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2-*- 13. 


THIS History appears at a moment when the mission 
ary spirit of Methodism has found memorable expression 
in the removal of a burdensome debt and a large addition 
to the annual income of the Society. The facts given in 
this volume abundantly justify the confidence of our 
Church, and show that the sacrifices it has made during 
the last century and a quarter for the spread of the 
gospel are bearing fruit for which we can never cease to 
be grateful to God. 

If the History helps in any measure to supply fuller 
knowledge of the work and workers of the past and the 
tasks of the present, the writer will be well rewarded for 
the enormous labour involved in preparing such a record. 
The history of each mission can be traced chrono 
logically by following the references given in the Index. 
The penny History of Missions may also be of service 
for more general distribution. 

The proof-sheets have been read by the Revs. J. 
Milton Brown, W. H. Findlay, M.A., and Henry Haigh, 
to whom the author is greatly indebted for many valuable 
corrections and suggestions. Miss Hellier has also 
kindly revised the passage about the Women s Auxiliary. 

Any help towards making the volume more complete 
and reliable at any point will be welcomed. 





MISSION, 1790-1812 .... 25 

SOCIETIES ...... 49 


1814-1832 . . ... 69 


1833-1851 I0 7 

VI. TWENTY YEARS OF PROGRESS, 1852-1871 . 135 


COST OF THE WORK, ETC. . . . 273 

INDEX 279 

In this way our own work is helped by the missionaries work even 
as we help theirs. The two works are vitally connected : and even 
afar off we may make our own in some sense the triumphant witness 
of the mission field. The Christian Life is one : the Christian Body 
is one. As we each strive to fulfil the function assigned to us, conse 
crating the resources which are offered for our use, we do in Christ 
all that Christ does here, or to the uttermost part of the earth. 

Thus the occasion of our service to-day brings us a great oppor 
tunity. It commends to us the full meaning of our witness. It 
presents the petition of the world, the solemn cry of heathenism, 
" Come over and help us," a cry in life if not in words, with constrain 
ing persuasiveness. It makes it easy for us, by the influence of common 
feeling, by the sense of other supplications joined with our own, by the 
foretaste of a spontaneous unity, by the energy of a catholic power 
hitherto faintly realized, to co-operate, as we have not yet done, with 
our foreign missionaries in that work, which presents to us in the most 
impressive form the true ideal of our calling. If each congregation 
among us were to claim for itself some fragment of the mighty field, 
however small ; if it made it its own by prayers and alms ; if we were 
bold to look to the ends of the world for lessons of patience and lessons 
of hope, the coming of Christ s kingdom, for which we pray with 
vague words, would not be far off. 

BISHOP WESTCOTT, Lessons from Work, p. 226. 






WESLEY came of a stock that loved missions, 
and would gladly have devoted their lives and 

gifts to the uplifting and salvation of 

the heathen. The first John Wesley Spirit of the 

(1636-1678), grandfather of the founder 

of Methodism, felt a strong desire to labour in 
Surinam, a settlement founded in 1650 by Francis 
Lord Willoughby. When this purpose had to be 
abandoned, he wished to go to Maryland ; but 
his friends opposed the project, and the expense 
and difficulty of removing his family to America 
no doubt made the plan impossible. He had to 
be content with home missionary labour, into 
which he threw himself with apostolic devotion. 
His son, Samuel Wesley, when between thirty 
and forty years of age, cherished a scheme for 
missionary service in India, China, and Abyssinia, 
which was never realized, and in the last year of 
his life he regretted that he was not young enough 
to go to Georgia. 



One incident of Susannah Wesley s life shows 
how missionary devotion enriches Christian work 
Susannah at home. In 1712, when her husband 
tne^Dani^h was attending Convocation in London, 
Missionaries. S ^Q was greatly quickened by reading 
an account of the young Danish missionaries, 
Ziegenbalg and Plutscho, whom Frederick IV 
of Denmark had sent out to work among the 
heathen in Malabar. Emily Wesley, who was 
then nineteen, found the missionary narrative in 
her father s study. Mrs. Wesley had never seen 
it, and got her daughter to read it to her. She 
says : I was never, I think, more affected with 
anything than with the relation of their travels, 
and was exceedingly pleased with the noble 
design they were engaged in. Their labours 
refreshed my soul beyond measure, and I could 
not forbear spending good part of that evening 
in praising and adoring the divine goodness for 
inspiring those good men with such an ardent 
zeal for His glory, that they were willing to hazard 
their lives, and all that is esteemed dear to men 
in this world, to advance the honour of their 
Master, Jesus. For several days I could think 
or speak of little else. At last it came into my 
mind, though I am not a man nor a minister 
of the gospel, and so cannot be employed in 
such a worthy employment as they were, yet, if 
my heart were sincerely devoted to God, and if 



I were inspired with a true zeal for His glory, and 
did really desire the salvation of souls, I might 
do somewhat more than I do. I thought I might 
live in a more exemplary manner in some things ; 
I might pray more for the people, and speak with 
more warmth to those with whom I have an 
opportunity of conversing. However, I resolved 
to begin with my own children, and, accordingly, 
I proposed and observed the following method : 
I take such proportion of time as I can best spare 
every night to discourse with each child by itself, 
on something that relates to its principal concerns. 
How much that meant for Methodism is shown 
by Wesley s request to his mother when he was 
Fellow of Lincoln College : If you can spare 
me only that little part of Thursday evening 
which you formerly bestowed upon me in another 
manner, I doubt not but it would be as useful 
now for correcting my heart as it was then in 
forming my judgement. Mrs. Wesley s services 
in the rectory kitchen also gained greatly by this 
spiritual quickening, 

On January 16, 1736, the oldest English 
Missionary Society, The Society for the Pro 
pagation of the Gospel, held a meeting Wesley a 
at which the Bishops of London, Lich- Missionary, 
field and Coventry, Rochester, and Gloucester, 
were present. A memorial was read from the 
trustees for the Colony of Georgia, who recom- 



mended the Rev. Mr. John Wesley to take the 
place of the Rev. Samuel Quincy, who wished to 
leave the colony. It was agreed that the Society 
do approve of Mr. Wesley as a proper person to 
be a Missionary at Georgia, and that 50 per 
annum be allowed to Mr. Wesley from the time 
Mr. Quincy s salary shall cease. 

Wesley reached Savannah the month after this 
minute was adopted. He hoped that a way 
would open for labour among the Indians : But 
upon my informing Mr. Oglethorpe of our design, 
he objected, not only the danger of being inter 
cepted, or killed by the French there ; but much 
more, the inexpediency of leaving Savannah 
destitute of a minister. His Journal bears 
witness to the eagerness with which the Oxford 
Fellow and Tutor sought to understand the 
beliefs of the Indian warriors who came to the 
settlement. All, except, perhaps, the Choctaws, 
were gluttons, drunkards, thieves, dissemblers, 
liars. They are implacable, unmerciful; murderers 
of fathers, murderers of mothers, murderers of 
their own children. 

Wesley thus stood on the verge of this mission 
field, but was not allowed to enter it. In view 
of such toil his mother said, Had I twenty sons, 
I should rejoice if they were all so employed. 
providence led Wesley back from America that he 
might be a missionary to the heathen at home. 



On Charles Wesley s return from Georgia in 
1736, he dined with his uncle, Matthew Wesley, 
the London doctor, who bestowed abundance of 
wit on John Wesley and his apostolical work in 
Georgia. Charles says, He told me the French, 
if they had any remarkably dull fellow among 
them, sent him to convert the Indians. I checked 
his eloquence by those lines of my brother : 

To distant realms the apostle need not roam, 
Darkness, alas ! and heathens are at home. 

He made no reply, and I heard no more of my 
brother s apostleship. 

W T esley set in motion the missionary work of 
Methodism on January 17, 1758, when he preached 
at Wandsworth in the house of Nathaniel Mr G ii ber t 
Gilbert, Speaker of the House of As- of Antigua, 
sembly in Antigua. f Two negro servants of his 
and a mulatto appear to be much awakened. 
Shall not His saving health be made known to 
all nations ? The following November Wesley 
rode to Wandsworth and baptized two of Mr. Gil 
bert s negro servants. * One of these is deeply 
convinced of sin ; the other rejoices in God her 
Saviour, and is the first African Christian I have 
known. But shall not our Lord, in due time, 
have these heathens also "for His inheritance"? 

Mr. Gilbert returned to Antigua in 1760. He 
urged John Fletcher to go with him as a 
missionary, but Fletcher, who had only recently 



been ordained, felt that he had neither sufficient 
zeal, grace, nor talents for such labours. He 
wished c to be certain that he was converted 
himself before he left his converted brethren, to 
convert heathens. Failing other helpers, Mr. 
Gilbert himself became the first Methodist mis 
sionary to the negroes. When he died, in 1774, 
there were 200 Methodists in Antigua, 

In 1768 Wesley was urged to send a preacher 
to New York. If the right man came such a 
First flame would soon be kindled as would 
M^Ca^fes, never st P til! * reached the great 
1768. South Sea. Richard Boardman and 
Joseph Pilmoor were ( willing to go, and became 
the first missionaries of Methodism. About this 
time Thomas Bell wrote from Charlestown : c Mr. 
Wesley says the first message of the preachers 
is to the lost sheep of England. And are there 
none in America ? They have strayed from 
England into the wild woods here, and they are 
running wild after this world. They are drinking 
their wine in bowls, and are jumping and dancing, 
and serving the devil, in the groves and under 
the green trees. And are not these lost sheep? 
And will none of the preachers come here? 
Where is Mr. Brownfield ? Where is John 
Pawson ? Where is Nicholas Manners ? Are 
they living, and will they not come? 

The providence that had allotted Wesley his 


life-work in England now raised up his great 
missionary ally. In August, 1776, he met Dr. 
Coke at Kingston, near Taunton. Dr Coke 
I had much conversation with him, joinsWesley - 
and a union then began which I trust shall 
never end. Coke was born at Brecon, where 
his father was a doctor, in 1747, and had been 
ordained priest in 1772. In the summer of 1777 he 
cast in his lot with Wesley. He was then twenty- 
nine. Methodism quickly took him to its heart. 
His earnest and simple preaching made a deep 
impression. Thousands flocked to hear him in 
London, Wesley rejoiced when he found that 
Dr. Coke was reluctant to confine his labours 
to one congregation. He clasped his hands and 
said Brother, go out, go out, and preach the 
gospel to all the world. 

Coke was soon as restless an evangelist as 
Wesley. But his heart was too big to be 
satisfied with any parish save the world. 

In 1784 A Plan of the Society for the 
Establishment of Missions among the Heathen 

was circulated. Members were to sub- 
Plan for 

scribe two guineas a year, and a general Missionary 


meeting was called for the last Tuesday 

in January, 1784. A first list of contributions 
was given amounting to 66 $s. t and a letter 
was addressed to John Fletcher of Madeley 
asking for his support. The appeal ran thus : 



The present institution is so agreeable to the 
finest feelings of piety and benevolence that 
little need be added for its recommendation. 
The candid of every denomination (even those 
who are entirely unconnected with the Methodists, 
and are determined so to be) will acknowledge 
the amazing change which our preaching has 
wrought upon the ignorant and uncivilized, at 
least throughout these nations ; and they will 
admit that the spirit of a missionary must be of 
the most zealous, most devoted, and self-denying 
kind. Nor is anything more required to con 
stitute a missionary for the heathen nations than 
good sense, integrity, great piety, and amazing 
zeal. Men possessing all these qualifications in 
a high degree we have among us, and I doubt 
not but some of these will accept of the arduous 
undertaking, not counting their lives dear if they 
may but promote the kingdom of Christ and 
the present and eternal welfare of their fellow 
creatures. And we trust nothing shall be wanting, 
as far as time, strength, and abilities will admit, 
to give the fullest and highest satisfaction to 
the promoters of the plan, on the part of 
1 Your devoted servants, 


Those who are willing to promote the institu- 


tion are desired to send their names, places of 
abode, and sum subscribed to the Rev. Dr. Coke, 
in London, or Thomas Parker, Esq., Barrister-at- 
Law, York. 

The following April Coke consulted with Wesley 
as to the needs of America. On September 10, 
1784, Wesley ordained him Superin- Coke i n 
tendent of American Methodism, with AiaQTiGa - 
Francis Asbury as his colleague. Richard What- 
coat and Thomas Vasey were ordained elders, 
and the little band set out to care for the 
Methodists whom the separation from the mother 
country had left as poor sheep in the wilder 

Whilst he was abroad on his historic errand 
Wesley wrote to Mr. John Stretton : Last 
autumn, Dr. Coke sailed from England, and is 
now visiting the flock in the midland provinces 
of America, and settling them on the New 
Testament plan, to which they all willingly and 
joyfully conform, being all united as by one Spirit 
so in one body. I trust they will no more want 
such Pastors as are after God s own heart. After 
he has gone through these parts, he intends, if 
God permits, to see the brethren in Nova Scotia, 
probably attended with one or two able Preachers 
who will be willing to abide there. A day or two 
ago, I wrote and desired him, before he returns 
to England, to call upon our brethren also in 



Newfoundland, and, perhaps, leave a Preacher 
there likewise. About food and raiment we take 
no thought. Our Heavenly Father knoweth that 
we need these things, and He will provide. Only 
let us be faithful and diligent in feeding His 
flock. Your Preacher will be ordained. 

Coke returned to England in the summer of 
1785. He preached to crowded congregations in 
all parts of the kingdom, and endeavoured to 
awaken in their bosoms those sentiments of mercy 
for the world at large which were daily exerting 
a more powerful influence in his own. These 
appeals he followed up by personal application, in 
public and private, for gifts and offerings to create 
a fund to be devoted exclusively to the new 
missionary enterprise. 

Coke had for some time been weighing the 
possibility of a mission to Africa. He had still 

larger visions. The Amninian Magazine 
Proposals for 
a Mission to for 1792 contains a copy of a letter to 

the Rev. Dr. Coke, from a respectable 
gentleman in the East Indies (it is dated "Maldai, 
February 19, 1785 ") respecting a mission thither. 
Coke had written Mr. Grant, of the East India 
Company, father of Lord Glenelg and Sir Robert 
Grant, in January, 1784, as to the conversion of 
the Gentoos to the faith of Christ. Mr. Grant 
replied * that in the course of twenty years, during 
which we have possessed extensive territories here, 



there should have been no public institution for 
carrying on such work, must doubtless have been 
matter of regret to many. He was willing to 
support a mission if it were on principles entirely 
catholic. To Coke s inquiry, What are the dis 
positions of the Hindoos, and the probability of 
their conversion ? he answered : c With respect to 
the probabilities of converting either the Hindoos 
or Mahometans, I am sorry to say that, humanly 
speaking, they appear to be very small. An 
experienced Christian long familiar with the Danish 
Mission on the coast of Coromandel assures him 
* there is no hope of instructing, converting, and 
baptizing the natives, without a standing mission, 
that is, a fixed establishment, with some means 
belonging to it ; not only because as soon as a poor 
native resolves to turn Christian he is cast off by 
his dearest relations for ever, obliged to forsake 
wife and children, denied work, left to perish for 
want, if not killed by his own kinsmen ; but 
because they are the poor, the distressed, the 
disabled, those who are brought low through 
affliction that will first relish the gospel doctrine ; 
and such persons will need either employment, by 
which they may earn a maintenance, or charity 
whereon to subsist ; and from hence arises the 
necessity of some resources and funds which can 
only consist with a fixed establishment. 

Coke replied from Southampton, January 25, 


1786: At present our openings in America, and 
the pressing invitations we have lately received 
from Nova Scotia, the West Indies, and the States, 
call for all the help we can possibly afford our 
brethren in that quarter of the world. . . . Mr. 
Wesley is of opinion that not less than half a dozen 
should be at first sent on such a mission/ Coke 
adds, As soon as the present extraordinary calls 
from America are answered, I trust we shall be 
able to turn our thoughts to Bengal. 

In March, 1786, Coke issued a letter to his 
English supporters : 

past I took the liberty of addressing you in behalf 
of a mission intended to be established in the British 
dominions in Asia ; and many of you very generously 
entered into that important plan. We have not, 
indeed, lost sight of it at present ; on the contrary, we 
have lately received a letter of encouragement from a 
principal gentleman in the province of Bengal. But 
the providence of God has lately opened to us so 
many doors nearer home that Mr. Wesley thinks it 
imprudent to hazard, at present, the lives of any of 
our preachers by sending them to so great a 
distance, and amidst so many uncertainties and 
difficulties, when so large a field of action is afforded 
us in countries to which we have so much easier 
admittance, and where the success, through the 
blessing of God, is more or less certain. 



Wesley expressed his warm approval of Dr. 
Coke s plans in a prefatory note. It is not easy/ 
he added, * to conceive the extreme want there is, 
in all these places, of men that will not count their 
lives dear unto themselves, so they may testify the 
gospel of the grace of God. 

The door to the East was closed as yet, but 
Coke was not idle. Emigrants from England 
and New York had planted Methodism in Nova 
Scotia, where there were now 300 white members 
and 200 negroes in the Methodist Society. In 
September, 1786, Coke sailed from Gravesend 
for Nova Scotia with three preachers Messrs. 
Hammet, Warrener, and Clarke. 

A series of gales drove their vessel to the West 
Indies, and on Christmas morning, 1786, the 
missionary party landed at Antigua, coke lands 
In the streets of St. John s, Coke met * Antigua. 
John Baxter on his way to preach to his negro 
congregation. He had been sent out from Chat 
ham in 1778 as a naval shipwright, and had 
taken over the care of the society formed by 
Nathaniel Gilbert and kept together after his 
death by two female slaves. 

In the chapel, which Baxter had largely built 
with his own hands, Coke says, * I read prayers, 
preached, and administered the sacrament. I had 
one of the cleanest audiences I ever saw. All the 
negro women were dressed in white linen gowns, 


petticoats, handkerchiefs, and caps ; and the men 
as neatly. In the afternoon and evening I had 
very large congregations. 

Ten days later he reports, I have preached in 
this town twice a day ; the house full half an hour 
before the time. Our Society in this island is near 
2,000; but the ladies and gentlemen of the town 
have so filled the house that the poor dear negroes 
who built it have been almost entirely shut out, 
except in the mornings. Coke and his companions 
were invited by the company of merchants to dine 
with Prince William Henry (afterwards William IV) 
who was in command of a frigate on that station. 
A gentleman intimated that he would provide 
500 a year if Coke would stay in the island, but, 
he says, God be praised, 500,000 a year would be 
to me a feather, when opposed to my usefulness in 
the Church of Christ. 

Coke was invited to visit the other islands. 
Messrs. Baxter, Hammet and Clarke went with 
him. Mr. Warrener was left at Antigua. Mr. 
Clarke was stationed at St. Vincent, where several 
of the chief residents promised their support. The 
negroes were overjoyed : These men have been 
imported for us. Coke felt the call as clear as 
if it had been written with a sunbeam. Mr. 
Hammet was fixed at St. Christopher s, where Coke 
had had a warm welcome from the principal 
inhabitants and the clergyman of the parish. 



On the Dutch island of St. Eustatius some free 
negroes were waiting Coke s arrival. They had 
heard that he was coming and had fitted Black 
up a cottage for him at their own ex- Har] T- 
pense. A Methodist slave had recently come from 
the United States and had publicly preached to the 
coloured people. He attracted large congregations, 
and the Governor of the island himself came to hear 
Black Harry. At one meeting sixteen persons fell 
to the ground and lay for hours insensible through 
the agony of conviction. The planters took fright 
and the preacher was silenced. Only the inter 
vention of the chief judge saved him from being 
cruelly flogged. Dr. Coke arrived on the day that 
Black Harry was silenced. He was not allowed to 
preach, but he formed the persecuted flock into 
classes and strengthened their hands by his counsels 
and prayers. After a considerable interval the 
negro apostle ventured to pray openly with his 
brethren. For this offence he was publicly whipped 
imprisoned, and banished from the island. For ten 
years his fate was a mystery. In 1796 Dr. Coke 
was preaching in America, when a black man 
followed him to his room. He immediately recog 
nized him as Harry, of St. Eustatius. He had 
been shipped to the continent with a cargo of 
slaves, and had since escaped the brutal treatment 
he had suffered in former years. He was still an 
active member of the Methodist Society. Thus, 
c 17 


says Dr. Coke, an answer has been given from 
heaven to the petitions of many thousands in 
England, who at one time, with great fervour, 
spread his case before the Lord. 

On Coke s departure for Charlestown his black 
friends loaded him with * seed-cakes, sweet biscuits, 
oranges, bottles of jelly, in such profusion that he 
and his seven fellow-passengers had not consumed 
half of them when they reached the mainland. 

Coke remained in America till the end of April, 
1787, astonished and delighted to find Methodism 
spreading through the States. He was able to give 
a glorious report to Wesley and the Irish Conference 
in Dublin. All recognized that the time had come 
to undertake missionary work in the West Indies. 
Coke begged subscriptions from door to door. He 
then went with Wesley and eleven Irish preachers 
to the Conference in Manchester, where he was able 
to announce a membership of 25,000 in America 
and 2,950 in the new missions. Dr. Coke had 
now begun that systematic course of application 
for pecuniary help to the cause of missions, in the 
fulfilment of which he stands unrivalled among the 
agents of Christianity. The funds thus obtained 
enabled Mr. Wesley in 1788 to send preachers to 
Newfoundland and additional missionaries to the 
West Indies. 

Coke was soon on the Atlantic with three recruits 
for the West Indies. After a delightful voyage he 



landed at Bridgetown, Barbados, with Mr. Pearce. 
Mr. Lumb and Mr. Gamble went on to St. Vincent. 

Some soldiers whom Mr. Pearce had 

Second Visit 

known in Ireland had secured a large to West 

room for services. There Coke preached 

to 300 people, about twice as many being unable 
to get in. The merchant who lent this place had 
frequently heard Coke preach in Maryland, and 
four of his black servants had been baptized by the 
Methodist bishop. They met friends everywhere 
who promised to support Mr. Pearce in his work. 

Coke went on to St. Vincent, where he explored 
the Carib settlement with Mr. Baxter, Mr. Gamble, 
and Mr. Clarke. The narrow paths over the 
mountains were almost impassable. In one place 
some Caribs had to lend them cutlasses to cut a 
pathway. Below the great mountain was a beautiful 
plain, seven miles long and three wide, which was 
washed by the ocean. Here the Caribs chiefly 
dwell. They are a handsomer people than the 
negroes, but have a warlike appearance. The very 
women carry cutlasses, or naked knives, at their 
sides. Mr. Baxter had already taken measures for 
the establishment of schools among them. He had 
won the affection of the people, and gained con 
siderable knowledge of their language. Coke urged 
him to spend two years among them. Great as 
the cross was to that good man, who expected to 
return to his beloved Antigua, he immediately 



consented. The chief entertained his visitors with 
a large dish of eggs, cassava-bread, and a bowl of 
punch. William Carey says, in his famous Enquiry 
into the Obligations of Christians, to use Means for 
the Conversion of the Heathens (1792), The late 
Mr. Wesley lately made an effort in the West 
Indies, and some of their ministers are now labour 
ing among the Caribs and negroes, and I have seen 
pleasing accounts of their success. 

The fruits of the year s work were encouraging. 
There was an increase of a thousand members 
in Antigua, 700 at St. Christopher s. At St. 
Eustatius the Council had threatened any one 
who preached, or even offered prayer in public, 
with fines, imprisonment, flogging, and transporta 
tion. Coke ventured to baptize 140 members. 
There were 258 meeting in Society classes. Coke 
preached on the Sunday, but had to promise 
that he would not do so again. * Having nothing 
more at present to do in this place of tyranny, 
we returned to St. Kitts, blessing God for a 
British constitution and a British government. 
Everywhere else he was received with the utmost 
kindness. Before he crossed to Charlestown, 
missionary agencies had been set in operation 
in ten of the islands, which had 260,000 

As he returned from America some weeks later, 
Captain Cook s Voyages to the Pacific Ocean and 



Carver s Travels among the Indians in North 
America afforded Coke great entertainment. 1 
He thought much of the loss of life and injury 
to the morals of the natives through our voyages 
of discovery, but added that if missions for the 
establishment of the gospel were set on foot, 
and through the blessing of God succeeded, 
there would be compensation indeed. Even 
Coke did not dream of the coming transforma 
tion of Fiji. 







CEYLON MISSION, 1790-1812 

SOME facts as to other missionary effort of the 
eighteenth century may set Coke s work in its 
historical framework. The Society for the Pro 
pagation of the Gospel sent out its first missionary 
to North America in 1702. Its labours were 
almost exclusively confined to British settlements 
across the Atlantic, and it was in a very feeble 
state at the end of the eighteenth century. It 
was only able to keep up its grants to the 
Colonies by means of the interest on its invested 
funds, its voluntary income being then under 
;8oo a year. William Carey s Enquiry was written 
in 1788, and published in 1792. The Baptist 
Missionary Society was founded at Kettering on 
October 2, 1792. The contributions for that year 
were 13 2s. 6d. On June 13, 1793, Carey and 
his family sailed for Calcutta. 

A letter from Carey to Dr. Ryland, of Bristol, 
giving the first news of his arrival in India, led 
to the formation of the London Missionary 

2 5 


Society in September, 1795. The Board of 
Directors considered a message from Dr. Coke, 
Missions in an< ^ wrote him that it was the pur- 
Eighteenth P ose f tnis Society to act as brethren 
century, towards missionaries from other de 
nominations. The first mission party sailed for 
Tahiti in 1796. On April 12, 1799, the Church 
Missionary Society was founded at a meeting 
of sixteen clergymen and nine laymen, at the 
Castle and Falcon, Aldersgate Street, London. 
John Venn, Rector of Clapham, was in the chair. 
The first agents were sent out in 1803. 

The Methodist Missionary Society was not 
formed for some years after the great sister 
Societies, but Methodist Missions are much 
older than the Methodist Missionary Society. 
Dr. Coke made his first voyage across the 
Atlantic in 1784, eight years before the Baptist 
Missionary Society was born, eleven years before 
the London Missionary Society was founded, 
and fifteen years before the Church Missionary 
Society started on its course of blessing. 

Up to 1790, the burden of the missions rested 
on Dr. Coke s shoulders. c The missionary enter 
prise began to stir the conscience of 

Missionary the Church ; and in the Methodist 

communion it took this year some 
thing like an organic form, by the appointment 
of a corporate body who should be charged 



with its administration the first Methodist 
" Missionary Committee." The minute of Con 
ference appointing it reads : The Committee for 
the management of our affairs in the West 
Indies : Thomas Coke, Alexander Mather, Thomas 
Rankin, James Rogers, Henry Moore, Adam 
Clarke, John Baxter, William Warrener, Matthew 
Lumb. There were nineteen missionaries at 
eleven stations in the West Indies, Nova Scotia, 
and Newfoundland, with 5,350 members. Metho 
dism was the first church that regarded its 
missionary work as an integral part of its 
system, as directly under the rule of the 
Conference as its home work. 

In October, 1790, Coke was again on his way to 
the West Indies. He had been sixteen months in 
England begging for the cause that The 
lay so near to his heart. Two new Caribs - 
helpers, Mr. Lyons and Mr. Worrell, sailed with 
him. Mr. Pearce had built a chapel in Bridge 
town to accommodate 700. Mr. Lyons was left 
there to help him. When Coke reached St. 
Vincent he visited the Societies, and rode to 
the borders of the Carib-land. Mr. Baxter had 
found the people so unresponsive that he had 
reluctantly withdrawn from the mission. * When 
Mrs. Baxter took her leave of some of them she 
wept bitterly, and prayed that they might have 
another call, and accept, and not reject it, as 



they did the late one. Others were more 
enlightened. There was a prospect of a great 
flame throughout the island. Even many of 
the Roman Catholics prefer our missionaries to 
their own priests, and have sent for Mr. Baxter 
to baptize their children. 

Coke had visited Jamaica in January, 1789. 
Four or five families of some social distinction 
Religion in received him with much kindness, and 
Jamaica, promised a cordial reception to any 
missionaries who were sent out. The need was 
urgent. Sunday, the day of the public market, 
was spent in business and recreation. Out of a 
population of 400,000, scarcely 500 entered a 
place of worship. William Hammet was ap 
pointed to Kingston, but soon after his arrival 
violent opposition broke out. His life was 
endangered. The planters and white people, who 
were living in a state of open immorality, 
threatened to pull down the large chapel erected 
on the parade. Strong friends came forward to 
support Mr. Hammet, but when Coke arrived 
he lay ill with fever and ague, worn almost to a 
skeleton with labour and anxiety. Coke ventured 
to reopen the chapel on the evening of his 
arrival, and had a large audience. The only 
hope of Mr. Hammet s recovery was to get him 
to a cooler climate. Coke says : I determined 
to take him with me to America. He has been 



employed in the most arduous undertakings in 
these islands. The two most flourishing Societies 
in the West Indies, Antigua excepted, were raised 
by his indefatigable labours ; and there are but 
few in the world with whom I have been 
acquainted that possess the proper apostolic 
spirit in an equal degree with him. 

Coke now proceeded to Charlestown, where he 
met Bishop Asbury. The news of Wesley s 
death made him hasten to England. p r0 gressin 
The Conference of 1791 appointed West Indies - 
him its Secretary and delegate to the West 
Indies. The President and eight other ministers 
were the committee for examining accounts, 
letters, missionaries that are to be sent to the 
islands, &c. Wilberforce had now come for 
ward as the champion of the slave, and the 
interest in the West Indies was growing. The 
Methodists had seized the providential moment, 
and their mission to the negroes excited general 
interest and sympathy. 

The change in the negroes gave strong evidence 
of the reality of the work. Dr. Coke refers with 
great thankfulness to the happy deaths of some 
of the converts, and to their patience under suffer 
ing and trial. The missionaries exerted a whole 
some influence on the slaves. Formerly during 
their saturnalian holidays strong military guards 
had been needed to preserve the peace. Now such 



precautions were unnecessary. When the French 
threatened to invade Tortola, and the whites were 
too feeble to defend it, the Governor asked the 
missionary whether the negroes might be trusted. 
Mr. Turner pledged himself for their fidelity, 
and consented to go with them to the field. 
The French squadron was amazed at the show 
of force, and retired after cutting two vessels 
out of the bay. The Governor of the Leeward 
Islands was not slow to discern the value of 
this new arm of defence. He called upon our 
missionaries in St. Christopher s and Antigua to 
report the number of slaves who could bear 
arms, and they were promptly enrolled on the 
military force. In recognition of this service the 
English Government offered passages to our 
missionaries in the Falmouth packets for Bermuda 
and Jamaica without payment of the king s 
head money. 

Yet even the manifest service rendered by the 
Mission could not reconcile some of its enemies 
to its progress. Hardly had Mr. Stephenson, 
one of the preachers sent out by favour of the 
Government, arrived in Jamaica than the local 
authorities bestirred themselves. In 1800 a law 
was passed by the legislature of Jamaica for 
bidding any one to preach unless he belonged to 
the Church of England or the Church of Scot 
land. Mr. Stephenson was cast into prison for 



disobeying this law. On Dr. Coke s appeal the 
law was disallowed by the king in council, and 
Mr. Stephenson released from prison, but he 
never recovered his strength. Seven years later 
a law was passed in Jamaica forbidding any 
Methodist missionary or other sectary to instruct 
slaves, or receive them into their houses, chapels, 
or conventicles of any sort. This oppressive 
enactment was repealed after eighteen months, 
on appeal to the Home Government. Towards 
the end of 1815 the chapels, some of which 
had been closed by law for ten years, were 
allowed to be reopened, and the people, with 
joy sparkling in their eyes, and feelings of 
gratitude visibly portrayed on their counten 
ances, came up once more to the house of the 

On September i, 1792, Coke set out on his fifth 
voyage across the Atlantic. He attended the 

General Conference at Baltimore, and 

sailed for St. Eustatius on December 12. in the 

There the little Methodist Society had 
almost dwindled to nothing. It had its heroines. 
Two negresses had been publicly flogged for attend 
ing a Methodist prayer-meeting. * While under 
the severe lashes of the common executioner, and 
when great furrows were made in their bleeding 
backs, they triumphantly told the multitude that 
they preferred their torments above all the gold 


and silver in the world. In short, they gave such 
proofs of the power of religion, of patient suffering 
and victorious faith, that some principal gentlemen 
who were present acknowledged it was a thousand 
pities they should suffer at all. But nothing could 
move the Governor. 

At St. Vincent also persecution had broken 
out. Coke found Mr. Lumb confined in the common 
jail for preaching. The legislature had passed an 
Act forbidding any one to preach without a licence, 
and as such a licence was only granted to those who 
had resided twelve months on the island, it struck 
a hard blow at the Methodist missions. There were 
now 1,000 negro members in St. Vincent. The 
work was spreading over the group. By February, 
1793, there were twelve preachers in the West 
Indies, and 6,570 members, most of whom were 
negroes. After visiting Barbados and Jamaica, 
Coke sailed for England. His vessel had a narrow 
escape from a French privateer, which was gaining 
on it apace when Lord Hood s fleet, bound for 
the Mediterranean, appeared in sight Joyfully 
did we sail into the midst of our friends, while the 
privateer made off towards the coast of France. 
Thus did Providence deliver us. Then praise the 
Lord, O my soul. 

After due inquiry, the English Government dis 
annulled the Act of the Assembly of St. Vincent, 
and those Neros in miniature who had imprisoned 



good Matthew Lumb really rendered service to 
the West Indian Missions. In 1794 Dr. Coke 
visited Holland on behalf of the sufferers in 
St. Eustatius, but found the jealousy of foreign 
agency among the negroes too great to be overcome. 
The Conference of 1793 faced a momentous 
question : The fund for the support of the 

Missions in the West Indies being 

exhausted, yea, considerably in debt, Collection 

f . 1. / , -T-i for Missions, 

what can be done for its relief ? The 

answer was, A general collection shall be made 
for the missions in our congregations, for this year. 
Coke published his accounts from August, 1787, 
to August, 1793. He had himself given 917 
ifs. 2^d, and lent 1,200 for chapels in the West 
Indies. He cancelled these claims, and in August, 
1 794, there was a clean balance-sheet. The Minutes 
for 1 794 say : There is to be no General Conference 
in the West Indies the ensuing year : i. Because 
the expense will be enormous on account of the 
war. 2dly, Because of the great dangers arising 
from the French privateers, which infest those seas. 
3dly, Because the removals of preachers in the 
West Indies are very few. In 1796 Conference 
directed : Let a general collection be made by the 
preachers in every town in England where Dr. Coke 
has not made application within six months before 
the meeting of the Conference ; and let the money 
so collected be deposited in the hands of Mr. 
D 33 


Whitfield. Henceforth the collection was made 
every year. 

Coke now planned an industrial mission to settle 
in the Foulah country, beyond Sierra Leone. He 

took great pains in selecting its members, 
Sierra Leone 

and the who sailed in February, 1796. Unfor- 
Clapham Sect. 

tunately, they quarrelled, and the colony 

had to be abandoned. Methodism was thus linked 
to Zachary Macaulay, William Wilberforce, and 
other members of the Clapham Sect. When 
Zachary Macaulay was on his way to Sierra 
Leone as Governor he wrote : I am pestered almost 
to death with Dr. Coke and his missionaries. 
Coke also enlisted the help of Wilberforce, who 
was often amused by the oddities of the doctor. 
When the account of Coke s visit to America in 
Wesley s Life was read to him he said, Southey 
never could have seen the doctor. I wish I could 
forget his little round face and short figure. Any 
one who wished to take off a Methodist could not 
have done better than exactly copy his manner 
and appearance. He looked a mere boy when he 
was turned fifty, with such a smooth apple face, 
and little round mouth, that if it had been forgotten 
you might have made as good a one by thrusting 
in your thumb. He was waiting once to see me in 
a room, into which some accident brought Bankes. 
The doctor made, I suppose, some strange demon 
stration, for he sent Bankes to Milner s room, 



saying in amazement, " What extraordinary people 
Wilberforce does get around him ! " Wilberforce 
gave 50 for the Foulah mission, and when things 
turned out badly he wrote to Zachary Macaulay 
on July 4, 1796 : * Yet we must not be discouraged. 
But this event confirms me in the wish to set up an 
institution for educating and training missionaries, 
of which a few of ourselves should be the managers. 
On November 9, 1/97, he writes in his journal: 
Dined and slept at Battersea Rise for missionary 
meeting Simeon, Charles Grant, Venn. Some 
thing, but not much, done. Simeon in earnest. 

In the Minutes of Conference for 1796, below the 
entry Missionaries for Africa, Archibald Murdoch, 
William Patten, we find it noted that Dr. Coke 
reported his failure, and after prayer and mature 
consideration, the Conference unanimously judged 
that a trial should be made in that part of Africa 
on the proper missionary plan, The two brethren 
above-mentioned having voluntarily offered them 
selves for this important work, the Conference 
solemnly appointed them for it, and earnestly 
recommended them and their great enterprise to 
the public and private prayers of the Methodist 

Dr. Coke s strength and time had been largely 
devoted to the home work during the anxious 
period that followed the death of Wesley. In 
August, 1796, he sailed for Baltimore to attend the 



General Conference. There he proposed to labour 
as Asbury s colleague, visiting the West Indies or 
France when he could be spared. Asbury was 
delighted, but the English Conference asked Coke 
to retain his relation to it, as he had often been 
a peacemaker in the anxious years that followed 
the death of Wesley, and was greatly needed in 
the disturbed state of the societies. 

Coke returned to England in March, 1797, and 
was elected President of the Conference at Leeds. 

America ^ n August he crossed the Atlantic again, 
wants Coke. His vessd wag taken by a French 

privateer, and the President of the Methodist 
Conference became a prisoner. He regained his 
liberty in time to attend the November Conference 
in Virginia. He reported that the English Con 
ference could not afford to give up its missionary 
bishop to America. There were then more than 
1,000 travelling and local preachers in the States, 
so that Bishop Asbury sorely needed his colleague. 
No other helpers could be appointed till the 
General Conference of 1800. When that drew 
near the English Conference of 1799 wrote: We 
are satisfied that the work of God and the good of 
the Church, considered at large, call for his 
(Dr. Coke s) continuance in Europe. The West 
Indian missions have flourished under his super 
intendence beyond our most sanguine expectations. 
About 11,000 have been added to the Church 



of God among the poor negroes in that part of 
the world. But there is no person, at present, to 
fill his place, and raise the necessary supplies. 
We, indeed, help him in a degree ; but are satisfied 
that the work of God in those islands would receive 
essential injury on his secession from it. 

One little incident belongs to this period. 
Mrs. Fletcher, in 1798, offered Coke the remaining 
copies of her husband s poem, La Grace et la 
Nature, with her wish that the profit should be 
personal. The doctor asked her to send them to 
Mr. Bruce, the bookseller in City Road, my agent 
for all my little matters, who would bind a hundred 
copies. He says: Whatever I can spare myself, as 
well as receive from others, I apply to the carrying 
on of the great work of God among the negroes, 
a work which particularly lies upon me. 

