nu. mAge to catch, steal 
Ba. mok to catch 

Shi. fnflfifi to hate 
Ga. moft to hate 

The Position of Ski I Ink 



Di. man to hate 
Nu. mone to hate 
Ba. man to hate 

Shi. m^ alow 
Ga. mot slow 
Jn. wMde slow 
Di. moi slow 
Nr. 9ii3< slow 
Bo. fi}^ slow 
Ba. madan slow 

Shi. n^nQ^ to sleep 
Ga. ntno to sleep 
Ju. nen \ 

nendo ] *« «*««? 
Di. nin to sleep 
Nr. fiy^ to sleep 
No. na2u ^ 

Shi. n^ni2 to see 
QtL neno to see 
Any. fiffia to see 
Ja. neno to see 
Nr. n^ to see 
No. na20 to see 

Shi. flan crocodile 
Ga. lion crocodile 
Jo. ikin crocodOe 
Any. ikon crocodile 
Ja. fkm crocodile 
La. cM-iian crocodile 
Al. lian crocodile 
Di. fkm crocodile 
Nr. fkm crocodile 
Bo. fiofia crocodile 
Ba. ki'iUm crocodile 

ShL naJQ to know 
Ga. neyo to know 

Jo. n^ \ 

naya [ *« ^^^ 
Ja. nej/o to know 
Any. na to know 
Nr. ngch to know 

Shi. init what? 
Ga. anor what? 
Any. ini what? 
Di. no, nu what? 
Nr. nu what? 
Ba. ino what? 

Shi. peiiy feh earth 
Ga. jnn earth 
Jo. fifi earth 
Any. feh earth 
Ja. jn'fi earth 
La. fiikt earth 
Di. jnii earth 
Nr. peh earth 

Shi. fi water 
Ga. jn water 
Jo. ^ ^ water 
Any. fi water 
Ja. jn water 
La. pi water 
Al. pi water 
Di. jn water 
Nr. jn water 
Ba. jnom water 

Shi. f^fiQ, to divide 
Ga. foko to divide 
Jo. Tpaii to divide 
No. /a^« to divide 
Bo. eke-bake to divide 

Shi. refQ fish 
Ga. reeh fish 
Jo. rSyo fish 

Any. reo fish 
Ja. r^A' fish 
La. reeh fish 
AL reeh fish 
Di. ricA fish 
Nr. reeh fish 
No. jfea-r^ fish 

Shi. rffUQ blood 
Ga. remo blood 
Jo. remo blood 
Any. rffnQ blood 
Ja. remi^ blood 
La. remu blood 
Al. remo blood 
Di. ryam blood 
Nr. rtfffn blood 
Bo. trama blood 
Ba. rima blood 

Shi. r%n2 meat 
Ga. rtiio meat 
Jo. rino meat 
Any. fi^ meat 
Ja. rin2 meat 
La. rino meat 
Ai. rtno meat 
Di. rtii meat 
Nr. rin meat 
No. arich, arji meat 

Shi. rg^ thirst 
Ga. oru^or thirst 
Jo. ryau thirst 
Any. ryo thirst 
Di. rem thirst 
Ba. rgdu to wither 

Shi. rgmn sheep 
Ga. romo sheep 
Jo. romo sheep 


Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Lan 





Any. rgmo, sheep 
Nr. f^m sheep 
Bo. TQfnhd sheep 

Shi. rgmd to meet 
Ga. romo to meet 
Ju. romo to meet 
Di. ram to meet 
Nr. rom to meet 
Ba. rum to meet 

Shi. rug2 to dress 
Ga. rtibo to dress 
Di. ruk to dress 
Ba. ruk to dress 

Shi. wum nose 
Ga. um nose 
Ju. hum nose 
Ja. um nose 
La. um nose 
Al. um nose 
Any. ((m nose 

wum nose 
Di. um nose 
Nr. rum nose 
Bo. h/Qmo nose 
Ba. ibum« nose 

Shi. dry(^u two 
Ga. aryor two 
Ju. aryau two 
Any. hrihu two 
Ja. aroo two 
La. arii two 
AI. arij{ two 
Di. rou two 

Nu. ora^ ore twenty 
Ba. 1^' two 

bu^Q seven = five 
+ two 

Shi. ah (to be) hard 
Ga. tek hard 
Ju. €ik hard 
Any. Qi hard 
Di. tyek hard 
Bo. tigo hard 

Shi. 1^9 pi. tojf^ small 
Ga. ticb' small 
Any. ien small 
Ja. <en small 
Nu. An, fuH small 
tod small 

Shi. ((2U7(2 to die 
Ga. tor to die 
Any. |gu to die 
Ja. tQ to die 
La. ^ to die 
Di. tou to die 
Ba. tuan to die 

Shi. warq shoe 
Ga. t^Hxr shoe 
Any. war shoe 
Di. war shoe 
Nr. <i7<fr shoe 
Nu. kwari shoe 

Shi. uHir night 
Ju. toar night 
Any. warQ night 
Ja. u^^r night 

Nr. wtr night 
Nu. auHir night 

Shi. wek(i to give 
Ga. weko to give away 
Di. yek to give 
Ba. yek to give 

Shi. 11^12(2 to travel 
Ga. wel to travel 
Ba. wala to travel 

Shi. UTtilg bird 
Ga. UTtTio bird 
Ju. u^tiio bird 
Any. weyo, bird 
Ja. weiiQ, bird 
La. %i>en bird 
Al. UTtfi^ bird 
Ba. kwen bird 

Shi. worn to sing 

Ju. t^fir song 

Ga. wer song 

Ja. uTtV song 

La. u^^r song 

Al. wer song 

Nu. otr« to sing 

Ba. yoyu, yolo to sing 

Shi. ysi boat 
Ga. yeya boat 
Ju. yn boat 
Any. yai boat 
Ja. njie boat 
La. yede boat 
Al. yet boat 
Bo. yit boat. 

Second Group. 
The words in the first line designate the ''original Sudanic form^, which 
has been gained by comparing the sounds of a word in the different languages, 
and thus findmg out those sounds which may be considered as the most primi- 

The Position of Shilluk 



tive. This "oiigiiud Sudanic fonD" is of course merely hypothetical. For more 
on this see my ''Sadansprachen'^, from which the greater part of these words 
are taken. 

S. Ha to come 


'Et. vdXo come 

bd to come 
T. fra to come 

gbra coming into the 
G. &a to come 

bla coming into the 
T. ha shall, should 
Ibo hia to come 
Isoama hia to come 
Eafeng ha to come 
Abour^ va to come 
Alagniang va to come 
Avikam ha, iha to come 
M^kyibo ha to come 
Di. obi prefix of future 
Nu. if prefix of future 
Shi. hi, hia to come 
Any. if prefix of future 
Nr. if prefix of future 
Ga. hino to come 

S. huagi to fear 

E. vg to fear 
Ef. hak to fear 
Shi. igitg to fear 

hwqlGQ, to frighten 
Any. hwgk to fear 

S, hula open place 

E. ahlq open place 

F. abor^nteH I ^^ . 

abrorntsehi , 

) open place 

Q. hid street 

y. har large, open place 
Nu. hud place before the 

Di. hwr, ahora market 

Shi. hura open place 

S. ga place 

E. gh place 
T. ^ha this place 
N. ga this, that 
Nu. aga, agar place 
Shi. ga this 
agak these 

S. gaga eovorie 

£. agagh cowrie 
Di. gak cowrie 
Shi. gagq cowrie 
Ga. gage cowrie 
Nr. gak cowrie 
Bo. gaki cowrie 

S. guani antelope 

E. ghhghh antelope, "uni- 

G. nman \ 

nma \ *nt«»ope, 

•^^•^^1 "unicorn" 

Y. aghan-rere "unicorn" 

Shi. anwak waterbuck 

S. kuagi, kuafi to embrace 

E. kplh to embrace 
T. kwan to wind around 
G. kpta round about 
Ef. ukwan windmg 
kpan to fold (hands) 

Y. kpi to carry on the 

Nu. kat to envelop 
Di. kwak to embrace 
Shi. kwakQ to embrace 
Ga. kwaka to embrace 

S. kuagig kuiagi leopard 

E. kpQ leopard 
T. etwi leopard 
E£ eibp^ leopard 
y. kori leopard 
N. sku leopard 
Eu. unka leopard 
Di. kwach leopard 
Shi. kwach leopard 
Ga. kuHich leopard 
Ju. ktoach leopard 
Any. kwach leopard 
Ja. kwach leopard 
La. kwach leopard 
Al. kwach leopard 
Di. kwach leopard 
Nr. kwajf leopard 
Bo. kogo leopard 
Ba. koka leopard 
kwaru leopard 

S. kuani bread, pudding 

E. oilp^ pudding of maize 
Shi. kwin bread 
Ga. kwon bread 

Any. kwon bread 
Nr. kwan bread 
Bo. koS bread 

44 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Lan^uag^e 

S. kuoni to eauntf read 

£. j[li to count, reftd 

kane] ^ ^^^^^ ^•^ 
G. kane to count, read 
Y. ha to count 
y. kara, karan to leam 
Di. kwen to count 
Shi. kwsnQ to count 
Ga. kwano to count 
Ju. kweno to count 
Nr. iu7^ to count 
Ba. ken to count 

S, nju, nlua to liek^ suck 
£. ^ to lick, suck 
4^4ii to Uck 

Y. adun\ ^ ^ 
, > taste 

Shi. ^^ to suck, lick 

Shi. ^tro$^ to suckle 
Ga. (ioio to suck 
Ju. dot to suck 

S. pagi to divide 

E. afd part, half 

T. pae to spEt 

G. a/a half 

Y. apa part 

Ku. fak to split, divide 

Nu. fage to divide 

Shi. joflffifi to divide 

S. puu to beat 

E. fo to beat 
T. po to beat 
Ef. /ot to beat 
Haoui po to beat 
T^oui po to beat 
Shi. ptoodQ to beat 
Di. pwot to beat 

'S. <ia^i to be hard 

E. «i to be hard, strong 

Di. eh^k to be hard 
Shi. (^k to be hard, strong 
Ga. tek to be hard 
Ju. (ik to be hard 
Any. ^ to be hard 
Bo. tiffo to be hard 

S, ii^ hand 

E. aehi hand 
Ku. ehinna hand 
Di. chin^ chyen hand 
Shi. chysnQi hand 
Ju. ehyeno hand 
Anj. ehyeno, hand 

iS. <^' to 6ear a child; viife 

E. a«&t wife 

Eu. ehi to beget, bear 

eha begetting 
Nu. €MAy €MAt dauj^ter 
DL tik wife 
Shi. chi wife. 


Some Names of Languages^ Peoples^ and Rivers, as they are in use among the 
The Shilluks call themselves: Ochiljt a Shilluk man, pi. Ch$ly or toate Ch$l 

"children of Ch^l** ; their country : fd^ ch$l; Aeir language : ^ ch$l. The 

Shilluks are called by the Arabs : Shilluk, by the Dinkas : B^r, by the Nuers: 

The Anywaks call themselves : Aiiunikf they are called by the Nuers : BdUk, 

by the Dinkas: Pdtt^ by the Abyssiiians: Jambo. 
The Dinkas call themselves: Jane; they are called by the Shilluks: djinit pL 

jdni; by the Arabs: Dinka, or Denka. 
The Nuers call themselves: Gdnitf^ a Nuer man, pi. Kigdndi; their language: 

f^k iV2|; they are called by the Shilluks : Nuir, by the Dinkas: Nii^; by 

the Arabs : Nu^r or Nawdr. 

The Jurs call themselves De-LuQ or Luq, by the Shilluks they are called 
Odimo, "descendants of DimQ**, by the Bongo : Bir. The Belanda call them* 

The Position of Shilluk 45 

selreB Bgr. Belanda is « Bongo word, Umda, = atone, hill; so Belanda is prob- 

Ably '*hin-country«. 

The NubiAns are in all three languages called: lO^Qfiy from ''Dongola^. Accord- 
ing to Schweinforth in Golo the Nubians are called Turuku, in Jur Otnru, in 
Bongo Turn; these names are doubtlessly derived from "Turk**. 

The Bahr Zeraf is called in Shilluk : Oiif^, in Nuer : Fiku, in Dinka: Piau The 
Bahr Jebel is called in Shilluk: JTer; in Dinka: Kety in Nuer: Konam; the 
Ehor fllus is called in Shillnk: Otu^ in Dinka: Pelu^ in Nuer: i\iZuj(. 

46 The Parts of Speech 




Singular and PluraL 

I 02 • Singular. Many nouns havo in the singular the sufiSx g; in some nouns it 

may be dropped at will; on this and on the original meaning of g see 71. 

Some nouns denoting a plurality, are in their form singular, and are treated 
as such ; e, g. : lQf>q» i&i(t people. 
I 02cL. Plural. The Shilluk is remarkable for its manifold means of forming the 

plural of nouns. These means may be divided into three principles ; they are : 

a) by affixes, 

b) by change of tone, 

c) by change of vowel. 

Generally in forming Ae plural of a noun, not only one of these means is 
employed, but several. 
I 03 • ^) Pltural-formation by affixes. In most Sudan languages the plural of nouns is 

formed by affixing to the singular a particle, which in most cases originally 
is a noun or a pronoun : "people, they^. In Shi. this formation is represented 
by several vocalic and consonant affixes. 
I. The most frequent plural-affix is the suffix |. Although by no means all nouns 
have this suffix in the plural, yet it is a question of feeling with the natives 
that they prefer it; if a foreign word is introduced into the language, it receives 
I in the plural; and on the oAer hand there are numerous genuine Shilluk 
words which sometimes are used with %, and sometimes without it in the 
plural. This leads to the supposition that possibly the ending 1 was formerly 
more employed than it is now, and that it may be the oldest and originally 
only ending for the plural. — The plural-suffix t occurs also in Masai and 
in Nuba and Kunama ; in Kunama t is the personal pronoun of the third 
person plural: "they''. It may be that the suffix t is of common origin in all 

these four languages. 

Besides the vowel-suffix, there are several consonants which serve in for- 
ming the plural: 
J 04-* ^' ^^ ^^^ thing pi. ffik; k may be shortened from the demonstrative pronoun 

ah "these** ; in Di. the plural is formed in the same way, viz. by adding the 

The Noun 47 

demonstrAtiTe pronoun he ''these*'. 
3. 1; j( is poBsibly identical with the Anywak word (oj( "many'' ; bo that origi- I O ^ • 
ndty the word was common to both Umguages, but in Shi. it was exclusively 
retained for forming the plural, a different word being employed for "many^. 
In Anywak the plural is frequently formed by simply adding **j(of ^. In some 
cases the plural is formed by adding t instead of \i whether this is misheard 
by me, or whether there is really a class with t in plural, I do not know. — 
Di. also has the plural in i (lit) : pium-puot heart 

4. A nasal consonant; some nouns form their plural in changing their last con- I OO. 
sonant into the corresponding nasal one, accordmg to the rule given in 40 ; 

here donbdessly a nasal consonant has been suffixed, which may be shorte- 
ned from the demonstrative pronoun an "this, these'*. 

While i is used very much, and may, in a certain measure, be employed 
at win, k, t and the nasal consonant are restricted to a small number of nouns. 

5. Words whose second consonant is a voiced mute followed by a vowel, lO^. 
change this consonant into the corresponding voiceless one in the plural : 

dfudit pi. dffiii. In connection with this it is to be remarked that in those 
nouns which in their plural end in a mute consonant, this consonant is always 
voiceless, even when a vowel follows : J^k teeth, l^ka my teeth, J^h ak these 
teeth ; this is contrary to the rule in 38 ; perhaps this voicelessness is the 
rest of a voiceless consonant which was suffixed for forming the plural, but 
assimilated itself in all cases with the preceding consonant. 

6. Many nouns form their plural by dropping the singular-suffix q: gytno. hen I OO* 
pL gyffii. 

7. A few nouns with the prefix o drop this prefix in plural; such are names of I OQ. 
persons as belonging to a nation (patronymica) : a Dinka man, a Shilluk 

man ; here the plural-form may be the first, noting the nation as a collective 
mass, from this the singular was derived by prefixing o> which probably 
means: '^he" or ''one** : "he a ShiUuk**. The opposite formation see in rim 
pL ir^ nose. 

8. A peculiar kind of plural-formation in nouns designating relatives is that of 
prefixing iM in the plural; i/kh (also fid) means ''child** ; it is low toned, but 
when expressing the plural, its tone rises. Examples : 

dk^^iki^ nephew; or: iMJtdii^ikii nephew. 

[The partial conformity of the plural-affixes in Shilluk and Masai is remark- 
able. Just as in Shilluk one of the most frequent plural suffixes is i, so 
it is also in Masai. Likewise k, t and a nasal suffix (n) are found in both 
languages. The plural-formation by dropping the final vowel 2 of the 
singular (see 108) has also its analogy in Masai, where a final a or (q1) 

48 The Parts of Speech 

is dropped : ol abura plural t7 abur "froth'' ; ol kurto pL t Jairt "caterpillar''. 
Hollia in probably right in supposing that in these words the plural is 
the original form, from which ihe singular was formed bj adding 2 ot €u 
— Acoordiug to HoUis, Masai has no plural-distinotion by tone. See 
HoUis page 18 ss.] 
I I O. b) Plural-formation by change of tone. As stated abore, the predomination of 

intonation is a characteristic of Sudan languages ; but in none of these die 
change of tone is known to be a means of distinguishing singular and pluraL 
In the western languages, of whom a greater number is thorou^y Imown, 
this function of the tone is sure not to exist; but it may be expected diat 
on close investigation it will be found in other eastern Sudan languages. 

By the change of tone the nouns are grouped into classes, a certain tone 
or group of tones in the singtdar always corresponding to a certain tone or 
group of tones in die pluraL There do not seem to be very many nouns 
without the distinction of tone in singular and pluraL ^ 

This distinction is probably younger dian die plural-formation by a£Exes. 
Though the intonation is no doubt genuine Sudanic, diis particular employ- 
ment of it, vix. the distinction of number, may be of foreign origin, a foreign 
element getting into die population and using die tone in quite a new way, 
which, until dien, was not known to the primitive inhabitants. This is the 
more probable, as die change of tone is a process analogous to that of the 
change of vowel, which will be shown below. It might be supposed that bodi 
are of the same foreign origin, i. e. Hamitic. The older plural-formation by 
affixes seems gradually to be suppressed by die modem means, viz. change 
of tone and of vowel. 

It is to be remarked diat, as a whole, in plural the low tone is more fre- 
quent dian in the singular, die low tone, together widi the long vowel (see 
die following) conveying die notion of greatness or plurality. 
c) Plural formation by change of vowel.^ A plural-formation likewise unknown 
in western Sudan languages is diat by changing die quantity or quality of 
die stem-vowel. This vowel-change is common in Semitic and Hamitic lan- 
guages, and is in Shilluk probably to be traced to Hamitic influence. How 
far it is spread in die eastern Sudan group, cannot be stated now, but the 
Di. also has it. Quite of Hamitic character is the interchange of certain 
vowels in this way : the vowel-changes in one group are contrary to diose 
in another group ; the first group has long vowel in singular and short in 
plural; a second group short vowel in singular and long in plural; likewise 
the quality changes : one group has q in sing., u in pi. ; a second group u in 
in sing., g in pL ; diis peculiarity was first shown by Meinhof as existing in 

' According to Kitching in Gang most nouns have the same form for singolar and plural; is it 
not possible that a distinction is made by tone, which has not been noted? 
' Plural-formation hj change of Towel-quantity and quality is also largely used in Dinka ; see 
HitterrutEner page 15. 

The Noun ^^^...^ 49 

the Hftmitic langoages, and has been called by him "polarity". 

The same tendency of interchange is to be seen in other formations, see 111* 
for instance 119: singular prefix Oy plural no prefix, and 119: singular no 
prefix, plural prefix 0. 

Though this formation be probably foreign and relatiyely young, it may I 1 2 • 
contain some primitiye principle of language building : It is worth noting 
that the large inajority of nouns have short vowel in the singular and a long 
one in the plural ; this may lead to the supposition (which is supported by 
results of studies in other Afirican languages. In Ewe for instance adjectives 
with long vowel and low tone designate large things or beings, the same 
adjectives with short vowel and high tone express small things or beings.) 
that in an early stage of language the long vowel is expressive of the idea 
of "much, big, great". 

Examples iUustrating the different ways 

of forming the plural- 

a) Plural-formation by Affixes. I I 3* 

1. Suffix i. dkolr^kQH drum-stick im&irdmb;!^ a stork 

inin^dniiv^ a knife dywimHitftobfni monkey 

dckUn^^huni an ant pim-^mi board 

li^liri a bead kal-kili fence 

nit-nuiffi lion Isu^l^wi lizard. 

For more examples see below. 

The ending 1 has in most cases low tone ; where the tone is middle, the stem- 
vowel too has middle tone, that is, the tone of the su£Bx is assimilated to that 
of the stem. 

2. su£Sx Jt. pi-pik water gin^^ik thing dy^Udy^h goat jalrJQk man I 1 4* 

t§JQ-l^ tooth md'fnsk aunt men-rnqk this one. 

3. su£Sx j{. t4^^0t buttocks wteh-uHit head ysH/^t boat I I ^ • 

ywtryli fisherman yech-ysj, belly km-kot, breast 

(IwQUtQt) a gourd (yOrUp) road. 

When in a noun with a consonant plural-ending the stem also ends in a con- 
sonant, the final consonant of the stem is dropped, the consonantal suffix taking 
its place ; see 44. 

4. nasal consonant as suffix. 
(%^{2fiy dura-basket kwheh-kuAM leopard imildft-imAfti breast-bone 

yitlryif^ tree bt&b^Am tobacco ^hurtUmi dish. 

Vice versa : tDaiiQ-toach paper. 

WSSTSBMAH]! , TU 8]iIU«k P«opl«. 4 

1 16. 



The Parts of Speech 





Iw^Tp-hMA compaoj. 

hyV'^t^if' dura 
SfwiUt^wll ring. 

5. voiced mute consonant becomes yoiceless. 
dfidit^fi^ ML Ml dtudifM^ 9L wad goone fti^j^^-ftSli blacksmith 

Sfifi^ichi sword 6t/{I^-&tij$ a melon d^kigi'^^kiH dura-stiek 

6im-6m basket. 
Vice versa : fuh-fiigi tortoise ir&C'-iritgi bell 

6. dropping the singolar-snffix 2- 

J^lOrf^l knife gyin^yi^ hen 

trifi^-uT^i bird tQsnQriiin egg 

7. dropping the prefix 0. 

ohwc^ft-lmoilk white man 6MUhMI Shilluk-man ((/Sii^tlii Dinka-man.^ 

Vice versa : rim^dritm nose. 

b) Plural-formation bj Change of Tone. 

For completeness' sake the nomis which do not change their tone in plural, 
are ako enmnerated here. — Noons with prefixes and those without them 
are separated, as thej show differences of tone. 

In some cases noons with a slight deviation of tone have been grouped 
under the same heading; this has been done, becaose the differences do not 
seem to be essential and perhaps have been misheard. On the differenoe 
between ' and a gee 51. 
Some noons have two ploral-forms. 

Nauru vfith prejiae$. 

i.itehwdtjt^hwdii loin-cloth 
bkith-^kik egret 
bkw^k^kwi^k a goose 
britk-brjlk craft. 

2. dtd^r^h-iulir arm-ring 

bpdfi^ a goord 

mt^m fist 

3. i>b^^^biw^ longs 

bbir^b^ feather 

4. ik&r^kufi pigeon 
hwdch^wSch a shell 

bffw^l^w$l a bird. 

5. ^Ati|-^Mj( arm-ring 

6. ihfin'^hfin gon-cock 

dtbufit-dibiir bosh-bock 
itdirit'^tdtr donkej 

hmiUit^miili camel 
bk^k^ltk flower 
bmid^fbn^ fire-flj 

bchSy^chiyi melon 
bpo6l bloe 
ciwdh-^Mik a bird. 

bgt^lrihbffwitH \ 

bloe heron. 

itj^rif^t^, dfstr a spear 
bl6i-bm dock 

itffwiiP^u4n bastard child. 

bbifit^bir a pot 
aehwdf(^hv>di goinea-fowl 
aj{|p-Aj{^ bag. 

* In one eismple the plnral is formed bj toffixing r: rj(-ror king. 

The Noun 







h^d^hiii hedgehog bHUt^m dub 

i^wAnii an ant bnv^t"*^ whip btilit a white dura. 

iwinit'6uAni heron dkwitnih^kwini broom 
dtytnlt^tytn a fish dtitg^tifii a fish 

iwijlt''iUwij^ cousin dr^k-drik small bell 

dylnlt crocodile-hunter. 






a fish 


a stork 


a snake 




a snake 


dbdiU'^Sbdik hammer 
6kwQr^kJ!i\ serval 
6twiU6tu)ili a fish 
hUtrim hawk 

dgiik-dgfi crow 

dehitnit^hdrA an ant 
dditUhdd$l a fish 
ddik'iidiki a mat 
dgvHUrdgwfi frog 




wild goose 
a bird 
red dura 
a cow 
a ford 
a mat 
male goat 
a shrub 





ami brother 6min 














a knife 


his brother 


a fish 

an ant 



a fish 
a pot. 

a fish 
a gourd 
a crane. 


a hair dress 

a red ant 



a cow 




roan antelope 


a cow 




7"A^ Parts of Speech 

ScHbih-dcap blanket 

dffdl'dgdl mule 

dffiUt^iiUi mule 

<5ndyJMn<lt cousin. 


dk^dJHikiti basket 

6r$J>Mffi beU. ^ 


dchyininichf/tn loin-doth. 


dgwMgwi bow. 


dim^Hpi a bird 

(di^Il^ red earth. 


it^n^^n a fish 

a^-aedii hat 

(Sibtri^n-dJE:^ feather 

dhdih^kw^ goose 

($A:gA>^J^Jr egret. 


dehf/^riQ-achf/t'i an ant 

ciytiMU;-^ytrdit: crest 

2)r^-dr ant-hill 

(H^-^ relations by marriage. 

Perhaps in these last two examples and q are not prefixes, but yowela 

of the stem^ the finit consonant 

(periiaps w) having been dropped ; see 33. 


Skit^iat bell 


hlf^^hitii gazelle 
C^M-d^m tobacco). 

dnidit^nini breast-bone 


hjwigit^jxDilk sorcerer. 



btyimnity^ dragon-fly. 


bUi^U^ hawk 

bb^h^biieh reed. 

Nouns without prejueea. 


l^l^bil face 

b^nihl^i lizard 

bdfrbbii bachelor 

bwit^'bwitiii a fish 

bf/tr^t^tr root 

chdr^itr vulture 

chii^hUfl tooth-brush 

chwid'^hwi^ broth 

chwi^hwd^k ambassador 

chwitriH^hwiltr bug 

ddt^hddt hoof 

c^'-dtni jaw-bone 

fdUt-fdl knife 

g^t-gi^t river-side 

^in-^iJfc thing 

ghh-gWc ring 

fftviUhgwil ring 

gyik^yik water-buck 

ibu^^m-idm back 

kyijrhyii a fish. 


giUhffiH dope 

gitgihgi^k cowry 

&a^&d« a shell 

6ti(^6tij$ melon 

chimi'^hdmi bait 

dmgi-dikiH dura-stick 

c^r^-dgri axe 

fdl-fit spoon 

The Noun 





ft^fi\ country 
jhg^th chief 

g^^-^tl bight 
ifcd^ibi^ fence 
hohch-Aewhihi leopard 
fh^^fii^ lame person. 

chiffif^hdk a fish 
fyir-fhi back-bone 
j^-j^ buffalo 
kAtoit-kibwi beam 
ku'kuwi thief. 
fuk^fitH pot 

byiltt-byil dura 

pir-p^ hippo 
(dil^l skin). 

i(^t-ft^' net 

chAr^hi^r a fish 

^^'j[-^^oA2 sword 

git-^iU nayel 

itu^a^^^^l solo-singer 

itu?(^-^^ report 

gyUiirgytl ring 

(Aii^ftdfi locust 
ckil^hUl penis 

Mn^-Mn| meat on the skin 
chiiglt^Mk charcoal 
fyin-fyini skin 

gyt^yih hen 

Jb^n^JE^i gourd 
hwbt-kdt shield 

fil&M doud 
hwitckw^ dung-hill. 

T'Jr^-T'^ a bead 

JE^(2^-Jt^^ a fish 

|?dm-j:>imi board 

fiik-fugi tortoise 
^ifij^in button 
Hn-Hni trumpet 
Ut'HH rock 

^<i(-^i^i hammer. 

hyirit'byir belly 
hy^'hy^ horse 

Wr-6^ boil 
^h'^k mouth 
gil^ul cannon 
(^^-^ relations by marriage 
kich-'kitohi axe 
kyiUhky^l star* 

6{IA;-63A: fence 
6(^^6dj$ blacksmith 
^A-^ni dancing-stick* 

6^-&a^ arm 
dhk-dik pot 
giohk^ubk dog 
jiiehrjach shoulder 
AwAr^-AwAi pole 
Jbu^^fTi-Jfcti^l board. 

I. hx^i^kwil farting f^ri-firi mat. 

c) Plural-formation by vowel-change. 
Change of the quantity of the stem'vowel. 
I. Singular short yowel, plural long vowel. 

bhttk-^l^k igret bhitk^l^k flower 

dr^Jb-^i craft hwdk-^tik a bird 


54 The Parts of Speech 

dr^h-^n^k a small bell ckh^^hiU tooth-brush 

goi^iit riyer-side chwdfc-^kwiik ambassador 

hkw^MkwHk a goose bgwil^te^l a bird 

hchilc^hA^ arm-ring hgwinnigwhi bastard 

hchwdt^hwtt, guinea-fowl ipJ'>itJI^'^^t^ cock 

dtwdk'^twlik a bird drdp^ltp spider 

dw^t-^tt a mat dikw^h^iku^k male goat 

6g&U6gdl mule dt^dtHiH hat 

6kw$nH>hji^ feather dkiUbkbt bell 

ddiit'^UU hoof kdl-ktU fence 

fyb^ftri back-bone biMj^k fence 
dak-^k pipe. 
In the first eight examples the short and long yowel are the onlj distinction 
between singular and plural. 

2. Singular long yowel, plural short yowel. 

chAwi'-ekdnii bait hgtc^it^^ilTi blue heron 

iVln^Umi sjcomore bl^lr^U^ hawk 

dbiff^b^k albino dchytninichy^ loin-cloth 

igixigi^jw^k wiaard bttfrdU^ hawk 

chbr^hitr yulture byiU^^il dura 

pir-pSri hippo bir4>Qr boil 

ffiji-gdchi sword kjftUhhfil star 

gyhiit^y^ hen kwdr^kw^ pole. 

Only in the first word the plural is distinguished from the singular bj the 
short yowel only. 

I 24* Change of the Quality of the Stem^voweL 

I. The stem-yowel of the singular turns f in plural. 

dgdk'dgiH. crow pir^p^ hippo 

ogwM^ffwSli frog ddih-^idiH ft mat 

dywiJo-dt/wiki crane dtw^l^twiH a fish 

dldk-dUH a fish StihiH^ a pot 

6lim-6lSfni sjcomore dl^bi^l^ a bird 

/d^/S^ spoon ^2it-<$^^ hawk 

kwtrifkwffi pole d^ti^r^-^ufri blue heron. 

In some words the yowel in plural is not f , but e or 1; as these are closely 
related to each other, and perhaps $^ % are misheard for e, I haye dassed 
them together. 

In all these nouns the stem-yowel has high tone in plural; probably the 

The Noun 


high tone and the reduction of the vowel to t are in some oaosal connection; 
vide 1 6. 

2. The stem-Yowel of the singular — mostlj a — turns 3 in plural. 
bchodj^hvsfl^ guinea-fowl ikd2-ibiZi fence 

Mi-&(|i fence dhh^Jt pot, pipe 

hhxl^hrbhi^ a goose 6kwSh~bkwik a goose. 

Here the short vowel of the singular becomes long in plural; the length- 
ening of the vowel maj be the reason of its turning into a; see 17. 

3. MttgnUr a pi. £. md'fn^k aunt 

4. MugnUr ^ pL a. dti^Uiik hat 

5. singnlar a> pi* 0. tq^ (V^ see 16) ^ar 

6. sing, t pi* ^* 

7. sing. € pi. £. 

yajf-y^ tree. 
{ysi-yV boat). 

8. sing. e> pi. t. 

9. sing. % pi. a* 
10. (sing, a, & i) pi. fi. 

dn^^-cift^ red ant 
yeehryij, belly. 
y^j(-^ scorpion. 

mScQrfr&o some 
ein^H^ what 

gyihgyit waterbuck. 
dUfnliit mangouste 
AwH-dvj^i a mat 

y^y^ a well 
trtcA-trffi^ head. 

jaUjqk man 

mffi''mQk these. 
The plural-vowel q, is remarkable, as it does not correspond to a certain 
vowel in singular, but is a class of its own; it not only forms the plural of 
nouns, but ako of pronouns and adjectives. Note ako anor^nfi; a is the deictic 
pronoun "it is^ ; but here it is treated like a radical vowel and thus changed 
in plural 

iiaj^lO'iiawuli an axe 
bkitdif^kiiti hedgehog 
rtini'^itni nose. 
dnJii-dii^l a knife 
toehrtoach gun; see 22 
fn^hrmwQk dog-head fish. 
6pi>itffr6^ cock dhwQT^h^ serval 

ig^k^Ulk JAckal dhuo^-^l^ feather 

Zt0^^< a gourd pool-foli snake 

kwbm'kdm back 
6fv)Qnr6fhn loaf. 
gwhlc-^ibh dog 
fytr-ftri backbone. 
h/ffih'U^h elephant 
hl^hrdbiSch reed. 

11. sing. Qy pi. Uy \i. 

12. sing, u pL ({. 

13. sing. pL n. 

14. sing. Q, pL tog. 

15. sing. WQ, wo pi. (t, o> tt. 

it^A-A:£(cA2 an axe 
mogorfn^ki beer. 

Mr-ft^ boil 
chiHMsAitr vulture. 

16. sing, wo pi. no. 

17. sing, y^ pi. fr 

18. sing. y6 £» I pi. ^. 

kwbt-kdt shield 

ibu;dm-ikti^n4 board. 

yfi{-yii< neck 

The Parts o 




125. Qeoder is expresBed in the noun only, not in pronoona. The natnrsl gender 

may be mftrked in two ways: 

a) by different words. ' 

chwgfi man ^ha woman vai buU ^«m cow 

6Av^k male sheep or goat dyil female goat. 

b) by adding <i|w]^ for the male, rndf for the female gender, 
ntt hpeh^ male Eon ntt mii{ or m&l ntt female lion 
i^( nit male liona md{( nit female liona 

kyiA bfioii^ or %M d jfro^ji male hone b/^ a mitt ^' *>*^t ^^ female hone 
h/iA 6 j^ male hones Xy^ri d m^ female hones 

|to^9 ((f?i^r^ m&le roan antelope, pi. ^ dm^ii 
mAf, 6m^^ female roan antelope, pi. m^^ 6mirii. 

In one tingle word, however, the Shilluk expreetee the gender by phonetie 
meant: Aa child Aat boy rian giil. 

Here evidently I and n are added to the word Aa in order to mark its 
gender, I for the male, n for the female gender. 

[That this case is not merely accidental, will be clear from the fact that 
by the same means gender ie expressed in the Ban language ; here it ia not 
the nouns, but demonstratiTe pronouns which receive tlie aGBzes I and n : 
lo this m. lu that m. 

na this f. nti that f. 

pi. chi-lo tbeae m. chi-lu thoae m. 

cAwi« these f. chi-nu those f 

lu-yu that one yonder m. chi-bi-yu those yonder m. 

nu-yu that one yonder f. chi-mt-yu those yonder f. 

li-o my m. it-oi your m. 

ni-o my f. in-ot your f. 

In the noun, feminine is distinguished from masculine by the soffix et. 
The same distinction by the same means has Masai. 
The distinction of a grammatical gender is surely not Sudanio, it is not 
known in other Sudan languages ; so we have doubtlessly Hamitio in- 
fluence here. The Shilluka must have been in contact with (a Hamitic) 
people who expressed in their language the grammatical gender by I and 
n, but thia contact wae not long or strong enough, to make the distinction 
of gender a living factor in the language ; so only a (aiat trace of it was 
left There is one more Sudan language, which has a similar distinction : 
the Songhai (00 both banks of the middle Niger). This language has, in 

The Noun 57 


the same way as Ban and Masai, a kind of article, di for living beings, m 
for inanimate things. I believe that di is identical with liy I and i oftien 
changing in Afirican languages ; vide the examples in the comparative 
Lists of Words in Third Section. K this is right, the Songhai (in which, 
though, this distinction will not be original, but borrowed from some 
Hamitic language) represents an elder stage in the development of 
grammatical gender: living ) masculine, inanimate ^ feminine or neuter 
(which may originaUy be the same, as Tnth primitive men woman is 
rather a thirg, a merchandise, than a person).] ^ 

A second waj of distinguishing gender by phonetic means is represented I 2 O 3r* 
in the following word : 

6gv>^l an ox with the horns turned toward the eyes 
dffwiUt a cow with the horns turned toward the eyes. 


The ruling noun is a singular. 
I. The genetive follows the noun determined by it. The noun ends in a con- I 2 y • 
sonant; in these cases the two nouns unite without any bonnecting element or 
phonetic changes : 

wQt house ; wQt jiglt house of the chief 

loi club ; lot obwoii dub of the stranger 

dj^p bag ; ajg^ jal gni bag of this man 

okok blossom; okqk yaf^ gni blossom of this tree 

yit ear; yd ky^ ear of the horse. 

There are, however, a few exceptions, chiefly if the final consonant is k 
or chf and the next word begins with a consonant ; 

a) sometimes the "helping vowel^ is inserted : 

kidQ colour; kife IcJQ black colour 

nidQ rib; n^ejal rib of man 

Iffih tooth; l^he lytfih tooth of the elephant 

m^go, beer; mokefdie wQn beer of our country 
6s^ artist. bqSfi tgn one who makes spears. 

These are treated like nouns in the plural. 

b) eh and k may be dropped : 

pdch village ; pa rijl village of the king 

kff:h, kaeh hunger; kajal gni the hunger of this man 

^ifc cattle ; ^ n( the catde of the king. 

S8 The Parts of Speech 

c) eh softens into yi 

mach fire; matf hogrQ ''fire of cotton^; see 45. 

One word changes its vowel before a genetiye : 

yn ^*7; y^ Fakoi the waj to F. ; 

likewise when an adjectiye follows: yu toeh a narrow way; see 22. 
2. Nonns which have the final vowel q, and whose second consonant is a voiced 
— in some cases ako a voiceless — mute (go, jo, dq, ^ bg), drop, when 
followed by a genetive, the g, and torn the consonant into the corresponding 
nasal one : ^fi ) n^ ^(2 ) li, c^ ) n, ^ ) 9^ 6fi ) m; see 40. 

jag2 chief; jan foffi wgn the chief of our country 

afoaJQ, rabbit; a/oofi lia/ j^ the rabbit of the child 

i^ people; ign/Sn ffti the people of this village 

6m$!^ a cow; <iff^ Hi the cow of the king 

tabu plate ; tarn ikxn the plate of the girl 

mut(t neck; mune ^ean the neck of the cow. 

This nasalisation is caused by a nasal consonant, n, which is no doabt 
identical with the demonstrative n (vide 138), and has original^ the meaning 
''that^ : joffQ n pack ''the chief^ (namely) that of the village". There are some 
examples which show the n in existence at the present time : Zoti doth, tm 
^Bachg, the cloth of the woman ; here n is preserved, the u having dropped 
before it ; ri^ king, an older form rffj^ see 16 ; rs^ laf}(i the king of the people ; 
here the n is preserved, though the word ends in a consonant; this is 
generally not the case ; it is evident that after a vowel the n is easily 
preserved, jagu n pack offers no difficulty in pronouncing, but in words 
ending in a consonant the n was liable to disappear, the more so, as the 
consonant was voiceless, and n is voiced; thus ^h n ijdQ y dok ^do, but 
joffQ n ttlQ ) jan tjdg. This n has high tone. 

[This n^ originally probably always a demonstrative pronoun and serving 
to express the genetive relation, exists in a great number of central and 
eastern Sudan languages. In Di. it effects the same changes as in Shilluk, 
besides it is found in Nuba, Logons, Mandara, Ted&, and ako in Hanssa 

The ruling noun is a pluraL 
If the ruling noun is a plural, the n does not appear, but when the noun 
ends in a consonant, the 'helping voweV is suffixed to it When the plural 
ends in i, this i is generally preserved. A change of tone is to be noted here: 
while the plural-forming i (see 103} and the helping vowel have low tone in 
those cases where no genetive follows, they receive high tone when standing 
before a following genetive. This high tone mat probably indieates the lo$t 

The Pronoun 59 

geneUve-forming n, the sound n itself liaying disappeared, but its tone (see 
127) was perserved. — Examples: 

pack village, pL myffr; mysri fH villages of the king 

K^ house, pi. wh^; tD^t(rijl houses of the king 

yg ear, pL y^; yifi ky^ ears of the horse 

mqgq beer, pi. myfci; mikifofe wQn beers of our country 

oki^k blossom, pL bJ^k; bkikiyaj^ the blossoms of the tree 

a0p bag, pi. ^j^/>; ^p^ Mte ujHq the bags of the traveller 

k^h hunger, pi. kiM; kiM/o^e toQn the famines of our country 

jigit chief^ pi. jitk; jakifotfi wqn the chiefs of our country. 

In my materials I find one exception to this rule: gwbk^iibk dog; giibki 
jal ffu the dogs of this man ; but this may be a misunderstanding. 

The Objective Case. I 20. 

The direct object or accusative follows the verb : d ehdm byil he ate dura. 
Sometimes the particle hi "with*^ is added : d chAm hi byil he ate (with) dura. 
But when hi "and^ begins a sentence, the object always precedes the verb: 
ki bydi eham and dura ate (he). 

What in European languages is an indirect or dative object, the Shilluk 
transforms into a direct object, and what we would call the direct object, is in 
diis case always introduced by Ms instead of saying: ''he gave money to the 
child*', they say: "he presented the child with moneys : a tdeki Aal hi nysA. 

But in very many, probably in most cases the direct and indirect object are 
not expressed at all, the passive voice being used instead, "I saw him^ is 
expressed by "he was seen by me^ ; "he gave the child milk^ by "the child 
was given milk by him". — On the passive voice see 173. 

The Vocative Case 
is formed by lengthening the (last) vowel, by raising the tone, and sometimes 
by adding i "you'' : nhih man, ndii man I D&k a proper name, DAgi Dftk ! 



The Personal Pronoun. 

Connected Form, standing before the verb. 
This form is generally used as the subject of verbs. ] "^O* 

yA \ yt thou yi, i (b) he 

tod, t0i{ we wA you gi they. 

The forms are often pronounced with a short vowel, yi and i (sometimes ^, 
likewise tod and wi, are used promiscuously, but i, apparently the younger 

6o The Parts of Speech 

form, is employed more frequentlj than yi; h is seldom used; in the 3"^ person 
g^ also occurs, but it is very rare as a subject. Note that h and g^ have a low 
tone, but all other personal pronouns have a high tone. 
I 3 I • [It is at least remarkable that in two West Afirican Sudan languages the 

personal pronouns of the 3'^ pers. sing, are the same as in ShiUuk : Ewe 
i and voh^ Twi e and (In Ewe even the tones are equal to those in Shi.) ; 
Ewe makes some distinction in the use of i and ulby while in Shi. they 
seem to be employed at will. Gang too has e and o^ apparently widiout 
making any distinction between the two. 
On the form of the pronoun note the following remarks : 
The corresponding forms for the singular and the plural seem to have 
originally the same vowels, only yi and wi being different But besides 
yi^ yii also occurs, and in Nuer the possessive pron. of the 2"' pers. sing, 
is da (d is prefixed), so it seems probable that the original vowel was 
U9 which was assimilated by the palatal semivowel y and thus became t . 
This palatalization must, however, have taken place at an early period, 
as neighbouring languages — with the exception just stated — have i 
andyt for the 2^ pers. sing. So we get as primitive vowels of the personal 
pronoun : d, li, S, which were differentiated into singular and plural by 
certain prefixes. 

a) SinguUr. 

In all three persons the pronoun begins with y, but the 3*^ person has a ^ 
third form, which is not mentioned above: j'in (n marks the absolute form, 
see 132, so the form is properly yi)* T^ I regard as the older form of ^^ 
(on the change between y and y see 35); in Dinka and Nuer the pronoun 
of the first person is ya^ which is likewise the older form for Shilluk ya; 
firom this it is probable that the 2^ person also originally began with 7% 
though, as fur as I can see, it is nowhere retained. Thus we get these 
(hypothetical) primitive forms: ya^ pi, y^; a, u, ^ designating the persons, 
and y the singular. 

b) Plural. 

In plural all persons begin with to except gS. What is the origin of this gt 
In Nuer the i*^ pers. is kd, the third kSn and kyin, in«Dinka ke (probably 
k^) ; ki is evidently contracted firom kwa, see 22 ; analogous to this kyi 
may be derived from kws, {kw§, y ky^ see 32), and the 2^^ person, tcii, 
would be originally kum, but, as in the singular, here the hypothetical 
form seems nowhere preserved. So the primitive forms of the plural 
would be: kwa, kwu, kw^; a, u, s. again designating the persons and kw 
the plural. (As for the prefixing of k note that in Dinka the personal 

The Pronoun 


pronouns in the absolute form suffix a £/). — The evolution of gt in 
Shi. would then be thus: hot ^ %£ ^ ^£ ^ 9t' While in the first and second 
person the k before vo was dropped (see 46}, in the 3"^ pers. ikg turned 
into g^. The changing of a voiceless into a voiced consonant is not so 
uncommon in the Eastern Sudan languages, see 42 ; here the process 
was facilitated by gt being a much used word, whose pronunciation maj 
easilj be slighted. — Hence perhaps g^ ''he^ may also be explained. It 
maj be formed from the primitive pronoun h ''he'', by prefixing to it, in 
analogy with gi^ a g^ and to make the analogy perfect, the vowel h was 
also pronounced wide, that is ^^ in accordance with the t in gi* This is, 
indeed, a mere hypothesis, but it is supported by the fact that ^^ and h 
both have low tone, while all other personal pronouns have high tone.] 

Absolute Form. 
y6n I, me yin thou, thee ia^ y^ he, him g\t he, him 

Kuin, tiH^ we, us wHn you g^ they, them. 

These differ from the connected form only by a suffixed n; ^ and y^ are 
used promiscuously; ^^ occurs frequently as objective, but seldom as subjective 
pronoun. The suffixed n may be identical with the deictic n mentioned in 127 
et passim ; so that yin really means : "it is I''. 

These absolute or separable pronouns do not stand immediately before a 
verb, they are used when the person is to be emphasized. They are employed 
as subjective and objective alike. When they emphasize the subject, the 
connected form of the pronoun has to follow them : yin yi cMm (it was) I 
(diat) ate. 

The absolute pronouns may again be emphasized by adding i: yind, yini^ 
ifui. This has the meaning of "it is'', and is often used in addresses : ind Pieh" 
tdtt that is Fashoda; y{ndjtohk "thou art God" "o God". 

If a personal pronoun in the singular is connected with another pronoun or 
noun, the plural form is always used instead of the singular : wfi ki yin I and 
you; wH H fn^n you (sing.) with whom? 

Objective Form. 
It is suffixed to the verb. Example : stem chwQl to call. 

Conmion form. With more emphasis. 

i ckwitli^ he called me i chw^Ut yin or yanii 

i chwj^ll he caUed thee a ehwitlA yin or yinii 

d ehwitli he called him d ehtoi^lA in or ind 

d ehw^li win he caUed us d ehwi^ld win or wind 

d ehw^Ji win he called you d chw^li wHn or wiind 

d oAu^S gin he called them d ehw^ld gin or gind. 




The Parts o 






The first d is the sign of the past; in the second fonn Ae final a of the T^OTb 
marks the verb as being followed by an object. 

Note the change of the tone in the objectiye form. The objective farm has 
low tone, whereas the mbjective form hoe high toneJ 

Possessiye Form.' 

This form is ako always snflfixed. Example witt house pL w^H. 

w^dA my house 
witt win our house 
witd my houses 
loitH y^ our houses 

gw6git jnj dog 
gw6k win our dog 

g^kd my dogs 
giidki win our dogs 

widk thy house 
toitt win your house 
toitH thy houses 
wi^ win your houses 
gwbh pi. gibk dog. 
giobgi thy dog 
gwbk win your dog 
gi6kl thy dogs 

wft^ his hoaae 
wlttgin their houae 
wf^ his hooaea 
^Hffin their houaea. 

gw6gi his dog 
gw6k gin their dog 

gtidki his dogs 
gidkS gin their dogs. 

gidki win your dogs 
K the final consonant of the noun is a liquid or nasal, the w in w^ and ttmn 
is often ommitted: kal un your fence; ty^n un your people. 

If both the possessor and the thing possessed are a singular, the posaesstre 
pronoun has a middle tone, if either of them or both are a plural, tfie poaa. 
pr. has a high tone. 

In the connection of noun and pronoun the role given in 40 is to be ob- 
serred, as these examples show: 

jig^ chief^ jibMt my chief afoajn rabbit, afoaiAk my rabbit 
but in pi. : jtLk chiefs, jakd my chiefB afoachi rabbits, afoaehd mj rabbita. 
K the final vowel of the noun is u, it tarns into w; if u is the sole stem-vowel, 
a tr is inserted : fydu heart, fyiwA my heart ; nh lion, ntiiMi my lion. 

In some few cases the possessive pronoun is prefixed by r: ra my, ri thy eto. 
Before this r the final consonant of the noun drops : 

fiaZ boy iliara my boy paeh village para my village, etc. 

This r is a shortened form of r^ "body, self.** 

As the intonation shows certain irregularities in the connection of noana 
with possessive pronouns, some more examples may be given. 

6u^ my mats 
yifjd my ears 
kdfid my raininga 
Richd my dephaots 
oie^/xf my ba^i 
kfi^imd vaj chairs 
riehd my fishes 

* In Ewe €, the pronoun of the 3*^ pen. sing, has high tone, when subjectiTe, bnt low tone, 
when objectiTe; the same is the case in Tomba: 6ht^b him ; see Crowther page (4) and (8). 

* The suffixed subjectiTe form see 160. 

iwiff^ mat 

pi. Awif^; 

iw^ my mat; 

yit ear 

pi- yUi 

y^ my ear; 

ib^l rain 

pi. koj^i; 

kojjUt my raining; 

hftch elephant 

pi. IQeh; 

lyijit my eleph.; 

(k0p bag 

pi. hl^p; 

^M my bag; 

w)^ chair 

pi. hi^imi; 

kwfimiL my chair; 

rij2 fiflh 

pi. rich; 

riiiA my fish; 

The Pronoun 


yfi( neck 

hjoQcK leopard 

nik lion 

rjl king 

hVtik blossom 

pi. yi^i 
pi. hwaiiii 
pL nuvai; 
pi. t6t; 
pi. dil^ik; 

yiJ^ my neck; yiifSwin our necks 
kwiji my leopard; kwi^d my leopards 
n&v>i my lion ; nUtod my lions 

tq^ my king; rdr^i mj kings 

bkitffi my flower; bi^kd my flowers. 
In all personal pronouns the singular is not unfrequently used instead of the 
plural of the corresponding person. 

Sometimes the possessive pronoun of the j^ person sing, is employed instead 
of the first plural, chiefly in names of relatives: wan^ "his" and "our" grand- 

The possessive pronoun can also be affixed to an adjective : wii U bind 
(instead bgn um) have all of you come ? 

Some much used nouns have shortened forms, when they are connected with 
possessive pronouns : 

md mother 
mdyd my mother 
mdf/i thy mother 
m^ his mother 
tnJiy v>in our mother 
fniy wdn (mayu) your mother 
^y y^ their mother 

wtch father 
wiyd my father 
w6u tl^ father 
win his father 
v4, our father 
wiy wun your father 
wiy gin their father 
^dh cow 
<ji& my cow 
^ (JH) thy cow 
di his cow 
dnd brother 
Amid my brother 
6miiu thy brother 
6min his brother 
6nii our brother 
6mi vm your brother 
indgin their brother 

mi mother 
mia my mother 
miu thy mother 
min his mother 
lidmi sister 
Mmid my sister 
^dmiiu thy sister 
lidmin his sister 
fiamt yi wiin sister 
liami yi urtin sister 

ikamiyigin sister. 
The ^ in to^n, om-^ etc. is the absolute pronnn in he. 

rg body, self 

rea myself re yi wgn ourselves 

m thyself re yi wun yourselves 

rt himself ^^yig^n themselves. 

In names of relatives the possessive pronoun of the 2^^ person sing, (and 
plural) is generally u, wu: 

64 The Parts of Speech 

ktodyu your grand&iher mayu your mother mtu your mother. 

I "^ 'T , The PoBsessiye Pronoun as a Substantiye. 

It is formed by the help ofmS pi. m^k or ffln pi. glk; gin is "diing^, me 
probably has a similar meaning. 

Singular of the thing possessed : 

mii mine mH thine t7i| his 

mii (me yi) win ours mH w&n yours mii gin theirs 

gin6. mine gini thine gint his 

glfii win ours glni wtin yours glni gin theirs. 

Plural of the thing possessed: 
mikd^ mine mi tain ours glki win ours glkd mine. 


Demonstratiye Pronouns. 

In connecting nouns in the singular with demonstratiye pronouns, &e rule 
described in 40 obtains, witfi the one difference howeyer, that here not onfy 
the nouns ending in a yowel change their last (mute) consonant, but also tfie 
nouns whose final sound is a mute consonant; accordingly the rule giy^en in 
40 is to be enlarged thus : final g2 and ky n, JQ and ehy li, dn and t^ n, f^Q, 
and iy j^ bQ and /> ) m. 

These consonant changes, toithout any further addition, represent the simplest 
form of the demonstrative pronoun. The changes are no doubt caused by suflEbK- 
ing an n, which possesses a demonstratiye power. It is employed in nouns 
ending in a mute consonant or in gq, JQ» do, io, bq^ ^^7^ *t l^ei^ I have not 
heard it used in others (as for instance in jal "man**, which would become 
*jaln or rather ^an, see 44}. 

The meaning of this primitiye form is a reference to a person or object jusi 
mentioned or just spoken of It has somewhat the character of the definite artide 
in English (as in such a sentence : we saw a man walking in the bush ; the man 
called to us). 

gwok dog, gwon the (identical) dog, the dog just spoken of 

jagu chief^ jan the chief just mentioned 

mooA fire, md,ii the fire just mentioned, this fire 

liJQ, tooth, ^ the tooth just spoken of^ this tooth 

wQt house, w^ the house just spoken of^ this house 

yi^p tail, yigm the tail just spoken of^ this taO, etc. 

tysn fofi the people of this country, firom fofe 
tyffi wgn the people of this house, firom wgt 

' it^gd alio it heard. 

The Pronoun 


yift gwdii the hair of this dog, from gwok 
jfiie yaf^ the leaves of this tree, from ya| 
lA place, kAn this place, here 

^uhi to-morrow, ^tui this to-morrow, the next day. 
Besides these the Shi. has several demonstrative pronomis denoting different 
distances between the speaker and the person or object spoken o£ 
Singular: bn this, ini that, d«Ad that over there. 

Floral: ik, itn, itgitk these, ini those, dtcM those over there, dn and ini are 
probably of the same origin; % was suffixed to an; a has become ^ by assi- 
milation to i; see 26.' Note the difference of tone, the low tone designatbg 
the object near by, the high tone that one in some distance. 

To mark a great distance, they use chini; this is pronounced with an exceed- 
ingly high tone, and the last vowel may be lengthened at will, according to the 
greatness of the distance. 

Be it noted that according to 138 the changes of the final consonants take 
place only in singular, never in plural ; in the plural the final mute consonants 
are always to be pronounced voiceless, that is as a real k, ch, t, i p. 

Some examples of nouns connected with demonstrative pronouns (The in- 
tonation-marks in my materials are incomplete here). 
jitg^ chief; jin dm this chief, 

jin ini that chief, jUk chiefs ; 

jlUc ok these chiefs, jik ini those chiefs, 

jin ikchh the chief over there jik hchii the chiefs over there 

ajwqn an this sorcerer 
djw^k hk pi. 
chwan dm; pi. chxoak; chwak itk 
kwiii dn; pi. kwaiiif kwiii iJc 
if6bih dn;.pl. afoachi; if6hoh bk 
rij^ dn; pi. rdr; r6r dk 
kiif^ dn; pi. k6j^ djfc 
yfodn; pl.yij5;yj|d* 
h0m dn; pi. a:f^p; a0p dJ: 
^ne chini the day after to-morrow 
dwif^ dm, 6wi^ ini pi. 6u^; 6w^ ini, itoti deAd 
^ dn. 
The last example, though virtually a plural, is treated as a singular. 
Nouns ending in other consonants or in vowels, have no changes : 
rffr kings; rdr iik these kings g\n thing; gin hn this thing 

IM war; IM hn this war p\ water; pi dn this water. 

i^wigd sorcerer; 
djw^k pi.; 
ehwak voice; 
kwaeh leopard; 
ofoajn hare 


Jfc^jf rain 

yfi ear; 
djjp bag; 
jtuki to-morrow, 
6wi{ a mat; 
t|d^ people; 



' It It, howerer, difficult to cHutingqfih the beginning Towels in dn and ini; dn lomettmes loundt 
(in or erea <n> and ffni if lometimes heard at (tm. 

WBSTBBMAinr, Th« Bhfllvk P^opla. 5 

66 The Parts of Speech 

\A\^ The demonstrative pronoun standing for a noun. 

min an this one mik hk these ones. 

, Interrogative Pronouns. 

1 A,2. They imply the same consonant-changes as the demonstratiyes PronounB. 

inlt what, which? pi. oAq; on this plural see 124. 
A which? 
am^ (also dmin) who ? pi. imik (dmik). 

Examples : Singular. 

ogwQJk jackal; A ogwgn init which jackal is it? 

If/sch elephant; A It/ffi An^ which elephant is it? 

w(^ house ; A wgn An^ which house is it? 

t/ai tree; A yaf^ Anit which tree is it? 

rjj[ king; A r^j^ Antt which king is it? 

af^p hag; A aj^ An^ which hag is it? 

gin thing; A gin Antt which thing is it, what is it? 

< Plural. 

143. In the plural the final mute consonants are always to he pronounced voice^ 

less, diat is as a real k, ch, t, f^ p; see 139. 

wQti houses; A witt in^ which houses are they? 

ror kings; A ror init which kings are they? 

t/sri trees; A ysr^ in^ which trees are they? 

igW^ jackals; A oggk tn^ which jackals are they? 

a^p bags; A a^p inbi which bags are they? 

ly^h elephants; A lyich in^ which elephants are they? 
gik things; A gik in^ which things are diey? 

i^min A 6i who has come ? 
amik A bl who. have come ? 
jal amin which man? 
JQk arnqk which men ? 
I A A. amhi A d whri yin? who (is it that) sent you? 

wA yMi mind whom shall we elect? [this? 

wgn an A wQt m&i this house is house whose? whose house is 
wgt ak A togti rnqk whose houses are these ? 

won t which house? r^f^ & which king? 

ogtffQn t which fox? igW^i ^ which foxes? 

m4n (am^n) and probably also & are no original interrogatiye pronouns, but 
are demonstratiyes ; see min in this sense 141 ; A is probably the deictic element 

The Pronoun ^ 

"it is'', see 196; budi both are in the same time employed as inteirogatiye, 
and m^ even as a relative, see 145 ; originally it was : "this man \^ and then, 
just as in English: "this man?** likewise: "it is a tree I** and: "it is a tree?" 
Here not even the position of the words is changed, but only their i(m€i j^^ 
so in Shilltik; only the changing of tone goes the opposite way, the interrogatiye 
tone being lotv; see 206. 

Relative Pronouns. 

a) What we express by a relative sentence, the Shilluk generally says in a I 45« 
simple sentence. Instead of saying : "the man who came yesterday, was my 

father*' they say : "the man came yesterday, he was my father^ ; (compare 
the English "the man I saw" instead of "the man whom I saw*'). 

jal d M dwa the man came yesterday, or : the man who came yester- 
day ; d is not a relative pronoun, but a particle denoting 
the past tense ; 
tdQt a giri win the house (which) was built by us ; 
^li a nikk yi i^ the cow (which) was killed by the people. 

b) Id a similar sense mSn is employed; m^ is "this, this one**, see 141, but it 
serves also in expressing relative sentences: 

yet fi dwdtd min i Ibjhs y^ dwdid min h thr literally : "I do not want this 
one, it is black, I want this one, it is white** that is : "I do not want the one 
which is black, I want the one which is white**. 

min may also be employed in a local sense : e mQ^ pi, m4n ^^ l^^n bogon 
he drank water in a place, where there was no grass. 

c) A real relative pronoun seems to be md who, which : 

jal md bi the man who came k^i md bin the time which comes. 

But this has rather the meaning of a participle : the coming time, the man 
having come. It is firequently used in connection with adjectives, see 149. 

The Reflexive Pronoun. 

It is formed with the help of ri pi. rei "body**. I AO. 

rM my body, that is: myself 
rii iky body, that is : thyself 
ri his body, that is : himself 
rii toin our body, that is : ourselves 
rii unin your body, diat is : yourselves 
rii ff^ their body, that is : themselves 
d neka ri he killed himself 


68 The Parts of Speech 

gi neka rei gin they killed thenuelTea. 
They say abo: 

a neka ehwakg he lulled bu throat : himself. 
"I myself" it expresied in a similar way: 

d gwiki yA ki rM "it was done, I with my body" : I myself did it; 
d gwiH t/t k{rii "it was done, yoa with your body" : yon yourself did it ; 
d gw^ki i iiri he himself did it 
d gxe^hi voi kf rei w^ we ourselTes did it 
d gw^ki vm k( rei min yon yourselves did it 
d gw^ki gi Hrei gin they themselves did it 
or with k^ "alone" : 

d gwiki yd k^fi I did it myself 
d gviH yt iijA yon did it yourself 
d gw^ki ^ j^ he did it himself 
d gwdki wjf 1^ wiin we did it ourselves 
d gwiH tei ic^ teun yon did it yonrselveB 
d gw^ki gi kiti gin they did it themselves. 
This has also the meaning: I did it alone. 
And : yd kf ehtodkd I with my diroat : I myself; yi ki cKteaki etc. 

The Reciprooal Pronoun. 

I 47' wifota rei wf!n we beat each other 

gifota rei gin tliey beat each other. 


I A.O. Most adjectives do not distinguish between aingTiUi- jmd plural, there are, 

however, a few which have different forms for both, and, what is very remark- 
able, the plural always has the eoding q, which, in the noun, is the specific 
ending of the singular. 

dii^n pi. (^n^ big, great (tff pi. ^^ small, litde 

ehyek pi. chyikii short bar pi. i^r^, birii long 

r^h pi. r^A^ bad. 

Note tiiat all tiie ploral-forms have low tooe, and some, whose vowel in sin- 
gular is short, have a loDg vowel, see i lo. 

Uany adjectives have two forms, one denoting the gradual entering of & 
state, tiie growing into a state, and the second denoting the accomplished state. 

The Adjective 


{^fi^ becoming big, growing up ; M^ big, great, grown up 

riii^ acting badlj, growing bad; rhoh bad 

Vtf^ becoming hot, feeling not ; ^ hot. 

When adjectives are connected with nouns, the final consonant of the noun 
ondei^oes the changes described in 138. 

In this connection, however, the adjective maj be prefixed bj the relative 
pronoun mi (often m^) ''which*', in this case no changes take place ; but it is 
to be noted that htfort md the final amsonant of the noun i$, contrary to the 
rule in 107, to be pronounced voiced, whereas in all other connections the voice- 
less consonant is the characteristic of the plural. This deviation firom the common 
rule is analogous to the fact stated above, that the plural form of the adjective 
has Ae ending of the singular of nouns. In order to set forth the difference 
between the form without md and that with md, in the following examples the 
▼oiced final consonant is written voiced (contrary to the rule 38). 

Note : md (mi) has always distinctly high tone. The adjectives with md 
are in their meaning more emphatic than those without md: duQn large, 
madugn very large, large indeed. 

«0Si house pi. wi^ 

ya| tree pi. y^^. 

rl| king pL rdr. 

a0p bag pL a^p. 

bkik flower pi. j^lik. 

hf^h elephant pi. Uich 

ffwbk dog pi. ffiibk. 

WQn dfi^n big house 
wQd mddu^ big house 

yajft j^jft small tree 
y<i§ md^ small tree 

rff9 dieh good 
rif mddieh good king 

h0m liteh broad bag 
a0b mdldich broad bag 

(^ifc^i kuArii red flower 
bhitg mdhotrh red flower 

lyffi lijb black elephant 
fyej mdUji black elephant 

ffufbn ti^r white dog 
ffwbg mdtdr white dog 

muffii beer pL mgky m^ki. mitn mit sweet beer 

m^g mdmit sweet beer 


yifi b& bitter leaf 
yi4 mdbil bitter leaf 

pi. w^ii ditnb 
pi. togdmdd^ikit 

pi. y6? fnd^ 

pi. r6r dieh \mddieh 
pi. fir mddieh, or 

pi. a^p lichb 
pi. a0b mdlhchb 

pi. bl^H ka&rii 
pi. hl^ mdkwdr^ 

pi. Uechi tojn 
pi. liij mdttjh 

pi. guoli thr 
pL gu6g mdtdr 

pi. fn^ilj m^ 
pi. mofci mdmit 

pL yih* bil 
pi. y^ nMil 



70 The Parts of Speech 

reJQ fish pi rech, reehi reti chy^k short fish pi. riehi ehy^hn 

rej mdchy^k short fish pi. rej maehy^ 

yei, neck pi. yiti. y^ bar long neck pi. yi§ie bar^ (berq) 

y^ mdbir long neck pi. yi^d mdb^r^ 

tijh tooth pi. l^k. Isfi tar white tooth pi. l^H tar 

lij mdtdr white tooth pi. l^ mdtdr 

yQ road pi. y?|. yu toch narrow road pL yeffi toeh 

yq matoeh narrow road pi. yed matoeh, 
I Co. ^ the connections without ma may have two meanings, vis. i"^ attii- 

bntive, as they are rendered above: a big house, etc.; 2^ predicative^ the 
house is biff etc., that is, the adjectives have the quality of verbs, and are treat- 
^ as such, they may be conjugated like any verb ; but the adjectives wilh 
md are only used in an attributive sense. 


I C I . The means of comparing an object with another are rather scanty, the people 

not feeling the need of comparison as we do. They simply say : this thing is 
big, and that one is not big, or: is a litde big. 

a) The most common way of expressing a higher degree of quality or quantity 
is to lengthen the vowel, and at the same time to raise die tone. 

But generally this is only possible in words which have the hi^ or niiddle 
tone, not with the low-toned ones ; with diese the low tone is so essentially 
connected that a high tone would be incompatible with diem. Examples ot 
adjectives whose tone may be raised, are : dich good, fftr many, j^ small, 
tdeh narrow. 

b) Words with low tone may be intensified in their meaning by still lowering 
their tone, as for instance riu^h bad, d^n^ big, niii^ much, many. 

Other means for expressing a higher degree of an adjective are: 

c) lengthening of a vowel only: m^ sweet, m^ very sweet; netiQ many (the 
first vowel to be lengthened). 

d) repetition of the adjective : rich bad, riteh rdch very bad. In these repetitions 
generally the vowel in the second word is long. 

e) the word is repeated and the second gets the prefix ma: dich mddieh "good 
which is (really) good** : very good, exceedingly good. 

f) **rach** is very much used in this sense ; e. g. raeh k( d^ch '^bad with good- 
ness** that is: exceedingly good; rach M ht^ ''bad with being &r^: very, 
very &x. 

The Numerals 


g) by adding tiT^Jb "oatside" : j^ xogk "small outside*', that is "small beyond 
anything'', very, very small. 

h) chliTy ehdr^ "very** may be added. 

i) by fo^ "to surpass'*; this form together with those under k expresses a real 
comparison : j/i dd ^k md/df ditk pt/dr^ "be has cows surpassing cows ten" : 
he has more than ten cows ; ji d |(^, gi jidi ji ddik "people died, they sur- 
passed people three" : more than three people died. 

k) rini d mal, rind yh chdn "his years are above, my years are behind" : he 
is older than I; 

yd miild b^n i t$k "I was first coming he was absent" : I came earlier than he; 
ba duQn ni ydn (he is) not (so) old as I. 


Cardinal Numbers. 

dky^l I dry^ 


ddik 3 dnw^ 


dbich 5 dbtkytl 


dbiryiu 7 dbtdik 


dbSnto^ 9 pydrjt 


pydrlt wiy dky^l 


pydri wiy dry^u 


pydr^ wiy ddik 


pydri wiy dnwtn 


pydrtt wiy dbich 


pydrj^ wiy dbiky^l 


pydr^ wiy dbiryau 


pyhr^ toiy dbidik 


pyHrh wiy dbinw^ 


pydr dry^u 


pydr dry^u wiy ki dhf^l 


pydr dry^ wiy k( dryiu 


pyar ddik 


pyar dnwtn 


pyar dbich 


pyar dbtky^l 


pyar dbiry^u 


pyar dbidSk 


pyar dbinw^n 




pydr pydr wiy H dky^l 


Only the nnmerals from oHe to five and ten are primitiye, all the rest are 
compositionB. The beginning d in the names for one to five is seeondaiy, and 
if probably identical with i "it is" ; the ordinal numbers do not haye it. Mark 
Ae mechanical intonation in the numbers from one to four, pydrjt pL py&r is a 
•ubstantiTel dbtkytl is of course 5 + i ; pyarn wiy akysl means "ten, on its 
head one" i. e. ten, added to it one ; this is still more eyident in the. following 
forms, which are also used: pydrh wiji dii dkyil "ten, its head has one", or: 
pyArh wiy hi dkyH "ten, (its) head witfi one". 



72 The Parts of Speech 

The numeral follows the noon : tc^^ iry^u two housee ; often ga "copy^ is 
inserted between both : chbn gd pt/arQ ten dajs. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

I 54* 1^^7 ^'^ rarely used. Lot forming them the prefix d is dropped and die 

simple stem is used, witfi the exception of "the first^, which is formed from 
mal "aboye**. 

iimdlj^ the first ry^ the second d^k, dik the third 

fi«0!^ the fourth bteh Ae fiftii py^rft the tenth. 


I 3 3 * ^^ '^^^ ^f ^^ ^^^ ^B uniform. It always consists in a consonant, a Towd, and 

a consonant, or a consonant, a semivowel, a vowel, and a consonant But die 
sounds of the stem may undergo certain changes, on which see 187. 


Conjugation of the Verb, 

The verb has two principal modes or tenses: 

1 . The Present Tense. This denotes an action as going on, as being done just 
now, as one not yet finished. This action may be going on in the present as 
well as in the past or future ; the emphasis does not He on lAe Hme^ but on 
the fact that the action is notfrnished^ but is being done, it "has not become'', 
but "is becoming*'. 

Oeneralty the Present in Shilluk corresponds to the En|^ish Present, but 
it may also describe the Past or the EHiture : "I am goings, "I was going'', 
"I shall be going". 

2. The Perfect denotes the action as complete, it describes that which "has 
become", a state, an accomplished fact. Whfle the Present meant: "he is 
going" the Perfect is: "he is gone", "he is away". 

[These same two tenses with exactly the same meanings are found in the 
Semitic languages, they are there called Imperfect and Perfect. I have 
retained the name "Present" because it is introduced already, and a new 
term might lead to confusion. In these two forms there is another con- 
formity between Shilluk and Semitic languages : in Hebrew the verb in 
the Imperfect (= Shilluk Present) is always preceded by the subject, in 
die Perfect die subjective pronoun follows die verb ; in Shilluk die verb 

The Verb 73 

in the Present (= Hebrew Imperfect) is preceded by the snbject, in the 
Perfect the snbjectiye pronoun or noun may precede or follow the yerb. 
In Nama (Hottentott) and FnUblde, two Hamitic languages, the subject 
may also precede or foDow the verb.] 
Besides these two the rerb has the following modes: 

3. The Future; 

4. The Habitual; it denotes action which is done repeatedly, usually, habitu- 
alfy^i either in the Present or in the Past. 

5. The Lnperatiye. 

6. The Verbal Noun; is a real noun, corresponding to the English "going**, 

7. The Noun Agent; denotes the doer of die action expressed in die yerb* 
There are two forms, one for expressing an occasional, and the other the 
habitual doer. 

8. The Passive Voice. 

Examples showing the conjugation of the verb. ^^7* 

The Verb without an Object. 
Stem: cham to eat. 

yi ehdm^ I am eating yf ch&mjt you (s.) are eating 

i (yi) chdm^ he is eating id chiMilt we are eating 

wi ehdmtt you are eating gi ehdmtt they are eating. 

The verb in the present always ends in 2; this 2 is sounded very faintly, 
see 2. 

Nearly all verbs have in the present exactly the same form : the first vowel 
is long, and both syllables have a low tone. There are only a few exceptions 
to tfiis rule, viz. 

a) the first vowel may be short; in this case the vowel is often high: ki^ to 
go ; but at the same time : idj^ to go ; ry^ to come forth. 

b) tiie first voweL being long, may have the fSalling tone ; in connection with it 
the second vowel has sometimes middle, but generally low, tone : gwHikiit to 
dig, gtlii to be vexed. As this is the form and intonation of the infinitive 
(see 170) these "present forms** may properly be infinitives, these having 
taken the place of the low-toned present tense. 

In most cases the second consonant, if mute, is voiced. 
A second form of the jwesent tense is formed by putting dk between the 
subject and die verb : 

yi di ehAmi I am (or was) engaged in eating, I have been eating. 



74 ^^^ Parts of Speech 

r/i chdm I ate t/A kif^ I went 

yf chitm you ate t/t kif you went 

d chdm he ate d kif^ he went 

tr^i^ tiTii^ ffi chdm we, yon, they ate toiy wA gikii^ we, you, they went 

r/d n^ I laughed tod t^^ we laughed 

yt n^ you laughed trii nt^ you lauded 

cf nijji he laughed g^ li^i they lauded. 

Characteristics of the Perfect are: 

1. the vowel d; appears in the 3*^ p. sing, only; the personal pronoun is then 

2. the final vowel s is dropped. 

3. With a few exceptions the second (mute) consonant, which in most cases is 
voiced in the Present, becomes voiceless. 

4. The Perfect ends either in the second consonant, or the vowel t is added 
to the stem. 

5. As a rule the tone of the stem-vowel is low; the vowel has, however, not 
unfrequently a high or falling tone. 

6. On vowel- and consonant-changes in the Perfect vide below 182, 187. 

7. WhUe in the Present the subject, whether noun or pronoun, always precedes 
the verb, in the Perfect the subjective noun or pronoun may follow the verb, 
and very often does so. In this case the tone on both syllables, that is on 
verb and noun, is high, in the singular; where the suffixed pronoun is a 
single vowel, the final vowel of the verb, if there is one, is dropped ; in the 
plural a final vowel of the verb is preserved ; if the verb ends in a mute 
consonant, and has no final vowel, the ''helping vowel** is sometimes inserted; 
the same is the case when the subject is a noun beginning in a mute consonant 

This form retains a, the sign of the Imperfect, through all persons, btU iu tone 
is loto (contrast-tone, see 59). — The second consonant, if mute, becomes 
voiced again, except where the helping vowel is inserted. 

d rind I ran i rfni you ran 

. d, rtni he ran a rin wd we ran 

h rin wfi yon ran a rin gi they ran 

a nigd I killed h M^ I went 

h chwiU you called b, gwidi he wrote. 

Kthe subject is a noun, sometimes the helping vowel is added to Ae verb, 
and sometimes not: 

it kii obtooii the stranger went; d ki( dpjOQj^ the hyena went; 

hgichi rjl the king struck; a b§n lial the boy came 

The Verb 7$ 

bat: lial e hino the boy is coming obwoii e k^do the stranger is going. 

Sometimes the sabjective noun is placed at the head, the corresponding 
subjectiye pronoun following the verb : 

daj^ k^ a tjitoi a man^ when he dies : when a man dies. 
8. Verbs who have instead of the second consonant a semivowel. 

a) y. No % is added in the Perfect. The y unites with the preceding vowel to 
a diphthong: toyq to pierce, perfect tot. 

b) t^. Here likewise generallj no i is added : tlSV^q to die, perfect j(^u (also 
1^). n^wQ to trade, perfect n^u, seldom n^wi. 

Sometimes the subjective pronoun is employed twice, before and behind I OO. 
the verb; for the last not the suffixed, but the emphatic or the subjective form 
are used ; note the changes of the tone ! 

yirigwdlyln why [r«] are you Srigwhli^ why is he (so) thin? 

(so) thin? «ni ri gwdl iin why are you (pi.) 

jF^r^^wAZ^^ why are they (so) (so) thin? 

thin? i/{ ri-k^ or: k4d£ why did you go ? 

i r^ k^di why did he go ? nm rh ki^iin why did you go ? 

wd bin iodt we came gi bin' g^ they came 

gi k44 ffi f^ where did they go? wi k^ wu kifi, where did you go? ^ 

K ki "and" introduces a sentence, the subject, if a pronoun, always follows I I • 
die verb, and the object always precedes the verb. 

kA kyhi gijd and I struck the hi ky^ g^{ and you struck the 

horse horse. 

The characteristic of die Future is the particle u, ' which is placed before die I O 2 • 
verb. In most cases the present form of the verb is used, but not unfrequently 
that of the Perfect as well, but in this last case with a slight changing of tone: 
if the tone is low in the Perfect, it becomes middle in the Future. 

yi i ehhmit I shall eat wA H chdmit we shall eat 

Si4» or yA ehdmii you will eat ujA chdmit you will eat 

i chdmin he will eat giu chd,m^ they will eat 

yi i li^i I shall laugh wiiki^ yire shall go. 

As the Present, so too the Future has a second form, with dk placed between 
pronoun and verb \ yii dk chtm^ I shall eat. There may be (or at least may 
have been) a difference of meaning between the two forms, but I have found 

Habitual. ^ 

The Habitual is formed by putting the auxiliary verb M, "to use to" between I O "^ . 
subject and the Present form of the verb. 

' In Matai the Fatnre if formed by iuffiziiig u. HoBIt f»«ge 59. 

76 The Parts of Speech 

t/i M chdm^ I use or used to eat gi M h^f^ they use or used to 

i M gti^4i^ he OBOB or used to write. go 


pi. ehAmUn eat! > pi. ki^n go! cAdm u^ let us eat! 

kii t^^ Jfc^ wltn let OB go! eA^n^ be quiet! jiLehitnUn be quiet 
^ In the Bingular i, the Bufifix of the 2^ p., may be added or not. 

lO^, The Verb with a Noun aB Object 

The Bocond vowel receives a middle tone. 
j/i ehAmit hfil I am (or was) eating dura* 

y^ Hiit gat I am (or was) going to the river-bank. 
/:z: Perfect. 

I OO. If the Perfect ends in h thiB i is retained, if it ends in a consonant, an a, 

in some cases %, u added. I am not quite clear as to the tones; ^a^ ahrays 
seems to have a low tone, "i** has sometimes a middle, sometimes also a low 

yi ehdmh hyil I ate dura yi Ai^ hwqf I heard a talk 

y^t kiih paeh I went home yi mif^ (^^''^^4^) pi I drank water. 

^ Future, 

I O^ • The final vowel has a middle tone. 

yi i chtimit hyil I shall eat dura yi. i ki^ paeh I shall go home. 

I 00« Follows the rules of the Present 

I OQ, In the 2^ p. sing, almost always i is added; the 2*^ p. pL has a suflSxed 

instead of un. 

hhwki htAl I ®** ^^"* ' P^' eMmu byil eat dura ! 

chdm wd byil let us eat dura! nek wd lUnf^jn let us kill a calf! 

k^ wd pack let us go home ! ma^ wd pi let us drink water! 

Verbal Noun (Infinitive). 
The Verbal Noun occurs in two chief forms: 

a) without the final vowel ; the stem-vowel has a middle tone ; 

b) with Ae final vowel q; the stem-vowel has a falling, and the final vowel a 
low tone. 

Deviations firom this rule do occur, but are not firequent Sometimes a 
semivowel occurs. Examples : 

yA gttgh I mu working n. g^k working 

* This u% iB of eovTM the pertonal pronoun of the sooond ponon plniaL 



gwit writing 


chwiii calling 


nek killing 


rdm^ thinking 


iHbit cheating 


nA{ drinking. 

The Verb yj 

yi, gy^iit I mq writing 
yi chwitUt I Am calling 
yi nigjt I ani killing 
yi rUmit I am thinking 
yi Uibit I am cheating 
yi md^ I am drinking 
In adding a genetive, or an adjective pronoun to the verbal noon, the 
changes described in 138 occur: gtotn dn this working. 

Noun Agent, 
The language distinguishes two kinds of noun agent one for the person who I ^ I • 
does something just now or occasionally, the other denoting the habitual doer 
of the action. 

The first is formed hj a connection of words which is really a sentence : nan 
^ g^2 "this man is working'' (see 83), nate -|- the demonstrative n is connected 
with the present tense of the verb; this means "one who is working just now**. 
In Ae second form note witfiout a pronoun is combined with the verbal noun: 
note gwijk "a man of working'', a man whose habit or calling it is to work, a 

nan e rnQfjiQ ^ ix^^n drinking just now 

note nA{ one who drinks habitually, a drinker. 
The Passive Voice. 
The Shilluk forms a Passive Voice, whose chief characteristic is the high-low 1^2, 
(the falling), and in some cases the high tone. It consists merely in the stem, 
no final vowel being added. The stem-vowel is a Etde shorterthan in the Present 
and Perfect, it may be described as half-long, but is marked as short in this 
book. In some cases a semivowel is inserted between die first consonant and 
the vowel. 

Probably the Passive Voice was originally an intransitive form of the verb, I 7 3 * 
denoting a state: firom g^gq to work, gwgk "worked", d gw$k "it is worked" ; 
ehdmit to eat, ehdm "eaten" ; bysl d chdm the dura is eaten, properly "is an 
eaten one" ; fbdj^ to beat, fwSt "beaten", "a beaten one" ; so we can hardly 
•peak of passive tenses, it is rather a mood, an accomplished condition or 
situation. But nevertheless the form cleariy conveys the meaning of a real 
Passive, which is best shown by the fact that the doer of the action is added 
to the verb, so its grammatical construction corresponds exactly to that of the 
Passive in European languages; sometimes, though not frequently, even a 
Future of Ae Passive is formed by prefixing i. 

The doer of the action may be expressed by f noun, or by a pronoun, 
a) by a noun. 174* 


78 The Parts of Speech 

Here always y\ "by** is added : 

hy&i a chdm y\ jdl ini the dura was eaten by this man 
ilial d fw6t yi jtigh the boy was beaten by the chief. 
The original meaning of yi "by** is not known; perhaps it is some deictic 
pronoun "it is** : "he was beaten it is the chiefs (who did it) ; it can be 
identical with yl "towards". 
b) by an absolute pronoun. 

The ^helping voweP is added to the verb. In this case the stem-vowel has 
a high tone, the 'helping vowel' being low. Perhaps the 'helping vowel' here 
is the shortened yi. 

d chdmi ydn it was eaten by me d chdmi yin it was eaten by you 

d chdmi gin it was eaten by them. 
^ Sometimes yi is also used here : d chdm yi ^ it was eaten by him. 

I/O. c) by Ae sufiBxed pronoun. 

Here a very peculiar distinction between singular and plural is made : for 
both numbers the pronouns of the singular are used, but if the doers are a 
plurality of persons, die last consonant of the verb becomes voiceless ; Ihia 
is of course only possible in verbs ending in a mute consonant ; in the rest 
no distinction is made ; but if a distinction seems necessary here, the plural 
of the pronoun may be employed. 

d gw$gh it was worked by me, d gwQki it was worked by us 

d hwQbh it was spoken by me, d kw$pa it was spoken by us 

d md^ it was drunk by me, d mdtd. it was drunk by us 

d gw^ it was written by you sing., d gw§$, it was written by you, pi. 

d le^ it was seen by him, d IS^ it was seen by them. 

[The verbs following in their intonation the rule demonstrated here, are 
in the majority; but besides them some examples have been written 
down by me which deviate in their tones : 

d chw^la he was called by me, d lu^gh it was washed by me, 

d n^jdd it was cut by me, d l\nd it was heard by me, 

d ndgd it was killed by me. 
But these are possibly misunderstandings.] 
Ijj. Most foreigners have considerable difficulties in distinguishing the active 

voice from the passive, the difference between both lying in most cases solely 
in the intonation. Misunderstandings are easily possible, where the imperfect 
(active) has a high tone, as ySt^ to find. — The natives generally prefer to speak 
in the passive voice; therefore the foreigner can best avoid misunderstandings 
by using the passive voice as much as possible and by supposing that what a 
native tells him, to be passive, and not active. 

The Verb 79 

The chief characteristics of the passive have been given above; the following ^Tl 3L. 
examples maj serve to illustrate the difference in sounds and intonation between 
active and passive : 

yef gichb,]al an I beat this man 
yA gQchyijal an I was beaten bj this man 
yi gflchh yin I beat you 
yi gichh yin I was beaten hj jou 
yA chama niti I cheated somebody 
yi chdm yi nhti I was cheated by somebody 
d chdmh ydn he cheated me 
a chdmi ydn he was cheated by me 
yi chcUmi in I cheated him 
yi ehdmi in or ylin I was cheated by him 
d chw^li fial he called the child 
d chw^lyi lial he was called by the child. 

Doubling of a Verb. 
In order to intensify the meaning of a verb, it can be doubled; examples I ^O* 
for tiiis have been given in 75 ; a particular kind of doubling a verb is this : 
the verb is pronounced twice, the first being high toned on its first syllable, 
the second being low toned on both syllables: 
yi chim^ chdmit I shall surely eat; 

yi niga nig^ I shall surely kill you ; 
yi chdmi chhm^i you will by all means be eaten. 
Different tones has : d dbyi ddyi it increased gradually, by and by. Mark the 
long vowel in the second verb. 

Change of Sounds in Verbs. 

Many verbs undergo certain changes of sounds in tiieir conjugation, these I 7Q* 
have not been treated iu the preceding pages. 
The changes may be classified thus : 

a) changes in the second consonant. 

b) changes in the stem-vowel. 

c) changes in tiie semivowel preceding the stem-vowel. 

a) Changes in the second consonant. ^ 

The second consonant, if mute, may change in the perfect, passive and verbal 1 oO« 
noun. Not all mute consonants change, and in some the form with a changed 
consonant is employed besides tiie unchanged form, both having exactiy the 
same meaning. There is no rule to show when the second consonant does 
change, and when not. 



The Parts of Speech 

The Verb 














8 ^ 




HOI 5. 




^ 1 





















































t£ M> 





401 »0 

'^;8i 5»i 














^ Pk 



WmBRJfAKK, Tk« SkiHak Pe(»ple. 



e Parts of Speech 




Verbal Noon 


batQ to throw 

d hula gin 


btulQ to roast 

d but, or d bul 


chudq to compensate 

d ekau d chSl 


chwQtQ to call 

d chwQta,^ d chwdla 


dodn to brew 

d dwQla 



godQ to scratch 

d gola 



kfidQ to bring 


A^tK^ to poll out 




ktcatQ to steal 

kuHxti, hwala 


kwfitQ to drive 

kwQth hvQla 



^dg to shave 


litoQtQ to toach 




nadu to cat 



nodi2 to cut 

nittf li^Z 


wodq to pound 




yii^ to save 



ty^ to carry 

tt/efi qra 


«, d>n 

y^ to curse 




(add to cook 



tr»d(2 to change 





netfO to laugh 



yi^ to cut 

ykti^ yiera 



litr^ to be weak 


6> m 

4'^ to be cold 



hobq, to speak 

kltmd kwdp 



I O 2 • In these words the forms with a mute consonant are doubtlessly primitive ; 

from them the present tense was formed by suffixing q, so the primitive mute 
consonant is preserved here in the present; in a later period the mutes were, 
by different influences, transformed ; the primary cause of their transformation 
was perhaps their position at the end of a word. See note in 46 concerning 

In frequent cases, however, the consonant was also changed in the presttit 
tense ; but in these cases the unchanged form of the present also exists beside 
the changed one ; thus many verbs have two present (and perfect) tenses. 

* In the forms ending in a s noon as object is to follow. 

The Verb 


differeni in their form, but uniform in their meaning; sometimes not only the 
Bocond consoDJUitB, but also the vowels of tvro foims differ, the yowel of the 
dugaged form always being identical with that form of the primitive verb which 
has the changed consonant, so that one can say: from the changed form of the 
primitive verb a new verb has been formed; an example will illustrate what is 
meant: Present ehwatu to call, past chwhU ehwqti, or chwltl, passive chu^gl; now 
from ike form ehu)Ql the present of a new verb is formed: chv>qlQ to call, past 
ehwitl$ passive chw$l. 

Double forms in which the second verb is derived from a tense or mood 
of the first: 

chudu to compensate 

perf. chat and chSl 



chdlQ to compensate 

pei£ chSl 



dodq to brew 

perf. dwula 

pe. duT^Z n. 


dwiilQ to brew 

perf. dwQla 

pe. (2t^^/ 

^£1*2 to build 

perf. gp'a 

pe. ^y|r 

gySTQ to build 

perf. gt/sra 

pe. gy&^ 

kodq to bring 

per£ kodh kQl 

pe. ifcfZ 

JcqIq to bring 

perf. k^l 

kudq to pull out 

perf. IcQla 

pe. hoi n. 


kolQ to pull out 

perf. JcQla 

kwatQ to steal 

perf. kwati, hwala 

pe. itraZ 

kwalQ to steal 

perf. kwdla 

t^ to shave 

pe. ly&, 

If/ilQ to shave 

tiwatQ to touch 

perf. iitoQfi 

pe. liti^ 

tiwalQ to touch 

perf. iiwala 

nddQ to butcher 

perf. nht 

pe. n^^, ndl 

ndlQ to butcher 

perf. nd,l 

wodQ to pound 

pei£ tr^2d 

pe. ir^/ 

woIq to pound 

perf. w6Ui. 

Some T«rbs have double forms in which the derivation of the second verb 

from a tense or mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their second 

consonant unchanged through all tenses and modes. The meanings of the two 

verbs are in most cases identical, but in some there is a difference. 

digo, and dQ,nQ to move into 

lugo, and lung, to turn 

dwatQ and dwsrn to search, want, wish 

gwidQ l^p to "wink^ with the lips, and gwilg, to wink 

fu^ and fuj^ to pull out 




84 The Parts of Speech 

kd^ and JcufiQ to blow ap a fire 

fo^ to pass and/ops to pa§B 
ny£^ to milk and ti^rc to let the milk down. 
I O S . Those verbs which are virtually adjecdvea (see 1 50), have some peculiaridee. 

Example : rich "(to be) bad" ; thia form corresponds in its sounds and ita 
meaning to die Perfect of the common verbs : it ends iu a mote consonaat, and 
it designates a state, not an action ; this form as such does not change tfie final 
consonant ; a regular present may be formed from it (though not from all verba 
of this kind) ; raJQ "to become bad, act badly" ; but besides this r^ular form 
of the present it has a second, in which the second consonant toms into the 
coiresponding oasal one : r^ "to become bad, act badly". 

n^jfe little ndng to become little or few 

igk hard i^a and tinQ to become hard, feel hard 
dich good doJQ and ^qAq to become good, act well 
l4oh strong ifcgfifi to become or be strong 

r^h bad raJQ and r&lQ to become or be bad, act badly. 
In one case, however, such a word baa the nasal consonant in the adjective 
(perfect) form already : 

dugn big <^ns to become big, grow np ; here a 

form with a mute consooaot does 
not exist. 
, b) Changes in the Stem-vowel. 

I oO. Here the very same process as in the change of consonants is to be observed. 

Present a ^ ^ in perf. and passive. 

kada to bring pe. J^t 

baffQ to boil pe. Mk 

fade to b© tired pe. ^t 

fanft to ride pert a fani and a fftii 

I^Q to take by force n. k^ta 

kada to twist 

perf. kit, m 

Ag<72 to ache 


kagsi to plant 


nsffQ to km 

perf. «f* 

iaji and baja to tie 

pe. bkh and biek 

dsmi Mid dags to scatter 

perf. dm. 

■©sent g ) a in imp. and passive 

ehsbQ to mix 

peif. chapa 

pe. chSp ABd chap 

fiiffQ to be shatp 


k^bg to take by force 

for!, tapa 

pe. tap «. ijy^ 

The Verb 8$ 

iQkgo to inherit peif. laka pe. lAk n. Mib. 

Present a ^ ^ in perf. and passive. 

hajq, to tie perf. i^Aa pe. ifcA 

^trai^ to tie perf. gw^ali 

fftoard to snatch n. gwar^ 

Present %y e: and <;ru^£r2 

tt^ids to change perf. wela. 

