Skip to main content


See other formats

Sooks about Books 
Edited by //, //'. 

A SLior: Hisr 



t< ^ 

o J'Ji>. 

i , 





MADAN, Bodley's Librarian, Oxford. 





Other volumes in preparation. 

^ /7iR. 

; u *?i * ' # 

A Shon ?I:srory of 

H "~ O" 

*e~*m J*. ^. ^^^. 


I n^ 



By Henry R. PLomer 

^ !"-J, 

,' n '> 

p i < i * 

1 i i 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 

Broadway House, 68-74 Carter Lane, E.G. 


First Edition , 1900 

Stcond (Popular] Edition, 1915 

Second Impression, 1927 



Class l\o. 




,\ I 


. I 

J il 

( " 

WiAi *Mri M M*|MH*Wfc L 

ond Printed in Great Britain by Sbenezer Baylis $ Son Ltd 
Tfce Trinity Press, Worcester. 

Zcitor's Preface 

WHEN Mr. Plomer consented at my request to 
write a short history of English printing which 
should stop neither at the end of the fifteenth 
century, nor at the end of the sixteenth century, 
nor at 1640, but should come down, as best it 
could, to our own day, we were not without appre- 
hensions that the task might prove one of some 
difficulty. How difficult it would be we had 
certainly no idea, or the book would never have 
been begun, and now that it is finished I would 
bespeak the reader's sympathies, on Mr. Plomer's 
behalf, that its inevitable shortcomings may be 
the more generously forgiven. If we look at what 
has already been written on the subject the diffi- 
culties will be more easily appreciated. In England, 
as in other countries, the period in the history of 
the press which is best known to us is, by the 
perversity of antiquaries, that which is furthest 
removed from our own time. Of all that can be 

vi Ecitor's Preface 

learnt about Caxton the late Mr, William Blades 
set down in his monumental work nine-tenths, 
and the zeal of Henry Bradshaw and of Mr. Gordon 
Duff has added nearly all that was lacking in this 
storehouse. Mr. Gordon Duff has extended his 
labours to the other English printers of the 
fifteenth century, giving in his Early English 
Printing (Kegan Paul, 1896) a conspectus, with 
facsimiles of their types, and in his first 
series of Sandars Lectures presenting a detailed 
account of their work, based on the personal 
examination of every book or fragment from their 
workshops which his unwearied diligence has been 
able to discover. Originality for this period being 
out of the question, Mr. Plomer's task was to 
select, under a constant sense of obligation, from 
the mass of details which have been brought 
together for this short period, and to preserve 
due proportion in their treatment. 

For the work of the printers of the next half- 
century we have Mr. Duffs later Sandars Lectures 
and Mr, Plomer might fairly c i aim that he ^ 
. by the numerous documents which he has 
at the Record Office and at Somerset 

Editor's Preface vfi 

House, has made some contributions to it of con- 
siderable value and interest. It is to his credit, 
if I may say so, that so little is written here of 
these discoveries. In a larger book the story of 
the brawl in which Pynson's head came so nigh 
to being broken, or of John Rastell's suit against 
the theatrical costumier who impounded the dresses 
used in his private theatre, would form pleasant 
digressions, but in a sketch of a large subject 
there is no room for digressions, and these personal 
incidents have been sternly ignored by their dis- 
coverer. Even his first love, Robert Wyer, has 
been allotted not more than six lines above the 
space which is due to him, and generally Mr. Plomer 
has compressed the story told in the Typographical 
Antiquities of Ames, Herbert, and Dibdin with 
much impartiality. 

When we pass beyond the year 1556, which 
witnessed the incorporation of the Stationers' 
Company, Mr, Arber's Transcripts from the Com- 
pany's Registers become the chief source of infor- 
mation, and Mr. Plomer 's pages bear ample record 
of the use he has made of them, and the numerous 
documents printed by Mr. Arber in his prefaces. 

viii Editor's Preface 

After 1603, the date at which Mr. Arber discontinues, 
to the sorrow of all bibliographers, his epitome of 
the annual output of the press, information is far 
less abundant. After 1640 it becomes a matter of 
shreds and patches, with no other continuous aid 
than Mr. Talbot Reid's admirable work, A History 
of the Old English Letter Foundries, written from a 
different standpoint, to serve as a guide. His own 
researches at the Record Office have enabled Mr. 
Plomer to enlarge considerably our knowledge of 
the printers at work during the second half of the 
seventeenth century, but when the State made up 
its mind to leave the printers alone, even this 
source of information lapses, and the pioneer has 
to gather what he may from the imprints in books 
which come under his hand, from notices of a few 
individual printers, and stray anecdotes and memo- 
randa. Through this almost pathless forest Mr. 
Plomer has threaded his way, and though the 
road he has made may be broken and imperfect, 
the fact that a road exists, which they can widen 
and mend, will be of incalculable advantage to all 
students of printing. 

the indebtedness already stated to the 

Editor's Preface ix 

works of Blades, Mr. Gordon Duff, Mr. Arber, and 
Mr. Reid, acknowledgments are also due for the 
help derived from Mr. Allnutt's papers on English 
Provincial Printing (Bibliogm<phica t vol. ii.) and 
Mr. Warren's history of the Chiswick Press (The 
Charles WhiUinghams, Printers ; Grolier Club, 1896). 
Lest Mr. Plomer should be made responsible for 
borrowed faults, it must also be stated that the 
account of the Kelmscott Press is mainly taken 
from an article contributed to The Guardian by 

the present writer. 











xii Contents 





THE STUART PERIOD (1603-1640) . . .126 

FROM 1640 TO 1700 156 


FROM 1700 TO 1750 xgc 


FROM 1750 TO 1800 219 




INDEX 269 

A Snort I-Iistorv of 3 

* o 

Printing, 1^.76-1900 



THE art of printing had been known on the Con- 
tinent for over twenty years, when William Caxton, 
a citizen and mercer of London, introduced it into 

Caxton tells us himself that he was born in the 
Weald of Kent. In 1438 he was apprenticed to 
a well-to-do London mercer, Robert Large, who 
carried on business in the Old Jewry, but in 1441 
his master died, leaving him a sum of twenty marks, 
and shortly afterwards he left England for the 
Low Countries, In the prologue to the Recuyell 
of the Historyes of Troye he tells us that, at the time 
he began the translation, he had been living on the 
Continent for thirty years, in Brabant, Flanders, 
Holland, and Zealand, but the city of Bruges, one 
of the largest centres of trade in Europe at that 
time, was his headquarters, Caxton prospered 
in his business, and rose to be * Governor to the 
English Nation at Bruges,' a position of import- 

2 English Printing 

ance, and one that brought him into contact with 
men of high rank. 

In 1468 Caxton began to translate Raoul Le 
F^vre's Recueil des Histoires de Troyes, but after 
writing a few quires was dissatisfied with his work 
and gave it up. 

Shortly after this he entered the service of 
Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, sister of Eel- 
ward IV of England, either as secretary or steward. 
The Duchess used to talk with him on literary 
matters, and he told her of his attempt to translate 
the Recueil. She asked him to show her what he 
had written, pointed out how he might amend his 
'rude English,' and encouraged him to continue 
his work. Caxton took up the task again, and in 
spite of many interruptions, including journeys 
to both Ghent and Cologne, he completed it, in 
the latter city, on the igth September 1471. All 
this he tells us in the prologue, and at the end of the 
second book he says : 

* And for as moche as I suppose the said two 
bokes ben not had to fore this tyme in oure English 
langage, therefore I had the better will to accom- 
pKsshe this said werke, whiche werke was begonne 
in Brugis, and contynued in Gaunt, and finyshed in 
Coleyn, . . . the yere of onr lord a thousand four 
honderd Ixxi.' He then refers to John Lydgate's 
translation of the third book, and continues : 

'But yet for as moche as I am bounde to con- 
template my fayd ladyes good grace and also that 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 3 

his werke is in ryme, and as ferre as I knowe hit 
is not had in prose in our tonge , . . and also be- 
cause that I have now god leyzcr beying in Coleyn^ 
and have none other thing to doo at this tyme, I 
have,' &c. 

Then at the end of the third book he says that 
having become weary of writing and yet having 
promised copies to divers gentlemen and friends: 
6 Therfor I have practysed and lerned at my grete 
charge and dispense to ordeyne this said book 
in prynte after the maner and forme as ye may 
here see,' &c. 


The book when printed bore neither place of 
imprint, date of printing, nor name of printer. 
The late William Blades, in his Life of Caxton 
(vol. i. chap. v. pp. 45-61), maintained that this 
book, and all the others printed with the same type, 
were printed at Bruges by Colard Mansion, and 
that it was at Bruges, and in conjunction with 
Mansion, that Caxton learned the art of printing. 
His principal reasons for coming to this conclusion 
were : (i) That Caxton's stay in Cologne was only 
for six months, long enough for him to have finished 
the translation of the book, but too short a time 
in which to have printed it ; (2) That the type in 
which it was printed was Colard Mansion's; 
(3) That the typographical features of the books 
printed in this type (No. i) point to their all 
having come from the same printing office, 

On the other hand, Caxtcjn conveys the im- 

4 English Printing 

pression that lie learned to print, whilst making 
the translation, in order to fulfil his promise of 
multiplying copies. That it was in Cologne rather 
than elsewhere is confirmed by the oft-quoted 
stanza added by Wynkyn de Worde as a colophon 
to the English edition of Bartholomaeus' De pro- 
prietatibus rerum. 

*And also of your charyte call to remembraunce 
The sotile of William Caxton, the first prynter of this boke, 
In laten tonge at Coleyn, hymself to avaunce 
That every well-disposyd man may theron loke.' 

If any one should have known the truth about the 
matter, it was surely Caxton's foreman, who 
almost certainly came to England with him. 

Mr. E. Gordon Duff, the highest authority on 
all matters connected with early English printing, 
referring to this verse, says : ' This is a perfectly 
clear statement that Caxton printed a Bartholomaeus 
in Latin at Cologne, and we know an edition of the 
book manifestly printed at Cologne, about the time 
Caxton was there. The type in which it is printed 
greatly resembles that of some other Cologne 
printers, and it seems to be connected with some 
of Caxton's Bruges types.' 

In the face of these statements, we seem bound 
to believe that Caxton did study printing at Cologne, 
but Ms methods of working, and his late adoption 
of spacing and signatures, prove that he only learnt 
the most elementary part of the work there. 

In any case it must have been with the help of 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 5 

Colard Mansion that he set up and printed the 
Recuyell, probably in 1472 or 1473. In addition 
to this book several others, printed in the same 
type, and having other typographical features in 
common with it, were printed in the next few years. 
These were : 

The Game and Playe of the Chess Moralised, trans- 
lated by Caxtoh, a small folio of 74 leaves. 

Le Recueil des Histoires de Troyes, a folio of 120 

Les Fais et Prowesses dit noble et vaillant chevalier 
Jason, a folio of 134 leaves, printed, it is believed, 
by Mansion, after Caxton's removal to England. 

Meditacions sur les sept Psaulmes Penitenciaulx, 
a folio of 34 leaves, also ascribed to Mansion's press, 
about the year 1478. 

Before Michaelmas 1476 Caxton must have left 
Bruges and come to England, leaving type No. i 
in the hands of Mansion, and bringing with him 
that picturesque secretary type known as type 2. 
This, as Mr. Blades has undoubtedly proved, had 
already been used by Caxton and Mansion in print- 
ing Les quatre derrenieres choses t notable from the 
method of working the red ink, a method found in 
no other book of Colard Mansion's. 

On his arrival in England, Caxton settled in 
Westminster, within the precincts of the Abbey, 
at the sign of the Red Pale, which he rented from 
Michaelmas 1476, and thence, on i8th November 

6 English Printing 

1477, he issued The Dictes and Sayinges of the Philo- 
sophers, the first dated book printed in England. 
This was a folio of 76 leaves, without title-page, 
foliation, catchwords, or signatures, as were also 
the books printed in conjunction with Mansion. 
Type 2, in which it was printed, was of the same 
class as the Gros Batarde type of Colard Mansion, 
and was in all probability cut by Mansion himself. 
The letters are bold and angular, the lowercase c w ' 
being given prominence by large loops over the 
top. The *hV and 'IV are also looped letters, 
the final e mV and 'nV are finished with an 
angular stroke, and the only letter at all akin to 
those in type No. i is the final ' d,' which has the 
peculiar pump-handle finial seen in that fount. 
The Dictes and Sayinges is printed in long lines, 
twenty-nine to a page, with spaces left at the be* 
ginning of the chapters for the insertion of capitals. 
The Rylands copy is dated i8th November 1477 ; 
other copies have no colophon, only an Epilogue, 
which begins : 

'Here endeth the book named the dictcs or 
sayengis [ of the philosophers, enprynted, by me 
william | Caxton at Westmestre the yere of our lord 


During the next twelve months the principal out- 
put of Caxton's press was an edition of Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales, a folio of 372 leaves, completed 
before the end of 1478. He also printed in the 
same type a Samm Ordinale, known only by a 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 7 

fragment in the British Museum, and several small 
quarto tracts without date, including a Latin school- 
book called Stans Puer ad Mensam ; two translations 
from Dionysius Cato, entitled respectively Parvus 
Catho and Magnus Catho; Chaucer's poem Anelida 
and Ar cite, and several of Lydgate's the fable of The 
Chorl and the Bird, The Horse, the Shepe and the 
Goose, The Temple of Glas, and the Book of Courtesy. 
It is quite possible that some of these preceded The 
Dictes and Sayinges. 

During the first three years of Caxton's residence 
at Westminster he printed at least thirty books. 
In 1479 h e r ^cast type 2 (cited in its new form by 
Blades as type 2*), and this he continued to use 
until 1481. But about the same time he cast two 
other founts, Nos. 3 and 4. The first of these was 
a large black letter of Missal character, used chiefly 
for printing service books, but appearing in the 
books printed with type 2* for headings. With 
it he printed Cordyale, or the Four Last Things, 
a folio of 78 leaves, the work being a translation 
by Earl Rivers of Les Quatre Derrenieres Choses 
A dvenir, first printed in type 2 in the office of Colard 
Mansion. A. second edition of The Dictes and Say- 
inges was also printed in this type, while to the year 
1478 or 1479 must be ascribed the Rhetorica Nova 
of Friar Laurence of Savona, a folio of 124 leaves, 
long supposed to have been printed at Cambridge. 

After 1479 Caxton began to space out his lines 
and to use signatures, customs that had been in 

8 English Printing 

vogue on the Continent for some years before he 
left. In 1480 he brought the new type 4 into use. 
Although without any loop to the lowercase * d,' 
this was modelled on type 2, but was much smaller, 
the body being most akin to modern ' English.' 
If not so striking as the earlier fount, it was a much 
neater letter and more adapted to the printing of 
Indulgences, and it was probably the arrival of 
John Lettou in London, and the neat look of his 
work, that induced Caxton to cut this fount. With 
this type No. 4 he printed Kendale's Indulgences 
and the first edition of The Chronicles of England, 
dated the loth June 1480, a folio of 152 leaves. 
In the same year he printed with type 3 three service 
books. Of one of these, the Home, only a few leaves 
are known. These were found by William Blades 
in the covers of a copy of Boethius, printed also by 
Caxton, which he discovered in a deplorable state 
from damp, in a cupboard of the St. Albans Grammar 
School. This was an uncut copy, in the original 
binding, and the covers yielded as many as fifty- 
six half sheets of printed matter, fragments of 
other books printed by Caxton, These proved the 
existence of three hitherto unknown examples of 
his press, the Horae above noted, the Ordinale, and 
the Indulgence of Pope Sixtus IV, the remaining 
fragments yielding leaves from the History of Jason, 
printed in type 2 ; the first edition of the Chronicles, 
the Description of Britain ; the second edition of 
the Dicks and Sayinges, the De Curia Sapientiae, 

Caxton and Iiis Contemporaries 9 

Cicero's De Senectute, and the Nativity of Our 
Lady, printed in the recast of type 4, known as 
type 4*. 

The first illustrated book issued by Caxton was 
The Mirror of the World, printed in 1481. In this 
two sets of cuts were used, one representing masters 
and their pupils, and the other diagrams. Two 
of the cuts with figures were used in another book 
of about this date, the third edition of Parvus and 
Magnus Chato. 

To this period also belongs The History of Rey- 
nard the Fox and the second edition of The Game 
and Play of Chess, printed with type 2*, and 
distinguished from the earlier edition by the eight 
woodcuts specially cut for it, but by a different 
hand to that which executed the cuts in the Mirror. 
Some of these were used twice over. 

In type 4, Caxton printed (finishing it on the 
20th November 1481) The History of Godfrey of 
Bologne ; or, the Conquest of Jerusalem, a folio of 
144 leaves. In 1482 appeared the second ' edition 
of the Chronicles, and the compilation of Roger of 
Chester and Ralph Higden, called Polychronicon. 
This history John of Trevisa had translated into 
English prose, bringing it down to 1387. Caxton 
now added a further continuation to 1460, the only 
original work ever undertaken by him. Another 
English author whom Caxton printed at this time 
was John Gower, whose Confessio A mantis ip small 
folio (222 leaves in double columns) he finished 

io 3ng-isli Printing 

on the 2nd September 1483. In this we see the 
first use of type 4*, the two founts being found in 
one instance on the same page. The first edition 
of the Golden Legend also belongs to 1483, being 
finished at Westminster on the 20th November. 
This was the largest book that Caxton printed, 
containing 449 leaves in double columns, illustrated 
with eighteen large and fifty-two small woodcuts. 
The text was in type 4*, the headlines, &c,, in 
type 3. For this work Caxton received from the 
Earl of Arundel, to whom the book was dedicated, 
a promise of a buck in summer and a doe in winter. 
Several copies of the book still exist, its large size 
serving as a safeguard against complete destruction, 
but none are perfect, most of them being made up 
from copies of the second edition. The insertions 
may be recognised by the type of the headlines, 
those in the second edition being in type 5. Other 
books printed in type 4* were Chaucer's Book of 
Fame, Chaucer's Troylus, the Lyf of Our Ladye, 
the Life of Saint Winifred, and the History of King 
Arthur, this last, finished on July 31, 1485, being, 
almost as large a book as the Golden Legend. 
. In 1487 Caxton brought into use type 5, a smaller 
form of the black letter fount known as No, 3, 
with which he sometimes used a set of Lombardic 
capitals. With this he printed, between 1487 and 
1489, several important books, among them the 
Royal Book, a folio of 162 leaves, illustrated with 
six small woodcuts, the Book of Good Warners, 


Caxton and his Contemporaries 

the first edition of the Directorium Sacerdotum, 
and the Speculum Vitae Christi. During 1487 also 
Caxton had printed for him at Paris, by William 
Maynyal, an edition of the Sarum Missal. This 
was the first book in which he used his well-known 
device. The second edition of the Golden Legend 
is believed to have been published in 1488, and to 
about the same time belongs the proof of an In- 
dulgence which Henry Bradshaw discovered in 
the University Library, Cambridge, and which 
seems to have been struck off on the nearest piece 
of blank paper, which happened to be the last page 
of a copy of the Colloquium peccatoris et Crucifixi 
/. C., printed at Antwerp. This was not the only 
remarkable find which that master of the art of 
bibliography made in connection with Caxton. 
On a waste sheet of a copy of the Fifteen Oes, he 
noticed what appeared to be a set off of another 
book, and on closer inspection this turned out to 
be a page of a Book of Hours, of which no copy 
has ever been found. It appeared to have been 
printed in type 5, was surrounded by borders, and 
was no doubt the edition which Wynkyn de Worde 
reprinted in 1494. 

In 1489 Caxton began to use another type 
known as No. 6, cast from the matrices of No. 2 
and 2*, but a shade smaller, and easily distinguish- 
able by the different lowercase c w.* With this 
he printed, on the I4th July 1489, the Faytts of 
Armes and Chivalry, and between that date and 

12 Englisli Printing 

his death three romances, the Foure Sons of Ay man, 
Blanchardin, and Eneydos ; the second editions 
of Reynard the Fox, the Book of Courtesy, the Mirror 
of the World, and the Directorium Sacerdotum ; and 
the third edition of the Dictes and Sayinges. To 
the same period belong the editions of the A rt and 
Craft to Know Well to Die, the Ar$ Moriendi, and 
the Vitas Patrum. 

But in addition to type 6, which Blades believed 
to be the last he used, there is evidence of Caxton's 
having possessed two other founts during the latter 
part of his life. With one of them, type No, 7 
(see E. G. Duff, Early English Printing), somewhat 
resembling types Nos. 3 and 5, he printed two 
editions of the Indulgence of Johannes de Gigliis 
in 1489, and it was also used for the sidonotes 
to the Speculum Vitae Christi, printed in 1494 by 
Wynkyn de Worde, and for some recently discovered 
Indulgences from the same press. Type No. 8 
was also a black letter of the same character, 
smaller than No. 3, and distinguished from any 
other of Caxton's founts by the short, rounded, 
and tailless letter ' y ' and the set of capitals with 
dots. He used it in the Liber Festivalis, the Ar$ 
Moriendi, and the Fifteen Oes, the only book he 
printed with borders, and it was afterwards used 
by Wynkyn de Worde, 

Caxton died in the year 1491, after a long, busy, 
and useful life. At an age when most men begin 
to think of rest and quiet, he set to work to learn 

Caxton anc ais Contemporaries 13 

the art of printing books. Nor was he content 
with this, but he devoted all his spare time to editing 
and translating for his press, and according to 
Wynkyn de Worde it was ' at the laste daye of 
his lyff ' that he finished the version of the Lives 
of the Fathers which De Worde issued in 1495. 
His work as an editor and translator shows him 
to have been fairly acquainted with the French 
and Dutch languages, and to have possessed a quiet 
sense of humour that adds to the charm of what 
he termed his ' rude ' English. 

Of his private life we know little, but the 6 Mawde 
Caxston' who figures in the churchwarden's ac- 
counts of St. Margaret's is generally believed to 
have been his wife. He had a daughter Elizabeth 
married to a merchant named Gerard Croppe, from 
whom she was separated in 1496. His will has not 
been found, the documents at Westminster Abbey, 
from which Dr. E. J. L. Scott has gleaned a few 
records relating to him, having been searched in 
vain. We know, however, from the parish accounts 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster, that he left to that 
church fifteen copies of a Legend (probably not the 
Golden Legend, but a service book printed for him 
by Maynyal), twelve of which were sold at prices 
varying between 6s. 8d. and 5$. 4^. 

Caxton used only one device, a simple square 
block with his initials W. C. cut upon it, and certain 
hieroglyphics said to stand for the figures 74, with 
a border at the top -and bottom. It was probably 

English Printing 

of English workmanship, as those found in the 
books of foreign printers were much more finely 
cut. This block, which Caxton did not begin to 
use until 1487, afterwards passed to his successor, 
who made it the basis of several elaborate varia- 

Upon the death of Caxton in 1491, his business 
came into the hands of his chief workman, Wynkyn 
de Worde. From the letters of naturalisation 
which this printer took out in 1496, we learn that 
he was a native of the Duchy of Lorraine. It was 
suggested by Herbert that he was one of Caxton's 
original workmen, and came with him to England, 
and this has recently been confirmed by the dis- 
covery of a document among the records at West- 
minster, proving that his wife rented a house from 
the Abbey as early as 1480. In any case there is 
little doubt that Wynkyn de Worde had been in 
intimate association with Caxton during the greater 
part of his career as a printer, and when Caxton 
died he seems to have taken over the whole business 
just as it stood, continuing to live at the Red Pale 
until 1500, and to use the types which Caxton had 
been using in his latest books. This fact led Blades 
to ascribe several books to Caxton which were prob- 
ably not printed until after his death. These were 
The Chastising of God's Children, notable typo- 
graphically as being the first book printed at West- 
minster with a title-page ; The Book , of Courtesy*, 
and the Treatise of Love, printed with type No. 6 ;' 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 15 

but, in addition to these, two other books, probably 
in the press at the time of Caxton's death, were 
issued from the Westminster office without a 
printer's name, but printed in a type resembling 
type 4*. These were an edition of the Golden 
Legend and the Life of St. Catherine of Sienna. 
Wynkyn de Worde' s name is found for the first time 
in the Liber Festivalis printed in 1493. In the 
following year was issued Walter Hylton's Scala 
Perfections, and a reprint of Bonaventura's 
Speculum Vit& Christi, the sidenotes to which were 
printed in Caxton's type No. 7, which De Worde 
used also in Indulgences. Besides this, there was 
the Sarum Home, no doubt a reprint of Caxton's 
edition now lost. He used for these books Caxton's 
type No. 8, with the tailless e y ' and the dotted 
capitals. Speaking of this type in his Early 
Printed Books, Mr. E. G. Duff points out its close 
resemblance to that used by the Paris printers 
P. Levet and Jean Higinan in 1490, and argues 
that it was either obtained from them or from the 
type-cutter who cut their founts. 1 

To the year 1495 belongs the Vitas Patrum, the 
book of which Caxton had finished the translation 
on the day of his death ; and beside this, there were 
reprints of the Polychronicon and the Directorium 
Sacerdotum. The reprint of the Boke of St. Albans, 
which was issued in 1496, is noticeable as being 
printed in the type which De Worde obtained from 

i E. G. Duff, Earty Printed Books, pp. 84 and 139. 

1 6 Englisj. Printing 

Godfried van Os, the Gouda printer. This broad 
square-set letter is not found in any other book of 
De Worde's, though he continued to use a set of 
initial letters which he obtained from the same 
printer for many years. 

Among other books printed in 1496 were Dives 
and Pauper, a folio, and several quartos such as 
the Alley of the Holy Ghost, the Meditations of 
St. Bernard, and the Liber Festivalis. In 1497 we find 
the Chronicles of England, and in 1498 an edition 
of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, a second edition of 
the Morte d* Arthur, and another of the Golden 
Legend, in fact nearly all De Worde's dated books 
up to 1500 were reprints of works issued by Caxton, 
But amongst the undated books we notice many 
new works, such as Lidgate's Assembly of Gods 
and Sege of Thebes, Skelton's Bowghe of Court, The 
Three Kings of Cologne, and several school books. 

