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Full text of "A short grammar of the Shilluk language"

A SHORT GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

SrilLLUK LANGUAGE 

BY 

Dl'EDRICH WESTERMANN 



UC-NRLF 





L'lSRAR* 

UN .VERITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 



3PHEDAY 
MISSIONS LIBRARY 




A SHORT GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

SHILLUK LANGUAGE 

BY 

DIEDRICH WESTERMANN 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 

OF THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF N. A. 

IN GERMANY: 
DIETRICH REIMER (ERNST VOHSEN) BERLIN 



?//? "/ 



LOAN STACK 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
PRINTED ttY J. J. Al-'CJl'STlN, (iLLCKSTADT 



PREFACE. 

The Shilluk country is situated in the Anglo - 
Egyptian Sudan ; it extends along the west bank 
of the White Nile from Kaka in the north to 
Lake No in the south; besides this there are 
several Shilluk villages along the banks of the 
lower Sobat, chiefly on the northern side. 

This little book is an epitome of my researches 
in the Shilluk language made during a stay in 
the Shilluk country and in Khartoum from August 
1910 to the end of October 1910. It is based 
on a larger collection of folklore, which will be 
edited within a few months, together with a 
grammar and dictionary. 

The present grammar is intended solely as a 
practical guide to the Shilluk language, and for 
this reason I have ^tried to adapt it to the needs 
of the Europeans and Americans living among 
this people. The main difficulties in acquiring a 
knowledge of the language are pronunciation and 
intonation; it is of the greatest importance that 
the student should pay careful attention to these 
two points, as otherwise misunderstandings are 
unavoidable. I have therefore thought it necessary, 
to represent the sounds and the intonation as 
carefully and exactly as possible. The many 
diacritical dots and accents may not look very 
encouraging to the reader, but I earnestly beg of 
him, not to let them deter him from employing 
the book: once one is accustomed to them, they 
are not so bad as they may at first appear, and 



677 



IV 

they are indispensable. In order to obtain both- 
the right pronunciation and intonation, the help 
of an intelligent native should always be at hand. 

The orthography adopted is a compromise 
between the one already in use among the mis- 
sionaries, and the phonetic writing. 

The object of this book made it impossible, 
to treat the language exhaustively; indeed many 
problems have not even been touched, as for 
instance the position of the Shilluk among other 
African languages, etymology, the ways of forming 
words, the laws according to which the tones 
change. I have purposely reserved these questions 
for a more comprehensive grammar. 

As to how this book should be employed, 
I would add a few remarks : the quantity of vowels 
is not so unchangeable as it is in some other 
Sudan languages, frequently a vowel is long, when 
standing in an unconnected word, and short when 
in a connected word, that is a word spoken in 
connection with other words. When a mute con- 
sonant stands between two vowels, it is sometimes 
extremely difficult to distinguish, whether it is 
hard (voiceless) or soft. If the word is pronounced 
very slowly - - which is, of course, not the natural 
way of speaking the sound is hard, for instance , 
but if it is pronounced rapidly in a sentence, 
a d ist heard. - - The verbs are mostly employed 
in the past tense, the present is not heard nearly 
so often; when being asked for a verb, the natives 
will in almost all cases give the past tense. 
In the vocabulary the tones of words are given 



y 

as completely as was possible. In those cases 
where the tones of a word are not marked, I am 
not frilly acquainted with them. The tones given 
in the vocabulary are those which a word has, 
when it is spoken separately, that is, when not 
standing in a sentence. If in a diphthong only 
the first vowel has an intonation-mark, the tone 
of the second vowel is the same as that of the 
first. - Words occurring in the text, but not in 
the vocabulary, I am not able to satisfactorily 
identify. 

I am greatly obliged to Mr. L. Hamilton of the 
School for Oriental Languages, Berlin, for revising 
the English text of this work. 

D. WESTERMANN. 



I. Grammar. 



The Sounds. 

1. The Consonants. 

b as in English. 

ch is almost, but not quite the same sound as in 
church, child. The sound is articulated 
further back in the nrouth. 

d as in English. 

d is an interdental d; put the tongue between the 
teeth-rows, so that it is visible from without 
between the teeth, then press it lightly against 
the upper teeth, and pronounce a d. 

/ as in English. 

g always hard, as in garden, gold, never as in 
George. 

h occurs only in some exclamations; it is sounded 
a little stronger than the English h in "he". 

Y might be called a fricative g; it is in the same 
relation to g, as v is to b. It is somewhat 
similar to the Arabic Ghain, but it is much 
softer, and its place of articulation does not 
lie so far back in the throat as that of Ghain. 

We s term an n , Shilluk-English. 



2 

j is almost, but not quite the same sound as the 
English ] in jest, just. It is articulated a 
little further back in the mouth, and there- 
fore sounds "thinner". 

k I m n are as in English. But /, when standing 
at the end of a word, is "rolled", almost 
as the English pronounce the 11 in well. 

n is like n in canon, or like Italian and French 
gn in signore, seigneur. Its pronunciation 
is somewhat difficult, if it stands at the end 
of a word; here sometimes foreigners pro- 
nounce n instead of n. This can easily be 
avoided by adding the so-called 'helping 
vowel' e (see below) to the n ; instead of 
saying leii "war", say lene. 

n is an interdental n, pronounced by putting the 
tongue between the teeth, as in d. 

n is like ng in "sing", "singer". Its pronunciation 
is only difficult at the beginning of a word. 
Divide : si-nger, and pronounce nger only. 
This ng is exactly the sound of n. 

p is as in English. 

r is formed with the tongue's end. It is not 
rolled, but pronounced very slightly, so that 
often, chiefly between two vowels, ; and 
d are hardly distinguishable. 

6-A is formed a little further back in the mouth 
than the English sh. It is nearly the same 
sound as the German ch in "ich", "dich". 

s is the sharp th as in thing, thorough. 

t is as in English. 

t is the interdental t; it is formed just in the 
same way as d, only the tongue is pressed 
more tightly against the upper teeth, and 
the sound is voiceless. 

w as in English. 

y as in English yes, yonder; it is never a vowel 
sound as in spy. 

z is the soft th as in these, them. 



3 - 
2. System of the Consonants. 





Mutes 


Fricatives 






Semi- 




Voice- 


Voiced 


Voice- 
less 


Voiced 


Liquids 


Nasals 


vowels 






| 










Velars . . . 


k 


9 





r 





n 





Palatals . . 


dl 


j 


sli 







n 


y 


Alveolars . 


t 


d 








r I 


n 




Inter- 
















dentals 


t 


d 


| 


z 





n 





Labials . . 


P 


I 










in 


w 



3. The Vowels. 

The quality of vowels is marked by signs 
below the letters; the quantity is marked by signs 
above the letters. Long vowels are marked by a 
line, thus : a = long a. All vowels which have 
no mark above, are short. 

a is the pure "Italian" a, as the French, Italian 
arid German short a, almost like the English 
a in lad, hat. But the English sound is 
rather in the middle between a and e 9 where- 
as the Shilluk a is purer, the mouth being 
opened wider than in the formation of the 
English a. In certain cases, however, the 
Shilluk a has also a tendency towards the e 
(in phonetic writing this sound would be a); 
these cases will be indicated. Examples of 
the pure Shilluk a: kal "fence", mak "catch!" 
anan "now", jal "man", 
a is a sound between a and o, almost like the 

English u in but. Ex.: gat "river-side". 
o like o in pot, hot; e. g. : go "him", got "court", 
nol "cut". If o stands at the end of poly- 
syllabic words, it is pronunced very faintly, 
so that often an e is merely heard. But 



if one listens carefully, and if one asks the 
natives to pronounce such a word a second 
time, the o is distinctly heard. It is the 
end-vowel of many nouns and of the verb 
in the present tense. 

e as e in let, went, well; but the sound is a little 
broader, somewhat more tending towards a. 
e. g. : I'et "go", let "hot", bet "fish-spear". 

e as a in haste, face, but shorter. Ex.: yecli middle. 

e is a very short, almost voiceless sound, resem- 
bling that of a in "idea". It is the so-called 
'helping vowel'. The short e does not occur 
at the end of a word, whereas e very often 
finishes a word. Therefore, wherever e 
occurs at the end of a word, e is always 
given instead of e. Only where e stands 
in the middle of a word, it is marked e; 
e. g.: nek "killed". 

like i in hit, fit; e. g. : kinau thus, ni "to use to", 
witi "arrived". 

i like ee in keen, e in he, but shorter. In an 
orthography not strictly scientific both i and 
i may be rendered by the same letter: i. 

o like o in note, mote, but shorter, and narrower; 
it tends somewhat towards u; e. g. : lot "club". 

u like u in "put". Ex.: l>u "to have not" chuni 
"stop". 

u like oo in root, but shorter. Ex. : kudo to be 
silent, budo to lie down. As i and i, so 
u and u too may be marked by the same 
letter: u. 

4. System of the Vowels. 

a 

a a 

o . e 

o i 

u e i . 

u i 





5, Long Vowels. 

All vowels, including e, may be long, 
a as a in father; mayo to catch. 
a between a and o; e. g. : fado to fall. 

as aw in law, awe: gogo to work. 
0: fero people neno much. 

e: a in save, bale; e. g. : ye jo to sweep. 
e: yet roads. 
I: dim bowels. 

1 as ee in feel, heel; e. g. : rmo to run. 

as o in mole, but narrower. Ex. : clidti it is 

finished. 

u : nttti not yet. 
u as oo in cool, fool. Ex.: riimo to think. 

6. Diphthongs. 

ai as y in spy. 
an as ow in fowl. 

01 as oi in oil. 

ei almost as in eight, but the i is heard more 
distinctly than in English. Ex.: wei to let. 
The sounds ch, j, sli and n, when follow- 
ing a vowel, generally have a slight i sound 
before them, which combines with the 
preceding vowel to a diphthong. This i 
sound is, however, not expressed in writing, 
because 1. it occurs regularly before the 
said consonants, and 2. some individuals 
pronounce it so slightly, that in some cases 
one may doubt, whether it really exists. - 
Thus pack "home" is to be pronounced 
patch, goch "beaten" : goich, bano "to refuse" : 
baino. 

Combinations of Semivowel and Vowel 
are very frequent. In these cases w and y are to 
be pronounced as a very short, non-syllabic u 



and i. kwop "talk" almost as kuop, akyd "one" 
almost akiel. 

7. Interchange of Sounds. 

Some sounds may be interchanged at will, 
one individual preferring the one, another the 
other consonant; often the same individual in the 
same words now uses the one, a little while later 
the other consonant. These consonants are 

cli and sh 

t and s 

d and z 

p and /. 

Until now both cli and sh, p and / have 
been written by the missionaries, but for t and 5 
only t has been used, for d and z only d; I shall 
deviate from this rule, by using ch and p to render 
both sounds, reserving sh and / for those cases, 
where the natives actually prefer them. For t 
and s I write only t, for d and z only d. 

Change of Consonants. 

The consonants k t t p ch, when standing at the 
end of a ivqrd, can be pronounced in two ways. 
They are voiceless, that is a real k t t p cli, if 
1. the word stands alone or at the end of a 
sentence; 2. if it is followed by a voiceless 
consonant. They are voiced, that is, they are 
to be pronounced g d d b j, 1. if they are 
followed by a voiced consonant; 2. if they are 
followed by a vowel. But they are always written 
voiceless: k t t p ch. (One exception to this rule 
see below). Final ch, if followed by a consonant, 
often softens into y: wich head, wiy jal the head 
of the man. 

8. The Intonation. 

The intonation is an important and essential 



element in the Shilluk-language. It is not to be 
confounded with the accentuation, which solely 
means the stress or strength laid on a particular 
syllable or word. Intonation means exclusively 
the highness or lowness of a syllable compared 
with other syllables. 

In Shilluk each syllable has its own tone, 
which, as a rule, is not altered, or, if so, only 
according to fixed laws. 

A word is not formed by consonants and vowels 
only, but by consonants, vowels and tones. The 
language cannot be studied without close attention 
to the intonation. Many ' words and forms of 
words are distinguished only by different tones. 

There are three different tones in the Shilluk 
language : a high tone, marked thus : d, a low 
tone : , and a middle tone : a. Many syllables 
have two tones, the High and the Low; thus we 
have these combinations : a rising or low-high 
tone a, and a falling or high-low tone : a. 

Combinations between the high and middle, 
and the low and middle tone are also not uri- 
frequent; but as they are not essential for the 
practical use of the language, they are not treated 
here. 

The pronunciation of the tone and the relation 
of the tones to each other is best acquired by 
hearing them from the natives. They cannot be 
taught by the written word. Therefore I shall 
give several examples of each tone, which the 
student should let a native pronounce repeatedly 
so long till he is not only able to hear the 
differences, but to imitate them to the satisfaction 
of the native. 



9. Examples for the Intonation. 

High tone: len war, fen ground; yfi kb I say; 



yi re why you ? ydn I, won we, #e'ft they, oboi 
foam, men an this one. 

Low tone: tiro people, e kb he says, e mMb 
it is sweet, yi re gwal why are you thin? dean 
cow, anan now. 

Middle tone: is not so easily distinguished, 
and may be confounded with the high tone. 
Examples: otwon "cock", the second tone is a 
little lower than the first one, yet it is not the 
low tone. 

Rising tone: Dak (a descendant of Nikan), 
fuk a water-pot, ge ben all of them; otwon the 
hyena. This last example is instructive; the 
sounds are the same as in the word for "cock" ; 
only in "cock" the last syllable has a middle tone, 
and here it has the rising tone. 

Falling tone. tSk "is absent", tek "is hard", 
nok is little. 

