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William F. Freehoff, Jr. 







Tlie Use of Arms and Araioury, Rules of Blazon and Marshalling Coats 
of Armour, with engraved Tables upon a new plan, for the instruc- 
tion of those who wish to learn the Science ; also the Regalia of 


A Dictionary of Heraldry, with an Alphabetical List of its Terms in 
English, French, and Latin; also the different Degrees of the 
Nobility and Gentry of England, with Tables of Precedency. 


Containing upivards of a Thousand Examples. 

Ci^e tDf)ole comyileJr from ific mogt apjrobetr ^uti&oritieg. 







A S J~^ 

QfS ]R E sIp.E C^, -to. 





The principal design of this work is to bring 
the Rules of Heraldry into a concise methodical 
order, as well for instruction as entertainment; 
many having attempted its study, but from its in- 
tricate and voluminous arrangements have been 
prevented from making any kind of progress. 
The following Introduction was first designed to 
instruct a few private persons, who, by its short 
and easy method^ soon gained a knowledge of 
the science. It is necessary, before a person at- 
tempt to blazon a coat of arms, he should first be 
well acquainted with the Points of the Escutcheon, 
Partition Lines, Metals, Colours, Ordinaries, and 
their Diminutives, Charges, Distinction of Houses, 
&c. Likewise the Rules of Blazon and Marshal- 
ling of Coat Armours (which are displayed in up- 
wards of A THOUSAND sclcct examples, neatly 
engraved ; the whole arranged upon a new, easy, 
and regular plan) ; and by following, with a little 
application, the rules and terms as laid down in 
the tables, he will be enabled to name them at 
sight: so thatthe study will become pleasing, and 

524 ^^ 


will give the student a true and just knowledge 
of the first and most useful principles in this 

As this work is intended for the more speedy 
instruction in the Science of Heraldry, it is 
hoped that the generous reader will be so kind 
as to point out any errors that may have been 
overlooked ; or any useful hints, matter, or form, 
whereby the work may be improved : — they will 
be thankfully received, and carefully conveyed 
to the Editor. 

The Publishers. 



Alphabetical List of heraldic terms^ in Eii- 

glish;, French, and Latin .... 264 
Arms, the use of ...... 1 

Arms assumptive II 

Arms of alliance . . . . . .12 

Arms of adoption . . . . . .12 

Arras of a bachelor 74 

Arms of a bishop .,..., 70 
Arms of a baronet ...... 78 

Arms of a commoner and lady . . .78 

Arms of community . . . . .11 

Arms of concession . . . . .14 

Arms, canting . . . . . .14 

Arms of dominion . . . . .10 

Arms of a husband and three wives . . 72 

Arms of a husband and four wives . . .72 
Arms of a husband and five wives . . .72 
Arms of a husband and six wives . . .72 
Arms of a husband and seven wives . . 73 

Arms of an heiress . . . . .75 

Arms of a knight of the garter and lady . . 77 


Arras of a dowager or maiden lady 

Arms of a maid 

Arms of patronage . 

Arms of pretension 

Arms paternal and hereditary . 

Arms quarterly 

Arms of succession 

Arms of a widow . 

Arms of a widow and heiress . 

Arms of a wife and two husbands 


Barons .... 

Bishops .... 

Blazoning, rules of 

Blazoning of animals 

Blazoning of birds 

Blazoning of heavenly bodies . 

Blazoning of ordinaries . 

Blazoning oftrees and vegetables 

Borders . 








Dictionary of heraldic terms 

Distinctions of houses 

Duke .... 

Earl .... 

Escutcheon, description of 

Escutcheon, points of the 



tlxterior ornaments of the escutcheon 

Furs .... 

Gentry, description of the 

Gentry, privileges of the 

Hatchments, explanation of 


Heraldic abbreviations 


King, of the . 



Marshalling . 

Motto . 

Nobility and gentry, the different degrees 

Nobility, privileges of the 


Partition lines 


Precedency of men, table of 

Precedency of women, table of 

Prince of Wales 

Privileges of the nobility 

of the gentry . 

Procession to the chapel royal 

Queen, of the 

Regalia of England 

Rules of Blazoning 


Tombs and monuments . 



Wreath . 







Table 2 to face 

page 18 


: 20 


. 21 


. . 28 


. 27 


. 80 


. 32 


. . 35 


. . 37 

Plate A 

. 49 


. . 52 


. 55 


. . 58 


. 61 


. 63 




. 66 


. . 68 


. . 90 

Regalia Plates to 

'ace page 

Plate 1 


. . 86 



. 87 



. 88 

Note^ The plates from 1 to 21 to be placed between 
pages 272 and 273. 







Note, T, stands for Table, P^for Plate, N.for 

Tables in Part First. Plates in Part Second. 


The occasion of the rise of arms was undoubt- 
edly that order which their use produced; the 
consequences of confusion being generally rule 
and order; as men's sufferings naturally teach 
them to avoid all inconveniences by which they 
have suffered. Thus entered national ensigns for 
the better regulation of armies, &c. also all man- 
ner of personal distinctions, and that the shield, 
helmet, back and breast-plates, and surcoats worn 
over them, have had ornamental figures engraved 

• B 


or painted upon them ; likewise on colours and 
standards in war, for the distinguishing of chiefs 
and considerable commanders, being devices on 
their shields, &.c. pointing out their persons to those 
under their command, and distinguishing them- 
selves one from another; which, without some 
such marks, could not effectually be, their persons 
being obscured by the armours they wore. It is 
observable that the ancients, for the most part, 
made choice of lions, tigers, dragons, and horrible 
chimeras ; or else of animals, as serpents, foxes, 
owls, &c. or such figures as might represent saga- 
city, cunning, or stratagem, according to their 
various dispositions, thereby meaning to menace 
and terrify their enemies, by setting forth their 
magnanimous and politic qualities ; for, as it is 
certain that every hke adheres to its like, so, even 
in cases of this nature, mankind is naturally de- 
lighted with things or animals like themselves, or 
whose predominant dispositions or qualities accord 
with their own; and from these the alluding qua- 
lities and intendments of these ancient assump- 
tions have been frequently termed hieroglyphics, 
&c. Feme says, " The first soueraigne that ever 
gave coate of amies to his soldiers, was King 
Alexander the Great, who, after the manner of his 
auncestors, desirous toexalt by some speciall meanes 
of honor his stoutest captaines and soldiers above 
the rest, to provoke them to incounter their eni- 
mies with manly courage, and by the advice of 
Aristotle, he gives unto the most valiant of his ar- 
iiiies certain signcs or emblemcs, to be painted 


upon their armours, banners, and pennons, as 
tokens for their service in his wars.**' 


Tournaments, Justings, Tihings, &c. were ho- 
nourable exercises, formerly used by all persons of 
note that desired to gain reputation in feats of 
arms, from the king to the private gentleman ; and 
derived their name from tounier^ a French word 
(to run round), because, to be expert in these mi- 
litary exercises, much agihty, both of man and 
horse, was requisite, they riding round a ring, or 
turning often, as there was occasion. 

Their manner of assembling was thus: The 
time and place being appointed, challenges were 
sent abroad for such who desired to signalize 
themselves at the lists, and proper rewards pre- 
pared for the victorious, which drew a great con- 
course from all parts : it was the custom of those 
who went to these exercises to be in a complete 
mihtary equipage, with arms on their shields and 
surcoats, and caparisons on their horses; their 
esquires riding before, carrying their tilting spears 
with their pennons of arms at them ; as also the 
helmets to be worn in the exercise, adorned with 
wreaths of silk, being of the tinctures of their arms 
and their liveries, and thereon the crest. 

When tilting or tournaments were proclaimed, 
they hung two shields upon a tree at the appointed 
place, and he that offered to fight on foot signified 
as much by touching, the shield which hung by the 


right corner; whilst, on the contrary, he who 
chose rather to exercise on horseback, touched 
that which hung by the left; for it was judged 
more honourable to fight on foot than on horse- 

While they were preparing the lists destined 
for the tournaments, they exhibited through the 
cloisters of some neighbouring monasteries, the 
armorial shields of those who designed to enter 
the lists. It was the ancient custom to carry the 
coats of arms, helmets, 8cc. into the monastery 
before the tournaments began ; and to offer up at 
the church, after the victory was gained, the arms 
and the horses with which they had fought : the 
former was done that they might be viewed by the 
lords, the ladies, and the young gentlewomen, to 
satisfy their curiosity ; and a herald, or pursuivant 
at arms, named to the ladies the persons to whom 
each belonged ; and if, amongst these pretenders, 
there was found any one of whom a lady had cause 
to complain, either for speaking ill of her, or for 
any other fault or injury, she touched the helmet 
or the shield of these arms to demand justice, and 
signifying, that she recommended her cause to the 
judges of the tournaments. These, after having 
gained the necessary information, were to pro- 
nounce sentence; and if the crime had been judi- 
cially proved, the punishment followed imme- 
diately. — Memoirs of Ancient Chivalry ^ p. ^Q. 

When a knight, &c. came near the barriers 
where the justings were to be held, he blew an 
horn or trumpet, at which the heralds there at- 


lending came forth and registered his name, armo- 
rial bearings, and other proofs of his nobihty, in 
their books ; from whence came heraldry, or the 
art of blazon, which signifies a regular description 
of arms in their proper terms. 

The two contenders on horseback being let in, 
at several barriers, mounted on the ablest horses, 
they, after performing the usual ceremonies, and 
paying their respects to the sovereign or judges, 
as also to the ladies, took their several stations ; 
and being thus in rc^adiness, when the trumpets 
sounded, both at the same time couched their 
lances, and, spurring their horses, ran fiercely 
one against another, in such a manner that the 
point of their spears, lighting upon each other'*s 
armour, gave a terrible shock, and generally flew 
in pieces. 

If neither party received any damage, they 
usually ran three heats, which was acounted very 
honourable; but if a man was beaten off his horse, 
shaken in the saddle, let fall his lance, lost any 
piece of his armour, or hurt his adversary's horse, 
ail these were disgraces. 

These tournaments first began in Germany, in 
the tenth century, and became afterwards a ge- 
neral practice in Europe. 


The second grand occasion of the improvement 
of heraldry to its present perfection, was thecroi- 
sades, which were expeditions to the wars in the 

• b3 


Holy Land against the Infidels, begun in the year 
1096, on which account they bore several new 
figures before unknown in arms, such as bezants, 
martlets, alerons, escallop shells, &c. besides great 
numbers of crosses, variously formed, which are 
to be seen in arms all Europe over. 

In process of time, these tokens, which we call 
arms, became remunerations for services, and were 
bestowed by emperors, kings, princes, generals, 
and chief commanders in the field, upon martial 
men, answerable to their worthy acts; the remem- 
brance whereof could not be better preserved to 
posterity than by these kinds of honourable re- 
wards; and though at first they were taken up at 
any gentleman's pleasure, yet hath that liberty for 
many ages been denied ; no one being, by the 
laws of gentility, allowed the bearing thereof, 
but those that are entitled thereto by descent, 
grant, or purchase. The common people are 
denied the use of them by the laws of all well 
governed nations. 

The following note may serve as an antidote tc 
the poison of modern sceptics: — " The world has 
been so long accustomed to hear the crusades con- 
sidered as the height of frenzy and injustice, that 
to undertake their defence might be perhaps a ha 
zardous task. We must, however, recollect, that 
had it not been for these extraordinary exertions 
of generous courage, the whole of Europe wouk 
have perhaps fallen, and Christianity been buriet 
in its ruins. It was not, as Voltaire has falsely oi 
weakly asserted, a conspiracy of rubbers; it wa: 


not an unprovoked attack on a distant and unof- 
fending nation; it was a blow aimed at the heart 
of a most powerful and active enemy. Had not 
the Christian kingdoms of iVsia been established as 
a check to the Mahometans, Italy and the remnant 
of Christianity must again have fallen into their 
power, and France herself have needed all the 
heroism and good fortune of a Charles Martel, to 
deliver her from subjugation."" — Gerit. Mag. 1804. 
Ap. page 343." 


Are no less comprised within the cognizance of 
the science of heraldry, than other solemn func- 
tions ; for as it is the part of heralds to range men 
in their due stations, and to appoint them their 
proper coats of arms, whilst living, so it belongs to 
them to regulate what ceremonies are to be ob- 
served at their funerals, and what memorials 
erected to them after their death. The most 
ancient, and even the most barbarous nations, 
paid this honour to the deceased, as believing it 
an inducement to others to perform glorious ac- 
tions, and a respect indispensable to be paid to 
him who had been an example of virtue whilst 
surviving in this world. 

Nisbet says, it w^as a custom of the Romans that 
were Nobiles, to have the statues of their ancestors 
made of wood, brass, marble, &c. and sometimes 
in wax, painted on the face to represent their like- 
ness, and dressed according to their quality ; if they 


had been consuls, with the Prwtea^ta, or long white 
robe edged with purple ; if Censors, their robes 
were purple ; if they had triumphed, their habit 
had gold flowers ; they were likewise adorned with 
the Fasces or bundle of rods, their axes and other 
marks of their magistracy, and the spoils taken 
from tlie enemy. These statues were kept in their 
courts, in a cabinet of wood ; upon solemn days 
the cabinets were set open, and the statues orna- 
mented and set out to view, in the court, just 
before the porch or gate, that the people might 
behold their merit and bravery; and when any 
of the family died, they were not only so exposed, 
but they were also carried before the corpse at 
the funeral, as ensigns of nobility. 

Of all nations, none exceeded the Romans in 
the magnificence of their monuments; all the 
great roads about their city were adorned with 
costly structures ; for they did not tlien bury in 
their temples, reserving them only for the service 
of their gods ; nor was it the custom to bury in 
churches for some centuries after the Gospel had 
dispelled the darkness of idolatry. In process of 
time, it was brought up to bury in churches ; and 
then all families of note appointed the place of 
repose for them and their successors, and erected 
stately monuments, adorned with figures, coat- 
armour, and epitaphs. That there might be some 
distinctive marks between the several persons so 
interred, the ancients established certain rules, 
which were then observed upon such occasions. 

Kings and princes, however they died, were 


represented on their tombs in their armour, with 
their escutcheons, crowns, crests, supporters, and 
all other marks of royalty. 

Knights and gentlemen could not have their 
effigies after that manner, unless they lost their 
lives in battle, or died within their own lordships. 

Those who died in battle, on the victorious 
party, were represented with their swords naked, 
the point upwards, on the right side, and their 
shield on the left, their helmets on their heads. 

Those who died prisoners were represented on 
their tombs without spurs, helmet, or sword. 

Such as died in battle on the vanquished side 
were to be represented without their coat over 
their armour, their sword in the scabbard, their 
vizor lifted up, their hands joined on the breast, 
and their feet resting on a dead lion. 

The son of a general, or governor of a strong- 
hold, if he died when the place was besieged, 
though ever so young, was represented in com- 
plete armour, his head resting on a helmet in- 
stead of a pillow. 

If a gentleman had served in armies during 
most part of his life, and in his old age became a 
religious man, he was represented on the lower 
part in complete armour, and above in the habit 
of the order he had professed. 

If a gentleman, or knight, who had been killed 
in single combat, had such a monument, he was 
to be in complete armour, with his battle-axe out 
of his arms lying by him, and left arm crossed 
upon his right. 



On the contrary, the victor was led in tri 
umph to the church to give thanks to God; an( 
vv^hen he died he was represented on his toml 
armed at all points, his battle-axe in his arms 
with his right arm across over the left. 

But if any person had been accused of treason 
murder, a rape, or being an incendiary, instead o 
being honourably interred, he was treated in th( 
vilest manner, his arms broken, and his body drag 
ged on a hurdle, and cast out to be devoured b^ 
the fowls of the air, or hung upon a gallows. 

Notwithstanding all these rules, by degree 
every one is come to erect what monument h( 
pleases, and to place thereon any figures, and ii 
what posture he likes best. This may suffice t< 
show what was the practice when order was ob 
served ; many examples whereof are to be seen ii 
churches, &c. at this day. 

Arms being placed upon the fronts, and othei 
parts, of noble and ancient seats, show travelleri 
to whom they formerly belonged, and oftentime 
whose they at present are ; painted windows in 
form us also who were the founders and bene 
factors of ancient abbeys, churches, and othei 
religious houses; also colleges, as those in ou; 
two famous universities ; and other public build 
ings, such as hospitals, alms-houses, &c. so fre 
quent in our kingdom. 


Are those which emperors and kings constantly 
bear, being annexed to the territories to cxpres; 


their authority and power : thej cause them to be 
stamped on their coins, and show them on their 
colours, standards, banners, coaches, seals, &c. 


Are coats borne by sovereigns who are not in 
I possession of the dominions to which such coats 
i belong, but who claim or pretend to have a right 
to those territories, viz. Spain quarters the arms of 
Portugal and Jerusalem, to show pretension to 
those kingdoms; England used till lately to 
quarter the arms of France; the Dukes of Savoy, 
those of the kingdom of Cyprus ; Denmark quar- 
ters those of Sweden, &c. 


Are those of bishoprics, cities, universities, aca- 
demies, societies, companies, and other bodies cor- 


Are such as a man of his proper right may as- 
sume, with the approbation of his sovereign and of 
the king of arms. As if a man, being no gentle- 
man of blood or coat-armour, or else being a gen- 
tleman of blood and coat-armour, shall captivate, 
or take prisoner in lawful war, any gentleman, 
nobleman, or prince (as says Sir John Feme), he 
may bear the shield of that prisoner, and enjoy it 
to him and his heirs for ever. See an example, 
Plate C.Ti. 33. 



Are such as governors of provinces, lords o 
manors, patrons of benefices, add to their family 
arms, as a token of their superiority, rights, anc 


Are those taken up by them who inherit certaii 
fiefs, or manors, either by will, entail, or donation 
which they quarter with their own arms. 


Are such as (when heiresses marry into families 
arc taken up by their issue, to show their descen 
paternal and maternal; and by this means th 
memory of many ancient and noble familiei 
extinct in the male line, is preserved and cor 
veyed to posterity: which is one of the principi 
reasons of marshaUng several coats pertaining t 
distinct famihes in one- shield. 


Are those which you take from another fami] 
to be quartered with your paternal ones ; for ii 
stance, the last of a family may by will adopt 
stranger to possess his name, estate, and arms, an 
thereby continue the name and grandeur of h 
family in the world after his decease. It is to 1 
observed, that, if the adopted stranger be of mo: 


noble blood and family than the adopter, he is not 
obliged by the testament to disuse his own name 
or arms ; but, if he be inferior, he is obliged to 
leave his own name, as also his proper arms, ex- 
cept he will marshal them after the arms of the 
adopter. Note^ The present custom for persons 
adopted, is to apply to His Majesty for his special 
warrant, to empower them to fulfil the will of the 
disponers, or to the parliament for an act. — Not, 


Are such as are transmitted from the first ob- 
tainer to his son, grandson, great-grandson, &c. 
Then they are arms of a perfect and complete no- 
bility, begun in the grandfather, or great-grand- 
father (as heralds say), growing in the son, com- 
plete in the grandson, or rather great-grandson, 
from which rises the distinction of gentlemen of 
blood in the grandson, or great-grandson ; and 
from the last, gentlemen of ancestry. Nisbet 
says, we may date the origin of arms as hereditary 
marks of honour, soon after the subversion of the 
Roman Empire by the Goths and Vandals, who 
sunk many liberal arts and sciences, but gave birth 
and life to heraldry (placing it in the room ofjtis 
imaginum), which is made up of the figures of 
animals, vegetables, and of other things suitable 
to their genius, for distinction, in time of battle. 
Thus the strong bore lions, boars, wolves, &c. ; for 
wit and craft they bore serpents, dogs, &c. This 




being the practice of the conquering Goths, 
was afterwards, through the ambition of some 
and virtuous desire of others, continued to repn 
sent their progenitors, as well by carrying th 
marks of their honour, as by bearing their names 
and enjoying their fortunes ; which natural figure 
being cast in a form by rules, their position, dig 
position, situation, and colours, became hereditar} 
and fixed within the shield, an ensign of honour 
from which the titles Scutifer and Escuyr becam 
honourable titles, to distinguish them from thos 
of an inferior rank. 


Are augmentations granted by the sovereign, o 
part of his ensigns, or regalia, to such persons a 
he pleaseth to honour therewith. Sandford says 
Henry VIII. honoured the arms of Thoma, 
Manners (whom he created Earl of Rutland) 
with an augmentation, upon account of his bein^ 
descended from a sister of King Edward IV. Hi: 
paternal arms were or, txw bars azure ^ a chicj 
gules. Note, The augmentations were, the chie) 
quarterly azure and gules; on the first, twojleun 
de lis in f ess or; on the second, a lion passam 
gardant or; third, as the second; fourth, as the 
first. See Plate A. n. 3. 


Canting or allusive arms, or rebuses, are coats 
of arms, whose figiu'cs allude to the names, pro- 


fessions, &c. of the bearer; as a trevet, for Trevet ; 
three herrings, for Herring ; a camel, for Camel ; 
three covered cups, for Butler ; a pine tree, for 
Pine ; three arches, for Arches ; three harrows, 
for Harrow, &c. 

Having shown the antiquity and use of arms, 
we will proceed to the knowledge of their essential 
and integral parts, viz. the poiiits of the escutcheon, 
colours, furs, partition Ihies, ordinaries, charges, 
and distinctions of houses, which, for greater in- 
struction, are displayed upon an entire new plan. 

It is highly necessary, before a person attempts 
to blazon a coat of arms, he should be well ac- 
quainted with the terms and rules laid down in the 
following tables, which may be accomplished by a 
little practice and apphcation. 


Escutcheon, or Shield, in arms, means the 
original shield used in war, and on which arms 
were originally borne ; the surface of the escut- 
cheon is termed the field, because it contains such 
honourable marks as anciently were acquired in 
the field. 

Points of the Escutcheon mean certain points 
or locations, in which the figures or charges of the 
field happen to be particularly placed ; the shield 
is said to represent the body of a man, and has 
its parts taken therefrom, as by the example. 
Table 1. A signifies that part to be the dexter, 
or right hand chief; B, the precise middle chief; 


C, the sinister, or left hand chief; D, the collar, 
or honour point; in regard that eminent men, as 
knights of the garter, thistle, &c. wear their badges 
of honour about their necks; in like manner is E 
called the heart, or f ess point, as being the exact 
middle of the shield; F, the nomhril or navel 
point; G, H, I, the dexter, middle, and sinister 
hose points; whence particular care ought to be 
paid thereto, for the more plain describing the 
position or seat of the things borne ; for the same 
figure, in the very same tinctures, borne in dif- 
ferent points of the escutcheon, renders those 
bearings so many different arms. Therefore these 
points, or locations, ought to be well observed ; 
for an arms with a lion in chief differs from one 
with a lion in base. 





The dexter 






right havid 


side of the 







Points of the Escutcheon. 

The sinister 


left hand 

side of th« 


A Dexter chief. 
B Middle chief. 
C Sinister chief 
D Honour point. 
E Fess point. 
F Nombril point. 
G Dexter base. 
H Middle base. 
I Sinister base. 

Note^ The chiefis the top or chief part of the 
escutcheon, marked A, B, C ; the base is the 
lower part of the escutcheon, marked G, H, I. 

_ , — 




The colours used in the science of heraldry arc 
generally red, hlue^ hlacJc, green^ 'purple; termec 
in this science, gules, azure, sable, vert, and pur- 
'pure. Note, Yellow and ivhite, termed or anc 
argent, are metals : 

Viz. ' 
Names. Colours, 

Or, - - . 

■ - Yellow. 

Argent, - - 

- - White. 

Gules, - . 

- - Red. 

Azure, - ■ 

- - Blue. 

Sable, - ■ 

- - Black. 

Vert,- - . 

- - Green. 


- - Purple. 

Note, Colours and metals, when engraved, an 
known by points and hatched lines; as or, the 
metal gold, is known in engraving by small dot? 
or points ; argent, a metal which is white, anc 
signifies silver, is always left plain ; gules, this 
colour is expressed by lines perpendicular fron 
top to bottom ; azure, a colour known by hori 
zontal lines from side to side; sable, a coloui 
expressed by horizontal and per^;cndicular lines 
crossing each other; veiit, a colour described b^ 

Table, ii 








hatched Hnes from right to left diagonally ; puii- 
PURE, a colour known by hatched lines from the 
sinister chief to the dexter base, diagonally. See 
the examples T. 2. S. Petrasancta, an Italian 
herald, about two centuries ago, is said to have 
been the first who thought of expressing the tinc- 
tures by lines and points. — Brydsori's Heraldry. 


Furs are not only used for the linings of robes 
and garments of state, the linings of the mantle 
and other ornaments of the shield, but also in the 
coat-armours themselves: viz. ermine, ermines, 
erminois, erminites, pean, vair, vair-en-point, 
counter-vair, potent-counter-potent ^ all v/hich may 
be seen under each head in the dictionary ; but 
for instruction we have only given the most com- 
mon in use : viz. 

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois, 

Vair, Counter Vair, Potent. 

Ermine is black spots on a white field, n. 1. 

Ermines is a field black, with white spots, n. %. 

Erminois, is a field gold, with black spots, n. 3. 

Vair is white and blue, represented by figures 
of small escutcheons, ranged m a line, so that the 
base argent is opposite to the base azure, n. 4. 

Counter-Vair is when the bells or cups of 
the same colour are placed base against base, and 
point against pointy n. 5. 



Potent-counter-potent is a field coverei 
with figures like crutch-heads, termed potent 
counter placed^ n. 6. 



Partition Lines are such as, party per pali 
party per be^idy party per Jess ^ party per chevroi 
party per cross, party per saltire, by which is ur 
derstood a shield divided or cut through by a lin 
or lines, either perpendicular, diagonal, travers( 
&c. agreeably to the form of those ordinaries, i 
in example. Note, The crooked lines, such £ 
the engrailed, wavy, &c. are used in heraldry, t 
difference bearings which would be otherwise tli 
same; for an escutcheon charged with a chic 
engrailed differs from a chief wavy, as much as 
the one bore a cross and the other a sal tire. 

Party per Pale is the field divided by a pe] 
pendicular line, as n. 1. 

Note, Party signifies parted or divided, and 
applied to all divisions of the field or charges. 

Party per Bend is a field divided by a di; 
gonal line from the dexter chief to the sinist< 
base, as n. S. Party per bend, Or and Ver 
name Hawly. 

Party per Bend sinister, see P. 16, n. 2.1 

Party per Fess is a field equally divided t 
a horizontal line, as n. 3. 

Party per Chevron is a field divided I 



/J 'jyi.j^Zy^iyT 




Tabli: iv: 


isuch a line as helps to make the chevron, as n. 4. 
(Party per Chevron^ Sable and Argent, name 

Party per Cross, or quarterly, is a field di- 
vided by two lines, the one perpendicular, the 
other horizontal, crossing each other in the centre 
of the field, as n. 5. Party per cross, Argent and 
Gules, name Sir Henry Cock, of Hertfordshire. 

Party per Saltire is a field divided by two 
diagonal lines, dexter and sinister, crossing each 
other in the centre of the field, as n. 6. 

The crooked lines of partition are the en- 
gr ailed, invecked, wavy,nehule^imhattled, raguly, 
dancette, indented^ and dove-tail. See the ex- 
amples T. 3. 

Note, Indented and dancette seem alike in 
form, but the points of the dancette are much 
wider than the indented. 



Ordinaries are those figures which, by their 
ordinary and frequent use, are become most es- 
sential to the science : viz. The chief, pale, bend, 
bend sinister, fess, bar, chevron, cross, and saltire; 
these have their diminutives: viz. The pallet, 
endorse, garter, cost, ribbon, baton, closet, &c. &c. 
as in T. 4. 

The Chief is formed by a horizontal Unc, and 


contains in depth the third of tlie field, as n. 1. 
Gules, a chief Argent, name Worksley. 

The Pale consists of two perpendicular lines, 
drawn from the top to the base of the shield, as 
n. 2. Gules a Pale Or, for the arms of Lord 

The pale has two diminutives — the half of the 
pale is called a pallet, as n. 3; and the half of 
the pallet is called an endorse, as n. 4, 

The Bend is formed by two parallel lines j 
drawn from the dexter chief to the sinister base, 
as n. 5. Argent a bend engrailed Sable, the 
arms of Lord Fitzwater, Earl of Sussex. 

The Bend has four diminutives, the bendlet, 
n. 6 ; the^fl^r^^r, n. 7 ; the cost, n. 8 ; and ribbon, 
n. 9. 

The Bend Sinister, which passes diagonally 
from the sinister chief to the dexter base of the 
shield, as n. 10. The Bend Sinister has two 
diminutives ; the scarp, which is half the bend, 
as n. 11 ; and the baton, which is half of the 
scarp, as n. 12. 

The Fess is formed by two horizontal lines 
across the shield, and contains the third part of 
the field, and is always confined to the centre, as 

The Bar is formed of two horizontal lines, 
and contains the fifth part of the field, as n. 14. 
The Bar is never borne single ; the bar has two 
diminutives ; the closet, which is half the bar, n. 
15 ; and the barridet, which is half the closet, 
n. 16. 

Table at 

jniinniiriiUiiii Hriiiiirnni n 




KyjtciefiCe^L ^i^tjytc fly 



(/ y> C77Z' 


'I. i 


The Chevron is formed of two lines placed 
llpyramidically like two rafters of a house joined 
together in chief, and descending in form of a 
pair of compasses to the extremities of the shield, 
n. 17. The Chevron has two diminutives ; the 
chevronel, which is half the chevron, n. 18; and 
pouple-close, which is half the chevronel, n. 19. 

The Cross. The Cross is formed by the 
meeting of two perpendicular with two horizontal 
lines near the fess point, where they make four 
right angles : the lines are not drawn throughout, 
but discontinued the breadth of the cross, n. 20. 
Azure a Cross Or, name Shelton, of Norfolk. 

The Saltire is formed by the bend-dexter 
and bend-sinister crossing each other in right 
angles, n. 2l. Argent, a Saltire Gules, name 
Gerrard, of Lancashire. 

The Pile is composed of two hnes which form 
a long wedge, n. 22. 

The Quarter is formed of two lines, one 
perpendicular, the other horizontal, taking up 
one fourth of the field, and is always placed in 
the chief, n. 23. 

The Canton is a square figure like the quarter, 
possessing only the third part of the chief, n. 24. 


A Gyron is of a triangular figure, composed 
of two lines, one diagonally from the dexter chief 
angle to the centre of the shield ; the other is 


drawn horizontal from the dexter side of th( 
shield, meeting the other Hne in the centre of th« 
field, as n. 1. 

Flanches are formed by two circular lines 
and are always borne double, as n. 2. 

The Label, though used as a distinction ol 
houses, is placed by Holme as an ordinary for ite 
being variously borne and charged, n. 3. 

The Orle is an inner border of the same 
shape as the escutcheon, but doth not touch the 
extremities of the shield, the field being seen 
within and round it on both sides, as n. 4. or, an 
Orle azure, name Bartram, Lord of Bothal. 

The Tressure is a diminutive of the orle, 
half in breadth, and is generally borne flory and 
counter-flory. n. 5. 

The Frett is composed of six pieces, two of 
which form a saltire, and the other four a mascle, 
which is placed in the centre. The saltire pieces 
must be interlaced over and under the pieces that 
form the mascle, as n. 6. Vert, a frett Or, was 
the arms of Sir George Whitmore, a Lord Mayor 
of London. 

The Inescutcheon is a small escutcheon 
borne within the shield, and in the middle of a 
coat, or in chief, generally used to hold the arms 
of Ulster for the distinction of a baronet, n. 7. 

Note, If there are more than one in a coat, 
they are usually called escutcheons. 

Chaplet is always composed of four roses 
only, all tlie other parts being leaves, n. 8. 



A Border is a bearing that goes all round 
and parallel to the boundary of the shield in form 
of a hem, and contains the fifth part of the field, 
as n. 9. 

Note, When a border is plain, as the example, 
you are not to term it plain^ as it is always un- 
derstood so in the science : viz. argent, a border 
azure ; but if the border be engrailed, indented, 
&c. you must express it: viz. argent, a border 
engrailed azure. See the two examples, n. 10. 
and 11. 

Note^ In blazon, borders always give place to 
thQ^eMef, the quarter, and the canton; as for 
example, argent, a border ; gules, a chief azure : 
therefore the chief is placed over the border, see 
P. 16. n. 2. So that in coats charged with either 
a chiefs quarter, or canton, the border goes round 
the field until it touches them, and there finishes, 
see P. 16. n. 3 ; but in respect to all other or- 
dinaries, the border passes over them, see P. 16. 
n. 4. 

In a coat which hath a border impaled with 
another, be it either the man's or the woman's, 
the border must terminate at the impaled line, 
see P. 16. n. 5. This method is also to be ob- 
served in impaling a coat that hath either a single 
or double tressure, as P. 16. n. 6. 

A Border Engrailed. This border is 



bounded by small semicircles, the points of which 
enter the field, as n. 10. 

A Border indented is the same in shape 
like the partition line indented, as n. 11. 

A BoiiDER Quarterly is a border divided 
into four equal parts by a perpendicular and 
horizontal line, as n. 12. 

A Border Gobonated is a border composed 
of one row of squares (of two colours) and no 
more, as n. 13. 

A Border Counter-compony is a border 
composed of two rows of squares, as n. 14. 

A Border Checky is a border composed of 
three rows of squares, as n. 15. 

A Border Vair. Vair is represented by the 
figures, little bells or cups reversed, ranged in a 
line, so that the base arge?it is opposite to base 
azure, as n. 16. 

Paly is a field divided into four, six, or more 
(even number of) parts, by perpendicular lines, 
consisting of two colours; the first beginning 
with metal, and the last colour, as n. 17. 

Bendy is a field divided into four, six, or 
more (equal) parts diagonally, from the dexter 
to the sinister, or from sinister to dexter, and 
consists of two colours, as n. 18. 

Barry is a field divided by horizontal lines 
into four, six, or more (equal) parts, and con- 
sisting of two tinctures, as n. 19. 

Barry Pily of eight pieces argent and gules, 
as n. 30. 

Tabi.t: VI. 







OCi ^77177/ 

(^ ^ ^ 


ralpjl pip I 




^ GrmitifJ/ict^i ^yfft// liiu^ 




' ^jtrna^ 

C Ka.fc^^ 







]>A]IT I. HEllALDRY. 27 

Note^ Paly, bendy, barry, the number of di- 
vision, are always even and to be specified ; as 
four, six, eight, ten or twelve, viz. Paly of six, 
harry of six, hendy of six, bari^ fily of eight 
argent and gules. See the examples, T. 5. 

LozENGY is a field or bearing covered with 
lozenges of different tinctures alternately, as lo- 
zengy^ argent and azure, n. 21. 

Checky is a field or bearing covered with 
small squares of different tinctures alternately, 
as n. 22. Note, When on ordinaries it always 
consists of three or more rows. 

Gykonny is a field divided into six, eight, 
ten, or twelve triangular parts, of two or more 
diff'erent tinctures, and the points all meeting in 
the centre of the field, as n. 23. 

Pretty consists of eight, ten or more pieces, 
each passing to the extremity of the shield, in- 
terlacing each other, as n. 24. 



A Cross. The Cross is one of the ordinaries 
before mentioned. 

Note, It is borne as well indented, engrailed, 
&c. as plain ; but when jplain, as the example, 
n. 1. you only mention a cross, which is under- 
stood to be plain. 

A Cross Moline signifies a cross which turns 
round both ways at the exti^mities, as n. 2. 


Azure, a Cross MoUne pierced Lozenge, or, 
name Molaneux of Lancaster. 

A Cross Flory. This signifies the ends of 
the cross to terminate in fleurs-de-Us, as n. 3. 

A Cross Patonce. This cross terminates 
hke the bottom of the fleur-de-hs, as n. 4. 

A Cross Potent. This cross terminates Hke 
the head of a cratch, which anciently was called 
a potent, as n. 5. 

A Cross Pattee is proper for a cross which 
is small in the centre, and so goes on widening 
to the ends, which are very broad, as n. 6. 

A Cross Avelane, so termed from the Latin 
nux avellance, a filbert, or hazel nut, as n. 7. 

A Cross Botone. This term is given be- 
cause its extremities resemble the trefoil. The 
French call it croix trefflee, as n. 8. 

A Cross Pommee signifies a cross with a ball 
at each end ; from pomme, an apple. See n. 9. 

A Cross Crosslet is a cross crossed again at 
the extremities, at a small distance from each of 
the ends, as n. 10. 

A Cross Crosslet Fitchy. So termed when 
the under limb of the cross ends in a sharp point, 
as n. 11. 

A Cross of four Pheons. That is, Jbur 
jiheons in cross, their points all meeting in the 
centre, as n. 12. 

A Cross of four Ermine Spots, or four 
Ermine Spots in Cross, their tops meeting in 
the centre point, as n. 13. 

A Cross Milrine. So termed as its form is 


like the mill-ink, which carrieth the millstone, 
and is perforated as that is. See n. 14, 15. 

A Cross Rayonnant is a cross from the 
angles of which issue rays, as n. 16. 


Charges are all manner of figures or bearings 
whatsoever, borne in an escutcheon, which are by 
custom become peculiarly proper to the science. 

A Lozenge. The shape is the same with 
that of a pane of glass in old casements, as n. 17. 
Note, In this form the arms of maidens and 
widows should be borne. The true proportion 
of the Lozenge is to have its width three parts 
in four of its height. 

A Fusil. The Fusil differs much from the 
Lozenge, it being longer and more acute. See 
the difference in n. 17, and 18. Note, If a Fusil 
is four inches in height, it must be but one inch 
and three-quarters in width, and so in proportion 
to any other height. 

Mascle. The shape is exactly square and 
perforated, as example n. 19. 

A Water Bouget was a vessel anciently used 
by soldiers for carrying of water in long marches, 
n. 20. 

A Trefoil, or three-leaved grass, as n. 21. 

A QuATREFOiL, or four-lcavcd grass, as n. 22. 

A CiNauEFoiL, or five-leaved grass. This 
charge is very frequent in armory, n. 23. 

A Rose in heraldry is always represented full 




blown, with its leaves expanded, seeded in thei 
middle with five green barbs, as n. 24. 



A Mullet, n. 1. Some have confounded 
stars and mullets together, which is easily recti- 
fied, by allowing mullets to consist of five points, 
and stars to be of six, eight, or more points. 

An Estoile, or a star of six waved points. 
See n. 2. 

A Gal-Trap; an instrument of iron com- 
posed of four points, so that whichever way it 
lay on the ground one point was always upwards : 
they were used to impede the enemy's cavalry in 
passing fords, morasses, &c. See n. 3. 

A Pheon is the iron part of a dart with a 
barbed head. n. 4. 

An Annulet, or Ring, by some authors said 
to be rings of mail. See n. 5. 

A Crescent, or Half Moon, has the horns 
turned upwards. See n. 6. 

An Increscent, or Half Moon with the horns 
turned to the dexter side. See n. 7. 

A Decrescent, or Half Moon with the horns 
turned to the sinister side. See n. 8. 

A Chess-Rook, a Piece used in the 
Chess, as n. 9. 

A Fountain is drawn as a roundle harry xmvy 
ofslv, argent and azure, as n. 10. 



















iiat'^e nu'l/ 

(jatfiaine nncel 









(o o^c^^tti V c( Hyi'frn 


A Rest. This figure by some is termed a 
rest for a horseman's lance; others apply it as a 
musical instrument called a clarion, n. 11. 

A Portcullis, used in fortifying the gate- 
ways of a city, town, or castle, as n. 12. 

A Manche, an old-fashioned sleeve with long 
hangers, as n. 13. 

A Garb signifies a sheaf of any kind of grain, 
as n. 14. Note, If it be a sheaf of wheat, it is 
sufficient to say a garb ; but if of any other 
grain, it must be expressed. 

A Martlet, a bird shaped like a martin, but 
represented without legs, as n. 15. 

Bar-Gemel signifies two bars placed near and 
parallel to each other, as n. 16. Note, Gemels 
are much narrower than bars, and are always 
borne in couples. 

A Catherine -Wheel, named from St. 
Catherine, whose limbs were broken in pieces 
by its iron teeth, n. 17. 

An EscARBUNCLE ; supposed to be a precious 
stone, and drawn by the ancient heralds as n. 18. 
It is composed of an annulet in the centre, from 
which issue eight or more sceptres. 

A Pelican. The Pelican in heraldry is ge- 
nerally represented' with her wings indorsed, her 
neck embowed, and pecking at her breast, as n. 19. 
Note, When in her nest, feeding her young, in 
blazon, it is termed A Pelican in he?' pietij. 

A Phosnix is an imaginary bird, like an eagle 
in shape, and in heraldry is always represented in 


flames, so that seldom more of the bird is seen 
than what is in the example, n. SO. 

An Antelope ; a well-known slender-limbed 
animal of the deer kind, with two straight taper 
horns : it is, by modern heralds, drawn according 
to nature, as n. 21. 

An Antelope Heraldic. This imaginary 
animal was represented by the ancient heralds 
with a body like a stag, with a unicorn's tail, a 
tusk issuing from the tip of the nose, a row of 
tufts down the back part of the neck, and the 
like tufts on his tail, chest, and thighs, as n. 22. 

A Cockatrice is an heraldic, chimerical fi- 
gure ; its wings, beak, legs, comb, wattles, and 
spurs, partake of the fowl, and its body and tail 
of the snake, as n. 23. 

A Wyvern. This, like the former, is of 
heraldic creation, and differs from the cockatrice 
in its head, and is without a comb, wattles, or 
spurs, as n. 24. 


A Dragon is an imaginary beast, drawn by 
heralds as the example, n. 1. 

A Harpy is a poetical monster, composed of 
the head and breasts of a woman joined to the 
body of a vulture, as n. 2. 

A Tiger Heraldic : so termed from being 
so different from the tiger of nature. It owes its 

Tabli: VIII. 





















t^V^/v/ *-yometf C/H/it 






^0 Ml 

Gotten ant 

'J ejant' 





origin to the ancients, who represented it Uke the 
example, n, 3. 

Billets are oblong squares, and are generally 
supposed to be letters made up in the form of the 
example, n. 4. 

A Can NET ; a term for a duck without beak 
or feet, as n. 5. This is only used in foreign 

An Allerion is an eagle displayed without 
beak or feet, as n. 6. 

A Welke ; the name of a shell-fish. See n. 7. 

Gutty, or Gutte, signifies drops of any thing 
liquid. See n. 8. As these drops differ in colour, 
they receive different terras. Being so much used 
in English heraldry, it is necessary to introduce 
them; viz. 


^Or, 1 








"^ ' 


U ' 





^Gules, , 


Gutte d'or, 
Gutte d'eau, 
Gutte d' olive, 
Gutte de larmes, 
Gutte de poix, 
Gutte de sang, 

G 2 - 

'Drops of gold. 
Drops of water. 
Drops of oil of olive, 
Drops of tears, 
Drops of pitch. 
Drops of blood. 

NotCy The French heralds use none of the 
above variations, but say gutte of such a colour. 

Roundles are round figures ; if of metal, as 
the bezant and plate, they are to be flat; if of 
colour, they are drawn globular, and termed ac- 
cording to the colour or metal they are composed 
of. SeeT.8, n. 9 to 15; viz. 














-p ■ 











Note, if there are two, three, or more in a coat, 
and they are counterchanged, be they of any 
colour or metal, they retain the name of roundle. 
Note, Foreigners term the round figures, when 
of metal, bezants ; when of colour, torteaux ; 
viz. Bezants d''or, or d'argent, torteaux de gules, 
d''azure, de sable, &c. 


CouPED. A term for any charge in an escut- 
cheon that is borne cut evenly off, as the ex- 
ample; viz. A Lions Head Couped, n. 16. 

Erased. A term for anything torn or plucked 
off from the part to which nature had fixed it. 
The part torn off must be expressed jagged, as 
the example ; viz. A Lion's Head Erased, n. 17. 

Demy signifies the half of any thing ; viz. A 
Demy Lion. n. 18. 

Dormant, or Sleeping ; viz. A Lion Dormant 
with its head resting on its fore paws, as n. 19. ■ 

Couch ANT, lying or squatting on the ground. 



.with his head upright; viz. A Lion Couchant. 
[See n. 20. 

Sejant. A term for any beast sitting in the 
position of the example; viz. A Lion Sejant. 
n. 21. 

Passant. A term for any beast when in a 
walking position ; viz. A Lion Passant, n. 22. 

Statant. a term for a beast standing with 
all four legs on the ground, as n. 23. 


Passant-Gardant. a term for a beast when 
walking with his head qffronte^ or looking full- 
faced, as example, n, 1. 

Rampant. A term for lions, bears, tigers, 
8cc. when standing erect on their hind leg. A 
Limi Rampant, n. 2. 

Rampant-Gardant siernifies a beast standing 
on his hind leg, looking full-faced, as example, 
A Lion Rampant-Gardant. n. 3. 

Rampant-Regardant. A term for a beast 
standing upon its hinder leg, looking towards its 
tail ; viz. A Lion Rampant-Regardant, as n. 4. 

Rampant-Combatant. A term for beasts 
fighting, or rampant, face to face, as the example. 
Two Lions Rampant-Combatant, See n. 5. 

Saliant. a term for beasts of prey when 
leaping or springing forward, as the example, n. 6. 
Addorsed signifies beasts, birds, or fish, turned 
back to back, as the example. Two Lions Ram- 
pant Addorsed, See n. 7. 


Counter-Passant ; for two beasts, as lions, 
&c. when walking different ways, the one to the 
dexter, the other to the sinister, as the example, 

Counter-Saliant. a term for two beasts 
when leaping different ways from each other, as 
the example, Tzvo Foxes Counter-Saliant in Sal- 
tire, the dexter swmounted of the sinister, n. 9. I 

Counter-Tripping. This term is given when I 
two rams, deer, &c. as the example, are tripping, 
the one passing one way, and the other another. 
See n. 10. 

Sejant Addorsed. A term for two animals 
sitting back to back, as the example, n. 11. 

Passant-Regardant. A term for a beast, 
&c. when walking with its head looking behind, 
as n. 12. 

Gaze. The stag, buck, or hind, when look- 
ing affronte, or full-faced, is said to be at Gaze, 
as n. 13. 

Note, All other beasts, when in this attitude, 
are termed Gardant. 

Tripping. A term which signifies a stag, 
antelope, or hind, &c. when walking, as n. 14. 

Springing. This term is used for beasts of 
chase in the same sense as Saliant is for beasts of 
prey. See example, n. 15. 

Note, This term is likewise used for fish when 
placed in bend. 

CouRANT. A term for a stag, horse, or grey- 
hound, or any other beast, represented running, 
as the example, n. 16. 

Tabxe :x:. 



^^\ aeoyitt' 






' y/'uumf 





a ahiff 







on a ^ft/^f 


//? ,yi^/'f 


cv n Salter 

# # 
in Sciuife 


Lodged. This term is for stags, &c. when 
at rest, lying on the ground, as n. 17. 

Note, Beasts of chase are said to be lodged ; 
beasts of prey, when lying down, are termed 

Cabossed. This terra is used to express the 
head of a stag or other animal placed full-faced, 
and without any part of the neck being visible, 
as n. 18. 

Close. This term is for the wings of birds 
(of flight) when they are down and close to the 
body, as n. 19. 

Note^ This term must not be used to the 
peacock, dunghill-cock, nor to any others that are 
not addicted to flight. 

Rising. A term for birds when in a position 
as if preparing to fly, as n. 20. 

Displayed. This term is used for the wings 
of eagles, and all other birds, when they are ex- 
panded, as n. 21. 

Volant. Thus we term any bird that is 
represented flying, as n. 22. 

Demi-Vol. a term for a single wing, as 
n. 23. 

Indorsed. A term for wings when placed 
back to back, as n. 24. 


Erect signifies any thing perpendicularly ele- 
vated, as the example : viz. Txvo wings conjoined 



and erect ; that is, the points of the wings are 
upwards, n, 1. 

Inverted. This example is the reverse posi- 
tion of the former, the points of these being 
downwards : viz. Two wings conjoined and in- 
verted, n. % 

Naiant. a term for fish when borne hori- 
zontally across the field as swimming, as n. 3. 

Hauriant signifies the fish to be erect, as the 
example, n. 4. 

Respecting, A term for fish, or birds, when 
placed upright one against the other, as n. 5. 

Naiant Embowed. This term is used for 
the dolphin, to signify the crookedness of his 
motion when swimming, as the example, n, 6. 

Demi-lion Passant is one half of a lion in 
a walking position, as n. 7. 

Demy Fleur-de-Lis is thehalf of a fleur-de- 
lis, as n. 8. also as p. 7. n. 24. 

IssuANT, or issuing, signifies coming out of 
the bottom of the chief, as the example, n. 9- 

RoussANT signifies heavy birds, as if preparing 
to fly with the wings indorsed, as n. 10. 

Slipped. A term for a flower, branch, or 
leaf, when plucked from the stock, and not cut 
off. n.ll. 

' Tirret. a modern term derived from the 
Fr<?nch, for manacles^ or hand-cuffs, n. 12. 

Note^ the following twelve examples are intro- 
duced for the instruction of the learner, as he 
should be well acquainted with the difference of 
the two monosyllables in blazon: viz. on and 


in ; which, by observing, he will see makes a 
great difference in a coat of arms — -the former 
expressing the bearing to be placed on one of 
the ordinaries ; the latter as if the bearings were 
left remaining, but the ordinaries taken away. 


N, 13. Argent on a chiefs gules three lozenges, 


N. 14. Argent, three lozenges in chiefs gules. 


N. 15. Argent on a palcy azure, three plates. 


N. 16. Argent, three hurts in pale, 


N. 17, Gules, on a bend^ argent, three mullets, 


N. 18. Argent, three mullets in bend sable. 


N. 19. Argent, on a Jess, vert, three trefoils, or. 



N. 20. Argent, three trefoils, in /ess, vert. 


N. 21. Purpure, 07i a cross, argent, five cre-^ 
scents, gules. 


N. 22. Argent, five crescents in cross, gules. 


N. 23. Azure, o?i a saltire, argent, five tor- 


N. 24. Argent, five torteauxes in saltire. 


These differences inform us how the bearer of 
each is descended from the same family ; also to 
denote the subordinate degrees in each house 
from the original ancestors, viz. 






For the heir, K,,^^ , . - - 

I or First son, y ' 

Second son, the Crescent, - - 

Third son, the Mullet, - - - 

Fourth son, the Martlet, - - 

Fifth son, the Annulet, - - 

Sixth son, the Fleur-de-lis, - 

Seventh son, the Rose, - - - 

Eighth son, the Cross Molinc, 

Ninth son, the Double Quatrefoil, ^c§ 


The crescent, with the label on it, for the first 
son of the second son. 

• e3 


The crescent on the crescent for the second 
son of the second son of the first house, and so 
on. See the engraved examples, plate 10. 


This science, according to the Notitia A ngli- 
cana^ is merely to describe the things borne in 
proper terms, according to their several gestures 
positions, and tinctures ; and how to marshal or 
dispose regularly divers arms on a field, in which 
care ought to be particularly observed, because 
the adding or omitting any part is oftentimes an 
alteration of the coat. 

In blazon the following rules are to be care- 
fully observed : 

First, in blazoning a coat you must always 
begin with the field ; noticing the lines wherewith 
it is divided, whether per pate^ per Jess, j^er be7id, 
&.C. as also the difference of those lines, whether 
indented, engrailed, &c. then proceed to the next 
immediate charge. By an immediate charge is 
meant, that which lieth next the field, and nearest 
the centre, must be first named ; and then those 
which are more remote ; for example, azure, a 
crescent, hetxceen three stars argent; thus the 
crescent is first named, as being next the centre 
of the field. See Plate B, n. 2] . 

If a coat consist of two colours only, as the 
coat of Robinson, you are to blazon it vert, a 
chevron, between three bucks standing at gaze, 
or; which impfics that both the chevron and 
bucks are or. See plate D. n. 15. 


When colour and metal are placed several 
times one upon the other, as Plate A, n. 13, 
Aziire on a chevron, between three hesants^ as 
many 'pallets, gules. No/e, Here the chevron is 
named ^r5^ after the field, because it is nearest the 
centre; and as the pallets lie upon the chevron, so 
they are most remote from the Jield, and must be 
last named. But when bearings are described 
without expressing the ]:K)int of the escutcheon 
where they are to be placed, they are then un- 
derstood to possess the centre of the shield : for 
instance, argent, a lion rampant, gules ; but if I 
say, argent, a lion rampant in base, gules, it 
must be placed in the base part of a shield, which 
is the bottom. 

