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Full text of "A short history of education"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



A SHOET 
HISTORY OP EDUCATION, 



GIFT EDITION, JANUARY, 1904 

FIRST EDITION, JANUARY, 1904. 

SECOND EDITION, JULY, 1904. 



A SHORT 

HISTORY OF EDUCATION 



G. BENSON CLOUGH, 

OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER- AT-LAW J 

MEMBER OF THE LATE LONDON AND BRIGHTON SCHOOL BOARDS ; 

AUTHOR OF " THE EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, " " HISTORY OF 

EUROPE (1814-1848)," ETC., ETC. 



RALPH HOLLAND & CO., 
TEMPLE CHAMBERS, E.G. 

1904. | 



GIFT EDITION, JANUARY, 1904 

FIRST EDITION, JANUABY, 1904. 

SECOND EDITION, JULY, 1904. 



>** 



A SHOET 

HISTORY OF EDUCATION 



G. BENSON CLOUGH, 

OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER- AT-LAW ; 

MEMBER OF THE LATE LONDON AND BRIGHTON SCHOOL BOARDS; 
AUTHOR OF " THE EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIBE," " HISTORY OF 

SUKOPE (1814-1848)," ETC., ETC. 



RALPH HOLLAND & CO., 
TEMPLE CHAMBERS, E.G. 

19O4. 



LONDON : 

HENRY PALMER AND CO., 

BROWNLOW STREET, 

HOLBORN, W.C. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

A General Survey - 1 

Our English System - 47 

The Great Foundations - 52 

The Legislative Growth of English Education 84 

Appendix Chronological Table- - - 120 



PREFACE. 

THE present time, when sectarian strife is waging around us, 
when the shouts of battle are ringing in our ears, is, I venture 
to think, not inappropriate for the publication of a work the 
least of whose aims is the information of a public lamentably 
ill-informed as to the origin and growth of our English system. 
The many friends with whom I have laboured in the educational 
world for so many years will at least know that my desire has 
been to produce a.n impartial and unprejudiced work of reference 
on the subject which has always engaged my thoughts, my 
interest and my labours. 

I cannot claim for the work more than that it is a 
compilation from many and varied sources of information 
inaccessible to the ordinary enquirer. My obligation to these 
is great. In conclusion I can only hope that the work itself 
will prove as useful in the reading as it has been interesting 

in the preparation. 

G. B. C. 
OXSHOTT, SURREY, 

New Year's Day, 1904. 



NOTE TO REVISED EDITION. 



My grateful thanks are due to the many kind friends and 
well-wishers who have favoured me with their suggestions and 
criticisms. Among those who have been kind enough to interest 
themselves in the work have been former colleagues on educational 
bodies, several of His Majesty's Inspectors and other prominent 
educationalists, to say nothing of many others too numerous for 
me to thank in their individual capacity. If the present edition 
is any degree an improvement upon the last, theirs is the credit, 
and the rapid sale of the First Edition affords me the double 
opportunity of availing myself of their suggestions and acknow- 
ledging my indebtedness. 

May, 1904. 

G. B. 0. 



" The roots of the present lie deep in the past." 



A General Survey. 









THE History of Education is one of supreme importance 
in its reference to the development of individual, industrial 
and national life. In studying this history many difficulties - 
have arisen from a confusion between the terms Education 
and Instruction. 

Life in all its stages is Education. One writer has gone 
so far as to say that the first two or three years of a 
child's life are of the supremest importance, with regard 
to the foundation of character and the moulding of the 
future thought-life of the child. And those who have 
carefully watched the gradual, nay, almost imperceptible, 
growth of an infant's power of appreciation and observation 
will readily understand the value from an educative point 
of view of the influence of externals. Like animals and 
plants, children assimilate themselves to their environment, 
and will, notwithstanding every endeavour to the contrary, 
reproduce in themselves the traits and faculties which they 
see in those about them. 

Instruction comes later as a handmaid to Education, and 
involves the direct imparting of knowledge already ac- 
cumulated from one who knows to one who is at the time 
ignorant. Geography and History, for example, are largely 
questions of " instruction." Mathematics and the allied 
sciences may be almost purely questions of " education." 
In ' so far, however, as for their more rapid acquisition 



2 History of Education. 

they involve the statement of facts previously acquired, 
these sciences approach the modern idea of education. 

Though this difference exists, it must, for purposes of 
State interference, be taken that the term " Education " 
includes both. As far as statutory provision is concerned, 
however, what we have described as " Instruction " must 
predominate. It is more easily weighed, measured and 
valued. Its scope and amount may be more readily laid 
down, prescribed and tested. The educative influences and 
results cannot be so easily judged. The commonly 
accepted idea of education now includes both ideas. 
Before judging of modern dealings in this subject we 
must look back into the far past and trace, largely 
through its exponents, its history and development. 

Education in the oldest communities, used in its 
popular sense, was almost in every case conducted by 
, the priests or others connected with religious ceremonies. 

When the life of the race consisted almost entirely 
of war, the chase, the rough cultivation of the soil, 
together with family relations, anything in the nature 
of literary " instruction," in our modern sense, was 
hardly popularly necessary. But for the service of 
. religion, for the rites and ceremonies connected there- 
with, and especially for the provision of a succession 
of capable priests, an amount of education and 
instruction was required which was then deemed 
unnecessary for the ordinary people. Music, for 
instance, however crude, was required of all devotees ; 
Beading, to acquire knowledge of the various ceremonies, 
9 id Writing, to be able to transcribe them for others. 

This was the case, whatever the mode of religion or 
school of thought ; and most of the genuine records from 
which we gain our knowledge of what occurred in those 



Education in the East. 8 

old days, whether in the time of prophets, priests, jugglers, 
or dealers in spells, is derived from the manuscripts or 
tablets found in and about the ancient temples or groves 
devoted to religion. 

This being the case, it was almost inevitable that the 
education of the youth, even though not required for the 
priesthood, should fall into the hands of the priests. This 
was not only inevitable, but desirable, in those days. The 
temples were deemed sanctuaries. And though wars and 
tribal strife raged around, the religious groves and institutions 
were still regarded with a superstitious awe. Under these 
circumstances, the training of the youth in what we now 
call " book learning " was entirely left in their hands. 

From another point of view this is easily explained. 
The parents cared little for book learning. Commerce, 
as at present understood, was practically unknown. The 
youth who could ride, hunt, make war, or cultivate the 
soil, was considerod well equipped for the battle of life. 
It was only natural that literary education, when deemed 
at all necessary, should drift into the control of those 
who, for limited purposes, had previously conducted it. 

Wherever we- look this truth is apparent. In the far 

East, in China and India we find the ancient education, 

however restricted in its area, entirely controlled by the 

priestly class. Among many Asiatic nations this is the 

same to day. The history of the Jeivs 

gives another illustration of this close 

association. Priests and prophets were, as far as is 

known to us, the only teachers. 

In Egypt it was the same. Centuries before the advent 
of Alexander, Egypt and her priests were famed for their 
learning. The more marvellous developments of modern 
science were, of course, unknown to them, but what the 



4 History of Education. 

greatest care in making observations, and infinite exactitude 
in recording them, could teach was a part of the wisdom 
of the Egyptians. The debt we owe them is great. 
Moses himself received his education and upbringing at 
their hands, while the early pioneers of Greek culture 
received their intellectual stimulus from 
the same source. Some portion, at least, 
of this debt was paid off at a later date, when Alexandria, 
founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, became the 
great centre of Greek culture and thought. The library 
was justly famous, and it is impossible to estimate the 
loss sustained by its destruction some nine hundred and 
fifty years later, at the hands of a Moslem conqueror. 

The development of Greek learning from the time of Homer 

until its culminating point, about 450 B.C., 

was gradual, but the effect was almost to 

transform for a time the whole character of education. 

The instruction and improvement of the youth of both 

sexes began to be considered as a matter of national, 

rather than individual, concern. When once this was 

recognised, education began to assume the nature of 

a science. In this the Greeks strove to cultivate both 

the mental and physical sides of man's nature. In each 

the keystone of their policy may be summed up in the 

words " the pursuit of the beautiful.'" Beauty was their 

ideal, an ideal for which they persistently and consistently 

strove. On the one side music, in its widest and most 

comprehensive sense, embodied beauty of expression, 

whether in speech or song. The great 

love of the poetry of Homer, the eager 

popularity of the great plays of Euripides, Sophocles 

and Aeschylus, evidence this. 

On the physical side, the same ideal was always kept 



The Athenian Philosophers. 5 

in view. Everything which tended to the perfection of 
the human form was pursued with avidity. No youth 
was deemed to be educated unless he had gone through 
a long and severe course of training in gymnastics, 
wrestling, swimming, running, and other feats of physical 
endurance. These exercises were applied to male and 
female alike, the object being the perfection and beautifying 
of the human form. That this was to a large degree 
secured is shown by the exquisite sculpture which has 
come down to us from these far away times. 

Perhaps "education" in its real, not its narrowed, 
sense was never better carried on than in Athens at this 
time. The influence of this is still felt, and the teaching 
of the men then prominent is in itself, and in its results, 
an influential factor in the teaching of to-day. 

Foremost among the prominent teachers was Socrates, 

the reputed introducer of the system of 
Socrates. ' 

education by question and answer, or the 

mode of leading gradually from the known to the unknown. 
Born near Athens, in or about the year B.C. 468, 
Socrates was in early life designed for the profession 
of a sculptor, following in the steps of his father 
Sophroniscus. A group of clothed graces on the Acropolis 
was shown as his work. This life did not suit him, and, 
after having spent a short time in the army, he settled 
down to a life of philosophy. His whole time was then 
spent in teaching. He appears to have conceived that 
he had a mission to help and enlighten his fellows, and 
to this end he devoted all his energies. In the mornings, 
he attended at the gymnasia, the workshops, or the- schools. 
Here he talked with the students. His methods were 
always oral. Gradually, by way of question and answer, 
he strove to lead them from what they knew to think 



6 History of Education. 

about what they knew not. At other times he strove in 
a similar way to convince them how little they really 
knew. A story concerning him may here be repeated. 

Someone went to Delphi to consult the oracle. The 
reply was, " No one is wiser than Socrates." Certainly, 
no one was more surprised than he. To test the accuracy 
of the oracle, it is said, he selected a number of men 
who at the time enjoyed a reputation for wisdom, and 
submitted them to his subtle mode of questioning. The 
result made him think more highly of the oracle, and 
appeared to convince him that his mode of education 
was correct. Many centuries have passed since he, having 
been condemned to death, died by poison, B.C. 399, but 
almost every educator of note has acknowledged that 
what is still known as the Socratic Method is of infinite 
value in the education of youth. 

Socrates wrote nothing ; or, at least, nothing has come 
down to us in his name. He kept no school, nor, as 
the Sophists did, did he deliver lectures. Our knowledge 
of him and his methods mainly rest upon the Memorabilia 
of Xenophon and the writings of Plato, who were two 
of his most noted pupils and enthusiastic disciples. 

Xenophon devoted himself to historical work, but Plato 
carried on the work of his great master. . 

Undoubtedly the best known disciple of Socrates was 

Plato. Of his personal history but little is known. He 

was born about B.C. 428. He wrote many 

comedies, and was at one time regarded 

as the only rival of Aristophanes. Plato was one of the 

most polished men of his age. He studied grammar, 

music and gymnastics under the highest teachers, and he 

himself became one of the most distinguished of his time. 

Cicero repeats an old legend, that his eloquence and 



Athenian Philosophers. 7 

natural sweetness of disposition sprang from the fact that 
bees had settled upon his lips while he was a sleeping child. 

He was twenty when he first began to study under 
Socrates, and the intimacy thus begun lasted for a score 
of years. Plato became the written exponent of the 
teaching methods and philosophical principles of Socrates. 
This appears strikingly in the Dialogues, where Socrates 
is made to be the leader in the greater part of the 
investigations, which are all examples of the Socratic 
method reduced to writing. To him also we owe the 
details of the h'fe and death of Socrates, traced by the 
hand of a living friend and pupil in the Pho&do. 

Before fully developing his system, he visited, in search 
of knowledge, Sicily, Egypt and the Greek settlements 
of Italy, for the purpose of study. It is even suggested 
by some writers though their testimony lacks confirmation 
that he also went among the Hebrews, Babylonians, 
Persians and Assyrians. 

On his return he took up the vocation of a teacher, 
and, as his great prototype had done, taught largely in 
the open air. In the academy, the gymnasia, the market 
place, the shady hilly groves about the city, or in his 
own garden, he pursued his work. As far as we can 
gather, this was all done gratuitously, and by means of 
Socratic dialogue, but supplemented by lectures from 
which the element of conversation was eliminated. His 
teaching included grammar, poetry and philosophy, but 
great stress was also laid on mathematics. Over the 
vestibule of his house was inscribed, " Let no one enter 
here who does not understand geometry." 

The ideal set before himself by Plato was that all 
wisdom is the attribute of the godhead; that the highest 
aim of the intellectual man is " to know," and that the 



8 History of Education. 

end of all education is to implant in mankind a desire 
to attain wisdom for its own intrinsic value. Truth he 
accepted as a synonym for beauty ; beauty he regarded 
as the outward sign of wisdom, which, as has been said, 
was looked upon as the attribute of the godhead. This 
was but another way of expressing the Socratic idea that 
virtue is one and indivisible ; that it includes all true 
vigorous and practical knowledge; and that it alone can 
lead to perfect happiness. 

Plato's pupils were not numerous ; that is, if we regard 
as pupils those only who regularly attended for his 
instruction. Those who from time to time came within 
his influence were many in number. Any attempt to 
determine the influence of Plato's teaching on later 
philosophical thought and writing would be beyond the 
scope of the present work, but in following out the 
train of educational continuity, the position of one of his 
most prominent pupils, Aristotle, must be considered. 

Aristotle, the next link in the chain of great educators, 
was born at Stageira, B.C. 384, and from his birthplace 
he is often called Stagirites. Unlike many 
of the other Greek teachers, Aristotle was 
at an early age introduced to the life of the royal court. 
His father, Nicomachus, was physician to Amyntas II., 
and Aristotle soon became acquainted with his son, after- 
Wcirds the well-known Philip of Macedon. Probably 
the influence of his father, a cultured man, was the 
proximate cause of his early devotion to the investigation 
of things around him, a devotion which lasted the whole 
of his life. Losing his father when only seventeen, 
Aristotle made his way to Athens, and devoted himself 
to study. On the return of Plato from Sicily, three years 
later, Aristotle became a pupil under him, and was soon 



The Athenian Philosophers. 9 

recognised as his most prominent student. Plato describes 
him as " the intellect of his school.'" Ten years later, he 
himself had become one of the leaders of Athenian 
thought, and the recognised successor to his master, Plato. 
Following in the wake of his teacher, he, too, gave lectures. 
They perhaps comprehended more than those of Plato, as 
hardly any subject appeared to be outside or beyond the scope 
of Aristotle's masterful intellect. His first and most impor- 
tant subject was rhetoric, and in this he competed with 
Isocrates and all the old leading rhetoricians of the times. 

He was thus led to take a prominent part in political 
controversies. Possibly, disappointed at not being appointed 
to succeed Plato at the academy on the latter's death, 
or imbued with the idea that largeness of view could 
only be obtained by travel, he spent some years in visiting 
surrounding nations. The friendship which had existed 
between him and Philip of Macedon proved to be a lasting 
one, as we find that monarch in B.C. 356 writing a 
personal letter, informing him of the birth 
of his son Alexander, and in B.C. 342 he 
was summoned to the court to take charge of the education 
and up-bringing of the royal boy. The lad, who was 
destined to become the conqueror of the then known 
world, was but thirteen years old. He was entirely 
trusted to the care of Aristotle, who was, as Plutarch 
tells us, one of the most respected persons at the court. 
It is a most remarkable incident in the life of Aristotle 
that he was able to obtain an extraordinary influence 
over Alexander, who was as impetuous in youth as in 
manhood. One writer says, "Alexander attached himself 
with such ardent affection to the philosopher that the 
youth, whom no one had yet been able to manage, soon 
valued his instructor above his own father." 



10 History of Education. 

After an absence of twelve years, Aristotle returned to 
Athens, and there taught in the Lyceum. This soon 
became a recognised centre of philosophic teaching. 
Students from the Greek cities, both in Europe and 
Asia, rapidly gathered round him. Hence the diffusion 
of his ideas throughout a whole continent. His habit 
was to deliver lectures on well nigh every subject, 

generally in the open air. It is said that 
The Peripatetics. * J 

he did so mostly as he walked about, so 

that his followers became known as the Peripatetics. 

Probably no educator has had so great an effect and 
influence on the development of thought as Aristotle. 
He was a man with the highest powers of intellect, one 
who had viewed the whole scheme of life. He was 
imbued with the supremest moral sentiments, and by his 
life and writings he has shown that what he thought 
he did. His capacity for work was enormous. His 
writings which have come down to us, though numerous, 
are described by ancient writers as but a tithe of those 
which were actually enjoyed by his contemporaries. 

We are not, however, here concerned with his general 
writings, except in so far as they deal with the develop- 
ment of the educative side of the race. He dealt more 
particularly and directly than his predecessors had done 
with Physics, Metaphysics and Mathematics. The influence 
of Plato's teaching was, however, never effaced, and while 
Aristotle was almost irresistibly drawn to the practical 
and useful duties of life, he never forgot to blend with 
them the love of the noble, which, in the Greek mind, 
wa^a synonym of the beautiful and godly. The working 
and teaching of Aristotle have probably exerted a pre- 
dominating influence upon all subsequent systems which 
even pretend to scientific symmetry. 



The Spartan ISystem. 11 

The combined influence of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, 
spread as it was by a host of disciples, formed the 
firmest foundation of Greek education and culture. Other 
schools arose. Epicurus, whose leading doctrine was that 
happiness alone was the load-star of life, founded the 
sect since known as the Epicureans, while Zeno, about 
B.C. 300, taught the rigid doctrines still known as stoicism 
in the Stoa Poecila, the painted porch. 

To deal with the education of Spartan youth would 
mean the writing of a history of the state. Long before 
Athens had risen to the appreciation of state education 
it had been adopted and worked in Sparta, and in this 
case it was severely adapted to the immediate wants 
of the community. The ideas, which at Athens made 
philosophers and writers, were almost entirely repudiated 
in Sparta. Its position made its requirements unique. 
Surrounded by foes kept in check only 
by the power of the sword, existence 
demanded that the Spartans should be a nation of 
soldiers. To this end all effort was directed. Tradition 
ascribes the foundation and formulation of the Spartan 
laws and regulations to Lycurgus, who, according to 
Aristotle, lived in the ninth century before Christ. Even 
in Aristotle's time the name was probably only one 
handed down by tradition, and many writers of repute 
doubt whether there ever lived such a man, or whether 
the Lycurgus we know is not really a historical fiction. 
Still the laws and regulations ascribed to him, by 
whomsoever framed, had an extraordinary effect on the 
education of a race to whom physical development was 
the highest aim. Literature with them was less than 
even a secondary consideration. Tt was, in fact, rather 
regarded as a disqualification in the youth whose only 



12 History of Education. 

recognised object in life was to become a first rate 
fighting man. Hence the whole state machinery was 
directed to the creation of capable soldiers. Individualism 
was rigidly suppressed. The citizen existed for the state, 
not the state for the citizen. Every consideration was 
sacrificed to this ; and in no way was it more clearly 
shown than in the matter of education and general 
state control. Education with the Spartans lasted nearly 
throughout their whole lives. The children fed at common 
tables provided by the state. Their food was rigidly 
limited to that which it was thought likely would promote 
habits of physical endurance, and even the meals were 
regarded as the foundation of military discipline and 
organisation. 

Perhaps the best description of the Spartan system of 
education can be found in Thirl wall's " History of Greece." 

" From his birth every Spartan belonged to the state, 
which decided whether he was likely to prove a useful 
member of the community, and extinguished the life of 
the sickly and deformed infant. To the age of seven the 
care of the child was left to its natural guardians, under 
severe restrictions as to its upbringing. At the end of 
seven years began a long course of public discipline, 
which grew more and more severe as the boy approached 
towards manhood. The education of the young was in 
some degree the business of all the elder citizens; for 
there was none who did not contribute to it, if not by his 
active interference, at least by his presence and inspection. 
But it was placed under the especial superintendence of 
an officer selected from the men of most approved worth. 
He again chose a number of youths just past the age 
of twenty, and who most eminently united courage with 
discretion, to exercise a more immediate command over 



The Spartan System. 13 

the classes into which the boys were divided. The leader . 
of each class directed the sports and tasks of his young 
troop, and punished their offences with military rigour, 
but was himself responsible to his elders for the mode 
in which he discharged his office." 

The Spartan education was simple in its objects. It 
was not the result of any general view of human nature, 
or of any attempt to unfold its various capacities. It 
aimed at training men who were to live in the midst of 
difficulty and danger, and who could only be safe themselves 
while they held rule over others. The citizen was to be 
always ready for the defence of himself and his country, 
at home or abroad, and he was therefore to be equally 
fitted to command and to obey. His body, his mind, and 
his character were formed for this purpose, and for no 
other. Hence the Spartan system, making directly for 
its main end, and neglecting all that was foreign to it, 
attained \vithin - its. own sphere to a perfection which it 
is impossible not to admire. 

" The young Spartan was perhaps unable either to read 
or write; he scarcely possessed the elements of any of 
the arts or sciences, by which society is enriched and 
adorned. But he could run, leap, wrestle, hurl the disk 
or the javelin, and wield every other weapon with a 
vigour, agility and grace which were nowhere surpassed. 
These were accomplishments to be learnt in every Greek 
palaestra. He might find many rivals in all that he 
could do; but few could approach him in the firmness 
with which he was taught to suffer. From the tender 
age at which he left his mother's lap for the public 
schools his life was one continued trial of patience. 
Coarse and scanty fare, and this occasionally withheld, a 
light dress without any change in the depth of winter, 



14 History of Education. 

a bed of weeds, which he himself gathered from the 
Eurotas, blows exchanged with his comrades, stripes 
inflicted by his governors, more by way of exercise than 
punishment, inured him to every pain and punishment." 

Such a training, foreign as it may be to modern ideas, 
attained its object, which was to breed a race of men 
used to every hardship, and capable of enduring all the 
possible privations of war. It may appear strange to us 
now to read that lads were often purposely left hungry 
that they might contrive to live on what they could 
pilfer from fields and houses, which they contrived to 
enter by stealth. The successful pilferer received applause; 
the unsuccessful was condemned and made to smart, 
not because he had tried to steal, but because he had 
been careless enough to be found out. Somewhat barbarous 
and brutal training, but carefully calculated to achieve 
the object of securing the continued existence of a state 
with active foes both within and without. 

From twenty to thirty years of age was regarded as the 
time of transition from boyhood to manhood, but even 
afterwards, until the age of sixty was attained, the Spartan 
was held under strict military discipline. 

Though literature was, as a rule, neglected in the 
curriculum of Spartan training, music and poetry were 
favourite studies. Sacred hymns and martial songs formed 
a large part of the general education, and the Homeric 
poems were far more familiar to the common folk than 
the works of any national poet to the people of England 
to-day. When, at a later period, Greece lost her 
supremacy, and Eome took her place, it was natural 
that the centre of education should change to the capital 
city of Italy. Learning travelled, as it always has done, 
from east to west. 



Roman Education. 15 

When the centre was changed to Rome, the leading 
educator was Quintilian, who, born somewhere about the 
year 40, A.D., was one of the chief, if not the chief, of 
Eoman rhetoricians. It is difficult, in view of the 
varying authorities, to say where he was born ; but it 

is quite clear that he was reared and 
Rome. 

educated in Eome. He became one of 

the leaders of the Eoman bar, but was more specially 
noted as a great teacher of eloquence. Pliny was one of 
his best known pupils. Though his works were primarily 
devoted to oratory he laid down, incidentally, a complete 
scheme of state education. This was adopted in Eome 
owing to the influence of the work of Quintilian, who, 
under Vespasian, became the first public instructor to 
receive a regular salary from the imperial exchequer. In 
the early days of Eoman history the Spartan idea was 
largely prominent. The only man to be considered was 
the citizen, and every citizen was regarded as a possible, 
if not a certain, commander. Eoman rules were rigid, 
and every man was bound to adapt himself to the 
regulations laid down. The Eoman education consisted 
of but two things, both important in the development of 
state life orations and physical training. 

Orations with the Eomans meant more than it does 
with us. The power to speak was regarded as synonymous 
with the power to command, and all education was directed 
to the creation of orators and warriors. If one looks at 
this, it means that the power of speech embraces every 
idea which is capable of being expressed. And in an 
old time, when almost all feelings and ideas were conveyed 
by words, the value of oratory can be easily appreciated. 
Science and political economy were not unknown, but 
practically disregarded. The only objects in view were 



16 History of Education. 

to fit men for the field and the forum ; and in this their 
system was eminently successful. 

The blending of the beautiful with the active and the 
practical, the feeling that life did not mean letters but a 
merger of the whole being in the formation of a perfect 
state, is an ideal which the ancient Geeks and Eomans 
aimed at, and for a time secured. 

There can be little doubt that the spread of Eoman 
empire and Eoman influence led, too, to the spread of 
the methods of Eoman education. In Gaul, Helvetia, 
and among the Germanic races, this can be clearly traced. 
And although the effect in Britain cannot be so obviously 
seen, the influence of a civilised, cultured and practical 
race, could not fail to affect the primitive men with whom 
they were brought into contact. As has been said, oration, 
the old Greek rhetoric, was the aim of 
the Eoman educators. Cicero was probably 
the greatest example of the effect of this in Eome, as 
Demosthenes had been in Greece. 

Before entering on the new era, an era chequered by 
many vicissitudes, it would be hard to sum up the 
ultimate result of the old education better than, in the words 
of Mr. Oscar Browning, in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica" 
(Vol. VII., p. 671). "On the one side, man beautiful, 
active, clever, receptive, emotional, quick to feel, to show 
his feelings, to argue, to refine ; greedy of the pleasures 
of the world, perhaps a little neglectful of its duties, 
fearing restraint as an unjust stinting of the beauty 
of nature, inquiring eagerly into every secret, strongly 
attached to the things of this life, but elevated by an 
unabated striving after the highest ideal ; setting no value 
but upon faultless abstractions, and seeing reality only 
in heaven, on earth mere shadows, phantoms and copies 



The Influence of Christianity. 17 

of the unseen ; on the other side, man practical, energetic, 
eloquent, tinged but not imbued with philosophy, trained 
to spare neither himself nor others, reading and thinking 
only with an apology : best engaged in defending a political 
principle, in maintaining with gravity and solemnity the 
conservation of ancient freedom, in leading armies through 
unexplored deserts, establishing roads, fortresses, settle- 
ments, the results of conquest, or in ordering and 
superintending the slow, certain and utter annihilation 
of some enemy of Eome. Has the modern world ever 
surpassed their type ? Can we in the present day produce 
anything by education except by combining, blending 
and modifying the self-culture of the Greek and the 
self-sacrifice of the Eoman." 