The rising and the falling tone generally 
occur on syllables with a long vowel, but they 
may occur on short syllables as well, just the 
falling tone often does so. In this case the high 
tone is prevalent, but just before the sound is 
stopped, the tone is lowered. 

Changes of tones are frequent, but are not 
treated here ; many may be observed in the 
sentences and texts. 

The consonants m and n may form a syllable, 
thus taking the function of a vowel. Accordingly 
they can also have their own tone, for example: 
ram thighs; a is high, but m low; gyen fowls. 

10. The Accentuation, 

that is the emphasis laid on a syllable or a word, 
is not of such importance as it is in European 
languages, chiefly for the simple reason that most of 
the words are monosyllabic. Note the following 



rule : the stress does not lie on the vowel be- 
ginning or ending a word, except where the last 
vowel is an independent element, as: a bind "I 
came", here the final "a" means "I" ; in this case 
the ending vowel has its own accent. 



The Noun. 

11. The Plural of NOUDS. 

The Shilluk language has different ways 
of forming the plural of nouns. The means by 
which the plural is distinguished from the singular, 
are enumerated bejow. In most cases not one, 
but more of these means are employed to form the 
plural, for instance okot plural bkfit "bell" : 1. the 
second vowel has become long, 2. the high tone 
of the first syllable has become low, 3. the high 
tone of the second syllable has become falling. 

12. There are no rules according to which 
the nouns may be divided into classes, each of 
which has a common form of the plural. Just 
as in some other languages, for intance in German 
the plural of each noun has to be learned sepa- 
rately. But mark : o is an ending of the singular 
only, arid i is an ending of the plural. 

Means of Forming the Plural. 

1. Change of Vowel-quantity. 
ram-ram thigh wdro-war shoe 

tyvlo-tyel foot rejo-rech fish 

gy^no-gyeh hen okot-bkot bell 

lijo-lek tooth bkiubk-bkivak a small 

tanb-tdm temples goose 



10 

nhU-nali python brbk-brbk sin 

nwech-nwech a large Wizard bgwol-bgivol a black bird. 
bkok-bkhk flower 

2. Change of Vowel-quality. 

ogwdl-ogweli frog bat-bat arm 

fal-fet spoon odek-udiki mat 

jor-jor bug yat-yen tree 

chun-chon knee yech-yet belly 

yo-yvt way nivech-nwEch a large li- 
wich-ivat head zard. 

3. Change of tone. 

yit-ylt ear yQ-yty wa j 

ton-ton spear chun-chon knee 

okwek-bkicak a goose tijWo-tyel foot 

ogicok-og^Td fox gwbk-gubk dog 

owet-owet a niat gy&nb-gy&k hen. 

bfjivaro-oywerl blue heron 

4. Dropping the final o. 
fdlo-fal knife ivmo-wm bird 

gy%nb-ffy6h hen tono-ton egg 

byvlo-byel dura givElb-givel ring. 

5. Affixing z. 

odek-udikl a mat fmb-flnl cheek 

kwom-kiiomi chair tano-tdm temples. 

tdk-tdkl hat. 

6. Singular w becomes ?t in plural. 
gwbk-yubk dog kivom-kuonn chair. 

7. The combination of wo in singular becomes o 

in plural. 
kl fox. 



11 

8. Other changes. 

dean-dok cow rlt-ror king 

kech-kdm hunger. 

9. Different words for singular and plural. 
dacho-man woman 
jalo (jal)-chwou man, male 
pacli-myer village. 



Case. 

13. The Crenetire of Nouns. 

Singular. 

The genetive simply follows the noun deter- 
mined by it. 

wot house ; wot jago house of the chief 
kivop talk; ktvop obwbn talk of the stranger 
attp bag; a&p nate ivelo bag of the traveller 
okok blossom; okok y an eni the blossom of this tree. 

If a noun ending in jo, do or go is followed 
by a genetive, o is dropped, and ; turns into n, 
d into n, g into n: 

jago chief; jari fote icon the chief of our country 
afoajo rabbit; afoan nal fan the rabbit of the child. 

For more about these changes see below. 

In some cases the final ch is dropped before 
a genetive : 
pack village; pa rit village of the king. 

Plural. 

In the plural almost always an e (e) is added 
to the noun preceding a genetive. 
gwok dog pi. gubk; gubke jal eni the dogs of this man 
Ujo tooth pi. lek; leke lyech teeth of the elephant 
yet neck pi. yiet; yiete ivotbn the necks of the children 



12 

yit ear pi. i/lt; yite kyen ears of the horse 

ate_p bag pi. utep; atepe nate icelo the bags of the 

traveller 
afoajo rabbit pi. afoachl; afoache jal mi the rabbits 

of this man 

jago chief ipl. jak ; jake fote icon the chiefs our country 
bkok blossom pi. bkbk: okdke yan mi the blossoms 

of this tree. 



The Objective Case. 

14, The direct object or accusative follows 
the verb : a cham by el he ate dura. Sometimes 
the particle ki is added: a cham ki by el he ate 
(with) dura. 

The indirect object or dative generally pre- 
cedes the direct object ; in this case the latter is 
almost always introduced by ki: 

a iv^ki jdl eni ki by el he gave this man 
dura! 

But in very many, probably in most cases 
the direct and the indirect object are not expressed 
at all, the passive voice being used instead : "I 
saw him" is expressed by "he was seen by me" 5 
"he gave the child milk" by "the child was given 
milk by him". - - On the passive voice see below. 

(xender. 

15. The language has no grammatical, but 
only a natural gender, which is expressed in the 
noun only. 

There are two ways of expressing the natural 
gender. 

a. by different words. 
chwou man ddcho woman 

wat bull dean cow 

onwok male sheep or goat dyel female goat. 



13 

b. by adding otwon for the male, mat for the 
female gender. [lion 

nh btwon male lion nu mat or mat nu female 

tbni nu male lions mati nu female lions 

kyen a twon male horse kyen a mat female horse 
pi. kiien a tbn kuen a mat 

L t7 ^ f\ <J f\ 

twon omoro male mat omoro female roan 

pi. tbn omoro mat omoro. [antelope 

The deminutive is expressed by prefixing na 

"child" : na dean a small, young cow, na kyen a 

small horse. 



Pronouns. 

The Personal Pronoun. 
16. Absolute Form. 

This form does not stand immediately before 
a verb, it is used when the person is to be 
emphasized, therefore it might be called the 
emphatic form. It is employed for the subjective 
and objective form alike : I and me, thou and 
thee etc. 

ydn I won we 

yin thou wun you 

in (yen) he gen they. 

gbn he 

gon occurs frequently as objective, but seldom as 
subjective pronoun. 

This form may be emphasized by adding d: 
ydnd, yind, end. This has the meaning of "I am", 
"it is I" : yind jwok "thou God", "oh God" ; ma 
Bacliodo "that is Fashoda". 

17. Connected Form, standing before the verb. 

This form is generally used as the subject 
of verbs. 



?/d 1 wd, wo we 

yi, them wu you 

he 



, 1 
2 I 



f' (sometimes <f) and ye are used promiscuously, 
<70 as subjective pronoun is not frequent. 

18. Objective Form; stem chwol to call. 

With more emphasis: 

d chwold he called me a chwold ydn 
a chwoll he called thee a chwold yin 
d chwole he called him a chwold en, gon 
d chwoll icon he called us a chwold won 
d c hwo II w u n h e c all e d y o u a chwo Id iv u n 
d chwoll (/en he called them a chwold gen. 

19. Possessive Form; wot house pi. wodi. 

ivodd my house wotd my houses 

wod'i thy house wbti thy houses 

wode his house ivote his houses 

wot ') won our house wote icon our houses 

wot ] ) wun your house wote wun your houses 

icot ] ) yen their house wote gen their houses. 

ywbk dog pi. giibk. 

gwbgd my dog guokd my dogs 

</t#o</i thy dog gudkl thy dogs 

givbge his dog giloke his dogs 

gwbk*) won our dog guoke icon our dogs 

gwok 2 ) wun your dog guoke wun your dogs 
gw6k*) gen their dog guoke gen their dogs. 

K the end consonant in the plural is mute, it is 
always voiceless. 



1 ) this is to be pronounced d; see rule above. 

2 ) this fc is to be pronounced g; see rule above. 



15 

Note the changes of the tone. 

If a noun in the singular ending in jo, do, 
or go is followed by a possessive pronoun, o is 
dropped, and j becomes ri, d becomes n, g be- 
comes n: 

jago chief ja'na my chief 

jak chiefs jakd my chiefs 

afoajo rabbit afoana my rabbit 

afoachi rabbits afoachd my rabbits. 

In some cases the possessive pronoun is prefixed 
by r: ra my, ri thy etc. Before this r the final 
consonant of the noun drops : 
nal child nara my child 

pack village para my village 

pari thy village etc. 

20. The Possessive Pronoun as a Substantive. 

a. Singular of the thing possessed: 
mea mine mei icon ours 
mei thine mei wun yours 
mt his mei gen theirs. 

b. Plural of the thing possessed. 
mogd mo won 
mogi mo wun 
rnoge mo gen. 

Instead of "me", "gin" = "thing" may also 
be taken: gina my thing = mine. 

Note. The singular of the personal pronoun 
is not unfrequently used instead of the plural of 
the corresponding person. 

21. Interrogative Pronouns. 

ano what, which ? pi. ono ? 
When these, as well as the demonstrative 
pronouns, are combined with a noun in the sin- 
gular, the final consonant, if mute, undergoes 
certain changes, which are best shown in the 
following examples: 



16 

wot house: d won ano which house is it? 

rit king: a ran ano which king is it? 

yat tree: a yan ano which tree is it? 

ogwok jackal: d ogwon ano which jackal is it? 

atep bag: d a fern ano which bag is it? 

lyech elephant d lyeji ano which elephant is it? 

All other consonants remain unchanged : 
gin thing d gin ano which thing (what) is it? 

Plural. 

wodi houses, d wot ] ) ono which houses are they? 
ror kings, d ror ono which kings are they? 
yen trees, d yen fino which trees are they? 
ogok jackals, d ogok 1 } fino which jackals are they? 
afep bags, d aep ] ) ono which bags are they? 
lyech elephants, d lyech 1 ) dno which elephants are 

they? 
gik things, d gik } ) ano which things are they? 

amen who ? pi. amok ? 
amen a bl who has come? 
amok 1 ) a bl who (pi.) came? 
jal amen which man? 
jok amok which men? 

amSn a d wbrl yin who (is it that) sent you? 
won an a wot men this house is house whose? 

whose house is this? 
ivot 1 ) ak a ivote mok whose houses are these? 

a which? 

ivon a which house? 
ran a which king? 
ogwon a which fox? 
ogbki a which foxes? 

22. Relative Pronouns. 

a. Generally the relation is expressed by a, 



') In the plural the final mutes are voiceless, that is a 
real k ch t t pi 



17 

which is probably the same particle that forms 
the past tense, and can, therefore, only be used 
for the past. 

jal d In auwa the man who came yesterday 
wot d give won the house which was built by us 
dean d neke yi tero the cow which was killed by 
the people. 

b. 

md who, which: jal md li the man who came 
ken md l>en the time which comes. 

c. 

mfrn an the one (which) : 

ya fa die did men e lojb, yti die did men d tar I do 
not want the one which is black, I want the 
one which is white. 

In a. and c. there is no relative pronoun, it 
is in reality a simple sentence "the man came", 
"the one is black" - - which serves at the same 
time for expressing a relative sentence. 

23. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are several demonstrative pronouns, 
marking the different distances between the speaker 
and the object spoken of. 

Singular: an this, eni that, aclia that over there. 
Plural : ak, an or dgctk these, eni those, cicha 

those over there. 
To mark a distance very far away, they 

use chine: over yonder. 

Here the same changes in the final consonant 
of the noun in the singular take place as in the 
interrogative pronoun. 

Examples. 
gwbk dog 

gwon an this dog g won eni that dog 

gwon acJid that dog there 

Wester mann, Shilluk-English. 2 



18 



gubk dogs ! ) 

gwok ak j , givok eni those yicok acha the 



dogs, 



dogs 



over 



house 



dogs 

agak ] ^ there 

jago chief 
jan an this chief j fin eni that chief jan acha the chief 

over there 
jak chiefs 
jak ak these chiefs jak eni those jak ticket the 

ttfo hou 
won an 
wodi houses 
iv ot ak 
yit ear 
yin an 
ylt ears 
yit ak 
atep bag 
atem an 
atvp bags 
at$p ak 
lyech elephant 
lyen an 

lyecli elephants 
lyech ak 
liio tooth 
Un an 
lek teeth 
lek ak 

two (tedo) people 
tdn an 
tik } 

Those ending in other consonants or in vowels 
have no changes : 



chiefs 

won eni 


chiefs 
there 
won acha 


iv ot eni 


loot acha 


yin eni 


yin acha 


ylt eni 


ylt acha 


atem eni 


atem acha 


atlp eni 


a$ep acha 


lyeh eni 


lyen acha 


lyecli eni 


lyech acha 


len eni 


lyen acha 


lek eni 


lek acha 


ten eni 


tdn acha. 



') In the plural the final consonants if mute - 
are to be pronounced voiceless, that is as real k ch t y. 



19 

ror ok these kings - - from ror 
gin an this thing from gin 
pi an this water from pi 
len an this war from len. 

There is another kind of demonstrative 
pronoun, expressed merely by the change of the 
final consonant described above. It has somewhat 
the character of the English definite article. Its 
use seems to be restricted to the nouns ending 
in k t t p ch, go, ro (do) do, jo, for instance : 
won this house (the house spoken of or just 

mentioned) 
ran this king (the one just mentioned). 

The demonstrative pronoun standing for a 
noun. 

men an this one 
mok ak these ones. 