A repetition of words must be avoided in 
blazoning a coat, such as the words of, or, and, 
with, is accounted a great fault, for tautology 
should be particularly avoided ; as, for example, 
or, on a saltire azure, nine lozenges of the first ; 
and not or, on a saltire azure nine lozeiiges or ; 
because the word or is then named twice. But 
be careful that, by endeavouring to be concise, 
you are not mysterious, and that you omit no- 
thing which ought to be mentioned ; because a 
different form in blazoning makes the arms cease 
to be the same. 

In composing arms, metals, and colours to- 
gether, which was introduced as well to represent 
them at a greater distance, as to imitate the mili- 
tary cassock of the ancients, who embroidered their 
titia, or cloth of gold and silver, with figures in 


colours of silk ; and their coloured silk, on the 
contrary, with gold and silver ; and hence it is 
that there is a general rule, that rnctal shall never 
he placed upon metal^ nor colour upon colour. 


In blazoning of charges, be they of what na- 
ture or kind soever, whether animate or in- 
animate, if you perceive them to be of the natural 
and proper colours of the creatures or things they 
represent, you must always term them proper^ 
and not argent, or, gules, or by the like terms of 
this science, which should always give place to 
definitions more natural. 


In blazoning of ordinaries formed of straight 
lines, you must only name the ordinary, without 
making mention of the straightness of the line 
whereof it is composed ; for example, T. 4. n. 5. 
Argent J a bend azure ; but if the ordinary, &,c. 
should be engrailed^ isoavy, nebuly, imhattledy &c. 
it must not be omitted ; for example, Plate A. n. 
12, ermine on a chevron engrailedf azure, three 
estoils argetit, 


As to lions, tigers, bears, leopards, boars, 
wolves, dragons, and all ravenous beasts, their 
teeth and claws, or talons, arc called their arms, 


ause they are weapons of defence and offence ; 
b when they are of a different tincture from their 
lodies, then the colour must be named ; and when 
heir tongues are of the colour of their arms, then 
hey are said to be langued, as a lion argent, armed 
md langued, gules, Note^ The claws and tongue 
►f a lion are always gules, unless the field or 
iharge be gules, then they must be azure. Feme 
►bserves, " that the invention of armes wherein 
)easts be borne, is borrowed from the Huns, the 
Hungarians, Scythians, and Saxons, cruell and 
lerce nations, who delighted in bearing in their 
trmes, lions, leopards, bears, wolfes, hyens," &c. 

Among such beasts as by nature are milder, 
nd by custom more sociable, may be reckoned 
he bull, ox, goat, ram, &c. which are endowed by 
lature with weapons, as horns, which, together 
;^ith their hoofs, are very often different from 
heir bodies : we then say armed and hoofed, or 
mgtded, of such or such tinctures. 

As to deer, they being by nature timorous and 
athout courage, are supposed to wear their lofty 
ntlers, not as weapons, but ornaments, therefore, 
1 blazon, we say attired. 

And as to the dog, there are of various kinds, 
red up to divers exercises and games ; so that 
be first consideration is, what kind of dog is 
orne, as greyhounds, spaniels, talbots, &c. what 
port he seems fitted for, and hence the particular 
i^rms of beating, coursing", scenting, &c. are very 
roper if the dog be found in gestures suitable to 
leir several exercises. 


Note^ Nisbet says, when animals are painted 
upon banners, they must look to the staif ; when 
upon caparisons and other horse furniture, they 
ought to look to the head of the horse that bears 
them ; and so of all things whose parts are di- 
stinguished by ante and post 


When in blazoning birds of prey, as the eagle,! 
vulture, hawk, kite, owl, &c. all whose weapons, 
viz. beaks and talons, are termed arms, we then 
say armed and menibered so and so, when they 
differ in colour from the body. 

But when you meet with swans, geese, ducks, 
cranes, herons, cormorants, &c. which are a kind 
of river fowl, and have no talons, instead of armed, 
you must say beaked arid membered; the last term 
signifying the leg of any fowl, as the feet of swans, 
geese, ducks, &c. are webbed, and in some mea- 
sure resemble the palm of a man's hand ; so in 
blazon they are sometimes termed palmipedes. 

In blazoning the cock, you must say armed, 
crested, and jelloped ; armed signifies his beak 
and spurs ; crested, his comb ,- and jellopedy his 
wattles ; when his comb, beak, wattles, and spurs, 
are of a different tincture from his body, then in 
blazon they must be named ; for instance, azure, 
a cock argmt, armed, crested, a7id jelloped, gules. 

As to the falcon, this bird is carried in the 
same postures as the eagle, so hath the same terms, 
except when with hood, bells, virols (or rings), 


md leishes : in blazon he is said to he hooded, 
>clled, jessed, and leislied, and the colours thereof 
lust be named ; pouncing is a term given when 
le is striking at his prey. 

Note, Edmondson remarks, that when small 
)irds are borne in coat-armour, they are most 
isually drawn in the form and shape of black- 
)irds, although they are represented in all the 
lifferent colours and metals of heraldry, and con- 
equently no distinction of species is made : there- 
ore in blazon they are called by the general term 
►f birds only. Hence then, when you find birds 
nentioned in a blazon without expressing the 
ort they are of, they must always be drawn as 
)lackbirds in shape. 


Fishes, of which there are many voracious, &c. 
)ut the terms differ not so much in their variety 
>f actions as of beasts; if swimming, naiant, 
rect, hauriant, &c. if feeding, vorant, as swal- 
owing all whole ; when the fins of fishes are of a 
lifferent tincture from their bodies, they are then 
aid to be Jinned of such a colour, naming it, as 
I dolphin proper, Jinned or. 


Should the bearing be of any heavenly body, 
uch as a planet, Sec. your first consideration is, 
n what state or condition such phi^et appears to 


be, as the sun, whether in his meridian or eclipse; 
or the moon, whether in her increase or decrease ^ 
&c. and so suit your descriptions general in proper 
astronomical terms: for as this is a rule, all blazons 
are the more elegant when expressed in the proper 
terms of the several arts or sciences which the 
figures to be described are of, or belonging to ; so 
you must take care not to omit any armorial ter^m 
necessary to he used, as such definition is said to 
pass for blazon. Thus is the coat of St. Clere, 
azure, the sun in his meridian proper. 


When you meet with any kind of trees, or any 
vegetables, or their parts, you must observe, first, 
in what condition it seems to appear, as whether 
spread or blasted; what kind of tree, whether 
hearing fruit or not ; if a part only, what part . 
whether the trunk, branches, fruit, or leaves ,- if 
the former, whether standing or not ; if not, in 
what manner it seems to have been felled ; whe- 
ther eradicated or torn up by the roots ; see Plate 
C, n. 22. If the bearing consist of members, as 
its branches, fruit, or leaves only, whether with 
fruit, or ivithered ; or simply alone, whether slip- 
ped, as Plate H, n. 9, 10. Pendent (drooping) or 
e7'ect, which last holds good for all kinds of flowers 
or grain, when borne simply, or on their stalks. 


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i'AilT I. HERALDRY. 49 


Man, and the parts of his body, are frequently 
charges in coat-armour ; as to which these con- 
siderations follow. First, as is said of other things, 
whether he is borne wJiole, or in part ; if whole, 
in what kind of gestures or actions ; also, whether 
naked or habited ; if the latter, after what manner, 
as whether rustic ^ in armour, or in robes. 

When the temples of a man or woman are en- 
circled with laurel, oak, ivy, 8cc. you are to call 
it wreathed with laurel^ oak, im/, &c. 

Note, Having gone through the tables, and 
rules of blazon, it will be necessary to bring the 
theory into practice; which, by observing the 
following examples, the young student in armory 
will have a true knowledge of the most useful 
terms that are used in the science of heraldry. 


No. 1. Argent, on a chief gules, two mullets 
pierced or, name, St. John. 

N. 2. Argent, a fess, and in chief three lozenges 
sable, name, Aston. 

N. 3. Or, two bars azure, a chief quarterly, azure 
and gules, on the first two fleurs-de-lis, or ; the 
second, a lion passant-gardant of the last ; the 
third as the second ; the fourth as the first, 
name, Mamiers. Note, The term on thefirsty 
is to be understood on the field of the first 
quarter ; the second, is the fie^ of the second 



quarter, charged of the last; that is, of the last 

mentioned colour or metal, which is or ; the 

third as the second, the fourth as the frst, 

which signifies the third quarter like the second, 

and the fourth quarter like the first. 
N. 4. Gules, a chief argent ; on the lower part 

thereof a cloud, the sun's resplendent rays 

issuing thereout proper, name, Lceson. 
N. 5. Ermine, on a canton sable, a harp argent, 

name, Fraunces. 
N. 6. Argent, on a quarter gules, a spear in bend 

or, name, Knight, 
N. 7. Argent, on a fess sable, three mullets or, 

name, Clive, 
N. 8. Azure, a fess super-imbattled, between six 

estoils or, name, Tryan. 
N. 9. Or, on a fess, between two chevrons sable, 

three cross-croslets of the first, name, Walpole, 
Note, Of the first is of the colour or metal of the 

field, which is always first mentioned. 
N. 10. Argent, a fess and canton conjoined gules, 

name, Woodvile, 
N. 11. Ermine, three lozenges conjoined in fess 

sable, name, Pigot. 
N. 12. Ermine, on a chevron engrailed azure, 

' three estoils argent, name, Smyth. 
N. 13. Azure, on a chevron between three besants, 

as many pallets gules, name, Hope, 
N. 14. Ermine, a chevron couped sable, name, 

N. 15. Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided plain 

or, name, Dudley, 


N. 16. Sable, a chevron cotised between three 

cinquefoils, or, name, Renton. 
N, 17. Gules, a chevron between ten cinquefoils, 

four and two in chief; one, two and one in 

base argent, name, Berkley, 
N. 18. Sable, two lions'* paws issuing out of the 

dexter and sinister base points, erected chevron- 
wise, argent, armed gules, name Frampton. 
N. 19. Sable, a bend or, between six fountains 

proper, name, Stourton. 
N. 20. Argent, on a bend gules, cotised sable, 

three pair of wings conjoined and inverted of 

the first, name, Wingfield. 
N. 21. Sable, a bend norj, counter-flory argent, 

name, HigJihrd, 

N. 22. Sable, a bend and chief or, name, . 

N. 23. Argent, two bends raguled sable, the lower 

one rebated at the top, name, Wagstaff. 
N. 24. Sable, a bend of lozenges between two 

plain cotises argent, name, Puckering. 
N. 25. Argent, three bugle-horns in bend gules, 

garnished and stringed vert, name. Hunter, 
N. 26. Vert on a pale radiant or, a lion rampant 

sable, name, OHara. 
N. 27. Argent, on a pale, between two leopards' 

faces sable, three crescents or, name, . 

N. 28. Argent, a pale and chief sable, name, 

IS. 29. Sable, a key erected in pale or, between 

two pallets erminoise, name. Knot. 
N . 30. Argent, three pallets wavy gules, name, 



N. 31. Gules, three tilting spears, erect in fcss 

or, heads argent, name, Amherst, 
N. 32. Azure, three leopards' faces in pale or, 

name, Snigg. 
N. 33. Argent, on a pile engrailed azure, three 

crescents of the first, name, Dallison. 
N. 34. Sable, a pile argent, surmounted of a 

chevron gules, name, Dyxton, 
N. 35. Argent, three piles, one issuant out of the 

chief between two others reversed, and issuing 

from the base, sable, name, Huhe. 


N. 1. Sable, on a cross within a border, both 
engrailed or, five pellets, name, Greville. 

N. % Gules, a cross of lozenges between four 
roses argent, name, Packer. 

N. 3. Argent, a cross sable, edged with a tressure 
of half fleur-de-lis, between four mullets pierced 
of the second, (that is, of the second colour 
mentioned, which is sable) name, Atkins. 

N. 4. Or, a cross vert, on a bend over all gules, 
three fleurs-de-lis of the first, name, Beriuger. 

IS . 5. Azure, five escalop shells in cross or, name, 

N. 6. Sable^ a shin-bone in pale, surmounted of 
another in fess argent, name, Baines. 

N. 7. Ermine, on a cross quarter, pierced, argent, 
four mill-rinds sable, name, Tumor. 

N. 8, Part}'^ per fcss, sable and argent, a pale, 





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countcrchanged ; on each piece of the first a 
trefoil shpped of the second, name, Simeon. 

N. 9. Or, on a sal tire raguled gules, five cross- 
croslets fitchy of the first, name, Tlicli. 

N. 10. Gules, a saltire between four crescents or, 
name, Kinnard. 

N. 11. Gyrony, of four, argent, and gules, a 
saltire between as many cross-croslets, all coun- 
tcrchanged, name, Tzvisden* 

N. 12. Gules, a saltire or, over all a cross engrailed 
ermine, name. Prince, 

N. 13. Party per saltire, gules and or, in pale two 
garbs, and in fess as many roses, all counter- 
changed, name, Hilborne, 

N. 14. Sable, two shin-bones in saltire, the sinister 
surmounted of the dexter, name, Newton, 

N. 15. Gules, five marlions' wings inverted in 
saltire argent, name, Porter. 

JN. 16. Or, three closets-wavy, gules, name, 

<N. 17. Azure, two bars counter-imbattled er- 
mine, name, Burnaby, 

N, 18. Or, two bars-gemels sable, in chief, three 
pellets, name, Hildesley, 

N. 19. Argent, three bars-gemels azure, on a chief 
gules, a barrulet indented or, name, Haydon. 

N. 20. Sable, three leopards' faces jessant fleur- 
de-lis or, name, Morley, 

N. 21. Azure, a crescent between three mullets 
argent, name, Arhuthnot. 

Note, The fbllowi7ig fourteen coats are collected 
to show hozo useful the points of the escutcheon 

'• f3 


are in blazon, which the learnC7' xvill find very 
essential in his practice of this science. 

N. 22. Sable, three swords bar-wise, in pale, 
their points towards the sinister part of the 
escutcheon argent, the hilts and pommels or, 
name, Raivlyns. 

N. 23. Gules, three swords bar-wise, their points 
towards the dexter part of the shield, hilted or, 
name. Chute. 

N. 24. Gules, three swords conjoined at the 
pommels in the centre, their points extended 
mto the corners of the escutcheon argent, 
name, Stapleton, 

N. 25. Sable, three swords, their points meeting 
in base argent, hilted or, name, Paulet or 

N. 26. Or, three swords, one in fess surmounted 
of the other two in saltire, points upwards be- 
tween a dexter hand in chief, and a heart in 
base gules, name, Ewart, 

N. 27. Sable, three swords in pale, two with 
their points downward, and the middlemost 
upwards, name, Razdiiie. 

N. 28. Azure, three swords, one in pale, point 
upward, surmounted of the other two, placed 
in saltire, points downward, argent, name, 

N. 29. Sable, a fess or, between two swords; 
that in chief point upwards, the other down- 
wards, both in pale argent, hilted of the second, 
name, Gzeyn. 

N. 30. Azure, one ray of the sun issuing out of 









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PART I. HEllALDllY. 55 

the dexter corner of the escutcheon in bend 

proper, name, Aldam. 
N. 31. Azure, a pile inverted in bend, sinister or, 

name, Kagg. 
N. 32, Argent, a triple pile, flory on the tops 

issuing out of the sinister base in bend, towards 

the dexter corner sable, name, Wroton. 
N. 33. Sable, a goshawk close argent, perching 

upon a perch, fixed in base, jessed and belled 

or, name, Weele. 
N. 34. Gules, a bend wavy argent, in the sinister 

chief point, a falcon standing on a perch or, 

name, Hawkeridge. 
N. 35. Or, a dexter arm embowed, issuing from 

the sinister fess-point out of a cloud proper, 

holding a cross-croslet fitchy, azure. 


N. 1. Gules, three lions' gambs erased argent, 

name, Newdigate. 
N. 2. Party per sal tire, sable and ermine a lion 

rampant or, armed and langued gules, name, 

N. 3. Azure, the sun in his meridian, proper, 

name, St. Clere. 
N. 4. Argent, lion rampant gules, debruised by 

a fess azure, between three estoils issuing out 

of as many crescents of the second, name, 

Dillon., of Ireland. 
.N. 5. Argent, on a chevron sable, between three 

oak-leaves proper, as many bcsants, on a chief 


gules, a sea-mew between two anchors erected 

of the first, name, Monox. 
N. 6. Quarterly, first and fourth azure, a pale 

argent, second and third gules, a bend argent. 
N. 7. Sable, four pallets ermine, name, Osias 

Humphrey, Esq. R.A. 
N. 8. Or, six annulets, three, two, and one sable, 

name, Lowther. 
Note, When six things are borne, three, two, and 

one, it is unnecessary to mention their position. 
N. 9. Gules, nine arrows or, each three, two 

sal tire- wise, and one in pale, banded together 

with a ribbon, feathered and headed argent, 

name, Biest. 
N. 10. Gules, five cross-croslets, fitchy in saltire, 

between four escalop-shells in cross or, name, 

N. 11. Azure, three hautboys between as many 

cross-croslets or, name, Bourden. 
N. 12. Azure, a salamander or, in flames proper, 

name, Cennino. 
N. 13. Party per chevron, argent and gules, a 

crescent counterchanged, name. Chapman. 
N. 14. Party per saltire or, and sable, a border 

counterclianged, name. Shorter. 
N. 15. Quarterly or and azure, a cross of four 

lozenges between as many annulets counter- 
changed, name, Peacocl^. 
N. 16. Argent, a chevron gules, between three 

scorpions reversed sable, name, Cole. 
N. 17. Argent, a fess engrailed, between three 

scorpions erect sable, name, Colle, 

PART I. HERALDlir. 57 

N. 18. Sable, three scaling-ladders in bend ar- 
gent, name, Shipstowe. 

N. 19. Sable, a falcon or, his wings expanded, 

' trussing a mallard argent, on a chief of the 
latter, a cross botone gules, name, Madden. 

N. 20. Argent, on a chevron azure, between three 
trefoils slipped party per pale, gules and vert, 
as many besants, name, Row. 

N. 21. Gules, three dexter arms conjoined at the 
shoulders, and flexed in triangle or, with the 
fists clenched towards the points of the shield 
proper, name, Tremmne. 

N. 22. Gules, the trunk of a tree eradicated (up 
by the roots) and couped in pale, sprouting out 
two branches argent, name. Borough, 

N. 25. Gules, a cherub, having three pair of 
wings, whereof the uppermost and lowermost 
are counterly crossed, and the middlemost dis- 
played or, name, Buocafoco. 

N. 24. Argent, a man's heart gules, within two 
equilateral triangles interlaced, name. Villages. 

N. 25. Gules, three besants figured, name. Gamin. 

N. 26. Argent, a chevron voided azure, between 
three flames of fire proper, name. Wells. 

N. 27. Sable, a chevron rompu, enhanced between 
three mullets or, name, Sault. 

N . 28. Sable, a chevron engrailed ermine between 
three annulets argent, borne by \he Rev. Charles 
Dat^/, of One-house, Suffolk. 

N. 29. Azure, a bull's head couped affronte ar- 
gent, winged and armed or, name, Hoaht^ of 


N. 30. Or, three stars issuing out of as man^ 
crescent gules, name, Bateman, Vise. Bateman. 

N. 31. Sable, a chevron or, between three attires 
of a stag, fixed to the scalp argent, name, 
Cocks f Lord Somers. 

N. 32. Argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned 
with an imperial crown or, on a chief azure, 
three mullets of the field, name, Douglas, of 

Note, The reason of this singular charge is, thati 
one Douglas was sent on a pilgrimage to the! 
Holy Land, An. 1328, with the heart ofJRobertl 
Bruce, King of Scotland, which, by order of 
that prince, was to be and is now buried there. 

N. 33. Argent, on a bend gules, between three 
pellets, as many swans proper, rewarded with a 
canton sinister azure, thereupon a demi-ram 
mounting argent, armed or, between two fleurs- 
de-lis of the last, over all a baton dexter-wise, 
as the second in the canton ; this is the arms 
of Sir John Clarke, 

Note, The canton was the arms of the Duke of 
Longuevile, and was given as a reward to Sir 
John Clarke for his taking in lawful war Lewis 
de Orleans, Duke of Longuevile and Marquis 
of Rotueline, prisoner, at the battle of Bomy, 
near Terovane, August 16, aimo Hen. VHI. 5. 

N. 34. Azure, three sturgeons naiant in' pale 
argent, and debruised by a fret of eight pieces 
or, name, Stourgeon. 

N. 35. Or, three dice sable, each charged with an 
ace argent, name, Ambesace. 




N. 1. Argent, a saltire gules, between four wolves* 
heads couped proper, name, Outlawe. 

N. % Gules, three demi-lions rampant, a chief 
or, name, Fisher. 

^. 3. Argent, a fess sable, between three lions'* 
heads erased gules, langued azure, name Far- 

N. 4. Gules, a lion couchant between six cross- 
croslets, three in chief, and three in base bar- 
ways, argent, name, Tynte. 

N. 5. Azure, a lion passant, between three estoils 
argent, name, Burrard. 

N. 6. Argent, a chevron gules, between three 
lions passant-gardant sable, name, Cooke. 

;N. 7. Party per chevron, vert and or, in chief, a 
rose or, between two fleurs-de-lis argent; in 
base a lion rampant, regardant, azure, name, 

;N. 8. Party per pale, argent and sable, a lion ram- 
pant or, within a border of the field, engrailed 
and counterchanged, name, Chamjmcys. 

IN. 9. Argent, a lion sejant azure, between three 

N.IO. Argent, a lion saliant, in chief three pellets. 

N. 11. Gules, a lion rampant-gardant, double 
quevee (or fourchee) or, holding in his paws a 
rose branch proper, name, Masters. 

Note, The term quevee signifies the tail of a beast, 
and the term Jburchee denotes its being forked, 
as the example. 


N. 12. Or, a pale between two lions rampant sable 

name, Naylor. 
N. 13. Argent, three bars wavy azure, over all a 

lion rampant of the first, name, BulbecJc. 
N. 14. Argent, a chevron between three bucks 

tripping sable, attired or, name, Rogers. 
N. 15. Vert, a chevron between three bucks 

standing at gaze or, name, Robinson. 
N. 16. Argent, a bend engrailed azure, between 

two bucks'* heads cabosed sable, nameiNeedham. 
N. 17. Argent, three greyhounds currant in pak 

sable, collared or, name, Moore, 
N. 18. A hart cumbant upon a hill in a park paled, 

all proper, is the arms of the town of Derby. 
N. 19. Argent, three moles sable, their snouts 

and feet gules, name, Nangothan, 
N. 20. Gules, three conies sejant within a bor- 

dure engrailed argent, name, Conisbie. 
N. 21. Argent, a chevron gules, between three 

talbots passant sable, name, Talbot. 
N. 22. Or a chevron gules between three lionsiJ 

paws erased and erected sable, name, Austen, 

of Kent, Baronet. 
N. 23. Argent, two Hons' gambs erased in saltire, 

the dexter surmounted of the sinister, gules. 
N. 24. Sable, three lions' tails erect and erased 

argent, name, Corke. 
Note, The two plates E and-G are introduced to 

show the student of heraldry the concise and 

easy method (which is in practice among 

heralds, heraldic painters, and engravers) of 

tricking coats of arms. 





PART r. 





Of the abbreviations made use of in the heraldic 
sketches and blazons of plate E and G. 

o ^ 








- stands for \ Vert, 









N. 1. A, a sal tire G, between four wolves'* heads 

couped Ppr. name, Outlawe. 
N. 2. G. three demy lions couped A, a chief O, 

name, Fisher. 
N. 3. A, ij^afess S, between three lions' heads 

erased G, langued B, name, Farmer. 
N. 4. G, a lion couched between six cross-cros- 

lets, three in chief, and as many in base A, 

name, Tunte. 
N. 5. B, a lion passant, between three estoils, A, 

name Burrard. 
' N. 6. A chevron G, between three lions passant 

gardant S, name, CooJce. 


N. 7. Party per chevron, V and O, in chief a rose 

O, between two fleurs-de-Us A, in base, a lion 

rampant regardant B, name, Gideon. 

N. 8. Party per pale, A and S, within a bordure 

of the same engrailed and counter-changed, a 

lion rampant O, name, Champneys, 

N. 9. A lion sejant B, between three torteauxes. 

N. 10. A, a lion saliant Ppr. and in chief three 

N. 11. G, a lion rampant gardant double quevee 
O, holding in his paws a rose branch Ppr. 
name. Masters, 
N. 12. O, a pale between two lions rampant S, 

name, Naylor. 
N. 15. A, three bars wavy B, over all a lion 

rampant of the first name, Bulheck, 
N. 14. A, chevron between three bucks tripping 

S, attired O, name, Rogers. 
N. 15. V, a chevron between three bucks stand- 
ing at gaze O, name, Robinson. 
N. 16. A, a bend engrailed B, between two bucks' 

heads cabosed S, name, Needham. 
N. 17. A, three greyhounds currant in pale S, 

collared of the first, name, Moore. 
N. 18. A hart cumbant upon a hill in a park 
paled, all Ppr. is the arms of the town of Derby. 
N. 19. A, three moles, S, their snouts and feet 

G, name, Nangothan. 
N. 20. G, three conies', sejant, within a bordure 

engrailed A, name Conishie. 
N. 21. A, a chevron G, between three talbots 
passant S, name, Talhot. 



N. 2.^ O, a chevron G, between three lions' paws 

erased and erect S, name, Austen. 
N . So. A, two hons' gambs erased in saltire, the 

dexter surmounted of the sinister G. 
N. 24. S, three Hons' tails erect and erased A, 

name, Corke. 


N. 1. Argent, a heron volant, in fess-azure, 
membered or, between three escalops, sable, 
name, Herondori. 

N. 2, Or, three kingfishers proper, name, Fisher. 

N. 3. Or, three eagles displayed gules, name, 

N. 4<. Azure, a bend engrailed between two cy- 
gnets royal argent, gorged with ducal crowns, 
strings reflexed over their backs, or, name, Pit- 

N. 5. Azure, a pelican with wings elevated and 
vulning her breast argent between three fleurs- 
de-lis, or, name, Kempton. 

N. 6. Azure, three doves rising argent, their 
wings gules, and crowned with ducal coronets 
or, name, Baylie. 

N. 7. Argent, on a pile gules, three owls of the 
field, name, Cropley. 

N. 8. Argent, three eagles' heads erased sable, or, 
name, Yellen. 

N. 9. Argent, three peacocks in their pride proper, 
name, Pawne. 

N. 10. Or, three swallows close sable, name, 
JVatton. • 


N. 11. Azure, on a bend cotised argent, three 

martlets gules, name, Edwards. 
N. 12. Ermine, on two bars gules, three martlets 

or, name. Ward, 
N. 13. Argent on a fess between three trefoils 

azure, as many swans' heads erased of the first, 

beaked gules, name. Baker, 
N. 14. Argent, on a pale azure, three pair of 

wings conjoined and elevated of the first, name, 

N. 15. Argent, six ostrich feathers, three, two, 

and one, sable, name, Jarvis, 
N. 16. Argent, a chevron between three eagles' 

legs erased sable, their talons gules, name. 

N. 17. Azure, a dolphin naiant embowed or, on 

a chief of the second, two saltires coupt gules, 

name, Frankland. 
N. 18. Or, three dolphins hauriant embowed 

azure, name, Vandeput. 
N. 19. Sable, a dolphin naiant, vorant a fish 

proper, name, James. 
N. 20. Argent, three eels naiant in pale, sable, 
. name, Ellis. 
N. 21. Or, three chalbots hauriant gules, name, 

N. 22. Argent on a bend azure, three dolphins 

naiant of the first, name, Fraiiklyn. 
N. 23. Sable, a chevron ermine between three 

salmons hauriant argent, name, Ord. 
N. 24. Argent, a chevron engrailed sable, between 

three sea-crabs gules, name, Bridger, 





N. 1. A, a heron volant, in fess B, memberedO, 
between three escalops S, name, Herondon. 

N. 2. O, three kingfishers, Ppr. name, Fisher, 

N. 3. O, three eagles displayed G, name Eglefelde. 

N. 4. B, a bend engrailed between two cygnets 
royal A, gorged with ducal crowns, strings re- 
flexed over their backs O, name, Pitfield. 

N. 5. B, a pelican with wings elevated, and 
vulning her breast A, between three fleurs-de- 
lis O, name, Kempton. 

N. 6. B, three doves rising A, their legs G, and 
crowned with ducal coronets O, name Baylie. 

N. 7. A, on a pile G, three owls of the field, name, 

N. 8. A, three eagles' heads erased S, armed O, 
name, Yellen. 

N. 9. A, three peacocks in their pride Ppr. name, 

N. 10. O, three swallows close Ppr. name, Watton, 

N. 11. B, on a bend cotised A, three martlets G, 
name, Edwards. 

N. 12. Er. on two bars G, three martlets O, name, 

N. 13. A, on a fess between three trefoils B, as 
many swans' necks erased of the first, beaked G, 
name, BaJce^-. 

N. 14. A, on a pale B, three pair of wings con- 
joined and elevated of the first, name, Potter. 

N. 15. A, six ostrich feathers, S, name . 

•G S 


N. 16. A, a chevron between three eagles' legs 

erased a la guise (guise signifies the thigh) S, 

their talons G, name Bray, 
N. 17. B, a dolphin naiant embowed O, on a chief 

of the second, two sal tires G, name, Franklin, 
N. 18. O, three dolphins hauriant B, name, Van- 

N. 19- S, a dolphin naiant, vorant a fish Ppr. 

name, James. 
N. 20. A, three eels naiant in pale S, name, Ellis. 
N. 21. O, three chalbots hauriant G, name, 

N. 22. A, on a bend B, three dolphins of the 

first, name, Frankli/n. 
N. 23. S, a chevron Er. between three salmons 

hauriant A, name Ord. 
N. 24. A, a chevron engrailed S, between three 

sea-crabs G, name, JBridger, 


N. 1. Gules on a bend sinister, argent three 

the celestial signs, viz. Sagittarius, Scorpio, ai 

Libra, of the first. 
N. 2. Ermine three increscents gules, name, 

N. 3. Azure, the sun, full moon, and seven stars 

or, the two first in chief, the last of orbicular 

form in base, name, Johannes de Fontihiis. 
N. 4. Argent on a chevron gules, between three 

crescents sable, ,'i mullet for a difference or, 

name, IVithcrs. 



N. 5. Argent, two bars sable, between six estoiles, 

three, two, and one gules, name, Pearse, 
N. 6. Argent, issuant out of two petit clouds in 

fess azure, a rainbow in the nombril point a 

star, proper. 
N, 7. Azure, a blazing star, or comet, streaming 

in bend proper, name, Cartwright. 
N. 8. Azure, a fess dancette or, between three 

cherubim's heads argent, crined of the second, 

name, Adye. 
N. 9. Argent, three woodbine leaves, bend- wise 

proper, two, and one, name, Theme* 
N. 10. Or, three woodbine leaves pendant azure, 

name, Gamhoa. 
N. 11. Azure, issuant out of a mount in base 

three wheat-stalks bladed and eared, all proper 

name, Garzoni. 
N. 12. Or, on a mount in base, and oak acorned 

proper, name, Wood. 
N, 13. Argent, three starved branches slipped 

sable, name, Blackdock. 
N. 14. Argent, three stocks or stumps of trees, 

couped and erased sable, name, Rewiozvre. 
N. 15. Or, on a bend sable, three clusters of 

grapes argent, name, Maro'a/. 
N. 16. Gules, a bend of the limb of a tree, raguled 

and trunked argent, name, Penruddoch 
N. 17. Barry of six pieces, or and sable, over all 

a pale gules, charged with a woman's breast 

distilling drops of milk proper, name, Dodge. 
N. 18. Argent, an arm sinister, issuing out of the 

dexter point, and extended towards the bi- 


Ulster base, in form of a bend gules, name, 

N. 19. Argent, three sinister hands couped at the 

wrist gules, name, Maynard. 
N. 20. Or, a man's leg couped at the midst of the 

thigh azure, name, Haddoru 
N. 21. Sable, a chevron between three children's 

heads couped at the shoulders, argent crined or, 

enwrapped about the necks with as many snakes 

proper, name, VaugJian, 
N. 22. Argent, on a chevron gules, three men's 

skulls of the first, name, Bolter, 
N. 23. Or, a king enthroned on his seat, royal 

azure, crowned, sceptred, and invested of the 

first ; the cape of his robe ermine. These are 

the arms of the city of Seville, in Spain. 
N. 24. Gules, three demy savages, or wild men 

argent, holding clubs over their right shoulders 

or, name, Basil Wood. 


N. 1. Party per pale indented, or and gules, 

name, Birmingham, YisW^k^^ 
N. 2. Party per chevron^i«ey sable and or, three 

panthers^ heads erased counterchanged, name. 

N. 3. Party per fess dancette or and azure, two 

mullets pierced counterchanged, name. Double- 

N. 4. Party per bend crenelle, argent and gules, 

name, Boyle. 


. 5. Party per bend sinister, ermine and er- 
mines, a lion rampant or, name, Trevor. 
. 6. Party per saltire argent and or, four eagles 
in cross sable, name, Barnsdale. 
. 7. Quarterly per pale, dove-tail, gules and or, 
name, Bromley. 

8. Azure, a fess wavy argent, in chief three 
stars, name, JenJcinson. 

N. 9. Argent, a double tressure flory counter- 
flory, over alia fess imbattled, counter-imbattled 
gules, name. Miller. 

N. 10. Argent, on a fess raguly azure, three fleurs- 
de-lis or, name, Atwood. 

N. 11. Azure, two bars indented or, a chief argent, 
name, Stoner. 

N. 12. Or, a fess dancette sable, name, Vavasour. 

N. 13. Argent, on a fess engrailed gules, three 
leopards' faces or, name, Barbo7i. 

N. 14. Argent, a fess invecked, between three tor- 

N. 15. Azure, a fess nebuly, between three cre- 
scents ermine, name, Weld. 

N. 16. Azure, a saltire quarterly quartered, or 
and argent, is the arms of the episcopal see of 
Bath and Wells. 

N. 17. Or, a fess cheeky argent and azure, name, 

N. 18. Gules, a chevron counter-company argent 
and sable, between three fleurs-de-lis or, name, 

N. 19. Quarterly, first and fourth argent, a che- 
vron gules between three tor*eauxes, second 


quarterly ; first, argent a bend gules ; second, 
argent a fess azure ; third, argent a chevron 
sable ; fourth, argent a pale vert ; third, argent 
a fess between three billets gules. 

N. 20. Ermine, two flanches azure, each charged 
with three ears of wheat couped or, name, 

N. 21. Or, a buffalo's head caboshed sable, attired 
argent, through the nostrils an annulet of the 
last, ducally crowned gules, the attire passing 
through the crown, is the arms of Mecklenburg. 

N. 22. Or, a buffalo's head in profile sable, armed 
argent, ducally crowned gules, is the arms of 
the barony of Rostock in Mecklenburg. 

N. 23. Gules an arm embowed, habited to the 
wrist in armour, issuing from clouds on the 
sinister side, and holding between the finger 
and thumb a gem ring ail proper, round the 
arm at the elbow a ribbon tied azure, is the; 
arms of the county of Schwerin in Germany. ! 

N. 24. Argent, a wheel of eight spokes, gules, is 
the arms of the Bishop of Osnaburgh. 


In this science, is an orderly disposing of sundry 
coat-armours pertaining to distinct families, mar- 
shalled on account of descent, mariiage, alliance, 
gifts of the sovereign, adoption, &c. 

Such coats as betoken marriage, represent 
eithej: a match single or hereditary. By a single 
match is meant either the conjoining of the coat- 


armours of a man and woman, descended of distinct 
^amilies, in one escutcheon palewise ; the man 
jears his coat on the dexter side of the escutcheon, 
and the sinister part for the woman. See the ex- 
ample, p. 13, n. 3. 

Note, Sometimes in blazon the man and woman 
are called baro7i and/emme. Note, there are three 
rules to be observed in impaling the arms of hus- 
3and and wife. First, the husband's arms are 
always to be placed on the right side as baron, and 
the wife's on the left asjfemme. Secondly, that 
no husband can impale his wife's arms with his 
own on a surcoat of arms, ensign or banner, but 
may use them impaled on domestic utensils. 
Thirdly f that no husband impaling his wife's arms 
with his own, can surround the shield with the 
order of the garter, or with any other order. 

When a man marries an heiress and has issue 
3y her, it is in his choice whether he will still bear 
ler coat impaled, or in an escutcheon of pretence 
upon his own ; because he pretendeth (God giving 
life to such his issue) to bear the same coat of his 
wife to him and to his heirs. 

Moreover the heir of those two inheritors shall 
bear these two hereditary coats of his father and 
mother to himself and his heirs quarterly ; the 
father's in the first and fourth, the mother's in the 
second and third quarters, to show that the inhe- 
ritance, as well of the possessions, as of the coat- 
rmours, are invested in them and their posterity : 
feee p. C. n. 6. Note, If the wife be no heir, neither 
her husband nor child shall havc^ further to do 


with her coat, than to set up the same in their 
house pale-wise, to show the father's match with 
such a family. 

Concerning the bearings of several coat armours 
pale-wise in one escutcheon, (according to Gerard 
Leigh) viz. the marshalling of divers femmes with 
one baron, he says, '' If a man marry two wives, 
the first shall be placed on the sinister side of the 
cliief part, and the second's coat on the base im- 
paled with the husband," p. 13, n. 5. 


Of a man and his three wives ; the first two 
tierced in chief with his own, and the third in base, 
p. 13, n. 6. 


Of a man and his four wives ; the two first 
tierced in chief, and the third and fourth in base, 
p. 13, n. 7. 


Of a man and his five wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and 
the fourth and fifth on the sinister, p. 13, n. 8. 


Of a man and his six wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and 
the other three on the sinister, p. 13, n. 9. 



Of a man and his five wives ; his own in the^ 
middle, with his first three on the 4exter side, and 
the fourth and fifth on the sinister. P. W, n. 8. 


Of a man and his six wives ; his own in the mid- 
dle, with his first three on the dexter side, and the 
other three on the sinistm-. P. 13, n. 9. 


Of a man and his seven wives ; his own in the 
middle, with his first four on the dexter side, and 
the other three on the sinister. P. 13, n. 10. 

Note, These forms of impalings are meant of 
hereditary coats, whereby the husband stood in 
expectancy of advancing his family, through the 
possibility of receiving issue, that so those heredi- 
tary possessions of his wife might be united to his 


:li| Is to impale the arms of her late husband on the 
dexter side of the paternal coat of her ancestor 
upon a lozenge. P. 13, n. 11. 


If a maiden, or dowager lady of quality, marry 
a commoner, or a nobleman inferior to her rank 



their coats of arms must be set aside of one another 
in two separate escutcheons ; as the lady does still 
retain not only her title and rank, but even her 
maiden or widow appellation, she must therefore 
continue her arms in a maiden or widow's escut- 
cheon, which is a lozenge, placed on the sinister 
side of her husband's ; and the lady's arms orna- 
mented according to her title. See p. 18, n. 16. 


The arms of a widow, being an heiress, are to 
be borne on an escutcheon of pretence, over those 
of her late husband, in a lozenge. See p. 13, 

n 1^ or 


Of a wife and her two husbands ; "the arms of 
the first husband in chief; the arms of the se- 
cond husband in base, impaled on the dexter 
side of her own. See p. 13, n. 13. 


And whilst he remains such, he may quarter 
his paternal coat with other coats, if any right to 
him belongs; but may not impale it till he is 
married. P. 13, n. 1. 


Is to bear the coat of her anc cstor in a lozenge. 
See p. 13, n. 2. Note^ If her father did bear any 
difference in his coat, the same ought to be con- 


tinued ; for by that mark of cadency of her father's, 
will be known of what branch she is from. 

When a coat of arms, surrounded with a border, 
is marshalled pale-wise with another, then that 
part of the border which is next the other coat 
impaled with it, must be omitted. See P. 13, 
n. 14. But if a bordered coat be marshalled with 
other coats quarterly, then no part of the border 
must be omitted. See p. 13, n. 15. 


The arms of an heiress, when married, are not 
to be impaled with the arms of her husband, but 
are to be borne on an escutcheon of pretence, 
placed in the centre of the shield, as p. 13, n. 4. 
It is termed an escutcheon of pretence on account 
of its showing his pretension to her estate ; and if 
the husband has issue by her, the heir of those two 
inheritors shall bear the hereditary coats of arms of 
the father and mother quarterly. See example, 
p. C, n. 6. the first and fourth quarters containing 
the father's arms, and the second and third the 
mother's. Again, if he whose ancestor had mar- 
ried an heiress, should choose to bear the crest of 
her family in preference to that of his own, he 
certainly may do it, as being the representative of 
the lady's family. 

All co-heiresses convey also to their husbands 
a right of bearing their arms on an escutcheon of 
pretence the same as an heiress. 

Noief If all the brothers (}ic without issue, and 
leave sisters behind, as they are j:;o-inheritors of 


the land and estate, so shall they be of the coat 
armor also without any distinction at all, to 
either of them; because by them the name of the 
house cannot be preserved, they being all reckoned 
but as one heir. Carter. 

Nisbet says, anciently women of noble descent 
used to bear their father's arms on their habits in 
a lozenge shield, to show their descent, and to 
join them with those of their husbands, they bore 
them on their habits, such as mantles and Mrtlcs; 
the practice is ancient, for in old illuminate books 
of heraldry and old paintings, great ladies are re- 
presented with arms on their mantles and kirtles : 
the ancient heralds tell us, when the arms are both 
on the mantle and kirtle, they are then those of 
their fathers, and when there are arms on the 
mantle different from those on the under habit, 
the kirtle, she is then a wife ; those on the mantle 
belong to her husband, who is a cloak to shroud 
the wife from all violence, and the other on the 
Mrtle belonged to her father, accompanied or ac- 
compagnee, an ancient term for the English word 
between or betwixt, as the ordinaries when placed 
between small charges. 


Such as have a function ecclesiastical, and are 
preferred to the honour of pastoral jurisdiction, 
are said to be knit in nuptial bands of love and 
care for the cathedral churches whereof they are 
supciintcndants ; therefore, their })aternal coat is 
marshalled on the left side of the escutcheon, giv» 


ing the pre-eminence of the right side to the arms 
of their see ; as the example, p. 18, n. 13. 


When married, the arms of his wife must be 
placed in a distinct shield, because his own is sur- 
rounded with the ensign of that order ; for though 
the husband may give his equal half of the escut- 
cheon and hereditary lionour, yet he cannot share 
his temporary order of knighthood with her, ex- 
cept she be sovereign of the order. See the ex- 
ample, p. 18, n. 14. 


Is when a shield is divided into many parts, 
then it shows the bearer's alhance to several fa- 
milies : and it is to be observed, that in all mar- 
shalled arms, quarterly with coats of alliance, the 
paternal coat is always placed in the first quarter; 
as p. C, n. 6. 

Note, When a coat is borne with four or more 
quarterings, and any one or more of those quar- 
terings are again divided into two or more coats, 
then such a quarter is termed a grand quarter^ 
and is said to be quarterly, or counter-quartered. 
Plate_J^n. i^ \ C\ 

Note^ the first thit quartered arms in England 
was King Edward III. who bore England and 
^France in right of his mother Isabel, daughter and 
heir oi Philip IV, of France, and heir also to her 

• H 3 


three brothers, successively kings of France, which 
the same king afterwards changed to France and 
England upon his laying claim to the said king- 
dom ; and about the end of his reign did his sub- 
jects begin to imitate him, and quarter the arms 
of their maternal ancestors ; the first of whom is 
said to be Hastings, Earl of Pembroke. 


The arms of Sir George Beaumont, of Stough- 
ton, Leicestershire, baronet: azure, semec of,, 
fleurs-de-lis, a lion rampant or, in a canton argent, 
a sinister hand couped at the wrist and erect, 

Note^ The canton, charged with the hand, is 
the arms of the province of Ulster in Ireland, and 
was given by King James the First, as a badge or 
augmentation of honour to all baronets. It may 
be placed as in the example, p. 18, n. 15, or in an 
escutcheon, and is generally borne in the most 
convenient part of the shield, so as not to cover 
any principal charge. 


If a comnaoner marry a lady of quahty he is not 
to impale her arms with his own ; they are to be 
set aside of one another in separate shields, as the 
lady still retains her title and rank : therefore her 
arms are placed as the example, p. 18, n. 16. 




The exterior ornaments of the escutcheon are 
the helmet, manthng, wreath, crest, badge, motto, 
supporters, crown, or coronet, 


The helmet being placed at the top of the es- 
cutcheon, claims our first attention. These pieces 
of armour for the head have varied in different 
ages and countries, both in form and the mate- 
rials of which they were made : viz. those of sove- 
reign princes are of gold, those of the nobility, of 
silver ; and those of gentlemen, of polished steel. 
See Plate 10. 

First, The full-faced helmet with six bars, all of 

gold, for the sovereign and princes of the blood. 

j Second, The full-faced helmet with five bars ; 

the helmet steel, and the bars and breast part 

gold, for dukes and marquises. 

Third, A profile or side-faced helmet of steel, 
the bars, bailes, or grills, and ornaments gold, for 
earls, viscounts, and barons. 

Fourth, A full-faced helmet of steel, with its 
beaver or vizor open, for baronets and knights. 

Fifth, a profile or side-faced helmet of steel, 
with the vizor shut, for an esquire. 

Note^ If two helmets are placed on one shield, 
they are usually set face to face in imitation of the 
Germans, who sometimes place ten or more hel- 


mets on a shield, and in such case set the centre 
helmet effrontee, and those on each side looking 
towards that in the centre. 


The mantling was anciently fixed to the hel- 
met, like that now worn round the caps of our 
light dragoons. It was used as a covering or trim- 
ming which originally commanders wore over 
their helmets to defend them from the weather. 
When a commander came from the field of bat- 
tle, his mantling used to hang behind him in a 
loose, flowing, and ragged manner, occasioned by 
the many cuts he had received on his head ; there- 
fore the more hacked and cut the more honour- 
able it was accounted. 

Mantlings are now used like cloaks to cover the 
whole achievement, instead of the ancient mode 
of representing them as being coverings for the 
head, or ornaments flowing from the helmet. 

Note, According to the modernized mode of 
bearing mantles, those of the sovereigns are sup- 
posed to be of gold doubled with ermine ; those 
of the peers, crimson velvet folded, and ermine in- 
side ; and those of knights and gentlemen, crim- 
son velvet doubled with white satin. 

Mr. Edmondson (in his Complete Body of He- 
raldry) says, in the year 1760, he proposed to se- 
veral of the peers, to paint (on their carriages) 
their arms placed in mantles of crimson, with 
their edges thrown back so as to show their doub- 


lings or linings, which should be of ermine, and 
containing a number of rows of ermine spots, 
equal to those of the guards on their coronation 
robes, expressing their respective degrees : viz. 
a baron, two rozvs ; a viscount, two and a half; 
an earl, three; a marquis, three and a half; 
a duke, four, &c. 

This proposal having met with general appro- 
bation, was carried into execution, and had the 
desired effect of showing the distinction between 
the several degrees of our nobility ; after which I 
formed mantles for the knights companions of the 
several orders, taken from the mantle and robes 
which they wear at their installations. 


The wreath is placed over the helmet as a sup- 
port for the crest. It is composed of two rolls of 
silk twisted together, and of the colours or metal 
of the arms. 

Note, If one of the rolls be metal, the other 
must be of the principal colour of the arms ; but 
when therQ is no metal in the arms, then one of 
the rolls should be of the colour of the field, and 
the other part of the colour of the immediate 

Note, In the time of Henry I. and long after, 
no man, who was under the degree of a knight, 
had his crest set on a wreath ; but this, like other 

frcrogativcs, has been infringed so far, tliat every 
ody now-a-days wears a wreath. Fornetfs He- 



The crest is the highest part of the ornaments 
of a coat of arms, and is placed on the wreath. 
Anciently they were worn on the head of com- 
manders in the field, and then only in order to 
distinguish them from others by their followers. 

Note, After the institution of the order of the 
garter (and in imitation of King Edward the 
Third, who was the first King of England that 
bore a crest on his helmet) all knights companions 
of the order began to wear crests. This prac- 
tice soon became more general, until at length 
they were assumed discretionally by all those who 
considered themselves as legally entitled to bear 


Badges anciently were intended to be placed on 
banners, ensigns, caparisons, and the breast or 
shoulder of private soldiers, servants, and attend- 
ants; and that without any wreath, or other thing, 
under them. Badges were much used from the 
rei^n of King Edward the First until that of 
Queen Elizabeth, when they grew into disuse. 

Gerard Leigh says, the badge was not placed 
on a wreath in the time of Henry the Fifth ; and 
long after no man had his badge on a wreath 
under the degree of a knight. 

Notc^ The Earl of Dclawar bears the crainpette 
and impaled rose; and the Lord Abergavenny 
bears the portcullis and rose, which were ancient 


badges of their families. See examples, p. 15, 
n. 31 to 35, which were ancient badges. 


The motto, mot, word, expression, saying, or 
epigr-aph, added or appropriated to arms, not 
being hereditary, may be taken, changed, varied, 
pr relinquished, when and as often as the bearer 
thinks fit ; and may, with impunity to the assumer, 
ie the very same as is used by other families. 


Supporters are exterior ornaments, being placed 
It the sides of the escutcheon to support it. Mi- 
lestrier and others say, that supporters had their 

^in from tilts and tournaments, wherein the 
cnights caused their shields to be carried by ser- 
vants or pages under the disguise of lions, bears, 
griffins. Moors, &c. who also held and guarded 
he escutcheons, which the knights were obliged 

expose to public view some time before the lists 
rere opened. 

Supporters have formerly been taken from such 
nimals or birds as are borne in the shields, and 
ometimes they have been chosen as bearing some 
llusion to the achievements of those whose arms 
bey support. 

It doth not appear to have been customary with 
ur ancestors to change or alter their family sup- 
orters ; neither is it a practice used in our days, 
xcept in some singular instances, and then it 


hath been done under the sanction of the royal 
sign-manual, &c. 

The practice of the sovereigns of England 
granting supporters to the peers of each degree, 
seems to have commenced in the reign of Kin^ 
Henry the Eighth, as did that of granting the like 
ornaments to the arms of the knights of the gar- 
ter and of the bath. 

^ote. The royal supporters since King James 
the First have been a Lion and Unicorn. Edward 
III. first assumed, in the arms of England, the 
fleur-de-lis semee, and Henry IV. had them 
changed to three only. 

Mr. Shaw in his first Vol. of Stafibrdshire says, 
the sovereigns of England from Edward III. to 
Queen Elizabeth bore their supporters as follow : 

Edward III. A Lion and Eagle. 

Richard II. Not in the book. 

Henry IV. White Antelope and White Swan. 

Henry V. Lion and Antelope. 

Henry VI. The same. J 

Edward IV. Lion and Black Bull. ^ 

Edward V. Yellow Lion and White Lion, 

Richard III. Yellow Lion and White Boar. 

Henry VII. Lion and Red Dragon. 

Henry VIII. Lion and Silver Greyhound. 

Mary, Lion and Greyhound. 

Ehzabeth. The same. 

Gent. Mag, Sept. 1800. p. 843 

The No-v^-Scotia baronets are, by their patent 
(^r creation, allowed to carry supporters, notwith 
standing that privilege was not indulged to th' 


English baronets, at the time of the institution of 
their dignity ; some of the English baronets bear 
supporters, but it is by virtue of a royal licence 
obtained for that special purpose. 

The kings of arms in England are not author- 
ised to grand supporters to any person under the 
degree of a knight of the Bath, unless they receive 
a royal warrant directed to them for that pur- 
pose : and yet Lyon king of arms of Scotland may, 
by virtue of his office, grant supporters without 
such royal warrant, and hath frequently put that 
power in practice. 

Note^ The eldest sons of peers, above the de- 
grees of a baron, bear the father's arms and sup- 
porters with a label, and use the coronet belong- 
ing to their father's second title, if he has one ; 
but all younger sons bear their arms with proper 
differences, but use no coronets or supporters. 

Crowns are used as an ornament which empe- 
rors, kings, and independent princes, set on their 
heads in great solemnities ; both to denote their 
sovereign authority, and to render themselves 
more awful to their subjects. 