In 1499 De Worde printed the Liber Equivocorum 
of Joannes de Garlandia, using for it a very small 
black letter making nine and a half lines to the 
inch, probably obtained from Paris, This type 
was generally kept for scholastic books, and in 
addition to the book above noted, Wynkyn de 
Worde printed with it, in the same year or the year 
Mowing, an Ortus Vocabulorum. From the time 
when he succeeded to Caxton's business down to 
the year 1500, in which he left Westminster and 
settled in Fleet Street, De Worde printed at least 
a hundred books, the bulk of them undated, 

Caxton anc his Contemporaries 17 

Several printers from the Low Countries came 
to England soon after Caxton. The year after he 
settled at Westminster, a book was printed at Ox- 
ford without printer's name, and with a misprint 
in the date, which has caused much discussion. 
This was the Exposicio sancti Jeroninii in simbolum 
apostolorum, and the colophon ran, * Impressa 
Oxonie et finita anno domini M.cccc.lxviij., xvij. 
die decembris,' a wholly improbable date now in- 
terpreted as a misprint for 1478. The dropping 
of an * x ' from the date of a colophon is not an 
uncommon printer's error, and the Exposicio has 
been found bound with two other Oxford books, 
the De peccato originali of Aegidius de Columna, 
and a Latin translation of the Ethics of Aristotle, 
both dated 1479, an d both showing the same typo- 
graphical features as the Exposicio. Moreover, 
the type in which they are printed was used at 
Cologne, in 1477 and 1478, by a printer named 
Gerard ten Raem, one of whose books printed with it, 
the Modus Confitendi* was finished on soth October, 
or only eight weeks before the appearance of 
the Exposicio at Oxford. This Modus Confitendi 
has in common with the Exposicio a curious misuse 
of a capital H for a capital P. There is thus no 
room for doubt that the printer of the first three 
Oxford books obtained his type from Cologne, and 
was therefore presumably the Theodoric Rood of that 
city whose name first appears in the commentary 
on the De Anima of Aristotle, printed at Oxford 

1 8 Englisji Printing 

in 1481. This was followed in 1482 by an ex- 
position on the Lamentations of Jeremiah, by John 
Lattebury, and some copies of these two books arc 
distinguished by a woodcut border printed round 
the first page of the text, the first occurrence of a 
border in an English book. 

About 1483 Rood took as a partner Thomas 
Hunt, a stationer of Oxford, and together they 
issued John Anwykyll's Latin Grammar, together 
with the Vulgaria Terencii, Richard Rollc of 
Hampole's Explanations super lectiones bcati Job, 
a sermon of Augustine's, of which the only known 
copy is in the British Museum, a collection of 
treatises upon logic, one of which is by Roger 
Swyneshede, the first edition of Lyndewodo's Pro- 
vincial Constitutions (a large folio of 366 leaves 
with a woodcut, the earliest example found in any 
Oxford book), and the Epistles of Phalaris, with a 
lengthy colophon in Latin verse. The last book 
to appear from the press was the Liber FcsHvalis by 
John Mirk, a folio of 174 leaves, containing eleven 
large woodcuts and five smaller ones, apparently 
meant for an edition of the Golden Legend, as they 
were cut down to fit the Festival. After the appear- 
ance of this book, printing at Oxford suddenly 
ceased. Altogether the Oxford press lasted for eight 
years, and sixteen books or fragments of books 
remain to testify to its activity. In these, seven 
founts of type were used, the first two having all 
the characteristics of the Cologne printers, while 

Caxton and his Contemporaries iq 


the third has a more English look and included 
a lowercase ' w. 5 

Eight books are known, which are believed to 
have been printed at a press in the town of St. 
Albans in Hertfordshire in the fifteenth century. 
The printer is unknown, but was referred to by 
Wynkyn de Worde as 'somtyme scole master 
of saynt Albons. 5 His first production was a 
work by Augustinus Datus called Super eleganciis 
Tullianis. It was printed in a very small and 
clear Gothic type, apparently modelled on one 
of Caxton's. The work bore no date, and its 
short colophon simply records that it was printed 
*apud Sanctum Albanum.' The absence of sig- 
natures proves it to have preceded the other 
productions of this press, and the date assigned to 
it is the year 1479. The first dated book from 
this press was the Rhetorica Nova of Laurentius de 
Saona, printed in 1480. In this another fount 
of type was used, the first only occurring again 
in signatures. This second type has also a great 
resemblance to Caxton's type 2*. In the same 
year the printer also produced the Liber modorum 
Signiftcandi, in a third type which has been 
rightly termed 'the ugliest and most confusing 
of English fifteenth-century types and full of be- 
wildering contractions/ 

The most notable books from this press were 
the Chronicles of England, in which red ink was 
used in printing the initials and paragraph marks, 

20 Eng'-isli Printing 

and at the end it has the printer's device, a double 
cross rising from a circle in which is a shield bearing 
the arms of the town and abbey of St. Albans. 

The last book from this press is known as the 
Book of St. Albans, in which heraldry, hawking, and 
fishing are successively dealt with. 

Thi= book and the Chronicles were printed in 
two types, one that already used in the Rhetorica 
Nova, with a larger fount for headings which is 
admitted to have been Caxton's type 3. At the 
end is the simple imprint * Sanctus Albanus,' but 
at the end of the treatise of * blasyng of armys ' 
it is stated to have been compiled at St. Albans 
in the year 1486. 

Within recent years Dr. E. J. L, Scott has found 
mention amongst the archives at Westminster of 
a manor called Saint Albans, in which there lived 
a schoolmaster called Otto Fuller, but there is no 
evidence at present of this schoolmaster having 
ever had any communication with Caxton, and 
failing this we must continue to ascribe these books 
to 'an unknown printer at St. Albans in Hertford- 

Three years after Caxton had settled at West- 
minster, viz. in 1480, an Indulgence was issued by 
John Kendale, asking for aid against the Turks. 
Caxton printed some copies of this, and others are 
found in a small neat type, and are ascribed to the 
press of John Lettou, who had recently started 
printing in London, Lettou is an old form of 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 21 

Lithuania, but whether John Lettou came from 
Lithuania is not known. 

In this same year, 1480, Lettou printed the 
Quaestiones Antonii Andreae super duodecim libros 
metaphysicae Aristotelis, a small folio of 106 leaves 
in double columns, of which only one perfect copy 
is known, that in the Library of Sion College. The 
type is small and remarkable from its numerous 
abbreviations. Mr, E. G. Duff, in his Early English 
Printing, writes : c There are very strong reasons 
for believing that he [Lettou] is the same person 
as the Johannes Bremer, alias Bulle, who is men- 
tioned by Hain as having printed two books at 
Rome in 1478 and 1479. The type which this 
printer used is identical (with the exception of one 
of the capital letters) with that used in the books 
printed by John Lettou in London,' Another book 
that came from this press in the year 1480 was the 
Expositiones super Psalterium, printed in the same 


A few years later Lettou was joined by William 
de Machlinia, They were chiefly associated in 
printing law-books, but whether they had any 
patent from the king cannot be discovered. Only 
one of the five books they are known to have 
printed, the Tenores Novelli, has any colophon, and 
none of them has any date. These books were 
printed in a type modelled on the law hand of 
the period and abounding in abbreviations. The 
address they gave was 'juxta ecclesiam omnium 


22 English Printing 

sanctorum, 5 but as there were several churches so 
dedicated, the locality cannot be fixed. 

The type in which these books were printed is 
also found in The History of the Siege of Rhodes, 
dedicated to Edward IV, the only early English 
printed book the printer of which is unknown, 
there being difficulties in ascribing it either to 
Lettou or Machlinia. 

About 1482-3 Machlinia is found working alone, 
but out of the twenty-two books or editions that 
have been traced to his press, only four contain his 
name, and none have a date. All we can say is 
,that he printed from two addresses, * in Holbora ' 
and c By Flete-brigge.' Mr. Duff inclines to the 
opinion that c Flete-brigge ' is the earlier, but it 
seems almost hopeless to attempt to place those 
books in any chronological order from their typo- 
graphical peculiarities. 

In the Flete-brigge type are two books by Albertus 
Magnus, the Liber aggregations and the De Sccyetis 
Mulierum. The type is of a black letter character, 
not unlike that in which the Nova Statuta were 
printed, and is distinguishable by the peculiar shape 
of the capital M. In the same type we find the 
Revelation of St. Nicholas to a Monk of Evesham, a 
reprint of the Tenores Novelli, and some fragments 
of a Saram Home found in old bindings ; a wood- 
cut border was used in some parts of it. Besides 
these Machlinia printed an edition of the Vulgaria 

Caxton and his Contemporaries 23 

Fourteen books are found in the Holborn types, 
the most important being the Chronicles of England, 
of which only one perfect copy is known. 

The Speculum Christiani is interesting as con- 
taining specimens of early poetry, and The Treatise 
on the Pestilence, of Kanutus or Canutus, bishop of 
Aarhus, ran to three editions, one of which contains 
a title-page, and was therefore presumably printed 
late in Machlinia's career, i.e. about 1490. 

In addition to these, there were three law-books, 
the Statutes of Richard III, and several theological 
and scholastic works. One of the founts of type 
used by Machlinia is of peculiar interest, by reason 
of its close resemblance to Caxton's type No. 2*, 
and its still greater similarity to the type used by 
Jean Brito of Bruges. 

Machlinia's business seems to have been taken 
over by Richard Pynson. There is no direct 
evidence of this, but Pynson is found using wood- 
cut borders and blocks used by Machlinia, while 
waste from Machlinia books has been found in 
bindings by Pynson. 

Richard Pynson, who was a native of Normandy, 
may have learnt to print in the office of Le Talleur, 
a printer of Rouen with whom he had business 
relations. His methods were those of Rouen 
rather than of any English master, and he was the 
finest printer this country had yet seen, and no 
one, until the appearance of John Day, approached 
Mm in excellence of work. 

24 English Printing 

A good deal of new information has come to 
light within recent years concerning Richard 
Pynson. His career was marked by many changes 
of fortune. He was the object of jealousy and 
suspicion on the part of native workmen, and he 
was involved in many lawsuits. 

His first dated book was the Doctnnale of Alex- 
ander Callus, a quarto, finished on the I3th November 
1492, the only known copy of which is now in the 
British Museum; but several books had been 
printed by Pynson before this, notably a fine 
edition of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales in folio, in 
which two founts of type are seen, a bold unevenly 
cast fount of black letter, somewhat resembling 
that used by Machlinia at Flete Bridge, and a 
fount of small sloping Gothic. The work was 
illustrated with woodcuts representing the various 

In 1493 Pynson printed for a certain 'John 
Russhe, Esquire,' The Dialogue of Dives and Pauper 
with a new type, distinguishable by the sharp 
angular finish to the letter * h.' Pynson's rela- 
tions with John Russhe formed the subject of a 
lawsuit, and we learn from the documents put in 
in the course of the case that 600 copies of this 
book were printed, half of which were sold to 
Russhe, printed and bound, at four shillings each. 
En addition to this book, several quartos, without 
iate, were printed in the same type. 

An edition of Mirk's Liber Festivalis was another 

Caxton and :iis Contemporaries 25 

book which John Russhe commissioned Pynson to 
print for him, and in 1494 he printed, with the earlier 
types of the Chaucer, Lidgate's translation from 
Boccaccio The Falle of Princes, also at the bidding 
of John Russhe, each edition consisting of 600 
copies. Mention is also made of certain Mass- 
books, c Jornalles,' and Prymers, no copies of which 
with Pynson' s name of so early a date have ever 
yet been found, and these were probably printed 
abroad. 1 

Two other printers were at work before the 
close of the fifteenth century. Julian Notary, 
whose nationality is not clear, and Jean Barbier, 
who in spite of the French rendering of his name 
is believed to have been an Englishman, as on the 
Plea Rolls he is described as * Johannes B arbour, 
nuper de Coventre, bere brewer, alias dictus Jehanne 
Bcrbier, nuper de Coventre, prenter.' With them 
was associated a third partner, whose initials J. H. 
are believed to be those of J. Huvin, a printer of 
Rouen. They established themselves in London 
at the sign of St. Thomas the Apostle, and their first 
book was the Questioner Alberti de modis signifi- 
candi y which they followed up in 1497 with an 
octavo edition of the Horae ad usum Sarum. In 
1498 Barbier and Notary removed to King Street, 
Westminster, where they printed in folio for 
Wynkyn de Worde a Missale ad usum Sarum, 

1 For a full account of Pynson's dealings with John Russhe, see 
77/iff Library (New Series), April 1909. 

26 English Printing 

the first edition printed in England. Soon after- 
wards Notary was printing by himself, the initials 
of both his partners being removed from his device. 
Two quartos, the Liber Festivalis and Quattuor 
Sermones, are all that can be traced to his press 
in 1499, and a miniature Horae, less than two inches 
in height, being the sole record of his work in 1500. 
Notary was also a bookbinder, and some of his 
stamped bindings are still met with. 




IN the year 1500 Wynkyn de Worde moved from 
Westminster to the * Sunne ' in Fleet Street. The 
change brought him nearer the heart of the book- 
selling trade, which was then, and for many years 
after, seated in St. Paul's Churchyard and Fleet 
Street. He appears to have discarded much of 
his printing material at this time, but carried with 
him the black letter type with which he had printed 
the Liber Festivalis in 1496, and continued to use it 
until 1508 or 1509, when he seems to have sold it 
to a printer in York, Hugo Goes. He brought 
with him also the scholastic type in use in 1499. 

Besides these, we find two other founts of black 
letter. The larger of the two seems to have been 
introduced about 1503, to print a Sarum Home. 
The smaller fount came into use a few years later. 
It was somewhat larger in body, less angular, and 
much more English in character than that which 
the printer had brought with him from West- 
minster, and the bulk of his books to the day of 
his death were printed with these types. They 
were doubtless recast from time to time, but a 

2 8 English Printing 

close examination fails to detect any difference in 
size or form during the whole period. 

De Worde first began to use Roman type in 1520 
for his scholastic hooks, but he made no general 
use of it, remaining faithful to English black letter 
to the end of his days. The only exceptions arc 
the educational books, which he invariably printed, 


as in fact did all the other printers of the period, 
in a miniature fount of Gothic of a kind very popular 
on the Continent in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. De Worde's, however, was an excep- 
tionally small fount. In 1513 he procured another 
fount of this type, in which he printed the Flowers 
of Ovid, quarto, and in this the letters are of English 
character, as may be seen particularly in the lower- 
case c h. J This fount, which was slightly larger, 
he does not seem to have used very frequently. 
As Julian Notary printed the Sermones Discipuli 
in 1510, in the same type, it may have been lent by 
one printer to the other. In or about 1533 Do 
Worde introduced the italic letter into some of his 
scholastic books, and in Colet's Grammar, which 
was amongst the last books he printed, we find it 
in combination with English black letter, the small 
4 grammar type, 9 and Roman. 

In these various types, between the beginning 
of the century and his death in 1534, Wynkyjnt de 
Worde printed upwards of five hundred books 
which have come down to us, complete or in frag- 
ments. Thanks to the indefatigable energy of Mr. 

Wynkyn ce Worce 29 

Gordon Duff, we possess now a very full record of 
his books, enabling us not only to estimate his merit 
as a printer, but to see at a glance how consistently 
as a publisher he maintained the entirely popular 
character which Caxton had given to his press. 

As regards large folios, he confined himself almost 
entirely to those in which his master had led the 
way, such as the Golden Legend, of which he issued 
several editions, the Speculum Vitae Christi> the 
Marte d* Arthur, Canterbury Tales, Polyohronicon, 
and Chronicles of England. The Vitas Patrum of 
1495 he could hardly help printing, as Caxton had 
laboured on its translation in the last year of his 
life, and it may have been respect for Caxton also 
which led to the publication of his finest book, the 
really splendid edition of Bartholomacus* De Pro- 
prietatibus Rerum, issued towards the close of the 
fifteenth century, from the colophon of which I have 
already quoted the lines referring to Caxton's having 
worked at a Latin edition of it at Cologne. The 
Book of St. Albans was another reprint to which 
the probable connection of the Westminster and 
St. Albans presses gave a Caxton flavour ; and when 
we have enumerated these and the Dives and Pauper, 
produced apparently out of rivalry with Pynson 
in 1496, and a few devotional books such as the 
Orcharde of Syon and the Flour of the Command- 
ments of God, to which this form was given, very 
few Wynkyn de Worde folios remain unmentioned. 

But to one book in folio, Wynkyn de Worde 

30 Eng.isJi Printing 

printed some five-and-twenty in quarto, eschewing 
as a rule smaller forms, though now and again we 
find a Horae, or a Manipulus Curatorum, or a Book 
of Good Manners for Children in eights or twelves. 1 
Students of our older literature owe him gratitude 
for having preserved in their later forms many old 
romances, and also a few plays, and ho published 
every class of took, including many educational 
works, for which a ready sale was assured. The 
majority of these books were illustrated, if only with 
a cut on the title-page of a schoolmaster with a 
tech-rod, or a knight on horseback who did duty 
for many heroes in succession. When the illus- 
trations were more profuse, they were too often pro- 
duced from worn blocks, purchased from French 
publishers, or rudely copied from French originals, 
and used again and again without a thought as to 
their relevance to the text. A similar carelessness 
is often found in his composition and presswork. 

There was no originality about Wynkyn de 
Worde's devices, of which he used no fewer than 
sixteen different varieties. The most familiar, as 
it was the earliest of these, was Caxton's, and next 
to this must^be placed what is usually described as 
the Sagittarius device. There were two forms of 
tins, a square and an oblong. It consisted of three 
divisions, the upper part containing the sun, two 

1 It is rather remarkable that of the eiaht K^I - j , 
octavo. Readers of the works of E^ctt^ ^ * "" 
hive shown a preference for this form whirl' '. Llly Secm to 
for the *orks of these friendly autb- **"* " USed "* *qtfr 

Wyniyn ce Worce 31 

planets, and eleven stars on the left and nine to the 
right ; the centre, the Caxton mark and initials ; and 
the lower part, a ribbon with his name, with a dog 
on one side and an archer on the other. There are 
no less than six variations of this block. Its first 
appearance is in a copy of the Manipulus Cura- 
torum printed in 1502, where it appears showing 
thirty-six stars instead of twenty in the apper panel, 
and having the initial C in the centre panel printed 
the wrong way about. This is the only known 
example of its use. In 1504 a new block was cut, 
and appears first in the Grammar of Sulpicius. 
This was replaced in 1519 and again in 1528, this 
fourth block being distinguished by having only ten 
small stars to the left of the sun and ten to the right. 
In another variation, not often used, the moon takes 
the place of one of the planets, and there are six- 
teen stars ; and lastly there is a slightly smaller form 
of the 1504 block, probably made abroad, as its use 
is confined to books printed in Paris for Wynkyn 
de Worde. 

Wynkyn de Worde died in 1534, his will being 
proved on the igth January 1535. His executors 
were John Byddell, who succeeded to his business, 
and James Gaver, while three other London sta- 
tioners, Henry Pepwell, John Gough, and Robert 
Copland, were made overseers of it, and received 

Julian Notary remained at Westminster two 
years after the departure of Wynkyn de Worde, 

32 English Printing 

when he too flitted eastwards, settling at the sign 

of the Three Kings without Temple Bar, probably 

to be nearer his patron. He combined with his 

trade of printer that of bookbinder, and probably 

bound as well as printed many books for Wynkyn 

de Worde. His printing lay principally in the 

direction of service books for the church, but he 

printed both the Golden Legend and the Chronicles of 

England in folio, one or two lives of saints, and a few 

small tracts of lighter vein, such as "How John 

Splynter made his testament,' and c How a scrjcaunt 

wolde lerne to be a frere,' both in quarto without 


In the Golden Legend of 1504 and the Chronicles 
of England of 1515, the black letter type used was 
identical in character with that of Wynkyn dc 

No book has been found printed by Notary be- 
tween the years 1510 and 1515. In the former year 
he appears to have had a house in St, Paul's Church- 
yard, as well as the Three Kings without Temple 
Bar. In 1515 he speaks only of the sign of St. Mark 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, and three years later this 
is altered to the sign of the Three Kings, It is just 
conceivable that this last was a misprint, or that the 
St. Mark was a temporary office used only while the 
Three Kings was under repair. 

In 1507 Notary exchanged the simple merchant's 
mark that had hitherto served him as a device for 
one of a more elaborate character. This took the 

Wynkyn ce Worde 33 

form of a helmet over a shield with his mark upon it, 
with decorative border, and below all his name. 
From this a still larger block was made in the same 
year, and this was strongly French in character. 
It showed the smaller block affixed to a tree 
with bird and flowers all round it, and two fabulous 
creatures on either side of the base. The initials 
c J. N.' are seen at the top. This he sometimes used 
as a frontispiece, substituting for the centre piece a 
block of a different character. 

Richard Pynson also changed his address shortly 
after Wynkyn de Worde, moving from outside 
Temple Bar to the George in Fleet Street, next to 
St. Dunstan's Church. He also appears about this 
time to have entirely given up the use of his striking 
Gothic type in favour of a much less effective English 
black letter. With regard to this latter, there seems 
reason to believe, from the great similarity both in 
size and form of the fount in use by De Worde, 
Notary, and Pynson at this time, that it was ob- 
tained by all the printers from one common foundry. 
Nor is it only the letters which lead to this conclu- 
sion, but the common use of the same ornaments. 
The only difference between the black letter in use 
by Pynson in the first years of the sixteenth century 
and that of his contemporaries, is the occurrence of 
a lower-case * w * of a different fount. 

The first dated book issued by Pynson from his 
new address was the Directorium Sacerdotum, 
printed in 1501, ' intra barram novi templL* 

34 English Printing 

In 1509 Pynson is believed to have introduced 
Roman type into England, using it with his 
scholastic type to print the Sermo Fratris Hiero- 
nymi de Ferraria. In the same year he also issued 
a very fine edition of Alexander Barclay's trans- 
lation of Brandt's Shyp of Folys of the Worlds In 
this, the Latin original and the English translation 
are set side by side. The book was printed in folio 
in two founts, one of Roman and one of black letter. 
It was profusely illustrated with woodcuts copied 
from those in the German edition. 

Pynson became the royal printer in the place of 

W. Faques, who died in May 1508. At first he 

received a salary of 40$, per annum (see Letters and 

Papers of Henry VIII, vol. i. p, 364), but this was 

afterwards increased to 4 per annum (ibid. t vol. ii. 

p. 875), As royal printer he printed numbers of 

Proclamations, numerous Year-books, and all the 

Statutes, and received large sums of money. In 

1513 he printed The Sege and Dystrucyon of Troye t 

of which several copies (some of them on vellum) 

are still in existence, Other books of which he 

printed copies on vellum are the Sarum Missal of 

1520, and Assertio Septem Sawamentorum of 1521. 

Besides his official work, Pynson found time to 
print good books in all classes of literature. The 
works of Chaucer and Skelton and Lydgate, the 
history of Froissart and the Chronicle of St Albans ; 
books such as Aesop's Fables and Reynard the Pox, 
romances such as Sir Bevis of Hampton are scattered 

Wynkyn ce Worce 35 

freely amongst works of a more solid character. 
On the whole he seems to deserve a higher place 
than De Worde. It is rare, indeed, to find a 
carelessly printed book of Pynson's, whilst such 
books as the Boccacio of 1494, the Missal printed 
in 1500 at the expense of Cardinal Morton, and 
known as the Morton Missal, and the Intrationum 
excellentissimus of 1510 were certainly the finest 
specimens of typographical art which had been 
produced in this country. 

Pynson's earliest device consisted of his initials 
cut on wood. In 1496 he used two new forms. 
One shows his initials upon a shield surmounted 
by a helmet with a bird above it. Beneath is his 
name upon a ribbon, and the whole is enclosed in a 
border of animals, birds, and flowers, The other 
was a metal block of the same device, with two 
naked figures as supporters. The border, which 
was separate and in one piece, had crowned figures 
in it and a ribbon. The bottom portion of this 
border began to give way about 1500, was very 
much out of shape in 1503, and finally broke 
entirely in 1513. This border was sometimes 
placed the wrong way up, as in the British Museum 
copy of Mandeville's Ways to Jerusalem (G. 6713). 
It was succeeded by a woodcut block of a much 
larger form, which may be seen in the Mirroure of 
Good Manners (s.a., fol). It has no border, the 
initials print black on a white ground, while the 
figures have a much better pose. 

36 English Printing 

Pynson died in the year 1530, while passing 
through the press UEclaircissement dc la Langue 
Francoyse, which was finished by John Hawkins, 
of whom nothing else is definitely known. His will, 
proved on the i8th February, 1529-30, mentions 
his son Richard Pynson, " late deceased," and 
nominates his daughter Margaret his executrix. 

Whilst these three printers had been at work, 
many other stationers, booksellers, and printers 
had settled in London. They seem to have 
favoured St. Paul's Churchyard and Fleet Street ; 
but they were also scattered over various parts of 
the city and outlying districts, even as far west 
as the village of Charing. 