24. The Reflexive Pronoun. 

It is formed with the help of re "body". 
rea a tdtd ki kiveyo "my body gave I with wound" : 

I wounded myself 

rei a toti ki kweyo thou woundedst thyself 
re a tote ki kweyo he wounded himself 
rei won a tote won ki kweyo we wounded ourselves 
rei wun a tote wun ki kweyo you wounded your- 
selves 
rei gen a tote gen ki kweyo they wounded themselves 

or: 

a neka re he killed himself 
g& neka rei gen they killed themselves. 

25. "I myself" etc. is expressed: 
d gwoke yti ki rea "it was done, I with my body" : 
I myself did it 

2* 



20 

d gwoke yi ki rei you yourself did it 

d gwoke e kere ho himself did it 

d gwoke wo ki rei won wo ourselves did it 

d gwoke wu ki rei wiin you yourselves did it 

d gwoke ge ki rei gen they themselves did it. 

or: 

a gwoke ya keta I did it myself 
a gwoke yi keti 
a gwoke e ket,e 
a gwoke ivo kfrte won 
a gwoke wu kvte ivun 
a gwoke ge kete gen. 

This has also the meaning: I did it alone. 



26. The Adjective. 

a. The simple adjective connected with a noun. 
yat tree, yan fen small tree, yan duon big tree 
yen trees, yen fono small trees, yen ddno big trees 
rejo fish, ren cliyek short fish 
rechi, recli fishes, recla chyeko short fishes 
yet neck, yen bar long neck 
yeti necks, yeti baro long necks 
lejo tooth, leji tar white tooth 
lek teeth, leke tar white teeth 
yit leaf, yin lei bitter leaf 
yiti leaves, yiti bel bitter leaves 
gyeno chicken, gy^no kwaro red chicken 
gyen chickens, gyen kwaro red chickens. 

In these connections the same changes take 
place as in the demonstrative pronoun. 

The examples given above show, that some 
adjectives have a plural form distinguished from 
the singular, but most of them have for the singular 
and plural the same form. 

All these combinations may have two meanings : 

1 . attributive : a small tree, a large tree 

2. predicative : the tree is small, the tree is large. 



21 

b. The adjective prefixed by md (often pro- 
nounced me). 

These are exclusively attributive. No con- 
sonant-changes take place. - md is the relative 
pronoun "which". The adjectives with md seem 
to be more emphatic than those under a. 
wot mdduon a big house 
wot mddono big houses 
rit inddoch a good king 
ror mddoch good kings. 

27. Many adjectives are used as verbs, as 
such they generally have two forms 5 for instance : 
dbno to become big, to grow up ; to be in the 

process of becoming big 
duon to be big (an accomplished state) 
rviio to become bad, to act badly 
rack to be bad 

IEHO to become hot, to feel hot 
let to be hot. 

28. Comparison. 

The means of comparing an object with 
another are rather scanty, the people not feeling 
the need of comparison as we do. They simply 
say: this thing is big, and that one is not big. 

The most common way of expressing a higher 
degree is to lengthen the vowel, and at the same 
time to raise the tone, Both are done to such a 
degree, and with such great variation, that they 
cannot be expressed in writing. 

There are some other means of comparison, 
which are, however, not much used: 
ye da dqk mdfot dqk pyaro "he has cows surpassing 

cows ten" : he has more than ten cows. 
ji a tou, ge Jodq je ddek "people died, they sur- 
passed people three" : more than three people 
died. 
For more examples see the "short sentences". 



22 
29. The Numerals. 

dkyel 1 pyaro wi dbikyel 16 

dryau 2 pyaro wi dbiryau 17 

ddek 3 pyaro wi dbidek 18 

dnwen 4 py&ro wi dbmwen 19 

dbich 5 pyar dryau 20 

dbikyel 6 pyar wi ki dkyH 21 

dbiryau 7 pyar wi ki dryau 22 

dbidek 8 p^/dr aJeA; 30 

dbmwen 9 pyar dnwen 40 

pyarb 10 pydr a&fc/i 50 

pyaro wi dkyel 11 p?/^ dbikyel 60 

pyaro wi dryau 12 pz/dr dbiryau 70 

pyaro wi ddek 13 p?/dr dbidek 80 

pyaro wi dnwen 14 joydr dbmwen 90 

pyaro wi dbich 15 p^d^ pj/dr 100. 

For the connection of tens with units there 
are different forms; besides the one given above 
one can say: 

pyaro wije da dkyel \ 

or : pyaro wi ki dkyU \ 11. 

("ten, its head has one") ) 

The numeral follows the noun: zt>o dryau two 
houses. 

30. Ordinal Numbers 

are rarely used. They are formed by simply 

dropping the first a with the exception of "the 

first". 

dmdlq the first nwen the fourth 

ryau the second Inch the fifth 

dek the third pyaro the tenth. 

31. The Verb. 

Without an object. 
stem ; cham to eat stem : ket to go 



Present. 

ya (yfi) chdmo I am eating ya kedo I am 

yi chdmo thou art eating yi kSdo going 

e (ye) chdmo he is eating e (ye) kedo 

wd chdmo we are eating wd kedo 

wu chdmo you are eating imi kedo 

ge chdmo they are eating ge kedo. 

Imperfect. 

ya chain I ate y~i ket I went 

yi chdm you ate yi ket you went 

d cham he ate d ket he went. 

Perfect. 

yd de chdmo I have been eating 
yd de kedo I have been going. 

First Future. 

the u sometimes sounds like a very narrow o. 
ya it chdmo I shall eat ya u ket 

yiii) wyii chdmo you. will e&t yi 11, or yu ket 
u chdmo he will eat u ket 

wd u chdmo we shall eat wd u ket 
iv u chdmo you will eat wu ket 

ge u chdmo they will eat ge u ket. 

The future often has the moaning of a con- 
ditional: ya u bm: "I shall come", or "if I come". 

Second Future, 
ya u de chdmo I shall eat 
ya u de kedo I shall go. 

Habitual. 

ya lii chdmo I use or used to eat 
yi ni chdmQ you use or used to eat 
e ni chdmo he uses or used to eat, 



24 

Imperative, 

chdm eat ! ket go ! pi. kddun go ! 

pi. chamun eat! kede won let us go! 

chain wa let us eat! 



In the present tense the verbs always end in o. 
The imperfect in most cases has no final vowel, 
but ends in the second consonant of the stem ; 
there are however a few cases, where i is added. 
For instance a mil he laughed. 

In the third person sing, of the Imperfect d is 
not the pronoun, but a particle denoting the past 
tense. It is much used in telling stories etc. 

The habitual form denotes action, which is 
done usually, either in the present, or in the past. 
It is really a mode, not a tense. 

I have not been able to find a difference 
between the two futures. The first is much more 
used than the last. 

As the two examples show, in one case in 
the first Future the verb has the form of the Present, 
in the second case the form is different. There 
is no rule for which form is to be used in the 
Future. But in the Perfect, Second Future, and 
Habitual, the verb has always the form of the 
Present. 

In the present tense the vowel of the stem 
is generally long, and has a low tone. Where the 
vowel is short in the Present, as a rule the tone 
is high. 



32. The Verb with a Noun as Object. 

Present. 

ya chamo by el I am eating dura 
yti kidb gat I am going to the river. 



25 

Imperfect. 

iii chami byel \ T -, 

J _L j v " v f~,7 } 1 ate dura 
ya chama byel J 

ya Mta pack I went home. 

Future. 

ya u chamo byel I shall eat dura 
yn u keti pacli I shall go home. 

Imperative. 

cham buel \ 
7 > / i ~/j J eat dura 
chami byel I 

pi. chamu byel eat dura 
chain wa byel let us eat dura 
fo&0' pac/t go home 

pi. ketu pach go home 
ket iva pach let us go home. 

In Perfect, Second Future and Habitual the 
verb has the same form as in the Present. 

Remarks. 

The final o in Present has the middle tone. 

The Imperfect has two characteristics: 1. if 
the second consonant of the stem is mute, it 
is generally voiced (soft) in the present, but it is 
voiceless (hard) in the Imperfect; 2. in most cases 
the final vowel is a, seldom i. 

In some cases a final t becomes /; see the 
list below. 

The subject may be placed behind the verb; 
this position is frequently used in telling stories; 
when ka "and" begins a sentence, the object always 
precedes the verb, and the subject is suffixed to 
the verb. This form is used in the Past only; it 
has one marked difference to the corresponding 
form of the Passive: it has generally the high tone 
on both syllables. 



26 

rmo to run a ntige gon he killed him 

a rdnd I ran a bind I came 

a reni you ran a chivole he called 

a rene he ran but: a chwole he called 

a rSn wd we ran him. 

a ren wu you ran 

a r&n ge they ran 

The plural forms are not much used, the 
corresponding person of the singular being sub- 
stituted. 

The sign of the Past, a, is sometimes dropped. 

Sometimes the subjective pronoun is employed 
twice, before and behind the verb; for the last, 
generally the emphatic form is used : wu chhm 
wun you ate ; ge ben gen they came. ' 

33. The Passive Voice. 

The characteristic of the passive voice is 
the vowel with the falling tone, that is a high 
tone, which falls just before its end. There is 
no final vowel only in a few cases a final o is 
heard. -- Probably the passive voice is originally 
an intransitive form of the verb, denoting a state; 
according to this we can hardly speak of passive 
tenses, it is rather a mood, an accomplished 
condition or situation. But in many cases it clearly 
conveys the meaning of a past tense ; sometimes, 
not very frequently, a future also is formed by 
prefixing u, u. 

Examples. 

d clidm it is, was eaten 
d yot he is, was found, yodo to find 
ya gwet I (my name) was written, givMo to write 
ya u gwet I shall be written. 

The doer of the action may be expressed 
either by a pronoun or by a noun. 



27 

a. by a pronoun. 

1. The absolute forms are used. The 'helping 
vowel' e is added to the verb. In this case the 
stem -vowel has a high tone, the helping vowel 
being low. 

a chdme (chdme) ydn it was eaten by me 
d chdme yin it was eaten by you 
d chdme gen it was eaten by them. 

Sometimes yl "by" is said before the noun; 
the 'helping vowel' is then dropped: 
d cJidm yl en it was eaten by him. 

2. The short forms of the pronoun are used. 
d kwopa (or kwopd etc.) it was spoken by me, 

or: by us 

d kwopi it was spoken by thee, or: by you 
d kwope it was spoken by him, or: by them 
d mdta it was drunk by me. or: by us 
d gwetd it was written by me, or: by us. 

b. by a noun. 

Here always yl "by" is added: 
d chdrn yl jdl eni it was eaten by this man. 

It is often difficult, to distinguish the active 
form from the passive. A general rule is this: 
The Shilluk prefers to speak in the passive voice ; 
therefore the foreigner can also avoid misunder- 
standings best by using the passive voice as much 
as possible. 

The differences between the active and the 
passive voice are : 

1. the active in the imperfect if followed by a 
noun object, generally has a final a, the 
passive never has. 

2. the active in many, perhaps in most, cases 
has in the imperfect a low tone, the passive 
always has either the falling or the high tone. 

3. The active imperfect sometimes has a long 
vowel ; in the passive the vowel is generally 
short, or rather half-long. 



28 

4. In some cases the passive voice inserts a 
semivowel before the vowel of the stem: 
fbdo to beat, fwot beaten. See the list below. 

34. Some examples for distinguishing the active 
and passive form. 

ya gbcha (or: gocha) jal an I struck this man 
ya goch yi jal an I was struck by this man 
ya gocha yin I struck you (sing.) 
ya goche yin I was struck by you (sing.) 
ya gw-hd wun I struck you 
ya goche wun I was struck by you 
d go.cli ydnd he struck me 
a goche ydn he was struck by me 
ya clidmd jal an I cheated this man 
d ckdm yl jal an he w r as cheated by this man 
d clidmd ydn he cheated me 
d clidrne ydn he was cheated by me 
i/a chami en I cheated him 
yn clidme en I was cheated by him 
yi clidind gen you cheated them 
yi clidme gen you were cheated by them 
ya chwold jal an I called this man 
ya cliwol yl jdl an I was called by this man. 



35. The Yerbal Noun or Infinitive. 

chain eating kedb going 

cham an this eating ken an this going, this 

chdmo byel eating of dura walk. 

More about these forms see in the list. 



36. The Noun Agent. 

The doer of the action expressed in the verb. 
There are two forms, one for expressing an occa- 
sional, and the other the habitual action. 



29 

90.90. to work: 

nane gqgo one who is working just now, or occa- 
sionally 
nate ywok one who works habitually, a workman. 

mado to drink: 

nane mado one who is drinking just now 
nate mat one who drinks habitually, a drinker. 

37. The Negation of the Verb. 

There are two negative particles: fa or la, 
and nuti ; nuti originally means "not yet", but is 
often used in the same way as fa "not". Fa and 
nuti are applied in the imperfect and present. 
yd fa ket I did not go, or: I shall not go 
ya nuti kMb, or ket I have not gone yet. 

A single word is negated by fat, fate: fate 
yan (it is) not I ; fate en not he ; fate jal eni not 
this man. 

The prohibitive is expressed by ku: 
yi ku ket do not go ! 
pi. wu ku ren do not run! 

38. The auxiliary verb "to hare": da. 

ya da nyei'i I have money 
ge da ivot they have a house. 

39. The auxiliary verb to be. 

1. The predicate is a noun. 

a. fa, La: yd ba rit I am king 

b. bana, bane, fane, fan en it is he. 

c. by the emphatic pronoun: yana rit 

d. by the simple pronoun: ya rit 

e. by a: en ft rit he is king. 