The Grown of England, with which the kings 
of England are crowned, is called St. Edward's 
crown. It is made in imitation of the ancient 
crown supposed to have been worn by that mon- 
arch, and which was kept in the abbey church of 
Westminster till the beginning of the late civil 
wars in the reign of King Charles the First, when, 
with the rest of the regalia it was taken away^ 
and sold in 1642. This very rich imperial crown 
of gold was made against the coronation of King 
Charles the Second ; and it is embellished with 
pearls and precious stones of divers kinds, as dia- 
monds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires ; and hath 
a mound of gold on the top of it, enriched with a 
band or fillet of gold, embellished also with pre- 
cious stones. Upon the mound is a cross of gold, 
embellished likewise with precious stones, and 
three very large oval pearls, one of them being 
fixed on the top, and two others pendent at the 
ends of the cross. It is composed (as all the im- 
perial crowns of England are) of four crosses pat- 
tee, and as many fleurs-de-lis of gold placed on a 
rim or circlet of gold, all embelHshed with pre- 
cious stones. From those cvosses arise four circular 
bars, or arches, which meet at the top in form of 

rf E/iy/r//u/ 


a. cross, at the intersection whereof is a pedestal 
whereon is affixed the mound aforementaoned. 
The cap within this crown is of purple velvet, 
lined with white taffeta, and turned up with er- 

N. B. This crown (called St. Edward's) is never 
altered, but remains the same for the crowning of 
every succeeding king or sovereign of Great Bri- 
tain for the time coming. The jewels and other 
precious stones, wherewith it is embellished for 
the time of the coronation, are taken out of the 
crown of state and fixed in collets, and pinned 
into this crown, called St. Edward's. After the 
coronation is over, the aforesaid jewels and dia- 
monds are taken out and replaced with mock 
stones to represent the real ones. See Regalia, 
Plate l.n.l. 

The crown of state is exceedingly rich, being 
lembellished with divers large rose or faucet, and 
table diamonds, besides a great quantity of pearl ; 
but it is most remarkable for a wonderful large 
ruby set in the middle of one of the four crosses, 
and esteemed to be worth ten thousand pounds ; 
as also for that the mound is one entire stone of a 
sea-water green colour, known by the name of an 
agmarine. The cap is of purple velvet, lined and 
turned up as the former. See Plate Regalia, p. 1, 
n. ^. 


No. 1. The Crown, wherewith the Queen was 


No. S. The Crown which the Queen wore in 
her return to Westminster-hall. 

No. 3. The Curtana, or Sword of Mercy, the 
blade f32 inches long and near two broad, is with- 
out a point, and is borne naked before the King at 
his coronation, between the Swords of Justice, 
spiritual and temporal. I 


No. 1. The golden Sceptre with its Cross, set 
upon a large amethyst, of great value, garnished 
round with table diamonds. The handle of the 
Sceptre is spiral, but the pummel is set round with 
rubies, emeralds, and small diamonds. The top 
rises into a fleur-de-lis of six leaves, all enriched 
with precious stones, from whence issueth a mound 
made of the amethyst already mentioned. The 
Cross is decorated with precious stones ; length of 
the Sceptre, 33 inches. 

No. 2. The Sceptre with the Dove, the emblem 
of Peace, perched on the top of a Jerusalem 
Cross, ornamented with diamonds ; length of the 
Sceptre, 43 inches. This emblem was first used 
by Edward the Confessor^ as appears by his seal. 
It is also marked on the seals of Henry I. Stephen 
and Henry II. but omitted by Richard I. Rich- 
ard II. assumed it again on his seal; and it was 
also used by Edward IV. and Richard III. ; the 
ancient one was, with the rest, sold in 1642 by 
order of the then parliament ; this now in the 
Tower was not made till after the Restoration of 


King Charles: the length of the Sceptre, 43 

No. 3. St. Edward's Staff, in length 55 inches 
and a half, and three inches and three quarters in 
circumference, all of gold : this Sceptre is carried 
before the King at his coronation. 

No. 4. This Sceptre Queen Mary wore in pro- 
ceeding to her coronation with her consort the 
late King William : length of the Sceptre, 34 

No. 5. An ivory Sceptre, with a Dove on the 
top, made for the late King James the Second's 
Queen ; it is ornamented in gold, and the Dove 
on the top gold, enamelled white : length of the 
Sceptre, 37 inches. 

No. 6. The King's Coronation Ring. 

No. 7. The Queen's Coronation Ring. 

No. 8. The golden Orb or Globe, put into the 
King's right hand before he is crowned; and 
borne in his left, with the Sceptre in his right, 
upon his return into Westminster-hall after he is 
crowned. It is about six inches in diameter, 
edged with pearl, and enriched with precious 
stones. On the top is an amethyst of a violet co- 
lour, near an inch and a half in height, set upon a 
rich cross of gold, adorned with diamonds, pearls, 
and precious stones. 

No. 9. The Queen's Circle, worn in proceeding 
to her Coronation. 


Coronet, from the Italian coronetta, a little 
crown or chaplct. 



The coronet of the Prince of Wales, as heir ap- 
parent of the crown of Great Britain, according 
to a warrant of King Charles the Second, dated 
19th of Feb. 1660, is a circle or fillet of gold re- 
levated with four crosses patt^e, and as many 
fleurs-de-lis ; and from the two crosses pattee arise 
two semicircular bars, conjoined by a pedestal, 
and surmounted with a mound, thereon a cross 
pattee ; the whole being enriched with jewels and 
precious stones ; and within it is a lining, or cap 
of crimson velvet, turned up with ermine. See 
p. 9, n. 2. 

Note^ For the coronets of peers of Great Bri- 
tain, see Crowns and Coronets in the Dictionary 
of Terms, Part II. 


By the following rules may be known, upon 
sight of any hatchment, what the person was when 
living, whether a private gentleman, or a noble- 
man, by the coronet ; whether a married man, 
bachelor, or widower ; or whether a married wo- 
man, maid, or widow, &c. 


When a bachelor dies, his arms and crest are 
painted single or quartered, but never impaled ; 
the ground of the hatchment under the shield is 
all black. 


When a maiden dies, her arms (but no crest) 




must be placed in a lozenge, and may be single 
or quartered, with the ground under the escut- 
cheon all black as the former. 


When a married man dies, his arms are impaled 
with his wife's, the ground of the hatchment under 
his side of the shield in black, the ground under 
his wife's side in white ; the black side signifies 
the husband to be dead, and the white side de- 
notes the wife to be living. 


When a married woman dies, her arms are im- 
paled with her husband's (but no crest), the 
ground of the hatchment under her side of the 
shield is black, that of her husband white; which 
signifies the wife to be dead, and the husband 


When a widower dies, his arms are impaled 
with those of his deceased wife, with his crest ; 
the ground of the hatchment to be all black. 


When a widow dies, her arms arc impaled with 
her husband's in a lozenge (but no crest), the 
ground of the hatchment to be all black. 


When a man is the last of a family, the death's 
head supplies the place of a crest, denoting that 
death has conquered all. 

When a woman is the last of a family, her arms 
are placed in a lozenge, with a death's head on 
the top. 














ISlote, P. standi Jbr Plate, T. for Table, n, fyr 

Plates in Part Second, Tables in Part First. 


Abatements are certain marks of disgrace 
added to arms for some ungenteel action com- 
mitted by the bearer : but as there is not an in- 
stance of such dishonourable bearings in the 
present English coats of arms, we shall not 
msert them ; especially, as no person is obliged to 
make use of arms, it cannot be supposed that any 
one would voluntarily exhibit a mark of infamy 
to himself and family. 


Accidents of Arms. Edmondson says, they 
have no meaning in blazonry, although frequently 
mentioned by authors, who affirm them to be no 
more than the strictures and marks of differences. 

AccoMPAGNEE, an ancient term for the word 
between or betwixt. 

Accosted signifies side by side, as Guillim 
blazons the arms of Harman ; viz. Azure, a che- 
vron, between six rams, accosted, counter-tripping, 
two, two and two. See T. 9, n. 10. 

Accrued signifies a tree full-grown. 

AcoRNED. This term is for an oak-tree with 
acorns on it. 

Adder: the apparatus of its poison is very 
similar to that of the rattlesnake, and all the other 
poisonous serpents. The symptoms that follow 
the bite are an acute pain in the wounded part, 
with a swelling, at first red, but afterwards livid, 
which by degrees spreads to the adjoining parts, 
with great faintness, and a quick, though low, 
and sometimes interrupted, pulse ; great sickness 
at the stomach ; sometimes pain about the navel. 
The most esteemed remedy is common salad oil 
thoroughly rubbed on the wounded part. This 
is always used by the viper-catchers. Gules an 
adder no*wed, or, name, Nathiley. 

Addorsed signifies beasts, &c. turned back to 
back. T. 9, n. 7. Two lions rampant addorsed. 

Adumbration is the shadow only of any fi- 
gure, outlined and painted of a colour darker 
than the field. 

Affronte' for a savage's head full-faced. P. 
13, n. 24. 


Aisle, winged, or having wings. 

Alant, was a mastiff dog with short ears. It is 
one of the supporters to the arms of Lord Dacres. 

Allerion is an eagle without beak or feet ; 
so termed as having nothing perfect but its body, 
wings, and tail. T. 8, n. 6. 

Alternate signifies the positions of quarter- 
ings, partitions, and other figures, that succeed 
one another by turns. 

Amethyst ; the name of a precious stone of 
a violet colour, and formerly used in blazoning 
instead of purpure. 

Amphisien Cockatrice. See Basilisk. 

Anchor is the emblem of Hope, and taken for 
such in a spiritual as well as a temporal sense ; 
Hope being, as it were, the anchor which holds 
us firm to our faith in all adversities. P. 12, n. 
10. Gules, an anchor in pale argent, the timber 
theieof or^ name, Goodrood. 

Anchored or Ancred, a cross so termed ; as 
the four extremities of it resemble the flook of an 
anchor. P. 4, n. 33. 

Angles, two angles interlaced saltirewise ; at 
each end an annulet. P. 13, n. 3. Note^ Tlirce 
pairs of these are borne by the name of Wastlcy. 

Anime'. See Incensed. 

Annulet, a ring. Leigh supposes annulets to 
be rings of mail, which was an armour of defence 
long before the hardness of steel was invented. 
When Julius Caesar landed in this island, iron 
j'ings were used instead of money. Mordon, The 



Romans by the ring represented liberty and no- 
bility, and by its circular form signified strength 
and eternity, T. 7, n. 5. 

Anshent or Ancient, a small flag or streamer, 
set up on the stern of a ship, or on a tent. 'Note, 
The guidon used at funerals was called an anshent. 

Ant. All the species of ants known in this 
country are gregarious, and, like the bees, consist 
of males and females, and neuters, of which the 
latter are alone the labourers. They build their 
nest in the ground, in which there are various 
apartments and passages. In forming the nest 
every individual assists. 

Ante, or Ente, ingrafted, or pieces let one 
into another, like dove-tail. See Flate J, n. 7. 

Antelope is an animal of the deer kind; his 
horns are almost straight, tapering gradually 
from his head up ; a long and slender neck, feet, 
legs, and body, like a deer. It inhabits moun- 
tainous countries, where they bound among the 
rocks with so much Hghtness and elasticity as to 
strike the spectator with astonishment. The 
eyes of the antelope are the standard of perfection 
in the East ; to say of a fine woman, that " she 
has the eyes of an antelope," is the highest com- 
pliment that can be paid her. Bingley's An. 
Biog. T. 7, n. 21, and n. 22, is termed an 
heraldic antelope. 

Anvil, P. 20, n. 6. Parti/ per chevron, argent 
and sable, three anvils, counterchanged ; name, 
Smith, of Abingdon, Berks. 


Apaumee is the hand open, with the full palm 
appearing, the thumb and fingers at full length. 
See p. 7, n. 32 and 33. 

A FREE is an heraldic figure, drawn like a bull, 
except that the tail is short, and without testicles. 
It is the sinister supporter to the arms of the 
Russia Merchants' Company. 

Auch-Duke's Crown is closed at the top by 
a scarlet cap, encompassed with a circle of gold 
adorned with eight strawberry-leaves, and closed 
by two circles of gold set with pearls, meeting in 
a globe crossed like the emperor's. P. 8, n. 16. 

Arch, gules, three single arches argent, their 
capitals and pedestals or, name, Arches. P. 18, n. 3. 

Argent is the French word for silver, and in 
heraldry is white. Note, Silver was formerly 
used, but, from its soon turning black, white was 
instituted. T. 2. Argent, in heraldry, signifijes 
purity and innocence. 

Armed signifies the horns, hoofs, beak, or ta- 
lons, of any beast or bird of prey (being their 
weapons), when borne of a different tincture from 
those of their bodies ; saying, armed so and so. 

Arming-Bugkle, a buckle in the shape of a 
lozenge. See P. 17, n. 9. 

Armory, one branch of the science of heraldry, 
consisting in the knowledge of coat-armours, as to 
their blazons and various intendments. 

Arms are hereditary marks of honour and de- 
scent, composed of certain tinctures and figures, 
either assumed, or else granted by authority, to 
distinguish persons, famUies, and communities. 


Arm Eeect, couped at the elbow. P. 13, n. 17. 

Arm in Armour, embowed proper, couped at 
the shoulder, grasping an arrow. P. 13, n. 22. 

Arms. Three dexter arms conjoined at the 
shoidders, and Jiexed in triangle y with the fists 
clenched. P. 13, n. 2. Philipot says, three arms 
conjoined was the hieroglyphic of concourse or 
consent in action. Guillim says, the arms and ! 
fists clenched, signify a treble offer of revenge for 
some injury done to the person, or fame of the 
first bearer. 

Arms. Two arms in armour, embowed, sup- 
porting a pheon. P. 13, n. 23. 

Arrache. See Erased. 

Arrondie signifies round or circular. See P. 
6, n.31. 

Arrow, barbed and feathered. P. 1, n. 8. 
Vert an arrffw in pale oTy barbed and feathered^ 
argent, name. Standard, Note, It was a custom 
amongst the Persians, when they went to war, for 
every man to cast an arrow into a chest provided 
for the purpose, and placed before the throne of 
their king; and, at their return, every one to 
take his own shaft, that so, by the number of 
arrows remaining, the number of the deceased 
might be certainly known. Guillim. 

Arrows, when in bundles, are termed sheaves 
of arrows. 

Aspersed, by some authors used instead of 
strewed or powdered. 

Ass is the lively emblem of patience, and is 
not without some good qualities, for of all animals 


that are covered with hair, he is least subject to 
vermin ; he seems also to know his master, and 
can distinguish him from all other men ; he has 
good eyes, a fine smell, and an excellent ear. P. 
11, n. 7. Argent^ a fess between three asses 
passant, sable, name, AsJcewe. In the time of 
Homer, Dacier says, an ass was not in such cir- 
cumstances of contempt as in ours. The name of 
that animal was not then converted into a term of 
reproach, but it was a beast upon which kings and 
princes might be seen with dignity, Pope^s Iliad. 

Ass IS signifies sitting, or sejant: the example 
is, A Lion assis affronte, or sejant gardant qfr 
fronte. P. 14, n. 6. 

AsTRoiDEs. See Mullet. 

Assyrian Goat. See Indian Goat. 

Atchievement, commonly called Hatch- 
ment, is the arms of some person or family borne 
together with all the exterior ornaments of the 
shield, as helmet, mantle, crest, motto, &c. of a 
person deceased, painted on canvas, and fixed 
against the wall of his late dwelling-house to 
denote the death. 

Athelstan's Cross. Party per saltire, gules 
and azure, on a besant, a cross botone or. This 
was the banner of Athelstan, who expelled the 
Danes, subdued the Scots, and reduced this 
country to one monarchy. P. 16, n. 14. 

Attired signifies the horns of a stag, buck, 
goat, bulls, unicorns, rams, &c. l^ote. When of 
.diflerent tinctures from their bodies, it must be 

• k3 


Attires. A term for the horns of a stag or 

Attires of a Stag are both the horns affixed 
to the scalp. P. 14, n. 33. 

AvELLANE, a Cross so called because the quar- 
ters of it resemble a filbert nut. T. 6, n. 7. 

Augmentations signifies a particular mark 
of honour, borne either on an escutcheon, or a 
canton, as the baronets of England. See p. 18. 
n. 15. Note, When augmentations are borne on 
a chief, fess, canton, or quarter, the paternal coat 
keeps its natural place, and is blazoned first. See 
the arms o^ Manners, Plate A, n. 3. 

Aylets, or Sea Swallows, represented sable, 
beaked and legged, gules ; some term them Cor- 
nish Choughs. 

Azure is the colour blue, and in engraving this 
colour is expressed by horizontal lines from the 
dexter to the sinister side of the shield. See T. % 


Badger. The address and courage with which 
it defends itself against beasts of prey, have caused 
it to be baited with dogs as a popular amusement; 
and on such occasions, though naturally of an in- 
dolent disposition, he makes the most vigorous ex- 
ertions and sometimes inflicts desperate wounds. 
A Badger is the Crest of Brooks. See P. 20, 
n. 13. 

Badges. See Badt?es, page 82. See P. 15, 
n. 31 to 35. 


Bag of Madder. This is a charge in the 
Dyers' arms. P. 3, n. 1. 

Baillonne signifies a lion rampant, holding a 
staff in his mouth. P. 15, n. 15. 

Balista. See Sweep. 

Ball-Tasselled, p. SO, n. 12. Argent, a 
chevron, between three halls sable, tasselled 07\ 
name, Ball, of Devonshire. 

Ball, fired proper. See Fire-Ball. 

Bande'. See Bend. 

Banded ; when any thing is tied round with 
a band of a different tincture from the charge, 
as a garb, or wheat-sheaf, a sheaf of arrows, it is 
said to be banded : for example, A garb azure, 
banded or. 

Banner, a square flag, standard, or ensign, 
carried at the end of a lance. 

Banner, disveloped; this term is used for an 
ensign, or colours, in the army, being open and 
flying, as P. 5, n. 1, 

Bar is less than the fess, and is a diminution, 
containing a fifth part of the field, and is borne 
in several parts of the field, whereas the fess is 
confined to the centre. T. 4, n. 14. 

Barbed. This term is used when the green 
leaves or petals which appear on the outside 
of a full-blown rose, are in heraldry called 

Barbed Arrow, an arrow whose head is 
pointed and jagged. 

Barbed and Crested, a term for the comb 
and gills of a cock, particularly if of a diffeient 


tincture from the body. The usual term is, 
combed and wattled. 

Barbed, or Barbee, a cross so termed, as its 
extremities are like the barbed irons used for 
striking of fish. P. 6, n, 14. 

Bar-Gemel, from the Latin getnelli, twins, 
and signifies a double bar, or two bars placed 
near and parallel to each other. T. 7, n. 16. 

Baron and Femme is used in blazoning the 
arms of a man and his wife marshalled together 
side by side. Baron expresses the husband's 
side of the shield, which is the dexter, femme 
the sinister. See P. 13, n. 3. 

Baron's Coronet. See Crowns and Coro- 

Barnacle, a large water-fowl resembling a 
goose; and by the Scots called a Cleg Goose. 
P. 5, n. 11. The barnacle hath a flat broad bill, 
with a hooked point ; the fore part of the head is 
white, with a bead of black between the eyes ; 
the neck and fore part of the breast are black, 
the belly is white and brown, the thighs blackish, 
the back black and brown, the tail black, the 
wings black, brown, and ash colour. Argent, a 
Jess, hetxveen three harnacleSj sable, name, Sir 
William Bernack, of Leicestershire. 

Barnacles are instruments to curb unruly 
horses. P. 2, n. 35. Argent, three barnacles 
gtdes, name, Barnack, of Leicestershire. 

Barrulet is a diminutive, and the fourth of 
the bar, or twentieth part of the field. T. 4, n, 


Barruly. See Barry. 

Barry is a field divided by horizontal lines 
into four, six, or more equal parts counter- 
changed, and is termed Barry of six, eight, ten, 
or twelve; it being necessary to specify the 
number. T. 5, n. 19. Barry of six, or, and 
azure, name. Constable, 

Barry-Bendy is a field equally divided into 
four, six, or more equal parts by lines, from the 
dexter chief to the sinister base, and from side to 
side interchangeably varying the tinctures. P. 3, 
n. 20. 

Barry-Bendy Sinister, by some authors 
termed Barry Indented, See P. 3, n. 19. 

Barry-indented, or harry of six, argent and 
sable indented one in the other, name, Gise. P. 
3, n. 19. 

Barry-Pily of eight pieces gules, and or, 
name, Holland. T. 5, n. 20. 

Base is the bottom or lower part of the shield, 
marked with the letters G, H, I. See T. 1. 

In Base, is the position of any thiug placed in 
the lower part of the shield. See p. B, n. 33. 

Basilisk, heraldic, an imaginary animal, re- 
presented like the fictitious heraldic cockatrice, 
and with the head of a dragon at the end of its 
tail. It is called the Amphisien Cockatrice, from 
having two heads. P. 5, n. 13, 

Basket. See Winnowing Basket. 

Basnet, a name anciently used for a helmet ; 
' argenty a chevron, gules, between three helmets 
proper, name, Basnet, 


Bat. See Rere Mouse. 

Battering-Ram ; an ancient engine made of 
large pieces of timber, fastened together with iron 
hoops, and strengthened at one end with an iron 
head, and horned with the same like a ram, from 
whence it took its name. It was hung up by 
two chains, and swung forwards and backwards, 
by numbers of men, to beat down the walls of a 
besieged town or city. The battering-ram was 
invented by Epeus, at the taking of Troy. Fuller. 
P. 18, n. 7. Argent, three battering-rams, bar- 
wise proper., headed azure, armed and garnished 
m\ name, Bertie, 

Battle-Axe was a weapon anciently used in 
war, having an axe on the one side, whence it 
takes the name, and a point on the other ; as also 
a point at the end, so that they could thrust or 
cleave ; of great service then, when swords would 
not do execution upon armour, whereas these, 
with their weight and a strong arm, broke through! 
all. P. \% n. 21. Argent three battle-axes sable, 
name. Gyves or Hall. Hanway says, the battle- 
axe is one of the most ancient weapons among 
the Orientals, but it had been for some years neg- 
lected. In Persia, Nadir Shah restored the use of 
it in a more particular mminer : it was his favourite 
weapon; insomuch, that before he assumed the 
diadem, he was generally styled axe-khan. After- 
wards, he was often seen with a battle-axe in his 
hand, playing with it in his tent of audience. 

Battled Arrondie signifies the battlement 
to be circular on the top. 


Battled-Embattled is one battlement upon 
another, and is a line of partition. P. 7, n. S8. 

Batton, or Baston, signifying a staff or 
truncheon in heraldry, is generally used as a 
rebatement on coats of arms to denote illegitimacy. 
T. 4, n.l2. 

Beacon. In ancient times, upon the invasion 
of an enemy, beacons were set on high hills, with 
an iron pot on the top, wherein were pitch, hemp, 
&c. which, when set on fire, alarmed the country, 
and is called a beacon from its beckoning the 
people together. In the eleventh year of the 
reign of Edward III. every county in England 
had one. P. 2, n. 16. 

Note, Prior to king Edward, the fire-beacons 
were made of large stacks of wood. Guillim, 
Sable three beacons fired or, flames proper, name, 

Beaked. A term for the bills of birds, when 
borne of a different tincture from their bodies. 

Bear is a fierce creature, naturally slothful, 
heavy, and lumpish, but withal bold and daring ; 
they are inhabitants of the forests in the northern 
regions of Europe, and are also found on some of 
the Indian islands: they vary much in colour, 
some being brown, others black, and others gray. 
The brown bear lives on vegetables, and the 
black on animal food, which they destroy, suck- 
ing the blood. P. 14, n. 9. Or, a bear passant 
sable, name, Fitzourse. 

Bearing. See Charges. 

Beaver is that part of the helmet which de- 


fends the sight, and opens in the front of the 

Beaver is the only animal among quadrupeds 
that has a tail covered with scales, serving as a 
rudder to direct its motions in the water. It is 
singular in its conformation, as having, like birds, 
but one and the same vent for its natural dis- 
charges. Beavers are industrious and laborious ; 
they erect their houses near the shore, in the 
water collected by means of a dam; they are 
built on piles, and are either round or oval. In 
case of floods they frequently make two or three 
stories in each dwelling; they collect a magazine 
of winter provisions, and appoint an overseer in 
tlie society, who gives a certam number of strokes 
with his tail, as a signal for repairing to particular 
places, either for mending defects, or at the ap- 
proach of an enemy. Argmt, a beaver erected 
sabky devouring a fish proper, armed gules ; this 
coat is in a window of New-inn Hall, London. 
P.H, n.9. 

Bebally, an ancient term for party per pale. 

Bee-iiive. Bees are the most wonderful and 
profitable insects yet known; they have three 

1)roperties of the best kind of subjects; they 
:eep close to their king; are very industrious for 
their livelihood, expelling all idle drones ; they 
will not sting any but such as first provoke them. 
In heraldry, they represent industry. Argent^ a. 
heC'h'we beset with bees, diversely volant, sable ^ 
\\m\G,llooe. P. 11, n. 21. 


The calf J the goosey the bee ; 
The world is ruled, by these three. 

meaning parchment y penSy and wax. 

Note. The bee, among the Egyptians^ was the 
hieroglyphic of a prince managing the administra- 
tion and conduct of his kingdom and pubhc affairs. 

Belic. See Gules. 

Belled, having bells affixed to some part. 
See the example, A hazch rising jessed and belled. 
T. 9, n. 20. 

Bellows, P. 20, n. 9. Argent, three pair of 
bellows sable, name Scipton. Strabo says the 
inventor of bellows was Anacharsis. 

Bells are used as the proclaimers of joyful 
solemnity, and designed for the service of God, 
by calling the people to it. P. 17, n. 23. Sable, 
a Jess ermine, between three church-bells argent, 
is the arms of Bell, Note, In heraldry they are 
termed church-bells, to distinguish them from 
those which are tied to the legs of hawks or fal- 
cons. In ancient times, it was a custom to sprinkle 
bells with holy water at their being first placed in 
the tower of the church, to give them a power of 
repelling evil spirits from the church by their 

Bexd is an ordinary formed by two diagonal 
lines drawn from the dexter chief to the sinister 
base, and contains the third part if charged ; and 
uncharged, the fifth of the field ; it is supposed to 
represent a shoulder-belt, or a scarf T. 4, n. 5. 

Bend-Sinister is that whicl^ comes from the 


sinister chief to the dexter base, or from left to 
right. T. 4, n. 10. 

Party peK, Bend Sinister, argent and gules. 
P.16, n.l. 

In Bend is when things borne in arms are 
placed diagonally, from the dexter chief to the 
sinister base. See T. 10, n. 18. and P. A. n. 25. 

Bends enhansed. See Enhansed. 

Per Bend is when the field, or charge, is 
equally divided by a line drawn diagonally from 
the dexter chief to the sinister base; party per 
hend, or and vert, name Hawley. T. 3, n. % 

Bendy is when a field, or charge, is divided 
bendways into four, six, eight, ten, or more equal 
parts diagonally. Bendy qfsix^ argent and azure, 
name John de St. Philibert. T. 5, n, 18, a bor- 
der bendy, p. 3, n. 15. 

Bendlet is one of the first of the diminutives 
of the bend, and is in size half the breadth of a 
bend. T. 4, n. 6. 

Besants, or Bezants, are pieces of gold with- 
out any impression, and were the current coin of 
old Byzantium, now called Constantinople (the 
value of one being 375?. sterling, according to 
Kent in his abridgment of Guillim), and sup- 
posed to liave been introduced in arms by those 
who were in the holy war. T. 8, n. 9. 

ISlote, Roundles are so called, either wlien 
particoloured, or colour not known. 

Besca, a spade or shovel. 

Bezanty, a Cross, being composed of bezants. 
P. 4, n. 18. ^ 


Billets are oblong squares, by somo taken for 
bricks, but generally supposed to be letters made 
up in that form. T. 8, n. 4. 

BiLLETTY signifies a field {charge or support- 
ers) strewed with billets when they exceed ten, 
otherwise their number and position must be 

BiRD-BOLT, a small arrow with three heads, 
as the example, P. % n. 27. Note, This arrow 
or bolt was discharged from a cross-bow. 

BiRD-BOLT, with a blunt head. P. % n. 26. 
Gules three hird-bolts argent, name Bottlesham. 
Note, Bird-bolts are often represented in armory 
with two or three heads ; therefore the number of 
heads must always be mentioned. 

Bladed ; this term is for the stalk or blade 
of any kind of grain or corn, represented in 
arms, borne of a different colour from the ear, or 

Blazon. Mr. Nisbet observes in his Treatise 
upon Cadency, this term is from the German 
word Blasen, which signifies the blowing of a 
horn, and introduced in heraldry, from an ancient 
custom the heralds had of blowing a horn at justs 
and tournaments, when they explained and re- 
corded the achievements of the knights sporters. 

To Blazon is to express in proper terms all that 
belongs to coats of arms. 

Blue-bottle is a flower of the cyanus. P. 5, 
n. 20. Argent a chevron, gules between three 
blue-bottles or, slipped vert, name Cherley. 

Boar, though void of horns, is an absolute 


champion; for he hath weapons, which are his 
strong and sharp tusks, also his target to defend 
himself, for which he useth often to rub his 
shoulders and sides against trees to harden them 
against the stroke of his adversary. Boars, while 
young, live in herds, for the purpose of mutual 
defence ; but the moment they come to maturity, 
they walk the forests alone and fearless. They 
seldom attack unprovoked, but dread no enemy, 
and shun none. P. 14, n. 20. Argent a hoar 
passant J gules armed or, name Trewartlten. 

Bolt and Tun is a bird-bolt in pale piercing 
through a tun, as P. 1, n. 22. 

Bonnet, a cap of velvet worn within a coronet. 

BoR DER or BoRDURE. Bordcrs were anciently 
used for the distinguishing one part of a family 
from the other, descended of one family and from 
the same parents. When used as a distinction of 
houses, the border must be continued all round 
the extremities of the field, and should always 
contain the fifth part thereof. T. 5, n. 9. 

Note, If a coat be impaled with another, either 
on the dexter or sinister side, and hath a border, 
the border must finish at the impaled line, and 
not be continued round the coat. See an exam- 
ple P. 13, n. 14; also P. 16, n. 5. 

In blazon, borders always give place to the 
chief, the quarter, and the canton : as for exam- 
ple, argent, a border ingrailed, gules, a chief 
azure : and therefore the chief is placed over the 
border, as the quarter and canton likewise are. 
In coats charged with a chief, quarter, or canton. 



the border goes round the field until it touches 
them, and there finishes ; but, in respect to all 
other ordinaries, it passes over them. 

Plate. N'' 

Border Enaluron, - - - 3 9 

Border Enurney, - - - 3 10 

Border Quarterly, - - - 3 11 

Border Verdoy, - - - 3 12 

Border Entoyre, - - - 3 13 

Border Diapered, - - - 3 14 

Border Bendy, - - - - 3 15 

Boss of a bit, as borne in the arms of the lo- 
rimers' or bitmakers' company. P. 1, n. 23. 

BoTEROLL, according to the French heralds, 
is a tag of a broad-sword scabbard, and is esteemed 
an honourable bearing. See P. 1, n. 24. 

'Note, The crampet, which is the badge of the 
Right Hon. Earl De la War, was meant for the 
same ornament of the scabbard. See the two ex- 
amples, P. 1, n. 20, and n. 24. 

BoTONNY, or BoTONE, A Cross. This term 
is given because its extremities resemble the tre- 
foil. T. 6, n. 8. 

Bottom. See P. 5, n. 19- Argent, three bot- 
toms, in Jess gules, the thread or, name, Hohy, 
of Badland. 

BouRCHiER Knot is a knot of silk tied as the 
example P. 15, n. 34. Such a knot is borne as 
a crest of Wake, Bart. 

Bowen's Knot, see P, 3, n. 7. Gules, a 

• l3 


chevron^ between three such knots, argent^ name 
Bow en. 

Bows. See P. 15, n. 29. Ermine three hows 
bent in pale gules, name Bowes. 

Herodotus says, the Scythians were the in- 
ventors of bows and arrows. 

Brasses are sepulchral engravings on large or 
small brass plates let into slabs in the pavement 
of ancient churches; pourtraying the effigies of 
illustrious persons ; the greater part of the figures 
are as large as life. The various colours for the 
dresses, armours, and coats of arms, in many in- 
stances, were laid on in enamel ; the attitudes well 
drawn ; and the lines of the dresses are made out 
with a precision and truth of imitation surprising. 
We refer for proof to the abbey church of St. 
Alban's, and St. Margaret's church, King's Lynn. 

Braced, Jjetted or interlaced, signifies figures 
of the same sort interlacing one another, as the ex- 
ample. Azure, three chevronels interlaced in base, 
and a chief or, name Fitz-Hugh, P. 7, n. 30. 

Brassarts, the armour for the elbow. 

Brassets, pieces of armour for the arms. 

Breast-plate. See Cuirass. 

Bretesse is embattled on both sides equal to 
each other. See an example P. 13, n. 6. 

Bridge, Or, on a bridge of three arches in Jess 
gules, masoned sable, the streams transjluent pro^ 
per, a fane argent, name Trowbridge of Trow- 
bridge. This seems to have been given to the 
bearer as an allusion to his name, quasi Through' 
bridge, with respect to the current and fall of 


the streams passing through the arches. P. 16, 
n. 22. 

Brigandine or Brigantine. See Haber- 

Brimsey. See Gad Fly. 

Brise. See Rompu. 

Bristled signifies the hair on the neck and 
back of a boar. 

Broad Arrow. It differs from the pheon, 
by having the inside of its barbs plain, as P. 5, 

Broad-axe, P. 15, n. IS, Gules three broa^* 
axes^ argent, a demi Jleur-de-lis^ jo'med to each 
handle zvithinside, or, betweeii as many mullets 
'pierced cif the lasty name Tregold. 

Broches are instruments used by embroiderers, 
and are borne in the arms of the embroiderers' 
company. P. 1, n. 5. 

Brogue, or Shoe, a token of expedition. P. 2, 
n. 9. Gules, a chevron between three brogues or^ 
name Arthure. 

Bronchant, See Over-all. 

Brunswick, Crown of, P. 8, n. 19. 

Bruske. See Tenne. 

Bucket, A Well, P.l, n. 7. Sable a chevron 
betiveen three well-bucJcets, argent, name Sutfcni. 

Well-Bucket, with feet as the example. 
Argent a well-bucket sable bailed ajid hoops or^ 
name Pemberton, P. 4, n. 30. 

Buckler, or Shield. 

Buckles, anciently worn by persons of repute 
and honour to their military belts, and girdles; 


is a bearing both ancient and honourable, and is 
a token of service. See P. 17, n. 9. NotCy The 
shape of buckles, as borne in a coat, must be de- 
scribed, whether oval, round, square, or lozenge, 
as they are various. 

Menestrier says, buckles, clasps, and rings, re- 
present power and authority in bearers, as also an 
acknowledgment of a dependence of a sovereign's 

Nisbet says, such things were of old ordinary 
gifts of superiors, as badges of fidelity and firm- 

, Morgan says, these buckles were added as a 
sign of power and authority to the borders of the 
Stewarts, earls of Darnly and Lenox, upon ac- 
count of these earls being viceroys of Naples and 
Calabria. Nisbet's Heraldry, p. 410. 

Buffalo, a wild bull. P. 19, n. 14. 

Bugle, a Wild Bull. 

Bugle-horn, or Hunting-horn, is a frequent 
bearing in heraldry. Note, When the mouth and 
strings of this instrument are of different tinctures 
from the horn, then in blazon they must be named, 
and when it is adorned with rings, then it is 
termed garnished. P. \% n. 23. The bugle-horn 
was a common decoration to the dress of our an- 
cestors, and used by them for a variety of pur- 
poses ; as in hunting, battle, giving notice in an 
unfrequented place that a stranger was nigh, pr 
that a post was approaching. 

Bull. The strength of a bull is in his neck ; 
he is iieadstrong, and by his countenance you 


may know his force or gentleness; but all his 
threatenings are with his fore feet ; when he is 
angry and disposed to fight, he diggeth the earth, 
and casteth it from him with violence. Ermine, 
a bull passant gules^ name Bevile. The Egyp- 
tians consecrated the bull as the symbol of fecun- 
dity ; the Greeks also painted the horn of the bull, 
filled with ears of corn and fruits, to express this 
emblem ; and the poets sang the cornucopia in 
their verses. Savary. 

Bull's Head, cabossed. P. 14, n. 27. 

Bur, was a broad ring of iron behind the hand, 
on the spears anciently used at tiltings. 

BuRGANET, a steel cap worn by foot soldiers in 
battle. P. 5, n. 3. 

Burlimg-Iron, an instrument used by weavers, 
and borne in the arms of the weavers' company of 
Exeter. P. 5, n. 5. 

Bust, affronte, signifies the head, neck, and 
part of the shoulders, and the full face. See P. 13, 
n. J24 ; also a bust^ in profile^ P. 13, n. 25. 

Bustard. See P. 19, n. 13. 


Caboshed, or Cabosed, (Spanish), is when the 
head of a beast is cut close oiF behind the ears, 
and full faced, having no neck left to it. T. 9, 


Cadency, or distinction of houses. 

Caltrap. See Galtrap. 

Calvary, a Cross, represents the cross on 



which our Saviour suffered on Mount Calvary, 
and is always set upon three steps. Note, Ac- 
cording to Morgan, the three steps signify the 
three Graces, whereby we mount up to Christ, 
Faith, Hope, and Charity. See P. 4, n. 19. Gules, 
a cross upon three steps or, name Jones, of Den- 

Camel, is a wonderful creature for enduring 
hunger and thirst, and carrying great burdens 
through, the deserts of Arabia, &c. Azure, a 
camel argent, name Camel. P. 14, n. 23. Son- 
nini says, the camels, in their fits of rage, some- 
times take up a man in their teeth, throw him 
on the ground, and trample him under their feet. 
Eager to revenge themselves, they no longer re- 
tain any rancour, when once they are satisfied ; 
and it is even sufficient, if they believe they have 
satisfied their vengeance. Accordingly, when an 
Arab has excited the rage of a camel, he layj 
down his garments in some place near which the 
animal will pass, and disposes them in such i 
manner, that they appear to cover a man sleep- 
ing under them. 

Camelion. It resembles the common lizard. 
He can walk swiftly, and climb and fasten on the 
smallest branches of a tree, or hang upon them by 
the tail ; he neither lives on the air, nor rays of the 
sun, as the ancients supposed ; his food consists of 
real insects, which he catches by the help of a 
tongue about three or four inches long, which he 
shoots out of a kind of scabbard or case, without 
ever missing his aim. 


Cameleopardalis is an inhabitant of Africa; 
its height sixteen feet from the hoof to the extre- 
mity of its horns ; the colour is of grayish white 
ground, and large spots of dark brown, almost 
black. They feed upon the leaves of trees, and 
mostly on those of the mimosa. See P. 5, n. 2. 

Candlestick. This example is blazoned in 
the arms of the founders' company. A taper 
candlestick. See P. 6, n. 10. 

Canton, so called, because it occupies but a 
corner of the field, is either dexter or sinister, and 
is the third of the chief. T. 4, n. 24. Argent^ a 
canton sable, name Sutton, 

Cantoned, signifies a cross between four 

Cannets, a terra for ducks, when they are re- 
presented without beak or feet. See T. 8, n. 5. 
Argent, a chevron gules, between three Cannets 
sable, name Dubuisson. 

Cap or Bonnet. See P. 4, n. 11. Argent, 
three such caps sable, banded or, name Capper, 
of Chester. 

Cap of Maintenance, is made of crimson 
velvet, lined and turned up with ermine, worn by 
nobility ; such a cap was sent by Pope Julius the 
Second, with a sword, to King Henry the Eighth ; 
and Pope Leo the Tenth gave him the title De- 
fender of the Faith, for his writing a book against 
Martin Luther. P. 9, n. 13. 

Caparisoned, is a horse completely furnished 
for the field. 

Cappeline. See Mantlings. 


Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle. 

Cardinal's Hat. Pope InnocentlV. ordained, 
that cardinals should wear red hats, whereby he 
would signify that those that entered into that 
order ought to expose themselves even to the 
shedding of their blood and hazard of their lives 
(if required) in the defence of ecclesiastical liberty. 
Argent^ a cardinaVs hat, with strings pendant 
and plaited in true-love Jcnots, the ends meeting 
in base gules ; these are the arms of Sclavonia. 
P. 1% n. 11. 

Casque. See Helmet. 

Castle is the emblem of grandeur and mag- 
nificence, sanctuary and safety. Castles have been 
granted for arms to such as have reduced them by 
main force, or been the first that mounted their 
walls, either at a breach, or by escalade. Or, a 
castle triple towered gules, the port displayed of 
the first ^ leaved argent. P. 16, n. 19. 

Note, Whatever tincture the castle is of, if the 
cement of the building is of another colour from 
the stones, then the building, being argent, is said 
to be masoned of such a colour, as sable, &c. 
When the windows and ports of castles are of a 
different tincture from the field and building, the 
windows and ports are supposed to be shut, and 
must be so expressed in the blazon ; if the win- 
dows and ports are of the tincture of the field, so 
that the field is seen through them, they are then 
supposed to be open ; if the port is in form of a 
portcullis, it is to be named in the blazon. Note, 
The difference between a tower and a castle is 


this ; the tower stands without walls to its sides, 
but a castle extends from side to side, as the ex- 
ample. See a tower, P. 16, n. 20, which points 
the difference. 

Cat-a-mountain, a wild cat ; this is a crea- 
ture well known, therefore needs no description ; 
in heraldry, it is taken for the symbol of liberty, 
vigilance, forecast, and courage. P. 11, n. 16, 
Note, These cats being always painted gardant, 
the word gardant need not be used in the blazon, 

Caterfoil. See Quatrefoil. 

Cathehine-Wheel, so called from St. Cathe- 
rine the Virgin (who suffered martyrdom in Alex- 
andria under the Emperor Maximinus), who had 
her limbs broke in pieces by its iron teeth. T. 7, 
n. 17. Azure a Catherine-wheel argent, name 

Centaur. See Sagittarius. 

Cercelee or Recercelee, a Cross, signifies 
circling, or curling at the ends like a ram's horn. 
P. 4, n. 4. 

Chain, P. 20, n. 22. Argent, three circles of 
chains, sable, name Sir Richard Hoo, Knight. 
Chains signify servitude and captivity, and some- 
times temperance and chastity, which bridle un- 
ruly passions. 

Chain-Shot. Some have taken this to be the 
head of a club called holy- water sprinkler, others 
to be balls of wildfire, generally supposed to be 
chain-shot, which is two bullets with a chain be- 
tween them ; their use is, at sea, to shoot down 
yards or masts or rigging of shigs. Azure, three 




chain-shots or ; this coat was borne by the Earl 
of Cumberland, next to his paternal coat. P.18, n. 8. 

Chamber, a term for a short piece of ordnance, 
without a carriage. P. 1, n. 6. 

Chapeau. See Cap of Maintenance. 

Chaplet, a garland, or headband of leaves 
and flowers. T. 5, n. 8. Note, A chaplet of 
roses, in heraldry, is always composed of four 
roses only, all the other parts being leaves. Ar- 
gent, three chaplets, vert, name Richardson, of 

Chaplets, or Garlands, were of great use 
among the Greeks in the affairs of love ; when' 
a man untied his garland, it was a declaration 
of his having been subdued by that passion ; and 
when a woman composed a garland, it was a tacit 
confession of the same thing. 

Chapournet, a httle hood. 

Charges, are all manner of figures or bearings 
whatsoever, borne in the field of a coat of arms,, 
which are by custom become peculiarly proper to 
the science. 

Charged. Any ordinary or figure, carrying 
any thing, is said to be charged therewith, azure, 
a saltire argent, charged with another gules, V. 
18, n. 4. 

Charlemaign's Crown. This crown, which 
is divided into eight parts, is made of gold, weigh- 
ing fourteen pounds, and is still preserved at Nu- 
remberg. P. 8, n. 5. 

The fore part of the crown is decorated with 
twelve jewels, all unpolished. 


On the second part, on the right hand, is 
our Saviour sitting between two cherubs, with 
each four wings, whereof two are upward, and 
to downward, and under, this motto, Per me 
Reges regnant. 

The third part on the same side has only gems 
and pearls. 

On the fourth part is King Hezekiah sitting, 
holding his head with his right hand, and by his 
side Isaiah the prophet, with a scroll, whereon is 
this motto, Ecce adjiciam su^er dies tuos 15 an- 
nos : also over the heads of these figures, Isaias 
Propheta, Ezechias Hex. 

The fifth par^, which is behind, contains jewels 

The sixth part has the effigy of a King crowned, 
and a scroll in his hand, with these words, Honor 
Regis judkium diligit : as also over his head. Rex 

The seventh part is only of gems ; but the 
eighth has a King sitting, with his crown upon his 
head, and on a scroll which he holds in both 
hands is this motto, Time Dominum, <§: Regem 
amato : as likewise over his head. Rex Solomon. 

On the top of this crown is a crqss, whose fore 
part contains seventeen jewels, and in the top of 
the cross are these words, IHS Nazarenus Rex 
Judceorum ; as also in the arch or semicircle, these, 
that the semicircle was added after Charlemaign's 
time, by the Emperor Conrad. . 



Checky, is composed of small squares of differ- 
ent tinctures alternately, as T, 5, n. 22. 

Cherub^s Head, is a child's head between two 
wings displayed. See P. 19, n. 2. 

Cherubim had the face of a man, the wings of 
an eagle, the back and mains of a lion, and the 
feet of a calf, Spencer. The prophet Ezekiel says, 
the Cherubim had four forms, a man, a lion, an 
ox, and an eagle. See P. 22, n. 12. 

Chess-Rook, used in the game of chess. T. 7, 
n. 9. ermine three chess rooks gules, name Smert. 
See another shape, P. 19, n. 3. 

Chevalier, or horseman armed at all points, 
now out of use, and only to be seen in coat ar- 
mour, old pictures and prints. 

Cheval-Trap. See Gal-Trap. 

Chevron is an ordinary representing the two 
rafters of a house, joined together in chief, and 
descending in the form of a pair of compasses to 
the extremities of the shield, contains the fifth of 
the field. Gules a chevron armnL name Fulford. 

Pee Chevron is when the field or charge is di- 
vided by such a line as helps to make the chevron, 
party per chevron, argent and vert, T. 3, n. 4. 

Chevronel, is a diminutive of, and in size 
half, the chevron. T. 4, n. 18. Note, When there 
are more than one chevron on a coat, and placed 
at equal distances from each other, they should be 
called Chevronels : but if they are placed in pairs, 
they are called couple closes. Ermine, two che- 
vronels azure, name Bagot. 


CiiEVRONNY, is the parting of a shield into se- 
veral equal partitions chevronwise. See P. 18, 
11. 10. 

Chevrons Braced. See Braced. 

Chevrons Couched, signifies lying sideways. 
P. 3, n. 16. 

Chevrons Contrepoint signifies to stand 
one upon the head of another. P. S, n. 17- 

Chief, is an ordinary formed by an horizontal 
line, and occupies the upper part of the shield, 
and so termed because it hath place in the upper 
part of the shield and contains in depth the third 
of the field. T.4, n.l. 

In Chief, is a thing borne in the chief part or 
top of the escutcheon. See P. A. n. 2. viz. argent, 
a/ess, in chief three lozenges sable, name Astmi. 

CniMiERA, was feigned to have the head of a 
lion breathing flames, the body of a goat, and the 
tail of a dragon ; because the mountain Chimaera 
in Lycia, had a volcano on its top, and nourished 
lions ; the middle part afforded pasture for goats, 
and the bottom was infested with serpents. Belle- 
rophon destroying these, and rendering the moun- 
tain habitable, was said to have conquered Chi- 
maera. See Pope's Homers Iliad, P. 22, n. 9. 

Chimerical is such figures as have no other 
existence but in the imagination. See P. 13, 
n. 20. T. 7, n. 22, n. 23, n. 24. 

Church-Bells. See Bells. 

CiNABKE. See Gules. 

Cinquefoil, five-leaved grass, answering to the 



five senses in man, and signifies one that masters 
his affections, also one that overcometh his ene- 
mies, not only by valour, but wisdom. T. 6, n. 23. 
Or a Cinque/oil sable^ Brailford, of Derby. 

Circular Wreath. See P. 3, n. 6. 

Civic-Crown, was a garland composed of oak 
leaves and acorns, and given by the Romans as re- 
ward to any soldier that saved the life of a Roman 
citizen in an engagement. This was reckoned 
more honourable than any other crow n, though 
composed of better materials. Plutarch says the 
reason why the branches of the oak should be made 
choice of before all others, is, that the oaken 
wreath, being sacred to Jupiter, the great guardian 
of the city, they might think it the most proper 
ornament for him who preserved a citizen. 

Note, The most remarkable person upon record 
in history for obtaining these rewards was one C. 
Siccius (or Sicinius) Dentatus : who had received 
in the time of his military service eight crowns of 
gold ; fourteen civic crowns, three mural, eighty- 
three golden torques or gold collars, sixty golden 
armillcc or bracelets, eighteen hastoe puree, a fine 
spear of wood, and seventy-five phalerce, a suit of 
rich trappings for a horse. Kennet. 

Clam, a Scotch term for an escalop or cockle- 

Clarion or Claricord. See Rest. 

Cleche'e, a Cross, (voided and pomette) is 
spreading from the centre towards the extremities, 
then ending in an angle in the middle of the ex- 


tremity, by lines from the two points that make 
the breadth till they come to join. P. 6, n. 17. 

Cleg Goose. See Barnacle. 

Clinched signifies the hand to be shut, as 
P. 13, n. 17. 

Close, when the wings of a bird are down 
and close to the body. T. 9, n. 19. Note^ The 
term is used for horse barnacles when they are 
not extended ; also to denote a helmet with the 
visor down, as P. 10, n. 4. 

Close-Girt, when figures are habited, whose 
clothes are tied about the middle. 

Closet, is the diminutive and half the bar in 
breadth. T. 4, n. 15. 

Closing-tongs, a tool used by the founders, 
and made part of their crest. P. 1, n. 9. 

Cobweb and Spider, a cohzvcb, in the centre 
a spider. P. 16, n. 10. This is the arms of 
Cobster, of Lombardy. 

Laws, like spiders^ webs, are wrought : 

Great flies escape, and small are caught. 

Cock, is a bird of noble courage, he is always 
prepared for battle, having his comb for a helmet, 
his beak for a cutlass to wound his enemy, and is 
a complete warrior armed cap-a-pee ; he hath his 
legs armed with spurs, giving example to the 
valiant soldier to resist danger by fight and not 
by flight. The domestic cock differs very widely 
from the wild descendants of its primitive stock, 
which are said to inhabit the forests of India, and 
most of the islands of the Indian seas. Bingleys 
An. Biog. V. 14, n. 14. Azii^'c, three cocks. 


argent, armed, crested, and jelloped, proper, 
name Cdkaine. 

Cocke, a term used by Leigh for a chess-rook. 

Cockatrice ; an imaginary monster, which in 
his wings and legs partakes of the fowl, and in 
his tail of the snake. T. 7, n. ^l^. Sable, a 
cockatrice or, combed gides, name, Botke. 

Cockatrice Displayed, P. 3, n. 26. Sable 
a cockatrice displayed argent, crested, membred, 
and jelloped, gules, name, Buggine. 

Cognizance, or Crest. Porney says, crests 
were only worn by heroes of great valour, and by 
such as had a superior military command, in 
order that they might be the better distinguished 
in an engagement, and thereby rally their men, 
if dispersed ; but Cognisances were badges which 
subordinate officers, and even soldiers, did bear 
on their shields for distinction sake, being not 
entitled to a crest. 

Collared signifies any animal having a collar 
about his neck. 

Colours, and metals, when engraved, are 
known by points and hatched lines; as or, the 
metal gold, is known in engraving by small dots 
or points ; argent, a metal which is white, and 
signifies silver, is always left plain ; gules, this 
colour is expressed by lines perpendicular, from 
top to bottom ; azure, a colour known by hori- 
zontal lines from side to side; sable, a colour 
expressed by horizontal and perpendicular lines 
crossinnr each other ; vert, a colour described by 
hatched lines from right to left diagonally ; pur- 




PURE, a colour known by hatched lines from the 
sinister chief to the dexter base, diagonally ; the 
metals or and argent are allowed precedency to 
colours. T. 2. 