In the year 1504, a printer named William Faques 
settled in Abchurch Lane. He was a Norman by 
birth, and Ames suggested that he learnt his art 
with John Le Bourgeois at Rouen, but this is un- 
confirmed. He styled himself the king's printer. 
Of his books only some eight are in existence, three 
with the date 1504, and the remainder undated. 
His workmanship was excellent. The Psalterium 
which he printed in octavo was in a large, well-cut 
English black letter, and each page was surrounded 
by a chain border. The Statutes of Henry VII 
are also in the same type with the same ornament, 
but the Omelia of Origen, one of the undated books, 
is in the small foreign letter so much in vogue with 
the printers of this time. His device has the 
double merit of beauty and originality. It con- 

Wyn^yn de Worce - 37 

sisted of two triangles intersected with his initials 
in the centre and the word * Guillam } beneath. His 
subsequent career is totally unknown, but he appears 
to have died in 1508, and was succeeded as king's 
printer by Pynson. His type, ornaments, &c., passed 
into the hands of Richard Fawkes or Faques, who 
printed at the sign of the Maiden's Head, in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, in the year 1509, Gulielmus de 
Saliccto's Salus corporis Salus anime, in folio, with 
the same type and chain ornament found in the 
Psaltcrium of William Faques. In 1523 he printed 
Skelton's Goodly Garland in quarto, in three founts 
of black letter, and a fount of Roman, and a great 
primer for titles. Amongst his undated works is 
a copy of the Liber Festivalis, believed to have been 
printed in 1510, and an Home ad asum Samm 
printed for him in Paris by J. Bignon. During the 
interval he had moved from the Maiden's Head in 
St. Paul's Churchyard to another house in the 
same locality, with the sign of the A. B. C., and he 
also had a second printing office in Durham Rentes, 
without Temple Bar, that is in some house adjacent 
to Durham House in the Strand. The earliest 
extant printed ballad was issued by Richard Faques, 


the Ballad of the Scottish King, of which the only 
known copy is in the British Museum, and amongst 
his undated books is one which he printed for 
Robert Wyer, the Charing Cross printer, under 
the title of De Cursione Lunae. It was printed with 
the Gothic type, and the blocks were supplied by 

8 English Printing 

Wyer. Richard Faques' device was a copy of 
that of the Paris bookseller Thielmann Kerver, 
with an arrow substituted for the tree, and the 
design on the shield altered. The custom of adapt- 
ing foreign devices was very common, and is one 
of the many evidences of dearth of originality on 
the part of the early English printers. 
The latest date found in the books of this printer 

is 1530. 
Another, prominent figure in the early years 

of the sixteenth century was that of Robert Cop- 
land. He was a man of considerable ability, a 
good French scholar, and a writer of mediocre 
verse. He was also, in the truest sense of the 
word, a book lover, and used his influence to pro- 
duce books that were likely to be useful, or such 
as were worth reading. In the prologue to the 
Kalendar of Shepherdes, which Wynkyn de Worde 
printed in 1508, Copland described himself as 
servant to that printer. This has been taken to 
mean that he was one of De Worde's apprentices. 
But in 1514, if not earlier, he had started in business 
for himself as a stationer and printer, at the sign 
of the Rose Garland in Fleet Street. Very few 
of the books that he printed now exist, and this, 
taken in conjunction with the fact that he trans- 
lated and wrote prologues for so many books 
printed by De Worde, has caused conjectures as 
to their relationship. 
In the British Museum copy of the Dyeynge 

Wynkyn de Worce 39 

Creature, printed by De Worde in 1514, it is notice- 
able that on the last leaf is the mark or device of 
Robert Copland, not that of the printer, while in 
the copy now in the University Library, Cambridge, 
De Worde's device is on the last leaf. 

This would indicate that, though the work actu- 
ally passed through De Worde's press, both printers 
were associated in the venture, and that those copies 
which Copland took and paid for were distinguished 
by his device. Again, in several books with De 
Worde's colophons Copland speaks of himself as 
the ' printer, 5 or c the buke printer,' and a possible 
inference is that these were reprints of books which 
Copland had previously printed, though the words 
may also mean that Copland superintended their 
printing for Wynkyn de Worde. We have a still 
stronger case in the Castell of Pleasure, printed in 
1518 by Henry Pepwell at the sign of the Trinity. 
The prologue to this takes the form of a dialogue 
in verse between Copland and the author, of which 
the following lines are the most important : 

c Emprynt this boke, Copland, at my request 
And put it forth to every maner state.' 

To which Copland replies : 

* At your instaunce I shall it gladly impresse, 
But the utterance, I thynke, will be but small. 
Bokes be not set by : there tymes is past, I gesse ; 
The dyse and cardes, in drynkynge wyne and ale, 
Tables, cayles, and balles, they be now sette a sale. 
Men lete theyr chyldren use all such harlotry, 
That byenge of bokes they utterly deny.' 

40 English Printing 

This surely points to Robert Copland having 
printed an edition of the book on his own responsi- 
bility and not for a master. Amongst other books 
that he was in some way interested in may be 
noticed a curious one by Alexander Barclay, Of 
the Introductory to write French, fol, 1521, of which 
there is a copy in the Bodleian ; The Mirrour of 
the Church, 4to, 521, a devotional work, printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde, with a variety of curious 
woodcuts ; the Rutter of the Sea, the first English 
book on navigation, translated from Le Grand 
Routier of Pierre Garcie ; Chaucer's Assemble of 
Foules and the Questionary of Cyrurgyens, printed 
by Robert Wyer in 1541. 

Copland was also the author, and without doubt 
the printer, of two humorous poems that are amongst 
the earliest known specimens of this kind of writing. 
The one called The Hye Way to the Spyttcll hous 
took the form of a dialogue between Copland and 
the porter of St. Bartholomew's, and turns upon 
the various kinds of beggars and impostors, with 
a running commentary upon the vices and follies 
that bring men to poverty. Jytt of Brentford, the 
second of these compositions, is a somewhat dif- 
ferent production. It recounts the legacies left 
by a certain lady, but the humour, though to the 
taste of the times, was excessively broad. 

In 1542 Dr. Andrew Borde spoke of his Intro- 
diction of Knowledge as printing at 'old Robert 
Copland's, the eldest printer in England.' Whether 

Wynkyn de Worce 41 

he meant the oldest in point of age or in his craft 
is not clear ; but it may well be that, seeing that 
De Worde, Pynson, and the two Faques were dead, 
this printing house was the oldest then in London. 

John Rastell also began to print about the year 
1514. He is believed to have been educated at 
Oxford, and was trained for the law. In addition 
to his legal business, he translated and compiled 
many law-books, the most notable being the Great 
Abridgement of the Statutes. This book he pub- 
lished himself, and it is certainly one of the finest 
examples of sixteenth century printing to be found. 
The work was divided into three parts, each of 
which consisted of more than two hundred large 
folio pages. The type was the small secretary 
in use at Rouen, and it is just possible the book 
was printed there and not in England. 

John Rastell's first printing office in London 
was on the south side of St. Paul's Churchyard. 
William Bonham, the stationer with whom Rastell 
was afterwards associated, had some premises there, 
and as late as the seventeenth century there was 
a house in Sermon Lane, known as the Mermaid, 
and it may be that in one or other of these Rastell 
printed the undated edition of Linacre's Grammar, 
which bears the address c ye sowth side of paulys.' 
But in 1520 he moved to * the Memiayd at Powlys 
gate next to chepe syde.' There he printed The 
Pastyme of the People, and Sir Thomas More's Sup- 
plicacyon of Souls, besides several interludes and 

4,2 English Printing 

two remarkable jest-books, The Twelve mery gestys 
of one called Edith and A Hundred Mery Talys. 
The last named became one of the most popular 
books of the time, but only one perfect copy of it 
is now known, and that, alas ! is not in this country. 
Rastell was brother-in-law of Sir Thomas More, 
and until 1530 a zealous Roman Catholic. In that 
year he wrote and printed a defence of the Roman 
Catholic doctrine of Purgatory, under the title of 
the New Boke of Purgatory. This was answered 
by John Frith, the Reformer, who is credited with 
having achieved John Rastell's conversion. He 
was arrested for his opinions, and was in prison 
just before his death in 1536. During the last 
sixteen years of his life he does not appear to have 
paid much attention to his printing business, A 
document now in the Record Office shows that 
he was in the habit of locking up his printing office 
in Cheapside, and going down into the country 
for months at a time. But a part of the premises 
he sublet, and these were occupied for various 
periods by several stationers William Bonham, 
Thomas Kele, John Heron, and John Gough being 
particularly named. Like all his predecessors, 
Rastell dropped the use of the secretary type in 
favour of black letter, and his books, as specimens 
of printing, greatly deteriorated. Dibdin, in his 
reprint of The Pastyme of the People, was very 
severe upon the careless manner in which it was 
printed. Probably Rastell left it to his journey- 

Wynkyn de Worce 43 

men or apprentices. Among those whom he em- 
ployed we find the names of William Mayhewes, 
of whom nothing is known; Leonard Andrewe, 
who may have been a relative of Laurence Andrewe, 
another English printer ; and one Guerin, a Norman. 

John Rastell left two sons, William and John. 
The former became a printer during his father's 
lifetime and succeeded him in business, but his 
work lies outside the scope of the present chapter. 
The same remark applies to William Bonham* 

In 1518 Henry Pepwell settled at the sign of 
the Trinity in St. Paul's Churchyard, and used 
the device previously belonging to Jacobi and 
Pelgrim, two stationers who imported books printed 
by Wolfgang HopyL His books fall into two 
classes those printed between 1518-1523, and 
those between 1531-1539. The first were printed 
entirely in a black-letter fount that appears to have 
belonged to Pynson. The second series were printed 
entirely in Roman letter. A copy of his earliest 
book, the Castle of Pleasure, 4to, 1518, is in the 
British Museum, as well as the Dietary of Ghostly 
Hethe, 4to, 1521 ; Exornatorium Curatorum, 4to, 
n.d, ; Du Castel's Citye of Lafiy&s, 4to, 1521. His 
edition of Christiani hominis Institutum, 4to, 1520, 
is only known from a fragment in the Bodleian. 
Several books have been ascribed wrongly to this 
printer (Duff, Bibliographica, vol. i pp, 93, 175, 

John Gough began his career as a bookseller in 

44 English Printing 

Fleet Street in 1526. In 1528 he was suspected 
of dealing in prohibited books (see Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, vol. iv. pt. ii. art. 4004), 
but managed to clear himself. In 1532 he moved 
to the * Mermaid ' in Cheapside, and in the same 
year Wynkyn de Worde printed two books for 
him concerning the coronation of Anne Boleyn. 
In 1536, whilst still at the Mermaid, he issued a 
very creditable Salisbury Primer. He calls him- 
self the printer of this, but it is doubtful if this 
means anything more than that he found the 
money, and, perhaps, the material with which it 
was printed. Wynkyn de Worde appointed John 
Gough one of the overseers of his will. Of his 
subsequent career more will be said at a later 

Another of the printers who worked for Wynkyn 
de Worde during the latter part of his life was 
John Skot. In 1521, when we first meet with him, 
he was living in St. Sepulchre's parish, without 
Newgate. In that year he printed the Body of 
Politic and the Justyces of Peas, and in 1522 The 
Myrrour of Gold ; amongst his undated books are, 
Jacob and his xii sons, Carta Feodi simplicis, and 
the Book of Maid Emlyn, all these being in quarto. 
His next dated book appeared in 1528, with the 
colophon in 'Paule's Churchyard,' and here he 
appears to have remained for some years. He 
is next found in Fauster Lane, St. Leonard's parish, 
where he printed, amongst other books, the ballad 

Wynkyn de Worde 45 

of The Nut Browne Maid. He also appears to 
have been at George Alley Gate, St. Botolph's 
parish, where he printed, but without date, Stan- 
bridge's Accidence. His devices were three in 
number, and several of his border pieces were ob- 
tained from Wynkyn de Worde. 

Richard Bankes began business at the long shop 
in the Poultry, next to St. Mildred's Church, and six 
doors from the Stockes or Stocks Market, which at 
that time stood on the present site of the Mansion 
House. In 1523 he printed a very curious tract with 
the following title : 

e Here begynneth a lytell newe treatyse or mater 
intytuled and called The ix. Drunkardes, which 
tratythe of dyuerse and goodly storyes ryght ple- 
saunte and frutefull for all parsones to pastyme 

It was printed in octavo, black letter, and the 
only known copy is in the Douce collection at the 
Bodleian. Another equally rare piece of Bankes' 
printing was the old English romance of Sir Egla- 
mottr, known only by a fragment of four leaves in 
the possession of Mr. Jenkinson of the University 
Library, Cambridge. This was also somewhat 
roughly printed in black letter. In 1525 he printed 
a medical tract called the Seynge of Uryns, in quarto, 
and three years later was associated with Robert 
Copland in the production of the Rutter of the Sea. 
He also issued from this address A Herball, and 
another popular medical work called the Treasure of 

46 English Printing 

Pore Men. In 1539 Bankes moved to the White Hart 
in Fleet Street, where his principal work consisted 
in printing the writings of Richard Taverner, the 
Reformer. In 1540 he was arrested for printing 
certain ballads about the late Thomas Cromwell 
which bore his imprint ; but he declared he had not 
printed them, but that they came from the presses of 
Robert Redman and Richard Grafton, the latter of 
whom confessed his share in the transaction, Mr. 
Duff in commenting on this incident says, e This 
account shows that the colophons of the early 
printers, especially in the case of small fugitive 
pieces, are not to be implicitly trusted, and empha- 
sizes the necessity of a careful study of type.' 
Sandars Lectures, 1899, 1904, p, 155. 

Peter Treveris, or Peter of Treves, was working 
at the sign of the Wodows, in Southwark, between 
the years 1521 and 1533. He used as his device the 
'wild men,' first seen in the device of the Paris 
printer, P. Pigouchet. The fact of his printing the 
Opusculum Insolubilium, to be sold at Oxford * apud 
J. T.,' that is probably for John Thome the book- 
seller, points to his being at work about the year 
1520, In 1521 he is believed to have issued an 
edition of Arnold's Chronicles, translated by Lau- 
rence Andrewe. Two other books of his printing 
were the Handy Worke of Surgery, in folio, 1525, a 
book notable for the many anatomical diagrams 
with which it was illustrated, and as a companion to 
that work, The Great HerlalL Treveris also shared 

Wynkyn ce Worce 47 

with Wynkyn de -Worde most of the printing of 
Richard Whittington's scholastic works, all in 
quarto, and mostly without date. 

Laurence Andrewe, who lived for some years at 
Calais, and translated several books for John van 
Doesborch, the Antwerp printer, set up a press in 
Fleet Street about 1527, in which year he printed 
two editions of The destillacyon of Waters. A 
second edition of the Handy Worke of Surgery, 
above noticed, a tract called The Debate and Strife 
betwene Somer and Winter, to be sold by Robert 
Wyer at Charing Cross, and a reprint of Caxton's 
edition of the Mirroure of the Worlde, in folio, form 
the bulk of his work. His printing calls for no 
special notice, but Mr. Proctor, in his monograph 
on Doesborch, surmises that he learnt his art in an 
English printing house rather than abroad, and the 
presence of a Leonarde Andrewe in the service of 
John Rastell may mean that the two men were re- 
lated and were both pupils of the same master. 

Turning now westwards, we find c in the Bishop 
of Norwiche's Rentes in the felde besyde Charynge 
Cross/ that is near the present Villiers Street, a 
printer named Robert Wyer, the sign of whose 
house was a device of St. John the Evangelist. 
There are several early references to the house as 
that of a bookseller, but without any name men- 
tioned. The dialogue of Solomon and Marcolphus 
was printed by Richard Pynson, without date, to be 
sold at the sign of St. John the Evangelist beside 

48 English Printing 

Charing Cross ; as were also the Debate between 
Somer and Winter, printed by Laurence Andrewe, 
and the De Cursione Lune, from the press of Richard 
Faques. As Wyer's name occurs in the Subsidy 
Roll of the year 1523 in the parish of St. Martin's in 
the Field, these books were evidently printed for 
him. His first dated book was the Golden Pystle, 
printed in 1531. It was printed in a small secretary 
of Parisian character. His great primer, for which 
he has been especially noted by some bibliographers, 
was very probably that used by Richard Faques, 
He had also a number of woodcut face initials simi- 
lar to those used by Wynkyn de Worde, and many 
of the small blocks found in his books were copies of 
those belonging to Antoine Verard, the famous Paris 

Robert Wyer was essentially a popular printer. 
Many of his publications, mostly undated, were tracts 
of a few leaves, abridgments of larger works, chiefly 
on theology and medicine. Like his contemporaries 
he abandoned the secretary type in favour of black 
letter, but neither so readily nor so entirely as they 
did. His first black letter, in use before 1536, was 
a very weU cut and beautiful letter ; with it he 
printed the Epistle of Erasmus, in octavo, and the 
Book of Good Works, of which the only copy known * 
is in the library of St. John's College, Oxford. His 
two most important books are William Marshall's 
Defence of Peace, folio, 1535, in secretary type, and 
the Questionary of Cymrgyens, printed for Henry 

Wynkyn de Worde 49 

Dabbe and R. Bankes. In 1536 the house in which 
he was working passed into the possession of the 
Duke of Suffolk, consequently all books which have 
in the colophon fi in the Duke of Suffolkes Rentes, 5 
or * Beside the Duke of Suffolkes Place,' were printed 
after that year. As Wyer continued to print until 
1555, this circumstance does not help us much ; it 
may, however, be taken as some further guide that 
all his later work was done in black letter. 

Robert Wyer appears to have done a great deal 
of work for his contemporaries, notably Richard 
Bankes, Richard Kele, and John Gough. 

Most of his books have rude woodcuts ; the most 
profusely illustrated was his translation of Christine 
de Pisan's Hundred Histories of Troy. This book 
had been printed in Paris by Pigouchet, and the 
illustrations in Wyer's edition are poor copies of 
those in the French edition. Robert Wyer's device 
represented the Evangelist on the Island of Patmos, 
with an eagle on his right hand holding an inkhorn. 
With this he used a separate block with his name 
and mark. He had also a smaller block of the Evan- 
gelist from which the eagle was omitted. This is 
generally found on the title-page or in the front part 
of his books. 



ON the death of Pynson, in 1530, the office of royal 
printer was conferred upon Thomas Berthelet, who 
was in business at the sign of the Lucretia Romana 
in Fleet Street. During the later years of Pynson' s 
life lie was assisted by a certain Thomas Bercula or 
Berclaeus, who is believed to have been identical 
with Berthelet. Among the writings of Robert 
Copland, the printer-author, was a humorous tract 
entitled The Seven sorowes that women have when theyr 
husbandes be dead (British Museum, C. 20. c. 42 (5)), 
which has at the end this curious passage : 

1 Go lytle quayr, god gyve the wel to sayle 
To that good sheppe, ycleped Bertelet. 

And from all nacyons, if that it be thy lot 
Lest thou be hurt, medle not with a Scot 1 

This is 3 without doubt, an allusion to the two 
London printers, Thomas Berthelet and John Skot. 
Berthelet, or, as he was sometimes called, Bart- 
lett, was a native of Wales, holding land in the 
county of Hereford. Berthelet was one of the few 
English printers of that period whose work is worth 

looking at. His types and presswork were good, and 


Thomas Berthelet to ~ohn Day 51 

he abstained from spoiling his books with bad wood- 

Berthelet was also a bookbinder and bookseller, 
and executed some fine bindings for Henry VIII and 
his successors. He was apparently the first English 
binder to use gold tooling. 

Of his official work very little need be said. It 
consisted of printing all Acts of Parliament, procla- 
mations, injunctions, and other official documents. 
In the second volume of the Transcript (pp. 50-60), 
Professor Arber has printed three of Berthelet's 
yearly accounts, in which are set out the titles, the 
number of copies of each that were struck off, and 
the nature and cost of their bindings. 

In the year 1530 the divorce of Queen Katherine 
and the King's marriage to Anne Boleyn filled the 
public mind, and in connection with this event Ber- 
thelet printed, both in Latin and English, a small 
octavo, with the title : 

The determinations of the moste famous and mooste 
excellent Vniversities of Italy and France that it is so 
unlefull for a man to marie his brothers wyfe that the 
Pope hath no power to dispense therewith, 

Berthelet, in 1531, printed Sir Thomas Elyot's 
Boke named the Governour, an octavo, in a large 
Gothic type, very bold and clear; printed in double 
columns. This type, however, is seen to much 
better advantage in the folio edition of Gower's 
Confessio Amantis, which came from this press in 
1532. The title of this work was enclosed within a 

52 English Printing 

panel which gives it the appearance of a book 

In 1533 Berthelet appears to have purchased a 
new fount of this type, with which he printed Eras- 
mus's De Immensa Dei Misericordia. This new 
letter was even more beautiful than the other, the 
lowercase 'h' finishing in a bold outward curve 
absent in the earlier fount. These founts of Gothic 
closely resemble some in use in Italy at this time. 

To the year 1534 belongs St. Cyprian's Sermon on 
the mortality of man, translated by Sir Thomas 
Elyot, as well as a second edition of The Boke named 
the Governour. 

Berthelet also brought into use during this year 
a woodcut border of an architectural character, 
with the date 1534 cut upon it. It was used only 
in octavo books, and he continued to use it for 
some years without erasing the date. 

We meet with the large Gothic type again in 
I535> in an edition of the De Proprietatibus Rerwn 
of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which Berthelet printed 
in that year. Another notable undertaking was 
the book compiled by the bishops, and issued under 
the King's authority, with the title : 

The Institution of a Christian Man conteyninge 
the Exposition or Interpretation of the commune 
Crede, of the Seven sacraments, of the X command- 
ments, and of the Pater Nosier, and the Ave Maria, 
JustyficaHon & Purgatory. 

Latimer, then Bishop of Worcester, had sug- 

Thomas Berthelet to 7ohn Day 53 

gested to Cromwell that the printing should be 
given to Thomas Gibson, but in spite of this the 
work was entrusted to Berthelet. It was issued 
both in quarto and octavo form, the quarto 
printed in a fine fount of English black letter, 
modelled on those of De Worde. The opening lines 
of the title were, however, printed in Roman of 
four founts, and the whole page was enclosed within 
a woodcut border of children. 

The octavo editions of this notable book were 
printed in a smaller fount of black letter, and the 
title-page was enclosed within the 1534 border. 
Several editions were issued in 1537, and the book was 
afterwards revised and reprinted under a new title. 

At the same time Berthelet was passing through 
the press Sir Thomas Elyot's Dictionary, a work 
of no small labour, if one may judge from the 
number of founts used in printing it. It was 
finished and issued in 1538. 

Berthelet, who, as befitted a royal printer, plainly 
took some pains to keep himself clear of all con- 
troversies, did not stir in the matter of Bible 
translation until the 1538 edition by Grafton and 
Whitchurch was already in the market. 

In 1539, however, he published but did not print 
Taverner's edition of the Bible, and in the follow- 
ing year an edition of Cranmer's Bible. That of 
1539 came from the press of John Byddell, and 
that of 1540 was printed for him by Robert Redman 
and Thomas Petit. 

54 English Printing 

Among the Patent Rolls for the year 1543 (P. R. 
36 Hen. 8; m. 12) is a grant to Berthelet of certain 
crown lands in London and other parts of the 
country, in payment of a debt of 220. His office 
as royal printer ceased upon the accession of 
Edward VI, and though many books are found 
with the imprint, 'in aedibus Thomas Berthelet/ 
down to the time of his death in 1555, he probably 
took very little active part in business affairs after 
that time. He was succeeded by his nephew 
Thomas Powell. 

Meanwhile Pynson's premises were taken by 

Robert Redman, who, from about the year 1523, 

had been living just outside Temple Bar. No new 

facts have come to light about Redman, and the 

reasons why he moved into Pynson's house and 

continued to use his devices are as puzzling as ever. 

He began as a printer of law-books, and printed 

little else. In conjunction with Petit he printed 

an edition of the Bible for Berthelet, and among 

his other theological books was A treatise concern- 

ynge the division betwene the Spirytualtie and Tern- 

poraltie, as to which there is a note in the Letters 

and Papers of Henry VIII (voL vi. p. 215), from 

which it appears that, in 1533, Redman entered 

into a bond of 500 marks not to sell this book or 

any other licensed by the King. Redman was also 

the printer of Leonard Coxe's Arte and Crafte of 

Rhehoryke s one of the earliest treatises on this 

subject published in English. 

Thomas Berthelet to ~ohn Day 55 

Redman's work fell very much below that of 
his predecessor. Much of his type had been in use 
in Pynson's office for some years, and was badly 
worn. He had, however, a good fount of Roman, 
seen in the De Judiciis et Praecognitionibus of 
Edward Edguardus. The title of this book is en- 
closed in a border, having at the top a dove, and 
at the bottom the initials J. N. 

Redman's will was proved on the 4th November 
1540. His widow, Elizabeth, married again, but 
in the interval several books were printed with her 
name. His son-in-law, Henry Smith, lived in St. 
Clement's parish without Temple Bar, and printed 
law-books in the years 1545 and 1546. 

Redman's successor at the ' George ' was William 
Middleton, who continued the printing of law-books, 
and brought out a folio edition of Froissart's Chro- 
nicles, with Pynson's colophon and the date 1525, 
which has led some to assume that this edition 
was printed by Pynson. 

Upon Middleton's death in 1547, his widow 
married William Powell, who thereupon succeeded 
to the business. 

Among those for whom Wynkyn de Worde 
worked shortly before his death was John Byddell; 
a stationer living at the sign of c Our Lady of Pity,' 
next Fleet Bridge, who for some reason spoke of 
himself under the name of Salisbury. He used as 
his device a figure of Virtue, copied from one of 
those in use by Jacques Sacon, printer at Lyons 

56 English Printing 

between 1498 and 1522 (see Silvestrc, Nos, 548 and 
912). The same device, only in a larger form and 
with the lion of St. Mark on the shields, was in 
use also at Venice. 

Byddell had probably been established as a 
stationer some years before the appearance of Eras- 
mus's Enchiridion Militis Christiani from the press 
of De Worde in 1533, with his name in the colophon. 
Another book printed for him by De Worde, in the 
same year, was a quarto edition of the Life of Hylde- 
brand. Both these works De Worde reprinted in 
1534, in addition to printing for him John Roberts' 
A Mustre of scismatyke Bysshoppes. Byddell was 
appointed one of the executors to De Worde's will, 
and very shortly after his death, i.e. in 1535, 
moved to De Worde's premises, the e Sun,' in Fleet 

Most of ByddelTs books were of a theological 
character. He printed a quarto Horae ad usum 
Sarum in 1535, a small Primer in English in 1536, 
and a folio edition of Taverner's Bible in 1539 for 
Thomas Berthelet. 

