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The Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presby- 
terian Church of N. A desires to express to the Trustees 
of the Arthington Fund its profound appreciation for finan- 
cial help which made it possible to carry on linguistic in- 
vestigations in Southern Sudan and then to give publicity 
to their findings by the publication of this book. 

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Preface vn 


In the smniner of 1 910 die PrusBian Board of Edncation provided me with 
the means to undertake a jonmej to the Nordiem Sudan. Mj object was to 
make linguistic studies. During mj stay in the Sudan the material for this work 
was collected. Mj studies in die Shilluk language and people are due to a 
request made to me by the Reverend C. R. Wats on D. D., of Philadelphia Pa., 
Corresponding Secretary of die Mission of the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America. Mr. Watson, having heard of my intended journey to Egypt 
and the Sudan, asked me to visit the United Presbyterian Church's Mission 
on the Sobat, and to study die language of diat district which lies within die 
sphere of their activity. By supplying die necessary fimds for this part of die 
journey and for my stay in die Sudan, I was enabled to cany out diis propo- 
sition, which was at the same time of importance for my linguistic studies. 

I left for die Sudan at die beginning of August 1910, where I staid in 
EJiartum and on the Sobat till die middle of November. 

The results of my work obtained during this comparatively short time would 
not have been possible had it not been for the extremely active and kind 
support rendered me everywhere in the Sudan by the American missionaries. 
Not only was I able to profit by their kind hospitality, but diey also most 
generously placed at my disposal dieir extensive knowledge of die country, 
people and language. I owe my practical introduction to the language to Dr. 
Thomas A. Lambie, medical missionary at Khartum, in whose house I was 
privileged to stay for over a mondi. In addition to the contributions signed 
by him he also supplied me with several native texts from his collection which 
win be foimd incorporated in this book. 

The missionaries on Doleib Hill, Mr. C. B. Guthrie and die Reverend D. 
S. Oyler also helped me on all possible occasions; above all they introduced 
me to die Shilluks and put me into touch widi diose natives who were necess- 
ary and useful to me in my researches. Bodi diese gendemen and die Reverend 
E. MeCreery and Mr. R. W. Tidrick have supplied me widi very valuable 
information in answer to questions addressed to diem since my return to Ger- 
many, some of which appears as signed contributions. Part of it has been 
included ib die introduction. During die winter of 191 1 I had die pleasure of 
receiving the Reverend MeCreery while he was in Berlin, and dius had an 
opportunity of discussing grammatical questions with him. 

I must express my sincere dianks to all diose who have assisted me in dieir 

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VIII Preface 

cooperation and by placing the necessary funds at my disposal, which enabled 
me to complete this work. 

I am indebted to the Arthington Tmstees, who by their financial support 
made die printing of diis book possible. 

My gratitude is also due to Mr. L. Hamilton of &e Oriental College, Berlin, 
idio has read and corrected the Enf^h text. 

The Reverend C. R. Watson was kind enough to read and correct that part 
of die work which relates to Folklore. 

Berlin, August 191 2. DIEDRICH WESTERMAM. 

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Contents IX 









The Vowels, i— 8 1—4 

The Consonants. 9 — 1 1 4 — 6 

Change of Vowels. 12 — 27 7 — 12 

Change of Semivowels. 28 — 36 13 — 14 

Change of Consonants. 37 — 46 14 — 18 

Intonation. 47 — 60 18 — 22 


Form of the Stem. 61—76 \ 23—27 

Composition of Words. 77—85 27—29 


The Dialects or Divisions. 86—89 30—32 

The Position of Shillnk among other African Lan- 
guages. 90—101 33—45 

Comparatiye Lists of Words. 98 — loi 36—44 

Appendix : Names of Languages 44 — 45 


THE NOUN. Singular and Plural. 102—124 . . . 46—55 
Examples showing plural-formation. 113 — 124 . . 49 — 55 

Gender. 135 — 126a 56 — 57 

Case. 127 — 129 57 — 59 

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X Contents 

THE PRONOUN. The Personal Pronoun. 130 

— 137 59—64 

Demonstratiye Pronouns. 138 — 141 64 — 66 

InterrogatiTe Pronouns. 142 — 144 66 — 67 

Relatiye Pronouns. 145 67 

The Reflexiye Pronoun. 146 67 — 68 

The Reciprocal Pronoun. 147 68 

THE ADJECTIVE. 148— 151 68—71 

Comparison. 151 70 — 71 

THE NUMERALS. 152—154 71—72 

THE VERB. Conjugation of the Verb. 156—196 72—90 

Examples of Conjugation. 157 — 178 73 — 79 

Present 157 — 158 73 — 74 

Perfect. 159 — 161 74 — 75 

Future. 162 75 

Habitual. 163 75 

Imperative. 164 j6 

The Verb with a Noun as Object. 165 — 169 76 

Verbal Noun. 170 y6 — 77 

Noun Agent. 171 77 

The Passive Voice. 172 — 177 a 77 — 79 

Doubling of a Verb. 178 79 

Change of Sounds in Verbs. 179 — 193 79 — 89 

Changes in the second consonant. 179 — 185 .... 79 — 84 
A List of Verbs in their different forms. 181 .... 80 — 81 

Changes in &e stem-vowel. 186 — 188 84 — 86 

Changes in the semivowel. 189 — 193 86 — 89 

Auxiliary Verbs. 194 — 195 89 — 90 

Negation of the Verb. 196 90 — 91 

ADVERBS. 197—203 91—93 

PREPOSITIONS. 204 93—94 




1. Housebuilding 96 — 98 

2. Soil 98 

3. ileld-produce 98 

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Contents xi 

4. Kinds of dnras , . . . . 98 — 99 

Agricultare 99 — 102 

5. Foods 102 — 103 

6. Seasons 103 

7. Months 103 

8. Day-times 103 

9. Stars 104 

10. Household-things 104 

11. Handicrafts 105 — 106 

12. Tools 106 

13. Clothings and ornaments 106 — 107 

14. Names for cows 107 — 108 


15. Marriage 109 

16. Bnrial iii 

17. Inheritance 113 

18. Murder 114 

19. Blood Reyenge 115 

20. Quarrel between Husband and Wife 116 

21. The Husband who wanted to cook 117 


22. Treatment of Sick People 119 

23. Another Report on Sickness 119 

24. Sicknesses 120 


25. Election of a King 122 

26. Another report on Election 123 

27. Clothes for die Royal Court 125 

28. Boats for the Kmg 126 

29. Provinces of die Shilluk country 127 

The Clans or Divisions of the Shilluk People ... 127 

30. The Shilluk Kings 135 

31. Burial of a Kmg 13S 

32. The Man who took die Law into his own Hand . 136 

33. Akilled Crocodile istheProperty of the Magistrate 137^ 

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xii Contents 

34. How Fashoda became the Royal Residence .... 138 

35. A Law-suit about Dowry 139 


36. Nyadwai 141 

37. Golit 141 

38. Nyimo 142 

39. Nyadoke 142 

40. King Dokot 143 

41. Nyakwach 144 

42. The False Prophets 146 

43. The Prince who refused to be King 147 

44. The Cowardly King 148 

45. Queen Abudok 149 


46. War 151 

47. Tribal War 153 

48. The War of Nyeker 153 

49. The War of Deng 153 


50. Nyikang's Parents 155 

The Origin of the Shullas 157 

51. Early Wanderings of Nyikang i$8 

52. Different Doings and Adventures of Nyikang . . . 161 

53. The Man who sacrificed himself 16$ 

54. Nyikang and the River-people 165 

55. The Lost Low 165 

56. The Liar 166 

57. Nyikang's Quarrel with Duwat 166 

58. The Fish Ocholo 167 

59. Nyikang and the Sorcerers . . <. 168 

60. A War against Turtles 169 

61. Praising Nyikang 170 


62. A Prayer to God 171 

63. A Prayer for Rain 171 

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Contents xiii 

64. A Religious Ceremony 172 

65. How Cattle is brought across the River 172 

66. Preparation for War 173 


(>T, The Cruel King 175 

68. King Nyadwai trying the Sorcerers 175 

69. The Vision of the Sorcerer 176 

70. Agok 177 


71. The Creation of Man 178 

71 a. On Totemism 178 


72. Hare and Hyena 180 

73. Monkey and Lion 184 

74. Dog and Fox 185 

75. Hare and Hyena 185 

^6, Lion and Fox 186 

^^, Starling and Centipede 188 

78. Hare and Tapero 189 

79. Who is King 190 

80. The Hare 193 

81. Camel and Donkey 196 


82. The Country of the Dogs 201 

83. Akwoch 202 

84. Girl and Dog 205 

85. Anyimo and the Lion . 208 

86. An Adventure in the Forest 210 

87. Boy and Hyena 211 

88. Nyajak 213 

89. Ajang 217 

90. The Snake 219 

91. The Crocodile Hunter 221 


92. The Travellers 224 

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XIV Contents 

93. A Goat-Btory 225 

94. The Glutton 225 

95. Baohet 226 

96. The Country where Death is not 228 

97. The King and the People 230 

98. Wealth cannot be imitated 231 

99. Increase of Cattle 232 

100. The Haughty Prince 232 

loi. The Hyena with the Bell 233 


102. Elephant Hunting 234 

103. A Journey 235 


104. War Songs 237 

105. Mourning Songs, and others 239 


106. Riddles 241 


Shilluk— English 244 

English— Shilluk 290 



i:The Goldencrested Crane. Young Warriors 
with Clubs and Spears. Shilluk Dug-out. Typical 

Shilluk pose. The Marabou-stork XXIV 

2: ATypical ShiUuk XXXU 

3 : Boys and Maidens Dancing. View of Sobat 

River XXXVI 

4: ShiUuk war dance XXXVI 

5 : Village scene. ''House of Nyikang*". A Shilluk 

giant. Group of Shilluks XL 

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Contents XV 

6 : Shilluk Giils showing the way they wear the 

skin dress. Lotus flower XLVIII 

7: Group of Native Huts. Group of Boys. Girls 

Sewing School XLVIH 

8 : Shilluk Women in arms. Two men in arms. 

A Shffluk Warrior LVI 


Sketch map of Tribes of the Shilluk Cluster indi- 
cating their principal migrations as shown by 
traditions and language, compiled and drawn by 
Bemhard Struck LXm 

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XVI Abbreviations 


a. = adjective ff. = and the foUowing 

adv. = adverb * before a word means that the 

A. E. S. = The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; word or form is not really 

vide "Authors Quoted*' existing, but hypothetical 

interr. = interrogative - standing between two nouns 

n. = noun, ako verbal noun designates the first of the two 

prep. = preposition as a singular, the second as a 

rel. = relative plural, e. g. hdirit-hdh* meaoB: 

V. = verb ddtrh is the singular, hd^ the 

y. a. = verb active plural 

V. n. = verb neuter ^ means : is derived from 

verb. n. = verbal noun ) means : changes into. 

The verb in the present tense has generally low tone on both syllables, 
therefore the tones are not designated in this case. 

Names of Languages and Dialects abbreviated. 

Al. = Aluru Ju. = Jur 

Any. = Anywak La. = Lango 

Ba. = Bari Nu. = Nuba 

Bo. = Bx)ngo Nr. = Nuer 

Di. = Dinka N. = Nupe 

E. = Ewe 

Shi. = Sfamok 

Ef. = Efik 

T. = Tihi 

G. = Ga 

Y. = Yoruba 

Ga. = Gang 

V. = Vai 


= Ja-LuQ (Nyifwa). 

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Authors XVII 


AnthropoB 1910. (Hofineyer.) 

0. Baomaim, Durch Massailand sur Nilquelle. Berlin 1894. 

J. Bruce, Reise nach Abyssinien (Translated from the English). From : Samm- 

long merkwQrdiger Reisen in das Innere von Afrika. Leipzig 1791. 
F. CulHaad, Voyage k M^ro^. Paris 1826. 

5. Crowther, Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language. London 1843. 
K. Giffen, The Egyptian Sudan. Second Edition. Newyork 191 1. 

Count Gleichen, The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. London 1905. Quoted: A. £. S. 

C. R. Hall, English-Teso Vocabulary. 

R. Hartmann, Die Nigritier. Beriin 1876. 

, Die Nilltoder. Leipzig 1883. 

A. C. HoUis, The Masai. Oxford 1905. 

Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate. London 1904. 

A. L. Kitching, An Oudine Grammar of the Gbmg Language. London 1907. 
R. Lepsius, Nubische Gnunmatik. Berlin 1880. 

E. Mamo, Keisen im Gebiet des Weifien und Blauen Nil. Wien 1874. 
J. C. Mitterrutzner, Die Dinka-Sprache. Brixen 1866. 
L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache. Wien 1879. 

E. Rfilppell, Reise in Abessinien, Frankfurt (Main) 1838 — ^40. 

J. v. Russegger, Reisen in Europa, Asien und Afrika. Stuttgart 1841 — 50. 

6. Schweinfiirth, Ln Herzen von Afrika. Leipzig 1878. 
Schweitzer, Emin Pascha. 1897. 

B. Struck, An Unlocated Tribe on the White Nile, Journal of the African 
Society. London 1908. 

, Cber die Sprachen der Tatoga und Lrakuleute. Mitteilungen aus den 

Deutschen Schutzgebieten, Erglbizungsheft 4, 19 10. 
H. L. Tuigye, In the Torrid Sudan. London 1910. 

F. Weme, Reise durch Sennaar. Berlin 1852. 

D. Westermann, Die Sudansprachen. Hamburg 1911. 

, The Nuer Language. Mitteilungen des Seminars fBr Orientalische 

Sprachen. Berlin 191 2. 

WXSTIRMAHll, TU Skfflvk P««fl«. ^^ 

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XX Introduction 


NAME The inluibitaiitfl are called: 6chtVii, ''a ShiUak**, plural wq,U ehSl^ ''childreD 
of Shffluk'', ''Shilluks'' ; the country is called /^l^ ch^l ''country of the ShiUaks.*' 
The word chdl perhaps means "black*', yide below. A second name of the people 
18 okanQ, ''descendants of kanQ^^ this name is connected with Nyikang, the 
national hero of the Shilluks. The name ''Shilluk'' (singular Shilkawi) is given 
to them by the Arabs, and has now become their common designation; it is 
of course derived from ocHoIq. Other appellations, which are in use among the 
neighbours of the Shilluks, vide page 44. 
EXTENSION The Shilluk country is situated on the western banks of the White Nile, from 

COraTKy ^^ *^ ^^® ^^' **^** ^* ^^°* *''^^"* '^^5' *^ 9*^5' northern latitude, a 
length of nearly 350 km, and a width of 5 to 6 hours. Near the mouth of the 
Sobat (Bahr El Asraf, ''YeUow River'') a number of Shilluks live on the 
eastern shore of the White Nile, on both sides of the lower Sobat, chieflj on 
its northern bank. They extend about 35 miles up the Sobat, the last ShiUak 
village up river being Nagdyeb. There is ako a group of Shilluk setdements 
at Shakwa El Shilkawi (= ShiUuk), near Bahr El Zeraf, on the right bank of 
the Nile, and on E^hor Atar, south of Tonga (TQuq). North of Eaka the first 
Shilluk settlements are found on Aba Island, on the north- and south-end of 
which there is a small Shilluk village each. Near Masran Island there is also 
a Shilluk village on the right bank of the Nile. Again single settlements are met 
with on Masran Island, Wad Dakona Island, and on the north-end of the Gezira 
Wad Beiker. 

The ShiUuks themselves designate the extension of their country by naming 
the most northern and the most southern village and district of their Kingdom, 
viz. Mwomo and Tonga (MwgmQy TunQ)^ which term corresponds exacdy to the 
expression of the ancient Hebrews: from Dan unto Bersheba. 

In former times the country of the Shilluks seems to have been larger than 
it is now. According to older reports it not only extended lEarther northwards* 
whence they were driven back by Arab tribes, but they are also said to have, 
in the 17 th century, inhabited both sides of the White Nile south of E^wa; 
Elawa is situated a little south of El Dueim; so, provided this report is ri^t, 
they owned at that time a trait of territory nearly three times as great as Ibat 
they inhabit to-day. 
CLIMATE From January to April the climate of the country is dry and warm. April is 

Digitized by 


Country and People xxi 

the hottest mondi of the year. June to September constitutes the rainy season, 
and from October to December the larger part of the country is flooded with 
water, but the marshes and smaller Ehors ' all dry up by April. From November 
to April the climate is not unhealthy for Europeans. During the wet season 
mosquitoes are numerous. Malaria and black water fever are the diseases most 
dangerous to white people. 

The country is a plain with only inconsiderable elevations, on which the viU- SOIL 
ages of the natives are built. The soil is black and fertile near the river and the 
khors, back from the water courses it is in most places poorer, sometimes 

The chief vegetation is high grass, interspersed with shrubs. A light forest of YEOETATION 
acacia trees is found mainly along the Nile. The acacia is the chief represen- 
tative of the tree-flora: he^g (Balanites aegyptiaca), sont-acacia (Acacia ara- 
bica), Talh (Acacia Seyal), di£Ferent kinds of gum-acacias, etc. A characteristic 
feature of the landscape are groups of deleib- and dom-palms (Borassus fla- 
beDifer and Hyphaena Thebaica) ; a beautiful tree is the mahogany tree (Ehaya 
senegalensis) ; it is most useful as timber, but seems to be rather rare in the 
ShUlnk country; other notable trees are: different kinds of Ficus (Sycomore 
fig), the ardeib tree (Tamarindus indicus), nabag (a fruit tree) etc. The vege- 
tation oh the river is most luxuriant. Though this is not the region of the sudd, 
yet the river is at most times largely covered with single plants and swimming 
islands, formed of papyrus, ambach (Herminiera Elaphroxylon). several kinds 
of reeds, lotus, Umm Suf (Vossia procera), Potamogeton, Ottelia, and many 
others. The floating vegetation often serves birds for a fishing place. Trees are 
much hampered in their growth by the fires which the natives light while the 
grass 18 dry; the reason for burning the grass is to hunt up game, and to get 
tiie ground cleared for cultivation. 

The country being thickly populated, game is not very numerous. But at ANIMALS 
some distance from the settlements large animals are still frequent, chiefly near 
^e river towards Lake No ; tiie neighbourhood of Eaka and north of it are also 
rich in game. Elephants, giraffes, buffaloes are met with, though not very 
frequently; antelopes and gazelles abound: bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), 
reedbnck (Cervicapra bohor), white-eared cob (Cobus leucotis), ariel (Gazella 
Soemmering!), dorcas (G. dorcas), isabelline gazeUe (G. Isabella), oryx, waterbuck 
(CobuB defassa), Mrs. Gray's waterbuck (Cobus maria), gazeUa rubifrons, 
roan antelope (EBppotragus equinus bakeri), hartebeest (Bubalis jacksoni), 
tiang or Bastard Hartebeest (Damaliscus tiang), Oribi antelope (Ourebia) etc. 
Of the carnivorous family the most notable are : lion, leopard, jackal, hyena, 
fox, Zorilla (a littie black-and-white animal resembling the American skunk), 

' Khor (Arab) = water course drying op in the rainless season. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

XXII Introduction 

ichneumon (mangonste). The natiyes also hunt the hare, porcupine, ground- 
squirrel, rat, and nedgehog. The riyers and khors, and chiefly their sidearms, 
are populated by crocodiles, hippos, and numerous fish, some of which weigh 
up to lbs. 200. The birds are mainly riyerain: cranes, storks, herons, egrets, fish- 
eagles, marabous, pelicans, ibises, ducks, geese ; the guinea-fowl is yeiy com- 
mon; numberless swarms of dura-birds (E^omelana finmciscana) are a great 
nuisance to the farmer; besides them quails, pigeons, turtle-doyes, hawks, 
crows, swallows, owk, and starlings are fi^quent. Of snakes the largest ist 
python; of poisonous species the puff-adder and some others occur f harmless 
snakes are numerous. 
POPUIATION The population amounts to about 60000 souls,* who live in a Utde more 
than 1200 villages, and 10 000 ''domiciles'', each of which consists of three 
to five huts. Accordingly the average number of people living in a village is 50, 
and one domicile is inhabited by about six persons. The largest village is 
Atwadoi in a district of the same name north of Eodok; it consists (1903) of 
120 domiciles. The villages generaUy lie in the belt between the swamp of die 
Nile-bank and the forest. There are, however, eight groups of villages 12 — 22 
miles inland, away firom the river. The country is, for its sice, and considering 
the fSftct that only in the hij^er parts setdements are possible, thickly populated. 
''Bight away firom Eaka to Lake No is a continous string of villages lying about 
a mile from the river. There are only two points in the whole of this distance, 
at which the interval between villages exceeds two miles, and these are die 
points where grazing is bad, between Akurwar and Nun, and between Nielwag 
and Nyagwado.** A. E. S., p. 193. 

According to Schweinfiirth, the population was much larger formeriy. In 
1 87 1, when the Egyptians had conquered the country, a census was taken; the 
villages on the left bank of the Nile were almost exacdy 3000. The inhabitants 
of this part numbered one million, each village consisting of 45 — 200 huts, a 
hut comprising four persons. No part of Africa, not even of the worid, is so 
densely populated. "The whole western Nile bank, as fSur as the boundaries of 
the country reach, is like one single village, whose parts are separated by a 
distance of only 500 to 1000 steps. The hut-clusters are built in an astonishing 
regularity, and are so crowded together that from a distance they look like a 
cluster of mushrooms.'' 

The statement of a population of more than one million is probably too high ; 
the Shilluks have doubtiessly suffered cruelly from wars and raids, but in spite 
of this a decrease from one million to 60000 witiiin a time of forty years is 
hardly thinkable. 

Since the time the people live under the peace of Anj^o-Egyptian rule, they 

1 This is the number of the White Nfle and Sobat ShiUnks onlj; if all the ShiUnk speakinf people 
are indnded, the population will amount to tereral hundreds of thonsands. 

Digitized by 


Country and People XXlll 

are increasing in numbers. The average number of children reared in one family 
may be from three to four. The number of children bom by one woman is not 
low; women with ten children are no exception. But as a rule no more than 
three or four children grow up to maturity in one feunily, the rest dying from 
want of reasonable nursing. If in course of time the natives are taught to take 
better care of their children, the population will no doubt strongly increase. 
A cause of the low birth rate in many families is the fact that a man is not 
supposed to have intercourse with his wife while a baby is nursing, that is, till 
the baby is from two to two and a half years old. They consider it a great 
shame for a woman to become pregnant before this time has elapsed. If such 
a case happens, they generally will say diat the woman has committed adul- 

The Shilluks are tall in figure, the average height of die men being nearly OUTWASD 
1 . 80 m. 1 They are generally lean, rather narrow in the shoulders, and have but ^^^^^^^LE 
thin calves; their arms and legs are long, especially the legs below the knees 
and the forearms ; hands and feet are smaU. A characteristic posture of the 
Shilluk man is to stand on one leg, and bending the other, press the sole of 
his foot against the inner surbce of the knee, while one hand holds a spear 
stuck into the ground; he will stand thus for hours, looking admiringly at his 
catde. They are very clever in running and jumping, and are capable of 
sustaining considerable fatigue. 

Their skin is dark, almost black; albinoes seem to be rare. The physical 
appearance of the Shilluks is not that of pure negroes, they might rather be 
called negroids, in spite of their dark colour. Most of them have a fierce, some- 
times a proud, haughty look. The cheek-bones and lips are protruding, but not 
excessively; the nose is flat, but hij^ noses are not infirequent. Young people 
of both sexes are finely built, while in old age they generally become very thin 
and bony. Their gait is erect and elastic. 

What makes the Shilluks look most ugly and almost firightfiil in the eyes of paintino 
a newcomer, is their habit of smearing the whole body. While the lower part is '^'*"' BODY 
covered with ashes, the breast and head are painted with red earth or with 
chalk, or, if they can afford it, with oil or butter. Sometimes the whole body is 
planted white or red, and lines or figures are drawn across the face. 

Lake most Nilotic negroes the Shilluk remove the lower incisors; this is done EXTRACTION 
in early childhood; its omission would, in the belief of the natives, cause sick- ^^ INCISOBa 
ness; for instance, a case occurred where the teeth were taken out to cure sore 
eyes; a woman who had just had them removed from her child, said that un- 
less they were taken out, her child would undoubtedly be deformed in some 
way, when it grew to maturity. Another explanation for extracting the theeth 

' fire feet ten inches. 

Digitized by 


XXIV Introduction 

is, that this will keep them from osing abosiye language. — Some natiyes say, 
members of the royal £unily do not remove the incisors; bat of this I am not 
TRIBAL MABKS The tribal marks of the Shilluks, women as weH as men, are from three 
to five rows of dots across the forehead. The regular instrument for tattooing 
these dots into the skin is a crude iron similar in shape to our scalpel But not 
infrequendy individuak are met with who have not these marks. Sometimes 
women have from one to three rows of small scars across their foreheads. These 
are in most or all cases simply caused by wearing bands of buttons drawn 
tighdy across die forehead. Tattoeings on otfier parts of the body are seldom. 
SHAVING The women wear either no or only short hair on the head; tfiey shave tbeir 
heads with a razor consisting of a straight piece of thin iron, whose edge is 
sharpened, or witfi a short piece of iron with one side beaten out to a thin edge. 
But lacking a rasor they use almost any metal instrument they can get hold 
of for this purpose. Both sexes scrupulously remove any hair on the body by 
pulling it out witfi a kind of pincers ; the men even pull out their beard and 
eyelashes. — They do not circumcise. 
HAIR-DRES8ING8 The men, chiefly youths, indulge in elaborate hair-dresses of varied forma. 
Such hair-dressing takes several hours to arrange, and has to last for weeks, 
the natural occassion for renewing it being a village-dance, where everyone 
wants to appear at his best; in dressing it, the hair is first loosened widi a stick, 
which serves at the same time for scratching the head. Then it is twisted and 
brought into the right form by means of a mixture of gum, mud, and sometimes 
cow-dung; from time to time oil or butter is poured on it In order not to spoil 
the hair-dressings while sleeping, the neck is supported by neck -supports. 
Sometimes the hair is bleached either yellowish-red or grey. Bleached hair is 
generally not twisted or dressed, but is left standing out in all directions "like 
the feathers of a fighting cock.'' Bleaching is done by smearing a diick plaster 
of ashes, chalk and cow-dung on the hair and leaving it there for about two 
or three weeks. Another mode of bleaching is to rub the plaster well into the hair, 
then gathering it up from the back, and bringing it forward, forming it into the 
shape of a horn. While in this state, they must be very careful not to break it, 
lest the hair is broken off. The same result is obtained by washing the h^r 
continually with cow-urine. These processes take the kink as well as the colour 
out of the hair. This bleached brisde-like hair together with their tall, tfain 
body covered with ashes or brick-dust, and the want of eyelashes sometimes 
gives the people, in the eyes of one who has never seen them before, a radier 
frightful appearance. Boys wear their hair in little knobs, formed with red eardi 
and fat. Cowrie-shells, in strings or single, are often twisted into the hair, and 

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Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Country and People xxv 

joug men are very fond of adorning their hair with ostrich or other fine 

The men and generally also unmarried girls go naked. In recent times many CLOTHING 
men wear a cotton cloth, which is knotted on the left shoulder, and slung round q^xments 
the right hip; chiefly people living near the mission have pardy adopted this 
clothing; the desire to possess such a cotton-cloth is a stimulus for many 
a Shilhik to work for a few days or weeks in the mission-compound; the number 
of those who do so is apparently increasing. Animal-skins are generally not 
worn by men as an ev^y-day dress. Women, and sometimes girls are dressed 
in cow, calf, or antelope skins, which are either wrapped round the body, or 
hang over the shoulder. 

[The full dress of a woman is described by Mrs. Giffen in "The Egyptian 
Sudan^ as follows: First of all there is a small apron. This is a piece of 
coarse doth — originally white — about two feet long and eighteen inches 
wide. It is made of two thicknesses, and it is tied by strings fastened to 
two comei^ around the waist, but just below the abdomen, and falls 
down to the knees. 

Then there are two skins, of sheep, goat, calf, gazelle or whatever it may 
be, tanned with the hair on, and worn with the hair side out One of 
these is tied around the waist, using one foreleg and one hindleg of the 
skin for strings to tie with. The tail and the other two legs — or the skin 
of them — dangle and flap around the legs as ornaments. Indeed these 
are sometimes ornamented with beads, brass or iron rings. This skin is 
tied in front so as to show the white apron underneath. 
The other skin is worn on the upper part of the body. The fore and 
hind legs on one side are fastened together at their very tips ; this is then 
slipped over the head, the legs of the skin thus tied together resting on 
the right shoulder, and the other side passing under the left arm. This 
is the full dress of a woman. Of course in addition to this they may 
wear as many beads and other ornaments as they can afford; strings of 
beads around the waist, neck, and arms, and armlets, of brass; some- 
times as many as ten or twelye brass or iron rings, weighing several 
pounds, and extending from the hand half way to the elbow. These are 
not loose, but drawn tight to the flesh, and each made fast by the black- 
amith. Similar rings of iron are ofiien worn by the elder women on the 
ankle. These are very heavy and produce great knots in the flesh. 
The litde girls wear the apron only, and when a little older, put on the 
shoulder skin, and when full grown wear the skin about the waist.] 
When meeting for a dance both sexes are richly dressed. While present at 

Digitized by 


X XVI Introduction 

a great dance. I have noted the ornaments and clodiingB worn by the yooiig 
men and girls on the occasion. They are a) for the men : above the ankles a 
strip of sheep or goat skin with the hair on it outside; the same just below the 
knee ; above it are the knee-bells, a number of metal bells each consisting in 
a hoUow, oblong piece of iron, in which a small iron ball moves, thus producing 
a rattling noise; about the loins there is a skin of leopard, gepard, wild cat, or 
jackal, suspended on a eight to twelve-fold girdle of ostrich egg shells; the 
girdle may also consist of European beads; on the wrist a bracelet of brass or 
iron, above the elbow an ivory ring, above it a six- to eight-fold ring of ambach; 
about the neck they wear one or more necklaces of beads; on the head orna- 
ments of horse-tail or other long hair, and ostrich feathers; round the forehead 
strips of red or white bristles are fastened; each man holds two lances, two clubs, 
one club-shield, the lances generally being adorned wilh ostrich-plumes ; some- 
times the skin-cloth round the waist is adorned with bells or iron chains. Face, 
arms, and the upper part of the body are smeared with red earth, over wich 
melted butter is poured and stripes of ashes are drawn. Several, if not aU, of 
the dancers carry a dancing-stick, a long stick, bent at its upper end like the 
handle of a walking stick, and covered with brass or some other metaL h) The 
girls present the following appearance : above ihe ankles a bundle of heavy 
iron rings, on the loins a large antelope- or more firequently calf-skin sus- 
pended by a bundle of ostrich egg shell chains ; round the neck and hanging 
down on the breasts a large bundle of blue or green beads; on the wrists 
bracelets of beads; round the forehead a string of beads; the hair is sometimes 
dressed on ihe occasion; in the hair an ostrich or some other good feather is 
stuck, in one or two cases I saw even flowers instead of a feadier; the girls are 
not painted, only anointed with oil. 

The most characteristic adornments of the men are thick, heavy bracelets 
and armlets of iron, brass, ivory, twisted ambach, tree-bark, and cowrie shells. 
A wreath consisting of a strip of skin with the hair on the outside is laid round 
the head. Rings of metal, ambach, cowrie or bark are worn above the ankle. 
Women and girls also wear armlets, but not ivory ones. The legs below the 
knee are loaded with heavy metal rings. Men as well as women, but chiefly 
the latter, pierce their ears at the top, and wear rings of brass or iron in them ; 
sometimes merely a piece of metal or a stick is fastened in them. Both sexes 
wear strings of ostrich egg shells about the loins; besides these chains of cowries, 
of river shells, of leather, and of varied beads are frequent Many grown-up 
men and youths wear a necklace of a peculiar kind of small, well-shaped, and 
marble-like stones, which have about the size of a pigeon-egg; they are very 
much valued, and the natives always ask an ox in exchange for diem. These 

Digitized by 


Country and People xxvii 

stones are collected by the Arabs of EordofiAo about the numerous mountains 
there. The amount of labour required to work them into the proper shape 
accounts for their high value, as well as their scarcity among the Shilluks. 

A Shilluk man hardly leayes his home without carrying a spear or two, and ARMS 
a club. They have two kinds of spears, one whose blade has the form of a 
laurel-leaf^ another with a cylindric blade, ending in a sharp point, the sur£Bice 
being either smooth or barbed. The shafts are of common wood without any 
ornaments. The spears often have a tuft of short ostrich feathers or of wool, near 
the butt. The cylindrical (round) spears are used not only as arms, but also 
in fishing. Besides the spears, they have two species of clubs, at least one of 
which a man always carries with him. One is simply a thick stick about one 
meter long, and heavy at one end. The other is about two feet and a half long, 
made in one solid piece of hard, heavy wood, with a big round knob at 
one end. 

The Shilluks are a haughty, proud people. They are much inclined to consider characteb 
themselves and everything belonging to them as superior to the strangers, 
bcluding the white men. ''The things of the Shilluks are good, and the things 
of the strangers are bad*", is a common saying among theuL They do not in 
any way want the foreigners and their mode of life. This strong disinclination 
is not only due to their innate character, but also to the evil experiences they 
have had with Arabs, Turks, Abyssinians, the Dervishes etc. 

The well-founded feeling of suspicion and even of contempt for white people 
will grow less intensive or may disappear altogether in consequence of the 
peaceful intercourse they now have with the representatives of the white race. 
In conversing with a white man they at the best treat him as their equal, but 
hardly ever as their superior. It requires therefore considerable tact to deal 
with them. Once having gained confidence they are frank, open-minded, and 
always ready for a joke, but they are abo quickly offended. 

As warriors the Shilluks are brave; they make excellent soldiers in colonial 
troops, and are renowned as the best soldiers in the Sudan; generally they be- 
come really attached to their leaders, whether white or black. 

Working for the white man is done only in times of dearth, when no food is 
obtainable in other ways. But in spite of this difi&culty the mission has, diuing the 
last few years, had remarkable results in educating the natives to regular voluntary 
work. — K one sees a Shilluk standig for an hour or longer almost without ever 
moving, except now and then scratching his head or chewing hi& tooth-stick, 
or if one meets them lying in the ashes of the village place for hours together, 
one might, believe them to be an extremely lazy people. But this would be 
only partly right. Indeed during the dry season they have not much work 

Digitized by 


xxvill Introduction 

to do except hunting, fishing, huilding or repairing the houses, or practising 
some crafit: their chief occupation in this time is idling about, seeing friends, 
dancing, etc. But in the rainy season all people, including women and children, 
are engaged in £ftrm-work; during these months they are really hard-working. 
To give an opinion on the mental abilities of the natives would require a long 
and intimate acquaintance with them. From my personal experiences I can only 
say that I feel an admiration for the few men who have been working with me 
during my skidies. They were never tired in giving explanations, in procuring 
folklore and helping me to acquire a thorough knowledge of the language. 
Whenever their store of tales was exhausted, they used to go to their families in the 
evening to get new informations; historical reports being provided by old men, 
chiefly from tiiose belonging to the royal fiamily, while for stories, riddles, etc. 
women were the best source. Though we were at work day after day, which 
meant for them a considerable and quite unaccustomed mental exertion, they 
never showed any unwillingness, but were really interested in the work. I con- 
sider tiiem an intelligent, quick-witted people. This is confirmed by their folk- 
lore. They have a decided sense and predilection for historical traditions, being 
the only black people of the Eitstem Sudan who are able to trace back their 
own history for centuries. The fiact tiiat they have had, up to the European 
occupation of the country, a kingdom with a weU-ordered provincial government, 
shows no doubt certain political capabilities. 


HOUSEBUILDING Vide page 96 and 97. 

The homestead is surrounded by a fence of dura-stalks. The villages are 
built in a circle, the open space in the centre containing sometimes a meeting- 
house for tiie men, and a small, narrow hut which is dedicated to Nyikang or 
some other ancient king. 
AGRICULTURE Vide page 99. 

CATTLE- The fiftvourite occupation of the Shilluks is cattie-breeding; cattie mean 
BREEDING wealth and a social position, while the cultivation of the ground is merely the 
means of procuring daily food. Besides cattie goats and sheep are kept. The 
number of cattie has in earlier times undoubtedly been much larger than it is 
to-day, the desire of robbing catde being one of the chief reasons for the raids 
of Arabs, Turks, and otiier enemies. The catde census of 1903 showed 12 173 
head of catde and 63473 sheep and goats, which is very litde compared with 
that of the Dinkas. But the number of catde is increasing now. 

The cattle are of the zebu race, with a hump behind die neck; diey are talL 

Digitized by 


Occupations „..«.«..„..«...„_ xxix 

widi rather long legs, a slender body, and large horns. The horns, while young, 
are dressed into most manifold strange forms, this being the bnsiness of a par- 
ticular craftsman, the "dresser of horns^. Sometimes in a large herd one sees 
hardly any catde with the horns in their natural shape. An illustration of how 
cattle are cherished and almost regarded as personal beings is the fact that they 
hayeabout40 differentnamesforcatde, according to their colour, the configuration 
or sise of the horns, etc. Vide page 107. — Domestic animals are not butcher- 
ed, except when sick or exceedingly old. Oxen and goats are killed on festal 
occasions, such as funeral or marriage meals, or as sacrifices to Nyikang and Jwok. 
Neidier do they sell cattle; for a stranger it is practically impossible to purchase 
a cow or an ox. The price of a cow is about Jg 5 ; an ox is half the value of a 
cow which has calved; a young heifer has double the value of a cow. — Slaying 
a cow is done by stabbing it with a spear in the nape, so that the aorta is 
pierced. The blood is collected and cooked as food. 

The cows are milked morning and evening, usually by boys, sometimes also 
by old men, but not by women, the latter having nothing to do with cattle. The 
quantity of milk obtained is but poor. A gourd is the usual milk vessel. These are 
washed with cow-urine, which gives the milk an unpleasant flavour. They also 
wash their hands in cow-mine; but they do not mix the milk with it, as is the 
custom with Dinkas and Nuers. 

Each village possesses a common cow-shed, but into it the herd is put at 
night during the rainy season only, when the mosquitoes are very bad. The 
rest of the year they are kraaled in llie open yard, where they are tied with 
ropes to short pegs driven into the ground. This cattle-court is a semi-circular 
enclosure; at the entrance to it there is a small circular place built of com 
stalks and covered with ashes, in which the young men who watch the herd 
sleep. A fire of dried cow dung is kept smouldering all night in this place. Sick 
cattle are nursed in the cow-shed during llie daytime, to keep them out of the 
sun and away firom food, but not in the night, unless it is the season when all 
the catde are housed. Many catde die every year, firom intestinal worms and 
other diseases. A considerable number of cows are barren. 

The cattle are herded by young men and boys. As soon as the dew has dried off 
the grass, the herd is driven into the pasture. During the dry season, when 
grass is getting rare, the herds migrate into the lower and swampy parts of 
the country, where the grass is still flourishing; the Shilluks along the White 
Nile cross over to the east bank; likewise the cattle of the Sobat Shillukft 
descend to the lagoons soutii of tiie Sobat So in both cases they have to cross 
the rivers, which is, on account of the many crocodiles living in them, not 
undangerous, and is therefore done with much care and accompanied by 

Digitized by 


X XX Introduction 

weighty ceremonies, in order to keep the crocodiles awaj; this forms an im- 
portant part of the duties of the witch-doctor; vide page 172. All the yooths and 
hoys over ten years accompany the herds, leaving their homes for seyeral weeks 
or even months, and enjoying the free life in temporary huts. When after die 
first rains the new grass springs up, they return home. The struggle for the 
best pasture grounds very often becomes the cause of bitter quarrels, and has 
in the past not unfrequently led to tribal wars. 
GOATS The Shilluk goats have rather high legs, they almost unvariably look thin 
and not well fed; their colour is mostly grey, but black ones too are not un- 
SHEEP frequent. The sheep have no wool, but hair. They have a kind of mane on 
shoulder, neck and breast, the rest of Ijhe body being covered with short hair. 
FOWLS Most sheep are white, brown-white, or black-white. — A race of small fowls 
is kept, but the natives do not make much of them; many chickens are stolen 
DOGS by snakes and other small animals. — Dogs are veiy numerous, they are a 
kind of greyhound, of red or yellow colour, and have a black, long snout. Thej 
are exceedingly quick in running and most clever in jumping. They overtake 
gazelles with easiness, and are much used in hunting. 
HUNTING Hunting is practised by all men occasionally, but is, as a rule, not very 
successfrd. They use spears, clubs, and traps in killing or catching animals. 
Sometimes, chiefly in procuring animals whose skins form part of the revenue 
of the king, all the people of a village assemble for a hunting match, vide page 125; 
a large circle is formed, and the animals inside it, when wishing to escape, are 
killed. When an animal is wounded, but runs away, they will persecute it for 
days, till it breaks down. The skin of a killed leopard belongs to the kin^^ 
and could, at least formerly, be worn by privates only by special permission 
of the king. A lion's skin is considered as evil, and is not worn. 

Hippopotamus hunting is done by combined parties in canoes, harpooning 
the animal and dispatching him with spears, when he comes to the surface 
to breathe. 
FISHING Their way of fishing is that with the round barbed spear, and with traps, 
which are made of com stalks and reed. Fish-spearing is done in muddy water, 
where they cannot see anything below the surface, and therefore cannot aim. 
But nevertheless by this rude mode they sometimes have good results, the fish 
in the White Nile and Sobat being numerous and large. Sometimes they cury 
on fishing during the night time by holding burning grass-torches over the 
water, and thus enticing the fish, which are then speared. In recent time nets 
and fishhooks are bought firom the white people, and are employed in fishing. 
HANDICBAFTS The Shilluks practise a great number of crafks, which are carried on in families 
for generations, the fatiier and mother imparting their skill to their children. 

Digitized by 


Occupations xxxi 

A list of craftsmen and their trade yide page 105 . A few words may be added here 

on some particular crafts. They have skilful blacksmiths; these make spears, BLACKSMITHS 

hoes, axes, harpoons, picks, arm-rings of brass and of iron, bells, chains. Their 

handicraft, which is carried on chiefly during the dry season, is a travelling 

ODe; they take their tools and go about from one place to another. While 

among the Dinkas the blacksmiths are considered a low, despised class of 

people, who liye separate from the villages in the bush, with the Shilluks they 

are respected persons, and accordingly their pay is good. The employer has 

to support the blacksmith working for him, and pays him a sheep beside. Iron 

is not found in the ShiUuk coxmtry. Previous to the opening up of the country to 

the traders the iron secured by the Shilluks came from the Dinkas and Nuers, 

who seemed to buy it from the natives of the Upper Nile regions (Jurs, Bongos), 

where iron is smelted; some may also have come from Darftur through Eordo- 

&11. In recent years, however, nearly all of it is procured from the north, and 

is of European origin. A remarkable proof of the growing williugness on the 

side of the natives to work for wages is the fact that during the last two years the 

American missionaries have introduced and sold to the natives some thirteen 

tons of raw iron, together with a great number of good iron tools, as axes, etc. 

Not only the raw material, but even the finished articles of native manufacture 

are gradually being replaced by European imports. Their good spears are still 

made by their own blacksmiths, but many cheap spears are bought from the 

traders; so are their crude axes, mattocks and hoes. Iron bracelets and other 

ornaments are made by their blacksmiths from iron rods. K the rod is too 

large, it is heated and beaten out. Whatever the ShiUuk blacksmith makes, is 

superior to the imported article that he gets from the Arab or Greek trader. 

It may be mentioned that the word 5odg^ which means originally and properly 

'^ blacksmith*', has also the wider sense of "craftsman*', and has become a 

designation for all other crafts they practise. 

An important craft is that of the thatch-maker. The roofs of the Shilluk OTHER CRAFTS 
houses are of a peculiarly neat description. While the Dinkas generally leave 
&e roof with the appearance of being unfinished, the grass not being smoothed 
down and cut at the ends, the Shilluk thatcher makes his thatch with a 
neatness which really excites admiration. The framework of the roof is always 
made on the ground and placed on the circular wall like a great conical cap. 

Plaiting is pratised by both sexes. Men make the large, coarse mats for 
enclosing yards, and ako the large grain baskets. Women plait small fancy 
mats for covering food, and abo very nice small coloured baskets, sieves, etc. 

Host of the men make their own ostrich shell girdles. The shells are first 
broken into irregular pieces, which are pierced in the center with an awl- 

Digitized by 


X XXI I Introduction 

shaped iron instrument. The hole is made by holding the sharpened point of 
the iron on the piece of shell and rapidly revolving it between the palms of 
the hand. The pierced pieces are then rounded by crushing the edges against 
a stone with a cow's hoof. 

Skins for wearing apparel, such as the hides of cidves, goats, gaselles and 
other small animals are usually prepared by drying them first and dressing, 
then curing in ashes. After this they are stretched tight on poles stuck in the 
ground, and grease or oil is rubbed on them; llien they are rubbed and worked 
for several hours, till they are soft, and the oil well worked into them. The 
hair is left on; a skin with a large amount of the hair gone would be consi- 
dered very poor. The skin is worn with the hair on the outside. 

Ropes are made from plant fibres, grass, and the leaves of the dom palm. 
BOATS Canoes are hollowed out of trees ; this is, considering the poor tools they have, 
a very tiresome work, but the boats they make are fiairiy well; they are pro- 
pelled by means of long sticks. A peculiar kind of boat or raft is made of the 
ambach tree; it is composed of a thick bundle of that pith-like, light cane 
tied together, turned up at the bows, and propelled by a paddle. These boats 
are so light that they are easily carried by one man. 

MUSICAL Their musical instruments are small and large drums, a stringed instrument 
INSTRUMENTS ^^jj^^ p^ im^ ^ wind instrument consisting in a cow's or antelope's horn; 
this is used in wars and in war-dances. The drums are logs of wood hollowed 
out and braced with skin; they are beaten either with the flat hand or with a 
stick. The pm is made by splitting in the middle a small section of a log and 
hollowing out the flat side a litde. A piece of raw cow hide is stretched wet 
over this, and the flat side becomes the fiace of the instrument. A round stick 
some 1 8 inches long is fastened at each end. The ends of these two upright 
pieces pass through a cross-stick, which is large enough in diameter to allow 
them to pass this and still be quite strong. The holes are made in it by burning. 
The strings are made of tendons of animals or of the root bark of a certain 
plant. These are attached to the head, drawn across the &ce over a small 
wooden bridge, and wound about the cross-stick. They are then tightened, and 
the instrument is tuned by wettening these strings and tightening or loosening 
them about the crosspiece. They are tied to this stick, and by winding over 
themselves, keep from slipping. 

POTTERY Pottery is the handicraft of women. They make pots of different kind and 
size, for carrying water, cooking, brewing beer; they also make pitchers, cups 
for drinking beer, heads for smoking pipes, etc. Gourds and calabashes are 
abo much used household tools. The pipe-heads are made of day; they are 
large and rather clumsy, and are generally ornamented with some simple designs, 

Digitized by 






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Digitized by 


Occupations xxxiii 

mostly consisting of ring-shaped lines with dots in them. The pipe-stem is a 
long, thick, hollow reed of about i V^ — 2 cm in diameter. The juncture be- 
tween the stick and the head is tightly closed with a leather cover. On the 
upper end of the stick a small, oblong gourd with a pointed head is fastened; 
here again the juncture is made tight by a leather cover wrapped about it Along 
the stick four or five strings are fiastened, by which the pipe is carried ; a long, 
pointed stick for cleaning the pipe is tied to the stem with a string. They are 
exceedingly fond of smoking, both men and women. The smoking materials is a SMOKING AND 
Utde tobacco and much charcoal. The pipe being rather heavy, they usually sit xoB^^O 
down, bowing their head deep over the pipe while smoking. When sitting in a 
circle they take only one or two draughts, and after that hand the pipe over 
to their neighbour. — Tobacco is not only smoked, but also chewed passionate- 
ly; this habit is more common among women and girls than among men. 

In cases of sickness the doctor is called. His chief means of curing consists 
in charms, but they also know some reasonable medicines, among which cutt- 
iog stands in the first place; but although they inflict much pain, they often heal 
a sickness. — Sick people are nursed by their relatives with care ; temporary 
residences are fixed for them by screening off a place in the yard. 

Building houses, making fences, dressing skins, working neck supports, carv- 
ing and polishing clubs and spear sticks, making ambach boats and other 
common work is understood by every Shilluk. The neck supports are '^invented keck SUPPORTS 
by Nyikang." They are carved of wood, and are made to resemble the forms 
of animals, viz. of hippopotamus, giraffe, tiang, camel, ostrich and another bird, 
which seems to be an ibis. The Shilluks have no chairs or stools; old men 
sometimes sit on a piece of ambach wood, young people squat or lie on the 

The craftsmen do not practise their trade with the exclusion of all other kind 
of work; each one of them cultivates his farm and tends his cattle, and only 
during the time there is no farm- work, he works at his craft. 

There are villages which are renowned in practising certain crafts; some in 
fishing or hunting, some in cattle-breeding or cultivating dura, some in making 
pots or baskets, etc. As these goods are exchanged between the villages, a little 
trade is going on; but in this trade among the natives no money is used, and 
it is practised only occasionally; they have no markets. The very little develop- 
ment of trade is illustrated by the expression used for it : n^wq^ which means 
**to sell*' as well as "to buy*" ; all trade being done by barter, selling and buying 
sre identical actions; the native cannot '^buy*' anything without at the same time 
''selliiig*' another thing; he exchanges one thing for another. In trading with 
the Arab or Greek merchant they have, however, learnt the use of money ; 

WBSTERMAlfN, The ShiHok People. Ill 

Digitized by 


X XXIV Introduction 

here articles of purchase and sale are calculated in silver currency. 

The daily work of the women is cooking, carrying water, cleaning the house 
and yard, etc. During the time of £ftrmwork they help the men in cultivating 
the fields. 
FOOD The staple food is dura. It is cooked, baked into a bread (kwpi), roasted, 
brewed and, when green, eaten raw. For di£ferent kinds of food vide page 102. 
Their diet is rather monotonous, dura being its constuit chief component. The 
dura is pounded and ground. The mortar is either a log of wood hollowed out, 
or a flat excavation in the ground, limed out with day. The mill-stones — a 
large and a small one, with the latter the grinding is done — are secured from 
districts west of the Shalluk country. — Fire is made by twirling a hard stick 
on a soft piece of wood. 

Besides dura they eat sesame, duchn, maise, beans, some onions, various 
grass seeds, the seeds of the lotus plant and of some kinds of nymphaeae. The 
fruit of several trees, as deleib, nabag, etc. also serve as food; they even rob 
ant hills to procure the winter store of hoarded seeds. White ants, when in the 
winged state, are a delicacy to them. — Milk is used in the household in many 
ways: it is drunk fresh, sour, or boiled, or dura meals are prepared with it. 
They also make butter, by shaking or rolling the milk in a gourd. — As dome- 
stic animals are almost never slain, meat forms no part of the daily food, but 
is rather an exceptional delicacy, which is, however, sought for with eagerness; 
of game they hardly leave any piece uneaten, skin and bowels not excepted ; 
they do not even despise dead animals. The blood of killed animals is kept 
and cooked, but they do not tap the blood from living cattle, as is the custom 
with the Bari and Masai. — Generally they prefer the meat of castrated animals. 

Two chief meals are taken daily; one from nine to ten in the morning, and 
the second at sunset 
BBEWINO OF A large quantity of the dura the people reap is used in cooking merisa or 
BEER ]y^Qj[^ xhe grain is put into jars and water poured on it. Thus it is left till the 
grain begins to sprout. Then it is spread in the sun to dry, and then pounded 
or ground; this wet meal is mixed widi flour from the fresh grain and put a 
second time into jars which are filled with water. After stirring and mixing well, 
a little dry meal is sprinkled on it; the jars are covered widi small mats and 
allowed to remain a day or two, until it begins to ferment, when a litde more 
water and meal are added. When the whole mass is well fermented it is filtered 
through a grass funnel, and ihe following day is ready for use. It will keep 
about a week. Though this drink is slightly intoxicating, it does not seem to do 
great harm; it is very nourishing, and the natives regard it radier as a food 
than a beverage. 

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Family Life xxxv 


When a joimg man wants to many, he himself asks the girl he has selected; MARRIA QE 
if she assents, she directs her lover to her parents and the old people of the 
village; if these abo do not object, they ask him to bring the dowry, which 
consists of cattle. From four to six head of oxen and one milch cow is the 
ordinary price for a woman, besides a nmnber of sheep and goats. But the 
whole of this dowry is in most cases not paid to the father-in-law at once, be- 
fore the marriage takes place. One ox is paid to the elders of the village when 
they arrange the marriage business, one or more at the celebration of the 
marriage, another when the first child is bom. The ox which is slaughtered at 
the marriage festival is driven to the village of the bride by all the young men 
of the bridegroom's village. They decorate this ox by tying tassels of cows' 
tails on the top of the horns. In case the horns have not a good shape for tying 
these tassels, they are pierced and the tassels are fastened in the holes. A 
young man in buying an ox is always particular about the shape of the horns 
for this reason. On the marriage festival vide page 109. — A man cannot reach 
a social position without being married, and he cannot get a wife without 
cattle; so every young Shilluk's highest ambition consists in procuring cattle in 
order to buy a wife. But, as already mentioned, they usually marry before the 
fuU dowry is paid, and in such a case the debts of the young husband may be- 
come the source of quarrels between husband and wife, and still more between 
husband and fiather-in-law. As long as the price is not paid, the father has a 
legal right to take his daughter back from her husband; but this, though often 
threatened, is seldom done. Those who have sufficient means will as a rule not 
be satisfied with one wife, but marry a second and a third; only a very few 
exceed this number. 

A young man may not marry a girl from his own division or clan, (vide page 
127 ff.) but from any other division; the girl may live in the same village or in 
any other village, but they prefer to marry in a distant village. These marriage 
laws are a well established tribal custom, and people fear to break them, lest 
death follow marriage. 

The position of the woman is no doubt a higher one than with most Moham- POSITION OF 
medan peoples of the Sudan. She is generally well treated and is shown remark- ^^^^^^ 
able respect. The women sometimes take part in public assemblies with the men, 
discuss the affairs that interest them and partake in dances and rehgious cere- 
monies. Even in their war-dances the women play an active t6U^ vide page 
XXXIX. — Krefractory or lazy, the man may give his wife a thrasing with a rope. 


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xxxvi Introduction 

REABINOAND On the average number of children in a family yide page XXIII. The birth 
OFC^^BEN ^^ *^™^* *^ regarded as the greatest of good fortune. 

Affection of parents for their children is not wanting. The mother often places 
the infant in a long basket or bed made of grass; this she carries on her head 
or covers with a mat in some secure place, while the child sleeps. Educatioo 
is limited to teaching the children the work and skill which the parents com- 

The naming of the children is done by some member of the family, in most 
cases by the parents or grandparents. The name generally has some connection 
with circumstances attending the birth. The name A^u ("she died") is ofieo 
given when the birth occurs in close proximity to a death in the family. Natoailo 
is a very common name; it indicates that the mother of the child has prayed 
for a child by sweeping a sacred house (a temple of Nyikang or of some other 
ancient king) with a bunch of straw. Men often acquire a second name when 
grown up; this one is in most cases called after the name of a cow or an ox. 

When the boys are from thirteen to fifteen years old, they start the coltiYadoii 
of a small field of their own, for the result of which they try to acquire cattle. 
— The boys and young men of a village bom in the same year form a com- 
panionship, all member of such a "class*' having a common name. The young 
men of a village do not sleep in their parents' houses, but their common sleep- 
ing place is in the cow-shed of the village. The act of sleeping in the bam is 
called "sleeping in the ashes'* from the fact that they during tfiis time sleep in 
the ashes of the fire kept smouldering in the barn. 
SLAVES The ShiUuks have some slaves secured before the present regime. Some of 
these are ShiUuks, others are from the Kordofan and also from fSarther up the 
Nile. They were secured in war or purchased from the Arabs. In single cases 
Shilluk parents sold their children for food in time of famine, or gave them 
away to chiefs. 
BURIAL When a grown-up man dies, he is buried in or just before his hut An ox is 
killed as a funeral feast, and its horns are planted on the grave so that they are 
visible from without. Women and children are buried in the bush. — For a 
description of a burial vide pages iii and 135. 

Some time after the death of a man a funeral ceremony u held; it takes 
place when the property of the deceased is divided among his heirs; thb may 
' be from about one month to one year after the person has died. The warriors 
of the neighbouring villages are invited. An ox is killed on the occasion. The 
ceremony consists in dancing, making displays of arms, feasting on the meat of 
the slain ox, and drinking merisa. The women also partake in it. Whether any 
religious actions are connected with it, I do not know. 

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^iBmmiffliiH^ XXXVII 

The sons inherit the property of their father. The wives of the deceased INHERITANCE 
father are divided among the children, who may, and in most cases do, marry 
them, except their own mother. It is said that sometimes, when a husband is 
very old and infirm, his wives put him to death, in order to get a younger com- 
panion. On inheritance vide page 113. 

Their chief amusement is dancing. The houses of a village are built in a DANCINO AND 
circle, leaving an open place in their midst. Here the inhabitants assemble in WAE-PLAY8 
the evening, stretching themselves in the warm ashes or on a skin, or squatting 
on a piece of ambach; several small fires of cow dung are burning and spread 
a smoke of strong smell, which is the best protection from mosquito-stings. 
The events of the day are discussed here, the tobacco pipe and merisa pot 
going from hand to hand. In the middle of this open place the trunk of a large 
tree is erected, in which the drums are suspended. With them signals are given 
in times of danger, but more frequently they are used to accompany the 
dances of the young people. These public dances are among the greatest events 
in the lives of the young Shilluks; even old men and women, though not tak- 
ing an active part, are highly interested in them; sitting before the huts in front 
of the dancers they constitute a chorus, who accompanies the transactions of 
the younger generation with loud acclamations or blamings. The dances gene- 
rally take place during the dry season; they begin at about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, or, in case there is moonshine, later in the evening, and last from 
three to five hours or longer. As a rule one village invites its neighbours by a 
dram signal given in the early morning of the day fixed for a dance. On hearing 
tlus signal the young people show a great zeal in preparing their body, hair- 
dress and the ornaments worn on the occasion. They go to the village in groups 
or single, men and girls separately. Usually the youths perform some war-dance 
in full arms at first, in which the girls do not partake ; they form a large circle 
in four or two rows, and while the drum is being beaten, begin dancing and 
singing war songs. The dance consists in jumping on the toe and at the same 
time moving slowly forward. These rhythmical movements are from time to 
time interrupted by a group of dancers violently rushing out of the circle, 
howling and shouting aloud, brandishing their spears with fierce looks, and per- 
forming mock fights or playing pantomimes, in which they exhibit very remar- 
kable ability. Scenes from the hunting, pastoral and agricultural life are represen- 
ted with such a dramatic vivacity that they richly deserve the applause they earn. 
On a given signal, spears, clubs and shields are laid aside and put together 
in one place, and now the second part, in which the girls partake, begins. The 
latter have till then been waiting in a separate place, where the female lookers- 
on are gathered. Each girl selects her own dancer. First the men form again a 

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XXXVIII Introduction 

circle. Then the girk rush into this ring, each looking out for the man she 
intends to favour. She draws up in front of him, so that they look each other 
in the £eu^e ; again two or four rows are formed, and the same dance begins 
anew, accompanied by drunmiing and singing. 

The dances are in many cases repeated on four successive afternoons or 
nights ; on the fourth day they frequently end in quarrels or real fights. The 
cause of this is the young men of one village casting their eyes on the giris of 
another village, and thus arousing jealousy. In such fights clubs are used, in 
exceptional cases also spears. 

[Of a great war-play which was performed in honour of the missionaries, 
Dr. Giffen in "The Egyptian Sudan** gives the following description: 
"The first intimation we had of their coming, or rather of their presence, 
was a whoop and the sound of a horn that sent a chill, and kept it shoo- 
ting up and down the spinal column. We rushed out on the veranda, and 
saw at the foot of our hill, and only a few rods away, that the clans had 
assembled. There were about one hundred men and boys widi dieir 
spears and war clubs, their bodies shining with oil, and their spears shining 
from vigorous rubbing, while their faces were hideous with white and 
red paint of brick-dust and ashes. They kept leaping in the air, yelling 
and blowing that soul-sickening horn. Little by little they came toward 
us, stooping low, hiding behind trees, gliding back and forth until they 
were in front of the house. Then I stepped out and smiled at them, while 
suddenly with a yell that was not earthly, they sprang in the air, the 
first line made as if throwing the spear, and suddenly dropped down 
for the following ranks. Again they all sprang up into the air, yelling^ 
dancing, singing, and brandishing spears, then circled around the house 
and attacked from another quarter. 

These manoeuvers were kept up for some time, and they grew more 
excited and more wild all the while. Then, at a command from their chief^ 
they ceased and began to dance. Dancing with the Shulla (Shilluk) means 
jumping up and down in the same spot, accompanied with a sort of 
chantmg sing-song, throwing the arms over their heads and flourishing 
spears and clubs. 

Again they formed in line of battle, five ranks deep, with a front of 
twenty, each man with spear and shield. The horn sounded the advance, 
and away they charged to the Doctor's house. They seemed to get Ae 
very spirit of murder in their faces. They charged in good order; die 
front rank, striking at an imaginary foe, dropped to their knees to allow 
the other ranks to strike over their heads, and then the horn sounded the 

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retreat Around our house they went in a regular stampede, and forming 
in a line again in front of the house for another charge. 
This they repeated a number of times. Then a crowd of women, who 
had followed their husbands and sweethearts to battle, acted the part of 
foe, only to be overcome by the brave warriors and driven back. This 
part was very amusing. One old body with great bravery marched out 
and charged, using her pipe as her weapon. The men were a bit rough 
in driving her back, and she was evidently afraid her dear pipe would 
come to grief^ so she took it inside our house and when next we saw 
her she was in the thick of a fray with a long weed as her weapon of 
offence and defence*'.] 
The diy season is also the time for travelling. Relatives pay mutual visits, 

and marriageable young men go to the Nuers and Dinkas with spears, wire, 

stuffs, and dura, which they exchange for sheep and calves. 


In the religion of the ShiUuks three components ary clearly distinguishable : 
I. Jwok (jwitk) or God; 2. Nyikang (Nikdn^)^ the progenitor and national 
hero of the ShiUuks; 3. ajwogo (igwigo)^ the witch doctor or sorcerer. These 
diree do not exist separate from each other, but have many relations amongst 
one another. There are still other forms of religious service, but they are not 
80 prominent as the three mentioned. 

"Jwok (jwhk) is a supreme being, residing above". Whether he is regarded JWOK 
as creator is not sure. According to the sayings of some natives he surely is, 
but it seems probable that this belief, if there is such a one, is young, and must 
be traced back to Mohammedan or Christian influences. — On certain occasions 
an ox is killed as a sacrifice to Jwok, though this is done more frequently to 
Nyikang; prayers are also offered to Jwok, but according to my information, 
Aey have only one prayer to Jwok (for which vide page 171), while to Nyikang 
there are many. "Praying" to Jwok is expressed by a different word from that 
which serves for designating a prayer to Nyikang; the first is Idmo, "to pray"; 
its original meaning is probably: to conjure. In praying to Nyikang kwacho "to 
ask for, to beg" is used. While the prayers to Nyikang are sung, and accom- 
panied by dances, that one to Jwok is only spoken, not sung, and not accom- 
panied by dancing. Jwok has no visible symbols or temples, nor are the prayers 
to him offered by a priest or sorcerer, but by the chief or village-elder. 

In the heart and mind of the ShiUuk Jwok does not possess a deep-rooted 
rank. In some way they do attribute good and evil to him, and chiefly the 

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XL Int r oduct ion 

latter; when a person is ill, they may say: ertjwQk "Why, Jwok?" The sudden 
and violent death of a man is regarded as being caused by Jwok. But I do not 
think there is any ethical motive in our sense underlying this belief; Jwok has 
simply killed the man for having offended him, probably without knowing it. 
The name of Jwok is used in a favourable sense in the following phrases of 
salutation: when a person arrives, he is saluted :y/ koXjwQk "you have brought 
Jwok" ; to one starting on a journey they say : yi mtfejwQk^ you may hold fast 
Jwok". — Jwok has also the meaning of "sickness" ; the reason for this is the 
conviction that Jwok is the causer of sickness; "he is sick", they express by 
"he has Jwok", "Jwok is upon him". 

Although the Shilluk does certainly not connect with the word Jwok the same 
notion as we do with "God", Jwok is doubtless the only word fit for being 
used in the Christian sense. It is true the word occurs in stories in rather a 
disrespectful sense, any being with more than natural powers being called a Jwok; 
but this is so in analogous cases with many African peoples, and will almost 
always be so in heathen languages; it can therefore not form a real obstacle 
for using the word in Christian preaching and literature. 

[In older literature the name Eelge appears as that of the "creator of the 
Shilluks." I have never heard this namej. 
NYIKANGiAND The tradition on the origin of man or rather of the Shilluks leads to the 
THE OMGION gecond and most important part of the religious practice of the people, viz, 
SHILLUKS the worship of Nyikang. This tradition runs thus : A white or rather greyish cow, 
dean aduk, came out of the river; she brought forth a gourd; when this gourd 
split, a man and animals came forth out of it (vide page 178). The name of this 
man was Kolo; KqIq begat Omarq^ who begat Wat Mol ("son of Mol^) ; Wat 
J[foZ begat Okwa. Okwa used to go to the riverside; here he met repeatedly two 
maidens who had come from out the water, they were very beautiful and had 
long hair, but the lower part of their bodies was like the form of a crocodile. 
One day Okwa seized the girls and carried them away. Their screams brought 
out their father, who till then had not been seen by Okwa. His face and the left 
side of his body were like human, but his right side was green of colour imd had 
the form of a crocodile. When asked he declared his name to be Odiljil, he pro- 
tested against his daughters being taken away by force, but afterwards consented. 
Okwa married the girls. The names of the two maidens were Nyakay o and Ong- 
wat (Nakdi/Q and Onwat). One of Nyakayo's sons was Nyikang; according to some 
this was the eldest child, while others say he was the youngest. Nyakay had more 
children beside Nyikang; of one son the name is known, he was OmQi; the names 
of her daughters are (according to A. E. S.) Ad Dui, Ari Umker, and Bunyung. 
Okwa^s second wife Ongwat gave birth to one son, Ju or Bworo. Okwa married 

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Religion „«««,«««, ^^^ 

a third wife, whose eldest child, a son, was called Duwat (Duw^t), The name 
Dimo also occurs as that of a son of Okwa, but I could not make out who his 
mother was. Nyikang was in form partly a man, and partly a crocodile. 

[The exact pronunciation of Nyikang is Jsikdnh, but the final g is often 
omitted: Nikdn; the form Ndldtn also occurs; in older literature the name 
is written Nyakam, Nyekom. Nikdn^ is a composition from M^ ^a "son^ 
and KanQ, which is probably a proper name; thus Nikdno means: "son 
of KanQ.^ The name KanQ occurs also in Okdno, which is composed from 
and KauQ and means "descendant of Kano; Okano is another name 
designating the Shilluk people. But about KanQ the traditions, as far as 
they are kown, say nothing. — Frequently Nyikang is simply called n| 
Nyakayo (Nakdyn), the mother of Nyikang, exists up to the present time. KYAKAO, THK 
Her residing place is about the junction of the Sobat and the White Nile. This ^^^^q ^^ 
is remarkable, as according to the tradition she did not emigrate with her son 
Nyikang, and yet does not now live in her original place, but in the Shilluk 
country. She sometimes appears from out the river, generally in the form of a 
crocodile, but at times in other forms. No worship or sacrifices are offered to 
her, but when a man or animal is taken by a crocodile, this is attributed to 
iVaikoyg. When she does this, the people must not complain ; it is rather an honour, 
when she takes her sacrifice from a village. 

In dubious judicial cases Nyakayo is resorted to as judge. The accused one 
is tied in a river, and a goat is bound and laid on the river-bank near by. This 
latter is done to allure a crocodile. If the accused one is taken by the croco- 
dile (i. e. by Nyakayo), he was guilty. But not infrequently the delinquent, from 
fear of being lacerated by the crocodile, confesses his crime. 

Between Nyikang and one of his brothers, probably Duwat, there arose a NTIKANO'S 
quarrel after their father's death; according to some, about who should follow IGRATION 
the father in the chieftainship, others say it was a quarrel about cattle. As 
they did not come to an agreement, Nyikang together with Omgt, his brother, 
and his half-brother Ju (and his three sisters), left the country,^ seeking for a 
new abode; when he started, DutcQt threw a digging stick after him, wherewith 
to dig the ground (or to bury the dead). Several tribes whom he met on his 
way, joined him, thus increasing the band of his followers. Nyikang settled 
about the mouth of the Sobat, and here founded the kingdom of the Shilluks. 
To increase the population of his new foundation, he changed animals and 
fabulous beings whom he found in the place, into men, built villages for them, 
and made them his subjects. 

While residing in the Shilluk country, Nyikang fought many wars, among nyikang*S END 

'^aoquiriiig wings and flying awaj to the mouth of the Sobat*S A. E. S. 

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XLII Introduction 

others one agamst the sun and his son; vide page 159. 

When he felt his end approaching, he assembled all the chiefis of his king- 
dom for a splendid festival. While all were merry, suddenly a great wind arose, 
and scattered all those present. In this moment Nyikang took a cloth, wound 
it tightly round his neck, and thus choked himself.^ 

But many Shilluks firmly believe that Nyikang is still alive. The Bev. Oyler 
writes to me : ''When I asked how Nyikang died, they were filled with amazement 
at my ignorance and stoutly maintained that he never died. If he dies, all the 
Shilluks will die. He, Dak^ and five other kings ascended to heaven, where 
Nyikang prays for the Shilluks (!). They say that he disappeared as the wind*". 
HOW NYIKANG Nyikang is the ancestor of the Shilluk nation and the founder of the Shilluk 


dynasty. He is worshipped, sacrifices and prayers are offered to him; he may 
be said to be lifted to the rank of a demi-god, though they never forget tliat 
he has been a real man. He is expressly designated as ''little'' in comparison 
with God. 

In almost every village there is a litde hut dedicated to Nyikang, or to 
some other ancient king. In form it is like the common houses, but much 
smaller and more slender. On its walls sometimes rough drawings in white, red. 
and black colour are seen, consisting simply in line-ornaments or representing 
animals. These drawings are made by women, with white, red and black 
earth, and are renewed every year before the chief prayers are offered. These 
huts are commonly called k^ r^ ''place of the king'' i. e. of Nyikang. Besides 
these small huts they have a number of greater temples, which are in form like 
the Shilluk-hut, but of much larger size. They are found in most of the villages 
devoted to Nyikang. These "sacred villages" are, Akuruwar, Wau,> Fenyikang, 
Nyibodo (Jyib^dq), OtQUQ, Nyelwal, OsKavQ^ CH^Q> IHdigQ. These houses, the 
small as well as the larger, are the places where Nyikang is worshipped. In them, 
at least in some, a number of reliques are preserved, which are considered holy 
and are held in great veneration. Among these are a statue of Nyikang made 
of ambach-wood; the holy spear, drum, and shield of Nyikang, a digging stick, 
ancient metal ornaments and clothes, etc. Spoils firom wars are also dedicated 
to Nyikang, and are preserved in the temples. 

In times of need, when sickness or war are threatening, but above all when 
rain does not come in due time, the people assemble round the house of Nyikang 
and pray to him. This is done by dancing and at the same time singing prayers. 
At the beginning of the rainy season, when they are about to plant dura, the 
regular chief prayers take place ; on this occasion an animal is slain as a sacri- 
fice to Nyikang. Before the transaction of any serious business the elders of 
the village assemble around the temple of Nyikang, to ask for his counsel. 

1 Till the subjection of the ShlUnki by the British all succeeding Shilluk kings haTC finished 
their lives bj tiie smme form of death. 

' This Wau is not the place in the Bahr Ghasal Proyince, but is situated on the left bank of the 
White Nile between Taufikia and Kodok. 

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Religion XLiii 

By Nyikang also oaths are sworn. The expressions mostly used m swearing SWEARING 
an oath are : Nikaii nh^l i. e. : "Nyikang indeed", "by Nyikang!" ^ikak anani nyikang 
i. e. "Nyikang here!" or: "Nyikang now!" Another form is to couple his name 
with any of the sacred villages, as Nikan a Waul i. e. "by Nyikang of Wau!" 
Likewise Nikan a NehoaU etc. In their conversations they are constantly using 
these oaths; they often make promises under oath, which they, however, readily 
break without imy fear of penalty. They swear also by Dak, or any other of 
the ancient kings. 

Another mode of swearing, which is used in judicial cases only, is to swear 
by the holy spear (of Nyikang): the ajwoffQ who keeps the spear, sacrifices a 
sheep and puts the blood upon the accused and the accuser, and offers a prayer 
that justice may follow. Now the accuser or the accused or both swear by the 
holy spear. If a person perjures himself, death is sure to follow as penalty. 

Nyikang at times appears in the forms of certain animals, as ichneumons, rats, HOW 
snakes, lizards, or in birds. The tree on which such a bird alights, is considered APPEARS 
holy, and is henceforth dedicated to Nyikang; beads and pieces of cloth are 
suspended on its branches, sacrifices and prayers are offered below it. When 
once the Turks felled such a tree without knowing its destination, terror fell 
on the by-standing Shilluks ; tiiey walked in procession round the tree, filled 
the air with lamentations, and killed an ox to propitiate their ancestor. 

Though Nyikang is considered inferior to Jwok, sometimes the names of NYIKANG AND 
both are called simultaneously in tiie same prayer. In some prayers the name "PROPHETS'* 
of Dak, a son of Nyikang, is also invoked beside tiiat of Nyikang; but this is 
not firequent. It seems, however, that in some measure the nearest descendants 
of Nyikang, or rather the ancient kings of the Shilluks, enjoy some kind of 
veneration, though perhaps this may not be called religious. They sometimes 
talk about the rdr^ which is the plural of rij^ king, and has in this connection 
the meaning of "Prophets", or one analogous to tiiat of the "Judges" of the 
ancient Hebrews. In several villages there are huts, like those of Nyikang, 
dedicated to one of these ancient kings or 'Var'^ 

In tiie political, religious and personal life Nyikang takes a far more important JWOK AND 
place tiian Jwok. Nyikang is tiie national hero, on whom each Shilluk feels 
proud, who is prabed in innumerable popular songs and sayings; he is not only 
a superior being, but also a man. He is the sublime model for every true 
ShiUuk; everything they value most in their national and private life, has its 
origin in him : their kingdom and their fighting as well as cattie-breeding and 
fiarming. While Nyikang is their good father, who only does them good, Jwok 
is the great, uncontrollable power, which is to be propitiated, in order to 
avoid his inflictions of evil. 

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XLIV ....................^....^^ Introduction 

THE cows The natiyes frequently speak of the "cows of Nyikang". This expression is 
used in two different meanings, one mythological and one real. 

Once Nyikang caught a cow in the river in a fish-net. It had no ears or 
horns. This cow was the beginning of a sacred herd; if anyone touched them 
who was not of their attendants, he died. They live in the river and come out 
to feed at night. This herd was curied away; some say the Dervishes took 
them, while others a£Brm that it was the Turks. From the dung of this herd 
the ''ashes of denying^ were gained. The ashes were made by burning the 
dung of the sacred cattle. They are preserved at Wau and other villages dedi- 
cated to Nyikang, and are applied in ordeals, when cases of adultery are to be 
tried. When the woman has confessed, but the man denies, they take recourse 
to the ''ashes of denying''. An old chief, taking a spear in his hand, stands 
erect and offers the following prayer: "You Nyikang, the ashes are yours! K 
this man has not had intercourse with this woman, may he escape ! But if he 
has had intercourse with the woman, may he die! If this woman accuses Cdsely, 
may she escape I'' After this the chief takes some of the ashes on his hand and 
strikes the man with it. Then the one who has sworn falsely, will die. 

The other application of the term is to cows devoted to Nyikang by the 
king. Each year the king gives a steer and a cow to the villages in which the 
cows of Nyikang are kept The male is killed and used for food. If any person 
dot belonging to the attending herdsmen, eats of the meat of these animals, he 
becomes a servant of Nyikang, and must take up his residence in that village. 
The female is kept for breeding purposes. The Kwa Ohogo (vide page 130) herd 
these cattle. The chief of these villages of Nyikang seems to be Wau. K an 
outsider tried to milk one of these cows, he would die. 
SORCERY 1^^ ^^d factor in the religion of the Shilluks is the hjwig^^ and what is 
connected with him; hjwiigi is the witch doctor or sorcerer; the word is pro- 
bably derived from /u?gi "God", and would then mean: "one who is dependent 
on God'*, or "who has to do with God**. As his most prominent business is to 
procure rain, Europeans generally call him rain-maker. He is the mediator 
between the people and Nyikang; he leads the dances and prayers to Nyikang, 
and presides at the sacrificial ceremonies. He heals also sicknesses by admini- 
stering charms. Sick people apply to him with the present of a sheep or goat, 
or even an ox; the animal is killed, and the contents of its stomach are laid on 
the sick person's body; or the skin of the animal is cut into strips and these 
are fastened below the knee of the patient. This is also applied as a protection 
against dangers on a Journey. When in the dry season the cattle are brought 
across the river, the sorcerer has to prepare charms to protect them from 
being seized by crocodiles. Besides this he is able to perform miracles, to kil 

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Religion X LV 

a man by witchcraft, to preyent rain, and to cause the cattle to be barren. — 
There exist two kinds of sorcerers, the one whose functions are just mentioned, 
who plays an important and mostly beneficient r6U in public life and the 
ofiEicial religion of the community, and another one whose doings are secret 
and who works for mischief. If this latter is convicted of his evil doings, he 
may be severely fined, or even sentenced to death. — Besides these the word 
jal ya\ "man of medicine^ is sometimes used ; whether this is a synonym to ajtpqffo, 
or whether it designates still a third class of "witch"-, or ordinary "doctor", I 
do not know. 

When possessed by a spirit (or by Jwok?) the sorcerers become ecstatic; ECSTASY 
the same seems to be the case with a newly elected king; here it seems to be 
the spirit of Nyikang, which fsdlB on his follower, vide page 149. 

The texts contain many mythological tales and allusions, which may in former MYTHOLOGY 
times have formed part of the strictly religious belief of the people, but exist 
now merely as historical traditions, without having any active meaning to the 
present generation; this domain of their mental life is, however, not sufficiently 
known as yet to allow a decisive judgment A reminiscence of sun-service is 
evident from 55, page 166. The Nile and Sobat are populated by water-people, 
who in figure are pardy like men, pardy like crocodiles or fish. They had, in the 
past, many intercourses with men. — According to some older writers the 
spirits of the Nile are worshipped. They have their own catde-herds, which live 
with them in and on the banks of the Nile. They often dive up from the water, 
chiefly in misty weather. When a cow is fished out of the river, it is placed 
under the protection of the Nile-spirits and the sun-god K 

The Shilluks have two expressions which may be translated by "soul" or SOUL, SPIBIT 
"spirit" of a living person: wei and tip^; wei means "breath", and is the life- 
giving factor in man ; the meaning of tipq, is "shadow" of a man, or "image", 
as seen when looking into clear, still water. — The spirit of a dead person is 
called dnekq; the word is derived from ndgQ to kill; anekQ probably means "one 
who kills", or "who is killed". The anekQ is feared. 

On the abode of deceased persons the Shilluks have but vague ideas; in one ABODE OF 
of the texts the dead are called "the people of the village of God", jipa/w^ifc. THE DECEASED 
Whether they have a general belief in a life after death, is not known. islam 

Islam does up to now not find much sympathy with the Shilluks. They 
prefer their own religion to that of foreigners. Only a few people who have for 
a longer time lived in close touch with Mohaomiedans, chiefly those who have 
served as soldiers, adopt the religion of Mohaomied, or at least wear Moham- 
medan amulets beside their own charms. It is admirable that these people, 
Shilluks, Dinkas Anywaks, and Nuers, though having lived>for centuries side 

* Tliif doubtlessly relates to the cows of Nyikang, vide the preceding. 

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XLVl Introduction 

by side with Arabs and other Mohammedan people, should have preserred 
their own heathen form of worship, and should, with a few exceptions, look 
down rather with contempt on the religion of the foreigners. Partly this is ex- 
plained by their conservatiyeness and self-confidence, and partly by the fact 
that their intercourse withMohammedans was almost exclusively hostile. Whether 
now that die Pax Britannica makes slave-dealing and raiding impossible and 
new ideas slowly penetrate the country, Islam will make greater progress, the 
future will show. A gradual peaceful conquest of the countiy by Islam is not 
improbable, because civilisation, as it comes to these people, wears an outspoken 
islamic stamp. 

On Christian Mission work among the Shilluks vide the end of Introdactioo. 


RESIDENCE The Shilluks are the only people of the Sudan who have a Kingdom \ The 

OP THE KINO •'A * «=» 

king resides at Fashoda. His residence consists in a large number of huts for 
himself^ his numerous wives and other members of his family and for guests. 
He possesses large herds of cattle, goats and sheep. When a person of some 
respect pays him a visit, the king presents him with an ox. — The royal robe 
consists in a leopard skin. They have also a coronation robe of leopard skin 
and ostrich feathers, which has been handed down from many generations. 
The present king has a gorgeous red robe presented by the governor, which 
he wears on occasions when he meets the higher English officials. 
ELECTION The kingdom of the Shilluks is hereditary in so far as the king must always 
be a member of the royal family, that is, of the descendants of Nyikang, and 
only a person whose father has been a king, may be elected. There are three 
houses of the royal family, and the king is elected from each of these royal 
branches in turn. If there are several brothers in the branch whose turn it is to have 
the kingship, upon the death of the king one of these brothers will be elected. 
But in case there is no vacancy during the life of these three brothers, then 
the sons of the eldest will be in line for the throne. 

Fadyst is the present king. He is of the house of Ewat Eer. When he dice, 
the kingship will pass to the house of Yq; at the death of the king from the 
house of Yq, it will be the turn of the house of Nedqk. Thence it will return to 
the house of Ewat Eer, but not to a son of Fady^t^ but to one of the king's 
brothers. When it has gone around the circle again^ it will be the turn of a son 
oiFadytf. There seem to be two branches of each house, so that when a king 
dies, it will be the turn of his eldest son to become king, afier five kings have 
reigned and died. There have been other royal houses, but they have lost dieir 

') ''king*' is in Shillok t^ or rfi; in older literature the word ''bondu'' is given as the Shillok 
name for Idng. Bj Europeans the king is commonlj called mek, which is a contraction of the Arab 

Digitized by 


Political Institutions ___ _XLVii 

right to the throDe. K all the sods of a king die, before it is the turn of one of 
them to become king, that family loses its royal prerogatives. A left-handed or 
otherwise deformed man cannot be^ crowned. When from such or a similar 
reason the son of a king fails to be crowned, his posterity loses the right to 
the throne. 

As a rule only a man can be king; though once a queen reigned, she ap- 
parently did not conunand a great authority, vide page 1 49 ; and it is characteristic 
that in the Ests given by Banholzer and Dr. Giffen her name is not mentioned. 

The way in which the king is elected, vide page 122 ff. Of course frequently 
party intrigues are at work on these occasions, and it may have been not quite an 
uncommon occurrence that there were several candidates for the throne, sup- 
ported by different factions ; sometimes there were even two kings, residing in 
different places of the country. 

The power of the king was, previous to the British occupation, absolute ; POWER OF 
he disposed on life and death of his subjects. The subjects had to pay heavy 
taxes in cattle, dura, boats, skins for clothes, and under certain circumstances, 
in persons also. 

AU judicial cases may be brought before the king, with whom lies the final JURISDICTION 
decision. They have an unwritten code of law, providing fixed penalties and 
fines. Cattle thieves were formerly killed on the spot by the owner of the stolen 
property. K the diief escaped, but was located with the stolen thing, the owner 
demanded it. In case the thief refused to give it up and the owner was unable 
to get it by force, he then reported to his chief, and if he fiedled there, the matter 
went to the king, who punished the man perhaps by taking his property and 
some girls firom his village for himself. 

In the case of certain infractions of the law the convict became the slave of 
the king, and could no more return to his home. These slaves are known as 
iy^ OTQk Cmen of crime*^) or aderq. The king gives to such a man a wife. 
Their children are slaves at the royal court and are called cidiro. To the male 
descendants of such the king gives wives, and the females are taken to be given 
to male members of the (xdtrQ class as wives. If the king does not have enough 
girls in the ad^rQ class to supply all the young men with wives, he buys free 
girls for the purpose, their descendants become also slaves. 

In some cases the criminal becomes the slave of a chief; these are also 
called odirQ. 

Murder cases were tried by a court of chiefs and the king. K the man was 
condenmed, he was disgraced in many ways before the people. Sometimes he 
was led about the village with a cow-rope around his neck, and then executed 
by hanging. K a man was executed on account of a crime, his whole family 

Digitized by 


XLVin Introduction 

and everything he possessed became llie property of the king. 
DIVISION OF The country is divided into 63 districts (vide page 127), every one of which 
THE u .^ presided by a district chief; each village again has its own chief. The district 

and village chiefs are appointed and may be deposed by the king. Quarrels 
and law-suits may be judged by llie local or district chief, but an appeal to 
the king is always possible. Conunon affairs of a village and minor judicial 
cases are judged by the local chief toge&er with llie old men of the village. 
They sit on such occasions in a circle in the village yard, in the shade of a tree, 
if there is one. If the meeting is secret, or if the weather is bad, lliey assemble 
in the cow-house. 


EARLY When Nyikang arrived in what is now the Shilluk country, the latter was 
OF THE inhabited by other tribes, who probably were partly of dark, and partly of 
COUNTRY fair colour. These inhabitants were ei&er expelled or subdued and then in- 
corporated into the ShiUuk nation. This process is clearly reflected in the 
traditions. Among others Nyikang found the '^red strangers'* in the country, 
which he either defeated and made them tributary, or drove out of their re- 
sidences (vide page 163 ff). These "red strangers^ seem to be Arabs. But apart 
from them the traditions speak of fabulous beings who were pardy man and 
pardy animal; Nyikang fought with them, and when defeated, transformed 
them into real men and settled them in villages. They are probably the original 
negro inhabitants of the present Shilluk country, who up to this day form the 
essential part of the Shilluk people, a discrimination being made between 
them and the ''people of Nyikang. ** 
SOCIAL The latter form, so to say, a nobility. The first in rank is the royal fiunily and 

OROANIftATION 1*11*/ */ ^ 

all members of it, that is all persons who can claim descendency from Nyikang. 
The male members of the royal fsmily bear the title Kwa ri^ "descendant of 
the king*', and are shown special deference. In several of the historical traditions 
the king or the royal family expressly distinguish lliemselves from the common 
Hhilluks; in these connections the name "ShiUuk^ is even used in an abusive 
way : '^merely a ShiUuk'', vide page 233. Probably the name of the ShiUuks cholo 
means ''black''; in some nearly related languages the word has this meaning. 
This makes it probable that Nyikang and his people, or, the members of the 
royal family, were originally of lighter colour, as only this would give them a 
reason for calling the population they found inhabiting the country, ''blacks". 

Digitized by 


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I I I 1 1 'i.'M mill ii.ii .1 

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1 . Shilluk Girls showing the way they wear the skin dress 
2. Lotus flower along the Sobat River 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 






1. Group of Native Huts 2. Group of Boys 

3. Girls Sewing School at Doleib Hill 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Ethnical Components ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ XLix 

So the coming of Nyikang into the Shilluk country would in fact mean an 
immigration of light-coloured people into a region afaready inhabited by black 
tribes. — Probably the word OkanQ, which, as is shown on page XLI, is connected 
with Nikdn^s and means a descendant of Kano^ also designates only or mainly 
members of the royal family, and not the common ShiUuks; on the Sobat the 
word is rarely used; but it is well known at Fashoda, the seat of the royal 

There live among the ShiUuks a number of ''Nubians'', called by them Don; RELATI0K8 


the word is derived from Dongola, and designates the Nubians (and perhaps NimiANR 
other tribes) living west of the White Nile. These Nubians came into the coun- 
tiy as captives, during wars, others came as fugitives. They are exceptionally 
numerous in Faina, a sub-district of Nyagir; they are known here as good 
cultivators of dura. Originally these were driven into this district by the Khalifa's 
people, and inhabit five villages, consisting of 104 domiciles; they are subject 
to the Shilluk chief of the district. — The Nubians play a certain role in the 
election of the king, vide page 122 ff. They bear the titie Nadwau 

The ShiUuks do not, as a rule, agree weU with the Dinkas, their northern RELATIONS 
and eastern neighbours. The Dinka possesses more cattie than the ShiUuk, and ^^?^™^ 
therefore looks down on the latter rather contemptuously. The Dinkas are said 
to have formerly lived on the right bank of tiie lower Sobat, but were driven 
inland by the ShiUuks. Incited by Arabs, the ShiUuks in former times fre- 
quentiy raided the Dinkas and carried away their women and cattie. They 
however Uve peaceably now, tiianks to the fear they have of the new Govern- 
ment The two tribes now and then pay mutual visits and ako intermany 
occasionaUy; a certain amount of trade is carried on between them. 

There are a few SeUm Baggara in the neighbourhood of Eaka, but tiiese HELAT I0N8 
people appear to visit the district only after the harvest to purchase dura from ^^i^ THE 
the ShiUuks, which they are too indolent to cultivate themselves. The Eenana 
Arabs occupy tiie weUs at Atara. They are disliked by the ShiUuks on account 
neir dirty habits. Another branch of the Eenana Arabs inhabit a village close 
J Fadiang {Fa ^ean "village of cattie""). 


South of the ShiUuk country tiiere live, under different names, a number of OBIOINAL 
ribes who likewise speak the ShiUuk language (vide page 3off.), and who, intiieir ^S^^t^'^^ 
physique, show strong resemblances to, and in some cases identity with, the WANDEKINOS 
ShiUnks of the White NUe. It must be supposed that originaUy aU tiiese tribes 
lived in one place. Some of them stiU have traditions pointing to a common 

WESTERMAHN, TIm SkUlak P«opl«. IV 

Digitized by 



origin and a common home. The southern mass of the Shillok speaking people, 
the Gang, pretend to have come from north (vide Schweitzer, Emin Pascha; Berliq 
1898, page 155), and, as will be seen below, the White Nile Shilluks have mi-; 
grated into their present seats from south; so the original habitat of the whole^ 
people will have been in the country situated about ihe middle of their present 
seats, that is, along the shores of Bahr el Jebel. Here one division of the 
Shilluks, the Ben (B^^ also written Beir), are still living. The rest of the 
Shilluks were forced to emigration probably by the arrival of more powerful 
and warlike tribes coming from east, via. the Bari and Latuka, who up to 
the present time inhabit this country. The Shilluks, being thus expelled from 
their seats, emigrated in three directions: south, north-east, and north-west. 
The division wandering southwards are now known as Gang or Acholi, Shuli 
(on the identity of the names Acholi, Shuli, and Cholo, vide page 31); ihe 
north-eastern branch are the Anywaks (Anuaks). These two branches, viz. the 
Gang and the Anywak, have practically almost no differences in their dialect; 
they may be said to speak the same dialect, which differs from the rest of 
Shilluk dialects by the relative primitiveness of its sounds; to give one example, 
they have generally preserved eh. and p, where other dialects have adopted the 
younger corresponding sounds «A and /. So these two may be regarded as 
direct branches of the original stock, who both must have branched off alout 
the same time. That Gang and Anywak have been separated from the north- 
western section at an earlier period than that in which the latter was again 
divided into different sub-groups (vide below), is evident from the fact that all 
these north-western sub-groups still know of their conunon origin, whereas I 
have never met with a tradition pointing to relationship with the Anywaks and 

The Anywaks have again been divided into three sections, whose residences 
vide page 30. From the Gang a number of smaller divisions have branched 
off into south-west, south and south-east: the Lur, (Aluru), Jafalu (Jafcduq, 
JapaluQ)y Lango, Ja-Lu^ (Nyifwa Eavirondo), Wagaya. 

The third division first wandered north-westward, crossing the Bahr el Jebel, 
and subsequently probably resided in a place situated about ihe 10^ eastern 
long, and 7^ northern lat. That they have settled and lived in diis region for a 
considerable time, is practically proved by the fact that on older maps a num- 
ber of villages are situated here whose names begin in Pay Fa; e. g. Fatil in 
the Dinka district Rol; Fayot, Fawer, Fayak, in the Dinka district Eich, and 
Fagak, in the Dinka district Twi (Twich) . Pa, jPa is a word of the Shilluk language 
meaning village, home (Many villages in ihe Shilluk country have diis same 
prefix pa, fa, vide 80; it is also freqent in ihe Jur country: Famir, Fabuchak, 

Digitized by 


Migrations and History Ll 

Fashien, and in the Acholi country: F&nyikuara, Fandikir, Faggeir, FadjuUi, 
Fadibek (from Schweitzer, Emin Pascha). This district is now inhabited by 
Dinkas, and their occupation of llie country no doubt forced the Shilluks to 
emigrate once more. From here they went in north-eastern direction and thus 
came into their present seats on the White Nile and Sobat TheM last wanderings 
were carried an under the leadership of Nyihang; they form the object of the 
traditions on pages 1 58 ff. Another part of this north-western section went west- 
wards and formed the Ber (= Ben, yide 87) and Belanda or rather Bor^ vide 
page 44. The third part of this branch are the Jurs and the Dembos. Jur is a 
nickname given to the people by the Dinkas, it means "uncivilised tribe^, 
"bushman". They call themselves Luq, a name which occurs again among seve- 
ral southern Shilluk tribes, vide 89; by the Bongos they are called Ber (vide 
above), thus showing in their very names the near relationship they have with 
odier Shilluk divisions. — The Jurs have no cattle, they are renowned as iron 

According to Schweinfurth (page 63) the Jurs themselves say that they are 
a part of the Shilluk people who (on account of over-population) emigrated 
from north (i. e. The White Nile region) into their present habitat, and that 
they call the name of their ancestor Oshuola = Ocholg,, But on the other hand, 
Hofineyer states that the White Nile Shilluks call the Jurs OdimQ, that is des- 
cendants of Dimo. Now Dimo is a brother of Nyikang, whom the latter left. 
An the Shilluk traditions are unique in the assertion that Nyikang did not go 
northwards togetiier with Dimo. So this would mean that tiie Jurs never 
wandered into the White Nile country, but went their way directiy westward 
into their present seats. 

[The suggestion on the migration of the north-western section, viz. that 
of tiie White Nile Shilluks, Jurs, Dembos, Belandas and Bers, as it has 
been outlined above, is in a remarkable way supported by traditions of 
the White Nile Shilluks, which Hofineyer gives; according to tiiese the 
origin of the nation was in the far east (i. e. east of the Bahr el Jebel). 
Nyikang led his people from the east towards north-west. After a long 
march they crossed the Nile (i. e. the Bahr el Jebel) and came into that 
region which is now called Bahr el Ghazal. From here the Belanda went 
westwards, the rest, after some time, travelling fSarther northwards.] 
While nothing is known concerning the tinne of the earlier Shilluk migrations, THE RULINQ 
we are able to fix the approximate date of the wanderings which resulted in the amonq THE 
final setdement of the ""Proper Shilluks*' on the White Nile and Sobat. Mr. B. SHILLUKS 
Struck, by taking into consideration all the avaUable (written or unwritten) 
chronicles of Afirican dynasties, has made a calculation on the average duration 

Digitized by 


HI Introduction 

of the reign of an Afirican ruler. The number of years thus reached at is between 
13 and 14 for each king. Now from the reign of Nyikang, who was the first 
Shilluk king, till to-day the Shilluks have had 28 to 30 kings ; 29 multiplied with 
13V2 leads back to the first quarter of the sixteenth century. About this time, 
then, the Shilluk kingdom was founded, or, in other words, during this period 
a probably fair-skinned tribe or clan became in some manner united with 
the Shilluks, and made itself the ruHng factor among the latter. The first of 
these leaders and rulers was Nyikang, or possibly Nyikang is only a per- 
sonification — the heros eponymos — of the foreign element in the Shilluk 
population. From those early days up to the present never a ''Shilluk^, i. e. 
a member of the original population, has been king, solely the ''descen- 
dants of Nyikang*" forming the royal family, from which the king is elected. 
Even to-day the descendants of Nyikang do not intermarry willi llie "Shilluks*', 
they live in districts and villages of their own and enjoy certain privileges, thus 
forming the aristocracy of the nation. Second in rank are those ShiUuks which 
migrated into the country together with Nyikang as his "followers^ or "ser- 
vants.^ They also possess several social privileges and state functions. The 
lowest class of Shilluks are llie natives found in the country, when Nyikang 
and his adherents arrived. They may be designated as the "common people*^, 
the "subjects'^ in the state conmiunity. The second and third categories, and also 
the first, have no doubt been mixed by intermarriage. From the earlier centuries 
of the Shilluk djmasty but scanty historical data are known. The only reports we 
have are the list of kings (vide page 135), and a considerable store of traditions, 
dealing with prominent acts of single kings and important events which occurred 
during their reign. Some of these native records are printed on pages 141 ff. 
RELATIONS The first time the Shilluks enter history is about the beginning of llie sixteenth 


FUNJ century, that is at the same time when they took possession of their present 
seats. Beginning at this period they have, during almost two centuries, played 
an essential part in the history of the Funj people. The question of the origin 
of the Funj is as yetunsetded. In order to introduce the reader into llie problem, 
I shall give a short survey of this remarkable people and their history. 

The most common form of the name is Funj or Fonj, and Fung. Funj is in 
phonetic writing probably Foii, ending in a palatal n, and Fung = Fun^ ending 
in a velar n. Of these two forms I suppose Fonj = Foii to be the older one. 
Foreigners who are not used to a palatal n standing at llie end of a word, find 
its pronunciation difficult, and frequently substitute n for li^ a mispronunciation 
which I myself have often heard in the Sudan. This Funj, Fonj is probably 
identical with the Shilluk word bwoi^ "stranger** ; in Shilluk as well as in Nubian 
b and f are interchanged; in Nuer the word for "stranger^ sounds /ofi^ and in 

Digitized by 


Migrations and Hi story «.«„«.h«---«-----«u-----^^ ^^^^ 

the Funj language the word "bunj" means "Arab", i. e. stranger; the identity 
of this bunj with Shillok bonj, Nuer fonj and the name Funj can hardly be 
doubted. Now Bruce gives the singular of the name by "fiingo", and the pkral 
"fungi". This is a pure Shilluk form} 2 being in Shilluk the ending of the noun 
in singular, and 1 that of the plural. The meaning of the word "fungo" Bruce 
renders by "free citizen". (R. Hartmann [Die Nigritier] identifies the word Funj 
with the Ptoemphanae of the ancients, and morever compares it with a great 
number of African names of similar sounding; but his deductions have not 
convinced me.) 

The present Funj are a negro people living in Sennar. Their colour is dark, 
but somewhat lighter than that of the Shilluks; they are of a strong, taU figure, 
with thin legs. Both sexes wear most artful hair dresses. They have leather 
shields in form almost like those of the Shilluks; their fighting arms are swords 
and missiles. The huts of the Funj consist in round walls with conical roofs. 
Their chief occupation is agriculture, but they have also some cattle. They are 
clever in smelting and working iron and other metak. 

Their religion is Islam, but the older records are uuique in stating that at 
the end of the 1 5 th century they were heathens, and even when Bruce was in 
the country, many pagan practices had survived; it almost seems that at that 
time the people still were in their hearts rather pagans than true followers of 
Islam, though the latter had long before become the official religion. 

The Funj country, Dar Fung, stretches on both sides of the Blue Nile. Its 
present boundaries are: on the north, Jebels Gereiwa and Rera; on the east, 
Jebel Agadi and the Fazogli district. Southwards, it extends to the Abyssinian 
frtintier, and including the district of Keili and the northern Burun country, 
extends westwards towards the Dinkas of the White Nile. In the days when 
the Fung were a great power of the Sudan, their country included parts of 
Abyssinia, and large districts west of the White Nile. 

About the beginning of the i6th century the Funj appear in history. At this 
time they founded the kingdom of Sennar, which, from then till about the end 
of the 1 8 th century, was governed by a Funj dynasty. 

Since the eariy days of their history the Funj must have lived in some connection 
with the Shilluks. This fact is stated by all travellers and explorers who have 
been in the country and have written on the subject. Sir James Bruce, a 
distinguished English traveller and writer, who visited Sennar in 1770, asserts 
the identity of the Skilluka and Funj. In his Travels into Abyssinia he says that 
in 1504 a hitherto unknown negro nation, which had till then inhabited the 
western shores of the Bahr el Abiad about the 13 <^ northern lat., landed in 
canoes in the Arab provinces of the Gezira; they defeated Wed Ageeb, the 

Digitized by 


Liv Introduction 

king of Sennar, and forced a treaty upon him bj which the kingdom of Sennar 
became subject to the Funj, who sobsequently took possession of the whole 
Gesira. "7%w ntgro nation is in their own eo%mtry called ShiUooh'. < In 1 504 
Amm, the son of Adelan, who was the first of their regents, founded his mo- 
narchy on the eastern shores of the Blue Nile, and built Sennar, which ever 
since has been the capital. "From this period until the time of my sojourn 
(1770) 266 years had passed, during which twenty kings had reigned >. When 
the monarchy was founded, the kin ff and the whole nation of the Shillook were 
pagans. Soon after they accepted Mohammedanism, and took the name Fungi, 
which they sometimes translate by "lord" or "victor", and sometimes by "free 
citizen" .... but this term should be applied to those bom east of the Bahr el 
Abiad only". 

So the essence of James' report is this: The Funj are a portion of the 
Shilluk people, which, in the beginning of the i6th century, orossed the White 
Nile, conquered Sennar, founded a kingdom there, and henceforth were called and 
called themselves Funj. The source from which Bruce got this information, was 
the executioner of the royal court, whose chief office it was to put the king to 
death, as soon as in the opinion of the state ministers he was, from old age 
or on account of his misdoings, no more apt to govern the country. This same 
practice has been in use with the Shilluks up to the nearest past, with the sole 
difference that the Shilluk kings were strangled by their chief wife, not by an 
official. Bruce, having cured the executioner from a severe disease, gained the 
full confidence of this important person, who no doubt was well acquainted 
with the history of his people. Bruce also mentions the presence of Nubian 
(heathen) priests at the court of Sennar, who were, according to the executioner's 
statement, "great conjurers and sorcerers". From these Nubians Bruce heard 
of the "large mountains Tegla and Dyre" (= Jebel Tagale and Jebel Eliri in 
south-eastern KordofSan), from which their, the Nubians', foref&thers had come 
into diis country a long time ago, after they had been escaped there from a 
great flood. 

According to the report given in The A. E. S. the rise of the kingdom of 
Sennar began in 1493. In that year Amara Dunkas (= Amru of Bruce?), the 
Sheikh of a sub-section of the Fung, either through the fortune of war or his 
superior capacity, succeeded in getting himself declared king of all the Fung 
tribes. These districts were inhabited by negroes belonging to the Nuba tribes, 
some of whom after the conquest remained in the country, while others emi- 
grated into the mountains of Fazogli and Eordofan. Those who remained, em- 
braced Islamism, intermarried with their conquerors^ and, losing their language 
and nationality, were soon lost in the tribes known collectively under the name 

' Bmce has never been in the Shilluk country, and had probably never before heard the name 

'^ShiUnk'', he can only have learned it in Sennar from the natives. 

' Thus the average reign of each king was a little more than thirteen years ! vide above. 

Digitized by 


Migrations and History lv 

of Fang. King Baadi Abu Dign, who reigned from 1635 — 1671, aJUacktd the 
ShiUuk negroes and took a large number of slaves. The Shilluks at that time in- 
habited the conntrj on both sides of llie White Nile south of Eawa. Thence 
he invaded the mountains of Tagale and destroyed Eordofan, where he again 
took a large number of slaves. On his return to Sennar he built a number of 
villages in that district for his prisoners. The prisoners named these villages 
after those they had left, hence the number of villages now near Sennar with 
names similar tho those in Jebel Nuba, Tagale, and other districts about Eor- 
do&n. In time these slaves supplied the kings of Fung with recruits for their 
armies. — In 17 19 a king whose name was Gaadi Abu Shilluk ascended the 

In the first half of the 181I1 century the Fungs drove the Darfurians back, 
which had at that time dominion over the country east of the White Nile as far 
as the Atbara ; the Fungs then again established their own authority on the 
banks of the White Nile. In 1770 they even wrested the province of EordofSan 
from the Darfur kings, but it was retaken by the latter five years later. This 
was about the time when the Dinkas emigrated from the Bahr el Ghazal and 
took possession of the right bank of the White Nile, under their great chief 
Akwai Chakab ; by them the Fungs were expelled from the eastern shores of the 
White Nile into the Blue Nile region. 

According to CaiUiaud, a French writer, who was in Sennar about 1820, the 
''Foungi*' came from the Sudan, crossed the White Nile and arrived at "Ar- 
baguy^ (= Herbagi of Bruce) ; here a great battle was delivered, in which the 
Funj were victorious, so that they became lords of the country ; ''they gave 
their name to a part of the Sennar kingdom in the Bouroum (=Burun) country, 
called also Jebel Fungi, where the soldiers of the mek Ixve^*. 

R. Hartmann, who visited the country in 1859/60, is of the opinion that the 
original home of the Funj is in Sennar. ^They recruited their (black) soldiers 
from their military colonies, which were situated at the foot of the Sennar hills, 
and from Eordofan Nubas." ^Between 1499 and 1530 the christian state of Aloa 
(Aiwa) succumbed under the invasion of the Funj, who broke forth from the 
south of Sennar, and whose military force consisted partly of Shilluks". "The 
Shilluks are relatives of the Funj, whose intimate allies they were during the 
conquest of Sennar in the i6th century.^ 

Cailliaud and the A. £. S. as well as Bruce give a list of the Funj kings^ 
which, though differing in severel items, is on the whole consistent. Bruc6 
fixes the beginning of the dynasty in the year 1 504, Cailliaud in 1484, an^ 
A. £. S. in 1493. 

Leaving the question of the provenience of the Funj alone, the following cau 

Digitized by 


Lvi Introduction 

be regarded as sore: i. The Idngdom of Fonj was founded in the beginning of 
die 1 6th, or at the end of the 1 5 A centoiy. 2. die political influence of the Funj 
extended at times westward beyond the White Nile, as far as Darfiir and 
Eordofan; consequently the ShiUnks must also have been under the dominion 
of the Funj, as their country is situated on the way to Eordofim. 3. All writers 
confirm that ihe Funj have repeated^ transplanted great numbers of Shilluk 
and Eordofsn prisoners into the Funj countiy, where ihey were settled, formed 
large colonies of iheir own, and finally submerged in die "Funj*^ nation. It was 
these large numbers of new setders who formed the bulk of the Funj armies 
and enabled them to cany on their great conquests. 4. But it is not at all un- 
probable diat portions of the Shilluk people should have emigrated into Sennar 
of their own will ; the coincidence of the airival of the ShiUuks in the White 
Nile region and the foundation of the Funj kingdom is remarkable ; both events 
took place about the beginning of the i6th century; at that time die Shilluks 
inhabited hoih. shores of the White Nile as far nordi as Kawa ; consequendy 
they lived in close contact with the people of Sennar, and it seems not unlikely 
that parts of diem should have pushed forward into Sennar, die more so as 
they had onfy just arriTod in die country and were not yet finally setded ; such 
an emigration would also explain their now being limited to a relatively small 
district compared with the former much larger sise of the Shilluk countiy. 
5. The ShiUuks themselves tell in their traditions of repeated and severe fights 
against die people of Sennar ; they call the place where diese wars were fought, 
Chai, and say it is dose to Roseires on die Blue Nile, diat is ecat of Jebel 
Gule, where the old capital of die Funj was situated. 6. Cailliaud in his book 
''Voyage ji M4ro4, names 50 villages beginning in Fa^ in die Bertat and Fazoql 
country on both sides of die Blue Nile; as shown above, Fa is die characteristic 
prefix of ShiUuk villages, being an abbreviation of /a, pa "village''. It seems 
evident diat these villages are originally setdements of the Shillluks who 
emigrated into diese regions. 7. The Shilluks living in Sennar called the ab- 
original inhabitants '"hwoh or /iiwl" (= Fonj, Funj) diat is ''strangers", just 
as to-day they call every one who is not a Shilluk: ftttwii (= bvnmfjj and 
finally this became the name of the "Funj nation*'. 8. It is possible diat 
this Shilluk population in Sennar came to political influence and took part 
in the government of the state. This becomes even highly probable by a very 
curious remark of Bruce ; where he translates the name Fungi by "firee citizen** 
he continues : "Methinks they should not boast of the tide "firee citizen", because 
the first name of nobility in this country is that of 'slaved indeed they have no 
other tide except this. If a man in Sennar feels himself not sufficiendy respected, 
he will ask at once : 'Do you not know who I am ? Do you not know I am a 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Migrations and History lvi i 

slaye?^ ConnectiDg with this word the same notion of pride, as one in England 
would say: 'Do you not know I am a peer of the kingdom?^ All titles and 
ofiBces are not respected, if they are not in the hands of a man who is a slave. 
Slayery is in Sennar the only true nobility^. This subversion of social ranks 
becomes intelligible, if we assume a state of fSacts as suggested above, viz. that 
the Shilluks, and perhaps also, in a limited number, the Nubians, who lived in 
the country as a kind of military caste and still were designated as slaves, had 
in fact become the ruling race. They may even at times have possessed the 
throne, as the name of one of the Funj kings indicates : Gaadi Abu Shilluk. — 
Thus we understand also the report of the executioner from whom Bruce got 
his information : he was a descendant of the Shilluk immigrants, and considering 
the position the latter held at that time, he was not wrong in saying the Funj 
were originally Shilluks. The same is to be said of the Nubian priests, who 
claimed for their home the region of theEliri mountains. 9. The present language 
of die Funj, of which Mamo gives some 1 50 words, is not identical with the 
Shilluk language, but it shows unmistakable signs of a connection with the 
latter, a number of words being common to both, notably 
Funj. ShiUuk. 

hunj Arab hvooii stranger, Arab 

ihihia ant Vi white ant 

himoi to eat chamQ, to eat 

ikan hippo iian crocodile 

l^ giraffe Iq^ game 

]6k God jwQk God 

"ktlu star %2^ star 

mine dumb min dumb 

haj an to-day hich an this time 

kosonff spear ton spear 

lu88 stick loif loj^ stick, club. 

Thus out of a number of about 150 Funj words given by Mamo 11 are 
Shilliik words ; and, what is remarkable, these eleven words the Funj has not 
in common with its nei^bouring languages Tabi and Bertat, they can there- 
fore not be borrowed from these languages. 

In 1 786 the kingdom of the Funj totally disappeared. EingAdlan was deposed 
by the Hameg (Hamej), a tribe living south of Roseires. Anarchy prevailed 
throughout the country, and the kings succeeded each other in such rapid 
succession that in the year 1788 four kings successively reigned. During the 
succeeding 33 years of anarchy the Hameg continued supreme, and under 
Sheikh Nasser they devastated the northern and eastern part of the Sudan with 

Digitized by 


Lviii Introduction 

fire and sword. 

In 1820 the Turkuh-Egyptuui troops under Isinail Pasha occupied die country 
and defeated the Funj in the battle of Abu Shoka. 

Apart firom diese expansions towards the Blue Nile the Shilluks of the 
White Nile have firequently waged wars against the Dinkas and Nuers, of 
which tfieir traditions tell. More seyerely they suffered from never-ending raids 
by Arabs and Turks, undertaken for the purpose of stealing catde and slaves. 
CONQUEST OF a) By the Turks. As early as 1820 — 1830 the Sudan was conquered by the 
COUNTRY Turko-Egyptian government, and was considered as part of the Turkish empire ; 
but this hardly affected the political situation of the ShiUuk kingdom, the Tur- 
kish rule not being strong enough to make its influence felt, except in levying 
at intervak heavy taxes in cattle and com, and in making slave raids. 

b) By the Baggara Selim. In 186 1 the Baggara Selim under Faki Mohammed 
Kher invaded the Shilluk country and plundered it thoroughly. Mohammed 
Eher married the daughter of the Shilluk king and practically made himself die 
BIB SAMUEL ruler of the country. — ' In the same year Sir Samuel Baker started for his 
EXPEDITION expedition into the Sudan. His description of the Sudan at diis period gives a 
melancholy picture of the results of Egyptian rule. He describes the provinces 
as utterly ruined and only governed by military force, the revenue unequal to 
the expenditure, and the country paralysed by excessive taxation ; the existing 
conditions rendered these countries so worthless to the State that their annexation 
could only be accounted for by the firuits of the slave trade. — On this expe- 
dition Baker founded the military post of Taufikia on die right bank of the 
White Nile, near the mouth of the Sobat; this place has since then consistently 
been continued as a station for troops. 

On Ismail Pasha coming to the throne in 1863 orders for the suppression 
of the slave trade were issued and on Baker's return journey in 1865, he found 
an Egyptian camp of 1000 men established at Kodok in die Shilluk country 
for the purpose. — Khartum was at that time the headquarters of tbe slave 
traders, who carried out dieirtra£fic under the doak of legitimate commerce. The 
traders organised armies of brigands, and formed chains of stations, of about 
300 men each, throughout their districts, which they had leased firom Govern- 
ment. Raids were made on native tribes, who were obliged to submit, fly the 
country, or ally themselves to the slave hunters, to be used against other tribes. 

-C0NQU8TBY In 1871 the ShiUuk country was finally conquered by the Egyptians and 
THEEGYPTIAN8 , . r^u m„ t- u • 

1 3^ I became a provmce of the Turkish empire. 

In 1874 Charies Gordon was appointed Governor of the Equatorial Pro- 
vinces, and at the close of the same year he could report to the Egyptian Go- 
vernment that the slave trade on the White Nile had received a deadly blow« 

* The foDowing data have with few exceptions been taken from The A. £. S. 

Digitized by 


Migrations and History „,,.,,„,,,,,,,.,^ lix 

Daring Gordon's absence in 1875, the Shilluk tribes in the neighbourhood BE BELL ION 
of Kodok rose in rebellion against the oppression of the Government, and, had gniLLUKS 
it not been for the presence of Gessi, an Italian adventurer who had joined 1875 
Gordon's staff, Kodok would probably have been lost. 

A great cause of disturbance in the Sudan was the appearance of the Mahdi DISTURBANCES 


Mohammed Ahmed, a native of Dongola; he began his career in 1881. The BEGINNING ' 
ShiUuks and their country were in many ways affected by these troubles; not IN 1881 
only did they with their own troops fight against the Mahdi, but their young 
men also formed a considerable and valuable part of the Anglo-Egyptian army. 

TheMahdists extended their invasions far into the Sudan and took possession 
also of the Shilluk country. But in 1890 the Shilluks rebelled against their 
oppressors: an Emir of the Mahdi Zeki, Tumal, was sent thither to quell the 
rebellion, with a force chiefly consisting of the Gallabat men who had fought 
bravely against the Abyssinians in 1889. During the whole of 1891 the war 
agabst the Shilluks continued, the Mahdists ("Dervishes") on more than one 
occasion being heavily defeated, and the conmiunications between Omdurman, 
the residence of the Elhalifa, and Bahr el Jebel being completely interrupted. 
Two steamers had stuck in the sudd in the winter of 1888, and had been taken 
by the Shilluks; desperate efforts were now made by the Dervishes to effect 
their recapture. In August, 1891, the Nuers were used as allies by the Dervishes, 
and succeeded in killing the king of the Shilluks. Soon afterwards, however, 
die Nuers turned against their allies and expelled them from the country south 
of Kodok, whilst the Shilluks inflicted a severe defeat on dieir enemy near 
Eodok, in December, 1891, and again in January, 1893. The war was waged 
with indecisive results till 1894, when the Dervishes finally crushed the Shilluks 
and murdered their king's wife. After that the Dervishes merely kept a smaU 
tax-collecting outpost at Eodok. 

On the loth September, 1898, Kitchener left Omdurman for the south with 
five gunboats and troops, and having destroyed a Dervish force of 700 at Renk, 
arrived at Kodok on the 19th, where he found the French expedition under 
Harchand. He left a garrison at Fort Sobat. This place has been relinquished 
since as a military post. 

On 19th January, 1899, an agreement was signed between Great Britain and 
Egypt, defining the status of the Sudan, and laying down broad principles for 
its government 

In the same year, on the 24th November, the power of the Khalifa Abdallah, FINAL 


who was the successor of Mohammed Ahmed, was utterly defeated by the Anglo- khalifa 1899 
Egyptian army at Um Dubreika; the Khalifa himself was killed. This victory 
finally stamped out the Dervish dominion in the Sudan. 

Digitized by 



LX Introduction 

EXPEDI TION In summer 1898 an AbyssiniAn force came down the Sobat. It arriyed at 


ABYSSINIANS ^^^^ mouth at the end of June, but, owing to the death of the leader, die ex- 
1898 pedition retomed almost immediately, without having a hostile encounter with 
the ShOluks. 
LATEST In April, 1903, the Shilluk king Kur Wat Nyedok (Nedgk) was deposed for 
malpractices ; his successor, Fady et Wat K wat Eer (K&r)^ is now limited in power, 
and is subservient in most things to the Goyemor of the Upper Nile Province, 
a Britisch officer resident in the town of Eodok (Fashoda). Ghradually the whole 
Shilluk population was now brought under the more direct control of the Anglo 
Egyptian Government. The election of their king is now subject to the approval 
of the Governor General. 



The "American Mission^ of the United Presbyterian Church of North America 
and the Church Missionary Society of Great Britain are the two missionary 
agencies representing Protestant Christendom in die Egyptian Sudan. Both 
Missions began their work after the opening up of the Sudan through Kitchener's 
victory over the Mahdi forces at Omdurman: the Church Missionary Society 
in 1899 and the American Mission in 1900. In Northern Sudan they labor 
alongside of each other in a spirit of comity and cooperation, each developing 
such missionary work as the other may not have taken up at each station 
occupied by both societies. 

The stations occupied by the American Mission in Northern Sudan and the 
forces and work maintained at these stations in 191 1 were as follows: 

Khartum: An ordained American missionary; a native ordained native 
pastor; an organized native congregation with 142 members; a boys' school 
with an enrolment of 210; regular congregational services; a clinic; a boys' 
orphanage or home. 

Khartum North: Two unmarried American women missionaries and an 
American doctor; a girls' boarding school with an enrolment of 133 in both 
day and boarding departments; a boys' day school with an enrolment of 143; 
a clinic; regular preaching services. 

Omdurman: An ordained American missionary; a boys' school with an 
enrolment of 80; regular preaching services. 

WadMedani:A colporteur evangelist with regular preaching services; a 
mixed school with an enrolment of 8 boys and 12 girls. 

Digitized by 


Christian Missions LX I 

Atbara: A boys' school with an enrohnent of 87; also informal services. 

Wadi Haifa: A girls' school just opened, and informal services. 

Port Sudan, Merowe, Suakin and Dueim: There are native Evan- 
gelical Church members at these centers, and informal services are held at the 
first three places. 

The stations occupied by the Church Missionary Society in Northen Sudan 
and die forces and work maintained at these stations in 191 1 were as follows : 

Khartum: One unmarried English missionary ; four native Christian women 
workers; a girls' school with an enrolment of 68. 

Omdurman:A medical English missionary; two unmarried English women 
missionaries; three native Christian women workers; a girls' school with an 
enrolment of 5 1 ; a hospital and a clinic. 

Atbara: An unmarried English woman missionary; two native Christian 
women workers; a girls' school with an enrolment of 38. 

In Southern Sudan, among the pagan tribes, each Mission labors in a distinct 
territory. The American Missions's sphere of work and influence lies along the 
Sobat River; that of the Church Missionary Society lies along the upper reaches 
of the White Nile. 