Changes between q^ o and u. 

tttffQ to crash n. ^A; 

Ztf^o to torn perf. l^gi n. litk 

kudo, to pull out perf. kola pe. X:^/ n. ki^l 

ndnq to become little, nqk little 

itd<2^ to fasten n. i:d(^ 

cAt«c^ to compensate perf. chSl. 
Double forms with different vowels ; the second verb is derived from a tense I O ^ • 
or mood of the first: 

{ehudQ to compensate perf. ch6l 
eholq to compensate per£ chSl 
fsdo to be tired pert Jii 

fedQ BndfidQ to be tired perf. yS^ 

fedQ to raise n. /t^ 

fi^ to raise 

kQbq to take by force n. k^ 

kepQ to take bj force 
k(idQ to twist perf kit 

kedo to twist 

kQg2 to plant pe. kik 

kegQ to plant 
kudQ to pull out perf. kqla pe. ik^Z 

te/fi to pull out 
Double forms in which the derivation of the second verb from a tense or I 00« 
mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their vowel unchanged 
through all tenses and modes. The meaning of the two verbs is in most cases 
identical, but in some there is a difference : 

ddgQ and d^gQ to move into dwanQ^ dwsno, and ) 

dwatu and dwotn to want, wish dwynQ f ^ 

ggrn and g^rq to tattoo gwaiig, and gtogiHQ, to scratch 

kS^ and k^ to go mo^ and mlfni to hold fast 

niSgQ and nejq to know, recognise nadQ to butcher, nudq to cut 




The Parts 

of Spe 



n. ffw&Aii 

n. kwjip 

n. tiioddit 

n. rwjtm 

H. twAt 

pSno sod p^kQ to fill kwalQ and kwfftQ to ileal, 

c) Changes id the SemiTOwelJ 
I oQ. The SenuTOwelB ut or y ate inBerted id the stem in order to form certain 

tffluea or modes of the verb. 

dsde to brew beer peif. dwQ^a 
f^a to make batter 
ffiffi to work 
ffS^ to scratch 
l^ffi to stick 
ksti to drive 
kgbQ to spei^ 
tgda to wade 
t§ff2 to wash [forth 
t^dil to bear, bring 
f^tns to marry 
notQ to spit 
rg^as to fetch water 
tadfi to tell lies 
yg&2 to bewitch 
b^kfi to fear, 
^^ to suck, 
^ffi to go back 
fiehi to ask 
fidQ to lie 
fsma to gainsay 
gsra to buOd 
gifa} to sacrifice 
kgrs to dig out 
l^dQ to sbave 
nt^ng to twist 
n eftf to laugh [goest 
rg2 to receive a 
^nfi to strain beer 
g^ to bewitch perf. |y|( 

^2 to milk ny£^ to let the milk down. 

I QO. In these examples the infixed semirowel has a fimction aaalogoos to Hut 

of the chao^ng of the second consonant and of the vowel: it is a means of 

forming tenses and modes of the verb ; in most cases the passive, and in some 

ako the imperfect and infinitive differ from the present by t^e infixed semi- 

pe, dte^t 
pe. ffw^k 
perf. gw^Aa 

pe. kte^k 
perf. hof^ kaula pe. k^l, Jm^l 

pe. kioSp 
perf. beat pe. ltii$t 

perf. Isgi, Iweka pe. bnelc 
perf. Mt, tiwil pe. tiio^l 
perf. rigmi pe. riio^ 

perf. nwoti 

perf. rw2ma pe. rut^ 

perf twota pe. ta6t 

perf. ywQba pe. yw^p 

fru^Ji^ to make one fear, i 
^w^^ to aockle a child 
diDogn to come back 

< fiig^ten 





perf. J jra 

pe. »*■ 

perf. OTflo 



pe. lyil 

perf. myen 

pe. »^ln 

perf. it£^ 

perf. ncha 

pe. ry&J 

perf lyMd 

pe, (ylit 


• Only ths seiiitToir«U atudlnf betireu tho fint 
not thoie beginiiliig t, word. 

and tha item-TOwal m 

The Verb 87 

Towel. In a few examples — Iwqkq^ j^q^ cbbqffQy nyedq^ — a eatuative form 
(or a foim of Bimilar meaning) is formed from the common form by infixing a 

Doable forms, the one with a semirowel, the other without it; the one verb I Q I , 
is deriyed from a tense or mood of the other : 

{dgdQ to brew beer perf. dtoQla pe. dtool n. dwltl 

dwolQ to brew beer perf. dtoqla 

{jcJQ to make butter pe. fwdeh 

fwojQ to make batter pe. fwSch 

{goikit to scratch perf. gwQiia n. fftogti^ 

gu^h to scratch 

{ko1^Q, to help perf. kwoiia 
InoatiQ to help 

{l&Q to drire perf. kwQti, kwQla 
IddSfo to drive 

/ lodQ to wade perf. Itc^t pe. Iw^t n. Iwltt^ 

I Zu^ to wade 

loffit to wash pert IwQka pe. IwQk 

UoQffQ to wash perf. Itonka 

{Mdi^ to bear, bring forth perf. tibt, lito^l pe. iiu>$l n. tiwddit 

fiwqlQ to bear, bring forth perf. liwltl 

{riomQ to many perf. tkomi pe. liw^ 

iMgrnQ to many perf Hwomi pe. lito^ 

{notQ to spit perf nota, nwota pe. n6l 

nvwtQ to spit perf ntoota pe. nSl 

I yofnt to bewitch per£ ywqba pe. ywQp 

Xywubq to bewitch perf. ytof^ pe. yto^p 

{fiehQ to ask perf f^ha pe. fyich 

fyfcka to ask per£ fyacha pe. fy^h 

\ fW to lie perf. ftt, fy^ n. fytt 

\ fyliq to lie perf. fy^ n. fyit 

{g el o to sacrifice per£ gytia n. gi^ 

gi^ to sacrifice 

{hirit to dig oat pe. kytr 

hfira to dig oat perf. ky^ra pe. ky^ n. iyiri 

j minQ to twist perf. myan pe. my^ 

I ff^y&Ht to twist 

r0;(2 to receiye a guest perf. recha pe. ryich 

ryejQ to receivea guest perf ryeelui 



88 TAe Parts of Speech 

QdQ to bewitch pei£ fyii pe. fy^ 

fye^Q ^ bewitch. 

I 9 2 • Double forms in which the derivation of the second verb from a tense or 

mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their vowel or semivowel 
unchanged through all tenses or modes. The meanings of the two verbs are 

6o^ and btoQ!^ to cast iron 
ko^ and kwo^ to blow up fire 

^ S/O * The function of the inserted semivowels w and y are evident from the pre* 

ceding examples : they serve in forming certain tenses or modes of the verb, 
and from these modes and tenses new verbs are formed, just as in the chang- 
ing of the last consonant. 

In by £sr the most cases the infixed w (which must originally have been u, 
see 22) forms the Passive and the Perfect of the Verb. 

[It is remarkable that in Hamitic languages u or o have the same function: 
Haussa : fashe to break fatu broken 

bude to open budu open 

btiffa to beat buffu beaten 

Ful Fulde : omo nana he hears omo nanq he is heard 

onto wara he kills omo toarQ he is killed. 

In both these languages the forms ia u, q correspond to the Shilluk 
Passive as well as to the Perfect, as they express an accomplished state, 
as opposed to action.] 
It is evident that this last process was chiefly liable to lead to many con- 
fusions in the use of w and y (and the same holds good for the changing of the 
second consonant); once the second verbs, derived from the imperfect or passive 
of the first verb, came into use, it was scarcely avoidable that the semivowel 
should not enter the present or any other tense of the first verb, where it did 
not belong; and again it was easily liable to be dropped where it ought to 
stand, vis. in a form of the second verb ; this was the more possible, as in al- 
most all cases the meanings of the two verbs are absolutely identical. And in- 
deed the natives ofiien do confuse the two verbs, using the one for the odier, 
when asked for the different forms of a verb. 

How the semivowel was infixed into the verb, is not clear (but see 25); as 
they do not always have the same function, the way on which they got into 
the word may also have been different. 

Now it is remarkable, that in all cases, where the passive or past are formed 
by infixing wory (active present kobg, passive kw^p, active present y^A^ passive 

The Verb ___..^ 89 

fy^K)^ ^ w occurs exchtsively before £> and y exclusively before £, so that we 
have only these combinations : wq andy^. The combinations wa, w^ we, vd, ya, 
ye with preceding consonant' do also occur frequently, but neyer in the said 
function, viz. where the Passive or Perfect are formed from the Present by 
infixing a tr or y . This leads to the conclusion that there are two different groups 
of semivowels which have entered the stem, probably at different periods and 
for different purposes. The second group has in by £sr the most cases retained 
the original vowel before w and y. But the first group has in all cases the same 
vawd: q after w and ^ after y; this can in my opinion be explained only by 
assimilation ; it is not at all probable that here the original vowels were solely 
Q and i, and that always before qs^w was infixed and before ^ a y. I suppose 
that here originally only one semivowel was infixed, viz. w, and tiiis w pardy 
assimilated the following vowel to itself and partly itself was assimilated to the 
vowel, in this way : toa y wq, wq y wq, wo y w^; w^ y y&» toey y^. If verbs with 
tiie stem-vowel % or u infixed a u' in order to form the passive or perfect, this w 
must have been assimilated to the following vowel i and u, so that wi y yi y i, 
and wu y ti. 

AuxiUary Verbs. 

da "to have". 

i dh nyffi he has money; yi diLJiaqk I have sickness: I am sick. I QA* 

"To be". 

"To be" is rendered by different words, but in most cases it is not to be 1 Q S • 
translated at all; all adjectives are treated as verbs, and therefore are not 
connected with "is" : "you are great" is rendered yi dugn. If tiie predicate is 
a noun, and the subject is a pronoun, generally the subject is put before the 
pronoun without a copula : yi ri^I am king ; ydnd r^ I am king ; or the demon- 
strative i is employed : in i rij^he is king. 

But firequentty the partide bi (fi) or its emphatic form bini, bin^n is placed 
between subject and tiie predicative noun': 

ya &a r^ I am \ing]jal^i ba rii this man is king; /an^ rH {ibis one) he is king. 

I suppose bi does not originally mean "to be", but is the negative particle 
"not^, and tiie sentences in which it is employed, are properly questions : Am 
I not king? Is this man not king? The negro generally likes to express an 
assertion by a negative question. 

If the predicate is an adverb, y^ y^ ("to be") or bidit ("to stay, remain") 
are used; i ya k^ where is he? yi yffia mal they are above; yi bjdq u>Qt I am, 
stay, in the house. Sometimes bjdo is also employed, when the predicate is a 

* Tlds grovp is called ^fint group* in the following. 

* TUs grovp is oaUod ^second groap* in the following. 


90 The Parts of Speech 

kdmd and chdmd ''to be going to, to wish, want*' ; they are used only in the 
past fonn. 

e kama (also kom^ bfnji he is going to come, he says he will come, wants 
to come. 

e chama /s^ he is near falling, going to fSsU ; chama is often shortened into 

In a similar sense dwata "to wish" is often employed. 

may be expressed by yh/Q: ya ba yei bin I can (could) not come; bat its ne- 
gation is generally expressed by b% k^ "there is not a place** (an opportonify) : 
bu kffi h bind "there was no place for rae to come** : I coold not come. 

I M, ya not; The Negation of the Verb. 

2. fiUti not yet, not; hardly a distinction is made between the two; both of them 
negate the indicatiye of the yerb ; a fa k^ a nfl^t k^ he did not go. 

3. f&i, fife negates a sin^e word : fafe yan not I ; fafe rif^ it is not the king; but 
it may also negate the rerb "to be** : fafe yan r^ I am not the king; fafe H 
wifi he is not in the house ; fa jal madugn he is a great man ; /a| kijal maduQn 
he is not a great man. 

4. bu^ bunq, to haye not, to be not; 

5. bdffinh bdgin there is not; nycfi bdffitn kiyi "money is not with me** : I have 
no money; yi bi ny&i I haye no money. 

6. tSk to be absent; lial tdk the boy is not here. 

7. kfi is prohibitiye : ki kii^ yi ki kif^ do not go ! hi wir, also : yi kii uiir do not 
be angry! The personal pronoun may also be suffixed : ku hwffi do not steal! 
Plural: wii hi kif do not go ! You must not gol ki bl he shall not come. 

Sometimes ki is employed where we do not see a prohibition : wi ki k^j^ 
shall we not go ? But also : uxlfa kifl? nan ki liti^Z ki tin gyh^f nigd, nigj^ 
the man who does not lay a hen-egg, I shall surely kill. 


^Z7i* Most adyerbs are originally nouns or yerbs. 

Adyerbs of Place. 
The adyerbs which are mostiy employed are kffk and lain; botii are nonna 
and mean "place**. Their primitiye forms are k^h^ kach and Jbu, both haye 
affixed a demonstratiye n, k^h + n ) k^jk, ku-^-n^ kun according to 40. They 
may as adyerbs haye different meanings : i. of place : this place, that is : here ; 
2. tiien interrogatiye : where? On the different tones of these two meanings 

Adverbs 91 

see 205S8. ''Where is be'' is in Shi. literaUj: "is he here?*' kf^ does not really 

mean "where'', but simply "this place*'. 

Bi k^ come here. 

k^ wQk ki kffk go oat from here. 

ka "place^ : there. 

S, i^da ifca he is there ; 

a Ufe ydn ka he was seen by me there. 

mal "heaven", "the upper place", serves for "above, ahead" : 

a rffia mal he ran upward, upstairs, ahead. 

kunda (from ku place) direction: there. 

ekuni kundQ stop there. 

ehdm left hand, kgeh right hand, iinan here, chinii there, yonder, chdn behind, 

Ian tfiis side. 

Adverbs of Time. 

Here again kffi "this place" takes the first place, the notion of "time" having I Qo« 
its origia in "place" ; kffi a In when he came ; kan "this time" from kdke time : 
while : ehuni kan cham wa stay while we eat; tin soon, at once ; hnhn, imhn hnan 
present, at once, this very moment; cAi^ formerly ; de chan tin to-day; ^uki 
to morrow ; awa yesterday; awar awa the day before yesterday; ki ehan daily; 
i| de chan at daytime ; i^ wgr at night 

Kii/k d M when did he come ? in awff% d tiwili yin when were you bom ? wi 
ii|fi^ yi ygfji chain adek^ kd i tin we were on the road reached ^ee days, then 
he came : when we had been on the way three days, he came ; ka dudki w^ 
chuiki a yiga mdmit when we told him that, he became glad; kd tt^i win, ka i 
li^ when he saw us, he laughed "^kaUnwa msn an, ka ehutie loin yiga mdmit 
when we heard that, we became glad. 

Adverbs of Manner. 
ne, neya thus; kindii just so; ddi how? lyau also; ehsf just, very, surely; I QQ« 
$har^ veiy ; kiti, dkyil alone. Much used is the adverb Hn^ thus : it always 
mtroduces the direct speech ; it does not only follow the verbs which express 
speaking, but frequent^ also tfiose expressing "to mean, diink, wish, ask" : 

riie ko kine, kif^ the king said thus : go ! 
tf fidiQ kjne, igitn in he asked : where is he ? 
duoki kins, e binq tell him, he may come! 
€ dwata kyus wu k^iq, wukipi he wants to go with you 
ya dwata kine, wq cham byil I wish that we may eat dura. 
Frequently an English adverb is in Shilhik rendered by a verb, e. g. : 
jwan k^ hurry going, that is : go quickly ; 
a rumi chdmi yd it is finished was eaten by me : I have abeady eaten; 

92 The Parts of Speech 

k^i kananuti biriQ kQJl go, while rain has not yet come : before it rains ; 
toa kc^ ehdH pcush we went approached the village : we came near the village. 

Adverbs of Cause 
and Causal Sentences. 
200. Bu k^ a bind yikd di ridjwQk I could not come, beeauM I was sick; bu k^k 

diddf yika bini toAtkit yd I cannot learn, because I have no book; ya biffin 
mdffa reJQ, yika bini abif Hydl cannot catch fish, because I have no hook; 
tyffH Nwdr chuM gin ruJQ ki win^ ki yika kQla ^ g^n the Nuer-people hate us, 
because we (I) have taken away their catde; byil wgn reeho, Hyika buM kai 
ki rei gin our dura is bad, because it did not rain on it; 6a yA gtoQk ^n, mdri 
(or fnd£) ddjwitk he cannot work to-day, because he is sick; ba kwipi j^ 
mdi l^htt he does not say it, because he is afiraid; yd bi diri, binin d ^U ydn 
yi gv>Qk I have no adze, therefore it is impossible for me to work; tyilit % 
b^l^in d bd ki^ my foot was sore, therefore I did not go. 

Sometimes a causal relation is expressed without a causal partide : yd fd 
ehigi ehafQ k^ti, ydfhd^ I shall walk no more, for I am tired; xx>a k^ wqI, feA 
a yigd mdffQ we went home, because it grew dark. 

Conditional Sentences. 
20 I • K&i ehwili yin, yi kfi k^iihe calls you, do not go ; k&i yik ya u ^' ki nu, 

i niki ydn if I see a lion, I shall kill him; ^ yik yibi, yii u fktd nyffk if you 
come, I shall give you money; v yik yi fd gifgit yi 4 fiodti ydn if you do not 
work, I shall beat you ; kd yik ^ fyichi win^ v^ kwiiki ^ if we ask him, he will 
help us. 

The Condition in the unreal case is expressed by r^: kd ligi i yd fndmdt^ 
wi ri kwi^i ^ if he voere here, he would help us ; kd ligi yd dd gin chdm, yi ri 
ftfi if I had food, I should give you; ka /qgafeti diyd mddieh, wi ri di &|fi^ 
if the weather had been fine, we should have come. 

Intentional Sentences. 
2 O 2 • Yd kifi wltk bi yd/ ki ^ga I went into the bush, in order to search my cattle; 

WQ k^lQ ^ win gi mtiji loin bwi^, kifd kine wi fb^ byil we gave our catde to 
the strangers, in order to get dura ; jwdni rgno, kipd yi hi chwin run qnickty, 
lest you be late ! 

Interrogative Sentences. 
203 • ^ ^ question the position of words is the same as in an assertion. To desig- 

nate a sentence as a question, either interrogative adverbs are employed, or a 
change of tone takes place. Those cases are difficult particulariy, in which ao 
adverb may have a positive meaning as well as an interrogative one, for instance 
kffi ''place^ may mean ''here'', and ''where''. Here tiie distinction can be made 
by the tone only. 

Prepositions 93 

The most important rale is this : if the last syllable of a sentence has a high 
or middle tone, a low tone is added to it; this low tone expresses the question: 
i kwdld, byil he stole dura i kwdlh by^l did he steal dura? 

i ttfi kwd he saw my grand- 4 ^ti^ hia did he see my grand- 
father father? 
gi Ufa fin they saw the king gi Ufa r|{ did they see the king? 
But frequently the question is expressed in quite a different way, by laying 
a high tone, and a strong stress on the word which is questioned; this is parti- 
cularly the case with kpi : 

i yin k^ti where is he ? i yh ktiH he is here 

gi yin k^tk where are they gi yh ktii they are here 

ri| y^ kiii where is the king? r|{ yh ktii the king is here 

d In dwh he came yesterday d Vi dwa did he comeyester- 

jal an ye da nyih. thismanhas money day? (the first a in 

jal an ye da nyifi has this man mo- atca has a very 

ney ? (The i in nyiH strong emphasis) 

with very strong emphasis). 
If tfie sentence contains an interrogatiye adverb, tfie tone does generally 
not change: yi da ^k ddi how many cows has he? 

i gw6 nh what does he do ? 
a fyich kiyi in, Hne: dgttn in midl he asked him : where is your friend? 

i wQt min whose house is it? 
kip<»AQ ^ biki why are you afraid? 
dpann a k^ why did he go ? 
In questions introduced by "shall**, the subjectiye pronoun is sufi&xed and 
the low interrogaliye tone is added to the high tone of the pronoun: kif^ shall 
I go ? gwidi shall he write? 


They are likewise originally nouns and verbs. 20A.. 

wieh head: on, upon, for, instead of: 

wty wi^ on the house, wiy ya{ on the tree, wiy rii instead of the king. 
ban back: behind, after, besides: bona after me, ban toQt behind the house; 

hanii besides him; kwum back: on, upon: hwQm adjr^ on a donkey. 
bgl and iHm fSace, front: in front of, before, at the head of: bol nam in front of 

the river; litm tt'Q before the people, at the head of the people. 
k^li middle: in the midst of^ amidst, among: k^Uji amidst the people. 

94 The Parts of Speech 

nocA back : behind : naM jal ffii behind Uiis doad ; 

butQ side : beside : buU toQt beside the house j 

yeek httWj : in : yey pi in water ; 

dt/er, often shortened into di, middle : amidst, in, di nam id the water. 

fa the base, the lower part: nndor, below: ffl jfaf, noder the tree. 

Verbt: ' 

wiis to reach : w^ awa a ba Id reaching yesterday he did not come : until y > • • | 
gits to reach : gitQ fyk\ till to-morrow. 

Particles which cannot traced back to noune or verbs : 
ki may have rery different meanings ; its originid meaning is : with ; ki mpi with 

whom ; ki ton with a apear ; 
yi towards, by : a nfk t/i jal an he waa killed by diis man ; k^ yi jal <iufin go 

to the master; yi is connected wiA personal pronouns as follows: ya to me, 

yi to you, yg to him, yi teen, yi wun, yi gpi. 


2 U^ . Some of the most used forms of salutations are givoD here. A. is the villager, 

B. the stranger. i 

Instead of our knocking the door, die Shilloks, before entering a courtyard, ' 
say : y& nin I am wwting (may I come Id ?) A. answers : bi come ! If the salutation ' 
is going on in the open place of the village, as is asoal, this phrase is not said. I 
A. vi 6i von have come ? 

have come, or : yi nllt. 

w^k you have brought Qod. 

jwhk you have held fast Ood. i 

lid yon sleep (well) ? | 

I slept (weU). 

' (meaning not known). 


n&t are the little ones well (existing)? 

ey are weU. 

I dn your women (are well) ? 

ey are well. 

idt yaut Are the people well? 

ey are. — TheBe enquiries after the well-being of the people in the 

can be extended at will, to grandpareots, graodduldren, cousins etc. 


<^ ks^fach I am going home, 
or: kslijuiQk go with GodI 



96 , Occupations 



. Housebuilding. 

Ty^ w^t kytr, ha t&c (tek), ka laf>a k^h ka lin tyiU ka mogg, k^ ty^l wi^ 
ka ehwacK maka ty^l anwin, ka 4^gt dSl, ka gSr. Ka nuika chdn dbih/ilg ka 
toiji 14U9 ka kwir dwai, ka g^ rdu, ka gi mifih/M, kd tigttH n^t, ka d6l kot, ha 
tyth Jy&'s ka ty^l tik, ka teguti kwdtk, kd witt mdk, kd dol Aj^. Ka dy^n hH, ka 
tat, ka teguti w6rb toitk, Ka wQt tin, kd l^ gUli chip, ka kity ka shini twoeh, 
kd tdt, kd Utm lidr, kd 6^^ dwai, ka yfja mal, ka 01 migi, ka lum ii^ ka e wijq. 
Ka %oah kaJQ e d^n^ ka e luino ki kwlr, mgn nik wan kdJQ, ka toan kaJQ nik, kd 
dy^l toiki 6§^* ^<^ ^y v>Qt twdk^ ka chine tout nqU ka tddi^ (tide w(^) ty&i, ka 
toQt f^9 ka mwQn^ ka tigQ gwgk, ka kal tdt, ka je dikd yej^, Ka gyena k^l, ka 
gQch feh, ka je d§na yey wqt 

The foundation trenches of the house are dug out, and are smoothed off. 
Mud is brought, and thrown into the foundation trenches; and beer is poured 
into the foundation trenches. Now the walls are built; after four days the 
door-opening is made round; then they build again, and when five days have 
passed, they begin to make the roof. Poles are brought, they are burnt (to 
make them hard), and then cut, so that they are of equal length. Roof-sticks 
are cut, and they are tied up in a circle, and a circular ditch (corresponding to 
the poles tied together) is dug, and the ends of the roof-sticks are put into 
it, and buried. Now the roof is constructed; grass is twisted into a rope, 
with which the poles are tied together. When this is done, the roof-slicks are 
taken away, and the roof is lifted upon the wall. The junction between the 
wall and the thatch-poles inserted into it is made tight with mud, the lower 
roof-ends are tied to the wall, and are tied together. Then grass is cut, and 
the craftsman > is sent for; he climbs on the roof^ takes a rope, and binds the 
grass on the poles. Thus he makes the roof^ till only the point of the roof is 
left. The proprietor of the house now brings a hoe, which is for the "^^^*ng 
of the roof-point. (When he has given it to the craffaiman), the roof-point is 
made. Then a sheep is given to the craftsman. The surface of the roof is beaten 
smooth, the dripping-eaves are cut even, a door is made, the floor of the 
house is filled up with mud, and is made hard and even. A door is worked, 
the fence is constructed, and then the people move into the new house. A 
fowl is brought, and left on the ground (as a sacrifice), and the people move 
into it. 

' thatch-maker. 

Housebuilding 97 

A Second Report on Honsebnilding. 
By R. W. Tidrick, of Doleib HiU. 

Housebtulding among the Shtdlas' is a trade which comparatiyelj few men 
learn, whether it is because apprentices are discouraged from learning it, or 
whether they do not want to learn, or cannot leam the trade well, I do not 
know. A well constructed tukl is neat and of reallj fine appearance. Dwelling 
houses are usuaUj of the same sise, conical in shape, walls of mud, sometimes 
reinforced with poles or com stalks. The roofs are thatched with two kinds of 
grass. Family class prescribes which kind may be used in diatching the house. 

ETeiy aduh member of &e familj as a rule has a part in construction. The 
women cut and cany in the grass and com stalks and bring the water for 
mixing the mud for the walls. The men bring in the poles for &e roof^ make 
&e rope, mix and carry the mud and do &e real building of the house. 

The material is usuaUy collected for some time beforehand. Qrass is cut 
and cocked, poles are brought from the timber and by wetting and heating 
are brought into the proper shape for rafters. Large circular bands for bracing 
the rafters and tying &e thatch and grass to are made of withs of long coarse 
grass wrapped closely with rope. The rope for their use and for tying the grass 
down is made from a tall grass Aat has a long sheath. The grass is cut and 
brought in, and these sheaths are stripped off and after being soaked in water 
are bruised with clubs until the fiber comes apart easily. It is then dampened 
and twisted into rope. The rope maker sits on the ground holding the rope 
between his toes, and forms the rope by constantly adding new fiber and rolling 
ibe rope between the pahns of his hands. It is made two-ply about one fourth 
of an inch thick. 

The mud is prepared by mixing manure, ashes or fine broken dry grass wi& 
sandy earth. The mixing is done with the feet. The first step in construction 
is naturally the foundation. This is made by digging a shdlow circular trench 
where die wall is to stand. The men carry the mixed mud in their hands, which 
must be quite stiff, and drop it in the trench. The builder forms it into the 
desired shape with his hands. A layer about six inches deep is put on at a 
time. But two or three layers a day are added. A little above the foundation 
an elliptical band of grass about three feet in depth is put in place to form &e 
door. As the wall is built up the mud is built against this, which retains its 
form leaving the door the desired shape. Later the grass is removed. Toward 
the top the wall is flanged out like the mouth of 'a bell to receive the roof. 
Few houses have windows ; when windows are made, they are scarcely six 
inches in diameter. In forming the roof the first step is the same as for the 
wall: a shallow circular trench is dug with the same circumference as the inner 

* L e. Shilhikf . 

WISTIBMAHir, Tke SUIlmk Pw»pl«. 7 



circamfereoce of the finished wall. About two feet inside the trench are set 
forked stakes about two feet high and four feet apart The rafter poles are 
now placed with heayj end in trench and resting in the forks of these poles, 
their tops are brought togedier and securely tied. The heayj grass bands are 
now fastened bo& above and under the poles at regular distances firom bottom 
to top of roof. Com stalks or cane are woyen in between the bands and poles 
thickly. The roof now has its final conical shape. The roof is ready to be raised 
and is picked up and placed evenly upon the wall. A layer of mud is then put 
oyer &e lower end of &e rafter poles, to keep it firmly in place. The first work 
in thatching is to put on what the Shullas call &e apron of the house. A short 
layer of grass is put around the top of the wall and tied securely to the thatch- 
ing. The dtatcher then starts his course straight up the roof and works around 
the house, finishing the entire lengdi of the roof as he goes around. The grass 
is tossed up to him in small bundles, which he places in position several at a 
time and removes the bands and ties then down tightly. With a paddle-shaped 
stick he evens up the ends of the grass, so diat when the roof is finished no- 
thing but &e but ends of the grass are exposed, and these lie as evenly as Aoug^ 
they had been laid separately by hand. At &e top the grass is brou^t together 
like a spire and wrapped with rope and rope bands. The grass lies on the roof 
firom six inches to a foot thick, and if kept firee firom white ants, will last for 
five or six years. 

2. Different kinds of Soil 

i>^ black, rich eardi 

hm^^ sandy ground 

Mt^i red earth as found on ri- 
ver-banks, used for ma- 
king pots 

d'h&ii brownish eardi as found 
on river-banks, used for 
making pots 

hnihd red sand 

byich sand, dust. 

3. Field-produce. 

hyijL dura 
iiimti sesame 
i^r^ bean 
ku^T^ cotton 

hi^ a small, sweet gourd, is 

6hml an eatable gourd 
IctnQ, a gourd for calabashes, 
not eatable 
hiihiyit melon 
hiAhq tobacco 
dbwok maize. 

4. Different kinds of duras. 

The common name: hyih The common name for white dura: igofukr 

Agriculture 99 

Kinds of white dura. 

d^l is very long in ripening. ^bwbk maize. 

mir has a longer ear than dtl rdto^ Duchn (panic grass). 

altifidit ''finger^^, has fonr ears, which stand upright like the fingers of 
the hand. 
l^k^diAf shilt, h^r^h ofy^t ly^h ^kills the elephant^^), ot^^ dlal^ otachrmachy 
ikimiky au^, chtfani, dkdch, dlwi. 

The stalks of many of the white duras are sucked like sugar cane. 

Kinds of red dura. 

The common name for red dura is: Iwali. 

6fbrb, wdjid-fd-^imhi wdjdl-fd-^fi^nir^, 6^im ("the Nubian"?), lia^-feiU'dwaif 
tiikinit, dpa, a^bit, nwichs liitffyy^n^, akwiU bwMh ('*of the white man'^), dkwinfi, 
6n4r^^ winii ("lion's eye") wlindgdh ("crow's eye") wbrhi, iMiehilit» iHjfimi^ 
bxobk, i^ai,iiafilwitt,yi^bramQ ("sheep-tail"),yt^A;yig9i ("horse-tail"), ndyo, Miike. 

Agriculture Among The ShuUas.^ 
By R. W. Tidrick, of Doleib HiD. 

The Shullas have hardly begun their agricultural life. Scarcely one half 
centory ago they were purely a pastoral people. Only within ihe last decades 
has his lordship, the Shulla man, begun to assume the burden of providing for 
his funily. In those earlier days the task of tilling the smaU patch of ground 
planted annually in dura fell to the woman. Her hoe was made from the 
shoulder blade of a giraffe or buffalo, or sometimes from the shin or rib bones 
of these animals. 

Boys tended the large herds and flocks, young warriors danced, went on the 
chase and raid. The old men idled their time away in die village. 

But they say the cattle plagues became more prevalent. The Turk and Arab 
came and took away not only slaves, but cattle, and so necessity forced &e 
Shulla to a larger tillage of the ground. 

The change came naturally first in the northern end of their territory, where 
diey came earliest in contact with the murderers and plunderers firom down 
the Nile. 

One man when questioned as to the food of the people in his boyhood days 
said: "We used to eat grass like cattle^. There was as much truth as sarcasm 
in this statement For even yet when the crop fails, the Shulla women gather 
grass seed from the swamps and plains. They rob the ants of their winter's 
provision of seeds. A litde sugar is obtained by bruising and boiling a certain 
reed, which grows in die swamp. 

* L e. BhiUiiks. 

lOO Occupations 

The Shnlla has not yet learned to grow a very large variety of plants. His 
one main crop is dura, &e ka£Sr com of America. 

All planting except tobacco, which is planted in small plots on the river 
bank daring die dry season and watered by sprinkling die groond firom a water 
jar, is done in the beginning of the rainy season. 

A small amount of Indian com is grown, most of which is eaten when in 
hard roasting ear. With the dura they plant a few beans, pumpkins, squashes, 
sesame and occasionally peanuts. No firuits of any kind are grown, and as 
there are no wild firuits worthy the name, the Shulla has never known firuit 
untU he has recently seen it in our garden or at the government stations. 

The Shulla plants his dura in the same field year after year, until his crop 
(bSHa once or twice. Then he hunts for a piece of high dry ground, preferably 
in the timber, for his early dura, and a low plain growing a certain ruik wild 
grass for his late variety. He clears off the timber and digs up the grass for his 
new field which he tills, till another failure comes ; if by that time his former 
field is growing of grass, he will return to its tillage. 

His methods of fSuming are extremely crude, but in some respects accomplish 
good results. He has neither plough nor spade and never uses the mattock 
except to dig up the grass and bushes firom new ground. 

He prepares his ground by raking up the old stalks into piles with a deleib 
palm limb and burning them. 

As soon as the rainy season opens and sufficient rain has fSdlen to soften the 
ground, he puts his seed to soak over night, so it will sprout the quicker, and 
thus more likely escape being eaten by white ants. With a long slender pole 
which has one end shaped like the bowl of a spoon, he opens up the ground, 
and drops in the seeds. As he steps forward to make another hole, he presses 
down the earth over the seed with his foot. The hiUs are made promiscuously, 
but are usuaUy some eighteen inches apart in all directions. He plants a large 
number of seeds in a hill, and later thins out and transplants where hills are 

Often he has to replant, for there are many enemies of the sprouting grain. 
Some years pests of rats devour it, even after it is several inches high. The 
golden-crested crane also pulls up much of the grain as it comes throuj^ the 
ground. And as before mentioned the white ant destroys die grain in die ground 
unless it sprouts quickly. But under normal conditions the grain comes up 
very soon after planting. And the warm rains and tropical sun cause the c^op 
to shoot up like Johnnie's bean pole. Weeds come on quickly too, and so the 
Shulla begins hoeing his fields at once. It is the only real cultivation he does. 
His hoe is eidier a thin circular or rectangular piece of iron with a short 

Agriculture loi 

wooden faAodle. The hoer sits on the gronnd or squats on one knee or both, 
as he chooses, and catching the grass with one hand cuts it off just under the 
sui&ce with the hoe. Shaking the dirt from the roots of the weeds he throws 
them into piles, leaving the ground clean and smooth. It is a good surbce 
culdvation, suitable for this soil and climate, and when the season is favorable, 
the yield for the amount of ground tilled is yeiy good. 

The Indian com grown by die ShuUas is a small early variety, which is in 
roasting ear a fortnight before the eaily dura is ready for parching. But 
before any grain is harvested a sort of first fruits' sacrifice is made, an old man 
and woman go to the various fields of the village and bring in some of the 
ripening ears of com and heads of dura, and place them by the sacred house 
of the village. Some is later taken and ground and mixed with water and 
plastered on the side of die sacred tukl, the rest is taken by the people and 
some put on the door of their own houses, and some is carefully tied up within. 
When the dura is ready for harvesting, the heads are cut off short with a dam 
ahell and heaped upon a rack made of poles resting upon forked posts about 
two feet above the ground. Afiter drying a month it is flailed out with heavy 
dubs by tiie men and winnowed by the women and carried to the village, 
where it is stored in large barrel shaped bins made of coarse grass. The bottom 
of the large basket granary is oval, a grass band wrapped with rope is formed 
about the small base and resting in the forks of short stakes driven in the 
ground bears tiie weight of the filled basket and keeps it off the ground and 
free from ants. 

There are very many varieties of dura. One man gave me the names of 
thirty-two varieties. It is probable however that the same variety has different 
names in different localities. 

Dura is eaten in a variety of ways. The earliest heads are simply thrown 
on the fire and roasted. It is often merely boiled till softened and eaten so. 
A great deal is made into a mild beer and used as a regular food diet. The 
popular way of cooking it is to grind it into a fine meal and cook it into a 
mush and eat it with milk, or cook it up with meat. It is sometimes boiled 
with beans, and sesame is often eaten with it. A sort of dura bread is also 

The Shulla retains all of his pastoral instincts and prizes his flocks and herds 
above all else. His sheep are very inferior in size and have no wool where 
wool ought to grow. His goats are small and few are good milk producers. 
His cows are also generally poor in milking qualities, but are fair in size and 
in beef conformation. They belong to the Indian breed of cattie, which have 
the hump on tiie wetiiers. 

I02 ^ Occup ations 

Tribal custom forbids the Shulla from riding upon a donkey, so he never 
possesses one. Catde are never used for draught or carrying purposes, so he 
has no beasts of burden, and perhaps never will so long as women are plentiful. 

The villages are fuU of hunting dogs. Unlike the Nuers and most of the 
Dinkas the Shnlla raise chickens. They are a degenerate Mediterranean strain. 
Eggs are eaten only by women and children. 

Animal life must be well guarded and carefully housed at night most of the 
year. If an animal loiters on &e river bank it most likely becomes the food 
of a crocodile. K one strays off into the woods it probably becomes the prey 
of a hyena, leopard or lion. Myriads of flies and numerous varieties of ticks 
also prey upon the flocks and herds, tormenting them by night as weU as by 
day, and transmit the germs of various diseases also. Texas or tick fever is 
nearly always present, and a trypanosome not so &tal as the one of dreaded 
tsetse fly is also prevalent The plague is a frequent visitor too and the mouth 
and foot diseases often attack the cattle toward the dose of die dry season. 
The annual loss from all these enemies of animal life is very heavy, but as no 
females, unless barren, are ever killed for food or sold, and grass is plentiful^ 
on the whole there is an increase in the number of live stock raised. 

As to tiie possibilities of agriculture in the Shulla land obstacles to be over- 
come have been mentioned. What tiie mission has done shows that many 
varieties of fruits and a considerable nmnber of vegetables may be grown. 
Future generations may have Imnber, if tiie right varieties of forest trees are 
planted. Cotton is not a sure rain crop, but witii irrigation it has few enemies. 
Sugar-cane and rice cajn be grown in favorable places. The soil of tiiis part of 
the Sudan is not generally deep, is deficient in nitrogen and very poor in 
humus. Nitrogen may be restored with legumes, but the humus problem is 
difficult, for the white ants devour very quickly all manure, mulch etc. spred 
upon the ground. 

The Shulla in sticking to the one main crop of dura has after all adopted 
tiie grain which is naturally adapted to tiie soil and climate and yields best to 
his metiiods of fuming. 

5, Foods and food-stuffs. 

hntu a kind of dura-bread or hdifi a food of dura (prepared 

mush. after Arab fashion). 

hl^li^ a food of dura. monaniir a food of dura with fit, 

hpiiiit a food of dura. eaten without anytiiing 

hriyi^ a food of dura (prepared else. 

after Arab fashion). m!ik{b\i^ a common dura-food. 




6iit a food of dura, dainty. 
miki n^H a food of dura. 
ai^ieh cooked dura. 
dJ>ik green roasted dura. 
bmti dnra roasted, &en soaked 
and mashed. 
iiwaeh dough. 
mitniihur a dura-food 

0h^ dura, soaked, and then 
kept till it sprouts; for 
making beer. 
a^bobb beer before it is strained. 
moffQ beer. 
mQn atinit strained beer. 
ydwlt a kind of beer. 

6. The seasons of the year. 

yfy jiAd aboutSeptember, harvest 
of red dura. 

dAwoch about October; end of 
the harvest, people are 
waiting for the white dura 
to ripen. 

dgtxfirlt about November — De- 
cember; harvest of white 
dura begins. 
tdM^ December — January. 
Harvest of white dura 

Hu hot season, Janu-^ no 
ary — February meld, 
^^n about March J work 

4i^t about April, "moutii of 


rain^^, beginning of the 

^hwr about May — July, time 

for planting red dura. 
^fHAd about Juty — September, 

beginning of harvest. 

2. hjjn gdk 


lO. bil duitn 

7. The months. 

I. yif, 6r (toor) about September. 

3. fiy^J 4. kSl 5. okQchs oJcqA dugn 

7. ddu^n 8. iiUbSr 9. itkil ^t 

II. bil^ 12. Idl 

8. The day-times. 

wiiu k riiwi the first moming-twiUght 

becomes visible. 
bar morning dawn 
mw^l, mil morning; 
feikfa mtoQl ''die eardi is moming^^; 

it is morning. 
di ehiin noon. 
ehdn yh mil the sun is in die senith. 

ehan a kiehi the sun begins to 

after noon. 
birlt afternoon; 
feti fa b, it is afternoon. 
a dlH toiu the sun is setting. 
1^^ tyifiit die sun has set 
fefk fa war it is night; 

ifcl war at night, midnight. 




9. Names of stars. 

dvjQti moon 

hd&k three stars, the Urmnus. 

dh&A "4 northern stars^^ 

Akwi^hikdn appears after die sun has 
hyilijop a star ahead of the Ve- 

hy^li ruwim Venus. 


gytnb "hen'^, Pleiades. 
itySp comet 

tidit a stick to fasten the door 


tit the lower part of the 


tign door. [door. 


tfHk hearth-stone, hearth. 


ftl grinding -stone, whet- 




iulitu small whet-stone. 


j^ni neck-bench or support. 

pt/tn skin to sleep upon. 


ii, piii hole for pounding dura. 


teanQ dura-stalk. 

4^jDayQ a frame on which spears 


are put, to protect them 


from the white ants. 


dolit A grass ring on which 


&e k^dit is placed. 


Iwi^l calabash, gourd. 


dddUi gourd for churning milk. 

tigi small calabashes for 


drinking water. 


dUH a spoon made out of a 


gourd, for taking the hot 

food out of the pot. 

drill 1®^ ^^ deleib or dom- 


palm, and basket made 

of it. 


large basket for preserv- 
ing dura. 

basket for dura etc. 
a small ISjdtt. 
a basket. 

pot for cooking food, 

big pot for cooking large 
meals or beer, 

a mat for covering food 
in pots, dishes, 
a sieve for sifting dura, 
pestle for pounding dura, 

stick for stirring food, 
small pot for preserving 

a rope on which clothes, 
dancing-sticks, etc. are 

mat of Arab making, to 
sleep on. 



6hij^ a kind of mat made of 
ambach, as a seat for 
chiefs only. 
<fim a sieve ofcloth, for strain- 
iDg beer. 

wiji grass for stopping up 
cracks in the wall, to 
keep ont mosquitoes. 
o^mA a pot. 

1 1 . Handicrafts. 

boffQ means a skilful man, one who is particularly skilled in some work, and 
who, therefore, Ukes to do this work, and is asked by others to do it for them, 
so diat this cn& becomes "his work^. Of course it is not his sole occupation, 
except perhaps in the case of die worker in metal. His is a trade held in hi|^ 
esteem, so tfiat he has become the &§^ par excellence ; if &e natives simply 
speak of a h§^ they mean the smidi or metal-worker. He does not practice 
his craft in one place, but goes from village to village. The other craftsmen 
practice their craft only occasionaUy. But as a rule one man knows and prac- 
tices only one of the arts enumerated below. 

2^ t^ maker of spears ; plural : bdf/( tgn. 
H^ tyth H tgn the man who files spears. 
l^ti iecA kibil ton die man who makes the spear-handles straight 

l^ dak tobacco-pipe maker. 
&^ y^ H W tgn the man who makes spear-handles. 
5^ twoA Hpuk potter, generally a woman. 

l^ gwiU tdt who carves, makes figures on gourds. 
b^ yir ki tyil who makes the string on which the gourds are hung. 
l^ wich who makes the roof of huts. 
l^ kuj^do H l^n who makes skin-clothes. 
l^ dght who makes cotton clothes. 
bhj^ teffH carpenter. 
l^ fdi who tattooes. 
l^ teffi H lo^ who makes clubs. 
£^ ehdk H k8t shield-maker. 

l^ teffH H kwir who makes shields to protect against clubs. 
l^ YQt H lin tailor, sewer. 
l^ teffii H bUl drum-maker. 
bgjje hwichi btl who covers the drum with a skin. 
hgjfifwdtk bUl who beats the drunu 
bSj^ l£u H tigit who polishes beads. 
hqifijieh H r^k who makes ostrich shell beads. 



h^ lidl^ who beats the small dram ^lidUk^. 
hqjfi g^ Hji who knocks out the lower incisive teedi. 
b^ twdeh who cups. 
bo$e ndt hi wq^ who dresses the horn of cattle. 

bd$e rich who castrates bulls. [naments. 

bqffi nir who pierces the ears of cattle and men, to put in or- 
baffi kw^nit wir the leader in singing. 
bofs kidit H 4^n who makes the dancing-sticks. 
bd$e teffi kwQm who makes chairs. 

bof^ 0^i who makes the neck supports or rests. 
bojie hdki UdqI who makes, carves calabashes, gourds. 
bqjfi twoy k6l li^kit who makes giraffe-tail necklaces. 
bgfie teffH H dgke dit who makes mat-doors. 
bqjfi ahwqy hi biyi net-maker. 
boifi shwqy hi ^g^ door-maker. 
bgfe shwQii hi dydm salt-maker. 

bofe tdhi f/(iiu maker of iron bracelets. 

bofefiidh l^i one who plaits stripes of skin at the end of the club- 
handle, to prevent the dub from slipping from die hand. 
bg^e hyire ty^le toot who makes the foundations of huts. 
bqfe triiii^ diver. 
b§$e dik hi yet hair dresser who fashions the hair into small lumps. 

bojje met hair dresser who makes the large artificial hair-dresses. 
bgfe niki fdtit hippo-huntsman. 
oyinq crocodile hunter. 

12. Tools of the bodo, or metal-worker- 

dbdh hammer. 
kiHt anvil. 
tiyiiji file. 
6biik beUows. 
cMr a cover for the pipe of 

the bellows, to prevent 

its growing hot. 

dikibi thongs. 
iiUm chisel. 

tirik an instrument with which 
to pierce a hole into die 
spear-handle, to put the 
spear in. 

13. Clothing and ornaments for the body. 

Idu skin-cloth, now also used obdnit front-doth for women, 

for cotton-cloth. diu skin-doA for 

dehyin^ loin-cloth for women. worn hj both sexes 

Clothing and Ornaments 













tego, te^ffQ 






skin cut into small stripes 

bitkit a kind of beads. 

or firinges, worn round 

ddin^ a kind of beads. 

the waist. 

ct^k a kind of beads. 

ear-rings of tin. 

dpiii a kind of beads. 

metal ring worn on arm, 

6bih white beads. 

wrist, feet 

t^tikn black beads. 


hin 6ti44it blue beads. 

bracelet for the wrist. 

^i red beads. 

knee-ring of skin. 

ddtoitgh yellow beads. 

brown ambach-ring, worn 

vodndgak "crow's eye^, a big bead. > 

on the upper arm. 

gago, cowry shell. 

ivory ring 

i^f^yigh a string for tying together 

ivoiy ring. 

clothes. [the hair. 

ivoiy ring carved in coni- 

gan a kind of button worn in 

cal form. 

win^ brown giraffe-tail hairs. 

ivory ring, a small strip. 

dcHrh white giraffd-tail hairs. 

ivoiy ring, big. 

aehbi^ tooth-brush. 

knee-bells, used in danc- 

dwiip a head-dress. 

a' small bell. [ing. 

dchSch a head-dress. 

bell, similar to otqIc. 

dim a head-dress. 


mki a head-dress, "like a 

cow-bell, used in dancing. 


small oow-bell. 

agSrh a head-dress, "like a 

a comm on name for beads. 


blue beads, worn by 

nwQir bleached hair, long. 


dshUhwH a chain,wom as ornament. 

ostrich shell beads. 

gdnhu rattle, made of leaves of 

big beads, worn on the 

the deleib, tied on leg or 

neck by men. 


a kind of beads. 

a kind of small beads. 

^jK \ arm-ring of ambach. 

green beads, round,timall. 

toil loin-ring. 

a kind of beads. 

shulgtoQk "penis of dog*' arm- 

a kind of beads. 

bracelet of brass. 

a kind of beads. 

fitrail iron bracelet. 

14. Names for cows. 

cow; common name. Plu- 

wai bull. 

ral : ^h catde. 

TQJQ heifer. 

' Th«re are maaj more beadi, each of which has its own name. 



il(k grey-white spotted. 


f%im lieitd white, body bluk 

iybkdk bUck with white tail. 

or yeUowUh. 

idAdi homlew cow. 

iffik beUj aad neck white, 

toiri^t u ox with one horn 

heek and heed bUck. 

directed forward, die se- 

A^h&c one leg white, the rest of 

cond bukwicd. 

the body yeUowiah. 

6hyeck a cow with ordinary, non- 

iAh/idi flanks white, the rest of 

dressed honu. 

the body black. 

1^1^ a cow with horns turned 

Mjit head yellowish, blown 


spots on the back, the 

6gvBil an oz with horns tamed 

rest white. 

towards the ejes. 

itijISt head black, bkck spots 

AdAUt aoowwithbonupoiuting 

onthe back, the restwhite. 

lUitr flanks black, belly and 

ndt a cow with boms cut off. 

back white. 

•I<i<ilii brown-black, smaUspols. 

straight upwards, like a 

iku brown-white, small spots. 


liliA brown-white, Urge spots. 

biuik a cow with one horn 

females only. 

directed upward, the se- 


cond downward. 

ilJanSdi black-white. 

iA&eh a cow with horns directed 


stnugbt sideways. 

UdSgh red-brown. 

tB^miimtdi an oz with boms directed 

libit ash-colonred. 

stnugbt backward. 

tttan black. 

Anl^gil aoow with boms directed 

iibtli white. 

straight backward. 

Ahuin stoiped white and red. 

Social Institutions. Marriage 


15. Marriaga 

Dai^ e tottjit H i^ne daehq, ka ktjii Hne: yd will yil Kinet bi n^l Kine: ya 
dwaia hoof H yinl Kine: yi kf^rni n^l Kine: ya dwata kwQpe liwbm. Kins: di yl 
ri/a kij^faeh yi tyffH ddn{it Ka kfjafachy ka tyin d^n^ k^pd. KA gi kb: wi bit 
kwifS iDf^ Kd i dd^ffjts ka e k^dd dy^l mgn ku&e ^ff&' Ka tyffi donQ ko: tod 
yH ki kwipi, kit, ^^ ^^- ^a ^ffQ t^n^ ^ 4q (dak) k^l, kd i di^tgh; ka hifi 
Hni: kgt^ k^ dutt Ka dut kiU dute tygn fitjufitk. Ka m^gQ tyifk^ ka tgro ekw^L 
Ka tDdt titbit kSl yi ^fit btni, ka t^tQ A^^, ka waf dwai ki tin^ m^n kwhilii wini, 
kd t|r^ kiiifdch. Kd ^^ cA^. Ka ^dU liwiimi ka kil^ WQt ki jal t^. J^an a 
dachq yd gdl gin ki day t^. Kd tirii eh^n^, kd lidl a li^mi kd kil tojtk yi toiti 
gin. Ka iHan a daehq kil wi^k yi w^ti gin, Kd ^jt chbn^ l^ni; ka dean nik, min 
ehdm yi ^rit» ^fit gtr, k{ m^igit btni, ki kw^ i gtr, kwgn ka eh%oipi ki mau 

Kd ^rit ddni, (ffrQ biafaeh^ ka jal i/iwitm chyik k(fi ^f^, Ka kipi kine: kani 
jam! KqI u^, ki lau, ki yiil, ggn a tijil Ka mQgQ i^r, ^rfajil^ kag^fycafil 
bi, M tinb, fitch. Ka gs, dwai f^l ki dyiU kd gi i|nj^ kd gs, bdiid kif^ kal, Ka 
kwiri kilf ka linfihi ka ga k^fa kal. Kd gi ehunt miU, bdi/i yiehlfiii. Ki kwir 
kil, ka ehiki Itn fiA, Kd gi yichd /M. Ka Aane iliwQm dqAa dd khl. Ka dy^l ftph, 
kak^kaLKa g& pikd/M H khl Ka yH dyil nih kd gi kifd vfQt. Ka i bd/Ait ki 
biUit. Ka ny^ JfcS/, m^n btiti, kd i bikt^. Kd dyil kil H fnwql, kd dyU f^K ka 
wimin i gtph kASjit* K<^ ^^ mwQn, kd i rttmit H, mwinit, ka g^kd (kijfl) w&i bi 
ehdm, Ka Aan gni i bhAit kgt^, Ka nyffi kil, kd i chUmi^. DuH kd gi dwitth y^k. 
Kd gi btn, kd gi i^hs ka g^ lana w^r gi 04^. Ka gs, rumq fctl, kd gi <|n^; ka 
kal fnw$n kifi, g§^ ki wQt Ka ^ki i§rQ, l^it bini b^ mit ki m^gh. Ki bid gich, 
kd ^rit ch^nit. 

Chdtis ka iAw^k kil, ka 6Aw$k nik, kd ehdm yi toimin. Kd gi d^gh* ka Aan 
ffix e ditnii ki vfH gin. Ka wiki Aal gni, kd gi bid^. Ka ufdi gin dbglt» 

Ka yhji, ka kil ki ^edn. Tyin gin k6fi kine: ^f^ d r^ii, ka wiy^ wiri H mdyt. 
Kd ^0dn kil, ka ehutie gin mino. Ka g^ ko: dikd ki Ait gil Hn! Ka gi, dti^g^. Ka 
^ gi ^ti/i' Sha mikQ kamdfafefSA teiiki tyin gin. 

A man talks with a giri, and in the course of their conservation he sajs: "I 
have come to you.^ She asks: "What fbr?^ He replies: " I want to talk with 
you." She asks: "What do you want?" He replies: "I want to marry you.** 

IIP Socidl Institutions 

She says: '^But why do you not go into the village, to the old people ?'' Then 
he goes into the village, and talks with the old people. They say: "We have 
nothing to say against it.^ Now he retams home, and brings a sheep, as a pre- 
sent for the old people. The old people say: "We accept your proposal, go, 
and bring the cattle I** The man goes, and procures the catde, he returns with 
it to the old people, and they say: "Go, and bring the rest of the dowry !** 
And the rest of the dowry is brought, the part for the people in the village of 
God.' Now beer is strained, and the people are called. The ox of dowry is 
brought by all the people; the people go, and fetch the ox, and a spear, whidi 
is (a present) for the man who held &st the rope of the ox. The people go into 
the village. And the people dance. The bridegroom b put into a hut together 
with the arranger of the marriage; the bride stays with her £unily together with 
the woman-arranger of the marriage. While the people are still dancing, ^ 
bridegroom is led out by his Mends, the bride also is brought out by her firiends. 
All the people continue dancing, and a cow is killed, which is eaten by the 
people; and they drink plenty of beer; and they eat bread, bread which is 
mixed with butter. There are many people present 

At last the people scatter, and go home. The bridegroom is now instructed 
with tegard to his wife (that is, he is told how much cattle etc. he has still to 
ghre). They say to him: "Bring goods, bring giraffe-tails, and skin-cloths, and 
bracelets for tying." 

And (the next day) food (beer, and different foods prepared of dura) is 
brought; it is carried into the village of the bridegroom. The men ^o cany 
it, sit down outside in the bush before going into the village. The people of 
the bridegroom now bring a goat into &e bush (to the carriers, as a pres^it); 
after that the carriers come into the village, but they refuse to go into the yard 
of the bridegroom. Now hoes are brought fordi, and are thrown on the ground 
(as a present for the carriers), and they go into the yard; they stand still in the 
yard with their food on their head, and again refuse to put their loads on the 
ground. So once more hoes are brought, and thrown down before them. Now 
they put their loads down. 

The bride also, when she is brought by her friends into the home of the 
bridegroom, remains outside the yard. And a goat is led out (to those waiting 
outside), and then she enters the yard. They (she and her friends) sit down in 
the yard. The ear of the goat is cut off, and after that they enter the hut — 
But the girl refuses to lie down ; and metal ornaments are Inrought, which are 
to cause her to lie down, and then she lies dovm. The next morning a goat is 
brou^t, the goat is killed. The women dig for mud which is used in building; 
and the enclosure in besmeared with mud (is repaired). When they have 

' for the deceased ancestors. 

Marriage. Burial iii 

finished this, they go into the hut to eat. But the girl again refiiBes to eat. And 
metal ornaments are brought^ and then she eats. The next day the women go 
out to bring fire-wood. When they come back, they put food on the fire, and 
spend &e night in cooking. When they have finished cooking, they strain beer, 
and once more they besmear the enclosure with mud, and the hut also. The 
next day all the people come to drink beer. The drum is beaten, and the people 

That is all; and a ram is brought, the ram is killed and eaten by the women. 
Now they (the female relatives of tiie bride) go home, and the bride remains 
(in the house of her husband) together with her aunt She is given to her hus- 
band, and they live together. The aunt too goes home. 

When the wife is with child, a cow is sent to her relatives by the husband. 
Before this is done, her relatives (parents) say: "He (our son-in-law) is a bad 
man,^ and her &ther and mother are angry. But when the cow is brought, they 
are happy. And they say to the people who bring the cow: "Return to your, 
(amity !^ And diey return. And they are sprinkled with water. And when the 
time comes ^diat she is to be confined, she is brought to her family (to her 
parents; the child should be bom in the home of the mother's parents). 

1 6. Burial. 

10^ kffi a tfiwi, ka tgrq dwai, ka ffyinQ kwati, ka g^h fefk^ ka gyinQ i^ ka Hn 
idty^ ka ffj/imt fnikQ-mdk, ka ff^hfeiit kd fjIkjR wiy ^ofi; ka dy^ k^l, ka ggehi ' 
h^ ka wei budi ki kal. Kd wit^ hil, ka ehw^p, kdji ehiik^, kajam kwir guHuk. Ka 
diri kH, ka iain k^l, ka kwit k^l^ ka oiegQ k^l, ka lau kfil; ka typi k^ ba note 
kwo^ men tdt ptm; ka iegu twooK tys!^ gin. Kd gi ki^, ka gt ni^ k^o^4it» ^ 
iiM^ W gtpaehf ka wiki tyffi kwoiif ka tygn kw(rti ko: ifcffZ kiehl Ka kltch kil^ 
ka gi ko: romi ^9/ Ka r^i k$l, ka ^j^ r^m, ka r^ k^l, rom kiy bitr ^f^ Ka 
ia§ e kwM, ka fi mqkQ ye kwoiiq ^Sj^ ka fi fnofcQ yichi ^n. Kd pyin k^l, ka 
fSr (rir)f kd tiU ptnis kd kijfi feili (tabaU). Ka 0f^ dwai kdl, ka ehy^gt ehw^l, u 
.m% ty^i ^f^ ka ^S^ k^ wiy tabate. Ka lia gil gin yichi tysfi ^off, ka liewin 
d^l, u hni iuk Kd bUl hil, ka dy^ k^k ka dy^l g$che loi; ka Inil g$eh. Kaje 
yw^ist; a tini iirQfa ywQn, ka ji whehlt. Ka yiti Mm, ka daj^ i ri^mft ki kuAikfi, 
Ka hak e kdt, ka tp^ hoQki gat, ka Qr^ dungd faeh. Ohwbyit k^l hi gytnjtf ka je 
fwti H obwoyn. Ka je k§^i fach. KafUl rSp maeh, ka kil, M gdah b^iji; je e 
^is ha je njn chdn gin dhwin. Ka m^gn dw^l, mpi kj^ kwgm ^f^ ki hibjit. 
Ki ^fi i^ kd mj^gh ty^ ia m^go, h^l, ko^A kwQm ^^ Ka kihjft dwai, ka kife 
kwfpn ^09, kd mu>$n ki/h ia mg^gn chiJei k^ ka chjjki k^, ka wai ehw6p, kd bUl 
firiif ka ism ^ wiehjt, kd yid eMtm, ka i&rtt tiyh' Ka dwan far, ka itit ^obft ki 

112 Social Institutions 

kwofe ywqk. Ka rnqgn gw&ch yi tjrfi &^. Ka wSl^ kd toiti gin dwai. Ka rnqgn 
tyekf ka bul gieh H, i^* Ka wat chw$p, kd dyik nXk; kafi n^nft* Dyfi ka ywltgi 
yw^kf kd ff^k dnwin kd njki khl^ ka ^k anwffi neke de (der) /(neJu Ka Qrg ftgng 
bin bin bin; ChU j/trt KafeA yigi, b^T^y ^TQ. y^Vh ka ^{^ anwffi fiik ki f^ yi 
ittft. Ka pih^ yichj ka bur gin kwdii ki bHA wiy ^f^ Ka oHwi drydu ki bogl H 
obiHi kifhri, ki tQimi dryiu, ka g§, nik ki yey bur. Ka tune ^k ka gs, kil^ ibwoii 
f^$ gt t^ti^ yi @^* Ka ywQJke e din{t* Ka kU 0fe yi rim^ ka kil fofe yi bat, ha 
rinQ jAni bt^e. Tyffi a kwoii ^a^ k§li chin, ki wichy ki ty§l, ki mtit^. 

When a man dies the people of the Tillage are sent for; a fowl is taken 
and thrown on die ground, bo that it dies; it is then thrown into the comer of the 
hut. Another fowl is seised and thrown on the groond, so that it dies; Ais one 
is put on the head of the dead man. A goat is brought, and beaten to deadi 
with a club, and then lefl in the yard. An ox is brought, and speared. And the 
people assemble, and the things necessary for burial are collected (firom the 
people). An adze is brought, and a spear, and a hoe, and beads, and a skin- 
doth. Then the people go to out flioms with which to tie together boards* 
(trees). And beads are tied round the feet of the men who do this work. They 
go and cut thorns, bring the thorns into &e Tillage, and give them to the graTO- 
makers. The grave-makers say: "Bring an adze!'' When the adze is brought, 
they say: '^Measure the dead man!** And corn-stalks are tied together for a 
measure; now the man is measured; then they take the^measure, and measure 
the place (size) of the grave. 

The man is buried thus: Some men dig the hole, and some men skin the 
cow (which has been killed). And the hide is brou^t, and cut into stripes, and 
a bier is tied together with them, and the bier is put on the ground. The dead 
man is carried into the yard, his wife is called, she is to hold the feet of the 
dead man, and the man is laid on the bier. His wife (or: the women belonging 
to the family) sweeps the place where his feet lie ; and a female relative of the 
dead man is called, she throws away the heardi-stones lying there. A drum is 
brought, a goat is brought, the goat is killed with a dub ; the drum is beaten, 
and the people begin to weep (mourn) ; as soon as the weeping stops, the people 
dance mourning-dances. Then the people assembled go around in a procession 
dancing. Now the burial of the man is finished. 

A fence is made around the grave; the people wash themselves in the river, 
and then go back into the village. Oboyg (a plant) is brought, and a fowl, the 
people are beaten (touched) with the oboyg. The people go back into the 
village. The eating-tools of the dead man are burnt, and the people rub the 
ashes on their forehead; the people now scatter and stay away four days. After 
that time beer is made, the beer for rubbing mud on the back of the dead 

Burial. Inheritance 113 

man.^ An ox is brought, the beer is strained, the beer is brought, and poured on 
the back of the dead man (on his grave). Mud is carried, and put on the back 
of the dead man; the mud is prepared (made wet) with water. Again beer is 
brought, and again is poured on the grave. The ox is speared; the drum is 
beaten, the people take their arms and make war-plays, and go around in 
procession. When it is finished, the people scatter. 

After one month has passed, the people talk about the mourning-festival. Dura 
for beer is collected from all the people, the dura is pounded, and the relatives 
are invited. The beer is strained, and in the afternoon the drum is beaten. An 
ox is speared, goats are killed. Then the people go to sleep. The next morning 
the mourning begins; four cows are killed in the yard, and four cows are killed 
in the middle of the village. Then all, all, all the people come, a great many 
of ShiUuks. When it is afternoon, the people mourn, and four cows are killed 
by the people in the bush. Cooking-pots are carried out, and a hole is dug 
for them (and for the other household-things of the dead man) near the place 
where the head of the dead man lies. And two pots, and a gourd, and a small 
pot for beer, a mat for covering food, and two dishes, all these things are 
broken, and thrown into the hole. The horns of a cow are brought (''and the 
horns of cattle, and they are brought"), they are buried in the ground (on the 
grave), so that they may be seen by the people. Now the mourning-meeting 
disbands; one of the families receives a shoulder (of one of the butchered catde), 
one receives a fore-leg, and all the other meat is also divided. The people 
who have dug the grave, receive the bowels, the head, and the feet, and the 

17. Inheritance. 

iRoj^ kffi a jg, touts, n(U, ha jdmt kwdii yi lial duon, ka lial (e^ w^fi i^. Kd 
ditk kw€bi yi lial duQU b^a, ka fial dugn ti yigi doeh^ kd ^kfin^ ^ u yig^ raeh^ 
ka ^k kwaii yi ikd (^. Ka gs, liuko, ka ^k kwaii yi lial 0j^. Tirq ft^ng bine bgne, 
ha kwqp k$m%f ka ye kine: i, STi tm^^ ena a tddni; yi chama nQ k^ti ki ^kt fini' 
Jfttht u binOi kwor, u chSli yi lentil Ka ^kfirii tir^i ka lial dugn uiki migi, ka 
lial fgjf wke migi. Ka kwgp horn ehyi, ka gi r^p ki dky^ls kafi k^ fM, ka gt 
ripg. rfal dugn wiki indi^it» kifa ^nd jdn kdl; ka tndn^k toiki ik»Z |e^ Ka M 
bin kwor g^i, ehil^ ka i/kal ^ e bsdg^ fa chiKlj^. Nal ^ dggi i^imi ki ^hg. 

Ty§k ggl^ ka awiy jal &i% e b§ng, ka e kapg ki akygl, ka 6m^ e kapg ki aky§l; 
Awgli gfffifa mgkjal sni, toate jal &iiy ^j^ dugn; mayi g&i e b&ig kijal dugn; 

When a man dies, and he has children, his property is taken by the eldest 

' Tliai is: for besmearing the grave with mud and smoothing the surface. 
* Not ererybodj is buried so ceremonionslj as this report tells, but only old, respected or rich 
people, chiefe of families or Tillages. — In almost erery yiUage one sees the horns of an ox 
bnried projecting from the ground; this is the burial-place of such a man. Tke 3urial of a 
king vide page 128, 

WSSTERMAlflf, The SUUnk People. 8 

114 Social Institutions 

son; the younger son (or Bona) remains without anything. All the catde too are 
taken by the eldest son; and if thb eldest son is good, he divides the catde 
between himself and his brothers, but if he is bad, he keeps all the catde for 
himself. In this case they fight, and the catde is taken away (by force) by the 
younger brother (or brothers). But then all the people come, and they talk 
about the matter, and they say (to the younger brothers) thus: ''Why, your 
elder brother, he refused to give you catde, and now you, want to keep it 
all? What for? If later on any debts (which your father may have contracted 
or which may fall on you) appear, you being his sole heir, will have to pay 
all ; so the people divide the catde ; the elder brother gets his part, and the 
younger one gets his part. After that they again hold a big paUver, and they 
make friends ; water is poured on the ground, and so they are reconciled. The 
eldest son gets many cows (or property), because he is the chief of the family, the 
younger one does not get so much. And if afterwards any debts are to be paid, 
the elder one will pay them, the younger remaining free. The younger brother 
marries a wife with his catde ; that is all, thus the matter is setded. 

The wives of the dead man are treated (done with) thus: the elder brother 
of the dead man comes and takes one, and the younger brodier also comes 
and takes one. ' And if they beget children from diese wives, they belong to the 
family of the dead man; they are (like) his (own) children (they live in the 
house of the eldest brother.) The eldest wife of the deceased, the mother of the 
children, remains with the eldest brother. — So is it exacdy. 

1 8. Murder. 

^$2% lifliy yw6d4i §, bii w^k, ka lAU ^ child kil^, ha nan sni e r^, ka bii^bn 
kw$p: yd neka ^aj^ a war I Kd bUl ffQch, ka grg bi^ tohk, ka tyffi a man kgfe bi 
yikijam, ffi kdn. Ka tyiki b^nQ, 2M rj{; kafach ydk, ffygn mak^ ka by^l kil. Ka 
ijrQ bpiQ., ^k a k^l fofe Jan. Ka ni u dok leike ritt kd ^k di^k. Ka dqk atyau 
9^ yijagOs ka muje r^ ka rii e wtri^, kd i kb: k^ chSlI Ka t^PQ ehiid^^ ka mpi 
e kanQ ^^n, ka mffi e kanQ dean^ ka dqk e ^m^^ ga pyari^. Ka chwqk tr^r, ka e 
bsnQf ka bi^ yij^Q, kine: kwip bidet dl7 Kine: ktoqf d liim. Ka ^qJc kak ka g^ 
ty^^ ka gs. fnuJQ ki dy^k, mok kwache ty^n ri|. Ka ty^ rij( yt^, kine: ^a^ raeh! 
Ka niki ki ^an mikQ, ka dok k^l, ka tygn fifi e bsnq, kejfl FaahodQ, ki tygn ^afi, 
tyffH ddf^Q fite ^gk abich. Ka rit k^lq ^k abicK toai dky^L ywqk lidl int. 

A man hides in an ambush ; when he perceives his adversary, he comes out 
and stabs him, and he stabs him a second time. Then this man (the murderer) 
runs away home, and comes to tell the people of his village : "I have killed a man 
last night. ^ Then the drum is beaten, the people come out from their houses, and 

' The sons marry their father's wives, but not their own mother. 

Murder, Blood Revenge 115 

the women start to cany the valuable things away and hide them; the cattle 
are driven into the Dinka-countiy. Now a company of warriors come, the 
"army of the king*" ; they rob the village, all the fowls are seized, and the dura 
is carried away by them. When the '^army of the king" turns back, they bring 
the cattle back from the Dinka-country. Two cows are loosened by the chief, 
and are given to the king. But the king is angry, he says: "Go, and pay 
(greater) amends!** Then the people pay; one gives a cow, and another one 
idso gives a cow, till there are ten ; then the cows are brought to one place. 
Now an ambassador from the king comes, he comes to the chief, and asks : 
"How is the matter?** The chief answers : "The matter is settled.** The cows 
are brought and shown to the ambassador for examination. And besides they 
give some sheep to the ambassador and to the other people of the king (who have 
come with him), to please them. The people of the king take them, saying: "The 
matter of the man is bad! (that is: the gifts are not suf&cient)**. Now another 
cow is killed (and given to the ambassadors of the king). After that the cows 
(the ten cows mentioned above) are brought, and the people of the king go to 
Fashoda (with the cows), together with the family of the murdered one. The 
£unily of the man who has been murdered, receive five cows. The king gives 
diem five cows and an ox, as a mourning (a mourning-fund) for their dead 

1 9. Blood Revenge. 

Jal meko, jal Mwqm^i jal rndd^eh, ha rUhk yi rif^ Yo. Ka tysn gin i ywitn^. Ka 
je fii lui yifofe bwatiy ka ffi M mak^ ka g^ chon wQt, kajee ligh pyar abi^kyil, 
ka muke ^^ ka gs. dwql; ka g^ rumQ dwQl^ ka gs, typi; ka gg, rumo tygn, ka bul 
ksl WQk, ka ^^ kil, ka tiik, mgn g^y bul; ka bul tin tcgt ki bar, ka bul tin u^, 
ka dof^ k^U ka nik; ka ywQge ywQJk, ka pyar abi kygl kil w^k, ka gs^ nik, (kffi) 
da^ a nfd yi riy(. Ka sni anan, ka Chql e bu^gg, bgne. 

A certain man, a man of MwgmQ, a very good man, was killed by king Yq. 

His relations mourned for him. — At that time people (Shilluks) used to run 

away from the country of the whites (i. e. Arabs), these were caught by the 

relations of the dead one, they were all put into a house, and when they 

numbered sixty, then beer was brewed, and it was mixed with flour; when they 

had finished mixing it, they sifted it; when they had finished sifdng it, a drum 

was brought out, and one man was brought, and was killed; he was the one 

for beating the drum. Early next morning the drum was put into the house ; 

when they had put the drum into the house, again a man was brought out 

and killed ; and he was mourned. Thus all the sixty men were brought out and 

killed, in the place of the one man who had been killed by the king. That was 

the reason why the Shilluks were much afraid. 


ii6 Social Institutions 

20. A Quarrel between Husband and Wife. 

Jal wiku e liwitmQ. Ka ikan a ^ochQ b^nQ, e ka$iQ pi; kajal ffU tdrit, k^ne: a, 
ffa pi nqf Ya bu k^h, Ka ik»n a ^achu ka kwdna wgk* Ka g§, ngnQ, ka g§, tarq yi 
k§eh; chama iki butdfeA, ka litti^ bdAh tn^jlt yi k^h. 

Ka gi k^ hi kfratg, ki by^l, ka lian a ^Laehq, toiUi wqt (yi^), e kanQ gin eham. 
Ka gs, bsno, gi katQ by^l, ka gtpika pM; lian a ^aehq kiehi gin^ lian a ^ach(t 
pQfiQ ki gore WQt, Kd gi lUimit, ka lii ko: d, iwi, eh^ (eha) duQn a iron nuyi 
(niei), fiwdl indl Ka gQ liwaU. Ka g^ yuJQ ki by^ Ka lian a ^ocA^^/IcA^ kine: 
fiinda, a kicUf ayarewa re^t Jal e ko: iiiaw^tyaul gQii 4QgaI Kine: kipandt 
Kine: chd re a weke ya k^hf ko: i, fafe yin a kobi awa kine: ga pi nqf Ka ikd 
ffni k^ tDQk; ka wfffi cKwqI^ ka e b^nq; e ko: d, pyeehe ika wun^ weke ya 4^ga! 
kine: kipanqf Kine: i, pyeehe yau! Apyey ikon gni, kine: lianl d Hdif Akop 
note, eha wiki y^ i^gt^ Kine: i, hichk ydn! Na tyau, ie kwipl Ya k^la pi awa; 
a kdbi kine: ggn a pi nQ? Kffi ffii anan ; ^na (^ina) k^ffd. Kine: nl^! A fore yi 
k^hf a k^i g^ bi kwdle byil, a kijfl gin eham wgh gt ^k, Fafe k^A pii anan f a 
bjnis a kobi kine: ivfi, eha duQn a wan hy§U! a i^m gin, ind kdbd, kine: yd n^nt 
A kobi: fia tyaul goj/i ^Q^gal A koba kine: bihl na yin a ky^ dwJt, kine: ga pi 
nQ? Fafe kffi gni a b^ anani A kQla gin eham; a yidi. A kobe my Mn ini: yi 
kwata kapanQ? Adif chil byild a ktval yi yin! A kobe kine: kipanQ? Yad^a 
weke ya kschi Yi eha (yd) kAwa ! ^gi ggtia yin, A kgdo, a kale waf^ mffi ligi^ a 
tigi IwQge irt, a pimi kwqp. 

A certain man had married a woman. One day his wife came and brought him 
water (to wash his hands, as is the custom before eating). But the man was 
angij, and so he said: ''What is that water for? I am not hungry.^ Thereupon 
the woman went outside, she too was cross. When they went to sleep, they were 
troubled by hunger (both having eaten nothing). The man tried to lie down, 
but his eyes refused to close on account of hunger. 

In order to get something to eat, the man with a Mend (who lived in 
the same house) went to steal dura. But in the meantime the woman had pre- 
pared food and came into the house, after the men had gone. After some time 
they returned, bringing with them the stolen dura. They sat down in the house^ 
but did not know that the woman too was there; she hid in a comer of the 
house. And the two men ate. They talked to each other: "Ah, brother, you 
have a thick ear of com there, just let me touch it!^ And he touched it. So 
they ate the com from the ears. Suddenly the woman asked: ''My brothers, how? 
Why do you bring such shame upon me (by stealing com and not eating the 
food I have prepared)?'' Then the man said: "Tou cursed woman, loosen my 
cattle.** « She asked: "Why?** He said: ''Why do you leave me hungry?" She 

' This i8 the formnlA for : ^I will be divorced from jou.*' Loosen the cattle (give back the cat^) 
which I have paid jour father for 70a. 

Family Life \\^ 

replied: '^Not so ! did you not say yesterday: what is the water for ?** The man 
went out, he called his wife's father. When the father came, he said to him : ^ Ask 
jour daughter (what has happened), and then give me my cows.^ The father 
asked : '*Why ?'' He said : ** Just ask her !^ He asked the girl, saying : '^Girl, how 
is this? The man says he wants his catde back!^ She replied : ''I don't know.^ 
The father said: "You cursed girl, tell me all about it!^ So she told: ''Tester- 
day I brought water, then he said: 'What is that water for ?^ That is the matter. 
Then I went out.*' The father said : "All right^ The woman continued : "In the 
night he was troubled with hunger, therefore they went to steal com; in the 
meantime I brought the food, and saw that they were gone. Is not that the 
matter? And then, when they were eating, one said to the other : ^'Brother, what 
a big corn-ear you have!^ Then I said: 'Here am I!^ And he said: 'You 
cursed woman , loosen my catde !' And I replied : 'Dear me, was it not you 
who refused yesterday saying: what is the water for?^ Is not that the whole 
matter? I brought food, and he cursed!" After that the father of the girl said 
to the husband of his daughter: "Why did you steal? How is that? Restore me 
my com which you have stolen!" ' The man said: "Why? why was I lefl 
hungry?" The father only replied : "You are a thief! I will give you back your 
cattle." — When the husband heard that, he brought an ox for reconciliation, 
with tiiat he reconciled, he reconciled his father-in-law, and so the matter was 

2 1 . The Husband who wanted to cook. 

Jal mlArfi ^i ^ida fftDdlq; ka kopa (fane gil^ hine: i, i/ian^ ya toAa tpl!^ Ka 
nane ^ochQ ko: diehl Ka e ho: biK Ifll doch in I ^j^ yig(^ mdchwe yi f^U Kd h 
{o^. Ka e k^f ka kwsn ttuoi, ka 6hii (wara mal, ka gn M, yi^L ka gq ii| kohi 
paii, Ka kwffte chigq^ ka my paii rum yi py&i, ka kw^n tqk^ ka Iwgl duQn igke 
fka-^Ql ggn. Ka mffi a gope v>60^^; ka e bidq gan db^iJ 

Ka gin eham e pim ki chdm, e bldi yau^ ka 'han a ^chq k^fa wok, ka paii 
ikwdlis ka gQ yMi e t^k, obqi fwQwq, Kine : 6<M, u y^ ^^ (^ ^ Ka tii butq pM, ka 
tii dwofa mcU, ka lii gQyo, kine: bik, hi! Kwqp a bah dtoSgb* Ka lia ggl gsn ko: 
d gin Anii f Kine : ^ fafe gin M kwqp I m% Aa-didft, chwQla : M ckwe chwQla yi fi| 
cham dbih ka (ala gin cham a tint a toga obqi paii. KsA &ni anan, d& ehwQla yin 
ehwi yi obai, A kobi i/ian a daehq kine: wiy liara^ yi neke mare nq ch^f Ya fa 
doge Ifll lite. Ksj/i ffii anan; a ^koo{i iian a ^chq maU d (arie gin cham, a chdmi, 
ka chuiit filing. 

A certain man was very thin, and he said to his wife : "I say, my wife, I will 
cook in place of you." The woman said: "All right!" He said (to himself): 
"Why, cooking is a good thing, a man grows fat from cooking." So he cooked. 

' The mftn hftd — withoat knowing it — stolen the dura of his father-in* Imw. 

* **! will come later^, or: ''do later, cooking'' : I will cook after, instead of 70Q. 

* He remained thinking of the foam. 

ii8 Social Institutions 

He went and poured much water on the flour (to make bread), bo that the 
foam floated on the surface. He skimmed the foam off and put it into the hole 
near the grinding-stone. When the bread was done, he covered &e hole with 
a skin, and the bread he put into a large gourd for his wife, and what was 
left (in the pot), he scratched out for the children. (He did not take any food 
for himself^ because) he was thinking of the foam. (He bought the foam was 
the best of the food, therefore he reserved it for himself). 

When his people had finished eating, he sat quite stilly waiting till his wife 
had gone out. Then he uncovered the hole and saw that the foam had gone, 
it had dried off! He said : ''Dear me ! what shall I do now?** He lay down, he 
got up again, he was quite perplexed. He could not say one word ("talk re- 
fused to retum*"). His wife asked: "What is the matter?^ He answered: "Why, 
it is not a thing to be told; mother of my children, I thought because you are 
so fat, I thought it was because you used to eat foam, so I cooked the food to- 
day, and I put the foam into the hole. That is the matter. I thou^t you were 
so &t firom eating foam. His wife said : "Father of my child, what greediness 
has been troubling you?^ He replied: "I shall never cook again.^ That is it. 
The woman arose and cooked food, he ate, and was pleased. 

Sickness. Treatment of Sick People 119 


2 2. Treatment of Sick People. 

JO^fj^ hsh mhgi yijwqk, kafi dwai^ haje kifi kpie: ^j^ a lani WQ^ H jwokf 
Kd jh i kdb^: ^j^ e mfigi kidi yi jwqkf Kd dytl dwai^ ka tirQ Idm^ tdmajwQk, 
ha yi^ dyil n^lj ka pi w^i r^ kd dyil e nik, rgrnQ kidqfefif ka ehdm yi ^^. Ka 
iirQ tiyi^. Ka ^n u bit jwik i dttin ki r^ ka ajwogo dwai, Ka ajwogQ b^no, ka 
e kdbo kine: k§ni H kw^Tf ka e ko: kQni ki b^ ka e ko: kQni ki tau, ka e ko: 
kQni ki dyill Kd dy^l k^U ka dd^ e kijfi fyl^ kd dy^l ehiH wij irlty ka.dy^l yeji 
hdkf ka y^£ wiimi kdglt; ka ^j^ kifa fach^ kd jto^k i vAh^. 

When a man is seized by sicknesB, people are called for,, and the people 
ask: "Does he spend the whole night with sickness (is he troubled by night, 
so that he does not sleep)?'' Again they ask: "How did the sickness come?*' 
And a goat is brought, and the people pray, pray to God ; then the ear of the 
goat is cut off; spitde is sprinkled on die body of the sick person; the goat 
is killed, its blood flows on the earth ; the meat is eaten by the people. Now 
the people scatter (go home). If next day the sickness is still bad on him, a 
sorcerer is sent for. When the sorcerer comes, he says: "Bring a hoe I'' and: 
"Bring a fish-spear!** and: "Bring a skin-cloth,** and: "Bring a goat!**i When 
the goat is brought, the sick man is brought into the bush. The goat is put on 
the top of a white ant hill; its belly is cut open; when this is finished, the man 
is carried home, and the sickness disappears. 

23. Another Report on Sickness. 

Jwqii fhikQ liin^ fi dtoAl^. Ka ajwogq dwai, ka ajwogo, b^nq^ ka e ko kine: 
kini kwir, mpi kwofi ya%. Ka dy^l k^^ ka tdu k^l, ka oiiw^k k^l, kd pdl^ kal, ka 
b^ kilf ka yeeh kfil, kd liii k^l, kd ktn^ kil, ka oiiwQk b^ fH U tAdftt, ka yq^ 
tar mat. Ka ^jiQ, kal^ ^jt fika yeji, ka lUi gil gin chip nhj^y ka lia w&dt chip 
iHm^; ka otixaqk mif^ ka otiwqk e f^. Ka gs, dwdfA mdl, kd dy^l yiji kdk, ka wH 
gdfih rii gin ; ka mhit n^h ka chini n$l, kd ddt^ nol, ka gi ktvoii wiy tit. Ka yai 
tqky ka iiwipi jn, ka wild ndn ini, kd git tnA^ in. Ka attgh rSp, mdkwdfitf litn^ 
firjtf ka gQ twSch naj^ kd liii kdk, kd liij^l kdk, ka yech hwdi/iy ka kif^ pil yi yS, 
ka link yi yg, ka pi kiffi yey Iwql, ga chi^ fih ; ka bg^ ktodiii in, ka kwir kwdiii 
in, ka falq kwdni in, ka ring kwdiii in, kd dy^l kwdiii ^ in. 

Another sickness is called dwalq. When this falls on a man, the sorcerer is 
sent for. When he comes, he says : "Bring a hoe to dig medicine with.** Then 

' These «U are the fee of the witch-doctor. 
' kwdn yi in. 



a goat iB brought, and a skin-cloth, and a ram, and a knife, and a round spear, 
and a certain (kind of) grass, and a fan, and a gourd. The ram is laid on die 
earth at the door of the hut, with its belly turned upwards. Then the sick man 
is brought, he sits down on the belly of the ram, his wife is placed behind him 
(on the ram), and his youngest son in front of him; thus they hold the ram &8t, 
till it dies. Then they rise, the belly of the ram is cut open, the contents of the 
stomach are taken out and smeared on their bodies (of these three persons). 
The heart also is cut out, and the bowels. The hoof is cut off, and these things 
are buried at the door of the hut. Now the medecine is crushed, it is mixed 
with water, it is given to the sick man, and drunk by him. And they string 
beads, red ones, their name is firQy they are tied about his back. The fan is 
cut in pieces, and the gourd too, and the grass is taken, and brought into the 
bush on the pathway, it is throvm on the pathway; water is poured into the 
gourd and thrown on the ground. The round spear is taken by the sorcerer, 
so are the hoe, the knife, the meat, and the ram. 

24. Sicknesses. 

dwalu the abdomen is swollen, 

ajankobyef the skin peels off. 

pains, diarrhoea. 

Ih caries. 

tivi heart -ache, pulmonary 

tcd/9i a kind of light leprosy. 

df^nit cold, catarrh, [disease. 

kwtm ku^ swelling of the shin- 

dnih^ insanity, lunacy. 


owin wick giddiness. 

kamtr salt-rheum, ''lupus''. 

di^gi teeth fall out, pains in 

(^j^ffb small-pox. 

the bones. 

dbtp a sickness manifesting it- 

dliit dropsy, hydropsy. 

self in strong fevers, ge- 

adi^ pains in the buttocks. 

neraUy mortal, chiefly 

dkdgi rheumatic pains, chiefly 

children suffer from it 

in the legs ; feeling cold. 

ffi bwQtiQ "thing of the stranger'', 

ij^it^ guinea worm, Ferendit 

that is: of the Arab; si- 

of the Arabs ; filaria medi- 



kdjSj^ inflammation of thefinger- 

dmwltl swelling of knees and 

joints ; parts of the finger 

Uii leprosy [elbows. 

rot off. 

1^61/ib a disease of the head, the 

dn&ch inflammation of thejoints; 

hair comes out in con- 

of the toes. 

sequence of ulcerous in- 

aniin gonorrhoea. 


bdr boils. 

Names of Sicknesses 



%KtilUk the same as hmwijly but 
it is curable, amwQl is 
dwildit a kind of leprosy on the 
foot, takes a long time 
to heal. 
mi^ the skin becomes roogh, 
iitw6^hin dianrhoea. 
rhm diarrhoea. 
clArlt blindness, 
fi^'-fi^ eyelashes get red, £bJ1 off. 

yAIq, lameness. 

dh^ thigh-bone is affected, it 

is mortal. 
daon disease of the outer ear, 
chiefly of children. 
gtei^ii itching. 
ddwhii "a cripple who never 

athhit hunch-backed. 
by^ a disease of catde and 
men, pains in the back. 

122 Political Institutions 



25. The Election of a King. 

K^ rQii (yQii) ri^ M dwdi kwAri dttnit, ha wHH ha r^ ka gi midt, kaje k^dQ 
foffi 4(t^9 ^ ^^ ^S^> ^ ^^ macJh ka bUk, Ka ioHi lin^, Iffi yi mach^ ka maeh 
b^dq tdchf fa\e rH; ka chiki mekQ t^nq mach^ ka e lysfi nok, fate r^ ka chjjei teno 
maeJh ka e It/ilQ duon nqk, fa\e rijl; ka mikq chiH. ten mach, ka maeh e jg* fa^ 
ri^y ^o mlkQ ten mach^ ka e ly^l lygl dugn, ka pof^ f^l$ ka tirq ntf^^ r|| anan! 
Ka t^Q b^niif ka tiena pQl. Duki kaje bsno, kaje waf^paeh; tysn t^ a bi, ka 
gs, i/ii fgna pan, ka M gej^ dean,; ka ga hinq waj^i pan, ka gtj^ dean. Ka g^ wijfl 
Bdchdditi kajane dugn e p^chi^ kyie: amsn a kwdii yi Hl^ f kine: ilka rif^ nate, 

Chof^ ka jik dwdi, ka gi dwai MwQrni ki Tung. Ka e b^Q bene, gna jage bffie, 
ka hjogf k$m, ka t^Q k^d^, f^q kgfa farg, ka pare tyik, ty§k dky^L Ka je n^nit 
pttL Ka bar gni kaje b^Q, gg, kgfa pack. Ka tgn kwaM chini, kaje kejfl kal, ka 
tyghe man i ywitnb, Ni r^ji gni bedq wgt; kajake, kwa rij^ a chwQl, ka gg k^ 
kal, Ka tedet niU ki tgn; ka gg pofa wqt, kaiia rij^ kwdii gg wqk ki 10^. Ka e 
muJQ dean, ka dean nik^ yijak, ka gg chama ^an. Ka kil ka ttrit kd Thbhlhf ka 
jagg i kiinii ki atikt, ka atut chi^ni r^ ka kwgp kimi clii. 

When a king is to be elected, they bring the descendants of the Nubians, < 
and the sticks of the princes are broken. And some people go to the Nubian 
country, and bring some flint stones; they are put into the fire; then the fire is 
blown up; and a stick (of the princes) is thrown into it, into the fire; if the fire 
remains black, then that one (the prince or pretendent who threw his stick in) 
is not the king. Another stick is thrown in (by another prince) ; if the fire bums 
(flames up) a little, then this one is not the king. Again another stick is thrown 
in; if the fire burns a little high, that one is not the king. Another stick is 
thrown in; if the fire dies, that is not the king. Another one is thrown in, and if 
the fire bums with a big flame, and blazes up, then the people laugh: '"This 
is the king (the prince who threw in this stick, he is to be king).'' 

[Hofineyer says concerning this : "According to an ancient use which 
existed before Nyikang's time, a number of little stones according to the 
number of princes which have been proposed for election are thrown 
into a fire. Each stone has its name ; now the one whose stone remains in 
the fire without cracking becomes king. This test is repeated so long 
till only one single stone is left.] 
After that the people come (firom different villages) ; they sleep in the bush, 

* The Shillnks say: "When Njikang brought his people into the Shilink-conntiy, he brought some 
Nnbians with him ; these Nubians Uve in sereral yiUages among the Shillnks up to this daj; thej 
are known by the Shillaks, but in their outward appearance they do not differ from the Shilliiks.'' 
According to the report given above they seem to play or to have played ra^er an important 
rdle in the constitution of the Shilluk dynasty. It appears that the ShiUuks have been in some 
political conoection with the Nubians. 

Election of King 123 


the next morning they come near and enter the village. The people of the 
stones (those who brought the stones) come and turn to a certain village, and 
a cow is sacrificed; they go into the next village, and a cow is sacrificed (in 
each village which they pass, a cow is sacrificed). So they come to Fashoda. 
On arriving there, the great chief asks them : "Who has been elected by the 
flint stone?'' They answer: "This or that prince'' (calling the name of the 
elected one). 

That is all, and then the chiefs are brought (are sent for); they all are 
brought, from MwQmg to TOngo (the chief from each district, from the extreme 
north [MwQmo] to the south end [Tungg] of the Shilluk country is sent for). 
And they all come, that is, all chiefs come, and they talk about the matter. 
Then the people go to the village (of the newly elected king), they surround 
his village all around; after that they pass the night in the bush. Early next 
morning they go into the village again. Their spears are taken from their hands. 
They go into the enclosure (where the new king lives). The women cry. The 
king remains in the hut. The chiefs, the descendants of the kings, are called, 
they too go into the enclosure. The door-stick (of the hut) is cut off with a 
spear. They rush into the hut, and take the prince (the new king) out. He 
gives them a cow, the cow is kiUed by the chiefr, and they eat the meat. Then 
they take the new king to Tabalg, and they adorn him with beads, with dan- 
cing beads of the king. And they hold a long palaver. 