Among the miscellaneous books that came 
through his press, one or two are especially inter- 
esting. In 1538 we find him printing in quarto 
Lindsay's Complaynte and Testament of a Popinjay, 
a work that had first appeared in Scotland eight 
years before, and created considerable stir. A 
quarto edition of William Turner's Libellus de Re 
Herbaria bears the same date; while among the 

Tliomas Bertlielet to ^ohn Day 57 

books of the year 1540 are editions, in octavo, of 
Cicero's De Officiis and De Senectute. 

The latest date found in any book of ByddelTs 
printing is 1544, after which Edward Whitchurch is 
lound at the ' Sun ' in Fleet Street, whither he 
moved after dissolving partnership with Richard 

The early history of these two men has a special 
interest, because of the part they played in printing 
and publishing the English Bible. 1 

From the affidavit of Emmanuel Demetrius [i.e. 
Van Meteren], discovered in 1884 a * the Dutch 
Church in Austin Friars, 2 it seems clear that in 1535 
Edward Whitchurch was working with Jacob van 
Meteren at Antwerp in printing Coverdale's trans- 
lation of the Bible. 

Richard Grafton was the son of Nicholas Grafton 
of Shrewsbury. The first record we have of him is 
his apprenticeship to John Blage, a grocer of London, 
in 1526. Admitted a freeman of the Company in 
1534, he employed himself in furthering the project 
of an English translation of the whole Bible. On 
the I3th August 1537, Grafton sent to Archbishop 
Cranmer a copy of the Bible printed abroad. The 
text was a modification of Coverdale's translation 

1 The chief authority on the subject is J. A. Kingdon's Incidents in 
the Lives of Thomas Poyntz and Richard Grafton^ privately printed in 
1895. See also Records of the English Bible, edited by A. W. Pollard, 

a The Registers of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars > edited by 
W. J. C. Moens (Introduction, pp. xiii.-xiv.). 

58 English Printing 

ostensibly by Thomas Mathew, but in reality by 
John Rogers the editor. In 1538, Coverdale, Graf- 
ton, and Whitchurch were together in Paris, busy 
upon a third edition of the Bible. In June of that 
year they sent two specimens of the text to Crom- 
well, with a letter stating that they followed the 
Hebrew text with Chaldee or Greek interpretations. 
The printing was done at the press of Francis Reg- 
nault, but before many sheets had been struck off 
the University of Paris seized the press and 2000 
copies of the printed sheets, while the promoters 
had to make a hasty escape to this country. The 
presses and types were afterwards bought by Crom- 
well, and the work was subsequently finished and 
published in 1539, the edition being known as the 
Great Bible* The work had a woodcut title-page, 
ascribed to Holbein, and the price was fixed at ten 
shillings per copy unbound, and twelve shillings 

Before leaving Paris, Graf ton and Whitchurch had 
issued an edition of Coverdale's translation of the 
New Testament, giving as their reason that James 
Nicholson of Southwark had printed a very im- 
perfect version of it. 

In 1540 Grafton and Whitchurch printed in * the 
house late the graye freers 5 The Prymer both in Eng~ 
lysshe and Latin, to be sold at the sign of the Bible 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, and also a' second edition 
of the great Bible, with a prologue by Cranmer. 
Half of this edition bore the name of Grafton and 

TLiomas Berthelet to John Day 59 

half that of Whitchurch, and in all probability the 
subsequent editions were published in the same 
way. Two very good initial letters were used in the 
New Testament, and seem to have been cut especi- 
ally for Whitchurch. On the 28th January 1543-44 
Grafton and Whitchurch received an exclusive 
patent for printing church service books (Rymer, 
Foedera, xiv. 766), and a few years later they are 
found with an exclusive right for printing primers in 
Latin and English. Upon the accession of Edward 
VI, Grafton became the royal printer, but upon the 
king's death he printed the proclamation of Lady 
Jane Grey, and was for that reason deprived of his 
office by Queen Mary. The remainder of his life he 
spent in the compilation of English Chronicles in 
keen rivalry with John Stow. 

Richard Grafton died in 1573, He was twice 

married. By his first wife, Anne, daughter of 

Crome of Salisbury, he had four sons and one 
daughter, Joan, who married Richard Tottell, the 
law printer. By his second wife, Alice, he left one 
son, Nicholas. 

Grafton used as his device a tun with a grafted 
fruit-tree growing through it. 

Among the noted booksellers and printers in 
St. Paul's Churchyard at this time must be men- 
tioned William Bonham. From a series of docu- 
ments discovered at the Record Office relating to 
John Rastell and his house called the ! Mermaid' 
in Cheapside, it appears that in the year 1520 

60 Englisji Printing 

Bonham was working in London as a bookseller, 
and on two different occasions was a sub-tenant 
of RastelTs at the ' Mermaid. 1 Yet not a single dated 
book with his name is found before 1542, at which 
time he was living at the sign of the Red Lion in 
St Paul's Churchyard, and issued a folio edition 
of Fabyan's Chronicles, besides having a share with 
his neighbour, Robert Toye, in a folio edition of 
Chaucer. Even at this time William Bonham held 
some sort of office in the Guild or Society of Sta- 
tioners, for from a curious letter written by Abbot 
Stevenage to Cromwell in 1539, about a certain 
book printed in St. Albans Abbey, he says he has 
sent the printer to London with Harry Pepwell, 
Toy, and 'Bonere' (Letters afad Papers, H. 8, 
vol. xiv, p. 2, No. 315), so that it would look as if 
they were commissioned to hunt down popish 
heretical and seditious books. By the marriage of 
his daughter, Joan, to William Norton, the book- 
seller, who in turn named his son Bonham Norton, 
the history of the descendants of William Bonham 
can be followed up for quite a century later. 

At the Long Shop in the Poultry we can see the 
press at work almost without a break from the 
early years of the sixteenth century till the close 
of the first quarter of the seventeenth, Upon the 
removal of Richard Bankes into Fleet Street its 
next occupant was Richard Kele, who in 1542 issued 
a Primer in Englysh from this house. He was the 
son of Thomas Kele, stationer of Canterbury, who, 

Thomas Berthelet to ~ohn Day 61 

in 1526, had occupied John Rastell's house, the 
'Mermaid/ as stated by Bonham in his evidence. 
During 1543, in company with Byddell, Grafton, 
Middleton, Mayler, Petit, and Lant, Richard Kele 
was imprisoned in the Poultry Compter for printing 
unlawful books (Acts of Privy Council, New Series, 
vol. i, pp. 107, 117, 125). Most of the books that 
hear his name came from the presses of William 
Seres, Robert Wyer, and William Copland, Per- 
haps the most interesting of his publications next 
to the edition of Chaucer, which he shared with 
Toye and Bonham, are the series of poems by John 
Skelton, called Why come ye not to Courte? Colin 
Clout, and The Boke of Phyllip Sparowe. They 
were issued in octavo form, and were evidently very 
hastily turned out from the press, type, woodcuts, 
and workmanship being of the worst description. 

Another occupant of the Long Shop for a short 
time was John Mychell, who is without doubt 
identical with the Canterbury printer of that name. 
A fragment of an undated quarto edition of the 
Life of St. Margaret, fortunately bearing the colo- 
phon, and fragments of another book called The 
Life of St. Gregory's Mother, prove that Mychell 
was working in London either just before Kele took 
the shop or for about a year after he left it. 

Looking back over the work done at this time, 
it is impossible to avoid the conclusion that the 
art of printing in England had much deteriorated 
since the days of Pynson, whilst the best of it, even 

62 English Printing 

that of Berthelet, could not be compared with that 
of the continental presses of the same period. 
There was an entire absence of originality among 
the English printers. Types, woodcuts, initial 
letters, ornaments, and devices were obtained by 
the printers from abroad, and had seen some service 
before their arrival in this country. But just at 
this time a printer came to the front in this country, 
who for a few years placed the art on a higher foot- 
ing than any of his predecessors* 



JOHN DAY, one of the best and most enterprising of 
English printers, was born in the year 1522 at Dun- 
wich, in Suffolk, a once flourishing town, now buried 
beneath the sea. 

From certain entries in the archives of the city ol 
London, it appears that before 1540 he was in the 
service of a printer named Thomas Raynald or 
Reynold, who was then living in Finsbury. 

In John Day's first books there was no sign of the 
skill he afterwards manifested. These were pub- 
lished in conjunction with William Seres, of whom 
nothing else is known. The partners began work in 
the year 1546 at the sign of the * Resurrection ' on 
Snow Hill, a little above Holborn Conduit; that is, 
somewhere in th6 neighbourhood of the present via- 
duct. They had also another shop in Cheapside. 
Their first book, so far as we know, was Sir David 
Lindsay's poem, c The Tragical death of David 
Beaton, Bishop of St. Andrews in Scotland; Wher- 
unto is joyned the martyrdom of maister G. Wyseharte 
. . . for whose sake the aforesayd bishoppe was not 
long after slayne ' (1546. 8vo). 

In the following year (1547) Day and Seres 


64 English Printing 

printed several other books of a religious character, 
nearly all of them in octavo, including Cope's Godly 

Meditation upon the psalms, and Tyndale's Parable 
of the Wicked Mammon. 

Their work in 1548 included a second edition of 
the Consultation of Hermann, the bishop of Cologne ; 
Robert's Crowley's Confutation of Myles Hoggarde ; 
a sermon of Latimer's ; a metrical dialogue aimed at 
the priesthood and entitled John Bon and Mast 
Person ; and, as a relief to so much theological litera- 
ture, the Herbal of William Turner. 

The types used in printing these books were not a 
whit better than anybody else's. There was the 
usual fount of large black letter, not by any means 
new, another much smaller letter of the same cBar- 
acter, and a very poor fount of Roman capitals. 
The workmanship was no better than the types. 
There was no pagination in these books, and no 
devices, and the setting of the letterpress was very 

In 1548 Seres joined partnership with another 
printer, Anthony Scoloker, who had recently come 
from Ipswich and moved to a house in St. Paul's 
Churchyard, called Peter College ; but his name still 
continued to appear with Day's down to the year 
1551, when the partnership was dissolved, Day 
moving to Aldersgate, but retaining his shop in 

The most important undertaking of the partner- 
ship was a folio edition of the Bible in 1549. This 

~ohn Day 65 

was printed in the smaller of the two founts of black 
letter in double columns, with some good initials 
and a great many woodcuts that had evidently been 
used before, as they extend beyond the letterpress. 
Another edition printed by Day alone appeared in 
1551, in which a good initial E> showing Edward VI 
on his throne, is found. Early in the year 1550, 
Day, who had hitherto belonged to the Bowstring- 
makers 9 Company, was allowed to become a freeman 
of the Company of Stationers. 

Soon after the accession of Queen Mary, Day was 
arrested and sent to the Tower c for pryntyng of 
noythy bokes,' and his press was silent for several 
years. Meanwhile the ancient brotherhood of Sta- 
tioners was incorporated by Royal Charter as the 
'Worshipful Company of Stationers.' The exist- 
ence of the brotherhood has been traced to as early 
as 1404, and it is frequently mentioned in the 
wills of printers and booksellers in the first half of 
the sixteenth century. By the Charter of 4th May 
1557 it received the Royal authority to make its 
own laws for the regulation of the trade, although, 
as Mr, Arber has pointed out, the charter * rather 
confirmed existing customs than erected fresh 
powers.' There is abundant evidence that the 
Queen's main reason for granting the charter was the 
wish to keep the printing trade under closer control. 

The newly incorporated company included nearly 
all the men connected with the book trade, not only 
printers, but booksellers, bookbinders, and type- 

66 English Printing 

founders. There were some who, for some unex- 
plained reason, were not enrolled. The omission 
of others is easily accounted for. Grafton and 
Whitchurch were both in disgrace, Grafton for 
having printed Lady Jane's proclamation, and 
Whitchurch for his opinions, while Hugh Singleton's 
name was probably absent for the same reason. 

In the registers of the company were recorded 
the names of the wardens and masters, the names 
of all apprentices, with the masters to whom they 
were bound, and the names of those who took up 
their freedom. The titles of all books were sup- 
posed to be entered by the printer or publisher, a 
small fee being paid in each case, As a matter of 
fact many books were not so entered. Entries of 
gifts to the corporation, and of fines levied on the 
members, also form part of the annual record. 

Literary men of the eighteenth century were the 
first to discover and make use of the wealth of 
information contained in the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company; but it fell to the lot of 
Mr. Arber to give English scholars a full transcript of 
the earlier registers. In order to make it complete, 
he supplemented the work with numerous valuable 
papers in the Record Office and other archives, and 
a bibliographical list down to the year 1603, 

The first master of the company was Thomas 
Dockwray, Proctor of the Court of Arches; and 
the wardens were John Cawood, the Queen's printer, 
and Henry Cooke. 

~ohn Day 67 

Day's name occurs in the charter, and his press 
was evidently at work again in that year, for there 
is a Sarum Missal of that date with his imprint, 
besides several other books, including Thomas 
Tusser's Hundred Points of Good Husserye (i.e. 
Housewifery) ; William Bullein's Government oj 
Health, and sundry proclamations. But it was not 
until 1559 that his books began to show that ex- 
cellence of workmanship that laid the foundation 
of his fame. In that year he issued in folio The 
Cosmographicall Glasse of William Cunningham, a 
physician of Norwich. As a specimen of the printer's 
art it was far in advance of any of Day's previous 
work, and, moreover, was in advance of anything 
seen in England before that time. The text was 
printed in a large, flowing italic letter of great 
beauty, further enhanced by several well-executed 
woodcut initials. Amongst these was a letter c D,' 
containing the arms of the Earl of Leicester, to 
whom the work was dedicated. There were also 
scattered through the book several diagrams and 
maps, a fine portrait of the author, and a plan of 
the city of Norwich. Some of these illustrations 
and initials were signed J, B., others J. D. The 
title-page was also engraved with allegorical figures 
of the arts and sciences. 

Students and lovers of good books may well pay 
a tribute to the memory of that scholarly church- 
man, Archbishop Parker, who rescued so many of 
the books that were scattered at the dissolution 

68 English Printing 

of the monasteries, and enriched Cambridge Uni- 
versity and some of its colleges by his gifts of books 
and manuscripts. But Matthew Parker did not 
stop short at book-collecting. He believed that 
good books should be well printed, and on his ac- 
cession to power under Elizabeth, he encouraged 
John Day and others, both with his authority and 
his purse, to cut new founts of type and to print 
books in a worthy form. 

In 1560 Day began to print the collected works 
of Thomas Becon, the reformer. The whole impres- 
sion occupied three folio volumes, and was not com- 
pleted until 1564. The founts chiefly used in this 
were black letter of two sizes, supplemented with 
italic and Roman. The initials used in the Cosmo- 
graphicall Glasse appeared again in this, and the 
title-page to each part was enclosed in an elaborate 
architectural border, having in the bottom panel 
Day's small device, a block showing a sleeper 
awakened, and the words, * Arise, for it is Day/ At 
the end was a fine portrait of the printer. 

Another important undertaking of the year 1560 
was a folio edition of the Commentaries of Joannes 
Philippson, otherwise called Sleidanus. This Day 
printed for Nicholas England, the fount of large 
italic being used in conjunction with black letter. 

Sermons of Calvin, Bullinger, and Latimer are 
all that we have to illustrate his work during the 
next two years. But in 1563 appeared a handsome 
folio, the editio princeps of Actes and Monumentes 

~ohn Day 69 

of these latter and perillous Dayes, touching matters 
of the Church, better known as Foxe's Book of 

During Mary's reign Foxe had found a home on 
the Continent. In 1554, while at Strasburg, he had 
published, through the press of Wendelin Richel, 
a Latin treatise on the persecutions of the reformers, 
under the title of Commentarii rerum in Ecdesia 
gestarum maximarumque persecutionum a Vuiclem 
temporibus descriptio. From Strasburg he removed 
to Basle, and from the press of Oporinus, in 1559, 
appeared the Latin edition of the Book of Martyrs. 
He did not return to England until October of that 
year, when he settled in Aldgate, and made weekly 
visits to the printing-house of John Day, who was 
then busy on the English edition. 

Foxe's Actes and Monumentes is a work of 2008 
folio pages, printed in double columns, the type used 
being a small English black letter, the same which 
had been used in Becon's Works, supplemented with 
various sizes of italic and Roman. It was illus- 
trated throughout with woodcuts representing the 
tortures and deaths of the martyrs. A very hand- 
some initial letter E, showing Queen Elizabeth aud 
her courtiers, is also found in it. A Royal procla- 
mation ordered that a copy of it should be set up in 
every parish church. From this time Foxe appears 
to have worked as translator and editor for John 
Day, and was for a while living in the printer's 

yo English Printing 

Archbishop Parker meanwhile had induced Day 
to cast a fount of Saxon types in metal. The first 
book in which these were used was Aelfric's * Saxon 
Homily, 5 i.e. the Sermon of the Paschal Lamb, ap- 
pointed by the Saxon bishop to be read at Easter 
before the Sacrament, an Epistle of Aelfric to Wulf- 
sine, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the X Com- 
mandments, all of which were included in the 
general title of A Testimonye of Antiquity, c shewing 
the auncient fayth in the Church of England touch- 
ing the Sacrament of the body and bloude of the 
Lord here publykely preached and also receaved in 
the Saxons tyme, above 600 yeares agoe.' 

Speaking of Day's Saxon fount, the late Mr. 
Talbot Reed, in his Old English Letter Foundries 
(p. 96), says : 

* The Saxon fount ... is an English in body, very clear and 
bold. Of the capitals eight only, including two diphthongs, are 
distinctively Saxon, the remaining eighteen letters being ordi- 
nary Roman ; while in the lowercase there are twelve Saxon 
letters, as against fifteen of the Roman. The accuracy and 
regularity with which this fount was cut and cast is highly 
creditable to Day's excellence as a founder/ 

Although this book (an octavo) bore no date, the 
names of the subscribing bishops fix it at 1566 or 
1567. In the latter year appeared the Archbishop's 
metrical version of the Psalter, which he had com- 
piled during his enforced exile under Mary. In 
connection with this it may be well to point out 
that Day printed many editions of the Psalter with 
musical notes. In 1568 Day used the Saxon types 

~ohn Day 71 

again to print William Lambard's Archaionomia, 
a book of Saxon laws. Amongst his other produc- 
tions of that year must be mentioned the folio 
edition of Peter Martyr's Commentary on the Epistle 
to the Romans ; Gildas the historian's De excidio et 
conquestu Britanniae, 1568, 8vo; and a French 
version of Vandernoot's Theatre for Worldlings , * le 
Theatre auquel sont exposes et monstres les incon- 
veniens et miseres qui suivent les mondains et 
vicieux, ensemble les plaisirs et contentements dont 
les fideles jouissent."* There is a copy of this very 
rare book in the Grenville collection. The Theatre 
for Worldlings was translated into English the 
following year, and contained verses from the pen of 
Edmund Spenser, then a boy of sixteen. Another 
literary work of some importance which issued from 
Day's press was the authorised version, published in 
1570, of a play which had been acted nine years 
before by the gentlemen of the Inner Temple before 
Her Majesty. It had shortly afterwards been pub- 
lished by William Griffith of Fleet Street as : 

The tragedy of Gorboduc, whereof Three Actes 
were wrytten by Thomas Norton and the two last by 
Thomas Sackvyle. Set forth as the same was 
shewed before the Queenes most excellent Maiestie 
in her highnes Court of Whitehall, the xviii day of 
January Anno Domini 1561, By the gentlemen of 
Thynner Temple in London.' Day's edition was 
entitled : 

'The Tragidie of Ferrex and Porrex, set forth 

72 English Printing 

without addition or alteration, but altogether as the 
same was showed on stage before the Queens Mai- 
estie about nine yeares past, viz. the xviii day of 
Januarie 1561, by the gentlemen of the Inner 
Temple.' Another important work of that year was 
Roger Ascham's Scholemaster, in quarto. 

In 1571 Day issued the Reformatio Legum Eccle- 
siasticarum, a quarto of some 300 pages. In this we 
find a new device representing two hands holding a 
slab upon which is a crucible with a heart in it, sur- 
rounded by flames, the word ' Christus * being on 
the slab. From the wrists hangs a chain, and in the 
centre of this is suspended a globe, and beneath that 
again is a representation of the sun. Round the 
chain is a ribbon with the words c Horum CharitasS 
This device was placed on the title-page, which was 
surrounded by a neat border of printer's ornaments. 

The Booke of certaine Canons, 4to, was another 
publication of this year for the due ordering of the 
Church. This, like most public documents, was in 
a large black letter. There were also c Articles of 
the London Synod of 1562.' As a specimen of the 
rel gious sermons or discourses of the time we have 
a very good example in another of Day's publica- 
tions in 1571, a reprint of The Poore Mans Librariv, 
a discourse by George Alley, Bishop of Exeter, upon 
the First Epistle of St. Peter, which made up a very 
respectable folio, printed in Day's best manner, and 
with a great number of founts. 
Day's prosperity roused the envy of his fellow- 

~o:in Day 73 

stationers, and they tried their best to hinder the 
sale of his books and cause him annoyance. This 
opposition took a violent form in 1572, when Day, 
whose premises at Aldersgate had become too small 
to carry on his growing business, his stock being 
valued at that time between 2000 and 3000, 
obtained the leave of the Dean and Chapter of 
St. Paul's to set up a little shop in St. Paul's Church- 
yard for the sale of his books. The booksellers 
appealed to the Lord Mayor, who was prevailed upon 
to stop Day's proceedings, and it required all the 
power and influence of Archbishop Parker, backed 
by an order of the Privy Council, to enable the 
printer to carry out his project. 1 

The Archbishop meanwhile had been busy fur- 
nishing replies to Nicholas Sanders' book De Visi- 
bili Monarchia, and amongst those whom he selected 
for the work was Dr. Clerke of Cambridge, who 
accordingly wrote a Latin treatise entitled Fidelis 
Servi subdito infideli Responsio. From a letter 
written by the Archbishop to Lord Burleigh at this 
time, we learn that John Day had cast a special 
fount of Italian letter for this book at a cost of 
forty marks. 2 

By Italian letter is here meant Roman, and not 
italic as Mr. Reed supposes, for the Responsio was 
printed in a new fount of that type, clear, even, and 
free from abbreviations. 

1 See Strype's Life of Parker, p. 541. Arber's Transcript, vol. ii. 
* Strype's Life of Parker \ pp. 382, 541. 

74 English Printing 

In the same year (1572) Day printed at the Arch- 
bishop's private press at Lambeth his great work 
De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae in folio, in a 
new fount of italic, with preface in Roman, and the 
titles and sub-titles in the larger italic of the Cosmo- 
graphicatt Glasse. It was a special feature of Day's 
letter-founding that he cut the Roman and italic 
letters to the same size. Before his time there was 
no uniformity; the separate founts mixed badly, 
and spoilt the appearance of many books that 
would otherwise have been well printed. 

The De Antiquitate is believed to have been the 
first book printed at a private press in England. 
The issue was limited to fifty copies, and the ma- 
jority of them .were in the Archbishop's possession 
at the time of his death. 

But while he encouraged printing in one direction, 
Matthew Parker rigorously persecuted it in another. 
Just at this time there was much division among 
Protestants on matters of doctrine and ceremonial, 
and Thomas Cartwright published, in 1572, a book 
entitled A Second Admonition to the Parliament, in 
which he defended those who had been imprisoned 
for airing their opinions in the first Admonition. 
This book, like many others of the time, was printed 
secretly, and strenuous search was made by the 
wardens of the Stationers' Company, Day being 
one, to discover the hidden press. The search was 
successful, but unpleasant consequences followed 
for John Day. One of the printers of the pro- 

ohn Day 75 

hibited book turned out to be an apprentice of his 
own named Asplyn. He was released after exami- 
nation, and again taken into service by his late 
master. But the following year the Archbishop 
reported to the Council that this man Asplyn had 
tried to kill both Day and his wife. 

Day's work in 1573 included a folio edition of 
the whole works of William Tyndale, John Frith, 
and Doctor Barnes, in two volumes. This was 
printed in two columns, with type of the same size 
and character as that used in the ' Works ' of Becon, 
some of the initial letters closely resembling those 
found in books printed by Reginald Wolfe. In the 
same year Day issued a life of Bishop Jewell, for 
which he cut in wood a number of Hebrew words. 

In 1574 we reach the summit* of excellence in 
Day's work. It was in that year that he printed; 
for Archbishop Parker, Asser's Life of Alfred, the 
Great (Aelfredi Regis Res Gestae) in folio. In this 
the Saxon type cast for the ; Saxon Homily ' in 1567 
was again used in conjunction with the magnificent 
founts of double pica Roman and italic. With it 
is usually bound Walsingham's Ypodigme Neustria 
and Historia Brevis, the first printed by Day, and 
the second by Bynneman, who unquestionably used 
the same types, so that it may be inferred that the 
fount was at the disposal of the Archbishop, at 
whose expense all three books were issued. 

Another series of publications that came from 
the press of John Day in 1574 were the writings 

76 English Printing 

of John Caius on the history and antiquities of the 
two Universities. They are generally found bound 
together in the following order : 

1. De Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiae. 

2. Assertio Antiquitatis Oxoniensis Academiae. 

3. Historia Cantabrigiensis Academiae, 

4. Johannis Caii Angli, De Pronunciatione Graecae 

et Latinae linguae cum scriptione noua 

The 'Antiquities' and 'History' of Cambridge 
were both books of considerable size, the first having 
268 pages, without counting prefatory matter and 
indexes. The other two were little better than 
tracts, the one having only 27 and the other 23 
pages. Some editions of the De Antiquitate are 
found with a map of Cambridge, while the c History ' 
contained plates showing the arms of the various 
colleges. All four were printed in quarto. The 
type used for the text was in each case an italic of 
English size, with a small Roman for indexes. The 
title-page was enclosed in a border of printers' 
ornaments, and the printer's device of the heart was 
on the last leaf of two out of the four. 