The American Mission opened work at Doleib Hill, in 1902 on the Sobat 
River just six miles from where this river empties into the White Nile. The 
American force here consists of two industrial missionaries, an ordained missio- 
nary and a doctor. A regular Sabbath morning service is held, and those 
engaged in industrial work, ranging in number from ten to two hundred, attend 
daify morning service. Evangelistic itinerating is done in adjoining villages. 
A boys' school has been maintwied but with some irregularity. Some 3600 
clinic patients have been treated. Agricultural and industrial training forms the 
chief feature of the Mission's work. The population of this region is from the 
ShiUuk tribe, but Dinka and Nuers are also reached. The Mission is about to 
open another station frurther up the Sobat River in the vicinity of Nasser, and 
a doctor and an evangelistic missionary have been appointed to this task. 

The Church Missionary Society began its work at Malek, on the White Nile, 
about 1000 miles south of ELhartum, in 1908. The Britisch missionary force 
consists of two ordwied men, a lay worker, and a doctor. The work is chiefly 
among the Thain, Bor and inland Dinkas. 

The following sketch of the early missionary eflforts of the American Mission 
will be of interest In 1899, the Rev. Andrew Watson, D. D., and the Rev. J. 
E. Oiffen, D. D., were commissioned to visit the Egyptian Sudan and investi- 
gate the possibilities for missionary work. This missionary reconnaissance 
resulted in a recommendation that the American Mission, whose work in Egypt 

Digitized by 


LXII Introduction 

extended from Alexandria to Assuan and whose Eyangelical Chnrch members 
and adherents were going into the Sudan in considerable numbers as Govern- 
ment employes, should extend its work to the Sudan. Accordingly, die Rev. 
J. H. Giffen, D. D., and Dr. H. T. McLaughlin were commissioned as the 
first missionaries of the proposedMission. They reached Omdurman in December, 
1900. For some time, a rigorous prohibition of the Government forbade all 
missionary work among the Moslems of Northern Sudan. The work was there- 
fore limited to the Evangelical and other Christian communities. In March, 1902, 
work was begun at Doleib Hill, among the black tribes of Southern Sudan. 
In establishing this mission station practically everything remained to be done. 
Houses needed to be provided; at first of mud, later of burnt brick, and later 
still of concrete. Provisions needed to be secured and gardening became a 
necessity, for no vegetables or fruit were to be had unless grown by the missio- 
naries themselves. Problems of health became acute, as life and work were 
thus undertaken in a region and a climate where hitherto no white conmiunity 
had established itself. To these difficulties were added those of safety from wild 
animals, and especially innumerable snakes which infested the place until the 
land was somewhat cleared by agriculture. There were ako the problems of 
establishing just and sympathetic relations with die people of the neighborhood. 
The early attitude of suspicion which prevailed is well illustrated by the follow- 
ing incident narrated by the Rev. Dr. Giffen in his interesting book "The 
Egyptian Sudan. ^ 

''We had been tiiere for some months,, and tiiought we had gained much 
confidence from the people. We had a friend visiting us and this chief^ Ariu, 
had called in honor of our guest After some conversation, our friend said to 
Ariu: 'Now you have a good and righteous Government; it will protect you, 
and will help you; it wiU fight your batties if need be. And these missionaries 
will teach your children, will help you to cultivate your lands, will find a market 
for your grain, and they have The Book and will teach you of God; you ought 
now to be quiet and peaceable. Till your lands and care for your herds/ 

"After a good deal of deliberation and smoking, Ariu laid his pipe aside and 
replied: 'Master, you speak well. We had here the Turks (the old Egyptian 
Government) and they said. "Be submissive to us ; we will protect you, we will 
fight your batties four you, we will teach you of God.^ But they took our 
cattie, they destroyed our villages, and carried our women and children into 
slavery, and they are gone. Then came the Ansar (the Mahdists) and they 
said: "Come with us, we have a great army; we will care for you and protect 
you; we will give you plenty to eat, and a good place to live; we have The 
Book and we will teach you of God**. But they slew our men, and right here 

Digitized by 


Christian Missions LXI 1 1 

where these missionaries built their houses many of our men fell fighting for 
their women and children. They took away our cattle, destroyed our villages, 
carried off our women and children, and they too have gone. Now you come 
and say: "We will care for you; we will protect you; we will fight for you ; 
we have TKt Book; we will teach you.** Master, you speak well; but we will 

'"This brief, pathetic story, a review of their whole history, reveals everything. ** 

The supreme problem in the new work was, however, the language, for the 
ShiUuk language had never been reduced to writing, neither was any grammar 
of the language in existence. The missionaries sent to the Southern Sudan 
mission field labored successively to reduce the language to writing and to 
work out its grammar and vocabulary, but they were greatly hampered both 
by the burden of other work and by an entire lack of acquaintance with cog- 
nate African languages. However, the Rev. Ralph Carson and the Rev. Elbert 
McCreery especially were able to bring together considerable material bearing 
upon the structure and vocabulary of the Shilluk language, but it remained for 
the efforts with which this book is connected to set forth with adequate definite- 
ness the grammatical structure of the language. These efforts became possible 
through a generous grant made by the Trustees of the Arthington Fund, to the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America 
under whose care the American Mission in the Sudan is operated. 

Among the successes of missionary work during the brief period of about 
a decade which has elapsed since this work was begun, may be enumerated 
the foUowing important achievements: the ministry to the religious life of many 
Christians, Egyptians, Levantines and Europeans who entered the Sudan in 
Government service; the establishment of preaching centers and of both 
educational and medical missionary institutions whose Christian influence is 
steady and far-reaching; the solution of problems of health, of residence and 
of agricultural possibilities; the solid foundations laid for the mastery of the 
language; the winning of the sympathy of the people; and, finally, a hopeful 
beginning in the winning of some to Christianity and in the awakening of a 
spirit of inquiry in a much larger circle. 

The most serious problem is the rapid advance of Islam into pagan territory 
through the aggressive efforts of Moslem traders and the pervasive influence 
of military posts at which are stationed Moslem troops. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 





Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Digitized by 


The Sounds 



Enumeration of the Vowels and their Pronunciation. 

1 • The qaality of Yowek is marked by signs htlow the letters, the qtiantitj/ is 

marked bj signs above the letters. Long yowels are marked by a line, thus: 
a = long a. All yowels which have no mark above, are short. 

2 • a is the pure short "Italian '^ a, the same sound as in English father, only shorty 

while a in father is long. The short pure a does not exist in English, but in 
French, as ami, and in German hatte. Ex.: kal fence, mak catch 1 

gtisa little narrower than a, but wider than £. The Shilluk a sometimes, especi- 
ally when pronounced rapidly, has a tendency to turn into a, for instance M 
''child*', and md ''which*', when standing in compound words, are generally 
spoken ika, ii^ or even lie; ma, m^. 

£ (Bell oe low-front), as in English fat, man, perhaps a little more tending to- 
wards e, as in English let, well. Ex.: k^ go! bgji fish-spear. 

e (Bell e mid-front) as in French dti. This sound is not frequent Ex. : atet 

e (Bell eh mid-mixed), a very short, and ahnost voiceless sound, like e in below, 
fishes, or like a in idea. It is the so-caUed 'helping vowels The short e 
does not occur at the end of a word, whereas e very often finishes a word. 
In all these cases e is written instead of e. Thus e at the end of a word is 
always to be read e. Only where e stands in the middle of a word, it is 
marked e; ex.: nek killed. 

1 (Bell t high-front) like i in bit, pity; ex.: u^i arrived, kinau thus, 
i as in beer, keen, he, but shorter; ex. : abikysl six. 

g (Bell a mid-back), a sound between a and q^ like u in but; ex.: gat river. 

2 (Bell low-back), as in not, folly; ex. : gn him, gul court, ngl cut K n stands 
at the end of polysyllabic words, it is pronounced very faintly, so that often 
merely an e is heard. But on close attention one will in most cases hear the 
2. In analogy with e, this o ought to be written ^, but as it occurs at the end 
of words with more than one syllable only (and 2 never occurs here), I always 
write Q, instead of ({. 

like in note, mote, but shorter and narrower, and without the final sounding 
of Uj which the English o in note has. In French seau, German so, ital. dolore. 
Ex.: fe|club. 

Digitized by 


The Vowels 

K (Bell u high-back), as in English full, put, ex. : ^ to have not. 

u like Engl, fool, mood, but shorter. French sou. Ex. : hud^ to be silent. 

System of the Vowels. 

a a 

o e 

u e i 

u i 

Long Vowels. 

An vowels, including e, may be long. 
a (BeU a mid-back) engl. father, ital. padre, German Vater. 
ft between a and q. ahnost as u in further; ex. : fo^ to falL 
i almost as a in careful, ai in laird, ei in heir; ex.: tirQ people, n&iQ much, 
i as a in save, bale; ex. : yejQ, to sweep. 
9: jfp roads. 
|: chin bowels. 

i (BeU i high-front) as in meal, bear; ex.: rinn to run. 
o (Bell o mid-back), as o in mole, note, but narrower, and without the final 

sound of u, which is peculiar to this English o; ex. : chdf^ it is finished, 
fl: Tifi^notjet 
tt as oo in fool, cool; ex.: rumq to think. 


1. The vowels are pronounced with a soft aspiration (the so-called gradual 

2. t and u, when standing in a closed syllable, that is a syllable ending in a 
consonant, generally are pronounced almost i and tf. 

3. In forming u and i the mouth is wider opened than in the formation of u 
and t; n and i may therefore be called wide vowels, while u and i are 
narrow. (In forming u the hind-part of the tongue is raised, in forming u 
it IB lowered; likewise in the formation oft the forepart of the tongue is raised, 
and in forming 1 it is lowered. 

4. According to their place of formation in the mouth u, ^ and are back (or 
velar) vowels, h ie, ^ are front (palatal) vowels. 

5. The language has no nasal vowels. 

6. o and q, e and ^ are not so strictly distinguished as is done in some other 

WBSTBBlfAini, The Shfflnk People. I 

Digitized by 


The Sounds 


at as y in spy. au as ou? in fowl. gt as o» in oil. 

ou as o in note, but the u sound is more distinct than in the En^ish o. 

ex ahnost as ei in eight, but the t is heard more distinctly than in English ; ei 

and ou are almost two-syllabic. 

The sounds ehyj^ ah and ii> when following a vowel, generally have a slight 
i sound before them, which combines with the preceding vowel to a diphthong. 
This i sound is, however, not expressed in writing, because i . it occurs regularly 
before the said consonants, and 2. some individuals pronounce it so slightly, that 
in some cases one may doubt, whether it really exists. ThxjApaeh ''home'* is to 
be pronounced patch; gqch "beaten" : ggich; ftaiig "to refuse" : bai$iQ. 

This I sound is best heard in those cases, where the preceding vowel is a, i^ 
or «. 

K, however, a vowel follows the above mentioned consonants, so that tfie 
word does not end in a consonant, but becomes two-syllabic, the t sound some- 
times disappears altogether. The reason for this is, the connection between the 
first vowel and the second consonant not being so narrow here as is the case 
in a monosyllabic word. Thus "goch^ is pronounced '*gQich^*, but goJQ hardly has 
any t sound. Likewise ^^kush" = ^'laich^% but laJQ = torJQ without an t sound. 

y as y in yes; it has never the vocalic value as in the English spy. 
u^ as u^ in well; w is sometimes pronounced with almost unrounded lips. 
y and w are unsyllabic t and u. 

When following a vowel, ako when beginning a word, y and w have a slight 
t and u sound before them ; thus i/it/Q to believe almost sounds it/iyOi war night 
and awa yesterday almost sound uiDQr, auwa. These i and u sounds are not 
expressed in writing. 

Combinations of consonant and semivowel are very frequent 


Enumeratioii of the Consonants and their Pronunciation. 

9« 6 as in English; Ex.: hoAo to refuse. 

eA is a palatal t; in phonetic writing i'; it is dierefore not quite the same sound 
as in church, child. The sound is articulated further back in the nunUh, and 
therefore is thinner. Ex.: chql Shilluk. See also^ and ah. 


Digitized by 


The Consonants .....^...^^^^^...^....^^ .«._...«..^ 5 

dwAVEL English; Ex.: dhno to fall; when standing between two vowels, it it 
hardly distinguishable from r. 

^ 18 an interdental d; put the tongue between the teeth-rows, so that it is visible 
from without between the teeth, then press it lightly against the upper teeth, 
and pronounce a d, Ex.: dok mouth. 

/as in English; sometimes/, that is, an / pronounced with both lips (while/ 
is formed by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth, in forming /both 
lips are pressed together) is used instead of/. Ex. :/(Sng to divide. 

g always hard, as in garden, gold, never as in Qeorge. Ex.: g^ him. 

h occurs only in some exclamations; it is sounded a litde stronger than the 
English A in he ; e. g. hih exclamation of surprise (if followed by a strong 

Y might be called a fricative g; it is in the same relation to g^ as v is to b. It 
might be compared with the Arabic Ghain, but is much softer, and its place 
of articulation does not lie so far back in the throat as that of Ghain. Ex. : 
Y^ him, Y^m thigh. In forming y the ba^k part of the tongue has nearly the 
same position as in the pronunciation of u, but the lips are of course not 

y is a palatal d; in phonetic writing d'; it is therefore not quite the same sound 
as the English j in jest, just. It is articulated a little further back in the mouth, 
and therefore sounds thinner. Ex. \jagQ chief. — ch andy have the same place 
of articulation; the middle of the tongue's back is pressed against the hind- 
part of the hard palatum. 

k Imn are as in English. But I, when standing at the end of a word, is rolled, 
almost as the English pronounce the II in well. 

«ft is a palatal n; it is pronounced like n in cafion, or like Italian and French 
gn in signore, seigneur. Its pronunciation is somewhat difiScult, if it stands 
at the end of a word; here sometimes foreigners pronounce n instead of li. 
This can easily be avoided by adding the so-called 'helping voweP to li; 
instead of saying iM war, say leifie. Compare also such French words as 
Compi^gne, Champagne, where also ifi ends a word. Ex.: ilia child. 

1^ is an interdental j^, pronounced by putting the tongue between the teeth, as 
in ^. Ex.: yaj^ ffii this tree. 

li is a velar 91; it is pronounced like ng in singer, or like n in Con-go. Its pro- 
nunciation is only difficult at the beginning of a word. Divide: si-nger, and 
pronounce "nger'' only; this ng is exactly the sound of n. Ex. : /(Siifi to 
divide, nalq to cut. 

p as in English. 

r is formed with the tongue's end. It is not rolled (trilled), but pronounced 

Digitized by 


The Sounds 


very slightlj, so diat often between two vowels, r and d, are hardly diBtingai- 

%h is formed farther back in die month than die En^^h sh. It is nearly the 
same sound us the Oerman eh in ^^ieh, dieh^^; in phonedc writing ;f . When ch, 
sh and J stand before die vowels a qouu, they are accompanied by a his- 
sing sonnd, so that they tend somewhat more to die Engliah ch, sh and j, 
bnt diey are never identical widi diem. 

jf is an interdental s, it is pronounced as die sharp di in diing. 

^ as in English. 

{ is the interdental t; it is formed just in the same way as ^ only die tongue 
is pressed more tighdy between the teeth, and thus a t is produced. 

/f is an interdental z, like th in these. 

System of the Consonants. 



















































I I • I. The consonants m^ n^l and r may form a syllable, thus having the quality 
and function of a vowel; in these cases they are designated thus : m^ {i^ n ll 
diey may then also have their own tones. 

2. The consonants g^ k may have a twofold pronunciation. When standing before 
a velar vowel they are articulated furdier back in the mouth dian before a 
palatal vowel; die ^ in ^u and i in Jbu lie farther back than die g in gin, and 
k in kinau; but this difference in pronunciation is not marked by different 

3. Double consonants are rare, but are sometimes pronounced, for instance die 
I in ChQlQ "Shilluk'' is frequendy pronounced distincdy long: Chqllfi; I also 
heard pgnng, turn to weed grass, besides pong,; httf^ i mm^k^t it is raining. 

Digitized by 


CAans^e of Sounds 



The change of soands takes a krge and important part in the grammar of 1. 2 • 
die Shilluk language. 

In order to show the changes which certain sounds have undergone, it is in 
some cases necessary to take the neighbouring related languages into conside- 
ration; they in many instances help to dear up transformations of sounds and 
to demonstrate older forms of sounds which from the Shilluk alone cannot be 

Change of Vowels. 

Quantity. \0, 

Long and short vowels are in Shi. not always so strictly distinguished as is 
done in odier Sudan languages. There is, in certain cases, some liberty in using 
a long or a short vowel; but in other cases again the lengthening or shortening 
of a vowel means different grammatical functions. The most important of die 
changes will be given here. 

Frequently a vowel is long when standing in an open syllable, that is, a syl- 
lable ending in a vowel, but it becomes short, when standing in a closed syl- 
lable (a syllable ending in a consonant) of the same word: ydn I, but yi I; yin 
you, but yi you ; Ml boy, i^ra my boy; jal man, jdln man; /i not, /i| not 

The demonstrative n (see 138) causes the preceding vowel to become long. 
The reason for this may be that n was originally an independent word (in)^ 
with a vowel of its own, the quantity of this vowel being added to the vowel 
preceding n: nate man, nan this man. 

A vowel may be lengthened at will, in order to intensify the meaning of a 
word, e. g.: i hudtt he was silent; i Ididb he was silent for a long time, he re- 
mained in a deep, musing silence ; i tig^ he is strong, e ni^ he is (something) 
in a hi{^ degree; e ^gi yi raJQ, or: 4 niidb yi raJQ he is very, very strong in 
badness, he surpasses everything in badness, is exceedingly bad. Chiefly some 
adjectives may lengthen their vowel exceedingly, so that instead of one line 
above the vowel, two or three ought properly to be written: Ic^ch strong k^^h 
very strong, r^A bad, r&ch or rOeh^ very bad; often when such an adjective is 
said twice (see 151), the second time the vowel is lengthened: kick kteh, raeh 

Interjections also may have short, long or very long vowel according to the 
degree of excitement which is to be expressed. 

In fluent speech frequently a vowel is shortened^ which is pronounced long, 
if die word is spoken alone. 

Digitized by 


8 The Sounds 

In the Yocatiye case the (last) vowel becomes loDg: li^ man^ nhti o maa! 
(see also 129). 
I 4* Regular changes of vowel-qaantity take place in forming singular and plural 

of nouns, and in forming the tenses of the verb. Of these only a few examples 
are given here, for more see 123, 156 ss. 

Singular short vowel Plural long vowel 

okj^k^l^k egret; br^h-br^k astuteness. 

Singular long vowel Plural short vowel 

db^it^bitk albino; giji-gdehi sword. 

In Verbs: 
yH goJQ I am beating yi gqch I was beaten yH ndgQ I kill 

yi neka ^j^ I killed a man. 
Frequently a change of quantity coincides with a change of quality; see below. 

'- O * Here again the changes in the formation of singular and plural and in Ae 

tenses and modes of the verb are of prominent importance; a few examples 
will suffice here; for more see 124. 

It is particularly to be observed in the following examples diat, as mentioned 
above, frequently change of quality and of quantity coincide, and that in some 
cases a change of tone is added to these two. No doubt these changes have 
influenced each other, one causing, or cooperating in causing, die other. 

A most prominent change is that of a long or short a or a* ftnd in some cases 
f, being reduced to e: 
a} e: ctgih^iH crow 6gwhU6gwiJi frog iywak-^ywiH crane 

dldk^dUki a fish. 
a} e: blim^lSmi sycomore fil-fit spoon kwdr^kwhi pole, 

a ) «: rq^ king (older form), rtj( (properly r«j() * king (present form); ra| is still 
used in a composition: rg,t l^bq king of the people, and when possessive 
pronouns are added: r^da my king. 

wat2 and weff^ to arrive; toQ^ heads, wefe nu heads of lions; dak third, 
iidek three. Here always a represents the older, e the younger form. 


a ) e: bsga to boil 

past bik fadq to be tired 


/ffnfi to hide 

past /fei koda to bring 

past il^Z 

kSffQ to ache 

past kik kada to twist 


n^Q to kill 

past nik k^bq to take 


pQnq to fill 

and pekq to fill k^dQ to bring 

and kelQ to bring 

/ffdfi to be tired 

and fedQ to be tired 

k(idQ to twist 

and keda to twist. 

* In tome words my msterials giro i, where e was to be expected; this is donbtlets miihenri. 
For "king" rit ^^g introdnced already, I keep this orthogr^>h7 instead of writing rfi, wlikk 
would be more correct. 

Digitized by 


Change of Sounds «„«„.«_„«,«„.«-««. 9 

Sseyetddtk-AcUH a mat dt^t-^Uti a pot dtw^Udtwiti a fish 

al^bi^Hpi a bird bUt-dUti hawk. 

In all these cases except a few, the vowel e has high or high-low tone. Even 
in the verbs with double forms, e. g./s^ and/^ci^ to be tired, the second form 
originates from a form with high tone, see 188. It is therefore hardly to be 
doubted that the high tone is the cause of the vowel being reduced to e, 
oy ^y e. The singular of the noun, and the present tense of the verb end in ^ 
which was no doubt originaUy g. This ^ is veiy often pronounced e. The 
reason for this is that the emphasis (stress-tone) always lies on the stem-syll- 
able, consequently the pronunciation of ^ (q) is neglected and is reduced to e. 
In the first instances it is the high tone, in the last the absence of a stress, 
which causes the reduction of a full vowel to e. 

A short, pure a, when lengthened, often becomes Q ; there is a general ten- I H . 
dency in the language to pronounce a long a as 3^ so that it is sometimes difiS- 
cnlt to decide, whether one ought to write a or 3; often iher6 are no doubt 
individual differences. 

achtodir^hwii guinea-fowl kal^k^li fence ddk^k pot 

ch^bQ to mix past chapa liigQ to inherit past laka. 

But mark the opposite: liwalQ to touch past litvati ndrQ to gDarl past nari- ^ 

Long or short a or a ) short £. Here die coincidence of change of quantity \ O • 
with change of quality is the rule: a long a or 3 becomes a short g. The shorte- 
ning of the vowel is probably the prius; its consequence was a and a be- 
coming £. 

md and mS which lia and Us, child 

kepa and kepi, because jagQ ajidj^kQ to rule 

kadQ and k^dQ to go kwalg, and kwifq to steal 

Iwdik and Iw&i poor, worthless gwaiiq to err, past gwffi 

gtoarQ to snatch, past gw^r ma-m^k aunt 

y<H-i/£^ tree ya and y^na (from yana) to be 

iQgQ and l^ko to dream y^ib^ and ysbQ to open 

pQnQ and psfcQ to fill l^bQ and IspQ mud. 

Bat mark: nich bad r^iiQ to become bad; atlA'^tliii hat; ysi-y^t boat. 

In the double forms of verbs the form with a is the primitive, from which 
that with £ is derived; see 188. 

a and e change in: naJQ and neJQ to know. I Q, 

e and £ change in : itit^t^ mangouste anSnit-an^ red ant dwH-dwit a mat. 
t and e change in: undo, to exchange past wela 

RbQ to come stealthily past Upa. 

vice versa: y^yljt scorpion, y^(-y*j5 a well. 

Digitized by 


IP The Sounds 

i and fi change in: rin^ to ran; past a rgn. 

Q and Uy u change in: ffQTQ and ffur^ to tattoo, rgmQ, and rumq to meet 

bkitdlt^kuii hedgehog fnqgit'nmH beer kQch-kuehi axe. 
vice versa: kudq to pull out, past kqla, fu^ \ to pull 

nudQ to cut, past nQla foj^ j out 

luffQ to turn past Iggi; rum^orom nose. 

o and Q change in : dndti^an^i a knife ehoT'-chitr vulture 

btr^b^ boil; and: toch-toaeh gun ; this last example suggests 
diat was changed into 2 by an inserted a. 
and u change in: kodQ to fasten n. Ic6dit; chudQ and <;Ad22 to avenge, 
kuno and Jbo^ to blow up. 

20. The vowels s, And 2 caq in many cases be shown to be not primitive. 
i8 <«• 

l^k tooth Any. lak wilq to travel Ba. wala 

kgnQ gourd Ju. kano ifc^A I bitter, 'SnAkagal 

nwsek smell Any. ntoat (sharp | sharp 

fiffiQ to sleep Nu. nalu risno to see Nu. tuUe 

hwfffi bread Ju. ibu?^ Nr. ibunin. Bo. iboa n^ much Nr. liiMin 

il^iSii horse Ju. akaja Ga. X^aiia; (cAtr« fat Nr. ehwa^ 

an/wff% four Nr. ntoan fiyiSii metal Ju. gtuka. 

In these words the form with a is doubtless the older one; in Shi. a has, 
from reasons not known, changed into ^ (or e), 

21. &iia. 

pik to be heavy Any. pyai 

(ik to be hard DL tyek (tys^f) Bo. tigo 

picJiQs pyschQ to ask Ba. pija 

rimQ blood, Ba. Wma, Bo. tramOf Nr. rypn. 

These words have originally the vowels ia, of which % probably is the oldest; 
see Bo. tigo and Ba. pijai rima, here the second vowel, a, is not yet added. 
When a was suffixed, die first vowel, t, became unsyllabic, that is, it turned 
into y; this form is preserved in pyak; a was then assimilated to i (y) and tlius 
turned into is: tysk^ pyicho, ry^n; finally in Shi. the y was absorbed wholly by 
^ and i remained; but, as the examples show, in many words both forms, i 
and y^ are still existing. 

22. Q (^wa OT tut. 

w OT u preceding an a has often assimilated the a, so it became q; in certain 
cases the uorw has then been wholly absorbed by o, so that tui, tva} w^y q. 
Compare die following examples: 
wd and tai we] wd in die primidve, wq the influenced form; likewise: gwMn 

Digitized by 


Change of Sounds 


and gwqjkQ, to scratch, miAQ, to 



nalQ to batcher, ngiQ to cut. 

jg to die Ba. tuan 

rofio to dive 

Di. Twai^ 

ywgnQ to ciy Ga. ytoak 

IwoJcQ to wash 

Nr. ^A Ba. 2a2a/u 

bgrq afternoon Ga. abufar 

rodo, thirst 

Ga. orwarJvL. ryau 

abwQk maize Any. abiieh 

9iu?o£2 to bear, 

^ Ga. i^wala 

kw&rQ cotton Ga. toaro 

goJQ to beat Any. gvfai 



ano what 

Nr. riw, Di. «ria 

ehwgu man Ga. chtva 



yfi road yu 

toch narrow road 

chwutQ to caU Nr. chal 

ogwok fox 

Nr. gwak. 

In these words g is evidently an original a; in Shi. the a has in all cases 
been assimilated by the preceding u or w^ while in other languages the primitive 
a is preserved. In Shi. nudo, "to cuf, the vowel, a, is not yet added; in nolo, 
"to butcher**, the suffixed a has dropped die u; here is no assimilation, but sim- 
ply the elision of u; whereas in nqt^ both vowels are contracted to one; an 
analogous case is onQ what; the primitive vowel is u: Nr. nu what; later an 
a was added; before this a the primitive vowel u dropped in Di.: ena what; 
in Shi. both vowels were first assimilated and then contracted : ng (the be- 
ginning a does not belong to the stem, see 124) what. Note also yg, road, but 
yu toch narrow road, and yu Fakoi the way to F., from original yu; this older 
form is preserved in connections of the word with a determinative; later an a 
was added, which united with u to q. 

Compare also the following words: 2 3 • 

omgrQ roan antelope Ju. omar 
ygmq wind Ga. yamo 

okok blossom Di. gak. 

These either have the same origin as the examples given above, the w^ u 
having been dropped in both respective languages, or the original vowel is 
simply a, which, for reasons unknown, has become q in Shi. 

It is of course probable that, in analogy with the development shown above, 
many, if not all, words with wq, y& and periiaps also those with ^ s, had the 
original vowel dfOituz, ia^ though this a may no more be visible now in any 
of the related languages. 

Some of these words show that the first of die two vowels (to, ua) was »^ u, 2/^. 
and diat die a was added later; compare nudg, nolo, notg; ando^t^ goose, 
Di. iwol (twQlf)j Nr. tu>Qr; nudo and aiudo, are the eldest forms; dien a was 
suffixed, see above; in Nr. twQr, ua became uq ) wq, whereas in Shi. aiudo, was 
preserved, no second vowel being added here. 

K a is a secondary vowel, it must of course have been added for a certain 
purpose, by adding it die meaning of die word must undergo a change; this is 

Digitized by 





12 The Sounds 

the case in nudQ, to cut and nolo, to butcher. For more examples of the addition 
of a second vowel see 70. 

A good example for w being dropped altogether in Shi. is this : nCago, to catch, 
Ga. tnako, Ba. mok^ Di. mwQk ^ *mua or *mwa, 

A different evolution have 
twQff, male, Di. wton; chon(t to heap up, assemble, Di. wehan. Here again die 
primitive vowel is a, as is evident from wchan; now an u — in Di. preserved 
as ti7 — was pre&JLQd to the stem, and in Shi. was received into the stem, so 
wchan ) ehtogn^ wton ) pJDQj^» See also the formation of the passive 173 ss. 

So we have two forms of adding a second vowel to the stem : 

a) consonant + vowel + vowel: < + ^ + ^ ) ^^''^^ ^^Q* ^> 

b) vowel + consonant + vowel: u + ^ + <* ) *^to» ^w^» ^^Q» ^• 

Assimilation of Vowels. 

Some assimilations are treated above : ta ) tf, y^; im y uq, wq. Others are : 
wich head and wuch; witQ, to arrive, and wuiQ: i has been assimilated by the 

preceding w and thus become u; 
ya u "I shall^ is often pronounced yo u, yq ui 
bugin "there is nof, and biffin; 
bu "not to be", and boffgn "there is not** < 6if + ffon] 
yiffO, to become, and yQffQ; 
tyil foot, tyala my foot; 
bcin^ it is, and b^n; 
ki r^ "with its body** becomes Ag r^; 
yi rh why you, but i r^ why he; 

ki "and**, but: wu ku 6§^ you and the smith: 1 is assimilated to the preceding u. 
in this, ^i that; an t has been afiBxed to an, and has turned the a to £. (Note 
the change of tone in this last example : the low tone designates the nearer, the 
high tone the f&rther distance). 

Contraction and Elision ofVowels. 

Some have been shown above: ia ) ya, ye} i;uay wa, wq^ q. Others are: 
yi i "you will** ) yi. mi gn his mother ) msn. tct ^ his father ) wfft. 

Where two vowels of different words meet together, generally one is dropped : 
kwoTQ, a my grandfather ) kwdra. 

kwarQ i thy grandfather ) kwari, and likewise all these connections. 
afoachi ak these rabbits ) afoach ak. 
yi gwQk arifi what are you doing > yi ffwq nqf 
yi kghq adi what do you say ) yi kob adi, or: yi ko di? 

In the nasalization of final consonants a final vowel is dropped : jagQ chief y 
jan; see 127. 

Digitized by 


Change of Sounds 13 

Change of Semivowels. 

In forming die singular and plural of nouns and the tenses of verbs, frequent 2 O • 
changes of semivowels are to be observed. As is said above, the semivowels 
within a word are probably original vowels, ti7 ( u, y ( t. In many of those 
cases where the u or i had a high tone^ it has not become a semivowel, but has 
retained its original form. K the u, i with a high tone did become a semivowel, 
its tone was transferred to the following vowel ; it is sometimes difficult to decide 
whether one ought to write ih or w6. 

A few examples of the changes may be given here; for more see 124 ^^ ^^ 2Q. 
2 and wo: gogq to work passive gw$k kobQ to speak passive kw^ 
dgioSh^giH jackal df^wiij^'d^ cock 

kotQ and kwoto to drive okwor-dlt^ri serval. 

vice versa: mdJk-mu^i dog-head fish. 

o and wo: IcoiiQ and kwofiq to help notq and nwotq to spit. 

vice versa: kwot^kot shield. 
wQs too and uq, uo: liwofQ, huoiQ, and liufo to show. 

The vowel u has been preserved in : 3^* 

hiiintt to taste, past a kwgna; kwoJQ to sew, n. kubj^, 
liwQbq to knead, n. liubbit; 
gwhk-^ubk dog; kwbm''hihmi chair; ^q and tuhjh to tie. 

Changes between ^ and y^: ^ I . 

g^dd and gyidq, to build; A:i<2g and ky§d(i to dig 
fyir-Jhi back-bone; nt'O, to let the milk down, nys^Q, to milk. 

The vowel t has been preserved in : 
g etp to sacrifice, and giiijlll hb^ch-obiich reed 
lyeeh-lQch elephant; kysdQ to refuse, n. kiid^. 

y < w: yei soul Di. wei gwiln and gyilg, ring 3 ^ • 

gyino fowl Any. gw^nq kysdo, to refuse Ga. kwero 

lyilQ to save Nr. Iwel fyou heart Di. pwou 

kysti horse Any. okwffi. 

In most of diese words the cause of w being transformed into y may be the 
following vowel ^ e^ which, being palatal, assimilated w into the palatal y. 
Elision of an original w: 

woTQ and otq to send, (ir^ relative by marriage Ga. wor. 3 3 ' 

leri war Ga. IweA Ju. Zmii ^i people Ba. gwea 

del skin Ga. odwel ton egg. Kr. twgn 

nffiQ much Nr. ntran fndgo to catch Di. mtr^Jb 

i®ifi is probably < *nyffi < *»iu>^ < *nuw7i. 

Digitized by 


14 The Sounds 

In many of these examples it is to be noted that often a vowel preceded 
by a semivowel is short, but when the same word appears without a semivowel, 
the vowel is long: the quantity of the semivowel is added to diat of die voweL 
34* Elision of y: ySn and in he. 

Change between w, j and r. — Though r is not a semivowel, it is to be 
treated here. 

In a considerable number of words these three sounds may be interchanged 
at will. Compare what is said of die nature of ;^ in 9. y and v> are closely related 
(they are interchanged in just the same way in Ewe); now the friction which 
is produced in forming y is, by some individuals, transferred from die back- 
moudi to the point of die tongue, die velar friction becoming a Imgnal one, 
diat is, instead of 7* an r is pronounced. 

w^y yof, nogt house ummQ, pimQ and rumQ to finish 

ummo, yumo and rumQ to cover womQ^, f^p/^ And rgmQ to carry water 

yejo, and rejQ fish toidr and ror kings 

toa^ tcQ we, Di. yok fQtio and rofifi to elect 

Y does not stand before i, o, and seldom before u; here w takes its place: 
hayql^fiiaumli axe ; yif And to6r a season, jvdQ and vndQ to pound. 
In ySf-vjof die change from yXo w has caused a change from eto 0. 
3 5 • Change between y and y: 

yi and yin he ; y^i I Di. ya. 

y sometimes corresponds to j in Nr. and Any. : 
yan I Nr. JQn yai tree Nr. jot 

yin you Nr. jin yiep taU Nr. jip 

yQ road Any. jq yornq wind Any. jamQ 

ywono to cry Any. jwqIcq and junQ. 

Here probably ^ is die older sound; compare die analogous case, where in 
Shi. Aj turns into y: 46. 

When a noun ending in u receives a vowel-sufifix, a u? is inserted between 
bodi; nu lion nutvi lions; or, if u is part of a diphdiong, it becomes w: fy&u 
heart, /y($tird my heart; see 135. 

Change of Consonants. 

3 / • Some consonants may be interchanged at will, one individual preferring die 

one, another die odier consonant; often die same individual in the same words 
now uses die one, a litde while later the odier consonant. The younger generation 
of the people, and chiefly all strangers speaking the language, prefer die frica- 
tive sounds. 


Digitized by 


Change of Sounds 15 

These consoDants are : 

eh andtfA ^ and^ | andj^ f and/ or/. 

According to the general laws of evolution in Afirican languages, ch fl^P ^^ 
to be regarded as the older, sh /^ g and // as the younger sounds. — t never 
changes with its coiresponding sound, which would be s; the natives are not 
able, unless expressly taught, to pronounce an s. 



The consonants k cht Up, when standing at the end of a word^ can be pro- 
nounced in two ways. They are voiceless, that is a real i cA ^ j( j? is to be pro- 
nounced, if I. the word stands alone or at the end of a sentence; 2. if it is 
followed by a voiceless consonant They are voiced, that is, diey are to be 
pronounced ^ J d ^b \. if they are followed by a voiced consonant, 2. if they 
are followed by a vowel (an exception to this rule see 139 and 143). BxU these 
consonants are always written voiceless. This rule is suggested merely by practical 
regards: it would, for instance in school-practice, be troublesome, to write the 
same word with different sounds. 

Real pronunciation Usual writing 

d^g jal ^Q^jal the catde of the man 

dQk tfQ ^k ip^ the catde of the people 

ri^ l^bQ rijl IqBq the king of the people 

rtj( (2 ^ii& ^^ l^u% died 

kwqb obnHMi hoQp obtooH the talk of the stranger 

kwQp i^n kwftp tirQ the talk of the people. 

K one consonant of a word is interdental, the rest of the consonants in the 39* 
same word, if ^^ d or n, become in most cases likewise interdental: 

^j^ man, ^i^ to make straight, ^^n hot season, ^^ to suck, 4^m4q to rise, 
iafe^ a pole for pulling boats ; in some connections even the consonant of 
another word may become interdental : yat tree, duQn large, yaf^ ^agn a large 
tree; between |^ and ^ the tongue does not change its position. But observe: 
fa tyila heel, literally "base of die foof*, here each of the two words is still 
felt as independent, therefore no assimilation takes place. 

Assimilation is also to be observed in the law of nasalization: i^\J* 

k -{- ny n cA-f-n^ii 

t + nyn j + n>^ 

p + ny m gn + ny n 

ifi + w)ii cfe-f-n>n 

lfe + »»>ff 6fi-fn>m 

Examples see 140. 

Digitized by 


i6 The Sounds 

Consonants influenced by vowels. 
^ I . a) A mute voiceless consonant standing between vowels generallj shows a 
tendency of becoming voiced. Thus nearly in all verbs in the present tense 
the second consonant is voiced: ItiQ/ioi^ ffodo, gogq, JeqbQ etc.; and in those 
which have preserved a voiceless consonant, often, when the word is spoken 
rapidly, the consonant is pronounced almost voiced, or at least not BBkt etc., 
but as a somewhat hard g, dy etc. (what in German phonology is called 
"voiceless lenis^). 
b) See 38. 

42* Change between voiced and voiceless consonants. 

1. See 26, Assimilation. 

2. See 41, Consonants influenced by vowels. 

3. Sometimes the consonant beginning a word shows a change between voiced- 
ness and voicedlessness : 

BachodQ and Pachodq, Fashoda d^kkigi and t^kiffi dura-stick 

bi and pA, orfll not ^k mouth Any. tqk; dak pot Nr. Igik 

gi they, probably reduced from kw^; see 131. 

4. In the formation of plural a voiced consonant often turns voiceless : afudq, 
pi. afuti; see 107. 

4-3* Combination of Consonants. 

The Shi. does not combine two or more consonants in a word widiout an 
intervening vowel. A consonant may be combined only with one or more vo- 
wels or with a semivowel, never with a second consonant. 
A, A,. Kin the connection of noun and possessive pronoun or in the formation of 

plural two consonants meet together, one is always dropped: 
ilial boy lial ra my boy ) lidra yinq fisherman plural y^ ^ *yvit 

ikd ri thy boy ) fidri yech belly plural yfi{ < *y^H 

pack village pack rg his village y pars^ dy§l goat plural dysh ^ *dyilk 
vfich head plural toat ^ *v>achi IwqI gourd plural l§t ^ *IwqIl 

An n has been dropped in certain cases of genetive-formation, ^k n ^rg 
becoming ^k ifQy Bee 127. 
4.5 • If two consonants of two different words meet together, 

a) both consonants may be preserved; this is generally the case, when die first of 
the two consonants is a liquid or a nasal one ; jal mlkii some man ; Gol ba^ 
a proper-name, Agun jwqk a proper-name ; but ig^ gin "where are diey** 
becomes igh gin; and kal wun your fence ) kal un. 

b) the ^helping vowel' is inserted: Itch tooth, Ujche lyech die toodi of the ele- 
phant; see 127. 

Digitized by 


Change of Sounds 17 

c) a mute consonant is sometunes dropped: 
^k catde, ^ rij^ catde of the king 
p<Mch village pa rj^ village of the king 
bat arm ba jal arm of the man. 

d) ch turns into y, that is, an unsyllabic i: 
wich head toiy p^m head of the table 
yech middle ffet/ nam middle of the river. 

Changes of single consonants. Ax). 

k. An original k is dropped in : 

tea, tDQ we Nr. kgn < *kwQn warQ shoe Nu. ktoari 

wiikQ bird Ba. kwen crap spider Nu. korabe 

um nose Ju. kum vmmQ to cover and IcumQ ^ *kwumQ. 

The opposite state is in : 

kworo cotton Ga. waro IcotiQ, to pour out Ga. otio ^ *ifctrofi(2* 

Perhaps the primitive state in all these words is a beginning Jew. 

An original k has turned into ch in 

ehat2 to ^<^ I)i- ^^5 ^^^ ^£^A bitter Nu. fei^a^ stem *kak 

kw€mh leopard Bo. kogo, Ba. koka. 

An original k has turned into ^ in alilit bat, Di. aZtVA^ Ga. oltk; here i ) <;A 

^ <9 ib being the oldest, t the youngest form. 
g. A primitive g has turned into y.- 

jl people, Ba. gwea tribe. 
eh. ch has become y in connections described in 127. 
j. j has become y in wdJQ aunt, and trat (way), 
t d, and | d. 

1. At the beginning of a word; ty r. 

rtmi blood Bo. irama romQi and fomq to fetch water, Ga. iwomo. 
ty r: pAfnQ and rumg to finish. 

2. Within or at the end of a word. 

t y r: dwatQ and dwarQ to wish, iygta and tint to cany; ^(^^ and ggt comer. 
t, dy I: k^tQ and kjlQ to throw kwatq and j:u;a^ to steal 

kwi^ to drive past ifcu^g^ l^ to shave and Zy|^ 

noift to spit past noZ yQda to curse and y(s2i2 

ggdo to scratch past ^gZ gwidq to wink with the lips, ^u?lZg to wink. 

h 4y ^' ^^ to laugh, n. ny^^ y^£^ to cut, past a yigr 

rii king pi. rdr, obgjl and by^rQ womb 

TQ^ thirst Ga. artoor 

wafl steer, but ware got^ and u^r nam tai a certain kind of steer. 

WESTKB1IAH5, Th« ShOlmk People. 2 

Digitized by 


i8 The Sounds 

Concerning ^ ) r (and Or?) it may be remarked that in Nr. a final t 
is followed by a strong hissing sound, which sometimes turns into a rolled r, 
and thus makes the t disappear altogether. In the same way t may have be- 
come r in Shi., the tr in Bo. meaning an intermediate stage between t and r. 
j( ^) I: tfldo, to cook, past j^Z w%^ to change, past wila. 

More examples for these changes are to be seen in 182; there also the func- 
tions of some of the changes are described. The changes of consonants into 
the corresponding nasal sounds are treated in 140. 

The changes of ^ (2, j( ^ to i. r^ 2. Z^ and 3. n are doubtless to be traced back 
to different causes. — Observe also that ti^X the beginning of a word change 
into T only, in the middle or end of a word they may change to r or to Z. 


4- / • As in other Sudan languages, the intonation is an important and essential part 

in Shilluk grammar. Without paying close attention to it, it is not possible to 
^ master the language. Intonation is not to be confounded with accentuaJAon^ 
which means the stress laid on a particular syllable or word. Intonation means 
exclusively the highness or lowness of a syllable compared with other syllables. 
Each syllable has its own tone, which cannot, as is the case in European lan- 
guages, be changed at will, but is altered only under certain conditions. 

The tone can lie on vowels, and on consonants which have tiie function of 
vowels : ji m / f . K in diphthongs only the first vowel has a tone-mark, it is 
understood that the second vowel has the same tone. 

Ao. The Shi. has three original tones: a high tone, marked thus: d^ a low tone: 

a, and a middle tone : ik. Two tones, and in some cases even three, may com- 
bine on one syllable. Generally it is the high and the low tone, which unite on 
one syllable ; so we have the combinations low-high d (rising tone) and high- 
low t (falling tone). In the first case the vowel begins with a low tone and 
then rises ; in S it is the reverse : at first a high tone, which is lowered at the 
close of the sound. According to my observation in both cases the high tone 
is of longer duration than the low, and it seems to me that a particular stress 
lies on it (see below). 

There are also combinations of the high and middle tone 4 tiiese are fisirly 
frequent, while I have not met with a middle and high tone. One example of 
three tones on one syllable is given below. 

^Q, The rising and the falling tone generally occur on syllables witii a long vowel, 

but they are also met with on short vowels, just tiie falling tone often does so. 

Digitized by 


Intonation }9 

In this case the high tone is clearly prevalent, only just before the sound is 
stopped, the tone is lowered. 

It is difficult to describe the tones or to give analogies for their pronunciation ^O. 
firom European languages. In this particular case it is still less advisable, as the 
suthor of this book does not write in his own language, and does not feel suffi- 
ciently acquainted with English to give examples firom it for illustrating the 
pronunciation of the tones. 

[The English as well as other Emropean languages does have different 
tones, one syllable or word being pronounced higher than others. The 
difference between European and Sudan languages is, that in the first 
tlie observation of the tone is not indispensable in speaking, the mean- 
ing of a word is not altered, whether it be pronounced with a high or 
a low tone; but in Sudan languages the tone is just as essential and inte- 
gral as are vowels and consonants. Two words with the same sounds, 
but different tones, are quite different words, which in their etymology 
and meaning have nothing to do with each other, the conformity in the 
sounds is in this case to be considered as mere accidental. — On the 
other hand in European languages the BireBB or Btrength laid on a word is 
essential, it distinguishes the syllable or word which conveys the chief 
thought from those which are less important.] 
Only some examples of each tone and combination of tones are given here ; 
their pronunciation must be acquired by hearing them from the natives. The 
student should let a native pronounce these and other examples repeatedly, 
so long tOl he is not only able to hear the differences, but to imitate them to 
die satisfaction of the native. (To do that, one must really try to wholly quit 
the European mode of pronouncing a word; to give one example: When we 
pronounce a single word, or, the last word of a sentence, we generally lower 
die tone of the sound; the Shi. cannot do so, unless the word has alow tone; 
if it has a high tone, he will pronounce it high, whether it stands at the end of 
A sentence or not ; just mark the first examples which follow here.) 

Examples. S "^ 

High tone: Wi war, /M ground, ydn I, g^n they, dyil goat, 6bii foam. 
Low tone: t^^ people, iinhn now; ^hn cattle, jA water. The high and low 
tone are easily distinguished, when both meet together : dky^ one, dd^k three, 
tyil^ foot, pi. tyil; ki i kb and he said;^'eiA; itk these chiefr. 

Middle tone: is not so easily distinguished, and may be confounded with the 
high tone. Examples: dpoitfi cock; the second tone is a little lower than the 
first, yet it is distinctly not low; git pi. glit riverbank; k^A in order that. 
Rising tone: gi bin all of them, dpcQf^ hyena; (these examples are easy, be- 


Digitized by 


20 The Sounds 

cause a high tone precedes the rising one, the tones are like this : <«; mark the 
difference between "codc^ and "hyena^!); fHk a irater-pot, yQ road, DAk a 

Falling tone: i t^k he is absent, fik is hard. When a high tone is followed 
by a low tone in the foUowing syllable, the high tone itself sometimes is lowered 
at its end, so that instead of ^dba, sometimes ^dbi is heard. 

Siffh and middle tone: dwin when? wii hi min you and who? i yes. 
Htghrhuh-high tone: dut dowry. 

In the texts and dictionary the high-middle tone is generally rendered by 
high-low tone. 
C 2 • Examples of words which have the same sounds but different tones : 

6pv&ff, cock ip^^ hyena l^ hot season - l^u a small lizard 

Ulni nebbak-tree Idnt to spend the md which md aunt 

night mar green mdr because 

Idu skin lii^ spittle ikgk a fish bk^k egret 

lil6 flint-stone Itlb to be smooth todm year todn eye. 

3 3 * ^^^ ^^^^ words are not nearly so firequent here as they are in western SudaD 

languages ; this is so chiefly firom three causes : 

I. the words consisting of only one consonant and one vowel, which prevail 
in the western Sudan, are not numerous in the eastern languages, these last 
having augmented the primitive stem by prefixes and chiefly by suffixes ;. 
see 63. These additions were in most cases a sufficient means for distingui- 
shing the stems from each other, thus the distinction by tone became in 
many words superfluous, and consequently disappeared, or was mechanised. 
34* ^* '^ ^® eastern languages, at least in some of them, the tone developed into 
quite a different function, which the western Sudan languages do not have. 
Here the tone is exclusively etymological, that is two or more words which 
have the same sounds but are of quite different elymology, are distinguished 
from each other by different tones. In the eastern languages this function ia 
also preserved, but it is almost being suppressed by the grammatical function 
of the tone, that is, grammatical categories are expressed by difference of tone. 
Copious examples for this rule, which is a characteristic feature of the Shi.,, 
are given in 122 ss. 
35* ^ ^®^ illustrations will suffice here : 

a) singular and plural by different tones : 

kyH pi. ky^ horse dak pi. diJc pot 

byilii pi. byil dura jhch pi. joUih shoulder 

bii pi. blii net dfj^ pi. 6^ ford 

dik pi. ^k mouth alun pL alun somersault. 

Digitized by 


Intonation 2i 

b) die vocAtiye always receiyes high tone on the last syllable : 
(d^ smith, but in addressing: 6^/ o smith! 
mdiy^ mother, but in addressing: mdydl o mother! 
ncUi man, but in addressing: natil o man! 
Ddk a proper-name, but in addressing: Digi! o Dftk! 
e) The personal pronouns have high tone; see 130. Note ako the mechanised 

tone in the possessiye pronouns and the numerals, 134, 152. 
d) the tenses and modes of the verb are distinguished by tone : 
to eat: present active cJidmi^y passive chdnif verbal noun: ehdm 
to work: present active gbgi, passive gwQky verbal noun: gwi^k. 
3. Into the Shi. the accentuation or stress (the dynamic tone) has, probably by 
hamitic influence, been introduced, and it is ofiten difficult to distinguish 
intonation from accentuation. This is not so much the case in single words, 
but in groups of words, in which stress is laid on a particular word ; generally 
this is a word with high tone, so that high tone and stress unite on the same 
word or syllable; and on the other hand, a stress falling on a low tone, raises 
the tone of the syllable. 

The intonation is in Shi. not of that regularity which is found in the western 
Sudan languages. Though most changes obey fixed laws, yet many seem rather 
arbitrary, and I have sometimes met with the baffling fact that a word or a 
connection of words were, at different times,^ pronounced with different tones. 
GeneraDy a word, when pronounced single, has its fixed tone, but in connection 
with other words the intonation changes very strongly, adapting itself to or 
contrasting with, its neighborhood {rhythmieal tone). 

Most of the changes may be classified under two headings, viz. assimilations 
and dissimilations. 

Assimilation of Tones. 

yi^ pl* yU. ^^] bu^ yUl^ %^ ^^urs of the horse 

bhith pL hk^h flower, but hh^ki ya{ blossoms of the tree 

hffip pi. hfjtp bag; but h^i niUi the bags of the man. 

In all diese words the plural has low tone; but in connecting the words with 
a genetive^ a lugh-toned i is added; the high tone of this e causes the preceding 
sjilable to become ako high. 

gihk dogs d my, gudkd my dogs ; this is analogous to the preceding examples. 
hi "and**, i "he**, kb "said'' but connected: kAhkb. 
yi I giglt work, yft gflgit I am working; the low tone o{ gflgit causes the i of 


Change of Tones. 57* 


Digitized by 


22 The Sounds 

yi to add a low tone to its high tone; this low tone on ft is, however, pro- 
nounced but very fiaintlj, sometimes only d is heard. 
Dissimilation of Tones. 
39* 9^^ thing dn this, but gin itn this thing, gik itk diese things, 
fi^n crocodile dn this, but lidn an this crocodile. 

Here the reason of the low-toned noun becoming high-toned is the stress 
which is laid on the noun. 

Many references to intonation will be found in die following paragraphs, they 
are treated there together with the grammatical functions they exercise. 


OO. In words with more than one syllable the accent (or stress) lies on the stem- 

syllable. When a syllable with low tone has the accent, this low tone firequently 
becomes high. 

Digitized by 


Formation of Worcts 23 





The stems of the Shillok-words are monosyllabic. A word may consist in 

1. a vowel. 
d sign of the past, ei it is, ft which, \k forming the future; and the personal 
pronouns when suffixed: ayi,i; but these last, being unseparablj connected 
with another word, are not independent words ; and the rest are likewise 
mere particles ; no noun or verb in Shi. consists in a vowel only. 

2. a consonant and a vowel. ^ 
This is the oldest form of the word in the Sudan-languages (comp. Die 03« 
Sudansprachen, page 14), but is not very frequent in Shi. now. Examples: 

bi, fh not, hi in order to, bit to have not, cha time, cha to be going to, ehi 
wife, ch^ to begin, chu bones, dh to have, di sign of perfect, dt but, ga piece, 
copy, gi they, g2 him, gu a big fish, ji people, hd to go, Idt place, hi widi, 
ho to say, Jtu thief^ m& aunt, ma because, mi mother, nd as, n^ as, li^ to use, 
lia child, nu lion, pt water, ri why, wd we, xoi you pi., yi I, yf you, yi 

Not in all these words the primitive form, consonant 4- vowel, is original, 
some are apparently shortened from longer forms, but in others it is not 
dear, whether die short forms are mutilated from longer ones, or whether 
the words consisting in more than one consonant and one vowel have evol- 
ved from the corresponding primitive forms. Compare these examples : 
&A, fh not, f6,j^ it is not chi wife — ehyek wife 

bt in order to, probably from bia ch^ to begin — chago^ to begin 

to come chu bones, sing, chqgn 

bi to come — &ia to come gi thing — gin thing 

bi to have not — bunq to liave not ka place — Icdeh place 
eJut time — from chan "day, sun** ika to go — kadQ to go 

cha to be going to — cJiamq to be ito to say — kobq, to say 

going to ma because — mar because. 

3. a consonant and a diphthong. ^ 
bai buttermilk, biji mosquito, bii net, lai game, lAu cloth, ^u far, lau spitde, O^ • 
nau dius, liiau cat, ysi boat, ysi hair. 

4. a consonant and two vowels. OO. 
bia to come ; this is probably derived from bi to come. 

5. a consonant, vowel, and consonant. This is by far the most fre- 


Digitized by 



Formation of Words 




quent form; it maj be called the characteristic form of the word in Shi., 
about 90 % of all %UmM of the language having this form. 
hiA arm^ hiik fence, Mii a cow, lAn behind, 6ar long, h^ch bundle, h^ spear, 
hoi a mat, ggl fence, hal fence, kqf^ rain, etc. 

In mj comparative study ''Die Sudansprachen'', I have shown the original 
word in Sudan to consist in one consonant and one vowel, all other ele- 
ments in a word being later additions. As is seen under 2., this original form 
is not frequent in Shi., the standard form being here consonant -|- vowel -|- 
consonant. Accordingly these words ought to be demonstrated as having 
evolved from words with one consonant and one vowel only; the second 
consonant should be traced as a later element. That is, however, until now 
possible only in a small minority of cases. This may be explained from the 
fact that the eastern Sudan languages have, for a comparatively long time, 
had their own development, separate from that of the western languages, and 
under the influence of languages of different character. 

I have found, however, a number of words which, being identical in their 
first consonant and vowel, and differing only in the second consonant, have 
the same or a similar meaning, which makes it probable that they are of one 
origin, and consisted originally in one consonant and one vowel, but diffe- 
rentiated their meaning by adding a second consonant. In some of the 
examples diere is a semivowel between the first consonant and the vowel, 
which, according to 21, 22, has arisen from a vowel, so that here two vowek 
are to be supposed. 


hago^ to make a fence \ 
baJQ to tie together j N ^ 
bdno, \ \ 

banst Jto make* mistake K,j_ 

bajo to eir I 

ehok it is finished ) 

ehdii it is finished J < *''^ 
ehwQbfi to pierce \ 
ekwayo, to pierce }< *''*"*' 

goig, to scratch, dig 

fseha, I ' 

ftoQ to gainsay 
fidn to lie 

the supposed 
'meaning of "to 


90^ K 



gobo, to scratch 
fUtgo, to be sharp I 
fain knife / < f^ 


fogQ to be bruisedl 

fojQ to rub, brush! < *A M 

ggdo, to loosen \ 

go^ to\oo%^Ti]<^9^9^ 

jfcg^^} to ache, pain K ^^^ 

k^JQ to bite, ache^ pain J 
hstQ, to throw I 

hii^ to dash, shatter, splitj > ^ 
j^ to go 1 
ito^ifide togoJ<**^ 

Digitized by 


Formation of Words 25 

ibo^ to blow I _ ^^fi to vomit 1 

ionfi to blow J > no^, ntro^ to spit J > '***^ 

itiwjfe \ , ^ ^, %fi, i^ split < ♦*» 

Jfc„^^}pole<*faia ^^^. . 

iiithief I l>aJfe2 (to thank <*i>tia 

Jfcirafc to stealj ^ **^' *^ rfiftg to string beadsi 

hwa^ to take| rg^ to sew / \ ^2 

ittff^fi to take/ ^ <infi to pour out dropj 

kwayq, to herd 1 by drop r ^ *^ 

ibtrocis to drive, herd | > ^"* <infi to strain beer j 

mwQnQ to plaster > t§n2 to pick 1 

m5fc to plaster J ^ **^**' ^^ twarQ to pick, gather, I < ♦^i^ 

fiui because \ clean | 

fwrfr because j \ ^'^^ ti?oj^ to pull outi 

awa yesterday | trgrfi to pull out J ^ "'^^ *''**^* 
awar^atpa the day before I / awa 
yesterday j 

6. Consonant, semivowel, and vowel, which may again be followed 
by anodier augment 

These forms are also very frequent. 

kwa grandfadier, km some, kwot shield, gwQJk work, kwip talk, Iwak cow-house, j O • 

Iwnl gourd, kwaeh leopard, lewdly to steal, kwalcQ to embrace, kwanQ to swim; 

fy^hQ to ask, hy^ to refuse, gysno, fowl, tyeln foot, etc. 

In 21, 22 I have, with the help of related languages, tried to show that in 

many, if not in all, cases the semivowel is to be traced to an original vowel, 

so that here also the primitive stem would be one consonant and one vowel. 


nudfi to cut \ ku thief | 

nalQ to butcher! < ♦nw + a J^wak to steal) <**«* + a 

uqIq to cut j kwanQ to swim ^ 

Nu. ku^e to swim )<**«* + «• 

For more examples see 69. 

7. The forms ; and 6 may have a vocalic suffix, which consists /I* 
a) in the vowel q; it is added to the verb in the present tense, and to the sin- 
gular of many substantives. 

gqgQ to work, ka^ to go ; jiff^ chief, jalQ man, obwQiiQ white man, anM^ 
an ant, itehwAi^ loin-clodi, etc. 

In certain words this q may be pronounced or dropped at will: obw(t^ or 
obwQiif jalo, or jal; moreover it is Bounded so slightly, that one very often 

Digitized by 



Formation of Words 




overheare it. — In the Nuer language 2iA% sufiBxed demonBtrative pronoun ; 
it may originally have had the same meaning in Shi. 

In the foUowing cases a verb is formed from a noun by adding : wUh 
head, toijn to make a roof ("a head**) Uich urine, laJQ to piss. 

b) in the vowel i: stem rum to cover, rumi a cover; stem cham to eat, ehami' 
ehami a bait; stem ggj to strike gijl^bchis word. 

c) the plural-sufiBxes see. 

8. Words with prefixes. 

The Shi. has two vocalic prefixes, a and 0. In most cases these prefixes have 
a distinct function : bt/ prefixing a or to a verb, the verb becomes a noun. This 
is a law prevailing in very many Sudan languages, eastern as well as western. 

bii to have not — dbU poor 
chago^ to compose a song — 

oAihak poet 
chffnQ^ to make straight, to aim 

— hchhn straight 

g"^ to bless — iyUit blessed 
gwsnQ to pick up — hgwin a 
bastard child (a child 
''picked up**) 
kdrQ to branch oflF — akar 
hwoTQ to winnow, akvogr husk 
lunQ to be turned upside down 

— alun somersault 

mm (to be) slow — dm&f, a 
n^gq to kill — dnihit spirit of 
a deceased person 

fry^g to press the bellows — 

6b^k bellows 
chodo, to break off — dcJAditt a 
cow whose horns are 
broken, a hornless cow 
dilcQ, to darken (said of the sun) 

— odinq, cloud-shadow 
rqgq to hollow — dr^gihoVLoif 
tinq to raise, lift up — dtinb 

stones raised up, dam 
0rq to make a ford — ((j^^ford 
^Iq to swing — ^2^ swinging 
kqgq to blossom — ^ik^Jk flower 
kgnq to stimulate — dik^ stimu- 
ronq to be astute — br^h 

tswq to wag — bitu, ^Agging- 

The prefix often designates persons as descendants of other persons, as 
members of a tribe or nation : 

waJQ sister owajq the child of the 

nayq the mother's brother, onayq 

the mother's brother's child 
chJol Shilluk dchblit a Shilluk man 
janq Dinka ojanq a Dinka man 

mdyq the mother's sister oniayq 
the mother's sister's child 

D&k name of a king 0d6k the 
son of D&k. 

btPQii {oTeigaobwQfiQ a stranger, 

In some cases a or are prefixed to a noun, thus giving it a pecunar sense: 

Digitized by 


Composition of Word s ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 27 

IwedQ fiDger — alwido a dura mal front — itrndlb the first 

which has four ears, like tun horn — atunaky^l "uni- 

the four (long) fingers of com'' : rhinoceros, 

the hand 
Not all words with a prefix can be derived from words without a prefix, 
for example: 

dhhch a certain cow, dbdii hammer, dbich five, abur^ bushbuck, and many 

In some words the prefix may be omitted at will : 

(Uig2 And i^gq^ bead oyino and yiuQ fisherman. 

There are some other words beginning with a vowel, but here apparentlj 74-* 
the vowel is not a prefix: 

iJc these, an this, ixha these, dfii, in order that, ^ he, him, dr<i to send, ^h 
relative by marriage, inh what? 

In some of these a beginning consonant can be shown to have been dropped : 
^ (, T^i ^S ^ f^^nA ^ fjoorn; fir^ relative by marriage is in Qa. tror; in dn^ 
''what" i is evidently the deictic particle : "it is". 
9. Beduplication is very rare. I have only met with one single example: ^ 1^^ 
yijfi to be possessed by a spirit. 

The Shilluks like to repeat a word or grammatical form which is to be 
emphasized : 4 ki^^ ig^ ksi^ he was going, going, goiog : was going on 
for a long while; gi i^nit bini btni btni they came all, all, all: all of them 
came; I4u Idu Idu very fur away; i chdki chiki he approached slowly, steal- 
thily ; yd ntn, yd nin I looked closely. 

Recapitulation. ^ 

The word in Shi. may have the foUowing forms : 7^* 

I. a, 2. ba, 3. bau^ 4. bia^ $. baty 6. btoa^ bwat, 7. batQ, buHito, 8. obat, obatq, 
obwaiQ; 9. baba. 


Nearly all compound words in Shi. consist in two or more noilns, which / / • 
stand to each other in genetive relation ; they are, properly speaking, no com- 
pound words, but two distinct, independent nouns ; compare : 

wan dgdih "eye of the crow" a kind of red dura 
toanN{kdn "eye of Nyikang" east 

wan nu "eye of lion" a kind of red dura 

wiy nu "head of lion" story, tale 

my h/^ "head of horse" riddle 

Digitized by 


28 Formation of Words 

%Dan trfit "eye of house'' window 

Q ta tyiUt "basia of foot" heel. 

^ O • Sometimes the single part of combinations cannot be identified : 

wdjhl M nir^ a kind of red dura tfltl^ a pole for pulling boats 

wan wure Iwal soudi 0kuffi a little axe (these last diree 

0y^ di gak a cow, black with white are compounds with (a "ba- 

throat sis''). 

Proper-names are often compounds: Kwaf, KsTj Kot/ikwQn, Api>it4^iii, AkUru- 
wdr, Awar^togk^ Obhyhbwijhp^ etc. 

Many of these combinations are no doubt whole sentences, which have been 
united into one word. 
^Q, Some nouns, being frequently combined with other words, help to form 

certain granmiatical categories: 

i^a^ in compositions often i^e "child, young one" forms deminutives, it fre- 
quently ako designates nouns with a certain quality, similar to the Arab abu 

lia yaj a small, young tree lia rQJQ a young heifer, a calf 
lia r^ son of a king, prince iki korq cotton seed 
iki gql "child of the enclosure" : wife 
lia bdn "child behind" : slave, servant liege-man 
iki kwdchf lia le^ tia fehogt names for cows ; 

rfiltodhi Neniri, Nijwtid^f Nigir, Nelysch, proper names of persons and places. 
OO. P^ ^ trompdch "vUlage, settlement, home" is fiequendy used in forming 

names of places : 

PdclOdt, Fdma^, FAdkt, Fdf^u, Fdbdr, Fii^ehn,^ Faikikan (also Feiiikan), 
FdkAn, etc. 
O I • j^^ pl- j(t^ "man" may designate the acting person or a possessor, it can be 

combined with a verbal noun or an original noun : 

jale IwQk "man of washing" washerman 

jal nal "man of butchering" butcher 

jal JM "man of war" warrior 

jal yai "man of tree" medecine man, doctor 

jal kSr "man of richness" rich person. 

O 2 • ^^^9 pl- ty&^ iD^ui, person, is used in the same way as jal: 

nate nek "man of killing" murderer 

nate kw^yit ''man of herding" herdsman 

nate nal "man of butchering" butcher 

nate kSr "man of richness" rich man 

natejwqk "man of sickness" sick person. 

* Note the assimiUtioii of tone ! 

Digitized by 


Composition of Words 29 

A peculiar kind of compound nouns is formed bj fw,n^ the nasalized form of ^3 * 
iuaie ''man, person'^ ; i^n is properly ^ihe man", "this man", see 138. It may 
be combined with a noun, or, what is more frequent, with a verb in the present 
teuBe, and widi a verb in the passive : 

nan e dacho, nan a ^hQ "the person is a woman" the woman 
nan tojQ "the man (is) black" a black man 

nan chwgr, nan e chwQr "the man is blind" a blind person 

nan e t^do^ nan l§dQ, "the man (he) is shaying" one who is shaying 

nan e k^k "the man (he) is hired" a hired person. q 

In die following compound nouns the first part of the composition is known, O^* 
but no more existing independently in die language. 

tediffQ a red-brown cow, teduk a grey cow, t^tan a black cow, from ^te cow; 
compare Nu. ti cow, Ba. kt-ten cow. Compare also : ^ean cow ^ ^^ yan, Nr. 
yan; ^k ^ ^^ yok cows, Nr. jrQk. In both cases the word in Shilluk has two 
components: ^^ and j/an, yok. q 

The last consonant of the ruling noun undergoes a change in these words: O^ • 
wamamtai a certain cow 

waregbt a certain cowl from ,^j "steer". 
w^tythy^k a certain cow 

Digitized by 


30 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Language 




OO. 1^® Shilluk language is not confined to one single territoiy, but is spoken 

in different parts of the White Nile region, some of which are situated at con- 
siderable distance firom one another. The largest section of Shilluk-speaking 
people live in what is generallj called the Shilluk country, and only this part 
is Imown under the name of Shilluk people. The rest of the tribes speaking 
the same language have each their own name, both for people and language, 
but their languages are essentially one in structure and vocabulary with the 
ShiUuk proper. There are, of course, dialectical differences, which are the natural 
consequences of the language being separated into locally different branches, 
so that each branch had its own way of development, and was in some measure 
influenced by its respective neighbour; but the following examples will make 
it evident that they are to be regarded as dialects of one language. It is to be 
noted that not only the selection of words given below are identical, but, as 
far as I have been able to judge, about 90 Vo of all words in these dialects are 
uniform, and so is the grammatical structure; the only remarkable deviation is 
that Gang (Acholi) has a noun-forming prefix la-^ pi. Zu-, which is Hamitic and 
corresponds to the Masai "article** ol pi. t7. 

O^. The dialects or divisions of the Shilluk language are: 

1 . Shilluk proper. 

2. Anywak (Afiwak, also Anuak); it is spoken a) on both sides of the Sobat 
between the Dinka Tribe Ghiok (I^Qk) and the Nuers, south-east of Abwong; 
b) in Abyssinia on both sides of the river Bare ; c) in Abyssinia between the 
rivers Gelo and Akobo. 

The Anywak has been somewhat influenced by its neighbour, the Nuer; 
some granmiatical formations coincide with those of Nuer. But during my 
stay in the Shilluk coimtry I have convinced myself that it is possible without 
considerable difiSculty to converse with an Anywak man in ShiUuk. The 
Abyssinians call the Anywaks Jambo. 

3. Jur; is spoken between the 7^ and 8^ degree of n. lat. and about the 28^ 
and 29^ degree of eastern longitude. 

Digitized by 


The Dialec ts or Div is ions. 31 

4. Dembo; is spoken to the north-west of Jur, on both sides of the Bahr Dembo. 

5. Belanda; is spoken south to south-west of the Jur, the habitat of both being 
separated by the Bongo or Dor. 

6. Ber (B&r);i% spoken south of the Bongo country and east of the Belanda, 
on the right bank of the Su6 river. 

7. Beri (Bsri) is spoken in the province of MongaUa, on the right bank of the 
Nile* north-east of Lado. 

On the map of A. E. S. the Beri CBerri^) are also called Beir; from this 
it is probable, that Beri and Ber are identical, Beri being the plural form of 
Ber. Again according to Schweinfurth' the Bongo designate the Jur by the 
name of "Behr^, and on the map of A. £. S. in the habitat of the Ber the 
name ^ Jur*' is put in ; this seems to show the very near relationship of Jur, 
Ber and Beri ; and as Belanda lies close to Ber, these two can also be nearly 
or totally identical.^ 

8. Gang (Gan) or Acholi; is spoken in the country situated east, north-east 
and north of the Nile between Lake Victoria and Lake Albert. — The 
name Acholi, also Shuli, is evidently identical with the name of the Shilluk : 
CKoIq, the % in Acholi, Shuli denoting the plural. 

9. Nyifvoa (Nifwa) or Ja Luo, also called Kavirondo ; is spoken in part of the 
Eavirondo-country, in the north-east coastlands of Lake Albert, roimd the 

10. Lango (Eitching : Umiru) ; is spoken in the Bukedi district, north and north- 
east of Lake Eioga. Eitching in his Granmiar of the Gang Language page VH 
says : ''The northern Bakedi or Lango seem to be distinct from the Umiru, 
and their dialect is unintelligible to the Acholi. '^ But the words which John- 
ston gives under "Lango ^, are clearly a dialect of Acholi and Shilluk proper. 

1 1 . Aluru (Eitching : Alur) ; is spoken in the country north and north-west of 
Lake Albert and west of the Nile. 

12. Chopi; is, according to Eitching, spoken between Bunyoro and the Victoria 
Nile. Sir Harry Johnston does not mention this name in "The Uganda Pro- 
tectorate'', but he says that the name Lw, which is given to several Shilluk 
dialects, also occurs in the north of Unyoro. 

13. South of Nyifwa, on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria, lives a small tribe 
called Gay a; they seem also to speak a dialect of Shilluk; but it is not sure. 

14. The same is to be said of the Jafcdu^ who live to the north-east of Lake 

These are the dialects or divisions of the Shilluk which are known to-day. OO. 
It is, however, to be observed that the word "dialecf is not employed here 
quite in its usual meaning, as of some "dialects'', chiefly Ber, Beri, Belanda, 

1 linguistiacbe Ergebnisse einer Beise nach Central-Afriks (Berlin 1873) P- 61. 

« Compare also B. Strack *An Unlocated Tribe on the White Nile", in Journal of the African 

8odet]r 1908 page 75—78. 

Digitized by 



The orthography of the origi- 
Dal has been retained. 

32 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Language 

Dembo, it is not known whether thej do at all differ from each other, or 
whether they are rather divisions of one identical dialect. The distinctions 
which do exist between some of the divisions will best be seen from the 
examples foUowing in the list below. In this list most of the dialects or divi- 
sions are illostrated : 

Anyvoak from my own unpublished materials ; 
Jur in Schweinfurth, Linguistische Ergebnisse ; 
Ber is represented by a few words' in Petherick, Egypt, the Sudan and Central 

Africa, p. 481 : 

forehead voiy Shilluk vAch 

eye wang Shilluk %joan 

nose kmim Shilluk vmm 

lip doGk ShiUuk dok 

tooth lack Shilluk If^c 

tongue laeh Shilluk Ifp 

Gang in Eitching: An Outline Grammar of the Gang Language, London 1908. 

Nyifwa in O. Baumann, Von Masailand zur Nilquelle, also in Sir H. Johnston, 

The Uganda Protectorate. 
Lango and Aluru in Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate. 

Of Dembo, Belanda, Bert and Chopi I have not found any materiab. Dembo 
and Belanda I include amongst the Shilluk dialects on the strength of Schwein- 
furth's statement ^Im Herzen von Afrika^ page 63) : north of the Jurs the 
more numerous Dembo and some smaller tribes of the same origin have tiieir 
residence; and the Belanda live 80 (German) miles south of the Jur; they, in 
spite of the great differences in their habits, which have evidently been influen- 
ced by the Bongo, still have preserved the Shilluk language in a more or less 
pure form.'' The native traditions also designate the Belanda as belonging to 
the ShiUuks. 

Of Beri Emin Pasha says that they speak the same language as the 

Chopi is mentioned by Eitching as belonging to the Shilluk group. 

It is remarkable that many dialects bear the same name. As stated above, 
Acholi, also caUed Shuli, is doubtiess identical with Cholo, tiie name of the 
Shilluk proper. Likewise the name Luq occurs repeatedly: the Jurs call them- 
selves LuQ ; the Aluru of Albert Lake, according to Johnston, more often pro- 
nounce their name AIuq, and this form appears again in the north of Unyoro 
and among the Ja-LuQ (Nyifwa). Note abo the names Bit, Biry Bdr^ (tiiis 
last name is given to the Shilluk proper by the Dinkas), and Bgr, which is the 
proper name of the Belanda. 

' These words are also giyen by Struck, An Unlocated Tribe. 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 33 


The Shilluk belongs to a dearly circumscribed group of African Languages, QO. 
which is usually styled "Nilotic Languages*'. It is difficult to give the characte- 
ristic marks of the languages belonging to this group, as sufficient materials of 
all of diem are not available. Some chief points are : 

1 . Mute and frlcatiye sounds are in some cases interchangeable, chiefly jo and 
/ are often so. 

2. Many, if not all, of the languages have interdental sounds ({ ^ ^y I have found 
them in Shilluk, Anywak, Nuer and Dinka, and according to some German 
authors Masiu and Ndorobo also have them.' 

3. The stem in most cases consists in a consonant, vowel, and consonant, gene- 
rally ending in a consonant. 

4. Stems with a semivowel between the first consonant and the vowel are fre- 
quent The stem-vowel is often a diphthong. 

5. Probably in most of them intonation plays an important rdle. 

The Nilotic languages consist of two sub-divisions : 9 ^ * 

a) The Niloto-Sudanic group. 

b) The Niloto-Hamitic group. 

It is probable that the Nilotic languages originaUy belong to the family of 
the Sudan-languages (vide below 95). The phonology, the form of the word 
and some grammatical peculiarities in all Nilotic languages point to this common 
origin. The vocabularies of all of them have certain sudanic elements. But at 
a certain former period all these languages have more or less strongly been 
influenced by languages of a different character, which are generaUy called 
Hamitic languages. They differ from the Sudanic languages chiefly in the 
grammatical gender, in the prevalence of accentuation instead of intonation, 
and in their more extensive possibilities of expressing formative elements* 
Rudiments of thegnunmalical gender are found in Shilluk also, see 126; like- 
wise accentuation exists in Shilluk, but the means of forming words are scanty. 
On the other hand niunerous Shilluk-words, which most probably are Sudanic, 
are found in languages generally counted as Hamitic. 

So the line between Niloto-Sudanic and Niloto-Hamitic languages is not 
easy to define ; they all have components of Sudanic and of Hamitic origin, 
only that in some cases the first is prevalent, in others the latter. But never- 
theless the groups may be distinguished; the languages belonging to the Niloto- 
Sudanic group having a large number of words common to all of them, and 

1 See for instance Meinhof on Ndorobo in Mitteilnngen des Seminars fiir Orientalische Spraohen, 
Band X, 1 1 1 ; and Stmck in „Die geographisohen Namen im Gebiet der ostafrikaniscben Bmcb- 
stafe". Reprinted from ^Mitteilnngen aos den dentscben Schntzgebieten'', Nr. 2, 191 1. 

WESTEBXAlTIf, The ShOlnk People. 3 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Lan£uafre 

maDj of which are dearly genealogically conneoted widi die Western Sudan 
languages. In the formation of words and in die structore of their grammar 
thej are essentially oniform ; thej have not the grammatical gender or only 
faint traces of it. On the other hand the Niloto-Hamitic group has not nearly so 
many words in common with the Sudanic group, as the idioms of the Sudanic 
group have with each other; in formation of words and in the wealth of for- 
matire elements they considerably deviate from the Sudanic group ; and they 
have the grammatical gender. Whedier accentuation is more, and intonation 
less prevalent in diem than in the Sudanic group, is as yet unknown, but it is 
Q 2 • To the Niloto-Sudanic group belong : 

a) Shilluk with its divisions or dialects. 

b) Dinka and Nuer. 

c) Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaya (Abo-Eaya), Abaka, Luba, Wira, Lendu, Moru. 

Dinka is spoken a) in the northern part of the Bahr Ghasal province, b) on 
boA sides of the White Nile between the 6^ and 7^ » n. 1. (Bor), c) on boA 
sides of the lower Sobat, d) on the right bank of the White Nile from near the 
mouth of the Sobat to Jebelein. Bahr Ghasal and Bor are probably the eldest 
seats of the Dinkas, from here they emigrated northwards. The dialect of Bor 
(Bqt) seems to differ considerably from the dialects of the north. Dinka has 
in its vocabulary remarkable similarity with Bari; in accordance with this the 
Dinkas seem in their bodily appearance and their culture to be more stronj^y 
influenced by Hamitic tribes than the Shilluks are. 

The Nuers live a) on the White Nile north of Bor, b) soudi of Tonga and of 
the lower Sobat, c) on both sides of the Sobat near Nasser. 

Dinka and Nuer differ in their phonology and structure but slighdy from the 
ShiUuk dialects; they have, in common with Acholi and Anywak, the partioles 
chi and bi for expressing past and future; these particles are not found in 
ShiUuk proper. A great, probably the greater part of the words of both lan- 
guages are essentially the same as in Shilluk, but to a considerable extent die 
vocabularies differ, so that both are to be considered as separate languages. 
They are nearer related to each other than to Shilluk. 

c) Some tribes lying between the upper course of the rivers Rohl and Sue 
speak languages which seem to be in some broader way connected with die 
Niloto-Sudanic group, so diat they are perhaps to be regarded as a sub-group 
of these. To this sub-group belong: Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaya (Abo-Eaya), 
Abaka, Luba, Wira, Lendu, Moru. According to Schweinfiirdi and A. E. S. die 
six first-named of these tribes have really one language, which differs only 
dialectically, so that individuals of the different tribes understand each odier. 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 35 

In their Tocabularies these languages oonsiderablj distbgnish themselves 
firom the Shilhik dialects as well as from Dinka and Nuer. 

According to their topographical situation the three groups of Niloto-Sudanic 
languages may be designated thus : 

a) The High Nilotic Group, comprising Mittu, Madi, Madi-Eaja, Abo-Eaya, 
Abaka, Luba, Wira, Lendu, Mom. 

b) The Middle Nilotic Gfroup, comprising the Shilluk cluster. 

c) The Low Nflotic Gfroup, comprising Dinka and Nuer. 

The NiloUHHamUic group may, according to B. Strack,* be divided into the Q "^^ 
sub-groups of Bari-Masai and Nandi-Tatoga. To the first belong: Masai, Ngishu, 
Elgumi, Teso, Sok, Karamojo, Turkana, and Bari; to the latter: Tatoga, Ndo- 
robo, Nandi, Eamasia, andBurkeneji. All these languages are situated inBritish- 
and German East-Africa. 

The NiloUHSudanic lanyuagee are a sub-group of the Eastern /Sudan Lati' Q4-* 
guagetf to which belong Nuba in the north, Eunama in the nordi-east, most lan- 
guages of the southern Gesira (between White and Blue Nile), and others. 

The EUtf tern together with the Central and Western Sudan-languages form Q C ^ 
the £unily of the Sudan Languagety which extend from near the Bed Sea and 
Abyssinia through the whole continent to the Atlantic Ocean from the northern 
Cameroons to Senegambia. 

In order to demonstrate the genealogical connection between Shilluk, the QO« 
l^oto-Sudanic group and the EUutem Sudan languages on one side and the 
Western Sudan languages on the other side, the chief characteristics of the 
Sudan languages, as shown in my "Sudansprachen^ may be given here : 

1. they are monosyllabic, each word consisting in one syllable; 

2. each syllable or word consists in one consonant and one vowel; 

3. they are isolating, that is they have no inflection, and only few formative 
elements ; the "dass-prefixes^ of the Bantu-languages and of some Hamitic 
languages are absent; 

4. they have no grammatical gender; 

5. intonation is prevailing in a higher degree than it is in Bantu- and Hamitic 

Tliese characteristics are not preserved in their pure form in all Sudan lan- 
guages, almost all of them showing some marks of development from the pri- 
mitive stage to a more developed state, chiefly by adding augments to the ori- 
ginal stem ; this is still more the case, where a language has been strongly in- 
fluenced by an idiom belonging to a different family. But in each Sudan lan- 
guage it will, to a certain extent, be possible to trace the later additions to a 
stem as such, that is to show that these words were originally simple stems 

* B. Straek, Ober die Sprsohen der Taiog* mid Irsknlente. Beprinted from the "Mitt«iliiikgeB aus 
d«B Denlsehen Sehntigebieteii**, ErgSnsangtheft 4, 1910. 

Digitized by 


36 Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk LanguA^e 

oonsistiiig in one consonant and one vowel, to which certain elements were 
added ni a later time. 
Q^ . In Shilluk the characteristics mentioned above can easily be traced: 

1. the stems are monosyllabic; see 6i; 

2. though the majority of the words do not consist in one consonant and one 
vowel, it is shown in 68 that a number of stems can be traced to the original 
primitive form; 

3. the language has no inflection; the vowel-changes occurring in the verb and 
noun, which come near to what might be called inflection, are most probably 
of Hamitic origin. The nouns have no class-prefixes ; 

4. grammatical gender is absent; the rudiments of it which do exist, are of 
Hamitic origin; 

5. Intonation dominates in the language. 

Oomparative Lists of Words. 

Qo. Their object is to show in a number of words: 

a) the identity of Shilluk proper and its dialects or divisions. 

b) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and other Niloto-Sudanic languages, 
viz. Dinka and Nuer. 

c) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and other Eastern Sudan languages. 
Of these Nuba is treated in the list; it has a good number of words in com- 
mon with Shilluk; in other Eastern Sudanic languages such common words 
are rarer. 

d) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and Bongo ; this language, though 
having its habitat amidst the Shilluk languages, shows remarkable connections 
with Central Sudanic languages, particularly with Bagirmi. Some of the 
Bongo-words which it has in common with Shilluk, may of course be loan- 

e) the genealogical relation between Shilluk and a Niloto-Hamitic language, 
viz. Bari. 

f) the genealogical relation of Shilluk and some other Eastern Sudan languages 
to the Western Sudan-languages. 

a) — e) are comprised in one group; f) forms a group for itsel£ Both groups 
might without difiSculty have been multiplied, but the examples given will suffice. 
[In order to show more fully the affinities in vocabulary between the 
Niloto-Sudanic and the Niloto-Hamitic group, a number of words common 
to languages of both groups are given in their Hamitic form in the Die- 
tionary. It will be seen that the conformities with Shilluk are more nume- 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 37 

roue in the Ban-Masai than in the Nandi-Tatoga group. The Dictionary 
contains also some hints regarding the very few words which are identical 
in Shilluk and in the High Niloto-Sudanic group.] 

In the comparative lists some letters are used, which do not occur in Shilluk, QQ* 

and need therefore an explanation. 

Q is the Qerman 5 in n5tig "necessary*' ; it is pronounced in rounding the lips 
as if pronouncing an o and then saying an e. — Mitterrutzner's & I render by 
fi. <» is the mark for nasalization: a is nasalized a as in French an "year**. 
<^ is a palatal g, it sounds almost like j. In Nuer and Anywak the pronunciation 
of final mute consonants and even of y is in certain cases followed by a pressing 
of the larynx, so that the consonant sounds very abrupt, and is sometimes 
hardly audible. These sounds are rendered by ' : £, y\ etc. (Some divisions 
of Shilluk as well as Masai and Nandi have the same sounds ; see Johnston 
page 888.) — Elitching frequently writes ^or** at the end of a word, where 
odiw languages have m \ suppose that here "^or^ simply expresses q^ **or^ 
being frequendy used by English speaking authors for q. 

Most of the authors quoted do not distinguish and q, e and i, some not 
even long and short vowels; none has marked interdental sounds; thus the 
differences between Shilluk and the other languages look greater than they 
really are, the difference being only one of orthography. 

The following remarks belong to the second group only. 

u, i are narrow vowels ; u, i are wide vowels. 

4 and / are cerebral sounds ; they are formed a little further back in the 
mouth than where the usual d and 1 are articulated. 

i is a transformed k; the changes which it undergoes in certain languages 
are different from those of the usual L 

jl^ is the German ch in "ach**. 

V is the English v. 

V is an i with rounded lips, as in German ''tlbt''. 
IT is V with a following short y. 

First Group. lOO. 

Shi. ftflr long Any. bat arm Ju. bgt sharp, pointed 

GhL bor long Ju. b<U arm Any. b^i sharp, pointed 

Ju. bar long Ja. bat arm Di. bit fish-spear 

Di. bar long La. bat arm Nr. bif fish-spear 

Nr. ftflrlong Shi. 6fl{ fish-spear Shi. rfKcA five 

ShL bdt arm Ga. bit sharp Ga. abieh five 

Ghk bat arm Ju. bgcU fish-spear Ju. ahich five 

Digitized by 



Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Laneua 




Any. aHyii five 
Ja, aViek five 
AL ahi five 
Ba. hu five 

Shi. 6a^ artist, smith 
Ja. hodo artist, smith 
Bo. h^o artist, smith 
Ba. hodo artist, smith 

Shi. 6t/7 dram 
Ga. hul dram 
Ja. hul drum 
Any. &t2{ dram 
Nr. iuZ dram 
Ja. &u2 dram 
La. hul dram 
Al. xiul dram 

Shi. (ur ashes 
Ga. hum ashes 
Ja. frur ashes 
Na. o6ur<f ashes 
Bo. huvuku ashes 

Shi. fru^ to lie down 
Ga. huJto to lie down 
Ja. hudo to lie down 
Any. hui^ to lie down 
Di. hut to waylay 

Shi. hy&L dara 
Ga. hd com 
Ja. fr^Z dara 
Any. hy&L dara 
Nr. &i2 dara 
Di. hd dara 

Shi. chak milk 
Ga. cAoJt; milk 
Ju. chak milk 
Any. cAoik milk 
Nr. cAdib milk 

Di. eha milk 
Na. u?At milk 

Shi. cKamq, to eat 
Ga. ehamo to eat 
Ja. «^m« to eat 
Any. chama to eat 
Nr. cham to eat 
Ja. chamOy chypno, to eat 
La. %amii to eat 
Di. cham to eat 

Shi. cAuZ penis 
Ja. bKuI penis 
Any. chul penis 
Nr. cAuZ penis 
La. ml penis 
Al. cAuZ penis 
Ba. iohjAo testicles 
Na. iorot penis 
Di. chul penis 

Shi. chwh^ chwiii liver 
Ga. chwin liver 
Ja. «At0m liver 
Nr. chuHHi liver 
Di. cAti^ liver 

Shi. chunQ to stop 
Ga. chuno to stop 
Ja. chun to stop 
Any. chunQ to stop 
Nr. Aun to stop 

Shi. chw(tr valtare 
Ga. ochur valtare 
<ichtU valtare 
Ja. achut valtare 
Nr. chwQr valtare 
Di. chwor valtare 

Shi. ddik three 
Ga. adek three 

Jo. adak three 

Any. iddgh tiiree 

Ba. hu^k eif^t, that is: 

five and tiuree 
Ja. adek three 
La. ctddc three 
AL tidek three 

Shi. 4ak pot 
Ga. dak pot 
Ja. dak pot 
Any. dak pot 
Nr. isit pot 
Ba. dak pot 

Ga. dano man 
Jar. ciano man 
Any. daj^ man 
Ja. danQ man 
La. (2ang man 
Al. datiQ man 
Di. ran man 
Nr. ran man 

Shi. d^k month 
Ga. dok moath 
Ja. tio moath 
Any. d^k month 
Ja. dok moath 
La. dqk moatii 
AL dQk moath 
Di. wtoeh moath 
Nr. tQk moath 
Na. ak moath 
Bo. ndu language 
Ba. ka^tok moatfa 

Shi. goja to beat 
Ja. ffoi to beat 
Any. ffufoi to beat 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 



Ja. gqjn to shoot 
Bo. gba to beat 
Ba. gvxxi to beat 

Shi. o^toaJ frog 
Ga. ogwal frog 
Ja. ogwal frog 
Any. o^iraZ frog 
Ku. guglati frog 

Shi. y t/H>ib dog 
Ga. gwok dog 
Ju. guok dog 
Any. ^iiH>ifc dog 
Ja. gtDok dog 
La. jTuoifc dog 
AL gvdk dog 
Di. jo dog 
TSfr.jik dog 
Ba. (fyofi dog 

Shi. jry^ hen 
Gt%. gweno hen 
Ju. jfy«no hen 
Any. gwffftQ hen 
Ja. gweno hen 
La. j|rir«no hen 
Al. gweno hen 
Bo. 9i^(mo hen 

Shi. ji people 
Ght. fi people 
Any. jo people 
Bo. jl, §1 people 
Ba. gwea tribe 

Shi jwQJk God 
Ga. jok demon 
Any. jwqk God 
Ju. jwok fortune 
Ja. juogi ghost 
La. tgk God 


Di. ajyeky ajqk demon 

Ba. ajwoks jwek demon 

Shi. k^bQ to take away 
Ga. kabo to bring 
Ju. habi to bring 
Di. kap to bring, take 
Nr. kip to take 

Shi. kadQ salt' 
Ga. kado salt 
Ju. kada salt 
Any. kad(t salt 
Nr. Jb(l(2^ salt 

Shi kaga to split 
Ga. kak to split 
Nu. kage to split 
Ba. ibo^u to split 

Shi. kick bitter 
Ga. kech bitter 
Ju. JtrgcA bitter 
Any. kech bitter 
Nu. kag'-al sharp 
Di. ifc^A bitter 
Bo. ke bile 

Shi. ibtcA bee 
Ga. kick bee 
Ju. kick bee 
Any. A:tcA bee 
Ja. HcA' bee 
La. itits bee 
Al. Inch bee 
Di. kyech bee 
Nu. A:i<5 ihi^f bee 
Ba. chi, cMwo bee 

Shi. koj^-nm 
Ga. lot rain 
Ju. kqt rain 

Any. £g| rain 
Ja. kot rain 
La. kot rain 
Al. ^Qt rain 
Nr. k{^ rain, God 
Ba. kudu rain 

Shi. aibur pigeon 
Ga. akuri pigeon 
Di. kure pigeon 
Nr. kkr pigeon 
Nu. kuru pigeon 
Ba. gurc pigeon 

Shi. kwalo\ 

Ga. kwah to steal 
Any. kwstQ, to steal 
Ja. kwalu to steal 
La. kwalo to steal 
Di. kwal to steal 
Nr. kwal to steal 
Ba. kola^ii theft 

Shi. iE;ti7£n<2 to count 
Ga. kwano to count 
Ju. kweno to count 
Nr. kwsn to count 
Di. iku;^ to count 
Ba. ken to count 

Shi. kwanq to swim 
Ga. kwano to swim 
Ju. kwan to swim 
Any. JbtraZ to swim 
Nu. ka§e to swim 

Shi. kworo cotton 
Ga. waro cotton 
Ju. wara cotton 
Ba. waro cotton 

Mh made of grasB-ashes. 

Digitized by 



Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Langua 


Shi. hmarQ, grandfather 
Ga. kwaro grandfather 
Ju. kwa grandfather 
Di. hokwar grandfather 
Nr. kwaro chief 
Ba. Aa^kwari grandchild 

Shi. kwarn red 
Oa. kwar red 
Ju. kwar red 
Nr. kuAr red 
Nu. kor^os yellow 

Shi. kwach leopard 
Ga. kwach leopard 
Ju. hoaeh leopard- 
Any. kwach leopard 
Ja. kwach leopard 
La. kwach leopard 
AL kwach leopard 
Di. kw<ich leopard 
Nr. kway* leopard 
Bo. higo leopard 
Ba. koka \ 

Shi. kwsn bread 
Ga. kwon bread 
Ju. kwsn bread 
kwQn bread 
Any. kwon bread 
Nr. kwan bread 
Bo. koa bread 
Shi. dky^l one 
Ga. cu:hel one 
Ju. ah/slo one 
Any. hehyilit one 
Ja. achyel one 
Al. achyel one 
Bo. kotu one 
Ba. 6u-i^8ix=fiye -(- 1 

Shi. ky^ horse 
Ga. kana horse 
Ju. akaja donkey 
Any. okwffi horse 
Ja. kaiiima horse 
Bo. akaaa horse 
Nu. Jtra<?A horse, donkey 
Ba. kaine horse 

Shi. lachQ to pus 
Ga. layo to piss 
Ju. aZa(^ urine 
Any. la to piss 
Ja. tach' urine 
La. 2a« urine 
Al. loch urine 
Di. lach to piss 
Ba. 2ac& urine 

Shi. Iqi game 
Ga. le game 
Ju. 2at game 
Any. Iqi game 
Nr. ^* game 
Ba. lai game 

Shi. lamft to pray 
Ga. 2amo to sacrifice 
Di. lam to pray 
Nr. lam to pray 
Bo. loma God 
Ba. 2(^ to insult 

Shi. ISii war 
Ga. Iwen war 
Ju. ZuTifi war 
Ja. Itten war 
Any. leii war 
Bo. (aii gun 

Shi. alilit bat 
Ga. o&'ifc bat 

Any. aUffd bat 
Di. aUch bat 
Ba. lukuluU bat 

Shi. Ztro^ to wash 
Ga. Iwoko to wash 
Ju. {tM>£ to wash 
Any. IwQk to wash 
Di. lak to wash 
Nr. lah to wash 
Bo. dogu to wash 
Ba. 2a2a;u to wash 

Shi. mach fire 
Ga. mach fire 
Ju. mocA fire 
Any. niat/Q fire 
Ja. mach* fire 
La. inocA fire 
Al. much fire 
Di. tTiat fire 
Nr. niach fire 

Shi. mj^ to drink 
Ga. moto to drink 
Ju. made to drink 
Any. ma^ to drink 
Ja. mad2 to drink 
La. maiQ to drink 
Di. f7iat to drink 
Nr. m^i to drink 

Shi. mdffQ to catch 
Ga. mako to catch 
Ju. mau to catch 
Any. fiioi to catch 
Di. mtDQk to catch 
Nu. mage to catch, steal 
Ba. mok to catch 

Shi. m^iina to hate 
Ga. man to hate 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 



to aleep 

Di. man to hate 
Nu. mone to hate 
Ba. man to hate 

Shi. ms| slow 
Oa. tnot slow 
Ju. madt slow 
Di. wM slow 
Nr. fns< slow 
Bo. m'ti slow 
Ba. yruuian slow 

Shi. nsjuQi to aleep 
Ga. nino to deep 
Ju. nen \ 

nendo f *® "^^^P 
Di. nin to sleep 
Nr. nysn to sleep 
Na. na/u 1 

nere j 

Shi. n£fi(2 to see 
Ga. neno to see 
Any. njna to see 
Ja. neno to see 
Kr. nin to see 
Nq. naZe to see 

Shi. ikan crocodile 
Ga. iktn crocodile 
Jo. ikan crocodile 
Any. ikon crocodile 
Ja. ikan crocodile 
La. aJoHkan crocodile 
AL ikan crocodile 
Di. ikon crocodile 
Kr. ikon crocodile 
Bo. naika crocodile 
Ba. ki-ikon crocodile 

ShL ndJ2 to know 
Ga. neyo to know 

Ja. n^ I 

«^.,/. ) to know 

Ja. neyo to know 

Any. na to know 

Nr. n§ch to know 

Shi. inii what? 
Ga. anor what? 
Any. Anh what? 
Di. no^ nu what? 
Nr. nu what? 
Ba. ino what? 

Shi. peA^ feik earth 
Ga. pin earth 
Ju. pin earth 
Any. feik earth 
Ja. piik earth 
La./nHe earth 
Di. pin earth 
Nr. jpM earth 

Shi. pi water 
Ga. pi water 
Ja. j^ yi water 
Any. pi water 
Ja. pi water 
La. /n water 
Al. pi water 
Di. jn water 
Nr. pi water 
Ba. piom water 

Shi. /fini2 to divide 
Ga. poho to divide 
Ja. pan to divide 
Nu. fage to divide 
Bo. eke^bake to divide 

Shi. r9i2 fish 
Ga. rech fish 
Ju. riyo fish 

Any. reo fish 
Ja. rech* fish 
La. r«cA fish 
Al. rech fish 
Di. ricA fish 
Nr. rech fish 
Nu. ka^re fish 

Shi. riin(2 blood 
Ga. remo blood 
Ju. f*«mo blood 
Any. rgmQ blood 
Ja. remQ blood 
La. rtfmu blood 
Al. remo blood 
Di. ryam blood 
Nr. ryim blood 
Bo. trama blood 
Ba. rima blood 

Shi. ring meat 
Ga. rino meat 
Ju. rino meat 
Any. rinQ meat 
Ja. nng meat 
La. rino meat 
Al. nno meat 
Di. rin meat 
Nr. rin meat 
Nu. arichf arji meat 

Shi. rg^ thirst 
Ga. orvoor thirst 
Ju. ryau thirst 
Any. ryo thirst 
Di. rou thirst 
Ba. rgdu to wither 

Shi. rqmd sheep 
Ga. romo sheep 
Ju. romo sheep 

Digitized by 



Genealogical Relations of the Shilluk Language 

Any. TQmq, sheep 
Nr. i^m sheep 
Bo. rqmhd sheep 

Shi. T^mQ^ to meet 
Ga. romo to meet 
Ju. Tomo to meet 
Di. rom to meet 
Nr. ram to meet 
Ba. rum to meet 

Shi. rug^ to dress 
Oa. T%ko to dress 
Di. ruA to dress 
Ba. ruk to dress 

Shi. uium DOse 
Ga. um nose 
Ju. Atim nose 
Ja. um nOse 
La. um nose 
Al. um nose 
Any. 6m nose 

unim nose 
Di. um nose 
Nr. rum nose 
Bo. Kgmo nose 
Ba. ifcum« nose 

Shi. iry^u two 
Ga. aryfyr two 
Ju. aryau two 
Any. hribu two 
Ja. ar«Eo two 
La. ar%i two 
Al. arii, two 
Di. rou two 

Nu. ora^ are twenty 
Ba. Qri two 

iu-ryfi seven = five 
+ two 

Shi. tik (to be) hard 
Ga. tek hard 
Ju. tik hard 
Any. iik hard 
Di. <y«A; hard 
Bo. tigo hard 

Shi. j^> pi. tgfiQ, small 
Ga. fu2t small 
Any. tSn small 
Ja. Gn small 
Nu. ^n, ^li small 
iod small 

Shi. j((2u^g to die 
Ga. tor to die 
Any. igu to die 
Ja. tQ, to die 
La. t6 to die 
Di. ^ou to die 
Ba. tuan to die 

Shi. warQ shoe 
Ga. war shoe 
Any. u^ar shoe 
Di. war shoe 
Nr. irrfr shoe 
Nu. kwari shoe 

Nr. wir nij^t 
Nu. auMxr night 

Shi. wVcQ to give 
Ga. weko to give away 
Di. yek to give 
Ba. y«ib to give 

Shi. wild to travel 
Ga. wd to travel 
Ba. wala to travel 

Shi. wii^ bird 
Ga. UTiiio bird 
Ju. wiiio bird 
Any. u^lyg bird 
Ja. weAq, bird 
La. wen bird 
Al. U7ti@ bird 
Ba. kwen bird 

Shi. ti^i2 to sing 

Ju. war song 

Ga. wer song 

Ja. uTtr song 

La. wer song 

AL wer song 

Nu. ou?« to sing 

Ba. yoyu^ yolo to sing 

Shi. yei boat 
Ga. yeya boat 
Ju. ye» boat 
Any. ygi boat 
Ja. njitf boat 
La. yede boat 
Al. yei boat 
Bo. yit boat. 

Shi. tear night 
Ju. uMtr night 
Any. warQ night 
Ja. WQT night 
lOI. SecondGroup. 

The words in the first line designate the ''original Sudanic form'', which 
has been gained by comparing the sounds of a word in the different languages, 
and thus finding out those sounds which may be considered as the most primi- 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 



/S. lia to came 



tive. This "origmal Sudanic fonn'' is of course merely hypothetical. For more 
on ^8 see my "Sudansprachen*', from which the greater part of these words 
are taken. 

V. bar large, open place 
Nu. hid place before the 

Di. bur, abora market 

Shi. bura open place 

S. ga place 

£. vd to come 

bd to come 
T. &a to come 

{^a coming into the 
O. ba to come 

bla coming into the 
T. ba shall, should 
Ibo bia to come 
Isoama bia to come 
Eafeng ba to come 
Abour^ va to come 
Alagoiang va to come 
Ayikam b€L, iba to come 
M^kjibo ba to come 
Di. obi prefix of future 
Nu. bi prefix of future 
Shi. bi, bia to come 
Any. hi prefix of future 
Nr. hi prefix of future 
GhL hino to come 

S. huoffi to fear 
E. vg to fear 
Ef bak to fear 
Shi. h^kQ to fear 

btpqkQ to frighten 
Any. hwQk to fear 
S. hula open place 

E. ablQ open place 

F. ahQfUen 

G. blq street 

^ street, 
open place 

E. ffi place 
T. eha this place 
N. ga this, that 
Nu. aga, agar place 
Shi. ga this 
agak these 

6\ jfo^a cowrie 
£. d^dyd cowrie 
Di. gak cowrie 
Shi. gag(t cowrie 
Ga. gage cowrie 
Nr. gak cowrie 
Bo. gaki cowrie 

S. guani antelope 
E. gbdgbit antelope, ''uni- 
O. nman \ 

nma \ 

Y. agban^rere ''unicorn** 
Shi. anwak waterbuck 

S. kuagi, kuc^i ^ embrace 
E. kpUi to embrace 
T. hoan to wind around 
G. ibpJa round about 
Ef. tJcwan winding 
fyan to fold (hands) 


Y. kpt to carry 

Nu. kat to envelop 
Di. hoak to embrace 
Shi. kwak(i to embrace 
Ga. kwaka to embrace 

S. kuagif kuiagi leopard 
E. ibpS leopard 
T. etwi leopard 
Ef. tfibptf leopard 
V. kori leopard 
N. gku leopard 
Eu. unka leopard 
Di. kwach leopard 
Shi. kwach leopard 
Ga. kwach leopard 
Ju. kwach leopard 
Any. kwach leopard 
Ja. kwach leopard 
La. kwach leopard 
Al. kwach leopard 
Di. kwach leopard 
Nr. kway* leopard 
Bo. kqgo leopard 
Ba. koka leopard 
kwaru leopard 

/S* kuani bread, pudding 
E. oibpZif pudding of nuuze 
Shi. kw^ bread 
Ga. kwon bread 
Ju. kw^ 
Any. kwon bread 
Nr. hoan bread 
Bo. koa bread 


Digitized by 


44 Genealo£ical Relations of the Shilluk Language 

S. kw^ni to counts read 

E. x^ to count, read 

T. iaii I 

jt^^^fto count, read 

G. kane to count, read 
T. ha to count 
V. hara^ karan to learn 
Di. ktoen to count 
Shi. ktcsfiQ to count 
Ga. kwano to count 
Ju. kweno to count 
Nr. A^u;^ to count 
Ba. ken to count 

S, npu, nfua to lick^ suck 
E. 4i to lick, Buck 
4ii4i to lick 

Y. adun\ ^ ^ 
, > taste 

Shi. doi^ to suck, lick 

Shi. dwoj^ to suckle 
Oa. (2oeo to suck 
Ju. dot to suck 

E. afd part, half 

T. pae to spKt 

G. a/a half 

Y. apa part 

Ku. fak to split, divide 

Nu. fage to divide 

Shi. jps^ to divide 

S. puu to beat 

E. /o to beat 

T. po to beat 

Ef. /ot to beat 

Plaoui jH> to beat 

T^oui po to beat 

Shi. pwodQ to beat 

Di. pwot to beat 

4$. tiagi to be hard 

E. si to be hard, strong 

Di. ch^k to be hard 
Shi. ilk to be hard, strong 
Ga. tek to be hard 
Ju. iik to be hard 
Any. tek to be hard 
Bo. iigo to be hard 

S. tjf hand 
E. ashi hand 
Eu. shi-^ma hand 
Di. cAtn, cAyai hand 
Shi. chyifiQ hand 
Ju. shyeno hand 
Any. ehysn/Q, hand 

/S. %' to tear a gAsM; tc^t/ig 

E. oM wife 

Eu. «Af to beget, bear 

eKa begetting 
Nu. ashy aehi daughter 
Di. Hk wife 
ShL chi wife. 


Some Names of Languagee^ Peoples, and Rivers, as they are in use among the 
The Shilluks call themselves: dchilit a Shilluk man, pi. Ch£l, or wate Ch^l 

"children of ChQl** ; their country : y%j^ ch^l; their language : ^ ch^L The 

Shilluks are called by the Arabs : Slulluk, by the Dinkas: Bur, by the Nuers: 

The Anywaks call themselves : A^wak, they are called by the Nuers : Bdtik, 

by the Dinkas: Pdtttk, by the Abyssiiians: Jambo. 
The Dinkas call themselves: Jane; they are called by the Shilluks: ojdnit pi. 

jini; by the Arabs: Dinka, or Denka. 
The Niters call themselves : Gdnlii a Nuer man, pi. Kig&ndi; their language : 

tjik Nit; they are called by the Shilluks : Nu^r, by the Dinkas: iS/ti^r; by 

the Arabs : Nu^r or Nawdr. 

The Jurs call themselves De-LuQ or Luq, by the Shilluks they are called 
OdimQ, "descendants of DimQ**, by the Bongo: Bir, The Belanda call them- 

Digitized by 


The Position of Shilluk 45 

selves Bqt. Belanda is a Bongo word^ lartda, = stone, hill; so Belanda is prob- 
ably ''hin-country*'. 

The Nubians are in all three languages called: Don, from "Dongola''. Accord- 
ing to Schweiniurth in Golo the Nubians are called Turuku, in Jur Otnru, in 
Bongo Turn; these names are doubtlesslj deriyed from "Turk*". 
The Bahr Zeraf is called in Shilluk: (MA in Nuer: Fqu, in Dinka: Piau The 
Bahr Jebel is called in Shilluk: Ker; in Dinka: Ker, in Nuer: Konam; the 
Ehor FtIub is called in Shilluk: Olut, in Dinka: Peluf^ in Nuer: Pului. 

Digitized by 


46 The Parts of Speech 




Singular and Plural. 

I 02 • Singular. Many nouns have in the singular the su£Sx q,; in some nouns it 

may be dropped at will; on this and on the original meaning of g see 71. 

Some nouns denoting a plurality, are in their form singular, and are treated 
as such; e« g.: l^hq^ tidq people. 
I 023i. Plural. The ShiDuk is remarkable for its manifold means of forming the 

plural of nouns. These means may be divided into three principles ; diey are : 

a) by affixes, 

b) by change of tone, 

c) by change of vowel. 

Generally in forming the plural of a noun, not only one of diese means is 
employed, but several. 

I 03* ft) Plural-formation by affixes. In most Sudan languages the plural of nouns is 
formed by affixing to die singular a particle, which in most cases originally 
is a noun or a pronoun : "people, they**. In Shi. this formation is represented 
by several vocalic and consonant affixes. 
I . The most frequent plural-affix is the suffix |. Although by no means all nouns 
have this suffix in the plural, yet it is a question of feeling with the natives 
diat they prefer it; if a foreign word is introduced into the language, it receives 
i in the plural; and on the other hand there are numerous genuine Shillak 
words which sometimes are used with i, Aud sometimes without it in the 
plural. This leads to the supposition that possibly the ending i was formerly 
more employed than it is now, and that it may be the oldest and originally 
only ending for the plural. — The plural-suffix i occurs also in Masai and 
in Nuba and Eunama; in Eunama i is the personal pronoun of the third 
person plural : "they*'. It may be that the suffix i is of conmion origin in aO 
these four languages. 

Besides the vowel-suffix, there are several consonants which serve in for- 
ming the plural: 

I QA. 2. k; gin thing pi. gik; k may be shortened from the demonstrative pronoun 
ak ''diese'' ; in Di. the plural is formed in the same way, viz. by adding the 

Digitized by 


The Noun ^ 47 

demonstrative pronoun ke "these^. 
3* I; I is possibly identical with the Anywak word p\ ''many^ ; so that origi- I O ^ • 
naUy die word was common to both languages, bat in Shi. it was exclnsively 
retained for forming the plural, a different word being employed for ''many*'. 
In Anywak the plural is frequendy formed by simply adding "{oj^'. In some 
cases the plural is formed by adding t instead of |; whether this is misheard 
by me, or whether there is really a class with t in plural, I do not know. — 
Di. also has the plural in i (%1)z'pwm-'puot heart. 

4. A nasal consonant; some nouns form their plural in changing their last con- I OO. 
sonant into the corresponding nasal one, according to the rule given in 40 ; 

here doubtlessly a nasal consonant has been suffixed, which may be shorte- 
ned from the demonstrative pronoun an "this, these''. 

While I is used very much, and may, in a certain measure, be employed 
at win, i, I and the nasal consonant are restricted to a small number of nouns. 

5. Words whose second consonant is a voiced mute followed by a vowel, I O^. 
change this consonant into the corresponding voiceless one in the plural : 

dfiid^ pL d/ti& In connection with this it is to be remarked that in those 
nouns which in their plural end in a mute consonant, ihis coruanani is alwayB 
voiceless, even when a vowel follows : l§k teedi, l^ka my teeth, l^k ak these 
teeth; this is contrary to the rule in 38; perhaps this voicelessness is the 
rest of a voiceless consonant which was suffixed for forming the plural, but 
assimilated itself in all cases with die preceding consonant. 

6. Many nouns form dieir plural by dropping die singular-suffix q,: gysfm hen I OO. 
pL gysn. 

7. A few nouns with the prefix drop this prefix in plural; such are names of I OQ, 
persons as belonging to a nation (patronymica) : a Dinka man, a Shilluk 

man ; here die plural-form may be die first, noting the nation as a collective 
mass, from this die singular was derived by prefixing 05 which probably 
means: ''he'' or "one" : "he a ShiDuk". The opposite formation see in rum 
pL 6r^ nose. 

8. A peculiar kind of plural-formation in nouns designating relatives is diat of 
prefixing li^ in the plural ; li^ (also li^) means "chfld" ; it is low toned, but . 
when expressing die plural, its tone rises. Examples : 

dkiy^t^kili nephew; or: HdJkii-fi^Jbdf nephew. 

[The partial conformity of die plural-affixes in Shilluk and Masai is remark- 
able. Just as in Shilluk one of the most frequent plural suffixes is i so 
it is also in Masai. Likewise h, t and a nasal suffix (n) are found in bodi 
languages. The plural -formation by dropping the final vowel g of the 
singular (see 108) has also its analogy in Masai, where a final a or (q1) 

Digitized by 


48 The Parts of Speech 

is dropped : ol abura plural il abur "froth*" ; ol hurto pL t Icuri ''caterpillar''. 

Hollis is probably right in supposing that in these words the plural is 

the original form, from which the singular was formed bj adding 2 or a. 

— According to Hollis, Masai has no plural-distinction by tone. See 

Hollis page 18 ss.] 
1 I O. b) Plural-formation by change of tone. As stated above, the predomination of 
intonation is a characteristic of Sudan languages ; but in none of these the 
change of tone is known to be a means of distinguishing singular and pluraL 
In the western languages, of whom a greater numbw is thorou^y known, 
this function of die tone is sure not to exist; but it may be expected diat 
on dose investigation it will be found in other eastern Sudan languages. 

By the change of tone the nouns are grouped into classes, a certain tone 
or group of tones in the singular always corresponding to a certain tone or 
group of tones in the plural. There do not seem to be very many nouns 
without the distinction of tone in singular and plural. ■ 

This distinction is probably younger than the plural-formation by afiSxes. 
Though the intonation is no doubt genuine Sudanic, this particular employ- 
ment of it, viz. the distinction of number, may be of foreign origin, a foreign 
element getting into the population and using the tone in quite a new way, 
which, until then, was not known to the primitive inhabitants. This is the 
more probable, as the change of tone is a process analogous to diat of the 
change of vowel, which will be shown below. It might be supposed that both 
are of the same foreign origin, i. e. Hamitic. The older plural-formation by 
afSxes seems gradually to be suppressed by the modem means, viz. change 
of tone and of vowel. 

It is to be remarked that, as a whole, in plural the low tone is more fre- 
quent than in the singular, the low tone, together with the long vowel (see 
the following) conveying the notion of greatness or plurality, 
c) Plural formation by change of vowel.^ A plural-formation likewise unknown 
in western Sudan languages is that by changing the quantity or quality of 
the stem-vowel. This vowel-change is common in Semitic and Hamitic lan- 
guages, and is in Shilluk probably to be traced to Hamitic influence. How 
far it is spread in the eastern Sudan group, cannot be stated now, but the 
Di. also has it. Quite of Hamitic character is the interchange of certain 
vowels in this way : the vowel-changes in one group are contrary to those 
in another group ; the first group has long vowel in singular and short in 
plural; a second group short vowel in singular and long in plural; likewise 
the quality changes: one group has q in sing., u in pi. ; a second group u in 
in sing., g in pi. ; this peculiarity was first shown by Meinhof as existing in 

> According to Kitching in Gang most nouns have the same fonn for singular and plural; is il 
not possible that a distinction is made by tone, which has not been noted? 
' Flnral-formation by change of yowel-qoantity and quality is also largely used in Dinka ; see 
HitterrotEner page 15. 

Digitized by 


The Noun 49 

the Hamitic languages, and has been called bj him "polarity*'. 

The same tendency of interchange is to be seen in other formations, see 111* 
for instance 119: singular prefix 0, plural no prefix, and 119: singular no 
prefix, plural prefix 0. 

Though this formation be probably foreign and relatively young, it may I I 2 • 
contain some primitiye principle of language building: It is worth noting 
that the large majority of nouns have short vowel in the singular and a long 
one in the plural; this may lead to the supposition (which is supported by 
results of studies in other African languages. In Ewe for instance adjectives 
with long vowel and low tone designate large things or beings, the same 
adjectives with short vowel and high tone express small things or beings.) 
that in an early stage of language the long vowel is expressive of the idea 
of "much, big, great^. 

Examples illustrating the different ways 
of forming the plural. 

a) Plural-formation by Affixes. I I 3* 

1. Suffix |. dkoMk^H drum-stick dmoj-dm^j^ a stork 

dnQfi'dnltfi a knife dyufSmnh/winnl monkey 

dckiinit^huni an ant pi^nv-pimi board 

ytr^yirl a bead kil-k^U fence 

ntl(-nut0| lion Isur-kxoi lizard. 

For more examples see below. 

The ending i has in most cases low tone ; where die tone is middle, the stem- 
vowel too has middle tone, that is, the tone of the suffix is assimilated to that 
of the stem. 

2. suffix k. pirpik water ginrgik thing dysl^sh goat jalrjok man I 1 4* 

tiJQrUf^ tooth md'fnek aunt mff^^rnQk this one. 

3. suffix |. iiiH^ buttocks iricA-trd| head y&'ydt ^o*^ ^ ^ S* 

l/Wtylt fisherman yeeh-y^ belly keu^kol breast 

(IvoqUlot) a gourd (yOryf^) road. 

When in a noun with a consonant plural-ending the stem also ends in a con- 
sonant, the final consonant of the stem is dropped, the consonantal suffix taking 
its place ; see 44. 

4. nasal consonant as suffix. 

|%^j(2fi^ dura-basket kwhch'-hjoiLM leopard hiMidft-imlini breast-bone 
yi^rV^ tree ^6ii-dtim tobacco |Sifi-|Smi dish. 

Vice versa : v>aii(f^iHich paper. 
wsaraBMAmr, n« suu«k p«ori«. 4 

1 16. 

Digitized by 



The Parts o 








Iwip'ltodbi company. 

bytlQrbyil dura 
gtdlihffwil ring. 

5. Yoioed mute consonant becomes yoiceless. 
dfiidit^fu^ a fish diudit-dm a wfld goose bi^it^)^^ blacksmith 

ffiflrff6chi sword bu4^bii^ a melon dikigir4^cilti dura-stick 

dtrn^m basket. 
Vice versa: fuh-fiyi tortoise drgk-^dfitgi bell 

6. dropping the singular-sufiSx q. 

ffilQrfol knife gytn^yih hen 

triii^-tdii bird ti^iig-^ egg 

7. dropping the prefix 0. 

o&tM>f^^-&uK>H white man dcMl^HMl Shilluk-man djinit^in Dmka-man.> 

Vice yersa: rim-^im nose, 
b) Plural-formation by Change of Tone. 
For completeness' sake the nouns which do not change their tone in plural, 
are also enumerated here. — Nouns with prefixes and those without diem 
are separated, as they show differences of tone. 

In some cases nouns with a slight deviation of tone have been grouped 
under the same heading; this has been done, because the differences do not 
seem to be essential and perhaps have been misheard. On the difference 
between ' and a see 51. 
Some nouns have two plural-forms. 

Nouns with prefixe9. 
i.iickwhiit^hwdii loin-cloth dmd2^-^m^Q camel 

hh^h-bkik egret ^Jb^ib-^il^Jl flower 

hkwhk^hwHik a goose hmi.dit'^miit fire-fly 

brhh-^yAh craft. 


hdltrlt-hdir arm-ring 
bpdr^ a gourd 
(UMi^im fist 

bchttyit-beh^yi melon 
hpodl blue 
diwdh'hwiJc a bird. 


bb^vr^biwi lungs 
bW^btri feather 

dgvOfi (Wue heron. 


Aihlr-iAttri pigeon 
bwdch-^twoch a shell 
bgwil-hgwtl a bird. 

^i-^i^, ^ » spear 
blM-bm duck 


hcMf^hA^ arm-ring 


hky^-ihy^ gun-cock 
ciburlt-hbhr bush-buck 
hdtrihiidiT donkey 

hbirit-bl^r a pot 
aehwd^c^hwdif^ guinea-fowl 
dj^p-A|^ bag. 

> In one ezsmple the plnral is formed bj suffixing r: rij^or king. 

Digitized by 


The Noun 


6ik^d^Uei hedgehog blUi-bmi club 

i>ntDilnit an ant bnu4rit whip btitUt a white dura. 