In 1799 Dr. Coke devoted much attention to 
a mission among the Irish peasantry. Charles 
Graham and Gideon Ouseley were two of Mi^km in 
the first missionaries. They wore velvet Ireland - 
caps, and preached on horseback in the fairs and 
markets. The Black Caps, or Cavalry Preachers, 
were soon well known in Ireland, and many of the 
ignorant and superstitious were led into the light 
of the gospel. 

Mr. Etheridge says the work in the West Indies 
had now * attained such a massive importance as 
to involve a vast amount of pecuniary care. To 



meet these responsibilities, Dr. Coke not only 
drained his own private resources, but toiled 
coke finds fr m day to day like a common 
a Wife, mendicant At Bristol in 1805, he 
asked John Pawson, the superintendent of the 
circuit, to give him the names of any who were 
likely to help him. Why, said Mr. Pawson, 
there is a lady now staying at the Hot Wells, 
who, I should not wonder, would give you some 
thing handsome ; and, if you like, I will show 
you myself where she is lodging. To his delight 
and astonishment, Miss Smith promised that she 
would give him ;ioo if he could call at her 
home in Bradford (Wilts). W T hen the doctor 
went she made it 200. He had found a 
kindred spirit, and soon won her consent to 
share his life and labours. 

Coke published no missionary balance-sheet 

between 1794 and 1803. Whilst he was out of 

Missionary England in 1803, his accounts were in 

Accounts. the hands of the Book steward, who 

got them hopelessly mixed with his own accounts. 
Jabez Bunting, then a young minister in London, 
was called in to help. He writes : All next week 
my places are to be supplied, that I may be at 
liberty to attend to the affairs of the missions and 
of the Book Committee. In the middle of that 
week, December 28, 1803, he reports: I am quite 
tired of the cares of business, and should be glad 



instantly to return to my accustomed duties. I 
find so bustling a life, spent in such employments, 
not very favourable to my spiritual interests. 
Pray for me. I never needed help more. 
The London ministers formed a Committee of 
Finance and Advice, consisting of themselves and 
lay members of the Committee of Privileges. 
Mr. William Marriott was treasurer, Mr. Joseph 
Butterworth secretary. The Conference of 1804 
dissolved this committee, as * they choose to 
manage the missions in future, only by their 
General Superintendent, and a committee chosen 
out of their own body. A ministerial treasurer 
and secretary, Robert Loinas and Joseph Entwisle, 
were appointed, and rules were adopted for the 
management of the missions. It was arranged 
to publish annual accounts. Jabez Bunting 
greatly regretted that laymen were not allowed 
to sit on this committee, but he was regarded 
as a dangerous innovator. 

Coke s letters still bear witness to his zeal as 
a collector. From Boston, on September 26, 
1804, he sent 23 IDS. to the Rev. Coke as a 
R. Lomas, the Book Steward. On Collector - 
October 2 he forwards 100 from Hull : I have 
borrowed above 30 of this. Oh, go on, he pleads, 
I will beg hard for you, as far as is necessary. 
I will, if necessary, God willing, raise for you 
1,500 the ensuing year. At Hull he collected 



more than 200, and hoped to get as much at 
Bristol. He asks the committee to deal kindly 
with a missionary who had not obeyed instruc 
tions. Brother Shipley has done more in the 
way and spirit of martyrdom than, perhaps, any 
other man in the Connexion would have done. 
He nursed that blessed work in Dominica till the 
Society sprang up from 50 to 1,005. To do this, 
he endured the yellow fever four times, and his 
wife twice. When he was on the point of dying, 
his physicians urged him to set off instantly with 
the fleet to his native country, or he must die 
quickly. He went off, instead of going, to Nova 
Scotia. Very probably you would have done the 
same. We have no right to punish him. Do 
let him go to Nova Scotia. He may then go, 
when perfectly recovered, back to the dear 

Dr. Coke visited Paris in September, 1/91, in 
the hope of securing a foothold for Methodism 
Methodism * n tne French capital. The state of 
in France. ^ c j tv mac j e j t necessary to abandon 
that design. A modest beginning of mission work 
in Normandy was, however, made the same year. 
A Jersey layman, John Angel, visited that 
region, where he found some Protestants without 
a pastor. William Mahy was sent from Guern 
sey to care for them, and laboured here until 
1808. In 1804 Jabez Bunting wrote : We have 



pleasing accounts from Messrs. Mahy and 
Pontavice, in France. They are making silent 
progress in some country parishes of Normandy. 
But concealment is essential to their safety and 
success ; so that nothing must be published that 
would tend to make them objects of attention 
to the present execrable government of that 

For a few years the Methodists of France were 
without pastors. In 1814 a converted Breton, 
Armand de Kerpezdron, visited the little societies, 
and in 1815 Amice Ollivier became their minister. 
Jean de Quetteville, of Guernsey, visited Nor 
mandy in 1816, where he preached and formed 
a small society. In 1818 Charles Cook began 
his forty years mission. In 1819 the Rev. John 
Hawtrey was appointed to Paris. 

In March, 1792, some Methodist soldiers, who 
had just come to Gibraltar, began to hold services 
in that garrison. Two of them were 
leaders and two local preachers. People 
flocked around the door and asked permission to 
join them. The men went to the Governor, told 
him they were Methodists, and asked him to 
sanction their proceedings. He gladly gave con 
sent, a larger room was secured, then another 
twice as large. Before war broke out, in 1793, 
there were 120 members. General O Hara was 
asked to stop the meetings ; but replied, Let 



them alone. I wish there were twenty for one 
of them ; we should have fewer court-martials 
in the garrison. Persecution broke out a few 
years later, and on July n, 1803, five Methodist 
soldiers in Gibraltar were condemned by a court- 
martial to receive 500 lashes each for attending a 
Methodist service. The corporals were reduced, 
and received 200 lashes each ; the other three 
men were pardoned. 

In 1804, in response to the request of some 
Methodist soldiers, the Rev. James M Mullen was 
sent as our first missionary to Gibraltar. He 
arrived with his wife and child in September, 
when yellow fever had desolated every house 
hold. He only preached once. His child caught 
the fever, and the father, worn out with nursing, 
fell a victim to the disease on October 18. His 
wife died a few days later. Their child was 
spared to return to England, where she became 
the wife of the Rev. John Rigg, and the mother 
of the Rev. J. H. Rigg, D.D. The station was left 
without a pastor till 1808, when William Griffith 
came to take charge. Providence Chapel was built 
in 1811, and Gibraltar became the head quarters 
of Methodism in the British Army. 

The Abolition Bill of 1807 brought to an end 
the legalized traffic in slaves. The Conference 
of that year determined that none of our 
preachers employed in the West Indies, shall be 



at liberty to marry any person, who will not 
previously emancipate, in the legal methods, all 
the slaves of whom she may be Abolition of 
possessed : and if any of our brethren Slave Trade - 
there, already married, have, by such marriage, or 
in any other way, become proprietors of slaves, 
we require those brethren to take immediate and 
effectual steps for their emancipation. A copy 
of this minute was to be sent to every preacher 
in the West Indies, with instructions that a report 
should be given next year of the way in which 
it had been obeyed. Most of the white people 
who were class-leaders in the West Indies were 
slave-holders. The missionaries were instructed 
to promote the moral and religious improvement 
of the slaves, without in the least degree, in public 
or in private, interfering with their civil condition. 
They never taught the slaves to expect freedom, 
but trained them to be patient and faithful to 

In 1808 Dr. Coke issued an appeal for a mission 
to Africa. Some of the negroes who had helped 
to form the colony of Sierra Leone sierra 
in 1792 were Methodists from Nova Leone - 
Scotia. When they reached Africa two or three 
of them served as local preachers, and others as 
class-leaders. Congregations grew, and a chapel 
was erected to hold four hundred people. In the 
winter of 1810 Coke met George Warren, then 



a local preacher in the Helston Circuit, who felt 
himself called to work in Africa. * For a long 
season/ he told Coke, * his mind had been so 
deeply impressed that it was his duty to go, 
that he would prefer the station to any other. 
At the same time Coke heard from Mr. Nelson, 
then superintendent at Dewsbury, of three young 
men, Messrs. Hadley, Hurst, and Rayner, who 
were willing to go out to Africa. They were 
examined by a committee of the Leeds District, 
and sent to an academy to prepare for educational 
work in Sierra Leone. The four missionaries 
sailed from Liverpool on September 21, 1811. 
The people of Liverpool gave 200 Bibles and 
Testaments, the Bible Society presented 25 
Arabic Bibles, 25 English Bibles, and 25 English 
Testaments. Great was the rejoicing in Sierra 
Leone when the mission party arrived. Mr. 
Gordon, on whose shoulders the burden of the 
Methodist settlement had rested, was engaged 
in fishing, so that he was frequently absent from 
home. When he called at the house of the 
merchant where the missionaries were enter 
tained, and was introduced to them, his heart 
seemed to overflow with joy. Astonishment, for 
a few moments, suppressed every other feeling. 
At length, after recovering a little from the 
transport of his amazement, he exclaimed, with 
a degree of rapturous pathos which no art can 



imitate, " This is what we have been praying 
for so long, and now the Lord has answered 
our prayers." Mr. Warren had expected to find 
50 members, but there were 1 10 in the Society. 
His ministry was greatly blessed, but after eight 
months labour he fell a victim to malignant 
fever on July 23, 1812. He was the first 
missionary martyr of West Africa. He had 
laboured even more than perhaps would have 
been prudent even in his own country/ 

The work at Sierra Leone was now left without 
a head, but in February, 1815, the Rev. William 
Davies and his wife arrived from England. Within 
ten months Mrs. Davies fell a victim to fever, the 
first of the missionaries wives who have laid down 
their lives for West Africa. Death mowed down 
one worker after another. Six missionaries and 
two missionaries wives died within six months, 
yet volunteers were always ready to fill the 
posts of danger. Native missionaries were being 
trained, schools established, chapels built, not 
only in Freetown, the capital, but in other parts 
of the colony. 

Coke managed to raise more than ,6,000 a 
year for missions by subscriptions and the general 
collection. He was unwearied in his Coke , 8 Zeal ag 
efforts. On January I, 1810, he writes a Collector, 
from Wakefield : If my accounts be accurate, 
I have sent you ^784 13^. since the Conference. 



I have no doubt I shall make up this sum to 
^"2,000 before the Conference, if it please God 
that I live and am well. Then you will have 
the public collections throughout the kingdom ; 
so that we should not impede this glorious work 
in the least degree. Jehovah Jireh/ 

From Truro, January 28, 1812, he writes, I 
have sent by this post ,200, which will be 
^500 in all, and hope to send ,200 more 
from Plymouth. I intend to be, D.V., at Pen- 
zance next Sunday, at Redruth the Sunday 
following, and at Plymouth the Sunday after. 
I am preparing a French sermon to preach to 
the prisoners. But nothing shall interrupt my 
labours in begging. When I received Mr. Blan- 
shard s last letter, informing me that the fund 
was above ^4,000 in debt, it robbed me of my 
rest for two nights. And I could not pacify 
myself till I had resolved to sacrifice all my 
literary labours, and to be nothing but a 
preacher and a beggar, and to beg morning 
and afternoon. I felt the sacrifice very great, 
because I am so foolish as to think I could do 
some good through the Press. But all is over. 
. . . I will never rest till I have liquidated all 
your debt. 









THE project for a mission to the East, which had 
been in Coke s mind for many years, was now 
taking definite shape. No pains had A Mission 
been spared to reach a wise decision. to the East 

Colonel Sandys, Coke s friend and correspondent, 
visited the Sheffield Conference in 1805. A com 
mittee was formed to consult with him coke s 
about a mission to India. After hearing Advisers - 
its report the Conference instructed Coke to 
approach the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company. The colonel wrote several letters to 
Joseph Benson, and interviewed Lord Teignmouth, 
Mr. Wilberforce, and Mr. Grant (then chairman of 
the East India Company). Coke also visited 
Mr. Grant. Coke and the colonel concluded that 
* the Court of Directors would not consent to the 
establishment of a mission in India for the conver 
sion of the natives, whether instituted by us or by 
the Established Church itself. But we were also 
fully satisfied that neither the Court of Directors nor 
E 49 


the Government in India would prosecute us if we 
established a mission in India, but would connive 
at our proceedings. The friends agreed that the 
best place for the mission would be among the 
Syrian-Hindu Christians on the coast of Malabar, 
who numbered 1 50,000. These particulars are 
given in a letter dated Helstone, December 18, 
1806. Colonel Sandys promised a handsome 
gift to start the mission and a liberal contribution 
afterwards. Coke and his wife offered 50 a 
year, and if this be not sufficient, we will lay 
out some of our principal on joint annuities, 
and give 100, or 200, per annum. I have no 
doubt many will join us liberally. Colonel 
Sandys presided at the Society s anniversary in 
1821, when the dreams of earlier days had been 
gloriously realized. 

Coke took every opportunity of consulting men 
who knew India, such as Mr. Morton, father-in-law 
of Dr. Beaumont and Dr. Morrison of China, and 
Dr. Claudius Buchanan. His intercourse with 
Dr. Buchanan convinced him that Ceylon was the 
best field for an Eastern mission. There were 
500,000 nominal Christian inhabitants, with only 
two ministers. English, Dutch, and Portuguese 
were spoken widely in the island, so that the 
missionaries might be usefully employed whilst 
they were learning the native tongues. The Hon. 
Sir Alexander Johnston, Chief Justice of Ceylon, 



visited England in 1809. He told William 
Wilberforcc of the horrible condition of the heathen 
and the low state of religion among the nominal 
Christians. Wilberforce warmly commended the 
missionary work of the Methodists, and advised 
the Chief Justice to open negotiations with them 
as to a mission to Ceylon. Wilberforce mentioned 
this to Adam Clarke, but at that time the Con 
ference felt unable to incur fresh burdens. 

Coke was so much bent on a mission to the East 
that he actually offered himself to the Government 
to fill the proposed bishopric for Tndia. He said 
he would resign all his prospects of usefulness at 
home if only that opportunity were granted. 
Could I but close my life in being the 
means of raising a spiritual Church in India, it 
would satisfy the utmost ambition of my soul here 
below. His removal would, he thought, render 
others more zealous for the good of Methodism. 
He had a fortune of about 1,200 a year, and was 
ready to devote his whole strength to the work. 
Happily for himself and for Methodism, nothing 
came of this proposal. 

Coke was now shut up to Methodism. On June 
28, 1813, he wrote from Dublin to his friend Mr. 
Drew, who had urged him to give up the plan 
on account of his age and other difficulties: * I have 
laboured in the begging way since the last Con 
ference more arduously than ever, except about 

5 1 


a month or six weeks, when I swam in waves of 
woe on account of my late precious wife. I am 
now dead to Europe and alive for India. God 
Himself has said to me, " Go to Ceylon ! " I am so 
fully convinced of the will of God that methinks 
I had rather be set naked on the coast of 
Ceylon, without clothes and without a friend, than 
not go there. He was ardently learning Portuguese, 
which he was convinced that he should master 
before he reached Ceylon. 

A month later he stood in the Liverpool Con 
ference pleading for Ceylon. The burdens of the 

Connexion made its wisest counsellors 
Coke pleads 

for Ceylon in hesitate. Joseph Benson declared, with 

great vehemence, that the scheme would 

be the ruin of Methodism. Jabez Bunting, Reece, 
and Atmore, however, pleaded warmly for Coke s 
proposals. The debate was adjourned. As Coke 
returned to his home, leaning on the arm of Mr. 
Clough, almost broken-hearted with his burden of 
uncertainty, he actually wept in the street. Next 
day, when Mr. Clough called, he found that the 
doctor had spent most of the night on the floor 
in prayer for India. That morning his thrilling 
speech and his munificent offer of ;6,ooo for the 
commencement of the mission subdued all opposi 
tion. If you will not let me go, he said, you 
will break my heart ! 

The Conference authorized and appointed Dr. 


Coke to undertake a mission to Ceylon and Java, 
and allowed him to take with him six missionaries, 
exclusive of one for the Cape of Good Hope. 
Dr. Coke called Mr. dough out of the Conference, 
and said with a full heart, Did I not tell you that 
God would answer prayer ? He was soon wholly 
engrossed with preparation for his departure. In 
case of his death he left all his property to the 
Worn-out Ministers Fund. 

George Morley, then Superintendent in Leeds, 
had seen how many were discouraged, and some 

absolutely terrified/ by any attempt to 

Leeds forms 
send a mission to the East on account of a Missionary 

the exhausted state of the funds. It had 
been resolved to diminish the number of ministers 
at home rather than let the opportunity slip. He 
determined, there and then, to propose some extra 
ordinary effort in his circuit. He consulted his 
colleagues, Jabez Bunting and Robert Filter, who 
warmly supported him. All to whom the matter 
was mentioned were ready to assist. A consulta 
tion was held at Bramley, and the ministers there 
heartily endorsed the scheme for a Leeds meeting. 
When James Buckley and Richard Watson, then 
travelling at Wakefield, were invited to the 
inaugural meeting, they offered to join in the effort. 
An address was issued proposing the formation of 
a Methodist Missionary Society for the Leeds 
District. It dwelt on increasing opportunities of 



evangelizing heathen nations, the excellent example 
of other Christian societies, and the loss of the 
personal exertions of Dr. Coke, who for years has 
stooped to the very drudgery of charity, and has 
gratuitously pleaded the cause of a perishing world 
from door to door. Whilst, therefore, he leads our 
little band of missionaries against the idolatry of 
the East, and whilst more than one hundred 
Methodist missionaries in different parts of the 
world are immediately engaged in the same 
contest with the powers of darkness, it devolves 
upon us who remain at home to give effect to 
the necessary financial arrangements, and to 
furnish the sinews of this holy war. 

On October 5, 1813, Mr. Buckley preached at 
Armley. The following morning, at Albion Street 
Chapel, Leeds, Richard Watson delivered his 
sermon on Ezekiel s Vision of the Valley of Dry 
Bones. The same day, at two o clock, a public 
meeting was held in the Old Boggard House, after 
wards replaced by St. Peter s Chapel. Here 
Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor had 
volunteered for America. The gallery was filled 
by ladies ; Mr. Thomas Thompson, M.P., of Hull, 
presided. He said he was present at the Confer 
ence of 1778 held in that chapel, when a most 
interesting discussion took place on the propriety 
of sending missionaries to the coast of Guinea to 
preach the gospel to the debased and degraded 



Africans in the very face of the slave trade. After 
a debate which lasted several hours, a young 
man, apparently far advanced in consumption, rose 
and offered to spend the remainder of his days in 
that blessed work. This was probably James 
Gaffney, a young man of considerable abilities, 
wise above his years/ whose obituary appears in 
1779. Eighteen resolutions were adopted. One 
of the speakers was William Warrener, who had 
returned from the West Indies, and was labouring 
in Selby. William Dawson s speech was electrical, 
and drew tears from the eyes of the chairman. 
Henceforth the missionary platform was another 
throne for Dawson. The most famous and effective 
of his speeches was the telescope speech, which 
Dr. Benjamin Gregory heard at Pontefract. 
Dawson coiled up his resolution into the shape 
of a spy-glass, and described in the most animated, 
energetic, vivid style, characteristic scenes of 
heathenism, asking before each description What 
do I see ? Then, turning in another direction, he 
demanded, But what do I see in the distant 
prospect ? describing the most graphic scenes of 
millennial peace, and love, and glory. Jabez 
Bunting was thirty-first in the list of speakers. 
He only said a few words, but when one of the 
local secretaries of the London Missionary Society 
expressed a desire that all Christians should regard 
themselves as one body in missionary enterprise, 



Mr. Bunting felt it necessary to point out that, 
though the cause was one, it was promoted by 
distinct Societies, each of which had its distinct 
and separate fund. 

Richard Reece preached in the evening to a 
crowded congregation. No collection was made at 
any of the services. 

Richard Watson prepared An Address to the 
Public/ showing that the Connexion had about sixty 
missionaries labouring among the Irish papists 
and in foreign lands. The exact statistics were : 
30 mission stations, 51 agents, and 17,025 members. 
Many thousand copies of Watson s address were 
circulated, and within twelve months ;i,ooo was 
remitted from the District to the treasurer in 
London. Jabez Bunting wrote : I believe in this 
circuit we shall get annually more than even Dr. 
Coke has obtained by his occasional applications 
once in two or three years. And not only funds^ 
but missionaries will, I trust, be multiplied by the 
frequent appeals which the Society will make by its 
annual meetings, sermons, and reports, on behalf 
of the perishing heathen. 

Benson felt that the plans had been laid with 
great judgement as well as zeal. I agree with 
you that you had no alternative, to prevent our 
people s money being diverted in a line in which it 
is neither so much needed, nor will, as far as we 
can judge, do so much good. These missions to 



Ceylon, Java, &c., will bring a most enormous 
additional expense upon the fund. 

Dr. Coke was in a fever of delight and thanks 
giving. He wrote to Bunting on October 1 5 : 

VERY DEAR FRIEND, The generality 
of our committee rejoice in the steps you Delight about 
have taken in behalf of the missions. 
As to myself, I shall go to Asia with a glad 
heart indeed, through the blessing of God. We 
have agreed on a circular letter to be sent to 
all the circuits. It will be put into the press 
in a few days, and sent with the next magazines ; 
but I will send you a copy by the post. It is 
the Lord who has put it into your hearts thus 
to step forth. There is nothing you have done 
which I do not most fully approve of. A little 
later, when the flame was spreading, he wrote: 
I bless God that you are making such a pro 
gress in missionary matters in Yorkshire. This 
blessed plan will lighten my heart exceedingly, 
both at sea and in Asia. When on board the 
Cabalva Indiaman, he found time to send a few 
lines of thanks to Bunting, by the pilot, for his 
zeal in the missionary cause : The Lord reward 
you a thousandfold for it! Off Madeira he wrote 
again: Oh, remember Sierra Leone! and sent his 
love to his missionary subscribers; and to my dear 
five-guinea, or ten- guinea (I forget which) subscriber 
who lives at his works in the Bramley Circuit. 



James Lynch, William Ault, George Erskine, 
William M. Harvard, Thomas H. Squance, and 

Benjamin Clough were Coke s com- 
The first 

Missionaries panions. 1 hey were ordained at Lam 
beth, St. George s - in - the - East, and 
Great Queen Street. W T hen they met at the 
Bush Hotel, Portsmouth, Coke rose from 
his chair. Here we all are before God, six 
missionaries and two dear sisters [Mrs. Ault and 
Mrs. Harvard], now embarked on the most 
important and most glorious work in the world. 
Glory be ascribed to His blessed name, that He 
has given you to be my companions and assist 
ants in carrying the gospel to the Asiatics, and 
that He has not suffered parents, nor brothers, 
nor sisters, nor the dearest friends, to stop any 
of you from going with me to India. On 
December 30, 1813, the party sailed from Ports 
mouth. Coke preached his farewell sermon in 
St. Peter s Chapel, Portsmouth, from the text : 
1 Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto 
God. It was a summary of the deepest thoughts 
and yearnings of his heart. He said, It is of little 
consequence whether we take our flight to glory 
from the land of our nativity, from the trackless 
ocean, or the shores of Ceylon. Strong in this 
confidence, he started on his last voyage. 

Coke lost no time in resuming his studies. In 
his charming cabin, with two large windows opening 



out on the sea, he employed himself in reading 
and writing Portuguese. His heart was full of 
boundless charity divine. The passion for 
missions has seldom glowed more fervently in 
any human breast. * I want/ he said, the wings 
of an eagle and the voice of a trumpet, that I 
may proclaim the gospel through the East and 
the West, the North and the South. God 
seemed to have bidden him to go to Ceylon. 
A clergyman was not permitted to preach on a 
ship belonging to the East India Company ; but 
the passengers, who had heard of Coke s Com 
mentary, asked him to give them some readings 
from it on Sunday evenings. He was as eager 
as ever to do good to all who sailed with him. 
The future was always in his thoughts, and he 
sent home from the Cape a detailed account of 
his plans of work. 

Meanwhile his health alarmed his friends. 
Mr. Clough tried to make him take some 
relaxation, but it was difficult to draw coke s 
the eager student from his Portuguese. Death - 
On May 2 Mrs. Harvard was distressed by his 
wavering step and haggard look. That night he 

To me remains nor place nor time, 
My country is in every clime ; 
I can be calm and free from care 
On any shore, since God is there. 



Thou, by long experience tried, 
Near whom no grief can long abide ; 
My God, how full of sweet content 

1 pass my years of banishment ! 

All scenes alike engaging prove 
To souls inspired with heavenly love ; 
Where er they dwell they dwell in Thee, 
In heaven, in earth, or on the sea. 

Could I be cast where Thou art not, 
That were indeed a dreadful lot ; 
But regions none remote I call, 
Secure of finding God in all. 

Mr. Clough wished to sit up with him, but the 
doctor assured him it was unnecessary, and 
said he hoped to be better to-morrow. The 
morning came ; his faithful friend knocked at 
his door, but received no answer. Coke lay 
lifeless on the floor of his cabin. It was a sore 
stroke for the little band, thus suddenly to lose 
their head. They had scarcely a guinea among 
them, and when they landed, three weeks later, 
at Bombay, were unable to pay for their first 
meal at the inn. Their leader s death seemed to 
leave them utterly destitute. With aching hearts 
they committed the body of the missionary bishop 
to the mighty deep. 

News of Dr. Coke s death reached London in 
November, 1814, in time for insertion in the 
Methodist Magazine for December, which carried 
the tidings over the Connexion. The Report 
for 1815 refers tenderly to our orphan 



missionaries/ Glorious intelligence soon came, 
however, which, Jabez Bunting thought, would 
convince even the most sceptical that Dr. Coke s 
zeal was not always enthusiastic, and that this 
mission had the sanction of God. The old 
veteran, Thomas Taylor immortalized in the 
Lives of the Early Methodist Preachers^ and in 
James Montgomery s 

Servant of God, well done ! 
Rest from thy loved employ 

confessed, when the Birmingham Missionary 
Society was formed, that he had thought the 
mission to Ceylon * a hopeless scheme, and 
seemed justified in my opinion by the death 
of that indefatigable labourer in the great work, 
Dr. Coke ; but the success with which it has 
been crowned has silenced my fears. 

Coke, like another Moses, had gone when he 
seemed most sorely needed, snatched from his 
Pisgah vision to the heavenly rest. His feet never 
touched the shores of India ; his tongue never 
proclaimed there the message of life. This joy 
was not granted him ; yet surely his was a 
nobler lot. He died for India ; and dying, left 
the East as his legacy to the little band of 
companions who shared his own ardour, and to 
the Methodists of both worlds, who are pledged 
by Coke s heroic life and death to know no rest 
till India stretches out her hands to God. He 



had preached at Hinde Street, London, where 
his old host, Mr. Calder, lived, on the eve of his 
departure : Death ! he said, leaping up in the 
pulpit, death ! what is it to the Christian ? 
Why, it is only stepping out of time into 
eternity ! 

Dr. Smith pays a noble tribute to the missionary 
bishop : He organized and extended the Metho 
dism of America ; fostered, defended, and promoted 
the missions to British America and the West 
Indies ; gave a mighty impulse to the promulga 
tion of the gospel in the most destitute parts of 
England, Ireland, and Wales; laboured to introduce 
an evangelical agency into France and Gibraltar ; 
and, finally, inaugurated a great and effective 
missionary aggression on Asia ; and, besides all 
this, paid constant attention to the general 
interests of the Connexion and the religious 
condition of the world ; and laboured, in season 
and out of season, to promote the cause of his 
Saviour and the extension of the kingdom of 

The Annual Report of the state of the missions 
which are carried on both at home and abroad, 
Missionary ky the Society late in connexion with 
Report, isis. the Rev j ohn Wesley; addressed in 
particular to those generous supporters who have 
contributed to their support, and to the benevolent 
public at large, was published at the Conference 



Office in 1813. It gives particulars of the missions 
in Antigua, St. Christopher, Nevis, St. Bartholomew, 
Tortola, St. Thomas, and the other Virgin Islands 
lately captured, St. Eustatius, Dominica, St. Vin 
cent, Barbados, Grenada, Trinidad, Jamaica, the 
Bahamas, Bermuda, Nova Scotia and New Bruns 
wick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward s Island. 
It reports the growth of the work in Sierra Leone, 
and says, Lately we have learned, with the keenest 
sorrow, that Mr. Warren is dead. Mr. Rayner 
was to take his place as Superintendent. The 
Society at Gibraltar had increased from 42 to 
127, and the chapel erected only two years before 
was so crowded with respectable hearers that an 
enlargement was necessary. The Irish and Welsh 
missions were prospering, and Mr. Toase was 
doing a good work among the French prisoners 
in England. The total amount of subscriptions 
was 3,678 9-y. 6d., and of public collections 
4,241 cx$\ nd. Fitting out missionaries cost 
563; West Indies, 2,058 ; Nova Scotia, 126; 
Bahamas, 118 ; Bermuda, 143; Gibraltar, 482; 
work among French prisoners, 599 ; Sierra 
Leone, 1,510; Ireland (in the Irish language), 
558; home missions, 3,053; miscellaneous ex 
penses, 687. It is noted that Dr. Coke makes 
no charge for his travelling expenses on account 
of the mission. Total expenses 14,038, leaving 
6,1 1 8 due to the treasurer. 



Whilst Dr. Coke was on his voyage the fire 
was spreading through English Methodism. The 
Missionary example set by Leeds was widely 
Enthusiasm. f o n owe d. Before the Conference of 1814, 
meetings were held and missionary societies formed 
in the York, Hull, Sheffield, Cornwall, and New 
castle Districts. The first missionary meeting 
for London was held at City Road Chapel in 
December, 1814. The Manchester Missionary 
Society was formed on February 22, 1815 ; that 
at Birmingham in June. Collectors offered their 
services in all directions, and the diffusion of 
missionary intelligence raised up friends and 
helpers everywhere. The first meeting at Hinde 
Street, on October 25, 1816, created such en 
thusiasm that the Leaders Meeting feared that 
their scheme for grappling with circuit debts 
would be imperilled, and passed a resolution 
that no one should be allowed to subscribe to 
the missionary work who gave up his subscrip 
tion to the Chapel Fund. The following week, 
when Jabez Bunting was in the chair, this resolu 
tion was rescinded. Many timid people feared 
that missionary meetings would destroy the sim 
plicity of Methodism and lead to a fearful 
reaction. They were actually regarded as a 
device of the devil to mar Methodism in all its 
agency. It was soon found that they spread 
abroad a knowledge of the world s needs and 



of the power of Christ to save that filled the 
Church at home with new zeal and devotion. 
Some Districts and some leading ministers held 
back from the movement, but it was rapidly 
gaining ground, and the course of events gradually 
dispelled the fears of the most timorous. To 
Jabez Bunting s genius as an administrator, and 
Richard Watson s glorious gifts of mind and 
heart, the triumph was chiefly due. Thomas 
Jackson says that Watson wore out his life in 
this holy service, consumed by the quenchless 
ardour of his own spirit. More than any other 
individual, this distinguished minister for a time 
supplied the place of the lamented Dr. Coke. 
Two other important steps were taken : 
The Conference of 1815 directed the Missionary 
Committee to take into consideration the best 
means of providing preachers and Missionary 
people with ( regular and early com- Notices - 
munication of missionary intelligence. In obedi 
ence to this instruction the Missionary Notices 
were prepared. The first number was published 
in January, 1816, at the price of twopence. 

In 1815 also Richard Watson, then stationed 
in Hull, drew up a plan for a Juvenile Missionary 

Society. He urges the children * to teach 


that sacred name you have lisped in Missionary 


your infant prayers to them who never 

heard it, and by your contributions to increase 
F 65 


the number of missionaries who may commend 
the guide of your youth and the hope of your 
future years to myriads who wander without a 
guide and without a God. Join hands with your 
elder brethren, your fathers, your ministers, with 
the whole Christian world, in extending the 
kingdom of your Lord and Saviour. The 
young men at Hull paid in ,8 45. at their first 
monthly meeting, the young ladies 21 12s. d. 
The Missionary Notices for May, 1816, announce 
that a Juvenile Missionary Society had been 
formed for the Leeds Circuit at the request and 
suggestion of a few pious young men. The 
Old Methodist Chapel was crowded for the first 
meeting on April 16. Next month a similar 
society was formed at City Road, London, and 
others soon sprang up in all parts of the country, 
to the great help and encouragement of all the 





1814 1832 



WATSON S, 1814-1832 

THE time was now ripe for further organization. 
The Conference of 1817 directed that a missionary 

society should be formed in every Dis- 

7 General 

trict. A scheme for a General Missionary Missionary 

Society, in which laymen should have 

their place, was drawn up by Richard Watson, and 
approved. Premises were to be secured in London 
for a mission house. In September, 1816, Jabez 
Bunting writes : Yesterday we agreed to take 
for one year two rooms on the first floor of 
Mr. Bruce s house (4, City Road) for our mis 
sionary office. We are to pay 24 per annum. 
A clerk is engaged, who is to assist the secre 
taries for five hours every day for 1 $s. per week. 

Mr. Thomas Thompson, M.P., the first lay 
treasurer, presided at the first annual meeting 
of the Society, held on May 4, 1818, in City 
Road Chapel. It lasted six hours, and then 
had to be adjourned to the following Thursday. 
Jabez Bunting delivered a statesmanlike plea for 



the extension of Methodist missions in continental 

Whilst the meeting was in progress Dr. Clarke 
received a note from Sir Alexander Johnston, who 

had just arrived in England with two 
Arrival of 
two Buddhist young Buddhist priests who wished to 

be instructed by the Methodists. That 
announcement made a profound impression. The 
collections at the public services and meeting 
amounted to more than ,800, with a profusion of 
ear-rings, finger-rings, silver and gold trinkets 
thrown into the box beside. 

Next day Dr. Clarke met Sir Alexander 
Johnston, who offered to pay half the cost of the 
training of the priests. A committee, held at the 
new mission house, arranged that they should be 
placed under the care of Dr. Clarke, and for two 
years they lived with him at Millbrook, near Liver 
pool. The doctor found them delightful pupils, 
and in due course they were baptized at Brunswick 
Chapel, Liverpool. On their return to Ceylon they 
joined the Church Mission, but they remained 
faithful to their Christian profession. 

Thomas Thompson, of Hull, member of Parlia 
ment for Midhurst, the lay treasurer of the 

The first Society, was an intimate friend of Joseph 

Treasurer. g ensori) w h o owec ] much to his sagacious 

counsel in many important connexional matters, 

and also in the conduct of the Methodist Magazine^ 



of which Benson was editor. Richard Watson says 
that Mr. Thompson had been greatly indebted to 
Benson s ministry at an early period of life, and 
was largely imbued with his fervent piety and zeal 
for the salvation of men. He published a volume 
in 1798 entitled FrencJi Philosophy, giving par 
ticulars of the lives of French infidels, which showed 
that their principles did not support them in facing 
death. This was of considerable service in those 
anxious times. Mr. Thompson also stoutly opposed 
Lord Sidmouth s Bill for restricting the religious 
liberty of Dissenters, and took an active part in 
supporting William Wilberforce s effort to obtain 
permission for Christian work in India. He asked 
Mr. Benson to notice Wilberforce s published 
speeches in the Methodist Magazine. He was 
very anxious for the success of the magazine, 
and wrote many of the controversial articles in 
it during the earlier period of Mr. Benson s 

After the Conference of 1817, 77 Hatton Garden 
became the first Mission House. The region 
took its name from Queen Elizabeth s Mission 
Chancellor and favourite, Sir Christopher fatten* 
Hatton. It had formed part of the Garden - 
garden of Hatton House. Evelyn tells us, in his 
Diary, that he went on June 7, 1659, to London, 
to take leave of my brother, and see the foundations 
now laying for a long streete and buildings in 


Hatton Garden, designed for a little town, lately an 
ample garden. 

In the days of the old Mission House Methodism 
spread from Ceylon to continental India. William 
Shaw started thence on his way to lay the 
foundation-stone of Methodism in Grahamstown 
and in Kaffraria. Barnabas Shaw had landed in 
Cape Town in August, 1814, and his early labours 
among Bushmen and Hottentots, and his work in 
Cape Town, brought great rejoicing to Hatton 
Garden. When Samuel Leigh came home with 
his story of the Maoris, in 1820, the Mission House 
was soon crowded with ploughs, saws, axes, and 
other material needed for the Maori Mission, New 

From Hatton Garden the first Methodist mis 
sionaries were sent to Australia, and, in 1824, 
John Thomas sailed, amid fervent prayer, to begin 
his apostolic labours in Tonga. Six years after 
he reached the Friendly Islands eight to ten thousand 
savages had renounced idolatry ; fifteen hundred of 
them were members of the Methodist Society. In 
1834 four thousand members were gathered in. 
King George had become a local preacher. The 
pioneer missionaries landed at Fiji in October, 1835, 
and the Rev. James Watkin s appeal, Pity Poor 
Fiji, soon laid hold of Methodism. John Hunt, 
James Calvert, and T. J. Jaggar sailed for the 
Pacific on April 29, 1838. 



Mr. Thomas Hayes says the old Mission House 
was filled up to the last cupboard, and the back 
garden was used for a warehouse, packing, and 
store-rooms. It was with difficulty sometimes 
that we could make our way through the passage 
to the back of the house, so crowded was it 
with missionaries luggage homeward or outward 

John Edwards, who afterwards laboured in South 
Africa, gives an interesting account in his Remi 
niscences (pp. 17-37) of his visits to 

A Young 

the Mission House. He came up from Missionary s 

Teignmouth, in 1828, to be examined by 

the Missionary Committee, travelling on the out 
side of a stage coach for a hundred and ninety 
miles along rough roads. The Rev. George Morley 
had charge of the young men going out to the 
mission field or returning home, and gave Edwards 
a very cordial welcome. When he stepped into the 
committee room a few days later to be examined, 
Dr. Townley, the President, was in the chair, with 
Richard Watson sitting next him as examiner. 
Edwards was asked, What is your opinion as to 
the Eternal Sonship of Christ ? and says, I looked 
at him and thought, " You ought not to have put 
tJiat question," knowing as I did of the controversy 
between him and Dr. Clarke on that subject. His 
answer to the question was approved, and all the 
questions were so clear and straightforward that 



there was no difficulty in understanding them. 
He had to preach at Wilderness Row that evening, 
and as he was giving out the hymn he saw one 
after another of the secretaries and committee walk 
in. Next morning he was asked whether he had an 
affection of the chest, but the Rev. John James, 
( who was always a friend of young men, said : 
Brother Edwards s chest is as sound as a bell. 
In his rapid utterances he does not give himself 
time to bring out distinctly the last words of his 
sentences; he will get cured of that. " He was 
offered a single man s station in North America, 
but, as he was engaged to be married, he preferred 
to wait until there was an opening for a married 
man. In 1831 he returned to London, staying 
with Mr. James at 62, Hatton Garden, till a ship 
was ready to sail for Algoa Bay. It was the 
custom for all the young missionaries to be at 
Hatton Garden at eleven o clock every morning, to 
see if they had to preach that evening. One morn 
ing Dr. Townley told him he did not know of any 
work, adding : We are all going to the Zoological 
Gardens, and you can go also, and have a holiday. 
Mr. Edwards was leaving the gardens, tired out 
with sight-seeing, when he met the Rev. Thomas 
Edwards, one of the missionary secretaries, who 
told him that he was expected to preach at South- 
wark Chapel that night. He drove off in a cab at 
breakneck speed, and managed to get into the 



pulpit in time. Mr. Edwards took lessons in print 
ing at the offices of Mr. Roche and Mr. Nichols. 
On December 31, 1831, when burking was the 
nightmare of London, Mr. Edwards went to help 
Joseph Entwisle in the Watchnight Service at 
City Road. When Mr. Entwisle found that he was 
alone, he arranged that Mr. Edwards should speak 
first, and provided two men to take him home to 
62, Hatton Garden. As soon as Mr. Tames got 

J o 

back from the service he had been attending and 
found that Mr. Edwards was safely in bed he 
exclaimed, Good Mr. Entwisle ! No doubt he 
has saved Mr. Edwards s life. Some part of the 
route was * dangerous, and Mr. Entwisle saw that 
the young man ran great risk of being burked. 