Matthew Parker died in 1575, and the art of 
printing, as well as every other art and science, lost 
a generous patron. But Day's work was not yet 
done, though he printed few large books after this 
date. A very curious folio, written by John Dee, 
the famous astronomer, entitled General and Rare 

"ohn Day 77 

Memorials concerning Navigation,, came from his 
press in 1577. This work had an elaborate alle- 
gorical title-page, by no means a bad specimen of 
wood-engraving. It was a history in itself, the 
central object being a ship with the Queen seated 
in the after part. 

In 1578 Day printed a book in Greek and Latin 
for the use of scholars, Christianae pietatis prima 
institutio y the Greek type being a great improve- 
ment on any that had previously appeared. Indeed, 
it has been considered equal to those in use by the 
Estiennes of Paris. 

The year 1580 saw Day Master of the Stationers' 
Company. Two years later he was engaged in a 
series of lawsuits about his A B C and litell Cate- 
chism, a book for which he had obtained a patent 
in the days of Edward VI. 

As we have already noted, the aim of the Govern- 
ment in granting a charter to the Stationers' Com- 
pany was not primarily the promotion of good 
printing or literature. Printers were looked upon 
by the authorities as dangerous persons whom it 
was necessary to watch closely. On the sgth June 
1566, Elizabeth signed a decree passed by the Star 
Chamber, requiring every printer to enter into sub- 
stantial recognisances for his good behaviour. No 
books were to be printed or imported without the 
sanction of a Special Commission of Ecclesiastical 
authorities, under a penalty of three months* im- 
prisonment and the forfeiture of all right to carry 

78 English Printing 

on business as a master printer or bookseller in 
future, while the officers of the company were in- 
structed to carry out strict search for all prohibited 


On the other hand, while thus retaining a tight 
rein on the printing trade, the Queen granted 
special patents for the sole printing of certain classes 
of books to individual master printers, and threatened 
pains and penalties upon any other member of the 
craft who should dare to print them. In this way 
all the best-paying work in the trade became the 
property of some dozen or so of printers. Master 
Tottell was allowed the sole printing of Law Books, 
Master Jugge the sole printing of Bibles, James 
Roberts and Richard Watkins the sole printing of 
Almanacs; Thomas Vautrollier, a stranger, was 
allowed toprint all Latin books except the Grammars, 
which were given to Thomas Marsh, and John Day 
had received the right of printing ' and selling the 
ABC and Litell Catechism, a book largely bought 
for schools, and which Christopher Barker declared 
was once c the onelye reliefe of the porest sort of that 
Company/ On every side the best-paying work 
was seized and monopolised. Nor did the evil cease 
there. These patents were invariably granted for 
life with reversion to the successor, and they were 
bought and sold freely. - There was very little light 
literature, and what there was had very few readers. 
Hence the poorer members of the company daily 
found it harder to live. . Their appeals for redress of 

~cun Day 79 

grievances, whether addressed to the State or to the 
company, which pretended to look after their wel- 
fare, were alike in vain, and at length they rose in 
open revolt. Half a dozen of them, headed hy two 
printers named Roger Ward and John Wolf, boldly 
printed the books owned by the patentees. Roger 
Ward seized upon this A B C of Day's, and at a 
secret press, with type supplied to him by a work- 
man of Thomas Purfoot, printed many thousand 
copies of the work with Day's mark. Hence the 
proceedings in ijie Star Chamber. They did very 
little good. Ward defied imprisonment ; and the 
agitators would undoubtedly have gained more than 
they did had it not been for the desertion of John 
Wolf, who, after declaring that he would work a re- 
formation in the printing trade similar to that which 
Luther had worked in religion, quietly allowed him- 
self to be bought over, and died in eminent respect- 
ability as Printer to the City of London, leaving 
Ward and others to cany on the war. This they 
did with such effect that, forced to find a remedy, 
the patentees of the company at length agreed to 
relax their grasp of some of the books that they had 
laid their hands upon. Day is said to have relin- 
quished no fewer than fifty-three, and this number 
is in itself a commentary on the magnitude of the 

John Day died at Walden in Essex, on the 2y:d 
July 1584, at the age of sixty-two, and was buried 
at Bradley Parva, where there is a fair tomb and a 

8o English Printing 

lengthy poetical epitaph to his virtues and abilities. 
He was twice married, and is said to have had 
twenty-six children, of whom one son, Richard, was 
for a short time printer, and another, John, took 
Orders, and became rector of Little Thurlow in 

John Day had three devices. His earliest, and 
perhaps his best, was a large block of a skeleton 
lying on an elaborately chased bier, with a tree at 
the back, and two figures, an old man and a young, 
standing beside it. This may have^ been typical of 
the Resurrection, the sign of the house in which he 
began business. Then we find the device of the 
heart in his later books, and finally there is the 
block of the sleeper awakened, but this almost 
always formed part of the title-page. 




Alday, John, Brodehead, Gregory. 

Broke, Robert. 

Baldwyn, Richard. Browne, Edward. 

Baldwyn, William. Burtoft, John. 

Blythe, Robert. Bylton, Thomas. 
Bonharn, John. 

Bonham, William. Case, John. 

Bourman, Nicholas. Cater, Edward. 

Boyden, Thomas. Cawood, John. 

ohn Day 81 

Clarke, John. Ireland, Roger. 

Cleston, Nicholas. 

Cooke, Henry. Jaques, John. 

Cooke, William. Judson, John. 

Copland, William. j uggej Richard. 

Cottesford, Hugh. 
Coston Simon. 
Crokc, Adam. 

Crosse, Richard. Keyall j 

Crost, Anthony. Kevallj 

~ T , K y n g> J hn - 
Day, John. 

Devell, Thomas. 

Dockwray, Thomas. Lant Richar ^- 

Duxwell, Thos. Lobel Michael. 

Fayreberne, John. Marten, Will. 

Fox, John, Marsh, Thos. 

Frenche, Peter. Maskall, Thomas. 

Gamlyn or Gammon Allen, Norton, Henry, 

Gee, Thomas. Norton, William. 
Gonneld, James. 

Gough, John. p R ; chard 

Greffen or Griffith, William. 1^ K 'f 

_ ^ . . . Parker, Thomas. 

Grene, Richard. Pattinson, Thomas. 

Harryson , Richard. 

TT ,;. , , Powell, Humphrey. 

Harvey, Rhard. 


Holder, Robert. 

_ T . . ', T Purfoot, Thomas. 

Holyland, James, 

Huke, Gyles. 

Hyll, John. Radborne, Robert. 

Hyll, Richard. Richardson, Richard. 

Hyll, William. Rogers, John. 

English Printing 

Rogers, Owen. Taverner, Nicholas. 

Ryddall, Will. Tottle, Richard. 

Turke, John. 

Sawyer, Thomas. Tyer, Randolph* 

Seres, William. Tysdale, John. 
Shereman, John. 

Skerewe, Thomas Waliey, Charles. 

Smyth, Anthony. Waliey, John. 

Spylman, Simon. Wallys, Richard. 

Steward, William. Way, Richard. 

Sutton, Edward Whitney, John. 

Sutton, Henry. Wolfe, Reginald. 

Amongst the men whose names were not included 
n the charter were : 

Baker, John, made free Charlewood, John, 

24th Oct. 1555- Racket, Thomas. 

Caley, Robert. Singleton, Hugh. 

Chandeler, Giles, made Wayland, John, 

free 24th Oct. 1555. Wyer, Robert 



MOST notable of all the men who lived and worked 
with Day was Reginald or Reyner Wolfe, of the 
Brazen Serpent in St. Paul's Churchyard. Much 
as we have to regret the scantiness of all material 
for a study of the lives of the early English printers, 
it is doubly felt in the case of Reginald Wolfe. The 
little that is made known to us is just sufficient to 
whet the appetite and kindle the curiosity. It 
reveals to us an active business man, evidently 
with large capital behind him, setting up as a book- 
seller under the shadow of the great Cathedral, 
and rapidly becoming known to the learned and the 
rich. We see him passing backwards and forwards 
between this country and the book fair at Frankfort, 
executing commissions for great nobles, and at the 
same time acting as the king's courier. Later on 
we find him adding the trade of printer to that of 
bookseller, and I have very little doubt that it was 
partly to the advice and influence of Reginald 
Wolfe that we owe the improvement that took place 
in John Day's printing. As a printer he stands 
beside Day in the excellence of his workmanship, 
and he was the first in England who possessed any 

large stock of Greek type. 


84 English Printing 

Reyner Wolfe was a native of Dretunhe (?), in 
Gelderland, as shown by the letters of denization 
which he took out on the 2nd January 1533-4 
(State Papers, Hen. 8, vol. 6, No. 105). He had 
been established in St. Paul's Churchyard some 
years before this, however, as in a letter from Thomas 
Tebold to the Earl of Wiltshire, dated the 4th April 
1530, he says he has arrived at Frankfurt, and 
hopes to hear from his lordship through * Reygnard 
Wolf, bookseller, of St. Pauls Churchyard, London, 
who will be here in two days.' His house was dis- 
tinguished by the sign of the Brazen Serpent. 

It was not until the gth March 1536 that he 
became a freeman of the City of London, the privi- 
lege being granted to him at the express desire of 
Queen Anne Boleyn, and then only on the condition 
that he should take no apprentices but Englishmen 
according to the ancient custom of the city (Biblio- 
graphical Society's Transactions, vol. 6, p. 18). 

In 1539 he was paid iocs, for conveying the 
King's letters to Christopher Mounte, his Grace's 
agent in High Almayne (Letters and Papers, vol. 
xiv. pt. 2, No. 781). In 1542 he began to print 
several of the writings of John Leland the anti- 
quary. The first was Naeniae in mortem T. Viati, 
Equitis incomparabilis. Joanne Lelando, antiquario, 
awfhore, a quarto, printed in a well-cut fount of 
Roman identical with some used by John Wolf at 
Frankfurt. This was followed in the same year by 
GenethHacon, a work specially written by Leland 

"o:in Day's Contemporaries 85 

for Prince Edward, with a dedication to Prince 
Henry, the first part being printed in italic and the 
second in Roman type. On the verse of the last 
leaf is the printer's very beautiful device of children 
throwing at an apple-tree, certainly one of the most 
artistic devices in use amongst the printers of that 

To this work succeeded, in 1543, the Homilies of 
Saint Chrysostom, of which John Cheke, Professor 
in Greek at Cambridge University, was editor. The 
whole of the first part of the work, with the excep- 
tion of the dedication, was in Greek letter, making 
thirty lines to the quarto page. The second part, 
which had a separate title-page, was printed with 
the italic, and the supplementary parts with the 
Roman types. Some very fine pictorial initial 
letters were used in the work, and the larger form 
of the apple-tree device occurs on the last leaf, with 
a Greek and Latin motto. 

A very rare specimen of Wolfe's work in 1543 is 
Robert Recorders The groud of artes teachyng the 
workke and practise of Arithmetike much necessary 
for all states of men, a small octavo printed in black 
letter, but of no particular merit. In the same 
type and form he issued in the following year a 
tract entitled The late expedition in Scotlande, &c. 
Chrysostom's De Providentia Dei and Laudatio 
Pads were printed in the Roman and italic founts 
during 1545 and 1546, and are the only record we 
have left of Wolfe's work as a printer during those 


86 English Printing 

years. In 1547 ^ e was appointed the king's printer 
in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and was granted an 
annuity of twenty-six shillings and eightpence 
during his life (Pat. Rol., igth April 1547). 

In 1553 trouble arose between Wolfe and Day as 
to their respective rights of printing Edward the 
Sixth's catechism. The matter was settled by 
Wolfe having the privilege for printing the Latin 
version, and Day that in English, but neither party 
reaped much benefit, as upon the king's death the 
book was called in, having only been in circulation 
a few months. During Mary's reign the only im- 
portant work that seems to have come from Wolfe's 
press was Recorde's Castle of Knowledge, a folio, 
with an elaborately engraved title-page, and a dedi- 
cation to Cardinal Pole. In 1560 Wolfe became 
Master of the Company of Stationers, a position to 
which he was elected on three subsequent occasions, 
in 1564, 1567, and 1572. His patents were renewed 
to him under Elizabeth, and he came in for his share 
of the patronage of Matthew Parker, whose edition of 
Jewel's Apologia he printed in quarto form in 1562. 
In 1563 appeared from his press the Commonplaces 
of Scripture, by Wolfgang Musculus, a folio, chiefly 
notable for a very fine pictorial initial * I,' measur- 
ing nearly 3^ inches square, and representing the 
Creation, which had obviously formed part of the 
opening chapter of Genesis in some early edition 
of the Bible. It wa used again in the 1577 
edition of Hollinshed's Chronicle. 

"ohn Day's Contemooraries 87 

* * 

Almost his last work was Matthew Paris' s His- 
toria Major, edited by Matthew Parker, a handsome 
folio with an engraved title-page, several good pic- 
torial initials, and his large device of the apple-tree, 
printed in 1571. Without doubt the printer was 
greatly interested in this work. He had himself 
collected materials for a chronicle of his adopted 
country, which he amused himself with in his spare 
time. But he did not live to print it, his death 
taking place late in the year 1573. His will was 
short, and mentioned none of his children by name. 
His property in St, Paul's Churchyard, which in- 
cluded the Chapel or Charnel House on the north 
side, which he had purchased of King Henry VIII, 
he left to his wife, and the witnesses to his will were 
George Bishop, Raphael Holinshed, John Hunn, and 
John Shepparde. 1 His wife, Joan Wolfe, only sur- 
vived him a few months, her will, which is also pre- 
served in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 2 
being proved on the soth July 1574. In it occurs 
the following passage : 

' I will that Raphell Hollingshed shall have and enjoye all 
such benefit, proffit, and commoditie as was promised unto him 
by my said late husbande Reginald Wolfe, for or concerning 
the translating and prynting of a certain crownacle which my 
said husband before his decease did prepare and Intende to 
have prynted.* 

She further mentioned in her will a son Robert, a 
son Henry, and a daughter Mary, the wife of John 

1 P. C. C , I Martyn. * /to/., 32 Martyn. 

88'' English Printing 

Harrison, citizen and stationer, as well as Luke 
Harrison, a citizen and stationer, while among the 
witnesses to it was Gabriel Cawood, the son of John 
Cawood, who lived hard by at the sign of the Holy 
Ghost, next to c Powles Gate.' 

From a document in the Heralds' College (W. 
Grafton, vi., A, B. C., Lond.), it appears that John 
Cawood, who began to print about the same time as 
Day, came from a Yorkshire family of good standing. 
He was apprenticed to John Reynes, a bookseller 
and bookbinder, who from 1523 until his death lived 
at the sign of St. George in the Churchyard. Cawood 
greatly respected his master, and in aftertimes, 
when he had become a prosperous man, placed a 
window in Stationers' Hall to the memory of John 
Reynes. Reynes died in 1544, ^ ut there is no men- 
tion of Cawood in his will, perhaps because Cawood 
was no longer in his service ; but in that of his 
widow, Lucy Reynes, there was a legacy to John 
Cawood's daughter. 

Cawood began to print in the year 1546, the first 
specimen of his presswork being a little octavo, en- 
titled The Decree for Tythes to be payed in the Citye of 

With few exceptions the printers of this period 
easily enough conformed to the religious factions of 
the day. Thus Cawood prints Protestant books 
under Edward VI, Catholic books under Mary, and 
. again Protestant books under Elizabeth. Upon the 
accession of Mary he was appointed royal printer in 

John Day's Contemporaries 

the place of Grafton, who had dared to print the pro- 
clamation of Lady Jane Grey (Rymer's Foedera, 
vol. xv. p. 125). He also received the reversion of 
Wolfe's patent for printing Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
books, as well as all statute books, acts, proclama- 
tions, and other official documents, with a salary of 
6, 135. 4d, The British Museum possesses a volume 
(505. g. 14) containing the statutes of the reign of 
Queen Mary, printed in small folio by Cawood. 
From these it will be seen that he used some very 
artistic woodcut borders for his title-pages, notably 
one with bacchanalian figures in the bottom panel 
signed c A. S.' in monogram, evidently the same 
artist that cut the woodcut initials seen in these 
and other books printed by this printer, and who is 
believed to have been Anton Sylvius, an Antwerp 
engraver. Cawood was one of the first wardens of 
the Stationers' Company in 1554, an d again served 
from 1555-5 7, and continued to take great interest in 
its welfare throughout his life. In 1557, Cawood, in 
company with John Waley and Richard Tottell, 
published the Works of Sir Thomas More in a large 

and handsome folio. The editor was William 


Rastell, Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, son of 
John Rastell the printer, and nephew of the great 

The book was printed at the c Hand and Star ' in 
Fleet Street by Tottell, but the woodcut initials were 
certainly supplied by Cawood, and perhaps some of 
the type. On the accession of Elizabeth, he again 

go English Printing 

received a patent as royal printer, but jointly with 
Richard Jugge, whose name is always found first. 
Nevertheless, Cawood printed at least two (very 
poor) editions of the Bible in quarto, with his name 
alone on the title-page. His rapidly increasing 
business had already compelled him to lease from 
the >ean and Chapter of St. Paul's a vault under 
the churchyard, and two sheds adjoining the church, 
and in addition to this he now took a room at Sta- 
tioners' Hall at a rental of 20$. per year. 

In conjunction with Jugge he printed many 
editions of the Book of Common Prayer in all sizes. 
He also reprinted, in 1570, Barclay's Ship of Fools 
with the original illustrations. Cawood was three 
times Master of the Company of Stationers, in 1561, 
1562, and 1566. In 1564 he was appointed by 
Elizabeth Toye, the widow of Robert Toye, one of 
the overseers to her will, and his partner Jugge was 
one of the witnesses to the document (P. C. C, 25 
Morrison). John Cawood died in 1572 without leav- 
ing a will, administration of his estate being granted 
to his son Gabriel on the igth July. He was three 
times married, and by his first wife, Joan, had three 
sons and four daughters. His eldest son John was 
bachelor of laws and fellow of New College, Oxford, 
and died in 1570 ; Gabriel, the second son, suc- 
ceeded to his father's business, and the third son 
died young. His eldest daughter, Mary, married 
George Bishop, one of the deputies to Christopher 
Barker ; a second, Isabel, married Thomas Wood- 

~ohn Day's Contemporaries 91 

cock, a stationer ; Susannah was the wife of Robert 
Bullock, and Barbara married Mark Norton. 

Richard Jugge was another printer who owed 
much to the patronage and encouragement of Arch- 
bishop Parker. He is believed to have been born at 
Waterbeach in Cambridgeshire, and was educated, 
first at Eton, and afterwards at Cambridge. He 
set up at the sign of c The Bible ' in 1548, and used 
as his device a pelican plucking at her breast to feed 
her young who are clamouring around her. In 1550 
he obtained a licence to print the New Testament, 
and in 1556 books of Common Law. Under Eliza- 
beth in 1560 he was made senior queen's printer. 
When the new edition of the Bible was about to be 
issued in 1568, Archbishop Parker wrote to Cecil, 
asking that Jugge might be entrusted with the print- 
ing, as there were few men who could do it better. 
In this way he became the printer of the first edition 
of the Bishop's Bible, a second edition coming from 
his press the year following. In this work he used 
large decorative initial letters, with the arms of the 
Archbishop and Burghley, engraved portraits of 
Burghley and Leicester, and a fine, though weakly 
engraved title-page with a portrait of the Queen. 
In his edition of the New Testament were numerous 
large cuts, evidently of foreign workmanship, some 
of them signed with the initials * E. B.' Richard 
Jugge died in 1577. 

Another of Day's contemporaries, whose name 
is remembered by all students of English litera- 

92 English Printing 

ture, was Richard Tottell, who lived at the 
'Hsuid and Star' in Fleet Street, and printed 
there the collection of poetry known as TottelTs 
' Miscellany/ 

Richard Tottell was the fourth son of Henry 
Tottell, citizen of Exeter. The name was spelt in 
a great variety of ways, such as Tothill, Tuthill, 
Tottle, TathyU, and Tottell. He was in London 
before 1552, for in that year he received a patent 
for the printing of law-books, and was generally 
known as Richard Tottell of London, gentleman. 
He appears to have married Joan, a sister of Richard 
Grafton, and in this way became possessed of con- 
siderable land in the county of Bucks. He also 
printed various editions of Grafton's Chronicle, and 
received the reversion of some of his finest woodcut 

It was in June 1557 that h e printed his famous 
* Miscellany,' an unpretentious quarto, with the 
title: Songes and Sonnettes, written by the Ryght 
Honorable Lorde Henry Hawarde, late Earl of Surrey 
and other. Before the 3ist July a second edition be- 
came necessary, and this was printed in two different 
settings. The third edition appeared in 1559, the 
fourth in 1565, and before the end of the six- 
teenth century four more editions were called for. 
Another of TottelTs productions was Gerard Legh's 
Accedens of Armory, an octavo, printed throughout 
in italic type, with a curiously engraved title-page, 
besides numerous illustrations of coats of arms, and 

~ohn Day's Contemporaries 93 

several full-page illustrations. It was printed in 
1562, and again in 1576 and 1591. 

The best of TottelTs work as a printer is to be 
found in the law-books for which he was a patentee. 
In these he used several handsome borders to title- 
pages, one of an architectural character with his 
initials R. T. at the two bottom corners, another, 
evidently Graf ton's, with a view of the King and 
Parliament in the top panel, and Grafton's punning 
device in the centre of the bottom panel. 

In 1573 Richard Tottell tried to establish a paper 
mill in England. He wrote to Cecil, pointing out 
that nearly all paper came from France, and under- 
taking to establish a mill in England if the Govern- 
ment would give him the necessary land and the 
sole privilege of making paper for thirty years 
(Arber, i. 242). His letter, however, seems to have 
met no response. Tottell was Master of the Com- 
pany of Stationers in 1579 and 1584. During the 
latter part of his life he withdrew from business, 
and lived at Wiston in Pembrokeshire, where he 
died in 1593, 

He left several children, of whom the eldest, 
William Tottell, succeeded to his estates. 

In the precincts of the Blackfriars, Thomas 
Vautrollier, a foreigner, was printing in or before 
1570, having been admitted a 'brother' of the 
Company of Stationers on the 2nd October 1564. 
He soon afterwards received a patent for the 
printing of certain Latin books, and Christopher 

94 English Printing 

Barker, in a report to Lord Burghley in 1582, 

says : 

e He has the printing of Tullie, Ovid, and diverse other great 
workes in Latin. He doth yet, neither great good nor great 
harme withall. . . . He hath other small thinges wherewith he 
keepeth his presses on work, and also worketh for bookesellers 
of the Companye, who kepe no presses.' 

In 1580, on the invitation of the General Assembly, 
Vautrollier visited Scotland, taking with him a 
stock of books, but no press, and in 1584 he again 
went north and set up a press at Edinburgh, still 
keeping on his business in London. The venture 
does not seem to have turned out a success, for 
Vautrollier returned to London in 1586, taking with 
him a MS. of John Knox's History of the Reforma- 
tion, but the work was seized while it was in the 
press (Works of John Knox, vol. i. p. 32). 

Vautrollier died in July 1587. By his will he 
bequeathed to his son, Manasses, the printing press 
which he had brought back from Scotland. The 
residue of his estate he left to his wife Jacqueline 
and his c four children.' 

As a printer Vautrollier ranks far above most of 
the men around him, both for the beauty of his 
types and the excellence of his presswork. The 
bulk of his books were printed in Roman and italic, 
of which he had several well-cut founts. He had 
also some good initials, ornaments, and borders. 
In the folio edition of Plutarch's Lives, which he 
printed in 1579, eac h l^ 6 is preceded by a medallion 

~ohn Day's Contemporaries 95 

portrait, enclosed in a frame of geometrical pattern ; 
some of these, notably the first, and also those 
shown on a white background, are v$ry effective. 
His device was an anchor held by a hand issuing 
from clouds, with two sprigs of laurel, and the motto 
* Anchora Spei/ the whole enclosed in an oval 

Vautrollier was succeeded in business by his 
apprentice, Richard Field, who shortly after his 
master's death married the widow, Jacqueline 
Vautrollier. and thus secured a good business. 
Field was a native of Stratford-on-Avon, and there- 
fore a fellow-townsman of Shakespeare's, whose 
first poem, Venus and Adonis, he printed for Harrison 
in 1593. But we have no knowledge of any inter- 
course between them. 

Field succeeded to the stock of his predecessor, 
and his work is free from the haste and slovenly 
appearance so general at that time. Another work 
from his press was Puttenham's Arte of English 
Poesy, 1589, 4to. The first edition, of which there 
is a copy in the British Museum, had no author's 
name, but was dedicated by the printer to Lord 
Burghley. In the second book, four pages were 
suppressed. They are inserted in the copy under 
notice, but are not paged. This edition also con- 
tained as a frontispiece a portrait of the Queen. 

Another notable work of Field's was Sir John 

* ""* 

Harrington's translation of Orlando Furioso (1591, 
fol.). This book had an elaborate frontispiece, -with 

96 English Printing 

a portrait of the translator, and thirty-six full-page 
engraved illustrations, copied from those in an 
Italian edition. The text was printed in double 
columns, and each verse of the Argument was en- 
closed in a border of printers' ornaments. A second 
edition, alike in almost every respect, passed through 
the same press in 1607. In 1594 Field printed a 
second edition of Venus and Adonis, and the first 
edition of Lucrece. His later work included David 
Hume's Daphne-Amaryllis (1605, 4to), Chapman's 
translation of the Odyssey (1614, folio), and an 
edition of Virgil in quarto in 1620. 