It would be hard to find or frame a more complete 
and comprehensive description of the educational result 
of the ancient world upon the peoples of the time. We 
to-day, after all the centuries, feel the effect of their 
systems, and are striving to adapt, combine, and, if 
possible, improve them. 

Such was the state of the educational world when the 
influence of Christianity first began to be felt. It took 

centuries, however, for this influence to 
Christianity. , . ... _ . ,. 

attain anything like a predominating power. 

During that time Eoman conquests had carried Eoman 
civilisation throughout Europe, and with it many of the 
principles of Eoman education. This was especially the 
case in France. But in the early centuries Christianity 
had reached even to the Eoman throne. Its influence 
then began to be felt in education, and to spread with 
the spread of Eoman conquests. As early as the fifth 
century the schools of Gaul were known. With the 
spread of Christianity, the power of the Church in 



18 History of Education. 

education again became almost supreme. There were two 

aims kept in view, aims with the object of equipping 

for their future career the churchman or the knight. 

For the former, the seven liberal arts, rhetoric, grammar, 

music, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy were 

deemed essential. In the case of the latter, though 

these arts were not entirely neglected, they were made 

subservient to the more necessary equipments of hunting, 

riding, swimming, hawking and shooting with the bow, 

as well as the writing of verses, and, some say, the 

playing of chess. Thus education may be said to have 

been directed to fit the pupils for the cloister or the 

court. When the monasteries many of them, such as 

Tours, of considerable importance rose to prominence, 

education gradually gravitated towards them, and they 

became the recognised centres of learning. In their 

precincts psalters, missals and breviaries were written and 

illuminated with industry and ability. Many of their 

beautiful manuscripts are still extant, and the minuteness 

of the work and the elaboration of illumination show that 

years must have been spent on their production. In 

both branches of education discipline was of the very 

severest, but among the youth destined for the field it 

was less strict. As early as A.D. 470 

these methods were dealt with by one 

Martianus Capella, and one of the earliest school books 

known was published shortly afterwards, entitled "De 

septem disciplinis; or, A Treatise on the Seven Liberal 

Arts," by Cassiodorus. Practically, no important material 

alteration was made in the mode of education until the 

revival of learning, commonly called the Renaissance. 

This is the name of the great upheaval of intellectual 
activity, which may be taken as the close of the Middle 



The Renaissance. 19 

Ages. It was a revolt from the severe and subscribed 
monasticism of mediaeval times : a longing for free 
thought and a return to the larger liberality of Greece 
and later Borne. The classics had been neglected. All 

the rich stores of literary beauty, which 
The Renaissance. 

lie hidden in the writings of the ancients, 

had become practically lost in obscurity. The revival of 
the study of these ancient classics, and of the languages 
in which they were written, was the intellectual revolt 
against mental restraint ; but side by side with this was 
the spiritual revolt against ecclesiastical dogmatism, which 
found expression in the teaching of Luther and Melancthon. 
Though the date of this movement may be fixed in the 
second half of the fifteenth century, there had been kept 
alight the lamp of learning, though only by a few, long 

before the revival burst forth in its com- 
The Universities. , , . , TT . ., . , , , , 

plete effulgence. Universities had already 

sprung into being. Paris was thronged with students 
from all parts of Europe ; Salerno was celebrated for 
its schools of medicine ; and Bologna was crowded 
with thousands of students from all parts of the known 
world. 

One of the earliest heralds of the new movement was 

Dante (1265-1321), who, as the student and imitator of his 

master, Virgil, gave us his own immortal 

verse. But the first active preacher of 

it was Petrarch (1304-74), who wrote a Latin epic called 

"Africa" and persuaded Boccaccio to translate the whole 

of the Iliad and Odyssey into Latin. Through his secretary 

Giovanni Malpaghino, the most celebrated Latin scholar 

of his time, the new learning was spread, 

through many distinguished pupils, to most 

of the European capitals, 



20 History of Education. 

But probably what had the greatest influence in furthering 
the revival was the fall of the Eastern Empire, which sent 
The Eastern thousands of Greeks, well read in their 
Empire. own language and literature, into various 
European cities to help in its development. The primary effect 
of this revival was, in every country where its influence was 
felt, an extreme perhaps, as often occurs in revivals, a too 
extreme desire for everything whicL could be called classic. 
Possibly, this might have led to ultra classicism, but natural 
laws restrained it, and towards the end of the fifteenth 
century what might have become pedantry was checked, and 
became the foundation of all our modern educational systems. 

When the Constable of Bourbon sacked Eome, in 
1527, a tide of revivalism flowed from Italy to France, 

Germanv and England. In England, it 
The Sack of Rome. , 

found expression in the many dramatists 

who preceded Shakespeare. It found its culmination in 
the works of the great master himself, in the poems of 
Spenser, and in the philosophy of Bacon. 

The growth of the educational idea, either on its 
practical or philosophic side, may probably be best told 
by a short reference to those who were not only its 
pioneers but also its exponents. 

Born at Rotterdam, in or about the year 1466, as 
authorities differ, Erasmus attended the school, famous 
in every way, of the Brothers of the Common Life afc 
Deventer. Here he would have great chances of mingling 
with others of a like calibre. These brethren were among 
the first preachers of the higher idea of a cultured 

education. They dwelt in the Netherlands, 
Erasmus. 

near Yssel, but their headquarters were 

at Deventer. Their schools were large and popular. At 
Bois-le-duc and Zwole their pupils numbered more than 



The Renaissance. 21 

a thousand. Under them, Erasmus gained much Latin 
and a little Greek. He next entered the college at 
Delft ; and for about six years practically lived the life 
of a monk. Having been appointed private secretary to 
the Bishop of Cambrai, he was sent by that prelate to 
Paris, where he studied in the College Montagu. He 
does not appear to have resumed his secretarial duties, 
as, until 1498, he held classes in Paris. Somewhere 
about that year he came to England, and went through 
a course at Oxford, where he had opportunities, at that 
time unobtainable on the continent, of acquiring a thorough 
knowledge of Greek. Returning to France in 1500, he 
twice afterwards visited England, becoming well acquainted 
with Sir Thomas More, one of the most enlightened men 
of the day, whose Utopia is still largely read by his 
fellow countrymen. During one of his visits to England, 
Erasmus occupied the position of Professor of Divinity and 
Greek at Cambridge. His influence on the education 
of Europe was literary rather than practical. He was 
the typical man of his time, who, not being an originator, 
was yet able to apply the doctrines of commonsense to 
the practical side of life. Though not seeing eye to eye 
with Luther, he yet had a strong influence in achieving 
the object for which Luther strove. 

Born about 1467, in London, John Colet was the son 
of Sir John Colet, twice Lord Mayor of London. He 
was the eldest of a family of twenty-two. All his eleven 
sisters and ten brothers appear to have died before the 

year 1498. He travelled on the continent, 
Dean Colet. J 

and visited Italy, where, it is said, he 

met Savonarola. On his return, he was ordained a priest 
at Oxford, and there met Erasmus. His lectures on St. 
Paul, delivered with ease and fluency, gathered round 



22 History of Education. 

him a class of special students, including many of the 
most prominent graduates and, tutors of the university. 
In 1505, he was made Dean of St. Paul's, and the 
death of his father in the same year made him the 
master of a large fortune. With this, four years 
later, he proposed to build and maintain a school. Here, 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, 153 boys were educated, and, 
though four centuries have rolled by, St. Paul's School is 
still one of the best known in London. It is said that 
in the building and endowment he spent quite 40,000. 
It would, indeed, be hard to exaggerate the benefits which 
such a school then conferred. 

Roger Ascham was born at Kirby Wiske, near North- 

allerton, in Yorkshire, in 1515. Of good family, probably 

connected with the William Ascham who 

Ascham. 

was Sheriff of London when Sir Richard 
Whittington was Lord Mayor, he was sent to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he not only obtained his degree, 
but was made a fellow. His great aim appears to have 
been to become an expert in Greek language and literature, 
and so successful was he in this that a letter written to 
his tutor was described as fit to have been written from 
Athens. His learning soon became known, and he had 
many pupils. In 1538, he was appointed Greek reader. 
In 1546, he was selected as public orator; and, two 
years later, he became tutor to Princess, afterwards 
Queen, Elizabeth. By his own account we know that 
the princess was highly accomplished. She could talk 
Italian and French fluently. Latin she spoke and wrote 
well, and she was an apt pupil in Greek. Two years 
later, owing to a quarrel with her steward, Ascham 
resigned his post and resumed work at Cambridge. He 
was Latin secretary to Edward VI., and afterwards to 



'The Reformation. %& 

Queen Mary, and, on her death, was retained by his 
old pupil Queen Elizabeth as both secretary and tutor. 
His principal work, The Schoolmaster, is one of our 
earliest treatises on classical education, and had doubtless a 
very great influence on the systems of after years. The 
book was published by his widow about two years after 
his death, which occurred in 1568. The Queen, on 
hearing of his death, is said to have exclaimed : " I 
should rather have thrown 10,000 into the sea." 

Born at Eisleben in November, 1483, Martin Luther, 
afterwards renowned as the Apostle of the Reformation, 

was educated at Magdeburg and Eisenach. 

The discipline he was subjected to was 
very severe. He himself tells us that his father whipped 
him till the blood came, and it is on record that he 
received corporal punishment fifteen times in one day. 
At the age of eighteen he went to the University of 
Urfurt, and, in 1505, became a doctor of Philosophy 
Having been ordained a priest in 1507, Luther subsequently 
took up the office of teacher in the newly founded 
university of Wittenberg. Here he taught philosophy 
and physics. But it was his theological teaching which 
was destined to almost revolutionise the intellectual 
world. He was the leader and mouthpiece of the revolt 
against ecclesiastical absolutism. His Translation of the 
Bible into the vulgar tongue, coupled with the religious 
revivalism which he preached, tended greatly to extend 
the blessings of education to the common people. As 
religious thought became more free, so did intellectual 
inquiry and individual investigation extend. This probably 
may be regarded as the foundation of the German system 
of education, which has been looked upon as the model 
for modern nations to copy. Luther died in 1546. 



24 History of Education. 

Philip Melancthon, the contemporary and coadjutor of 
Luther, was born at Bretten-on-ihe-Bhine, in the' Grand 
Duchy of Baden. He studied at Heidelberg and Tubingen, 
and afterwards became professor of Greek at Wittenberg. 

Here he was the friend and confidant 
Melancthon. 

of Luther, in whose reforming efforts he 
soon became an ardent worker. As a direct educationalist 
he is perhaps more prominent than his master. In 
his opinion the classics were all important. He wrote 
a Greek and a Latin grammar, as well as treatises on 
the seven recognised branches of instruction. Such 
stress did he lay upon the study of Horace's works 
that the pupils at his private school, which he kept fo* 
ten years at Wittenberg, were required to learn them by 
heart, ten lines at a time. As a teacher and a scholar, 
few, if any, names stand higher than that of Melancthon. 
By his erudition and practical work he gained for himself 
the well-deserved name of Preceptor Germanic. 

Johannes Sturm, educational reformer and the intellectual 
predecessor of all the great headmasters, was born at 
Sleiden, in Luxembourg, in October, 1507. At the age 
of fifteen he was sent to Liege, where he studied with 

the "Brothers of the Common Life," a 
Sturm. 

community of educators of whom we have 

already spoken as the teachers of Erasmus. Here was 
laid the foundation of the principles, the application of 
which in later life was destined to affect the whole history 
of educational development in Europe. At Louvain he 
afterwards devoted himself to the study of the classics, 
giving special, and sometimes almost undivided, attention 
to the acquisition of Ciceronian Latin. Later, he went 
to Paris to study medicine, but finding that uncongenial, 
he abandoned it and took up the life of a lecturer and 



The Reformation. $5 

teacher. He gave lectures on Cicero, which were largely 
attended. Paris, however, was hardly the place for a 
strong supporter of Luther, a sympathiser with the ideas 
aad opinions of Melancthon. It is not surprising therefore 
that when, in 1536, he was asked to assist the university 
authorities at Strasbourg to reorganise their system of 
education, he readily consented. Situated on the borders 
of France and Germany, Strasbourg was 
a place eminently well-fitted for an 
educational centre. Even then it was a widely known 
bishopric and seat of learning. Its cathedral, probably 
after Milan and Notre Dame, is still one of the most 
renowned in Europe. Sturm was asked to reorganise the 
whole machinery at .Strasbourg, and the results of his 
labours made it the most important educational centre 
in Europe. He devoted himself to both the elementary ^ 
and higher branches, his aim apparently being to give 
men of every rank an equal chance of success in the 
intellectual battle of life. It is hardly surprising to find 
that such an ideal was regarded as somewhat impracticable, 
but in or before the year 1564 of the exact date 
there appears to be some doubt he achieved, as far as 
could be expected, success. Gymnasia were established; 
poor students were provided with board as well as 
instruction. Thus elementary and higher education was 
co-ordinate, and the complete question of public instruction 
was regarded as one whole. Called by his contemporaries 
the " German Cicero," it is not too much to say that of all 
the old educators no man has exerted a more powerful 
influence on after systems than Sturm. He lived and 
worked until he was eighty-two. It is said that his 
pupils numbered at one time several thousands, coming 
from England., France, Germany, and even so far away 



26 History of Education. 

as Poland and the north of Sweden. Strange to say, he, 
too, was a friend of Ascham, the pioneer of English 
education. 

We may conveniently here further mention the Brothers 
of the Common Life, among whom Sturm and Erasmus 
received their early ideas. A self-denying band devoted 
to the furtherance of higher culture, they lived, as has 
been said, in the neighbourhood of Yssel, in the Netherlands. 
Their headquarters were at Deventer, but their schools 
were somewhat widely scattered, and are said to have 
included many thousands of students. They were, however 
unwilling, or unable, to adapt themselves to the expansion 

resulting from the revival of letters, and 
The Obscurantists. 

thus gained for themselves the name of 

Obscurantists. Still, in their time, spreading roughly 
over a century, they did much to keep alive the 
classic studies, which ran so much risk of falling into 
desuetude. 

Wolfgang Ratich (Rathe or Ratichius) was one of the 
next celebrated exponents of educational theory, as well 
as one of its practical demonstrators. His was a revival 
Ratich, f tne methods of Socrates and Plato 
Beginning with known things, he proceeded 
to their names, and based the study of foreign tongues 
on the analogy of his own. In fact, his whole system 
was one of induction ; of education rather than instruction. 
Differing from Melancthon, he would allow nothing to 
be learnt by heart. Like most of the men who have 
been educationally in advance of their age, he fell into 
disrepute, and for some alleged fault suffered imprisonment 
for eight months. 

John Amos Comenius (Komenski) was born in 1592 in 
Moravia. Like many other educational reformers, he 



The Reformation 27 

studied at Heidelberg, and at the early age of twenty-one 

he was appointed superintendent of the 
Comenius. 

school at Prerau. He belonged to the 
sect known as the Moravian Brethren. About the same 
time he was selected as minister at Fulnek. Here, after 
the siege and fall of the town, he lost all his property 
and his valuable library, and appears, during at least part 
of the Thirty Years' War, to have wandered from place 
to place in poverty and obscurity. But during his residence 
at Prerau he had formulated and crystallised his educational 
methods, and his works were well known and appreciated 
all over Europe, as well as in many parts of Asia. His 
"lamia Linguarum Reserata" was translated into twelve 
European languages, and several Oriental ones. One 
edition, published in three languages, is still preserved 
in Edinburgh. His teaching, which included languages, 
natural history, music, science, and a knowledge of arts 
and handicrafts, was based on the teaching of nature. 
The knowledge of words should not precede but be 
correlative with the teaching of things. As nature taught 
a mother tongue so should the schools teach new languages. 
The grammatical grind, which occupied so long in 
preparation, was to be abandoned, and the time saved 
thereby devoted to graduated conversational lessons in the 
language to be taught, the subjects being familiar to the 
pupils, and useful to them in other studies. He was the 
first great teacher of object lessons, and may be regarded 
as the forerunner, if not the anticipator, of Pestalozzi 
and Froebel. In 1621, he was officially invited to come 
to England, but the outbreak of war prevented this, and 
in 1622 he found his way to Sweden. Here he became 
the friend of Oxenstiern, the chancellor, by whom he was 
asked to draw up a scheme for the entire reorganisation 



8 History of Education. 

of the educational methods of that country, upon which 
he spent four years. Doubtless, his invitation to England 
had a similar object. He was a friend and contemporary 
of our Milton and a devoted student of the philosophy 
of Lord Bacon. 

Almost every great educational master in the fifteenth 
and early sixteenth centuries belonged to the Reformed, 
or Protestant, Church. Religion and education had 
travelled side by side. The protest against severe 
dogmatism had found its most congenial expression in 
educational revivalism. The monastic schools, regarded 
as the nurseries of the old faith, were neglected, and 

were almost threatened with extinction ; but 
Ignatius Loyola. 

in the early part of the sixteenth century 

a new force arose, in the person of Ignatius Loyola. 
Born in 1491 at the castle of Loyola, in the Basque 
provinces, the lad whose name and influence were destined 
to become known and felt throughout the world, not only 
in his own but in all times, at an early age became a 
page at the court of Ferdinand V. Joining the army, 
he was severely wounded in both his legs at the battle 
of Pampeluna. A painful and dangerous operation was 
performed in so clumsy a fashion that, to remove the 
deformity, the legs had to be rebroken and reset. This 
involved a long convalescence, which, indirectly, may be 
said to have had a great effect on the world's history. 
During this time, having exhausted all other literature, 
he betook himself to reading the " Lives of the Saints," 
and became so impressed by them that he resolved to 
abandon his military profession and join the Church. 
This he did in 1521. Dressed as a beggar, he journeyed 
to the monastery of Monserrat, whence he shortly afterwards 
set out, barefooted, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. At 



The Society of Jesus. 29 

Borne he received the Papal benediction of Adrian IV. . 
On his return he continued a life of great austerity and 
self-denial, and in order to fit himself fully for the task 
he saw before him, returned to study, finally completing 
his course of philosophy and theology at Paris in 1534. 
In this year, with four others, Peter Lcfevre, James 
Laynez, Francis Xavier, Nicholas Bobadilla and Rodriguez, 
he proposed to make another pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land, and there formed a mission to preach the Gospel 
to the infidels. With this object they formed themselves 
into a body, and called it " The Society of Jesus," not 
knowing apparently that the same title had been bestowed 
by Pius II. on an order of chivalry, who swore to devote 

The Society of themselves to making war on the Turks 
Jesus. more than a hundred years before. How- 

ever, in 1540, the name, in its Latin form of 
" Societas Jesu," was approved by the Pope. Warlike 
disturbances preventing the consummation of their 
desire to visit the Holy Land, they turned their 
attention not only to religion and chanty, but also 
to the subject of education. With their religious work 
and influence we have not hero to do, Their educative 
work alone concerns us. 

In this they were eminently successful. In religious 
affairs their motto was Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam, in 
education Lege, Scribe, Loquere. The society soon extended 
its numbers, and in 1538 schools were opened in Eome, 
where they might train the youth and teach those 
doctrines to which they were pledged. The order was 
not formally approved until 1540. The curriculum of 
their schools was, in addition to its religious character, 
of the widest possible nature. It included classics, mathe- 
matics, music, logic and philosophy. The Jesuits were 



30 History of Education. 

the first organised body who tried to systematise education, 
and those of their schools in existence to-day still bear 
striking and unmistakeable evidence of the work of their 
founders. Gradually the Society of Jesuits, together with 
their educational ideas, extended to most countries of Europe. 
At Loyola's death, in 1556, the society consisted of a 
thousand members. In 1615 these had grown to thirteen 
thousand; while in 1749 it was maintaining 24 professed 
houses, 669 colleges, 176 seminaries, 335 residences, and 
had over 22,000 members. 

Michel Montaigne, born in 1533, was the son of an 
eccentric feudal baron who made a hobby of education. 
He put his ideas into execution in the upbringing of his son, 

whom he placed under a German tutor, 
Montaigne. 

who could talk no French. He was only 
allowed to converse in classical languages, and even the 
servants were forbidden to address him otherwise than 
in Latin. At six he could talk freely in Latin, and was 
then sent to the celebrated College of Guienne, at Bordeaux. 
He only remained at college up to the age of thirteen, 
when he began to study law. Almost all our knowledge 
of him is obtained from his own writings. He says his 
chief characteristics were laziness and love of liberty ; 
that the only books he ever read with serious pleasure 
were the works of Plutarch and Seneca. It was not until 
he was thirty-eight that he began to write his world- 
famous essays. His writing was desultory but polished 
following no model, except perhaps the unconscious 
influence of Plutarch. Uniting the classical with the 
casual, Montaigne exercised an enormously powerful 
influence on the ultimate formation of the French 
language. His teaching was a revolt from his 
training. 



Milton and Education. 31 

In his case classicism had been everything. He advises 
the upholding of the priority of the mother tongue. His 
education had been the education of words, he preaches 
the doctrine of things. Lamentably ignorant of common 
matters, he upholds the knowledge of them. Unable to 
swim, fence, ride, or even saddle a horse, he pleads for 
the teaching of all manly exercise. Himself the victim of 
discipline and austere supervision, he asks for the abolition 
of force and compulsion. He took no part in the work 
of practical education, and in this catena of educators, 
his name appears only for the after, and possibly indirect, 
influence of 'his works. He died A.D. 1592. 

John Milton, best known for his poems, was also a 

strong factor in the development of the idea of a complete 

education. Born in London in 1608, he was, after private 

tuition, sent to St. Paul's School, where 

Milton. 

he became one of the most successful 
students. When, in 1625, he was removed to Christ's 
College, Cambridge, he could already write elegant Latin 
prose and verse, and was thoroughly familiar with Greek 
and Hebrew. His continental travels in 1638 had much 
to do with producing that largeness of mind with which 
he afterwards approached the subject of education. For 
a short time, before he was drawn into the vortex of 
Puritan politics, he devoted himself to teaching. His 
original object seems to have been to devote himself solely 
to the education of his two nephews, but the sons of 
intimate friends were afterwards admitted as pupils to 
his house. His curriculum, as we afterwards find it 
described in his " Of Education," was a very comprehensive 
one. His practical teaching was of short duration, but 
his ideas of a complete system of education are abundantly 
expressed in his pamphlet addressed to Samuel Hartlib, 



32 History of Education. 

the friend of Comenius, in which he describes the 
" reforming of education" as "one of the greatest and 
noblest of designs that can be thought on, and for want 
whereof this nation perishes." After pointing out the 
necessity " to repair the ruins of our first parents by 
regaining to know God aright," he allies himself with 
those who want to make the teaching of things essential, 
" so that language is but the instrument conveying to 
us things useful to be known." Though himself in 
very early life an elegant classical scholar, he discourages 
too much devotion to such study ; " we do amiss to spend 
seven or eight years merely in scraping together so much 
miserable Latin and Greek." He desires such languages 
to be learned conversationally, and recommends " some 
preparatory grounds of speech," followed by the study of 
" the substance of good things and the arts in due order, 
which would bring the whole language quickly into their 
power." This is " the most rational and profitable way 
of learning languages." To proceed from the known to 
the unknown, from things " most obvious to the sense " 
to the " abstractions of logic and metaphysics." " I shall 
strict conduct you," says he, " to a hill side where I will 
point you out the right path of a virtuous education : 
laborious indeed at the first ascent but else so smooth, 
so green, so full of goodly prospect and melodious sounds 
on every side that the harp of Orpheus was not more 
charming. I doubt not but ye shall have more ado to 
drive our dullest and laziest youth from the infinite desire 
of such a happy nurture than we have now to drag our 
choicest and hopefullest wits to that asinine feast of 
sowthistles and brambles which is commonly set before 
them, as all the food and entertainment of their tenderest 
and most docile age." "A complete and generous education 



Milton and Education. 33 

is that which fits a man to perform justly, skilfully, and 
magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, 
of peace and war." 

His ideal school he also describes. " A spacious house 
and grounds for a hundred and fifty pupils : with ample 
good tutors, one able superintendent : at once a school 
and a university. This he recommends for every city 
throughout the land." His time-table, or one might say 
educational life-table, was : 

I. Begin with some good grammar, and couple with that 
a distinct and clear pronunciation of the language to be 
acquired. 

II. Draw the pupils to the love of virtue and true labour. 

III. Stir up the pupils with high hopes of living to be 
brave men, worthy patriots, dear to God and famous to 
all ages. 

IV. Concrete studies he commends with an extended and 
ample scope. 

His proposed curriculum includes languages, agriculture, 
physics, embracing in that term logic and philosophy, 
mathematics of all kinds, history, oratory and poetry. 
This, even though so extensive, was not to interfere with 
the active part of life. Physical education was not to be 
excluded, nay, rather it was to be a special and essential 
part of the training of all. " Let not the healthy and 
stout bodie-s of young men rot away for want of discipline." 

Milton was one of the first, if not the first, to suggest 
a practical technical education, based not on the theory 
found in books, but on the active participation of those 
actually engaged in work similar to that destined to be 
taught. " What hinders but that they may procure, as 
oft as shall be needful, the helpful experience of hunters, 
fowlers, fishermen, shepherds, gardeners, apothecaries ; and 



34 History of Education. 

in other sciences, architects, engineers, mariners, anatomists, 
who doubtless would be ready, some for reward, and some 
to favour such a hopeful seminary." 

The comprehensive scheme laid down by him for the 
education of the ideal is interesting to us, not because it 
has ever been completely realised, but as showing to what 
an extent the education of the individual, as opposed to 
the general, had attained in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. Probably, no one who now takes an interest or 
a part in the work, or extension of, national education 
could do better than carefully study Milton's " Of 
Education" He himself appears to have realised fully 
the difficulty of attaining his ideal. " I believe," he says, 
"this is not a bow for everyone to shoot that counts 
himself a teacher; but will require sinews almost equal 
to those which Homer gave to Ulysses : yet I am withal 
persuaded that it may prove much more easy in the 
assay, than it now seems at a distance, and much more 
illustrious : howbeit, not more difficult than I imagine, 
and that imagination presents me with nothing but the 
very happy and very possible according to best wishes ; 
if God have so decreed, and this age have spirit and 
capacity enough to apprehend." 