26. A second report on the Election of a King. 

Jak dwai; ka i^rq binQ^ ka g^ chukq, ka kwqp kimi, Ka fit, mdk, dwaifiri, ka 
k^fan duQn, ka r^h ^k k^l, ka ki^i ggl Nikatiy gql dugn^ Ka tirQ Utmi^^ kajwok 
film, ka Nikan tim; rii de mlfb. Ka rAmi^ ka pi HA re yi tirq bsn^ ka kijii kal, 
ka hoQk yi bane r|{. Ka e rufn, ka r^ kij^i Idu, tdnejago, ka tdn jagg, kd wtki^ ka 
k^ mal yech atitf^vnsh ; k^fa mal, ka e rtit, Ru wqu tp* dwai^ ka ty^ Niekan 
ka g^ dwai Akuruwar^ fay Nikan* Ka gi ben, gs_ k^la NilcanQ ki Dak, i gwgg^ 
hi okwQfi wttdQ g^ gtr; gc twojg ryi hb^b^tf gt k^L T^q ko: Nikan a bi, Ka ^k 
kil, kajal tn^kq y&p, ka kil, ka tau I6ii wbk, ka twdch, ka chip f^i^ ki yg. Ka iero 
htm bine bsne^ r]y( ya dir, ka tirg keld ku>Qm jal ini, i d^ k^^. Ka rAmi, ka ty^n 
ISikan bgnQ, gi kQlg onibirQ, ka t^rQ rffi, Hi e m?{g ki fian a dachq, gs, rtng Hfa 
iy^ Nikan, kifa gg ufwSt yi tygn Nikan, fwoti t§rg bgne ; nan a g$ch, kd chip 
Mty ka nane M ggch ka chip wai. Ka rii chy^ti, Ka g^ rgna wqt, ka dean kl^l, ka 
dean chw^p, ka r^ ki^l whk, ka f^rQ e binq b^ne b^ne^t^e, jagg b§ne; ka chip dok 
gol duqn, ka f^rQ Idm. Ka chyik: yi ku gik ki gi rcLchI Yi ku n^k kijhl Jyach 
f^AjagQ mi^! Ka ri^ dwofa mal, ka t§rg fikafeii, r^ bo^ bin^; de ban Hiya 

124 Political Institutions 


huit* Ka e hobo, hine: Shilg, tiini ydn bine! f& /d v)it hifd kwdl yu nsni hi ria 
hi dock. Ka ^^ ye: umb wub umb bine. Ka dean JeQl, ka ehwQp kifa hobe r^. Ka 
^k kiil, v^ki tygn Isikan, Ka jcd ffii ff^ii, ka e kg/^, Ka deaii ehtoop, min fiima 
ktoip, Ka rij^ e ki^i ki Ian nilkQ, Ian duon^ lane jagQ. Ka t&rQ e k^tb, mgn kgdQ 
fofe gsn, m^n k^fotfi g^n 

The chiefs are sent for; and the people (together with the chiefs) come, thej 
assemble and talk about the matter. And the king is seized, and brought (back) 
into his own village. He is brought to a large place, and there he is (publicly) 
elected outside the courtyards. They assemble in the court of Nyikaog, the 
large court; and the people pray, they pray to God, and they pray to Nyikang 
too ; during this time the king is held fiust. When this (praying) is finished, 
water is sprinkled on his body by all people; he is brought into a yard and 
is washed by the wives of the king. After that his body is covered with clothes, 
with royal clothes, and a royal spear is given to him; then he goes up to his 
royal hut, he goes up into it, and stays there one year.^ When the jear is 
passed, the people (the chiefs) gather, and the people of Nyikang are sent for. 
They are brought from Akuruwar, the viUage of Nyikang. They come and bring 
(the wooden statues ot) Nyikang and (of) D&k, they are beautifully adorned, 
many ostrich feathers are tied to them. When they are brought, the people 
cry: '^Nyikang has come!*' Now cattle is brought, and a man is sought, they 
bring him, strip his clothes off him, and bind him. He is laid on the ground 
in the midst of the road. And aU, all the people come, the king in their midst, 
and the people pass over the back of this man, they step over him. When that 
is done, the people of Nyikang come, and bring a whip, and the people run 
away; — the king catches hold ^ of a girl — they run ' away because of the 
[According to Hofineyei: (Anthropos V, page 333) this girl is always 
taken from the clan of the Ewa-okftI : "The Ewa-okftl come from the 
Bahr el Ghasal ; their ancestor was a relative of Nyikang ; but a crime 
committed by one among them against the house of Nyikang, reduced 
the clan. They were declassed to ordinary Shilluks, and as a punishment 
for their crime they were sentenced to pay a giri to the king. This contri- 
bution has to be delivered whenever a new king is elected, but in course 
of time it has become an honour and a profitable business . . . This girl 
always stands at the king's side during the ceremonies of election. Fortius 
tribute the clan receives clothes, beads, bells, lances, and harpoons. A 
hole in the ground near Fashoda is filled with sheep ; besides cows and 
oxen are driven into it, as many as may find place; these also belong to 
the relatives of the girl. This girl is now called nya kwer (i. e. child be- 
longing to the authority. W.). 

' or: **one day"? 
•or: "is held faet by" ? 
*yide page 128, 2 a. 

Election of King. Taxes 125 

There are several other clans which have the privilege of performing 

certain ceremonies in connection with the election of a king. One has the 

duty of fanning the king with a feather of the king of birds, another has to 

secure the dnra sticks with which the party of the king defeats the party 

of the enemies.^] 

people of Nyikang, lest they be beaten by the people of Nyikang; for they (the 

latter) beat all people, and eveiy one who is beaten, is put into a separate 

place and has to pay a fine to the people of Kyikang. All the people try to run 

into a house. 

Now a cow is brought, the cow is speared, and the king is brought out. All 
Ae people come, all the chieft, and they place the king outside the door of 
the great court; the people pray. The king is given these commandments: ''Do 
not do any wicked things! Do not kill people! Govern the country of the chieft 
in peace!*" And the king rises, and all the people go down, they kneel on the 
earth, but the wives of the king kneel beside him. And he says: ''Ye Shilluk 
people all, look at me! This is the country of my father and my grandfathers; 
you will live a peaceful life through me!'' And all the people say: ''Our father, 
our fieither!*' A cow is brought, and is speared on account of the prosperity 
(for the good speed) of the king. And cattle are brought, and given to the 
people of Nyikang. And the man (who was bound) is released, and goes home. 
Another cow is speared, which finishes the matter. And the king is covered 
with certain clothes, big clothes, royal clothes. Now the people scatter, each 
one goes to his own country. 

27. How Clothes are secured for the Royal Court. 

Ka t^Q kd bi dwdtr H Iqi^ Iq% kwir, gyik, Ka i^rQ e k^^ b§ni^ gi gir, ha jak 
e Utmh: yina yi}c ^f^ kwdbi pM dndn^ Iqx tyUk^ lai kwer chi, n de tun n twaye, u 
chudQ chi, E lam{t: yina yiJk Nikan^ k^ anpdydt yt^ wq ku ^tfi ki kwip! E ko: 
4, kwaye ^a^, ngk lai ki dock, u ki^r bQfi 6 gitn; niki d^h^ kdji^t^banQl Ka dy^l 
kil, ka ehwQPf ka gyinq kil^ ka n$lf ka dwar e k^^ ka iMn dwar kSl, ka gysk nik 
gt g^f ka firQ bpiQ^ kajak e chukQ, ka lai (ylr, ka g§, rumQ ty^rQ, kajane dugn, 
ka lai gichif ka e ko: jigi, kil m^k, ka e ko jak nate: kfl m$ky n6i/L Ka gs, neh. 
Ka g^ rumQ, nhkq, ka g^ kel, kif^ b^ tySTo; kajagQ ko kine: n^t E ko: i, d^ toa 
btt kQdQ gint Ka e kapo, ^teari^ ka ^ean kil, kajak ch^n^ ka g^ k^^ ka BaehodQ. 
Ka rii nodi, ka ko:jik d bi. Kifie: vmo, ton bi! Wu k^lingl Wq, k^lijanU kwer. 
Kvm: gi idlt Kine pyar abikygl. E kg: dqehl Ka r^ e kanQ toajf (^^*<^J?>) duQn, 
ka wikijak, ka nik. Ka jak e fijd, gi chUmiit ki ^ean. Ka g^ niehit' Kine: umo, 
hd u^tlt f Kine: i, fiti|ti jwgkl Ka jak e b^do, ka m\iki tycn, ka gs, fijii gi fnS^d- 

126 Political Institutions 

Kine : H, dqch, k^ kdlii jwQkl Ka g^ b§n(i. Ka g^ wajie foffi gsn, ka bul goch, ia 
t^Q cKqAq ki bul. Ka gs, logo : wuna yijk tffrQ, i, wd dUi^k, d^ bet peii i7id|- 

The people go hunting game, a game for the king, a gygk-antelope. And all 
the people go, they are many, and the chiefs address them: "0 ye people, 
(hear) a commandment of the king, concerning the gyek-antelope, which belongs 
to the king: if any man let the game escape, he shall surely be fined !^ Then 
they pray. '^O Nyikang, diis matter is under your auspices! Do not suffer us 
to have any mishap ! You grandfather of man, kill the game well, so that we 
may incur no debts! May it be killed well, o Nyikang!*' Then a goat is brou^t, 
it is speared; a fowl is brought and cut up. Now the hunting-party arises, eadi 
part (goes) in a different direction. And when many antelopes hare been kiUed, 
the people come back, and the chieft assemble, and the game is brought before 
them ; when they have brought it all, the big (district-) chief divides the jmim^ln^ 
and says: ''This chief shall take diis, and this one shall take that;** then he 
says: "Tan it!** And they tan it. When they have finished tanning, the skins 
are brought before the chief for examination. The chief (when he has examined 
them) says : "All right !^ Again he says : "Shall we not bring them (to the king) ?^ 
He seizes a cow, which they take with them (to Fashoda); all the chieEs 
assemble, and go to Fashoda. When they arrive there, they ask for permission 
to enter (the royal court). It is said to the king: "The chie& have come.** They 
greet the king: "Our Lord, we have come.^ He asks: "What do you bring?*' 
They answer: "Whe have brought royal goods.** The king asks: "How many?** 
They reply: "Sixty.** He answers: "Very well.** Then the king brings a big 
steer, and gives it to the chiefis. The steer is killed, and the chiefs stay to eat 
it, together with a cow. Then they ask the king for permission to go: "Our 
lord, shall we not go now? (we will go now!)**. The king answers: "Why, hold 
fast (to) God (that is: stay!)** So the chiefis remain; and beer is strained, and 
they stay to drink. Afterward the king says : "Well, all right, go now with 

When they come home and approach their villages, the drum is beaten, and 
the people dance to the drum; then they address the people; "O ye people, 
we have returned; may the country live in peace!** ' 

28. Making Boats for the King. 

A ksi terQ bi moot ki yfl|, yefe kwhy ka terQ nhd^, ka yq^ haU kd ttr^ l^^, ka 
tero waf^ifach. KajagQ chtogl, kayai iyST kd i n§nQ, ka e kqpQ m^ kaeko: kuHui 
ye^ ak! Ka kwdfi, ka e ko: mok an ba mok rih ka mQk an tygn, ka g^ kwoch, ka 
gi beno gin keau BachodQ. 

' The (fyfib-antelope belongs to the king, out of its hide clothes for the king^s wires are made. 



The people go to cut boats, boats for the kmg; and the people cut them, 
and bring the boats, all the people come (with the boats), and when they 
approach the village, the chief is called; the boats are put before him for 
examination. He looks at them, and seizes some, saying: ^Take these boats !^ 
They are taken, then he says : ^These belong to the king*' ; they are hewn (car- 
ved), are sewn together, and after that they row them to Fashoda. 


I. Ttnk 

4. DilT 

7. Dy^l 
10. AffunjtDf^ 
13. Obaydbudjip 
16. FeMdw&i 
19. Awdu 
22. Dqt 
25. Ku^git 
28. Fam^ 
31. FAdit 
34- ^indrh 
37- Bio 
40. Lfil 
43. AgwiiT^ 
46. Fh^ein 

49. GWt 

52. Dif^k 

55. Abyi^hi 
58. ^ily^h 
61 IJtmit 
64. M^i/ib, 

Provinces of the Shilluk country 

beginning from south. 
2. l^ijwildit 

5. Neldwdk 
8. Fhiik&n 

II. Ajbgit 
14. Obai'Dig^ 
17. OwQshl 
20. Dur 
23. A^Wi 
26. Obwd 
29. Ogitt 
32. Fdl^u 

35. ^iJ^ 
38. ^ifftc^ 

41. Kwjjm 

44. iv;^^ 

47. Lemq 
50. J^^cA^n 
53. Burbik 
56. Ojf^ 

59. Afwitdwii 

62. Akurutodr 
65. Mwltmi. 

3. JO^il^ 

6. TFdW 

9. Aryik^ 
12. ^(lifcdn 
i;. ^{{tdean 
18. Tw^r^ 

21. ^(^(/d 
24. Awitr^wfik 
27. i/a/diba/ 
30. TTdw 

33. Bbi 
36. i^rfWr 

39. Y'^ 

42. pa<;Ad(^ 

45. &^26a^ 
48. Kdd^k 

51. jzi; 

54. Mhl 

57. i^aii<ifean-0%i 

60. 2>ri 

63. AKIt 

The Clans or Divisions of the Shilluk People. 

The ShiUuks are divided into a number of clans or tribes, each of which is 
traced back to a common ancestor. In most cases this ancestor is a man, but 
some of the clans claim descendency from an animal. 

The following names of the clans and all the remarks added have been pro- 
cured by Reverend D. Oyler, ofDoleib Hilly who collected them from an assem- 
bly of natives, and had them afterwards examined by some Shilluk men who 

128 Political Institutions 

are known for being well versed in the histoiy and traditions of their people. 

The names are given in the succession in which the natives ennmeraled 
them. U there are two different traditions of a clan, the second is introdnced 
by: "Diff." 

The word Ewa means ''descendant^ 

[Hofinejer in ** An^opos^ enomerates 1 3 clans and gives some remarks 
on four of them.] 

J. Ktoa-Ajal, was founded by Jal, one of the men who came with Nyikang 
from his earlier home. Thej live at Nyelwak. They lay out the circle for build- 
ing the house of Nyikang. — Diff. : the clan was founded by Milo, who named 
it aftor his son Jal. Milo waged war with the sun, and got a cow. When Nyikang 
saw it he was pleased and asked, where he got it. On learning it had been 
gained from the sun, he sent Milo back for more. The latter managed to steal 
several ; but the sun became angiy and burnt Milo and his people. Eventually 
a batde occurred, in which the sun succeeded in killing all the catde except a 
pair of calves, which Milo saved by wrapping them in his cloth. He got them 
safely to earth. 

2* Kwa Mai, was founded by a man and a woman who came down from above 
(mal). They left their children on earth «nd ascended again. — Diffl : they 
died on earth; their home is Malakal. 

2 a. Kwa Leky was founded by two celestial beings, a man and his wife. It 
gets its name from the large wooden pestle that the Shilluks use in crashing 
their dura. They quarrelled over a lek; the man wanted to use it to stir the 
cow dung, at the same time the woman said she needed it for crushing dura. 
Neither would yield to the other. Seizing the lek they fought over it So violent 
was their quarrel that they fell to earth. Nyikang captured them and told tfaem 
to setde at Malakal. The woman taught the people to make beer. Later tfaey 
escaped and returned to the skies. At the crowning of the king their descendants 
strike the people with whips of sheep skin. The lek over which they quarrelled, 
is now at Malakal. — Diff. : they died at Malakal ; and diis is the same division 
as No 2, and should not be counted as a separate division. — 

[This last remark is no doubt right, as both 2 and 2a are of the same 
"celestial^ origin; moreover Hofineyer in '^Anthropos'^ givesa description 
of the kwa Mal which is identical with that of our kwa Lek. W.] 

J. Kwa Oman, was founded by a woman who was a wife of Nyikang. They 
do not appear to have a special function; live at Ogot. — Diff.: was founded 
by a man named Oman; they help to build the house of Nyikang. Oman was 
found by Nyikang in the Shilluk country. 

^. Kwa Mon, was founded by Mon ; Mon was found in the Shilluk country 

Clans 129 


by Njikang and became his servant. They help to build the house of Nyikang 
at Wau. They live at Ogot. — Identical with 3? 

5. Kvoa Juf or Kwa jQk, was founded by Ju, a half-brother of Nyikang on his 
fleer's side. Ju built the house for Dak. The Ewa Ju build the three houses 
of Dak in File on the White Nile. When they have finished building the 
house, an ox is killed by a half-brother of the king. 

They live at Mainam. 

d* Kwa Nyadwaii was founded by Nyadwai, an ancient king of the Shilluks; 
he was the son of Tugo. They are found at Apio and Adit-deang. They help to 
build the house of the king. — The son of Nyadwai was a servant of Abudok. 

7. Kwa Choar, was founded by Gwar, a servant of king Dokot. They build 
the houses of Dokot in three villages. They give the s^ns of Mrs. Gray's 
waterbuck to the king. Their village is Chet-Gwok. 

8. Kwa Nyikang y was founded by Nyikang, a servant of king Nyikang. They 
help to build the house of Nyikang. Then: village is Fakang (the village of 
Rang). — Diff.: it was founded by 01am, a servant of Nyikang. 01am was 
captured by Nyikang in the river, and brought out Nyikang settled him in the 
country. Olam is said to have been a man of tremendous appetite. 

p. ^won, was founded by a hippo-hunter named JS/wgn. He was found near 
Doleib HiU by king Abudok. The name jSlwgn means to walk in a stealthy 
manner. They help to build the house of Abudok. Their village is Twara. 

lo* Kwa Eei (or tij^ i. e. king), was founded by Nyikang. They all go to the 
crowning of a king. Their village is File. 

//. Kwa Tuki, was founded by a person that Nyikang discovered by the 
river. They taught the Shilluks to build the tuki (hearth-stones). It is made of 
three small pillars of mud built in a triangular shape. On the tuki the cooking 
vessel is placed. Before the Shilluks were taught to build the tuki, they used 
to dig a little hole in the ground for the fire. The Ewa Tuki help to care for 
the cattle of Nyikang. They live at Didigo. 

12' Kwa Chwal, was founded by Chwal, who was found in the Shilluk country 
by Nyikang. They live in Foj^ Nyikang, and help to build the house of Nyi- 
kang. — Diff. : Chwal was found on his way here. 

ij. Kwa Jan Nyikang; he had a Dinka wife, her people founded this 
division. They live at Ojodo, and ^elp to build the house of Dak. — Diff.: it 
was founded by a Dinka, who was the son of Gok, and came of his own firee 

j^. Kwa Tuga, was founded by Tuga, a foreigner. They say he was an Arab^ 
Nyikang married Tuga's sister, and her brother followed her. 

/J. Ktva KiIq, was founded by Okifo, a servant of Nyikang. He taught th^ 

WESTEBlf Aim, The BhOlvk People. 9 

130 Political Institutions 

ShiUuks how to prepare the mud for the tuki. Thej live at Foj^ Nyikang, and 
help to build the house of Nyikang at Foj^ Njikang. — Diff. : Okelo was a 
Nuba, whose sister was married bj Kjikang. Vide ii. 

i6* Kwa Oguti, was founded hy Gruti, a servant of Nyikang. He came into 
this country. They live at Twara and tear down the old houses of Nyikang. 

ly. Kwa Dak, was founded by Dak, a servant of Nyikang. They cut the first 
dura stalks for the house of Nyikang; they live at Owichi. — Diff. : Dak was 
the son of Nyikang; they build the house of Abudok. 

j<f. Ktoa OshiillQ, was founded by OshoUo, a servant of Odak. They build die 
houses of Odak, and live at Malakal. — Diff.: OshoUo was the son of Dak; 
they build the house of OshoUo, and also the king's house. 

ip. Kwa NeboifQ, was founded by Nyikang's blacksmith (bo^). He furnishes 
the name for skiUed workmen. They live at Nyelwak, and help to build the 
house of Nyikang at Foj^ Nyikang. Each year they give the king dried hippo 

20- Kwa Ouga, was founded by a man who once sat near Nyikang like a 
buzzard watching for meat They live at Nyelwal and help to build the house 
of Nyikang. 

21* Kwa Obqgity was founded by Obogo, a servant of Nyikang that had come 
with him. When they arrived at the Nile, the current was blocked up with sudd, 
so that they could not find a crossing. Then Obogo told Nyikang to kiU him. He 
was consequently thrust with a spear. When his blood touched the sudd, it 
parted, and a clear passage was furnished for Nyikang and his party. Obogo's 
self-sacrifice took place "at the end of the earth.'' They live in Fo^ Nyikang, 
and help to build the house of Nyikang. Vide 51. 

22* Kwa Og^cQ, was founded by Ogek, a servant of Nyikang. They get their 
name firom the fact that they were the herders of the sacred cow that Nyikang 
got from the river. They are found at Wau. 

2j' Kwa Nemwal Cthe crawlers''), used to be a part of No. 10, but Nyikang 
became angry with them and said they could no longer belong to the Kwa Bet 
They help to build the house of Nyikang and furnish hippo meat to the king. 
— Diff. : it was founded by Uwal, who was a member of No. 17. The division 
was effected peaceably, because the Ewa Dok had become too large for 
convenience. They help to buSd the house of Chal. Their residence is at 

2^- Kwa Okif, was founded by people that Nyikang found in the ShiUuk 
country. They first dug in the ground. They help in building the house of Nyi- 
kang. When a king is crowned, the chief of this division gives one of his daugh- 
ters to the king. — Remark. This division seems to be the same as Hofineyer's 

Clans 131 

Ewa Okal, of whom he sajB, '^Thej have come from the Bahr Ghasal; their an- 
cestor was a relative of Nyikang. Bat a crime which they committed became 
the cause of their clan being decimated. They became common Shilluks, and 
as a punishment for their crime they had to pay a girl to the king. This tribute 
is repeated at each new election. The girl is called nya Kwer^^ (i.,e. girl of the 
authorities, girl of taxes). Vide also 75. 

25. Kwa Lqbo, or Oshu, was founded by Oshu, the son of Lobo, a servant of 
Abudok, who was found in the Shilluk country. They help to build the house 
of Abudok, their residence is in Owichi. — Diff. it was founded by Okola, the 
husband of Lobo; they were the parents of Oshu; servants of Nyikang. 

2d- Kwa Buna (BuiUqI), was founded by foreigners who have come in. To 
become a member in good standing it was necessary for the member of each 
famity to give a daughter to the king. The ancestors of the division were stran- 
gers who married Shilluk women and took up residence in the Shilluk country. 
They are found at Nyigir. 

2y» Kwa Otovq; are the same as 23 (?) Are found at Yonj. 

28. Kwa DqJcq^^ was founded by Pakg^, a servant of Dak; they were found 
in the Sobat region by Nyikang. According to some they are the descendants 
of Dokot They build the house of Dak. Their residence is at Gur. 

2p. Kwa NimgnQs was founded by NifngnQ, who was found here by Nyi- 
kang, who married his daughter. They live in Gur. 

JO. Kwa Owin, was founded by a man who tried to deceive Nyikang. The 
name Owen means deceiver. They are servants of Nyikang, and help in build- 
ing his house. Nyikang brought them from a distance; they live in Fof^ Nyi- 

ji. Kwa OritQ, was founded by Oritq, whom Nyikang found in the Shilluk 
country. They help to build the houses of Nyikang and Dak. Their residence 
is in Nigu and Wubo. 

j2* Kwa Wun, was founded by a man who tried to hide all the fish of a 
certain kind (eshura) from Nyikang. When Nyikang asked for them, he said 
there were none; but his treachery was found out. If any of this division eat 
of this kind of fish, he will die. They are found at Tonga and furnish fish and 
other water animals to the king. They also help in building the house of Nyi- 

jj. Kwa Nishine, was founded by a man that Nyikang found near Tonga. 
They live at Tonga, and help to build the house of Nyikang. 

j^. Kwa Nat, was founded by Nai, a servant of Dak. They help to build 
the house of Dak that used to be on the mission ground at Doleib Hill. They 
are found at Obai and Abijop. 


132 Political Institutions 

jj. Kxoa Dwai, was founded by Dwai, a servant of Dak. They help to build 
the house of Dak and are found at Foj^ Nyikang. — Diff.: Dwai was a servant 
of Nyikang. He was a Nuba, who came into the country and was taken by 

[This last remark is probably right, as the Nubians are generally 
addressed: Nya Dwai.] 

j6' Kwa Agodi^ was founded by Agodo, a servant of Nyikang. He was a 
foreigner that Nyikang found here. They live in Obuwa, and help to build the 
house of Nyikang. — Diff.: they build the house of Oshollo in Ditong. 

jy. Kwa NideaUj was founded by a Dinka who came into the ShiUuk country. 
They live at Obai, and build the house of Dak. 

jS. Kwa NikogOi was founded by NikoffQ, a servant of Nyikang. Nyikang 
found him in this country. They build the house of Nyikang; their residence is 
at Didigo. 

jp, Kwa Dun, was founded by Adun^ a Dinka, who was a servant of Abudok. 
They are found at Owichi. — Diff. : he was a servant of Nyikang. 

^o. Kwa Okwaiy was founded by Okwai, an ancient fisherman found in this 
country by Nyikang. They live at Adodo and build the house of Nyikang. — 
Diff.: he was a Dinka, and was found by Duwat. 

^i. Kwa Jalo, was founded by Jalo, a servant of Odak. They live at Adit- 
deang, and build the house of Odak. — Diff. : he was a son of Duwat. 

^2- Kwa Ogwat, was founded by Ogwat, a servant of Odak. They build the 
house of Odak. Tonga is their home. 

fj. Kwa Omal, was founded by Omal, a servant of Odak. They build the 
house of Odak ; their residence is at Malakal. — Diff. : They are the same as 
No. 2, and should not be counted as a separate division. * 

^. Kwa Wan, was founded by Wan, who crowned Nyikang. Wang was found 
in the Shilluk country. They live at Okun and Dur; they have a part in die 
crowning of the king. 

^5. Kwa OkonQ was founded by OkonQ, a servant of Nyikang, who was 
found in the country by the latter. They live at Eakugo. and help to build the 
house of Nyikang. — Diff. : They build the house of Dak. 

^6- Kwa DuwQt, was founded by Duwat, a servant of Dak. They are the 
chief of the servants of Dak; they live at File. 

^7. Kwa Ku^ was founded by Oku, a servant of Nyikang. Nyikang found 
him on the bank of the river in the Shilluk country. They build the house ot 
Nyikang. Their home is Arumbwut. 

^S. Kwa Ygdo, was fended by Oyodo, a servant of Nyikang, found in the 
ShiUuk country. They help to build the house of Nyikang. Their home is in 

^ They may, however, be a subdiviBion of 2, as Omal means "descendant of MaL** 

Clans 133 

F(yf^ Nyikang. — Diff: Nyikang brought Ojodo from a distance. 

^p. KwaOkogi^ was founded by Okqgq^ a servant of Nyikang. He was brought 
from the Nuba country. They help to build the house of Nyikang. Their resi- 
dence is at Detwuk. — Diff.: he was found in the Shilluk country. 

50. KvHi Mu%9 was founded by Omui, a Nuer servant of Nyikang. They live 
at Adit-deang. 

57. Kwa Obony was founded by OHqny a servant of Nyikang. He was found 
in the Shilluk country. He ate the meat cleaned off the skin of Nyikang's 
catde. They live at Nyelwal. — Diff. : Obon was brought here by Nyikang. 

52. Kwa Chwd ("soup"),' was founded by Chwai, a servant of Nyikang, who 
was found here. Their frmctions are the same as the preceding, except that when 
an ox of Nyikang is kiUed, they get the soup. They live at Nyelwal. 

5j. Kwa Rinoy ("meat^), was founded by BinOy a servant of Nyikang, who 
was found in the Shilluk country. At the killing of an ox of Nyikang they get 
the meat. 

5^. Kwa f\fen ("skin*'), was founded by Ofygriy a servant of Nyikang found 
in the Shilluk country. They get the skin of Nyikang's catde. They live at 

5/. Kwa Wich ("head"), was founded by Owichy a servant of Nyikang found 
in the Liri-country (Eordofan). They get the head of Nyikang's catde. Their 
home is at Nyelwal. — Diff. : Wich was a Dinka. 

j6. Kwa Shirty ("intestines*'), was fonnded by Sh\ny a servant of Nyikang. 
They get the intestines of Nyikang's catde ; live at Nyelwal. 

57. Kwa NilsnQy was founded by Olffiy a Nuer servant of Nyikang. They 
help to build the house of Nyikang. Their residence is Tonga. 

jS' Kwa Nyi^oJcy was founded by O^ky a servant of Dak. They help in 
building the house of Nyikang. Their home is Dur and Obai. 

j-p. Kwa AyadQy was founded by Ayado^ a servant of Dak. They make a 
preparation of bean leaves and give it to the king, who puts it on his body. 
They are found at Dur. — Diff.: he was a servant of Nyikang, they help to 
build the house of Nyikang at Malakal. 

6o» Kwa AnuU was founded by Anuty a servant of Nyikang found in the 
Shilluk country. They taught die Shilluks to make fire by friction. At the crown- 
ing of the king they make fire. They are found at Fotou. 

61. Kwa Nyerifiy are descendants of Nyikang. They are the royal class. The 
king is chosen from among them. Their village is Yoyin. Vide io» 

62. Kwa DoAy was founded by Offouy a Nuba, who came into the country. 
He was a servant of Nyikang. They help to build the house of Nyikang. Their 
village is near Tonga. 

* These and some of tiie following as well as of the preceding names are ^>parentl7 not really 
names of ancestors. 

134 Political Institutions 

63. Kwa Od^nQy was founded by Odgn, a servant of Abudok. They help to 
build the house of Abudok. Their village is Twara. He came into the country. 

64* KvHi Wubq, was founded by TFu&fi, a servant of Nyikang. He was a 
brave man, who was never afraid. When the cows of Nyikang got into his 
dura, he watched them, and killed one cow. Nyikang told him that something 
bad would happen to him. As a result his village was attacked by the Nuers, 
and a large part of his descendants were killed ; so it is a small division now. 
Wubo was very skilful in the use of weapons. -^ They do not rub ashes on 
their faces and bodies. They help to build the house of Nyikang. They live at 

dj' Kwa Nikai, was founded by Kir, a servant of Nyikang. He was found 
at a distance. At the death of the king they beat the drum. They live in Gur. 

— Diff. he was found in the river by Nyikang. 

dd. Kwa Yq, was founded by Yd, a servant of Odak. They help to build die 
house of Odak. Their village is Obwo. — Diff.: he was a servant of Nyikang; 
they help to build the house of Oshollo. 

dy. Kwa Gauy was founded by Ogau, a servant of Odak. He was from the 
Anywak country. They help to build the house of Odak. Their residence is at 

68. Kwa Mwals was founded by Mwal, a servant of Nyikang. He crawled 
away from battle. They do not eat of the flesh on the knee-joint They help to 
build the house of Nyikang. Their home is at Ogot. Vide 23- 

dp- Kwa Kam, was founded by Eam, a servant of Nyikang. He was a fish 
which Nyikang caught and changed into a man* They are found in Fojie DwaL 

— Diff. : he was brought in by Dak, and was his servant. 

70. Kwa Okafiy was founded by Ohafiy a son of Dokot. They help to build 
the house of Dak. Their home is at Fojie Dwai. — Diff. : he was of Arabic 
descent. When a king is crowned, and the king starts to Tonga, they sweep 
the beginning of the road with a hen. 

yi. Kwa B^U was founded by Bel, a servant of Nyikang. He was an Anywak. 
They are at Mainam. They help to build the house of Nyikang. — Bel once 
fought against Mui. 

y2. Kwa Niyohy was founded by Oygky a servant of Nyikang. At the crown- 
ing they ring the beUs. 

/J. Kwa Neyoky was founded by Oyghf a servant of Nyikang. At the crowning 
they ring the bells. They live at Fashoda. 

y^, Kwa Netyf^, was founded by Otysn^ a servant of Nyikang. He was sent 
on an errand by Nyikang and forgot; thus he got his name. They are found in 
Fahan; they help to build the house of Nyikang in Fahaiu 



30. The ShiDuk 


I. Mkhnk 

2. i>4i 

3. SWZ 

4. An6n6 

5. OdaJfe 

6. DuwQt 

7. BtOQch 

8. Dikbt 

9. Abud^k (queen) 

10. Tiigit 

II. OArw^, OJtron 

12. Nhdwdi 

13. i^a^Jfe^ 

14. KAdk 

15. ^dhohcKi^ 

16. Jn^' 

17. -4Jtu?^t 

18. ^ti^en 

19. Akich 

20. JV^doJfc 

21. Kwafjc^ 

22. 4/^^ 

23. Kwhylkwin 

24. Y^r 

25. .4£oZ 

26. iSTtar 

27. Pcufyl^ 

A. E. S. has the foUowing list (according to Father Banholzer at Lul, and 

Dr. Giffen at Doleib Hill). 

I. Nyakang 

2. Dag 

3. Oda^^ 

4. KudU 

5. Dokodo 

6. .Bo; 

7. Tugo 

8, iS^a i>M7ai 

9. iS^a Ababdo 

10. Mtiko 

II. iSTya To 

12. Nyakong 

13. Okun 

14. NyaGtDaUe(Nhjoaji) 

15. Nyadok 

1 6. Akwot 

17. Ababdo 

18. ^tmn 

19. Akoj 

20. A^«doi (Nyadoh) 

21. XtiKu2 A:«tr 

22. Ajang 

23. &trtn jrun (Ktooe i 


24. For Adodit 

25. 44ibZ 

26. JTwr WW iVtfdoA 

27. Fadiet Wadkwadkeir. 

3 1 . The Burial of a King. 

jRil[ ^a fi| triiii^ fi| A^ tr^^^ JTa ^^n ehwgpy ka fyeni ySch, ka rir^ ka ummi 
rerQ, ka yg^ dwai, ka g^ nqt, g^ d tdkugi k^U ^ gt ktoofi feii. Ka dil ffii kd g^ 
tddi tit tabate. Ka g^ rum^ ki tadq, ka r^ k^l; e hichi f^rq, ka kijfi toQty ka ruk 
ki tdnQ kwati. Witmin aryqu ka g^ k^l, ka g§, kife wgt; ka mUcn m?{j2 wj^, ka 
mikQ fm|2 ty^hs ka men 0te ki atdbd ki dik, ka lian 0te ki atabQ ki dak, Ka togt 
mulf de bu yQ men yeje kQle ytv^* Ka ge b^dQ toQt, maka dwat aryqu, Kd gi f^ 
ka kouQ, ka reigi yikk ^n^. Ka ge kiUi wiy wQt; rin d j(dm, ka gn dqna ehU, Ka 
jak dwai bpi wufe > Tiin^ ka wufe ' MwQmQ, jagi b&i betu Ka gs. kgdo, mffi e 
kltti ^Lehn; n wajfB gffiy ka ^k ^ni chgn kdch dky^l, ka ge chwdp.^ Ka ge kine: r^ 
a waiL Ka iffrq, ywQrii ka ^ean rnikQ ytch, ka fy^n, e niii, gn a^p. Ka ahu Tij^ 1^ 
yeeh aj^pf ka kSii fefi; d kdn, ka ywQk ywQk. Ka t^ro, b§n(i bpie b§ne bene. Ka ton 
^f^ gt 9^9 ^ gi, twSch, ka ge kite yi ygi, ka okQt kife yi yet gir^ ka ttk kjjfi yi 
yei gtr, ka pyfci kjfe yi yei, H timii hi t^t. Ka fi kQl, gen aryqu^ men aky^ iHane 
dachf men okyi^ i/^nejaU fi mqge dieh, ka ge k^ yi yei, ge i^bj^f chyen gen fd 
(i fgehiy H ty^i gin fd d tichi; niekQ ya fa yeit mekQ ya yei yei' Ka yei keath ka 

' w^; reaching T., and reaching M., L e. from T. nnto M. 

* generally: ehwQp. 

136 Political Institutions 

vjyii^ de nam^ ka ygi n^ tw6yi u fi kefe g^ yiji. Ka y S keau k^ yi y§i m^Q, ka 
ysi a tiDoye, e mudo, Mji ki yej^ kijam b^, ka g§, i^a nam. 

When the king disappears (that is, dies)/ his body is laid in a hut A cow 
is speared, its skin removed, and cat into strips. When they hare finished this, 
trees are brought, they are hewn with a certain ax, and then they are driven 
into the earth. With the strips (of skin) they unite these trees to a bier. When 
the bier is ready, they bring the body of the king — but without the people 
knowing it — lay it on the bier, and put it in the hut again. The body is adorned 
with a leopard-skin. Two girls are brought, and are put into the hut, where 
the body of the king is. One holds his head, and one holds his feet. Each of 
the girls is given tobacco and a pipe. Now the hut is walled (all openings are 
walled with mud), so that there is no way for the air to enter. They (the two 
girls) remain in the hut, and die there. The people wait two months; about 
this time the worms (who have eaten the flesh of the three bodies) have turned 
into bugs, and they come crawling out through the roof of the hut. Now (the 
people know that) the flesh (of the three corpses) is consumed and only the 
bones remain. Then all the chiefs of the Shilluk country are summoned, be- 
ginning firom TQngQ,^ and reaching to MwgmQ ; all, all the chiefe. And they come, 
each one brings a cow; when they come near Fashoda, they gather these cows 
at one place; and the cows are speared. Now it is said publicly, "The king 
has disappeared.^ And the people weep. One of the cows is skinned, the skin 
is tanned and made into a bag. The bones of the king are put into this bag; 
and they are buried in a secret place. But still the mourning goes on, alL 
all, all the people mourn. And spears are gathered, a great many; they are 
tied together, and put into a boat; and cattle-bells are put into the boat, and 
beads, and pots, and dishes, and gourds. And two people are brought, a man 
and a woman, fine people, they are laid into the boat, they are bound, their 
hands and their feet are bound; one is laid in the back part, and one in the 
firont part (of the boat). The boat is rowed into the middle of the river, there 
the boat is pierced, so that water enters into it. The men who row the boat, 
get into another boat, and the boat which they have pierced, sinks down widi 
the people in it, and all the goods, together with the people, perish in the river. 

32. The Man who took the Law into his own Hand. 

Jal mekQy fia 9^, chwQla JBuk De JqIc Bun Da^imQy ka gt ^oiS^. Buk dgeh; 
wqt bani, chwQla OkanQ, A gwQiA ki Aytk. Ka gs. go?^ ki Bure Nakwach^. Ka 
wqt ban^ pQra bolf^ ka kel yi Ayxk ki tin, kd i j^. Ka AgwQTQ c1i§jte yi rif^ ka 
TitoQle maky a k&l Ayik Detan, 

I Of a king it is not said: "he dies", but ''he disappears". — It is said: the king does not die of 
his own accord, bat when he is reiy old, or sick, and the people think that his death is near at 
hand, his chief wife strangles him with a cloth. 
' = Tonga. 

Records 137 


A certain man, a prince, whose name was Bnk De Jok Buin DdnyimQ, 
carried on a law-suit. Bnk was a good man; he had a slave, whose name was 
OshangQ. He carried on the law-suit with Aylk, in the court of kingNyakwacho. 
And his servant ran in front of him (or: came instead of him, viz. of his master), 
and was stabbed by Aylk with a spear, so that he died. (As a punishment for 
this misdeed) the village OgwgrQ (which was the village of Aylk) was de- 
stroyed by the king; the children (of the village, or of Aylk) were caught, and 
Aylk was brought (banished) to Detang. 

33. A killed CrocodUe is the Property of the Magistrate. 

Kofi mak nam^ ha t^Q k^dQ^, ka tero nlni gat^ ka bii min peA, ka rech e h^nQ^ 
ha bgi mQffO ki rechy ka je fjH^Qy ^^ j^ chamQ. Ka togu ruy ka maye henq^ ka ierq 
mQffQi ka lian ka kily ka e makQ ki ddf^ Ka tsrQ rsAa toQk, ka tt/pi fek e donQ, ka 
ddf^ k^l g^ woky ka Han niki, Ka t§rQ ki togk, ka joke benQ, ka g^ pichQ : lian a 
gwok edit Kine: e hekl Kine: d^iga kgAt Kine: nut, Yech! Ka gech. Ka e ko: 
ndU, ba gik l^gQ. Ka kijfi pack l^gQy ka tero b§nQ chiy ka ikan 01 gijago, liane 
iQgQ. Ka e chtootQJe, kajakdwai, ka e cham; terQko: Oy ium an dock. DuH m§kQ 
ka ^an niekQ kwdii, ka cJidm yi tere gau. 

Kajago e chwQtQy ka t^q b§nQy ka e picJiQ kine: wuna gikj&k, ga peiia giche 
fhlkoy snd kwaAu ki geg nam kd; kine: i gin in^t Ya peAa kufil. Kine: iy kuchh 
win! Kine: iy faffi ilian a cham kipag nate? Kine: i, e ctidmQy liwole liaii tOt^* 
Kine: iy chSld! Ka e kg^dQy kine: ga ba chudq. Kine: i, tea kd BaeltodQ, Kine: i, 
tea ksi^. 

Ka g^ ksj^ ka g^ toifa BacKodQy kd gt gt'^itf Hne : wuo (wtie)y gd ^li gi kwip 
kwofe nate; kwil a chdmi ^y kwal l^gQ. Kine: t, gi chama no, natef Kine: vmoy 
kuchi gdn. jR^ e ko: £r£y (xidi)* k^ chol ki ^k gd pgdroy ki ^^! Ka e benoy ka 
e ehudq ^k gd pgdrq, ki ^j^; ka g^ kgl hole rij^y u t^e l{ne^y ka g^ rumq. 

It was at the time when the river was barred (shut up for fishing), and the 
people slept on the river bank, and the net was sunk down on the bottom of 
the river, and the fish came, and the net caught fish, and the people cooked 
and ate them. And when it grew morning, the fishermen came, and the 
people went fishing again, then a crocodile was speared, and it seized a man; 
the people became afraid, and ran away, but those among them who were 
brave, remained; they brought the man who had been bitten by the crocodile 
out on the river bank. Then they killed the crocodile, and went out of the 
river (taking the crocodile with them). The chiefs came, and asked, ''What 
about the crocodile?^ They answered, "It is killed.^ They asked again, ''But 
where is it?** Answer, "It is still here.^ The chiefs said, "Skin it!^ And it was 

^ "When the rirer was caught, and tiie people went". 
' that the people might hear. 

138 Political Institutions 

ekinned. The chiefs said, "Cut it up ! It is the property of the magistnite.'' 
So the meat was put into the house of the magistrate. All the people came ; 
the crocodile was cooked by he chief, the crocodile of the magistrate. He 
caUed all the people, and invited the neighbouring chieft too; they ate the 
crocodile. The people said, "Ah, this crocodile is good !^ Some days later 
they again caught a crocodile, and it was eaten by the people. 

But the district chief had heard about the matter. He called all the chiefs 
of his district together; they came, and he began, "You chiefe, I want to ask 
you something, it is the thing which you got from the river there.^ They 
asked, "What do you mean?*' He replied, "I am asking for some animal you 
killed.'* They said, "We do not know!** He asked, "Why, has not a crocodile 
been eaten here in somebody's village ?** They answered, "Yes, that is true, 
it has been eaten by the litde children.*' He said, "Make amends for it!" But 
they refused, saying, "We will not do that.'' Then he said, "Well, we wiU go 
to Fashoda (to bring the matter before the king)." They said, "All right, let 
us go !" So they went, and arrived at Fashoda. There they told their case, 
saying (the district-chief speaks first), "My lord, I am in difficulty about some 
matter, the matter of a certain man, he has eaten a killed animal, an animal 
belonging to the magistrate." The king asked the accused one, "Why did you 
eat it, man?" He answered, "My lord, I did not know." The king said, "Why! 
go, and make amends! You are to give ten cows and a man." The chief 
brought what was asked, into the enclosure of the king, so that all people 
heard it, and learned to be careful.' 

34. How Fashoda became the Royal Residence. 

Ka jak rif^ Tiig^y jak a piri, chwQla JsewaJQ. Ka w^i ha g^ M biriQ, gs. ^^ g<i 
toQfe chSt, ka gi ii{ gwQtQ my pack ki chanQ. Ka r^ e kobQ kine: iih, g^ r^ ru 
wUh ^ ^^^ gh^ g^Qfdf Kine: tysre pan gnu A gir pan gnii a PacKodQ; a d^ge 
Tugn yqf^ a kdbi TugQ kine: fan ffii n chojk d pit rgiil A bane M roik tjdQ yejg. 
A rlim ijdgits a kdbi kine: ka wQda u rSii, a f^iAi. 

King TugQ reigned, he reigned in his own village, which was called Nyew&JQ. 
And there were oxen, they used to come (to some place), they were oxen 
without horns, called chod, they used to dig the ground of that place widi their 
heads every day. When the king saw that, he said, "My! why are the oxen 
always digging the ground?" He said, "They like this place." So a village 
was built there, it was Pachodo. TugQ moved firom his place into this new 
village. He said, "This village shall always remam the village of election (the 
village of the king)." Since that time the people elect the king in it. When the 

* Crocodiles belong to the king ("to tiie Mitiiorilj,niagistrmte,'') nobodj is allowed to eat them 
without pennisdon of the king or the district chief, Here the chiefs of tiie yillagee try to usurp 
the priyflege of tiie district chief. > From bgdQ "to be**. 

Records 139 

king (TagQ) had finished his reign, he said, "My son shall be elected!'' And he 
was elected. 

35. A Law-suit about Dowry. 

Kf^ ikg| jt htf^^y kaje k^dos kaje pika pei/i, Ka pan fnt chgn^ ka ^j^ u^ 
pichitf kine: i/&ptdo kdchdjdml Kine: kdchi jam kuchi ydnl* Kine: yi nUti kipqf 
Kine: yi mffi ant Kine: yi toiu. K^ye ygt kiichi ydn I Kine: kipanq kuche yin f 
Kine: jal ton amanf Kine: jal tgn nate. Kine: kwAik jam! Ka jame kwdn. A, 
nate, yi re a pirn f ^k pate dyer t Ka je kg^i be giA, Ka je k^dQ, ka rjj,e yit^ ka 
gdii goA kine: umo, toQ chQfi kd fidl dtn. Kine: wu kgrna kwQf anQ? Wq koma 
ktaqfe dqk. Aid, gojkunl Kine: i, vmo, toi hl^ cha wq, pyiji in ki kwofe ^k, d^ i 
ky^f eha ^k kuji. A cA^^d ji, a chqn jt, a kimh kwdp, a kwaii jam, ka dqk pika 
kAchi gin. Kaje yeyq, j^k d^jn; dg, chaka kp* yau. £, arg U^i gifi, Kine: wa igu 
ya 0j^; di, ^k kache gin kuja, dg nUt{ kdbi. KiA ini hnhn, a ban kyidd. Ka r^ e 
IqkQ chyi, kine: fi^ kinau, yi ba wHjUl a k^r! yi re k^re dgk Qrg? Kwifi rack! 
kiff ehidi ki ^f^!jal, kayH^ mileh ki ^k abich. Ka e muJQ ki ddj^, ka gQ kili, ka 
tyffi pan ffii ch^ kine: yd chiidl ki ^j^, kgii fnt anan. D^ch! A ki^, a ty^ni 
mqgui, a chiwul tysn £ni, a bftiy a tyire ffdj^ tir^ gin. Ka gt yet chyi^ Hne: dich, 
wi ba todt. A kgj^ gin, a kdl ifok, ka ddf^ mifch gin. 

At a certain time the people went to ask for indemnities, they went to the 
village (where the debtor lived), and sat down. The people of the village 
assembled. When the man began to ask, "I want indemnities for certain 
goods,'' the debtor replied, ''I do not know anything about goods (which I 
owe you.)" The man asked, "Have you not been told?" He replied, "By 
whom?" The man said, "By your father." The debtor said again, "I do not 
know of anything concerning debts." The man said, "Why do you not know 
it?" Then it was asked, "Who is the judge?" The answer was, "That man is 
judge." He aid, "Count the goods (which you claim from this man)." All the 
goods were enumerated. The judge said tho the debtor, "Man, why do you 
deny? Is it not true what he said?" And the people went to bring the matter 
before the king. They found the king, and the matter was told. They said, 
"Our lord, we have come with this man." The king asked, "What a palaver 
do you have?" They answered, "We have a palaver about catde." "Well," 
said the king, "tell me!" The accuser said, "Well, our lord, we came to ask 
him (the debtor) about the matter of the catde; but he refused; he said, he 
did not know anything about cattle. So I assembled the people, and when 
the people were assembled, I talked to him, and enumerated the goods, and 
the cows (which I said he owed me) were found right; the people consented 
(to my statement), the old people. He refused again to acknowledge it." After 

' tf is here conditional: "when**. 

* "iiie plaee, L e. the matter, of goods is not known by me**. 

* < y^ 6 "yon wiD". 

I40 Political Institutions 


that the king said (taming to the accused one), "Well, now you also tell your 
talk I ^ He said^ "My father died while I was a little child; but the cows, I do 
not know anything about them. I was not told; that is the reason, Iberefore I 
refused to give them.^ Then the king gave his judgment thus, "Well, so it is, 
you are a man who refused (to give what is due) ; why did you refiise to give 
Ihe people their cows? Your matter is bad. Go, and pay a girl as amends, 
and you (turning to the accuser), man, give him five cowsl^ The debtor gave 
the girl, he brought her to the village (of the accuser). When the people of 
the village had assembled, he (the accuser) said, "I have been indemnified 
with a girl; thus is the matter now.^ The people say, "All right. ^ Then he goes 
to strain beer; and he caUs the people. They come; he presents the girl to the 
people to be examined (whether it is a sufficient pay). And they consent, 
saying, "Very well, we are Mends now.** 

They go away, the cows are brought, and the girl is recognised by them. 
[A man has married somebody's daughter; after some time the girl, his 
wife, dies ; now the father of the girl has to return part of the dowry 
which has been paid to him for his daughter. But in the meantime the 
father of the deceased wife has died too, and his eldest son has become 
his heir. The husband of the dead wife goes to this man, the brother of 
his dead wife, and wants his cattle back. But this man denies knowing 
anything about the matter, pretending his father did not tell him before 
his death. They therefore go before the king, who decides: the heir has 
to give his brother-in- law another girl instead of the deceased one; and in 
return the brother-in-law is to give the heir five five head of catde, 
which is about half the usual price for a wife.] 

Nyadwau Golit 141 


36. Nyadwai. 

Na r^ tnilcQy chwQld JSadtoai, «i mat/Q rech. Ka reck niikQ dyir^ yin^ jal ihekQ 
fitrif ba Ogam. A hdH Ogam Hne: Hpano ? Kine: bate fia rij^f Kine: q ' rdii t/( 
m^n f Wijs, dugnl Kine: d^ch ydu. A bidi, 

Nadwai a r^ne^ Ogam ya MQtio. A l{n{ kine: Nadwai ri^. A kobi kine: buhl 
Ko: a pil Ogam! A kobi Nadwai kine: dtvai Ogam I A dwdi^ a fjifi ki ^Jk, a 
giri pars, a liQpii min, ka par^ dgnq. Ka e liwQli i/iwqI mdgtr. A chwili, a nigi 
ki tiwQle bin yi Nadwai, a pati par^ piii, 

A certain prince called Nyadwai, was fishing. And he wanted a certain fish, the 
fish of Ogam (a fish which Ogam had caught). Ogam asked, ''Why (should I 
give my fish to the prince) ?*" The people replied, ''Is he not a prince?^ Ogam 
said, "By whom will he ever be elected? He has such a big head!^ The people 
replied, "Well, all right (do as you think best).*' He refused. 

But Nyadwai was elected king, while Ogam was at Manyg. There he heard 
the talk, "Nyadwai has been elected.^ When he heard it, he said to himself, 
"Dear me!'' (But Nyadwai) said (to himself), "This cursed Ogam!'' Some 
time later Nyadwai sent word, "Bring Ogam!" Ogam was brought; the king 
gave him cattle, built him a village, he married a woman, and his village 
became large ; he got many children. But one day he was called by Nyadwai, 
Nyadwai killed him and all his children, and he destroyed his village. 

37. GoKt. 

Na rij^ OoUt ka e bt^ kapika wiy PiJQf ko : ya dtcata yey nam, Ka jane lagg^ 
^ fy^^ kine: nam yejs, kguQ ki yd I Kine ya ky^, A mij{ ^j^; a toiti yafe pi, a 
ki^ a pi^ca yey nam 61 mi/Ali ki ^k. A mQii w^^ a migdje bin, a k^; a gUi 
LwoAd^, a mig{ gj^n, a kol ^ean pack l^ni, a k^li jan J^qk a chibi gQ,ka, a* 
girt P^^i Nejok, fit kubq ki ^ t&rQ. 

The prince Gollt came, and settled at the mouth of the river Pljg ; he said 
(to the chief there), "I want to settle (on the island) in the middle of the river." 
But the chief who ruled there refused, saying, "I myself like the island in the 
river, I refuse !" Then the prince gave him a man (slave), and on that the chief 
sprinkled the boats with water (that is, gave them permission to go on the 
island). The prince went on the island, and settled down there to steal cows. 
He sent his son to capture people (and their cattle), he captured all the people 

* instead of the OBual ^. 

' 'Hhe diief of the magistrate", i. e. the ruling chief. 

142 Historical Traditions 

there, and after that went to Lwangdeng, and captured this village, he brought 
all the cows into his village. After that he brought Dinkas of Ngok,i and 
settled them in the place (of the village Lw.), he built them 'die village of 
NyejQk; and those people too used to steal the cattle of the people. 

38. Nyimo. 

Na rii, NimQ, g^ ki fia rij^ mlkQ, ka gs. M chwQl, ka g^ M. Ty^h^ ka lode toA 
gin, ka lo^ N'imQ Hi kdp, kape yi iia raf^ gni. Ka Nakwach e toir^, ka lii dogo 

Ka pari kygr, a tiuiir, Otudi, pa wQt NakwaehQ,. Ka ejagQ e dich^ dg ba toar, 
^ 4Q9i, ^j ^P yi i^itoin; a kobi r^ k(ne: u Heh adif A iofe ki ban mdniAitf *n^ 
gine r^ ki/a ka biki; gQ* M ifc^ g^^ in. 

The prince Nyimg was, together with another prince, invited to a meal. They 
had their clubs with them, and (in the course of the festival) the dub of Njimg 
was taken away from him by force, it was taken away by that other prince. 
When his father, king Nyakwach (who was also present at the festival) saw diat, 
he was very angiy,* and he went home alone. 

He built for his son a big village, Otudi, this was to be the village of the son 
of Nyakwach. And he (Ihe son) reigned well, but he was a coward. His catde 
used to be robbed by his brothers. The king said, "Ah, what is to be done?^ 
He gave him a great number of slaves to protect him, on account of his fear. 
They were to help him. 

39. Nyadoke, 

A roH Nd^kSy a jigi, a JfeoJi kine: d, ya gira fara toQk! A gere par Pih^. 
Weya bidi buU Dgn! A g^ra pari, Dgn, A b§t gsn ki DqAq, ajigi, a lii imgi 
iyScK <* M ehdmh yi Dgno, a M kwdehi yi DgnQ,. Ka Dgn fit l^tfi k/^^ ^ ^^ 
rof^ (fdfi) T>QnQ, Ka ni tgk koj^ ka Jign M. tgJQ, kijami, chami ka toak, ka £s{ M 
m^kit. A ii{ koiii bitr, msn ch^k lysch, ka lyeAe Mfji yiy bitr, ka VonQ M y^^ <^ 
choga raf^ dQch. 

Nyadoke was elected. While he was reigning, one day he said, "Well, I will 
build my village in the bush!^ He built the village of PobQ. Again he said, 
"Let me reside beside the Nubians !** He built a village in the Nubian country. 
He lived together with Ihe Nubians, being their king. He used to kill elephants, 
the Nubians used to ask him for the elephants' meat, he gave it to them, and 
they ate it. So he was the king of the Nubians. — When the Nubians are widi- 
out rain, they are accustomed to put on all their adornments, and go out into Ihe 

* J^Qk, A Dinka-District soath of the Sobat meaning of a plural. 

» "and they were called, and they were invited." * because his son allowed his dub to be taken 

* go relates to the slaves, it has therefore the »way from him. 

Dokot 143 

bush; then it begins to rain. — Nyadoke used to dig holes for catching ele- 
phants, and the elephants tumbled into the holes. Thus the Nubians were satis- 
fied, he continued to be a good king. 

40. King Dokot. 

kiL Ka e ho: buK d^ Dgn a ^l{ t/dn, u dch kll? i rei (yet) wd fhchi Ka feu/ rii, 
ka e ko: yey kit! Ka kit e ySch, ka ^gn kiM f^ A magi Dqu^ a kdJi g^, a 
giri go. pi^i$ go, hgQ bin4; a chdgi Mne fan ini gQ A^kQfi. 

A km mdr, a nwan gQ bw6ii(iy ka bvjoiiQ migi, kiU gltn, a Iqgd bini, a giri 
pachy ggn AwarejwQh Ka Chil^ kobQ kine: a ra^ uq, a rich miii f A ko kine: 
buhl Kine: Chgl, bpii kwipi hnhnl A kwaA niar, a lin g^ nitm, ka CHqIq e %oa^ 
ki yii m^r ki bole piri. 

Pay mlkq chwgld OrAg^y ka Chql lit it^^ kij^r, ka Chole «it chyiti, Ka raj^ ^ 
TQii, Ch$l d^ cJtyitQ; a rq^ AkwQt. Ka AkwQt e mQiiQ; ka IM chyiti, ka e b^h» 
ka e ko: bih, rod gigh dif A bini bgl Onigi, a chini bane D^k^i;, o, py^^ gin 
kine: m^r e link k^fif A kobijal mskQ kine: u ticA edit Kine: u dwdi nam! Kine: 
buh, AkwiU di bd gint yi ku wai/ie kij^t A kobi kine: yd bet todii! Kine: ni! A 
keau ym, a keau g^n. A k^l ^k, a mak ^an Onogo, a kil ^an mikq, a migi 
WajwQky a k^l ^ean n^kOf a mage yi A^kgn, a k^l dean mi^ko^ a ksi% tgrQ gat, a 
l^mi, a chw$p ^ian. A kgj^ AkwQt fM, a rqA fa pi, kd t chw^^. Ka ChglQ kobQ 
kine: r^ tdk, ba bi kgti! Ka chan loaj^ mal, ehan e k^ch^, ka rif bgnq, ka mar 
kili ki fa pi. A kobi kifie: tin Ufi! Ak^f IM, a maii Dinjol, a nigi, a mah litoQle, 
ka ^k e ktl hi mini. A maiia Agirs a maM Chai, a mak peii btni, a kobi ChiUt 
kine: a rufie nq, a ch^g^ kipd IMf A ko: bih, kwipt, yina Ch^Ut! A hoati m^r, 
a tin git nian. 

King Dokot went out to conquer, he went conquering into the Nubian coun- 
try. But he £uled to defeat the Nubians, because they used to escape upon 
their mountain. He said, "Why, the Nubians are too much for me! What shall 
I do? Well (he says to his people), make a pot ringl^< And a pot ring was 
made. Then he said, "Cany the mountain away !^ So the mountain was carried 
away and put on the ground upside down. In this way he conquered the Nubi- 
ans, he brought them (into the Shilluk country), he built them a village, and 
they became his subjects.^ He called the name of this village Ad^kgng. 

He brought the silver pot' and swung it against (the army of) the strangers; 
thus he conquered the strangers, he brought them to his country, and they 
became his subjects; he built them a village, this is the village AwarejwQk. 

But the Shilluks said, "What a king is this, that he is always conquering?^^ 

' A ring of grass, which is laid on the head for was to be filled with "holy water^ {pijvfQkJ, 

eanying water pots. The mountain was carried which was used for different religions rites. 

awaj l&e a water pot. The possession of this pot was supposed to 

' This shows how Nubian colonies came into give fortune and victoiy. 

the Shilluk oountrj. * The Shilluks were tired of waging war, or they^ 

' This pot is said to be an old hehrloom, it were jealous of the victories of the king. 

144 Historical Traditions 

The king replied, "Why, ye ShiUuks, is that your talk now?'' He took the pot 
and thrust it (angrily) into the river. Thus the pot ("the way to the pot") was 
lost to the Shilluks in the front of the village of the king. 

There was another village, called OngogQ ; the Shilluks (of this village) fought 
with some foreign tribe, and were chased. Another king was elected, but 
again the Shilluks were chased. Then Akwgt was elected, and Akwgt went 
out to conquer (this tribe). But his army was defeated. When he came home, 
he exclaimed, "Why, what shall we do?'' He came towards Ongogp, and the 
wives of Dokot, he asked them, „Where has the silver pot been thrown into 
the river?" Some man replied, "Why do you ask?" He said, "It is to be 
brought out from the river." The man exclaimed, "Oh dear, Akwot, is that true 
(is that what you are going to do) ? Will you not miss the place where it lies?" 
The king said, "I shall not miss it." The man replied, "All right." They rowed 
boats, they rowed them towards the place where they were. Cows were brought, 
one cow was caught and given to the village of OngogQ, another cow was cau^t 
and given to Wajwgk, another was given to AdQkgng.^ Then another cow was 
brought, and the people went to the river, a prayer was spoken, the cow was 
speared (sacrificed), and Akwot went to the bottom of the river, he dived 
under the water; he stayed there a long time; the Shilluks said, "The king is 
away, he does not come back." The sun was rising, and when it began to sink, 
the king came from out of the water, he had brought the silver pot fr'om the 
bottom of the river. He said, "Now raise an army!" The army was to defeat 
Dingjol (the Dinka country near Renk). They destroyed it, its children were 
captured, the cattle was taken away together with the women. He conquered 
Ager too, he conquwed Chai (near Roseires), he defeated the whole country. 
When the Shilluks saw that, they said, "What king is that, that he is alwap 
continuing in warfare?" He replied, "Oh dear! is that now your talk, ye Shil- 
luks?" He took the silver pot, and thrust it into the river.^ 

41. Nyakwach. 

R^ Nakwach ka ejik^, ka xjoQte Nadwai nigi kipa at^; ka ii{win wate mane 
Nadwai nigS; ka e chwQtQ kine: vmna a yik liitciy hi t^rQl Ka (Itq b&iQ, i kati 
tQM; ka e buqgQ, ka choga kal. Ka e chtcQtQ kine: bi t^vQ! Ka tSTQ bia yi^. Ka e 
ko: yd (yoA) giU d Hdil A chdpA kinauf Kine: wq with! yi neka rifi kijel Kine: 
ST& (yfeds) o. ba nigi g^f Kine: ba neka H a^; gqle ka ehysfa wa, a bane nigd 
gin. Kine: diki niSjcQ^ u toiie g^ k{j^h» tra^ wa niki nigbl Pafe an, a bane 
nidge ggnf Kine: lii, i, dgchl Wiy gol gsn a fatfif^* Kine: Isahoache, a ba^i 
cJi^n kij^gb' Wq t^r an u chdl yi m^n t A diDQk t^Q. 

* The cows were offered as sacrifices, one by the Tillage OngogQ, and so on. 
' From that time the silyer pot is irreparably lost to ti^e ShOliJES. 
^ "some to-morrow^, that is, in fdtnre time. 

Nyakwach 145 


A kobi Isakwach kine: gir fih ij ^h, Ka fiarnQfa, wate liitoiy cHwqI ga ifia rii* 
A ehwqle gs^ (gi) BaehodQ ; a kij^ gin (gin), a yeti kiU gin, a kwaiHe km gin, niQk 
j&k ghi ki Bachodo, 

Ka jal mlkq e k^ klti, ka bane rH M ydj^ ka kur jii k^lt, ka ilii (ML Ka lii 
chika kdno, ka lii ckdL A bufl ko (kor) liariif kae ko: buhl u ttch adif t dock yau I 
A ehjjca kanQ ki kur, a mdk dok yi ri^ a kol gs, Bachodo, ka pach e dono i Uii Rii. 

Ka wqdi ikal dttgn ka e k^, ka ^k ytdi yi tar, ka dok kiji. Ka Hi e ftchlt 
kine: <^k sr& ^ ^^? yik Nakwach, Kine: bih, u lial a gwok edtf |, kwofi rach. 
Dock ail, wei k^/^ g§n. 

A kil4 gin, a plehi wiyi kine: dgk kil gi k^ f Kine: hold Bachodo. Kine: i! 
a chgni toQti, a kopi gin kine: Han ikd anil Akifije, a chete, ka e r^no, ka nan 
an fii teiiji ri, gq M HJi W^; ka M. pUdo, ka go lii kSpi, kine: rtnl A bgn lUil 
dugn, a k^le ggn, a nigi g^n. A b^na pach, a pyey gfffi kine : ya (yati) gql, a 
J^dtf lianidyQ e tye wun edi? Kine: i niki Kine: yi min an ? Kine: yi Hal duQn. 
Kine: bihl w^h a tSniin? Ka e 4^q4q* ^ ^ ^2^' ^ ^ ^JQ^ ^/^ chdmQ ki gin 
chant, e ywgnQ. A b^ni togk, a chgn gin, a kobi kine: lial, bani yin a nek toudaf 
Yi u chdk, gili n^gi tin I Chw^ld yin a rei lial liemdyi, di e tSiil Ko: tb chw^ld 
yin ikd dugn, a yeji dide kwQp I i, yi rach. A kef^ yi dgk, a lii kgchi gin, gin lii 
kolQ pan akyllQ, a gin M kdn^. 

When King Nyakwach reigned, he killed the children of (his brother) Nya* 
dwai, because he feared their enmity; and his brothers who had been bom by 
the women of Nyadwai's village, he also killed. Then he called out, "You, who 
are my real brothers, you people come!*' The people came canying their 
spears. When Nyakwach saw that, he was afraid and remained within his 
enclosure. Again he called out, "Come, you people l** And the people came to 
him. He asked them, "My children, howisitthat you are walking thus (armed)?^ 
They replied, "We are angry, why do you kill people?" He answered, "Why 
should I not kill them? I killed them because of their enmity, (and do you not 
remember that) their family chased us away? Therefore I have killed them. K 
at a future time they should have come to power, surely we should have been 
killed. Is it not for this reason that I killed them?*' The people replied, "Well, 
eh, all right, their family has perished. '^ Again they said, "Nyakwach, you for- 
merly refused to be elected as king. > By whom should we have been avenged 

The people returned home. Nyakwach said, "Restore the town well; and my 
nephews, the children of my brothers, shall be called 'children of the king^" 
He called them (his nephews) to Fashoda.^ They went, and he picked some 
from among them, and the rest he took to be chiefs of Fashoda. 

A certain man (one of these nephews of the king) went one day and slept with 

* This teems to point to the preceding stoiy. 

' The chief town of the Shillnk conntrj, and residence of the king. 

WB8TBRMA9N, Tke SlOllak People. lO 

146 Historical Traditions 

the wives of the king. He paid the fine for adulteiy. But again he did an evil 
thing, and had to pay a fine. At last the king got tired of Ais, and he said, 
'^Why, what is that? eh, never mind!^ When this man once more did mischief 
the king had aU the catde of that (man's) village seized and brought to Fashoda; 
so the village was left without a single cow. 

The eldest son of this man (of the evildoer) went and found the cattle (of 
his father) in a pasture.' He separated those belonging to his fStUher from the 
rest and drove them home. When the king heard that the cattle were away, he 
asked, "Why have the cattle been taken away ?** So said Nyakwach. (When he 
heard that this same man's son had taken them) he exclaimed, ''Why, what 
shall we do with this boy? eh, his affair is very bad! Well, never mind, let him 
go with them.** 

When the boy came home with his catde, his father asked him, "fVom 
where has the cattle been brought?'' He answered, ''I have brought it from 
Fashoda.'' The father said, "All right" He assembled his sons and told 
them, "Kill this boy!" The people went away, they chased him, he ran away. 
And the pursuers came dose to him, they were just near enough to stab him, 
then the boy (stumbled and) fell down. They told him, "Run!" (They did not 
want to kOl him). But his eldest brother stabbed him, and lulled him. When 
they came home, the father asked them, "Children, how is it? How did you 
deal with your brother?" They said, "He is kiaed!" The father asked, "By 
whom?" They answered, „By his eldest brother." The father exclaimed, ^Why, 
my son has been killed by you?" He rose up, went into his hut, and remained 
there. He did not eat any food, he wept. And he came out again and assem- 
bled his sons, saying to the eldest, "My son, is it not you who killed my son? 
Your descendants shall always be killed by the spear! I thought you would 
protect your brother, and you have killed him !" Again he said, "Oh, I thought, 
you, the eldest one, had a heart which was wise! no, you are wicked." 

Then he went to the catde, he separated them : some he brought to another 
village, and some he hid. 

42. The False Prophets. 

Waii a blni ror, ka g^ chgn ; raj^ oky^ilo chtoQla Okwis raj^ ah/il chwQla Ddk^ 
rcif^ ahf^l ehwQla Nilcano. Ka g^ b^nOt ha Chqli lii kwheh^y chtoqla n(|; Hyiri^ 
Ku, Ka t^rQ chonQ, ka gs. ka^ Bachddd^ karif^e ko: buhl u ror Hch edit Ka g^ 
k^do, ka bans rij^ kApi^ ka rij^ wij^ mUm, ka rij^e nund; ka ^k kipi, ka rif^ chtui^ 
rii^ kd i toijit ki mwnU ka atlgQ gidi y^^ ka gylkt ^Q^i had^ ka otystk ki^ 
chinis ka ton kwaii, ka toch kwaii, kd i k^dit, kgfj^yi gin. Kajal a Dak giji maeh 

' where thej had been brought by the king's people. 

The False Prophets 14 7 

ka polipeiif e g; kajal a OkuA ka kil^ ka e jg; kajal a kobiNikano, ka e pQrQ, 
i ^^^ yl^i^; kd bUl ffQchf ka tgrQ skano, 

Ka wudo chodo, ka by^ e wanQ, a mdk CKqIq yi k^h; a kg^ tgri pofe Nuar, a 
neau tgro by§le Nuqv; ka CHqIq M, p^ti yi Nuqr key kick, ka ChglQ ho: kw^ytoach 
yi kich, ka mikQ iliar^ M ItobH- A chysk byU^ a bgj^ tgro tji. 

At a certain time the "kings^ came, they used to dance (the dances of Nyikang) ; 
one "king^ called himself Okwft, one called himself D&k, and the third called 
himself Nyikang. And they came (into the villages of the Shilluks) ; the Shilluks 
used to pray to them, calling them "king^, — it was in the time of king Eu 
— , and the people danced.' They (the "kings'*) went to Fashoda. The king 
said, ''Why, what is the matter with these kings ?** And they (the would-be kings) 
went, and took the wives of the king by force. The king was much perplexed, 
he was in great confusion. They stole cattle too. Then the king became very angry, 
he sang a war-song eaily in the morning, he tied his bead-necklaces round his 
neck, put his arm-rings on his arm, fastened bells about his wrist, he took a spear, 
he took a gun, and he went, he went towards Ihem. And the man who called him- 
self Dak he shot with the gun, he fell upon the ground and died. And the man 
*'Okwa*' was speared, and he died; the man who was called Nyikang fled, he 
turned towards the bush. Then the drum was beaten, and the people danced 
(for joy). 

(About tlus time) a north wind blew, and the dura was burned, the ShiUuks 
were seized with hunger. The people went to the Nuer country, to buy dura 
of the Nuers. And the Shilluks were beaten by the Nuers, in the time of this 
strong famine. The Shilluks say, ("In this time) some were starved, and some 
gave away their children for dura.** — But when the next dura-harvest was 
brought, the people were relieved. 

[In the first part of this story it is related, how some impostors pretend 
to be the ancient kings, who have come into this world again; the people 
believe in them and pray to them, and the "fake prophets'' take advantage 
of this to rob the people, till their preceding^ are brought to an end by 
the king.] 

43. The Prince who refused to be King. 

Na ran dugn, ehwQla Al^ki, ka dwai yi u vqH, ka e baii, ka tStk, a k^d^ a piri 

pofe ^^ ki liiwin. Ka g^ i/ii r^d^ (yodo) H g^n chdm; fian lial 0j^ M kipi ttmi 

pi. Ka ikt rifj^ trilkQ M hfddo, kine: wei bid^. Ka gs, didQ ki kwofe Dgn; a bine 

pachf a gijii kifar^ a ohagifar^ ggn a PuH)t. A pika peii. A kobi: i, yi kyit ki 

jagQf ba dwata ydn. A rqii (yoji) widiy a jagQ yhu. A (5mi l^ke b/ech, a (omi 


^ Thus wonhipping them. 

148 Historical Traditions 

gyslQ. Karii e wir^y ha nik Jd^l gi gtr, ka ffak ehdl ga fyar anwffh k(jk gd 
pyar^; rifi Icich; a dwQJk chwak, a chike cKol ki d^k, Mjh a kobi n(| kine: wei 
bidi, tini yi kir. 

The eldest son of a king whose name was Alfiki, was brought to be elected 
king. But he refused, and when he was informed secretly that they were 
going to elect him by force, he went away and fled to the Nubian country, he 
with two of his brothers. And (during their flight, or in the Nubian country) 
they used to pound dura for food; the youngest of them was told (compelled) 
to bring water. (When they had gone) one prince (in the Shilluk country) said, 
"Let them stay there (in the Nubian country).^ And they learned the Nubian 

Hecame home again, and built himself a village, wich he called PwotC' beaten"). 
He settled there, but he still continued saying, "No, I refuse to be chief; I 
don't want to.** So his son was elected, and he reigned. He carved bracelets out 
of elephant-tusks. < When the king (at Fashoda) heard this, he became angiy, 
and he sent an armed body to him, a great one. And he (the prince) had to 
make amends with fourteen cows and ten men; for the king was very much 
offended. Again an ambassador of the king was sent to the prince, asking 
for more cattle and men as compensation. Then the king said, "Now let him alone, 
the reason for his being so haughty as to cut ivory-bracelets was his wealdi, 
and we have taken that from him." 

44. The Cowardly King. 

Jal trilkQ AIcAii^ Bdk^, ka e bsriQ^ chama r^, e chytJc, ka ChglQ yet, rnffi an ka 
bgda riji anan; wa yei ki gn. Ka jal mikQ kyffiQ: is fa^e Hj,! A rai;^ ofifi? A chytJki 
nau^ yi ky^t I Ka jal ^nt e bitiQ, ka pika tun yg, b^ l^pe g^n* Kd gt Upi, ka Ahin^ 
Bdk^ lin^y ka e buQgOi ka e rgn. Ka jal ffii ko: yi rffHa kffi f Ma yi l^ba yin, che 
yina ri^ f yi chy^ Aq kite f Ka tgrn ko: A, wa chin ^nd. yi daj^e nau f Ka Akdri^ 
Bhk^ e binos ka tgna fan^ ka ye yiyi. T^tq kudi you. Goy 0m! Tfrq kudi yau. 
KajagQ kobq: ggtie vmnQl Ka louno gSii yoA tO^- Kd i rin^s ka ChqlQ ngj^: dy 
fate rifil Ka CHqIq ko: nek I Ka tona yiuQ, a par. 

A man whose name was Akonyo Bako, came and wanted to become king. 
He was a short man. The Shilluks consented, ''This man shall be king now, we 
are satisfied with him.'' But one man refused, saying, "No, he is not a king I 
What kind of king is he, this short man? I protest!'' This man came and sat 
down on the side of a road, to lie in wait for the new king. While he was lying 
in wait for him, AkOnyo Bako came. When he saw the man, he was afraid and 
ran away. The man asked, "Why do you run away? Was it not you who said^ 

' Fonnerly only the king was authorized to wear iyoiy bracelets. 

Quee n Abudok 149 


he wanted to become king? What is chasing yoa?*' When the people heard 
this, they said, "Ah, shall that man (this cowardly king) bring evil upon us?** 
And Akunyo Bako came, he turned towards the village, and he behaved like 
one possessed by a spirit.' But the people remaind silent. Then he said, "Beat 
the holy drum!*' But the people remained silent. One of the chiefiB said, "Loo- 
sen a rope!*'^ And a rope was loosened by a child. When he saw that, he ran 
away. And the Shilluks laughed, "Indeed, he is not a king!'' The Shilluks said. 
"Soil him!'' He ran towards the bush fleeing. 

45. Queen Abudok. 

K^k ^dtbji ka feh e 5Jd^ &bu ri^; ka CKqIq wij§, mtm; rij^ boggn. Ka t^rQ b^Q 
yi Abuditk^ ka e ho: i wife wQn a mum yi bune rij^. A kobi kine: kwiiAi rif^! A 
kwiiii, a tiii{. A k^9 gn Abu^Q^ ^ dtcai ^jfQ, a mij{, a totiJiH, a pigi yf$e j^p; 
ka a 0rne duQn, a pig{, ka a^ e chbg^, e ba pan. A k^l a0m 0f^ a pigi^ a 
pin(> a kij^ BachddQf a wet gufeti. A k6bi kine: i^ Cholo u ninf yi kwa rif^. A 
bane niliie kwa rif^. A kobi: i, kwa r^ rf u ligi mugh^ ka M g^di ki bute pAri^ 
fdri ifii doyi diyd, ka e nung. U n^ bat k^no, u n&i p^l. A bane liwoli a li^ni. — 
Kwon Abu4^k. 

In the time of Dgkst the country was without a king. And the Shilluks did 
not know what to do, because there was no king. And the people came to 
(queen) Abudok, saying, "Alas, we are in confusion from not having a king!" 
She said, "Take this one (pointing to one of her younger brothers) for a king!" 
So he was taken, he was elected. Abudok went away. She brought seeds of the 
water-lily, spread them out in the sun, and ground them. She put them into a bag, 
the bag was very big, so that, when she put the seeds in, the bag remained un- 
filled. Then she brought a small bag, poured the seeds in, and it was filled. Now 
she went to Fashoda with the bag, and put it down there. She said, "Ah, the 
Shilluks will be decreased by the descendants of the king. In future time the 
descendants of the king will become many. She said again, "Eh, the descen- 
dants of the king will be like a sickness (to the Shilluks), if they build their 
village beside your (the Shilluks') village, your village wiU become very small, 
it will decrease. But they (the royal family) will become many, just as the 
branches of the calabash plant become many in the bush." Therefore the descen- 
dants of the king have become so many. — This is the story of Abudok. 

[E:rplanation given by the man who told this story: "Abudok was a bad 
queen, and the Shilluks did not like her; tbey wanted a king. So Abudok 
presented to them one of her two younger brothers, whom she raised 
(educated), saying, "Take this one for your king." Abudok went away 

* When the new king is elected, the spirit of Nyikang takes possession of him ; this is manifested 
by a shaking of the body, singing, etc. 
' loosen a rope to thrash him ! 

ISO Historical Traditions 

angrily, she collected oeitaio seeds, dried and pounded tbem, and brought 
them to Fashodm as a symbol, to show the Shillaks how they would be 
surpassed in number and in power by the descendants of the royal fiunily.^ 
This story again shows that the royal family is not originally Shilluk, but 
of foreign origin. — But perhaps it was simply because she was a woman 
that the Shilluks did not want her to rule them. In the list of kings 
given by Banholser Abudok is omitted.] 

War Stories 151 

vlwar stories. 

46. War. 

Ka wq, toilQ, ha toQ n^nd H yg^ kaje dtoQgo, ka too waAa yg, ha tvq y6ti jal 
m^kq* go, lyaUi lyawe leH, ka e ho: wu h^la h^f Wo h^lafo^ b%ooii. Kine: tvun 
a ya h&i f Kine: wa yi Petiidwau Kine: fan dt^ f Wq ya paehe Ch^n. Kine: yi 
^ffOd^f Kine: dwdl Kine: dock I A hsl wifif a chip won pack m^Q^ Duw^t, a 
hQl todn Agodo^ a yit jagg, a nuU yi wgn hi dyiU a Iwhh wdn, a n^nh hi Buhy^i, 
a hgna fyhi, ha wq toaj^Q hi bSr^, a note yd hi dyil; a bgt t§di yau. 

A hewu IMf a h^ (erg, a h^te leii hi AfaffQ^ a n^h Chdl^ yi btcoti, a chy^e (fQ^ 
a w^ bwoii TUng. Ka Gghwach, jagg i yi^. Ka chip feti yi bwbri, hine: dick 
yau, wa fa toot. A dugh btoofi, a (qna hi bgle Nelwah, tgna miichi^, a btUi hi 
muehjt, a nigi, ha ehysjt nam, f gtr. 

A bini, a pihS 6bdn, a b^i yau, ha nehe dwat adfh, a hs^e, a ttbi Tunq, a 
nigd ghnf a mdgi g^n, a dwigi, a ion§, Targ, a rnaga Targ, a biniy o, tgn Kf^ 
BiJ&t, a migije, a giti Wu, a magi Wu, a giti J^gk, a mdgi I^gh, a dwggi J^gh, 
a plhi WiAalwaL 

A dig(i fofe Jon, ajd^, a dwigi, aplh^ wiy Pick, a tjini pack, aplha Tedigg, 
a yimi Jpeffm, a gtoaj^ hi ^h, h(ji. A hg^ a dggi Pa^n; a pibd Dinjgl, ha 
Dinjgl i yfimit' A n^ge ggn, a mige ifiwgle ggti, a hi^. A mage Mtvgmg, a dgn 
pofe Chgl, i <iy$ yi rA;i (rij^), dy^l boggn, ^n boggn, giene boggn, byal bogin, 
pyfgn, boggn, hwot boggn, togt (ygt) boggn, Iwah boggn; peii i dbn^, i nd^ yi rajg. 

A rgn ri^ r|| Ahgl, a klfe lefi, leA 6er, ha LuHxh ehite. A bin bwofig, Alantdrg, 
a fabe Ht^ a mdgi g^, a hj^eje Bil, a chdge hun itn, a dM rife Ku, ijdgitf a b^n 
Lir, ha gyine hili, ha ^ean hili, ha dy^l hil^. Ajage rif^ Ku hi jane d^h; ha 
fyh f nffig, ha gy&ig ngfig, ha dy^le n&iQ» 

A line hwgp yi bwofi mihg, a b^ng, yiga btooii mdt^h, ye (|ni^ yS l^tit H Alanfar, 
ha Chf^ nif^ ; hine : Mne, 4n^ tyiga Ttiriih, g^ hi iVin^fi^ 1 ye Alantarg ndhi nUg^, 

Yih bwoti mlhg hild toah, yiga BdMdi;^ ha Bahadi l^ng, ha igna gat hi Tdbit; 
a (gn gaU ha Chgl T^na pack. 

Ka iffrg dwggg, ha hwgp lin: Alan^rg nigit! Ka bUl g^h, ha Chglg chgng 
bul; chuAe ming, A bin Turuh, ajthafeili. 

We were trayeUing, we slept on the road, and when the people (whom we 
had sent to look for the way) came back, we (found out that we) had lost onr 
way. We fonnd a man, a spy, a war-spy. He asked, ''Where do you come from ?" 
We answered, ''We come from the country of the Shilluk people.^ He 
asked, "From which district (of the Shilluk-country) are you?'' We repUed^ 
"From Penyidwai." He (asked), "From which village?" We (replied), "From 

* that is, English. ' The Ahjssinians. 

152 War Stories 

the village Chen.^ He said, "Do you belong to Aggdo? We replied, "Yes, we 
do.** He said, "All right. '^ He took us and brought us to some other village, 
Duwat, then he brought us to Agsdo. He found out the chief^ who (received us 
and) killed a goat for us, and then he accompanied us. We slept at Bukyenj. 
When the next day came, and it had become afternoon, he killed again a goat 
for me; the people (my companions and I) sat down. 

A war signal was given. The people went, and there was a fight at Atfino, 
Shilluks were killed by the strangers, the ShiUuks were chased throughout the 
country till the strangers came to Tonga. And the chief Gokwach surrendered ; he 
was leftaUveby the strangers, they said, "All right, we are friends." The strangers 
turned back, and marched straight towards Nyelwftk. There they turned on an 
island (in the Nile), and while they were sleeping there, many of them were 
killed by the Shilluks, and many too were chased into the river, a great number. 

After that they came and sat down at Obang; they remained quiet there 
for three months, then they went and attacked Tonga (again), some of the people 
they killed, and some they caught as slaves ; they returned and marched to- 
wards Tfiro; they captured Tftro and came marching towards Ehor Filus, they 
caught people there; they came to Wa, they captured Wfl, they arrived at 
Ngok and captured it; from Ngok they returned and sat down at Winyalwal. 

They returned to the Dinka country, but there they had no success, and so 
went back, and sat down at the mouth of the river Fich. They turned to the next 
village, and then went (across the river) to Tedigo. The chief Detim surrendered, 
he paid tribute in cattle and men. From there the enemy turned back to Fade- 
ang. He cheated (the Dinka chief) Dingjol, and Dingjol surrendered. He was 
killed, together with his children. The enemies went away and captured MwQmo. 
While they remained in the Shilluk country, the country suffered very much, 
there were no goats left;, no cattle, no fowls, no dura, no clothes, no shields, 
no drums, no houses, no cow houses; the land was ruined to exhaustion. 

In that time a king was elected, king Akol, he fought a war, the war of Qer, 
and the people of Lwak (with their king Akol) were chased. Then came the 
strangers, the Ansars,' they outwitted the king and caught Imn. They arrived at 
Bfil, and remained there. The (ShiUuk-) king Ea' continued reigning during this 
time. And the Lir-people' came and brought fowls, and cattle, and goats. The 
king Ea^ reigned well, so that the cows, and fowl, and goats became many. 

About that time the fame of some other white people was heard of; diey 
were coming, they were very strong white people, they came and fought the 
Ansars; when the Shilluks heard that, they laughed;* and it was asked, "What 
is their name?^ And they turned out to be the Turks and the £nglish. It was 
said, "The Ansars will surely be killed now." 

^ the people the Denrishes. 

* = Kur. ' The Kordofan Nabas from Jebel ElirL 

* for joy. 

Tribal War _____„ ^53 

And again diere came white people, from the interior, they were Abyssinians. 
The AbTBsinians came, and marched towards the river, the Sobat; the Shilluks 
ran away to their villages. 

And the people returned to their villages, because there was a rumour, 
"The Ansars have been killed. ** Then the drum was beaten, the Shilluks 
danced to the drum, they rejoiced. The Turks came and remained in the 

47. Tribal War. 

Kal akygl e b&io Ma p^l, ka kal ah/gl e bSnQy ka leA I^t^. Ka ^j^ e kil, ka 
4^J^ Mfi4^^ ka ^ji mijkq Hi chiki I^lit, bgr {hgdo) je gi, gtr, ka Uii r^rifi, kaje 
fiik chyis ^{t chbp. LeA din, ty^ a man bia b^ tlrq ^ff, ka gi t^vQ pack, Bu 
^^ ma k^ ma iM bidd wQk ki war, Je ifii bia b^ Hb^ ki war* Je lii tacha wqt hi 
yey IwoL 

One fiunily comes and goes out into the bush, and another family comes, 
and they begin fighting. And a man is speared, and falls down; again another 
man is speared, (so they go on till on both sides the dead are) many. At last 
one army runs away: many people are killed, they are speared. Now the 
warriors scatter. The women come to carry the dead home. No one is left 
out in the bush during night-time. 

(After a war) the people come to lie in wait during the night. ' — The people 
are accustomed to urinate in the house, in a gourd.^ 

48. The War of Nyeker. 

Jal mikQ ehwold JyeMr, wade Dor, t^k, t^k, ka e ks^^ ka tgna TqAotq b^ mQtiQ. 
Ka TonQVQ nig£ ka gQ migi. Ka noye yi Ybdlt, ka e toiio ki Uiit ka m^i^a Dinjol, 
ka leji ehy^t yi DiAjql; ka lefi giclii nam, ka leA nek; ka bia pack, ka e y&vQ. 

Some man whose name was Nyeker, the son of Dor, was very, very brave. 
He went and turned towards Tongoro (in the Dinka country) to capture. He 
destroyed Tongoro and seized it (its people and catde). And he was imitated 
by Yodit, he too raised an army and marched against Dingjol, but his army 
was chased by Dingjol, he drove the army into the river, so that they died. 
Yodit went home and repented what he had done. 

49. The War of Deng. 

Jal mifcQ chwqla Din, kafar^ i kit^ ki Duwut; fa YwildU. Ka Wi tin, tin 
YqA, ka Uti e kgtQ, kaje nek ga pyarQ. Ka Ojano dwai^ ka e f^^, ka e ko: IM a 
ni kgta mtrgZ, ki mwQl ch^. Ka e niqlQ, ka e butQ hi y$, ka je kd wgh, ka kQtne 

* This is blood revenge; if one tribe has more dead than the other, it tries to kill some people 

of the hostile Tillage. 

' for fear of being killed when going out. 

154 War Stories 

gin fir^ ha g§, nek, ha leti kgia f>ach, ka e hgfo, kaje nek ga pyar anwpi. Ka 2>gfi 
kwaeho, kwacIiQ Ufi, ka ty^ e bin^^ ka l^gn bin gitn, ka fan ffU e chunn. Ka tysk 
chgt^ ka go, nigi; a k^^ a tona taqk^ fofe rif/e Jan. 

There was a certain man with the name of Deng, his village fought with Dnwat; 
the name of the village was Tweldit The war began, it began at the village 
Yonj, Hie army fought, and ten men were killed. Then aDinka man (a sorcerer) 
was brought, he made a charm,* saying, "The war must be fought in the morn- 
ing, early in the morning.^ So Deng arose eariy in the morning, and laid an 
ambush on the way; and when the people (the enemies) came out, he attacked 
them and killed (many of) them. The army of the enemy went back into the 
village, and when they came again, they killed fourteen men of Deng's. Then 
Deng begged, he begged for auxiliary troops; and an auxiliary army came. 
With them he went after the enemy, and the village (of Duwat) stopped 
fighting. ' 

Traditions on Nyikan^ 155 


50. Nyikang's Parents. 

Oshj/ani ye Ohoa, ye liofita nam H mayi Nikan, Nakae, tia Ke, Kaje lii k^fa 
nam, Omya Nakae fana tian, b^ ki ^j^. Ka je ni tvtg^ kwQm^ kine : win^ yau ! 
A k^ Dakt a kwa^ lia lian, a nigi g^y a bUli a ydbi, a kobi Dak kine: d biila 
ydn ! Kine : i tteh yi edi f Kine : a ch&md I Kine : Nakaya, kwArd a chdm yi kwari! 
Kine: a chamk ypi t Kine: yu k^la kffi t Kine: i ndmiil Kine: il yi Ufni yi y^ 
hi ehdm^t ehaje hoikd nam. Ka ^j^ mdkh yi viaii. A k^bi Aan kine: nam ba kdli 
yiti IttU! Difa m;Q4afiI Kine: di dir^l u yy>6dd yin, yi bfidiL tv^k yi klUi I^l^. 
Yi fa M ninh w^k yi lii liwQla whk. A f^{ letii, a lii b^n lian wgky ch^ ^ke ktvdn^. 
Ka ffi, mdkk i/ibn. Ka chak m^nit yi ^ffit ki lidn. 

In ancient times Okwa (the £Btther of Kyikang) married the (woman of the) 
river, the mother of Nyikang, Njakae, the daughter of Ee. And the people used 
to go to the river. The brother of Njakae was the crocodile, it lived with the 
men; and the people used to play on its back saying, ''Our grandmother, eh!^ 
One day Dak went, he took the children of the crocodile, he killed and roasted 
them. When the children were searched for. Dak said, "I have roasted them.^ 
Nyikayo (the brother of Nyakae) said, "How is that?"" He replied, "I have 
eaten them.** Then the mother of the crocodile said, "Nyakayo, my grand- 
children have been eaten by your grandchildren.^ He replied, "Have they 
really been eaten by them?^ He asked, "Where will you go now?^ The woman 
replied, "I will remain in the river.'' Kyakayo said, "No, because you (and 
your children) will in your turn also be eaten by it (the crocodile), when the 
people (your children) come to wash.'' So the men now are caught by the 
crocodile. The crocodile said, "You (men) can never pass a river again, and 
you never will drink water from the river." Then Nyakayo (the man) said, 
"An right, if ever I find you (crocodile) lying outside the river, I shall 
surely stab you. You shaU never sleep outside the river, you (shall only have 
sufEcient time to) lay your eggs on the river bank." And a harpoon was made. 
During the time when the crocodile comes out of the river, the cows swim across 
the river; but (often) they are seized by the crocodile. This is the beginning of 
the enmi^ between man und the crocodile. 

[Another Report on the Descent of Kyikang and on the origin of the 

Shilluk people, given in A. E. S. page 197: 

In the beginning was Jo-uk (jwQk)j the Ghreat Creator, and he created 

156 Traditions on Nyikang 

a great white cow, who came up out of the Kile and was called Deung 
Adok f^n aduk). The white cow gave birth to a man-child whom she 
"" nursed and named Kola {KqIq)\ Kola begat Umak Ba or Omaro (OmarQ)y 
who begat Makwa or Wad Maul (toat mol), who begat Ukwa (Okwa). 
These people lived in a far-off country, nobody knows where. 
Ukwa was one day sitting near the river when he saw two lovely maidens 
with long hair rise out of the river and play about in the shaQows. He saw 
them many times after that, but they would have nothing to do with him 
and merely laughed at him. It should be mentioned that their lower 
extremities were like those of a crocodile. 