Its efforts for the spread of the gospel in heathen 
lands gave Methodism new dignity in the eyes 
of all thoughtful men. When President i nter est of 
of the Conference in 1821, Jabez Bunting Dr - Chalmers - 
met Dr. Chalmers in Scotland, who seemed dis 
posed, if a fit opportunity occurred, to preach for 
the Methodist Missionary Society. He said he 
would vastly like to do us justice, by showing that 
we deserve as much credit for our missionary 
operations as the Moravians, whom everybody 
panegyrizes, while we are comparatively over 
looked. I was glad to hear this sentiment from 
him, as he has himself eulogized the Moravians 
very highly. 



Laymen now took their fitting place in the 

management of the Society. Joseph Entwisle had 

Laymen written to Jabez Bunting in 1814: 

MiSiSSry l don>t see that an y dan 8 er would 
Committee. ar j se f rom a few respectable laymen in 

our Committee of Management, as it respects 
receipts and expenditure ALONE ! ! Think of this. 1 
Bunting had long thought of it. He says in 
1816 : I still think we might safely, and must 
ultimately, admit laymen into the Executive Com 
mittee under certain modifications. The same 
year he adds : We want nothing but more 
missionaries, a few laymen to add greater weight 
and spirit to our Managing Committee, and more 
of the blessing of God, to render our missionary 
system a praise in the earth. I more decidedly 
than ever think we ought to have some laymen at 
least in our managing Missionary Committee. 
I am sure both the temporals and spirituals of 
that cause would be better for their active 

At the Conference of 1818 it was resolved that 
( it is expedient to adopt some plan by which the 
piety, talents, information, and influence of some 
of our respectable friends, members of the Wesleyan 
Society not being travelling preachers, may be 
brought into co-operation with the exertions of the 
preachers as members of the Executive Missionary 
Committee in London. The Laws and Regulations 



of the General Weslcyan Methodist Missionary 
Society, in which the principle of lay co-operation 
was contained, were adopted, and Joseph Taylor 
was appointed as the first secretary who gave his 
whole time to the Society. 

He was one of three young men who had 
stood in Carlisle market waiting to be hired as 

farm servants. All became Methodist 

preachers. Taylor was a convert of Taylor, 

Mary Barritt s, as were Robert Newton, 
William Dawson, and Thomas Jackson. Mr, P. W. 
Bunting says that he strongly resembled Napoleon 
in appearance, and had the same untameable 
energy of will. Dr. Clarke compared his preaching 
to a tailor s goose, hot and heavy ; but it was both 
spiritual and instructive. He had been eight 
years a missionary in the West Indies. Taylor 
proved just the man the young Society needed for 
its early struggles, and laboured at Hatton Garden 
for six years with unceasing devotion. 

Joseph Butterworth, M.P., became lay treasurer 
in 1819. He was Adam Clarke s brother-in-law, 

and a prosperous law bookseller in 


Fleet Street. He belonged to the Great Butterworth 

. Treasurer. 
Queen Street Society. His social 

position, and his zeal in the cause of missions, 
made him a model treasurer, and he rendered 
inestimable service at this formative stage of the 



Whilst these events were taking place at home 
the missionaries were toiling bravely in Ceylon. 

When they examined Coke s papers at 
Beginning of 

the Ceylon their hotel in Bombay, they found 

nothing that would enable them to 

draw money in his name or that of the Missionary 
Society. They prayed together as only men in 
such an extremity could pray. When they stated 
their case to Captain Birch, the commander of 
the vessel in which Coke sailed, he introduced 
them to Mr. Mony, a banker, who generously 
advanced whatever they needed. 

When they reached Ceylon Sir Robert Brownrigg 
set the Government House at Point de Galle at 
their service, and Lord Molesworth, who com 
manded the garrison, met them at the jetty. He 
grasped Mr. Squance by the hand, and said he had 
long been praying that missionaries might be sent 
to India. He showed them great hospitality. On 
the first Sunday services were held in the Dutch 
church. Most of the English residents attended, 
the soldiers were marched in, and Mr. Squance s 
sermon was the means of Lord Molesworth s con 
version. He stole away that evening from a party 
at his house and asked the missionaries to spend a 
little time with him in prayer. Before they rose from 
their knees he found a clear sense of God s forgiving 
love and poured out his soul in thanksgiving. 
The vessel in which he left India in May, 1815, 



was wrecked on the coast of South Africa. He 
marched about the decks pointing all to the 
Lamb of God, then he and Lady Molesworth sank, 
locked in each other s arms. 

Three stations were occupied in the south 
Colombo, Galle, and Matara ; one at Jaffna in the 
north; another in the east at Batticaloa. James 
Lynch and T. H. Squance went to Jaffna ; William 
Ault to Batticaloa; George Erskine to Matara; 
Benjamin Clough to Point de Galle. The Governor, 
General Sir Robert Brownrigg, G.C.B., offered each 
missionary a certain stipend for teaching the English 
language to the children of the principal natives 
in some of the most important towns, and this 
offer was gratefully accepted. Thus God raised 
up friends and helpers for His servants in 

Mr. Harvard took charge of Colombo, where he 
found a zealous helper in the Government school 
master, Mr. Armour. The missionary soon won 
the confidence of the soldiers and civilians, and 
before long was able to preach both in Sinhalese 
and Portuguese. Before the close of 1815 he had 
a class of fifteen members, and next year a 
comfortable chapel was erected. Schools were 
formed, and a printing-press set up. 

At Galle Mr. Clough conducted services in the 
Dutch church and formed a Methodist Society. 
When he moved to Colombo to assist Mr. Harvard, 



John McKenny took his place, and built the first 
Methodist chapel there. At Jaffna Mr. Lynch and 
Mr. Squance were deeply moved by the super 
stition and degradation of all classes. The 
descendants of the Dutch and Portuguese seemed 
to need the missionary as much as the natives. 
Services were held at a Dutch church in the fort, 
then a chapel and school were built. Native 
assistants were trained, and the work rapidly 
extended into the adjacent villages. The Rev. 
T. H. Squance began services at Point Pedro, 
which soon became the head of a separate mission 

William Ault was stationed at Batticaloa, beauti 
fully situated on the borders of a lake. His wife 
had died on the voyage to India six weeks after 
leaving Portsmouth. He was prostrated by attacks 
of fever, and died on April i, 1815, the first victim 
of the climate in our Indian missions. The bass- 
viol brought out by Dr. Coke, for our common 
recreation, was sold after Mr. Ault s death, and 
the proceeds given as a subscription to the Galle 

The first ten years of the Ceylon mission were a 
time of much activity, but as the difficulty of 
winning India for Christ was realized the ardour 
at home somewhat cooled, and the work languished. 
Yet great things were done. Robert Spence 
Hardy, who reached Ceylon in 1825, found 
Christianity rooted in the south of the island, 



though in some places Satan reigns triumphant. 
Peter Percival, who went out to Ceylon in 1825, had 
a broad and comprehensive grasp of mission policy, 
and gave a great impetus to our educational work. 
Ralph Stott (1829) laboured with apostolic zeal 
among the Tamils and Veddahs. He won a 
rich harvest in the bazaars and in the villages. 
The chapel at Batticaloa was crowded, classes 
formed, and the number of members rose from 40 
in 1840 to 41 1 in 1845 ; 230 of the wild people who 
lived under the shelving rocks of the mountains 
renounced their devil-worship and settled down 
to village life. 

Two notable men were now working in Ceylon. 
Daniel John Gogerly, a London printer, went out 
in 1818 to take charge of the mission DanieU. 
press in Colombo. He became a mis- G erl y- 
sionary in 1823, and laboured with unceasing 
devotion till 1862. He found at Negombo, in 1825, 
that most of the people were Roman Catholics ; but, 
as the priest had failed to establish a school of his 
own, he allowed the parents to send their children 
where they wished. Many came to the English 
school, where the masters were Methodists. The 
village children often had to search for roots in 
the jungle to satisfy their hunger. At Seven 
Korles heathenism was seen in its most repulsive 
forms. Women were in the most degraded con 
dition, and were treated worse than oxen. One 
G 81 


woman was married to seven brothers. Gambling, 
drunkenness,and other vices abounded. Mr. Gogerly 
found the people eager to be taught, but it was not 
possible to visit places twenty-six miles or more 
from his mission station when the bridges were 
broken down and the roads infested by wild 
elephants. The gospel won a notable triumph 
at Negombo. The converts who were too poor to 
give money set apart more than fifty cocoanut- 
trees for the benefit of the mission. 

In 1828 Mr. Gogerly was stationed at Kaltura. 
He got the masters of five of our Sinhalese schools 
to stay with him for a month, and taught them 
arithmetic, as even a slight knowledge of that sub 
ject would do something to undermine Buddhism, 
which was inseparably connected with an erroneous 
system of geography and astronomy. The people 
worshipped demons, and vice of every kind was 
almost uncontrolled. In the whole of the Rygam- 
Korle there was scarcely a single Bible. Mr. Gogerly 
soon had a congregation of from thirty to a hundred 
adults. He laboured with great success throughout 
his long ministry. He remodelled the schools, 
trained teachers, evangelized the villages, preached 
fluently in Sinhalese and Portuguese, and made 
himself a master of Pali and the Buddhist writings. 
His Institutes of Christianity in Sinhalese made 
such an impression that the Buddhist priests began a 
bitter agitation to prevent the progress of the gospel. 



Another noted Ceylon missionary was Robert 
Spence Hardy, grandson of Robert Spence, the 
famous York bookseller. Coke once Robert 
met him when he visited York, and Bpence Hardy, 
was greatly interested in the boy. He placed his 
hands on his head and prayed that he might 
become a missionary. In 1825 he sailed for Ceylon. 
The work in the south of the island was then 
making steady progress. Chapels had been opened, 
and as you travelled through the lovely scenery the 
slow tolling of some distant bell, or the busy hum 
of some village school, showed that the new religion 
was making itself felt. There was much yet to do. 
When stationed in 1829 at Kornegalle, twenty-two 
miles from Kandy, Mr. Hardy wrote : c Satan here 
reigns triumphant. By the power of his crafty 
wiles he has lulled a whole nation into a state of 
carnal security, and the apathy and ignorance of 
the people are only equalled by the depth of their 
moral degradation. After eight years labour Mr. 
Hardy visited England. Then he spent twelve 
more years in Ceylon. When Mr. Gogerly died 
he went out for the third time as Chairman of the 
South Ceylon District, and continued in office for 
three years. His fame as an orientalist was wide 
spread. The Royal Asiatic Society made him an 
honorary member, and his books on Buddhism 
and Eastern Monachism took rank as standard 



Methodism gained a footing in India in 1817, 
when James Lynch went to Madras in response 
Madras and to tne re quest of some English Metho- 
Bangaiore. ^ists who were living in the city. He 
had mastered Tamil at Jaffna, and his faithful 
preaching made a deep impression in Madras, 
where he erected a chapel at Royapettah, and 
another three 4ttiles away in Black Town, the 
chief centre of population. Elijah Hoole joined 
Mr. Lynch in 1822. The work was growing 
steadily. When Tamil services were held at 
Black Town on Friday evenings, the doors and 
windows were filled by Hindus who were eager 
to hear the message, though unwilling to enter 
the chapel. Mr. Hoole made preaching excur 
sions into the Tamil country, and everywhere 
found the people courteous, and anxious to listen 
to the gospel. He translated some of our hymns 
into Tamil, and soon had the pleasure of hearing 
the natives sing them to the tunes used in 
England. The Hindu festivals gave many oppor 
tunities to preach and distribute tracts. In 
December, 1825, a bungalow was secured in 
Black Town for Tamil preaching. Hundreds of 
heathen of all classes heard the Word, and the 
native converts were roused to increased zeal. 

The Rev. W. M. Harvard, who was detained 
at Bombay after Dr. Coke s death, made the 
best use of his enforced stay in that city, and 



his preaching led to an earnest request for a 
missionary. In 1818 the Rev. John Homer and 
his wife landed there, and next year Joseph 
Fletcher joined him, but failure of health and 
other difficulties led to the mission being relin 
quished in 1821. 

Negapatam, where Methodist work began in 
1821, was a busy seaport, 200 miles south of 
Madras, with 50,000 inhabitants. The Rev. 
T. H. Squance soon gathered a good English 
congregation, and held Portuguese services at 
the mission house, and Tamil services in the 
villages. Elijah Hoole was here for a few 
months after his arrival in the East in 1820. 
He and Mr. and Mrs. Mowat began the mission 
at Bangalore, the most populous and important 
city of the Mysore, in July, 1821. Heathen 
horrors met them at every turn. Fanatics had 
iron or wooden spikes bored through their 
cheeks and tongues, carried lighted fires on their 
heads, and had iron frames riveted round the 
neck, and spikes thickly set in the soles of their 
sandals to tear the wearer s feet. Seringapatam, 
once the great stronghold of Tippoo Sahib, was 
visited by Titus Close in May, 1821. A little 
chapel had been built by some Christian natives 
who were eager to have a missionary. Mr. Hoole 
visited them once a quarter, and several converts 
were baptized. Mr. Hoole and Mr. Mowat 



were unfortunately called away to supply 
vacancies at Madras and Negapatam, and these 
great cities could only receive occasional visits. 
In 1826 John F. England was stationed at 
Bangalore, where he established schools and 
formed a church. He bought, in 1829, the site 
in East Parade, on which a Methodist chapel 
was built in 1863, which is one of the finest in 
India. Thomas Cryer spent here three of the 
happiest and most successful years of his life. 

Dr. Coke had been urged, as early as 1792, 

and again in 1806, to begin work in Bengal, 

A Mission but it was not till 1828 that Peter 

in Calcutta. p erc i va ] was sent f rom Trincomalee 

to Calcutta. Here he was joined by Thomas 
Hodson, a young missionary from England. 
They gathered an English congregation, and 
built a chapel and school for the natives, but 
financial reasons led to the withdrawal of our 
agents in 1831. 

Methodism had begun its work in South Africa. 
On August 7, 1814, three months after Dr. Coke s 
First work in death, John McKenny landed in Cape 
south Africa. x own> He had gone out at the earnest 
request of a large number of British soldiers 
stationed there, and, besides labouring for them 
and the settlers, it was hoped that he might give 
special attention to the slaves, among whom 
Muhammadan priests were winning many pro- 



selytes ; but the Governor, Lord Charles Somerset, 
refused to let him preach. The soldiers, he 
said, have their chaplains, provided by Govern 
ment, and if you preach to the slaves the 
ministers of the Dutch Church may be 
offended. Mr. McKenny was only able to 
hold a few private meetings for conversation 
and prayer. Under these circumstances he was 
instructed to proceed to Ceylon. Further 
information showed, however, that there was 
a pressing call for missionary work in South 
Africa, and in April, 1816, the Rev. Barnabas 
Shaw landed at Cape Town. The Governor 
refused to allow him to preach, but the follow 
ing Sunday he began without permission. His 
congregation consisted mainly of soldiers, and 
for a few months he acted almost as a military 

In September, 1816, he set out for Namaqualand, 
where he was assured that he would be warmly 
welcomed by the natives. On the way he met 
the chief of the Little Namaquas coming to 
seek a teacher, and agreed to accompany 
him to his mountain home, Lilyfontein, on 
Kamiesberg. This was the first Methodist 
mission station in South Africa. Mr. Shaw and 
his wife lived in a native hut shaped like a 
beehive, and covered with rush mats. He had 
been brought up on a Yorkshire farm, so that 



he was well equipped for his work. He taught 
the people the use of the plough, which did as 
much work as ten wives/ and set himself to 
evangelize and civilize the tribe. He had to 
preach through an interpreter, as he did not 
understand the Hottentot language. A modest 
chapel and mission house were built, and when 
the Rev. E. Edwards arrived from England 
Mr. Shaw visited the Bushmen, and steadily kept 
in view the extension of the mission. For ten 
years he lived at Kamiesberg. The murder of 
his young colleague, Mr. Threlfall, and two native 
teachers in 1825 by some thievish Bushmen, who 
killed them as they slept, was a great blow to 
the infant mission. In 1832 Great Namaqualand, 
from which the agents of the London Missionary 
Society had been compelled to retire, through 
tribal wars, was occupied by our society. 

Barnabas Shaw visited England in 1827, and 
raised 700 for the erection of a chapel in Cape 
Town, where Mr. Edwards had begun services 
for the coloured people in an upper room in 
1820. The chapel in Bury Street was built in 
1830, a chapel for the natives in Sidney Street 
in 1837, a third in Hope Street in 1857, and 
the Metropolitan Church in 1878, at a cost of 
;i 5,000. Mr. Shaw died in 1857, having been 
spared to see Methodism firmly rooted in the 



South Africa was fortunate enough to have 
another master missionary in William Shaw, 

who went out with a band of settlers 


to Algoa Bay in 1820. He was an Shawand 

the Kaffirs, 
ideal chaplain for such a settlement, 

He went from post to post ministering to the 
white people, and held services in tents, or under 
the shade of trees and rocks. The first chapel 
was opened at Grahamstown in 1822. A chapel 
at Salem was built the same year. Next year 
Mr. Shaw was able to begin his mission to the 
Kaffirs. Four important missions were started, 
links in the chain by which he hoped to connect 
Cape Colony and Natal. He won the entire 
confidence of the natives, amongst whom he 
became a wandering apostle. His zeal for the 
settlers was shown by his word to Mr. Boyce 
as they looked down on Grahamstown : * It is 
a great comfort to me that there is not a house 
in that town in which I have not had the oppor 
tunity of offering prayer. Methodism also took 
firm root in Port Elizabeth, where a substantial 
chapel was opened in 1840. Thirteen chapels 
were built in various parts of the colony during 
William Shaw s first thirteen years service. 
Methodism was firmly rooted in the Eastern 
Province, and a flourishing line of mission 
stations was established in Kaffraria. Mr. Shaw 
became one of the chief authorities on South 



African affairs, and his advice was eagerly 
sought by the colonial authorities. One of 
his colleagues, William Shepstone, the mission 
ary to the Kaffirs, erected mission stations and 
schools, translated the Scriptures, and gained an 
unrivalled knowledge of the natives and their 
customs. He died in 1873, at Kamastone, the 
station where he had spent half a century. 

William B. Boyce began his missionary life 
in November, 1830, at Buntingville, one of 
William Shaw s Kaffir stations. Four years 
later the Kaffir war broke out. Three of our 
missionaries, Shepstone, Boyce, and Palmer, who 
hazarded their own lives in the attempt, were 
largely instrumental in gaining favourable terms 
for the Kaffirs. Mr. Boyce had set himself to 
master the language, and compiled the first 
Kaffir grammar, which laid the foundation for 
future grammarians and writers. He spent 
thirteen years in South Africa. 

This mission to the Kaffirs was a great 
favourite with Richard Watson, who told 
Mr. Kay, with deep feeling, when he started 
for Little Namaqualand, Were 1 as young as 
you, Africa should be the field of my service. 

In 1821 the Rev. S. Broadbent set out from 
Lilyfontein to form a mission in Bechuanaland. 
He was joined by Rev. T. L. Hodgson. They 
crossed the Vaal together on rafts, and tried 



to form a mission among the Barolongs. It 
had to be abandoned, but in 1825 it was re 
established at Plaatberg, where a school Barolongs 
was started, and a good work done. and 
When the Barolongs moved their settlement 
in 1833 to Thaba Nchu to secure a better 
water supply, the Methodist missionary went 
with his people. Mr. Hodgson had begun work 
among the Griquas at Boetsap in 1828, and 
when they moved to Lishuani, his successor, 
Mr. Edwards, went with them. They did not 
settle at Lishuani, but Mr. Edwards devoted 
himself to the Basutos and Mantatees, where 
fruitful work was done till the need for retrench 
ment compelled the withdrawal of the missionaries 
about 1859. 

A mission on the Gambia was begun by the 
Rev. John Morgan in 1821, five years after an 
English settlement for the suppression The Q amb i a 
of the slave trade and the encourage- Mission - 
ment of commerce had been formed on the 
island of St. Mary, near the mouth of the great 
river. Its chief town was Bathurst. The mission 
prospered from the beginning, though fever made 
havoc among the agents. The Rev. William 
Moister, who took charge of the work in 1831, 
found himself the only minister in the colony, 
and his wife was the only European lady. 
Mr. Moister visited the interior and planted a 


station at McCarthy s Island, 200 miles up the 
river. It was hoped that this would prove a 
valuable centre for a mission to the Foulahs and 
Mandingoes, and much good was done, though at 
a heavy cost of life. A chapel was erected at 
Bathurst in 1835, and, as time passed, out-stations 
were formed in the villages of St. Mary s and on 
the mainland. McCarthy s Island was afterwards 
abandoned, but has been recently reoccupied. A 
large number of escaped slaves find their way 
to the island, and from these Christian workers 
might be raised up, whose familiarity with the 
language and customs of the interior would be 
of great service in pioneer work. 

West Indian Methodism continued to make rapid 
progress. When Wesley died in 1791 there were 

Progress in I2 missionaries and 5,645 communicants ; 
West indies. in lSl ^ at the time of Coke > s deathj 

there were 31 missionaries and 17,000 communicants. 
The transformation in Jamaica was little short of a 
miracle. When the mission began a clergyman 
expressed his conviction that the difficulties in the 
way of making the natives Christians were insur 
mountable. By degrees, however, the savage orgies 
in which the blacks delighted were abandoned. 
Methodist hymns took the place of negro songs. 
The Sunday carnivals, with their riots and obscene 
processions, became a thing of the past ; Sunday 
markets were abolished ; the whole population 



streamed to worship. Such results were not won in 
a day. In Jamaica two missionaries, who had 2,600 
members under their care, were not allowed to 
preach a single sermon, and became liable to a fine 
of 100 and three months imprisonment if they 
met a class. Two laymen formed a Methodist 
class at Demerara in 1811. A missionary was sent 
in 1814. Next year a chapel was built, and the 70 
members soon grew into 370. Then troubles arose. 
The whole colony was in a blaze. The chapel 
was attacked, its doors broken in, its benches 
torn up and thrown into the street. Richard 
Watson wrote : If the anti-mission party should 
be elated by the intelligence of this riot, their feel 
ings will probably be moderated by the statement 
that the mission there was never in circumstances 
so prosperous ; that the Society has within a year 
increased more than a third, and now amounts to 
seven hundred ; and that the increase of members 
has demanded an enlargement of the chapel by the 
erection of a gallery. Thus does God " make the 
wrath of man to praise Him." 

Sometimes it was found necessary to retire 
before the storm. At Hayti the prosperous 
mission begun in 1817 had to be abandoned 
through the fierce persecution stirred up by the 
Romish priests. In Barbados the Methodist 
chapel was demolished and the missionary driven 
from the island. In Jamaica, about 1829, a slave 



was almost flogged to death for being a Methodist 
and for praying. 

The Rev. William Turton was stationed at New 
Providence, in the Bahamas, in 1803. Methodism 
The spread till every island, settlement, village, 
Bahamas. anc j town of any importance had its 
chapel. A general reformation followed. Arch 
deacon Wakefield bore witness long afterwards 
that, had it not been for these ministrations, almost 
the entire colony beyond Nassau would have been 
wrapped in heathen darkness, superstition, and 

Mr. Buttervvorth had to announce at the Mis 
sionary Anniversary in 1826 a great disaster which 

had befallen our West Indian mission 
Loss of the 

Maria the previous February. A party of 

Mail-boat. . . . . 

rive missionaries, with their wives and 

three children, sailed from St. Christopher after 
the District Meeting. Stormy weather drove them 
to Montserrat, where they spent a happy Sunday. 
Next day they took passage in the Maria mail- 
boat for Antigua, but when in sight of that island, 
their vessel struck on the reefs. All the mission 
party were lost save Mrs. Jones, who had spent one 
year of happy toil with her husband at Parham. 
She returned to England and married Mr. Hincks- 
man, of Preston. Her son, Major Hincksman, 
was one of the most attached supporters of the 



This meeting at City Road was the last Mr. 
Butterworth attended. He died on June 30, 1826. 

Lancelot Haslope succeeded him as Treasurer. 
He was converted as a young man through the 

agency of Methodism. He took an 


active part in the formation of the Haslope, 
, ,,. . Treasurer. 

General Missionary Society. In preach 
ing his funeral sermon Dr. Bunting said that but 
for the unwearied kindness and perseverance and 
influence employed by Mr. Haslope in aid of the 
accomplishment of that object, it would not have 
been effected ; at least, at that time, nor perhaps 
for many years afterwards. He had served in the 
West Indies as a soldier, and took a keen interest 
in Methodism there. In every department of 
mission work he proved a wise counsellor. He 
lived at Highbury Lodge, and was Treasurer for 
the trustees of City Road Chapel. 

In 1824 the Rev. W. Dodwell, Vicar of Welby, 
Lincolnshire, left the Society a legacy of 10,000. 
He was a personal friend of John Wesley and a 
liberal helper of Dr. Coke and of the Society after 
his death. 

The spiritual destitution of our colonies early 
awoke the sympathy of Methodists in England. 
In Newfoundland there were 20,000 colonial 
people without religious instruction, and Mlsslons - 
other colonies were in a similar state. Lawrence 
Coughlan seems to have introduced Methodism to 



Newfoundland in 1765. In 1790 John McGeary 
was sent by Wesley. The mission prospered 
greatly. Godly emigrants introduced Methodism 
into Nova Scotia in 1772, and, in response to 
their appeals, Wesley asked Asbury to send two 
preachers from America. Freeborn Garretson and 
James Cromwell were the pioneers. Dr. Coke 
sailed with a party of three missionaries in the 
autumn of 1786, but a tremendous gale drove them 
to Antigua. 

In 1829 the work extended to Cape Breton. 
A missionary was sent to New Brunswick in 
September, 1791 ; to Prince Edward Island in 

Methodism was introduced into Canada by the 
coming of Paul and Barbara Heck from New York 
in 1774. Bishop Asbury sent a minister to labour 
around the Bay of Quinte. In 1814 the Rev. 
John Strong was appointed to Quebec as the first 
English missionary. 

In 1840 three missionaries were sent from 
England to labour among the stations of the 
Hudson s Bay Company. Two others joined them 
from the Canadian Conference. The mission won 
many converts, and a general improvement in the 
condition of the Indians followed. It was sub 
sequently handed over to the care of the Canadian 
Conference. The colonies which are now federated 
as the Dominion of Canada all had the Methodist 



preacher in the forefront of the immigrant tide, 
and the story of the successes among the Red 
Indians is full of the elements of pathos and 
of joy. 

When work was begun in British Columbia by 
the Methodists of Canada, our Society gave a grant 
of ^500 towards the mission. 

The Upper Canada Conference was formed in 
1834, and the missions in East Canada were 
transferred to its care in 1853, the East British 
American Conference including Nova Scotia and 

The Methodist Church of Canada was formed in 
1875, arj d the various Methodist bodies in the 
Dominion amalgamated in 1883. 

The first British settlement in Australia was 
formed in 1788, when 1,000 persons, 750 of whom 
were convicts, were brought into Port Methodism ta 
Jackson. The colony grew, but religion Australia - 
was neglected. Only two or three chaplains and 
schoolmasters were sent out to care for the officers 
and their families. In 1814 two of the teachers 
were Methodists, and their description of the 
drunkenness and crime in New South Wales led to 
the appointment of the Rev. Samuel Leigh as the 
first Methodist missionary. He arrived at Sydney in 
1815, and found a little class of about nine persons, 
including the two teachers and their wives. He 
reports that in many districts people were crying 
H 97 


out for the gospel. He preached in the homes 
of the settlers with the happiest results. The 
work spread, places of worship were built, and 
Methodism began its great mission in the colonies. 
The Rev. John Watsford went to labour in 
Brisbane, Queensland, in 1850. 

The first meeting ever held for public worship in 
Victoria was conducted by the Rev. John Orton on 
April 26, 1836, under an oak-tree on Bateman s 
Hill, where the city of Melbourne now stands. 
He had been instructed by the Missionary Society 
to care for the aborigines. Two missionaries were 
appointed, but the work had to be abandoned 
after ten years of almost fruitless toil. In 1841 
the Rev. S. Wilkinson was appointed to Melbourne, 
and the call for workers became louder and more 

A local preacher delivered the first sermon at 
Adelaide, in January, 1837. When the little colony 
was feeling keenly the need of a Christian minister, 
the Rev. W. Longbottom was shipwrecked on the 
passage from Tasmania to Swan River, in 1838, 
and found such eager congregations that he made 
arrangements to stay and build up Methodism in 
the colony. 

Mr. Longbottom had been on his way to Perth, 
in response to a request made by the settlers for 
a Wesleyan minister. His place was taken next 
year by the Rev. J. Smithies, who laboured there 



for sixteen years. Methodism kept pace with the 
formation of new colonies, though that involved a 
constant strain on its resources. The first Australian 
Conference met at Sydney, in 1855, and the missions 
in Fiji and the Friendly Islands were transferred 
to its care. 

The Rev. B. Carvosso, who visited Tasmania on 
his way to New South Wales in 1820, found the 

people spiritually destitute, He preached 

often during his stay at Hobart Town, 

and his report led the Committee in London to 
send the Rev. W. Horton to labour there in 1821. 
Some Methodist soldiers of the 48th Regiment had 
meanwhile formed a class, and a chapel was built 
in 1822. Mr. Carvosso became its pastor, and 
laboured here for five years with great success. 
Methodism spread through the island, and a 
blessed work was done among the convicts sent 
to Van Diemen s Land, as the island was then 

Our first mission in New Zealand was begun 
among the Maoris at Wangaroa by the Rev. 
Samuel Leigh. He came to England in The Maori 
1820, after visiting the islands, and per- Mission - 
suaded the missionary committee to undertake a 
Maori mission. There was a debt of ; 10,000 on 
the Society, but Mr. Leigh s appeals for funds met 
with a generous response. The Mission House in 
Hatton Garden was crowded with ploughs, saws, 



axes, and other implements. Two Maori chiefs, 
who arrived while Mr. Leigh was in England, 
added greatly to the interest. The Missionary 
Committee made each of them a present of a chest 
of carpenter s tools, and a dress for his wife. One 
of them, Hongi, took up his residence with Mr. 
Leigh, whom he had met in New Zealand. In 
February 22, 1822, Mr. Leigh arrived in New 
Zealand, but war broke out and spoiled the mission. 
The chief whom Mr. Leigh had befriended proved 
revengeful and ambitious. The tribes were scattered 
and devastated by the war, but there was one com 
pensation : the captives sent to the Bay of Islands 
attended the mission schools, and on their return 
home spread the truth among their neighbours. 
Mr. Leigh and his wife passed through many 
dangers until the failure of her health compelled 
their return to New South Wales. 

Nathaniel Turner took charge of the mission, 
but in 1827 Hongi destroyed the station, and 
the work had to be abandoned. It was resumed 
in 1828 at Wangungu, forty miles from the first 
station. The first class of five members was 
formed in 1831. Then the spirit of inquiry 
spread. One Sunday in 1834, 81 converts were 
baptized. In 1837 sixteen chapels were built, 
and when the Australian Conference was formed, 
in 1855, there were 3,070 Maori members, 7,590 
adherents, 4,418 Sunday scholars. 



A mission was started in Sweden by the Rev. 
Joseph R. Shepherd in 1826, and Dr. George Scott 

was appointed to Stockholm in 1830, 

Dr. George 
where he laboured with much success scottin 


for twelve years, until a storm of per 
secution and intolerance led to the withdrawal of 
our missionary. 

On Richard Watson s appointment to City 
Road Circuit in 1816, he and his colleague, George 

Marsden, became Missionary Secretaries. 


Mr. Marsden took the oversight of the Watson as 

foreign department and the finance, 

Mr. Watson of the home department, Both by 
lip and pen he became the foremost champion of 
the cause. He was not relieved of circuit 
duties, so that the strain was constant and 
terrible. In 1817 he defended the West Indian 
missionaries from the misrepresentation and 
calumny which were set on foot by the slave 
holders and their party. His powerful pamphlet 
was extensively read by members of Parliament 
and public men. William Wilberforce greatly 
appreciated it. It materially assisted in the 
battle for freedom. England began to under 
stand the ignorance of the negro and the 
miseries of slavery. Watson received * the 
warmest thanks of the Conference for his able 
and triumphant pamphlet. 

He continued to act as Secretary and circuit 


minister till 1821. Then he was wholly set 
apart for six years to the missionary work. 
His home was in Wellington Street, Pentonville. 
Joseph Taylor lived at the Mission House in 
Hatton Garden. Jabez Bunting was editor and 
Missionary Secretary. 

Mr. Brailsford says {Richard Watson, p. 73) : 
In his relation to the missionaries in the field, 
the brotherliness of Watson s nature revealed itself. 
He knew them all, and the vineyards in which 
they toiled were ever before his eye. Their 
names and needs were on the breastplate of his 
daily intercession ; and it is in his regular, free, 
and copious correspondence with them that we 
see most clearly the features of his saintly and 
lovable character. He toiled incessantly and 
with all his might, and not in vain. 

One passage from a letter to Elijah Hoole 
will show Watson s zeal for missions. It is 
dated January 29, 1823. After some fatherly 
advice about mingling exercise with study, he 
says : You feel, I doubt not, the pleasure and 
profit of Madras ; but, when Mr. England arrives, 
we really think you ought to lay hold, fully and 
finally, of Seringapatam ; and let it no longer be 
trifled with. It is certainly to be preferred to 
Bangalore ; because the missionary may be work 
ing while he is gaining the language ; and, when 
Bangalore can be occupied by another, a regular 


exchange may take place. Suppose a good 
native assistant could be got from the north of 
Ceylon to go with you, it might be of service ; 
unless that kind of help can be more usefully 
employed at Negapatam, to push out the work 
into the neighbourhood. The people of the old 
Danish mission, who are in some state of pre 
paration, will, I hope, be gathered in by us : 
I mean, those of them who are as sheep having 
no shepherd. 

Another letter to the Rev. D. M Allum, M.D., 
in September, 1823, speaks of a mission to 
Jerusalem, which was under the consideration of 
the Committee. It is forced upon us by the 
prayers of the pious, and the contributions of 
the generous. We have never put it forward 
to excite interest ; and yet we are constantly 
getting money with this designation. The idea 
was to have a mission house in Jerusalem, with a 
married and an unmarried missionary. Watson 
wanted M Allum to lead this great work, looking 
forward to Syria and Lesser Asia, and backward 
upon the Euphrates and Armenia, as scenes to 
which his labours may extend. He would have 
to train agents. The Rev. Charles Cook was 
sent to see what hope there was of a successful 
mission, but it was never established. Watson 
looked on all the world as the parish of the 
Missionary Society. 








BUNTING, 1833-1851 

A FEW months after the Conference of 1832, 
the Missionary Society lost two of its secretaries. 
John James died suddenly on November6, 

1832, at the age of forty-six, in the James and 

prime of his gifted manhood. Richard 

Watson, who had been for five years in circuit 
work, and was reappointed Missionary Secretary 
1832, closed his noble life on January 8, 1833, 
at the age of fifty-one. Mr. Brailsford says : He 
lived long enough to see the tentative thread of 
a first missionary society spread its networlc\ of 
organization all over the land. Instead of a 
hired room for the first General Committee 
Meeting, there was a Mission House in Hatton 
Garden. The sixty missionaries of the first report 
had multiplied to two hundred. The 6,000 of 
income had increased to 50,000, and there were 
44,000 converts speaking in their own tongues 
the wonderful works of God. 1 

1 Richard Watson, p. 73. 


This double calamity made all eyes turn to 
Dr. Bunting. He preached his friend s funeral 
sermon at City Road. Next morning at ten, he 
says, a deputation came to me, consisting of 
Messrs. Haslope, Ranee, Marsden, Lessey, and 
Beecham, to inform me that, at a very full 
meeting of the Missionary Committee on Thursday, 
they were unanimously appointed to solicit my 
consent to their requesting the Conference to place 
me in the office vacant by Mr. Watson s death. 
They were very kind, very urgent, and made out 
a case which certainly had much weight. They 
stayed with me an hour or more, and we had, 
of course, a serious conversation. He told them 
frankly that he should prefer to go to Leeds 
as he had promised, but that he would consider 
the matter, consult with his friends, and return 
an answer in a few weeks. 

The Conference of 1833 appointed Bunting to 
the Mission House. He had already rendered 

constant service to the cause for twenty 

made years while actively engaged in circuit 
Secretary. J 

work, r or the next eighteen years the 

Mission House had the inestimable benefit of Jabez 
Bunting s service. He might be called the child 
of missions. His mother had been converted at 
Monyash, in 1769, under a sermon of Richard 
Boardman s, who was making his way from his 
circuit in the dales of Yorkshire to Bristol, where 



he was to take ship for America. His text was 
the prayer of Jabez, and in memory of that 
service Mary Bunting called her first child Jabez. 
When stationed in London, Jabez Bunting attended 
meetings of the London Missionary Society, held 
in Haberdashers Hall, and at the Castle and 
Falcon, Aldersgate Street. At the Jubilee Meet 
ing of the London Missionary Society, in 1844, 
he said : For all my pleasures in connexion 
with the missionary service, I am mainly and 
essentially indebted, under the providence of 
God, to the London Missionary Society. It 
was my great privilege, from an early period, 
to have the opportunity of attending most of 
its meetings. It was what I heard at those 
meetings, and the statements to which I listened 
from the lips of excellent ministers, who, from 
time to time, preached your annual sermons, 
that, under the blessing of God, kindled in my 
heart whatever of a missionary spirit I have 

He wished to join Coke s mission to India ; 
but it was already clear that his duty lay in 
England. Coke, it is believed, discouraged him 
from going to India, and other advisers saw that 
he could render greater service to the cause of 
missions at home than abroad. Before he left 
Leeds he had arranged some literary work with 
a friend, but on his appointment to London he 


was compelled to lay it aside. The die is 
cast, he wrote ; if I give to our missions the 
attention they require, I shall not have any time 
hereafter for literature. 