No higher ideal has ever been fixed in education than 
that set out by Milton. It appears to embrace the whole 
being of man. The technical, the practical, the philo 
sophical, the classical, and the religious sides of mankind 
are equally passed in review. Little of good has been 
done since w y hich cannot find its roots in this short 
treatise of Milton. Modern life has somewhat suppressed 
the ideal in the pursuit of the real. What is beautiful 
has b.een sacrificed to what is immediately useful. The 



The Port- Boy alists. 35 

strain and stress of life, the struggle in the street, have 
in many cases killed that longing for the higher life, 
typified in the training and teaching of Milton, but no 
educator, having the real good of the people at heart, 
should fail to study his full text, which space forbids us to 
quote here. 

Port Eoyal was originally a convent of Cistercian Nuns, 
founded in 1204, about fourteen miles from Paris. For 

reasons which do not concern the course 
The Port-Royalists. 

of educational history, the religious side 

was removed to Paris, and the old building in the 
seventeenth century became the centre of an educational 
movement, small in its beginning, but, in its result, of 
considerable effect. The discipline was of the extremest 
kind. Eising at three, month in and month out, all the 
inmates devoted nearly the whole day to self-instruction, 
spiritual reading, or hand labour. Among their self-imposed 
work there was included a school, small at first probably 
meant to be small but in its after growth and after 
effects large and powerful. Among the men who studied 
or wrought there may be mentioned Antoine Arnauld, 
Le Maistre, Nicole, Lancelot, and many others. The 
influence of Port Eoyal is more indirect than otherwise. 
The attention of the men who gathered there was devoted, 
not so much to the practical education, which they them- 
selves carried on, although that was of considerable 
importance ; but to making it possible for others to carry on 
the same work. To this end they published a series of 
school books, which had an enormous influence upon 
the educational world of their time. Grammars in Greek, 
Latin, Italian and Spanish, Geometry and Logic were 
among the Port Eoyal issues. Port Eoyal is now almost 
forgotten. Still, pilgrims do wander from Paris to 



36 History of Education. 

Versailles, and, neglecting the beauty and grandeur of 
the palace, seek the secluded nook in the forest where 
many of the men, who afterwards had much to do with 
framing French thought, studied and taught men like 
Eacine and Pascal. 

But, probably, the writer who, more than any other, 
really affected the after course of French education and 
thought, and through France that of the 
world, was Jean Jacques Rousseau. Born 
at Geneva in 1712, he never enjoyed the benefit of a 
mother's training, she having died at the time of his birth. 
His father, who combined the occupations of dancing- 
master and watchmaker, was obliged in 1722 to leave 
the city to avoid imprisonment. The boy was thus, at 
ten years of age, left to the charity and care of relatives. 
His career was a strange and chequered one. Apprenticed 
in 1725 to a notary, who early came to the conclusion that 
he was utterly incompetent, and dismissed him, he then 
became an engraver. Whether from his own fault, or, as 
he tells us, from the tyranny and ill-treatment of his master, 
in 1728, this occupation was also given up, and, at the 
instance of some Eomanists in Savoy, he was befriended by 
Madame de Warens at Annecy, who, in the hope of 
converting him to the Catholic faith, received him 
hospitably, and sent him to a school at Turin. There 
he was formally admitted as a convert to the old religion. 
Afterwards we follow him as footman to the Countess de 
Vercullis, and later on to the Count de Gouvon. In 1729, 
however, he returned to the house of Madame de Warens, 
where, after an unsuccessful attempt to enter the priesthood, 
he remained until 1740. He was next a tutor to a 
family at Lyons, and then, in 1741, went to Paris. 
Here he tried to set up as a teacher of music, but once 



The Influence of Rousseau. 37 

more failed. His history, both literary and otherwise, 
presents an interesting series of vicissitudes. His chiei 
works were the " Contrat Social," the " Confession," and 
"Emile, ou de I' education." The last named, published 
in 1762, is the work which bears directly on our subject. 
It was received with such feelings of annoyance by the 
ecclesiastical authorities at Paris that Kousseau had to 
flee to avoid imprisonment. His writing, instinct with 
intellect, couched in elegant phraseology, 

The " Emile." 

was yet the wild cry ot protest ot a man 
who had found life a disappointing failure. The "Emile," 
though, like most of Eousseau's works, not a book to be 
recommended for indiscriminate reading, contains some 
excellent educational suggestions. The keynote of the 
whole is a revolt against the pedantic methods of teaching 
of the time, and a strong plea for a more natural mode of 
training, whether physical, moral, or mental. His idea 
of nature, carried to the extent which he suggested, is 
quite Utopian. Still, by aiming at the impossible, he 
directed men's thought in a direction where they might 
obtain the desirable. Early education, almost from the 
day of birth, he lays great stress upon. For the first 
twelve years of a child's life education should be 
synonymous with observation. Eestraints of all kinds, 
and assistance of most, were condemned. As the child, 
left to itself and nature, would learn to walk, so let it. 
Apply similar principles to its physical, visual and mental 
development. Books, he urged, should be unknown until 
this age. The child should then be a real child of nature : 
well developed, upright, observant ; speaking its own 
'language by imitation, not by grammatical rule; well 
fitted to become the active recipient of all necessary 
knowledge. In a busy workaday, modern world, such 



88 History of Education. 

an ideal is impossible, but it is wonderful to note the 
almost immediate effect of this publication. Its tenets 
were accepted literally. Thousands of children were denied 
the slightest vestige of clothing. Books were entirely 
forbidden to them, and they were allowed to grow up 
without education or instruction, save that which was 
self-acquired by observation or assimilation. The weaker 
probably succumbed in great numbers, the stronger 
survived to carry the Napoleonic flag over most of 
Europe. To such a movement reaction was inevitable, 
but that reaction only abolished the extremes unsuited 
to the state of society. It could not destroy the influence 
towards a freer and less iron-bound system of training. 

Jean Joseph Jacotot was born at Dijon in March, 1770. 
At the age of nineteen he was appointed Professor of 

Greek and ' Latin Literature at his native 
Jacotot. 

place. Having served as a captain of 

artillery for some years, and seen active service in Belgium, 
he returned to Dijon, where he became professor, first 
of mathematics, and afterwards of Eoman law. In 1815, 
owing to the local political troubles and the part he had, 
or was supposed to have, taken in them, he was compelled 
to retire to Belgium. He went to Louvain, where, three 
years later, he was selected as French lecturer. Shortly 
afterwards he became superintendent of the Normal 
School. This position naturally turned his mind to the 
study of the problem of education. His book, published 
under the title " Enseignement Universel," hardly gives him 
the right to be described as the inventor of the " Universal 
Method" of education. His opinions and his methods, 
like those of Rousseau, were impossible and impractical, 
fiis fundamental proposition, upon which he based his 
whole system, was entirely inconsistent with all modern, 



Jacotot and Basedow. 39 

as well as ancient, investigations. All men, he said, are 
born with equal mental capacities. Eecent researches 
have proved such a proposition to be untenable. His 
next point is but an epitome of the opinions expressed 
by the long list of antecedent educators. " Every person 
is able to educate himself." But Jacotot's claim to 
remembrance is his method of teaching his own pupils. 
It may be summed up in one word, " Concentration." 
Direct attention to one small thing, and from that, learn 
all others. Thus, in teaching a language, he would cause 
his pupils to learn by heart a short passage. This was 
then analysed, talked about, its construction criticised, 
until word for word, and almost letter by letter, it became 
familiar to the pupil. His was not a didactic, but rather 
an inductive method of acquiring linguistic knowledge. 
The sample was regarded as indicative of the whole. A 
little done completely was supposed to convey more real 
knowledge than a large amount run through and probably 
scamped. 

Johann Bernhard Basedoio was born in Hamburg in 
1723, his father being a wig maker in that city. Of his 
education and upbringing information is 
meagre. He went to Leipsic, in 1744, to 
study theology, and, at the same time, took lessons in 
physiology there from the renowned Crusius. Five years 
later, he was acting as a private tutor, and, owing to his 
known zeal in the matter of education, was, in 1753, 
appointed one of the professors in the academy of Soroe, 
in Denmark. In 1761, he was removed to Altona, owing 
to the grave objection raised to his theological opinions. 
Here he received and read the " Emile " of Eoussean His 
after life was tinged with its influence. In fact, he may 
be described as the practical exponent of Eousseau's 



40 History of Education.- 

theories, in so tar as they were applicable to actual useful 
life. His idea appears to have been the introduction of 
a complete reform in the whole system of education, 
especially that branch of it which we call elementary. 
That he was known and recognised as an ardent 
educationalist is shown by the subscriptions of fifteen 
thousand thalers (2,200) to enable him to publish his 
!< Elementarwerk," one of the best of the early illustrated 
school books, intended, by means of pictures coupled 
with words, to bring the children to an appreciation of 
actualities. This work, in its fuller title described as, 
11 An Address to the Friends of Humanity, and to Persons 
in Power, on Schools, on Education and its Influence on 
Public Happiness, With the Plan of an Elementary Treatise 
on Human Knoiuledge," had an exceedingly good reception, 
and Basedow was enabled to open a school which 
he called the Philanihropin, at Dessau, in 1774. 
Theoretically a great educator, his temper unfitted him 
for practical work. Perpetual quarrels with his colleagues 
made the success of the school impossible, and, although 
it lived on for years, it finally languished, and closed 
three years after its founder's death, which occurred in 1790. 
The name of Antonio Eosmini brings us to the first 
of the great educators of the nineteenth century. He 
belonged to a noble family, and was born 
at Eovereto, in the Tyrol, in 1797. His 
character and career was a complete antithesis of that 
of Eousseau. His youth was pure and stainless. His 
whole life was devoted to study, meditation and devotion. 
Destined from his childhood for the priesthood, he 
spent his whole time in devout preparation. In 1821 
he was ordained. Throughout, his educational work was 
characterised by, and imbued with, a deep desire to 



Richter and Pestalozzi. 41 

couple education with religion. He founded the Institute 
of the Brethren of Charity for the training of priests 
and teachers. This still survives. Its aim was, and is, 
to assimilate monasticism with modern necessities. 
Among its members to-day are numbered many able and 
devoted Catholics. Much of its educational work is at 
present carried on in England, its headquarters being 
situated in London. At Cardiff, Loughborough, Eugby, 
and elsewhere, it maintains efficient establishments and 
schools. 

Johann Paul Friedrich Hichter, more commonly known 
as Jean Paul, was born near Bayreuth in 1763. Poor and 

in debt, ir> 1784 he fled to Leipsic to join 
Richter. 

his equally poor widowed mother, and 
there for ten years he made a precarious living by 
teaching in private families. During these years he read 
omnivorously, and wrote many books, which, financially, 
were not a success. Not until the year 1793 did 
" The Invisible Lodge " make him famous as a novelist. 
From this time his literary career was assured. It 
is, however, in his " Levana," published in 1807, that 
he propounds his theories of education. The influence of 
the " Emile" is seen throughout the work, and can be traced 
in the writings of Carlyle, who has made Eichter familiar 
to Englishmen. Nature to him, as to Eousseau, was 
the prime, almost the only, ideal. He loved her in her 
every aspect, and all his teaching tended to a submission 
to her primitive influences. One exception may, perhaps, 
be found to this. He loved individuality almost as strongly 
as he loved nature. 

* Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who was born in the town 
of Zurich in the year 1745, was another educator whose 
career was influenced, if not controlled, by reading the 



42 History of Education. 

" Emile " of Eousseau. He received but little school 
education, except a fairly good grounding in the classics. 

Being imbued with the spirit of the new 
Pestalozzi. 

education, he abandoned all other work 
and devoted himself to child training. His was a modified 
method of applying the impossible ideals of Eousseau. 
Perhaps his may be called the earliest school wherein 
natural actualities superseded literary theories a manual 
labour school. Having bought a large tract of land at 
Birr, in the Swiss canton of Aargau, in 1775, he opened 
a school, where he had about fifty pupils. During the 
summer they worked in the fields, learning agriculture. 
In the intervals of this outdoor work they received 
instruction. In winter, too, their work was devoted to 
the practical side, all indoor handicrafts being taught. 

Pestalozzi is one of the most interesting of characters 
in the whole history of education. He was eccentric and 
void of business capacities. Looked at from the side of 
worldly position, he was a failure, yet his work has lived. 
His "Evening Hours of a Hermit" contains precepts 
respecting education which found their final expression in 
the work of "Isabel." The work of Pestalozzi has been 
dimmed by after writers and thinkers. He strove for the 
popular education of the masses and died very poor after 
a long life of hard work. Few names stand higher in 
the opinion of educators than Pestalozzi. A practical 
teacher in Berne and then at Yverdun, he strove to put 
his theories into practice, but, unfitted for the business 
side of a commercial undertaking, although his work drew 
to him the attention of thinkers, his schools did not 
succeed, and he died at Brugg, in Aargau, in 1827, at 
the age of eighty-two, a broken down and disappointed 
man. The influence of his work, however, has been 



Pestalozzi and Froebel. 43 

immense. In Germany this has been specially the case. 
His books are still the corner stone of German educational 
literature. "Leonard and Gertrude" sets out, in the 
form of a novel, the complete reformation of a village 
by the influence of good teaching. The methods by which 
this should be attained are set out in "How Gertrude 
Teaches her Children," which has been the foundation of 
many German books. His many other works are still 
popular. His last expression of educational desire was 
given in his old age, in " The Song of the Swan." 

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was born at Oberweiss- 

bach, in Thuringia, in April, 1782. In his 
Froebel. 

youth he was much neglected. His 
mother he lost while very young. His father, although 
pastor of the village, took little care of him. The 
pastor having married again, young Froebel was taken 
care of by his late mother's brother, by whom he was 
sent to a village school. Of an extremely intuitive 
and imaginative nature, wrapt in observation and thought, 
the boy had earned the reputation of a dunce, and was 
apprenticed to a forester in 1797. His open-air life 
was a training far better adapted to the develop- 
ment of a mind like his than the education of a 
school. ^For two years he lived among things.) Every 
object of nature was to him a thing to study. All his 
knowledge was gained therefrom. The self-culture and 
natural training he received in the glades of the Thuringian 
forest formed the lasting groundwork of his life's work. 
For a short time he went to Jena University to study the 
natural sciences, but his means were scanty, and he ended 
there by receiving nine weeks' imprisonment for a small debt. 
He lost his father in 1802, and was thrown entirely 
upon his own resources. It was not until 1805 that he 



44 History of Education. 

found his real vocation and became a teacher at Frankfort- 
on-the-Main. Up to this time he had made a living 
in various ways : surveyor, accountant, architect, or 
private secretary. While there he was offered a post 
as assistant-master in a model school, which he filled 
for two years with conspicuous success. His leaving 
this to undertake the private tuition of three brothers 
was probably the turning point in his career, as it took 
him to Yverdun, where he came under the direct influence 
of Pestalozzi. Two years of this sufficed to imbue him 
with the feeling that he was destined to carry on, to a 
much nearer degree of completion, the work which his 
master had initiated. Natural science he regarded as 
the underlying basis of all knowledge. With this in 
view, he went to the University of Gottingen, but war 
interrupted his studies. Military service had its com- 
pensation, for, while actively engaged, he made the 
acquaintance of his lifelong friends and most ardent 
disciples, Langethall and Middendorff, who, a year or 
two later, joined him at a school which he had 
opened at Griesheim, in Thuringia, in 1816, after 
serving for some time as curator of a Berlin 
museum. A year or two afterwards, the school was 
removed to Keilhau. Here a regular education centre 
was formed, the fame of which rapidly spread through 
several European countries. Other schools were formed 
as offshoots of the central foundation. At the invitation 
of the Swiss Government he went to Burgdof, where 
elementary teachers were sent to receive their training 
under him. Thus was the influence of Froebel spread. 
In 1836 he actively assumed the work upon which his 
fame rests, and with which his name is still closely 
associated. In that year he opened at Blankenburg, not 



The Kindergarten System. 45 

far from Iteilhau, his first Kindergarten School (children's 
garden). Here, as the name implies, was a large, well 

stocked garden, with plots for each eligible 
Kindergarten. 

pupil s care. Pleasant, well-ventilated 
rooms surrounded it. Most of the day was spent in the 
grounds, no teacher having the supervision of more than 
twenty-five children. The system may be summarised 
as one of organised and well-directed play. The leading 
idea was to keep the child amused, while all the time 
he was, almost unconsciously, acquiring useful knowledge. 

With this aim, Froebel prepared his " Gifts," which 
form the basis of all modern Kindergarten. Each of these 
gifts was accompanied and cheered by appropriate songs 
and music. The first " gift " consists of a string of 

rainbow coloured balls, by the aid of which 
Froebel's Gifts. 

ideas ot colour, form, size and motion 

were formed by the children. In the second, a solid cube, 
cylinder, wooden ball, stick and string are used to impart 
ideas of form, size, sound and movement. The third 
" gift " contains eight cubes of equal size, forming, when 
properly combined, one perfect cube. Properly applied, 
the combinations of these supply the child with ideas of 
division into halves, quarters and eighths. This gift may^ 
to a limited extent, be used incidentally to teach those 
letters of the alphabet which do not involve the use of 
curves. It may teach the whole by careful arrange- 
ment, but the real rounding of the alphabetical letters is 
a later development. In the fourth " gift " a cube is 
divided into eight equal oblong planes. In a four-inch 
cube this would mean eight planes each an inch thick and 
two inches wide. This gift is intended to further develop 
the power of combination. Froebel would probably have 
asked his pupils to try and show, by the use ol their 



46 History of Education. 

blocks, what idea they had of some neighbouring building, 
and from this proceed to the construction of imaginary 
buildings, bridges and towns. The result might be 
appalling, but the effect would be purely educative. In 
the fifth "gift" the cube, to the use of which Froebel 
appears to have attached great importance, is in the 
first place cut up into twenty-seven smaller cubes. Of 
these some are cut from corner to corner into halves. 
This makes possible the closest approximation to the 
circle that can be obtained without the use of 
curves. This, too, makes it possible to construct 
symmetrical drawings and an entire alphabet. The 
sixth and seventh "gifts" are but extensions of the 
earlier ones," the seventh being really not a gift 
but a combination of the others, the cube being somewhat 
differently divided. From the various divisions of the 
cube, the properties of squares and angles, and the 
combinations of squares and angles can be amusingly 
made known to the pupil. A reference to his garden 
for older people, and the organised workshops, wherein 
his principles were translated into useful practicability, 
completes the sketch of Froebel' s system. 

Froebel was an idealist, but his idealism has made 
strongly for the success of education.' His aim of a 
complete " play education," even if possible in his own 
day, is entirely unsuited as a system to the twentieth 
century. Still, no man has exerted a more beneficial 
and vivifying influence on the present than Froebel. In 
infants' schools his work, in its entirety, has been largely 
employed. Froebel died in 1852. At that time Germany, 
Belgium and Switzerland had adopted his system in more 
than fifty centres. The enlightenment of the British Isles 
came later. 



Our English System. 



IP we except Bell and Lancaster, the list of great educators 
practically ceases with Froebel. Their work was often 
academic rather than practical. It was not, except in few 
cases, the actual teaching work they did which finally 
framed the educational policy of modern times. Theirs was 
the influence of simple intellectuality. But the work 
accomplished by them, has formed the basis of all modern 
systems. Leaving now the individuals, let us look at the 
general development of our own educational system. In 
this regard the universities take the first place. 

Originally the word university was applied to any 
aggregation of persons. In Eome, for instance, there 

were universities of priests and musicians. 
Universities. , . , 

Tradesmen, too, formed themselves into 

universities, which probably were the ancient equivalent 
of the more recent trade guilds. In the Middle Ages 
ihe term had fallen into desuetude, except in so far 
as it referred to study. Then we find the universitas 
wagistrorum, doctorum, et scholorum. Probably the 
earliest founded was that of Salerno, about the year 
A.D. 875. This was primarily a school of medicine, and 
attracted students from many lands. It was, however, 
impossible as well as undesirable, to limit the range of 
study, and other branches were embraced, but it was 
not until almost the end of the twelfth century that 



48 History of Education. 

a real university was founded at Bologna. Here the chief 
study was law. The example of Bologna in founding 
schools was followed by Paris, where, early in the twelfth 
century, the idea of a " university " had been anticipated 
by William of Champeaux. He taught logic in Paris 
as early as 1109. Many schools were aggregated, but it 
does not appear that they acquired the name of university 
until the beginning of the thirteenth century. The 
University of Paris may be taken as the type of all 
modern ones, including our own at Oxford and Cambridge. 
Following upon the Paris model, which had attracted to 
itself students from every European country, universities 
sprang into being all over Europe ; Padua, Naples, Pavia, 
Borne and Florence were probably among the most noted. 

But it is to our English universities that we most 
directly turn our view. Doubtless, the oldest of these 
were influenced by, and formed upon, the plan of Paris. 
Oxford was an early centre of scholastic life. Its first 
colleges were Balliol, Merton and University, all of which 
were founded about the middle of the thirteenth century, 
and before the lapse of fifty years it had become 
recognised as an organised university throughout the world. 
Cambridge, as a university, was later than Oxford, 
although her schools were contemporary. At Cambridge, 
as at Oxford, the central idea was the establishment of 
colleges, and their union by educational bonds into one 
whole. The influence of these two universities on the 
life of England cannot be over-estimated. Ever since their 
foundation a long, extensive, and continuous list of eminent 
. bishops, chancellors, statesmen and lawyers acknowledge 
one or other of them as their alma mater. The extension of 
modern methods has, fortunately, introduced to all these 
categories many who have not enjoyed a university 



The Universities. 49 

education, but the old institutions still hold their own. 
Universities like Durham, London, Manchester, Liverpool 
and Leeds are the outcome of the ' last century, and, 
together with the university extension work of the older 
foundations, have very greatly aided the dissemination 
of university ideas among aspirants to educational 
distinction. 

In no country has the desire for university training taken 
stronger root than in Scotland, except, it may be, in 
Germany. St. Andrew's, which was founded in 1411, 
is the earliest of these institutions, and was probably 
modelled on the Paris pattern. Glasgow followed in 1450 ; 
and Aberdeen in 1494. Edinburgh was nearly a century 
later. These universities are among the most popular in 
the world. Every facility is given to students, and among 
these may be found many wdth straitened means, but still 
desirous of acquiring a thoroughly good life equipment. 
Numerous exhibitions and bursaries open the way to those 
of even the scantiest resources. 

Trinity College, Dublin, founded in 1591-2 by Elizabeth, 
is the greatest Irish educational foundation. The curri- 
culum is varied and extensive, and the number of 
students exceeds a thousand. The Royal University of 
Ireland, with its head-quarters in Dublin, has colleges in 
Belfast, Cork and Galway. The Roman Catholic University 
of Ireland is the name given to a federation of colleges 
at Maynooth, Dublin, Blackrock, Carlow and Clonliffe. 

In England and Wales education can hardly yet be said 
to be systematised. Like many of our institutions, it grew, 

and was not produced in cut and dried 
England and Wales. faghk)n ^^ ^ ^ Q Hemy y IILf 

moso of the education was carried on in the monasteries. 
A few grammar schools, such as Winchester and Eton, 



50 History of Education. 

had been established; over sixty were founded in his 
reign ; and in the short reign of Edward VI., no less 

than fifty, including Christ's Hospital, 
Grammar Schools. _, 7 n __. .._. , ,. ^ 7 

Shrewsbury, and -fl/w^ Edward s School, 



Birmingham. In the three succeeding reigns many more 
were added, conspicuous among which are the numerous 
Queen Elizabeth Schools in many parts of the country. 
The aim of these, as an examination of any of the deeds 
of foundation will show, was to teach the ancient classics, 
no regard being had to the practical or commercial side. 
This has been altered by modern legislation, and most, 
if not all, of them are now administered under schemes 
framed by the Chanty Commisioners. 

Such was the condition of things educational when the 
great upheaval of society was caused by the 'Civil War. 
Old ideals were shattered, new aspirations were born. 
Men's thoughts were broadened, and on the wreck of 
feudal society arose the possibilities of a new democracy. 
Grammar schools were mostly for the rich. Men now 
began to feel that, with altered conditions of life, the poor, 
too, should be in some wise educated. With this end, 
the tide of foundation now flowed in the direction of 

Charity Schools, which were created all 

Charity Schools. .. . . , -. 

over the country, although they provided 

for but a tithe of the children. These were for both girls 
and boys. Strange to say, no grammar school was ever 
founded for girls. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century a great 

impetus was given to the movement by the establishment 

of Sunday schools. The first of these was 

founded at Gloucester, by Robert Baikes, 

in 1781. His example was soon followed, and a new 

educative force, both secular and religious, was created, 



Lancaster and Bell. 51 

These two latter events mark the transition of thought 
from the contemplation of the complete education of the 
few to the general elementary education of the many A 
To this end after effort was, until very recently, 
almost entirely devoted. The earliest names which stand 
prominent in this movement are those of Lancaster and 
Bell. Their work was entirely independent, yet its 
aim was the same to popularise education. Owing to 
circumstances which afterwards transpired, they may be 
regarded as the respective forerunners of the two branches 
of the dual system which has played so large a part in 
our contemporary history. 

Dr. Bell was born at St. Andrews, in 1753. Having 
graduated, and travelled in America, he afterwards went 

to India, where he became an armt 
Dr. Andrew Bell. 

chaplain. Here he had also the super- 
vision and control of the education of the military asylum. 
In this he was almost without assistance ; and he conceived 
the idea, familiar as an axiom to us to-day, of utilising 
the elder scholars during part of the day for teaching the 
younger pupils, while in the other carrying on their own 
studies. Hence arose the Monitorial System, which led 

the way to the appointment of Pupi\ 
Pupil Teachers. 2T ea(? ^ rs> j n p r i va t e schools these were 

called Articled Pupils. He judged that the experiment 
was a success and capable of universal extension. In 
1797, after he returned to England, he explained his 
method in a pamphlet. 

Born in Southward, in 1778, Joseph Lancaster was 

originally intended for the dissenting ministry. At an 

early age, however, he joined the Society 

of Friends, and directed his attention to 

the cause of education. At the age of twenty he 



52 History of Education. 

took up the active work of practical teaching. At 
first he gathered together a few poor boys in the house 
of his father, a Chelsea veteran. Soon the number 
became too great, and he had a large room in Borough 
Road, Southwark, a road destined to become famous in 
the educational world by its celebrated training college, 
now removed to Iskworth, and its modern Polytechnic. 
Soon his pupils numbered over a thousand. To obtain 
adult teachers for these was impossible, so Lancaster, 
who was himself a master of organisation, adopted and 
systematised the monitorial system. The schools were 
primitive. For children to learn the elements of writing by 
using their fingers on a rough desk spread with sand 
sounds remarkable in these days of scientific apparatus, 
but the work done was doubtless the seed of which we 
are to-day enjoying the fruit. The elder pupils, warming 
to their work, and drinking in the enthusiasm of their 
master, clung to him, and became in their turn teachers. 
Through them other schools were opened in many parts. 
His work created such a widespread impression that, in 

1808, a few wealthy sympathisers formed 
" British " Schools. . J . . . _ .. 

the " Lancastrian Society to extend it. 
This is better known by its more modern title, the 
"British and Foreign School Society." Though an excellent 
organiser, Lancaster was no financier, and, becoming 
bankrupt, he sailed for America. Always enthusiastic, he 
preached his " system " there, but fell into abject poverty, 
supported only by a small charitable annuity ; and in 1828 
he was run over and killed in the streets of New York. 