2. The predicate is an adjective or an adverb. 

a. ya : e ya ken where is he ? 

b. yena: e yena nial he is above 

c. b~edo "to stay, remain" ; is also employed 
in the sense of 1. 



40. 4 List of Verbs 



English 


Present 


Imperfect 


Future 


to laugh 


e nEto 
he laughs 


a iieti 


u nEti 


to drink 


yd mado 
I drink 


ya mat 
ya mdtd pi 
ya mdti pi 


it m&db 


to carry 


yd tedb 


yd tet 
yd tera ydt 


u tMb 


to run 


e rmb 


a ren 


u reni 


to lie, 
tell a lie 


e /Mb 


d Jet, a fyet 


u /Mb 


to work 


yd gogb 


yd gok 


u aogb 


to speak 


yd kbbb 
yd kdrnb ktcop 


yd kop 
yd koma kwop 
I spoke a word 


u kbbb 


to carve, 
to write 


yd qivftdb 

i7 iJ 


a gwet 
yd gwvti waiio 
I wrote a book 


u ywMo 


to beat 


yd fodo 


ya fot^ 
ya fotd nate 


u fodo 


to call 


yd chwoto 
yd chwoto nal 


a clnvQtl 
a cliwola nal 


u clnvoti 


to cut 


yd nil do 


yd nut 
yd nuti yat 
yd nota yat 


u iiudo 


to kill 


yd nagb 


ya nekl 
yd nekd </*/<'/ 


u neki 


to search 


yd (/abb 


ya yap 


u yfrbb 



ill their different Forms. 



Passive 


Imperative 


Verbal Noun 


Noun Agent 





niti 
n^tun 


iiVto 
nyer an 
this laughing 


ndne nfcto 


a mat 


mat 
mddurv 


mat 
man an 


nane mado 
note mat 


yat d ter 
the wood 
was carried 


ter 
te_ru 


ter 
ter an 


nane tMo 
nate ter 





rem 
renun 


reno 


nane reno 





yi ku fet 
do not lie 


fyeJ 

fyen an 


nane f^do 
nate fyet 


d gwok 


{/ok, gwok 
gogun 


gwok 
gwbn an 


nane gogb 
nate gwok 


d kwop 


kop, kobun 


kwop 
kwom an 


nan kobb 
nate kwop 


d gwei 


givet, gwEcluji 
gwedi wano 


givet 
gwen an 


nane gwedo 
nate givet 


d fwot 


fdt, fwot 
fodun 


fiibdo 
fubn an 


nane fubt 


d cliwol 


chwoti 
cliwol rial 
cliwotun 


cliwot 
cliwot(!) an 


nane cliwot 
nate cliwot 


d 7\o t 


nudi 
nudun 


not 
non an 


nane nudo 
nate not 


d nek 


nak 
nagiin 


nek 
nan an 


nane nago 
nate nek 


d yap 


yap 
yabiin 


yabo 
yam an 


nane yfrbo 



32 

41. Adverbs. 

The adverbs have nothing particular either in 
form or in position; they are merely words; 
therefore only a few are given here as examples. 
- Many of the adverbs are nouns or verbs, 

Adverbs of place. 

ken lii i ka there 

," place; here, where 
kun | J 

chaki near chine over there. 

of time. 

ken place" : w r hen kan while 

opun then anan now 

chon formerly duwa yesterday 

duki to-morrow de chan tin to-day 

of manner. 

kine, kinau thus kidi how? 

diet thoroughly, certainly tyau also. 

42. Seine Conjunctioiis. 

ki and, with, connecting words 

ka and, connecting sentences 

de but kit a } . 

dfa | that (P ur P se )- 

43. Prepositions. 

The prepositions are nouns and are treated 
as such ; the noun following them is a genetive ; 

if they are followed by a pronoun it is in the 
possessive form. 

Ian "back" bfm rit behind the king 

Ml \ ,, i ji u bane behind him 

keie] k^tt gdn amidst them. 



33 - 



bbl "front" 

nim "face" 
bute "side" 
wich "head" 

yech "middle" 
dyer "middle" 
kwbm "back" 



bt>l pack in front of the 

village 

nim nam facing the river 
bute gol beside the fence 
wiy yat on the top of 

the tree 
yey gen in the midst of 

them 
dyer wot in the middle 

of the house 
kwbm kyen on the horse. 



44. Interjections. 

The Shilluks are very fond of using inter- 
jections 5 every mood is expressed by some inter- 
jection. They are, however, so manifold, and 
change so arbitrarily according to the degree 
and kind of mood, that they can hardly be 
rendered in writing. Most ample differences of 
tone are employed here, the low tone as a rule 
being the medium of expressing vexation, dis- 
appointment, and contempt; the high tone: joy, 
astonishment, admiration. 
Some examples. 

buh 9 a expressing surprise 

boi, 6 expressing surprise 

mui expressing horror 

a, E expressing contempt 

wau hurrah! 



II. Short Sentences. 
I. 

et chwbl Nadok go, call Nyadok! 
bUb ken? f . 

yb ken? f where 1S he? 

Westermann, Shilluk-English. 



34 

yd ganby nate yd fach I think, the man is in the 

village. 
a cliwole ym? he is called (by) you? = did you 

call him? 

awo, a chwol yes, he is called = has been called. 
e btnb he is coming. 
e leti a ken? he was seen (by) you where? = 

where did you see him? 
e letd ki wot bwori he was seen (by) me in the 

house of the white man. 

nut I beno not yet came = he has not yet come. 
yd u ket, u chwble en I shall go, shall call him = 

shall I go and call him? 
jivan kedb make haste going = go quickly. 
wot jaqb ya ket'i? house of chief is \ 

where? (where is the 

wbt jagb agon 6n1 house of chief is ( house . of the 

where it? chiei? 

mite ydn yo show me the way. 
yd niito yo I show the way. 
jdl eni naje ym? man this is known thee? Do 

you know this man? 
fyeje dwdtd no ask him (he) wants what ask 

him what he wants! 
yd dwdtd kedb I want to go. 
yi k&ld ken! you come from where? 
yd kfrld gol rit I come from enclosure of king = 

I come from the king. 
yi wore yi men? you were sent by whom? = who 

sent you? 
amen a a wore yin? who is it he sent you? = 

who sent you? 
yd wore yi jago I was sent by chief = the chief 

sent me. 

e dwdtd. no? he wants what? 
e kb, yi kete yie he says you may go to him. 
yd bd yei be_no I not can come = I cannot come. 
bu ken md btn dnan (there is) wanting place which 



35 

to come now = I have no time (no oppor- 
tunity) to come now. 

yd u bl tin uwar I shall come this evening. 
min an bd yu Fakoi? This one not way (to) F. = 

is this the way to F.? 
yo en? is this the way? 
awo, i/o en yes, this is the way. 
yu an, fate ki en this is the way, not that one. 
yd u nute yi ki yo I shall show you the way. 
yi u (yu) nuta yo you shall show I way = I shall 

show you the way. 
yo doch? Is the road good? 
yd gano, fi gir ki yo I think, water much on way 

= there is much water on the road. 
kot d moki duwa rain dropped yesterday = it rained 

yesterday. 

kot ni moki ki chan it rains every day. 
men an bd yo Mte Fakoi this one is way going 

F. = this is the way to F. 
cliate mdl diet go on exactly = go straight on. 

II. 

yi b&t ddl? you are how = how are you? 

yd nuti b&do I still am I am well. 

jdl an e da jwok man this he has sickness = this 

man is sick. 
yi but ki dno? you lie with what? = what ails 

you? 
tyele da ken let foot his has place hot = his foot 

has a wound. 

nute ydn tt/eli show me your foot! 
ken let kake duon? place hot time big? = is the 

wound old? 

rune nMo years its many = it is several years old. 
ere yi nuti jwani be_no ? why you not yet hastened 

coming? = why did you not come earlier? 
yd ketl yi djwdgo I went to the witch-doctor. 
yd tote ydt I was given tree = he gave me medecine. 

3* 



3G 

yd tdta ydt I gave medicine. 

yd u Iwok ken let I shall wash the wound. 

yi re ywon? you why cry? = why do you cry? 

ken let e ramo the wound aches (pains). 

ydt dndn here is medecine. 

Iwok ken let ki chan ki mol wash the wouud every 

morning ! 

yi Rn? you heard? = did you understand? 
kwope d lm? his talk was heard? = did you 

understand him? 
awo, yd lln yes, I understood. 
rum chan dbikyel In kite finish day six come 

again = after six days come again! 
ken let d nokl the wound has healed. 
ye k&ld dan they brought a man. 
dan d kal a man has been brought. 
d chwop yl ton he has been pierced with a spear. 
d chwop ki k6re ki ton he is pierced in breast with 

spear = his breast has been pierced by a 

spear. 

III. 

kal may (mach) kworo bring a lamp ! 

kbt mdcli make a fire ! 

e kbdo mdcli he makes a fire. 

d kbtd mdcli he made a fire. 

mdcli d kot a fire was made. 

mdcli ba lyel the fire does not burn. 

yen tech the wood is wet. 

yi tald no tin? you cooked what to-day? 

yd tald gyerio I cooked a fowl. 

bak nwole gyeno dhweii ki fi boil four eggs (with 

water). 

rino t$k the meat is hard. 
chip gin chdm wiy (wich) pant put the food on 

the ( table! 
wu ben (btino) wu cham? you all you ate? = have 

all of you eaten? 



37 

ge fwoclid chdk they churn milk = they make 

butter. 

chdk d fwoch milk is churned. 
ge nekd duel they killed a goat. 
yd dwdtd mate fi I want to drink water. 
hot may kworo light the lamp! 
nek macli kill the fire = put the lamp out! 
kon fi yey fiik pour water into the pot! 

IV. 

tyete chanduk kite wot carry box put house = carry 

the box into the house! 
men an pek this one is heavy. 
ba teri yd ketd not carry I alone 1 = 1 alone 

cannot carry it. 
chwole jdl en, yi konye en call this man, you be 

helped (by) him = that he may help you. 
biy icd tErl ydn an come, we (will) carry this tree. 
wd u gera wot we will build a house. 
wot kit wdld wot labo a stone house or a mud 

house? 

bu kide ken \ 

bu kit ki'ken ( there are no stones here ' 
yd u chivbld ji ddi? how many people shall I call? 
cliwol ji pyaro call ten men ! 
yd yiti ki je dbi-kyel I found six men. 
ge u bl duki they will come to-morrow. 
wd u gwo no ? (givok ano) what shall we do ? 
ivd dwdtd gwbk ki yin we want to work with you. 
wd u tote nyen gd ddi we shall be given money 

it how? = how much money shall we get? 
kd logi wu purl ken an if (it happens) you hoe 

this place 

wu totd lau mddoch you shall give I a nice cloth. 
bi yu ] ) duki mol come (you) to-morrow morning 



') instead of bi wu; w is assimilated by i and thus 
has become if. 



38 

kd u kanu ki kwerl and bring (you) hoes ! 

Ji gUgo yo the people make a road. 

yi gwo no? what are you doing? 

yd gwokd pam I made a table. 

ddkdu e chwayo ki fuki ki dak the woman forms 

big pots and small pots (tobacco pipes). 
e kbnd fen ki yat he strikes ground with tree = 

he strikes a pole into the ground. 
e futa yat he pulled the pole out. 
ge pona lum ki yey by el they weed grass in the 

midst of dura = they weed the dura. 

qe ban qwok ki bivon they refused to work with 
* -it* 

the white man. 

e ban ki t\r chanduk he refused to carry the box. 
amen a gwok tanduk? who made the box? 
ge bdkd kdl they fenced (in) the yard. 
chon yd ni kwai do (dok) wiya sometimes I used 
to herd the cattle of my father. 

V. 

Fworio u chagl wen a? teaching will begin time 
which? = when will school begin? 

nyi chago mol it uses to begin in the morning. 

wotono ddi btno how many children have come ? 

nan-tono gen abi-ryau d bi boys they seven have 
come seven boys h. c. 

wu re nuti btn duwd ? you why not came yester- 
day? = why did you not c. y.? 

yd ivore yi wd be kwdi dok I was sent by my 
father to herd the cattle. 

ivd u givMo tin we will write to-day. 

yi kald ivarii? did you bring your book? 

m ed weyd fach mine left I home I left mine at 
home. 

tote yd wdno give me a book! 

kd logo wu gfike ydn clian wun ddek wu tote ki irai'tn 
if it happens you work me days them three, 
you are given with book = if you work 
three days for me, you will receive a book, 



39 

wd dwdtd gwbk Id yin we want to work with you. 
wd u tote iii) en gd adl ? we shall be given money it 

how? = how much money shall you give us? 
kd logi (= logo) wu purl ke?i an, wu totd bet md- 

dSich if you hoe this place, I will give you 

("you give I") a nice fish-spear! 
bi yd dukl kd u kanii ki kwerl come you to-morrow 

and bring hoes (with you)! 

VI. 

ndm e dbho the river is rising. 

ndm e dwen the river is falling. 

ndm duon chare 1 , 

niim fani cMr~e \ the river 1S vei T hl g h , ML 

ivd u mayo rech we will fish (catch fish). 

wd chegq rech we catch fish (with a hook). 

ivd chekd rech we caught fish (with a hook). 

ge tyeha yd (yai) they carve a boat. 

yei toyo the boat leaks. 

ndm nerib ki ndm crocodiles are numerous in the 

river. 
nan d mdkd dan duwa the croc, caught a man 

yesterday. 

VII. 

men an bd wd this (one) is my father. 

toni dgon en? where is your spear (spear your is 

where he) ? 

ivode d repl yi mdch his house was caught by fire. 
doge d reh his cows ran away. 
men an bd wot wun ? is this your house ? 
ge neaii by el gen they have sold their dura. 
d kwdnd kwena he took my bread. 
hvbk lam (from lau!) wash your loin-cloth! 
land d Iwok my cloth is washed. 
nut I Ibgd nine he has not yet washed his face. 
ddera e kwdmo my donkey is laming. 
nute ydn fii'oti show me your farm! 