Jabez Bunting had a great zeal for the exten 
sion of the work. When the income reached 
37,000 he suggested that it should be raised to 
50,000. A gentleman who sat on the City 
Road platform, a true friend of missions, was 
so much staggered by this proposal that he 
turned to a neighbour, and said : ( I do think 
you ought to check that man s impudence. I 
never heard so impudent a proposal! Dr. Bunting 
lived to hear it proposed that the income should 
be raised to 150,000. 

Jabez Bunting came into office on the eve of 
the emancipation of the slaves. Methodism had 

had a glorious share in securing that 
tionofthe triumph. Out of 352,404 Nonconformist 

Slaves. . . . 

signatures to petitions to Parliament in 
its favour 229,426 were those of Methodists. In 
May, 1833, it was resolved that slavery should 
be for ever abolished throughout the British 
colonies on August I, 1834. 7,000 was now 
raised to send out eighteen new missionaries, 
and make good losses sustained in Jamaica during 
the recent riots. Our Church had reason to be 
proud of its black children whom it had trained 
in the graces of forbearance and Christian patience. 



No Methodist slave was ever proved guilty of 
incendiarism or rebellion for more than seventy 
years, 1760-1834. Despite their prudent be 
haviour the missionaries did not escape per 
secution. Chapels were destroyed by the mob, 
preachers were tarred and feathered, and attempts 
were even made to set them on fire. 

The negroes laboured faithfully at their tasks 
till the usual hour of rest on July 31, 1834. At 
ten o clock they streamed to the chapels. All of 
them were not Christians, but all came to the 
services. A few minutes before midnight the 
congregations knelt in silent prayer, then, as 
the hour of freedom struck, 800,000 free men 
poured out their souls in the doxology : 

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow. 

Friends and relatives fondly embraced each other 
and returned home thanking God that they had 
lived to see the day of liberty. The people now 
enjoyed full religious freedom. The congrega 
tions largely increased. New chapels had to be 
built, and old ones enlarged on almost every 
station. In one circuit 1,000 new members were 
gathered in during a single year. 

The glorious work in the Pacific, which was to 
fill the Christian world with joy and amazement, 
had begun before Richard Watson s death. In 
June, 1822, the Rev. Walter Lawry, who was 



stationed in New South Wales, sailed from 
Sydney with his family to see what prospect 

Light in there was of success in Tonga. He 

Tonga, landed in August, and was received with 
great heartiness by the chiefs and people, who 
promised to send thousands of children to the 
schools. The prospect was so encouraging that 
Mr. Lawry wrote home for helpers and supplies. 
After fourteen months labour the delicate state 
of Mrs. Lawry s health led her husband to return 
to New South Wales. Two European artisans 
who had come with Mr. Lawry remained on 
the island, but the work languished until the 
arrival of the Revs. John Thomas and John 
Hutchinson and their wives from England in 
June, 1826. 

The first station was at Hihifo, but after a 
while the fickle people turned against the 
mission, and did all they could to hinder its 
success. In 1827 light began to break. Tubou, 
chief of Nukualofa, gave up his gods and built a 
chapel for Christian worship. In 1828 Nathaniel 
Turner and William Cross came to work among 
Tubou s people. It was impossible to meet the 
demand for missionaries. 

A notable chief, afterwards famous as King 

George, of the Friendly Islands, came in person 

to Tonga to seek a teacher. His urgent request 

could not be granted for some time, but he at 



once abandoned his idols, and began to keep 
the Christian Sabbath. 

The work at Hihifo proved very discouraging, 
and in January, 1830, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 
removed to the Haabai Islands. A native teacher 
had been doing a great work here, and out of 
eighteen islands all but three had embraced 
Christianity. King George proved a true helper, 
and before Mr. Thomas had been a year at 
Lifuka he and 150 of his people became mem 
bers of the church. King George s influence led 
Finau, the chief of Vavau, to renounce idolatry. 
He burned eighteen idol temples with their gods, 
and so eager were he and his people for instruction, 
that one of the Christian teachers was unable to 
get rest for four nights, from his delightful labour 
of reading, praying, and teaching the people. 

A great trouble befell the mission in 1832. 
Mr. and Mrs. Cross sailed for Vavau in a vessel 
lent to them by one of the chiefs. About seventy 
natives were also on board with supplies for the 
mission and building materials for the new 
station. They encountered severe weather, and 
after thirty hours of storms the canoe struck 
upon a reef and was dashed to pieces. Mrs. Cross 
was drowned, with fourteen men, one woman, and 
five children. The survivors were rescued from 
the lonely island on which they had been cast 
by a canoe from Tonga. 
i 113 


In July, 1834, whilst a native local preacher was 
speaking at Utui on Christ s compassion for Jeru 
salem, the whole congregation was moved to cry 
for mercy. Next Sunday, at another village, 500 
of the natives joined in seeking salvation. The in 
fluence spread from island to island. The school 
had to be given up, and six prayer-meetings a 
day were held for inquirers. In Vavau 2,262 
members were added to the 800 already meeting 
in class. King George and his queen, who had 
long renounced idolatry, were now truly con 
verted. Similar scenes were witnessed at Lifuka 
and at Tonga. King George became a local 
preacher, and exerted himself to raise the moral 
and social status of his subjects. He issued a 
code of laws, and his clemency to the Tongan 
rebels whom he conquered made a deep 
impression on his enemies. 

During the great revival in the Friendly Islands, 
a vessel arrived there from Fiji. A chief was on 
board, who gave an appalling account of a recent 
cannibal feast, at which 200 men and 100 women 
had been killed and eaten. 

The work in the Friendly Islands was taxing 

the mission staff to the utmost ; but ever} 7 one 

The Mission ^ e ^ that the awful heathenism of Fiji 

to Fiji. made a loud call on their pity and 
help. The District Meeting at Lifuka in 
December, 1834, arranged that William Cross 


and David Cargill should begin a mission in 

On Monday, October 12, 1835, the mission party 
arrived off Lakemba, one of the most easterly 
islands of the group. The captain of the Black 
bird was afraid to sail through the narrow opening 
in the coral reef, but sent the two missionaries 
ashore in a boat. Two hundred armed natives 
stood near the landing-place. Their faces were 
painted black or red, and all were nearly naked. 
The king received his visitors at his own house, 
and promised to give them land for a settlement, 
erect mission houses, and protect their lives and 
property. Before night fell the mission party 
were in their temporary home, a canoe house on 
the shore. On Sunday Mr. Cross preached to 
seventy Fijians and as many Tongans. Services 
were held at first in the open air ; then a little 
chapel was erected ; and on March 20, 1836, 
thirty-two adults, who all gave evidence of change 
of heart, were baptized. 

The king and his brother tried to stop the work 
in Lakemba by fierce persecution, but it daily 
took deeper root. Before the first year closed 138 
adults and 53 children had been baptized, and 
250 boys and girls were attending school. In 
December, 1837, Mr. Cross formed a *ew mission 
at Rewa. At Ono 120 adults embraced the new 
religion, though they had never seen a missionary. 


The native teachers from Tonga had a large 
share in the conversion of Fiji. In May, 1838, 
a party of six, among whom was the noble Joeli 
Bulu, came to reinforce the mission. These men 
counted not their lives dear to them and spared 
no toil or sacrifice to spread the light. Miss 
Gordon-Gumming was introduced to this fine old 
Tongan chief when she visited Bau. She says : 
His features are beautiful, his colour clear olive, 
and he has grey hair, and a long silky grey 
beard. He is just my ideal of what Abraham 
must have been, and would be worth a fortune 
to an artist as a patriarchal study. She had 
rarely met any man so perfectly simple, or so 
unmistakably in earnest. He was once attacked 
by a shark whilst bathing ; but as the monster 
opened its jaws he seized its tongue by the root 
and struck out for shore, dragging the shark 
after him. When he reached the bank he fell 
down utterly exhausted. He bore the scars of 
that encounter to the grave. He died in May, 
1877, and was buried beside his old friend, John 
Hunt. Thakombau and his family, whose special 
chaplain he had been, followed the veteran to 
his resting-place. 

A powerful and pathetic appeal by the Rev. 

James Watkin, entitled Pity Poor Fiji, produced 

a profound impression on English Methodism, 

and in April, 1838, John Hunt, James Calvert, 



and Thomas J. Jaggar were sent out to strengthen 
the mission. John Hunt is the chief saint of 

the Methodist mission field. He had 

The Trans- 
been a Lincolnshire ploughboy, but formation of 

grace seemed almost to give him a 
new nature. Thomas Jaggar had been trained 
at Kingswood, and James Calvert was compositor, 
printer, and bookbinder, and had gained much 
experience, which proved of great service to the 
mission, as bookseller, postmaster, and sub-editor 
of a local newspaper. Hunt began the translation 
of the Scriptures, and the printing-press was soon 
busily at work printing the Gospel of St. Mark 
in Fijian. 

For years the missionaries lived in a world of 
horrors. At Rewa, where Mr. Cargill was 
stationed, a great chief died and his thirty wives 
were strangled. When war broke out twenty 
bodies were sent to the king and queen, but they 
had abandoned cannibalism, and the flesh was 
distributed among the neighbouring towns ; 260 
persons were killed in an attack on a fortress, and 
the bodies were brought off to be roasted and 
eaten. Here is Mr. Cargill s description : The 
scene appeared to the imagination as if a legion 
of demons had been unchained and let loose 
among the people, to revel in their degradation 
and misery, and to lash their passions into a 
storm of imbruted or diabolical barbarity, The 



children amused themselves with mutilating the 
dead body of a little girl. Human entrails were 
floating down the river in front of the mission 
premises. Mutilated limbs, heads, and trunks of 
human corpses were seen in many places on the 
banks of the river between Bau and Rewa. 

About this time a canoe was wrecked on an 
uninhabited island near Lakemba. The men 
were six hours in the water ; they managed to 
float near each other for prayer, and when one 
of their comrades was tired, the rest put the 
pieces of wood, by which they supported them 
selves, together so that the exhausted man 
might rest awhile. The chief and his nine 
companions were Christians, but they knew the fate 
of shipwrecked sailors, and durst not approach 
Lakemba. At last, pressed by hunger, one of 
them swam to that island. He invented some 
story to account for his state, but after a time 
ventured to tell the truth. Three canoes were 
immediately sent out to rescue the men. They 
had entrenched themselves on a hill top, and 
were armed with clubs. Great was their joy 
when they found that they had fallen among 
Christians. Grace was working mightily among 
these savages. 

The gospel meanwhile made steady progress. 
Ono was a new world. Lakemba and all its 
dependencies welcomed Christianity, The chief 



barrier to the complete victory of the truth was 
Thakombau, king of Bau. Mr. Calvert set his 
heart on winning this redoubtable chief, but 
Thakombau refused to listen to his pleadings. 
When his father died he took an active part in 
strangling the old chiefs five wives. Yet two 
years later he was brought by personal troubles 
and perils to see that he must lead a new life. 
He became a convert in 1854, and three years 
later was publicly baptized. The natives thus felt 
that the new faith was victorious. They had 
waited for Thakombau s decision, and now that 
he had lost faith in the old gods they were eager 
to abandon them. 

The cannibal tyrant became a pillar and an 
ornament to the Methodist Church. He was a 
stately and imposing man, with clear penetrating 
eyes. Those who heard him pray in his last 
days in the church at Bau remembered it as long 
as they lived. 

Methodism has won no more glorious triumph 
than that among the cannibals of Fiji. Miss 
Gordon-Gumming says : Every family in the 
length and breadth of the eighty inhabited islands 
begins and ends each day with the singing of 
Christian hymns, reading the Scriptures in their 
own tongue, and devout prayer offered by the 
head of each household, and concluding with 
the Lord s Prayer, in which all audibly unite. 


I doubt if there be any other corner of the world 
from which the outgoings of morning and evening 
waft to heaven so united a voice of prayer and 

In 1824 the Rev. John Keeling was appointed 

to Malta, where the work was continued till 

1844, when numerous changes among 

the European residents and the military 

led to the withdrawal of our agent. In 1869 

the place was reoccupied as a military station. 

Methodism was not yet in a position to do 
much for the continent of Europe, but a bold 
effort was made to spread gospel light in Spain. 
Dr. Rule s work in Gibraltar, from 1832 to 
1842, was specially fruitful. He was able to 
Dr. Rule in secure an order from General Lord 
Spain. Hill> Commander-in-Chief in 1839, that 
every soldier should have full liberty to attend 
the worship of Almighty God according to the 
forms prescribed of his own religion, when military 
duty does not interfere. Dr. Rule had a sharp 
struggle to get this order observed ; but his 
boldness and pertinacity conquered, and the 
Methodist soldiers were regularly marched to 
their own church. 

In 1835 and 1836 he visited various towns in 
Spain. The principal schoolmaster at Gibraltar 
was sent, at the end of 1836, to open a mission 
in Cadiz. He visited the English ships, taught 



school, and held services ; but in January, 1838, 
the school had to be closed. A favourable feeling 
had grown up towards the mission, and good 
seed was lodged in many minds, so that the 
year s work was not in vain. Dr. Rule journeyed 
to Madrid, and gained permission to set up his 
school again under restrictions. For some time 
he lived in Cadiz himself, and formed a society 
of twenty-five members ; but the Roman Catholics 
were determined to stop his work. On a given 
Sunday all the pulpits of the city denounced 
the Methodist preacher. The newspaper led the 
opposition to his school. Dr. Rule was compelled 
to leave Cadiz on April 24, 1839. He kept 
possession of his house for a time, and occasionally 
paid a visit to the place, but in April, 1840, the 
opposition became so severe that he had to return 
to Gibraltar, and content himself with sending 
a weekly pastoral to the little flock until he sailed 
for England, in 1842. George Borrow says, in 
his Bible in Spain : { So much success attended 
the efforts of these two brave disciples of the 
immortal Wesley (Messrs. Rule and Lyon) that 
there is every reason for supposing that, had they 
not been silenced and eventually banished from 
the country by the pseudo-Liberal faction of the 
Moderados, not only Cadiz, but the greater part 
of Andalusia would by this time have confessed 
the pure doctrines of the gospel, and have 



discarded for ever the last relics of Popish 

Memorable work was being done in Western 
Africa. The Gold Coast mission owed its origin 

The Gold to a ^ ew na tive youths who had learned 
Coast. to read the Bible at the Government 

School at Cape Coast Castle. They formed a 
Bible Club, and asked Captain Potter, the master 
of a Bristol ship, to procure them copies of the 
Scriptures in England. He was himself a Wes- 
leyan, and not only fulfilled his commission, but 
called at the Mission House and offered to take 
out a missionary free of cost. The Rev. Joseph 
Dunwell arrived at the new station on January I, 
1835, and laboured with much success till June, 
when he died of malignant fever. Other workers 
followed, and, despite the fatal climate, Methodism 
became firmly rooted. Mr. Hayes remembers the 
anxiety in the Mission House when the West 
African mails arrived with news of our agents 
stricken down by fever. 

Thomas Birch Freeman took charge of our 
mission at Cape Coast in January, 1838. He set 
out a year later with the hope of planting 
Methodism at Kumasi, 142 miles distant. He 
entered * the city of blood on April i, and had 
an interview with the king. The horrors which 
he witnessed with his own eyes made him the 
more eager to introduce Christianity without 



delay. The Missionary Committee regarded his 
scheme with much favour, and he was called to 
England in 1840 to make arrangements. The 
deepest interest was felt in his story. Five thousand 
pounds were raised. Dr. Beecham wrote : Never 
was a missionary party dismissed from the shores 
of England with a more intense feeling of interest 
and sympathy. On December 13, 1841, Freeman 
was again in Kumasi. He won special favour 
from the king, and after a few weeks left Mr. 
Bracking in charge of the station. But the king 
proved jealous of the mission, and it never gained 
strength in the capital, though it did good service 
in the country around. The Ashanti War of 
1874 brought it to an end for more than twenty 

The work in Abeokuta was begun by Mr. 
Freeman in 1842, in response to the urgent 
request of the liberated African Christians. He 
received a warm greeting from the enlightened 
ruler and his people. Shouts of welcome greeted 
him as he passed through the streets. He also 
visited the king of Dahomey in his capital, 
and secured permission to open a mission in 
that country. The fetish priests became jealous, 
and a great persecution broke out. The mis 
sionaries were banished for ten years, but the fire 
did not die out, and our workers were at last able 
to return to this great town. 



Across the Atlantic a notable work was also 
carried on among the Cree Indians in the Hudson s 
Bay territory. Five missionaries were appointed 
to labour in this immense region. 

The work in Ceylon made steady progress 
during Dr. Bunting s secretariat. Mr. Gogerly 
Progress in was training teachers, preaching in 
Ceylon. the heathen villages, translating and 
printing the Scriptures, and winning all hearts. 
Robert Spence Hardy was rapidly gaining a repu 
tation as an oriental scholar. Dr. Kessen, who 
had been trained at the University of Glasgow, 
went out in 1840, and gave himself to educa 
tional work. He rendered valuable service to the 
Government as principal of the training college 
for native Christian schoolmasters, to which post 
he was appointed in 1845, anc * as head master 
of Colombo Central School. There thousands of 
the brightest youths of Ceylon came under his 
care, and the hour spent each morning in Bible 
teaching and prayer leavened their minds with 
Christian truth. When his health compelled him 
to leave Ceylon in 1857, a ll classes regretted his 
departure, and the Government conferred on him 
a pension in recognition of his services. 

The Bishop of Colombo visited Batticaloa in 
1846. He found a heathen temple there left 
unfinished. f Its supporters were reduced, by the 
efforts of the Wesleyan missionaries, to one 



individual of any importance or influence in the 
station. Provoked by the success of the mis 
sionaries, he ordered the idol to be made at his 
own expense. He went himself to bring it in 
solemn procession. On the way, conscience struck 
him; he asked himself, "What am I doing? Am 
I going to worship that which I have myself 
seen made?" He suddenly left it, and returned, 
and from that day became a consistent Christian. 
Not a stone has been added since. A great 
awakening was reported among the jungle Veddahs 
in 1841. 

The work in India was spreading. It gained a 
notable recruit in 1829, when Thomas Hodson went 
to join Peter Percival in Calcutta. He south 
gave thirty-nine fruitful years to India. India - 
In 1833 ne began his work in Bangalore, where he 
introduced Kanarese preaching with great effect, 
and raised the mission to a high state of efficiency. 
He secured a large plot of ground from the Govern 
ment for mission premises, and in 1836 opened 
the first English school for natives, which is now 
one of the most efficient in South India, with 
more than five hundred pupils. 

Mr. Hodson began the mission at Gubbi, fifty- 
six miles north-west of Bangalore, in 1837. After 
he had built a house, he went to form a new 
station in the city of Mysore in 1838, leaving 
the Rev. John Jenkins in charge. He had been 


about a year at Gubbi when William Arthur 
joined him, in October, 1839. There were about 
twenty places in the circuit, including Tumkur, 
about twelve miles away. Mr. Arthur rapidly 
acquired a knowledge of Kanarese, and preached 
in the streets and at the doors of the temples. 
His study door was always open to inquirers, 
and his whole soul was in his work ; but his 
sight failed, and he was compelled, with breaking 
heart, to embark for England on April 20, 1841. 
In 1835 a mission was started in Mannargudi, 
thirty miles to the west of Negapatam. Thomas 
Cryer and his wife found themselves, on January 26, 
1843, surrounded by heathen temples and by idol 
and devil worship. The town then had 19,000 
inhabitants, of whom 5,000 were Brahmans. The 
eight towers of the great temple to Vishnu were 
plainly visible from the mission compound. Idol 
processions disturbed the services in the little 
chapel, and the congregation would run out to 
see any fresh sight, yet the people had never 
been so eager to hear the gospel. Mrs. Cryer, the 
saint of our Indian mission-field, wrote : British 
Christians have no idea what idolatry is ; what 
it does for, in, and by, its votaries. Oh, it is an 
awful masterpiece of Satan s policy, by which he 
is holding millions spell-bound ! Her life in 
India only lasted a few months, then, at the age 
of thirty-one, she fell a victim to cholera. 


In Cape Colony Methodism was steadily growing. 
The mission to the Kaffirs was much hindered 

by tribal wars. A notable addition 

Cape Colony 

was made to the staff in November, and tne 

1830, when William B. Boyce arrived 

at Buntingville, one of William Shaw s Kaffir 
stations. He compiled the first Kaffir grammar, 
and for thirteen years rendered invaluable service. 
James Archbell went from Kaffraria with a mili 
tary expedition in 1841, and formed a mission at 
Durban, in the newly annexed colony of Natal, 
in 1842. Four years later an entrance was gained 
to Maritzburg. The Rev. W. C. Holden began 
his fruitful work at Durban in 1847. A chapel 
was built there in 1858. 

Ralph Stott, who formerly was a missionary 
among the Tamils and Veddahs of North Ceylon, 
did good work among the Indian coolies settled 
in the colony and among the Zulus. 

Elijah Hoole was appointed assistant Missionary 
Secretary in 1834, and two years later became one 
of the General Secretaries. He had Elijah 
spent eight years as a missionary in Hoole - 
India, and now gave thirty-eight years service at 
the Mission House. He gained a high reputation 
as an oriental scholar, and was an honoured 
member of the Royal Asiatic Society and other 
learned bodies. He worked on to the end of his 
life with his old enthusiasm, and died in 1872. 



William Arthur served the Mission House as 

Secretary from 1851 to 1867. He had aroused 

William great enthusiasm as a missionary advo- 

MiSixmary cate on nis return fr m India, when 
Advocate, f or ^ nree years he was under the direc 
tion of the Missionary Society. 

The Gledhow Breakfast at Leeds, which was 
first held in connexion with the Missionary 
Anniversary in 1849, was a noble effort, made 
by a party of laymen, to stand by the Society 
in time of misrepresentation. On the evening of 
October 29, 1849, t- ne day on which it was first 
held, Mr. Arthur delivered an impassioned address 
in Brunswick Chapel. It dealt with the watch 
word of the extremists of the day, Stop the 
supplies. He spoke of Dr. Bunting s sacrifices 
and service for Methodism, and of Dr. Hoole s 
refusal to accept a Professorship of Tamil from 
the East India Company worth 800 to ^"1,000 
per annum. What/ he asked, would the faithful 
toiling missionaries on the foreign field say to 
the cry of "Stop the supplies"? William Shaw, 
of South Africa, what say you ? Shall we stop 
the supplies? Thomas Freeman, do you say, 
" Stop the supplies ); ? No, but as you value the 
salvation of human souls, and the peace of human 
hearts, increase the supplies. . . . And the spirit 
of John Hunt? He was my fellow-student, and 
if he were now listening to my voice -perhaps 



he is listening -and heard me asking, "Shall we 
Methodists of England stop the supplies ? " I can 
hear his well-known voice, with a new angel tone 
in it, repeating the text, which was so much his 
favourite while on earth, " Thou shalt love thy 
neighbour as thyself." And the spirit of John 
Waterhouse, would he not repeat from within 
the veil the words which he uttered just as 
he was passing within it, " Missionaries ! Mis 
sionaries ! Missionaries ! " No, we will not stop 
the supplies. 

The growth of our missions in all parts of the 
world now made it essential to train the agents 
for their responsible and difficult work. 

In 1834 a large private house was taken in 
Hoxton as a theological institution. This was 
soon crowded, and Abney Park, where Hoxton and 
Dr. Watts was once an honoured guest, Ricnmond - 
was secured. Men intended for the mission field 
and for home work were trained together. The 
site at Richmond was bought by the Centenary 
Fund, and the College was opened on Sep 
tember 15, 1843. The outlay was 24,000. 

The Methodist people responded nobly to the 
claims of the mission field. The Centenary Fund 
in 1839 reached a total of 221,939, of 

which 10,640 was raised on foreign Centenary 
, .. - * Fund, 1839. 

stations. 70,000 was set apart for 
missions. A missionary ship, The Triton, was 
K 129 


provided for the South Pacific at a cost of 
6,000, and about 34,000 was used for payment 
of debt and providing mission premises ; 30,000 
was spent in the purchase and alteration of the 
City of London Tavern, which, after undergoing 
extensive improvements and additions, was opened 
in January, 1841, with religious services in which 
Dr. Bunting, Dr. Newton, and Richard Reece 
took part. The Hatton Garden premises had 
long been found inadequate for the growing 
business of the Society. The new premises, the 
Wesleyan Centenary Hall and Mission House, at 
last gave ample room for a work which had 
become world-wide. Provision was also made for 
Methodist committees of every kind. The Upper 
Room at Bishopsgate, at which public meetings 
had been held, proved a splendid hall for mis 
sionary ordinations and farewell services. The 
President s missionary sermon used to be a 
great event, which drew together the chief families 
of our Church. The Methodists of the Centenary 
time proved their fine business instinct when 
they secured such a site. Their property is now 
worth a quarter of a million sterling. 

In 1841, when there was fear of a new debt 
being added to the burdens of the Society, 
Dr. Bunting suggested that each child of Wes 
leyan parents should give or collect one shilling 
as a juvenile Christmas offering. It was hoped 



to raise 3,000, but 4,890 was sent in, and a 
new source of income discovered. 

On Dr. Bunting s retirement, in 1851, unbounded 
gratitude was expressed for his noble service. The 
Committee recognized that the public Retirement of 
confidence reposed in the Society, and Dr> Buntin - 
the liberal pecuniary help it had received, were 
largely due to his unrestrained disinterested 
ness and zeal. They felt that his name and 
influence had been of the highest service in 
critical negotiations with the Government, and 
rejoiced in the triumph of Christianity exhibited 
in the maintenance of the missions in the West 
Indies during the trying period of negro slavery ; 
the abolition of that iniquitous system, and the 
subsequent enlargement of the Society s operations 
in the West Indies ; the extension of the missions 
in India, in western and southern Africa, in the 
vast regions of Australia and Polynesia, and in 
other parts of the world. 

In the promotion of all these noble tasks, 
Dr. Bunting had taken an active and prominent 
part for forty years. The income of the Society 
was more than doubled between 1832 and 1851. 







THE toil of many years was now bearing fruit. 
Missions that had been nursed with loving care 
were becoming ripe for self-support and Results of 
self-government. In 1852 the French the Work> 
Conference was formed ; in the next two or three 
years our missions in East Canada and in the 
North-West Territories were handed over to the 
Canadian Conference. Robert Young brought a 
glorious report on his return from the South Seas 
in April, 1854, and before that year closed came 
news that heathenism in Fiji had lost its chief prop 
by the conversion of Thakombau. The first Austra 
lian Conference met at Sydney in 1855. Fiji and 
the Friendly Islands were transferred to its care. 
The Friendly Islands work was no longer a mission 
to the heathen. The report for 1858 rejoices that 
the day of visitation has come to Fiji. About one- 
fourth of the entire estimated population of the 
group have abandoned heathenism, and earnestly 
desire to be instructed in the saving truths of 
J 35 


Christianity. Thirty-six chapels had been built 
during the year. 

These were glorious results. The report for 
1853 speaks of peace in Tonga; extensive pros 
perity in Fiji ; hopeful efforts in Australia ; new 
openings on the Gold Coast ; the extensive re 
nunciation of idols at Sierra Leone ; the gracious 
revivals in Canada and New Brunswick. Greater 
tasks were in store. China, Italy, and a new 
district in India were within the next few years 
added to the Society s area of operation. 

In 1851 the John Wesley brought a shipload of 
shells, corals, clubs and weapons given by native 
converts in the South Seas, and 498 was raised 
by their sale. In 1852 Mr. Thomas Marriott left 
10,000 to the Society. 

Between 1835 and 1843 the number of our 
missionaries increased by 101. The report for 1853 

Rapid sa y s : This rapid extension without 
Extension. examp i ej we believe, among Protestant 
missionary societies caused an additional outlay 
which greatly exceeded the additional income, and 
debts accumulated upon the Committee, which 
notwithstanding many instances of truly Christian 
liberality, have up to the present time hindered 
extension, beyond that necessary to keep what 
had already been gained ; yet even thus the 
missionaries of the Society are this year 101 
more than in 1844. The Society s missions in 



India were weak to a degree actually humbling; 
yet many yearned for China. Money was offered 
freely. One branch Society held a meeting to 
promote some scheme, but the Committee still 

George Piercy went out to Hong Kong on 
January 30, 1851, at his own charge. He had 
expected to find a Christian sergeant George Piercy 
and a little class of Methodist soldiers in CWna " 
in Hong Kong, but was told on his arrival that 
Sergeant Ross was dead. He was a young 
Methodist, the centre of a praying band of six 
or seven comrades, who met in his room. They 
were now scattered or dead. The man who 
told Mr. Piercy of this loss was the only member 
of the band left to welcome him. Dr. Legge 
of the London Missionary Society entertained 
Mr. Piercy for three weeks until he hired a room 
that would hold sixty persons. Dr. Herschberg, 
also of the London Missionary Society, gave him 
some medical training. A Society of twenty 
soldiers and soldiers wives was soon formed. Their 
offerings and help from friends in England enabled 
Mr. Piercy to give his whole time to the mission 
without taking secular work, as he had intended 
to do. After some months he moved to Canton, 
where he was able to visit the houses and shops 
freely. He then offered himself to our Society 
as an agent. 


A paper in the Missionary Notices for October, 
1852, describes the spirit in which the great 

mission to China was undertaken. In 

opportunity 1836 the Emperor of China forbade 
in China. 

the profession of Christianity under the 

severest penalties. The Government of China 
gave permission, however, in 1845, that every form 
of Christianity might be professed, and by later 
orders the term of travel into the interior for 
a missionary was extended from twenty-four 
hours to several months. Agents of the London 
Missionary Society visited places fifty miles from 
the five treaty ports, preaching and distributing 
books freely. 

Figures were quoted that our friends may, 
at leisure, familiarize their minds with the 
immensity of human want represented by the 
word " China." The population was estimated 
at 450 millions. The London Missionary Society 
had been at work since 1807, when Dr. Morrison 
went out. Before Methodism began to take its 
share in the vast task 150 men had been sent 
out by various Societies ; 88 were Americans, 
47 Englishmen, 15 from the Continent of Europe. 
73 missionaries were now at work. Just at the 
time the door was opened into China ( our Society 
had been making exertions of an extraordinary 
kind for Africa, the West Indies, and the South 
Seas. After the emancipation of the slaves, the 


missionaries were largely increased in the West 
Indies, the new and costly mission to the Gold 
Coast and Ashanti was established, and the cry 
from Fiji was responded to, with, at the same 
time, considerable extension in New Zealand, 
South Africa, Australia, and India/ 

But it was no longer possible to hold back. 
Many hearts were greatly stirred by the vast 
opportunity of winning China for Christ. Zeal for 
One Richmond student was so anxious Clnna - 
to join Mr. Piercy that he would gladly have 
done so, without promise of sustenance, in the 
hope of finding some situation whereby to support 
himself. Another young minister had for years 
had his heart set upon China. Both begged the 
mission authorities to let them go out. Mr. Farmer 
had already offered 100 a year for ten years 
for a mission to China. He had paid six instal 
ments, and said that the day the two missionaries 
sailed he would give the other 4.00 and 100 
a year. The Committee felt this a providential 
call. They accepted Mr. Piercy as a probationer, 
and on January 20, 1853, sent out tne ^ wo young 
ministers, William R. Beach and Josiah Cox, 
with Miss Wannop, a trained teacher from our 
Westminster College. Mr. Piercy had opened a 
school in Canton, and in June, 1853, began to hold 
public services in English and Chinese in his 
own house. Dr. Hobson, of the London Missionary 


Society, allowed Leang Afa, the first convert of 
Protestant missions in China, who had been 
baptized in 1816, to preach once every Sunday 
in the Methodist chapel. The little society at 
Hong Kong had been much reduced by removals 
and various causes, so that the work was left to 
the charge of other missionaries who were on 
the spot. Three additional missionaries Samuel 
Hutton, Samuel J. Smith, and John Preston- 
were sent out in February, 1855. They made the 
voyage from Gravesend to Hong Kong in eighty- 
nine days. Meanwhile, Mr. Beach had joined the 
Church Missionary Society. A member of the 
English Episcopal Church offered a donation 
of 500 if two more men were sent out, and the 
offer was accepted. Between 1847 an d 1850 
.884 143. had been subscribed for China, and 
in 1851-3 2,388. During the Crimean War 
20 was received from Methodist soldiers in 

In March, 1856, Mr. Cox and others visited 

three considerable cities and several villages 

JosiahCox within fifty miles of Canton. They 

in canton, distributed hundreds of tracts, and 1,590 

New Testaments. When war broke out with 

England the mission party removed to Macao. 

Mr. Cox stayed for a while in Canton. When it 

was no longer safe to remain there he visited the 

Chinese settlers in the British possessions in 



the Straits of Malacca. Before war broke out 
the two day schools had 24 boys and 14 girls, 
and three of the Chinese attendants were almost 
ready for baptism. These and two others were 
baptized at Macao. The time there was not 
wasted, and when peace was restored work was 
resumed in Canton. The old preaching-place 
was reopened on February 6, 1859, an ^ that day 
four adults and two infants were baptized. In 
1859 four day schools were opened, with 138 
children. At the beginning of 1861 there were 
fifteen members, with five on trial. Two good 
houses had been built, and a boys school in the 
rear of one of them. In the same year Mr. Piercy 
reported that a preaching-place had been erected 
at a cost of 400, and three places for preach 
ing, all of which were the freehold property of 
the Society. 

This was the outcome of a legacy of 10,000 
left to the Society in 1860 by Mr. Pooll, of Road, 
in Somerset. 

In 1862 a house in a good street was rented 
for the mission which had been begun in Fatshan. 
In 1862, also, Mr. Cox began the mission Advance in 
in Hankow, five hundred miles north Cnma - 
of Canton. He wrote : The whole heathen world 
cannot produce a field whose population is so 
great, accessible, and intelligent ; nor one where 
the marked providence of God so loudly demands 



our co-operation. A plot of ground was secured 
for mission premises. Mr. Cox had visited the 
Tai-Ping ( revolutionists/ but found that it was 
not wise to begin a mission among them. 

Dr. J. Porter Smith sailed on December 10, 
1863, to start a medical mission in Hankow. 
Addresses were given to the patients before 
Dr. Smith saw them, and whilst he was busy in 
his dispensary those who waited in the chapel 
were spoken to by Mr. Cox and his helpers. 
William Scarborough and David Hill were stationed 
at Hankow in 1864. In 1866 F. P. Napier joined 
the Canton Mission, and Silvester Whitehead 
was appointed to Fatshan. In March, 1867, 
a native house was rented in Wuchang. A 
hall which held about thirty persons occupied 
the centre, with two rooms on either side for 
the two missionaries. There was also a small 

A description of the region by Dr. Mullins, 
of the London Missionary Society, is quoted in 

the Report for 1868 : Hankow is indeed 
Hankow. . . 

a noble city. It is, m name and reality, 

the " Heart of the Empire." Its streets are well 
made, well paved, and full of good shops, exhibiting 
excellent goods ; the population is closely packed, 
and the streets, great and small, are always 
crowded. A beautiful view of both cities is 
obtained from the hills of Wuchang. Wuchang 


lies at one s feet, divided by the ridge into two 
parts, and clear to the eye are the wide parade- 
ground, the public offices, the long street for 
business, the rows of dwelling-houses, the ruins 
of temples, and the city walls, ten miles in circuit, 
which even now enclose 200,000 people. Across 
the river on the south is the little walled city of 
Hanyang. Next is a lofty bluff which overhangs 
the stream, and by its side, running far into the 
interior, is seen the narrow stream of the Han, 
covered with a crowd of junks and river-boats, 
which have brought down the produce of distant 
provinces, and are transmitting it to the seaports. 
To the north of the little river the crowd of white 
roofs, densely packed, and stretching for three 
miles along the bank of the Yang-tse, forms the 
town of Hankow. Numerous steamers lie at 
the wharves, and at the northern end is seen the 
English settlement, with its substantial, handsome 
houses, and its wide, level road. The Yang-tse 
itself, broad, placid, yet alive with moving boats, 
and stretching far away both north and south, 
divides the two great towns. Dr. Smith left 
Hankow in 1870, his place being taken by Dr. 
E. J. Hardey. During his first year 6,067 out - 
and 93 in-patients were relieved. In 1871 there 
were 122 members, 348 scholars, 10 missionaries 
and assistant missionaries, and 17 other agents. 
The work was firmly established, and, though the 


harvest as yet was small, there was much to 
encourage the workers. 

Dr. Coke s wisdom in venturing on work in 
Ceylon had long been justified by results. The 

Progress in R e P rt f r l &5 1 draws attention to the 
ceyion. fact that Dr Kessen had returned to 

Colombo as Principal of the Government College 
for training natives as teachers. Whilst he 
devotes his energies to this sacred object, he is 
laying wide the foundations of the Christian 
Church in that heathen country, and deepening 
the impression which has already been made on 
many professed followers of Buddha and worship 
pers of the devil. These systems of superstition 
are now shaken, and are tottering to their fall. 
At the mission press Mr. Gogerly was busy in 
getting out an edition of 5,000 New Testaments 
and 2,000 Old Testaments. The young converts 
of the mission showed great zeal. They go from 
house to house, speaking of a Saviour able and 
willing to save, and stating their own experience 
of His abounding love. 

The Tamil work in North Ceylon was steadily 
growing. Seventeen teachers were studying at 
the Training Institute in 1854, and the girls 
schools were prospering. The Rev. John Walton 
began a Tamil service on Sunday evenings, and 
built a High School in Trincomalee in 1853. Mr. 
Kilner reported that nine adults were being prepared 



for baptism at Batticaloa. Mr. Walton became 
General Superintendent of the North Ceylon 
Mission in 1855. Two years later he was able to 
report that the people began to manifest something 
like a personal interest in the work. They con 
tributed more generously, and attended class better. 
In South Ceylon the same spirit was growing. It 
was agreed to hold a missionary meeting in every 
circuit, and to work out the principle of a self- 
supporting native ministry, in order not only to 
relieve the Society s funds, but to lead the people 
to feel that the work of God is their work, and 
that the pastor has a scriptural claim to be 
supported by the people. 

The Rev. William Barber spent the first seven 
years of his ministry in North Ceylon, where he was 
chiefly occupied in educational work. The Report 
for 1857 says that ninety-five boys were learning 
English, and five of them had been baptized 
during the year. Mr. Barber s health compelled 
him to leave Ceylon in 1858, and for twelve years 
he laboured at the Cape of Good Hope. When 
he left there were 496 scholars in the North Ceylon 
schools. Mr. Walton had to return to England 
in 1859, Mr. Kilner succeeded him as Chairman. 
The population was now becoming leavened with 
Christian truth. The Report for 1860 says: 
Whereas, formerly, every adult and every stripling 
stood for the defence of Hinduism, and was ready 
L 145 


to pour unmingled curses and contempt on the mis 
sionary and his message, the marvel is, nowadays, 
to meet with a man who will set himself seriously 
to maintain heathenism or refute Christianity. In 
Jaffna symptoms of the decay of heathenism as 
a religion, or as a system commanding the respect 
of the intellect and the confidence of the heart 
were plain for all to see. The religious element 
had vanished from the feasts. 