The Lancaster Schools were supported by the Dissenters 
and by the great Whig noblemen. They were attached to no 
denomination ; but, at the suggestion of King George III., 
it is said, simple, plain Bible teaching was imparted. 



The National Society. 53 

In 1807, the members of the Church of England, seeing 
the growth of the Lancastrian Schools, invited Dr. Bell 
"National" ^ establish and organise a similar set of 
schools. schools for them. In these the Church 
Liturgy and Catechism were taught. Thus were founded 
the two sets of schools which have, under various names, 
carried on the work of national education, but have, 
unfortunately, been the foundation and cause of much 
religious acrimony. Unlike his contemporary, Dr. Bell 
died rich, bequeathing his large fortune almost entirely 
to educational uses. 

The schools established pursuant to Dr. Bell's scheme 
were carried on under the auspices of the National Society 
for the Education of the Poor, which was established in 
1811. The schools founded, or encouraged, by the two 
societies became known as "National" and "British" 

Lancaster and Bell may be taken as the twin pioneers 
of popular education in England. 

Up to this time, education had been left entirely to 
private enterprise. In 1816, however, it was, in a very 
tentative manner, taken up by the State. A committee, 
presided over by Henry, afterwards Lord, Brougham, 
was appointed to consider the educational wants of 
London. The report of the committee disclosed 
lamentable deficiencies ; but it was not until 1832 
that any direct financial assistance was given to 
the schools of the people. In that year Lord Althorp 
proposed a vote of 20,000 from the national trea- 
sury for the building of schools. This was expended 
through the medium of the two societies already 
referred to. 

In 1835, Lord Brougham vainly strove, in the House of 
Lords, to obtain the establishment of schools for teachers. 



54 fastory of Education. 

Yet his proposal was only to make an annual grant of 
the sum of 20,000. 

The work he did bore fruit, as in 1839 there was 
Committee of established a " Committee, of Council on 
Council. Education" to whom was entrusted the 
administration of all sums voted by Parliament for 
educational purposes. The first secretary of this body 
was Dr. Kay, who, known to us as Sir James Kay- 
Shuttleworth, had high ideals. These, fortunately, have 
permeated our whole system. He had studied the 
educational systems of Switzerland, then probably the 
best in the world, and Prussia, then the strictest. The 
first item in the programme laid down by Sir James 
was the efficient training of teachers. He was unable 
to do more in this respect than to obtain a " grant 
in aid " of training teachers to the amount of 10,000, 
divided equally between the two societies. He was also a 
strong advocate of " inspection," and in 1840 the " Minutes 
of Council " provided that every school receiving a grant 
should be open to the inspection and examination of 
persons appointed for the purpose. As at this time religious 
subjects formed a part of the school curriculum, the 
schools were subject to religious tests since abolished. 

At this time properly qualified teachers were all but 
impossible to obtain. Training, except in the schools as 

monitors, or pupil teachers, was practically 
Training Colleges. 

unknown. Time alter time Parliament was 

Basked to establish "training colleges," but without success. 
In 1840, however, Sir James Kay- Shut tleworth with 
the aid of a few friends, established a college at Battersea. 
The National Society took this over a couple of years 
later. Everyone concerned in the question of education 
knows the invaluable work done by St. John's, Battersea, 



training Colleges. 55 

since. Almost at the same time, the British and Foreign 
Society established a training college in Borough luoad, 
the old road whare Lancaster toiled. These two colleges 
have ever since been strong, active, friendly rivals. Since 
then many other similar colleges have been, established, 
passage through which is deemed a valuable adjunct in 
the equipment of a fully trained and qualified teacher. 

After 1839, yearly grants, varying in amount, were 
made for the purposes of education. These were not 
large, but they grew steadily, though gradually, and in 
1846 reached, for the first time, 100,000. Air this time 
the schools under government inspection contained some 
700,000 children. In this year a great stride forward 
was made. Certification of qualified teachers was 
recognised ; training colleges, of which there were now 
nine, were aided ; scholarships were established for students 
desiring to enter them ; and the Pupil Teacher system 
of regular apprenticeship was adopted. This mode of 
training teachers has been but little altered. Extended 
and modified to suit changing circumstances it has been 
but in its main features it is the samo to-day. At this 
time, too, it was provided by the minutes in council that 
grants should be made to all certificated teachers in 
augmentation of their salaries. This scheme, outlined in 
the House of Lords by Lord Lansdowne, was adopted, 
but education did not become by any means general. 
According to Mr. Joseph Kaye, every child in 
Germany, Holland and Switzerland for the last twenty 
or thirty years had been receiving a good education. Of the 
men and women under the age of thirty-five, nine-tenths 
were well educated. In England, on the other hand, one 
person in every four who got married was unable to write 
his or her name, and signed the register with a mark. 



56 History of Education. 

The next step in the development of State Education 
was the appointment, in 1856, of a Vice-President of the 
Council of Education, who should be a member of 
Parliament, and thus become the representative and 
An Education exponent of educational policy in the 
Department. House. This may be regarded as the 
foundation of the modern Education Department, now 
the Board of Education. In the following year the grant 
for education, for the first time, exceeded half a million 
sterling. It is interesting to look back on the parliamentary 
debates of this time. What an old-world flavour there is 
about a member declaring his fear that, " according to 
the present rate of progression the Government would 
soon be in possession of the education of the entire 
people." Though looming large in the eyes of many men 
then, this grant was nothing like sufficient to deal with 
so important a question, and in 1858 a commission 
generally known as tho Duke of Newcastle's was, 
on the motion of Sir John Pakington, appointed to 
consider the whole matter. This commission reported in 
1861. The inquiry was a most exhaustive one, and disclosd 
a lamentable state of things. Only a fraction of the 
children had been reached, and of these the vast majority 
were but imperfectly instructed. Their report, which was 
very voluminous, contained extensive criticisms and 
recommendations, many of the latter finding their way, 
later on, into the educational policy of the country. Thus, 
they suggested the abolition of direct grants to teachers 
and the substitution of payments to managers ; a searching 
individual examination of each child ; and the giving of 
subsidies from the county rates, in addition to treasury 
grants. It cannot be doubted that the deliberations and 
conclusions of the Duke of Newcastle's Commission 



Payment by Results. 57 

directly led to the introduction of the Revised Code 
of 1862. 

Mr. Eobert Lowe, afterwards Lord Sherbrooke, was at 
this time vice-president, and, in dealing with the estimates, 
Payment by sketched out an entirely new educational 
Results policy. Direct relations between the 
Department and the teachers were abolished, and they 
were left to make their own contracts with the managers 
or trustees of the schools. But the great and far- 
reaching change was one which made the grants 
depend upon the results of individual examination 
of the children in reading, writing, and arithmetic. It 
was a system of " no pass, no pay." No educational 
proposal had hitherto excited such a storm of opposition. 
Members of Parliament, interested in the welfare of the 
two great societies, through whom grants had previously 
been distributed : educationalists, afraid of the educational 
dead level which they feared would be the result : and 
teachers, regretting the loss of direct payment and the 
privileges connected therewith, all banded against it; but 
it became law, and, modified year by year in successive 
codes, so remained almost to the present time. The 
immediate effect of the change was to decrease the grants, 
which in five -years fell by nearly 200,000. 

Secondary education, up to this date, had received but 
scant attention from Parliament. It had hitherto been 
entirely supplied by grammar, and private adventure, 
schools. In the latter, the proprietors were entirely 
irresponsible ; in the former, the trustees were only 
amenable to the difficult control of the Court of 
Chancery as the supervisors of trusts. In 1865, Lord 
Taunton's Schools Enquiry Commission took the whole 
question of Endowed (including all Grammar) Schools, into 



5b History of Education. 

consideration. Their inquiries extended to the whole of 
the 3,000 such schools then existing. The results disclosed 
were very disappointing. Three-fourths of the schools 
were pronounced to be inefficient, some of them hopelessly 
BO. The causes of this seem to have been mainly three: 
the unsuitability of many of the trustees, the difficulty 
of construing and carrying out the old charters, and the 
mode of appointing teachers with a freehold attached to 
their office. The report on the private, or proprietary, 
schools was more satisfactory ; but these, too, were subject 
to no examination, the teachers were poorly qualified, and 
the results, though better than those in the endowed 
schools, were but poor. 

One of the members of Lord Taunton's Commission was 
Mr. W. E. Forster, who, in 1868, was Vice-President of 

the Council under Mr. Gladstone. In this 
W. E. Forster. 

year he secured the passage of a short 

temporary act to regulate the appointment of teachers 
and to make them subject, in the tenure of their office, 
to any scheme of management which might thereafter be 
formulated. This was followed in the next session by 
The Endowed Schools' Act, which provided for the 
appointment of commissioners, who should have power 
to draw up schemes for the management of all endowed 
schools, the regulation of the instruction, and the applica- 
tion of their funds. Under such schemes, all these schools 
are now carried on, and the popularity and usefulness 
of such institutions has been widely extended. The 
power of framing schemes was transferred to the Charity 
Commissioners in 1874. 

To return now to the question of elementary education. 
For eight years after the introduction of the Revised Code 
little was done, except what sprang from the natural 



The School Board System. 5d 

expansion of the system by the growth of population, 
and the modification of the circumstances. But, though 
Parliament had been inactive, popular attention had been 
keenly directed to the complete failure of the schools to 
reach a great mass of the children. It had been borne 
into the minds of men that, though schools might be 
provided, though governments might support them, yet 
without the support of the parents, acquired either 
voluntarily or compulsorily, the work was a failure. The 
idea of compulsion, though long familiar on the continent, 
Compulsory was repugnant to English ideas. But 
Education. f actg f orce a the hand of politicians, and 
in 1870 Mr. W. E. Forster introduced his great Education 
Act, which was the foundation of our first scheme of 
national education, and which, modified by the Acts 
of 1902 and 1903, still regulates it. 

This Act, for the first time, laid down the broad 
principle that it was the duty of the State to see that 
every child received a suitable education. The primary 
duty of securing this lay on the parent, but should he 
fail, through neglect or unwillingness, the State must 
step in and legally compel him to do his duty. Such a 
provision was in the nature of a revolution. It was 
vigorously opposed as an interference with the freedom 
of the parent, but it was carried, and is now accepted 
with practical unanimity. 

The other great innovation was the compulsory provision 

of schools out of public funds where existing schools were 

found to be insufficient. Previously all 

ls * schools had been provided by voluntary 

agencies, assisted to a small extent by the Treasury. 

The effect of this had been that the struggle to 

provide and maintain sufficient for the whole country 



60 History of Education. 

had failed, and many places were supplied very 
inadequately, some not at all. To repair this deficiency 
school boards were appointed where required, with power 
to provide and upkeep schools out of the rates. Govern- 
ment grants were continued to both classes of schools, 
but rate aid could only be given to those belonging 
to the locally elected school boards. 

The third principle which characterises this Act was the 

introduction of a compulsory conscience 
Conscience Clause. _ . , t . i j. r 

clause into every school in receipt 01 

Government grants, and the exclusion of all distinctive 
dogmatic teaching from all schools assisted from the rates.. 
From 1870 to 1891, all the statutes passed were subsidiary 
to the principal Act, but many modifications and improve- 
ments in the curriculum were effected by 

1870-1891. , . 

the annual codes. These being each year 
laid on the tables of Parliament, have the force of law, 
and have greatly enlarged the scope of the instruction, 
led to improved methods of teaching, to the increase in 
staff, and to the provision of roomy, suitable, and sanitary 
buildings. 

The Act of 1870 preserved the payment of school fees. 
No one was entitled to free education, unless on good 

cause shown. By the Act of 1891, free 

Free Education. .. ,. . -IIP n r* 

education became possible for all. Com- 
pensatory grants were thereby made to all schools, whether 
Board or Voluntary, in consideration of the abolition of 
fees. This was adopted almost universally, and there are 
now few elementary schools where any fees are charged. 
The problem of " Free Education " had long puzzled 
politicians. As ever, the religious difficulty had stopped 
the way. The knot was cut in 1891 by giving a grant 
in lieu of fees to schools of every denomination. 



A Co-ordinating Act. 61 

In 1893 an Act was passed to provide for the education 
of blind and deaf children, and also one restricting 
the employment of young children. 

The Act of 1897 gave further assistance to necessitous 
schools, and also freed voluntary schools from assessments 
for rates. In vi'ew of the later legislation, these acts 
are now of little practical importance. 

The recent Elementary Education Act of 1902, though 
not yet in full operation, is the culmination of all 

the educational agitation of the last century. 
Recent Legislation. 

It recognises, for the first time, the public 

duty of maintaining all schools provided for elementary 
education. It goes still further. It authorises public 
bodies, not only to provide and maintain elementary 
schools out of rates, but it extends the power of 
assistance to schools of every grade, however such schools 
are provided. The idea of the act is to co-ordinate all 
education, to try to approach a really national system not 
bounded by the limits of elementary work, but embracing 
the whole. It is now in the experimental stage. Its 
development will be watched with eager anxiety by all 
educationalists. 

The act of 1903 is to all intents merely an extension of 
the previous one to London. The details of admini- 
stration are necessarily different, but the principles to 
be applied are the same. 



The Great Foundations. 



STEICTLY speaking the word " foundation," as here applied, 
has reference to a charitable institution endowed for a 
specific purpose, and it is in this sense that Dogberry, in 
Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, uses the word 
when he says " God bless the foundation," which we are 
told was the time-honoured formulary of those who used to 
beg at the doors of religious houses. It is an unfortunate 
fact, however, that the charitable bequests of the benevolent 
have gradually become diverted from the purpose for which 
they were originally intended, until at the present time 
charities designed for the education of the poor are being 
administered for the benefit of the wealthy and the well- 
born. In short, most of our great public schools and 
colleges owe their existence and support to charities 
instituted to provide with an education those whose poverty 
placed it beyond their reach. In compiling the chronological 
list which follows, it has been thought desirable to include 
some few institutions which do not strictly fall under the 
head of " Foundations." Among these will be noticed a few 
proprietary colleges such as Clifton, state -supported schools 
such as those at Greenwich and Sandhurst, and some few 
of the institutions that during the last few years have sprung 
into existence to cater for the higher education of women, 



The Great Foundations. 63 

1135. HOSPITAL established at Cambridge, dedicated to 

St. John the Evangelist by Henry Frost. 
This hospital was managed by the Augustinian Friars, and 
was really the predecessor of ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, Cambridge. It 
was not until 1511 formed into a college, by the instrumentality 
of Lady Margaret Beaufort. St. John's is now the second 
richest college in Cambridge, Trinity taking the first place. In 
the history of education it is worth noting that Eoger Ascham 
was a student at St. John's. 

1231. CHARTER CONSTITUTING CAMBRIDGE A UNIVERSITY, 

granted by King Henry III. 

Like Oxford, Cambridge had long been known for its educational 
work before it became a university, in 1231. Tradition goes 
so far as to say that there was a school here in the seventh 
century, founded by Siegbert, one of the East Anglian kings. 
The charter of foundation led to the better discipline of the 
students, as they were then required to live in "hostels," of 
which, in 1280, there are said to have been twenty-seven. It 
was not, however, until 1511 that the ultimate incorporation 
took place. In 1603, the university, as distinct from the town, 
sent two members to Parliament. The various colleges and 
halls are dealt with under the dates of their respective 
foundations. Cambridge vies with Oxford in the eminence of 
its students. Among them may be mentioned, Latimer, 
Paley, Bancroft, Jeremy Taylor ; Milton, Ben Jonson, 
Ascham, Tennyson ; Bacon, Coke, Newton, Harvey, Palmerston, 
and Darwin. 

1248. CHARTER CREATING OXFORD A UNIVERSITY, granted 

by Henry III. 

The history of Oxford University is almost that of the 
ntellectual life of England. Legends say that the schools here 
were founded by King Alfred. Though this is probably 
incorrect, it is certain that schools existed in the city at a 
very early date. Successive charters secured the university its 
privileges, and it was finally incorporated by Queen Elizabeth 



64 History of Education. 

in 1570. Oxford is now the chief centre of English classical, 
as Cambridge is of mathematical, education. 

In 1604, the university was given the franchise to send two 
members to Parliament. In 1871, all religious tests were 
abolished. Women were admitted to the examinations in 1884 
by a special statute. Oxford has sent out, through its various 
colleges and halls, many of the most famous Englishmen 
Blackstone and Wren; Colet, who built and endowed St. Paul's 
School; Arnold, Swinbourne and Manning; Ruskin, Gladstone 
and Froude ; diverse thinkers and writers like Keble, Pusey, 
Dr. Johnson and Cardinal Newman ; lawyers like Eldon and 
Stow ell. These are but a tithe of the eminent men who have 
looked to Oxford as their alma mater. 

1249. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by William 

of Durham. 

This is generally held to be the oldest college at Oxford. 
It has even been suggested that King Alfred had something 
to do with the beginning of what afterwards developed into 
University College. The authority for this is doubtful. 

1257. PETERHOUSE (St. Peter's College), Cambridge 

founded by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. 
Peterhouse, like St. John's, in a sense, grew out of the old 
Hospital of St. John. Balsham originally instituted his school 
at the hospital in 1257. In 1284 it was removed to Cambridge 
University. Balsham was eager in his foundation to separate 
the monastic from the school life. Peterhouse is the oldest 
establishment at Cambridge which can properly be called a 
college. Gray, who wrote the elegy, studied here, but left and 
went to Pembroke. 

1263. BALLIOL COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by the widow 

of John de Balliol. 

The exact date of the foundation is uncertain. It is interesting 
to note that the John de Balliol in question was the father of 
the John Balliol afterwards King of Scotland, 



The Great Foundations. 65 

1264. MEBTON COLLEGE, founded at Maiden in Surrey 
by Walter de Merton, Bishop of Eochester. 

The college was not established at Oxford until ten years later. 
Upon Merton's scheme were based most of the other colleges. 
Its old chapel took over a hundred years to complete. The 
library is the oldest in Oxford. It was re-endowed, by 
William of Wykeham, in 1380. 

In 1882, ST. ALBAN HALL, which is said to date back to the 
fifteenth century, lost its separate identity and became merged 
in Merton College. 



. Walter de Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, founded 
a school, afterwards known as EXETER COLLEGE, 
Oxford. 

This college was largely endowed, some two hundred and fifty 
years later, by Sir William Petre, but all its buildings, surrounded 
by beautiful gardens, are modern. 

1324. ORIEL COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Adam de Brome. 
Oriel is probably best known as the college where the 
Tractarian Movement originated. Keble, author of the 
" Christian Year," and Newman, afterwards Cardinal, were 
both among its students. 

1326. CLARE COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Richard de 

Baden, under the title of UNIVERSITY HALL. 
The name was changed in 1359, when the college was largely 
endowed by Elizabeth, Countess of Clare, and grand-daughter 
of Edward I. Clare College is referred to by Chaucer as " The 
Solere Hall at Cantabrage." 

1340. QUEEN'S COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Robert 

Eglesfield, chaplain to Queen Philippa, 
Queen Philippa took great interest in the foundation of this 
college. Hence the name. The library at Queen's is one pf 
the most valuable in the world. It is at Queen's that the 
Boar's Head forms an essential part of every Christmas Day 
celebration. 



66 History of Education. 

1358. GONVILLE AND CAius COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded 
by Edmund Gonville, sometime Vicar-General of the 
diocese of Ely. 

CAIUS COLLEGE was formerly known as GONVILLE HALL. It 
was not until 1558 that it became popularly known as Caius 
College, when John Caius, M.D. obtained the royal charter 
by which the college was established as Gonville and Gains 
College. This college is specially devoted to medicine, and there 
are five valuable medical scholarships attached to it. Harvey, 
who discovered the circulation of the blood, was a Caius man. 

1348. PEMBROKE COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Mary 

de St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke. 

Pembroke was one of the most picturesque colleges in 
Cambridge, but modern innovations have greatly interfered with 
its beauty. The foundress had an unhappy experience, being a 
wife but for a few hours. Her husband, the earl, was killed at 
a tilting match on their wedding day. 

1350. TEINITY HALL, Cambridge, founded by William 

Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. 

The college was designed entirely for the study of Civil and 
Canon Law, and the scholars were to be at least Bachelors 
of Arts on admission. The building is modern, the old premises 
having been destroyed by fire in 1851. 

1352. CORPUS CHRISTI, Cambridge, founded by the Guilds 

of " Corpus Christi and of the Blessed Virgin Mary." 

The college was founded by one of the religious and charitable 

guilds of the Middle Ages, and was situated near the Church 

of St. Benet, which was attached to the college and served by 

its members. 

1380. NEW COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by William of 

Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. 

William of Wykeham provided that New College should be 
intimately connected with " S. Marie College of Winchester," 
and the seventy fellowships at New College, to which Winchester 



The Great Foundations. 67 

scholars were exclusively eligible, were in 1857 converted into 
thirtjr fellowships and thirty scholarships. The buildings of 
New College are complete and original, and are worthy of the 
greatest architect of the day. For years this College was 
known as St. Mary Winton, referring, of course, to Winchester. 
It is still the bourne to which all Winchester students aspire. 
1387. WINCHESTER SCHOOL, founded by William of 
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. 

This was one of the first schools opened which was not 
monastic. It was intended for the education of priests, and 
was under episcopal supervision. The old edifice still exists, 
with comparatively modern additions. In the old schoolroom, 
which was built in the seventeenth century, there still hangs 
a quaint, ancient signboard, painted, it is believed, in the 
middle of the fifteenth century, telling all boys that they must 
learn or leave (" Aut disce, aut discede ; manet sors tertia coedi "), 
with the alternative of being flogged with a rod of four twigs. 
Among the many famous Winchester boys, perhaps the best 
known are Otway, Lempriere, Arnold, Sydney Smith and 
Lord Sherbrooke, better known to the educational world as 
Robert Lowe. 

1427. LINCOLN COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Richard 
Fleming. 

Richard Fleming, one of the Wicklifiite leaders, founded the 
college for the benefit of the diocese whose name it bears. 
The scanty provision made by Richard Fleming has been 
gradually augmented by successive benefactors, among whom 
may be mentioned John Forest, Dean of Wells, and Thomas 
Eotherham, Bishop of Lincoln. 

1^37. ALL SOULS' COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Archbishop 
Chichele. 

The name of this college recalls the practice of praying for 
the souls of all those who perished in the French Wars. It 
is one of the most beautiful colleges in the University, and is 
largely used by legal students. It has a splendid library of 
law books. 



68 History of Education. 

1439. CHRIST'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by William 

Byngham. 

This was originally established as a school, under the name 
of " God's House" and was raised to the dignity of a college, 
in 1505, by Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry VII 
Christ's has produced many great scholars, men of varied 
attainments, like Latimer, Milton, and Darwin. A mulberry 
tree, known as Milton s, is still pointed out, and has been 
the shrine of pilgrims from all over the English-speaking 
world. 



ETON SCHOOL, founded by Henry VI. (There is 
some doubt as to the exact year.) 

The original title of the school was " The College of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary of Eton, beside Windsor. 11 

Lands were granted to the foundation for the maintenance 
of the school. The buildings were not owing to political 
disturbances completed until 1523. The students now number 
nearly a thousand. " Eminent Etonians " is the subject of 
an interesting work by E. S. Creasy. Among them are 
BolingbroJce, Canning, Chatham, Fox, Gladstone, Milman, 
North, Greville, Gray, Shelley and Wellington. 

1441. KING'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Henry VI. 
King's was specially founded as a link between Eton and 
the University. For a long time all scholarships were con- 
fined to Eton boys, but now more than half have been made 
open. The chapel of King's is one of the grandest examples of 
the Perpendicular Style of Gothic architecture in the world. 

1448. QUEENS' COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by the 

fighting Queen Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI. 

During the Wars of the Boses there was great trouble at 

Queens' but in 1465 the Queen of Edward IV. became its 

patroness. Thus both the White and Bed Bose Queens sup- 

ported the College. An interesting fact about Queens' is that 

it waa here that ERASMUS taught Greek. 



The Great Foundations. 69 

1456. MAGDALEN COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by William 

of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. 

Magdalen vies with Christ Church in beauty. Its magnificent 
tower, 145 feet high, took thirteen years to build. A unique 
religious service survives here. At the top of the tower on 
May 1st each year a hymn is sung at five in the morning. 
It was upon Magdalen that James II., in 1688, unsuccessfully 
tried to force a president. 

1473. ST. CATHERINE'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by 

Bobert Woodlark, Provost of King's College. 
The college was formerly known as St. Catherine's Hall, 
and originally consisted of a master and three fellows. At 
the time of election they were to be Bachelors of Arts in 
minor orders, and were eventually to study theology. According 
to the Founder's Statute, no two persons were to be elected 
from the same county. The college has produced a Targe 
number of ecclesiastical writers. 

1596. JESUS COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by John 

Alcock, Bishop of Ely. 

This college stands on the site of an old nunnery dedicated 
to St. Rhadegund, which was granted for educational purposes 
by Henry VII. Considerable damage was done to the buildings 
when Cromwell, himself a Cambridge undergraduate, occupied 
the city in 1643. They are now among the most handsome 
of recent restorations. 

1509. BBASENOSE COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Sir 
Eichard Button and William Smith, Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

The college occupies the site of Brasenose Hall, erected in 
the thirteenth century. Numerous benefactors have added 
scholarships and exhibitions, prominent among whom is Sarah, 
Dowager Duchess of Somerset, who founded eighteen scholar- 
ships for persons educated at the Manchester, Hereford, and 
Marlbprough Schools. 



70 History of Education. 

1511. ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Lady 

Margaret, Countess of Kichmond and Derby. 
The college succeeded the Hospital of St. John, founded in 
1135, from which Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, removed his 
scholars in 1284 to Peterhouse. The foundation consists of a 
master, fifty-six fellows, sixty scholars, and nine sizars. 

1512. ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL, St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 

established by Dean Colet. 

This school provided free education to one hundred and 
fifty-three poor children. Originally its income, derived from 
lands, was somewhat over a hundred pounds ; now it approaches 
six thousand. The school has been transferred to West Ken- 
sington, and special attention is given to the preparation of 
candidates for army examinations. 