One day Ukwa found them sitting on the banks, so he came up behind 
and seized them. Their screams brought their father, Ud Diljil, out of the 
river, to see what was the matter. Ud Diljil, whose right side was green 
in colour and in form like a crocodile, whilst his lefl side was that oC a 
man, protested mildly, but allowed Ukwa to take away his daughters and 
wed them, merely giving vent to a series of incorrect prophecies regard- 
ing them. 

Kik-Eieya (Nt/akae), the elder sister, gave birdi to two sons and diree 
daughters, and Ung-wad, the youger, to one son only, named Ju, or 
Bworo. The eldest son of Kik-Eieya, was called Kyakang (Kik-kang or 
Kyakam, = Nikon) and inherited the pleasing crocodilian attributes of his 
mother and grandfather. Meanwhile Ukwa married a third wife, whose 
eldest child, a son, was named Duwat 

On Ukwa's death there was a furious quarrel between Kyakang and Duwat 
as to who should succeed Ukwa. It ended by Kyakang, with his sisters Ad 
Dui, Ari Umker, and Bun Yung, his brother Umoi and his half-brodier 
Ju, acquiring wings and flying away to the south of the Sobat Here ihej 
found the Shilluk country inhabited by wicked Arabs, so they drove 
them out and founded a most successful Eangdom. According to iheir 
genealogy this would have been about 1200 A. D., or later. 
Kyakang had a creative power which he used greatly to the advantage of 
the Kingdom. In order to people the vast territory more quickly, he 
proceeded to create a people from the animal life he found in the forests 
and rivers. From crocodiles, hippopotami, and from wild beasts and 
cattle, he created men and women. When these had brought forth many 
children, the parent stock was removed by death, so that the children 
might not know of their origin. 

The new creation and their offispring form the Shulla race or common 
^ people, in distinction from the direct descendants of Kyakang's frunily. 

Origin of the Shilluks 157 

The latter contiiiue to bear authority and fill the priestly function to this 
day. All outside the royal and priestly line are accounted Shullas. 
Nik-Eaeya still exists. She never died and never will. The western part 
of the Sobat and part of the White Nile is her favourite abode. She often 
appears, usually in the form of a crocodile, but at times in different forms 
and always in the river or on its banks. No sacrifices are ever offered to 
her. When she wishes, she takes what is required from among men and 
beasts; and when it is so, the people must not complain; indeed, it is an 
honour when Nik-Eieya is pleased to take her sacrifice of man or beast 
from a family.] 

The Origin of the Shullas'. 

By Dr. T. Lambie, of Doleib Hill. 

Nyikang, Duwad, Ju, Okil, Otin, and Moi were the sons of Okwa. Okwa 
was the son of Omara from heaven. Nyikang's mother was Nyikaya, Okwa's 
other wife was Ungwet. Nyikang and Duwad were twins, they lived far away 
to the south. Okwa was lost and his village was deserted, so the people asked, 
"Whom shall we elect king?*' Part of the people said, "We will elect Nyikang,^' 
o&ers said, "We will elect Duwad," so it came to pass there was war and the 
people were divided. Nyikang came and turned aside to the country of the 
Dim, and there he married the mother of Dak, and Dak was bom. Dak was 
wicked and killed some people of the Dim, and the Dim said, "Booh! all the 
people are being killed!" So they agreed to kill him, saying, we will kill Dak." 
Another man, called Obogi, kept silence there at the council when they spoke, 
and when the people asked him, "Did you not imderstand our talk?" he said, 
"Ah!" like a deaf and dumb person. And they struck him and said, "This fellow 
dit not hear." Then Obogi went to Nyikang and told him about the plot Nyi- 
kang replied, "Ah! very well, we shall see." So the father came and brought 
a wooden figure and put it up. And his son Dak played on the tom (stringed 
instrument), and when he had finished playing, he took off his bracelet and put 
it on the image in his house, and the Dim people came to his house and speared 
the figure. And when they thought they had finished killing it, they said, "He 
is dead, good!" They went away, and all the people came and began to lament 
saying, "!Dak is dead." They killed a dog, and when they had finished. Dak 
came, while the people were dancing his funeral dance. Dak came in and saw 
them. And Nyikang said, "We will separate from you, we go to look for com." 
So diey came and stopped here in the home of the Shullas. 

> L e. ShlllukB. 

158 Traditions on Nyikang 

5 1 . The Early Wanderings of Nyikang and his People. 

His Fight with the Sun. 

Ka btnfi htki dtiQn, fof^ ffu ha KSriu^ foj^ a lini Nikin; a d4n gtn, ga H 
Dutvdt A koH Duw^it kine: rlikan, yi Icgfja kffi t Kine: ya k0a kun in. A hobi: 
Nikan! Kine: R^ ndj{. Ka Nikon e ti^ ndjis ka dikigi, kd g^ lifU Nikon. Ka 
Nikan u binHj a pyeehi Nikon kine: i ginit A k6b4 kine: k^ i M k6ii firil A 
biji Jyikon, a pika fofe Ti^rjt, fofe nifyd D&k. 

Ka D&k i^i bSjiq toiy burQ, 6 f5fnQ 0m. A k6bi niyi gin kine:fM i ^ri yi Dak. 
A k^ nh/i gin, a tyiki t^. A t6ti Dak kine:yi dwdih nigh yineyQ. A k^ JNikan, 
a dwai a&§6j^, a yi^ Mbit^ ka plffS ehyffie gon. A k^ Dak, a flki kffi ffii, a fimi 
(qm. A lift neyi gin, a kiU, gn a6§j^. Dak ksfa koL A bgn Nikon, a hkli kine: 
fiird i nigt yi niyl gin. Ka neyi gsn e buQgQ. A kobi Une : i, riy ffof^. ehdn 
dnw^ ! A riji chdn dnw^n, a ywigi. 

Duki kd ^d^ b^ bine, gi gtr, ka Dak Md u^^Jb ki khL Ka k^ yi midQ. Ka 
neyi g^ e rinitt ka ywQk i rUm^. 

Ka Nikon eko: ya k^jb! Ka e b^no, ka k^lo yi nam, nam miko, chwoli Faloko. 
Ka je plka nam ffii. Kd decin i Idyht 4^ NikaAf kifa voiti^ tod^i M chAkd ehu^bit yi 
Nikan; kd 6 kidi, ka k^f^ifb^ chin; ka djul i kidit^ ka ^an ywddS, k^U ^ (4^k) 
chdn. Ka e ko: yd ydfi ^an. Ka Giri, wQt chan, kd i kdb^ kine: jdl, yi yiph 
nh f Kine: yd ydph <^n. Kine: d ^ mint Kine: ^ Nikon. Kine: ^e lido k^f 
Kine: k^ldfo^e Nikon. Kine: il pa^! pafe de Nikon. A duigS, in 6jul; o k6pi 
Nikan kine: Nikon, dean a y6ti win; ^ lial mikq, bir (bir), pere D&k, chyene 
dd attgb' A kdbi Nikan kine: An IM, a y6t ^k! A kiH D&k, a migi €Hri, a 
^yi g^ fin; a nile chyene gl^n, a kip yiil wltk; a chysti Uii. A bgn chan, a 
chyste leti Nikan, a nigi gitn; a bSn Nikon, a kwaii ti^^^^j d nwini chdn; kd 
chdn digi mdl. A k^i Nikon, a kwdrii ttgh, apwMiji, a pirQJi moL 

A bill tid^, a bin wiy nam, ka je 4^odQ, ka gs. b^n^, ko gi wafiQ mdni ndm. 
Ka namytt, d tik. A kobi Nikan kine: gn k^lo k&it A kobi kine: d kidit A 
vo&iii yQ. A pQrQ Ob^gh mil; a kobi kine: Nikon, yd tcAmi yi chdm. Chwibi ydn 
ia tik. A kobi kine: Nikon, u di kOn, u ki^ yi tih ko yi k^le bdn Ak. A chwiH 
fd tik, a pyete tik^ a binq pdch gi ki tik. 

A piki Achyite-guok, a ySt fM, i da btbSiiQ, a du^k tidit /^ a piki wiy PtJQ, 
a po^i Dak, a pQj^i wiy JPdli. A /^ lefi pach. A chyste JM, a kij^ ^d^. 

A giri Nelwal, a giri Pipw6jh» a gtri AdiHi, a giri Tidiglt Pain; a k^ t^iq, 
a giri Wau, Ochgro, Peiiikan OtegQ, Akonwd, MltTh» Orydn; my ere Nikon d j^Am. 
A k^^ ena Nikon, a kobi: 6, Chqla donQ. 

Ajdgi Dak, a kf^ ajigi 6ddk, a ki^, a lHyinlt, a ^. A mUtm ^<Ut, Hne; 
e gwQk idi f A dugk Nikon, a kobi kine: kdl 4^dn. min yik gi tabate. A wdmi, a 

Wanderings of Nyikang 159 

wmmmmmmm li ft iwftiiwiiiiiiiiiiiiHftiiiim^^^^^^^ WHWwiiiiwwwiwiiirwiniiiiiwiiiiwwiiiiiiiiwiiiii^^^^ 

UM, DuwQt Hj^gh* A nimi^ a Uni Bw^ch Hjd^gty ^ ^l ^if^ Hj^Q; a totii 
TugQ kijcyn; a taiii Okwgn Hjago, a toAi Kiidii Hj^Q; a toilii NakwachQ H 

In ancient times the people came to the country Eerau, this is the country 
into which Nyikang came. Here they separated, he and (his brother) Duwat. 
Dnwat said, "Nyikang, where are you going?*' He replied, "I am going to that 
place there.^ Again he said, "Nyikang, look behind!^ And Nyikang turned 
round, and looked back, and he saw a stick for planting dura, which Duwat 
had thrown to him. When Nyikang came back to take it, he asked, "What is 
that?** Duwat replied, „Go, that is a thing with which to dig the ground of 
your village!^ And Nyikang came, and sat down in the country of Turo. This 
is the country of his son Dak. 

And Dak used to sit on the ashes of the village and to play the tom (a stringed 
instrument). But his uncles (the brothers of Nyikang) said, "The country is to 
be ruled by Dak alone? (being jealous of him). His uncles went to sharpen their 
spears. But it was told to Dak, "You are going to be killed by your uncles!*' 
Then Nyikang went to fetch an ambach, he hewed it, and made for it hands 
(so that it looked like the statue of a man). Dak went and sat down in the 
same place again, and began playing his instrument. His uncles came and stabbed 
him — that is, the ambach statue ; Dak went into his enclosure (unhurt). Nyikang 
came and said, "My son has been killed by his uncles.** His uncles were afraid 
saying, "Let every man stay at home four days. When four days have passed, 
we may mourn hun.** The morning after four days were gone, aU the people 
came (to mourn), there were a great many. Suddenly Dak came out from his 
enclosure and went to dance the made dance. When his uncles saw this, they 
ran away, and the moiuning was finished. 

^Nyikang said, "I will go !** And he came and went along a river, a certain 
river called Faloko. And the people settled on this river. Here the cow ran 
away, the cow of Nyikang, because of her calves, her calves used to be speared 
by Nyikang.' She went and came to the country of the sun. And Ojul ("the 
grey hawk**) went to search for her; he found the cow among the cows of die 
sun. He said, "I am searching for a cow.** Garo, the son of the sun, said, "Man, 
what do you search for?** He replied, "I search for a cow!** He asked, "What 
cow?** Ojul said, "The cow of Nyikang.** Garo asked, "Where has it come 
from?** He answered, "From the country of Nyikang.** Garo replied, "No, 
never! Here is no cow of Nyikang.** He, Ojul, turned back and told Nyikang, 
"Nyikang, we have found the cow! among the cows of a certain man, he is aw- 
fully tall, just like Dak; on his hands he has silver bracelets.** Nyikang said, 
"Raise an army, and find the cow!** Dak went and attacked Garo, he threw 

* Whenerer Njikang came to a new place, he killed a calf. 

i6o Traditions on Nyikanfr 

him on the ground. He cut off his hands, pulled the bracelets off them, and 
chased the enemy's army; he came to the sun. But there the army of Nyikang 
was chased, and it was utterly destroyed. Then Nyikang himself came, he took 
an adze and aimed it towards the sun. He hit the sun, and it returned to the 
sky. Nyikang went ai^d took the bracelet, with it he touched the dead of his 
army, and they returned to life. 

The people came, they came to the head (source) of a river, there they arose 
and approached the junction of the river (in boats). They found the river foil 
of sudd. Nyikang said, "Where does this come from? what shall we do?^ Their 
way was barred. Then Obogo ' arose saying, "Nyikang, I have finished eating. 
Spear me under the sudd!^ He said again, "Nyikang, thus I shall part asunder 
the sudd, and if you come to any place where the sudd is, you just follow 
after it*' So Obogo was stabbed under the sudd, and the sudd broke asunder, 
so they came to their place together with the sudd. 

He settled (with his people) in Achyete-guok, but he found the country 
occupied by the white people, therefore the people returned to this side of the 
river. They settled at the head of the Pijo (i. e. Sobat)^ Dak passed on to Wij- 
Palo. The army went home (it scattered because the war was finished). 

He, Nyikang, built the following villages : Nyelwal, Pepwojo, Adwelo, Tedigo, 
Palo. The people went on and built Wau, Oshoro, PenyikangOtego, Akuruwar, 
More, Oryang, these are the villages of Nyikang. Nyikang went saying, "Ah, 
there are still Shilluks lefl!'' 

Then Dak ruled, he went away;> (after him his son) Odak ruled, he went 
awaya while hunting game. The people were perplexed, and they said, "What 
is that?" Nyikang returned saying, "Bring a cow, that we may make a bier."" 
When that was finished, Duwat ruled after him ; when he had finished, Bwoch 
ruled after him, after him Dokot ruled, then Tugo, then Okwon ; then Eudit, 
then Nyakwacho. (For the complete list see page 135). 

[A somewhat different report of this wai&re is given by P. W. Hofineyer 

in "Anthropos", 1910, V, page 332; it runs thus: 

Nyikang heard of a country in which all ornaments and even die tools 

were made of silver. He made up his mind to go into this country with 

his sons and numerous armed people. The name of this country was wang 

garo i. e. the country where the sun sets and sleeps, and where the sun 

is so near that it may be seized with the fingers. 

Nyikang arrived in the miraculous country; in truth, numerous catde- 

herds were grazing here, and the young people were richly adorned with 

silver rings and silver sticks. Nyikang and Dag entered a hut, where a 

young woman was working. She was exceedingly beautiful; the Shillok 

1 Obogo means "albino" ; Tide also page 157. 
' i. e. he died. 

Adventures of Nyikang i6i 


heroes had never seen her equal. Dag asked the womaD, whether she 
would like to many him and go with him into his country. The woman was 
frightened, she sprang up, cursing the black fellows. But Dag replied, 
"Though we are black, and without silver ornaments, we shall show you 
that our arms are stronger than those of your men and that we may well 
venture to ask you for marriage.'' Thereupon the woman showed them 
the direction where her husband with his servants herded the cattle. 
Nyikang and Dag turned thither. 

It was just growing dark and the herds were coming from the bush, the 
men with their costly silver ornaments following. Dag at once rose, went 
to meet them, and soon a great fighting was going on. The man who 
wore the heavy silver rings was defeated, and Dag stripped the orna- 
ments off him. 

In the heat of the fight and on account of the scorching sun all the Shilluks 
fell down. Nyikang ordered water to be brought, with which he sprinkled 
his fallen warriors, and they all came to life again. Even the sun he 
sprinkled that it might not bum so hot, and presently it ceased burning. 
Finally the Shilluks were victorious and drove away the catde and men 
of the enemies. These people are the Quadshal (Ewa Jal). 
When they had arrived in the Shilluk country. Dag once more proposed 
to the woman to many her; but he was again rejected. 
Nyikang offered the prisoners in his country cattle, but they declined. He 
offered them Shilluk women, but again they declined. So he gave them the 
privilege to seize and keep a number of Shilluk girls and to collect spears, 
sheep, and fat in the whole Shilluk country, as often as a new king would 
be elected. As this was a lasting privilege, they consented to accept it.] 

52. Different Doings and Adventures of Nyikang* 

NikinQ M kd (ks^Q) $dn gqU Ka je rnolcQ lii bSno, gi mhyh ki y^u Ka yff, 9ii 
^'dfiafiti, Ka lii U^ Jyikan^ ka Nikan ^l{, ka e b&iQ^ ka e ko kine: Ddk, ya ^Q 
yije mokq. Ka Ddk e kS^, ka Dak ddli, ka Dak e bgno, ka e ko: yd ^l yijik 
ini. Ka Jsikan ko : ^, lidrA ! g^ di (ri) je a M ^^ g^ f Kine : ^^ ysi fii wana feii t 
A digi Dak, a ign yi jok sni, gi mdyq ki yi\. A lok Dak e 6kdk, ka p^ka yey 
nam. Kajgjk gni e biriQ, ka gs_ k^la bute Dak; ka gs_ mak, ka ge_ ki^fach, 

Kajofc ffii e bldq kifach. Kd w^t g^ yi Nikan, ka gs, kobQ kine: rfikan, b^ni 
wqH agak t Kine : wote wa fa liii bidh nau, A kobi Nikan kine : i, de tcot tii gir 
edit Kine: wQte wa lii gir ki ^j^! A ky^di Nikan kine: ddj^ boggn. Kine: ^.^j^ 
d gtr ki yi l^i! A kobi Nikan kine: i, bogon. A kj^ chwola OUdl^. A kobi 
kine: kol ^j^! Ka Nikan i bdAlt. A k^jal ini, a kQli liari, a ch^bi libtf ^ kygri 

WBSTBRMAlfH , Tb« Shfllvk People. 1 1 

i62 Traditions on Nyikang 

WQty a chy^h iQbo, ka ty^e wqt tiffi. A kobQ Hne: chununi A nidffi liare, a giehi 
g^ hi htdly a tQW^, A koH Isikan kine: bih! Kine: t^ OIouIq, kw^fi rack! STi 
0f^ a niffif Kine: yidif Kins: j^ u chik d g\ firi dn^: ka lii kyere wqt Nikan, 
ddff, e fii j^ kifa Olddlit* A bit tirQ^ a kobi Nikan kine: i! OIooIq jH u chigi j^ 
yi wQn eni. Ka OIooIq kine: did^ (d^ sv&)9 U f^y&^y ba pimi. 

A wikijame kwir yi Nikan, a ni kyp^e wqL Ka e ko kine: wQt M kygl ki afojq 
liitQnQ, lii chdm a trfir, fii lana war, i ehdm^. Ka gol dkyil^ ga k^le bane Nikan, 
ni chama chwai; ka gol akyilq chama rinQ, gol aky§l chama bane. A rimi, niQk 
an a fum, 

Ka Nikan ni ka vn kysT, ka ie niokQ lii ySt g^ tj^, jal fffii hi liem^n. Ka Nikon 
b^nQ, ka a^ lii rgna nam. Ka Nikan tii 4^14, ka Dak dvoai, kd S barilt > ka kwdeh, 
Ka Nikon e k^^ ka i/iar^ weki Dak, chSl k^y maye Dak, A yei Dak, a k^dq, ka 
jok sni y9d4. Ka gs, rina nam, ka Dak kela nam ki yii; ka gi gino wqk, ka gt 
rina nam, ka lian ^i mAgi, ka gQ HH yi ysi- Ka e bgnq, ka Am^ lugd frSii^ Ko 
gg^ bldQ ki pack, E liwQli ki w^di. A kwali rii gin, gg hi liimin. A dgn toodg. 

A k^^ge nam. A kgj^ Nikano &f cMk, kajal mikq Ai chSti y^ ki nam; littt^ 
chwgla ga Ochwd. A kff^ gna Nikan, a kdiii j$ch, JQch OchamdQr, a yi^H ffiif^t « 
kii% Odop, a ki^ mgn Spun, kili dqlc odop, a mAgi, a bina vogk, a ^^. A bgn 
Tiemgn bang, A bgda pack ; a ni chamo j^ch, foche Nikan, a i/ii chAm mgn adH. 
A weri Nikan, a kobi Nikan kine: kyau kefq tviy Tor, j$k khn chim4 kijttP' ^ 
ni chdmijop, A k^ Tiim^n, a kobi: 0fe ydn hi rinQ ! Ka e w^rh ki liimin, ka gt 
liakQ' Ka gg nffi nam, ka giUi, ka gQ mdgg nam, ka gg kgj^ nam, 

Ka jqk moko lii kd bg mai, gg bia hi Olam, ka Nikan Ai ^U, ka Dak e k§^, 
Ka gg romo hi gin; ha gg mdgS. Nihan ho: wehi yan, ha Dah i bitfi^, hine: bdnd! 
Ka ga h^li Dak, ha gg hg^a facK ha gg wihi ^h d^it ; ha gg wihi tin alo^, gQ 
ni giitk dean. K^l ^ean hi BachodQ, gq tii ligit mi gin, 

Ka jgh molcQ bgdot ga hwar bwoifiQ, ha gg Tii k^jLq, ka fii lia ban ; ka gg iHi wiH 
gyi^h^ tys^e a yot pM, ka tii k^l Nikan ki Ahuruwar ; gg lii mahi gy^Q, gQ M 
gach hi feii hi yey d^k, ChSfi, mok gni d fwm. 

jQk mokq ba ytt, gg ni kgj^ gg yi nam, yi nam Abiid^k; gg M ehami fitoQle par. 
Nam gni chwQld Nhjotk, Ka Abttdqk e blno, ka e pich^ kine: winiji kuni Kine: 
w6 bil ytt. Ka AbudQk kudQ. Ka gg chdmQ ki rino; ka liDanQ i/ii pska wiy rtfifi, ka 
JQk gni e baiiQ; e nonQ, A kobi Abiidith hine: tjou rg a b&A wdnf Kine: toi 5^^. 
Kine : yinqf Yi Iwano, Kine : wi chdhd nw^n^ ! Kine : wq fa lii chAmlt gin hwQmi 
da IwanQ. A hi^ ggn pack yi Abudoh, A hdbi AbudQk kine: toi chSk, wuna kwilre 
nwitn! A bidi, gna ban AbudQk, a weki khl, 

Njikang used to go to the river-bank. And some people also used to come 
there, they were fishing in a boat, and suddenly the boat used to sink to the 
bottom. Njikang saw it, but he did not know what to do (with these people), 

Adventures of Nytkang 163 

therefore he went home, and said (to his son), ''Dak, there are certain people, 
I do not know what to do with them.*' Dak went, but he too could not manage 
them. So Dak came home saying, ''I do not know what to do with these 
people.^ But Njikang said, "Mj, why did you let the people go?** He ans- 
wered, ''Well, the boat went down to the bottom!" Dak returned and found 
the people again fishing in a boat. Dak turned himself into an egret and sat 
down in the middle of the river. The people came and were driven to the side 
of Dak; so he caught them and brought them into a (his) village (settled them). 
These people now lived in a village. And Nyikang was building a house. 
They asked, "Nyikang, are these your houses? Our houses (the houses of our 
&ther) are not thus.'' Nyikang replied, "Eh, how then are (your) houses built?" 
They replied, "Our houses are built with human beings." But Nyikang pro- 
tested, saying: "I have no human beings (for that purpose)!" They replied, 
''Why, you have a lot of people here with you everywhere!" But Nyikang 
said, "No, there are none!" The man (the chief of these water-people) went; 

— his name was Oloalo. — (But he came again) saying: "Bring a man!" But 
Nyikang refused. The man went and brought his own son; then he mixed mud, 
he marked the place where the house was to be built, he prepared the mud 
and dug out Ihe foundations of the house. He said, "Bring mud!" And it was 
brought He said, "Stop now!" He seized bis son and struck him with a club, 
until he died. When Nyikang saw this, he said, "Ah, Oloalo, you are doing a 
wicked thing! how can you kill that man!?" Oloalo replied, "Why?" Nyikang 
said, "Well, it now will remain a custom of your village, always when a house 
of Nyikang will be built, a man will die because of Oloalo." The people remained 
there. Nyikang said, "Ah, Oloalo, your people will always die in building this 
house!" Oloalo replied, "Never mind, they are many, they will not be used up." 

Nyikang gave him certain goods belonging to himself, with which to build the 
house (of Nyikang). And he said, "The house shall be built with a black heifer, 
which shall be eaten in the night; during the night it shall be eaten." One £Btmily 

— they are followers of Nyikang — eat the broth, and one funily eat the meat, 
one family eat the meat on the skin. It is finished; this report is at an end. 

Nyikang used to go to the river junction (of Sobat and White Nile), there 
he used to find some people who were cooking, a man with his sister. When 
Nyikang came near, they ran away into the river. Nyikang did not know what 
to do, and he called Dak. But Dak refused. He begged him. Then Nyikang 
went, and gave his daughter to Dak, as an indenmity for the mother of Dak. 
Now Dak consented, he went and found the people. They ran into the river, 
but Dak also drove a boat into the river and he drove them out onto the bank. 
They attempted to escape into the river again, but he seized the girl; he put 

i64 Traditions on Nyikang 

her into his boat and came home. But her brother followed her, and they both 
remained in the viUage. (Dak married the girl), and she bore a son. After some 
time they stole away, the man and his sister. Her son was left in the village. 
\ One day Nyikang went to fish with a hook. And a man (below the water) 
always used to break the fish-hook in the river, the name of this man was 
Oshwa. He, that is, Nyikang, now went to dig out the joch-plant, the joch of 
Ochamdor, he twisted it into a rope and tied the fish-hook to it, he fastened 
a piece of bread to the point of the hook, and so he caught the man in the 
river, he came out — it was a man ! His sister came after him. They remained 
in the village, they used to eat calves, the calves of Nyikang, and they used to 
eat the com which was cooked for making beer. At last Nyikang became 
angry, and said, "Row this man to the place of Witor, a place where he may 
eat buffaloes. "* (He was rowed thither, and) ate buffaloes. His sister also went 
there and she used to say, "Qive me some meat!^ He became angiy with his 
sister, and they fought. And (while fighting) they rolled into the river, they 
tumbled down a steep slope^ and so went into the river again. 

Some people used to go fishing, to a place called 01am. Nyikang got into 
difficulties with them, and Dak went. He met them, and they were caught by 
him. Nyikang said, "Qive them to me!^ But Dak reftised, saying, "They are 
my slaves. '^ Dak took them along with him and brought them into his village. 
He gave them big cattle, and the spear Alodo with which to kill the cows. — 
When people bring catde to Fashoda it is their (these people's) property. 

There were some people, descendants of the white men; they became slaves. 
They used to give fowls. They were people found in the country before 
Nyikang was brought from Akuruwar. They used to catch hens, and to offer 
them to Nyikang as a tax, in the middle of Dok. — That is aU, this report is 

Some people were fishermen, they used to go to the river, to the river of 
Abudok, they used to eat the calves of hippos. The name of this river was 
Nyewek. When Abudok came, he asked them, "From which place are yon 
people?" They replied, "We are fishermen." Abudok was silent And while 
they were eating meat, flies settled on the meat; but these people would not 
suffer it, they were proud. Abudok said, "Why do you refuse that meat?" 
They replied, "We are afiraid." He asked, "Of what?" They answered, "Of 
the flies." He said, "You are proud, are you not?" They replied, "We do not 
eat anything on whose back there are flies." These people were taken home 
by Abudok. And Abudok said, "Ah, you will continue thus ! You are the des- 
cendants of pride." They stayed there, they became adherents of Abudok, he 
gave them a settdement. 

Adventures of Nyikang 165 


53. The Man who sacrificed Himseli 

K^Qk a bin Nikdn, a k^fi Atuljl ki wqte ban^ a ywoda nam g rig^ yi tik, Ka 
Nikon ejadQ t/Q. Kajal ma 6bigh€ ficho kine: Nikan, yi ri chun? Yijati ki ygf 
Ye ko : itw^^ yd jdti yQ. Ka e ko : kffi ya rUmi ki cham, yd u bt, ka ya chwSp ki 
t6n, ka rimi mild nam, tik u chSt Ka Nikan chwobi jal sni, ka rem^ mgla nam, 
ka tik e ckodq, Ka Nikan yjti hi yQ, ^ 

When Nyikang came, he went to the Khor Atulfi with his followers; he found 
the river was shut up by the sudd, so that Njikang did not find a passage. And 
a certain man who was an albino,^ asked thus, "Njikang, why do you stop? Is it 
because you do not find a passage?" He replied, "Yes, I do not see a way 
where to pass." The man said, "When I have finished eating, I shall come, I 
wiU be killed with a spear, my blood will flow into the river, and the sudd will 
break away." And Kyikang speared the man, his blood flowed into the river, 
and the sudd broke away. Thus Nyikang found a passage. 

54. Nyikang and the River-people. 

A ksia Nikan wak, a mdiii, a yode y&, rina wQk yi lysh a kobi kine: JQk, wei 
kdfd (kifd) yi ysi vmn ! jqk §ni ko : kipanQ f Kine yau, A kdfS, che ysi M tona 
pen, ka go, M. d^di yi Nikan. A bin, a mdgi gin, a k^le gs, pack, a Idme gin, a 
logo, ban^ a toei ge tgn, gQ lii Urn gpi. A l^ge tysn lam, a wei g^ NibodQ; ka lii 
boti Nikan. Chwol gd hoar Wan, kware ygi ly^k. 

Nyikang went into the bush capturing; he saw (at a distance on the river) a 
boat, he ran from the high grass to a place where the grass was burned, then 
he called, "People, let me get into your boat!" The people asked, "Why?" 
He replied, "Just let me go in." When he got into it, the boat went to the 
bottom (was about to sink, this being caused by the witchcraft of the people 
in the boat); but Nyikang pushed it up again; then he came and caught them. 
He brou^t them into a village; he taught them to pray; they became his 
slaves (his subjects); he gave them the spear and taught them to pray. So they 
became the people of prayer. He let them reside at Nyibodo; they keep the 
(religious) things belonging to Njrikang. They are called the descendants of 
Wang, the descendants of the boat of the grassless plain. 

5 5 . The Lost Cow. 

Kwajul e kwayi ^k, ^k Nikan, ka ^ah aky^l e win, ka e kf^ kal ^ Dimq. 
Ka e bina: dean aggnf Kine: ^n igk! Ka Nikan werQ, ka e ko: yap ^an! Ka 

•Vide 51. 

i66 Traditions on Nytkang 

e k^dQ kun de ctian, ka ye kg^ ka ye kg/^ ka mdki toun; a k^^ a toif% fate 
ZHmQ. Ka ^-an ywods, t ^^ fo-ch^ ka fiki fd ry^k; a fyech^ : yi k^la kun a f K^le 
fofe Nikan b^ yafe (fean, Ka ^ki thqI a kgfi kale dgk, ka ^ Jsikan, ka go, kili 
^. Ka e bin, ^(^^fofe ChQL Ka deati k6li kal ^L Kafy^ch ]\ikan kine: 4^an 
a kbU yin f Ka eko: dean d wa^fach. Chwgl gna KwajuU bane Nikon. 

Ewajul herded catde, the cattle of Kyikang; and one cow disappeared, she 
went into the cattle-yard of Dime. When Ewajol came home, Njikang asked^ 
"Where is the cow?" He replied, "The cow is away." Nyikang became an^^, 
he said, "Search for the cow!" So he went westwards ("to the place of die 
sun"), he walked and walked, till he had been on his way a year; he arriyed in 
the country of Dime. There he found the cow, she had gone into the village, 
and was lying within the yard. They asked him, "Where do you come from?" 
He replied, "I come from the country of Nyikang, to search for a cow." The 
next morning he went into the catde yard, and drove the cow of Kyikang away. 
And he came and approached the Shilluk country. He drove the cow into die 
catde pen. Nyikang asked, "Have you brought the cow?" He replied, "The cow 
is here in die village." Therefore he was called Ewajul, die servant of Nyikang. > 

56. The Liar. 

OjuIq bida ga mj2j(» ka ni tc^la k^Ay ka i/ii bgnq^ ka iHi tbd^ ; ka hi uila fofie, ka 
hi bin, ka hi todQ. A kobi ISikah, a fyechi kine: OJuIq, yi re chik kifa fQdq t Ko : 
a, mdji, todi ya ! bani gin hi yini yd. Ka Nikan e nif^f ^ ko: jal, yi u chdk, yina 
twot. A chogi anan, a tubt, a neau tddQ kijaeh; a to^ki gQ in. 

Ojulo was a friend (of Nyikang). When he went somewhere and came back, 
he used to tell all kinds of stories (lies) to Nyikang. Whenever he came to 
a country, he brought home a lot of stories. One day Nyikang asked, "Ojulo, 
why do you always lie so much?" Ojulo replied, "Ah, friend, let me lie! That is 
what makes me feel well." And Nyikang laughed, he said, "Man, you will 
always continue in this, you are a liar indeed!" And so he continued, he used 
to tell stories, he bought the story-telling with the shoulder of game, which he 
gave to Nyikang.^ 

57. Nyikang' s Quarrel with Duwat 

NikAh win Okwd, omin Duw^, fofe Shdlg ft Tiir^, y^na kdch dh/^L KA 
Niekth e wtrh H Duw^t, Niekah w^d^ Ddk, DutoQt wQ4t Din^» Ka Dak e hakQ 
ki DimQ ki bdh rf^h Niekdn, ehama by^U by^l DutoQt; Ditn^fwbt rqcK NiekanQ 
wh'o ki D^to^t. — Niekah e ks/^ e ko: DutoQt, dthi! yi k^dtt! Ka Niekan e k^^ 

1 Compare with thif story No. 51. 

' By giying the Bhonlder of the game he had killed, he "bought** from Nyikang the privilege to 

tell lies. (This is meant as a joke). 

Adventures of Nyikang 167 


i cfiQfQ. Ka Duwat rena bin Niekan kine: Niekan, shunt I Niekan i baii, Kine: 
Ufi! NiekanQ lij^. Ka tdkigl tini kine: Niekan, kwaii tdkAgl bl kwoiijei! B&i 
ISiekan fo\e ShiUt, fa (fach) Niekan ki widi. Dak ki Shal, w^te ari/au. — Wa 
(Wat) Niekan ah/gl t yigi nan fii mdi ki rech. 

Nyikang, his father is Okwa, and his brother is Duwat. The country of the 
ShiUaks was (at that time) Turo ; there they lived in one place. And Nyikang 
became angry with Duwat: Nyikang had a son whose name was Dak, and the 
son of Duwat was Dime. And Dak quarrelled with Dime behind (or: on account 
of) the calves of Nyikang; they (the calves) ate the dura, the dura of Duwat, 
and Dime beat the calves. Therefore Nyikang became angry with Duwat. 
Nyikang went away. He said, ''Duwat, stay here ! I go.^ And Nyikang went 
away walking. Duwat ran after Nyikang, saying: "Nyikang, stop!" But Nyikang 
refused. Again he called, "Look!*' And Nyikang looked behind, and Duwat 
threw a digging stick towards him, saying: "Take this stick to bury your people 
with!*'^ Nyikang came into the ShiUuk country, (and it became) the home of 
Nyikang and his son Dak and Shal; he had (these) two sons. — One son of 
Nyikang became a man who used to fish. 

58. The Fish Ocholo. 

Jal milcQ liin^ chwgla Oehdlo, bsda wat ban Nikan. K^ Itogke Nikan nam, ka 
ni Ugi rejQ, ka fii dwanQ kine: b^hl Ka Nikan M nAn, ka e bia pack, ka e ^Q^q 
ki k&ky ka wij^ kif^ ki apir, ka k^ nam; ka e dwanQ, Hne : bik, ka ni kgle Nikan, 
ka rejQ, ka go lii bajs,, Jal e b^da jwQh Ni chika dwanQ, ka go fii baj^. Ka Nikan 
e pidQj ka bia pack, ka jal gni yodi gQ bin pack, dji twavQ wM dqk, 

JDyiki ka Nikan d^gi gat. Ka jal ^ni e l^gi ksfi, e chika dwanQ, kine : buh I Ka 
fii klle yi Nikan^ ka ba>ch, ka e gitQ bgrQ^ ka Nikan bia padi. Ka D&k chwoli, ka 
e ho: DAgi, fia dd^, da reJQ maduQn ki yey nam ka; ya ^li ^U^ ka ni kiU in, 
fii 4^1^* ^^^ e ko: i, a rech anQ ki nam j^f Ko: i, u lefje yin yau! ReJQ ma 
ckwak^ duQn charQ; ka i^i kele sn, M bAjh bij^, d^ ya dali in, fia ^^ 

A k^ D&k, ka g^ ka (ksj^) nam; ka e dwan^ kine: bih! Ka e ksJi in, ka e baJQ; 
ka e biapach, ka e ko: ya ^H in! Ka Nikan ko: i, dtoin, yi niUi ^S ffit Ka 
bql kik dide, ka e ka^^ ka e dwan kine: buh! Ka e klle (0 ksfe) wite pi ghn, ka 
kikpaie r^ Kajal sni dwoja mal, ka e ko: hi, Digi, kwofi racK yi ba weA, Ka 
k^ pache gQn, e iQgQ ban, a gire fari, a chan fiin^ AtgnQ, a glra tQk ^Jb. 

A certain man whose name was Ocholo (that is "Shilluk") was a slave of Nyi- 
kang. When one day he accompanied Nyikang to the river, he became a fish 
and he lifted his head above the water, saying, "buh!*'* Nyikang did not know 
what to do; he went home, made a fish-spear (a harpoon), and tied a fish-line 

> Vide page 159. 

' ft much used ezdamation of Borprite. 

i68 Traditions on Nyikan^ 

to its end. He went to the river again, the fish lifted his head above the water, 
saying, '^buh!'' Then Njikang stabbed the fish, but he missed him; — this man 
was a jwok.i He once more lifted his head out, and Kyikang tried to stab him^ 
but again missed him. At last Kyikang was tired, and he went home. When he 
came home, he found this same man gathering cow dung. 

The next day Kyikang returned to the river bank; this man also returned; 
he lifted up his head out of the water, crying, ^buh!'' Kyikang stabbed him, but 
he missed him, so he went on till the afternoon, then Kyikang went home. He 
called Dak, saying, '^Dak, son of man, there is a big fish in the river, I have 
failed to catch it, I tried to stab it, but I failed.^ Dak replied, "Well, what fish 
can there be in that small river?^ Kyikang said, "Well, you just go and see it, 
it is a fish with a very strong voice. I stabbed it, but I always missed it. I do 
not know what to do with it, son of man.^ 

Dak went, he went to the river. The fish lifted up its head, saying, "Buh!*' 
He stabbed it, but missed it He came home, saying, "I do not know how 
to stab it!^ But Kyikang replied, "Oh, my cousin, you have not yet tried 
properly.'' Dak made his spear handle straight, and went again. The fiish lifted 
up its head, saying, "Buh!*' In this moment Dak threw the spear at the place 
where the splashing of the water was, and the spear fell on the fish (hit it). 
Then the man (the fish) arose, and said, "Ah, Dak, your talk is bad, you are 
a cunning one I'' He (the fish-man) went home, he became a subject (of Kyikang), 
he (Kyikang) built him a village, and called its name Alengo, he built it beside the 
brook Dok. 

59. Nyikang and the Sorcerers. 

Nikan ka e mQiiQ, ha e kgi^/df^ rnSjcQ, ka e ho: iy wa kobi adif Je bgdi gi 
ajw^k, ka ISikan a ^H, ka e ko: bih, uje ^h adit Ko: it Ka e logo, goniQ, ka 
Nikan Igtgq bdino, ka peti n%m^ ka je gni b{nQ, ka gs, mdgi. Ka gs, ksl& pach^ ka 
gs. 9lt& pa gin (g^n). 

BST ga kwa wtmdn, gir TwQlQn, Ka wiki ^ean, de nam, ogigh* 

When Kyikang was capturing (men), he went to a certain country, and he said, 
"Ah, what shall we say?^ Because these people were witch-doctors, and Kyi- 
kang got into difficulties (trying to capture them). Again he said, "Why, what 
shall I do with these people? Ah, I have found out!^ And he turned into a wind, 
and then he turned into a cloud-shadow, and covered the earth (so that it was 
dark and the wizards could not see anything) ; so he caught them. He brought 
them, and built them a village. 

These are the descendants of the woman, they live at Twolang. Kyikang 
gave them a cow, a cow of the river, an ogego. 

^jwQk = "God". 

War azdinst Turtle's 169 


60. A War against Turtles. 

i2|j[ 97igj^ chtoQld Mf^i, omt/sn Nikan. Ka e jihit; ka ki^a bs. mUrio foj^ jure 
friSkQ, chwofa B$lo. Ka go m^, ka ffQ nigi. 

Ka pofje nigkQ chtogla Ot$n, ka (Hon m^ii. Ka e logo, puk. Ka fefie gbU. Cha 
4^t^ ptkd peiif ko go tii kdji; ka leti niki pUk. A b&io pach a dtoai Ddk; a kobi 
Ddk kine : a gin 2fn^ t Jal ^nt ko: IM ^nJikoy ya ddli hi (fin), de lia nemei dd^, 
leri kick, ddf^ M kAji kHj^, Kij^ ghn^ e ko: e bit anQ f Kine : i, ktichi ydn, A ko 
Dak kine: i, fafe gin Iw&fi aut E ko: not a^ri ! A ty^ gin^ a fg^i i^, a tin leti. 
Ka Dak e ko: wa ke{a mall Ka k^ mal, ka t^rQ kope bine bine kine: kbk piA! 
Ka tifQ chQf2 k^ka pM. Ka kwiki Ddk, ka gQ ydU wgky kalM i nik^ duogQ pach. 

Ka chika IM wUcq tinQ, tin fd{e JBilo, ka leii e k^dg^ ka leti kitQ tvar ka midit 
bine bine; po^ ini e iQgQ mld^, Ka lii dime yi dS^ ka ddj^ lii j^. Ka Dak ehiki 
leti tinQ kit^ ka Dak e kobQ kine: hode ySdii t Ka yidi kdU ka leti fika feti ki bute 
fan §niy ka e IggQ rnido kit^ ka e bitiQ^ ka Ddk e ko: ckwoii macht Ka y&^ 
ckwoti mach, ka omxdo b&iQ, ka tii gqcha mach yi Ddk, Ka }'id6 mtdQ, ka leti nek 
yi Ddk, ka mak bine. 

A bin tiTQ pach, a kobi Mqi, omya Nikan, a kobi kine : Ddgi kwati Idu ! A 
kwaii Idu yi Ddk, Yina rimS ntii^ ; a ndji kwQp bin, a j^kd, A tine leti, a matii 
jur miikQ, a mAgi g^, a logo, bini* 

A gsra wQt f tbk, a kobi Nikan kine : Ddgi, xogt a gir yi tSk, d&yijat M kwdr^. 
A kobi kine : did^ (ds_ ^^) f woda u gtri yan yau ki lUni, A lii gire kwdre IdnQ. 

A certain king called Moi, a brother of Njikang, ruled the Shilluk country. 
He went out to conquer some people called Belo (near Chai = Roseires). He 
conquered the tribe, and destroyed it. 

Again there was another country, a country called Oton, he went to conquer 
this too. But the people of Oton turned into turtles, they buried themselves 
in ihe ground. And when the people of Moi sat down, they bit them; thus the 
turtles were victorious. Moi went home, and called for Dak. Dak asked, "What 
is the matter?^ Moi said, '^I have been defeated, I do not know what to do 
with them, you son of the sister of man ! It was a very hard war indeed, my 
men were awfully bitten in the rear. ^ He asked, ''How so?" Moi answered, 
"Eh, I do not know.^' Dak replied, "Ah, is not that a simple matter?^' He said 
"Cut sticks t^^ He sharpened the sticks, he made them like fish spears. Then he 
raised an army. Dak said, "Let me go ahead!'' He went ahead, and he told 
all the people in the army, "Prick the ground!'' So all the people, while they 
were walking, pricked the ground; thus Dak had the whole ground pricked, 
and the turtles came out, and the enemy was defeated, and they returned home. 

Again he raised an army, he raised it against the country of Belo. The army 

170 Traditions on Nytkang 

went; it came to fighting daring the night, Ae air was full of fireflies. It was 
Ae country of the fireflies. They fell npon Ae men, and Ae men died. When 
Dak fought against Aese people, he told his warriors, "Make grass torches!^' 
They made grass torches; when the army came near Ae village and sat down 
there, Ae fireflies came; Dak said, '^ Light Ae torches I^^ They set fire to the 
torches, and when Ae fireflies came, Dak had the grass torches thrown at them; 
thus Ae enemy was destroyed by Dak, he caught them all. 

When the people (the warriors) came home, Moi, Ae broker of Nyikang, 
said, "Dak, take Ae royal cloth (become our king)! You are a man of many 
thoughts, you know all matters !^^ Dak took Ae cloth, and he ruled. 

He raised an army to wage war against a certain tribe, he destroyed diem, and 
they became his slaves. 

While Dak was absent, a house was built (by Nyikang and Moi) ; and when 
he returned, Nyikang told him, "Dak, we have been building a house (for you) 
during your absence, but there are not sufficient poles.^^ Dak replied, "But what 
does that matter? I shall build my house with nabag poles.^^ So it became a 
custom for the people to build with nabag poles. 

61. Praising Nyikang. 

Ka kwat/i ka e chwQu, ha tUn leii ty§ky ka e k^io, ka e kgtQ. Ka leA nigi. A 
b^ tlTQ, a m^ge ^i, a k^l ^A, a gir peA. A wum^ glTQ^ « chip ji kur^, niQJk 
chip MwQmQs fnok chip TUn. 

Our grandfaAer,^ he roared, and he surrounded the enemies on all sides, 
and he went, and fought. He killed ihe enemies; ihen the (Shilluk) people 
came, they caught ike cattle (of the enemy), they brought Ae cattle. They built 
houses in the country; when they had finished building, he appointed watch- 
men (men who had to watch the boundaries of Ae Shilluk country against their 
enemies), some on ike northern boundary at Mwomo, and some on the 
southern boundary at Tonga. 

' L e. Nyikang. 

Prayers 171 



62. A Prayer to God. 

MaM yiuy yxna jwQk, ds, go. kwachh yin H togr. A k6r ji kidi chdn b^, Ka 
cJAfi ki kild l&m, chd(d ri^ a ntni H wQty nind ri. Di gb miHL yin hi gin cham a 
ni wikije, Hpik a M rnQt, ki w^ a Idri yin. Bun anfidi vAjii yinajwQk; yina 
IqIc kwa NikdnQ; fan^ wiin a chafi HjtoQk; yina l^k kwd, ki liari Ddk. A yigs, 
ryakf ryak fa mAji yinf Nami a ehini ind dkhhy /8 j^ rpn^fa ks^yi;yina 
jtoQkf dg go M Idmi min f fafe yin, yina jtogk^ ki sna yik Nikdn, ki tidri Ddk ? 
jDg wH fa mfigi cht t Fan^ yin u iini mdl. 

Cho^ kd dean ehwQp, kd wd^ kwaAi ka lin re nane a re da jwok^ H pi wife r^. 
Kayi^ didn nQl, twoy tyilQ, ka bdt ydn ngU ka fM andndndn; fa bilyijL Kd 
chwdi mfii^j^, ka kaA fefi, m^k jtogk. 

"I implore thee, thoa God, I pray to thee during Ae night. How are all people 
kept by thee all days! And thou walkest in the midst of the (high) grass, I 
walk with thee; when I sleep in the house, I sleep with thee. To thee I pray 
for food, and thou givest it to the people; and water to drink; and the soul is 
kept (aUve) by Aee. There is no one above thee, thoti God. Thou becamest 
the grandfaAer of Nyikango; it is thou (Nyikango) who walkest with God; 
thou becamest the grandfather (of man), and thy son Dak. K a famine comes, is 
it not given by thee? So as this cow stands here, is it not thus: if she dies, does 
her blood not go to thee ? Thou God, to whom shall we pray, is it not to thee? 
Thou God, and thou who becamest Nyikango, and thy son Dak! But the soul 
(of man), is it not thine own? It is thou who liftost up (the sick).^ 

That is all; and the cow is speared; and the contents of her stomach are taken 
out, and are thrown on the body of the man who is sick ("is with God'^); and 
water is poured on his body. And one ear of the cow is cut off, (it is cut into 
strips, these are tied together and the whole) is tied round the leg (of the sick 
one). And the right foreleg (of the cow) is cut off, and it is cooked at once; 
the people are not allowed to taste of it. They make a litde brotii out of it; 
that is poured on the ground: it is the thing (property) of God.' 

63. A Prayer for Rain and the Ceremonies connected with it. 

Tyffi a mdn i/ii b^nit, ka g^ Agn Ajn ^n, kifa bl g^p ki kiiij^, ka gi binos ka 
ri^ e vAr, ka g^ mwQnQy ka gi gwid^t ki bur kwarQ, ki bur laJQ, H bur tar, ki 
cMIq. Ka rdm g^ gufit, ka g^ chifnit, ka by^l e gHU, ka dean k^l, ka ^ean chw$p, 

^ This ii Mdd to be the only pn^er to jwok. It is prayed on any oecasioii when a trial, as sick- 
ness, £unine, war, fitUs on the people. The prayer Is said by ''old people", by the ehief^ or some 
other respected person of the Tillage. The BhiUnks were taught it by Nyikang. 

172 Prayers and Religious Ceremonies 

ka tqm kil wqk, ha Ch^lit (CIiqUq) bStiQ bane binef kd th^ chbni^f ha went hi war, 
ha tgrQchonQ, ha ri^ a hwaeh: 

Ya hwaehe H mdfiiin^, md h^la 4^ga. Peii e rtti jiir, Liii'dAri ch^ da t^^. 
Yd hifd yi mdt/i baiida Aa Ntdwai^ AholQ, Aaii NihdnQ. 

The women come, all of them go to scratch the ground for mud, ihen they 
come and besmear the temple of the ''king^^, they prepare the mud, and make 
stripes on ihe temple with red ashes, and with black ashes, and widi white 
ashes, and with soot. When they have finished this drawing, then they dance. 
After this dura is pounded, a cow is brought, the cow is speared; they bring 
out the little drum of Nyikango, and all the ShiUuks come, and the people 
dance, and when the night comes, they continue dancing, and (while dancing) 
they pray to the "king*':' 

"I beg for some little things (food), to put into my mouth. The eardi has 
been spoiled by the people; Lenydaro^ is travelling (on the earth). I go to our 
grandfather, the chief of ihe daughter of Nyidwai, to Akolo, the children of 

64. A Religious Ceremony. 

The people went, the tom (the small drum belonging to Nyikang) was beaten, 
they danced to the tom; and the people were beaten by ihe king;' it was a 
very strong drum. When it was finished, the people put the drum on the ground; 
then they told stories about Nyikang. After that, the people went into the house 
of the women (or the slaves) (of the king). The spear of Nyikang was brought 
out, and the people bowed their heads. A sheep was brought, it was killed; ihe 
spear of Nyikang was washed wiA water; the people ran to ihe river bank. 
They beat the tom vigorously, then the people came back to dance. After that 
they scattered. The next day they beat the tom again, the people came a^un to 
dance, and after four days they dispersed. 

65. How the Cattle is brought across the River. 

When the chief of a village wants to talk about the cattle, he assembles the 
people, and addresses them, ''Ye people, the grass is finished now, what shaD 
we do concerning the cattle?" The people reply, "Ah, that is your business!" 
He says, ''Well, bring the wizard!" The sorcerer comes, and a goat, a spear, 
and a hoe are given to him. And he says, ''Milk the cows!" And the cows BJce 
milked, early in the morning. Then he says, "Loosen the cattle!" They take 
the ambach boats, and the cows come (are tied) behind the ambach boats. The 
sorcerer ties grass together, and he ties it a second time on the side of the river 

1 the 'Idng^ is Njrikang or any other andent king, to whom the temple ia dedicated. 

' ''the army of Daro^, perhaps a mythical allusion. 

' that is, they turned into a state of trance, being possessed by the spirit of the deceased king. 

Preparation for War 173 


bank. Then the milk is poured into the river, and a club is stuck into the ground 
in the river. The sorcerer goes into the river, and says, "Bring the cattle !^^ 
Now the ambach boats are thrown into the river, and the sorcerer lies down 
in the middle of the river. The catde swim (behind the boats). The sorcerer 
sings a song of the crocodile; the crocodiles belong to his family (to the family, 
the clan of the sorcerer). 

When they have arrived on the other side, an enclosure is erected, and the 
cows are tied to Aeir pegs. Then another sorcerer is called, and he performs 
his witchery on account of thieves (to keep off thieves). The cattle are seized, 
a cow-house is built, and that is all, the people settle in this place, a place with 

66. Preparation for War. 

liifA kgfi i chigiy ajwQffQ ni de dwdi, kd d^k g^, ka e bguQ, ka dysJc gwdch, ka 
tgn gwdch, ka yai bgnQ, kd hkit kit, Ka ton mtn pM, ka ton aky^ min pM ; ka 

akSt twSchi r^. Ka yai e bifiQ, ka kela (d hkit; akete ya mid, e twojQ bxo^l tin. 
J^dn^ mdk yi akH, ka i/ii chip wH, ka ndne a M tnak i/ii chip lodi, Ka je ch^^ k( 
dbcJi. Ka tin, ka yai kdfi: f^ke fM. Ka ofiwQk kw&A, ka tdyi fiiii^ ka yejs. kdk, ka 
tptj^ n^l, ka wdi 1^1 w^k, ka lii l&i k^U jh, Ka toich aiiwok ka kwdti yi ajwigi, 
ka i^il&a foji §ni ki Mm yai. U^ yik wiche oiitoQk u ninQ kundo fofi s.^i, ka yi kine: 
fori sni de chyit^, kwQf ajwogo, U yik wiche oiitook u nind kun adi IM, ye kine : 
lefi raeh! Ka ajwogQ e ^dii kiti, ka yech kal, ka kdt, ka m^ko chiki kSt^ ka 
ajwogQ k^do, ka oAwgn m^kq k^l, ka nZk, ka tviji chiki (ch^ki) v^tt^t, kd l^ yi 
ajwQn £ni, ka e ko: doch t Dwai t^rQ blnQ ! Ka t^vQ blno. Ka tcdi kuMi, ka gQ 
Jini ri tir^. Ka e k§dQ. Ka wich afiywQk ka y kwM{ feA. Ka pi ^j^, kd g^ ItnS 

When a hostile army comes near, the sorcerer is sent for, and cows are 
loosened (are given to him), and when he comes, goats and spears are collected 
(and given him). Then the people come; a rope is made, and a spear is stuck 
into the ground ; the rope is fastened to its top ; now the people come, and pass 
below the rope. The rope is above, it is tied to the point of the spear. The man 
who is touched by the rope (in passing below it), is placed separately. (All 
these do not go into the war, because they would be killed). Thus the people 
walk (below the rope) a long time, till all have passed. Presently the sorcerer 
says to the people, "Sit down !^' A he-goat is brought, and is thrown on the ground. 
It is cut up, and its head is cut off; the contents of its stomach are taken out, 
and are thrown among the people; the head of Ae he-goat is taken by the 
sorcerer, and thrown towards the hostile country, in the face of the assembled 
people. If Ae head of the he-goat points in the direction of the country of the 


174 Prayers and Religious Ceremonies 

enemy, it is said: ''The country (of the enemy) will be defeated ;^^ that is the 
talk of the sorcerer. But if the head of the he-goat points towards their own 
army, they say, ''It is a bad warl^ In diis case the sorcerer makes his witchery 
once more, grass is brought, and is tied on a rope, and after that it is tied again; 
then the sorcerer goes to bring another he-goat, it is killed, and its head is 
again thrown, and when die sorcerer sees (that it is in the ri^t directien now), 
he says, "All right! Let all the people come!^' The people come, the contents 
of the stomach are taken, and are thrown on the bodies of the people. Then 
the sorcerer goes. The head of the he-goat is buried in the ground; and water 
is put on the fire, and sprinkled on the people. 

Now the army goes to fight. And people are killed, the army is defeated. 
The people come and bury their dead. Then they remain (in anns). Anodier 
sorcerer is sent for; cattle are given to him. And he works (his witchery), he 
is a most powerful sorcerer. When he has finished his doings, the army goes 
to fight again. Now they defeat the enemies and kill many people; after that 
they come and return home; they are satisfied. The people go to the king, a 
royal ambassador is called (and sent to the chief of Ae enemies), the people 
make amends for the men they have killed, they pay twenty cows; they go to 
loosen them, then diey return home, and sit down.* 

^ After a war (among diffarent Shilluk tribes) each army makes amends to the hostile tribe for 
the people that haye been killed ; these amends consist in a number of cattle. 

Sorcerers 175 


67. The Cruel King. 

Ka r^ mjitg J^WQ'BdbQ, ka ejagQ, kich, e nQffQJe, ifian a dachq kd g^ n^ffi- 
Ka e ho: glx ti^^/ Ka j^t (wQt) gtr. Ka ygt f^gi m&l^ ka rij^ e ksjfl wQt H tian a 
^cho, mdjiir. Ka raj^ gni ho : tuh dq WQt I Ka Chiilit bd/dii, Ka M touvQ : Clidl a 
bdfil KaeQ. 

Ka rijl rrtglcQ r^, chwQla iVajg, I^ch. Kajah dwai; ha e fichu hine: ^r^ (y^di) 
dtoi d nigif Jago ho : |, htichi win ! Ka jah nigi. 

A certain king called Ngwo-Babo, reigned; he was very, very cruel; he killed 
people, even women he killed. One day he said, "Build a house I*' And a house 
was built. When Ae door of the house was plastered (when it was finished), 
he went into it together with a young girl. (Then the door was walled up).' 
The king said, "Open the door!^ But the Shilluks refused. The king began 
to sing, but the Shilluks refused; so he died. 

And another king was elected, whose name was Nyato, he was very cruel. 
He caused all the chie& to come, and asked them, "Why did you kill my 
cousin?^ They replied, "Ah, we do not know.^ He killed all the chiefs. 

68. King Nyadwai trying the Sorcerers. 

RQii Ncukoaif ejagi; a hwSnifeii, a hi^ yn^feii, a hQli niVf ^ j^H* A chdni 
djwitK <y^QgQ bSne, a pyechi gin^ hine: loatej&h, yd ddUyigins, wu (ru) fSH. 
Ka ajiDQgQ misJcQ M bstiq, ha M linQ, ho : gwdtd pack. Nadwai ho : pih pi^ ! Ka 
mgn M. b&iQs ha lii linQ, ha tii ho : gwdtd pack. A b^ jal AjwQgo, a bin jal 
A^hgfij ha rifl ho: dl A bin jal NinArity a hiobi hine: J, kal pi! Ka pi h^l; ha e 
iQffQf ^ffi chin^ hi pi, ha by^l hwitH, hd i rUimh* Nadwai ho : nigi djw^h ! Ka 
g^ nih. 

Then Nyadwai was elected, and he reigned. One day he had a hole dug into 
the ground, he ordered wood to be put into it, and to set it on fire (and to cover 
the whole with earth). Then he ordered beans to be brought and to be cooked. 
He assembled all the witch doctors, and asked them, "Tou children of chie&, I 
do not know what this humming in the earth is !" (meaning the noise caused by 
the boiling of the beans). One of the witch doctors came, he listened and then 
said, "That is something bewitching (or cursing) the village.^ Nyadwai replied, 
"Sit down there!*' Another came listening; he too said, "It is something 
bewitching the village.^ Then came the man (the doctor) of Ajwogo, after him 

' In this waj ike Shilhik kings are buried. The king wanted to try his people, whether they were 
hiikful to him. 

176 Stories about Sorcerer s 

the man of Adokong/ and the king said, ''Ah I*' Then came the man of Ningaro, 
he said: "Well, hring water!^ And water was brought He washed himself^ he 
washed his hands (as a preparation for eating food); then he took the beans out 
and ate them. Nyadwai said, "Kill all the other witch-doctors!^ And Aej were 

In the time of the reigning of king To, some Dinka man whose name was 
Lengyang, came into the Shilluk country, and lived there. He was a sorcerer. 
Towards the end of his reigning Yo ordered the sorcerer to be brought, and 
he killed him (on accoxmt of his sorcery). On that a war arose with the Dinkas, 
and they fought at Tonga; Tonga was destroyed. Then Ae king said, ''The 
whole army shall go \"^ And the Dinkas ran away. 

69. The Vision of the Sorcerer. 

There was a certain man whose name was Wet Ewa Oket, he was also called 
Agweratyep, a very strong man ; he was a sorcerer. One day he had a vision, 
and he said," The white people come!^ And the white people came, Ae country 
was destroyed by them. And he died, and was mourned; but before he died, 
he said, "Ah, the chieftainship shall be taken over by Ajalong after my deadi. 
But the man who kills me by his witchcraft, he too shall die after me.*' And 
he was mourned, and his steer fell under the dom palm.' And the man who had 
bewitched him, was struck by lightning, and died; for he had been cursed by 
die sorcerer. And all the people believed in him, saying, "Agweratyep is a strong 
man indeed ! "The medicine men were afraid, and so the village lived in a peace- 
ful condition.^ 

7a Agok. 

JtoQjk chtoQla AffQk, m^iii tqn jal yaf^. Jal niikQ h^da ajioQffQ, ka ^ean ywQb§s ha 
dean yi tayifM, Kaje rsna kal, kajeko: i, Aggh, dean a fgu, Kine: e nekeyi 
not Kine: kuji, Ch^nji! Kaje ch^; kae ko: nati, fate yin a ywQp ^eant Kyne: 
yan! Kine: kipanQ? Kine: yi, pMiyin! Kine: hi, yi hapyilQ, tout fyau, fiim 
Wch! yi re ch6k yi ybb^ ki ^ tevQ f Yd fasie yiii du, mi k^eh. Kine, i, de tott fum! 
Ksi, chSlI A chSH H duk ddik. 

Ka jal ini e ki^, ka bi gote yi pwo^. Ka jal ffii tttk yi Aggk, kifie : nafii k^ 
jal yat ehini! Kd i b§d(^ chwQla ggn a l&k, Ka mwQl ka e kg^ ka gin gni ywode 
yifwo^. Gq gtlfiii, ka bia pack. Ka e kobg, kine: giehe mikQ e gSl yi fwo^ yi 
jal ya{. Eko: dipitn^ py^iydn f Yi cha k6pQ kopb kine: kgj^ jolya^ a yip pwodq! 
Kine: ksj,! Kine: yi re bhi^t Kine: chwQla ga lake yaul Kine: 2, ch$n t^/ A 
ch^n i^rlti a pichi kine: jal ydj^ yin neka nqjef A tygk 

^ They did not know the cause either, except the last, who found out the cause of the humming, 
a The "medicine men*' are the ''bad sorcerers", who try to kill people by their witoheiy. They 
are called here '^Jq ysji** "men of medicine'', as opposed to the ajtuggQ, who Is supposed to 
work for good. ' vide Introduction. 

Agok 177 

There was a j wok ' who was called Agok ; he was manifested hj a certain wizard. 
A certain man was a wizard. He hewitched cows, so that the cows fell down. And 
the people ran to the house (of Agok) saying, ''Ah, Agok, a cow has died.^ 
He asked, "By whom has it been killed?'' The man said, ''I do not know.'' 
Agok ordered, ''Assemble the people." And the people assembled. Agok asked 
(die wizard), "Man, is it not you who bewitch the cattle ?" The wizard answered, 
"Yes, it is I". Agok asked, "Why?" The wizard replied, "Because I want to 
try you (whether you are able to find out who did it)." Agok said. Ha, you 
are a cursed one ! You cursed black-eyed one ! Why are you always bewitching 
the catde of die people?" He answered, "Only to try you whether you really 
are strong." Agok said, "Well, we have met Now go and make amends!" He 
made amends with three cows. 

Then the man went away and planted (a charm) in a field. The proprietor 
of the field was (while sleeping) wakened by Agok^ widi the words, "Man, 
go, there is a wizard in your field." But the man did not go, he thought 
he was dreaming. The next morning, when he went to the field, he found the 
charm which the wizard had put into die earth. He came home saying, 
"Something has been planted into my field by a wizard." Agok said to him, "Why 
do you ask me about this matter? I have told you already saying, 'Go, the 
wizard has planted a chann intoyourfield. Therefore go !^ Why did you refuse?" 
He replied, "I thought I was only dreaming." Agok gave order, "Assemble 
the people!" When all the people were assembled, Agok asked, "You wizard, 
why have you (tried to) kill people? you are going to kill the whole village" 
(y»you surround the village with killing"). He answered, "It is not I." But Agok 
replied, "You cursed one, I will surely kill you!" And he killed him. When 
die witch doctors saw diat, diey all repented, and they were much afraid. Then 
die people scattered. 

And Agok was called king by tiie people. The people listened to his words 
(were obedient to him). They used to say, "K any man becomes sick, he goes 
to Agok, that he may be helped." He gives him (diat is, the one who wants 
help gives to Agok) catde, two cows, one cow is speared (sacrificed), and one 
he keeps alive, it becomes the cow of jwok. 

1 ''god". ' It is not meant that Agok went to wake him, but he wakened him in a vition. 

WB8TBR]fA91l, The Shillvk P«ople. 12 

1/8 Creation 


7 1 . The Creation of Men. 

Dean fan^ trdiii' a liwila AJw^. Wit/^fans, jwqIc. Wd htoQle jtcgk g^ dtyau^ 
m^n a Idj^, mar yi mdj/i, m^n h thr, o chit. Kffi bin jtogk, e lioj^ min a thr^ min 
a toJQ, M kdn, A koH jwqk kine: &i. kdnif Kine: bog^n!^ A kdbijwgk kine: i- 
todli yin JA kine yau I Yan mdri m^n h tcir, tyffH ^ Idj^, u jakk min h tar, A 
kiii wqki isf^ min ^ Idjif. A kdbijwgk: ^ (yidi) kiUf Kine: i, ehdkd kd k^le 
ydu. A wikh wo/Aq, btDdiki, a wiki twoeh bwoiiQ, a wiki giji, a wikejam V^n, a 
mdri yijwQk, Ajik tysn a toJQ yi obwoik anan. 

The cow is our grandmother, she bore a gourd. Our father is God. We were 
two of us bom by God, (a black one and a white one). The black one was 
beloved by his mother; but the white |one was hated. When God came, she 
showed him the white one, but the black one she hid. God asked, ^Why do 
you hide him?*' She said, ''For nothing.*' Then God said, ''Well, do but hide 
him, I like the white one.*' The black people shall be ruled by the white people. 
On that she brought the black one out too. God asked, "Why do you bring 
him out?** She said: "Oh, I just brought him out (without any special reason).*' 

To the white one were given the book, and ihe gun, aud the sword, and 
all kinds of goods, he is loved by God. So now the black people are governed 
by the white.' 

7 1 a. On Totemism. 

WudQ ki hghk ki Din kdk ki yey jfcjni, gin a chv^k. Ka Din bia paeh, ka wudo 
k^fjlU ka agak efiriti ka a litoiU win yi Din. A bm AkwQe ki ret DitwJU, a 
bpiefofe Choi, a ysnje rji. Ka nt/i wQn, ka moifcfi k^ FeMkan OduroJQ, a dina 
ki Feiiidwai, fant dijii win. Kwd fa Joikin, wgt J^abtl, ka bine fofe Chqly ena a 
liwgm AtQn, e M r|j(, gna AdefalQ anon. 

Wudo, ki hghk w^t wQn, fa ehUm yi win Hfa dwal^. 

The ostrich and the crow and Din^ were split^ out of the gourd, all three 
are three-twin children. Din went into a certain village, the ostrich went into 
the bush, and the crow flew up. We were bom by Din, Akwge (the son of 
Dsn) came in the time of Duw^t (a brother of Nikdno), he came into the 
Shilluk country to the people of the king (that is to Fashoda). And when we 
became many, some went to Feiiikdn Odurgjo, but some remained at Feiiidvfai. 

Remarks see on page 179. 

Totemism 179 

Thus we separated from each other. Our grandfather was Jwian^ a son ofl^abil, 
he came into the ShiUuk country; it is he who married Atgn. He was king. 
That is the beginning of (die village of) AdefalQ, — The ostrich and the crow 
are of our family. They are not eaten by us on account of the e^tra^^sickness. 

' loAn^ "our grandmother^. Here, as is sometimes the case, the pronoun of the third person 

sing, has the meaning of the first person pi. 

' l^ere is not, yii. a reason. 

^ With the exception of the first sentence tiiis report is recent, hecanse it relates to wkUe and 

hUiek men, 

* These three are the ^parents" not of the whole ShiUnk people, but only of ^e tribe Fenikan, 
which lires at the mouth of the Sobat. Each tribe has its own ''parents^, which generally are 

* This means: the cow (see page 156) brought forth a gourd, the gourd split, and out of it went 
forth the ostrich, etc 


i8o Animal Stories 


72. Hare and Hyena. 

Hare he travek yn^ jwQki^^h^ stays in under ttee^jwok he deeps, and nare 

i bidit mdL KA ji binit^ gi fftr; afoajo ko: ^huybf^ mal, leik^ 
he stays upright. And people come, they many; hare says: rise up, war 

d U. Jwik i kb kind: 2^ yau. Kd IM i &|n^, kdmd mak 
has come. Jw^ he says Aus : stay just. And war it comes, begins to seize 

afoajo, ki jtogk. Jwik i ko: afoajii, mak tyUd,^ kd tyhlt rndkf kd 
hare and jtDQk. JwqJc says : hare, seise feet my, and feet his seized, and 

jwgk i wiiih* Kd liii i k^^, kd jwik i ko: afoaJQ, A^/ Ka afoaja 
jwQk he disappears. And war it goes, taidjwQk says: hare, go! And nare 

kiditf afoaJQ kg^i^ yi 6fiw6ji, ko: dpvQfil kine: if kine: tod fd wHif* 
goes, hare went to hyena, says : hyena! thus : eh? Aug : we not shall travel? 

i kb: hwi! Kd ai ib^. Kd ai iE^]$» J^ ydih kd m i bt^, 
he says : yes ! And mey go. And they went below tree, and war it comes, 

afoajn i nhthy <^|t^ &i^ ^4 <^|*<'^ ^ ^* a/oa;& IM i hi! e ko: 
nare he sleeps, hyena stays up, hyena he says: hare, war he came! he says: 

bidi ydinl Kd JM i vohf^i afoaJQ ko: mak tyildl ka afoaJQ 

stay just! And war he approaches, hare says: seize my feet, and hare 

M gichit wiji, fM; fiii tik, ka afoaJQ rin, kd 

continually struck his head ground; ground was hard, and hare ran, and 

d^wdff, mak, ka opvQ^ pwSt, ka ptvSt ki J^K Kd 

hyena was caught, and hyena was beaten, and was beaten thorou^^y. And 

wA, ka wiki ^ean ki todfi. Ka afoaJQ b^lt* kine:^ dfwij^!^ kine: 
got free, and was given cow and buU. And hare comes, Aus: hare! thus: 

if kine: jtoQk i kb neya; kine if kine: tdkkl ydn todf^ E kb: 
eh? thus: jwqk hesaysAus; thus: eh? Aus: give me ox. He says: 

kifbnitf kine: yd ptoSt {y^u. Ka toa^ weki; kd gi ib^. Kd gi 
why? dius: I was beaten too. And ox gave; and they go. And they 

khni IwbU fnen nyifi ^n; ka a/oaJQ kild Iwi^li, ofoaJQ e 

bring calabashes, which nulk cow; and hare brought cal. his, hare he 

ko: yindnyidt' Ka Iw^li J^li, kd gb tbyi, ka UdqU lUi, 
says : I it, milks. And cal. his brings he, and it pierces he, and cal. brings he, 

ka IwqU opoQfi chip nidi, ka Iwgle afoaJQ, ysna fih, kd ifii 
and cal. of hyena was put above, and cal. of hare was below, and continu- 

nyi4i^ ^ chdk lij kifd fink, yech hoQle afoaJQ^, ka IwqU ofwQfi 
ally nulked and milk cent, went below, middle of cal. of hare, cal. of hyena 

Remarks referring to XL Tide on page 198. 

H§re and H ena i8i 

lif fitnl^ y\ dbH. Ubii chbmi ^ yi opvgji, ofooJQ M fnOfja chik. Afoaj^ 
filled inAi foam. Foftm was eaten by hjena, hare drank milk. Hare 

ehwi. Ka ofoaJQ e ho: nik wit liarojn! ka i/iarqjo nik, ha ofwof^ 
became &t. Hare he said: loll we calf^ calf was killed, hyena 

e ko: amffi u ^Qtf 
he said: who will milk? 

Afoajn e ko: ydntkine: dgehl Afoajq, ko: u b^ 6biii ka ^ean 
Hare he says: II dius: allrightl Hare says: if comes foam, then cow 

a nir; ibgi bbffitn, ^^aii nUti; ka ehak lii ^j( vi 

has let down the milk; foam not, cow not yet; and milk was sucked by 

afoajo bin, afoajd chuikfi tn^ji^. Chak boggn, mgn M md^ vi opifOf^i 
hare all, hare his liver sweet. Milk not which was drunk by hyena, 

(^jwQ^ ffwalQ. JwQk e b^f^, kq: yi rh gwdl ylnl^ Oftvofi ko: 
hyena was thin. Jwok he comes, says: you why thin you? Hyena says: 

ehak M mafe yi afoaJQ bin. JwQk eko: kwoA wfini dm^ mik afoaJQl 
milk is drunk by hyena all. Jwqk says: take rope now, seize hare! 

vmnQ, kil kd mhk afoaJQ, afoaJQ eha giM^ f^d ff^s 

rope was brought and seized hare, hare wanted release, and was rdeased, 

ka ofwQfi e b^ ka dbdi ehittn i waM» ka afocga t^l, 

and hyena he came and foam wanted to disappear, and hare was tugged, 

ka a/oaJQ d pidit, Hne: biih!^^ yi ri ndgi ydn kifa ehakt 
and hare fell, thus: buhl I why kills he me because of milk? 

op'f^ M kudQ. J^ki^^ ko: yd kd b^ kwdi. KA e ki^. 
hyena was silent. To-morrow said: I go for herding. And he goes. 

Ka tuni ^ean chtodchi <^ in ki libit. Ka i fing yi^ 

Horns of cow is formed by him with mud. And he ran to him, 

ko: ofwaj^I kine: kil tdn dmhl, ^ean a chdn. Ka ofu^ e 

says: hyena! thus: spear waterbuck in firont cow is behind. And hyena he 

bth ka ^n kil kd 6 kd: Hhl Yd ko: kil thn 

came, and cow speared, and (hare) says: bih! I said: spear waterbuck 

a chin, wu ehwak int ki ^ean, anigi, yu^^eham qAq? Ka ve ko: 
behind, you do what with cow, killed you, you eat what? And he said: 

k^ dbti miichl Kine: maeh iaitnf Ki h kb: a chini. Ka o^wqj^ e 
go fetch fire ! Thus : fire where ? And he says : it is yonder. And hyena he 

k^^ ka maeh yiohdi i b6g^ ka e diij^ky ka rinq ywbdi gn 
goes, and fire found he it was not, and he returned, and meat finds he it 

^^ ^1 ^fooJQf ^A ofoaJQ e ko: yi rh dii^kf o^wqj^ e ko: 
was carried by hare; and hare he says: you why return? Hyena he says: 

tnach bdgjtn; kine: dean d kil yi jtoQk; ka tvich kw6ii /M; kd 
fire is not; thus : cow was carried by jwQk ; and head was buried ground; and 

i ko: kQl min mi to^kl A/oaJQ m^ a kwoii yi ^^ ka opcQj^ m^ yik 
he says : puU which his out ! Hare his was dug by him, and hyena his was 

i82 Animal Stories 

maiikf ka afoaJQ m^ k^l wqJc, ha opoQg, m^ d ^Jl, ka opjoQ^ kdfd^* 
hard, and hare his puUed out, and hyena his was d^cult, and hyena went 

ffiil^, ka afoaJQ hdfd gili, ka opv(^ tvora toidi, kine: k^ dwai 
home his, hare went home his, hyena sent son his, dins : go, bring 

mach ggl afoaJQ. Ka iki i/i^l ^ eb^nq^ eko : yd kwcUjd madit ka afixgQ 
fire home of hare. And the little child comes, says : I beg fire, hare 

ko: hi dwani; ka afoaJQ eko: yi ki Rfi mcil, ji^tSt lk <^^ 
says: come, get; and hare says: you not look upward, pepper will &I1 

toani, ka lia h^l 0f^ U^ mal, ka k^ yi wiyi; e ko: 
your eye, and little child looked upwards, and went to his fiither; he says: 

rinQ gxT ki toQt afoaJQ. Ka opjoqj^ i kipi loi ka wf^d^ e kqpa loi^ 
meat much in house of hare. And hyena he took dub and his son took club. 

Ka gs, ht^ ka afoaJQ k^dq fd py^, ka kofa wud^ ko: pw6A 
And they come, and hare goes xmder skin, and told his son, said : beat 

ydnl Ka i yvaiju^ e ko: fa^ ki yan kjiUt; toak of^wQji. Ka ofWQ:^ i 
me! And he cried, he said: not with me alone me; also hyena. And hyena he 

T&iy rffia pQlf ka o(wq^ ve bw^ffity afoaJQ cAui^ m^. 
ran, ran Dush, and hyena he fears, hare his liver sweet 

The hare travelled with jwok. They rested under a tree; jwok was sleeping, 

and ihe hare remained awake. Then many people came and die hare said, 

''Arise! a war (an army) has come.^ "But^, said jwok, ''never mind.^ And the 

war came and was going to seize the hare and jwok. Then jwok said: "Hare, 

seize my feet!^ He seized his feet, and suddenly jwok and the hare disappeared. 

The war passed by, and jwok said, "Hare, go !*' The hare went; he went to a 

hyena and said to her, "Hyena!^ "Eh!^ said the hyena. "Shall we not travel 

together?^ asked the hare. "Surely,^ replied liie hyena. And they went. They 

went under a tree, and a war came; the hare was asleep, but die hyena was 

awake. "Hare*', the hyena said, "war has come*'. "Never mind^, replied the 

hare. When the war came, the hare said to the hyena, "Seize my fdet!^ The 

hare beat his head on the ground (wanting to disappear as jwok had done), but 

the ground was hard. The hare, seeing this, ran away, but the hyena was caught 

and was beaten pitifully. At last he got free ; and they gave him a cow and a 

bull. Then the hare came, saying, "Hyena i'* "£h!^ he replied. Said the hare^ 

"Jwok has said thus^ "Eh!*' replied the hyena. The hare went on, "You 

must give me the bull.^ "Why?*' said the hyena. "Because", replied die hare, 

"I also was beaten.*' He gave him die bull, and they went dieir way. Then they 

brought calabashes, such as are used for milking cows. The hare brought his 

calabash and said, "I will milk.*' And he brought another calabash (die hyena's)^ 

and pierced it, and he placed the hyena's calabash above, so diat his own was 

below. When he milked, die milk ran down into his own calabash^ and dia 

Hare and Hyena 183 

calabash of the hyena became fall of foam. The foam was eaten by the hyena, 

and the hare drank the milk. So the hare became fat. One day he said to the 

hyena, "Let us kill the calf !^ And the calf was butchered. Then the hyena said, 

"Who shall suck now?"" "I,^ answered the hare. "All right,'' said the hyena. 

"When the foam comes,'' replied the hare, "the cow has let down the milk; as 

long as there is no foam, it has not." (When the natives want to milk a cow, 

they let the calf suck the udder first, as without this the cow will not let down 

her milk. The hare wants to take the place of the calf^ so that he may suck 

aU the milk, leaving to the hyena only the small quantity of foam which 

comes out when the milk is finished.) So the hare sucked all the milk and 

was much pleased. But there was no milk left for the hyena, and he became 

thin. One day, jwok came and said, "Why are you so thin?" "The hare 

always drinks all the milk," said the hyena. Jwok said, "Take a rope and bind 

the hare." A rope was brought, and he bound the hare. The hare struggled 

to release himself^ and he succeeded (but the loose rope was still round his neck. 

He ran to the cow and began sucking again). Then the hyena came, and when 

the foam was disappearing, he pulled the hare away by force, so that Ae hare 

fell on his back. "Oho," he said, "on account of a little milk he is going to kill 

me?" The hyena remained silent. The next morning, the hare said, "I am going 

to herd the cow." So he went He formed cow-horns of mud (and placed them 

in the grass, so that Aey looked like die horns of a living cow). Then he ran 

to die hyena and said (pointing to the real cow), "Hyena, spear the waterbuck 

diere in firont! the cow is behind I" The hyena came and speared the cow; then 

said the hare, "Oho ! (what have you done) ! Did I not tell you to spear Ae 

waterbuck behind? What have you done with die cow? Tou have killed it! 

What will you eat now?" Then he said, "Go and fetch fire (that we may cook 

the meat)." "Where is fire ?" asked the hyena. "Over there," answered die hare. 

The hyena went, but he saw there was no fire, so he returned. He saw that 

meanwhile all die meat had been carried away by the hare. "Why do you come 

back?" said the hare. "Because there is no fire," answered the hyena. Said the 

hare: "The meat has been carried away by jwok; but the head he has buried 

in the ground (as our portion)." And he said: "Let each pull out his part!" 

The hare pulled his part out, but the hyena's part was hard (would not come 

out). The hare got his part, but the hyena did not succeed in pulling his out. 

So he went home; die hare, too, went home. Aft;er some time, the hyena sent 

his son to die hare saying, "Go and bring fire from die home of die hare." 

The Htde child came and said, "Please give me fire!" The hare said, "Come 

and get it But do not look up, lest pepper fall into your eye" (this was to 

prevent die child from seeing the meat of die cow which he had stolen and 

1 84 Animal Stories 

brought home). The child looked upward and Bawthe meat. Then he went home 
to his father and said, "There is plenty of meat in die house of the hare.^ 
When the hyena heard that, he took a dab and said to his child, ''Take also 
a club l** When they came, the hare went under his sleeping-skin and said to 
his son, "Beat me \^ And he cried, "It was not I alone, the hyena too I^ >' When 
the hyena heard that, he ran away into the bush. The hyena was much afraid; 
the hare was very pleased. 

73. The Monkey and the lion. 

At/wdm yhf^l; kd nit i 6^ hiyi^bi fni^i ibj jpt^ it» /(l^ y^ bur, Ka Igji 6^ 
h\ niai H pi; kd nu ySt ki piA ki yiy bitr, ka kki i rlti. Ka aytoam bpiQ, kd nk 
Ufi in, ka ^ TffL Ka nu ko: kiUd to^kl aytoom ko: yi di^fnl e ho: i, yau (y^t u) 
k^l wqJc i 1* yin. E ko: k^l yiibi, u *' mdkiydn tin, kd yi pQr malj ka ya piirQ, fnal 
bdni, kdwdh(t wqk. E kitd6 (d^yi ^) ehAmiyanl E ko: i, yifh ehAmi ydn, yin 
wofji '* di chSfh yi /> chimi ydn. Ka aywom yyf>t Vifi p^ kd tndk yi nk; ka 
aywom p^ra mdl, ka g^hia wqL Kd nit e ko: yd dd k^h. E ko: biti >* oAoii dd^, 
ya nUti eham. E ko: yi kdmd ehami ydn, gik aywom. E ko: n|; kine: wd kifjt yi 
dgwQk, ogtvQkjanQ duQn, Ka aywom eko: dgvi^gil^ Ye htdq,^^ i ehwffy: dgul^gU 
Kine: ha! Kine: bit Kine: initfKine: bi! wa da kwipt Kine: d gin initf Aywom 
ko: nil k^ld wq^ ka a ktU w^k, di chfi ( = ekaka) chime ydn^ di b^ idi inhni 
OgwQk e ko: i, fa dAqnl Kwdeh wa jwik hnim i chdm. Ka ogwqk ehyi^ ^ni mdl, 
ki aywom ki nUf kd ogwQk i limit, kwachijwQk, nind mdl. Ka ogwgk e ho: yina 
jwQk, lini ki kwqfdf fa yin a chwdeh nii i du$n kifa u ehim wQnf Ki wk ehygn 
dkyil ti^ mdl, ehygn dfyil mtf^ aywom; ka 6gw$k i ko: fa\ ki Jbtfuni, hwqpafa 
lln yijwqk, tin chini mdl b^ kd nk ching^ tine maL Ka Mkd but aywom, ka 
6gw$k e tamo, kine: Dtfyeeh yin ye rin kidi; wdjitf^ Aywom hine: ydn yd r^ 
kine, ka rana mdl wiy ya^, Ogwik i kb: iufi, kindu. OgwQk rffia w^. Kd nk i 
dgnQ kjii* I^u ko: ka d^ nijd nau! oguiqk di mdki ydn kine, Ka aywom mdki ydn 
Jfcl'ne; ka ogwok ehimiydn ki ty^l amalo, ka dywdm chAmU ydn ki chin, — A fkwi. 

The monkey was in the bush. And a lion came to him to drink water; and 
he fell into ihe well. Then some animal came to drink water; when it found 
the lion in the well, it ran away. The monkey came and saw the lion and ran 
away. The Uon said, "Come to me.^ The monkey came, and the lion said to him, 
"Pull me out!^ The monkey said, "Ton are heayy.*' He answered, "No, I want to 
be pulled out by y o u l*' He said again, "Stretch down your tail, that I may seise 
it at once. Then you jump up, and I will jump after you; so we shall get out" 
The monkey said, "But then you will eat me!^ He answered, "No, I will not eat 
you, you will live (stay) foreyer ; you will not be eaten by me.^ So the monkej 
put his tail down, and it was seized by the lion. The monkey jumped up, and 

Monkey and Lion 185 


die Hob too jumped up, and thej got out Now the lion said, ''I am hungrj; I 
remained three days without eating anything.^ The monkey replied, ''You are 
going to eat me!** Talk of the monkey. The lion replied, "Yes^. "Let us go to 
the fox, the fox is a great judge, replied the monkey.^ (They went, and when 
they had arriyed) the monkey called, "Fox!*' He was silent He called again, 
"Fox!« He answered, "Ha?" He said, "Come!** The fox said, "What is the 
matter?** He answered, "We have somediing (to propound).** The fox asked, 
" What? The monkey answered, "This lion I pulled out, and when he was pulled 
out, he wanted to eatme; but how is that now?** Thefoxsaid,"Ishenotgreat?*'^ 
(Then he said,) "Let us pray to God, (and after that) he may eat (you).** And 
the fox raised his hands up (praying). And the monkey and the lion and the 
fox, they all prayed; he (the fox) begged God, he looked upwards and said, "O 
God, hear my words ! is it not thou who madest the lion to be big, that he 
might eat us?** And the lion lifted one paw up, and with one paw he seised the 
monkey.**^ Then the fox sMd, "Not so! or my prayer will not be heard by 
God; lift both your paws up !** The lion lifted both his paws up. And he moyed 
towards the side of the lion. The fox prayed, saying, "We ask thee, how shall 
he run? (we pray thee, teach the monkey how to run) we do not know it** 
Then the monkey said, "As for me, I run thus.** And he ran away along the top 
of a tree. The fox said, "Very well, just so !** and he ran home. So the lion as 
left alone. He said, "If I had but known about that, I would haye caught the 
fox thus, and the monkey I would haye caught thus, and the fox I would haye 
eaten first, and after that I would haye eaten the monkey.** It is finished. 

74. The Dog and the Fox. 

The dog went into the bush ; there he met the fox. And the dog said, "Friend, 
what are you doing in the bush ? Go home (into the yillage) ! ** He said, "What shall 
we do in the yillage?** The dog said, "My master is accustomed to giye one calf 
(wheneyer I come to him).** And he went with him. The dog went into the home, 
the fox remained outside the enclosure. The dog took some food, and he was 
beaten (by the people) with a club. He cried and ran into the bush. The fox 
asked him, "Why do you ciy ?** He answered, "O, I am (only) being educated 
(that's why I was beaten).** But the fox refused (to liye with him), he ran away 
and ran into the bush, and he remained in the bush. 

75. The Hare and the Hyena. 

The hare went into the bush to make an ambach-boat one for spearing fish. 
He sat down in it, pulled the fish out and roasted them. The hyena came and 

i86 Animal Stories 

said, ''To-day I have found you** ("you have been found by me**)." The hare said, 
''Sit down, taste the food, my (elder) brother!** And he gave him fins of the fish. 
He asked him, "From where have you brought them?** The hare answered, "I 
have brought them from the river;** then he said to die hyena, "Put one of your 
members into this hole (then you will get fish).** The hyena went and put one 
of his members into the hole, and he was bitten, and he cried. He lay down 
(being sick from his wound). When he had recovered, he went into the bush 
and found the hare. He said to him, "I have found you (at last) !** The hare said, 
"Keep still, keep still!** He climbed a Nabag-tree, and threw Nabag-firuit down; 
the hyena remained under the Nabag-tree and ate the fruit; the hare went 
away and left the hyena eating.^ 

76. The Lion and the Fox. 

^ii binit, ye da nyHiy hia yi bt4^f ^ ^' ^^> (fll tj^ aghk! kd 6ffw^k i 6|ii^ 
ye da nyin, bi^ yi bt4^$ e ko: t^tnd itgiJc f^i ffin I Kd bftdit kb: nu t^tni n^ y^^ 
kd dgtoSk ikb: nit fifi^^ wdt binii f Kine: teat bdni kifiU t E ko: kudi an, u b^ nh 
tin kopi kine: dgtv^ i kb: yi fi^ wat bin^f Kd nil b^nit^ kine: Wtii^^ Kine: gr^ 
tdna ch^ffi, fa 0j^ yin f^^ Kine: dgto^k fan gn a kQl t^ni, yi fflt fn§ti. Ya kine: nit 
k(k wSrf (dgwdk) kine: i, fd toir, fa wat bAnif Kd nit kb: mik d^t Kine: n^ 
jS/u kb : yd dwai in^ u yi^ kwQji (sjne fa fy^, yi chdmi chdmjt,^ kifi &^« Kd 
6^^ kh kine: dqch^ k^i dwai. Ka nu ke^H^ ka offwoge ySt^ i biidit ki yo, e ko: eht 
(= chaJca) dajtogk; di i chiid^. Kd nil ko: yi re chudi (chfiri) f lUn^ da IM; yi 
kb: edit E ko: dwtn? Kine: dwh; kine ki m^nf Kine wu kd (= wu ki wu) 6^^. 
Kine: dwo^l yu ktodAi ydn. Kd ^wb^ mdl, kd nil kb: ytfi kwitmi. Kd i ko: p^m 
mdfdt^^^ ^gtoSk t dlf Kine: kife kwQmAI Kd i kb: dchichwil mdfai^ S gtoSk ^f 
E ko: kiffi 4^gil Ka e ki^ 4^gL ^ ^ ^^ ^ d^^ mdfd^ i gw^k ^If E ko: 
kwaiil Ka kwdii yi Sgwik, kd yifd mdl, kiobm nit. Kd gi b^ii ki rA, kd gi ki^ ; 
pack i chin^, kd nil gdchi yi 6gwik ki d^l, kd nil i rM^iy ka ptvSti yi dgwik, kd 
ga Hn^y rinq^ yi 65^^ kd bb^ dwojd mdU kd dgtoSk i ko : bbd^,^^ tefe (&ti) ydn ! 
fa^ wat bttni? bt4^ ko: dwi, wgf bUnil yi kama (Ur. Kd gi k^di, gi rinb kun a 
de WQt 6gwikf kd wqt ogwok i wdf^. Ka ogwQk fird fiA^ ka rind wgiy kd mdki^ 
nil ki yi^i, ka my yi^bt i ch^d^^ kd nil kb: ki^f yi rUm ki 0^^ ki n/iji. Kd i b^ig. 
Kd nil ksfa ftri. Kd i kdn^ ki lai^ kd lai fdl, kd ^r^ dwai i bi^. Kd tirit b^n^t 
ki ogtcqk, ogwQk g/ir binq ki ogwQn gni, &n d pw6t nu, nit fydtu Kd gi kgdQ yi 
pwddi, kd Schdyit ywot i gtr, ka dgw^k a fwdt nii^ e ko ne, tdjb ki dckdyit H 
yiipii^* ka minii yiibi lii twoch ke ri dck^b, kd ogwgn ^», m^ twdehi in i Ultnj^f 
kd e ko: rgne lirhfd (:=i fach) nit. Kd gi rinit, ka yieb^^ bd^, kd dgw^kb m^ne 
yiebfi M chbdlt, ka yUpi g^ i ^iimit H chgtn* Kd gi wdj^, kd nil ywSt ki ^b btni^ 

Lion and Fox 187 

led nu S piehit Hne: vni lA l^i&f Kine I; ka ogwQjk nAjh in^ e ko: yi hi (yauf E 
ko : i, S ko : wd u yil toa min ? Kd i. kh : yd chdm dd\ f Kine : fafe yin a pwbtl 
ydnf Kine: SI dw^nf Kine: 6fyj^; kine: il yi chaka tSd^I J^u kb: yiebi nuti 
n^li y an f Kine: Agbn ^^ Kine: iningl Kine: difa{e yan ketal Kine: ddwuM 
minf Offwqk e ko: fa{e wd b^ndf Kine: drd, bi U^l Ka nu b^nq^ kd g^ H^, m^ 
yiebt chhdit^ kd m^n yiebi ch^d^f ka gl bin ^iepe gen chbditi kd nil wij^ mum, ye 
ho : bgfii. Kd gt wiyi. Kd rind wild t^^, kd ck&m yi t&rQ. CM^h kd ^rii i ddn^, 
kd nil dqnQ kifar^ 

A lion came with some iron to the smith and said, "Smith, make me these 
spears l** The fox too came, bringing iron to the smith, and said to him, "These 
spears, make them.** The smith said, "The spear of the lion is still with me 
(unfimshed).*' The fox said, "Is he not my slaye?" He said, "How your slave?** 
He replied, "You just keep quiet; as soon as the lion comes, tell him, 'The 
fox has said, you are his slaved ** And the lion came and said, "Smith, why 
have you not yet finished my spear?** He answered, "The fox brought his 
spear (and said), 'Make it (= mine) firsts I said: 'Will the lion not be angry ?^ 
He said: 'No, he wiH not be angry; for is he not my slave ?^ ** The lion replied, 
"Is that true?" The smith (said), "Yes." The lion (replied), "I shall bring 
him, and if your talk turns out to be a lie, I shall surely eat you;" this he said 
to the smith, and the smith replied, "All right, go, and bring him." So the lion 
went; he found the fox lying on the road; he pretended to be sick, he groaned. 
The Hon said, "Why are you thus groaning?" — He, the lion, became angry 
("his eye had war"). — He said to the fox, "How did you speak (to the smith) ?" 
The fox asked, "When?" He answered, "Yesterday." The fox asked, "To 
whom?" The lion said, "To the smith. Get up, we will go!" He said, "I am 
sick." The lion replied. "Get up! I will help you." So he rose, and the lion 
said, "Climb upon my back!" The fox said, "There is somebody's saddle (there 
is a saddle, I do not know to whom it belongs), what shall I do with it?" He 
answered, "Put it on my back!" Then the fox said, "Here is somebody's chain 
(bridle), what shall I do with it?" The lion said, "Put it into my mouth." Again 
Ae fox said, "Here is somebody's whip, what shall I do with it?" The lion 
answered, "Take it!" So the fox took it, and he climbed on the lion's back. 
He came with the lion; they went along. When they approached the village^ 
the fox beat the lion with the whip, and the lion ran. Again he whipped the 
Hon, and they ran gallopping to the house of the smith. The smith looked up 
("arose"), and the fox cried, "Smith, is he not my slave?" The smith answered, 
"Surely, your slave is he, you have told the truth." They went on and ran to 
the place where the house of the fox was. When the house of the fox came 
near, he jumped down and ran into the house. But the lion caught him by his 

i88 Animal Stories 

tail, and the end of the tail broke off. The lion said, "Go, I have given joa a 
Bu£&cient mark.*'^ He, the fox, sat down. 