ISiote^ Colours, when compounded, (viz. gules 
with or signifies desire to conquer, with argent 
revenge, with vert courage in youth, 8cc.) were 
intended to signify this or that virtue in the 
bearer : it is bombast, and unbecoming the science, 
let Gerard Leigh's, &c. advocates assert what they 
please. Guillim, 










Murrey, _ 


























3 ' 




Love Loyal. 















Dr°. Head. 




Dr". Tail. 

and Baronets' arms, are blazoned by metals, and 
colours. Barons, Viscounts, Earls, Marquises, 
and Dukes, by precious stones. Sovereign Princes, 
Kings, and Emperors, by planets. 

These are no where used but in England, being 
justly held in ridicule in all other nations, and 
the most judicious of our own. — GuiUim. This 
custom is only a fantastic humour of our nation ; 
and, for my part, I shall avoid it as ridiculous, 


being no where in the world used but here. Car- 
ters Analysis of Hon, 

Note, Nisbet says, art should imitate nature ; 
and as it would be an unnatural thing in common 
discourse, not to call red red, because a prince 
wears it, so it is unnatural to use these terms in 
Heraldry; and it may fall out to be very ridicu- 
lous in some blazons ; as, for instance, if a prince 
had for his arms an ass coiichant Mars, for the 
word Mars will agree very ill with asses^ sJieep^ 
lambs^ and many other things which are to be 
painted in heraldry; and a hundred other ex- 
amples may be given, but it is enough to say, 
that this is to confound colours with charges, and 
the things that are borne with colours. 

Columbine. This flower is borne in the arms 
of the Company of Cooks. P. 5, n. 4. Argent, 
a chevron sable, between three Columbines proper, 
name. Hall, of Coventry. 

Combatant, that is to say fighting or rampant, 
face to face. T. 9, n. 5. Or, two lions rampaiit, 
combatant gules, langued and armed azure, 
name, Wycombe. 

Comet, or Blazing Star, in heraldry, is a 
star of six points, with a tail streaming from it, 
in bend, as the example, P. H, n. 7; according 
to Guillim, is not of an orbicular shape, as other 
celestial natures are, but doth protract its light in 
length, like to a beard, or rather dilate it in the 
midst like a hairy bush, and growing thence taper- 
wise, in the manner of a fox's tail. Comets were 
sup[X)sed to prognosticate events of things to 


;ome. They appear to be borne in coat-armour, 
)f which the aforesaid author gives us an instance, 
;hus5 Azure, a comet, streaming in bend or, name, 

Compartments. See Partitions. 

Complement. This term signifies the moon 
when at her full. 

CoMPONY, Counter Compony, is when a 
jorder, pale, bend, or other ordinary, is made up 
jf two rows of squares, consisting of metals and 
[colours. See T. 5, n. 14. 

Confeonte, facing or fronting one another. 

Conger-Eel's Head, couped, is borne on a 
pale, name, Gascoigne. P. 6, n. 15. 

Conjoined, or Conjunct, signifies charges in 
jrms when joined together ; viz. gules, two lions 
rampant, conjoined under one head, gardant, ar- 
^ent, name, Kellurn. See P. 15, n. 22. Seven 
mascleSj conjunct three, three, and one. P. 2, n. 

Conjoined in Lure is two wings joined to- 
gether, with their tips downwards, as the ex- 
ample, T. 10, n. 2. 

Contourne signifies a beast turned to the 
inister side of the shield. P. 15, n. 23. 

Contrary-conid, an ancient term for gy- 
onny. The ancients called it contrary-conid, 
lecause all the colours of the arms meet together 
t the middle point of the shield, which they call 
le cone. Feme. 
, CoNTRE signifies counter, or opposite. 

Contrepoint is when two chevrons meet in 


the fess points, the one rising from the base, the 
other inverted, falling from the chief, so that they 
are counter or opposite to one another. See P. 
3, n. 17. 

CouNTERTREvis, an ancient term for party 
per fess. 

CouRLETT. See Cuirass. 

CooTE, a bird : the feathers about the head and 
neck are low, soft, and thick. The colour all over 
the body is black, deeper about the head ; builds 
its nest of grass, broken reeds, &c. floating on the 
top of the water, so that it rises and falls with it ; 
the reeds among which it is built prevent its 
being carried down by the stream. P. 11, n. 17. 

Copper. An instrument used by the gold 
and silver wire-drawers to wind wire upon. It is 
borne by them as part of their armorial ensign. 
P. 1, n. 2. 

Copper Cake. See P. 4, n. 6. Ermine, three 
copper cakes gules, and on a chief gules, a cham- 
ber proper, name. Chambers, of London, Esq. 

Corbie, an heraldic name for a raven. 

Corded, a Cross, signifies wound about with 
cords, as the example, P. 6, n. 6. 

Cormorant. See P. 19, n. 16. 

Cornet, a musical instrument. P. 7, n. S3. 

CoRNiSH-ciiouGH, is a fine blue or purpk 
black bird, with red beak and legs, and is a nobk 
bearing of antiquity, being accounted the kin£ 
of crows. It frequents some places in Cornwal 
And North Wales, inhabiting there the cliffs anc 
ruinous castles along the shore. P. 14, n. 17. 


Corsica, Crown of. P. 8, n. 14. 

Cost, or Cotice, is one of the diminutives of 
the bend, seldom borne but in couples with a 
bend between them. T. 4, n. 8. 

Cot ICED, or Cotised, any thing that is ac- 
costed, sided, or accompanied by another. See 
Plate A. n. 20. Argent, on a heiid gules, coticed, 
sable three pair of wings conjoined of the firsts 
name, Wingjield, 

Cotice'. A term used by the French when 
an escutcheon is divided bendways into many 
equal parts. See Bendy. 

Cotton-Hank, P. 18, n. 6. Azure, a chevron 
betzveen three cotton-hanks^ argent, name, Cotton, 

Counterc HANGED is an intermixture of several 
metals and colours one against another. See an 
example, Plate C. n. 15. Quarterly or and azure, 
a cross of Jour lozenges betzveen as many annulets, 
counterchanged, name, Peacock. Likewise see the 
examples in P. 3, n. 19, 20, and 22. 

Counter-Compone, composed of small squares, 
but never above two rows. T. 5, n. 14. 

Counter-embowed, a dexter arm, couped at 
the shoulder, counter- embozi^ed. P. 13, n. 19. 

Counter-Imbattled. See the example, P. 
13, n. 5. Azure, a Jess counter-imbattled, argent, 
name, Barnas, of Sussex. 

Counter-Passant is when two beasts are 
passing the contrary way to each other. T. 9, 
n. 8. Sable, two lions, counter-passant argent, 
'collared gides, name, Glegg. 

Counter-Potent. See Potent. 


Counter-Perflew. See Perflew. 

Counter-Saliant. See Saliant. 

Counter-Tripping. See Tripping. 

Counter- Vair, or and azure; this fur differs 
from vair, by having its cups or bells of the same 
tinctures, placed base against base, and point 
against point, ranged with their heads and points 
one upon the other, as or upon or. T. 2, n. 5. 

Couchant signifies a beast lying down, but 
with his head lifted up, which (distinguishes the 
beast so lying, from dormant. The lion in this 
position signifies the illustrious hero, as also re- 
pose, or voluntary lying down, and not by force, 
for his nature is such, that he will not submit to 
correction. T. 8, n. 20. 

CouPED is when the head or any other limb of 
an animal, or any charge in an escutcheon that 
is borne, is cut evenly off. See the examples. 
T. 8, n. 16. P. 4, n. 14 Plate H. n. 14. n. 19. 

Note^ When boars^ bears, wolves, whales, and 
otters'' heads are couped close to the head, as ex- 
ample, P. 3, n. 2, it is termed couped close, to 
distinguish it from a boar's head couped, as P. 3, 
n. 3. 

Couped or Humette, a Cross, signifies cut, 
or shortened, that the extremities reach not the 
outUnes of the escutcheon. P. 4, n. 14. 

Couple-Close, so termed from its inclosing 
by couples the chevron, and contains the fourth 
part of a chevron. T. 4, n. 19. Couple-closes 
are always borne by pairs, one on each side of a 
chevron. See Plate A. n. 16. Sable, a chevron 



between two couple-closes ^ accompanied with three 
cinquefoils or^ name, Tlenton. 

CouRANT, or in full course. T. 9, n. 16. 

Coward, or Cowed, is when a lion, or other 
animal, has its tail haneinff down between its legs, 
p. 15, n. 13. _ ^ ^ 

Crab; it is chiefly found in the water, where 
they feed on insects, worms, or vegetable sub- 
stances. They change their shells annually ; and 
when their skins are soft, for some time after their 
casting their shell, they are frequently devoured 
both by the stronger animals of their own species, 
and by many others. Argent, a chevron^ between 
three sea crabs gules, name, Bridger, 

Cramps, or Crampoons, are pieces of iron, 
hooked at each end, and used in buildings, to 
fasten two stones together. P. 1, n. 16. 

Crampet is* the chape at the bottom of the 
scabbard of a broad sword, and by the French 
termed Botterolle. Argent^ three botterolles gules ^ 
are the arms of the duchy of Angria. P. 1, n. 20. 

Cramponne, a Cross, so termed, as it has at 
each end a cramp, or square piece, coming from 
it. P. 4, n. 5. 

Crane. This is a large bird, upwards of five 
feet in length, the bill four inches long, the plu- 
mage ash-colour, the forehead black, the sides of 
the head, behind the eyes, and the back part of 
the neck, are white, the upper part of the neck 
ash-colour, some parts about the wings blackish ; 
from the pinion of each wing springs a tuft of 
loose feathers, curled at the end^ which may be 


erected at will ; the legs are black. Wlieii the 
Cranes are assembled on the ground, they set 
guards during the night, and the circumspection 
of these birds has been consecrated in the ancient 
hieroglyphics as the symbol of vigilance. 

Crenelle. See Imbattled. 

Crescent, or half-moon, with its horns turned 
towards the chief of the shield ; by this position it 
differs from the increscent and decrescent. See 
T. 7, n. 6. Azure, a crescent argent, name, Lucy, 
Crescents, the prevailing badges among the Ibl- 
lowers of Mahomet ; as crosses, among the Chris- 
tians, were assumed in armories as general em- 
blems of victory over the Saracens. Brydson^s 

Crescented, a Cross, that is, having a cre- 
scent at eacli end. P. 4, n. S5. 

Crest is a figure placed upon a wreath, coro- 
net, or cap of maintenance, above the helmet or 
shield. No women, except sovereign princesses, 
attach to their arms the helmet, mantlings, wreath, 
crest, or motto. See P. 17, n. 5. 

Crested is when the cock, or other bird, has 
its comb of a different tincture from its body ; it is 
then termed crested of such a tincture, naming it. 

Crined is a term when the beard of an animal 
differs in tincture from its body. 

Cronel, the iron head of a tilting spear. P. 2, 
n. 19. Sable, a chevron, ermine, between three 
cr oriels, of a tilt spear, argent, name, Wiseman. 

Crosier. This staff (according to Polydorc 
Virgil) was given to bishops to chastise the vices 


of the people. It is called Baculus PastoraUs, as 
given to them in respect of their pastoral charge 
and superintendence over their flock, as well for 
feeding them with wholesopne doctrine, as for 
defending them from the incursions of the wolf; 
wherein they imitate the good and watchful shep- 
herd, of whose crook this crosier hath a resem- 
blance. P. 12, n. 8. 

Crosslet, a Cross, that is, crossed at each 
end. T. 6, n. 10. 

Cross-Bow. This instrument, mihtary (ac- 
cording to Polydore) was invented by the Cretans, 
who out of it used to shoot stones and darts. 
Ermine, a cross-bow bent in pale gules, name, 
Arblaster. P. 12, n. 1. The bow is an instrument 
to shoot arrows from ; they are of two sorts, the 
long-bow and cross-bow ; the first discharges an 
arrow by the force of him who draws the bow ; 
while the latter owes its extension to the power 
of a small lever, which is let off by means of a 
trigger. See P. 12, n. 1. 

C ROSS, one of the honourable ordinaries, formed 
by the meeting of two perpendicular with two ho- 
rizontal lines, near the fess-point, where they make 
four right angles ; the lines are not drawn through- 
out, but discontinued the breadth of the ordinary, 
which takes up only the fifth part of the field, 
when not charged, but if charged, the third. T. 
4, n. 20. Upton says, the Cross is the hope of 
Christians, the resurrection of the dead, the guide 
of the blind, the life of those that were given over, 
the staff of the lame, the comfort of the poor, the 

• N 3 


pilot of sailors, the harbour from danger, and the 
wall of the besieged. 

Crosses. The first use we find made of crosses 
was in the expeditions to the wars in the Holy 
Land, in the year 1096. There were also at that 
time great numbers who took crosses, which they 
received from the hands of the bishops and priests, 
and, being made of cloth or taffetty, were sewed 
on their garments, for which their expeditions 
were called croisades ; so by varying the form of 
the cross, each leader was known. Crosses were 
frequently placed at the meeting of roads, to ex- 
cite religious ideas in the passers by, to include 
in their prayers the soul of the erecter. 

Per-Cross. This term signifies the field to be 
divided into four equal parts, and to consist of 
metals and colours, or furs and colours, without 
any charge occupying the quarters ; but if the 
quarters be charged, then it is blazoned quarterly. 
Party per cross, gules, and argent, name, Cock, 
T. 8, n. 5. 

Cross of Jerusalem. See Jerusalem Cross. 

Cross-wise, or, in cross, is when any charges 
are placed in form of a cross, five being the com- 
mon number. See P. 4, n. 17 and 18. 

crowns and coronets of ENGLAND. 

Crown of the King of Great Britain is a 
circle of gold, enriched with pearls and stones, 
and hcightenetl up with four crosses pattee, and 
four fleurs-de-lis alternately; from these rise>four 


arch-diadems, adorned with pearls, which close 
under a mound, ensigned by a cross pattee. P. 
9. Note, Edward the IVth was the first sovereign 
of England that, in his seal, or on his coin, is 
crowned with an arched diadem. LucJwlm, 

Prince of Wales's Coronet is a circle of 
gold, set round with crosses pattee, and fleurs-de- 
hs, like the king's, but has only one arch, de- 
corated with pearls, and surmounted of a mound 
and cross, and bordered with ermine. P. 9, n. % 
Three ostrich feathers, argent, quilled or, infiled, 
with a Prince's coronet of the last, with an escrol, 
azure, thereon the words Ich dien, I serve P. 
5, n. 24: this is the badge or cognizance of his 
Royal Plighness George Prince of Wales. The 
device was assumed by Edward the Black Prince, 
after the battle of Cressy, A. D. 1345*, (a town of 
France, in Picardy, and in the diocese of Meaux) 
where having, with his own hand, killed John, 
King of Bohemia, who served the King of France 
in his wars, and was his stipendiary, he took from 
his head such a plume and motto, and put it on 
his own, to perpetuate the victory. 

Younger Sons or Brothers of the Bloob 
Royal. The coronets of the present Dukes of 
Gloucester and York are a circle of gold, bor- 
dered with ermine, heightened up with four fleurs- 
de-lis, crosses pattee, and strawberry-leaves al- 
ternate. P. 9, n. 3. 

Nephews of the Blood Royal differ from 
the younger sons or brothers, by having straw- 
berry-leaves on the rim, as theirs have fleurs-de- 
lis. P. 9, n. 4. • 


Princess Royal. Coronets of the Princesses 
of Great Britain, are a circle of gold bordered 
with ermine, and heightened up with crosses 
pattee, fleurs-de-lis, and strawberry-leaves al- 
ternate. P. 9, n. 5. 

Duke'*s Coeonet is a circle of gold, with eight 
strawberry or parsley-leaves of equal height above 
the rim. P. 9, n. 6, 

Marquis's Coronet is a circle of gold, set 
round with four strawberry-leaves, and as many 
pearls on pyramidical points of equal height al- 
ternate. P. 9, n. 7. 

Earl's Coronet is a circle of gold, heightened 
up with eight pyramidical points or spikes ; on 
the tops of which are as many pearls, and are 
placed alternately below on the rim, with as many 
strawberry-leaves. P. 9, n. 8. 

Viscount's Coronet is a circle of gold, having 
sixteen pearls on the rim. Coronets were first 
assigned to viscounts in the reign of king James 
the First. P. 9, n. 9. 

Baron's Coronet, on a gold circle, six pearls, 
P. 9, n. 10. Coronets were assigned to barons by 
king Charles the Second, after his restoration. 

Notey The pearls on the English coronets are 
commonly called pearls, but they are always made 
of silver. 

Note^ Originally the barons wore scarlet caps 
turned up with white ; they afterwards wore caps 
of crimson turned up with ermine, and on the top 
a tassel of gold. This they used till the reign of 
Charles II., as before mentioned. 

In 1665, Charles the Second granted his royal 


warrants to the officers of arms in Scotland and 
Ireland, for the peers of each of those kingdoms 
to wear the same fashioned coronets as those of 
England, according to their several degrees. 

Archbishops as dukes, and bishops as barons 
of parUament, distinguish their mitres, by the 
former having their bandages enriched with ducal 
leaves, and the latter wearing them plain, in imi- 
tation of the ancient barons, before the present 
mode of coronets was introduced. P. 9, n. 11, 
and 12. 

The Earl Marshal's orders for the coronets 
wore at the coronation of his Majesty George II. : 

Baron's Coronet. Is a circle with six pearls 
upon the same, not raised upon points. 

Viscounfs Coronet. Is a circle with sixteen 
pearls thereon, and not raised upon points. 

Earl's Coronet. Is composed of eight pearls 
raised upon points, with small leaves between, 
above the rim. 

Marquis's Coronet. Is composed of four leaves 
and four pearls, raised upon points of the same 
height as the leaves, alternately above the rim. 

Duke's Coronet. Is composed of eight leaves, 
all of equal height above the rim. The caps of 
the coronets are of crimson velvet turned up with 
ermine, with a button and tassel of gold or silver 
at the top. 

It is his Majesty's pleasure, that all and every 
the Peers and Peeresses who shall attend the said 
coronation, do forbear to set or use any jewels or 
precious stones in their coronets. Whereas coach- 




makers, carvers, embroiderers, painters, silver- 
smiths, and other artificers, do presume (both 
upon coaches and making of coronets for this 
present coronation) to raise the pearls of the 
barons and baronesses' coronets upon pins or 
spikes (whereas they ought to be flat upon the 
ring or rim of the coronet), this is to warn all 
such workmen from the like error, and to enjoin 
and order them to take care to make all such 
coronets exactly as they were to be worn by the 
grant from King Charles II. of blessed memory, 
as they will answer the contrary at their perils. 

Sept 22, 1727." 


Crowns Foreign. Plate S. 

1 Celestial, 

2 Eastern, 

3 Imperial, 

4 Pope, 

5 Charlemaign, 

6 Grand Seignor, 

7 France, 

8 Spain, 

9 Portugal, 

10 Denmark, 

11 Russia, 

12 Prussia, 

13 Poland, 

14 Corsica, 

15 Electoral, 

16 Arch-Duke, 

17 Duke of Tuscany, 

18 Dauphin, 

19 Brunswick, 

20 Doge of Venice, 

21 Vallery, 

22 Naval, 

23 Mural, 

24 Civic, 

25 Triumphal, 

26 Obsidional, 

27 Chaplct, 

28 Wreath. 




Crowns Foreign. Plate 19. 

1 Bohemia, 

13 Guelderland, 

2 Sardinia, 

14 Mentz, 

3 Sicily, 

15 Catalonia, 

4 Holland, 

16 Parma, 

5 Orange, 

17 Guastalla, 

6 Hanover, 

18 Baden, 

7 Palatine, 

19 Modena, 

8 Cologne, 

20 Holstein, 

9 Waldeck, 

21 Hungary, 

10 Mecklenbu] 


22 Sweden, 

11 Genoa, 

23 Mantua, 

12 Lorraine, 

24 Valence. 


Note, These crowns are copied from the seals 
of the different countries. 

Crusuly is the field, or charge, strewed over 
with crosses. 

Crwth, an ancient term for a violin. 

Cry of war. Any word or sentence that used 
to become a general cry throughout an army upon 
its approach to battle. 

Cubit Arm, is the hand and arm couped at 
the elbow. See P. 13, n. 17. 

Cuirass, or breast-plate of armour. See P. 
17, n. 1. Polycenus says, Alexander, considering 
that the body being encircled with armour might 
be a temptation to the soldiers to turn their backs 
upon their enemies, therefore commanded them 
to lay aside their back-pieces, and arm them- 
selves with breast-plates. 


CuissEs are those parts of armour whicli cover 
the thighs and knees, and by former heralds were 
called Culliers. 

CuLLVERS, or CuUiers. See Cuisses. 

CuMBENT. See Lodged. 

Cuirassiers are horsemen that wear armour. 

Curriers' Shave. This tool is used by cur- 
riers to thin the leather, and is borne in the arms 
and crest of the Curriers'* Company. P. 5, n. 18. 

Cushion. This bearing is looked upon as a 
mark of authority, and is borne by many ancient 
families. P. 17, n. 15. Gules, three cushions er- 
mine, buttoned and tasselled or, name, Redman, 

Cushions ; distinctive characteristics of Eastern 
manners ~and luxury ; of such account as to have 
place in Mahomet's paradise. They appear to be 
borne in heraldry as trophies selected from the 
spoils of the infidels. Brydsoii's Heraldry. 

Cutting-Iron. A tool used by the patten- 
makers, and borne by them in their armorial 
ensign. P.2, n. 30. 

Cuttle.Fish, or Tnk-Fish. P. 19, n. 22. 

Cygnet Royal. This term is given to swans 
when they are collared about the neck with an 
open crown, and a chain affixed thereto. See 
P. 14, n. 15. Note, The most proper blazon is, 
a szcan argent, ducally gorged and chained or. 
When the head of a swan is a charge, it is bla- 
zoned, a sxvan^s neck (not head) erased or couped; 
but this is not the custom in regard to any other 
species of bird whatsoever. 

Cygnus, or Swan. 



Dacre's Knot and badge. See P. 15, n. 35. 

Dancette is a larger sort of indenting (being 
wider and deeper than that called indented), 
whose points never exceed three in number. T. S. 
Note, See the difference in Plate J, n. 12. Or, a 
fess dancette sable, n. 11, is azure two bars in- 
dented or^ a chief argent 

Danish Axe. See P. 15, n. 11. 

Danish Hatchet. See P. 22, n. 6. 

Darnel, a term for a Cockel. 

Dauphin's Crown is a circle of gold, set 
round with eight fleurs-de-lis, closed at the top 
with four, dolphins, whose tails conjoin under a 
fleur-de-hs. P. 8, n. 18. 

Debruised, is when a bend or other ordinary 
is placed over any animal, whereby it is debarred 
of its natural freedom. See P. 15, n. 17. 

Decrescent shows the state of the moon when 
she declines from her full to her last quarter, and 
differs from the increscent by having the horns 
towards the left side of the shield. T. 7, n. 8. 
Azure, a decrescent proper, name, De la Luna. ' 

Defamed, signifies a creature to have lost its 
tail, as if it were disgraced, and made infamous 
by the loss thereof. P. 15, n. 14. 

Degraded, a Cross, from its having steps at 
each end. P. 4, n. 3. Argent, a cross degraded 
sable, name, Wyntworth. 

Demy signifies the half of a Jiing, as a demv- 



lion. See T. 8, n. 18. Or, a demy-lion rampajit 
gules, name, Mallory. 

Demy-Vol, is one wing. T. 9, n. 23. 

Demy Fleur-de-Lis. T. 10, n. 8. A demy 
Jleiir-de-lis gules, is the crest of Stoddyr, See 
another, P. 7, n. 24. 

Demy-Rose. See P. 15, n. 29. Or, on a 
Jess vert, hetxveen three battle-axes, gules, a fleur- 
de-lis or, inclosed by two demy-roses argent, name, 

Denmark, Crown of, P. 8, n. 10. 

Detriment, a term for the moon when 

Devouring. See Vorant. 

Dexter signifies the right hand side of the 
escutcheon : the supporter, and every thing 
placed on the right hand, is termed the dexter ; 
it is also the male side in an impaled coat of 

Dexter-Hand, the right hand. P. 7, n. 32. 
Azure a deocter-Jiaiid, couped argent, name, 

Dexter-Base is the right side of the base, 
represented by the letter G. See T. 1. 

Dexter-Chief is the angle on the right hand 
side of the chief, represented by the letter A. 

A Dexter Wing. The right wing. 

Diamond is a precious stone, which in heraldry 
signifies the colour sable, or black. This stone 
was the third in the second row of Aaron's breast- 


Diapered is dividing the field in panes like 
fretwork, and filling the same with variety of 
figures. P. 3, n. 14. iVo/e, This seems more the 
fancy of the painter than a paternal bearing. 

DiFFAME. See Defamed. 

Difference is certain figures added to coats of 
arms, to distinguish one branch of a family from 
another, and how distant younger branches are 
from the elder. See Distinction or Houses. 

Diminutives ; the pale's diminutives are the 
Pallet and Endorse : the be^id has the Gar- 
ter, Cost, and Ribbon; the bar has the Closet, 
Barrulet, and Bar-Gemel ; the chevron has 
the Chevronel and Couple-Close ; the bend 
sinister has the Scarpe and Baton ; the bordurc 
has the Orle and Tressure ; the quarter has 
the Canton ; the flancli has the Flasque and 
Voider. See each in its respective place. 

Dismembered signifies a cross, or other thing, 
cut in pieces, and set up at a small distance, but 
keeping the form of the figure. See P. 4, n. 9. 
See a lion dismembered, P. 7, n. 14. Or, a lion 
rampant, gules, dismembered^ within a double 
tressure, flory, counterflory, of the second, name, 

Displayed, for the wings of a bird when they 
are expanded, as in the example, ati eagle dis- 
placed. T. 9, n. 21. 

Distillatory, double-armed with two worms, 
and bolt-receivers on fire, being part of the arms 
of the Distillers' Company. P. 5, n. 14. 

Distinctions of Houses. These differences 


serve to inform us from what line the bearer of 
each is descended ; these distinctions began about 
the time of Richard the Second (according to 
Camden, Clarencieux). P. 10. 

Nisbet says, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
memorial bearings were single, and plain, con- 
sisting of few figures ; for the distinctio7is used 
as marks of cadency were rare, and the practice 
of composing and marshalling them, either with 
some of the charges, or with the exterior orna- 
ments of other families, was not then in use. 


Fig. 1. is tlie label for the first son. 

Fig. % the crescent for the second son. 

Fig. 3. the mullet for the third son. 

Fig. 4. the martlet for the fourth son. 

Fig. 5. the annulet for the fifth son. 

Fig. 6. the fleur-de-lis for the sixth son. 

Fig. 7. a rose for the seventh son. 

Fig. 8. a cross moline for the eighth son. 

Fig. 9. a double quatrefoil for the ninth son. 

By these distinctions every brother or house 
ought to observe his or its due difference. 

Note, The distinctions made use of for dif- 
ferencing the several princes and princesses of 
the blood-royal of England, are generally labels 
differently charged. 



Fig. 1 . the crescent with the label on it for the 
iirst son of the second son. 

Fig. 2. tlie c?'escent on the crescent for the 
second son of the second son, of the first house, 
and so on. See P. 10. Note, The label is borne 
by the eldest son whilst his father lives, to signify 
that he is but the third person, his father being 
one, his mother another, and himself being the 
third. Crescent, the second son, to show that he 
should increase the family by estate or reputation. 
Mullet, or spur-rowel, the third son, to show that 
he should follow chivalry. Martlet, the fourth 
son, because, expecting no patrimony, he should 
become a soldier, and defend castles, which were 
the only old fortifications ; in which castles mart- 
lets used to make their nests. Annulet, the fifth 
son, to remind him to achieve great actions ; the 
badge whereof was, in old times, jus aureorum 
annulorum. Fleur-de-lis, sixth son, to remind 
him of his country and prince. Rose, seventh 
son, to remind him to endeavour to flourish like 
that excellent flower. Moline, eighth son, to 
remember to gripe when he can fasten, seeing he 
has nothing else to which he may trust. Double 
Quatrefoil, ninth son, to express that he is re- 
moved from his eldest brother, and the succession, 
by eight degrees. 

Mackenz'ie, Science of Heraldry. P. 72. 

DisvELLOPED signifies displayed, as colour:* 


flying, or spread out, are in heraldry often said 
to be disveiloped. See P. 5, n. 1. Wyrley 
noteth in the life and death of the Capitol! de 
Bur, saying, " With threatening ax in hand I was 
at hand ; and my disveiloped penon me before."*' 

Dog. To no animal is mankind so much in- 
debted for services and affection as to the dog : 
among all the various orders of animal beings, no 
one has hitherto been found so entirely adapted 
to our use, and even to our protection, as thiss 
His diligence, his ardour, and his obedience, have 
been truly observed to be inexhaustible ; and his 
disposition is so friendly, that, unlike every other 
animal, he seems to remember only the benefits 
he receives ; he soon forgets our blows, and, in- 
stead of discovering resentment while we chastise 
him, he exposes himself to torture, and even licks 
the hand from whence it proceeds. Bingleys 
Anim. Biog. Oi\ a fess dancette, between three 
Talbots passcmt, sable, name, Carrack. 

Doge of Venice, Crown of. P. 8, n. 20. 

Dolphin is reckoned the king of fishes, and is 
used in several coats of arms : some authors sup- 
pose it is the emblem of friendship and prudence, 
because, when it apprehends a storm coming, it 
rises above the water, and swims towards the 
shore. The ancients invariably represent the 
dolphin with its back greatly incurvated. In 
their leaps out of the water they assume this form, 
but their natural shape is straight, the back being 
but slightly incurvated. Bingleys Ani7ti. Biog. 
P. 17, n. 2. The example in blazon is termed a 


dolphin fiaia7it cmbowed; but when a dolphin ap- 
ptjars in a coat straight, it is then termed a dolphin 
exf ended naiant ; when it is placed perpendicular, 
with its body in the form of a letter S, it is called 
springing and hauriejit ; but it is most usually 
blazoned a dolphin haurient torgued. Azure, a dol- 
phin haurient emboii)ed argent, name, Fitz-James, 
Dormant signifies sleeping, with the head rest- 
ing on the fore paws. T. 8, n. 19- Or, three lions 
dormant in pale sable, name, Lloyd, 
Dosser. See Water-Bouget. 
Double Dancette, a bend, according to 
Leigh ; the bend double dancette is a mark of 
bastardy- See P. 1, n. 13. Carter has this ex- 
ample, viz. azure a bend double dancette, argent, 
name, Lorks ; but makes no mention of the mark 
of bastardy. 

Double-IIeaded, a Lion. This instance is 
from Leigh, who says, the bearer did homage to 
two };)rinces (who both bore a lion rampant), for 
certain lands, by bearing a lion rampant with two 
heads, signifying the two princes he homaged. 
r. 15, n. 19. Or, a lion, double-headed, azure^ 
nariie. Sir John Mason. 

Double-Tailed, a lion rampant, double- 
tailed. P. 15, n. 18. Or, a lion double-tailed 
or queued, azure, name, IVandesford. 

DouBLE-FiTCHY, A Cross, cach extremity 
having two points. P. 6, n. 7. 

Double Parted, a Cross. P. 4, n. 16. 
Azure, a croas double parted, argent, name, 
Doubler, of Cheshire. 


Double-Plume, of ostrich feathers, is ge- 
neral! v composed o^ Jive at bottom, unA J'aur at 
top. "p. 15, 11.9. 

Double Rose. See P, 6, n. 21. 

Double Tressure, two tressures, one within 
the other. See Plate J, n. 9. 

Double Quatrefoil. The double quatrefoil 
is used as a distinction for the ninth brother. 
P. 10, n. 9- 

Doublings are the linings of.robes or mantles 
of state, or the mantlings in achievements. 

Dove is mild and meek, clean of kind, plen- 
teous in increase, friend of company, and forget- 
ful of wrongs. P. 11, n. 20. 

Dove displayed, viz. a dove displayed in the 
glory of the sun. P. 16, n. 12. 

Note, This bearing is a part of the arms of the 
Stationers' Company. 

Dove-Tail, one of the partition lines, wherein 
two different tinctures are set within one another, 
in form of doves' tails or wedges. T. 3. 

Dragon is an imaginary monster, but is used 
in heraldry, both in coatS; crests, and supporters. 
T. 8, n. 1. Gules, tliree dragons passant, in 
pale ermine, name, Blossun. 

Dragon's Head, in heraldry, is the colour 
tenne, or orange colour. 

Dragon's-Tail, in heraldry, is the term for 
sanguine or murrey, the colour of cold blood. 

Drawing-Iron, an instrument used by wire- 
drawers, and part of their armorial ensign. Sec 
P.6, n. 25. 


Ducal Coronet. See Crowns and Coronets 
of England. 

DuciPER, a term for a cap of maintenance. 
Dun-Fly. See Gad-Fly. 


Eagle. The eagle is accounted the king of 
birds, and signifies magnanimity and fortitude of 
mind, who seeks to combat with none but his 
equals. He disdains the possession of that pro- 
perty which is not the fruit of his own industry ; 
he seldom devours the whole of his game, but, 
like the lion, leaves the fragments and oiFals to 
the other animals. From his rising higher in the 
air than any of the winged race, he was termed 
by the ancients the celestial bird, and regarded 
as the messenger of Jupiter. The eagle was the 
tutelary bird and ensign of the Romans. Azure, 
an eagle displayed^ argefif, armed gules, name, 

Spread Eagle, signifies an eagle with two 
heads, as the example. Note, It is more heraldic 
to say, 071 eagle with tzw heads displaced. P. 14, 
n. SI. According to Forney, the reason why the 
Emperor of Germany bears an eagle with two 
necks, is this : on the union of the kingdom of 
Romania, now a province of Turkey in Europe, 
its arms, which were an eagle displai/ed sable, 
being the same as those of the emperor, were 
united into one body, leaving it two necks as 
they are now. ^ 


Eagle Displayed. This term is for a bird 
whose wings are expanded or displayed, T. 9, 
n. 21. 

Eaglet, when there are more than one eagle 
in a coat without some ordinary between them, 
then in blazon they are termed eaglets, or young 

Earl's Coronet. See Crowns and Coro- 
nets of England. 

Eastern Crown, so termed from its being 
like that formerly worn by the Jewish kings ; it 
was made of gold, with rays about it, as the 
example. P. 8, n. 2. 

Eel : the eel forms evidently a connecting link, 
in the chain of nature, between the serpent tribe 
and the fishes, possessing not only, in a great 
measure, the serpent form, but also many of its 
habits. Arge7it, three eels 7iaiant, in pale bar-' 
ways, sable, name, Ellis. 

Eel-Spear, an instrument used by fishermen 
for taking of eels. P. 17, n. 21, Sable, a che- 
vron beUveen three eel-spear Sy argent, name, 

Eguisce, a Cross, is that which has the two 
angles at the ends cut off so as to terminate in 
pomts. P. 6, n. 3. 

EiGHTFOiL, or double quatrefoil, is eight- 
leaved grass. Sylvanus Morgan gives this as a 
difference of the ninth branch of a family. See 
P.IO, n.9. 

Electoral Crown is a scarlet cap, faced with 
ermine, diademed with half a circle of gold, set 


with pearls, supporting a globe, with a cross o£ 
gold on the top. P. 8, n. 15. 

Elephant was, amongst the Persians, Egyp- 
tians, and Indians, the emblem of fidelity, justice, 
and piety ; and amongst the modern Arabs, Sia- 
mese, and Sumatrans, the emblem of magnani- 
mity, memory, and providence. In many of the 
Eastern countries, the white elephants are re- 
garded as the living manes of the Indian emperors. 
Each of these animals has a palace, a number of 
domestics, golden vessels filled with the choicest 
food, magnificent garments, and they are absolved 
from all labour and servitude. The emperor is 
the only personage before whom they bow the 
knee, and their salute is returned by the monarch. 
Bingleifs Anim. Biog. P. 14, n. 11. Gules an 
elephant passant argent^ armed or, name, El- 

Elevated, as wings elevated or erect signify 
the points of them turned upwards. See T. 10, 
n. 1. 

Embattled. See Imbattled. 

Embowed, a term for any thing bent or 
crooked like a bow, as the dolphin, T. 10, n. 6. 
A sinister arm couped at the shoulder, embowed. 
See P. 13, n. 18. 

Embrued, signifies a weapon, &c. that is 
bloody, viz. a spear head embrued gules. 

Emerald, a stone : it signifies in heraldry the 
colour vert or green. This stone was the first of 
' the second row of Aaron's breast-plate. Accord- 
ing to the poets, the emerald was the symbol of 
love and generation. 



Emew of the heralds, is the bird called by the 
naturahsts cassowary. 

Enaluron, for a border charged with birds. 
Note, The blazon would be more plain, and 
better understood, viz. on a border azure, eight 
martlets or. P. 2, n. 9- 

Endorse is the fourth of the pale, seldom 
borne but when a pale is between two of them. 
T. 4, n. 4. 

Enfiled, when the head of a man, or beast, 
or any other charge, is placed on the blade of a 
sword, the sword is said to be erifiled with a 
head, &c. 

Engrailed, a line of partition, by which or- 
dinaries are diversified, composed of semicircles, 
the teeth or points of which enter the field. T. 
3. Also a bordure. See T. 5, n. 10. 

Engrossing-Block, a tool made use of by 
the wire-drawers. P. 1, n. 14. 

Enhansed, is when an ordinary is placed 
above its usual situation, which chiefly happens 
to the bend and its diminutives, viz. argent, three 
bendlets, enhansed gules, name, Byron. P. 7, 
n. 29. 

Engoulee, a Cross, a term for crosses, sal- 
tires, &c. when their extremities enter tjie mouths 
of lions, leopards, &c. P. 6, n. 23. 

Enmanche. See Manche. 

Ensigned signifies ornamented, as in the ex- 
ample, a mayts heart g;2des, ensigned with a croxvn 
or. See Plate C, n. 32. 

Ente signifies grafted or ingrafted. This 
term is used in the fourth grand quarter of his 


Majesty's arras, viz. Brimswick and Lunenhurgh 
impaled with Saxony^ ente en-pointe^ that is, 
grafted in point. 

Entoyer, for a bordure charged with dead or 
artificial things, to the number of eight. P. 3, 
n. 13. Note, The most approved method is to 
say, argent, a border sable, charged with eight 
plates, mentioning their number. 

Entrailed, a Cross. P. 7, n. 20. Lee says, 
the colour is not named, for it is always sable, 
and is no bigger than touched with a pencil or 
tricked with a pen. O, on a chev. S a Jleur-de- 
Us accompanied by two stags'* heads caboshcd be- 
tween three crosses, entrailed of the second, name. 
Carver. See P. 7, n. 20. 

Enurney, for a bordure charged with beasts. 
P. 3, n. 10. Note, The same may be observed 
here as before to the term entoyer, viz. argent a 
border, gules charged with eight lions passant^ 
of the first. 

Envelloped. See Enwrapped. 

Enwrapped, viz. a child's head couped below 
the shoulders, enwrapped about the neck with a 
snake: some say envelloped. Plate H, n. 21. 

Epaulier, the shoulder-plate of armour. 

Eradicated, a term for a tree or plant torn 
up by the root. See Plate C, n. 22. 

Erased, is when the head or limb of any 
creature is violently torn from the body, so that 
it appears jagged. T. 8, n. 17. Argent, a lio7fs 
head, erased gides, name, Govts. 

Note, When boars\ bears'*^ w(^ves\ whales' and 



otters^ heads f are erased close to the head, as the 
example, P. 3, n. 4, it is termed erased close, to 
distinguish it from a boar*s head erased, as P. 3, 

Erect signifies any thing upright or perpen- 
dicularly elevated, as T. 10, n. 1. 

Ermine is black spots on a white field. T. 2, 
n. 1. Sir G. Mackenzie says, The first user of this 
furr in arms was Brutus, the son of Silvius, who, 
having by accident killed his father, left that un- 
happie ground, and travelling in Bretaigne in 
France, fell asleep, and when he awoke, he found 
this little beast upon his shield, and from that 
time wore a shield ermine. 

Ermine, a Cross, or four ermine spots in 
cross. T. 6, n. 13. 

Ermine are white spots on a black field. T. 2. 
Erminites is the field white, and the spots 
black, with one red hair on each side. 

Erminois is the field gold, and the spots black. 
T.2, n.3. 

ISiote, The French say, d^or seme dliermincs 
de sable. And I would ask (says Coates, in his 
Dictionary of Heraldry) the most strenuous of 
my countrymen, if their method, as it is intel- 
ligible, is not preferable; and how, in case of 
need, they would write to be understood in an- 
other country, or language, as we understand 
them ? I am sure they must take other measures, 
or be laughed at upon such an occasion ; and I do 
not see but that reason looks to the full as well in 
England as any where. . 


Escallop- Shell was the pilgrims'' ensign in 
their expeditions and pilgrimages to holy places ; 
they vvere worn on their hoods and hats, and 
were of such a distinguishing character that Pope 
Alexander the Fourth, by a bull, discharged 
giving the use of them but to pilgrims who were 
truly noble ; and are now become of frequent use 
in armory. P. 1^, n. 2. Sahle an escallop-shell 
argent, name, Tr avers, 

EscARBUNCLE, a precious stone, resembling a 
burning coal in its lustre or colour; it was the 
third of the first row of precious stones in Aaron's 
breast-plate, whereon the name o^ Levi was en- 
graved, to show that divine knowledge should 
shine in the priests of the Lord, to illuminate the 
church. It is an ancient, but a vulgar error, to 
say an escarbuncle gives light in the dark. The 
ancient heralds drew Has in the pi ate ^ to express 
those rays which issue from the centre, ivhich is 
the stone. T. 7, n. 18. 

EscROL. See Scroll. 

Escutcheon, or shield, in arms, is meant the 
original shield used in war, and on which arms 
were originally borne : the surface of the escut- 
cheon is termed the field, because it contains such 
honourable marks as anciently were acquired in 
the field. 

Points of the Escutcheon express certain 
points or locations, in which the figures or charges 
of the field happen to be particularly placed ; the 
shield is said to represent the body of a man, and 


Jias its parts taken therefrom, as by the example, 
T. 1. A. signifies that part to be the dexter, or 
right hand chief; B. the precise middle chief; 
C. the sinister^ or left hand chief; D. the collar, 
or honour point., in regard that eminent men, as 
knights of the garter, thistle, &c. wear their 
badges of honour about their necks; in like 
manner is E. called the heart, or Jess point, as 
being the exact middle of the shield; F. the 
nombril, or navel point; G. H. T. the dexter^ 
middle^ and sinister base points; whence par- 
ticular heed ought to be had thereto for the more 
plain describing the position or seat of the thing 
borne; for the same figure, in the very same 
tinctures, borne in different points of the escut- 
cheon, renders those bearings as many different 
arms. Note, The dexter side of the escutcheon 
answers to the left hand, and the sinister side to 
the right hand of the person that looks on it. See 
the example, T. 1. Note, The use of these points 
is to difference coats exactly ; for an arms having 
a lion in chief differs from those which have a 
Hon in base; but where bearings are described 
without expressing the point where they are to 
be placed, they are then understood to possess the 
centre of the shield. Guillim. Note, The honour 
and nombril points are, by Randle Holme, and 
other heralds, reckoned superfluous and unne- 
cessary, as being seldom, if ever, used. 

Escutcheon of Pretence is that escutcheon 
in which a man bears the coat of arms of his wife, 

TART ir. HERALDllY. 161 

being an heiress ; it is placed in the centre of the 
man's coat, and thereby show^th his pretensions 
to her lands, by his marriage, accrued to him and 
the heirs of his body. See P. 13, n. 4. 

Esprit, St. ; Cross of. This cross is worn by 
the knights of that order in France. P. 4, n. 22. 

EsTOiLE, or star, differs from the mullet by 
having six waved points, for those of the mullet 
consist of five plain points. T. 7, n. 2. Guillim 
says, if the number of points be more than six, 
the number must be expressed. 

Expanded, or Expansed. See Displayed. 

Eyes are borne in armory, and are emblems 
of vigilance and vivacity : harry nehule of six 
pieces, azure and argent, on a chief of tJie second, 
three eyes gules, name, De La Hay, of Ireland. 


Face. See Fess. 

Falchion, a kind of broad sword. P. 5, n. 10. 
See another, P. 20, n. 17, termed an ancient 
English falchion. 

Falcon, in heraldry, is usually represented 
with bells tied on his legs : when decorated with 
hood, bells, virols, (or rings), and leishes, then, in 
blazon he is said to be, hoodedy belled, jessed and 
leished, and the colours thereof must be named. 
Hawking, or falconry, though now disused, was 
one of the principal sports of our ancestors. A 
person of rank scarce went out without his hawk 
on his hand, which, in old paintings, is the criterion 
of nobility. The falcon and bj^irrowhawk were 



consecrated to Horu?. T. 9, n. 20. Sable a falcon 
with witfgs expanded o?-, name, Feche, of Sussex. 

Fan. See Winnowing Basket. 

Fang Tooth. See P. 22, n. 5. Azure, three 
Jang teeth in Jess or. name, Bathor. 

Fer de Fourciiette, a Cross, so termed, by 
having at each end a forked iron, Uke that for- 
merly used by soldiers to rest their muskets oa. 
P. 6, n. 18. 

Fermaile, or Fermeau, signifies a buckle. 

Fess Point is the centre of the escutcheon. 
See T.l, letter E. 

Fess, one of the honourable ordinaries, and 
contains a third of the field ; some authors say, it 
was a belt of honour, given as a reward by kings, 
&c. for services in the army. T. 4, n. 13. 

Fess Bretessed, has the same indents as 
counter-embattled ; but the example has both 
sides equal to cacli other. P. 13, n. 6. Or, a 
fiss bretessed gules ^ name, Crebott, of Sussex. 

Per Fess is v»'hen the field or charge is equally 
divided by a horizontal line. Part?/ per Jess, or 
and azure , name, Zusto, of Venice. T. 3, n. 3. 

Per Fess and Pale, signifies the field to be 
divided into three parts, by the fess line, and the 
pale line, from the fess point to the middle base 
point. P. 3, n. 30. 

Fesse Target, an ancient term for an escut- 
cheon of pretence. 

Fessely^ an ancient term for parti/ per fess. 

Fetlock, a horse fetlock. P. 5, n. 15. 

Fettered. See Spancelled. 


Field is the surface of the escutcheon or shield, 
which contains the charge or charges, and must 
be the first thing mentioned in blazoning. 

Figured is those bearings which are depicted 
with a human face, as Plate C. n. 25. 

File. See Label. 

Fillet is an ordinary, which, according to 
Guillim, contains the fourth part of a chief. 

Fimbriated, a Cross, having a narrow bor- 
dure or hem, of another tincture. See P. 6, n. 2. 

Fire, in heraldry, signifies those who being am- 
bitious of honour, perform brave actions, with an 
ardent courage, in the service of their prince and 
country. A rgent a chevron voided, azure ^ between 
three flames of fire 'proper^ name, Wells, Plate C. 
n. 26. 

Fire-Ball, grenade or bomb, inflamed proper. 
P. 12, n. 14. 

Fire-Beacon. This is by some ancient he- 
ralds termed a rack-pole beacon. See P. 12, n. 4. 
P. 2, n. 16. 

Fire-Beacon, termed so by some ancient 
writers. Edmondson thinks the example, (P. 3, 
n.8,) should be blazoned, a fire chest ; such chests, 
made of iron, and filled with fire, anciently used 
to warm the inside of large halls. 

Fire-Brand, viz. a fire-brand inflamed proper. 
P. 7, n, 27. ^otey Fire-brands in armory, arc 
generally represented raguly. 

Fire-Bucket, P. 20, n. 20. Argent^ three 
such Imckds, sable, name, Taine. 


FiiiME, a term for a cross pattee throughout. 
SeeP. 16, 11.9. 

Fish-hook, P. 20, n. 15. Sable ^ a chevron^ 
between three jish-hoohs argent^ name, Medville, 

Fish-Wheel, P. 15, n. 30, or, a chevt'on be- 
tween three Jish-wlieels sable ^ name, Foleborne, 

Fitch r signifies fixed ; this term is used for 
crosses, when the lower branch ends in a sharp i 
point, and was used by the primitive Christians to 
fix in the ground for devotion, viz. a crots-croslet 
Jitchy^ as T. 6, n. 11. 

Double Fitchy, a Cross, each extremity 
having two points. P. 6, n. 7. 

Flanches. The flanch is composed of an 
arched line, drawn from the upper angle of the 
escutcheon to the base point of one side, and so 
on to the other, the arches almost meeting in the 
middle of the field. Flanches are never borne 
single, but in couples, and always in the flanks of 
the shields. T. 5, n. 2. Ermine, a star of eight 
rays, or, between two jlanches sable, name. Sir 
John Hobart, of Norfolk. 

Flank is that part of an escutcheon which is 
between the chief and the base. 

Flasques are like the flanch, but smaller, and, 
by some authors, given as a reward for virtue and 
learning, P. 7, n. 6. Note, Gibbon aflirms that 
the flasque and the flanch are one and the same. 

Flax-Breaker. See Hemp Break. 
Fleam, an instrument used by farriers in bleed- 
ing horses; some ancient heralds represent them. 


as P. 1, n. 16. Others term them crampoons, or 
cramps of iron, for fixing blocks of stone together. 

FlecxME, or Fleam, an ancient lancet, is borne 
in the arms of the Company of Surgeons. P. 19, 

Flesh-Pot, argent. See P. 1% n. 15. Argent 
three Jlesh-pots gules, with two handles, name 
Mmmbowch ier. 

Flexed signifies bent, as the example, Plate C, 
n. 21, viz. three deocter arms conjoined at the 
shoulders, andfiexed in triangle or, with thejists 
clenched proper, name, Tremaine. 

Fleur-de-Lis. By some this flower is called 
the lily, or flower of the flag, and has only three 
leaves, by which it differs from the lily of the 
garden, that having always five ; others suppose 
it to be the top of a sceptre ; some the head of the 
French battle- axe; others the iron of a javelin used 
by the ancient French. Dr. Orwade says, many 
of the deceased antiquaries, as well as some of the 
present day, have thought, and do think, that it 
was originally meant to represent that flower from 
which it derives its name, Gent. Mag. July 1806. 
P. 12, n. 19. Azure a fleur-de-lis argent, name, 

Fleury, a Cross. This cross is differenced 
from the cross-flory, by its having a line between 
the ends of the cross and the flowers, which that 
has not. P. 4, n. 32. 

Float, an instrument used by the bowyers, and 
borne as part of their armorial ensign. P. 1, 
n. 10. 


Flook, an Irish term for a large Jiouiidcr. 

Flory, signifies flowered with the French 

Flory, a Cross, differs from the patonce, by 
having the flowers at the ends circumflex and turn- 
ing down. T. 6, n. 3. Azure, a cross jiory ar^ 
gent, name, Florence. 

Flotant, to express any thing flying in the air, , 
as a banner flotant. 

Flying Fish. This fish, if we except its head 
and flat back, has, in the form of its body, a great 
resemblance to the herring. The scales are large 
and silvery; the pectoral fins are very long; and 
the dorsal fin is small, and placed near the tail, 
which is forked. It inhabits the European, the 
American, and the Red Seas ; but is chiefly found 
between the tropics. These fish were known to 
the ancients ; for Phny mentions them under the 
name ofHirundo, and relates their faculty of fly- 
ing. P. 19, n. 8. 

FoRCENE, signifies a horse rearing or standing 
on his hinder legs. P. 11, n. 4.< 

FoRMEE. See Pattee. 

Foreign Crowns. See Crowns Foreign. 

Fountain : we find fountains borne hyStourton 
of Stourton, being a bend betzveen six fountains ^ 
in signification of six springs, whereof the river 
Sture,in Wiltshire, hath its beginning, and passeth 
along to Stourton, the head of that barony. Note, 
The fountain is draw7i as a rou7idle, barry xvavy 
i)f siiV, argent and azure. T. 7, n. 10. 

FouRCHY, A Cross, signifies forked at the ends, 


or divided. P. 6, n. 8. Per pale, or and vert, a 
cross four cliy gules, name, Sir John Hingham. 

Fox, hath a pregnant wit, and is subtile ; it may 
properly represent those who have done signal 
service to their prince and country, upon embas- 
sies, &c. where there is more use for wit and dex- 
terity than for strength or valour. P. 11, n. 15. 