40 

db (= dok) won e ch&mb lum our cows are grazing. 
bei nMo ki fbte icon there are many mosquitoes in 

our country. 

nwole ge tb their children are dead. 
lana a kwdl my loin-cloth is stolen. 
d mudjd gy%ne ki by el he gave his fowls (hens) 

dura. 
yd Ivta dyek un kele yen I saw your goats in the 

bush. 
yd pwotl yen (= yi en) I was beaten by him = 

he beat me. 
d twoclil gen he was bound by them = they bound 

him. 

amen d cliwole ydn^ who called me? 
yd cliwole yi men? I was called by whom? 
ivd tpte nyen yi obwon the white man gave us 

money (we were given m.). 

d kobl (kopl) di ki yin ? what did he tell you ? 
ge riene yin ? do you see them ? 
d pytyd gen he asked them. 
wu konyd I will help you ("you will help I")! 
wo nete yi gen they laughed at us ("we were 1. at"). 
amen d kopl yin ki ntok? who told you this? 
yd niite en gole I was shown by him his home = 

he showed me his home. 

ge miijd rit ki dok they gave cattle to the king. 
obwon d mite yo yi gen the white man was shown 

the way by A them. 

ge rnujd dean ki lum they gave the cow grass. 
ge cliwota nyen ki ye they asked him for money. 
ge chwola nyeji ki ye they asked him for money. 

he asked for the chief ' 



yei d wan the boat approached. 

yd d wati the boat left. 

yei d clmn the boat stopped. 

ge noto yen they are felling trees. 

woman romo fi the women fetch water. 

aS nyeto dok they are milking cows. 



41 

VIII. 

kdpi mht speak slowly! 

M ] ) ni jwdne kwop not use hasten speech do 

not speak quickly ! 
yd nuti lino I did not understand. 
yd bd lino I do not understand. 
e kobl di 2 ) ki yin? what did he say to you? 
yd dwdtd Ion achem I want straight sticks. 
kwdn dor an take this adze! 
daclio u yiego labb the women shall (may) carry 

mud! 

ge chabo labb they knead mud. 
d chapd labb he kneaded mud. 
dbre wot d pat the house has fallen down. 
re let his skin is hot = he is lazy. 
yi re ywon? why do you cry? 
mio dbti nare the mother suckled her child. 
wiye da riwogo (his head =) he has lice. 
woton e two go the children wash themselves. 
a iwok he is washed. 
china (china a) kayo my intestines ache = my 

belly aches. 

wija kago my head splits = I have a head-ache. 
e bl riotyenb he came some days ago. 
wd yend Bura-Chol chdn wd bd pyarb we were 

Taufikia days our are 10 = we have been 

at T. ten days. 
rund bd pydrq wi ki dbich my years are 15 = I 

am 15 years old. 

IX. 

rune d mat, rund yd chdn his years are above, 
my years are behind: he is older than I. 

bd duon ne ydn he is not so old as I. 

yd mold ben e tok I was first coming he was 
absent = I came earlier than he. 



1 ) or: yi ku. 

2 ) from adi, edi how? 



42 

d cliwon e beno he was behind he came = he 

came late. 

yi bl d wen a wh,en did you come ? 
Jeno gMo lo^no chine the Dinkas build (= live) 

beyond the river. 
kal gyin an much obivoti carry these fowls give 

the white man = bring these fowls to the 

white man. 

nim amen? what is your name? 
mna ba Nadok my name is Nyadok. 
ico nin amen? what is yours father's name? 
kwo } ) gin an take this (thing) ! 
gin an ba mea this is mine. 
tote ydn mei give me yours! 
ge nekd duel they killed a goat. 
lyela wija I (had) cut my hair ("head"). 
yd u clidkd kedo I begin go = I will go, I must go. 
tide chan^the sun rises. 
clian a tul the sun has risen. 
bute clian the sun sets. 
chan d bute the sun has set. 
ge geti Nikano ki dean they sacrificed a cow to 

Nyikang. 

yd nebo I am wet. 
Iwbki Ian wash this cloth ! 
dane dacho e Ibgb ki Ian the woman is washing 

the cloth. 

yvy 2 ) wot sweep the house ! 
Iwok taml (tabo pot) clean this pot! 
fen fd mbdq it is dark. 
e nekl 6g\k aryau he killed two buffaloes. 
d khnl fyen ogik kd go weki rit he took the skin 

of the buffalo and gave it to the king. 
tun 9 ) dnwdk bar the horns of the bush-buck are 

long. 

! ) for kiv6n. 

2 ) from yejo. 

3 ) or: ton. 



43 

bber win an tar the feathers of this bird are white. 

e budo key (ken) /yen he is lying on the bed. 

e ya gole jago he is at the chiefs house. 

e ketd yi obwon kwarb he went to the (red) European. 

Joge dbk ylno drive the cattle away. 

byel a chek the dura is ripe. 

kachu byel kd ge kalun strip (you pi.) off the dura 

and bring it ! 

je chdnb the people are dancing. 
e yabo dok he searched cattle. 
dbk a yaf the cattle were searched for. 
gwok ku gbcli (dog not strike) do not beat the dog! 
e clidmd rino he ate meat. 
a gwecJia gwok ki tyele he kicked the dog with 

his foot. 

fen let de chan t tin it ("the earth") is hot to-day. 
yd fa yel ki kwofe \ T , , ,. , . 

yd fay* ki Jgi ] l do not bellove ^ 1S word ' 
yei mdch a chum the steamer stops. 
tvro kltd yen yi yei the people bring wood on the 

steamer. 

weki ya fali give me your knife! 
ken ii rum, won, wo cliarn when we have finished, 

we shall eat. 

ken a bene, fen fa war when he came, it was night. 
fi ba chatb the water does not move. 
yGmb gir (there is) much wind. 
4 chdkd e wiim kope ydn 9 nuti kedb "he began it 

finished (be) told (by) me, he not yet went" 

= though I told him, he did not go. 
ba yei gwok iin, md re (or mde) da jivbk he cannot 

work to-day, because he is sick. 
bd kwdpe yen, mde boko he does not say it, be- 
cause he is afraid. 
jivdni reno, kipa yi ku cliwon run quickly, lest 

you be late ! 
kop tin chwaki mdl, kipa ge Iin yi tero beno "speak 

lift your voice up, that they be heard by 



44 

people all" : speak; aloud, so that all people 

may hear it! 
chip kwofi bol kech gen, kd logo yu (yi u) de bdno, 

u yote yin tin "put your words face their 

place, if it happens you will refuse, it will 

be found to you to-day" tell the truth, 

or you will be punished. 
bi icof, fa yu (= yi o) nepe kot come into the 

house, lest you become wet! 
ka logo yu bi tin, doch if you come to-day, it is 

well. 
kd logo u kSbo todo, u fwote icon if he tells a lie, 

he will be beaten by us. 

X. 

kipano a boki? why are you afraid? 

kipano a bdke? why is he afraid? 

yd fa boki I am not afraid. 

ge re Tin gen? "they why run they" = why do 
they run? 

kuche ydn I do not know. 

naje ydn I know. 

yd bd g&</Q> kd buhi doro yd I do not work, be- 
cause I have no adze (. . . "and not have 
adze I"). 

yd bu doro, benen a dale ydn yi givok "1 have no 
adze, that is it it is difficult for me to work" 
= I have no adze, therefore I cannot work. 

tt/etd let, benen a bd kedd my foot has a wound, 
therefore I do not (= cannot) go. 

yd bd yei kedo, md tyeld let I cannot go, because 
my foot is sore. 

adero e da kech, benen a ywohi the donkey was 
hungry, therefore he was braying. 

d yehd Sura-Choi, yd ni kedo chuk ki chano while 
I was at Taufikia, I used to go on the mar- 
ket every day. 

ken d k6ti won gat, mdl d mini, kd e rnoko when 



45 

we went to the river, the sky became dark 

and it rained. 
yi ni worn je mdko, de yd ba woiie yin you may 

cheat others, but I shall not be cheated by 

you. 

a komi yen, de fate ydn he said so, not I. 
a gwoke gen, de fate won it was done by them, 

but not by us. 
koni ydn, u jivano tumo help me, (that it) may be 

finished quick! 
kopi, u jivano bmo tell (him), he may come at 

once. 
yd rnhni kedo wode I was forbidden to go into his 

house. 

wA kede let him go ! 
wo kdde tydu wo too will go. 
wei ge bU let them come! 

ken yd nEnd, e gogo while I slept, he was working. 
ken a yen wa fach, ge kwald nyeii won while we 

were in town, they stole our money. 

XI. 

ge ji Adi ki fun an ? How many people live in 

this village? 

wou nutl nhto? Is your father still alive? 
jagb nut"! Is the chief well? 
yi bet adi ? how are you ? 
yd bMl yau I am well. 
icon an duon en this is the big (= the biggest) 

house. 

en a yen clidn he is the last. 
ydn a kwbm beno I came first. 
i biito yi fyeno he is lying on (his) bed. 
e ya wiy wot he is on the house. 
d leda d cliaki wot "he was seen by me (he was) 

near the house". 

e yd nach wot he was behind the house. 
yd ket ken chnki ki gen I went close to them. 



46 

ya da dok aryau clioti gen I have two cows (it is) 

finished (with) them = I have only two cows. 
je dbi kyel clioti gen d bi only six men came. 
yd letd gen, clioti gen I saw them (it was) finished 

(with) them = I saw only them. 
e fa wo-ten, chotl he is but a boy. 
ye da dok mdfot dok dbikyel he has cows sur- 
passing cows six = he has more than six 

cows. 

je d toil, ge fodo je ddek more than three people died. 
dan a daclw a yecli puk wije the woman lifted the 

pot on to her head. 
fttk d y%jl fen ki wije she puts the pot on to the 

ground. 

fuk d fane fi she fills the pot with water. 
e koni bur kl fen he dug a hole in the ground. 
gwok yiebe e teico the dog his tail wags = w r ags 

his tail. 

yite gwok a nol the ears of the dog were cut off. 
men fd duon that is not sufficient. 
wo gwok ono de chan tin? what shall we do to-day? 
kidd? shalfl go? 
ket won? shall we go? 
yd kedo be dwar I am going shooting. 
yen e beno, ge kbgo the trees come they blossom 

= begin to blossom. 
givliga d tuml my work is finished. 
yd ydnl en I was insulted by him. 
dean be_no e nwolo the cow is going to calve. 
yi pivot ki ano? you were beaten with what? = 

with what did he beat you? 
keii yigi yd fa bi the place became (so that) I 

not come ( = I cannot come. 
kifano a fa bwi? why did he not come? 

XII. 

yi ku fet do not lie ! 
yi ku kictit do not steal ! 



47 

ge gana rit they honoured the king. 
ge man ki obwon they despised the stranger. 
e bald gwok ki kit he threw stones at the dog. 
yd den yi gen I was pressed (= vexed) by them. 
kd logo e yd mdnut, wo re kwonl en if he were 

present, we should be helped by him. 
kd logi ya da gm-cham, yi re tptd If I had food, 

I should give you (some). 
kd logo nuti beno, bd re yitl ki gi-fen "if not yet 

came, not should receive with thing of the 

earth" = if he had not come, ho would not 

have received anything. 
kd logo fen de yd inddoch, wo re de btno (or : wo 

re bi) if the weather had been fine, we should 

have come. 

ge nako they are fighting. 
ge werq they are angry. 
gin an e wan anb this thing it eye which ? = what 

does this thing mean? 
kwope ydn ki tyele gin em tell me the meaning 

( ("the foot") of this thing! 
ya neiid yuwe (from yo) "I see his way" = I hope 

he will come. 

yd bogo d to we I am afraid he will die. 
ya bokl en I am afraid of him. 
6 bot? will he recover? 
ge par they fled. 
ndje ydn ki men duon (it is) known (to) me with 

greatness = I know it perfectly. 
u bi tin diet he will surely come to-day. 
il mote de btno perhaps he has come already. 
dela ramo (yamo) ben my whole body ("skin") 

is shaking. 

yen yd yey fen bme trees were everywhere. 
kwof eni d fare ydn I remember this word. 

XII. 

ba gwbk gin eni kirte he will never do that. 
yd bd lete yin kfrte you will never see me again. 



48 

d pwocli yi gen, kd lok (logo) nane tek he was 

praised by them, because he was a brave 

man. 
d chdye yi gen, kd lok nane let he was abused, 

because he was a lazy one. 
ge man ki gon, kd lok ndte ker they envied him, 

because he was a rich man. 
wo ba yei beii, ka de kot we could not come on 

account of the rain. 

d bi kech icen he came instead of his father. 
chwek d de beno an ambassador of the king has 

come. 
yi kb di } } ki en? what do you think ("say") of 

him? 

yd fa bokl en I am not afraid of him. 
wa fa dwata kono yi we do not want your help. 
man ki jdl eni (he) hated this man. 
e koma dyer (dir) he says right = he is right. 
yi rono you are wrong. 
d f&n he denied. 
d yogo mdnut he has become a present one he 

is witness. 
kvrd budl ye ki cliano my breast was pressed (tired) 

by him all days = he always troubled me. 
kore ku ni but do not trouble him (his breast not 

tire) ! 

ivel let loose! 
miti hold fast! 
kwi je mdgo d bi, kw? je mdgo d dbn some people 

have come, and some have stayed behind. 
je d repl the people are reconciled. 
d mem they are reconciled. 
d bvdi ge man wune ge fan drijau, de ge m&ri dndn 

,,it was they quarrelled, their years were 

two" = they were quarrelling two years, 

but now they are reconciled. 



from kobo adi. 