The lion went into his village, he brought game and cooked die game, and 
he brought (inyited) all the people (that is, the animals).'' The people came, and 
the foxes, many foxes came, and the fox who had beaten the Hon was also 
present. (On the way to the lion's village) they came into a field and found 
plenty of melons, and the fox who had beaten the lion, said (to his companions), 
diey should tie melons to their tails. So each one tied melons to his taiL And 
this particular fox tied the melons veiy loosely to his tail. Then he said, "People, 
run to the village of the lion!*' And tl^y ran. (While thus running) die mdon 
slipped off his tail, but the tails of the other's broke off, all of them. When they 
approached, they found all the people with the lion. The lion asked, "Have you all 
come?^ They replied, " Yes.^ And the lionrecognizedthefox andaskedhim, "Ton 
too have come?** He replied, "Yes.'' The lion, "By whom shall we be recon- 
ciled (how can we, being enemies, eat at the same table) ?'' The fox asked, 
"What is the matter ("what have I become'')?'' The lion said, "Is it not you 
who beat me?" The fox said, "What? you do lie!" The lion said, "Did I not 
cut off your tail?" The fox replied, "Where is it?" The lion said, "Here it is" 
(showing the cut-off tail of the fox). The fox replied, "But that is not I alone 
(i. e. the case with me only). The lion, "Who beside you ("you and who")?" 
The fox, "Is it not all of us? why, come and look !" The lion came and looked 
at them, this one's tail was cut off, and that one's tail was cut off, all their taib 
were cut off. The lion did not know what to say ("his head was giddy"), and 
he said, "You have escaped !" He let them go, and the people were given meat, 
and the people ate. That is aU. — The people scattered, and the lion was left 
in his village. 

77. The Starling and the Centipede. 

Owinit b^dd (bird) nj(; t/e da 4^.an, di yto$p. Ka wifkn hinq, hffM bpUf ha 
6toSnit ko: yini, (^tq, ^ea yw$pt di kw$p ndn d yuf^hit Kd ^^ mtmjt; i kb: biht 
^£ (s^) ^Q. <i fnimif Ka iffrq ho: ywip hicM toitu Ka dlydii i kb: ydrhi^in 
(ya^fy^j^ liind^^ ndt^ ytoQp de kw$p yi ydnl Ka ri^ e ko: fdfu olyau H liifi; 
kd mti M hia/ih* 6t6U K^t e ko: yi kwaik tiind, i gi U4i ywitp, 4 rimd, hdgi 
wihi ydn. Ka olyau iMna kwMS, kd tt^ kdn, ka chigi Uffi *^ khth kd U^i f^ ^ 
Udiyitt^kamyi tm, e ko: tUl^I Kine: if Kine: ^iS ^ n&t a yv^Mf E ho: 
dwinf yafa ytoQpl Kine yi re (ra) fai H ywhpf Kine: ndyd kuchi yinf ind 
ywhp. Kine: nd dmin? Kine: ndyd ft§; sna M f^ni riji. E ko: fafe ffi a chiU 
ytnf Chofis ka iintfUrd kwhmi, kdpwotyi tjri, kdik^i fV^. Ka yoma wiy 

Starling and Centipede 189 


yaf^ A M chigi e btidi wiy yaf^ Kd olyau i duhgh^ Kd 6til E^^ e ko : weki yon 
ikindl E ho: i, gi gvofigi n^ f Ka owanQ ko: weki liin olyau u go, M, ^inS yu^p. 
ChSUj 6t6l K^t i ^ ^ %^^ Kari^e ko: yi (yi u) chdti hi dich; i b6g\n ^ 
ekimi yin. Chi^ a lii f4uwi e l^t^ e hogin cham^ a gy§^ yi ri^. 

The heron was king. He had a cow which was bewitched. And all the 
birds came, and the heron said to them, "Ye people, my cow is bewitched, 
tell me who has bewitched if And the people were perplexed. He asked, 
"Dear me! whj are the people so perplexed ?*' They said, "We do not know 
the wizard. "* Then the starling said, "O my goodness, if only I had my eyes, 
I would name the wizard. ** The king said, "Give the starling eyes!" But each 
one refused. At last the centipede Kq^ said, "Take my eyes, when the wizard 
has been found and the matter is finished, then gire them back to me.** The 
starling took the eyes, he looked in this direction and again looked in that 
direction; he looked upwards and looked at the people; and he looked at the 
owl saying, "Owl!" The owl replied, "Eh?" He said, "Why do you bewitch 
the cow of the king?" He said, "When? I am not a wizard." The starling re- 
plied, "Why should you not be a wizard? Do you not know your uncle? He 
is a wizard." The owl asked, "Who is my uncle?" He said, "The fish-spear is 
that uncle ; it is he who sees the fish (in the water).^<' Does he not resemble you?" 
— HuU is all, and all the people (= the birds) jumped on his (the owl's) back, 
and he was beaten by the people ; and he went away running. He fled to a tree. 
There he is accustomed to stay, on the top of trees. 

When the starling returned, centipede Koi said, "Give me my eyes!" But 
he said, "No, what for?" And the heron said, "Give (= leaye) the eyes to the 
starling, that he may always make manifest the wizards." — That is all, centi- 
pede iTiQl went away without eyes. And the king said to him, "Walk in peace! 
There is nobody who will eat you." That is all; he (the centipede) is accustomed 
to die of himself (not killed by other people, or through violence) ; nobody 
eats him. He is blessed by the king. 

78. The Hare and Tapero. 

AfoaJQ a k^ mal bi ywiii hUl; gh k( nin Tifirit. Ka afoaJQ, bul ch^n, kd bUl 
ch6n H mal. Ka Tapffru e d^nit to^k, t pd dwdi yi fian a dachq. Ka afoaJQ dwdi 
yi ikan a daehQ; ka g^ ch^ni bul, ka TapsrQ dgnQ ti^A, 4 fa dwdi yi fian a dachQ; 
ka afoajii dwdi & in; ka bul d^, ka afoajq, i chwhth Hne: nQn Tdpird, wa fa 
k^t Tipirit i kiidit, ckuiic^ rack kifa dwdi afoaJQ. Ka Tapi^tQ biafM, afoaJQ, d 
^nit mid, Ka afoaJQ i U^ bin, ka tytk, ff^ H ok^f e ko: yd ki^fiili, yd digi 
fb^ win. E ko: u yffc yd i wi^fiii uj^k akit, ya wi^fbfi win. Aket chi nujdJQ 
Hj^l^l i ^f^i ki wi^fMf ka afoajn d^mi, ka e kif^. 

190 Animal Stories 

The hare went up (into the air) to find a drum ; he and his uncle Tapero. 
And the hare danced to the drum, he danced up in the air. But Tapero remained 
outside (the ring of the dancers), he was not selected (for dancing) by a giri.** 
But the hare was selected by the girls, and he danced with them. Again Tapero 
remained outside, he was not selected by a giii, but the hare was again selected, 
and danced. At last the dancers scattered. Then the hare called, "Uncle Tapero, 
shall we not go?** Tapero remained silent, he was angry because the hare had 
been selected. Tapero went down, but the hare remained aboye. Some time 
after the hare also came; he fastened his foot with a rope, and said (to Tapero?), 
"I am going down, I wiH return to our country.'' Again he said, '^As soon as 
I come down to the ground and (I) pull the rope, I shall arrive in my countiy 
(at once)." But he pulled the rope too eariy, before he had reached the ground. 
So the hare fell down and was dashed to pieces. *> 

79. Who is King? 

AfoaJQ, ik^mo dacho, gi hi dfwQn; dachQ marQ ipvQn, <2g afoaJQ eh^ yi dacho, 
Kd gi v^Uts kag^ko Hne: nini wgt dyik; ha g^ nsP4b ka dysn^^ nih yi aftxyo, ka 
6pJ0$f^ e nffiQ, kd whi ha g^ io6^^* ^P^Qf^i ka to^ i touit, ka afoaJQ k^, ka 6tw$f^ 
d^n^, e nMt. Ka ilUd 0j^ bpiQ, ka e ko: yd nin I Ka ofwg^ 4*^i!^ *'^'* ^ ^ ^ 
ka wai Aj^ rf, ka e ko: afoaJQ d kili ki^t Ka gr^ bing, kd k kb: dysk d chdm ge 
msnf*^ Kine : dysk ba cham yi opvQ^f Ka c^li kil, ka opoof^ pvodty kd i/kgrni tdmJIt. 

Ka otwofi e k^, ka afoajg, yoti yi ^ (t^)* ^ ^^^ ''^^^ ^ ^ ko: whkd teau,^ 
yi yitk ydn I Ka e ko kine: ^ji M l^li ff^i fnitt, ka dkj^k wki opvQj^ ha e ko: 
dwAj chd m^d^I Kine: gi mayi gs, hOi? Kine: gi lii pidd (fara) nam. Ka e ko: 
k§f^ pa (pdr) nam I Ka afoaJQ pArd nam; ka i/ka pyan deje, ufd n^. Ka opDQ!^ e 
loiiQ pare nam, ka nilA okqk iln^^ ka e yw^in^, Ka e k^dq, opoQji, toeys, gq ywiinjt» 

Ka afoaJQ k^(^ e kiji,^'' ka ywoda lysfiK go ku^ h^dit ki ty^l^ kd i kb: iiwk kqlq 
kSdit. Ka tysl lygch nytmS wQky ka lysch e k^do, kai ^;ka afoaJQ k^ yey lyteh, 
Ka lyseh, afoajq mej^ yijL ka ijAdit H k^ kHi,*^ kdi hb: yiri ba kw^f U ya 
l^ld ban Hfni! Ka ly§ch e htobdb; ha bia wQk. 

Ka lynch ya tii, ka (fQgi, M i^J^ (^^^f^l^) kwe^ ka dtit e ko : ^t 4q (^^) k/^^ 
a Awaf^ ku>§ji H chanQf Kine: pafe 4q ^^ ^^ <^^^ ^ kid^, kd k t^fi^ hi dtirius 
ka ha (= k^dg) chdn; ka ly§di kd yi^y ka u kil4 ki ^ gbn, ka lyech jpS^y hi Jdl 
e kiijt. 

Ka 6toin^ ko: ydjSk^, ya bAni rij^l Ka r$ii (fO^), ka ttr^ lii kd (=: k^) ndm 
bi m&i, kd Ib^ M mena pM, ka nam M btdd tar, ka dje lii mdk hi reck. Ka lot 
hwdl yi bgwhl, ka ggn toSki kgf^; ka kSlb yi £^|. Ka ohw6m ka pyeeh*^ yi owang, 
kine: loj^ e kwal yi minf Kine: h^chi ydn. Ka b^ni pySch, hine: fo| a hwdlyi 

IV ho is King 191 

fit^f Kine: lof a kwdl yi bgwhl, Ka okwdm pi/ecli yi ovoanq, kine: d^ kiVi ^ 
chtttne ^ kucH yin f Cham ^ ntUi H^^ yxn f Ka ggch yi owanQ. 

Ka tan kobQ ogwal: vA rdrltl Ka tan ko: ogwdly tyiU chik^, ty^d b^r^t. Ka 
ogwal e ko: wA rdr^. Ka g^ rinit» fngn ya kgii, m^n ya kfffk, Ogwal gtr ki yey pSii 
btniy ka tan e ko: ygma dgwHL Kd hgwhl i kb: ygmd tan, Ka tanQ pido, ka e 
p&4^9 ka e ^yi nto^Ju 

Ka 6U{ ka i jik^ rgii (jQH^) fi^, ka rgii, ka chip toij dbib^, Ka ^an nik, ka 
oU( e ko: buli rinQl Ka rinQ bUly kdi kb: kil rino! Ka rinQ chto$n^, ka chikd 
chwitt^; ka rinQ e chw$n^, ka pdrJt m&U ka lau iQii wij dbibit^ ka n'lig gwdri, A 
cMgis a ehika gwar. 

A kwoA lau yi atwdk. A r^tiS, a ktichi lau yi jagQ, h pidi. A k6p ttr'a kine: 
tai r^i mind f Kine: r(^ lidu I A Ian i/iau to^r i n|]^ kifa kwftpi r^^. Ka d^n^ 
kwbdtt* Ka tt^ mwnU dpi e kwddit, ka tgrQ ko: buh! idi Muf A bt (= bidf^) 
dffii ndii? liau ko kine: yd Idnj^ to^r yd n^, kd ^r^ ko: b6h! tvA ki u riiil^^ a 
wet, a kii <^. 

A ydpjago, kajagQ ya mdt^k, Ka tgrQ benq, g^ kobq kine: wi r^ii mSfidf Bin 
dgikl^^ Ka agak r&A, ka ejik^ kijdni d^ch, Ni iQu IqI ki pQl, Ka tgrQ lii chukq, 
kine: wi chwitl a mindl Kine: chwqljfigii! A chwgljagqy a b^ne in agak^ ka t^rq 
kobq kine: jdgi, Igi ananql Kwgn 141! a k^<^ biti IdK a kwaii wdn gim; ka e 
4*ii>4it$ ^ ^^ chAm. A chigi k( jani dock; a kbp tir^ kine: dgdk ban gnjane 

A g$y (= goeh) bUU kd t^it chtfnit, ka bulpwot; ka Tap^rQ ki tiil^ g^ binOf 
ka dwdi yi dachQ, 

The hare married a woman, he together with the hyena. The woman liked 
the hyena, but the hare was hated hj her. And diey travelled; and (the people 
to whom they came on their journey) said to them, ''Sleep in the sheep house l'^'^ 
So they slept, and sheep were killed by the hare, while the hyena slept, and 
he smeared the contents of the stomach on the hyena's mouth. When the day 
broke, the hare went away, he left the hyena sleeping. (In the morning) a boy 
came and asked, "May I come in?** Then the hyena arose, he looked at him- 
self and saw the contents of the sheep's stomach on his body, he said, "Where 
is the hare?** The brother-in-law^ came and asked the boy, "Who has eaten 
the sheep?" He answered, "Have the sheep not been eaten by the hyena ?^ 
Then a whip was brought, and the hyena was beaten, and his wife relinquished 
him (he was divorced from his wife). 

And the hyena went away, and he found the hare roasting fish; he said to 
him, "You cursed hare, I have found you!" The hare said, "Every one is 
accustomed to eat his food first (before doing anything else)."^ He gave the 
hyena an okok (a certain fish with sharp pricks); the hyena said, "Father, it 

192 Animal Stories 

seems to be good!'' He asked again, "How do they catch it?** He answered, 
"They are accustomed to jump into the river (and thas catch it). The hyena 
said, "Go, jump into the riyer!*' So the hare jumped into the river, but he 
bound a small skin around his waist (so that the thorns of the fish could not 
wound him). The hyena sprang after him into the river, but he was much bruised 
by the okok, and he screamed. And he (the hare) went away, he left the hyena 

The hare went away to his place; he found an elephant who was taking a 
thorn out of his foot The hare said, "My father is taking out a thom.^ (He 
said to the elephant, "I will help you to take the thorn out^, and) he cut the 
whole foot of the elephant off. Then the elephant went away almost dying firom 
pain; the hare went into the belly of the elephant The elephant shut the hare 
up in his belly, and he had difficulty in getting out. He said to the elephant, 
"Why do you not dung, that I may go out after your dunging?" The elephant 
dunged, and so the hare got out 

And the elephant was king. His cattle always scattered their dung on the 
road ; and the ichneumon said, "Why do the cattle of the elephant always 
scatter their dung?'' The people answered, "Are they not the cattle of the king?** 
And the ichneumon went and hewed a stick, and he went from behind to the 
elephant and stuck him in his trunk (stuck the stick into the trunk of the ele- 
phant); the elephant fell down (and died), and his house was destroyed. 

Then the heron said, "I want to be king, I shall be king!'* And he was 
elected, and the people went to the river to fish. They put a club into the river, 
which made the water dear, so the people used to catch fish. But the club was 
stolen by the frog; he gave it to the rain.^ And the ibis was asked by the heron, 
"By whom has the club been stolen?'' He said, "I do not know." Then Ae 
pelican was asked, "By whom has the club been stolen ?** He answered, "The 
club has been stolen by the frog." Then die ibis was asked by the heron, "How 
could you say you did not know? Had you not seen it?" And he was beaten 
by the heron. 

And to the waterbuck the frog said, "Let us run a race!" The waterbuck 
said, "Frog, your legs are short, but my legs are long." But the frog said, 
"(Never mind,) let us run!" And diey ran. The one stood here, and the other 
stood there. But there were many frogs everywhere in the ground. And the 
waterbuck said, "I have beaten (surpassed) the frog!" But (always) a frog 
cried, "I have beaten the waterbuck." At last ^^ waterbuck was tired, and he 
fell down and died on account of his running. 

Then the hawk wanted to be king, and he was elected. He placed himself 
on an ambach-tree, and a cow was killed (on the occasion of the election of a 

Who is King 193 

new king), and the hawk said: "Roaat meat!'' And meat was roasted. Then he 
said: "Bring meat!*' And the meat came not quickly; so he called again for 
meat, and yet it did not come. He flew up and left the (royal) clothes on die 
ambach, he snatched the meat; (from that time) he has always remained in the 
habit of snatching meat. 

The royal clothes were taken by the atwak, but he did not know how to 
behaye in royal clothes, therefore he was driyen away. Then the people said, 
"Whom shall we elect?'' It was said, "Let us elect the cat!" (When the cat 
heard that) she spent a whole night in laughing, because of the plan of electing 
her. And her jaws swelled from laughing. When the next morning the people 
saw that her jaw was swollen, they said, "Why! what is the matter with the 
cat? Why is your jaw thus?" She answered , "I spent a night in laughing." The 
people replied, "Leaye her alone, she is not to be elected." The people went 

They looked for a king; there was no one who might become king. So the 
people came saying, "Whom shall we elect? Let us elect the crow!" And 
the crow was elected. He reigned yery weU. The game died in the bush. And 
the people were at a loss, they said, "Whom shall we call?" It was sMd, "Call 
the king." The king was called; he came, he, the crow. And the people said, 
"King, here is a game, taste the game!" He went to the game and took 
(picked) its eye out Then he arose, and the people ate. He continued to reign 
welL And the people said, "The crow, he is a good king." 

A drum was beaten. The people danced. And the drum was beaten again, 
and Tapero and the owl came, and he was selected by a woman for dancing.'' 

80. The Hara 

^foajfi a wiUfote rj^ ha ywbddn^; nor gvr, kafikafeA bi ehdm. Kd i rUm, 
ka gt <^kiQn h&ni; ha aJ^ffan yi gin. Ka amdiUt dwcU, ha af^p hwatlkf ha gt chip 
wieh amaly hdglt gicMy hine: chi^I Ka amalQ (<ifnQlQ) i bhiiltf hd git chigi gic^h* 

A h^ d/odJQ httis a dwdt %^, a ytj a^p, a kif^ hwltffn hfffk, it bdflk chi^, A 
gichi gitn; ehdmi h^ a chigdfl^; a ho: b&hl Afoajq, hine: b&h! af^p i gwih 
icH t A din H Jyiiis a hs^ (rfoajo, a dwai ^ean^ a yej af^p wij^. A Jini a^p /M 
yi 4^^ ^ ^^ (ifoajn: yi ri tfni <i^p fM f Ko : yi ri nigiji f yd bidit I A hi^ 
a din afoajoj^ a iion afoajq, af^p i ttch idlf A chigi digh ^ dtoAtIt nit; a ytoddi 
fffi; a h6hi: yina nu! wdfd mitf K6 i^ yink mi^I AfoaJQ hine: yi ^ yi glfihi 
mihii. Ye ho: i gin init t J^gr a yiti ydn fb^ rij^ gi gir^ a chimd, hd yd ydnii^ 
hi gi china, A h6p nu, yi chdhd ffif^, widd a hwdU yin f Kb : d hwdU ydn. Ko: 
yiehlydfi hif^l Kb: mif^ li hi^itt hoti ydn! Kine: yd j^ yi duin. A hii nu, a 
yidi gin ini i pth, a hyidS. A h^ afoajn fyau, 

WBSTBRMAlfll, Tke ShOhik People. 13 

194 Animal Stories 

A dwai dtwiij^ ko: yin 6(wiij^, ttr^ it dwdi ydn b^ni^ di gi bdfi, di it, kon yanl 
yu fofe ki fi^r, fngk i chdmk yin. A k§j^ ipJ^in]^ h yiji kwQm dfwftff. ; a kHi gin 
pack, a wdj^ gdl gin, a lin gi fih. KA kw^imi ofwofi e figh* Kd afoajq kima 
kine: kwQm optQj^ i gw^k ^t Ka yij^ yat kd g^tikyi gin, a ki$i ho^ k^A %. 

Ki i tuyi yikf^ du$n. AfoaJQ Hfit yit^, ^ hir hi kw^ ofwiu^; a litoili; ka liwol^ 
iki H^ afoaj^i; e ko: b^hl ^ bile ki An^ (kin^)? A kwdM iuk h bili gun ki tun 
gnu K^ tun ^ /dfi di ndm, a ligi miicKii. 

Ye k^ blfei kijdm, kd liufttU oeKoye kd gi fe^ A bfni bufilk mlko, a 1^ 
Hne: (ofi yan ki gin chdml A kyit afoajn kine: liiioi, yi chird bin^ dndn* Afoofo 
chamd tefi niji* A ywidi ochqye, i nifih, a ^uot afoaJQ, kd fdUt kwMi, ^ kigi 
g^; kafdl k^dq, yiji oekoye; ka afoajq e it^n^: fdlit i kidit k^ anqf Ka wij^ 
n^6> ki ke,4Q, y^e ochqye, hi ywode djh gi gir, gi nin^. Ka i fedtt* A bin w^k, a 
ywdde wijs, i tyitt H y^k, a ehw^U g^ kine: yine toich bi! Ka wich i bcoL A 
ehigi g^ chuMi kifi, kd i 6dii. Kd g^ gichi hi dU& ; a bini wich, a digi k^i. 

The hare travelled into the town of the king, and he found beans, plentjr of 
beans. And he sat down to eat When he had finished, he piled them (the rest) 
up in one place. He filled a bag with them. Then he brought a camel, took the 
bag and put it on the camel. He beat the camel saying, ''Walk on!^ But the 
camel refused. He beat it again saying, "Walk on!'' The camel fell down and 
said, "The bag is too heavy.'' The camel went away. 

The hare too went away ; he fetched a horse, lifted the bag and put it on the 
horse's back. The horse refused to walk ; he (the hare) struck it, it tried to go, 
but it began to fall down saying, "Why!'' The hare said, "Why! what shall I 
do with the bag?" He left the horse. The hare went and fetched a cow; he 
put the bag on it But the bag was thrown down by the cow. The hare asked, 
"Why do you throw down Ae bag?" The cow replied, "Why do you kill 
people (by laying such a heavy load on them)? I refuse." He went away. The 
hare was left; he was perplexed, thinking, "What is to be done with die bag?" 
He once more turned back to fetch the lion. When he found him, he said to him, 
"You lion! Are we not friends?" He said, "Yes, you are my friend." Then die 
hare said, "I am in difficulty with a certain matter." The lion asked, "What 
is it?" He answered, "I found beans in the town of the king, plenty of beans. 
I ate some of them, and when I was full, I put the rest into a bag." The lion 
asked, "Were they given to you, or did you steal them?" He answered, "They 
were stolen by me." Then die lion said, "Never! I shall not go!" The hare 
said, "Friend, come, let us go that you may help me!" He said again, "I am 
small, you are big." So the lion went. He found the bag ("thing") very heavy; 
he refused and went away. The hare too went. 

He fetched a cock; he told him, "You cock! all (kinds of) people were 

The Hare 195 

fetched byme^butthejhaye refused. But now come and help me, and I shall give 
70a part of the beans to eaf The cock went, (the hare) put the bag on the 
cock, and it earned it home. When they came near the house, it threw it 
down. The cock's back was bruised (from carrying the bag). The hare said, 
"What is to be done with the back of the cook?*' He crushed leaves of a tree 
and placed them on the sore place of the cock's back. 

And there sprang up a large tree (on the sore place of the cock's back, some 
seeds having got into the wound by putting the leaves on it). The hare saw the 
tree was very high on the back of the cock. The tree bore fruit; when the 
fruit was seen by the hare, he said, "Dear me! by what (how) are they to be 
thrown down?** He took a stone and threw at them. The stone feU into the 
middle of a river and became an island. 

The hare went to plant some vegetables (on the island), and he planted 
melon seeds. Then there came a traveller, he said, '^Give me something to 
eat (the traveller saw the melons, which in the meantime had ripened)!^ But 
the hare refused saying, "Cousin, I have come in this very moment (so I am 
not prepared to give you food).'' The hare looked back; he saw there were 
many melons. The hare arose, he took a knife and split a melon. The knife 
went into the middle of the melon, the hare was perplexed, he said to himself^ 
"Where has the knife gone?*' Suddenly it (the knife) cut his (the hare's) head 
off. He (the hare) went into the melon and found there many people, who were 
alive. When he was tired, he came out; he found his head carrying firewood. 
He called it, "You head, come!*' But the head refused. He called it again, but it 
refused. Then he struck it with the flat hand. The head came and returned to 
its place.'^ 

[The Nubians have the same story ; here, as in Shilluk, it forms part of a 
series of tales; only the part which coincides with the story in Skilluk is 
given here (translated from Leo Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache, ErsterTeil, 
p. 232 ss). . . . The young man heaped up the eggs, squashed them, made 
a wind, and winnowed them, so that the wind blew away the egg-shells, 
and only the chickens were left. One of the chickens had a wound on 
its foot. They sent for the doctor, who said, "Take two ardeb of date- * 
seeds, roast them and bind them on the wound, then it will heal. They 
did so. Now a date-tree grew out of the chicken's foot, it became large 
and bore fruit. When the fruit were ripe, a boy came and threw a stone 
at the tree ; four fruit fell down. Thereupon the tree became angry, in 
its anger it fell down and formed an island. The owner of the island 
sowed sesamum on it ; but afterwards he sowed melon-seeds. While they 
were still sowing, the melon-seds germinated and grew large. Then a 


196 Animal Stories 

Turkish soldier came mud asked the owner, "Give me one of the melons.'' 
The man replied, "They are not jet ripe. "" The soldier said, ''If you don't 
give me one, I shall cut off your head.*' Then the man went, cut a melon 
and gave it to the soldier. This one took his knife and stabbed it into 
the melon ; but the knife escaped into the belly of the melon. Then he 
drew his sword and stabbed into the melon, but the sword too esciqped 
into the beUy of the melon. The Turk became angry, pursued the owner 
of the melon, cut his head off and threw it away. The trunk of the man 
crept into the belly of the melon. But the head searched its trunk in 
vain. At last it went away into a barber's shop. Here he had his hair 
shaved. In the meantime die man (the trunk) crept out of the melon and 
went away. When he came to the barber's shop, he found his head, took 
it, placed it on his neck and went his way.] 

8 1 . The Camel and the Donkey. 

Jal mtko, e ya da amalft, gi hi adenb gs, M <^h gi iy^ H jam. De begin iki 
chdmi gin^ d^ gi g^Ut gv^Mt' Ka amain ho: bihl Kine: adgrQl Ka adfrn yei 
hin^: it Kine: wd cMl ^l Kine: Awi, wd chb, ^. AmalQ ho: hffk u/Ari wd, yu 
(yiu) yeif Ka adirn ho: h%oi! yd yet. Ka e ho: far wq,1 

Ka gi he!^ gi ohd^; ha gt toiffii h^ malaulgu; hd mitchii Ufi gin, i yd, di 
nam, di tam g\r; ka g^ ho: toa h^^ dit Ka ad^rQ ho: hdjil Ka amain ho: tea u 
hwinif Ka ad^tQ ho: wa hu mUtf^ Kine: 41 Kine: wafa mut, gih amakt. E ho: 
jwQk dugnl wa u wif^ wQh. Ka g^ k^ nam, ha ad^r^ h^ banc* ka g§, hwann* 

Ka gs, wili wgh, ha g^ hefa wQk; d^ ehwU gin m^; mttehn bu ^9» hd gi 
chdmiti ha g^ lii btUQ. Duhi ha g^ M, ekamq, ha ill yfi^ wiu, ha g^ iki btitit; hinau 
chj^ hi chanii' Ka adfr^ ehweyo, ka amain chweyQ; d^ fiite gin fa tdd^r; ha gt M, 
mafa gat kipi; ka g§, i/ii binn* 

Ka adgrQ kobn kine: md^I Kine: i! e ko: yi eha de g^gh H h^h madoeh; e ko: 
wija miim; e ko: kfffi de kini yin, e ko: vA de 0u» gik adgro. Amain ko: yifa^ 
dikf e ko: hwnp nAji yinf e ho: fa hiichi yin f gih amain* Ka gi bgdn ehdn iiyiljt; 
adirn ho: m<||/ — hffi ckwnU amain* Amain ho: H E ho: ya da fUtoil m6f^^ 
hi wija, d^bff idlf Amain ^* buhl liwnlmntaffn^ g^^^Hl^^^ Kd i hkdit* Ka gs, 
nenn, hd chihd hwif hine: mdt! Kine: it E ho: mnk ffii e ikwh^ H. wija. KyM 
wiji chaha wiln t Kiichi yin, kffi mak wa, ka toi fki ptvSt ki Idf^f D^ yi ehu^ d^ 
da m6 kimu Ka e ko: ard, yd kht. Ka e kudn- I^uhi ka e ko: ya ^dli ehdm yi gik 
ini, wijd litrin^. Amain ko: byhl Ko: yik chwahi u lini yhu yi typ^ hild nam. E 
ko: d, weiywnna, gik ad^rn; H ikwnl miffif^^ yau! Ka amain ko: i, ywinil ya 
fet Hyi* ^U bi kifa wd bini, fa{e kifa yd k&Ji, 

Camel and Donkey 197 

Ka adsrn rgnQ, kd i kwodo, kd i yw^nit ki ywqk mdgtr, ka lii kwodq; kdji ma 
cldJ^ H yey y^y kine: ndgrQ ywgnt kffi f Ka gs. hia wgk^ kine: muchQ yejs, daji.^^ 
^^ 9t yif>Q, H kele Idm, je boggn, Ka adg^Q y6t, ka amalQ ySt, ka ga mak, ka lii 
fw^t H. Idfl, ka amalQ ko: yd ko kdp, yi ko: wa uySt; di, hniin^, yi kdbq ddlf 
Ad&'n kud^, Ka g^ kil (kil), kd gi mdki ki wtini y^, y&Jydchi gin. Ka amalQ 
ka vmne ehid^ ka e tsAq; ka t^^ ^^ ban^ kaje y^mi ^. Ka ad^rQ donq, gs, H 
bwofi, ka lii giphi Idfi; ystfih ka e ^. 

D^i^^ chUA kd hmdl^ bia gat b^ mai^ ka ad^tq yidi, S j^ ke yey pi; da ktibd^. 
Ka e ko: dwofi mdlt gik amalQ. Ko: ^o(i, yw6ni! Ofytf^ yi hb: yi ki yw^rAl 
yi hb: da gin iliwitnlit wiji; di ^wof^! AdgrQ jg. Ka amain k^ bl ma^ hi pi, ka 
amalQ doga k^l fim. 

Somebody had a camel and also a donkey; they used to carry goods every 
day, but they got nothing to eat, so they were very thin. One day the camel 
said, "Dear me!** Again he said, "Donkey!'' The donkey replied, "Eh?'' The 
camel said, "We are going to die!" "So it is," replied the donkey, "we are 
going to die." The camel said, "Suppose we run away, would you consent?" 
The donkey replied, "Yes, I would consent." Then he said, "Let us flee!" 

And they went trayelling. They arrived in a very distant place; there they 
saw an island in the middle of a river. There was much grass. And they said, 
"How shall we get there?" The donkey confessed, "I do not know." But the 
camel said, "We will swim." The donkey asked, "Shall we not be drowned?" 
"No", said the camel, "we shall not be drowned;" talk of the cameL^ He said 
again, "God is great! We shall arrive safely." They went into the river, the 
donkey went behind the camel. And diey swam. 

When they came to the bank, they got out of the water. They were very 
l^ad; there were no men on the island. They ate and then lay down; the next 
day they grazed again (die whole day), and when the night came, they lay down. 
Thus they did every day. The donkey and the camel became fat; their bellies 
became diick. They used to drink water in the river; and from there returned 
to grazing. 

One day the donkey said to the camel, "Friend!" He replied, "Eh?" The 
donkey said, "You have indeed succeeded in bringing us into a good position; 
I am quite surprised; if it had not been for you, we should be dead now!" 
Such was the talk of the donkey. The camel replied, "Are you not a stupid 
fellow? Do you know anything? Are you not an ignorant one?" So said the 
camel. One day later the donkey continued, "fViend!" — So he used to call 
die camel. The camel replied, "Eh?" The donkey said, "I have some thoughts 
("little seeds") in my head; how may it be with them?" "Dear me," replied, 
the camel, "what may be your thoughts !" Then the donkey was silent; and they 

198 Animal Stories 

went to sleep. But the next morning he began again, '^Friend!'' The camel 
said, "Eh?** The donkey said, "These things (thoughts) are still working in 
my head.** "Yon begin to forget!" warned the camel; "do yon not remember, 
when we were caught (eyery morning) and were always beaten with a clab? 
But now you haye become fiat, you want to talk!** The donkey repHed: "Well, 
I will be silent^ And he remained silent. On the next morning he continued, 
"I cannot eat on account of this thing; my head is always wandering.*' Hie 
camel said, "Why, if you talk so loudly, the people who are trayelling on the 
riyer will hear us.*' At last the donkey begged, "Let me bray just once; Aat 
is what is troubling me.** Thus the talk of the donkey. The camel said, "Well, 
do bray! I am worn out by you. Death will come to all of us, not to me alone.** 
And the donkey ran, snorting and braying exceedingly loud, and he snorted 
again. Some people who were trayelling in a boat, heard him; they said, "Where 
does that donkey cry?** They went ashore saying, "There must be people on 
the island.** They searched in the grass, but tiiere were no people. At last tiiey 
found the donkey and tiie camel. They seized them and beat tiiem with dubs. 
The camel said, "Did I not tell you, saying: we shall be found? but now, what 
do you say?** The donkey was silent They both were driyen away and were 
bound with boat-ropes, in order to pull die boat. The rope of the camel broke, 
and he ran away. The people pursued him, but he outran them. So the donkey 
was left with tiie strangers. He was beaten with clubs; the boat was heayy, he 
died. Some days later the camel came to tiie riyer bank to drink ; he found 
the donkey dead in tiie water; he was bloated. And he said, "Get up !** talk of 
the camel. He said again, "Get up and bray! formerly I told you, do notciy! 
But you said, sometiiing is ("working**) in my head. Now get up!** But tiie 
donkey was dead. So the camel went to drink and then returned into tiie 
forest. •* 

' The animals, when acting like men, haye in the English translations alwajs been treated as 

* • In most of the texts the word "jwQk^ is rendered bj "€U>d*S where, howoTer, it is used in rather 
a disrespectfdl sense, "jwqkf* is kept in the translation. 

^UkiB "war", and "the annj, host of war". 

\ tycX^ more fireqnentlj tytl "foot^S 

^ the fntore form of the rerb, bat without the fntore particle ^. 

" Very frequently the present tense is followed bj the imperfect of the same rerb, the first intro- 

dadng the action rather as a state, the second showing the action as going on, as being in 

progress. "They go, when thej were going below a tree. . . 

* "he sajs" or "said" is: ''tko k%n^*\ but in fluent speech ho "to say" is often omitted and 
only "kkfU'* "thus" is said. 

^ Tocatiye! see Grammar. 
^ chdw\ was to be expected. 

Remarks 199 

* The ^ytn*" lajs stress on the snhject: why are y<m so thin (while the hare is fiit)? 

'^ hikhy an expression nsed most fireqnentlj, cannot he well translated into English; it maj mean 

anj degree and shade of snipiise, rery often, as here, angry surprise. 

'^ JQuti Is not only "to-morrow'', hat simply "the next day**. 

" Instead of **chwdch yi ^". 


^^ kaf^ more frequently k^ the stem for "go''. 

'* The hare wanted the hyena to heUere that he, the hare, was heing punished for his misdoings, 

and that the hyena, hy coming near, might get a thrashing as well. 

^ instead of yt. 

^^ in order that. 

* more frequently : tpifjH to anrire. 
»• "heside" = since. 

*> TOcatiTe I 

>) commonly: kudg; here the q is long, as if to express the lengthened waiting for an answer — 

bat an remained silent. 

^ Is he, being great, not entitled to eat yoa? 

" To prevent ^e monkey from secretly ranning away. 

M ADading to some old affiidr, for which he intended to take rerenge now. 

^ Twice the hare esci^es the threatened roTenge of the hyena, and even injures him sererely anew, 

taking advantage of the greadiness of the latter. 

The same story is told in Hamo, Reisen im Oebiet des Blauen und Wei6en Nfl, under „Ge- 
schichten ans dem Sudan." 
^ the Hon, his spear is still with me. 

^"^ fa nndfct^ are most frequently used in this way, to emphasixe a sentence : is it not so? that is: 
it surely is so. 

^ Tocatiye I the last vowel with high tone. 
^ "why remains my spear not cooked (forged) by you?" 
^ see Qrammar. 

'^ ''a saddle which is not" : a saddle of somebody who is not present, somebody's saddle, I do 
not know whose. 
'* vocative I 

^ instead of: mcJce yt mi. 
^ one would expect : yiepe wun, 
^ one would expect: yiepe gtn, 

M "Tou are finished with your mark". "Whenever I meet you again, I shall recognixe you and take 
revenge.^ This story of the lion and the fox is also told in Mamo, 1. c The Hottentots have it 

'^ He expected the fox to came too, and so to find an opportunity for finishing him. 
^ yd-ki .... an expression of assertion, the literal meaning is not clear; "I idth my children?" 
••from fidg/ 

^ The fish-spear is a wizard, because "he sees the fish in the water" ; he is thrown into the water 

at hap-hasard, and yet hits the fish. 

4> In dancing the giri selects her companion^ not the man. 

^' The story seems to have some myUiological relation. 

*• from dyih! 

44 "and them (the contents) smeared he". 

^* goats are eaten they (by) whom? 

^ a curse; its literal meaning not dear. 

*^ "the hare went, he (to) his place". 

^ "he was in difficulty with a place of his going out." 

^ and the ibis, and (he) was asked. 

^ In many cases like this the meaning of eham can hardly by rendered. 

•' abstain from electing her ! ^ is used here because the act of election Ues in the future. 

^^ the people ask: "whom shall we elect?" (one among them exclaims), "elect the crow I" 

•* generally the Iwakf the "cow house", is the place where strangers pass the night. 

200 Animal Stories 

** Who thmt is, or whj tills designatloii is chosen, is not dear. 

^ 'Tint let US eal, and then hold our palaTerl" 

** The frog is the friend of the rain. 

*^ A nnmber of stories are strong together under this head, most of them refleeting the political 

and djnastio life of the ShUlnks with its intrignes and Tldssitades; some are told not without a 

certain grotesque humour. 

** The mention of horse and camel in the beginning peffai^s points to a foreign (Arab) origin of 

the stoiy, or at least of the first part of it; thoujg^, of course, both horses and cameb are not 

unknown to the ShUluks, as manj of them hare UTed In contact with Arabs for a long time. In 

the north as well as In the west. 

^ The use of hn here is rather strange. 
^ more frequentlj: fna{. 

** wiok aiiff. 

«> "the island, its interior has people**. 

^ from of §iihi* 

^ This formula is often added after a Terbal quotation. 

** This stoiy is cTldently of Arabic origin. 

The Country of the Dogs 20 1 



82. The Country of the Dogs. 

Ji a ks^Q bt .dufar gi pyavQ^ ha wiia Ktn h Idu, ka dryhu i w&h. Kd gi mdki 
chan dryau > wiffi g^ d mum. Kd gi k^ pack m^ko, ka gg^ ywoda man kfti g^n,^ 
Ka chwQu e b&iQ pQl ki ^k, g^nh gw6k^ ka gi fii ksf^ ysj^e k^liy ka jal rrtlkq e 
pichit kine: chwgu igj^ ginf Gi kiid^, Ka chikifSchQ kine: ckwQu ig^ gffif Ka 
gxook miJkQ ka chuAs, i 'f^hy ka pird kwjtfn^ Kd git nigi* ka ikil dky^l e dono> 
Kd mdka dwat (dwgt) abich i ^ctj^, a pySch yi gwok: yi kQld foln t Ka e ko: yd 
k^ld foffi Chql; yd ehhkh wiai^. Ka wikk ^k gin ddik, ka kil yi gwok kiffi kwQm^ 
kd gwbk i rintty ka wijia biUifofe Chqly ka gwok e ko: fo^ Chql d waj^, ^ ehinli; 
If' k^di pach, kd yi wach : yd yinA fofe gwoky man fd ji, chwQu fa gwSk; yi hi 
hkt, Ji hdt, yi jg (0u). Ka lidl ini i hudQ^ ^fa i$bQ; kd i b^h^t hi wqt, ha i Igho, 
gwoh e Agn^ hinei ifial, yi re fa waehf Kffi hi wadi^ 4^shis yi ^t Ka ifial ^hi 
mql (mwQl) ha e wi^jitf hine: ha wiiid diytji^, ya y^nh fo\e gwhh hi modd b&idy 
manfaje, ds, chwqa fa gwoh^ ha mQda nilA yi gwoh, hefajioanQ hi hwip. 

Some people went hunting; they were ten. And they arriyed at a very distant 
place. Two of them lost their way, they walked for two days, then they be- 
came quite perplexed. They came to a certain Tillage, where they found women 
only. Af^r some time the men too came from the bush with the catde, and they 
were dogs (the husbands of the women were dogs). They went into the enclo- 
sure (the homestead surrounded by an enclosure). And one of the men asked, 
"Where are the men (of your Tillages) ?" They remained silent He asked again, 
"Where are the men?'' One of the dogs became angry' ("his heart turned bad**). 
He jumped on the back of the man and killed him. So only one man ("boy^) 
was left After Ato months ("he seized Ato months*') he was asked by the dog, 
"Where did you come from?" He answered, "I came from the Shilluk country; 
I had lost my way." Then the dog gaTe him three cows, he was taken by the 
dog and put on his (the dog's) back, and the dog ran away with him. When 
they got near the Shilluk country, the dog said, "The Shilluk country is 
coming near; it is OTor there. Now when you reach home, tell (your people), 
'I was in the country of the dogs, there the women are (real) people, but the 
men (males) are dogs.' Do not be silent! K you remain silent, you will die!*' But 
the man ("boy*') was silent, he did not tell (his story). And during the night he 
became afraid, he dreamed, the dog came and said, "Boy, why do you not 

Remarks referring to XII. Tide on page 222. 

202 Adventures between Men and Animals 


speak? K you do not speak to-morrow, you will die.** And the next morning he 
spoke saying, ''I was lost some time ago, and I lived with my friend in die 
country of the dogs ; there the women are (real) people, but the men are dogs, 
and my friend was killed on account of his being hasty in speaking (on account 
of his indiscreet questioning, "Where are the men?" whereby he made the 
dog angry)." 

83. Akwoch. 

Jal mUkit ^Hits^fa abidik. Ka tial i^fy^l dgch. Kdfiri kni yi nu^ kd nii nUtgit 
ki b&, kd nil magQ ki Iwan, kd gi k^ yij dddlit, ka b^ A^ y^ ddMi. Ka e binit, 
kd i kb: yd liMii^/ Kine: yi nihw^ n^? Kine: ^ ifiinifh M. kw^p. Ka ii( wH k^di; 
ka bi^ yi jdl ^ni^ kine: yd nidw^! Kine: yi nedwit nit? Kine: MMfd M kw6p. 
Kd i kb: U^ in! Ka wek^ ka ^k dddlit yi&i^ ka bsi rind w^k, kine: tt6i6: ka 
^k dddl akyllQ^ kd gh yi&4, kd Uodn rind w4k, Hne: tcj^. Kd i kb: Hh! btr 
gd Iwdh, gi ki fc^i, e ko: yd /A kdmd neau; — jal &d fa rij, — . Kd nh kb: buK 
fa dwQk k^y gpt t Kajal ani ko: gs^ ywSdJi gin ki kiiif Kd nu kb: fa chdlf E ko: 
chSl ki dnitf I^u ko:fa chdl ki ^j^f Ka wat ban dwdi, ka cMl, kanu^ 6dii^, ka 
iHa ban dufoi, ka chdl, ka nu^ bMit. Kdjam I4n dwai^ kd gi bdni, ka wot jal ^i 
cJAU kd nu bdi/ih' Ka r^ e ko: yi dwdtd ni^f kd i kb: yd dwdtd Akwoch, — toot 
jal ^t; ka jdl iAi i yw^tnit, Kd nh ehutie^ mldQ kifd lidl ini, kd g^ toiki, kd gi 
k^ ki gltn. iSlu toQds, bdgtn, ka Akwgeh yigi to^d^ ka nu chu^ midQ. 

Ka nu fii k^ p^l, ka Iqx ni mdki in, ka gQ M kili pack. Ka mi ikal ini ka ni 
tAU kd gh M, wtki, ka fial §ni hi ckdm. Ka hal sni yig<^ machwe^ nu, chuiki m^, 
Ka gs, hi wiUt ki hal ^ni, hi k^ fa (= pack) witi nu. Kd hiji yi hii bff%e b&u 
bSne^ d^ chuhe gin mid^, 

Ka chdh dn ehw^ld d^ri; ye ko: mdyil Kine: il Kine weki yd diri! Kine: i 
gwoge ho, f Kine: n hgda lofi. Ka toiki, ka yai maduQn hoti in, Ka h^ti in, ka e 
binit; ka ddj^ £^i ko : yi k^fa kff/i t Kine: ya k^ bi nit. i^u ko: I6fi r&m f Kine: 
nUti. Ka 4uki h dtgit blhit H bUL Kd git tyin, ka e r^m^ kd hile in, di nil ehuh^ 
midQ, Kd i ko: nA, kbmi pyin! Ka pypi kil, kd gi hoiji Mil, ka bul i rUm, ka 
AkwQch e hobQ kine: mdl Kine: ksi chtoQl tyin wdn! ^u k^i^ ka kQp^ tyin gin, 
ka e ko: bnl a kwdck yi w^dd, d^ In tfru fyki! Kd i d^gi, ka bul ki^ yi ehan; 
bur mdduih d ku>ih yi hal gni, ka ya^ kijji yiji, Ka mack (may) kij^ yey ya^, ka 
go. W^ yey bur, ka y^ i r^pb ki yey bur. Kd biir rtk yi hdl ini, 2>g maeh h/^ 
ki pih. Kd bill g^ch, kd hit e binQ hine bine, ka hi (yi) kine: nil, yifa din f Kvie: 
kifdni a dihdfydfd hi^l ki wAhd, Kine: chwgr, yifa dghf Kine: yd cAtr^ k( 
yifa t Kine: d^ mih^ V^f^ ^^ 1 d di min ydn, ya mgn ki hind f TirQ binq bine, 
bu nan a dgh ki pack. 

Ka t^TQ bi^ bi bnl, ka hal ffii ysfa wiy ya}, yaf^ maduQti Ka bulfwSti in, kd 

Akwoch 2 03 

^r^ iit b^ chdfij ka nu e chgnQ. Kd h{ d^nui yhy biir, ka gs, (urn ki fafe yey bur, 
Ka ddff, £nt dgnQ. Kd kiU chdn dtmd yhy bur, Ka nSt e 6@n^. Ka tial ant bia wok 
ki wiy yai, ka nit fki ehgr yey bur, Ka nu jg b&ie. Ka e k§dQy ban nit mdki yi tial 
gni ki dq (dQk) nu ; kd ^^ a bu t&n kd tii nik^ kd d^ a tUne^ ^^^ M kiU in. Ka 
wat ban mpi a yteb^ nut, ka M. niki in, ka WQt ban yieb^ bogon, i/ii toA in. Kd 
gi ffim, ka go, c^jni nit dky^l. Ka e r^nQ, rini wok. Ka ge ks^Q, kijiifni ke dog^ 
ka k^fofe gin, kd i girit kifUri ki wai. 

W^n e ko: s, ijdl kitiP a ^k^gir ki bdni gtr! Kuche udye, di in, wiys, nddj^^.^ 
Kd gi bidjt, ka peri ^ yigi k^h, ka w^ by^l boggn ki yi, ka nal £ni by^l nuti yi, 
ka ilkimhi fii bin, kd i kb: M (ofe ow ok, ka gi fii 0ie ki byil. Ka kifje yi wan, e 
ko: w6 (ofje byiL Win e ko: yi minf Kine: yi jal e kune chink. Ka 4^H wQni 
f^S^ f^S^ yi ^^^ S!i^h ^ g& (ofe byil, ka nal ani ko: wiye win nUtf Kine i, n4t; 
kine ka ktf tin kine: jal e wiUt yi chw^li, ka wqne bifiQ, ka wiye gin kdfi gin, ka 
wiye gin ye binQ, kabiayi wiM chdnj^. Ka fidl ini ko : yi rh bi^ want ckdno ? 
Kin^: %£iana chdn yika k^l w^dd yi nil. Kine: de w{ldi kai yu)6di, i nAji yinf 
Kine: nil Kine: w^di nine mini Kajal pii ko\ Mni AkwQch. Kd i ko: AkwQfi 
ndji yin f tial ini ko: fafe yan AkwQch f Ka mdki yi wiyi, ka unyi ytoQnQ, kd i 
i^n^ ki niiwdf, ka wiji lyil, ka ^fe H lanQ kwach. Ka 0fe ^k, ka wiyi dqga 
fori. E ko: bii ki^ kaeh dkyil. E ko: i, ya y bldq kiti. Kd gi bidj^, ^al ini ya 
fori, kd gi tii u^Iq ki reyi gun. 

A certain man had three sons. One child was pretty, and his fame reached 
die lion. So the lion caught flies, and he caught mosquitoes too, he put them 
into a gourd and came saying, "I am selling!^ The people asked, ''What 
do you sell?'' He answered, "Its name is not to be told.** So they let him go. 
He came to this man (the man the story treats of) and sud, "I am selling.^ He 
asked, "What do you sell?'' The lion replied, "Its name is not to be told.'' 
And he said, "Look at it!" He gave him the gourd, and he opened it; the 
mosquitoes flew out with a loud buzzing; he opened the other gourd too, and 
die flies flew out with a loud buzzing. The man said, "Why, they are but flies 
and mosquitoes! I do not want to buy them." — This man was a king. The 
Hon said, "Why, will you not (put them ba(^ in) their place?" The man 
replied, "Where should I find diem?" The lion said, "Then will you not make 
compensadon?" The man asked, "What shall I give for compensadon?" The 
Hon answered, "A man." So a slave was brought (and was offered) as compen- 
sadon. But the Hon refused him. Then a slave woman was brought and offered 
as compensadon, but the Hon refused her too. He brought aU his goods, but 
diey aU welre refused. (At last) a son of die man was brought, but the Hon 
refused him. The man said, "What then do you want?" He repUed, "I want 
Akwoch;" — he was die son of this man (Akwoch is the name of die pretty 

204 Adventures between Men and Animals 

boy whose £une had reached the lion). And this man wept. But the lion was 
^ad because of this boy. He gave him the boy, and he went away with him. 
The lion had no child, and Akwoch became his child. The lion was yeiy glad. 

The lion used to go into the bnsh, to hunt game; and he used to bring it 
home. The portion of the boy he used to cook, and then give it to him. The 
boy used to eat it, and he became £ftt; the lion was much pleased. And they 
(the other people i. e. the other lions) used to walk with the boy and used to 
go into the Tillage of the son of the lion (i. e. the Tillage where the lion and 
his "son^ liTod). So all the lions knew him, and they aU were much pleased. 

One day the boy asked for an ax; he said, ''Mother I^^io She said, "Eh?"" 
The boy said, "GIto mean ax!'' She asked, "What for ?"< He said, "iTnllcat 
a dub.'' She gaTe it to him; and he cut a large tree. When he had cut it, he 
came. (The next day) this woman asked him, "Where are you going?" He 
replied, "I am going to cut" The lion asked, "Is the dub finished?" He ans- 
wered, "Not yet." The next day he went again to cut a drum. He carred it; 
and when it was finished, he brought it; but the lion was much pleased. And 
he (the boy) said, "Mother, bring me a skin (toiasten on the drum)." And a 
skin was brou^t, and he stretched it on the drum. When the drum was finished, 
he said, "Mother!" he said again: "G-o and call your people" (i. e. the people 
of all the Tillages around, bdonging to the lion's family). The lion went, and 
he told aU his people, "A drum has been made by my son, now all people 
shall come to-morrow." Then he returned. 

The drum was placed in the sun (to dry). Then a big hole was dug by the 
boy, and he put a tree into it; he put a fire into the (hollow) tree and threw 
the tree into the hole. The tree cau^t fire in the hole. The hole was corered 
by the boy, but the fire was burning in the ground. Then the drum was 
beaten, and all the lions came; and the people said, "Cripple, will you not 
stay at home?" The cripple replied, "Why should I stay at home? My eyes 
are not crippled!" Then they said to the blind one, "Will you not stay at 
home?" He replied, "Are my ears blind?" They asked the deaf one, "Will 
you not stay at home?" He replied, "Though I am deaf^ My eyes are not 
deaf." >> So all people came, there was no one lefl at home. The people came 
for the drum. Then this boy climbed upon a tree, a big tree, uid he beat 
the drum. The people (= the lions) came to dance, and the Bens danced. And 
(while dancing and not heeding the hole) they fell into the hole; they all fell 
into the hole. And this man (viz. the Hon who was the boy's £fttfier, or his 
wife) was left; and he too was fetched and fell into the hole. Then die cripples^* 
were left, and the boy came down firom the tree and pushed them into the hole. 
So all the lions died (were burned in the hole). 

Akwoch .........^........^..^ 20S 

Then llie boy caught the slayes of the lion and his cattle. The catde without 
horns he killed, and the catde which had horns, he took with him. And the 
staves which had tails, he killed, but the slaves, which had no tails, he let go.*' 
When he had finished them all, there was one lion left; that one ran into the 
bush. Then he went away with aU his goods and his cattle, and he went into 
his native village, there he built his home in a place by itself. 

The father (= his father, who at the same time is the father of the children 
whom he addresses) said, "To whom does this man belong? he has so many 
cattle, and so muiy slaves \^ His father did not know him, but he (the stranger) 
knew his father. They remained some time, then it came to pass that a famine 
came, and the father had no more dura with him, but this boy (the stranger) 
stiD had dura. And his brothers (who did not know him) used to come to him, 
and he used to say (to his servants), "GKve these boys dura.** And dura was 
given to them. Then they returned to their father, saying, "We were given 
dura." He asked, "By whom?** They said, "By the man who is over there.'' 
On some other day these boys went again to this man, and they received dura. 
And the man asked, "Is your father still alive?'' They said, "Yes, he is alive." 
Then he said, "Tell him, 'the stranger ("traveller") calls you^" The boys came, 
and told their father; and their father came, he came with a sorrowful face. 
The man (stranger) asked him, " Why is your face so sorrowful?" He said, 
"My eye is so sorrowful because my son has been carried away by a lion." 
The man replied, "If you met your son now, would you know him?" He said, 
"Tes." The man asked, "What is the name of your son?" He answered^ "His 
name is Akwoch." Then he asked, "Would you know Akwoch now?" He 
I, "Yes, I would know him." The man replied, "No, you would not know 
u" Then he said again, "Am I not Akwoch?" And his father seised (em- 
braced) him, and his father wept. And he brought a rasor and shaved his head, 
and he gave him a leopard skin; '^ and he gave him cows. Then his father re- 
turned to his village. And he said, "Come, let us go (= Hve) in one place." But 
he replied, "No, I will stay here. And they remained, the boy in his village, and 
the father in his village, and they used to visit each other. >' 

84. The Girl and the Dog. 

J^ame ^^cK^fd bwgch, ka k^/Ql, e yw6dd gwok; kd i hh kine: yinajtoQkl e 
ko: (5^ tfdn ke naval n fkrogmi gwok. Ka 0(e fiarg^ yijy^Qk^ ka iHars, i d^fntt* Ka 
ikikri kifd fyl, ka gwok ywodi^ gwok b^dd i^b$n. Kd gw6k k ko: kif^ yi miyi, 
gwok e ko, ye ^off, n wSki ydn hh^in f Ka lian (tj^ e b^nii, ko : nidyd I Ka m^i 
yeyQ. Ko : yd ywSta gwok /qI, d^ gwdk i ko ne: k^ji nidyi, kdpi kine : gwok e ko: 

2o6 Adventures between Men and Animals 

dctfi u wikk ydn hnw^f Kd miyi yw^ ha kopa wiyi; ha wiye e ho: hel rnuy 
(muj) gwoh! Ka lian j^ htl muy gtook, 

Ka gwoh e ySt, i budft, Ka ikdn (ef^ wihe. Ka g^ i^^^odq, ha gwoh i ifc^ hi naii 
0f^9 ha g^ h^dQ hi gwoh, ha gg^ h^fiiH] gwoh b^ddjwQk, ha h^ wQt gwoh, ya^ 
gtr bini, ha gwoh e ho: M chdm hi re yan, ha yi fii h^ ggl! Ka gql ye ho : h^ 
yej^! E ho: bin hghh, Ka gw6n ini i h^, ha f&an ^t e don^. Ka il^n gni h^ 
gol gwoh, gql dugn, w^ ff^i wQt jwqh. 

Ka lian fiit rffia mal, ha e p^rQ, ha penk e pytdit. Ka ikdn ini bia woh, h^ i 
rtn^. Ka gwoh e lifo, gwoh e binn i rlii^ ; t&Sn &n r^ha w^ hi nam, WQt ma yffia 
niim, WQt madugn. Kd gwoh e b&iq, ha i &j^ hi ty^ wQt. Ka tyffi wgn pii gpi 
abiry^u, ga yggQ chwqa, ^chg boggn hi h^e gffi. Ggn fi| chama Iqi, ni h^ bi 

Dan ^i a finS wQt, ha jqh sni (gni) e bSng, hi gi hh : am^n a (ol gin cham f 
Ka gi ndnitf ha gs. h^jfl bl ydf hi wgt, ha ^dn ini ywSt, ckwHe g^ m^, e ho: yi 
yig naniei wgn. Ka gi b^dg, ha nan ^i ho: yd cKfti yi gwoh. Ka gi kb: ig^ inf 
Kine: ya pM fa lOQt, ha gi Hfd pM, ha gwoh U^ g^ ha gwoh g^h hi toch. Ka 
gwoh e (qu, ha w^te f^L 

Ka maha wun ga dU ryau, ha lian sni ho : yd dwdtd hi^ bi Rfe ehi gwok. 
Daii ^ ho: bit, yi hi hsi; i/idn ffii ho : yi hnigl Ka gi ha^ ha nin ini i yi^>Q, 
hd nikk ch^gi ki tyile, ha fian ini jg. Ka ikui i ywitn, ha nan ffii hwdii yi gin ki$e 
nam; fian ini hil yi nam, Ka trij^ fdfe gin, ha ywote jo (=zjog) chy^ Ka fian 
ini hQl wgh, ha rif h6pi, ha rif^ 4 hhnit ^dch^ madugn, ha fian ani Iwgh hi pi, ha 
chogg ySt yi ^fi ini, ha hil w^h, ha fian mi dvyofa mal, i chdr^; ha r^ h6ph : (fafi 
a chirl Ka rij^ e b&ig, ha pyech yi ri(, e ho: yi hild hM f Kine ya h^la wgt ma 
ySnii n&m. Ka e ho: yi dwdi yi efn^ i E ho: yd wShi gwbh yi vnya, di gwoh i chit( 
ydn, ya h^fJi w$t hi nam, Ka ran ini hd i yw^: fiir^I Ka mgn e bsng, hd i yw^, 
ha dgh kil, dgh gidi; ha hife wgt Chdfli, d film. 

A woman was without child. She went into the bush and found a dog. She 
said, '^O jwghl give me a ("my^) child ! (If you give me one) it shall many the 
dog.^ And a child was given to her hy jtvgh, and the her child grew up. And 
the child went into the bush; it foimd the dog; — this dog was a white one. 
The dog said, "Go to your mother and tell her, the dog says, 'When will the 
woman be given to me?''* The little girl came saying, '^Mother!*' The mother 
answered. The girl said, "I found the dog in the bush, and he said thus, 'Go 
to your mother uid say to her thus, the dog says: when will the woman be 
given to me?''' Her mother wept; she told the (girl's) father; the father said, 
"Bring her to the dog.'' They found the dog lying. The girl was given to 
him. . 

And they (the dog and the girl) rose up, the dog went with the girl, they 

The Girl and the Dog 207 

went into the ground; — the dog was jwQk; they went into the house of 
the dog; there were many trees there everywhere. And the dog said, ''You 
shall always eat with me; and you shall go into this enclosure.^ The people 
of the enclosure said to the girl, ''Go to the center.^ The dog said to the girl, 
"These are slaves. <^ Then the dog went away, the girl was left. So the girl had 
gone mto the enclosure of the dog, a big enclosmre; this house was the house 
of jwQk. 

One day the girl ran up, she jumped up, and the groimd split. The girl came 
out; she went away running. The dog saw her, he came running; the girl ran 
into a house in the river, this house was (in?) the river; it was a big house. 
And the dog came; he remained at the foot of the house (below the threshold). 
The people of this house were seven ; they were males, there was no woman 
among them. They lived on meat, they used to go hunting. 

The girl hid herself in the house; and the people came (home and found 
their food cooked), they said, "Who has cooked the food?^ They were asto- 
nished. They went searching the house ; the girl was found, they were very 
glad. They said, "You have become our sister.'' So they remained. The girl 
told them, "I am chased by a dog.'' They said, "Where is he?" She said, "He 
is in the ground below the house." They looked into the ground and found 
the dog. They shot him with a gun. The dog died, and they threw him into the 

And seven years passed, then the girl said : "I want to go and see the bones 
of the dog." The boys (L e. the men in whose house she lived) said, "Stay, do 
not go!* The girl said, "I wiU go!" And they (all) went; the girl searched, and 
she was hurt at her foot by a bone; the giri died. The boys wept Then the 
girl was taken by them and put into the river; she was carried away by the 
river and came to her native country. There fishermen found her; they pulled 
her out of the water and told the king (what had happened). The king brought 
an old woman^ she washed the girl with water; and the bone was found (in the 
body of the dead girl) by the woman. She pulled it (the bone) out, and then 
the giri rose up, she sneezed (became alive again). The king was told, "The 
girl has sneezed." The king came, he asked the girl, "Where do you come 
from?" The girl said, "I come from the house which is in the river." The king 
asked, "What brought you there?" She answered, "I was given away to a dog 
by my father; but the dog chased me, so I went into the house in the river." 
And the king wept. She was his daughter! Her mother too came, and she 
wept Then cows were brought, they were sacrificed. They went home. — 
That is all, it is finished. 

2o8 Adventures between Men and Anima ls 

85. Anyimo and the Lion. 

JVan liifif AHimQ, e d^cK H 6m^ Akvoqt^ H wiyi; maye gpi boggn. JDft (4q!^) 
ffin fftr, dyige gff% gtr, Kd nii e UnQ, kdnh e yigi ^j^ ka nu i|fi^ ha bia yi ikal 
£ni, ha ryich^ ha h^ voQi. Ka AMmQ, kbfi (mkl^ hine: 0f( kifik luQgQ ehinil Ka 
lian ffii life yi nu^ hd nii chtiM midtt. Ka nu naehQ hine: yi hf^I Ka 0^ h( byiU 
ha tial pit ho: AiMmq, IwQk mit^t Kine: u unik lea chhie, ha yi d^h! Ka g§, h^^. 
Ka omia AiktmQ e dong, li twar hi wer. Ka ikal ffu (nu) hsj^Q, g^ chaf^ hi AjUmg- 
Ka lial s,ni ho: AfkiniQ, a hffk ang snf Kine: hffk M hwai hi rgcA. Ka g^ h^^ gfi 
chafi2- Ka fim maduQn ySt, ha nu ho: a hffi onQsnf Kine: hffk lij hwai hi ^h 
Ka gSi hs^ g^ cAoj^ hs^ h^ii malaulau, hine: a hffi ang ff% t AtUmg ho: hffi pu 
kdchi ydn, Kine: byfil gna fang afyai yanf 

Ka g& voiSi (^^U) ^^ ^129 ^Q mdbir; ha uu rgng, e rgna hgle Ulm^ ha AMmq 
ho ne: tung >* hwai ^^ butihifM, ya ytjfiL w^I Ka tugg butit, ha h^fl wiy tugg. 
Ka e ho: tun hwai ^aj^ hine: 4^t^ ^^ ^^ ^2 4*^^^ ''^^ -^^^ ^^ f>if^ e ring, 
ha Aiiimg yttk yiifit e t$h, Ka nu nUnit^ ha e ho: Afiimg e h^ hffkf Ka ygmg 
nwdehi in; ha U^ mdl, hd git A(^ mal; e ho: p6el yifa fgu Unt e ho: yi nigii 
nig^I lian gni ho: <2g £r^ (dh^) f Kd nu g^dit hifiA; ha tugg ha iki bin{ a kama 
fi4^* Ka AMmg ho hine: tun hwai ^aj^ yi hufit! Dgh h^ji! Ka tugg lii dggi 
hgj^ ha nu M g^dh hit^ 

Ka ^h Hfi yi i/kan gni, ha e ho: lUwi hi lUnUa^ yana AMmg, a ehimi yi nii 
in. Ka yah pa i Sii^^ a h^ pack. Kd gi hb: lUm ni^ i chwiitjt, kine: yana 
ehdmi nit tn. Ka g^ho: itf wfi chdgi tik^. Ka ikaik dgng w^r, ha gs. b^ng, g^ kwai 
hi 4J^h, ha g§, Hfje yi fian pu; kine: liewi ki lUmiAs yana ehdm yi nit in! Ka g^ 
bia pack, ha Akwgt hSfe hine: han mihg e kobi hine: yana AMmg, d ehdm yi nu 
ffh d^ per hi AMmg. Ka leti tin^ ha tprg bpig. AMmg kama j^ yi W^. Ka IM 
ttfj^ in, kd i ko: iHv>d ki liimia, yana ehdm yi nu pn! Ka (pg h^ng gi rtn^; ka 
ySt nii 4 yd, fM, i g^dit; leik fa nl^ni ins ka kU, ka nu ring wgk; ka lij kiU ka wu 
piifi4^f kd h f^. Ka fian pit ko: tun kwai ^aj^ buti, ya bia wgk! Ka i bitjt, ka 
bia wgk. Ka wiys, i kdni ^k, ^k dnwin, mgk chw$p ki fa tugg; kd chdk kil ki 
gin cham kipi, ka ^k chw$p ki fa tugg. Ka Ahimg tfitfi yipif ka e i mi^; ka 
ffijje yi mggg, kd i chdmgm Wpi chuiit f^^ ki dmin* Ka kilpaeh; ka ihognt ka 
^k kSl pyar^nu)in, wiy§, chuiig^ mplg. 

There was a girl, her name was Askimg; she was pretty; she Hyed with her 
brother Akwgt, and her father; her mother was no longer alive. They had 
many cows and many sheep. The Hon heard of her, and the lion tamed himself 
into a man ; he came to this boy (Aku>gt). He was receiyed as their guest When 
he came into the house, AMmg was asked by her brother, "G-ive me water 
to wash his hands. ** So the Uon saw the girl; she pleased him very much. After 

Any imp 209 

some time he took leave, saying, "I am going.'' They gave him dura, and the 
boy told his sister, "Accompany my firiend a litde way, when you have come 
to that place there, then return.*' So they went The brother of Ahimo re- 
mained at home, he was sweeping the cow-dung. The boy (vis. the /urn) went 
away with Ahimq,. While they were walking, the lion asked, "^litm^ what 
place is this?*' She answered, "It is a place for herding the calves of the people 
ot Akmqt.^ They went on and came into a great forest. Agun the Hon asked, 
"What place is this?*' She answered, "A place for herding cattle." They went 
on walking and came to a very distant place. The lion asked, "What place is 
diis?'^ She said, "I do not know this place; dear me, why are you always ask- 
ing me?** Hiey came to a deleib-palm, a very tall one. The lion ran away, he 
ran into the grass. Then AiMmq, said, "Thou palm of the grandfather of men, 
lie down, that I may climb upon thu." The palm lay down, she climbed on it, 
and then said, "Pahn of the grandfather of men, rise up!" The deleib-palm 
rose up. When the Bon came running, he found that Ahimo, was no more there. 
He was perplexed and said, "Were has AhimOi gone ?" But her smell came 
into his nose, he looked up and saw her up in the tree. He said, "P6e! you 
will surely die in a moment!" Again he said, "I will kill you at once!" The 
girl asked, "Well, how?" The lion scratched the ground (round the deleib-palm), 
and the pahn was beginning to £ftll down. Then the girl cried, "Pahn of the 
grandfi^er of men, do not fall! return to thy place!" And the pahn returned 
to its place. The Hon began scratching again. 

And the girl saw cows, and she cried, "My brother and my father, I am 
AitimQ, the lion is going to eat me !" The men heard it, they went home saying, 
"There is a girl ciying, 'A lion is going to eat me.^" But the people said, 
"Nonsense, you are telling stories." Then the old men were sent for, they came 
herding their cattle (they drove their cattle near the place where the cry 
sounded) ; they were seen by the ^1, and she cried again, "My fiftther and my 
brother, I am going to be eaten by the lion!" They went home and told Ak^ 
wqty "There is a ^1 ciying, 'I am AMmq, the lion is going to eat me.^ Her 
voice was like that of AMmQ.'' So an armed body was gathered, and they 
went AMmfi was almost dying with thirst When she saw the people, she 
cried, "My father and my brother, the Hon is going to eat me!" The people 
came running; they found the lion scratching the ground; he did not see the 
people; he was stabbed; he ran away, but he was stabbed again, fell down and 
died. The girl said, "Palm of the grandfather of men, lie down, that I may get 
out" The tree lay down, and she came out And her father brought four cows, 
they aU were to be speared under the deleib-palm (as a sacrifice). And milk, 
food and water were brought, and the cows were speared under the deleib- 

WBSTBlUUBIf, The SkiUiik People. 14 

2IO Adventures between Men and Animals 

palm. Thej gave AtOmQ water to drink, they gave her milk too to diink; then 
they gave her food to eat Her &ther and brother were very glad. She was 
brought home. She was married for forty cows, > ' so her father was much pleased. 

86. An Adventure in the Forest. 

E jal fft ye k^ii yey ftnif bi gwffn H Huf ka a^p aryau kd gi j7dn^» ka Iw^ 
ka ffQ pin. Ka lygch e bioQ, ka ^wofi yey ^p, kd g^ kinM ehwdk^ ka ^o^ ri^ 
&n ahfilo, ka gQ kQiii ehwak^ ; ka tkwQle liii aryau ka gg^ dgng H fa IwqIs ka Ito^ 
diDi^g^/M, ka fkwQl fiin ffti i ywitnjt H yey hoqly kine: k^r, kir^ k^r^ kir. Kajal i 
U^9 ka lysch Ufi in^ka e biiitgib ka e rffio, ka lit para kwQm yaf^ ka lij fy^ yi 
kwSf; kiichi iti^ d bwhk ki m^ duQn^ ka lii kSU kgle ktoof^ ka Idn^ iHify^ yi kwdt. 

Ka ufa^ paeh maduQnf ka ^acho^ rnddtt^fif mdyU, kd gh y^di (yw6di); ka e ko: 
wdn$, fifi ya fit Kine : yi bia kffi t Kine: I, yd ki fyscK ](^{t yan kifi mS^til Ka 
fpfefi mitd. Ka Uffiyi gwoky gwok m&i^idi; ka e ko: tnal Kine: wat 6|n d i/iwqU 
Ka gwok U^i yi^ ka gwok 6 ndrlt; ka e ko: buht Kine: fUrdf Kine: y giehi 
ydn, yik yin fa kdehi ydnl Ka (faj^ dugn e ko: biht wtUli, yi bia kfftf Kine: fa^t, 
mlig yichy^^^ lyieh, ly^hfnadugn;fiikipfr ki mdni ilgik, Ka ^achQ ko: bdi! yi 
bia kffi a b^cU yi per ki wuo! Ka e ko: wuq^ nlAjh ydn; fa^ ki gna^ (Uens, da y^t 
Ka e ko: i, k^f! 

Ka e k^. Ka g^ r^itm^t par; ka par e rinj^, ka e r^, ka fed yi kuojo^ chwi^ 
^ Sna nam; ka i kwhnitt ki yey kubj^, Ka {SVQ bgno^ ka mdk; ka k^l pcteh, ka 

fy&^t ^fi^ *i y^ ^i^h^ kd i jg. 

A certain man went into a forest to gather Nabag-firuits. He filled two bags 
and one gourd. (While he was gathering the firuit) an elephant came, he lifted 
up one bag and put it into his mouth, then he lifted up the other bag and put 
it also into his mouth; at last the contents of the gourd as well. But two seeds 
were left in the gourd; they kept rattling, k(tr kgr kgr kgr. When the man 
heard this, he looked up and saw the elephant He was frightened and ran away, 
he jumped upon a tree. The thorns of the tree pricked him, but he did not heed 
it on account of his great fear. He got right into the thorns, his doth was torn 
by the thorns. Suddenly he came near a great house. There he met a big old 
woman; he addressed her, ''My mother, giro me water !^ She asked, ''Where 
do you come from?** He replied, ''No, do not ask me, give me water first!'' 
So she gave him water first. Then he was seen by a dog, a dog with young 
ones. (He saw the young dogs, but not the old one, the mother). He asked the 
woman, "Are they all your chQdren?'' Then he saw the old dog, he was growling. 
He exclaimed, "Oh dear! shall I run away?** The dog replied, "If you beat 
me, I shall bite you.'' After that the big woman asked, "Why, my son, where 

Boy and Hyena 2 1 1 

do yoo come from?" He answered, "Be silent, I am chased by an elephant, a 
big elephant This pot is quite as large as his testicles.'' ^^ The woman replied, 
"Well, you do come just from the same place where my father has come from." 
The man said, "I know your &ther; is he not the one who has a neck on his 
necklace?" >* The woman said, "Now, go on!" 

He went away uid met with a hippopotamus. The hippo was running (to« 
wards him), so he too ran, he came to a place with white sand, thinking it was 
a riyer. He tried to swim in the sand. Then people came, they seized him and 
brou^t him home. But in the night his heart beat so violently (from excite-^ 
ment), that he died. 

87. The Boy and the Hyena. 

NqI mskq gg^ ki 6toin gi v^lit; ita idqu i yt^» Ka ikdl dhfil^ e ko: huh! e ko: 
mack If yZA h^i/i f Ka dw^n € ko: hijAI Ka lial sni ko: yafa yifi (ydfi) mSeht 
Kin^: u yinitf gi^ ^dl iJcyil^, Kine: yifa don ki butejamt Kine: bihl ^ ckimi 
ydn yi ipjoifit Kine: i, yifa chdm yi opffQ^. Kine: yi bidlt. Ka lial sni ko: d^ yi 
re fa kg^ bi yaf ki macht Kd i kb: ^ chimb yin yi ofwQfi. Ka ktogf gni tJbil. Ka 
eko: d^wd butil E ko: it u chimi ydn yi dpjOQj^; ka fiaZ fffii ko: gr^, buti kifM; 
ya buta ki kw^nd. Ka e ko: d^ if iiyi fii^ yi if^Qlh ^ V^ chdmk ^! Ka e ko: gr^, 
bif buti mdl 1^ kwjtmd, if kwdfi ydn yi 6fwQf^ ka yi toA yi in. Ka ilkal ffti ko: dt 
yi gwik ^? Yi kitd^. Kine: d^ yi fd ki^ mdlf Kine: wiy ydft Kine: i^wi. Ka 
y^ mal. Ka lial §ni d ^k, kd hbfidi ki fefi. 

Ka 6pvin e binQ bine bpie bine; ka ofwQ;^ e elU^ ki fa yaf. rfdl d ^k e n^nfty 
ka ni nwdch yi opcQjf, i n^n^, Ndl d mdl nina fiA chif, d§i boJcQ, bqk^; kd i dimj^ 
mdl yi v^r^, dimi kwQm d^wof^ ka 6fwQ^ mdkk in kiylf^, kd i kb: bdil yd k6 
kdp kine: yu (yiu) mdki ydn I Ka dtwQj^ i ywhnh; ka opvQ^ Hi kuo^ ka fi| dyaba- 
Ka opffQ^ e rffid l^ni^ ka k^ k§ch malaulau^ ka QJ^Q^i ^ & ki yey wQrQ; lial gni 
h^dd ki kwjtfni, ka hi ko : biif yd kd kdp kine: yiu mdki ydn! ^ kbbi i^ti. 

Dvtki mwQl ka owpi ^ofa mal, ka ttdd mdl, fial ^ni tgkl Ka e ywQnQ, ki^ie: 
hod chdm yi opjodj^ I Ka e dub^ kd i ehdf^ yg o^^wqj^, ofwQfi chgt^ gtr, ka e k^ 
kffk malaulau, ka lial ^i ydt^ in, ^ kdH h^. D^ b^dQ kwQm ofwofi, d^ mifi yi$e 
ofwiifi, opffQj^ 0, ki yey wgrit, Ka dvfin i kb kine: ^wSfl Kine: i wH ydn! Yd ko 
kdp, ya ko: yi u mdgdl Kine: tou kSbi ki amint gik owffi. KwQp 6w^ fa l{ni 
in, ka mdki yi 6win ki chy^n^; chygns^ {^k ki ret yif ofwQj^ ka yife of^Q^ ii^l ki yi 
dtoin. Ka tin mdl. Ka e 4^o^ ka g^ bsfiQ ki ow^a, kine: lial, w^ yif Qt^Qn! 
Kwof oiDffifa lini in; ka Hi ko: b6i, ya ko kobi: yi u mdgd. Ka g^ waj^pach, 
ka tffTQ bin^ l^ni, ka tirQ 9^ bini, ka IwiU g$t ki ret yif opvQji; ka yif ofwofi 


212 Adventures between Men and Animals 

A boy went traTeUing with his tmole. When the sun went down, itte one 
said, ''Why, where shall we find fire (for the nij^t)?'' The nephew said, "I do 
not know.«« The first said, "Shall I not go to look for fire?"" "What shall I do 
in the meantime?*' was the reply of the other one. His nnde said, "Ton stay 
here with our goods.^ "No,*" sud the nephew, "I would be eaten by the hyena. ** 
He replied, "No, you will not^be eaten by the hyena.** But he said, "I refiise 
to stay here.** Then his uncle asked, "Why will y<m not go to fetch fire?** But 
be replied again, "No, I would be eaten by the hyena.** So they left this matter. 
His undo asked, "Shall we not lie down now?** He replied, "No, I would be 
eaten by the hyena.** His uncle said, "Well, you lie down below, and I will lie 
upon you.** He replied, "But suppose you are rolled down in the night firom 
upon me by the hyena? Then I shall be eaten by her.** His uncle said, "Well, 
then you lie upon me, so I shall be taken by the hyena, and you will be spared 
by her.** The boy said, "Ah! what are you going to do?** Then he was silent 
Again his undo asked, "Will you not go up?** He said, "On a tree ?** The uncle 
replied, "Yes, on a tree.** So he climbed on a tree, and the brave boy (die 
undo) lay down on the ground. 

In the nij^t came aU the hyenas; they walked bdow that tree. The brave 
boy slept. A hyena came and sniffled at him^ but he was asleep (and so she 
left him undisturbed). But the boy on the tree was awake, he was looking 
down staringly, he was awfully afindd, and at once he fell down, uid fell on the 
back of the hyena. He caught the hyena by her ears and said, "Ha! did I not 
say I would catch you?** The hyena cried, and she dunged, she dunged very 
much. She ran away with the boy to a very distant place. There the hyena 
died during that night'^ The boy was still on her back, and he still continued 
saying, "Did I not say I would catch you?** He said these words continually. 

The next morning his uncle arose. He looked up, tiie boy was not there! 
He began to cry, saying, "My nephew has been eaten by the hyena.** He arose 
and followed the way of the hyena. The dung of the hyena was on tiie whole 
way. He went to a very distant place. There he found the boy, he was still 
talking (the same words). He was still on the back of the hyena, holding fiut 
her ears. But the hyena had died in the night. His undo said, "Rise up !** But 
he said, "No. leave me alone! I did say, 'I would catch you (the hyena).'** He 
asked, "To whom did you say so?** He did not listen to the words of his undo. 
Then his uncle caught his hands; the hands were tight around the ears of tiie 
hyena, so tiiat tiie uncle had to cut off the ears of tiie hyena. Then he lifted 
him up, he arose, and tiiey came. The unde said, "Boy, throw away the ears 
of the hyena!"* But he did not listen to his unde's talk, he only kept repeating, 
"Well, I did say I would catch you.** When tiiey came near tiieir home, all 


Nyajak 213 

the people came ; they all laughed. They loosened hiB fingers from about the 
ears of the hyena and threw the ears away. 

88. Nyajak. 

Day ^ mgifcg y^§i da doj^, ha e i^qIq, ha bul g^h hi paeh mdlivfi, d^ ttn ywotQ 
bull fan ff%ifafan nu. Ka ^off, a chgt liwQl; tira ho: i, yi re kobil yi (ej^! E ho: 
if y^ H$t* ^Dof^ ffii bfda jwqL Ka e h§^ hi tffrQ. Ka hoj^ i mithitf ha g^ nfffm gil 
ni$, l^u b^da ^of^; ha hi war awQ!ne i n^^ ^2» a ch§t liwQl e nffiq, tMi in, sna 
nu. Ka nu ekama y^fa wQt, ha fUin ^i ho: yin amin df Ka nu ho: Nhjiikl Ka 
fxj^ fBji ho: il e ho: yi nfi/t nffi(^t Kine: ya nfiti ngnQ. Kine: yi da h^hf Kine: 
dtwil Ki^ie: yi fa nShi hi otiwqhf^^ Kine: hwi! Ka otiwqh nihi yi nu, ha ^l yi 
nu, ha weke Najah, ha hwdiA yi Najah. Ka nu ho : Nhjithl Kine: il Kine: ha yi 
ehdm you! Ka eho: awi! Ka yi nffi yau! Kine: awil Ka nu h§^ ha hdld l^dit, 
ha e dungo, chama y^pa wf^. Ka Najah ho: yin amin dt Ka e ho: NdjAh, yi 
nftH ninot Kine: ni! Kine: yi da hgchf Kine: awi! Ka e ho: yifa neke tra|f 
Ka e ho: awi. Ka vmI nih, ha (ale in, ha wehi Ncqah; ha nu ho: ehdm yh! Kine: 
awi J Ka yi ngni ya I Kine : awi ! Ka nu do go, ha e duQgo, ytfa w^t, ha rfajah 
ho: yin amin df Kine: Najah, yi nfiti ninQ? Kine: aw^I E ho: yi dwata fig? 
Rei da hsehf Kine: owqI J^u ho: nehe yin he dy^f Najah ho: i, yahn nihi dy^l; 
ya da ro^. Kine: d^ hdn hi dn^ f Kine: i, hdni hi dgnq, Ka rgna ggt hi dgfiQ, ha 
fii hepe hi pi, ha pi lii rara pM, ha ehwS lii dgna yejc hi liwQJL reck; ha gs, lit 
m4ti yi nu, ha lii ehiha igmq, ha pi fi| rara peti. Ka M fiha feti &i mfit hi chwS^ 
hi liufQl reeh. 

Ka Najah wo gin tihi in, ha g^ 4^ofi mal, hine: initlrfajak ho: nufa hama 
vfd eh^mf Ka e ho: ehamun hi rinQ anant J^u ndje Najah fa ehif bffiQ. Ka wo 
gpi hifi in hine: rffnuni Ka wQman e rinji, rgna fofe gin. Ka Najah e d^nQ. Ka 
nu hors. e bu^^^ ha e h^nq, hd i ehw^th hjgM: Najahl E hudq. Kine: Najahl e 
kudQ. Ka nu ho: adif Najah a njjni. Ka bia WQtf ha e ho: Najahl E hudq* Ka 
maeh hof^ ha wQmon yite in gt i^h. E ho: bih! Natyau Najah! Wgte ggn a l^li 
in! Ka Najah ho: d, fafe yan pit KafarQ kwgm Najah, ha Najah e u^g- Kine: 
liatyau Najah, e h^ hffi? Ka Najah ho: fafe yan ^f Ka nu ikifara hwQm^ ha 
fa mdhi in, Najah fij waiiQ. Ka nu horg, bu^. Ka JSajah e hs^ e huchi yi nu. 
Ka wfune voifa paeh, ha nu ^i binq, ha yigi yafi madoch, madugn, gn olam : 
ehuAe gsn m^iq hi ^. Ka Najah hq: wu hu M h^i^ yo^, ycif^ gnifa nul Kine: 
i, Najah e chahafygf. Najah ho: 6, ya rum hi hwqp.^^ Ka HwQle wofofiQ M h^ 
wiy yai, hanu e farQ hi wofaj^Q. Najah ho: d, hwofa a Un^ wtin chi, ha je wifje gt 
mUm, ha e h^^. Najah h^ yi nu, ha yige ^f^ madugn yu yu yu. Dt e hwQmg hi 
hffng; ha nu ho: sna note nga yg in? E ho: nan hwacheji! Ka (5fe hifi; ha e 

214 Adventures between Men and Animals 

ma^ ka e dujtffbf ^d i dtffhs ka e Iqgi yeJQ. Ka nu k^ got Hi dwaiQ, (du>^)ji 
msn (ale liati sni. Ka kdl yi Najak, ka g§, r^tig, ka gs^ wa^ fach. 

Ka nu btf^ ka e ko: buhl ikaai ^ gt ksjfl g^ kffi f Ko: fafe ikUgau ISajak a 
kel ggn f Ka e bin nu bia pack Najak^ ka e yigi ikan madQcJi, bi wQJQ ki omia 
Najak. Ka nu ko: omia Najak dgitnf Kine: chw^ll Ka omia Najak chwQl, ka g^ 
^SJQ' Ka Najak e 6^n^ e ko: bihl e ko: omto, gi re retch kinat^t Kiehh y\n gna 
nuf Ka ilial ^i ko: kit, V^ '^^^ kifysL Ka Najak ko: mQgi^ ya rum ke kwof. 
Ka Najak e kudq. Ka tial ffii i n^^^ ka v>an gil yi nu. 

Chofi, ka nu k^ far^ ka ^ki om^n ywode in, i ywi^. Najak ko : yi ref Ko: 
wan a gSL Ka Najak ko: yd chd de kobq kine: m^n gni (ani) fan^ nu; de anan 
yi kobi adi f E kudq. Ka Najak e ik^, ka yigi ^j^ duQn^ ka e b^n, i ehd^ k^ 
fay nu; ka toiia (wufa) faeh^ ka e ko: wel a ^ ki^l in! Kine: kiUjwQk! Ka e 
bSfiQ, ka e ko: bih: oi/iimia^ yi nUiti bSjiQ kffkl Ka nu ko: yin amgn f Ka e ko: ya 
fafe MmiaUf a kiU ygmq kdke dugnf Ka e ko: i, ^j^ chaka wHq, ka nu ytognq, 
chufii m^djQ. Ka g^ wQJQ^ gg, H Najak; kdehi nu; e ko, chqgQ n^ fiim^ Ka Najak 
Hda maly ka voan om^n tt^ in ki maly ka Najak e ko: liemiat Kine: 4? Kine: anq 
a yom f'iJL ki wf^t f Nu ko kine:. faJ^fi voan omia rfcgaki Najak e ko: d ySti £ ya 
kffi f E ko: ku dwai hn^ka ria yiga lian a ^adiQ. Ka nu ko: a gola wan^. Najak 
e ko: ina kit in^ ka d^ gr^afa ki^ ufQkf Ka kife wqk; nu ko: d^ ku gto&ri agakf 
Kine: i, fa guAr, u kdr yi wd. Ka Nikan efichq ko: d^ kwgn u fjAli dgi^n t Nu 
kine: a wSl inl Kine: d, dgch. 

Ka nu ko: Mfnia, ya kfja gqt bl dw^pu Ka Najak e ko: ki^I Ka nu e ko: 
ki kgf, kor u>an omia Najak, Hfa g gwdri itgikl wei i fid wd ki gin eham. Ka 
Najak e dgno, ki t^qt, ka nu k^ ggt, ka Najak toon om^ kwdtii in; ka rei gi 
agak, ka e fj^rq^ ka dogq fo^ gin. Ka omgn yiti in, ka tban omff% kjfe, ha omgn 
e dgfiq. 