Frasier, in French, signifies a strawberry plant. 
Note, This word is used by the heralds of Scotland 
in blazoning the coat o^ FraseVfUi allusion to the 
family name. It is by other heralds termed a 

French-Crown, is a circle, decorated with 
stones, and heightened up with eight arched dia- 
dems, arising from as many fleurs-de-lis, that con- 
join at the top under a fleur-de-lis, all of gold. 
P. 8, n.7. 

Fret, a figure resembling two sticks lying sal- 
tireways, and interlaced within a mascle, by some 
termed Harrington's Knot, others the Herald's 
True Lover's Knot. T. 5, n. 6. Sahle, a fret or, 
name, Maltravers. 

Fretted, a Cross, fretted and pointed in form 
of five mascles. P. 4, n. 13. 

Fretted in triangle. See P. 14, n. 28. 
Azure, three trouts, fretted in triangle^ head or, 
tail argent, name, Trowtehech. 

Fretty. The ancients used a moveable tower 
builtof wood, and of such a height, that the towers 
of them overlooked the battlements of the city ; 
they were covered with raw hides, to prevent their 


being burnt, and had also a net-work of ropes 
which hung before them, in order to deaden the 
violence of the stones that were thrown against 
them by the besieged ; the net- work seems to be 
what fretty was originally taken from. See CoU 
Iyer's History of England^ vol. 3, p. 47, and the 
example, T. 5, n. 24. 

Fructed, a term given in blazon to all trees 
bearing fruit. 

FuRCHY, signifies a tail forked, some say queue 

Furnished, a term for a horse when bridled,^^ 
saddled, and completely caparisoned. 

Furs, is the artificial trimming or furring of 
robes and garments of the nobility, &c. likewise 
in coat-armour. Mackenzie says shields were co- 
vered with skins, which coverings gave occasion 
to furs or skins now in mention, and this is a better 
reason for their being in shields than to say, be- 
cause they were used in mantles and garments. 

Fusil, derived from the French woxA fusee, a 
spindle; it is longer and more acute than the 
lozenge. T. 6, n. 18. Ermine, three fusils in 
fesse sable, name, Pigot. 

Fusil, or a spindle of yarn. P. 2, n. 14. 

FusiLLY, is when the field or charge is filled 
with fusils. P. 3, n. 28. Fusilly argent and 
gules, is the arms of Gemaldi de Monaco, in 




Gads are plates of steel, and borne as a part of 
the arms of the Ironmongers' Company. P. 1, 
n. 11. 

Gad-Bee or Gad-Fly; this fly maketh a hum- 
ming noise when he flieth ; by some called the 
duii-Jly^ by others the horse-fly^ which in summer 
so much torments cattle. Sable, three gad-bees 
volant argent, name, Burning-hilL P. 11, n. 23. 

Gallie. See Lymphad. 

Gal-Trap, or Caltrap, used in war, when 
thrown in the way, to gall horses, which they do, 
always having one point upright. T. 7, n. S. 
Argent, three gal-traps sable, name, Trapps. 

Gamb, so termed when the whole fore leg of a 
lion, or other beast, is borne in arms. See Plate 

C. n. 1. Note, If it is couped or erazed near the 
middle joint, then it is called a paw. See Plate 

D. n. 22. 

Garb, for a sheaf of wheat or any other grain : 
it signifies plenty, community, friendship, and is 
a type of the resurrection. T. 7, n. 14. 

Gardant, signifying a beast full-faced, look- 
ing right forward, guarding, preserving, &c. T. 
9, n. I. 

Garde-visure is that part of the helmet 
which is the safeguard and defence of the face 
and eyes. 

Garland, a wreath of leaves or flowers. 

Garnished signifies the ornament set on any 
charge whatsoever. 


Garter, the half of a bendlet. T. 4, n. 7. 

Gauntlet, an iron glove that covered the hand 
of a cavalier, when armed cap-a-jjee : gauntlets 
were introduced about the thirteenth century; the 
casque and these were always borne in the ancient 
processions ; gauntlets \f ere frequently thrown like 
the glove by way of challenge. P. % n. 21, and 
P. 22, n. 24. Note^ In blazon you must always 
add the word dexter or sinister^ as the charge 
happens to be. 

At Gaze, when a beast of chase, as the hart, 
looks full at you. T. 9, n. 13. 

Ged, a Scotch term, for the fish called a Pike. 
Azure, three geds^ hauriant argent, name, Ged. 

Gemells, and Gemevi^s. See Bar-Gemels. 

Genovilier, a piece of armour that covers the 

Gerattie, an ancient term for powderings. 

Gilly-Flower, properly July flower, of a 
blood-red colour. P. IjU. 12. Argent, thr ee gilly- 
flowers^ slipped proper, name, Jorney. 

Gimbal-Rings. p. 20, n. 8. Argent, on a 
bend sable, three triple gimbal-rings, or, name 
Hawberke, of Leicestershire. Sylvanus Morgan 
says, it will be more heraldic to say, three aunuUts 
interlaced in triangie. 

GiMMAL, or Gemmow Ring, is a ring of double 
hoops, made to play into each other, and so to 
join two hands, and thus serves for a wedding 
ring, which pairs the parties. The name is derived 
from Gemellus^ Latin, Jumeau French. 

Giraffe. See Camelopardalis. 


GiRON. See Gyron. 

Glaive, or G leave. See Javelin. 

Glaziers' Nippers, or grater, is part of the 
arms of the Glaziers. P. 19, n. 4. 

Gliding; this term is used for serpents, snakes^ 
or adders, when moving forwards fesswise. 

Goat: it is found, in a domestic state, in most 
parts of the globe, being able to bear the extremes 
both of heat and cold ; it is playful and easily fa- 
miliarized ; in its fight, it is not so hardy as politic; 
therefore a martial man that useth more policy 
than valour in achieving a victory, may very aptly 
bear for his coat-armour this beast. P. 14, n. S^. 
Gules, a goat passant argent^ name, Baker. 

Gobony, or Gobonated, is always of one row 
of squares and no more. T. 5, n. IS. 

Golden-Fleece is the skin of a sheep, with 
its head and feet, hung up by its middle at a ring 
in a collar, as the example, P. 11, n. 8 : it is worn 
by the knights of that order in Spain, instituted 
by Philip duke of Burgundy, in memory of 
Gideon's fleece. 

GoLPS are roundles of the purple tincture. T. 
8, n. 15. 

GoNFANXON, a banner, standard, or ensign. 
The gonfannon is borne as an armorial figure, or 
common charge, by families abroad, upon the ac- 
count they have been gonfaloniers, i. e. standard- 
bearers, to the church, as the Counts qf'Auvergne^ 
in France. Or, a o-oiifannon gules, Jringed vert, 
P. % n. 28. 


Gorge, a term in Leigh for a water-bouget. 

Gouged signifies a lion or other animal having 
a crown of a peculiar form about its neck. 

Gorget, a piece of armour worn round the 
neck, the origin of that which officers now wear 
when on duty. 

Gradient, a term applied to a tortoise walking. 

Grain-Tree. P. 19, n. W. Three sprigs of 
this tree is the crest of the Dyers' Company. 

Grand Seignior's Crown is a turban, en- 
riched with pearls and diamonds. P. 8, n. 6. 

Grappling-Tron. p. 15, n. 28. Azure^a chev- 
ron or, between three grappling-irofis of three 
Jlukes, double ringed at the top, name Stewins. 

Grasshopper. Amonsjst the Athenians grass- 
hoppers were so much esteemed, that they wore 
gold ones in their hair, to denote their national 
antiquity, or that, like the Cicadas, they were the 
first-born of the earth. Among the Egyptians, 
the hieroglyphic of music. P. 12, n. 5. 

Gray, a term for a Badger. See Badger. 

Greave, that part of armour that covers the 
leg from the knee to the foot. 

Greces signifies steps, viz. a cross on three 
greces. See P. 4, n. 19. 

Grey-Hound. See P. 22, n. 20. 

Grices, young wild boars ; sometimes boars are 
blazoned Grices^ in allusion to the bearer's name, 

Gridiron. P. 7, n. 19- Argent^ a clievron^ 
between three gridirons, sable, names, Laurence 
and Scott. 


Griffin is used in heraldry, but is an imaginary 
animal, never to be found but in painting; feigned 
by the ancients to be half an eagle, and the other 
half a lion ; devised to express strength and swift- 
ness joined together, P. 7, n. 13. Argent a grtf- 
jin rampanty azure, beaked or, name, Culcheth, 
Note, Nisbet says, those who have been or are vas- 
sals, and bear a lion for their arms, whose lords 
bear eagles, do frequently carry this creature, as 
composed of both. Philipot says, a griffin being 
a complicated mixture of eagle and lion, was the 
hieroglyphic of perspicacity and courage; its wings 
denoted its celerity ; its beak its tenacity ; and its 
talons its fury and rapacity. 

Griffin, male : this chimerical creature is half 
an eagle and half a lion, having large ears, but no 
wings : (we may say it owes its being to the he- 
ralds.) P. 7, n. 2. 

Gringollee, a Cross, a term for crosses, sal- 
tiers, &c. whose extremities end with the heads of 
serpents. P. 6, n. 12. 

Grittie, a term for a field composed equally 
of metal and colour. 

Gules signify the colour red, and in engraving 
is represented by perpendicular hues. T. 2. Note, 
Ghul, in the Persian language, signifies a rose, or 
rose-colour. G. Mag. Oct. 1798, p. 845. 

Gun Stone, an ancient term for pellet. 

GuRGES, or a whirlpool. This is the arms of the 
family named Gorges. See P. 5, n. 6. Note, The 
whirlpool is alv/ays borne proper, therefore there 
is no occasion ibr naming of the field, because the 

• q3 


whole is azure and argent^ and takes up all the 
field, representing the rapid motion of the water 
turning round. 

Gutty, or guttee, from the Latin ^w^^fl^, a drop, 
is said of a field, or bearing, filled with drops. 
T. 8, n. 8. When these figures are black, they 
signify drops of pitch, which in blazon are termed 
gutty de poix ; so when blue, gutty de larmes, de- 
noting drops of tears ; when white, gutty d'eau^ 
signifying drops of water ; when yellow, gutty 
dHor^ denoting drops of liquid gold ; when green, 
gutty de vert, as signifying the drops of oil olive; 
and when red, gutty de sang^ as representing 
drops of blood ; their form or shape is the same, 
only the colours change their names. Note, The 
French use none of the before-mentioned varia- 
tions, but say gutte of such a colour. 

GuzES are roundles, of the sanguine murrey or 

Gyron signifies a gore in a robe, gown, or coat 
of armour, used by the ancients. T. 5, n. 1. 
Porney says, this term is the French for bosom, 
and these figures are called gyro?is because they 
meet in the centre or bosom of the shield. IVle- 
nestrier gives examples of gyrons in the arms of 
Glron in Spain, of which family are descended the 
Dukes of Ossone, who carry three gyrons in their 
arms, which, he says, represent three triangular 
pieces of stuflP, or gussets, of the coat-armour of 
Alphonsus the Sixth, king of Spain, who, fighting 
in battle against the Moors, had his horse killed ; 
and, being in danger, wasrescued, and remounted, 


by Don Roderico de Cissneres, upon his horse, 
who, in the time, cut off three triangular pieces, 
or gussets, of the king's coat-armour, which he 
kept as a testimony, to show the king afterwards, 
that he was the man who saved him : for which 
the king advanced him to honour, and honoured 
his armorial bearing with three gyrons, P. 6, n. 1 ; 
and adorned it with a horse for a crest, to perpe- 
tuate to posterity the relief he gave the king. 
Note, When there is only one gyron in a coat, you 
may blazon thus, argent, a gyron sable, without 
mentioning the point from whence it issues, the 
dexter chief point being the usual fixed place. 
But if it stand in any other part of the shield, it 
must then be expressed. 

Gyronny is where a field is divided into six, 
eight, ten, or twelve, triangular parts, of two dif- 
ferent tinctures, and the points all uniting in the 
centre of the field ; gyrons signify unity, because 
theyare never borne single. T. 5, n. 23. Gyronnij 
of eighty argent and sable, name, Mazvgyron, 


Ha BECK, an instrument used by the clothiers 
in dressing cloth, two of them differing from each 
other in form, as P. 5, n. 9. That on the dexter 
is copied from the tool, which is invariably made 
in that form ; the other on the sinister, shows the 
form in which it is painted in the arms of the Clo- 
thiers' Company. 

Habergeon, a short coat of mail, consisting of 
a jacket without sleeves. P. 1, n. 17. 


Hail. See Weare. 

Half-Belt. P. 1, n. 3. Gules, two half-beUs 
and bucJiieSf argent, name, Pelham. 

Half-Spear, a term for a spear with a short 
handle. P.l, n.l8. 

Half-Spade. Azure, three half-spades or, the 
sides of the spade to the sinister. P. 5, n. 16. 
name, Davenport. 

Hand Dexter, the right hand. P. 7, n. 32. 

Hand Sinister, the l^t hand. P. 7, n. 33. 

Hands, in heraldry, signify power, equity, fide- 
lity. The hand is the pledge of friendship and 
fidelity, which was in ancient times confirmed by 
shaking of hands. Argent three sinister hands, 
couped at the wrist gules, name, Maynard. P. 22, 
n. 19. 

Harp, a musical instrument, commonly called 
a Welsh harp. By the harp, says Pierius, men 
used to signify a man of a stayed, well composed, 
and tempered judgment, because therein are con- 
joined diverse distinct sounds in note or accent ; 
which office man seemeth to perform when he 
doth moderate and reconcile his disordered and 
repugnant affections unto reason. P. 12, n. 17. 
The arms of the kingdom of Ireland are azure, a 
harp or, stringed ai^gent. King James was the first 
king of England that introduced the harp into the 
royal achievement of England, l^ote, Morgan 
says, the inventor of the harp was Mercury, who 
finding a tortoise by the side of the river Nylus, 
whose flesh was dried up, having been left upon 
the land, he struck the sinews thereof, which 


made a musical sound, and thereof he framed a 

Harpoon, an instrument used for spearing of 
whales. P. 5, n. T. 

Harpy, a poetical monster, feigned to have the 
face of a virgin, and body and legs like a vulture. 
T. 8, n. 2. Azure a haryy with her icings dis- 
closed, her hair Jlotant or^ armed of the same. 
This coat standeth in Huntingdon church. 

Harrington Knot, a badge of the family of 
Harrington. See P. 15, n. 33. 

Harrows, are instruments used in husbandry. 
Ermine, three triangular harrows, conjoined in 
the nombril point gules, with a wreath argent, 
and of the second toothed or, name, Harrow. P. 
18, n. 11. 

Harvest-Fly. Sable, a harvest-Jly in pale, 
volant, argent, name, Bolowre. P. 11, n. 29>. Mr. 
Spence,in his Polymetis, says, the butterfly is used 
by the Greek artists as an emblem of the human 
soul ; this emblem points out the survival and li- 
berty of the soul after its separation from the body 
in a stronger manner, than an animal which is first 
a creeping insect, and after dropping its slough, 
becomes (by an amazing change) a light, airy, 
flying, free and happy creature. 

Hat-Band. P. 20, n. 21. Gides, a chevron 
between three hat-hands argent, name, Maynes, 

Hatchment is the coat of arms of a person 
dead, being usually placed on the front of a house. 
See Hatchments, Plate K. 

Hauberk or twisted coat of piail. 


Hauriant, a term to express any fish erect, or 
upright, as if they were refreshing themselves by 
sucking in the air. T. 10, n. 4. 

Hawk, a bird of prey, and for its size a very 
bold and courageous bird, much used in heraldry, n. SO. The hawk was an Egyptian emblem 
of the sun and of light, on account of his rapid 
flight, and his soaring into the highest regions of 
the air, where light abounds. Volney, 

Hawk's Bell is of great antiquity, being worn 
by the high-priests of the Hebrews on the skirts 
of their upper garments in divine worship. P. 14, 
n. 35. Or^ on a Jess azure^ three JiawJcs' bells of 
thejirsf, name, Planke. 

Hawk's Lure. See Lure. 

Hay-Fork. P. 17, n. 8. Argent, a hay-fork 
between three mullets sable, is the arms of Baron 

Head in Profile, the head and side face 
couped at the neck. See P. 13, n. 21. 

Hearts, in heraldry, were given to denote the 
valour or sincerity of the be^irer, when arms were 
the reward of virtue. Gules, a chevron argent, 
between three hearts or, name, Frehody, Note, 
The heart is blazoned a human heart, and some- 
times a body heay^t. The ancients used to hang^ 
the figure of a heart with a chain from the neck 
upon the breast, signifying a man of sincerity. 
See P. 22, n. 21. 

Heath-Cock. p. 19, n. 18. 

Hedge-Hog, according to Guillim, signifies a 
man expert in gatheringof substance, and one that 


providently layetli hold upon proffered oppor- 
tunity, so, by making hay whilst the sun shines, 
preventeth future want. The Calmuck Tartars 
use these animals in their huts instead of cats. 
Azure, three hed^e-hogs^ or, name, Ahrahall and 
Herris. P. 11, n. 6. 

Helmets. The helmet is armour for the head, 
which the ancients used to ornament according to 
the degree of nobihty, with buckles, studs, and 
-circles of gold, and decorated with jewels: and our 
manner of bearing crests thereon is from the an- 
cient fancy of the Greeks and Romans, who used 
to adorn them with some kind of monstrous de- 
vice, as the head, mouth, or paw of a lion, to make 
them appear more terrible. P. 10. 

The first is the helmet of a king, prince, or 
duke, and is full forward, open-faced, and garde- 

The second is the helmet of a marquis, carl, 
viscount, and baron, which is in profile, open- 
faced, and garde-visure. 

The third helmet, standing direct forward, with 
the beaver open, and without guards, for a knight 
or baronet. 

The fourth is a helmet sideways, with the beaver 
close, which is for all esquires and gentlemen. 
l^ote^ The helmets were copied from originals in 
the Tower. 

l>iote. If two helmets are to be placed on the top 
of a shield, for the crests to be thereon, they must 
be placed facing one another, as if two persons 
were looking at each other ; buW if three helmets 


are to be placed as before mentioned, the middle- 
most must stand directly forward, and the other 
two on the side facing towards it, like two persons 
looking upon the third. 

Herce. See Harrow. 

HiAciNTH. See Hyacinth. 

Hieroglyphics. Sir Isaac Newton, speaking 
of the time of Cambyses, saith, in those days the 
writing of the Thebans and ^Ethiopians was in 
hieroglyphics ; and this way of writing seems to 
have spread into the Lower Egypt, before the days 
of Moses ; for thence came the worship of their 
gods in the various shapes of birds, beasts, and 
fishes, forbidden in the second commandment. 
Now this emblematical way of writing gave occa- 
sion to the Thebans and ^Ethiopians, who, in the 
days of Samuel, David, Solomon, and Rehoboam, 
conquered Egypt and the nations round about, and 
erected a great empire, to represent and signify 
their conc^uering kings and princes, not by writing 
down then* names, but by making various hiero- 
glyphical figures ; as by painting Ammon with 
ram's horns, to signify a king who conquered Libya, 
a country abounding with sheep ; his father Amosis 
with a scythe, to signify that king who conquered 
the Lower Egypt, a country abounding with corn ; 
his son Osiris, by an ox, because he taught the 
conquered nations to plough with oxen : Bacchus 
with bulls' horns, for the same reason ; and with 
grapes, because he taught the nations to plant 
vines ; and upon a tiger, because he subdued In- 
dia ; Orus, the son of Osiris, with a harp, to signify 


the prince who was eminently skilled on that in- 
strument ; Jupiter upon an eagle, to signify the 
sublimity of his dominion, and with a thunderbolt, 
to represent him a warrior ; Venus in a chariot 
drawn by doves, to represent her amorous and 
lustful ; Neptune with a trident, to signify the 
commander of a fleet, composed of three squa- 
drons ; jEgaeon, a giant with 50 heads and 100 
hands, to signify Neptune with his men in a ship 
of 50 oars; Thoth, with a dog's head, and wings 
at his cap and feet, and a caduceus writhed about 
with two serpents, to signify a man of craft, and 
an ambassador who reconciled two contending na- 
tions ; Pan, with a pipe and the legs of a goat, to 
signify a man delighted with piping and dancing; 
Hercules with pillars and a club, because Sesostris 
set up pillars in all his conquests, and fought 
against Libyans with clubs. Now from this hie- 
roglypliical way of writing, it came to pass, that, 
upon the division of Egypt into nomes by Seso- 
stris, the' great men of the kingdom, to whom the 
nomes were dedicated, w^ere represented in their 
sepulchres or temples of the nomes, by various 
hieroglyphics; as by an o:v, a cat, a dog, a cebus, a 
goat, a lion, a scarabasus, an ichneumon, a cro- 
codile, a hippopotamus, an oxyrijichus, an ibis, 
a crow, a hawJc, a leek ; and were worshipped by 
the nomes in the shapes of these creatures. Newt. 
Chron. p. 2^5. 

Hemp-Break, an instrument to make hemp 
soft and fit for use. P. S. n. 10. Argent, three 

• R 


hemp-hreaks sable, name Hampsone or Hmnston, 
alderman of London. 

HiLTED, a term for the handle of a sword. 

Holy Lamb. See Lamb. 

Honour-Point is that point next above the 
centre of the shield, and is expressed by the letter 
D, table 1. 

Horse is a favourite beast among all nations, 
as being more useful to man than any other of the 
creation, either in peace or war, service or plea- 
sure ; naturally courageous, haughty, jealous of 
being outdone by another, tractable, docile and 
fleet ; very beautiful, and knows his master ; and 
is looked upon as the emblem of war. P. 14, n. 8. 
Sable, a horse argent, bridled gules, name, Trott, 

Horse-Shoe. This is the arms of Okeham, a 
town in Rutlandshire. In this town is an ancient 
custom, if any nobleman enters the lordship as an 
homage, he is to forfeit one of his horse's shoes, 
unless he redeem it with money. See p. 22, n. 17. 

Humetty signifies an ordinary which is cut off, 
and no where reaches to the edges of the shield. 
See P. 4, n. 14. 

Hunting-Horn. See Bugle-Horn. 

Hurts are roundles of the azure-colour. T. 8, 
n. 12. 

Hyacinth is a precious stone of a yellowish red 
hue, and in heraldry is used to express the colour 

Hydra, a fabulous creature, supposed to be a 
dragon with seven heads, as P. 1, n. 21. This is 
the crest of Barret, 



Ibex is an imaginary beast, in some respects 
like the heraldic antelope, but with this difference, 
that it hath two straight horns projecting from the 
forehead, serrated, or edged like a saw. P. 15, n. 4. 

Icicles, are in shape the same as gutty. Va- 
rious are the opinions concerning this bearing; 
some term them clubs, others gutties reversed, 
and others icicles. See P. 7, n. 15. 

Imbattled, or Crenelle, a term for the battle- 
ments of towers, churches, and houses, and is one 
of the lines of partition, T. 3. See an example, 
P. 13, n. 4, afess gules imbattled, 

Imbowed. See Embowed. 

Imbrued signifies any thing to be bloody, as 
spears* heads, when spotted with blood, as the ex- 
ample. Sable, a chevron between tlircc spear 
heads ai^gent, their points imbrued proper^ name, 
JeJf&rieSy of Brecknockshire. P. 7, n. 35. 

To Impale is to conjoin two coats of arms pale- 
ways ; women impale their arms with those of 
their husbands. See P. 13, n. 3. 

Imperial Crown is a circle of gold, adorned 
with precious stones and pearls, heightened with 
fleurs-de-lis, bordered and seeded with pearls, 
raised in the form of a cap, voided at the top like 
a crescent ; from the middle of the cap rises an 
arched fillet, enriched with pearls, and surmounted 
of a mound, whereon is a cross of pearls. P. 8, n. 3. 

Imperially Crowned, whejp any charge in 


arms, crest, or supporters, are crowned with a re- 
gal crown. 

Incensed, a term for panthers, when repre- 
sented with fire issuing from their mouths and 
ears. See P. 14, n. 7. 

Increment. See Increscent. 

Increscent shows the state of the moon, from 
her entrance into her first quarter, by having her 
horns towards the right side of the shield ; it sig- 
nifies the rising of families, and even of states, for 
which reason it is borne by the Turks. T. 7, n. 7. 
Ermine, three increscents, gules, name, iSi/mmes, 
of Daventry, in the county of Northampton. 

Indented, one of the lines of partition, in 
shape the same as dancette, but its teeth smaller, 
and the number not limited. T. S, and a border 
indented. See T. 5, n. 11. 

Indian Goat, or Assyrian goat, resembles the 
English goat, except that its horns are more bent, 
and the ears like those of a talbot. P. 2, n. % 
These beasts are the supporters of the arms of 
Viscount SouthxvelL 

Indorsed. This term is for wings when placed 
back to back, as the example. See P. 7, n. 16, viz. 
two wings indorsed. T. 9, n. 24. 

Inescutcheon, a small escutcheon, borne 
within the shield, and is one of the ordinaries, and 
usually pliced in the fess-point. T. 5, n. 7. Er- 
mine, an escutcheon azure, name, Rokeley. 

Infamed. Sec Defamed. 
Infula. See Pope^s Crown. 
Ingrailed. See Engrailed. 


Ink-Fish. See Cuttle-Fish. 

Ink Moline, or Ink de Moline. See Millrine. 

In-Pride. See Peacock. 

Inter, a term for the word between. 

Interlaced, when chevronels, annulets, rings, 
keys, crescents, &c. are linked together, they are 
termed interlaced, viz. three chevronels^ interlaced 
in base. P. 7, n. 30. A cross of four bastoons in- 
terlaced. P. 4, n. 15. 

Invecked, one of the lines of partition, the same 
form as engrailed, but the points of it go into the 
charge. T. 3. NotCy See the difference in Plate 
J. n. 14. Argent, afess^ mveckedi, gules between 
three torteauxes. In the same plate, n. 13, is ar- 
gent on afess engrailed three leopards'' faces, or. 

Inverted, and conjoined. Inverted denotes 
any thing that is turned the wrong way ; particu- 
larly wings are said to be inverted when the points 
of them are down. T. 10, n. % 

Iron Ring, a tool used by the wire-drawers, and 
borne as a part of their armorial ensign. P. 2, 
n. 15. 

IssuANT, or Issuing, signifies the charge to be 
coming out of the bottom of the chief, as the ex- 
ample. Azure, on a chief or, a demy-lion issuant 
gules, name, Markham, T. 10, n. 9. 

James St., Cross of, so termed, because worn 
by the knights of that order in Spain. i\ 4, n. 23. 
Javelin, or short spear, with a barbed point. 
P. 2, n. 25. 



Jersey Comb, used by the wool-combers. P. 20* 
n. 2. Sable three Jersey-combs or, teeth argent, 
name, Bromley. 

Jerusalem, Cross of, so termed from God- 
frey of Bouillon's bearing argent, a cross-croslet, 
cantoned with four crosses or, in allusion to the 
five wounds of Christ. P. 16, n. 13. 

Jess ANT, signifies a lion or any beast rising or 
issuing from the middle of a fess, as P. 7, n. 26. 
The common method of heraldic writers is a lion 
jessant of a fess. But Edmondson is clearly of 
opinion, that it should be blazoned. A demy-lion 
jessant of a fess, as never more than half the lion 

Jessant, a term to express shooting forth, as 
vegetables spring or shoot out, and is used in he- 
raldry to express the bearing of fleurs-de-lis com- 
ing out of a leopard's face ; for instance, sable 
three leopardi faces, jessant Jleurs-de-Us or ; for 
Morley of Sussex. Plate B, n. 20. Note, Ed- 
mondson says, an erroneous practice hath long 
been estabhshed among heralds, when showing the 
leopard's ^acQ jessant delis, of always turning the 
head bottom upwards, whereas the contrary posi- 
tion should be constantly observed, unless other- 
wise directed by the words of the blazon, viz. A 
leopard's face reversed. Jessant de lis. 

Jessed is a term for a hawk or falcon, whose 
jesses or straps of leather that tie the bells on the 
legs, and are generally of a different tincture from 
the body. 


Jesses, leather thongs, to tie the bells on the 
legs of the hawk and falcon. They are sometimes 
represented flotant, with rings at the end, as the 
example, P. 6, n. 13. A hawk's leg erased at the 
thigh, termed jessed, belled, and var veiled, 

Jew's Harp. P. 20, n. 11, as borne in the 
arms of Scopham. 

JoiNANT. See Conjoined. 

JowLLOPPED, signifies the gills of a cock when 
of a different tincture from his head. 

St. Julian, Cross of, by some called a saltire, 
crossed at its extremities; by others a cross trans- 
posed. P. 6, n. 24. Argent, a Julian cross sable, 
for Julian, of Lincolnshire. 

Jupiter, one of the planets, and in heraldry 
signifies the colour azure; in engraving is ex- 
pressed by horizontal lines. 


Kaarl Cat, a country word for a male cat. 

Keys Indorsed. P. 13, n. 16. The example 
is, two keys indorsed, the bows interlaced sable, 
three pairs of keys indorsed^ the bows interlaced, 
argent, name, Masquenay or Mackenay. Keys 
signify repose and safety. 

King-Fisher, a bird somewhat larger than the 
swallow; its shape is clumsy; the legs are very 
small, and the bill disproportionably long and 
broad ; the upper chap is black, and the lower 
yellow ; the top of the head and the coverts of the 
wings arc of a deep blackish green, spotted with 
])right blue ; the back and tail arc of the most re- 


splendent azure; the belly is orange-coloured ; and 
a broad mark of the same colour extends from the 
bill beyond the eyes, near which there is a large 
white spot ; the tail is of a rich deep blue, and the 
feet are of a reddish yellow : it is a most rapacious 
little animal, and feeds on fish : it chiefly frequents 
the banks of rivers ; this bird is most common in 
the seas of Sicily. Plate F, n. % or three Mng- 
Jishers proper , name, Fisher. 

Knots. See P. 6, n. 11. P. 15, n. 31, 3^, 33, 
34,35. P. 3, n. 7. 


Label is used to difference the arms of the 
eldest son from the youngest ; by some supposed 
to be ribbons anciently worn by young men about 
the neck of their helmets, to distinguish them from 
their fathers. T. 5, n. 3, See P. 10, n. J. in the 
distinction of houses. 

Labels are ribbons that hang down from a 
mitre, or coronet. 

Lacy's Knot. See P. 6, n. 11. 

Lamb, or Holj'^-Lamb, passant, with a staff, cross 
and banner, is a typical figure of our Saviour, who 
is understood to be that Lamb mentioned in the 
Apocalypse of St. John. P. 14, n. 25. 

Lambeaux, a Cross, is a cross-pattee at the 
top, and issuing out at the foot into three labels, 
having a great mystery in relation to the top 
whereon our Saviour suffered ; sending out three 
streams from his hands, feet, and side. P. 4, n. 
^1. Gules, a cross lambeaux argent; this is a 
German coat, name, Rudetzker. 


Lambrequin is the point of a label. 

Lamp. P. 17, n. 12. Gules a chevron, be- 
tween three lamps argent j with Jire proper y name, 

Langued is a term for the tongue of beasts 
and birds, when of a different tincture from that 
of the charge. Note, all beasts and birds (except 
they are tinctured gules), are langued gules ; but 
when the beast is gules, he must be langued, and 
armed azure. This rule is never to be deviated 
from, except in such cases only where the blazon 
directs that the beast should be langued of any 
other colour or metal ; and then such colour or 
metal must be expressed. If a beast or bird is 
to be represented in coat armour, without either 
tongue or claws, you must say, when blazoning, 
sans langue and arms. 

Lattice. See Treilee. 

Launce, or tilting-spear, argent on a quarter^ 
gules, a lance in bendor, name, Knight. See P. 
^2, n. 8. 

Laurel is the emblem of victory and triumph. 

Laverpot, or ewer, as borne in the arms of the 
Founders' Company. P. 2, n. 6. 

St. Lazarus, Cross of, worn by the knights 
of that order. P. 4, n. 24. 

Leather-Bottle, as borne in the arms of the 
Bottle-makers* and Horners' Company. P. 19, 
n. 5. 

Legs in Armour, three legs in armour, con- 
joined in the fiss point, spurred and garnished or ; 
this is the arms of the Isle of Mjyi. See P. 13, 


n. 1. 'Note^ Philpot says, three legs conjoined, 
was the hieroglyphic of expedition. Nisbet says, 
three legs of men, the device of the Sicihans, the 
ancient possessors of the Isle of Man. 

Leished, a term, Nisbet expresses, the line 
which passes from the collar of a hound, or any 
other dog. 

Lentally, an ancient term ^ox party per bend. 

Leopard, is about four feet in length, of a 
yellowish colour, and marked with numerous an- 
nular black spots, the tail about two feet and a half 
long. It is an inhabitant of Senegal, Guinea, and 
most parts of Africa, delighting in the thickest 
forests, and frequenting the borders of rivers, to 
wait for such animals as resort there to quench 
their thirst. The leopard will not eat carrion, nor 
deign to touch what has been killed by any other 
beast. Kolben. P. 14, n. 30. Sable, three leopards 
rampant argent spotted sable, name, Lynch. 

Leopard's Face. When the heads of leopards 
are erased or couped at the neck, as P. 7, n. 22, 
they are blazoned by theword head, viz. a leopard^s 
head erased : but if no part of the neck appears, 
and the position of the head is gardant, as P. 7, 
n. 21, it is then blazoned a Zao/jarcZ'syoc^, without 
mentioning the word gardant. 

Leopard Lione'. See Lion Leopardie. 

Level. This instrument is the type of equity 
and uprightness in all our actions, which are to be 
levelled and rectified by the rules of reason and 
justice ; for the plummet ever falls right howsoever 
it be held, and whatever befalls a virtuous man, 


his actions and conscience will be uncorrupt and 
uncontrollable. P. 12, n. S4. Azure three levels, 
with their plummets or, name, Colhrand. 

Lever, a name sometimes given to the cormo- 

Lilies of the Flag, are those borne in the 
arms of the kingdom of France. The lily is the 
emblem of purity and chastity. 

Limbeck, or Still. Heralds term it an an- 
tique Limbeck ; this example is part of the Pew- 
terers' arms. P. 19, n. 12. 

Lines. See Partition Lines. 

Lion. The lion is chiefly found in the interior 
of Africa, and in the hotter parts of Asia. His 
form is strikingly bold and majestic; his large 
head and shaggy pendent mane, his strength of 
limb, and formidable countenance, exhibit a pic- 
ture of terrific grandeur. Kolben says, his strength 
is prodigious, that a single stroke of his paw is 
sufficient to break the back of a horse, and one 
sweep with his tail will throw a strong man to the 
ground ; and when he comes up to his prey, he 
always knocks it down dead, and seldom bites it 
till the mortal blow has been given. This blow he 
generally accompanies with a terrible roar. ISlote, 
The Egyptians represent inundation by a lion, 
because it takes place under that sign ; and 
hence, says Plutarch, the custom of placing at the 
gates of temples, figures of lions with water issuing 
from their mouths. Volney. 

LiONCEL, a young lion : this term is used in he- 
raldry, when there are more thai* one lion in the 
same field. 


Lion of England. This term is used when 
speaking of a canton, or augmentation of arms. In 
such case, instead of saying on a canton guIeSf a 
lion passant gardant or, as an augmentation, you 
say, he bears on a canton a lion of England, 
which hath the same signification. 

Lion Leopardie. This is a French term for 
what the English call a lion passant gardant. The 
word leopard is always made use of by the French 
heralds to express, in their language, a lion full- 
faced, or gardant. Thus when a lion is placed 
on an escutcheon, in that attitude which we call 
rampant gardant, the French blazon it a lion 
leopardie ; when he is passant only, they call him 
Leopard Lione. Edmondson's Heraldry, vol. i. 
p. 183. 

Lion of St. Mark. The arms of the repub- 
lic of Venice is of St. Mark, viz. a lion sejaiit 
gardant and winged or, his head encircled with a 
glory, holding in his fore-paws an open hook, 
wherein is ivritten. Pax tibi, Marce, evangelista 
mens ; over the deocter side of the book, a sword 
erect, all proper. P. 15, n. 20. 

Lion-Poisson, or sea-lio7i, so termed as the 
upper part is of a lion, and the hinder part ends 
in a fish's tail, with webbed feet ; this is borne by 
Inhqff, of Germany. This example was copied 
from the family seal. P. 15, n. 20. 

Lion-Dragon signifies the upper half a lion, 
and the other going off like the hinder part of a 
dragon. P. 15, n. 21. Or, a lion-dragon gides, 
armed, langucd, and croxvned of the first, name, 
Bretigni. Party per chevron, gules or, three Hon- 


dragons ducally crowned and couriter changed^ 
name, Easton. 

Lions Conjoined, under one head ; the tricor- 
porated Hon, and double-headed hon (according to 
Leigh,) are borne in armory symbohcally, and not 
as monsters. P. 15, n. 22. 

Litvit's Skin, is a pure white fur. 

Lizard, a small animal of the crocodile spe- 
cies. P. 17, n. 6. It delights in warm countries, 
and is very common in Italy : lizards are found 
on trees in summer, where they make a noise like 
the croaking of frogs. 

Lobster ; in blazon the term upright is given 
to all shell-fish when borne, as the example, be- 
cause they, wanting fins, cannot properly be 
termed hauriant. P. 14, n. 32. 

LocHABER-AxE. The ancient arms of the 
Highlanders were the Lochaber-axe, now used by 
none but the town guard of Edinburgh, a tre- 
mendous weapon, better to be expressed by a 
figure than words. See P. 4, n. 8. Pennant's 
Tour in Scotland. See two more, in Plate 22, 
n. 18. 

Lodged, a term for the buck, hart, &c. when 
lying on the ground. This term is used for beasts 
of chase, as couchant is for those of prey. T. 9, 
n. 17, Plate D, n. 18. Argent, on a mount proper, 
a stag lodged gules^ name. Hart-hill. 

Long Bow. Bent in pale^gides, name, Bowes. 
See P. 22, n. 14. 
' Lozenge, a four-cornered figure, resembling a 


pane of glass in old casements ; some suppose it a 
physical composition given for colds, and was in- 
vented to reward eminent physicians. T. 6, n. 17. 
Plutarch says, in the life of Theseus^ that Megara, 
an ancient town of Greece, the tomb-stones, under 
which the bodies of the Amazons lay, were shaped 
after that form ; which some conjecture to be the 
cause why ladies have their arms on lozenges. 
Forney's Herald. 

Lozenges, Cross of. P. 4, n. 17. Gules, a 
cross of lozenges, Jiory or, name, Fotherhy. P. 16, 

LozENGY is when the field or charge is covered 
with lozenges. T. 5, n. 21. Lozengy, argent, 
and gules, name, Fitzwilliam. 

Lucy, an old term for the fish called a pike. 
P. 22, n. 7. 

LuMiERiES, are the eyes. 

Luna is the moon, and used in heraldry in- 
stead of argent. 

A Lure signifies two wings conjoined with their 
tips downward, joined with a line and ring, used 
by falconers to decoy their hawks, by casting it up 
in the air like a fowl. P. 14, n. 34. Gules, a 
lure, stringed and braced argent, name, Warre. 

Lure also signifies two wings conjoined and 
inverted, with the tips downward, are said to be 
in lure. T. 10, n. 2. 

LuTRA. See Otter. 

Lymphad is an old-fashioned ship with one 
mast, and rowed with oars. P. 2, n. 4. 


Lyre, a musical instrument. See P. 4, n. 28. 
Diodorus says that Hermes not only found out 
letters, but was also skilled in medicine and har- 
mony, and invented the ten-stringed Lyre. 


Madder Bag. See P. 3, n. 1. 

Maiden's Head, a term for the head and neck 
of a woman, couped below the breast, the head 
wreathed with a garland of roses, and crowned 
with an antique coronet. See P. 11, n. 2. 

Mail, armour for the body and arms, composed 
of small close rings, termed mail, ox ring armour, 
as if wove in a loom. The rings composing this 
armour, were woven together in different ways ; 
the ancient sort were not very complex ; but those 
|of later times had the work done in so curious a 

anner,thatornamentwas combined with strength, 
reventing the effects of sword or lance. Mail, 
hen painted or engraved, is made like the scales 
f fish, being the best resemblance in heraldry of 
he mail. See P. 1, n. 17. 

Mallet. P. 20, n. 24. Gules, a chevron be- 
tween three mallets or, name Soame. 

Malta, Cross of, so called because worn by 
he knights of that order. P. 4, n. 25. 

Manacles, or handcuffs. P. 2, n. 29. 

Manche, an old-fashioned sleeve with long 

ngers. T. 7, n. 13. 

Manciiet, a cake of bread Hke a muffin. 

Maned is the hair which hangsclown the neck 


of horses, unicorns, tigers, or other animals whose 
mane is of a different tincture from its hody. 

Man Tiger, an imaginary monster, with body 
like a hon, face hke a man, and horns on the 
head. P. 18, n. 9- 

Mantle. This was a miUtary habit used in 
ancient times by great commanders in the field, 
as well to manifest their dignity as to repel the 
extremity of the weather, and to preserve their ar- 
mour from rust. P. 16, n. 24. 

Mantlings are ornamented foliage- work, for 
the adorning of helmets, in paintings of coats of 

Mart NED, a term for the animal who has the 
lower part of its body like a fish. See P. 15, 
n. 20. P. 14, n. 29. 

Marine-wolf, or seal. It resembles a qua- 
druped in some respects, and a fish in others. 
Seals are common on most of the rocky shores of 
Great Britain ; they feed on most sorts offish, and 
are seen searching for their prey near shore ; their 
head in swimming is always above water ; they 
sleep on rocks surrounded by the sea ; they are 
extremely watchful, and never sleep long without 
moving ; but if disturbed by any thing, take care 
to tumble over the rocks into the sea. P. 11, 
n. 11. Argent a chevron ^ engrailed gides, he^ 
tween three marine wolves^ naiant sable, finned of 
the first, langued of the second, name, Fe7inor. 

St. Mark. See Lion of St. Maiik. 

Marks of Cadency. See Distinction of 


MARauis's Coronet. See Crowns and Co- 
ronets OF England. 

Mars, the name of one of the planets ; in he- 
raldry signifies the colour gules, and in engraving 
is represented by perpendicular lines. 

Martlet (very frequent in armories all over 
Europe) was borne by those who went to the Holy 
Land to fight against the Turks : this bird is fre- 
quently seen under the cornices of houses, with 
feet so short, and wings so long, that should they 
pitch on a level they could not easily rise ; there- 
fore they alight on high places, that they may drop 
on the wing. See T. 7, n. 15. Guillim observes 
that this bird, which is represented without feet, 
is given for a difference to younger brothers, to 
put them in mind that, in order to raise them- 
selves, they are to look to the wings of virtue and 
merit, and not to their legs, having but little land 
to set their feet on. P. 12, n. 4. 

Mascally, argent and gules, counterly^ name, 
Pogeis and Pegg. See P. 16, n. 8. 

Mascle. This figure in shape is exactly square, 
and perforated, as the example ; by some said to 
represent spots in certain flints found in Brit- 
tany. T. 6, n. 19. Gules y a mascle argent, name, 

Mascles, conjunct, ^w/e* seven mascles con- 
junct, three, three, and one, argent,r\ame, Ferrers. 
T. 2, n. S% 

Mascles, Cross of. P. 4, n. 12. 

Masoned, plain strokes representing the cement 
in stone buildings. P. 3, n. 27. • 



Match, a military instrument. P. 17, n. 4. 
Argent on afess gules^ between two matches kin-' 
died proper, a martlet or, name, Leet. 

Match-Lock. P. 5, n. 12. Argent a chevron, 
between three match-locks sable, name, Leverage, 

Membered signifies the beak and legs of a bird, 
when of a different tincture from the body. 

Mercury is one of the planets, and in heraldry 
signifies the colour purple. 

Merillion, an instrument used by the hat- 
band makers, and borne as part of their arms. P. 
2, n. 1. 

Mermaid is a fictitious sea animal, half a wo- 
man and half a fish, used in armories, of which 
there may perhaps be some resemblance in the 
sea ; but as represented in the example is a chi- 
merical figure, invented by poets and painters. 
P. 14, n. 4. Argent, a mermaid gules, crined or, 
holding a mirror in her right hand, and a comb 
in her left, name, Ellis. 

Merman, or Neptune. 

Mesles, an ancient term for a field composed 
equally of metal and colour, as gyronny, paly, 
bendy, &c. 

Mi-coupy, and Mipartee, an ancient term, 
when the half of the shield is divided per fess and 
per pale. 

Middle-Base is the middle part of the base, 
represented by the letter H, Table 1. 

Middle-Chief is the middle part of the chief, 
represented by the letter B., Table 1. 

Mill-Pic, an instrument used by mill-wrights. 


P. 17, n. 17. Sable on a chevron between three 
mill-pics, argent, as many mullets gules, name, 
Mosley. See another shape, P. 6, n. 5. 

Mill-Clack, represented as the example. 
P. 2, n. 23. 

Mill-Stone, charged with a millrine. P. 19, 
n. 11. Azure, three mill-stones argent, name, 

MiLRiNE, A Cross, so termed, as its form is 
hke the mill-Hnk, which carrieth the mill-stone, 
and is perforated as that is. T. 6, n. 14 and 15. 

Miniver, a white fur, said to be the belly part 
of the skin of the Siberian squirrel. 

Mitre is a round cap, pointed and divided at 
the top, from which hang two pendants, fringed 
at both ends. The bishop's mitre is surrounded 
with a fillet of gold, whereas the archbishop's 
issues out of a ducal coronet ; this ornament is 
never used in England, otherwise than on coats 
of arms. P. 9, n. 12. l^ote, In Germany several 
families bear the mitre for their crest, to show 
they are advocates for, or feudatories of, ancient 
abbeys, or officers of bishops. 

Mole is formed to live wholly under ground, 
as if nature meant that no place should be left 
entirely untenanted. This animal seeks its prey 
under the earthy and whenever it removes from 
one place to another, is obliged to force its way 
through a resisting body. We should imagine 
that the life of this quadruped must be the most 
solitary in nature ; but notwithstanding all these 
seeming inconveniences, we discover no signs of 


distress or wretchedness in this animal. No qua- 
druped appears fatter ; none has a more sleek or 
glossy skin. P. 11, n. 12. Argent three moles sahle, 
their snouts and feet gules ^ name, ISlangothan, 

Mole-Hill, as the example, P. 1, n. 19. 

MoLiNE, A Cross, not so wide or so sharp as 
that which is called ancred. T. 6, n. 2. Argent 
a cross moline gules, name, Undal. Note, The 
cross moline is used as a distinction for the eighth 
brother. See Distinction of Houses. 

Monkey is a subtle and artful animal, small in 
stature, and has a long tail, by which it is known 
from the ape and baboon, that entirely want the 
tail ; no kind of a snare will take the monkey ; the 
natives of the torrid tracts suppose monkeys to be 
men, capable of speech, but obstinately dumb, for 
fear of being compelled to labour. P. 11, n. 14. 

Moon ; the moon is the type of the church ; 
for divines comparing Jesus Christ to the sun, do 
compare the church to the moon, as receiving all 
its beauty and splendour from him. It is the 
emblem of eternity, for that when most declined 
she renews again, and still grows young. It sig- 
nifies inconstancy and lightness, because of its 
frequent changes. 

MooR-CocK, an heraldic representation of the 
heath-cock. Argent a moor-cock sable, name, 
Moore. P. 11, n. 19. 

Morion, an ancient steel cap or helmet for the 
head. P. 17, n. 24 ; see another in P. 22, n. 22. 
This is borne by the Earl of Cardigan. Argefit, 
a chevron gules belxveen three morions azure. 


Morse. See Sea Lion. 

Mortar, P. 20, n. 2S. Sable, the mariar and 
pestle gules, name, Wakerly. 

Mortcours, are lamps used at funerals; they 
are borne as part of the wax-chandlers' arms. 
P.2, n.31. 

MoRTNE, is a term Colombiere has applied to 
a lion borne dead ; but is represented rampant ; 
and the term implies that he has neither tongue, 
teeth, nor claws ; which, he says, is borne hy Leon, 
an ancient barony in Brittany. P. 11, n. 1. 

Motto, a word or short sentence, inserted in 
a scroll, under, and sometimes over, a coat of 
arms, some alluding to the bearings, and some to 
the bearer^s name ; and others express some action, 
employment, or noble design ; and may be taken 
or left at pleasure. 

Mound signifies the world, which it represents, 
being a globe encircled, and having a cross on the 
top ; it represents the sovereign majesty and ju- 
risdiction of kings by the roundness of the mound ; 
and by the ensigning thereof with a cross is sig- 
nified that the religion and faith of Christ ought 
to be received and religiously embraced through- 
out his dominions. P. 12, n. 18. Justinia was 
the first who used the orb or mound with a cross 
on the top, which was introduced into England 
by Edward the Confessor. Luckomhe. 

Mountain Cat. See P. 11, n. 16. 

MouiiN, a terra for the blunted head of a tilt- 
ing spear. 


MoussuE, A Cross, for a cross rounded off at 
the ends. P. 6, n. 20. 

Mullet, supposed to be the rowel of a spur, 
and should consist of five points only ; whereas 
stars consist of six, or more. T. 7, n. 1. Argent 
a mullet gules, name, Haye, Some have con- 
founded stars and mullets together, which mistake 
is easily rectified by allowing mullets to consist of 
five points only, and stars of six, eight, or more. 
Bara says, mullets differ from stars by being al- 
ways pierced in the middle; Gibbon says, all 
French authors, and M'Kenzie, take the mullet 
for the rowel of a spur, which molette signifies in 
their language ; and they affirm it must be al- 
ways pierced, which differenceth it from a star. 

Mr, Nisbet says, he ordinarily takes mullets 
for stars in blazons, when they accompany celestial 
figures, as those in the arms of Baillie ; but 
when they accompany military instruments, and 
other pieces of armour, for spur-rowels : when 
they have no such figures with them, but are alone 
in the shield, consisting only of five points, as in 
the arms of Sutherland, Douglas, &c. I take mul- 
lets then for stars, except some other documents, 
or tradition, make their signification appear. 

Nisbet's Heraldry^ part ii. p. 409. 

MuRAiLLE signifies an ordinary that is walled, 
as P. 18, n. 12. Azure on a pale walled, with 
three pieces o?i each side, or, an indorse sabky 
name. Sublet, 


Mural-Crown was made of gold, with bat- 
tlements on the circle of it; was given by the 
Romans to him who first mounted the wall of a 
besieged town or city, and fixed the standard 
belonging to the army. P. 8, n. 23. 

Murrey. See Sanguine. 

MuscHETOR signifies an ermine spot, without 
those three spots over them that are used in er- 

Musical Instruments, in heraldry, signify 
concord, joy, and fame. 

Musimon, a beast which is said to be engen- 
dered between a ewe-goat and a ram. P. 13, 
n. 20. 

Musion, an ancient term for a cat. 

Muzzled is when animals have their mouths 
tied with a muzzle. 


Naiant, when fish are borne horizontally across 
the field in a swimming posture. T. 10, n. 3. 

Naissant signifies (coming out) a lion, or other 
creature, that seems to be coming out of the middle 
of an ordinary or charge, as P. 7, n. 26. 

Narcissus : this flower consists of six petals, 
and, in shape, resembles the leaf of the cinquefoil. 
P. 2, n. 8. 

NavalXrown. Claudius, after surprising the 
Britons, invented this as a reward for service at 
sea : it was made of gold, and consisted of prows 
of galleys, and sails placed upon t|je rim or circle. 


alternately, and fixed over the gate of the imperial 
palace. P. 8, n. 22. 

Nebule, one of the partition lines, signifies 
clouds, and is used when the outlines of an or- 
dinary or partition line run arched in and out, 
as T.'S. 

NoMBiiiL-Poi NT, or navel-point, is that marked 
with the letter F, under the fess-point. T. 1. 

NowED, signifies tied or knotted, and is said of 
a serpent, wy vern, or other creature, whose bodies 
or tails are twisted like a knot. See P. 7, n. 17. 
The arms of the duchy of Milan is, argent ^ a ser- 
pent vairy in pale azure , crowned or, vorant an 
irifant issuing gules. The occasion of this bearing 
was thus : Otlio, first Viscount of Milan, going 
to the Holy Land with Godfrey of Bouillon, slew 
in a single combat the giant Volux, a man of an 
extraordinary stature and strength, who had chal- 
lenged the bravest of the Christian army. The 
Viscount having killed him, took his armour, 
and with it his helmet, the crest whereof was a 
serpent swallowing an infant ; worn by him, as 
it must be supposed, to strike terror into those 
that should be so bold as to engage him. 