1516. COEPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by 
Bishop Fox. 

This college was especially intended for the study of the 
Greek and Latin classics, and it still retains its original character. 
The library is a very fine one, and contains a splendid collection of 
early English manuscripts. 

1519. MAGDALENE COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Lord 
Audley, of Audley End. 

A Benedictine School had occupied this site for over a 
century, but was closed on the suppression of the monasteries. 
This college is interesting as having been the alma mater of 
Samuel Pepys, the writer of the well-known diary. He left 
the whole of his library to his college, where it is still preserved 
intact. 

1532. CHRIST CHURCH, Oxford, founded by King Henry 

VIII. 

The first projector of this was Cardinal Wolsey, and it was 
proposed to be called Cardinal College. Though still the 
largest of all the colleges, Wolsey's ideas were upon a much 
grander scale. Each night its great bell, weighing seven and 



The Great Foundations. 71 

a half tons, tolls, just after nine, one hundred and one strokes 
a kind of college curfew, when all gates must be closed. The 
college and its surroundings form the beautiful centre of Oxford 
sightseeing. The churches owe much to this college, Wickliffe, 
Wesley and Pusey having all been connected with it. 

1556, TRINITY COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by 
Henry VIII. 

Trinity consists of a union of several earlier foundations not 
dignified with the name of college, as for instance : 
MICHAEL HOUSE, founded 1324. 
KING'S HALL, founded by Edward III. in 1337. 

The library is the work of Sir Christopher Wren, and displays 
many of the characteristics of his style. Trinity has produced 
many great men. To mention only a few, we have Sir Edward 
Coke, Lord Bacon, Dryden, Newton, Byron, Thackeray, and 
Tennyson. 

1552. BIRMINGHAM GRAMMAR SCHOOL, founded by King 
Edward VI, 

At the time of the foundation the income from lands was 
about twenty pounds. Now, owing to the enormous growth 
of the city, it is fifteen thousand. Known as KING EDWARD'S 
SCHOOL, it is recognised as the educational centre of Birmingham. 
It has nearly seven hundred pupils. A large number of classical 
scholarships are open to its students,, tenable at Oxford or 
Cambridge. 

1553. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, founded on the site of the 
Greyfriars Monastery in Newgate Street, London, 
by Edward VI. 

Christ's Hospital, usually called the BLUECOAT SCHOOL, is 
well known throughout the country. Its second title is 
derived from the dress worn by the pupils. Originally this 
consisted of a long blue woollen gown with a red girdle, yellow 
petticoat, knee breeches, bands, and worsted cap. The cap and 
petticoat have been abandoned since the year 1868. A large 
part of the building was demolished by the great fire in 



72 History of Education, 

1666, and was rebuilt under the supervision of Sir Christopher 
Wren. In 1863 a preparatory school was built at Hertford for 
children of both sexes. The main school has recently been removed 
to West Horsham. Camden, Coleridge, Lamb, and Cavagnari, 
who was killed in Afghanistan, are among the eminent " Old Blues." 
1555. ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, Oxford, founded. 

It is difficult to determine the founder of this. Archbishop 
Laud was one of its chief supporters, and spent large sums 
of money on its library. But Sir Thomas White, a London 
merchant, was also equally concerned in the foundation. The 
college embraces the buildings which formerly belonged to the 
ST. BERNARD'S COLLEGE. 

1555. TRINITY COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Sir Thomas 
Pope. 

Trinity is one of the most popular colleges in the University, 
its fellowships and scholarships being open. 
1557. EEPTON GRAMMAR SCHOOL, founded by Sir John 
Porte. 

The school and the hospital at Etwall were made a body 
corporate in 1621, and the estates conveyed to the Corporation 
of Repton. The grammar school is built on the site of the old 
Priory, which Leland mentions as a noble monastery under 
the Heptarchy. 
1560. WESTMINSTER SCHOOL, founded by Queen Elizabeth. 

Forty Queen's scholars are here provided for, as well as 
nearly two hundred day pupils. The famous Dr. Busby was 
headmaster from 1640 to 1695, among his pupils being Dryden, 
Locke, and Bishop Hooper. 

1561. MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL, founded by tbe 
Merchant Taylors' Company. 

It was founded at the suggestion of Sir Thomas White, 
founder of St. John's College, Oxford, who afterwards endowed 
the school with thirty- seven fellowships in that college. 
The school has neither charter nor estates, and cannot 
therefore strictly be termed a foundation school. Its first 
head-master was Richard Mulcaster, appointed in 1561. 



The Great Foundations. 72> 

1567. EUGBY SCHOOL, founded by Lawrence Sheriff. 

He endowed the school with lands in Lamb's Conduit Street, 
London, now of immensely increased value. Though at all 
times Eugby was a good school, it was not until 1827 (when 
Dr. Arnold assumed the head-mastership) that it began to take 
the leading place in the educational world. Dr. Hawkins, in 
recommending him for the post, prophesied that he would 
"change the face of education all through the public schools 
of England," and the prophecy was fully justified by events. 
From this time Eugby sent out many of the most eminent 
men of their times. To mention a tithe of them would occupy 
too much space. Their names are writ large on the pages 
of the world's history. A few may be given as examples : 
Walter Savage Landor and Mattheiu Arnold; Tom Hughes, 
who delighted us with his " Tom Brown's Schooldays " ; Lord 
Derby and Lord Justice Boiven, the most pleasant and 
polished of modern classical judges. The eminence of the 
pupils was but a reflex of the eminence of the masters. On 
the death of Arnold, in 1842, Dr. Tait, afterwards Archbishop 
of Canterbury, assumed the position. Dr. Benson, also after- 
wards archbishop, was among the teachers, and his successor, 
as Archbishop at Canterbury, Dr. Temple, was head-master 
for twelve years. 
1571. The GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF HARROW-ON-THE-HILL, 

founded by John Lyon, a yeoman living in the 

parish of Harrow. 

The charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth " for the per- 
petual education, teaching, and instruction of children and 
youth of the said parish and of two scholars within the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge and two within the University of Oxford." 
Circumstances have lifted Harrow into a position for which 
it was not originally intended, for it was founded as a local 
school for the instruction of village lads ; but it has reached, 
owing to special circumstances, a position equal to any of its 
rivals. Harrow came into prominence during the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 



74 History of JJducaiion. 

1571. JESUS COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Queen Eliza- 
beth. 

There are twenty-four foundation scholarships, only twelve of 
which are open ; the others, together with six " Meyricke " scholar- 
ships, are restricted to students having a Welsh qualification, 
either of birth, residence, education, or knowledge of the language. 

1581. QBE SHAM COLLEGE, founded. 

Sir Thomas Gresham, who may be regarded as the founder 
of the Royal Exchange, London, was a man of vast wealth. 
Being desirous of establishing a free college in London for all 
who chose to attend, by the gift of his town house in 
Bishopsgate Street, and by applying the rents of the Koyal 
Exchange to the purpose, he made provision for seven 
lecturers, who were to give weekly lectures on astronomy, 
divinity, geometry, law, medicine, music and rhetoric. 
Each lecturer, in addition to his salary, was provided with a 
separate suite of apartments. After many vicissitudes, beginning 
with the fire of London, the present Gresham College was 
established in 1841. 

1584. UPPINGHAM GRAMMAR SCHOOL, founded by Arch- 
deacon Johnson. 

This school is endowed with certain lands and other 
properties, the government being vested in a body of twenty -four 
governors, of whom seven are ex officio. They are the Bishops of 
London and Peterboro', the Deans of Westminster and Peterboro', 
the Archdeacon of Northampton, and the Masters of Trinity 
and St. John's Colleges, Cambridge. 
1591. EMMANUEL COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by Sir 

Walter Mildmay. 

Formerly the site was occupied by a Dominican House, 
which was closed at the suppression of the monasteries. The 
Master's Lodge was built by Sir Christopher Wren, as was 
also the chapel. Emmanuel had a large influence over American 
education, for here was educated John Harvard, the founder of 
the great university which bears his name. 



The Great Foundations. *75 

1595. SIDNEY-SUSSEX COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded by 
the executors of Lady Frances Sidney, dowager 
Countess of Sussex. 
The Sidney- Sussex site belongs to Trinity, and an annual 

rent is still paid for it. Like Emmanuel College, the Sidney- 

Sussex College had the reputation of being a hotbed of Puritanism. 

Among its students was Oliver Cromwell. 

1610. WADHAM COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Nicholas 

Wadham and Dorothy Wadham, his wife. 
Nicholas Wadham, before his death, which occurred hi 
1609, had himself designed certain buildings for the purpose 
of a college. By his will he requested his widow to have these 
carried into effect. This she did, and Wadham is one of the 
best built colleges in Oxford. It was out of meetings held 
at this college by Bishop Sprat, Dr. Wilkins, Sir Christopher 
Wren, and other eminent men, that the Royal Society ultimately 
grew. 

1611. CHARTERHOUSE SCHOOL, founded by Thomas Button. 
Thomas Sutton, " Citizen and Girdler," had procured an 

Act of Parliament for the foundation of a Hospital and Free 
Grammar School at Hallingbury, Essex, and this he removed, 
in virtue of Letters Patent, to Charterhouse. The site of the 
foundation Chartreuse Monastery, Charterhouse Square was 
part of the estates of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
and was purchased from them in 1349 by Sir Walter de Manny, 
who, in turn, sold it to the Bishop of London for the purpose of 
founding a Carthusian convent. It passed to the Norfolks 
(Howards) after the suppression of the monasteries, and was 
bought by Thomas Sutton in 1611. In 1872 the college was 
removed from the city to Godalming, in Surrey. 



. DULWICH COLLEGE, founded by Edward Alleyn. 
Nearly eight hundred boys are here educated. There is also 
an almshouse connected with the college. The revenues are 
very large, arising from lands in the neighbourhood, which have 



76 History of Education. 

in recent years greatly increased in value. Dulwich Manor, 
which constitutes the chief endowment of the college, was 
purchased by Edward Alleyri, the actor, from the Caltons, who 
had acquired it by grant from Henry VIII. after the dissolution 
of Bermondsey Monastery. 

1625. PEMBROKE COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by James I. 

The college, originally BROADGATES HALL, derived its name 
from William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who was chancellor 
of the university in the year of its foundation. Dr. Johnson 
was a member of this college. 

1657. A UNIVERSITY AT DURHAM, established by Oliver 

Cromwell. 

This was endowed with the sequestered revenues of the 
Cathedral, but at the Restoration was suppressed. Two centuries 
after, the idea was not only revived but in 1837 became an 
a ctuality. 

16C3. ROYAL SOCIETY INCORPORATED. 

A great impulse was given to learning by the publication in 1620 of Bacon's 
" Novum Organum." A number of learned men united their efforts to 
promulgate the ideas and theories in this book. They were first associated 
at Oxford, but afterwards removed to London, and were eventually 
incorporated by Royal Charter, under the title of " The President, Council 
and Fellowship of the Royal Society of London." To this Society Newton 
produced his " Priricipia," which was ordered to be printed. A grant of 
5,000 a year is made by the State to the Society for purposes of scientific 
research. The President of the Society, who is elected annually, is, as a 
rule, the leader, and, in many cases, the pioneer of scientific or philosophic 
thought. Among its members are numbered men like Sir Christopher Wren, 
Samuel Pepys, Sir Isaac Newton, Sir Humphrey Davy, Professor Huxleyt 
Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thompson) and Lord Lister. 

1685. CHARITY SCHOOLS first founded in England. 

Prior to this all " elementary education " had fallen into the hands of the 
Roman Catholics. Endowments and foundations had been left or established 
for boys' Grammar Schools, but little had been done for the poorer classes. 
Many of these institutions were established during the reign of Anne, much 
good work being done by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
Bish op Ken and Archdeacon Kennet were prominent in the work. 

ST. MARGARET'S SCHOOL, Westminster, founded in 1688 by Queen Anne was 
one of the earliest of the parochial charity schools, of which the Queen was 
an ardent supporter, and which may be regarded as the foundation of the 
modern voluntary school system. 



The Great Foundations. 77 

1714. WORCESTER COLLEGE, Oxford, founded under the 
will of Sir Thomas Cooke. 

The college was first known as Gloucester Hall, being 
founded, in 1283, as a Benedictine school. It did not receive 
its charter, however, until 1714, and has received many 
benefactions since the year of its foundation. 
1741. EOYAL MILITARY ACADEMY, Woolwich, founded. 

It affords a preparatory education to candidates for the 
Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. The instruction given is 
chiefly technical, and in obligatory subjects is not carried 
beyond the point useful to both corps alike. The academy 
being a Government establishment, supported by Parliamentary 
grants, has neither endowment nor governing body in the 
ordinary sense. The direct and immediate authority over it 
rests with the Commander-in -Chief, as Governor. 

1794. Foundation of the Jesuit College at STONYHURST. 

The men who had been carrying on a school at St. Omer 
in France, and at Brttges and Liege in Belgium, were invited 
to settle in Lancashire by an Englishman named Weld in 1794. 
.The college thus founded is still one of the most popular among 
members of the Roman Catholic faith. Its students figure 
conspicuously in the lists of the London University Examinations, 
and a large number of names well-known in the army can be 
found on its books. 

1799. EOYAL MILITARY COLLEGE, Sandhurst, founded. 

The college was originally founded for the instruction of 
candidates for the army. It now provides a special military 
education to candidates for Infantry and Cavalry commissions. 
Sons of officers who have died while on service are received 
without payment on the recommendation of the Commander-in- 
Chief or of the First Lord of the Admiralty. 
1800. DOWNING COLLEGE, Cambridge, founded. 

Sir George Downing, a wealthy Cambridgeshire baronet, died 
in 1717, leaving large bequests for the purpose of endowing 
a college. Subsequent litigation delayed its practical establish- 



78 History of Education. 

ment, and the first undergraduate was not received until 1812. 
1822. ROYAL ACADEMY OF Music, London, founded by 
the Earl of Westmoreland. 

The objects of the academy, as set forth in its charter 
granted in 1830, are " to promote the cultivation of the science 
of music, and to afford facilities for attaining perfection in it 
by assisting with general instruction all persons desirous of 
acquiring a knowledge thereof." 
1826. UNIVEKSITY COLLEGE, London, founded. 

At this time Dissenters were practically excluded from the 
other universities, and a council having been formed representative 
f nearly all the religious denominations, University College was 
the result. Prominent among its founders were Lord Brougham, 
Joseph Hume and Thomas Campbell, while on the first council 
were Lord John Russell, the Dukv of Norfolk, Grote, Thackeray 
and Macaulay 

1828. KING'S COLLEGE, London, established by Royal 
Charter. 

King's College was a day school, situated next to Somerset 
House in the Strand. KING'S COLLEGE SCHOOL, Wimbledon' 
was opened, in 1830, in connection with King's College, and 
is under the government of the Council. 
1832. DURHAM UNIVEESITY, founded by Act of Parliament. 

As early as 1290 a college was founded at Oxford connected with 
the see of Durham, but this was abolished at the Keformation. 
The University was. formally opened in 1.832, but could not 
confer degrees until it obtained a charter in 1837. Cromwell, in 
1657, endowed a university at Durham with the sequestrated 
revenues of the Church, but at the Eestoration this was reversed. 
Durham now has many students and professorships in Divinity, 
Literature, Hebrew, and Medicine. 

1834. CITY OF LONDON COLLEGE, founded by the 
Corporation of the City of London. 

The School owes its origin to the bequest of John Carpenter, 
Town Clerk to the City of London in the reigns of Henry V. 



The Great Foundations. 79 

..nd VI. Stowe says that "he gave tenemen^ to (the Citie 
for the finding and bringing up of four poore men's children 
with meate, drinke, apparell, and learning at the schooles 
in the Universities untill they be preferred, and then others 
in their places for ever." The school was founded on the 
suggestion of Warren Stormes Hale, Alderman of London, and 
opened in 1837. 

1836. LONDON UNIVERSITY, founded by Royal Charter. 

Previous to this date there had been no body in the metro- 
polis with power to grant academic degrees. There were 
several educational establishments of college rank, foremost 
among them being UNIVERSITY COLLEGE and KING'S. 

In 1834 University College applied for a charter to grant degres. 
This was opposed by the adherents of King's, who asked that 
similar privileges should be granted to them. To avoid a multi- 
plicity of grants, an entirely new body was created, not for the 
purposes of teaching, but merely of examining. No test is applied 
to candidates as to their mode of study. These may be private or 
otherwise. The initial examination, matriculation, is incumbent 
on every candidate. Afterwards he may proceed in any one or 
more of the faculties. Degrees are granted to both sexes in Arts, 
Literature, Science, Laws, Music, Medicine and Surgery; and a 
special examination is held in the Science of Education. The 
University sends one member to Parliament, generally chosen 
from among its most distinguished graduates. 

1841. CHELTENHAM COLLEGE founded. 

This college is one of the proprietary schools which have 
arisen in the nineteenth century, and was founded to provide 
a classical, mathematical and general education of the highest 
order on moderate terms. 

1843. QUEEN'S COLLEGE, Birmingham, founded. 

This was, as early as 1828, a well-known school of medicine, 
but on its incorporation as a college, engineering, theology, 
science, law and literature, were included in its curriculum. 
The chief attention is now paid to theology and medicine, many 
cnadidates for the ministry being trained here. 



80 History of Education. 

1853. MARLBOBOUGH COLLEGE founded. 

The college was incorporated by Eoyal Charter in 1845. 
Entrance is by nomination, failing which an extra fee of 5 is 
charged. There are exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge and 
numerous foundation scholarships. 

1855. EOSSALL SCHOOL, near Meetwood, founded through 

the exertions of the Rev. St. Vincent Beechey. 
It was founded " with the object of giving to the sons of 
clergymen and others an education similar to that of the great 
public schools, but without the great cost of Eton or Harrow, 
and embracing also a more general course of instruction in 
modern literature and science." Admission is by nomination 
and annual payment. 

1851. OWENS COLLEGE, Manchester, founded by John 

Owens 

The college was designed by its founder to provide an 
education similar to that given in the English universities, 
and for the purpose he left about 100,000. In 1867, in 
response to a public appeal, its invested funds were increased to 
400,000, and in 1872 it was removed into its present capacious 
buildings. In 1880, Owens became one of the colleges affiliated 
with the newly-created VICTORIA UNIVERSITY. 

1853. WELLINGTON COLLEGE, Wokingham, founded by 

Royal Charter. 

To perpetuate the memory of Arthur, first Duke of Wellington, 
a public subscription was raised to provide for the education of 
the sons of deceased officers of the army of England and 
India. The college was not opened until 1859. 

1855. CHELTENHAM LADIES' COLLEGE founded. 

This is one of the largest and best of colleges for women, and 
provides for the education of some nine hundred students, of 
whom about one half are boarders. Students are prepared for 
the Arts and Science degrees of the London University, the 
subjects being taught chiefly by women. 



The Great Foundations. 81 

1860. CLIFTON COLLEGE established. 

This was a proprietary institution opened in 1862 with the 
object of establishing a school " for the education of the sons of 
gentlemen, and to provide, on moderate terms, a classical 
mathematical, and general education of the higher kind." The 
discipline and constitution of the school are based on the Rugby 
model. Entrance to the school is by nomination. 

1862. HAILEYBURY COLLEGE, Hertford, established. 

A charter of incorporation was granted in 1864, and the 
education given in the school is similar to that of the best 
public schools. The government of the school is vested in a 
council. 

1869. GIRTON COLLEGE, Cambridge, for women, founded. 
The first attempt to establish a college of university rank for 
women was made in 1867, when a house was suitably fitted up at 
Hitchin for the accommodation of a few women students. This 
institution was afterwards removed to Girton, which can now 
provide for the educational wants of as many as one hundred 
and fifty students. There is a resident lady lecturer for each 
of the principal subjects for the Cambridge Triposes. 

1870. KEBLE COLLEGE, Oxford, incorporated by Eoyal 

Charter and in memory of the Rev. John Keble. 
Keble died in 1866. His personal influence and works 
combined had made great impression on the life of the Church 
of England. No single religious work is better known than 
his Christian Year. The college library was not completed 
until 1878. 

1871 COLLEGE OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE, founded at 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

This is in connection with the Durham University, to which 
it is affiliated. Its object is to teach the principles underlying 
the industries for which Durham is famous mining, chemistry 
and engineering. 



82 History of Education. 

1873. EOYAL NAVAL COLLEGE, Greenwich, founded by 

an Order in Council of H.M. Queen Victoria. 
The purpose for which the college was founded was to provide 
an education for all naval officers above the rank of midshipmen 
in all branches of study bearing upon their profession. The 
advantages of the training are also extended to private students. 

1874. HERTFORD COLLEGE, Oxford, founded by Mr. 

Baring. 

As early as the thirteenth century there had been an educa- 
tional establishment there known as HERTFORD HALL. Early in 
last century, after the fire at Magdalen, Hertford Hall was used 
by the Magdalen students. In 1874 the Hall was merged with 
the present College. 

1879. ST. HUGH'S HALL, Oxford, for women, founded. 



. SOMERVILLB COLLEGE, Oxford, ior women, 
founded. 

1879. LADY MARGARET HALL, Oxford, for women, 

founded. 

Oxford University instituted special exams for women in 1875, but in 1884 
these were abolished, and a statute was passed in Convocation, opening to 
women the "Honour Moderations" and the "Final Honour Schools of 
Mathematics, Natural Science and Modern History." In 1894 the remaining 
examinations for the degree of B.A. were thrown open to women. 

1880. VICTORIA UNIVERSITY, founded by Eoyal Charter. 
This university is a federation of colleges, and originated 

in the institution known as the Owens College, Manchester. 
founded in 1851. Owens College petitioned for the extension 
and benefits of university education, and the Yorkshire College 
of Science (Leeds) concurred in this petition, and further prayed 
for incorporation in the proposed university of other colleges 
than Owens. 

As a result, Owens College, Manchester (founded in 1851), 
the Yorkshire College, Leeds (founded in 1874), and University 
College, Liverpool (founded in 1881), were incorporated under 
the name of " Victoria University," and each had a share in 



The Great Foundations. 83 

its general management, though each preserved it own autonomy. 
Degrees were granted by the university in the faculties of Arts, 
Science, Law and Medicine. 

1880. NEWNHAM COLLEGE, Cambridge, for women, 

founded 

This college owes its existence, as also its success, to the zeal 
and devotion of Miss A. J, dough who took a house in 1871 to 
prepare women students for such university examinations as were 
then open to them. Tin's led to the establishment of Newnham 
College which, by successive additions, now accommodates one 
hundred and fifty students. 

1893. UNIVERSITY OF WALES, established by Royal 

Charter. 

By this charter were incorporated the university colleges 
of Aberystwyth (founded in 1872), Bangor (founded in 1884), and 
Cardiff (founded in 1883). There are faculties of Arts, Letters, 
Science, Music, Law and Theology. 

1900. UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM, established by Act 

of Parliament and Royal Charter. 

Sir Josiah Mason founded Mason College in 1875, and thid 
was merged in the University of Birmingham in 1900. 

1903. UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL, established by Act of 

Parliament. 

The Corporation of Liverpool, in 1902, obtained powers to 
establish and support a university, and the following year secured 
the passing of the " Liverpool University Act," by which 
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, Liverpool, ceased to be a college of Victoria 
University, lost its separate identity, and became merged in 
the University of 'Liverpool, created by the Act. 



The Legislative Growth of English 
Education. 

IT was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century 
that our Legislature awoke to a sense of its duty as the 
ultimate guardian of the rights of the child. Hitherto 
State interference on behalf of the child had been to all 
intents and purposes unknown. But in the First Factory 
Act, passed when the century was yet young, we see the 
first dim recognition of the truth that the prosperity of 
a nation depends upon the health, comfort and intelligence 
of its workers, and as far as possible to secure these was 
the aim of the Factory Acts. In the beginning their 
influence for the protection of children was small ; but it 
has grown, arid the successive enactments, of which a 
brief digest follows, will serve to show that the evolution 
of our modern system of education has proceeded hand in 
hand with the protective legislation of the nineteenth 
century. 

1802. FIRST FACTOEY ACT (41 & 42 George III., c. 73), 

Before the passing of this Act, it had been held that absolute 
freedom should be left to all persons of any age to work how long 
they liked, when they liked, and as long as they liked. With 
regard to the male adult, this still holds good, as far as the 
legislature is concerned, although where the co-operation of 
women or young persons is required, any restrictions upon 
them must necessarily affect, indirectly, the work of the men. 
This Act was the FIRST STATUTORY EECOGNITION of the fact that, 
in the interests of the nation's physical well-being, the labour 



Legislative Groiuth of English Education. 85 

of women and children should be restricted within reasonable 
limits. 

The Act of 1802 was called one "for the preservation of 
the Health and Morals of Apprentices and others employed in 
Cotton and other Mills and Cotton or other Factories." It is 
important in the history of education as the beginning of 
legislative interference with the upbringing of children. But this 
interference, though important, was very small, as it only limited 
the hours to twelve, which must be between six in the morning 
and nine at night. It fixed no age limit, and there were very 
many children engaged in employment of various kinds to whom 
the Act did not apply. 

1819. ACT " to make , further Provisions for the 
Begulation of Cotton Mills and Factories, and for 
the better Preservation of the Health of young 
Persons employed." (59 George III., c. 66). 
This is the second of the long series of Factory Acts, and for 
the first time introduced the age limit. It was hereby enacted 
that 

"No child shall be employed in any description of work for the spinning 
of cotton wool until he shall have attained the full age of nine years." 

The twelve hours' limit of employment per day was extended 
to include all persons under sixteen. Even this protection was 
given with a niggardly hand. The twelve hours were to be 
exclusive of the necessary time for meals, which were fixed at 
not less than half an hour for breakfast and not less than one full 
hour for dinner. If time were lost through failure of water 
power, this might be made up by requiring an extra hour's work 
a day. 

1825, ACT " to make further Provision for the 

Eegulation of Cotton Mills and Factories and for 

the better Preservation of the Health of young 

Persons therein." (6 George IV., c. 63.) 

This Factory Act was brought in by Sir John Cam Hobhouse. 

It introduced a further limit respecting Saturday, when work was 



86 History of Education. 

to be restricted to nine hours, and was not to extend after four in 
the afternoon. The " making up " of lost time was also restricted 
so as to be " during the six following days (Saturday excepted), 
but no longer." 

1831. ACT " to repeal the Laws relating to Apprentices 
and other young Persons employed in Cotton 
Factories and in Cotton Mills, and to make further 
Provisions in lieu thereof." (1 & 2 William IV., c. 39.) 

[The Acts repealed were 59 George III. c. 66 ; 60 George III. c. 5 ; 6 George 
IV. c. 63 ; 10 George IV. c. 51 ; and 10 George IV. c. 63.] 