Foremost among the later men of this century 
stands Christopher Barker, the queen's printer, who 
was born about 1529, and is said to have been 
grand-nephew to Sir Christopher Barker, Garter 
King-at-Arms. Originally a member of the Drapers' 
Company, he began to publish books in 1569 (Arber, 
i. p, 398), and to print in 1575, and purchased from 
Sir Thomas Wilkes his patent to print the Old and 
New Testaments in English. Barker issued in 1578 
a circular offering his large Bible to the London 
Companies at the rate of 245. each bound, and 2os. 
unbound, the clerks of the various companies to 
receive 4$. apiece for every Bible sold, and the hall 
of each company that took 40 worth to receive a 
presentation copy (Lemon's Catal, of Broadsides). 

In 1583 Barker sent to Lord Burghley an account 
of the various printing monopolies granted since the 
beginning of the reign, and expresses himself freely 

John Day's Contemporaries 97 

on them. He also attempted to suppress the 
printers in Cambridge University. In and after 
1588 he carried on his business by deputies, George 
Bishop and Ralph Newbery, and in the following 
year, on the disgrace of Sir Thomas Wilkes, he ob- 
tained an exclusive patent for himself and his son to 
print all official documents, as well as Bibles and 
Testaments. At one time Barker had no fewer than 
five presses, and between 1575 and 1585 he printed 
as many as thirty-eight editions of the Scriptures. 
Christopher Barker died in 1599, and was succeeded 
in his post of royal printer by Robert Barker, his 
eldest son. 

On the 23rd June 1586 was issued The Newe De- 
crees of the Starre Chamber for orders in Printing, 
which is reprinted in full in the second volume of 
Arber's Transcripts, pp. 807-812. It was the most 
important enactment concerning printing of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, and formed the model upon which 
all subsequent official acts for the printers' un- 
doing were framed. Its chief clauses were these : 
It restricted all printing to London and the two 
Universities. The number of presses then in London 
was to be reduced to such proportions as the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London 
should think sufficient. No books were to be 
printed without being licensed, and gave the war- 
dens the right to search all premises on suspicion. 
The penalties were imprisonment and defacement 
of stock. 




IN the first half of the sixteenth century, before the 
incorporation of the Stationers 1 Company and the 
subsequent restriction of printing to London and 
the Universities, there were nine places in England 
where the art was carried on. Taking them chrono- 
logically, the earliest was the city of York. Fred- 
erick Freez was at work there in 1497 as a stationer, 
and is mentioned in a lawsuit of 1510 as a book- 
printer, but nothing has been found with his imprint. 
The first printer in the city of York who can be 
traced with certainty was Hugo Goez. In 1509-10 
he printed an edition of the Directorium Sacerdotum, 
dated in the colophon February i8th, 1509, of which 
two copies are known. It was printed with a fount 
of type that had belonged to Wynkyn de Worde, 
Two school-books, a Donatus Minor and an Acci- 
dence, of which no copies can now be found, are also 
said to have been printed by him, and it is believed 
that he was for a time in partnership in London with 

1 For the materials of this chapter free use has been made of Mr. 
Allnutt's series of papers contributed to the second volume of Biblio- 
grapkiea, and Mr. E. G. Duffs English Prervincial Printers, &c., 1912, 
to whom my thanks are due, 

. 98 

Provincial Presses 99 

a bookseller named Henry Watson (E. G. Duff, 
Early Printed Books). Ames, in his Typographical 
Antiquities, mentions a broadside with a woodcut of 
a man on horseback with a spear in his right hand, 
and a shield with the arms of France in his left, and 
the colophon c Enprynted at Beverlay in the Hye- 
gate by me Hewe Goes/ with his mark, or rebus, of a 
great H and a goose. This has perished, but the H 
and the goose are found on a curiously stamped wall- 
paper recently found at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
and described by Mr. Charles Sayle in The Library. 

Another printer in York, of whom it is possible 
to speak with certainty, was Ursyn Milner. Born 
in 1481, he is probably the * Ursyn ' mentioned in 
the Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII in 1502, who 
printed a Festum visitationis Beate Marie Virginis, 
without date, but about 1513, and a Latin syntax 
by Robert Whitinton, entitled Editio de concinnitate 
grammatices et construction noviter impressa, with 
the date December 20th, 1516, and a woodcut that 
had belonged to Wynkyn de Worde. Milner used 
as a device a shield hanging from a tree, with a bear 
and an ass as supporters. The shield has a windmill, 
in allusion to his name Mylner, Below is a block 
with a ribbon and his name and trade mark. 

The second Oxford press began in 1517- O n De- 
cember 4th of that year John Scolar finished printing 
Tractatus expositorius super libros posteriorum Aris- 
totelis, by Walter Burley. In 1518 appeared Ques- 
tioner moralissime super libros ethicomm, by John 

ioo English Printing 

Dedicus, dated May 15, 1518. On June 5th was 
issued Compendium questionum de luce et lumine, on 
June 7th Walter Barley's Tractatus perbrevis de 
materia et forma, on June 27th Whitinton's De Hete- 
roclitis nominibus. Another book from Scolar 's 
press has teen found recently, a text-book for schools 
entitled Opus insolubilium. The black-letter type, 
initials and ornaments, used by Scolar, appear to 
have been obtained by him from Wynkyn de Worde. 
Scolar disappears from Oxford after 1518, but in the 
following year a school-book, Compotus manualis ad 
usum Oxoniensium, dated 5th February 1519, was 
printed by Charles Kyrf oth, who was working in the 
premises of Jo. Scolar, but nothing further is known 
of him. 

After this the Oxford press ceased until nearly 
the close of the sixteenth century, the next Oxford 
printed book, so far as is at present known, being 
John Case's Speculum Moralium quaestionum in 
universam ethicen Aristotelis, with the colophon, 
'Oxonise ex officina typographica Josephi Barnesii 
Celeberrimae Academiae Oxoniensis Typographi. 
Anno 1585.' 

Joseph Barnes, the printer, had been admitted a 
bookseller in 1573, and on August isth, 1584, the 
University lent him 100 with which to start a press. 
During the time that he remained printer to the 
University, his press was actively employed, no 
fewer than three hundred books, many of them in 
Greek and Latin, being traced to it. In 1595 ap- 

Provincial Presses 101 

peared the first Welsh book printed at the Univer- 
sity, a translation into Welsh by Hugh Lewis of 0. 
Wermueller's Spiritual and Most Precious Pearl, and 
in 1596 two founts of Hebrew letter were used by 
Barnes, but the stock of this letter was small. 

In 1528, John Scolar, no doubt the same with 
the Oxford printer, is found at Abingdon, where 
he printed a Breviary for the use of the abbey there ; 
only one copy has ,, survived, and is now at Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge. 

The first Cambridge printer was John Lair of 
Sieburg, a town near Cologne. He always called 
himself John Siberch. In 1520-21 the University 
lent him a sum of 20, probably to help him to 
establish his press. Nine specimens of his printing 
during the years 1521-22 are known. The first was 
the Oratio of Henry Bullock, a tract of eight quarto 
leaves, with a dedication dated February 13, 1521, 
and the date of the imprint February 1521, so that 
it probably appeared between the I3th and 28th 
of that month. The type used was a new fount 
of Roman. The book had no ornamentation of 
any kind, neither device nor initial letters. A 
facsimile of this book, with an introduction and 
bibliographical study of Siberch 's productions, was 
issued by the late Henry Bradshaw in 1886. The 
second book, Cuiusdam fidelis Christiani epistola ad 
Christianos omnes, by Augustine, shows the title 
between two upright woodcuts, each containing 
scenes from the Last Judgment. It contained the 


102 English Printing 

first movable Greek type used in England. The 
third book, an edition of Lucian, has a boldly exe- 
cuted architectural border. The fifth book from 
Siberch's press was the Libellus de Conscribendis 
epistolis, autore D. Erasmo, printed between the 
22nd and 3ist of October 1521 ; this contains the 
privilege which, it is believed, he obtained from 
Bishop Fisher. Siberch was also a bookbinder, and 
he used a signed roll, and two decorative panel 
stamps, Nothing is heard of him after 1523-24. 

In the far west of England a press was estab- 
lished in the monastery of Tavistock, in Devon, 
of which two curious examples are preserved. The 
first is The Boke of Comfort, called in laten Boetius 
de Consolatione philosophic. Translated into English 
tonge . . . Enprented in the exempt monastery of 
Tauestock in Denshyre, By me Dan Thomas Rycharde, 
monke of the sayde monastery, To the instant desyre 
of the ryght worshypful esquyer Mayster Robert 
Langdon. Anno d. r M.Dxxv., 4to. The Bodleian 
Library at Oxford has two imperfect copies of this 
book, and a third, also imperfect, is in the library 
of Exeter College, Oxford. The latter college is 
also fortunate in possessing the only known copy 
of the second book, which has this title : 

Here foloweth the confirmation of the Charter per- 

teynynge to all the tynners wythyn the Couty of devon- 

shyre, with there Statutes also made at Crockeryn- 


Imprented at Tavy stoke ye x% day of August the 

Provincial Presses 103 

yere of the reygne off our souerayne Lord Kyng Henry 
ye viii the xxvi yere, i.e. 1534. 

To this same year, 1534, belongs the first dated 
book of John Herford, the St. Albans printer. It 
seems probable that he was established there some 
years earlier, but this is the first certain date we 
have. In that year appeared a small quarto, with 
the title, Here begynnethe ye glorious lyfe and passion 
o/Seint Albon prothomartyr ofEnglande / and also the 
lyfe and passion of Saint Amphabel / whiche con- 
uerted saint Albon to the fayth of Christe, of which 
John Lydgate was the author. It was printed at 
the request of Robert Catton, abbot of the monas- 
tery, and it would seem as if Herford's press was 
situated within the abbey precincts. The next 
book, The confutacyon of the first parte of Frythes 
boke . . . put forth by John Gwynneth clerk, 1536, 
8vo, was the work of one of the monks of the abbey, 
who in the previous year had signed a petition to 
Sir Francis Brian on the state of the monastery 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. ix. p. 394). 
Another of the signatories to that petition was 
Richard Stevenage, who was at that time chamberer 
of the abbey, and was created abbot on the de- 
privation of Robert Catton in 1538. Of the three 
books which Herford printed in that year, two were 
expressly printed for Richard Stevenage. These 
were A Godly disputation betweene Justus and Peo 
cator and Senex and Juvenis, and.4 Epistle agaynste 
the enemies of poore people, both octavos, of which 

104 Englisli Printing 

no copies are now known. In some of Herford's 
books is a curious device with the letters R.S. 
intertwined on it, which undoubtedly stand for 
Richard Stevenage, whose reign as abbot was a short 
one, for on 5th December 1539 he delivered the 
abbey over to Henry VIII's commissioners. J.ust 
before that event, on the I2th October, he wrote a 
letter to Cromwell in which the following passage 
occurs : 

'Sent John Pryntare to London with Harry Pepwell, Bonere 
and Tabbe, of Powlles churchyard stationers, to order him at 
your pleasure. Never heard of the little book of detestable 
heresies till the stationers showed it me.' (Letters and Papers \ 
Hen. VIII, vol. xiv., Pt. 2, No. 315.) 

The c John Pryntare ' can be none other than 
John Herford. 'Bonere' was a misreading for 
Bonham, and these three, Pepwell, Tab, and Bon- 
ham, all of them printers or booksellers in St. Paul's 
Churchyard, were evidently sent down especially to 
inquire into the matter. 

We next hear of John Herford as in London in 
1542, but meanwhile a modification of Stevenage 's 
device was used by a London printer named Bour- 
man. From the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vol. xv. pp. 115, &c., it appears that after his retire- 
ment from the abbey, Richard Stevenage went by 
the name of Boreman. He is invariably spoken of 
as * Stevenage alias Boreman/ so that the Nicholas 
Bourman, the London printer, was perhaps a re- 


I, i* 

Provincial Presses icx * * 


The Rev. S. Sayers in his Memoirs of Bristol, *' 
^ 1823, vol. ii. p. 228, states, on the authority of docu- 
ments in the city archives, that a press was at work 
"-" in the castle in the year 1546. From this press, if 
-""It ever existed, not so much as a leaf remains. 

In 1547 Anthony Scoloker was established as a 
printer at Ipswich. In that year he printed The 
just reckenyng or accompt of the whole nomber of 
yeares, from the beginnynge of the world, vnto this pre- 
sent yeare of 1547. Translated out of Germaine 
tonge by Anthony Scoloker the 6 daye of July 1547. 
His publications were chiefly small octavos, the 
writings of Luther, Zwingli, and Ochino, printed in 
type of a German character and of no great merit. 
In 1548 he moved to London, where for a time 
he was in partnership with William Seres. The 
earliest English representation of a printing press 
is found on the title-page of the Ordinary e of Chris- 
tians, printed by Scoloker after he had settled in 

In 1548 appeared Bale's Illustrium maioris Bri- 
tannia scriptorum Catalogus, its colophon stating 
that it was printed at Ipswich by John Overton* 
Some copies, however, have a statement on the title- 
page that it was printed at Wesel. As nothing else 
has ever been found printed by Overton, it is possible 
that the statement in the colophon was fictitious, and 
was inserted in order to evade the law respecting the 
importation of foreign books. 
The third printer at Ipswich was John Oswen, 

io6 English Printing 

who was also established there in 1548. Ten books 
can be traced to his press there. The first was The 
Mynde of the Godly and excellent lerned man M. Jhon 
Caluyne what a Faithful man, whiche is instructe in 
the Worde of God ought to do, dwellings amongest the 
Papistes. Imprinted at Ippyswiche by me John 
Oswen. 8vo. This was followed by Calvin's Brief 
declaration of the fained sacrament commonly 
called the extreame unction. The remainder of his 
books were of a theological character. Oswen left 
Ipswich about Christmas 1548, and is next found at 
Worcester, where, on the 30th January 1549, he 
printed A Consultarie for all Christians most godly 
and ernestly warnying al people to beware least they 
beare the name of Christians in vayne. Now first im- 
printed the xxx day ofjanuarie Anno M,D. xlix. At 
Worceter by John Oswen. Cum priuilegio Regali ad 
imprimendum sohim. Per septennium. The privi- 
lege, which was dated January 6th, 1548-49, autho- 
rised Oswen to print all sorts of service or prayer- 
books and other works relating to the scriptures 
c within our Principalitie of Wales and Marches of 
the same. 1 * 

He followed this up by another edition of the 
Domestycal or Household Sermons of Christopher 
Hegendorff, which was printed on the last day of 
February 1549. 

1 Forty-second Report of the Worcester Diocesan Arch, and Archaeo- 
logical Society. Paper by Rev, J. R. Burton on 'Early Worcester- 
shire Printers and Books.' 

Provincial Presses 107 

Then came his first important undertaking, a 
quarto edition of The bpke of common praier. Im- 
printed the xxiv day of May Anno MDXLIX. The 
folio edition appeared in July of the same year. 
Two months later he printed an edition of the Psalter 
or Psalmes of David, 4to. On January 12, 1550, 
appeared a quarto edition of the New Tt stament, of 
which there is a copy in Balliol College Library, and 
this was followed in the same year by Zwingli's 
Short Pathway e, translated by John Veron ; by a 
translation by Edward Aglionby of Mathew Gri- 
balde's Notable and marveilous epistle, and the Godly 
sayings of the old auncient fathers, compiled by John 
Veron. With the exception of another edition of 
the Book of Common Prayer in 1552, nothing 
appears to have been printed by Oswen from May 
1551 till May 1553. The last we hear of him is in 
1553, when he printed an edition of the Statutes of 
6th Edward VI, and An Homely e to read in the tyme 
of pestylence. What became of Oswen is not known. 
He very likely went abroad on the accession of 
Queen Mary, 

In Kent there was a press at Canterbury, from 
which eleven books are known to have been printed 

between 1549 an< ^ X 55^- 

J ohn Mychell, the printer of these, began work as 
a bookbinder in the ward of Burgate in 1530. In a 
law-suit, in which he was defendant, in 1540, he is 
described as * buke prynter ' of Canterbury, and it 
seems almost certain that he was the printer in St, 

io8 English Printing 

Augustine's who printed A goodly narration how St. 
Augustine the Apostle of England raysed two dead 
bodies at Longcompton, which Maunsell noted as 
printed at e St. Austen's at Canturburie. 1 If he was 
at work in Canterbury in 1540, it was probably after 
that date that he moved to London, and worked at 
the Long Shoppe in the Poultry. In 1549 ^ e appears 
to have returned to Canterbury, where he printed 
a quarto edition of the Psalms, with the colophon, 
* Printed at Canterbury in Saynt Paules paryshe by 
John Mychell' In 1552 he issued A Breuiat Cr on- 
idle oontayninge all the Kyngesfrom Brute to this daye, 
and in 1556, the Articles of Cardinal Pole's Visita- 
tion. He also issued several minor theological 
tracts without dates. 

The Norwich press began about 1566, when 
Anthony de Solemne, or Solempne, set up a press 
among the refugees who had fled from the Nether- 
lands and taken refuge in that city. Most of his 
books were printed in Dutch, and all of them are 
excessively rare, The earliest was : 

Der Siecken Troost, Onderwijsinghe om gewillich- 
lick te steruen. Troostinghe / om den siecken totte 
rechten gheloue ende betrouwen in Christo te onder- 
wijsen* Ghemeyn bekenisse der sonden f met / scoon 
gebeden. Ghedruct in Jaer ons Heeren. Anno 1566. 
The only known copy of the book is in Trinity 
College Library, Dublin. 

The Psalms of David in Dutch appeared in 1568, 
and the New Testament in the same year. 

Provincial Presses 109 

Solempne was also the printer of certain Tables 
concerning God's word, by Antonius Corranus, pastor 
of the Spanish Protestant congregation at Antwerp. 
It was printed in four languages, Latin, French, 
Dutch, and English. 

The only known specimen of Solempne's printing 
in the English language is a broadside now in the 
Bodleian : 

Certayne versis written by Thomas Brooke Getle- 
man / in the tyme of his imprysdment j the daye 
before his deathe / who sufferyd at Norwich the 30 of 
August 1570. Imprynted at Norwiche in the Paryshe 
of Say net Andrews / by Anthony de Solempne 

In the same year he also printed Eenen Calendier 
Historiael / eewelick gheduerende, 8vo, a tract of 
eight leaves printed in black and red, of which there 
are copies in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
and the Bodleian. 

There is then a gap of eight years in his work, the 
next book found being a sermon, printed in 1578, 
Het tweede boeck vande sermoenen des wel vermaerden 
Predicant B+ Cornells Adriaensen van Dordrechtminre- 
broeder tot Brugges. Of this there are two copies 
known, one in the library of Trinity College, 

The last book traced to Solempne's press is 
Chronyc. Historie der Nederlandtscher Oorlogen. Ge- 
druct tot Norrtwitz na de copie van Basel, Anno 
1579, 8vo, of which there remain copies in the Bod- 

no Englisn Printing 

leian and University Library, Cambridge ; another 
was in the private collection of Lord Amherst. 

In 1583, two years before the resumption of print- 
ing at Oxford, after a similar interval another press 
was started at Cambridge, and, on May 3rd of that 
year, Thomas Thomas was appointed University 
printer. His career was marked by many diffi- 
culties. The Company of Stationers at once seized 
his press as an infringement of their privileges, and 
this in the face of the fact that for many years the 
University had possessed the royal licence though 
hitherto it had not been used. The Bishop of 
London, writing to Burghley, declared on hearsay 
evidence that Thomas was a man c vtterlie ignor- 
aunte in printinge.' The University protested, and 
as it was clearly shown that they held the royal 
privilege, the Company were obliged to submit, but 
they did the Cambridge printer all the injury they 
could by freely printing books that were his sole copy- 
right (Arber's Transcripts, vol. ii. pp. 782, 813, 
819-20). He printed for the use of scholars small 
editions of classical works, and he edited Ovid's 
Fabula in 1584. In 1585 he printed in octavo the 
Latin Grammar of Peter Ramus, and in 1587 the 
Latin Grammar of James Carmichael in quarto 
(Hazlitt, Collections and Notes, 3rd series, p. 17). He 
was also the compiler of a Dictionary, which he 
printed about 1588. Five editions were called for 
before the end of the century. 

Thomas died in August 1588, and the University, 

Provincial Presses 1 1 1 

on the 2nd November, appointed John Legate his 
successor, as ' he is reported to be skilful in the art 
of printing books/ On the 26th April 1589 he 
received as an apprentice Cantrell Legge, who after- 
wards succeeded him. From 1589 to 1609 he 
appears in the parish books of St. Mary the Great, 
Cambridge, as paying 5s. a year for the rent of a 
shop. He had the exclusive right of printing 
Thomas's Dictionary, and he printed most of the 
books of William Perkins. He subsequently left 
Cambridge and settled in London. 

The books printed by these two Cambridge 
printers show that they had a good variety of 
Roman and italic, very regularly cast, besides some 
neat ornaments and initials. Whether these founts 
belonged to the University, or to Thomas in the 
first place, is not clear. Nor do these books bear 
out the Bishop of London's statement as to Thomas 
being ignorant of printing; on the contrary, the 
presswork was such as could only have been done 
by a skilled workman. 

In addition to the foregoing, there were several 
secret presses at work in various parts of the country 
during the second half of the century. The Cart- 
wright controversy, which began in 1572 with the 
publication of a tract entitled An Admonition to 
the Parliament, was carried out by means of a secret 
press at which John Stroud is believed to have 
worked, and had as assistants two men named Lacy 
and Asplyn. The Stationers' Company employed 

English Printing 

Toy and Day to hunt it out, with the result that 
it was seized at Hempstead, probably Heme] 
Hempstead, Herts, or Hempstead near Saffron 
Walden, Essex. The type was handed over to 
Bynneman, who used it in printing an answer 
to Cartwright's book. It was in consequence of 
his action in this matter that John Day was in 
danger of being killed by Asplyn. 

A few years later books by Jesuit authors were 
printed from a secret press which, from some notes 
written by F. Parsons in 1598, and now preserved 
in the library of Stonyhurst College, began opera- 
tions at Greenstreet House, East Ham, but was 
afterwards removed to Stonor Park. The overseer 
of this press was Stephen Brinckley, who had 
several men under him, and the most noted book 
issued from it was Campion's Rationes Decem, with 
the colophon, ' Cosmopoli 1581.' 

Finally, there was the Marprelate press, of which 
Robert Waldegrave was the chief printer. He was 
the son of a Worcestershire yeoman, and put him- 
self apprentice to William Griffith, from the 24th 
June 1568, for eight years. He was therefore out 
of his time in 1576, and in 1578 there is entered to 
him a book entitled A Castell for the Soul. His 
subsequent publications were of the same character, 
including, in 1581, The Confession and Declaration 
of John Knox, the Confession of the Protestants of 
Scotland, and a sermon of Luther's. Waldegrave 
was frequently in trouble for printing Puritan 

Provincial Presses 113 

literature. In 1584 he was thrown into the White 
Lyon prison in Southwark for six weeks, and again 
in the following year for twenty weeks. In 1588 
he printed a tract of John Udall's, entitled The 
State of the Church of England. His press was 
seized and his type defaced, but he succeeded in 
carrying off some of it to the house of a Mrs. Crane 
at East Molesey, where he printed another of Udall's 
tracts, and the first of the Marprelate series : 
read over D. John Bridges for it is a worthy e work. 
Printed oversea in Europe within two furlongs of a 
Bounsing Priest, at the cost and charges of M. Mar- 
prelate, gentleman. 

From East Molesey the press was afterwards 
removed to Fawsley, near Daventry, and from 
thence to Coventry. But the hue and cry after 
the hidden press was so keen that another shift 
was made to Wolston Priory, the seat of Sir R. 
Knightley, and finally Waldegrave fled over sea, 
taking with him his black-letter type. He went 
first to RocheUe, and thence to Edinburgh, where 
in 1590 he was appointed King's printer. 

The Marprelate press was afterwards carried on 
by Samuel Hoskins or Hodgkys, who had as his 
workmen Valentine Symmes and Arthur Thomlyn. 
The last of the Marprelate tracts, The Protestacyon 
of Martin Marprelate, was printed at Haseley, near 
Warwick, about September 1589. 

English Printing 


On the I5th September 1507, King James IV 
of Scotland granted to his faithful subjects, Walter 
Chepman and Androw Myllar, burg^ses of Edin- 
burgh, leave to import a printing-press and letter, 
and gave them licence to print law books, brevi- 
aries, and so forth, more particularly the Breviary 
of William, Bishop of Aberdeen. Walter Chepman 
was a general merchant, and probably his chief 
part in the undertaking at the outset was of a 
financial character. Androw Myllar had for some 
years carried on the business of a bookseller in 
Edinburgh, and books were printed for him in 
Rouen by L. Hostingue. There is, moreover, evi- 
dence that Myllar himself learnt the art of print- 
ing in that city. 

The printing-house of the firm in Edinburgh was 
in the Southgait (now the Cowgate), and they lost 
no time in setting to work, devoting themselves 
chiefly to printing some of the popular metrical 
tales of England and Scotland. A volume con- 
taining eleven such pieces, most of them printed 
in 1508, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, 

Among the pieces found in it are Sir Eglamoure 

1 For the material of this chapter I am chiefly indebted to the 
valuable work of Messrs. Dickson and Edmond's Annals of Scottish 

Scottish Presses 115 

of Artoys, Maying or desport of Chaucer, Buke of 
Gude Counsale to the Kyng, Flytting of Dunbar & 
Kennedy, and Twa Marrit Wemen and the wedo. 

Three founts of black letter, somewhat resem- 
bling in size and shape those of Wynkyn de Worde, 
were used in printing these books, and the devices 
of both men are found in them. That of Chepman 
was a copy of the device of the Paris printer, Pi- 
gouchet, while Myllar adopted the punning device 
of a windmill with a miller bearing sacks into the 
mill, with a small shield charged with three fleur- 
-de-lys in each of the upper corners. 