Ka nu blni hi gat, ka wane yode gq iSk, ka ^2» ffii ySt ^ t^k. Ka nu ywQnq, 
kine: bih! yena i/iatyau Najakl E ko: ^ajak, kora bufi kiys,; yafa dgk k^! 
Chd^ ka rfajak wei yi nu. Ka Najak e dqn gt ki 6m^ Nu e chogq, fa ehiki 

A woman was with child, and she bore a child (which was named Nyigak). 
One day the dram was beaten in a village £ar away. The people went to dance 
to the drum, this Tillage (where the drum was being beaten) was the village 
of a lion. And the child which had just been bom (too wanted to go to dance). 
The people asked her (the child, a girl), "How, why are you saying, you also 
Want to go? You are still so small!'' She said, "Never mind, I will go.'' This 
child was Ajufqk. It went with the people. When they arrived there, it began 
to rain, so they went into ("slept .in") the house of the lion. This lion was a 
mtti.3< During the night the other girls (who had come with Nyajak) slept, but 

Nyaja'k 215 

the child which had just been bom, was awake; she knew that the man was a 
lion. The lion wanted to open the hut (where the girls slept), bat this child 
(Njajak) asked (from within), ''Who is there?'' The lion replied, "Njajak!'' 
The child answered, ''Eh?'' The lion went on, "Are you still awake?*" Njajak 
said, "I am not yet asleep." The lion qnestioned, "Are you hungry?'' "Yes, I 
am.*" The lion went on, "Would you not like to have a ram killed?'' Nyajak 
answered, "Yes I would." So the lion killed a ram; he cooked it and gave it 
Nyajak; Nyajak took it. Then the lion said, "Nyajak!" She replied, "£h?" "Do 
eat!" enjoined the lion. She answered, "All right!" The h*on added, "And then 
sleep!" Nyajak replied, "All right!" The lion went away and waited some time. 
Then he returned, trying to open the house. But Nyajak again asked, "Who 
are you?" The lion replied, "Nyajak, are you still awake?" Nyajak said, "Yes, 
I am." The lion asked, "Are you hungiy?" Nyajak replied, "Yes, I am." 
"Would you not like to have an ox killed?" asked the lion. Nyajak said, "Yes, 
I would." So an ox was killed and was cooked by him and given to Nyajak. 
The lion said, "Do but eat!" Nyajak replied. "All right!" The lion turned 
away. After some time he came back and tried to open the hut. Nyajak asked, 
"Who are you?" The lion said, "Nyajak, are you still awake?" Nyajak said, 
"Yes, lam." The lion inquired, "What do you want? Are you hungry?" Nyajak 
replied, "Yes, I am." The lion said, "Have a goat killed !" Nyajak replied, "No, 
I won't have a goat killed, I am thirsty." The lion asked, "In what shall I bring 
water?" Nyajak said, "Why, bring it in a basket!" The lion ran to the river- 
bank with a basket, he dipped it into the water, but the water streamed down 
on the ground, only leeches and smaU fish remained in the basket. He thrust 
diem out and dipped the basket again, but the water flowed out on the ground, 
and the lion sat down a second time to pick out the leeches and the small 

In tiie meantime Nyajak awakened the other girk, and tiiey arose asking, 
"What is the matter?" Nyajak said, "Is not the lion going to eat us?" Then she 
said to them, "Eat this meat (the sheep and ox which tiie lion had killed for 
Nyigak) !" Nyajak knew the lion would not come back quickly. When they 
had eaten, Nyajak said to the girk, "Run away !" They ran away home to their 
country. Nyajak alone remained. At last the Uon was tired (of dipping water 
with a basket), and he came calling, "Nyajak, are you asleep?" He came into 
the hut saying, "Nyajak !" She remained silent The lion lifted a fire, and he 
found that the girk had gone. He said, "This cursed Nyajak has led her 
comrades away." Nyajak replied, "Why, am I not here?" The lion sprang at 
Nyajak, but she disappeared. The lion cried, "Thk cursed Nyajak, where has 
she gone?" Nyajak replied, "Am I not here?" The lion sprang again at her. 

2i6 Adventures between Men and Animals 

but did not catch her, Njajak had disappeared. At last the lion was tired, and 
Njajak went away; but the lion did not know it 

The giris arrived home. And the lion came to them; he had turned him- 
self into a beautiful big tree, an olam (a sjcomore fig) ; the giris liked him very 
much.'' But Njajak said, '*Do not go under that tree! This tree is a lion!^ 
They replied, ''Why, Njajak begins to liel^" Nyajak said, "All right, I shall 
say no more.^ The giris dimbed on the tree; suddenly die lion seiied tfaem 
and fled away widi them. Then Nyajak said, ''Well, what did I say just 
now ("my talk has been heard by you exactly'')?'' The people were much 
perplexed; diey went away. But Nyajak went to the lion, she turned into a 
very, very old man, she went limping on a crutch. When the lion saw her, he 
said, "What kind of man is this old person?" Nyajak repUed, ''A man begging 
for water." And he gave her water; then she went back. But presently she came 
back again, she had turned into a rat The lion had just gone to die rirer-side 
to fetch water in order to cook die girls whom he had caught Nyajak drove 
the children away and brought them home. 

When the lion came back, he asked, "Why, where have the litde children 
gone? Is it not this cursed Nyigak who has taken diem away?" And die lion 
came into die village of Nyajak, he had turned into a very fine girl, he came 
to converse widi the brother of Nyajak. The lion asked, "Where is the brother 
of Nyajak? Call him!" The brodier of Nyajak was called, and they conversed 
together. But when Nyajak came, she exclaimed, ''Oh dear, brother, how can 
you do such a wicked thing? Do you not know diis is a Uon?" The boy said, 
"Oo away, you are a great liar ("you are bad widi lying")." Nyajak replied, 
"It is your own aflGtuir, I shall say no more." And Nyajak remained silent But 
while the boy slept, his eye was taken out by die lion. 

That is all, and the lion went home to his village. But die next morning 
Nyajak found her brother weeping. She asked, "Why?" The boy answered, 
"My eye has been taken out!" Nyajak said, "Did I not tell you this man is a 
lion? what do you say now?" He was silent Nyigak went away, she turned 
herself into an old woman, she went walking. When she arrived at the home 
of the lion, she cried, "Here is a traveller at the gate!" The lion replied* 
"Welcome I" She came in and exclaimed, "Oh, my brodier, are you still here?" 
The lion replied, "Who are you?" Nyajak said, "Am I not your sister idio 
had been carried away by the wind a long time ago?" The lion said, "Ah, my! 
I had almost forgotten!" The lion wept, he was very j^ad. And they talked 
together. The lion did not know diat it was Nyajak, he believed her to be his 
sister. And Nyajak looked up and saw the eye of her brother. She said, "My 
brother!" The lion replied, "Eh?" She asked, "What is it makes such a bad 

smell in die house ?^ The Hon answered, "It is the eye of the brother of Nja- 
jak.^ Njajak asked. "Where did jou find diat?^ He answered, "I brought it, 
I had turned myself into a girl, and so I took out his eye.*' Nyajak said, "As 
you have brought it, will you not take it down (and show it to me)?^ The lion 
took it down, saying "But mind, lest it be taken by the crow!^ Nyajak said, 
"No, it will not be taken, we shall watch if Then Nyajak asked, "But where 
is flour for cooking?^ The Eon answered, "It is just being pounded.'' Nyajak 
said, "Ah, that is good.'' 

After some time the Uon said, "Sister, I am going to the river-side to fetch 
water. ** Nyajak said, "Qo!*' The lion said, "Take heed, watch the eye of die 
brother of Nyajak, lest it be taken by the crow; we will cook it together with 
our meal.'' So Nyajak was left in the house, while the lion went to the river. 
But in the meantime Nyajak took the eye of her brodier and then turned her- 
self into a crow; she flew up and returned into her native country. She found 
her brother, put his eye into its place, and so her brother was cured. 

When the Uon came back from the river, he found that the eye had gone, 
and he saw that the woman was also gone. He began crying, "Alas, you cursed 
Nyajak !" Then he said, "My heart is tired with this Nyajak, I shall never 
return to her." That is all. And Nyajak was left alone by the lion, she lived 
with her brother. The lion remained in his place, he never returned anymore. 

89. Ajang. 

Daeho, fnHcQ, wddi chwjtld Ajan. Bach H dr^tk^ rok glr, d^ Qr^ iin chuAe g^n 
raeh H ffi;/a M/urQ hy^l lij chdkd hwdl. Mayt y^tff^» eho: lial ffii gw$ki ydn 
kyii f Ka e k^^ i chA0 H ^ol gni, i ki^ ki ffltn, k^ kundd gat Kffi gni Idwii 
chhrit kipaeht ka gt bldd ki t^ne n&m. Ka miy^ yw^nit, e ko: biht Ya hoba kifiU 
ki w^dif A fidd yeja! ffr^ bune lian, min &i gfi wiki int 

Ka jal frtiku e hinit, kd i kb: ^^, yi ri yw^ t Kine: yefa f^t yi wdddf toada 
lii kwalajdmd tirit; d^ yan ya kil in, u dSiian gQ toiki in. Kajal ffii ko: u wiki 
ydn, U/it^ ydnl Ka ^dch^t kitdit. Eko: yi ki I4tki, ufij^ ydn, u lit 0^4 kijdmi, 
ufwi/hiydn ki gto^k. E ko: kpi /qt dwai, e ko: lii bi, ka yi chwQti kine: wiy nam! 
E ko: ya n bi to^k. E ko: vjdm,jdmi to^di, g§, M, wSkh yin. Ka e ko: d^ch ydut 
Kajal ffti kifd n&m, gi Iwitth H lia ikil ini, ka k^ nam. Ka gs. r^fi^* 

Chofl^ ka 4^f^ ffti k^ pack; ka iHafar dwai, ka ^of^ &ii e b^no, kd i chwittit: 
wiy nam! Kajal &^i yei, ka e bgnq, g^kii/ia lial ^; lidl ini chwi ehdfit; mays, 
Mikjl m^. Ka gs, mafa H may^ ka mays, k^ pack; kajal ini digd ni^m. 

Ds 4^1$' a ^acIiQ ehwis, m^ig, H lia lial fgj^ Ka lial (efi i ^tnit^ fnays lii 0f4 ki 
jdm ki chin, ka lial gni e didg ki dock ki gwQkjal gni; gwQhjal ffii btn^ a kwdiii 

2i8 Adventures between Men and Animals 

Ka rial eni ^pi yi hd g^l jdl in{, u g^ hiph gin, Ka g^ hip^ H lial ffu. Ka 
^^ ffti e ko: wd fa firl E ko: is tod fa f^r I Kine : d^ anan, yi ^ (yu) gik idlf 
Kine: ^ kdchi ydnt Ka fia/ ffti voijt milmit ki yi yos mffi kiti w^k. 

Jal ffti ksi bl u^Ut. D^ dgk gtr ki y^ wate ban g%r ki y^ dy^ g%r ki y^ jam 
bin ki y^. Ka e ko: d^ ya k^jUi kidlf Daf^ ffti ko: kwofi to^jil iniy ka yi k^ yi 
U yite ki yQ. E ko: u bini^ yl kd n^ u t^tois ka yi bl wd bid^. Ka ikalffti e kf^ 
ka mays ytood^ ka fyech yi mays, kine: yi re bin t Kine: yi M, chtuia rack Hjol 
fnt yd rtm ki gwfik. Kd i gtdlt ki firi, ka tgrQ ii| bia yf , ka tgro bia (bi^) bl neau 
Hfi kiys9 figi ^ yln y^ e mid^. Ka tlrq, tbdit kine Ajan ya f^l kun a chSni, Ka 
jal ffii e blTiQ^ ka e y^gQ obir^^ ka e Hj^fi, ka xidikk lial ini^ e kuche yi ^dg. ffu. 
Ka ikil gni e ko: mdyi! Kine: il Kine: fkh ia% ku kilt Kafun ffu wA Hyi 
m^n. Ka fial sni dwodQ ehimd kcfa wok^ ka reyi gs e yigi ^of^ ka rind bdn lial 
Sni. Ka lial sni e yigQ chdr, kd ifilrhi kajal ffii e yigq ehdr^ kafQra bans,, Ka 
gt f^^4(^ gi ''^* ^^ ^^ 9&^ ^i ^dki, ka gs ^1 /3^ ki rial pU. Ka lial gni yii 
dgiiky ka jal sni yik dgdtky ka gs ksfjUi ki g^ ka lial s^i dtrnd nam^ ka ^iofi sni 
tgni a minfM yi Ha gil gin^ kajal sni d^md kwitm tin; ka yefs tSyl yi t^ ka 
jal sni i 0y ka rep H mach. Ka lial ffti k^a bl dwai mays Hjdmi, ka lia goljal 
gni yigi chSgiy ka band jal sM yigi m^gi Hjam l^n. 

A woman had a son whose name was Ajang; he was very wicked and 
did many evil things. All people were dissadsfied with him. Whenever ihej 
planted dura and it began to ripen, he used to steal it His mother was tired 
with him, she said, ^'What shall I do vriih this boj?" She went away widi her 
son and came with him to some river. The place was very far awaj firom their 
home. They sat down on the river-bank, the mother began to ciy, saying, "Alas, 
what shall I say concerning my boy? My heart is tired widi him. Why, if only 
a crocodile wonld come, I wonld give him die boy!^ 

Then a man came, he asked, "Woman, why are yon crying?^ She answered, 
"My heart is weary with my son; he has a habit of stealing other peoples' 
property; so I have brought him here (thinking) , perhaps diere might be 
a crocodile to whom I could give my son.'' The man replied, "Ghive him to 
me, I will educate him.'' The woman remained silent The man said, "Do not 
be afraid, he will be educated by me, I will give him goods, I shall teach him 
to work, and each month you may come to the river and call me, 'Father of 
the river!' Then I shall come out and give you die goods belonging to your 
son." The woman replied, "All right !" So the man went into die river with the 
boy. They waded into the water, went towards the middle, and dived there. 

That is all, and the woman went home. When one month had passed, she 
came and called, "Father of the river!" The man at once replied to her call 
and he came out with the boy. The boy was very fat; so the mother was 

Ajan^ 219 


well pleased. They greeted the mother, and then she went home, and the man 
with the boy returned to the river. 

The mother was very much pleased vrith her son ; by and by he grew up, 
and each time (when she went to the river) the mother used to receive some 
goods; the boy was very diligent in learning the crafts of the man ; he mastered 
all the crafts of the man. 

But the wife of this man (of the father of the river) tried to persuade the 
boy to run away with her. She asked him, "Shall we not run away?*' Again 
she asked, "What would you do here any longer?** The boy replied, "Why, 
I do not know.** He was much perplexed, not knowing a way which might lead 
diem out — The man had gone on a journey. But he had plenty of cows, many 
goats, and all kinds of goods. — Now the boy asked, "But how shall I get 
out ?** The woman repUed, "Take the club of the man and go, and you wiU 
find the way. K he comes, kill him, so that he dies ; then come back, and we 
win live together.** The boy went; he found his mother and was asked by her, 
"Why do you come?** He answered, "I am very much dissatisfied willi that 
man, I have stopped working with him.** 

The boy built a village, in which he lived ; and the people used to come to him 
to buy water firom him, because the water he had was sweet. But the people 
told the man (the father of the river), "Ajang is in the bush yonder.** So the 
man came, he turned himself into a pot which he filled with water. The mollier 
of Ajang gave him the pot, she did not know the pot was a man. But die boy 
warned his mother, "Mother!** She asked, "Eh?** He said, "Do not take this 
pot!** So every one left the pot alone. The boy arose to go out. Then the pot 
turned into a man and ran after the boy; the boy now turned into a vulture 
ttod flew away ; the man also turned into a vulture and followed him flying. 
So diey were flying in the air; the man seised the boy and fell on him. Then 
die boy turned into a crow, but the man also became a crow, always pursuing 
him; at last the boy fell into the river (in which the man's wife was still Uving, 
waiting for the return of the boy). The wife put her husband's spear into the 
ground, her husband fell on the spear, his beUy was pierced by the spear so 
that he died; and he was put into the fire ("was seized by fire**). Then die boy 
went to bring some of the goods to his mother; and the wife of the man became 
his wife, the slaves and all the property of the man became his. 

90. The Snaka 

Kap. rnqko, i v^l^y wOLq, iffliifi, ka ff& k4^ ha ff^ tci$Q, ha g^ wai^a yQy ka gi 
(gna yu nwels ka g^flfcafefi, ka g^ ko: bihl u peti tick edit Ka pvQl e bgnQf nwel. 

220 Adventures between Men and Anima/s 

ka jal ah/ilo p^ra mal, Hne: (wqI anant Jal aky^l ho: a, fafje poQl, ba r^t Kpn^: 
faffi 0ff(il duQnf Ka jal pd i riki^ ka pana ggdi yai; ka poi^l ^ piehi^, kine: Jal 
aky^l a k^ kffi f Kine: kuehi ydn. Kine: d^ yi ri djn f Kine: jal e eha e k5b2 

Hne: yina poQl, d^ydhb: d^yiba r^ d^eko: yiba pffQll Kine: e, ka go, kiji, 
ka e Q. Ka fw^l e k^ffo, ka jal e binq. e Upi Upitf ka k^j^ koti^ pM, ka fiyeia petk. 
Ka fwQl e bgfiQ, ka e y^bii, jal gni fqky ka pool e k^^ ka poql kel^ tin. Ka fuHil 
p^ra mal, ka jal ^ r^na peik, ka pool ^yiibQ» yapa jal pii, ka e bgnq, ka da^ga 
pM; ka gudi chqte peA, ka e Q. 

Kajal ini hia wqk, ka k^ pack. Ka eko: pool a nigd. Jal acha a kiji! Ka 
je ko: if 0jf niki yint Kine: k^ k6pi yit k^po, Hne: fwql a bia cha, d^ e rpi too. 
Ka e ko: che ggn a r^t Ka ya ko: po^^ dugn! A bfyii, a ni^i 0^ a k4^ a ytdd 
ifdji d ^. A kwiikd k4jAf a bgn ponU a ktla ki tQn, a fijiwi. A koHje: k^ U^ wa. 
A k^je, a yidi, 4 f^. A kobije kine: i, dgchy dwai to0|/ A k^l wQi, a Umit a 
chwdp gin, a gv^ chAwi, a k^ kipaeh. A ywQJk dof^ a dwai cM nwil, a ligi uniL 

Some people travelled to J/fltii^. As thej were walking and had reached a certain 
place, ihej lost their way. They tamed aside at the trace of a snake. At last 
they sat down, saying, ''Why, what shall we do in this country?'' Then a snake 
came, a nwel; one of the men at once jumped up, crying, ''There's a snake!'' 
The other one said, "Oh no, it is not a snake, it is a king!" EBs friend said, 
"Is it not a big snake ?" This man ran away, be hid himself behind a tree. The 
snake said to the one who remained, "Where has the other man gone?" He ans- 
wered, "I do not know." Again she asked, "But why do you remain?" He 
answered, "That man said you were a snake, but I said you were a king; he 
said again you were a snake." The snake only replied, "Eh?" then she bit 
him, and he died. 

When the snake had gone away, the other man came crawling cautiously; 
he had dug a hole at his place ; he made it deep in the earth. The snake came 
and searched, but the man was not there. While she was going away, she was 
stabbed by the man; she jumped up, the man ran into his hole. The snake was 
searching, she searched for the man. At last she came down, in falling her 
belly was thrown violently on the earth, and she died! 

Then the man came out and went home. He told the people, "I have killed 
a snake! The man who accompanied me, was bitten by her!" The people 
replied, "Ah, you have killed that man." He answered, "Did I not tell him, 
'there is a snake coming, let us run!?^ But he said, 'No, it is a king !^ I said, 
'No, it is a great snake !^ The snake came, she killed the man, I ran away, and 
when I came back, I found the man dead. Af^er that I dug a hole in the place 
where I was, and when the snake came, she was stabbed by me widi the spear, 
and she died." The people said, "Let us go and see it!" The people went and 

Crocodile Hunter 221 

found (him i. e. the mao, or, the snake ? probably the latter) dead. They said, 
"Why, all right, bring oxen!** And oxen were brought, they prayed, then the 
oxen were speared. They picked the bones of the man op, and brooght them 
home. The women wept (mourned). They brought the bones of the snake too, 
they became a charm. 

9 1 . The Crocodile Hunter. 

JVaii fTtSitfi rack H make je; ka iyinit dwai; ka oyinq bifiQ, ka e kariQ gwok^ ka 
gvfok mikfeik H bute nam, Ka gwok e ytoQnii ywQn, ka lian e Unq, ka e chluy ka 
e bgn e rin^ cham i sKanQ;, kd i rj^^. Jal gni e budi^ H y^ Uim, ka ikm pQra mal, 
ka hilyijal ^t^ ka lianf^ra nam. Kajl bpi, ka mdki yj tgrQ, ka til yi i^rQ, 
ehama waj^ ^ (do) wok. Ka chiki J^Ut, ka pi shote yi lioii^ ka e k^ fiaii. 

Kajal gni e d^n^, chuA^ rack. Ka lioii e kidttt kajal sni e ki^, ^ keau ki y^ 
Ka wi$a pack mfko, ka s neau ki gin cham, ka digi yi ygi, kd i ehd0, ka fkan 
yot (yut) e wifi fofe gin; ikan l^da ^j^. Kajal bia wj^k, ka kf^a pack, ka ks$a 
gol iHan. Ka e b^dq ki ^ kal, kd i chwittjt kine: u^l a ^d kitl gnl Ka chwQl Hne: 
bi kal! Ka e bgnQ, ka flka fek, ka fofe k( gin eham, kd i chdm^, ka fife ki m^gQ 
gtr, ka e mQ^ ka e btU^t, Ka U^ mat, ka let^ Uti in H mal; ka leii akyilg, lefe 
pi ki mal, Chof^ ka lUil pii eftfihg, kigne: ikm, ka e yeu Kine: jal gql un e kefe 
kffif £Sne ak^de paehl Kine: eh/wql! Ka e dwai. Kine: ya ehw^l yi mffif Kine: 
yi chwQl yi u^ll Ka e blnQ, ka gt mdj^, Ka e ko: 6myA, yi bia kpkf E ko: ya 
k^lafofe mdliuliu; e ko: ya bi b^ ya/a leikQ, E ko: ya kgla fkm, ilan mafoeh ki 
dam Hje; e ko: ya ehaka yaf, ho,: fan ffi a te^ letkQ ki mal, ki mffi akyilft. E 
ko: ds, shwQla, fiaii a jg; d^yi kobi adif fa wiilA yan f Ka jal pU ko: liaii pU 
bjtid ^ofi, E ko:/afe yan gn, pia kjje yinf E ko: ton fa lefe yin ki vxin butat Ki 
men ahf^l a wan ywofd pil Kajal ffu e buQgo, e ^ali yi kwip. E ko: yi u d^k 
bi neke ifuxn iffif E ko: i, ya fa dqk. Ka gt kwoA^ ^^k, ka gi weki. E ko: lUi 
lioii maffj^ e ko, kffk u nigi, e ko: gqU u ty&ci ydn. Ka jal gni ko: i, yafa dqk 
ki neke ikon, Ka ikm e ko: ara, kij^! Ch^{i, ka ikal e ki^, Di i b^tkjt, e cKQ,g(t, fa 
ekifca nfke ikm, 

A crocodile was very bad in catching people (caught very many people). 
And a crocodile hunter was sent for. The crocodile hunter came; he took a 
dog and tied it to the ground on the side of the river. The dog began howling 
at once; the crocodile heard it and came to the surface. It came running, and 
when it was near enough, it dived again. The hunter was lying amidst the 
grass. When the crocodile jumped up (to catch the dog), it was stabbed by the 
man; the crocodile jumped back into the river. But people came, and the 
crocodile was caught by them and pulled out When ihey were near the river 

222 Adventures between Men and Animals 

bank, tbey stabbed it a second time; but then the rope was broken by the 
crocodile, and it swam away. 

The man was left on the river-bank; he was vexed. When the crocodile had 
gone away, the man also went; he rowed a boat and came to a village, and 
brought food, then he returned to his boat, and went on rowing. And he found 
out the crocodile had gone home to its own country. This crocodile was a 
man. And ihe man left his boat and went into a certain village. He went into 
the enclosure of the crocodile (but without knowing that it was the crocodile's). 
He remained outside the fence and called out, "A traveller is at the gate!*" 
From inside some one called, ''Come in!^ He came and sat down. Food was 
given to him, and he ate, much beer was given to him, and he drank. Then he 
lay down. When he looked up, he saw a harpoon above (sticking in the roof 
of the hut) ; and he saw still another harpoon above. The man asked, "Qirl!'' 
She answered, and he went on, "Where has the man of your home gone?^ 
(Only the giri was at home). She replied, "He has gone into the village.^ He 
said, "Call him.'' So she sent for him. The man asked, "By whom am I called?'' 
He was answered, "By a traveller." He came, and ihey saluted each odier. The 
man asked, "Brother, where do you come from?" The crocodile hunter ans- 
wered, "I come from a very distant country, I have come to search a harpoon, 
I stabbed a crocodile, a crocodile which was famous for having eaten many 
people. When I was searching, I saw a harpoon in this place, above diere; and 
I saw another one too. But I thought, the crocodile was dead (and now I find 
here my two harpoons with which I stabbed the crocodile) ! What do you say 
of that? Will you not give them to me?" The man said, "This crocodile was a 
man ! Is it not I who was stabbed by you? Do you not see the spear- wound 
in my side, and the other one in my arm-pit here?" When the man heard tliat, 
he was afraid; he did not know what to say. The other asked him, "Will 
you ever again go to hunt crocodiles?" He said, "No, I shall not do it again." 
Then the man took the harpoons down and gave them to him. But he said, 
"If you kill even a small crocodile child, I shall finish up your whole family!" 
But the crocodile hunter said, "No, I shall not kill crocodiles any more." Then 
the crocodile said, "Well, go!" That is all, the man went away. But he was 
afraid, he kept to his word, he never killed crocodiles again. 

1 ''ihej seized two days'* : they passed two days, two days passed. 
' ''they found women only them" : they found only women. 
' if (you) (^ home. 

* if yon do not tell; in conditional negative sentences h^i generally is used. 

* Taking the stranger's question for an insult. 

* "and the mouth of one calabash, and he opened it**. 

Remarks 223 

^ ntk has low tone ; here a high tone is added to it representing the i 'lie**, which is dropped, 
but its tone is preserred. 

* "he is man where ?^ of which place is this man? kdi originally means place. 

* 'lie was not known to his &ther, but he, his fotiier was known to him.** 
^ Probably the wife of the lion. 

^' This is to show that not a single person (lion), not eren the cripples, the blind and the deaf^ 

remained at home. 

*' They were lefk because they could not dance, and so did not fall into the pit. 

^ Who these slares are, and why the cattle without horns were killed, is not dear. 

^ The leopard skin is ^e royal robe. 

" This stoiy yiyidly recalls that of Genesis chapter S7, and 42—46. 

^ from tM^Q. 

" Such was the dowry in "the good old time." 

^ instead of chyete yi. 

^ of course he ought to haye said, "his testicles are as big as this pot,*' and, "who has a necklace 

on his neck.'' Apparently from excitement and conftision the man misplaces his words. 

" From exhaustion. 

^ win you not hare killed a ram? 

^ and the Hon, his breast was tired. 

^ I hare finished with talking, that is : I shall say no more, (since you will not hear) ! 

^ Was a man who was able to change himself into a lion, and into a tree; see below. 

^ The olam is a tree with a broad, beautiful shady crown. 

224 Anecdotes 


92. The Travellers. 

JqJc ahflln i u^^ ha g^ nuUd yi k^h. MqgQ, nut H yi gsn^ mffi ye da ag,p, i 
f&hy hajal aJcy§l chygn^ tiK iida gtr6f jal akyf^ iki chdm H ret m^k^. Ka ga iki 
fyiJQ, Hne: 6wJ^, yifa ^tfi H ^ei mukif Kine: i$ ya ku 0f^*^ Kajal pd e kudq. 
Ka lii wei bfdQ H k^h. Ka M. ehifca flchst ^ki, kine: jal 6toA, yi fa f^e f Ka e 
ko: Ki rei moka wala ki rei rnqki: Kine: i, ke rei moki. Kine: ya ku f5fe. Ka M 
ehikifyichQ kine: iwJij yif<^ (ofef Kine: ki rei m^ka wala H rei m^^t Kine: i, 
ki rei mqka, Ko: fofe yan ki ikd-md^n^'^ ka |o(e ill ^ fngki. Kuehe ffi^ g^ a 
rngk^, E kumn jg; kd i chAmjn, ka e yano, ka e j^tfo^ ka lii wAjit, ka AiJcafy^Q^ 
kine: yi fa 0fe yi mugn f Kine: rei m^ka %oala rei m^ki f Kine rei mqka. Ka j^ 
JI^ rii mok^ ka e ekdmQ. 

Ka ^uki ko; wi kiit Kine: bwit Jal gni 4 ekwi; ehatna liwal a^bs, ka agb^ 
yofe in, m^gs, dgn e ngk. Kine: ^ mok a cham yi mffit Nal ffni ko: mffi an iki 
chAmi yin H ehani. Kine: i, ff^ moka nuti weiyinf Kine: i, kffi de 0u ki yi 
keehy mQn ffiifa re dgn kifeik f yi re eham adif Kd i iUk^. 

Chdf^ ka kgj^fofe gin^ ka wif^ paeK ka fygn gof^ yiti in, e ikoQl H ika-wiid^ 
ka Ml akyil lia^Ql yiti ggn ikwglQ, H ika-riar^. Tygn gni ehwie ggn mgdo, Hrei i 
gin yoJca (yitg^) ^ff^h Hne: ikorw^da u dgnu cha mik^t ki tkan liart ke toei liorne 
rH giny kifa wa mfil. 

A doni Ha/ j^ ka gi liwQnh ka g^ bida ki gil gin, ka ggl gin f yigi kyiL A 

Two men were trayeUing together. On their way they became hongry, but 
they had food with them; each had a bag full of food. But one man was stingy, 
he was a niggard. But the other man used to eat of his food. And he asked 
his companion, saying, "Brother, shall I not give you of your food ?** He replied, 
"No, don't give me I*" His friend was silent; he left his friend hungering. But 
the next day he asked him again, "Man, brother, shall I not give yon?'' He 
replied, "Of my food or of yours?** The friend answered, "Why, of yours.** 
He replied, "Don't give me!** Agun he asked, "Shall I not give you?** He 
asked, "Of my own or of yours?** He answered, "Well, of mine.** Then he said, 
"Oiye me a little!** And he gave him of his (of the stingy one's). But the stingy 
one did not know that it was of his own. He was almost dying of hunger, so 
he ate. When he had had enough, he rose and began to talk. The next day his 
friend asked him once more, "Shall I not give you some food?** He replied, 
"Of mine or of yours?** The friend said, "Of mine.** But he again gave him of 

* "I will not be giren** ; "may I not be giyen*\ 

* "a small child's that is: a little bit. 

A Goat'Story 225 

his (the stingy one's), and he ate. The next morning he said, "Let us go!" His 
Mend replied, "All right '^ He had recovered his strength; he wanted to feel his 
bag. When he found that there was but a little left in his bag, he asked, "Why, 
who has eaten my food?** His friend said, "You yourself have eaten of it 
every day.^ He replied, "How, did you not leave untouched my food?'' The 
friend said, "K you had died of hunger, for what reason should diat food have 
been left? what should you have done with it?'' The man was silent 

That is all, and they went into their country. When they arrived in their 
village, they found that both their wives had bom children, one a giri and one 
a boy. So ihey were both very glad, and they became friends. The stingy one 
said to his friend, "Friend, some day when my son has grown up, then let him 
many your daughter, because we are friends." 

The girl grew up, and they married, and they Uved in both their homes (in- 
habited the homes of both their parents), and their homes became one. It is 

93. A Goat-story. 

Dy^l a kiUt H T&nit H Ach^-gwohi ka kifa Akuriiwdr, ha dyfUi i tty^^ ha lii 
tinafin, ha M. n^ib Jm iki fiwtUt* Ka d^ki dy^l M, hiff^, ii| h^ fin, ka liiiitDSlQ, 
ka M ^MM>^, ka lii kfj^ fin^ ka iki iHuIqIq. ^H ka M, i^^^o^Q. H liwQl^ ki ban^ ka 
fki k^fan, ka M ^Hi^^^^ ka lii nffiQ, ka M ^o^ ki litoQl^ ke ban^ ka giti Tdnjt 
AehiSte^wok, liwQl^ gtr. 

A goat was brought from Tuna Ach^^'-gtcoks it was brought to Akuruwar; 
there the goat ran away and turned to a certain village, there it stayed (for some 
time) and brought forth young ones. The next day the goat went away, it went 
to another village and brought forth young ones again. After that it arose, 
went to some village and brought forth young ones. The next day it arose, 
with all its young ones behind it; it went to another village, there it brought 
forth yoimg ones ; it stayed there for some time and then arose widi its young 
ones behind it. At last it arrived again at TUnQ Ach^-gwoky with plenty of 
young ones. 

94. The GluttOIL 

FeA da kicK k^eh madugfL D^jal ahfilQ ye bu by^U d^ ^i chama bup' Ka by^l 
e d^HQ, ka bysl e ehlgQ, ka dake k§eh gen H by^l, ka ii| eham ki abufok, ki ngr, ki 
ikim. Ka by^l chigQ, ka i/ka gnUi hofi kine: fja^ gin eham madugn t Ka yi ligcA ki 
by A ^ yi ifl^ H, abtook, ka yi ligcA ki tQr, ka yi kygt ki omQty ka yi kyff ki Mm, 
kayitskki mana mdffil Ka gt j^um, ka gik gni kiU ko: chip Mma ka! Kaftlit 
ftkk in, ka e chAmit; ka fit ehiM cAefmd A^ ka iki ehikd kffi. Kd i yanq, ka e ko: 

WBSTBRMAHlf, Tk« SUUmk P«opl«. 15 

226 Anecdotes 

cliami e kobi ksf^, Yej^ bdA chdm, ko: yi jg tint Yqs, han^. Ka faUi kiodiii in, e 
ho: 6tjftj^ yi fi| chama bup, d^ i^ra bu^ Hyi^ is chimi Yq^ baiie cham; ka ytji 
ckwiph in, ka e Q. 

There was a famine, a great famine. One man had no more dura, he used 
to eat mnd. When the (new) dura had grown up and it ripened, and the time 
had come for the people to rub dura-ears in their hands, and they ate the new 
dura, and maize, and beans, and sesame, and die dura was quite ripe, then this 
man said to his wife, "Prepare a great meal, boil dura, and cook maize, and 
boil beans, and roast green dura, and roast sesame, and prepare vegetables 
too.^ When all diese diings were readj, the woman brouj^t them. He 
said to her, "Put them before mel^ Then he sharpened his knife and began 
to eat He ate, now from this, now from some other dish. Wheu he was filled, 
he said, "Eat!*' — He said this to himsetfl — But his belly refused to eat any 
more, it said, "You will die at once!'' His belly refused. Then he took die 
knife and said, "Formerly you (belly) used to eat mud, and I was tired with 
you, why, eat!'' But his belly refused to eat He took his knife and stabbed his 
belly, and he died. 

95. Bachet 

Ye < jal md ritt y^ da toQt bdni, i/iini Bachet; wgn chuiis, tnidQ. Ka Baehet gtf^ 
HfoTii kd i Wit toil, ff% ajUgh. Kd 1^ chhi^ gin yigi mdrach H Bachet; ka 
g^ Hi bii bi giii. Ka Bachet M. chw^l, ka e binq, i tyif^ ki ISt. Ka ilii fy^ chi yi 
r|j( kine: init a tyMf Kine: wuot Kine: ya bi&bl gy^r ki kid. Kd rij^i kb: wQt 
bdni, mji niti tri^ H gygr H gbUil Ka rij^ ehui^ yiga mdrach H ^r^, Hne: um 
chaga fy^t. Ka lial gni tvA d^gi fir^t ka k^ fir^. 

Kd ^it Mfiti in, kdjdmi ttrit M kdpi in. Ka tsm M bn bl giA. Ka M chwol, 
kine: kifl Bachet, ki bl iyh wiy kyek, kakihi i chhfh tyili. Ka Baehet bin, e 
ehafg, H ^y ky^, chh fitch i chinit, kd yif^ to^k ki toiy kyiA, ka ty^ itkyil^ v>eyt 
wiy h/ffi, kd ty^l i^kyiUt y£na fM, ka e bin i chli0, Ka r^ e ko: d gin dnit d gwik 
ki yin lindui Ki i kb: fafe yin a kdp kine: yd ki chA^ H wiy kyffi, Hne: yd ki 
chaj^ ki fhi f A wiyd ty^Ut dkyil ki wiy ky^, a weya ty^la aky^l ki fefL Ka r]f^ i 
ri^^, kd i kb: yi b^ yifa nSki ydn; k^ dgkfarit 

Ka Bachet d^gq, Ka dogi yi kwipi, kcrtyin ini bi& bi giti yi r^, Ka ri^ e ko: 
Bachet u nihk ydn de chan tin ! Kine k^jjtun! Kd gi ki^. Kine: kdni mgnQ ki tQn 
gy&iQ! wu b^nb! Ka msn M kdnb (k^nb)* Ka Bachet dwdi, Bachet fa k6pi yi r^. 
Kd h binit, & bu tQn gyinQs md kili ffu Ka r^ i kb: nan k^^ litvQl H ton gj/inq, 
nigd nUgb! Dwo^ mall Ka ifdfi lii ^wQfd mdl, ka tQn gy&%Q M, vM /M. Tirb 
btni d 4'^bti mal, ka Bachet h dbnb* Ka ri^^ e ko: Bachet, yi re fa ^UM>|f E kudQ* 
Kine: Bachet, yi re fa dwSff Ka Bachet ^wo^ mal, ka tQn gysnQ bbgbn, mgn don 

* Ye 'lie" has here rather the sense of "there was". 

Bachet ....__...._.......^^ 227 

hifi^' Ka BcLchet chyini ^tn^ kd i t/wtfis Hne: ^, ii, SI Ka rij^efechQ kinel An^, 
Bachet^ gn a gioikhyi Hnhul Bachet hine: gysn iHi '/ito^ltt gi kifi gin, gg bun 
dfwi^f fa fii liwQlt Kd h kb: ard (^i), yd fa 6po^f Ka ri^ ^0.yi nyir^, e ho: 
yi Mj, k§j^ dokfaril 

There was a man* a kiDg, he had a slave whose name was Bachet. He liked 
him much. He built a village for Bachet at a separate place, where Bachet 
became chief. But the people of the village were dissatisfied with Bachet, and 
they came to the king to complain. Bachet was called by the king, and he came 
carrying thorns (such as are used in house-building). The king asked him, "What 
are you carrying there ?^ He answered, "My lord, I come to make a fence (for 
you)'^' The king replied, "Ah, my slave, you still think of building me a fence?^ 
And the king became angry with the people and said, "You Ue!^ He let 
Bachet return, and he went to his village. 

And (again) the people were beaten by their chief Bachet, and their property 
was taken by him. So they went again to complain of him. The king gave order 
to call him, saying, "Tell Bachet, he must not come on horseback, and he must 
not come on foot either.^ And Bachet came riding on horseback, but when he 
approached the village, he alighted from the horse ; he left one foot on the 
horse, and one foot was on the earth. So he approached walking. The king 
asked, "What is that? why are you doing thus?*^ He answered, "Did not you 
give order, I must not come on horseback, nor on foot either? Therefore I 
left one foot on the horse, and am walking with the other.^ The king laughed 
saying, "You are a clever one ! you shall not be killed, go, return to your 

Bachet returned, but he went on in the same manner (troubling his people). 
The people came again complaining to the king. The king replied, "Bachet 
shall be killed this very day I" Then he said, "Go! every one of you bring a 
hen-egg, and then come back." So every one brought an egg. But this order 
of the king had not been told Bachet, and so he came without an egg. When 
they were all assembled, the king said, "Every one who does not lay an egg, 
shaU surely die ! Rise up !" So every one rose up, leaving his egg on the ground. 
All the people rose up, only Bachet remained seated. The king asked, "Bachet, 
why do you not rise up?" He was silent. Again he asked, "Bachet, why do 
you not rise?" Then Bachet arose, but there was no egg under him. Bachet 
stretched out his hands crying, "O o oh!" The king asked, "What is it, 
Bachet, that you are doing thus?" Bachet replied, "Do you think all these could 
have laid an egg by themselves, if there had not been a cock? Well, I am the 
cock!" The king ahnost died with laughing; he said, "You are a clever one, 
go, return to your village!"' 

* As ^6 name of the hero shows, this story is of Arabic origin. 

228 Anecdotes 

96. The Country Where Death is Not 

Jal f7i2i(% ''^f^yt ^'^' J^S. ff^yi ^9 cham^ b^JcQ Q, ehama dtoata fwo^ bu jg. 
Wgd^ ko: fwof^ bun jg e yiA Icunf Kins: ^ k^lyanf nuti Dof^ ^ni bayU. 

Ka ffi k^flitf foj^ eni lautaulau^ fwo^ yey bu j^. Ka M ^Qna pack m^cQ, ha iki 
hwaeJiQ piy ka g^tii (ofe, ka ikd pdpifihit kine: jg nut Hfof^f Kyne: i, yi hQla 
kff^f ^^ fySI^& ^f Ka e ko: tnaya bqkQ j^; maya dwaia fofie hu jg. Kine: i, k^jktnl 
Ka gt i^i k^^ ka g^ lii fQndfan kite, ka gi M/tchit- Kvie: i, yina nate nt, ffia 
fy^ g? i, k^n; jg ntU. Ka ksjflfi^ mdlduldu, ka e/gehQ kine: fofe vmn b& 
^if y^^ da Qf Kine: i, fi/d lii 0u. Ka may^ ehuik^ minq, e ko: dock, wadJ^ yd 
kil yi yin fo^fa M, feu yejt. 

W\^ m^ mi^L ka may^ Hj^ gql ^ni. Ka e ko: mdyi itnitn, wet bidi kiyin; 
yd k^fofe win, ya n maki run g^ ddik, fan^ k^k u bind bu tifi wiin ki maya. 
May^ ehui^ m^dQ, 

Ka lial sni e djigit, digit fb^ gin. Ka e bidQfofe gin. 

Ka ^a^ ffti wij^ kagm kd i kdbii: m^i wddJi, wijd kagQ. Ka lUzl pa ^^loo^Q, ha 
e dtoatQ je. Ka fi bpiQ, kaje pika pM, ka ikal gni ko: uni chwili ydn hifa maye 
mjl^ anan. Wu gtoaeha hi nypi, m^h y yide wdd^ d^ ho: wij^ haga, d^ rinQ u 
rffi; d^fanafa Hne: n nttL Ka ^ajf iniyuitn, hine: i^jtoi^ bdg^n, wijafa hagu! 
Tgrn ko: i, mdh, rej^ rinq! Ka mdh, ha hil, ha Uh/i/M, ha nil, ha rino p^r^. Ka 
ttrq cKamn hi rtn({. ^uhi ha nyffi gtodeh, ha nypi hdn yi mg^ wid^ 

Ka w^id^ bgtm, ha fiha feti, ha fSje gin eham, hd h ehdm^. Ka e pfeJ^ hine: 
maya aggn gnf Ka fnff^ ho: nii^, may^ mdhi yijwQh, toi guAjh nypi, d^ nypk 
ah; di ndl hifa rinQ y rffi; d^ wgn, Q bogon hifb^ win, ffof^ hffi a mdh yijwgh 
lii ehaha ndlQ. Nal sni ho hine: bihl ya neau nidyatf eho: yi bidjt; ho: ya u h^ 
ydu ! Nal pii ko: yi gttjt* iVo/ cni ko: i, ya fa git(. Ka tpQ b^nQ, kama Aam hi 
lUil pn; ha Iwih hi yi fitfl^. Ka gs. hsjfl hun mataulau, h^fa « (i) eham. Ka tgr^ 
wijii miim,^ hine: f h^ hpil Ka mQ^ edufigi^; ha e ho: h^ yi y eham fyau nami 
mayi. Ka ikU &ii biafdie gin, ha e hobi H pack Hne: min/d a eham yi nik. 

Chofli, hi ^^ e ho: mayi fa ika-^i ^ifc. 7^ fa nUt hi yey fik binif di hun 

There was a man with his mother. The mother was much afraid of dying, there- 
fore she wished to go into a country where there is no death. The son said, 
''Where is a country without death ?'' She answered, ''Well, there is such a 
country, bring me there !^ The woman was very old. 

So they travelled into a very, very distant country, to (reach) die country 
where there is no death. They turned into a village and asked for water. 
When it was given diem, the son asked, "Is there death in this coimtry ?'' The 
people answered, "Dear me, where do you come from diat you ask such a 

^ the people, (tiielr) heads were perplexed. 

The Country where Death is not 229 

question concerning death ?^ He answered, ''M7 mother is afraid of dying, so 
she wants a country where death is not" The people said, ''Why, go away!" 
They went and turned to another village. There they asked again and received 
ihe answer, ''Why, what kind of man are you that you ask about dying? Go 
away! There is death here." Then they went to a very distant country and 
asked, "How is your country, is there death in it?" The answer was, "No, 
people do not die here." The mother was very glad, she said, "Well done, my 
son, you have brought me to a country where there is no death." 

Her son had a friend in that town, and to his home he brought his mother. 
He said, "Here is my mother, let her live with you. I shall go to our country, 
and after tfuree years I shall return to see you and my mother." His mother 
was satisfied. 

So the boy returned to his native country and stayed there for some time. 

'But his mother became sick; she got a head-ache; she said, "IViend of my 
son, I have a headache." On that the boy arose and caUed the people togedier. 
The people came and sat down. The boy said, "I have called you because of 
the mother of my friend, who is here. Now collect money, that we may give it 
to her son (when he returns). For she says her head is aching ; and because 
of that (because of her sickness) her meat (flesh) will spoil. For diat reason," 
he said, "she must be killed (at once)." When ihe woman heard this, she began 
crying, "I am not sick! I have no head-ache!" But die people said, "Never 
mind, seize her, orherflesh willbe spoiled." So she was caught, brought, thrown 
on the ground and killed; her flesh was divided among the people, and they 
ate it. The next day ihey collected money and brought it to the friend of her 

And her son came back. He sat down, they gave him food, and he ate. He 
asked, "Where is my mother?" His friend answered, "My friend, our (your) 
mother was seized wilh sickness, so we collected money, — here is the money! 
— and killed her, lest her meat should be spoiled. For as for us, we do not 
die in our country, if a man is seized with sickness, we kill him." The boy 
replied, "Why, should I sell my mother? Never!" Then he said, "I will but 
go." His friend said, "You are angry?" He replied, "No, I am not angry." In 
the meantime the people came and wanted to eat the boy too. His friend there- 
fore went to him saying, "Oo, or you also will be eaten like your mother." He 
accompanied him into a distant country. When tiie boy came home, he said 
to his people, "My motiier has been eaten by a lion." 

That is all; and the people said, "Your motiier was a sinful woman. Is 
not death in all the world, and should there be a place where there is no 

230 Anecdotes 

97. The King and the People. 

Jal milcQ bA r^; hdp tirji: gtr tv^tl Kd wftt M fftf, ki yi ko: fftr kid! Kd yi 
h>:fiirfu>64iIKdfw64i Mf^r, kd by& M ch^gh. Kd gi M kdeh. Kd i kb k^e: 
k(j^ wi pirn (pim)! Kd M kh: mwQn rdr^l Ka ye kd ne: fwbt hyiU Kd yh kb: 
chwdch dk^dbl Ka dwai n$t Kd yi kb: chwdch 0g(tl Kd ki ehan kindu. 

Kd ufdn ah/tUt chitmd dwaia fux^Q^ ki mil. Kdttrhi ki^biydfk(y^ min 
k^ mdl. Kd ttrit kdtnd du^kpach: yi bdg^n, Kd ^^ miyH ySt, ka ^^ gni i 
f^hb: tcCt k^ kun f Gi kb: /dfi rU yi ko, chamd dwdidfi/^ k(mdlfD4 yg 
bdgbn. Kd ^nj^ dii$n k kb: tod! toii fa ^k! yg n^t ki mdl mo-diane. Tinu {bkdffi 
maU ka kd{ lihh mdl banat (umi gin, kd g4 k^ gin fbch, 

Kd gipyich yi r^ kine: Jwb^ d yStf jS/i, d yoU Di a kikf Kine: ni, a kek, 
D^ki ka t^rn k^ blftr. Ka ^a^ dtign kd ySt, kdfySch: toifiir wbn kylif Furu 
mil ybut Ka ttrb Mfi^^b fnal yau. A dibk gin, afichi rif^ h kb: d rStm kifurbf 
Kine: hioil K^ khchi by ill Kd ndmi diiwd. 

Ka rii ye io') 4iki ya kd (= k^) bi khnd ki fio6^. Kd^trbi l^kb. Kifie: 
/w64i dgbn in? WdjiU HyQ fnin k^ win mdl. Wi cUkhfyiU Wu rifiL kobUn: 

A man was king; he said to his people, "Build a house!'' And a house whs 
built. And he said, "Make a fence!** Then he said, "Hoe a field!** A field waa 
hoed, (dura was sown and) the dura ripened. They harvested the dura. Then 
he said, "Lay it on the drying-ground!** He said again, "Make a treshing- 
place!** After that, "Thresh the dura!** He ordered, "Make a corn-basket!** So 
pegs were cut for &stening the corn-basket. He said, "Make a cover (for die 
basket)!** And so (he troubled his people) every day. 

One year he wanted to make a field up in the air. And the people went to 
look for a way which led up into the air. At last they turned back, there was 
no way. Then there was an old woman, she asked them, "Where are you 
going?** They Miswered, "Did not the king say he wanted a field up in the 
air? But ihere is no way!** The old woman said, "Dear me! how stupid you 
are! There has been since eariy days a way up into the air. Lift up your dura- 
stick, Mid throw up seeds after it!** (They did so). When they had done so, they 
went home. And they were asked by the king, "Have you found a field?** They 
answered, "Yes, it has been found.** He asked« "Is it planted?** They said, 
"Yes, it is planted.** The next day they went to hoe. They found the old woman 
and asked her, "How shall we hoe the field?** She answered, "You just hoe 
up into the air!** So the people just hoed up into the air. When they returned, 
the king asked them, "Have you finished with hoeing?** They answered, "Yes.** 
Then he said, "Go and harvest ihe dura.** And so on as on former days (so 

King and People 231 


he always found some new idea how to trouble the people). 

And die king said, "To-morrow I shall go to look at the field.** The people 
were afraid. He asked, "Where is the field?** They Miswered, "We could not 
find the way which leads up into the air.** The king said, "Tou have been 
telling lies! Why did you not say, 'there is no way?^** 

98. Wealth cannot be imitated. 

Wij&n mgkQ ckwhld Ayomf^ bgda jal Jeer, to^di chw^ld Awan; mir^ in; ha 
WQfe pyau H ^i pyar abih/^l; hat wq{ mQJko, ha pyar dnwin; ha g^ hil, ha wade 
^h ha g^ hil; ha wq^ pyau, ha ufaff, ahy^l ckwQp, chihi chwQpo, ha g^ eh^p l^lh 
kd gi rAmltf ha ^h g^ fngk k^l b^ liwQm, ha pyar abidih. Kajal de liars, i 
chwiii; Hne: buK g<^ 4^fiQ, a hole ydu g§, gir ncLuf Iqh i/idra ^ tfMf U Iv^ 
tiara hi hdn, ha ye hinei hipanQ a ntogmi hi ^h gtrf Ko: h yi bidj^. dwqgun 
^ ' vmn! 

Ka lial sni h/sdq, hine: ^k ba dwQk! Kajal ffii e yeyQ, ha h^ hiU ^h, ha 
hitatia pyar dnw^n, ha ^h bin dwQJk. Ka loql nek, ga pyar ddih, mgh eham yi 
t^TQ. Ka lion SM hd wShi, ha g^ bin hi g^n. Jal gni ho: lUird bd d$n; ha liwQfn e 
pimQ, a bine ptf^ gin. 

A niyiyijane niikQ, chami luikQ, ehami pyauwe, chamQ nQye w^t Ayomq. Kd 
^hdit hi wQl mgn nik, ha unji mum yi nofce ^h. Ka wane yi dy^k. Ka AygniQ 
n efjp. hine: hQ ho, chama uQyQ woda chgn! ya ba dugnl ya/afejal her? Ds, a nan 
per toiffi wQn t Ya ba gifa kun, ho h^md fiind, bada ba burl di yi re jit anan f 
Ker fi j nQyi rdii ; hdha ba dugn. Fafe dgh ockdni t 

There was a rich Dinka-man whose name was Ay^mQ; his son's name 
was Awan. He loved his son and pierced the horns of sixteen of his cows and 
stack tail-hairs into the holes.^ Again he brought fourteen more oxen, and rams 
he brought, and he put hairs through the horns of these oxen too. One ox he 
speared, again he speared another one, and when he had finished spearing them 
all (those which he had set apart for being speared), he loosened the catde 
which were to be given as dowry; they were eighteen. When the man for whose 
daughter these cows were to be given, heard the cows mowing, he exclaimed, 
"Oh dear, what do all these cattle mean which are being driven to me? Why 
are &ey so mMiy? If my daughter (should marry the son of this man, and 
after that she) should die, the name of my daughter would be heard all over 
the country,* and the people will say, 'why was she married for so many catde?^ 
No, I don't consent; go home with your cattle!** But the boy (Awan, who wanted 
to many the girl) said, "No, the cattle will not be returned.** So at last the man 
consented. He went among the cattle and selected fourteen; the rest were sent 

BemarkB see on page 233. 


232 Anecdotes 

back. Then the thirteen oxen were killed as a feast for ihe people. And the girl 
was given to him, they came with her, her &ther said, ''My dao^ter shall not 
stay with me any longer (because the dowry has been paid). ^ When die marriage- 
festival was finished, they retnmed to their country. 

Now tfiis man was imitated by a certun chief, who wanted to do the same 
thing; he too wanted to pierce the horns of his catde, and wanted to imitate 
tile son of AyomQ. But he lacked sufficient cows to kill, and he got into 
straits, because his cows were so few. He took goats instead of tiie cows, 
Mid when AygmQ, saw that, he laughed, ^Hq hg, he really wanted to imitate my 
son! I am great! Am I not a rich man? Is there any one so rich as to attain to 
us? My fame has spread eveiywhere, all people know my name ; my arm is 
long! Why do you try such a tiling, being short of cattie? Wealtii can nev^r h 

i be imitated; it is not a tiling of one day. I have been raising my cattie since // 

U a long time ago.^ 

99. Increase of Cattle. 

Jal wikQ lidajal ker, blda hway Jin^, y>^ gi^» toik^ ba chdH, lij chaka tine 
mal, ka e yq, ka e rUrrmjagq^ ka uf^t^ ehwQlis ka e ko: u 0^> y^ ^ ^^^^ paeh, 
Tiri ydn, tgre ya kdl ^i, ka ya kww/ie yej^ ff ^k lii ikwQl^. 

A iQW^ <> ^t* ^^ ^^ A kwoiie yejSf ^ 4^^^ ii( fhi70^» a ekdk pan ffu, a pa ker, 

A certain man was very rich, he was a descendant of tiie Dinkas ; he had many 
sons. His time was not near (tiiat is, he was very old) ; he was so old, tiiat he 
was carried (he could not walk any longer). Because he was so old, he gave 
up his chieftainship, he called his sons and told them, ''If I die, do not bury 
me in tiie village; carry me, carry me to the cattie place and bury me in the 
midst of it, so the cow will bring forth many calves.** 

When he had died, he was carried to the cattie fence and was buried in tiie 
midst of it, and the cattie brought fortii many calves. This village always remained 
a rich village, it is OdwcJQ. 

100. The Haughty Prince. 

Kwakadwai bida jal ker, ka e kei^ ka e fiQfnQ, e ligmfi lioH t*^. Ka (fqk k^ ga 
pyar abth/^L Ka ehiki ri5!mQ H pyar obityiL 

Ka fit hgiQ Tfir, ka lum lii j^itm^, ^ l&H D^* Kd ^k i ydn^. Ka iki r^ e 
u^Iq^ u^la yi^ ka gi, ry^^ ka al^tQ, bin, ki ehik, H kwpi mau, ki twit- Ka lia 
r^ mlk{t ky^dQ: ya ba dwata gik ok! Kifanat A b^t OckdUt, k^ gif'f ^ « kwQnq. 

The Haughty Prince 233 

K^ mola kal mQl, ka ikarqjq lij tAk^ go, ii| chAm. Ka e ko: wate 0j^ neku dd^, 
ki ria u chdlal Ka iodide i nikit, ka go, chol^. 

Kwakadwai was a rich man. He started to many, and he married the daugh- 
ther of a king. He brought sixty cows as a dowiy. He married a second wife 
for sixty cows. 

He used to drive his catde to Tqt (a place of pasture), and when the 
grass was finished there, he drove them to Dqt (another pasture). 

One day some princes were travelling, and they came to him. He entertained 
diem as his guests; dura and dried meat were brought, and milk, and bread 
baked in butter, and meat. But one of die princes refused, "I don't want these 
things!^ "Why not?^ (asked the people). ''Because he is a (mere) Shilluk (not 
one belonging to die royal family), and yet he is so rich!^ He did not touch 
the food. 

This (rich) mMi, when he went to his catde place early (every) morning, he 
used to kill a calf and to eat it And he said to his people, "Sons of men, kill 
a man! I myself will make amends for him!*'^ And diey killed a man, and he 
made amends. 

1 01. The Hyena with the Bell. 

Ka jal mikd Ha ri^ ekw^la Lwal Polkde^ ka dy^ ehim yi dtwofi, Ka burQ 
hw6M» ka ofwQfi m&k yey bwr, Ka Lwal blna, ka ofWQfi ky^di^ ko: wei^ ku nik, 
Ka tpei, ka y^ ggn kifi malo, ka opVQ^ e k^ ki main ys4&- Chami iii maka la%, 
ka hi fit rffio, ka kdr£_ budQ yi k^hy ka e 0,. 

There was a certain man, a prince, whose name was Lwal Polkoe; his goats 
were being eaten by the hyena. Therefore he dug a hole and caught the hyena 
in the hole. When Lwal came, ihe hyena begged him, "Leave me, do not kill 
me!** So he let her go, but he tied a bell to her neck, and the hyena went away 
with the bell about her neck. But now whenever she wanted to catch game, the 
game (heard the bell ringing, and) ran away. At last the hyena became tired 
with hunger and died. 

> A rign that these cows were to be reserved as dowry for bujrlng bis son a wife. 

' If the wife dies, the dowry paid for her has to be returned by her funily ; in this particular case 

it would be difficult for the father of the girl to give back so many cows, as some would die or 

perish in some otiier way in the meantime, and so the affair would turn out a shame to tiie father 

and the giri. 

* to show his immense wealth; it was a bagatelle for him to pay a slave. 

234 Report on a Hunting Match, and a yourney 



1 02. Elephant Hunting. 

Wdkit H hldm H voQiU clAl gin hUndkk, wQiU hwoik gin dry^ H Abai H 
obtooii ffiif kd wd k^ poje Nuqt, Ulm gir, ka tea kifd wQk, Abafl y€ donQ nam H 
obwoifi y§i; kd lyech yw6^ win, gin ddik; ka toQ plka pM, ka ya fofe ki toch, ka 
Akw{tkwan (ofe yi toeh, ka Nan 0fs toeh, ka toeh (twoeh) alcim mdki Ulm, ka toeh 
mwoJQ; ki lyech i rinj^, kd u^ d^^git, h/ey bdgitn. Duki ka u)q djQ^gii; ka lyeeh 
ywSti win; ka wi twd^ lyech fidi win; ka yiti win, i mii^pi tnffi an lum boggn. 
Kd wd k^ yi lyech, wate bw6ii ddik, wini < chil win ddik, ki wi ki^, kaAkwo- 
ktodn i pdnht ka Aryan kd ipang^ wi d^jnii win dnw^n; ydn ki ai&n ki wgfe bwoA 
ry^y kd %i>i k^ yi U/ech e shik( shiki, ka akim e kb: wd gichk lyeeh dkyil, ka tnq 
gichi, ka lyech i rini, ka ydn r^na bini, lyedi win kdmd 0, ka yd k^^ ya rmoy 
ka gidchi ydn ty^l ddik,^ wi ks^ kijli, wi k^ k^le ^m, ka lyech e chi^ni, yd bi, yd 
ntn, yd ntn, y^ gtr^ ka Ufi ydn, kd yd U^ in, kd gijd ki maeh. Lyech i ywjtn^ 
ka lyech e bin, i rinQy ka ya chyite in, ka tyild niki ydf, i kichi ydn, fa rim^. 
Ka lyech i ch^ni, cha (= chama) yd gtchi in, ka i T^k^ kd wi k^ kOn, ka yd 
mdk yi ri^, kd yd duQgo, lyech d k^ ya duQgo, ya cJiafiQ; r^mQ gtr, da yi kuehi 
ydn, kd yd ktld yi yu lyech, yd waili ki gin, Idii bSgin H ^ga, pi boggn, ka ya 
pika fa yaf^ lum gtr; ka yd bwigi, ka yd 4^Ji>o^, ka toeh gich yi aJam, ka toeh 
l{ni ydn Iqu liu liu, yd k(t^, ya rinQ^ ka toeh M gi<^h gi gtr. Ka ya b^i, ka toeh 
gichi ydn, kd toeh l\n yi gin. Chuike gi rhfflQi chuikt fyau thedq; kd yd b^ kd gi 
yiti ydn, gi gich antoak, kd ya (ofe yi pi; ri^ 6aiii fflm, ka ya pfe yi mqgQ (gin 
cham), kd chwdkd i bd^ ; ka ya ksjia nam, ka ya budg, H yeja* Kd yd mdki yi 
kbjhf ydb^ki dQch ki nam; ka ya M tfiS^ il^ pi; ka yd bid wik, kd wi bin wi 
bid gat. Ka wi b^do, 4^kis ka wq bgn wi bii fo\e chil, wi mcik jgm dryitu, wq 
binit, gin cham boggn, wi lii chdmh ring a ky^, ka wg bia AttLri, kd tdn ydt^ toin 
gi gir, Kd wi ksfd wgk, kd tdn pw6t, dbi'^k, rnHk a g^chi yi aJnm, g^lji wiy tQna, 
kd k f^. Ka yi\ i pini yi rini, ka wg bin. 

We went (by boat), the doctor, eight Shilluks, two white men, Abbas, and 
the white men of the steamer. We went into the Nner comitry, there was 
much grass along the river. When we left the boat, Abbas remained near the 
river with die white men of the steamer. We found three elephants, when we 
saw them, we sat down on the ground, they gave me a gun, Ahwgkwan and Nyan 
too received a gun. The gun of the doctor was entangled in the grass, and 

' more frequently wqna^ see Grammar. ' "three feet^, that is : three times. 

A Hunting Match 235 

it suddenly exploded. When the elephant heard it, it ran away; we returned 
because the elephant was no more (i. e. the elephants disappeared). The 
next morning we went agiun and found again an elephant. We ran pursuing 
the elephant. We found it drinking water in a place where there was no 
grass. We went towards the elephant. We were three white men and three 
ShiUuks. While we were going, Ahookwan and Anyan stooped down (i. e. hid, 
being afraid) ; so we four were left I, the doctor, and the other two white men. 
We went to the elephant and approached it closely, then the doctor said, "We 
have got one elephant!^ We shot, the elephant ran away, and I followed it; 
our elephant had received a mortal wound. I followed it running and shot it 
three times. We ran into a place where there was a forest; there the ele- 
phant stopped, I came and looked and looked, there were dense trees; at last 
I saw it, and it saw me, and I shot it with the gun. The elephant cried, it came 
running, and I was chased by it, I knocked my foot against a tree, but I did 
not heed it, it did not make a wound. The elephant stopped and I intended to 
shoot it It ran again, I ran with it; and I was seized with thirst; I turned back, 
the elephant ran away, I turned back and went; there was much blood. But I 
did not know the way. I went along the elephant's path, I was quite lost to my 
companions; there was no more spittle in my mouth (from thirst), I had no 
water. I sat down under a tree in the midst of much grass. I became afraid and 
arose. Then there was a gun fired by the doctor, I heard it very, very fur 
off. 1 went running and heard them fire many guns. At last I too fired a 
gun, it was heard by them. Then they rejoiced, and I too rejoiced, and I 
came and found them, they had shot an anwak; they gave me water. My thirst 
would not cease, and they gave me food, but my throat refused to take it. I 
went into the river and lay down in the water. So I became cool, I lay in the 
water a long time. Then I drank water. At last I came out. And we came to 
the river-side. We stayed there till the next day, then we came back into the 
SbiHuk country. We had been away two weeks. During our return we found 
no food, so we ate nothing but meat. We came to the river Ataro, there we 
found many waterbucks. We went out of the boat and shot eight waterbucks. 
One was shot by the doctor between its horns, and it died. The boat was quite 
fuU of meat; so we came home. 

103. A Journey. 

Ka tDfi totUts ti^lQ TunQ, ka wq ka pd{e Nuar, ka wq kiU yi nam rnikQ, ehwQla 
rfeyffTQ, ka toQ ka Teryau^ ka wq igna woky ka idq budq rechy ka wq kgj^ ka wq 
tgna kal r^ chwQla Phd6y ka wq fgna Iwag^ ka e pichtt kine: wqU Chilly wu k^ 

236 Report on a Hunting Matchj and a ypurney 

wu k^f u>i kb: wa kQlafofe ChiUtI Kine: wieh apon^t Kine: wa chaka neau 
tDQ byiL Kine: bih^ a jg wun yi k^h t E ko: k^ IwakI Ka wq k^ hoak, ka 
oAwQJk kiU ka niky kd ehdm yi wiin; ka ehak kil, ka %oq ehdmitf ka nyffk a h^te 
vfitn, neau H by^L Ka w{t iinq, ka k^ yi y^ ka wq bgno, ka y^ tndki yi pir, ka 
y^ mudo, ka wq kwanQ WQk; a bind, a (gna Neb$ditf a bgnapaeh, a bgna PeAidwai; 
kick ktehl 

We travelled to Tonga and firom there came into ihe Naer-countrj; we were 
trayelling on some river, whose name is Neycrg. We came to Teiyau, there 
we landed; we roasted fish. We went and tamed to the home of the king, 
whose name was Pedo. We tamed towards the cow-house. He asked os, "Toa 
ShiUuk children, where do 70a come from?*' We answered, "We come firom 
the Shillok-countiy.'' He asked, "What for?*" We replied, "We want to bay 
dara." He said, "Why, are you suffering ("dying*') firom hunger?'' Then he said, 
"Oointo the cow-house!'' > So we went into the cow-house. A ram was brought 
and killed, and was eaten by us; and milk was brought, and we ate. Then we 
brought fordi money to buy dura. (After we had bought it and brought it into 
our boats) we went into the boats and returned home. But one boat was 
seised by a hippo, it sank, and we swam to the bank. So I came home taming 
towards Nebgdu, I came home to Petiidwai; die fSunine was very great. 

* the cow house senree as s residence fSor gaests. 

Son£s 237 


104. War songs. 

A chip tun Uii, Ufk a chip shin AnonQ; Bed k§ehQ! Yana ban Nikon; ch^ ya 
din d hir; hofd yin H mokjtoQk; ri^ e huljwQk. Wora ^tr^ kwom IMI Yana ban 
^Ucanl Lei^ a chip shine kwiyi, H Ot^go, tun leA Nhl^dii. Nikan a y^ kuro 
gok Jan. 

The wings of ihe army are drawn up: ihe army is placed in the hands of 
AnqnQ. Bal is strong. I am a servant of Nikaii, I was nearly left desolate. I tell 
yon die tidings of God; the king comes with Ood. The kings arose against the 
enemy's army. I am a servant of rfikan. The army is placed in the hands of 
our grandfather, in OtggQi as far as JSabgda war is raging. 

Fori u l(M fi'^ffif ^ Nikant fart u gir H tgnl 

Who shall inherit your village, yon son of l^ikan f Tour village will be built 
by spears! 

W^« yiigi yitghJ Fa ^ikanfa M, t^fni, hoigd d kyit, H Wy/rokwar d h/it; 
Iwigd fa tugQ I aky^l a c@n^> ka toko, Min g^, Areofiidin, fa toati Gf^jwhk, fa 
to^ti Ab6l! wet yi^i. yilgq, fa Nikan fa M iinmi. 

Let them carry (people) away ! The house of Nikan will never be finished, 
my people refuse (to surrender), Wurokujar refuses ; my people are not to be 
played with! One will always be left; and he will follow them (the enemies), 
Areaikic^ns firom ihe village of the children oiG^jwiiky die village of the children 
of AhoL Let them carry away, the house of Nikan will never be finished. 

Agigjdn Aninnwdn^ wq teau d^rHh A wajji, a waf^i yo, d^ kild Fij^. Miichi 
ri fa digi r^ mache ri fa -digi r^. AkdU-J^dkwit a kaljw^k. Maehe yo, fa doge r^. 

Agogjang Anongwan is cursing the Turks, they are coming near, they are 
approaching on the way, diey come up the mouth of the Sobat. But ihe fire of 
their guns will return on diemselves, their fire will return on themselves; Akole 
Nyakwe he comes (agunst them) with God. Their fire will return on themselves. 

Yd fit lyhfh, yafU Jyafid, l^ikan, yafit lyafo, ya fit lyaf^y jal duQn^ ya 
fit lyafa. 

I am tired of being waylaid, I am tired of being watched upon, Isikan, I am 
tired of being waylud, my master, I am tired of being waylaid. 

238 Song[s 

Kd di b^n Affwit, toqi Jqk, ya re (de) IJni ytng, yd yiili Ktch AkU, yd yiile 
yi kToayQ, k^h AlaU unirii Wit 

But for Agw^tf the son of Jok^ I Bhonld have left my country, and gone £ar 
away; I have been saved by the strength of Alal, I have been saved by oar 
grandfather, the powerful Alal, the son of Wm. 

Nd Dik, yi kwaeha n^f Ya kuHxeha nifilj^I Ch§, ya k^ kun, fura ydn. Ya yiili 
yi kwd Ayddlt. WdnQ Na Dak g^rQ pack k( tuk, 6wdu fa IM mtkii. 

You son of Daky what do you ask for? I ask for a hoe, for wherever I go 
I hoe the ground. I have been preserved by our grandfather AyadQ. The mother 
of the son of Dak has built us a house under die deleb pahns; die branches of 
the deleb are like an army.' 

MiikS byil NakdyOi ya chid ya ydnitf moke by^l Abuk, man Dffiy ya eh^^ yd 

By ihe dura-beer of rfakayo I walk, I am filled with it, by the beer of Abuk, 
the mother of Dihi I am walking, I am filled with it. 

Akol a duok mal; yd nina r^, Ki nsni gwach^ rUme yijA t^ii^. Dak a shwgu, 
shwQU obwati Dbr^. 

Ahol has returned. I live through him free from oppressors. The anxieties 
of my heart were many. But Dak roared, he roared the white people away to 


M^tiQ ki gyiniy m&iQ, ki gylni, gysne Ddk yi tnpiQ ki gyln^ .... 
Each one has his own fowl, each one has his own fowl, but all fowl belong 
to Dak. 

Ya TQyi TQtl fffi^ gin dnQ f bwoiiQ! T^tq ywQgo, maL by^ a kil yi obunni, Kway^ 
fa t8k, iia Dak a kQljtoQk. Nd g$l kwatiS k6i tin, toa kela my tun! Obwati chama 
ydkh ydn. T^tq 6^ nUtiyik tn. J^an a titi ydn f Yan a rffj^ tabu. Shdgiy d^k Iwagi^ 
yi u f^dki ki nan m^kit* 

I am fleeing away, shouting loud! What is the matter? "The white people!^ 
the people are shouting loud. "The dura is being earned away by the ¥^te 
people!^ — But our grandfadier is not absent. The son of Dak is coming witb 
God. Te people, take your shields ! We will go diis way ! The white people 
want to take away all our property. Other people have not been robbed by 
diem ! Who ever dared to take away my goods ? I, the king of the people ! Te 
Arabs, turn back your hosts, fight another tribe! 

^ The rostling of the leaves of the deleib palm is like the rostling of an armj; so that when t^% 
enemy approaches the village, they imagine they hear an army, and flee. 

Songs 239 

105. Mourning songs, and others. 

Aha lia Nikan, Amy^le u>A t$k. FA find ya d^nit twhJ^, Lwonfan 6f^, fijdn 
vnin. Amy^le IwqA, wQt Kwdjkriii, d^ kdl, don i twctltt, fay don i twhl^y fay d^n e 
ySr^. Agilmwil fan^ itig2' 

Aba, the son of Nikon, my &ther Amy^le, is no more. Look at me, I am left 
poor. LwQn is away, he, our chief, Amy^l Lwqu, the son of Kwajeriu. Our family 
is left destitute, our village is left destitute, our home is left reproached. Agum- 
Kiel, he was a great chief. 

Afyfjz toat Den, liawd UtV* AryaUhik ggti ^ean, u kwaya Ajw^-^imin. 
Afyek, the son of Den, is waylaying in the grassy place. Aryalbek loosens a 
cow and gives it to AjwQt-ilimin, to herd (= to possess) it. > 

Ayidgkey wat RyaMwtt Wun-diArb, Ayiki, Wiini-gSn-bil, ya toati ki yu kun a 

Ryalawet Wundiaro, Ayiko, Wunegenbel Ayidoke, I lost the way in which 
he went. 

Akw^niyor, yina mdiijur, de ya dgn bgr! Jinbgk, AkwQneyQr, kwar^fa {Qtoa 
pal* Gt ki rache weya don a b^r. AkwQt a tSnafal; ya yafajoffQ Dunhok, ya yafa 
Okwoni, Ajal^iiaba^ gwan, rfdmailiu 

Akwoneyor, you captured people, but I was left poor! Jingbek, Akwoneyor. 
their grandchildren are dying in the wilderness. They live in misery, are left 
destitute. AkwQt threw me out into the bush. I am searching for chief Dunkok, 
I am searching for Okwoni, Ajalnyaban^gwan, Nyamailai, 

Akwoneyor, yi k^ ksA ki Iwagif AkwotQ nfttiifUit- Oldm-bffi a gll clior. Olam 
lia Nikan, Dulai wqi Ker, Kwalqi a gll chor, Na Nikan H mayi Blk. 

Akwoneyor, where have you brought people? Akwoto has never been cursed 
by his subjects,* Otam-b^ is a preserver of men in the fiunine. Olam, son of 
Nyikang, Dulai, son of Ker is a preserver of people in hunger, a son of J^ikan 
and of his mother Bik. 

Agwit^ane^on, /M a/8j{ chyi, Iwak a t^, Agw^i lia Nikan I D^ ytDQgq mal 
iQbo tdni chini. 

Agwetnyanedong, the country is starved, the people are dying. Agwet, son 
of Nyikang, diey are mourning, stretching up iheir hands. 

^ A song of cAttle stealing. ' has always been loved. 

240 So ngs 

AdQl'iun, yi k^ kffi t NuQr a vxif^ ya kfjfl. fAni Idni^jwqk, Awen, ika Yitr. 
''Adoltung, where are yon going?^ "The Nners are approaching, I am going 
to die town of God, oh Awen, son of Tor.^ 

Akol Dak lia lyikan, Kaye-DttrQ, Akoluku, AhoUKwalai^ ikt Ogak FqIs^ kwai 
4^9 y^ y^^ y^^ ^ y^^ yi^ ^f^ H dyiH^ ya yWi- Ydl^ maye DAki, Atnol ika 
Ogak (= Shot), hoagi Mfyi^ Mfy^h: Shal k^f Kpk ma woffq; nan lii gani 
k^i t none chii^ ywddd ki DM^ ufQtli ^kwai ywoda^ hook Amil, lia Isikan* 

Akol, Dak, son of Nyikang, Eaye Doro. Akolnku, Akol Ewalai, son of Ogak 
Folo, yon grandfather of men, I am preserved by you, I have been saved by 
yon in ancient times, 1 have been preserved. Takol, yon father of Dak, AmoL 
your people are continually asking me, ''has Shal gone?^ Hanger is approaching; 
where has he gone, he who preserves the descendants? Licking of hands ^ I 
found at DeikQ, eating of soup found I, you people of Amal, the son of Nikon. 

Ajdk'bdsk'ictl^Qk, kwaeha kwar^ kwaeha tyfgk fa jwQk, r^ e du/Qk moL Kwacha 
kway^ yau. Tbm i giji; yon da Isikan, ri$ e duQJk mal; t^ndfa y^na shindt Yan 
da ]Sfikan;feti a yi&, a yiil i riii; yafura byiU yafAkltt ya ffina shvta, WurO' 
ktodf kqA bid&I 

Ajak-banweljok, I am praying to our grandfather, I am praying to die people 
of the place of Ood, the king^ has returned. I am praying to our grandfiadier. 
The holy drum is being beaten, I am with ^tfcan, the king* has returned to 
us. Is not my spear in my hand? I am with Nikan. The country is saved, it js 
saved, though it was desolate. I am planting my dura; I thank (my ancestors), 
I lift up my hands, Wuro-Ewa, strengthen my arms! 

> ''Bcking of bands** is an expression for plenty of good food. ^ Nikaik. 

Riddles 241 


106. Riddles. 

Aduk giiiit luyi : mj^n dfun. The gray one is going under a pond : Loaf 

of bread, which is put into the fireplace. 
liin guwii f4ni t^kit : tdU kdl. my necklace is seen beyond the river : The 

unbarked, white fence sticks. 
fiemSt ki ret gin fa gu^: tund dean. Brothers who never hurt each other: The 

two horns of a cow. 
Ajwqgiilanwar^iyQiWQzyiep^an. which sorcerer spends the whole night in 

swinging?: The tail of the cow. 
Anor^narkemQWinFctshodQ: dliyit' Anor-nor visits his father (the king) at 

Fashoda : The grass called al^yo, which is 
used in making ropes. When taxes, cows 
etc., are brought to the king at F., the rope 
with which the things are bound, gets to F. 
f^^tf fit ff/il: bAl It is beaten, yet is does not ease: The drum* 
Arikd nkf /era mani: t^4t. (Dinka-language, except the last word.) 
Akur jin dffi: chogQ. white pigeons: Bleached bones. 
Apo t^k lia tysh oIcqcIq: Tq ^^ 

Adiik obigj^ kwdti Mgi^ gylJM. The gray one who is spotted is driving her 

little ones: The hen. 
Aduk ch^ yifiob^q: dtgL The gray one is running towards the fields: 

The mist. 
Ngdk gtooti/eti: dw&. The black-white cow is making white the 

earth: The moon. 
^wofiyai/i fffiQ ch^g^ toke bur: yi^. Litde children stand continually at ihe side 

of the heaps of ashes: The ears of man. 
Hemei 4q.9^ liliifiA: drltm. Two brolhers, their mouth is turned down: 

The nose. 
Adale jwqk yig^ Idn fiti : ffiu. The calabash of God which is turned down- 
ward : The fruit of the heglig-tree. 
Agar agar, yaf unii : l§jk, A long row of trees full of white birds : The 

teedi. Along ihe rivers one sees frequently 
trees which are literally covered wilh snow- 
white birds. 
WiUfefi, kornfa tor: anqn^* Thrown on the ground, yet not broken: 

Mucus from the nose. 

242 Riddles 

T^l pofe rate: chul ^^ 
Yeti ton H t/hi tan: roan ^idj^ It is on this side and on the other side: The 

eye of man. 
Ya wiH yi h^ ksAl (epi ddji. I am travelling, where are you going?: The 

shadow of man. 
Wd dd,gh$ i bA ki^: bur. We remove, he does not go : The ashes. If 

people leave a home-stead, the ashes remain 
A riffi rik pere mani : Tedet ' 

* Some of tiie riddles hare not been translated, their meaning being obscene, some hare for this 
reason been omitted altogetiier. 






Remark. Different dialectioal forms of a word are not given here. If cor- 
roBponding forms of a word in other languages than Shilluk are noted in Hie 
Comparative List in Part I, diey are not repeated here. 


a my; see Grammar. 

d denotes the past tense. 

if it is; ei ffin An^ which 
thing (what) is it? 

a which? A jhl fi which 
man is it? 


hbhch a cow with horns 
directed straight side- 

dbAmJich a bird, living 
on fish 

dbafi-dbdh hammer 

dbir a kind of reed. a. 
d yd nitm the a. is on 
the river 

abara^rh a big worm, 
living on the heglig tree 

dbdf^ (ar.) fishhook 

dbdjlirlt^ii^ri the igu- 

dbieh five 

dbmk eight 

dbih/^l six 

d6i^ a gourd out of which 
spoons are made 

dbinic^ nine 

dbtp small-pox 

dbify^u seven 

dbgb^, also dbwdbh am- 
bach, Herminiera ela- 
phroxylon; the plant 
as weU as tlungs made 
of it, as arm-rings,b oats, 

A6^*i-A6iSW a very poi- 
sonous snake 

bbik poor; ydfh bbik I am 
poor, see bik^ bitnit 

hbiir^bhr the bushbuck 
(Ba. aburi) 

d^tr^A; maize, com; gifOkt 
a. Hfwibdi they planted 
com in the field 

dbwine toch the butt of 
the gun 

dchd that there, those 

achah-acKak poet 

dchdn behind, back; see 

dclid'A^hhifi a fish 

dchim straight 

dcMchwH (ar.) chain 

dchdf/i melon 

dchiin^'dchunl &e snudl 
black house-ant 

dchuf^'dchilf arm-ring of 
ambach; syn. ogonQ 

dchwdth - dchwlL^ loin- 
cloth for women 

dchwdf, - dchwit, guinea- 

dchtdk a bird 

dchivih^chw^k anus; syn. 

dchyinit - hchy^ black 
winged ant, lives in 
houses, its bit is pain- 

dMIit-ddiiJi gourd, cala- 

ddkk three 

ddtrit'ddtr an arm -ring 
of ambach ; syn. ogonQ 

ctdir^'Mir donkey; a 
chQii tvich odiTQ he 
rode on a donkey 

odgrQ serf 

ddi, ddi, also i<R how, 
how much? chctn ddi 

iidim6 — dtlwidit 

how many days ? (Di. 

adimif^ifni beak 
ddinb-^in an electric fish 
ddi^Uhdd$l a fish 
itdudii^diit a basket 
dduk grey 

dduke a kind of red dura 
adu^j also dddgn a month, 

about March 
ddwirifMufari a fish 
adwdt chicken-pocks 
it4dt^iat (ar.?) bottle 
cf^u pistol 

<l^^£ armour, armament 
ddur^k a kind of white 

dura [son 

d^K^an honourable per- 
afa in order that 
df^l^dfit stink-cat,skunk 
dfA, also dfi hail, hail- 
stone; a. dy^mit it is 

4/'§A^ husk, as of cotton 
dfit^i^fi^ a fish, with 

big belly, four large 

upper and lower front 

igiJc these, those (Di. 

dgHh^iH crow; dghni 

chwdi a little black 

crow (Bo. gaki) 
dffdk tmcultiyated land 
offffi lyech a herb with a 

blue blossom 
dg^lt-dgh" a hair-dress 

of the men 

hg^ blessed ; see geig, 
igltn, gitn where? igltn 

in where is he? igh 

gin where are they? 
dg^nii general name for 

white dura 
dgir^-dg^r neck -bone, 

cervical vertebra 
hgwin - hgtdin bastard 

dgwirii a season, about 

November -December, 

harvest of white dura 
dgw^U-^wdJi a fish 
dgyh^ nw^ nhm a small 

bird with a white bill 
(ITQJ2 heifer; see fiayoJQ 
djhUn proper name for 

men (also name for a 

djUl grey hawk 
^jtoigi-djwik medecine- 

man , witch - d octor , 

ak these 
dkdeh a kind of white 

akQl^dkm bird-trap 
akdn^ verandah, shed 
dkdr-JtkAr a bird, eating 

akdre ya^ branch of a tree 
dkiyit^ikH/i the child of 

my sister ; niece, 

dkich the dura-bird 
hkt/i tytl^ calf of the leg 
dkgch a month ; akd^i duqn 


about January, dk^ii 

^ about February 
ik^k^ a basket 
dkol^kSH drum-stick 
itkdldlt (Dinka?) a month, 

about May 
itkitn-dkirii gazella rubi- 

dtkur (iihir^J-i^kuri wild 

pigeon; hkir-jwht a 

small bush - pigeon 

(Turkana akurt) 

the heifer**) 
dkwdnniktodn ear-lap 
i^kwiil a kind of red dura 
hkwQT husk 

dky^l one ; alone, single 
hkyin - akyi^ cock or 

spanner of a gun 
aldbQ rice 

dlM a kind of white dura 
dl^bi-dUpi a bird 
dJib&r a month, about 

dliAh'dV^i a fish 
alsfusi a food: dura with 

dried meat 
dUyh A gi*ft8S, used in 

making ropes 
hUUt bat 
alidi the (holy) spear 

of Nikariy which he 

brought into the Shilluk 

country, is said to be 

kept at Fefiikan 
dlun-dliin somersault 
itlutit^liiii fist; buffeting 
hlwidii a kind of white 


ama — iwdch 

dura, it has four ears, 
like four ''fingers'' ; its 
stalk is chewed like 
sugar cane; see IwsdQ 

ama because 

dinitffdk a dance, accom- 
panied by singing and 
clapping of hands, but 
without drum. 

amal in front of; see mal 

imdl^ first; ty^l a. at first, 
the first time ; see mal 

amhlt (ar.) - ctmctli camel 

dmdr^ fdr^ rhicinus 

dmdj(-dmdj^ a stork, black 
with white breast, nests 
on trees 

dmiuy (also dm4n) - dmik 

drnwol'drnwdl^, a large 
black fish 

andriy dndn-dndn, here, 
now, just now, pre- 
sently, at once 

andnit, dndno = dndn; 
also : here it is 

an/^^ spirit of a deceased 
person; toiji, da a. he 
is possessed by a spirit, 
he is senseless, mad; 
see fmgQ 

anon quarrel 

anor-nor a certain grass, 
used in making ropes 

dfidn brown earth 

diiwoch a season, about 
October, end of the 
red dura harvest 

dnddd-dndni breast-bone 

dnikii red sand 
dn^l^dntA' A smaQ red 

ant, feeds on carrion 
dii^-^ what, which? 

(Teso Tio^ Nr. nu what, 

Ba. na who) 
anol a mocker 
dnQi/iHinlttni a knife lor 

cutting grass 
dn!(tf^ snot, mucus 
dnw^ four (Nr. nwany 

Masai unwan^ Teso wo- 

nonOi Ba. umoan) 
dper fish-line 
drd well ! why ! by God ! 

see re 
drich-drSch a shell 
arit an exclamation 
drt/Qu two (Madi eA, 

Ab okaya m, Teso ami, 

Masai are 
dtdbi - dtiam (a foreign 

word) tobacco 
dtdl a slab 
dtdi-dtdi a large pot 
dtigity also dtiigQ^dtik 

(finger-)ring of metal; 

dt^ni dugn big ring 

(Nr. ttk) 
dt&i~dtdii hat 
at^ enmity 
dtk, also dtH'di^t man- 

gouste, ichneumon 
dtini just now, to-day; 
dti well! [see tin 

dtud^dtitti a wild goose 

(Di. twoty atxDoly Nr. 


Atulft the Sobat 

dt^n^ wind, gale, blast 

dtun-dky^l ("one-homed^) 

dtCt a bead, worn by the 

dtwdk-ditodk a bird 

d0bit a kind of red dura 

a^ach ^Qfi a very tough 

dfi^ (foreign word?) 

d{ei ddf^ the buttocks 

d0p^^p, also df^p bag. 
sack (Di. atep) 

d^r forever, for a long 

d^r^'d^tdi also d(ir a 
small stick or spear of 
wood, such as were in 
use formerly; used in 
digging eatable roots 

dfifwi-dtiu a small water- 
pot, in shape of a 

df^i^^ch a small hut for 
the new elected king(?) 

dwdy dhwd yesterday 
duwdr-dinod the day 
before yesterday 

dwdi a kind of red dura 

dtodh-^tD&k a bird 

dtvdjitt a bird 

dwtn when? 

dicit a kind of white dura 

dwi yes 

dwdch-awSch a large, cy- 
lindrical shell 

awok — bl 

awQk n^m a cow with 
horns directed straight 
upwards, like a goat's 

auTtfji^ marrow, as of 

dt/dch b^r a bird 
aydch sand, dust [ridge 
dyitr-dyitn quail, part- 
by^lkak a cow, black with 
white tail 


dyimit - dybm tin, orna- 
ments of tin 

aytoiiknaywhk tuft, crest 
of birds 

dywdm^dywbmi monkey 


bity bh I. to be; 2. not. 