This is a consolidating Act. Though it repealed all previous 
ones, it re enacted most of their beneficial provisions. As far as 
child labour is concerned, the law was hereby declared to be: 
That no young person. under the age of twenty- one should, under 
any circumstances, be employed " between the hours of half -past 
eight of the clock in the evening and half-past five of the clock in 
the morning." No person under eighteen was to be employed 
more than twelve hours in one day, nor more than nine on a 
Saturday. The recovery of lost time was limited to three hours 
per week, provided that no week should exceed sixty-nine hours. 
No child under nine was to be employed in work under any 
circumstances. To ensure the effective carrying out of these 
provisions, penalties were imposed upon parents making false 
declaration as to their children's ages. 

These Acts illustrate the prominent position the cotton industry held in the 
public eye, it being the only industry of which specific mention is made. 

1833. ACT " to regulate the Labour of Children and 

young Persons in the Mills and Factories of the 

United Kingdom." (3 & 4 William IV., c. 103.) 

Hitherto factory legislation had been practically confined to 

the cotton trade. It was now extended to mills and factories for 

" cotton, woollen, worsted, hemp, flax, tow, linen, or silk, wherein 

steam, water or any other mechanical power is, or should be, 

used to propel or work the machinery in such mill or factory, 

either in scutching, carding, roving, spinning, piercing, twisting, 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 87 

winding, throwing, doubling, netting, making thread, dressing or 
weaving of cotton, wool, worsted, hemp, flax, tow, or silk, either 
separately or mixed." 

The provisions of all former Acts relating to cotton factories 
were by this Act extended to the woollen and silk industries. 

A further extension of the limitation of child labour was herein 
enacted. The employment of children under nine was absolutely 
forbidden. Children under thirteen were, after the expiration of 
thirty months from the passing of the Act not to be employed for 
more than nine hours a day or forty-eight hours a week. 

This provision was brought into operation gradually. For 
the first year the age was fixed at eleven, for the second twelve, 
and for all after time thirteen. 

Holidays were made compulsory : Christmas Day, Good 
Friday, and at least eight half-days during the year. FACTORY 
INSPECTORS, whose duty was to overlook all places where children 
were employed, were, for the first time, appointed to make 
enquiries respecting their " Condition, Education, and Employ- 
ment." This is the FIRST STATUTORY MENTION OF EDUCATION. 
The most important educational effect of this Act was that it made 
it a condition of employment that the child should, so long as such 
child shall be within the restricted Age, attend some School, to 
be chosen by the Parents or Guardians. There was also a duty 
incumbent upon the employer, who was entitled " to make a 
deduction from the weekly wages of such child as the same shall 
become due, not exceeding the rate of one penny in every shilling 
to pay for the schooling of such child. Provision was also made 
for the creation of new schools where required, and power was 
given to the inspector to dismiss incompetent teachers. This 
Act is the FIRST FORESHADOWING OF COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 
Connected with labour as a condition of employment, it was, as 
we shall see later, extended to all. 

1836. ACT " to facilitate the Conveyance of Sites for 

School Booms." (6 & 7 William IV., c. 70.) , 
Great difficulties had been experienced in giving school sites 
owing to the operation of the Mortmain Acts. To avoid this, the 



88 History of Education. 

first of a series of School Sites Acts was passed. Its chief 
provisions were : 

To allow Lords or Ladies of Manors to convey any part of Commons or 
Wastes as sites for Poor Schools. 

To allow all persons, including those incapacitated by law, to convey Land 
for Poor Schools. 

To allow all Ecclesiastical Bodies, Corporate or otherwise, to convey any 
portion of their lands as sites for Poor Schools. 

Such conveyances might be made to the National Society or to the 
Minister and Churchwardens for the time being of the Parish, or to 
Trustees named by the Bishop of th Diocese. Such sites might include 
ground lor the erection of dwelling houses for the School Master or 
Mistress. 

The Act was made retrospective so that the building of all schools 
previously was legalised. 

All deeds of conveyance made under the Act which might be either by 
way of gift, or for valuable consideration were to be enrolled, and the land 
was not to exceed a quarter of an acre. 

1840. ACT "for improving the Condition and Extending 
the Benefits of Grammar Schools." (3 & 4 Viet. 
c. 77). 

The founders of Grammar Schools, in most cases, strictly 
limited the education to the dead languages. The object of this 
Act, according to the preamble, was to make the foundation more 
elastic by extending the curriculum to other branches of 
literature and science. The Act gave power to the Courts of 
Equity to make decrees or orders extending the system of 
education, regulating the number and terms of admission, and, 
generally, of making schemes for the control and government of 
the schools. In making such decrees, the intentions of the 
original founders are to be respected, except in so far as by reason 
of change of circumstances, either general or local, it may 
otherwise seem expedient. The Court was not to interfere with 
any statute relating to the qualification of the schoolmaster. 
Even though Latin and Greek should be entirely dispensed with 
in exceptional cases, the schools are to remain "Grammar 
Schools," and all the old regulations and conditions not expressly 
altered are to be retained. The Act also provides for the 
appointment and removal of masters, and for the summary 
recovery of all school premises. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 89 

. SCHOOL SITES ACT. (4 & 5 Viet , c. 38.) 
This repealed the Act of William III., but all proceedings under 
that statute were to be considered valid, and were to be continued 
and completed under the provisions of this Act. Divested of its 
involved legal phraseology, which was much more intricate in 
those days than now, it provided: 

That any person, however entitled, might convey land to the extent of one 
acre, whether by way of sale, gift, or exchange, as a site for a school and 
schoolhouse or otherwise for the purposes of the education of poor persons 
in religious and useiul knowledge. Should land so granted at any time cease 
to be used for such purpose then, in that case, it is to revert to the grantor 
and revest in him as though the Act had not passed. 

Similar powers are given to the Chancellor and Council of the Duchy of 
Lancaster and the Officers of the Duchy of Cornwall, as well as to Corpora- 
tions, Trustees, Justices, or Commissioners. 

Such conveyance could be made to any Minister, Trustees, or Corporation, 
and their successors. Although the size of a site is limited to one acre the 
same person or persons could convey any number of sites, provided that 
not more than one should be in the same Parish. 

An important clause provided for the speedy recovery of schoolhouses with- 
out a tedious remedy by action at law. 

Should any teacher be dismissed or cease to be Master or Mistress, and 
refuse to deliver up any house or property held by him in virtue of his office 
within three months the trustees may complain to a court of summary juris- 
diction. The justices in petty sessions shall, upon hearing such complaint, 
issue a warrant to enter the premises within twenty-one days and give up 
possession to the person entitled. 

This Act is made to apply to School Boards by the Elementary 
Education Act, 1873, sec. 20. The provision relating to teachers' 
houses is made applicable by sec. 86. 

1842. AN ACT " to Prohibit the Employment of 
"Women and Girls in Mines and Collieries, to 
Eegulate the Employment of Boys, and to make 
other Provisions relating to Persons working 
therein." (5 & 6 Viet., c. 99.) 

This is the first of the series of Mines Regulation Acts. The 
employment of females luithin any mine or colliery was 
absolutely forbidden, and indentures relating thereto were declared 
to be void. The employment of boys under ten was similarly 
forbidden. Inspectors were to be appointed to see that the 
provisions of the Act were properly carried out. 



90 History of Education, 

18M. SCHOOL SITES ACT. (7 & 8 Viet., c. 37.) 

The object of this Act is set out in the full title, which is: 
" An Act to secure the terms upon which Grants are made by 
Her Majesty out of the Parliamentary Grant for the education 
of the Poor; and to explain the Act of the Fifth Year of the 
reign of Her present Majesty for the conveyance of Sites for 
Schools." 

The preamble recites that grants have been, and may be, made ; 
that a Committee of Council had been appointed to administer 
them; that many schools, owing to the conditions of their 
foundation, could not comply with the necessary conditions for 
obtaining a grant ; that a number of private persons had, pending 
a settlement of the question, personally guaranteed the repayment 
of grants made to such schools. It was enacted : 

(a) That all grants made, even irregularly, should be validated and that all 
such private persons should be relieved from any liability in respect of such 
guarantees. 

(ft) That any body of trustees acting de facto might properly apply for and 
obtain grants, to rebuild, repair, or enlarge the sclwol or the residence of the 
master or mistress. 

Such schools must be open to inspection. Provision had been 
omitted in the former Acts to take precaution against the possible 
death of the donor within twelve months. Notwithstanding the 
former Acts, such a death would invalidate a gift. This difficulty 
was now removed by the enactment : 

" That the same shall be and continue valid, if otherwise lawful, although 
the donor or grantor shall die within twelve calendar months from the 
execution thereof." 

1845. AN ACT " to amend the Laws relating to Labour 

in Factories." (7 Viet., c. 15.) 

In one respect, this was an Act of retrogression, as it allowed 
children of eight to "be employed in a Factory in the same 
Manner, and under the same Eegulations, as Children who have 
completed their Ninth Year." It, however, further restricted the 
time limit of child employment. In ordinary cases this was cut 
down to six and a half hours a day. In silk factories seven were 
allowed. ^ Where children were to be employed only on alternate 
days, they might be allowed to work ten hours, provided that they 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 91 

never worked after half-past four on Saturdays. School atten- 
dance was again declared to be a compulsory condition of 
employment, each child being required to attend school half time. 

18*9. SCHOOL SITES ACT. (12 & 13 Viet., c. 49). 

The full title of the measure was: " An Act to extend and 
explain the Provisions of the Acts for the granting of Sites to 
Schools. The preamble recites all the previous Acts, and says " : 

" It is expedient that further facilities should be afforded for the convey 
ance of lands for sites for schools, in cases where such lands are comprised 
within other lands in leases." 

The effect of the clauses is legal rather than practical, bringing 
within its purview lands of all tenancies, and however held. 
1850. AN ACT "to amend the Acts relating to Labour 
in Factories." (13 & 14 Viet., c. 54.) 

This made the time restrictions on labour more definite and 
workable. The hours of employment of women and young 
persons were distinctly restricted to the period between six in the 
morning and six in the evening. Some exceptions were made 
with regard to the recovery of lost time, but on Saturday no 
deviation was allowed from the rule that work was only 
permissible before two of the clock in the afternoon. 

1851. ACT "to amend the Acts for the Granting of Sites 

for Schools." (14 & 15 Viet., c 24.) 

This completes the series of School Sites Acts. It consists of 
but one operative clause, the effect of which is to define the word 
" Parish " as used in the earlier Acts. 

1853. AN ACT "to further regulate the Employment 

of Children in Factories." (16 & 17 Viet., c. 104.) 
Almost all previous Acts bearing upon this subject were 
limited to factories connected with textile industries. This 
extends the legislation greatly. By this Statute it is enacted : 

That no child shall be employed in any Factory before six in the morning 
or after six in the evening except in the months between September 30th 
and April 1st, when the time was fixed between seven in the morning and 
seven in the evening. 

The idea of recovering lost time was still recognised, but it was limited 
by a restriction that under no circumstances should a child be employed 
for such a purpose after seven in the evening. 



92 History of Education. 

1854. THE LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS ACT 

(17 & 18 Viet., c. 112.) 

The object of this Act was, to give " greater facilities for 
procuring and settling sites and buildings in trust for institutions 
established for the promotion of literature, science, or the fine 
arts, or for the diffusion of useful knowledge." 

1. Land not exceeding one acre in extent whether built upon or not may 
be given gratuitously or conveyed for value for the purpose of any such 
institution. 

2. This may be done by private owners or by the Duchies of Lancaster 
or Cornwall. 

3. If land granted by way of gift shall at any time cease to be used for 
the purpose for which it was granted the same shall immediately revert 
to and become part of the estate of the grantor. 

4. The death of a donor within twelve months of a voluntary gift shall 
not invalidate the same, but the conveyance, if otherwise lawiul shall 
continue in force. 

1856. ACT " for the appointment of a Vice-President of 

the Council of Education." (19 & 20 Viet., c. 116.) 

This provided that Her then Majesty should by warrant 

appoint a Vice-President at a salary of two thousand pounds a 

year, who should be capable of sitting in the House of Commons. 

This was repealed by the Board of Education Act, 1899 (62 & 63 Vic. c. 3S). 

1860. ACT " to Place the Employment of Women, 
young Persons and Children in Bleaching Works 
and Dyeing Works under the Begulations of the 
Factory Acts." (23 & 24 Viet., c. 78.) 
By this statute all the preceding Factory Acts were applied 
to bleaching and dyeing, with the following variations : That 
women and young persons might be employed in recovering 
lost time until half -past four on Saturday afternoon, and until 
eight o'clock at night on any other day. Bleaching and dyeing 
depending so tnuch upon water power, leave was given to employ 
women and young persons during the night in cases where the 
water had first failed and then had become sufficient. 
1862. ACT "to Prevent the Employment of Women 
and Children during the night in certain Opera- 
tions connected with Bleaching by the Open-air 
Process." (25 & 26 Viet. c. 8.) 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 93 

This Act consisted of but two clauses : 

1. ' It shall not be lawful to employ Females, young Persons, 
and Children or any of them during the night ; that is to say, 
from Eight of the Clock in the Evening to Six of the Clock 
in the Morning." 

2. Former penalties were retained. 

1863. A FURTHER ACT "to Amend the Act for Placing 
the Employment of Women, young Persons and 
Children in Bleaching Works and Dyeing Works 
under the Regulations of the Factories Acts." 
(26 & 27 Viet., c. 38.) 
This Act only consists of a definition of what bleaching and 

dyeing works or factories mean. 

1864. ACT "for the Extension of the Factory Acts." 

(27 & 28 Viet., c. 48.) 

This is one of the first in which a Short Title is given. It may 
be quoted for all purposes as The Factory Acts Extension Act, 
186$. The Act only applies to the several manufactures and 
employments mentioned in the schedule. These are : 

The manufacture of earthenware except bricks and tiles, not being 
ornamental tiles. 

The manufacture of lucifer matches. 
The manufacture of percussion caps. 
The manufacture of cartridges. 
The employment of paper staining. 
The employment of fustian cutting. 

All the Factory Acts are made applicable to these industries. 
In match-making no woman or child was to be allowed to take 
meals in any part of the factory. In fustian cutting no child was 
to be employed under the age of eleven. 

1866. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS ACT (29 & 30 Viet., c. 118). 

By this Act Industrial Schools might be established under the 
authority of the Home Secretary. 



94 History of Education. 

1867. THE FACTORY ACTS EXTENSION ACT. (30 & 31 

Viet., c. 103.) 

This Act largely extended the definition of " Factory." The 
new description included : 

(1) Any blast furnaces or other place where metals are 
extracted from ores ; 

(2) Any copper mill ; 

(3) Any iron mill, forge, or foundry ; 

(4) Any " premises in which steam, water, or other mechanical 
power is used for moving machinery " ; 

(5) Any place used for (a) paper manufacture, (&) glass 
manufacture, (c) tobacco manufacture, (d) letterpress printing, 
(e) book-binding. This Act contains stringent rules as to the 
employment of children. By section 7, no child or young 
person shall be employed on Sunday in any factory. There is a 
slight modification of this in respect to blast furnaces. 

No boy under twelve and no female under any circumstances is to be 
employed in any part of a glass factory in which the process of melting 
or annealing glass is carried on. 

No child under eleven is to be employed in any factory for the purpose 
of grinding in the metal trades. 

No child is to be allowed to take meals within the working area of any 
glass factory. 

1867. THE WORKSHOP EEGULATION ACT. (30 & 31 

Viet., c. 146.) 

The following are the chief provisions of the Act : " Child " is 
defined as a person under the age of thirteen years. The Act is 
important as part of the development of State Care for the 
children. No child was to be employed on any one day in any 
handicraft for a period of more than six hours and a half, such 
employment to be between six in the morning and eight at night. 
No child was to be employed at all on Sunday or after two on a 
Saturday afternoon. As affecting the education of the children, 
the following provisions are important : Every child who is 
employed in a workshop shall attend school for at least ten hours 
in every week during the whole time he is so employed. 
Exceptions are made in cases of illness or &ny other unavoidable 
cause. Penalties to the extent of twenty shillings are imposed 



legislative Growth of English Education. 95 

upon defaulting parents, and it is provided that the teacher shall 
receive from the employer the amount of any fees due. 

1869. ENDOWED SCHOOLS ACT. (32 & 33 Viet., c. 56.) 
This Act authorised the appointment of a Commission, with 
power to draw up schemes for the management of endowed 
schools. These powers were, in 1874 (37 & 38 Viet., c. 87), 
transferred to the Charity Commissioners. 

1870. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT. (33 & 34 Viet., 

c. 75.) 

This statute was the first of a series which at present has 
ended in the Acts of 1902 and 1903. It introduced important 
new principles of legislation. For the first time statutory 
provision was made for several things which hitherto had never 
been recognised by the State. 

1. Compulsory education was adopted. 

2. Schools were to be maintained out of local poor rates. 

3. No religious teaching should be given to any child, if objected 

to by the parent, in any school assisted by the State. 
Compulsion necessarily involved some means of enforcing 
attendance. This was supplied by providing penalties against 
parents wilfully allowing their children to be absent from school. 

The following is an analysis of the provisions of the Act, which 
was regarded by many as an Educational Eevolution. These 
provisions have been greatly modified by the Acts of 1902 and 
1903. This Act (1870) only applies to England and Wales : 
1. Definitions: 

METROPOLIS means Metropolitan Board of Works (now London County 
Council) area. 

BOROUGH means any place having a municipal corporation. 

PARISH means a place for which a separate poor rate can be made. 

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT means " the Lords of the Committee of the Privy 
Council on Education." [This must now be read as the Board oj Education.] 

His MAJESTY'S INSPECTOR means an Inspector appointed by the Board of 
Education. 

MANAGER means any person who has the control of an elementary school, 
whether he has the legal interest or not. 

TEACHER means any person employed in teaching, whether it be as head, 
assistant, pupil, or sewing teacher, 



96 History of Education. 

ParENT means actual parent, guardian, or person having the custody of 
any child. 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. This includes all the schools assisted by the State 
by Government Grants. 

The conditions of giving Government grants are as follows : 
(i.) The instruction must be, in the main, elementary, 
(ii.) Fees must not, from each scholar, eaceed ninepence a week. 
SCHOOLHOUSE includes the teacher's dwelling house and the playground. 
[By the Act of 1902 the schoolmaster's house is not included in the 

meaning of schoolhouse.'] 

VESTRY. This, as far as education is concerned, has now become obsolete. 
It was denned as " the ratepayers of a parish meeting in vestry, according to 
law." 

PARLIAMENTARY GRANT is a grant made by the Treasury " for public educa- 
tion in Great Britain." 

2. Provision of Schools : 

(i.) In every school district (as defined by Section Four of 
the Act) there must be provided " a sufficient amount of 
accommodation in public elementary schools available for all 
the children resident in such district." 

(ii.) If any deficiency existed and was not supplied on the 
requisition of the Board of Education, the Board might cause 
a School Board to be formed. 

(iii.) Every school receiving government grants must be an 
"elementary school." 

The regulations of an elementary school are laid down as follows : 
(a) No child attending shall be required either to attend or refrain 

from attending any Sunday School or place of worship. 
(6) Religious instruction must be given either at the beginning or 

end of the school so as to enable objectors to withdraw, 
(c) The school must at all times be open to inspection by Her 

Majesty's Inspectors. 

3. Every school provided by a School Board (now the Education 
Authority) shall be subject to the following rules : 

(a) The school must be an " elementary " school ; 

(b) No distinctive religious formulary must be taught. 

4. Power is given to School Boards to appoint managers of 
their schools and to delegate their powers to such managers. 
They cannot delegate " the power of raising money." 

5. If the School Board make default, the Board of Education 
may intervene and declare the School Board to be dissolved. 

6. Provision is made for the remission* of fees, but this has 
now become practically inoperative, as fees only survive in a 
few cases. 

7. Power is given to every School Board to supply out of the rates 
" sufficient public school accommodation for their district." 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 97 

8. Powers are given to the School Boards to acquire lands 
compulsorily under the conditions of the Lands Clauses Consolidation 
Act, 1845. 

9. The provisions of the Charitable Trusts Acts, 1853 to 1869 are 
extended to the sale, lease, or exchange of school houses, but the 
Education Department is substituted for the Charity Commissioners. 

10. Managers of Voluntary Schools may transfer their schools 
to the School Board, either by way of gift, or sale, or reserving 
to themselves the right of user at certain times (Saturdays, Sundays, 
and evening as a rule.) 

11. Provision of Free Schools. The statute enacted that : 

" If a School Board satisfy the Education Department (Board of Education) 
that on the ground of the poverty of the inhabitants of any place in their 
district, it is expedient for the interest of education to provide a school 
at which no fees shall be required from scholars, the board may, subject 
to such rules and conditions as the Board of Education may prescribe, 
provide such school and may admit scholars to such school without requiring 
any fee." 
This section was not taken advantage of, no school having been 

built under it. It is, since the passing of 54 & 55 Viet., c. 56, 

practically obsolete. 

12. Power is given to School Boards to contribute to the maintenance 
of any pupil in an industrial school, or, if need be, to establish such 
schools of their own. 

13. Sections 29 to 34 relate only to the election, constitution and 
proceeding of School Boards. These are now merged in the 
" Education Authorities." 

14. The appointment of officers, including teachers, is regulated 
by Section 35, which is still operative. The section provides that : 

A school board (education authority) may appoint officers, including 
teachers, to hold office during the pleasure of the board, and pay them such 
salaries as they think fit. An important proviso is that no appointment shall 
be made or dismissal determined upon, unless each member of the board has 
had four days' notice in writing of the meeting. 

15. Officers may be appointed to enforce any bye-laws under the 
Act and under the Industrial Schools Act, 1866, and may, if properly 
authorised by the Board, appear in court to prosecute. 

16. Section 37 relates entirely to the School Board in the 
metropolis, its constitution and selection ; as this is entirely 
abolished by the recent Act the provisions are now of no importance. 

17. Power is given to School Boards to combine together for any 
purpose relating to elementary schools in such districts, and to 
maintain and keep efficient schools common to such districts. 

18. Numerous regulations are laid down as to audit, precepts and 
default. These have now no application. 



9Q History of Education. 

19. Returns are to be made, and persons may be employed to 
assist in the preparation and making of the same. Should any 
authority fail to make the necessary returns, the Board of Education 
may appoint persons to make them with the same power^ as persons 
appointed by the local authority. In case the managers or teacher 
of any school fail to give such persons reasonable facilities for 
examining the premises, books or scholars, such school shall be 
removed from the list of efficient elementary schools. 

20. Where for any purpose a Public Inquiry is held : 

(a) The Board of Education shall appoint a person to conduct it. 

(b) The person so appointed shall hold it in the neighbourhood of the 
school, and shall give notice of the same at least seven days before in the 
district. 

(c) He shall report in writing, and a copy of such report shall be widely pub- 
lished in the district. 

21. Bye-laws may be made : 

(a) Requiring the parents of children between the ages of five and thirteen 
to cause them to attend school. 

(b) Determining the time at which attendances shall be made. 

(c) Providing remission of fees in necessitous cases. 

(d) Imposing penalties for any violation of the bye-laws. 

(e) Providing that partial exemption shall be granted to any child over ten 
on producing a certificate of proficiency from His Majesty's Inspector. 

'The following are recognised as excuses for non-attendance : 

(a) That the child is under efficient instructi 

(b) Sickness or any unavoidable cause. 

(c) Want of school accommodation within a distance prescribed by the 
bye laws not exceeding three miles. 

22. Provisions are made for the application of small endowments 
connected with schools receiving Parliamentary grants. This must 
be by a scheme submitted to, and approved of by, the Board 
of Education. 

23. Managers of schools receiving grants, but not provided by the 
Local Authority may arrange, on not more than two days in any 
year, for an examination and inspection of the children in religious 
knowledge ; but upon such days the registers must not be marked, 
and attendance shall in no case be compulsory. 

24. Tho provisions of the School Sites Acts with respect to the 
tenure of office by. teachers and the recovery of possession of 
premises held by them in virtue of their office is extended to 
all schools provided by a Local Authority. 

25. Penalties may be recovered summarily. 

26. Grants in aid of building schools are abolished, all grants are 
limited to " public elementary schools," and no grant is to be made 
in respect of religious instruction. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 99 

1870. THE FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACT. (33 & 34 

Viet., c. 62.) 

This Act extends the whole of the Factory Acts to bleaching 
and dyeing " works " not hitherto recognised as factories. All 
the regulations affecting children in the textile trades were hereby 
applied to these " works." 

1871. FACTORY ACT FOR JEWS. (34 & 35 Viet., c. 20.) 

Penalties and prohibitions were contained in previous Factory 
Acts in respect of Sunday labour. Hereby these were repealed 
with respect both to women and children. Such employment, 
however, must be of Jews by Jews. The workshop shall be closed 
on Saturday until sunset, and no " traffic " must take place on 
Sunday. With these exceptions, all the regulations and condi- 
tions as to number of hours per week and the time of work still 
applied. 

1871. AN ACT "to Amend the Acts relating to Factories 

and Workshops." (34 & 35 Viet., c. 104.) 
This forbids the employment of any female under the age of 
sixteen or a boy under ten " in the manufacture of bricks 
not being ornamental tiles," and any such employment is made 
an offence under the Factory and Workshops Acts, 1833 to 1871. 
For the first time this Act brings within the range of these Acts 
any factory or workshop which is the " property of the Crown." 

1872. THE METALLIFEROUS MINES REGULATION ACT. 

(35 & 36 Viet. c. 77.) 

This prohibits the employment of any boy under the age of 
twelve, or of any female below ground in any mine to which the 
Act applies. The employment of boys up to the age of sixteen 
was limited to fifty-four hours in any one week, or more than ten 
hours in any one day. 

1873. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (AMENDMENT) ACT. (36 

& 37 Viet., c. 86.) 

1. School Boards are declared entitled, and for the purpose of 
clearing up doubts shall be deemed always to have been entitled, 



100 History of Education. 

to be constituted trustees for any educational endowment or 
charity for purposes connected with education ; provided : 

(a) That the purposes of the same are not inconsistent with the principle 
upon which their schools are conducted. 

(5) That the schools connected with such endowment or charity shall be 
deemed to be a school provided by the School Board. 

2. Where a School Board acts as a prison authority under the 
Industrial Schools Act, 1886, due public notice of its intention so 
to do shall be given. 

3. The Board of Education may obtain all returns directly, if 
deemed advisable, without first calling upon the local authority. 

4. With respect to legal proceedings, it is provided : 

(a) That the court instead of inflicting a penalty may make a preliminary 
attendance order, failure to comply with which may be enforced by the 
penalty originally incurred. 

(ft) The court may require the parent or employer to produce the child 
before the court. 