49 

yijd bano "my heart refuses" = I doubt. 

wije lal he is ashamed. 

nele yi gen he was (laughed at) scoffed at by them. 

nete yi gen he was (laughed at) scoffed at by them. 

rei wo tek "our body is hard" = we are secure. 

lane fyet his loin-cloth was torn. 

wei b~e wot let him come into the house ! 

wei kddd let me go! 

fach a dur fen y\ gen the village was destroyed 

by them. 

dan e kord hare the mother takes care of her child. 
ge clidkd kun meko they took another place = they 

changed their places. 
u gwqka yin (it) will (be) done (by) me (for) you 

= I will do it for you. 
bi yii, wd kede come (you), we will go. 
yije kono his heart was excited. 
d bl e nuti cliam he came without having eaten. 
ba d ket, e nuti ki nacho he did not go (because) 

he had not yet taken leave. 
d bl e ywoho he came weeping. 
d tou, e nuti ten he died, while (still) a child. 



Westermann, Shilluk-English. 



III. Two ^ible-Texts. 
The Prodigal. 

11. Jal m~eko wot dry an;*) 12. a kdbi 
man some son two said 

ria nal fen 2 ) kine: wuo, tote yan hi 
child boy small thus: father give me with 

bun a mea ki re jam. A fani 

part which mine with goods. He divided 

jdme ki gen. 13. Ka rumi clian 

goods his with them. And finished days 

mdnok ha nal fen d chona jdme, 
few child boy small he gathered goods his, 

ka ivil i fdte mdldwi; ki ka eni 

and travelled country far; with place this 

a weti jdme ki ri clidrn. 14. Kd 

he squandered his goods with eating. And 

ruini ki ivete jam, ka kecli 

finished with squandering goods and hunger 

e btno, ka wije mum. 15. Ka 

he came, and head his perplexed. And 



*) "to have" is often omitted. 

2 ) nal ten is "the younger", nal duon "the elder boy". 



51 

kSti in jal md jal ker } ) ki fon 
-*- j - j i i . i ~ > ^ 

went to man which man rich in country 

eni; a wore yl jal eni fdl be 

this ; he was sent by man this bush to 

hwayo ki kune don; 16. a ton ki yey 
herd with swine; he died inmidst 

kech. Kune don ni chdmb ki bfado; nal 
hunger. swine used to eat with bffrdb; boy 

eni dwata riwak ki gen; de bun 

this wished eat with them ; but not were 

an toti ki bfado men chame. 

this gave with bfado which were eaten by him. 

17. A rurni ki yeje kete, kd e 

He thought in heart his alone, and he 

kb kine: e, wuo da ban mdnMo, 

said thus: ah, my father has slaves many, 

ka lii cham gen, gin clidm ni dbno*).ya ra 
and use eat they, food is left. I why 

nage rea ki kecli 1 ? 18. A kobi kine: 

kill myself with hunger? He said thus : 

wei yd dwbdb, yd Mti yi wuo u 

let I (me) rise I go to my father will 

k6fd kine: ya de ronb ki yin, ki 
say thus: I have sinned with thee, with 

men duon; 3 ) 19. yd fa myer ki 

which (is) great; I not am worth with 

chwblb ydnd wadi kete, de wei yd 

calling I am your son again, but let me 



1 ) a man which was a rich man. 

2 ) and when they eat, food is left. 

3 ) I have been sinning against you with (a sin) which 
is great. 

4* 



52 

logo bam. 20. A dwoni, ka e 

become your slave. He arose and he 

bia yl wen. Ka lete yl 

came to his father, and was seen by 

wen, e clicune ivano, ka 

his father he was going to approach and 

yfye ywot'io, ka rend yie, a kwdki 
his heart cried and ran to him, embraced 

rei gen ka do gon numi. 21. A kobi 
each other and mouth his kissed. said 

ria nal ten kine: iviio, yU Ton ki 
child boy small thus: father, I sinned with 

yin ki men duoii, ka yd ku eliiki 
you with which big and I not repeat 

cliwolo ydnd wddi ! ) kvte. 22. A cliwole 
be called I am your son again. Called he 

wate ban ki yi iven; ka e kb 

child slave by his father and he said 

kine: kanu ki lain ntogo dock, ka 

thus: bring with clothes things good, and 

rukh ndl an, ka Iwete kitun ki 

put on child this and his fingers put with 

gwel dttgb, ka tyele kitun ki war. 

ring metal and his feet put with shoes. 

23. Ka kalu wane chive ka nalu, wei wd 
And bring ox fat and butcher, let us 

cliam won, wd nste icon. 24. ma wada 

eat we, we laugh we. because my son 

dn, d yigu men to, de a cliyer; 

this he became one dead, but he became alive 

*) "I must not repeat calling: I am your son" : I must 
never be called your son again. 



53 

a yi-9 a men wano, de e 

he became one was disappeared but he 

dubk. A yote gen be neto. 

returned. Was found them they Tor laughing. 

25. De nal duon a yd wok, ka be_ni 
But child big he was bush, and came 

die (chamo) e wano, a lino chivake je 
was going to approach he heard voice of people 

ge tiigo. 26. A chwoti wat ban, en 
they played. He called child slave this 

d py^je gon kine: ano ena a wou 
asked he him thus : what this make noise 

tBro? A kobi kine: omyau d 

people ? He said thus : Your brother has 

In, de a get ki yi wuo (wou) 

come, but he was welcomed by your father 

ki na wane chwe dma e bl ki 

with child of ox fat because he came with 

dqjo. 28. A ivire, ka ch6g6 

well-being. He was angry, and remained 

fdl e fa bl; d dwai yi 

bush, he not came; he was brought by 

wen, e kwdchd gon. 29. A kofe 

his father, he begged him. Said he to 

wen kine: yd gokd yin wund 

his father thus : I work (with) you, my years 

n&rio, dogi nuti gan ydn ki 

many, your mouth not yet thought I with 

fyemo ki yd) 1 } bun na-onwok 

refusing with me ; not were child of ram 

1 ) "I work with you my years are many, I not yet 
thought of refusing your mouth": I have been working with 
you many years, and I have never thought of refusing, 
disobeying your commandment, 



54 

ma gan yln ki iveke ydn u chdmd 
which thought you with giving me to eat I 

ki yachi won. 1 ) 30. Ka Hen wadi, 
with friends our. And came your son 

nan a r%h jami a gite 

a man which spoiled your goods, he was welcomed 

yin ki ivdne chwe. 31. A kobi wen 

by you with ox fat. Said his father 

kine: e, wddd, wd d b%t kdke fen 
thus: ah, my son, we were time of earth 

fa chakiy jam dk d yend ya ben, 

not near, goods these, which are mine all, 

fate jami? 2 ) 32. De ctndn wei wA bedb 
not your goods? But now let us be 

ki dkyel, wa n&to;*) ma omydu, 

with one, we laugh; because your brother, 

d bidd men to, de a cJiyer, 

he was one dead, but he became alive, 

a Heda men wanb, de e dukb. 

he was one who was lost, but he returned. 



Genesis III. 

1. Twol fan en a rack ki brok*) 

Snake was it, was bad with wickedness 



J ) "there is not a ram which you thought of being 
given to me, that I might eat it with our friends" : you have 
never given me a ram .... 

2 ) "we have lived (together) a time of the earth which 
is not near, and all these goods, which are mine, are they 
not yours ?" we have lived together a long time .... 

3 ) now let us live in unity, and be glad. 

4 ) "was bad with wickedness, astuteness": was extre- 
mely astute. 



55 

kele lai bene a chwdche yi 

amidst animals all which were created by 

jwok. Fan en a fyechi dacho kine: 

God. Was it which asked woman thus : 

Fane jwok d kyetl ivun, kine: wu ku cham 

is it God refused you thus: you not eat 

ki rei yen eni? 2. A kobi dacho 

from body trees these? Said woman 

kine: wd kofe kine: cham won 1 ) ki 

thus : we were said thus : eat we from 

rei yen ben. 3. De wu ku chain wun 

body trees all. But you not eat you 

k 1 ^ rei yen dk, ka u nwali wun ki 

from these trees, and if touch you with 

chen wun, wu tb. 4. A kofe dacho 

hands your, you die. Was said woman 

ki yi twol kine: e! wu fd tqu! 5. De 

by snake thus: ah! you not die! But 

naje jwok kine: chan wu cham wun nin 

knows God thus : day you eat you eyes 



wun re ge u yvpv gn 

your selves they will be opened ! thing 

ddch ki gin rach u lete ivun, 

good and thing bad will be seen by you, 

nami ka naje gen ki yi jwok; wu 

as and are known they to God; you 

bvt wu na jwok. 6. Ka let ydn 

be you as God * And was seen tree 

eni yi dacho, e chvgo; a loge rS 

this by woman, it was red; became itself 



! ) we may eat. 



56 

men chdm yi dacho, ka jal ge 
one was eaten by woman, and man their 

tote. 7. A yep nih ge rei 

gave she. Was opened eyes their selves 

gdn, a Ute rei gen, ge chdta 

them, was seen body their, they walked 

nan '). A fune gen ki yite 

thus. Was plucked by them with leaves 

yen, a ruke gin. 2 ) 8. Ka fen 

of trees, was put on by them. And earth 

yik mdlip, a bm jwok, a Rh ge 

became cool, came God, was heard by them 

tyele gon y a fane gen, Adam ki tyen 

foot his, hid they, Adam and people 

gen,*) fa kine rei ge u let, 

their. not thus body their may be seen 

ki yi jwok. 9. A chwoti jivok kine: Adam, 
by God. Called God thus : Adam, 

yi ya ken? 10.^4 kobi Adam kine: yd 
you are where? Said Adam thus: I 

Una chwakiy a fdnd, ya bwok, yika 

heard your voice, hid I, I feared, because I 

chatd ndu. 
walk thus. 

11. A kobi jwok kine: ' amen a k6fi 
yin kine: yi chata nau? De yi chdm ki 
rei yan a kyere yin kine: yi ku chdm 

J ) chata nau "walked thus" that is, walked without 
anything: they were naked. 

2 j gin is sometimes used for gen. 

3 ) "Adam with their people" that is with his wife; 
more frequently: na gol gen, child of their enclosure; "people" 
and "wife" are always used with the plural of the person 
possessing. 



57 

ki re! 12. A kobi Adam kine: dacho a 
wike ydn yl yin, fan en a muji ydn ki 
nwole yat, kd yd chdm. 13. A fyech dacho 
yi jwok kine: yi re cham ki nwole yen*? 
A kobi dacho kine: twol fan en a wdni 
ydn, a ban mo (ma?) chdmd. ] ) 14. A kobi 
jwok kine: yi u chen ki yi ka gwok mok 
eni, yi u chok yi mnla fen, labo fan en 
u chdme yin ki yete chan b~e_n. 15. Mano 
u chiba kel wun ki dacho, ki kel negi ki 
nege. Fan en u chak wiji ki togo, yi u 
Ion ta tyele dan ki togo. 2 ) 16. A kobi 
jwok ki dacho kine: fal u ram ki rei u 
nEnd gen chano fate fen; ni fa nwole yin 
e bu keti mdr&mo rei, yeji u konq tyeh 
wun, fan en u chak yin ki jago. 17. A 
kobi jwok ki Adam kine: yi ka lini kwop 
na got un (wun), ka yi chamo ki re yan 
a kyete yin kine: yi kil chdm kere (ki re), 
fen u chend cheno; yi ni chdm ki dwen 
ki yete chan Venl 18. Kivodo ki tim bene 
u toye yin yl fen, ni chain ki nwole yene 
fal. 19. Yi u ton yi fur, fan en ka yi 
11 cham ki gin cham; men u ddk fen, a 
re u chwajd yin; ama yi fa labo, yi 
u dogi yi labo.*) 20. A chwol nin na gol 
gen Eba, ama en ml te_ri bene. 21. A gok 
jwok ki lau a Ian dyel, a ruki gin. 
22. A kobi jivok kine: e, dan e_ logo nami 



*) after that I ate. 

2 ) "Enmity shall I put between you and the woman . . . 
it is he who will begin to wound your head, and you will 
come after him the heel of the foot of man with wounding" : 
and after that you will wound the heel of man. 

3 ) "you will die with hoeing, and thus you will eat 
food; this (way) you will return to the earth, out of which 
I have made you; for you are mud, and you will return to 
mud". 



58 

yey icon, gin rack ki gin docli naje en. 

De dndn fa ket ka e kdpo ki rei yat 

nEniy kd e cliarno ki rei gon, men u nini 

en u wite (icote) atir. 1 ) 23. A kale wok ki 
yi jivok ki Eden, kd klti fal be fur ki 
feri, a rei gon a kwdni. 



J ) "But now lest he go and take by force from the 
tree of life, and eat of its (fruit), that one (fruit) which will 
(make him to) live (so long that he) will reach eternity". 



IV. Words. 

Only the words occurring in the preceding 
pages are given here. The verbs are given in the 
present tense. The singular and plural of nouns 
are separated by . For example: bat-bat means: 
bat is singular, bat 'is plural. 