Oak signifies strength, constancy, and long 
life; or, on a mount in base, an oak acorned 
proper^ name. Wood. Plate H, n. 12. 

Obsidional Crown, or garland : it was com- 
posed of grass, pv twigs of trees, interwoven as 



the example ; it was by the Romans given as a 
reward for him that held out a siege, or caused it 
to be raised, repulsing the enemy, and delivering 
the place. P. 8, n. 26. 

Ogress. See Pellet. 

Olive Crown, or garland. It was given by 
the Greeks to those who came off victorious at 
the Olympic games. P. 22, n. 4. 

Olive-Tree is the emblem of peace and con- 
cord; ovy a fess gules, between three olive- 
branches^ proper, name, Roundel, 

Ondee. See Wavy. 

OriNicus ; this beast is of heraldic invention ; 
its body and fore legs are said to be like those of 
a lion ; the head and neck like those of the eagle ; 
to the body are affixed wings, like those of a 
griffin ; and it hath a tail like that of a camel. 
P. 15, n. 6. Note, The opinicus is the crest to 
the arms of the barber- surgeons. 

Or signifies gold, and, in engraving, is re- 
presented by small dots all over the field or 
charge. T. 2, 

Or, t*tsoo bars sable, betzveen six lions'* heads 
couped, three, two, one, gules. Crest a demy- 
eagle, ermine, the wings displayed and erect or, 
Plate 16, n. 7. These arms appertained to Henry 
Kearsly, of London, gent, made register of all 
goods, ships, wares, and merchandises, that should 
be seized or stayed in any of the ports or other 
places whatsoever, within the realm of England, 
or town or port of Berwick, by reason of any un- 
lawful importations or expoi'talion* ; and this trust 


he exercised from September 6, in the sixth year 
of King Charles the First, until the end of the 
year 1648, at which time he was removed by the 
usurped powers then in being, for his loyalty to 
the king, and so kept out, and suffered the loss 
of his place, until the happy restoration and re- 
turn of King Charles the Second, by whom he 
was, in the twelfth year of his reign, readmitted 
and restored to his office aforesaid. A patent to 
the said Henry Kearsly and his heirs, dated the 
2d of October, 1662, by Sir Edward Byshe, 
Clarencieux. Guillims Display of Heraldry, 

Orb. See Mound. 

Ordinaries are any of those figures which, 
by their ordinary and frequent use, are become 
peculiar to the science ; such as the cross ^ chief 
pale, Jess, inescutcheon, chevron, saltiret hend, 
and bar. T. 4. Note, Feme says, before any of 
these ordinaries were ever used in arras, they an- 
ciently distinguished their leaders' shields with 
beasts, birds, fishes, plants, &c. The ordinaries 
began long after, and were used as differences. 

Orle signifies a border or selvage within the 
shield, at some distance from the edges. T. 5, 
11. 4. Azure, an orle argent, name, Sir John 

In-Orle, that is, when things are placed re- 
gularly within the escutcheon, all about it, in the 
nature of an orle, near the edges. P. 7, n. 4. 
Note, Martlets, trefoils, &c. when in-orle, are 
always eight in number. 


Orle, of three pieces, sable ; this example is 
taken from Upton, to show that this ordinary is 
borne of many pieces. P. 16, n. 17. 

Orle and Bordure, sable, an orle within a 
bordure argent. P. 16, n. 18. 

Ostrich is the largest of all birds; when it 
holds up its head it approaches to the height of 
two yards ; from the idle story of its being able 
to digest iron, this bird is, in heraldry, painted 
with a horse-shoe in its mouth. The sandy and 
burning deserts of Africa and Asia are the only 
native residences of these animals. P. 14, n. ^4. 

Ostrich Feathers are always drawn with 
their tops turned down, as P. 15, n. 8, therefore 
that circumstance, as to the tops, need not be 
mentioned. Note, If in coat armoury an ostrich 
feather is white, and the quill part gold, or any 
other colour different from the feather, it is bla- 
zoned pemied of such a colour, sometimes shafted 
of such a colour, and some say quilled of such a 
colour. This latter term seems the most natural. 

Ostrich Feathers in Plume : if three fea- 
thers are placed together, as in P. 15, n. 8, they 
are termed a plume, and their number need not 
be mentioned in the blazoning; but if there are 
more than three, the number should be ex- 
pressed; for example, a plume of jive ostrich 
feathers. Further, if there are more than one 
row of feathers, those rows are termed in blazon 
heights ; for example, a plume of oitrich feathers 
' in two heights, by some termed a double plume, 
as P. 15, n. 9. Where the plum(;is composed of 


nine feathers, in two heights, they should be 
placed Jive in the bottom row, and Jour in the 
top TOW; if there are three heights, then the 
plume should consist of twelve feathers ; \'iz. Jive, 
jour, and three. They are termed a triple plume. 
See P. 15, n. 10. 

Otter, an amphibious animal; it is found 
only at the sides of lakes and rivers; it is not 
fond of fishing in a running stream ; in rivers it 
always swims against the stream ; choosing rather 
to meet than pursue the fishes it preys upon. 
The otter, when tamed, will follow its master 
like a dog, and even fish for him. An old otter 
will never yield while it has life ; nor make the 
least complaint, though wounded ever so much by 
the dogs, nor even when transfixed with a spear. 
Birigki/s An. Biog. P. 11, n. 10. Argent, a Jess 
betxveen three otters sable, name, Lutterel. 

Ounce, o^ Lynx. 

Over-All, is when any charge is borne over 
another. See Plate D, n. 13. Three bars wavy 
azure, over all a lion rampant of' the first, name, 

Owl. This bird signifies prudence, vigilance, 
and watchfulness, and was borne by the Athenians 
as their armorial ensign. P. 14, n. 16. Note, 
Owls, in heraldry, are always represented full- 
faced. Chingius Khan, the first Tartarian em- 
peror, being defeated in an engagement, and 
seeing himself closely pursued, crept into a bush 
to hide himself, where he was no sooner laid but 
an owl perched upon the top of it; which when 


the pursuers saw, they neglected the search of 
that bush, supposing no man was there where so 
timorous a bird sat securely ; by which means 
Chingius preserved his life ; in memory thereof 
the Tartars have an owl in great veneration. 
Penn, Arct. Zooil. 

Ox. The ox is the most serviceable creature 
to man, and excellent food when killed : it was 
one of the most agreeable sacrifices that were 
offered among the Jews. The Egyptians wor- 
shipped it as a god, under the name Apis ; the 
ox is borne frequently in heraldry. The ox, in 
Egypt, was the symbol of fertility and inunda- 
tion. Savary, 

Padlock, sahle^ three padlocks argent, name, 
Lovett. P. 1, n. 1. 

Pale, is an honourable ordinary, consisting of 
two perpendicular lines drawn from the top to 
the base of the escutcheon, and contains the third 
middle part of the field. T. 4, n. 2. Note, The 
pale is like the pallisades used about fortifications, 
and formerly used for the inclosing of camps; 
for which reason every soldier was obliged to 
carry one, and to fix it according as the lines 
were drawn for the security of the camp. Forneys 

Pall, a cross, is the archiepiscopal ornament 
sent from Rome to metropolitans (it is made of 
the wool of white lambs), approf)riatcd to arch- 



bishops; it resembles the letter Y in shape. It 
consists of pieees of white woollen stuff, three 
fingers in breadth, and embroidered with crosses. 
All Rellg. p. 315. See P. 4, n. 10. 

Pallet is a diminutive of the pale, containing 
one half of the breadth of the pale. See T. 4, n. 3. 

Pallisado. See Vallary. 

Pallisse is like a range of pallisades before a 
fortification, and so represented on a fess, rising 
up a considerable length, and pointed at the top, 
with the field appearing between them. Plate 
16, n. 16. 

Palmer's Staffs. See P. 7, n. 3. 

Palm-Tree. See p. 22, n. 2. The Egyptians 
represented the year by a palm-tree, and the 
month by one of its branches ; because it is the 
nature of this tree to produce a branch every 
month. Volney. 

Paly is when the field is divided into four or 
more even number of parts, by perpendicular 
lines, consisting of two different tinctures inter- 
changeably disposed. Paly of six, or and azure, 
name, Gurney. T. 5, n. 17. 

Paly-Bendy, is by lines perpendicular, which 
is paly, and by others diagonal athwart the shield, 
from the dexter to the sinister, which is called 
bendy. P. 3, n. 22. Paly bendy sinister of six, 
or and azure, a canton, ermine, name. Buck, of 
Yorkshire. SeeP.3, n. 21. 

In-Pale, is when things are borne one above 
another perpendicular in the centre of the shield, 
in the nature of a pale. See T. 10, n. 16. 


Per, a particle generally used in heraldry, 
before an ordinary, to denote a partition of the 
field, as party perjess^ pale, he. 

Per Pale, so termed when the field or charge 
is equally divided by a perpendicular line, as T. 3, 
n. 1. Party per pale, or and sable, name, Searle. 

Panther. This beast is very beautiful, by 
reason of the variety of coloured spots wherewith 
his body is overspread : he is a fierce and cruel 
beast. Note, When he is depicted with fire 
issuing from his mouth and ears, he then is 
termed incensed. P. 14, n. 7. 

Papal-Crown. See Pope. 

Papillone is a field divided into variegated 
specks, like those on a butterfly, but ranged like 
the scales of a fish. P. 3, n. 25. 

Parrot. P. 17, n. 7. Of all foreign birds, the 
parrot is the best known among us, as it unites 
the greatest beauty with the greatest docility. 

Nole, Parrots are frequent in the arms of the 
ancient families of Switzerland ; occasioned by 
two great factions, in the year 1262, which were 
distinguished by their ensigns; the one having a 
red standard with a white star, and the other a 
white standard with a green parrot: and the 
famiUes that were concerned in those factions 
bore in their arms either stars or parrots. 

Partition Lines are such as party-per-pale, 
party-per-bend, party-per-fess, party-per-chevron, 
party-per-cross, party-per-saltire ; by which is un- 
derstood a shield divided or cut through by a line 
or lines, either perpendicular, d^igonal, traverse, 


&c. as in example, T. 3. Note, Why lines are 
used in heraldry, is to difference bearings which 
would be otherwise the same ; for an escutcheon 
charged with a chief engrailed, differs from a 
chief wavy as much as if the one bore a cross 
and the other a saltire. 

Party signifies parted or divided, and is ap- 
plied to all divisions of the field, viz. 

Party-per-pale is the field divided by a 
perpendicular line. T. 3, n. 1. Party-per-pale^ 
argent and gules ^ name, Walgrave. 

Party-per-pale and Chevron signifies the 
field to be divided into four parts, by two lines ; 
one is a pale line, the other a line in form of a 
chevron. P. 3, n. 31. 

Party-per-pale and Base is the field divided 
into three parts by the pale line, and a horizontal 
in base. P. 3, n. 32. 

Paschal Lamb. See Holy Lamb. 

Passant, for beasts when in a walking position. 
T. 8, n. 2S. 

Passant-Gardant, for a beast walking full- 
faced, looking right forward. The lion, in this 
position, denotes the prudent judge. T. 9, n. 1. 
Carter says, Gules a lion -passant, gardant or, 
was the coat armour of the dukes ofAquitaine, 
and was joined with the coat of the kings of 
England, by the match of Henry the Second, 
being before two lions, the posture aiid colours 
one and the same. 

Passant- Regardant signifies a beast walk- 
ing and looking behind him. T. 9, n. 12. 


Passion, or cross of the passion, being like 
that of Calvary, but has no steps. 

Passion Nail. See P. 4, n. 31. 

Paternal signifies, in heraldry, the original 
arms of a family. 

Paternostre, a Cross, that which is made 
of beads. P. 4, n. 7. 

Patonce, a Cross, is flory at the ends, and 
differs from that which is so called, as that does 
circumflex and turn down : this extends and 
stretches to a pattee form. T. 6, n. 4. Vert^ a 
cross patonce, or, name. Boy dell, 

Patriarchal-Cross, so called from its being 
appropriated to patriarchs, as the triple cross is 
to the Pope. P. 4, n. 20. 

Note, Morgan says, the patriarchal-cross is 
crossed twice, to denote the work of redemption 
that was wrought on the cross, did extend to the 
patriarchs and pilgrims, viz. Jews and Gentiles. 

Pattee, a Cross, is small in the centre, and 
so goes on widening to the ends, which are very 
broad. T. 6, n. 6. 

Pattee, a cross pattee, throughout. See P. 
16, n. 9. Some authors term it a cross pattee 

Pattes are the paws of any beast. 

Pavillion. See Tent. 

Paw. See Game. 

Peacock, when it is borne affronte, with its 
tail spread, is termed in pride, as P. 7, n. 11 ; 
when it is represented with its wings close, as the 
example, P. 1, n. 15, it is blazoned simply a Pea- 



cock, and it must be drawn as the example. India 
and Ceylon are the real native countries of the 
common peacock. 

Pea-Rise, a term for a pea-stalk, leaved and 
blossomed; it is a part of the crest of St. 

Peak, one of the furs, the ground black, and 
the spots gold. P. 13. 

Pearl, in heraldry, is used for argent, and in 
engraving is left white. 

Pegasus, among the poets, a horse imagined 
to have wings, being that whereon Bellerophon 
was fabled to be mounted when he engaged the 
Chimera ; azure, a Pegasus, the wings expanded 
argent^ are the arms of the Inner Temple of 
London. P. 2, n. 20. 

Pelican Heraldic. The pelican is generally 
represented with her wings indorsed, her neck 
embowed, pecking her breast ; and when in her 
nest feeding her young, is termed a pelican in 
her piety. This bird was in such esteem with 
the Egyptians, that they held it as a hieroglyphic 
of the four duties of a father to his children ; viz. 
generation, education, instruction, and good ex- 
ample. T. 7, n. 19. 

Pelican Natural. It size it exceeds the 
swan. This bird has an enormous bag attached 
to the lower mandible of the bill, and extending 
almost from the point of the bill to the throat. 
It lives on fish, for which it makes excursions out 
to sea. It is a native of Africa and America. 
Sec P. 22, n. 13. 


Pellets are black roundles ; some term them 
ogresses, and gun-stones. T. 8, n. 13. 

Pen. p. 20, n. 17. Gules , three pens ar- 
gent, name, Cowpen. 

Pendant signifies hanging down. 

Pennon, a small flag, ending in one sharp 
point, or two, which used to be placed on the 
tops of spears, with the arms, crest, or motto, of 
the bearer. 

Penny-yard-penny, so termed from the place 
where it was first coined, which was (as is sup- 
posed) in the castle of Penny-yard, near the 
market town of Ross, situated upon the river 
Wye, in the county of Hereford. P. 12, n. 16. 
Azure, three penny-yard-pence proper, name, 

Penoncles. See Pennon. 

Perclose, or demi-garter, is that part of the 
garter that is buckled and nowed. See example, 
P. 16, n. 23. Or, the perclose of three demi- 
garters nowed azure, garnished of the firsts 
name, Narboon, 

Perflew. See Purflew. 

Perforated. See Pierced. 

Petronel, an ancient name for a pistol. 

Pewit : see the example, P. 5, n. 23. 

Pheon, the iron part of a dart, with a barbed 
head, and is frequently borne in coats, and termed 
a pheon's head. T. 7, n. 4. 

Pheons, a Cross, of four. T. 6, n. 12. 

Ph(enix, a beautiful Arabian bird, famous 
among the ancients, who dcrcribe,it in form like 


the eagle, but more beautiful in its plumage; 
when advanced in age, it makes itself a nest of 
spices, which being set on fire by the sun, or some 
other secret power, it burns itself, and out of its 
ashes riseth another. In heraldry, a phoenix in 
Jlames proper^ is the emblem of immortality. T. 
7, n. 20. Burnet, in his Theory of the Earthy 
says, " I do not doubt but the story is a fable as 
to any such kind of bird, single in her species, 
living and dying, and reviving in that manner : 
but it is an apologue, or a fable with an interpre- 
tation, and was intended as an emblem of the 
world, which, after a long age, will be consumed 
in the last fire; and from its ashes or remains will 
arise another world, or a new-formed heaven and 
earth. This, I think, is the true mystery of the 
phoenix, under which symbol the Eastern nations 
preserved the doctrine of the conflagration and re- 
novation of the world." VoL ii. p. 25, oct. edit. 

Pierced, a Cross, when any ordinary is per- 
forated or struck through, with a hole in it, so as 
the field may be seen ; the piercing must be par- 
ticularly expressed as to its shape, whether square, 
round, or lozenge ; viz. argent, a cross, square 
pierced, azure. P. 4, n. 1 . 

Pike Staff. See the example, P. 2, n. 3. 

Pillar. Or, a pillar sable, enwrapped with 
an adder argent, name, Myntur. P. 12, n. 3. 
The adder thus enwrapped about the pillar, sig- 
nifies prudence conjoined with constancy; both 
which being united in men of high spirit, do 
greatly avail to the achieving of noble enterprises. 


Pile is an ordinary, and taken for tliose piles 
on which bridges, &c. are buih. Piles have been 
granted to such as have been very useful in found- 
ing commonwealths and colonies. T. 4, n. 22. 
Note, Edmondson is of opinion, when there are 
two, three, or more piles, issuing from a chief, 
and they are not expressed in the blazon to meet 
in a point, they should be drawn perpendicular. 
Argent a pile gules; this helonged to Sir John 
Candoys in the time of Edward the Third. 

Pilgrims' or Palmers' Staffs. See P. 7, 
n. 3, and No. 10. Azure three pilgrims^ crook 
staff's or, name Pilgrim. 

Pily-Bendy : or and azure, a canton erniine, 
name . P. 7, n. 1. 

Party-per-pile transposed. This kind of 
bearing is rare, as well as in regard of the trans- 
position thereof; for the natural bearing of piles 
is with the points downwards ; as also in respect 
that the field is divided into three distinct colours. 
This coat is borne by Meinsiorpe of Holsatia. 
P.3, n.33. 

PARTY-PER-ptLE in point, argent and azure. 
P. S, n. 34. 

Party-per-pile in traverse, argent a7id gules; 
so termed, by the lines having their beginning 
from the exact points of the chief and base sini- 
ster, and so extend to the extreme line in the fess ' 
point on the dexter side ; this coat is borne by 
Rathlowe of Holsatia. P. 3, n,35. 


Pincers, P. 17, n. 16, argent, afess, between 
three pair of pincers gules, name Russel. 

Pine-tree is the emblem of death, because 
being once cut, it never sprouts again. Argent, 
on a mount in base, a pine-apple tree Jructed 
'proper, name Fine, 

Placcate, piece of armour worn over the 
breast-plate to strengthen it. 

Plate, is a round flat piece of silver, without 
any impression on it. T. 8, n. 10. 

Playing-Table, or backgammon-tables. P. 5, 
n. 8. Azure, three pair of backgammon tables 
open proper, edged or, name Pegriz. 

Plough. It was the manner, in ancient times, 
when a city was to be built, to limit out the cir- 
cuit thereof by drawing of a furrow with a plough, 
as Alex, ab Alex, noteth ; also used when they 
intended the final destruction of a city, to plough 
it up, and to sow salt therein : as we read that 
Abimelech, having taken the city of Sichem, put 
the people to the sword that were therein, destroyed 
the city, and sowed salt thereon ; which was done 
(as Tremellius noteth) in token of perpetual de- 
vastation thereof: but that kind of tracing out their 
cities was used as a happy presage of succeeding 
abundance and fertility, which the citizens should 
stand in need of. Azure, a plough in Jess ar- 
gent, name Kroge. P. 12, n. 1^. 

Plumby. See Purple. 

Plume. See Ostrich Feathers. 

Plummet, used by mariners to fathom the 
depth of water. P. 2, n. 11. 


Pointed, a Cross. See Equisce. 

Points of the Escutcheon. See Escut- 

Points, a Cross of sixteen points ; so termed 
from its having: four points at each extremity. 

In Point, is when swords, piles, &c. are so 
borne as resembling the point of a pile ; that is, 
that the points of those sharp bearings almost 
come to meet in the base of the escutcheon. 

Poison. See Marined. 

Poland, Crown of. P. 8, n. 13. 

PoMMEE, A Cross, signifies a cross with a ball 
or knob at each end ; also from pomme^ an apple. 
T. 6, n. 9. 

Pomegranate, the arms of the city of Gra- 
nada in Spain, is argent a pomegranate in pale, 
slipt proper; this figure is the emblem of royalty, 
as being crowned on the top. P. \% n. 6. Causin 
says, the pomegranate was the hieroglyphic of po- 
pulousness, the society of many nations; friendship. 

PoMEis, are green roundles, and termed from 
the French word poinme, an apple. T. 8, n. 

PoMELLED, signifies the round ball or knob 
affixed to the handle of a sword or dagger. 

PoMMETTY, A Cross, Signifies more than one 
ball or knob at each end. P. 6, n. 19. 

Pope's Crown. See Tiara. 

Popinjay, a parrot, or parroquet. 

Porcupine is about two feet long and fifteen 


inclies high ; the body is covered with quills from 
ten to fourteen inches long, and very sharp at the 
points: the quills of this animal incline back- 
wards, like the bristles of a hog ; but when the 
animal is irritated, they rise and stand erect like 
bristles. The opinion of its being able to dart its 
quills at its enemies, is now universally allowed to 
be fabulous ; they are firmly fixed in the skin, and 
are only shed when the animal moults them, as 
birds do their feathers. P. 11, n. 5. Gules a por- 
cupine sail ant argent, quilled and chained or, 
name Sir Simon Eyre, Lord Mayor of London, 
1445. He built Leaden-hall. 

PoRTATE, A Cross, so termed, because it does 
not stand upright, as generally crosses do, but 
lies athwart the escutcheon in bend, as if it were 
carried on a man's shoulder. P. 6, n. 16. 

Portcullis, a falling door like a harrow, hung 
over the gates of fortified places, and let down to 
keep an enemy oat of a city or castle, the perpen- 
dicular bars being spiked, both to wound the as- 
sailants, and fix themselves in the ground. The 
portcullis is one of the distinctions of the royal 
house of Tudor. T. 7, n.l2. 

Portugal, Crown of, is a ducal coronet, height- 
ened up with eight arched diadems that support 
a mound, ensigned with a plain cross. P. 8, n. 9. 

Pose. See Stat ant. 

Potent, a Cross, so termed by reason of the 
resemblance its extremities bear to the head of a 
crutch, in Chancers description of old age, 


" So eld she was, that she ne went 
A foote, but it were by potent.'''' 

T. 6, n. 5. Jzure, a cross potent or, name 

Potent-Counter-Potent, argent and azure; 
so termed, as this fur is said to resemble the heads 
of crutches ; so in blazon the colours being named, 
they may be tinctured with any other, as argent ^ 
sahle, &c. T. 2, n. 6. 

PouLDRON, that part of armour which covereth 
the shoulder. 

Powdering signifies the strewing of a field, 
crest, or supporters, irregularly with any small 
figures, as ermine, martlets, fleurs-de-lis, &c. 

Prasin, an ancient terra for green ; from the 
Greek, signifying a leek. 

Precise middle chief. See Middle Chief. 

Precise middle base. See Middle Base. 

Predominant signifies that the field is but of 
one tincture. Kimber. 

Preene, an instrument used by clothiers in 
dressing cloth. P. SO, n. 5. Azure, a preene^ or, 
name Preener, 

Premier, from the French, signifies^r.^^ ; and 
used by English heralds to signify the most an- 
cient peer of any degree by creation. 

Prestor John, or Presbyter John, is drawn as 
a bishop, sitting on a tomb-stone, having on his 
head a mitre, his dexter hand extended, a mound 
in his sinister, and in his mouth a sword fess- 
wise ; the point to the dexter side of the fields 

•u 3 



This is part of the arms of the episcopal see of 
Chichester. P. 16, n. 11. 

Pretence. See Escutcheon of Pretence. 

Pride : this term is used for turkeycocks and 
peacocks. When they extend their tails into a 
circle, and drop their wings, they are said to be 
in their pride. P. 7, n. 11. 

Primrose, an ancient term for the quatrefoil. 

Prisoners' Bolt. See Shackbolt. 

Proper : this term is for creatures, vegetables, 
&c. when borne in coats of arms in their natural 

Proboscis is the trunk of an elephant. P. 17, 
11. 20. 

Prussia, Crown of. P. 8, n. 12. 

PuRFLED, trimmed or garnished, a term for 
the studs and rims of armour being gold : viz. an 
arm in armour proper pitrjled or. 

PuRFLEwis the embroidery of a bordure of fur, 
shaped exactly like vair. When of one row, it is 
termed purflewed; when of two, counter-purflewed, 
and when of three, vair. 

PuRPURE is the colour purple, and, in engrav- 
ing, is represented by diagonal lines, from the: 
left to the right ; it is said to derive its name from ' 
a shell-fish called J;w72^^^ra. T. 2. 

Pyot. a provincial name for a magpye. 



QiTADRANs, Lat. a Canton. 

Quadrate signifies square, a cross potent 
quadrate in the centre, that is, the centre of the 
cross is square. See P. 4, n. 29. 

Quarter isanordinary of a quadrangular form, 
contains a fourth part of the field ; it is formed by 
two lines, one drawn from the side of the shield 
horizontally to the centre, and the other perpen- 
dicularly from the chief, to meet it in the same 
point. T. 4, n. 23. 

QuARTERiNGS are the partitions of a shield, 
containing many coats of arms. See Plate J, 
n. 19. 

Quarterly, is when a shield or charge is di- 
vided into four parts, by a pei'pendicular and ho- 
rizontal line, which crossing each other in the 
centre of the field, divide it into four equal parts 
called quarters. Plate C, n. 6. Plate J, n. 19. 

Quarterly Pierced, signifies a square hole 
in a cross, a millrine, &c. through which aperture 
the field is seen. See examples, P. 4, n. 1. 

Quarterly Quartered is a saltire quartered 
in the centre, and the branches are each parted 
by two different tinctures alternately. See Plate 
J, n. 16. 

Quatrefoil, four-leaved grass; this, as wcl 
as the trefoil, is much used in heraldry. T. 6, 



Queue, a term for the tail of an animal. 


Quill of Yarn. See the example, P. 5, 
n. 22. 

Quintain, an ancient tilting block used'4n a 
sport or game, still in practice at marriages in 
Shropshire, and some other counties. The sport 
consists in running a tilt (on horseback) against a 
quintain, or thick plank, fixed in the ground. 
He that, by striking this plank, breaks the great- 
est number of tilting-poles, and shows the greatest 
activity, gains the prize ; which was formerly a 
peacock, but of late years hath been a garland. 
See the example, P. 19, n. 6. 

Quintal. There is one at OfFham, in Kent ; 
it stands upon a green in the midst of the village, 
and is about seven feet in length ; the transverse 
piece is about five feet in length, the broad part 
of which is marked with many circles about the 
size of a half-crown ; and at the other end is a 
block of wood, weighing about four or five pounds, 
suspended by a chain ; the whole of which turns 
round upon a pivot upon the upright part, and 
the game was played as follows : A man on horse- 
back being armed with a strong pole of a certain 
length, rides with full speed within a few feet of 
the quintal, and making a strong thrust at that 
part of it where the circles are marked, it is turned 
round with such violence, that unless he is very 
expert, he is sure to receive a blow on the head 
from the pendulous piece on the opposite side. 
See P. 22, n. 10. Gent. Mag. June, 1804, p. 517. 

Quiver of Arrows, a case filled with arrows. 


» R. 

Rack-Pole Beacon. See Fire-Beacon. 

Radiant, or Rayonnant, is when rays or 
beams are represented about a charge, as T. 6, 
n. 16. 

Raguled is when the bearing is uneven or 
ragged, hke the trunk or Hmb of a tree lopt of its 
branches, so that only the stumps are seen. One 
of the hnes of partition, from its shape, is termed 
raguled. T. 3, P. 4, n. 2. 

Raguly, a Cross, it seeming to be made of 
two trunks of trees without their branches, of 
which they show only their stumps. P. 4, n. 2. 
Sable, a cross raguly, or^ name Stoway, 

Rainbow, a semicircle of various colours, aris- 
ing from clouds. The rainbow is a token of God's 
covenant with Noah, as appeareth Genesis ix. and 
1.3. " I have set my bow in the clouds, and it 
shall be for a sign of the covenant between me and 
the earth," &c. — Ecclesiasticus xliii. 11. '^ Look 
upon the rainbow, and praise him that made it ; 
very beautiful is it in the brightness thereof; it 
compasseth the heaven about with a circle, and 
the hand of the Most High hath bended it." 
And indeed, worthy is he to be so praised, who, 
when he could have made a bow to destroy us, 
rather chose to make this bow to assure us he 
would not destroy us : a noble precedent to teach 
nobles to use their strength and their weapons 
rather to preserve and help, than ^o overthrow or 


hurt those who are under their power. Farnesius 
saith, that the rainbow appearing in the south be- 
tokeneth rain ; in the west, it foreshowedi thun- 
der; and in the east, prognosticates fair weather. 
Plate H, n. 6. Argent, a rainbow proper^ name 

Rampant is when a beast standeth upright on 
his hinder leg ; the Hon, in this position, signifies 
vigour and courage, also the hieroglyphic of he- 
roes and illustrious princes. T. 9, n. 2. 

Rampant-Gardant signifies a Hon standing 
upright on his hinder legs, full-faced, looking 
right forward ; in this position, it denotes the 
noble lord. T. 9, n. 2. 

Rampant-Regardant ; a term for any beast 
standing upright on its hinder legs, looking be- 
hind or towards its back, and signifies circum- 
spection and caution. T. 9, n. 4. 

Ram ; the chief part of his strength lieth in his 
head, where he is well armed to fight, and is of 
great force, passing all other sheep. The inha- 
bitants of Thebes regarded the ram as sacred, and 
do not feed on its flesh. Every year, on the fes- 
tival of Jnpiter, they cut off the head of a ram, 
and take off its skin, with which they cover the 
statue of the god. Herodotus, lib. ^. Proclus 
says, the Egyptians had a singular veneration for 
the ram, because the Image of Ammon bore his 
head, and that this sign, the first of the zodiac, 
was the presage of the fruits of the earth. Sabk 
a chevron, between three rams heads couped, ar^\ 
gent, name Ramsey. 


Raping, an old term for ravenous beasts when 
represented ^feedirig'. 

Raven. This bird is found in ahnost all coun- 
tries in the world, for it can bear any sort of 
weather ; he is very bold, flies to a great height, 
and has an extraordinary fine smell. Linnaeus 
observes, that the Swedes look upon ravens as 
sacred birds, and no one attempts to kill them. 
It is considered as the emblem of constancy ; or, 
a raven proper, name Corbet. P. 11, n. 18. Od- 
dune, Earl of Devonshire, having killed Hubba, 
the Dane, he got possession of the famous Reqfen, 
or enchanted standard : it contained the figure of 
a raven, which had been inwoven by the three 
sisters of Hinguar and Hubba with many magical 
incantations, and which, by its different move- 
ments, prognosticated, as the Danes believed, the 
I good or bad success of any enterprise. Hume. 

Ray, or stream of light, from any luminous 
body, as the sun or stars. Plate B, n. 30. 

Rayonnant, a Cross, is that which has rays 
of glory behind it, darting from the centre to all 
the quarters of the escutcheon. T. 6, n. 16. 

Rebated is when the top or point of a weapon 
is broken off. 

Rebatement. See Difference. 

Rebus, expressed in a remarkable manner in 
our sculptures of the 16th century, by an associa- 
tion of the figures of men, particular parts of the 
human body, and certain familiar objects in nature 
and art. Examples of name ; as Islip, Abbot of 
Westminster, sculptured in the ^-hurch a man, 


portrait of the abbot slipping from a tree. Bol- 
ton, prior of St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, sculp- 
tured in the church ; a bolt or arrow pierced 
through a tun. Rose Knot wing in a painting on 
glass in an old house, Islington, the representa- 
tion of a rose, a knot, or twisted cord, and a wing. 
Gent. Ma^. Ap. 1804, p. 328. 

Rebus, in heraldry, is meant such a coat as by 
its figure alludes to the name of the person ; as, 
three salmons yiov Salmon, apine-tree, for Pines, &c. 

Reed. See Slay. 

Regardant signifies an animal looking behind, 
having its face turned towards its back : as seeing, 
marking, vigilant. T. 9, n. 12. 

Rein Guard, for that part of armour which 
guards the lower part of the back. 

Rein Deer, as drawn in armory, is a stag with 
double attires; as the example, P. 15, n. 5. 

Remora. This word, in heraldry, is used to 
denote a serpent, in blazoning the figure of Pru- 
dence, which is represented holding in her hand 
a javelin entwined with a serpent proper; such 
serpent is expressed by the word Remora. 

Renverse, is when any thing is set with the 
head downwards, or contrary to its natural way of 
being; as a chevron with the point downwards, 
or when a beast is laid on its back. P. 11, n. 3. 

Rere Mouse, or Bat. This creature is of such 
near resemblance to both bird and beast, that it 
may be doubted of which kind it is ; for by its 
wings and flying, it should be a bird ; and by its 
body, a kind of mouse ; bringing forth its young 


alive, and suckling them with its paps, which no 
other bird doth ; neither hath any creature but this 
wings made of pannicles, or thin skins : argefit, a 
rere-mouse displayed sable, name Baxter. P. 14, 
n. 18. 

Recercellee. See Ceecelee. 

Recrossed is the same as a cross, croslet. 

Respecting, a term for fish, or tame beast, 
when placed upright one against the other. T. 
10, ri. 5. 

Rest : this figure is termed by some a rest for 
a horseman's lance ; others a musical instrument, 
termed a clarion or claricord. T. 7, n. 11. 

Restriall, an ancient term for barry. Paly 
and Pily. 

Rhinoceros. This beast, which is of great 
bulk and strength, is found in the deserts of Ara- 
bia, and taketh its name from the horn in his nose. 
He is a mortal enemy to the elephant, whom he 
seldom meets without a battle. P. 14, n. 21. 

Ribbon, or Riband, is the eighth part of the 
bend, but does not touch the escutcheon at either 
end. T. 4, n. 9. 

Rich Colour. See Gules. 

Ring of gold, was used by the Romans as a 
mark of nobility ; the people wore silver rings, 
and the slaves iron. The ring is a type of fidelity. 
The ancients did not wear rings for ornaments as 
for use of sealing, in regard that the seal gave a 
better approbation than the writing, concerning 
the validity of the charter. 

Rising, for birds preparing to^y. T, 9, n. 20. 



RoMPU, A Chevron, signifying a chevron, 
bend, or the like, to be broken. P. 3, n. 18. Sable, 
a chevron rompu, between three mullets or, name 
SaulL See Plate C, n. 27. 

Rose, in blazon, the following (according to 
Guillim) should be observed, viz. argent a rose 
miles, barbed and seeded proper. Note, The rose 
IS blazoned gules, (the leaves are called barbed^ 
and are always green, as the seed in the middle is 
yellow) the word proper should be omitted in 
blazoning this flower ; for it could not be under- 
stood of what colour, as there are two sorts, white 
and red, T. 6, n. J^4. The rose is used as a di- 
stinction for the seventh brother. See Distinc- 
tion OF Houses. P. 10, n. 7. 

Note, The roses of England were first pub- 
licly assumed as devices by the sons of Edward III. 
John of Gaunt, diike of Lancaster, used the red 
rose for the badge of his family and his brother 
Edward, who was created Duke of Yorl;, anno 
1385, took a white rose for his device, which the 
followers of them and their heirs did afterwards 
bear for distinction in that bloody war between the 
two houses of York and Lancaster; which two 
families being happily united by Henry VII. the 
male heir of the house of Lancaster, in marrying 
Princess Elizabeth, the eldest daughter and heiress 
of Edward IV. of the house of York, in anno 
1486, the tw^o roses were united in one, which be- 
came the royal badge of England. 

RosELETTES, Leigh says, signifies single roses, 
having five leaves each. 


Rose-Double. See P. 6, n. 21. 

RouNDLEs, or RouNDLETs; first is the Be- 
zant ; a piece of gold coin which was current in 
Byzantium (now called Constantinople). Second 
is the Plate ; a round flat piece of silver, with- 
out any impression, but, as it were, formed ready 
to receive it. When any of these figures are found 
of the colour green, they must (in blazon) be called 
PoMEis; if blue, Hurts; if red, Torteauxes; 
if purple, Golpes ; if black, Pellets ; if tenne. 
Oranges ; if sanguine, Guzes. T. 8, n. 9 to 15. 
According to the author of Notitia Anglicana, 
they signify little bread cakes used in the croi- 
sades, of variety of colours like our modern eat- 
able wafers, Noti, Angli. p. 72. ISlote, If there are 
two, three, or more, in a coat, and they be coun- 
terchanged, be they of any colour or metal, they 
retain the name of roundles, viz, party per pale, 
or and gules, three roundles counterchanged, 
name Jbtot. 

Note, Only English heralds term the roundles 
by their several names as above; whereas the 
French, and all other nations, have no such prac- 
tice, but express the colour of every roundle, 
terming them all torteauxes. 

RousANT, a term for a bird rising as if prepar- 
ing to take wing, but whose weight of body pre- 
vents it from rising into the air, as swans, &c. 
When this term is applied to a swan, we are to 
understaild that her wings are indorsed ; as the 
example, T. 10, n. 10. 

Ruby, a stone used in heraldry^nstead of gules, 


being of a red colour. This stone was the last of 
the third row (of Aaron's breast-plate) whereon 
Gad was engraved. 

Russia, Crown of. P. 8, n. 11. 

RusTRE, is a lozenge pierced round in the mid- 
dle. Some authors say the rustre was fixed at the 
end of lances used in tournaments ; others, that it 
was a piece of iron which interposed between the 
heads of nails fixed on ports of cities and castles. 
See P. 6, n. 22. Boyer says, rustre is from the 
German raute, which signifies a nut of a screw. 

Sable is the colour black, and in engraving is 
represented by perpendicular and horizontal lines 
crossing each other. T. 2. 

Sacre or Saker, of the falcon kind ; the head 
grey, the feet and legs bluish, the back a dark 

Sagittarius is an imaginary creature, being 
half man and half beast, and a poetical fiction ; it 
represents one of the twelve celestial signs, and 
was borne by King Stephen of England, by reason 
he entered the kingdom when the sun was in that 
sign, and obtained a great victory by the help of 
his archers ; and took for his arms the said sign, 
and left off bearing both the arms of his father 
Stephen Earl of Champaine, and his grandfather, 
William the Conqueror. Guillim, P. 14, n. 1. 

Sail, P. 20, n. 16. Gules j three sails argent, 
name Cavell. Pliny says, Icarus^ the son of 
Da?dalus, was the inventor of sails. 


Salamander is represented like a small com- 
mon lizard ; its legs and tail are longer ; the belly 
is white ; one part of the skin is black, and the 
other yellow ; both of them very bright, with a 
black line all along the back, where those spots 
are, out of which (as some writers will have it) a 
certain liquor or humour proceeds, which quench- 
eth the heat of fire when it is in the same. Sala- 
manders are bred in the Alps, and some parts of 
Germany, in marshy wet places : that a salaman- 
der can live in, and not be burned by the fire, is 
without foundation of truth, for the experiment 
has been tried. A salamander was the hierogly- 
phic of constancy. P. 17, n. 3. Azure j a sala- 
mander^ or^ in the Jlames proper^ name Cen- 

Saliant, signifies a beast leaping on its prey, 
and is the emblem of the valiant captain. T. 9, 

Counter-Saltant is when two beasts on the 
same escutcheon are saliant; the one leaping 
one way, and the other another, so that they look 
the direct opposite ways; as the example, T. 9, 
n. 9. 

Salled Headpiece, an ancient term for a 

Salts, or Salt-cellars, are vessels, with salt 
falling from the sides, as borne in the arms of the 
Salters'' company ; as P. 15, n. 26. Some heralds 
have blazoned them sprinkling salts. They were 
•anciently drawn as the example. At coronation 
dinners, and all great feasts given J)y the nobility 



and gentry, it was usual to set one of these salts in 
the centre of the dining table ; not only for hold- 
ing salt for the use of the guests, but as a mark to 
separate and distinguish the seats of the superior 
sort of the company from those of an inferior de- 
gree ; it being the custom of former times to set 
the nobility and gentry above the salt, and the 
yeomanry and persons of lower rank below the 
salt. Hence the common expressions o^ above the 
salt^ and helow the salt, 

Saltire. This cross is an ordinary which is 
formed by the bend dexter and bend sinister cross- 
ing each other in the centre in acute angles, which, 
uncharged, contains the fifth, and charged the 
third part of the field. T. 4, n. 21. 

Per-Saltire is when the field is divided into 
four parts by two diagonal lines, dexter and sinis- 
ter, that cross each other in the centre of the field, 
dividing it into four equal parts, in form of a sal- 
tire, T. 3, n. 6. Party 'per saltire^ ermine and 
guieSy name Restnold, 

Sanguine is tlie murrey colour, or dark red, 
and is represented in engraving by lines diagonally 
from the dexter to the sinister side, and from the 
sinister to the dexter. P. 18, n. 2. 

Sans-Nombre signifies many whole figures 
strewed on the field ; but if part of them are cut 
ofl'at the extremities of the escutcheon, as the ex- 
ample, P. 7, n. 31, it then is termed Seme. 

Sapphihe in heraldry is used to express the 
colour azure, it being a stone of a fine sky blue 
colour, and the hardest next a diamond. It was 



one of the stones put into the breast-plate of the 
high priest of the Jews. 

Sardonyx ; this stone is used in heraldry in- 
stead of sanguine, or dark red colour. 

Saturn, one of the planets, and is used instead 
of the colour sable. 

Satyral, a fictitious animal, having the body 
of a lion, the tail and horns of an antelope, and 
the face of an old man. P. 18, n. 9- 

Satyre. See Man Tyger. 

ScALiNG-L adder. ThIs instrument is used 
to scale the walls of besieged castles and cities. 
Plate C, n. 18. Argent three scaling ladders 
hendways gules^ name, Killingworth. 

ScARPE ; it is supposed to represent a shoulder 
belt, or an officer's scarf. T. 4, n. 11. 

Sceptre, a royal staff, used Ijy kings ; azure a 
sceptre in pale or^ ensigned with an eye. P. 12. 
n. 9- The eye is the emblem of providence in 
government, being the watchman of the body ; the 
sceptre is an emblem of justice, so by some it is 
made an ancienter ensign of a king than the crown 
or diadem. Sceptres and crowns were in former 
times not hereditary, but the recompense of va- 
lour. Eustathius. The sceptre was originally 
a javelin without a head. Tarquin the old, first 
used it among the Romans, which he adorned on 
the top with an eagle. Forney^ s Heraldry. 

Scorpion, P. 17, n. 19, is one of the largest 
of the insect tribe, and is no less terrible from its 
size than its malignity. This insect, which is but 
too common in all hot climates, is extremely bold 


and watchful. Whenever any thing approaches, 
it seldom exhibits signs of fear, but, with its tail 
erect, and sting in readiness, as fully confident of 
the force of its poison, it waits an attack with 
courage and intrepidity, and seldom desists till 
either it is killed or its enemy is put to flight* 
Argent a Jess- engrailed between three scorpions, 
erect sable, name, Colle, 

Scotch Spur, P. 20, n. 19- This is the an^ 
cient way of making spurs (before rowels were 
invented), with the buckles fixed to the heel- 
piece, as the example. Tilliet says, that gilt 
spurs were fit for the dignity of a knight, and 
white spurs for an esquire. 

Scrip, argent a chevron between three palmers'' 
scrips, the tassels and bucJcles or, name, Palmer, 
P. 12, n. 7. In the chancel at Snoland, in Kent, 
where Thomas Palmer, that married with the 
daughter of Fitz- Simon, lieth buried, is the fol- 
lowing epitaph : 

" Palmers all our faders were, 
I a Palmer lived here ; 
And traveled still, till worn wud age 
I ended this world's pilgrimage. 
On the blest Ascension day, 
In the cheerful month of day, 
A thousand with four hundred seaven, 
I took my journey hence to heaven." 

Note, Palmer (so called from a staff of a palni- 
trcc, which they carried as they returned firom the 


holy war), a Pilgrim that visited holy places ; yet 
a Pilgrim and a Palmer differed thus : a Pilgrim 
had some dwelling-place, and a Palmer had none; 
the pilgrim travelled to some certain place, the 
Palmer to all, and not to any one in particular ; 
the Pilgrim must go at his own charge, the Palmer 
must profess wilful poverty ; the Pilgrim might 
give over his profession, but the Palmer might 
not. Bailei/. The dress of a Pilgrim was an 
under vest, with an outer robe, having half-open 
sleeves, showing the under-sleeves, which con- 
tinued to the wrists. On his head a broad-brimmed 
hat, with a shell in front ; on his feet sandals, or 
short laced boots ; in his hand a staff, and by his 
side a scrip. Nichols s Leicestershire, 

ScROGS, a term used by the Scotch heralds for 
a small branch of a tree. 

Scroll, or label, wherein the motto is in- 

ScRUTTLE. See Winnowing-Basket. 

Scutcheon. See Escutcheon. 

Scythe, an instrument used in husbandry. 
Argent, a scythe, and in fess a fleur-de-lis sable, 
name, Snyde, or Sneyde. P. 7, n. 34. Note, 
Morgan says, Snyde, in the ancient Saxon lan- 
guage, did signify to cut : Snydee, a cutter, being 
our ancient name for a tailor as Verstegan testi- 
fies, till we had the name tailleur from the French, 
having the same signification. 

Sea-Horse; the fore part is formed like a 
horse, with webbed feet, and the hinder part 
ends in a fish's tail. P. 14, n.j5. 


Sea-Gull. It inhabits the northern climates ; 
its food is fish ; the bill is strong and straight, 
and hooked at the point ; the nostrils are oblong 
and narrow, placed in the middle of the bill ; the 
tongue is cloven. The legs short and naked 
above the knees ; and the back toe small. P. 19, 
n. 17. Azure a chevron or, between three Sea- 
Gulls argent, name, Houlditch. 

Seal. See Marine-Wolf. 

Seal's Paw, erased, P. 19, n. 9- Argent^ a 
chevron between three seals^ paws, erased, sable. 
This is the arms of Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 

Sea-Dog is drawn in shape like the talbot, but 
with a tail like that of the beaver ; a scolloped fin 
continued down the back from the head to the tail \ 
the whole body, legs, and tail scaled, and the feet 
webbed. P. 15, n. 7. 'Note, Two such dogs are 
the supporters of the arms of Baron Stourton. 

Sea-Lion. The upper part is hke a lion, and 
the lower part like the tail of a fish. See P. 15, 
n. 20. Note, When the sea-lion is drawn erect, 
as P. 14, n. 29, it is blazoned, viz. a sea-lion, 
erect on his tail. 

Sea-Pie, a water-fowl of a dark brown colour, 
with a red head, and the neck and wings white. 
P. 15, n. 3, Gules, a chevron, between three sea- 
pies or, name, Sayer, or Sayer. 

Seax, a scimitar, with a semicircular notch 
hollowed out of the back of the blade. P. 15, 
n. 2. It is said to be formed exactly like the 
Saxon sword. Verstegan says, this was a weapon 
oi the Saxons, which they wore under their coats 


-when they slew the Britons in Salisbury plain. 
Rapin says, the word Saxon comes from Seax, 
which, in their language, signifies a sword. They 
had two sorts ; a long one, which they wore by 
their side, and another that was shorter, which 
served for a dagger : both were in the shape of a 
cut] as or falchion. 

Seeded is chiefly applied to roses, to express 
the colour of their seed. 

Segeeant signifies a griffin erect on its hind 
legs, with the wings indorsed, with wings dis- 
played as ready to fly. P. 7, n. 13. 

Segeant signifies sitting : the lion in this po- 
sition is supposed to be returning from his prey, 
taking his rest; for when he is sitting he is de- 
termined not to fly. Some authors say, the lion 
in this position is the emblem of the advised 
counsellor. T.8, n. 21. 

Sejant-Addorsed is when two beasts are 
sitting back to back. T. 9, n. 11. Argent, two 
squirrels sejant addorsed gules, name, SamwelL 

Seme is an irregular strewing without number, 
all over the field. P.7, n.31. 

Sengreen, or house-leek, is part of the arms 
of Caius College, Cambridge. 

Sentrie, an ancient term for Piles. 

Seraph's Head is a child's head between three 
pair of wings ; the two uppermost and two lower- 
most are counterly crossed ; the two middlemost 
iisplayed. See P. 19, n. 1. 
' • Serpent. The Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, 


and Romans, used to worship the serpent. This 
animal, when stamped on money, and represented 
in painting, was a hieroglyphic of health and 
good fortune. It is probable that Moses, in order 
to oblige the Jews to address themselves to God, 
and to expect from Him health and the cure of 
their diseases, which they wanted, might therefore 
have set up the brazen serpent, which in Egypt 
was the hieroglyphic of both. Hist of all Rel. 

Shackbolt, by some called a prisoner's bolt. 
P. 2, n, 24, Sable, three pair of shackholts argent, 
name, Anderton. See one pair. P. 15, n. 27. 

Shafted is when a spear-head has a handle in 
it ; then it is termed shafted. 

Shake-Fouk. See Hay-Fork. 

Shamrocks, a term in Ireland for the trefoil, 
or three-leaved grass. 

Shave. See Curriers' Shave. 

Shield, an ancient piece of armour, carried on 
the arm, on which arms or devices were frequently 
borne. Note, Carter says, for the form, or rules 
for the shape of shields, there can be none ; for 
any form that a shield may be devised into, may 
be taken for the shape of an escutcheon. 

Ships are borne in arms, and very properly, 
by those who have performed noble actions at 
sea, and raised themselves to posts of honour for 
services on that element. Causin says, the ship 
is the emblem of importation and exportation. 

Shoveller, a species of water-fowl, somewhat 
like the duck. The ancient heralds drew this bird 


with a tuft on its breast, and another on the back 
of its head, as P. 15, n. 1. Gules, a shoveller 
argent, name, Lang ford. 

Shruttle. See Winnowing-Basket. 

Shuttle ; argent, three weaver i shuttles sable, 
tipped, and furnished uith quills of yarn, name 
of Shuttleworth, P. 12, n. 22. Weaving was 
the invention of the Egyptians. According to 
Phny, Arachne was the first spinner of flax- 
thread, the weaver of linen, and knitter of nets. 
'Note, It seemeth that those arts were first learned 
by imitation of silk-worms and spiders, whose 
subtle works no mortal hand can match. 

Signet-Royal. See Cygnet-Royal. 

Silk-Hanks, P. 20, n. 14. Such are borne in 
the arms of the Silk-Throwers' Company. 

Sinister signifies the left side or part of any 
thing, and is the female side in an impaled coat. 
See the example, a sinister hand. P. 7, n. 33. 

Sinister Canton is the canton placed on the 
left side of the shield in chief. 

Sinister-Bend is a bend placed from the 
sinister-chief to the dexter base, and in size the 
same as the bend. 

Sinister-Chief is the left side of the chief, 
expressed by the letter C, Table 1. 

Sinister-Base, the left hand part of the base, 
represented by the letter H, Table 1. 

SiNOPLE signifies the colour green. 

Skein, a Scotch term for a dagger. Gules a 
chevron, between three skeins argent, hilled and 


pomelled or, surmounted of as many wolves' heads, 
couped close, name, SJcein. 

Slay, Slea, or Reed ; an instrument used by 
weavers, and borne as part of the arms of the Com- 
pany of Weavers of the city of Exeter. P. 2, n. 18. 

Sling. See P. 19, n. 19. Such a sUng is part 
of the arms of Cawardyn; viz. sable, a sling 
hendwise between two pheon's heads. 

Slipped is a flower or branch plucked from 
the stock. T. 10,n.ll. 

Slughorn ; this term is used by the Scotch 
heralds for what the French call la cry de guerre, 
and the EngUsh the cry of war, 

Smallage Garland was given to the con- 
querors at the Nemean Games, so called from 
the Nemean Forest in Achaia, where they were 
celebrated in honour of Hercules, who there slew 
a great lion. 

Snail. The bearing of the snail signifies that 
much deliberation must be used in matters of 
great difficulty and importance ; for although the 
snail is slow in motion, yet by perseverance in its 
course, it ascendeth the top of the highest tower. 
P. 12, n. 13. Sable, a fess between three house- 
snailsy argent, name. Shelly. 

Snake, with his tail lodged in his mouth, 
among the Egyptians represented the year. 