(c) A certificate under the hand of the principal teacher shall be evidence 
of the facts therein stated. 

(d) The onus of proving the age for exemption shall lie upon the defendant. 

(e) In case of non-attendance at a public elementary school the onus of 
proving that a child is under efficient instruction shall be on the defendant. 

1873. THE AGRICULTURAL CHILDREN ACT. (36 & 37 
Viet., c. 67.) 

1. No one except a parent on land of his own shall employ a 
child under eight in the execution of any agricultural work at any 
time whatever. 

2. No child under ten shall be so employed unless he has 
attended two hundred and fifty times at a certified school within 
twelve months, and no child under twelve unless he has so 
attended one hundred and fifty times. 

3. The Petty Sessional Court may, for a period not exceeding 
eight weeks in any one year, suspend the restriction clause of the 
Act, or, in case of illness, may grant special exemption. 

4. Further exemptions are granted : 

(a) In the employment of children over eight in hay harvest, 
corn harvest, or the ingathering of hops. 

(b) Where there has been no school available during the preceding 
twelve months or where the school is closed for holidays. 

(c) Where a child has obtained a certificate of having passed 
the Fourth Standard. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 101 

1875. FURTHER FACTORY ACT. (37 & 38 Viet., c. 44.) 

This fixes the hours of employment of young persons and 
children at between either six in the morning and six in the 
evening, or seven in the morning and seven in the evening. It 
also prohibits any such employment " continuously for more than 
four hours and a half without an interval of at least half an hour 
for a meal." Employment .for any purpose whatever is forbidden 
after half-past one on a Saturday, except in cases when the 
employment begins at seven in the morning or later, when it may 
be extended to two o'clock, with an hour's allowance for meals. 
Children may be employed " in morning or afternoon sets, or 
for the whole day on alternate days." With respect to such 
employment, the following regulations are laid down : 

(i.) A child employed before noon shall not on any day be 
employed after one o'clock, or if the hour of dinner be before one 
o'clock after such hour of dinner, 

(ii.) He shall not be employed on two successive Saturdays, nor 
on any Saturday if on any other day in the same week he has been 
employed for more than five hours. 

(iii.) Every child must attend school in manner directed by the 
Factory Act, 1844. 

( iv.) Where they work on alternate days it is provided : 

(a) That no child shall under any circumstances be employed on two 
successive days ; 

(fc) That the school provision of the Act of 1844 (7 Viet., c. 15 s. 38) shall 
apply. 

This Act also repeals all former Acts which allowed extra 
working hours for the purpose of making up lost time. It also 
makes important modifications in the ages at which children may 
be employed. The age definition of a "child" is raised from 
thirteen to fourteen, and his employment is forbidden " unless he 
has obtained .... a certificate of having attained such standard 
of proficiency in reading, writing, and arithmetic as may from 
time to time be prescribed for the purposes of this Act." The 
employment of children under ten is entirely forbidden. A slight 
exception to the employment clauses is made in iavour of the 
silk trade. 



102 History of Education. 

1875. PUBLIC HEALTH ACT. (38 & 39 Viet., c. 55.) 

This is an exceedingly long Act dealing with the multifarious 
questions bearing upon the subject of public health. The only 
sections affecting the matter of education are those which regulate 
the powers of local authorities to borrow money on the security 
of the rates, and the creation of a sinking fund for repayment. 

1876. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (AMENDMENT) ACT. (39 

& 40 Viet., c. 79.) 

This was by far the most important amendment of the 
principal Act of 1870. Its chief provisions are : 

1. That it shall be the duty of every parent to cause his child 
regularly to attend school. 

2. That no child under ten years of age shall be employed (this is 
now extended to twelve), and that no child shall be employed who 
has not obtained a necessary certificate of due attendance or is 
attending school under the provisions of the Factory Acts for the 
time being in force. 

3. Penalties are provided both for parent and employer. 

4. The following exemptions are made by the statute : 

(a) That there is no school within two miles. 

(b) That the employment is during school holidays or out of school hours, 
and does not interfere with the efficient education of the child or its attend" 
ance for full time at a school. 

5. Attendance orders may be made by a court of summary 
jurisdiction. 

(a) When the parent neglects to cause the child to attend school. 

(b) When the child is found wandering, not under control, or in the 
company of rogues, vagabonds, disorderly persons, or reputed criminals. 

6. Non-compliance with an "attendance order" without reason- 
able excuse involves : 

(a) A penalty not exceeding five shillings (now increased to twenty). 

(b) On a second occasion the sending of the child to an industrial school. 

7. A child sent to an industrial school may be licensed to live out 
if the managers so desire ; but he must, as a condition, attend as a 
day scholar regularly. 

8. Local Authorities may themselves establish industrial schools 
with the consent of one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries 
of State. 

9. Day industrial schools may be established providing industrial 
training, elementary education, and one or more meals a day, but 
not lodging; and all powers respecting an industrial school shall 
be exercisable in respect of a " day" industrial school. The parents 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 108 

may, in all cases, be called upon to contribute a sum not exceeding 
two shillings a week towards the child's maintenance. 

10. Where the population of the school district, or within two- 
miles of the school, is less than three hundred, a special grant of 
from ten to fifteen pounds is provided, this is in addition to all 
previous grants, Parliamentary or otherwise. 

11. A justice of the peace may give authority to enter and search 
" any place, whether a building or not," where " there is reasonable 
cause to believe that a child is employed in contravention of the Act." 
Resisting such inspection involves a penalty of twenty pounds. 

12. For the recovery of penalties under this Act, no officer of a 
Local Authority shall take proceedings unless by the direction of not 
less than two members of such authority. 

13. An agent of an employer is personally liable for any contra- 
vention of the Act committed by him, and the employer himself is 
not to be held responsible if he were ignorant. 

14. A parent who himself employs a child in any labour exercised 
by way of trade or for gain shall be subject to the same conditions 
and penalties as an ordinary employer. A child means any person 
under fourteen years of age. 

1877. THE CANAL BOATS ACT. (40 & 41 Viet., c. 60.) 

Every canal boat used as a dwelling place was required to be 
registered. One of the objects of registration was to know the 
number of children on such boats, so as to secure to them some 
education. It was therefore enacted : 

(1) That a child in a canal boat and his parent shall be 
deemed to be resident in the place to which the boat is 
registered as belonging, and shall be subject accordingly to any 
bye-law in force in that place. 

(2) That if the parent satisfies the School Authority that the 
child is under efficient instruction in some other school district 
the Authority shall grant him a certificate to that effect, and 
the child shall be deemed to be resident in the district in which 
he is receiving such efficient instruction. 

Power is also given to any canal company to establish out of its 
funds, notwithstanding any charter to the contrary, schools for 
children living upon its boats. This may include education, lodging, 
and maintenance. 

1378. FACTORY AND WORKSHOP CONSOLIDATION ACT. 

(41 Viet., c. 16.) 

This Act practically incorporates the whole law relating to 
Factories and Workshops. With slight modifications, hereinafter 



104 History of Education. 

noted, it represents the law at the present time so far as relates 
to the employment and education of child workers. In respect to 
textile factories it is enacted : 

1. Children shall not he employed except on the system either of 
employment in morning and afternoon sets, or of employment on 
alternate days only. 

2. The period of employment for a child in the morning set shall 
except on Saturday, begin at the same hour as if the child were a 
young person, and end at one o'clock in the afternoon, or, if dinner 
time begins before one o'clock, at the beginning of dinner time. 

3. The period of employment for a child in an afternoon set shall, 
except on Saturday, begin at one o'clock in the afternoon, or any 
later hour at which the dinner time terminates, and end at the same 
time as if the child were a young person. 

4. The period of employment for any child on Saturday shall 
begin and end at the same hour as if the child were a young 
person. 

5. A child shall not be employed in two successive periods of 
seven days in a morning set or two successive periods of seven days 
in an afternoon set, and a child shall not be employed on two 
successive Saturdays, nor on Saturday on any week if on any 
other day in the same week his period of employment has exceeded 
five hours and a half. 

6. When a child is employed on the alternate day system, the 
period of employment for such child, and the time allowed for 
meals, shall be the same as if the child were a young person ; but 
the child shall not be employed on two successive days of the week, 
and shall not be employed on the same day of the week in two 
successive weeks. 

7. A child shall not on either system be employed continuously 
for any longer period than he could be if he were a young person 
without at least an interval of half an hour for a meal. 

The times during which a "young person," that is, a child 
over fourteen years of age, can be employed in a textile factory 
are as follows : 

1. On ordinary days either between six and six or seven and 
seven. 

2. On Saturdays starting at six or seven in the morning : 

(a) Where the period of employment begins at six o'clock in the morning, 
if not less than an hour is allowed for meals, it shall end at one o'clock as 
regards any manufacturing process, and at half-past one as regards employ- 
ment for any purpose whatever. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 105 

(b) If less than one hour is allowed for meals, the employment shall end at 
half-past twelve as regards any manufacturing process, and one o'clock as 
regards any employment whatever. 

(c) Where the employment begins at seven o'clock, then it must cease at 
half-past one for manufacturing processes, and at two for all purposes. 

The times for meals are regulated as follows : 

(a) On every day except Saturday, not less than two hours, of which at 
least one must be before three in the afternoon. 

(b) On Saturday not less than half an hour. 

A " young person " must not be employed for more than four and 
a half consecutive hours, with an interval of at least half an hour. 
With respect to non-textile factories and workshops, the regulations 
are somewhat different. 

[The afternoon set on any day, including Saturday, may begin at half -past 
twelve o'clock, and shall end at two o'clock.] 

The Act also contains provisions purporting to regulate the 
employment of children at home. 

A young person may be employed for eight hours on a Saturday on 
condition that he is not employed for a longer time on any other day. 

The provisions laid down as to education are : 

1. The parent of a child employed in a factory, or in a workshop, 
shall cause that child to attend some recognised efficient school 
(which may be selected by such parent), as follows : 

(a) The child, when employed in a morning or afternoon set, shall in every 
week, during any part of which he is so employed, be caused to attend on 
each work day for at least one attendance. 

(b) The child, when employed on the alternate day system, shall on each 
work day preceding each day of employment in the factory or workshop be 
caused to attend for at least two attendances. 

(c) An attendance for the purpose of this section shall be an attendance as 
denned for the time being by a Secretary of State with the consent of the 
Education Department (now the Board of Education) and be between the 
hours of eight in the morning and six in the evening. 

(d) No attendance is required on a Saturday or on any holiday allowed from 
the factory. 

(e) Attendance is excused during all school holidays or when the teacher 
gives a certificate of illness. 

(/) Where there is no recognised efficient school within two miles, attend- 
ance at other schools will suffice. 

(g) A child failing in any week to fulfil the educational requirements of the 
Act shall not be employed in the following week until he has made up the 
deficiency in attendance. 

(h) It is incumbent on the employer or his representative to require certifi- 
cates of attendance each week from every child. 

(i) A child of thirteen who has obtained a certificate of proficiency in 
reading, writing, and arithmetic is deemed to be a "young person " for the 
purpose of employment. 



106 History of Education. 

The employment of children is again entirely forbidden where the 
following are carried on : 

(a) Silvering of mirrors by mercurial process, 
(ft) The making of white lead. 

(c) The melting or annealing of glass. 

(d) The making or finishing of bricks or tiles (except ornamental tiles). 

(e) The making or finishing of salt. 
(/) The dry grinding of metals. 

(g) The dipping of lucifer matches. 

(h) In other than dry grinding the prohibition only extends to eleven years 
of age. 

Nearly all the previous Factory and Workshop Acts are repealed 
by this Act, which may be regarded as containing practically the 
whole law upon the subject up to this date. These enactments 
are very important educationally, as they were the earliest 
indications of the trend of public opinion in favour of the 
interference by the State with the hitherto almost unbounded 
liberty of the parent with regard to the upbringing of his 
children. Though this question was the subject of much 
controversy for many years, in the Parliamentary discussion of 
this measure it was not accepted by all sides. 

1879. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS) ACT. 

(42 & 43 Viet., c. 48.) 
This provided : 

1. That School Boards should have full right to contribute to the 
maintenance of any industrial school, whether within or without 
their district. 

2. Such contribution may be made towards the erection, re- 
building, or furnishing of such school. 

3. Guardians may also contribute money from the rates for such 
purpose. 

1880. ACT "to Make Further Provision as to Bye-Laws 
under the Elementary Education Acts." (43 & 
44 Viet., c. 23.) 
This makes it compulsory on every local authority, not having 

previously done so, to make bye-laws. If default is made in so 

doing, the Board of Education may make them, and they shall 

have full legal force. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 107 

1883. FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACT. (46 & 47 Viet., 

c. 53.) 

The only alteration with regard to schools in this statute is in 
Section 14, which runs as follows : 

" Notwithstanding anything in Section 12 or Section 14 of the Factory and 
Workshop Act, 1878, the period of employment for a child in an afternoon 
set in a factory or workshop, where the dinner time does not begin before 
two o'clock in the afternoon, may begin at noon : provided that in such case 
the period of employment in the morning set shall end at noon." 

1885. CANAL BOATS ACT. (47 & 48 Viet., c. 75.) 

This Act only refers to education in two sections and then 
somewhat indirectly. 

1. The master of the boat is made liable for neglect to send returns to the 
Board of Education. 

2. The Board of Education is empowered to make regulations with respect 
to the form of certificates or pass books as to attendance at school to be used 
by children in canal boats. 

3. The Board of Education shall " every year report to Parliament as to 
the manner in which the Elementary Education Acts, 1870 & 1873, 1876 & 1880, 
are enforced with respect to children in canal boats, and shall for that pur- 
pose direct Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools to communicate with the 
school boards and school attendance committees in the district." 

1887. THE COAL MINES EEGULATION ACT. (50 & 51 

Viet., c. 58.) 

This further regulates the employment of children in, on, or 
about coal mines. The statutory provision relating to employment 
of women and girls or of boys under twelve is extended to coal 
mines, and rules are laid down about overground work as 
follows : 

1. No boy or girl under twelve years of age shall be so employed. 

2. No boy or girl under the age of thirteen years shall be so 
employed 

(a) For more than six days in any one week ; or, 

(6) If employed for more than three days in any one week, for more than 
six hours in one day, or in any other case for more than ten hours in any 
one day. 

Employers are entitled to pay the school fees, if any, not 
exceeding twopence per week, and to deduct the same from the 
child's wages. 

1888. VICTORIA UNIVERSITY ACT. (51 & 52 Viet., c. 45.) 

This short Act was passed to enable graduates of the Victoria 

University to become candidates and hold offices in all cases 



108 History of Education. 

where previously only graduates of Oxford, Cambridge, or London 
were eligible, and to be entitled to all privileges as fully as such 
graduates. 

1889. TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION ACT. (52 & 53 Viet., 

c. 76.) 
By this, power was given to local authorities : 

1. To supply, or aid the supply, of technical or manual instruction 
out of the local rates, with the following restrictions : 

(a) Such instruction must not be given to any child receiving instruction at 
an elementary school in the obligatory or standard subjects. 

(fe) No religious test shall be applied, or religious qualification required 
respecting any person engaged in such instruction. 

(c) Schools already existing and in receipt of government grants from the 
Science and Art Department may also receive assistance. 

(d) Where aid is given to existing schools the local authority must be 
represented on the governing body of the school or institution. 

(e) The rate to be levied for this purpose is limited to one penny in 
the pound. 

2. To form a Technical Education Committee consisting either 
wholly or partly of members of the Local Authority, and to 
delegate to such Committee any of their powers under this Act. 

3. To impose, if thought desirable, an entrance examination upon 
all candidates for admission to any such institution. 

The following are the definitions given in the Act : - 

1. TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION shall mean instruction in the principles of 
science and art applicable to industries, and the application of special 
branches of science and art to specific industries or employments. It shall 
not include teaching the practice of any trade or industry or employment, 
but save as aforesaid, shall include instruction in the branches of science 
and art and any other form of instruction (including modern languages and 
commercial and agricultural subjects) which may for the time being be 
sanctioned by the Department. 

2. MANUAL INSTRUCTION shall mean instruction in the use of tools, 
processes of agriculture, and modelling in clay, wood, or other material. 

1890. EDUCATION CODE ACT. (53 & 54 Viet., c. 22.) 

This was enacted to permit the extension of the educational 
curriculum in evening schools, and to make special grants in 
certain cases. It provided : 

1. That, as a condition of Parliamentary grant, the principal part of the 
education need not be elementary as requi-red in day schools. 

2. That where the population of an elementary school district, or within 
two miles of the building, does not exceed five hundred, then a special annual 

grant of ten pounds may be made, in addition to all grants, ordinary or special, 
previously provided. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 109 

1891. SCHOOLS FOE SCIENCE AND ART ACT. (54 & 55 

Viet., c. 61.) 

The object of this statute was to facilitate the transfer of 
science and art, literary, or scientific institutions to local 
authorities. It provides : 

1. That the managers of any such institution may make arrangements with 
any local authority for transferring the school or institution to that authority, 
and that the authority may legally assent to the same. 

2. That all such transfers shall be in accordance with the provisions laid 
down in the Act of 1870 for the transfer of schools to school boards. 

1891. FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACT. (54 & 55 Viet., 

c. 75.) 

Section 18 runs " On and after the first day of January, 1893, 
no child under the age of eleven years shall be employed in a 
factory or workshop." This is in substitution for the age of ten, 
laid down in section 20 of the Act of 1878. It is further provided 
that complete lists of outworkers shall be kept, together with the 
places where they work, and be open to inspection. 

1891. ACT "to Make Further Provision for Assisting 
Education." (54 & 55 Viet., c. 56.) 

This is commonly called the Free Education Act. It provides : 

1. That an extra grant at the rate of ten shillings a year be paid 
to every efficient elementary school for each child between the age 
of three and thirteen years in average attendance. 

2. Such grant was only to be made in consideration of the 
abolition of fees in every school where the previous average fees did 
not amount to more than ten shillings or in consideration of the 
reduction of the fees charged by at least ten shillings. 

3. The Act was made to apply to all future schools. 

1892. TECHNICAL AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTIONS ACT. 

(55 & 56 Viet., c. 29.) 

The object of this statute was to take all such public 
institutions out of the operation of the Mortmain and Charitable 
Uses Acts. To this end it enacts that the governing body of any 
such public institution may take land by way of sale, exchange, 
or gift, and that the gift of any such land shall not be void by 
reason of the death of the testator within twelve months. 



110 History of Education. 

1893. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (BLIND AND DEAF 

CHILDREN) ACT. (56 & 57 Viet., c. 42.) 
This statute extends the meaning of elementary education so 
as to include " the case of blind or deaf children over the age of 
seven," for whom special schools may be provided. 

1. Distance of suitable school is to be no excuse for non-attendance, 
and a duty is imposed on the Local Authority to provide for blind 
and deaf children resident in their district efficient instruction in 
some school certified by the Board of Education. This may be done 
either by providing and maintaining schools suited for the purpose, 
or by contributing to such schools provided by others. 

2. The Local Authority's responsibility does not extend to 
imbeciles or idiots, or to children in workhouses or boarded out by 
the Guardians of the poor. 

3. When a Local Authority contributes towards the maintenance 
of any school not in its own district, the Board of Education may 
agree to a scheme giving such Local Authority representation on the 
governing body of such school. 

4. All expenses incurred in carrying out this Act by the Local 
Authority shall be paid out of the fund available for the payment of 
their general expenses. 

5. Grants shall be made by the Board of Education in respect of 
special schools, if carried on under the general conditions of the 
Elementary Education Acts, including the conditions with respect 
to religious instruction. 

G. The parent is to be held liable to contribute towards the 
education and maintenance of the child such weekly sum as may be 
agreed, or, in default of agreement, settled by a court of summary 
jurisdiction. 

7. The age of compulsory instruction is extended in the case of 
these children to sixteen years. 

8. Grants are to be paid to such special schools " to such amount 
and on such conditions as may be directed from time to time in the 
minutes of the Board of Education." 

1893. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (SCHOOL ATTENDANCE) 

ACT. (56 & 57 Viet., c. 51.) 

This Act raised the age of exemption to a minimum of eleven 
years, even in respect to partial exemption, notwithstanding any 
certificates of proficiency or due attendance. The age was still 
further raised by 62 & 63 Viet., c. 13, to twelve years. The age 



Legislative Growth of English Education. Ill 

alteration applied both to the penalties imposed on parents and 
employers. 

1894. THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO CHILDREN ACT. 

(57 & 58 Viet., c. 41.) 

By this statute penalties are provided against any person 
who : 

(a) Causes or procures any child, being a boy under the age of 
fourteen years, or being a girl under the age of sixteen years, or 
having the custody, charge, or care of any such child, allows that 
child to be in any street, premises, or place for the purpose of 
begging or receiving alms, or of inducing the giving of alms, 
whether under the pretence of singing, playing, performing, offering 
anything for sale, or otherwise ; or 

(6) Allows such child to be in any street, or in any p.einises 
licensed for the sale of any intoxicating liquor, other than premises 
licensed by law for public entertainments, for the purpose of 
singing, playing, or performing for profit, or offering anything for 
sale, between nine p.m. and six a.m. 

1897. VOLUNTARY SCHOOLS ACT. (60 Viet., c. 5 ) 

The object of this statute was to assist voluntary schools, that 
is, "public elementary schools not provided by School Boards." 
Its essential provisions are : 

(a) It provided for a special grant to voluntary schools not exceeding in the 
aggregate five shillings per scholar. 

(6) It abolished what was known as the seventeen and sixpenny limit, 
(c) It freed voluntary schools from the payment of local rates. 

1897. SCHOOL BOARD CONFERENCE ACT. (60 & 61 Vict.> 

c. 33.) 

It had been deemed in some questions advisable, in order to 
gather together information from all parts of the country, that 
representative members and clerks should meet together in 
conference once a year. The expense of this was found to be not 
chargeable upon the rates, hence the passing of this Act. It 
allowed, as construed by the Board of Education, the right to 
send not more than three representatives from each Board, and 
to pay their travelling and other expenses according to a fixed 
scale. It is doubtful whether the Act is still effective. 



112 History of Education. 

1898. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS (SUPER- 
ANNUATION) ACT. (61 & 62 Viet., c. 57.) 
The question of teachers' pensions had been one of great 
difficulty from 1846. It was complicated on the introduction of 
the Revised Code by Mr. Robert Lowe, and from that time had 
been the subject of considerable friction and agitation. For the 
present it has been settled by the above Act, which provides : 

1. That every certificate granted after the passing of the Act shall 
expire on its holder attaining the age of sixty-five unless the Board 
of Education shall allow a special extension. 

2. That every teacher shall, if a man, pay three pounds, if a 
woman, two pounds, per annum to a deferred annuity fund. 

3. That for such payment the teacher shall, under the terms and 
conditions laid down in the Act, be entitled to a pension of an 
amount fixed by tables prepared by the Treasury. 

This deferred annuity fund is augmented by grants from the Treasury of 
an annual superannuation allowance calculated at the rate of ten shillings 
for each year of recorded service. 

Power is reserved by the Treasury to increase the contributions to the 
deferred annuity fund in case the average salaries rise above a certain amount. 

In the case of permanent breakdown it is provided : 

1. That " disablement allowances " may be granted on the 
following terms . 

(a) The teacher must have had at least ten years of " recorded service." 

(b) The ten years must form at least one half of the time that has elapsed 
since the teacher became certificated. 

(c) The teacher must have been permanently incapable, owing to infirmity 
of mind or body, of being an efficient teacher in a public elementary school. 

(d) That he has not in any way become disentitled to superannuation. 

2. That the amounts of such disablement allowances shall be :- 
(a) In the case of a man, twenty pounds for ten complete years of recorded 

service, with the addition of one pound for each additional year. 

(6) In the case of a woman, fifteen pounds for the first ten and thirteen 
shillings and fourpence for each additional year of recorded service. 

Provided that the allowance shall in no case exceed the superannuation 
allowance as fixed by the Act. 

The deferred annuity fund is liable to actuarial revision, upon 
which the amounts payable may be raised or decreased according to 
its financial stability. The Act is not compulsory in the case of 
teachers already in service, but, if they accept 

The ten shillings per year (see "3" above) for each year of recorded 

service may be augmented in the case of a man by threepence, and in the 

case of a woman by twopence, for each year of recorded service served 

before the commencement of the Act. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 113 

1899. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (SCHOOL ATTENDANCE) ACT. 

(62 & 63 Viet., c. 13.) 

This raised the age of partial or total exemption from eleven to 
twelve. 

1899. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (DEFECTIVE AND EPILEPTIC 

CHILDREN) ACT. (62 & 63 Viet., c. 32.) 
The principal provisions were : 

1. Power is given to Local Authorities to ascertain what children, 
by reason of mental or physical defect, are incapable of receiving 
proper benefit from the instruction in ordinary elementary schools, 
but are not incapable of receiving such benefit in special schools or 
classes ; and what children, by reason of severe epilepsy, are unfit to 
attend the ordinary elementary schools. 

2. Facilities are given to parents to initiate such enquiry as is 
necessary to ascertain whether their children are defective or 
epileptic. Medical certificates of unfitness are to be required in 
every case, from approved practitioners and on prescribed forms. 
A parent refusing to have his child examined is subjected to a 
maximum fine of Five Pounds. 

3. Provision may be made for these children out of the rates in 
either special schools or classes either within or without the district 
of the Local Authority. 

4. Such classes shall not contain more than fifteen epileptics in 
one building, and more than four such buildings shall not be 
established in one school. Should there be no school available in 
the neighbourhood, the Local Authority may pay for boarding out 
such children near to suitable schools. Power is given to the Local 
Authority, where children are unable to attend school without such 
assistance, to provide them with conveyances and guides. 

5. The last provision is not to relieve parents from the responsi- 
bility under the general law, and for any default on their part they 
may be proceeded against under the Act of 1876. 

6. Certificates are granted and expenses met as in cases under the 
Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act, 1893. This 
gives the power to compel the parent to contribute towards the cost 
of the child's maintenance. 

7. Boards of Guardians may contribute towards the cost of 
education or maintenance of any pauper child attending a special 
school or boarded out. 

8. The limit of age of compulsion in the case of defective and 
epileptic children is fixed at sixteen years. 



114 History of Education. 

1899. BOARD OF EDUCATION ACT. (62 & 63 Viet., c. 33.) 

This was " an Act to provide for the establishment of a Board 
of Education for England and Wales and for matters connected 
therewith." By it the Education Department was practically 
abolished and a " Board " substituted in its stead. 

1. The Board consists of : 

(a) A President, and the Lord President of the Council (when he-is not 
appointed President of the Board), his Majesty's principal Secretaries of 
State, the First Commissioner of his Majesty's Treasury, and the Chancellor 
of his Majesty's Exchequer. 