<(i0Sft^-($tcSn| heron ((Iu;dn(^ihi72n2 broom 
dtytnlt^tytn a fish ((^^tSn| a fish 

6vAjlf^iliiwtij^ cousin irgk-drtk small bell 

6y\n^ crocodile-hunter. 




deh&A-^hiiA a fish 

dehwih^ehuik anus 

ciih0an-iiibti;dn ear-lap 

ciZun-ii^ somersault 

dmd^^mi^ a stork 

dnif^'-dntt^ a knife 

dUt-dtit mangouste 

(fyu^dtn-eiyuy^fTii monkey 

6rqt-6rdt a snake 

omi brother ((m^ his brother 

dlwMlwi marabout 

d/won-b/wun loaf 

dgih^lk buffalo 

((ik^JMJfc^ik a fish 

{(iuMf^({ibti;^Q gourd 

dkyiUkyiH an ant 

inyi^-inyti^i a snake 

({p4p-<$p4p hip-bone 

(Jfw^luF^J hyena 

Spjoiij^'d^ cock. 

dbdi^bdik hammer 

dkiUkitli drum-stick 

dkwir^hifi serval 

<(2taM2^ a fish 

AtwiU6iwiJi a fish 

6Uifnn6Umi sycomore 

^ttH^ hawk 

<(<^^2 a pot. 

dgiJc'^fi crow 

dlHinitiAi a fish 

ioA&fi^-icAti^ an ant 

dddliHidi^ a gourd 

<id^2Mc2^; a fish 

dfiid^fiiii a fish 

ddtk'idm a mat 

<($r^-<$$rgni bracelet 

6gwiiJr6giofi frog 

Aywih^ytoiH a crane. 

dei!kii-i^4 wild goose 

cfyj^m^y^m tin 

dfHinift^ sk«u^ 

^|r^-<fyi^ a hair dress 

473J»'My^ neck-bone 

dxMtfM^A a red ant 

itoodiwihrdifc a bird 

dyHr^yWi quail 

(MH-<(d|r kiddle 

(Jj^i^^tt jackal 

6mirit red dura 

((m$^ a cow 

((ng^^ a cow 

drdp-drdp spider 

it^l^ A ford 

dr^ch-dritch ram 

A^^^k-Hu^h male goat 

((fTH^jMtTi^ roan antelope 

dbigiHibik albino 

<(iti^^frtiri(t a shrub 

<(d|2^.<kd; a cow 

Digitized by 



The Parts of Speech 



ddibb-dOip blanket 
dgiiUt^iJi mule 

13. dhidit^k^i basket 

14. 6chi/init^hyin loin-cloth. 



dgtoi'dgwe bow. 
dlibd-dlipi a bird 

ddinjhitdin a fish 

dkwQn^liitn feather 

dk^h^k^k egret 

dg&l-dgdl mole 
((ndy^-(^t cousin. 

6r^Mr^i beU. 

(di^^i^ red earth. 

<i^-atdii hat 
((Jbuf ib-dibu^ goose 

18. dchy^noriuihy^ an ant 
2(r£»-dr ant-hill 

dywih^liywdJc crest 

iJri-^ relations by marriage. 
Perhaps in these last two examples o and g are not prefixes, bat vowels 
of the stem, the first consonant (perhaps w) having been dropped; see 33. 




dkiUbk^t beU 

dJft^^kiA gaselle 
Cd^dM-^m tobacco). 

hjtoigi^jwhh sorcerer. 

btytmr6ty^ dragon-fly. 

bUtr6li^ hawk 

im&dlt^fAni breast-bone 

bb^h-dbiSeh reed. 





. kwbm^kdm 









a shell 



withnU prejitea. 








a fish 








a fish. 





Digitized by 





ft^fi\ country 

fil^'fdl doud 


;%^'ftife chief 

far^jf-far^ dung-hill. 


ffhl^ffil bight 

^ir^T^ a bead 

ifca^JbiZi fence 

l^difkit a fish 

kwiteh-kwAM leopard 

pdm^mi board 

fh^fu{ lame person. 


elAgiirchbk a fish 

fkh-fugi tortoise 

fytr-fhi back-bone 

^Ani^^ekn button 

jtfp^ipi buffalo 

kkn-'kliLni trumpet 

kiwifkiwi beam 

JSiUm rock 

kii-kiiwi thief. 

ysi-yiiii pot 

^<2j^f^ hammer. 


byV^hyil dura 

bytrh-byir belly 

pikr-piri hippo 

ky^'kyiii horse 

(^t^/ skin). 


bii^^ net 

6*r.6ir boU 

{^AAr^Aitr a fish 

^ik-^k mouth 

Srrf;i-^^W sword 

^^Z^-^ cannon 

^fb-^d^ navel 

i^-^ relations by marriage 

ihogn^lu;^! solo-singer 

kich-k^hi axe 

kwin-kwitn report 

ifcy^ft-ifcyiZ star. 


gyiUirgytl ring 

6<lJl-&Sit: fence 

hhi/iiflAfi locust 

bidifbti^ blacksmith 

cAu^^AiJZ penis 

^ii-^ni dancing-stick« 


ftdn^-frini meat on the skin 

bdit-hit arm 

cUiglt^Mk charcoal 

ddk-dik pot 

fyb^fyif^ skin 

gwbk^ihk dog 

gyh^y^ hen 

jhchrjdch shoulder 

kiinifktni gourd 

hohHt-kwhi pole 

Jfcu^^-iS^ shield 

ibM;6m-*rfiwJ board. 

). k!u^ii^kw${ farting fdr^firi mat. 

c) Plural-formation by yowel-change. 
Change of the quantity of the stemrvowel. 
2. Singular short vowel, plural long vowel. 

bhitk^lik igret hk^h^l^k flower 

dr^i-df^jfc craft iwdh-iwlik a bird 


Digitized by 


54 The Parts of Speech 

br&cnbrtk a small bell chii^rchXa, tooth-bruBh 

gofr^itt riyer-side clwo^'-ckwtiJi ambassador 

h}fv)ith^hx^k a goose bgwil^todl a bird 

itchiii^hAt arm-ring hgw^nnigwin bastard 

hchwdi-hckwtt guinea-fowl if^iiS^'i^ cock 

dtwdk-dtwdk a bird irdjh^rdp spider 

dwit-^tt a mat dikto^k^u^k male goat 

6gdU6gld mule <i^-^ii hat 

dkw^-^ku^ feather dhiUbklit bell 

dM^t^t hoof kiJnki^i fence 

fytr-ftri back-bone bith-hUk fence 
dak-dik pipe. 
In the first eight examples the short and long vowd are the only distinction 
between singular and plural. 

2. Singular long vowel, plural short yowd. 

ehitnl-chdmi bait bgio^h^toltn blue heron 

blim'^lSmi sycomore dUt^U^ hawk 

db^ginibhk albino dehyinit^ehy^ loin-cloth 

cgvoigi-djwiik wizard blkf^U^ hawk 

ehdr^hitr vulture bytllhbyil dura 

pir^Sri hippo Mr-bgr boil 

giji-^ichi sword kyiUfkyil star 

gyin^y&i hen AujAr^fei^Ai pole. 

Only in the first word the plural is distinguished firom the singular by the 

short vowel only. 


124* Change of the Quality of the Stem-votoeL 

I. The stem-vowel of the singular turns e in plural. 

dgdJcnigiH, crow ptkr-pjfi hippo 

ogwiiirdgwfi firog ddih-^idiH a mat 

iywhh'dywihi crane 6twiU6twiJi a fish 

dldk-dUH a fish ((<i^^^^ a pot 

SlimHiUml sycomore <(^&iM^^ a bird 

fiU^fk spoon <^M^K(^^ hawk 

kwAri^kw^ pole 6^tr^^-<)^t4^ blue heron. 

In some words the vowd in plural is not e, but e or j; as these are closely 
related to each other, and perhaps e, 1 are misheard for e, I have classed 
them together. 

In aU these nouns the stem-vowel has high tone in plural; probably the 

Digitized by 


The Noun 


high tone and the reduction of the vowel to e are m some causal connection; 
▼ide 1 6. 

2. The stem-Yowel of the singular — mostly a — turns s in plural. 

^AttHij(-^AtoA| guinea-fowl id^^i^ fence 

Mib-ftSi fence diih^k pot, pipe 

hhw^Mhi^ a goose dhoihAihs^h a goose. 

Here the short vowel of the singular becomes long in plural; the length- 
ening of the vowel may be the reason of its turning into 0; see 17. 

3. singular a pi. ^. marmtja aunt y^trVGI^ ^^%. 

4. singular t pL a* dt^iiHitAii hat {ysi-yV^ boat). 

5. singular a, pi. 0. ra| (V^ see 16) -ror king. 

6. sing. ^ pi. «. gyit^yit waterbuck. 

7. sing. « pL £. dtH-diit mangouste 

<^^^-((tl^^ a mat 

wich'WQ^ head. 

jaUjok man 

j^^tfi^ small 

fn^-f7i(2^ these. 

The plural-vowel q, is remarkable, as it does not correspond to a certain 

vowel in singular, but is a class of its own; it not only forms tiie plural of 

nouns, but also of pronouns and adjectives. Note also anor^QT^i a is the deictic 

pronoun "it is** ; but here it is treated like a radical vowel and thus changed 

in plural. 

i/uLyolQriliaxjouli an axe 
bkitift^hiiii hedgehog 

rim'^im nose. 
anSi^nitiM a knife 
toeh-toach gun ; see 22 
fntf>fntcigk dog-head fish. 

8. sing, e, pi. t. 

9. sing. % pi. a. 
10. (sing, a, 6 Q pi. 2 

dnMiHintii red ant 
yechysk belly. 
y^lry^ scorpion. 

mikorfnSoko some 
in^finh what 

11. sing. £9 pi. u, ff. 

12. sing, u pi. it- 

13. sing. pi. fi. 

kieh^kiiehi an axe 
moffOr^nuH beer. 

6^-6^ boil 
cJUhMfhitr vulture. 

14. sing. i2 pL ton. 

15. sing. 19(29 wo pi. 129 O5 li. 

16. sing, wo pL 110. 

17. sing, y^ pi. ^ 

18. sing. y£,£,i pi. ^. 

^J^ibMi^ cock 
6fftD^k^i[H jackal 
Z«^^^ a gourd 
ktobm^kdm back 
4/Wri-4/&n loaf. 
gtobh^iibk dog 
fyb^/hi backbone. 
lyich'Uieh elephant 
6^A-{(6^A reed. 

6hwQr^1(iri serval 
{(Jku^-^i(^ featiier 
j{tiK>2-{o2i snake 
ifcti^dt-Jbde shield 

^^-ibi^iTii board. 

yOryiii neck 

Digitized by 


56 The Parts of Speech 


125. Gender is expreBsed in the noun only, not in pronounB. The natoral gender 

may be marked in two ways: 

a) by different words. 

ckwqu man ^ocAg woman tra| bull ^^mA cow 

6ivwQk male sheep or goat dyil female goat 

b) by adding 6^^ for the male, md| for the female gender. 
nil bpcb^ male lion nit mdj or mdH nit female lion 
j^^ fi^ male lions mdd nit female lions 

ityM bpff^ or kyti^ d po^tj^ male horse JbyM a md^ or md| hf^ female horse 
kyiii d 0ji male horses h/iii a mi^ female horses 

pD^ dmir^ male roan antelope, pi. j^ 6mirit 
mdi dmirh female roan antelope, pi. nUi{ dmir^. 
I 2U. ^^ ^^^^ tingle wordy however ^ the Shilluk expresses the gender by phonetic 

means: ika child ilkal boy i^an girii. 

Here eyidendy I and n are added to the word yia in order to mark its 
gender, I for the male, n for the female gender. 

[That this case is not merely accidental, will be clear firom the fact that 
by the same means gender is expressed in the Bari language ; here it is not 
the nouns, but demonstratiye pronouns which receive the afiSxes I and n: 
lo this m. lu that m. 

na this f . nu that f . 

pi. ehi-lo these m. ehi^lu those m. 

chir-ne these f. ehi-nu those f. 

lu^u that one yonder m. chi-lu-yu those yonder m. 

nu'jfu that one yonder f. chi^ntt-j/u those yonder f. 

li~o my m. tl~ot your m. 

ni-o my f. in^t your f. 

In the noun, feminine is distinguished from masculine by the suffix et. 
The same distinction by the same means has Masai. 
The distinction of a grammatical gender is surely not Sudanic, it is not 
known in other Sudan languages; so we have doubtlessly Hamitic in- 
fluence here. The Shilluks must have been in contact with (a Hamitic) 
people who expressed in their language the grammatical gender by I and 
n, but this contact was not long or strong enough, to make the distinction 
of gender a living factor in the language ; so only a faint trace of it was 
left. There is one more Sudan language^ which has a similar distinction : 
the Songhai (on both banks of the middle Niger). This language has, in 

Digitized by 


The Noun 57 

the same way as Bari and Masai, a kind of article, di for living beings, m 
for inanimate things. I believe that di is identical with U^ I and d ofien 
changing in African languages ; vide ihe examples in the comparative 
Lists of Words in Third Section. K this is right, the Songhai (in which, 
though, this distinction will not be original, but borrowed firom some 
Hamitic language) represents an elder stage in the development of 
grammatical gender: living ) masculine, inanimate ) feminine or neuter 
(which may original^ be the same, as with primitive men woman is 
rather a thirg, a merchandise, than a person).] ^ 

A second way of distinguishing gender by phonetic means is represented I 20cL. 
in the following word : 

dffwil an ox with the horns turned toward the eyes 
offwiUt a cow with the horns turned toward tiie eyes. 


The ruling noun is a singular. 
I. The genetive follows the noun determined by it. The noun ends in a con- I 2^^. 
sonant; in these cases the two nouns unite without any connecting element or 
phonetic changes : 

iDQt house; wQtjUgh house of tiie chief 

/o| dub ; lo{ obujoii club of the stranger 

itj^p bag; a^jal pit bag of tiiis man 

okoJc blossom; okok yai^ gni blossom of tiiis tree 

y^ ear; yfji h/^ ear of the horse. 

There are, however, a few exceptions, chiefly if tiie final consonant is k 
or ehf and tiie next word begins witii a consonant; 

a) sometimes tiie ''helping vowel^ is inserted : 

kidQ colour; kite tojn black colour 

n^d^ rib; n^e jal rib of man 

lech tooth; l^he b/gch tooth of the elephant 

mQgq beer; mQkefofjewQn beer of our country 

bgdQ artist. bgie tgn one who makes spears. 
These are treated like nouns in the plural. 

b) eh and k may be dropped : 

paeh village ; pa r^ village of the king 

k^h, kach hunger; ka jal ffii tiie hunger of tiiis man 

d^k catde; ^ r^ tiie cattie of the king. 

Digitized by 


58 The Parts of Speech 

c) ch softens into y: 

mack fire; may haqti^ "fire of cotton''; see 45. 

One word changes its vowel before a genetiye : 

yfi way; yu FaJosi the way to F. ; 

likewise when an adjectiye follows: yu tocK a narrow way; see 22. 
2. Noons which have the final vowel q^ and whose second consonant is a voiced 
— in some cases also a voiceless — mute (ffO^JQ, dq^ 4^ f>Q)p drop, .when 
followed by a genetive, the q, and torn the consonant into the corresponding 
nasal one : git} n^jn} ^9 d^y n, ^y f^, bft} m; see 40. 

jagQ chief; j^^fotfi wQn the chief of our countiy 

<if<xy2 rabbit; afoa^ lial 0j^ the rabbit of ihe child 

(jdQ people ; ign fan gni the people of this village 

6m^ a cow; in^ nj( the cow of the king 

tQ^hq, plate ; tQ^m i/kan the plate of the girl 

muiq neck; mune ^n the neck of the cow. 

This nasalization is caused by a nasal consonant, n, which is no doubt 
identical with the demonstrative n (vide 138), and has originally the meaning 
"that'' : jagq n pack "the chief^ (namely) that of the village". There are some 
examples which show the n in existence at ihe present time : taa doth, tm 
^hq the doth of the woman; here n is preserved, the u having dropped 
before it ; rij^ king, an older form rQ^ see 16 ; rQf^ l^bq ihe king of the people ; 
here the n is preserved, though the word ends in a consonant; this is 
generally not the case ; it is evident that after a vowd the n is easily 
preserved, jctgq n paeh offers no difiSculty in pronouncing, but in words 
ending in a consonant the n was liable to disappear, the more so, as the 
consonant was voiceless, and n is voiced; thus ^k n tjdq ) ^k iqdo, but 
joffq n tqdq ) jan ijdq. This n has high tone: 

[This n, originally probably always a demonstrative pronoun and serving 
to express the genetive relation, exists in a great number of central and 
eastern Sudan languages. In Di. it effects the same changes as in ShiUuk, 
besides it is found in Nuba, Logons, Mandara, Tedft, and also in Haassa 

The ruling noun is a pluraL 
If the ruling noun is a plural, the n does not appear, but when the noun 
ends in a consonant, the ^hdping voweP is suffixed to it When the plural 
ends in i, this 1 is generaUy preserved. A change of tone is to be noted here: 
while the plural-forming 1 (see 103) and the hdping vowd have low tone in 
those cases where no genetive follows, they receive high tone when standing 
before a following genetive. Tins high tone most probably indicates the last 

Digitized by 


The Pronoun 59 

geneUve-forming n, the sound n itself having disappeared, but its tone (see 
127) was perseryed. — Examples: 

paeh village, pi. mysr; my^ri rij^ villages of the king 

w^ house, pi. w^^; wotirii^ houses of the king 

y^ ear, pi. yij^; yifi ky^ ears of the horse 

mogit beer, pi. myfci; mitkifofje wQn beers of our country 

okok blossom, pi. bh^k; hkikiya^ the blossoms of the tree 

a|^j> bag, pi. h^p; ^pi note wHq the bags of the traveller 

k^h hunger, pi. kiM; kiMfofe wQfi the £unines of our countiy 

jitgit chief^ pi. jitk; j^^ foffi toQn the chiefs of our country. 

In my materials I find one exception to this rule: gwbk-^iihk dog; gfibki 
jal sni the dogs of this man ; but this may be a misunderstanding. ^ 

The Objective Case. I 20. 

The direct object or accusative follows the verb : d chdm byil he ate dura. 
Sometimes the particle ki "with** is added : d chdm ki byil he ate (with) dura. 
But when kd "and'' begins a sentence, the object always precedes the verb: 
ki hytf, eham and dura ate (he). 

What in European languages is an indirect or dative object, the Shilluk 
transforms into a direct object, and what we would call the direct object, is in 
this case always introduced by ki; instead of saying: "he gave money to the 
chfld'', they say: "he presented the child with money'' : a wH i^l H nye^. 

But in very many, probably in most cases the direct and indirect object are 
not expressed at all, the passive voice being used instead, "I saw him" is 
expressed by "he was seen by me" ; "he gave the child milk" by "the child 
was given milk by him". — On the passive voice see 173. 

The Vocative Case 
is formed by lengthening the (last) vowel, by raising the tone, and sometimes 
by adding % "you" : nhH man, nM o man! D&k a proper name, D&gi o Dftk! 


The Personal Pronoun, 

Connected Form, standing before the verb. 
This form is generally used as the subject of verbs. \ "^O. 

yi \ yi thou yi, i (b) he 

todf wi we toi you gi they. 

The forms are often pronounced with a short vowd. yi and i (sometimes ^, 
likewise wd and u^ are used promiscuously, but t apparently the younger 


Digitized by 


6o The Parts of Speech 

form, is employed more frequently than yi; h \% seldom used ; in the 3*^ person 
g\i also occurs, but it is very rare as a subject. Note that h and ^^ have a low 
tone, but aU other personal pronouns have a high tone. 
I 3 I * [I^ is ^^ lo<^^ remarkable that in two West African Sudan languages the 

personal pronouns of the 3*^ pers. sing, are the same as in Shilluk: Ewe 
i and t^, Twi e and (In Ewe even the tones are equal to those in Shi.) ; 
Ewe makes some distinction in the use of i and wb^ while in Shi. ihey 
seem to be employed at will. Gang too has e and 0, apparently without 
making any distinction between the two. 
On the form of the pronoun note the following remarks : 
The corresponding forms for the singular and the plural seem to have 
originaUy the same vowels, only y{ and wu being different But besides 
yi^ yi also occurs, and in Nuer the possessive pron. of the 2^^ pers. sing, 
is du {d is prefixed), so it seems probable that the original vowel was 
u, which was assimilated by the palatal semivowel y and thus became t. 
This palatalization must, however, have taken place at an eariy period, 
as neighbouring languages — with the exception just stated — have i 
andyt for the 2^^ pers. sing. So we get as primitive vowels of the personal 
pronoun : d, u, i, which were differentiated into singular and plural by 
certain prefixes. 

a) Singular. 

In aU tiiree persons the pronoun begins with y, but tiie 3^^ person has a 
third form, which is not mentioned above: yin (n marks the absolute form, 
see 132, so the form is properly yi); yi I regard as die older form of y^ 
(on the change between y and y see 35); in Dinka and Nuer the pronoun 
of tiie first person is ya, which is likevdse the older form for Shilluk ya; 
from this it is probable that the 2^^ person also originaUy began witii y, 
though, as far as I can see, it is nowhere retained. Thus we get tiiese 
(hypothetical) primitive forms: ya^ yu, y&; a, u, ^ designating tiie persons, 
and y the singular. 

b) Plural. 

In plural all persons begin with w except ^^. What is the origin of tiiis gf 
In Nuer the i** pers. is hi, the third kin and kyin^ in Dinka ke (probably 
kt[); kd is evidentiy contracted from kwa, see 22; analogous to tiiis kyi 
may be derived from kwi {kws, ) ky^ see 32), and the 2^^ person, wu, 
would be originally ktou, but, as in the singular, here the hypothetical 
form seems nowhere preserved. So the primitive forms of tiie plural 
would be: kwa, kum, kw&; a, u, ^ again designating the persons and Jbt^ 
tiie plural. (As for the prefixing of k note tiiat in Dinka the personal 

Digitized by 


The Pronoun ............,.......^.,^^ ^^ 

pronoans in the absolute form suffix a £/). — The evolution of g^ in 
Shi. would then be thus: hw^ ) hj^ ^ ^£ ) ^£* While in the first and second 
person the Jb before w was dropped (see 46), in the 3^ pers. ht turned 
into gt' The changing of a voiceless into a voiced consonant is not so 
uncommon in the Eastern Sudan languages, see 42 ; here the process 
was facilitated by g^ being a much used word, whose pronunciation may 
easily be slighted. — Hence perhaps gh, ''he^ may also be explained. It 
may be formed from the primitive pronoun h ^he'', by prefixing to it, in 
analogy with gi^ a g^ and to make the analogy perfect, the vowel h was 
also pronounced wide, that is ^, in accordance with the t in gi. This is, 
indeed, a mere hypothesis, but it is supported by the fact that ^^ and h 
both have low tone, while aU other personal pronouns have high tone.] 

Absolute Form. ^S^' 

yd/a I, me yin thou, thee ^^ y^ he, him ^^ he, him 

vodny wit^ WQ, us voUn you gin they, them. 

These differ from the connected form only by a suffixed n; ^ and xt^ ^^re 
used promiscuously; g^ occurs frequently as objective, but seldom as subjective 
pronoun. The suffixed n may be identical with the deictic n mentioned in 127 
et passim; so that ydn reaUy means: ''it is P. 

These absolute or separable pronouns do not stand immediately before a 
verb, they are used when the person is to be emphasized. They are employed 
as subjective and objective alike. When they emphasize the subject, the 
connected form of the pronoun has to follow them : yin yd ehdm (it was) I 
(Ifaat) ate. 

The absolute pronouns may again be emphasized by adding d: ydnds yiruU 
ind. This has the meaning of "it is**, and is often used in addresses : ind Pdeh- 
idtt that is Fashoda; yindjw^h "thou art God*" ''o God''. 

K A personal pronoun in the singular is connected with another pronoun or 
noun, the plural form is always used instead of the singular: wi H yin I and 
you; vrti H min you (sing.) with whom? 

Objective Form. 133* 

It is suffixed to the verb. Example : stem ehwQl to call. 

Common form. With more emphasis. 

d ehwliUk he called me d ehto^li ydn or ydnd, 

d ehw^i he called thee d ehwjtlA yin or yini^ 

d chw^li he called him d chwitlA in or init 

d ehwitli win he called us d ehuitlii win or winik 

d ehwiih win he called you d ehw^tUi toiin or wind, 

d ehw^H gin he called them d ehwhUt gin or gini. 

Digitized by 


62 The Parts of Speech 

The first d is the sign of the past; in the second form the final a of the verb 
marks the verb as being foUowed by an object 

Note the change of the tone in the objectiye form. The objective form has 
low tone, whereas the subjective form has high tone.^ 
I 'J A, Possessiye Form.* 

This form is also always sufiBxed. Example wht house pL i^^. 

witdi my house ti^^ thy house w^ his house 

witt win our house tr^ wtin your house tr^ ffin their house 

wi^ my houses wftti thy houses w^ his houses 

wltt( win our houses to^ tmin your houses witH ffin their houses. 

gwbk pi. giibk dog. 
gwbgJi my dog gtebgi thy dog ffwbg^ his dog 

gw6k win our dog gw6k wiin your dog gwdk gin their dog 

giidkd my dogs gtiiki thy dogs ^ti((i^ his dogs 

gudki win our dogs gtidke win your dogs gudki gin their dogs. 

K the final consonant of the noun is a liquid or nasal, the w in wgjn and wun 
is often onmiitted: kal un your fence; ty^ un your people. 

If both the possessor and the thing possessed are a singular, the possessiTe 
pronoun has a middle tone, if either of them or both are a plural, the poss. 
pr. has a high tone. 
I 3 5 * In the connection of noun and pronoun the rule given in 40 is to be ob- 

served, as these examples show: 

jligll chief^ jinii my chief afoajg, rabbit, afoankik my rabbit 
but in pi.: jik chiefB, jakd mychiefB afoachi rabbits, afoaehd my rabbits. 
K the final vowel of the noun is u, it turns into ur; if u is the sole stem-vowel, 
a 117 is inserted : fyiu heart, fyiwh my heart ; nit lion, nuwa my lion. 

In some few cases the possessive pronoun is prefixed by r: ra my, ri thy etc. 
Before this r the final consonant of the noun drops : 

i^al boy i/ilara my boy paeh village para my village, etc. 

This r is a shortened form of ri ''body, seUl" 

As the intonation shows certain iiregularities in the connection of nouns 
with possessive pronouns, some more examples may be given. 


Aw^ mat 

pi. AwU; 

iwi^ my mat; 

iwtj^ my mats 

yU ear 

pl. yiU 

y^ my ear; 

yUd mjesn 

i^l rain 

pi. kof^l 

%Ia my raining; 

kdjfd my rainings 

Igtfih elephant 

pl. USch; 

fyiji my eleph.; 

Uiehd my elephants 

^^ ^Ag 

pl. i^p; 

A||M my bag; 

a^pd my bags 

kwitm chair 

pl. JW^; 

kwimi my chair; 

kiitfnd my chairs 

rijn fish 

pl. rich; 

ri^i my fish; 

rMui my fishes 

* In Ewe €, the pronoun of the 3*^ pert. sing, hmi hlg^ tone, when tubjeotiTe, but low tone, 
when objeokhre ; the same is the case in Toraba: 4^ he, ^ him ; tee Crowther pafe (4) and (8). 
' The sniBxed tubjeetiTe form lee 160. 

Digitized by 


The Pronoun 


yA neck 

hwach leopard 

iiik lion 

W| king 

hViih blossom 

pi. yi^i f/^ my neck; ylifSwin our necks 

pi. hwMi; kwijA mj leopard; kwiHd my leopards 
pi. nuwi; nutoA my Hon ; ntiwd my lions 

pi. rSr; rd^ my king; f^d my kings 

pi. biilk; hkdgit my flower; hlAhd my flowers. 
In all personal prononns the singnlar is not onfrequently used instead of the 
plnral of ihe corresponding person. 

Sometimes the possessive pronoun of the f^ person sing, is employed instead 
of the first plural, chiefly in names of relatives: wan^ "his*' and "our^ grand- 

The possessive pronoun can also be afiSxed to an adjective : tml b\ bjnH 
(instead bpi am) have aU of you come ? 

Some much used nouns have shortened forms, when they are connected with 
posaessive pronouns : 

md mother 
mdyit my mother 

wich father 
tffiyi my father 
w6u thy father 
w^ his father 
wi ourfSftther 
my vmn your father 
wiy gin their father 
dihn cow 
di& my cow 

di his cow 
ind brother 
omiA my brother 

mdyi thy mother 
min his mother 
mAy win our mother 
miywiin(mayu) your mother 
^y g^ their mother 
mi mother 
mia my mother 
miu thy mother 
min his mother 
lidmi sister 
MnUi my sister 
Mmiiu thy sister 
lidm^n his sister 
fiamt yi win sister 
fiatnt yi win sister 
i/kamiyigin sister. 

imiim thy brother 
((m^ his brother 
in4, our brother 
imi wu your brother 
imi gin their brother 
The in in 10^ om-^ etc. is the absolute pronun in he. 
rtf 6ad^5 self 

rea myself re yi wgn ourselves 

rei thyself re yi vmn yourselves 

r^ himself re yi g^ themselves. 

In names of relatives the possessive pronoun of the 2^^ person sing, (and 
plural) is generally u, wu: 

Digitized by 


64 The Parts of Speech 

kwdyu your grandfiather mayu your mother mhi your mother. 

I ^ ^7 . The PossesBiye Pronoon as a Sabstantiye. 

It is formed by the help of mi pi. mQk or gin pi. g\k; gin is "diing^, me 
probably has a similar meaning. 

Singular of the thing possessed : 
miA mine mA thine m| his 

mH (me yi) win ours mii win yours mii g^n theirs 

ginA mine gini thine ^in^ his 

glni win ours (^in^ im^n yours glni gin theirs. 

Plural of the thing possessed: 
mikd^ mine mi win ours glki win ours gikd mine. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

I "7 Q^ In connecting nouns in the singular with demonstratiye pronouns, the rule 

described in 40 obtains, with the one difference howeyer, that here not onty 
the nouns ending in a yowd change their last (mute) consonant, but also the 
nouns whose final sound is a mute consonant; accordingly the rule giyen in 
40 is to be enlarged thus : final g^ and ky n, jq and ehy ik, d^ and ty n, ^ 
and ny f^ hq and py m. 

These consonant changes, without any further addition, represent the simplest 
form of the demonstrative pronoun. The changes are no doubt caused by suffix- 
ing an n, which possesses a demonstratiye power. It is employed in nouns 
ending in a mute consonant or in go, jo, do, ^ bq only, at least I haye not 
heard it used in others (as for instance in jal "man*', which would become 
*jaln or rather ^an, see 44). 

The meaning of this primitiye form is a reference to a person or object juat 
mentioned or just spoken of It has somewhat the character of the definite article 
in English (as in such a sentence : we saw a man walking in the bush ; the man 
called to us). 

gwok dog, gwon the (identical) dog, the dog just spoken of 

jagq chief^ jan the chief just mentioned 

maeh fire, maii the fire just mentioned, this fire 

IjJQ tooth, ^ the tooth just spoken of^ this tooth 

wqt house, ufQn the house just spoken of^ this house 

yi^p tail, yiffn the tail just spoken ot this tail, etc. 

ty^fof^ the people of this country, fromfoffi 
tyffi won the people of this house, firom wqt 

* ^gd also it heard. 

Digitized by 


The Pronoun 6$ 

yH gwon the hair of this dog, from fftook 
yiifi y^V ^® leaves of this tree, from yaf 
kd place, kin this place, here 

^uki to-morrow, ^n this to-morrow, the next day. 
Besides these the Shi. has several demonstrative pronouns denoting different 139* 
distances between the speaker and the person or object spoken of. 
Singular: an this, ini that, ^Ad that over there. 

Plural : iJc, in, hgbk these, ini those, iuihh those over there, hn and ini are 
probably of the same origin; % was suffixed to an; a has become ^ by assi- 
milation to i; see 26.1 Note the difference of tone, the low tone designating 
the object near by, the high tone that one in some distance. 

To mark a great distance, they use chini; this is pronounced with an exceed- 
ingly high tone, and the last vowel may be lengthened at will, according to the 
greatness of the distance. 

Be it noted that according to 138 the changes of the final consonants take 
place only in singular, never in plural ; in the plural the final mute consonants 
are always to be pronounced voiceless, that is as a real k^ ch^t^l p. 

Some examples of nouns connected with demonstrative pronouns (The in- ^ £\XJ* 
tonation-marks in my materials are incomplete here). 

jfigh chief; jin hn this chief, 

jin ini that chief, jfik chiefs ; 

jfik ak these chiefs, jik ini those chie&, 

jin aeha the chief over there jik hchh the chiefiB over there 

ijtoigi sorcerer; ajwQn an this sorcerer 

djw^k pi. ; djw^k hk pi. 

ekwak voice; ehwan in; pi. chwak; ehwak dib 

kwaeh leopard; kwiii an; pi. kwatii; kwiii Ak 

o/oaJQ hare; dfdctii itn; pi. afoachi; df ditch hk 

rit king; riji hn; pi. r6r; r6r itk 

kiti rain; k^j^ itn; pi. kdj^ itk 

yit ©*r; yir^ An; pL yif.; yi| hk 

dt$p bag; cit^ dn; pi. af^p; a0p dk 

^uki to-morrow, ^ne chini the day after to-morrow 

iwif^ a mat; 6w^ dn, dwij^ ini pi. dwH; du^i ini^ 6u^ dchd 

tidii people ; tin dn. 

The last example, though virtually a plural, is treated as a singular. 
Koons ending in other consonants or in vowels, have no changes : 
rtr kings; r9r dk these kings gin tiling; gin dn tins tiling 

IM war; IM dn tiiis war pi water; pi dn tins water. 

' It if, howerer, difficult to iHntingiitth the beginning yowek in dn and ini; dn sometimef sounds 
gn or eren 0%, and tm is sometimes heard as g^ni. 

wisTnuumr, Th« suaoak p«epi«. 5 

Digitized by 


66 The Parts of Speech 

I^I^ The demonstrative pronooD standing for a noun. 

m^ hn this one mik bk these ones. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

14-2* They imply the same consonant-changes as the demonstratiyes Ptonomis. 

tn^ what, which? pi. qho^i on this plural see 124. 
d which? 
bmin (also imtrC) who? pi. hmftk (dmik). 

Examples : Smgular. 

ogwQJk jackal; 2i ogwgn initt which jackal is it? 

lysch elephant; 2i ly&^ dii^ which elephant is it? 

wi^ house; i won init which house is it? 

yat> tree; i yaj^ in^ which tree is it? 

rij^ king; i rgji in^ which king is it? 

ai^p bag; i a^jsm An^ which bag is it? 

gin thing; 2i gin dn^ which thing is it, what is it? 

14-^* ^ ^^ plural the final mute consonants are always to be pronounced voice* 

less, that is as a real k^ ch, t, I, p; see 139. 

toQii houses; d wi^t inb which houses are they? 

ror kings; i ror init which kings are they? 

y^ trees; d ysjf^ in^ which trees are they? 

dgbki jackals; d ogok ^^ which jackals are they? 

a^p bags; d ailp ^^ which bags are they? 

lyich elephants; d lyich in^ which elephants are they? 
gik things; d gik in^ which things are they? 

&m4n d bl who has come ? 
&mik d bl who have come ? 
jal am&i which man? 
jgk am^k which men? 
I 44* am^ d d wbri yinf who (is it that) sent you? 

tod yMi mdnd whom shall we elect? [this? 

wQn an d toQt m&i this house is house whose? whose house is 
wQt ak d WQti mok whose houses are these? 

won d which house? rffp 8 which king? 

ogwQn d which fox? igtM 8 which foxes? 

mhi (am^n) and probably also d are no original interrogative pronouns, but 
are demonstratives ; see min in this sense 141 ; 2i is probably the deictic element 

Digitized by 


The Pronoun 67 

''it it^, Bee 196; buth both are in the same time employed as interrogatiye, 
and tnin eyen as a relative, see 145 ; originally it was : "this man \** and then, 
jost as in English: ''this man ?^ likewise: "it is a tree !^ and: "it is a tree ?^ 
Here not even the position of the words is changed, but only their tone; just 
80 in Shilluk; only the changing of tone goes the opposite way, the interrogative 
tone being low; see 206. 

Relative Pronouns. 

a) What we express by a relative sentence^ the Shilluk generally says in a I 45* 
simple sentence. Instead of saying : "the man who came yesterday, was my 

father'' they say : "the man came yesterday, he was my &ther^ ; (compare 
the English "the man I saw^ instead of "the man whom I saw^). 

jal d hi dwh the man came yesterday, or : the man who came yester- 
day ; d is not a relative pronoun, but a particle denoting 
the past tense ; 
wQt a g^i win the house (which) was built by us ; 
^lean d ndki yi (^ the cow (which) was killed by the people. 

b) In a similar sense min is employed; m^ is "this, this one^, see 141, but it 
serves also in expressing relative sentences: 

yi/i dwdtd mSn i Idjj^, yi dwdtd min ct thr literally: "I do not want this 
one, it is black, I want this one, it is white'' that is : "I do not want the one 
which is black, I want the one which is white". 

m^ may also be employed in a local sense : e mQ^ pi^ min dn lum bogon 
he drank water in a place, where there was no grass. 

c) A real relative pronoun seems to be md who, which : 

jal md bi the man who came h^ md b^ the time which comes. 

But this has rather the meaning of a participle : the coming time, the man 
having come. It is frequently used in connection with adjectives, see 149. 

The Reflexive Pronoun. 

Jt is formed wiA the help of ri pi. rei "body**. I 4^). 

rM my body, that is: myself 
rM thy body, that is : thyself 
rt his body, that is : himself 
rii %JD^ our body, that is : ourselves 
rii wun your body, that is : yourselves 
rii ffin their body, that is : themselves 
d neka ri he killed himself 

Digitized by 


68 The Parts of Speech 

gi neka rei gin they killed themselyes. 
Thej say also: 

a neka chwak^ he killed his throat: himwelf. 
''I myself^ is expressed in a similar way : 
d gwiki tfi k( rM "it was done, I with my body^ : I myself did it; 
d gwikk t/t kirii "it was done, you with your body'' : you yourself did it; 
d gwiki i kiri he himself did it 
d gw^ki wi k( rei y>if^ we ourselves did it 
d gwdkk tvu ki rei wun you yourselves did it 
d gw^ki gi ki rei gin they themselves did it 
or with kite "alone'' : 

d gwiki yi kiti I did it myself 
d gwikk yt k^ti you did it yourself 
d gwdki i ktti he did it himself 
d gwdkk wd 1^ w6n we did it ourselves 
d gwdki tvu l^ti wun you did it yourselves 
d gwikk gi l^ti gin they did it themselves. 
This has also the meaning: I did it alone. 
And : yd ki ehwdkd I with my throat : I myself; yt H chwaki etc. 

The Reciprocal Pronoun. 

I AH . wi fota rei ^n we beat each other 

gifota rei gin they beat each other. 


I Ao. Most adjectives do not distinguish between singular and phiral, tfiere are, 

however, a few which have different forms for both, and, what is veiy remai^- 
able, the plural always has the ending q, which, in ibe noun, is the specific 
ending of the singular. 

dfi$n pi. dtn^ big, great 0i^ pi. f^ small, litde 

chyck pL ehyik^ short bar pL i^r^, bh^ long 

rack pi. richtt bad. 

Note that all the plural-forms have low tone, and some, whose vowel in sin- 
gular is short, have a long vowel, see i lo. 

Many adjectives have two forms, one denoting tfie gradual entering of a 
state, the growing into a state, and the second denoting the accomplished state. 

Digitized by 


The Adjective 


d^ becoming big, growing ap ; ^ duQu big, great, grown up 

r^^ acting badly, growing bad; riuoh bad 

%^ becoming hot, feeling not; Vt\ hot. 

When adjectiyes are connected with nouns, the final consonant of the noun 
undergoes the changes described in 138. 

In this connection, howeyer, the adjectiye may be prefixed by the relatiye 
pronoun md (often m^) "which'', in this case no changes take place ; but it is 
to be noted that htfort md the final consonant of the noun is, contrary to the 
rule in 107, to be pronounced voiced, whereas in all other connections the yoice- 
less consonant is the characteristic of the plural. This deyiation firom the common 
rule is analogous to the fSact stated aboye, that the plural form of the adjectiye 
has the ending of the singular of nouns. In order to set forth the difference 
between the form without md and that with md, in the following examples the 
yoiced final consonant is written yoiced (contrary to the rule 38). 

Note : md (mi) has always distinctly high tone. The adjectiyes with md 
are in their meaning more emphatic than those without md: du(tn large, 
madugn yery large, large indeed. 
wQt house pi. u^. wgn diign big house pL tr^^ c^n^ 

wQd mddu$n big house pi. wQji mdd^^h 

ya| tree pi. y^. 

ya^ md0j^ small tree 

pL y^ t^j^ 

ri| king pi. rdr. 

rQf^ dich good king 
ryi mddich good king 

pL rdr dich [mdddch 
pi. rSr mddichf or 

at^p bag pL a^^p. 

&0m letch broad bag 
a0b mdlach broad bag 

pi. hgp Uu:hit 
pi. a^b mMhch^ 

hm flower pi. mi^. 

ohon kwirii red flower 
bkj^ mdkwifi^ red flower 

pi. bl^ mdkwAfit 

hf§eh elephant pL liich 

b/gti Idjit black elephant 
lysj mdlSj^ black elephant 

pi. liechi tojn 
pi. lie] mdlSjh 

gw6h dog pL gibh, 

gwbn titr white dog 
gwbg mdtdr white dog 

pi. guoH thr 
pi. gu6g mdtdr 

mQffQ beer pi. mQky muH- mon mit sweet beer 

mqg mdmit sweet beer 

pi. mitH m^t 
pi. m{tki mdmit 


yifi b& bitter leaf 
yij^ mdbil bitter leaf 

pi. yiti bil 
pi. yife mdbil 


Digitized by 


yo The Parts of Speech 

rejQ fish pi. rech^ rechi refi chy^k short fish pi. richi ehy§fcQ, 

rej mdchy^h short fish pL r^ maehyffco 

ysi neck pi. yi^jf. yfji bqr long neck pi. yisfe barq (hero) 

y^ mdbir long neck pi. yi^ji rndb^r^ 

Uj^ tooth pi. hh l&i tar white tooth pi. l^H tar 

Igj mdtdr white tooth pi. 2gy mdtdr 

yi road pi. yfi. yu toch narrow road pi. yefe toch 

yd matoch narrow road pi. ye^ matock. 
I ^O. AU the connections without md may have two meanings, vis. i*^ attri- 

bative, as they are rendered above: a big house, etc.; 2^ predicative, the 
house is big etc., that is, the adjectives have the quality of verbs, and are treat- 
ed as such, they may be conjugated like any verb ; but the adjectives with 
md are only used in an attributive sense. 


I C I , The means of comparing an object with another are rather scanty, the people 

not feeling the need of comparison as we do. They simply say: this thing is 
big, and that one is not big, or: is a litde big. 

a) The most common way of expressing a higher degree of quality or quantity 
is to lengthen the vowel, and at the same time to raise the tone. 

But generally this is only possible in words which have the hi{^ or middle 
tone, not with the low-toned ones ; with these the low tone is so essential^ 
connected that a high tone would be incompatible with them. Examples ot 
adjectives whose tone may be raised, are: dich good, gtr many, fiji small, 
tdch narrow. 

b) Words with low tone may be intensified in their meaning by still lowering 
their tone, as for instance riu:h bad, d^nit big, nHh much, many. 

Other means for expressing a higher degree of an adjective are: 

c) lengthening of a vowel only: m^ sweet, m^ very sweet; n^ many (tfie 
first vowel to be lengthened). 

d) repetition of the adjective : riieh bad, riuA r&ch very bad. In these repetitioiia 
generally the vowel in the second word is long. 

e) the word is repeated and the second gets the prefix ma: d^eh mdd^ch "good 
which is (really) good'' : very good, exceedingly good. 

f) ^raeh^ is very much used in this sense ; e. g. rach ki djjch "bad with good- 
ness'' that is: exceedingly good; raeh ki Iqu "bad with being far^: very, 
very £fcr. 

Digitized by 


The Numerals 


g) by adding %oQk '^ outside'' : j^ wQJk ''small outside'', that is "small beyond 
anything", very, very small. 

h) cAAr, chhr\i "very" may be added. 

i) by /o^ "to surpass"; this form together with those under k expresses a real 
comparison : yi dd ^k mdftf^ ^k pyhrlt "he has cows surpassing cows ten" : 
he has more than ten cows;y^ d j((^^ gij^d^j^ <i^k "people died, they sur- 
passed people three" : more than three people died. 

k) rini d mal, rind ya chdn "his years are above, my years are behind" : he 
is older than I; 

yd mitld b^n i t$k "I was first coming he was absent" : I came earlier than he; 
ba dugn ni ydn (he is) not (so) old as I. 


Cardinal Numbers. 

dky^l I dry^u 


ddik 3 dnw^ 


dbieh S dUkyil 


dbtryiu 7 dbidik 


dbinw^ 9 pyhrlt 


pyhr^ wiy dkyil 


pyhrit wiy dry^ 


pydrit wiy ddik 


py&rit wiy dnwtn 


pyhrlt wiy dbtch 


pyhrit wiy dinky tl 


pydr^f wiy dbiryiu 


pyHrit wiy dbidik 


pyhr^ wiy dbinwin 


pydr dry^ 


pyAr dry^ wiy ki dkyil 


pyhr dry^ wiy ki dry^u 




pyar dnw^n 


pyar dbtch 


pyar dbtkykl 


pyar dbiryiu 


pyar dbidik 


pyar dbinw^ 


pydr py&r 


pydr pydr wiy 1^ dkyil 


Only the numerals from one to five and ten are primitive, all the rest are 
compositions. The beginning d in the names for one to five is secondary, and 
is probably identical with i "it is" ; the ordinal numbers do not have it. Mark 
the mechanical intonation in the numbers from one to four. pyHrit pi. py^r is a 
rabttaiitive ; dbikyil is of course 5 + < ; py^'"^ ^if ^^^ means "ten, on its 
head one" i. e. ten, added to it one ; this is still more evident in the following 
forms, which are also used: pyhHt wiji db, dkyil "ten, its head has one", or: 
pyiri wiy hi dhyil "ten, (its) head with one". 



Digitized by 


72 The Parts of Speech 

The numeral follows the noun : wqt dry^u two houses ; often ga '*cop7^ is 
inserted between both : chhn gd pyaro ten days. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

1^4* l^hej are rarely used. In forming them the prefix d is dropped and die 

simple stem is used, with the exception of "the first'', which is formed firom 
mal "above". 

&mdlit the fijrst ry^u the second d^k, dik the third 

ntfftn the fourth bich the fifth py^r^ the tendi. 


13s* '^^ ^^^^ ^f ^^ ^^^ ^^ uniform. It always consists in a consonant, a vowel, and 

a consonant, or a consonant, a semivowel, a vowel, and a consonant. But the 
sounds of the stem may undergo certain changes, on which see 187. 


Conjugation of the Verb, 

The verb has two principal modes or tenses: 
. The Present Tense. This denotes an action as going on, as being done just 

now, as one not yet finished. This action may be going on in the present as 

well as in the past or future ; the emphasis does not lie on the time^ but on 

the fSact that the action is notjiniahed, but is being done, it ''has not become^, 

but "is becoming^. 

Generally the Present in Shilluk corresponds to the English Present, but 

it may also describe the Past or the I\iture : ''I am going**, "I was going**, 

"I shall be going**. 

The Perfect denotes the action as complete, it describes that which "has 

become**, a state, an accomplished fact. While the Present means: ''he is 

going** the Perfect is: ''he is gone**, "he is away**. 

[These same two tenses with exactly the same meanings are found in the 
Semitic languages, they are there called Imperfect and Perfect. I have 
retained the name "Present** because it is introduced already, and a ilew 
term might lead to confusion. In these two forms there is another con- 
formity between Shilluk and Semitic languages : in Hebrew tfie verb in 
the Imperfect (= Shilluk Present) is always preceded by the subject, in 
the Perfect the subjective pronoun follows the verb ; in Shilluk the verb 

Digitized by 


The Verb 73 

in the PreseDt (= Hebrew Imperfect) is preceded by the subject, in the 
Perfect the Bubjective pronoun or noun may precede or follow the verb. 
In Nama (Hottentott) and Fulfulde, two Hamitic languages, the subject 
may also precede or foUow the verb.] 
Besides these two the rerb has the foUowing modes: 

3. The Future; 

4. The Habitual; it denotes action which is done repeatedly, usually, habitu- 
ally, either in the Present or in the Past. 

5. The Lnperative. 

6. The Verbal Noun; is a real noun, corresponding to the English ^going^, 

7. The Noun Agent; denotes the doer of the action expressed in the verb. 
There are two forms, one for expressing an occasional, and the other the 
habitual doer. 

8. The Passive Voice. 

Examples showing the conjugation of the verb. ^S7' 

The Verb without an Object. 
Stem: cham to eat. 

yet cMmit I am eating yi ehhmh you (s.) are eating 

i (yi) chdmjt he is eating wi chUmit we are eating 

wi cMm^ you are eating gi ehdtn^ they are eating. 

The verb in the present always ends in q; this q is sounded very fidntiy, 
see 2. 

Nearly all verbs have in the present exactiy the same form : the first vowel 
is long, and both syllables have a low tone. There are only a few exceptions 
to this rule, vis. 

a) the first vowel may be short; in tins case the vowel is often high: k^^ to 
go ; but at the same time : Jbdj^ to go ; ry^ to come fortii. 

b) the first voweL being long, may have the falling tone ; in connection with it 
die second vowel has sometimes middle, but generally low, tone : guAiiit to 
dig, gttii to be vexed. As this is the form and intonation of the infinitive 
(see 170) diese '^present forms'' may properly be infinitives, these having 
taken the place of tiie low-toned present tense. 

In most cases die second consonant, if mute, is voiced. 
A second form of the present tense is formed by putting di between the 
subject and the verb : 

yd di ehdm^ I am (or was) engaged in eating, I have been eating. 

Digitized by 


74 The Parts of Speech 

150. Perfect 

yA ehdm I ate yd kii I went 

yi ehdm you ate yt f^ you went 

d ehdm he ate d Idi he went 

tod, «7ii, ^^ cAdm we, you, they ate wd, tod gt ki^ we, you, they went 

yd niii I laughed tod nil^ we laughed 

yt nUi you laughed vfd n|j^ you lauj^ed 

d niii he laughed g4 n^i they laughed. 

^ 5Q* CharacteristicB of the Perfect are: 

1. the vowel d; appears in the 3*^ p. sing, only; the personal pronoun is tfien 

2. the final vowel a is dropped. 

3. With a few exceptions the second (mute) consonant, which in most cases is 
voiced in the Present, becomes voiceless. 

4. The Perfect ends either in the second consonant, or the vowel 1 is added 
to the stem. 

5. As a rule the tone of the stem- vowel is low; the vowel has, however, not 
unfrequently a high or fsdling tone. 

6. On vowel- and consonant-changes in the Perfect vide below 182, 187. 

7. While in the Plresent the subject, whether noun or pronoun, always precedes 
the verb, in the Perfect the subjective noun or pronoun may follow the verb, 
and very ofken does so. In this case the tone on both syllables, that is on 
verb and noun, is high, in the singular; where the sufSxed pronoun is a 
single vowel, the final vowel of the verb, if there is one, is dropped ; in the 
plural a final vowel of the verb is preserved ; if the verb ends in a mute 
consonant, and has no final vowel, the '^helping vowel'' is sometimes inserted; 
the same is the case when the subject is a noun beginning in a mute consonant. 

This form retains a, the sign of the Imperfect, through all persons, but its tone 
is loto (contrast-tone, see 59). — The second consonant, if mute, becomes 
voiced again, except where the helping vowel is inserted. 

& rind I ran h rini you ran 

d rini he ran a rfn wd we ran 

d rin wu you ran d r^n gi they ran 

d nigd I killed dk^I went 

d chtodli you called d gv4di he wrote. 

If the subject is a noun, sometimes the helping vowel is added to the verb, 
and sometimes not : 

d hil obwQi/i the stranger went; d kii dpoif^ the hyena went; 

d giehi rj| the king struck; d ftfn lio/ the boy came 

Digitized by 


The Verb 75 

but: ikal e b&iQ the boj is coming obwoii e k^ the stranger is going. 

Sometimes the subjective noon is placed at the head, the corresponding 
subjectiye pronoun foUowing the yerb : 

^f^ h&i d, fjiwi a man, when he dies : when a man dies. 
8. Verbs who have instead of the second consonant a semivowel. 

a) y. No % is added in the Perfect The y unites with the preceding vowel to 
a diphthong : iayo to pierce, perfect toi. 

b) w. Here likewise generally no % is added : j^g to die, perfect j^ (also 
^). ngatDft to trade, perfect n^u, seldom nsawi. 

Sometimes the subjective pronoun is employed twice, before and behind I 00« 
the verb; for the last not the suffixed, but the emphatic or the subjective form 
are used; note tfie changes of the tone! 

yi ri ffwAl yln why [re] are you 4 f"^ g'^^l ^ why is he (so) thin? 

(so) thin? wii ri gwhl iin why are you (pi.) 

gir^gwhlghi why are they (so) (so) thin? 

thin? yi ri kii or: kA^ why did you go ? 

i ri ki^i why did he go ? vm ri k^dim why did you go ? 

wd bin wa we came gi bin gin they came 

gi Hi gi Hf^ where did they go? toii k^i toii k^ where did you go? ^ 

If kd ''and*' introduces a sentence, the subject, if a pronoun, always foUows I v) I • 
the verb, and the object always precedes the verb. 

ki ky^ gijd and I struck the ki kyhi giji and you struck the 

horse horse. 

The characteristic of the Future is the particle ^,1 which is placed before the it) 2. 
verb. In most cases the present form of the verb is used, but not unfrequently 
that of the Perfect as well, but in this last case with a slight changing of tone: 
if the tone is low in the Perfect, it becomes middle in the Future. 

yd u ehdmjt I shall eat wd u chdm^ we shall eat 

^a, OT yd ohdmii you will eat ufd chdmit you will eat 

i ehdrntt he will eat gl i ehdmit they will eat 

yd i ri;tki I ^^^ laugh wd^ki^ we shall go. 

As tiie Plresent, so too the Future has a second form, with di placed between 
pronoun and verb : ydi di chdm^ I shall eat There may be (or at least may 
have been) a difference of meaning between the two forms, but I have found 

Hie HabiiualiA formed by putting the auxiliary verb M ''to use to^ between I O3 • 
subject and tbe Present form of the verb. 

' In llMai the Fatore is fonned by sniBzing «i. HoUis page 59. 

Digitized by 


76 The Parts of Speech 

yA M cMmit I use or used to eat gi M ^^ thej use or used to 

i iki gtoi^ he uses or used to write. go 


I 64* ^^^ ^^^ ^t^ ^ SO^ ^ ^ ^^°^^? (^^^ ^) SO* 

pi. cAdmt^n eat! * pL k^f^n go! cAdm tr^ let us eat! 

kit toi^ k^ w^ let as go! ckiin{ be quiet! fhchiiniln be quiet 

In the singular i, the suffix of the 2^ p., may be added or not 

165. The Verb with a Noun as Object 


The second vowel receives a middle tone. 

yd chdmlt byil I am (or was) eating dura. 

yd ki^ gof, I am (or was) going to the river-bank. 

^ ^ Perfect. 

I OO. K the Perfect ends in {» this 1 is retained, if it ends in a consonant, an a, 

in some cases {, is added. I am not quite clear as to the tones; ^a^ always 

seems to have a low tone, "i** has sometimes a middle, sometimes also a low 


yd chhmb, byil I ate dura yi Rni Jcwq/ I heard a talk 

yd k^ pack I went home yd md|i (V^tdj^^ pi I drank water. 

^ Future. 

I O^ • The final vowel has a middle tone. 

yd i ehUmit byil I shall eat dura yd i Jfc^i piMch I shall go home. 


I 00« FoUows the rules of the Present 


I CDQ, ^ the 2^ p. sing, almost always i is added; the 2^ p. pi. has u suffixed 

instead of un. 

hA ' h»Al I ®** d^*- pl- chhmu byil eat dura! 

ehdm tod byil let us eat dura! nek tod liar^fi let us kill a calf! 

k^ wd pack let us go home ! ma^e wd pi let us drink water! 

Verbal Noun (Infinitive). 
The Verbal Noun occurs in two chief forms: 

a) without the final vowel ; the stem-vowel has a middle tone ; 

b) with the final vowel q; the stem-vowel has a fSslling, and the final vowel a 
low tone. 

Deviations firom this rule do occur, but are not firequent Sometimes a 
semivowel occurs. Examples : 

yd g^glt I Am working n. gwitk working 

* This lit! is of course the personal pronoun of the second person plaraL 


Digitized by 



gwit wnting 


ehw^t calling 


nek killiDg 


rttmit thinking 


tAbii cheating 


ni&i drinking. 

TAe Verb 77 

yd gwidit I am writing 
yd chwit^ I ftDQ calling 
yd nig^ I am killing 
yd rtm^ I am thinking 
yd t&bi^ I am cheating 
yd md^ I am drinking 
In adding a genetive, or an adjective pronomi to the verbal noan, the 
changes described in 138 occur: gw^ ^n this working. 

Noun AgenU 
The language distinguishes two kinds of noun agent one for the person who I ^ I . 
does something just now or occasionally, the other denoting the habitual doer 
of die action. 

The first is formed by a connection of words which is really a sentence : nan 
e gigQ "tiiis man is working^ (see 83)9 nate -f- the demonstrative n is connected 
with the present tense of the verb; this means '^one who is working just now''. 
In the second form note without a pronoun is combined toith the verbal noun: 
note gwnk "a man of working'', a man whose habit or calling it is to work, a 

lian e mQffQ a man drinking just now 

nate nAf, one who drinks habitually, a drinker. 
The Passiv^ Voice. 
The Shilluk forms a Passive Voice, whose chief characteristic is the high-low 1*1 2. 
(the fSslling), and in some cases the high tone. It consists merely in the stem, 
no final vowel being added. The stem-vowel is a littie shorter than in the Plresent 
and Perfect, it may be described as half-long, but is marked as short in this 
book. In some cases a semivowel is inserted between the first consonant and 
the vowel. 

Probably the Passive Voice was originally an intransitive form of the verb, I 7 3 * 
denoting a state: firom gqgQ to work, gtoqk "worked", d gw$k "it is worked" ; 
cAdm^ to eat, ch&m "eaten" ; by^l d ehdm the dura is eaten, properly "is an 
eatmi one" ; fbdii to beat, fwdt "beaten", "a beaten one" ; so we can hardly 
speak of passive tenses, it is rather a mood, an accomplished condition or 
situation. But nevertheless tiie form cleariy conveys the meaning of a real 
Passive, which is best shown by the fact that the doer of the action is added 
to tile verb, so its grammatical construction corresponds exactiy to that of the 
Passive in European languages; sometimes, tiiough not firequentiy, even a 
Future of the Passive is formed by prefixing ^. 

The doer of the action may be expressed by a noun, or by a pronoun, 
a) by a noun. I ^ /^^ 

Digitized by 


78 The Parts of Speech 

Here always y\ ^hy^ is added : 

fty^Z a ehdm yi jdl ini the dura was eaten by this man 
i/ial d fw6t yi j&git the boy was beaten by die chief. 
The original meaning of yi "by'' is not known; periiaps it is some deictic 
pronoun "it is** : "he was beaten it is the chiefs (who did it) ; it can be 
identical with yi "towards''. 
I / 3 * b) by an absolute pronoun. 

The ^helping voweP is added to the verb. In this case the stem-vowel has 
a high tone, the 'helping vowel' being low. Perhaps the 'helping vowel' here 
is die shortened yi. 

d chdmi ydn it was eaten by me d ehdmi yin it was eaten by you 

d chdmi g^ it was eaten by them. 
^ Sometunes yi is also used here : d ehdm yi in it was eaten by him. 

I/O. c) by the suffixed pronoun. 

Here a veiy peculiar distinction between singular and plural is made : for 
both numbers the pronouns of the singular are used, but if the doers are a 
plurality of persons, the last consonant of the verb becomes voiceless ; liiis 
is of course only possible in verbs ending in a mute consonant ; in the rest 
no distinction is made ; but if a distinction seems necessary here, the plural 
of the pronoun may be employed. 

d gw^gd, it was worked by me, d gw^ki it was worked by us 

d kwgb^ it was spoken by me, d hwoph it was spoken by us 

d md^ it was drunk by me, a maf^ it was drunk by us 

d gw^ it was written by you sing., d gwiA it was written by you, pL 

d ISd^ it was seen by him, d le^ it was seen by them. 

[The verbs following in their intonation the rule demonstrated here, are 
in the majority; but besides them some examples have been written 
down by me which deviate in their tones : 

d ehwbla he was called by me, d liobgd it was washed by me, 

d nMd it was cut by me, d Rnd it was heard by me, 

d ndgd it was killed by me. 
But these are possibly misunderstandings.] 
I y y • Most foreigners have considerable difficulties in distinguishing the active 

voice from the passive, the difference between both lying in most cases solely 
in the intonation. Misunderstandings are easily possible, where the imperfect 
(active) has a high tone, as yot^ to find. — The natives generally prefer to speak 
in the passive voice ; therefore the foreigner can best avoid misundersjbandingB 
by using the passive voice as much as possible and by supposing that what a 
native tells him, to be passive, and not active. 

Digitized by 


The Verb 79 

The chief characteristics of the passive have been given above; the following ^Tl 3,. 
examples may serve to illustrate the difference in sounds and intonation between 
active and passive : 

yi fffiehi^jal an I beat this man 
yi gich yi jal an I was beaten by this man 
yi gtchh yin I beat you 
yi gichi yin I was beaten by you 
yi chdmh nitti I cheated somebody 
yi chdm yi nitti I was cheated by somebody 
d ehhmit ydn he cheated me 
d chdmi ydn he was cheated by me 
yi eMmi in I cheated him 
yi chdmi in or yi^ I was cheated by him 
d chw^la lial he called the child 
d chwQl yi tial he was called by the child. 

Doubling of a Verb. 
In order to intensify die meaning of a verb, it can be doubled; examples I ^0« 
for this have been given in 75 ; a particular kind of doubling a verb is this : 
the verb is pronounced twice, the first being high toned on its first syllable, 
the second being low toned on both syllables: 
yi chimit chUm^ I shall surely eat; 

yt niga niglt I shall surely kill you ; 
yi ehdmk ehAmit you will by all means be eaten. 
Different tones has : d dbyi diyi it increased gradually, by and by. Mark the 
long vowel in the second verb. 

Change of Sounds in Verbs. 

Many verbs undergo certain changes of sounds in their conjugation, these I 7Q* 
have not been treated in the preceding pages. 
The changes may be classified thus : 

a) changes in the decond consonant. 

b) changes in the stem-vowel. 

c) changes in the semivowel preceding the stem-vowel. 

a) Changes in the second consonant. 
The second consonant, if mute, may change in the perfect, passive and verbal 1 oO« 
noon. Not all mute consonants change, and in some the form with a changed 
consonant is employed besides the unchanged form, both having exactly the 
same meaning. There is no rule to show when the second consonant does 
change, and when not. 

Digitized by 






The Parts 

of Sp 





































I -I 
























1 1 










•St -01 













S * 



i * 















« o 


Digitized by 


The Verb 























-«i . 















































vrBSTBRIfABll, Tk« Skfflak People. 

Digitized by 



The Parts of Speech 




Verbal Noun 


batQ to throw 

d bola gin 


budQ to roast 

d but, or d bul 


chudQ to compensate 

d cMt, d chSl 


chtootQ to call 

d ckwQta,^ d ehwQla 


ddda to brew 

d dwQla 



godQ to scratch 

d gola 



kida to bring 



iktt(^ to pull out 




kwatQ to steal 

kwati, kwala 


kwQtQ to drive 

kwQth kwgla 



Qdg to shave 


iiwQtQ to touch 




nacig to cut 



ngdQ to cut 

nht, fi^l 


toodd to pound 




y/^ to save 



tygtQ to carry 

ty&h tlra 



yStQ to curse 




jjo^ to cook 



U7f^ to change 





niiQ to laugh 



yi^ to cut 

ykji. !fiera 



fiu70^ to be weak 


by m 

libq to be cold 



kQb(t to speak 

kim^ hoip 



I O 2 • In these words the forms with a mute consonant are doubtlesslj primitive ; 

from them the present tense was formed by sufiSxing q^ so the primitive mute 
consonant is preserved here in the present; in a later period the mutes were, 
by different influences, transformed ; the primaiy cause of their transformation 
was perhaps their position at the end of a word. See note in 46 concerning 


In frequent cases, however, the consonant was also changed in the present 
tense ; but in these cases the unchanged form of the present also exists beside 
the changed one ; thus many verbs have two present (and perfect) tenses. 

* In the forms ending in a a noon as object is to follow. 

Digitized by 


The Verb 


different in their form, hut uniform in their meaning; sometimes not only the 
second consonants, but ako the vowels of two forms di£fer, the vowel of the 
changed form always being identical with that form of the primitive verb which 
has the changed consonant, so that one can say: from the changed form of the 
primitive verb a new verb has been formed; an example will illustrate what is 
meant: Present chwqtQ to call, past chw^t, chwoti, or chw^l, passive chw^l; now 
from &e form ehwQl the present of a new verb is formed: chwolgi to call, past 
ehwltU passive chw^L 

Double forms in which the second verb is derived from a tense or mood 
of the first: 

{chudd to compensate 
cKoIq, to compensate 
{dodo, to brew 
dwglQ, to brew 
f giro, to build 
i gyb^ to build 
f h^^ to bring 
\ IcqIq to bring 

{kudQ to pull out 
IcqIq to pull out 
/ kwdtQ to steal 
I kwald to steal 

{t^ to shave 
lyikt to shave 
iriwQtQ to touch 
liwalg, to touch 
{nadQ to butcher 
nalQ to butcher 
I wodQ to pound 
i woIq to pound 

perf. ch4t and ehSl n. chAl 

per£ chSl n. chdlit 

perf. dwQla pe. dw^l n. dwitl 

perf. dwiila pe. dw$l 

perf. gsra pe. gyir 

perf. gyera pe. gyt 

perf. ksdi, kQl pe. kel 

perf. ArffZ 

perf. ib2a pe. IcqI n. Jr^Z 

perf. kgla 

perf. Jbu^a^iy Jbu^o/a pe. kwdl 

perf ibu^2a 

perf. litrg^i 

perf. liwala 

perf. lid^ 

perf. ndl 

perf. WZd pe. u?^Z 

perf trdZd. 

pe. fyl/ 
pe. liwil 
pe. lid^, no/ 

Some verbs have double forms in which the derivation of the second verb 
from a tense or mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their second 
consonant unchanged through all tenses and modes. The meanings of the two 
rerbs are in most cases identical, but in some there is a difference. 
digQ and dQna to move into 
lugQ and tunQ to turn 
dwatQ and dwffrQ to search, want, wish 

gvfidQ l^p to "wink^ with the lips, and gwilQ to wink 
/u^a and ^j^ to puU out 




Digitized by 


84 The Parts of Speech 

kodQ and ku^ to blow up a fire 

fo^ to pass and fof^ to pass 
liyl^ to milk and n^rQ to let the milk down. 
I O '^ • Those verbs which are virtuallj adjectiyes (see 1 50), have some peculiarities. 

Example: riush ''(to be) bad^; this form corresponds in its sounds and its 
meaning to the Perfect of the common verbs: it ends in a mute consonant, and 
it designates a state, not an action ; this form as such does not change the final 
consonant; a regular present may be formed from it (though not from all verbs 
of this kind) : raJQ ''to become bad, act badly** ; but besides this regular form 
of the present it has a second, in which the second consonant turns into the 
corresponding nasal one: rffi^ "^ become bad, act badly**. 

nqk little houQ to become litde or few 

ilk hard tsg2 And t^ift ^o become hard, feel hard 
dich good doJQ and dQiiQ to become good, act well 
kijch strong J^(2 to become or be strong 

ritch bad raJQ and r^fiQ to become or be bad, act badlj. 
In one case, however, such a word has the nasal consonant in the adjective 
(perfect) form already : 

dttgn big dgnQ to become big, grow up; here a 

form with a mute consonant does 
not exist 
^ b) Changes in the Stem-vowel. 

I oO. Here the very same process as in the change of consonants is to be observed. 

Present ay e in perf. and passive. 

k^dn to bring 


bQffQ to boil 


ffldQ to be tired 


fanq to ride perf. a fani 1 

uid a ffni 

igifi to take by force 

n. %fi 

ksdq to twist perf. kit, HI 

k^ffd to ache 


kaffn to plant perf. kik 

naga to kill per£ nik 

bajd and bQjd to tie 

pe. bieh aod bieh 

d&io and d^Q to scatter perf. den. 

Present 3 ) a in imp. and passive. 

chabQ to mix perf. ehapa 

pe. ehdp and ehdp 

faffQ to be sharp perf. fdk 

k^bg to take by force perf. kapa 

pe. kdp R. k^ffj^ 

Digitized by 


The Verb 


iQffQ to inherit perf. laka 




Present a > ^ in pert and passive. 

baJQ to tie perf. bscha 



gwai^Q, to tie perf. gw&^ 

gwdrQ to snatch 

n. gvoar2 

Present %} e: 

and giesm 

widQ to change perf. wela. 

Changes between q, o and u. 

tugo, to crush 


l^gQ to torn perf. Uigi 


kuda to pull out perf. kqla 




nauQ to become litde, n^k litde 

kSdit to fasten 


ehudQ to compensate perf. ch6l 

Double forms with di£ferent vowels; the second verb 

is derived from a tense 

or mood of the first: 

f ehudq to compensate perf. ehSl 
I ehdl2 to compensate perf. ch6l 

r fado to be tired per£ fit 
yfedft and fHa to be tired perf. fit 

1 fe^ to raise 
fi<fQ to raise 


f kQbq to take by force 



I kepq to take by force 
I 1^ to twist perf. kit 

I kedd to twist 

f kQgn to plant pe. iE^Jk 

I kegu to plant 
itiM22 to pull out perf. kofa pe. k^l 

koHoi to pull out. 
Double forms in which the derivation of the second verb from a tense or I 00« 
mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their vowel unchanged 
through all tenses and modes. The meaning of the two verbs is in most cases 
identical, but in some there is a di£ference: 

dfign and digq, to move into dwnnq, dwpiQ and 1 

dwatQ and dwotn to want, wish dwynQ i ^ 

gorf^ and g^r^ to tattoo gtoai^ and gwiti^ to scratch 

ka^ and k{^ to go mdljo and fMtn to hold fast 

ntgQ fokd nejQ to know, recognise nSdq to butcher, nudQ to cut 

Digitized by 



The Parts o 




pQlho and f(^^ to fill hwalq, and hoffo, to steal. 

c) Changes in the SemiyowelJ 
The Semivowels u? or y are inserted in the stem in order to form certain 
tenses or modes of the verb. 


dgd/Q, to brew beer 
foj^ to make batter 
90.90, to work 
gZikg, to scratch 
^90, to stick 
kqiQ, to drive 
iE^&g to speak 
tgd^ to wade 
V^go, to wash [forth 
i/AdHi to bear, bring 
aUgmQ^ to many 
iiOtQ, to spit 
TcmQ, to fetch water 
iddo, to tell lies 
ygbq, to bewitch 
hokq, to fear, 
^^ to suck, 
<^<;rg to go back 
fieh/Q, to ask 
/idfi to lie 
/im(2 to gainsay 
g'^TQ^ to build 
g e^ to sacrifice 
A^ to dig out 
Vido, to shave 
fn^ to twist 
nigft? to laugh [guest 
re/fi to receive a 
QiH2 to strain beer 
d^ to bewitch 
n|r({ to milk 

perf . dw^ 

pe. dtiT^Z 
pe. <;rtt?^A; 

perf. gwii/ia 

pe. ihr^ik 
perf. ibu^s^iy ibti^b pe. h$U kwQl 

pe. iboi^i? 
perf. IwQt 
perf. 42<;^b /tri^A:a 
perf. Mtf fiw^l 

perf figmi 
perf. ntooti 
perf. ru>fitwa 
perf. twota 
perf. yt4726a 

pe. /u^i^^ 
pe. Iw^k 
pe. ilt£^i^/ 
pe. ihc$m 




n. liwddit 

pe. rtr(^ n. rti?^ 

pe. twSt n. <tM^t 

pe. ytoQp 

btoqlcQ to make one fear, to firighten 

4^$4it to suckle a child 

dwQgn to come back 

perf. /jgcAa 
perf. f^t 

perf. jrlra 
perf. jryfl^a 

pe. fyich 

pe. ^ry^ 
pe. hf&r 
pe. fyiZ 
pe. mgin 


perf. til 
perf. my^ 

perf ni|i fu nyfrit 

perf. recAa pe. ryich 

perf. ty^nd pe. tylii h. fy^fi 

perf. j5y|j{ n. jfygf 

^yi^ to let the milk down. 
In these examples the infixed semivowel has a function analogous to diat 
of the changing of the second consonant and of the vowel: it is a means of 
forming tenses and modes of the verb ; in most cases the passive, and in some 
also the imperfect and infinitive differ from the present hj the infixed semi- 

' Onlj the BemiTowels standing between the first eonsonant and the stem-rowel aie 
not those beginning a word. 

meant here, 

Digitized by 


The Verb 


Yowel. In a few examples — hwqh^ 4^q4Q^ d^Qgo, nyldq, — a causative form 
(or a form of similar meaning) is formed from the common form by infixing a 

Double forms, the one with a semivowel, the other without it; the one verb 
is derived from a tense or mood of the other: 

{dgdo, to brew beer perf. dwgla 

dwolQ to brew beer perf. dwula 

I jojQ to make butter 


pe. dwQl 

\ fwcJQ to make butter 
f ^§^ to scratch 
igte^i to scratch 

{hoiHq to help 
kwMQ to help 
{IcQtQ to drive 
kicgjto to drive 
f Igdo to wade 
I Iwatiit to wade 
IggQ to wash 
IwQffQ to wash 

perf. gwQiUi 

perf. kwoiia 

perf. kwQtif kwQla 

perf. IwQt 

per£ IwQka 
per£ IwQka 

pe. fwSch 
pe. fwdch 

{liddli to bear, bring forth perf. lidt, liwitl 
iki^lQ to bear, bring forth perf. tiw^l 

{i^mQ to many 
liwgmQ to marry 
{notQ to spit 
nvH>t(i to spit 
{f/qbq to bewitch 
ytoQbQ to bewitch 
{fieJiQ to ask 
fy§eha to ask 
{fido, to lie 
^fitfe to lie 

{gefp to sacrifice 
gii^tt to sacrifice 
{j^(2 to dig out 
hyim to dig out perf. kysra 

{minQ to twist perf. my^ 

mjfinQ to twist 
{re;(2 to receive a guest perf. recha 
fyej2 to receivea guest perf. ryeeha 

perf. ligmi 
per£ liti^mi 
perf. notoj nwota 
perf. nw>fa 
pei£ ywQba 
perf. yuf^ba 
perf. /igcAa 
perf. fy^ha 
perf. jryfl^a 

pe. Zu^^ 

pe. Zt47^A; 

pe. ikta$l 

pe. fitr^ 
pe. litff^ 
pe. nSl 
pe. li^Z 
pe. yw^p 
pe. yi(^|> 
pe. y^IcA 
pe. fyich 

pe. Ay^ 
pe. h/ir 
pe. myln 

pe. ryfeA 

n. (2t<7^Z 

n. gwQ^i 

n. /t<7^t^ 

n. fitrdci^ 

n. /yie 

n. kyirit 

Digitized by 


{j^ to bewitch per£ fyii pe. j^^t 

fyldQ to bewitch. 
192. Double forms in which the derivation of the second verb firom a tense or 

mode of the first is not visible, both verbs retaining their vowel or semivowel 
unchanged through aU tenses or modes. The meanings of the two verbs are 

bq^ and btvQ^ to cast iron 
ko^Q and kwo^ to blow up fire 
fijq and/y^fi to pulL 
^\7kJ* The function of the inserted semivowels to and y are evident from the pre- 

ceding examples : they serve in forming certain tenses or modes of the verb, 
and from these modes and tenses new verbs are formed, just as in the chang- 
ing of the last consonant. 

In by far the most cases the infixed w (which must originally have been u, 
see 22) forms the Passive and the Perfect of the Verb. 

[It is remarkable that in Hamitic languages ti or have the same function: 
Haussa : fashe to break fam broken 

bude to open budu open 

buffa to beat bugu beaten 

Ful Fulde : omo nana he hears amo nanQ he is heard 
omo wara he kills omo tcarQ he is killed* 

In both these languages the forms in n, ({ correspond to the Shilluk 
Passive as well as to the Perfect, as they express an accomplished state, 
as opposed to action.] 
It is evident that this last process was chiefly liable to lead to many con- 
fusions in the use of w and y (and the tame holds good for the changing of the 
second consonant); once the second verbs, derived from the imperfect or passive 
of the first verb, came into use, it was scarcely avoidable that the semivowel 
should not enter the present or any other tense of the first verb, where it did 
not belong; and again it was easily liable to be dropped where it ou|^t to 
stand, vis. in a form of the second verb ; this was the more possible, as in al- 
most aU cases the meanings of the two verbs are absolutely identical. And in- 
deed the natives oflien do confuse the two verbs, using the one for the oAer, 
when asked for the di£ferent forms of a verb. 

How the semivowel was infixed into the verb, is not dear (but see 25) ; as 
they do not always have the same function, the way on which they got into 
the word may ako have been di£ferent. 

Now it is remarkable, that in all cases, where the p<usive or past are formed 
by infixing wory (active present kobq passive hw^p^ active present fichft passive 

Digitized by 


The Verb 89 

fy^K)j^ w oocim exclosiyely before ^ and y exolasivelj before e, so that we 
have only these combinations: wq, andy^. The combinationB wa, w^, we, un, ya, 
ye with preceding consonant' do also occur frequently, but never in the said 
function, vis. where the Passive or Perfect are formed from the Present by 
infixing a ti^ or y . This leads to the conclusion that there are two di£ferent groups 
of semivowels which have entered the stem, probably at di£ferent periods and 
for different purposes. The second group has in by far the most cases retained 
the original vowel before w and y. But the first group has in all caeee the same 
vowel: Q, B&BT w and ^ after y; this can in my opinion be explained only by 
assimilation; it is not at all probable that here the original vowels were solely 
Q and & and that always before qaw was infixed and before ^ a y. I suppose 
that here originally only one semivowel was infixed, viz. w, and this w partly 
assimilated the following vowel to itself and partly itself was assimilated to the 
vowel, in this way : wa ) wq, wq ) wq, wo ) wq; w^y y^ we} y^. If verbs with 
the stem-vowel % or u infixed a ti^ in order to form the passive or perfect, this w 
must have been assimilated to the following vowel % and u» so that m ) yi ) «> 
and ITU ) u. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

da "to have". 

i dA nyffi he has money ; yi dhjwQk I have sickness: I am sick. I QA* 

"To be". 

"To be" is rendered by different words, but in most cases it is not to be 1 Q^* 
translated at all ; all adjectives are treated as verbs, and therefore are not 
connected witfi "is" : "you are great" is rendered yi doQn. If the predicate is 
a noun, and the subject is a pronoun, generalty the subject is put before the 
pronoun without a copula : yet r^ I am king ; ydnd r^ I am king ; or the demon- 
strative i is employed: ^ el ri{ he is king. 

But frequency the particle bh (fh) or its emphatic form bimi, binin is placed 
between subject and the predicative noun : 

ya &a r^ I am king;^'aZ ^ibarH this man is king; /ai^ riH (this one) he is king. 

I suppose bi does not originally mean "to be", but is the negative particle 
"not", and tiie sentences in which it is employed, are properiy questions: Am 
I not king? Is this man not king? The negro generally likes to express an 
assertion by a negative question. 

If the predicate is an adverb, y^ y^ ("to be") or W^ ("to stay, remain") 
are used; i ya kffi where is he? ffi ygna mal tiiey are above; yet ^e^ u^ I am, 
stay, in tiie house. Sometimes 6ie^ is also employed, when tiie predicate is a 

* This froiqi is eslled *fint group* in the foUowing. 
9 This groiqi is eslled ^second group* in the foUowing. 

Digitized by 


go The Parts of Speech 

kdmd and chdmd "to be going to, to wish, want^ ; they are used only in the 
past fonn. 

e kama (also kgrnQ) 6|n^ he is going to come, he says he will come, wants 
to come. 

e chamafii(fQ he is near falling, going to £all; chama is often shortened into 

In a similar sense duHita "to wish** is often employed. 

may be expressed by yh/Q: ya ba yei bin I can (cotdd) not come; bat its ne- 
gation is generally expressed by hu h^ "there is not a place" (an opportonity) : 
b^ kffi ^ ^nd "there was no place for me to come" : I could not come. 

196. , M.yanot; The Negation Of the Verb. 

2. nUti not yet, not ; hardly a distinction is made between the two; both of them 
negate the indicative of the verb ; a fa ksi^ a nfi^' k§!^ he did not go. 

3. fitf^ fiLffi negates a sin^e word : fafe yan not I ; fafe rii it is not the king; but 
it may also negate the verb "to be" : fate yan rjj( I am not the king; fafe H 
wQt he is not in the house ; fa jal maduon he is a great man ; /a{ Hjal tnaduijn 
he is not a great man. 

4. buj bunQ» to have not, to be not; 

5. b6g^, bdgln there is not; nysfi b6g^ hi yh "money is not with me" : I have 
no money; yet bi ny&^ I have no money. 

6. tbk to be absent ; lial tbk the boy is not here. 

7. ki is prohibitive : hi Hi* yi k6 kit do not go ! ki wir, ako : yi ku uitr do not 
be angry! The personal pronoun may also be suffixed : ku kw^ do not steal! 
Plural :wiikukit do not go ! You must not goXkihi he shall not come. 

Sometimes hi is employed where we do not see a prohibition ivAkihij^ 
shall we not go ? But also itodfakej^f nan hi ikw$l ki tin gyinhf nigh tuiglt 
the man who does not lay a hen-egg, I shall surely kill. 


1 ^ / • Host adverbs are originally nouns or verbs. 

Adverbs of Place. 
The adverbs which are mostiy employed are k^A and ibun; botii are nouns 
and mean "place". Their primitive forms are kscK kach and hi, botii have 
affixed a demonstrative n, k^h -{- n ) kffi, ibu -{- n ) hum according to 40. They 
may as adverbs have di£ferent meanings : i . of place : this place, tiiat is : here ; 
2. then interrogative: where? On tiie di£ferent tones of tiiese two meanings 

Digitized by 


Adverbs 91 

see 205S8. "Where is he** is in Shi. literally: "is he here?" i^ does not really 

mean "where**, but simply "this place**. 

^t Jfc^ come here. 

hfj^ wqk H kffi go out from here. 

ka "place** : there. 

^ ft^da ifca he is there; 

a tefe ydn ha he was seen by me there. 

mal "heaven**, "the upper place**, serves for "above, ahead** : 

a rgna mal he ran upward, upstairs, ahead. 

kundQ (from ibu place) direction: there. 

ehuni kundq stop there. 

cham left hand, k^h right hand, itnan here, chini there, yonder, ctidn behind, 

l^n this side. 

Adverbs of Time. 

Here again k^i "this place** takes the first place, the notion of "time** having I Qo. 
its origin in "place** ; kffi a bi when he came ; kan "this time** from hake time : 
while : chuni kan chdm wa stay while we eat; tin soon, at once ; Ancttis hnctn cinan 
presendy, at once, this very moment; cAi^n formerly ; de chan tin to-day; ^u^i 
to morrow; awa yesterday; awar awa the day before yesterday; hi chan daily; 
i^* de chan at daytime ; iErt %oqt at night. 

K^ d fti when did he come? in awin d fiwili yin when were you bom? uh^ 
fi|fid yi yijgi chan adek^ kd i b^n we were on the road reached three days, then 
he came : when we had been on the way three days, he came ; ka du6H wSn^ 
ehuii^ a yiga mdmit when we told him that, he became {^ad; kd Uff wiin, ka i 
li^ when he saw us, he laughed; ka lin toa msn an^ ka chutie toin yiga mdmit 
when we heard that, we became glad. 

Adverbs of Manner. 

n«y neya thus; hfndii just so; ddi how? |yati ako; ch^t just, very, surely; I QQ* 
«Aar£ veiy; ktti, dky^l alone. Much used is the adverb hi^ thus: it always 
introduces the direct speech; it does not only follow the verbs which express 
speaking, but frequently ako those expressing "to mean, think, wish, ask** : 
rite ko kine, kifl the king said thus : go! 
^fichq hine, igifli in he asked: where is he? 
duohi hine, e b^nq tell him, he may come! 
e dwata hyfie^ wu kfn^ iru i^ ^ he wants to go with you 

ya dwata hine^ vdq, cham byil I wish that we may eat dura. 

Frequently an En^h adverb is in Shilluk rendered by a verb, e. g. : 
jwdn kfujta huny going, that is: go quickly; 
a riimt chdmik yd it is finished was eaten by me : I have already eaten ; 

Digitized by 


92 The Parts of Speech 

^^» ioii anfl^l h^nq, k^ go, while rain has not jet come : before it rains ; 
wa k^ chdH pdch we went approached the village: we came near the village. 

Adverbs of Cause 
and Causal Sentences. 
2(30. Bu k^ a bind yikd di rhdjwQk I could not come, because I was sick; b^ k^ 

diddf yika buu{ tvhiiit yd I cannot learn, because I have no book; ya buffin 
nidffa reJQf yika buni abi^ Hydl cannot catch fish, because I have no hook ; 
tyffi Nwdr chuiii gin raJQ k( toiin, ki yika k^la ^Q ff^ the Nuer-people hate us, 
because we (I) have taken away their cattle ; byil wQn rechq, H yika by^ni k{^ 
ki rei gin our dura is bad, because it did not rain on it; ba yA gwgk lin^ mdri 
(or md£) dhjwitk he cannot work to-day, because he is sick; ba kw^pi j^, 
mdi b^ktt he does not say it, because he is afraid; yd bi diri, b^n^n d ^U ydn 
yi gtoQ,k I have no adze, therefore it is impossible for me to work; tyili lei, 
btfiin A bh ki^ my foot was sore, therefore I did not go. 

Sometimes a causal relation is expressed without a causal particle : yd fd 
ckigi chutQ kits, yd fid^ I shall walk no more, for I am tired ; wa kgji toQtf feik 
a yiga niodo we went home, because it grew dark. 

Conditional Sentences. 
20 I • Kitk chwiU yiuy yi ib]f A^ if he calls you, do not go ; k^ yik ya u tefk M ^^f 

i nSki ydn if I see a lion, I shall kill him; i yik yH bi, y^ u 0t4 ^y&^ if you 
come, I shall give you money; f# yik yifd gtgh yi i fwdti ydn if you do not 
work, I shall beat you ; kd yik u fyichk win^ wi kwiiki ^ if we ask him, he wiU 
help us. 

The Condition in the unreal case is expressed by ri: kd ligi i yd mdnAi^ 
wi ri kwitii ^ if he were here, he would help us ; kd lig( yd dh g\n chdm, yi ri 
0td if I had food, I should give you; ka logQ feA di ya mddich, wi ri di binit 
if the weather had been fine, we should have come. 
Intentional Sentences. 

20 2 • Yd kiii w^k bi ydf k( ^ga I went into the bush, in order to search my catde; 

W2 k^lQ ^ win gi mdji win bwiA$ kifJt kine wi 0^ byil we gave our catde to 
the strangers, in order to get dura; junlni r^nQ, Hpd yi hi chwin run quickly, 
lest you be late ! 

Interrogative Sentences. 

203 • ^ ^ question the position of words is the same as in an assertion. To desig- 

nate a sentence as a question, either interrogative adverbs are employed, or a 
change of tone takes place. Those cases are difficult particularly, in which an 
adverb may have a positive meaning as well as an interrogative one, for instance 
k^ ''place*' may mean ''here'*, and "where^. Here the distinction can be made 
by the tone only. 

Digitized by 


Prepositions 93 

The most important rule is this : if the last syllable of a sentence has a high 
or middle tone, a low tone is added to it; this low tone expresses the question: 
i hobXb, hyil he stole dura i kwdilh b(/il did he steal dura? 

i tifit kwd he saw mj grand- i Ufa hwa did he see my grand- 
father father? 
gi tii^ Hi they saw the king gi lifh r|{ did they see the king? 
But firequendy the question is expressed in quite a di£ferent way, by laying 
a high tone, and a strong stress on the word which is questioned; this is parti- 
culariy the case with Jk^ : 

i yif^ ^ where is he ? i ya k^ he is here 

gi yif^ kM where are they gi yh 1^ they are here 

Ht yin kiti where is the king? riH yh ktii the king is here 

d In dwd he came yesterday d M dwd did he comeyester- 

jal an ye da nyiA thismanhas money day? (the first a in 

jal an ye da nyih has this man mo- avsa has a very 

ney ? (The i in nyih strong emphasis) 

with yeiy strong emphasis). 
Kthe sentence contains an interrogatiye adverb, the tone does generally 
not change: y\ db, ^k ddi how many cows has he? 

i gv^ nt> what does he do ? 
a fyieh kiyi in, Hne: Agiin in midi he asked him : where is your friend? 
el wQt min whose house is it? 
Hpanq a bikt why are you afraid? 
ipanQ a it^ why did he go ? 
In question^ introduced by "shall^, the subjectiye pronoun is suffixed and 
the low interrogatiye tone is added to the high tone of the pronoun: ki^ shall 
I go'i gvoidi shall he write? 


They are likewise originally nouns and verbs. 2,0 A,. 

vrich head: on, upon, for, instead of: 

tohf wni on the house, tviy ya{ on the tree, wiy rj| instead of the king. 
ban back: behind, af^, besides: bona B&er me, ban wQt behind the house; 

ban^ besides him; kw(tm back: on, upon: kwQm adjrQ on a donkey. 
b^l and litm face, front: in front of^ before, at the head of: bol nam in front of 

the river; litm iirQ before the people, at the head of the people. 
k^i middle: in the midst of^ amidst, among: k^Ujl amidst the people. 

Digitized by 


94 The Parts of Speech 

nach back : behind : nach jal sni behind this man ; 

buto side : beside : bute wgt beside the house ; 

yech belly : in : yey pi in water ; 

dy&Ty often shortened into di, middle : amidst, in, di nam in the water. 

fa the base, the lower part: under, below: fa ya^ under the tree. 

wiiQ to reach : u^ifje awa a ba bi reaching yesterday he did not come : until y • • • 
gitQ to reach : gitQ ^ki till to-morrow. 

Particles which cannot traced back to nouns or verbs : 
k{ may have very different meanings ; its original meaning is: with ; H ni^ with 

whom ; H tgn with a spear; 
yi towards, by: a nek yijal an he was killed by this man; ksfiyijal duQn go 

to the master; yi is connected with personal pronouns as follows: ya to me, 

yi to you, yg to him, yi wQn, yi toun, yi gffi. 


^^S * Some of the most used forms of salutations are giyen here. A. is the villager, 

B. the stranger. 

Instead of our knocking the door, the Shilluks, before entering a courtyard, 
say : y& n|n I am waiting (may I come in ?) A. answers : bi come ! If the salutation 
is going on in the open place of the village, as is usual, this phrase is not said. 

A, y{ bi you have come ? 

B. yd bi I have come, or: yd nUt, 

A. yi kiljw^k you have brought God. 

B. yi mi^jw^k you have held fast God. 

A. yi ntn did you sleep (weD) ? 

B. yd ntn I slept (well). 

A. yi kwai (meaning not known). 

B. ei, yd M. 

A. tro|0^ 'n.i^t are the little ones well (existing) ? 

B. Nilt they are weU. 

A. tysn gil Hn your women (are well) ? 

B. Nut they are well. 

A. Tirfi bedi yauf Are the people well? 

B. Nut they are. — These enquiries after the well-being of the people in the 
house can be extended at will, to grandparents, gnmdchildren, cousins etc. 
On leaving: 

B. says : yd kii^fach I am going home. 
A. kii go! or: kSilijwQk go with God! 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


96 Occupations 


I. Housebuilding. 

Tyfi/t w^t ky&r, ka tik (tSk), ka lobd kal, ka HA tyiU ka moga k^ tyil wf^ 
ka ehwdchf maka ty^l anwffif ka idgt do^s ^ 9Sr. Ka niaka chdn dbiky^ ka 
wjt W^9 ka kwtr du>ai, ka gi rdu, ka gt m^hfiii, kd iigii;^ nQt, ka dSl k6t, ka 
tyth ky&r, ka ty^l tik, ka teguti kwoik^ kd wht fndk, kd dol l^. Ka dy^n kit, ka 
tat, ka teguti todrb wltk. Ka WQt tin, kd Ijpit g^H chip, ka ki/i, ka sKtni twSeh, 
kd tat, kd Utm lidr, kd 6$^ dwai, ka y^ mal, ka ($2 fnig^s ka turn H^ ka e wiJQ. 
Ka wan kaJQ e dflnj^, ka e kdng ki kw^, man nik wan kdjq, ka wan kdjn nik, kd 
dy^l wild bodQ. Ka wiy WQt twaky. ka chine wqt ngl, ka tddftt (tide WQt) ty^ ka 
wQt j^r, ka mwQn^ ka tigQ gwgk, ka kal tat, ka je dikd yej^. Ka gyin^ k^l, ka 
gQch feik, ka je dsna yey wQt 

The foundation trenches of the house are dug out, and are smoothed off. 
Mud is brought, and thrown into the foundation trenches; and beer is poured 
into the foundation trenches. Now the walls are built; after four days the 
door-opening is made round; then they build again, and when five days have 
passed, they begin to make the roof. Poles are brought, they are burnt (to 
make them hard), and then cut, so that they are of equal lengdi. Boof-stickB 
are cut, and they are tied up in a circle, and a circular ditch (corresponding to 
the poles tied together) is dug, and the ends of the roof-sticks are put into 
it, and buried. Now the roof is constructed; grass is twisted into a rope, 
with which the poles are tied together. When this is done, the roof-sticks are 
taken away, and the roof is lifted upon the wall. The junction between the 
wall and the thatch-poles inserted into it is made tight with mud, the lower 
roof-ends are tied to the wall, and are tied together. Then grass is cut, and 
the craftsman > is sent for; he climbs on the roof^ takes a rope, and binds the 
grass on the poles. Thus he makes the roof^ till only the point of the roof is 
left. The proprietor of the house now brings a hoe, which is for the making 
of the roof-point. (When he has given it to the craftsman), the roof-point is 
made. Then a sheep is given to the craftsman. The surfiftce of the roof is beaten 
smooth, the dripping-eaves are cut even, a door is made, the floor of tiiie 
house is filled up with mud, and is made hard and even. A door is worked, 
the fence is constructed, and then the people move into the new house. A 
fowl is brought, and left on the ground (as a sacrifice), and the people move 
into it. 

' thfttch-maker. 

Digitized by 


Housebuilding 97 

A Second Report on Housebuilding. 
By R. W. Tidrick, of Doleib HilL 

Housebuilding among the ShullAS* is a trade which comparatiyely few men 
learn, whether it is because apprentices are discouraged from learning it, or 
whether they do not want to learn, or cannot learn the trade well, I do not 
know. A well constructed tukl is neat and of really fine appearance. Dwelling 
houses are usually of the same size, conical in shape, walls of mud, sometimes 
reinforced with poles or com stalks. The roofr are thatched with two kinds of 
grass. Family class prescribes which kind may be used in thatching the house. 

Eveiy adult member of the family as a rule has a part in construction. The 
women cut and cany in the grass and com stalks and bring the water for 
mixing the mud for the walls. The men bring in the poles for the roof^ make 
die rope, mix and cany the mud and do the real building of the house. 

The material is usually collected for some time beforehand. Ghrass is cut 
and cocked, poles are brought from the timber and by wetting and heating 
are brought into the proper shape for rafters. Large circular bands for bracing 
die rafters and tying the thatch and grass to are made of withs of long coarse 
grass wrapped closely with rope. The rope for their use and for tying the grass 
down is made from a tall grass tiiat has a long sheath. The grass is cut and 
brought in, and these sheaths are stripped off and after being soaked in water 
are bruised with clubs until the fiber comes apart easily. It is then dampened 
and twisted into rope. The rope maker sits on the ground holding the rope 
between his toes, and forms the rope by constantly adding new fiber and rolling 
die rope between the palms of his hands. It is made two-ply about one fourth 
of an inch diick. 

The mud is prepared by mixing manure, ashes or fine broken dry grass with 
sandy earth. The mixing is done widi die feet. The first step in construction 
is naturally the foundation. This is made by digging a shallow circular trench 
where the wall is to stand. The men cany the mixed mud in their hands, which 
must be quite stiff, and drop it in die trench. The builder forms it into die 
desired shape widi his hands. A layer about six inches deep is put on at a 
time. But two or three layers a day are added. A litde above the foundation 
an elliptical band of grass about diree feet in depth is put in place to form die 
door. As die wall is built up the mud is built against diis, which retains its 
form leaving die door the desired shape. Later the grass is removed. Toward 
the top die wall is flanged out like the moudi of a bell to receive die roof. 
Few houses have windows ; when windows are made, diey are scarcely six 
inches in diameter. In forming the roof the first step is die same as for die 
wall: a shallow circular trench is dug widi the sanie circumference as die inner 

> L e. BhiUnks. 

WSSTBRMAHH, Th« SldUok PMpl*. 

Digitized by 


98 Occ^ ations 

circumference of the finished wall. About two feet inside the trench are set 
forked stakes about two feet high and four feet apart. The rafter poles are 
now placed with heavj end in trench and resting in the forks of these poles, 
their tops are brought together and securely tied. The heavj grass bands are 
now fSsstened both aboye and under the poles at regular distances firom bottom 
to top of roof. Com stalks or cane are woyen in between the bands and poles 
diickly. The roof now has its final conical shape. The roof is ready to be raised 
and is picked up and placed evenly upon the wall. A layer of mud is then put 
oyer the lower end of the rafter poles, to keep it firmly in place. The first work 
in thatching is to put on what the ShuUas call the apron of tiiie house. A short 
layer of grass is put around the top of the wall and tied securely to the thatch- 
ing. The Catcher then starts his course straight up the roof and works around 
the house, finishing the entire length of the roof as he goes around. The grass 
is tossed up to him in small bundles, which he places in position seyeral at a 
time and removes the bands and ties then down tightly. With a paddle-shaped 
stick he evens up the ends of the grass, so that when the roof is finished no- 
thing but the but ends of the grass are exposed, and these lie as evenly as though 
they had been laid separately by hand. At the top the grass is brouj^t togedier 
like a spire and wrapped with rope and rope bands. The grass lies on the roof 
from six inches to a foot thick, and if kept free from white ants, will last for 
five or six years. 

2. Different kinds of Soil 

IMltjt black, rich earth whan brownish earth as found 

ho6j\t sandy ground on river-banks, used for 

<(fi^(($ red earth as found on ri- making pots 

ver-banks, used for ma- hiUh& red sand 

king pots hyMi sand, dust. 

3. Field-produce. 

hyiji dura 6hoQl an eatable gourd 
fDm^ sesame X^g a gourd for calabashes, 

«^r^ bean not eatable 

h/^'^ cotton hfiklixjit melon 

hu^ a small, sweet gourd, is hi&hq tobacco 

eaten. ahwdk maize. 

4. Different kinds of duras. 

The common name: hyit Tl\e common name for white dura: ig^^t^. 

Digitized by 


Ag^riculture __«__^ 22 

Kinds of white dura. 
d^Z is very long in ripening. ahwiik maize. 

vnkr has a longer ear than d^Z. rhyjc^ Duchn (panic grass). 

(klufidit "finger^^, has four ears, which stand upright like the fingers of 
the hand. 
l^k-din, skdlti, itdhritk, ofy^t fyseh ("kills the elephant^'), otQlq, dldk olaehrmach, 
ikimikf au^t, chtj^ni, dkdeh, 6hoi. 

The stalks of many of the white duras are sucked like sugar cane. 

Kinds of red dura. 

The common name for red dura is: Iwhli. 

6^b, wdjhUfd-dimh, wdjhUfdikifArhs l>4^i ("the Nubian"?), fia^-feM-dwai^ 
MHnib ipih a0^ nwich, i/ihfigyinhy akwiU bwMh ("of the white man<<), dhwinfi, 
6n4r^, winii ("lion's eye") xoHndghk ("crow's eye") wor&u, iMtchil^^ lihyimh- 
btodk, hwai, iiafilwiit,yiibrornq ("sheep-taLl"),yt^fy^ ("horse-tail"), ndt/Q^ hdikL 

Agriculture Among The Shullas.i 
By R. W. Tidrick, of Doleib HiD. 

The Shullas have hardly begun their agricultural life. Scarcely one half 
century ago they were purely a pastoral people. Onty within the last decades 
has his lordship, the Shulla man, begun to assume the burden of providing for 
his fSunily. In those earlier days ihe task of tilling the small patch of ground 
planted annually in dura fell to the woman. Her hoe was made from the 
shoulder blade of a giraffe or buffalo, or sometimes from the shin or rib bones 
of these animals. 

Boys tended the large herds and flocks, young warriors danced, went on the 
chase and raid. The old men idled their time away in the village. 

But they say the catde plagues became more prevalent The Turk and Arab 
came and took away not only slaves, but catde, and so necessity forced the 
Shulla to a larger tillage of the ground. 

The change came naturally first in the northern end of their territory, where 
they came earliest in contact with the murderers and plunderers from down 
the KUe. 

One man when questioned as to the food of the people in his boyhood days 
said: "We used to eat grass like cattle''. There was as much truth as sarcasm 
in this statement For even yet when the crop fails, the Shulla women gather 
grass seed from the swamps and plains. They rob the ants of their winter's 
provision of seeds. A little sugar is obtained by bruising and boiling a certain 
reed, which grows in the swamp. 

t i. e. Bhffliiks. 

Digitized by 


lOO Occupations 

The Shulla has not yet learned to grow a veiy large variety of plants. His 
one main crop is dura, the kafiBr com of America. 

All planting except tobacco, which is planted in small plots on the river 
bank daring the diy season and watered by sprinkling the ground from a water 
jar, is done in the beginning of the rainy season. 

A small amount of Indian com is grown, most of which is eaten when in 
hard roasting ear. With the dura they plant a few beans, pumpkins, squashes, 
sesame and occasionally peanuts. No fruits of any kind are grown, and as 
there are no wild fruits worthy the name, the Shulla has never known fruit 
until he has recently seen it in our garden or at the government stations. 

The Shulla plants his dura in the same field year af);er year, until his crop 
fikils once or twice. Then he hunts for a piece of hij^ dry ground, preferably 
in the timber, for his eariy dura, and a low pUun growing a certain rank wild 
grass for his late variety. He clears off the timber and digs up the grass for his 
new field which he tills, till another fiiilure comes ; if by that time his former 
field is growing of grass, he will return to its tillage. 

His methods of fStuming are extremely crude, but in some respects accomplish 
good results. He has neither plough nor spade and never uses the mattock 
except to dig up the grass and bushes from new ground. 

He prepares his ground by raking up the old stalks into piles with a deleib 
palm limb and burning them. 

As soon as the rainy season opens and sufficient rain has fallen to sofiai die 
ground, he puts his seed to soak over night, so it will sprout the quicker, and 
thus more likely escape being eaten by white ants. With a long slender pole 
which has one end shaped like the bowl of a spoon, he opens up the ground, 
and drops in the seeds. As he steps forward to make another hole, he presses 
down the earth over the seed with his foot The hills are made promiscuously, 
but are usuaUy some eighteen inches apart in all directions. He plants a large 
number of seeds in a hill, and later thins out and transplants where hills are 

Often he has to replant, for there are many enemies of the sprouting grain. 
Some years pests of rats devour it, even after it is several inches high. The 
golden-crested crane also pulls up much of the grain as it comes through the 
ground. And as before mentioned the white ant destroys tiie grain in tiie groimd 
unless it sprouts quickly. But under normal conditions the grain comes up 
very soon after planting. And the warm rains and tropical sun cause the crop 
to shoot up like Johnnie's bean pole. Weeds come on quickly too, and so the 
Shulla begins hoeing his fields at once. It is the only real cultivation he does. 
His hoe is either a tiiin circular or rectangular piece of iron with a short 

Digitized by 


Ag^riculture __«__^ !£i 

wooden handle. The hoer sits on the ground or squats on one knee or both, 
as he chooses, and catching Ae grass with one hand cuts it off just under the 
surface with the hoe. Shaking the dirt from the roots of the weeds he throws 
them into piles, leaving the ground clean and smooth. It is a good surfitce 
cultiyation, suitable for this soil and climate, and when the season is fitvorable, 
the yield for the amount of ground tilled is very good. 

The Indian com grown by the Shullas is a small early variety, which is in 
roasting ear a fortnight before the early dura is ready for parching. But 
before any grain is harvested a sort of first fruits' sacrifice is made, an old man 
and woman go to the various fields of Ae village and bring in some of Ae 
ripening ears of com and heads of dura, and place them by the sacred house 
of the village. Some is later taken and ground and mixed with water and 
plastered on the side of the sacred tukl, the rest is taken by the people and 
some put on the door of their own houses, and some is carefully tied up widiin. 
When the dura is ready for harvesting, the heads are cut off short with a dam 
shell and heaped upon a rack made of poles resting upon forked posts about 
two feet above the ground. After drying a month it is flailed out with heavy 
clubs by the men and winnowed by the women and carried to the village, 
where it is stored in large barrel shaped bins made of coarse grass. The bottom 
of the large basket granary is oval, a grass band wrapped with rope is formed 
about the small base and resting in the forks of short stakes driven in the 
ground bears the weight of the filled basket and keeps it off the ground and 
free from ants. 

There are very many varieties of dura. One man gave me the names of 
thirty-two varieties. It is probable however that the same variety has different 
names in different localities. 

Dura is eaten in a variety of ways. The earliest heads are simply thrown 
on the fire and roasted. It is often merely boiled till sofikened and eaten so. 
A great deal is made into a mild beer and used as a regular food diet. The 
popular way of cooking it is to grind it into a fine meal and cook it into a 
mush and eat it with milk, or cook it up witii meat. It is sometimes boiled 
with bcMis, and sesame is ofiken eaten with it. A sort of dura bread is also 

The Shulla retains all of his pastoral instincts and prizes his flocks and herds 
above all else. His sheep are veiy inferior in size and have no wool where 
wool ouj^t to grow. His goats are smaO and few are good milk producers. 
His cows are also generally poor in milking qualities, but are fair in size and 
in beef conformation. They belong to tiie Indian breed of catde, which have 
the hump on the wethers. 

Digitized by 


102 Occupations 

Tribal custom forbids the Sholla from riding upon a donkey, so he never 
possesses one. Cattle are never used for draught or canjing purposes, so he 
has no beasts of burden, and perhaps never will so long as women are plentiful. 

The villages are full of hunting dogs. Unlike the Kuers and most of the 
Dinkas the ShuUa raise chickens. They are a degenerate Mediterranean strain. 
Eggs are eaten only by women and children. 

Animal life must be well guarded and carefully housed at night most of the 
year. If an animal loiters on the river bank it most likely becomes the food 
of a crocodile. If one strays off into the woods it probably becomes the prey 
of a hyena, leopard or lion. Myriads of flies and numerous varieties of ticks 
also prey upon the flocks and herds, tormenting them by night as well as by 
day, and transmit the germs of various diseases also. Texas or tick fever is 
nearly always present, and a trypanosome not so fital as the one of dreaded 
tsetse fly is also prevalent. The plague is a frequent visitor too and the mouth 
and foot diseases often attack the cattle toward the dose of ihe diy season. 
The annual loss from all these enemies of animal life is veiy heavy, but as no 
females, unless barren, are ever killed for food or sold, and grass is plentiful,, 
on the whole there is an increase in the number of live stock raised. 

As to the possibilities of agriculture in the Shulla land obstacles to be over- 
come have been mentioned. What the mission has done shows that many 
varieties of fruits and a considerable number of vegetables may be grown. 
Future generations may have lumber, if the right varieties of forest trees are 
planted. Cotton is not a sure rain crop, but with irrigation it has few enemies. 
Sugar-cane and rice can be grown in fitvorable places. The soil of this part of 
the Sudan is not generally deep, is deficient in nitrogen and veiy poor in 
humus. Nitrogen may be restored with legumes, but the humus problem i» 
difiScult, for the white ants devour very quickly all manure, mulch etc* spred 
upon the ground. 

The Shulla in sticking to the one main crop of dura has af);er all adopted 
Ae grain which is naturally adapted to the soil and climate and yields best ta 
his methods of fanning. 

5. Foods and food-stuffs. 

hwtn a kind of dura-bread or hdil^ a food of dura (prepared 

mush. tSfj&t Arab fashion). 

b\4i^ a food of dura. mqnanir a food of dura with fiit^ 

. hpiitit a food of dura. eaten without anydiing 

hrhjit a food of dura (prepared else. 

after Arab fashion). m(thSt^ a conmion dura-food. 

Digitized by 




6tH a food of dura, dainty. 
m($H n^ilj a food of dura. 
hHteh cooked dura. 
hhik green roasted dura. 
hmZt duraroaated, then soaked 
and mashed. 
hxDoch dough. 
miifhibibuT a dura-food 

1^ dura, soaked, and then 
kept till it sprouts ; for 
making beer. 
b%h6hh beer before it is strained. 
mogn beer. 
mgn a^n^ strained beer. 
ydvolt a kind of beer. 

6. The seasons of the year. 

yiy jiAd aboutSeptember, harvest 

of red dura. 

diitoSch about October; end of 

the harvest, people are 

waiting for the white dura 

liu hot season, Janu- \ no 

ary— February Ifield- 

^Cijj^n about March jwork 

4ihiti about April, "mouth of 

run^', beginning of the 

to ripen. 
dgwirfi about November — De- 
cember; harvest of white 
dura begins, 
trft^ft December — January. 
Harvest of white dura 

shoer about May — July, time 

for planting red dura, 
^rirf about July — September, 

beginning of harvest. 


7. The months. 

I. r^, 6r (^oor) 

2. kin gdk 3. fiyfi^ 
6. oIgqA ftg, 7. ddu^n 
10. bilduQn ll.bill^ 

about September. 
4. iboZ 5. akoeh, al^ duQn 
8. httb6r 9. mi d^t 

12. Ul 

8. The day-tunes. 

wiu i riiwit the first moming-twilij^t 
becomes visible. 
bg/r morning dawn 
mw^h n^l morning; 
feAfa mwitl "the earth is moming^^; 
it is morning. 
di ehiin noon. 
ehdn yd mil the sun is in the senith. 

ehan a i^eH the sun begins to sink, 
after noon. 
bitrit afternoon; 
feii fa b. it is afternoon. 
a diH wiu Ae sun is setting. 
y^n fyifiit the sun has set 
feikfa Wikr it is night; 

H war at night, midnight. 

Digitized by 





9. Names of stars. 

dwQii moon ikwb$hikdn appears after the son has 

liimlin set. 

hddk three stars, the Uranus. ^kl^jop a star ahead of the Ye- 

nwltl nus. 

dbdik "4 northern stars^*. hy^U riiw^u Venus. 

shirlt wir 

ftjfrh gyinh "hen^S Pleiades. 

dyip comet 

10. Household-things. 

t^ a stick to fasten the door 

kddit large basket for preserv- 


ing dura. 

tit the lower part of the 

^init basket for dura etc. 

tign door. [door. 

iiwich a small kbd^t. 

iAk hearth-stone, hearth. 

adudft a basket. 

ftl grinding -stone, whet- 

^P^it pot for cooking food. 


/uh-fitH water-pot 

iidioA small whet-stone. 

citdi big pot for cooking large 

ginl neck-bench or support. 

meals or beer. 

pyH skin to sleep upon. 

tm dish. 

piai, pH hole for pounding dura. 

fdri a mat for coTering food 

feanQ dura-stalk. 

in pots, dishes. 

^wayQ a frame on which spears 

/ftf a sieve for sifting dura. 

are put, to protect them 

lik pestle for pounding dura. 

from the white ants. 

/HI spoon. 

dglji a grass ring on which 

fiUt knife. 

the kjdit is placed. 

gtoioh stick for stirring food. 

IwqI calabash, gourd. 

dbirit small pot for preserving 


tigi small calabashes for 

6kwin^ broom. 

drinking water. 

titl rope. 

dMii a spoon made out of a 

kadi a rope on which clothes, 

gourd, for taking the hot 

dancing-sticks, etc. are 

food out of the pot. 


dr(l leaf of deleib or dom- 

dwiii mat of Arab making, to 

palm, and basket made 

sleep on. 

of it. 

dd^k fence-mat. 

Digitized by 


Handicrafts 105 

((ib^ a kind of mat made of wiji graBs for stopping up 

ambach, as a seat for cracks in the wall, to 

chiefs only. keep out mosqaitoes. 

cKm a sieyeofcloth, for strain- a^vA a pot. 

ingbeer. fi^^f 

II. Handicrafts. 

ho^ means a skiUbl man, one who is particnlariy sldlled in some work, and 
who, therefore, likes to do this work, and is asked by others to do it for them, 
so that this craft becomes "his work''. Of course it is not his sole occupation, 
except perhaps in the case of the worker in metal. His is a trade held in hi^ 
esteem, so that he has become the 6g^ par excellence ; if the nattyes sunpty 
speak of a Hqij^ they mean the smith or metal-worker. He does not practice 
his craft in one place, but goes from Tillage to village. The other craftsmen 
practice their craft only occasionaUjr. But as a rule one man knows and prac- 
tices only one of the arts enumerated below. 

l^ t^ maker of spears ; plural : idfi ton. 
l^ tyfik H tQin the man who files spears. 
b^ teffi htbiltgn the man who makes the spear-handles straij^t. 

6^ dak tobacco-pipe maker. 
6^ y^ H W ton the man who makes spear-handles. 
h^ tufoA hipuk potter, generally a woman. 

&^ ffwiU UU who canres, makes figures on gourds. 
l^ yir M iyil who makes the string on which the gourds are hung. 
6^ t^A who makes the roof of huts. 
l^ hg^dn H lin who makes skin-dothes. 
t^ ^ht who makes cotton clothes. 
l^ teffi carpenter. 
&^ fdi who tattooes. 
6^ teffk H hi who makes clubs. 
^ ehdk hi hdt shield-maker. 

b^f^ teffi ki kwir who makes shields to protect against clubs. 
6^ j^ ki lift taQor, sewer. 
l^ teffi ki bM drum-maker. 
&gj^ hwichi bUl who corers the drum with a skin. 

hqjfifwdii bid who beats the drum. 
hqjfi IffA ki Ugh who polishes beads. 
hqjfifleh ki rgk who makes ostrich shell beads. 

Digitized by 


io6 Occupations 

6§j^ Mlia who beats the smaO dram '^lidl^**. 
hqjfi gif^ Hj^ who knocks out the lower incisive teeth. 
bg^e twich who cups. 
bgie ndt H wat who dresses the horn of catde. 

boie rich who castrates boUs. [naments. 

boie ndr who pierces the ears of cattle and men, to pot in or- 
boie kwQnit wur the leader in singing. 
bgfie kidit ki dan who makes the dancing-sticks. 
bdie Usn kwgm who makes chairs. 

hoie fjijj^ who makes the neck supports or rests. 
boie kdki Iwol who makes, carves calabashes, gourds. 
bg^e twoy hdt lithit who makes giraffe-tail necklaces. 
bqffi teffi ki ^ke d^t who makes mat-doors. 
bSfe ahwQi/ ki biyi net-maker. 
bgie shwQtf ki ^ffit door-maker. 
bofe shtoQii ki dybm salt-maker. 

boie tiki f4ctu maker of iron bracelets. 

bofefiidb Iq^ one who plaits stripes of skin at the end of the club- 
handle, to prevent the club from slipping from the hand. 
boie kyire ty^le wgt who makes the foundations of huts. 
baje ti^ii^ diver. 
boie dik ki yei hair dresser who fSsshions the hair into small lumps. 

boie met hair dresser who makes the large artificial hair-dresses. 
bqie fUkh fdr^ hippo-huntsman. 
oylfiQ crocodile hunter. 

12. Tools of the bodo, or metal-worker. 

dbdfi hammer. d^k^bi thongs. 

kikU anvil. tii6n chisel. 

tiyujt file. tir^ an instrument with which 

dbiik bellows. to pierce a hole into the 

chUr a cover for the pipe of spear-handle, to put Ae 

the bellows, to prevent spear in. 

its growing hot. 

13. Clothing and ornaments for the body, 

Idu skin-cloth, now also used obdnit front-doth for women, 

for cotton-doth. dAt skin-doth for dandng 

6chyir^ loin-doth for women. worn by both sexes 

Digitized by 


Clothing and Ornaments 


ydr skin cut into snuJl stripes 

biJci a kind of beads. 

or fringes, worn round 

dcUmbt a kind of beads. 

the waist. 

€idSk a kind of beads. 

dygm^ ear-rings of tin. 

dptit a kind of beads. 

gtailQ metal ring worn on arm, 

dbiii white beads. 

wrist, feet. 

titin black beads. 

gwtleyii ear-ring. 

kti^ dwi^it blue beads. 

yUl bracelet for the wrist 

jfrit red beads. 

gtk knee-ring of skin. 

ddwhgh yellow beads. 

dg^lt brown ambach-ring, worn 

todndgak "crow's eye^, a big bead. > 

on the upper arm. 

gago, cowry shell. 

gyth ivory ring 

t^myiigh a string for tying together 

achdi iyoiy ring. 

dodies. [the hair. 

wif^ ivory ring carved in coni- 

gan a kind of button worn in 

cal form. 

winit brown giraffe-tail hairs. 

oti^^ ivoiy ring, a small strip. 

dcJArlt white giraffe-taQ hairs. 

ir^m^ ivory ring, big. 

achitf^ tooth-brush. 

orgk knee-bells, used in danc- 

dw$p a head-dress. 

dtyaii a small bell. [ing. 

dchdeh a head-dress. 

dtitAm bell, similar to orgk. 

dim a head-dress. 

bmUi dancing-beU 

mkt a head-dress, "like a 

hki^ cow-bell, used in dancing. 


agyffr small cow-beU. 

agirh a head-dress, "like a 

Ugot ietgo, acommonnameforbeads. 


a/manjUr blue beads, worn by 

nwQT bleached hair, long. 


dshUhwH achain,womasomament. 

rih ostrich shell beads. 

gdnku rattle, made of leaves of 

gir big beads, worn on the 

the deleib, tied on leg or 

neck by men. 


bol ]^ a kind of beads. 

tidh a kind of small beads. 

^^ \ arm-ring of ambach. 

ykUt greenbeads, round, small. 

vfil loin-ring. 

d^r^ a kind of beads. 

ahulgwQk "penis of dog" arm- 

iny&i a kind of beads. 

bracelet of brass. 

dhn a kind of beads. 

litraii iron bracelet 

14. Names for cows. 

^n cow; common name. Plu- 

wai bull. 

ral :dfiikcatde. 

roJQ heifer. 

' Tliere are many more beads, eaeh of which has its own name. 

Digitized by 




ikargjn calf. 

6Wc grey-white spotted. 


f^yi^ head white, body black 

hyhkdJc black with white tafl. 

or yellowish. 

dehlM^ hornless cow. 

6giih belly and neck white, 

xoirigitt an ox with one horn 

back and head black. 

directed forward, the se- 

fi^lAr one leg white, the rest of 

cond backward. 

the body yellowish. 

6byech a cow with ordinary, non- 

t%M flunks white, the rest of 

dressed horns. 

the body black. 

idm a cow with horns turned 

liiLJhh head yellowish, brown 


spots on the back, the 

6gw&, an ox with horns turned 

rest white. 

towards the eyes. 

i^hjSh head black, black spots 

ddiUt a cowwith horns pointing 

on the back, the restwhite. 


ikdJ^ flanks black, belly and 

ndt a cow with horns cut off. 

back white. 

itgwi^niifn a cow with horns durected 

i/Mlkn brown-black, small spots. 

straij^t upwards, like a 

dUit brown-white, small spots. 


6l&i brown-white, large spots. 

biui a cow with one horn 

females only. 

directed upward, the se- 

teduh grey. 

cond downward. 

MJcw&ch black-white. 

iMeh a cow with horns directed 


stnuj^t sideways. 

tidigb red-brown. 

Vf4mimtii an ox with horns directed 

t&bur ash-coloured. 

straij^t backward. 

t^n black. 

in^git acow with horns directed 

fia&^ white. 

straight backward. 

i/iHdn striped white and red. 