Sol, the sun, and in heraldry sometimes is 
used to express gold, in blazoning the arms of 

Soldering-Iron, a tool used by the plumbers, 


and borne in the arms of their company. P. 2, 

Spade-Iron, or the shoeing of a spade. P. 15, 
n. 25. Azure, three spade-irons or, name, Becton. 
Spain, Crown of. See P. 8, n. 8. 
Spancelled, or fettered, is when a horse has 
his fore and hind legs, of the near side, fettered 
with fetter-locks fastened to the ends of a stick. 
P. 19, n. 21 . This is the arms oi Percivall. 

SpEiivERs, a term for testis, so granted to the 
Upholders' Company. 

Sprang, in Hebrew, from whence the word 
Sphinx is derived, signifying overflowing. Spel- 

Sphinx is said to have had a head, face, and 
breasts like a woman ; body and legs like a lion, 
and wings like a bird. This figure is the Egyptian 
emblem of the overflowing of the Nile, which 
began at the entering of the sun into the sign of 
Leo, and continued during its passage through the 
constellation of Virgo, and ended at the Equinox. 
PUn. Nat. Hist. Book 18. This example is borne 
as a crest, name, Asgil. P. 14, n. 2. 

Spider. The spiders feed on flies; the web by 
which they entangle the insects is a surprising 
part of the animal economy. When they form the 
web, they are supplied with a glutinous matter 
contained in their bodies ; they have five teats for 
spinning it into thread. When they enter on this 
fabric, the animal distils a drop of glutinous liquor, 
and creeping along the wall and joining its thread 
as it proceeds, darts itself to tli^ opposite side, 


wliere tlie other end is to be fastened. The first 
thread first fiDrmed, being drawn tight and fixed 
at each end, the spider runs on it backwards and 
forwards, still doubling it, as on this depends the 
stability of the whole : it makes a number of 
threads parallel to the first, and then crosses them 
with others ; the clammy substance of which they 
are formed serving, when first made, to bind them 
to each other. At the bottom of the web is a 
funnel, in which the spider is concealed. In this 
den it watches with assiduity till its prey is en- 
tangled, on which it instantly darts with inevitable 
ruin. A cohweb^ in the centre a spider, name, 
Cobster, of Lombardy. See P. 16, n. 10. 

Splendor; this is a term for the sun, when 
represented with a human face, and environed 
with rays. 

Springing, for beasts of chase, is the same as 
saliant for those of prey. T. 9, n. 15. 

Square, P. 20, n. 7. Argent, a chevron, be- 
tween three carpenters' squares, sable, name, 

Squirrel : its head, tail, and colour, are much 
like those of a fox ; its food is nuts, fruits, and 
vegetables. P. 11, n. 24. 

Sruttle. See Winnowing-Basket. 

Stafford Knot. See the example. P. 15, 
n. 81. Or, on a chevron gules, a Stafford Knot 
argent, is the arms of Stafford town. 

Stag is an admired beast for its elegance and 
beauty. The senses of smelling and hearing are | 
in this animal remarkably acute. On the slightest ! 


alarm he lifts his head and erects his ears, stand- 
ing for a few minutes as if in a listening posture. 
Whenever he ventures upon unknown ground, 
or quits his native coverts, he first stops at the 
skirts of the plain, to examine all around : he next 
turns against the wind, to examine by the smell 
if there be any enemy approaching. T. 9, n. 14 

Stars are used in coat-armour, and are the 
emblems of prudence, which is the rule of all 
virtues, enlightening us through the darkness of 
this world. 

Statant signifies an animal standing on all 
his feet. T. 8, n. ^S. 

Staves of an Escarbuncle are the eight rays 
that issue from its centre. See T. 7, n. 18. 

Stilts were anciently used for the scaling of 
walls, castles, See. See the example, P. 7, n. 5. 
Argent, two stilts in saltire sable, garnished or, is 
the arms of Newbi/, of Yorkshire. 

Stirrup. P. 17, n. 22. Gules, three siirrujps 
with bucjcles and straps or, name, Scudamore. 

Stork is the true and lively image of a son ; 
for whatsoever duty a son oweth to his parents, 
they are all found and observed in the stork : this 
bird is the emblem of piety and gratitude. The 
Thessalians worshipped the stork, and to kill one 
of these birds was death. Argent, a storJc sable, 
membred gules, name, Stai'hey, of Cheshire. P. 
14, n. 19. 

Streaming, is the stream of light darting from 
a comet. Sec Plate H, n. 7. 

SuFFLUE, a term for a rest or clarion. 

• y3 


Sun, in heraldry, is represented with a human 
face, environed with rays, and is termed a sun in 
its splendor. P. 17, n. 5. 

Super-Charge is one figure charged or borne 
upon another. 

Super-Imbattled, azure, a fess, super-im- 
battled, between six estoils or, name, Tryon, 
See Plate A, n. 8. 

Supporters are figures, animals, or birds, 
which stand on each side of the shield and seem 
to support the same. 

Suppressed. See Debruised. 

Surmounted, is when one charge is placed over 
another. See Plate A, n. 34, viz. sable, a pile 
argent, surmounted of a che^on gules, name, 

SuRTouT, a term for over-all, and signifies a small 
escutcheon, containing a coat of augmentation. 

Swallow. This bird is the most welcome 
harbinger, showing the approach of the pleasing 
spring. Or three swallows close, proper^ name, 
IVatton, SeeP.S2, n. 23. 

Swan ; the swan is called Apollo's bird, for his 
colour, which is the emblem of innocence; his 
strength is said to lie in his wings ; and is much 
borne in armory. P. 14, n. 15. Gules, a swan 
argent, memhered or, name, Leyliam, 

Swepe; used in ancient times to cast stones 
into towns and fortified places of an enemy. 
This instrument was invented by the Phoenicians. 
Fuller, P. 2, n. 17. Argent, a swepe azure, 
charged with a stone or, name, Magnall. 


Swivel, two iron links which turn on a bolt. 
See manacle. P. 2, n. 29- Notef Three such 
are borne on a chevron, in the arms of the Iron- 
mongers' Ck)mpany. 

Synamur. See Sanguine. 

Syphon. See Fire-Bucket. 

Syren, or Mermaid. 


Tabard, a short loose garment for the body, 

without sleeves, and was worn by our ancient 

knights over their armour, in order to distinguish 

them in battle ; whereon were embroidered their 

arms, &c. At present a tabard is worn only by 

heralds, on public occasions. 

Tabernacle. See Tent. 

Talbot, a sort of hunting dog between a 

j hound and a beagle, with a large snout, long, 

I round, hanging, and thick ears. The dog is the 

I emblem of love, gratitude, and integrity. P. 14, 

I' n. 26. Ardent a talbot passant, sable, gutte d^or, 
name, Shirrington. 
Taper-Candlestick. See Candlestick. 
Target. See Shield. 
Tasces, or Tasses, a part of armour to cover 
the thighs. 

Tassel is a bunch of silk, or gold fringe, and 
is an addition to the strings of mantles and robes 
of state. P. 17, n. 18. Gules three tassels, or, 
oame, Wooler. 

Tasseled ; that is, decorated with tassels. 
Tau, a Cross, or St. Anthony's ^ross ; so called 


because St. Anthony the monk is always painted 
with it upon his hatjit ; Hkewise named from the 
Greek letter tau. P. 4, n. 26. 

Teazel, the head or seed-vessel of a species of 
thistle ; it is used by clothiers in dressing cloth, and 
borne in the arms of their company. P. 2, n. 7- 

Tenne, or Tawny, signifies orange-colour, 
and in engraving is represented by diagonal lines 
from the dexter to the sinister side of the shield, 
traversed by perpendicular lines. P. 18, n. 1. 

Tent, tabernacle, or pavilion. Tents were the 
chief habitations of the ancient patriarchs, in the 
first ages of the world ; such kind of habita- 
tions best fit their uses, for they often remove 
their seats, to refresh their cattle with change of 
pasture. Such is the manner of the Arabs at this 
day, having no cities, towns, or villages, to in- 
habit, but the open fields, in tents, after the manner 
of the ancient Scythians. P. 16, n. 21. Sable, a 
chevron hehveen three tents, argent ^ name, Tenton. 

Tete signifies the head of an animal. 

Thatch-Rake. P. 20, n. 4. 

Thunderbolt, in heraldry, is a twisted bar 
in pale inflamed at each end, surmounting two 
jagged darts, in sal tire, between two wings dis- 
played with streams of fire : this was the ensign of 
the Scythians. P. 12, n. 20. The bearing of 
lightning signifies the effecting of some weighty 
business with much celerity and force : in all ages 
this hath been reputed the most quick, forcible, 
and terrible dart, winged with fate, wherewith 
the Almighty striketh where he pleaseth. 


Tiara, a cap of golden clotli, from which hang 
two pendants, embroidered and fringed at the 
ends, seme of crosses of gold. This cap is inclosed 
by three marquises'* coronets; on the top is a 
mound of gold, with a cross of the same. Note^ 
When Boniface VIII. was elected into the see of 
Rome, 1295, first encompassed his cap with a co- 
ronet; Benedict II. ^ in 1,'335, added a second to 
it; and John XXII.^ in 1411, a third, with a 
view to indicate by them that the Pope is sovereign 
priest, the supreme judge, and the sole legislator 
amongst Christians. P. 8, n. 4. Forneys Elem, 
of Heraldry. 

Tierce is a term for a shield tierced, divided, 
or ingrafted into three areas. P. 6, n. 26 to 33. 
Note, These partitions, by tiercing tlie field, are 
not used by English heralds. 

TlERCE-IN-BEND. P. 6, n. 26. 
TiERCE-IN-PAIRLE. P. 6, n. 27. 
TiERCE-IN-PALE. P. 6, n. 28. 

TiERCE-iN-GYRONS, bend sinisterways. P. 6, 
n. 29. 

TiERCE-iN-PiLE, from sinister to dexter. P. 6, 

TiERCE-IN-GYRONS AroNDI. P. 6, n. 31. 
TiERCE-IN-MANTLE. P. 6, n. 32. 

Tierce-in-fess. p. 6, n. 33. 

Tillage, Rake-Head. P. 20, n. 3. 

Tilting-Spear. p. 22, n. 8. 

Timbre signifies a helmet ; and sometimes is 
used for the crest of a coat of arms. 

Tincture is the hue and coloyr of any thing 
in coat-armour; and under this denomination may 


be included the two metals or and argent, on 
gold and silver, because they are often represented: 
yellow and white, and they themselves bear those 

TiRRET, a modern term for manacles or hand- 
cuff's, as in the badges of the house of Percy. 
T. 10, n. 12. 

ToxMb-Stone. p. 20, n. 10. Three such are 
the arms of Tomb. 

Topaz, a stone of a gold colour, and is by 
some used instead of or. This stone was the 
second of the first row of Aaron'^s breast-plate, 
whereon the name o^ Simeon was engraved. 

Torn, an ancient name in heraldry for a 

Torqued, wreathed, from the Latin torqueo, 
to wreath. 

ToRQUED, for a dolphin haurient, which forms 
a figure similar to the letter S. See Plate F, n. 18. 
Torse. See Wreath. 
ToRTEAUx is a roundle of a red colour. T. 
8, n. 11. 

Tortoise; vert^ a tortoise passant argent^ 
name, Gawdi/. The tortoise is an amphibious 
creature, much esteemed as well for the beauty 
of its shell as for the dehcacy of its flesh. P. 11, 
n. 13. These animals are extremely gentle and 
peaceable ; no animals whatever are more tena- 
cious of life ; even if their head be cut off" and 
their chest be opened, they will continue to live 
for several days. They pass the cold season in a 
state of torpidity. A tortoise introduced into the 
garden at Lambeth, in the time of Archbishop 


Laud, was living in the year 1753, a hundred 
and twenty years afterwards ; and when at last 
it perished, it seems to have been more from the 
accidental neglect of the gardener, than from the 
mere effects of age. Bingleys An. Biog\ 

TouRNE. See Regardant. 

Tower; argent, a tower sable, having a 
scaling-ladder raised against it in bend sinister, 
or. This is the arms of Cardivar ap Dinwall, 
Lord of Aberser, in South Wales. The ladder 
thus raised against the tower, may put us in mind 
to stand carefully upon our guard, who live in 
this world, as in a castle, continually assaulted by 
spiritual and corporeal enemies, who cease not to 
plot and put in execution whatsoever tendeth to 
our destruction. P. 16, n. 20. 

Towered is the towers or turrets on walls or 

Transfluent, a term for water running 
through the arches of a bridge. See P. 16, n. 22. 

Transposed is when bearings are placed out 
of their usual situation. See P. 3, n. 3^. 

Trefoil, or three-leaved grass, is the emblem 
of perpetuity, signifying that the just man shall 
never wither, T. 6, n. 21. Argent a Jess nebule 
between three trefoils slipt gules, name, Thorp, 
of Gloucestershire. 

Treille, or laticed ; it differs from freMy, for 
the pieces in the treille do not cross under and over 
each other, but are carried throughout, and are 
always nailed in the joints. Argent, treille gules, 
nailed or, name, Bardonenche, J^ce P. 18, n. 5. 


TiiESsuRE, allowed to be half the breadth of 
the orle, and is borne flory and counterflory : it 
passes round -the field in the same shape and form 
of the escutcheon, and is generally borne double, 
and sometimes treble. T. 5, n. 5. Plate J, n. 9. 
Note, If a coat be impaled with another, either 
the dexter or sinister side, and hath a tressure, 
the tressure must finish at the impaled line, and 
not to be continued round the coat. NotCj The 
double tressure flowered in the royal arms of 
Scotland, was the badge and memorial of that an- 
cient alliance between Charlemaign and Achaius, 
king of Scotland, in the year 792. The tres- 
sure flowerie encompasses the lion of Scotland, to 
show that he should defend the fleur-de-lys, and 
these to continue a defence to the lion, the ancient 
imperial ensign of Scotland since Fergus I. 

Trestle, or three-legged stool. P. 17, n. 14. 
Gjiles a fess humette, beixveen three trestles argent, 
name, Stratford. 

TiiEVET. P. 17, n. 13. Argent a trevet sable, 
name, Trevett, The trevet seemeth to be termed 
from its three feet, a tripod, which in Greek sig- 
nifies a stool of so many feet. Amongst the hea- 
thens, Apollo's priests gave answers from the oracle 
sitting on such a stool, whence he that speaketb 
oracles is said to speak tanquam ex tripode. 

Teevet, triangular. P. 7, n. 12. Jrgent a 
triangular trevet sable, name, BarUe. 

Tricorporated is a lion with three bodies, is- 
suing from the three corners of the escutcheon, and 
meeting- under one head in the fess point ; this de- 


vice was borne by Edmund Crouchback, earl of 
Lancaster, brother to King Edward I. P. 15, 
II. 16. . 

Tripping, this term is proper for beasts of 
chase, as passant for those of prey, represented 
with one foot up as it were on a trot. See T. 9, 
n. 14. Argent a stag tripping'^ proper attired 
and unguledj or, name, Holme. 

Counter-Tripping is when two beasts are 
tripping, the one passing one way, and the other 
another, as the example, T. 9, n. 10. also, sahle^ 
two hinds counter-tripping in Jess-argent, name, 
Cottingham. P. 14, n. 13. 

Triple Plume. See Ostrich Feathers. 

Triparted, a Cross, flory. P. 6, n. 9. 

Triumphal Crown was composed of laurel, 
and granted to those who vanquished their ene- 
mies, and had the honour of a triumph. P. 8, 
n. S5. Note, In after- ages it was changed for 
gold, and not restrained to those that actually 
triumphed, but presented on several other ac- 
counts, as commonly by the foreign states and pro- 
vinces to their patrons and benefactors. Kennet. 

Tron-Onnee, a Cross, is a cross cut in pieces, 
yet so as all the pieces preserve the form of a cross, 
though set at a small distance from each other. 
P. 4, u. 9. 

Trunked ; this term is used when trees, &c. 
are couped, or cut oft* smooth. See the example, 
Plate H, n. 14. 

Trumpet. P. f22, n. 15. Argent, a chevron 

• z 


engrailed, between three trumpets, sdble^ name. 

Truncated, See Trunked. 

Trussing ; the example is a falcon, his wings 
expanded, trussing a mallard. See P. 3, n. 23. 

Trundles, quills of gold thread, used by the 
embroiderers, and borne in the arms of their com- 
pany. P. S, n. 2S. 

Turkey. The common turkey is a native of 
North America, and was first introduced from 
thence into England, in the reign of Henry VIII. 
The turkey is one of the most difficult birds to 
rear of any we have, and in its wild state it is 
found in great plenty in the forests of Canada, 
that are covered with snow above three-fourths of 
the year. P. 22, n. 11. Argent, a chevron sable, 
between three turkey cocks in their pride prcyper^ 
name. Yea, 

Turkish Crown. See Grand Seignior. 

Turnpike. See the example, P. 1, n. 4 ; 
also P. 19, n. 10, three such, sable, on afield 
argent, name, Woolstone. Feme says, this ingine, 
or municion, set and fixed, upon cawseys, bridges, 
and strait passages, to stop and forestall the horse- 
men of their way ; the like were set in the way, 
leading from New nam bridge, into the country 
of Picardie in old time, when as Caljays was 

Turnstile, or Turnpike. P. 17, n. 11. This 
example is borne as a crest by Sir Thomas George 
Skipwith, Bart. 


Turret, a small tower on the top of another. 

Turret. See P. 22, n. 3. Sable, on a be7idy 
between two turrets argent^ three jjheons, g'ules, on 
a chief or, u Imi passant, betxveen txvo lozenges 
azure, name, Johnson, 

TuRRETED, having small turrets on the top of 
a wall, as P. 16, n. 19. 

TuRQuiNE. See Azure. 

Tuscany, Crown of. P. 8, n. 17. 

Tusk, the long tooth of an elephant, boar, &c. 

Tusked, when the tusks of an animal are of a 
different tincture from its body. 

Tyger: this beast is said to be the emblem of 
swiftness, cruelty, revenge, and falsehood; for 
which reason the poets, when they would describe 
an inhuman, merciless person, say. He has sucked 
the Hyrcanian tigers. It is reported that those 
who rob the tygressof her young, lay pieces of look- 
ing-glass in the way she is to pursue them, where 
seeing her image, she stops, and gives them time 
to escape. In the church of Thame, in Oxford- 
shire, is still to be seen, argent, an heraldic tyger 
passant^ regardant^ gules, gazing in a mirror or 
looking-glass, name, Sibel, of Kent. Buifon says, 
the tiger braves every danger to secure her young, 
and will pursue the plunderers of them with the 
greatest inveteracy, and who are often obliged to 
drop one to secure the rest ; this she takes up and 
conveys to the nearest cover, and then renews the 
pursuit, and will follow them to the very gates of 
towns, or to the ships in which they may have 
taken refuge; and when she haf no hopes of rc> 


covering her young, she expresses her agony by 
ihe most dismal howls of despair. 

Tyger Heraldic, so termed to distinguish 
it from the natural tiger. See T. 8, n. 3. 

Tyger Natural. See P. 22, n. 1. 


Umbraxed. See Entr ailed. 

Undy. See Wavy. 

Unguled, signifies hoofed. 

Unicorn, supposed to be a very beautiful beast, 
with a long twisted horn on its forehead ; its head 
and body like a horse, but has cloven feet, and 
l)air under the chin, like a goat, tail like a lion, 
and is of a bay colour; but, after the most diligent 
inquiry made by the most judicious travellers, in 
all parts of the world, there is no such creature to 
be found. P. 14, n. 5. Argent, a unicorn pas- 
sunt gnlcs, arined or, name, Stasam. 

Union, Cross of the. This form was settled 
as the badge of the union between England and 
Scotland, and is blazoned _, a,^itr^, a saltire argent, 
surmmmted of a cross gnles, edged of the second. 
See P. 4, n. 27. 

Urchin. See Hedge-hog. 

Urdee. See Cleciiee. 


Vair (according to Colombier) is a fur used for 
lining the garments of great men ; it consisted of 
pieces i)ut together, made in the shape of little 

HyxnT 11. HERALDRY, ^5" 

glass pots, which the furriers used to white furs in ; 
and because they were most frequently of an 
azure colour, those who first settled the rule of 
this science decreed, in relation to vair, that this 
fur in its natural blazon should be always arf^ent 
and azure. T. 2, n. 4. Vair a border. T. 5, 
n. 16. 

Vair Ancient, as appears by many good MSS. 
was represented by lines nebule, separated by 
straight lines, iu fess. See the example, P. 13. 

Vair, a Cross, being composed of four pieces 
of vair, their points turned one to another, in the 
form of a cross. P. 4, n. 34. 

Vair-en-Point, is a fur with the cups ranged 
upon a line counterwise, or and azure. P. 13. 

Vallary-Ckov/n was of gold, with pahsades 
fixed against the rim ; it was. given by the general 
of the army to a captain or solc^er that first en- 
tered the enemy's camp, by forcing the palisade. 
P. 8, n. 91. 

Vambraced, signifies an arm habited in ar- 
mour. See P. % n. 34, Gules ^ three dexter arms 
vambraced, in pale proper, name, Jrmstrong. 
This coat is very well adapted to the bearer's 
name, and serves to denote a man of excellent 
conduct and valour. 

Vamp LET, a piece of steel formed like a funnel, 
placed on tilting-spears just before the hand to 
secure it, and could be taken off at pleasure. 

Vannet, a term by some French authors for 
the escallop) or cockle-shell, when it is represented 
without ears. See P. 3, n. 11. • 

z 3 


Vakvelled. See Jesses. 

Vekice, Crown of the Doge of. P. 8, u. 20. 

Venus, one of the planets, used for the colour 

Verdoy signifies a bordure to be charged with 
any kind of vegetables. The example is, argent 
a bordure azure, verdoy of' eight trefoils, argent. 
P. 3, n. 12. "Note^ It would be more heraldic to 
say, argent, a border charged with eight trefoils, 

Verry. The fur which is termed verry, always 
consists of four distinct colours, whose names must 
be mentioned in the blazon, as thus ; he beareth, 
verry, or, azure, sable, gules, &c. P. IS. 

Vert signifies the colour green ; it is repre- 
sented in engraving by diagonal lines from the 
dexter chief to the sinister base. T. 2. 

Vervels, small rings fixed to the end of the 
jesses, through which falconers put a string in 
order to fasten the bells to the falcons' legs. 

Viper : it is the only one either of the reptile^ 
or serpent tribes in Great Britain, from whoii 
bite we have any thing to fear : all the others an 
either entirely destitute of poison ; or, if thej 
possess any, it is not injurious to man. 

In ancient times the poison of the viper was 
collected by many of the European nations as a 
poison for their arrows, as that of other serpents 
is used by the inhabitants of savage nations, at the 
present day. Bingley An, Biog. 

ViROLLE is a term lor a hunting horn, when bcl 
round with metal or colour different from the horn. 


Vizor. See Gardevizor. 

Voided is when an ordinary has nothing but an 
edge to show its form ; all the inward part sup- 
posed to be cut out or evacuated, so that the field 
appears through : therefore it is needless to ex- 
press the colour or metal of the voided part, be- 
cause it must of course be that of the field. P. 6, 
n. 17. 

VoiDERS. These figures are formed like the 
flonches and flasques, yet they differ from both, as 
being always less, and are said to be given as a 
reward to a gentlewoman for service done by her 
to the prince. P. 7, n. 7. 

Voider, according to Randle Holme, is cer- 
tainly a diminution of the flanch, and by -reason 
of its smallness cannot be charged. It is a bear- 
ing, but being very rarely used as such, several 
heraldic writers do not mention it. 

Vol, among the French heralds, signifies both 
the wings of a bird borne in armory, as being the 
whole that makes the flight. P. 7, n. 16. 

Demi- Vol is when only a single wing is borne 
in an arms. T. 9, n. S3. 

Volant : thus we term any bird that is flying. 
T. 9, n. ^2. 

V grant: a term for any fish, bird, beast, or 
reptile, swallowing up any other creature whole. 
Plate F.n. 19. 

VuLNED signifies wounded, and the blood drop- 
ping therefrom, as is represented on the breast of 
the example. Plate F. n. 5. Likewise a heart 
vulncd. P. 7, n. IS. Ars^ent ^i fas, gules, be- 


tween three hearts vtdned, and distilling drops of 
blood on the sinister side proper^ name, Tote, 


Wake's Knot, See the example, P. 15, 
n. 32. 

Walled. See Muraille. 

Want. See Mole. 

Wast el-Cake, a round cake of bread. 

Water-Bags, P. 20, n. 18. Argent, two 
ivater-bags sable , hooped together or, name, Ba- 
nister, Note, By the help of the hoop, put about 
the person's neck, the bags anciently were carried. 

Warden, the name of a pear, and in armory 
sometimes termed a mar den only, in allusion to 
the name ; three pears being the arms of Warden. 

Water Bouget, being anciently used by sol- 
diers to fetch water to the camp. T. 6, n. 20. 

Water Bougit. See P. 22, n. 16. and T. 6, 
n. 20. 

Wattled, a term for the wattles or gills of 
a cock, &c. when of a different tincture from its 

Wavy has always three risings, and signifies 
waves rolling, also a line of partition ; it also 
shows the first bearer of such to have got his arms 
for services done at sea. T. 3. 

Weare, Weir, or dam, in Jess. It is made 
with stakes and osier twigs, interwoven as a fence 
against water. P. 7, n. 25. Some authors term 
it a Hate, 


Weel: this instrument is used to catch fish. 
P. 2, n. 12. Argent^ a chevron, ermine, between 
three weels, their hoops upwards, vert, name, 
Wylley, See another, P. 15, n. 30. 

Weel, P. 15, n. 30. Or, a chevron between 
three siich weels sable, name, Folborne. 

A¥ell, as example, P. 7, n. 8. Gules, three 
wells argent, name, Hadiswell. 

AVell. See the example, P. 7, n. 9, sable 
three wells argent, name, Borton. 

Well-Bucket, argent, a well-bucket sable, 
handle atid hoops or, name, Pemberton, See the 
example, P. 4, n. 30. 

Welke ; the name of a shellfish. T. 8, n. 7. 
Sable, afess engrailed between three welkes, name, 
Shelley, of Sussex, Bart. 

Wervels. See Vervels. 

Wharrow-Spindle : this instrument is some- 
times used by women to spin as they walk, sticking 
the distaff in their girdle, and whirling the spindle 
round, pendent at the thread, P. 2, n. 13. 

Whale's Head. See P. 3, n. 24. Argent, 
three whales'' heads sable, name, Whalley, 

Whielpool. See Gurges. 

Whintain. See Quintain. 

Wing of an Imperial Eagle. Note, The 
Germans and French always represent the wings 
of the eagle with a small feather between the 
pinion feathers. See P. 3, n. 29. Wings are 
hieroglyphics of celerity, and sometimes of pro- 

Windmill-Sail, P. 19, n. 24. Aziiic, a 


chevron f betwee7t three windmillsails, name, 

Winged signifies the wings are of a different 
tincture from the body. 

Winnowing-Basket, for winnowing of corn, 
P. 5, n. 17. Jzure, three scruttles (or winnow-f 
ing-baskets) or^ name, Sivans. 

Wolf is a cruel, ravenous, and watchful 
creature, able to endure hunger longer than any 
other beast ; but, when pressed by it, breaks out 
and tears the first flock it meets with, and is there- 
fore compared to a resolute commander, who hav- 
ing been long besieged, being at last reduced to 
famine, makes a desperate sally upon his enemies, 
and drives all before him ; having vanquished his 
opposers, returns into his garrison laden with 
honours, plunder and provisions. P. 14, n. 10. 
Argenty a wolf passant sable, name, Walsalle. 
Wolves were formerly so numerous in this island^ 
that king Edgar commuted the punishments for 
certain offences, into the acceptance of a number 
of wolves^ tongues from each criminal ; and he 
converted a heavy tax on one of the Welsh princes 
into on annual tribute of three hundred wolves' 
heads. It appears from Hollingshed, that the 
wolves were very noxious to the flocks in Scot- 
land in 1577 ; nor were they entirely destroyed 
till about a century afterwards, when the last wolf 
fell in Lochaber, by the hand of Sir Ewen Came- 
ron of Locheil. 

Wool-Card, P. 20, n.l. Sable, three icooh 
cardSf or, namc^ CaniingUm, 


Wreath, an attire for the head, made of linen 
or silk, of two different tinctures twisted together, 
which the ancient knights wore when equipped 
for tournaments: the colours of the silk are 
usually taken from the principal metal and colour 
contained in the coat of arms of the bearer. P. 8, 
n. 28. 

Wyvern is a kind of flying serpent, the upper 
part resembling a dragon, and the lower an adder 
or snake ; some derive it from vipera, and so make 
it a winged viper ; others say it owes its being to 
the heralds, and can boast no other creation, T. 
7, n. 24. Argent, a wyvern gules, name, Drakes, 
of Ireland. 


Yates, an ancient name in armory for gates. 


Zodiac, in bend sinister with three of the signs 
on it, viz. Libra, Leo, and Scorpio. See Plate H, 
n, 1. This coat is said to appertain to the king of 
Spain, in respect that he found out an unknown 
climate, under which his Indians have their ha- 



PART 1] 






I Mil 



Dimir.utiones arn:o- 








Aiglet^, Aiglons 

Aquilae Muiilse 



















Cirux Avcllana 
















Jugariae faseiolae 






Transverse fasciolatus 




Barry Pily 

Parti Emanche 





Barbed and Crested 

Barbe et Creste 

Barbula et Crista 














Per Bend Sinister 





Bendy of Six 


Bend Sinister 




En Bande 

Oblique dextrorsus 



Oblique dextrorsus 






Bizantius nummus 


















Ora obvertentia 



Murices or Tribuli 



Quadrans Angujaris 














Jiusorius liatrunculus 
A A 










Per Chevron 









In Chief 

In Chef 

In Summo 





















Parti de I'un en 1' 




















Utroque latere accinc- 






A latere disjunctum 













Luna Comuta 










En Croix 

In modum crucis col- 























Diminutiones Armo 





































Contre Hermines 












Per Fess 









Transverse scctum 







Orbiculi Segmentuni 






















Fascis frumentarius 






Obverso ore 












Gutis Respersum 































Ad invicem tergum 


































Rombulis interstinc 




















Fer de mouliii 

Ferrum Molcndiiia- 











Rotula Calcaris 












In Orle 


Ad oram positus 

Over all 

Sur le tout 

Toti superinductum 






En Pal 

In Palum coUocatuss 





j^alis exoratus 
A A 3 




























Fer do dard 







Palus Minutus 






Fcrrum jaculi 
Pila pontis 

(Jolor naturalis 
Purpureus color 






Quarterly Quartered Centre cscartelcnt 
Quatrefoil Quatrefeuille 

Cumulationes Aruio- 














Arms Parlantcs 










PAET ir. 






Ater, or 




Escartele en sautoir 


Pose' en sautoir 

















A ccisus 







En Pied^ 




















More suo inccdens 











\'^iridis color 






Vol an s 










English. French, 


Water Bouget Bouse 

Wavy Onde 

Whirlpool Tournant d'Eau 
Two M^'ings expanded Vole 

A Wing Un Demi Vol 

Winged Aisle 

Wreath Torce 

Wyy&n Dragon 


Uter Aquarius mili- 

Ala Simplex 










^ 1 




Clcfiih; Tc 

son/ J- c?/r/j 

n^ r^y 


Gilli^ JFlcwe. 








J'cacocn^^ Cramki 

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24 i 


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^ Charge S r/nr/t/jt^/r'KAJslBS . 





Can ic fine 



7 i 



/droqtie ffem/j/3/va/i 


M T 

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^^?ffer I't^o^l Jronmiq 


^^^?<(^V ^'^^P,TaUkaaJrfCP,l.rr^,^^^^^^ 

Ch.o ss:bs. 

:, ^-^u^nS/ MA Jfy eurt/ wfnA fef^ \'y^a/r \frr/rr///ri/\ 


2. ^ 

C affia^cfiai(/ 







ttaym^ Taf'/c 







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IBltu IBottle 


^ Crosses ^Eaj\.titioi?^ liiNjQS. 



^ I'OHEIGN Cuorwl^S. 




or '/3'ra/Act\J 



yVinccJ^ net/ac 







JJ 3 5 

// W? /v. f/? r/1 


On/1 <vl /)f(/yitty 



tyUmjr ?if)^/fUttt/ f^Gt^yAf' CtJ^tiere 

Distinctio:n^s of Houses 

1 2 J-if^t- Mot/ue J ^ 

-kMQ m 

2 a \fecoftef Jfcttae S ^f? 

9 % (9 Q 9 

J.: ^~7a gygr^ Jicuat <T O 

/jij a n Jf'cierr/i 


^^ "^1^ '^jt^ ^i^ 

I . z -^</M J-lou^e ,S _61_ 

2 Q. *aijct7v 

Jienuye . 6 




m "^ 


- S 








i5 H I u^tj 







(l i...... j f 







ti /iovfiur 




, ^ cahz 



' Sen Docf 

T 1 




J)e^tfin &ai7/o^ 

Trljile Flume 

/.f '%;:'« 




ci Dehmiivd 


(jtonDfa (/€'/. 


J e;5 









iS hack bclti 







iraiii7i0lCTwf. ScuaunKxct 

I)ar:r ' . / 


















C/7'et'i,t Ura/Z/e 









/^/ J/,r, 



■ ////ru/i 


/f^.-// ' , f(v7t<^fl 


:f OKK 1 Gl^ C RO Wl 














Pahn Tra 


Olive Cn'wn 








Ti(?-kcy Coc/c 




rdicanNntitml Bow 









M//\re Shor Loehabr/Acfs 


Grey Honrid 







SwallffW Gfuinl/et 









Honour, says Cicero, is the reward of virtue, as 
infamy is the recompense of vice; so that he who 
aspires to honour is to come to it by the way of 
virtue ; which the Romans expressed by building 
. the temple of honour in such manner, that there 
was no going into it without passing through the 
temple of virtue. Honour in itself is a testimony 
of a man's virtue ; and he that desires to be ho- 
noured, ought to perform something that is valu- 
able in the sight of God and man. Thus birth 
alone will not make a man truly honourable, unless 
his actions and behaviour are suitable to his de- 
scent. The tokens of honour are, being distin- 
guishably known, praiseworthy, excelling others, 
and generosity. Aristotle calls honour the greatest 
of outward goods. Honour ought to be more va- 
lued than all earthly treasures, and it is the hope 
of honour that excites men to perform noble ac- 


lions. The king is called \hejbuntain of honour, 
because it is in his power to bestow titles and dig- 
nities, which raise some men above others ; but 
the truest honour depends on merit, and it is sup- 
posed that sovereigns bestow their favours on such 
as deserve them : but if the contrary should hap- 
pen, the rank or precedence may be given, though 
the real honour may be still wanting. But this is 
too nice a point to be here treated of; and there- 
fore, taking honour in the common acceptation, 
honour is due to all great persons, as princes, 
generals, prelates, officers of state, &c. It is also 
due from children to parents, from youth to aged 
persons, from the laity to the clergy, and so in 
many other cases. This may suffice as to honour, 
because, should it be spoken of too nicely, it will 
scarce bear the test ; and many may think them- 
selves less honourable than they are willing ta 
conceit themselves. 


The king is so called from the Saxon word /cow- 
ing, or cuningj from can^ intimating power ; or 
ken, knowledge, wherewith every sovereign should 
especially be invested : he ever having been of 
great reverence in these kingdoms of Europe, 
being of heavenly institution, ordained by God 
himself, the bond of peace, and the sword of 

The titles of the king of England arc, the Most 
High and Mighty Monarch (George the Fourth), 


by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland King; Defender of the 
Faith ; of the United Church of England and Ire- 
land, on earth supreme head ; Duke of Bruns- 
wick-Lunenburgh, Elector of Hanover, Arch- 
Treasurer and Elector of the sacred Roman Em- 

He is st)^led Father of his country, and because 
the protection of his subjects belongs to his care 
and office, the militia is annexed to his crown, 
that the sword, as well as the sceptre, may be in 
his hand. 

A king is to fight the battles of his people, (mo- 
derns have reversed the system) and to see right 
and justice done to them; as also (according to 
his coronation oath) to preserve the rights and 
privileges of our holy church, the royal preroga- 
tive belonging to the crown ; the laws and customs 
of the realm ; to do justice, show mercy, keep 
peace and unity, &c. and hath power of pardoning 
where the law condemns. 

The king hemgprincipium, caput, et finis par- 
liamenti, may of his mere will and pleasure con- 
voke, adjourn, remove, and dissolve parhaments; 
as also to any bill that is passed by both Houses, 
he may refuse to give his royal assent without ren- 
dering a reason ; without which it cannot pass 
into a law. 

He may also, at his pleasure, increase the num- 
ber of members of both Houses, by creating more 
peers of the realm, and bestowing privileges upon 
any towns, to send burgesses by writ to parliament ;. 


and he may refuse to send his writ to some others 
that have sat in former parliaments. 

NotCy This has proved very unfortunate to some 

Since the union of England and Scotland, the 
king can neither make an English peer nor a 
Scottish peer ; all the peers that the king of Great 
Britain now creates, are either British or Irish 

He hath alone the choice and nomination of all 
commanders and officers for land and sea service; 
the choice and election of all magistrates, coun- 
sellors, and officers of state ; of all bishops, and 
other ecclesiastical dignities ; as also the bestow- 
ing and conferring of honours, and the power of 
determining rewards and punishments. Note, 
This is now discontinued. 

By letters patent his majesty may erect new 
counties, universities, bishoprics, cities, boroughs^ 
colleges, hospitals, schools, fairs, markets, courts 
of judicature, forests, chases, free warrens, &c. ; 
and no forest, or chase, is to be made, nor castle, 
fort, or tower to be built, without his special 

He hath also power to coin money, and to dis- 
pense with all statutes made by him, or his pre- 

The dominions of the kings of England were 
first England, and all the sea, round about Great 
Britain and Ireland, and all the isles adjacent, 
even to the shores of the neighbouring nations ; 
and our law saith the sea is of the lemance of the 


king, as well as the land ; and as a mark thereof, 
the ships of foreigners have anciently asked leave 
to fish and pass in these seas, and do at this day 
lower their topsails to all the king's ships of war; 
and all children born upon these seas (as it some- 
times happens) are accounted natural-born sub- 
jects to the king of Great Britain, and need not 
be naturalised as others born out of his do- 

To England Henry I. annexed Normandy, 
and Henry IT. Ireland, being styled only lord of 
Ireland, till the 33d of Henry VIII. although 
they had all kingly jurisdiction before. 

Henry II. also annexed the dukedoms of Guy- 
enne andAnjou,the counties of Poictou, Turenne, 
and May ne ; Edward I. all Wales ; and Ed ward III. 
the right, though not the possession, of France : 
but Henry V. added both; and his son, Henry VI. 
was crowned and recognised by all the states of the 
realm at Paris. 

King James I. added Scotland, and since that 
time there have been superadded sundry consider- 
able plantations in America. 

The king's dominions at this day in possession 
are. Great Britain and Ireland, and all the seas 
adjacent ; as also the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, 
Alderney, and Sark, which were parcel of the duchy 
of Normandy ; besides those profitable islands, 
Barbadoes, Jamaica, Bermudas, with several other 
isles and places in America, and some in the East 
Indies^ and upon the coasts of Afnca. 

_ B u 


The mighty power of tlie king of England, be- 
fore the conj unction of Scotland, and total sub- 
jection of Ireland, which were usually at enmity 
with him, was well known to the world, and felt 
by the neighbouring nations ; what his strength 
hath been since was never fully tried till the Revo- 
lution, that the parliaments of all the three king- 
doms seemed to vie, which should most readily 
comply with their sovereign's desires and designs. 
All Europe is now sensible how great the power 
of this monarch is. Let our sovereign be consi- 
dered abstractly as king only of England, which 
is like a huge fortress, or garrison town, fenced not 
only with strong works, and the wide sea, but 
guarded also with excellent outworks, the strong- 
est and best-built ships of war in the world, and 
so abundantly furnished with men and horses, with 
victuals and ammunition, with clothes and money, 
that if all the potentates of Europe should con- 
spire, (which God forbid !) they could hardly dis- 
tress it, provided it be at unity with itself. 

No king in Christendom, or other potentate, re- 
ceives from his subjects more revenue, honour, and 
respect, than the king of England ; all persons 
stand bare in the presence of the king, and in the 
presence chamber, though in the king's absence, 
except one only person, which is the lord Kinsale 
of the kingdom of Ireland, whose noble ancestor, 
John de Courcy, earl of Ulster in that kingdom, 
having, in the reign of king John, performed an 
eminent service for his royal master, was, in re- 


ward thereof, permitted (and his successors) to be 
covered in the king's presence, wliich honour is 
still continued. 

Of the sacred person and life of the king, our 
laws and customs are so tender, that it is made 
high treason only to imagine or intend his death : 
and, as he is the father of his country, so every 
subject is obliged by his allegiance to defend him, 
as well in his natural as politic capacity; for the 
law saith, the life and member of every subject is 
at the service of the sovereign. 


The queen is so called from the Saxon word 
cimingine, as the king from koning ; and the 
queen sovereign, to whom the crown descends, is 
equal in power to the king. 

The queen consort, which is the second degree, 
hath very high prerogatives and privileges during 
the life of the king, she being the second person 
in the kingdom ; and, by our laws, it is high trea- 
son to conspire her death, or violate her chastity. 

This queen (who is allowed regal robes and a 
crown in the same form as a sovereign queen wear- 
eth) may be crowned with royal solemnity, and 
is permitted to sit in state by the king, although 
she be the daughter of a subject. 

She has likewise her courtiers in every office, 
distinct as the king hath, together with the yeo- 
men of the guard to attend her at home, and lier 


life-guard of horse for state and security when she 
goes abroad. 

She hath also her attorney, solicitor, and coun- 
sel, who are always placed within the bar, with 
those of the king, in all courts of judicature for 
the management of her affairs in law ; and the 
same honour and respect which is due to the king 
is due to her. 

The queen dowager, or queen mother, takes 
place next to the queen consort, and loseth not 
her dignity, although she should marry a private 


Since the union with Scotland, his title hath 
been prince of Great Britain, but ordinarily cre- 
ated Prince of Wales ; and as eldest son to the 
king of England, he is duke of Cornwall from his 
birtli, as likewise duke of Rothsay, and Seneschal 
of Scotland. 

^t his creation lie is presented before the king 
in his surcoat, cloak, and mantle, of crimson vel- 
vet, being girt with a belt of the same, and the 
king putteth a cap and coronet upon his head, 
(the cap of the same of his robes, indented and 
turned up with ermine, and the coronet of gold, 
composed of crosses pattee, and fleurs-de-lis, with 
one arch, and in the midst a mound and cross, as 
hath the royal diadem), a ring on his middle 


finger, a staff of gold in his hand, and his letters 
patent, after they are read. 

His mantle of creation, which he wears at the 
coronation of a king, is doubled below the elbow 
with ermine, spotted diamond-ways; but the robe 
which he wears in parliament is adorned on the 
shoulders with five bars or guards of ermine, set 
at a distance one from the other, with a gold lace 
above each bar. 


Nobility was originally inherent to virtue, which 
ennobled the person that possessed it, whatsoever 
the stock might be from which he was descended ; 
so that every man's own good and virtuous actions 
made him conspicuous, not the performances of 
his forefathers ; which was a real nobility, as pe- 
cuhar to the person that deserved, and not con- 
veyed by him to an ignominious son or grandson, 
as is too usual in our days, when many glory in 
being descended from ancestors who would dis- 
dain to own them if they were now living. But 
as all things in this world are subject to vicissi- 
tude, nobility, which, as has been said, was in its 
original only personal, is now become hereditary, 
and transmitted from father to son, which is prac- 
tised in most nations. This nobility is by civihans 
defined, an illiistrious descent, and conspicuous- 
ncss of ancestors, with a succession of arms, con- 
I'erred on some one (and by him to his family) by 
the prince, bv the law, or bv custom, as a reward 

" li B 3 


of the good and virtuous actions of him that per- 
formed them. For as the dishonour of crimes 
committed by any person redounds to his descend- 
ants, so the reputation of the glorious actions of 
ancestors descends to their posterity, who ought 
in reality to endeavour to outdo those who have 
so caused them to be respected by others. This 
sort of nobility had its first rise in the person that 
merited, and so is reputed to increase and advance 
the farther it goes on, in the course of succession 
from the first founder. Warlike exploits and li- 
terature have been the proper and just methods 
for raising of men above the common sort, and 
above the degree they were born in. But later 
ages have produced too many instances of persons 
most abject and sordid, in all other respects, ad- 
vanced to those degrees which the nobility con- 
sists of, for their great wealth, and that very often 
acquired by the most base practices. But to pro- 
ceed in the nature of true nobility. — The learned 
say there are three sorts of it, which are, divine, 
worldly, and moral. The divine has respect to 
the original of the soul which comes from heaven ; 
the worldly regards blood, and a genealogy of 
many ancestors; and the moral refers only. to 
virtue, which is to gain us esteem. The divine 
depends on the power of God, the human on the 
good fortune of our birth, and the third on our 
own virtuous actions. Did we truly consider the 
great consequence of the first of them, we should 
less value the second, and render ourselves more 
capable of the third. In short, nobility, being 

i ART ir. TIERALDIir. 2S3 

the greatest reward assigned to virtue, well de- 
serves to be esteemed among the chiefest of worldly 
things, and those who have it not ought to use 
their utmost endeavours to attain it. As for those 
who are so fortunate as to be descended from 
illustrious families, it is their duty to strive to add 
to the glory of their ancestors, by performing 
noble actions themselves, and sCirpassing them, if 
possible, in virtue and renown. In this descri}>- 
tion I have chiefly followed Colombicr. Glover 
gives us much the same account, only he runs it 
out to a much greater length, and deduces nobi- 
lity from the beginning of the world in the first 
patriarch, among the Jews ; then he passes to the 
Greeks, and so to the Romans; and, like the 
other, assigns three sorts of nobility, heavenly or 
theological, philosophical and political, being the 
same as above spoken of; but the political he di- 
vides into native and dative. Nobility native 
passes from the father to the son, who becomes 
noble because his father was so ; the dative is ac- 
quired by some such means as have been men- 
tioned above. 


The title and degree of a duke hath been of more 
ancient standing in the empire, and other coun- 
tries, than amongst us ; for the first duke since the 
Conquest was Edward theBlack Prince, eldest son 
to King Edward III. who, in the year 11)37, was 
created duke of Cornwall, and by that creation the 


first-born sons of the kings of England are dukes 
of Cornwall. 

A duke is said to be so called from dux, a leader, 
or captain, being /it the first always leader of an 
army, and was so chosen in the field, either by 
casting of lots, or by common voice ; but now, it 
is a dignity given by kings and princes to men of 
great blood and merit. 

The ceremony of creating a duke is in this 
manner : He must have on his surcoat, cloak, and 
hood, and be led between two dukes, an earl going 
somewhat before him on the right hand, bearing 
a cap of estate with the coronet on it (which cap is 
of crimson velvet, lined with ermine, and the co- 
ronet gold), but the cap must not be indented as 
that of the prince ; and on the other side must go 
an earl, bearing a golden rod or verge ; and before 
the duke that is to be created shall go a marquis, 
bearing the sword ; and before him an earl with 
the mantle, or robe of estate, lying on his arm ; 
which mantle is the same as that of the prince, 
being fine scarlet cloth, lined with white tafiety, 
and is doubled on the shoulders with four guards 
of ermine at equal distance, with a gold lace above 
each guard to difference it from that of the prince, 
which has five guards and laces: and being attired 
as aforesaid, in his surcoat, cloak, &c. and by the 
said peers (who must be in their robes of estate) 
conducted into the presence-chamber, after the 
oath, obeisance being made three times to tlie 
king sitting in his chair of estate, the person so 
vestcth kncelclh down, and garter king oi arms dc- 



livering his patent to the king's secretary, he ddii- 
vereth it to the king, who delivers it again to be 
read aloud ; and at the word invesiiimis, the king 
puts a duke''s mantle (as before described) upon 
the person who is to be so made ; and at the words, 
gladio cincturamus, girts him with a sword ; at 
capped et circidi aurei impositionem^ the king, in 
like manner, puts upon his head the cap with the 
coronet ; and at these words, virg^ aitrecc tradi- 
tionem the king giveth the verge of gold and the 
rod into his hand ; then is the rest of the patent 
read wherein he pronounceth him duke, after 
which the king giveth the patent to the duke to be 

Note, The mantle which a duke wears at the 
coronation of a king or queen over his surcoat, &c, 
is of crimson velvet, lined with white taffety, and 
is doubled with ermine below the elbow, and 
spotted with four rows of spots on each slioulder. 

A duke may have in all places out of the king's 
or prince's presence a cloth of estate hanging down 
within half a yard of the ground ; and so may his 
duchess, who may have her train borne up by 
a baroness. 

All dukes' eldest sons, by the courtesy of Eng- 
land, are from their birth styled marquises if their 
fathers enjoy that title, and the younger sons, lords, 
with the addition of their Christian name, as lord 
Thomas, lord James, &c. and all dukes' daughters 
are styled ladies. 

A duke hath the title of grace; and being writ- 
ten unto, is styled most high, jpotcut and noble 


prince ; and dukes of the royal blood are styled 
most high, most mighty, and illustrious princes. 

Note^ That the younger sons of the king are 
by courtesy styled princes by birth, as are all their 
daughters princesses ; but their sons have the titles 
of duke, marquis, &c. from creation ; and the title 
of royal highness is given to all the king's children, 
both sons and daughters. 


A marquis, which by the Saxons was called 
marken-reve, and signified a governor, or ruler of 
marches and frontier countries, hath been a title 
with us but of late years, the first being Robert 
Vere, earl of Oxford, who, by king Richard II. 
in 1387, was created marquis of DubUn, and from 
thence it became a title of honour ; for, in former 
times, those that governed the marches were called 
lord marchers, and not marquises. 

The ceremony in creating a marquis is the same 
as used in the creation of a duke, only such things 
as are necessary to be changed, he being led by a 
marquis, and the sword and cap borne by earls; the 
coronet of which cap is part flowered, and part 
pyramidal, with pearls on the points and leaves of 
an equal height ; whereas that of a duke hath 
only leaves, and his mantle four guards ; but that 
of a marquis has but three guards and a half. 

His oath is the same as that of a duke, as is his 
coronation mantle, with only this diflcrence, his 
mantle has four rows of spots on the right shoulder 


and but tlirce on the left ; whereas a duke has 
four rows on each. 

This honour of marquis is hereditary, as is that 
of a duke, earl, viscount, and baron; and the eldest 
son of a marquis, by the courtesy of England, is 
called earl, or lord of a place ; but the younger 
soils only lord by their Christian names, as lord 
John, &c. and the daughters of marquises are 
born ladies ; the eldest son of a marquis beneath 
an earl. > 


The next degree of honour is an earl, which title 
came from the Saxons ; for in the ancient English 
Saxon government, earldoms of counties were not 
only dignities of honour but ofBces of justice, hav- 
ing the charge and custody of the county whereof 
they were earls, and for assistance had their deputy 
called vicecomes, which office is now managed by 

The first earl in Britain that was invested by 
girting with the sword was Hugh de Pusaz, bishop 
of Durham, who, by King Richard the First, was 
created earl of Northumberland. 

An earFs robes no ways differ from a duke's or 
marquis's, except that a duke's mantle has four 
guards, a marquis three and a half, and an earl's 
but three, with a gold lace ; and his coronation 
mantle is the same as theirs, with only this differ- 
ence, a duke has four rows of spots on each shoul- 
der ; a marquis four on the right, and but three on 
the left; and an earl has but ^ree on each. 


His cap Is also the same as those aforesaid, but 
his coronet is different ; for, as a duke'*s has only 
leaves, a marquis's leaves and pearls of equal 
height, his has the pearls much higher than the 

When an earl is to be created, he is attired in 
his cloa]<, surcoat, &c. being led between two 
earls, and three others going before, all in their 
robes of estate, of whom the first bears the sword 
and girdle, the second thQ mantle, and the third 
the cap and coronet ; and after the oath taken, 
which is the same with that of a duke and marquis, 
he being conducted into the presence chamber (the 
king sitting on his throne), kneels down while the 
patent is reading. 

Then is the mantle of estate put on him by the 
king, the sword girt about him, the cap and coro- 
net put upon his head, and the patent of his crea- 
tion delivered into his hand. 