Shilluk English. 



a my 

a sign of the imperfect 

a it is 

a which? 

dbwli five 

dbidek eight 

dbikyel six 

dbinwen nine 

dbiryau seven 

dchd that there, those there 

ddek three 

dder o donkey 

ddl, edi how. how much 

a/a in order that 

dfoajo-dfodchi hare, rabbit 

agak these 

ngon where 



djwogo-djwok doctor, me- 

decine-man 
dk these 
dkyel one 
ama because 
dmdlo the uppermost, the 

first 

dmdn-dmok who ? 
an this 

dndn here, now, presently 
dno pi. ono what, wich? 
anwak-anwdki water-buck 
dnwen four 
dryau two 

attgo-atEk finger-ring 
dtep-dtep bag, sack 
atir forever 



60 



duwa yesterday 
aivo yes 



Bdchodb, 

bago to make a fence, 

to fence in 
balb to throw 
banb to refuse 
ban back, behind ; slave 
b&r to be long 
bat-bat arm 
bfalo to remain, to stay. 

to be 

bel mosquito 
beii, bene all 
benen that is, therefore 
btno to come 
bet fish- spear 
In to come; see beno 
bbdb to escape, to recover 
boi expressing surprise 
bbko to fear 
bbfo-bbl in front of, face, 

front 
bu 9 bun to have not, to 

be not 
biido to lie down, to lie, 

to be sick 

budo to be tired, troubled 
bull expressing surprise 
bun part 
bute side, beside 
byfrlo-byel dura; the sing. 

means : a single dura- 

grain 

ch&bb to knead, to mix 1 ) 



chagb to begin; generally 
used in past: chaka 

chaki (to be) near 

chaino to be going to, to 
want 

chamo to eat, to cheat 

clidn behind 

clian sun, day; de clian 
tin to-day 

chanduk (ar.) box 

chare very 

cliatq to walk 

chayo to abuse 

che short for chamo 

chego to be red, ripe ; to 
be short 

chego to catch fish with 
a hook 

chem to be straight; a- 
chem straight 

cJteno to curse 

diet verily, very, thorough- 
ly, certainly 

chibo to put, to place 

chigo to repeat, to continue 

chin bowels 

chbgb to remain, continue 

c/iqn formerly, sometimes 

chbnb to gather, heap up 

chbnb to dance 

cMtl to N be finished 

chun-chon knee 

chuno to stop 

chwak voice 

chwajb to form, create 

chwak, chivek ambassador 
of the f king 



see also under sh. 



61 



chive fat 

chivbbb to spear, to kill 

with a spear 
cliwolb to call 
chwbnb to be behind, be 

late 

chwbtb to call 
chwou man 
chyeno, cheno-chyen hand 

da to have 

dak-dak small pot, tobacco- 
pipe 
di but 
del-del skin 
d6ch good 

Jojio to be well, good 
dbno to become big 
dbnb to remain, to be left 
ddro-dor wall 
ddro-dori adze 
duogo to return 

duon-dbnb big, great 

rfwai' to bring 

dwar hunting 

dwdtd to want, to wish 

dwenb to dry, to be shallow ; 

to sink, to fall (water) 
dyel-dyek goat 
d^/* middle, amidst, truth 
dacha-man woman 
dakaii woman 
ddlo to be in difficulties, 

not to know how to do 
dan man 
dean pi. dbk cow 



deno to press, to vex 

dodb to suck 

dok-dok mouth, talk, Ian- 

r\ r\ 

guage, commandment 
dukl to-morrow 
dubdo to rise, arise 
duro fen to destroy 
dwen sorrow 

e he 

en he, him 

eni this, that, these, those 

ere why 

/a, ba 1. to be; 2. not 1 ) 

^o to fall 
fal-fet spoon 
fal bush 
falb-fal knife 
/Aw^ (he, it) is, it is he, 

that is it 
fanb to hide 
fanb to be full 
fanb to divide 
faro to remember 
fate not 

ic?o to tell lies 
jvmb to denie 
fen ground, earth 
fmb-fim cheek 
fbdb to beat 
Jodo to surpass, be more 

than 
fbte country 
fuk-fuki pot 
funo to pluck 



see also under p. 



62 



futo to pull out 

fwodo farm, cultivated land 

fwbno to teach 

fyemo to refuse 

fyet to be torn 

ga piece, copy 

gan never (from gano) 

gano to think, to consider, 
honour 

gat-gat river-bank 

ge they, them 

gMo, gvro to build, to 
live, reside 

gen they, them 

yeto to sacrifice (a cow), 
to treat a guest 

gin-glk thing 

gm-chdm food 

yir, gir much, many 

go he, him 

go_go to do, to work 

gbjb to beat 

gol fence, enclosure, home- 
stead 

gon he, him 

gwalo to be thin 

givMo to write, to carve 

give jo to kick 

gwvlo-gwel ring 

gwbk-gubk dog 

gyeno-gyfrh hen, fowl 

y&n he, him 

jagb to rule 

jac/o-jak, jaki chief 

jdlo (jal), jok, chwou man 

jam goods, property 



jbgb to drive away 

jor- JOT bug 

jwano to hasten, to make 

quickly 
jwok God, sickness 

ka place, there 

kd and, connecting sen- 
tences; then 

kabo to take by force 

kago to split, to pain (head) 

kajo to bite, to pain 

kajo by el to strip off, to 
harvest the dura 

kake time k. duon old 
time, from old times, 
ancient 

kal-kali fence, yard 

kalo to come from, to 
bring; commonly used 
in the imperfect 

kan while 

kfrno to bring 

kech-kam hunger, dearth 

kedo to go 

kel, kele middle, amidst 

ken place, time ; when 

ken-let "hot place", sore 
place, wound 

ker rich 

kete alone, self, only 

ki and, connecting words; 
with 

kidi how 

kifa that, in order that, 
because of 

kifano why 

kindu, kine thus 



63 



kit-kiti stone, rock, hill, 
mountain 

klto to put 

Jcobo to speak, to talk, to 
say 

kodo macli to make, to 
light a fire 

kbab to blossom 

kono to be excited 

kono bur to dig a hole 

kf>?w 9 kivono to help 

kono to pour 

kor breast 

koro to care for 

kot rain 

ku not, expressing pro- 
hibition 

kucho not to know 5 almost 
exclusively used in the 
passive: kuclie ydn I 
do not know 

kun place 

kune don pigs 

kwaclw to beg, pray 

kwako to embrace 

kwalo to steal 

kwario to take 

kwaro red 

kivayb to herd 

&W?i bread 

kwero-kwerl hoe 

kweyo wound 

fewrc some 

kwodo thorn 

kwbm-kom back, on, upon 

kwom-kiloml chair 

kwarno to halt, to lame 

kwdrio to help 



talk, matter 
kworo torch 
%6?c?<2 to refuse 
kyen-kyen horse 

labo mud, clay 

M^ animal, game 

lau-lam skin, cloth 

lau far 

/a i^o to be far 

lai/b: wije layo he is 
ashamed 

lljo-lek tooth 

/^ war 

Ivno to become, or to feel 
^ hot 

let (to be) hot, sore, lazy 

lido, 1Mb to see 

lino to hear 

libo to become cool 

logo to become 

& /o^ro \ if it becomes, 
&# Ibgi I if 

/o/o (to be) black 

Ion sticks 

Ibnb the A side, region, part 

lumo - lum grass 

IwMb-lwet finger 

Iwogo to wash 

lyech-liech elephant 

lyelb to shave 

lyvlb to burn 

ma, mar because 

md which rel. 

maclt fire 

m&db to drink 

mago to catch, to seize 



mdl heaven, top; on, 
above; forward, on- 
ward 

md.no to forbid, to hate, 
to despise 

mano enmity, hate 

mat slow, slowly 

mat-matt female 

mayo to fish 

mMo (to be) sweet 

meko-moko some, someone, 
another 

men whose; the one who 

merb to be reconciled 

mi mother 

mino to become dark 

mtb mother 

mito to hold fast 

mbdo dark 

mok thing, things, property 

moko (mako) to drop, drip, 
to rain 

mol morning, in the mor- 
ning 

molo to come early 

moto (to do something) 
perhaps 

mujo to give 

mulo to crawl 

mumo to be perplexed, 
confused 

myerb to be worth, to be 
becoming 

na like, as 

n&gb to kill 

nam river 

nami like, as 

nau thus 



ne like, as 

nebb to be wet 

nVno to see, to look 

nenb to sleep 

n%no to live 

nok (to be ) little 

nbkb to heal intr. 

numb to lick, kiss 

nut to be present, to exist 

nuti not yet, not 

na-nwott child 

riako to fight, to wrestle 

nale-nati python 

nal-nan boy 

han-hah, nwoli girl 

ndn-ndm crocodile 

nek posterity 

ni particle for the habitual 

form of the verb 
riim face, in the face of 
nin name 
niltb to show 
nwagb to partake of a 

meal 

nwalb to touch 
riwogo louse, lice 
nwoli children 
nwblo to bear, to calve etc. 
mvolo-nwollseed, offspring, 

child, posterity. n. 

gylno hen-egg, chicken 
iiachb to take leave 
nach behind 
najb to know; almost 

exclusively used in the 

passive, naje ydn (it) 

is known to me: I 

know (it) 



65 



nalb to butcher 
nate-ty&n man, person 
neawq to buy 
nEno much 

neto to laugh, to be merry 
noto to cut off, hew, fell 
nu-nuwi lion 
nudo to cut 

nwech-nwech a large lizard 
m nyen metal, money 
nyeto to milk 

ohfrr feather 

oboi foam 

obivbno-bivono white man, 

European, Arab 
bdek-udikl a mat 
of&db a tree ; its fruit is 

eaten by goats 
oglk-oglk buffalo 
ogwal-ogwell frog 
ogwok-ogbkl fox, jackal 
bgwol-bgwol a black bird 
bgwqro-ogwerl the blue 

heron 

bkbk-bkbk flower, blossom 
okot-bkqt bell 
okwek (bkwbk) - bkwak a 

small goose 

omorb-omor roan antelope 
omyau brother 
omvok-oriwok male sheep 

or goat 
opun loaf 

brbk-brok wickedness, sin 
otwon-otibn male animal ; 

cock 
otwon-otwbm hyena 

Westermann, Shilluk-English. 



otyeno some time ago 
owet-owet a mat 

pacli-myer village, home 

pam table 

parb to flie, to flee 

pek to be heavy 

pi water 

ponb lum to weed grass 

purb to hoe, cultivate the 

ground 
pwbchb chak to churn, to 

make butter 
pwojo to praise 
pyarb ten 
pyejb to ask 
pyeno-pyen skin 

rack bad 

ram-ram thigh 

ramo to pain, ache 

re forming reflexive pro- 

re why [nouns 

rdchb-rechi fish 

rvnb to become or to be 

bad, to spoil 
repb yi mach to catch 

fire, to burn 
repb to be reconciled 
rlnb meat 
rmb to run 
rit-ror king 
romo (pi) to fetch, to dip 

water 
ro no to be wrong, wicked^ 

to do wrong 
rugb to put on clothes r 

to dress 

5 



66 



rumo to think 
rumo to be finished 
run year 

tabo pot 

tar, tar (to be) white 

techo to be wet 

tedo to carry 

tek (to be) hard, strong, 
brave 

tEro, tMo people 

tewo to wag 

tin just now, to - day, 
presently, soon 

tino to lift up 

tMq lie 

logo to wound 

tok (to be) absent 

ton-ton spear 

tono, tono-ton egg 

toyo to pierce, to sprout 

tugb to play 

tulo to rise (sun) 

twbjo to bind 

ty^lb-tyel foot; time, mea- 
ning 

ft/tffto ya to carve a boat 

tyeto to carry 

tdk-taki hat 

ano-Zam temples 

&'m forest 

to, ton (to wo) to die 

tibtb to give 

wmo to be finished 

twol-toli snake 

tyau also 

u particle of the future 



wa my father 

wd y wo we, us 

wala or 

wano to approach 

i^a^o to disappear, to be 

lost 
wano book, paper 

wan-nin eye 

i i i 

war, uwar night 

wdro-w&r shoe 

ivat, ivat-wati son 

wat ban slave, people of 

the house, wife 
wlito to leave, to start 
wdt-wat ox 
wei (wEyo) to let 
weko to give 
welo to travel 
wen, dwen when? 
wen his father 
wero, wero to be angry 
weto to squander 
m father 
wich-wat, wit head^ top, 

on 

iv mo -win bird 
wito to arrive 
ivok outside, bush 
woman women 
won we. us 
ivono to cheat 
worb to send 
wot-wodi house, hut 
ivo-ten pi. wo-tdno, wo- 

tono small boy 
wou (wowo) to make a 

noise 
ivu you pi. 