Digitized by 


Social Institutions. Marria e 109 


15. Marriage. 

Da^ e vAjit H liane dacftQ, ka k6pi kins: yd toiS yi! Kine: H nitf JKine: ya 
dwata kwof ki yini Kine: yi k^mi niil Kine: ya dwata kwqpe i/kwltm. Kine: di y\ 
ri fa kif^faeh yi tyffi dongl Ka k^fach^ ka tyin d^nit kipi- KA gi hb: wi bh 
kwltfi toin* Kd i diltgh$ ka e k^d^ dygl mffi kwgbe ^^£* Ka tyffi donQ ko: tod 
yH H kwipU Mh ^l ifitk. Ka ^jHt &|n^ ^ 4q da^) kith kd i dti^gh; ka ki/i 
kini: k^ k^ duti Ka dut kiU dute tysn fhjtoitk, Ka mugn tyin, ka ijrQ chw$l. 
Ka w4{ w^b^ l^l yi itiit l^ni, ka tp^ ^^44^^ ^ *^l dwai ki tin^ m^n kwhM. viiinii 
kd ^rit kiilLfdeh. Kd e^r^ eJ^. Ka i^li liu^i ka H]^ toQt k( jal t^. Nan a 
daeho, yd gil gin ki ^ay t$n. Kd t^ cJAn^, kd hdl a i^imi kd k^l w^k yi toiU 
gin. Ka iHan a dachQ k^l u^i yi to^ gin. Kd ^^ ehinii btni; ka ^an nik, min 
ckdm yi t^^; it^h ^t$ ki m^gh l^ni, ki kto^ i gtr, kwffi ka ehwipi ki mau 

Kd tj^ ddniti Qtq hiafaeK kajal lixoiim ckyik kifi ^^. Ka kipi kine: kani 
jam! Kjul wtn^ ki lau^ ki yiils gsn a tijil Ka m/Qgo, ftr, if f<^j^» kagi,fikafil 
H M Hnit f^h. Ka g^ dwai /qI ki dy^l, kd gi i|n^ kd gt bdtih ki0 kal. Ka 
kwffi kU, ka Jinfiii; ka gi, kf^a kal. Kd gi chi^n^ mhly bdti yiehifSii. K& kwir 
IAI9 ka chiki 2|n fM. Kd gt yiehdfiA. Ka liane titoom dona dd khl. Ka dy^lfhK 
ka k^a kal Ka g^ plkdfM ki kbl. Ka yi$ dyil nql, kd gi kifd wqU Ka i biUit ki 
&tit^. Ka nyhi kH, msn btiti, kd i frtk^. Kd dyil kil H mwQly kd dyil rAk, ka 
wimin i gtpit ktUjit. ^^ '^^ mw^n, kd i ritmii ki mtoimit, ka gikd (kgj^) wit bi 
chdm. Ka Mn gni i biakh kf^. Ka nyffi hil, kd i ehtmit. Dyfci kd gi dwbtlt yUk. 
Kd gi bin, kd gi j^j^^ ka gi lana w^r gi 0^. Ka gi, rumQ 01, kd gi ^n^; ka 
kal mwin kiti, g^ ki toQt. Ka ^^ki tsrQ btnit &in^ bi mi^ ki mttgh' Ki, bid goch, 
kd tirhchbn^. 

Chifi, ka Mwik kil, ka iAwik nik, kd ehdm yi wimin. Kd gi dbgh$ ka iHan 
pd e djtn^ ki wdi gin. Ka wild i/ial sni, kd gi biad^. Ka wii gin d^g^. 

Ka yiji^ ka kil ki ^dn, Tyijk gin kbfi kine: ddt^ d r^ ka wiyi wir^ H mdyi. 
Kd (f^n kil, kd cImAe gin mina* Ka gi ko: dikd ki liA gil tin! Ka gi dtiltgit. Ka 
ret gi witifi. Ska niikq kamdfitfefiti tbiki tyin gin. 

A man talks with a girl, and in the course of their conservation he says: "I 
have come to you.*" She asks: "What for?*" He replies: "" I want to talk with 
you." She asks: "What do you want?" He replies: "I want to marry you.** 

Digitized by 


no Social Institutions 

She Mjs: ''But why do you not go into the yilUge, to the old people?'' Then 
he goes into the village, and talks with the old people. They say: "We have 
nothing to say against it.** Now he retoms home, and brings a sheep, as a pre- 
sent for the old people. The old people say: "We accept your proposal, go, 
and bring the cattle !** The man goes, and procures the cattle, he returns with 
it to the old people, and they say: "Go, and bring the rest of the dowry !^ 
And the rest of the dowry is brought, the part for the people in the village of 
Qod.i Now beer is strained, and the people are called. The ox of dowry is 
brought by all the people; the people go, and fetch the ox, and a spear, which 
is (a present) for the man who held fikst ^e rope of the ox. The people go into 
the village. And the people dance. The bridegroom is put into a hut together 
with the arranger of the marriage; the bride stays with her &mily together with 
the woman-arranger of the marriage. While the people are still dancing, the 
bridegroom is led out by his fiiends, the bride also is brought out by her fiiends. 
All the people continue dancing, and a cow is killed, which is eaten by the 
people; and they drink plenty of beer; and they eat bread, bread which u 
mixed with butter. There are many people present 

At last the people scatter, and go home. The bridegroom is now instructed 
with regard to his wife (that is, he is told how much cattle etc. he has still to 
give). They say to him: "Bring goods, bring giraffe-tails, and skin-dolhs, and 
bracelets for tying.*" 

And (the next day) food (beer, and different foods prepared of dura) is 
brought; it is carried into the village of the bridegroom. The men who cany 
it, sit down outside in the bush before going into the village. The people of 
the bridegroom now bring a goat into the bush (to the carriers, as a present); 
after diat the carriers come into the village, but they refuse to go into tlie yard 
of the bridegroom. Now hoes are brought forth, and are thrown on the ground 
(as a present for the carriers), and they go into the yard; they stand still in die 
yard with their food on their head, and again refuse to put their loads on the 
ground. So once more hoes are brought, and thrown down before them. Now 
they put their loads down. 

The bride also, when she is brought by her fiiends into the home of the 
bridegroom, remains outside the yard. And a goat is led out (to those waiting 
outside), and then she enters the yard. They (she and her fiiends) sit down in 
the yard. The ear of the goat is cut off, and after that they enter the hut — 
But the girl refuses to lie down; and metal ornaments are brought, idiich are 
to cause her to lie down, and then she lies down. The next morning a goat is 
brought, the goat is killed. The women dig for mud which is used in building; 
and the enclosure in besmeared with mud (is repaired). When diey have 

* for the deceased ancestora. 

Digitized by 


Marriage, Burial iii 

finished this, they go into the hut to eat. But the girl again refuses to eat. And 
metal ornaments are brought, and then she eats. The next day the women go 
out to bring fire-wood. When they come back, they put food on the fire, and 
spend the night in cooking. When they have finished cooking, they strain beer, 
and once more they besmear the enclosure with mud, and the hut also. The 
next day all the people come to drink beer. The drum is beaten, and the people 

That is all; and a ram is brou^t, the ram is killed and eaten by the women. 
Now they (the female relatives of the bride) go home, and the bride remains 
(in die house of her husband) together with her aunt She is given to her hus- 
band, and they live together. The aunt too goes home. 

When die wife is with child, a cow is sent to her relatives by the husband. 
Before this is done, her relatives (parents) say: "He (our son-in-law) is a bad 
man,'' and her father and mother are angry. But when the cow is brought, they 
are happy. And they say to the people who bring the cow: ''Return to your 
fionily!'' And they return. And they are sprinkled with water. And when the 
time comes^diat she is to be confined, she is brought to her &mily (to her 
parents; the child should be bom in the home of the mother's parents). 

1 6. Burial. 

Dai;^ kffk a tjM^ ^ ^^ dwai, ka grfsng, kwaii, ha g^h feh^ ka gysng, ^ ka lin 
idtyil, ka gyinq mikQ f^^K ka g$eh feA^ kd 0;^ wiy ^a^; ka dgiHL kil, ka ggehi ' 
loff ka wei budi H kal. Kd wi^ kil, ka ehw^p, kdjt ehuki, kajam kwsr gtoach. Ka 
diri kil, ka tgn k^l^ ka hoir k^h ka (UegQ k^l, ka lau k^l; ka tygn k^ bf^ fi^ 
kwo^itf fn^ tdt pirn; ka iegu twoeh tyi^le gin. Kd gi kidi, ka g^ nitdit kw6^ ka 
kwo^ ksl g&paeh, ka wiki tygh kwoikf ka tyffi kwoik ko: k^l kiehl Ka kitch kily 
ka gt ko: rgfnii dofil Ka rgti k$i, ka ^f^ r&n, ka Tfjfi kQl, rom kiy hiir 0^. Ka 
^ff $ kwSA, kaje rnqko^ ye kuH>iiQ ^Sf^ kafi niokQ yifiH ^n. Kdpyin kul^ ka 
fSr (rir), kd tiu j^m, kd kjjfi fei/i (tabaU). Ka ^^ dwai kid, ka ehytgt chw^l, u 
mtfe tytfi 4d^ ka ^of^ Hfe wiy tabate. Ka lia giil gin yichi tyi^U ^f^ ka liewin 
ekw$ly u tb^i ^k. Kd btl kil, ka dygl ksl» ka dy^l g^ehe lo^; ka hul g$eh. Kafi 
ywQn(t; a tint iffrq, fa ywgn, ka ji wiieh^. Ka ydi ahAm, ka ^fi i riimit ki kwSi^. 
Ka bak e kS^, ka i^TQ ItoQki gat, ka (grQ duQgf^ fach. Obwbyft k^l ki gyh^f ka fi 
fw6t ki obwoy^. Ka fi k^ faeh, KafUl rip mack, ka k^, iii gd^h bgliji; fi e 
tiffils ka fi r^Q ehdn gin dntotn, Ka mqgQ dw^l, m^n kjfe kwQm ^j^ H kihjlt. 
Kd ^ian kil, kd mjtgh tyen, ka mogn kil, kft^ kwftm dafi. Ka kiijit dwai, ka kije 
kwitm ^of^ kd mto^ H/h ka magu ehjM k^l, ka ch^ kjtti, ka trff| chw^p, kd bUl 
fw6t, ka iirit e tdehitf kd yid shUm, ka itrn ttkyh- Ka dwanfar, ka ^rg kobq, ki 

« gock y% U>1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

112 Social Institutions 

hwQf$ ytogk. Ka fnagq, gvfdeh yi i^rq, lin. Ka w6ly kd witS g^ dwai. Ka mftgo, 
tyffi, ka bul g$ch H ^r^* -Ka t^| ehtoSp, kd dyik n^k; ka jh n^. Dyfti ka ytojtgi 
yvo^kf kd ^k dnwin kd niki kid, ka ^k anwffi neke de (der) faeh. Ka ijrQ bffiq 
hsn l>sn l>sn; Ch$l gtrt KafeA y{gi b^rit, Qrg yw^ ka ^k anwffn npc H /ffZ yi 
i^r^' Ka fuki yecK ka bur g^ hodii ki bdA wiy ^f^ Ka aiiwi dryiu ki Iw^t H 
obirit kifhri, ki t^mi dry^ ka gi^ nik ki yey bur. Ka t^ne ^k ka g^ kH hpofi 
feAy gfi It^ yi <£r2. Ka ywQke e din^. Ka kil fofe yi rim^ ka kU 0te yi bat, ka 
rind pini bine, Tygn a kwoii ^of^ k^li chin, ki trieh, ki iy^l, ki mtit^. 

When a man dies the people of the Tillage are sent for; a fowl ia taken 
and ihrown on the ground, so that it dies; it is then ihrown into the comer of the 
hut. Another fowl is seised and thrown on the ground, so that it dies; this one 
is put on the head of the dead man. A goat is brought, and beaten to death 
with a club, and then left in the yard. An ox is brought, and speared. And the 
people assemble, and the things necessary for burial are collected (firom the 
people). An adze is brought, and a spear, and a hoe, and beads, and a skin- 
cloth. Then the people go to cut tfioms with which to tie together boards 
(trees). And beads are tied round the feet of the men who do diis work. They 
go and cut thorns, bring the thorns into the village, and give them to the grare- 
makers. The grave-makers say: ''Bring an adze!'' When the adze is brouj^t, 
they say: '^Measure the dead man!'' And corn-stalks are tied together for a 
measure; now the man is measured; then they take the measure, and measure 
the place (size) of the grave. 

The man is buried thus: Some men dig the hole, and some men skin die 
cow (which has been killed). And the hide is brought, and cut into stripes, and 
a bier is tied together with them, and the bier is put on the ground. The dead 
man is carried into the yard, his wife is called, she is to hold the feet of the 
dead man, and the man is laid on the bier. His wife (or: the women belonging 
to the family) sweeps the place where his feet lie; and a female relative of the 
dead man is called, she throws away the hearth-stones lying there. A dram is 
brought, a goat is brought, the goat is killed with a club ; the dram is beaten, 
and the people begin to weep (mourn) ; as soon as the weeping stops, the people 
dance mourning-dances. Then the people assembled go around in a procession 
dancing. Now the burial of the man is finished. 

A fence is made around the grave; the people wash themselves in the river, 
and then go back into the village. Oboyo (a plant) is brought, and a fowl, the 
people are beaten (touched) with the oboyQ. The people go back into the 
village. The eating-tools of the dead man are burnt, and the people rub the 
ashes on their forehead; the people now scatter and stay away four days. After 
diat time beer is made, the beer for rubbing mud on the back of the dead 

Digitized by 


Burial. Inheritance ^^ 113 

man.' An ox is brought, the beer is strained, the beer is brought, and poured on 
the back of the dead man (on his grare). Mud is carried, and put on the back 
of the dead man; the mud is prepared (made wet) with water. Again beer is 
brought, and again is poured on the grave. The ox is speared ; the drum is 
beaten, the people take their arms and make war-plays, and go around in 
procession. When it is finished, the people scatter. 

After one month has passed, the people talk about the mouming-festiyal. Dura 
for beer is collected from all the people, the dura is pounded, and the relatives 
are invited. The beer is strained, and in the afternoon the drum is beaten. An 
ox is speared, goats are killed. Then the people go to sleep. The next morning 
the mourning begins ; four cows are killed in the yard, and four cows are killed 
in the middle of the village. Then all, all, all the people come, a great many 
of Shilluks. When it is afternoon, the people mourn, and four cows are killed 
by the people in the bush. Cooking-pots are carried out, and a hole is dug 
for them (and for the other household-things of the dead man) near the place 
where the head of the dead man lies. And two pots, and a gourd, and a small 
pot for beer, a mat for covering food, and two dishes, all these things are 
broken, and thrown into the hole. The horns of a cow are brought ^and the 
horns of cattle, and they are brought"), they are buried in the ground (on the 
grave), so that they may be seen by the people. Now the mourning-meeting 
disbands; one of the families receives a shoulder (of one of the butchered catde), 
one receives a fore-leg, and all the other meat is also divided. The people 
who have dug the grave, receive the bowels, the head, and the feet, and the 

17. Inheritance. 

L^ kffi a |g, wQts, nUt, ha jdm^ kwdii yi iial dtiQu^ ha lial (e^ witfS bH^. Kd 
^k hwdii yi lial dugn l^n, ha lial duon u yigi dgch^ hd dithfin^ ^ u yig^ rae\ 
ha ^h hwafi yi lioZ ^. Ka gs, i/iaho;, ha ^h hwaii yi ilkal fe^. T&tq bpiQ bine bsne, 
ha hwQp h&mi, ha ye hine: is srf^ umo, ena a tddni; yi chama ng ktii hi ^hf fini 
^ht u bffiQ hwor, u ehdU yi k§U1 Ka ^hfi/ni t^ro; ha lUxl dugn toihi migi, ha 
ikd j^ wehe mdgi. Ka kwQp h$m chyis ha g^ rap hi dhy^l, hafi h^i/ifH^ ha gs, 
fipn* ^al dugn wihi mdr^^, kifa ind jdn hid; ha mdn^h uHhk lial j^ Ka lij 
hffi hwar gbiii, ehSl^ ha Aal j^ e b'^dg^ fa chiid^. Nal ^ dgg& liimi hi ^hg. 

Tysh ggli, ha owiy jal &ii e btug, ha e hapg hi ahysl, ha dmin e hapg hi ahy^l; 
liwgli gsnfa nigh jal gni, WQte jal ^t, ^f^ dugn; mayi g&i e bidg hi jal dugn; 
hinau eh^. 

When a man dies, and he has children, his property is taken by the eldest 

' Thai is: for besmearing the grave with mud and smootiilng the surface. 

' Not ererybodj is buried so ceremoniooslj as this report tells, but only old, respected or rich 

people, chiefs of £uni]ies or Tillages. — In almost erezy Tillage one sees the horns of an ox 

buried projecting from the ground; this is the burial-place of such a man. I%e Burial of a 

king vide page 128, ^-^ j 

WK8TER]fA95, Th« Shfllnk People. Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

114 Social Institutions 

8on; the younger son (or sons) remains without anything. AU the cattle too are 
taken by the eldest son ; and if the eldest son is good, he divides the catde 
between himself and his brothers, but if he is bad, he keeps all the cattle for 
himself. In this case they fight, and the cattle is taken away (by force) by the 
younger brother (or brothers). But then all the people come, and they talk 
about the matter, and they say (to the younger brothers) thus: '^Why, your 
elder brother, he refused to give you cattle, and now you want to keep it 
all? What for? If later on any debts (which your father may have contracted 
or which may fall on you) appear, you being his sole heir, will have to pay 
all ; so the people divide the cattle ; the elder brother gets his part, and the 
younger one gets his part. After that they again hold a big palaver, and they 
make hriends; water is poured on the ground, and so they are reconciled. The 
eldest son gets many cows (or property), because he is the chief of the family, the 
younger one does not get so much. And if afterwards any debts are to be paid, 
the elder one will pay them, the younger remaining free. The younger brotfier 
marries a wife with his cattle ; that is all, thus the matter is settled. 

The wives of the dead man are treated (done with) thus: the elder brother 
of the dead man comes and takes one, and the younger brother also comes 
and takes one. * And if they beget children from these wives, they belong to the 
family of the dead man; they are (like) his (own) children (they live in die 
house of the eldest brother.) The eldest wife of the deceased, the mother of the 
children, remains with the eldest brother. — So is it exactly. 

1 8. Murder. 

T^ji lifiy yw6di^ s. b^h ^f^k, ka kel, ka ch{li Idl^, ka nan ini e rin^, ka bi^ b^ 
kw^p: yd neka ^ji a roar! Kd bill goch^ ka tirQ bis. tohk^ ka tyffi a man k^fe b^ 
yikijam, gs kdn. Ka ty^k^ benq, leii ri^; kafach yak, gyffi mdk, ka by^l kiL Ka 
tsTQ bsriQ, ^k a kbl fote Jan. Ka i/ii u dgk leAe rH, kd ^k diii^k. Ka ^k aryau 
g&^ yijcigOf ka muje rih ka rij^e wir^^ kdh kb: kS^, chSlI Ka iirq ehitdiitj ka mpi 
e kano dean, ka m^t e kdno dean^ ka ^k e tdm^, ga pyarQ, Ka chwQJk wikr^ ka e 
bmo, ka bi^ yijago, kine: kwdp btdit dit Kine: kwof d j(tlim. Ka dgk kal, ka g§^ 
iyer$ ka gs. muJQ ki dy^k, fngk kwache ty^n Hj,, Ka tysn rji yi^hs kine: dajt rack! 
Ka niki ki dean miko, ka dqk kah ka ty&ii Hi e bioQ, k^fa FaakodQ ki tygn ^aj^ 
tyen daf^Q ffiffi dok abich. Ka ri^ IcqIo dgk abicK toat akyf^l ywgk Hdl ^L 

A man hides in an ambush ; when he perceives his adversary, he comes out 
and stabs him, and he stabs him a second time. Then this man (the murderer) 
runs away home, and comes to tell the people of his village : "I have killed a man 
last night. ^ Then the dnmi is beaten, the people come out from their houses, and 

* The sons many their father's wives, bat not their own mother. 

Digitized by 


Murder. Blood Revenf^e 115 

the women start to cany the valuable thmgs away and hide them; the cattle 
are driven into the Dinka-country. Now a company of warriors come, the 
"army of the king'' ; they rob the village, all the fowls are seized, and the dura 
b carried away by them. When the "army of the king** turns back, they bring 
the cattle back from the Dinka-country. Two cows are loosened by the chief, 
And are given to the king. But the king is angry, he says: "Go, and pay 
(greater) amends l** Then the people pay; one gives a cow, and another one 
also gives a cow, tiU there are ten ; then the cows are brought to one place. 
Now an ambassador from the king comes, he comes to the chief, and asks : 
^How is the matter?'' The chief answers: "The matter is settled." The cows 
are brought and shown to the ambassador for examination. And besides they 
give some sheep to the ambassador and to the other people of the king (who have 
come with him), to please them. The people of the king take them, saying: "The 
matter of the man is bad! (that is: the gifts are not sufiScient)". Now another 
cow is killed (and given to the ambassadors of the king). After that the cows 
(the ten cows mentioned above) are brought, and the people of the king go to 
Fashoda (with the cows), together with the family of the murdered one. The 
family of the man who has been murdered, receive five cows. The king gives 
them five cows and an ox, as a mourning (a mouming-fiind) for their dead 

19. Blood Revenge. 

Jol miko, jal MwomQ^ jal rnddich^ ka nikk yi rit Y^* Ka tt/£n gin i ywitnt- Ka 
je ni hit yifofe bwaiit ka g^ M. mak^ ka g§, chgn to^, kajee ligh pyar abi^kyil, 
ka myke 0^ ka g^ dwql; ka g§^ rumQ dwQl^ ka g§, tyffi; ka gg, rumo iy&if ka bul 
kQl wqk, ka ^^ hil, ka nik, m&i guy bul; ka bul tin wQt ki bar, ka bul tin wQtf 
ka ^Btf^ kil, ka nik; ka ywQge ytoqky ka pyar abi kygl kil with ^^ ff& ^^h (^&^) 
^fi a n^kk yi rij^ Ka £ni anan, ka Chql e buQgQ b^e. 

A certain man, a man of MwQmg, a very good man, was killed by king Yq. 
His relations mourned for him. — At that time people (Shillnks) used to run 
away from the country of the whites (i. e. Arabs), these were caught by the 
relations of the dead one, they were all put into a house, and when they 
numbered sixty, then beer was brewed, and it was mixed with flour; when they 
had finished mixing it, they sifted it; when they had finished sifting it, a drum 
was brought out, and one man was brought, and was killed; he was the one 
for beating the drum. Early next morning the drum was put into the house ; 
when they had put the drum into the house, again a man was brought out 
and killed ; and he was mourned. Thus all the sixty men were brought out and 
killed, in the place of the one man who had been killed by the king. That was 
the reason why the Shilluks were much afraid. 


Digitized by 


ii6 Social Institutions 

20. A Quarrel between Husband and Wife. 

Jal msfcQ e HwQm^. Ka iHan a (fachQ bsnQ$ t katiQ pi; kajal pU tcirits Hne: a, 
ffapinQ? Ya bu k^clu Ka lian a ^chq ka kwona tvuk. Ka g^ neno, ka gs, (oro yi 
kfch; chama M btttQfeti, ka Mns, bdtid, mijh yi kich. 

Ka gs, k^jjQ ^1 kwQtii ki bygl, ka lian a ^ocHq toAa tvQt (yQt)^ e kanq gin eham. 
Ka gt bino, g& katQ by si, ka g§i pika pM; i/ian a ^cJiq hichi gin, lian a daehQ 
panQ ki gore wot Kd gi Mm^, ka fit ko: d, ivA, ch^ (cha) dugn a wan meyi 
(mei), litcdl ^d! Ka gq liwale. Ka g§, yuJQ ki byf/,. Ka Aan a ^Uushg^f^hq kvne: 
liimia, a kidit a ya re wa re&f Jal e ko: i ilkawQrtyauI ggii, 4&gal Kine: kipanQf 
Kine: ehi re a weke ya k^ht ko: i, fafje yin a kobi awa kifu: ga pi nqt Ka lial 
sni ksfa wQJk; ka w&i ehwQl, ka e b^nq; e ko: d, pyeche ^a wtm, weke ya 4^ga! 
kine: kipanQ? Kine: i, pyeche yau! A pyey lian ffti, kine: ¥idnl A kldif A kop 
nate, cha wiki y^ ^gs.^ Kine : i, kAcKk ydnl Na tyau, te kw6p 1 Ya k^la pi awa; 
a kibi kine: g^ a pi nqt K&^ ffd anan ; ina (y§na) k^^. Kine: ni! A tore yi 
k^ch, a ksii ge, bi kwdle byiU ^ ki^a gin cham wqt, g§i t^h Fafe kffi ffti anan f a 
bsni, a kobi kine: dwii, cha duQn a wan byelil a lidm gin, ind ktbd, kine: yi n^nt 
A kobi: fia tyau! gQti 4^gal A koba kine: bih! na yin a ky^ dwi, kine: ga pi 
nq f Fafe k^ sni a b§n anan t A k^a gin eham; a yidi. A kobe wiy lUin ini: yi 
kwata kapangl Adit chtl byild a ktodl yi yin! A kobe kine: k^jHinut Ya d^ a 
weke ya k^ch! Yi cha (yd) kAwa! ^gi ggiUi yin, A k^jlq, a k^le waf^ mfft lig4, a 
ligi Iwqge ir^ a pimi kwQp. 

A certain man had married a woman. One day his wife came and brought him 
water (to wash his hands, as is the custom before eating). But the man was 
angry, and so he said: "What is that water for? I am not hungry. ** Thereupon 
the woman went outside, she too was cross. When ihey went to sleep, they were 
troubled by hunger (both having eaten nothing). The man tried to lie down^ 
but his eyes refused to close on account of hunger. 

In order to get something to eat, the man with a Mend (who lived in 
the same house) went to steal dura. But in the meantime the woman had pre- 
pared food and came into the house, after the men had gone. After some time 
they returned, bringing with them the stolen dura. They sat down in ihe house^ 
but did not know that the woman too was there; she hid in a comer of the 
house. And the two men ate. They talked to each other: '^Ah, brother, yea 
have a thick ear of com there, just let me touch it!*' And he touched it. So 
they ate the com from the ears. Suddenly the woman asked: ''My brothers, how? 
Why do you bring such shame upon me (by stealing com and not eating die 
food I have prepared)?*^ Then the man said: ''You cursed woman, loosen my 
cattle.*^* She asked: ''Why?" He said: "Why do you leave me hungry?" She 

* ThiB is the formula for: "*! wOl be diyorced firom jou." Loosen the caide (give back the eatde) 
which I have paid jour father for jou. 

Digitized by 


Family Life 117 

replied: "Not so ! did you not say yesterday: what is the water for?'' The man 
went out, he called his wife's father. When the father came, he said to him : "Ask 
your daughter (what has happened), and then give me my cows.^ The father 
asked : "Why ?<« He said : "Just ask her!*" He asked the girl, saying : "Giri, how 
is this? The man says he wants his cattle back!*' She replied: "I don't know.*^ 
The fatfier said: "You cursed girl, tell me all about it!'' So she told: "Yester- 
day I brought water, then he said : 'What is that water for?' That is the matter. 
Then I went out.^ The father said : "All right.^ The woman continued : "In the 
night he was troubled with hunger, therefore they went to steal com; in the 
meantime I brought the food, and saw that they were gone. Is not that the 
matter? And then, when they were eating, one said to the other : ^'Brother, what 
a big corn-ear you have!' Then I said: 'Here am I!' And he said: 'You 
cursed woman , loosen my cattle !' And I replied : 'Dear me, was it not you 
who refused yesterday saying: what is the water for?' Is not that the whole 
matter? I brought food, and he cursed I*' After that the father of the giri said 
to the husband of his daughter : "Why did you steal? How is that? Restore me 
my com which you have stolen!" * The man said: "Why? why was I left 
hungry?" The father only replied : "You are a thief! I will give you back your 
cattle." — When the husband heard that, he brought an ox for reconciliation, 
with that he reconciled, he reconciled his father-in-law, and so the matter was 

2 1 . The Husband who wanted to cook. 

Jal tnikQ lii bsda ffwQlQ; ha kopa ^ne gili Hne: i, iian, ya toAa tal!^ Ka 
nane ^acJiQ, ko: d^eh! Ka e ho: bifh 1^1 ^Qch in! ^ji yiga mdchwS yi fitL Kd i 
|a^. Ka e k^f ka kwsn t^wi, ka dbH poara mal, ka gQ lii yir^ ka gQ lii kMi 
pai/i. Ka kwgne chigf^y ka my paii rum yi py&i^ ka kwgn tok^ ka Iwgl duQn take 
i/korgol gsn, Ka min a g^pe w60j^; ka e bidn gan 6bii»* 

Ka gin eham e pim k( chUnh e bidi yau^ ka nan a dacha ksfa to^k, ka pan 
i/iwalf^ ka gq yidi e t^k, obqi j^Qtoa' Kpie: b6i, u ya ^h adit Ka fi| butQ pM^ ka 
M 4*^i^ ^^> ^ ^i^ ffSyib Hne: buh, bi! KwQp a baii dtvigi, Ka lia ggl gsn ko: 
d gin in^ f Kine : |» fafe gin M kwQp I ml lia-^fi, chtcQla : M chwe chwQla yi fit 
eham 6biU ka fala gin eham a tiny a toga oboi pdiL KsA &ni anan, (ig ehwQla yin 
ehwS yi oboi. A kobi lian a ^achq kine: wiy liara^ yi neke mgre nQ ch^t Yafa 
dqge tal kite, Ksj/i sni anon; a 4'^oii lian a ^ctiQ maU a fa^e gin cham^ a chimi, 
ka ehui^ minitt- 

A certain man was very thm, and he said to his wife : "I say, my wife, I will 
cook in place of you." The woman said: "All right!" He said (to himself): 
"Why, cooking is a good thing, a man grows fiit from cooking." So he cooked. 

* The man had — without knowing it — stolen the dora of his father-in-law. 
' "I win come later^, or: ''do later, cooking'' : I will cook after, instead of yon. 
> He remained thinking of the foam. 

Digitized by 


ii8 Social Institutions 

He went and poured much water on the flour (to make bread), so diat the 
foam floated on the 8ur£ace. He skimmed the foam off and put it into die hole 
near the grinding-stone. When the bread was done, he covered the hole with 
a skin, and the bread he put into a large gourd for his wife, and what was 
left (in the pot), he scratched out for the children. (He did not take any food 
for himself^ because) he was thinking of the foam. (He thought the foam was 
the best of the food, therefore he reserved it for himself). 

When his people had finished eating, he sat quite still, waiting till his wife 
had gone out. Then he uncovered the hole and saw that the foam had gone, 
it had dried off! He said: "Dear me! what shall I do now?** He lay down, he 
got up again, he was quite perplexed. He could not say one word C^talk re- 
fused to return"). His wife asked: "What is the matter?" He answered: "Why, 
it is not a thing to be told; mother of my children, I thought because you are 
so fat, I thought it was because you used to eat foam, so I cooked the food to- 
day, and I put the foam into the hole. That is the matter. I thought you were 
so fat firom eating foam. His wife said : "Father of my child, what greediness 
has been troubling you?" He replied: "I shall never cook again." That is it 
The woman arose and cooked food, he ate, and was pleased. 

Digitized by 


Sickness. Treatment of Sick People 119 


22. Treatment of Sick People. 

IRlX^ k^h mtigi yijwQk, kaje dwaty kaje IcSfi kpie: ^^ a lani war hi jwQkf 
Kd ji i lAbj^: ^|t e tniffi kidi yi jtookf Kd dy^l duHii, ka tp'n Idm^ IdmajwQk, 
ka yii dyil niU ^o, pi w^ r^ kd dy^l e nik, rsmQ k^dq feti, ka chdm yi ^t^. Ka 
Qrg tiyh' Kd fyn u betjwik i duin ki r§y ka ajwdgq, dwai. Ka ajwogQ benq, ka 
e kdbq kine: k^ni ki kwir, ka e ko: kQni k{ b^ ka e ko: k^ni ki tau, ka e ko: 
k^i ki dy^ll Kd dy^l kal, ka ^^ e Hjfifyl, kd dy^l chiH wij J^^, ka dy^ly^^ 
hdk, ka yeji wimh kdgiti ka (fdff kifafach, kdjtoitk i toA^lt' 

When a man is seized by sickness, people are called for, and the people 
ask: ''Does he spend the whole night with sickness (is he troubled bj night, 
so diat he does not sleep) 7*^ Again they ask: ''How did the sickness come?^ 
And a goat is brought, and the people pray, pray to Qod ; then the ear of the 
goat is cut off; spittle is sprinkled on the body of the sick person; the goat 
is killed, its blood flows on the earth ; the meat is eaten by the people. Now 
the people scatter (go home). If next day the sickness is still bad on him, a 
sorcerer is sent for. When the sorcerer comes, he says : ''Bring a hoe \** and : 
"Bring a fish-spear!'' and: "Bring a skin-cloth, <" and: "Bring a goat!<«i when 
the goat is brought, the sick man is brought into the bush. The goat is put on 
the top of a white ant hill; its beUy is cut open; when this is finished, the man 
is earned home, and the sickness disappears. 

23. Another Report on Sickness. 

Jtcrgn miib(2 fliiif fii dtoAl^. Ka ajtoqgQ dwai, ka ajwogQ ^69 ka e ko kine: 
kini kwlr, mpi kwoti ya%. Ka dy^l k^^ ka lau h^l^ ka Ofiw^k k^l, kd pdl^t k^h ka 
b^ kit, ka yech kil, kd Ihi kU, kd il:^ kUU ka ohwgk b^ fH H tidit^ ka yqt 
far mal. Ka (faj^ kil, ^f^f^a yeji, ka lia gil g^ chip ndji, ka Aa w&dii chip 
Mma; ka oAwqIc tnk^ ka otiwQk e j^. Ka gs, ^^'^lA ^^^ ^ ^^^ V^^ ^^> ^ ^^^ 
gdeh rii gin ; ka mknit n$l, ka chtni n^l^ kd ddt^ nqU ka g^ kwcik my (it, Ka ya^ 
t^kf ka ihoipk jAy ka wild riAn ini, kd git fni^i hi, Ka attgh f^f mdkwdrit* liiii^ 
j'irltf ka gQ tw6ch ndjs, kd Mi kdky kd Itiltl kdk, ka yech kwdii, ka kife p^l yi yi, 
ka ttni yi yg^ ka pi kijfi yey Iwgl, gi, chiit /^ ; ka b^ kwdiki ^, ka kwir kwdtii 
itn, ka falq kwdt^ in, ka rinQ kwdM in, kd dyH kwdAi ^ in. 

Another sickness is called dwalo. When this falls on a man, the sorcerer is 
sent for. When he comes, he says : "Bring a hoe to dig medicine with.*' Then 

' These all are the fee of the witch-doctor. 
' kwdnyi in. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



a goat is brought, and a skin-cloth, and a ram, and a knife, and a round spear, 
and a certain (kind of) grass, and a fan, and a gourd. The ram is hud on the 
earth at the door of the hut, with its beUy turned upwards. Then the sick man 
is brou^t, he sits down on the bellj of the ram, his wife is placed behind him 
(on the ram), and his youngest son in front of him; thus they hold the ram fSast, 
till it dies. Then they rise, tfie belly of the ram is cut open, the contents of the 
stomach are taken out and smeared on their bodies (of these three persons). 
The heart ako is cut out, and the bowels. The hoof is cut off, and these things 
are buried at the door of the hut. Now the medecine is crushed, it is mixed 
with water, it is given to the sick man, and drunk by him. And they string 
beads, red ones, their name is yiro^ they are tied about his back. The fan is 
cut in pieces, and the gourd too, and the grass is taken, and brought into the 
bush on the pathway, it is thrown on the pathway; water is poured into the 
gourd and thrown on the ground. The round spear is taken by the sorcerer, 
so are the hoe, the knife, the meat, and the ram. 

24. Sicknesses. 

dwalo, the abdomen is swoUen, ajankoby^t 
pains, diarrhoea. th 

tin heart -ache, pulmonary trdii 

dn^nlt cold, catarrh, [disease. kwim ku^ 
dnikj^ insanity, lunacy. 
owin vfich giddiness. kamir 

diiigi teeth fall out, pains in ajhgh 

the bones. dbip 

aldt dropsy, hydropsy. 
adbti pains in the buttocks. 
dkdffi rheumatic pains, chiefly 

in the legs ; feeling cold. gt bwQriq 

fji^u guinea worm, Ferendit 
of the Arabs ; filaria medi- 
nensis. kdjiji 

dmwhl swelling of knees and 
Idi leprosy [elbows, 

li^ii^ a disease of the head, the dnlUh 

hair comes out in con- 
sequence of ulcerous in- anCn 
flammation. Mr 

the skin peels off. 

a kind of light leprosy, 
swelling of the shin- 

salt-rheum, ''lupus^. 

a sickness manifesting it- 
self in strong ferers, ge- 
nerally mortal , chiefly 
children suffer from it 
''thing of the stranger^, 
that is: of the Arab; si- 

inflammation of thefinger- 
joints ; parts of the finger 
rot off. 

inflammation of diejoints; 
of the toes, 

Digitized by 


Ndmes of Sicknesses 


shitMk the same as iMiwith but 

nblo lameness. 

it is curable, amwQl is 

dk^ thigh-bone is affected, it 


is mortal. 

dtD^idi a kind of leprosj on the 

duan disease of the outer ear. 

foot, takes a long time 

chieflj of children. 

to heal. 

gwjifi^ itching. 

mi^ the skin becomes rough, 

ddwdii "a cripple who never 



fdwd^htn diarrhoea. 

atitki hunch-backed. 

ritm diarrhoea. 

bf/^ a disease of cattle and 

ch^ blindness. 

men, pains in the back. 

9i^-i^ eyelashes get red, fall off. 

Digitized by 


122 Political Institutions 


25. The Election of a King. 

K^ rQti (j'ifi) n{y M dwdi kwirS ditn^, ka wiU Ha rij^ ha g^ m^t, ka fi k^sh. 
fofe ^fifigy ka lili k^l^ ka kife machy ka bCk. Ka weli len^^ IffH yi maeK ka mack 
bedq IScth fa\t ri{; ka chiki mikQ t^nQ mach, ka e ly^li UQk, fafe rife ka cAfAi leno 
machf ka e lysloi duon uQk, fafe rifl; ka rnikQ chiki t&i mach, ka maeh e jg, fate 
ny(; ka meko ten machf ka e ly&l ly^l duQn, ka pdtQ mal, ka ^2 'ij^, ri^ anani 
Ka tirq b^n^, ka nena pdi Duki kaje Jgno, kaje wat^pach; ty^ til a W, ka 
gi_ M igna pan, ka lii gUi dean; ka g§, h^nq, waj^i pan^ ka gtfi ^an. Ka g& tDifa 
Bdchdd^ kajane dugn e ptch^ kine : am^ a kwdifi yi liUt f kine: ilka ft{ naU, 

Chofii ka j&k dwdi, ka g^ dwai Mwamd ki Tuhq, Ka e b^Q b^net £M jage b^ne, 
ka kwof kgrn, ka terQ kid^, terQ k^ far^ ka pare tyik, ty§k dky^L Ka fi n^nit 
pal. Ka bar mi ka fi betiQ, gi ksfa pack. Ka t^n kwahi chinif kafi k^fa kal, ka 
tysjae man i ywtn^. Ni r^ji eni b^dq wgt; kajake, kwa ri^, a chwQl, ka g^ k^ 
kal. Ka tedet niU ki ton; ka gs. pofa wQt, ka ilia ft{ kw&fli gi wqJc ki w^. Ka e 
muJQ dean, ka dean nikk yijtik, ka gs_ chama ^ean. Ka kil ka ttrit kd TiAhlb, ka 
jagQ i kii,n^ ki atHt, ka atut chi^ni ri|, ka kwQp k^mi cJii. 

When a king is to be elected, they bring the descendants of the Nubians, * 
iHid the sticks of the princes are broken. And some people go to the Nubian 
country, and bring some flint stones; they are put into the fire; then the fire is 
blown up; and a stick (of the princes) is thrown into it, into the fire; if the fire 
remains black, then that one (the prince or pretendent who threw his stick in) 
is not the king. Another stick is thrown in (by another prince) ; if the fire bums 
(flames up) a little, then this one is not the king. Agwi another stick is thrown 
in; if the fire burns a little high, that one is not the king. Another stick is 
thrown in; if the fire dies, that is not the king. Another one is thrown in, and if 
the fire bums with a big flame, and blazes up, then the people laugh: '^This 
is the king (the prince who threw in this stick, he is to be king).** 

[Hofmeyer says concerning this : "According to an ancient use which 
existed before Nyikang's time, a number of little stones according to the 
number of princes which have been proposed for election are thrown 
into a fire. Each stone has its name ; now the one whose stone remains in 
the fire without cracking becomes king. This test is repeated so long 
till only one single stone is left.] 
After that the people come (firom difl^erent villages) ; they sleep in the bush, 

' The Bhilluks say: ''When Nyikang brought his people into the Bhillnk-country, he broo^t some 
Nubians with him ; these Nubians five in sereral Tillages among the Shilluks up to this day; th^ 
are known by the Shilluks, but in their outward appearance they do not differ from the Shillukt.'' 
According to the report given above they seem to play or to have played radier an important 
rdle in the constitution of the Shilluk dynasty. It appears that the ShiDuks have been in some 
poUtical connection with the Nubians. Digitized by ^^OOy IC 

Election of King 123 

the next morning they oome near and enter the village. The people of the 
stones (those who brought the stones) come and turn to a certain village, and 
a cow is sacrificed ; thej go into the next village, and a cow is sacrificed (in 
each village which they pass, a cow is sacrificed). So they come to Fashoda. 
On arriving there, the great chief asks them: ''Who has been elected by the 
flint stone?*' They answer: ''This or that prince^ (calling the name of the 
elected one). 

That is all, and then the chiefs are brought (are sent for); they all are 
brought, from MwgmQ to TongQ (the chief from each district, from the extreme 
north [MwQma] to the south end [Tongg] of the ShiUuk country is sent for). 
And they all come, that is, all chiefs come, and they talk about the matter. 
Then the people go to the village (of the newly elected king), they surround 
his village all around; after that they pass the night in the bush. Early next 
morning they go into the village again. Their spears are taken from their hands. 
They go into the enclosure (where the new king lives). The women cry. The 
king remuns in the hut. The chiefs, the descendants of the kings, are called, 
they too go into the enclosure. The door-stick (of the hut) is cut off with a 
spear. They rush into the hut, and take the prince (the new king) out. He 
gives them a cow, the cow is kiQed by the chiefs, and they eat the meat. Then 
they take the new king to Tabalg, and they adorn him with beads, with dan- 
cing beads of the king. And they hold a long palaver. 

26. A second report on the Election of a King, 

Jak dwai; ka tifQ b§nQf ka g§, chulcQ, ka hvQp kdmi. Ka rH mdk, dwaifir^ ka 
kQlfan dugn^ ka rgii doJc k^U ka kiii ffQl Nikan, gol dugn. Ka ttro Uimi, kajwok 
tttnis ka Nikon Htm; rd de mil^. Ka rimi^ ka pi len r^ t/i t^rQ bgn, ka ki^i kaU 
ka IwQk yi bane r^. Ka e rum^ ka r^ kj^ lau, lane jagQ, ka tin jagg kd wiki^ ka 
k^ mal yech aiii^^-^wtsh; k§yi mal, ka e H^. Ru wqu ter dwai, ka tt/sn Niekan 
ka gi dwai Akuruwar, fay Nikan. Ka gi_ bgn, gs_ k^la NikanQ ki Dak, i g^^gh 
ki okwQfi umdQ g§, gtr; gg_ ttcojg ry^ (ibibtt ge. k^L Tirq ko: Nikdn a bi, Ka ^k 
kil, kajal m^kQ yitp, ka kil^ ka tau I6ik wbk, ka twSch, ka chip feU ki yg. Ka ferq 
bgno, bene bsne^ rifl ya dir, ka tirg keld kwom jal sni, i di kdf^. Ka rimi, ka ty§n 
Nikon b§nQ:, gi k^lg (rnwerg, ka t^rq r^n^ rji e mlfQ ki tian a dachq, gi, rinQ Hfa 
tyffi Nikon, Hfa gQ u fwSt yi tyffi Nikon, fwoti tirg b^ ; nan a goch, kd chip 
woif ko none M g^ch ka chip wai, Ka ny( chysti. Ka gi, rgna wQt, ko dean kil, ka 
dean chtcgp, ko rii kit w^ky ka t^rq e b^ng b^ne bene b^ne, jagg bine; ka chip dok 
gql duQn, ko tirQ lAm. Ka chyik: yi ku gik ki gi rachi Yi ki n^it kiji! I^ach 
fenkjagg fn^\l Ka r^ d\oo\o mal, ka terg feka feik, ra bode btn^; d^ ban ri^ya 

Digitized by 


124 Political Institutions 

but^, Ka e kobq Hne: Sh^lo, nini ydn bipiel fd fit toi klfh kwd! t/ti n^i H ria 
ki dock. Ka daj^ ye: wub wub wub bine. Ka ^ean k^l, ka shtpqp kifa kobe ri^. Ka 
dgk ksly uikk tyen Nikan. Ka jal §ni g^iiy ka e k^. Ka deaii shwup, min f^md 
kwip. Ka rii e ki^i ki Idn nieko, Idn dugn, tdne jdffQ. Ka f^rq e kft^, m^n k^^ 
fofe ff£n, m£n ksdg, foffi gin 

The chiefs are sent for; and the people (together with the chiefs) come, they 
assemble and talk about the matter. And the king is seized, and brought (back) 
into his own village. He is brought to a large place, and there he is (publicly) 
elected outside the courtyards. They assemble in the court of Nyikang, die 
large court ; and the people pray, they pray to Qod, and they pray to Nyikang 
too ; during this time the king is held fast. When this (praying) is finished, 
water is sprinkled on his body by all people; he is brought into a yard and 
is washed by the wives of the king. Afiier that his body is covered with clothes, 
with royal clothes, and a royal spear is given to him; then he goes up to his 
royal hut, he goes up into it, and stays there one year.' When the year is 
passed, the people (the chiefs) gather, and the people of Nyikang are sent for. 
They are brought from Akuruwar, the village of Nyikang. They come and bring 
(the wooden statues ol) Nyikang and (of) D&k, they are beautifully adorned, 
many ostrich feathers are tied to them. When they are brought, the people 
cry: "Nyikang has come!'' Now cattle is brought, and a man is sou^t, they 
bring him, strip his clothes off him, and bind him. He is laid on the ground 
in the midst of the road. And all, all the people come, the king in their midst, 
and the people pass over the back of this man, they step over him. When that 
is done, the people of Nyikang come, and bring a whip, and the people run 
away; — the king catches hold^ of a girl — they run • away because of the 
[According to Hofimeyer (Anthropos V, page 333) this girl is always 
taken from the clan of the Ewa-okal: "The Ewa-okdl come from tfie 
Bahr el Ghasal; their ancestor was a relative of Nyikang; but a crime 
committed by one among them against the house of Nyikang, reduced 
the clan. They were declassed to ordinary Shilluks, and as a punishment 
for their crime they were sentenced to pay a girl to the king, lliis contri- 
bution has to be delivered whenever a new king is elected, but in course 
of time it has become an honour and a profitable business . . . This girl 
always stands at the king's side during the ceremonies of election. For this 
tribute the clan receives clothes, beads, bells, lances, and harpoons. A 
hole in the ground near Fashoda is filled with sheep; besides cows and 
oxen are driven into it, as many as may find place; these also belong to 
the relatives of the girl. This girl is now called nya kwer (i. e. child be- 
longing to the authority. W.). 

' or: "one day"? 
>or: "is held fast by"? 
'▼ide page 128, 2 a. 

Digitized by 


Election of King, Taxes 125 

There are several other clans which have the privilege of performing 

certain ceremonies in connection with the election of a king. One has the 

dut7 of fiuming the king with a feather of the king of birds, another has to 

secure the dura sticks with which the parly of the king defeats the parly 

of the enemies.*"] 

people of Nyikang, lest they be beaten by the people of Nyikang; for they (the 

latter) beat all people, and every one who is beaten, is put into a separate 

place and has to pay a fine to the people of Nyikang. All the people try to run 

into a house. 

Now a cow is brought, the cow is speared, and the king is brought out. All 
the people come, all the chie&, and they place the king outside the door of 
the great court; the people pray. The king is given these commandments: "Do 
not do any wicked things! Do not kill people! Govern the country of the chiefs 
in peace !^ And the king rises, and all the people go down, they kneel on the 
earth, but the wives of the king kneel beside him. And he says: "Ye Shilluk 
people all, look at me! This is the country of my father and my grandfathers; 
you will live a peaceful life through me!*" And all the people say: "Our father, 
our fadier!"" A cow is brought, and is speared on account of the prosperit7 
(for the good speed) of the king. And cattle are brought, and given to the 
people of Nyikang. And the man (who was bound) is released, and goes home. 
Another cow is speared, which finishes the matter. And the king is covered 
with certain clothes, big clothes, royal clothes. Now the people scatter, each 
one goes to his own country. 

27. How Clothes are secured for the Royal Court. 

Ka iffTQ kd bi dwdr ki Igi, lai kwhr, ffy^k. Ka (§rQ. ^ k^d^ b^n^ gi gtr, ka jak 
e Ihm^: yina yiJc ^^5 kwdbi piA dniLn^ la% tysh lai kwer chi, ^ de tun u ttvot/e, u 
chudg, chi. E lamQ: yina yiJc NikanQ, kffi an pdyh yty wq, h^A tptfi ki kwdpl E ko: 
i, kwaye ^j^, nok lai ki dgch, u ki^r bgfi 6 gltn; niki ditch, kiji'tjl^banQl Ka dysl 
1^1, ka chwQpf ka gyinn kil, ka n^4 ka dwar e k§!^ ka tun dwar kil, ka gysk nek 
g^ g^i ka i^TQ hpiQy kajak e chukq, ka lai tyir, ka ge, rumQ iysTib kajane duQn, 
ka lai gichi, ka e ko: jigis kil m^k, ka e ko jak nate: kfl m$k, nSiL Ka gs, neji. 
Ka g^ rumQ nhig, ka g^ kel, HfjS. b^ tySTOi kajagQ ko kine: nbt E ko: i, ds, toa 
bi k^ldit gin t Ka e kapo, 4^n, ka ^an kil, kajak eh^, ka g^ k^d^ ka Bachodq. 
Ka r^ nadi, ka ko:jik d &t. Kifie: wuo, wq bil Wu kdlinQl Wq kQlijamd kwer. 
Kine: gi id\1 Kine pyar abiky^. E kq: dgchl Ka tii e kanq waf^ (f^^oaf^) duQn, 
ka uHkhjak, ka nik. Ka jak e Aji, gi ehdmit ki ^ean. Ka g^ niehi^. Kine: wuo, 
bd tdUit f Kine: i, mipi jwgk! Ka jak e b^iq, ka muki tyffif ka gs, fijfit gi mQ^. 

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126 Political Institutions 

Kine: d, doch^ kii, kslu jwqkl Ka gs, b^n^, Ka g§, wa^e fofe gsfi^ ha bul g^h, ka 
t?rQ chonQ ki bill. Ka gs, t^go, : vmna yik tsrQ, i, wd du^k, d^ bet peii mii. 

The people go hunting game, a game for the king, a gyek-antelope. And all 
the people go, they are many, and the chiefe address them: ''O je people, 
(hear) a commandment of the king, concerning the gyek-antelope, which belongs 
to the king: if any man let the game escape, he shall surely be fined I*^ Then 
they pray; ''O Nyikang, this matter is under your auspices! Do not suffer us 
to have any mishap ! You grandfather of mui, kill the game well, so that we 
may incur no debts ! May it be killed well, o Njrikang I*" Then a goat is brought, 
it is speared; a fowl is brought uid cut up. Now the hunting-parly arises, each 
part (goes) in a different direction. And when muiy antelopes hare been killed, 
the people come back, uid the chiefs assemble, and the game is brought before 
them; when they have brought it all, the big (district-) chief divides the animals, 
and says: ''This chief shall take this, and this one shall take that;** &en he 
says: "Tan it!^ And they tan it. When they have finished tanning, the skins 
are brought before the chief for examination. The chief (when he has examined 
them) says: "All right !^ Again he says: ''Shall we not bring them (to the king)?'' 
He seizes a cow, which they take with them (to Fashoda); all the chiefe 
assemble, and go to Fashoda. When they arrive there, they ask for permission 
to enter (the royal court). It is said to the king: "The chiefs have come.'' They 
greet the king: "Our Lord, we have come." He asks: "What do you bring?" 
They answer: "Whe have brought royal goods." The king asks: "How many?" 
They reply: "Sixty." He answers: "Very well." Then the king brings a big 
steer, and gives it to the chiefs. The steer is killed, and the chie& stay to eat 
it, together with a cow. Then they ask the king for permission to go: "Our 
lord, shall we not go now? (we will go now!)". The king answers: "Why, hold 
fast (to) God (that is: stay!)" So the chiefs remain; and beer is strained, and 
they stay to drink. Afterward the king says: "Well, all right, go now with 

When they come home and approach their villages, the drum is beaten, and 
the people dance to the drum; then they address the people; "O ye people, 
we have returned ; may the country live in peace I" ' 

a8. Making Boats for the King- 

A kei tero be ntoot ki yqt, ye^e kwkvy ka ferQ nudit, ka yai iSZ, kd ttr^ b^nit, ka 
tevQ fjoafiifach, Ka jagQ chwgl, ka yat l^iT kd h vi^Qj ka e kapQ mi, kaeko: kuHui 
yej^ ak! Ka kwdii, ka e ko: mok an ba mok ritt ka m^k an tyff^, ka gs^ kwSch, ka 
gi beno gin keau BachodQ. 

' The dy^it-antelope belongs to the king, out of its hide clothes for the king's wires are made. 

Digitized by 




The people go to cut boats, boats for the king; and the people cut them^ 
and bring the boats, all the people come (with the boats), and when they 
approach the village, the chief is called; the boats are put before him for 
examination. He looks at them, and seizes some, saying: "Take these boats !^' 
They are taken, then he says : "These belong to the king*' ; they are hewn (car- 
ved), are sewn together, and afiter that they row them to Fashoda. 


I. nnk 

4. D^ 

7. Dyil 
10. Agunjwuk 
13. Obhyibudj^p 
16. FeMduDcd 
19. Avoau 
22. Dot 
25. Kuhgh 
28. FamS,^ 

31. mi^t 

34. NindHt 
37- Bio 
40. L^l 
43. Affwirit 
46. Fltdeitn 

49- Gik 
52. ^^^ilr 
55. Abyiiiii 
58. Mly^h 
61 Thmiti 
64. Md^ 

Provinces of the Shilluk country 

beginning from south. 
2. NhjwMit 

5. Nelinodk 
8. FhiiUn 

II. Ajttgi 

14. Obai'Digti 

17. Ow$8hi 

20. Dur 

23. Addkon 

26. Olnod 

29. Offit 

32. Fd0u 

35. Bdl 

38. Aghd^ 

41. Kwitm 

44. l^egir 

47. LhnQ 

50. jru7^<;A^n 

53. J?iirW* 

56. Ogtn 

59. A^itdwU 

62. Akuruwdr 

65. Mw^mi, 

3. i?^rf^ 

6. PTeJW 

9. Aryiktr 
12. Fiifcin 
15. A^i^ean 
18. Tii^riJ 
21. 2<^(i^ 
24. Awir^toitk 
27. J/d&fA^ 
30. TTdw 

33. J5*< 
36. FdWr 

39- Y'^'i 
42. PdchSd^ 
45. &^;6aii^ 
48. Jr((^it 

51. Am 

54. Jfek/ 

57. Fa^ikdn-OOffS 
60. I&r^ 
63. -46t2r 

The Clans or Divisions of the Shilluk People. 

The Shilluks are divided into a number of clans or tribes, each of which is 
traced back to a common ancestor. In most cases this ancestor is a man, but 
some of the clans claim descendency from an animal. 

The following names of the clans and all the remarks added hare been pro- 
cured by Reverend D. Oyler, ofDoleib Hill, who collected them from an assem- 
bly of natiyes, and had them afterwards examined by some ShiUuk men who 

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128 Political Institutions 

are known for being well versed in the history and traditions of their people. 

The names are given in the succession in which the natives enumerated 
them. If there are two different traditions of a clan, the second is introduced 
by: "Diff.« 

The word Ewa means '^descendanf 

pSofineyer in "Anlliropos^ enumerates 13 clans and gives some remarks 
on four of them.] 

/. Kwa-AjaU was founded by Jal, one of the men who came with Nyikang 
from his earlier home. They live at Nyelwak. They lay out the circle for build- 
ing &e house of Nyikang. — Diff. : the clan was founded by Milo, who named 
it after his son Jal. Milo waged war wi& the sun, and got a cow. When Nyikang 
saw it he was pleased and asked, where he got it. On learning it had been 
gained from the sun, he sent Milo back for more. The latter managed to steal 
several; but the sun became angry and burnt Milo and his people. Eventually 
a batde occurred, in which the sun succeeded in killing all the catde except a 
pair of calves, which Milo saved by wrapping them in his do^. He got them 
safely to earth. 

2. Kwa Mai, was founded by a man uid a woman who came down from above 
(mal). They left their children on earth uid ascended again. — Diff.: they 
died on earth; their home is Malakal. 

2 a. Kwa Lek, was founded by two celestial beings, a man and his wife. It 
gets its name from the large wooden pestle that the Shilluks use in crushing 
their dura. They quarrelled over a lek; &e man wanted to use it to stir the 
cow dung, at the same time the woman said she needed it for crushing dura. 
Neither would yield to the other. Seizing the lek they fought over it So violent 
was their quarrel that they fell to earth. Nyikang captured them and told them 
to settle at Malakal. The womui taught the people to make beer. Later they 
escaped and returned to the skies. At the crowning of the king their descendants 
strike the people with whips of sheep skin. The lek over which they quarrelled, 
is now at Malakal. — Diff. : they died at Malakal; and this is the same division 
a8»No 2, and should not be counted as a separate division. — 

[This last remark is no doubt right, as bot^ 2 uid 2a are of t^e same 
''celestial^ origin; moreover Hofrieyer in '^Anthropos^ gives a description 
of the kwa Mal which is identical with that of our kwa Lek. W.] 

J. Kwa Oman, was founded by a womui who was a wife of Nyikang. They 
do not appear to have a special ftmction; live at Ogot. — Diff.: was founded 
by a man named Oman; they help to build the house of Nyikang. Oman was 
found by Nyikang in the Shilluk country. 

^. Kwa Mon, was founded by Mon ; Mon was found in the Shilluk country 

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Cl ans 129 

by Nyikang uid became his servuit. They help to build the house of Nyikang 
at Wau. They live at Ogot. — Identical with 3? 

J-. Kwa Ju^ or Kwa Jok^ was founded by Ju, a half-brother of Nyikang on his 
fadier's side. Ju built the house for Dak. The Ewa Ju build the three houses 
of Dak in File on the White Kile. When they have finished building the 
house, nn ox is killed by a half-brother of the king. 

They live at Mainam. 

d. Kwa Nyadwaiy was founded by Nyadwai, an ancient king of the Shilluks; 
he was the son of Tugo. They are found at Apio and Adit-deang. They help to 
build the house of the king. — The son of Nyadwai was a servant of Abudok. 

7. Kwa Gtoavy was founded by Gwar, a servant of king Dokot They build 
the houses of Dokot in three villages. They give the skins of Mrs. Gray's 
waterbuck to the king. Their village is Chet-Gwok. 

8* Ktoa Nyikang, was founded by Nyikang, a servant of king Nyikang. They 
help to build the house of Nyikang. Their village is Fakang (the village of 
Kang). — Diff.: it was founded by 01am, a servant of Nyikang. 01am was 
captured by Nyikang in the river, and brought out Nyikang settled him in the 
country. 01am is said to have been a man of tremendous appetite. 

p. J^wQHi was founded by a hippo-hunter named J^wqu. He was found near 
Doleib Hill by king Abudok. The name J^wgn means to walk in a stealthy 
manner. They help to build the house of Abudok. Their village is Twara. 

70. Kwa Eeji ("or rjjf, i. e. king), was founded by Nyikang. They all go to the 
crowning of a king. Their village is File. 

//. Kwa Tuki, was founded by a person that Nyikang discovered by the 
river. They taught the Shilluks to build the tuki (hearth-stones). It is made of 
three small pillars of mud built in a triangular shape. On the tuki the cooking 
vessel is placed. Before the Shilluks were taught to build the tuki, they used 
to dig a little hole in the ground for the fire. The Ewa Tuki help to care for 
the catde of Nyikang. They live at Didigo. 

J2' Kwa Chtoal, was founded by Chwal, who was found in the Shilluk country 
by Nyikang. They live in Fofie Nyikang, and help to build the house of Nyi- 
kang. — Diff. : Chwal was found on his way here. 

J J. Kwa Jan Nyikang; he had a Dinka wife, her people founded this 
division. They live at Ojodo, and help to build the house of Dak. — Diff.: it 
was founded by a Dinka, who was the son of Gok, and came of his own firee 

/^. Kwa Tuga, was founded by Tuga, a foreigner. They say he was bh Arab. 
Nyikang married Tuga's sister, and her brother followed her. 

I J. Kwa KiIq, was founded by Okiloy a servant of Nyikang. He taught the 

WE8T£Rlf AH9, The Sbillvk People. 9 

Digitized by 


I30 Political Institutions 

ShUluks how to prepare the mud for the tuki. They live at Foif^ Nyikang, and 
help to build the house of Nyikang at i^oj^ Nyikang. — Diff.: Okelo was a 
Nuba, whose sister was married by Nyikang. Vide //. 

i6* Ku>a Oguti, was founded by Guti, a servant of Nyikang. He came into 
this country. They live at Twara and tear down the old houses of Nyikang. 

//. Kwa Dak, was founded by Dak, a servant of Nyikang. They cut the first 
dura stalks for the house of Nyikang; they live at Owicbi. — Diff.: Dak was 
the son of Nyikang; they build the house of Abudok. 

ig. Kwa OahollQy was founded by Oshollo, a servuit of Odak. They build the 
houses of Odak, and live at Malakal. — Diff.: Oshollo was the son of Dak; 
they build the house of Oshollo, and also the king's house. 

/p. Rwa Nebodo, was founded by Nyikang's blacksmith (bodq). He furnishes 
the name for skilled workmen. They live at Nyelwak, uid help to build die 
house of Njrikang at For^ Nyikang. Each year they give the king dried hippo 

20- Kwa Guga, was founded by a man who once sat near Nyikang like a 
buzzard watching for meat. They live at Nyelwal and help to build the house 
of Nyikang. 

27* Kwa ObqgQ, was founded by Obogo, a servant of Nyikang that had come 
with him. When they arrived at the Nile, the current was blocked up with sudd, 
so that they could not find a crossing. Then Obogo told Nyikang to kill him. He 
was consequently thrust with a spear. When his blood touched iiie sudd, it 
parted, and a clear passage was furnished for Nyikang and his party. Obogo's 
self-sacrifice took place "at the end of the earth." They live in Foj^ Nyikang, 
and help to build the house of Nyikang. Vide 51. 

j?2. Kwa Ogefcoy was founded by Ogek, a servant of Nyikang. They get their 
name from the fact that they were the herders of the sacred cow that Nyikang 
got firom the river. They are found at Wau. 

j?j. Kwa Nemtoal (''the crawlers"), used to be a part of No. 10, but Nyikang 
became angry with them and said they could no longer belong to die Kwa Ret 
They help to build the house of Nyikang and furnish hippo meat to the king. 
— Diff. : it was founded by Uwal, who was a member of No. 17. The division 
was effected peaceably, because the Kwa Dok had become too large for 
convenience. They help to build the house of Chal. Their residence is at 

2^. Kwa OkiU was founded by people that Nyikang found in the Shilluk 
country. They first dug in the ground. They help in building the house of Nyi- 
kuig. When a king is crowned, the chief of this division gives one of his daugh- 
ters to the king. — Bemark. This division seems to be the same as Hofimieyer's 

Digitized by 


C lans ........^.^ 131 

Kwa Okal, of whom he says, "They have come from the Bahr Ghasal; their an- 
cestor was a relative of Nyikang. Bat a crime which they committed became 
the cause of their clan being decimated. They became common ShiUuks, and 
as a punishment for their crime they had to pay a girl to the king. This tribute 
is repeated at each new election. The girl is called nya Kwer^^ (i. e. girl of the 
authorities, girl of taxes). Vide also 75-. 

25- Kwa Lqboy or Oshu, was founded by Oshu, the son of Lobo, a servant of 
Abudok, who was found in the Shilluk country. They help to build the house 
of Abudok, their residence is in Owichi. — Diff. it was founded by Okola, the 
husband of Lobo; they were the parents of Oshu; servants of Nyikang. 

26' Kwa Buna (BM^f), was founded by foreigners who have come in. To 
become a member in good standing it was necessary for the member of each 
family to give a daughter to the king. The ancestors of the division were stran- 
gers who married Shilluk women and took up residence in the Shilluk country. 
They are found at Nyigir. 

27. Kwa Ororq; are the same as 23 (?) Are found at Yonj. 

2S. Kwa Dokoty was founded by I)Qkoji, a servant of Dak; they were found 
in the Sobat region by Nyikang. According to some they are the descendants 
of Dokot. They build the house of Dak. Their residence is at Gur. 

j?p. Kwa NimgnQy was founded by Nimono, who was found here by Nyi- 
kang, who married his daughter. They live in Gur. 

JO. Kwa Ow^n, was founded by a man who tried to deceive Nyikang. The 
name Owen means deceiver. They are servants of Nyikang, and help in build- 
ing his house. Nyikang brought them from a distance; they live in Foj^ Nyi- 

J/. Kioa Orito, was founded by Orlto, whom Nyikang found in the Shilluk 
country. They help to build the houses of Nyikang and Dak. Their residence 
is in Nigu and Wubo. 

j2. Kwa Wun, was founded by a man who tried to hide all the fish of a 
certain kind (eshura) from Nyikang. When Nyikang asked for them, he said 
there were none; but his treachery was found out. Kany of this division eat 
of this kind of fish, he will die. They are found at Tonga and furnish fish and 
other water animals to the king. They also help in building the house of Nyi- 

jj. Kwa Nishine, was founded by a mui that Nyikang found near Tonga. 
They live at Tonga, and help to build the house of Nyikang. 

j^. Kwa Nat, was founded by Nai, a servant of Dak. They help to build 
the house of Dak that used to be on the mission ground at Doleib Hill. They 
are found at Obai and Abijop. 


Digitized by 


132 Political Institutions 

j§. Kwa Dwai, was founded by Dwai, a seryant of Dak. They help to build 
the house of Dak and are found at Foj^e Nyikang. — Diff.: Dwai was a senrant 
of Nyikang. He was a Nuba, who oame into the country and was taken by 

[This last remark is probably right, as the Nubians are generally 
addressed: Nya Dwai.] 

jd- Kwa AggdQy was founded by Aggdo^ a servant of Nyikang. He was a 
foreigner that Nyikang found here. They live in Obuwa, and help to build the 
house of Nyikang. — Diff.: they build &e house of OshoUo in Ditong. 

jy, Kwa Ni^ean^ was founded by a Dinka who came into the Shilluk country. 
They live at Obu, uid build the house of Dak. 

j8> Kwa NikoffQs was founded by Nikogq, a seryuit of Nyikang. Nyikang 
found him in this country. They build the house of Nyikang; their residence is 
at Didigo. 

jp. Kwa Dun, was founded by Adun, a Dinka, who was a servant of Abudok. 
They are found at Owichi. — Diff. : he was a senruit of Nyikang. 

^o. Ktoa Oktoai, was founded by Okwai, ui ancient fisherman found in this 
country by Nyikang. They live at Adodo and build the house of Nyikang. — 
Diff.: he was a Dinka, and was found by Duwat. 

^/. Kwa Jalo, was founded by Jalo, a servant of Odak. They live at Adit- 
deang, and build the house of Odak. — Diff.: he was a son of Duwat. 

^. Kwa Ogwat, was founded by Ogwat, a servant of Odak. They build die 
house of Odak. Tonga is their home. 

^j. Kwa Omal, was founded by Omal, a servant of Odak. They build die 
house of Odak; their residence is at~Malakal. — Diff.: They are the same as 
No. 2, Bikd should not be counted as a separate division. * 

^. Kwa Wan, was founded by Wan, who crowned Nyikang. Wang was found 
in the Shilluk country. They live at Okun and Dur; they have a part in die 
crowning of the king. 

^5. Kwa OA^nfi was founded by OkgnQ, a servant of Nyikang, who was 
found in the country by the latter. They live at Eakugo. Bud help to build die 
house of Nyikang. — Diff. : They build the house of Dak. 

^6. Kwa DuwQt, was founded by Duwat, a servant of Dak. They are the 
chief of die servants of Dak; diey live at Filo. 

^y. Kwa Ku^ was founded by Oku, a servant of Nyikang. Nyikang found 
him on the bank of the river in die ShiUuk country. They build the house oi 
Nyikang. Their home is Arumbwut. 

^S. Kwa Yodo, was fonded by Oygdo, a servant of Nyikang, found in the 
ShiUuk country. They help to build the house of Nyikang. Their home is in 

' They may, howerer, be a subdiyisioii of 2, as Omal means "descendant of MaL" 

Digitized by 


Clans 133 

FoTke Njikang. — Diff: Njrikang brought Oyodo from a distance. 

^p. Kijoa Ohogi, was founded by Okogq^ a seryuit of Nyikang. He was brought 
from the Nuba country. They help to build the house of Nyikang. Their resi- 
dence is at Detwuk. — Diff.: he was found in the Shilluk country. 

50. Kwa if Mi, was founded by Omuiy a Nuer servant of Nyikang. They live 
at Adit-deang. 

5/. Kwa Obon, was founded by Ohon, a servant of Nyikang. He was foimd 
in the ShiUuk country. He ate the meat cleuied off the skin of Nyikang's 
cattle. They live at Nyelwal. — Diff. : Ob on was brought here by Nyikang. 

52. Kwa Chwai C^soup"),! ^1^ founded by Chwai, a servuit of Nyikang, who 
was found here. Their functions are the same as the preceding, except that when 
an ox of Nyikang is killed, they get the soup. They live at Nyelwal. 

5j. Kwa RinQ, ("meat"), was founded by Rino, a servant of Nyikang, who 
was found in the ShiUuk country. At the killing of nn ox of Nyikang they get 
the meat. 

5^. Kwa f\fen Cskin"), was founded by Ofy&i^ a servant of Nyikang found 
in the Shilluk country. They get the skin of Nyikang's cattle. They live at 

/J-. Kwa Wich ("head"), was founded by Omch, a servant of Nyikang found 
in the Liri-country (EordofSEtn). They get the head of Nyikang's cattle. Their 
home is at Nyelwal — Diff. : Wich was a Dinka. 

jd- Kwa Shin, ("intestines"), was founded by Shin, a servant of Nyikang. 
They get the intestines of Nyikang's cattle ; live at Nyelwal. 

57. Ktoa Isil^nQ, was founded by Ol^n, a Nuer servant of Nyikang. They 
help to build the house of Nyikang. Their residence is Tonga. 

jS. Kwa Nyi^k, was founded by Od^ik, a servant of Dak. They help in 
bnOding the house of Nyikang. Their home is Dur and Obai. 

5p. Kwa At/adq, was founded by AyadQ, a servant of Dak. They make a 
preparation of bean leaves and give it to the king, who puts it on his body. 
They are found at Dur. — Diff.: he was a servant of Nyikang, they help to 
build the house of Nyikang at Malakal. 

do- Kwa Anutf was founded by Anut, a servant of Nyikang found in the 
Shilluk country. They taught the Shilluks to make fire by friction. At the crown- 
ing of the king they make fire. They are found at Fotou. 

di. Kwa Nyerij^, are descendants of Nyikang. They are the royal class. The 
king is chosen from among them. Their village is Yoyin. Vide /o. 

62. Kwa D^Qn, was founded by O^Lon, a Nuba, who came into the country. 
He was a servant of Nyikang. They help to build the bouse of Nyikang. Their 
village is near Tonga. * 

' These and some of the following as well as of the preceding names are apparently not realljr 
names of ancestors. 

Digitized by 


134 Political Institutions 

63, Kwa Od^nQy was founded by Odia, a servant of Abadok. They help to 
build the house of Abudok. Their village is Twara. He came into the country. 

64* Kwa WubQj was founded by Wuhq^ a servant of Nyikang. He was a 
brave man, who was never afraid. When the cows of Nyikang got into his 
dura, he watched them, and killed one cow. Nyikang told him that some^iing 
bad would happen to him. As a result his village was attacked by the Nuers, 
and a large part of his descendants were killed ; so it is a small division now. 
Wubo was very skilful in the use of weapons. — They do not rub ashes on 
their faces and bodies. They help to build the house of Nyikang. They live at 

6^' Kwa Nikdi, was founded by Kir, a servant of Nyikang. He was found 
at a distance. At the death of the king they beat the drum. They live in Ghir« 
— Diflf. he was found in the river by Nyikang. 

dd. Kwa Yoy was founded by Yd, a servant of Odak. They help to build the 
house of Odak. Their village is Obwo. — Diff.: he was a servant of Nyikang; 
they help to build the house of OshoUo. 

dy> Kwa Gau, was founded by Ogau, a servant of Odak. He was from the 
Anywak country. They help to build the house of Odak. Their residence is at 

68' Kwa Mwaly was founded by Mwal, a servuit of Nyikang. He crawled 
away from battle. They do not eat of the flesh on the knee-joint. They help to 
build the house of Nyikang. Their home is at Ogot. Vide 23- 

dp' Kwa Kam, was founded by Eam, a servant of Nyikang. He was a fish 
which Nyikang caught and changed into a man. They are found in Foj^ Dwai. 
— Diff. : he was brought in by Dak, and was his servant. 

yo» Kwa Oka^i, was founded by Oka^, a son of Dokot. They help to build 
the house of Dak. Their home is at Foj^ Dwai. — Diff. : he was of Arabic 
descent. When a king is crowned, and the king starts to Tonga, diey sweep 
the beginning of the road with a hen. 

7/. Kwa Bil, was founded by Bel, a servuit of Nyikang. He was an Anywak. 
They are at Mainam. They help to build the house of Nyikang. — Bel once 
fought against Mui. 

72. Kwa Nit/oky was founded by Oyok, a servant of Nyikang. At &e crown- 
ing they ring the bells. 

7j. Kwa Net/ok, was founded by Ot/ok, a servant of Nyikang. At the crowning 
they ring the bells. They live at Fashoda. 

7^. Kwa Netysn, was founded by Oty^, a servant of Nyikang. He was sent 
on an errand by Nyikang and forgot; thus he got his name. They are found ia 
Fakan; they help to build the house of Nyikang in Fakaru 

Digitized by 




30. The ShiUuk 


I. Mkhiik 

2. 2>4Jk 

3. 5feiZ 

4. Ahind 

5. Oddk 

6. DuicUtt 

7. BwQch 

8. Z>^A:5| 

9. Abidi^k (queen) 

10.. Ttigi^ 

II. Okw^n, Okon 

12. Nhdwhi 

13. Nmki 

14. iTiWi^ 

15. iV^aifcti^acA^ 

16. Anti 

17. Akwht 

18. ^wew 

19. Akich 

20. iV^^doi 

21. KwaiJcer 

22. Ajan 

23. Kwbylkwin 

24- F^r 

25. ^Agi 

26. ATwr 

27. Padyi^ 

A. E. S. has the following list (according 

to Father Banholzer at Lul, and 

Dr. Giffen at Doleib Hill). 

I. Nyakang 

2. Z>a^ 

3. Odage 

4. Kudit 

5. Dokodo 

6. ^o; 

7. Tugo 

8. iS^a Z>u?ai 

9. Nya Abahdo 

10. Muko 

II. Nya To 

12. Nyakong 

13. Okun 

14. NyaGwat8e(Nkwaji) 

15. Nyadok 

16. Ahwot 

17. Abahdo 

18. -4tt7m 

19. Akoj 

20. A^edoi (Nyadok) 

21. jr«?ad AetV 

22. Ajang 

23. G^imn Arwn (Kwoe - 


24. Yor Adodit 

2$. Akol 

26. JTtir TFod JVedofc 

27. Fadw^ IFad At^od A^V. 

31. The Burial of a King. 

Rii ka ii| whiii, lit A;|j(« U7g^. ^a ^Lean chwQp, ka fysni yech, ka rir, ka ummi 
rerQ, ka ygji dwai, ka gf^ ngt, g^ d tdkugi kQl, ka gs. kwoii feh, Ka d^l ^ni kd g^ 
tddi tit tabate. Ka ga rumQ ki tadQ^ ka riji kQl; e kuchi tt*^ ka kiie wQt, ka ruk 
ki tariQ kwaii. W^min aryau ka gs, kQl, ka gi k^ wgt; ka mikQ mHn unji, ka 
ni^ mxfo tycl^; ka tn^n f^fe ki atdbi ki d&k, ka lian fife ki atabq ki dak. Ka WQt 
muU 4fi &tf yo, fn^ yeje k^le ybm^. Ka gt bidQ toQt, maka dwat aryau. Kd gi (^ 
ka kdtiQ, ka reiga yikk t^ni^, Ka g§, kilh wiy WQt; rin d fflm^ ka gQ dona chA. Ka 
jak dwai bpi wufe ' 2'unQ, ka wuffi ' Mio^jmo^ jagi bin i|n. Ka g^ kgdo, min e 
kiui ^ein; u toafie g^n, ka d^k £ni chgn kdeh dky^l, ka g^ chtobpJ^ Ka g^ kine: rij^ 
a toaik. Ka ^rg ytogn, ka ^an niikQ ytch, ka fysn e niii, sn a^p. Ka shu r^J Xj{t 
y€eh a^pf ka k6fi feh; d kdn, ka ywQk ywQk. Ka tirQ b^riQ b^e bine bine, Ka tQfi 
$h^ gi, gtr, ka gs, twdch^ ka ge, k^e yi ygi, ka okqt kife yi y^i gtr, ka tik Hfe yi 
ygi gtr^ ka ptfiti ki^ yi ygi, ki timi, ki l^t Ka je k^l, gsn aryau, mgn akygl lidne 
daehf mffi aky^l lidnejals je mngi dich, ka gs. kife yi ysi, ga tibjli^ chytn gpt fd 
cL igehi, ki ty^i gin fd h ticlii; niikQ ya fa ysh fnVcQ^ ya ysi yd" Ka y^i keau^ ka 

^ w^; reaching T., and reaching M., L e. firom T. unto M. 

* generally : ehw^p. 

Digitized by 


136 Political Institutions 

vayiHi, de nam, ka ysi M tw6yi ufi k^jfi gs, yiji. Ka yH keau k^jfi yi ygi mikq^ ha 
ysi a twoye, e tnudQ kijh H yq^ Hjam bin, ka g^ fg^wa nam. 

When the king disappears (that is, dies)/ his body is laid in a hat A cow 
is speared, its skin removed, and cut into strips. When they have finished this, 
trees are brought, they are hewn with a certain ax, and then they are driven 
into the earth. With the strips (of skin) they unite these trees to a bier. When 
the bier is ready, diey bring the body of the king — but without the people 
knowing it — lay it on the bier, and put it in the hut again. The body is adorned 
with a leopard-skin. Two girls are brought, and are put into the hut, where 
the body of the king is. One holds his head, and one holds his feet. Each of 
the girls is given tobacco and a pipe. Now the hut is walled (all openings are 
walled with mud), so that there is no way for the air to enter. They (the two 
girls) remain in the hut, uid die there. The people wait two months; about 
this time the worms (who have eaten the flesh of the three bodies) have turned 
into bugs, and they come crawling out through the roof of the hut. Now (the 
people know that) the flesh (of the three corpses) is consumed and only the 
bones remain. Then all the chiefiB of the Shilluk country are summoned, be- 
ginning firom TungQ,' and reaching to Mwgmg ; all, all the chiefs. And they come, 
each one brings a cow; when they come near Fashoda, they gather these cows 
at one place; and the cows are speared. Now it is said publicly, '^The king 
has disappeared. '^ And the people weep. One of the cows is skinned, the skin 
is tanned and made into a bag. The bones of the king are put into this bag; 
and they are buried in a secret place. But still the mourning goes on, alL 
aU, all the people mourn. And spears are gathered, a great many; they are 
tied together, and put into a boat; and catde-bells are put into the boat, and 
beads, and pots, and dishes, and gourds. And two people are brought, a man 
and a woman, fine people, they are laid into the boat, they are bound, their 
hands and their feet are bound; one is laid in the back part, and one in the 
firont part (of the boat). The boat is rowed into the middle of the river, there 
the boat is pierced, so that water enters into it. The men who row the boat, 
get into another boat, and the boat which they have pierced, sinks down with 
the people in it, and all the goods, together with the people, perish in the river. 

32. The Man who took the Law into his own Hand. 

Jal rn§k{i, ^^ ^» chwQla Buk De Jgk Bun DMimQ, ka gs, g&kQ' Buk dock; 
WQt ban^ chwQla Okanq. A gwQti ki Aytk. Ka gs, ^giifi H Bute NahvachQ. Ka 
wQt bans, pQra bdl^, ka Icel yi Aytk ki tin, kd i f^. Ka AgwQTQ eKite yi r^ Jba 
liwQle mdk, a k^l Aytk Petan, 

■ Of a king it is not said: "he dies", but ''he disiHppears". ~ Itis said: the king does not die of 
his own accord, but when he is rery old, or sick, and the people think that his death is near at 
hand, his chief wife strangles him with a doth. 
• = Tonga. 

Digitized by 


Records 13 7 

A certain man, a prince, whose name was Buk De Jgk Buin DanyimQ, 
earned on a law-suit. Buk was a good man ; he had a slave, whose name was 
OshangQ. He carried on the law-suit with Aylk, in the court of kingNyakwacho. 
And his servant ran in front of him (or: came instead of him, viz. of his master), 
and was stabbed by Aylk with a spear, so that he died. (As a punishment for 
this misdeed) the village Ogw$rQ (which was the village of Aylk) was de- 
stroyed by the king; the children (of the village, or of Aylk) were caught, and 
Aylk was brought (banished) to Detang. 

33. A killed Crocodile is the Property of the Magistrate. 

Keh mak nam, ka t§ro k^do}^ ka t^rQ nlni gat, ka b^i mUn peii, ka rech e benq, 
ka bai mQgo H rech, ka je (Hdq, ka je chamQ. Ka togu ru, ka maye biriQ, ka f^q 
mQgQ, ka iian ka kSl, ka e makQ ki ddfi. Ka t§ro r^ha vsok, ka tysn tek e dono, ka 
ddf^ kQl g^ wQjky ka i/ian nSM. Ka t^o kA wQk, ka joke beriQ, ka gi, pichQ : ilian a 
gwQjk edi f Kine : e ntk I Kine : d^^ya k&i f Kine : nut Yech ! Ka yech. Ka e ko : 
n6li, ba gik l^gQ. Ka kife pack l^go, ka tt*Q, bino cfie^ ka iian 01 yijago, liane 
iQgQ. Ka e chtvoiQJe, kajak dtoai, ka e chdm; t&roko: o, lian an dock. Duki meko 
ka nan niiko kwdH, ka chdm yi (ire yau. 

KajdgQ e chwdto, ka tsrq benQ, ka e p§cho kine: wuna yikjttk, ya peifia giche 
niiko, ffid ktmiiu ki yey nam ka; kine: A gin in^ t Ya peAa kwil. Kine: i, kuchi 
tc^I Kine: i, fafe lian a citam ki pay nate? Kine: i, e chdmo, liwole tiaii fgjio. 
Kine: i, dSldl Ka e ky^dq, kine: ya ba chudq. Kine: e, wa kd BacJiddQ. Kine: i, 
tea ksdq. 

Ka g^ k^do, ka gs, wifa Backodo, kd g^ gbii^, kine : wuo (ume), yd ddU yi kw6p 
kwofe note; kwil a chdmi ^, kwal l^gQ. Kine: i, yi chama no, natef Kine: wuo, 
hichi ydn, iJijj e ko: gr^ (yidi), k^ cKol ki dok gd pydro, ki ddj^l Ka e brnq, ka 
e chudQ ^k gd pydrQ, ki ^j?; ka gs, kgl hole rijf, u tire l{ne\ ka g^ rumq. 

It was at the time when the river was barred (shut up for fishing), and the 
people slept on the river bank, and the net was sunk down on the bottom of 
the river, and the fish came, and the net caught fish, and the people cooked 
and ate them. And when it grew morning, the fishermen came, and the 
people went fishing again, then a crocodile was speared, and it seized a mui; 
the people became afraid, uid ran away, but those among them who were 
brave, remained; they brought the man who had been bitten by the crocodile 
out on the river bank. Then they killed the crocodile, and went out of the 
river (taking the crocodile with them). The chiefs came, and asked, "What 
about the crocodile?'' They answered, ''It is killed.'' They asked again, "But 
where is it?" Answer, "It is still here." The chiefr said, "Skin it!" And it was 

* 'niVhto tii« river was canglit, and the people went". 

* tiiat tiie people might hear. 

Digitized by 


138 Political Institutions 

skinned. The chiefs said, '^Cut it up! It is the property of the magistrate." 
So the meat was put into the house of the magistrate. All the people came ; 
the crocodile was cooked by he chief, the crocodile of &e magistrate. He 
called all the people, and invited the neighbouring chiefs too ; they ate the 
crocodile. The people said, ''Ah, this crocodile is good!" Some days later 
they again caught a crocodile, and it was eaten by the people. 

But the district chief had heard about the matter. He called all the chiefs 
of his district together; they came, and he began, ''You chiefs, I want to ask 
you something, it is the thing which you got from the river there." They 
asked, "What do you mean?" He replied, "I am asking for some animal you 
killed." They said, "We do not know!" He asked, "Why, has not a crocodQe 
been eaten here in somebody's village?" They answered, "Yes, that is true, 
it has been eaten by the little children." He said, "Make amends for it!" But 
they refused, saying, "We will not do that." Then he said, "Well, we will go 
to Fashoda (to bring the matter before the king)." They said, "All right, let 
us go!" So they went, and arrived at Fashoda. There they told their case, 
saying (the district-chief speaks first), "My lord, I am in difficulty about some 
matter, the matter of a certain man, he has eaten a killed animal, an animal 
belonging to the magistrate." The king asked the accused one, "Why did yon 
eat it, man?" He answered, "My lord, I did not know." The king said, "Why! 
go, and make amends! You are to give ten cows and a man." The chief 
brought what was asked, into the enclosure of the king, so that all people 
heard it, and learned to be careful.' 

34. How Fashoda became the Royal Residence. 

Ka jak rifl Tughi jok a piri, chtoqla NeiodJQ, Ka ti^| ka g^ lif h^njQ^ gs, ber* ga 
wute chot, ka g^^ M gwqtQ vny pack ki cAoiig. Ka riif e hobo kine: J^A, gf^ rg ru 
irSjf, a rii gtn gwotq? Kine: ty^re pan sni. A gir pan sni, a PachodQ; a d^e 
TttgQ yej^ a kobi TugQ kine: fan trii u chok d ph rgH/ A bane lii rq^ t^c^t yej^* 
A rUm ijhghf a kobi kine: ka toQda ti r^H^ a rj^. 

King TugQ reigned, he reigned in his own village, which was called Nyew&JQ. 
And there were oxen, they used to come (to some place), they were oxen 
without horns, caUed chod, they used to dig the ground of that place wiih their 
heads every day. When the king saw that, he said, "My! why are the oxen 
always digging the ground?" He said, "They like this place." So a village 
was built diere, it was Pachodg. TugQ moved from his place into this new 
village. He said, "This village shall always remain the village of election (the 
village of the king)." Since that time the people elect the king in it. When the 

' Crocodiles belong to the king C^to the anthoritf, magistrate,") nobody is allowed to eat tktm 
without permission of the king or the district chief. Here the chiefs of the Tillages tiy to nsizp 
the priyilege of the district chief. > From bldQ "to be". 

Digitized by 


Rec ords 139 

king (TugQ) had finished his reign, he said, "My son shall be elected!" And he 
was elected. 

35. A Law-suit about Dowry. 

K^ Afij je b&pid^, kaje h§jj^ kaje plka peii. Ka pan mi chgn, ka dd^ u> 
pich^ Hne: ytipidit kdchijdm! Kine: kdcMjam kuch^t/dnl^ Kine: yi niati kSpQ? 
Kine: yi msn anf Kine: yi wou. K^ye yot kuchh ydn! Kine: kipano kuche yin ? 
Kine: jal ton am&fif Kine: jal ton nate. Kine: kwiiijdm! Ka jame kwdn. -4, 
naUy yi re a pirn 1 ^k pafe dyer f Ka je kg^i b§, goii. Ka je k^do, kari^e yit, ka 
gin gqn kine: wuo, wq ch^i ki lidl an. Kine: um kgrna kwof anQ? Wo kgrna 
ktoo/e ^k. At6, gMunl Kine: |, vmo, w^ 6i, clia wq pydfi ^ ki kwofe dok, di i 
kytty cha ^k ktiji. A chindjis a chgnji, a kimd kw6p, a kwMjam, ka dok pika 
kichi gin. Ka je yeyq, jhk dbn ; di chaka k^ yau. ^, ar& Utii gii/i. Kine : toa tQu 
ya Hi]}; cfe ^k kache gin ktijd, dg nUti kdH. KiA ini dndn, a ban kyidd. Karj^e 
lokq chye, kine: j'6, kinau, yi ba wHjtl a kirl yi re hire (fqk tirQ? Kwdfi rack! 
k^ chidi ki ddji I jal, kayti* mich ki dqk abich. Ka e mujo ki ddfi, ka gQ kili, ka 
tysn pan £ni chgn^ kine: yd chudl ki ddji, k^fi ^ni anan. D6ch! A ki^ a tysni 
mogo, a chtoQl ty^n ^ni, a b$n, a iy&re ddri ttr^ gin, Ka g§, yei chyt, kine: d^ch, 
toA bd wdt A k^ gin, a kSl doJc, ka ddji mtkk gin. 

At a certain time the people went to ask for indemnities, thej went to the 
village (where the debtor lived), and sat down. The people of the village 
assembled. When the man began to ask, ''I want indenmities for certain 
goods," the debtor replied, "I do not know anything about goods (which I 
owe you.)" The man asked, "Have you not been told?" He replied, "By 
whom?" The man said, "By your father." The debtor said again, "I do not 
know of anything concerning debts." The man said, "Why do you not know 
it?" Then it was asked, "Who is the judge?" The answer was, "That man is 
judge." He aid, "Count the goods (which you claim from this man)." All the 
goods were enumerated. The judge said tho the debtor, "Man, why do you 
deny? Is it not true what he said?" And the people went to bring the matter 
before the king. They found the king, and the matter was told. They said, 
"Our lord, we have come with this man." The king asked, "What a palaver 
do you have?" They answered, "We have a palaver about cattle." "Well," 
said the king, "tell me!" The accuser said, "Well, our lord, we came to ask 
him (the debtor) about the matter of the cattle; but he refused; he said, he 
did not know anything about cattle. So I assembled the people, and when 
the people were assembled, I talked to him, and enumerated the goods, and 
the cows (which I said he owed me) were found right; the people consented 
(to my statement), the old people. He refused again to acknowledge it." After 

' ^ is here conditional: "when". 

' "the place, i. e. the matter, of goods is not known by me". 

^ <yi i "yon will". 

Digitized by 


140 Political Institutions 

that the king said (turning to the accused one), ''Well, now you also tell your 
talk!*" He said^ ''My father died while I was a little child; but the cows, I do 
not know anything about them. I was not told; that is the reason, dierefore I 
refused to give them.^ Then the king gave his judgment thus, "Well, so it is, 
you are a man who refused (to give what is due) ; why did you refuse to give 
the people their cows? Your matter is bad. Go, and pay a girl as amends, 
and you (turning to the accuser), man, give him five cows!'' The debtor gave 
the girl, he brought her to the village (of the accuser). When die people of 
the village had assembled, he (the accuser) said, "I have been indemnified 
widi a girl; thus is the matter now.*' The people say, "All right. '^ Then he goes 
to strain beer; and he calls the people. They come; he presents the girl to ihe 
people to be examined (whether it is a sufficient pay). And diey consent, 
saying, "Very well, we are Mends now." 

They go away, the cows are brought, and the girl is recognised by lliem. 
[A man has married somebody's daughter; after some time the girl, his 
wife, dies ; now the father of the girl has to return part of liie dowry 
which has been paid to him for his daughter. But in the meantime the 
father of the deceased wife has died too, and his eldest son has become 
his heir. The husband of the dead wife goes to this man, the brother of 
his dead wife, and wants his catde back. But this man denies knowing 
anything about the matter, pretending his father did not tell him before 
his death. They therefore go before the king, who decides: the heir has 
to give his brother-in- law another girl instead of the deceased one; and in 
return the brother-in-law is to give the heir five five head of catde, 
which is about half the usual price for a wife.] 

Digitized by 


Nyadwai, Go lit, 141 


36. Nyadwai. 

JVa rij, niikQ, chwQld Nadwaiy ni mat/Q rech. Ka rech niiko dyir^ yin, jal meko 
liini ba Ogam. A koH Ogam kine: Hpctnof Kine: bafe lia rif^? Kine: ^ ' r^i/i yi 
mfffi f Wijt dugn! Kine: dich ydu. A l^di, 

Nadwai a r^^Ae^ Ogam ya MQfiQ. A lin{ kine: Nadwai ri^. A kobi kine: biht 
Ko: a pil Ogam! A kobi Nadwai kine: dwai Ogam! A dwai^ a f6f4 ki doh a 
gin part, A fk^il m^n^ ka par^ dono. Ka e iftwQli titoQl mdgtr. A chiv6l£ a nigi 
ki i/iwole bin yi Nadwai, a paii par^ pM. 

A certain prince called Nyadwai, was fishing. And he wanted a certain fish, the 
fish of Ogam (a fish which Ogam had caught). Ogam asked, "Why (should I 
give my fish to the prince)?*' The people replied, "Is he not a prince?^ Ogam 
said, "By whom wiU he ever be elected? He has such a big head I'' The people 
replied, "Well, all right (do as you think best).^ He refused. 

But Nyadwai was elected king, while Ogam was at Manyg. There he heard 
the talk, "Nyadwai has been elected.'' When he heard it, he said to himself, 
"Dear me!'' (But Nyadwai) said (to himself), "This cursed Ogam!'' Some 
time later Nyadwai sent word, "Bring Ogam!" Ogam was brought; the king 
gave him cattle, built him a village, he married a woman, and his village 
became large ; he got many children. But one day he was called by Nyadwai, 
Nyadwai kiDed him and all his children, and he destroyed his village. 

37. Golit. 

Na r^ Golit ka e b^nit, kap§ka wiy PiJQ, ko : ya dtcata yey nam. Ka jane tdgg^ 
^ kycAl kine: nam yeja konn ki yd! Kine ya kygt, A m^ji ^j^; a triti yafe pi, a 
ki^is a pika yey nam bi mi^ ki ^k. A miiii wQds, a migije b^n, a ki^; a gifi 
Lwandin, a migi gltn, a kol §ean pack b^i, a k^li jan jSlok a chibi gn ka, a 
giri. p^rt Nejok, lii kQbq ki ^ tffrQ. 

The prince Golit came, and settled at the mouth of the river PlJQ ; he said 
(to the chief there), "I want to settle (on the island) in the middle of the river." 
But the chief who ruled there refused, saying, "I myself Uke the island in the 
river, I refuse!" Then the prince gave him a man (slave), and on that the chief 
sprinkled the boats with water (that is, gave them permission to go on the 
island). The prince went on the island, and settled down there to steal cows. 
He sent his son to capture people (and their cattle), he captured all the people 

I instead of the xlbiuI i, 

> "the diief of the magistrate'', i. e. the ruling chief. 

Digitized by 


142 ^^ Historic al Traditions 

there, and after that went to Lwangdeng, and captured this viUage, he brought 
all the cows into his village. After that he brought Dinkas of Ngok,' and 
settled them in the place (of the village Lw.), he built them the village of 
Nyejok; and those people too used to steal the cattle of the people. 

38. Nyimo. 

Na riiE Nim^ gt H Ha fiH tnikQ, ka ffs, M chwgl, ha ffi Hi ri/ich,^ ka lode wSi 
gSrif ka lode NimQ Hi kdp, kape yi Ha rar^ mi. Ka. Nakwach e wir^, ka Hi dogo 

Ka par^ kgsr, a tadir, Otudt, pa w^t NakwachQ, Ka e jagQ e d^ch^ d^ ha war, 
ka dogs, M kdp yi Hiw^n; a kobi rij. kine: u ^ch adif A (ofe ki ban mdt^iit, mffi 
gene r^ kifa ka biki; go* M kbH gh* in. 

The prince Nyimg was, together with another prince, invited to a meal. They 
had their clubs with them, and (in the course of the festival) die club of Nyimo 
was taken away from him by force, it was taken away by that other prince. 
When his father, king Nyakwach (who was also present at the festival) saw that, 
he was very angry,^ and he went home alone. 

He built for his son a big village, Otudi, this was to be the village of the son 
of Nyakwach. And he (the son) reigned well, but he was a coward. His catde 
used to be robbed by his brothers. The king said, "Ah, what is to be done?** 
He gave him a great number of slaves to protect him, on account of his fear. 
They were to help him. 

39. Nyadoke, 

A roH NadikSy a jAgi, a kobi kine: d, ya gera fdra wgk! A gere par Pibit. 
Weya bid& bute Don ! A g§ra pars Don. A bet gin ki DgnQ^ a jigi, a Hi nQgi 
lysch, a Hi chdma yi Dono, a Hi kwdchi yi Dong,. Ka Don Hi 0fe lyschy a bgda 
rari (yafi) Donq. Ka Hi tqk kaj^, ka Dan Hi tojo kijams, ehami kd loak, ka igl Hi 
m^ki^. A Hi koHi bur, m^n chek lysch, ka lyeHe lu^ yiy bitr, ka Dono Hi ydn, a 
choga rdj^ dock. 

Nyadoke was elected. While he was reigning, one day he said, "Well, I will 
build my village in the bush!** He built tlie village of Pobg. Again he said, 
"Let me reside beside the Nubians!'' He built a viUage in the Nubian country. 
He lived together with the Nubians, being their king. He used to kill elephants, 
the Nubians used to ask him for the elephants' meat, he gave it to them, and 
they ate it. So he was the king of the Nubians. — When the Nubians are with- 
out rain, they are accustomed to put on all their adornments, and go out into the 

' J^ok, A Dinka-Difltrict south of the Sobat meaning of a plural. 

* "and they were called, and they were invited." * because his son allowed his dub to be taken 

» gQ relates to the slaves, it has therefore the *w*7 ^o™ Wm. 

Digitized by 


Dokot 143 

bush; then it begins to rain. — Nyaddke used to dig holes for catching ele- 
phants, and the elephants tumbled into the holes. Thus the Nubians were satis- 
fied, he continued to be a good king. 

40. King Dokot. 

i?|j5 D^k^ kd i mUnii, mQiio fote jDon, ka dAl yi D^trif Dgn tii r^nd mdl wiy 
kit. Ka e ko: buh, d^ Dgn a ^l{ ydn, u tick idl f i rei (j-ei) wd fach ! Ka 0y ret, 
ka e ko: yey kit! Ka kit e yich, ka dggo, kdiii feii. A magi :?2^> « ^dfi 5^^» « 
gixi go piri, gQ IqgQ bini; a chAgi tiine fan &fii gq Adokon. 

A kil4 mdr, a nwan go bwdiki, ka bwoiio migi, kiU gitn, a iQgq binit a giri 
pack, ggn Awarejwqk. Ka Ch^lit kobo kine : a rajie lifi, a rich m^ii ? A ko kine : 
buhl Kine: Chgl, bgni kwipi ananf A kwafi niar, a tin gi^ nhm, ka Chqlq e wan 
ki yit m^r ki bole pir^. 

Pay miko chwgld OnSgit, ka Chgl M kit^ ki jur, ka Chqle Hi chyiti, Ka raj^ f 
vQii, Ch^l d^ chyito; a rQii Akwot, Ka AkwQt e m^iiQ; ka Wi chyiti, ka e binit, 
ka e ko: bih, wd gigh dif A bini bgl Onigd, a chiM bane D^l^t^ ^ py^^ gi^ 
kine: mQr e link kifif A kobijal nigfcQ kine: u tieh edit Kine: u dwdi nam! Kine: 
buh, Akwdt, di bd gint yi k^ waiie kej^f A kobi kine: yd bit wdAl Kine: ni! A 
keau yS(, a keau gin, A kal d^k, a mak dean Onogo, a kQl ^an mlkq, a mdg{ 
WajwQk, a k^l ^an miko, a mage yi A^kgn, a k^l dean mi^koy a kiii ^^ 9^^» ^ 
tami, a chw$p dian. A k^ti Akwot fM, a rgii {a pi, kd i chwgn^, Ka Chglg kobo 
kine: rii tSk^ ba bi k^fa! Ka chan wariQ mal, ehah e kichit, ka r^ blriQ, ka mqr 
kil4 ki fa pi. A kobi kine: tin IM! Ak^f IM, a maii DinjqU a nigi, a man fiwgle, 
ka dqk e kil ki mini. A mqi/ia Agir, a maiii Chai, a mak peh btni, a kobi Ch^lit 
kine: a raf^ ng, a chbgit k{pit IMf A ko: buh, kwdpt, yina ChSl^I A kwafi mir, 
a tin g^ ndm. 

King Dokot went out to conquer, he went conquering into tho Nubian conn- 
try. But he failed to defeat the Nubians, because they used to escape upon 
their mountain. He said, ''Why, the Nubians are too much for me! What shall 
I do? Well (he says to his people), make a pot ring!*'* And a pot ring was 
made. Then he said, "Carry the mountain away !^ So the mountain was carried 
away and put on the ground upside down. In this way he conquered the Nubi- 
ans, he brought them (into the Shilluk country), he built them a village, and 
they became his subjects.' He called the name of this village AdgkQng. 

He brought the silver pot^ and swung it against (the army of) the strangers; 
thus he conquered the strangers, he brought them to his country, and they 
became his subjects ; he built them a village, this is the village Awarejwok. 

But the Shilluks said, ''What a king is this, that he is always conquering?''^ 

I a ring of grass, which is laid on the head for was to be filled with "holj water" (pijwQkJ, 

caiTjing water pots. The monntain was carried which was used for different religions rites, 

away Uke a water pot. The possession of this pot was supposed to 

* This shows how Nubian colonies came into giye fortune and yictory. 

die Shillak country. * The Shilluks were tired of waging war, or th^ Q Q T p 

* This pot it said to be an old heirioom, it were jealous of the yictories of the king. o 

144 Historical Traditions 

The king replied, ''Why, ye Shilluks, is that your talk now?'' He took the pot 
and thrust it (angrily) into the river. Thus the pot (""the way to the pot**) was 
lost to the Shilluks in the front of the village of the king. 

There was another village, called OngogQ ; the Shilluks (of this village) fought 
with some foreign tribe, and were chased. Another king was elected, but 
again the Shilluks were chased. Then Akwgt was elected, and Akwot went 
out to conquer (this tribe). But his army was defeated. When he came home, 
he exclaimed, "Why, what shall we do?*' He came towards Ongogo, and the 
wives of Dokot, he asked them, ^Where has the silver pot been thrown into 
the river?'' Some man replied, ''Why do you ask?" He said, "It is to be 
brought out from the river." The man exclaimed, "Oh dear, Akwot, is that true 
(is that what you are going to do) ? Will you not miss the place where it lies?" 
The king said, "I shall not miss it." The man replied, "All right" They rowed 
boats, they rowed them towards the place where they were. Cows were brought, 
one cow was caught and given to the village of Ongogg, another cow was caught 
and given to Wajwgk, another was given to Adgkong.' Then another cow was 
brought, and the people went to the river, a prayer was spoken, the cow was 
speared (sacrificed), and Akwot went to the bottom of the river, he dived 
under the water; he stayed there a long time; the Shilluks said, "The king is 
away, he does not come back." The sun was rising, and when it began to sink, 
the king came from out of the water, he had brought the silver pot from the 
bottom of the river. He said, "Now raise an army!" The army was to defeat 
Dingjol (the Dinka country near Renk). They destroyed it, its children were 
captured, the catde was taken away together with the women. He conquered 
Ager too, he conquered Chai (near Roseires), he defeated the whole country. 
When the Shilluks saw that, they said, "What king is that, that he is always 
continuing in warfare?" He replied, "Oh dear! is that now your talk, ye Shil- 
luks?" He took the silver pot, and thrust it into the river.* 

41. Nyakwach. 

i2^ Nakwach ka ejik^, ka wate Nadwai nigi kipa cU^r; ka ikiwtn wQie mane 
Nadwai nigi; ka e chwQto kine: wuna a yik Mwit, bi ^vq! Ka tgrQ bjinfi, i kati 
tQMi ^o, e buogo, ka chqga kal. Ka e chwoto kine: bi tSr^! Ka tiro bia yi^ Ka e 
^' y^ (y^^) 9^^ d kidif A chdtu kinauf Kine: wq wirl^! yi neka no Hfif Kine: 
STS, (y&di) « ba nigS ginf Kine: ba neka ki at^; gole ka chy^ta tca^ a bane nigd 
gin. Kine: diki mlkQ^ i toiie gin kij^hy wa, wa niki nigbl Pafe gn, a bane 
nUge g&if Kine: lii, g, dock! Wiy gol gsn a faiefevi. Kine: Nakwache, a bant 
chSn Hjdgh' Wq t^r an u chil yi m^gn ? A dwgk (grQ. 

* The cows were offered as sacrifices, one hj the yiUage OngogQ, and so on. 
' From that time the silver pot is irreparably lost to tibe ShUlnks. 
3 "some to-morrow*', that is, in fdtnre time. 

Digitized by 


Nyakwach 145 


A kohi Nahvach kine: gSr f^ H dbch, Ka hamma, toate liiwi, chwgl ga lia rij^. 
A chwgle gt (gi) Bachodq ; a kij, gsn (gin), a y&li HU gin, a kwaifie kwi gin, mofc 
jik g^ ki Bachodq. 

Ka jal mlkQ e k^ klt^ ka bane rH M y^jh ka kur M k^lL *« M chSL Ka lii 
chika kdno, ka M chtL A bu^ ko (kor) tia rd, ka e ko: buhl u tick adz? | dqch yau t 
A ehika kdnQ ki kur, a nidk ^k yiri^ a kql g^ Baehodo, ka pack e donQ i Uii Uh. 

Ka wad^ Hal dugn ka e k^^ ka ^ok yid4 y{ tqr, ka dok kiji. Ka rii e ftchh 
kine: 4q^ gr^ a kSlf yiJc Nakwach. Kine: buh, u ^l o, gwgk edit |, kwoft rack. 
Dgch au, wei ki^ ggn, 

A kiU gsn, a plchs. vnyg kine: d^tk k^l gi k^ti ? Kine: kold Bachodo. Kine: il 
a ehgni tpQti, a kopi gin kine: Han lial snt! A ksije, a chete, ka e rgno, ka nan 
an fii tciii rs, gn M kiU kiUt; ka lii pQ^Qy ^ 9Q ^i ^pt Hne: An! A b^ Aal 
duQn, a k^le gon, a nigi gQn. A b^na pack, a pyey ggn kine: ya (yaii) ggl, a 
kidif MmayQ e fije wun edit Kine: a nik! Kine: yi min an 1 Kine: yi lial dugn. 
Kine: buh! to^A a tSnitnf Ka e 4^q4q* *^ ^ ^Q^» ^ ^ n/fi> ^ A ^f^^^ H gin 
cham, e ywQnQ. A bini wgk, a chgn gin, a kobi kine: lial, bang yin a nek wQdaf 
Yi u chSk, gili n^i t^n! Chwitld yin a rei lial tiemiyi, dg&tSii! Ko: i, chw^ld 
yin ikU duQn, a yeji dide kwgp! i, yi rach, A k§ii yi ^k, a M kqchi gin, gin ;i| 
kglg pan akyllg, a gin lii kang. 

When King Nyakwach reigned, he killed the children of (his brother) Nya- 
dwai, because he feared their enmity; and his brothers who had been bom by 
the women of Nyadwai's yiUage, he also killed. Then he called out, "You, who 
are my real brothers, you people come!*' The people came canying their 
spears. When Nyakwach saw that, he was afraid and remained within his 
enclosure. Again he caUed out, "Come, you people l'^ And the people came to 
him. He asked them, "My children, howisitthat you are walking thus (armed)?" 
They replied, "We are angry, why do you kill people?" He answered, "Why 
should I not kill them? I killed them because of their enmity, (and do you not 
remember that) their family chased us away? Therefore I have killed them. If 
at a future time they should have come to power, surely we should have been 
killed. Is it not for this reason that I killed them?" The people replied, "Well, 
eb, all rig^t, dieir family has perished." Again they said , "Nyakwach, you for- 
merly refused to be elected as king. ' By whom should we have been avenged 

The people returned home. Nyakwach said, "Restore the town well; and my 
nephews, the children of my brothers, shall be called 'children of the king^" 
He caDed them (his nephews) to Fashoda.' They went, and he picked some 
from among them, and the rest he took to be chiefs of Fashoda. 

A certain man (one of these nephews of the king) went one day and slept with 

* This teems to point to the preceding story. 

* The chief town of the Shillnk country, and residence of the king. 

WSSTBRMAHK, Tk« Shfflsk PvopU. lO 

Digitized by 


146 Historical Traditions 

liie wives of the king. He paid the fine for adulteiy. But again he did an evil 
thing, and had to pay a fine. At last the king got tired of this, and he said, 
''Why, what is that? eh, never mind!'' When this man once more did miachief^ 
the king had all the cattle of that (man's) village seized and brooght to Faahoda; 
so the village was left without a single cow. 

The eldest son of this man (of the evildoer) went and fonnd the cattle (of 
his father) in a pasture. > He separated those belonging to his father from the 
rest and drove them home. When the king heard that the cattle were away, he 
asked, "Why have the cattle been taken away?" So said Nyakwach. (When he 
heard that this same man's son had taken them) he exclaimed, "Why, what 
shall we do with this boy? eh, his affitir is very badl Well, never mind, let him 
go* with them." 

When the boy came home with his catde, his father asked him, "From 
where has the cattle been brought?" He answered, "I have brought it from 
Fashoda." The father said, "All right" He assembled his sons and told 
them, "Kill this boy!" The people went away, they chased him, he ran away. 
And the pursuers came close to him, they were just near enough to stab him, 
then the boy (stumbled and) fell down. They told him, "Run!" (They did not 
want to kill him). But his eldest brother stabbed him, and killed him. When 
they came home, the father asked them, "Children, how is it? How did you 
deal with your brother?" They said, "He is killed!" The father asked, "By 
whom?" They answered, „By his eldest brother." The father exclaimed, "Why, 
my son has been killed by you?" He rose up, went into his hut, and remained 
there. He did not eat any food, he wept. And he came out again and assem- 
bled his sons, saying to the eldest, "My son, is it not you who killed my son? 
Tour descendants shall always be killed by the spear! I thought you woidd 
protect your brother, and you have killed him!" Again he said, "Oh, I thought, 
you, the eldest one, had a heart which was wise! no, you are wicked." 

Then he went to the cattle, he separated lliem: some he brought to another 
village, and some he hid. 

42. The False Prophets. 

Wan a b^ni ror, ka gt chgn; raj^ akylUi chwgla OkwHy rajj ahy§l ckwQla DSk^ 
raj^ ah/il ehwQla NikanQ. Ka g^ bgnQ, ka Chgli ti^ kwiicK^, chwQla r^; Hyir^ 
Ku. Ka tgrn chonfi, ka gs, k^ BacKodn^ harij^e ko: bihl u ror fieh edit Ka g^ 
k§(^ ka bane r^ kip4, ka r^ mjt mUm, ka rij^e nanQ; ka 4^k kdpi, ka r^ eku^ 
r'ifio, kd i u^h H mwaU ka atlgQ gidi y^L^ ka gylUl bo/ji bad^ ka otysjk kijn^ 
ehini, ka tgn kwaii, ka toch kwMt kd 6 ki^, kij^yi gin. Kajal a Dak giji tnaeh, 

* where thej had been brought hj the king's people. 

Digitized by 


The False Prophets 147 

lea pai^ peiit e jg; kajal a Okwit ha ktl^ ha e jg; hajal a hoH Nihano, ha e pQrQ, 
i i^ri ylnlt; hd bUl gQch^ ha t^TQ «Aon^. 

Ka wudo cKodo, ha by^l e toanOy a mdh ChQlo yi h^ch; a hgj^ t^ri pofe Nuqt^ a 
neau tiro bt/^le Nuqv; ha ChqlQ M p9ti yi Nuar hey h^eh, ha Chain ho : hwi ywach 
yi hsfsh, ha m^hq Mrt M lu^H* A ehy^h by^l, a boj^ t^vQ tji. 

At a certain time the "kings'' came, they used to dance (the dances of Nyikang) ; 
one "king*' caDed himself Okwft,»one catted himself Dftk, and the third caUed 
himself Nyikang. And they came (into the villages of the ShiUuks) ; the ShiUoks 
used to pray to them, catting them "king'', — it was in the time of king Eu 
— , and the people danced.' They (the "kings") went to Fashoda. The king 
said, "Why, what is the matter with these kings ?" And they (the wonld-be kings) 
went, and took the wives of the king by force. The king was much perplexed, 
he was in great confbsion. They stole cattle too . Then the king became very angiy, 
he sang a war-song early in the morning, he tied his bead-necklaces round his 
neck, put his arm-rings on his arm, fiistened beUs about his wrist, he took a spear, 
be took a gun, and he went, he went towards them. And the man who caUed him- 
self Dftk he shot with the gun, he feU upon the ground and died. And the man 
"Okwft" was speared, and he died; the man who was catted Nyikang fled, he 
turned towards the bush. Then the drum was beaten, and the people danced 
(for joy). 

(About this time) a north wind blew, and the dura was burned, the ShiUuks 
were seised with hunger. The people went to the Nuer country, to buy dura 
of the Nuers. And the Shittuks were beaten by the Nuers, in the time of this 
strong famine. The Shittuks say, ("In this time) some were starved, and some 
gave away their chfldren for dura." — But when the next dura-harvest was 
brought, the people were relieved. 

[In the first part of this story it is related, how some impostors pretend 
to be the ancient kings, who have come into this world again; the people 
beUeve in them and pray to them, and the "false prophets" take advantage 
of this to rob the people, titt their procedings are brought to an end by 
the king.] 

43. The Prince who refused to be King. 

Na ran dtiit^h chtogla Alihi, ha dwai yi u r$ii, ha e baH, ha tdti, a h^^ a piri 
pofe JDon hi ikiwin. Ka g^ ii| r^ (tQ!^) H ffln cMm; lian i/ial ^ M hipi tbmi 
jn. Ka lia ri^ miho, lij hy^jio, hine: wei bgd^. Ka g^ didq hi hwofe Dgn; a bine 
pack, a gidi hifar^ a chagifar^ gon a Pwot A piha peii. A hobi: I, yi hy^ hi 
jago, ba dwata ydn. A rgii (j^) toidi^ a jagn ydu. A fpmi IsJce lyech, a 0mi 


^ Thus worshipping tliem. 

Digitized by 


148 Historical Traditions 

gy^. Karijl e wir^, ka nik kUl gi gtr, ka jfei chdl ga pyar anwpt, Mjk gd 
pyarQ; rij^ itch; a dwQk chwak, a chike chdl ki ^i, kijh, a k^H rji kine: wei 
bidi, tini, yi k^r. 

The eldest son of a king whose name was Alfiki, was brought to be elected 
king. But he refused, and when he was informed secretly that they were 
going to elect him by force, he went away and fled to the Nubian country, he 
with two of his brothers. And (during their flight, or in the Nubian country) 
they used to pound dura for food; the youngest of them was told (compelled) 
to bring water. (When they had gone) one prince (in die Shilluk country) said, 
"^Let them stay there (in the Nubian country).'' And they learned the Nubian 

Became home again, and built himself ayillage,wich he caDedPwot ("beaten''). 
He settled there, but he still continued saying, "No, I refuse to be chief; I 
don't want to." So his son was elected, and he reigned. He carved bracelets out 
of elephant-tusks. ^ When the king (at Fashoda) heard this, he became angry, 
and he sent an armed body to him, a great one. And he (the prince) had to 
make amends with fourteen cows and ten men; for the king was very much 
offended. Again an ambassador of the king was sent to the prince, asking 
for more cattle and men as compensation. Then the king said, "Now let him alone, 
the reason for his being so haughty as to cut ivory-bracelets was his wealth, 
and we have taken that from him." 

44. The Cowardly King. 

Jal rngkQ AkAii^ Bdkii, ka e benQy chama r||, e chyik, ka CIioIq yei, mgn an ka 
bgda ri^ anan; wa yei ki fn. Ka jal niekQ ky^: |, fafe ri^! A rajj an^f A chy^ki 
naUf yi kyit ! Ka jal sni e bStiQ, ka plka tun yQ, b^ l^pe g^ Kd gh Upi, ka Akuiiit 
Bhkit binhs ka e buQgOy ka e rffi. Ka jal ffii ko: yi r^ha kffi t Ma yi kdba yin, che 
yina n^f yi chyate Aq kgtef Ka tirq ko: i, toa chin tndyi 4^^ naut Ka Akufllt- 
Bhklt e h^fiQ, ka tonafan^ ka ye yiyL T^tq kudi you. G^y 0m! T^tq, kudi yatt, 
Ka jagQ kobQ: gMe umnQ! Ka wuno g$fi yaii fQj^, Kd i r^njts ka ChglQ n^fo: a, 
fate rij^! Ka CHqIq ko: nek I Ka tona yinQ, a pi^r. 

A man whose name was Akflnyo Bako, came and wanted to become king. 
He was a short man. The Shilluks consented, "This man shall be king now, we 
are satisfied with him." But one man refused, saying, "No, he is not a king! 
What kind of king is he, this short man? I protest!" This man came and sat 
down on the side of a road, to lie in wait for the new king. While he was lying 
in wait for him, AkOnyo Bftko came. When he saw the man, he was afraid and 
ran away. The man asked, "Why do you run away? Was it not you who said^ 

' Formerly only the king was authorized to wear ivory bracelets. 

■ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Q ueen Abudok 149 

he wanted to become king? What is chasing you?'' When the people heard 
this, they said, "Ah, shall that man (this cowardly king) bring evil upon us?** 
And Akunyo Bako came, he turned towards the viUage, and he behaved like 
one possessed by a spirit. ^ But the people remaind silent. Then he said, "Beat 
the holy drum!'' But the people remamed silent. One of the chiefe said, "Loo- 
sen a rope!"^ And a rope was loosened by a child. When he saw that, he ran 
away. And the Shilluks laughed, "Indeed, he is not a king!" The Shilluks said. 
"Kill himl" He ran towards the bush fleeing. 

45. Queen Abudok. 

Kefi D{t)^ ka fen e bid^ ^bu rij^; ka CHqIq unj§^ mdm; r^ boggn, Ka tivQ binq 
yi Abi^k, ka e ko: i vnfe wgn a mum yi bune ri^. A kobi kine: kwiiit rij^l A 
kwini, a r^i. A ks^a^ gn Abu^i^k, a dwai (ej^ a miji a wuili, a pigi ys^e ^p; 
ka a 0me dugn, a pigi, ka af^ e chbffh, e ba pan. A k^l ajgrn (ej^ a pigiy a 
pinii a ksj^i Bachodo, a wet gafeii. A kibi kine: i, CHqIq u nuniyi kwa r^. A 
bane Agiie kwa riS^. A kobi: i, kwa ri^r^u Ugi mugltt ka tii gldi ki bute pdri, 
firi M doyi diyiy ka e nuriQ. U n^ bat kinoy u nffi pal A bane fiwoli a nini, — 
Kwitn Abi4hk. 