On September 6, 1862, Daniel J. Gogerly, the 

venerable Chairman of the South Ceylon District, 

D j died after more than forty years of 

Gogeriy. serv i ce . The Report for 1863 says: 
* The annals of this Society contain not a few 
illustrious names, but not one that will call forth 
more sincere admiration and regret than his. 
His great powers of mind, his vast acquirements, 
his unwearied diligence, his diversified services, 
and his life-long devotion to missionary work, have 
secured for Mr. Gogerly that amount of esteem 
and respect which was their due not only within, 
but around, and beyond the limits of, his own 
community ; while his labours for the spread of 
Christianity and the overthrow of the Buddhist 
superstition present a striking and instructive 
instance of the power of concentrated and 
persevering effort. 

The Buddhist priests had shaken off their 
lethargy and formed a society to carry their 


message from house to house. It was a great 
relief to the Committee when Robert Spence 
Hardy consented to take charge of the south 
South Ceylon District for a time. The Ce y lon - 
Buddhists had attacked Christianity in the Press 
and at public meetings, but this controversy had 
led to a clearer separation between Christians and 
heathen, and wise discipline had given a healthier 
tone to our work. Mr. Wijesingha, the first native 
preacher of pure Sinhalese descent, and one of 
the early converts in Ceylon, died in 1864. He 
became an assistant missionary in 1819, and his 
consistent life made a deep impression on his 
heathen neighbours. Mr. Parys, another veteran, 
died about the same time. He was a Romanist 
of French descent, and a solicitor, but he gave 
up his profession to become a catechist in our 
mission. He preached with great power and 
acceptance both in Sinhalese and Portuguese, and 
under his ministry all his family were converted 
to Protestant Christianity. 

Mr. Hardy returned to England in 1865. The 
more searching discipline which he had introduced 
had borne fruit in growing vigour, intelligence, 
and liberality. The native preachers and laymen 
now realized their responsibility and did excellent 
service. John Scott (B) became General Super 
intendent. He found there had been many con 
versions at Colombo, Galle, Morotto, and Matara 


during the year. In 1866 a missionary was 
appointed to Kandy, the ancient capital of 

In 1865 Edmund Rigg went out to North 
Ceylon. When Mr. Kilner came to England on 
furlough he acted as Chairman, and maintained 
and developed the work on every side. 

On Mr. Kilner s return to Ceylon in 1867 he 
reported that there were 29 day schools, with 55 
teachers and 1,163 scholars. He arranged a dis 
trict meeting of the native pastors/ at which the 
various agencies and spheres of labour were 
reviewed and adapted to the needs of the 
mission. A memorable sentence in this report 
shows how wisely the mission was being con 
ducted : By degrees the financial responsibility 
of the pastorate, the schools, and the chapels, is 
being placed upon the native churches ; circuit 
stewards and poor stewards have been appointed, 
and leaders meetings regularly held. An 
impression was being made on the population, 
and the zeal for heathenism was manifestly 

In South Ceylon the contributions of the 
members for their own circuits rose from 367 
to ,441 ; 220 was also contributed by those 
who were not members. In 1871 there were 
1,574 members, an increase of 218, with 617 on 
trial ; 2,742 children were in the day schools, 



At Kandy, where a new chapel was now being 
built, more than a hundred converts were gathered 
in during the visit of William Taylor, the American 
evangelist. The Theological Institution at Galle 
was prospering. 

When the period under consideration opened 
two important localities in Madras were occupied : 
Royapettah, in the midst of the muni- Advance in 
cipal area of the city, and Black Town, Madras - 
where our missionaries had been labouring for 
more than thirty years. Some other stations had 
been left to workers of various societies. It was 
hoped that concentration on a more limited area 
would bear fuller fruit. A substantial brick-and- 
tiled building for a Tamil girls school had been 
erected in Royapettah, and thanks were given in 
the Report of 1851 to Mr. John Lidgett for the free 
conveyance of twelve large iron pillars for the 
native chapel there. A new chapel was also 
being built at Trichinopoly, but its completion 
was delayed by lack of funds. The work at 
Negapatam was growing. Attention was being 
concentrated on Bangalore. John Garrett, Chair 
man of the Mysore District, issued in Kanarese and 
English nearly 50,000 religious tracts and school 
books, amounting to nearly two million pages. 
Dr. Duff spoke at our Exeter Hall Anniversary 
in 1851, and urged that every station occupied by 
the Society in India should be strengthened. 



Funds were not available for carrying out such 
a policy, but the Committee hoped that as know 
ledge about India as the largest open field for 
missions among the heathen in the whole world 
grew, there would be larger liberality and more 
devoted enterprise. Meanwhile the Report for 1852 
refers to the growing favour enjoyed by the girls 
school at Royapettah and the opening in the same 
city of a superior boys school. On this station, 
and on all the other stations in India, the mis 
sionaries are turning their attention from merely 
elementary schools for young children to the 
formation of institutions in which a higher edu 
cation can be given to pupils of more advanced 
age. It is hoped by this means more immediately 
to influence their character when they enter on 
the business and duties of life. The Report of 
1852 states that the Rev. E. J. Hardey had moved 
from Bangalore to open a station in the city of 
Mysore, and pleads for three additional mis 
sionaries in order that proper attention might be 
given to that important station, with its population 
of 80,000, and to Seringapatam and Ganjam, nine 
miles away, which had fifty or sixty thousand 

Thomas Cryer died of cholera in Madras on 
October 5, 1852. He had been twenty-two years 
in India. Few of his fellow missionaries ex 
celled him in power of utterance, in the adroitness 


and effect with which he exposed the sophisms 
of a Brahman, in the hearty indignation of his 
invectives against the corruptions of Thomas 
heathenism, or in searching and per- Cl> y er - 
suasive appeals to the conscience. He had made 
himself one with the natives, and came into 
constant and close contact with their daily life. 

In 1854 the directors of the East India Com 
pany began to pursue a more enlightened policy 
towards the noble exertions of societies g^oia i n 
of Christians to guide the natives of M y sore - 
India into the way of religious truth, and ex 
pressed their satisfaction at the success of mis 
sionary education among the Tamil people of 
Mysore. Our schools were growing more efficient. 
The education given in physical science did much 
to expand the mind and correct innumerable false 
notions derived by the Hindus from their sacred 
books. Mr. E. J. Hardey brought to England 
in 1853 a petition for the establishment of a 
school in Mysore City signed by 3,300 persons. 
200 was given him for the purpose in England. 
On his return to India he arranged for a meeting 
of Mysore gentlemen, Hindu and Muhammadan, 
at which 120 was raised. One rich merchant 
rose and offered ,400 if the Bible were not intro 
duced into the school, but Mr. Hardey said he 
would not touch a farthing of their money without 
a clear and distinct understanding that the school 


should be conducted as all other missionary 
schools. A hot discussion arose, but the merchant 
was defeated, and left the room. 

William O. Simpson spent the first part of his 

missionary life at Royapettah in 1855. The chapel 

w was in the mission compound, and 

Simpson. a i most c i ose to j t stooc j a mu d- Wa lled 

structure thatched with cocoa-nut leaves, used for 
the school. Behind the mission house was a large 
garden, and beyond it the girls boarding and 
day school. Dr. arid Mrs. Jenkins lived in the 
house, also the Rev. Arminius Burgess, who had 
special charge of the boys school. The English 
chapel at Black Town was three miles distant. 
On the ground floor were the Sunday schoolroom 
and vestries, above was a lofty chapel seating 400 
to 500. Mr Simpson s first sermon made a great 
impression, and he was much moved when he 
attended the Tamil service in the Royapettah 
chapel by the hymns sung to English tunes. 
About two hundred persons were present. Mr. 
Simpson moved to Negapatam in February, 1856. 
He had also to superintend the work at Mannargudi, 
thirty-six miles away. Before the year was out 
he was appointed to Trichinopoly, where he spent 
the next four years, working with great devotion 
in his school and as a Tamil preacher. When the 
Mutiny broke out Trichinopoly was a post of 
special danger. It had 2,000 native troops and 



200 European, but the latter were artillery. One 
regiment had received a letter from the mutineers 
calling on the sepoys to rise on a certain night. 
The officers, however, were forewarned ; the Euro 
pean soldiers were kept in constant readiness, the 
guards doubled, and other precautions taken. By 
God s mercy the crisis was soon passed. Mr. 
Simpson s next station was Mannargudi. After 
two years there he was appointed to Madras, where 
he spent two more years, before domestic affliction 
compelled him to return to England. 

The Report for 1857 contains an appeal made by 
fifty missionaries of various societies who had 
recently met in conference at Calcutta. Appeal for 
To them India was in every way the 
most striking field of Christian missions amongst 
all the countries in the world. We look on our 
converts, and on other fruits of missions, with 
pleasure ; but the more we know India the more 
we are overwhelmed by the consideration that 
millions upon millions never hear the gospel, and 
that millions upon millions die unconverted. This 
appeal was presented in Exeter Hall in May. Be 
fore the month closed news of the Indian Mutiny 
reached England. All hearts and minds were soon 
full of its horrors. The Report for 1858 says, 
They have made India s need of the gospel 
patent and notorious. That which might have 
been to many a matter of faith has now become a 


matter of sense ; Muhammadanism and Brah- 
manasm stand out before the world in their true 
characters. Our missions in the Madras Presi 
dency were outside the circle of the great tornado. 
The report of our Madras Missionary Auxiliary 
for February, 1858, says, * Perhaps there is not a 
single Protestant Society, except our own, that is 
not called upon, at the present season, to mourn 
over some of its agents, victims to Hindu and 
Mussulman barbarity. But we, confined to 
Southern India, where happily licentiousness and 
cruelty have been restrained and moderated 
through the benign influence of Christianity, have 
laboured on in uninterrupted security. Not one 
of our stations has been, even for a moment, dis 
turbed ; not one of our brethren has been cut off, 
nor has any unusual opposition been manifested 
to the preaching of the Cross. The Committee 
had long felt that, amid the claims of other parts 
of the world, India had not received its proper 
share of attention. It resolved to send out ten 
additional missionaries as soon as funds would 
allow. Meanwhile Methodist people took their 
part in helping the Indian Relief Fund, for which 
upwards of 5,000 was collected in Methodist 
chapels, in addition to large amounts contributed 
in other ways. 

Dr. Jenkins was now Chairman of the Madras 
District. He had gone out to India in 1845, 



after three years at Mannargudi and Negapatam 
had been stationed at Madras in 1848. He 
worked zealously as a Tamil evangelist, Dr j en ki ns 
and made a great reputation at Black in Madras. 
Town as an English preacher. On Sunday even 
ings the chapel was frequently crowded. Arminius 
Burgess, who joined him at Madras in 1853, Sa 7 s 
that he almost revolutionized their missionary 
policy. One man was made pastor of the English 
congregation, and the rest were set free for work 
among the heathen. It was resolved at the 
District Meeting in January, 1859, to give 
increased attention to itinerant preaching. 
Several places within forty miles of Madras 
were visited repeatedly. Five additional mis 
sionaries were sent to the Mysore District in 
1859, so that some fresh fields were entered. 
There were openings on every side for new 
stations. The Bangalore press issued 7,379,134 
pages during the year 1859, including 5,250,000 
pages of the Scriptures and a new and enlarged 
edition of Reeves Kanarese Dictionary, edited 
by the Rev. Daniel Sanderson. 

John Shaw Banks was stationed in the city 
of Mysore in 1860. He sent an interesting 
account of his evangelistic work. The opposition 
had not been so bitter as he expected, though 
the Brahmans were famed for their subtlety. We 
always find that the great truths on which it is 
I 55 


our work to insist sin and atonement, repent 
ance and holiness, commend themselves to reason 
and conscience. Many listen to this with interest, 
as to new, undoubted truth ; some with emotion, 
and many express their assent. 

After the Mutiny the Society turned to Bengal. 
The Rev. Daniel Pearson reached Calcutta in 
Calcutta and February, 1860, and began work among 

Bombay. the so idiers a t Barrackpur. He strongly 
urged that the mission in Calcutta should 
be begun again, both for the sake of civilians 
and soldiers. He was warmly supported by 
the military authorities, and the room taken 
for services, which held 300, was soon crowded 
to the door. Genuine conversions were frequent, 
and much interest was awakened in religious 
things. The result is visible not only in frequent 
meetings for prayer, and in the demand for 
profitable reading, but in the marked diminution 
of crime. One colonel said that the change in 
his men since they came to Barrackpur 
was almost incredible ; instead of forty or fifty 
soldiers in the guard-room, there were scarcely any. 
There was a growing conviction that the con 
version of India was almost hopeless unless 
something were done for the soldiers and 
Europeans. The requests for missionaries for 
Calcutta were importunately repeated. 

In September, 1862, James H. Broadbent, B.A., 


and Henry G. Highfield, B.A., arrived in Calcutta 
to begin a mission there. On October 12 Ebenezer 
E. Jenkins and Daniel Pearson preached Calcutta and 
to crowded congregations in the Free- Lucknow - 
masons Hall. A room was afterwards hired, 
and in October, 1866, a commodious chapel and 
mission house were erected in Sudder Street, 
at a cost of ; 10,000. Native congregations 
were formed at Taltala and Chitpur, and special 
attention given to soldiers, sailors and European 

In 1864 the Methodist Episcopal Church 
transferred its English congregation at Lucknow 
to our care, and Mr. Pearson became its pastor. 
A new chapel seating three to four hundred per 
sons was built in 1865, at a cost of ,1,000, of 
which members of various churches in the neigh- 


bourhood contributed 400. It was pleasing to 
see the chapel well filled with soldiers at morning 
service, and the mixed congregation in the even 
ing was scarcely any smaller. 

Mr. Broadley, who was stationed at Poona, 
visited Bombay and held three services with the 
28th Regiment. Twenty-eight of its men gave 
in their names as members of our Society. He 
also formed a soldiers class at Ahmednagar. 
The work was afterwards transferred from Poona 
to Karachi, but had to be abandoned when 
Mr. Broadley returned to England in 1865. 


In 1871 there was one English circuit in the 
Madras District, and nine native circuits, with six- 
Madras and teen preaching places. The attendants 

Mysore. on p u k}{ c worship were about 2,300. 
There were 2,250 children in the schools. The 
schools and the open-air preaching largely occupied 
the attention of the missionaries. In Trichinopoly 
more than 800 services a year were held in the 
streets. The Mysore District had eight circuits, 
with 28 preaching-places, and 2,137 boys and 728 
girls in its 36 schools. The Report for 1871 says 
that above 5,000 sermons had been preached to the 
heathen during that year. 

A substantial and well-built chapel was opened 
at Bangalore in January, 1866. It cost 3,000, 
and most of the money was raised at once. Ground 
was purchased for a wayside preaching-room and 
vernacular school in one of the most important 
thoroughfares, and two sites for mission buildings 
were given by the Government. Faithful work in 
all departments was bearing fruit. 

On the west coast of Africa there was continu 
ous advance. At Sierra Leone a great revival 

Sierra to ^ P^ ace m l &53) and many abandoned 

Leone. t j ie j r idols. Native ministers had now 
been trained, so that fewer English missionaries 
were required for this deadly coast. Thomas 
Champness went to Sierra Leone in 1857. He 
worked there and in Abeokuta till 1863, when he 



was driven home by repeated attacks of fever. 
The love of Africa was a passion in his soul to the 
end. Chapels and schools were built in Sierra 
Leone, and in 1871 there were nine missionaries, 
4,959 members, and 3,174 day scholars. 

In 1852 England made a treaty with the king of 
Lagos, who promised to put down the slave trade, 
abolish human sacrifices, and receive 
Christian teachers. Many slaves returned 
from Sierra Leone to their old homes in Lagos. 
Wesleyan missionaries were sent in 1854, and 
gradually established stations in almost every 
village. Thomas Birch Freeman, who had been 
in Africa since 1838, greatly helped the young 
mission. His father had been a slave, and 
he himself married a Gold Coast woman. He 
used to say, I am a child of the sun, and the 
climate, which proved fatal to others, never seemed 
to sap his energy. He retired from the ministry 
for a time and cultivated a large tract of land near 
Accra; but in 1873 ne returned to the work, and 
for thirteen years rendered valuable service to the 
whole district. 

During this period the work in the West Indies 
was prospering greatly. Mark B. Bird laboured 
for forty years in Hayti among revolu- West 
tions, hurricanes, and fires with heroic Indi es. 
devotion, retiring to Jersey in 1879. During the 
civil war of 1869 half of the city of Port-au-Prince 


was burned down. Our chapel, school, and par 
sonage, which had cost ^"4,000, were destroyed. 
But the mission had a warm place in the hearts 
of English Methodists, who nobly came to its help. 

In South Africa there were serious difficulties. 

After the native wars Mr. Whiteside says a chill 

South f discouragement fell on missionary 

Africa, effort j n the eastern districts of Cape 
Colony. Morley, Shawbury, and Butterworth 
were left without pastors. Butterworth was deserted 
for years, and the church, schoolroom, and mission 
house were heaps of blackened ruins. The church 
at Clarkebury, for want of repairs, fell into decay. 
Converts were scattered, savageism once more 
ruled the land, and cruel superstitions regained 
their former power. l In 1854 there were two mis 
sionaries with an assistant and a catechist where 
there had been seven missionaries and seven lay 
helpers. These faithful men worked on till a 
better day began to dawn. In 1866 a great revival 
broke out. William Taylor, then famed for his 
work in California, landed at Cape Town in 
March. He held evangelistic services there, and 
gradually worked his way to the mission stations, 
where thousands of the natives were brought to 
Christ. The labours of the past now bore fruit. 
The wall of heathenism went down at a blow. 
The missionaries took new heart. They also saw 
1 History of Wesleyan Methodist Church in South Africa. 
1 60 


that native ministers must be more largely used 
if South Africa was to become Christian. 

The first Methodist missionary to settle in Natal 
was the Rev. James Archbell. This was in 1842. 
The Rev. W. C. Holden went in 1847 to Durban, 
then a cluster of thatched cottages surrounded by 
grass and thickets. He worked among the Kaffirs 
in the district with great success, and ministered 
to the British settlers who began to pour into Natal 
after 1849. Ladysmith became the head of a 
circuit in 1866, and from that centre the Rev. 
George Blencowe made long preaching journeys 
into the Transvaal. A church was built at Bloem- 
fontein in 1868. 

Christopher Gottlob Miiller, a native of Win- 
nenden, in Wiirtemberg, was converted on a 

visit to England, and introduced 

Methodism into Germany in 1830. 

In a few years he gathered twenty-three helpers, 
held services in twenty-six places, and had 326 
members. The laws of the country made it 
undesirable to send English agents, but Mr. 
Miiller was guided in his work, and supplied with 
funds. In 1852 he had sixty-seven preaching-places 
under his care. A friend of the Society who 
visited Winnenden wrote : The earnest zeal of the 
missionary, and the devout attention of his hearers, 
whose countenances literally beamed with delight, 
will never be obliterated from our memory. Mr. 
M 161 


M tiller died in 1858. Dr. W. B. Pope and 
Mr. Boyce visited the mission, and found that 
a good work was going on, though it * suffers 
greatly, both as to depth and extension, through 
the disuse of our ordinances, and the lack of 
pastoral supervision. The evangelists only need 
the ( supervision of a recognized ministerial head 
to become agents in a great and prosperous work. 
The Rev. John Lyth, D.D., offered his services, and 
was appointed in 1859. He fixed his residence at 
Stetten, near Cannstadt, and set himself to form 
classes and secure a band of local preachers. He 
wrote : I am in the centre of a fine field of labour, 
and the clergy around me are not only friendly, but 
visit me as a brother. The plans we have set 
in operation seem to be working beyond my 

Dr. Lyth had sixty places under his care, 
scattered over an area of fifty miles by forty. A 
commodious room was rented for services in 
Stuttgart in 1860. Dr. Lyth rented suitable 
premises at Waiblingen, and in 1863 was able to 
report that in every circuit there had been con 
versions and crowded meetings. The increase on 
the year was 300 members and 600 hearers. If 
the chapel had been twice as large it would have 
filled. In one quarter there were 150 conversions. 

Dr. Lyth did splendid service in Germany for 
six years. In 1865 John C. Barratt, formerly 


missionary in St. Vincent, was appointed as his 
successor. There were then 1,061 members, and 
225 candidates for membership. Five additional 
preaching-places had been occupied during the 

When the French Conference was formed in 
1852 the English church in the Rue Royale, Paris, 
remained under the care of our Mis 
sionary Society. In 1862 the present 
church was built in the Rue Roquepine, and 
William Gibson began his memorable work in 
France as its pastor. Methodism entered Switzer 
land in 1867, and a handsome chapel and college 
for training ministers were erected in Lausanne as 
a memorial of John Fletcher. 

At Gibraltar the English work and the day 
schools made special progress. When the Rev. 
George Alton returned to this country g pa i nan d 
in 1858 his place was taken by Joseph p ortugaL 
Webster. He found the commodious chapel filled 
with soldiers, and his weekly Soldiers Bible Class 
was well attended. Spanish services and a Spanish 
class-meeting were held in Gibraltar. There were 
169 children in the schools, mostly Spanish, and of 
Roman Catholic parentage. Mr. Alton went to 
Cadiz, but found that evangelistic work was severely 
repressed by the authorities. When Mr. Webster 
had to return to England in 1863, Mr. Alton 
resumed his work in Gibraltar. 


Robert H. Moreton was appointed to Oporto in 
1870, to minister to the congregations formed by 
Mr. Cassells. He had 350 hearers and 28 members. 

In 1859 Mr. Allen reports that fifty-four soldier 
members had been taken from his class at Malta 
by the removal of three regiments, but there were 
sixteen left, and forty to fifty attendants at the 
public services. 

Garibaldi s triumph opened the door for Pro 
testant missions to Italy. Methodism eagerly 
First work embraced this opportunity. The Rev. 

in Italy. Richard Green began the mission in 
1860, and next year he was joined by the Rev. 
H. J. Piggott. Milan was chosen as head quarters, 
and the work spread to Florence and other towns. 
In Milan premises were secured for a girls 
boarding-school, and a chapel was built. Mr. 
Piggott sent an ex-priest to labour at Intra 
among the workmen employed by the cotton 
manufacturers, and secured the upper half of a 
disused convent church at Parma for services, 
which had a regular attendance of 250. 

The work was surrounded with difficulties, but 
Mr. Piggott wrote in 1868: * We have churches 
of truly converted men and women ; we have 
ministers called of God to their work and office ; 
we have the beginning of that organization which 
we love best and believe most scriptural. Padua 
had become the head quarters in the north, and 


public opinion there was very favourable to 
Methodism. In 1869 there were 14 stations, 709 
members, and 698 day scholars. 

The Rev. W. S. Jones began his work in 
Naples in 1863. 

In 1870 Rome was added to our list of stations. 
The first home of Methodism was a small dark 

room in Signer Sciarelli s house in a 

. Rome, 

by-street. Spacious premises were 

secured on a main thoroughfare opposite to the 
palace of the Cardinal Vicar. Mr. Fernley gave 
5,000 towards the new church, and Mr. Heald 
5,000 for that and the missionary debt. 
Mr. James S. Budgett took an active share in 
the movement. The apartments and shops of 
the mission block are a valuable source of income. 
We have a graceful Gothic church, seating 300 
people, schoolroom, ministers residences, Bible 
depot, and rooms for the mission to Italian soldiers. 
The death of Thomas Farmer in 1861 seemed 
to close an era. He was a member of the first 
London Missionary Auxiliary in 1815, Thomas 
and three years later served on the Farmer - 
General Committee. His deep interest in the 
Society and his generous support made him 
the fitting successor to Lancelot Haslope as 
General Treasurer in 1836. He devoted his time 
and wealth to the affairs of the Society, and be 
came known all over the foreign field as a generous 



and unfailing friend. In James Heald, of Parr s 
Wood, who was appointed Lay Treasurer in 1862, 
our missions found another princely supporter 
and wise counsellor. 

Dr. Beecham died on April 22, 1856. He 
became Secretary in 1831, and his quiet energy 
Dr and perseverance were of untold 
Beecbam. worth to the Society. In the course 
of years the value of his services became more 
and more apparent as new occasions arose to 
test his peculiar powers. He was careful to 
inform himself correctly before he committed 
himself to an opinion, quick to discern the 
leading points of a question, discriminating in 
his judgement, calm in his temper, but tenacious 
in his grasp of great principles. His corre 
spondence with missionaries was extensive and 
laborious, and, in order to make it useful, he 
took pains to make himself acquainted with the 
circumstances and duties of his correspondents. 
So successful was he in this respect, that a 
highly esteemed and intelligent missionary once 
declared that " he believed Dr. Beecham knew his 
circuit almost as well as as he did." He was 
President of the Conference in 1850. 

When David Livingstone returned from Africa 
in 1857 our Committee voted 2$ towards the 
public subscription raised to mark the national 
gratitude to the man who had opened up 



new fields of enterprise in Africa to the Christian 

The Rev. W. B. Boyce was appointed to the 
Mission House in 1858, and for eighteen years 
his vigilance and business skill did much to secure 
the growing success of our missions. He spent 
his last years in Sydney, where he died in 1889. 

The Blake System, introduced about 1860, now 
began to bear a rich harvest for our missions, 
and enlisted an army of young friends and 

The Missionary Jubilee in 1863, fifty years 
after the historic meeting in Leeds, yielded 
188,925 for missions. 7,070 came Missionary 
from the mission field; Ireland con- JubUee 1863 - 
tributed 8,952, which was expended by its own 
Jubilee Committee. Richmond College became 
the property of the Missionary Society on pay 
ment of 37,500 to the Theological Institution 
funds, and 20,000 was invested for its main 
tenance ; 30,000 was reserved as a capital fund, 
the yearly interest being appropriated in aid of 
mission workers and their families. Grants were 
made as follows : West Indies, 30,000 ; India, 
i 1,575; France and Switzerland, 7,000 ; Italy, 
5,250; Southern and Western Africa, 5,000; 
China, 5,000. The Missionary debt of 6,500 
was cleared off, and 15,235 set apart as a 
Missionary capital fund. 




THE Report for 1872 refers to the purchase 
of a large building in the heart of Rome, form 
ing an angle to two great thoroughfares, 
and the building of a chapel and school 
in Naples. It adds : Our Italian mission was 
commenced in fear and trembling : its success 
has far exceeded our anticipations. Italians 
preaching the gospel, the valuable educational 
establishments at Padua, and the progress of the 
preaching and educational work, are reasons for 
thankfulness and hope. Three years ago the 
expression of a determination to place a mission 
ary at Rome was struck out of the rough draft 
of the Report of the Society as too sanguine, 
and as savouring of presumption ! But what 
hath God wrought ! Rome is now open to 
the teachings of Protestantism, the Bible Society 
has held its first public meeting, and questions 
never mooted before have been discussed by the 
sanction of the authorities themselves. 

The services in Rome were greatly blessed from 


the beginning. In our hall in Via de Barbieri, 
the first Protestant baptism in Rome and the 
first Protestant marriage took place. Success 
attracted opposition, and a bottle filled with 
gunpowder and pieces of iron was exploded in 
the vestibule of the hall at the close of the first 
celebration of the Lord s Supper. The extension 
of the work led to the formation of two Districts 
Rome and Naples, in 1874. The new church 
and schools in Naples were opened in May, 1874, 
and though ( various and most iniquitous attempts 
were made to endanger those working on them, 
there was no serious accident during the course 
of the building. One of the opening services was 
taken by the Rev. Luke H. Wiseman, whose 
brief visit left an indelible impression. 

The new church in Rome was opened in 1877, 
and at once attracted good congregations. Signor 
Sciarelli s Thursday lectures attracted from 150 
to 200 persons, and Signor Capellini had 120 
communicants among the troops quartered in 
Rome. At his Easter Communion in 1880 at 
least 150 soldiers were present. Christian soldiers 
were continually passing from Rome to all parts 
of the country. The work was undenomina 
tional, though conducted by a Wesleyan minister. 
He maintained an active correspondence with each 
company through one or other of the most trust 
worthy of the converts belonging to it. Mrs. and 



Miss Piggott had in their mothers meeting 120 
to 150 poor women who rarely saw the inside of 
any church. 

The schools in Spezia, the arsenal of Italy, 
attracted great attention. Two hundred and fifty 
children were taught in the rooms over the chapel, 
and if the premises had been larger double the 
number might have been received. The Romanists 
started opposition schools, but these turned out 
a complete failure. The Government supported 
our schools, and the most distinguished families 
in the place were delighted to help them. Three 
of our ministers received the title of Chevalier 
of the Crown of Italy for the service rendered 
to the country by these schools. At Milan only 
half of the preaching-hall had been used, but 
in 1879 Signor Rosa attracted such large con 
gregations that the division had to be removed, 
and an assembly packed to the door, and more 
than one-half of it standing for lack of chairs, 
remained attentive and applausive to the end of 
a protracted and thoroughly evangelical discourse. 
The services conducted by Signor Barbieri in the 
Simplon Valley were attended not infrequently 
by men and women who had journeyed on foot 
for three to five hours, and did not reach their 
mountain homes again until darkness had fallen 
on the steep and dangerous roads. A suitable 
hall was opened in Florence in June, 1881, but 


this had to be given up in 1886. The union of 
1905 has, however, given us a footing in Florence. 

Much fruitful work was done on the shores 
of Lake Maggiore. A new chapel was opened 
at Intra in 1893. The Report for 1894 says that 
it completed the set of mission premises, which 
included minister s residence, schoolrooms, an 
orphanage for forty to fifty children, porter s 
lodge, recreation ground, and stable for the circuit 

The Papal revival, which set in before 1896, 
made our work in Italy appreciably harder in 
some places, but patient and steady toil has not 
failed to bear fruit. 

Signer Capellini died on July 27, 1898. The 
last great gathering of the Military Church was 
held on the day before Good Friday. It was 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Soldiers 
Church. The service had been one of great 
solemnity and joy. The evangelical soldiers had 
assembled in force ; the number of new com 
municants was encouraging ; even of the veterans 
of that first celebration, half a jubilee ago, a few 
had come to break bread with the new recruits 
of to-day. Capellini himself was radiant ; many 
foreign friends of the work were there to rejoice 
with him. He was out of health, but persisted 
in visiting the soldiers at the summer encamp 
ments. Then he returned to Rome to die. The 


Military Church has increased in prosperity under 
the care of his successors, though the popular 
newspaper, Vera Roma, has made it a target 
for its weekly attacks. 

At Bologna in 1898 a beautiful ex-Roman 
Catholic oratory was secured, fronting one of 
the principal thoroughfares. The Swiss Protes 
tants of the city have been faithful adherents 
of our cause. 

Naples had twice the population of Rome. 
Mr. Jones and his helpers were ministering to the 
spiritual awakening of nearly one half 
of the Italian people, and the half which 
had been * most terribly cursed in the past by most 
debasing superstition, and by the most fearful 
political and religious tyranny that Europe has 
ever known. . . . The city, stretching along an 
unbroken house-line that girds the bay from ten 
to eleven miles, embraces within easy reach 
750,000 souls. Our church was within a stone s- 
throw of the old Bourbon palace. About half an 
hour s walk from the palace, in the centre of the 
old city, the corridor of an infamous convent had 
been turned into a Methodist preaching-place, and 
four cells once used by the nuns became class 
rooms, &c. A children s home was opened at 
Montesanto, the schools prospered, and Methodist 
services were held in five parts of the city. In 
the mountain region round Aquila and the coast 


towns, good work has been done despite bitter 
opposition from the priests. The most important 
station in Sicily is that at Palermo, which had 
two centres one in the principal street, the 
other in an important suburb. New premises 
were opened in 1898, and by the union with the 
Italian Evangelical Church our position has 
been greatly strengthened. 

Signor Grisafi laboured with much success 
among the Italian colonists in Alexandria. 

The Revs. H. J. Piggott, B.A., and T. W. S. 
Jones, who had been in charge of North and 
South Italy for nearly forty years, became super 
numeraries in 1902. Great changes had come 
over Italy during their term of service. The 
darkness of a dominant Romanism was giving 
place to the dawning light of a gospel day, and 
they had the joy of feeling that their work had 
largely contributed to this result. 

The Rev. William Burgess was appointed 
General Superintendent of the work in Italy 
in 1902. In 1905 a union with the Italian 
Evangelical Church was happily accomplished. 
It has given Methodism not merely an increase 
in members and in property, but a position and 
influence in Italy such as it has never had before. 

During the war of 1870-1 the French Societies 
suffered much distress : ^"4,000 was subscribed 
in England for their relief. The Rev. William 



Gibson returned to this country in 1872 and worked 
in English circuits till 1878, when he resumed his 
labours in France. His weekly Con 
ferences in the Boulevard des Capucines 
made a deep impression in Paris, and he and his 
family devoted their best strength and influence 
to spread the gospel in France. A number of 
mission-halls were opened in various parts of the 
city, and Chantilly, St. Cloud, Rouen, Rheims, 
Calais, and Boulogne were reached. Evangelistic 
work among all classes was pursued with un 
ceasing zeal. It was already bearing fruit, not 
only in Methodist churches but also in the 
increased spiritual life of the Reformed Church. 
The Report for 1887 says : < The fruits of Methodism 
in France have been largely garnered by the 
Reformed Church, and to this is due, in part at 
least, the revival in that Church of evangelistic 
truth and fervour which now gladdens the hearts 
of all who witness it. 

The Rev. George Whelpton s devoted work in 
Havre led to the opening of a new central chapel 
in 1892. The people came eagerly to hear the 
gospel, and many became regular attendants. 

Mr. Gibson died in 1894. He had chosen each 
mission hall, each evangelist, each helper, had 
been a father to all the workers and members, 
and by his untiring energy had provided funds 
for carrying on the work. His own devotion 

N 177 


inspired all his fellow labourers. The Rev. George 
Whelpton became his successor, and our French 
work, together with some stations started by the 
French Conference, was in 1894 placed under the 
direction of a committee representing the Mission 
House, the French Conference, and the District 

In 1871 there were regular Methodist services 
in 156 towns and villages of Germany and 
Germany and Austria. The Toleration Act of Wiir- 

Austria. temberg in 1872 secured religious 
liberty for all Nonconformist Societies, now 
recognized by the State as legal corporations. 
Methodists were no longer compelled to go to 
the Lutheran churches for the sacraments. We 
had 1,895 members and 854 scholars under our 
care. There was much opposition from those 
who regarded Methodism as an interloper, but 
this led to more intelligent and earnest attach 
ment on the part of the German Methodists. 
The new chapel in Cannstadt was opened by 
Dr. Osborn on August 24, 1873. The head 
quarters of the mission were transferred from 
Waiblingen in 1875, and a commodious house 
was secured for the recently established Training 
Institution, with its seven students. Every year 
there was steady growth. In 1876 nearly 10,000 
persons were attending our services. Methodist 
periodicals and tracts did much to leaven the 



empire with evangelical truth. On September 7, 
1879, an attractive new church was opened in 
the centre of Stuttgart, and the congregations 
steadily increased. The Rev. J. . G. Tasker was 
appointed in 1880 to take charge of the Theo 
logical Institution and the English work in 
Cannstadt and Stuttgart. The opposition of the 
Lutheran clergy now became more bitter. The 
Report fa? 1 88 1 says: We have been denounced 
from the pulpits and through the Press; the 
prestige and the authority of the clergy in many 
individual cases, and also in formal deliberative 
assemblies specially summoned for the purpose, 
have been unsparingly used against us ; children of 
our members have been threatened and warned 
against us ; local preachers and hearers have been 
amerced for uniting to worship God according to 
their conscience and their preference, and some 
who were engaged in collecting for our foreign 
missions have been fined and the money they had 
collected taken away. It needed no little moral 
courage for any one to declare himself a Methodist, 
but our people stood firm, and in 1881 345 new 
members were received. 

The conversion of the Baroness von Langenau 
in 1890 was a notable event in the history of 
Methodism in Vienna. She lent her BaroneS s von 
saloon for meetings, which were at- Lan enau - 
tended by more than 100 persons, including 



many of the nobility. Then the baroness opened 
her house for a Sunday school, which had an 
average attendance of over 120 children. She 
also established a Children s Home and Deacon 
esses Institution. Persecution soon arose. The 
ordinary services were prohibited, and the Society 
had to meet for devotional exercises in the house 
of one of its members. 

The Rev. John C. Barratt died at Cannstadt on 
November 4, 1892. At the close of a busy day he 
Rev. John c. sat down to prepare for the pulpit. 

Barratt. After writing a few pages he laid aside 
the pen, sank back in his chair, and passed away, 
leaving upon his desk an unfinished sermon from 
the words " Blessed are the dead which die in 
the Lord." During the twenty -seven years that 
he spent in Germany the seven chapels increased 
to twenty-two, most of them with parsonages 
attached ; the number of preaching-places grew 
from 89 to 197, members increased from 1,061 
to 2,308, Sunday scholars from 738 to 2,573. 

The Rev. Edmund Rigg was appointed Super 
intendent of the mission after Mr. Barratt s death, 
and laboured with great devotion till 1897, when 
our churches were united with the flourishing 
missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church^ 
Thirty-one ministers and 2,306 members were 
thus transferred. Some natural regret was felt, 
both in England and Germany, at the severance 



of this link, but the work has gained in every 
way by the amalgamation. 

In 1869, more than half a century after Dr. 
Rule s attempt to evangelize Spain, the Rev. 
W. T. Brown was sent to Barcelona, Sp ainand 
where he soon gained a footing for P 03 ^ 3 - 1 - 
Methodism. The work made quiet progress, 
and though the restoration of the Bourbon 
dynasty in 1875 rendered evangelistic work 
exceedingly difficult, the mission continued to 
grow. For twenty-two years we occupied a 
large flat in Calle Abaixadors, but in February, 
1892, a warehouse was secured in a main street 
in the heart of the town. Half the front was 
occupied as a depot for the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, and the spacious hall at once 
began to attract strangers. The * Conferencias 
held by our Spanish minister arouse great atten 
tion, and the educational work was never so 
flourishing. Night classes for young business 
men are doing excellent service. 

Mr. Brown succeeded in introducing Methodism 
into the Balearic Isles, one hundred and twenty 
miles south of Barcelona, where the Rev. 
Franklyn G. Smith did great service. Despite 
severe persecution in 1893, and much opposition, 
a light has been kindled amid the darkness of 
the islands. 