BdchM^, PdehSdh Fasho- 

boffo to make a fence; 

pt. d haka bak he made 

a fence, pe. bdk, n. bik 
b§gQ to boil (eggs, com), 

to stew (meat); a bgka 

i^qI ffy&^ he boiled 

eggs ; pe. a bik 
bai buttermilk 
bdJQ to tie together; pt 

d b^chd IdUy pe. d b^h, 

bichy n. b^ch 
baJQ to miss; y(i bdchiL lai 

I missed the game 
biJc^b^k fence, palisade 
bilii to throw; a bQla 

gwok he threw at the 

dog; see batQ 
bhni syn. b^^ 
b^inQ to make a mistake, 

to be confused, vexed; 

to scold; to dispute 
bhniihbini the meat on 

the skin of killed ani- 
bang, to roll up (?) 

biui a cow with one horn 
directed downward, 
the other upward 

bdi/i^ to refuse, to prohi- 
bit; pt. d bdiid gwok 
he refused to work 

bAii^b&ii locust 

bin I . behind, after, back, 
2. slave, servant, per- 
son belonging to one ; 
more frequently: wat 
ban (Nu.aiai hind part) 

bupQ to ask for a thing, 
to beg ; pt. a bapi gin 
cham he asked for food; 
pe. a b^p 

b^Vy also bir long, far 

bar early in morning, 

b^PQ to be long, far 

biLt-b^t arm, fore -leg, 
trunk of the elephant 

batQ to throw; pt. a bala 
kit he threw a stone, 
pe. kit a b^l the stone 
was thrown 

bdy^ mosquito see b^yQ 

bi for, in order to ; from 
bia to come 

bich, also bach bundle 

bidQ to remain, stay, be; 
to refuse; pt. a b^da 
toot he stayed in the 

b& mosquito ; see b^yq 

btjit to wring out ; tdu da 
piy bech! the cloth is 
wet, wring it out 

bM a month, bil ^ July, 
bil du^n June 

b^lo to taste; pt a bild, 
gin cham; pe. a bil; n. 
btl (Nr. bil) 

b^y also btnh all, quite 
(Di. eben) 

b^nin that is, he is, that 
is why, from bh "to 
be", and in ''he, it" 

binh to come; d bin 
jal a man came (Nr. 

btr (ar.) flag, banner 

btr poor, destitute, wast- 
ed; from bi<ihf 

b^ I. round spear, fish- 
spear. 2. (sharp?) 

b^Qrbii mosquito 

biy 6M to come 


bt — bworo 

M white ant 

bUiy bit to come (Teso 
bia to come) 

Hgin = bogon 

bock barren; see bwoch 

bo^ to cast iron, to work 
in iron; to be clever, 
to escape a danger; 
pt., pe. a b^i; n. ^<^ 

M^ - bd^ blacksmith, 

bdff^ (from bi and gon) 
there is not 

bii-I^ net; bit 6rdf cob- 
web (Bo. boi) 

bokQ to fear, to be afraid; 
pt. a bitki (Eoamba 

bql a mat for closing a 
door; used by chiefr 

b^li^bttl face, front, front- 
side, in front of; b^l 
tin the shaft of the 

biJ^ to have misfortune, 
disaster, to be bereav- 

bql jlej^ neck - ring of 

bamQ to be bent, crooked ; 
yajl d bSm the tree is 

bSfiii to laugh; pt. a b$fi; 
see n^ 

l^n^'bini peUcan 

bbnit^b^fH a smaQ lizard 

biyr^bltr, boil 

bbr^, also bir afternoon; 
Hn hi bSr this afternoon 

bb^bdj^ bachelor 

bit to have not, to lack 

Buda-Chol native name 
for Taufikia; also Bura" 
CJiqI; Bura is the same 
as burQ "open place*' ; 
the meaning of the 
name is: "the open 
place of the Shilluks*', 
Tauf being situated 
in a free place, not 
covered with grass or 

bUdifbQt a shell 

bildii part, half 

btidi^, also btidit to lie, to 
lie down, to be sick; 
pt. d biiii; n. btit^ 

budQ to roast, to bake; 
pt. a but he roasted; 
also a bul; a budi rich 
he roasted fish; pe. 
rech a bCtl (Nr. ftyfc) 

bii^buj^ a smaQ melon, 
sweet, eatable 

budQ to be tired, troubled, 
vexed; to tire; kdrA 
bii^ "my breast", that 
is "I, am tired" 

bugln there is not; wi 
gSk y^ chhn ddik, 
bugin a wiH win we 
worked three days 
there was not a thing 
he gave us: he gave 
us nothing 

b\ig2 to press the bellows ; 
pt. d buk ki dbuk; pe. 

bih exclamation of sur- 

bul-buli drum (Karamojo 

bun part 

bi^nit to have not, to lack 

bup mud, Somal bar hole 

b&r^biir cave, well 

bur abwok the blossom 
of the com 

btir ashes 

burit = biir ashes ; also : 
free, open place in the 
village, covered with 
ashes (Di. bur, Nu. but) 

bute side, beside; from 
budq to lie? 

bwitbit uncooked butter 

buf^oh sterile ; syn. bqeh 

bwQdit = bgdQ to be 
clever, pt. a Afif 

bv)9git to fri^ten; pt. d 
bw^k; n. biodg^f see 

bwii!fiit'bu>Qii white man, 
European, Arab; bwQii 
jwgk missionary (Nr. 

bwMh a kind of red dura 

bwltAifbw^i a fish 

bwSp-bwop the lower 
part of the belly 

bwoTQ to make a mistake, 
to err ; Igbe i btdgrQ he 
makes a mistime in 
talking; kd yigi yd 
bu)^, lii kbfi ydn if I 
make a mistake, tell 
me! pt. bu^gri 

byi^ll — cf^iffQ 


bt/^ to follow ; pt. a bysjfl, 
ddf^; pe. a bt/ti; n. by^ 

byil dura; pi. of by^li 
btfUit also bf/iUt'bt/il dura 

by^h-byir belly, womb 
byhrh-by^ root 


chhi probably short for 
chan ^day^; sometiines 
used for "when", and 
in the composition "«Aa 
fri^kQ^^ some time, at 
some future time, in 

chh short for chagQ, chaka 
to begin, intend 

cJmbo to mix, knead, 
tread; pt. a eh^ph 
(ckhpii) iQbQ he mixed 
mud; pe. a chQp, chap; 
n. chip, or chip 

chsbq to kick ; pt. d ch^pi 
gwoh he kicked the 
dog; pe. a chip; n. 

chagOi war to compose a 
song, n. chAk 

chago to approach, come 
near; to be near; a 
chhki he approached; 
a ch. k§fi niekQ he 
changed his place, re- 

chdgQ to be^, pt. a 
chaki (or d chaka) gwgk 
he began to work, pe. 
a chdk 

chak milk; ch, ngyfi 

chAki near; see chanQ 
and ckagQ 

cliiil wax 

chain to be similar, like ; 
to resemble; pt. d 
chm yin he is like you 

chiUi a kind of white 

chim lefl, left handed 
(Di. cham^ Nr. chAm) 

chimX-chdmi (chdmi) bait; 
see chdmn to eat; ya 
kijA ch. dok abajl I put 
a bait on the hook 

chamq to eat; to outwit, 
cheat, deceiye; pt. d 
chama byil he ate dura ; 
pe. d chdm; n. chim 

chamQ to be going to, to 
wish , intend , want ; 
often shortened into 
chit or ch^ 

chdn behind, ya k^j^ chdn 
I am going behind 

chdn (chdn^ychini sun, 
day, time; ki chin 
every day, daily; de 
chan tin to-day (Nr. 

chanQf also chdnd to 
approach, to come or 
be near, pt. a chini. 

or ch^ni; n. chin^, and 

chini shaUow place 
chin^ - chini the upper 

part of the inner thigh 
chdo pi ki feii to pour 

water on the ground 
chap a rat 
chhrh or ch/iT^ very, in 

a high degree 
chiri mach light of fire, 

chafQ (chufo) to move in 

a direction; to walk, 

go ; to ride, drive ; pt. 

a chad nau he went 

naked (Di. kat, chot) 
chayQ to blame, abuse, 

cA^ short for chamq to be 

going to, and for chagQ 

to begin 
di just, now 
chgdo (chyido) to hate, 

pt. a ch§j^ (fdchQ he 

hated the woman, pe. 

rAljf, n. ch^ 
c^&go, (chyigo) to com- 
mand, pt. a chika ffd^, 

pe. a chikf n. chi^k 

chigo to catch (fish with 



cf^iffQ — chudo 

a trap or hook), pt. A 
ch^ka rech, pe. a chik^ 
n. ch^k; see chigQ 

chiffQ to be ripe, see 

chego, chys,ffQ to be short 

c/i^gQ to repeat, see chigQ 

ch^ky chy§k (to be) short 

cA^m straight 

chsmQ toch to aim a gun 

chini wQt dripping-eaves 

cluhiQ to curse, to kill by 

cA^rg to do or be done 
at once, just now, just 
before; e chir^ b^nt he 
comes at once ; a chef 
fiwgl he had been bom 
just before 

ch^t straightway, just, 
exactly ; see chirQ 

chli, chylj, excrements of 
man or animals ; chi^i 
gyinQ dung ol fowls 
(Nr. chyii) ; see chidQ 

ch^fdnA, a kind of white 

chi^ tyilit foot-sole (?) 

chi~mAn wife 

chibo to put, place; pt. 
a chip fukfeii he put 
the pot on the ground, 
ya chiph a^p chysn& I 
put the bag into his 

cAtd^ to suffer from diar- 
rhoe, pt. a chlf,^ n. chel 

chigQ to lay a trap, to 
catch fish in a trap or 

crawl, pt. a chika reeh, 
pe. a chyik, n. chyi^k 

chigQ to repeat, continue, 
a chika gwQk he re- 
peated, continued his 

chigQ, chy^gQ to command 

chilQ dirt, soot (Bo. shi) 

chini over there, yonder 

chin^, also chtnit-^hin in- 
testines , b o wels (Nr . 

chin obanQ ^hands^ i. e. 
string, of apron 

chtu to come to the sur- 

chdd/Qy chodQ to break off, 
to rend, pt a chdta jgZ 
he broke the rope; pe. 
a chSt; n. chbt 

chodQ to blow (of wind) 

chodQ to put (into), to 

chogQ, chQgQ to remain, 
continue, go on; a chSk, 
a choga (chdka) gwQk 
n. chdgh] see chigQ 

chogQ to abstain from; 
to stop, finish 

chtgbrchtk a fish, i/ii chdm 
yi ji it is eaten by 

chi^gi-chi bone (Nr. cAo- 

choJQ to beat, wound with 
a sword; a cKoch jal 
Sni he wounded this 
man, pt. a ch$ch 

chok it is finished 

Ch^k ChSl Shilluk; see 

ehol dirty (Jn. ehol black, 
Nr. ehol black) 

chdlQ to avenge, to give 
compensation, to pay 
a fine ; n. chdUt 

chSn, oA^n formerly, some- 

cA^n^ di kwbm the back- 
bone; see chQgo 

chQUQ to dance; gi ckgno 
bul they are dancing 
to the drum 

cKqAq to assemble; to 
gather, pile up, store 
up ; jal duQn a chona 
je ki btirit the chief 
assembled the people 
in the open place (Nr. 
chwQk)] see chukQ 

chgr blind ; see chtogr 

chbr-ch^r vulture 

chiQro to move towards, 
to go into ; e chorQ de 
fach he goes into the 
village; pt. d chitr, n. 

ch6t a steer without horns 

cAdj^ that is all! past tense 
of a verb whose pre- 
sent is not used 

chvdQ to groan, moan 

chudQ = cholo to make 
amendments; pt a chat, 
a chSly n. chbl 

chv^Q to clean, polish; 
chv^Q. ^ ^ brushjclean 
the teeth; see cAt»| 

chug^ — chy^k 

chug^ehuk charcoal 
chuko to assemble 

eisulu, Nu. soTot)'^ ch. 

ffwok copper-bracelet; 

ch. diwQTi a certain 

ehuiiQ liver, chM6, mid^ 

''my liver is sweet": I 

am satisfied, happy; 

chufia rack I am vexed, 

ehun pi. ch^ s. knee (Ba. 

kono, Karamojo akwAy 

Teso akungi) 
chunQ to stand, stop, wait, 

be quiet, be silent; pt. 

a chini; chuni, chuni! 

be quiet! (Nr. chun); 

compare chogo 
ch^nQ to assemble; see 

chukQ and chonQ 
churo to be bald; toija 

chiir my head is bald 
chir^'chuT a fish 
chute gin cham (?) to ask 

for food; from chwoto 
chuf^chiH tooth-brush 
chwagQ to absolve, justify, 

pt. jaga a chwhkil ndn 

an the judge absolved 

this man, pe. d chwdkk 

chtoai'chwhyi soup, broth 
(Di. chwai)] vide chwi 

chwaJQ to form, create, 
make, build; pt. a 
chtcdchd tUibo she made 
a pot; pe. a chwdch, n. 



chwdeh (Di. chwech, 

chwak'chiodk ambassador 

of the king 
chwak throat, voice, self 
chwdrb-chtodr bug 
chwayo to pierce, perfor- 
ate; pt. d chwdi yaf^f 

pe. d chwdi 
chwi leeches 
chwe (to be) fat (Di. chwai, 

Nr. chwaO 
chweJQ to suck out (a 

wound), to bleed a 

man; to absorb, suck 

up ; jtn a chwich yi piti 

the water was sucked 

up by the earth 
chweky chwok ambassador 

of the king; see chwak 
chwik twins 
chtdllo to circumcise; pt. 

a chwela ^ji^ pe. a 

chw^lf n. chw^l 
chwhr a season, about 

May-July ; the dura is 

being planted 
chweyQ to become fat 
chxoino to begin to rot, 

decompose ; pt. rino d 

chmiiQ liver; see chujiQ 
chwobQ to be visible, clear, 

distinct, kwofs, chw6p 

his speech is clear 
chwobo to mix, a chwQpa 

kwin ki mau he mixed 

the bread with fat, n. 


chwobo to spear, to pierce 

violently ; ^tg^chtoopa 

dean they speared a 

cow; pe. a chwop 
chw^gbrchu bone 
chwqgo to stay, = chogo 
chwolQ to call ; see chwoto 
chwojio mach to light a 

chw&n chaff 
chwono to be late, to stay 

behind, yi ri chu^tn 

why are you late? n. 

chwor vulture 
chwgr blind (Nr. chor) 
chwoTQ to be bUnd 
chwQto to call; to ask for; 

to mean; pt. a chwota 

jal, or a chwolajal, pe. 

jal a chw^l (Nr. chwol^ 

Di. chol) 
chwou male, man (Nr. 

chwowQ to roar; pt. a 

chwdrci, n. chwow^ 
chysiiQ-chysf^ excrement, 

dung; see cKej^ 
chyido to hate ; see chgdQ 
chylgo I. to ripen, to be 

well cooked, be done; 

2. to be short; pt. d 

chyigQ to shut, close 
chyego I^bo to knead 

mud for building 
chyigo to command (Di. 

chyhk short (Di. chyek) 


chy^k-miLn wife, chyigi 
chw^l his wife was 
called, see chi wife 

(Nr. chyek) 

chy^nQrchyiAf chin haod, 
forearm (Di. chyitiy 
Turkana ekan) 

chyirQ to sneeze; chysrQ 

y&i to take snuff 
chysfn to chase 
chydu^hyaufi porcapine 


da to have, yi da ^n I 

have a cow 
dafol rat 
dQffo to move into an 

another place, to emi- 
grate; pt. d dik; n. dik; 

see d^nQ 
dhk - dik tobacco - pipe, 

small pot 
difcigl-^kiki a stick for 

digging the ground or 

planting dura 
damQ t^n (Di.) to avoid 

a spear 
diin the gums (Somal dan) 
d^no see d^nQ 
dir^ to be overtired, to 

break down, to be 

afiBicted with, pt. a 

difi yi jxoQk 
dctth'ddt hoof 
di forms the perfect tense 
di short for dy^ middle, 

in, into 
di hut 

di chdn noon 
di chdn tin to-day 
di chbn forever 
didQ to lift up, as a boat 

from the ground 

dedQt door 

dgdiii grey; see oduA 

dlgQ to move into, e dlgQ 
yey wgt he moves into 
the house ; see dOtgo, 

^k stupid ; see ^gq 

diktigi = dikigl, stick 
for digging the ground 

€^l~dM skin, hide, whip, 
€^l ^k lip, d. Mn eye- 
lid; dlla bgn afet "my 
whole skin is tired*': 
I feel very tired (Ga. 
odweU Di* det) 

d^m^ to faU down, pt. a 
dim, n. d^mii; see 
dy&nQ; perhaps dimi^ 
is not properly a verb 
of its own, but the in- 
finitive of dysmoi (Nr. 
demn to rain) [bone 

d^-^ni the lower jaw- 

d^hi Also denn to scatter, 
to part, to separate, pt. 
d&iy din 

dtr^ why, when? (from 
de, er^ "but why") 

ditin-ditin the spitting 

didQ to learn, to be ack- 

nowledged with, to 
know; pt. a dt^ iti ^ 
Choi he learned the 
Shilluk language, n. 

diko: a diki w^ the sun 
is setting, darkening 

dimQ to dry, to wipe; d 
dim chyen^ he wiped 
his hands 

dip^bi a fish 

dtr middle, truth, true, 
upright; see dyir 

dit (Dinka) large, big 

dich (to be) good, nice, 
agreeable , right ; yi 
I^ ki dieh I remained 
a good (a long) time 

dgchq to twist, to wring 

dqdQ rnqgo, to brew beer, 
pt. a dwQla m.; pe. 
mQgQ a dw^l; n. dwf^l 

ditih black earth; liy^ a 
dodQ iron 

dogQ to go back, to turn 
back ; pt. a doh n. dbg^, 
see duQgQ 

digilpiii chameleon 

doJ2 to be good, to be- 
come good ; n. dlbj^ 


d^k gum-sap, caoutchouc 

dUl circle 

dolQ to make round, a 
circle ; n. ddl. 

(JqIq mQgQ to make beer, 
pe. a dwQl; see dqdQ, 

dMn to be or become 
good, well; see dqj^ 

dqnQ to remain, be left; 
pt. a dSn (Di. don) 

dgnQ to grow up, become 
large ; to be large, big, 
great (Nr. dan) 

dqrifditr wall 

diriy dirlt^ri ax, adze 

diyh to decrease, be de- 
creased, pt. a dSi 

dtiinit to evaporate, to 
steam away, to dry 
up; — to rise above 
the water; pt. a di^in; 
n. dubn^] see dioff^d 

dunit to smoulder, mach 
e dunq, /a lysl, the fire 
is smouldering, it does 
not bum 

dditgh to come back, to 
return back, to repeat, 
continue, to accept, 
duQffQ wQJc to miscarry; 
pt. a ddhh n. duhgh'!, i 
diik H bwin when will 
he return? (Di. dwqkf 
Nr. jok) 

diiik^ dUfigit to ruminate ; 
pt. ^^ean a dugki turn 

dti^ big, great, large, old, 
respected, jal dugn 
honourable address to 

a respected person 

dup-d6p a mouse 

dut-^At loin-cloth of skin 
for men, worn in danc- 

dut a present to the rela- 
tives of the bride ; same 
as diit loin-cloth? 

dH^ni a skin-doth; see 

duwit a herb, used as 
medecine against dwalo, 

Dino^t name of a brother 
of Nikan [month 

dtv^ (duiti)Hlw^t moon, 

Dwai Nubian; used in 

dwai to bring, see dwayn 

dwtr hunting 

dwavQ, to hunt 

dwat2 to wish, to want; 
to call, pt. dwdtd 

dvbayQ to bring, to carry; 
to send for, to let come, 
pt g^ dwdydy or g^ 
dwdiy pe. a dwai 

dwsi moon; see dwai 

dw£nQ, or duQriQ to be 
shallow, to evaporate 

dwQchQ to wring (a cloth) ; 
pt. a dwQcha tdu; pe. 
tdu a dwQch] see dochQ 

dtoodQ chysn to cross the 
arms ; pt. a dwdtd ch*, 
pe. eh. a dudU chy^n^ 
a dibt hi his arms are 

dwQlQ, to mix beer with 
flour, see dgdo. 



dwoto to seek, to want; 
pt. a dwoti yUk he 
searched firewood, pe. 
yink d dwai, n. dwtUi; 
see dwatQ, 

dwufiQ to dry out, to eva- 
porate ; see duQfiQ, 

dy^ to suffer firom diar- 
rhoe; pt. a dy^p; pe. 
a dyip; n. dyibb ; ^agi 
dyebb he talks too 
much, is talkative 

dyigQ to rain a little: kgi^ 
e d. it is raining a little, 
drizzling, syn. hweyQ 

dyiUdy^k goat; e kwayg 
ki d. he herds goats 
(Nr. ddit) 

dy§l jwbk "God's goaf", 

dyil wdti b^ a bird 

dyspiQ to fall; pt. a dysnx; 
kiQj^ id. it rains in large 
single drops, afei e d. 
its hails ; see d^mb 

dysn a grass, used in 
tying the house-poles 

dyir middle, truth, true^ 
certain;ofien shortened 
into di with the me- 
aning of "in, into^^ 
(Nr. dar, Ba. dirt) 

dyivQ, to desire ; see dwatg 

^ichi^'miln woman 

^itlkdu-miin woman 

^lit to fidl, to be in diffi- 
culties, at a loss (Ba. 
ddra, Somali ddt) 

^f^, also ^f^ man, person, 

human being, mankind; 

woman, mother, (fdj^ 

(fdf^ fiwSm bride 
din-^ni dancing-stick 
^dn^ sometimes shorten- 
ed to di'^k cow, 
digqio be stiff, paralyzed, 
Iw^ a ^k my fingers 
are paralyzed 
4lffQ to be slow in talking 
or thinking, to be stup- 
id, ignorant; pt. a^k, 
n* ^ffhy see the pre- 
ceding word 
^!enQ to yex one, pt. a 
^ni in he vexed him; 
pe. yd dini in I was 
vexed by him, n. ^nit 
dik, (fek stupid 
de-twirii a dry place 
^idQ to make straight 

^^in the hot season, 
about March 

^ifdji to suck (milk) ; pt 
a ^J; a ^Qfa chak; pe. 

^k-^k mouth, bill; bor- 
der, edge, language ; 
4it Chal the Shilluk- 
language; ^ kal out- 
side the yard, before 
the yard; ^k dky^l 
one mouth -fill; with 
one mouth, at once, 
unanimous; (Nr. fpky 
Masai gu^ tuk , Teso 

^k reply to a call 

^i-kitfi ^mouth of rain^, 
the beginning of the 
rainy season, April, 

4itl a kind of white dura 

dqlg^ to swing n.; pt. a 

'^ 0, n. b^tUi 


iitf^^^t^^i A big basket 

Dlinit (from Dongola) 
Nubia, Nubian 

dbAd a season, July- 
September, the beginn- 
ing of the red dura- 

^H to - morrow ; J^ni 
chini the day after to- 

^u<^^ to rise, to get up ; 
pt. a dwb^ maly or: a 
4^td mal; n. 4^i>4it 

4u^^ f^ to destroy, pt. 
a d^ra fehy n. c^r^ 

4wat/Qr4^i P®{^7 driven 
into the ground round 
the big dura-basket 

^toffH sorrow 

4^9dit to suckle a child ; 
pt. a 4^i>o{ lial 0fi, pe. 

dwitr buffalo's hair hung 
on the horn of a cow 


^ his 

ilii a grass out of which 

ind — in 

i he, she, it 

ropes are made 

itii this, that, these, those 


in he, him, she, her, it. 


M, idi how? 

that one 


/A I. to be, 2. not 
fdeh-mt/ir home, village, 

fada to be tired, to be 

loath of; p./g<> more 
frequently fet, some- 




f&nQ to gainsay, denie; 

pt. a ftm, n. fy^ 
fSii earth, ground; down, 

below, /M e rA one 

year passed 
fin ghi the first twilight 

(probably from/^) 
fir equal, alike, identical, 

fir bin it is (they are) 

all alike; fir H msn 

the same as that one 
ferq to catch, take hold 

of; pt. aferi ^, pe. a 

fir, n. /irh 
ftr^ to sweat, perspire; 

pt a fir 
fl'fik water (Somali biyo) 
fidQ to be tired; pt a 

fit; yd fiti yin I am 

tired with you, see/^o 
/ids to follow, persecute, 

pe. fity n. fidJ^ 
fid^ to raise, educate; pt. 

a fi{a ^f^ he raised a 

man, pe. a fif^ n. /t^ 
fih^h to denie, to gainsay, 

n. fybn ; see fimQ 
fi^r^ to be close together, 

to stand in a line 
Fiji the mouth of the 

flJQ mach to rub fire, pt. 

a fichii m., pe. a fichy 

finit to be pretty, beauti- 
ful, pt. aftn 
fin^ (ftnityftni cheek 
fit (to be) tired, see /irfg 
/d^ to surpass, to be 

times fit, yeja fet yi 
gtctt my heart is (that 
is: I am) tired with 
writing, n. /fldg 

f^dft to ffidl, fall down; 
to die (said of a chief); 
pt. a fit, a ffH ; wiji 
fajl his face fell = he 
was disappointed, a 
fad f^ she bore a 
child ; n. /3^ 

fikgk to be sharp, to 
sharpen; pt a f^k he 
sharpened, a fUM fal 
he sh. the knife, pe. 
fal a fdk 

fdk sharp 

fil bush, desert, uninha- 
bited and uncultiyated 

fdUfit spoon (Bo. fala, 

fiU>, also fttl^-fdl, fhl 

fimrfimi I . board, table ; 
2. saddle 

fitni it is he, that is it 

fdnit to stoop down, to 
hide ; pt afuni, affni, 

fatinto tiy, test, examine, 
pt afAtil 

fan, fan full 

/dn^ to be full, to become 
full ; to fiU, pt. a fun 

fQnQ to divide, to distri- 

ftkr-ffr{ hippo 

/flrfi to fly, to jump, to 
run away, to pass by, 
to flee ; pt. A fj^ra, or 
a/sr Jhi^om^ he jumped 
on his back (Di. par^ 
Nr. bar) 

fdrQ to remember ; pt. a 
fhr^ kwQp, pe. a f&r 

fUr^'firi a small mat for 
coyering plates or 

fij^ skin, peels of firuit ; 
fsfe fiwQle ya^ 

fii^ it is not, not present, 
not here ; no ; fk^ in 
not he 

/ayg I. to fear; 2. to 
make fear; pt. yafaya 
jal ini I frightened the 

flcJiQ to ask ; pt. a ftcH 
in; pe. afyoch 

fld^ to Ue, tell lies; pt. 
a fit, or a fyU, n. f^ 

fi^ to plant, raise, grow ; 
educate ; pt. afifiL byil, 
pe. a fit; n.ftd^] see 


fij^-fech peg, nail of wood 
fj^JQ to lead (as a sheep); 

pt a ficfia dyslj pe* ^ 
fich, n. fich 
ftk (to be) heavy (comp. 

fikQ, to sit, sit down, pt. 

aftkdfeh he sat down, 
«/ltt ; dflka wi^ chitn 
he sat down on his 


more than, pt. a fdi; a 
foli jal he surpasBed 
the man; maeh fo^i 
mcU the fire rose up 
(Ba. put) 

fi^^fit country, /ojj^wfin 
our country, fofe cKqI 
the Shilluk country; 
see also fwodQ 

fqgQ to be bruised, pe. 
a fQky n. fttgit 

foj2 to brush, rub, clean, 
pt. a fdehii lane jal 
duofiy pe. afw6ch;foJQ 
chak to make butter 

fiUffil cloud 

foj^ !fim to weed grass, 
to pull out ill-weeds; 
pt a fon^ Ly pe. a f$f^, 

fofe country, native coun- 
try, home; this form 
used only when a gene- 
tive follows : fofe win 
our (my) country ; see 

fu^ to pull out, as a 
pole; pt. a fu^i ya^ 
pe. a fi^y n. fu{ ; see 

fii^fui a lame person 

fu^ to be lame, to be- 
come lame ; to palpitate 
violently, to be seised 
with apoplexy, fyew^ 
e fu^Q his heart beat 

fuJQ yei to comb, dress 
the hair; pt. a fucha 
yeiy pe. a filch 

fuk-fugi (fukif) tortoise 

fik'fuki pot; fuke fi, 

fw;^ same as/j22^fi 

/urg to till the ground, to 
plant, pt. a furi feh; 
(Somal abur farming) 

fwbdii to beat ; pt. afwota 
iny i^Q.afxi>6t (Ji\,pujoty 
Ba. but) 

fv3it4i''fw6t place where 
the ground is tilled, 
field, farm 

fwQJQy ftifijit to praise, to 
thank; pt. afwQcha in^ 
afwQchiifiy fe.afw^h, 
n. fwfich 

fwoJQ, chak to butter; pt. 
afwocha chak; see fojQ, 

fwoi^ to teach 

fyhrh ten 

fy^hQ to ask; see /qsHq 
(Ba. pija) 

fy&io, to lie, to tell lies, 

fyidn to split, rend^ break; 
to sting, hurt, prick, 
pt afy^a tiJc he broke 
the sudd, pe. a fyst; 
fih a fy^ "the ground 
was split**: the day 
broke, n.fy^ 

fyeJQ ysi to pull a boat ; 
to lead; ^eefiJQ 

fyilh cacare, a fytH, a 
fyl^ n- fy^ (Nandi, 

fyh^> fybi'fini skin, for 
clothing, sleeping on 

fytr-ftri or fir back- 
bone, fy^ d tSt my 
b. is stiff, aches 

fyt a lie 

fyit (to be) torn 

fyiu'fyi^ heart; fyowa 
dwata k^ fofe Chql 
my heart wants to go 
to the Shilluk country 
(Di. pwQu) 


gh piece, copy, number ; 
it, they; ga adi how 
many (pieces, copies)? 
je ga adek "men they 

three** = three men 

(Nu. gar) 
gigit to belch ; pt a g$k 
gig^ — gfik cowrie-shell 

gii an exclamation of 
surprise ; see giyd 

glijQ, I. to touch; g, fH 
to "touch &e ground** 

ffanid — giwl 

wi& a sacrifice, to lay 
a sacrifice on &e 
ground , to sacrifice ; 
to leave a sacrifice 
on the ground; 2. to 
smear; chiefly in a re- 
ligious sense, to smear 
mud on a building 
dedicated to Nikan^ pt 
a gacha l^bQ yi tout, pe. 
A ffichj n. gieh 

gam/Q, to hand, reach; 
garni ydn gin hn hand 
me that thing ! 

gamQ, vo6ri to accompany 
a song; pt gigdm; see 
preceding [gdm 

gim^ to capsize; pt. d 

gUnQ to think, to think 
of; to trust; to respect, 
honour; pt aganajal 
eni ; n. ginit 

gitnitgiln, also gtni metal- 
button, worn as adorn- 
ment in a string on the 
brow etc. 

gi^ (g^ygHt river, river- 
side, river-bank (So- 
mali gar) 

giyo. to be amazed, per- 
plexed, astonished, to 
utter an exdamation 
of amazement; pt a 

gS ; n. giyh 
gi they, &em 
gidq to build; see g^rQ 
g^ to tickle; pt a g^ 
geffQ to chirp, twitter, 

warble, sing (of birds) 

gm^ ehlHr to sustain people 
(in times of need) ; pt. 
a gil ; n. g^l 

giUt-gill or giU a steep 
slope or river- bank; 
gil nam steep river- 
bank ; gil (or gslo) toan 

gin they, them (Nr. kin) 

g&iQ to drive, drift, float; 
a gtn 

genQ to besiege; pt. a 
gina pack ; pe. a gin 

gp^ to build, to erect a 
building, to found a 
settlement; pt a gtri 
tout ; pe. toQ^ a git 

git red-brown stuff with 
which the face is smear- 

g^Qy gV^ to besmear (the 
&ce) ; see preceding 

glfift to kill, sacrifice ; to 
treat a guest 

glf short for gin thing, 
only in compositions 

g{ bwiik "thing of the 
strangers'' : siphilis 

glehii something (from 
gin, gi thing) ; g. mikt 
something else, some- 

gi chtoak ornaments of 
the neck 

gi ckyin misfortune, mis- 
hap ; see chypiQ, 

gi4Q. to be wanting (of 
teeth); pt a gi^ l^ 
he has no (or few) 

WBBTZRMAIIN, Tk« Bhtttrnk P«opl« 

teeth; a ggjja l^k he 
pulled out teethf pe. l^ 
a gii the teeth were 
pulled out (?) 

g(i4it to sacrifice (as a 
cow); to bless; to treat 
a guest; pt a giifa 

gl fM "thing of the eardi'' : 

gl gtoif writing material, 
pen, pencil 

gi gtoin bribery 

gln^gik thing 

gin sometimes instead of 
gin, and ^^n 

gin chdm food 

gin dii^ womb 

gin Idk inheritance 

gin mdi beverage 

gin mtich ahns 

gin m'ieJiini old, antique, 
ancient things 

gin lioib arms 

gin tik toy, playthmg 

gin ^fi little thing, baby 

giiiit to rub; pt a giikh 
^n H mau he rubbed 
him with oil ; d giii he 
rubbed; pe. d gbi 

gir much, many, plenty 

gi rim measure, ruler 

giti^ to reach, arrive, to 
last till; ^ ^tfil tiU 
to-morrow; e gito, bgrq 
it lasted tiU afternoon 

givd stone 



^i toieh head-onuunent, 

^^ he, it, him [hat 

ffobn kwcjn to scratch mud 

together (for building 

etc.); pt a gipit or 

ghfi k. ; pe. a g$p ; n. 

godQ f^ to scratch Ae 
ground, to dig; pt. a 
g^ fii/i ; pe. a ggl ; n. 


ggdd to loosen (?) ; pe. 

lw£t{i g^t his fingers 

were loosened 
gQgO, to work, to do, 

make, practise; pt. a 

g^kit toQi] pe. a guj9k 
giji'^dehi sword ; from 

ggJQ (Nr. gtj^) 
goJQ to strike, beat; to 

fire a gun, to hit; pt. 

a gitchh ikal*^ pe. ikal a 

ghk^k a ring of skin, 

worn round the leg 

below the knee 
g^l enclosure , home, 

homestead ; family ; 

ty^ gula the people of 

my family, belonging 

to me; espec: "my 

wife'' ; tyffi gttl gin his, 

or their wife (Di. gol, 

Nr. gql, Somali gola) 
gdl: k^gbl boil, abscess 
giUhgil side-arm of a 

river, bay, bight 
gin where? a k§j^yi gon 

where did he go ? 

gtnhey him, it 

gonq to keep, preserve; 
pt. a gona jam he kept 
the goods; pe. ag^\ 
n. gihi, 

gOjIkQ, to loosen; much 
used in the sense of 
loosening a cow, that 
is giving it away; pt. 
a g^i^ tau he loosened 
the cloth; pe. ^k a 
g^ the catde was L 

go^ to complain of^ to 
accuse, to carry on a 
law-suit against one; 
pt a^^;n. yiil 

go^ to scratch; pt. a 
gwQiki dilt he scratched 
his skin; n. gw^tl^; see 

gon a dry place (?) 

gonit to stoop down, to 
dive; pt. a g$n he 
stooped down ; a g$ni 
fa py§n he hid himself 
under the skin; n. g^jnil 

gdpQ see gobn 

ggr comer 

gi^ir* or gi^ a kind 
of big white beads 
worn as necklace 

jrgnJ niggard 

ggrq to tattoo, to make 
incisions; pt. a gqra 

gtit comer, hiding place; 
behind; syn. ggr; a 
fa^i g& ^it he hid in 
the comer of the house 


goiQ to dig, see ggdii and 

gdtlt to be vexed, angry, 
to sit down vexed, not 
saying a word; pt. a 

gii^gd a big fish 

g^^ (gudq) to knock, to 
hammer, to pound; to 
hurt, to kOl; pt. d giUa 
byil he pounded dura, 
pe. byil d giU or: a gitr, 
n. gut 

g^k (to be) blunt 

gUl^ gitli wQt the comer 
between roof and waU 
of the house, see gtt^ 

giUt-^l (at.) cannon 

gun^t to bribe ; pe. a g^ 
he has been bribed 

gdr^ir, also gir a very 
large fish, weighing up 
to 2 — 300 lbs. 

^fi**« Hygikr tattoo, brand; 
scar of tattooing; see 


gWrn to tattoo, see gorft 

git'^iUntkYfA^ umbeUicum 

giU^rgitl^ a wooden ham- 

gwiteh taxes 

gtbai rough; ya| magwai 
a rough tree 

gtoajii to collect or to pay 
taxes; pt. a gwiichk 
nyfflk; pe. a gwdeh; n. 

gxodlo, to be thin; pt d 

ffto&iiiji to scratch, see 

ffwatiQ, to err, to make a 
mistake, to do some- 
thing by chance, miin- 
tentionally; e gwMQ 
tbdh he told a £ake 
report, a lie; hit chaka 
ffwaAQ in a stone hit 
him by chance; pt. 
and pe. fftoid 

gwQTQ, to snatch, snatch 
away; pt. a gwara nng, 
he snatched the meat ; 
pe. a gwdr; n. gw4rft$ 
or gw^r^ 

guHitQ to bewitch, carse 

gwayn to bark, bay; pt. 
a gwdi 

gwaj/Q to be coarse, 
rough; kwgm^ gtoaj/Q 
his back is rough 

gwldit to carve, to write; 

pt. t/i gtoit I wrote ; a 
gw^, or gw^i watiQ; 
pe. a gwit; n. gwit 
gtdijo to kick; pt. agw^cha 

4oif^l pe- <^ g^ich; n. 

gufllQ to wink (with 
hands) ; igwilo M cht/ir 
n^; pt. a gwil 

gitiilbrffuM ring 

gwiuQ to pick up, to 
gather, to collect; a 
U^ ydn e gw^nQ yUk I 
saw him collecting fire- 
wood; pt. a gwinh yukj 
pe. a gw^ 

gufiTQ, to peel off, as skin ; 
{^Zg gwerQ his skin 
peels off; pe. a gw&r 

guilt carvings 

gwidn tip to give a sign 
with the tongue, to 
"wink** with the ton- 

gue; pt. d gwit; see 

gwbk-gubk dog (Kara- 
majo enoky Elgumi eki-- 
noky Teso akinoko) 

gtv^k work; i guo^k hd\ 
what kind of work is 
that? what is here to 
be done? what shall 
we do ? see gdgo 

gtofyilt to scratch ; pt. yi, 
gtffOfia rea I scratched 

gwotQio digup the ground; 
see godg, 

gyi^-gyik Mrs. Ghray's 

gytUirgyU ring of ivory; 
see gu^lQ 

gyinh -gyi^ hen, fowl 

(Mundu ngo) 
gytro, to build; see gidQ, 


yidii king; comp. r^, 


falQ %oQk to bring out 
ydm^Yim tfiigh (Nr. yum) 
fdrQ thrashing-place; g& 
ptt6th byil ki toiy farQ 

Ti4it'T^ grass-torch 
fej^ fish; comp. r»;g 
fify w6r September 

Ifiriht^ri a red bead 
yir^ to cut into strips; 
pt. a Y&r pyffiQ he cut 
the skin into strips 
ret spirit = jii king 
yi well! aU right! 
YodQ to pound ; cf. tbtdQ 
YQJQ, to bask, to sun one- 
self; pt. a YQch 

yMq te elect ; see tq^q, 
Y^Q, feA, to sink, to dive ; 

pt a yh^i/i feh ; n. /^^ 
TnJr^ - T^r relations by 

marriage, see ir^t; yiri 

his brother-, sister-, 

Y^t house ; see lOQt 





hd ezcUmAtioD of firight 


jaeh'jieh slioiilder-bUde 
jad^ to be in or to get 
into difficulties, to be ftt 
ft loBB, to be short of^ 
to fail; pt. ajati nyffi 
he is short of money, 
also ajs!^; n.jAdit 
joffit kft to puU a rope 
jago, to rule, to govern, 
to be chief; i jagqfUi 
he rules Ae countiy; 
pt. a jdki f., pe. a jdk 
jigit^ik chief; fin dugn 
big chief^ district-chief 
jal'JQk man; ^eejcUq 
jd fyit a liar; jal f. ffr 
hi ku 9k liar is like a 
jhl gltl husband ; fil gltU^ 

my husband 
fil gwi^k workman, la- 
fil Uti warrior, soldier 
file IwQk washerman 
fil mit robber, wajlajer 
fil ikwimi bridegroom 
fil nal butcher 
fil n^au trader, merchant 
fiUtf also fil'fik man 

(vir); for the plural 
tysn is also used; in 
compositions the sing, 
is ilwBjBfilf the plural, 
if Ae following word 
begins wiA a conso- 
nant: j'i^ 

filQ itching 

filQ to curse 

fil tidit^Q t, or tyffi tliar 

yaZyaj(medecine-man; the 
"bad'' wisard 

firk,fim goods, property, 
valuable things; tmi dii 
fim gir you have plen- 
ty of goods 

fime gw^k tool 

fime kwir things belong- 
ing to the community, 
to the king, or which 
are reserved for reli- 
gious purposes 

fim Wk I. arms, armour 
for war; 2. booty, spoil 

j8ni to lean against; <>.;. 

fipn (jabQ?) m^igQ to stir 

the beer 
ji people; ji /o^t the 

people of this country 

j^ to reign, rule, govern; 
pt. a j4H: n. j^, or 
jdgit; see j'ojrfi 

jffn (ar.) week 

jirid a season: about 
September, the time 
of harvesting the red 
dura, yeg j. in the j, 

j^ to be short of; see 

jUfnit to have colic ; yefaj. 

fieh, jbeh-j^h a plant, its 
root is used in making 
ropes and fish-lines 

figQ to turn something 
back, to prevent, to 
chase or drive away; 
j6gi ^k drive the catde 
away, pt afika leii he 
turned the war badk, 
prevented war 

fik pi. of fiU men, people 

JQ iMc waniors 

jip, jifup^ipi buffido 

fir-jor tksmM fly or gnat; 
a bug 

fidit to be over-tired, 

jur — k^lo 


jit^y jitr people, tribe 
(Ba. jur country) 

jui: WQU dj(^ ehan a kf^ 
the sun has set, the 

day is gone 
jwanQ to hasten, huny; 
to be hasty, rash, i 
jwdnit kwip he is hasty, 

without deliberation, 
in his talking 
jwiik-jwok God; sickness; 
i dajw^k he is sick 


hi I. place; 2. there, here; 
chip ki put it Aere; 

3. and, and then; ehan 
arj/Qu kayi hi in two 
days, then come again; 
hi connects only sen- 
tences, ki single words ; 

4. id, ifed IfigQ, if, when 
kil = ki^ to go ; yd kh 

14 ffyfQk I go to work 
kdbQ to take by force, to 
rob; pt. d khph ^ti; 
pe. ^an a kdp; n. kip^ 
(Somali qab)^ 
kAch = kAf k^eh place; in 
the place of^ instead of 
JeadQ salt (Masai makat) 
kados or k^dQ to bring; 
see k^fiQ, pt. d k^ts a 
I^i gin cham, pe. a 
m^ (Somali qad to 
kiidQ to twist, plait, braid; 
pt. a kit; d kidi Iflm 
he twisted grass; also: 
a kkth yei he plaited 
the hair; pe. yei d kit, 
kado, to go, to step on; 
syn. i^ 

kago, to cut open, to split; 
to rend; pt. a khkii 
^ean he cut open a 
cow; a kaka ya{ he 
split the tree ; a kak, pe. 
a kdk, n. kAk 

kagQ to plant; pt. ya kaka 
ya{; pe. a kdk 

kagQ ^k to gainsay, de- 
bate, dispute; pt. ya 
kAkA dqk; the same as 
kagQ to cut open? 

kigii bush-cat 

kigQ sand-bank, chiefly 
a small stretch of sand 
uniting two islands 

kQgOy sometimes kagQ to 
ache, to pain violently. 
wija kQgo, my head 
aches; pt. d kdh n. k^k 

kaJQ to pluck, to pick, to 
gather, to strip off (as 
dura -corns from the 
ear) ; pt. g^ kdehi byil 
Aey harvested dura; 
pe. a k&eh; see hajQ, to 

kaJQ, to bite, to sting; to 
pain, ache ; pt j^l d 
kbchh ^f^ the snake 

bit the man; pe. ^f^ 
a kdch; ehlna d kAch 
my bowels ache; n. 

It^k a fish-spear; see bf^ 

khki time, chiefly the 
ancient time, ifc./i chhki 
a time not near : a long 
time ago; k.fiii (lo^^g) 
time; k. ddgn the an- 
cient time, the time of 
old, a long time ago, 

khUhj^li fence, enclosure, 
court, court-yard (Di. 
kal; Somali qalo castle) 

kQlo to carry, bring; to 
be carried, brought; 
to ride, drive; to come 
from; £ £9^ gin eham 
wqt he carries the food 
into the house ; ya k^ln 
iffieh adgro I am riding 
on a donkey; k^l ya 
wQk carry, pull me out! 
pt. a kQl gin cham he 
carried Ae food; yi 
kQla kffi where do you 
come from? a kela gin 
cham he carried the 


k^lq — t^to 

food ; pe. a kH it was 
k^lq hidQ to wait 
kdmd (pt) to be going to, 
to wish, to begin; yd 
k. gw^ 
kin while; Bee kA place 
kan<i dom-palm (Nr. hUn) 
kdnQ, k^riQ to bring (So- 
mali ken bringing, Nr. 
kffi to take) 
kanq to hide; pt a kana 

^y&^i po« ^' A kan; n. 

khn^khni trumpet (Nr. 

kdn = IMci time; for 
inst., kdn a tint some 

kdrq to have branches, 
to branch off; ^ ChQl 
a kdr the Shilluk Ian- 
goage has many bran- 
ches, i. e. is rich in 

kQtQ to bring, pe. a kil; 
see kddQ 

kafo^ to step over, see 

Ariti^ititribeam for build- 
ing a house 

kayQ address for a des- 
cendant of a king 

kiyit-kiU elder brother; 
see preceding 

kdt/Q appetite, desire for 

l^ch hunger; yd db, h 1 
am hungry 

ktsh strengdi, power; 
strong, powerful, se- 
vere; bitter, sour (Nu. 
kagal sharp, Nr. kick*) 

kgjshQ: ehan a kifihi the sun 
is turning downwards, 
it is afternoon 

i^ijhkit a fish 

kedQ to twist a rope 

kiffit to go; pt a k^; a 
k^l wQt ''she went into 
the house^ : she is 
going to bear a child 

keffQ to plant, see kagq 

kiU kiU middle, midst, 
in the midst of^ amidst, 
between, among; kil 
ttrit among the people, 
wi^ bbg^ ki kJiU gin 
there is no child among 
them ; kJiU bit the place 
between the shoulders 

kelQ, ksfd to throw a 
spear, to spear, to stab, 
pt. a kela ddf^, pe. a 
kit, n. Uti ^ 

kimQ crutch 

hemQ to visit ; pt. a kffna 
4^9 po- A kfm; n. 

k^Q to stroke, caress, 

l^it-kini gourd, calabash 
kffi (from k^h) place; 

time ; reason ; here, 

where, when, if; Nr. 

kiii bitl itch, place where 

a gnat has stung, blister 

kffi gtcQik itching 
kffi ktoftn burial-place 
kffi'kwi^ path of the 

kffi Hi "hot place", 

wound, boil 
keikQ yai to shake a tree 
kf^ to be strong; pt a 
A|iii; n. W^; see k^ 
k^riji — itffcA^ r^ ''place 
of the king**, a small 
hut where a deceased 
king is adored 
ki^ = kffi rill 
k^kif^ boundary, border 
kepn to take a thing out 
of a larger quantify, to 
choose, pick out; to 
take away, to steal; 
to whore, to prostitute 
oneself; k^jpi choose L 
pt a kepi; n. k^p; see 

ker rich; ya fajal ker I 

am a rich man; yafaf^ 

H jal ker I am not a 

rich man 

ksTQ, to dig out; pe. ty^ 
lOQt a kyir the foun- 
dation of the house ia 
dug out 

kt' alone, self; again; yA 
kttd I myself^ I alone 

kit rope, plait of hair 

kifo, to throw a spear, to 

spear, stab; to thrust; 

to fight; ^tdkf^dafk 

. he stabbed a man; d 

kid tin he threw a, 

kitQ — ku 


spear; pe. tin i ktl; 
n. i^; see kth 
kip to dash, to shatter, 
to split; pt. a kt0s n. 


kSu'kSt breast 
kewii leti to give a war- 
kiuA edge, boundary 
k^ bidn a place for sitt- 
ing down (from kffi) 
k^y kwai pasture 
k^y hen sleeping place 

H fish-eagle 

k( with, and; connecting 

lAeh bee 

kidi, Hd{ how? (Nu. faV 

kyiQ colour ; kite tojo black 

kifd in order that, on 
account of^ because of 

kifinQ, kifitn^ why? 

tSmit to lean the head, 
to be thoughtful, to 
ponder, meditate; pt. 
d kim; see k^nq 

kindii thus, like that, just 

kink thus; often introduc- 
ing the direct speech 

kinkln a fish 

kirQ to tremble, shiver, 
dlla kir my skin shiver- 
ed (Nu. kerkere) 

kU'Hti stone, rock, hill, 
mountain (Nu. kit) 

kite colour; see kidq 

kifji to put to place, a 
ki^jam wQt he put the 
things into the hut 

kd, ki short for kgbQ to 

kQbd to take 

kgbQ to say, to speak; pt 
a k^p; a koma kwQp 
he said a word ; pe. a 

kieh-kiichi a small ax 

kddi^ to fasten, tie; to 
wrap, as a wire round 
the spear -handle; k. 
bak to make a fence, 

n. ita<^. 

kodg, to blow, as an in- 
strument; k. mach to 
blow the fire; pt. a 
ko^i mach; a koi^i hdn 
he blew the trumpet 

Kdditk the town of Eodok, 

near Fashoda 
kogQ to rent, hire (Nr. 

kokh to trade) 
k^go, to blossom 
k^ breast of woman (a 

word used only in the 

royal court) 
ktjh cold (Nr. kQch') 
kQJQ to separate [man 
kd it^^ioj^^Jtitt unmarried 
kqkq (kqffQ f) feA to stick 

into the ground; pe. a 

kd k$t be quiet! take care ! 
kol a month, about De- 

kalQ to pull out, extract; 

pt a kgla yaf>; pe. a 

kgl; n. kitl 
kolo, to drive, as catde 
k^niQ to be going to ; syn. 

kAn-gik a month, about 

kgng, to stimulate, affect, 

to excite desire; to be 

excited; e kgnq fyawa 

it stimulates my heart, 

I want it ; yej^ konQ he 

is excited; pt. a ki^nu 

n. bkjtn 
kduQ worm 
kiiii^kQfii a niggard 
kgiiQ to help; k^ dn help 

me! pt d ifc^i in he 

helped him 
ikoii^ hQ^Q, to pour out; 

pt a koAiJi he poured 

the water on the ground 
kohQ to dig; see kw^ikii 

(Nr. Jb^^) 
kQUQ, to blow; syn. ho^ 
koTQ to keep, preserve, 

to care for, to watch; 

pt a kSra gi fifk he 

kept the thing; pe. a 

kor; n. k6r 
kbrit cotton, see kwQro, 
kqtQ to drive, see kwqt^ 
kitt rain; k. e moJcQ, it is 

raining (Madi ikodi) 
kdf> trumpet ; see ko^ 
y^kUwi thief 
ku not, prohibitive (Ba. 



kuchi — kwarQ 

hiehi not to know, to 
ignore; past form of 
kujit; generally this 
form is used, and al- 
most always in passive ; 
hichi ydn I do not 

kudfi UddQ to pull out a 
thorn, pt. a kftla k^ pe. 
a kQlj n. kitl — see k^lQ 

kudu to be quiet, silent; 
pt a kht; kadi be quiet! 
yi hi kiU ^o not be 
silent! (Nu. kxte^ huse) 

kuJQ not to know, to 
ignore, kiji I do not 
know (Nr. kuy') 

kalQ to bow; e kxUq wij^ 
peti he bows his head, 
pt. a kula w. 

kama to cover; pt. a 
kuma dak ki (offQ he 
covered the pot with 
a cover 

kiin place; there, where; 
yi k^li (or k^la) kun 
where did you come 
from? (Nu. kut) 

kun de chan west 

kun do direction 

kun dwQffn UHin Nikan 
east ("the place from 
where returns the eye 
of iV/% i. e. is the sun) 

kun dwQffQ wan wude 

kun dwQffQ wan Iwal 

kun dwoga wan odgn west 

teni-^Wi pig d^Wt = 

kinit'kinl a younger 

child, younger brother 
kaj^ mach to blow up 

the fire; see kwfn 
kdddit'hiSt tick; k. ya 

yi$e gwok Aere are t 

in Ae ear of die dog 
hibdd to be swoUen, 

bloated^ as a dead 

body; pt. a hibt; n. 


kubjifhibeh a place with 
white sand in or near 
a river; mud for house- 

kifinti to taste, to take 
first of the food ; pt a 
kwQna gin chamy pe. d 
kwifit n. kwltnit 

k^r a fine (imposed by 
the king or magistrate) 

lairQ to watch, see kor^ 

kuwdJQ address for a for- 
eigner [descendant 


kwach fins of the fish, see 

kwacfiQ, to beg, ask, pray, 
request; pt a kwacha 
^aj^, pe. a kwdeh (Ba. 
kwat, kwaehe) 

kwhch-'kwiuii leopard 

kwago, to embrace, to 
c«ry in the arms; pt. 
a kwaka ^f^; pe. d 
kwdk; n. kwik (Di. 

kwago, to decompose, 
putrefy; pe. rtng a 

kw^l killed, butchered 

kwdlQ to remain, n. kwiU 

kwalQ to steal, pt a hodla 
gin an; pe. a kwdl 
(Ndorobo €iehQr diief) 

kwdni ehM watch, clock; 
from kwanq "to counf, 
and chan "sun, time*' 

kwini a stick for scratch- 
ing the head (probably 
a plural form) 

kwd^'kwitni solo-singer 

kwinit to count, enume- 
rate; read; pt d kwin 

kwdAifkwach Ae fin of 

kwdiiii to take (Di. ibtooii, 
Nr. kan) 

kwdnffin a bird, eats fish 

kwanQ to be the first in 
doing something; e 
kwctnn biriQ he comes 

kwAnit a very large red ant 

kwanQ to swim, pt. d kwan 

kwa Hi descendant of a 
king; from kw€mi 

ibtodr^ - kw^ poles for 
making Ae house-roof 

kw^rj^ red 

kwoTQ^kwir I. grand- 
father, ancestor; 2. 
grandchild, descendant 
(Nr. kwar chief) 

kwato — kyiffQ 


kwatQ to steal; see kwalq 

kwayo, I . to herd cattle ; 
pt. d kuAi; a kwaya 
dgk; 2. to be well, to 
have slept well 

kw€^iff^f^ grandfather, 
ancestor; see kwd 

kwfi some (Nr. kwet) 

kufikit (kw^htt) to open 
the ejes; pt. a kwiJ^ 
wans, he opened his 
eyes; pe. wana kwik 

kwile rij^ the hair (of a 

kwin a kind of bread or 
padding (Nr. kufQn) 

kwfftQ, fingernail 

kwffr: jam kwir things 
belonging to the com- 
munity or the magi- 
strate, or the king, or 
which are reserved for 
religious purposes; also 
part of the dowry 

kwff^ poles for Ae thatch 

kwffTijh'kuiiri hoe 

kwe^Q to steal; pt. a kw^ 
he stole, a kwiti^ (or 
kwe^l) 4ean he stole a 
cow; see kwalq 

kwii-ku}^ dung-hill; cow- 
dung piled up 

kw^i wound 

kwi some ; see kw^ 

kwodo, to drive, to herd 

kufd^ihkdli Aoms, sticks, 
poles for house-build- 

kwo^Q, fnaeh to mako a 

fire; see kodq and 
kwQffQ to fart, to ease 
oneself; pt. a kwQf^ ; tf{ 
rh kwiit? ^* ^iti (Nr. 

hvoffQ to sweat 

kwogQ to take ; pt. a kwoka 
yaf^ pe. a kw6ky n. A^n^ 

kwQJQ, to sew together, to 
tie by sewing or bind- 
ing; to stretch a skin 
onadrum; ^tahebchh 
liu, pe. a kwdchi n. 

kwok sweat [kibjit 

kwbm^kdm back ; on, upon 

ktv^tm-kutmi board, chair, 

kw^mq to carry on Ae 
hip; p. a kwQmaiUil 0fi 

kwQmo, to Ump, lame, 
hobble; pt. a ku^m\; 
n. itt^m^ 

kwQn flour 

kwauQ to be sulky, cap- 
ricious, moody, to re- 
fuse eating 

kwiniyij^ the place behind 
Ae ear 

kwQiiiQ to bury, pt. a kwQfia 
^fi; pe. a kw$ii (Nr. 

kwoiiQ, to help (Di. koA) 

Jku7(^n^Jku7^n history, report 

kwQfiQ, Iw^Q fingernail 

kwgnQ to begin, pt. a 

kwiip talking, talk, speech, 
word; matter, affair I 

kwor debts, fine ; see kur 

kworQrl^ cotton, thread 
(Masai karash cotton 

kwQTQ: mach kw. lamp, 
torch ; see kwovQ cotton 

kwQTQ to winnow, to clean 
the com by winnowing, 
pt. a kwgra byil, pe. a 
ku>$ry n. hibd^ 

kwbUkit shield 

kvoi^Q, to drive, lead ; pt. 
a kwQti ^k, or: a kwQla 
^k he drove the cattle, 
pe. ^k a k$l, n. kitl 

kw(^ to blow (wind), pt. 
ysmQ a kw^t, or: a 
kwQti the wind blew; 
pe. a kgl yi yQfriQ he 
was driven by the wind ; 
see kwQTQ to winnow, 
and kwQtQ to drive 

kwfyiji''kw^i farting 

lydii border, as between 
fields, see k^wii 

kyawQ to row a boat ; pt. 
a kyau; n. kH 

kyieh right hand, on Ae 
right hand 

kysdQ byil to roast dura 

ky^dQ to refuse; pt. d kyit 
he refused, a ky^di k^ 
he refused to go, n. 
ki^ditt kyir; a refuse is 
often expressed by 
clicking of Ae tongue 
(Ga. kwero) 

kyigq to cackle (fowls), 
pt. a kyik 


hyil — Un 

hyil together; gi k^ 
hyil they are going 
together; from aky^l 

kytUtrkyil fence (?) 

h/iUt'lyil star 

kyinq to squat, cower 
(lifting one knee higher 
than the other) 

lysnQ yij^ to listen, pay 
attention ; pt. a hygna y. 

kyh^'ky^i, or ky^ri, horse 
(Madi kaiho donkey, 
Abokay a kaiier donkey) 

h/^r Ae water of two 
uniting rivers 

ky^Q to leak, trickle, 
drizzle, bleed; rgrnQ k. 
the blood is trickling; 
rea kygrQ I am bleed- 
ing; pt. a kyh" 

kysnt togt to mark out 
the (circular) funda- 
mental lines of a house ; 
a ky^rhi or: kyiti kal 
he marked Ae circle 
of a fence; pe. a la/er, 
n. kytrli 

kytfr^^H I. a fish, 2. die 
space between the cut- 
out teeth 


U^it mud, clay ; /. ya yi 
there is mud on the 

W>^ people 

Idch urine (Turkana (dot, 
Masai galak) 

laeh broad, wide 

laclid to be broad, wide 

iQfffl to inherit; pt. a Ihka 
jam; pe. a Idk; n. Wc 
(Nr. lakh) 

iQffQ to dream; n. l^k^ 
(Nr. lakh) 

lUffQ magistrate, authori- 
ty, community 

lil'Hi game 

/at yino to be lost, to die 
(said of men only) 

laJQ to piss 

l^kit'lik dream 

Idl a monA, about August 

tdmQ to pray to God, to 
worship; pt. d Idm; d 
IdmajwQk; pe. d tttm 

lini^tttni, linl the nabag- 

lanQ war to spend the 

night waking; a lana 

war; n. lane xoar 
tdnq to be loose, to be 

not strong, durable, to 

rend easily 
liu'Uni skin, cloth; IdrU 

dij^ cloth of man (Bo. 

loo, Ba. labo, Turkana 

elau, Earamojo el^m) 
Idu spittle 
liu far away 
liwi'lAwi oar of boats 
liw^'ldh, abo Uni skin, 

cloth, syn. Idti 
liwi to be far away; pt. 

a liwi 
liyit: wij^ I. he is asham- 
ed; pt. w, d l^; n. l^i 

Hb^ to lie in wait for; pt. 

d lepa <^j»9 pe. d Up, 

n, libit 
tedQ to shave; e L tiga 

he shaves my beard; 

see ly^l 
teda, also U^ to see, pt. 

a fi](a $t^5 or: a tefa 

d., pe. a Hi 
lijihlik tooth; l^k ly§eh 

ivoiy (Nr. l^h, Nandi 

kelek, Ndorobi keUk, 

Masai ala, Somali iUk) 
lik din a kind of white 

dura [see lago 

l^ko to dream, pt d l^; 
l^l'M flint- stone (Di. 

aleli Ba. lele) 
HUt to be smoodi, even, 

pretty, nice, good^ pt. 

a miy n. nut 

Wi war, army, danger; 
JM a tin an army was 
raised, a war arose; 
Mn^ da L "his eye 
has war" : he i« angiy 

l^j^Q — Iwak 

l^kQ to become or feel 
hot; see ^ 

^fi^ to throw; pt. a tjna 
tuky or: a £eni tuk he 
threw ft stone ; pe. tuk 


tip-ttp tongue (Di. lytp) 

l^pQ I. die junction 
between wall and roof, 
2. = iQbQ mud 

l^pq r^k to crawl, creep, 
go steakhilj 

^ also ^ (to be) hot, 
sore, litna L my eye is 
sore ; /M ^ it is hot : 
rea % I feel tired, un- 
well, feverish, am lacy 
(St. Hi) 

lia the hot season, Janu- 

Ji^lt^i (sing- Also Uu) 

a small lizard (Di. aleu) 
IgwQ wiy wot to make Ae 

upper edge of the roof 

even, smooth 
libg, to be cool, cold; pt. 

a litni; n. libh (Ba. Ubi 

Ubg, to steal upon, to 

come stealthily upon ; 

pt a tepa nu, pe. a Up, 

n. Itb^; see l^pQ 
Rdft to see ; see te^ 
linQ to hear; pt. yi Un I 

heard; a Una kwQp, or 

Hni kwqp; pe. (f lin 

(Nr. Kfi) 
Jtt^ At)t (to be) destitute, 

bereft, without catde 

(Nr. Uu to die) 

tdch-WJQ black; tyffi taJQ 
black people; bwati L 
black Arabs 

tgdQ to wade in water; 
pt. a lu>$t; pe. pi a Itv^t 

Uigo. to become, pt. a 
Igka ^f^ it became a 

kigo. (^^) to foUow; e L 
bdn gitn he follows 
after him; pt. a J4k b. 
g., n. %i 

^go, (toho) to answer, to 
interpret; pt. a ^Ai 
kwip, a Ibka kwip; pe. 
kwip d ISk; n. l^gii 

l^ffQ to reconcile, com- 

t^gQ to wash, pt a Iqgi 
lauy a IwSka tdUj pt. a 
Iwdk [ing dura 

Idi'lbl a fan used for sift- 

toJQ to be black 

l^k^ this side (Di. Ion) 

161 deep 

1^ sticks 

^ofig (luiUl) to do a thing 
later, after somebody 
else, to follow one in 
doing something, pt. 
a loiia bin he came 
later, after him; n. li^h 

lQ9i2 to pull out, pluck, 
as feadiers, hair; to 
loosen; to get off 
(clothes); pt. a l^iH 
gyino, pe. a l$ii (Nr. 


Itn an this side, tone 
cMnS that side; see 

Idi-liti club 

toyQ to run away, flee; 
pt. a Uf/lj n. Uh/^ 

lugq, to come after some- 
body, to foUow; e lugq 
baii gon he follows him ; 
pt. a luk ban gon, a 
luka ^^; pe. d lUk; n. 
litgit] see loiio 

I6git to turn, to be turned 
towards; a ligi Utgi 
he turned (himself), 
he turned round ; lio/f 
i Uig& he turned his 
back; n. liik; see Ig^go, 

lUm^JAm grass 

lunQ, to turn (down), to 
be turned (down), alilit 
€ lunQfeA the bat hangs 
upside down, pt. d lUn; 
n. lUnii, see I6git 

lii^b^ to be in company, 
to converse with a 
person, to have inter- 
course with, to deal 
with ; pt. ^f hiqpa rei 
gsn they conversed 
with each other; a 
lugbi he c; a lu$p 

lugn gtoSk the blossom of 
the dura 

luiQ to fall into (?) 

lUyl'Uif/i pond, small lake 

Iwdk'ltoik cow-house (Di. 
IvHik, Nr. Itoak) 

Iwak people 


Iwdili — mQn2 

Iwi^ll the general name 
for red dura (probably 
a plural form) 

lioahd to be or have 
become poor,de8titate, 

Itoitn^lwdn fly (Di. Iwan, 
Nr. Iwan, Ba. alauno) 

lu^dit'luit finger; l. tyilQ 
toe; Itoign duQn thumb, 
luffn ^ litde finger 

Iwiii worthloBs, insipid, 
cheap , simple ; see 
IwatiQ and Itdgtiii 

ItoiifiQ to be insipid, taste- 
less, worthless, cheap, 
simple, senseless 

Iwsna to be soft 

Iwijo (Iwiji) to whistle 

IwQffQ to exchange 

lufQgo^ to accompany ; 
espec. to ace. a guest 
a short way; a hoQka 
cn; see logQ 

ItoQgn to wash (oneself 
or something) ; a liDQki 
r^ he washed himself; 
a IwQka ^jf, he washed 
a man; pe. a Iwgk, n. 
luiffO; see liffQ (Teso 

IwQlnUit a gourd, pump- 
kin, calabash 

hoQjio scrotocele 

Iwon ffwok ''molar tooth of 
the dog*' : the blossom 
(or the sprout?) of Ae 

IwSp'lwdbi company; see 

ItoQiQ to wade in water; 

pt a Iwit^ n. bo^t^; 

see todn 
b/aw(t to spy, to lie in 

wait for 
lyieh-Uieh elephant 
U/fJd to want somediing 

but being ashamed of 

asking for it 
ly§k a place where the 

grass is burned 
lyilo, to bum, to flame; 

pt. a lyil, n. fy^l 
h/ilo, to shave ; pe. a lyU; 

see tidn and preceding 
lyinb, cooked butter 


met because, for; whether 

md which, who, rel. (Nu. 
tna^ tnan) 

md-mik aunt, sister of the 

much fire (Nandi vndt, 
Eamftsia mat, Ndorobo 
nidt, Suk nid') 

madiri (ar.) Mudir, Go- 

midit a certain dance; 
first part of a dance 

m^idQ to drink ; pt a mij^ 
a mifi pi, pe. pi a mi^ 
(Teso akai-mata) 

moffQ to catch, to get hold 
of, to seise, to hold 
fast; pt a maka ^^; 
a maki ^tof^; pe. a mdk 

m^Q to spread out in Ae 
sunshine; pt. a mielut 
tau, a miiicJA tau, pe. 
a mdeh 

mdl, or nAl, often short 
mdl heaven, the upper 
region, surface; above, 
on, onward, forward, 
at the head 

tnalo, to adore, to pray, 
to offer thanks (to 

God) ; pt. a mala jtogk, 

pe. jtogk a mil 
milit^mdl, mdl bell 
malg to roast, broil; pt 

a miUt rino, p^- <> ^"^ 
min, w^^min women 
iTiinii-fTuln testicles; mifii 

mAni nam junction of two 

mdna to hate, detest, to 
be inimicous, to wage 
war against; to forbid, 
prohibit; pt. a many 
n. minit 

tn^ikQ — mint 


m(^ to capture^ to be- 
siege ; pt. a m^iia paeh; 
pe. a milk; n. miikt 

mdb fat, oil, see mau 

mar green; Mni mar kifa 
nyffi your eye is green 
on account of money: 
you are greedy after 

mdry also mA because, 
because of^ on account 

fnfir a silyer pot which 
plays a r6le in the 
history of the Shilluks; 

' it does not exist now 

mhrii to lore; pt a mari 
jal fffu; pe. a mar; n. 

m^rQ to thunder; pt mal 
a mQri the heaven 
thundered, it th.; n. 

iTidl slow, slowly; also a 
form for excusing one- 
self or of asking atten- 
tion or precaution : 
take care! excuse me! 

f7i4{-m^ female 

fn4|-ni3| firiend; md^ 
my fir. (Di. meU, Nr. 

mit^ to greet, salute; pt 
saluted him; n. mf^f^^ 
or m^i (Di. mat, Teso 
akai - mala » Somali 

mddr^ small, litde, a litde 

mhu fat, oil, m. ^tean 
butter, m. Hch honey, 
m. ehiffi marrow 

may^kwfir candle (firom 
hwQrn cotton) 

nAy^^mdi the mother's 
sister, aunt 

mayd to fish, to catch fish 

may2 mother? 

me property; forms pos- 
sessive pronouns; mi 
tgrn common property 
of the people 

mijdQ to increase, augment, 
add; mf^t nyffi give 
more money 

mldq, also m^do. to be 
sweet, flavorous, sa- 
voury ; agreeable, joy- 
ful (Nr. mfith to taste) 

m^q, msJQ, to shut up, 
shut in, to hide, to 
close ; pt a meeha liut 
he shut Ae eye; pe. a 
mech; n. mich 

mJJQ, to make straight, 
even, to pull, drag, 
tear ; to adjust by pull- 
ing, tearing ; pt a mlfihh 
ya^, a mifih ; pe. a mSfih; 
n. m^eh 

mik^^m^kt some, some 
oAer, someone, some- 
body else, jal m. some 
man, another man 

min his mother (from mi 

min, m^ which, the one 
who, whose 

m^nQ to put into, to stick 
into, to press into ; pt. 
a minct yaifeii he stuck 
the tree into the ground; 
pe. a min 

fri&iQ to twist; pt a mysn; 
a mysna wenQ he twist- 
ed his beard; pe. a 

m^ Ae one who, syn 

minif^n^i heart 

mint hind part of the 

mkff^ to be pretty, beauti- 
fol; b^l i m. the face 
is pretty 

m^ to be deaf; pt a 
min (Nr. mien) 

mir a kind of white dura 

meri charcoal 

mirQ to be reconciled, 
to reconcile; pt. gs_ 
mir; n. mirt 

mgt sweet 

miirfnit big hair-dress of 
die men 

miH 6poiij^ crest of the 

mt mother; mid my mother 

minQ to be pleased; ehun^ 
m. he is pleased, satis- 
fied; n. mint 

mint (minnqf): mal a 
mini, IcqH i mint a 
heavy rain-shower is 
coming, it is going to 
rain heavily, it is gett- 
ing dark; n. m\nt 


fnin — It 

fittfi deaf^ deafiieBs; Bee 

mffiq (Nr. min) 
mlit mother, see ml 
mlfQ to hold fast, to keep, 

his hands are tight in 

holding £ut moDej: he 

is close 
modQ to cohabit; pt. d 

m^t; d mQta ddc/iQ; pe. 

a m!^tf n. mitt 
modo to break (?), pe. nAt 
nid^Q. dark ; fen fh m. it 

is dark ; see mH^ 
fniitgit any food prepared 

of dura, dura-beer; m. 

mif6 beer, m. 6iir flour, 

m. ffin cham bread, 

pudding, mQn a waeh 

dough (Di. mQii) 
m^g2 to crumble off, as 

the bank of a river; 

to glide into ; pt. a m^k, 

n. mbffh 
moJQ to boast of, to be 

proud of 
m3fQ to give; see mUJQ 
mik these, these ones, see 

mifcQ, (Nr. tnfijfe) [fish 
m^kr^mibtk the dog-head 
mik {f^ truth, true, yerilj, 

mik = pi. of miib^ don 

pi. o{ duQn 
mokq pi. of mik(t 

mqkd (sometimes rngk^) 

to rain, to drizzle, drop ; 

k^t i mjik^ it is raining, 

kitt d miiki it rained 
mil, mwil morning 
mQld to flow 
mglQ, to come early; pt. 

a mgl bffiit he came 

eariy, n. mSl^ 
mgfi^ to swallow; pt. a 

m^Qfia ffin cham; pe. a 

mQTQ red ant (Nr. mwQr 

mf^ adultery, see moda 
mj^^ to pick out, to gather, 

to pluck ; pt. ^Caeho, mj^ 

dbwoky pe. a n^ 
mit4, m^ti first, at first 
fnStit sterility (of the soil) 
mdfdUt (foreign word?) 

mopQ to hold fast; pt a 

mi^ pe. a niota ya^, 

n. mt|^ 
mitchj^ island 
mudq to drown, to be 

mU^ darkness ; m. e. b^nlt 

d. is coming; /M bA 

m. it is dark, /M fif^ 

m. it is not dark (Bo. 

mut) [witchery 

miiffi disease caused by 

mi^Q to give, a mucha 
njfffi (Nr. moeV) 

muke beer, see muffn 

mtUa to creep, crawl (Di. 
md, Nr. mwdt) 

mulQ to plaster wi& mud, 
to wall, to wall up 

mdZ^ to tame, to be tame, 
a mill H fach it was 
used to the house, it 
was tame 

mumo to be perplexed, 
confused; pt ttrija m4m 
I am perplexed (Nu. 
mumw deaf) 

mtitlt neck; mune ^^ 
neck of man 

mwojQ to be stmgy (?) 

mwcJQ to explode ; pt a 
mw6ch, n. myjdfitf 
mwoche toch the ex- 
plosion of the gun 

mw^l, mQl morning^ fin 
fh m. it is morning 

mw^^nq, to plaster widi 
mud, to wall ; a mw^na 
rarQ (Nr. mun mud) 

mwiiA soutiform cartilage 

mwitnit to whisper 

myp' pi. of pack village 

fnysTQ to be wordi, to 
deserve, to be becom- 
ing; pt a myir, n. 


No word begins with ji 

nd — ikd 



nd (aIso nd) as, like, ni 

in like him 
n^go, to kill, to hurt, to 
put out, extingnish ; to 
break; e n^go, tQtbQ,feA 
he throws the dish on 
&e ground; pt a neka 
^of^, pe. a niky n. ni^ghl 
yi n^go, vmn adi how 
many years have you 
killed: how old are 
you? (Nr. nqkK) 
fi^m^ngmi river 
niimi as, like, just as 
naniQ to lick; pt. a naky 

n. nitn 
nau thus, without any- 
thing, without clothes, 
naked ; e cKdfQ nau he 
walks naked (Kr. n^) 

nay2f negQ uncle, riegi 

my uncle 
ni thus, as, just as, like 

ni jal pa as this man 

(Nr. ini thus) 
nf/>ii to be wet; pt. a nip, 

n. nibit 
ngnq to look; a ninii mal 

he looked up; pe. a 

nin, n. nin, n. yd to 

see a way, to hope 
itSng to wait 
npiQ^ to lire, a n^n 
nfftQ to sleep, 4 n^nit he 

is asleep; pt. d ntn; yi 

ntn didyou sleep (well)? 
niyit thus 
nd/ right! all-right! very 

nlmo to cover, to shade 

ninfi to sleep; p. a ntn, 

n. nin; see n^nq 
ninQ to move, to shake, 

be moved by the wind 
n^k, n$k (to be) litde ; a 

nQkQ to recover, to heal; 

pt. d n^H, n. n^kj^ 
nonQ to be or become 

litde, to diminish ; pt. 

d nim, n. nitnii; see n^k 
num(i to lick, to kiss ; n. 

ndmit [exists 

niltf n^t there is, there 
nbti not yet, not 
nwaJQ mQl to breakfast; 

pt. a nwach ki mql 
nwanQ, to aim at 
Nwitr The Nuer-country 

or people 


ii^-iitfH^/i ohQd, young 
one, seed, egg; lia is 
also used in expressing 
a deminutive form; in 
these cases it is fre- 
quently pronounced ;i^ 
or even ike 

ikh bdn slave, servant 
person belonging to 
somebody; also ''wife*' 

lid bin a white cow 
lia chili akind of red dura 
ilia din a cow with small 
brown and black spots 
ika ^i chtogu a whore 
lia^l botde (ar?); see 

ifiadffi feAidioai a kind of 

red dura 
lid-figytnit a kind of red 


iHafilwit a kind of red 

lid g\n 0j^ baby 

fia gil'tytn gil i. wife, 
people belonging to 
the fiiunily ; 2. used in 
addressing a higher 
person, as a chief 

licC (li^-^ fili an axe 


ikdrjigit child of a chief 
i^d jik a CO w with a fallow 

head, small brown 

spots on the back, Ae 

rest being white 
lia jSk a cow : head black, 

small black spots on 

the back, the rest white 

— same as ikajAkf 
liakii-iiffciimece^ nephew 
ika hfr a cow : sides black, 

belly and back white 
i^a Hnit a kind of red dnra 
i^kfi to straggle, wrestle, 

vi^ibdr^ cotton-seed 
lihkwdch a cow, speckled 

black white 
ikd kwati riji loose woman 
lialy also ii^2-ikiii boy 
nal du^n-'ikaik dgnQ young 

man, youth 
lia liA'^tcQl Itn a small 

ikt lefi tk brown or grey 

lid^-ii^S python 
fiamoyo brother 
liamuMiemik sister 
lidmQ to chew (Bo. na) 
lia midu^lii a bird; syn. 

okoge nam 
9idn, also lidn'fitoitl girl, 

daughter (Di. lUin) 
ikon ftfi small girl 
ikan ikwQm bride 
ikan kiyh elder sister 
ikane ^dcJiQ, sometimes 

lian a ^achg, girl 

lia lian young crocodile 
liiA-iidM crocodile (Ea- 

ramojo agi'ikan croc, 

Elgumi aH'fian croc, 

Masai Jb'-fioii croc, 

Lendu lia hippo 
lia 6mi Ur a large duck 
^ pyfff^^iiiwQl pyini a 

small hide or skin 
Harii child of a king, 

liarn Idm to cut, mow 

Mrj^ gums 
lidrijifroeh calf 
lidu hair on the genitals 
liAtMidtoi cat (Di. anao, 

Nr. nau, liau, Masai 

iftotf cat, Lendu liau 

M wall young bullock 
lia umtniHr a bird 
liayai * small tree, shrub, 

lii yim bbwhk a kind of 

red dura 
li^ = li^ child, young, 

liek posterity, pi. of pre- 
iMkiyi elder brother 
liemei sister 
i^im&c a kind of white 

liemia-iiefnllk brother 
liemidu sister 
fiemi^ ty^ gul sister-in 

law [striped 

fi€ liaii a cow, white-red 

lid — liZmn 

f/kiuf ikin eyes ; see toon 
li^ piii to make a deep 

hole into the ground 
lie Qng black cow 
i/kewii female cousin 
li^ yiim a cow : head white, 

body black or bay 
M to use to; egresses 

the habitual form of 

the verb 
fUi^^ to milk; pt a Me^ 
ikifi a month, about No- 
l^ffcdtnit the ancestor of 

Ae ShUluk nation 
lOm genitals of woman 
film fiftce, in firont of^ 

facing (Nr. f^am) 
itim^-fiiin sesamum (DL 

liunif Teso tiba-iiufm*) 
liin, also lifn name, lUni 

dmin which is your 

liin eyes ; see toan 
fim small part, atom ; iL 

yafl a fij^ wana a chip 

of wood fell into my 
Mne chU joint [eye 

i^Zdi to bear young ones; 

pt. d Mt, n. liwddi; 

see iiwql{i 
ii6^ to show, see liu^ 
fi^to be soft; syn. holnQ 
Ai^lifiiStMi an axe; see 

tiQJit byil to cook dura 
liigmQ to many; pt. a 

i^mi §aehit; a fi§ma 

^Kq; pe. a tiw^ 

tlonQ — nan 

lignQ to pound, cniab; e 
fiong iQbQ he pounds, 
kneads the mud; pt. 
a fioni l.f pe. a tk^n, n. 

liQnQ to scatter, to tread 

on; pt. a tigna ihi^; 

pe. a ii$n; n. fi(^; 

same as the preceding 
h$n see liunQ 
fiifyiffit some time, some 

days ago, the other 

Att^ to show; pt. a fiSfit 

toQt he showed the 

house; pe. a iid|; n. 

liunQ to rub (as a waU, 

to make it smooth); 

pt. a liiini tout; pe. toQt 

a lion 

nuitgiti i^wigi^Mbh louse 

ikwagu to take part (in a 

meal), to agree, con- 
sent, to be of one opi- 
nion; pt d i^wiJcii gin 
eham; n. tktoAk, tod 
liwdka kwup we were 
of one opinion 
litcalQ to touch; pt. a 
nuAUt kwgm^; a litoQti 
kwQm^ n* liwatQ; see 

litoaii'iiwaM bracelet of 
metal^ iron 

liwaiiQ, to be able, clever, 
to be able to work 
with both hands, the 
left and the right, alike 

fiioatQ to touch; pt. a 
liwQti gin an, a liwil 
gin an, n. titofitQ; see 

ihvagQ to doze 
tiwiUh^wili earth-worm 
fiu^nQ to walk around 

liwegQ to rain a litde, to 
drizzle ; IcQf e i/iwegq, 

liwqbQ to knead, as mud, 
dough, to mix with 
water; pt. a fkwqpa 
l^bq; pe. a HwQp; n. 

iliwQ!^ to be weak; pt. a 

fiwdli young ones, chil- 
dren, seed, iHwQlejwqk 

iHwoIq, to bear young or 
fruit; pt. d fiw^l 

liufomQ to marry; pt. a 
liwQtna ffi; pe. a ik%o$m; 
n. ikw^; see liZmQ^ 
(Bo. no) 

litrgfM^ to crouch, squat, 
cower; pt. a ikwiti^ 

liivoi^ weak ; see fitoQ^ 

litjoot^ to show ; see liu^ 


nach back, behind, back- 
ward ; ya chdf^ nAjJt I 
went backward 

noehQ to take leave, to 
ask for permission to 
go; pt. a nacha ^toji^; 
pe. d nach; n. niu:h 

nadQ to cut, to butcher; 
a ndt (nit) ; pe. d n&t, 
or: d n&l; see mIq 

nd^ to rely on, to trust; 
pt. a ndj^ tn 

ndJ2 to know ; almost ex- 
clusively used in pas- 
sive : a nAchiydn; also : 
a nielli ydn I know 
him; n. ndjit 

ndlQ to butcher; pt a 
nild ^ean, pe. a ndl, 
n. tM; see nadQ 

namQ to yawn ; pt d ndm; 

WBSTBRJCAinV, The ShiUak People. 

n. ndm^ (Nr. nam) 

ndn^ndntf, from lioto ''man, 

person^ often occurs 

in compositions, in 

plural generally tyffi 

"people^ is used 

nane chwQr blind person 

nane ^^hq, also nan a 

^ocHq woman 
nan dwar hunter 

nan k^k a hired person 




nan — noyq 

nan hZr guardian 
nan hwH shepherd 
nan kwal diief 
nan lidlt barber 
nan tcJQ black man 
nan t^k kwip interpreter 
nan mdni nj^ljt eonuch 
nan mar beloved one, 

nan mdrdeh a bad person 
nan min enemy; from 

nan mfil apprentice 
nan litrgm bridegroom 
nan ndr boaster 
ndnQ to be perplexed, 

astonished; pt. a ndn 
navQ (also narQ) to gnarl, 

growl ; to bluster, boast, 

brag; a ndr, or: a lidti; 

n. ndrit 
ndt a cow with horns cut 

ndti'ty^ man, person 

(Nr. nak, Ba. ngtQ) 
nate biph beggar 
nate budq a lying, a sick 

note fach inhabitant, ci- 
note ftvbii teacher 
nate gw$k workman 
note jwdnQ, kwif one who 

is hasty, rash in his 

words, an arrogant 

nate jw^k I. a ''man of 

God^ ; 2. a sick person 
note kSr rich person 

nate kd thief 
note kwdchi beggar 
nate kvAyi herdsman 
note Isn one who beats 

the small drum 
naie mot a lewd person 
note nek murderer 
note ndl butdier 
note litn^ an unconscious, 

a swooning person 
naie r^pe kwQp mediator, 

nate |^2 cook 
niti tr|^ traveller, stran- 
n^ ydf ki min one who 

seeks intercourse with 

women, lewd person 
nate yit an abuser 
nate yi^Q, helper 
nhyi a kind of red dura 
n§awo to trade, to buy, 

seU; pt. a fi^u, a n^wi 

n^do-nits f^t rib ; see the 

nidinnit a hoe, made out 

of bones, now seldom 
n^ga to bleed a person 
nij^ a mark 

fuyo, to recognise, see najn 
AiIq to roll; pt. gi nild 

nam Aey roUed into 

the river; n. nil^ 
liimg to cut off, take off; 

pt. a nffna yi^; pe. a 

nim; n. nim 
nenq to be unconscious. 

to swoon; pt d nin 

n. ninit 
nMQ to tan, to prepare a 

skin by tanning 
n|iig (to be) much, many 

(Nr. nwan) 
n^r^^ the ^Hiite-ear cob 
ligrg to let die milk down 

(said of a cow) ; pt. d 

nir; see liy^ 
nijl brain 
nit2 to l^i^b; pt d ni^; 

pe. d n|j$; n. nyirit 
ni allrightl well! 
ni^2 to hang up 
nodit to cut; pt d ntk d 

n^t, d ngla (nQta) yaf; 

pe. d n$t, or: a nil 

(Nr. not) 
^Q,gQ, to vomit, pt yi i^k 

(Nr. fifijfe) 
n^l a lame person, a 

cripple; from ngd^ 
fi^M^ a large water- 
nqlo. to cut; see nodg^ 
n^lo, to avoid ; Ae same 

as nqlQi, nodq to cut? 
n^ the rectum ; n^nipyilo 

an invective, injurious 

fi^^-fi^, also nir bean 

(Nr. ngr) 
nit cripple; from ngdo, 

see n^l 
notQ to spit; pt a nota, 

or: a nola Hii; pe. a 

n6l; see nwotq 
nJ^yH to curdle, coagulate 

ndy2 — 6gitk 

noyQ to imitate 

nii^uwi lion 

nudii to cut, to kiU; see 

nu^ to snrpMs in some- 
thing, to be too much: 
s fin^ yt rajQ he is 
veiy bad 

niiwH rasor 

nwaJQ to smell v. n., t/Qmn 
d nwdehi ^ the wind 
smelled towards him: 
he smelled the wind; 
n. nwijit (Nr. nur^A') 

nwano, to aim at; pt. a 

niwUni Iqi; pe. a nw&h; 

n. nwinit 
nwich-ntoieh alarge lisard, 

lives in the water and 

on land 
nw^hf also nw^h ronn- 

nwieh a kind of red dmra 
nwel a snake 
nwojd to hasten, make 

haste, to be the first 

in doing something; 

pt. a nwQch; n. nva^^ 

nwQnQ to be prudish, coy, 

simpering, conceited, 

presamptuons, prond; 

pt. d nw^i anw^ii n. 

nwf^ or: iilbnjt 
nwotn Wa to spit; pt. d 

nwbti Ly pe. a nol 
nyh^Q, to milk ; pt. a nyij^ 

a nyi^ 4^an , or : a 

wy^i{i^;P©- any^;n. 

'f^ySJf^ vfQk to cat off 
nyfyi metal, money (Bo. 


^bdnit firont-apron of wo- 

i>b^^'^biwi the longs 

i^b^h-^biSch reed 

bbir^b^ feather, wing 

/>b^ womb 

bbiH^bbir a small pot for 

ibSgh - i^l^ spotted, 
speckled ; an albino 

6bix foam, firoth 

bbim lungs, see obau 

6buk bellows 

/ibwMt ' btvQii stranger, 
foreigner; chiefly the 
white man, Arab, Turk, 
European; obw. took, 
obw. toJQ, "white man 
of the bush'', "black 
white man*' : Sudanese 

Arab, black Arab 
6bw$r^ grass for thatching 
6bw6yit^bwiii9kHhruh with 
thick, fleshy leaves, 
very firequent in the 
6byieh a cow with ordi- 
nary , non - dressed 
dclSdlt a hornless cow, 
a cow with short horns 
dchSUt'toQte chbl or ehol 

bchl^yh'beh^yl melon 
dchitii Uver; see chw/kn 
dchyinb - dehyin a loin- 
cloth, "back - apron'' , 
for women 
6dii/A ehypiQ the palm of 
the hand 

ddik'^H a large -mat 

(Nr. dd^k) 
ddilb-ddil I. a cow with 

horns turned down; 2. 

anchor; see (M^ 
6dir^hb<Ui>' kiddle, garth, 

ddtbjf'dd^p, 6<Sp blanket 
odinQ cloud*shadow 
6din west-wind 
od^lit a cow with horns 

pointing forward 
bdim a kind of red dura 
bfitd^ a tree, its fruit is 

eaten by goats 
ofiidQ IwqI mask 
Sfwon-dfUn loaf of bread 
ofygt Jy^h a kind of white 

dgtJc a cow: back and 

1 8* 


6ffdl — ^ikwgk 

head black, belly and 

neck white 
dgdlnigdl (ar.) mole 
dgdliniffiilh or : dffdl mole; 

see ogal 

ogigh 9k cow; see 6gi^k 

6glh^\k baffalo 

6g^tnitt'6g^i bracelet of 

6g${ a cotton-clodi 

dgtoitl^to^H frog 

Offwal calf of the leg ; 0. 
bat "calf of the arm'' : 
the fleshy part of the 
upper arm 

ogtvi'igwihow (for shoot- 

dgwil on ox with horns 
turned towards the 
eyes; female: cigwilQ 

c^^ti^Jr-K^gilj jackal, "fox'' 

bgwiil'bffwil a black bird 

bgw^r^t^yfirii aIbo dgwi^ 
fi the blue (grey?) 

6j1in^''Wiite ji^ Dinka- 
man, barbar 

dkbdit^iiii a big basket 

bkitHt^ku^ hedgehog 

dkoh-dkitk, also dkl^gi a 
fish with three thorns 

bkitk (also 6k8k) — bkik 
egret, also name of the 
Utde white heron 

^Jb^A^-^it^ikflower, blossom 
(Di. gak) 

6kiit~bk^t bell; 0. e tonq 
the bell rings 

bkut papyrus 
dkwd Nyikang's frtther 
dkuAnit^hDim broom 
dkwikf also bkw^k^kwik 

a kind of goose 
dkw^n ft a kind of red 

dkwdl-^kwbH an eatable 

gourd, is cultivated 
bkioSm-bkubm the sacred 

dkw^-dk^ long feathers, 

such as are used as 

ornaments in the hair 
dkwQr^k^fi the spotted 

serval, and its skin, 

worn as dancing-doth 
dkyil^kgj^li black, grass- 

eatmg ant, they Uve 

in armies, build large 

oldch mach a kind of white 

dldkniUH a fish [fig 

6lAm-6Umi the sycomore- 
6Uau the stariing 
6lik a cow, grey and 

white spotted 
bliUt^liU a club ending 

in a ball, knob-kerry 
dlin (dliiit) a cow with 

large brown and white 

speckles; see dlik 
dUt^ blif^U^ brown hawk 
bldi-bm, also bUldi duck 

(Di. olului, Nr. Iwilwi, 

Ba. unliU) 
6UH a cow with small 

brown and white dots 

dlwi a kind of white dura 
dlwMlwi marabou-stork 
dmit cousin 
dmi^iHiSmi^ the diild 

of my brother, niece, 

nephew, 6midd my n. 
dmitglt^mdi the child of 

my mother's sister, 

cousin, see dmtt 
bmidlf-bn^t fire-fly 
bm^Ht («r.) salt 
6min his brother 
dtnirit a kind of red dura 
dmi'^tkifni brother 
6m$!^ a cow (or other 

animal) black and 

white spotted [lope 
6inirit'6m^ ro«i ante- 
omQt green dura 
bndu^niu a snake, not 

poisonous, eats frogs 
(^ndy^iuli the child of 

my mother's brodier, 

6n9gi a cow with horns 

directed straight back- 
ward, like those of the 

young buffislo 
bntoin^ large black ant, 

eats termites , bites 

((fi^ red eardi on river 

banks, used for making 

oiiemia my brother 
QfiQ to dive ; see yQt^ 
bikvn driszling rain 
6iito^k'6tku^k male goat 

or sheep 

bnwiri^ — P^Iq 


bnv^it A whip 

ony^ - dnyitii a green 
snake, not poisonoas, 
catches chickens 

dpdp^pdp the hip-bone 

bpdrit a gourd 

dpun-'ipiin loaf; see dfwon 

6rdp - (Jrdp spider (Nu. 

drat-iHit a snake, not poi- 
sonous, eats chickens 

brAi'6f4lt calico-doth 

irif^Hr white ant-hill 

^h (ftriiy^ relatives by 

oTd to send; see tborn 

drQch'SHtch, ram 

dr^gi hollow 

br^k-hr^k craft,astuteness, 
wrong, sin 

6rQk - 6rtk , dtitgi small 
bells worn round the 
knee in dancing 

drimit male sheep or goat, 
see rimit (Masai oro 

drwimit-^rwQm male sheep 

or goat, see drimi^ 
dtit'dti^ a pot for water 

or beer 
diinit - dtini , 6tin stones 

heaped up, a dam, 

embankment, bridge 
6tQk mist, fog; feti da 0. 

it is misty 
dtiil^ centipede 
btkUt a kind of white dura 
dtw^lr^twHi a river-fish, 

resembling a snake 
btyirn^itt/^m dragon-fly 
6iytnit^tt/in a fish 
otyff^ bells 
60giHi0ni I. a flat fish; 

2. a gourd used as a 

6f6i a kind of red dura 
dtQTHij^ a ford 
($1^0 a kind of red dura 
((j^ a humble, poor person 
bpwol blue 

dpjpQf^-Spobiii hyena 
6twij^'6^ I. cock; 2. 

male animal (Di. wt&n) 
6fjt/tn old time, ancient 

time, a long t. ago 
dwi'iiewi the child of 

my father's brother, 

dwitjit'iiSioitjit the child of 

my father's sister, 

dwinb^wAni a heron 
6tffdii'^iu I. the black 

ibis; 2. branch of 

itcid^t^wit a fish 
iwik a toothless person 
dtcit-^tt some kind of 

6y{nit crocodile-hunter 
agwdi-'at/wdi'woTm, cater- 
aguAk'^tfwdki, also dywS- 

H the golden-crested 



pdch-mjf^ village, home 
(Di. p<m) 

pQffQ to sharpen 

pakq to thank 

piam^pil/mi board, table, 
saddle (Bo. pam mill- 
stone) ; see pirn 

pdnit to hide 

paii the hole below the 


pofiQ to trie a person 

pan Mi 

p^nfl to divide; pe. pdk 

pdn^ ear-wax 

pHr-^pdHs piri hippo 

payo, to depend on, to 
be under somebody's 
auspices or responsi- 

pi,gQ, to fill, to fill into; 
pt a p^ka byil yeeh 
af^p he filled dura into 
the bag; pe. a pik; n. 
file ; see /fliifi 
pik (to be) heavy 
phl~p^l grinding-stone 
PsIq to drizile; Jrgl e p. 


ptm diying-pUoe for 
durm, in the fields; 

pfmo to denie 

pfr like« alike, similar 

pir news 

j^ bad smell 

p^9 pi-pik water (Nandi 
pekf Somali piyi, Tnr- 
kana aiU-jn, Earamojo 

affipij Teso aJd^pt) 
ptdQ to persecute, follow, 
to demand debts; n. 

piin to get tired 
f\k water; see/>i 
pi^^ to pull out 
pcj^ to pass somebody ; 
pt. a pdj^, a pof^ in; 

pirn — rtgo 

pik turtle 

pwt^i'pwdt a place pre- 
pared for a field, fium, 

pufOtkQ - pufbeh tendon 

pydr-^i/i^ twenty 

pyArj^ ten 

pf/ilQ to cack 


rieh'teehQ bad, r. il^ raii 
du$n "bad with great 
badness*': very bad; 
rack may also mean: 
very much, in a high 
degree (Di. rtteh) 

raJQ. to become or to be 
bad; n. rdj^ 

rdm-rjfm thigh; also yiim 
(Nr. yam) 

r^m diarrhoe 

rimft to pain, ache; pt 
a r^m; n. rim (Di. rem) 

rtifA'^ihi looking-glass 

ranQ, to see by witchcraft 

rhrii A thrashing-place 

rarn to run, to stream; 
to run a race; pt. a 
rhri; n. rdri 

rdir^'T^r sinew, nerve, 

riH IfibQ king of the 
people; see rifl 

ran hippopotamus (Di. 

rsu, Nr. rQu^ Madi robif 
Abokaya arua hippo; 
Lendu ra croc.) 

rAioit duchn 

r^iDfi to blacken poles in 
order to make them 
hard ; n. riu 

re-^ek body, r^ ^ his 
body, that is: he, is 
hot, feels unwell, is 
lasy (Nr. rq, Madi ru, 
Abokaya amaru) 

ri why? yi ri jfc^ why 
did you go? (Nu. re 
interrogative particle) 

ri expresses casus irrealis 

r^ to bring together, 
mix, unite, associate, 
reconcile; pt. a riph 
jt he reconciled the 
people; pe. ji a rip, 
also a rSp; a rip yi 
mach it was caught by 

f^bq to be tfiin, not strong, 
not durable 

rif, rip thin, not durable, 
see ribq 

rejQ to be bad, to spoil; 
see raeh 

refQ to receive a guest, 
to be hospitable; pt 
a recha ^ofi; pe. a ryich 

rijft^^ fish (Teso offa- 

rim thigh ; see ram 

r^mit blood (Madi ari, 
Abokaya art) 

r^fifi to become or be 
bad, to spoil; pt. d 
r^ also d f^; n. t^; 
chuA^ r.f yef^ r. he is 
angry ; see riu^h 

rerQ to cut into strips 

rit^tt corn-stalks 

reyQ faeh to make a pot- 

nffn to be shut up, barred. 

rtja — ry^TQ 


as the river by sadd ; 

to fiU ap (as a hole), 

to biuy; pt a rika ftaf^ 
rijn to stay, remain; pt. 

d fieh; n. fijit 
rinQ to ran; pt d rin 

(Di. rtn, fyan, Nr. rtii) 
rtni meat (Masai aikt-rin^ 

Teso aJbt-rin) 

fit (^o raO'f^ king 
(Jo. riDot, Nu. ar<i god, 
Somali ga-^rat chief) 

robo, to string (beads); 
pt a ropa iego,; pe. a 
rSp; n. rdp 

riibjt (ar.) one shilling, V4 

r^» r^ thirst; yd dd 
r.i ya mdki yi r. I am 
thirsty (Teso ako^ai, 
Nr. ffl). 