In the time of DQk§t the country was without a king. And the Shilluks did 
not know what to do, because there was no king. And the people came to 
(queen) Abudok, saying, "Alas, we are in confusion from not having a king!" 
She said, "Take this one (pointing to one of her younger brothers) for a king!" 
So he was taken, he was elected. Abudok went away. She brought seeds of the 
water-lily, spread them out in the sun, and ground them. She put them into a bag, 
the bag was very big, so that, when she put the seeds in, the bag remained un- 
filled. Then she brought a small bag, poured the seeds in, and it was filled. Now 
she went to Fashoda with the bag, and put it down there. She said, "Ah, the 
Shilluks will be decreased by the descendants of the king. In future time the 
descendants of the king will become many. She said again, "Eh, the descen- 
dants of the king will be like a sickness (to the Shilluks), if they build their 
village beside your (the Shilluks') village, your village will become very small, 
it will decrease. But they (the royal family) will become many, just as the 
branches of the calabash plant become many in the bush." Therefore the descen- 
dants of the king have become so many. — This is the story of Abudok. 

[Explanation given by the man who told this story: "Abudok was a bad 
queen, and the Shilluks did not like her; they wanted a king. So Abudok 
presented to them one of her two younger brothers, whom she raised 
(educated), saying, "Take this one for your king." Abudok went away 

* When the new king is elected, the spirit of Nylkang takes possession of him; this is manifested 
bj a shaking of the body, singing, etc 
' loosen a rope to thrash him ! 

Digitized by 


ISO Historical Trdditions 

angrily, she collected certain seeds, dried and pounded them, and brought 
them to Fashoda as a symbol, to show the ShiUoks how they would be 
sm-passedin nmnber and in power by the descendants of the royal fiunily.'' 
This story again shows that the royal £unily is not originally Shilluk, but 
of foreign origin. — But perhaps it was simply because she was a wonum 
that the Shilluks did not want her to rule them. In the list of kings 
given by Banholzer Abudok is omitted.] 

Digitized by 


War Stories 151 


46. War. 

Ka wn wIIq^ ha wq, nfyid ki yg, kaje dtoQffq, ha wq tvaiiQ yg, ka toQ yii^ jal 
f^to, ga lyauy lyawe leii, ka e ko: wu k^la kffit Wq k^lafote btootL Kine: wun 
a ya kffi t Kine: wa yd Penidwai, Kine: fan inlt f Wq ya pache Chin, Kine: yi 
AggdQ? Kine: dwdt Kine: dgehl A k^l to^n, a chip wQn paeh mikOf DuwQi^ a 
k^l vjin Agodq, a yStjago, a nute yi WQn ki dyil^ a Iwitk wdn, a ninh ki Buky&i, 
a bsna 4^ki, ka toQ tvaj^Q, ki bSr^, a nute yd ki dyil; a hit Qdi yau. 

A keum IM9 a k^ fero, a kgte leA ki AfafiQi a nQk Ch^lt yi bwofk, a chysfe ۤrQy 
a wiji bwoti TnnQ. Ka OoJcwach, jagg i yitmit. Ka chip feA yi bwhi/i, kine: dieh 
yau, wa fa voat. A duqk bwoi/i, a iona ki hole NeUvak, tgna miichii, a buti ki 
muehit, a nigif ka chy^t nam, t ^tr. 

A hinS, a piki Oban, a b^di yau, ka neke dwat adek, a kife, a ttbi TUnq, a 
f^ff^ gh^f a mdgi ghn, a dw^gi, a tgnfi Targ» a magi, Tarq, a hini, a ten KS- 
Bildi^ a migije, a giti WUy a magi Wn, a giti J^gk, a mdgi J^qk, a dtOQgi J^gk, 
apijki WiiialwaL 

A digi fofe Jon, aji^ a dwfigi, apik^ wiy Pick, a t^ni pach^ apika Tedigo^ 
a yimi J^e^m, a gwajs, ki ^k, kijt. A k§(^ a dogi Padean; a 0M DvhJQU ka 
DinJQl i ytmii. A nQge ggn, a mige litogle ggn, a k44i' A mage MwQmq, a dgn 
ploffi ChaU i iig^ yi rhjh (r^Jt>)> dytl bogon, dean boggn, giine bogon, by&l begin, 
pyffi bogon, hoot bogon, togt (yQt) boggrtf Iwak boggn; peii i dtn^, i nd^ yi raJQ. 

A TQti rii, nl Akgl, a kite leii, leii Ger, ka Lwak chste. A &in bwoi^Q^ Alantarq, 
a fabe rit» a migi glm, a kiffije Bil, a choge kiin d,n, a dM rife Kn, Sjdgh, a h^n 
Lir, ka gyine kili, ka JLean kili, ka dy^l kili. Ajage rij^ Ku kijane d^ch; ka 
^k i nffiQ, ka gysHQ f^ib ka dy^le nhiQ. 

A line kwqp yi bwoti mikg, a h^tq, yiga bioofi mdttk, yi l^iti yi l^ ki Alanfflr, 
ka Ch^ nt^ ; kine : Mni in^ fyiga Tdrinky ga ki Nlnitifi, ' y^ Alan^rq niki nigh' 

Yik bwoA mika kild wak, yiga Bdkadi;^ ka Bakadi h&iQ, ka tona gat ki Tibit; 
a tgn gat, ka Chql rgna pack. 

Ka terQ dwQgn, ka kwQp l(n: Alan^rQ ni^gh! Ka bdl g^h, hi ChqlQ chQUQ 
bul; ehuHe minQ. A hgn Turuk, afifeafeti. 

We were travellmg, we dept on the road, and when the people (whom we 
had sent to look for the way) came back, we (foand out that we) had lost our 
way. We found a man, a spy, a war-spy. He asked, ''Where do you come from ?** 
We answered, ''We come from tlie comitry of the Shilluk people.^ He 
asked, "From which district (of the ShiUuk-country) are you?'' We replied, 
"From Penyidwai." He (asked), "From which village?" We (replied), "From 

> thai Is, Eni^. > The Abysfliniaas. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

152 War Stories 

the village CLen." He said, "Do you belong to Aggdo? We replied, **Ye«, we 
do.** He said, ''All right.^ He took us and brought us to some other village, 
Duwat, then he brought us to Aggdo. He found out the chief, who (received us 
and) killed a goat for us, and then he accompanied us. We slept at Bukjenj. 
When the next day came, and it had become afternoon, he kiUed again a goat 
for me; the people (my companions and I) sat down. 

A war signal was given. The people went, and there was a fight at Atano, 
Shilluks were killed by the strangers, the Shilluks were chased throughout the 
country till the strangers came to Tonga. And the chief Gokwach surrendered ; he 
was left alive by the strangers, they said, "All right, we are friends. ^ The strangers 
turned back, and marched straight towards Nyelwftk. There they turned on an 
island (in the Nile), and while they were sleeping there, many of them were 
killed by the Shilluks, and many too were chased into the river, a great number. 

After that they came and sat down at Obang; they remained quiet liiere 
for three months, then they went and attacked Tonga (again), some of the people 
they killed, and some they caught as slaves; they returned and marched to- 
wards Tare ; they captured Tare and came marching towards Ehor Filus, ihey 
caught people there; they came to Wti, they captured Wu, they arrived at 
Ngok and captured it; from Ngok they returned and sat down at WinyalwaL 

They returned to the Dinka country, but there they had no success, and so 
went back, and sat down at the mouth of the river Pich. They turned to the next 
village, and then went (across the river) to Tedigo. The chief Detim surrendered, 
he paid tribute in catde and men. From there the enemy turned back to Pade- 
ang. He cheated (the Dinka chief) Dingjol, and Dingjol surrendered. He was 
killed, together with his children. The enemies went away and captured Mw^mQ. 
While they remained in the Shilluk country, the country suffered very much, 
there were no goats left;, no cattle, no fowls, no dura, no clothes, no shields, 
no drums, no houses, no cow houses; the land was ruined to exhaustion. 

In that time a king was elected, king Akol, he fought a war, the war of Ger, 
and the people of Lwak (with their king Akol) were chased. Then came the 
strangers, the Ansars,^ they outwitted the king and caught Imn. They arrived at 
Bfil, and remained there. The (Shilluk-) king EtL^ continued reigning during this 
time. And the Lir-people' came and brought fowls, and cattle, and goats. The 
king KtL^ reigned well, so that the cows, and fowl, and goats became many. 

About that time the fame of some other white people was heard of; they 
were coming, diey were very strong white people, they came and fou^t the 
Ansars ; when the Shilluks heard that, they laughed ;^ and it was asked, "What 
is their name?" And they turned out to be the Turks and the English. It was 
said, "The Ansars will surely be killed now." 

* the people the Deirishes. 

* = Knr. ^ The Kordofan Nabas from Jebel Eliri. 

* for joy. 

Digitized by 


Tribal War 153 

And again there came white people, from the interior, they were AbyssinianB. 
The AbTsainians came, and marched towards the river, the Sobat; the Shilluks 
ran away to their villages. 

And the people returned to their villages, because there was. a rumour, 
''The Ansars have been killed.'' Then the drum was beaten, the Shilluks 
danced to the drum, they rejoiced. The Turks came and remained in the 

47. Tribal War. 

Kal aky^ e b^no bia pQl, ka hal dkytl e b&iQ, ka len J^tlt- Ka ddf^ e kil, ha 
4^J^ Mfiditt ka ^ff mlkq fii chiH J^l^, b&r (bldo) je gt gtr, ka leA rsnQ, kaje 
nek cky^ ^j^ cAdp. Leii din, ty^n a man bia b^ tlvQ ^f^, ka g^ tgrQ paeh. Bu 
{faf^ ma kgts, ma tii b^dQ wQk ki war. Je M bia b^ ttb^ ki war. Je fii Idcha wqi ki 
yey IwoL 

One &mily comes and goes out into the bush, and another family comes, 
and liiey begin fighting. And a man is speared, and fSalls down; again another 
man is speared, (so they go on till on bodi sides the dead are) many. At last 
one army runs away: many people are killed, they are speared. Now the 
warriors scatter. The women come to cany the dead home. No one is left 
out in the bush during night-time. 

(After a war) the people come to lie in wait during the night.' — The people 
are accustomed to urinate in the house, in a gourd.* 

48. The War of Nyeker. 

Jal mikQ chufQld Nekir, wade Dor, t^k^ t^ky ka e iE^^, ka tgna TqAqto bs, m^f^ikn. 
Ka TQnQTQ nigi, ka gq migi, Ka nQye yi Ybdlt, ka e JMq H leAy ka m^fia DinJQl, 
ka lefi chylt yi Dinjol; ka leA gichi nam, ka len nek; ka bia pachy ka e ystoQ, 

Some man whose name was NyekSr, the son of Dor, was very, very brave. 
He went and turned towards Tongoro (in the Dinka country) to capture. He 
destroyed Tongoro and seized it (its people and cattle). And he was imitated 
by Yodit, he too raised an army and marched against Dingjol, but his army 
was chased by Dingjol, he drove the army into the river, so that they died. 
Yodit went home and repented what he had done. 

49. The War of Deng. 

Jal mifcQ chwqla Dtn, kafart i Jti^^ ki Duw^t; fa Ywildlt Ka Un tin, tin 
YqA, ka leii e kgtQ, kaje nek ga pyarQ. Ka OjanQ dwai, ka e ^^, ka e ko: IM a 
lii k^a mw^ ki mwql ch^, Ka e mQlq, ka e butQ ki yg, kajeka wQk, ka kgrne 

* This is blood reY6n§;e; if one tribe hms more dead than the other, it tries to kill some people 

of the hosiila Tillage. 

' for fear of being killed when going out. 

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154 War Stories 

gin pSr, ha g^ nek, ka leti kijfl pacK ka e kttQ^ kafi nek ga pyar anwffu Ka Dffi 
kw<icJiQ, kwachg, le^ ka ty^ e bgnQ^ ka l^gQ bin g^ ka fan {ni e ckunQ. Ka ty^ 
chgt^ ka gQ nigi; a k^d^ a tana wqk^ fofe rife Jan, 

There was a certain man with the name of Deng, his village foaght widi Duwat ; 
the name of the village was Tweldit The war began, it began at the village 
Tonj, the army fought, and ten men were killed. Then a Dinka man (a sorcerer) 
was broaght, he made a charm, saying, "The war must be foaght in the morn- 
ing, early in the morning.'' So Deng arose eaily in the morning, and laid an 
ambnsh on the way; and when the people (the enemies) came oat, he attacked 
them and killed (many of) them. The army of the enemy went back into the 
village, and when they came again, they killed foorteen men of Deng's. Then 
Deng begged, he begged for aoxiliary troops; and an aaziliaiy army came. 
With them he went after the enemy, and the village (of Dawat) stopped 

Digitized by 


Traditions on Nyikang 155 


50. Nyikang's Parents. 

OBhfani ye Okwa^ ye i/toma nam H mayi Nikan, Nakae, tia Ke. Kaje fii kfia 
nam. Omya Nakaefana lian, bgdQ ki ^ji. Kaje lii tugo kwgfni, Hne: win^ yaul 
A kgi Dak^ a kwoA lia Han, a n^gS gitn, a bili, a yAbi, a kobi Dak kine: d biila 
yctn 1 Kine: i Hch y{ edi t Kine : a chdmd I Kine: NakayQ, kwird a di&m yi kwari! 
Kine: a chami yffi f Kine: yu k^la kffi f Kine: u ndmdl Kine: il yi ttai yi ysi^ 
ki cMm^i ehaje hoikd nam, Ka ddfi mdld yi ilian. A kobi f^n kine: nam ba kdH 
yii/i ktU! Dtfa mQ^Qfi! Kine: di dirU U ywddd yin, yi bUdh whk yi kilA Hl^. 
Yi fa M, vinh totk yi M'liwQla wjik. A 0t leM, a lii 6^ lian wgky ch^ ^ke kwdn^. 
Ka ffi mdki lidn. Ka chak m^n^ yi 4^ffit ki lidn. 

In ancient times Okwa (tiie fi&tiier of Nyikang) married the (woman of the) 
river, tiie mother of Nyikang, Nyakae, tiie daughter of Ee. And the people used 
to go to the river. The brother of Nyakae was the crocodile, it lived with the 
men; and the people used to play on its back saying, "Our grandmother, eh!^ 
One day Dak went, he took the children of the crocodile, he kiUed and roasted 
them. When the chQdren were searched for. Dak said, "I have roasted them.^ 
Nyikayo (the brother of Nyakae) said, ''How is tiiat?** He replied, "I have 
eaten them." Then the mother of the crocodile said, "Nyakayo, my grand- 
children have been eaten by your grandchildren." He replied, "Have they 
really been eaten by them?" He asked, "Where will you go now?" The woman 
replied, "I will remain in the river." Nyakayo said, "No, because you (and 
your children) will in your turn also be eaten by it (the crocodile), when the 
people (your children) come to wash." So the men now are caught by the 
crocodile. The crocodile said, "Yon (men) can never pass a river again, and 
you never will drink water from the river." Then Nyakayo (tiie man) said, 
"All right, if ever I find you (crocodile) lying outside tiie river, I shall 
surety stab you. Ton shall never sleep outside tiie river, you (shall only have 
sufficient time to) lay your eggs on the river bank." And a harpoon was made. 
During the time when the crocodile comes out of tiie river, the cows swim across 
d^e river; but (often) tiiey are seized by the crocodile. This is the beginning of 
d^e enmity between man und the crocodile. 

[Anod^er Report on ti^e Descent of Nyikang and on the origin of the 

Shilluk people, given in A. E. S. page 197: 

In the beginning was Jo-uk Qwgk)^ the Oreat Creator, and he created 

Digitized by 


156 Traditions on Nyikang 

a great white cow, who came up out of the Nile and was called Deung 
Adok (jfian, aduk). The white cow gave birth to a man-child whom she 
nursed and named Kola (KqIq); Kola begat Umak Ra or Omaro (OmarQ)^ 
who begat Makwa or Wad Maul (vsU mol), who begat Ukwa (Okwa). 
These people lived in a far-off country, nobody knows where. 
Ukwa was one day sitting near the river when he saw two lovely maidens 
with long hair rise out of the river and play about in the shallows. He saw 
them many times after that, but they would have nothing to do with him 
and merely laughed at him. It should be mentioned that their lower 
extremities were like those of a crocodile. 

One day Ukwa found them sitting on the banks, so he came up behind 
and seized them. Their screams brought their father, Ud Diljil, out of die 
river, to see what was the matter. Ud Diljil, whose right side was green 
in colour and in form like a crocodile, whilst his left side was that of a 
man, protested mildly, but allowed Ukwa to take away his daughters and 
wed them, merely giving vent to a series of incorrect prophecies regard- 
ing them. 

Nik-Kieya (Ni/akae), the elder sister, gave birth to two sons and tiiree 
daughters, and Ung-wad, the youger, to one son only, named Ju, or 
Bworo. The eldest son of Nik-Kieya, was called Nyakang (Nik-kang or 
Nyakam, = Nikdn) and inherited die pleasing crocodilian attributes of his 
mother and grandfather. Meanwhile Ukwa married a third wife, whose 
eldest child, a son, was named Duwat 

On Ukwa's death there was a furious quarrel between Nyakang and Duwat 
as to who should succeed Ukwa. It ended by Nyakang, with his sisters Ad 
Dui, Ari Umker, and Bun Yung, his brother Umoi and his half-brother 
Ju, acquiring wings and flying away to the south of die Sobat. Here they 
found the Shilluk country inhabited by wicked Arabs, so diey drove 
them out and founded a most successful Kingdom. According to dieir 
genealogy this would have been about 1200 A. D., or later. 
Nyakang had a creative power which he used gready to die advantage of 
the Kingdom. In order to people the vast territory more quickly, he 
proceeded to create a people from the animal life he found in the forests 
and rivers. From crocodiles, hippopotami, and from wild beasts and 
catde, he created men and women. When these had brought forth many 
children, the parent stock was removed by deadi, so diat the children 
might not know of dieir origin. 

The new creation and their offspring form the Shulla race or common 
people, in distinction from the direct descendants of Nyakang* s fiunily. 

Digitized by 


Origin of the Shilluks ..........^ 157 

The latter continue to bear authority and fill the priestlj function to this 
day. All outside the royal and priestly line are accounted Shullas. 
Nik-Eieya stiU exists. She never died and never will. The western part 
of die Sobat and part of the White Nile is her favourite abode. She often 
appears, usually in the form of a crocodile, but at times in different forms 
and always in the river or on its banks. No sacrifices are ever offered to 
her. When she wishes, she takes what is required firom among men and 
beasts; and when it is so, the people must not complain; indeed, it is an 
honour when Nik-Eieya is pleased to take her sacrifice of man or beast 
fi*om a family.] 

The Origin of the Shullas'. 

By Dr. T. Lambie, of Doleib Hill. 

Nyikang, Duwad, Ju, Okil, Otin, and Moi were the sons of Okwa. Okwa 
was the son of Omara firom heaven. Nyikang's mother was Nyikaya, Okwa's 
other wife was Ungwet. Nyikang and Duwad were twins, they lived far away 
to Ihe south. Okwa was lost and his village was deserted, so the people asked, 
'^Whom shall we elect king?** Part of the people said, "We will elect Nyikang,^ 
others said, "We will elect Duwad, ^ so it came to pass there was war and the 
people were divided. Nyikang came and turned aside to the country of the 
Dim, and there he married the mother of Dak, and Dak was bom. Dak was 
wicked and killed some people of the Dim, and the Dim said, "Booh! all the 
people are being killed!^ So they agreed to kill him, saying, we will kill Dak.^ 
Another man, caUed Obogi, kept silence there at the council when they spoke, 
and when the people asked him, "Did you not understand our talk?** he said, 
"Ah!'' like a deaf and dumb person. And they struck him and said, "This fellow 
dit not hear.** Then Obogi went to Nyikang and told him about the plot Nyi- 
kang replied, "Ah! very well, we shall see.** So the father came and brought 
a wooden figure and put it up. And his son Dak played on the tom (stringed 
instrument), and when he had finished playing, he took off his bracelet and put 
it on die image in his house, and the Dim people came to his house and speared 
the figure. And when they thought they had finished killing it, they said, "He 
is dead, good!** They went away, and all the people came and began to lament 
saying, "Dak is dead.*' They killed a dog, and when they had finished. Dak 
came, while the people were dancing his funeral dance. Dak came in and saw 
them. And Nyikang said, "We will separate firom you, we go to look for com.*' 
So they came and stopped here in the home of the Shullas. 

* i. e. ShIIliiks. 

Digitized by 


iS8 Traditions on Nyikan^ 

51. The Early Wanderings of Nyikang and his People. 
His Fight with the Sun. 

Ka bin je ktki dttguy foj^ ffii ba Kir^ fof^ a hini NilAn; a din ghi, g^ H 
Duwit A kobi Duw^t Hne: Nikan, yi kf^ kffif Kine: ya k^ hin in. A hobi: 
Nikon ! Kine: R^ nijL Ka Nikon e %^ niji, ka dikigi^ kd git t^ni Nikon. Ka 
Nikan u b&iQ, a pyeehi Nikon kine: i gln^f A kibi kine: kij^ i lii ib<$fl fllirti A 
b&li Nikon, a pika fofe Tiirj^, fofe niyd Ddk. 

Ka Ddk lii bldq wiy burq, 8 (omQ ^bm. A kibi niyi g^n kine: fih i ^ri yi Dak. 
A kill nh/i gin, a tyiki ^. A titi Ddk kine:y{ dwhtd nt^gi y{neyQ. A kg^ Nikan, 
a dwai ab^bi$ a yitds, bdbit, ka (tffi chygne gon. A kf^ Ddk, a flH kffi ^i, a fin^ 
{pm. A b&i neyi ghi, a kili, gn ob^b^t. Dak k^jja kaL A b&i Nikon, a kibi kine: 
liArd i ni^gh yindyi gin. Ka neyi gsn e buqgQ. A kobi kine: i, riy ^^ ehdh 
dnw^n I A rij{ chdn dnw^n, a ywigi. 

DuH kd Hdb l^lt bgne, gi gtr, ka Ddk bid tr^it ki kdl. Ka k^ yi miidq. Ka 
neyi gsn e r^n^, ko ywqk 6 rUmit' 

Ka Nikan eko: ya k^! Ka e b^no, ka k^lo yi nam, nam friiko, cku>Qld Faloko. 
Kajepgko namsnt. Kd^dnilbyh, ^JSfikan, kifa todtS, todti M chdkd chv^bjt yi 
]^ikan; kd i k^, kakigfdf^ chdn; ka 6jul i kifjit, ko (fean yw6d6, kili da (dok) 
ehdn. Ka e ko: yd ydfd ^an. Ka Gdri, w^t chan, kd i kbbit kine: jdl, yi ydpd 
nit^ Kine: yd ydpd dean. Kine: d ^ m^nJ Kine: ^ Nikon. Kine: de Jgda kffif 
Kine: k^ldfofle Nikon. Kine: il paj^I pafe ^ Nikon. A diigi, in ijul; a kSpi 
Nikon Hne: Nikon, dean a yiti win; ^ i/ial mgkQ, bir (bir), pere Ddk, ehyene 
dd atigb. A kobi ^ikon kine: tin 1M, a ySt ^kt A k^ Ddk, a mdgi GUri, a 
tiyi gbn fin; a n$le ehyene ghn, a kip yiil whk; a ehy^ti IM. A hfn dutn, a 
chyate leti Nikon, a nigi gltn; a b&i Nikon, a kwaii liiyhUts ^ nu^ni chdn; kd 
ehdn digi mdL A k^ Nikan, a kwdhi tigl^, apvoid^jt, a pif^ji moL 

A bin lidii, a bin wiy nam, ka je ^wo^, ka ga b^n^ ka g^ wajiQ mdnd ndm. 
Ka namyit, d Wc. A kobi Nikon kine: gQ k^la kgiif A kdbi kine: d HcAf A 
wdAi yQ. A p^rQ Obiglt mil; a kdbi kine: Nikon, yd tritml yi ehdm. ChwilH ydn 
fa tik. A kobi kine: I^ikan, u di kdn, u k^ yi tik, ka yi k^le bdn Wc A ehwiH 
fjd tik, a pyete tik^ a blng, pdch gi ki tik. 

A pik4 Aehy^te^uok, a yit fiA, ^ do bwqjkqy a dditk ttdit ItA, a piM my PifQ, 
o pof^i Ddk, a pQj^i wiy PA14. A k^ IM pach. A ehygte Uii, a kij^ t|d^. 

A giri Nelwal, a gin Pipwoj^, a giri Adi&i, a gin Tidigh PoIq; a k^ t^io, 
o gin Wau, OcKoro, Petiikan Otego, Akonwd, M^, drydn; my ere ^ikan d fiun. 
A ksjfo, eno Nikon, a kobi: i, ChglQ^ donn. 

Ajigi Ddk, a kfd^ ajigi 6ddk, a k^, a Uiyinit, a ^. A mUm t^, kine; 
e gwQk Mil A duqk Nikon, a kobi kine: k^l ^dn. msn yik gi tabote. A wdmi, a 

Digitized by 


Wanderings of Nyikang 159 

IkM, Duwut Hj^gh' A rtim{y a I6n{ Bw$eh hij^hi a toAi Dil^ Hj^Q; a Jorli 
TuffQ H fig Hi a ^l Okwgn Hj^tgo, a tMi Kudlt Hjagii; a toAi lSakwach{i H 

Id ancient times the people came to the country Eerau, this is the coontry 
into which Njikang came. Here they separated, he and (his brother) Dawat 
Duwat said, "Nyikang, where are you going ?^ He replied, ''I am going to that 
place there. '^ Again he said, "Nyikang, look behind!^ And Nyikang turned 
round, and looked back, and he saw a stick for planting dura, which Duwat 
had thrown to him. When Nyikang came back to take it, he asked, "What is 
that?** Duwat replied, ^Go, that is a thing with which to dig the ground of 
your village I*" And Nyikang came, and sat down in the country of Turo. This 
is the country of his son Dak. 

And Dak used to sit on the ashes of the village and to play the tom (a stringed 
instrument). But his uncles (the brothers of Nyikang) said, ''The country is to 
be ruled by Dak alone? (being jealous of him). His uncles went to sharpen their 
spears. But it was told to Dak, "Tou are going to be killed by your uncles I^ 
Then Nyikang went to fetch an ambach, he hewed it, and made for it hands 
(so that it looked like the statue of a man). Dak went and sat down in the 
same place again, and began playing his instrument. His uncles came and stabbed 
him — that is, the ambach statue ; Dak went into his enclosure (unhurt). Nyikang 
came and said, "My son has been killed by his uncles.'' His uncles were afraid 
saying, "Let every man stay at home four days. When four days have passed, 
we may mourn him.'' The morning after four days were gone, all the people 
came (to mourn), there were a great many. Suddenly Dak came out from his 
enclosure and went to dance the made dance. When his uncles saw this, Ihey 
ran away, and the mourning was finished. 

Nyikang said, "I will go !" And he came and went along a river, a certain 
river called Faloko. And the people setded on this river. Here the cow ran 
away, the cow of Nyikang, because of her calves, her calves used to be speared 
by Nyikang.* She went and came to the country of the sun. And Ojul ("the 
grey hawk") went to search for her; he found die cow among die cows of the 
sun. He said, "I am searching for a cow." Garo, the son of the sun, said, "Man, 
what do you search for?" He replied, "I search for a cow!" He asked, "What 
cow?" Ojul said, "The cow of Nyikang." Garo asked, "Where has it come 
from?" He answered, "From the country of Nyikang." Garo replied, "No, 
never I Here is no cow of Nyikang." He, Ojul, turned back and told Nyikang, 
"Nyikang, we have found the cow! among die cows of a certain man, he is aw- 
fulty tall, just like Dak; on his hands he has silver bracelets." Nyikang said, 
"Raise an army, and find die cow!" Dak went and attacked Garo, he threw 

* Wheaerer JXjOung came to a new place, he kOled a call 

Digitized by 


i6o Traditions on Nyikang 

him on the ground. He cut off his hands, pulled the bracelets off them, and 
chased the enemy's army; he came to the sun. But there die army of Njikang 
was chased, and it was utterly destroyed. Then Nyikang himself came, he took 
an adze and aimed it towards the sun. He hit the sun, and it returned to the 
sky. Nyikang went and took the bracelet, with it he touched the dead of his 
army, and they returned to life. 

The people came, they came to the head (source) of a river, there they arose 
and approached the junction of the river (in boats). They found the river full 
of sudd. Nyikang said, "Where does this come from? what shall we do ?*' Their 
way was barred. Then Obogo < arose saying, ''Nyikang, I have finished eating. 
Spear me under the sudd!^ He said again, "Nyikang, thus I shall part asunder 
the sudd, and if you come to any place where the sudd is, you just foUow 
after it*' So Obogo was stabbed under the sudd, and the sudd broke asunder, 
so they came to their place together with the sudd. 

He settled (with his people) in Achyete-guok, but he found the country 
occupied by the white people, therefore the people returned to this side of die 
river. They settled at the head of the Pijo (i. e. Sobat)^ Dak passed on to Wij- 
Palo. The army went home (it scattered because the war was finished). 

He, Nyikang, built the following villages : Nyelwal, Pepwojo, Adwelo, Tedigo, 
Palo. The people went on and built Wau, Oshoro, PenyikangOtego, Akuruwar, 
More, Oryang, these are the villages of Nyikang. Nyikang went saying, "Ak, 
there are still Shilluks left!"* 

Then Dak ruled, he went away;' (after him his son) Odak ruled, he went 
away^ while hunting game. The people were perplexed, and they said, "What 
is that?*' Nyikang returned saying, "Bring a cow, that we may make a bier.'* 
When that was finished, Duwat ruled after him ; when he had finished, Bwoch 
ruled after him, after him Dokot ruled, then Tugo, then Okwon; then Eudit, 
then Nyakwacho. (For die complete list see page 135). 

[A somewhat different report of this warfare is given by P. W. Hofmeyer 

in "Anthropos", 1910, V, page 332; it runs thus: 

Nyikang heard of a country in which all ornaments and even die tools 

were made of silver. He made up his mind to go into diis countiy widi 

his sons and numerous armed people. The name of diis country was wang 

garo i. e. the country where the sun sets and sleeps, and where the sun 

is so near that it may be seized with the fingers. 

Nyikang arrived in the miraculous country; in truth, numerous catde- 

herds were grazing here, and die young people were richly adorned widi 

silver rings and silver sticks. Nyikang and Dag entered a hut, where a 

young woman was working. She was exceedingly beautiftd; the Shilluk 

' Obogo means "albino'' ; yide also page 157. 
> i. e. be died. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Adventures of Nyikang i6i 

heroes had never seen her equal. Dag asked the woman, whether she 
would like to marry him and go with him into his country. The woman was 
lightened, she sprang up, cursing the black fellows. But Dag replied, 
''Though we are black, and without silver ornaments, we shall show you 
that our arms are stronger than those of your men and that we may well 
venture to ask you for marriage.'' Thereupon die woman showed them 
the direction where her husband with his servants herded the catde. 
Nyikang and Dag turned thither. 

It was just growing dark and the herds were coming from the bush, the 
men with their costly silver ornaments following. Dag at once rose, went 
to meet them, and soon a great fighting was going on. The man who 
wore the heavy silver rings was defeated, and Dag stripped the orna- 
ments off him. 

In the heat of the fight and on account of the scorching sun all the Shilluks 
fell down. Nyikang ordered water to be brought, with which he sprinkled 
his fallen warriors, and they all came to life again. Even die sun he 
sprinkled that it might not bum so hot, and presendy it ceased burning, 
finally die Shilluks were victorious and drove away the catde and men 
of the enemies. These people are the Quadshal (Ewa Jal). 
When they had arrived in the Shilluk country. Dag once more proposed 
to the woman to marry her; but he was again rejected. 
Nyikang offered die prisoners in his country catde, but they declined. He 
offered them Shilluk women, but again they declined. So he gave diem the 
privilege to seize and keep a number of Shilluk girls and to collect spears, 
sheep, and frit in die whole Shilluk country, as often as a new king would 
be elected. As diis was a lasting privilege, diey consented to accept it.] 

52. Different Doings and Adventures of Nyikang. 

l^ikAnQ M l^d (^^(4^) 0^ 9Qi^' ^^ 3^ rngko Hi b&iQ, gi fnhy^ H y^t. Ka y^ n{ 
fiika fH. Ka lii U^ Nikan^ ha Nikan ^H^ ka e bgfiQy ka e ko kine: Ddk, ya ^S 
yije mQkn. Ka D&k e k4^, ka Dak ^li, ka Dak e b^nQj ka e ko: yd ^l yijdk 
inL Ka Nikon ko: ^, Hiri/ g^ di (ri)je a M wH gint Kine: i, ysi lii vm'Aa fehl 
A digi Dak, a bin yi jgk ffii, gi mdy^ ki y^l. A Igk Dak e dk^k, ka pska yey 
nam. KaJQJk pd e blnqy ka g^ kQla bute Dak; ka gs, mdk, ka g§, ki^fach, 

Kajqk ffii e bldn kifach. Kd toht g&r yi Nikan, ka g^ itoftfi kine: Nikan, b^ni 
wQti agaki Kine: wgte wafa lii I^dh nau. A kobi ^ikan kine: i, de wQt lii gir 
edif Kine: wqte wa i/ii gir ki ^j^! A kygdi Nikan kine: ^jt bogon. Kine: i, ^f^ 
d gtr ki yi l^nh! A kobi Nikan kine: i, bogon. A kf^ chwula Ol6dli>. A kobi 
kine : 1^1 ^dj^ ! Ka Nikan i bitii^. A k^jal ^i, a kQli lidr^ a chibi libh, a kycri 

WB8TXRMAIIIT, TIm SkiUvk People. II 

Digitized by 


i62 Traditions on Nyikan^ 

wot, a chyik iQbQ, ka tyele wgi tigi. A l^bo Hn^: chunun! A rnagi liare, a gichi 
ghn ki iUdly a fetr^. A kobi Nikon kine: buhl Kine: h Oloalq, kwgji rachl gre 
^p a nigif Kine: ySd^t Kine: ^ i* ch^k d ^\ fAri dn^; ka M. kyffre tvot Nikon, 
dap e nil^ Hfa 6l6dlit, A bit tiro, a kobi Nikon kine: i! Oloolq jei u chJbgi ^ 
yi WQfi eni. Ka Oloalo kine: didi (dg ^rg), u ny&i, bo fumi, 

A toikkjome kwir yi Nikan, a lii kyffre wot Ka e ko kine: wot fii h/^l ki ayoJQ 
niUlno, ni chdm a w^r^ M lana wqr, t chdm^. Ka got dkyil^ gg kgle bone Nikon, 
ni chomo chwai; ka gol akyllq chama rinQ, gol aky^l chamo bane. A rAmi, m^k 
itn a pim. 

Ka Nikan Hi ka wi ky^r, ka je moJbg ni ySt gg tidit, jol gni ki fiem^i. Ka Nikon 
blfiQy ko gg tii rffHo nam. Ka Nikan Hi ^^ ko Dak dtvoi, kd i bca^; ka kwdch. 
Ka Nikon e kf^ ka liara weki Dak, chSl kgy maye Dak. A yet Dak, a k^dq, ka 
jok fnt ySdi' Ka gg rena nam, ka Dak kela nam ki ysi; ka g^ glnq wok, ko ga 
rina nam, ka iian gni mAgi, ka gQ kiti yi ysi, Ka e blnQ, ka dmin liigd bSini. Ka 
gi bldQ ki pack. E liwolS ki wUdt, A kwali rii gin, gi ki ^mhi. A dgn w^d^ 

A ks^doge nam, A ksi NikonQ b^ chik, kojal wIlkQ lii chSti y^ H nam; i&tn^ 
chwola ga Ochwd. A kgdo, gna Nikan, a kdfii JQch, jock OchamdQr, a yi&ri gon, a 
ki^i Odop, a ki^i mon Spun, kiti 4^k odop, a migi, a blno wqIc, a ^f^, A ^n 
nemgn ban^, A bldo pcush; a lii chamQ y^cA, foche Nikan, a ni ehim man add^, 
A weri Nikan, a kobi Nikan kine: kyau kejQ wiy Tor, j^k khn chAmi kijbp. A 
ni chamijqp, A k^ Aimin, a kobi: 0te ydn ki rinQl Ka e tr^ ki liim^n, ka gi 
fiakQ. Ka gg niU nam, ka giUt, ko go niqgs, nam, ko ga ksj^ nam, 

Ka jok mdkq M kd bg mai, gg bio ki Olam, ko Jsikon lii ddU, ko Dak e kctfo. 
Ka ga rgmo ki gin; ko gg mdgi, Nikan ko: weki yan, ka Dak i bdui^, Hne: bind! 
Ka ga k^li Dak, ka ga k^jafach, ka ga wiki ^k d^nit; ka ga wiki tin alg^, go 
ni giiti dean. K^l ^ean ki BachodQ, gq M 16 g^ m^ gin, 

Ka jok moIcQ blda, ga kwar bu>oiiQ, ko ga M kofjtoi, ka fi| Ha ban; ka ga Hi wSH 
gyinhi tysne a y6t pin, ka Hi k^l Nikan ki Akuruwor; ga Hi maki gylnQ, gQ Hi 
gach ki feH H yey dik, Chdti, m^k ffii d fjum, 

Jgk wlqIcq ba ytt, ga Hi kaji ga yi nam, yi nam Abtidtk; ga Hi chami HwqU par. 
Nam ani chwQld rlhotk, Ko Abudok e blnq, ka e pich^ kine: wtiniji kunt Kine: 
wi bit ytt, Ko Abudqk kudq. Ka ga chamQ ki rinQ; ka IwanQ Hi plka wiy Wii^ ka 
jgk ani e baHq; e none. A kobi Abti^k kin^: wu rao boH witnt Kine: wi bbkit. 
Kine: yinQ^ Yi Itodno, Kine : wi chdkd nw^t 1 Kine: wq fa Hi chdmit gin kwgma 
da Iwanq. A ki^ gan pack yi Abu^k, A kobi Abu^k kiM: w chik, wuna kwire 
nw^nl A bidi, ana ban Abudgk, a weki kiti, 

Nyikang used to go to the river-bank. And some people also used to come 
there, thej were fiflhing m a boat, and suddenly the boat used to sink to die 
bottom. Nyikang saw it, but he did not know what to do (with diese people), 

Digitized by 


A dventures of Nytkan^ ^^3 

therefore he went home, and said (to his son), "Dak, there are certam people, 
I do not know what to do with them.^ Dak went, but he too could not manage 
them. So Dak came home saying, ''I do not know what to do with these 
people." But Nyikang said, "My, why did you let the people go?" He ans- 
wered, "Well, the boat went down to the bottom!" Dak returned and found, 
the people again fishing in a boat. Dak turned himself into an egret and sat 
down in the middle of the river. The people came and were driven to the side 
of Dak; so he caught them and brought them into a (his) village (settled them). 
These people now lived in a village. And Nyikang was building a house. 
They asked, "Nyikang, are these your houses? Our houses (the houses of our 
father) are not thus." Nyikang replied, "£h, how then are (your) houses built?" 
They replied, "Our houses are built with human beings." But Nyikang pro- 
tested, saying: "I have no human beings (for that purpose)!" They replied, 
"Why, you have a lot of people here with you everywhere!" But Nyikang 
said, "No, there are none!" The man (the chief of these water-people) went; 

— his name was Oloalo. — (But he came again) saying: "Bring a man!" But 
Nyikang refused. The man went and brought his own son; then he mixed mud, 
he marked the place where the house was to be built, he prepared the mud 
and dug out the foundations of the house. He said, "Bring mud!" And it was 
brought He said, "Stop now!" He seized his son and struck him with a club, 
until he died. When Nyikang saw this, he said, "Ah, Oloalo, you are doing a 
wicked thing! how can you kill that man!?" Oloalo replied, "Why?" Nyikang 
said, "Well, it now wiU remain a custom of your village, always when a house 
of Nyikang will be built, a man will die because of Oloalo." The people remained 
there. Nyikang said, "Ah, Oloalo, your people will always die in building this 
house!" Oloalo replied, "Never mind, they are many, they will not be used up." 

Nyikang gave him certain goods belonging to himself^ with which to build Ihe 
house (of Nyikang). And he said, "The house shall be built with a black heifer, 
which shall be eaten in the night; during Ihe night it shall be eaten." One family 

— they are followers of Nyikang — eat the broth, and one family eat the meat, 
one family eat the meat on the skin. It is finished; this report is at an end. 

Nyikang used to go to the river junction (of Sobat and White Nile), there 
he used to find some people who were cooking, a man with his sister. When 
Nyikang came near, they ran away into the river. Nyikang did not know what 
to do, and he called Dak. But Dak refused. He begged him. Then Nyikang 
went, and gave his daughter to Dak, as an indemnity for Ihe mother of Dak. 
Now Dak consented, he went and found the people. They ran into the river, 
but Dak also drove a boat into the river and he drove them out onto the bank. 
They attempted to escape into the river again, but he seized the girl; he put 

Digitized by 


i64 Traditions on Nyikang 

her into his boat and came home. But her brother followed her, and they bodi 
remained in the village. (Dak married the girl), and she bore a son. After some 
time they stole away, the man and his sister. Her son was left in the village. 

One day Nyikang went to fish with a hook. And a man (below the water) 
always used to break the fish-hook in the river, the name of this man was 
Oshwa. He, that is, Nyikang, now went to dig out tiie joch-plant, the joch of 
Ochamdor, he twisted it into a rope and tied the fish-hook to it, he {iskstened 
a piece of bread to the point of tiie hook, and so he caught the man in tiie 
river, he came out — it was a man ! His sister came after him. They remained 
in the village, they used to eat calves, the calves of Nyikang, and tiiey used to 
eat the com which was cooked for making beer. At last Nyikang became 
angry, and said, ''Row tiiis man to the place of Witor, a place where he may 
eat buflEaloes.*' (He was rowed thitiier, and) ate buffaloes. His sister also went 
there and she used to say, "Give me some meat!** He became angiy with his 
sister, and they fought. And (while fighting) they rolled into tiie river, tiiey 
tumbled down a steep slope, and so went into the river again. 

Some people used to go fishing, to a place called 01am. Nyikang got into 
difficulties with tiiem, and Dak went He met them, and they were caught by 
him. Nyikang said, "Give them to mel" But Dak refiised, saying, "They are 
my slaves." Dak took them along witii him and brought them into his village. 
He gave tiiem big cattie, and the spear Alodo with T^iich to kill the cows. — 
When people bring cattie to Fashoda it is tiieir (tiiese people's) property. 

There were some people, descendants of tiie white men; they became slaves. 
They used to give fowls. They were people found in the country before 
Nyikang was brought from Akuruwar. They used to catch hens, and to offer 
them to Nyikang as a tax, in the middle of Dok. — That is all, tiiis report is 

Some people were fishermen, tiiey used to go to tiie river, to the river of 
Abudok, they used to eat tiie calves of hippos. The name of tiiis river was 
Nyewek. When Abudok came, he asked them, "From which place are you 
people?*' They replied, "We are fishermen. '^ Abudok was silent. And while 
tiiey were eating meat, flies settied on the meat; but these people would not 
suffer it, they were proud. Abudok said, "Why do you reftise that meat?" 
They replied, "We are afiraid." He asked, "Of what?" They answered, "Of 
die flies." He said, "You are proud, are you not?" They replied, "We do not 
eat anytiiing on whose back there are flies." These people were taken home 
by Abudok. And Abudok said, "Ah, you will continue thus! Ton are the des- 
cendants of pride." They stayed tiiere, tiiey became adherents of Abudok, he 
gave tiiem a setttiement. 

Digitized by 


A dventures of Nyik ang 165 

53. The Man who sacrificed Himselt 

K^ a bin Jyikdn, a ksfli Atulji ki toQte bans, a ywoda nam g rig^ yi tik. Ka 
Nikdn ejadQ yQ, Kajal ma dbigh e fichQ kine: Nikdn, yi ri chiinf Yijati kiyof 
Ye ko : hwiy yd jdti yQ. Ka e ko : k^ji ya rUmi ki cham, yd u bi, ka ya chwip ki 
tdn, ka rimik mild nam, ^k u ckdt Ka Nikan chwobijal ffii, ka r§m^ m^la nam, 
ka tik e chodo, Ka Nikan yiti ki yQ, * 

When Nyikang came, he went to the ELhor Atulfi with his followers; he found 
the river was shut up by the sudd^ so that Nyikang did not find a passage. And 
a certain man who was an albino,^ asked thus, "Nyikang, why do you stop? Is it 
because you do not find a passage?^ He replied, ''Yes, I do not see a way 
where to pass.^ The man said, ''When I have finished eating, I shall come, I 
wiU be kiUed with a spear, my blood will flow into the river, and the sudd will 
break away.** And Nyikang speared the man, his blood flowed into the river, 
and the sudd broke away. Thus Nyikang found a passage. 

54. Nyikang and the River-people. 

A kiffl Nikan wak, a mdfii, a yode y&, rina wgh yi lysh « kobi kine: joky wei 
kdtd (k^) yi y^i umni JQk ffii ko: kipanQ f Kine yau. A kdj^, che yai M tona 
pefi, ka go, M dMi yi Nikan. A bgn, a migi gin, a k^le gs, pack, a lime gin, a 
iQgQ bang, a wei g^ ign, gQ ilii Um ggn. A Iqge tysn lam, a wei g^ NibodQ ; ka Ai 
bopi Nikan. C/iwqI gi hoar Wan, kware y& ly§k. 

Nyikang went into the bush capturing; he saw (at a distance on the river) a 
boat, he ran firom the high grass to a place where the grass was burned, dien 
he called, "People, let me get into your boat!'' The people asked, "Why?** 
He replied, ''Just let me go in.** When he got into it, the boat went to the 
bottom (was about to sink, this being caused by the witchcraft of the people 
in the boat); but Nyikang pushed it up again; then he came and caught them. 
He brought ihem into a village; he taught them to pray; they became his 
slaves (his subjects) ; he gave them the spear and taught them to pray. So they 
became die people of prayer. He let them reside at Nyibodo; they keep the 
(religious) things belonging to Nyikang. They are called the descendants of 
Wang, die descendants of the boat of the grassless plain. 

55. The Lost Oow. 

Kwajul e kwayi ^k, ^k Nikan, ka dean akysl e wAA, ka e kfjdQ kal dQ DimQ. 
Ka e bgfiQ: dean aggnf Kine: ^n fgk! Ka Nikan toerQ, ka e ko: yap ^eanl Ka 

* Vide 51. 

Digitized by 



i66 Traditions on Nyikan 

e kidq hurt de chan, ka ye k^^ ka ye k^do, ka mdki wun; a ik^, a irifi fote 
Dim^, Ka ^an t/wod^ s. t^ fach, ka flki fd ryf/c ; a fyechs, : yi k^la kun a f KQle 
fo^e Nikan if yafe dean, Ka d^ki mql a k^^i kafe dgk^ ka ^ Nikon, ka go kiH 
Sn, Ka e b^n, toajiQfdfe CKqL Ka deaii k6li kal d^k. Kafy^h Nikan Hne: 4^on 
a kSli ytn f Ka e ko: dean d wa^i/ach. ChwQl ^na Kwaj^l, bane Nikan, 

Ewajul herded catde, the catde of Nyikang; and one cow disappeared, she 
went into the cattle-jard of Dimo. When Ewajul came home, Nyikang asked, 
"Where is the cow?" He replied, "The cow is away." Nyikang became angry, 
he said, "Search for the cow!" So he went westwards ("to the place of the 
sun"), he walked and walked, till he had been on his way a year; he arrived in 
the country of Dime. There he found the cow, she had gone into the village, 
and was lying within the yard. They asked him, "Where do you come from?" 
He replied, "I come from the country of Nyikang, to search for a cow." The 
next morning he went into the cattle yard, and drove die cow of Nyikang away. 
And he came and approached the Shilluk country. He drove the cow into the 
cattle pen. Nyikang asked, "Have you brought the cow?" He replied, "The cow 
is here in the village." Therefore he was caUed Ewajul, the servant of Nyikaing.' 

56. The Liar. 

Ojulo b^da ga mm, ka ni wgla k§n, ka lii bsno^ ka M tbd^ ; ka lii v^la foj^y ka 
iHi bin, ka lii tqdo, A kobi Nikan, a fyechi kine: Ojulii, yi re chik Hfa todo f Ko: 
a, mQt, todi ya ! b§ni gin Hi yin{ yd, Ka Nikan e niStQ, e ko: jal, yi u chik, yina 
twot A ehogi anan, a tubt, a neau todo kijach; a wiiki go in, 

Ojulo was a friend (of Nyikang). When he went somewhere and came back, 
he used to tell all kinds of stories (lies) to Nyikang. Whenever he came to 
a country, he brought home a lot of stories. One day Nyikang asked, "Ojulo, 
why do you always lie so much?" Ojulo replied, "Ah, friend, let me lie! That is 
what makes me feel well." And Nyikang laughed, he said, "Man, you will 
always continue in this, you are a liar indeed!" And so he continued, he used 
to tell stories, he bought the story-telling with the shoulder of game, which he 
gave to Nyikang.* 

57. Nyikang* 8 Quarrel with Duwat 

Nikhn win Okwd, om&ti DutaQt, fofe Shiilg ft TuT\t, y^ kdch dky^L Ki 
Niekhn e wtrh ki DuwQt, Niekan w^ds, Ddk, DuwQt wQd^ Dim^, Ka Dak e tiakq 
ki DimQ ki bdn rbch Niekan, chama by^U byil Dy^w^t; DimQfwdt roch, J^iekemq 
wirQ ki Duw^t. — Niekan e k^io, e ko:I>utDUt, d^Iyd k^d^I Ka JSfiekdn e k^^ 

1 Compare with this story No. 51. 

' Bj giying the shoulder of the game he had killed, he ''honghf firom Nyikang the pririlege to 

tell lies. (This is meant as a joke). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Adventures of Nyikang 167 

i ehmo. Ka Duw^t rena bAn Niekan kine: Niekan, shunt 1 Niekan i bhii. Kine: 
Uf^l l\iekanQ lif^. Ka tdkigl l^ni kine: Jsiekan, hvaA tdkigl bl kwotijeil Bin 
Niekan fofe ShiJ^, fa (fach) ISiekan ki wi4k -Dai ki Shal, w^te aryau. — Wa 
(Wat) Niekan aky§l i yigi nan ni nidi ki rech. 

Nyikang, his fi&ther is Okwa, and his brother is Duwat. The country of the 
Shillnks was (at that time) Turo ; there they lived in one place. And Nyikang 
became angry with Duwat: Nyikang had a son whose name was Dak, and the 
son of Duwat was Dime . And Dak quarrelled with Dime behind (or : on account 
of) the calves of Nyikang; they (the calves) ate the dura, the dura of Duwat, 
and Dime beat the calves. Therefore Nyikang became angry with Duwat. 
Nyikang went away. He said, "Duwat, stay here! I go." And Nyikang went 
away walking. Duwat ran after Nyikang, saying: '^Nyikang, stop!" But Nyikang 
refused. Again he called, ''Look!" And Nyikang looked behind, and Duwat 
threw a digging stick towards him, saying: ''Take this stick to bury your people 
with!"> Nyikang came into the Shilluk country, (and it became) the home of 
Nyikang and his son Dak and Shal; he had (these) two sons. — One son of 
Nyikang became a man who used to fish. 

58. The Fish Ocholo- 

Jal mlkQ nin^ chwola OchdlQ, b^da wat ban Nikan. K^jfi Iwoke Nikan nam, ka 
ni Idffi refQj ka Ai dtvano kine: buh! Ka Nikan 7i{ nAn, ka e bia pack, ka e fg^ 
ki kdk, ka wij^ kj^ ki aper, ka k§ia nam ; kae dtoanQ, kine : buh, ka tii k^le JSikan, 
ha rejQ, ka gQ ni bdji, Jal e b^da jwgh Ni chika dwanQ, ka go Tii bdj^, Ka Nikan 
e pidHi ka bia pach, ka jal sjni yodi go bin pach, d^ twaro wSri dgk, 

Duki ka Nikan d^gi gaU Kajal ffii e Iqgi ksf^ e chika dwanQ, kine: buhl Ka 
M kfU yi Nikan^ ka bach, ka e gitQ borQ^ ka Nikan bia pach, Ka D&k chwoli, ka 
e kc: DAgi, ilia 0df^ da reJ2 maduQn ki yey nam ka ; ya dAli ^Ih, ka ni kili sn, 
M dhJ^. D&k e ko: is a rech dnQ ki nam ^ f Ko : i, u l^tfi yin yau ! HejQ ma 
ehtcaki dugn charQ; ka lii kele an, lii bAjh bdji, d^ ya dali in, ita ddji. 

A kii Ddk, ka gs. ka (ki^) nam; ka e dwan, kine: bih! Ka e klJi sn,kae bdJQ; 
ka e bia pach, ka e ko: ya ^11 in! Ka Nikan ko: i, dwin, yi niiti dali sn! Ka 
bql kik ^de, ka e k^, ka e dwan Hne: buhl Ka e k^le (0 kgle) wi^e pi ghn, ka 
kikpate rg. Kajal pii dwofa mal, ka e ko: hi, DAgi, kwofi rach, yi ba weii. Ka 
k§jia pache ggn, e IqgQ ban, a g^refdr^ a chdn nin^ AlsnQ, a gira tqk dgk, 

A certain man whose name was Ocholo (Ihat is "Shilluk") was a slave of Nyi- 
kang. When one day he accompanied Nyikang to the river, he became a fish 
and he lifted his head above the water, saying, "buh!"' Nyikang did not know 
what to do; he went home, made a fish-spear (a harpoon), and tied a fish-line 

* Vide page 159. 

> a much naed exclamation of surprise. 

Digitized by 


i68 Traditions on Nyikang 

to its end. He went to the river again, the fish lifted his head above the water, 
saying, "huh!" Then Nyikang stabbed the fish, but he missed him; — this man 
was a jwokJ He once more lifted his head out, and Nyikang tried to stab him, 
but again missed him. At last Nyikang was tired, and he went home. When he 
came home, he found this same man gathering cow dung. 

The next day Nyikang returned to the river bank; this man also returned; 
he lifted up his head out of the water, crying, "huh V*^ Nyikang stabbed him, but 
he missed him, so he went on till the afternoon, then Nyikang went home. He 
called Dak, saying, ''Dak, son of man, there is a big fish in the river, I have 
fSfidled to catch it, I tried to stab it, but I failed." Dak replied, ''Well, what fish 
can there be in that small river?'' Nyikang said, ''Well, you just go and see it, 
it is a fish with a very strong voice. I stabbed it, but I always missed it. I do 
not know what to do with it, son of man.'' 

Dak went he went to the river. The fish lifted up its head, saying, "Buh!" 
He stabbed it, but missed it. He came home, saying, "I do not know how 
to stab it!" But Nyikang replied, "Oh, my cousin, you have not yet tried 
properly." Dak made his spear handle straight, and went again. The fish lifted 
up its head, saying, "Buh!" In this moment Dak threw the spear at the place 
where the splashing of the water was, and the spear fell on the fish (hit it). 
Then the man (the fish) arose, and said, ''Ah, Dak, your talk is bad, you are 
a cunning one !" He (the fish-man) went home, he became a subject (of Nyikang), 
he (Nyikang) built him a village, and called its name Alengo, he built it beside die 
brook Dok. 

59. Nyikang and the Sorcerers. 

Nikan ka e mQiiQ, ka e k^iq foffi nagko^ ka e ko: i, wa kdbi adi f Je btU. gi 
ajwiiky ka Nikan a dalif ka e ko: buK u fi ^^ ^' ? Ko : H Ka e iQffQ yQfnQ, ka 
Nikan Iq^q bdino, ka pefi ntm^ ka je f lu ^ng, ka g^ mig4. Ka g§^ k^ pack, ka 
gs, glfi pa gin (gen). 

Bit ga kwa wimdn^ g^r TudqIqA. Ka wike ^an, ^ nam, ogigh* 

When Nyikang was capturing (men), he went to a certidn country, and he said, 
"Ah, what shall we say?" Because these people were witch-doctors, and Nyi- 
kang got into difficulties (trying to capture them). Again he said, "Why, what 
shall I do with these people? Ah, I have found out!" And he turned into a wind, 
and then he turned into a cloud-shadow, and covered the earth (so that it was 
dark and the wizards could not see anything); so he caught diem. He brou^t 
them, and built them a village. 

These are the descendants of the woman, they live at Twoluig. Nyikang 
gave Ihem a cow, a cow of the river, an ogego. 

^jwQk = "God". 

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War against Turtles 169 

60. A War against Turtles. 

Rii^ tnikQ chwQld Miiy omy^ Nikan. Ka e jik^; ha k^^a bg, m^iio fofe jure 
milcQ, ehwQla BiIq. Ka go miii, ka gn nig{. 

Ka pofe mlkQ chtoQla dton, ka (Hon wfi/i. Ka e l^ga puk. Ka fehe gflU. Cha 
dafid pikd peii, ko gQ lii kiji; ka leti nSkk ptlL A hlnQ pack a dwai Ddk; a kobi 
D&k kine : a gin dni^ f Jal sni ko: IM msko, ya ddl{ in (y^)$ d^ i^a liemei ^jt, 
leri kichy ^f^ lii kijd kdj^. Kit4 ff^ ^ ho: e b^t anQ^ Kine: i, kuchk ydn, A ko 
Dak kine: i, fafe gin Iw^ auf E ko : nQt a^ri I A tygn gin, a |^ bi}, a tin leii. 
Ka Ddk e ko: tea kgjia mall Ka ksfa mal, ka tgr^ kope b^ne bgne kine: kbk pM! 
Ka ilTQ eJmfJ2 kqka pM, Ka kwikk Ddky ka go, ydU togk, kaleti S nik, dtiogapach. 

Ka chika 1M mikQ tinQ, tin fofe Bifoy kaleii e k§!^ ka leti kgtq war ka o m\d^ 
bine b&ie; poj^ ani e IqgQ mld^, Ka lii dime yi ddj^ ka ddf^ M j^. Ka Ddk chiki 
leti tinq ksfi, ka Ddk e kobq kine: l^de y^ I Ka y^i kSt, ka leti flka feh ki bute 
fdn sni, ka e IqgQ mtdQ kgt^ ka e binQ, ka Ddk e ko: chwoiH mach! Ka ygde 
ckwofi mack, ka omldo bgriQ, ka Ai gQcha mach yi Ddk. Ka yidit mldo, ka leii nek 
yi Ddk, ka mak bine. 

A bin (grQ pachy a kobi Mgiy omya Nikan, a kobi kine : Ddgi kwan Idu ! A 
kwaA tdu yi Ddk. Yina rimi n^hi ^ ndji kwop bhi, ajSki, A tine leii, a mqAi 
jur milcQ, a migS g^n, a Iqgo bdnS. 

A g^a wqt ^ tdi, a kobi Nikan kine : Ddgi, WQt a g&r yi ^k, d§, yi jsf ki kwdrlt. 
A kobi kine: cftdg (i/f ^&) t wgda u giri yan yau ki JUn^. A M, gir^ kwdre IdnQ. 

A certain king called Moi, a brother of Njikang, ruled the Shilluk country. 
He went out to conquer some people called Belo (near Chai = Roseires). He 
conquered the tribe, and destroyed it. 

Again Ihere was another country, a country caUed Oton, he went to conquer 
this too. But Ihe people of Oton turned into turtles, they buried themselves 
in the ground. And when the people of Moi sat down, they bit them; thus the 
turtles were victorious. Moi went home, and called for Dak. Dak asked, ''What 
18 the matter?^ Moi said, **! have been defeated, I do not know what to do 
with them, you son of the sister of man! It was a very hard war indeed, my 
men were awfully bitten in the rear.** He asked, ''How so?** Moi answered, 
"Eh, I do not know.^^ Dak replied, "Ah, is not that a simple matter?^^ He said 
'^Cut sticks !^^ He sharpened the sticks, he made diem like fish spears. Then he 
rftised an army. Dak said, "Let me go ahead !'^ He went ahead, and he told 
all the people in the army, "Prick die ground !^^ So all the people, while they 
were walking, pricked the ground; thus Dak had the whole ground pricked, 
and the turtles came out, and the enemy was defeated, and they returned home. 

Again he raised an army, he raised it against Ihe country of Belo. The army 

Digitized by 


lyo Traditions on Nytkang 

went; it came to fighting daring the night, the air was fiill of fireflies. It was 
the country of the fireflies. They fell upon the men, and the men died. When 
Dak fought against these people, he told his warriors, "Make grass torches !^^ 
They made grass torches; when the army came near the village and sat down 
there, the fireflies came; Dak said, "Light the torches !^^ They set fire to the 
torches, and when the fireflies came. Dak had the grass torches thrown at them; 
thus the enemy was destroyed by Dak, he caught them all. 

When the people (the warriors) came home, Moi, the brother of Nyikang, 
said, "Dak, take the royal cloth (become our king) ! Yon are a man of many 
thoughts, you know all matters !^^ Dak took the cloth, and he ruled. 

He raised an army to wage war against a certain tribe, he destroyed them, and 
they became his slaves. 

While Dak was absent, a house was built (by Nyikang and Moi) ; and when 
he returned, Nyikang told him, "Dak, we have been building a house (for you) 
during your absence, but there are not sufficient poles.^^ Dak replied, "But what 
does that matter? I shall build my house with nabag poles.^^ So it became a 
custom for the people to build with nabag poles. 

6i. Praising Nyikang. 

Ka kwayi^ ka e chwou, ka tUn leA tysJc, ha e k^dq, ha e kltQ. Ka leti nigi. A 
btn tSrOy a mQge dok, a k^l dok^ a 0r peti. A toums. giro, a chip ji kurj^, mot 
chip MwQtno, mok chip Tfln. 

Our grandfather, > he roared, and he surrounded the enemies on all sides, 
and he went, and fought. He killed the enemies; then the (Shilluk) people 
came, they caught the catde (of the enemy), they brought the cattle. They built 
houses in the country; when they had finished building, he appointed watch- 
men (men who had to watch the boundaries of the Shilluk country against their 
enemies), some on the northern boundary at Mwomo, and some on the 
southern boundary at Tonga. 

* i e. Nyikang. 

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Prayers 171 

viii. PRAYERS 

62. A Prayer to God. 

Maid yin, yina jwgky d^ gQ kwachh yin ki war. A kir jt kidi chdn btn. Ka 
ehUif^ ki kili Itim, cJidfd rd, a nini ki WQty nind rL Di git mAU, yin ki gin cham a 
M wihkjey kipik a M m^t, ki idH a k6rh yin. Bun anfidi vAjiy yinajwok; yina 
Igk kwa NikdnQ; fan^ taiin a cJidfi kijwok; yina lok kwd, ki tiari D&k. A yigi, 
ryaky ryak fa mAji yin f Nami a chuni ^nd dian, f& j^, r^m^ fa k^ yi ; yina 
jwQky dg gQ fif Umi m&i ? fa^ yin, yina jwok^ ki §na yik Isikan, H lidri D&k f 
Ds. t^ /« ^gi chi f Fan§^ yin u tini mdL 

Cho^ kd ^an chw^p, kd wdl kwdii, ka lin re nane a re dajwok^ kipi wite rf. 
Ka yif^ ^ian ngl, twoy ty^Ub ka bat ydn n^l, ka tal hnhnandn ; fa Ml yi jk, Kd 
chwai mitnij^f ka kQiifeti, rngk jwok. 

"I implore thee, thou God, I pray to thee during the night. How are all people 
kept by thee all days! And thou walkest in the midst of the (high) grass, I 
walk with thee; when I sleep in the house, I sleep with thee. To thee I pray 
for food, and thou givest it to the people; and water to drink; and the soul is 
kept (alive) by thee. There is no one above thee, thou God. Thou becamest 
the grandfather of Nyikango; it is thou (Nyikango) who walkest with God; 
thou becamest the grandfather (of man), and thy son Dak. K a famine comes, is 
it not given by thee? So as this cow stands here, is it not thus: if she dies, does 
her blood not go to thee ? Thou God, to whom shall we pray, is it not to thee? 
Thou God, and thou who becamest Nyikango, and thy son Dak! But the soul 
(of man), is it not thine own? It is thou who liftest up (the sick).^ 

That is all; and the cow is speared; and the contents of her stomach are taken 
out, and are thrown on the body of the man who is sick ("is with God'^); and 
water is poured on his body. And one ear of the cow is cut off, (it is cut into 
strips, these are tied together and the whole) is tied round the leg (of the sick 
one). And the right foreleg (of the cow) is cut off, and it is cooked at once; 
the people are not allowed to taste of it. They make a little broth out of it; 
that is poured on the ground: it is the thing (property) of God.i 

63. A Prayer for Rain and the Ceremonies connected with it 

Typi a mdn lii l^it, ka gs. bin bgn bgn, kijfl, M gdp H kiiiji, ka gs, b^nQ, ka 
r^ e vAr, ka gs. fnwQnQs ka gi gwidit H bur kwaro, ki bur tajQ, ki bur tar, ki 
ehilQ. Ka rUm gi gtoit, ka gs. chttn^ts ka bygl e gUt^ ka ^an k^l, ka 4^an chw$p, 

' This is said to be the only prayer to jwok. It Is prayed on any occasioii when a trial, as sick- 
ness, fiunine, war, falls on the people. The prayer is said by "old people", by tiie chie^ or some 
other respected person of the Tillage. The Shillnks were taoght it by Nyikang. 

Digitized by 


1/2 Prayers and Religious Ceremonies 

ka ipm k^l wQk, ka Ch^l^ (Choflo) 6^^ bsne bine, kd ttr^ chbnit, ka loeni ki irgr, 
ka tlrQ chon^if ka rii a kioach: 

Ya kwache ki md^jiQ, md kQla 4Qga, Pen e rjii jur, Ufinldrd ch^ d^ u^lo. 
Yd kind yi miyi baiida ¥ia Nyiwai, Akolo^ flaii iVtJfcanfi. 

The women come, all of them go to scratch the ground for mud, then thej 
come and besmear the temple of the "king^^, they prepare the mud, and make 
stripes on the temple with red ashes, and with black ashes, and with white 
ashes, and with soot. When they have finished this drawing, then they dance. 
After this dura is pounded, a cow is brought, the cow is speared; Aey bring 
out the little drum of Nyikango, and all the ShiUuks come, and die people 
dance, and when the night comes, they continue dancing, and (while dancing) 
they pray to the "king*':' 

'*! beg for some little things (food), to put into my mon&. The earth has 
been spoiled by the people; Lenydaro^ is travelling (on the earth). I go to our 
grandfather, the chief of the daughter of Nyidwai, to Akolo, the children of 

64. A Religious Ceremony. 

The people went, the tom (the small drum belonging to Nyikang) was beaten, 
they danced to the tom; and the people were beaten by the king;' it was a 
very strong drum. When it was finished, the people put the drum on the ground; 
then they told stories about Nyikang. After that, the people went into the house 
of the women (or the slaves) (of the king). The spear of Nyikang was brought 
out, and the people bowed their heads. A sheep was brought, it was kiUed; the 
spear of Nyikang was washed with water; the people ran to the river bank. 
They beat the tom vigorously, then the people came back to dance. After tfiat 
they scattered. The next day they beat the tom again, the people came again to 
dance, and after four days they dispersed. 

65. How the Cattle is brought across the River. 

When the chief of a village wants to talk about the cattle, he assembles the 
people, and addresses them, "Ye people, the grass is finished now, what shall 
we do concerning the cattle ?^^ The people reply, "Ah, that is your business !^^ 
He says, "Well, bring the wizard !^^ The sorcerer comes, and a goat, a spear, 
and a hoe are given to him. And he says, "Milk the cows!'' And the cows are 
milked, early in the morning. Then he says, "Loosen the cattle!'* They take 
the ambach boats, and the cows come (are tied) behind the ambach boats. The 
sorcerer ties grass together, and he ties it a second time on die side of die river 

' the "king^ is Nyikang or uny other ancient king, to whom the temple is dedicated. 

' "the arm J of Daro", perhaps a mythical allosion. 

* that is, they tamed into a state of trance, heing possessed by the spirit of the deceased king. 

Digitized by 


Preparation for War 173 

bank. Then the milk is poured into the river, and a club is stuck into the ground 
in the river. The sorcerer goes into the river, and says, "Bring the cattle !^^ 
Now the ambach boats are thrown into the river, and the sorcerer lies down 
in the middle of the river. The cattle swim (behind the boats). The sorcerer 
aings a song of the crocodile; the crocodiles belong to his family (to the fetmily, 
the clan of the sorcerer). 

When they have arrived on the other side, an enclosure is erected, and the 
cows are tied to their pegs. Then another sorcerer is called, and he performs 
his witchery on account of thieves (to keep off thieves). The catde are seized, 
a cow-house is built, and that is all, the people settle in this place, a place with 

66. Preparation for War. 

Itih kffi i chAgiy ajwQffQ M de dwdi, kd dbk g^fi, ha e b&iQ, ha dy^k gwdch, ka 
tgn gwachf ka yai b&iQy kd hk^t kit. Ka tgn mtn pihy ka tQn aky^ min pM ; ka 
aJcii twSchi ri. Ka yai e b^nQ, ka kela (jA dkit; akete ya mal, e twoJQ hw^l tin. 
J^dnit mdk yi akit, ka M chip wAiy ka nane a lii mak lii chip wax, Ka je chQfo H 
dbch. Ka tin, ka yai k6fi: ftke /Afc. Ka (yAvaqk hiAh^ ka tdyi /Ai, ka yej§^ kdk, ka 
^j& ^h ka wdi kal to^k, ka M Un k^ ji. Ka toich aikoQk ka kwdA yi ajwigiy 
ka tiil&i fof^ ^i ki Mm yai. U^ yik vnche oiiwQk y nino kundo fofi ^t, ka yd kine: 
fo^ Sni de chyit^, kwof ajwogQ. U yik toiche oiftwok u nin6 kun adi IM, ye kine : 
lefi racht Ka ajwqgo e j(^ kit^y ka yech kal, ka kbt^ ka mikQ chiH kdti^ ka 
<^j^gQi ^4Q9 ^^ Ofiti^i^ msAro klgly ka nik, ka toij^ chiki (ch§ki) wii^y kA Isj^ yi 
cgwQn sniy ka eko: doch I Dwai t^vQ biuQ ! Ka (IrQ b^no, Ka wai kw&iiii ka gQ 
l^ni ri iirlt. Ka e k^dQ. Ka wich oAywok ka u kwii/ii feifi. Ka pi ^j^, kd git UM 

When a hostile army comes near, the sorcerer is sent for, and cows are 
loosened (are given to him), and when he comes, goats and spears are collected 
(and given him). Then the people come; a rope is made, and a spear is stuck 
into the ground; the rope is fastened to its top ; now the people come, and pass 
below the rope. The rope is above, it is tied to the point of the spear. The man 
who is touched by the rope (in passing below it), is placed separately. (All 
these do not go into the war, because they would be killed). Thus the people 
walk (below the rope) a long time, till all have passed. Presently the sorcerer 
says to the people, ''Sitdown!^^ A he-goat is brought, andisthrownon the ground. 
It is cut up, and its head is cut off; the contents of its stomach are taken out, 
and are thrown among the people; the head of the he-goat is taken by the 
sorcerer, and thrown towards the hostile country, in the fetce of the assembled 
people. K the head of the he-goat points in the direction of the country of the 


Digitized by 


174 Prayers and Religious Ceremonies 

enemy, it is said: "The country (of the enemy) will be defeated ;^^ that is the 
talk of the sorcerer. But if the head of the he-goat points towards their own 
army, they say, "It is a bad war !^ In this case the sorcerer makes his witchery 
once more, grass is brought, and is tied on a rope, and after that it is tied again; 
then the sorcerer goes to bring another he-goat, it is killed, and its head is 
again thrown, and when &e sorcerer sees (that it is in the rij^t direction now), 
he says, "All right! Let all the people come!^^ The people come, the contents 
of the stomach are taken, and are thrown on the bodies of the people. Then 
the sorcerer goes. The head of die he-goat is buried in the ground; and water 
is put on the fire, and sprinkled on the people. 

Now the army goes to fight. And people are killed, die army is defeated. 
The people come and bury their dead. Then they remain (in arms). Another 
sorcerer is sent for; catde are given to him. And he works (his witchery), he 
is a most powerful sorcerer. When he has finished his doings, the army goes 
to fight again. Now they defeat the enemies and kill many people; after that 
they come and return home; they are satisfied. The people go to the king, a 
royal ambassador is caUed (and sent to the chief of the enemies), the people 
make amends for the men they have killed, they pay twenty cows; they go to 
loosen them, then they return home, and sit down.' 

' After a war (among diffareni Shillok tribes) each army makes amends to the hostOe tribe for 
the people that hare been killed ; these amends consist in a number of cattle. 

Digitized by 


Sorcerers 17s 


67. The Cruel King. 

Ka ri^ mikQ I^toQ-BabQ, ka ejagoy kich^ e nQgQJe^ lian a ^cho kd git nQgi, 
Ka e ko: gir WQt ! Ka ygt (wQt) ^|r. Ka yot dqgs, fndly karj^e kijja wgt ki Tian a 
dacJiQ mdjiir. Ka raf^ gni ko: tuk ^ wot I Ka Chilit bM^. Ka ni ymrQ: Chil a 
bdi/i I Ka e ]g. 

Ka rijl frilkQ r^, chwQla Na0j kick. Kajak dwai; ka e f^ch^ kine: &rt (x^k) 
^^ d nigif Jago ko : I, kiicM w^ I Ka jak nigS. 

A certain king called Ngwo-Babo, reigned; he was very, very cruel; he killed 
people, even women he killed. One day he said, "Boild a house I*' And a house 
was built When the door of the house was plastered (when it was finished), 
he went into it together with a young girl. (Then the door was walled up).< 
The king said, "Open the door!^ But the Shilluks refused. The king began 
to sing, but the Shilluks refused; so he died. 

And another king was elected, whose name was Nyato, he was very cruel. 
He caused all the chiefs to come, and asked them, "Why did you kill my 
cousin?'' They replied, "Ah, we do not know.'' He killed all the chiefs. 

68. King Nyadwai trying the Sorcerers. 

IlQfi Nadwaif ejagi; a kwinifeA, a H^i ysr^feuy a kQli li^r, a g|/f. A chdni 
djw^k^ ajtvQgQ bine, a pyechi gin, kine: watej&k, yd ddUyigin^ vm (ru) fh/i. 
Ka ajtoQgo, fJ^kq M b&iQ, ka M linQ, ko : gwdtd pack, Nadwai ko : p&c pSfi I Ka 
mffi fii blfiQ, kor i/ii lino, ka M ko : gwdtd pack. A b^n jal AjwQgq, a bin jal 
Ad^kgn, ka rii ko: Al A b&ijal Nindr^, a kobi kine: I, k^l pil Ka pi k^l; ka e 
togo, togi chin^ kipi, ka by^l kwAM, kd h ndm^. Nadwai ko: nigi djwttkl Ka 

Then Nyadwai was elected, and he reigned. One day he had a hole dug into 
the ground, he ordered wood to be put into it, and to set it on fire (and to coyer 
the whole with earth). Then he ordered beans to be brought and to be cooked. 
He assembled all the witch doctors, and asked them, "Tou children of chiefs, I 
do not know what this humming in the earth is!" (meaning the noise caused by 
the boiling of the beans). One of the witch doctors came, he listened and then 
said, "That is something bewitching (or cursing) the village." Nyadwai replied, 
''Sit down there!" Another came listening; he too said, "It is something 
bewitching the village." Then came the man (the doctor) of Ajwogo, after him 

^ In this waj the Shillok kings are boried. The king wanted to try his people, whether they were 
faithfiil to him. 

Digitized by 


176 Stories about Sorcerers 

the man of Adokong,' and the king said, "Ah!" Then came the man of Ningaro, 
he said: "Well, bring water I"" And water was brought He washed himself^ he 
washed his hands (as a preparation for eating food); then he took the beans out 
and ate them. Nyadwai said, "Kill all the other witch-doctors 1^ And they were 

In the time of the reigning of king Yo, some Dinka man whose name was 
Lengyang, came into the Shilluk coundy, and lived there. He was a sorcerer. 
Towards the end of his reigning Yo ordered the sorcerer to be brought, and 
he killed him (on account of his sorcery). On that a war arose with the Dinkas, 
and &ey fought at Tonga; Tonga was destroyed. Then the king said, "The 
whole army shall go!"" And the Dinkas ran away. 

69. The Vision of the Sorcerer. 

There was a certain man whose name was Wet Ewa Oket, he was also called 
Agweratyep, a very strong man; he was a sorcerer. One day he had a vision, 
and he said," The white people come \^ And the white people came, the country 
was destroyed by them. And he died, and was mourned; but before he died, 
he said, "Ah, the chieftainship shall be taken over by Ajidong after my death. 
But the man who kills me by his witchcraft, he too shall die after me." And 
he was mourned, and his steer fell under the dom palm.' And the man who had 
bewitched him, was struck by lightning, and died; for he had been cursed by 
the sorcerer. And all the people believed in him, saying, "Agweratyep is a strong 
man indeed ! "The medicine men were afraid, and so the village lived in a peace- 
ful condition.^ 

70. Agok. 

Jwgk chtDQla Aggk^ mQiii tgn jal ya^. Jal mlkQ b^da ajtoQgQ, ka dean ywn^ ka 
dean yt tayi fH. Kaje rsna kaU kaje ho: ^ Agok, ^ean a {gu. Kine: e neke yi 
nQ? Kine: kujh. Chgnj^I Kaje ch$n; kaeko: nati, fafe yin a ywQp ^eanf Kpue: 
yan! Kine: kipanQ? Kine: yi pMiyinI Kine: hi, yi hapyilo, wat fyau, li^M, 
tbch! yi re ch6k yi ybb^ ki do f§rQ? Yd fatie yiii au, mA h^ti. Kine, i, detoA fum! 
Kef^ chdll A chdli ki 4ak ddik. 

Ka jal ^i e ki^, ka hi gote yi pwo^. Ka jal sni tdk yi Agok, kjne : nati, k^ 
jal yai chinil Ka h bidQ, ehwQla ggn a lik. Ka mwQl ka e k^^ ka gin ffu ywode 
yifwo^. Gq gSlfM, ka bia pack. Ka e kobq kine: giche m^kq e gtl yi fwo^ yi 
jal yafl. E ko: dAptn^ py^iydn f Yi eha ktpq kSph Hne: k^ j<^ly^ <^ yip /Hoodg/ 
Kine: k^I Kine: yi re bhiif Kine: chwQla ga take yaul Kine: &» ch$n tir^! A 
ch$n tirh, a pichi kine: jal ydf^ yin neka nnjet A ty^k 

' They did not know the cause either, except the last, who found out the cauBe of the humming. 
' The ''medidne men'' are the ''had sorcerers'', who try to kill people hj their witcheiy. Thef 
are called here ''JQ y^** ''men of medidne", as opposed to the ajwogq, who it supposed to 
work for good. ' vide Introduction. 

Digitized by 



There was a j wok > who was caUed Agok ; he was manifested by a certain wizard. 
A certain man was a wizard. He bewitched cows, so that the cows fell down. And 
the people ran to the house (of Agok) saying, ''Ah, Agok, a cow has died.^ 
He asked, "By whom has it been killed ?'' The man said, "I do not know.*' 
Agok ordered, ''Assemble the people.*' And the people assembled. Agok asked 
(the wizard), "Man, is it not you who bewitch the catde ?** The wizard answered, 
"Yes, it is I". Agok asked, "Why?" The wizard replied, "Because I want to 
try you (whedier you are able to find out who did it).'' Agok said, Ha, you 
are a cursed one! You cursed black-eyed one ! Why are you always bewitching 
the catde of the people?" He answered, "Only to try you whether you really 
are strong." Agok said, "Well, we have met. Now go and make amends!" He 
made amends with three cows. 

Then the man went away and planted (a charm) in a field. The proprietor 
of the field was (while sleeping) wakened by Agok' with the words, "Man, 
go, there is a wizard in your field." But the man did not go, he thought 
he was dreaming. The next morning, when he went to die field, he found the 
charm which the wizard had put into the earth. He came home saying, 
"Something has been planted into my field by a wizard. " Agok said to him, "Why 
do you ask me about this matter? I have told you already saying, '6b, the 
wizard has planted a charm intoyourfield. Therefore go !^ Why did you refuse?" 
He replied, "I thought I was only dreaming." Agok gave order, "Assemble 
the people !" When all the people were assembled, Agok asked, "You wizard, 
why haye you (tried to) kill people? you are going to kill the whole Tillage" 
(„you surround the village with killing"). He answered, "It is not I." But Agok 
replied, "You cursed one, I will surely kill you!" And he killed him. When 
the witch doctors saw that, they all repented, and they were much afraid. Then 
the people scattered. 

And Agok was called king by the people. The people listened to his words 
(were obedient to him). They used to say, "If any man becomes sick, he goes 
to Agok, diat he may be helped." He gives him (that is, the one who wants 
help gives to Agok) cattle, two cows, one cow is speared (sacrificed), and one 
he keeps alive, it becomes the cow of jwok. 

1 "god". * It is not meant th|f Agok went to wake him, but he wakened him in a Tiiion. 

WBSTBRMAJfll, Tk« 8km«k P«ofl«. 12 

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178 Creation 


71. The Creation of Men. 

Dtan fan^ wiiii' a ^hoila Jfcjw^. IFfy^/an^ jwgk. Wd iHwqU jwQk gpi dry^, 
min h Idjii, mar yi min/^ m^n it titr, o chit. Kffi b^jtogk, e liofi mhi a titVy min 
a tojQ, M kan. A kobi jwQk Hne: h'i kinit Kine: bog^l^ A kdbijwQk kine: it 
w6U yin ki kine yaul Yan miri m^n d, tir, typi i Idjits ujdki min a tar. A 
ibSZi wok, ena m^h Idjit. A kobijtvQk: M (yidi) kiUf Kine: I chdkd kd k$le 
ydu. A wiki vhuHq bwdfii, a toiki twoch bwoi^ a wiki gtjU a wikejam 6|n, a 
fnAri yijwqk. Aj&k tysn a IcJQ yi obwaii anan. 

The cow is oar grandmother, she bore a gourd. Oar father is God. We were 
two of us bom by God, (a black one and a white one). The black one was 
beloved hj his mother; bat the white [one was hated. When God came, she 
showed him the white one, but the black one she hid. God asked, "Why do 
you hide him?*" She said, ''For nothing.'' Then God said, "Well, do but hide 
him, I like the white one.'' The black people shall be ruled by the white people. 
On that she brought the black one out too. God asked^ ''Why do you bring 
him out?" She said: "Oh, I just brought him out (without any special reason).'' 

To the white one were given the book, and the gun, and the sword, and 
all kinds of goods, he is loved by God. So now the black people are governed 
by tfie white.' 

71a. On Totemism. 

Wud^ k( dgak ki Dgn kdk ki yey l^nits gin a chwik. Ka Dm bia paeh, ha wudo 
k^ fslj ka agak e fHHt, ka a liti^li t^ yi H^ A Upt AJewge ki ret Dhwit, a 
h&tefdtfi Ch^ly a ypije ri^ Ka n&k toon, ka m^kq k^ Fetiikan OduroJQ, a dina 
ki FeMdwaiy fans, dini wiin. Kwdfa Jwkant togt Nabtly ka l^Mfoffi CHqI, ena a 
liwQm AtQfi, e lit fih cna Adefalq anan. 

WudQ ki hghk v^t wQn^ fa chUm yi win kifa dufolQ. 

The ostrich and the crow and D^* were split' out of the gourd, all diree 
are three-twin children. Dgn went into a certain viUage, the ostrich went into 
the bush, and the crow flew up. We were bom by Dgn. AkwQe (the son of 
Din) came in the time of DuwQt (a brother of Nikano), he came into die 
Shilluk countiy to the people of the king (that is to Fashoda). And when we 
became many, some went to Fetiikan Odurgjo, but some remained at Fetkidwai. 

Remarks see on page 179. 

Digitized by 


Totemtsm 179 

Thus we separated from each other. Oar grandfiather was Joikany a son otNabil, 
he came into the ShiUok coundy; it is he who married Atan, He was king. 
That is the beginning of (the Tillage of) AdefalQ. — The ostrich and the crow 
are of our family. They are not eaten by us on account of the dwah-eickaeM. 

' toAni "our grmndmother^. Here, as is sometimes the case, the pronoun of the third person 
sing, has the meaning of the first person pU 

* l^ere is not, lii. a reason. 

' With the exception of the first sentence this report is recent, because it relates to whiU and 

Modb men. 

^ These three an the "parents'* not of the whole Shillok people, but onlj of the tribe F&nikan, 

which Ures at the mouth of the Sobat. Each tribe has its own "parents", which generallj ace 


* This means: the cow (see page 156) brought forth a gourd, the gourd split, and out of it went 
forth the ostrich, etc 


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i8o Animal Stories 


72. Hare and Hyena. 

Hare he trayels withytc^ilr^'^be stays in under ttee^jtoitk he sleeps, and hare 

i Wit moL Ki, ji Ih^ ffi g^9 ofoajo, ko: dwb^ mdl, len^ 

he stays upright And people come, they many; hare says: rise up, war 

d bi. Jwik i kb Hni: btii yau. Kd IM i htf^, kdmd mak 
has come. Jvogk he says dius : stay just. And war it comes, begins to seise 
ofoajn H jwQk. Jwik i ko: afoaJQ, mak tyild,* kd tyiili mdk^ kd 
hare and jtaqk. JwqJc says : hare, seiie feet my, and feet his seized, and 
jwQk i wAiiiit. Kd Uii i kidity kd jwik i ko: afoaJQ, kjj^! Ka afoaja 
jwQk he disappears. And war it goes, andjtvQk says: nare, go! And hare 

ki^, afoaJQ ib^j'yt iti!^'>ifh ko: 6fwQfi! kine: if k^: wd fd uiHf* 
goes, hare went to hyena, says : hyena! thus : eh? thus : we not shall travel? 
S kb: hioi! Kd ai ki4h' Kd ai jfc^' t4 y^ kd IM S b^nt, 
he says : yes ! And they go. And they went bdow tree, and war it comes, 

afoaJQ i n^^, ^jtt<^ bidit fndl^ it^>Q1^ ^ ko: afoajq, IM i b\! e ko: 
hare he sleeps, hyena stays up, hyena he says: hare^ war he came! he says: 
bidi ydiil Kd 1M i ichj^, afoaJQ ko: mak tyild! ka afoaJQ 
stay just! And war he approaches, hare says: seize my feet, and hare 
lif gichA wij^ fiii; fiii ^A, ka afoajn r^ kd 

continually struck his head ground; ground was hard, and hare ran, and 
6%vo6fi mak, ka opcQji pwSt, ka ptoSt ki €^h. Kd 

hyena was caught, and hyena was beaten, and was beaten thoroughly. And 
wA, ka wiki ^ean ki ira|. Ka afoaJQ b^nitf kine:^ dpoif^!^ kyu: 
got free, and was given cow and bull. And hare comes, thus: hare! thus: 
i1 kine: jwQk i kb neya; kine if kine: ujik{ ydn tod^, E kb: 
eh? thus: jtoQk he says thus; dius: eh? thus: give me ox. He says: 
kffitnitf kine: yd ptoSt ty^' ^<^ wa^fe toeki; kd ai ktfjt, Kd gi 
why? thus: I was beaten too. And ox gave; and they go. And they 
khni IwhU fn&^ ny^ 4ean; ka afoaj^ kild Itoitl^ afoaja e 

bring calabashes, which nulk cow; and hare brought cal. his, hare he 

ko: ydndnyh$tt* Ka Iv^li kili, kd g^ tbyi, ka IwqU kHi, 
says : I it, milks. And cal. his brings he, and it pierces he, and caL brings he, 

ka hoqle ofivi^ chip mdl, ka IwQle afoaJQ yffia fM, kd f^ 
and cal. of hyena was put above, and cal. of hare was below, and continu- 

i^yi^ib kd chhk M. kifd fth, yech Itoqle afoaJQ, ka ItoqU opoQ^ 
ally nulked and milk cent, went below, middle of cal. of hare, cal. of hyena 

Bemark8 referring to XI. vide on page 198. 

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Hare and Hyena i8i 

fii ySii^ yi dbii. 6b6i cAAmJ® yi ofwof^, afoaJQ M^i^t chah Afoajo 

filled with foam. Foam was eaten by hyena, hare drank milk. Hare 
chw$. Ka afoaJQ e ho: nik wh liardJQl ha liaroJQ nSk, ka o^Qfi 
became fat. Hare he said : lull we caU^ calf was ^ed, hyena 

e ko: amffi u 4^0 
he said: who will miU^? 

AfoaJQ B ko: ydn! kine: dgehl AfoaJQ ko: u bin <ib(ii, ka dean 
Hare he says: I! thus: allrightl Hare says: if comes foam, then cow 

a n^; dbgi bbff^n, ^ean niti; ka ehak lit ^j[ yi 

has let down the milk; foam not, cow not yet; and milk was sucked by 
afoaJQ birif afoaJQ chui/ks, m^. Chak bogon, mffi fit md^ yi of^iogj^ 

hare all, hare his liyer sweet. Milk not which was drank by hyena, 
Qi"Hi!^ gv)alQ. Jwgk e lh^» ko,: yi rh gwdl yin?* Op)Qf^ ko: 
hyena was thin. Jnogk he comes, says: you why thin you? Hyena says: 
ehak fit fnafe yi afoaJQ, bin. Jtogk eko: kwaii wuni ikndnj mAk afoajql 
milk is drunk by hyena all. JxoQk says: take rope now, seize hare! 
trufig }^l kd mdk a/oaJQy afoaJQ eha yiiii, kd gM, 

rope was brought and seized hare, hare wanted release, and was rdeased, 

ha opoiO^ e bin, ka dbii chhtn i waM^ ka afoajo til, 

and hyena he came and foam wanted to disappear, and hare was tugged, 

ka afoaJQ 4 pidj^, Hne: buhl^^yd ri ndgi ydn ki/a chakf 
and hare fell, thus: bih! I why kills he me because of milk? 
opvQj^ M kudQ. ^^" ko: yd ki bs, kwdi. Kd e ki^. 
hyena was sOent. To-morrow sud: I go for herding. And he goes. 
Ka tuni ^ean ehtoAchi^^ ^ ki libj^. Ka i rino, yx§^ 

Horns of cow is formed by him with mud. And he ran to him, 

ko: ofwofil kine: kil tdn dmdl, dean a chin. Ka otwQj^ e 

says: hyena! thus: spear waterbuck in firont, cow is behind. And hyena he 

bin, ka iean m kd i kb: b^hl Yd kb: kil tdn 

came, and cow speared, and (hare) says: bihl I said: spear waterbuck 
a Mn, um ehwak dn^ ki ^ean, a nigi, yu^^eham qAq? Ka ye ko: 
behind, you do what with cow, killed you, you eat what? And ne said: 
k^ dbti mAeht Kine: mach iy^f Kd i kb: a ehini. Ka ofwoj^ e 
go fetch fire ! Thus : fire where ? And he says : it is yonder. And hyena he 
k^^ ka mach ywbdi i b6g^ ka e dti^^ky ka rinQ vwbdi go, 
goes, and fire found he it was not, and he returned, and meat mids he it 

k^l yi (rfoaJQ; ka afoajn e ko: yi rh du^kf ofwoji e ko: 
was carried by hare; and hare he says: you why return? Hyena he says: 
mach b6g^; kine: dean d kit yi jtogk; ka wich kwSiH fiii; kd 

fire is not; thus : cow was carried oj jwQk*^ and head was buried ground; and 

i ko : kul m^n mi w$kl AfoaJQ m^ a kwoii y\ 4^, ka ofwoj^ m^ yik 
he says: pull which his out! Hare his was dug by him, and hyena his was 

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i82 Animal Stories 

matthy ha afoaJQ, m^ kul togky ka ofltDQfi tn^ d ^U, ka ofwQff. kdfd^* 
hard, and hare his pulled oat, and hyena his was difficult, and hyena went 
gdlt, ka afoaJQ, kdfd gili, ka ofwgji toora widi, iine: k^ dwai 
home his, hare went home his, hyena sent son his, thus : go, bring 
mack gol afoajn, Ka lia li^l ^ e bsfiQ, eko: yd kwictjd mathj ka afoajq^ 
fire home of hare. And the little child comes, says : I beg fire, hare 
ko: hi dtoani; ka afoaJQ eko: yi ki Hi mhU ji^tit i ^^^ 
says: come, get; and hare says: you not look upward, pepper will fall 
want, ka liaiiil ^ U^d mal, ka k^ yi wiyi; e ko: 
your eye, and little child looked upwards, and went to his father; he says: 
rinQ gxT ki WQt afoaJQ. Ka opvQji i kipd lo^ ka trS^ e k^pa loi. 
meat much in hojose of hare. And hyena he took dub and his son took club. 
Ka as, bino, ka afoajo k^d^ pd pytnit, ka kqfa ufSds^ ko: pwdtl 
And they come, and hare goes under skin, and told his son, said : beat 
ydn! Ka i ywi^n, e ko: fa\, ki yan kjtA; wak otwQ^ Ka opvQfi 6 
me! And he cried, he said: not with me idone me; also hyena. And hyena he 

r&k, rana pQlj ka ofwQjj, ve btoitgib ofooJQ. chuii^ m^. 
ran, ran bush, and hyena he fears, hare his liyer sweet. 

The hare travelled with jwok. They rested under a tree; jwok was sleeping, 
and the hare remained awake. Then many people came and the hare said, 
"Arise! a war (an army) has come.^ "But'', said jwok, "neyer mind.** And die 
war came and was going to seize &e hare and jwok. Then jwok said: "Hare, 
seize my feet!'' He seized his feet, and suddenly jwok and the hare disappeared. 
The war passed by, and jwok said, "Hare, go!" The hare went; he went to a 
hyena and said to her, "Hyena!" "Eh!" said the hyena. "Shall we not travel 
together?" asked the hare. "Surely," replied the hyena. And they went They 
went under a tree, and a war came; the hare was asleep, but the hyena was 
awake. "Hare", the hyena said, "war has come". "Never mind", replied the 
hare. When the war came, the hare said to the hyena, "Seize my feet!" The 
hare beat his head on die ground (wanting to disappear as jwok had done), but 
the ground was hard. The hare, seeing this, ran away, but die hyena was caught 
and was beaten pitifuUy. At last he got firee ; and they gave him a cow and a 
bull. Then the hare came, saying, "Hyena!" "Eh!" he replied. Said the hare^ 

"Jwok has said thus" "Eh!" replied the hyena. The hare went on, "You 

must give me the bull." "Why?" said the hyena. "Because", replied die hare^ 
"I also was beaten." He gave him the bull, and they went their way. Then they 
brought calabashes, such as are used for milking cows. The hare brought hia 
calabash and said, "I will milk." And he brought another calabash (die hyena's)^ 
and pierced it, and he placed the hyena's calabash above, so that his own was 
below. When he milked, the milk ran down into his own calabash^ and the 

Digitized by 


Hary and H ena 183 

calabash of the hyena became fall of foam. The foam was eaten by the hyena, 

and the hare drank die milk. So the hare became fat. One day he said to die 

hyena, "Let us kill the calf!'' And the calf was batchered. Then the hyena said, 

''Who shall suck now?"" "I,'' answered the hare. "All right,*" said the hyena. 

"When the foam comes," replied the hare, "die cow has let down the milk; as 

long as there is no foam, it has nof (When the natives want to milk a cow, 

they let the calf suck the udder first, as without this the cow will not let down 

her milk. The hare wants to take die place of the calf^ so diat he may suck 

all the milk, leaving to the hyena only die small quantity of foam which 

comes out when die milk is finished.) So the hare sucked all die milk and 

was much pleased. But diere was no milk left for die hyena, and he became 

thin. One day, jwok came and said, "Why are you so thin?" "The hare 

always drinks all the milk," said die hyena. Jwok said, "Take a rope and bind 

die hare." A rope was brought, and he bound the hare. The hare struggled 

to release himself, and he succeeded (but the loose rope was still round his neck. 

He ran to die cow and began sucking again). Then the hyena came, and when 

the foam was disappearing, he pulled the hare away by force, so that die hare 

fell on his back. "Oho," he said, "on account of a litde milk he is going to kill 

me?" The hyena remained silent The next morning, the hare said, "I am going 

to herd the cow." So he went. He formed cow-horns of mud (and placed diem 

in die grass, so that they looked like die horns of a living cow). Then he ran 

to die hyena and said (pointing to the real cow), "Hyena, spear die waterbuck 

diere in front! die cow is behind!" The hyena came and speared die cow; dien 

said die hare, "Oho! (what have you done) ! Did I not tell you to spear die 

waterbuck behind? What have you done widi the cow? You have killed it! 

What win you eat now?" Then he said, "Go and fetch fire (that we may cook 

the meat)." "Where is fire?" asked the hyena. "Over there," answered the hare. 

The hyena went, but he saw diere was no fire, so he returned. He saw diat 

meanwhile all die meat had been carried away by the hare. "Why do you come 

back?" said the hare. "Because there is no fire," answered the hyena. Said die 

hare: "The meat has been carried away by jwok; but the head he has buried 

in the ground (as our portion)." And he said: "Let each pull out his part!" 

The hare puUed his part out, but die hyena's part was hard (would not come 

out). The hare got his part, but the hyena did not succeed in pulling his out. 

So he went home ; die hare, too, went home. After some time, die hyena sent 

his son to die hare saying, "Go and bring fire from die home of die hare." 

The Htde child came and said, "Please give me fire!" The hare said, "Come 

and get it But do not look up, lest pepper fidl into your eye" (this was to 

prevent die child from seeing die meat of die cow which he had stolen and 

Digitized by 


i84 Animal Stories 

brought home). The child looked upward and saw Ae meat. Then he went home 
to hiB father and said, ''There is plenty of meat in the house of die hare.*" 
When the hyena heard that, he took a club and Baid to ^ child, ''Take abo 
a dub!" When tiiej came, the hare went under his sleeping-skin and said to 
his son, "Beat me !" And he cried, "It was not I idone, the hyena too !" >' When 
the hyena heard that, he ran away into die bush. The hyena was much afraid; 
the hare was very pleased. 

73. The Monkey and the lion. 

Ayw6m yhfj^l; kd nu i htnii hi yitbt f^t H pii ka fii^Q y^ ^*^* -^^ ^' ^^ 
hi mat hi pi 9 hd nit y6t H pM ki yiy btir, ha Iq% i r^ Ka aywam b^nq, hd nk 
Ufi in, ha s, f^ J^o^ nu ho: kiUd w^hl aywom ho: yi diiitnl e ho: i, ya u (yo. u) 
kQl iDQh i >^ yin. E ho: hQl yiibi, u ^' tndhiydn tin, hd yi pHr maU ha ya pflrQ mal 
bdni, hdwdbtt wqh, Ehqd6(d^yi%) ehimiyan! E ho: i, yi/i ehimi ydn, ytii 
iDOtQ <* di eliQn, yi fa ehitni ydn. Ka aywom yitbt hjjfi pM, hd mdk y{ nii; ha 
aywom p^ra mdl, ha g^bia vfqL Kd nit e ho: yd da hgch. E ho: biti ^^ duin ddih, 
ya nuti chdnu E ho: yi hdtnd cJiami ydn, gik aywonu E ho: n|; hine: wd hifjt yi 
dgwqk, ogwi^hjana dugn. Ka aywom eho: dgw^gil^ Ye hudq,^^ i ehwffio,: 6gw$gi! 
Kine: ha! Kine: bi! Kine: initf Kine: bil wa da hwipl Kine: d gin in^f Aywom 
ho: nil hild wgk, ha a htli wgh, di ch^ ( = ehaha) chime ydn, di bid idl imdoi^ 
Ogwgh e ho: i, fa diltQnf Kwdch wajwih dnhn i chdm. Ka ogwqh ehii^ tinS mdl, 
hi aywom hi nu, hi ogwgk i limit, hwaehijwqh, nirtd mdl. Ka ogwqh e ho: yina 
jwqIc, l\ni hi hwqfd, fa yin a ehwdch nit i du^n hifa ^ ehim WQnf Ki nit chypt 
dhyil tina mdl, ehyffi dhy^l mifi aywom; ha dgw^h i ho: fa\ hi hifMU, kwQpafa 
lin yijwQh, tin chini mdl bin, hd nit chin^ tine maL Ka liehd but aywom, ha 
dgwSh e tamo, hine: Dtfyeeh yin ye rin hidi; wdji^ Aywom hine: ydn yd rpi 
kine, ha rsna mdl wiy yaf. Ogwih i hb: iwi, h{ndu. OgvBiqk rffia trijt. Kd nk i 
dHono kiti. IS^u ho: ha d^ nijd nau! ogwQh di mdhi ydn Hne. Ka aywom mdki ydn 
hine; ha ogwgk chimk ydn hi tysl amalo, ha dyw6m chimi ydn hi chin, — A j&f^. 

The monkey was in the bush. And a lion came to him to drink water; and 
he fell into the well. Then some animid came to drink water; when it found 
the lion in the well, it ran away. The monkey came and saw the lion and ran 
away. The lion said, "Come to me.** The monkey came, and the lion said to him, 
"Pull me out 1" The monkey said, "You are heavy." He answered, "No, I want to 
be pulled out by y u I"* He said again, "Stretch down your tail, diat I may seixe 
it at once. Then you jump up, and I will jump after you; so we shall get out" 
The monkey said, "But then you will eat me!" He answered, "No, I will not eat 
you, you will live (stay) forever; you will not be eaten by me." So the monkey 
put his tail down, and it was seized by the lion. The monkey jumped up, and 

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Monkey and Lion 185 

the lion too jumped up, and thej got out. Now the lion said, **! am hungry; I 
remained three days without eating anything." The monkey replied, '^You are 
going to eat me!" Talk of the monkey. The lion replied, "Yes". '^Let us go to 
the fox, the fox is a great judge, replied the monkey." (They went, and when 
they had arriyed) the monkey called, "Fox!" He was silent. He called again, 
"Fox!" He answered, "Ha?" He said, "Come!" The fox said, "What is the 
matter?" He answered, "We haye something (to propound)." The fox asked, 
"What? The monkey answered, "This lion I pulled out, and wheif he was pulled 
out, he wanted to eatme; but how is that now?" Thefoxsaid,"Ishenotgreat?'*^ 
(Then he said,) "Let us pray to Ood, (and after that) he may eat (you)." And 
the fox raised his hands up (praying). And the monkey and the lion and the 
fox, they all prayed; he (the fox) begged God, he looked upwards and said, "O 
Ood, hear my words! is it not thou who madest the lion to be big, that he 
might eat us?" And the lion lifted one paw up, and with one paw he seized the 
monkey."^ Then the fox said, "Not so! or my prayer will not be heard by 
God; lift both your paws up !" The lion lifted both his paws up. And he moyed 
towards the side of the lion. The fox prayed, saying, "We ask thee, how shall 
he run? (we pray thee, teach the monkey how to run) we do not know it." 
Then the monkey sud, "As for me, I run thus." And he ran away along the top 
of a tree. The fox said, "Very well, just so!" and he ran home. So the lion as 
left alone. He said, "If I had but known about that, I would haye caught the 
fox thus, and the monkey I would haye caught thus, and the fox I would haye 
eaten first, and after that I would haye eaten the monkey." It is finished. 

74. The Dog and the Fox. 

The dog went into the bush; there he met the fox. And the dog said, "Friend, 
what are you doing in the bush ? Go home (into the yillage) ! " He said, "What shall 
we do in the yillage?" The dog said, "My master is accustomed to giye one calf 
(wheneyer I come to him)." And he went with him. The dog went into the home, 
the fox remained outside the enclosure. The dog took some food, and he was 
beaten (by the people) with a club. He cried and ran into the bush. The fox 
asked him, "Why do you cry?" He answered, "O, I am (only) being educated 
(that's why I was beaten)." But the fox reftised (to liye with him), he ran away 
and ran into the bush, and he remained in the bush. 

75. The Hare and the Hyena. 

Th^hare went into the bush to make an ambach-boat. one for spearing fish. 
He sat down in it, pulled the fish out and roasted them. The hyena came and 

Digitized by 


i86 Animal Stories 

said, "To-day I have found you" Cyouhavebeenfoundbyme")." The hare said. 
'^Sit down, taste the food, my (elder) brother!^ And he gave him fins of the fish. 
He asked him, "From where have you brought them?'' The hare answered, "I 
have brought them firom the river ;'' then he said to the hyena, "Put one of your 
members into this hole (then you will get fish).** The hyena went and put one 
of his members into the hole, and he was bitten, and he cried. He lay down 
(being sick firom his wound). When he had recovered, he went into the bush 
and found the hare. He said to him, "I have found you (at last) l** The hare said, 
"Keep still, keep still!** He climbed a Nabag-tree, and threw Nabag-fimit down; 
the hyena remained under the Nabag-tree and ate the firuit; the hare went 
away and left the hyena eating.^ 

76. The Lion and the Fox, 

i^u biniti ye da ny^lU ^ yi fr^> e ho: bbdd, tflt Utnd agdkl kd dfftodk i h^j^ 
ye da, ny^^ bin yi b^db, e ho: timd dgak j^ g^nl Kd l^dit kb: nu t^ii^ nAii yi,** 
kd dgwtk ikb: nil fifi^^ wdt binit Kine: toot bdni kidi? E ko: kudiau, uiinnu 
Hn kopi kine: 6gvdbk i kb: yi f^ vaai ftSii^? Kd lit^ ^n(^ kint: l^dfil^ Kine: st, 
i^na chigi, fa |d^ y(n ?*' Kine: 6gu^k fan gnak^il tbni, yi ffi{ n^ti. Ya kine: nu 
ki werf (dgwtk) kine: is fd toir, fa toat bttn&f Kd nil kb: mik d^t Kine: n^ 
]^ii kb : yd dwai ^ u yik kwQji (ii)ne fa fygt, yi chdmi chdrnt,*^ k6fi ft^^. Kd 
bbdit kb kine: docks k^i dwai. Ka nu kgdQs ka oguioge ySt, i bitdit HyQ^ e ko: Ai 
(= chaka) dajwQk; d4 i chitd^. Kd nil ko>yi re chudi (cMri) f litii^ da IM; yi 
kb: edi? £ ko: dwin? Kine: dwh; kine ki mint Kine loti hi (= wii ki toti) b^. 
Kine: dwo^l yu kwdiii ydn, Kd dwbfd mdl, kd nil kb: ytf^i kw^^mi. Kd i ko: p^m 
rndfafs*^ ^gtoSk i dl? Kine: kifje kwQmi! Kd i kb: dehichwil md faJ^ 4 gtb^k i^f 
E ko: kite ddgdl Ka e Hii ddg^ kd i ko: d^ d^l rndfaj^ i gwgk ^If E ko: 
kwaiil Ka kwdii yi dgwik, kd yifd mdly kwbm nit. Kd gi h^nb ki nils kd gi ki^; 
pack i chAnbs kd nii^ gdchi yi 6gw^k ki d^l, kd nil i r^hits ka ptoSti yi dgtaiks kd 
g^ rin^s rinq, yi bbd^, kd 65d^ ^wofd mdU kd 6gtM i ko: 6^,»» tete (tt^) ydn! 
faU wQt bi,rUi1 bb^ ko: dtod, toot bttni! yi kama dir. Kd gi kidtts gi rin^ kun a 
dewQt dgwiks kd wot ogwok i waf^. Ka ogwQk fdrd fiiUs ka rind w^U kd mdkk*^ 
nil ki yisbts ka my yi^b^ i chbd^, kdnii kb: kij^ yi rUm ki fdf^ ki nSji. Kd i l^db, 
Kd nil k§iaftrt. Kd i kan^ ki lais kd Iqi fdl, kd ^ dwai i bini. Kd tirit b$n^ 
ki ogwoky ogwok g/tr biuQ ki ogwgn s^^i, &i d pw6t nus nit tydu. Kd gi k^dq yi 
pwodis kd dchdyit y^ot i gtr, ka dgio^k a fwSt nil, e ko ne, tif^ ki dck^it H 
yiipis^* ka minfi yiSbi lii twoch ke ri 6ch$yi>s kd ogwqn spis f^S, twdehk in i &bi^, 
kd e ko: rffie tirltfd (=fach) nil* Kd gi rin^, ka yieba^ W^, kd dgw^ki mffM 
yiebi M ch^tdis ka yUpi gin i J^tltm^ hi chgt^. Kd gi wdffjtt kd nil yw6t ki ^r^ l^ni. 

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Lion and Fox ___^ i^ 

kd nu i p^hh H^e: ^ ^ ^<^ -^ Kine §; ka ogwok nAji ^, e ko : yi JA fyhu f E 
ko : i, E ko : wd u yil wa min ? Kd i kh : yd chhtn ddl t Kine : fafe yin a pwdti 
ydn? Kine: i! dtol^f Kine: <$(y^; kine: i! yi chaka tbdhJ J^i^ kb: yiebi nfitt 
n^lk y€m? Kine: iffbn in f Kine: in&nQ! Kine: difafe yan Ictta! Kine: ddwUki 
m^f Ogwok e ko: fafe wd bt^df Kine: <ird. In ti^l Ka nu binit> ^d g^ ijjf, mm 
yUbt chbditf kd min yiebi ehbd^, ka gi bin yiepe g&n chbd^, kd nii wij^ mum^ ye 
ko: bofiu. Kd gi wiyi, Kd Ani wiki ^r^, kd chfim yi t^Q. Chb{% kd lirit i ddnit, 
kd nit dgnq kifar§. 

A lion came with some iron to the smith and said, "Smith, make me these 
spears!*' The fox too came, bringing iron to the smith, and said to him, "These 
spears, make them.** The smith said, "The spear of the lion is still with me 
(unfinished).^ The fox said, "Is he not my slave?" He said, "How your slave?" 
He replied, "You just keep quiet; as soon as the lion comes, teU him. The 
fox has said, you are his slaved" And the lion came and said, "Smith, why 
have you not yet finished my spear?" He answered, "The fox brought his 
spear (and said), 'Make it (= mine) firsts I said: 'Will the lion not be angry ?^ 
He said: 'No, he will not be angry; for is he not my slave?' " The lion replied, 
"Is that true?" The smith (said), "Yes." The lion (replied), "I shall bring 
him, and if your talk turns out to be alio, I shall surely eat you;" this he said 
to tho smith, and the smith replied, "All right, go, and bring him." So the lion 
went; he found the fox lying on the road; he pretended to be sick, he groaned. 
The lion said, "Why are you thus groaning?" — He, the Eon, became angry 
("his eye had war"). — He said to the fox, "How did you speak (to the smith) ?" 
The fox asked, "When?" He answered, "Yesterday." The fox asked, "To 
whom?" The lion said, "To the smith. Get up, we will go!" He said, "I am 
sick." The lion replied. "Get up! I will help you." So he rose, and the lion 
said, "Climb upon my back !" The fox said, "There is somebody's saddle (there 
is a saddle, I do not know to whom it belongs), what shall I do with it?" He 
answered, "Put it on my back!" Then the fox said, "Here is somebody's chain 
(bridle), what shall I do with it?" The lion said, "Put it into my mouth." Again 
die fox sud, "Here is somebody's whip, what shall I do with it?" The lion 
answered, "Take it!" So the fox took it, and he climbed on the lion's back. 
He came with the lion; they went along. When they approached the village^ 
the fox beat the lion with the whip, and the lion ran. Again he whipped the 
Hon, and they ran gaUopping to the house of the smith. The smith looked up 
("arose"), and the fox cried, "Smith, is he not my slave?" The smith answered, 
"Surely, your slave is he, you have told the truth." They went on and ran to 
the place where the house of the fox was. When the house of the fox came 
near, he jumped down and ran into the house. But the lion caught him by hia 

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i88 Animal Stories 

tail, and the end of the tail broke off. The lion said, "Go, I have given 70a a 
sufficient mark.^^ He, the fox, sat down. 

The lion went into his Tillage, he brooght game and cooked the game, and 
he brought (invited) all the people (that is, the animals).'' The people came, and 
the foxes, many foxes came^ and the fox who had beaten the lion was also 
present. (On the waj to the lion's village) thej came into a field and found 
plenty of melons, and the fox who had beaten the lion, said (to his companions), 
they should tie melons to dieir tails. So each one tied melons to his tail. And 
this particular fox tied the melons veiy loosely to his tul. Then he said, "People, 
run to the village of the lion!^ And they ran. (While thus running) the mdon 
slipped off his tail, but the tails of the other's broke off, all of them. When they 
approached, they found all the people with the lion. The lion asked, "Have you all 
come?** Theyreplied, "Yes.^ Andthe lionrecognizedthefox andaskedhim, "You 
too have come?" He replied, "Yes." The lion, "By whom shall we be recon- 
ciled (how can we, being enemies, eat at die same table) ?" The fox asked, 
"What is the matter ("what have I become")?" The lion said, "Is it not you 
who beat me?" The fox said, "What? you do lie!" The lion said, "Did I not 
cut off your tail?" The fox replied, "Where is it?" The lion said, "Here it is" 
(showing the cut-off tail of the fox). The fox replied, "But Aat is not I alone 
(i. e. tfie case witfi me only). The lion, "Who beside you ("you and who")?" 
The fox, "Is it not all of us ? why, come and look !" The lion came and looked 
at diem, this one's tail was cut off, and that one's tail was cut off, all their taik 
were cut off. The lion did not know what to say ("his head was giddy"), and 
he said, "You have escaped!" He let them go, and the people were given meat, 
and the people ate. That is all. — The people scattered, and the lion was left 
in his village. 

77. The starling and the Centipede. 

dio&ni bgdd (bird) ri^; ye da dean, ^ yio^' Ka vfii^q, HpiQ, bine 6in«, ha 
iwfinft ko: ytn^ f^^Q, dea ytoSp, di kwgp ndn d yv^bi! Kd t^ m^mlitf i hbz bihl 
ST^ (^) ^Q, d fnim{f Ka tsrQ ko: ytoip hicli win, Ka dlydin i kb: yd^kf^in 
(yaiifyfei^ fiind^^ nUt, ytoQp de kw$p yi ydnl Ka ny{ e ko: fdtu olyau k( liii; 
kd mti M hb/Ah. (kiU Kltji e ko: yi kwaii hind, i yi U^ ytoitp, i rimi, kd gi 
totkiydn. Ka olyau liin^ hwbM, kd lt4i kdn, ka ehigi U^^ khn, kd U4i m&L, kd 
^ yi ^§rQ» ka U^i yi ^^^9 * *^* tilftl Kine: if Kine: iriiferij^a ywibft E ko: 
dwini yafa ywup! Kine yi re (ra) faji ki yw^pf Kine: ndyd kiehi yinf ind 
yto^p. Kine: nd dm^f Kine: ndyd b^; pia M nini riji. E ko: fa^ pi a cJMi 
yinf ChoU, ka f&rdfird kwhmi, kd pwSt yi tir^, kdik^i rlfi^. Ka yoma wiy 

Digitized by 


Starling and Centipede 18 9 

ya% A M ehigi e biidd uny ya{. Kd olyau i diibg^. Kd 6t6l IQtf. e ko : weki yan 
ikindl E ko: i, gi gwitgi n^ ? Ka owanQ ko: weki Mn olyau u gQ M tini yw^p. 
Chd^j 6til Kitt ^ ^^Wt ^Vi bdgin. Ka rj^eko: yi (yi u) chd^i k( ditch; i bdgin u 
chAm^ yin. Chif^ a ii| fdutoi e kgt^f e bogin cham^ a gyg^ yi r^. 

The heron was king. He had a cow which was bewitched. And all the 
birds came, and the heron said to them, "Ye people, mj cow is bewitched, 
tell me who has bewitched it.^ And the people were perplexed. He asked, 
'^Dear me! why are the people so perplexed?^ They said, '^We do not know 
the wizard. ** Then the starling said, "O my goodness, if only I had my eyes, 
I would name the wizard.^ The king said, "Giye the starling eyes!*' But each 
one refused. At last the centipede Kqi said, "Take my eyes, when the wizard 
has been found and the matter is finished, then giye them back to me.*' The 
starling took the eyes, he looked in this direction and again looked in that 
direction; he looked upwards and looked at the people; and he looked at the 
owl saying, "Owl!- The owl replied, "Eh?" He said, "Why do you bewitch 
the cow of the king?** He said, "When? I am not a wizard.** The starling re- 
plied, "Why should you not be a wizard? Do you not know your uncle? He 
is a wizard.** The owl asked, "Who is my uncle?** He said, "The fish-spear is 
that unde ; it is he who sees the fish (in the water).^*^ Does he not resemble you?** 
— That is all, and all the people (= the birds) jumped on his (the owFs) back, 
and he was beaten by the people ; and he went away running. He fled to a tree. 
There he is accustomed to stay, on the top of trees. 

When the starling returned, centipede K^t said, "Give me my eyes!** But 
he said, "No, what for?** And the heron said, "Give (= leave) the eyes to the 
starling, that he may always make manifest the wizards.** — That is all, centi- 
pede K(ii went away without eyes. And the king said to him, "Walk in peace! 
There is nobody who will eat you.** That is all; he (the centipede) is accustomed 
to die of himself (not killed by other people, or through violence); nobody 
eats him. He is blessed by the king. 

78. The Hare and Tapero. 

Afoajd a kfjfl mal bi ytoiti bUl; gh hi nin TApirh. Ka afoaJQ, bul chon, kd bUl 
eh$n ki mal. Ka Tap^ e c^n^ tohk, £ pd dwdi yi lian a dachq. Ka afoaJQ dwdi 
yi ikan a daehu; ka gt cl^ni bul, ka TdpirQ dQUQ toqk^ i fa dwdi yi lian a dacha; 
ka afoaja dwdi d in; ka bnl dftn, ka afoajq, 6 chw^t^ Hne: n^n Tdpiro, wa fa 
k^t JApir^ i kiid^, chuiis. rdeh hifa dwdi afoajq. Ka Tapirq, bia fhk, afoajq d 
d^ii^ mdt Ka afoajq i IM^ bin, ka tyil^ mak ki akit, e ko: yd kif^fM, yd digi 
fbfi wdn. E ko: u yik yd i wi^fM ujtk akH, ya wjij,fbf^ win. Aket ch6 nwdji 
kijUgh; i naU ki wifefiA, ka afoajq dfrn^, ka e kj]^. 

Digitized by 


igo Animal Stories 

The hftre went up (into die air) to find a drum; he and his unde Tapero. 
And the hare danced to the drum, he danced up in the air. But Tapero remained 
outside (the ring of the dancers), he was not selected (for dancing) by a girl.^* 
But the hare was selected by the girk, and he danced with them. Again Tapero 
remained outside, he was not selected by a girl, but the hare was again selected, 
and danced. At last the dancers scattered. Then the hare called, ''Uncle Tapero, 
shall we not go?^ Tapero remained silent, he was angry because the hare had 
been selected. Tapero went down, but the hare remained aboye. Some time 
after the hare also came; he fastened his foot with a rope, and said (to Ti^ero?), 
"I am going down, I will return to our country.'' Aj^ he said, "As soon as 
I come down to the ground and (I) pull the rope, I shall arriye in my country 
(at once).'' But he pulled the rope too early, before he had reached the ground. 
So the hare feU down and was dashed to pieces. ^> 

79. Who is King? 

AfoajQ, fl^mg daehq^ gi k( dpogn; dachq^ niarQ, dpoon, d^ afoaJQ eh^ yi daeho, 
Kd gi u^Utf kageho Hne: nini tvQt dyik; ha gs, nfffiQi ha dyffi^^ rAh yi afoajq, ha 
dpffQf^ e fiffiQ, kd wai ha ga w6^^^ it¥>Q1^i ^ t^ ^ <<^» ^ ofoajn h^ ia 6twQ^ 
d^n^, e nini^, Ka Hal ^ binq, ha e ho: yd nin! Ka o^ufgj^ i^ofa maU ha Rf^ r^ 
ha wai /tj^ r£, ha e ho: afoaJQ d hi^H hiikt Ka qt^ bing, hd i hb: dyi^k d chdm gt 
minf*^ Kine: dygh ba chamyt opogj^t Ka €^l i kiU ha oiwof^ pwdt^ hd i^Qmi tdnj^. 