67 



wumo = rurtio to finish 
wun you pi. 

y* I 

ya to be 

yabo to search 

yachi friends 

yano to insult 

ydn I, me 

yat-yen tree, medecine 

yaw well, quietly, just 

yech-yet belly, middle, 

yejo to sweep [amidst, in 

yena to be 

yet-yiet neck 

yeto yat to climb a tree 

?y^o to reach 



yeyo to believe, to trust 

yfryo to be able ; can ; 
generally used in im- 
perfect 

yl by, to, towards 

yi you sing. nom. 

yiebo to open 

yiego to carry, to bring 

yiep tail 

yigo to become 

y/n you sing. 

yit-yit ear 

3/1^0 to receive 

yo-ytt way 

yoc?o to find, imp. yiti 

yortio wind 

ywbno to cry, to weep 



English Shilluk. 



able, to be- i/eyo 

above mdl 

absent tok 

abuse v. chayo 

ache v. ramo 

adze n. doro-dori 

all beii, bvne 

alone kete 

also tyau 

ambassador n. cJn&ak 

amidst^/, kele; dyer;yech 

and ka, ki 

angry, to be wero 

animal n. lai 

another meko-mdko 

approach v. wano 

arise v. diibdo 

arm n. bat-bat 

arrive v. wito 

as nami 

ashamed, he is- wije layd 

ask v. py&jb 

back n. kivom-kdm; a. ban 
bad rach: to be- rbnb 
bag a$p-a$p 



be v. fa, ba, bMo, i/ena, ya 
bear a child nwblo 
beat v. gvjo, fbdo 
because ama, ma, mar; 

kifa 

become v. logo, yigo 
beg v. kwacJw 
begin v. drag q 
behind chdn, nach, ban; 

to be- chwono 
believe v. yeyo 
bell n. okot-bkot 
belly n. yecli-yet 
beside bute 

big duon; to become- dono 
bind v. twbjo 
bird n. wino-wm 
bite v. Jcdjb 
black, to be- lojq 
blossom v. kogo 
blossom n. see flower 
board n. pam 
book n. ivarib 
bowels chin 
boy n. nal 
brave tek 



bread n. kwen 

breast n. kor 

bring v. M/o/ kanb, dwai 

brother n. omyau 

buffalo n. ogik-ogik 

bug n. jor-jor 

build v. gMb, gvrb 

burn v. ly%lb 

bush n. ivbk, fal 

but dt 

butcher v. nalo 

buy v. neawq 

by yl 

call v. chwolby chivoto 

can v. yeyo 

care for v. kdro 

carry v. tyetb ; fedo, yiego 

carve v. gwedb ; to a boat 

tyeno yei 
catch v. mago 
chair n. kwom-kiibmi 
cheat v. chamb, ivono 
cheek n. fino-finl 
chief n. jagb, jak 
child n. na-mvoli 
churn v. pwbcho 
clay n. labo 
climb v. yeto 
cock n. otwon-otbn 
come v. W, 6m, 6|no 
come from kalb 
confused, to be mumb 
consider v. gano 
continue v. chiffo, chogb 
cool, to become- libo 
copy n. ga 
country n. fbte 



cow n. dean-dbk 
crawl v. mulb 
create v. chwajb 
crocodile n. ndn-ridm 
cry v. ywbnb 
cultivate v. purb 
cut v. TIO^O, nudb 

dance v. chonb 

dark rnbdb 

day ckan 

deceive v. wono 

denie v. femb 

despise v. rnanb 

destroy v. duro feti 

die v. tb, tbu 

difficulty; to be in- ddlb 

dig v. kono 

disappear v. ivdiib 

divide v. fanb 

do v. gogb 

doctor ajtvogo-djwbk 

dog n. gwbk-gubk 

donkey adirb 

dress v. riigb 

drink v. madb 

drive away v. jbgb 

dry v. dweno 

dura by el 

ear n. yit-ylt 
early, to come- molo 
earth n.fen 
eat v. ch&mb 
egg n. tono-ton 
eight dbidek 
elephant n. lyecli-liecli 
embrace v. kwakb 



70 



enclosure n. gbl 
escape v. b&db 
excited, to be- kono 
exist v. nut 
eye n. ivan-nin 

face h. nim, bblb-bbl 

fall y.fddo 

far lau, to be- lawo 

farm n. fwodo 

Fashoda BdckMo 

fat chwe 

father wi; his- wen 

fear v. bbkb 

feather n. bb&r 

female n. mat-mail 

fence n. kal, gbl 

fence in v. bagb 

fetch water romb pi 

field n. fwodo 

fight v. ?mkb; n. Un 

find v. yodo 

finger n. IwMo-lwtt 

finger-ring attgb-atvk 

finished, be- rttmb, tamo; 

chdti 

fire n. mach 
first amdlb 
fish n. recho (rejb)-reclil, 

recli 

fish v. mayo 
fish- spear bet 
five dbicli 
flee v. pfrrb 
fly v. p&rb 
flower n. bkok-bkbk 
foam n. 060^ 
food n. gin-chdin 



foot n. tyvlb-tyel 

forbid v. mtino 

forever atir 

form v. chwajb 

formerly chdn, otyenb 

forward m dl 

four dnwen 

fowl n. gyvnb, gyeh 

fox n. ogwok-ogokl 

frog n. ogwal-ogwell 

front bf>lo 

full, to be- fanb 

game n. Mi 

gather v. clwnb 

give v. mujo, w~eko, tpto 

go v. A-^Wo 

goat n. dyel-dyek 

God ^'itfo/: 

good ddch' to be- 

goods n. jam 

goose n. okwek-bkwak 

grass n. lumb 

ground n. fen 

halt v. kwomb 

hand n. chyenb-chyen 

hard te_k 

hare dfbajo-dfoaclil 

hasten v. jwano 

hat n. tdk-taki 

hate v. manb 

have v. da 

he e, ye s en 

head n. wich-wat 

heal v. intr. noA;o 

hear v. lino 

heap up v. clibnb 



71 



heaven n. mdl 

heavy pek 

help v. kwbnb,- kbrio 

hen n. gyenb, gyeh 

herd v. kivfryb 

here anan 

heron, the blue- bgwbrb- 

ogwerl 
hew v. nbtb 
hide v. fdnb 

hoe n. kw^ro-kwtrl; v. puro 
hold fast v. mitb 
home n. pach-myef 
honour v. gano 
horse n. kywi-kyen 
hot let; to be- Iznb 
house n. icot-wodi 
how, how much ddi y edi 
hunger n. kecli 
hunting dwar 
hut n. wot 
hyena n. otiuon-otwom 

I yfiy ydn 
if kd logo 
in yech 
insult v. yaiio 

jackal n . ogwok-ogbkl 
just now tin 

kick v. gw%jb give jo 
kill v. nago 
king n. rit-ror 
kiss v. numb 
knead v. chagb 
knee n. chun-clion 
knife falb-fal 



know v. najo ; not to- 
kuchb 

lame v. kwbmb 

language n. dok-dok 

late, to be- chwono 

laugh v. n&tb 

lazy let 

leave v. watb 

leave, to take- naclib 

left, to be- dbno 

let v. ivei, weyb 

lick v. numb 

lie n. todb 

lie v. budo 

lies, to tell- fido 

lift up v. tmo 

light a fire kodb 

lion n. nu-nuwi 

little, a- ?iofc 

live v. nEnb 

lizard, &\&Tge-nwdch-nw&ch 

long, to be- bar 

look v. nVno 

lost, to be- wdnb 

louse n. nwdgo 

male n. chwou, jal 

male animal n. 6tw6n-6tbn 

mann. nate-tyen; dan-tyen; 

= male: jal-jok 
mat n. odek-udikl 
matter n. kwop 
meaning n. ty%lb 
meat n. rino 
medecine n. ydt-yen 
merry, to be- nsto 
metal n. nyen 



72 



middle n. yech-yet, kel, 

kele, dyer 
milk v. nyeto 
mix v. cliabo 
money n. nyen 
morning n. mol 
mosquito bei 
mother n. mio 
mountain n. kit-kiti 
mouth n. dok-dok 
much nMo, gir 
mud n. labo 
my a 

name n. nin 

near chaki 

neck n. yet-yiet 

never gan 

night n. uwar 

nine dbimuen 

noise, to make a- won 

not fa, fate 

not yet nuti 

now anan 

offspring n. nwolo-nwoli 

one dkyel 

only kete 

onward mdl 

open v. yiebo 

or ivala 

outside wok 

ox n. wdt-wat 

pain v. k&gb, kajo, ramo 
paper n. wano 
part n. Ibno 
people fero 



perplexed, to be- rnumo 
person n. nate-tyen 
pierce v. toyo 
pig kune don 
place n. ken, ka, kun; v. 
play v. tugo [chibo 

pluck v. funo 
posterity n. nwolo-nwoli 
pot n. fuk-fuki; tabo 
pour v. kbno 
praise v. pwojo 
pray v. kwachb, lamo 
present, to be- nut 
presently dndn, tin 
property n. jam 
pull out v. futa 
put v. chibo, klto 
python n. n ale-nail 

rabbit see hare 

rain n. kot; rain v. kot e 

moko 

ram n. omvok-oriwdk 
receive v. yito 
reconcile v. mero, repo 
recover v. bbdo 
red kwaro ; to be- chego 
refuse v. kyedo, fyemo, 

bdno 

region n. Ibno 
remain v. chogb, ddno, 
remember faro 
repeat v. cliigo 
reside v. gedb, gvro 
return v. duogo 
rich ker 

ring n. giv&lo-gwvl 
ripe, to be- chego 



73 



rise v. dii&do; of the sun: 
river n. nam [tulo 

river- bank gat-gat 
road n. yo-y^t 
roan - antelope n. omoro- 

ombr 

rock n. kit-kiti 
run v. rmb 

sack n. see bag 

say v. kobo_ 9 ko 

search v. yabb 

see v. lidb y 1Mb 

seed n. nwolo-nwoli 

seize v. inago 

self kete 

send v. wdrb 

seven dbiryau 

shallow to be- dwenb 

shave v. lyelo 

shoe n. ivdro-ivar 

short chek 

show v. nuto 

sick a. da jwok 

sickness n. jwok 

side n. Ionb 9 bute 

sin n. brok-brbk 

six abikyel 

skin 11. t&u-lani, del-de_I 9 

pyeno-pyen 
slave wat ban 
sleep v. ?^??o 
slow mat 
snake n. twol-tpU 
some kwi 

some, someone rnvko-mbko 
somebody 11. nate-tyen 
son wat) wat-wati 



soon tin 

sore let 

speak v. kobo 

spear n. ton-tbn 9 v. chwbbb 

split v. kago 

spoil v. rfyfio 

spoon n. fal-fet 

squander v. ivetb 

start watb 

stay v. bMo 

steal kwdtb 

sticks n. Ion 

stone n. kit, ktti 

stop v. chunb 

straight chem 

stranger n. obwbno-bivono 

strong te_k 

suck v. dodo 

sun chan 

surpass v. Jodo 

sweep v. ye jo 

sweet a. medb 

table n. pam 

tail n. yiep 

take by force kabb 

take v. kwaiio 

talk n. kwop; v. kobo 

teach v. fivdnb 

temples n. tnnb-tdm 

ten pyarb 

that eni 9 acha 

that, in order- kifa 

them ge, gen 

there ka, clime 

therefore benSn 

these ak 9 agak 

they ge s gen 



74 



thigh n. ram-ram 

thin, to be- givalb 

thing gm-gik 

think v. rumo, ganb 

this an, eni 

thoroughly chet 

three ddek 

throw v. balb 

thus kink, kindh [duon 

time n. k&kd; old kake 

tired, to be- budo 

tobacco-pipe dak-dak 

to-day tin, de chan tin 

to-morrow duki 

tooth lejo-lek 

top n. wich, mdl 

torch n. kwbro 

torn, to be- fyet 

touch v. nwalb 

travel v. ivelo 

treat v. g~eto 

tree n. ydt-yen 

troubled, to be- budo 

trust v. yeyo 

truth dyer 

two dryau 

us wd, wo, icon 

verily chet 
very chare, chet 
vex v. d&nb 
village n. pach-myer 
voice n. chwak 
wag v. teivo 
walk v. chatb 
wall n. doro-dor 
want dwdtd, chamo 



war n. len 

wash v. Iwbgo 

water n. pi 

wat er-b u ck anwd k-a nwa ki 

way n. yo-yH 

we wd, wo, won 

weed v. pbnb 

weep v. ywbno 

well, to be- dbjb 

wet, to be- nebb, tec ho 

what fmb 

when wen, dwen ; con], ken 

where agon, ken 

which a, amen ano-orib; 

white tar [rel. md 

white man obwbnb-bwono 

who amen-dmok 

whose men 

why re, ere, kifano 

wicked rack 

wickedness n. brbk-brok 

wind n. ybmb 

wish v. dwdtd 

with ki 

wizard see doctor 

woman dachb-man; ddkdu 

work v. gdgb 

worth, to be- myerb 

wound n. ken-let; v. kweyo 

write v. gwMb 

wrong, to be- ronb 

yard n. kdl-kali, gbl 
year n. run 
yes awo 
yesterday duwd 
you sing, yi, yin 
you pi. wu, wun. 



CONTENTS. 

I. GRAMMAR. 

The Sounds. Pa s e 

1. The consonants 1 

2. System of the Consonants .... 3 

3. The Vowels 3 

4. System of the Vowels 4 

5. Long Vowels 5 

6. Diphthongs 5 

7. Interchange of Sounds . 6 

8. The Intonation 6 

9. Examples for Intonation .... 7 

10. Accentuation . 8 

The Noun. 

11. The Plural of Nouns 9 

12. Means of Forming the Plural ... 9 

Case. 

13. Genetive 11 

14. Objective Case . 12 

15. Gender 12 

Pronouns. 
The Personal Pronoun. 

16. Absolute Form . . 13 

17. Connected Form 13 

18. Objective Form 14 

19. Possessive Form 14 



76 

Page. 

20. Poss. Pr. as a Substantive . . . .15 

21. Interrogative Pronouns 15 

22. Relative Pronouns . 16 

23. Demonstrative Pronouns 17 

24. Reflexive Pronoun 19 

25. "Myself" 19 

26. Adjective 20 

27. Adjectives used as verbs . . . .21 

28. Comparison . . 21 

29. Numerals 22 

30. Ordinal Numbers 22 

31. The Verb 2224 

32. The Verb with Object . . . 2526 

33. The Passive Voice 26 

34. Example for the Passive .... 28 

35. Verbal Noun 28 

36. Noun Agent 28 

37. Negation , . 29 

38. 39. Auxiliary Verbs 29 

40 a. List of Verbs 3031 

41. Adverbs 32 

42. Conjunctions 32 

43. Prepositions 32 

44. Interjections 33 

II. SHORT SENTENCES 3349 

III. TWO BIBLE-TEXTS 5058 

IV. WORDS. 

Shilluk-English 5967 

English-Shilluk 6874 



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OCT 2 8 1996 




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LD 21A-40m-2,'69 
(J6057slO)476 A-32 



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