After printing the above-mentioned works, Myllar 
disappears, and the famous Breviarium Aberdonense, 
the work for which the King had mainly granted 
the licence, was finished in 1509-10 by Chepman 
alone. It is an unpretentious little octavo, printed 
in double columns, in red and black, as became a 
breviary, but with no special marks of typographi- 
cal beauty. Four copies of it are known to exist, 
but none of these are peYfect. Chepman printed 
nothing else, but continued his business as a mer- 
chant, and died about 1529. In the Glands copy 
of the Breviarium, Dr. David Laing discovered a 
single sheet of eight leaves of a book with the im- 
print : 

Impressu Edinburgi per Johane Story nomine & 
mandato Karoli Stole. Nothing more, however, is 
known of this John Story. 
The next Scottish printer was Thomas Davidson, 

u6 English Printing 

who is mentioned in a deed of 1536, and in 1540 
issued The Chronicles of Scotland. In 1541-42 he 
printed The New Actis and Constitutions of Parlia- 
ment maid Be the Rycht Excellent Prince James the 
Fift King ofScottis, 1540. Davidson's press, which 
was situated ' above the nether bow, on the north 
syde of the gait/ was also very short-lived, and 
very few examples of it are now in existence ; one 
of these, a quarto of four leaves, with the title Ad 
Serenissimum Scotorum Regem Jacobum Quintum de 
suscepto Regni Regimine a diis feliciter ominato 
Strena, is the earliest instance of the use of Roman 
type in Scotland. The next printer heard of is 
John Scot or Skot, who is not to be identified with 
his London namesake. Between 1552 and 1571 
Scot printed a great many books, most of them 
of a theological character. Among them was Ninian 
Winziet's Certane tractatis for Reformatioune of 
Doctryne and Maneris, a quarto, printed on the 
2ist May 1562, and the same author's Last Blast 
of the Trumpet. For these he was arrested and 
thrown into prison, and his printing materials were 
handed over to Thomas Bassandyne, In 1568 he 
was at liberty again, and printed for Henry Charteris 
The Warkes of the famous < vorthie Knicht Schir 
David Lyndesay ; while among his numerous un- 
dated works is found Lyndsay's Ane Dialog betwix 
Experience and Ane Courtier, of which he printed 
two editions, the second containing several other 
poems by the same author. 

Scottish Presses 117 

Scot was succeeded by Rooert Lekpreuik, who 
began to print in 1561. His first dated book, a 
small black-letter octavo of twenty-four pages, is 
called The Confessione of the fayght and doctrin 
beleued and professed by the Protestantes of the Realme 
of Scotland. Imprinted at Edinburgh be Robert 
Lekpreuik, Cum privilegio, 1561. 

In the following year the Kirk lent him money 
with which to print the Psalms, The copy now in 
the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, bound with the 
Book of Common Order printed by Lekpreuik in 
the same year, probably belongs to this edition. 

Two years later, in 1564-65, he obtained a licence 
under the Privy Seal to print the Acts of Parlia- 
ment of Queen Mary and the Psalms of David in 
Scottish metre. Of this edition of the Psalms 
there is a perfect copy in the library of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. Again, in 1567, Lekpreuik 
obtained the royal licence as King's printer for 
twenty years, during which time he was to have 
the monopoly of printing Donatus pro pueris, Rudi- 
mentis of Pelisso, Acts of Parliament, Chronicles of 
the Realm, the book called Regia Majestas, the 
Psalms, the Homelies, and Rudimenta Artis Gram- 

Among his other work of chat year may be noticed 
a ballad entitled The testament and tragedie oj 
vmquhile King Henry Stewart of gude memory, a 
broadside of sixteen twelve-line stanzas, from the 
pen of Robert Sempil. A copy of this is in the 

n8 English Printing 

British Museum (Cott. Caligula, C. i. fol. 17). In 
1568 there was danger of plague in Edinburgh, 
and Lekpreuik printed a small octavo of twenty- 
four leaves, in Roman type, with the title, Ane 
breve description of the Pest, Quhair in the Cavsis 
signes and sum speciall preservatiovn and cvre thairof 
ar contenit. Set furth be Maister Gilbert Skeyne, 
Doctoure in Medicine. 

In 1570 he printed for Henry Charteris a quarto 
edition of the Actis and Deides of Sir William 
Wallace, and in 1571 The Actis and Lyfe of Robert 
Bruce. This was printed early in the year, as on 
the I4th April Secretary Maitland made a raid 
upon Lekpreuik's premises, under the belief that 
he was the printer of Buchanan's Chameleon. The 
printer, however, had received timely warning and 
retired to Stirling, where, before the 6th of August, 
he printed Buchanan's Admonition, and also a letter 
from John Knox 'To his loving Brethren.' His 
sojourn there was very short, as on the 4th Sep- 
tember Stirling was attacked and Lekpreuik there- 
upon withdrew to St. Andrews, where his press 
was active throughout the year 1572 and part of 
*573' In the month of April 1573 Lekpreuik re- 
turned to Edinburgh and printed Sir William 
Drury's Regulations for the army under his com- 
mand. But in January 1573-74 he was thrown 
into prison and his press and property confiscated. 
How long he remained a prisoner is not clear, but 
in all probability until after the execution of the 

Scottish Presses 119 

Regent Morton in 1581. In that year he printed 
the following books Patrick Adamson's Cate- 
chismus Latino Carmine Redditus et. in libros qua- 
tuor digestus, a small octavo of forty leaves, printed 
in Roman type ; Fowler's Answer to John Hamilton, 
a quarto of twenty-eight leaves ; and a Declaration 
without place or printer's name, but attributed 
to his press : after this nothing more is heard 
of him. 

Contemporary with Lekpreuik was Thomas 
Bassandyne, who is believed to have worked both 
in Paris and Leyden before setting up as a printer 
in Edinburgh, 

His first appearance in 1568 was not a very 
creditable one. It occurs in an order of the General 
Assembly, on the ist July, directing Bassandyne to 
call in a book entitled The Fall of the Roman Kirk, 
in which the king was called * supreme head of the 
Primitive Church/ and also ordered to delete an 
obscene song called Welcome Fortune which he had 
printed at the end of a psalm-book. They further 
appointed Mr. Alexander Arbuthnot to revise these 

In 1574 Bassandyne printed a quarto edition of 
Sir David Lindsay's Works, of which he had 510 
copies in stock at the time of his death. 

On the 7th March 1574-75, in partnership with 
Alexander Arbuthnot (who was not the same as the 
Alexander Arbuthnot who had been appointed to 
exercise a supervision of Bassandyne's books in 

120 Eng-ish Printing 

1568), Bassandyne laid proposals before the General 
Assembly for printing an edition of the Bible, the 
first ever printed in Scotland. The General As- 
sembly gave him hearty support, and required 
every parish to provide itself with one of the new 
Bibles as soon as they were printed. On the other 
hand, the printers were to deliver a certain number 
of copies before the last of March 1576, and the cost 
of it was to be 5. The terms of this agreement 
were not carried out by the printers. The New 
Testament only was completed and issued in 1576, 
with the name of Thomas Bassandyne as the printer. 
The whole Bible was not completed until the close 
of the year 1579, an( i Bassandyne did not live to see 
it appear, as he died on the i8th October 1577. 

Like most of his predecessors, Bassandyne was a 
bookseller ; and on pp. 292-304 of their work Annals 
of Scottish Printing, Messrs. Dickson and Edmond 
have printed the Inventory of the goods he pos- 
sessed, including the whole of his stock of books, 
which is of the greatest interest and value. A few 
such inventories have been met with in the case of 
English University printers and booksellers. 

Bassandyne used as his device a modification of 
the serpent and anchor mark of John Crespin of 

Arbuthnot was now left to carry on the business 
alone, and was made King's printer in 1579. But 
he was a slow, slovenly, and ignorant workman, and 
the General Assembly were so disgusted with the 

Scottish Presses 121 

delivery of the Bible and the wretched appearance 
of his work, that, on the I3th February 1579-80, 
they decided to accept the offer of Thomas Vau- 
trollier, a London printer, to establish a press in 

Arbuthnot died on September ist, 1585. His 
device was a copy of that of Richard Jugge of 
London, and is believed to have been the work of 
a Flemish artist, Assuerus vol Londersel. 

Another printer in Edinburgh between 1574-80 
was John Ross. He worked chiefly for Henry 
Charteris, for whom he printed the Catechisme in 
1574, and a metrical version of the Psalms in 1578. 
For the same bookseller he also printed a poem, 
The seuin Stages, Translatit out of prois in Scottis 
meter be Johne Rolland in Dalkeith, a quarto, now 
so rare that only one copy is known, that in the 
Britwell Library. 

In 1579 R ss printed Ad virulentum Archibaldi 
Hamiltonii Apostatae Dialogum, De confusione Calu- 
iniana sectca apud Scotos, impie conscriptum ortho- 
doxa responsio Thoma Smetonio Scoto auctore, a 
quarto, printed in Roman letter, and followed it up 
with two editions of Buchanan's De Jure Regni apud 
Scotos dialogus. 

Ross used a device showing Truth with an open 
book in her right hand, a lighted candle in her left, 
surrounded with the motto c Vincet tandem veritas/ 
This device was afterwards used by both Charteris 
and Waldegrave. Ross died in 1580, when his stock 

122 English Printing 

passed into the hands of Henry Charteris, who began 
printing in the following year. As we have seen, he 
employed Scot, Lekpreuik, and Ross to print for 
him. Up to 1581 he confined himself to bookselling. 
His printing was confined to various editions of Sir 
David Lindsay's Works and theological tracts. He 
used two devices, that of Ross, and another em- 
blematical of Justice and Religion, with his initials. 
He died on the gth August 1599. 

In 1580, at the express invitation of the General 
Assembly, Thomas Vautrollier visited Edinburgh, 
and set up as a bookseller, no doubt with the view 
of seeing what scope there was likely to be for a 
printer with a good stock of type. The Treasurer's 
accounts for this period show that he received royal 

On his second visit, in 1584, he went armed with 
a letter to George Buchanan from Daniel Rogers, 
and set up a press in Edinburgh. But in spite of 
the support of the Assembly and the patronage that 
an introduction to Buchanan must have brought 
him, he evidently soon found there was not enough 
business in Edinburgh to support a printer, for he 
remained there little more than a year, when he 
again returned to London. During his short career 
as a printer in Edinburgh he printed at least eight 
books, of which the most important were Henry 
Balnave's Confession of Faith, 1584, 8vo, and King 
James's Essay es of a Prentice in the Divine Art of 

Scottish Presses 123 

Scotland's next important printer was Robert 
Waldegrave, who, after his adventures as a secret 
printer in England, set up a press in Edinburgh in 
1590, and continued printing there till the close of 
the century. 

One of his first works was a quarto in Roman type 
entitled The Confession of Faith, Subscribed by the 
Hingis Maiestie and his householde : Togither with 
the Copie of the Bande, maid touching the main- 
tenaunce of the true Religion. Among his other 
work, which was chiefly theological, may be men- 
tioned King James's Demonologie, 1597, 4to, and 
the first edition of the Basilikon Doron, in quarto, 
of which it is said only seven copies were 

Contemporary with him was a Robert Smyth, 
who married the widow of , Thomas Bassandyne, 
and who in 1599 received licence to print the follow- 
ing books : ' The double and single catechism, the 
plane Donet, the haill four pairtes of grammar 
according to Sebastian, the Dialauges of Corderius, 
the celect and familiar Epistles of Cicero, the buik 
callit Sevin Seages, the Ballat buik, the Secund 
rudimentis of Dunbar, the Psalmes of Buchanan 
and Psalme buik/ 

The only known copy of Smyth's edition of 
Rolland's Seven Sages is that in the British Museum. 

The last of the Scottish printers of the sixteenth 
century was Robert Charteris, the son and successor 
of Henry Charteris, but he did not succeed to the 

124 English Printing 

business until 1599, an( i ^ s work lies chiefly in the 
succeeding century. 

It may safely be said that the earliest press in 
Ireland of which there is any authentic notice was 
that of Humphrey Powell, of which there is the 
following note in the Act Books of the Privy Council 
(New Series, vol. iii p. 84), under date i8th July 
1550 : 

* A warrant to , to deliver xx u unto Powell the printer, 

given him by the Kinges Majestie towarde his setting up in 

Nothing is known of Humphrey Powell's work 
in England beyond several small theological works 
issued between 1548 and 1549 fr m a s ^op in Hoi- 
born above the Conduit. 

On his arrival in Ireland he set up his press in 
Dublin, and printed there the Prayer Book of 
Edward VI with the colophon : 

'Imprinted by Humphrey Powell, printer to the Kynges 
Maieste, in his Highnesse realme of Ireland dwellynge in the 
citie of Dublin in the great toure by the Crane Cum Privelegio 
ad imprimendum solum. Anno Domini, M. D.L.I.' 

Timperley, in his Encyclopedia (p. 314), says- 
that Powell continued printing in Dublin for fifteen 
years, and removed to the southern side of the 
river to St. Nicholas Street. 

In 1571 the first fount of Irish type was pre- 
sented by Queen Elizabeth to John 'Kearney, 
treasurer of St. Patrick's, to print the Catechism 
which appeared in that year from the press of John 

Irish Presses 125 

Franckton. (Reed, Old English Letter Foundries, 
pp. 75, 186-7.) It was not a pure Irish character, 
but a hybrid fount consisting for the most part 
of Roman and italic letters, with the seven dis- 
tinctly Irish sorts added. A copy of the Catechism 
is exhibited in the King's Library, British Museum, 
and in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, is a copy of a broadside entitled Poem on 
the last Judgement, sent over to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury as a specimen. 

This type was afterwards used to print William 
O'Donnell's, or Daniel's, Irish Testament in 1602. 



ON the accession of James 1st the Company of 
Stationers of London obtained several new pri- 
vileges. The patent for printing Almanacs and 
Prognostications, previously granted to James 
Roberts and Richard Watkins, was transferred to 
the Company, and down to the present day has 
been the source of a large revenue to it. At the 
same time it obtained the copyright in Primers 
and Psalters, which had been held by the successors 
of Day and Seres, in itself a large and profitable 

These works formed the basis of what was termed 
the ' English Stock ' of the Company, which was 
held by its members, according to their rank, in 
shares of proportional value. It was, in fact, a 
company within a company. Ballads formed an- 
other stock, and about this time two others were 
created, one in Latin books, by which the Company 
sought to engross the whole of that trade, and an 
' Irish ' stock, in connection with which the printing 
office in Dublin was bought by the Company, and 
a royal privilege obtained for printing and import- 


The Stuart Period 127 

ing books into Ireland. Both the fi Latin ' and 
* Irish ' ventures turned out failures, involving the 
shareholders in heavy losses, and were afterwards 
dropped. At the same time, the privileges of 
Robert Barker, son and successor to Christopher 
Barker, and King's printer by reversion, were in- 
creased by grants for printing all statutes, hitherto 
the monopoly of other printers. On the other 
hand, Robert Barker did not retain the sole pos- 
session of the royal business, John Norton being 
appointed King's printer in Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew in 1603. 

Robert Barker had been made free of the Sta- 
tioners' Company in 1589, when he joined his 
father's assigns, George Bishop and Ralph Newbery, 
in the management of the business. He was ad- 
mitted to the livery of the Company in 1592, and 
upon his father's death succeeded to the office of 
King's printer by reversion. In 1601-2 he was 
warden of the Company, and filled the office of 
Master in 1605 and 1606. In 1616, Robert and 
his son Christopher, who had married a daughter 
of Bonham Norton, sold their shares in the King's 
Printing House to Bonham Norton and John Bill. 
Law-suits followed, and the imprints were con- 
stantly changed. 1 Down to 1616 Robert Barker's 
name alone appeared. In that year they bore the 
names of Robert Barker and John BilL From 

1 For a full account of the King's Printing House under the Smarts 
see The Library^ October 1901, pp. 353-75- 

128 English Printing 

July 1617 until May 1619 they ran c Bonham 
Norton and John Bill/ then they became for a few 
months * Robert Barker and John Bill/ when they 
once more became ' Bonham Norton and John Bill/ 
This arrangement was confirmed on the accession 
of Charles I, but in 1629 the Court of Chancery 
gave its final decision in favour of Robert Barker, 
and after October 30th in that year the imprints 
were again altered to 'Robert Barker and John 

In 1634 Robert Barker mortgaged his moiety of 
the office to Miles Fletcher and his partners, and 
in 1635 Barker was committed to the King's Bench 
Prison as a debtor, and died there in January 
1645/6 ; but as his patent was still running, his name 
continued to appear as King's printer during his 

Robert Barker's work was almost entirely of an 
official character, the printing of the Scriptures, 
Book of Common Prayer, Statutes and Proclama- 

His most important undertaking was the so- 
called c authorised version ' of the Bible in 1611. 
It never was authorised in any official sense. The 
revision was proposed at a conference of divines 
held at Hampton Court in 1604. The King mani- 
fested great interest in the scheme. The whole 
cost of printing was borne by Robert Barker, who 
was financed by Bonham Norton, John Norton 
and John Bill in return for a share in the profits 

The Stuart Period 129 

of the office. Like all previous editions of the 
Scriptures in folio, this Bible of 1611 was printed 
in great primer black letter. It was preceded by 
an elaborately engraved title-page, the work of 
C. Boel of Richmond, and had also an engraved 
map of Canaan, partly the work of John Speed. 

Barker also possessed the handsome pictorial 
initial letters which had been used by John Day, 
and many of the ornaments and initials previously 
in the office of Henry Bynneman. 

John Norton was the son of Richard Norton, a 
yeoman of Billingsley, county Shropshire, nephew 
of William Norton, and cousin of Bonham Norton, 
and was thus connected by marriage with the six- 
teenth-century bookseller, William Bonham. He 
was three times Master of the Stationers' Company, 
in 1607, 1610, and 1612. He began business as a 
bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, and was one of 
the largest capitalists in the trade. 

In 1587 he set up a bookselling business in 
Edinburgh, but gave this up about 1596. On his 
death, in 1612, he left 1000 to the Company of 
Stationers, not, as is generally stated, as a legacy 
of his own, but rather as trustee of the bequest 
of his uncle, William Norton. The bulk of his 
property he left to his cousin, Bonham Norton 

(P.C. C. 5 Capell). 

In addition to the patent for printing Greek, Latin 
and Hebrew books, John Norton also acquired from 
Francis Rea the patent for grammars, and while 

130 English Printing 

these and many other books bear the imprint/ Ex- 
cudebat Joannes Norton,' there is ample evidence 
that he was not a printer, but simply found the 
capital, and employed others to print for him, not- 
ably Melchisidec Bradwood and his partners at the 
Eliot's Court printing-house in the Old Bailey. Thus 
the title-page to Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis 
Terrarwm, 1606, states that it was printed by John 
Norton ' ; but the colophon at the end runs, ' Printed 
for John Norton and John Bill/ and the internal 
evidence proves that it was printed at the Eliot's 
Court Press. 

John Norton was also the publisher, but certainly 
not the printer, of the magnificent edition of the 
Works of St. Chrysostom, in eight folio volumes, 
printed at Eton in 1610, at the charge of Sir Henry 
Savile, the editor. The late T. B. Reed, in his 
History of the Old English Letter Foundries (p. 140), 
speaks of this edition as c one of the most splendid 
examples of Greek printing in this country/ and 
further describes the types with which it was 
printed as c a great primer body, very elegantly and 
regularly cast, with the usual numerous ligatures 
and abbreviations which characterised the Greek 
typography of that period ' (p. 141). Sir Henry 
Saville obtained this Greek fount from Moret, the 
Antwerp printer ; the rest of the type, initials, or- 
naments and devices were those of Melchisidec 
Bradwood, who took presses and workmen down 
to Eton for the purpose. 

The Stuart Period 131 

The title-page to the first volume was handsomely 
engraved, and a highly ornamental series of initial 
letters were used in it. The work is said to have 
cost its promoter 8000. 

John Bill was the son of Walter Bill, husband- 
man, of Wenlock, county Salop, and on the 25th 
July 1592 he apprenticed himself to John Norton. 
In 1601 he was admitted a freeman of the Company. 
He was a man of shrewd business ability, and was 
recommended to Sir Thomas Bodley, who was then 
founding the Bodleian library, and who employed 
John Bill to travel abroad and buy books for the 
library. This was between 1596 and 1603. Bill 
afterwards set up as a bookseller, and attended the 
great book fair at Frankfort, and was the first to 
publish an edition of the catalogue for circulation 
in England. 

In conjunction with John Norton and Bonham 
Norton he secured a share in Robert Barker's patent 
as King's Printer, and retained it till his death in 

On the 26th August of that year the whole of his 
stock was assigned to Mistress Joyce Norton, the 
widow of J ohn Norton, and Master Whittaker. The 
list fills upwards of two pages of Arber's Tran- 
scripts (vol. iv. pp. 283-285). 

The reversion of John Norton's patent for Greek 
and Latin books had been granted in 1604 to Robert 
Barker (Dom. S. P. 1604), but the year following 
Norton's death it was granted to Bonham Norton 

132 English Printing 

for thirty years (Dom. S. P. I., vol. 72, No. 5), and 
he also seems to have acquired the patent for 
printing grammars. 

Bonham Norton was the only son of William 
Norton, stationer of London, who died in 1593, by 
his wife Joan, the daughter of William Bonham, 
He took up his freedom on the 4th February 1594, 
and was Master of the Stationers' Company in the 
years 1613, 1626, and 1629, and must have been one 
of the richest men in the trade. His eldest daughter, 
Sarah, married Christopher Barker, the eldest son of 
Robert Barker, in 1615, and for many years before 
this event he had been assisting Barker financially, 
and held a share in the Royal Printing House ; but 
in 1618 a bitter quarrel between them led to a long 
series of law-suits, which ended in favour of Robert 
Barker. Bonham Norton, having accused the Lord 
Keeper of receiving a bribe, was in 1630 thrown 
into prison and fined. He died intestate on the 
5th April 1635, and administration of his estate was 
granted to his son John on the 28th May 1636 (Ad- 
mon, Act Book 1636). 

On the gth May 1615 an order was made by the 
Court of the Stationers' Company, upon complaint 
made by the master printers of the number of 
presses then at work, that only nineteen printers, 
exclusive of the patentees, i.e. Robert Barker, John 
Bill, and Bonham Norton, should exercise the craft 
of printing in the city of London. There is little in 
the work of these men, judged as specimens of the 

The Stuart Period 133 

printer's art, to interest us, but a few may be briefly 

Richard Field, the successor of Thomas Vau- 
trollier, and a fellow- townsman of Shakespeare, has 
already been spoken of in an earlier chapter. He 
printed many important books between 1601-1624, 
had two presses at work in 1615, and was Master of 
the Company in 1620. He maintained the high 
character that Vautrollier had given to the produc- 
tions of his press. 

Felix Kingston was the son of John Kingston of 
Paternoster Row, and was admitted a freeman of 
the Stationers* Company on the 25th of June 1597, 
being translated from the Company of Grocers. 
Throughout the first half of the seventeenth century 
his press was never idle. He was Master of the 
Company in 1637. 

Edward Allde was the son of John Allde of the 
Long Shop in the Poultry. He had two presses, 
and printed very largely for other men, but his 
type and workmanship were poor. 

William and Isaac Jaggard are best known as 
the printers of the works of Shakespeare. They 
were associated in the production of the first folio 
in 1623, which came from the press of Isaac Jaggard, 
at the charges of William Jaggard, Edward Blount, 
J . Smethwicke, and William Aspley ; the editors 
being the poet's friends, J. Heminge and H. 

In addition to being the first collected edition 


134 English Printing 

of Shakespeare's works, this was in many respects 
a remarkable volume. The largest copies measure 
13^x8^. The title-page bears the portrait of 
the poet by Droeshout. The dedicatory epistle 
is in large italic type, and is followed by a second 
epistle, 'To the Readers/ in Roman. The verses 
in praise of the author, by Ben Jonson and others, 
are printed in a second fount of italic, and the 
Contents in a still smaller fount of the same letter. 
The text, printed in double columns, is in Roman 
and Italic, each page being enclosed within printer's 
rules. Of these various types, the best is the large 
italic, which somewhat resembles Day's fount of 
the same letter. That of the text is exceedingly 
poor, while the setting of the type and rules leaves 
much to be desired. The arrangement and pagi- 
nation are erratic. The book, like many other 
folios, was made up in sixes, and the first alphabet 
of signatures is correct and complete, while the 
second runs on regularly to the completion of the 
Comedies on Cc2. The Histories follow with a 
fresh alphabet, running from ' a ' (the third leaf is 
signed Aas) to ' g/ when the printer inserted a * gg ' 
of eight leaves, and then continued from * h ' to 

* x ' in sixes (' x ' four leaves) to the end of the 
Histories. The Tragedies begin with Troilus and 
Cressida, the insertion of which was evidently an 
afterthought, as there is no mention of it in the 

* Contents ' of the volume, and the signatures of 
the sheets are If and f f , six leaves each, followed 

The Stuart Period 135 

by a single leaf signed 1MNT. Then they start 
afresh with * aa ' and proceed regularly to ' hh/ 
the end of Macbeth, the following signature being 
' kk/ thus omitting the whole of c ii/ In a series 
of interesting letters communicated to Notes and 
Queries (8 S. vol. viii. pp. 306, 353, 429) the 
make-up of this volume is explained very plau- 
sibly. The copyright of Troilus and Cressida be- 
longed to R. Bonian and H. Walley, who apparently 
refused at first to give their sanction to its pub- 
lication. But by that time it had been printed, 
and the sheets signed for it to follow Macbeth, so 
that it had to be taken out. Arrangements having 
at last been made for its insertion in the work, it 
was reprinted and inserted where it is now found. 
It is also surmised that the original intention was 
to publish the work in three parts, and to this 
theory the repetition of the signatures lends colour. 
One of the most interesting presses of the early 
Stuart period, both for the excellence of its work 
and the nature of the books that came from it, was 
that of William Stansby. This printer took up 
his freedom on the 7th January 1597, after serving 
a seven years* apprenticeship with John Windet. 
The following April he registered a book entitled 
The Polycie of the Turkishe Empire. This little 
quarto was, however, printed for him by his old 
master, John Windet, and there is no further entry 
in the registers until 1611, or fourteen years after 
the date at which he took up his freedom. 