A little chapel was built at Oporto in 1868 


by a few pious Methodists, who had to face 
much persecution. The day schools are besieged 
by applicants, more than 300 of whom are 
waiting their turn to enter, yet we cannot 
afford to hire larger premises or employ more 

The mission-hall in Lisbon is a transformed 
warehouse, seating 400, low-roofed and incon 
venient, but the people crowd the place on 
Friday and Sunday evenings. It was opened 
on February 11, 1899, an ^ the Rev. A. H. Wilks, 
the first minister, reached the city in December. 
The day school and Sunday school prospered 
greatly. In January, 1901, the Papal authorities 
tried to stop Methodist preaching. The services 
had to be held with closed doors, and no notices 
could be put in the newspapers, but the Pro 
testants of the city stood firm and the storm 
blew over. 

The Report for 1872 showed that in South 
Ceylon, which included nearly four-fifths of the 
population, we had 22 circuits, with about 80 
preaching-places. The greater number of stations 
were among the cocoa-nut groves on the west 
and south coasts. A few were in inland villages 
surrounded by rice-fields, and four or five on 
the central mountain ranges. The local con 
tributions for 1871 were 2,432. The contribu 
tions for the support of the native ministry had 


risen from 218 in 1861 to 1,012 in 1871. The 
Tamil District of North Ceylon had a similar 
story to tell. 

The needs of the heathen population around 
were not overlooked, and in 1874 six new 
stations were formed in South Ceylon. south 
Wesley College was established at Ceylon - 
Colombo in 1874 in addition to the Institution at 
Richmond Hill, Galle. The object was to bring 
the best scholars under Christian influence. A 
few students for the native ministry were trained 
there. Every year has seen it grow, and it now 
has more than 550 pupils, about half of whom 
are Christians. It has been hampered by its 
location in the old mission premises adjoining 
the Pettah church, but suitable buildings are now 
being provided, and it will become a Leys School 
for Ceylon Methodists. 

A new chapel was opened on November 29, 
1871, at Kandy, the old royal capital, which has 
a large English-speaking congregation. 

In 1885 the Rev. W. H. Rigby began a 
mission in the central province of Uva, in the 
midst of a group of large villages. Not a 
thousand women in this district of 3,155 square 
miles could read or write. The Rev. S. Langdon 
took up his residence in the region in 1887. 
Villages were visited where Christ had never 
been known, and two industrial homes were 



established, with day and Sunday schools, which 
did excellent work. A hospital was built for 
women and children at Welimada. A Mission 
Extension Fund was started. * Persistent and 
wisely worked schemes of local extension bore 
witness to the zeal of our people both in North 
and South Ceylon, and in some cases half and 
two-thirds of the outlay was raised locally. In 
1885 South Ceylon was divided into three Dis 
tricts Colombo, Kandy and Negombo, Galle and 
Matara ; but these are now reunited into one 
South Ceylon District. 

John Kilner s work in North Ceylon laid a 
strong and broad foundation for future pros- 
North perity. He was able to report, in 1875, 
Ceylon. t j iat there were twenty-six circuits 
in the District, an increase of twenty within 
ten years. The local contributions were rising 
every year. Mr. Kilner trained the people 
to rely on their own efforts and to support 
their own ministry. The schools trained above 
5,000 children and had a staff of 125 teachers. 
A remarkable letter from Mr. Kilner appeared 
in the Report for 1876. Year after year the 
old body of the people s life seems to become 
more and more feeble. Caste has less of 
authority ; the priesthood less of power ; the 
Brahmanic anathema less of terror ; excision from 
family and home less of awe. A process of 



disintegration is advancing. Heathenism, in its 
grosser forms at least, is being battered from a 
thousand guns, and must crumble before per 
severing effort. The schools, especially the girls 
schools, were effecting a revolution. The mis 
sionary enjoyed general confidence, and was 
looked up to as a model of virtue and con 
sistency. Mr. Kilner trained the native 
ministers, and raised every part of the work to 
the highest efficiency. When he returned to 
England the Rev. Edmund Rigg became Chair 
man of the District. His twenty-six years of 
service will always be memorable. The members 
increased, the Tamil ministry grew larger and 
more efficient, and every institution prospered. 
Ceylon is now our most advanced Eastern mission, 
and Jaffna is its best-developed station. Here 
and at Batticaloa and Point Pedro we have 
prosperous central churches flanked by vigorous 
outlying work, reliable laymen, and a strong, good 
native ministry. 

The Veddahs at Kalavenkerni, about fourteen 
miles from Batticaloa, were visited by the Rev. 
Ralph Stott in 1842. He baptized TheVeddab 
many of them, and John Kilner went Mission - 
out in 1847 to continue his work, but the mission 
had got into other hands before he arrived in 
Ceylon. The Rev. A. E. Restarick formed a 
mission settlement in 1896, and good work was 



done amongst them. The Veddahs believe in evil 
spirits, and several devil-priests were settled in 
their village. The boys and girls have been taught 
in the mission schools. The huts have been 
improved, and good water supplied from the 
mission well. A stable, intelligent church is 
being built up, and the progress of the work 
astonishes all who know it. The Rock Veddahs 
at Kalodai were saved from starvation by the 
efforts of the Rev. Joseph West in 1898, and 
a mission settlement was formed among them 
with a resident catechist and a Christian Veddah 
from Kalavenkerni. 

In 1871 the three Districts in India Madras, 
Mysore, and Calcutta had 29 missionaries, 670 
members, and 5,373 children in the schools. 

In Madras, with its population of half a million, 
four Methodist circuits were now flourishing. 
Large, and not infrequently noisy, con- 
gregations were addressed in the public 
thoroughfares, and house-to-house visitation was 
carried on with success in some of the circuits. 
Many high-caste Brahmans received these visits 
cordially. The Royapettah High School had 352 
scholars in 1880. The Rev. G. M. Cobban was 
appointed to Madras in 1876. On leaving Head- 
ingley College he became a colleague of the Rev. 
W. O. Simpson at Bradford, and was led by 
him to offer for missionary service. He soon 


attained a remarkable influence over the Hindus. 
His chief delight was in open-air preaching, and for 
this he was peculiarly fitted. With a fine voice, a 
bold and manly bearing, a ready wit, great tact 
and patience, and an even, happy temperament, he 
was a singularly effective open-air evangelist. The 
natives, educated and uneducated alike, were 
greatly attracted by his preaching. He had a 
genius for dealing with large crowds composed of 
representatives of many sects. He saw a great 
ingathering in North Madras in 1884. Whole 
villages were won for Christ. His energies were 
taxed to the utmost to provide pastors and 
teachers. He returned to England in 1892, and 
died in 1905. 

The Rev. George Patterson, then on the staff of 
the Madras Christian College, exposed the trickery 
of the Theosophists by the publication of a series 
of letters written by Madame Blavatsky, which 
proved that the so-called phenomena were nothing 
more than cunningly devised and skilfully executed 

During the severe famine of 1877-8 the 
Rev. Henry Little founded the orphanage at 
Karur, forty miles west of Trichinopoly. It has 
grown till its buildings cover an acre and a quarter 
of ground, and the number of industries taught is 
greater than at any similar institution in the 
Presidency. A strong church was also formed. 



An Industrial Hostel was opened in February, 
1898. In 1901 as many as 150 workers were 
sometimes employed. 

In Mannargudi the Findlay College for higher 
education has attracted many Brahman students ; 

some of its converts have become native 

and ministers. The Report for 1901 states 
Negapatam. , . , . ,, , 

that in the previous year the numbers on 

the roll of the college had risen from 298 to 426. 
The new buildings had only been in existence two 
years, but were already found utterly inadequate. 
The compound was crowded with thatched sheds 
hastily run up to meet the emergency. The 
Inspector said that the college promised to become 
one of the foremost in Southern India. Only 
those who have seen for themselves can realize 
what a large place in the life of the town and 
neighbourhood the college is already filling, and 
how inspiring and hopeful is the promise for the 
future. On the spiritual side also its influence was 
becoming more deeply felt. 

The high school at Negapatam is proving a 
great success, and the medical mission at Mannargudi 
founded by the Rev. Dr. Hudson in 1893 has done 
splendid service. He had a branch dispensary at 
Tiruvallur worked by an efficient assistant. In 1894 
8,473 cases were dealt with, and the most bigoted 
homes were thus opened to the Bible women. In 
1901 Mr. Hudson s successor, the Rev. Elias Daniel, 



treated 32,314 cases. Sometimes he had as many 
as 200 patients in a single day. 

The Rev. A. F. Barley rendered eminent service 
for fifteen years as principal of the Negapatam 
High School, and when his health gave way the 
Rev. W. H. Findlay became his successor in January, 
1883. The school became a college, and attracted 
advanced scholars from the whole province. 

The growth of our missions in South India 
was such that, in 1885, the Madras District was 
limited to seven circuits four in the The Madras 
city and three in the surrounding District - 
country within a radius of sixty miles. The 
population was about 150,000. Negapatam and 
Trichinopoly, in the south, were formed into a 
separate District. Mr. Cooling became Chairman 
of the Madras District ; Mr. Cobban concentrated 
his attention on Choolay, a neglected quarter of 
the city. * Evening after evening the preaching- 
place has been crowded with orderly, attentive 
hearers. There have been some who would not 
miss a service, and who have been loth to leave 
the longest meeting till the close. Once and 
again our brethren have seen what many have 
desired and died without seeing a Hindu 
audience moved to tears at the preaching of 

The Jenkins High School at Royapettah, now 
Wesley College, was greatly enlarged in 1885-6, at 


a cost of about 2,300. The premises provided 
for 700 pupils. Mr. Cooling was principal, but 
in 1887 the Rev. A. S. Geden, M.A., became 
his successor, and did valuable service for three 

The Rev. William Goudie, who landed at 
Madras in March, 1882, after some time in 
English work there, devoted his energies to 

the pariah villages around Tiruvallur. 
Mr. Qoudie s T 

work among In 1889 he became resident European 
the Pariahs. . . ^. ,. _, _ 

missionary at Tiruvallur. The first 

baptisms had taken place eleven years before 
at Ikkadu and two adjoining villages. The mis 
sionaries had visited the region, but it was felt that 
it needed closer attention. The wisdom of the 
appointment was shown by the fact that, in about 
a year, the number of baptized adherents rose 
from 200 to 330, and of members from 53 to 87. 
There were 19 members on trial in 1888, 94 in 
1 889. More than a hundred converts were baptized, 
five new schools opened, and four new stations 
occupied. Mr. Goudie s circuit had eight small 
indigenous societies, of extremely poor, non-caste 
people, and four smaller groups of Christians 
belonging to the families of agents. About ten 
families hold small plots of land in their own 
names, and pay their taxes direct to the 
Government. In most cases, however, the land 
is quite inadequate to the demands of the 



family. Next below these are the families who 
cultivate land as tenants-at-will to caste men. 
These make a very uncertain livelihood, and 
are often thrown out of land and living for the 
sole crime of being Christians. At the bottom 
of the scale are the servants, or serfs, who are 
labourers to the caste-men, employed by the day 
or the month, and always paid in kind. These, 
as well as members of the class above, are often 
mortgaged for some small advance of money, 
and serve as slaves for many long years without 
hope of redemption. The Rev. Marshall Hartley 
found, in 1899, ^ ew sights more touching or more 
hopeful than these pariah congregations, assembled 
in the plainest of buildings, or beneath the stars, and 
bringing their humble offerings to God s treasury. 
One of these village churches, measuring 28 feet 
by 14, with mud walls 8 feet high, and roof of 
bamboo and thatch, costs about 10. By the 
generosity of Mr. Solomon Jevons, a new ward 
was added in 1901 to the hospital at Ikkadu, 
but even then Dr. Wood found there was not 
room enough for her patients ; and two wings 
have since been added as a gift in memory of 
Lady Stephenson, by her daughters. A lace class 
was formed at Ikkadu, for which Mr. May, of 
Bristol, and his family provided a beautiful and 
commodious home in 1901. 

One name will always be lovingly remembered 


in Madras. The Rev. F. W. Kellett arrived in 

India in February, 1892, to take up his work 

F w as Professor of History in the Madras 

Keiiett. Christian College. Into twelve years 
he compressed labours and achievements that 
would have given distinction to a long lifetime, 
and won a position of unrivalled influence and 
usefulness. The unassuming simplicity and un 
sparing devotion of his character contributed to 
this result even more than his scholarship and 
brilliant gifts. He died of malarial fever when 
on furlough in England on June 29, 1904, saying : 
* I have given my life for India, and I do not 
regret it. 

The Hyderabad Mission, in the territory of 
the Nizam (area 82,698 square miles, population 
TheHydera- n,537,O4o), was begun by the Rev. W. 
bad Mission. Burgess at the close of 1879 in a district 
of villages. Work was at once started among the 
soldiers at Secunderabad, which was the largest 
military depot in South India. There were about 
1 50 declared Wesleyans in the depot, and Wesley 
Church was opened in 1883 in the middle of the 
cantonment, and a Soldier s Home adjoining it in 
1886. This was enlarged to three times its original 
dimensions in 1890. It is self-supporting. 

The first Telugu congregation was formed at 
Chudderghaut, a suburb of Hyderabad City, in 
1879, and the first Methodist chapel in the 


Nizam s territory was opened there on July n, 
1880. The Muhammadan Government was re 
luctant to allow missionaries to settle in the 
country, but in 1884 Karim Nagar was occupied 
and soon became the centre of village work. 
Land was obtained at Siddipett in 1886, at 
Medak and Sircilla in 1887. The Indian Christian 
community numbers about 10,000. In the densely 
populated district of Medak we have thirty-three 
preaching-places, eighty-six evangelists and teachers, 
and a Christian community of 2,814. Caste feel 
ing is very strong in this district, and has made 
our work exceedingly difficult In sixteen years 
Methodism was introduced into 121 towns and 
villages. The circuits comprise seventeen to fifty- 
two villages. A girls school was erected in 1882 
in Hyderabad, on a site given by the Govern 
ment. There are three high-caste girls schools 
in Hyderabad, and five in Secunderabad. The 
Hyderabad District was separated from the Madras 
District in 1886. 

Children s Homes have been formed in the 
Karim Nagar, Medak and Siddipett Circuits, in 
which more than 200 boys and girls are now 
being trained. The Theological Institution at 
Medak, founded in 1899, is training native workers 
of the best sort ; and the hospital in Medak, 
with its two branch dispensaries at Sarjana and 
Ramayanapett, has a constant stream of patients, 
o 193 


The lady doctors, some one said to Mr. Pratt, 
hold the heart of Medak in the hollow of their 
hands. Lace-making workshops have been es 
tablished at Secunderabad, and carpentry shops 
at Indur. In this District is the great oppor 
tunity of the Society. Methodism has to itself 
this field of 13,000 square miles and 2,000,000 
people, all of them readily accessible, and willing, 
often eager, to hear the truth. In 1900 2,125 
converts were baptized. 

The tragedy of the Hyderabad Mission was 
the loss of Mrs. Burgess and the Rev. Joseph 
LOSS of the Edge Malkin, a devoted and well-trained 
Roumama/ young minister, who had just volun 
teered for Hyderabad, in the steamship Roumania^ 
which went on the rocks off Peniche, near Lisbon, 
on October 27, 1892. Mrs. Burgess had done 
a great work among the soldiers at Secunderabad, 
and could speak fluently Tamil, Telugu, and 
Hindustani. Her little boy and a Christian ayah 
perished with her. The Hyderabad District 
Synod paid this tribute to her memory : Her 
rare gifts, marvellous energy, and intense enthu 
siasm were all consecrated to the service of Christ. 
Some departments of missionary toil Mrs. Burgess 
has made peculiarly her own. She was the 
pioneer of female education in these dominions, 
and was foremost in every effort to ameliorate 
the lot of Indian women. By her charm of 



manner she won all hearts, and was known and 
loved alike in the palaces of nobles and the 
hovels of the poor. British soldiers have lost 
in her a devoted friend, and in British canton 
ments throughout the world her name will be 
held in grateful remembrance. 

Thomas Hodson laboured in the Mysore till 
1878, when he became a supernumerary, and 
settled at Mansfield, where he died in The Mysore 
1882. These are the chief facts of his District - 
missionary life. He landed at Calcutta in 1829, 
and was appointed to begin Kanarese work in 
Bangalore in 1833. In 1838 he removed to the 
city of Mysore, where he enjoyed the friendship 
of the Maharajah. His health failed in 1843, 
and compelled him to come to England ; but 
in 1853 ne returned to the Mysore. Mr. Hodson 
was now the Nestor of our missions in the 
East. As a pioneer he commenced mission work 
at various stations in the province, inaugurated 
the great work of English education amongst the 
natives, rendered valuable contributions to the 
literature of the country, assisted in the establish 
ment of the first press, and has been a regular and 
systematic preacher of the Cross to the people 
amongst whom he has lived. He had been nobly 
supported by Mrs. Hodson, whose efforts on behalf 
of female education were unceasing. 

A worthy successor was ready. Josiah Hudson, 


who had been in Bangalore since 1864, had already 
won the confidence of his brethren by his faithful 
and efficient service. He became Chairman of the 
District in 1878. His educational work brought 
under his influence large numbers of men who 
subsequently held high positions in Government 
service. To his students he seemed the most 
impressive embodiment they had ever seen of 
strong, pure, and symmetrical manhood, and he 
acquired a position of unique influence in the State, 
which succeeding years confirmed and enhanced. 
He administered the affairs of the District with 
conspicuous and unbroken success till his death 
in 1896. 

The Rev. Henry Haigh established a mission 
press in Mysore City, and the newspapers issued 
were eagerly read in the villages. The Vrittanta 
Patrike was a constant ally in introducing the 
evangelist to the people, and in providing suit 
able subjects of conversation. When any false 
statements were published about the work it formed 
a valuable medium for confuting them. The 
Hindu Tract Society, through its publications and 
preachers, abused the missionaries and their religion, 
but Mr. Haigh was able to make effective reply in 
his paper. During the Dasara festivities of 1891 
people came into Mysore from all parts, and some 
most interesting and amusing visits were received 
from natives who wished to see the press where 



( their paper was published. Some came to pay 
their subscriptions or order the journal. Others 
wished to talk to the man who spoke to them in 
their villages every week. Mr. Haigh wrote : 
These visits helped us to realize something of the 
influence which is being exerted. Three represen 
tatives from one neighbourhood spent an hour in 
talking on Christ and His claims. They said they 
would not on any account miss the teaching of the 
paper. They said it was there they had made 
their first acquaintance with Christian doctrine. 
Their talk proved they had read to purpose. One 
Brahman had paid for thirty copies to introduce the 
journal to his neighbours, and secured thirty sub 
scribers. Its weekly circulation in 1900 was nearly 
4,000. At a later stage Mr. Haigh took the chief 
share in the revision of the Kanarese New Testa 
ment for the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

In Bangalore there were three circuits Kanarese, 
Tamil, and English. The Soldiers Home, at the 
side of East Parade Church, was opened in 1889, 
and enlarged in 1892. 

In 1887 a mission was started at the Kolar 
Goldfields for the benefit of the workmen engaged 
in the fourteen gold mines. This mission is about 
fifty miles from Bangalore, and is connected with 
the Tamil circuit in that city. A school-chapel 
was built at Marikuppam, on the south side of 
the goldfield, in 1889. 



The Rev. G. W. Sawday s work at Tumkur, forty- 
three miles from Bangalore, laid hold on every side 

of the life of the people, A large native 

church was formed, with flourishing 

schools. During the famine of 1876-8 a boys 
orphanage was established, which has extensive 
workshops, and three village settlements. Mr. Saw- 
day returned to England on furlough in 1887. 
He had spent nine years in Tumkur working 
* breathlessly all through, but neither hurriedly 
nor impatiently. Results surround him. The 
membership of his church has more than doubled ; 
the chapel has been greatly enlarged, and even 
so is often filled with worshippers, and the native 
pastor is now almost supported by his flock. The 
Orphanage, with its 130 boys, proved a great 
strain on Mr. Sawday s resources. He was 
farmer, builder, mechanic, ropemaker, and school 
master by turns, and elder brother always to his 
boys. He formed two villages surrounded by 
lands tilled by young Christian farmers. Mrs. Saw- 
day cared for the women and for the girls schools, 
and was a constant helper in her husband s work. 
Mr. Sawday returned to the District in 1900. 

A girls orphanage was opened at Hassan by 
the Rev. A. P. Riddett in 1876. The Rev. Ernest 

W. Redfern spent six years of abound- 
Hassan. TT 111 

ing activity in Hassan, and when he 

came home on furlough in 1902 the needs of the 



District filled his heart and brain. He wished to 
build a hospital for women and children at Hassan, 
and the necessary funds were given him, but he 
died in the Bangalore City Hospital on March 28, 
1904, at the age of thirty-four. 

In 1871 a mission was begun in Banawar, a 
village of converts from the Koramas, a gipsy tribe 

who bore an evil name for theft and 

Work among 

crimes of violence, and were not allowed Indian 

. Gipsies, 

to move their encampment without a 

police permit. In 1897 Mr. Dumbarton reported 
the baptism of fifteen persons and the building, near 
Tarikere, of another Christian village, which was 
named Satyapura, the city of truth. There was 
much sickness in the settlement in 1898. This 
was ascribed by the Hindus in the neighbouring 
villages to the malignity of a demon who resided in 
a banyan-tree which was cut down when the village 
was formed. Such an explanation appealed strongly 
to a people naturally credulous, but they maintained 
their Christian faith. The colony was due to the 
labours of the first converts at Banawar, and they 
next set themselves to visit and teach their relatives 
at Soralamavu. Four of them were baptized, and 
it was said that the rest were only held back by 
the opposition of one of their number. 

Barrackpur, sixteen miles north of Calcutta, is 
the cleanest, most beautiful, and most English- 
like cantonment in North India. It is our oldest 


station in Bengal. The Rev. George Baugh pur 
chased the mission house in 1878, and from that 
The Calcutta ^ me tne wor ^ nas prospered and ex- 
District. t e n ded. The English chapel in Station 
Road was erected in 1884. Many mills have been 
built at Barrackpur in recent years, and have 
attracted a large Hindu population. Caste is 
yielding, and there is a fine field for the preaching 
of the gospel. 

The Zenana Mission in Calcutta was started 
in 1878, and the lady worker was courteously 
welcomed. The Report for 1879 says that she 
already had access to thirteen zenanas. She 
never disguises her evangelical purpose, and yet 
has more invitations from Hindu families than 
she can possibly accept. The missionaries on 
the ground at this time were all young, and were 
zealous vernacular preachers, who lived for weeks 
among the people, dwelling in tents, moving 
from village to village, to command market days 
and fairs. They found a ready hearing, and a 
good sale for their books. 

In 1876 two men were appointed to vernacular 
work in Bengal, and the following year a station 
was opened at Raniganj, a coalfield, railway, 
and manufacturing centre. A leper asylum and 
orphanage were established here at a later date, 
and are doing good service. Our mission in 
Calcutta owes much to the eighteen years over- 



sight of the Rev. J. Milton Brown, who was 
sent there in 1882, after sixteen years in North 
Ceylon. He purchased the mission house at 
Dum Dum, in Calcutta, in 1883, and enlarged 
it to provide a training institution for female 
teachers. The English church is self-supporting ; 
the Bengali and Hindustani missions are pros 
perous. The Indian Methodist Times has been a 
strength to the mission. 

The Rev. G. W. Olver was appointed in 1887 
to evangelize the Santals on the western frontier 
of Lower Bengal, among whom work had been 
begun in 1884 by the Rev. J. R. Broadhead. 
They are an aboriginal tribe. Caste is unknown. 
They are * manly, independent, truth-loving, and 
truth-speaking/ save where they have been tainted 
by contact with their Hindu neighbours. The 
people are short in stature, well built, with thick 
lips and high cheek-bones, and live in little 
hamlets, clearing the forest, cutting wood, and 
gathering the cocoons of the wild silk-worm. 
They have no priesthood, no temples, no idols, 
but worship the sun and moon. 

Lucknow, Faizabad, and Benares were formed 
into a Mission District in 1879. The only pro 
perty was the English church and parsonage 
at Dilkusha, Lucknow. 

A Soldiers Home was opened at Lucknow on 
November i, 1900, through the exertions of 



Mr. Frater. Native work was begun by the 
Rev. A. Fentiman in 1873. ^ n l %%3 a substantial 
The Lucknow building was acquired for a middle- 
District. class boys > school in the Sudder Bazaar; 

in 1885 a District Training Institution was opened, 
also a substantial church for the Hindustani con 
gregation. In 1891 a boarding and day school 
was provided for Christian boys. 

Faizabad, with a population of 80,000, was 
occupied as a military station in 1876. Two 
years later Mr. Carmichael built a small Soldiers 
Church, and also began vernacular preaching. 
The Rev. Joseph A. Elliott took up the work 
in October, 1883. He was an Irishman, born 
in India, and was received into our ministry 
in 1876. His unrivalled knowledge of Indian 
dialects gave him enormous power in dealing 
with the natives. Gradually he came to be 
known as Padri Elliott of Faizabad. That place 
was his home for twenty-two years. He died 
when on furlough in England in 1905. He was 
a prince of vernacular preachers, who won the 
hearts of the people wherever he went. He built 
at Faizabad one of the finest churches in North 
India, two bungalows for the missionaries, and a 
girls boarding-school. Twelve flourishing village 
centres were formed, and a large staff of workers 
drawn together. A school for native Christian 
girls was opened in 1890, and has supplied a 


great need. The orphanages at Jabalpur, Benares, 
and Akbarpur are doing admirable service. 

The Rev. A. Fentiman began work in 1879 
at Benares, the sacred city of the Hindus, which 
has a quarter of a million inhabitants. The 
native church is fairly healthy, and the boys 
orphanage and industrial school promises well. 
The chapel was built in 1884. The Rev. Edward 
Solomon s work in the city, where he preached 
daily in the streets, and received the natives of 
all ranks into his house, made a deep impression. 
A bigoted Hindu said : Mr. Solomon, ah ! that 
man ; oh, if you had a hundred such missionaries 
in our big cities, the conversion of India would 
be near at hand. 

The Rev. G. W. Clutterbuck worked in Bombay 
from 1887 to 1890, with much courage and enter 
prise. He lost his life in the wreck 
of the Stella, March 30, 1899, when 
on his way to Guernsey as missionary deputation. 
The English work in Bombay and the Marathi 
church are both prospering. A new church was 
built in Bombay in 1894, at a cost of Rs. 23,000, 
largely through the persistent efforts of the Rev. 
G. C. and Mrs. Walker. 

When the Rev. G. W. Olver visited India 
as one of the Secretaries of the Society, he 
found that missionary methods were far more 
numerous and complex than the Church at home 



supposed. They employed every kind of evan 
gelistic, philanthropic, and educational agency used 
Mr. Diver s * n England, together with methods 
Visit to India, adapted to the special circumstances 
of India. * The gospel is preached in churches 
and halls, in streets and bazaars, in villages 
and by the roadside ; to Christian congregations, 
to inquirers, and to the utterly careless and 
ignorant ; to keen, quick-witted hearers, and to 
the all but hopelessly dull ; to the Brahman and 
the pariah ; to old India in its superstition, and 
to young India in its scepticism and conceit. 
The school and the press were also used to 
influence the life of the country and leaven it 
with Christian truth, whilst medical missions, 
industrial settlements, and visits to the Hindu 
and Muhammadan homes were breaking down 
the prejudice against Christianity. 

The work of native Bible-women in India was 
rapidly developed about the year 1894. The 
Indian Bible- Report for 1895 says that seventeen of 

women, these agents were employed in the 
Mysore District. Six of them were in the Banga 
lore (Kanarese) Circuit. They paid 2,848 visits 
during the year and read and explained the 
gospel to more than 12,000 women. There were 
twenty-six Bible-women at work in the Negapatam 
District. In 1899 there were thirty-eight. 

Meanwhile the conviction was growing that 


the entire scale of our Indian missions was 
inadequate. The work was under-staffed, the 
claims of India were urgent, and the Tlie claims 
grants were felt to be deplorably in- oflndia - 
sufficient. The Mysore Synod wrote : We are 
grieved beyond measure when we hear of those 
who desire to enter the Christian Church, but, 
because our stations are undermanned, are yet 
unvisited. Men have moved towards the Christian 
Church, and stand to-day puzzled and pained 
at its apparently apathetic attitude. We cannot 
wonder if they fall back into the heathenism 
from which they might have parted finally if the 
Church had moved towards them. Twelve 
months ago we asked that a man should be 
sent out for the absolutely essential work of 
itinerating in the villages, but the Committee 
has been unable to grant our request. There 
are indications that such a worker might have 
the joy of gathering even whole communities into 
the Church of Christ. 

Upper Burma was annexed to the British 
Empire on January I, 1886. Twelve months later 
the Rev. W. R. Winston set out from work in 
Calcutta to open a Methodist mission. Burma - 
The Rev. J. M. Brown accompanied Mr. Winston 
to advise and assist in the new enterprise. They 
found 985 monastic houses and 5,968 Buddhist 
priests in Mandalay alone. The Rev. J. H. Bateson 


had reached Mandalay three weeks previously as 
Wesleyan military chaplain. A fine site, five and 
a half acres in extent, was bought, and a 
substantial mission house of teak erected. In 
September two Sinhalese youths, trained in 
Ceylon, came to Mr. Winston s help. A school 
was opened and a modest beginning made in 
vernacular preaching. The Rev. A. H. Bestall 
arrived as Mr. Winston s colleague in 1887, and 
has laboured in Burma with growing success. 
He opened a new station at Pakokku, with a 
population of 25,000, in the latter part of 1888, 
and won the confidence of the people. Here 
a chapel was erected. A good chapel was built 
at Mandalay in 1890, and another at Kyaukse, 
twenty-nine miles south of Mandalay, which is 
the centre of the most fertile district in the 
country. It was a neat brick building two storeys 
high, measuring 60 by 30 feet, with a porch at 
the north end. It had also to be used as a 
school, and it was not till 1897 that a church 
used solely for public worship was built in the 
South Mount Road. Evangelistic work was carried 
on in the streets and the homes of the people. 
Mr. Winston said, in 1889 : O ur principal problem 
is how best to create an interest in the true 
religion. The Burmans are not accustomed to 
enter any building regularly for worship or in 
struction, and only by house-to-house visitation 


can we reach them. The preachers could always 
get fifty to a hundred people together by singing 
a Burman hymn at a street corner, and all listened 

When the mission was somewhat established 
Mr. Winston turned his attention towards the 
lepers. The Chief Commissioner welcomed the 
scheme. He said there was nothing like it in 
all Burma, and he not only gave the site but 
started the subscription list with a hundred rupees. 
King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, was 
appealed to as President of the National Leprosy 
Fund, which made a grant of 80. The first 
ward of the home was erected in January, 1891. 
It had teak posts, a floor of boards, walls made 
of bamboo matting, and a thatched roof. The 
bungalow had accommodation for fifteen inmates, 
and on the first day seven lepers were admitted. 
Other buildings were added. Before the year 
closed there were 50 patients. Daily worship was 
conducted in the home. The attendance was 
voluntary. For more than three years there 
was little response to the appeals, but at length 
a leper was so grateful for the skill with which 
his diseased leg was amputated that on his 
recovery he embraced Christianity and began 
to speak to the patients about religion. In 1895 
forty of them were Christians, and had a daily 
service of their own. A medical visitor from 



Scotland in 1896 gave 150 to provide increased 
accommodation for women in the Home for 
Lepers. The Perth Ward is an abiding memo 
rial of this generous deed. A lady in England 
also sent ,120, which enabled Mr. Bestall to open 
a separate orphanage where the healthy children 
of lepers might be saved from contamination by 
leprous surroundings. In 1898 there were 115 
leper inmates, and the list of baptisms in seven 
years had reached 104. 

A site was purchased at Monywa in 1893 an< ^ 
on this a temporary mission house and school- 
chapel were erected. 

In 1894-5 Mr. Bestall translated The Old and 
New Testament Stories, which were published by 
the Christian Literature Society of India. 

In China there has been steady advance. On 
his visit to Canton in 1898, the Rev. Marshall 

Work in Hartley found that catechists and 

China. teachers could not be trained quickly 
enough in the Theological Institution to supply 
the demand. There are four day schools, and 
the Soldiers and Sailors Home, opened in 1900 
in Hong Kong, is doing well. 

In 1 88 1 Dr. Wenyon opened a hospital in a 
rented building in Fatshan, the Birmingham of 
China, about fifteen miles above Canton, with half 
a million people. In 1890 a new building, on the 
opposite side of the river, was bought. More than 


5,000 patients are cared for every year in its 
four wards. It became self-supporting in 1892. 
At Wuchau, in the province of Kwang-si, the 
hospital is a monument to the zeal of the Rev. 
Roderick Macdonald, M.D., who was murdered by 
river pirates in 1906. He had to live for weeks 
in a boat on the river before he could secure 
a site, and then in a tiny wooden hut for six months, 
with his wife and little son, till his premises 
chapel, dispensary, dwelling-house, all in one 
were built 

In the county of Heung Shan, on the delta 
of the Canton River, mission work was begun 
in a large village by a Chinaman who had been 
converted in San Francisco and brought back 
the light to his native place. He built a house 
for himself, with rooms for mission purposes, 
Shiu Kwan is the headquarters of a mission 
among the Hakkas. Colporteurs were the 
pioneers, and in 1878 the first preaching-room 
was opened by the Rev. T. G. Selby. There 
are three self-supporting churches, and more 
than a score of preaching-places. 

The China Breakfast Meeting, originated by 
Sir Francis Lycett, kept the cause well before 
the Methodists of England. 

David Hill spent five years in Wuchang, 
where a church of sixteen members was formed 
and a mission house and chapel built on the 
P 209 


main street. He made evangelistic tours among 
the villages near the Yangtse, and in 1873 was 
David mil s sen t to Kuang Chi and Wusueh to care 
Work. f or ^g wor k j n that region. Wusueh 
is a hundred and twenty miles farther down the 
river than Hankow. For six years Mr. Hill 
lived here in two rooms and preached in the 
villages around. When famine broke out in 
Shansi he made his way to the province to 
minister to the starving inhabitants. Prejudice 
was conquered by these deeds of love, and a 
great door was opened for the gospel. 

After a visit to England, which sensibly 
quickened Methodist interest in China, David 
Hill was reappointed to Wuchang in 1882. 
Whilst he was in England a colporteur had 
begun work in Teh Ngan, a hundred and twenty 
miles north-west of Hankow. The purchase of 
land there at a later stage caused a riot, in 
which the missionaries were driven out. Mr. 
Hill went to their help, and the work took firm 
root. Dr. Morley opened a hospital in the city 
in 1888, which has rendered great service. Dr. 
Barber began the high school at Wuchang in 
1884. Dr. James Wood, of Southport, gave 500 
for a chapel, day school, and native preacher s 
house in Hankow. David Hill devoted himself 
and his fortune to China, and long before his 
death on April 18, 1896, had been recognized 



as the saint and hero of the China mission. 
The Blind School at Hankow is his abiding 
memorial. The Central China Lay Mission, which 
he instituted in 1883, proved a powerful agency for 
evangelizing the inland provinces. The Joyful 
News agents shared these dangers and triumphs. 
William Argent, their first martyr, was killed 
by the mob at Wusueh on June 5, 1891. 

In 1895 Mr. Hill effected a settlement at 
Kung Tien, a densely populated part of Hankow. 
There Hill immersed himself in the ocean of 
native life which flowed in full tide around him, 
and more than ever sought, by personal inter 
course and conversation, to win those with whom 
he came in contact. 

In 1902 the great military province of Hunan, 
where hatred of the missionary had been most 
intense, was entered. 

The South African Conference was formed in 
1883. Its stations cover Cape Colony, Natal, 

what was known as the Orange Free 


State, Tembuland, Pondoland, and Gri- African con 
ference, 1883. 
qualand. It has missions to the natives 

within its boundaries. The work north of the 
Vaal is carried on by our Society. The Rev. 
John Walton was the first President of the 
South African Conference, and was elected again 
in 1884. He and the Rev. J. Smith Spencer 
went out to the Cape in 1878 and rendered 


conspicuous service. The Wesleyan High School 
at Grahamstown, founded in 1880, is a monu 
ment to Mr. Walton s energy and skill. 
Methodist children had previously been sent to 
Anglican and Romanist schools, where their 
loyalty to their own Church was seriously 
endangered. Mr. Spencer was President of the 
South African Conference in 1889. 

The first Methodist worker in what has now 
become the Transvaal and Swaziland District was 

Dayid David Magatta. He was a native of 
M p<ftch t e a f- at the Megaliesberg, but was taken captive 

stroom. k v t h e Matabele, and became a personal 
attendant of their chief, Moselekatse. When the 
Boers attacked his master David fled to Thaba 
Nchu, where he was converted at the Wesleyan 
church. He returned to the Megaliesberg to tell 
them of Christ, but could not find any of his 
kinsmen. He settled at Potchefstroom, and allowed 
no native to leave the town without making the 
gospel known to him The Boers were indignant 
that a ( nigger should presume to preach, and, by 
order of the landdrost, he was flogged and banished. 
He met Mr. Kriiger on the frontier, who listened to 
his story, and gave him a written permit to 
return. He laboured in Potchefstroom for many 
years, holding prayer-meetings and class-meetings 
regularly. Mr. Blencowe visited him in 1871, and 
saw that the place was ripe for mission work. 


Next year he left Ladysmith with two young 
ministers to begin the Vaal River mission. Mr. 
Blencowe clearly saw that there was vaal River 
a prosperous future for the Transvaal. Mission - 
This country will one day be the most densely 
populated in South Africa. Its mineral wealth is 
great : iron, copper, lead, coal, and gold abound. And 
this increase of population will be mainly persons 
of English parentage. He began to build a church 
in Potchefstroom, but was called to other work, and 
the church was not finished till James Calvert 
arrived in 1874. 

The Rev. George Weavind reached Pretoria, 
then only a village, in 1872. There was one 
Methodist family, and services were E ar i y work 
begun in an inconvenient schoolroom mpretoria - 
lent by the Government. A large site was pur 
chased in the principal street for 130, which is now 
valued at 60,000. A small chapel and a cottage 
for the minister were built, and the church grew 
steadily to influence and power. Native work was 
begun around Pretoria and in the more distant 
district of Waterberg. When the Rev. John Kilner, 
one of the missionary secretaries, visited South Africa 
in 1880 he recognized the almost unlimited pos 
sibilities for extension. He and the Rev. Owen 
Watkins, who had been working in Natal since 
1876, visited the Transvaal, and it was arranged 
that a new District should be formed, of which 


Mr. Watkins was to be the first Chairman. The 
war which broke out in December delayed opera 
tions, but as soon as it closed Mr. Watkins came to 
Pretoria in 1881. Little churches, founded by 
devoted natives, who had been converted at Wes- 
leyan services in Natal or Cape Colony, were dis 
covered in various parts of the country, and a chain 
of stations was formed stretching from Lyden- 
burg on the south-east almost to the Limpopo 
on the north-west. Daniel Msimang, who fifty 
years before had gone as a boy with one of the 
Natal missionaries to form a mission among the 
warlike Swazis, offered himself as a missionary to 
his own people at the time Mr. Watkins came 
to Pretoria. His faithful work was blessed with 
abundant fruit. Mafeking and Bechuanaland were 
added to the District, and soon showed large 
increase. The Potchefstroom native circuit grew 
and extended till it had 1,200 members, and 
its farthest outpost was a hundred miles distant 
from the circuit town. 

When gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand 
in 1884 emigrants flocked in. A colonial local 
Johannes- preacher among them held the first 
burg. Methodist service, and the work spread 
from end to end of the gold-bearing reef. Johannes 
burg leaped to life in 1886, but our Church kept 
pace with its growth, and sent minister after 
minister to labour among the people. The huge 


circuit was divided into three, and a great impetus 
was thus given to aggressive effort. Meanwhile 
evangelistic work was zealously carried on among 
the natives attracted to the mines, many of whom 
heard the gospel for the first time. The District 
had 35,000 adherents in 1896. The Boer War, 
1899-1902, gave a serious check to the mission, 
but it has since more than regained its hold on 
the population. The Rev. Amos Burnet went out 
as Chairman of the Transvaal District in 1902, 
and a wonderful era of expansion began. Method 
ism is finding its way into every place in the 
region, and the natives welcome it as earnestly 
as the European settlers. The Rev. Marshall 
Hartley visited the District in 1903. 

Early in 1891 the Hon. Cecil Rhodes, on behalf 
of the British South Africa Company, offered our 
Missionary Society ,100 a year towards Mashona- 
the expense of a mission station in the land 
area over which that company had jurisdiction. 
In June, 1891, Owen Watkins and Isaac Shimmin 
started from the north of the Transvaal on a tour 
of inspection. They reached Fort Salisbury, now 
the capital of Rhodesia, on July 29, where land was 
selected for a mission station ; a farm was also 
pegged out at Umtali, and on December 15 Mr. 
Shimmin marked out a new mission farm, 
Hartleyton, within ninety miles of the Zambesi. 
On June 5, 1892, a comfortable brick chapel was 


opened at Fort Salisbury, the first place of worship 
in Mashonaland. It cost ,300, and all the money 
was given by the residents. The Rev. G. H. Eva 
took pastoral charge, and soon erected a second 
chapel, the first built for the natives in Mashona 
land. Eight native teachers came up from the 
Transvaal, and three important stations were 
occupied Epworth, six miles from Salisbury, 
where a church was built in 1893, Hartley ton, 
and Lo Magundi s. 

In 1893 war broke out with the Matabele. 
All our stations in Mashonaland were wrecked, 
and we had to begin work anew. For a year or 
two there was much restlessness ; but gradually old 
stations were reoccupied, new stations established, 
churches and schools built. Mr. Shimmin secured 
a fine site in Buluwayo, once the capital of 
Lobengula, for ,900, in 1895, an d built on this the 
first Wesleyan church in Matabeleland, which was 
opened on October 13, 1895. The Mashona 
rebellion in 1896 put an end to our work at 
Lo Magundi s for a time. Two native evangelists 
and a local preacher were murdered. After a year 
or two old stations were reoccupied, new stations 
established, churches and schools built. The diffi 
culties of pioneer work have now been surmounted, 
and despite the trouble caused by natives of 
doubtful character from Cape Colony who resort to 
these up-country towns there is steady progress. 



A mission among the Matabele was begun in 
1898. It is a few days journey from the Zambesi 
and the Victoria Falls, a key to that vast territory 
where untold labours and triumphs await the 
gospel messenger. 

Our largest West African mission, that on the 
Gold Coast, now has seventeen circuits, eleven on 
the coast line, and three outposts amid The Gold 
the heathen darkness of the interior. Coast 
Every town on the coast is occupied by a Wesleyan 
mission station. The Rev. J. T. F. Halligey, who 
spent the first three years of his ministry at Sierra 
Leone, also gave six years to the Gold Coast, 
and the Rev. Dennis Kemp was able to labour 
there for nine years (1887-1896). During those 
years the mission area was extended on all sides, 
the chapels increased from 56 to in, the open-air 
centres for evangelistic work were trebled, native 
missionaries increased from 14 to 23, catechists 
and day-school teachers from 84 to 263, church 
members from 5,610 to 7,674, junior members 
from 1,136 to 5,410, catechumens from 557 to 
3,387, Sunday scholars from 1,760 to 11,984, 
day scholars from 1,505 to 5,743. The ordinary 
income rose to 7,000, double the amount raised 
in 1887. The Book Room and Printing Press 
are flourishing institutions. The Girls Boarding 
School and Training Home, opened in July, 1900, 
has met a great need, and promises to make 



its pupils capable and domesticated Christian 

The visits of the Rev. W. H. Findlay to West 
Africa in 1903 and 1904 have been of untold 
benefit in regard to the health of our missionaries 
and the oversight of the work. Since 1903 
Wesley deaconesses have been employed in West 
Africa. Three are at work in the Sierra Leone 
and Gambia District and two in the Gold Coast 

Mr. Freeman, who had retired from the ministry 
for a time, and cultivated a large tract of land 
near Accra, resumed his ministry in 1873, an ^ for 
thirteen years rendered valuable service to the 
whole District. 

In 1877 the stations near to Lagos were formed 

into the Yoruba and Popo District, under the 

Lagos and charge of the Rev. John Milum. The 

the District. na ti v es showed great zeal and generosity, 

and the work in Lagos spread rapidly. Lagos is 

a fine centre for evangelizing the interior. Yoruba, 

with 3,000,000 inhabitants, stretches from the 

Bight of Benin to within forty miles of the 

Niger. Caste is absent, open-air services are 

unmolested, compounds may be freely entered. 

In some parts of the country Muhammadanism 

is evidently and ominously spreading. Ibadan, 

with 200,000 inhabitants, among whom David 

Hinderer, of the Church Missionary Society, and 



his wife laboured with such devotion from 1853 to 
1869, is one of the largest towns of Yoruba, and 
indeed ,of Africa, but we have only one native 
minister and teacher at work. Oyo has 40,000 
people, and there we have a substantial church. 
At Ilesha the king has helped to build the 
Methodist chapel, and young and old have vied 
with each other in learning to write, so that they 
may study the Gospels for themselves. Ijebu is 
one of our youngest fields, into which Methodism 
was introduced by Prince Ademuyiwa, who sent 
two native agents there at his own cost in July, 
1892. At Ago there has been quite a hunger for 
the truth. A native evangelist began the work, 
and, though stoutly opposed at first, the young 
men were gradually interested, and some of them 
have been sent out to visit the villages, in more 
than forty of which services are held. The people 
may be seen in streets and market-places trying 
to spell out the Bible message. Bryan Roe, who 
gave nearly ten years heroic service to West 
Africa, died at Quitta on February 22, 1896. 

In 1885 our oldest missions in the West 
Indies seemed strong enough to claim inde 
pendence. Two Conferences were The west 
formed. The Western Conference Indies - 
had three Districts in Jamaica, together with the 
Hayti and Santo Domingo District ; the Eastern 
Conference was composed of the St. Vincent, 


British Guiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Antigua, and 
St. Kitts Districts. A Coke Memorial College 
was founded at St. John s, Antigua, for the higher 
education of boys and the training of West Indian 

The work was carried on with great spirit. 
Methodist newspapers were started, the member 
ship grew, and in all departments faithful service 
was done. The Centenary of Methodism in the 
West Indies was kept in 1886 with much rejoicing. 
The meetings were well attended and showed that, 
notwithstanding the change in the circumstances 
of the people, there was no decline in their attach 
ment and loyalty to their Church. The visit of 
the Rev. Alexander M Aulay and Mr. Sampson 
in 1888 was highly appreciated, and the evan 
gelistic services they held resulted in the awaken 
ing and conversion of many. New missions were 
begun in St. Lucia, and at Arinca, a town with 
8,000 inhabitants, in Trinidad. 

Earthquakes, tornadoes, and commercial depres 
sion made it expedient for the West Indies to 
return to the care of the Missionary Society in 
January, 1904. A special fund of ^"60,000 to 
relieve the trust property from its burdens was 
started, half to be raised at home and half in 
the West Indies. The Rev. J. M. Brown visited 
the islands in 1905 and inspected the circuit and 
trust accounts. He expressed his admiration for 



the way in which the missionaries had remained at 
their posts amid all discouragements. Though 
their full salary has not been forthcoming, and 
though the indications of decay have well-nigh 
broken their hearts, yet have they proved them 
selves worthy of a place in the Methodist brother 
hood, and true successors of the men who, amid 
much persecution and many difficulties, established 
the churches in these islands. The difficulties in 
the West Indies were purely administrative and 
financial. They came back with 40,000 members 
and 3,000 members on trial, and had added nearly 
1,000 members in the previous twelve months. 

Our mission in Honduras was begun in 1825 
by the Rev. Thomas Wilkinson, who settled in 

Belize, but fell a victim to the 

P r Honduras, 

unhealthy climate after a few months. 

His successor died before the close of his first 
year. But the work was not allowed to drop. 
A substantial chapel was erected in Belize, and 
when this was destroyed by fire a handsome 
building took its place. The population is com 
posed of Europeans, Spanish Creoles, negroes, 
East Indian coolies, Maya Indians and Caribs. 
Preaching and teaching is carried on in Spanish, 
English, and Maya. The Rev. Richard Fletcher, 
when appointed to Corozal, the second town of 
the colony, in the extreme north of British Hon 
duras, was able to secure the abolition of the 


bull fights which were then in vogue. He 
mastered Spanish, and translated the Gospels 
and other books into Maya, the language of 
the Indians of Yucatan. The neighbourhood is 
a stronghold of Romanism, and the priests 
endeavour to keep the people away from the 
light, but Methodist services are held in English 
and Spanish in Corozal and three Indian 
villages. The work among the Caribs at Stann 
Creek, on the coast, thirty-six miles south of 
Belize, has lifted many from deepest heathen 
darkness into the light of God. The visit of 
the Rev. W. Perkins in 1899 did much to en 
courage the people and increase the influence 
of Methodism in Honduras. 

The Bahamas District, like Honduras, remained 

under the charge of our Missionary Committee 

The after the West Indian Conference had 

Bahamas. b een formed, as communication between 
those islands and the West Indian group is very 
difficult. The islands, which lie in a crescent of 
about six hundred miles in extent to the east 
of Florida and Cuba, were ceded to England 
by treaty in 1783. Half the population were 
slaves, and Methodist work had to face much 
opposition in early days. The only means of 
passing from island to island is by small 
schooner or sloop, and a journey of thirty miles 
sometimes takes five days. Methodism has 


three good churches in Nassau, the capital of 
the Bahamas. The coloured people there are the 
most intelligent of their race. The Rev. Henry 
Bleby, who was Chairman of the District from 
1868 to 1878, transformed the Methodist pro 
perty, building or improving at every place. 
The Rev. George Lester went out as Chairman 
in 1891, and spent six years in building up 
Methodist work with happy results. The Rev. 
W. H. F. Bleby, grandson of the Rev. H. Bleby, 
who wrote many books on the West Indies, is 
now Chairman. 

Missions in other parts of the world which 
have now passed from the care of the parent 
Society are still prospering. 

When the Australian Conference was formed, 
in 1855, the missions in Fiji passed to its charge, 
and right nobly has the work been carried on. 
The Rev. F. Langham was for some years 
Superintendent of the mission, and, since he left 
the islands, has done valuable translation work. 
A gentleman in Adelaide has presented a steam 
launch to the mission, which has been christened 
The Langham. There are now 34,497 church 
members in Fiji, with 6,336 on trial. The 
college at Navuloa furnishes a good supply of 
trained men for Fiji and New Guinea. A high 
school established in 1900 is a great success, and 
similar schools ought to be provided in other 


centres. There are 16,000 Indian coolies in 
Fiji, and a great effort is being made to win 
them for Christ. 

Fijian Christians have shown a noble zeal for 
the conversion of the savages of New Guinea. 
Fijiansas When the Rev. George Brown was 
Missionaries, undertaking his perilous mission to 
that island in June, 1875, nine native teachers 
volunteered to join him. They were reminded 
of the dangers, but replied, We are all of one 
mind ; we know what these islands are. We 
have given ourselves to this work. If we get 
killed, well ; if we live, well. We have had 
everything explained to us, and we know the 
danger. We are willing to go. They did not 
forget the debt they owed to those who had 
brought light to them in their darkness, and 
they were eager to make some return. Other 
parties of Fijians followed in 1877 and 1891, 
and they have had no small share in the victory 
the gospel has won in New Guinea. When the 
Rev. James Calvert visited Fiji in 1886 he was 
greatly pleased with the native students. They 
are very true, ready to go forth and brave the 
hardships and exposures of New Guinea, where 
some of them have perished in the work ; but 
others are baptized for the dead, and cheerfully 
ready to fill their places. 

The Rev. P. Turner began a mission in Samoa 


in 1835, and gathered in some hundreds of 
natives, but in 1839 the field was left to the 
London Missionary Society. In 1856 a new 
beginning was made under the direction of the 
Australian Conference. 

From the first Methodism has freely given its 
best men to the service of the Mission House. 
The list of Secretaries from the days of Missionary 
Richard Watson and Jabez Bunting is Secretaries, 
one of which our Church is justly proud. The 
anxieties and responsibilities inevitable to mis 
sionary administration have severely taxed all who 
have been responsible for it. Dr. Jenkins spoke of 
the travail of Dr. Punshon s soul when anything 
threatened to impede the glorious work. At the 
Mission House he says that he ( learned to perfect 
the image of one of the greatest men it has been 
my privilege to know. As his powers were equally 
at home in the survey of general principles, and in 
the laborious inspection and adjustment of details, 
so his fidelity was alike conspicuous in the duties 
that are hidden from the public eye and in those 
more attractive engagements that secure a wide 
notice and an instant applause. He lived in the 
work of his missionary brethren. A far-reaching 
sympathy made him the companion of men he had 
never known, and a partaker in labours he had 
never seen. He watched the good fight of Christ 
on the fields of heathenism not only with enthu- 
Q 225 


siasm and anxiety, but with a sense of conflict as 
if himself in the battle. He was thus in the midst 
of two struggles. He was in the distant and 
glorious strife of the faith, and he was in the near 
and worrying strife of administration, and the 
double contest exhausted and hastened the fall of 
this great and noble soldier. That is a passage 
which describes the experience through which the 
long succession of missionary secretaries has passed. 
In our own time the problems caused by Indian 
famines, Chinese outrages, West Indian disasters, 
and the Boer War have sorely taxed the friends 
and officers of the Society. 

The Mission House has had a succession of 
eminent missionaries on its staff who were able to 

bring their personal experience to bear on 
Official Visits 

to the the work of administration. The policy 
Mission Field. . . ... 

of personal inspection of the mission field 

by one of the General Secretaries has also been a 
marked feature of recent years. The Continent of 
Europe has been constantly visited by the Rev. 
F. W. Macdonald and others responsible for the 
work. The Rev. G. T. Perks paid a visit to South 
Africa in 1876, and the Rev. John Kilner in 1880; 
the Rev. G. W. Olver made a tour in India and 
Ceylon in 1892 ; the Rev. Marshall Hartley visited 
China, Ceylon, and India in 1898-9, and South 
Africa in 1903 ; the Rev. W. Perkins visited 
Honduras in 1899; the Rev. W. H. Findlay made 


two journeys to the West Coast of Africa in 
1900 and 1901, and a tour of inspection in India 
and Ceylon in 1904-5, in company with Mr. J. 
Vanner Early and Mr. R. W. Booth. The 
Rev. J. M. Brown rendered special service to the 
West Indies by his visit in 1905. The Report for 
1893 tnus refers to Mr. Giver s visit to the East. 
Some of the greatest difficulties in the way of 
successful administration in the mission field arise 
from mutual misunderstanding caused by differ 
ences of race, education, and national sentiment 
It is not to be supposed that great chasms are 
bridged over by the amenities of a single visit, or 
by brief intercourse, however profitable and pleasant. 
But something is accomplished when one of Mr. 
Giver s experience and weight of character, able at 
once to teach and to learn, can go among the infant 
churches of heathen lands, strengthening them by 
his counsels and his prayers, and adding bonds of 
personal sympathy and goodwill to the links which 
already unite the East with the Christianity of the 

In his account of his tour in the East, Mr. Hartley 
says : ( It is my honest conviction that, as a body, 
our missionaries, both for ability and Mr .Hartleys 
piety, stand at a high average ; while as ^"th? 
to their methods of work, though I have Missionaries 
sought, I have found nothing to complain of, nothing 
that I would abandon, nothing that I would alter. 


In this I speak of principles^ of methods. Here and 
there in detail some modification may be advisable ; 
but our missions rest upon broad and solid founda 
tions, and are being wisely built upon right lines 
by men and women whom the Church may fully 

The Treasurers of the Society have worked with 
as keen a devotion as the Secretaries. Since 1837 
Missionary there have been only three ministerial 
Treasurers. Treasurers John Scott, Dr. Jobson, and 
Dr. Rigg each of them a tower of strength to the 
Mission House. James S. Budgett, who succeeded 
James Heald as Lay Treasurer in 1874, remained 
throughout life a princely supporter. He died in 
1906. Sir William M Arthur took office in 1883, 
and held it with great advantage to the Society till 
his death on November 6, 1887. The Report for 
1888 says: A hand has vanished that knew no 
stint in giving ; a voice is stilled that never faltered 
when it pleaded the cause of the distressed or bore 
testimony for the Master. Mr. T. Morgan Harvey 
was appointed Treasurer in 1888, and for ten years 
devoted time and wealth to promoting the work of 
the Society. The Minutes of 1 898 contain this reso 
lution : The Conference receives with sincere regret 
the resignation of the Lay Treasurer of the Society, 
Mr. T. Morgan Harvey, who is compelled by the 
state of his health to relinquish his office. For ten 
years Mr. Harvey has rilled with conspicuous 


ability the position from which he now retires, 
giving close attention to the business of the Society, 
and devoting time and strength without stint to its 
service. He has also been foremost in generous 
gifts, and the improved financial position of the 
Missionary Society to-day is due in large measure 
to his sagacity and liberality. Mr. Williamson 
Lamplough, the present Treasurer, has given him 
self to the cause with unwearying devotion. Only 
those who are in daily contact with our missions 
know the value of his services. 

Work and Workers in the Mission Field, an 
illustrated missionary monthly started by the 
Rev. F. W. Macdonald in 1892, was the Missionary 
means of diffusing a vast mass of Lit <*ature. 
information about the missions and the missionaries 
of the Church. It prepared the way for Tlie 
Foreign Field, an illustrated penny monthly, the 
first number of which appeared in September, 
1904, under the editorship of Miss Klickmann. 
It is recognized as the most attractive missionary 
magazine issued, and has reached a circulation of 
about 50,000. At Home and Abroad, the. missionary 
magazine for young people, is not less attractive. 
The annuals form an encyclopaedia of Methodist 

Valuable maps of the various districts, with 
historical and descriptive notes, have been pre 
pared, and the Mission House is increasingly alive 


to the power of the Press in awakening interest 
and spreading information. 

From the Thanksgiving Fund (1878-1883) 

63,869 was given to foreign missions. The 

Missionary Special Effort of 1895-7 cleared the 

Funds. c j e | 3t . O f .30,000, anc j provided 10,000 

for buildings in various parts of the mission field. 
25,000 was raised for the Indian Famine Fund in 
1899-1900. The Twentieth Century Fund of 1900 
yielded 100,000 for missions, of which half was 
at once spent on the erection of buildings and the 
rest set apart as a Plant Fund. 

In 1898 sixteen additional men were sent to 
various parts of the field, but the Missionary 
Days of Synods of 1900 sent no fewer than 
Advance, eighteen requests for additional men. 
The missionary fire was burning more brightly, 
and in 1900, for the first time since 1884, the home 
contributions for foreign work reached six figures. 
The deficit for 1900, due to loss of income during 
war-time in the Transvaal and to troubles in China, 
was met by generous friends of the Society. The 
income for 1901 showed a decline, and this fact, 
together with the publication of a searching paper 
by the Rev. John H. Greeves, led to much heart- 
searching. The May Anniversary of 1902 was 
quick with the throbbings of new aspiration and 
consecration. The Manchester Conference pledged 
itself to a more energetic and aggressive missionary 


policy. Twelve conventions were held in various 
centres for the deepening of the missionary spirit 
during the presidency of Dr. Banks, and the 
districts not then visited had their conventions 
during Mr. Hartley s presidency the following year. 

The following programme of advance was 
adopted : 

I. To respond to an appeal of the North Ceylon 
mission that has been six years repeated, to enable 
them to set free an experienced man for itinerant 
evangelistic work around their stations. 

2. To add to the staff of the Hyderabad mission, 
where the rapid ingatherings are overtaxing the 
powers of our missionaries. 

3. To provide for the appointment of a man, 
if the right man can be found, for evangelistic 
work among the educated classes in Madras, among 
whom there is splendid opportunity for bringing 
to fruition by special agency the missionary 
influence of our schools and colleges. 

4. To provide a Principal (if, again, the right 
man can be found) for a Theological Institution 
designed for the service of all our churches in 
West Africa. 

5. and 6. To reply to the cruelties inflicted on 
Christians in China, and to the hopes of the 
Dowager-Empress to suppress Christianity, by 
increasing the missionary staff in both our Chinese 



7. To enable the Bahamas mission, which has 
fought a good fight for God in those sequestered 
islands with little money help from us, to 
occupy in force another important island of the 

8. To reoccupy San Pedro Sula in the Honduras 
District, the scene of one of the most beautiful and 
most tragic stories of heroism in our recent 
missionary history. 

9. To strengthen the meagre force which in 
Rhodesia is longing to push its campaign towards 
the Zambesi and gather the natives of that great 
region into the kingdom of Christ. If the Trans 
vaal does not appear on this list, it is because the 
time is not yet ripe for planning the great extension 
of our operations for which we confidently expect to 
find opportunity, when order is restored in that 
distracted land. 

The Mission House was pulled down in 1901. 
The new building was opened in 1903. By letting 

the largest part of the basement, the 
The new 
Mission ground floor and first floor, the entire 

cost of rebuilding, 75,899, will be met 
within twenty years, and a handsome yearly 
income provided for the Society in 1924. This 
notable result is largely due totheskilful management 
of the Lay Treasurer, Mr. Williamson Lamplough. 
At the first floor handsome iron gates shut off 
the missionary premises from the business part 


of the house. The entrance hall is lined with 
Devonshire marble, and has a marble floor. From 
this hall we step into the Centenary Room, 
where the General Committee meets. It is lined 
with oak panelling, and has a floor of oak parquet. 
Another good committee-room opens out of this, 
in which the Women s Auxiliary holds its com 
mittee. Rooms for the Deputy-Treasurer and 
clerks are on this floor. On the story above 
are the offices of the three other Secretaries and 
a good committee-room. On the top floor are 
the caretaker s rooms and the museum. The 
nucleus of the Missionary Museum was a 
collection, which fills five large cases, made by 
Mr. Thomas Farmer, and presented by his daughter, 
Mrs. Farmer-Atkinson. Treasures and trophies 
from all parts of the field have been gathered 
here. The shipping, packing, storing, and for 
warding business is done at Carlisle Avenue, a few 
minutes walk distant. 

The need of trained female teachers in the East 
became more manifest as our work broadened out. 
In 1858, at the request of the Missionary The Wo men s 
Committee, a small committee of ladies Auxiliar y- 
was formed to choose teachers, and provide money 
for their support. The Report for 1859 says: 
Christian women have always been among the 
warmest and most generous supporters of the 
Society ; but this year they have been zealously 


endeavouring to enhance the value of their services 
by combination and system. A Ladies Com 
mittee has been organized for the purpose of more 
effectually promoting the work of the Society 
in reference to female education, to the supply 
of clothing to stations where it may be needed, 
and to many other subsidiary matters by which the 
comfort and usefulness of missionaries and their 
wives may be largely enhanced. To those friends 
who have originated this organization, as well as 
to those who in various parts of the country have 
promised it their co-operation and support, the 
Committee beg to offer this expression of their 
sincere gratitude. This was the modest origin 
of the Women s Auxiliary. It was soon found 
that doors of usefulness are open to women in 
the East, which are rigidly closed to men. The 
Auxiliary thus began to find a glorious sphere of 
service. Its chief work has been in India, Ceylon, 
and China, where more than fifty English ladies 
are employed in teaching and superintending 
schools, and in zenana visitation. Others are 
village evangelists, and seventeen are engaged 
in medical work at eleven centres. About 250 
Eurasians and natives are employed as Bible- 
women, zenana visitors, and hospital assistants. 
There are also many school teachers. The medical 
work is becoming more and more important. 
The Women s Auxiliary was one of the earliest 


societies to undertake medical work which it began 
in India in 1883. 

In Italy help has been given to the Intra 
Orphanage, the day school at Spezia, and that 
at Iselle for the children of the Italian navvies 
working at the Simplon tunnel. Schools in Spain 
and Africa are supported. The first worker was 
sent to Burma in 1900. Help was given to 
Mrs. Piercy in Canton, and in 1885 Miss Sugden 
went to Hankow as a lady doctor. The Hospital 
there was opened in 1888. Dr. Margaret Bennet 
went out at her own cost in 1899 for medical 
work in Wuchang, and other ladies have followed 
in her steps. The medical work in Medak and 
Ikkadu has been of unspeakable value. The 
Women s Auxiliary helps to support 480 schools, 
for 20,000 girls. More than half of the schools 
are in Ceylon. Above forty of them are boarding- 
schools. Methodism has more schools in that 
island than all other Protestant Missionary 
Societies together, yet out of 13,000 villages only 
700 have a Protestant school. Mrs. Wiseman s 
appointment as Foreign Secretary of the Auxiliary 
in 1877 led to great developments. She enlisted 
the help of others, and every year has seen 
further extension and consolidation. Her visit 
to India in 1889 led to the development of 
the Orphanages, which are training-places for 
Christians and for Christian workers. There are 



now thirty-six orphanages and boarding-schools 
for the children of native Christians. In 1902 
Mrs. Wiseman visited China, and on her out 
ward journey opened the new hospitals at Indur 
and Medak, and laid the foundation-stone of 
Wiseman Hall, an enlargement of the Girls 
Boarding-school at Secunderabad. In 1906 
seventy lady missionaries from England were at 
work, of whom seventeen were engaged in medical 
service. Fourteen other ladies were local helpers, 
and of these two were qualified doctors. At 
Hassan and Mysore hospitals were built, and a 
Rescue Home for widows was established in 
Bangalore. Mr. Solomon Jevons provided hospital 
and orphanage buildings at Welimada, Batti- 
caloa, Ikkadu, Trichinopoly, Medak, Hassan, and 
Jabalpur. Other friends of like spirit have nobly 
helped the Auxiliary. The urgent demand for girls 
schools in China, India, and Ceylon, and the call 
for Bible-women, which far exceeds the supply, are 
increasing the opportunities and responsibilities 
of the Women s Auxiliary at an alarming rate. 

Some of the most important work on the mission 
field can only be done by women. The way in 
which the zenanas of the East are open to Christian 
ladies gives unbounded opportunity for influencing 
the wives and mothers of the future, whilst the 
lady doctor is one of the most precious gifts of 
God to multitudes of the sick and suffering. 


It was arranged in 1906 that the Missionary 
Committee should contribute 4,200 a year for ten 
years for mission work in Ireland. After that 
time the missionary grant will be withdrawn. 
This will be a sensible relief to the funds of the 
Society, and in the meantime steps will be taken 
that mission work in Ireland shall not suffer. 

The Nottingham Conference of 1906 will be 
memorable for a great outburst of practical 
enthusiasm for foreign missions. In the course 
of a few hours the debt of \ 5,000 was extinguished 
and a large addition to the annual income was 
secured. That day made it manifest that the old 
passion for the conversion of the world was still 
burning brightly in Methodist hearts, and that 
a new era, marked by a deeper sense of respon 
sibility for the extension of Christ s kingdom and 
a nobler spirit of self-sacrifice, had dawned. That 
day was a glorious recompense for the travail 
and patience of the years that had preceded it. 
Methodism is joyfully pledged to lay its growing 
wealth and influence on the missionary altar, and 
never to relax effort till the whole world enjoys the 
fullest light of gospel grace and salvation. 

The Missionary Centenary is to be kept in 1913, 
and a standard History will be prepared. A great 
advance ought to be made in every field before the 
Centenary year dawns, and Methodism is manifestly 
determined to rise to the height of its vocation. 




2 39 



WE may close this brief history of Wesleyan 
Methodist missions with a survey of the field 
at present occupied by the Society. 

The missions it began in Canada, Australia, 
New Zealand, and the South Seas are now 
independent of any financial aid from England, 
and are under the charge of colonial Conferences. 
Those in Ireland, France, Cape Colony, Natal, 
and the Orange River Colony are under the 
direction of their own Conferences, and receive 
aid from the Missionary Society. The missions 
under the immediate control of the British Con 
ference are in Europe, Ceylon, India, China, 
the Transvaal and Swaziland, West Africa, and 
the Western hemisphere. 

Methodism in Italy has gained greatly by 
the recent amalgamation with the Free Church 
of Italy. We have acquired pro 
perty worth 12,000, and churches 
and workers that will add materially to our 
R 241 


strength. Churches in Florence, Milan, Palermo, 
and some smaller stations chiefly in the manufac 
turing district north of Milan have been taken 
over. The work stretches from the Simplon 
tunnel to Palermo. In Rome we have a good 
church, and a strong hold on the military. 

The schools in Spezia, the Italian arsenal, have 
long been regarded as a national benefit. A new 
church was opened at Intra in 1903. It seats 
200, and its tower shows up well as you cross 
Lake Maggiore. There is a day school and an 
orphanage, liberally supported by the Protestant 
public. Many of the cotton operatives at Intra 
are attached Methodists. In Milan we have a 
chapel in a thickly populated suburb, and a large 
church in one of the principal thoroughfares. 
This is a splendid evangelistic centre. 

In Naples our fine church is the centre of a 
growing work. In the villages of the Abruzzi, 
Basilicata, and the mountainous regions of Calabria 
we have met with extraordinary opposition from 
the priests, but this has only given force to 
the reform movement. 

In Aquila there is a central chapel, and nine 
other preaching-places are scattered over the 
mountainous district. Every month our agent 
travels a thousand miles, visits thirty places, 
and holds seventy meetings, attended by 1,300 
to i, 600 persons. 



Palermo is a prosperous station. Since the 
union with the Free Church of Italy, three 
different congregations have been united, and 
form the largest Methodist congregation in the 
Italian Mission, for which a new church is 
greatly needed. 

Barcelona is the most important manufacturing 
centre in Spain. A plain doorway leads from 
the busy street to our chapel. The gpainand 
schools are the finest in the country. Portu al - 
In 1903 they had 900 scholars, and an income 
of 568 from fees. At Clot, an industrial suburb, 
premises were purchased in 1905, and the school 
has 350 scholars. At Rubi, a manufacturing 
village, twelve miles away, premises were also 
bought in 1905. We have promising stations 
in the Balearic Isles. That at Palma, the capital 
of Majorca, is flourishing, and there are two stations 
in Minorca. 

Oporto has a population of 160,000. We have 
been here thirty-five years, and it is hard to find 
room for the people who wish to attend our 
services. Even the stairs are crowded. It is 
among the best Protestant work done in Portugal. 
In Lisbon our services are held in a rented hall, 
and the schools are so full that children have 
to be refused. 

Ceylon is our oldest Eastern mission. The 
three Sinhalese districts were reunited in 1905 



into the South Ceylon District. The Colombo 
section was never so flourishing. It includes an 
south area f T 122 s q uare miles, with a 
Ceylon, population of nearly a million, of whom 
1 6 per cent, are Christians, 72 per cent. Buddhists, 
4 per cent. Hindus, 6 per cent. Muhammadans. 
Ten years ago the Sinhalese church in Colombo 
decided to undertake the support of its own 
minister, and has continued to do this ever since. 
It is a self-supporting circuit. It maintains and 
manages all its schools, and pays a catechist. 
The laymen take a lively interest in the affairs of 
the church. Three other circuits in the District 
support all the . work administered by their 
Quarterly Meetings. 

Kandy has one of the largest English-speaking 
Methodist congregations in Ceylon. The Kandy 
Section includes Kandy, the Uva mission in the 
centre of Ceylon, and the Negombo Section. The 
day and Sunday schools in the Uva Mission have 
done good service, and the hospital at Welimada is 
a blessing to the whole region. The conditions 
under which work is carried on in the three sections 
vary considerably. There is as great a difference 
between the character and habits of the " low 
country " Sinhalese of the Negombo Section and 
the " Kandyan " of the other two as there usually 
is between the dwellers in two different countries. 
Then, too, the problems to be solved differ. In 


the Negombo Section and Kandy Town the 
question is how to get our own people to help 
us to reach masses of heathen people surrounding 
our churches. In parts of the Kandy Section 
and the whole of the Uva mission the question 
is how to carry the gospel to a densely ignorant 
and scattered population, living in a country in 
which travelling is very difficult. 

Three out of the four circuits in the Negombo 
Section are self-supporting. This enables the dis 
trict to give more help to the Uva mission. It 
is also anxious to begin work in the north-west 
province, where there is a large population un 
touched by any Protestant mission. 

The Galle Section is doing well, but houses, 
schools, chapels, boarding-schools, enlargements, 
and improvements are needed throughout the 
section. In Galle a new chapel was built on the 
old site in 1902. Richmond Hill College stands 
on an estate purchased by the Rev. Joseph 
Rippon in 1851 for an industrial farm. This 
was not a success, but the educational establish 
ment here, the college, girls boarding-school, 
training-school, and other institutions, trains more 
than 500 young people. Seventy-five per cent, 
of the children on the station are taught in our 

The girls school at Matara is doing splendid 
service. George Erskine began the mission at 


Matara in 1814, but it is one of the strongholds of 
Buddhism, and in the section of country round 
it, out of 800 villages, there are more than 700 
where there is not a single Christian. Methodism 
is trying to reach these places, and in 1894 twelve 
new stations were opened. 

The North Ceylon District has 1,584 members, 
with 800 on trial. Trincomalee has become self- 
North supporting, and Point Pedro has 
Ceylon, almost reached the same position. The 
generosity of the people gives abundant proof of 
their sincere devotion. There is a complete net 
work of schools, in which more than 12,000 boys 
and girls are taught. The Wesley Deaconess 
Institute at Puttur is being developed, and the 
Soldiers and Sailors Home at Trincomalee does 
valuable service. The Medical Mission at 
Batticaloa and the Kalmunai Industrial School 
are prosperous. The mission to the Veddahs is 
doing well. 

Madras covers twenty-seven square miles and 

has a population of about half a million. It is our 

Madras oldest mission in continental India. 

District. j ames Lynch i ande d there in 1817. He 

built the first chapel at Royapettah. The municipal 

area stretches for nine miles along the coast and for 

three miles inland. Royapettah is near the centre. 

The Rev. Robert Stephenson says : It includes 

a large native village, with busy streets and 



bazaars, and many English residences, each sur 
rounded by its own compound an Indian term 
conveying the idea of something more than a 
garden and less than a park. Scattered through 
out the district are clusters of native cottages 
hidden among overhanging foliage. A little 
distance to the south-west is St. George s Cathe 
dral, a noble building, famous for its interior 
walls of polished chunam, and for the beautiful 
statues of Bishops Heber and Corrie. Wesley 
College, Royapettah, has more than 700 pupils 
and a home for Christian boys studying there, 
which was enlarged in 1903. 

Between Royapettah and the sea is the district 
of Triplicane, inhabited largely by Muhammadans. 
Mr. Findlay says : Nowhere in India, perhaps, 
is clustered a community with so high an average 
of education and of brains as in this official 
and university quarter of Madras. Our High 
School is a warren of native houses in which 
500 students, mostly Brahmans, are crowded, even 
the flat roofs holding classes, only screened by 
palm-leaves from the blazing sun or drenching 
rain. In 1905 a suitable block of property was 
purchased in the heart of Triplicane, and a 
missionary appointed to work among the students 
and educated men. The Institute for Educated 
Hindus, for which Mr. F. W. Kellett did so 
much, has already got buildings and started on 


its task of unsurpassed importance for the 
kingdom of Christ. 

Mr. Subramanian, brought to Christ as a 
lad by W. O. Simpson, has built a women s 
hospital in Madras, in memory ;of the debt he 
owes to Methodism. A school for Indian Chris 
tian girls was opened at Black Town in 1902, 
and a new church erected in 1904 at Egmore, to 
take the place of the old Black Town chapel, 
At Madurantakam, a country town fifty miles 
south of Madras, we have a school for boys and 
girls and a little Children s Home, where thirty-five 
small pariahs are cared for. There are converts 
in twenty villages and preaching in eighty others, 
but 400 villages in the circuit are untouched. The 
mass movement among the pariahs is bearing 
much fruit in the country circuits round Madras. 

At Guindy, six miles out of Madras, we have 
a training institute for Tamil evangelists, where 
about twenty-four men are in residence. 

Ikkadu and its offshoot, Nagari, are thirty and 
sixty miles west of Madras. The two circuits 
cover 1,000 square miles, with half a million 
villagers. A mud-and-thatch hut in Ikkadu was 
the earliest place of worship when Mr. Goudic 
began his work in 1888. This was followed 
by a brick shed in the mission compound, with 
thatched roof, which did duty for many years. 
In 1903 a beautiful red-brick church was erected 


to complete the set of buildings, consisting of 
mission house, a large hospital for women and 
children, with three lady doctors, two children s 
homes for 100 boys and girls, and the Lace 
Hall. The Southern Cross Boys Home, some 
little distance behind the chapel, was given by 
Methodist friends in Australia. 

Around Tiruvallur the Rev. William Goudie 
has spread the gospel through a wide area. A 
new girls school was built in the main street in 
1904, for which 120 pupils were ready. There are 
220 pupils in the boys high school. 

Tiruvallur is a circuit which covers thirty miles 
of country, and at Tiruturaipundi we have one 
of the finest Hindu girls schools in the district, 
but we have not been able to work it adequately, 
and the mission house is empty. A new school 
for 250 girls is being built. 

At the military station of St. Thomas s Mount, 
seven miles south of Madras, we have a good 
Gothic chapel. W. O. Simpson describes the road 
to it from Royapcttah as picturesque throughout : 
bordered on each side by banyan-trees, with 
their dark foliage, and by plantations of palmyras 
and palms, with now and then an area of fresh 
green rice-fields. The natives in white, red, blue, 
pink all colours, but none out of taste talking 
under the shade, or walking leisurely along, the 
bandies drawn by bullocks with bells, the coolies 


carrying water and toddy chatties (earthenware 
vessels), all in the light of a setting sun, har 
monizing with the red surface of the road, the 
dark foliage, and the varied costumes, furnished 
my vision with a perfectly Oriental scene, and 
fulfilled many preconceived pictures. 

Negapatam is a busy seaport, 200 miles south 

of Madras, with 60,000 inhabitants. The South 

Indian Railway workshops are here. 

Negapatam It was our second station in India, 
District. . . . . TTr . 

and was occupied in 1821. We have 

a flourishing high school. Nearly thirteen 
hundred children are taught in seventeen schools, 
and eight Bible-women and seven evangelists are 
at work. 