^SjTfi to hollow, to scoop 
out; pt a fjticd ya|; 
pe. a rqh 

rqJQrT^h heifer, see lia- 

rgJQ to castrate 

rbk-rbk a small gourd 

r^imo, pi to fetch, to dip 
water; pt d rwimd pi; 
pe. d rwim; n. t%d^ 

rgmi^ to meet ; to measure, 
to weigh; to be suffi- 
cient; to think, under- 
stand; to overieap; pt. 
a rfilltaiktoi{j:>heponder- 
ed on the word; n. rfim 

rimit female sheep 

rofifi to sink, to dive (Di. 


rgfig to elect (a chief^ 
king); pt jr^ rgiia riij; 
pe. a r^; see fgiiit 

rltnif-fitni a large, poi- 
sonous snake, eats rats 

ritnj^ rain-bow ; see prece- 

rSnQ to be or do wrong, 
to be astute, to sin; pt 
a r^ n. brik (Ba. lo- 
rokj Uh-ron, Teso irono) 

ri^ni^-r^t kidneys 

rorg to be sterile (of ani- 

f^ (rftdft) to sew; pt a 
rgfa Idu 

TQyg^ to spill; a rgya pi 
he spilled water; pe. 
pi d r^, n. r^i 

ray^t to cry (in running) 
away), n. r^t 

riidit north-wind, the time 
while it is blowing; 

rug2 to put on clothes or 
ornaments, to adorn; 
pt a riikh tau; pe. a 


fiini^itfn, tof^m noose 

rumQ to turn (up) ; pt d 
ritm dgnafeti he turned 
the basket (on the 
ground) upside down 

rflm(2 to finish, be finished; 
pt. d rdm it is finished 

rumo to measure, to think, 
to be thoughtful, anxi- 
ous ; pt d rUm ; n. rdm^" 

rdmi; see rmQ 

rumQ yat to tread over 
a tree; to overleap a 
tree; pe. yafi d T$m 

run year (Di. ruww, Nr. 

rUra to hum; Iwan e r. 

ruwQ, to pass away; run 
dkyil d rtt one year 
has passed away, n. 

ruyQ: a niyi wiu he went 
after sunrise (?); see 

TWitrnQ, to catch with both 
hands ; see witmn; same 
as rwgmQ, to meet? 

rwQfno, to meet, measure; 
see rgmii 

rw^i house; syn. WQt 

rydk (Dinka) famine 

ry^ to hire or rent for 
money, to bribe; pt. a 
ry^pa jtlgit he hired 
(bribed) the judge ; a 
ry^pa ifofi he hired a 
man for work; pe. wQt, 
y& A ^if the house, 
the boat was hired, rent 

ry^Q, to invite, to receive 
as guest, to entertain, 
treat; pt. a ryecha ^f^ 
pe. a rySeh, n. ryich; 
see refQ 

ryek a mat, fence of mats 

rySftyt to drive or to chase 
away, to banish; pt. d, 
ryimd 4^n, pe. d ryim,^ 

rygrn to hang up, ta 


ry^ro — t^no 

suspend, to be hanging, 
suspended; riiifir. ma; 
the meat is hanging 
above ; pt. a rygra rino 

mal he suspended the 
fyffTQ to come forth, to 
rise; chdn a fyir the 

sun has risen; see die 
ry^ both; see dry^u (Di. 
rek, Ba. mu^eke) 


tdbdti bier; y^ kijji ftaj^ 
wiife t. they put the 
man upon the bier 

tadQ to tie boards or laths 
together; gs, ^^ ^fi^; 
n. tid^ 

tadiftdti sticks, laths for 
building a house ; tit^ 
wQt; t. kal fence-sticks 

tddit door 

iofflte chain ; d tubehi in 
ki t he was bound with 
a chain 

t^ffH to dig the foun- 
dations of a house 

t^kiffi planting-stick see 

takyick a cow with white 
flanks, the rest being 

tdldl-iiMl brass, anything 
made of brass 

tildl-tMl a reddish, poi- 
sonous snake; vide 

iilnb roof 

UiftQ, to put on fire 

tan along, e k^ t nam 
he goes along the river 

tin hartebeest 

t€nie nam river-side 
tana to stretch out (the 

t^nQ to be divorced, to 

divorce, a fjina ^aehq 

he was divorced firom 

the woman, n. tin; see 

tdr, tHr white 
tir pasture -place 
tarQ to turn (a thing) ; pt. 

ya tara mal I turned 

upside ; n. tif^ 
tdti kdl fence-sticks 
tdiyil the comer of the 

wall opposed to the 

tdf^l a cow of bay colour 
tQyq to throw, to scatter, 

V. a. and n., n. tiyn 
tibiml (also t^.ytibdmi 

girdle, belt 
techQ to be wet 
f^^t^f door-stick; see 

tiulit, «i dSdQt 
tidigb a red-brown (bay) 

teduk a gray cow 
tlgn to be or become 

hard, strong; n. tlg^t; 

see ^i 

tigiftik chain, string of 
beads, ring 

tigticR, - tSgii^ poles or 
sticks, about 2V2 foot 
long, serving as sup- 
porters for the house- 

tik to be hard, strong, 
brave, tenacious, per- 
severant, cruel 

tik the cavity below the 
scutiform cartilage 

tekQ toqt to dig out the 
foundation of die 
house, a t^k^ n. teke toot; 

see tQg2 

t^ to smack with die 
tongue; a t^k dy^l he 
called the goats by 

t^ to pull, to pull out; 
pe. tarn d til the grass 
was pulled out 

tfmn to take without as- 
king; n. (imi 


Qnfi to pour out drop by 
drop; a tini pi he 
poured out the water 

tin^ — tugo. 


ttn^fin oribi-gazelle 
tenQ tnQffQ to straiii beer; 
pt. d tyinii f^QgHf po* 
mQffO, d ty^; n. tyin 
tgnQ to be hard, strong ; 

a ttnif n* ^ffh 
ignQ to stamp (with the 

foot), to shake, to clap 

(hands), to hew, carve; 

pt. d tind lau he shook 

the cloth ; a tini ehyen 

he clapped the hands; 

pe. a tin, a tyin; n. tin; 

see tyinQ 
tir strai^t, ya| mdtir a 

straight tree 
itr^, ttdit people (Ba. tir 

people, Na. ter they) 
t&^ to carry; see tygtQ 
tit door; see ticUt 
titin a black cow 
thatdt-tiwUi fish-hook 
t^toQ to wag; pt. d tiii, n. 

adQ (gin cham) to covet 

after (food) ; n. Ad^ 
tigo, : S, tiffQ yi raJQ, he is 

very bad, spoiled; yor 

mQ tiffQ the wind, air 

smells bad 
aJQ to do ; pt. a tick, n. 

t(k^k I. sudd; 2. chin 
til (to be) clear; pik til 

the water is clear 
timQ (^ji seton, fontanel 
tin at once, soon, pre- 
sently, just now 
tinq to lift up, to raise; 

pt. a tin yai; pe. d tin; 

n. tin (Nr. tun) 
tipi I. shadow of man; 

2. an apparition in a 

dream, a spectre (Nr. 

tif, Masai o-tp) 
tQbo to be soft 
toch'tbich gun 
toeh narrow 
todQ to tell stories, to tell 

Ues ; pt. a twdti kwif, 

pe. kwdfd twot, n. ^d^^ 

or twot (Di. twot) 
tQffQ to castrate (as a goat) 
tigh a grass growing in 

the river; papyrus? 
tQffo to hatch; gysno i 

thgh ifi'^ili the hen 

hatches eggs 
tig^ the occipital bone 
tigh to wound (?) 

^go, to pu^ hito 

^ man to rub with ofl 

or fat 
tojQi tQJQ to tie; pt. a 

tochi lum, pe. d twSch 
tSk to be absent, to be 

waiting (Di. wtok) 
^Jt;-(gib|side, part, middle ; 

tqk nam, t^fkd nam side 

of the river 
tqkQ to crush, to beat 

soft;, to knead 
iomQi l^e lysph to carve 

iqmQ, pi to fetch, dip 

water; see rgmn 
iQ^it to rob, pillage; pt. 

a tifiii pach; pe. a tQfi; 

n. tbfi^ 

tdn-titn, also ton spear; 
jaUtin (day tin), the 
man (woman) who 
performs the wedding- 
customs for the bride- 
groom (and bride) (Di. 

tbn^t&hj also tin egg(Di. 
twon^ Nr. ^t^^) 

tonq to turn (towards, 
aside); a toni foil he 
turned into the bush; 
fgrui chdn to go to ease 

tqno, to pick; vAAq t, fei/i 
ki adimi the bird picks 
the ground with its 
bill (same as tonq to 

tonQ kwqfio tell the truth 
(same as fonQ to turn?) 

tir, also tdr^tdri water- 
pool, grassy place 

tir dust 

torQ to trouble, to be 

iorQ to break ; pt. a tara 
yai; pe. a tor; n. t6r 

tayQ to pierce, perforate, 
to sprout, germinate 

tugi - titk deleib - palm 
(Orunyoro, Oruhima, 
Luganda , Lunyara : 
aJbohi^u/Lusese katugo, 
Madi itu) 

tugQ wiiiQ to scare up 
birds ; pt. d tUkit to. 

tugQ l&m to crush grass; 



pt d tiik, pe. lum d t^k, 
n. t^k; see tokq 

tugo, to open ; see tuko, 

tugh to pUy ; pt a ^ 

tak'HlH stone, cooking- 
stone, hearth ; gi 0^ 
gin cham wig U 

ttJcQ dedgt to open the 

tukd to awaken, to be 

tiilh owl 

tulQ to rise (sun) ; n. Uilj^ 
(Ba. tule) 

tumQ to gather, assemble, 
y. n. and a. ; /^ a turn 
the people assembled 

tufif also tumii horn (Nr. 

tin side, end 

tti6/^ to bind, tie; to dress 
(a wound) ; pt. a tiibchi 
kffi l^H he dressed the 
wound; pe. a ttoSch 

tuitn^ to withhold, detain 
from; to get nothing; 
pt. d tu^n gin cJiam he 
did not get any food 

tiidn-tkitni chisel 

ti^ignit-tfi^ worm 

tugnq a small red insect ; 
see preceding 

tut matter, pus 

twagu wig t^fit to beat ifae 

roof of the house even; 

n. twdgit 
tu^lQ to bepoor, helpless ; 

pt. d twi^l, n. twdli^ 
tuAfit to snore, snort ; pt. 

d twhr 
twarn to float on the 

water, as foam 
twarn to gather, pick up; 

to dean, to sweep; pt. 

a twara w^ he picked 

up, cleared away the 

grass, n. twAr 
twiJQ to be bald; wij^ 

twH fore-arm, lower fore- 

twelQ, to remain small, not 
to grow well 

tw^ ankle 

twqlgi to bubble (as water) 

twot false report; n. of 

tyan corn-stalk 

tyfia: wi na tgaul also: 
lia tgaul a curse 

tg^gQ to surround ; pt. gs^ 
ty^ka lai they surround- 
ed the game; pe. d 
tgik; n. tgigit 

ty^gn to file, polish (the 
spear) ; pt a tgtfca tgn; 

pt. a tg^; n. tg^ 
tyngo, to finish ; pt a tgdci 

gin cham; n. tg^gh 
tg^ company of warriors; 

tghk wedding ceremony 
tgekg^ to continue in; de 
ckdn bn line a ig&i 
gdn gd ckdfQ, di itnAn 
yd ndlUffdo, this whole 
day I have continued 
walking, but I am not 
yet tired 
tgiJ^-tgilioot^ foundation, 
basis, root; times, 
meaning; tyildd^iSbx^Q 
times; tgil amalQ die 
first time; tgsU wqt the 
foundation of a house 
(G^ tgeno, Suk ket) 
tyin people, persons 
tgit^ leii warriors 
tyffk a miin women 
tgffnQ to strain; s. t^nQ 
tyenQ g& to hew, canre a 

canoe ; see i^nQ 
ig&r{i to show, to present 
for examination, to ex- 
hibit; see tyffTQ, 
tg^a to carry; pt a tgtfi 
gaff;, a t^to gat he car- 
ried a tree; pe. a ^; 
— see filrg 


{i the lower part, the hind- 
part ; below, under. 

behind, beneath (Nr. 

a (^i^) the heglig-tree 
and its fruit (Nr. j^) 

iabQ — iy^rQ 


fjibq to cheat, outwit; pt. 
afapada^; pe. a {op; 
n. (36^ 

fach a wreath or ring 
made of a doth or of 
grass, laid on the head 
for canying loads; also 
lidd on the ground to 
put the pot upon 

(add to cook; to smelt 
metal, to forge; pt a 
falaffin cham she cook- 
ed food, pe. a 01 (Di. 
wiaU Nr. jjoO 

t/SLgh'tlifA a cover (mat) 
for the big dura-basket 

fai teieh the tattooing of 
the fore-head 

tdk'fiHs also fiH (ar.) 
cap, hat 

idkuffi a little ax 

(anQ, chygn to stretch up 
the hands; pt a fqna 
ch., n. 0n^ 

finit^fdni the temples 

(apQ to put (under or on) ; 
pt a lajii t/at wiy daj^ 
he put a tree on his 
head; pe. a |Sj^; n. 

lar the buttocks 

idtyiUt heel 

fafSfi a pole for pulling 

boats (rowing) 
j^tt-j^< the buttocks ; see 


fflu to die ; see |2u 

ijkyidi gdky also 0yk gdk 
a cow, black with white 

gj^ to make a bad, hurt- 
ful charm; pt a iyei; 

j(^-j^ a water-lily, its 
seeds are eaten 

tih^Uf^ the meat on the 
breast (of animals) 

^'tSSHt siiiall, Utde; a 
Utde, few 

jif$j^l dura-stick 

j^^ the current 

j(i^ to druEsle, to rain a 
Utde; kQf,^h 

ilff^i^ A mat for closing 
die door-hole, a door 

fim trees, forest (Di. Hnif 
Masai en dtm^ Nandi 

0^Ul^ woman's breast 

tji buttocks; see |gu 

0ch dew; j(. vntf lum dew 
is on the grass 

t^l'^U Also ^l rope 

fjlm-^^ I. a musical in- 
strument, guitar; 2. a 
small drum, dedicated 
to Nyikang (Di. torrid 
Nr. low) 

^m^ fam to play the guitar 

fomQ to cut off, cut open 

ig:^ to put on fire for 

cooking or boiling 
0rQ to make even, 

smooth, by filling up 

widi sand ; to make a 

road, a ford; gs, 0ra 

nam the made a ford 

across the river 
|o|fi to give 
t^H to die; pt. d 0u, 

also d j^ he died (Teso 

twan^afy, Ba. twan) 
fitmii to be finished; pt 

d ii^m, d fitmi 
j^r^jikr mahog«iy-tree 
twdl'^k snake, serpent; 

|. a kachi 0j^ the s. 

bit the man (Kr. j^t) 
pjoomq : iy^ls, pibm in, he 

sits on the ground with 

the knees drawn high 
j^oiio to blow one's nose; 

pt a f^u>6i/i; n. pooik^ 
pvQWQ to dry, be dry; pt. 

lim d fwiiii the grass 

is dry; see fjgwQ 
iyhu also, likewise, too 
iy^u^tyiu guinea-worm 
tysio, to bewitch 
tySJ^* tra^ h the sun has 

tyffra to show, exhibit 

for examination; pe 

a tyir, n. iytr 


u — w4fi 


4 sign of future and of 

unininwi a rat 

iiteili traveUer^ stranger 


wd we, us 
wai aunt ; syn. wdJQ 
wdi separate, by itself 
ufdi, also wAi the contents 

of the stomach 
tffdjitl fd dini^ a kind of 

red dura 
wdjiJrikiniTit a kind of 

red dura 
wijlt to talk, converse, 

to tell stories; pt. d 

whch: a way kwiip, pe. 

d wdch; n. tcAek 
wdj^t^ucHeh father's sister, 

aunt (Nr. waeh) 
wdk outside, the bush, 

uninhabited country ; 

bwQiiQ, wok Europeans 

or Arabs living far 

away in the interior 
wdla or 
wQlfi to grind 
walo, to boil (of water), 

V. a. and n. 
wdUt^w^l loin -ring, of 

ostrich egg shells etc. 
triii-^: i w, to squat 
toai^if^Qeh paper, letter, 

book , mohammedan 

waiHQ, to be lost, to dis- 
appear; to die (said 
of a king only); to 
lose ; pt. jwitk d tcM 
the sickness disappear- 

wafiQ to approach, come 
near ; pt. d wdf^, d wiiffi 

trdn-run year, time ; todn 
fhiku some (future) 

todfiriiin eye; direction; 
grain (Kr. wan, Tur- 
kaua ekon, Suk kgn, 
Elgumi akgn, Teso 

wangu^ingu a big-sized 
white bead 

whn dffdk ''crow's eye**, 
a kind of red dura 

wdn dwhch pi. hwdcki 

wdn kdia point of the roof 

wan^Nikan "eye of JVt- 
kan^^, east 

win f^dj^ side of the 
human body 

won nil "lion's eye** a 
kind of red dura 

wdnj^witn grandmother; 
toon^ our grandmother 

woAq to smoke (tobacco) ; 
pt d win k( dSJb he 
smoked a pipe 

ujono to bum, be burned 
(Nr. tcdn) 

wdnii = wak bush 

wdn 6dfin west 

wan iiDQt window 

wan wur^ Iwal south 

wdn ywi>dii arm-pit 

wQT'wiri night; feik fa 
wir it is night, ki wdr 
at night (Suk qj^ ^^^ 
ramojo akoar, Teso 
kwarif Masai kawarie) 

wdr nhmtid an ox 
horns directed 
backward, like a buffa- 

wdrh g^t an ox, with one 
horn directed forward, 
die other backward 

warQ — wi 


toarii to smear (with 
mud) ; pt a wara kffiQ 

taarifwar shoe 

wish talk, s. wQJQ, 

toat'UH^h or tcit son, one 
beloDgingto ourfitmily, 
tpoti wiin those belong- 
ing to the family, the 

wiit bin pi. wdiS b^n ser- 
vant, slave 

w^tQ to depart, start, set 
out; pt. d witi; n. w^t^ 

w$ tyil ryik a cow with 
white feet 

todfrwdi, steer, buU 

waf^ ehvoai to eat soup 

wau time (?) 

ufidQ ehwai to eat soup ; 
pt. a wHa ehwai; pe. 
a wtjl: n. wtj^; see waflQ 

wH-wit/i soul (Di. wet, 
Nr, yet) 

tasJQ to sing a war-song 

wekQ to give away 

ufil piece, copy, number 

welQ to change; pt a wila 
jam, a wttii jam 

wiIq a stick (of the royal 
princes), which is used 
in electing a new king 

wIIq to travel, to journey ; 
a tcili he travelled 

wil^wil traveller 

win his father 

tolin, kd w^ (hi 6w^) 
when?y» ksjlifofe chgl 
kd win t when shall you 
go into the Shilluk 


win dbufSk the hairs of 
the maize-ear 

win ^k bristies about the 

wlni ki toi/r the night has 

win^'win hair, bristle, 
wire ; hair of the giraffe- 

wir^ to live in a foreign 
country, among a fo- 
reign tribe 

weiiQ to be cunning 

whv'Wffr giraffe 

wirlfwir dung of cows 
and goats; were dgk 

tffir^ to be angry ; pt. d 
w^r; k^ wtr do not be 
angry (Ba. woran) 

w&Q (wstQf)i also toltit to 
throw, throw away, 
flhig; pt. d wifi; d w^i 
gin fM, d tr^i ffln fM 
he threw the thing on 
the ground ; pe. d w^, 
or a witi, n. w^, or 


wij^tD^ or wif^ arrow 

weyQ to leave, to let, let 
alone, let free, let go ; 
d wH ^ 

wiy w4 father 

wich-^wQ^ wij^ head, top, 
surface; wija yot ki 
kwif ^{ "my head has 
found this matter** : I 
understand this matter ; 
a k^ wija "it went into 

my head** : I under- 
stand it; unja t^k ki 
kwqfe chql "my head 
is hard in learning the 
Sh. language** : I have 
difficulties in . . . ; unja 
wil I have forgotten; 
wijs, di mitgh "his head 
has beer** : he is drunk- 
en (Nr. wich, Somali 
wej face) 

toicho to take weapons (?) 

u?t^to exchange, borrow; 
pt a wtUt tdn he ex- 
changed the spear, pe. 
a wHly n. tM; see welg, 

wiJQ, to make the roof of 
a house ; n. i^A 

wil exchange, trade 

wiUi: wija wil I have 

winQ, to be giddy, dizzy; 
wija wing^ my head is 

wi lia tyau a curse 

vA^i'-wxi/i bird 

witQ fi to sprinkle with 
water; pt. a witi fi; 
pe. fi a wit; n. vntQ; 
see wgtQ 

loifjH, sometimes toQtQ to 
arrive (Nr. yet) 

xoiy t^k-wiiji tgk shoulder 

wiy kytfi "horse's head** 

toiy nu "lion's head** 
story, tale 

toiy Witt roof 

wi, tbi we, us 


wib^ — yff*fi 

to^b^ youth? 
wocho (umehQ) to dance ; 
pt. d todek; n. wSji^; 

see ehonit 
vj^da byil to poaod dura; 

pt. a w6Ul byiU pe. a 

%o6l; n. v)6l 
wd^itt'wdti buttocks 
wo(fQ to pull out; pt. a 

togja gin an WQk 
WQ^ to plaster, smear, 

besmear; pt. a u^ 

wQt; pe. a wSfl; n. w6^ 
fvdjul^wijul a fish 
w$ky w^k outside, out 
w^l'^l chamiel 
vfQlQ. to cou{^ ; pt. d ufitl; 

n. w^li 
w9lh to lean 
ufolq to pound (dura); 

pt. d wilii byil; pe. a 

w6l; n. w6l; see wodo, 
w^mAn woman 
iDomQ, romQ to cany water 
wQmQ, also rwgmQ to catch 

widi both hands 
tr^n we, us 
toitii sly, cunning 
wQiiQ to be sly, cunning; 

to outwit, cheat; pt. d 

WQiia in, pe. yd w^ 

wbti^wbiii tlie swallow 
toor kings ; see r^ 
w^yiri, iri a pole in the 

midst of the village, 

on which the drum is 

vfMm a kind of red dura 
worq to send ; n. toSr 
warQ to sing (Teso ayari) 
vftrif^wdr termite-hill 
wurq w(^ to pull out, as 

a pole ; to take away ; 

n. w6r, 6r 
w^t^wQti house (Di. p>t, 

Nandi i^t) 
tog< dy^k goat-house 
tr^ w^ the nostrils 
wQt fwaiUMJDQtifw. school 
wQt kick bee-hive 
wotQ, to hollow; yai a wot 

the tree is hollow 
w6t6U or ut6l a kind of 

wo^'U^^tt^ chOd 
ti^ to arrive; see wif^ 
wfiu the daylight; w. a 

yHi it is getting dark ; 

w. e riiwii it is dawning 

(in the morning); to, a. 

tff^ (or rH) it is light 
WQWQ to be noisy, make 

a noise, to talk much 
and noisily 

wu» wuu fSadier 

toi 2. p. pL you ; tcA nm 
did you sleep (well) ? 
= good morning! 

wiieh = wieh head 

wMit I* north-wind; w. e 
cKodq the n. is blowing; 
2. a season during 
which this wind blows, 
following agwerq; har- 
vest of the white dura 

widifwit ostrich (Di. nt) 

wui yes 

vjujq to make a mock- 
fight; n. tmidl 

wim nose (Madi ottk'^wi^ 
Abokaya omvQ, Ban 
kume^ Masai en gume^ 
Teso ekumi) 

tmim), also rtimi a cover 

wumo = rumQ to finish 

wun 2. p. pi. you 

wun'Tun year 

wiinit'Uf^n rope (for tying 

wtii^, also wf^Q to sing; 
pt. d to^iitr, n. teiir 

tvi^ song 


yh to be somewhere or 
somehow; seldom: to 
be something; yu^iErya 

mal God is above 
y^bQ to open ; pt. a ynbi 

wQt; pe. a y&p (same 
as yd^fi search?) 
yS^ to search for; pt. d 


yip; ^ yif>i ^^ te 

searched cattle ; pe. a 
yap (Di. yap) 

yiich-y^h a person of 
equal age, contempor- 
ary, companion, friend; 
yiehe vf^ my ("our") 

yOdQ to curse, insult ; pt. 

yagu to take away; to 
rob, pillage 

y^i a company of people, 
espec. of warriors; vide 

yajn to be pregnant, be 
with child ; pt. d ydek ; 
n. yich 

y^lQ to curse; see yQdo 

ydn I, me 

yatiQ to boil v. n.; pt. pi 
d yii/A 

yana = ySH^ to be 

yoifHLt yd^ to be fiiU, 
fiUed; to be satisfied 
with food; pt. a ydn; 
n. yUno 

y^r^^yi a ring or wreath 
of (cow-, antelope-) 
hairs, worn in dancing 

yarn to skim off 

y^rg, to reproach, insult ; 
pt. d ydr, n. ydr^; see 


y^tQ to be merciful, gra- 
cious ; jwQk d yiti 

y^ihy^ I. tree; 2. mede- 
cine ; ydj^ ini this tree 
(Nr. yat, ja(, Any. /afe 

Teso ahi-ya medecine, 
Masai jata tree) 

yduy also y(ii( just, nothing 
particular, quietly, h^ 
yau "you just remain 
quief ; boggn yau 
there's nothing parti- 

yjiwQ to swing, wag ; pt. 
d y^u ; n. yawii 

yi he, it 

y^9 y^ =^ y^^ middle, in 
yiieh oh no! never! 
y^bQ to open; pt a y^pa 
v)Qt; pe. a yip; see 

yech-y^ the interior of 

the body, the belly; 

interior, inside,middle ; 

in, amidst, among (Di. 

yich, Nr. jack*), 
yech^tch a grass used as 

ygda to climb; aywomygjfa 

vny yaf^ the monkey 

climbed upon the tree 

(Di. yit) 
y^Q addlQ to clatter with 

a rattle; seey^^ 
y^Q to carry many (little) 

things, to be laden widi 

many things; d yikd 

y0» he carried sticks; 

pe. d yik 
y^-yifl boat, ship; y^i 

mAch steam-boat; y.ur^^ik 

railway; y. nam riyer- 

yM hair; y. ^ji hair of 


man; y. tik beard; y. 
ivan eye - brow, eye- 

y^2 to skin, to peel off; 
pt. d y^ehi didn he 
skinned the cow; pe. 
didn d yich, n. yieh 

ygq^ also yiJQ to sweep; 
pt d ySchA wQt; pe. d 
yechf n. yifih 

y^j&yich rat 

yefQ to help one in lifting 
a load on the head; 
also: to carry a load; 
pt. a yeeha ^fi he hel- 
ped the man; yi yieh 
^/> I carried a bag on 
my head 

y^f^ (y^tnO ^^ dismount; 
a yeffa toQk ki vny h/pi 
he dismounted from 
the horse 

y2fifi to pick up, pick out, 
choose; pt. d yiiid gi 
feA; pt. d yiik, n. yH 

ySJ^f y^na to be; syn. ya 
(Ba. yen) 

yffQ to abuse, insult; pt. 

« y^J (y^i) ^9 ay Aha 
in he abused him, n. 
yifk; see y3<fc 

yit^f^i a well 

yilry^t n^ck (Di. yet) 

yifryU scorpion; d kdeh 
yi y^l he was bitten 
by a scorpion (Nr.yijf) 

y^ to climb; see y^dg, 

yswQ, to repent 

yey often before a con- 



sonant instead oiyech: 

in, inmidst of^ among 

yey y^rid a season, about 

October — December 

^rh M kdjh hyil y. y. 

the people use to har- 
vest in die autumn 
ytyit to assent, believe, 
trust; pt yi yii (Ba. 


yiylt^H hair 

y^Of yeyo, to be able, to 
can; yi u yei H gu^d^ 
I am able to write 

yiby, through, with; to- 
wards (Bo. hi) 

yi you, sing. 

yHbn to open; pt. dyi^ii 
wqt he opened the 
house; pe. a yiip; n. 

yi^dii, also yi^l^ to arbi- 
trate, make peace, stop 
a quarrel; to save, de- 
liver, liberate; pe. a 

yi^ to cut, chip, carve ; 
to point, sharpen; pt. 

« yii& y^» <i yi^^ y& 

he carved the boat; 

pe. d yi^t> ^ yi^i o- y^ 
yi^Q to help one in lifting 

up a load; to carry; 

pt. a yi§gi l^bq, d yiika 

lubq; pe. a yiik, n. yik; 

see yJlgo 
yUgh to breadie aloud, 

to moan, groan; pt d 


yl^l^yikH jackal 
yiih/iil («l»o yWryiJ) 

bracelet, anklet ; yJyllo, 


ym. yiUt = yU^h 

yiSAo. to pick up; seeygiii^ 

yiep, taOy. rftmit "sheep- 
tail'^ a red dura, y. 
wan the ang^e of the 
©y©; y* ty^ "horse- 
tail*" : a red dura 

yt^r^ to twist; pt d yiira 
^l he twisted a rope; 
pe. dytir;n.yiir 

yigo, to rattle with the 
rattle; pt a y^siba hi 
ddlHit^ pe. a yik; see 


yigd to become; pt. d 

yikd ddf^ 
yin you, sing. 
yind, also yinci, you, it is 


yi^h'yit fisherman 

yinQ far away, in the bush, 

ylr^ smoke; y. k^^d mdl 
the smoke rose up 

yitQ to find, pt a yiti gi 
fei/i he found some- 
thing; see yod^ 

y^^yiO-y^t ©ar, leaf; yl^i 
ya^ leaves of the tree 
(Mundu^tf ear, Sukyt^ 
ear, Di. y«t, yid^ Nr. 

yiyi to be possessed by 
a spirit^ to be in ecstacy 
yd old 

yo-y^ road 

yqbg, to bewitch; pt a 

yvogba jal miikQ; pe. a 

yodQ to find; pt. a ydta 

in; pe. a ySt 
y6gi to become; pt a 

ydkd ^; see yigq 
yolQ to mix (?) 
yomQ to surpass, beat one, 

to overcome, to be 

victorious; pt a yam; 

n. yim 
y^mi air, wind, weather, 

y. ^ kuf^tit the wind is 

blowing (DL y^nif Suk 

yamat, Turkana ekw- 

pcam, Eiffamojo egu- 

warn, Kamasia ygme, 

Teso ekwamu 
yH^ yu6^ui>^ person of 

old age; seeyo 
yif = um you 
yudq to pass away (sun, 

time) to get dark; yu^i 

wiu the day has gone 
yu fyil tin an insidt, an 

injurious (obscene) 

word; see fyllq, pyllQ 
yuJQ to pluck off the 

grains from the ear 

with the teeth 
yitk firewood; i k4^ hi 

gtoilni yUk she goes to 

gather f. 
ytoachd to pull, drag, tear 
ywachq to be starved 
ytoffiQ to step on, walk on ; 

see ywoikd 

ywabu — ytohp 


ywQba to bewitch, cune; 

see yqbo, 
ywodQ to find, see yodo^ 
ywQffQ to comfort, con- 
sole (?); yiyiHin I 

comforted him 

yte^k, yw8k a ciy, ciying 

ytvoiiQio tread underfoot, 

to step upon; pt. d 

ytMMd ^f^; d y^hik; pe. 

d yw6i/i; n. ywbii, 
ytosnQ to utter a load 

sound, to ciy, weep; 

to ratde; pt. d ywjtn 
yufi^fhywitpi bewitcher 

-WMBTEBMJJm, n« 8UU«k P«opl«. 



abhor — ax 



abhor y. mQn2 
able, to be <» yey2 
above adv. mal 
absent a. tSk 
absolve v. chwdg^ 
absorb v. chwejQ, 
abuse v. yitQ, chajfn 
accompany v. logo, IwQg^ 
accose v. go;^ 
accuser n. nate ggak 
ache V. k^^i, kdjq, r^mii 
add v. m^io, 
adore v. mRln 
adorn v. 'nig2 
adze see ax 
affair n. kwip 
afraid, to be <» frg^ 
after prep, bin 
afternoon n. &dr 
again adv. A^ 
agree v. i^wagg, 
agreeable a. dich 
aim V. nwanQ, chsmQ (toch) 
air n. yi^it 
albino n. db^^b^k 
alike a. fer 
all a. bin, bini 
alms n. gin much 
alone dkt/il, kite 
along, prep, tan 

also adv. fyau 

amased, to be <» gUyQ 

ambach n. hbibi^ abtogb^ 

ambassador n. d^to^ 

amidst prep, kil, yeeh 

among prep. hiU y^ch 

ancestor n. hu>d 

ancient time n. 6^in 

and conj. kA, hi 

angry a. wir^ 

anklet n. yiil-ylkl 

another miku 

answer v. lQgq$ lwQg2 

ant n., black house — 
dchiinji - dchuni ; red 
morq; black winged 
nchyinit^hy^; white 

ant-hill n. ^^-dr 
anus n. dchuiLk^hwik 
apparition n. tipo, 
apprentice n. nan mtU 
approach v. tooffq, cKago, 

apron n. 6ban^ 
arise see rise 
arm n. bbt-^bit 
armour n. d^i^k 

arm-pit n. wdn ywddft 
arm-ring of ambadi n. 

arms n. gin liak 

armj n. IM, tytk 

arrive v. tr^ u'ffj^ gifo 

arrow n. to^H^' 

artist n. btt^it^ 

as adv. nit, nim{ [liyh 

ashamed, he is «« wij^ 

ashes n. bur 

ask T, fichu ; m. for kwaehq, 

ass n. see donkej 
assemble v. chuko, cKqAq, 

assent v. yey^ 
associate v. r^ftg 
astonished, to be «« gQyo, 

ndno, mumo, 
astuteness n. br^h'bfilk 
at once adv. tin, anitn 
augment v. miiQ 
aunt n. wdji^vAch; m^^ 

mat; md^mik 
avenge v. chdlq, chudq 
avoid V. nqlQ 
awaken v. tukd 

n. dird-ddri 

baby — body 



baby n. ^ p^; ika gin 

bachelor n. Mj(-6dj$ 
back n. and adv. itur^m- 

hbtn; bin; iieh 
backbone n. fyhr^jhi 
backward adv. nieh 
bad a. rack; to be ^ r^lkQ, 

bag n. dtip^liPf ^P 
bait n. ehiml'^hdmi 

bake v. btidQ 

bald a. twieh; to be <» 


banish y. rylmo, 
banner n. lit 
bar V. ngo, 

barbarian n. = Dinka 
barber n. nan lidit 
bark v. gwajfit 
barren a. btoQeh 

basis n. tyiUhtyil 

bask v. j^it 

basket n. ikdidi^hdAt; 

bastard n. itgwin-^u^n 
bat n. aURi 
bay n. se^ bight 
bay V. gtoayn 
be yoy yffiuif bit hidg, 
bead n. ttgfftik 
beak n. itdkmffikdifni 
beam (wood) n. hawQr 

bean n. li^r^-nj^ 

bear (young gones) v. 

beat V. fodOf fwod{i ; gqJQ 
because conj. mi, mdr, 

becaose of Hfit 
become v. l(tg(b yigib 

bee n. lAeh 

bee-hive n. wQt Meh 

beer n. m^gi^ 

beg y. kwaehg, 

beggar n. note biph» note 

begin v. cKag^* hdmd, 

behind adv., prep. nAch^ 

bAn^ ehdn 
belch v. g^go, 
beliere v. yeyo, 
bell n. dhiUbh^t; nM^ 
bellows n. 6b^k \nkf. 
belfy n. yechny^ 
below prep. ^; bAy./M 
belt n. see girdle 
beneath prep. 
bent, to be ^ bgmQ 
beside prep, bfite 
besiege y. m^i/kQ, gtH^ 
besmear v. toQjfQ, tDoro, 

getit, gaJQ 
between prep, kil 
beyerage n. gin mal 
bewitch v. yobo, gwatQ, 

bier n. tdbdti 

big a. di^n^ d^lnit 

bight n. gil^tl 

biU n. i6k-^k 

bird n. miti-^i^ 

bird-trap n. akiUdWi 

bite y. kdjo, 

bitter a. kifih 

black a. lieh'tojQ 

black man n. nan taf^ 

blacken y. rdwn 

blacksmith n. bi^ifbt^ 

blanket n. 6dtbjf4d^ 

blast n. ioAnii 

bleed y. n. h/ff^; y. a. 

blind a. ek^r, chwQr 
blind person n. nan e 

blister n. k^/i b^l 
bloat y. bibdit 
blood n. r^mlt 
blossom n. see flower 
blossom y. kQg^ 
blow y. ko^; of wind: 

ehgdii; to <» the nose 

blue a. bpffSl 

blunt a. g^k 

bluster y. nar^ 

board n. kwitm-ku^i; 

boast y. niojn 
boat n. y^-yi| 
body n. re 



boil — catch 

boil v. walOi ycak^; eggs, 

corn : h^gn 
boil n. k^ Uj^ kffi gbl 
bone n. ch&git^ht 
book n. tDaAorWQch 
booty n. jam IM 
border n. 4^k^k; see 

also boundary 
borrow v. uit^Q 
both rtfit 

botde n. it4(it'aflif 
boondaiy n. k^kid 
bow v. kul(t 
bow n. dgwMguii 
boy n. ikil^kaii 
bracelet n. HtMifi-flttyafit; 

brag y. narn 

braid v. kadq 

brain n. li^ 

branch off y. k&rQ 

branch of tree n. akdre ya| 

brass n. tdldl 

braye a. tik 

bread n. kwin 

break y. torft, cho^fyidQ 

break£ut y. liwaJQ mql 
breast n. kSu-kdi (wo- 
man's) n. ijij^^j^ 
breast -bone n. hnidit' 

brew y. dodq, dw^lQ 

bribe y. punQ, fTftf>Q, 
bribery n. gi gujin 
bride n. ^f^ liwQin, ikan 

bridegroom n,jal ikwimi, 

nan AwQm 
bring y. hild^» k^lOi loanq, 

dwayo, dwai 
brisdes n. t^ 
broad a. laeh 
broil y. malQ 
broom n. dhotini^kuAni 
broth n. ohwii 

brothern.fiamay2; i^^mia- 
lUm^; inU'-^Umi ; elder 

bruise y. fign 

brush y. foj(t 

babble y. twitkt 

ba£Uo n.jifp^ipi; dgth- 

bug n. ehwi^rit^hwitr; ^It 
build y. g'^dg, gsro. 
bull n. u^oj^-ti^ 
bundle n. b^di, bach 
burial-place n. kft^ kwQik 
bum y. fylla, wanQ 
buiy y. kiDQiiQ, rtgo, 
bush n. yjk2; wak^ wok 
bushbuck n. ^lir^-dMtr 
bush-cat n. hkgft 
but conj. dt 
butcher n. jal naU note 

butcher y. liodg, nolo, 
butt of the gun n. dhwini 

butter y. fwcjit chak 
butter n. tnau ehak; 

cooked <» lyin^ 
butterfly n. dy^jwQk 
buttermilk n. bai 
buttocks n. wb^^wd^; 

l^r; dfH ^ 
buy y. n^wQ 
by prep, yi 


cack y. see ease 
cackle y. h/igg 
calf n. liirijJH'^ 
calf of the leg n. <Ur^ 

eyitt, ogwal 
calico-doth n. Mi-Mt 
caU y. chwokb chwQtQ 
camel n. hmid^mhli 

can y. yhfn 
cannon n. giljhgitl 
caoutchouc n. dftk 
capricious, to be ^ kwonQ 
capsise y. gam^i 
capture y. mffilfi 
care for y. kdr{t 
caress y. kptgi 

cany y. kalQ, ty^tg, (grg; 
m. on the hip *^ kwamn 
carye y . gufjdo, fjiit, yis^ 
caryings n. guigt 
cast iron y. bodg 
castrate y. r^jg, tggg 
cat n. fkh«-fi(|u4 
catch y. magit 

caterpillar — cry 


caterpillar n. oywdt-^todi 
cattle n. ^k 
cave n. bAr^bir 
centipede n. dtitlit 
chaff n. chtoitn 
chain n. dchichtoil, tag]fe 
chair n. kwltm-'ku^i 
chameleon n. digilpiu 
change y. m^ welo, 
channel n. w^l^wdl 
charcoal n. cMtgj^chiik, 

chase v. ch/stQ, fytm^ 
cheap a. Itoiii 
cheat y. tabo, vhMq 
cheek n. flnj^fkii 
chew y. liamQ 
chicken-pocks n. ddwdt 
chief n. jt^g^tk 
child n. lior-tivfitli 
chip y. yt^ 
chirp y. gedQ 
chisel n. iiiiin'4iibni 
choose y. y&^ 
circle n. dSl 
circumcise y. ehv^lit 
dap y. tsi^ 
clatter y. y^gQ 
clay n. libit 

clean y . foJQ, chu^ twdrQ 
clear a. til, to be <» chwcfia 
deyer, to be ^ b^^ 
cUmb y. y^ 
clock n. see watch 
dose y. eh/lgq, msJQ 
cloth n. Uu'Uf^; fyin" 

cloud n. ftHifffil 
cloud-shadow n. odf^ 

dub y. »!-%; blilfthmi 
coagulate y. ligys 
coarse a. gwat/Q 
cob n. fi^r-rilr 
cobweb n. bii-biii 
cock n. dpjp^'^fl^fi 
cock of the gun dJcy^~ 

cohabit y. modq 
cold a. kojQ^ lff>Q 
colic, to haye '^ jimQ 
coUeot y. gwsnQ 
collect taxes gu^Q 
colour n. kiid 
come y. bsnQ^ bi, bia 
come back y. dultgb 
come early y. mqlit 
come near y. waf^^i 
command y. ch^gQ 
company n« Iwdp^ltobH 
compensate y. logo, ehiolQ 
complain y. gQiiQ 
compose a song chugQ 
conceited a. ^wgnq 
conciliator n. note r^ 

confused a., see perplex- 
consent y. i/iwago, yeyn 
contemporary n. yd^A- 

continue y. ehogo, chig^ 
conyerse with y. Itij^bit, 

cook y. (a^ib f^H 
cook n. nate fil 
cool a. HbQ 
copy n. gd, toil 
com n. i^bwbk 

comer n. ggr, g^, tdty^l 
corn-stalks n. ri^^r^; 

cotton n. kirii, kworQ 
cotton-doth n. 6g^i 
cough y. idqIq 
count y. kwariQ 
country n. fi^fdi 
court n. kitl'kiU 
cousin n. 6wijlH^ilji» 

iuA ; ifAylt ; inAyl^i 6nA 
coyer n. udml^ rtimi 
coyer y. hlmQ^ nimg 
coyet y. (idfi 
cow n. d^n-^k 
cow-dung n. wSrihwir 
cower y. kyitiQ^ liwQnQ 
cow-house n. Iwdk-hoik 
cowrie-shell n. gigh-g^k 
coy a. nwQnn 
crane n. dytobh-^ywdhi 
crawl y. ^pg r^^ mvlgi 
crawl n. see kiddle 
create y. chwajo 
creep y. Ispii r^k, fnul^ 
crest of birds n. dytoik- 

dyvfUk] of the cock 

cripple n. n$l 
crocodile n. lictA'^dM 
crocodOe-hunter n. dyinit 
crooked, to be bgrnQ 
crouch y. liwgnQ 
crow n. dgiik^dgihi 
cruel a. tik 
crumble off y. niQg2 
crush y. lioii^^ ^kq, tttgQ 
crutch n. kim2 
cry y. ywQno, Tqgn 

ciy n. yu^i 
omuung a. wei^ wotkQ 
curdle v. i&^i^ 
cmrent n. fiM 

cone Y.jalq, ehino, guxttQ, 

cut v. iH^ nudft, nalOi 

cry — dust 

cut grass v. liarQ Uim 
cut off T. nimQ 
cut open v. kag^ 
cut into strips t. rirQ 


dam n. Stinit^iin 
dance t. chono, woehu 
dancing-stick n. ^in-^ttf^ 
danger n. IM 
dark a. nioffo, mu^ 
dashy. kgf^ 
day n. chin^hini 
daylight n. u^ 
deaf a. niign, nUn 
deal with luitbit 
debate t. hagQ 
debts n. kwor, kur 
deceire y. chamQ 
decompose y. hwagq, 

decrease y. diyh 
deep a. 161 

deleib-palm n. tiglt^k 
demand debts ptda 
denie y. flmg, 
depart y. wV^ 
descendant n. kwaror^^^ 
desert n,fi,l 
deserye y. myffru 
destroy y . j^rg /M 
detain from y. tti^ 
detest y. mdni^ 
dew n. 0ch 
diarrhoe n. r^im; to suffer 

from m, eht^, dy^bft 
die y. fgwf^ fg^ 
difficulty, to be in <» ffalu 
dig y. ka^ kwaiiQ, godst 
diminish y. non/Q, 
Dinka-man n. 6jtAiifwg;U 

dip water y. rgmq, tgmfi 

dirt n. cAi^ 

disappear y. vala^ 

dismount y. yej^ 

dispute y. kaga ^k 

distant a. liii 

distribute y. fynQ 

diye y. T-gHfi jfgiifi 

diyide y. pinQ 

diyorce y. {ffn^ 

dizsy a. vnnn 

do y. gogo, tyg 

doctor n. jal ya^ 

dog n. gwbk^tibk 

dog-head fish n. mik- 


dom-palm n. kan^ 

donkey n. hd^r^f-a^ 

door n. tdd^t, tit 

door-mat n. iigihtik 

dough n. mitn a waeh 

down ady. fhk 
dose y. ikwayo, 
drag y. ywaehq, 
dragon-fly n. htyim^tyim 
dream y. lugili hko, 
dream n. liikit^Ulfc 
dress y. rugii; '» hairfujQ, 

drift y. ginit 
drink y. mg^ 
driye y. kQlo, kolq, ehayt 
drisde y. kyerq, i/iweyq, 

drown y. n. mudq, 
drum n. huirhuli 
drum-stick n. dkol'dk^li 
dry y. dimq, t^^HlWl 
drying-place n. />im 
duchn n. rdwit 
duck n. bl66^m 
dung n. ehst 
dung-hill n. kwij^ 
dura n. hyil 
dura-bird n. dk^ 
dura-food n. mogn 
dura-stick n. diMg^ - d^ 

dust n. iitr, dyieh 

ear — fisher man 



ear-li^ n. dkwdn-'dkwAn 
earth n./M 

earth-worm n. Hu^^iHo^fi 
ear-wax n. pdnit 
ease one's self v. ^^2^ 
east n. kun dwigo, wan 

eat Y. cKamo, 

eat soup T. voafft chwai 
ecstasy n., to be in '^yiyi 
edge n. ^k-^k 
egg n. ti^'t^; i^wqIs 

egret n. bkjtk^iik 

eig^t dbidik 
elder brother n. liiUhfh 
elder sister n. lian kiyjt 
elect y. j^tiQ, t^iig 
elephant n. lyiok-Uieh 
embrace y. kwago, 
emigrate y. dago, 
enclosure n. kiHr-hJlili^ g^l 
enemy n. nan men 
enmity n. ai§r 
enumerate y. kwanq, 
equal a. ffr^ per 
err y. gtoMo, bwgrQ 
escape y. ftg^ 
eternal a. ady. aj^ 

eunuch n. nan mdnt n^li 
European n. see white 

eyaporate y. dwffift 
exactly ady. ehyit 
examine y. fcuiii 
exchange y. Iwigo, m^ 
excrements n. eha 
exhibit y. ty^rq (typ^t) 
exist y. ndt 
explode y. mwcJQ, 
extinguish y. niOiga 
extract y. Jbg^ 
eye n. wdnHiin 


£ace n. Mm; ft^^^ft^/ 
jGaO y. ^Ist 
£sll y. dtjnQ, dylmQ 
family n. gi^l 
far away liti 
farm u. fuift^fvot^ 
£urt y. ibtffo^ 
Fashoda n. BdekMh 
CastMi y. kodo, 
fat n. mdu 
fiat a. chwt 
fisther n. vA^ tdi, void 
fisther-in-lawn. see'' re- 
latiyes by marriage^ 
fear y. hikd 

fealher n. ii^^ibiri 
female n. mdl-m^j^; see 

also woman 
fence n. Uh-hik; khUkm 
fence in y. hagu 
fence-sticks n. tdti kdl 
fetch water y. rgniQ pi 
field n. see fiyrm 
fight y. liakQ; n. IM 
fig-tree n. oldm^Umi 
file y. ty^it 
fill y. f^fHb yann; ^ up 

fin n. kwdAJt'kwaeh 

find y. yitQ, yodQ 

fine n. kf^r 

finger n. lu^djfi^t 

fingemaO n. kwQnQ Iw^io, 

finish y. tytg(b rumq, {u9ih2 

finished, it is <» chZtJi 

fire XL.maeh 

fire a gun y. gqj2 toA 

fire-fly n. bmidJt'bmH 

firewood n. y4k 

first n* amalq; ady. miti; 

to be the ^ hoann 
fish n. refd 
fish y. may2 
fish-ea{^e n. K 
fisherman n. yinjt^ 


fish-hook n. thMH-t^wf^; 

fish-line n. i^pir 
fish-spear n. bii 

fist n. aiiit^-a^^ 

fire dbich 
flame t. bfilq 
flee V. /flrc tay2 
fling y. w^ 
flint-stone n. lilirHl 
float y. gt^ twar^ 
floor n. kwQn 
flow y. niitlQ 
flower n. bk^k-^Js^k 
fly ▼. fyrn 

fly n. Iwdnj^todn 

foam n. dbdii 

fog n. dtgk 

follow y. l^gib f*Vib pido, 

fondle y. kgna 
fontanel n. tynn ^Sji 
food n. ffin eham 
foot n. tyilihtyil 
foot-ankle n. twH 
for conj. mi, mdr 
forbid y. mtinn 
ford n. d^r-if^ 
fore-arm n. tw^l 
foreigner n. dbwit^bufQii 
fore-leg n. bdt^t 

fish — gun 

forest n. fim 

foreyer ady. ^^, di ehbn 
forget y. wich wil 
form y. ckwaJQ 
formerly ady. eh^n 
forward ady. mal 
foundation n. tyiUhtyfi 
tour dnwin 
fowl n. gyinit-ffysn. 
friend n. nia(-m2| 
fri^ten y. bw^git 
frog n. dgwiJr^gwili 
front n. l^lit^lf Mm; in 

0m of amali fit m 
froth n. &bii 
frdl a. /giiy yoii 


gainsay y. te^fi ^i, fimn 
gale n. iO^ni 
game n. lil-lii 
garth n. see kiddle 
gather y. twarq, i^kmo, 

gtognQ* chSnii, mitQ 
gasella rabifrons n. &il^- 

genitals of woman Mm 

germinate tat/2 
get up y. itiit^it 
giddj a. winQ 
giraffe n. t^r-^ffr 
girdle n. t^bimi'-tibiimi 
girl n. lUtn^tiwIil; iktne 

giye y. wkq, mojn, mt^q, 
^de into y. mg^rg 
gnarl y. narg, 

gnat n. fir^gr 

go y. i^, iojfe, (jAfljffi 

go back y. d^gn 

goat n. dyiUdyiJc; male <» 

God n. jwQ}>jwbk 

good a. dich 

goods n.jiAt 

goose n. dittr^i-dihoiib; 

gourd n. dcl^ - ddUi, 
l^nh-kM; bpdri; ^Mii; 

goyem y . jagQ 
grandchild n. kwarft^kwir 
grandfather n.itod^ kwayor 

grandmother n. toSnQ 
grass n. UtmJt'Kim 

great a. diion, d^nit 
greedy a. Mne miir 
green a. mdr 
greet y. m§(^ 
grey a. ddiik 
grind y. wqIq 
grinding-stone n. pil^l 
groan y. yi^go, ehud^ 
ground n. fM 
grow y. a./8^ y. n. dSnn 
growl y. fioTfi 
guardian n. nan iSr 
guinea-fowl n. iehwdi- 

guinea-worm n. tyiu^iu 
guitar n. j(^-|^ 
gum n. ditk 
gums n. ildr^> d^ 
gun n. toeh-tbieh 

hailstone — ignore 



haiktone n. dfa 

hammer v. gud(i 
hammer m dbdii-dbcui; 

hand v. gamq 
hand n. ehy^tQ^chyin, chin 
hang up y. rt/^q, nobn 
happy, to £Bel « ehu^^t 

hard a. tik 

hare n. dfSijit^fodtchi 

hartebeeBt n. tin 

hanrest ▼. haJQ 

hasten v. jtoanq, nuiqjit 

hat n. dtiii-didii; tdh-^iki 

hatch v. tuffQ 

hate T. m^no, eh^ 

have v. a. da 

hawk n. 6U^IS^; grej 

• dfill 
head n. t^cA-tiv| 
heal ▼. n. n^kQ 
hear t. Uuq 
heart n. minjhfr^fisfyiu' 

hearth n. tah^H 
heaven n. mal 
heayj a. ftK rth 
hedgehog n. hhitjLifhkiLii 
heel n. tdtyVit 
heglig-tree n. td 
heifer n. rqjft^Qch 
help v. iE^iii^ kwcu/iQ, 
helpless a. twain 
hen n. ffyinb^y&i 
herd y. kwdy^t 
herdsman n. naU kwiyit 
here ady. kffi; ki; initn 
heron n. bgw^rj^gwitri; 

hew V. HsHq 

hide y. /quq, mefoy kanQ 
hide n. dil^l 
hiU n. kit-kiti 
him 4$ iih gltn 
hind-part n. |d 
hip-bone n. dpAp-dpdip 
hippo n. fir-fSH 
hire v. tyZJfi, Ao^rg 
history n. kwin-kwltn 

bit V. S^gifi 
hobble y. ktogmQ 

hoe V. fuTQ 

hoe n. ifcu^r^-iti^^ 
hold fast y. mil^y ^^Ifi^ 

hole n. bAr^bir 
hollow y. rQgo, wotQ 
hollow a. 6rigi 
home n. pdch^my^; gltl 
homestead n. gltl 
honour y. g^no 
hoof n. ddti^f^t 
horn n. tun 
horse n. kyij^kyiA 
hospitable, to be <» reJ2 
hot a. ^ 
hot season n. liu 
boose n. wQt-^^i 
how, how much ddly kyii 
hum y. Tur2 
hunger n. k^eh 
hungij a. da k^k 
hunt y. dwoTQ 
hunter n. nan dwar 
hurry y. jwann 
hurt y. n^go, 
husband n. jal gql 
husk n. hf^kiy akwQr 
hyena n. Spifof^-^pjoi^f^ 



ibis n. bkwdm - bkidm. 

black m, 6wdii-^du 
identical a. fer 

if conj. kffi 
ignore y. kuJ2 


iguana n. iibit^rb-'ibaiuri 
imitate t. ligyfi 
in prep, yeeh 
in order that kifi 
in order to bi 
increase v. frigdit 
inherit ▼. Idff^t 
inheritance n. gin Idk 

iguana — lie 

inaide n. yee4-y^ 
inaipid a. Iic^ 
inrak Y. y^Q, chayg, 
intend y. ehamQ 
interior n. yeekry^ 
interpret t. l!Qg2 
interpreter n. nan tgh 

inteetinea n. cUm^ 
inTite T. r«^*fi, ry^q^ 
iron n. ny^ 
island n. miiehit 

itch n. h^ W 
ivoiy n. l£ke4y§A 


jackal n. oy^k-dgiii; 


journey v. tcjfe 

jump Y. fyvQ, \nlim 

junction of riYors n. mdni 
jutt eh^ 

juat now imikn 
juat so adY. hi/MU 
juatify Y. chwago, 


keep Y. korg, gono, mij^ 
kick Y. chilbQy guflJQ 
kiddle n. ddtrjt-'dc^ 
kidneys n. n^fifi-y^i 
kill Y. nigit 

kiss Y. nlOmn 
knead y. «iu^^, 

knee n. ehin^hin 


knife n. fiHt-fAl 
knob-keny n. blil^m 
knock Y. gudQ 
know Y. n^(t 


lack Y. bunQ 
lake n. see pond 
lame y. kwQmQ 
lame person nqlifii^fikl 
lamp n. kwQrn 
language n. ^k-^k 
large a. duon, dgnq, 
late, to be <» loi/iQi ehwitnQ, 

laugh Y. 1^)^ ft^ii^ 
leaf n. y^yJ| 
leak Y. kyffTQ^ 
lean y. wolQfJQnQ; 

head Inrng 
learn y. didQ 
leeches n. ehwS 
left hand ehdm 


leopard n. kwiieh-kwJaii 
let alone y. weyg 

let go Y. tM^fi 

let the milk down liirfi 
letter n. waik^waeh 
liar n. jal fyit^ jal tSdjn 
lick Y. nano, numft [(odn 
lie n. twct, fyit] tell lies 

lie — my 

lie down v. &tk^; lie in 

wait for teb^* 
lift up Y. tinQ 
light a fire ehw<^Q niaeh 
like adv. ni, nimi 
fikewise adv. fydu 
limp Y. kwomq 
lion n. ni^'iwl 
Up n. dil dik 
listen ▼. kt/gnQ y^ 
litde a. ^tj^tisfiit; n^k 
lire Y. ngnQ 

Uyot n. dehii^f ehuliit 
lizard n. Ijnt-'ltwi; large 

<» nwich^nwich 
load-ring n. fach 
locQBt n. 6(kii(^Mbi 
loin - cloth n. dchytnt- 

loin -doth for women 

loin-ring n. wiUt^^ 
long a. b^r 
look Y. fifno. 

looking - glass n. rfinl- 

loose, to be <» Idno, 
loosen Y. 22^ 9§^fi 
lose Y. woAq, 

loss n., to be at a <» ^Iq 
lost, to be <» taiai^Q, 
loose n. fiti^^^tl^l 
love Y. fwiri 
lower part j(i 
lungs n. bhiu 


magistrate n. li^gft 
mahogany -tree n. f^rit^ 

maise n. iJnobk 
make y. gogo, ehwajn 
make straight m^g 
maker n. nan a gg^ft 
male n. chioQu 
male animal dpvo^^ 
man n. niUi-tyin ; jal^gk; 

mangouste n. dtiudttt 
mankind n. ^S)^ 
marabou n. dlwMlwi 
marrow n. dwipit 
marry y. ligiTifi 
mask n. o/odn Itogl 
mat n. 6dik-6d{ki 
mats for fence tyek 
matter n. kwip 

me a, y<i^ 
mean y. cAu^^ 

meaning n. tyiliftyil 
measure y. TQmQ 
measure n. ^1 rim 
meat n. nnfi 
mediator n. note r^pe 

meditate y. Umit 
meet y. rgmn 
melon n. ^A§y^-deA§^ 
mercLEbl a. to be ^ ydtQ 
metal n. nylri [y^eh 

middle n. kil, k^U, dlr, 
midst n. kil 
milk n. ehdk 
milk Y. ny^ 
miscarry y.dihgh 
misfortone n. gi ehyff% 
mishap n. gi ehyff% 
miss Y. bdjn 
mist n. 6tQk 
mistake, to make a m. 

hwgrq, b^nq, gwaikg 

mix Y. chw(^ chibo, 


moan y. chudQ 
money n. AyiA [fi4 

monkey n. ^ytc^Jm-^yto^ 
month n. dwii-^Uoit 
moon n. dw^'^wit 
morning n. mil^ tnufiil 
morning -dawn n. akff:h 

mosquito n. b^Q-bii 
mother n. nd, miit 
mountain n. kU-kiti 
mouth n. ^kr^k 
moYe Y. n. ninq, 
move into y. di^gg 
mow grass i^tq, lum 
much a. gir^ r^h 
mud n. W)it 
mule n. dgdl^dl 
murderer n. note nfk 
my a 


nab ag — perplexed 


nabag-tree n. Uni^Hni 

nail n. fijo-f^^ 

naked a. nau 

name n. liin 

narrow a. toeh 

navel n. ffit^lU 

near a. chiki 

neck n. yijryi§i; mti^ 

neck-bone n. dgirit-<igtlT 

neck-ring n. bql j^f^ 

nephew n. dnii^^f'iihni^; 

nerve n. rdriMir 

net n. bii-l^ 

nice a. dte^ 

niece n. dmi^JH^imi^; 

niggard n. kii^^hQiii; ffSrit 
night n. WQr-'wifi 
nine dbinwtn 
nol fiil 
noisy a. ufQtoQ, 

noon n. di chdn 

north n. kun dwoffQ toan 

north-wind n. rd^ 
nose n. tvtim ; rtim-<^m 
noBtrils n. w^ti witm 
noty&; prohib. ki 
not yet nUH 
now adv. tin, dnan 
number n. git 


oar n. {d0^; Idwi^Uufi 

offer thanks trials 

oil n. fndu 

old a. yq 

on prep, kwbm 

on adv. mal 

one dkt/jil 

onion n. mo|^U^ 
onward adv. maZ 
open Y. yibo, y^bit 
open eyes t. ihcgifcs 
or conj. witUk 
oribi-gaseUe n. ttnjt^t^ 
ostrich n. wud^f-wit 

outside adv. wtik, u^i 
outwit ▼. ehamQ, Iff&fi* 

overcome ▼. ysm{t 
overleap v. rUmQ 
overwhelm v. Auffq 
owl n. ^^ 


pain V. kdJQ, hdgq, fUmo, 
palm of the hand n. ddiai 
paper n. wai/iQrVfQdk 
papyrus n. bkit 
paralyzed, to be '^^ ^q 
part V. dffiQ, 
part n. ^i-^Jfci 

pass away v. yu^ ruwn 
pass by v. /flrfi 
pasture n. ksy kwcd, t^r 
pay taxes gwajo, 
peel oflf V. guiirq, yipq 
peg n. ^wayif^uHii; fijlt- 

pelican n. l^tki^bitM 
pen n. yi gw^ 
penis n. ekid-ehi&l 
people n. ttrq, jl, 2ff6g, 

Iwak, jur 
perforate v. ehwcofQ, toyn 
perplexed, to be ^ me& 

persecute — rat 


e tmifnQ, hanQ 
persecute t. jndu 
perseyerant a. tik 
person n. niiti-tyin; ^^ 
perspire v. kwogo^/irii 
pick y. kajd 
pick out y. mQtQ, ^inq 
pick up y. ffwin^if twdrQ 
piece n. j/h^ uiil 
pierce y. toyo^ chv^bq, 

pile up y. chqmQ, 
pillage y. ©ig, yagu 
pig n. iU^ ^^tnltt 
pigeon n. bMr^iik&ri 
piss y. lajn 
pistol n. d^h 
place y. hjj^ ehilbn 
place n. kAy h^ kun 
plait y. hodq 
plait of hair hit 
plant y. hago, f^ 
plaster y. mulq, fnwQfiQ, 

play y. %i 

plaj guitar {omg pm 
plenty gir, liiiii 
pluck y. kaJQ, mqtQ, 
poet n. aehalxusKdk 
pole n. kujd^kii; kuArQ- 

polish y. ty^git 
pond n. lUyl'lityi 
ponder y. Umit 
pool n. t^r-edfi 
poor a. (ii;a2(29 A&ii 
porcupine n. chyou^hyiH 

posterity n. liek 
pot n. fuk-fuH] diJc-dik] 

pound y. wodQ] fi&m] 

gudii] toolQ 
pour out y. hoti{t 
power n. kieh 
powerful a. kick 
practice y. ggg^t 
praise y. JwSjit 
pray y. tamo, kwaeho. 

pregnant a. y€U!h 
presently ady. tin, iinitn 
preserye y. gono, k^vQ 
press into y. menu 
pretty a., to be ^^miriQ, 

prick y. fyidQ, 
prince n. liariji 
prohibit y. ftaiig, m^nQ 
property n. jiAi 
proud a. nwQno, rnqjo, 
prudish a. mogino, 
pudding n. kwin 
pull y. ywaehu 

pull a boat ^^2 y& 

pull out y. wQjj^ kolQ, tgloi 

pumpkin n. Iw^l-I^t 

pus n. tiit 

put y. ehiJbQ, kiin 

put into y. menQ 

put on (clothes) y. rugn 

put on fire tQSH 

putrefy y. kwagu 

python n. lid^^-f&dS 


quail n. dyiir-'dyi^ | quiet, to be ^cAtnii^y kudu \ quite i^n, l^ni 


rabbit n. see hare 
rain y. kit ^ fnitkit 
rain n. kiti 

n. rjtnit 
raise y. t^; ^ catde etc. 


ram n. dr^h^iritch 
rat n. yijit^ich] ehap*j 


rasor — sesamnm 

razor n. niivf^i 
reach y. ffomo, gifa^ 
read v. kwanQ 
reason n. kffi 
reconcOe v. ribq, togq, 

recover v. nfiig 
rectom n. i^ 
red a. hwHr^ 
reed n. bh^h-^btech*^ <ibir 
refose v. &afi(2» h/^ 
reign v. jagu, jtkt 
relation n. wnUwuti 
relatiYes by marriage (Mh 

rely on v. noi^ 

remain v. dgnq, ^dg* f^jib 

remember v. /Srg 
rend v. kagQ$ fyi^ib chdfy 
rent v. h^gq, rtfibfi 
liepeat y. chigQ, diiitgh 
repent v. y^fi 

report n. hwiu'lcwitii 

request v. kwachu 

resemble y. cKalst 

respect y. glino, 

rhinoceros n. dtin dhfil 

rib n. vigdor^t 

rice n. atabq, 

rich a. her 

ride v. eAa|g, hdlo, 

riddle n. wiy ityM 

right a. dich 

right hand kyhch 

ring n. i^gifiuik'^ g^Uh 

ripen v. ehc,git 
rise y. ^^itiit 
riyer n. nhm'ndmi 
riyer-bank n. g^-^tt 
road n. y&y^ 
roan antelope n. dmMir 

roar v. chtogv^ 
roast y. mqlQ 

roast dura hfs^ by^l 

roast fish v. budu 

rob y. yagiti kabo, H^ilkQ 

robber n. jdl-^mit 

rock n. lAt-kkti 

roll y. istlo, 

roof n. wiy k^ thnit 

root n. byirifbyir 

rope n. jg^]^/; i^; wfinit 

rot y. cAirtn^ 
rough a. gwti 
round a. dtl 
row y. hyawn 
rub y. ii]fiii2» ^ifk2f /^'2 
rub fire f%J2 fnach 
rub with hi (qjq 
rule y. ^oyg 
ruminate y. duggit 
run y. rtiifi 

run away y . /ffi^ ^2 
run (a race) y. rurii 


sacrifice y. j2|s 
saddle n. pQm 
salt n. kadq, bmm^ 
salute y. in(|j[(2 
sand n. iiyiek 
sand-bank n. kigi^ 
satisfied a. ydn 
saye y. yiidi^, yi^Ut 
say y. kob{i 
scare up y. tugq 
scatter y. Utyq, dffiq 

school n. W2t/tooi^ 
scoop out y. rogn 
scorpion n. yi^cy^ 
scratch y. gwai/kQ, 
scratch mud gqbQ, kwojn 
scrotocele n. IwQffit 
search for y. yobq 
season, hot <» ^^n 
see y. te^ R^ ninq 
seed n. H^-iii^i^Z^; ho^ 

seise y. mag^t 

self k^, re 

sell y. n^tvQ 

send y. word 

send for dwayn 

senseless a. Iwiii 

separate a. wM 

seryal (spotted) n. ikwir- 

servant n. ti^ ftSii, fi^ fteiii 
sesamum n. fUm^im 

settlement — spy 


settlement n. f^h-mytt 
seven dbirt/iu 
severe a. il^A 
sew Y. ratQ, kwQJa 
shade v. mmq 
shadow n. t^ 
shake v. tpid, ninQ 
shake a tree keii2 yajl 
shallow a. dwffkQ, 
sharp a./aib; to be ^/{^fi 
sharpen v. pQgo, 
shatter v. J^ 
shave y. lyVib tjdo, 
she i»yL in, 
sheep (male) n. dik/f^h- 

sheep n. female ^ rimjt 
shell n. iurieh^rthh 
shepherd n. nan kwai 
shield n. hwbU-lAt 
Shilluk- country n. foifi 
cKqI] « language ^ 
ch$l'^ m0 man dehUjt-wi]^ 
ship n.., see boat 
shiver v. Htq 
shoe n. warotcar 
short a. ch^, ch^go, 
shoulder n. toiy t^h-wiffi 

shoulder-blade n. jiuih" 

show T. fiti^ liwofiQ, tyffrq 
shrub n. i^ai 
shut T. 1719(2; ^ up r^fi 
sick a. da jwQk 
sick, to be <» budit 
sick person na(« jwoJcy 

nate budu 

sickness n. jtoltk 

side n. bute^ Uin] ^it, t^H 

silent, to be <» ittid(2, chunQ 

simple a. Iw^i 

sin n. br^h'brflk 

sin y. rgfH2 

sinew n. rj^'i-^*' 

sing y. irti^^ 

sinj^e difcy^Z 

sink y. rgj^Q, ygj^Q, 

siphilis n. gi hwQji 

sister n. liamto-iitfmgJb 

sit down y. fika feh 

six dbtkt/il 

skim off y. yar(2 

skin y. yijii 

skin n. dil^lsfytnr'/tni] 

skunk n. see stink-cat 
slaye n. fid bin^ WQt bin 
sleep y. ngriQ 
slow a. mil 
sly a. tr^ 
smack y. f^A^ 
small a. f^-mn 
small-pox dbtp 
smear y. wq^ 
smell y. n. nwajo, 
smell n. bad ^^^ p^i 
smoke y. a. tcrani^ 
smoke n. ylrlt 
smooth a. Ulit 
smoothe y. nunq, 
smoulder y. dunQ 
snake n. fwSl-^H 
snatch y. gwarq 
sneese y. chyitu 
snore y. twarn 
snort y. tward 

snot n. dn^nii 

Sobat n. Atilfl 

soft a. H§^ tQJbQi Zto2iH2 

soldier n. jal Wi 

some m^Jt^m^Jl^ 

somebody nidh 

someone see some 

something giehq, miku 

somersault n. (iZunni^fi 

son n. wQt'WQti 

song n. wir 

soon ady. tin 

sorcerer see witch-doc- 

sore a. ^{ 

soul n. wH'^iyi 

soup n. chwiLi 

sour a. il^A 

south n. kun dwQ^go, wan 
Iwal] wan wurs, Iwal 

speak y. hgbo, 

spear y. helQ, chwQbn 

spear n. tin'4ltn 

speckled a. see spotted 

spectre n. tipn 

speech n. kwip 

spider n. drdp-drdp 

spiD y, rqyQ 

spirit (of deceased) n. 
dnSkh, rfi 

spit y. notQ 

spitde n. liu 

split y. hago, IcH^fyldq, 

spoil n. jam Wi 

spoon n. f&Ufet 

spotted a. dbigi^ib^k 

sprinkle y. tcitQ 

sprout y. toy2 

spy y. lyaton 

squat v. ^w^^nQ, kyinQ 
stab v. ckwgbQ, kelQ, 
stamp Y. iffid 
star D. h/il^hfil 
starling n. 6Udu 
start y. wutQ 
stay V. b^da, ri^ 
staj behind chwitnit 
steal Y. kwalo, kwatQ 
step on Y. ytoff^ 
sterile (of animals) a. rof^ 
sterility (of ihe soil) n. 

stick Y. hQlcQ 
stick into y. meno, 
slack n. kwd^it^i 
stiff, to be <» ffiffQ 
stimulate y. kenn 
sting Y. teffi, >V2ds 
stink-cat n. dJtdJHifit 
stone n. M^-il^; tak 

stoop down Y. gw^foWL 
stork n. ^imaf-dm^j^ 
stoiy n. vriy nk 
straight iuJiim, t^r 
straightway ch^ 
strain y. HS/hi 
stranger n. obwitiiih'bwQA] 

note w&it 
stream y. rarn 
strength n. I4fih 
stretch out y. (anQ 
stretch up (hands) |afifi 
strike y, gojn 
string beads y. robit 
strip off Y. kajit 
stroke y. kffk(t 
strong a. ^ib, k^eh 
struggle Y. ilakit 
stupid a. ^k 
suck Y. ^Qjjfii [ekw0f2 
suck out (a wound) y. 

squat — thief 

suckle Y. 4fu>S4it 

sudd n. t{k4iy(i 

suffice Y. rQmQ 

sulky, to be '^^ kwono 

sun Y. mQJQ 

sun n. ehin 

surface n. wiehrwaH; mal 

surpass y. fo^ nu^ 

surround y. ty^Q 

suspend y. ry^rg 

swallow Y. fhQtiQ 

swaQow n. wbikiMobi^ 

sweat Y. kwftffib /^ 

sweat n. hook 

sweep Y. yefQ 

sweet a. m^ 

swdl Y. kdbdjt 

swim Y. kwanQ 

swing Y. ^qk^ yfficfi 

swoon Y. nenit 

sword n. giji-ghehi 


table n. Xrt^^m^ibi^mipdm- 

tailn. yiq9 
take Y. huHJoka 
take by force habo, 
take leaYO lio^ 
talk Y. «^i2> ii^^ 
talk n. kwip 
tale n. vdy nh 
tame y. md^ 
tan Y. neAo 
taste Y. bih kditkit 
tattoo Y. goTfi 

Taufikia Bura CKqI 
taxes n. gwieh 
teach Y. fwo^ 
teacher n. natefwoA 
tear y. gwaehQ 
tell Y. hobit 
tell lies fidd 
teU stories tadj2 
temples n. (An^l^f^ 
ten pyarq 
tenacious a. tiJc 
tendon Achilles n,pw^ilkif 

termite n. it 

termite-hill n. uiirit^wor 

test Y./ofii^ 

testicles n. nt^n^-nubi 

thank y. pakq, fwQJd 

that pr. ichi^ ini; oonj. 

Ihem gi, gin \Hf^ 


there adY. hm 

these hgik^ ik^ ini, mik 

they gi gin 

thief n.U-ihlt0i;fiat2A«; 
nan hoal 

thigh — vexed 


thigh n. y-dm (rdmyfim 

thin a. r|/, rip, guAl 

thing n. gin 

think y. rQmQ, gQnQ 

thirst n. r^ 

thirsty a. mak yi ri^ 

this ^/ 

thorn n. kwi^hdf^ 

those acA^ itgiik 

thrasing-place n. Hit^ 

thread n. hvQrn 

three ddik 

throat n. chtoak 

through prep, yi 

throw v. b^lo, batQt w^ 

thunder v. mQrQ 
thus adv. netfiif kindit 
tick n. kdddifkddt 
tickle y. ^^ [fto/g 

tie y. A:o(4^ idJQ, hocJQ, 
tie together v. ts42 
till V. yttrj2 

time n. chin, tr^n, ££ii 

tin n. dyim^ 

tired, to be <» &ti^ J^ido, 

tobacco n. iUAbi-dtllifn 
tobacco-pipe n. dih^h 
to-day di ehdn tin 
toe n. luigdQ tyilQ 
to-morrow ^H 
tongue n. ttp-lip 
too ady. fj/au 
tool n. jam€ gvogk 
tooth n. ttjiflik 
tooth-brush ehiif^h^ 
toothless person 6vAk 
top n. wichrw^ 
tortoise n. fltk-fugi 
touch y. litoalOf gSJQ 
towards prep: yi 
toy n. gin ^k 
trade y. n^wQ 
trader n. jal n^au 
travel v. wil^ 

trayeller n. note v^lt 
tread on y. ii§n(^ eh^ba 
treat a guest g^ 
tree n. yhfryi!^ 
tremble y. kivQ, 
tribe n. jiir 
trickle v. ky^n 
trouble y. tar^ 
troubled, to be <» 6u^ 
true a. mik d^ 
trumpet n. ktnrkhni 
trunk of elephant bii-bit 
trust y. yeyiit na^ gQn^ 
truth n. mik d^n; dtr 
try v./5iifi 

tuft of birds dywith^ytcdk 
turn y. lugo, binQ, tgnu 
turn back dogQ 
twenty pyar dty^u 
twins n. chv^k 
twist y. k^do, kedq^ minn 
twitter y. gedQ 
two dry^u 


uncle n. nayQ, neyQ 
under prep. 
unite v. r^bQ 

upon prep. kwQtn, ^y 
urine n. Idch 

us wif wdn, tofin 
use to y. M 


yein n. r^r^'rir 
verandah n. akdni^ 

very chdr^ 
vex v. ^enQ 

WESTBRXAlQf, Tte Skniok People. 

vexed, to be <« bu^ gotq. 
chufiQ raeh 



victorious — wroirg 

yictorioos a., to be <» yomQ 
village n. pdeh-mtfir 

visit V. kgrnq 
voice D. ehwak 

vomit V. fifi</2 
vulture n. chdr^h^r 


wade V. todq, IwQtQ 
wag V. tiwQ, yflti^ 
wage war v. mQriQ 
wait V. k^la bido, ehunQ, 

walk V. ehafjfi 
walk around v. liwpiQ 
walk on v. ywpiQ 
wall V. mulQ 
wall n. ddrQ-dir 
want V. (fu^a^ 
war n. UH 
warble v. ge^ 
warrior n. jal Ufi 
wash V. IwogQ, togQ 
washerman n. jal ItoQk 
watch V. koTQ 
watch n. kwini ehitn 
water n. pi, Ji'Jik 
waterbuck n. dnwdh- 

Anwdl^ ; gyih^yik 
water-lily n. j^^-^j^ 
water-snake n. n^M^fi 
way n. yo-gfi 
waylayer n. jdl mdt 
wax n. chM 
we wi, todn, win 
weak, to be '^ ikwQjj^ 
weather n. yitmii 
weed V. /gjifi 
week n. jtm 
weep V. ywqn^ 

weigh V. row 2 

well a. dich 

well ! drd 

well n. yit-yH 

west n. (kun dwqg^) v>an 

odgn ; kun de chan 
west-wind n. ddfin 
wet, to be <» n^bq^ teehQ 
what init 
when conj. kffi 
when adv. w^, 6w^ 
where adv. igim, gtn, 

kffif kun 
whether conj. mi, mdr 
which interr. ini^i m^, 

A; rel. md 
while conj. lean 
whip n. diU^l 
whisper v. mufQnQ 
whistle V. IwiJQ 
white a. tdr 

white mann. dbwitf^bufQti 
who interr. dm&ft; rel. 

md, mffi 
whore n. i^ ^i chwQU 
why ri, Srt, W/ini 
wide a. laeh 
wife n. 9i^ gil-tytn gil; 

wind n. yimit 
window n. wan wgt 
wink V. gwilQ 

winnow v. kwQTQ 
winter n. rUd^ 
wipe V. dimQ 
wire n. winit'ioin 
wish V. duKUQ 
witch-doctor n. djwigi-- 

with conj. 14 
withhold V. tti^t 
williin prep, yech 
wizard n.jalya^, see also 

woman n. ifieh^ - min ; 

womb n. by^^ - byir ; 

ob^ ; gin duQn 
work V. fiJQf gogo; n. 

workman n. jal gwqkj 

note gwgk 
worm n. tuinirtu^f kano, 

worship V. ldm<i 
worth, to be '^^ myirq 
worthless a. Iwffi 
wound n. k^ ^, kw^yi 
wrap V. kodQ 
wrestle v. liakq 
wring V. dwQchQ 
wring out v. bij^ 
write V. gwsdQ 
wrong n. brtk^rj^k 

yard — you 



yard n. kcil^kili 

yawn v. ndmQ 

yearn, umn-riln; tran-rtin 

yes dwi 
yesterday dwd^ 
yonder chini 

you pi. toi, wun 
you sing, yf, yin. 



Aba — Church 



Aba (a man) 239 
Aba Island XX 
Abaka 34 
Abijop 131 
Abo-Eaya 34 
Abauri 43 
Abudok 129, 131, 

149, 164 
Abu Shoka LVm 
Abwong (village) 30 
AbyBsinia 30, 35 
AbyBainians XXVII, 

Achetegwok 160, 


Aoholi L, LI, 30, 

AdDuiXL, 156 
AdefalQ 179 
Adgkon (Tillage) 

143, 144, 176 
Adun 132 
Adwelo 160 
Afyek 239 
Agod^ 132, 152 
Agok 177 
Agweratyep 176 
Agwet 238 f. 
Ajang 218, 219 
Ajwogo (village) 

134, 175 
Akobo (river) 30 

Akol (king) 152, 


Akole Nyakwe 237 
Akolo 172 
AkOnyo Boko (a 

man) 148 
Akorawar XXI!, 

XLn, 124, 160, 

164, 225 
Akwai Chakab LV 
AkwQ€ 178 
Akwoneyor 239 
Akwot (king) 144, 

Akwoto 239 

A lagnia n g 43 

Akki (a man) 148 

AUn^ (a village) 


Aloa (Aiwa) LV 

AUaq, 32 

Alar, Alum L, 31, 

American Mission 

Amol 240 
Ansar LXII, 152 
Anut 133 
Anyimo 209 
Anywak XL, 10, 

II, 13, 14, 16, 

30, 32, 33, 34, 

AnQnn 237 

Arabs XXVH, 


115, 129, 156 

Ari Umker XL 

Aiano 152 



Atong 179 


Awan (a Dinka) 

AwarejwQk 143 
Awin 240 
Ayadu 133, 238 
Ayoma (a Dinka) 

231, 232 

Bachet 226, 227 
Baggara Selim 


Bagirmi 36 

Bahr el Asraf = 

Sobat XX 
Bahr el Jebel L 
Bahr Ghazal 34, 


BahrZerafXX, 45 

Baker S. LVIH 

Bal 237 

BdJXk = Anywak 

Banholzer 13 s, 150 

B^r 32, 44 

Ban L, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 17, 29, 35, 
36, 38 ff, 56, 57 

Bare (river) 30 

Baumann, O. 32 

Beir L, 31 


Bel (a man) 1 34 


Belo (a people) 169 

Ber (Btr) U, 31. 

Beri (Btri) L. 31, 

Black water fever 

Blue Nile 35 
Bongo LI, 10, 17, 

31, 32, 36, 38, 

Bqt LI, 32, 34, 45 
Bruce, J. Lm 
Bukedi 31 
Bukyffi (village) 

Bunyoro 31 

Burkeneji 35 
Bwoch 160 
Bunyrn XL 
Cailliaud LV 
Cameroons 35 
Carson, R. LXin 
ChaiLVI, 144, 169 
C%^(aviUage) 152 
Chopi 31, 32 
Church Missionary 

Chwol — Jur 

30 9 


Society LXf. 
Chwol (a man) 129 
Cows of NjikADg 

Crowther 60 

Dak xvn, xun, 

124, 129, 130, 
131, 132, 133, 
147, 155, 157, 
159, 163, 164, 
167, 168, 170, 
238, 240 

Dar Fung LIII 


Dembo LI, 3^1 3^ 

Deng (a man) 1 54, 
178, 238, 239 

Dervishes XXVII, 

Dedm (chief) 152 

Detwuk (a village) 

Dxdtgn (a Tillage) 

XLn, 129 
Dim 157 

Dingol 144, 152, 

Dinka XXVIH, 

XLDC, 10, II, 

12, 13, 14, 17, 
30, 35, 36, 37, 
45, 46, 48, 60, 
115, 129, 132, 

133, 142 
Dokot 1 29, 131, 

134, 142 f, 144, 
149, 160 

Doleib Hill LXI, 

Dongola 45 

Dqt = Bongo 3 1 

Dor (a man) 153 

i^r2 238 

Dunkok 239 

hir (village) I32f. 

Duwat XLI, 132, 

152, 154, 156, 

157, 167, 178 
Dwai (a man) 132 
Dwai 134 
Eafeng 43 

El Dneim XX f. 

EliriLVII, 152 
Emin Pasha 32 

Ewe 43, 44i 49j 60 
Fabnchak L 

Fadibek LI 
Fadytt XLVI, LX 
Fadjnlli LI 
Faggeir LI 
Fama XLDC 
Fakang 129, 134 
Faki Mohammed 

Faloko (rirer) 159 
Famir L 
Fandikir LI 
Fanjikuara LI 
Fashion LI 
Fashoda 124, 126 

et passim 

Fawer L 
Fayak L 
Fayot L 
Fazogli LIV 
Fenjidwai 151, 

178, 236 
Fenyikang XLU, 

160, 178 
File 132 
Fort Sobat LDC 
Fotou (village) 133 
FuMulde 73, 88 
Funj LII et passim 
Ga 43, 44 
Oaadi Abn Shilluk 

OdnHn = Nuer 44 
Gang (language) L, 

II, 12, 13, 17, 


Garo 159, 160 

GayaL, 31 
Ger 152 
Gessi LIX 
Gesrira LIII, UV, 

35 [XX 

Gesdra Wad Beiker 


xLvn, Lxi f; 

Giffen Mrs. XXV 

Gok (a man) 129 

Gokwach (a man) 


OoUt 141 

Golo 45 

Gordon, Ch., 


Gut (village) 1 34 
Guthrie, C. B. 
Gnti 130 

Gh^ar 129 
Hameg LVn 
Hamitic (iafluence, 
languages) 33, 

48, 49, 56f; 88 
Hartmann, R. LIII 
Haussa 88 

Hofineyer 1 22, 1 24, 

130, 160 
HoUis 48, 75 
Hottentot 73 

Ismail Pasha LVIII 
Isoama 43 
Jafalu L, 3 1 
Jal (a man) 128 
Jalo 132 

Jambo = Anywak 

Jebel Gule LVI 
Jebel Dyre = Eliri 

Jebelein 34 
Jebel Tegla = Ta- 

gale LIV, LV 
Johnston, Sir H. 

31, 32, 37 
Jonyang 179 
JuXLf, 129, 157 
Jut (language) LI, 

10, II, 17, 30, 

31, 32, 37 ff, 44 


Kaka — Nyimo 

Kaka XX ff 

Kwakadwai 233 

Mek= king XLVI 

XLIV, LIV, 10, 

Kakugo 132 

Kwa Lek 128 

Mikyibq 43 

17, 25, 29, 36, 

Kam 134 

Kufa Ob^go, XLIV 

Merowe LXI 

38 ff, 45 f, 130, 

Kamasia 35 

Kwa-^kal 124 

Milo (a man) 128 

133, 142 £; 148, 

Kang (a man) 129 

Kwat Ker XLVI 

Mitterrutsner 37, 



Lado 31 


Kaer lo, 11,13, 14, 

Karamojo 35 

Lake Albert 3 1 

Mittu 34 

16, 17, 26, 29, 

Kavirondo 31 

Lake Kioga 31 

Mohammed Ahmed 





Nun XX ir 

Ke 155 



Nupe 43 

Edge XL 

Lake Victoria 31 


Njabil 179 

Kenana Arabs 

LambieDr. 157 

Moi (king) 157, 

Nyadohe (king) 1 42, 


LangoL, 3i£, 37ff. 



Ker 239 

Latuka L 

Mon (a man) 128 

Nyadwai 129, 141, 

Ker = Bahr Jebel 

Lendu 34 

Mongalla 3 1 

145, 17s f 


LendarQ 172 

More 160 

Nyagir XLIX 

Kerau 159 

Lori 152 

Moru 34 

Nyagwado XXTT 

Khalifa XLIX 

Luba 34 

Mui (a man) 134 

Nyaj»k 214, 215 

Khalifa Abdallah 

/^MfiLI, 3if, 44 

Mwal 134 

Nyakae IS5, 156 


Lur L 

Mwomo XX, 115, 

Nyakayo XLf, 238 

Khartum LVITTff. 

Lwak 152 

123, 136, 176 

Ky»kwach 142,144, 

Khor Atar XX 

Ltcal Polkoe 233 

Nagdyeb XX 

145, 160 

Khor Atulfi 165 

Lwf^ 239 

Nai (a man) 171 

Nyato (a king) 175 

KhorFilu8 45, 152 

Madi 34 

Nama 73 

if«jfei XLVI 

Kich L 

Madi-Kaya 34 

Nandi 35, 37 

Neker{ti man) 153 

Kir (a man) 1 34 


Nasser LVU, 34 

Nyelwak (Tillage) 

Kitchener LX 

Mainam 134 

Aojf — Nuer 44 

128, 152 

Kitching 3 1 f, 48 

Makwa 156 

Ndorobo 33? 35 

Nyelwal XLII, 

Kodok LVm, LX 

Malakal 128, 132 

Ngishu 35 

XLin, I33> 160 

KqIqXL, 156 

Malaria XXI 


Jy^etoaJQ (village) 

Kordofan XXVII, 

Malek LXI 

Nigu (village) 131 



J/j^ 141, 220 


Nyewek (river) 164 

jrfl(King)i47, 152 

Marchand LIX 

group 33, 34,3 5, 

iVeygrfi 236 

Kudit 160 

Masai 30, 33, 35, 


]^il^ XT,n, 165, 

Kunama 43, 46 

37, 56£; 75 

Niloto - Hamitic 



Masran Island XX 

group 33, 35, 36 

Nyidwai 172 

Kwa Ajal 128 

McCreery LXIII 

NimgnQ 131 

NyifwaL, 31 

Kwajeriu 239 

McLaughlin LXII 

NindrQ 176 

Nyikayo 155 

Kwajul (161), 166 

Meinhof, C, 33,48 

Nuba, Nubian 

Nyimo 142 



I^ok 30, 142, 152 
A^wQ-Babo (a king) 

^ 175 
A^wQH (a man) 129 

Obai 131, 133 

Obang (village) 152 

Obogi ^ Obogo 

Obogo (a man) 130, 

Obqn (a man) 133 
Obwo (village) 134 
Ochamdor 164 
Ocholo 167 
Odak 132. 134, 

Odsn 134 
Odimo 44 
Odok 133 
OdwoJQ (a village) 

Ogam (a man) 141 
Ogan (a man) 1 34 
Ogek 130 
Ogot 134 

Ogwet (a man) 132 
Ojuli 59,videOjulo 
Ojolo 166 

okanQXK, XLIXff 

Okaf^ 134 

OklfQ 126 

Okil 157 

OkdffQ 133 

Oku (a man) 132 

Okun (village) 132 

Okwa XLf, 1475 

I56£; 167 
Okwai 132 [239 
01am (a man) 129, 

01am (a place) 164 
Ol&a 133 

Oloalo (a man) 163 
Omal (a man) 132 
OmarQ XL, 1 56 
Omdurman LXff 

OmQrQ 157 
Omui (a man) 133 
Ongwat XL 
Onojrg (village) 144 
OrltQ (a man) 1 3 1 
Oryang 160 
OahavQ XLH 
OshoUo 130, 134 
Oshoro 160 
Oshu (a man) 131 
Oshwa(aman) 164 
OtiffQ 237 
OtiffQ XLII 
Otin 157 
Oton 169 

Otudi (village) 142 
OtysV' (a man) 134 
Owichi (village) 1 3 1 
Oyler, Rev. D. 

XLII, 127 
(h/odQ (a man) 132 
Oi/ok 134 
PdHik = Anywak 

Palo 160 

Pedo (a Nuer King) 


Pepwojo 160 

Petherick 32 

Pijo 152, 160 

Plaoui 44 

Poho (village) 142 
Port Sudan LXI 
Prophets XLUI 
Ptoemphanae LIU 
Red Sea 35 
Reinisch 195 
Renk 144 
Bol (Rohl) L, 34 
Roseires LVI, 144, 

Schweiniurth 3 1 f, 

Selim Baggara 

Semitic languages 

Senegambia 35 
Sennar LIII et 

Shakwa el ShUkawi 

Shal (Chal), 130, 

167, 240 
Sliilkawi = Shinuk 


ShuliL, 3if 
Sobat XX et passim 

Songhai 56, 57 

StruckjB., LI, 3iff 

Suakin LXI 

Sudan languages 


Sudd XXI 
Sue (river) 31,34 
Suk 35 

Sun-service XLV 
Tabalq (village) 1 23 
Tabi LVII 




Tapero 190 
Tdro 152 
Tatoga 35, 37 
Tedigo 152, 160 
TSoui 44 
Teso 35 

Tit = Shilluk 44 
Tidrick, R. W., 97, 

Tonga XX et 


TonoTQ 153 

Totemism 178 

Tuga (a man) 1 29 

Tugo 138, 160 

Turkana 35 

Turks XXVII, 


45, 152, 195 f, 

Turo 159, 167 

Twara 129, 134 


Twi 43, 44, 60 

Twolang 168 

UdDilja 156 

Umak Ra 1 56 

Um Dubreka LIX 

Umiru 31 

Umoi 156 

Unyoro 32 

Ungwad 156 


Wad Dakona Is- 
land XX 
Wadi Haifa LXI 
Wad Medani LX 
Wat MqI (Maul) 
XL, 156 



WajwQk (village) 

Wang 132, 165 
Watson, Rev. A., 

WauXLIIff, 130, 


Wed Agub LIH 
White Nfle XLI, 

Wij-Palo 160 

Winyalwal (village) 


Witor 164 
TFu (village) 152 
Wnbo village 131 
Wubn (a man) 134 
Wuro Ewa 240 
Yfi (King) XLVI, 

115, 134 
Yodit 153 

Yonj 131 

Ygr 240 

Yoraba 43, 44, 60 

Yoyin 133 

Yweldit 154