Ka o^wofi e k^, ha afoaJQ ySU yi in (jrin), i budi reck, ha e ho: wbkd teau,^ 
yi yiti ydnl Ka e ho kine: ^^ M. bijti gigi miH, ka dkjik weki ofwit^ ha e ho: 
dtoAf chh miditi Kine: gs. mayi g^ hidit Kine: g^ lij pidd (fara) nam. Ka e ho: 
k^ pa (pir) ndm ! Ka afoaJQ, pArd nam; ka lia pygn deft tori nifi. Ka o{tog]^ e 
lof^ pare nam, ka nilA ohgh bjn^ ha e yw^. Ka e h^dg, ofioQfi, wey^ go ywjfl^. 

Ka afoaJQ h^dq e hiji,^^ ha ywoda ly^K gO. ifc*Hfe h^^ hi tyef^ hd i hb: 6wit h^ 
itd^. Ka tysl lysch nytmi u>$k, ha lysch e h^g^ ha i ^; ha afoaJQ hfja yey ly^ek, 
Ka lysch, afoaJQ mejs, yijL ^ ^'^^ H h^A h^li,^^ hdi hb: yiri ba hw^^f U ya 
hild ban kif^ ! Ka lysch e hwb^ ; ha bia toQh. 

Ka lysch yarif^ka ^gs M i^QJ^ (htoafie) hwe^ ha dtit e ho: STS ^ (4^^) fy^ 
a ikwajfe hwsi hi ckanQf Kine: pate 4q ^^ X^^ <^ct e hi^ hd i ttn^ hi dxtriu, 
haha(= h^) chdn; ha U/sf^ hdyii, ha^mikiii g^f ka ly&ihpi^it, hi hid 

Ka dwinit ho: ydjM, ya bJmi rin! Ka r$H (y^), hattrJtMhd(= h^) ndm 
bi mhi, kd Ibi M fnena pM, ha nam fii bidd tar, ha dje M mdi H rech, Ka lot 
hwdl yi bgwctl, ka gon wiki k^; ka kiU yi kbi* Ka ohw6m ha pyeeh^^ yi owan^ 
hine: lo^ e kwal yi men? Kine: kuchi ydn. Ka b^hiii pySeh, kine: lot ^ hwdl yi 

Digitized by 


Who is King 191 

972^? Kine: loi a hwdl yi bgwhl, Ka okwdm pyech yi owan^ kine: dg, kiH u 
chame ^ hichi yin f Cham ^ nUti U§e yin f Ka goch yi owanQ,, 

Ka tan kobq ogwal: tiA rUr^! Ka tan ho: ogwdl, iyili ch^k^, ty^ 6^r^. Ka 
Offwal e ko: wi rdti^, Ka gt ^inhi mgn ya k^, msn ya keh. Ogwal gtr ki yey piA 
I^ni, ka tan e ko: ygma dgwhL Kd bgwhl i kb: yomd tan, Ka tanQ pidQ, ka e 
pi4^, kafi^yi nw^L 

Ka 6lii ka i jik^t tqA (TrQfi) Hi, ka rg^, ka chip wij dbib^. Ka f^an nik, ka 
olei e ko: bull rinQ! Ka rtnQ bai, kd i kb: kil rinol Ka rinQ chwon^, ka cliikd 
chw^t^; ka rinQ e chwSn^y kapari, mdl, ka lau Ig^ wij dbib^, ka rinQ gwdri. A 
chigi, a chika gwar, 

A kwaik lau yi atwdk. A riti4, a ktichi lau yi jago, d pidi. A kip l^b kine: 
toi rttii mind f Kine: rftik ikdu I A Ian Hau wir 4 nit^ kifa kwipi r^. Ka dgnS 
kwbdb* Ka U^ mwQ^ dgn e kw6d^, ka t&rQ ko: buhl 4di ndu? A bi (= b^dQ) 
d^ni ndinl ikau ko kine: yd Idn^t w^r yd n^, kd ttr^ ko: bih! wA ki u r^/^> a 
wet, a kii ^^. 

A yapjago, kajctgQ ya mdt$k. Ka tgro b^no, g^ kobg kine: toi r^ mind f Rin 
dgdk!^^ Ka agak r$ti, kaej^k^ kijdnk dqch. Ni fgu IqI kipQL Ka tgrQ M ch^kQ, 
kine: wA ehw^l a mind f Kine: chwoljigb! A chwQljago^ a bene in agak^ ka €^q 
kobQ kine : jdgi, lai ananQ I Kwgn IS ! a k^dQ biti Idl, a kwoA wdn glm ; ka e 
dub^ ka f&rQ chUm. A chigi kt jani d$eh; a kip ttr^ kine: dgdk ban pi jane 

A gSy (= goch) bdly kd ttrit chffn^, ka bulpwSt; ka TaplrQ ki Uilit gs. bino, 
ka dwm yi ddchQ, 

The hare married a woman, he together with the hyena. The woman liked 
the hyena, but the hare was hated by her. And they travelled; and (the people 
to whom they came on their journey) said to them, "Sleep in the sheep house I^'^ 
So they slept, and sheep were killed by the hare, while the hyena slept, and 
he smeared the contents of the stomach on the hyena's mouth. When the day 
broke, the hare went away, he left the hyena sleeping. (In the morning) a boy 
came and asked, "May I come in?^ Then the hyena arose, he looked at him- 
self and saw the contents of the sheep's stomach on his body, he said, "Where 
is the hare?** The brother-in-law^ came and asked the boy, "Who has eaten 
the sheep ?^ He answered, "Have the sheep not been eaten by the hyena?'' 
Then a whip was brought, and the hyena was beaten, and his wife relinquished 
him (he was divorced from his wife). 

And the hyena went away, and he found the hare roasting fish; he said to 
him, "You cursed hare, I have found you!** The hare said, "Every one is 
accustomed to eat his food first (before doing anything else).*'^ He gave the 
hyena an okok (a certain fish with sharp pricks); the hyena said, "Father, it 

Digitized by 


192 Animal Stories 

seems to be good!"" He asked again, "How dp they catch it?** He aaswered, 
"Thej are accustomed to jump into the river (and thus catch it). The hyena 
said, "Go, jump into the riyer!^ So the hare jumped into the river, but he 
bound a small skin around his waist (so that the thorns of the fish could not 
wound him). The hyena sprang after him into the river, but he was much bruised 
by die okok, and he screamed. And he (die hare) went away, he left the hyena 

The hare went away to his place; he found an elephant who was taking a 
thorn out of his foot. The hare sud, "My father is taking out a thorn.'' (He 
said to the elephant, "I will help you to take the thorn out^, and) he cut the 
whole foot of die elephant off. Then the elephant went away almost dying from 
pain; the hare went into the belly of the dephant The elephant shut the hare 
up in his beUy, and he had difficulty in getting out He said to the dephant, 
"Why do you not dung, that I may go out after your dunging?" The elephant 
dunged, and so the'hare got out. 

And the elephant was king. His cattle always scattered their dung on the 
road; and the ichneumon said, "Why do the cattle of the elephant always 
scatter dieir dung?** The people answered, "Are they not thecatde of the king?"* 
And the ichneumon went and hewed a stick, and he went from behind to the 
elephant and stuck him in his trunk (stuck the stick into the trunk of die ele- 
phant); the elephant feU down (and died), and his house was destroyed. 

Then the heron said, "I want to be king, I shall be king!*" And he was 
elected, and die people went to the river to fish. They put a dub into the river, 
which made die water dear, so die people used to catch fish. But die dub was 
stolen by die frog; he gave it to die rain.^ And the ibis was asked by die heron, 
"By whom has the club been stolen?^ He said, "I do not know.*' Then die 
pelican was asked, "By whom has the club been stolen?*' He answered, "The 
dub has been stolen by die frog.'' Then the ibis was asked by die heron, "How 
could you say you did not know? Had you not seen it?" And he was beaten 
by die heron. 

And to die waterbuck die frog said, "Let us run a race!" The waterbuck 
said, "fVog, your legs are short, but my legs are long." But die frog sttd, 
"(Never mind,) let us run!" And diey ran. The one stood here, and die odier 
stood there. But there were many frogs everywhere in the ground. And the 
waterbuck said, "I have beaten (surpassed) die frog!" But (always) a firog 
cried, "I have beaten die waterbuck." At last die waterbuck was tired, and he 
fell down and died on account of his running. 

Then the hawk wanted to be king, and he was dected. He placed himself 
on an ambach-tree, and a cow was killed (on the occasion of the decdon of a 

Digitized by 


Who is King 19 3 

new king), and the hawk said: "Roast meatl^ And meat was roasted. Then he 
said: "Bring meat!'' And the meat came not quickly; so he called again for 
meat, and yet it did not come. He flew up and left the (royal) clothes on the 
mmbach, he snatched the meat; (from that time) he has always remained in the 
habit of snatching meat 

The royal clothes were taken by the atwak, but he did not know how to 
behave in royal clothes, therefore he was driyen^away. Then the people said, 
"Whom shall we elect?'' It was said, "Let us elect the cat!" (When the cat 
heard that) she spent a whole night in laughing, because of the plan of electing 
her. And her jaws swelled from laughing. When the next morning the people 
saw that her jaw was swollen, they said, "Why! what is the matter with the 
cat? Why is your jaw thus?" She answered , "I spent a night in laughing." The 
people replied, "Leave her alone, she is not to be elected." The people went 

They looked for a king; there was no one who mi^t become king. So the 
people came saying, "Whom shall we elect? Let us elect the crow!" And 
the crow was elected. He reigned yeiy well The game died in the bush. And 
die people were at a loss, they said, "Whom shall we call?" It was said, "Call 
the king." The king was called; he came, he, the crow. And the people said, 
"King, here is a game, taste the game!" He went to the game and took 
(picked) its eye out Then he arose, and the people ate. He continued to reign 
weH And the people said, "The crow, he is a good king." 

A drum was beaten. The people danced. And the drum was beaten again, 
and Tapero and the owl came, and he was selected by a woman for dancing.^' 

80. The Hara 

-Afoaja a tdili/ofje rij^ ka yw6ddn$r; nor g%r, kafika/eti bi ehdm. Kd i rUm, 
ka ffs. chon kini; ka ai^ffan yi gin. Ka amdJit dwdi, ka af^p kwaii^ ka g^ chip 
toieh amal, kdg^ gicH, kine: chilli Ka amalQ (amnio) 6 bhik^^ kd g^ chigi g^ehit. 

A k^ dfohjo kti, a dwdi h/^^ ^ Jfij ^1>> ^ kij^ kwitfn kg^, d bdtk cMfii. A 
giehi giin; ehdmi k^^ a chigdfi^; a ko: bihl AfoaJQ kine: hihl afj^p i gwik 
idif A din ki kg^ a k^ a/oaJQ^ a dwai 4^n, a gej a^p mja. A ttni a^p fSti 
gi 4^^ o kiobn a/oajit: yi ri tftd a^p/Mf Ko: yi ri nigiji? yd l^d^l A kif^ 
a ddn afoajQ, a ndn afoaJQ, a^p i tieh idif A chigi d^g^ H dwiitit nii; a ywddi 
ffi; a htbi: yina nul wdfh mitt K6 i, yini mi^! A/oaJQ kine: yi ddl yi giifihi 
mikit. Ye ko: i gin Anji f ^Qr a yiti ydn Ji0 r^ gi gir, a chimd, kd yd ydn^, 
ki gi china. A kip nu, yi chdkd 00, wdld a kwdU yinf Kb: d kwdli ydn. Ko: 
yieh I yd ft k^l Kb : mih ^ '^^ ^^ y^^^ Kine: yd ^j^ yi d^^. A kij^nu, a 
yidi gin ini i pik, a kyidi. A k^ afoaJQ fyau. 

WBSTSRMAirN, The SldllBk People. 13 

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194 Animal Stories 

A dwai itwij^ ho : yin 6{wiu^ Itr^ a dwai ydn b^ni, di gi bdii^ d^ bU koti yan! 
yu 0fe ki ni^9 m^k 4 chdmh yin. A k^ ip^^ij^f ^ yiji kwgm (S|ii^; a kilS gin 
pachy a wd^^ gil gin^ a tin gi fM, KA kw^tmi ofioofi e fi,gh^ Kd afoaJQ k^ma 
kine: kwQm opci^ 4 gtt^k ^if Ka yij^ ya^ kd gatikyi gin, a A^ kwi^ k^ l^. 

Ki i iuyi ydfi du$n. AfoaJQ ttfit yii, t bir ki kw^m o|ti7j^; a iiwili; ka liwofe 
^i ^0 afoaJQ; e ko: bih! u bile ki ini^ (kinii)f A kwdni tuk it biU gon ki tun 
ffii. K^ tun sjfid fHi di ndm, a ligi mitch^. 

Ye ks4a bifeji kijdm, kd i^wilS ochaye kd gi fe^ A bini bwiU nH^kq, a kibi 
kine : fij^ yan ki gin chdm I A kyit afoaJQ kine: tihoA, yd ch^rd b^^ dnin. Afoajo 
chamd tefi nhji. A ywMi oehoye, 6 fii^» a ^o| afoaJQ, kd faUi kwHiiS, u kigd 
g^; kafdl k^i^ yiji oeJi^ye; ka afoaJQ e ndni^: fdl^ i ki^ kffi anqf Ka wgg 
n^Q> kd k^ yije ochaye, kd ytoode dji gi gir, gi nin^. Ka ifedii. A bin w^k, a 
ywdde wiji i tyii^ ki yUk, a chwili g^n, kine: yine wich bi! Ka wich i bioL A 
chigi gbn chwili Hiif kd i bdik. Kd git gichi ki dt(&; a b^ni toich, a digi kjij^. 

The hare trayelled into the town of the king, and he found beans, plenty of 
beans. And he sat down to eat. When he had finished, he piled them (the rest) 
up in one place. He filled a bag with them. Then he brought a camel, took the 
bag and put it on the camel. He beat the camel saying, "Walk on!'' But &e 
camel refused. He beat it again saying, "Walk onl^ The camel fell down and 
said , "The bag is too heayy.^ The camel went away. 

The hare too went away ; he fetched a horse, lifted the bag and put it on the 
horse's back. The horse refused to walk ; he (the hare) struck it, it tried to go, 
but it began to fall down saying, "Why!"" The hare said, "Why! what shall I 
do with the bag?** He left the horse. The hare went and fetched a cow; he 
put the bag on it But the bag was thrown down by the cow. The hare asked, 
"Why do you throw down the bag?** The cow replied, "Why do you kiU 
people (by laying such a heavy load on them)? I refuse.^ He went away. The 
hare was lef);; he was perplexed, thinking, "What is to be done with the bag?** 
He once more turned back to fetch the Uon. YiThen he found him, he said to him , 
"You Uon! Are we not finends?** He said, "Yes, you are my friend.'' Then the 
hare said, "I am in difficulty with a certain matter.** The Uon asked, "What 
is it?** He answered, "I found beans in the town of the king, plenty of beans. 
I ate some of them, and when I was full, I put the rest into a bag.** The tton 
asked, "Were they given to you, or did you steal them?** He answered, "They 
were stolen by me.** Then the Uon said, "Never! I shall not go!** The hare 
«aid, "Friend, come, let us go Aat you may help me!** He said again, "I am 
smaU, you are big.** So the Uon went. He found the bag ("thing**) very heavy; 
he refused and went away. The hare too went 

He fetched a cock; he told him, "You cock! all (kinds of) people were 

Digitized by 


The Hare 195 

fetched bj me, but they haye refosed. But now come and help me, and I shall give 
you part of the beans to eat.^ The cock went, (the hare) put the bag on the 
cock, and it carried it home. When they came near the house, it threw it 
down. The cock's back was bruised (from carrying the bag). The hare said, 
^What is to be done with the back of the cock?^ He crushed leaves of k tree 
And placed them on the sore place of the cock's back. 

And there sprang up a large tree (on the sore place of the cock's back, some 
eeeds having got into the wound by putting the leaves on it). The hare saw the 
tree was very high on the back of the cock. The tree bore fruit; when the 
fruit was seen by the hare, he said, "Dear me! by what (how) are they to be 
thrown down?'' He took a stone and threw at them. The stone fell into the 
middle of a river and became an island. 

The hare went to plant some vegetables (on the island), and he planted 
melon seeds. Then there came a traveller, he said, '^GUve me something to 
eat (the traveller saw the melons, which in the meantime had ripened) \^ But 
the hare refused saying, "Cousin, I have come in this very moment (so I am 
not prepared to give you food).'' The hare looked back; he saw there were 
many melons. The hare arose, he took a knife and split a melon. The knife 
went into the middle of the melon, the hare was perplexed, he said to himseU^ 
^ Where has the knife gone?" Suddenly it (the knife) cut his (the hare's) head 
off. He (the hare) went into the melon and found there many people, who were 
Alive. When he was tired, he came out; he found his head carrying firewood. 
He called it, "You head, come!" But the head refused. He called it again, but it 
refused. Then he struck it with the flat hand. The head came and returned to 
its place.^ 

[The Nubians have the same story ; here, as in Shilluk, it forms part of a 
series of tales; only the part which coincides with the story in Skilluk is 
given here (translated from Leo Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache, ErsterTeil, 
p. 232 ss). . . . The young man heaped up the eggs, squashed them, made 
a wind, and winnowed them, so that the wind blew away the egg-shells, 
and onty the chickens were left. One of the chickens had a wound on 
its foot. They sent for the doctor, who said, "Take two ardeb of date- 
Beeds, roast them and bind them on the wound, then it will heal. They 
did so. Now a date-tree grew out of the chicken's foot, it became large 
and bore fruit. When the fruit were ripe, a boy came and threw a stone 
At the tree ; four frtiit fell down. Thereupon the tree became angry, in 
its anger it feU down and formed an island. The owner of the island 
BOwed sesamum on it ; but afterwards he sowed melon-seeds. While they 
were still sowing, the melon-seds germinated and grew large. Then a 


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196 Animal Stories 

Turkish soldier came and asked the owner, "GKye me one of the melons.'* 
The man replied, '^Thej are not yet ripe. "^ The soldier said, ''If 70a don't 
giye me one, I shall cut off your head.** Then the man went, cut a mdon 
and gaye it to the soldier. This one took his knife and stabbed it into 
the melon ; but the knife escaped into the belly of the melon. Then he 
drew his sword and stabbed into the melon, but the sword too escaped 
into the belly of the melon. The Turk became angry, pursued the owner 
of the melon, cut his head off and threw it away. The trunk of the man 
crept into the belly of the melon. But the head searched its trunk in 
yain. At last it went away into a barber's shop. Here he had his hair 
shayed. In the meantime the man (the trunk) crept out of the melon and 
went away. When he came to the barber's shop, he found his head, took 
it, placed it on his neck and went his way.] 

8 1 . The Camel and the Donkey. 

Jal mikQ e ya da amalQ, gi hi od^rQ, g^ ii( <A^k gi ty^ H janu De begin ni 
chdmi g^9 d^gigtciUt gw^Ut, Ka amain ^* ^ihl Kine: adgr^I Ka odgrQ yH 
Hm: il Kine: tod chA ^! Kine: hwi, u>d ekk ^. Amain ko: kffk ufiri wd, jfti 
(yiu) yeif Ka adirn ko: hwil yd yei. Ka e h>: far wqI 

Ka gs, k^iOi gi ehUf^; ka g^ wifft kceh malaulau; kd miteh^ ttj^ gin, i yd di 
nam, di blm glr; ka ga ko: wa ki^ dif Ka adfrn ko: kdjil Ka amain ko: wau 
kuAni! Ka adsm ko: wa ku mUtt^ Kine: it Kine:u>afa mut, gik amain. E ko: 
jwnk duQu! wa y^ wi^ wnk. Ka gi kfjfl nam, ka adfrn k^ ban^ ka gt kwann* 

Ka ga wi^ wnk, ka g^ kfjfl wnk; d^ ehuike gin m^do; muchn bu 4^ kd gi 
ehAmi, ka gi M butn* ^uH ka gi ii| ehamn, ka M yd^ wiu, ka gi M btitjt; kinau 
ch^ ki chann> Ka adsrn ehweyn, ka amain ehweyn; di Agfe gin fa tdd^r; ka giiii 
mafa gat kipi;ka gi iHi bf^nn* 

Ka adsrn kobn kine: mdi! Kine: i! e ko: yi cha de g^gh H, kush mad/Qeh; e ko: 
wija mUm; e ko: kiti de bini yln, e ko: wA de 0u, gik adgro. Amain ko: yifafe 
dikt e ko: kwnp niji yinf e ko: fa hichiyin t gik amain* Ka gi bgdn ehdn iJofVit* 
adirn ko: mdtt — k^ chwnli am^iln* Amain ko: il E ko: ya da hwil mdfiif^^ 
ki wija, dibit ^if Amain ko: b^h! ikwnlmninj^^ g<^fnonnf*^ Kd ikiidit* Kagi 
ninn, kd chikd kwif kine: md^t Kine: il E ko: mnk ffu e lit^ni^ ki wija. Kine 
wiji chaka wiln ! Kichi yin, kiA mak wa, ka wi lii pw6t H Ib^t Di yi eJu/^ di 
da m6 kimt. Ka e ko: ard, yd kitt. Ka e kudn- -Ql^ ^ ^ ko: ya ^dli chdm yi gik 
pii, wijd fitotnit. Amain ko: buhl Ko: yik ehwaki u link yitu yi tyff^ kHS nam, E 
ko: d, wei ywnna, gik adfrn; H ilwnl miffyi^^ yaul Ka amain ko: i, ywini! ya 
fft kiyif ^U bi kifa wd bini, foi^e kifa yd kitii. 

Digitized by 


Camel and L^onke 19 7 

Ka adSTQ, rffiq, kd i kwo^ kd i yw^ni^ ki ywQk mdgir^ ka fi| kwod^ ; kd ji ma 
chAfi H yey ysi, kine: adsro, ytogn^ kffi f Ka g^ bia wgky Hne: muclm y^i daji.^^ 
^<^ SliL yHf^ H kgfe Ulm, je bogon. Ka adfrQ y6U ka amalQ ySt, ka g^ mak, ka lii 
fw^t ki Id^f ka amalq ko: yA ko kdp, yA ko: wa uy^ts d^ hndni^^ yi kobQ ddlf 
Adm kudii. Ka g^ kil (kil), kd gi mdki ki wiink ytif ysffyichi gin. Ka amalQ, 
ka wune chidi^ ka e rffio; ka tgra ring ban^ kaje yimi in. Ka ad&^Q dgnq, g^ H 
btoofi, ka fii gicM Idf; ysifih ka ef^, 

Dyihi^^ ckM kd hfnhUt bia gut £^ maff^ ka adgrQ yMi, i l^ke yey pi; dt hibdj^. 
Ka e ko: i'woiji mail gik amalQ. Ko: ^wo^^, ywdnil Otytj^ yA kb: yi ku yto^vk! 
yi kb: da gin iitir|n^ wiji; di 4%oo{! Adgrn jg. Ka amxilfi k^ ^ m^ kipi, ka 
amain doga k^l fim. 

Somebodj had a camel and also a donkey; thej used to cany goods eyery 
day, but they got nothing to eat, so they were very thin. One day the camel 
said, "Dear mel** Again he said, "Donkey!'' The donkey replied, "Eh?'' The 
camel sud, "We are going to die!" "So it is," replied the donkey, "we are 
going to die." The camel said, "Suppose we run away, would you consent?" 
The donkey replied, "Tes, I would consent." Then he said, "Let us flee!" 

And they went trayeUing. They arriyed in a yery distant place; there they 
saw an island in the middle of a riyer. There was much grass. And &ey said, 
"How shall we get there?" The donkey confessed, "I do not know." But the 
camel said, "We will swim." The donkey asked^ "Shall we not be drowned?" 
"No", said the camel, "we shall not be drowned;" talk of the camel. ^^ He said 
again, "God is great! We shall arriye safely." They went into die riyer, the 
donkey went behind &e camel. And they swam. 

When they came to the bank, &ey got out of the water. They were yery 
l^ad; there were no men on the island. They ate and then lay down; the next 
day they grazed again (the whole day), and when the night came, they lay down. 
Thus they did eyery day. The donkey and the camel became fat; their bellies 
became thick. They used to drink water in the riyer; and from there returned 
to gracing. 

One day the donkey said to the camel, "Friend!" He replied, "Eh?" The 
donkey said, "You haye indeed succeeded in bringing us into a good position; 
I am quite surprised; if it had not been for you, we should be dead now!" 
Such was the talk of the donkey. The camel replied, "Are you not a stupid 
fellow? Do you know atiytfiing? Are you not an ignorant one?" So said die 
cameL One day later the donkey continued, "Friend!" — So he used to call 
the camel. The camel replied, "£h?" The donkey said, "I haye some thouf^ts 
("litde seeds") in my head; how may it be with them?" "Dear me," replied, 
the camel, "what may be your thoughts !" Then the donkey was silent; and they 

Digitized by 


198 Animal Stories 

went to sleep. But the next morning he began again^ '^Friend !*^ The camel 
said, "Eh?** The donkey said, '^These things (thooj^ts) are still working in 
my head.** "You begin to forget!*^ warned the camel; "do you not remember, 
when we were caught (every morning) and were always beaten with a dub? 
But now you have become fat, you want to talk!*" The donkey replied: "Well, 
I will be silent '^ And he remained silent. On the next morning he continued, 
"I cannot eat on account of this thing; my head is always wandering." The 
camel said, "Why, if you talk so loudly, die people who are trayeUing on the 
river will hear us." At last the donkey begged, "Let me bray just once; Aat 
is what is troubling me." Thus the talk of the donkey. The camel wA , "Well, 
do bray! I am worn out by you. Death will come to all of us, not to me alone." 
And the donkey ran, snorting and braying exceedingly loud, and he snorted 
again. Some people who were travelling in a boat, heard him; they said, "Where 
does that donkey cry?" They went ashore saying, "There must be people on 
the island." They searched in the grass, but there were no people. At last &ey 
found the donkey and the camel. They seised them and beat them with dubs. 
The camel said, ^Did I not tell you, saying: we shall be found? but now, what 
do you say?" The donkey was silent. They both were driven away and were 
bound with boat-ropes, in order to pull the boat The rope of the camel broke, 
and he ran away. The people pursued him, but he outran them. So the donkey 
was left with the strangers. He was beaten with clubs; the boat was heavy, he 
died. Some days later the camel came to the river bank to drink ; he found 
the donkey dead in the water; he was bloated. And he said, "Get up!" talk of 
the camel. He said again, "Get up and bray! formerly I told you, do notciy! 
But you said, something is ("working") in my head. Now get up!" But the 
donkey was dead. So the camel went to drink and then returned into the 

1 The animals, when acting like men, hare in tiie Englifh translations always been treated as 


* » In most of the texts the word "jtUQk^ is rendered by "God", where, howerer, it is osed in rather 

a disrespectfdl sense, ^jwqh* is kept in tiie translation. 

^Un\B "war"*, and "the army, host of war**. 

s tycX^ more freqnentlj tyiji "foot". 

* the fdture form of the rerb, bat without the fdture particle ^. 

* Veiy frequent^ the present tense is followed by the imperfect of tiie same rerb, the first intro- 
dndng the action rather as a state, the second showing the action as going on, as being in 
progress. '*They go, when they were going below a tree. . . 

* "he says'' or "said** is: "e ho laiM*'; but in fluent speech ho "to say'' is often omitted and 
only ''kkn^' "thus" is said. 

' Tocatiye ! see Grammar. 
^ chdwi was to be expected. 

Digitized by 


Remarks 199 

* The ''ym"* lays stress on the subject: why are y<m so thin (while the hare is &t)? 

'^ hih^ an expression used most frequently, cannot be well translated into English; it may mean 

any degree and shade of surprise, very often, as here, angry surprise. 

*' ^^i is not only "to-morrow'', bat simply '*the next day". 

" Instead of **chu>dch yi in". 

^ from 3^1^. 

1^ kafif more frequently £^ the stem for "go''. 

>* The hare wanted the hyena to believe that he, the hare, was being punished for his misdoings, 

and that the hyena, by coming near, might get a thrashing as well. 

** instead of ^. 

*^ in order that. 

^ more fr^uently : tcitQ. ^ arriTO. 

»• "beside* = since. 

** yocatire ! 

SI commonly: hndo; here the ^ is long, as if to express the lengthened waiting for an answer — 

but all remained silent 

^ Is he, being great, not entitled to eat you? 

^ To prevent the monkey from secretly running away. 

** Alluding to some old affair, for whidi he intended to take revenge now. 

^ Twice the hare escapes the threatened revenge of the hyena, and even injures him severely anew, 

taking advantage of the greadiness of the latter. 

The same story is told in Mamo, Beisen im Oebiet des Blauen und WeiBen Nil, under i,Ge- 
schichten aus dem Sudan." 
^ the lion, his spear is still with me. 

^''fa Kadfa^ are most frequently used in this way, to emphasize a sentence: is it not so? tiiat is: 
it surely is so. 

** vocative ! tiie last vowel with high tone. 
^ "why remains my spear not cooked (forged) by you?" 
^ see Grammar. 

^' "a saddle which is not": a saddle of somebody who is not present, somebody's saddle, I do 
not know whose. 
•* vocative ! 

^ instead of: make yt nu. 
** one would expect : yMpe wun. 
^ one would expect: yiepe gen. 

^ "You are finished with your mark". "Whenever I meet you again, I shall recognise you and take 
revenge.'' This story of tiie lion and the fox is also told in Mamo, 1. c The Hottentots have it 

^' He expected the fox to came too, and so to find an opportunity for finishing him. 
^ yd-Jbi .... an expression of assertion, the literal meaning is not clear ; "I with my children?" 
••from R^I 

^ The fish-spear is a wisard, because "he sees the fish in tiie water" ; he is thrown into the water 
at hi4>-haiard, and yet hits tiie fish. 
^^ In dancing tiie gh4 selects her companion, not the man. 
*^ The story seems to have some mythological relation. 
*• horn dyik! 

^ "and them (the contents) smeared he". 
^ goats are eaten they (by) whom? 
^* a curse; its literal meaning not dear. 
4' "tiie hare went, he (to) his place". 
^ "he was in difficulty with a place of his going out." 
^ and tiie ibis, and (he) was asked. 

M In many cases like this the meaning of cham can hardly by rendered. 
*' abstain from electing her ! t| is used here because the act of election lies in the future^ 
** the people ask: "whom shall we elect ?" (one among them exclaims), "elect the crowl** 
** generally the Iwak, the "cow house", is the place where strangers pass the night 

Digitized by 


200 Animal Stories 

^ Who that is, or whj tills deslgnstion is chosen, is not clear. 

59 »»f^t let OS eat, and then hold our palarer!'' 

** The frog is the friend of the rain. 

51 A number of stories are strung together under tiiis head, most of them reflecting tiie political 

and dynastic Ufe of the Shilluks with its intrigues and ridssitudes ; some are told not without a 

certain grotesque humour. 

** The mention of horse and camel in tiie beginning perhaps points to a foreign (Arab) origin of 

the stoiy, or at least of the first part of it; though, of course, both horses and camda are not 

unknown to the Shilluks, as manj of them hare lired in contact with Arabs for a long time, in 

the north as well as in the west. 

^ The use of Jtff here is rather strange. 

•0 more frequentlj: fna{. 

•> mttk oikQ, 

^ ''the island, its interior has people*'. 

^ from of ^H' 

^ This formula is often added after a rerbal quotation. 

^ This stoiy is eridently of Arabic origin. 

Digitized by 


The Country of the Dogs 201 


82. The Country of the Dogs. 

Je a k^^ b^ dwar gi pyarQ, ha tcifa khn it liuy ha dryhu i tcdii. Kd gi mdki 
chan dryhu ^ wi(e g^n d mtim. Kd gi k^ pack n^ho, ha gs^ ywoda nidn htU gin,^ 
Ka chtDQu e bSnQ pQl hi ^h, ghih gtcSh, ha gi M h^ y^ hQli, ha jal tn^Ar^ e 
p$chh hine: chtc{iu ig^ gin? Gi hitdit- Ka chikA/SchQ hine: chwQU igi^ g^nf Ka 
gwoh mSjcQ ha ehuti^ i f^hi ha pird hwi^mi,. Kd gh nigit ha lUil dhyil e don^. 
Kd mdhh dwat (dwffi) abich i b^d^^, a pyech yi gxooh: yi hQld kdn f Ka € ho: yd 
kQld fote Chgl; yd ehiJA wd^. Ka w4hk dqlc gin ddih, ha kil yi gwoh hif^e hwom^ 
kd gwbh i r^y ha wijfl bdte foje Chqly ha gwoh e ho: fofe Chql d wafiy h chirA; 
U^ kidi pachy hd yi wctch : yd y^iuk fofe gwoh, man fd ji, ehwgu fa gw6h; yi hi 
kiit, u hut, yi ]g (]gu). Ka lidl ini h kudq^ ^fa k^bft; hd i b^fhit H. vxiTy ha i t^Qy 
gwoh e binq, hins: ^al, yi re fa wachf Kffi hu waeh* duHf yi 1^1 Ka fial duhi 
mql (mwql) ha e trS/^, hine: ha wAiid dfyt^, ya y^nh foffi gwbh hi mS^ b^nd, 
manfajey dt ehwQufa gwoh, ha mH^ nShk yi gwoh, hefajwanq hi hwip. 

Some people went hunting; they were ten. And they arrived at a very distant 
place. Two of them lost their way, they walked for two days, then they be- 
came quite perplexed. They came to a certain village, where they found women 
only. After some time the men too came from the bush with the catde, and they 
were dogs (the husbands of the women were dogs). They went into ihe enclo- 
sure (the homestead surrounded by an enclosure). And one of the men asked, 
''Where are the men (of your villages) ?** They remained silent He asked again, 
"Where are the men?** One of the dogs became angry' ^his heart turned bad""). 
He jumped on the back of the man and killed him. So only one man ^boy^) 
was left. After five months ("he seized five months'") he was asked by the dog, 
"Where did you come from?" He answered, "I came from the Shilluk country; 
I had lost my way." Then the dog gave him three cows, he was taken by the 
dog and put on his (the dog's) back, and the dog ran away with him. When 
they got near the Shilluk country, the dog said, "The Shilluk country is 
coming near; it is over there. Now when you reach home, tell (your people), 
'I was in the country of the dogs, there the women are (real) people, but the 
men (males) are dogs.^ Do not be silent! U you remain silent, you will die!"" But 
the man ("boy^) was silent, he did not tell (his story). And during the night he 
became afraid, he dreamed, the dog came and said, "Boy, why do you not 

Hemsfks refening to XII. ride on page 222. 

Digitized by 


20 2 Adventures between Men and Anttna/s 

speak? K you do not speak to-morrow, you will die.** And the next moming he 
spoke saying, '^I was lost some time ago, and I lived with my firiend in the 
country of the dogs ; there the women are (real) people, but the men are dogs, 
and my friend was killed on account of his being hasty in speaking (on account 
of his indiscreet questioning, ''Where are the men?** whereby he made the 
dog angry)." 

83. Akwoch. 

Jal mikit WQti^ fa abidik, Ka lial ciky^l docJu Kd f^i hni yt nil, kd nil mUgit 
ki bil, kd nil ffioffQ ki Itvan, kd gi kif^ yij dddl^, ka bff, kif^ yq dddli. Ka e bhi^ 
kd i kb: yd rUdto^I Kine: yi nkaw^ n^? Kine: ^ ^inifh M kw$p. Ka ii{ wH k^di; 
ka bis. yi jdl ^U kine: yd n^witl Kine: yi neawh n^? Kine: MM fit M kwgp. 
Kd i kb: Udi in! Ka wek^^ ka <filk ddd^t yiibi^ ka bsi rind w^ky kine: l o^ ; ka 
dgk dddl akyllg^ kd g^ yitbi, kd Iwdn rind w^k, kine: tiH^. Kd h kb: bih! btr 
gd Iwdn, g4 ki bii, e ko: yd fk kdmd neau; — jal s^i fa rif^ — . Kd nu kb: bih, 
fa dwQk ksy gin f Ka jal ini ko: gs ywSdii gin ki kitit Kd nil kb: fa chSlf E ko: 
chdl ki init f ^u ko : fa ckdl ki ^j^ ? Ka wot ban dwdi, ka ckdl, kanii^ 6dii^, ka 
ha ban dwai, ka chdl, ka nii ^ bcui^, Kd jam bin dwai^ kd gi bdni, ka wa^ jal pti 
chdl, kd nil bitTi^. Ka rii e ko: yi dwdtd nii? kd i kb: yd dwdtd Akw$eh, — wQt 
jal ini; ka jdl ini 6 ywitn^. Kd nil diuhi midQ kifA. ikdl ini, kd g^ uilei, kd gi 
ki4Q ^ ff^^ -^^ wddi bdg^n, ka AkwQch yigi toddi, ka nu chuhi ni^i^. 

Ka nu hi k^fa pQl, ka Iqi hi mdki in, ka gQh( kili paeh, Ka fn| hal ini ka hi 
jfdl, kd g^ hi wiki, ka hal ini hi chdm, Ka hal ini yiga machwe^ hu, ehtih^ midi^, 
Ka gi hi wilit ki hal ini, hi ki^ fa (= pack) toiti htL. Kd hijk yi nu bfne bgne 
blne^ di chuhe gin mid^. 

Ka chin an chw^ld. dird; ye ko: mdyi! Kine: i! Kine weki yd diri! Kine: i 
gwoge Aq f Kine: u hoda to^. Ka toiki, ka yai maduQn hgti in. Ka h^tb in, ka e 
6|n^; ka ^fi &ii ko : yi kifa kffi f Kine: ya kife bi hit. I^u ko: Ufi rtirnii Kim: 
niUi. Ka ^uki i dbgh bl hit ki bUL Kd g^ tyih, ka e rOm^ kd kile in, di nil ckuhi 
midQ. Kd b ko : nA, kbmi pyin! Ka py^ kil, kd gh heiji bill, kabuli r^m, ha 
AkwQch e kobq kine: md! Kine: k^ chwgl tyin wiin! ]^u ki^ ka k^pi tyin gin, 
ka e ko: bul a kwdch yi w^dJi, di bi t^tQ, fykil Kd b d^ght ka bul kij^ yi ehah; 
bur mdduih d kwih yi hal ini, ka ya^ kij^ yiji. Ka mack (may) ki^ yey yaf, ka 
gQ Vtni yey bur, ka yiff. i r^p^ ki yey bur. Kd biir rtk yi hdl ini. Di maeh fy^ 
H pih. Kd bill gich, kd hh e blnq bine bgne, ka hi (yd) Hne: nil, yi fa din f Kine: 
kifdni a dihd'fydfd hlitl ki wind. Kine: chwgr, yi fa cfciif Kine: yd ehu^r^ U 
ylfaf Kine: di mth^ y*'/> <ktnf d di mih ydn, ya man ki hihd'l T^ i^ng bine, 
bu nan a din H pack. 

Ka tlTQ bii bi bul, ka hal ini yifa wiy yai, yai maduQn. Ka bulfwStb in, kd 

Digitized by 


Akwoch 203 

tirb, bii bl ch^ kanu e cKonQ. Kd M dirnd yiy biir, ka gs, pim ki fafje yey bur, 
Ka ^ji mi danQ. Kd hiU chdn dtmd yhf bur. Ka nit e «@n^. Ka fial sni bia wok 
ki wiy yal, ka til^t tii ehgr yey bur. Ka nu jg bine. Ka e k§!^ ban nil mdki yi nal 
ff%i ki 4q (^k) nu; kd ^ a bu tftn kd fii nik, kd d^ a tUn^ nut, lii kiU in. Ka 
wQt ban mfft a yiebt nut, ka lii nikk in, ka wat ban yieb^ boggn, M wA in. Kd 
gi fUm, ka gQ dtfnii nii dkyil. Ka e r§nQ, rind wdk. Ka gg^ kn^ H jimi ke dQg^ 
ka k^fofe gin, kd i gtrit kifdri ki wax. 

Wgn € ko: f ijhl k^tiP a iokggir ki bani gir! Kuche wiy^ di in, wiyg nddj^.^ 
Kd gi biditf ka peti i yigi k&:h, ka wgn bygl boggn ki y^ ka lial fffti bygl nuti y^ 
ka iHmin M bin, kdikb: fii |d|e ow ak, ka gg fii (ofe ki by^. Ka k^jfi yi w&it e 
ko: wi 0fe bytt. Wffi e ko: yi m^f Kine: yi jal e kune chini. Ka duki wQni 
l^sio^ k^ yi 1^1 eni, ka gt j^j^ byil, ka fial gni ko : wiye unin ndt f Kine i, nUt; 
kine ka ktf iin kine: jal e uHit yi ckwitli, ka wqne b'^n/Qj, ka wiye g^ kbfi gin, ka 
wiye gin ye binq, ka bia yi wAni chitn^, Ka ndl pii ko : yi ri l^dit want chanq f 
Kin^: wana chdn yika kQl toddiyi nii. Kine: de wQdi kpi yw6di, i niji yinf 
Kine: nil Kine: ufQdi fiine minf Kajal ffii ko: M^s, AkwQch. Kd i ko: Akwg^i 
ndji yin f nal gni ko : fafe yan AkwQch f Ka mdki yi wiy^ ka wiyg yu)QnQ, kd i 
kin^ ki niiwdf^ ka wijg lygl, ka fofe H lanq kwach. Ka (ofe ^k, ka wiya dqga 
far^ E ko: big k^ kach dkyil. E ko: s, ya u bgdo kgfi. Kd gi btd^, fial gni ya 
farg, kd gi fii u^/fi ki reyi ggn. 

A certain man had three sons. One child was pretty, and his fame reached 
the lion. So the lion caught flies, and he caught mosquitoes too, he put them 
mto a gourd and came saying, "I am selling!" The people asked, ''What 
do you seU?" He answered, ''Its name is not to be told." So they let him go. 
He came to this man (the man the story treats of) and said, "I am selling." He 
asked, "What do you sell?" The lion replied, "Its name is not to be told." 
And he said, "Look at it!" He gave him the gourd, and he opened it; the 
mosquitoes flew out with a loud buzzing; he opened the other gourd too, and 
the flies flew out with a loud buzzing. The man said, "Why, they are but flies 
and mosquitoes! I do not want to buy them." — This man was a king. The 
lion said, "Why, will you not (put them back in) their place?" The man 
replied, "Where should I find them?" The lion said, "Then wiU you not make 
compensation?" The man asked, "What shall I give for compensation?" The 
Hon answered, "A man." So a slave was brought (and was offered) as compen- 
sation. But the lion refused him. Then a slave woman was brought and offered 
as compensation, but the lion refused her too. He brought all his goods, but 
they all were refused. (At last) a son of the man was brought, but the lion 
refiosed him. The man said, "What then do you want?" He replied, "I want 
Akwoch;" — he was the son of this man (Akwoch is the name of the pretty 

Digitized by 


204 Adventures between Men and Anttnals 

boy whose fame had reached the lion). And this man wept But the lion was 
glad because of this boj. He gave him the boj, and he went away with him. 
The lion had no child, and Akwoch became his child. The lion was rery giad. 

The lion used to go into the bush, to hunt game; and he used to bring it 
home. The portion of the boy he used to cook, and then give it to him. The 
boy used to eat it, and he became fat; the lion was much pleased. And diey 
(the other people i. e. the other lions) used to walk with the boy and used to 
go into the village of the son of the lion (i. e. the Tillage where the lion and 
his "son" lived). So all the lions knew him, and they all were much pleased. 

One day ihe boy asked for an ax; he said, "Mother I'^io ghe said, "Eh?*" 
The boy said, "Give me an ax!"" She asked, "What for ?'' He said, "I will cut 
a dub.** She gave it to him; and he cut a large tree. When he had cut it, he 
came. (The next day) this woman asked him, "Where are you going?'' He 
replied, "I am going to cuf The lion asked, "Is ihe club finished?" He ans- 
wered, "Not yet." The next day he went again to cut a drum. He carved it; 
and when it was finished, he brought it; but the lion was much pleased. And 
he (the boy) said, "Mother, bring me a skin (to fSuten on the drum)." And a 
skin was brought, and he stretched it on the drum. When the drum was finished, 
he said, "Mother!" he said again: "60 and call your people" (i. e. the people 
of all the villages around, belonging to the lion's £unily). The lion went, and 
he told all his people, "A drum has been made by my son, now all people 
shall come to-morrow." Then he returned. 

The drum was placed in the sun (to dry). Then a big hole was dug by the 
boy, and he put a tree into it; he put a fire into the (hollow) tree and direw 
the tree into the hole. The tree caught fire in the hole. The hole was covered 
by the boy, but the fire was burning in the ground. Then the drum was 
beaten, and aU the lions came; and the people said, "Cripple, will you not 
stay at home?" The cripple replied, "Why should I stay at home? My eyes 
are not crippled!" Then they said to the blind one, "Will you not stay at 
home?" He replied, "Are my ears blind?" They asked the deaf one, "Will 
you not stay at home?" He replied, "Though I am deaf^ My eyes are not 
deaf." 1^ So all people came, there was no one left at home. The people came 
for the drum. Then this boy climbed upon a tree, a big tree, and he beat 
the drum. The people (=: the lions) came to dance, and the lions danced. And 
(while dancing and not heeding the hole) they fell into the hole; they all £aD 
into the hole. And this man (via. the lion who was the boy's {SMher, or his 
wife) was left; and he too was fetched and feH into the hole. Then the cripj^es" 
were left, and the boy came down firom the tree and pushed them into &e hole. 
So all the lions died (were burned in the hole). 

Digitized by 


Akwoch 205 

Then the boj caught the slayes of the lion and his cattle. The cattle without 
horns he killed, and the cattle which had honiB, he took with him. And the 
slayes which had tails, he killed, but the slaves, which had no tails, he let go.** 
When he had finished them all, there was one lion left; that one ran into the 
buih. Then he went awaj with all his goods and his catde, and he went into 
his native village, there he built his home in a place bj itself. 

The father (= his father, who at the same time is the father of the children 
whom he addresses) said, ''To whom does this man belong? he has so many 
catde, and so manj slaves !" His father did not know him, but he (the stranger) 
knew his &ther. They remained some time, then it came to pass that a famine 
came, and the father had no more dura with him, but this boj (the stranger) 
still had dura. And his brothers (who did not know him) used to come to him, 
and he used to saj (to his servants), ''Give these bojs dura." And dura was 
given to them. Then thej returned to their father, saying, "We were given 
dura." He asked, ''By whom?" They said, "By the man who is over there." 
On some other day these boys went again to this man, and they received dura. 
And the man asked, "Is your father still alive?" They said, "Yes, he is alive." 
Then he said, "Tell him, 'the stranger ("traveller") calls you^" The boys came, 
and told their &ther; and their father came, he came with a sorrowful fiM^e. 
The man (stranger) asked him, " Why is your £M^e so sorrowful?" He said, 
^'^y eye is so sorrowful because my son has been carried away by a lion." 
The man replied, "If you met your son now, would you know him?" He said, 
"Tes." The man asked, "What is the name of your son?" He answered, "His 
name is Akwoch." Then he asked, "Would you know Akwoch now?" He 
said, "Tes, I would know him." The man replied, "No, you would not know 
him." Then he said again, "Am I not Akwoch?" And his &ther seised (em- 
braced) him, and his father wept. And he brought a rasor and shaved his head, 
and he gave him a leopard skin; >^ and he gave him cows. Then his father re- 
turned to his village. And he said, "Come, let us go (=: live) in one place." But 
he replied, "No, I will stay here. And they remained, the boy in his village, and 
the father in his village, and they used to visit each other.*' 

84. The Girl and the Dog, 

floiM ^hftfd hwQfiK ka k^fiil, eywodd gwok; kdihb Hne^ yinajwQk! e 
ko: fof^ ydn he liara! u ntogmi gwok. Ka 0ie liars, yijv^gk^ ha liarf^ i difntt. Ka 
fkiri hiyi f^ ha gwoh ywodi, gwok bidd iid£^. Kd gw6h i ko: k^ yi miyi, 
gwok e ko, ye ^af^ u wSki ydn ko^win f Ka fian ^ e linfti ko : mayii I Ka mffi 
yhfu. Ko: yd yw6ta gwokfjjJL, d^ gw6k i ko ne: kijiji tnayi, kdpi kine: gv)ok e ko: 

Digitized by 


2o6 Adventures between Men and Anitnah 

dan u toeki ydn ko-winl Kd nd^i ywjti, ka i^pa ttfyi; ka wiye e ho: hel muy 
(muj) ffwokl Ka lian (efi kel muy gwok. 

Ka ffwok e f/6t, i bud^. Ka fkan t^ weke. Ka ffg, duodq, ka gwok i kify hi ikon 
H^f ka ffi k^da H gwok, ka gs, k^fiik* gwok l^ddjwitK ka k^ togt gwok^ ya{ 
gtr binL ka gwok eko: M chdm k( reyan^ kayi itj k^ g^l Ka ggl ye ho: k^ 
yejil E ko: bin hghk, Ka gw6n ini i l^dit, ka lion pd e dan^. Ka lion ffU k^fa 
gol gwok, gql duqn, vfgn ^i w^jwqL 

Ka lion ^ r^na malj ka e pdrQ, ka peti e pyid^- Ka iftdn ini bia wokj k^ i 
rdi^. Ka gwok e lij^ gwok e bgnq i rifi^ ; liutn pii rena wgt ki nam, wqt ma ygna 
nitn, wqt maduQn. Ka gwok e b&iq^ ka i l^d^ ki ty^ w^. Ka typi wQn gni gpi 
abiryiUf ga yugo. ehwqu, dachg, bogon ki kfjle gff^. Gffi ni chama laiy fi| k^ bi 

Dan ^i df4ni WQi, kajok ffni (oni) e binq, ki gi kb: am^ a foU gin ehamf 
Ka g^ ndnit, ka gs. k^ bl ydf ki wf^ ka fidn ini ywSt, ehwke gin m^dit, e ko: yi 
yig namH togn. Ka gfi bldo, ka lian ^t ko: yd ek^ yi gwok. Ka gi kb: igitn int 
Kine: ya pM fa lOQt, ka ga Ufd pM, ka gwok Itfi gin, ka gwok g$€h ki took. Ka 
gwok € (oUf ka wffe f^L 

Ka maka wun ga dbi ryauy ka 9tan ffni ko: yd dwdtd k^dg^ bl Ufe ehk gwok. 
Daii £ni ko: bit, yi ki k^; nan pu ho: yi kfdn! Ka g^ k^^ ka nin ini i y^bq^ 
kd niki ch^gi H tyale, ka tian ffvi jg. Ka i^aii i ywbn, ka nan gni kwdti yi gin hjit 
nam; lian ^ni kil yi nam. Ka wifi fdfe gin, ka ywote jo (^=jog) ehy§k. Ka i/^an 
^i k^l wgk, ka tij^ kSpi, kari^i khnlt ^ocAii maduQn, ka fion ffd Iwqk hi pi, ha 
chggo, ySt yi di^ ini, ka kil w^k, ka lian gni ^twofa mal, i chdr^; ka ri^ kSpi : dan 
a chir! Ka rij, e b&iQ, ka pyech yi r^ eko: yi kild kitkf Kine ya k(ila wqt ma 
yinh nim. Ka e ko: yi dwdi yi in^ f E ko: yd wiki gwbk yi wiya, d^ gwok i ehiti 
ydn, ya kifi w$t ki nam. Ka raji ffd kd i yw^: ikir^I Ka mffi e b^nq, kd i yw^ 
ka 4Qk kil, dgk gidi; ka k^fe WQt Chbfi, d ^m. 

A woman was without child. She went into the bush and found a dog. She 
said, "O jwqk! give me a ("mj^) child ! (If you give me one) it shall many the 
dog.^ And a child was given to her hyjwqk, and the her child grew up. And 
the child went into the bush; it found the dog; — this dog was a white one. 
The dog said, ''Go to your mother and tell her, the dog says, 'When will die 
woman be given to me?^*" The little girl came saying, "Mother!'' The mother 
Answered. The girl said, "I found the dog in the bush, and he said dius, 'Go 
to your mother and say to her thus, the dog says: when will the woman be 
given to me?^'' Her mother wept; she told the (girl's) father; the fa&er said, 
"Bring her to the dog.'' They found the dog lying. The girl was givoi to 

And diey (the dog and the girl) rose up, the dog went wilh the girl, they 

Digitized by 


The Girl and t he Dog «««««„„.««««««^««h««---«« 207 

went into the ground; — the dog was jwgk; they went into the house of 
the dog; there were many trees there everywhere. And the dog said, ''You 
shall always eat with me; and you shall go into this enclosure.*' The people 
of the enclosure said to the girl, ''Go to the center.^ The dog said to the girl, 
"These are slayes.** Then the dog went away, the girl was left. So the girl had 
gone into the enclosnre of the dog, a big enclosure; this house was the house 
of jwQk. 

One day the girl ran up, she jumped up, and the ground split. The girl came 
out; she went away running. The dog saw her, he came running; the girl ran 
into a house in die river, this house was (in?) the river; it was a big house. 
And the dog came; he remained at the foot of the house (below the threshold). 
The people of this house were seven ; they were males, there was no woman 
among them. They lived on moat, they used to go hunting. 

The giri hid herself in the house; and the people came (home and found 
their food cooked), they said, "Who has cooked the food?" They were asto- 
nished. They went searching the house; the girl was found, they were very 
glad. They said, "You have become our sister.** So they remained. The giil 
told them, "I am chased by a dog." They said, "Where is he?" She said, "He 
is in the ground below the house." They looked into the ground and found 
the dog. They shot him with a gun. The dog died, and they threw him into the 

And seven years passed, &en the girl said: "I want to go and see the bones 
of the dog." The boys (i. e. the men in whose house she lived) said, "Stay, do 
not go!* The girl said, "I will go!" And they (all) went; the girl searched, and 
she was hurt at her foot by a bone; the girl died. The boys wept. Then the 
gill was taken by them and put into the river; she was carried away by the 
river and came to her native country. There fishermen found her; they pulled 
her out of the water and told the king (what had happened). The king brought 
an old woman, she washed the girl with water; and the bone was found (in the 
body of the dead girl) by the woman. She pulled it (the bone) out, and then 
the gill rose up, she sneezed (became alive again). The king was told, "The 
giri has sneesed." The king came, he asked the giri, "Where do you come 
firom?" The girl said, "I come firom the house which is in the river." The king 
asked, "What brought you there?" She answered, "I was given away to a dog 
by my &ther; but the dog chased me, so I went into the house in die river." 
^d the king wept, She was his daughter! Her mother too came, and she 
wept Then cows were brought, they were sacrificed. They went home. — 
That is all, it is finished. 

Digitized by 


2o8 Adventures between Men and Animals 

85. Anyimo and the Lion. 

iVafi 9im£ AMmo^ e d^ch^ ki 6min Akw^, H wiyi; maye ge^ bogqn. Df. Oo!^) 
gin gXvi dy^ge gffi gtr. Kd nu e Unq^ led nil e yigi ^9, ka nu linfi, ha Ha yi nal 
£nt, ka ryichy ka k^ u)Qt. Ka AiiimQ k6/i om^ Hne: 0f( kifik luqgq ckinS! Ka 
fian sni liffi yi nxi^ kd nu ehurii mj^. Ka nu naefiQ Hne: yi k^l Ka 00 hi byiU 
ka fial fni ko: AiiimQ^ hogk mi^I Kine: u ^^Hti ka chini, ka yi dd^k! Ka g^ k^. 
Ka omia Afiimg e dgnq li twar ki wer. Ka lial §ni (nu) k^^ gfi chaj^ ki AMmg, 
Ka fial ^ni ko: AfkimQ, a kff/i dnq pil Kine: kff/k ii| kwai ki r^c/u Ka gi k^ gt 
cAaJg. Ka fim maduQn ySt, ka nu ko: a kffi oAq, ffit Kine: k^ ii| kwai ki dofu 
Ka gs_ kf^ g§i chidt^ k^ k^A malaulau, kine: a k^A anq, ^ f Aikimq ko: kffi ffd 
kuchi ydn. Kine: buh! ffiafanq afyffk yant 

Ka gi witi (wo^i) bute tugq, tugq mdbir; ka uu rffiib ^ ^Sna k^ lUm, ka Aiiinm 
ko ne: tunq *^ kwai ^j^y biiti kifiii, ya ysja wijil Ka tugq biuii, ka k^ uny tugo, 
Ka e ko: tun kwai ^3^ kine: 4^1^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 4^^i^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^ b&Hls e rino^ 
ka AfiimQ yiti yi in, e tqk. Ka nu fidn^, ka e ko: Aiiimq e k^ kffif Ka ygmq 
nwdchi in; ka H^ mat, kd git 0^ mal; e ko: p6el yi/a fgu ^nf e ko: yi nigh 
nigiil lion gni ko: d^ STt (d^ri.) f Kd nu gftdit kifi^A; ka tugQ ka ii| bin( a k€mia 
/S^« Ka Atiimq ko kine: tun kwai ^a^ yi kufiti Dqk k^ji! Ka tugq ii| dogi 
ksjiy ka nu fki gfi<Ut k^. 

Ka ^k Itfi yi lian ini, ka e ko: liiwd ki lUmia, yana AiiimQ, a ehind yi nu 
j^. Ka yaii ffii i Unit, a k^ pack. Kd gi kb: lian mikQ i chwittit, k^: yana 
chdmi nh ^. Ka g^ko: d^wu chdgd tidit* Ka liaii dgnQ wilr, ka g^ b'^nq, g^ kwai 
ki 4^k, ka gt tefe yi fidn ff^i; kine: lUtod ki liimii, yana chdm yi iih in! Ka gt 
bia paehy ka Aktogt kofe kine: lidn mikq e kobi kine: yana AiiimQ, d chdm yi nu 
£n, d^ per ki AiiimQ. Ka leii tin, ka tirQ binQ. AsiiniQ katna j^ yi fi^i- ^^ ^ 
U0 in, kd i ko: Mwd ki Mmia, yana chdm yi nu ffil Ka iJTQ hptQ gi riinit; ^ 
y6t nil i ydfii/i, i gftdit; leii fa f4ni in, ka kU, ka nu rinQ wQk; ka M. lAl, ka nv 
ff^ifidit, kd i j^. Ka lian ffii ko: tun kwai ^3^ buH, ya bia wQkl Ka i &t«^ ka 
bia WQk. Ka wiyt i kdni ^k, ^k dnw^, niQk ehw^p ki {a tugQ; kd chdk kil ki 
gin cham kipi, ka ^ok chwQp ki {a tugQ, Ka AiiimQ fpfe yipif ka e i mikdit; ka 
fpfe yi mQgo, kd i ehhmQ. Wgn chuii^ n%^ ki 6m^. Ka kilpaeh; ka liwQm ka 
^k kSl pyar-dnwin, wiyt chuiii m^dQ. 

There was a giil, her name was AiiimQ; she was pretty; she lived with her 
brother AkwQt, and her father; her mother was no longer alive. Thej had 
many cows and many sheep. The lion heard of her, and the lion tamed himself 
into a man ; he came to this boy (AkwQt). He was received as their guest When 
he came into the house, AiiimQ was asked by her brother, "GKve me water 
to wash his hands.*' So the lion saw the girl; she pleased him veiy much. After 

Digitized by 


Anyimo ^^ 209 

some time he took leave, saying, "I am going.*' They gave him dura, and the 
boy told his sister, "Accompany my friend a little way, when you have come 
to that place there, then return." So they went The brother of Aiiimg, re- 
mained at home, he was sweeping the cow-dung. The boy (viz. the lion) went 
away with Akimg,, While they were walking, the lion asked, "^Ahim^ what 
place is this?" She answered, ''It is a place for herding the calves of the people 
of Ahogt.^ They went on and came into a great forest. Again the lion asked, 
''What place is this?" She answered, "A place for herding cattle." They went 
on walking and came to a very distant place. The lion asked, "What place is 
this?" She said, "I do not know this place ; dear me, why are you always ask- 
ing me?" They came to a deleib-palm, a very tall one. The lion ran away, he 
ran into the grass. Then Aikimg, said, "Thou palm of the grandfather of men, 
lie down, that I may climb upon thu." The palm lay down, she climbed on it, 
and then said, "Palm of the grandfather of men, rise up!" The deleib-palm 
rose up. When the lion came running, he found that AikimQ, was no more there. 
He was perplexed and said, "Were has AikimQ gone?" But her smell came 
into his nose, he looked up and saw her up in ihe tree. He said, "P6e! you 
will surely die in a moment!" Again he said, "I will kill you at once!" The 
girl asked, "Well, how?" The lion scratched the ground (round the deleib-palm), 
and ihe pafan was beginning to fall down. Then the girl cried, "Palm of the 
grandfather of men, do not fall! return to thy place!" And the palm returned 
to its place. The lion began scratching again. 

And the girl saw cows, and she cried, "My brother and my father, I am 
AikimQ, the lion is going to eat me !" The men heard it, they went home saying, 
"There is a giri crying, 'A lion is going to eat me.^" But the people said, 
"Nonsense, you are telling stories." Then the old men were sent for, they came 
herding their cattle (they drove their cattle near the place where the cry 
sounded) ; they were seen by the girl, and she cried again, "My {sther and my 
brother, I am going to be eaten by the lion!" They went home and told Ak- 
Witt, "There is a girl crying, 'I am AikimQ, the lion is going to eat me.^ Her 
voice was Uke that of AiUmQ.** So an armed body was gathered, and they 
went. AiiifnQ was almost dying with thirst When she saw the people, she 
died, "My father and my brother, the lion is going to eat me!" The people 
came running; they found the lion scratching the ground; he did not see the 
people; he was stabbed; he ran away, but he was stabbed again, fell down and 
died. The girl said, "Palm of the grandfather of men, lie down, that I may get 
out." The tree lay down, and she came out And her fitther brought four cows, 
they all were to be speared under the deleib-palm (as a sacrifice). And milk, 
food and water were brought, and the cows were speared under the deleib^ 

WKSTERMAinV, The SUUiik People. I4 

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2IO Adventures between Men and Anitnals 

palm. Tliej gare Atktmq water to drink, thejr gaire her milk too to drink; then 
thej gare her food to eat Her £Mher and brother were reacy glad. She was 
broQ^t home. She was married for fortv eowB« >' so her £itfaer was much pleased. 

86. An Adventure in the Forest 

JE jal ffi ye k^ yey (im, Hi ffv^m H Hi, ka a^p aryau hi gi pin^ ka Iw^ 
ka gq pim. Ka lyc^ e binq, ka ifwo^ yey gp, hi g^ k^ ekwak^ ka dwaf^ ri^ 
jgm afyilq, ka gq kquki ehwdk^; ka fhogfe ikpi aryau ka g^ dcmg ki {a Iwgl, ka Iw^ 
dwQgQ fM, ka ikwQl Mn ffu i yto^nt ki yey Iwi^ ki^: k^r, k^r, k^r^ k^r. Kajal i 
Ufjt, ka lygch Ufi ^ ka e buftgib ^ e rffiq, ka M para kw^jm yaf, ka Mfy& yi 
hOt; kucki in. d bwitk H, m^ dnqk, ka lii kfi k^ kwdf, ka lana Mfy& yi kufd^. 

Ka wajfa pack madugn, ka ^UuHq^ mddu&i, nubfil, hi gi ytdi (yw6d4); ka e ko: 
UfdnQ, ^l^ya fi! Kyu: yi bia k^kt Ki^: i^yi kify^k, fo^ yan kifi mi^I Ka 
fpfefi nnjii. Ka Mffiyigwok, gwokmMMi; ka e ko: ma! Kiu: wot Utn dikwolt 
Ka gufok U^i yi^ ka gwok i ndrjt; ka e ko: b^k! Kiu:/irdt Kpu: 9 gichi 
ydfif yikyinfa kdehi ydnl Ka daj^ duQn e ko: bihl wttdJ^yi biakffkt Kitu: ktU, 
m!i,yictiy^^* lyicK ly^hmadugn;fuk4pfr kimanSigiJc.KaifackQko: bdi! yi 
bia kff/k a b^di yi per ki vmol Ka e ko: wuq nifi ydn;fat H^i^ aims, da y^l 
Kaeko:l k^! 

Ka e k^. Ka gg, nilpnit pn^; ka pg/r e r^nit, ^ ^ ^^9 ka fe^ yi kucJQy ehwofe 
£n fffia nam; ka i kuMiit ki yey hHj^. Ka ierQ b^nq, ka mdk; ka k^paek, ka 
fy^wt e/&^ k\ yey wiritf kd k Q. 

A certain man went into a forest to gather Nabag-froits. He filled two bags 
and one gourd. (WhQe he was gathering the firuit) an dephant came, he lifted 
up one bag and put it into his mouth, ihen he lifted up the other bag and put 
it also into his mouth; at last the contents of the gourd as welL But two seeds 
were left in the gourd; thej kept ratding, kgr kqr kgr kgr. When die man 
heard this, he looked up and saw the elephant He was frightened and ran away, 
he jumped upon a tree. The thorns of the tree pricked him, but he did not heed 
it on account of his great fear. He got right into the thorns, his doth was torn 
by the thorns. Suddenly he came near a great house. There he met a big old 
woman; he addressed her, ''My mother, give me water!** She asked, "Where 
do you come from?** He replied, "No, do not ask me, give me water first!'* 
So she gaye him water first. Then he was seen by a dog, a dog with young 
ones. (He saw the young dogs, but not the old one, the mother). He asked the 
woman, "Are they aU your children ?** Then he saw the old dog, he was growling. 
He exclaimed, "Oh dear! shall I run away?** The dog replied, "If you beat 
me, I shall bite you.** After that the big woman asked^ "Why, my son, where 

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Boy and Hyena 211 

do yoa come from?*' He answered, ''Be silent, I am chased by an elephant, a 
big elephant. This pot is quite as large as his testicles.** <® The woman replied, 
''Well, 70U do come just from the same place where my father has come from.** 
The man said, "I know your &ther; is he not ihe one who has a neck on his 
necklace?** ^^ The woman said, "Now, go on!** 

He went away and met with a hippopotamus. The hippo was running (to- 
wards him), so he too ran, he came to a place with white sand, thinking it was 
a river. He tried to swim in the sand. Then people came, they seized him and 
brought him home. But in the night his heart beat so violently (from excite- 
ment), that he died. 

87. The Boy and the Hyena, 

Nul tnikQ gs, H 6win gl u^lit; ha tvQu i yi4^» Ka tidl iikgiUt e ho: buhl eko: 
mack u yitk htjUf Ka 6win e ko: Mjil Ka lial gni ko: ya fa yifi (ydfi) mdeht 
Kyfi^: If ySn^f gi^ lidl iikyil^. Kine: yi fa dgn hi butejamf Kine: bihl u elAmi 
ydn yi dpcg^I Kine: i, yifa chdm yi opvQj^, Kine: yi bidit- Ka lial ffii ho: d^ yi 
re fa hgj^ bi yaf hi maehl Kd i ho: u ehimi yin yi dpvQji. Ka hwof gni UfA. Ka 
e ho: d^wd buti! E ho: I, u chimi ydn yi dpcof^; ha ikd ffii ho: ffr§, buti hifM; 
ya buta hi jfcu^mi. Ka e ho: d^ u tiyif^ yi <ip^S^f hi ya ehdmi jn! Ka e ho: ffr^ 
bij btUi tndl H hwitmd, uhwdii ydn yi dpoif^ ka yi toA yi in. Ka ikal gni ho: dl 
yigwih idil Yi hitdit. Kine: d^yifd hi^ mdlfKine: wiy yd0 Kine: hwi, Ka 
ySifl, mal. Ka lUil ffu d ^h, hd ibtUdd hifeii. 

Ka dpdf^ e b^riQ bine bine bine; ka ofwo^ e ehd0 H. fa yaf. rfdl d lUk e n^nft, 
ha ifii nwdeh yi ofwQjf, i n^nit- Ndl d mil tiina fH ch^ d^ bgiku bqkn; kd i dimj^ 
mdl yi ufirit, dimi kwftm dpvQf^, ha 6fwQji mdhk in H y^tif ^ ^ ^' fx^ y^ ^ 
lAp hine: yu (yiu) mdki ydn! Ka 6tw$^ i yw^nttl ka opoQj^ ii| huodq, ha ii| dyabQ. 
Ka ofwsj^ e rgn^ l^ni, ha hifa hseh malaulau, ha QpoQji e Qhi yey wqrQ; lial ini 
bidd hi hwitfni, ha ii| ho: bdt^ yd hd hdp hine: yiu mdhi ydn! E kAli htfi. 

Dyfi mwgl ha ow^n ^booffi mal, ha U^ mdl, lial pit t$h! Ka e ywQnq, hine: 
6wd chdm yi opvQj^! Ka e 4'df>4ib ^ i ehd^ y^ opoQj^ opoQj^ eh^ gir, ha e k^ 
kffi malaulauy ka lial gni ySti, in, f ktli httt. D§, bidQ kwgm opjpgj^ d^ mi|t yOe 
opufQJh <>P'^ ]@ ^ y^ trffr^. Ka 6wtn i hb kine: 4^t ^ Kine: i wH ydn ! Yd ko 
hdp, ya ko: yi u mdgd! Kine: vm kSbi M amint gih owpi. Kwup iw^ fa lini 
in, ha mdJck yi 6win hi chytni; chyenc W^ hi ret yif^ ofwQji, ha yiffi ofwQfi Ail hi yi 
6w^ Ka tin mdl. Ka e ^o^ib ha gi binq hi oioffi, hine: ^ly t^tti yif Qjuogn! 
Kwitf owff^fa Uni in; ha fii ho: b6i, ya ho hobi: yi u mdgd. Ka ga toof^pach, 
ha iirq b^n^ btni, ha (irq nij^i btni, ha Iwiti g^t hi ret yif opvQj^; ka yif opoofi 


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212 Adventures between Men and Animals 

A boy went trayeUing with bis uncle. When the sun went down, ihe one 
said, "Why, where shall we find fire (for the night)?" The nephew said, "I do 
not know.** The first said, "Shall I not go to look for fire?" ''What shall I do 
in the meantime?" was the reply of the other one. His uncle said, ''Tou stay 
here with our goods." "No," said the nephew, "I would be eaten by the hyena.*' 
He replied, "No, you will not be eaten by the hyena." But he said, "I refuse 
to stay here." Then his uncle asked, "Why will you not go to fetch fire?" But 
he replied again, "No, I would be eaten by the hyena." So tiiey left this matter. 
His uncle asked, "Shall we not lie down now?" He replied, "No, I would be 
eaten by the hyena." His uncle said, "Well, you lie down below, and I will lie 
upon you." He replied, "But suppose you are rolled down in the night from 
upon me by the hyena? Then I shall be eaten by her." His uncle said, "Well, 
then you lie upon me, so I shall be taken by the hyena, and you will be spared 
by her." The boy said, "Ah! what are you going to do?" Then he was silent 
Again his uncle asked, "Will you not go up?" He said, "On a tree ?" The uncle 
replied, "Yes, on a tree." So he climbed on a tree, and the brave boy (the 
uncle) lay down on the ground. 

In the night came all the hyenas; they walked below that tree. The brave 
boy slept. A hyena came and sniffled at him^ but he was asleep (and so she 
left him undisturbed). But the boy on the tree was awake, he was looking 
down staringly, he was awftdly afiraid, and at once he fell down, and fell on die 
back of the hyena. He caught the hyena by her ears and said, "Ha! did I not 
say I would catch you?" The hyena cried, and she dunged, she dunged yeiy 
much. She ran away with the boy to a very distant place. There the hyena 
died during that night.*> The boy was still on her back, and he still continued 
saying, "Did I not say I would catch you?" He said these words continually. 

The next morning his uncle arose. He looked up, the boy was not tiiere! 
He began to cry, saying, "My nephew has been eaten by the hyena." He arose 
and followed the way of the hyena. The dung of die hyena was on the nHiole 
way. He went to a yeiy distant place. There he found the boy, he was still 
talking (the same words). He was still on die back of the hyena, holding fiwt 
her ears. But the hyena had died in the night. His uncle said, "Rise up!" But 
he said, "No. leave me alone! I did say, 'I would catch you (the hyena).'" He 
asked, "To whom did you say so?" He did not listen to die words of his uncle. 
Then his uncle caught his hands; the hands were tight around die ears of die 
hyena, so that the uncle had to cut off the ears of the hyena. Then he lifted 
him up, he arose, and they came. The undo said, "Boy, throw away the ears 
of the hyena!" But he did not listen to his uncle's talk, he only kept repeating, 
"Well, I did say I would catch you." When they came near their home, all 

Digitized by 


Nyajak 213 

the people came ; they all laughed. They loosened his fingers firom about the 
ears of the hyena and threw the ears away. 

88. Nyajak. 

T)ay ^ mQ^ y^^ da ^j^ ka e i^qIq, ka bul gteh ki pooh mdlivH, d^ th^ ywotq 
hull fan ffiifafan nu. Ka ^ofi a chef litoql; i^ ho: i, yi re kobif yi ^I E ko: 
i, ya ki^. Daf^ ff^i bidajtogk. Ka e k^^Q H. ijrf^. Ka Jfcsl ^ m^i^^ ka g§, ngno g6l 
fiu. ffu h§da ^a^; ka ki togr owgne i n^n^t, ddf^ a chet iikwQl e hffHb ^^ i^^f S^<^ 
nu. Ka nu ehama y^a icqt, ka lian gni ko: yin amin dt Ka nu ko: Najhk! Ka 
fBtj), j^ ko: il € ko: yi itfih' nengf Kine: ya nQti ngnq. Kine: yi da kffihl Kine: 
itwil K^fie: yi fa nSkk ki otiwQkt^^ Kvm: hwi! Ka oiiwqk niki yi nu, ka (ilyi 
nu, ka weke Najaky ka kwdAl yi rfajak. Ka nu ko : rfiqitk! Kine: il Kine: ka yi 
ehdm yaul Ka eko: awil Ka yi ngn yaul Kine: awi! Ka nu k^jjlo, ka kdld btdi, 
ka € duQgo, ehama y^pa wqt. Ka Najak ko: yin amin dt Ka e ko: Nhjitk, yi 
nUti npiof Kine: nil Kine: yi da ki^ehf Kine: awil Ka e ko: yifa neke wa{t 
Ka e ko: awi. Ka wa^ nik, ka fale in, ka wehi Najak; ka nu ko: ehdm yh! Kine: 
awil Ka yi npii ya I Kine: awi! Ka nu dqgQ, ka e duQgq, y^a wgi, ka Najak 
ko: yin amin dt Kine: Najak, yi nfitt v^ngt Kine: awol E ko: yi dwata ngt 
Itei da k^ht Kjfie: owqI J^u ko: neke yin ke dy^t Najak ko: i, yak^ nikk dy^l; 
ya da r^dq. Kine: d^ kan ki dn^ t Kine: i, kani ki dgnQ. Ka r^iia gai ki dgnQ, ka 
fi| kepe ki pi, ka pi lii rdra piri, ka chwS lii dona yej^ ki ^Awql reeh; ka gg, M 
m4ti yi nu, ka lii ehika iQmQ, ka pi fii rara peA. Ka M. ftka feh bi mUt ki ehwi, 
ki nu>Ql rech. 

Ka ISajak uio gin ttikk in, ka g^ 4^oti mal, kine: in^t Jyajak ko: nufa kama 
wd chhmt Ka e ko: eKdmun ki rinQ anani I^u ndje Najak fa eh^ heriQ. Ka wo 
gill kifh in kine: rffiuni Ka wgrnQn e rSnit, rsha fb\e gin. Ka Najak e dqnQ. Ka 
nu kor^ e fru^^* ka e h§nQ, kd i ehwhth kine: Najak! E kudo,. Kine: Najak! e 
kudq. Ka nu ko: adit Najak a n^ni, Ka bia wgi, ka e ko: Najak! E kud^' ^<* 
maeh kd{, ka wgrnan ytte in ga t^k. Eko: bih! Naiyau Najak! Wqte gffi a kiU 
in! Ka J^ajak ko: a, fafe yan gnt Ka farq kwQm l^ajak, ka J^ajak e traiifi. Kine: 
fUUyau ^ajah, e ke^ kfffit Ka ISajak ko: fafe yan ^nt Ka nu i/iifara kwQm^ ka 
fa mdki in, Najak M wa^. Ka nu Uorfi bu^. Ka Najak e k^^ e kuchi yi nu. 

Ka wgne wifa pach, ka nu ffii^benq, ka yigi ya{ madqch, maduQn, sn olam: 
chufie gffi mcdo, H £n. Ka Najak kq: vm k^ lii k^i^ ffl yc^, yofi gnifa nu! Kine: 
i, Najak e chakafyff. Najak ko: 6, ya rum ki kwop.^^ Ka liwQle wofafio iki k^ 
^y !/<^h kanu e farq ki wofaf^n. ^fajak ko: d, kwqfa a lin^ unin chi, ka je u^ g^ 
mtm, ka e k^, Najak k^ yi nu, ka yige ^fi madugn yu yu yu. 2>£ e kwQmq ki 
kffnQ; ka nu ko: gna nate nqa yqint E ko: nan kwachefi! Ka (ofe kiji; ka e 

Digitized by 


^14 Adventures between Men and Anitnals 

madq, ha e duitght hd i digits ha e iQgi gejQ. Ka nu hfjfl gat bi dwatQ (dw^) Ji 
mfffi (ale noA sni. Ka htl yi Najahy ha gt rsnQ, ha g^ xpaf^faeh. 

Ka nu benQ, ha e ho: b^h! tian j^ gi h^ja gi hffi t Ko: fafe i/udyau Najah a 
hel gtufi f Ka e bm nu bia pack Najah, ha e yigi lion madgch, bl wiJQ hi omia 
Najah. Ka nu ho: omia Najah dgitn f Kine: ehtoQl! Ka omia ISajak cHwqU ha gi 
wUJQ^ Ka rfajak e Upiq, e ho: bih! e ho: omia, yi re raeh hinaut Kikhi yin sna 
nuf Ka lial £ni ho: kifj yi rack hify^ Ka Najah ho: m^gi, ya rum he hwQ/\ 
Ka Najah e hudq. Ka Aal gni i n^n^t, ha wan gil yi nu. 

Chofiy ha nu h^ far^ ha d^hi omgn ywode in, i yw^fng. Najah ho: yi re? Ko: 
wan a gdL Ka Najah ho: yd chd de kobft hine: mffi 0%i (ani) fans, *iu; d^ anan 
yi hobi adi t E hudg. Ka Najak e h^, ha yigi §a^ duQn, ha e bifh i chAf^ h^ 
fay nu; ha w^ (wftfa) faek, ha e ho: wel a dd hid in! Kine: hl^UjwQJkl Ka e 
b&iQ, ha e ho: bih: onimia, yi nuU bgdQ hffif Ka nu ho: yin am^if Ka e ho: ya 
fafe Mmiau, a hjU ygmQ hahe dugnf Ka e ho: i, wija chaha wHq, ha nu ywgnQ, 
ckuiis^ m^dQ. Ka g^ w^JQ, gt H Najah; huchk nu; e ko, ehqgQ n£ ikynin. Ka N<gak 
ti^ mal, ha wan omffi ttf^ in hi mal, ha Najak e ho: liemial Kine: if Kine: onQ 
a yom fit hi wqt t Nu ho hy%e: fafe uxin omia Najahf Najah e ho: d yttk s. ya 
hffi t E ho: hu dwai an, ha ria yiga ^n a ^Lachq. Ka nuho: a gqla wm^. Najah 
e ho: ina hil in, ha ds^ ffr^ a fa hi$j, WQh t Ka hife wgk; nuho: d^h^ gwttri agah ? 
Kine: i, fa guAr, u hdr yi wi. Ka Nikan e flclm ho: d^ hwQn u tjAti dg^ f Nu 
hine: a w6l in! Kine: d, dock. 

Ka nu ho: tiimia, ya h^ gat bi dw^tQ pL Ka Najah e ho: h^I Ka nu e ho: 
hi hi^ hor UHin omia Najah, hifa q gwdri igiiht wei i 0d wh hi gin (Aam. Ka 
l^ajah e dgnQ hi t^Qt, ha nu h^ gqt, ha N'ajah wan omffi hwdtii in; ha rei g^ 
agah, ha e f^ro, ha do go, fo^e gin* Ka om^n yiti in, ha wan omgn h^, ha omgn 
e do9iQ. 

Ka nu b^ni hi gat, ha uHine yode go, H^h, ha ddj^ ffu ytt f H^h. Ka iu ywQnQ, 
hine: bih! yena liatyau rfajak! E ho: Najah, kora bwf, hiy^; yafa dgh kgte! 
Chd^i, ha Najak um yi nu. Ka Najak e dqn gs, hi dmin. Nu e {^ogo, fa ch^ 

A woman was with child, and she bore a child (which was named Nyajak). 
One day the dram was beaten in a village far away. The people went to dance 
to the drum, this Tillage (where the dram was being beaten) was the yiUage 
of a lion. And the child which had jast been bom (too wanted to go to dance). 
The people asked her (the child, a girl), "How, why are you saying, you also 
want to go? Tou are still so femaU!^ She said, ''Neyer mind, I will go.'' Thia 
child was tkjwqk. It went with the people. When they arrived thM«, it began 
to rain, so they went into ("slept in'') the hoase of the lion. This lion was a 
man.^^ During the night the other girls (who had come with Nyajak) slept, bat 

Digitized by 


Nyajak 215 

the child which had just been bom, was awake; she knew that the man was a 
lion. The lion wanted to open the hut (where the girls slept), but this child 
(Nyajak) asked (from within), "Who is there?" The lion replied, "Nyajak!" 
The child answered, "Eh?" The lion went on, "Are you still awake?" Nyajak 
said, "I am not yet asleep." The lion questioned, "Are you hungry?" "Yes, I 
am." The lion went on, "Would you not like to have a ram killed?" Nyajak 
answered, "Yes I would." So the lion killed a ram; he cooked it and gave it 
Nyajak; Nyajak took it. Then the lion said, "Nyajak!" She replied, "Eh?" "Do 
eat!" enjoined the lion. She answered, "All right!" The lion added, "And then 
Bleep!" Nyajak replied, "All right!" The lion went away and waited some time. 
Then he returned, trying to open the house. But Nyajak again asked, "Who 
are you?" The lion replied, "Nyajak, are you still awake?" Nyajak said, "Yes, 
I am." The lion asked, "Are you hungry?" Nyajak replied, "Yes, I am." 
"Would you not like to have an ox killed?" asked die lion. Nyajak said, "Yes, 
I would." So an ox was killed and was cooked by him and given to Nyajak. 
The lion said, "Do but eat!" Nyajak replied. "All right!" The lion turned 
away. Afifcer some time he came back and tried to open the hut. Nyajak asked, 
"Who are you?" The lion said, "Nyajak, are you still awake?" Nyajak said, 
"Yes, lam." The lion inquired, "What do you want? Are you hungiy ?" Nyajak 
replied, "Yes, I am." The lion said, "Have a goat killed !" Nyajak replied, "No, 
I won't haye a goat killed, I am thirsty." The lion asked, "In what shall I bring 
water?" Nyajak said, "Why, bring it in a basket!" The lion ran to the river- 
bank with a basket, he dipped it into the water, but the water streamed down 
on the ground, only leeches and smaQ fish remained in the basket. He thrust 
diem out and dipped the basket again, but the water flowed out on the ground, 
and the lion sat down a second time to pick out the leeches and the small 

In the meantime Nyajak awakened the other girls, and they arose asking, 
"What is the matter?" Nyajak said, "Is not the lion going to eat us?" Then she 
said to them, "Eat this meat (the sheep and ox which the lion had killed for 
Nyajak) !" Nyajak knew the lion would not come back quickly. When they 
had eaten, Nyajak said to the girls, "Run away!" They ran away home to their 
country. Nyajak alone remained At last the lion was tired (of dipping water 
with a basket), and he came calling, "Nyajak, are you asleep?" He came into 
the hut saying, "Nyajak!" She remained silent The lion lighted a fire, and he 
found that the giiis had gone. He said, "This cursed Nyajak has led her 
comrades away." Nyajak replied, "Why, am I not here?" The lion sprang at 
Nyajak, but she disappeared. The lion cried, "This cursed Nyajak, where has 
she gone?" Nyajak replied, "Am I not here?" The lion sprang again at her. 

Digitized by 


2i6 Adventures between Men and AnitnAls 

but did not catch her, Njajak had disappeared. At last the lion was tired, and 
Njajak went away; but the lion did not know it. 

Tlie girls arrived home. And the lion came to them; he had tamed him- 
self into a beautifol big tree, an olam (a sjcomore fig) ; die girls liked him veiy 
much.3' But Nyajak said, ''Do not go under that tree! This tree is a lion!'' 
They replied, ''Why, Nyajak begins to lie!'' Nyajak said, "AH right, I shall 
say no more.'' The girls climbed on the tree; suddenly the lion seiied them 
and fled away with them. Then Nyajak said, "Well, what did I say just 
now ("my talk has been heard by you ezactiy'')?'' The people were much 
perplexed; they went away. But Nyajak went to the lion, she turned into a 
yeiy, very old man, she went limping on a crutch. When die lion saw her, he 
said, "What kind of man is this old person?" Nyajak replied, "A man begging 
for water." And he gaye her water; then she went back. But presently she came 
back agun, she had turned into a rat. The lion had just gone to die riyer-aide 
to fetch water in order to cook the girls whom he had caught Nyajak drove 
the children away and brought them home. 

When the lion came back, he asked, ''Why, where have the litde children 
gone? Is it not this cursed Nyajak who has taken them away?" And die lion 
came into die village of Nyajak, he had turned into a very fine girl, he came 
to converse widi die brother of Nyajak. The lion asked , "Where is the brodier 
of Nyajak? CaQ him!" The brother of Nyi^ak was called, and diey conversed 
together. But when Nyajak came, she exclaimed, "Oh dear, brodier, how can 
you do such a wicked diing? Do you not know this is a lion?" The boy said, 
"Go away, you are a great liar ("you are bad widi lying")." Nyajak replied, 
"It is your own affair, I shaQ say no more." And Nyajak remained silent. But 
while the boy slept, his eye was taken out by die lion. 

That is aQ, and die lion went home to his village. But the next morning 
Nyajak found her brodier weeping. She asked, "Why?" The boy answered, 
"My eye has been taken out!" Nyajak said, "Did I not tell you this man is a 
lion? what do you say now?" He was silent. Nyajak went away, she turned 
herself into an old woman, she went walking. When she arrived at die home 
of die lion, she cried, "Here is a traveller at die gate !" The lion replied, 
"Welcome !" She came in and exclaimed, "Oh, my brother, are you still here?" 
The lion replied, "Who are you?" Nyajak said, "Am I not your sister who 
had been carried away by the wind a long time ago?" The lion said, "Ah, my! 
I had almost forgotten!" The lion wept, he was very glad. And diey talked 
togedier. The lion did not know diat it was Nyajak, he believed her to be his 
sister. And Nyajak looked up and saw the eye of her brother. She said, "My 
brodier!" The lion replied, "Eh?" She asked, "What is it makes such a bad 

Digitized by 


Ajang 217 

smell in the house ?^ The lion answered, "It is the eye of the brother of Ny*- 
jak.*' Nyajak asked, ''Where did 70a find that?** He answered, ''I brought it, 
I had turned myself into a giil, and so I took out his eje.^ Nyajak said, ''As 
you have brought it, will you not take it down (and show it to me) ?** The lion 
took it down, saying "But mind, lest it be taken by the crow!^ Nyajak said, 
"No, it win not be taken, we shall watch if Then Nyajak asked, "But where 
18 flour for cooking?*^ The lion answered, "It is just being pounded.^ Nyajak 
said, "Ah, that is good."" 

After some time the lion said, "Sister, I am going to the river-side to fetch 
water. *« Nyajak said, "Oo!'' The lion said, "Take heed, watch the eye of the 
brother of Nyajak, lest it be taken by the crow; we will cook it together widi 
our meal.*' So Nyajak was left in the house, while the lion went to the river. 
But in the meantime Nyajak took the eye of her brother and dien turned her- 
self into a crow ; she flew up and returned into her native country. She found 
her brodier, put his eye into its place, and so her brother was cured. 

When the lion came back firom the river, he found that the eye had gone, 
and he saw that the woman was also gone. He began crying, "Alas, you cursed 
Nyajak I*" Then he said, "My heart is tired with this Nyajak, I shall never 
return to her." That is aU. And Nyajak was left alone by die lion, she lived 
with her brother. The lion remained in his place, he never returned anymore. 

89. Ajang. 

Dacho, fnikQ w^di ehwQld AjarL Bach ki dritk, f^k gtr, d^ HrQ bin chwie g^n 
raeh ki ff^;fa M/urQ btfgl M chdkd kwdL May^ Jf^^ffU € ko: lial ffii gto^ki ydn 
kyUl Ka e k^ i chd0 ki iial gni, i k^ H ghn, ki^ kundd gat K^ gni Idwa 
ehdr^ kipaehf ka g^ bgjiQ ki t^ne nitm. Ka mkyt yu>tf^f ^ ko: bihl Ya koha kyli 
ki tcddif A fidd ye^al ffr^ bune liaii, min H go, wiki in! 

Kajal fritko, e bfnlt, kd i kb: ^dj^f y( ri yw^t Kine: yefaf^t yi toddd, wqda 
lit kwalajdmi tiHt; d^ yon ya kil iriy u di i/ian gn toiki in. Kajal &%% ko: y wikS 
ydn, u/iti^ ydnlKa ^dcKit kiidit. E ko: yi ki MtH, uft^ ydn, ^ lit ^^i kijdml 
U /wifii ydn ki gwitk. E ko: kff/k far dwai, e ko: M bi, ka yi chwgti kine: wiy naml 
E ko:ya u bi w^k, E ko: ujdm,jdmi toddi, gs, M v^kd yin. Ka e ko: dich ydul 
Kajal gni k^ ndm^ gi Itojttit ki lia ikil iniy ka k^ nam. Ka gc f^H^. 

Chofi, ka ^f^ ffii kf^ pack; ka i^afyr dwai, ka ^off ini e b&io, kd i chwhtit: 
wiy nam! Kajal eni yei, ka e bgnq, g^kiiia ikal 0f^; fidl fyii chwi chdrh; may^ 
ehiiiki m^, Ka g^ mafa ki mays, ka mays, ksj^a pack; kajal mi digd ndm. 

D^ dofi a 4^hQ ehwiis, mfdQ, ki lia iia2 j^ Ka lial |^ 4 d^ff^s mayt ^i ^ti ki 
jam ki chifit ka tial ff%i e didq ki dock ki gwgkjal sni; gwqkjal gni btn^ a ktodiH 

Digitized by 


2i8 Adventures between Men and Animals 

Ka lial ^ni ^pi yi lUf g$l jdl ^{, u g& ^P^ ^^^ Ka g^ kSp^ ki lial ^. Ka 
^j^ Sni e ko: tvd/afarf E ko: ^ todfafdrl Kine: dg anan^ yi u (yu) g^k idil 
Kine : i, ktichi ydn t Ka ikil gni wij^ mdmjt ki yi yo, mgn kiti togk. 

Jal eni ksj. bi wil^. D^ ^Jk g%r ki y^ wgfe ban gtr ki y^ dy^k g%r ki y§^ jam 
bin ki y^. Ka e ko: de ya k^ kidit Da^ &ii ko: kwofk lotjH inU ka yi k^ yi 
U yite ki yg. E ko: u bini, yl kd niik, u ti^y ka yi bl tod lifih* Ka ikal^ni e k^^ 
ka mayi ywod^ ka fyech yi may^ kine: yi re bgn f Kine: yi bit chwka rach kijal 
fnt yd r&m ki gwi^k, Kd i gid^ Hfiris ka tgrQ liibiay^ ka tfrg bia (bi0 bl neau 
Hfi ki y^ figk ^ yln yi, e m^. Ka tfrq tddit Hne Ajan ya/^l kun a chini. Ka 
jal sni e bsnq, ka e yggg obir^y ka e ki^ijh ^ ^^ ^^ inU ^ kuche yi ^ajf. &d, 
Ka lUil £ni e ko: mdyil Kine: il Kine: fhn dn ku htlf.! Kafun pd wA Hyi 
mtn. Ka lial sni ^tco^ chdmd k^fa took ^ ^i gs, e yigi ^ofh ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
Sni. Ka lUil ^i e yigq chdr, kd i/ir^; kajal pii e yiga chdr, ka/Qra ban^. Ka 
g^ kidOi gi rin^. Ka reyi g&i lii mdki, ka g^ M/i^ ki lial sni. Ka lial ffn yik 
dghky ka jal ffii yik dgitk, ka gi, k^^ ki g^n^ ka ikal £ni dlmd nam^ ka ^ofi ern 
tQfii a min/M yi lia gil gin^ kajal £ni dfynd kw^m tin; ka yeji toyl yi tin, ka 
jal sni i ^ ka rep ki mach. Ka lial ffii ksfa bi dvm mays, Hjdmi, ka lia ggljal 
eni yigi ehSgi, ka banijal fffd yigi migi Hjam Vtn. 

A woman had a son whose name was Ajang; he was very wicked and 
did many evil things. All people were dissatisfied with him. Wheneyer they 
planted dura and it began to ripen, he used to steal it His modier was tired 
with him, she said, ''What shall I do widi thu boy?^ She went away widi her 
son and came with him to some river. The place was yery far away from dieir 
home. They sat down on the riyer-bank, die modier began to cry, saying, "Alas, 
what shall I say concerning my boy? My heart is tired with him. Why, if only 
a crocodile would come, I would giye him die boy!'' 

Then a man came, he asked, "Woman, why are you crying?" She answered, 
"My heart is weaiy with my son; he has a habit of stealing odier peoples' 
property; so I have brought him here (thinking), perhaps there mi^t be 
a crocodile to whom I could giye my son.** The man replied, "GKye him to 
me, I will educate him.*' The woman remained silent The man said, "Do not 
be afraid, he will be educated by me, I will giye him goods, I shall teach him 
to work, and each month you may come to the riyer and call me, 'Father of 
the river !^ Then I shall come out and give you die goods belonging to your 
son.'' The woman replied, "All right!" So the man went into the river with die 
boy. They waded into the water, went towards die middle, and dived there. 

That is aQ, and the woman went home. When one month had passed, she 
came and called, "Father of the river!" The man at once replied to her call 
and he came out with the boy. The boy was very fat; so the mother was 

Digitized by 


A Jang 219 

well pleased. They greeted the mother, and then she went home, and the man 
with the boy returned to the river. 

The mother was yery much pleased with her son ; by and by he grew up, 
and each time (when she went to the river) the mother used to receive some 
goods; the boy was very diligent in learning the crafite of the man; he mastered 
all the crafts of the man. 

But the wife of this man (of the father of the river) tried to persuade the 
boy to run away with her. She asked him, "Shall we not run away?^ Again 
she asked, "What would you do here any longer?" The boy replied, "Why, 
I do not know." He was much perplexed, not knowing a way which might lead 
them out — The man had gone on a journey. But he had plenty of cows, many 
goats, and all kinds of goods. — Now the boy asked, "But how shall I get 
out?" The woman replied, "Take the dub of the man and go, and you will 
find the way. If he comes, kill him, so that he dies; then come back, and we 
will live together." The boy went; he found his mother and was asked by her, 
"Why do you come?" He answered, "I am very much dissatisfied with that 
man, I have stopped working with him." 

The boy built a village, in which he lived; and the people used to come to him 
to buy water firom him, because the water he had was sweet. But the people 
told die man (the father of the river), "Ajang is in the bush yonder." So the 
man came, he turned himself into a pot which he filled with water. The modier 
of Ajang gave him the pot, she did not know the pot was a man. But the boy 
warned his mother, "Mother!" She asked, "Eh?" He said, "Do not take this 
pot!" So every one left die pot alone. The boy arose to go out. Then the pot 
turned into a man and ran after the boy; the boy now turned into a vulture 
and flew away; the man also turned into a vulture and followed him flying. 
So they were flying in the air; the man seised the boy and fell on him. Then 
die boy turned into a crow, but the man also became a crow, always pursuing 
him; at last the boy fell into the river (in which die man's wife was still living, 
waiting for the return of the boy). The wife put her husband's spear into the 
ground, her husband fell on die spear, his belly was pierced by die spear so 
diat he died; and he was put into the fire ("was seized by fire"). Then the boy 
went to bring some of die goods to his mother; and the wife of the man became 
his wife, the slaves and aQ die property of die man became his. 

90. The Snake. 

Kaj^L mqko, i u^Ut, uHIIq MOf^a* ta gi k^ ka gt vHi^ ka gt woAq, yi, ka g^ 
fqna yu nwel, ka g^ flka/eti, ka g& ko : bihl u peA Sch edi t Ka jftrfiZ e J&ifi, nwel. 

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220 Adventures between Men and Animals 

ka jal ahyllo p^ra mal, Hne: t^l ananl Jal aky^l ho: d, fafe {wnk tdriil Kine: 
fajje pifql duunt Kajal pii i r^nd, ka pqna ggdi ya^; ka (wqI ^piehj^f kine: jal 
ah/sl a k^ kffi f Kine: kuchi ydn. Kine: dt yi rh d^kl Kine: jal e eha e kobq 
kine: yina (wqI, d^ydhb: d^yi tariff d^e ko: yi ha poQlI Kine: e, ka go, kt^ 
ka e f^. Ka flw(il e k^^ kajal e bsnQ e lipi liph, ka k^^ koi/kfi pM, ka nyenapeA. 
Ka pool e &2?H2, ka e y^bfi^ jal gni (ak ka pifql e kf^ ka pcql keli tin. Ka fwQl 
p^ra maly ka jal ^i rffia peii, ka fw(il e y^bn, yapa jal pUy ka e bgnQ, ka duQ^ga 
piii ; ka gudc chofe peik, ka e jg. 

Ka jal sni bia w^k, ka k^a pack. Ka e ko: poQl a nigd. Jal acha a kiji! Ka 
je ko: iy ^f^ nikk yin! Kine: ku h6pi yh hopo, kine: pc^l a bia eha, d^ e rgk wa. 
Ka e ko: che gon a rj{/ Ka ya ko: fwQl dugn! A bfyiS, a nigi 0f^, a ki^, a yidd 
^j|t d ^. A ku^d kijity a bin (wqI, a kgla ki tQn, a f^i. A kobije: k^ tit wa. 
A k^je, a yidi* i ^^ A kobije kine: i» dock, dwai wQ^t A k^l io3j^ a Um^, a 
chwbp gin, a gtcin ehitci, a k^l kipach. A ywgh 0^, a dwai cM nwil, a ligi w4L 

Some people travelled to Mw^* As diey were walking and had reached a certain 
place, they lost their way. They turned aside at the trace of a snake. At last 
diey sat down, saying, "Why, what shaQ we do in this country?" Then a snake 
came, a nwel; one of the men at once jumped up, crying, ''There's a snake!" 
The other one said, "Oh no, it is not a snake, it is a king!" ESs friend said, 
"Is it not a big snake ?" This man ran away, he hid himself behind a tree. 'Hie 
snake said to the one who remained, "Where has the other man gone?" He ans- 
wered, "I do not know." Again she asked, "But why do you remain?" He 
answered, "That man said you were a snake, but I said you were a king; he 
said again you were a snake." The snake only replied, "Eh?" then she bif 
him, and he died. 

When the snake had gone away, the other man came crawling cautiously; 
he had dug a hole at his place ; he made it deep in the earth. The snake came 
and searched, but the man was not there. While she was going away, she was 
stabbed by the man; she jumped up, the man ran into his hole. The snake was 
searching, she searched for the man. At last she came down, in falling her 
belly was thrown violently on die earth, and she died! 

Then the man came out and went home. He told die people, "I have killed 
a snake! The man who accompanied me, was bitten by her!" The people 
replied, "Ah, you have killed that man." He answered, "Did I not tell him, 
'there is a snake coming, let us runl?^ But he said, 'No, it is a king!' I said, 
'No, it is a great snake!' The snake came, she killed the man, I ran away, and 
when I came back, I found the man dead. After that I dug a hole in the place 
where I was, and when the snake came, she was stabbed by me with the spear, 
and she died." The people said, "Let us go and see it!" The people went and 

Digitized by 


Crocodile Hunter 221 

found (him i. e. the man, or, the snake ? probably the latter) dead. They said, 
"Why, aU right, bring oxen!*^ And oxen were brought, they prayed, then the 
oxen were speared. They picked die bones of the man up, and brought them 
home. The women wept (mourned). They brought the bones of the snake too, 
they became a charm. 

91. The Crocodile Hunter. 

Nan tnikQ raeh H makeje; ha iyinft dwai; ka oyinn bjnQ, ka e hdn^ gwok ka 
gwok mUk/eili ki InUe nam. Ka gwok e ywQnQ, tfWQn, ka lian e linQ, ka e cAiu, ka 
e b&i e rtuQ, eham i sKanq, kd i r^h* Jol Sni ^ b^idft ki yey tum^ ka liofi p^ra mal, 
ka kelyijal gni, ka ikanf^ra tiam. Kaje bin, ka mdki yi tgrii, ka til yi tffrQ, 
chama wof^ ^ (dq) wok. Ka chiki kili, ka tpl $hdte yi liaii, ka e k^^ lian. 

Kajal ffii e d^hi^, cAuii^ rack. Ka ikin e k^^ kajal eni e k^, i keau ki yejL 
Ka wija pack ntiko, ka e neau ki gin cham, ka digi yi y^, kd i chd0, ka liaii 
yot (yut) e wi^ fofe gin; ikan bida ^a^. Kajal bia wj^k, ka k^ paeh, ka kffa 
gol ikin. Ka e bgdQ ki ^ kal, kd i chw^t^ kine: tail a ^ khl sni Ka ckwQl kine: 
bi kali Ka e binQ, ka flka fek, ka 0fe ki gin eham, kd i ehdm^, ka fofe ki mqgQ 
gtr, ka e mfl^ ka e butQ. Ka Rda nud, ka lei/kQ^ Uti in ki mal; ka leti akyllq tefe 
ffi ki maL Cha$^ ka ikal ffii efgcho, kj^: ^n, ka e yeu Kine: jal gol un e k^ffi 
kffkt Kine a k^de paeht Kine: ehwQJLl Ka e dwai. Kine: ya ehwgl yi minf Kine: 
yi ehwQl yi tbgjll Ka e bgnQ, ka gt mdf^. Ka e ko: dmyit, yi bia kffk 1 E ko: ya 
kfllafdfie mdiiuliu; e ko: ya bi b& yafa leikQ. E ko: ya kgla liaii, ikon maraeh ki 
eham kifi; e ko: ya ehaka yaf, kg,: fan pi a te^a leikQ ki mal, ki mffi akyilQ. E 
ko: d^ ehwiila, ikan a g; d^ yi kobi adit fa tdilA yan f Ka jal ffu ko: liaii ffu 
bjia ^a^. E ko: fate yan gn, gna kgleyint E ko: tgnfa lefe yin ki wan botaf Ki 
men aky^l a wan ywofd sal Kajal ffU e buQgo, e ^i yi kwip. E ko: yi u d^k 
b^ nfke ikan kgtif E ko: i, ya fa dok. Ka g^ kioaikQ tv(ik, ka g^ weki* E ko: ika 
itofi maftf^ e ko, kffi u nigi, e ko: goli u tyiki ydn. Ka jal ffii ko: 4, yafa dgk 
ki nfke ikm. Ka ikan e ko : ara, kifl Cho^i, ka lial e ki^. Dt i Mtkj^, e ehqgo, fa 
eh^ca nfke ikni. 

A crocodile was Feiy bad in catching people (caught very many people). 
And a crocodile hunter was sent for. The crocodile hunter came; he took a 
dog and tied it to the ground on the side of the river. The dog began howling 
at once; the crocodile heard it and came to the suiface. It came running, and 
when it was near enough, it dived again. The hunter was lying amidst the 
grass. When the crocodile jumped up (to catch the dog), it was stabbed by the 
man; die crocodfle jumped back into the river. But people came, and the 
crocodile was caught by them and pulled out. When they were near die river 

Digitized by 


222 Adventures between Men and Animals 

bank, they stabbed it a second time; but then the rope was broken by the 
crocodile, and it swam away. 

The man was left on die riyer-bank; he was vexed. When the crocodile had 
gone away, die man also went; he rowed a boat and came to a village, and 
brought food, then he retomed to his boat, and went on rowing. And he foynd 
out the crocodile had gone home to its own country. This orocodile was a 
man. And the man left his boat and went into a certain village. He went into 
the enclosure of the crocodile (but widiout knowing that it was die crocodile's). 
He remained outside the fence and called out, "A traveller is at the gate!** 
From inside some one called, "Come in!*^ He came and sat down. Food was 
given to him, and he ate, much beer was given to him, and he drank. Then he 
lay down. When he looked up, he saw a harpoon above (sticking in the roof 
of the hut) ; and he saw still anodier harpoon above. The man asked, "Girl!*" 
She answered, and he went on, ''Where has die man of your home gone?*^ 
(Only die girl was at home). She replied, "He has gone into die village.^ He 
said, "CaQ him.'' So she sent for him. The man asked, "By whom am I called?*^ 
He was answered, "By a traveller.'' He came, and they saluted each other. The 
man asked, "Brother, where do you come from?" The crocodile hunter ans- 
wered, "I come from a very distant country, I have come to search a harpoon, 
I stabbed a crocodile, a crocodile which was fiunous for having eaten many 
people. When I was searching, I saw a harpoon in this place, above diere; and 
I saw another one too. But I diought, die crocodile was dead (and now I find 
here my two harpoons widi which I stabbed the crocodile) ! What do you say 
of diat? Will you not give them to me?" The man said, "This crocodfle was a 
man ! Is it not I who was stabbed by you? Do you not see die spear-wound 
in my side, and the other one in my arm-pit here?" When the man heard diat, 
he was afraid; he did not know what to say. The other asked him, "Will 
you ever again go to hunt crocodiles?" He said, "No, I shall not do it again." 
Then the man took die harpoons down and gave them to him. But he said, 
"If you kill even a small crocodile child, I shall finish up your whole fiunily !" 
But the crocodile hunter said, "No, I shall not kill crocodiles any more." llien 
the crocodile said, "Well, go!" That is all, the man went away. But he was 
afraid, he kept to his word, he never killed crocodiles again. 

' ''they seized two days^ : they passed two days, two days passed. 
' ''they found women only them" : they found only women. 
' if (you) go home. 

* if you do not tell; in conditional negative sentences h^ generally is used. 

* Taking the stranger's question for an insult. 

* "and the mouth of one calabash, and he opened if*. 

Digitized by 


Remarks 223 

^ nU has low tone ; here a high tone is added to it representing the e "he", which is dropped, 
bnt its tone is preserved. 

* ^e is man where?" of which place is this man? k^ originally means place. 

* "he was not known to his father, bnt he, his father was known to him." 
^ Probablj the wife of the Uon. 

'* This is to show that not a single person (lion), not even the cripples^ the blind and the deaf^ 

remained at home. 

" They were left because they could not dance, and so did not fall into the pit. 

" Who these slaves are, and why the cattle without horns were killed, is not clear. 

** The le<^ard skin is the royal robe. 

^ This story riyidly recalls that of Genesis chi4>ter 37, and 42—46. 

>• from tugq. 

*^ Such was the dowry in "the good old time." 

^ instead of ekye^ yi. 

^ of course he ought to have said, "his testicles are as big as this pot," and, "who has a necklace 

on his neck." Apparently from excitement and confusion the man misplaces his words. 

^^ From exhaustion. 

^ horn dacha, 

^ wHl you not have killed a ram? 

** and the Uon, his breast was tired. 

'* I hare finished with talking, that is: I shall say no more, (since you will not hear) ! 

^ Was a man who was able to change himself into a lion, and into a tree ; see below. 

^ The olam is a tree with a broad, beautiful shady crown. 

Digitized by 


224 Anecdotes 


92. The Travellers. 

Jgk akyllQ i wHq, ha g^ mdki yi k^h. Mq^q nut hi yi g^n, m^n ye da a^p, i 
fan, kajal akysl ehypi^ t^k, bida fftri, jal ah/fji M chhm H ret mqlG^. Ka gq, 1^ 
fylJQ. Hne: 6wi, y«/a {o|« ifci ret mi^kit Kine: i, y<ihi 0ti^*^ Kajal pit e kudq. 
Ka ffti wet bidq ki k^h. Ka lit chijca flchq, 4^ki, kine: jal itoif yi/a ^^f Ka e 
ko: Ki ret rnqka wala ki ret m^kt: Kine: i, ke rei mi^ki. Kine: ya ku ^fe. Ka M 
chikifylchQ kine: dtoA^ y^ f^ fofef Kine: ki rei m^ka vocia ki rei m^kif Kine: I, 
ki ret moka. Ko: fp^e yan ki ikdrmd^ht^^ ka fpfe ki rei mok^, Kuehe ffh g(m ^ 
tngk^, E k^mQ jg; kd h chdm^, ka e yanQ^ ha e ^uoffo, ka M wttjis ka thiJka fy^hOi 
kine: yifa 0te yi mQgQ f Kine: rei moka wala rei rnqkif Kine rei moka. Ka ^fe 
ki rii mok^ ka e chamQ. 

Ka ^ki ko; wi kij^I Kine: dwil Jal ffu i chwi; chama ikwal agb^, ka agh 
yoffi in, mqg^ dgn e ngk. Kine: ^ m^k a cham yi mpit Nal £ni ko: mpt an M 
ctuimi yin ki cKahi. Kim: I, ^^ mofca nuti wei yinf Kine: i, kffi de 0u ki yi 
k^ch, niQn ^i fa re dqh kifeA f yi re cham adit Kd k kkd^. 

Chofi, ka k^fofe gin, ka tvi^a pack, ka tyffli ggl^ yiti in, e iitoQl ki tka^-wiids, 
ka Hal akycl fia^Ql yiti gon HwqIq ki lia-iiar^, Tygn ffii chtuie gsn msdo, H rei ^ 
gsn ygka (yuga) m^f^ kine: tia-icoda u donQ eha mSitfi, ki tkan nari ke wei lidme 
rii gin^ kifa wa fnS|. 

A doni iktl ^f^ ka g^ liwQm, ka g^ hidd ki gil gin, ka gql gin ^ yigi hf^L A 

Two men were travelling together. On their way diej became hmigiy, but 
they had food widi them; each had a bag full of food. But one man was stingy, 
he was a niggard. But the other man used to eat of his food. And he asked 
his companion, saying, ''Brother, shall I not give you of your food ?** He replied, 
"No, don't give me!'' His friend was silent; he left his friend hungering. But 
the next day he asked him again, "Man, brother, shall I not give you?'' He 
replied, "Of my food or of yours?" The friend answered, "Why, of yours." 
He replied, "Don't give me!" Agun he asked, "Shall I not giye you?" He 
asked, "Of my own or of yours?" He answered, "Well, of mine." Then he said, 
"Oive me a litde!" And he gave him of his (of the stingy one's). But the stingy 
one did not know that it was of his own. He was almost dying of hunger, so 
he ate. When he had had enough, he rose and began to talk. The next day his 
friend asked him once more, "Shall I not give you some food?" He replied, 
"Of mine or of yours ?" The friend said, "Of mine." But he again gave him of 

> ''I will not be giren" ; "may 1 not be given". 
* "a smaU child's that is: a Uttle bit. 

Digitized by 


A Goat-story 225 

his (the stingy one's), and he ate. The next morning he said, ''Let ns go!^ His 
firiend repfied, "All right '^ He had recovered his strength; he wanted to feel his 
bag. When he found that there was but a little left in his bag, he asked, "Why, 
who has eaten my food?** His firiend said, "You yourself have eaten of it 
every day," He replied, "How, did you not leave untouched my food?** The 
firiend said, "If you had died of hunger, for what reason should that food have 
been left? what should you have done with it?** Tho man was silent. 

That is aU, and they went into their country. When diey arrived in their 
village, they found that both their wives had bom children, one a girl and one 
a boy. So they were both very glad, and they became firiends. The stingy one 
said to his fiiend, "Friend, some day when my son has grown up, then let him 
marry your daughter, because we are firiends.** 

The girl grew up, and they married, and they lived in bodi their homes (in- 
habited the homes of both their parents), and their homes became one. It is 

93. A Goat-story. 

Dyfj, a km H Tfinit H Ach^-^tvok, ha hijfl Akuruwdr^ ka dy^l i Uyhy ka lij 
^na/tn, ka 9i| n^nit, ka lii iitc^Ut. Ka ffuki dy^l M. k^^, M k^fitif ka 9i|iit^^ 
ka M, ^^^/ooidi ka ii| ksfafin^ ka iki i^wglfi. Duki ka M. 4^o^ ki ^wqI^ ki ban^i, ka 
lit k^ fan, ka M litc^Uty ka Hi n^Q, ka M ^wo^ ki iktffQJ!^ ke ban^ ka giti 76n^ 
Aehgte^wok, i^wqI^ gtr. 

A goat was brought fi*om Tuna Aeh^e-^wok, it was brought to Aki^ruwar; 
there the goat ran away and turned to a certain village, there it stayed (for some 
time) and brought forth young ones. The next day the goat went away, it went 
to another village and brought forth young ones again. After that it arose, 
went to some village and brought forth young ones. The next day it arose, 
with all its young ones behind it; it went to another village, there it brought 
fordi young ones ; it stayed there for some time and then arose with its young 
ones behind it At last it arrived again at 7\LnQ Aehf^-^vook, with plenty of 
young ones. 

94. The Glutton. 

Feik da kick, kick maduQn. D^jal akyilo, ye bu byel, d^ M chan^a bup- Ka by^l 
€ dSnQ, ka bygl e ehlgo, ka dgke k§ch gen ki by^l, ka Ai cham ki abtook, ki n^r, ki 
Mm. Ka by^l chlgQt ka lia ggl^ kofi kine: (a^ gin eham maduanl Ka yi iQeh ki 
by A ^ yi ^ ^ abwoki ka yi i^h ki ligr, ka yi ky^ ki amgt, ka yi ky^ ki tiim, 
ka yi tsi ki mana mdtjil Ka gs, j(um, ka gik gni k&U ko: chip Hima ka! KafUl^ 
fikk in, ka e ehitmjt; ka fij oAj^i eMmii k^^ ka M ehdkd kffi. Kd k yanQ, ka e ko: 

WBSTEBJfAHll, Tk« SUUvk Pco^t. 15 

Digitized by 


2 26 Anecdotes 

cliami e kob^ k^t^, Yejg, bdii chdm, ho: yi g tinl Yeji ftoii. Ka falg, kwdtii 4n, e 
ko: 6fy^ yi iHi chama bup^ d^ kora btH kif/t, i, chdml Yeje, bcaie chatn; ka yeje 
chioipi in, ka e Q. 

There was a famine, a great famine. One man had no more dura, he used 
to eat mud. When the (new) dura had grown up and it ripened, and the time 
had come for the people to rub dura-ears in their hands, and they ate the new 
dura, and maize, and beans, and sesame, and the dura was quite ripe, dien this 
man said to his wife, "Prepare a great meal, boil dura, and cook maixe, and 
boil beans, and roast green dura, and roast sesame, and prepare vegetables 
too.*^ YHien aQ diese things were ready, the woman brought them. He 
said to her, "Put them before me!^ Then he sharpened his knife and began 
to eat He ate, now from thu, now from some odier dish. When he was filled, 
he said, "Eat!" — He said this to himsel£ — But his belly refused to eat any 
more, it said, "You will die at once!'' His belly refused. Then he took die 
knife and said, "Formerly you (belly) used to eat mud, and I was tired widi 
you, why, eat!** But his belly refused to eat. He took his knife and stabbed his 
belly, and he died. 

95. Bachet. 

Ye ' jal md rif^ ye da uog,t bdn^ fifni Bachet; tcgn chuii^ trildq. Ka Baehet gtti 
kifar^ kd i bid^ trett, ^ ajfigh. Kd 1^ chiii^ gin yigi mdrdeh ki Bachet; ka 
gi, ii| fri'l bt gd^. Ka Bachet M chto^l, ka e blnQ, i tyif^ ki kbt. Ka tii fyit chi yi 
r^ kine: in^ a tyitil Kine: tvuol Kine: ya bi^bi gyir ki kid. Kd rif^i kb: wat 
bdnA, wiji niti vAlit ki gyfr ki gdldf Ka rii ehui/i^ yiga mdrdeh ki ^^, Hne: wu 
chagafygt. Ka lial gni wA dbgi/dri^ ka kefafkr^. 

Kd ^^ lii/iti ^, kdjdmi tiri^ M kdpi in. Ka ^rg Mbi^bi gi^. Ka iki dtwol, 
kine: kifl Bachet, ki bl iyh wiy lyffi, ka ki bi 4 chdfd tyiU. Ka Bachet b^, e 
chdtjH ki any ky^A, chh fdch i cAdit^, kd yiffd wgk ki wly hfiA, ka ty^ akytlit w^^ 
wiy kyffi, kd ty^l dkyilj^ yena fiii, ka e b^n i chd0. Ka fiie ko: d gin init ci guf^k 
ki yin Hndul Ki i kb:fafe yin a kop kine: yd ki chd^ ki wiy kyffi, itpitf.- yd ki 
chdf.i kifiiil A wiyd ty^lA dky^l ki wiy kytfi, a weya ty^la aky^l kifeA. Ka r^ i 
n^, kd h kb: yi biji^ yif<^ niki ydn; Afi( dojkfdri! 

Ka Bachet d^gq. Ka d^gi yi kwipi, ka ty^n ini bi^ bi giA yi f^. Ka r^ e ko: 
Bachet u nikh ydn de chan tin I Kine k^nl Kd gi kid^. Kine: kdni mffiQ ki ton 
gysnQ! wu b^n^tl Ka men M kdn^t (k^n^t)' Ka Bachet dw&i, Bachet fa kipi yi r^. 
Kd i btn^ ^ bu ton gy^no, md kili gn. Ka r|j( i kb: nan k^ liwol ki tgn gyfnq, 
nigh ni^gh! Bwo(i mal! Ka ^f^ M 4^Qi4 ^^s ^ ^ ff!/snQ tii wH /M. TtHt 
btni d ^wbti mal, ka Bachet h dinh> Ka rij^ e ko: Bachet, yi re fa dwott JE kudq. 
Kine: Bachet, yi re fa 4'^6if Ka Bachet ^wo^a mal, ka tgn gy&io bbgitn, m^ dqn 

^ Ye "he" has here rather the sense of "there was". 

Digitized by 


Backet 227 

hifih, Ka Bachet chyini f^nis kd i yw^n^ Hne: i, d, 9! Ka riiefecho, Hnel dn^, 
Sachet^ Sn a gtc^ki yi Hnauf Bachet Hne: gyffi M Htvftlit gi f4ti gin, g^ bun 
ifuj^f fa M Aw^lt Kd i kb: ard (iri), yd fa 6{u>^f Ka rii e^yi mflrlty e ho: 
yi MjJ, k^ dqkfaril 

There was a man, a king, he had a slave whose name was Bachet. He liked 
him much. He boilt a village for Bachet at a separate place, where Bachet 
became chief. But the people of the village were dissatisfied with Bachet, and 
they came to the king to complain. Bachet was called by the king, and he came 
carrying thorns (such as are used in house-building). The king asked him, ''What 
are you canying there ?^ He answered, "My lord, I come to make a fence (for 
you)*'' The king replied, "Ah, my slave, you still think of building me a fence?^ 
And the king became angry with the people and said, "You lie!" He let 
Bachet return, and he went to his village. 

And (again) the people were beaten by their chief Bachet, and their property 
was taken by him. So they went again to complain of him. The king gave order 
to call him, saying, "Tell Bachet, he must not come on horseback, and he must 
not come on foot either.'' And Bachet came riding on horseback, but when he 
approached the village, he alighted from the horse; he left one foot on the 
horse, and one foot was on the earth. So he approached walking. The king 
asked, "What is that? why are you doing thus?" He answered, "Did not you 
give order, I must not come on horseback, nor on foot either? Therefore I 
left one foot on the horse, and am walking with the other." The king laughed 
saying, "You are a clever one ! you shall not be killed, go, return to your 

Bachet returned, but he went on in the same manner (troubling his people). 
The people came again complaining to the king. The king replied, "Bachet 
shall be killed this very day!" Then he said, "Go ! every one of you bring a 
hen-egg, and then come back." So every one brought an egg. But this order 
of die king had not been told Bachet, and so he came without an egg. When 
diey were aD assembled, the king sidd, "Every one who does not lay an egg, 
shall surely die ! Rise up !" So every one rose up, leaving his egg on the ground. 
All the people rose up, only Bachet remained seated. The king asked, "Bachet, 
why do you not rise up?" He was silent. Again he asked, "Bachet, why do 
you not rise?" Then Bachet arose, but there was no egg under him. Bachet 
stretched out his hands crying, "O o oh!" The king asked, "What is it, 
Bachet, that y^u are doing thus?" Bachet replied, "Do you think aQ these could 
have laid an egg by themselves, if there had not been a cock? Well, I am the 
cock!'* The king idmost died with laughing; he said, "You are a clever one, 
go, return to your village!"' 