(b) The Vice-President of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education 
at the time of the passing of the Act (Sir John Gorst). On his vacating the 
office it was to be abolished. 

2. The President (who, as a rule, will be the Lord President) is 
appointed by His Majesty and holds office during his pleasure. 

3. The Board took over all the work and duties of the Education 
Department, as well as those of the Science and Art Department, 
and in reading or construing all antecedent statutes or documents 
shall be substituted therefor. 

4. Power is reserved for His Majesty at anytime to transfer to 
the "Board" any of the powers of the Charity Commissioners or of 
the Board of Agriculture relating to education. 

5. The Board may, with the consent of the governors or ruling 
body, inspect any school in England supplying secondary education 
for the purpose of ascertaining the character of the teaching of the 
school. In Wales such inspection is to be conducted by the Central 
Welsh Board for Intermediate Education. 

[A county or borough council out of its technical education funds may 
contribute to the cost of these inspections.] 

6. His Majesty may constitute a Consultative Committee, of whom 
not less than two-thirds must be " persons qualified to represent the 
views of universities and other bodies interested in education." They 
shall have power 

(a) To frame regulations for a register of teachers containing the names of 
all recognised teachers in alphabetical order, with an entry respecting each, 
showing the date of his registration and giving a brief record of his qualifi- 
cations and experience. 

(b) To advise the Board on any matter referred to them. 

1900. MINES EEGULATION ACT (PROHIBITION OF CHILD 

LABOUR UNDERGROUND). (63 & 64 Viet., c. 21.) 
This is a very short Act, containing practically only one 
section, which is as follows :- 

" A boy under the age of thirteen years shall not be employed in, or allowed 
to be for the purpose of employment in, any mine below ground, and accord- 
ingly Sections 4 : and 5 of the Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1887, and Section 4 
of the Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act, 1872, shall be read and have effect 
as if for the word 'twelve' the word ' thirteen ' were substituted therein." 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 115 

1900. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (AMENDMENT) ACT. (63 

& 64 Viet., c. 53.) 

This was a slight modification of the Free Education Act of 
1891. It provided : 

(a) That "Average Attendance" for the purpose of fee grant should be 
calculated in accordance with the minutes of the Board of Education for the 
time being. 

(b) That Boards of Guardians may contribute to the expenses " of provid- 
ing, enlarging or maintaining any public elementary school." 

(c) That a local authority may pay for the conveyance of a child to or from 
an industrial school, 

(d) That the penalty for non-attendance shall be increased from five to 
twenty shillings. 

1901. YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS ACT. (I. Ed. VII., c. 20.) 
By this statute : 

1. A child or. young person convicted of felony who is discharged 
as a first offender or otherwise, or is punished by whipping only, shall 
not be deemed to be " convicted of felony " for the purposes of the 
Industrial Schools Act, 1866. 

2. Where it appears, in a case punishable by fine, damages, or 
costs, that a parent conduced to an offence committed by a child or 
young person by reason of wilful default or neglect, a summons may 
be issued against him for contributing to it. Both summonses may 
be heard together. 

3. Power is given to a court of summary jurisdiction to remand or 
commit a child or young person, whether detained generally or 
under the powers of the Industrial Schools Act, to the custody of 
any person willing to undertake the same, and the child or young 
person so committed shall be entirely under the control of such 
person for the assigned time. The parent may be called upon to 
contribute towards the maintenance of a person so detained in 
custody, and the county and borough councils or school boards have 
power to defray the balance. 

4. The power to commit to an industrial school is extended to 
courts of assize and quarter sessions. 

1901. AN ACT " to Consolidate with Amendments the 
Factory and Workshops Acts." (I. Ed. VII., c. 22.) 
Among a multitude of regulations concerning the carrying on 
of factories with regard to sanitation and the health and protection 
of the workers, this statute also enacts, or re-enacts, the following 
with regard to children ; * 



116 History of Education. 

1. A child under the age of twelve shall not, unless employed at 
the passing of the Act, be engaged in any factory or workshop. (A 
child is defined as a " person who is under the age of fourteen years.") 

2. A certificate of birth is to be produced by every child employed 
together with a certificate from a medical practitioner that he is 
satisfied that it relates to the child in question. 

3. The parent of every child so employed must cause him to attend 
some recognised efficient school. The school may, in all cases, be 
selected by the parent. The attendance must be as follows : 

(i.) If employed in a morning or afternoon set the child must make one 
attendance each day. 

(ii.) If employed on the alternate day system he must make two atten- 
dances on each day preceding any day of employment. 

(iii.) An attendance means two hours at least, between eight in the morning 
and six in the evening, on any day except Saturday or Sunday. 

(iv.) Failure to make the necessary attendance in any week shall disentitle 
the child from being employed until the deficiency has been made up. 

(v.) It is incumbent on every employer, by himself or his representative, to 
obtain each week a certificate from the teacher of some recognised efficient 
school, respecting the attendance of the child at school during the previous 
week. 

(vi.) School fees, if any, may be paid by the employer and deducted from 
the child's earnings. 

4. A child, thirteen years of age, may be employed full time if he 
has a certificate of proficiency in reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
or of " previous due attendance at a certified efficient school." The 
standards of proficiency and attendance shall be such as the Secre- 
tary of State shall, from time to time, determine with the consent 
of the Board of Education. The latest regulations upon this point 
were issued in December, 1900 (prior to the passing of the Act) and 
are as follows : 

(a) The standard of proficiency shall be the Fifth Standard in reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. 

(ft) The standard of due attendance shall be the making of three hundred 
and fifty attendances each year, in not more than two schools, for five years 
after the child has attained the age of five. Such years need not be consecu- 
tive and may be made at a day industrial school, 
(c) The requirements of the Fifth Standard are : 

(i,) To read a short passage from an elementary reading book, 
(ii.) Writing from memory the substance of a short story read out 
twice ; spelling, handwriting, and correct expression to be 
considered. (Copy books to be shown.) 

(iii.) Practice, bills of parcels, and single rule of three by the method 
of unity. 

5. Inspectors appointed under the Act are empowered to examine 
all certificates and documents relating to any child employed, and 
to enter any school wherein he has reasonable cause to believe that 
children employed in a factory or workshop are being educated. 

6. Both employer and parent are liable for offences against 
the Act, 



Legislative Growth of English Education. 117 

1901. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (ENABLING) ACT. (1. 

Ed. VII., Viet., c. 11.) 

Doubts having arisen as to the legality of certain expenditure' 
by School Boards, this Act was passed to indemnify past 
payments and to allow similar payments being made for a year. 
This question arose primarily in connection with Technical Schools 
and Pupil Teacher Centres. 

1902. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (RENEWAL) ACT. (2 

Ed. VII., c. 19.) 

This merely extended the operation of 1 Ed. VII., c. 11 for 
another year. 

1902. THE EDUCATION ACT PASSED. (2 Ed. VII., c. 42.) 

This Act, except as regards London, which is treated in a later 
statute, marks the final stage in education. For the first time it 

(i.) Placed all elementary schools, whether denominational or 
otherwise, in a position to claim assistance from local rates. 

(ii.) Gave Local Authorities power to employ rates for maintaining 
or assisting schools " other than elementary." 

(iii.) Placed the power to train teachers in the hands of Local 
Authorities. 

(iv.) Enabled Local Authorities to pay for the maintenance of 
students. 

(v.) Left it to Local Authorities to pay, if deemed desirable, the 
travelling expenses of both teachers and pupils. 
The Act is divided into Four Parts : 

PART I. 

This deals with the constitution of the local education authority, 
which is as follows : 

(a) In every county or county borough the Council ; 

(b) In every non-county borough with a population of over ten thousand 
the Borough Council ; 

(c) In every urban district with a population of over twenty thousand the 
District Council. 

Note, The powers of (b) and (c) only apply to Part III. of the Act. 

PART II. 

This deals with higher education, and provides : 

(1.) That the Local Education Authority shall consider and 
provide for the needs of the district and promote the " co-ordination 
of all forms of education." 



118 History of Education. 

(ii.) That the money raised under the Customs and Excise Act, 
1890, commonly called the "whiskey money" shall be applied to 
this purpose. 

(iii.) That the Council of a county may levy a rate not exceeding 
twopence in the pound for this purpose. 

(iv) That the Council of a non-county borough or urban council 
may levy an extra rate of one penny for this purpose. 

(v.) That the " conscience clause " shall extend to every school or 
college receiving aid from the rates. 

PART III. 
This deals with elementary education, and provides : 

(i.) That all the powers of School Boards and School Attendance 
Committees be transferred to the new Local Education Authorities 
and that the former bodies be abolished. 

(ii.) That every school, provided or otherwise, shall have a body of 
managers constituted as follows : 

(a) In the case of provided schools 

(i.) Two-thirds, not to be less than four, appointed by tbe Council 
of a county, one-third by the minor local authorities. 

(ii.) In the case of a non-county borough or urban council the 
whole to be appointed by the Council. 

(b) In the case of non-provided schools 

(i.) Two-thirds to be " foundation managers." 

(ii.) One-third to be appointed by the local authorities. 

PART IV. 
The chief provisions are : 

1. The Council of any county, borough, or urban district, having 
powers under the Act, must appoint an education committee to 
carry out the work. Such committee shall contain members of the 
Council, representatives of educational thought, and women. 

2. Powers are given to levy rates for all expenses and to borrow 
necessary moneys. 

3. Councils may amalgamate or co-operate for the carrying out of 
the work under the Act. 

4. The Education Authority may, out of the rates, pay for "the 
provision of vehicles or the payment of reasonable travelling 
expenses for teachers or children attending school or college." 

The Act contains four schedules dealing with, 

(i.) The conduct of business by education committees and managers, 
(ii.) The transfer of officers and the adjustment of property, 
(iii.) The modification of other Acts ; and 
(iv.) A list of Acts wholly L r partially repeated. 



Legislative Growth of English Education. lid 

1903. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION AMENDMENT (DEFECTIVE 

AND EPILEPTIC CHILDREN) ACT. (3 Ed. VII., c. 13,) 
This short Act removed the limit previously fixed by the Act 
of 1899, viz., that the number of children in one building should 
not be more than fifteen, and the number of buildings in a school 
not more than four. 

1903. EDUCATION ACT (LONDON). (3 Ed. VII. c. 24.) 

This statute applies The Education Act, 1902, to London, 
except as expressly modified. The principal modifications are : 

1. The number of managers of every "provided" school is not 
fixed, but shall be determined by the " Metropolitan Borough 
Council in consultation with the Education Authority, subject to 
the approval of the Board of Education." 

2. Two-thirds of the managers are to be appointed by the Borough 
Council, one-third by the Education Authority, but one-third of the 
total must be women. 

3. All new sites are to be acquired after consultation between the 
Borough Council and the Education Authority. 

4. All schools " provided " outside the metropolitan area shall be 
deemed to be within. 

5. The " First Schedule " modifies the principal Act as follows: 
(i.) The powers conferred on ordinary municipal boroughs are not conferred 

on Metropolitan boroughs. 

(ii). The rate for higher education is not limited. 



APPENDIX. 

Chronological Table. 

1903. Education Act (London), Applying the Education Act, 1902, 
to London with modifications. 

1903. Liverpool University Act. 

1903. Elementary Education Amendment (Defective and Epileptic 
Children) Act. 

1902. Elementary Education (Renewal) Act, extending the operation 
of the Enabling Act of 1901 for a year. 

1902. The Education Act, placing all Elementary Schools on the 
rates (London excepted). 

1901. Elementary Education (Enabling) Act, indemnifying School 
Boards for illegal expenditure. 

1901. Factory and Workshops (Consolidating) Act. 
1901. -Youthful Offenders Act. 

1900. Elementary Education (Amendment) Act, modifying the Free 
Education Act of 1891. 

1900. University of Birmingham established. 

1900. Mines Regulation Act prohibiting Child Labour underground. 

1899. Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act, raising the 
age of exemption from 11 to 12 years. 

1899 Board of Education Act. 

1899. Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act. 
1898. The Elementary School Teachers (Superannuation) Act. 
1897. Lord Reay elected Chairman of London School Board. 
1897. School Board Conference Act. 

1897. Voluntary Schools Act, providing special grants for Voluntary 
Schools. 

1895. Marquis of Londonderry elected Chairman of London School 
Board. 

1894. Lord George Hamilton elected Chairman of London School 
Board. 

1895. The Preventi m of Cruelty to Children Act. 

1894. Issue of the much debated " Religious Circular " to its teachers 
by the London School Board. 



Chronological Table. 121 

1893. Commission appointed to enquire into the condition of Voluntary 
Schools. 

1893. Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act. 

1893. Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act, raising the 
age of exemption to 11 years. 

1893. University of Wales established by Royal Charter. 
1892. Technical and Industrial Institutions Act. 
1891. Free Education Act. 
1891. Schools for Science and Art Act. 

1891. Factory and Workshop Act, amending and extending the Act 
of 1878. 

1890. Education Code Act, extending the curriculum in Evening 
Schools. 

1889. Technical Instruction Act. 

1888. Victoria University Act, withdrawing certain disabilities. 

1887. The Coal Mines Regulation Act, regulating the employment 
of children. 

1886. Education Commission appointed (Lord Cross chairman) 

1885. Issue of Crichton Browne's report on " Over-pressure." 

1885. Teachers' Guild of Great Britain and Ireland incorporated. 

1884. Canal Boats Act, supplementing the Act of 1877. 

1883. Factory and Workshop Act, modifying the Act of 1878. 

1881. Royal Commission on Technical Education. 

1880. Ascham Society founded. 

1880. Newnham College, Cambridge, for women, founded. 

1880. Victoria University, founded by Royal Charter. 

1880. Royal University of Ireland founded. 

1880. Act to Enforce the Making of Bye Laws by Local Authorities. 

1880. Guildhall School of Music, London, established. 

1879. Elementary Education (Industrial Schools) Act. 

1879. Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, for women, founded. 

1879. Some rville College, Oxford, for women, founded. 

1879. -St. Hugh's Hall, Oxford, for women, founded. 

1878. Factory and Workshop Consolidation Act. 

1877. The Canal Boats Act. 

1876. Elementary Education (Amendment) Act. 

1875. Education Society founded "For the Development of the 
Science of Education." 

1875. Public Health Act. 

1874. -Hertford College, Oxford, founded by Mr. Baring. 



122 History of Education. 

1874. Factory Act, further regulating the hours of employment of 
Children. 

1874. Yorkshire College, Leeds, founded. 
1873. Elementary Education (Amendment) Act. 
1873. Royal Naval College, Greenwich, founded. 
1873. The Agricultural Children Act. 
1873. First London Board School opened. 

1872. The Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act, prohibiting the 
employment of boys and females. 

1872. University Extension Movement initiated. 

1872. The Royal School of Art Needlework, Exhibition Road, South 
Kensington, founded. 

1871. - College of Physical Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne, founded. 
1871. Factories and Workshops Act, regulating brick-making. 
1871. - Factory Act for Jews. 

1870. School Board System instituted in England and Wales by the 
Education Act of 1870. 

1870. Cowper-Temple Clause (Act 1870, Sec. 14). 

[' No religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive 
of any religious denomination shall be taught,"] 

1870. Keble College, Oxford, founded. 

1870. The Factory and Workshop Act, extending the legislation 
with regard to the textile trades, to bleaching and dyeing. 

1870. Mr. Forster's Elementary Education Act. 

1870. National Union of Elementary Teachers (N.U.E.T.) founded. 

1869. The National Education League founded in Birmingham. 

1869. Girton College, Cambridge, for women, founded. 

1869. Endowed Schools Act. 

1868. Foundation of the Whitworth Scholarships. 

1867. - The Workshop Regulation Act, further regulating the employ- 
ment of Children. 

1867. The Factory Acts "Extension Act," still further extending 
the definition of " Factory." 

1866. Industrial Schools Act. 

1865. Cambridge " Locals," extended to Girls. 

1865. Lord Taunton's Schools Enquiry Commission. 

1864. Factories Extension Act, scheduling other industries. 

1863. The Tonic Sol-fa College founded. 

1863. A further , Factory Act, defining bleaching and dyeing works 
and factories. 



Chronological Table. 128 

1862. Haileybury College, Hertford, established. 
1862. Clifton College established. 
1862. Lowe's Revised Code. 

1862. Factory Act, " prohibiting the employment of women and 
children during the night in certain operations connected 
with bleaching by the open air process." 

1860. Factory Act, applying the provisions of former Acts to bleaching 
and dyeing works. 

I860. Clifton College incorporated. 

1858. Local examinations for boys instituted by the University of 
Cambridge. 

1858. Duke of Newcastle's Commission on the education of the 
labouring classes. 

1857. Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, founded. 

1856. Institution of the Office of Vice-President of the Council of 
Education. 

1854. Cheltenham Ladies' College, founded. 
1854. The Literary and Scientific Institutions Act. 

1853. Factory Act, still further regulating the employment of 
Children in factories. 

1853. National Art Training School, established. 
1853. Wellington College, Wokingham, founded. 
1851. The last of a series of School Sites Acts. 
1851. Owens College, Manchester, founded. 

1850. Factory Act, still further limiting the hours of labour for 
Women and Children in factories. 

1849. School Sites Act. 

1846. Inauguration of the Pupil Teacher system. 

1846. College of Preceptors founded. 

1844. Formation of the Ragged School Union, chiefly through the 
exertions of the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. 

1844. Factory Act, further restricting the time limit of child employ- 
ment. 

1844. -School Sites Act. 
1844. Rossall School, Fleet wood, founded. 
1843, Queen's College, Birmingham, founded. 
1843. Marlborough College founded. 

1842. The first of the Mines Regulation Acts, prohibiting the employ- 
ment of women and girls, and regulating the employment 
of boys. 

1841. School Sites Act. 

1841. Cheltenham College founded. 



124 History of Education. 

1840. Grammar Schools Act, extending the curriculum to science 
and literature. 

1840. St. Mark's Training College, Chelsea, founded. 

1840. Battersea Training College established. 

1840. Borough Koad College established. 

1839. Inspectors of Schools first appointed. 

1839. Committee of Council on Education established. 

1839. Institution of the Education Department. 

1836. First Kindergarten School opened by Froebel. 

1836. - London University founded. 

1836. First School Sites Act, to facilitate the conveyance of sites. 

1834. -City of London College founded. 

1833. Factory Act, extending previous legislation to mills and 
factories, other than cotton. 

1832. -First Government Grant made in aid of elementary education. 
(20,000.) 

1832. University College School founded. 

1832. Durham University founded. 

1831. Factory Act, consolidating previous enactments. 

1829. King's College, London, established. 

1828. St. David's College, Lampeter, founded. 

1826. Publication of the Education of Man by Froebel. 

1825. Factory Act, still further limiting the hours of labour for 
young Persons in Cotton Mills. 

1822. Royal Academy of Music, London, founded by the Earl of 
Westmoreland. 

1822. Birth of Matthew Arnold. 

1821. Birth of Edward Thring, late Head-master of Uppingham. 

1820. Birth of Herbert Spencer. 

1819. Factory Act, first introducing age limit for the Employment of 
Children in Factories. 

1816. Birth of John Curwen, the originator of the Tonic Sol-fa 
System. 

1816. Publication of Chrestomathia by Jeremy Bentham. 

1811. The " National Society for Promoting the Education of the 
Poor in the Principles of the Established Church throughout 
England and Wales " founded. 



Chronological Table. 125 

1808, The Royal Lancastrian Institution founded. (In 1814 called 
the British and Foreign School Society.) 

1806. Publication of Herbart's General Pedagogy. 

V >i802. First Factory Act, restricting the labour of women and children 
in factories. 

1802. First pamphlet on Education published by Joseph Lancaster. 

1802. Formation of the Sunday School Union. 

1800. Downing College, Cambridge, founded. 

1799. Royal Military College, Sandhurst, founded. 

1798. Birth of Isidore Auguste Marie Frangois Xavier Comte. 

1798. Birth of Friedrich Edward Beneke. 

1797, Birth of Rosmini. 

1795. Birth of Thomas Arnold, D.D., the famous headmaster of 
Rugby School. 

1794. Jesuit College, Stonyhurst, founded. 

1782. Birth of Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel 

1781. Publication of Leonard and Gertrude by Pestalozzi. 

1780. First Sunday School, founded by Robert Raikes at Gloucester. 

1779. -Act to Relieve Schoolmasters from Signing the Thirty-Nine 
Articles. 

1778. Birth of Joseph Lancaster. 

1776. Birth of George Birkbeck, M.D. 

1776. Birth of Johann Friedrich Herbart, the German educationalist, 

1770. Birth of Jean Joseph Jacotot. 

1763. Birth of Johann Paul Friedrich Richter. 

1762. Publication of the Emile, by Rousseau. 

1753. Birth of Andrew Bell, the inventor of the Madras System of 

monitorial instruction. 
1751. Publication of the first volume of the French Encyclopedia, 

under the direction of Diderot and D'Alembert. 

1748. Birth of Jeremy Bentham. 

1746. Birth of Madame De Genlis. 

1745. Birth of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. 

1743. Birth of Condorcet, one of the Encyclopaedists. 

1741. Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, founded. 

1735. Birth of Robert Raikes. 

1727. Birth of Turgot. 

1724. Birth of Immanuel Kant, the great German philosopher, 

1723. Birth of Johann Bernhard Basedow. 



126 History of Education. 

1717. Birth of D'Alembert. 

171$. Worcester College, Oxford, founded. 

1713, Birth of Diderot. 

1712. Birth of Jean Jacques Rousseau. 

1698. Greycoat School, Westminster, founded. 

1693. Publication of Some Thoughts Concerning Education by Locke. 

1688. St. Margaret's School, Westminster, founded. 

1685. Charity Schools first founded in England. 

1663. Royal Society incorporated. 

1657. A University at Durham established by Oliver Cromwell. 

1651. Birth of Fe"ne"lon. 

1644. Publication of Milton's Tractate on Education. 

1643. The Jansenists or Port-Royalists founded the " petitfs e" coles" 
in France. 

1637. Publication of The Discourse of Method by Descartes. 

1632. Birth of John Locke, founder of the English School of 
Psychology. 

1624. Pembroke College, Oxford, founded. 

1623. Birth of Blaise Pascal, the Port -Royalist. 

1619. Dulwich College founded. 

1611. Charterhouse School founded. 

1610. Wadham College, Oxford, founded. 

1608. Birth of John Milton. 

1606. Birth of Richard Busby, a famous Headmaster of Westminster. 

1598. Birth of Descartes, the father of Modern Philosophy. 

1595. Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge, founded. 

1594. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, founded. 

1592. Birth of Johann Amos Comenius. 

1591. -Trinity College, Dublin, founded. 

1584. Uppingham Grammar School founded. 

1582. Edinburgh University founded. 

1581. Gresham College, London, founded. 

1571. Birth of Wolfgang Ration. 

1571. Harrow School founded. 

1570. Publication of Ascham's The Schoolmaster. 

1567. Rugby School founded. 

1561. Merchant Taylors' School, London, founded. 

1560, Westminster School founded. 

1557. Repton Grammar School founded. 



Chronological Table. 127 

1555. - Trinity College, Oxford, founded. 
1555. - St. John's College, Oxford, founded. 
1553. Christ's Hospital founded. 
1552. Birmingham Grammar School founded. 
1552. Bedford Grammar School founded. 
1546. Trinity College, Cambridge, founded. 
1535. Publication of Gargantua by Rabelais. 

1534. The Order of the Jesuits (The Society of Jesus), founded by 
Ignatius Loyola. 

1533. - Birth of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne. 
1533. Publication of Pantagruel by Rabelais. 
1532.- Christ's Church College, Oxford, founded. 

1530 (circ.). Birth of Richard Mulcaster, first headmaster of the 
Merchant Taylors' School. 

1527. Sack of Rome. 

1525. Christ's Church College, Oxford, founded. 

1519. Magdalene College, Cambridge, founded. 

1516. Corpus Christi College, Oxford, founded. 

1515. Birth of Roger Ascham. 

1512. St. Paul's School, London, established. 

1511. St. John's College. Cambridge, founded. 

1509. Brasenose College. Oxford, founded, 

1509. Birth of Calvin. 

1507. Birth of Johannes Sturm. 

1505. Birth of John Knox. 

1497. Birth of Philip Melancthon. 

1496. Jesus College, Cambridge, founded. 

1495 (circ.). Birth of Rabelais. 

1494. Aberdeen University founded. 

1492, Capture of Granada and expulsion of the Moors from Spain. 

1491. Birth of Ignatius Loyola. 

1484. Birth of Zwingli, the Swiss reformer. 

1483. Birth of Martin Luther. 

1473. St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, founded. 

1466. Birth of John Colet, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's. 

1465 (circ.) Birth of Erasmus (Gerhard Gerhards). 

1456. Magdalen College, Oxford, founded. 

1453. Sack of Constantinople. 

1450. Glasgow University founded. 



128 History of Education. 

1448. Queens' College, Cambridge, founded. 

'1441. Eton School founded. 

1441. King's College, Cambridge, founded. 

1437. All Souls' College, Oxford, founded. 

1427. Lincoln College, Oxford, founded. 

1411. St. Andrew's University founded. 

1387. Winchester School founded. 

1380. Merton College, Oxford, founded. 

1379. New College, Oxford, founded. 

1350'. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, founded. 

1352. Corpus Christi College, .Cambridge, founded. 

1348. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, founded. 

1348. Pembroke College, Cambridge, founded. 

1340. Queen's College, Oxford, founded. 

1340. Jeromites, or " Brethren of the Common Life," founded by 
Gerard Groot. 

1326. Clare College, Cambridge, founded. 
1324. Oriel College, Oxford, founded. 
1314. Exeter College, Oxford, founded. 
1304. - Birth of Petrarch. 
1265. -Birth of Dante. 

1264. -Merton College founded at Maiden, in Surrey. 
1263. - Balliol College, Oxford, founded. 
1257. Peterhouse (St. Peter's College), Cambridge, founded. 
1249. -University College, Oxford, founded. 

1248. Charter constituting Oxford a university granted by Henry III. 
1231. Charter constituting Cambridge a university granted. 
1135. Hospital of St. John the Evangelist established at Cambridge. 
</1079. Birth of John Abelard at Palais, near Nantes. 

641. Sack of Alexandria. 
*' 480. Birth of St. Benedict, the founder of Western monasticism. 

121. Birth of Marcus Aurelius. 
B.C. 46 (circ). Birth of Plutarch. 
,, 300 (circ.) Zeno founded the School of Stoics. 
,, 342. Aristotle, tutor to Alexander the Great. 
v 384. -Birth of Aristotle. 
/ ,, 429 (circ.). Birth of Plato. 

440. Birth of Xenophon. 
/ ,, 468 (circ.). Birth of Socrates. 



O 




5 1968