Mannargudi, thirty miles west of Negapatam, 
is a purely Hindu town, pleasantly situated in 
a very rich agricultural district. A fine street 
extends from the bridge across the Pamani to 
the temple. The Medical Mission, for which 
Dr. Hudson did a great work, is very strong. 
The Findlay College is one of the chief educa 
tional establishments of South India. It began 
in Negapatam in 1883, when Mr. Findlay was 
its first principal. It was transferred to Mannar 
gudi in 1898. It now has 543 pupils. Our 
missionaries first visited the town in 1834. Two 
years later Mr. Kindersley gave the mission a 
bungalow about a mile and a half from the town. 


Mrs. Cryer died here, and it was W. O. Simpson s 
home in 1861-2. Here the spirit of the work 
laid hold on Dr. Jenkins : Mannargudi made 
me a missionary. The large temple, with eight 
massive towers, attracts 30,000 visitors to its 
annual carnival. 

Trichinopoly, where Schwartz began a mission 
in 1767 and laboured for twelve years, and Bishop 
Heber died, is the largest city in the Presidency 
next to Madras, with 90,000 inhabitants. The 
rock of hard granite which rises 273 feet above 
the surrounding plain, attracts all eyes, and a 
Hindu temple clings to its slope, with a large 
artificial lake at the foot of the rock. In a house 
by the lake Clive once lived. There are 478 girls 
in our schools. A new girls boarding-school 
was opened in 1905. 

The mission in the Konganad country round 
Karur is also doing good service. A network of 
schools and evangelism is being spread over the 
whole area. 

Karur, forty miles west of Trichinopoly, is 
perhaps the largest and most advanced industrial 
settlement connected with any Indian mission. 
It grew out of the Orphanage established during 
the famine of 1877-8. Its workshops cover 
an acre and a quarter, and provide a splendid 
training for about a hundred Christian lads. Its 
church is a tasteful red-brick building. 

25 1 


In 1879 the Rev. William Burgess went to 

Secunderabad with one lay agent. In 1905 there 

Hyderabad were seven circuits in the Hyderabad 

District. District, with nine English missionaries, 
eleven lady workers, three medical missions, five 
Indian ministers, 86 native evangelists, 42 Bible 
women, 97 schools, 112 teachers, 2,012 Christian 
scholars, 232 Christian villages, 1,928 members, 
and a Christian community numbering 9,321, of 
whom 3,056 are children under fourteen. The 
converts are chiefly agricultural labourers. From 
ten to twenty per cent, farm their own small 
holdings, the rest are day labourers. The area 
of the District, which includes three out of the 
eighteen divisions of the Nizam s territories, is about 
14,550 square miles ; more than 2,000,000 souls 
are eager for instruction. 

Hyderabad and Secunderabad practically form 
one city, with a population of 560,000. One 
missionary has the oversight of the three head 
quarters circuits. Our operations are carried 
on in two languages, Telugu and Tamil, 
and from two centres, one in Secunderabad and 
the other in Chadarghat, a suburb of Hyderabad. 
The institutions served include a most efficient 
boarding-school for Christian girls, a hostel for 
Christian boys, seven schools for Hindu girls 
and three for boys, and vigorous native churches 
at each centre. The strong and healthy church in 


Secunderabad is influencing the surrounding popu 
lation far and wide. 

There are six village circuits among the low- 
caste Malas or pariahs. That of Karim Nagar 
comprises fifty-eight villages, with nineteen 
catechists, who are each responsible for about 
three villages and 2,500 Christians. These Mala 
hamlets are made of low mud huts, with a rough 
charpoy and a few coarse, unglazed pots. 

The Medak Dispensary forms a daily illustration 
of the fact that medical work is the most potent 
evangelistic force. In 1905 its patients in Medak 
alone were 18,031. Some 500 surgical opera 
tions are performed in a year, and the medical 
staff visit the villages around on their errands 
of mercy. Long miles over switch-backs of 
dried rice-fields, burning sands, boulders, fallen 
trees, dried-up river-beds, up and down we go 
from village to village. 

At Karim Nagar there is a little hospital with 
six beds. Outhouses and dispensary have some 
times to be utilized for the patients. The advance 
made has been such as the workers never con 

At Indur Mr. Findlay opened a striking new 
church in 1904 on a conspicuous hill. There 
is a dispensary given by a native gentleman, 
which was enlarged in 1905. There and at 
Kamareddy the attendances for 1905 were 
2 53 


15,000. Indur has an industrial school for 
training artisans. 

The missionary force is ( utterly out of pro 
portion to the needs of such centres as Secundera- 
bad and Hyderabad. There and in the villages 
the chief bar to progress is the inadequate staff. 

The Mysore Province is an elevated plateau, 
two or three thousand feet above the sea, with 

Mysore rocky hills divided by deep ravines. 
District. Many of these hills are crowne d w f t h 

ruined fortresses once regarded as impregnable. 

In Bangalore, with 200,000 inhabitants, there are 
three circuits Kanarese, Tamil, and English all 
strong and growing. The Tamil circuit is especially 
prosperous. East Parade Chapel is an imposing 
building, with the Soldiers Home at its side. 
There is a high school in the mission compound. 
A handsome church, to seat 300, was built at 
St. John s Hill in 1889. There is also a beautiful 
Hudson Memorial Church. Two or three evange 
lists are at work in the Kolar gold-fields, fifty 
miles distant, where more than 100,000 natives 
are exposed to the most powerful temptations to 
drunkenness and immorality. Over 50.000 Tamil 
coolies have emigrated there in the last ten years. 

In Mysore City, eighty-seven miles south-west of 

Bangalore, we have an old church and a fine new 

building near to the handsome Hardwicke College. 

Young men and boys from all parts of the 



province are trained here. A hospital, in 
memory of Mrs. Holdsworth, was opened in the 
city in August, 1906. 

The mission press is a source of strength to 
the whole district, and was never more prosperous. 
In 1904 new plant was obtained, and the half-tone 
block apparatus is used to illustrate books and 

Tumkur, forty-three miles north-west of Banga 
lore, has twenty-four day schools, with 1,590 boys 
and girls. The orphanage for boys, founded in 1 876, 
is one of the finest industrial settlements in India. 
An orphanage for girls was founded at Hassan at 
the same time. The Rev. E. W. Redfern 
secured a fine site for a women s hospital in 
Hassan, and the foundation stones of this Redfern 
Memorial Hospital were laid in December, 1905. 

At Gubbi, twelve miles west of Tumkur, a church 
was erected in 1903 in memory of William Arthur, 
who laboured here in 1839-41. 

Calcutta, the city of palaces and the metropolis 
of India, lies on the banks of the Hugli. It has 
one million inhabitants. Our English The Calcutta 
church, with its school-hall, parsonage, District - 
and school-house in Sudder Street, is in a central 
position about three-quarters of a mile from Fort 
William. The Osmond memorial chapel for 
the use of the Bengalis is our handsomest 
native chapel in India. It cost 2,000. There 



are four elementary schools and growing Bengali 
and Hindustani churches at Dum Dum, the 
military station seven miles north of Calcutta. 
Our work there is chiefly among the soldiers and 
those employed at the Small Arms factory. The 
present mission house was secured by the Rev. 
J. M. Brown. The missions in the outlying 
villages are very encouraging. 

Barrackpur, sixteen miles north of Calcutta, is our 
oldest station in Bengal. Daniel Pearson began 
work here in 1859. The mission house was bought 
in 1878 by the Rev. G. Baugh. The English 
chapel in Station Road, which is an ornament 
to the town, was built in 1884. We have an 
excellent girls boarding-school. Calcutta, Dum 
Dum, and Barrackpur form the eastern section 
of the District ; Bankura, Raniganj, and Saringa 
the western. 

Raniganj, 120 miles from Calcutta, has a great 
coal-field and many industries. The English 
church is strong. The leper asylum has 150 
inmates. Most of the expense is born by the 
Mission to Lepers in the East. The orphanage 
has 60 children, who are taught trades. There 
is another leper asylum at Bankura, thirty miles 
south of Raniganj. Its 80 inmates are lodged 
in blocks of cottages ranged over the field, four 
lepers in each block. In the midst stands 
their own chapel. The money for their support 



is provided by the Mission to Lepers. The mis 
sion house, with four acres of land, was bought 
in 1883 by the Rev. J. M. Brown. The college 
has 60 students, and the high school 300 boys. 
The educational work is wonderfully efficient. 
There is also a settlement for families with no 
means of support, who live in mud cottages, and 
are provided with employment. 

The Rev. G. W. Olver began the Santal Mission, 
on the western frontier of Lower Bengal, in 1887. 
The church there is growing more rapidly than the 
funds. Seringa is the chief centre of this mission. 
In a great many of the surrounding villages 
there are new converts. In Seringa itself the 
chapel is filled by a large and earnest congre 
gation, many of whom walk long distances to be 
present. Both among Santals and Hindus the 
gospel wins its way, and the boarding-schools 
are full to overflowing. There were no fewer 
than 130 baptisms from heathenism in 1905. 

The Lucknow and Benares District is densely 
populated by Muhammadans and Hindus. The 
main part of its area is the 150 miles L UC kn OW 
between Lucknow and Benares. In District - 
Lucknow a handsome English and military church 
was opened in April, 1905, and a good boys 
school. The soldiers home is prospering. The 
boarding-school is doing well, and the native church 
is growing strong, reliable, and self-supporting. 
s 257 


At Jhansi, 183 miles from Lucknovv, we have a 
growing work among the civil and military popula 
tion. Faizabad has a fine set of mission premises 
a bungalow, a church, and a good boarding-school. 
It is one of the most densely populated parts of 
India, with 2,000,000 inhabitants in the circuit area 
which lies between Bombay and Calcutta. The 
population is rural, and schools have been opened in 
the villages. Jabalpur has a population of 85,000, 
and stands in a picturesque position on the river 
Nerbudda. Cotton, tents, and carpets are manu 
factured in the city, which has a trade of two 
million sterling a year. It is a great railway 
centre. The orphanage is laying the foundations 
for a strong Christian community. The property 
is large and well situated, within convenient reach 
of the city, with its teeming population and 
many industries. The mission house is a good 
building, and the many out-buildings in the 
compound have been turned to excellent use. 
The orphanage buildings are well adapted to 
their purpose, and the schools are effective. The 
weaving industry is practically self-supporting, 
and its dusters are sent all over India. The 
Rev. Joseph Parson began the work ; the Revs. 
E. Mortimer, J. Reed, and A. T. Cape have 
carried it forward to its present success. 

Benares is the sacred city of India. It extends 
along the bank of the Ganges, and presents 


a magnificent panorama of palaces, temples, 
mosques, minarets, and other buildings, of every 
variety of oriental architecture. The ghats, a mile 
and a half of stone steps leading from the temples 
and palaces down into the bed of the river, are 
covered with fakirs, naked ascetics, and thousands 
of Hindu bathers. The streets are crowded, and 
the temples and shrines, which number many 
thousands, are filled with pilgrims who come to 
the sacred city from all parts of India. 

The pretty chapel in the cantonment was built 
in 1884 by Mr. Fentiman, who also erected a 
preaching-hall and school-chapel in the city. The 
native church is healthy, and the Boys Orphan 
age and Industrial School are doing well. The 
Doms of Benares, one of the lowest castes, engaged 
chiefly in bearing and burning the dead, began 
to turn towards Christianity in 1905, and many of 
them have been baptized. In the united provinces 
of Agra and Oudh there are more than 100,000 
villages, with average populations of 400. Repre 
sentatives from these places are constantly coming to 
Benares, and a strong evangelistic work in that city 
would go far to leaven India with gospel teaching. 

The Marathi church at Bombay is growing. 
The rest of the work is English, and in the 
main military, with nine chaplains Bombay 
engaged in it. In 1903 a new church Di8trict - 
was built in Byculla, two at Rawal Pindi, and 


one at Ferozepore. Next year churches were built 
at Umballa and Jhansi. Lahore was also 
occupied, and the church there bought from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. There are nine 
soldiers homes in the District. 

Upper Burma is one of the great seats of Bud 
dhism, and as you sail up the Irrawaddy almost 
every hill or knoll has its dazzling white, 
bell-shaped, brick-work pagoda, with its 
iron umbrella. Methodism has taken firm root. 
We have a good chapel in Mandalay (population 
200,000) with a mission house built of teak. 
The leper home has about 120 inmates. The girls 
boarding-school at Mandalay is attended by 
young people of all classes, who are trained for 
teachers, nurses, &c. The second station opened in 
Burma was at Pakokku, 130 miles below Mandalay. 
At Monywa, eighty miles from Mandalay, we 
have a high school, a girls school, elementary 
day schools and a neat wooden church, presented 
by worshippers who are not Methodists. There 
are also village causes and schools. Kyaukse, 
the fourth station, has a prosperous high 

The province of Canton has an area equal to 

that of Great Britain, and a population of 

canton 29,ooo,ooo. The people are energetic, 

District. anc [ f onc j O f rov i n g a nd adventure. 

Daily services are held in all our mission-halls, 


and much itinerant evangelism is carried on 
with the help of native ministers and catechists. 
The catechist colporteurs travel widely in all 
directions. In Canton, which is the second city of 
China, there is a girls boarding-school. One for 
boys was erected in 1904. We have four chapels. 
The Tsang Sha compound, with its theological 
training institution, middle school, girls boarding 
school, and training home for Chinese women 
workers, is a hive of industry. 

The Medical Mission in the town of Fatshan, 
which has a population of half a million, began in 
1 88 1. The native church is self-supporting, and 
there are now two circuits in the city. At one of 
the preaching-halls about 50,000 natives hear the 
gospel in the course of a year. 

The Medical Mission at Wuchow has many 
paying patients. In 1905 it had 3,368 out 
patients, 90 in-patients, five medical students. 
A catechist and six subsidized colporteurs are 
at work in the town and the country. 

In Hong Kong our garrison church is well 
attended, not only by soldiers but by civilians. 
The Soldiers and Sailors Home is a great 
boon. We have a good Chinese congregation and 
several Chinese day schools. 

The North River Hakka Mission now has a 
mission compound, with two mission houses. 

The three towns at the juncture of the Han 


and Yang-tse Wuchang, Hankow, Hanyang 
have a population of a million. Business men 
Wuchang fr m every corner of the empire visit 
District. Hankow, whilst all mandarins who 
are expecting office reside in Wuchang. In 
Wuchang, the seat of the Viceroy of Hupeh, 
we have a theological institution and a high 
school. A doorway leads into an open square, 
round which are a number of improved native 
houses. Some of the best families in the city 
send their sons here, and it has become a centre 
for young literati. The income from fees in 1904 
was ^400, and the boarders might be increased 
threefold if there was room. A women s hospital 
was opened in 1902. 

In Hankow, the trading centre, there is a 
large chapel, which can be packed on any week- 
night when a missionary preaches. Across the 
main street is a row of almshouses for old 
men on a large plot of ground. The men s 
hospital, of which new wards and operating 
rooms were opened in 1902, and the blind school, 
are here. The women s hospital is on the same 
side as the chapel, and is much cramped for 

At Hanyang there is a thriving girls boarding- 
school, and a dispensary. 

At Teh Ngan, 120 miles north of Hankow, 
where work began in 1884, we have a men s 


hospital, and at the prosperous market town of 
Wusueh, 1 20 miles south of Hankow, there is a 
good mission station. 

The great military province of Hunan was 
long hermetically sealed against missionaries, 
but in 1901 we were able to enter Chang-Sha, 
the capital. We now have missionaries in five 
of the seventy-four counties and agents in thirteen 
others. The area of the province is 83,380 square 
miles, the population 22,000,000. 

The Transvaal and Swaziland District, which 
is three times the size of England, stretches 

from Mafeking to Delagoa Bay, and 


from Pietersberg to the Vaal River. It and 


includes Pretoria, Johannesburg, and 

many important district towns. There are 14,076 
members and 6,756 members on trial, 11,958 
scholars, 1,017 local preachers, 42,000 attendants at 
public worship. A Wesleyan missionary is placed 
within fifty miles of every European settlement. 
The Training Institution at Kilnerton, Pretoria, 
has more than sixty students. There is also a 
college for teachers and a boys boarding-school. 
We have five churches in Pretoria, besides sites 
for several more and fifteen in Johannesburg, eight 
of which have been built since the war and 
three enlarged. There are twelve more English 
churches along the Rand, and seventeen 
other preaching-places. The Methodist churches 



on the Rand almost equal in number those 
of all other bodies combined. In the remote 
parts of the country Methodist churches are 
springing up everywhere. 

For the natives 226 churches have been 
provided, and 400 other preaching-places. 
134,000 native labourers, drawn from all parts of 
South and Central Africa, are employed in the 
Transvaal mines. Among these Methodism is 
doing a great work. There are thirty native 
churches along the Rand, and by open-air 
preaching, and preaching in the compounds, 
about 14,000 are reached every Sunday. 

Our missionaries in the wide-stretching colony 
of Rhodesia travel over vast circuits. A church 

Bhodesia to cost ^2,OOO is to be built at 

District Salisbury for the English settlers. 
The native work is extending on every side. The 
mining camps are also being evangelized. The 
Mashonaland section is strong and progressive. 
The Mashonas were slaves to a merciless witch 
craft, but its hold on them is being broken. The 
Mangubo Training Institution is doing the best 
service, and ought to be enlarged. The Matabele 
section is also healthy. At Buluwayo (the place 
of slaughter) a fine native church, seating 700 to 
800, was erected in 1904. Every Sunday 500 
people meet there for worship. 

Effort is being concentrated on the central 


stations, from which it is intended to branch 
out in every direction as means will allow. 
The native work in Buluwayo and Salisbury 
was never so flourishing as it is to-day, and 
connected with Buluwayo are a number of 
prosperous out-stations. 

The three Districts on the West Coast of Africa 
are Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, and Lagos. 

A great church has risen in Sierra Leone, and 
though the undeveloped interior is a British pro 
tectorate covering 33,000 square miles, sierra 
with 1,100,000 inhabitants, and calls Leone - 
loudly for help, the claims of the work at Freetown, 
with its 30,000 inhabitants, are too absorbing to 
allow of any response. There is a growing desire 
to reach the aborigines in the colony proper. 
We have 33 day schools, 38 Sunday schools, a boys 
and a girls school, with an income from fees of 
more than 400, and Richmond College, where 
a theological training is given to ministerial 

The Limbah mission is bearing fruit among the 
heathen, and suitable centres might be found here 
and in the Sherbro hinterland and adjoining 
countries for fifty more agents, who would be 
eagerly welcomed by the natives. Even the 
Muhammadan sections of the community show 
a growing appreciation of Christian work, and 
when a paramount Muhammadan chief succeeded 



to power in the Bandajuma District, he and his 
chiefs expressed a desire that part of the coronation 
service should take place in our church, and asked 
our missionary to set the crown on the king s 

The Gambia is the oldest and smallest of our 

West African Colonies. At Bathurst, with 6,138 

Gambia inhabitants, ours is the only Protestant 

District. m i ssion> We have a strong hold on the 

place, despite the activity of the Muhammadans. 

The Technical and Industrial School is doing well. 

Outside Bathurst are four stations, but the work is 

difficult At Macarthy Island one-third of the 

children in the day school have non-Christian 


The Gold Coast District makes steady pro 
gress. The area of the colony is 74,500 square 
Gold Coast miles, the population 1,500,000. Every 
Distnct. town on the coast is occupied by a 
Methodist mission. Accra, the administrative 
capital, has 16,000 inhabitants, and we have 1,100 
members, including those on trial, and 1,000 cate 
chumens and junior members. Wesley Church 
seats 1,000, the Wharton and Freeman memorial 
churches 500 each. The day school has 650 
scholars. Cape Coast is the chief Methodist 
centre, where the Book Room and printing offices 
are established. A girls boarding-school and 
training home, opened in 1900, has met a real 



need. The women are being helped to realize a 
nobler and fuller ideal of life, and this means 
the uplifting of the race. 

Kumasi was reoccupied in 1904, a new church 
and mission have been built, and the mining centres 
near it are being visited. The Ashantis eagerly 
invite us to occupy their towns. 

In Lagos the two circuits are self-supporting, 
with a large membership, and many home mission 
stations attached. The boys high school Lagos 
is doing well. The population is 42,000. Distnct - 

There are three circuits in the Yoruba interior, 
of which Abeokuta (100,000 inhabitants) is the 
strongest. Several healthy causes have been 
established in the city, and a number of farm 
stations outside. A dispensary was opened in 
1904. At Ilesa there is a flourishing native church, 
and at Ago, in the Ijebu Circuit, scores have given 
up their idols and been baptized. In 1903 a 
training institution for twenty students was begun 
at Ibadan, the largest town in Yoruba, with 
200,000 inhabitants. Ibadan was made a circuit in 
1904. It is 1 20 miles by rail from Lagos. The 
cotton plantation there employs more than 500 
men. Centres for successful operations are being 
established, and the results are encouraging. At 
Oyo, with its 50,000 inhabitants, there is a church 
of sixty members and adherents. We have a 
medical mission at Igboora, and hope to extend 



that work to Oyo, where it may help to break down 
the indifference of the people. The difficulties 
are serious. At Igboora the Muhammadans have 
frightened many of the people into submission, 
while fetichism has tremendous power here, and 
at Dahomey, where we have also to contend against 
the opposition of the Romish priesthood. The 
scope for itinerating evangelists among the almost 
innumerable towns and villages in the district is 
very great. The Rev. H. Arnett surveyed the region 
on his bicycle and found that the Roman Catholics 
are occupying some of the important stations of 
the interior. The more the state of the country 
is known the greater our obligations and respon 
sibilities become. Northern Nigeria, with its 
millions of Fulanis, Hausas, and Gambarris, 
remains almost untouched. Dahomey and Togo- 
land, except for the coast towns, are in like 

Our oldest missions are those in the West Indies, 
which were separated from us in 1885, but came back 

The West to tne control of our Conference in 1905. 
indies. B es ides the five West India Districts 
thus restored to our care there are the Honduras 
and Bahamas Districts. In Belize, the capital of 
Honduras, we have two good chapels, which are 
well filled, two Sunday schools, and three day 
schools, which are almost self-supporting. At 
Corozal, the second town of the colony, in the 



extreme north of British Honduras, both Indian 
and Spanish work is carried on. A new chapel 
was opened in 1905 at Orange Walk. Places on 
the coasts of Mexico and Yucatan are also visited. 
At Stann Creek, thirty-six miles south of Belize, 
there is a mission among the Caribs which would 
have rejoiced the heart of Dr. Coke. At Ruatan, 
a group of islands belonging to Spanish Honduras, 
we have a flourishing mission among the coloured 
people who speak English. At San Pedro Sula, 
forty miles in the interior of Spanish Honduras, 
Mr. Ridge has built a beautiful little chapel, 
a schoolroom, and a mission house. There 
are other good openings in the villages around. 
Yellow fever is a terrible scourge in this 

The Bahama Islands lie between Cuba and the 
coast of Florida. The Bahamas District remained 
under the British Conference after the West Indies 
were separated from us. We have three good 
churches in Nassau, the pleasant little capital, with 
12,000 inhabitants. Trinity, built in 1867, is an 
attractive building ; Ebenezer is on the eastern 
side, and Wesley Chapel in Grant s Town, where 
people of colour are settled. Queen s College and 
Victoria Hall at Nassau are doing excellent 
educational work. 

In Jamaica there are 139 chapels, 58 other 
preaching-places, 20,666 members, 60,000 adherents, 



and 94 day schools, with 12,000 scholars. One- 
tenth of the population is under our care. The 
trust property destroyed or damaged by the 
hurricane of 1903 is being restored, and successful 
missions carried on at Panama and Colon. 

In Hayti the great majority of the people are 
Roman Catholics. Of 112 members received into 
our church last year nearly half were converts from 
Romanism. The Bird College for girls has 140 
scholars with a staff of seven teachers under the 
direction of Mrs. Picot, wife of the Chairman of 
the District. 

The eleven circuits of the Antigua and St. Kitts 
Districts were amalgamated in 1904 into the Leeward 
Islands District, so called from its geographical 
position. Methodism suffers because some of our 
most intelligent members emigrate in search of 
better work. In Antigua, where Dr. Coke first 
landed, we have ten chapels. Dominica has three 
large and important stations, and enjoys the benefit 
of property given by Mrs. Caffin, and an estate 
left in 1904 by Mr. Bullen. St. Kitts is the largest 
circuit in the West Indies, with two thousand 

Methodism is strong in St. Vincent, where there 
are three circuits, and in Barbados, where there are 
four. At Port of Spain, Trinidad, a new chapel is 
to be built. No circuit in the West Indies has 
such a hold of the young people. At St. Lucia, 



an important naval and military station, a new 
school was built in 1904, which is an ornament to 
the place. Grenada is one of the most flourishing 
islands in the West Indies, and its Methodism is 
very prosperous. There are eight stations on the 
island of Tobago. 

British Guiana was formed in 1831 by the union 
of Berbice, Demarara, and Essequibo. There are 
two circuits in Georgetown, its thriving capital, 
with 60,000 inhabitants. The Essequibo Circuit 
carries on a Pomeroon mission and Capoey Indian 
mission, which show pleasing signs of growth and 

The District has 43 preaching-places, with 
about 17,000 regular worshippers and nearly 
5,000 members. The Catechists are doing good 
service among the East Indian coolies, of whom 
there are more than 125,000 in British Guiana, 
but much more ought to be done if these 
heathen settlers are to be led into the light of 
the gospel. 

The fields where our missions are established 
furnish glorious opportunities of helping on 
Christ s conquest of the world. The hoary 
civilizations and religions of the East have to be 
faced in Ceylon, India, and China. The coloured 
races are looking to us for guidance in South 
and West Africa and the West Indies. Our 



colonists in the Transvaal and Rhodesia con 
fidently expect from us those religious influences 
which are essential to their best interests. On 
the Continent of Europe we are in contact with 
ignorance and superstition, which loudly call for 
that pure gospel teaching which our Church is 
eager to give. The opportunity is great, and if 
we rise to the height of our vocation God will 
use us mightily to spread the knowledge of His 
grace and salvation in all parts of the world. 




Canadian Colonies .... 1775 
West Indian Isles . . . .1786 

Gibraltar 1804 

Sierra Leone 1811 

Cape Colony 1814 

Ceylon 1814 

Australia 1815 

Madras 1817 

France 1818 

Mysore . . . . . .1821 

Gambia 1821 

New Zealand 1822 

Friendly Isles 1822 

Sweden 1826-42 

Calcutta .... 1829-33, 1862 

Fiji 1835 

Gold Coast 1835 

Canton 1852 

Lagos 1854 

Germany 1859 

Italy 1860 

Wuchang 1861 

Lucknow and Benares . . . 1864 
Spain and Portugal . . . .1868 

Transvaal 1876 

Hyderabad . . , . .1879 

Burma 1887 

Mashonaland 1892 





1817. James Wood. 

1818. George Marsden. 
1821. George Morley. 
1824. Joseph Taylor. 
1830. George Marsden. 
1834. Joseph Taylor. 
1837. John Scott. 
1869. F. J. Jobson, D.D. 
1882. James H. Rigg, D.D. 


1817. Thomas Thompson, 

1819. Joseph Butterworth, 


1826. Lancelot Haslope. 
1837. Thomas Farmer. 
1862. James Heald, M.P. 
1874. James S. Budgett. 
1884. Sir W. M Arthur, 

K.C.M.G., M.P. 
1889. T. Morgan Harvey. 
1899. Williamson Lamplough 


1818-23. Joseph Taylor. 

1816-25, 1832-3. Richard , 

1821-3, 1833-51. Jabez Bunt 
ing, D.D. 

1824-9. George Morley. 

1824-6. John Mason. 

1826. Robert Newstead. 

1827-31. James Tovvnley. 

1827-32. John James. 

1830. Thomas Edwards. 

1831-49. John Beecham, D.D. 

1833-50. Robert Alder, D.D. 

1834-65. Elijah Hoole, D.D. 

1851-67. George Osborn, D.D. 

1851-67. William Arthur. 

1859-75. William B. Boyce. 

1867-77. George T. Perks. 

1868-74. Luke H. Wiseman. 

1875-80. W. Morley Punshon, 

1876-88. John Kilner. 

1877-88. Ebenezer E.Jenkins, 

1877-90. Marmaduke C. Os 

1881-1900. George W. Olver. 

1888. Marshall Hartley. 

1888-91. John Walton. 

1891-1905. F. W. Macdonald. 

1896-8. W.T. A. Barber, D.D, 

1898. William Perkins. 

1900. William H. Findlay. 

1905. John Milton Brown. 




Coke s accounts, 

1840. 90,182 



1787-1793. see 





P. 33- 





1810, see p. 45-6. 





1803. 2,212 





1811. 4,668 





1813. 7,919 





1814. 9,554 





1815. 11,042 





(part of year) 
l8l7. 17,227 

1818. 18,602 

1819. 23,010 
1820 ^,4.^1 





A, U^fVSfc OO. HO 

(18 months) 





l82I. 26,883 





1822. 30,898 





1823. 34.650 





1824. 38,046 1 

I8 57 . 




1825. 45,766 





1826. 45,380 





1827. 43,235 





1828. 50,005 





1829. 56,063 





1830. 49,838 





1831. 48,290 





1832. 47.716 





1833. 55,467 





1834. 60,866 





1835. 62,041 





1836. 75,527 





1837. 89,117 





1838. 84,819 





1839. 89,614 





1 Also legacy ,10,000, from Rev. W. Dodwell. 


1863. Jubilee Fund . . ^188,925 

1899-1900. Indian Famine 

1878-83. Thanksgiving 

Fund . . 

. . 25,000 

Fund . . . . 63,869 

1900. Twentieth ( 


1895-7. Special Effort . . 40,000 

tury Fund 







Other Paid 
























104,235 ! 















59 327 
















3 6 4 





104,397 1 





1 The formation of affiliated Conferences, &c., must be borne in 
mind in studying these figures. 


Circuits 387 

Chapels and other Preaching-places . . . . 3,373 

Missionaries, Ordained and Lay .... 284 

Ministers, Native and other, called out Locally 285 
Women Missionaries sent out by the Women s 

Auxiliary .... f ... 68 
Other paid Agents, Catechists, Interpreters, Day- 
school Teachers, &c 4,309 

Unpaid Agents : Local Preachers, Sunday-school 

Teachers, &c i399 

Full and accredited Church Members . . - 104,397 

On trial for Church Membership .... 24,905 
Scholars attending either Sunday or Day school, or 

both .... * ... I45,3 3 





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South India Provincial Synod . 

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Madras District ..... 



Negapatam and Trichinopoly District 



Hyderabad District .... 



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Calcutta District .... 



Lucknow District .... 



Bombay and Punjab District . 



Burma District ..... 



China, Canton District 



,, Wuchang District . 



Central China Lay Mission 


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Rhodesia District .... 



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Gold Coast District .... 



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Honduras District .... 



Bahamas District .... 



Jamaica District .... 



Hayti and Santo Domingo District . 



Leeward Islands District . 



Barbados and Trinidad District 



British Guiana 





Abeokuta, 123 

Abney Park, 129 

Africa, South, 86-91, 127, 

160-1, 211-17, 263-4 
Africa, West, 91, 217-19. 265-8 
Alton, George, 163 
America, 8. u, 18 
Antigua, 7, 15, 16 
Arthur, William, 126, 128 
Ault, William, 58, 80 
Australia, 96-9 

Bahamas, 94, 222, 269 

Bangalore, 158, 197, 254 

Banks, John S., 155 

Barratt, John C., 162, 180 

Baxter, John, 15, 19, 27 

Beecham, Dr., 166 

Benares, 203, 258-9 

Benson, Joseph, 52, 56 

Black Harry, 17 

Blake system, 167 

Bombay, 60, 78, 84, 203, 259 

Boyce, W. B., 90, 127, 167 

Brown, J. M., 201, 205, 227 

Brownrigg, Sir R., 78, 79 

Bruce, Mr., 37 

Buckley, James, 54 

Buddhist priests from Ceylon, 70 

Bulu, Joeli, 116 

Bunting, Jabez, 38, 52-7, 61, 

64, 107-10, 130-31 
Burgess, Mrs., 194 

Burgess, William, 176, 192, 


Burma, 205-208, 260 
Butterworth, Joseph, 39, 77, 


Calcutta, 86, 156-7, 200, 255-6 

Calvert, James, 116-19 

Canada, 95-6 

Canton, 140, 208-9, 260-1 

Capellini, Signer, 172, 174 

Caribs, 19-20, 27 

Centenary Fund, 129 

Ceylon, mission proposed, 50-3 ; 
first missionaries, 58 ; arrival 
and work, 78, 80, 81-3, 124-5, 
144-8, 182-6, 243-6 

Chalmers, Dr., 75 

China, 137-43, 208-11, 260-3 

Clarke, Adam, 70, 77 

Clough, Benjamin, 52, 58-60 

Cobban, G. M., 186 

Coke, Dr., joins Wesley, 9 ; 
missionary plans, 9-10 ; in 
America, 11, 18, 35-6; West 
Indies, 15, 27-32; marriage, 
38 ; wife s death, 52 ; mission 
to East, 49-52 ; description 
of, 34 ; collects for missions, 
33, 38, 39 45-6; about 
Leeds meeting, 57 ; sails for 
Ceylon, 58 ; death, 60 

Collection for missions, 33 



Conventions, 231 
Cox, Josiah, 139-42 
Cross, William, 112-15 
Cryer, Thomas, 126, 150 

Dates of missions, 273 
Dawson, William, 55 

Edwards, John, 73-5 
Elliott, J. A., 202 
Emancipation of slaves, lio-n 

Faizabad, 202, 258 
Farmer, Thomas, 165 
Fatshan, 208, 261 
Fiji, 114-20, 135, 223-4 
Findlay, W. H., 218, 253 
Fletcher, Mrs., 37 
Foreign Field> 229 
Foulah Mission, 34-5 
France, 40-41, 163, 176-8 
Freeman, T. B., 122-3, 159 
Friendly Islands, 114 

George, King of Friendly 

Islands, 112-14 
Germany, 161-2, 178-80 
Gibraltar, 41-2, 63, 120-1, 163 
Gibson, William, 163, 177 
Gilbert, Nathaniel, 7, 15 
Gogerly, D. J., 81, 124, 144-6 
Gold Coast, 122, 217, 266 
Goudie, W., 190, 249 
Grant, Charles, 12 

Haigh, Henry, 196 
Hankow, 142, 21 1, 262 
Hardy, R. S., 83, 147 
Hartley, Marshall, 191, 227 

Harvard, W. M., 58, 79, 84 
Haslope, Lancelot, 95 
Hassan, 198 
Hayti, 93, 270 
Hill, David, 209-11 
Hodson, Thomas, 125, 194 
Holden, W. C., 161 
Honduras, 221, 268 
Hoole, Elijah, 84, 102, 127 
Hoxton College, 129 
Hudson, Josiah, 195 
Hunt, John, 116-17 
Hyderabad, 192-5. 252-4 

Income, Missionary, 230, 275 
India, plan for mission, 12-14; 
49, 149^54, 186-205, 246-60 
Irish Missions, 37, 237 
Italy, 164-5, I7I-6, 241-2 

Jamaica, 28-31, 92-4, 219 
James, John, 107 
Jenkins, Dr., 152-4, 251 
Jerusalem, 103 
Johnston, Sir A., 70 
Jubilee, Missionary, 230 
Juvenile Missionary Society, 

Kellett, F. W., 192, 247 
Kessen, Dr., 124, 144 
Kilner, John, 144-5, 148, 184 
Kolar Goldfields, 197 
Koramas, 199 
Kumasi, 122 

Lagos, 159, 218, 267-8 
Langenau, Baroness von, 179 
Lausanne, 163 



Laymen on Missionary Com 
mittee, 39, 76 

Leeds forms Missionary Society, 
53-6, 128 

Leigh, Samuel, 99 

Lisbon, 182, 243 

Livingstone, David, 166 

Lucknow, 157, 201, 257-8 

Lynch, James, 58, 84 

Lyth, Dr. John, 162 

Macaulay, Zachary, 34-5 
Macdonald, F. W., 226, 229 
Madras, 84, 149-54, 186-92, 

Malta, 164 

Mannargudi, 126, 250 
Maori Mission, 99-100 
Maria mail-boat, 95 
Mashonaland, 215-16, 264 
Mission House, 69, 71-5, 130, 


Missionary Committee, 39 
Missionary Jubilee, 167 
Missionary Notices, 65 
Missionary Secretaries, 225-6, 

Missionary Societies, Other, 


Missionary Society, General, 69 
Morley, George, 53 
Miiller, C. G., 161 
Mullins, Dr., 142 
Mysore, 155, 254-5 

Naples, 165, 172, 175 
Negapatam, 85, 250 
Newfoundland, 95 
New Guinea, 224 

Nottingham Conference, 1906, 

Nova Scotia, 15, 95 

Patterson, George, 187 
Pearson, Daniel, 156-7 
Perkins, William, 226 
Perks, G. T., 226 
Piercy, George, 137-9 
Piggott, H. J., 164 
Portugal, 163, 182, 243 
Punshon, Dr., 225 

Redfern, E. W., 198 
Reports, Early, 60, 62 
Rhodes, Hon. C., 215 
Rhodesia, 264 

Richmond College, 129, 167 
Rigg, Edmund, 148, 180, 185 
Rigg, Dr., 42 
Rome, 164, 171-2 
Roumania^ Loss of, 194 
Rule, Dr., 120-21 

Samoa, 224 

Sandys, Colonel, 49-50 

Santals, 201, 257 

Sawday, G. W., 198 

Sciarelli, Signor, 165, 172 

Secretaries, 225, 274 

Shaw, Barnabas, 87-8 

Shaw, William, 89 

Shipley, Mr., 40 

Sierra Leone, 43-6, 158-9, 265 

Simpson, W. O., 152, 186, 

Slave Trade, Abolition of, 43, 




Spain, 163, 181, 243 
Squance, T. H., 58 
Statistics, 275-8 
Sweden, 101 

Tasmania, 99 
Taylor, Joseph, 77 
Taylor, William, 160 
Thakombau, 119, 135 
Thompson, Thomas, 


Tonga, 112-13 
Transvaal, 212-15, 2 6 
Treasurers, 228, 274 
Tumkur, 198 

Uva, 183 

54, 6 9 , 

Veddahs, 185 

Walton, John, 144-5 
Warren, George, 43-5, 63 
Watkins, Owen, 213-15 
Watson, Richard, 53-6, 101-7 
Wesley family and missions, 3-7 
Wesley, John, mission ship, 136 
West Indies, 7-8 ; Coke s visits, 
15-33; funds, &c., 33, 36; 
slave-holders, 43 ; general, 
92-4, 159,219-23, 268-71 
Wilberforce, William, 34-5 
Wiseman, Luke H., 172 
Women s Auxiliary, 233-6 
Work and Workers, 229 

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