* As ^e name of Hha hero shows, this story is of Arabic origin. 

Digitized by 


228 Anecdotes 

96. The Country Where Death is Not 

Jal mik^i may^ nut, D^ mayti ko, charn^ b^lcQ jg, chama dwata fwdj^ bu jg. 
Wad^ ko : fwof^ bun ]g e yen kun f Kine: i, k(il yan, nut I Da^ ^ni ba yU. 
• Ka ge kiffi^, fo^ &%% IhuIquIqu, fwoffe yey bu j^. Ka M ^na pack miko, ka M 
kwaeho, ph ka gs_ Hi (ofey ka ikal gni piehit kine: Q nut kifo^l Kine: i, yi kQla 
k^9 P^o, fytsfit ^fKae ko: maya &gikfi j^; maya dwata fa^e bu jg. Kine: i, k^fbml 
Ka gs, Hi k^jfo, ka g^ Hi fgndfan kgte, ka gi Hiftehit. Kine: iy yina note n^, ffui 
fytnk Qt i, k^n; jg nut. Ka k^ft^ mdlduldu, ka efschu kine: fofe umn b^t 
adi f yeji da Qf Kine: I, je fd Hi ^tu. Ka may^ ehuHs. minQ, e ko: dgeh, wadJt, yd 
kil yi yinfo^/a Hi fgu y^&. 

Wilde mifei^ fni^i* ^ ntay^ kj^ gql pit. Ka e ko: m&yit dnkn, wet bgd^ ki y(n; 
yd kgj^ifdie wirif ya u maki run gi dd^k, faanfi kiH u b^nd b^ Ufi unin ki maya. 
Maye ehuHi m^dq. 

Ka Hal ffii e djlgit, (^gitfbf^ g^» Ka e h^iitfoffi gin. 

Ka ^of^ sni wij^ k^agu; kd h kdb^ : mif^ wdd^, wijd kdg^. Ka Hal pti ^woffo, ka 
e dwaia je. Kafi btfiQi kajef&oapM, ka Hal ffii ko: wd ekw$Uydn kifa maye 
mH^ anan. Wu gu>aehQ ki nysH, tngk u ydde wdd^ d^ ko: wij^ kago, d^ rinn y 
riH; d^fanafa kine: u nil. Ka ^oj^ iniyw^ kine: i^jfogk bdgitn, wijafa kagu! 
TiTQ ko: i, mdk, rej^ rinQt Ka mdk, ka kUk ka tdyifMt ka M, ka rino jofiiii. Ka 
{ffTQ chamQ ki rinq. D\iki ka nypi gwdch, ka nyffi kdn yi mo^ ut^di^ 

Ka toud^ bgno, ka fika feH, ka 0fe gin cham, kd i ehdmit* Ka e fiehjt kinei 
maya agon fftf Ka mQ^ti ko: mi^, maye ntdki yijwQk^ wi guAjh nyc^ d^ nyffk 
ak; de ndl kifa rinQ u r^H; d^ ufQfi, jg bogsn kifb^ win^ ^a^ kffi a mdk yijwi^ 
Hi chaka ndlQ. l^al ^ni ko kine: bihl ya neau mayalt eko: yi bic^t; ko:yauki 
yhu ! Nal eni ko: yi g9tjt. Nal ffii ko: i^ya fa giti. Ka tint ^inQ, kama (Aam ij 
Hal ffni; ka IwQk ki yi mQ^. Ka gi kt$a kun malaulau, kifa y (i) ehdm. Ka tgrn 
tDit4 mUm^^ kine: e ^ k^^ Ka ma^ eduqgQ; ka e ko: kf^ yi u cham fyau nami 
mayi. Ka Hal ffii bia fofe gin, ka e kobi ki pack kine: miyd a eK&m yi Hk. 

Ctiofi, ki ^^ e ko: mayi fa^Ha^i ^k. T^ fa n^ ki yey fiH Unit di kun 

There was a man with his mother. The mother was much afraid of dying, tfiere- 
fore she wished to go into a country where there is no death. The son said, 
"Where is a country without death ?^ She answered, "Well, there is such a 
country, bring me tfierel" The woman was very old. 

So diey travelled into a very, very distant country, to (reach) the country 
where there is no death. They turned into a village and asked for water. 
When it was given diem, die son asked, "Is there death in this country?'' The 
people answered, "Dear me, where do you come from that you ask sudi a 

* the people, (tiieb) heads were peiplezed. 

Digitized by 


The Country where Death is not 229 

question cooceming death ?*" He answered, "My mother is afiraid of dying, so 
she wants a country where death is not."* The people said, "Why, go away!"" 
They went and turned to anodier village. There they asked again and received 
the answer, "Why, what kind of man are you that you ask about dying? Oo 
away! There is death here.^ Then they went to a very distant country and 
asked, "How b your country, is there death in it?" The answer was, "No, 
people do not die here.** The modier was very glad, she said, "Well done, my 
son, you have brought me to a country where there is no death." 

Her son had a friend in that town, and to his home he brought his mother. 
He said, "Here is my mother, let her live with you. I shall go to our country, 
and after tfiree years I shall return to see you and my mother." His mother 
was satisfied. 

So the boy returned to his native country and stayed there for some time. 

But his mother became sick; she got a head-ache; she said, "Friend of my 
son, I have a headache." On that the boy arose and called the people together. 
The people came and sat down. Tho boy said, "I have called you because of 
the mother of my friend, who is here. Now collect money, that we may give it 
to her son (when he returns). For she says her head is aching; and because 
of that (because of her sickness) her meat (flesh) will spoil For that reason," 
he said, "she must be killed (at once)." When the woman heard this, she began 
crying, "I am not sick! I have no head-ache!" But the people said, "Never 
mind, seise her, or her flesh will be spoiled." So she was caught, brought, thrown 
on die ground and killed; her flesh was divided among die people, and they 
ate it The next day they collected money and brought it to die friend of her 

And her son came back. He sat down, they gave him food, and he ate. He 
asked, "Where is my mother?" His friend answered, "My friend, our (your) 
mother was seized with sickness, so we collected money, — here is the money! 
— and killed her, lest her meat should be spoiled. For as for us, we do not 
die in our country, if a man is seised widi sickness, we kill him." The boy 
replied, "Why, should I sell my mother? Never!" Then he said, "I will but 
go." His friend said, "You are angry?" He replied, "No, I am not angry." In 
the meantime the people came and wanted to eat the boy too. His friend there- 
fore went to him saying, "Go, or you also will be eaten like your mother." He 
accompanied him into a distant country. When the boy came home, he said 
to his people, "My mother has been eaten by a lion." 

That is all; and the people said, "Your mother was a sinful woman. Is 
not death in all the world, and should there be a place where there is no 

Digitized by 


230 Anecdotes 

97. The King and the People. 

Jal tnilcQ 64 rd; ISp tir^: gir tv^t! Kd u^ ^t gb^f kdtfiko: gtr hid! Kd ye 
ko:furfw6iilKdfw64i Mfi^r, kd byil M chigh. Kd gi M kdeh. Kd i kb kyie: 
kif^ %d pirn (pim)l Kd M kb: mwitn rdr^l Ka ye kd ne: fwbt byiU Kd yh kb: 
ehwAch dkjdb ! Ka dtoai n$t Kd yi kb : chwdch pigb ! Ki ki ckan kindk, 

Kd whn (ikytlb chhmd dwata fwo^Q ki nM. Ki ttrh i ki^ bi yd/ ki y^ mSn 
kite mdl. Kd tirb kdmd du^k pack: yi bdgtn. Kd di^ miyHi y6t, ka ^j^ ffii 6 
fichb: wH k^ kun? Gi kb: Jdtd rft yi Jbo, chamd dwdtd/w64(i H mdl? Di yi 
b6g^. Kd ^fi dti^n i kb: wd! xoi fd ^kl yi nut ki mdl mo-chane. Tihu 0kdgx 
maly ka ko^ Itiii fnal ban^I {umi gin, kd gi k^ g&fi fdeh. 

Kd gi pyich yi rij> kine : fwb^ d ySt f i^J, d yoU Dt a kek f Kine : ni, a kek, 
D\iki ka t^TQ kidd bl filr. Ka ^ji dugn kd yot^ kd fySch : wi fur wbn kyiiJ Furu 
milyhul Ka l^h Mfur^ mJalyau. A du^k g^ afiehi rif^ h kb: d r&m kifur^f 
Kine: clw^I K^ khchu by ill Kd ndmi diiwh. 

Ka fit ye ko: ^H ya kd (= k^) bl l^mi ki /to64i. Kd ^^ i W^. Kine: 
fwi^ dgin in? Wdjat H yi i^in kit ^itn mdl. Wu chakafyiL Wd rifdt kobun: 
fioi^ bdgitn f 

A man was king; he said to his people, "Build a house!" And a house was 
built. And he said, "Make a fence!*" Then he said, "Hoe a field!" A field was 
hoed, (dura was sown and) the dura ripened. They harvested the dura. Then 
he said, "Lay it on the drying-ground!" He said again, "Make a treshing- 
place!" After that, "Thresh the dura!" He ordered, "Make a corn-basket!" So 
pegs were cut for fastening the corn-basket. He said, "Make a cover (for the 
basket)!" And so (he troubled his people) every day. 

One year he wanted to make a field up in the air. And the people went to 
look for a way which led up into the air. At last they turned back, there was 
no way. Then there was an old woman, she asked them, "Where are you 
going?" They answered, "Did not the king say he wanted a field up in the 
air? But there is no way!" The old woman said, "Dear me! how stupid you 
are ! There has been since early days a way up into the air. Lift up your dura- 
stick, and throw up seeds after it!" (They did so). When they had done so, they 
went home. And they were asked by the king, "Have you found a field?" They 
answered, "Yes, it has been found." He asked. "Is it planted?" They said, 
"Yes, it is planted." The next day they went to hoe. They found the old woman 
and asked her, "How shall we hoe the field?" She answered, "You just hoe 
up into the air!" So the people just hoed up into the air. When they returned, 
the king asked them, "Have you finished with hoeing?" They answered, "Yes.*" 
Then he said, "Go and harvest the dura." And so on as on former days (so 

Digitized by 


King and People 231 

he always found some new idea how to trouble the people). 

And the king said, ''To-morrow I shall go to look at the field.*" The people 
were afraid. He asked, "Where is the field?" They answered, "We could not 
find the way which leads up into the air." The king said, "You have been 
telling lies! Why did you not say, 'there is no way?'" 

98. Wealth cannot be imitated. 

Wijdn fnikQ chw^ld Ayomf^ bjjda jal ker^ fv^dt ehw^ld Awan; miri in; ka 
wafe pyau H ^jri pyar abikyil; hat iDQt fngko, ka pyar dnw^; ka gi, kil, ka wade 
fl^Jb ka gi, kil; ka tcQl pyau, ka toaji akyd chwqpy ehiki ehwitpq, ka g^ chip l^n, 
kd gi rimity ka ^k g$i/iy rngk kil bg, litvQniy ka pyar abidik. Kajal de iliar^ i 
chwiii; hine: b^hy ga ^ng, a kole ydu g^ gtr nduf l^k iliara u f^Mt, u line 
liara ki Mn^ ka ye kine: kipauQ a liwQmi ki ^k girt Ko: t, yd l^djt. dwogun 
dt * wuni 

Ka lial spi kyado, kine: ^k ba dwQjk! Kajal ini e yeyQ, ka k^ kiU d$k, ka 
kwoAa pyar dnw^ ka fyk i^n dtaqk. Ka wai nik, ga pyar ddik, moJc cham yi 
tm. Ka lion fffd kd wSki, ka gt bin ki g^n. Jal s^i ko: liArA bd d6h; ka hwQm e 
pirnQy a bine pb^ g^ 

A niyiyijane mikQ, ehami luiiQ, chamipyauwe, chamq, nqye w^t AygmQ. Kd 
ijddj^ ki iDOi ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^}& ^^^ yi noke ^k. Ka wane yi dygk. Ka AygmQ, 
nef p* kine: hq hq^ chama noyQ toada chgnl ya ba dugnl ya faffi jal kerf D^ a nan 
per wj$e tvQnf Ya ba gita kun, ko k^md liind, bada ba bar I d^yi rejdt ananf 
Ker ii| nqyt rdii; kdka ba dugti Fafe fyk ocKdnif 

There was a rich Dinka-man whose name was AyQmq; his son's name 
was Awan. He loved his son and pierced the horns of sixteen of his cows and 
stuck tail-hairs into the holes.^ Again he brought fourteen more oxen, and rams 
he brought, and he put hairs through the horns of these oxen too. One ox he 
speared, again he speared another one, and when he had finished spearing them 
all (those which he had set apart for being speared), he loosened the cattle 
which were to be given as dowry; they were eighteen. When the man for whose 
daughter these cows were to be given, heard the cows mowing, he exclaimed, 
"Oh dear, what do all these cattle mean which are being driven to me? Why 
are they so many? K my daughter (should marry the son of this man, and 
after that she) should die, the name of my daughter would be heard all over 
the country,* and the people will say, 'why was she married for so many oatde?^ 
No, I don't consent; go home with your catde!" But the boy (Awan, who wanted 
to marry the giri) said, "No, the cattle will not be returned." So at last the mao^ 
consented. He went among the cattle and selected fourteen; the rest were sent 

Bemarks see on page 233. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

232 Anecdotes 

back. Then the thirteen oxen were killed m a feast for the people. And the giri 
was given to him, they came with her, her father said, "Mj daoj^ter shall not 
stay with me any longer (because the dowry has been paid).*^ When die marriage- 
festiTal was finished, they returned to their country. 

Now this man was imitated by a certain chief, who wanted to do the same 
thing; he too wanted to pierce the horns of his catde, and wanted to imitate 
the son of Ayom^, But he lacked sufficient cows to kill, and he got into 
straits, because his cows were so few. He took goats instead of die cows, 
and when AyomQ, saw diat, he laughed, "Hq ho, he really wanted to imitate my 
son! I am great! Am I not a rich man? Is diere any one so rich as to attain to 
us? My fame has spread everywhere, all people know my name; my arm is 
long! Why do you try such a diing, being short of catde? Wealth can never 
be imitated; it is not a thing of one day. I have been raising my catde since 
a long dme ago.'' 

99. Increase of Cattle. 

Jal wiku bgda jal leer, bgda kway Jinjt, w^k, g^^y kakt ba eM^ fki chaka tine 
malf ka e tfOf ka e rUmQJago, ^ ^^ ehwQl^ ka e ko: u {(^^ y^ ki kini pack. 
Tiri ydn, tgre ya kdl ^k, ka ya kwoiie yej^ u d^k lit liwQli. 

A tQW9 A ^Pi. kal ^k, a kwMe yySs ka ^k ii( fhif^Q^ a ehik pan pii, a pa ker, 

A certain man was very rich, he was a descendant of die Dinkas ; he had many 
sons. His time was not near (diat is, he was very old) ; he was so old, that he 
was carried (he could not walk any longer). Because he was so old, he gave 
up his chieftainship, he called his sons and told diem, ''If I die, do not bury 
me in die village; carry me, cany me to die catde place and bury me in the 
midst of it, so the cow will bring fordi many calves.^ 

When he had died, he was carried to die catde fence and was buried in the 
midst of it, and die catde brought fordi many calves. This village always renuined 
a rich village, it is OdwojQ. 

100. The Haughty Prince. 

KuHikadwai bidajal ker, ka e k^j^ ka e ligfTHb e i^igmQ, i/kaii r^. Ka ^k h^ ga 
pyar abiky^l Ka chiH ligwifi H pyar abikyiL 

Ka ^i kitQ, Tftr, ka lum ilt (imit, ka hatQ D^. Kd 4^k i yhntt. Ka ^karif^e 
ti%^ v^la yi^ ka gt ry^js, ka al^ b^h ki chAk, ki kw^n man, ki rin^. Ka lia 
Hi mlkn ky^dq: ya ba dwata gik akt Kifangl A b^ OckdU^, kjr^ gtr, ka e kw^nq. 

Digitized by 


The Haughty Prince 233 

Ksk rnola kal mgly ka Har^Q M nik, gq lii ehim. Ka e ko: wqte ^j^ neku ffa^, 
ki ria u chdla t Ka to^de i nikjt, ka ffQ cAo2g. 

Ewakadwai was a rich man. He started to marry, and he married the daugh- 
ther of a king. He brought sixty cows as a dowry. He married a second wife 
for sixty cows. 

He used to drive his cattle to Tgr (a place of pasture), and when the 
grass was finished there, he drove them to Dqt (another pasture). 

One day some princes were travelling, and they came to him. He entertained 
them as his guests; dura and dried meat were brought, and milk, and bread 
baked in butter, and meat. But one of the princes refused, "I don't want these 
things!'' "Why not?"* (asked the people). "Because he is a (mere) Shilluk (not 
one belonging to the royal fSEunily), and yet he is so rich!'' He did not touch 
the food. 

This (rich) man, when he went to his oatde place early (every) morning, he 
ased to kill a calf and to eat it. And he said to his people, "Sons of men, kill 
A man! I myself will make amends for him!"^ And they killed a man, and he 
made amends. 

loi. The Hyena with the Bell. 

Ka jal mikq lia rij^ chwQla Ltoal Folkdet ka dy^k^ clAm yi dtwof^. Ka burQ 
kw6M» ^ ofwQui^ mdk yey bur. Ka Lwal bt^fiQ:, ka ofwQ^ iysdQ, ko: wei, ki^ tiik. 
Ka wei, ka ysde ggn kjj^ malo, ka of^Q^ e k^ ki malq, ysjf^. Chami lii maka Iqi, 
ka Uki Hi rpiQ, ka kor^ bu^ yi k^h, ka e (5. 

There was a certain man, a prince, whose name was Lu>al Folkoe; his goats 
were being eaten by die hyena. Therefore he dug a hole and caught the hyena 
in the hole. When Lwal came, the hyena begged him, "Leave me, do not kill 
me !*" So he let her go, but he tied a bell to her neck, and the hyena went away 
widi the bell about her neck. But now whenever she wanted to catch game, the 
game (heard the bell ringing, and) ran away. At last die hyena became tired 
with hunger and died. 


' A sign thai tiiese cows were to be reserred as dowry for buying his son a wife. 

' If the wife dies, the dowry paid for her has to be returned by her £unily ; in this particular case 

it would be difficult for tiie fiitiier of the giri to giro back so many cows, as some would die or 

perish in some other way in tiie meantime, and so the affair would turn out a shame to the father 

and the gixL 

* to show his immense wealth; it was a bagatelle for him to pay a slare. 

Digitized by 


234 Report on a Hunting Match, and a journey 


1 02. Elephant Hunting. 

Wd kSi H alAm H w^ts chZl gin hU-^k^ tD^te Inooti gin dtyiu H Aba^ H 
obtoofi ycif ^ ^<i f^it4 P^tfi Nnqr, Uim gtr, ha tea kifd wQk, Aba^ ye d^UQ nam H 
obwofi y£t ; kd lyech yw6^ win, gin ddik; ha wq, plha pM, ha ya fote hi toch, ha 
Akwohwan (ofe yi toch, ha Nan (ofe toch, ha toch (twoch) akim mdhi Ulm, ha toch 
mwoJQ ; hd lyech i rinj^, hd wi dtiitg^, lyey b6g^. DuH ha tvQ dogQ ; ha lyech 
ywotk win; ha wi rinq, lyech fidi win; ha yiti win, i mQ^pi tnffi an Uim boggn. 
Kd wd hsSfl yi lyech, WQte bw6ik ddih, wini > chil win dd^h, hi wi ifc^f ha Akwo^ 
kwdn i piniy ha Aryan hd ipang, wi dbni win dnw^n; ydn hi ainm H wgie bwoii 
rysjt, hd wi he^ yi lyech e shihi shihi, ha akim e hb: wd gichh lyech dhy^l, ha wq 
ghchiy ha lyech i rini, ha ydn rffHa bini, lyech win hdmd 0, ha yd h^^ ya Hng, 
ha gichi ydn ty^l ddih,^ wi hfn^ h^A, wi h^ h^le (im, ha lyech e chunit, yd H, yd 
ntn, yd ntn, y^ gtr^ ha ttf^ ydn, hd yd Uf^ in, hd gijd hi mach, Lyech i yw^ 
ha lyech e bgn, i ring, ha ya chyite in, ha ty^ld nihi ydy i kfichi ydn, fa r^mi. 
Ka lyech i ch^ni, cha (= chama) yd g^hi in, ha i r^nq, hd wi h^ H in, ha yd 
mdh yi r6^, hd yd duQgo, lyech d hii, ya duQgq, ya chafq; r^mq gir, da yq kuchi 
ydn^ hd yd hild yi yu lyech, yd traii H gin, Idii bog^ h( 4^ga, pi boggn, ha ya 
pika ta ya^y lum gtr; ha yd bwigi, ha yd 4^0^, ha toch gich yi cMm, ka toch 
lini ydn Iqu Idu Idu, yd kq^, ya nnq, ka toch lii gich gi gtr. Ka ya bin^, ka toch 
gichi ydn, kd toch lin yi gin, Chuiie gi miqdq, chuiia tyau fn^dq; kd yd b^, kd gi 
ytth ydn, gi gitch anwak, kd yd, (ofe yi pi; ri^ baiii pirn, ka ya fpfe yi mqgq (gin 
cham), kd chwdkd i bdiii ; ka ya ksja nam, ka ya budq ki yeja. Kd yd mdki yi 
kbjh, yd l^ ki d^ch ki nam; ka ya lii m^dq kipt; ka yd bia wltk, kd wi bin wi 
bid gat, Ka wi bidq ^ki, ka wq bin wi bi^ fote chiU wi mdk jam drydu, wq 
btni, gin cham bogqn, wi iki chdmd rinq a kgti, ka wq bia Atirit, kd tdn yit^ win 
gi gtr, Kd wi kafd wqk, kd tin pwot, dbMik, m^k a g^chi yi akim, gtj^h wiy twka* 
kd i 0. Ka yi\ i pini yi rini, ka toq b^n. 

We went (by boat), the doctor, eight Shilluks, two white men, Abbas, and 
the white men of the steamer. We went into the Nuer country, there was 
much grass along the river. When we left the boat, Abbas remained near the 
river with the white men of the steamer. We found three elephants, when we 
saw them, we sat down on the ground, they gave me a gun, Akwqkwan and Nym 
too received a gun. The gun of the doctor was entangled in the grass, and 

' more frequently woncL, see Grammar. ' "three feet'', that is : tiiree times. 

Digitized by 


A Hunting Match ™-_™ 2 35 

it suddenly exploded. When the elephant heard it, it ran away; we returned 
because the elephant was no more (i. e. the elephants disappeared). The 
next morning we went again and found again an elephant. We ran pursuing 
the elephant We found it drinking water in a place where there was no 
grass. We went towards the elephant. We were three white men and three 
Shilluks. While we were going, AkwQkwan and Any an stooped down (i. e. hid, 
being afraid) ; so we four were left I, the doctor, and the other two white men. 
We went to the elephant and approached it closely, then the doctor said, "We 
have got one elephant i"" We shot, the elephant ran away, and I followed it; 
our elephant had received a mortal wound. I followed it running and shot it 
three times. We ran into a place where there was a forest; there the ele- 
phant stopped, I came and looked and looked, there were dense trees; at last 
I saw it, and it saw me, and I shot it with the gun. The elephant cried, it came 
running, and I was chased by it, I knocked my foot against a tree, but I did 
not heed it, it did not make a wound. The elephant stopped and I intended to 
shoot it It ran again, I ran with it; and I was seized with thirst; I turned back, 
the elephant ran away, I turned back and went; there was much blood. But I 
did not know the way. I went along the elephant's path, I was quite lost to my 
companions; there was no more spitde in my mouth (from thirst), I had no 
water. I sat down under a tree in the midst of much grass. I became afraid and 
arose. Then there was a gun fired by the doctor, I heard it very, very £Eur 
off. 1 went running and heard them fire many guns. At last I too fired a 
gun, it was heard by them. Then they rejoiced, and I too rejoiced, and I 
came and found them, they had shot an anwak; they gave me water. My thirst 
would not cease, and they gave me food, but my throat refused to take it. I 
went into the river and lay down in the water. So I became cool, I lay in the 
water a long time. Then I drank water. At last I came out. And we came to 
the river-side. We stayed there till the next day, then we came back into the 
Shilluk country. We had been away two weeks. During our return we found 
no food, so we ate nothing but meat We came to the river Ataro, there we 
found many waterbucks. We went out of the boat and shot eight waterbucks. 
One was shot by the doctor between its horns, and it died. The boat was quite 
full of meat; so we came home. 

103. A Journey. 

Ka wi uil^y tdllQ TunQf ka wq ka pofe Nuqt, ka wq k^U yi nam niiko, chwola 
Ney£rQ9 kawQka TeryaUy ka tvQ tgna wok^ ka toQ budo rechy ka wq k^iq, ka wq, 
iona kal ri$y chwQla Pi^, ka wq tona Iwag^ ka e pichii kine: wate Ch^Ut, um kul 

Digitized by 


236 Report on a Hunting Matchy and a yourney 

wu kffif w$ kb: wa JcQla/ofe ChiUt! Kine: toich apon^f Gne: wa ehaka neon 
WQ byiL Kine: biK <i 1@ ^/^^^ yi k^hf E ko: k^ Iwakt Ka wq, kfja Iwaky ia 
OfiwQk kilf ka nik, kd chdm yi win; ka ehak kil^ ka wq ehdm^, ka nyffk a k^U 
WQn, neau H bygl. Ka wq bfnQf ka k^ yi y^ ka toQ bgfiQ, ka y^ mdki yi p^r, ka 
ysi mudq, ka wq kwauQ WQk; a l^nit^ a (qna Neb^dtti a bgnapaeh^ a igfta PeAidwai; 
kick kick! 

We travelled to Tonga and from there came into die Nner-conntry; we were 
travelling on some river, whose name is Ney^rQ. We came to Teryau, there 
we landed; we roasted fish. We went and tamed to the home of the king, 
whose name was Pedo. We turned towards the cow-house. He asked us, ''You 
Shilluk children, where do you come from?^ We answered, ''We come fi^m 
the Shilkk-country." He asked, "What for?" We replied, "We want to buy 
dura.^ He said, "Why, are you 8u£Fering ("dying^) from hunger?'' Then he said, 
"Go into the cow-house!^ > So we went into the cow-house. A ram was brou^ 
and killed, and was eaten by us; and milk was brouj^t, and we ate. Th«i we 
brought forth money to buy dura. (After we had bought it and brouj^t it into 
our boats) we went into the boats and returned home. But one boat was 
seized by a hippo, it sank, and we swam to the bank. So I came home tunung 
towards rfehodo^ I came home to PeAidwai; the famine was very great. 

^ the cow house seires as a residence for guests. 

Digitized by 


Sonil 237 


104. War songs. 

A chip tun Ufiy leti a chip ^hin Anonq; Bal ticIiQl Yana ban Nikan; ch^ ya 
din d bjr; l^fd yin hi mQJkjwQk; til e IcQljwQk. Wora ^u^ kwom IMt Yana ban 
Nikan! Leili a chip shine hoAyi^ hi Otign tun leA. i^d&j^. J^ikan a ydfi, kuro 
ggk Jan, 

The wiDgg of the anny are drawn up: the army is placed in the hands of 
Anona* Bal is strong. I am a servant of Nikan, I was nearly left desolate. I tell 
you die tidings of God; the king comes with God. The kings arose against the 
enemy's army. I am a servant of Nikan. The army is placed in die hands of 
our grand&dier, in Otggo, as far as NahgdQ war is raging. 

Fori u I^ fnffh i/ka Nikan tfari u gt* Ht$nl 

Who shall inherit your village, you son of Nikan t Your village will be built 
by spears! 

W^ yikgi, yiigil Fa ^ikanfa hi iiimi, Iwdgd d hf^ ki Wurokwar d ky^; 
Iwigd fa tugul aky^l a d^nii, ka toJcQ, bin gin, Arcoikmn, fa wgti Oinjwitk,fa 
u>dti Abdll wei yi^g^ yilgQ» /> ^ikan fa M ^bmL 

Let them cany (people) away ! The house of Nikan will never be finished, 
my people refuse (to surrender), Wurokwar refuses; my people are not to be 
played with! One will always be left; and he will follow them (die enemies), 
Areoiiidin, firom die village of the children of Ognju^k, die village of die children 
of AboL Let diem carry away, the house of Isikan will never be finished. 

Agigjdn Anin-wdn, wq teau ofML A UHiffi, a waf^i yo, d§, k^ld Fijit^ Mitchk 
rifa digi r^ mache rifa d^gi rft, AkHi-Ndkwi, a k^ljw^k. Machcyafa doge r^. 

Agogjang Anongwan is cursing the Turks, they are coming near, diey are 
approaching on the way, diey come up die moudi of the Sobat. But die fire of 
their guns will return on diemselves, their fire will return on themselves; Akole 
Nyakwe he comes (against them) widi God. Their fire will return on themselves. 

YdfU lyhfit, yafU lyafid, ^ikan, yafit h/afo, yafif lyafo, jal dufiii, ya 
fit lyafQ. 

I am tired of being waylaid, I am tired of being watched upon, Nikan, I am 
tired of being waylaid, my master, I am tired of being waylaid. 

Digitized by 


238 Songs 

Kd di b^n Agwitf wat Jok, ya re (de) Wrii yinq^ yd yi^ Kifih AldU yd yiilt 
yi kwayQy k^h AlaU vmru Wit. 

But for Agwit, the son of Jok^ I should have left inj countiy, and gone £ur 
away; I have been saved by the strength of Alal, I have been saved by our 
grandfather, the powerful Alal, the son of W^t. 

Nd Ddk, yi kwaeha ngf Ya kuxicha nid^! Chi ya k^ kun, fura ydn. Ya yiili 
yi kwd Ayddit. Wang, Na Ddk girg, pack ki tuk, 6wdu fa IM wikd. 

You son of Ddk, what do you ask for? I ask for a hoe, for wherever I go 
I hoe the ground. I have been preserved by our grandfeither Ayddo. The modier 
of the son of Ddk has built us a house under the deleb palms; the branches of 
the deleb are like an army.* 

M^ki byil Nakdyo, ya chm ya ydn^, make by^l Abuk, man Df^ ya chQf[ yd 


By the dura-beer of N^akdya I walk, I am filled with it, by the beer of Abuk, 
the mother of D&iy I am walking, I am filled with it 

Akol a dugk mal; yd nina r^. Ki filni gwach, rUme yijd ntAit- Ddk a shwgu, 
ehwou obwofi Dbr^. 

Akol has returned. I live through him free from oppressors. The anxieties 
of my heart were many. But Ddk roared, he roared the white people away to 


Mino ki gyints menu k{ gyini, gylne Ddk yi, m^g ki gyin^ 

Each one has his own fowl, each one has his own fowl, but all fowl belong 
to Ddk. 

Ya rayi rgi! sn^ gin dnq f biooiiQl T^q, ywqgQ maL by^ a kil yi obwoti. Kwayt 
fa tbk, ika Ddk a kQljtDQk. ISfd gil kwaM kit tin, %oa kela my tunl ObwoA chama 
ydkd ydn. Tstq bin nUtiyiik tn. J^an a ^ ydn f Yan a rff| tdbg. Shdgi, dqk Iwdffh 
yi u ^ki ki nan mik^, 

I am fleeing away, shouting loud! What is the matter? "The white people!'' 
the people are shouting loud. "The dura is being earned away by the white 
people!'' — But our grandfather is not absent. The son of Ddk is coming with 
God. Ye people, take your shields! We will go this way! The white people 
want to take away all our property. Other people have not been robbed by 
them ! Who ever dared to take away my goods? I, the king of the people! Ye 
Arabs, turn back your hosts, fight another tribe! 

^ The rustling of tiie leares of the deleib palm is like the rustling of an armj; so tiiat when tiia 
enemy approaches the Tillage, they imagine they hear an army, and flee. 

Digitized by 


Sonji^s 239 

105. Mourning songs, and others. 

Aba na Nikan, Amt/sle wA tgh. Fii rtind ya dhn^ twhlb. Lwon fan dtHy fh jdn 
win. Amygle lw0i, wflt Kwdjhriity d^ kdl, don i twhlttj fay dgn i twal^y fay dgn e 
yar^. Ag^mwilfan^ittgQ. 

Aba, the son of Nikan, my father Amy^le, is no more. Look at me, I am left 
poor. LwQn is away, he, our chief^ Amy^l LwqA, the son of Kwajeriu. Oar family 
is left destitute, our village is left destitute, our home is left reproached. Agum- 
wels he was a great chief. 

Afyik toat Den, liawi tf^r. AryaUb^k yon dean, u kwaya AjwQt^imin. 
Afyek, the son of Den, is waylaying in the grassy place. Aryalbek loosens a 
cow and gives it to AjwQt-iiimin, to herd (= to possess) it. * 

Ayidoke, WQt Ryalniwtt Wun-di&rS, Aytki, Wuni-^Sn-bil, ya wati ki yu kun a 
kal in. 

Ryalawet Wundiaro, Ayiko, Wunegenbel Ayidoke, I lost the way in which 
he went. 

Akw^niyor, yina mdiijur, de ya dgn birl Jinbik, AkwQneyor, kwar^fa igwa 
PqL Gi, ki rache weya don a bgr. AkwQt a l^nQ, fal; ya yafa jagQ Dunk^k, ya yafa 
Okwoni, AjalHiabaii gwan, Ndmailiu 

Akwoneyor, you captured people, but I was left poorl Jingbek, Akwoneyor. 
their grandchildren are dying in the wilderness. They live in misery, are left 
destitute. AkwQt threw me out into the bush. I am searching for chief Dunkok, 
I am searching for Okwoni, Ajalnyaban-gioan, Nyamailai. 

Akwoneyor, yi kifja kgii ki Iwctgif AkwotQ nutiittli^. Oldm-b^ a gil chor. Olam 
tia Nikan, Dulni WQi Ker, Kwalai a gel chor. Na Nikan ki mayi BiJc 

Akwoneyor, where have you brought people? Akwoto has never been cursed 
by his subjects,* Oldm-b0i is a preserver of men in the famine. Olam, soif of 
Nyikang, Dulai, son of Ker is a preserver of people in hunger, a son of rfikan 
and of his mother Blk. 

Agw'it-i/iane^Um, feiii a /SjJ chyi, Iwak a rsj/i, Agwlt Ha Nikan 1 Di ywogo ♦'w*^ 
iQbo tdni chini. 

Agwetnyanedong, the country is starved, the people are dying. Agwet, son 
of Nyikang, they are mourning, stretching up their hands. 

* A song of catde stealing. ' has always been lored. 

Digitized by 


240 Songs 

AdQl-tuny yi k^ h^ f NuQr a Ufa^i, ya k^ ftni Idnhjwqk^ Awen^ lika I^. 
''Adoltung, where are you going?" "The Nuers are approaching, I am going 
to the town of God, oh Awen, son of Yor.** 

Akol Dak lia IJikaht Kaye^Darf^ AkoUku^ AkoUKwalaiy ika Ogak FoIq, kwai 
ddj^, ya yiili yin^ a yiada yin sh^ H dyiri^ ya yi&i. Ydl^ maye Diki, Amql ria 
Ogak C=r Shot), Iwagi Mfyh^ Mfyi^* Shal k^l Kffk ma wof^; nan fki gani 
il^ t nane chiikQ ywddd ki DM^i, wajji shwai ywodoy Iwak Am^ ika Nikan. 

Akol, Dak, eon of Nyikang, Eaye Dnro. Akolukn, Akol Ewalai, son of Ogak 
Folo, you grandfather of men, I am preseryed by you, I have been saved by 
you in ancient times, 1 have been preserved. Yakol, you father of Dak, AmoL 
your people are continually asking me, ''has Shal gone?*' Hunger is approaching; 
where has he gone, he who preserves die descendants? Licking of hands' I 
found at DeiiQ, eating of soup found I, you people of AmQl, the son of Nikon. 

Ajdk'b<l^''tDilrJQk, kwaeha kwar^ kwaeha tygn fa jwQk, r||( e dugk maL Kwaeha 
kwayt yau. Tbm i gijhi yon da Nikon, rij^ e dunk mal; tind/a yffia ahindf Yan 
do Nikon; feA a yi&s a yiil i r|»i; yafura byiU y^^f^k^t ya fdna shyia, Wuro- 
ktod^ kQti biuiil 

Ajak-banweljok, I am praying to our grand&ther, I am praying to the people 
of the place of God, the king* has returned. I am praying to our grand&ther. 
The holy drum is being beaten, I am widi ]^ikan, the king* has returned to 
us. Is not my spear in my hand? I am with Nikan. The country is saved, it is 
saved, though it was desolate. I am planting my dura; I thank (my ancestors), 
I lift up my hands, Wuro-Ewa, strengtiien my arms! 

"Ucking of hands** if an ezprefidon for plenty of good food. * Nikan. 

Digitized by 


Riddles 241 


106. Riddles. 

Aduk g^n^ liiyl: m^ 6/un. The gray one is going under a pond: Loaf 

of bread, which is put into the fireplace. 
i^ii, guwi mini t^klt : idti Ml. my necklace is seen beyond the river : The 

unbarked, white fence sticks. 
nemii k( ret ggn fa guti: tuni dean. Brothers who never hurt each other: The 

two horns of a cow. 
AjtDogQ Ian toar^ 4 yQwQ: yiep dean, which sorcerer spends the whole night in 

swinging?: The tail of the cow. 
Anar-narkemQWinFashodQ: dUf/it- Anor-nor visits his father (the king) at 

Fashoda : The grass called al^yo, which is 
used in making ropes. When taxes, cows 
etc., are brought to the king at F., the rope 
with which the things are bound, gets to F. 
Fwot, fa fyil: bill It is beaten, yet is does not ease: The drum. 
A r^ a rik, /era mani: t§dit, (Dinka-language, except the last word.) 
Akurjiin d^n: chogQ. white pigeons: Bleached bones. 
Apo tok^ ty^k okodQ: To ^o^. 

Adiik obSgh kwdti liigi: gyino. The gray one who is spotted is driving her 

little ones: The hen. 
Aduk chdr yi/wd^: 6tQk. The gray one is running towards the fields: 

The mist. 
^ejdkgwotifeA: dw^i. The black-white cow is making white the 
earth: The moon. 
J^toqliya^ jgnq eJdtgh take bur: yij^. Little children stand continually at the side 

of the heaps of ashes: The ears of man. 
i^iem^ ^Qff^ Zi^ii/^: Or^tff^ Two brothers, their mouth is turned down: 

The nose. 
Addle jwgk yig^ lUn /M : fflu. The calabash of God which is turned down- 
ward : The fruit of the heglig-tree. 
Agar agar^ ya^ wiii: l^k. A long row of trees full of white birds : The 

teeth. Along the rivers one sees frequently 
trees which are literally covered with snow- 
white birds. 
Wii^fei^ilcar^faidr: anQnfl, Thrown on the ground, yet not broken: 

Mucus from the nose. 

WBSTnOCAini, Tk« SUUuk P«opl«. l6 

Digitized by 


242 Riddles 

T^lpdfe rate: ehul ^aj^ 
Ye^ ton H yeik tgn: wan ^tof^ It is on this side mnd on the other side: The 

eje of man. 
Ya weH yi kfi% kffkf ^spi ^aj^ I Am travelling, where are you going?: The 

shadow of man. 
Wd ddfflt* ibA k^: bur. We remove, he does not go : The ashes. K 
people leave a home-stead, the ashes renudn 
A rigi rik pere mani: Ted^* 

* Some of the riddlee hare aot been trtaiUled, their meftoiiif hthkg obioeiie, ■ome hsre lor Ifaif 
roMon bees omitted eltoi^ether. 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 



a — ddi 


Remark. Different dialectical forms of a word are not given here. I£ cor- 
responding forms of a word in other languages than Shilluk are noted in the 
Comparative List in Part I, they are not repeated here. 


a my; see Grammar. 
d denotes the past tense. 
i it is; i ffln An^ which 

thing (what) is it? 
i which? A jitl 4 which 

man is it? 
i yes 
^ abhch a cow with horns 

directed straight side- 
dbAm^ch a bird, living 

on fish 
dbdii-dbdfi hanm^ier 
dbir a kind of reed. a. 

d yii ndm the a. is on 

the river 
abaraffir^ a big worm, 

living on the heglig tree 
dbdt (ar.) fishhook 
dbd(Ar^dbd(uti the igu- 

dbtch five 
dbid^k eight 
dbihy^l six 
d6iii a gourd out of which 

spoons are made 
dbinw^ nine 

dbip small-pox 

dbiry^u seven 

iibQbhy also dbwdbit am- 
bach, Herminiera ela- 
phroxylon; the plant 
as well as things made 
of it, asarm-rings^boats, 

iibQk^itbiH a very poi- 
sonous snake 

dtbi poor; t/d fd dbik I am 
poor, see bikj bitnd 

hbtirit-iLbur the bushbuck 
(Ba. aburi) 

itbtDbkmBize^ com] gifdr 
a. H/vf^ they planted 
com in the field 

dbwini toch the butt of 
the gun 

dchh that there, those 

achah'Ochdk poet 

dchdn behind, back; see 

dchdii-dchdii a fish 

dchim straight 

deh{chwil (ar.) chain 

dchbyit melon 

dchhnj^-dchuni the small 
black house-ant 

dchiii'dckA^ arm-ring of 
ambach; syn. og^no 

dchtodt^ - dchtod^ loin- 
cloth for women 

dchwdi ' <^Ati^ guinea- 

ddiwik a bird 

dchtoih^cktvik anus; syn. 

dchyh^ - dchytn bladL 
winged ant, fives in 
houses, its bit is pain- 

dddljhddi^ gourd, cala- 

ddik three 

ddirit'ddir an arm-ring 
of ambach ; syn. oj/mq 

ddir^'ddir donkey; a 
cAflli tvick adsTQ he 
rode on a donkey 

odiTQ serf 

ddi, ddi, also idi, how, 
how much? chim ddi 

Digitized by 


adimit — alwidit^ 


how many days ? (Di. 

adimif^itni beak 
ddino-Min an electric fish 
ddhlh-dd^l a fish 
adudii^adut a basket 
dduk grey 

aduke a kmd of red dura 
ddu^f also dduQu a month, 

about March 
ddwir^Midtoari a fish 
adwat chicken-pocks 
a^dt-adat (ar.?) bottle 
dddi^ pistol 

d^^j; armour, armament 
hdhrlik a kind of white 

dura [son 

adtotn an honourable per- 
afa in order that 
d/Af also d/% hail, hail- 
stone; a. dt/^m^ it is 

dfSijit'dfidcJA hare, rabbit 
^y^ib^ husk, as of cotton 
dfid^fiti a fish, with 

big belly, four large 

upper and lower front 

offik these, those (Di. 

dghk^iH crow; dgimk 

chwdi a little black 

crow (Bo. gaki) 
dg^k uncultiYated land 
cysf^ Jyeeh a herb with a 

blue blossom 
dgtr^-dgir a hair-dress 

of the men 

hgif^i blessed ; see g"^ 
ig^f gbn where? Aglin 

hi where is he? %^ 

ghi where are they ? 
dgdnli general name for 

white dura 
dgirit'dghr neck -bone, 

cervical vertebra 
ctgwin - iigufin bastard 

dgwir^ a season, about 

November -December, 

harvest of white dura 
dgwdli-^wQH a fish 
dgytn niolt^ niim a small 

bird with a white bill 
afoJQ heifer; see liayoJQ 
(ijiL^n proper name for 

men (also name for a 

djiXl grey hawk 
djtoigi^jw^k medecine- 

man, witch-doctor, 

ak these 
dkdeh a kind of white 

akal^kaH bird-trap 
akdn^ verandah, shed 
dkdr-ikir a bird, eating 

akdre yaf^ branch of a tree 
dkit/^Skii the child of 

my sister ; niece, 

dl^ch the dura-bird 
dkhi tyilh calf of the leg 
dkQch a month ; dk^ti duon 

about January, dk^ 

|«3^ about February 
dkSkd a basket 
dkQl^kSH drum-stick 
aA;i^Z(2it (Dinka?) amonth, 

about May 
dlt^-dkiiTii gazella rubi- 

dkur (dkiiri)'dkuri wild 

pigeon; dkur-jwdt a 

small bush - pigeon 

(Turkana akurt) 
^/»(7air^A a bird ( '^ it herds 

the heifer'') 
dkwdn-dkwdn ear-lap 
dkwil a kind of red dura 
dkwQr husk 

dkg^l one ; alone, single 
dh/in - dkytfi cock or 

spanner of a gun 
alabQ rice 

dial a kind of white dura 
dl^b^dlipi a bird 
dtib&r a month, about 

dlti^tifii a fish 
alifo a food: dura with 

dried meat 
dliyh a grass, used in 

making ropes 
dUUi bat 
dl^ the (holy) spear 

of Nikan, which he 

brought into the Shilluk 

country, is said to be 

kept at FeiHkan 
dlun-^liin somersault 
dlutit-dlu^ fist; buffeting 
dhdtdd a kind of white 

Digitized by 



ama — diwich 

dora, it has four ears, 
like four "fingers'' ; its 
stalk is chewed like 
sugar cane; see IwidQ 

ama because 

dfnitgdk a dance, accom- 
panied by singing and 
clapping of hands, but 
without drum. 

amal in front of; see mal 

iundli first; ty^l a. at first, 
the first time ; see tnal 

amiiUt (ar.) - iimaH camel 

Amiri fdri rhicinus 

dmdfrdmitf^ a stork, black 
with white breast, nests 

dmlfi, (ako ctm^) - ctmik 

dmtoSl'dmuHili a large 
black fish 

andn, ctndn^niin, here, 
now, just now, pre- 
sently, at once 

ariAnity iniuiQ = andn; 
ako : here it is 

dn^ki^ spirit of a deceased 
person; vfij^ da a. he 
is possessed by a spirit, 
he is senseless, mad; 
see fiQgQ 

anon quarrel 

anor-nor a certain grass, 
used in making ropes 

diian brown earth 

dtiwSch a season, about 
October, end of the 
red dura harvest 

i^niuJlih^ndnl breast-bone 

hniki red sand 
dnifiJHinifi a small red 

ant, feeds on carrion 
dn^-J^ what, which? 

(Teso lios Nr. nu what, 

Ba. na who) 
an^l a mocker 
dngti'dn^f^ a knife lor 

cutting grass 
dnijtnit Bnot, mucus 
dntoin four (Nr. nwaih 

Masai ununiih Teso too- 

nonOs Ba. umoan) 
hpiT fish-line 
hrd well! why! by God! 

see re 
Mch-^rtkih a shell 
ar^ an exclamation 
dry^u two (Madi eri, 

Abokaya iri, Teso omt, 

Masai are 
cUAbi - dtim (a foreign 

word) tobacco 
dtM-dtdl a large pot 
iittgh, «1bo iuHga-i^h 

(finger-)ring of metal; 

iittnk dttgn big ring 

(Nr. ak) 
dtiii-atdii hht 
€Usr enmity 
dtk, also dtit^tit man- 

gouste, ichneumon 
dtini just now, to-day; 
itti well! [see tin 

dtiidif<ithti a wild goose 

(Di. twot, attool, Nr. 


Attilfi the Sobat 

iU^nit wind, gale, blast 


cuat a bead, worn by the 

dtwah^twhk a bird 

d0bit 9k kind of red dura 

a;fflch ^Iqu a very tough 

i^t^i (foreign word?) 

df^ ^f^ the buttocks 

^p^^Pf also €^p bag, 
sack (Di. atep) 

ifir forever, for a long 

dj^-^)gH» 1^0 afir a 
small stick or spear of 
wood, such as were in 
use formeriy; used in 
digging eatable roots 

(^u4-if |ttt a small water- 
pot, in shape of a 

ciiuthdeh a small hut for 
the new elected king(?) 

du^, dhioii yesterday 
ditwdr-diiwii the day 
before yesterday 

ctwai a kind of red dura 

ctwdh^wtik a bird 

dwMit a bird 

dtoin when? 

dti^ a kind of white dura 

dwd yes 

dtwich^awSch a large, cy- 
lindrical shell 

Digitized by 


awQk — bi 

^u^i nj^m a cow with 
horns directed straight 
upwards, like a goat's 

atcui^ marrow, as of 

dt/deh bltr a bird 
iiyieh sand, dust [ridge 
^tyitr-dyikn quail, part- 
cty^lkdk a cow, black with 
white tail 



dt/imlt ' dt/ftm tin, 

ments of tin 
hyu)6krhywdlc tuft, crest 

of birds 
dytodm-dytobml monkey 


bA, bi I. to be; 2. not 

Bdehm, PdehSdh Fasho- 

bagQ to make a fence; 

pt d baka bak he made 

a fence, pe. bdk, n. bik 
b^go, to boil (eggs, com), 

to stew (meat); a baka 

*^' ffy&^ he boiled 

eggs ; pe. a b^k 
bat bnttermilk 
bdjd to tie together; pt 

d b^cM IdUf pe. d bSch^ 

b^h, n. b^ch 
bajd to miss; y<i bdehdt Iq% 

I missed the game 
bik-bik fence, palisade 
biUt to throw; a b^la 

gwok he threw at the 

dog; see bqin 
bdni syn. b^nin 
b^lnQ to make a mistake, 

to be confused, yexed; 

to scold; to dispute 
bdnif^ini the meat on 

the skin of killed ani- 
ban^i to roll up (?) 

a cow with one horn 
directed downward, 
the other upward 

6d9i^ to refuse, to prohi- 
bit; pt. d baiiit gxoQk 
he refused to work 

bhi/iifbAik locust 

bin I . behind, after, back, 
2. slaye, servant, per- 
son belonging to one ; 
more frequently: WQt 
bah (^\x.abak hindpart) 

b^pa to ask for a thing, 
to beg; pt a bapi gin 
eham heaskedforfood; 
pe. a bip 

bivf ako bir long, fitr 

bar eariy in morning, 

barQ to be long, far 

bit'bit arm, fore-leg, 
trunk of the elephant 

ba^ to throw; pt a bala 
kif he threw a stone, 
fe. kit abH the stone 
was thrown 

bdyj^ mosquito see b^yn 

bi for, in order to ; from 
bia to come 

bseh, also bach bundle 

bida to remam, stay, be; 
to refuse; pt a bida 
toQt he stayed in the 

b^ mosquito ; see bf^Q 

Mjfit to wring out; lau da 
pt, bechi the cloth is 
wet, wring it out 

bil a month, btl j^ July, 
bil di^h June 

bllo, to taste; pt a b&a 
gin cham; pe. a bil; n. 
bil (Nr. bil) 

lin^ also b^ni all, quite 
(Di. ebenj 

b^k^ that is, he is, that 
is why, from bi "to 
be", and in "he, it" 

bini to come; d l^ 
jal a man came (Nr. 

btr (ar.) flag, banner 

bir poor, destitute, wast- 
ed; from l^djtf 

b^ I. round spear, fish- 
spear. 2. (sharp?) 

b^Qr^ mosquita 

bifb\iU^ com^ 

Digitized by 



bt — bworo 

bt white ant 

bids bii to come (Teso 
bia to come) 

biffin = bogon 

boch barren ; see bwQch 

bo^Q to cast iron, to work 
in iron; to be clever, 
to escape a danger; 
pt, pe. a b^i; n. 6dd^ 

6^ - bS^ blacksmith, 

bdgi^n (from bi and gon) 
there is not 

bii'bbi net; b^i drdf cob- 
web (Bo. boi) 

bokq to fear, to be afraid; 
pt. a l^H (Eoamba 

bol a mat for closing a 
door; used by chiefs 

bbUhbbl face, front, front- 
side, in front of; 6^Z 
t^ the shaft of the 

bSl^ to have misfortune, 
disaster, to be bereav- 

bol 0fio neck - ring of 

bomo to be bent, crooked ; 
yaf^ d btm the tree is 

b^h to laugh; pt. a b$ii; 
see ^j^ 

bbnd'bitni pelican 

l^nifbbni a small lizard 

btr^b^r boil 

bdr^i also btr afternoon; 
Un ki bdr this afternoon 

bdfi'bd^ bachelor 

bi to have not, to lack 

Buda-Chol native name 
for Taufikia; ako Bura- 
Cliol; Bura is the same 
as buro "open place" ; 
the meaning of the 
name is: "the open 
place of the Shilluks'', 
Tauf being situated 
in a free place, not 
covered with grass or 

bCdi-b&t a shell 

bUd^ part, half 

biidii, also biidb to lie, to 
lie down, to be sick; 
pt. d b^ti; n. biitit 

budQ to roast, to bake; 
pt. a but he roasted; 
also a bul; a budi rich 
he roasted fish; pe. 
reck a bUl (Nr. ftwfc) 

budit-bu^ a small melon, 
sweet, eatable 

buda to be tired, troubled, 
vexed; to tire; 1d>rii 
bU^i "my breast", that 
is "I, am tired" 

bigin there is not; ut^ 
g^k yeijt, chbn ddik^ 
bugln a w4ki wdn we 
worked three days 
there was not a thing 
he gave us: he gave 
us nothing 

bugQ to press the bellows ; 
pt. d buk k( dbuk; pe. 

buh exclamation of sur- 

bul-buli drum (Earamojo 

bun part 

bitnb to have not, to lack 

bup mud, Somal bar hole 

bAr-bi^r cave, well 

bur abwok the blossom 
of the com 

biir ashes 

buri^ = bur ashes ; ako : 
free, open place in die 
village, covered with 
ashes (Di. fewr, Nu. but) 

bnte side, beside; from 
budQ to lie? 

bw^il uncooked batter 

bwQch sterile ; syn. bgch 

bu^d^ = bo^ to be 
clever, pt. a bo^ 

bwSgit to frighten ; pt d 
bwltk; n. bu>8gi, see 

bwiifiirbwQii white man, 
European, Arab; bwQfi 
jwok missionary (Nr. 

bwdtii a kind of red dura 

buf^jhbw^i a fish 

bwQjhhu^p the lower 
part of the belly 

bwoTQ to make a mistake^ 
to err; ^&^ i buigrq he 
makes a mistd^e in 

t»J*^; ^ yigi y« 

bw^il, »ii kbfi ydn if I 
make a mistake, tell 
me! pt. bwori 

Digitized by 





&y^ to follow; pt. 



byil dura; pL of by^li 
byilii also bytUt^bt/Sl dura 

byh^'byir belly, 
byhr^hyh" root 



chhi probably short for 
chan "day"; sometimes 
used for "when", and 
in the composition '*8ha 
ni^ko" some time, at 
some future time, in 

chh short for ehagq, chaka 

' to begin, intend 

chQbQ to mix, knead, 
tread; pt. a ch^ph 
(cJuiph) iQbq he mixed 
mud; pe. a cfiip, chap; 
n. chip, or chdp 

chQbg, to kick ; pt. d ch^pi 
gwok he kicked the 
dog; pe. a ch^p; n. 

ehagq war to compose a 
song, n. eh&k 

chdffQ to approach, come 
near; to be near; a 
chAki he approached; 
a ch. kih mikQ he 
changed his place, re- 

chagq to begin, pt. a 
chaki (ord chaka) gwQjk 
he began to work, pe. 
a chdk 

cKdk milk; ch. nqyq 

chAki near; see chano 
and cKagq 

clidl wax 

chdlQ to be similar, like ; 
to resemble; pt. d 
chiH yin he is like you 

chAlit a kind of white 

ch&m left, left handed 
(Di. chdmy Nr. ch&m) 

chAmi'cfidfni (chaml) bait; 
see chamq to eat; ya 
kijja ch. dqk abaj^ I put 
a bait on the hook 

chamQ to eat; to outwit, 
cheat, deceive; pt. d 
chhrnh byil he ate dura ; 
pe. d chdm; n. chAm 

chamo to be going to, to 
wish , intend , want ; 
often shortened into 
chd or ch^ 

chdn behind, ya k^ chdn 
I am going behind 

chdn (chdndychini sun, 
day, time; ki chin 
every day, daily; de 
chan tin to-day (Nr. 

cfidnQ, also chdn(i to 
approach, to come or 
be near, pt. a chdni, 

OTch&ni; n. ch&nbf and 

chdni shallow place 
chdnit - chdni the upper 

part of the inner thigh 
chao pi ki feh to pour 

water on the ground 
chJdp a rat 
chhr^^ or ch/dr^ very, in 

a high degree 
chdri mach light of fire, 

chafQ^ (chQ{o) to move in 

a direction; to walk, 

go ; to ride, drive ; pt. 

a chaj^ nau he went 

naked (Di. kat, cKot) 
chayq to blame, abuse, 

che short for chamQ to be 

going to, and for chago 

to begin 
c^ just, now 
ch^ (chyedo) to hate, 

pt. a chs^i ^chq he 

hated the woman, pe. 

c/iit^ n. cfiii 
ch^go, (chyego) to com- 
mand, pt. a ch^ka dan, 

pe. a ch^k, n. ch^k 

ch^go to catch (fish with 

Digitized by 



c^^SQ. — chudo 

a trap or hook), pt d 
ch^ka recK pe* ^ chik^ 
n. chtk; see cAi(/(2 

cA^^i2 to be ripe, see 

cf^ffQ} chyigo, to be short 

chi^gQ to repeat, see chigQ 

ch^ky chy^ (to be) short 

ch^m straight 

chffnQ toch to aim a gun 

chind wQt dripping-eaves 

chffiQ to curse, to kill by 

chiTQ to do or be done 
at once, just now, just 
before; e chir^ binj^ he 
comes at once ; a ch^t 
fiwgl he had been bom 
just before 

chtt straightway, just, 
exactly ; see chlrQ 

chi^f ckyH. excrements of 
man or animals ; chiffi 
gyinQ dung ol fowls 
(Nr. chysQ ; see ehi^ 

ch^nd a kind of white 

chiti tyil^ foot-sole (?) 

chi-miln wife 

ehibo to put, place; pt. 
a chip fukfefi he put 
the pot on the ground, 
ya chipdt a^p chygn^ I 
put the bag into his 

cA|^ to suffer from diar- 
rhoe, pt a chl^^ n. chei 

chigQ to lay a trap, to 
catch fish in a trap or 

crawl, pt. a ehifca reeh^ 
pe. a chyiky n. ch/i^ 

chigo, to repeat, continue, 
a ckUca gwQk he re- 
peated, continued his 

chigo, chytgo, to conmiand 

ckilo dirt, soot (Bo. $hi) 

chlni over diere, yonder 

chinit, also chtnit-chin in- 
testines, bowels (Nr. 

chin obanQ "hands'" i. e. 
string, of apron 

chlu to come to the sur- 

chodo, choda to break off, 
to rend, pt a chdta jgZ 
he broke the rope; pe. 
a chat; n. chSt 

chodQ to blow (of wind) 

chodQ to put (into), to 

chdgo, chQgO to remain, 
continue, go on; a chok^ 
a ehoga (cKoka) gwQJc 
n. chig^'^ see chigq 

chogQ to abstain from; 
to stop, finish 

chig^hdk a fish, M ehdm 
yi ji it is eaten by 

chigii-chi bone (Nr. cho- 

choJQ to beat, wound with 
a sword; a cKgeh jal 
Sni he wounded this 
man, pt. a ch^h 

chok it is finished 

Ch^l, Ckbl Shilluk; see 


ehdl dirty (Ju. chol bladt, 
Nr. chdl black) 

chdlQ to avenge, to give 
compensation, to pay 
a fine ; n. chSl^ 

chin, chin formerly, some- 

ehjtnt di kwdm the back- 
bone; see ehqgd 

chonQ to dance; g^ ehgno 
bul they are dancing 
to the drum 

cKqhq to assemble; to 
gather, pile up, store 
up ; jal dtiQn a ehona 
je ki bfifit ihe chief 
assembled the people 
in the open place (Nr. 
chwuk) ; see chukq 

ch^r blind; see ckwQr 

chdr-chj^ vulture 

chQTQ to move towards, 
to go into ; e ehorq de 
faeh he goes into the 
village; pt d chjtr, n. 

ch6t a steer without horns 

chd^ that is all! past tense 
of a verb whose pre- 
sent is not used 

chudQ to groan, moan 

chudd = cholq to make 
amendments; pt a chut, 
a chSly n. ehdl 

chuda to clean, polish; 
chu^ l^ to bnish,clean 
the teeth; see chk{ 

Digitized by 


chiigit — chyhk 


chug^Mh charcoal 
chuho to assemble 

euulu, Nu. sorot)] ch. 

fftook copper-bracelet; 

ch. opjoQn a certain 

chu1^o liver, eMiHi^ m^ 

^my liver is sweet": I 

am satisfied, happy; 

chuiia rack I am vexed, 

chun pi. chin s. knee (Ba. 

kgno, Earamojo ahun^ 

Teso akungi) 
chunQ to stand, stop, wait, 

be quiet, be silent; pt. 

a ehuni; ck^hi^ chunil 

be quiet! (Nr. chun); 

compare choffQ 
chunQ to assemble; see 

chulcQ and chonQ 
chuTQ to be bald; toija 

chiir my head is bald 
chirt^hitr a fish 
chute gin cham (t) to ask 

for food; firom chwQtQ 
chiif^Mtfi tooth-brush 
chwagQ to absolve, justify, 

pt jago a chwiikd, ndn 

an the judge absolved 

this man, pe. d chwdki 

chtohi-ckwdyi soup, broth 
(Di. chvxii)'^ vide chwi 

chwaJQ to form, create, 
make, build; pt. a 
chtodehit f^q she made 
a pot; pe. a chtoach n« 

ehv)iieh (Di. chwech, 

chwij/h-chvAk ambassador 

of the king 
ckwak throat, voice, self 
chwcLT^hwar bug 
chwayQ to pierce, perfor- 
ate; pt. d chwai yaf^f 

pe. d chwdi 
chtoe leeches 
chwi (to be) fat (Di. chtoai, 

Nr. chwaO 
chweJQ to suck out (a 

wound), to bleed a 

man; to absorb, suck 

up ; pi a chwech yi pM 

the water was sucked 

up by the earth 
chweky chwQk ambassador 

of the king; see chwqk 
chwlk twins 
cku^lo to circumcise; pt 

a chtoila ddj^ pe. a 

chwil, n. cAtr^Z 
chtvh' a season, about 

May- July ; the dura is 

being planted 
chtoeyQ to become fat 
chwinQ to begin to rot, 

decompose ; pt rino d 

chwiiiQ liver; see chuiiQ 
chwQJbQ to be visible, clear, 

distinct, kwofi chwqp 

his speech is clear 
chiDQbo to mix, a chwQpa 

kwgn H mau he mixed 

the bread with fat, n. 


chtoqbo to spear, to pierce 

violently ; pt ^^ chwopa 

dean they speared a 

cow; pe. a chw^p 
ehwdg^ehu bone 
chwogo to stay, = chogo 
chwQlQ to call ; see chwQto 
chwoiHo mach to light a 

schwin chaff 
chwonQ to be late, to stay 

behind, yi rh chu^n 

why are you late? n. 

chwgr vulture 
chwQT blind (Nr. cfiQr) 
chwoTQ to be blind 
chwQto to call; to ask for; 

to mean; pt. a chwQjta 

jal, or a chwQlajalf pe. 

jal a cKwqI (Nr. chwoJ^ 

Di. chgl) 
chwQu male, man (Nr. 

chwQWQ to roar; pt. a 

chwdtoi, n. chwQw^ 
chy^'chyii excrement, 

dung; see cAg 
chy^ to hate ; see chgi^ 
chyigQ I. to ripen, to be 

well cooked, be done; 

2. to be short; pt d 

(^^yi9Q to shut, close 
chy^gQ labQ to knead 

mud for building 
cf^y&SIQ to command (Di. 

chy^k short (Di. chyek) 

Digitized by 



chy^k — dqjo 

clit/ik'tnin wife, chyigi 
chw^l his wife was 
called, see chi wife 

(Nr. chyek) 

chysfiQ^hyin, chin haod, 
forearm (Di. chy^n, 
Turkana ekan) 

chylrQ to sneeze; chycrq 

ydf to take snuff 
chy^tQ to chase 
chydu-chyoioi porcupine 


da to have, yi da dkan I 

have a cow 
dafol rat 
dSffo to move into an 

another phice, to emi- 
grate; pt. d dik; n. d^k; 

see d^no 
dak - dak tobacco - pipe, 

small pot 
dakigl-dakdki a stick for 

digging the ground or 

planting dura 
ddmQ t^n (Di.) to avoid 

a spear 
dim the gums (Somal dan) 
dgnfi see d^no 
dir^ to be overtired, to 

break down, to be 

afflicted with, pt. a 

diri yi jwok 
dctth'ddt hoof 
di forms the perfect tense 
di short for dyir middle, 

in, into 

di chdn noon 
di chdn tin to-day 
d^ chbn forever 
dido to liflt up, as a boat 

from the ground 

dedot door 

d^uk grey; see (xduk 

diffQ to move into, e dign 
yey togt he moves into 
the house ; see d^gQ 

dfk stupid ; see 4^gQ 

dikugi = d^kigl, stick 
for digging the ground 

diUdil skin, hide, whip, 
dil d^k lip, d. liin eye- 
lid; dela bin afet ^my 
whole skin is tired^: 
I feel very tired (Ga. 
odweU Di. det) 

dtm^ to fall down, pt. a 
d&n, n. d^mi^; see 
dyffnq; perhaps dimlt 
is not properly a verb 
of its own, but the in- 
finitive of dysnio (Nr. 
demo to rain) [bone 

d^n-d^ni the lower jaw- 

d^^y ako denQ, to scatter, 
to part, to separate, pt 
d&rif den 

dir^ why, when? (from 
fife iTi "but why") 

dkin-^itin the spitting 

dido to learn, to be ack- 

nowledged with, to 
know; ft a dit ki do 
Chql he learned the 
Shilluk language, n. 

c^Jbo: a d(ki v?6u the sun 
is setting, darkening 

dimQ to dry, to wipe; a 
dim chysMi he wiped 
his hands 

dljh^li a fish 

dir middle, truth, true, 
upright; see dyir 

dtt (Dinka) large, big 

dich (to be) good, nice, 
agreeable , right ; yi 
I^t k( dich I remained 
a good (a long) time 

dQcho to twist, to wring 

dodq mQgQ to brew beer, 
pt. a dwQla m.; pe. 
mQgQ a dto$l; n. dw^l 

d^di black earth; nypk a 
dgdQ iron 

<^ffQ. to go back, to turn 
back ; pt. a dok, n. digit* 
see duQgQ 

digilpiu chameleon 

doJQ to be good, to be- 
come good; n. dbjit 

Digitized by 


ditk — ddU 

dbk gum-sap, caoutchouc 

dbl circle 

dolo to make round, a 

circle; n. dZL 
dolQ mQffQ to make beer, 

pe. a dw$l; see d^d^ 
dMo to be or become 

good, well; see doJQ 
donQ to remain, be lefib; 

pt. a dSn (Di. don) 
donQ to grow up, become 

large ; to be large, big, 

great (Nr. don) 
doTQ^d^ wall 
d&rd, ddrlt-dSri ax, adze 
cfi5y^ to decrease, be de- 
creased, pt. a d6l 
dtiinit to evaporate, to 

steam away, to diy 


— to rise above 

the water; pt. a dii^n; 
n. dubn^] see diosriQ 

dunit to smoulder, mach 
e dunQy ja hff^y the fire 
is smouldering, it does 
not bum 

di^g^t to come back, to 
return back, to repeat, 
continue, to accept, 
daogo, voqk to miscarry; 
pt a dHhh n. duiigit] i 
duik H hw^ when will 
he return? (Di. dwQk^ 

duiklt, dlibgii to ruminate ; 
pt. ^Uan a dugki lum 

du$n big, great, large, old, 
respected, jal duon 
honourable address to 

a respected person 

dup^Qp a mouse 

dut-^^t loin-cloth of skin 
for men, worn in danc- 

diU a present to the rela- 
tives of the bride ; same 
as dut loin-cloth? 

dH^nk a skin-cloth; see 

duw^t a herb, used as 
medecine against dtoalo 

Diiiodt name of a brotheir 
of Nikan [month 

dwQt (ditcti)^wQt moon, 

Dwai Nubian; used in 

dtoai to bring, see dwagQ 

dwHr hunting 

dwarQ to hunt 

dtoato to wish, to want; 
to call, pt. dwdtd 

dwat/Q to bring, to carry; 
to send for, to let come, 
pt. gi dwdyd, or g§, 
dwdiy pe. a dwdi 

dwsi moon; see dwQi 

dw^riQ, or duanQ to be 
shallow, to evaporate 

dwQchQ to wring (a cloth) ; 
pt. a dwQcha tdu; pe. 
Idu a dwQch] see dochQ 

dwodQ chygn to cross the 
arms; pt. a dwdtd ch.^ 
pe. ch* a diibt, chysng, 
a dtiU tn his arms are 

divalQ to mix beer with 
flour, see dodQ 


dwoto to seek, to want; 
pt. a dwoti yuk he 
searched firewood, pe. 
yuk a dwdi, iT. dw^td; 
see dwatu 

dwunQ to dry out, to eva- 
porate ; see duQno, 

dy^bQ to suffer from diar- 
rhoe; pt. ady^p; pe. 
a dyip; n. dyib^; dags, 
dyhbh he talks too 
much, is talkative 

dyigo. to rain a little: koH 
e d. it is raining a little, 
drizzling, syn. liweya 

dyilrdyek goat; e kxoayo 
ki d. he herds goats 

dytljwhk ''God's goat", 

dyil wdti b^ a bird 

dytmo to fall; pt. a dyspi; 
koj^id^ii rains in large 
single drops, afei e d. 
its hails ; see dirn^ 

dysn a grass, used in 
tying the house-poles 

dyir middle, truth, true, 
certain;o£ten shortened 
into di with the me- 
aning of ''in, into", 
(Nr. dar, Ba. dirt) 

dysTQ to desire ; see dwato 

^ich^-min woman 

^Akdii-min woman 

ddlit to fail, to be in diffi- 
culties, at a loss (Ba. 
ddra, Somali ddl) 

Digitized by 




ddj^, also dif^ mftn, person, 
human being, mankind; 
woman, mother, 0f^ 

dafi liwQm bride 

^li-^ni dancing-stick 

^an, sometimes shorten- 
ed to 4^'4^k cow, 

^gQio be stiff, paralyzed, 
Itoata a ^k my fingers 
are paralysed 

dlffQ to be slow in talking 
or thinking, to be stup- 
id, ignorant; pt. a ^k, 

ceding word 
^enQ to vex one, pt. a 

dkfii in he vexed him; 

pe. yd ^ni Sn I was 

vexed by him, n. ^^ 
dik, (fek stupid 
^"twiari a dry place 
did^ to make straight 

^^n the hot season, 

about March 
^^ to suck (milk) ; pt 

a ^|; a ^Qfa chak; pe. 

^k-^k mouth, bill; bor- 
der, edge, language; 
^ ChQl the ShiUuk- 
language; ^ kal out- 
side the yard, before 
the yard; <fQk dky^l 
one mouth -ful; with 
one mouth, at once, 
unanimous; (Nr. fpk, 
Masai gu^tuk^ Teso 

^k reply to a call 
ii-kiti "mouth of rain"", 

the beginning of the 

rainy season, April, 

^l a kind of white dura 
dolo, to swing n.; pt a 

^l, n. b^lit 

4iinh''ditfii a big basket 

Ditnit (firom Dongola) 
Nubia, Nubian 

^Md a season, July- 
September, the b^inn- 
ing of the red dura- 

^H to - morrow ; ^li^ 
cJUnS the day after to- 

4^ii>i^ to rise, to get up; 
pt a 4^^ ^'^ ot: a 
4^td nuU; n. ddb^ 

^rh fiik to destroy, pt. 
a d^ra feh^ n. ^r^ 

^ayo-^wdi pegs, driven 
into the ground round 
the big dura-basket 

^to^ sorrow 

^u^g^ to suckle a child ; 
pt. a ^i ilaZ j^, pe. 

4witr buffalo's hair hung 
on the horn of a cow 


£ his 

i he, she, it 

i no 

Mi, m how? 

ilS A grass out of which 

ropes are made 
^ he, him, she, her, it, 

that one 

^d = in 

^i/this, that, these, those 

^ why? 


fh I. to be, 2. not I settlement 

f^h-mytr home, village, I /s^ig to be tired, to be 

loath of; p./fft> more 
frequently fet, some- 

Digitized by 




time* fit> y9« ff^ yi 
gw^t my heart is (that 
is: I am) tired with 
writiiig, D. f^dQ 

f{i^ to fSftll, fall down ; 
to die (said of a chief); 
pt. a/8j{, affti; toijt 
fii his face fell = he 
was disappointed, a 
faii f^ she bore a 

figit to be sharp, to 
sharpen; pt afik he 
shtfpened, a fikd fal 
he sh. the knife, pe. 

fdk shtfp 

f^l bosh, desert, uninha- 
bited and oncnltiyated 

f&V-fH spoon (Bo. faUiy 

fdl^, also filit'fdl, fhl 

ffkmrfimi I . board, table ; 
2. saddle 

fdni it is he, that is it 

fin^ to stoop down, to 
hide ; pt afani, (^f^h 

fafiQ to try, test, examine, 
pt afiiii 

fa^h f^^ f^ 

fin^ to be full, to become 
fiill; to fill, pt a fan 

/§nQ to divide, to distri- 

f^/Ai hippo 

/Srg to fly, to jump, to 
run away, to pass by, 
to flee; pt d/Qra, or 
afar kwQm^he jumped 
on his back (Di. par, 
Nr. bar) 

favQ to remember ; pt. a 
fdri kwQp, pe. a fir 

fltri-firi a small mat for 
covering plates or 

/d| skin, peels of firuit ; 
fafe liwQU t/ai 

fA^ it is not, not present, 
not here; no; fdfi in 
not he 

fat/Q I. to fear; 2. to 
make fear; pt yafaya 
jal §ni I frightened the 

/icAfi to ask; pt a ftchi 
^;pe. afyich 

fidq to lie, tell lies; pt 
a ftt, OT a fy&,n.f^ 

fi^ to plant, raise, grow ; 
educate ; pt. a/}]^ byil, 
pe. aftt;^] see 

f^^fech peg, nail of wood 
fiJQ to lead (as a sheep); 

pt a flcha dyth pe* a 

fifih, n. fich 
ftk (to be) heavy (comp. 

fih^ to sit, sit down, pt. 
aftkhfeh he sat down, 
a/Itt ; afika toifi ch^ 
he sat down on his 

feniQ to gainsay, denie; 

pt afim, n.ft/tm 
fM earth, ground; down, 

below, fen e ri one 

year passed 
fin ghi the first twilight 

(probably from/Ai) 
/^ equal, alike, identical, 

fir bin it is (they are) 

all alike; fir k( m^n 

the same as that one 
ferQ to catch, take hold 

of; pt a feri ^, pe. a 

fer, n. /ir^ 
ftrlt to sweat, perspire; 

pt aftr 
ft'fik water (Somali bit/o) 
fidn to be tired; pt. a 

fit; yd fiti yin I am 

tired with you, aeefddQ 
fidq to follow, persecute, 

pe. fit, n. ftd^ 
f^tt to raise, educate; pt 

a fi{d ^f^ he raised a 

man, pe. a fit, n./t^ 
ft^milt to denie, to gainsay, 

n. fytm ; see /gmg 
f{^ to be close together, 

to stand in a line 
Fiji the mouth of the 

fyo. mach to rub fire, pt. 

a fichd m., pe. a fich, 

find to be pretty, beauti- 
ful, pt. a fin 
f^h (finityfini cheek 
fit (to be) tired, see /tdfi 
fb^ to surpass, to be 

Digitized by 



more than, pt. a fdfi; a 
foli jal he Buipassed 
the man; mach fd{i 
mal the fire rose up 
(Ba. put) 

f6djhfH country, /oj5«trfin 
our country, fof^e chgl 
the Shilluk country; 
see also fwodQ 

foffit to be bruised, pe. 
afok, n.fbff^ 

foJQ to brush, rub, clean, 
pt. a fichh lane jal 
dtion, pe. a/w6ch;fojo 
chak to make butter 

ftU'fU cloud 

foj^ Idm to weed grass, 
to pull out ill- weeds; 
pt. a fo^ l.y pe. a fgj^, 

foffi country, native coun- 
try, home; this form 
used only when a gene- 
tive follows : fo^ w6n 
our (my) country; see 

fu^ to pull out, as a 
pole; pt. a fufi yatf 
pe. a/t2|, n. fu{; see 

fii^/ui a lame person 

fudQ to be lame, to be- 
come lame ; to palpitate 
violently, to be seized 
with apoplexy, fy^o^ 
e fu^Q ^^ heart beat 

fuJQ yei to comb, dress 
the hair; pt. a fucha 
yet, pe. a filch 

fuk'fugi (fukit) tortoise 

fik'fuki pot; fuke fi 

fuj^H same as/^^ 

fuvQ to till the ground, to 
plant, pt. a furi feti; 
(Somal abur farming) 

fwddit to beat; pt. afwota 
ifiy fe.afwSt (Di.ptoot, 
Ba. but) 

fu^d^'fwit place where 
the ground is tilled, 
field, farm 

ftooJQ, fdijh to praise, to 
thank; pt. afwgcha in, 
afwQcHiih pe. afw^ch, 
n. fwdch 

fwoJQ, chak to butter; pt. 
afwocha chak; see fdjQ 

fwai/iQ, to teach 

fytLT^ ten 

fy^ho to ask; see fkcho 

fysdQ to lie, to tell lies, 

fyidQ to split, rend, break; 
to sting, hurt, prick, 
pt afysta t^ he broke 
the sudd, pe. a fyU\ 
/Ai a fy& "the ground 
was split'' : the day 
broke, n./y^i 

fytJQ, yC' to pull a boat; 
to lead; ^^^feJQ 

fyHi cacare, a fyiH, a 
fylh n. fy^ (Nandi, 

fyh^» fyh^'ftni skin, for 
clothing, sleeping on 

fykr-jhi or fir back- 
bone, fyh'i^ d tSi my 
b. is stiff, aches 

fyit a lie 

fy^ (to be) torn 

fy^^'fyH heart; fyowa 
dwata ksdq fofe Choi 
my heart wants to go 
to the Shilluk country 
(Di. ptoou) 


gh piece, copy, number; 
it, they; ga adi how 
many (pieces, copies)? 
je ga adek "men they 

three*' = three men 

(Nu. gar) 
gigit to belch; pt. a g^k 
gigh — ffik cowrie-shell 

git an exclamation of 
surprise ; see giy2 

gSJQ I. to touch; g^ fH 
to "tpuch &e ground'' 

Digitized by 


ffamQ — ffiwi 


with a sacrifice, to lay 
a sacrifice on the 
ground, to sacrifice; 
to leave a sacrifice 
on the ground; 2. to 
smear; chiefly in a re- 
ligious sense, to smear 
mud on » building 
dedicated to Nikon] pt 
a ffocha Isbn yi w^t, pe. 
a gQchf n. gich 

ffatnn to hand, reach; 
ffami ydn gin ion hand 
me that thing ! 

gam{t vD6ri to accompany 
a song; pt gigdm; see 
preceding [^dm 

gdmit to capsize; pt. d 

gQnQ to tfdnk, to think 
of; to trust; to respect, 
honour; pt a gqnajal 

giLnit-gin,$lBo gini metal- 
button, worn as adorn- 
ment in a string on the 
brow etc. 

9i^ (gai}^i^nYeT^ river- 
side, river-bank (So- 
mali gar) 

g^yo, to be amazed, per- 
plexed, astonished, to 
utter an exclamation 
of amazement; pt a 

gi they, them 

giift to build; see girq, 

g§!JLa to tickle; pt a gt^ 

ge^ to chirp, twitter, 
warble, sing (of birds) 

giUt cAdr to sustain people 
(in times of need) ; pt 
agihy n.gil 

gHit'Sfifi$ or gin a steep 
slope or river- bank; 
gll nam steep river- 
bank ; gil (or gllq) wan 

gin they, them (Nr. kin) 

ginQ to drive, drift, float; 
a gin 

genu to besiege; pt a 
gina pack ; pe. a g^ 

gem to build, to erect a 
building, to found a 
settlement; pt a gtri 
tout ; pe. WQt a g^ 

git red-brown stuff with 
which the fi^ce is smear- 

g^^ gVQ to besmear (the 
&ce) ; see preceding 

^jQEg to kill, sacrifice ; to 
treat a guest 

gl^ short for gin thing, 
only in compositions 

g{ bw$ii "thing of the 
strangers^ : siphilis 

gich^ something (firom 
gin, gi thing) ; g. mJA^ 
something else, some- 

gi ehwak ornaments of 
the neck 

gi chyin misfortune, mis- 
hap ; see chyfffiQ 

giia to be wanting (of 
teeth); pt a gyji l^k 
he has no (or few) 

WBSTBBMAHir, The Slimiik People 

teeth; a gefa l§k he 
pulled out teeth, pe. l§k 
a g^ the teeth were 
pulled out (?) 

git^t^ to sacrifice (as a 
cow); to bless; to treat 
a guest; pt a gi^fa 
see gUfi 

g\ fi^ "thing of the earth'' : 

gi gwt' writing material, 
pen, pencil 

gi gwtn bribeiy 

gln-gik thing 

gin sometimes instead of 
gin, and gin 

gin ehdm food 

gin dii$n womb 

gin lak inheritance 

gin m^ beverage 

gin m6eh ahns 

gin miishini old, antique, 
ancient things 

gin i^k arms 

gin tdk toy, plaything 

gin j^ little thing, baby 

glfijt to rub; pt a giiict 
sn ki mau he rubbed 
him with oil; d giti he 
rubbed; pe. d giti 

gir much, many, plenty 

gi rim measure, ruler 

gifQ to reach, arrive, to 
lASt till; gito ^uki till 
to-morrow; e gitQ 1>QTQ. 
it lasted tiU i^moon 

giwi stone 


Digitized by 



gl tpieh head-ommment, 

ffj^ he, it, him [hat 

^o6fi kwaJQ to sormtch mud 

togetfier (for building 

etc.); pt a gflph or 

gtlfi 4.; pe. a^p;iL 

ffoAt f^ to tcrateh the 
ground, to dig; pt a 
S/ifiifM'y pe. aff$l] n. 


gqdq, to loosen (?); pe. 
Iw^ g^ his fingers 
were loosened 

gigo, to work, to do, 
make, practise; pt. a 
g^kii «1^; pe. a g^k 

gtfi-gbehi sword; from 
9m (Nr. gtfit) 

gqJQ, to strike, beat; to 
fire a gmi, to hit; pt 
a g^hh flat; pe. ikal a 

gbk^k a ring of skin, 
worn round the leg 
below the knee 

gil enclosure , home, 
homestead; famity; 
tysn gof^ the people of 
mj fiunily, belonging 
to me; espec.: "my 
wife**; ^^jr^ljr^ his, 
or their wife (DL ggl, 
Nr. ggl, Somali gola) 

gbl: htikgbl boil, abscess 

gtiUhgil side-arm of a 
riyer, bay, bight 

glin where? a k^ yi ggn 
where did he go? 

^^^he, him, it 

gomo, to keep, preserve; 
pt a gona jam he kept 
&e goods; pe. agfln\ 
n. glhii 

gOfkQ, to loosen; much 
used in die sense of 
loosening a cow, that 
is giving it awaj; pt 
a g^kd Idu he loosened 
die clodi; pe. ^i a 
gifk die catde was L 

gqfka to complain of^ to 
accuse, to cany on a 
law-suit against one; 
pt ag^] n.g^ 

gqtkQ to scratch; pt a 
gwQ^dih ho scratched 
his skin; n. gwMi; see 

gqn a dry place (?) 

gwt to stoop down, to 
dive; pt a g$n he 
stooped down; a giU 
la py^ he hid himself 
under the skin; n. g^nlji 

g^po, see g^ 

gor comer 

gif^irs or gjtfi a kind 
of big white beads 
worn as necklace 

^dr^ niggard 

girfi to tattoo, to make 
incisions; pt. a g^ra 

^t comer, hiding place; 
behind; syn. gor; a 
/ant got wit he hid in 
die comer of die house 

gl — gwalo 

goto, to dig, see ggdo, and 

gtUjt to be vexed, angiy, 
to sit down vexed, not 
saying a word; pt a 


gU^ a big fish 

g^tdn (gudq) to knock, to 
hammer, to pound; to 
hurt, to kiU; pt d gkA 
hyil he pounded durm, 
pe. byil d g4t or: a gitr, 

g4k (to be) blunt 

giUt giUi wQt the comer 
between roof and wall 
of die house, see g^ 

giljhgil (^ •) camion 

gwnq to bribe; pe. a g^ 
he has been bribed 

gtbr^gHbr, also gtir a Teiy 
large fish, weighing up 
to 2 — 300 lbs. 

^» 4^y ^tattoo, brand; 
scar of tattooing; see 

gWTit to tattoo, see gqrft 

^ib-yi^navel, umbellicum 

g^Silrg^ a wooden ham- 

gyoikck taxes 

gwai rough; yaj^ magwai 
a rough tree 

gwdjn to collect or to pay 
taxes; pt a gwitM 
^Jfff^f po. a gwd^; n. 

gwalg, to be thin; pt d 

Digitized by 


gwtaiit to Bcratch, see 

ffwatiQ to err, to make a 
mistake, to do some- 
thing by chance, miin- 
tentionally; e gvfaii(t 
fSdlt he told a false 
report, a lie; kit chaka 
ffwatiQ in a stone hit 
him by chance; pt. 
and pe. ffwiii 

ffwoTQ to snatch, snatch 
away; pt a gwara ring 
he snatched the meat; 
pe. a ffwdr; n. gwiri^ 
or gwir^ 

gwaiH to bewitch, corse 

gvoayo, to bark, bay; pt. 
a gwai 

guiayo, to be coarse, 
rough; kwQm^ gwajfQ 
his back is rough 

gto^iQ to carve, to write; 

pt. yd gu^t I wrote ; a 

gw^f or gwiti woAq; 

pe. a gw§t; n. gwif 
gwijo to kick; pt. a gw^eha 

dof^; pe. a gtoich; n. 

gtollct to wink (with 

hands) ; igidllQ H chy^ 

n^; pt. a gwil 

guilirgwtl ring 

gwing, to pick np, to 
gather, to collect; a 
ti^ ydn e gioinQ yikk I 
saw him collecting fire- 
wood; f\, a gw&Uk yuky 
pe. a gtoin 

gwirn to peel off, as skin ; 
dlls, gtoirQ his skin 
peels off; pe. a gw&r 

gwlt carvings 

gwic!{i lip to give a sign 
with the tongue, to 
"wink** with the ton- 

gue; pt. d gtoit; see 

gtohk-gubk dog (Eara- 

majo enoky Elgumi eki- 

nokj Teso akinoko) 
gwik work; i gtoik idl 

what kind of work is 

that? what is here to 

be done? what shall 

we do? see g^gQ 
gw$tih to scratch; pt. yi 

gtDQAa rea I scratched 

^o<o to digup the ground; 

see ^2^ 
gyik-gyhk Mrs. Gray's 

gyiVirgytl ring of ivory; 

see gwllg, 
gyMt-gyih hen, fowl 

(Mundu ngo) 
gyero. to build; see gidq. 


yi^ king; comp. r^, 


falQ, wqIc to bring out 
Td^fn^Ti^ diigh (Nr. j^m) 
YOTfi thrashing-place ; g^, 
pw6th by at ki wiy faro, 
r^r^ grass-torch 
Y^ft fish; comp. r^n 
fiff w6r September 

j^rj^jiH a red bead 
yirit to cut into strips; 
pt. a yir py^nq he cut 
the skin into strips 
rft »P>rit = rU king 
7^ weU! all right! 
j^dQ to pound ; cf. undg, 
fqJQ, to bask, to sun one- 
self; pt. a fqch 

fO!^ te elect; see TQfli{i 
X^skQ^feh to sink, to dive; 

pt a 7^/M; n. ;^i 
xitr^'X^ relations by 

marriage, see ir^i jrir^ 

his brother-, sister-^ 

j^t house ; see wf^t 


Digitized by 





hd exclamation of fright 


jaeh-^ich shoulder-blade 
jadit to be in or to get 
into difficulties, to be at 
a I088, to be short of^ 
to fail ; pt. a jati ny&^ 
he is short of money, 
also a jit; Ji.jddj^ 
jagQ ket to pull a rope 
jagQ to rule, to govem, 
to be chief; djagg/M 
he rules the country; 
pt. a jakii f., pe. a jdk 
jfigOrfik chief; jan duQn 
big chief, district-chief 
jal-jok man; seejcUg 
jal fyit a liar; jal f. fer 
ibl Jku a liar is like a 
j(il g^l husband ; jhl ff^Ut 

my husband 
jal gvfhk workman, la- 
jitl IM warrior, soldier 
jale Iwgk washerman 
jal mit robber, waylayer 
jal litoimi bridegroom 
jal nal butcher 
jal n^au trader, merchant 
jdUi, also jhl'j^k man 

(vir); for the plural 
tyffi is also used; in 
compositions die sing, 
is BhrhjBJal, the plural, 
if the following word 
begins with a conso- 
nant z^i^ 

jalQ itching 

jalQ to curse 

jal tidit^g t, or tyffi t. liar 

yaZya|medeeine-matt; die 
"bad** wizard 

jAfkfjdm gooiB^ property, 
valuable tilings; uni dd 
jam gir you have plen- 
ty of goods 

jame gtohk tool 

jame kw^r tilings belong- 
ing to tiie community, 
to tiie king, or which 
are reserved for reli- 
gious purposes 

jam IM I. arms, armour 
for war; 2. booty, spoil 

jin^ to lean against; e.j. 

japQ (jabgf) mggg to stir 
die beer 

ji people; ji foj^ tiie 

people of this countiy 

j^ to reign, rule, govern; 
pt. a jiH; n, j4l^ or 
jitgb; ^eejaga 

jffn (ar.) week 

j^rid a season: about 
September, the time 
of harvesting tiie red 
dura,y^y. in the^'. 

jst to be short of; see 

jtmit to have colic ; t/ejaj. 

jSeh, jbch-jitch a plimt, its 
root is used in making 
ropes and fish-lines 

jogg to turn sometiiing 
back, to prevent, to 
chase or drive away; 
j6gl 4(lk drive tiie cattie 
away, pt a joka letk he 
turned the war back, 
prevented war 

j^k pi. of jaU men, people 

JQ ilAk wairiors 

j6p, jinip-jipi buffido 

jor-;^ a small fly or gnat; 
a bug 

j6d^ to be over-tired, 

Digitized by 




jur^ jikr people, tribe 
(B». jur country) 

jtii: iOQU djtf^ ehan a kgjl 
the sun has set, the 

day is gone 
jtDduQ to hasten, hurry; 
to be hasty, rash, i 
jwdn^ kwip he is hasty, 


without deliberation, 
in his talking 
jw^k'jwok God; sickness; 
i dajw^k he is sick 


k& I. place; 2. there, here; 
chip ktt put it there; 

3. and, and then; chan 
atyau kayi bi in two 
days, then come again; 
hi connects only sen- 
tences, ki single words; 

4. kd^ kd IqffQ if, when 
kA = ki^ to go ; yd kt 

bi gwgk I go to work 
kabu to take by force, to 
rob; pt d k&pct dean; 
pe. ^n a kdp; n. kip^ 
(Somali qab)^ 
kdch = kdt kick place; in 
die place of^ instead of 
kadQ salt (Masai makat) 
kadOi or h(^ to bring; 
see hdno, pt. d kj^, a 
iidi gin eham, pe. a 
hil] (Somali qM to 
kodq, to twist, plait, braid; 
pt a ki^; d ki^i lam 
he twisted grass; also: 
a kHh yet be plaited 
the hair; pe. yei d kit, 
Jbo^ to go, to step on; 
jsyn. igfe 

kagQ to cut open, to split; 
to rend; pt. a kitki 
dean he cut open a 
cow; a kaka yai he 
split the tree ; a kaky pe. 
a kdk, n. kik 

hag it to plant; pt. ya kaka 
ya^; pe. a kdk 

kagQ ^k to gainsay, de- 
bate, dispute; pt. ya 
kctkit dojk; the same as 
hag^ to cut open? 

kilgii bush-cat 

kAgil sand-bank, chiefly 
a small stretch of sand 
uniting two islands 

k^go^ sometimes kagu to 
ache, to pain violently. 
wja k^ga my head 
aches; pt. d kdky n. kik 

kdJQ, to pluck, to pick, to 
gather, to strip off (as 
dura -corns from the 
ear) ; pt. ga kdehi byil 
they harrested dura; 
pe. a kSeh; see kdJQ to 

kdJQ to bite, to sting; to 
pain, ache ; pt prql d 
kiteJUt ^^ the snake 

bit the man; pe. ^f^ 
a kdch; china d kdch 
my bowels ache; n. 

l^k a fish-spear; see b^ 

kiki time, chiefly the 
ancient time, kfi chiH 
a time not near: a long 
time ago; k/M (long) 
time; k dd$n the an- 
cient time, the time of 
old, a long time ago, 

khUkili fence, enclosure, 
court, court-yard (DL 
kal; Somali qalo castle) 

JbjiZo to cany, bring; to 
be carried, brought; 
to ride, drive; to come 
from ; f k^lfi gin cham 
w^ he carries the food 
into the house ; ya k^l^ 
wich adgTQ, I am riding 
on a donkey; k^l ya 
wqk carry, pull me out! 
pt a hoU gin cham he 
carried the food; yi 
kiila kffi where do you 
come from? a kfla gin 
cham he carried the 

Digitized by 




food ; pe. a 1^ it was 

k^lq bjdQ to wait 
kdmd (pt.) to be going to, 

to wish, to begin; yd 

kin while; see ki place 
kand dom-palm (Nr. lAn) 
kano, Jbjlns to bring (So- 

nudi ken bringing, Nr. 

kffi to take) 
kanQ to hide ; pt a kana 

nyffi; pe. n. a k&n; n. 

khn^khni tnimp9t (Nr. 

kdn = ifcA£^ time; for 

inst., il»ri a tint some 

iar(2 to have branches, 

to branch off; ^ Chal 

a kdr the Shillok Ian- 

goage has many bran- 
ches, i. e. is rich in 

kQtQ to bring, pe. a kil; 

see kadQ 
kai^ to step over, see 


kAtvii-kilwiheBm for build- 
ing a house 

kayn address for a des- 
cendant of a king 

kij/ifkiU elder brother; 
see preceding 

kdt/Q appetite, desire for 

k^di hunger; yd dit k. I 
am hungry 

kick strength , power ; 
strong, powerful, se- 
Tere; bitter, sour (Nu. 
koffiU sharp, Nr. kick') 

kgfih(t: ehan a kjehi the sun 
is turning downwards, 
it is afkemoon 

kidh'ktt a fish 

ked{t to twist a rope 

ki^ to go; pt a k^; a 
k^ w^ "she went into 
the house'': she is 
going to bear a child 

kega to plant, see kaga 

kiU kiU middle, midst, 
in the midst of^ amidst, 
between, among; kff, 
ttrit among the people, 
tc^ hbg^ H kiU gin 
there is no child among 
them ; k^U hit the place 
between the shoulders 

1AIq,$ kglq to dirow a 
spear, to spear, to stab, 
pt. a kila ^aj^ pe. a 

Ufffno, crutch 

htno, to visit ; pt. a kgma 
4^9 pe- A kjm; n. 

kffiQ to stroke, caress, 

l^^kjnl gourd, calabash 

kpi (from k^h) place; 
time ; reason ; here, 
where, when, if; Nr. 

hj^ bhl itch, place where 
a gnat has stung, blister 

kffk giDQti itching 
kffi kwQ9k burial-place 
kffi'kwiiU path of the 

kffi lii "hot place*', 

wound, boil 
keiikil ya| to shake a tree 
kffkd to be strong; pt a 
J^;n. i|^;8ee ki^h 
kffirii — ligcA^ r^ "place 
of the king", a amall 
hut where a deceased 
king is adored 
kffiQ = kffk rif 
kiihk^ boundary, border 
kfpQ to take a tliiiig out 
of a larger quandty, to 
choose, pidL out; to 
take away, to steal; 
to whore, to prostitute 
oneself; kipi choose! 
pt a kepi; n* k^p: see 
ker rich; ya fa jal ker I 
am a rich man; yafa{ 
ki jal ker I am not a 
rich man 
kffru to dig out; pe. ty^ 
wnt a hfir the foun« 
dation of the house is 
dug out 
ktt alone, self; again; yi 
kifd I myself^ I alone 
kit rope, plait of hair 
j^ to dirow a spear, to 
spear, stab; to thrust; 
to fight; pt d A^ ^ 
he stabbed a man; d 
H4 tin he threw a. 

Digitized by 


spear; pe. tin d til; 
n. 1^; see kglq 
kiip to dash, to shatter, 
to split; pt a it^ n. 


k^'kdt breast 

kewQ leti to give a war- 

kiwit edge, boundary 

k^ bidQ a place for sitt- 
ing down (from kffi) 

k^y kwai pasture 

k^y nen sleeping place 

hi fish-eagle 

J^with, and; connecting 

kick bee 

kfdK kidi how? (Nu. kir 

kidQ colour ; kife lojn black 

kifd in order that, on 
account of^ because of 

kifiini, Ufknii why? 

Hmit to lean the head, 
to be thoughtful, to 
ponder, meditate; pt. 
d him; see k^fna 

k(ndit thus, Uke that, just 

kifU thus; often introduc- 
ing the direct speech 

kinktn a fish 

HrQ to tremble, shiver, 
dgla kir my skin shiver- 
ed (Nu. kerkere) 

JAt-IAti stone, rock, hill, 
mountain (Nu. kit) 

kjU colour; see kyi^ 

kj^jn to put to place, a 
Hj^ jam i£^ he put the 
tilings into tiie hut 

kd, kb short for hobft to 

kghQ to take 

kobQ to say, to speak; pt 
a lAp; a kgma kwQp 
he said a word ; pe. a 

k^h'kitehi a small ax 

kidit to £uten, tie; to 
wrap, as a wire round 
the spear -handle; k. 
bak to make a fence, 
n. iUM^. 

ko^ to blow, as an in- 
strument; ifc. maeh to 
blow the fire; pt a 
ko^ mack; a iko|i ifcon 
he blew the trumpet 

kodo-kdj^ iti seed 

Kdditk the town ofEodok, 
near Fashoda 

kqffQ to rent, hire (Nr. 
kokh to trade) 

kQffQ to blossom 

kti breast of woman (a 
word used only in die 
royal court) 

kbji cold (Nr. kQcV) 

kqJQ to separate [man 

kd kMnkofS kili unmarried 

Jf&Q, (kQffH t) feh to stick 
into die ground; pe. a 

kit ^t be quiet! take care ! 

hbl a month, about De- 


kgilQ, to pull out, extract; 

pt a AfiZa yojf; pe. a 

kqli n. k^l 
koln to drive, as cattie 
koniQ to be going to; syn. 

kin^dJc a month, about 

konQ to stimulate, affect, 

to excite desire; to be 

excited; e kgnq fyiwa 

it stimulates my heart, 

I want it'^yefi kftnQ he 

is excited; pt a k^ni, 

n. bkjtn 
konn worm 
kliti^kQtii a niggard 
kQhd to help; kltti dn help 

me! pt d k^ in he 

helped him 
kdiiit» 'S^ to pour out; 

pt a koiiifi he poured 

die water on the ground 
ibii(2 to dig; see kwojUn 

(Nr. Jfcti?fiii) 
l^nQ, to blow; syn. ko^ 
koTQ to keep, preserve, 

to care for, to watch; 

pt a k6r(i gi fifk he 

kept the tiling; pe. a 

k&ri n. kbr 
kbri cotton, see kwgrQ 
kotQ to drive, see kwgtQ, 
ifc^l rain; k. e m^kg, it ia 

raining (Madi ikodt) 
kofi trumpet; see ko^ 
ifcA-JMtd tiiief 
k6 not, prohibitive (Ba. 


Digitized by 



kiiehi — kwarfi 

kiehi not to know, to 
ignore; past form of 
l^jdy generally this 
form is osed, and al- 
most always in passire ; 
kdchi ydn I do not 

kudo, kodQ to pnll out a 
thorn, pt. a hqla it., pe. 
a k^lf n. kill — see kqlQ 

kudQ to he quiet, silent; 
pt a kiU; kudihe quiet! 
y{ ki kiU do not be 
silent! (Nu. kite^ hute) 

kuJQ not to know, to 
ignore, kuji I do not 
know (Nr. kuy*) 

kala to how; e kulq wijt 
peA he hows his head, 
pt. a kula to, 

kamQ to cover; pt. a 
kuma dak H (ogQ he 
covered the pot with 
a cover 

khn place; there, where; 
yi k^U (or k^la) kun 
where did you come 
from? (Nu. kut) 

kun de chan west 

kun do direction 

kun dwoffQ wan Nikan 
east ("the place from 
where returns the eye 
of N.", i. e. is the sun) 

kun dwQgo, toon wude 

kun dwogn wan Itoal 

kun dwQ^go, wan odgn west 

kUni-^jtnlt pig (^finfi = 

kinit'kini a younger 
child, younger brother 

kUjfQ mach to blow up 
the fire; see kd^ 

kd6dlt'ku6t tick; k ya 
yiifi gwok there are t 
in the ear of the dog 

hfihdit to be swollen, 
bloated, as a dead 
body; pt. a kdbt; n. 

kuijiff^^f^ a place with 
white sand in or near 
a river; mud for house- 

hiiinit to taste, to take 
first of the food; pt. a 
kwQna gin cham, pe. d 
kwQfit n. kw^^ 

kur a fine (imposed by 
the king or magistrate) 

kUvQ to watch, see karq 

kuwaJQ address for a for- 
eigner [descendant 

ibu^d grand£iither,ancestor; 

kwach fins of the fish, see 

kwacho, to beg, ask, pray, 
request; pt. a kwaeha 
ddj^ pe. a kwdeh (Ba. 
kwaty kwaehe) 
kwi^ch-kwAiii leopard 
kwagQ to embrace, to 
cany in the arms; pt. 
a kwaka ^a^; pe. d 
kwdk; n. kwdk (Di. 

kufogq to decompose, 
putrefy; pe. ring a 

kwiil killed, butchered 

kwdln to remun, n. kwil 

hoalQ to steal, pt a kwala 
gin an; pe. a kwdl 
(Ndorobo aehgr thief) 

ktoini ekhn watch, dock; 
from kwano "to counf, 
and chan "sun, time** 

kwini a stick for scratch- 
ing the head (probably 
a plural form) 

kwinihkw^ni solo-singer 

kwdnit to count, enume- 
rate; read; pt d kwctn 

kwdii^kwaeh the fin of 

kwdiiQ to take (Di. kwoA, 
Nr. kan) 

kufdn^ a bird, eats fish 

kwan(i to be the first in 
doing something; e 
kwann binQ he comes 

kwJinit A ▼eiy large red ant 

kwanQ to swim, pt d kwitn 

kwa Hi descendant of a 
king; from kwarQ 

kwdrit - kwSH poles for 
making the house-roof 

kwdfit red 

kwiarn-kwir I. grand- 
father, ancestor; 2. 
grandchild, descendant 
(Nr. kwar chief) 

Digitized by 


kwaiQ — hyigo. 


kuKUn to steal; see hwalii 

kwayQ I. to herd cattle; 
pt. d kwiti; a kwaya 
^k; 2. to be well, to 
have slept well 

kwayo-kwii grandfather, 
ancestor; see ktvd 

kwa some (Nr. kwei) 

kwih^ (kwiikjt) to open 
the eyes; pt. a kw^kjt 
wan^ he opened his 
eyes; pe. wana kwik 

kuile rij^ the hair (of a 

kwin a kind of*bread or 
pudding (Nr. kwnn) 

kwffiQ fingernail 

kwir: jam kwffr things 
belonging to the com- 
munity or the magi- 
strate, or the king, or 
which are reserved for 
religious purposes; also 
part of the dowry 

hcffr poles for the thatch 

kwst^kuiri hoe 

kw^ to steal; pt. a kw^ 
he stole, a kw^tit (or 
kweti) 4^n he stole a 
cow ; see kwalQ 

kw^kwii dung-hill; cow- 
dung pOed up 

kwtyi wound 

kwi some ; see kw^ 

kwodo, to drive, to herd 

kuid^kbi thorns, sticks, 
poles for house-build- 

ktoo^a maeh to make a 

fire; see kodQ and 

hoQ^ to fart, to ease 
oneself; pt. a kw^j^ ; yi 
rh kwifit n. kwit^ (Nr. 

kwogo, to sweat 

kwogii to take ; pt. a kwoka 
ya% pe. a kw6ky n. A^n^ 

kwQJn to sew together, to 
tie by sewing or bind- 
ing; to stretch a skin 
on a drum ; pt. a kwbcha 
liuf pe. a kwSeh, n. 

kwok sweat [ktlbj^ 

kwbm'kbm back ; on, upon 

kwhm-ku^l board, chair, 

kwgmQ to cany on the 
hip;p.a Jbn^fnafia^ ^ 

hffomQ to limp, lame, 
hobble; pt. a kwfimi; 
n. kto^f^ 

kwQfi flour 

kwariQ to be sulky, cap- 
ricious, moody, to re- 
fuse eating 

kwiniyii the place behind 
the ear 

kwQt^ to bury, pt. a kwQj^a 
daj^; pe. a kw^ (Nr. 

kwMQ to help (Di. kofi) 

kufiin-kw^ histoiy, report 

kwQnQ Ifoi/dii fingernail 

kwQnQ to begin, pt. a 

kwip talking, talk, speech, 
word; matter, affair 

kwar debts, fine ; see kur 

ktDQro-ktr cotton, thread 
(Masai karaah cotton 

kwoTQ: mach kw. lamp, 
torch ; see kwarQ cotton 

ktogrQ to winnow, to clean 
the com by winnowing, 
pt. a kwQTa byily pe. a 
kwQTj n. kubdlt 

kwbt'kdt shield 

kw^^tn to drive, lead; pt. 
a kwQii ^k, or: a kwQla 
^k he drove the catde, 
pe. dgk a kql, n. kftl 

kwdtQ to blow (wind), pt. 
yomQ a kw$t, or: a 
kioQti the wind blew; 
pe. a kol yi yomq he 
was driven by the wind ; 
see kwQrq to winnow, 
and ibrgtg to drive 

ku^yi^kwQi farting 

kydh border, as between 
fields, see kiwit 

kyawQ to row a boat ; pt. 
a kyau; n. kid 

kyich right hand, on the 
right hand 

kyfdo, byil to roast dura 

kysdo, to refuse; pt. d kyit 
he refused, a kysdi kf^ 
he refused to go, n. 
k{^f kyir; a refuse is 
often expressed by 
clicking of the tongue 
(Ga. kwero) 

kyign to cackle (fowls), 
pt. a kyik 

Digitized by 




hyil together; gi k^ 
hyil they are going 
together; firom alcytil 

hyilffkyil fence (?) 

hyiUt-kyil star 

kying, to squat , cower 
(lifdng one knee hij^er 
than the other) 

hysnq yft to Ibten, pay 
attention ; pt. a hyena y. 

hyii/k'^hyMi or ky^k horse 
(Madi iotng donkey, 

hyffr the water of two 
uniting rivers 

hyffro^ to leak, trickle, 
drizxle, bleed; rffn/Q, k. 
the blood is trickling; 
rea kyffrQ I am bleed- 
ing; pt a kyir 

kygrfi wa^ to mark out 
the (circular) funda- 
mental lines of a house; 
a kyiriif or: kyiri kal 
he marked the circle 
of a fence; pe. a hfir, 
n. kyirj^ 

ky^h/H I. a fish, 2. the 
space between die cut- 
out teeth 


lU>b mud, clay ; /. ya yi 
there is mud on the 

libit people 

Ideh urine (Turkana alot, 

loch broad, wide 

lacliQ, to be broad, wide 

l^gn to inherit; pt. a Wch 
jam; pe. a Idk; n. JAk 
(Nr. lakk) 

Ukgo, to dream; n. l^fc^ 
(Nr. lakh) 

l^go, magistrate, authori- 
ty, community 

liUlii game 

tdi yino to be lost, to die 
(said of men only) 

laJQ to piss 


/a/ a month, about August 

tamn to pray to God, to 
worship; pt d Idm; d 
UimhjwQk; pe. d ttm 

Ulni-lAii, li/^ the nabag- 

lanQ, xoQT to spend the 

night waking; a lana 

war; n. lane war 
tang, to be loose, to be 

not strong, durable, to 

rend easily 
lAu-^Uifti skin, cloth; Uni 

§i^ doth of man (Bo. 

lao^ Ba. labo, Turkana 

elau, Earamojo elou) 
Idu spittle 
liti far away 
Idtoi-Utioi oar of boats 
ULwi-lih, also Uni skin, 

doth, syiu Idii 
Hwi to be far away; pt 

a Idwi 
liy^: wija L he is asham- 
ed; pt to. d JiX; n. Uli 

nbh to lie in wait for; pt. 

d lepci ^f^ pe. d Up, 

tfdo, to shave; e L tiga 

he shaves my beard; 

see fy^l 
te^ also fi^ to see, pt 

a %i ^fof^ or: a leffi 

A, pe. a B| 
ttih-lik tooth; 2^ ly^ 

ivoiy (Nr. l^K Nandi 

keleky Ndorobi keUkj 

Masai ala, Somali iUk) 
lik din a kind of idiite 

dura [see lago. 

l^ to dream, pt d l^; 
m-m flint-stone (Di. 

alek Ba. Isle) 
212^ to be smoodi, even, 

pretty, nice, good, pt 

a HI, n. HUt 
Ihk war, army, danger; 

fefi a ^ an army was 

raised, a war arose; 

Mn^ da I. "his eye 

has war** : he is angiy 

Digitized by 


^i?Pfi — ItDak 


l^ffQ to become or feel 

hot; see l^ 
Ignfi to throw; pt. a tina 

tuky or: a Ijni tuk he 

threw a stone ; pe. tuk 

tijh-lip tongue (Di. b/£p) 
l^pn I. the junction 

between wall and roof, 

2. = l(ibQ mud 
hpit ^^i to crawl, creep, 

go stealthily 
% also ^ (to be) hot, 

sore, fitna /. mj eye is 

sore; feti ^ it is hot; 
. rea Itil feel tired, un- 
well, feverish, am lazy 

l^ the hot season, Janu- 
l^ltwi (sing, also Hu) 

a small lizard (Di. aleu) 
liwQ wiy wQt to make the 

upper edge of the roof 

even, smooth 
libit to be cool, cold; pt. 

a Hmi; n. fi^ (Ba. Rbi 

UbQ to steal upon, to 

come stealthily upon; 

pt a tepa nu, pe. a Up, 

n. W>h; see l^pg, 
R^ to see ; see tedQ 
Unq to hear; pt. yd An I 

heard; a Una kwQp, or 

Uni iwQp; pe. d lin 

(St. lin) 
Uii Au (to be) destitute, 

bereft, without cattle 

(Nr. liu to die) 

IdchntoJQ black; tyffH loJQ, 
black people; btvQti I. 
black Arabs 

lodQ to wade in water; 
pt. a ItffQt; pe. pi a lw$t 

iQffH to become, pt. a 
loika ^ofi it became a 

luffa (Wcq) to follow; e L 
bdn glm he follows 
after him; pt. a l$k b. 
ff., n. litffit 

toffo (lokQ) to answer, to 
interpret; pt a ^Ai 
kwip, a l^kd, kwip; pe. 
hwip d Wc; n. Iftgli 

toffQ to reconcile, com- 

logo to wash, pt a logi 
taus a lu^ka lath pt. a 
Itvdk [ing dura 

Ui'UA a fan used for sift- 

lojQ to be black 

l^ki this side (Di. Ion) 

161 deep 

lof^ sticks 

toiia (luiict) to do a tiling 
later, after somebody 
else, to follow one in 
doing something, pt. 
a JMa bin he came 
later, after him; n. Ibiih 

iQiiH to pull out, pluck, 
as feathers, hair; to 
loosen; to get off 
(clothes); pt a kiiict 
gyinOi pe. a l^ (Nr. 


ibn €tn tills side, tone 
chinS that side; see 


U^t^ <^lub 

loyn to run away, flee; 
pt. a Idffii n. Ibt/ii 

lugo, to come after some- 
body, to follow; e luga 
baii ggn he follows him ; 
pt a luk ban gan, a 
luka da^; pe. d I4k; n. 
litgii] see IMq 

Itgh to turn, to be turned 
towards; a Ugi litgi 
he turned (himself), 
he turned round ; najs, 
i Utgt he turned his 
back; n. Iftk; see tQ,git, 

Ulfnit-l(im grass 

lunq to turn (down), to 
be turned (down), aUlit 
e lunQfeti the bat hangs 
upside down, pt. d lUn; 
n. lUnitj see Itgh 

Mitb^ to be in company, 
to converse with a 
person, to have inter- 
course with, to deal 
with ; pt. gi luopa rei 
gen tiiey conversed 
with each other; a 
luobi he c; a lugp 

luQngtoSk tiie blossom of 
the dura 

lutQ to fall into (?) 

lUyl'lUi/lfoudy small lake 

Itodk-lwiik cow-house (Di. 
liDakj Nr. Iwak) 

Iwak people 

Digitized by 



Itoali — tndno 

Itoiili the general name 
for red dura (probably 
a plural form) 

IwdaiQ to be or have 
become poor, destitute, 

Itodtnifltodn fly (Di. Ittfan, 
Nr. Itvaris Ba. alauno) 

Iwidi^'ltoit finger ; /. ty^lQ 
toe; Iwin dugn thumb, 
lufln ^ little finger 

Iwifi worthlesB, insipid, 
cheap , simple ; see 
IwatiQ and Zt^g 

Iw&iQ. to be insipid, taste- 
less, worthless, cheap, 
simple, senseless 

IwffiQ to be soft 

Imjo (Imji) to whistle 

IwQ^git to exchange 

Iwitgo, to accompany; 
espec. to ace. a guest 
a short way; a Uogka 
en; see %fi 

IwQffQ to wash (oneself 
or something) ; a IwqH 
r£ he washed himself; 
a Iwqka ^f^ he washed 
a man; pe. a Iwgk, n. 
iu^ffh: see tqffQ (Teso 

IwitUl^t a gourd, pump- 
kin, calabash 

IwQj^Q scrotocele 

Iwcn gtook ^molar tooth of 
the dog** : the blossom 
(or the sprout?) of tfie 

boSp^lwdbi company; see 

hoQtq to wade in water; 

pt a Zu^^ n. ^t^; 

see tgdu 
fyawQ to spy, to lie in 

wait for 
lyicMQch elephant 
ly^Q. to want somediing 

but being ashamed of 

asking for it 
hf^h a place where the 

grass is burned 
U/ZIq. to bum, to flame; 

pt a fyil, n. b/il 
fyilQ to shave; pe. a fyil; 

see t^ and preceding 
lytnit cooked butter 


mi because, for; whether 

md which, who, rel. (Nu. 
mu, man) 

m&'-mik aunt, sister of the 

mach fire (Nandi mat^ 
Eamasia fTta^^Ndorobo 
niaty Suk nici) 

madiri (ar.) Mudir, Go- 

md^ a certain dance; 
first part of a dance 

mgdg to drink ; pt. a tndj^ 
a mifi pi, pe.;n a mifi 
(Teso akai-mata) 

mdffQ to catch, to get hold 
of, to seize, to hold 
fast; pt a maka ^^; 
a maki daf^; pe. a mdk 

m^Q to spread out in the 
sunshine; pt a mlich^ 
VaUy a m^ehi^ liau, pe. 
a m^h 

mdl, or nAl, often short 
mdl heaven, the upper 
region, surface; above, 
on, onward, forward, 
at the head 

mdln to adore, to pray, 
to offer thanks (to 

God) ; pt. a mala jw^k, 

pe. jwQk a m&l 
mJUft^k mdl bell 
malo, to roast, broil; pt 

a m^ rtnQ, pe. a mil 
mifif witm&n women 
minit-min testicles ; mini 

mini nam junction of two 

m^nq to hate, detest, to 
be inimicous, to wage 
war against; to forbid, 
prohibit; pt. a m^ny 
n. mini^ 

Digitized by 


tn^ilko — minh 


fiiffii(2 to capture, to be- 
siege ; pt. a m^iia pach; 
pe. a miik; n. miikit 

mdb fat, oil, see mau 

mar green; litnt nutr Hfa 
mfffi your eye is green 
on account of money: 
you are greedy after 

mdr, also mi because, 
because of^ on account 

m^r a silver pot which 
plays a r6U in the 
history of the Shilluks; 
it does not exist now 

mhrft to love; pt a mari 
jal sni; pe. a mar; n. 

m^ri^ to thunder ; pt. mal 
a mqri the heaven 
thundered, it th.; n. 

mif^ slow, slowly; also a 
form for excusing one- 
self or of asking atten- 
tion or precaution : 
take care! excuse me! 

fnaj(-f7idj$ female 

mdi'tnit friend; md4^ 
my fr. (Di. mat, Nr. 

iTiSl^ to greet, salute; pt 
a moll ffi, a maf^ ffi he 
saluted him; n. msj^, 
or mii (Di. mat, Teso 
akai - mala , Somali 

mdUffS small, little, a litde 

miu tat J oil, m. ^ean 
butter, m. Hch honey, 
m. chigi marrow 

majf'kwQT candle (from 
kwoTQ cotton) 

mSyi^-mdt the mother's 
sister, aunt 

majfd to fish, to catch fish 

mayo mother? 

me property; forms pos- 
sessive pronouns; mi 
tiro, common property 
of the people 

mjd^ to increase, augment, 
add; m^t ny&i give 
more money 

mi^ also msdsL to be 
sweet, flavorous, sa- 
voury ; agreeable, joy- 
ful (Nr. msth to taste) 

mqOi mgjq to shut up, 
shut in, to hide, to 
close ; pt. a mecha litn 
he shut the eye; pe. a 
mSch; n. mich 

mlJQ to make straight, 
even, to pull, drag, 
tear ; to adjust by pull- 
ing, tearing; pt a michd 
ya^ a mich ; pe. a mieh; 
n. m^h 

mtk^-m^k^ some, some 
other, someone, some- 
body else, jal m. some 
man, another man 

min his mother (from mi 

m$n, min which, the one 
who, whose 

m£tiQ to put into, to stick 
into, to press into ; pt. 
a minh yaj^feili he stuck 
the tree into the ground; 
pe. a min 

mifiQ to twist; pt a my§n; 
a my^na wenQ^ he twist- 
ed his beard; pe. a 

m^nit the one who, syn 

mhtihn^ni heart 

i?i|n^ hind part of the 

m^ to be pretty, beauti- 
ful; bbl i m. the face 
is pretty 

mffiQ to be deaf; pt. a 
min (Nr. men) 

mhr a kind of white dura 

mSri charcoal 

m^ to be reconciled, 
to reconcile; pt. ^£ 
m&r; n. m^r^ 

m^ sweet 

mkt-m^t big hair-dress of 
the men 

rnH 6pjD^ crest of the 

mimother; mtd my mother 

mifiQ to be pleased; chuns. 
m. he is pleased, satis- 
fied; n. mln^ 

minit (minndf): mal a 
mini, koi i minji a 
heavy rain-shower is 
coming, it is going to 
rain heavily, it is gett- 
ing dark; n. min^ 

Digitized by 



mfn deaf, dea&ess; see 

nd^ mother, see ml 
miyi to hold fast, to keep, 

ehf^t tik H fnlffi nyffk 

his hands are tight in 

holding fast money : he 

is dose 
mQdQ to cohabit; pt. d 

m^t; d mQta ^faelm; pe. 

a tn^tf n. mfji 
modQ to break (?), pe. mit 
nio^ dark; feti ftl m. it 

is dark ; see mUffq 
mitfflt any food prepared 

of dura, dnra-beer; m. 

miilt beer, m. &ur flonr, 

m. gin cham bread, 

pudding, mQH a wach 

dough (Di. mQu) 
mogn to crumble off, as 

the bank of a river; 

to glide into ; pt. a m^k, 

n. mtffii 
fnQJQ to boast of^ to be 

proud of 
niSfQ to give; see mUjq 
mik these, these ones, see 

mikQ (Nr. rnqk) [fish 
mtk'fntodk the dog-head 
mik d^ truth, true, yerilj, 

mik = pi. of mlkQ, don 

pi. of duQn 
rn^kd pi. of iTiSibg 

mtn — n 

mQkq (sometimes tnako) 

to rain, to drizzle, drop ; 

k^i i mitkit it is raining, 

£^| d m^ki it rained 
mil, mwil morning 
mQlii to flow 
m^la to come early; pt. 

a mSl bjnQ he came 

eariy^ n. m^^ 
m^iifi to swallow; pt. a 

mgiUi gin cham; pe. a 

mQTQ red ai|t (Nr. mwgr 

milt adulteiy, see modit 
mi(ttltto pick out, to gather, 

to pluck ; pt. ^fiQ mj^ 

abwok, pe. a m^t 
miti, miti first, at first 
m$tit sterility (of the soil) 
md^dlit (foreign word?) 

mot2 ^ l^old &^t] pt a 

tn^ pe. a niQ^a ya|, 

n. mi0 
mUcfijt island 
mudQ to drown, to be 

mfl^ darkness ; m. e. b^nlt 

d. is coming; feii bd 

m. it is dark, /«i fitfi 

in. it is not daik (Bo. 

mut) [witchery 

n^gh disease caused by 

muJQ to giye, a mueha 
nyffk (Nr. moeV) 

m^ke beer, see m4igQ 

mulQ to creep, crawl (Di. 
mol, Nr. mwat) 

mulu to plaster with mud, 
to wall, to wall up 

mfUit to tame, to be tame, 
a mUl ki fack it was 
used to the house, it 
was tame 

nwrno to be perplexed, 
confused ; pt mja miSm, 
I am perplexed (Nu. 
mMmuT deaf) 

mt^ neck; munt ^fi 
neck of man 

mvfcJQ to be stingy (?) 

mwcjQ, to explode; pt a 
mwSehf n. muiflt» 
mwoche ioeh the ex- 
plosion of the gun 

m%D$l, mil morning, fiA 
ft m. it is morning 

mtoQnii to plaster with 
mud, to wall ; a mwgna 
rurQ (Nr. mun mad) 

mwiA scutiform cartilage 

mwini to whisper 

mysr pL of pack village 

^y^TS to be wordi, to 
deserve, to be becom- 
ing; pt a mfir, n. 