After a man is created an earl, viscount, or any 
other title of honour, above the title he enjoyed 
before, it is become parcel of his name, and not an 
addition only; but in all legal proceedings he 
ought to be styled by that his dignity. 

An earl hath also the title of lordship ; and 
being written to, is styled right honourable. 

By courtesy of England, an earl's eldest son is 
born a viscount (and is called lord of some place), 
and all his daughters are ladies ; but his younger 
sons have no title of peerage. 



The next degree of honour to an earl is a 
viscount, which was anciently an office under an 
earl, who, being the king's immediate officer in 
his county (for that their personal attendance was 
often required at court), had his deputy to look 
after the affairs of the county, which officer is now 
called a sheriff, retaining the name of his sub- 
stitution (in Latin vicecomes) ; but about the 18th 
of Henry VI., 1440, it became a degree of honour, 
he conferring this title upon John Lord Beaumont, 
by letters patent, with the same ceremony as that 
of an earl, marquis, and duke. 

A viscount, at his creation, has a hood, surcoat, 
mantle, verge, cap, and coronet, and his mantle 
has two guards and a half, each having a gold 
lace; his coronation mantle has three rows of spots 
on the right shoulder, and two on the left. 

His coronet, which is a circle of gold, is adorned 
wdth twelve silver balls. 

The title of a viscount is, right honourable and 
truly noble, or potent lord. 

The eldest son of a viscount has no title of 
peerage, nor are his daughters ladies; but the 
eldest son and daughter of the first viscount in 
Great Britain and Leland are said to be the first 
gentleman and gentlewoman without a title in 
the said kingdoms. 

c (; 



The two arclibishops have a superintendency 
over all the churches of England, and in some 
measure over the other bishops; and the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury has a kind of supereminency 
over the archbishop of York ; for he has power to 
summon him to a national synod or convocation, 
and is primate of all England, and next to the 
royal family ; precedes not only dukes, but all 
the great officers of the crown ; nor does any, ex- 
cept the lord chancellor, or lord keeper, come be- 
tween him and the archbishop of York. 

He is primate and metropolitan of all England, 
and has the title of grace given him, and most 
reverend father in God. 

To the archbishop of Canterbury it properly 
belongs to crown the king, to consecrate a new- 
made bishop, and to call provincial synods, ac- 
cording to the king's writ to him directed for that 
purpose, the bishop of London being accounted 
his provincial dean, the bishop of Winchester 
his chancellor, and the bishop of Rochester his 

The archbishop of York, who is primate of 
England, and metropolitan of his province, hath 
the honour to crown the queen, and to be her 
perpetual chaplain; and hath also the title of 
grace, and most reverend father in God. 

Next to the two archbishops in the episcopal 
college, the bishops of London, Durham, and 
Winchester, have always the precedency, by a 


Statute made 21 H. VIII.; and all the other 
bishops according to the priority of their con- 

The bishop of London precedes, as being 
bishop of the capital city of JEngland, and pro- 
vincial dean of Canterbury ; the bishop of Dur- 
ham, as count palatine, and earl of Sedberg; and 
the bishop of Winchester, as prelate of the order 
of the Garter. 

Note^ All bishops (as spiritual barons) are said 
to be three ways barons of the realm ; viz. by 
writ, patent, and consecration ; and they precede 
all under the degree of viscounts, having always 
their seat on the king's right hand in the parlia- 
ment-house ; and being the fathers and guardians 
of the church, are styled fathers in God. 

As the two archbishops are called most re- 
verend, and have the title of grace, so the inferior 
bishops are called right reverend, and have the 
title of lordship given them. 

A bishop's robe, in pavhament, is of fine scarlet 
cloth, having a long train, and is doubled on the 
shoulders with miniver, edged with white ermine, 
as is the bosom ; and when he goes to the House 
of Lords (and the sovereign there), his train is 
supported by four chaplains to the door of that 
house ; but then, by a red ribbon fixed to the 
end of the train and tied in a loop, he supports 
it himself, the loop being put over his right wrist ; 
and in that form he takes his seat, having a four- 
square cap on his head. 



A temporal baron is an hereditary dignity of 
nobility and honour next to a bishop ; and of this 
degree there are two sorts in England ; viz. a 
baron by writ, and a baron by patent. 

A baron by writ is he unto whom a writ of 
summons m the name of the sovereign is directed, 
without a patent of creation, to come to the par- 
liament, appointed to be holden at a certain time 
and place, and there to treat and advise with his 
sovereign, the prelates, and nobility, about the 
weighty affairs of the nation. 

I'he ceremony of a baron by writ is this : he 
is first brought by Garter king of arms in his 
sovereign's coat to the lord chancellor, between 
two of the youngest barons, who bear the robe of 
the baron ; there he shows his prescript, which 
the chancellor reads, then congratulates him as a 
baron, and invests him with the robe; and the 
writ being delivered to the clerk of the parlia- 
ment, the baron is showed to the barons by the 
said king of arms, and placed in their house ; and 
from thence is this title allowed him as hereditary, 
and descendible to the heir-general. 

The first institutor of a baron by patent was 
King Richard II., who, in the year 1388, and the 
eleventh of his reign, created John Beauchamp, 
of Holt-Castle, baron of Kidderminster, and in- 
vested him with a surcoat, mantle, hood, cape, 
and verge. A baron has but tM'o guards and laces 


Oil each shoulder; neither has his coronation 
mantle but two rows of spots on each shoulder. 

Note, A baron had no coronet till the reign 
of King Charles II., when he was adorned with 
a circle of gold, and six silver balls set close to 
the rim, but without jewels, as now borne. 

The form of creating a baron by patent is this : 
The king sitting in state in the presence-chamber, 
first the heralds by two and two, and then the 
principal king of arms alone, bearing in his hand 
the patent of creation, and a baron the robe ; and 
then the person to be created follows betwixt two 
other barons, who, being entered the presence- 
chamber, make obeisance to the king three times ; 
after which the king of arms delivereth the patent 
to the lord chamberlain of the household, and he 
to the king, and the king to one of his principal 
secretaries of state, who reading it aloud, at the 
word investimus the king puts on him the baron's 

When the patent is read, the king gives it to 
him that is created, who, returning thanks for his 
great honour, withdraws. 

Now it is simply by the delivery of the patent. 

Note, A barony by patent goes to the heir male, 
being almost universally so limited. But a barony 
by writ now goes to the heirs-general ; and, in 
case of more female heirs than one, it becomes in 
abeyance ; when the king may make his option, 
and grant it to which of them he thinks fit. 


• c c3 




The nobility of England enjoy many great 
privileges, the principal of which are as follow : 

First, They are free from all arrests for debt, 
as being the king's hereditary counsellors : there- 
fore a peer cannot be outlawed in any civil action ; 
and no attachment lies against his person; but 
execution may be taken upon his lands and goods. 
For the same reason they are free from all attend- 
ance at court-leet, or sheriffs' turns ; or, in case 
of a riot, from attending the posse comitatus. 

Secondy In criminal causes they are only tried 
by their peers, who give in their verdict not upon 
oath, as other juries, but only upon their honour. 
And then a court is built on purpose, in the 
middle of Westminster Hall, at the king^s charge, 
which is pulled down when their trials are over. 
Third, To secure the honour of, and prevent 
the spreading of any scandal upon peers, or any 


great officer of the realm, by reports, there is an 
express law, called scandalum magnatum^ by 
which any man convicted of making a scandalous 
report against a peer of the realm, though true, 
is condemned to an arbitrary fine, and to remain 
in prison till the same be paid. 

Fourth^ Upon any great trial in a court of 
justice, a peer may come into the court and sit 
there covered. No peer can be covered in the 
royal presence, without permission so to be, ex- 
cept the lord baron of Kinsale, of his majesty's 
kingdom of Ireland. In case of a poll-tax, the 
peers bear the greatest share of the burthen, they 
being taxed every one according to his degree. 


A title of honour above a gentleman and below 
a knight. 

This appellation, termed in Latin armiger, or 
scutariuSj served anciently to denote such as were 
bearers of arms, or carried the shield ; and was 
accordingly considered as a name of charge and 
office only, but crept in among other titles in the 
reign of Richard II. ; and little mention is made 
of this, or the addition of gentleman, in ancient 
deeds, till the time of Henry V., when, by a 
statute in the first year of his reign, it was enacted, 
that in all cases where process of outlawry lay, 
the additions of the estate, degree, or profession 
of the defendant should be inserted. 


This statute having made it necessary to ascer- 
tain who was entitled to this degree, the most 
learned in the art, or degrees of honour, hold now 
that there are seven sorts of esquires; viz. 

1st, Esquires of the king's body, limited to 
the number of four ; they keep the door of the 
king's bedchamber, whensoever he shall please to 
go to bed, walk at a coronation, and have pre- 
cedence of all knights'* younger sons. 

Sndly, The eldest sons of knights, and their 
jeldest sons successively. 

3dly, The eldest sons of the youngest sons of 
barons, and others of the greater nobility ; and 
when such heir-male fails, the title dies likewise. 

4thly, Such as the king invests with collars of 
SS, as the kings at arms, heralds, &c. or shall 
grant silver or white spurs; the eldest sons of 
those last mentioned can only bear the title. 

5thly, Esquires to the knights of the Bath, 
being their attendants on their installation ; these 
must bear coat-armour, according to the law of 
arms, are esquires for life, and also their eldest 
sons, and have the same privileges as the esquires 
of the king's body. 

6thly, Sheriffs of counties and justices of peace 
(with this distinction, that a sheriff, in regard to 
the dignity of the office, is an esquire for life, 
but a justice of the peace only so long as he con^ 
tinues in the commission), and all those who bear 
special office in the king's household, as gentle- 
men of the privy chamber, carvers, sewers, cup- 
bearers, pensioners, Serjeants at arms, and all that 


have any near or especial dependence on the 
king's royal person, and are not knighted ; also 
captains in the wars, recorded in the king's lists. 

7thly, Counsellors at law, bachelors of divinity, 
law, and physic; mayors of towns are reputed 
esquires, or equal to esquires (though not really 
so) ; also the penon bearer to the king, who is a 
person that carries his flag or banner ending in a 
point or tip, wherein the arms of the king, either 
at war, or at a funeral, are painted, which office 
is equivalent to the degree of an esquire. 

Besides, this degree of esquire is a special 
privilege to any of the king's ordinary and nearest 
attendants ; for be his birth gentle or base, yet 
if he serve in the place of an esquire, he is ab- 
solutely an esquire by that service; for it is the 
place that dignifies the person, and not the person 
the place ; so if 'any gentleman or esquire shall 
take upon him the place of a yeoman of the 
king's guard, he immediately loses all his titles 
of honour, and is no more than a yeoman. 

There is a general opinion, that every gentle- 
man of landed property, that has c£SOO a year, is 
an esquire ; which is a vulgar error, for no money 
whatsoever, or landed property, will give a man 
properly this title, unless he come within one of 
the above rules ; and no person can ascribe this 
title, where it is not due, unless he please, there 
being no difficulty in drawing the line by the 
above account : but the meaner ranks of people, 
who know no better, do often basely prostitute 
this title ; and, to the great confusion of all rank 


and precedence, every man who makes a decent 
appearance, far from thinking himself any way 
ridiculed by finding the superscription of his 
letters thus decorated, is fully gratified by such 
&n address. 

''^^^'^ ^^- HERALDRY. 299 






Taken from the last Edition of Guillim's Display or 

Gentleman, Generosus^ seemeth to be made 
of two words, the one French (Gentil), honestus 
vel honesta parente natus ; the other Saxon 
(man), as if you would say, a man well born ; 
and under this name are all comprised that are 
above yeomen and artificers ; so that nobles are 
truly called gentlemen. By the course and custom 
of England nobility is either major or minor. Ma- 
jor contains all titles and degrees from knighthood 
upwards : minor all from barons downwards. 

Gentlemen have their beginning either of blood, 
as that they are born of worshipful parents, or that 
they have done something worthy in peace or war, 


whereby they deserve to bear arms, and to be 
accounted gentlemen. But in these days, he is 
a gentleman who is commonly so taken. And 
whosoever studieth the laws of this realm, who 
studieth in the university, who professeth liberal 
sciences, and, to be short, who can live without 
manual labour, and will bear the port, charge, 
and countenance of a gentleman, he shall be called 
master, and shall be taken for a gentleman : for 
true it is with us, tanti eris aliis quanti tibi 
Jiceris : and if need be, a king at arms shall grant 
him a patent for a new coat, if that there are none 
that of right doth appertain unto him from his 
ancestors ; and if so, confirm that upon him. But 
some men make a question whether this manner 
of making gentlemen is to be allowed of or not? 
And it may seem that it is not amiss ; for, first, 
the prince loseth nothing by it, as he should do if 
he were in France; for the yeoman or husband- 
man is no more subject to tale or tax in England 
than the gentleman : but on the other side, in 
every payment to the king the gentleman is more 
charged, which he beareth with content ; and in 
any show, muster, or any other particular charge 
of the town or county where he dwelleth, he is 
at a greater expense for the preservation of his 
honour; and for the outward show, in all respects, 
he deports himself like a gentleman : and if he 
be called to the wars, whatsoever it cost him, he 
must appear well accoutred, having his attend- 
ants, and show a more manly courage, and tokens 
of a generous education, by which means he shall 


purchase a greater fame. For as touching the 
policy and government of the commonwealth, it 
is not those that have to do with it which will 
magnify themselves, and go above their estates, 
but they that are appointed magistrates, &c. are 
persons tried and well known. See Sir Thomas 
Smith, Repuh. Angel, chap, of esquires and gen- 
tlemen. In thefive-and-twentieth of Queen Eliza- 
beth the case was, that " Whereas it is required 
by this statute of the first of Henry the fifth, chap. 
5, that in every writ, original process, &c. in which 
any eaoigit shall be awarded, that additions should 
be given unto the defendant of their estate and 
degree," &c. And the case was, that one was a 
yeoman by his birth, and yet commonly called and 
reputed a gentleman; and yet it was adjudged, 
that a writ might be brought against him with the 
addition of gentleman, forsomuch as the intention 
of the action is to have such a name given by which 
he may be known ; this is sufficient to satisfy the 
law, and the act of parliament ; for nomen dicitui', 
quia notitiam facit. 

But if a gentleman be sued by addition of 
husbandman, he may say he is a gentleman, and 
demand judgment of the writ without saying 
(and not husbandman) ; for a gentleman may be 
a husbandman, but he shall be sued by his addi- 
tion most worthy : for a gentleman, of what estate 
soever he be, although he go to plough, and 
common labour for his maintenance, yet he is a 
gentleman, and shall not be named in legal pro- 
ceedings yeoman, husbandman, or labourer, 

• D D 


If a gentleman be bound an apprentice to a 
merchant or other trade, he hath not thereby lost 
his degree of gentility. 

But if a recovery be had against a gentleman 
by the name of a yeoman, in which case no action 
is necessary, then it is no error ; so if any deed 
or obligation be made to him by the name of 

If a capias go against A. B. yeoman, and if 
the sheriff take A. B. gentleman, an action of 
false imprisonment lieth against the sheriff; but 
if A. B. yeoman be indicted, and A. B. gentle- 
man be produced, being the same man intended, 
it is good. 

If a man be a gentleman by office only, and 
loseth the same, then doth he also lose his gen- 

By the statute 5 Ehz. cap. 4, entitled an " Act 
touching orders for artificers, labourers, servants 
of husbandry, and apprentices," amongst other 
things it is declared, " That a gentleman born, 
&c. shall not be compelled to serve in husbandry." 
If any falcon be lost, and is found, it shall *be 
brought to the sheriff, who must make proclama- 
tion ; and if the owner come not within four 
months, then if the finder be a simple man, the 
sheriff may keep the hawk, making agreement 
with him that took it : but if he be a gentleman, 
and of estate to have and keep a falcon, then the 
sheriff ought to deliver to him the said falcon, 
taking of him reasonable costs for the time that 
he had him in custody. 


A commission is made to take children into 
cathedral churches, &c. one in another"*s place, 
where children are instructed to sing for the 
furnishing of the king's chapel ; these general 
words, by construction of law, have a reasonable 
intendment ; viz. " That such children, who be 
brought up and taught to sing to get their living 
by it, those may be taken for the king's service in 
his chapel, and it shall be a good preferment to 
them ; but the sons of gentlemen, or any other 
that are taught to sing for their ornament and 
recreation, and not merely for their livelihoods, 
may not be taken against their wills, or the con- 
sent of their parents and friends." And so it was 
resolved by the two chief justices, and all the 
court of Star-chamber, anno 43 Eliz. in the case 
of one Evans, who had by colour of such letters 
patent taken the son of one Clifton, a gentleman 
of quality in Norfolk, who was taught to sing for 
his recreation ; which Evans, for the same offence, 
was grievously punished. 

And to the end it may withal appear what 
degrees of nobility and gentry were in the realm 
before the coming of the Normans, and by what 
merits men might ascend, and be promoted to the 
same, I will here set down the copy of an English 
or Saxon antiquity, which you may read in Lam- 
bert's Perambulation of Kent, fol. 364, and En- 
glished thus : 

" It was sometimes in the Enghsh laws that the 
people and laws were in reputation, and then were 
the wisest of the people worship-worthy each in 


his degree, earl and churle, tlieyne and under- 
tlieyne. And if a clmrle so thrived that he had 
fully five hides of land of his own, a church and 
a kitchen, a bell-house and a gate, a seat and a 
several office in the king''s hall, then was he 
thenceforth the theyne's right- worthy ; and if a 
theyne so thrived that he served the king on his 
journey, rode in his household, if ho then had a 
theyne which him followed, who to the king's ex- 
pectations five hides had, and in the king's palace 
his lord served, and thrice with his errand had 
gone to the king, he might afterwards with his 
fore-oath his lord's part play at any need ; and of 
a theyne that he became an earl, then was thence- 
forth an earl right-worthy. And if a merchant- 
man so thrived that he passed over the wide sea 
thrice of his own craft, he was thenceforth the 
theyne right-worthy. And if a scholar so thrived 
through learning that he had degree and served 
Christ, he was thenceforth of dignity and peace so 
much worthy as thereunto belonged, unless he 
forfeit, so that he the use of his degrees remit." 

It is observed that the Saxons, out of all those 
trades of life which be conversant in gain, admit 
to the estate of gentry such only as increased by- 
honest husbandry or plentiful merchandize. Of 
the first of which Cicero affirmeth, that there is 
nothing meeter for a freeborn man, nor no men 
fitter to make braver soldiers ; and of the other, 
that it is prize-worthy also, if at the length being 
satisfied with gain, as it hath often come from the 
irea to the haven, so it changeth from the haven 


into lands and possessions. And, therefore, whereas 
Gervasus Tilburiensis, in his Observations of the 
Exchequer, accounted it an abusing of a gentle- 
man to occupy publicum mercimofiium, common 
buying and selling ; it ought to be referred to the 
other two parts of merchandize, that is, to a nego- 
tiation, which is retailing and keeping of an open 
shop, and to a function, which is to exercise mer- 
cery, or as some call it, to play the chapman, and 
not to navigation, which (as you see) is the only 
laudable part of all buying and selling. 

And again, whereas by the statute of Magna 
Charta, cap. 6, and Merton, cap. 7, it was a dis- 
couragement for a ward in chivalry, which in old 
time was as much as to say a gentleman, to be 
married to the daughter of a burgess, I think that 
it ought to be restrained to such only as professed 
handicrafts, or those baser arts of buying and 
selling to get their living by. But to show how- 
much the case is now altered for the honour of 
tradesmen, it may be remembered that Henry the 
Eighth thought it no disparagement to him when 
he quitted his^queen to take Anne, the daughter 
of Thomas BulJen, some time mayor of London, 
to his wife. 

The statute of Westminster 2, cap. 1, which 
was made in the thirteenth of king Edward the 
First, was procured especially at the desire of 
gentlemen for the preservation of their lands and 
hereditaments, together with their surnames and 
families; and therefore one calleth this statute 



gentiUtum municipale ; and the lawyers call it 
jtis taliatum et taliahile. 

The children only of gentlemen were wont to 
be admitted into the inns of court ; and thereby 
it came to pass that there was scarce any man 
found (in former ages) within the realm skilful 
and cunning in the law, except he Avere a gentle- 
man born, and came of a good house ; for they, 
more than any other, have a special care of their 
nobihty, and to the preservation of their honour 
and fame ; for in these inns of court are (or at 
leastwise should be) virtues studied and vices 
exiled ; so that for the endowment of virtue, and 
abandoning of vice, knights and barons, with 
other states and noblemen of the realm, place 
their children in those inns, though they desire 
not to have them learned in the laws, nor to have 
them live by the practice thereof, but only upon 
their parents' allowance. 

You have heard how cheap gentility is pur* 
chased by the common law ; but if you look more 
strictly into the perfection thereof, you will find 
it more honourable ; for gentlemen well descended 
and qualified, have always been of such repute in 
England, that none of the higher nobility, no, 
nor the king himself, have thought it any dis- 
paragement to make them their companions: 
therefore I shall set down the privileges due unto 
them, according to the laws of honour, as I find 
them collected out of Sir John Feme, Sir VVilham 
Segar, Mr. Carter, in his Analysis of Honour, and 
other good authors, which are as follow. 




1. Pro ho7iore sustmendo ; if a cliurleor pea- 
sant do detract from the honour of a gentleman, 
he hath a remedy in \B.yf,actione iTijariarum: but 
if by one gentleman to another, the combat was 
anciently allowed. 

2. In equal crimes a gentleman shall be pu- 
nishable with more favour than the churle, pro- 
vided the crime be not heresy, treason, or exces- 
sive contumacy. 

3. The many observances and ceremonial re- 
spects that a gentleman is and ought to be ho- 
noured with by the churle or ungentle. 

4. In giving evidence, the testimony of a gen- 
tleman is more authentic than a clown's. 

5. In election of magistrates and officers by 
vote, the suffrage of a gentleman should take 
place of an ignoble person. 

6. A gentleman should be Reused from base 


services, impositions, and duties, both real and 

7. A gentleman condemned to death ought not 
to be hanged, but beheaded, and his examination 
taken without torture. 

8. To take down the coat-armour of any gentle- 
man, to deface his monument, or offer violence to 
any ensign of the deceased noble, is as to lay buf- 
fets on the face of him if alive, and punishment 
is due accordingly. 

9. A clown may not challenge a gentleman to 
combat, quia conditiories impares. 

Many other are the privileges due to gentlemen, 
which I forbear to repeat, referring the reader to 
the books before cited. 

For the protection and defence of this civil 
dignity they have three laws : the first, jm<9 agni- 
tionis, the right or law of descent for the kindred 
of the father's side : the second, jus stirpis, for 
the family in general : the third. Jus gentilitatis^ 
a law for the descent in noble families, which 
Tully esteemed most excellent ; by which law a 
gentleman of blood and coat-armour perfectly 
possessing virtue was only privileged. 

To make that perfection in blood, a lineal de- 
scent from Atavus, Proavus, Avus, and Pater, 
on the father's side was required ; and as much on 
his mother's line ; then he is not only a gentle- 
man of perfect blood, but of his ancestors too. 
The neglect of which laws hath introduced other 
sorts of gentlemen, viz. men that assume that 
dignity, but are neither so by blood nor coat- 


armour ; which style only hurries them on to an 
unruly pride, which is indeed but rude and false 
honour, termed by Sir John Feme apocTyphai^ 
and debarred of all privilege of gentility. These 
gentlemen nomine, non re, saith he, are the stu- 
dents of law, grooms of his majesty's palace, sons 
of churles made priests or canons, &c. or such as 
have received degree in schools, or borne office in 
the city, by which they are styled gentlemen, yet 
they have no right to coat-armour by reason 

As to the student of the law. Sir John Feme 
allows him the best assuranc(; of his title of gen- 
tleman of all these irregular gentlemen, as he 
terms them, because he is named in some acts of 
parliament ; yet he i^ith, fe is also debarred of 
all honour and privilege by the law of arms. 

And anciently none were admitted into the inns 
of court (as before noted) but such as were gen- 
tlemen of blood, be their merits never so great ; 
nor were the church dignities and preferments 
bestowed indifferently amongst the vulgar. The 
Jews confined their priesthood to a family : but 
Jeroboam debased it in his kingdom, by preferring 
the basest of his people to the best of duties. 
The Russians, and some other nations, admit none 
to the study of the law but gentlemen's younger 
sons. The decayed families in France are suj)- 
ported and receive new life from the court, camp. 
Jaw, and ecclesiastical preferments ; take the most 
solenm and serious, who contemn the world : if 
such arc wanting to fill up their vacancies, llm 


ingeniouser sort of the plebeians are admitted : by 
which means their church and state are in esteem 
and reverence, being filled most commonly with 
the best blood and noblest by birth amongst them ; 
whereas, with us, every clown that can spare but 
money to bring up his son for any of those studies 
bereaves the gentry of those benefices, and robs 
them of their support ; which grand abuse is the 
cause of the general corruption in the state civil 
and ecclesiastic; whereas, were this preferment 
made peculiar to the gentry, they would stand 
more upon their honour, and live without being 
a burthen to their relations. 

The achievement of a gentleman hath no dif- 
ference with that of an esquire, both their hel- 
mets being close and sideways. 


The yeomen, or common people, for so are they 
called of the Saxon word zemen, which signifies 
common, who have some lands of their own to 
live upon ; for a earn of land, or a plough land, 
was in ancient time of the yearly value of five 
nobles, and this was the living of a sokeman or 
yeoman ; and in our law they are called legates 
homines, a word familiar in writs and inquests. 
And by divers statutes it hath been enacted, That 
none shall pass on any inquest unless they had 
forty shillings freehold in yearly revenue, which 
raaketh (if the most vahic were taken to the pro- 


portion of moneys)above sixteen poundsof current 
money at this present. And by the statute 27 
Ehz. ch. 6, every juror must have ibrty pounds 
lands. In the end of the statute made ^S Hen. 
VI. chap. 15, concerning the election of knights 
for the parliament, it is ordered and expressly pro- 
vided, " that no man shall be such knight which 
standeth in the degree of a yeoman."" 

It appeareth in Lambert's Perambulation of 
Kent, p. t367, that the Saxon word telphioneman 
was given to the theyne or gentleman, because his 
life was valued at one thousand two hundred shil- 
lings ; and in those days the lives of all men were 
rated at certain sums of money ; to the churle or 
yeoman, because the price of his head was taxed 
at two hundred shillings. Which things, if not 
expressly set forth in sundry old laws yet extant, 
might well enough be found in the etymology of 
the words themselves, the one called a twelve 
hundred man, and the other a twyhind^ for a man 
of two hundred. And in this estate they pleased 
themselves, insomuch that a man might (and also 
now may) find sundry yeomen, though otherwise 
comparable for wealth with many of the gentle 
sort, that will not yet for that change their con- 
dition, nor desire to be apparelled with the title 
of gentry. 

By the common law it may appear in the 
1 Edw. II. de Militibus, and 7 Hen. VI. 15, men 
that had lands to the value of twenty pounds ^rr 
annum, were compellable at the king s pleasure 
to take upon them the order of ^nighthood ; and 


upon summons, there came a yeoman who might 
expend a hundred marks per annum, and the 
court was in doubt how they might put him off; 
and at last he was waved, because he came the 
second day. 

By this sort of men the trial of causes in other 
countries proceedeth ordinarily; for of them there 
are greater number in England than in any other 
place, and they also of a more plentiful livelihood ; 
and therefore it cometh to pass, that men of this 
country are more apt and fit to discern in doubtful 
cases and causes of great examination and trial, 
than are men wholly given to moil in the ground, 
to whom that rural exercise engendereth rudeness 
of wit and mind. And many franklins and yeo- 
men there are so near adjoining as you may make 
a jury without difficulty; for there be many of 
them that are able to expend one or two hundred 
pounds pe?' annum. 

As in the ancient time the senators of Rome 
were elected a censu ; and as with us, in confer- 
ring of nobility, respect is had to their revenues, 
by which their dignity and nobility may be sup- 
ported and maintained ; so the wisdom of this 
realm hath of ancient time provided, that none 
shall pass upon juries for the trial of any matter 
real or personal, or upon any criminal cause, but 
such as, besides their moveables, have lands for 
estate of life, at the least to a competent value, 
lest for need or poverty such jurors might easily 
be corrupted or suborned. 

And in all cases and causes the law hath con- 


ceived a better opinion of those that have lands 
and tenements, or otherwise are of worth in move- 
able goods, that such will commit or omit nothing, 
that may any way be ]:)rejudicial to their estima- 
tion, or which may endanger their estates, than it 
hath of artificers, retailers, labourers, or such-like, 
of whom Tully saith, Nihil proficiuntur, nisi ad 
modum mentiuntur. And by divers statutes cer- 
tain immunities are given to men of quahty, which 
are denied to the vulgar sort of people ; read hereof 
amongst others, 1 Jac. cap. 127. 

By the statute of 2 Hen. IV, cap. 27, amongst 
other things it is enacted, That no yeoman should 
take or wear any livery of any lord upon pain of 
imprisonment, and to make fine at the king's will 
and pleasure. 

These yeomen were famous in our forefathers' 
days for archery and manhood ; our infantry, 
which so often conquered the French, and repulsed 
Scots, were composed of them, as are our militia 
at present, who through want of use and good dis- 
cipline are degenerated from their ancestors' va- 
lour and hardiness. ' 

As the nobility, gentry, and clergy, have certain 
privileges peculiar to themselves, so have the com- 
monalty of England beyond the subjects of other 

No freeman of England ought to be imprisoned, 
outed of his possession, disseised of his freehold, 
without order of law, and just cause shown. 

To him that is imprisoned may not be denied a 
habeas corpus, if it be desired ; and if no just cause 



be alleged, and the same be returned upon a ha- 
beas corpusy the prisoner is to be set at Uberty. 
By Magna Charta, 9 Hen. III. no soldier can be 
quartered in any house except inns, and other 
public victuaUing-houses, in time of peace, with- 
out the owner's consent, by the petition of right, 
S Car. I. No taxes, loans, or benevolences, can 
be imposed but by act of parliament. Idem. 

The yeomanry are not to be pressed to serve as 
soldiers in the wars unless bound by tenure, which 
is now abolished ; nor are the trained bands com- 
pellable to march out of the kingdom, or be trans- 
ported beyond sea, otherwise than by the law of 
the kingdom ought to be done ; nor is any one 
to be compelled to bear his own arms, finding 
one sufficient man qualified, according to the act 
before mentioned. 

No freeman is to be tried but by his equals, nor 
condemned but by the laws of the land. These 
and many other freedoms make the most happy, 
did they but know it ; and should oblige them to 
their allegiance to their prince, under whose power 
and government themselves, their rights and pri- 
vileges are preserved, and quietly enjoyed ; yet 
such is the inconstancy of men's nature, not to be 
contented with the bhss they enjoy. 






Touching place and precedency, it is first to be 
noted, that persons of every degree of honour or 
dignity take place according to the seniority of 
their creation^ and not of years, unless descended 
of the blood royal, in which case they have place 
of all others of the same degree. 

The younger sons of the preceding rank take 
place from the eldest son of the next mediate, viz. 
the younger sons of dukes from the eldest sons of 
earls ; the younger sons of earls from the eldest 
sons of barons. 

There have been some alterations made as to 
precedency (as may be observed by inspecting the 
tables) and therefore some exception will appear 
to some of the foregoing rules, by some decrees 
and establishments of King James I. and King 
Charles I., whereby all the sons of viscounts and 
barons are allowed to precede baronets. And the 
eldest sons and daughters of baronets have place 
given them before the eldest sons and daughters 
of any knights, of what degree or order soever, 
though superior to that of a baronet (these being 
but temporary dignities, whereas that of baronets 
is hereditary) ; and the younger ^ons of baronets 



are to have place next after the eldest sons of 

Note also, that as there are some great officers 
of state who take place (although they are not no- 
blemen) above the nobility of higher degree ; so 
there are some persons who, for their dignities in 
the church, degrees in the universities, and inns 
of court, officers in the state or army (although 
they are neither knights nor gentlemen born) yet 
take place amongst them. Thus all colonels and 
field officers (who are honourable) as also master 
of the artillery, and quarter-master general ; doc- 
tors of divinity, law, physic, and music ; deans, 
chancellors, prebendaries, heads of colleges in the 
universities, and Serjeants at law, are, by courtesy, 
allowed place before ordinary esquires. And all 
bachelors of divinity, law, physic, and music; 
masters of arts, barristers in the inns of courts ; 
lieutenant-colonels, majors, captains, and other 
commissioned military officers ; and divers patent 
officers in the king*'s household, may equal, if not 
precede, gentlemen who have none of these qua- 

In towns corporate, the inhabitants of cities (and 
herein those of the capital or metropolitan city arc 
thejfirst ranked) are preferred to those of boroughs 
and those who have borne magistracy to all others. 
And here a younger alderman or bailey takes not 
precedency from his senior by being knighted, or 
as being the elder knight, as was the case of alder- 
man Craven, wlio (though no knight) had place 
as senior alderman, before all the rest who were 


knights, at the coronation of King James. This 
is to be understood as to public meetings relative 
to the town ; for it is doubted whether it will hold 
good in any neutral place. It has been also de- 
termined in the Heralds' Office, that all who have 
been lord mayors of London shall every where 
take place of all knights-bachelors, because they 
have been the king's lieutenants. 

It was likewise adjudged in the case of Sir John 
Crook, Serjeant at law, by the judges in court, that 
such Serjeants as were his seniors, though not 
knighted, should have preference, notwithstand- 
ing his knighthood. — Sir Geoi'ge Mackenzie of 

All colonels are honourable, and by the law of 
arms ought to precede simple knights. 

Guillim's Display f &c. 

AVomen before marriage have precedency by 
their father ; but there is this diiFerence between 
them and the male children, that the same prece- 
dency is due to all the daughters that is due to the 
eldest ; but it is not so among the sons. 

By marriage a woman participates of her hus- 
band's dignities ; but none of the wife's dignities 
can come by marriage to her husband, but are to 
descend to her next heir. 

If a woman have precedency by creation, de- 
scent, or birth, she retains the same, though she 
marries an inferior. But it is observable, that if 
a woman nobly born marry any nobleman, as a 
baron, she shall take place according to the degree 
of her husband, though she be a duke's daughter. 

A £ E 3 


A woman privileged by ojarriage with one of 
noble degree shall retain the privilege due to her 
by her husband, though he should be degraded 
by forfeiture, &c. for crimes are personal. — Mac- 
hcnzie of Precedency. 

The wife of the eldest son of any degree takes 
place of the daughters of the same degree, (who 
always have place immediately after the wives of 
such eldest sons;) and both of them take place of 
the younger sons of the preceding degree. Thus 
the lady of the eldest son of an earl takes place of 
an earl's daughter, and both of them precede the 
wife of the younger son of a marquis ; also the 
wife of any degree precedes the wife of the eldest 
son of the preceding degree. Thus the wife of a 
marquis precedes the wife of the eldest son of a 

This holds not only in comparing degrees, but 
also families of the same degree among themselves; 
for instance, the daughter of a senior earl yields 
place to the wife of a j unior earPs eldest son : 
though, if such daughter be an heiress, she will 
then be allowed place before the wives of the 
eldest sons of all younger earls. — Segar, p. 240. 





The King. 

The Prince of Wales. 

King'*s sons. 

King's brothers. 

King's uncles. 

King's grandsons. 

King's brother's or sister's sons. 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Lord High Chancellor, or Lord Keeper. 

Archbishop of York. 

Lord High Treasurer. 

Lord President of the Privy-council. 

Lord Privy-seal. 

Lord High Constable. 

Earl Marshal. 

Lord High Admiral. 

Lord Steward of His Majesty's Household. 

Lord Chamberlain of His Majestt/s Household. 



The eldest sons of Dukes. 


The eldest sons of Marquises. 

The younger sons of Dukes. 



The eldest sons of Earls. 

The younger sons of Marquises. 

Bishop of London. 

Bishop of Durham. 

Bishop of Winchester. 

All other Bishops according to seniority ofconse* 


Barons according to their patents of creation. 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 

The eldest sons of Viscounts. 

The younger sons of Earls. 

The eldest sons of Barons. 

Knights of the most noble order of the Garter. 

Privy Counsellors. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

Lord Chief Justice of the King's-bench. 

Master of the Rolls. 

Lord Chief Justice of the Common-pleas. 

Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

Judges and Barons of the degree of the Coif of 

the said courts according to seniority. 
Bannerets made tinder the King's banner or stand- 
ard, displayed in a7i army royaly in open zvar, 
and the King personally present. 

The younger sons of Viscounts. 

The younger sons of Barons. 


Bannerets ??o^7wat?e by the King himself in person. 

Knights of the most honourable order of the Bath. 

Knights Bachelors. 

Masters in Chancery. 


Eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers. 

The eldest sons of Baronets. 

The eldest sons of the Knights of the Garter. 

The eldest sons of JBannerets. 

The eldest sons of the Knights of the Bath. 

The eldest sons of Knights Bachelors. 

The younger sons of Baronets. 

Esquires of the King's Body, or Gentlemen of the 


Esquires of the Knights of the Bath. 

Esquires by creation. 

Esquires by office. 

Younger sons of Knights of the Garter. 

Younger sons of Bannerets of both kinds. 

Younger sons of Knights of the Bath. 

Younger sons of Knights Bachelors. 

Gentlemen entitled to bear arms. 

Clergymen, Barristers at law, Officers in the Navy 

and Army, who are Gentlemen by profession. 


Burgesses, &c. 





The Queen. 

Princess of Wales. 

Princesses, daughters of the King. 

Princesses and Duchesses, wives of the King's sons. 

Waives of the King's brothers. 

Wives of the King's uncles. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes of the blood 


Daughters of Dukes of the blood royal. 

Wives of the King's brother's or sister's sons. 



Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes. 

Daughters of Dukes. 


Wives of the eldest sons of Marquises. 

Daughters of Marquises. 

Wives of the younger sons of Dukes. 


Wives of the eldest sons of Earls. 

Daughters of Earls. 

Wives of the younger sons of Marquises. 


Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts. 

Daughters of Viscounts. 


Wives of the younger sons of Earls. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Barons. 

Daughters of Barons. 

Wives of the younger sons of Viscounts. 

Wives x)f the younger sons of Barons. 


Wives of the Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of Bannerets of each kind. 

Wives of the Knights of the Bath. 

Wives of Knights Bachelors. 

Wives of the eldest sons of the younger sons of 


Wives of the eldest sons of Baronets. 

Daughters of Baronets. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Garter. 

Daughters of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Bannerets. 

Daughters of Bannerets. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Batli. 

Daughters of Knights of the Bath. 

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights Bachelors. 

Daughters of Knights Bachelors. 

Wives of the younger sons of Baronets. 

Daughters of Knights. 

Wives of Esquires of the Sovereign's Body. 

Wives of Esquires to the Knights of the Bath. 

Wives of Esquires by creation. 

Wives of Esquires by office. 

Wives of the younger sons of Knights of the Garter. 

Wives of the younger sons of Bannerets. 
Wives of the younger sons of Knights of the Bath. 
Wives of the younger sons of Knights Bachelors. 


Wives of Gentlemen. 
Daughters of Esquires. 
Davighters of Gentlemen. 
Wives of Clergymen, Barristers at Law, and Offi- 
cers m the JNavy and Army. 
Wives of Citizens. 
Wives of Burgesses, &c. 

I'ART ir. HERALDRY. 825 




Pursuant to an Order of the Earl Marshal. 

Thejhllonsoing is the Procession which was made 
in April 1 726, wherein the Knights of the Bath 
are ranged, viz. 

Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. 

Kniffht Marshal alone. 

Master of the Jewel 

Treasurer of the 

Pursuivants of Arms. 

Heralds of Arms. 

Knights of the Bath, viz. 

Sir Thomas Coke. 
Sir John Monson. 
Sir William Yonge. 
Sir Robert Clifton. 

Sir William Monson. 
Sir T. W. Wentworth, 
Sir Michael Newton. 
Sir William Gage. 
Sir William Morgan. 

• F F 


Privy Counsellors, not Peers. 

According to their seniority at the Council Board, 
and amongst them the following Knights of the 
Bathy if no other Privy Councillors intervene ; 

Sir Charles Wills, K. B. 

Sir Robert Sutton, K. B. Sir R. Walpole, K. BJ^ 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Sir Paul Methuen, K. B. 
Treasurer of the Household. 

Younger sons of Earls, being Knights of the Bath, 
• if no other intervene. 

Sir Thomas Lumley Saunderson, K. B. 

Sir Conyers Darcy, I Sir William Stanhope, 
K. B. I K. B. 

Sir Spencer Compton, IC. B. 
And Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Robert Lord Walpole, K. B. 

Hugh Lord Clinton, 
K. B. 

John Lord De la Warr, 

Eldest S071S of Earls, being Knights of the Bath. 
John Lord Glenorchy, George Lord Malpas, 



* Sir Robert Walpole was father of Lord Walpole, both made 
Knights of the Bath at the same time. 




Amongst them Knights of the Bath, viz. 

John Viscount Tyrconnel, in Ireland, K. 13. 
George Viscount Torrington, K. B. 

Younger Sons of Dukes, beifig Knights of the 
Bath, viz. 

Lord Nassau Powlett, K. B. 


Amongst them Knights of the Bath, viz. 

William Earl of Inchiquin, K. B. 

Thomas Earl of Pom- 
fret, K. B. 

George Earl of Halifax, 

AVilliam Anne Earl of 
Albemarle, K. 15. 

Talbot Earl of Sussex, 

Henry Earl of Dclo- 

raine, K. B. 
John Earl of Leicester, 

K. B. 

Eldest Sons of Dukes, being Knights of the Ba!h. 
Charles Earl of Burford. 

William Duke of Manchester, K. B. 

John Duke of Montague, K. B. 

Charles Duke of Richmond, K. B. 

Lord Steward of the Household. 

NorroyKingofArms. | ClarenceuxKingofArms 

F F 

r 9. 


Lord Privy Seal* 
Lord Treasurer. 
Lord Chancellor. 

Ld. Presid. of the Council. 
Archbishop of York. 
Abp. of Canterbury. 

Gentleman C Garter King of 1 Gentleman 
Usher. I Arms. 3 Usher. 

Prince William, K. B. 
Prince of Wales, K. G. 

Earl Marshal, j Sword of State. \ ]^?^^ ^^f.* 
( j Chamberlam. 

Sergeant at Arms. ^ The Sovereign. [ Sergeant at Arms. 

Lord Chamberlain, or Vice Chamberlain. 

Captain of the Guard. 

Captain of the Yeomen. I Captain of the Gentle- 
I men Pensioners. 

Gentlemen Pensioners. 




Of the Names of the Gentlemen whose Arms arc 
engraved and blazoned as Examples in the In- 
troduction to Heraldry. 

Those marked with *, the Arms are engraved and blazoned ; thos^ 
with this mark f , the Arms are blazoned only. 


Abrahall page I79t 

Abtot 231t 

Adye 67* 

Aldham 64* 

Ambesace 58* 

Amherst 51* 

Anderton 240t 

Arblaster 137t 

Arbuthnot 53* 

Arches 99t 

Armstrong > . . . . 257t 

Arthure 1 ISf 

Askewe lOlf 

Aston 21* 

Aston 125t 

Asgil 243t 

Atkins 52* 

Atwood 69* 

Austen 60* 


Bagot ..124* 

Baines 52* 

Baker 64t 

Baker 65* 

BaU lost 

Banister 260t 

Bamack 102t 

Barker 52* 

Barnes page 133t 

Bardonenche 239t 

Barkle 252t 

Bamsdale 69* 

Barbon 69* 

Barret 182t 

Basnet 105t 

Bateman 57* 

Bathor 162t 

Baxter 229* 

Baylie 63* 

BazUWood 60* 

Becton 243t 

Bell 109t 

Beringer 52* 

Berkley 50* 

Bemeck 104t 

Bertie 106t 

Beville 117t 

Biest 56* 

Birmingham 68* 

Blackstock 67* 

Blossim 1 52+ 

Bolter 68* 

Bolowre 177t 

Borton 261t 

Bothe 128t 

Bottlesham 111+ 

Borough 57* 

Bvurdcn 56* 




Bowen page IHf 

.Bowes 18G* 

Bowes 193t 

liowes 1 14f 

BoydeU SlSf 

Boyle 68* 

BraUford 126t 

Branchley 221 

Bray 64* 

Bretigni 192t 

Bridget 135* 

Bromley 69t 

Bromley 69* 

Brome 146t 

Buck 210t 

Buggine 128t 

Bulbeck 59* 

Buocafoco . 56* 

Bumaby 53* 

Buminghill 169t 

Burrard 59* 

Byron 156t 


Camel llSf 

Cartwright 67* 

Cartwright 131t 

Carver 157t 

Cardington 262t 

Carrack 150t 

Capper 116t 

Cennino 56* 

Chalbots 64* 

Champneys 59* 

Chambers 132t 

Chapman 56* 

Cherley lllf 

Chute 53* 

Clark 58* 

Clive 50* 

Cobster 127* 

Cocks 57* 

Cole 56* 

Colic 56* 

Colbrand page lOlf 

Cook 59* 

Conisbie 60* 

Corke 60* 

Comhill 68* 

Cotton 133t 

Cottingham 253t 

Constable 105t 

Cock 21t 

Cockaine 129t 

Conyngham 178t 

Corbet 227+ 

Crebott 162t 

Cropley 63* 

Culcheth 173t 


Dallison 51* 

Dauntre 107* 

Davy 57* 

Davenport 176t 

DelaHay 161t 

De la Luna 145t 

Dinj^rall 238t 

Digby 165t 

DiUon 55* 

Downs 51* 

Doublet 151t 

Douglas 57* 

Dodge 67* 

Doubleday 68* 

Drummond 53* 

Drakes 263t 

Dudley 50* 

Dubisson 1 lOf 

Dyxton 246* 


Easton 193t 

Edwards 64* 

Eglefelde 63* 

EUis 190 and 64* 

Elphinston ISSf 

Eyre 220 



Ewaxt page 54* 


Farmer 189* 

Fennor 197t 

Ferries 197t 

Fisher 188* 

Fitzourse 107t 

Fitz-Hugh 114t 

Fitz- William 194t 

Florence IGGf 

Fortherby 194t 

Folebome 261t 

Fontibus 66* 

Fraunces 50* 

Frankland ; . . . . 64* 

Franklyn 64* 

Frampton 50* 

Frebody 178t 

Fulford 124* 


Gamin 57* 

Gamboa 67* 

Garzoni 67* 

Gascoine . . .- ISlf 

Gawdy 250t 

Ged 170t 

Gideon 59* 

Gise .lost 

Glegg 133t 

Goodrood 97t 

Govis 157t 

Gomaldi 168t 

Gorges 173t 

Grafton 55* 

Greby 70* 

GrevUe 52* 

Gumey 210t 

Gwyn 54* 

Gyves lOGf 

Hawberkc 170-f 

Haydon page 53* 

Hawkeridge 55* , 

Haddon 68* 

Hall I06t 

HaxthiU lOSf 

Harman 96t 

Hawley 20 and 108t 

Harrow 177t 

Hampsone 182t 

Haye 202t 

HadisweU.... 261t 

Herendon 63* 

Herris 171t 

Highlord 51* 

Hingham 167t 

Hilbome 53* 

Hildesley 53* 

Hope 50* 

Hoast 67* 

Hobart 164t 

Holme 253+ 

HoUand 105t 

Hoby list 

Hoo 121t 

Houlditch 238t 

Humphrey 55* 

Hunter 61* 

Hulse 52* 


James 64* 

JefFeries 183t 

Jarvis 64* 

Jenkinson 69* 

Jenynges • • • • 146t 

InhofF I92t 

Jones 118* 

Jomey 170t 

Johnson 255t 

Julian 187t 


Kiigg 54* 

KcniDton 6:i* 



Kearsley . . . w page 205* 

KeUum ISlf 

Kinnard.. 52* 

Killingsworth 235t 

Knight 50* 

Knot 51* 

Kroge 219t 


Laurence 172t 

Langford 241t 

Leeson 49* 

Leet 198t 

Leverage 198f 

Leon 201t 

Leyham 246t 

Lowther 55* 

Lynch 190* 

Lorks 151 

Lovett 209t 

Lloyd 151t 

Lutterel 208t 

Lucy ISGf 


Mackenay 187t 

Masquehay 1 87t 

Markham 185t 

Maitland 147t 

Mallory Hlf 

Maltravers 167t 

Magnall 24«* 

Mason lolf 

Maynard 171t 

Maynes 177t 

Manners .... 49* 

Madden 56* 

Masters 59* 

Maroley G7* 

Maynard 68* 

Blawgyron 175t 

I\Iedville 164t 

Mendorf 51* 

Mcinstorpc 217-|' 

Milncs page 262t 

Miller 69* 

Alilverton . . 199t 

JMonox 55* 

Morley 53 and 179t 

Moore 59* 

Moore 200t 

Mounbowchier 165t 

Mosley 199t 

Myntur 216t 


Narboon 215t 

Nathiley 96* 

Naylor 59* 

Nangothan 60 and 200* 

Newton 53* 

Needham 59* 

Newby 245t 

Newdigate 55* 

Norton 54* 


Ord 64* 

O'Haia 51* 

Outlawe 58* 


Packer 52* 

Paulet 54* 

Pawne (>'.',* 

Palmer 236t 

Peacock 133* 

Pelham 176t 

Pegriz 218t 

Pearce 67* 

Penruddock 67* 

Pemberton 115t 

Peche 162t 

Percival 243t 

Pigot 50 and 168t 

Pigot 50* 

Pitiicld 63* 

Pilgrim 217t 



Pine page 218t 

Planke 178t 

Pogeis 197t 

Pont 226* 

Potter 64* 

Porter 53* 

; Powlet 54* 

Prince 52* 

Preener 221t 

h- Puckering 51* 

c: Puges 197t 



Rawlyns 53* 

Rawline 54* 

Rathlow 218t 

Renton 50* 

Restwold 234t 

Rewtowre 67* 

Redman 144t 

Rich 52* 

Richardson 122t 

Row 56* 

Rogers 59* 

Robinson 59* 

Rooe lost 

Rokeley 184t 

Roundel 205t 

Russel 218t 

Rudetzker 188t 


Samwell 239t 

St. Clere 55* 

St John 49* 

StPhilibert.. llOf 

Sault 57* 

Sayer 238t 

Scott ...172t 

Scipton 109* 

Scropham 187* 

Scudamore 245t 

Srarle 210t 

;rtcr 56* 

Shipstowe page 56* 

Shirley 69* 

Shutdeworth 241t 

Shelly 242t 

Shirington 247t 

Simeon 52* 

Skein 242t 

Smert 124t 

Smith 98t 

Smith 68* 

Smyth 50* 

Sneyde 237t 

Snigg 51* 

Soame 195t 

Spring 206t 

Spence 215t 

Stratele 154t 

Standard lOOf 

Stoway 225t 

Stourton 51* 

Stapletpn 54* 

Stourgeon 58* 

Stoner 69* 

Stewart 69* 

Stoddyr 146t 

Stewins 172t 

Stratele 154t 

Starkey 245 

Stasam 256 

Stratford 252t 

Stasam 256t 

Sublet 203t 

Sutton 119t 

Swans 262t 

Symms 184 and 66t 

. T. 

Taine 163t 

Talbot 60* 

Tenton 248t 

Theme 67* 

Thunder 254 

Tomb 250* 

Totc^ 200 



Tounson page 5G* 

Tremaine 56* 

Trewarthen 112 

Trevor 69* 

Trowbridge 114t 

Tregold Il5t 

Trott ....182t 

Travers 159t 

Trapps 169t 

Troutebeck 167t 

Trevet 252t 

Turnor 52* 

Twisden 52* 

Tryon 246* 

Tynte 58* 


Undal 200* 


Vandeput 64* 

Vaughan 68* 

Vavasour 69* 

Villages 57* 


Wandesford ISlf 

Wastley 97t 

Wakerley 200t 

Warden 260t 

Walsalle . page 262t 

Warre 194t 

Walpole 50* 

Ward 64* 

Whalley 261t 

Wylley 261t 

Wycombe ISOf 

WagstafF 51* 

Walgrave 211t 

Watton 63* 

Weele 54* 

Wells 163* 

Weld 69* 

Wegirton ..121t 

Wingfield 133 

Wiseman 136t 

Withers 66* 

Woodvile 50* 

Wood 67 and 70* 

Wooler 247 

Woolstone 264t 

Wroton "54 

Wyntworth 145t 


YeUen 63* 

Yeo 254 


Zusto 162t