No word begins with ^ 

Digitized by 


nJt — iid 



nA (also ndi) as, like, ni 

in Hke him 
rmgo, to kill, to hurt, to 
put oat, eztingoish ; to 
break; e nQgq, tQbqfefi 
he throws the dish on 
the ground; pt. a neka 
^, pe. a nik, n. ndffb; 
yi nSgo, vmn adi how 
many years have you 
killed: how old are 
you? (Nr. nakh) 
ndmF'nifni riyer 
niuni as, like, just as 
nano, to lick; pt. a n&n, 

n. nin 
nau thus, without any- 
thing, without clothes, 
naked; e chaf^ '^^'v he 
walks naked (Nr. n^ 

hayHf neyo, uncle, neyit 

wlj uncle 
ni thus, as, just as, Hke 

nijal eni as this man 

(Nr. SnS thus) 
n^ to be wet; pt. a nip, 

n. n^bh 
ngnq to look; a nini^ fnal 

he looked up; pe. a 

nfn, n. nin, n* y(2 to 

see a way, to hope 
n^nQ to wait 
nff%Q, to live, a n^n 
nffiQ, to sleep, 4 ntnit he 

is asleep; pt. d ntn; yi 

ntn didyou sleep (well)? 
nhfh thus 
ltd/ right I all-right! reiy 

nimo to cover, to shade 

nin^ to sleep; p. a ntn, 

n. ntn; see n^^nii 
ntfifi to move, to shake, 

be moved by the wind 
nitKn^k (tobe)litde; a 

nqko, to recover, to heal; 

pt d nitHs n. n^i^ 
ndnQ to be or become 

litde, to diminish; pt. 

d nbn, n. nknii; see nqjk 
numQ to lick, to kiss; n. 

ndm^ [exists 

ndt, n4t there is, there 
ni^i not yet, not 
ntoaJQ niQl to breakfast; 

pt. a nuHieh ki mgl 
nwanQ to aim at 
Nwhr The Nuer-country 

or people 


Mk'ikwltli child , young 
one, seed, egg; fla is 
also used in expressing 
a deminutive form; in 
diese cases it is fre- 
quently pronounced ii£ 
or even fi« 

ikik bin slave, servant 
person belonging to 
somebody; also "wife" 

Hd b6n a white cow 
ika (^4{akindofreddura 
ilia din a cow with small 
brown and black spots 
ha ^i chwQu a whore 
liit^di botde (ar?); see 

ha^&f^idtoai a kind of 

red dura 
^^figyh^h & kind of red 


liaftltD^t a kind of red 

^ ^n ^ baby 

iki gif^yin gil i. wife, 
people belonging to 
the family; 2. used in 
addressing a higher 
person, as a chief 

M (tie^) xitlit an axe 

Digitized by 



i^^-j^h child of a chief 
fid jik a cow with a fallow 

head, small brown 

spots on the back, the 

rest being white 
lia j6k a cow : head black, 

small black spots on 

the back, the rest white 

— same as ikajitkl 
liai^itt-fi^itiit niece, nephew 
fia Jl^ a cow '.sides black, 

belly and back white 
ilia Hull a kind of red dura 
i/idk^ to straggle, wrestle, 

fight ;pt.<iiiait,n.iiaib(^ 
lid-ikdr^ cotton-seed 
lid, kwdch a cow, speckled 

black white 
M kw&A Tij^ loose woman 
fki4 also fi^^^ioii boy 
nal du^h-ikaii donn young 

man, youth 
lia lin'tiwql lin a small 

lia lei h brown or grey 

fift/Z-ii^S python 
liamayQ brother 
liamuMiemik sister 
lidmQ to chew (Bo. na) 
lia midu^l^ a bird; syn. 

okoffe nam 
tihrif also Mn'fiwitl girl, 

daughter (Di. lian) 
han (ej^ small girl 
lian liw^ bride 
lian kiyit elder sister 
liane ^aehu, sometimes 

lian a ^acJiQ girl 

lia lian young crocodile 
li^iUiftiM crocodile (Ea- 

ramojo o^f-fiaii croc, 

Elgumi aH'-iian croc, 

Masai ki^iian croc, 

Lendu lia hippo 
lia dmiL Ur a large duck 
^ pjfffi^iiwQl pyini a 

small hide or skin 
ikarif, child of a king, 

ikdTQ, Ittm to cut, mow 

liArt gums 
liirijifrQch calf 
lidu hair on the genitak 
liiu^wi cat (Di. aiiao> 

Nr. nau, liau, Masai 

fiou cat, Lendu liau 

^ t^ young bullock 
lia iDUinitir a bird 
liaya^ a small tree, shrub, 

liJt yim ibwbk a kind of 

red dura 
lii =z i/ia child, young, 

liek posterity, pi. of pre- 
liihdyi elder brother 
liemei sister 
liimik a kind of white 

fiemia-^iemlik brother 
liemidu sister 
lienU^ tysn ffoi sister -in 

law [striped 

lie lian a cow, white-red 

fi^ — liQfnq 

ift^ fiiii eyes ; see toon 
lignQ pM to make a deep 

hole into the ground 
lie tQna black cow 
liewd female cousin 
lii yftnt a cow: head white, 

body black or bay 
M to use to; expresses 

the habitual form of 

the verb 
fia^tomi]k;pt aikiei 
M^ a month, about No- 

^ikdnjt the ancestor of 

the Shilluk nation 
litm genitals of woman 
lUm £sce, in front of^ 

fSadng (Nr. f^am) 
lAmJH^m sesamum (DL 

flum^ Teso tita-flumu) 
fUn, also liin name, ikini 

dmin which is your 

litn eyes ; see wan 
liin small part, atom; ift. 

ya| a fiti toana a chip 

of wood fell into my 
liine chA joint [eye 

liidit to bear young ones; 

pt d lidt, n. f&to^; 

see liwQln 
liS^ to show, see ihi^ 
ii§^ to be soft; syn. Iicij^ 
liij^lit-iihMi an axe; see 

liSja byil to cook dura 
ilgfitj^ to many; pt. a 
f^mi ^achu; a fftgma 
^hn; pe. a flio^ 

Digitized by 


ioHQ — nan 


fi^nQ to pound, erash; € 

Mnn l^ibQ he ponndB, 

kneads the mud; pt. 

a 4Qni L, pe. a i^$n, n. 

i^Q to scatter, to tread 

on; pt a liQna kwci; 

pe. a li^n; n. li^; 

same as the preceding 
^$n see liw^Ht 
f^fy^ some time, some 

days ago, the other 

tku^ to show; pt. a ikSfii 

wQt he showed the 

house; pe. a tiSf; n. 

litffifi to rub (as a wall, 

to make it smooth); 

pt a fljfi^ wnt; pe. w^t 

a ik$n 

f^^iffis liufiffJHMbk louse 

ihoaga to take part (in a 

meal), to agree, con- 
sent, to be of one opi- 
nion; pt d liwikii gin 
eham; n. ikwAky tod 
liwaka hwup we were 
of one opinion 
ikwaUi to touch; pt a 
iHvAlh kwamii; a litoati 
kwQmc9 n. litro^; see 

liuTOii-fltraiii bracelet of 
metal, iron 

litoai^ to be able, derer, 
to be able to work 
with both hands, the 
left and the right, alike 

liwQtQ to touch; pt a 
tiwQti gin on, a livAl 
gin an, n. liwa^; see 

ikwayQ to doze 
litoilJHitD^i earth-worm 
litBignQ to walk around 

ikwejfQ to rain a little, to 
drizzle; koi ^ ^tvejfd 

^WQbft to knead, as mud, 
douj^, to mix with 
water; pt a iiu>Qpa 
Ulbq: pe. a liw^p; n. 

litogfy to be weak; pt a 

tiw^U young ones, chil- 
dren, seed, litDQle jwqk 

liwqlQ to bear young or 
fruit; pt diiwil 

liwomQ, to marry; pt. a 
iktbgma ^n; pe. a flio^; 
n. ikwin; see ligmis 

liwunQ, to crouch, squat, 
cower; pt a ikwitn 

liwQj^ weak ; see litofi^ 

i/iwofji to show ; see flu^ 


nach back, behind, back- 
ward; ya eKafa nijd I 
went backward 

naehQ to take leave, to 
ask for permission to 
go; pt a naeha ^aj^; 
pe. d ndeh; n. luIcA 

nadQ to cut, to butcher; 
a ndt (nit); pe. d nlity 
or: d nlil; see nalq 

na^ to rely on, to trust; 
pt a nd^in 

ndJQ to know ; almost ex- 
clusively used in pas- 
sive : a niehiydn; also : 
a nidii ydn I know 
him; n. ndj^ 

nolo, to butcher; pt a 
nAlii ^ean, pe. a ndl, 
n. nil; see nadQ 

namQ to yawn ; pt d ndm; 

WBSTBRMAHll, TIm SkiUak People. 

n. ndm^ (St. nam) 

niin,ndne, firom note "man, 

person'^ often occurs 

in compositions, in 

plural generally typi 

"people'' is used 

nane ehwitr blind person 

none ^aeho, also nan a 

^fadm woman 
nan dwar hunter 
nan k^k a hired person. 

Digitized by 



nan — noyo 

nan kSr gaarduui 
nan kwid shepherd 
nan hwal thief 
nan Itdit barber 
nan toJQ black man 
nan iQk kwip mterpreter 
nan mdni ri^^ eunuch 
nan mdr beloved one, 

nan mdrdch a bad person 
nan m^n enemy; from 

nan mil apprentice 
nan ikwqm bridegroom 
nan nar boaster 
fian/Q, to be perplexed, 

astonished ; pt. a n&n 
ndrQ (also narg) to gnarl, 

growl ; to bluster, boast, 

brag; a ndr, or: a n^ri; 

n. ndrii 
ndt a cow with horns cut 

niUi'ty^n man, person 

(Nr. naky Ba. nfitg) 
nate bip^ beggar 
nate budq a lying, a sick 

nate fach inhabitant, ci- 
nate fwhik teacher 
nate gvaqh workman 
naJte jwan^ kwif one who 

is hasty, rash in his 

words, an arrogant 

nate jw^k I. a "man of 

God'' ; 2. a sick person 
note kSr rich person 

note kd diief 
note kwdcki beggar 
note kuAyi herdsman 
note Iffi one who beats 

the small drum 
nate m^t a lewd person 
nate nek murderer 
note nil butcher 
note nh^ an unconscious, 

a swooning person 
nate rape hw^p mediator, 

nate f^l cook 
ndai toiltt traveller, stran- 
fuUi ydf ki mim one who 

seeks intercourse with 

women, lewd person 
nate ydt an abuser 
nate yisdo, helper 
nhyi a kind of red dura 
n^toQ^ to trade, to buy, 

sell; pt a nfflu^ a it^oiri 

nidorfiit, nit rib ; see the 

f^dtt-nit a hoe, made out 

of bones, now seldom 
n^ffQ to bleed a person 
nij^ a mark 

nefQ to recognise, see naJQ 
nilq to roll; pt ffi n^ 

nam they rolled into 

the river; n. «^^ 
liSmg to cut off, take off; 

pt a nffna yif^; pe. a 

n!im ; n. nim 
neuQ to be unconscious. 

to swoon; pt <i n^ 

n. n^ 
netiQ to tan, to prepare a 

skin by tanning 
nffiQ (to be) much, many 

(Nr. nwan) 
nir^^ the white-ear cob 
ngm to let the milk down 

(said of a cow) ; pt. a 

nir; see nyi^ 
li^ brain 
liifQ to laugh; pt d nt^; 

pe. d n|j$; n. nyirit 
ni allright! well! 
nfifrg to hang up 
nodg, to cut ; pt. d nitk d 

nj^t, d nQla (nqta) yat; 

pe. d n^t, or: a nol 

(Nr. nat) 
nqffQ to vomit, pt yd nbk 

(Nr. fifii) 
AqI a lame person, a 

cripple; from nod(t 
nglHi^li a large water- 
AqIq to cut; see nodQ 
AqIq to avoid ; the same 

as nglo, nodfi to cut? 
n^ the rectum ; n^nipy^ 

an invective, injurious 

nbrjffi^, also n^ bean 

(Nr. lifir) 
nit cripple; &t>m nodo^ 

see n^l 
notQ to spit; pt a fioto, 

or: a nola liii; pe. a 

nSl; see nwotQ 
ngyfi to curdle, coagulate 

Digitized by 


ndyQ — dfftik 

nqyQ to imitate 

ni^^nuwi lion 

nudQ to cut, to kill; see 

nudst to surpass in some- 
thing, to be too much: 
€ nu^ yj raJQ he is 
very bad 

nuw^ rasor 

nwaJQ to smell v. n., j/amq 
d nwdehi gn the wind 
smelled towards him: 
he smelled the wind; 
n. niri;^ (Nr. nwsfih*) 

nwanQ to aun at; pt. a 
nwdni Iqi; pe. a nwdn; 
n. nuAnjt 

nwifih-nwieh alarge lizard, 
lives in the water and 
on land 

nw^h^ abo nw^h runn- 

nwieh a kind of red dura 

nwel a snake 

nwqJ2 to hasten, make 
haste, to be the first 
in doing something; 
pt. a nw$ch; n. nto^^ 

nwQnQ to be prudish, coy, 
simpering, conceited, 
presumptuous, proud; 
pt. d nwj^, a nwitfih n* 
ntvin, or: n$n^ 

nwotQ Idii to spit; pt d 
ntrdtil L, pe. a n6l 

ny^ to milk; pt. a m/^ 
a nyi^ ^n, or: a 

^ynff^ ^ook to cut ojBT 
nyiA metal, money (Bo. 


Sbdnii front-apron of wo- 

bbiM-hbi^wi the lungs 

i>bieh-6b{Seh reed 

bl^r^I^rl feather, wing 

4>b^ womb 

jbbif^Hr a small pot for 

jibSffit - 6bQk spotted, 
speckled ; an albino 

6b^ foam, froth 

Z>bitu lungs, see obau 

61^ beUows 

/ibwiti^ - bwQii stranger, 
foreigner; chiefly the 
white man, Arab, Turk, 
European; obw. tpok, 
obw. tdj2 "white man 
of the bush'', "black 
^hite man** : Sudanese 

Arab, black Arab 
6bw$r^ grass for thatching 
((ftt<H(y ^((ftu^t a shrub with 
thick, fleshy leaves, 
very frequent in the 
dbyich a cow with ordi- 
nary , non - dressed 
dehbd^ a hornless cow, 
a cow with short horns 
dchilit'toQte ehdl or ch^l 

bchdyit-i^chiyi melon 
6ehu$i liver; see eJiuiiQ 
dehyinit ' dehyin a loin- 
cloth, "back -apron'', 
for women 
ddiki ehyffiQ the pahn of 
the hand 

ddik'idiH a large -mat 

(Nr. mk) 
ddilt^di^ I. a cow with 

horns turned down; 2. 

anchor; see id^ 
ddirjhbdir kiddle, garth, 

6dibih6(Rp9 6dip blanket 
odinQ cloud-shadow 
ddin west-wind 
6d4Ut a cow with horns 

pointing forward 
6^ a kind of red dura 
bfid^ a tree, its fruit is 

eaten by goats 
ofiidd IwqI mask 
d/win-^fiin loaf of bread 
ofyct lyiph a kind of white 

6giik a cow: back and 

Digitized by 




head black, heXty and 

neck white 
6gdlr6gdl (ar.) mule 
dgdljh^i^ or : 6gdl mule; 

see Offal 
bffify^ a bird 
offigi a cow; see 6gtk 
dffih^lk buffiJo 
6fffSnjt'6gini bracelet of 

iff6t A cotton-doth 
dgwiMgwjH frog 
ogwal calf of the leg; o. 

&a< "calf ofthearm^'v 

the fleshy part of the 

upper arm 
dgwi'^uHhoYT (for shoot- 
6gw&, on ox with horns 

turned towards the 

eyes; female: aywilQ 
6guj9k^iHj9^kMl, "fox"' 
bgwiUbgic^l a black bird 
^u^^-^tr(^ also 6gwi^ 

fi die blue (grey?) 

djUnit'WQfe jfin Dinka- 

man, barbar 
dlcidlt^Uti a big basket 
hkitiit^ka^ hedgehog 
dkQk^hitk, also dhitgl a 

fish with three thorns 
hm (abo 6m) — hm 

egret, also name of the 

litde white heron 
6Jfc^A>^it^Jkflower, blossom 

(Di. gak) 
6kiUbk!it bell; 0. e tsno. 

the bell rings 

bkut papyrus 
dkwa Kyikang's faAer 
dkuAfkit^kwItii broom 
6hu^ also bkwitb^kwUc 

a kind of goose 
dkwk}/^ ft a kind of red 

dkwdl-dkwb^ an eatable 

gourd, is cuhivated 
bkwim^kubfn die sacred 

6kwin-6Hln long feathers, 

such as are used as 

ornaments in the hair 
6kwirHihifi the spotted 

senral, and its skin, 

worn as dancing-doth 
6h,iiUh,m black, grass- 
eating ant, they live 

in armies, build large 

olaeh maeh a kind of white 

dWoHiUH » fish [fig 

dUtm-dUmiiiie sycomore- 
6Udu die starling 
6Wc a cow, grey and 

white spotted 
bttl&bttH a dub ending 

in a ball, knob-kerry 
6lin (dliiif) a cow widi 

large brown and white 

speckles; see 6Wi 
((%(^ajH(2^ brown hawk 
bldS-bUi^tiBobUM duck 

(DL olubU, Kr. IwOwi, 

Ba. vnUK) 
6l&i a cow widi small 

brown and white dots 

6lwi a kind of white dura 
6lwi-6lwi marabou-stork 
6mi cousin 
dmi^JH^Smi^ the diild 

of my brother, niece, 

nephew, 6mi^ my n. 
dmiylhimdi the child of 

my mother's sister, 

cousin, see 6mit 
^fiO^^-^m^ fire-fly 
bmiH (ar.) salt 
dtnln his brother 
dm^rjt a kind of red dura 
dmUikiml brother 
6m$flit A cow (or other 

animal) black and 

white spotted [lope 
dmMt'if^ roan ante- 
arngt green dura 
bndu^iu a snake, not 

poisonous, eats frogs 
iniyj^'inii the child of 

my mother's brother, 

inifft A cow widi horns 

directed strai^t back- 
ward, like those of the 

young buffalo 
bnuMi large black ant, 

eats termites , bites 

6ik^ red earth on river 

banks, used for mi^trTng 

oiiemia my brother 
Qik{t to dive ; see fonQ 
b^wi drindingrain 
diko^k'diiu^k male goal 

or sheep 

Digitized by 


bntoirit — PhIq. 


bnv4rit A whip 

ofiyiii - inyiiii A green 
snake, not poisonous, 
catches chickens 

6pdp^pdp die hip-bone 

bpdrit a gonrd 

dpun-{$pi(n loaf; BeeSfwin 

6rdp'6rdp spider (Nu. 

drat-'iiri^ a snake, not poi- 
sonous, eats chickens 

brJuSrit calico-cloth 

irit-dr white ant-hill 

Mt (iirityitr relatives by 

orn to send; see warq 

dr^h'drltdi ram 

irigi hollow 

wrong, sin 

6r$k^6T^k, 6figi small 
bells worn round the 
knee in dancing 

irimit male sheep or goat, 
see 9^jm^ (Masai oro 

drwimit'^rwqm male sheep 

or goat, see 6tim^ 
diit-^tiii a pot for water 

or beer 
dtin^'d^nit 6^n stones 

heaped up, a dam, 

embankment, bridge 
6iQk mist, fog; feA da 0. 

it is misty 
dtftlit contipede 
htiiUi a kind of white dura 
dtwiUdtwffi a river-fish, 

resembling a snake 
biy&n'6tyim dragon-fly 
dtyintt^iyin a fish 
otye/k bells 
60glt^i^iA I. a flatfish; 

2. a gourd used as a 

6^ a kind of red dura 
6tSr-6^ a ford 
6^0 a kind of red dura 
($j(^a humble, poor person 
bpo6l blue 

dpoQ^'dp^ltQi hyena 
({|uHb^-<(j^ I. cock; 2. 

male animal (Di. wt(m) 
dfftfin old time, ancient 

time, a long t ago 
6u)ii'iki%DiL the child of 

my father's brother, 

6wiij^'-iMwfij^ tiie child of 

my father's sister, 

iwUn^witii a heron 
dwdU-^hu I. tiie black 

ibis; 2. branch of 

dv^dlt^wtt a fish 
iwik a toothless person 
itoit-^tt some kind of 

6yinit crocodile-hunter 
oytr(it-oytr<Sworm, cater- 
ogwhk'dgtodH, also ciyir/- 

H the golden-crested 



pdehnm/ir village, home 
(DL pan) 

pSffQ to sharpen 

poJcdio thank 

pam-p^i board, table, 
saddle (Bo. pam mill- 
stone) ; see pirn 

p4nit to hide 

pati the hole below the 


patikq to trie a person 

pan full 

pUnQ to divide; pe. pdk 

pdnit ear-wax 

pir^fi, phi hippo 

pays to depend on, to 
be under somebody's 
auspices or responsi- 

ptg2 to fill, to fill into; 
pt a p^ka byil yeeh 
af^p he filled dura into 
die bag; pe. apik; n. 
pik (to be) heavy 
pil^l grinding-stone 
P^Iq to drinle; kofe p. 

Digitized by 



j^ diying-plmce for 
dura, in the fidds; 

p§fno to denie 

per like* alike, similar 

pir news 

pit bad smell 

pi, pi-^k water (Nandi 
pek, Somali /nyt, Tur- 
kana ahi-pi, Earamojo 

agipi, Teso aki-pi) 
pidq to persecute, follow, 

to demand debts; n. 

pyio, to get tired 
pUk water; see p\ 
po^ to pull out 
pof^ to pass somebody ; 

pi a pdf^ a p>oga in; 


pirn — rlga 

/TtUl torde 

ptotifi-pwdi a place pre- 
pared for a field, farm, 

pufOikQ - pwbeh tendon 
Achilles * 

pjf^kr^ry^u twenty 

py^rit ten 

pyilQ, to cack 


ritch-rech^ bad, r. ki rati 
duQn "bad with great 
badness*': very bad; 
rack may also mean: 
veiy much, in a high 
degree (Di. rtich) 

raJQ to become or to be 
bad; n. rdji 

rdm^im thigh; abo ydm 
(Nr. ram) 

rQm diarrhoe 

ramit to pain, ache; pt. 
a r^m ; n. rim (Di. rem) 

rUni-rSni looking-glass 

ranQ to see by witchcrafit 

rdrit a thrashing-place 

rarQ to run, to stream; 
to run a race; pt. a 

• rAri ; n. nlr^ 

rir^-rir sinew, nerve, 

people; see r|{ 
rau hippopotamus (Di. 

VQU, Nr. rQu, Madi robi, 
Abokaya arua hippo; 
LfOndu ra croc.) 

rdtoit duchn 

r^wQ to blacken poles in 
order to make them 
hard ; n. riu 

re^ek body, r^ ^ his 
body, that is: he, is 
hot, feels imwell, is 
lazy (Nr. r^, Madi ru, 
Abokaya amaru) 

ri why? yi ri kif, why 
did you go? (Nu. re 
interrogative particle) 

ri expresses casus irrealis 

rff>2 to bring together, 
mix, unite, associate, 
reconcile; pt. d riph 
ji he reconciled the 
people; pe. ji a rip, 
also a rip; a rip yi 
mack it was caught by 

rg6g to be ihin, not strong, 
not durable 

rif, rip thin, not durable, 
see Tibq 

riJQ to be bad, to spoil; 
see rcLch 

r^'g to receive a guest, 
to be hospitable; pt 
a recha daj^; pe. a ryiek 

riJQ'r^ fish (Teso iMga- 

rim thigh ; see ram 

r^mit blood (Madi art, 
Abokaya art) 

r^2 to become or be 
bad, to spoil; pt. d 
r|fi, also d r^ii; n. r|fi; 
chufii r., yefi^ r. he is 
angry ; see rich 

rerq to cut into strips 

r^j^f^ corn-stalks 

reyn faeh to make a pot- 

figa to be shut up, barred, 

Digitized by 


rxjQ — ry^ro, 


as the river by sudd ; 

to fill up (as a hole), 

to buiy; pt. a rika ^f^ 
riJQ to stay, remain; pt. 

d rich; n. rf;i 
rtiifi to run; pt d rin 

(Di. rin, rt/an, Nr. rtri) 
rini meat (Masai aJd-rin, 

Teso afa'-rtn) 
Hi (alao rai)'rar king 

( Ju. rwot, Nu. ar^' god, 

Somali ga^^rat chief) 
roig to string (beads); 

pt a ropa Qgn; pe. a 

r6p; n. rdp 
r^hh (at.) one shilling, V4 

r2(^^ r^ thirst; yh da 

r.y ya mdki yi r. I am 

thirsty (Teso ako^ai, 

Nr. rii). 
rogQ to hollow, to scoop 

out; pt a r^kh ya^; 

pe. a rqk 
rojorTQch heifer, see lia- 

r^Q to castrate 
rbh-rdk a small gourd 
rgmQ pi to fetch, to dip 
water; pt d rtoimiL pi; 
pe. d rwQm; n. rtvirn 
rgmQ to meet ; to measure, 
to weigh; to be suffi- 
cient; to think, under- 
stand; to overleap; pt 
a rgma kwdp he ponder- 
ed on ^e word; n. rim 
rj^fii^ female sheep 
rgii^ to sink, to dive (Di. 


rMa to elect (a chief, 
king); pt jrigrfiiia HU 
pe. a roA; see 7^2 

ritn^iM'bni a large, poi- 
sonous snake, eats rats 

r^i rain-bow ; see prece- 

rqnQ to be or do wrong, 
to be astute, to sin; pt. 
a r^n, n. brltk (Ba. /o- 
roki Uh^an, Teso irono) 

rgno^Qni kidneys 

rarg to be sterile (of ani- 

rqtn (rgdo) to sew; pt. a 
rQta lAu 

rQyQ to spill ; a rgya pi 
he spilled water; pe. 
pi d r$i, n. r^i 

rgyn to cry (in running) 
away), n. r^i 

rild^ north-wind, the time 
while it is blowing; 

ruffQ to put on clothes or 
ornaments, to *adom; 
pt a riiki. tdu; pe. a 


nim'^iritm, WQm noose 

rumQ to turn (up) ; pt d 
riim dgngfefA he turned 
the basket (on the 
groimd) upside down 

rQm(2 to finish, befinished; 
pt d rtm it is finished 

rumo to measure, to think, 
to be thoughtful, anxi- 
ous ; pt d rUm; n. rdm^- 

rumi; see rgmQ 

rumg yafi to tread over 
a tree; to overleap a 
tree; pe. ya^ d r$m 

run year (Di. rwon, Nr. 

rUrg to hum; Iwan e r. 

rutog to pass away; run 
dkyil d rd one year 
has passed away, n. 

ruyg: a niyi wiu he went 
after sunrise (?) ; see 

rwgmg to catch with both 
hands ; see wgmg; same 
as rtoQnw to meet? 

rwgmg to meet, measure; 
see rgmg 

rw^t house; syn. wgt 

ry&k (Dinka) famine 

ry^bg to hire or rent for 
money, to bribe; pt a 
ry^pa jtLg^ he hired 
(bribed) the judge; a 
ry^pa ddfi he hired a 
man for work ; pe. togt, 
ygi a ryif the house, 
the boat was hired,'rent 

ryefg to invite, to receive 
as guest, to entertain, 
treat; pt. a ryecha ^aj^ 
pe. a ihfMiy n. ryieh; 
see r^g 

ryek a mat, fence of mats 

ryimg to drive or to chase 
away, to banish; pt. d 
ryimh ^it» pe. d ryim 

rysrg to hang up, to 

Digitized by 




■OBpend, to be hftnging, 
Buspended; rinq, r. mal 
the meat is liAnging 
above ; pt. a ryffra rino 

mal he suspended the 
ryffrQ, to come forth, to 
rise; ehdn a ryir the 

sun has risen; see the 
ryct both; see iry^ (DL 
riifc, Ba. tnurreke) 


idbdti bier; gt hi$i ^ 
t€ij^ t they put the 
man upon the bier 

tddq to tie boards or laths 
together; g^ idth to^t; 
n. tidit 

iadq^H sticks, laths for 
buiUiag a house ; tiU 
toQt; t. kal fence-sticks 

tddilt door 

tagite chain ; d t^bcH in 
H L he was bound widi 
a chain 

i^gd to dig the foun- 
dations of a house 

tikigi planting-stick see 

tiJyidi a cow with white 
flanks, the rest being 

tdldl-tidil brass, anything 
made of brass 

^2(}^^&f2 a reddish, poi- 
sonous snake; vide 

tin^ roof 

tQffn to put on fire 

tan along, e k^ t nam 
he goes along the river 

tin hartebeest 

tone nam river-side 
taiH2 to stretch out (llie 

t^nQ to be divorced, to 

divorce, a 1§na ^h{t 

he was divorced firom 

the woman, n. tin; see 

tiir, tir white 
tir pasture -place 
tarq to turn (a thing); pt 

ffa iara mal I turned 

upside ; n. Ari 
tdti kdl fence-sticks 
tdtjfil the comer of die 

wan opposed to die 

tdfwSl a cow of bay colour 
t^gQ to dirow, to scatter, 

V. a. and n., n. tiyit 
t^biml (also t^.)^tff4n4 

girdle, belt 
teckq to be wet 
t^dtt-^id^dooT-BiielL] see 

tAdit, an ddd$t 
tSdigb a red-brown (bay) 

teduk a gray cow 
Hgo, to be or become 

hard, strong; n. Uga; 

see ifk 

tiglt^k chain, string of 
beads, ring 

tdgidi'tigfi^ poles -or 
sticks, about 2Va foot 
long, serving as sup- 
porters for the house- 

tijk to be hard, strong, 
brave, tenacious, per- 
severant, cruel 

ttk the cavity below the 
scutiform cartilage 

tfkt wqt to dig out the 
foundation of die 
house, a tik^ n. teke wni; 
see taga 

ti^ to smack with the 
tongue; a tf^ dj/^ he 
called the goats by 

^{2 to pull, to puU out; 
pe. Aim d 41 the grass 
was pulled out 

tgfno, to take without as- 
king; n. ifmit 


fgna to pour out drop by 
drop; a ^ni pi he 
poured out the water 

Digitized by 


tinh — tuga 


^njh^n oribi-gmzeUe 
ijnQ mQffQ to strain beer; 

pt d fy^ fnfijrfi, pe. 

rnQgn d tyin; n. tyin 
UnQ, to be hard, itrong; 

a iinl, n. Hgit 
tinq to stamp (with the 

foot), to shake, to clap 

(bands), to hew, carve; 

pi d tind lau he shook 

the doth ; a tSni ehypi 

he cUpped the hands; 

pe. a t|fi, a tyik; n* i^; 

see ty^Q, 
itr straii^t, ya| mddr a 

straij^t tree 
^rlt, tidit people (Ba. Hr 

people, No. Ur they) 
tm to cany; see ty^ 
ttt door; see tidit 
^^in a black cow 
tiwUH-i^wt^ fish-hook 
t^wfi to wag; pt d iiti, n. 

^dn (gin eham) to covet 

after (food) ; n. itdit 
Mga: i HgQ yi rajQ he is 

very bad, spoiled ; yg- 

mn Hgit die wind, air 

smells bad 
^Q to do ; pt a tick, n. 

Hk^k I. sndd; 2. chin 
til (to be) dear; pik til 

the water is dear 
timq ^jf seton, fontanel 
tin at once, soon, pre- 

sendy, just now 
tinQ to lift up, to raise; 

pt a $n ya|; pe. d tin; 

n. tin (Nr. tun) 
tipit I* shadow of man; 

2. an apparition in a 

dream, a spectre (Nr. 

tif, Masai o-tp) 
<g&l{ to be soft 
toeh^tbMi gun 
tocA narrow 
to(^ to tell stories, to tell 

lies ; pt a twdti kwif^ 

pe. kwifd twdtj n. tSdJtf 

or tuH>t (Di. iuK^) 
t(tgQ to castrate (as a goat) 
tigh * gnMS growing in 

the river; papyros? 
tqga to hatch; gygna 4 

thgh liwitH the hen 

hatches eggs 
tigit the occipital bone 
tigh to wound (?) 
i^gQ to put into 
iQJil mau to rub with oil 

^0$ ^d to tie; pt a 

toehi &m, pe. d twSch 
tik to be absent, to be 

wanting (Di. totok) 
<3^i-^ii^side, part, middle ; 

(qJc nanif l^ki nam side 

of the river 
tQJko, to crush, to beat 

soft, to knead 
iamq, Iffu Uf^h to carve 

iQmQ pi to fetch, dip 

water; see rSv^Hl 
Qfifi to rob, pillage; pt. 

a tiikii pack; pe. a t^; 

n. ^li^ 

tin^titn, also tin spear; 
jal-tin (^y tin)^ the 
man (woman) who 
performs the wedding- 
customs for the bride- 
groom (and bride) (Di. 

Uinfftdk, also tftn egg (Di. 
twgny Nr. twitn) 

(onQ to turn (towards, 
aside); a toni fsl he 
turned into the bush; 
tQnQ ehdn to go to ease 

tgnQ to pick; wiiiQ t.feik 
ki cuiimit the bird picks 
the ground with its 
bill (same as tgnQ to 

tSna kwaf to tell the trutfi 
(same as tgnQ to turn?) 

tjtr, also t^tihi water- 
pool, grassy place 


tarit to trouble, to be 

tors to break; pt a fara 
yal; pe. a tSr; n. tir 

toyn to pierce, perforate, 
to sprout, germinate 

tigjt - ti$k deleib - palm 
(Orunyoro, Oruhima, 
Luganda , Lunyara : 
oibohi^tiy'Lusese katugq, 

tugQ wiikQ to scare up 
birds;pt if tt^tif. 

tugQ Urn to crush grass ; 

Digitized by 



pt. d tiik, pe. lum d tQk, 
n. titk; see tqlcQ 

tugQ to open ; see tuk^ 

tugit to play ; pt. a tuk 

tiik'tUki stone, cooking- 
stone, hearth ; gi fl^ 
gin cham wiy L 

tuIcQ dedgt to open the 

tuho, to awaken, to be 

tul^ owl 

tulo, to rise (sun) ; n. tCUt 
(Ba. tule) 

tumd to gather, assemble, 
y. n. and k.-^ je a turn 
the people assembled 

tunj also twun horn (Nr. 

tAh side, end 

tubjh to bind, tie; to dress 
(a wound) ; pt. a tubcha 
kcjli Ui he dressed the 
wound; pe. a ttoSch 

tuitnh to withhold, detain 
from; to get nothing; 
pt. d tu^n gin cham he 
did not get any food 

tiidn-tUitni chisel 

tiiiiniftu^ worm 

tuQnn a small red insect; 
see preceding 

tut matter, pus 

tiDogQ wiy witt to beat the 

roof of the house even ; 

n. tiodglt 
twalQ, to be poor, helpless ; 

pt. d twhly n. ^tt^ 
twfirit to snore, snort; pt. 

d twhr 
twQXQ, to float on the 

water, as foam 
ttbavQ to gather, pick up; 

to dean, to sweep; pt. 

a twara totl he picked 

up, cleared away the 

grass, n. ttoiLV 
twsJQ to be bald; toiji 

<U7^/ fore-arm, lower fore* 

twelo, to remain small, not 
to grow well 

twm ankle 

twah^ bubble (as water) 

twot false report; n. of 

tyan corn-stalk 

tyau: wi na tyaul also: 
fki tyaul a curse 

tyi^gQ to surround; pt gi^ 
ty^ha Igi they surround- 
ed the game; pe. d 
tyik; n. tyigb 

tyigQ to file, polish (the 
spear) ; pt a ty^ tgn; 

pt a tyik; n. tyik 
ty^Q to finish ; pt a ty^ki 

gin cham; n. tyigh 
tyik company of warriors; 

tyik wedding ceremony 
tyekQ to continue in; de 
chdn in b^ne a tyiki 
ydn yd cKafOs di isniin 
yd niififedQ^ this whole 
day I have continued 
walking, but I am not 
yet tired 
tyiUt^yiliooi^ foundation, 
basis, root; times, 
meaning; tyildd^^Stxree 
times; tyil amalQ the 
first time ; ty^ wgt the 
foundation of a house 
(Ga. U/eno, Suk ket) 
tyin people, persons 
tysn Uik warriors 
tyffi a min women 
tyf^ to strain; s. (inq 
tyeAQ ysi to hew, canre a 

canoe ; see iffiQ 
tyerq to show, to present 
for examination, to ex- 
hibit; see tyffTQ 
ty^ to cany; pt a ty^ 
yaf^ a tiro yat he car- 
ried a tree; pe. a l^r; 
— see ftrfi 


litiie lower part, die hind- 
part; below, under. 

behind, beneath (Nr. I f4 (tjiit) the heglig-tree 
ifiLv) I and its firuit (Kr. j^) 

Digitized by 


Igfeg— ly^rg 

^ibo to cheat, outwit; pt 
afapa^dj^; pe. afap; 

t&eh a wreath or ring 
made of a doth or of 
grass, laid on the head 
for carrying loads ; also 
hud on the ground to 
put the pot upon 

^adg, to cook; to smelt 
metal, to forge; pt a 
0la gin cham she cook- 
ed food, pe. a f^til (Di. 
wtah Nr. ]{g/) 

^h'l^'lii a coyer (mat) 
for the big dura-basket 

|at wieh the tattooing of 
the fore-head 

tdk-0H, abo fAH (ar.) 
cap, hat 

fdhigl a little ax 

(anQ chysn to stretch up 
the hands; pt a ^ana 
ch,, D. |Sii^ 

|in^|am the temples 

fajfQ to put (under or on) ; 
pt a jfapi }/at wiy ^^ 
he put a tree on his 
head; pe. a ffiji; n. 

j^r the buttocks 

tdtytUt heel 

iafe^ a pole for pulling 

boats (rowing) 
tiii^t the buttocks f see 


tflu to die ; see iou 

tj^yidi ghk^ also to^yht gdk 
a cow, black with white 

gdq to make a bad, hurt- 
ful charm; pt a iye^; 

n. tyk 
t^'^ a water-lily, its 

seeds are eaten 
tin^iifi the meat on the 

breast (of animals) 
tVto»fi small, Uttle; a 

litde, few 
fgf^l dura-stick 
j^^ the current 
j^ to drizsle, to rain a 

iitde; kQi e f. 
iigh-tik a mat for closing 

the door-hole, a door 
fim trees, forest (Di. tim^ 

Masai en dim, Nandi 

iif^'l^ti woman's breast 
tii buttocks; see |au 
(Ifch dew; jj. wiy lum dew 

is on the grass 
^U^U Also 01 rope 
|dm-|^ I. a musical in- 
strument, guitar; 2. a 

small drum, dedicated 

to Nyikang (Di. torn, 

Nr. ipm) 
^mQ tofn to play the guitar 
tpmQ to cut off, cut open 


j^g to put on fire for 

cooking or boiling 
0ro to make even, 

smooth, by filling up 

with sand ; to make a 

road, a ford; gs, 0ra 

nam the made a ford 

across the river 
j^ojffi to give 
iQiDQ to die; pt. d t^u, 

also df^he died (Teso 

ttoan-^ry, Ba. twan) 
j^m^ to be finished; pt. 

d ^iim, d f^mi 
fjiir^fur mahogany-tree 
pvSl-fSli snake, serpent; 

|. a kachi ^f^ the s. 

bit the man (Nr. jgjQ 
fwomq: ty^l^ piimi in, he 

sits on the ground with 

the knees drawn high 
pjooiio to blow one's nose ; 

pt a pvSii; n. t^6tiit 
pvQWQ to dry, be dry; pt 

lim d po^ the grass 

is dry; see towo 
tyhu also, likewise, too 
iyi^i^iyiu guinea-worm 
iysd(t to bewitch 
iyi^: ^^'A^ ^ ^he sun has 

iySVH to show, exhibit 

for examination; pe 

a iyir, n. iytr 

Digitized by 



i — wdfi 


4 sign of fature and of i tfntHMitri a rat 

conditional | iitoili traveller, stranger 


wi we, us 
tcai aunt ; sjn. wdJQ 
w& separate, by itself 
wM, also witi the contents 

of the stomach 
wdjil fd dimit a kind of 

red dora 
tffdjdd^inirit a kind of 

red dura 
wijit to talk, converse, 

to tell stories; pt d 

wiuih: a way hwip, pe. 

d todch ; n. tvieh 
wdjJMvieh fitther's sister, 

aunt (Nr. waeh) 
uHik outside, the bush, 

uninhabited country; 

bwaiiQ wdk Europeans 

or Arabs living far 

away in the interior 
vAlh or 
wqlsi to grind 
waist to boil (of water), 

V. a. and n. 
wiUt'W^l loin -ring, of 

ostrich egg shells etc. 
trefil-^: i w. to squat 
waii^fwaeh paper, letter. 

book , mohammedan 

w^H to be lost, to dis- 
appear; to die (said 
of a king only); to 
lose ; pt jwitk d wM 
the sickness disappear- 

wa^ to approach, come 
near; pt d todfi, d tc^yl 

loebi-rtin year, time ; wdn 
rnikd some (future) 

wdn^in eye; direction; 
gnun (Nr. wan, Tur- 
kaua ekgn, Suk kon, 
Elgnmi alcQn, Teso 

wanffu-^ngu a big-sised 
white bead 

todfi dffitk "crow's eye^, 
a kind of red dura 

wdn in/Aeh pi. itwiehi 

wdn haJQ point of the roof 

wan^Nikan "eye of JVtf- 
han^^, east 

win fiid^ side of the 
human body 

wdn nit "lion's eye** a 
kind of red dura 

todnih-wdn grandmother; 
tffoii^ our grandmother 

wana to smoke (tobacco) ; 
pt d wdn H dik he 
smoked a pipe 

wmQ to bum, be burned 
(Nr. wdn) 

wdnit = woibush 

wdn 6ditn west 

wan wi^ window 

wan wuft iwal soudi 

wdn ywbdlt arm-pit 

wur-wifi nij^t; /M fa 
w^r it is ni|^t, hi wir 
at night (Suk jQngySIa- 
ramojo ahoar, Teso 
hwoH, Masai hawari^ 

wdr ninUid an ox with 
horns directed strai^t 
backward, like abaflEit- 

wdri ght 9Sk ox, with one 
horn directed forward, 
the other backward 

Digitized by 


warQ — wi 

warQ to smear (mAi 
mud) ; pt a wara kgnQ 

toarifwar shoe 

wish talk, 8. waJQ 

toat'wath or u^ son, one 
belongingto onrfamily, 
waH win those belong- 
ing to die family, the 

wdt ftSii pi. w4U bin ser- 
vant, slave 

wQiQ to depart, start, set 
oot; pt d wM; n. trft^ 

wd tyil ry&c a cow with 
white feet 

%o6i^vD^ steer, boll 

waf^ chwai to eat soup 

wau time (?) 

^dQ ehwai to eat soup ; 
pt. a toSIa ehwai; pe. 
a to^: n. ic^; see w<tfj2 

wH'wi^ soul (Di. io«i^ 
Nr. y«i) 

i^'l2 to sing a war-song 

wekq to give away 

tbil piece, copy, number 

welQ to change; pt a wila 
jam, a witi^jam 

tBilQ a sticdL (of the royal 
princes), which is used 
in electing a new king 

wifii to travel, to journey ; 
a u^li he travelled 

tviliHifil traveller 

win his father 

win, U win (hi 6win) 
when?yft kijifofe eh(^ 
id 10^? when shall you 
go into the Shilluk 

wikn dbw6k the hairs of 

the maize-ear 
win ^k bristles aboutthe 

wini ki wir the night has 

wtni^whi hair, bristle, 

wire ; hair of the gira£Fe- 

wij^ to live in a foreign 

country, among a fo- 
reign tribe 
wetkQ, to be cunning 
wkt'wsr ffxnSe 
wirifwir dung of cows 

and goats; were ^k 
u^h to be angry; pt. d 

w^r; k^ wir do not be 

angry (Ba. waran) 
w^ (wifjuf), also ti^^ to 

throw, throw away, 

gin fM, d witi^ gin /M 
he threw the thing on 
the ground; pe. d wit, 
or a 10^ n. witi, or 

w^f-wifji, or wii arrow 

wet/Q to leave, to let» let 
alone, let firoe, let go ; 
d win in 

wi, w4 father 

wtch^wQi, toij^ head, top, 
surfitce; wija y6t hi 
hwif ini "my head has 
found this matter*': I 
understand this matter ; 
a hf^ wija "it went into 


my head'' : I under- 
stand it; wija tik ki 
kwgfe chql "my head 
is hard in learning the 
Sh. language" : I have 
difBculties in ... ; wija 
wil I have forgotten; 
wij^ di mitgh "his head 
has beer" : he is drunk- 
en (Nr. wich, Somali 
wej &ce) 

wieha to take weapons (?) 

u^to exchange, borrow; 
pt a wilh tin he ex- 
changed the spear, pe. 
a wil, n. t^; see welit 

wijq to make the roof of 
a house; n. wieh 

wil exchange, trade 

wili^: wija wil I have 

winQ to be giddy, diuy; 
wija wtnn my head i» 

wi ila tyau a curse 

uHhi'^iik bird 

witQ^ fi to sprinkle with 
water; pt a mti Ji; 
pe. fi a wit; n. wttq; 
see witu 

to^ sometimes toafs, ^ 
arrive (Nr. rfi) 

ioiy tih-wiii tik shoulder 

uffy kyiii "horse's head" 

wiy nii "lion's head"^ 
story, tale 

wiy teat roof 

wi, tbi we, us 

Digitized by 



trifc^— yff6fi 

w^bb youth? 

tcocho (wucho) to dance ; 

pt. d wSeh; n. vfcj^; 

see chonQ 
wodq byil to pound dura; 

pt. a v)6Ul byil; pe. a 

wol; n. wil 
wddit-wd^i buttocks 
wo^ to pull out; pt. a 

ufQfja gin an WQJk 
wQdq to plaster, smear, 

besmear; pt. a toofi 

wot; pe. a w$i; n. to6(fit 
wdjul'wdjul a fish 
w6k, wiik outside, out 
wdUw^l channel 
vjqIq to cough; pt. d w^l; 

n. tc^Ut 
w8l^ to lean 
woIq to pound (dura); 

pt. d toilit byil; pe. a 

%o6l; n. wbl; see wodo, 
wAmiin woman 
wqmQi roniQ to carry water 
taQmo, also rwQmQ to catch 

with both hands 
w6n we, us 
w^ii sly, cunning 
tPQiio to be sly, cunning; 

to outwit, cheat; pt. d 

wQAa in, pe. yd wQti 

wbti^MPbiii the swallow 
wor kings ; see ri| 

midst of the village, 

on which the drum is 

tobrJtu a kind of red dura 
uH>rQ to send ; n. tobr 
woTQ to sing (Teso ayori) 
wirifuidr termite-hill 
wQrQ, wqIc to pull out, as 

a pole ; to take away ; 

n. w6r, 6r 
w^t-wnti house (Di. p>t, 

Nandi k&) 
tout dyiHc goat-house 
w^ti wltm die nostrils 
wgt fvxrfuh'W^fv), school 
wqi kick bee-hiye 
woto to hollow; ya| a wot 

the tree is hollow 
w6t6ly or titdl a kind of 

uroj^-io8|^ child 
iDQiQ to arrive; see wifQ 
wiiu the daylight; w. a 

yHf^ it is getting dark ; 

w, e rhwlt it is dawning 

(in the morning); w. a. 

wiJi (or rt2) it is light 
wQvjo to be noisy, make 

a noise, to talk much 
and noisily 

wi^ wuu father 

wit 2. p. pi. you; tdf fan 
did you sleep (weU) ? 
= good morning! 

wiich = wieh head 

wildi^ I. north-wind; w. e 
cKodQ the n. is blowing; 
2. a season during 
which this wind blows, 
following (igwerii; har- 
vest of the white dura 

wiidifwiti ostrich (Di. ut) 

wug yes 

wuJQ to make a mock- 
fight; n. wiieh 

wiim nose (Madi orn^va, 
Abokaya omvQ, Ban 
kumey Masai en gume^ 
Teso ekumi) 

wim\y also rtimi a cover 

wumo = rumd to finish 

tmin 2. p. pL you 

u?ttn-run year 

wintf-wHin rope (for tying 

wi^y also toflrg to sing; 
pt. d wi^Tt u. tn^r 

tr^ song 


^d to be somewhere or 
somehow; seldom: to 
be something; /t^Ary a 

mal God is above 
ydbq to open ; pt. a yff&i 

wgi; pe. a yap (same 
as yiibq search?) 
yUba to search for; pt d 

Digitized by 



yip; d ydf>i 4^k he 

searched cattle ; pe. a 

yap (Di. yap) 
yich-y^h a person of 

equal age, contempor- 
ary . companion, friend; 

yiehe win my ("onr") 

yOdQ to cnrse^ insult; pt 

yoffQ to take away; to 

rob, pillage 
y^i a company of people, 

espec. of warriors; vide 

yaJQi to be pregnant, be 

with child; pt. a ydch ; 

n. yich 
y^ld to curse; see yjido 
ydn I, me 
yoiiQ to boil v. n.; pt. pi 

yana = ysna to be 
yaHii^ y&nit to be frdl, 

filled; to be satisfied 

with food; pt. a ydn; 

n. yitnQ 
yir^iri a ring or wreath 

of (cow-, antelope-) 

hairs, worn in dancing 
yoTQ to skim off 
y^TQ to reproach, insult; 

pt. d ydr, n. ydrit; see 

y^tQ to be mercifrd, gra- 
cious ; jwqk d yiii 

y^4ryi!^ I. tree; 2. mede- 
cine ; yhf^ ini this tree 
(Nr. yat^jaf, Any. jc^ 

Teso akirya medecine, 
Masai ^ato tree) 

yduy also ycf^ just, nothing 
particular, quiedy, hidi 
yau "you just remain 
quiet^ ; hoggn yau 
there's nothing parti- 

yfftTfito swing, wag; pt. 
d y^u ; n. yawh 

yi he, it 

yej yey = yech middle, in 

yiich oh no! never! 

yibQ to open; pt. a y^pa 
wot; pe. a yip; see 

yech-y^ the interior of 
the body, the belly; 
interior, inside,middle ; 
in, amidst, among (Di. 
yich, Nr. jack*). 

ySeh-yich a grass used as 

y^ to climb; aywomy^ 
wiy yai the monkey 
climbed upon the tree 

ysgQ addlQ to clatter with 
a rattle; seey|^o 

yigQto carry many (little) 
things, to be laden with 
many things; d y&ch 
y^ he carried sticks; 
pe. d yik 

y^-yii boat, ship; y^i 
mJtch steam-boat;y.u?gA; 
railway; y. nam river- 

yM hair; y. daj^ hair of 


man; y. Hh beard; y. 
w€m eye -brow, eye- 

y^Q to skin, to peel off; 
pt. d yieh^ didn he 
skinned the cow; pe. 
d^dn d yifih, n. yj^h 

ytjQ^ ako yijo to sweep; 
pt d yechA wQt; pe. d 
yech, n. yich 

ytjifytch rat 

ylJ2 to help one in lifting 
a load on the head; 
also: to cany a load; 
pt. a yecha ddf^ he hel- 
ped the man; yi yich 
itiip I carried a bag on 
my head 

y^fhi (y^t^) to dismount; 
a yejfa wQk ki wiy kypi 
he dismounted from 
the horse 

ylfio to pick up, pick out, 
choose; pt. d yHh gi 
feili; pt. d y^, n. yH 

y&ui, yena to be; syn. ya 
(Ba. yen) 

yStQ, to abuse, insult; pt. 
« y^i (yiM) in, aydtia 
in he abused him^ n. 
yifi; see yada 

yH-yii a well 

yh^yiki neck (Di. yet) 

y^tcyH, scorpion; d kdch 
yl y^ he was bitten 
by a scorpion Qir.ji() 

ystQ to climb; see y^ 

yswQ to repent 

yey often before a con- 

Digitized by 




sonant instead oiyech: 
in, inmidst of^ among 

yey ypid a season^ about 
October — December 
tjri M kdjh byil y. y. 
Ilie people use to har- 
yest in the autumn 

yiyii to assent, believe, 
trust; pt yi yii (Ba. 

yfyihyH hair 

ylyOi y^ib to be able, to 
can; yi i yet M gt4iit 
I am able to write 

yihjs through, with; to- 
wards (Bo. At) 

yi you, sing. 

ynbii to open ; pt dyi§pii 
Wilt he opened the 
house; pe. a yiip; n. 

yijtdiis also yiUlt to arbi- 
trate, make peace, stop 
a quarrel; to save, de- 
liver, liberate; pe. d 

yi^ to cut, chip, carve; 
to point, sharpen; pt. 
« yi^ y&, d yiirii y^ 
he carved the boat; 
pe. d yiiy d yi&r; n. yj^ 

yisgn to help one in lifting 
up a load; to cany; 
pt. a yisffi iflifi, d yiiha 
labQ; pe. ayHk, n. yik; 
see yiga 

yi^it to breathe aloud, 
to moan, groan; pt d 

y^^ikh ji^ckal 

yiiUyiil (also y^j^yji) 
bracelet, anklet ;y.fy222 

ym,yiUt = yiidh 

yili^ to pick up; seeyiii^ 

yiep, taily. rimit "sheep- 
tail" a red dura, y. 
wan the anf^e of the 
eye; y. ky^ "horse- 
tail*' : a red dura 

yiff^ to twist; pt d yiirh 
^l he twisted a rope; 
pe. dyiir:n.yi^ 

yiffQ to ratde with the 
rattle; pt a ytfca H 
dddlii, pe. a ylfc; see 


yigi to become; pt d 

yin you, sing. 

yindy also yinh, you, it is 

yinifyii fisherman 

yinq, far away, in the bush, 

yirit smoke; y. k^ mdl 
the smoke rose up 

yitq to find, pt a yiti yi 
feii he found some- 
thing; see yodit 

yiKyiO-y^t w, leaf; yiti 
yat leaves of the tree 
(Mundu je ear, Suk yit 
ear, Di. yti^ yid^ Nr. 


yiyi to be possessed by 
a spirit, to be in ecstacy 
y5 old 

y&y^ road 

ys^fi to bewitch; pt a 

ywi^ jal fri^; pe. a 

yodn to find; pt a yota 

ini pe. a y6t 
y6gi to become; pt a 

ydkd ^; see yigq, 
yofit to mix (?) 
y gffii^ to surpass, beat one, 

to overcome, to be 

victorious; pt a yom; 

n. y^ 
ytf^it Air, wind, weather, 

y. i kwj^tit the wind is 

blowing (Di. yarn, Suk 

yomat, Turkana eJfcu- 

ywam, Earamojo egu- 

warn, Kamasia yamet 

Teso ekwamu 
y^» yi^i-y^U person of 

old age; seeyg 
yti = tmi you 
yudit to pass away (sun, 

time) to get dark; yu^ 

wiu the day has gone 
yi fyii Hn an insult, an 

injurious (obscene) 

word; see fyllq, pylla 
y^JQ to pluck off the 

grains firom the ear 

with the teeth 
yilk firewood; i i:^ 14 

yu^ni y4k she goes to 

gadier f. 
ywachd to pull, drag, tear 
ywachQ to be starved 
ywff^ to step on, walk on; 


Digitized by 


yiTfifcfi— yw^p 


ytoQbq, to bewitch, curse; 

ytpodit to find, see t/odq 
yvoQgQ to comfort, con- 
sole (?); yiymin I 

comforted him 

yvM, y^Jo a cry, crying 

ywoiiQio tread underfoot, 

to step upon; pt. d 

ytoiikh da^; d yibik; pe. 

d ytvSii; n. ytvSfi, 
ywQfiQ to utter a loud 

sound, to cry, weep; 

to rattle; pt. d yto^ 
ywitp^yy^bpi bewitcher 

WE8TBBM AKH, Tk« Sldllvk People. 


Digitized by 



abhor — ax 


abhor v. rnQriQ 
able, to be «« yeyq 
above adv. mal 
absent a. tSk 
absolve y. chtbag^ 
absorb v. ckwejQ 
abuse v. y^ chayn 
accompany y. logo, Iwogn 
accuse y. go^n 
accuser n. naU goni 
ache y. k^gq, kaJQ, rsmfi 
add y. mhiq 
adore y. mulu 
adorn v. rugQ 
adze see ax 
affair n. kwip 
afraid, to be « boJcQ 
after prep, bin 
afternoon n. bSr 
again ady. kite 
agree y. liwagQ 
agreeable a. dich 
aim y . nwano, ehgniQ (toch) 
air n. yimit 
albino n. dbdgi^db^k 
alike a. fer 
all a. b^, btni 
alms n. gin much 
alone dky^l, kite 
along, prep, tan 

ako ady. fyau 

amazed, to be « g^n 

ambach n. abibi^ (xbtDobQ 

ambassador n. chwik^ 

amidst prep, kil, yeeh 

among prep, kil, yech 

ancestor n. kwd 

ancient time n. 6fytn 

and conj. ki, ki 

angry a. wiri 

anklet n. yiil-yiil 

another mikit 

answer y. logo, IwQgQ 

ant n., black house — 
dckiin^ - dchtini ; red 
morq ; black winged 
aeh/biih^hytn; white 

ant-hill n. irh-^ 
anus n. dchuik^ehto^k 
apparition n. ty>it 
apprentice n. nan mfU 
approach y. toa^ chdgo, 

apron n. dbdnit 
arise see rise 
arm n. bcU^bit 
armour n. d^idik 

arm-pit n. wdn yw6d^ 
arm-ring of ambach n. 
dckk{ - dehiHf oggno, 

arms n. gin i^Jak 

army n. Ui/i^ ty^k 

arrive y. toifyi^, wafQ, gitQ 

arrow n. wg^-w^ 

artist n. ^^^-2^ 

as ady. nd, nAmi [Jiy^ 

ashamed, he is ^^^ wije 

ashes n. bur 

ask Y.flchq ; « for hoacho, 

ass n. see donkey 
assemble y. chuko, chonq, 

assent y. yey2 
associate y. rgba 
astonished, to be «* gSyo, 

nanQ, mumQ 
astuteness n. britk-'brbk 
at once adv. ^n, anim 
augment v. mid^ 
aunt n. wdj^t-uUch; nAyff 

nidi; md^rn^ 
avenge v. eholo, chud^t 
avoid V. fi^ 
awaken v. tuka 
ax n. dini^ri 

Digitized by 


baby — body 



baby n. gin ^; i/Ui gin 

bachelor n. bbjrhb^ 
back n. and adv. hwbm^ 

htm; bin; riieh 
backbone n. fyhr-jhi 
backward adv. nieh 
bad a. rack; to be « rg^o 
bag n. h^p^p, Af^p 
bait n. ehAmi-^hdmi 
bake y. btidQ 
bald a. ttoick; to be ^ 

bamian. i^^t^i 
banish v. ry^mo^ 
banner n. i|r 
bar V. rigo, 

barbarian n. = Dinka 
barber n. nan lidit 
bark y. gwayq 
barren a. btoQch 
basis n. tyiUhtyil 
bask y. j^q, 
basket n. iMdi-hdat; 

bastard n. iigw^-^v^f^ 
bat n. aliUfi 
bay n. see bight 
bay V. gwh/a 
be ya, ygna, M, h^da 
bead n. (igit-tik 
beak n. ddttm^-^ifni 
beam (wood) n. katPff 

bean n. n^r^-ii^ 

bear (young gones) y. 

iidd^9 HwqIq 
beat y. fodo, fwodn; goJQ 
because conj. md, fndr, 

because of kifit 
become y. l^go, yigo^ 

bee n. Uch 
bee-hiye n. wgt kick 
beer n. mi^g^ 
beg y. kwaehQ 
beggar n. nate biph, nate 

begin y. chagn^ kdmd, 

behind ady., prep, nich, 

bin, chdn 
belch y. gsgn 
belieye y. yeyQ 
beU n. dkit-bm; mhlit- 
bellows n. 6buk [mSl 

belly n. yechry^ 
below prep. 0,; ady./^ 
belt n. see girdle 
beneath prep. ^ 
bent, to be « bomo, 
beside prep. huU 
besiege y. m^q, gtnQ 
besmear y. wit^ warq, 

getQf gSJQ 
between prep, kit 
beyerage n. gin mii 
bewitch y. ydbo, gwatQ, 

bier n. tdbdti 

big a. du&a, dM^ 

bight n. ghUhgil 

biU n. d^k-d^k 

bird n. miii-wtii 

bird-trap n. akdl^k^H 

bite y. kdJQ 

bitter a. kieh 

black a. tdch-tojn 

black man n. nan tcJQ 

blacken y. rswQ 

blacksmith n. bi^it-b^j^ 

blanket n. ddibif-dtRp 

blast n. iuAnit 

bleed y. n. kysro; y. a. 

blind a. ck^r, chwQr 
blind person n. nan e 

blister n. 1^ bltl 
bloat y. kdbdit 
blood n. rtn^ 
blossom n. see flower 
blossom y. kogq 
blow y. kodQ; of wind: 

chod{t; to « the nose 

blue a. bfwol 

blunt a. g^k 

bluster y. narn 

board n. kwitm^ku^tfrd; 

boast y. moJQ 
boat n. yii-yif 
body n. re 


Digitized by 



boil — catch 

boU V. walQj yaiifi; eggs, 

corn: bugQ 
boil n. kffi l^ kgtk gbl 
bone n. chitgit<^i 
book n. woAijt'Wuch 
booty n. jam IM 
border n. ^^k-^k; see 

ako boundAiy 
borrow y. toi^ 
both tysf 

bottle n. h4it'a4dit 
boundAiy n. k^ih-kid 
bow V. ibofc 
bow n. dffwMgwi 
boy n. ikaUikuA 
brmcelet n. litrafi-fitroiii; 

brmg y. nar^ 

braid y. kg^ 

brain n. n^ 

branch off y. kar^ 

branch of tree n. akdreyaf^ 

brass n. tdldl 

braye a. t^c 

bread n. kwin 

break y . tof^ eho^ fy^ 

breakfast y. litvajn mul 
breast n. kSu^kS^ (wo- 
man's) n. ti^Hin 
breast -bone n. aniulif 

brew y. dgdo, dw^lQ 
bribe y. gunq^ rylbn 
bribery n. gi gtvin 
bride n. ^j^ liwgm, lian 

bridegroom n.jal ikwiimif 

nan tiwipn 
bring y. kadQ^ kQlq, hanQ, 

dwayo, dwai 
brisdes n. «c^ 
broad a. laeh 
broil y. nm^g 
broom n. dkuAni^kuAni 
broth n. chwiii 
brothern. liamoyg; fi^mto- 

liem^ib; dnU^iiimi ; elder 

<« kiy^kii 
bruise y. figQ 
brush y. foj2 
bubble y. iw(tl2 
buffido n.jtp-jtpi; ogih- 

bugn. ehwifi^hwitr; ttn^ 
buOd y. gido, gsm 
bull n. uHtf-vfii 
bundle n. bgeh, bach 
burial-place n. kpk kwQt^ 
bum y. kfifo, toann 
buiy y. kwQiiQ, rign 
bush n. f^l; toak, toqk 
bushbuck n. iUnirif-itbur 
bush-cat n. kAg^ 
but conj. di 
butcher n. jal nal^ note 

butcher y. ndda^ nolo, 
butt of the gun n. dbwini 

butter y. /uhjjq cAoJfc 
butter n. mau ckak; 

cooked <« lyin^ 
butterfly n. dy^ljwqk 
buttermilk n. bai 
buttocks n. wd^-w6^; 

far; dfSi ^d^ 
buy y. li^gau^ 
by prep, yi 


cack y. see ease 
cackle y. kyigQ 
calf n. liirijj^Qch 
calf of the leg n. dki^ 

fyiUtf ogvoal 
calico-cloth n. 6riit'6rtt 
call y. chwQlQ^ ehwQtQ 
camel n. iimiilit^m&^ 

can y. yeya 
cannon n. gilihgul 
caoutchouc n. ditk 
capricious, to be « kwon^ 
capsise y. gamq 
capture y. mdf^ 
care for y. terg 
caress y. kfftq 

carry y. kalo, tyetib ^irit: 
« on the hip ^ kwgmQ 
carye y. gu/jdo, i^ig, yk^ 
caryingsn. gtbff 
cast iron y. bg^ 
castrate y. rdjo, iggg 
cat n. liiu'ikdvyl 
catch y. magu 

Digitized by 


caterpillar — cry 


caterpillar n. oywdi-oywdi 
catde n. dQk 
cave n. bAr^bir 
centipede n. dtitl^ 
chaff n. chwipi 
chain n. dchichwil, tag\U 
chair n. Jbu^^-Jbi^i 
chameleon n. ddgilpiu 
change y. w%^ weld 
channel n. wil^wdl 
charcoal n. chiigifcMh 

chase y. chystg^ ^&^Q 
cheap a. Iwid 
cheat y. iabo^ toatiQ 
cheek n. flnifflni 
chew y. ikamQ 
chicken-pocks n. ddwat 
chief n. jtg^t^k 
child n. iM^wfili 
chip y. yi^ 
chirp y. glda 
chisel n. tuih-'tiiimi 
choose y. ysA2 
circle n. dtl 
circumcise y. chufsht 
clap y. t^tid 
clatter y. y^gn 
claj n. Idkhit 

clean y. fojo, chudq, twarq 
clear a. til, to be « chwqbq 
deyer, to be «« bg^ 
climb y. y^ 
clock n. see watch 
close y. chyigo, m^jn 
doth n. liu'lini; fy^- 

cloud n. fifitrfil 
cloud-shadow n. odiliQ, 

club y. Ibt-l^; bm^ttH 
coagulate y. ngyg 
coarse a. gtoayQ 
cob n. »yr-n|r 
cobweb n. bdi-bbi 
cock n. 6(witJ^'^j^ 
cock of the gun hky^- 

cohabit y. modQi 
cold a. kdJQ, libq 
colic, to haye ^ fimo 
collect y. gwino 
collect taxes gwajo 
colour n. kido 
come y. b^no, bi, bia 
come back y. diiitgb 
come early y. moUi 
come near y. wafiQ 
command y. chs^go, 
company n. IwSp^ltobbi 
compensate y. logo, cJwIq 
complain y. gMQ 
compose a song chagQ 
conceited a. iktognq 
conciliator n. note r^e 

confused a., see perplex- 
consent y. liwago, yeyQ 
contemporaiy n. yd^A- 

continue y. cK^gQ^ chigq 
conyerse with y. lu^bh^ 

cook y. |a^ 01q 
cook n. nate 01 
cool a. libq 
copy n. git, wil 
com n. abwhk 

comer n. got, gqf^ tdty^l 
corn-stalks n. r^l^^r^; 

cotton n. kbrii, kworQ 
cotton-cloth n. dgQf 
cough y. wqIq 
count y. kwano 
country n. fidit'fdfi 
court n. kiil'kili 
cousin n. ovAjlh^iwitjit; 

coyer n. wiiml, rtiml 
coyer y. kUmQ, mmQ 
coyet y. ddQ 
cow n. ^hn-^k 
cow-dung n. wSr^^r 
cower y. kyfnQ^ AwqAq 
cow-house n. Iwdhdwik 
cowrie-shell n. gigihgik 
coy a. ntoQnQ 
crane n. 6ytoak^6ywdki 
crawl y. IfpQ r^k, mulQ 
crawl n. see kiddle 
create y. chicaJQ 
creep y. Ispo r^k, mtdQ 
crest of birds n. dytoik" 

dywlik] of the cock 

cripple n. n$l 
crocodile n. ndtn-^ini 
crocodile-hunter n. 6y{ni 
crooked, to be bqmq 
crouch y. tiwQnQ 
crow n. dghk^dgiH. 
cruel a. t^k 
cramble off y. rnqgOi 
crush y. iHqji/iQ, tgkQr, tugQ 
crutch n. ksmQ 
cry y. ytogno, rqgQ 

Digitized by 


cry D. yv^k 
cmming a. wetiQ, woiiii 
curdle y. lioj/o 
current n. f^wit 

corse T. jaliQ, eKgno, gwaiq, 

cat y. n^j^Q, nud^ nalq, 

cry — dust 

cat grass y. liar^ turn 
cut off y. n&nq 
oat open y. kagq 
cat into strips y. rero 


dam n. (MMiM^^ 
dance y. ehono, woehit 
dancing-stick n. ^n-^ni 
danger n. Uii 
dark a. mdifo, fn^l^ 
dash y. kgj^ 
day n. chdri'^hdni 
daylight n. toim 
deaf a. fiiSn, min 
deal with mbi 
debate y. kdgQ 
debts n. kwar, kur 
deceiye y. ctiamQ 
decompose y. kwagos 

decrease y. d6y^ 
deep a. 161 

deleib-pahn n. tiig^tiik 
demand debts pidQ 
denie y. fimQ 
depart y. to^tQ 
descendant n. kwdrft^kwir 
desert n.fil 
deserye y. my^rq 
destroy y. ^rqfeii 
detain from y. iibniit 
detest y. m^f^nQ^ 
dew n. ^h 
diarrhoe n. r^m; to suffer 

from «» eA%^> ^^hq 
die y. tit^q, fgu 
di£Gculty, to be in « ^Iq 
dig y. ko^ kwwkq, ggdQ 
diminish y. tianQ 
Dinka-man n. dfin^'waie 

dip water y. r^mos tomq 

dirt n. ehtln 

disappear y. wuiQ 
dismount y. yef^ 
dispute y. kagQ ^k 
distant a. liti 
distribute y. fynQ 
diye y. j^giifi ggnq 
diyide y. pl^nq 
diyorce y. ^nq 
diszy a. mn^i 
do y. goffOs ttja 
doctor n. jal t/afi 
dog n. gwbk^ibk 
dog-head fish n. m^it- 

dom-pahn n. kano, 
donkey n. iidtrlt''ad^ 
door n. tddftt, ttt 
door-mat n. ^ifiik 
dough n. mon a waeh 

down ady. fM 

dose y. liwayQ 

drag y. ywaeho, 

dragon-fly n. bty&fnr4tyim 

dream y. l^q^ hkfi 

dream n. UifotfU^ 

dress y. rugq; ^ hair/ti/g 

drift y. g'^nq, 
drink y. mg^ 
driye y. J:^^ ^(2> cAflj^ 
drizzle y. kysro, t^eyq, 

drown y. n. mud/Q, 
drum n. huinbimi 
drum-stick n. dHUHs&l^ 
dry y. dimq^ pvgwQ 
drying-place n. j^m 
duchn n. rdti^ 
duck n. bldi-bUi 
dung n. eh^ 
dung-hill n. kw^ 
dura n. byil 
dura-bird n. dk^h 
dura-food n. fnogq 
dura-stick n. dikigi'd^ 

dust n. ti^f hyich 

Digitized by 


ear — fisherman 



ear-lap n. dkwdn^dkwdn 

earth-worm n. liwiUHiwili 
ear-wax n. pdni 
ease one's self y. fylkt 
east n. kun dwogQ wan 

eat v. chdmQ 

eat soap t. wafjst chwai 

ecstasy n., to be in <« yiyi 

edge n. ^k-^k 

egg n. tj^-^; litoQle 

egret n. bkitk^bk^k 

eight dbidik 
elder brother n. liikiyit 
elder sister n. 4an kiylt 
elect v. foiiQ, rofi^ 
elephant n. b/^-Hich 
embrace ▼. kwoffQ 
emigrate y. d^Q 
endpsnre n. kil^kiH, g^l 
enemy n. nan men 
enmity n. a^ 
enumerate y. kwanQ 
equal a. /jr, per 
err y. gtoaiiQ, btogrfjf 
escape y. bgdQ 
eternal a. ady. a^r 

eunuch n. nan mdnt nttl^ 
European n. see white 

eyaporate y. dwffift 
ezacdy ady. chyit 
examine y. /oiig 
exchange y. hoQffO, m^ 
excrements n. ehgji 
exhibit y. fyffi^ (ty^H^) 
exist y. nUt 
explode y. mwcJQ, 
extinguish y. nif^gOi 
extract y. kglQ 
eye n. wdnriiin 


£ace n. Mm; l^llfW 
£uly. dalu 
hH y. dgmg, dyimg, 
£unify n. ghl 
£sr away liu 
£urm n. fwd^ftoifi 
£urty. kwQ^ 
Fashoda n. BdchUdit 
fasten y. hodfi 
jEftt n. miM 
hX a. ehwi 
father n. toiy wi^ toiid 
jEftther-in-lawn. see" re- 
latiyes by mairiage^^ 
fear y. bqkQ 

feather n. i^b^r^bifi 
female n. md|-indj$; see 

ako woman 
(enoen. bik-m;kiil'kili 
fence in y. bagQ 
fence-sticks n. tdti kdl 
fetch water y. TQmQ pi 
field n. see £urm 
fight y. liaib; n. IM 
fig-tree n. otam-dUmi 
file y. ty^fi 
fiU y. /flnfi, yanq; ^ up 

fin n. kwdnij^kuHich 
find y. yitQ^ yodQ 

fine n. kf^r 

finger n. hoidjhl^t 

fingernail n. kwgnQ ItbidQ 

fiiush y . tyigo, rumo, fumQ 

finished, it is « chSfi 

fire n. m^eh 

fire a gun y. ffoJQ toA 

fire-fly n. bn^djt-im^ 

firewood n. yCk 

first n. amal2; ady. miU; 

to be the '^ kwan^t 
fish n. rejQ, 
fish y. muyQ 
fish-eagle n. K 
fisherman n. yinjt^i 

Digitized by 



fish-hook n. thoUR'thffiti; 

fish-line n. itpir 
fish-spear n. bi^ 
fist n. hlutjh€il4ti 
fiye dbich 
flag n. i|r 
flame y. b/ilQ 
flee V. f^rQ, tdyft 
flmg y. w^ 
flint-stone n. liUfltl 
float y. ^jgn^ twqrii 
floor n. kwan 
flow y. mfi/fi 
flower n. bh^tk-bislik 
fly V. /flrfi 

fly n. Iwbntt^voan 

foam n. ((ii^t 

fog n. 6tQk 

follow y. Uigo, lugo, ptdq^ 


fondle y. hgno, 
fontanel n. timg^ ff&^ 
food n. ffin cham 
foot n. tyiliHyil 
foot-ankle n. twin 
for conj. mi, mdr 
forbid y. nt^inQ 
ford n. d^r-d^r 
fore-arm n. twtl 
foreigner n. dbwIti^bufQtk 
fore-leg n. bdt^b^ 

fish — gun 

forest n. fim 

foreyer ady. i^^ di chhn 
forget y. wieh wil 
form y. ekwdjo 
formeriy ady. chSn 
forward ady. mal 
foundation n. tyiUhtyil 
four dntDtn^ 
fowl n. gytn^yffi 
friend n. mof^-mi^ 
frighten y. Ino^glt 
frog n. 6gwitl-6fffe4R 
front n. bblo^bbl; nim; in 

i*^ of amaU liim 
froth n. dbiit 
full a. fan, yan 


gainsay y. kagg, ^qIc, fimQ 
gale n. iuini 
game n. l^-lii 
garth n. see kiddle 
gather y. twarq, tUmQ, 

guJSnQ, chonQ, motQ 
gazella rubifrons n. hJ^' 

genitals of woman liim 
germinate toyQ 
get up y. ^uif^ 
giddy a. winQ 
giraffe n. ti?ir-u^^ 
girdle n. tibdmi'tibdnii 
girl n. fidn-iiu^i^Z; liane 

giye y. welcQ^ fnofdt fnuJQ, 
gUde into y. m^gQ 
gnarl y. narQ 

gnat n.jdr^Qr 

go y. k^, ka4^ ch^fQ 

go back y. dqgQ 

goat n. dyil^ysk; male ^ 

God n. jwQk^ti^k 

good a. dich 

goods n. jim 

goose n. bkwltk'bkwik; 

gourd n. dd/ilit - ddUJi, 


goyem y. jagg 
grandchild n. kwarorki^T 
grandfather n.iuMfy kwayor 

grandmother n. wang 
grass n. Uimtt^Wim 

great a. d^on, d^niit 
greedy a. Mne mar 
green a. mdr 
greet y. mQt2 
grey a. dduk 
grind y. wqIh 
grinding-stone n. pH-p^ 
groan y. yngoy chudft 
ground n. /^ 
grow y. a. fe^o, y . n. dong 
growl y. liarfi 
guardian n. nan Hh 
guinea-fowl n. dushwdi- 

guinea- worm n. j^dMH(yA« 
guitar n. {^-j^ 
gum n. ditk 
gums n. ikdrit, din 
gun n. toch-4bick 

Digitized by 


hailstone — ignore 



hailstoiie n. ifi\ 

hair d. wtn^wkn; yiy^ 

hammer v. gudg, 
hammer n. dbafi^dbdh; 

hand y. gamQ 
hand n. chy^nQrchyin, chin 
hang up y. ry^q, nobQ 
happy, to feel' «« chuiiQ 

hard a. ^ib 

hare n. dfSijit-^foitchi 

hartebeest n. tin 

haryest y. kdJQ 

hasten y. jwano, ntooJQ 

hat n. dt&k-iahU; tik-^ld 

hatch y. tugQ 

hate y. mQnq$ ch^dQ 

haye y. a. da 

hawk n. dli^lS^; grey 

^ dfUl 
he i,y^ in 
head n. wieh'^xoQi 
heal y. n. nQJkq 
hear y. linn 
heart n. mknifmhmL;fy6u' 


hearth n. t&k-tUH 
heayen n. mal 
heayy a. /|A, ptk 
hedgehog n. bkbdit-bku^ 
heel n. t4tyilit 
heglig-tree n. ta 
heifer n. rQJQ^och 
help y. kotiQi kwoiiQ 
helpless a. ttvalQ 
hen n. gyin^y&n 
herd y. kwdyo 
herdsman n. nate kw&yit 
here ady. kiti; kd; dnhn 
heron n. bgwfjrh^gtffdri; 

hew y. ®ifi 

hide y. /tfwo, mejat, kanq 
hide n. i^l^l 
hill n. Hukiti 
him 4* i^ gbn 
hind-part n. 0^ 
hip-bone n. dpdp^dpdp 
hippo n, fir-f^ 
hire y. ryjJfi, kqgQ 
history n. kw^^kw^ 
hit y. goJQ 
hobble y. kwqmQ 
hoe y. furQ 

hoe n. kuflrorkwiri 
hold fast y. mtfi2> ^^t2i 

hole n. bAr-^r 
hollow y. rogo, wdtq 
hollow a. drigi 
home n. pdch-myir; g^l 
homestead n. g^l 
honour y. gSnq 
hoof n. d&t^-ddt 
horn n. tun 
horse n. ky^-kyiji 
hospitable, to be <« rejo, 
hot a. lit 
hot season n. l^ 
house n. wqt'WQti 
how, how much ddl^ kidi 
hum y. ruTQ 
hunger n. k^ch 
hungry a. da k^h 
hunt y. dwarq 
hunter n. nan dwar 
hurry y. jtoanq 
hurt y. n^gQ 
husband n. jal gql 
husk n. afiki, akwor 
hyena n. 6fwQ]}Hifw^j^i 


I yif y^n I black « dwdh^owdu 

ibis n. bkwdm - bkubrnt \ identical a. fer 

if conj. A*^ 
ignore y. kujn 

Digitized by 



igumna — lie 

imitate y. fio^(2 
in prep, yeeh 
in order tfiat kl/A 
in order to 14 
increase v. rrifdit 
inherit y. l^gQ ' 
inheritance n. gin Idk 

inside n. y^A-y^ 
insipid a. hciik 
insnh y. y^Q, chayg, 
intend y. chamq 
interior n. yeehry^ 
interpret y. tg^gg, 



intestines n. chlnit 
inyite y. re jo, ryqa 
iron n. nylri 
island n. miteh^ 
it i^ yi, in 
itch n. h^ hitl 
iyoiy n. UJce-ly^ 


jonmej t. v^l{i 


jump y. fyrQ [nitm 

junction of riyers n. mdni 
jwKt chit 

just now dti^n 
just so ady. Hnau 
justify y. ehwagQ 


keep y. koro, ganq, mij^ 
kick y. chQbo, ffto^JQ 
kiddle n. ddir^-ddir 
kidneys n. ronO'^rQni 
kill y. n^ffQ 

king n. rijj-rdr 
kiss y. nUmQ 
knead y. liwQbg^ 

knee n. ehun^chin 


knob-keny n. bUl^m 
knock y. gudg 
know y. najg 


lack y. bunq 
lake n. see pond 
lame y. kwQmo 
lame person ngUfii^fuf, 
lamp n. kwQrg 
language n. ^k-^k 
large a. dti$n, dgnQ 
late, to be « lof^O, chtDgng 

laugh y. nefip, ftgii^ 
leak y. ky^rg 
lean y. toolo^jSinQ; 

head Intng 
learn y. didg 
leeches n. ehwi 
left hand chdm 

« Ihe 

leopard n. kwieh-kwiM 
let alone y. u>^q 
let go y. weyg 
let the milk down i^ro 
letter n. watk^t^waeh 
liar n. jalfy^, jal tSdJt 
lick y. nidnQ, numq [todq 
lie n. twat, fyit] tell lies 

Digitized by 


lie — my 


lie down y. budit; lie in 

wait for Hbq. 
lift up y. tinQ 
light a fire ehtffOiiQ mach 
like ady. n&, nimi 
likewise ady. fydu 
limp y. kwQmQ 
lion n. nit-nuwi 
Up n. dil 4ik 
listen y. kt/gnQ yt| 
little a. 0j^tQj^; nitk 
liye y. ngfiQ 

liyer n« (^Atifi^ cAuii^ 
lizard n. Ittp-l^; large 

load-ring n. fach 

locust n. bhiiifbitii 

loin - doth n. dchyinlt' 

loin-cloth for women 

n. achwatQ-dehtodd 
loin-ring n. wdUf'wil 
long a. ftflr 
look y. rqtnQ 

looking - glass n. ritni- 

loose, to be <« lanQ 
loosen y. IgtiQ, goiio 
lose y. uf€aiQ 

loss n., to be at a «» 4^1q 
lost, to be « watiQ 
louse n. fit^^^^ti^Ar 
loye y. tnilri 
lower part j(i 
lungs n. 6^u 


magistrate n. liga 
mahogany -tree n. )^r^ 

maise n. ditr^Ar 
make y. gogo, chwajd 
make straight miJQ 
maker n. nan a gQga 
male n. chwgu 
male animal 6ptQffr6^ 
man n. nitti-tyin ; jal-jgh; 

mangouste n. dtkudt^ 
mankind n. ^^ 
marabou n. dhoMlwi 
marrow n. hwi^ 
martj y. iHSv^ 
mask n. o/QdQ Ivff^ 
mat n. ddik-idiH 
mate for fence ryek 
matter n. kwip 
me a^ ydn 

y. cAwg^g 

meaning n. tyVihtyil 
measure y. rQmQ 
measure n. g\ rim 
meat n. rin^ 
mediator n. note r^pe 

meditate y. Umit 
meet y. rQm^ 
melon n. dcASy^-dcAdyi 
merciful a. to be « y^tQ 
metal n. nyiti \y€ch 

middle n. kil, k^U^ dtr, 
midst n. kil 
milk n. chdk 
milk y. ny^ 
miscarry y. dUitgb 
misfortune n. gi chyfft 
mishap n. gi chysn 
miss y. baJQ 
mist n. 6iQk 
mistake, to make a m, 

bwQrQ, biinQ, gwdikq 

mix y. chwi^ etidbo, 

moan y. chudft 
money n. ny|yi [mi 

monkey n. hywdmniywh^ 
month n. dwi^i'dw^ 
moon n. dw^'^toitt 
morning n. mil, maoil 
morning -dawn n. akseh 

mosquito n. b^Q^b^ 
mother n. mi, min 
mountain n. kit^kiti 
mouth n. ^k^k 
moye y. n. ninQ 
moye into y. dQgQ 
mow grass liarQ lum 
much a. gir, niii^ 
mud n. libit 
mule n. 6gdl^6gAl 
murdera: n. note nek 
my a 

Digitized by 



nabag — perplexed 


nabag-tree n. linii'lini 

nail n. /^'fi-/ecA 

naked a. nau 

name n. fitn 

narrow a. toch 

nayel n. gii^ilt 

near a. chiki 

neck n. y^i-yid ; muti^ 

neck-bone n. dgir^MigtiT 

neck-ring n. bgl fej^ 

nephew n. dmi^^-fiimidit; 

nerve n. rdrjt^r 

net n. bii^l^i 

nice a. dich 

niece n. dmi^JHkSmi^; 

niggard n. Aiii^-*fiili;srgr^ 
night n. WQr^toiri 
nine dbinw^ 
noisy a. wqwq 

noon n. di chdn 

north n. kun dwogq toan 

nordi-wind n. rUdit 
nose n. w^m; rt^m-{^m 
nostrils n. w^ti toltm 
ViOtfh; prohib. hi 
not yet nfi^ 
now adv. tin, dnan 
number n. gd, 


oar n. fdie^i; Idwi^Uitoi 

offer thanks nidlQ 

oil n. mAn 

old a. yd 

on prep, kwbm 

on adv. mal 

one dh/^l 

onion n. mofdlit 
onward adv. mal 
open y. t^^Q, yobq 
open eyes y. ku^lcQ 
or conj. u^U 
oribi-gaselle n. tiniftin 
ostrich n. wudlfwiu 

outside adv. trdb, wftk 
outwit y. chamq, fubq, 


oyercome y. ygmq 
oyerleap y. rOm^ 
oyerwhelm y. liu^ 
owl n. t^l^ 


pain y. kdJQ, Afljrg, rffrng 
palm of the hand n. ddAti 
paper n. watiit^Qch 
papyrus n. bkut 
paralyzed, to be ^ ^q 
part y. dgnQ 
part n. i^k-tQki 

pass away y. yO^ ruw^ 
pass by y./flrfi 
pasture n. k^ kwcd, t^r 
pay taxes gwajq 
peel off y. gufgro, yipn 
peg n. ^wayit^wai; fij^ 

pelican n. b^ni-bini 
pen n. gl gic^ 
penis n. chul^hUl 
people n. tgros Ji, l^bq, 

IwcLk, jur 
perforate y. ckwayo, toyq 
perplexed, to be « tcidi 

Digitized by 


persecute — rat 


€ mumQ, hdnQ 
persecute y. pidQ 
perseyermnt a. tik 
person d. ni^ti-tyin; ^^ 
perspire v. kwogq, firq, 
pick ▼. loaJQ, 
pick out y. tng^ yJiH^ 
pick up y. ffwinQf twarq 
piece n. git, toil 
pierce y. tat/Q, ckwobq, 

pile up y. chon^ 
pillage y. iq^ yag^ 
pig n. hiini ^jtf^ 
pigeon n. iMr^ikuti 
piss y. tdJQ 
pistol n. d^u 
place y. Hfo, chibn 
place n. kd, kpk^ kun 
plait y. kadQ 
plait of hair kSt 
plant y. kago, fe^ 
plaster y. mulo, mwiinQ, 

play y. tigit 

play guitar fomQ fpm 
plenty gir, Mfi^ 
pluck y. kaJQ:, mQtQ 
poet n. aehak'iiehdk 
pole n. kwS^kii; kwdrg^ 

polish y. tytgn 
pond n. Unyi-Uiyi 
ponder y. lAmit 
pool n. t^^dri 
poor a. twalo;, hbit 
porcupine n. chyou'^hyo^ 

posterity n. liek 

pot n. fukr/itki] diik^k] 

pound y. tooclg; li^d] 

gudd] ufdlq 
pour out y. koikq 
power n. kick 
powerful a. kick 
practice y. gqgQ 
pruse y. fuf^JQ, 
pray y. lamQ, kwaeko. 

pregnant a. ycich 
presendy ady. tin^ andn 
preserye y. gotiQ, korq 
press into y. nienQ 
pretty a., to be '^ tnifio, 

prick y. fylda 
prince n. liar^ 
prohibit y. haikQ^ m^nQ 
property n. jAm 
proud a. nwqnq, rnQJ2 
prudish a. nwQno^ 
pudding n. kw^ 
pull y. ywachQ 
pull a boat fy^Q, ysi 
pull out y. wQ^ k^kt, tllQ 
pumpkin n. Iw^l^^t 
pus n. tut 
put y. chibo^ ki^ 
put into y. menu 
put on (clothes) y. rugQ 
put on fire fjsj^ 
putrefy y. kwdga 
python n. i^U^H 


qiudl n. dyiir'-dyi^ | quiet, to be m^chunq, kudit \ quite I4n, Mini 


rabbit n. see hare 
rain y. k^i i m^k^ 
rain n. k^^ 

rain-bow n. r^ 

raise y. tinfi\ ^ catde etc. 

ram n. droeh'-ir^h 
rat n. yijit^tch] chap] 

Digitized by 



rmsor — aesmmam 

razor n. niiwdi 
reach y. gamQ, gifo, 
read y. kwann 
reason d. kffk 
reconcile y. r^ftfi, /§yfi, 

recoyer y. noitg 
rectom n. n^ 
red a. kwhr^ 
reed n. bb^h-dbiech] iMr 
refuse y. batiQ, ky^ 
Teiga y. joffQ, jski 
relation n. ufQt-wQti 
relatiy es by marriage (Hh 

rely on y. na^ 
remain y. dgnq, b^d^f fifQ» 

remember y. far^ 
rend y . koffo, fyidib chddQ 
rent y. h^gos ^V>(t 
repeat y. chigq, di^^ 
repent y. ys^Q, 

report n. kwin-kwiin 

request y. kwacho, 

resemble y. cKalu 

respect y. g^nn 

rhinoceros n. dtin dkyil 

rib n. lizd^-^^ 

rice n. alabQ, 

rich a. kpr 

ride y. chaf^ IcqIq, 

riddle n. wiy ky^ 

right a. dich 

right hand kyieh 

ring n. A^jrM^i; gieVih 

ripen y. ch^gg, 
rise y. ^^Aitib, 
riyer n. nhm^ndmi 
riyer-bank n. git^git 
road n. yo-y^t 
roan antelope n. dmiHh 

roar y. eh%oQWit 
roast y. mo/g 

roast dura ky^i^ by^l 

roast fish y. budg 

rob y. yago, kabq, fg^ikQ 

robber n. jhl^mii 

rock n. lAi-hJ^ 

roll y. 112^2 

roof n. wiy WQt^ tikii^ 

root n. bytrjt^tr 

rope n. j^t-j^/; k^t] wAnjt 

rot y. chtoifiQ 
rough a. gtoai 
round a. dtl 
row y. kyixwq 
rub y. liutiQf p^ /ofQ 
rub fire fiJQ maeh 
rub with hi (qjq 
rule y. jagq 
ruminate y. duogg 
run y. nng 

run away y . /ffrc, toyq 
run (a race) y. rarg 


sacrifice y. gij^ 
saddle n. p^m 
salt n. kado, bmiljt 
salute y. mOQ 
sand n. ^y^cA 
sand-bank n. kigi 
satisfied a. ydn 
saye y. yftcft, ydft 
say y. kgbg 
scare up y. tugg 
scatter y. t(^Q, d^ 

school n. wntfwofkQ, 
scoop out y. rogQ 
scorpion n. yifrvH 
scratch y. gioa^Q 
scratch mud gqbq kwcJQ, 
scrotocele n. Iwqj^ 
search for y. yiibq 
season, hot « d^fin 
see y. £9^» ftf^ ngfiQ 
seed n. lii-^w^li] ko^ 

seize y. mag2 

self I^, re 

sell y . fii^wQ 

send y. wotq 

send for dwayQ 

senseless a. Iwiii 

separate a. t^ 

seryal (spotted) n. dkwSr^ 

seryant n. wd^ 6Sii, ikitbH 
sesamum n. liim^-flim 

Digitized by 


settlement — spy 


setdement d. fUch^myir 
seven dbifyd/u 
severe a. kick 
sew V. rfitfi, kwQJd 
shftde v. nimQ 
shadow n. tjpq 
shake v. Qn^^ ninn 
shake a tree JbM^ !f<^i 
shallow a. dw^nQ 
sharp a./aib; to be «/3$r(2 
sharpen ▼. pUffQ 
shatter y. I cef^ 
shave y. b/ilo, tido, 
she 4i yi, in 
sheep (male) n. <(iiu^i- 

sheep n. female « rimit 
sheU n. drdcA-dr^cA 
shepherd n. nan kwai 
shield n. kwbt-kdt 
Shilluk-comitiy n. foie 
ehQ^ - language jfe 


ship n.f see boat 
shiver v. HrQ 
shoe n* trarg-trar 
short a. cA^i, chcffO, 
shoulder n. tciy tQk-wiie 


shoulder-blade n. jieh-^ 

show V. ihij^ iitPOfj29 tySTQ, 
shrub n. iiaya| 
shut V. mefQ] ^^ up r^^ 
sick a. da jwgk 
sick, to be « hidit 
siok person fiat« ,^Jk» 

note buda 

sickness n. jwhk 

side n. huUy tun] l^k^ tohi 

silent, to be « kudo, chunq, 

simple a. Iw^ 

sin n. hrhh^^k 

sin V. TMO, 

sinew n. r^r^t^'r 

sing V. iini^r^ 

single dkyH 

sjnk V. rgiig, yoji^Q, 

siphilis n. gi bwgh 

sister n. liaimo-ii^msifc 

sit down V. flka feA 

six dbikyil 

skim off V. yar(2 

skin V. yiJQ, 

skin n. <2^2-<i|(»/y^-/tni; 

skunk n. see stink-cat 
slave n. iHh Mn^ wat hin 
sleep V. nfffin 
slow a. mH 
sly a. tr^ 
smack v. t^k^ 
small a. j^-j((^ 
smaQ-pox (f&zp 
smear v. uoit^ 
smell V. n. nu^a;^ 
smell n. bad « p^ 
smoke v. a. wann 
smoke n. ylr^t 
smooth a. W^ 
smoothe v. nyiha 
smoulder v. dtrnq^ 
snake n. podU^li 
snatch v. gtoarQ 
sneese v. chyfru 
snore v. twof^ 
snort V. tufarit 

snot n. dn^nit 

Sobat n. Aticl/l 

soft a. liQ^Q^ ^^ ZttigfH^ 

soldier n. jal JM 

some mlife^-m^Jl:^ 

somebody niUk 

someone see some 

something gichsi tnikQ 

somersault n. dmnHiliin 

son n. lOQt'^wati 

song n. toir 

soon adv. tin 

sorcerer see witch-doc- 

sore a. 1^ 

soul n. toH'wiyi 

soup n. chwai 

sour a. kick 

south n. kun dwogQ toon 
hoal] wan umr^ Iwal 

speak V. kobn 

spear v. kelq, chwQbn 

spear n. t^n-t^ 

speckled a. see spotted 

spectre n. tipa 

speech n. kwip 

spider n. drajh-drUp 

spill V. rfiyfi 

spirit (of deceased) n. 
dnikit, rfi 

spit V. notQ 

spittle n. liii 

split V. kago, k^fyida 

spoil n. jam IM 

spoon n. foX-fit 

spotted a. il^^V^k 

sprinkle v. vMq, 

sprout V. ioyq, 

spy V. lyawq^ 

Digitized by 



squat — tbief 

squat V. iktDftfHb %2^ 
stab V. ehw^bo^ kelq 
stamp y. f^ 
star n. kyiUt-kyil 
starling n. 6Udu 
start V. w^tQ 
stay y. b^io, rijq 
stay behind ehwQnq 
steal y. Icwalo, kwatq 
step on y. ywpkQ 
sterile (of animals) a. rorQ 
sterility (of the soil) n. 

stick y. k^kQ 
stick into y. men^ 
stick n. kwS^l^i 
stiff, to be <« 4^ffii 
stimulate y. IcQnQ 
sting y. Ao/fi, fylda 
stink-cat n. djfid^fit 
stone n. kit-kiti'^ tOk 

stoop down y. ffonibfyf^ 
stork n. dmd^mitl^ 
story n. wiy nii 
straight (ic?iim, tfr 
straightway eh^ 
strain y. tgnQ 
stranger n. obtoii^it-bwQii] 

note tff^ 
stream y. rarQ 
strength n. kick 
stretch out y. tauQ 
stretch up (hands) f^anq 
strike y. goJQ 
string beads y. robq 
strip off y. kofn 
stroke y. ib^ 
strong a. tik, kith 
struggle y. i^iah^t 
stupid a. ^k 
suck y. 4^^ \ckiMj2 

suck out (a wound) y. 

suckle y. ^tuj^^it 

sudd n. W>4ik 

suffice y. r^mQ^ 

sulky, to be <« kwona 

sun y. m^JQ 

sun n. chin 

surface n. toich-woi; mat 

surpass y. fo^ nuda 

surround y. tys.ffQ 

suspend y. ry^r^ 

swallow y. miQiiQ 

swallow n. wdti^f-wbtki 

sweat y. kwqgq, ftrn 

sweat n. kwok 

sweep y. y^Q 

sweet a. m^ 

sweU y. Mbdh 

swim y. kwanQ, 

swing y. jgfe yfltoc 

swoon y. nen^ 

sword n. giji^gbchi 


table n. kwinn^ku^mlpi^m^ 

tail n. yiep 
take y. hoatiQ 
take by force kabQ 
take leaye noehQ 
talk y. wSJQs kgbQ 
talk n. kwdp 
tale n. wiy nu 
tame y. m^ 
tan y. nMo 
taste y. bglQ k^itnit 
tattoo y. goTQ 

Taufikia Bura C/iqI 
taxes n. gwikeh 
teach y. /troiifi 
teacher n. note fwoiH 
tear y. ytcachQ 
tell y. kabq 
tell lies /2(2fi 
tell stories todQ 
temples n. ^nj^fdm 
ten pyarQ 
tenacious a. t^k 
tendon Achilles n,pvH>ikQ' 

termite n. bi 
termite-hill n. u^^^r^-toor 
test y./ofig 
testicles n. mAnff^nin 
thank y. pakq, fwqjn 
that pr. dcA^ ini; conj. 
them gii gin \Hfa 

there ady. kikn 
these itgdk, ik, ini, fnik 
Aey gi, gin 

nan kwal 

Digitized by 


thigh — vexed 


thigh n. y4m (rimyyiik 

thin a. r|/, r^j), guAl 

thing n. gin 

think T. rgm[^ gQviQ 

thirst n. t6di 

thirsty a. mak yi rt^ 

this ^/ 

thorn n. hxt^d^ki^ 

those acA^ hghk 

thrasing-place n. rhr^ 

thread n. kwqrQ, 

three ddik 

throat n. chvoidk 

through prep, yi 

throw y. b^lq, ^^, w^ 

tQyO, Ignq 
thunder v. m^rQ 
thus adv. net/a^ kindu 
tick n. hi6d^ku6t 
tickle y. g^ [b^yo, 

tie y. kodus ^Q$ ttdcjq^ 
tie together y. tQdg, 
tiD y. furq 

time n. ehin^ whn^ kpi 

tin n. dyitnit 

tired, to be <« frti^ /3<4b 

tobacco n. htdbii''dt&m 
tobacco-pipe n. diJc^k 
to-day di chdn tin 
toe n. Iwldq ty^lQ 
to-morrow ^iki 
tongue n. lip-lip 
too ady. fyau 
tool n. jame gwQjk 
tooth n. tijh'lik 
tooth-brush cA£({-cAd| 
toothless person 6toik 
top n. wieft-tcQfi 
tortoise n. fuk-fugi 
touch y. liwalo^ gUJQ 
towards prep, yi 
toy n. gin tuk 
trade y. nsawq 
trader n. jal n^au 
trayel y. wll^ 

trayeller n. note wiflt 
tread on y. iign(^ eh^n 
treat a guest gefo 
tree n. yhfryin 
tremble y. kivQ^ 
tribe n. /ir 
trickle y. hy^r^ 
trouble y. torQ, 
troubled, to be <« budg, 
true a. m^k (^ 
trumpet n. khn-kAni 
trunk of elephant biii^t 
trust y. yeyo:, no^ gJlno, 
truth n. fn(^ifc (fj^; dir 
try Y.fatiQ 

tuft of birds ^u^^ilwiyu^jfc 
turn y. {tkirgy lunQ, t^nq 
turn back (^^(^ 
twenty pyar dry^u 
twins n. chtoik 
twist y. iI:S^ ^^ m^riQ 
twitter y. gedq 
two dry^u 


uncle n. nayi^ neyo, 
under prep. 
unite y. rgbq 

upon prep, ibrgm^ trty 
urine n. Idch 

us wif wdny win 
use to y. hi 


yein n. r^rlt^r I yery eAdr^ 

yerandah n. akdnh \ vex y. ^eng 

WB8TBBMA1I9, TU Skilhik People. 

yexed, to be m, bu^ gatQ. 
cAuii(2 meh 


Digitized by 



Victorious- — wrong 

victorious a., to be « yomQ visit v. ksmd 
viUage n. pAeh^mj/ir voice n. chwak 

vomit V. UQffQ 
vulture n. chdr-chttr 


wade V. lodo, Itoqiq 

wag V. t^WQ, J/QWQ 

wage war v. vnHnQ 

wait V. kQla bldq, chunQ, 

walk V. chafQ 
walk around v. liwinQ 
walk on v. ytr^ 
wall V. mulQ 
wall n. dorQ-^lir 
want V. dwato 
war n. liti 
warble v. gedQ 
warrior n. jal lin 
wash V. Iwogq, togQ 
washerman n. jal IwQk 
watch V. kdrQ 
watch n. kwini chan 
water n. pi, fi^fik 
waterbuck n. inwak-- 

AntvdH; fft/ik-ffyik 
water-lily n. i^h-f^U 
water-snake n. uQl^bli 
way n. yo-yfi 
waylayer n. jiil m^t 
wax n. clM 
we wA, wdn, win 
weak, to be '^ liwQdQ 
weather n. yimit 
weed V. fojiQ 
week n. jim 
weep V. ywano 

weigh V. rQWQ 

well a. dich 

Weill i^rd 

well n. y^f-yU 

west n. (kun dwogn) wan 

odon ; kun de chan 
west-wind n. 6d6n 
wet, to be <« n^bo, UchQ 
what in^ 
when conj. kgti 
when adv. win, dw^n 
where adv. ig^, glt^h 

kifi, kun 
whether conj. mi, mdr 
which interr. in^, min, 

6; rel. md 
while conj. lean 
whip n. c^l-dil 
whisper v. mufgnQ 
whistle V. ImJQ 
white a. titr 

white man n. dbwin^i^bwQTi 
who interr. dmin; rel. 

mdf tnsn 
whore n. lia ^i chwQu 
why ri, ^h kif^nit 
wide a. lack 
wife n. Ha gil-tyta gil; 

wind n. yiff^ 
window n. wan wQt 
wink V. yu^gZg 

winnow v. kworQ 
winter n. rdd^ 
wipe V. dimo 
wire n. winit-v?in 
wish V. dwato 
witch-doctor n. Ajufig^ 

with conj. 14 
withhold V. tuitn^ 
within prep, yech 
wizard n.jalya^ see also 

woman n. diehh-min', 

womb n. by^rit - by^; 

obsi ; gin duQn 
work V. ^JQ, gogQ; n. 

workman n. jal gtogk, 

nate gwok 
worm n. tiiinif4uitnf konoy 

worship V. lamQ 
worth, to be •» mysro 
worthless a. Iw^fH 
wound n. k^ 2^, kw^yi 
wrap V. kodQ 
wrestle v. i/iakQ 
wring V. dwQcho, 
wring out v. bij^ 
write V. gwido 
wrong n. britk-^r^k 

Digitized by 


y»rd — you 



yard n. ki^l-kili 

yawn v. narriQ 

yearn. umn-rUn; wan-run 

yes dwi 
yesterday dwa 
yonder chini 

you pi. ufA, wun 
you sing, yf, yin. 


Digitized by 



Aba — Church 


Aba (a man) 239 
Aba Island XX 
Abaka 34 
Abijop 131 
Abo-Eaya 34 
Abouri 43 
Abudok 129, 131, 

149, 164 
Abu Shoka LVIII 
Abwong (village) 30 
Abyssinia 30, 35 
Abyssinians XXVII, 

Achetegwok 160, 

Acholi L, LI, 30» 

AdDuiXL, 156 
AdefalQ 179 
AdQlcQn (village) 

143, 144, 176 
Adun 132 
Adwelo 160 
Afyek 239 
AgqdQ 132, 152 
Agok 177 
Agweratyep 176 
Agwet 238 f. 
Ajang2i8, 219 
Ajwogo (village) 

134, 175 
Akobo (river) 30 
Akol (king) 152, 


AkoleNyakwe 237 
Akolo 172 
AkUnt/o Boko (a 

man) 148 
Akuruwar XXII, 

XLn, 124, 160, 

164, 225 
Akwai Chakab LV 
AkwQe 178 
Akwoneyor 239 
Akwot (king) 144, 

Akwoto 239 
Alaguiang 43 
Al^ki (a man) 148 
AUAq (a village) 

Aloa (Aiwa) LV 
AluQ 32 
Alur, Aluru L, 31, 

American Mission 

Amol 240 
AnsarLXII, 152 
Anut 133 
Anyimo 209 
Anywak XL, 10, 

II, 13, 14, 16, 

30, 32, 33, 34, 

AAqAq 237 
Arabs XXVH, 


115, 129, 156 

Ari Umker XL 
Atano 152 
Atbara LXI 
Atong 179 
Avikam 43 
Awan (a Dinka) 

AwarejtoQk 143 
Ato^n 240 
AyadQ 133, 238 
AygmQ (a Dinka) 

231, 232 
Bachet 226, 227 
Baggara Selim 


Bagirmi 36 

Bahr el Asraf = 

Sobat XX 
Bahr el Jebel L 
Bahr Ghazal 34, 

BahrZerafXX, 45 
Bakedi 31 
Baker S. LVHI 
BdUtk = Anywak 


Banholzer 135, 150 

B^r 32, 44 

Bari L, 10, II, 12, 
13, 17, 29, 35, 
36, 38 ff, 56, 57 

Bare (river) 30 

Baumann, O. 32 

Beir L, 31 


Bel (amui) 134 



Belo (a people) 169 
Ber (Bsr) U, 31. 

hevi (Bsri) L- 31, 


Bertat LVH 
Black water fever 

Blue Nile 35 
Bongo LI, 10, 17, 

31, 32, 36, 38, 

Bsr LI, 32, 34, 45 
Bruce, J. LIII 
Bukedi 31 
Buh/ffi (village) 

Bunyoro 31 
Bunyung XL 
Burkeneji 35 
Bwoch 160 
Bworq XL 
Cailliaud LV 
Cameroons 35 
Carson, R. LXIII 
ChaiLVI, 144, 169 
(7Ai^ (a village) 152 
Chopi 31, 32 
Church Missionary 

Digitized by 


Chwol — Jur 



Society LXf. 
Chwol (a man) 129 
Cows of Nyikang 

Crowther 60 

Dak xvn, XLin, 

124, 129, 130, 
131, 132, 133, 

147, 155, 1577 
159, 163, 164, 
167, 168, 170, 
238, 240 

Dar FungLDI 


Dembo LI, 3I7 3^ 

Deng (a man) 1 54, 
178, 238, 239 

DerWshes XXVH, 

Detim (chief) 152 

Detwuk (a village) 

Dtdtgn (a village) 

XLH, 129 
Dim 157 

Dingjol 144, 152, 

Dinka XXVIH, 
XLIX, 10, II, 
12, 13, 14, 17 
30, 35, 36, 37, 
45, 46, 48, 60, 
115, 129, 132, 

133, 142 
Dokot 129, 131, 

134, 142 f, 144, 
149, 160 

Doleib HiU LXI, 


Dongola 45 

Dqt = Bongo 3 1 

Dor (a man) 153 

Dqtq, 238 

Dunkok 239 

Dur (village) 132! 

Duwat XLI, 132, 
152, 154, 156, 
157, 167, 178 

Dwai (a man) 132 

Dwai 134 

Eafeng 43 


Elgumi 35 
EliriLVII, 152 
Emin Pasha 32 
Ewe 43, 44, 49, 60 
Fabuchak L 
Fadiang XLIX, 152 
Fadibek Ll 
Fadyst XLVI, LX 
Fadjulli LI 
Faggeir LI 
Faina XLIX 
Fakang 129, 134 
Faki Mohammed 

Kher LVHI 
Faloko (river) 159 
Famir L 
Fandikir LI 
Fanyikuara LI 
Fashion LI 
Fashoda 124, 126 

et passim 

Fawer L 
Fayak L 
Fayot L 
FazogK LIV 
Fenyidwai 151, 

178, 236 
Fenyikang XUI, 

160, 178 
FUo 132 
Fort Sobat LIX 
Fotou (village) 133 
FuKulde 73, 88 
Funj Ln et passim 
Gd 43, 44 
Gaadi Abu ShiUok 


GdrAj^ = Nuer 44 
Gang (language) L, 

II, 12, 13, 17, 


Garo 159, 160 
GayaL, Zi 
Ger 152 
Gessi LIX 
Gezira LIE, LIV, 

35 [XX 

Gezira Wad Beiker 


Giffen Mrs. XXV 
Gok (a man) 129 
Gokwach (a man) 

Ooht 141 
Golo 45 
Gordon, Ch., 


Gur (village) 134 

Guthrie, C. B. 

Gnti 130 

Gwar 129 

Hameg LVII 

Hamitic (influence, 
languages) 33, 
48, 49, 56 f, 88 

Hartmann, R. LIII 

Haussa 88 


Herbagi LV 

Hofineyer 1 22, 1 24, 
130, 160 

Hollis 48, 75 

Hottentot 73 

Ibo 43 

Ismail Pasha L VIII 

Isoama 43 

Jafalu L, 31 

Jal (a man) 1 28 

Jalo 132 

Jambo = Anywak 

Jebel Gule LVI 
JebelDyre = Eliri 

Jebelein 34 
Jebel Tegla = Ta- 

gale LIV, LV 
Johnston, Sir H. 

31, 32. 37 
Jonyang 179 
JuXLf, 129, 157 
Jur (language) LI, 
10, II, 17, 30, 
31, 32, 37 ff, 44 

Digitized by 



Kaka — Nyimo 

Kakugo 132 
Kam 134 
Kamasia 35 
Kang (a man) 129 
Kanq XLI 
Karamojo 35 
Kavirondo 31 
Kawa XX, Lf 
Ke 155 
Kelge XL 
Kenana Arabs 

Ker 239 
Ker = Bahr Jebel 

Kerau 159 
Khalife XLIX 
Khalifa AbdaUah 

Khartum LVmff. 
Khor Atar XX 
Khor Atulfi 165 
Khor Filu8 45, 152 

Kir (a man) 134 
Kitchener LX 
Kitching 3 if, 48 
Kodok LVm, LX 
KqIoXL, 156 
Kordofan XXVII, 

jr«(King)i47, 152 
Kudit 160 
Kunama 43, 46 
Kwa Ajal 128 
Kwajeriu 239 
Kwajul (161), 166 

Kwakadwai 233 
Kwa Lek 128 
Kwa OboffQ XLIV 
Kwa-^okal 124 
Kwat Ker XL VI 
Lado 31 
Lake Albert 31 
Lake Kioga 31 

Lake Victoria 3 1 
LambieDr. 157 
Latuka L 
Lendu 34 
Leridaro 172 
Lori 152 
Luba 34 
Luo LI, 3if, 44 
Lur L 
Lwak 152 
Lwal Polkoe 233 
LwqA 239 
Madi 34 
Madi-Kaya 34 
Mainam 134 
Makwa 156 
Malakal 128, 132 
Malaria XXI 
Malek LXI 
AtQiiQ 141, 220 
Marclumd LIX 
Masai 30, 33, 35, 

37, 56f; 75 
Masran Island XX 
McCreery LXIII 
McLaughlin LXH 
Meinhof, C, 33,48 

Mek = kingXLVI 
Mikyibq 43 
Merowe LXI 
Milo (a man) 128 
Mitterrutzner 37, 

Mittu 34 
Mohammed Ahmed 


Moi (king) 157, 

Mon (a man) 128 
Mongalla 3 1 
More 160 
Mora 34 
Mui (a man) 134 
Mwal 134 
Mwomo XX, 115, 

123, 136, 176 
Nagdyeb XX 
Nai (a man) 171 
Kama 73 
Nandi 35, 37 
Nasser LVH, 34 
Na^ = Nuer 44 
Ndorobo 33, 35 
Ngishu 35 
Nielwag XXII 
Nigu (Tillage) 131 

group 33, 34,35, 

Niloto - Hamitic 

group 33, 35, 36 
Nimgno, 131 
NinarQ^ 176 
Nuba, Nubian 

XLIV, LIV, 10, 

17, 25, 29, 36, 

38 ff, 45 f; 130, 

133, I42f; 148, 


Nuer 10, 11,13, 14, 
16, 17, 26, 29, 


Nupe 43 

Nyabil 179 

Nyaddke()sin^ 142, 

Nyadwai 129, 141, 

145, 175 f 
Nyagir XLIX 
Nyagwado XXII 
Nyajak 214, 215 
Nyakae 155, 156 
Nyakayo XLf, 238 
Nyakwach 142, 1 44, 

145, 160 
Nyato (a king) 175 
]^e4ok XLVI 
Neker{K man) 153 
Nyelwak (village) 

128, 152 
Nyelwal XLII, 

XUII, 133, 160 
J^ewaJQ (village) 


Nyewek (river) 164 
Nei/lra 236 
i^tifidg XLH, 165, 

Nyidwai 172 
NyifwraL, 31 
Nyikayo 155 
Nyimo 142 

Digitized by 



J^ok 30, 142, 152 
A^wQrBahQ (a king) 

J^wQn (a man) 129 
Obai 131, 133 
Obang (village) 1 5 2 
Obogi = Obogo 

Obogo (a man) 130, 

Obion (a man) 133 
Obwo (village) 134 
Ochamdor 164 
Ocholo 167 
Odak 132. 134, 

Odin 134 
Odimo 44 
Odok 133 
OdwcJQ (a village) 

Ogam (a man) 141 
Ogan (a man) 1 34 
Ogek 130 
Ogot 134 
Ogwet (a man) 132 
Ojul 1 59, vide Ojulo 
Ojulo 166 
oiarifiXX, XLIXff 
Okafi 134 
OkelQ 126 
Okil 157 
Okoffo 133 
Oku (a man) 132 
Okun (village) 132 
Okwa XLf, 147? 

I56f, 167 
Okwai 132 [239 
01am (a man) 129, 

01am (a place) 164 
OZfii 133 

Oloalo (a man) 163 
Omal (a man) 132 
OmarQ XL, 1 56 
Omdurman LXff 
OmQrQ 157 
Omui (a man) 133 
Ongwat XL 
Onoga{Yi] 144 
Or§to (a man) 1 3 1 
Oryang 160 
Osharo XLH 
Oshollo 130, 134 
Oshoro 160 
Oshu (a man) 131 
Oshwa(aman) 164 
Otlgq 237 
OtiffQ XLII 
Otin 157 
Oton 169 
Otudi (village) 142 
Otyin (a man) 1 34 
O wichi (village) 1 3 1 
Oyler, Rev. D. 

XLH, 127 
Ch/qdQ (a man) 132 
Oyok 134 
Pdl&k = Anywak 

Palo 160 
Pedo (aNuerKing) 

Pepwojo 160 
Petherick 32 
Pijo 152, 160 
Plaoui 44 

PobQ (village) 142 
Port Sudan LXI 
Prophets XLIII 
Ptoemphanae LIII 
Red Sea 35 
Reiniscb 195 
Renk 144 
Rql (Rohl) L, 34 
Roseires LVI, 144, 

Schweinfiirth 3 1 f, 

Selim Baggara 

Semitic languages 

Senegambia 35 
Sennar LIII et 

Shakwa el Shilkawi 

Shal (Chal), 130, 

167, 240 
Shilkawi = ShiUuk 

ShuliL, 31 f 
Sobat XX et passim 
Songhai 56, 57 
Struck,B., LI, 3iff 
Sudan languages 


Sudd XXI 
Sue (river) 31, 34 

Sun-service XLV 
Tabalo (village) 1 23 
Tabi LVII 


Tapero 190 
Taro 152 
Tatoga 35, 37 
Tedigo 152, 160 
Tiout 44 
Teso 35 

Tit = Shilluk 44 

Tonga XX et 

Tquotq 153 
Totemism 178 
Tuga (a man) 1 29 
Tugo 138, 160 
Turkana 35 
Turks XXVII, 


45, 152, 195 f, 

Turo 159, 167 
Twara 129, 134 

Twi 43, 44, 60 
Twolang 168 
UdDUjil 156 
UmakRa 156 
Um Dubreka LIX 
Umiru 31 
Umoi 156 
Unyoro 32 
Ungwad 156 


Wad Dakona Is- 

Wadi Haifa LXI 
Wad Medani LX 
Wat MqI (Maul) 

XL, 156 

Digitized by 




WajwQk (village) 

Wang 132, 165 
Watson, Rev. A., 

WauXLIIff, 130, 


Wed Agub LIII 
White NUe XLI, 

30 34f, 
Wij-Palo 160 
Winyalwal (viUage) 


Witor 164 
Wu (village) 152 
Wubo village 131 
WubQ (a man) 134 
Wnro Ewa 240 

Yo (King) XLVI, Yweldit 154 

"5, 134 
Yodit 153 
Yonj 131 
Yi^ 240 

Yoruba 43, 44, 60 
Yoyin 133 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 











DEMCO 38-29 


Digitized by 


3 2044 042 149 575 

Digitized by 


Digitized by