136 English Printing 

But it would appear that he began to print in 
1609 with an edition of Green's Pandosto, which 
was not registered. In 1611 he purchased the 
copyright in the books of John Windet for 135. 4^., 
but three of them the Company added to its stock, 
with the undertaking that Stansby should always 
have the printing of them. One of these books 
was The Assize of Bread. On the 23rd February 
1625 the whole of William East's copies, including 
music, was assigned over to him. This list of 
books is the longest to be found in the registers, 
and covers every branch of literature. 

About this time Stansby got into trouble with 
the Company for printing a seditious book, and 
his premises were nailed up, but eventually they 
were restored to him, and he continued in business 
until 1639, when his stock was transferred to Richard 
Bishop, and eventually came into the hands of 
John Haviland and partners. 

He was the printer of the second and subse- 
quent editions of Hooker's Ecclesiastical Politie, 
in folio; the Works of Ben Jonson, 1616, folio; 
Eadmer's Historia Novorum, 1623, folio ; Selden's 
Mare Clausum, 1635, folio; Blundeville's Exer- 
cises, 1622, quarto; Coryate's Crudities, 1611, 

He possessed a considerable stock of type, most 
of it good. Some of the ornamental head-bands 
and initial letters that he used were of an artistic 
character, and were used with good effect. An 

The Stuart Period 137 

instance of this may be seen in his edition of Hooker, 
1611, which has an engraved title-page by William 
Hole, showing a view of St. Paul's, The page of 
Contents is surrounded on three sides by a border 
made up of odds and ends of printers 1 ornaments, 
yet, in spite of its miscellaneous character, the 
effect is by no means bad. The border to the 
title-page of the fifth book was one of a series, that 
formed part of the stock of the Company, and were 
lent out to any who required them. Stansby's 
presswork was uniformly good, and in this respect 
alone he may be ranked among the best printers 
of his time. 

Another printer of that time, Nicholas Okes, was 
somewhat of a refractory character, a printer of 
popular books at the risk of imprisonment, a class 
of men who were to figure largely in the events of 
the next few years. He is known best, perhaps, as 
the printer of some of the writings of Dekker, Greene, 
and Hey wood ; but in 1621 he printed, without 
licence, Wither's Motto, a tract from the pen of 
George Wither, which had been published by John 
Harriot a short time before. This satire aroused 
the ire of the Government, and all connected with it 
at once made the acquaintance of the nearest jail. 
In the State Papers for that year are preserved the 
examination of the author, the booksellers, and the 
printer, Nicholas Okes, One of the witnesses de- 
clared that Okes told him that he had printed the 
book with the consent of the Company, and that the 

138 Eng-isJi Printing 

Master (Humphrey Lownes) had declared that if he 
was committed they would get him discharged. 
Another declared that Okes had printed two im- 
pressions of 3000 each, using the same title-page as 
that to the first edition, and that one of the wardens 
of the Company (Matthew Lownes) continued to sell 
the book, and called for more copies. The only 
defence Okes made was that he believed the book to 
be duly licensed, and when challenged as to why he 
printed Harriot's name on the title-page, declared 
he simply printed the book as he found it. (S. P. 
Dom. James I, vol. cxxii. Nos. 12 et seq.) 

On the accession of Charles I plague paralysed 

trade and made gaps in the ranks of the Stationers' 

Company. During the autumn of 1624 and the 

following year several noted printers died> probably 

from this cause. Chief among these were George 

Eld, Edward Allde, and Thomas Snodham. Eld 

was succeeded by his partner, Miles Flessher or 

Fletcher, and Allde by his widow, Elizabeth. 

Thomas Snodham had inherited the business of 

Thomas East, and his widow transferred her interest 

in the copyrights to William Stansby, one of his 

executors ; but the materials of the office, that is 

the types, woodcut letters, and ornaments, and the 

presses, were sold to William Lee for 165, and 

shortly afterwards passed into the possession of 

Thomas Harper. They included a fount of black 

letter, and several founts of Roman and italic of all 

sizes, and one of Greek letter, all of which had be- 

The Stuart Period 139 

longed to Thomas East, and were by this time the 
worse for wear. 

But the plague was at the worst only a temporary 
hindrance ; the censorship of the press the printers 
had always with them, and this, which had been 
comparatively mildly used during the late reign, 
was now in the hands of men who wielded it with 
severity. During the next fifteen years the printers, 
publishers, and booksellers of London were sub- 
jetted to a persecution hitherto unknown. During 
that time there were few printers who did not know 
the inside of the Gatehouse or the Compter, or who 
were not subjected to heavy fines. For the litera- 
ture of that age was chiefly of a religious character, 
and its tone mainly antagonistic to Laud and his 
party. All other subjects, whether philosophical, 
scientific, or dramatic, were sorely neglected. The 
later works of Bacon, the plays of Shirley and Shaker- 
ley Marmion, and a few classics, most of which came 
from the University presses, are sparsely scattered 
amongst the flood of theological discussion. The 
history of the best work in the trade in London is 
practically the history of three men John Havi- 
land, Miles Fletcher, and Robert Young, who joined 
partnership and, in addition to a share in the Royal 
printing-house, obtained by purchase the right of 
printing the Abridgements to the Statutes, and bought 
up several large and old-established printing-houses, 
such as those of George Purslowe, Edward Griffin, 
and William Stansby. K Bernard Alsop and Thomas 

140 English Printing 

Fawcett were also among the large capitalists of this 
time, while Nathaniel Butter, Nicholas Bourne, and 
Thomas Archer were also interested in several busi- 
nesses beside their own. From the press of Havi- 
land came editions of Bacon's Essays, in quarto, in 
1625, 1629, 1632 ; of his Apophthegmes, in octavo, 
in 1625 ; of his Miscellanies, an edition in quarto, 
in 1629, and his Opera Moralia in 1638. From the 
press of Fletcher came the Divine Poems of Francis 
Quarles, in 1633, 1634, and 1638, and the Hierogly- 
phikes of the life of Man, by the same author, in 
1638 ; while amongst Young's publications, editions 
of Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet appeared in 
1637. Bernard Alsop and his partner printed the 
plays of Beaumont and Fletcher, Decker, Greene, 
Lodge, and Shirley, the poems of Brathwait, Breton, 
and Crashaw, and the writings of Fuller and 

All this good work was overshadowed by the 
struggle, then in progress, for religious liberty, and 
freedom of thought and expression, consequently, 
the books that have the most vital interest, dead 
and forgotten as they are to-day, are rather those 
which brought their authors, printers, and pub- 
lishers within the clutches of the law. Three men 
Henry Burton, rector of St. Matthews, Friday 
Street ; William Prynne, banister of Lincoln's Inn ; 
and John Bastwick, surgeon, are generally looked 
upon as the chief of the opposition to Archbishop 
Laud and his party ; but there were a number of 

The Stuart Period 14.1 

other writers whose works brought them into the 
Court of High Commission. Thus, on the isth 
February 1626, Benjamin Fisher, bookseller, John 
Okes, Bernard Alsop, and Thomas Fawcett, printers, 
were examined concerning a book which they had 
caused to be printed and sold, called A Short View 
of the Long Life and reign of Henry the Third, of 
which Sir Robert Cotton was the author. Fisher 
stated in his evidence that five sheets of this book 
were printed by John Okes, and one other by Alsop 
and Fawcett, which in itself is an indication of the 
immense difficulty that must have attended the 
discovery of the printers of forbidden books. The 
manuscript Fisher declared he had bought from 
Alsop, who, in his turn, said that he bought it of 
one Ferdinando Ely, c a broker in books/ for the 
sum of twelvepence, and printed what was equiva- 
lent to a thousand copies of the one sheet delivered 
to him, 'besides waste/ Nicholas Okes declared 
that his son John had printed the book without his 
knowledge and while he (Nicholas) was a prisoner 
in the Compter. Ferdinando Ely was a second- 
hand bookseller in Little Britain. 

No very serious consequences seem to have 
followed in this instance; but in the following 
year (1628), Henry Burton was charged by the 
same authorities with being the author of certain 
unlicensed books, The Baiting of the Pope's Bull, 
Israel's Fast, Trial of Private Devotions, Conflicts 
and Comforts of Conscience, A Plea to an Appeal, 

142 English Printing 

and Seven Vials. The first of these was licensed, 
but the remainder were not. They were said to 
have been printed by Michael Sparke and William 
Jones ; Sparke was a bookseller, carrying on busi- 
ness at the sign of the Blue Bible, in Green Arbour, 
in little Old Bailey, and he employe^ William Jones 
to print for him. The parties were then warned 
to be careful, but on the 2nd April 1629 Sparke 
was arrested and thrown into the Fleet, and with 
him, at the same time, were charged William Jones, 
Augustine Mathewes, printers, and Nathaniel Butter, 
printer and publisher. Butter's offence was the 
issuing of a newspaper or pamphlet called The 
Reconciler ; Sparke was charged with causing to 
be printed another of Burton's works, entitled 
Babel no Bethel, and Spencer's Maschil Unmasked ; 
while Augustine Mathewes was accused of printing 
for Sparke, William Prynne's Antithesis of the 
Church oj England. Each party put in an answer, 
and of these, Michael Sparke 's is the most inter- 
esting. He declared that the Star Chamber decree 
of 1586 was contrary to Magna Charta, and an 
infringement of the liberties of the subject, and 
he refused to say who, beside Mathewes, had printed 
Prynne's book; but it afterwards turned out to 
be William Turner of Oxford, who confessed to 
printing several other unlicensed books. A short 
term of imprisonment appears to have been the 
punishment inflicted on the parties in this instance. 
Both in 1630 and 1631 several other printers 

The Stuart Period 143 

suffered imprisonment from the same cause, and 
Michael Sparke, who appears to have given out 
the work in most cases, was declared to be more 
refractory and offensive than ever. 

In 1632 appeared William Prynne's noted book, 
The Histrio-Mastix, The Players Scourge or Actor's 
Tragedie, a thick quarto of over one thousand 
closely printed pages, which bore on the title-page 
the imprint, ' printed by E. A. and W. J.for Michael 
Sparke. 1 This book, as its title implies, was an 
attack on stage-plays and acting. There was 
nothing in it to alarm the most sensitive Govern- 
ment, and even the licenser, though he afterwards 
declared that the book was altered after it left 
his hands, could find nothing in it to condemn. 
But, as it happened, there was a passage concern- 
ing the presence of ladies at stage-plays, and as 
the Queen had shortly before attended a masque, 
the passage in question was held to allude to her, 
and accordingly Prynne, Sparke, and the printers 
one of whom was William Jones were thrown 
into prison, and in 1633 were brought to trial before 
the Star Chamber. The printers appear to have 
escaped punishment ; but Prynne was condemned 
to pay a fine of 1000, to be degraded from his 
degree, to have both his ears cut off in the pillory, 
and to spend the rest of his days in prison ; while 
Sparke was fined 500, and condemned to stand 
in the pillory, but without other degradation- 

During this year John Bastwick also issued two 

144 English Printing 

books directed against Episcopacy, both of which 
are now scarce. ' One was entitled Elenchus Re- 
ligionis Papisticce, and the other Flagellum Ponti- 
ficis. They were printed abroad, and as a punish- 
ment their author was condemned to undergo a 
sentence little less severe than that passed upon 
Prynne, who, in spite of his captivity, continued 
to write and publish a great number of pamphlets. 
Amongst these was one entitled Inspections to 
Church Wardens, printed in 1635. In the course 
of the evidence concerning this book, mention was 
made of a special initial letter C, which was said 
to represent a pope's head when turned one way, 
and an army of soldiers when turned the other, 
and to be unlike any other letter in use by London 
printers at that time. 

For printing this and other books, Thomas 
Purslowe, Gregory Dexter, and William Taylor 
of Christchurch were struck from the list of master 
printers. 1 

In 1637 appeared Prynne J s other notorious tract, 
Newes from Ipswich, a quarto of six leaves, for 
which he was fined by the Star Chamber a further 
sum of 5000, and condemned to lose the rest of 
bis ears, and to be branded on the cheek with the 
letters S. L. (i.e. scurrilous libeller), a sentence that 
was carried out on the 30 th June of this year with 
great barbarity. The imprint to this tract ran 
* Printed at Ipswich/ but its real place of printing 

* Domestic State Papers^ vol. 357, No. 172, 173 ; -vol. 371, No. 102. 

The Stuart Period 145 

was London, and perhaps the name of Robert 
Raworth, which occurs in the indictment, may 
stand for Richard Raworth, the printer whom 
Sir John Lambe declared to be ' an arrant knave/ 
Or the printer may have been William Jones, 1 who 
about this time was fined 1000 for printing 
seditious books. 

In 1634 the King wrote to Archbishop Laud to 
the effect that Doctor Patrick Young, keeper of the 
King's library, who had lately published the First 
Epistle of S. Clement to the Corinthians in Greek 
and Latin, in conjunction with Bishop Lindsell 
of Peterborough now proposed to make ready for 
the press one or more Greek copies every year, 
if Greek types, matrices, and money were forth- 
coming. The King expressed his desire to en- 
courage the work, and therefore commanded the 
Archbishop that the fine of 300, which had been 
inflicted upon Robert Barker and Martin Lucas 
in the preceding year, for what was described as 
a base and corrupt printing of the Bible in 1631 
(the omission of the word ' not * from the seventh 
commandment, which has earned for the edition 
the name of the Wicked Bible), should be con- 
verted to the buying of Greek letters. The King 
further ordered that Barker and Lucas should 
print one work every year at their own cost of 
ink, paper, and workmanship, and as many copies 
as the Archbishop should think fit to authorise, 

1 Domestic State Papers^ vol. 354, No. 180. 

146 English Printing 

The Archbishop thereupon wrote to the printers, 
who expressed their willingness to fall in with the 
scheme, and a press, furnished with a very good 
fount of Greek letter, was established at Black- 
friars. But the result was not what might have 
been expected. Partly owing to the political 
troubles that followed its foundation, and partly 
perhaps to delay on the part of the printers, the 
only important works that came from this press 
were Dr. Patrick Young's translation of the book 
of Job, from the Codex Alexandrinus, a folio printed 
in 1637, and the translation into Greek of the 
epistles of St. Paul, with a commentary by the 
Bishop of Peterborough, also a folio, which came 
from the same press in 1636. The Greek letter 
used in this office cannot be compared for beauty 
or delicacy of outline with that which was used 
in the Chrysostom of 1610. 

On the nth July 1637 was published another 
Star Chamber Decree concerning printers. Pro- 
fessor Arber, in his fourth volume (p. 528), stated 
that the appearance of a tract entitled The Holy 
Table, Name and Thing, must ever be associated 
with this decree, but it may be doubted whether it 
was not rather general causes, such as the growing 
power of the press, the long-continued attack upon 
the Prelacy by pamphleteers, which no fear of 
mutilation or imprisonment could stop, than 
any one particular tract, which led to that severe 
and crushing edict. 

Tlie Stuart Perioc 147 

This act, which was published on the nth July 
1637, consisted of thirty-three clauses, and after 
reciting former ordinances, and the number of ' libel- 
lous, seditious, and mutinous ' books that were then 
daily published, decreed that all books were to be 
licensed : law books by the Lord Chief Justices and 
the Lord Chief Baron ; books dealing with history, 
by the principal Secretaries of State ; books on 
heraldry, by the Earl Marshal; and on all other 
subjects, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Bishop of London, or the Chancellor or Vice- 
Chancellors of the two Universities. Two copies 
of every book submitted for publication were to 
be handed to the licensee, one of which he was 
to keep for future reference. Catalogues of all 
books imported into the country were to be sent 
to the Archbishop or Bishop of London, and no 
consignments of books were to be opened until 
the representatives of one of these dignitaries 
and of the Stationers' Company were present. 
The name of the printer, the author, and the 
publisher was to be placed in every book, and, 
under pretext of encouraging English printing, it 
was decreed further that no merchant or bookseller 
should import any English book printed abroad. 
No person was to erect a printing-press, or to let any 
premises for the purpose of carrying on printing, 
without first giving notice to the Company, and no 
joiner or carpenter was to make a press without 
similar notice. 

148 English Printing 

The number of master printers was limited by 
this decree to twenty, and those chosen were : 

Felix Kingston. George Miller. 

Adam Islip. Richard Badger. 

Thomas Purfoote. Thomas Cotes. 

Miles Fletcher. Marmaduke Parsons. 

Thomas Harper. Bernard Alsop. 

John Beale. Richard Bishop. 

John Raworth. Edward Griffin. 

John Legate. Thomas Purslowe. 

Robert Young. Rich. Hodgkinsonne. 

John Haviland. John Dawson. 

Each of these was to be bound in sureties of 300 to 
good behaviour. No printer was allowed to have 
more than two presses unless he were a Master or 
Warden of the Company, when he might have three. 
A Master or Warden might keep three apprentices 
but no more, a master printer on the livery might 
have two, and the rest one only ; but every printer 
was expected to give work to journeyman printers 
when required to do so, because it was stated that 
it was they who were mainly responsible for the pub- 
lication of the libeJious, seditious, and mutinous 
books referred to. All reprints of books were to be 
licensed in the same way as first editions. The Com- 
pany were to have the right of search, and four type- 
founders, John Grismond, Thomas Wright, Arthur 
Nichols, and Alexander Fifield were considered suffi- 
cient for the whole trade. Finally, a copy of every 
book printed was to be sent to the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford. The penalties for breaking this decree 

The Stuart Period 149 

included imprisonment, destruction of stock, and a 
whipping at the cart's tail. 

The twenty printers appointed by this decree 
were the subject of much investigation by Sir John 
Lamb, whose numerous notes and lists concerning 
them, as reprinted in the third volume of Professor 
Arber's Transcript from documents at the Record 
Office, are an invaluable acquisition to the history 
of the English press. Four of the chief offenders of 
the previous ten or eleven years, namely William 
Jones, Nicholas Okes, Augustine Mathewes, and 
Robert or Richard Raworth, were absolutely ex- 
cluded, their places being taken by Marmaduke 
Parsons, Thomas Paine, and a new man, Thomas 
Purslowe, probably the son of Widow Purslowe. 
Conscious perhaps that their positions were in jeo- 
pardy, all four petitioned the Archbishop to be 
placed among the number, but in vain, and another 
man who was excluded at the same time was John 
Norton, a descendant of a long family of printers of 
that name, who had served his apprenticeship in the 
King's printing-house. Bernard Alsop alone was 
pardoned, and allowed to retain his place. 

The clause requiring all reprints to be licensed 
caused a good deal of murmuring, as did also that 
which forbade haberdashers, and others who were 
not legitimate booksellers, to sell books. 

The small number of type-founders allowed to 
the trade has also been a subject of much comment 
by writers on this subject ; but if we may believe 


150 Eng-is:i Printing 

the evidence of Arthur Nicholls, one of the four ap- 
pointed, the number was quite sufficient. Nicholls 
was the founder of the Greek type used in the new 
office of Blackfriars, and his experience was certainly 
not likely to encourage other men to set up in the 
same trade. At the time when he was appointed 
one of the four founders under the decree, he could 
not make a living by his trade, and though he does 
not expressly state the fact, his evidence seems to 
imply that English printers at that time obtained 
most of their type from abroad, and it is beyond 
question that they had long since ceased to cast 
their own letter. 

Drastic as this decree was, it practically remained 
a dead letter, for the reason that in the troublous 
times that followed within the next five years, the 
Government had their hands full in other directions, 
and were obliged to let the printers alone. 

Between this date and the year 1640, there was 
very little either of interest or value that came from 
the English press. The memory of rare Ben Jonson 
induced Henry Seile, of the Tiger's Head in Fleet 
Street, to publish in 1638 a quarto with the title of 
fonsonus Virbius : or the Memory of Ben Jonson. 
Revived by the friends of the Muses, and among the 
contributors were Lord Falkland, Sir John Beau- 
mont the younger, Sir Thomas Hawkins, Henry 
King, Edmund Waller, Shackerley Mannion, and 
several others. The printer's initials are given as 
E. P., but these do not suit any of those who were 


The Stuart Period 151 

authorised under the decree of the year before, and 
they may refer to Elizabeth Purslowe. That there 
was a considerable number of persons who, in spite 
of the Puritan tendencies of the age, loved a good 
play, is clearly seen from the number turned out 
during the years 1638, 1639, and 1640 by Thomas 
Nabbes, Henry Glapthorne, James Shirley, and 
Richard Brome. These were mostly quartos, very 
poorly printed, and chiefly from the presses of 
Richard Oulton, John Okes, and Thomas Cotes. 
Of collected works, there came out in small octavo 
form the Poems of Thomas Carew from the press of 
John Dawson in 1640, and a collection of Shake- 
speare's Poems, also in small octavo, from the press 
of Thomas Cotes, in the same year. There were also 
published in 1640 from the press of Richard Bishop, 
who had succeeded to the business of William 
Stansby, Selden's De Jure Natural* et Gentium juxta 
iisciplinam Ebraorum t in folio, and William Som- 
ner's Antiquities of Canterbury, one of the earliest 
and best of the contributions to county bibliography. 
Having now brought the record of the London 
press down to the time when it became engulphed 
in the chaos of civil war, it is time to turn to the 
University presses of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Since the year 1585, these were the only pro- 
vincial presses allowed by law, and removed as 
they were from the turmoil of conflicting parties, 
and the severity of trade competition, in which 
the London printers lived, their work showed more 

152 English Printing 

uniformity of excellence, and on the whole sur- 
passed that of the London printers. 

Down to the year 1617 Oxford appears to have 
had but one printer, Joseph Barnes ; but in that 
year we find two at work, John Lichfield and 
William Wrench, the latter giving place the follow- 
ing year to James Short. In 1624 the two Oxford 
printers were John Lichfield and William Turner 
the second, as we have seen, being notorious 
as the printer of unlicensed pamphlets for Michael 
Sparke the London publisher ; but in spite of this 
we find him holding his position until 1640, though 
in the meantime John Lichfield had been succeeded 
in business by his son, Leonard. In the intro- 
duction to his bibliography of the Oxford Press, 
Mr. Falconer Madan has given a list of the most 
important books printed at Oxford between 1585 
and 1640, which we venture to reprint here with a 
few additions : 

1599. Richard de Bury's Philobiblon. 

1608. Wycliff's Treatises. 

1612. Captain John Smith's Map of Virginia. 

1621. Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. 

1628. Field On the Church. 

1633. Sandys' Ovid. 

1634. The University Statutes. 

1635. Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida in English 

and Latin. 

1638, Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants. 
1640. Bacon's Advancement and Proficience of 


The Stuart Period 153 

At Cambridge, where for many years the work 
of the University printers had been hampered by 
the jealousy of the Company of Stationers in 
London, the disputes between them were settled, 
for a while, on the loth December 1623. 

The Company's last attempt to suppress Cantrell 
Legge, and prevent him from printing grammars 
and prayer-books, led to an appeal to the King, 
who made short work of the matter by ordering 
the two parties to come to an agreement. The 
terms of the settlement were : 

1. That all books should be sold at reasonable 

2. That the University should be allowed to 
print, conjointly with the London stationers, all 
books except the Bible, Book of Common Prayer, 
grammar, psalms, psalters, primers, etc., but they 
were only to employ one press upon privileged books. 

3. That the University should print no almanacs 
then belonging to the Stationers, but they might 
print prognostications brought to them first. 

4. That the Stationers should not hinder the 
sale of University books. 

5. That the University printer should be at 
liberty to sell all grammars and psalms that he 
had already printed, and such as had been seized 
by the Company were to be restored. 

To the last clause a note was added to the effect 
that Bonham Norton was prepared to buy them 
at reasonable prices. 

154 English Printing 

A notable book from the Cambridge press was 
Phineas Fletcher's Purple Island, a quarto pub- 
lished in 1633. The title-page was printed in red 
and black, in well-cut Roman of four founts, with 
the lozenge-shaped device of the University in the 
centre, the whole being surrounded by a neat 
border of printers' ornaments. Each page of the 
book was enclosed within rules, which seems to 
have been the universal fashion of the trade at 
this period, and at the end of each canto the device 
seen on the title-page was repeated. The Eclo- 
gues and Poems had each a separate title-page, 
and two well-executed copper-plate engravings 
occur in the volume. 

We must not close this chapter without noting 
that in 1639 printing began in the New England 
across the sea. The records of Harvard College 
tell us that the Rev. Joseph Glover 'gave to the 
College a font of printing letters, and some gentle- 
men of Amsterdam gave towards furnishing of a 
printing-press with letters forty-nine pounds, and 
something more/ Glover himself died on the 
voyage out from England, but Stephen Day, the 
printer whom he was bringing with him, arrived 
in safety and was installed at Harvard College. 
The first production of his press was the Free- 
man's Oath, the second an Almanac, the third, 
published in 1640, The Psalms in Metre, Faithfully 
translated for the Use, Edification, and Comfort of 
the Saints in Publick and Private, especially in New 

TJLC Stuart Period 155 

England. This, the first book printed in North 
America, was an octavo of three hundred pages, 
of passably good workmanship, and is commonly 
known as the Bay Psalter Cambridge, the home 
of Harvard College, lying near Massachusetts Bay. 
Stephen Day continued to print at Cambridge till 
1648 or 1649, when he was succeeded in the charge 
of the press by Samuel Green, whose work will 
be mentioned at the end of our next chapter. 


FROM 1640 TO 1700 

THE art of printing in England had never at any 
time reached such a point of excellence as in Paris 
under the Estiennes, in Antwerp under Plantin, 
or in Venice under the Aldi. So great was the 
competition between the printers, and so heavy 
the restrictions placed upon them, that profit 
rather than good workmanship was their first con- 
sideration ; and when to these drawbacks was 
added the general disorganisation of trade conse- 
quent upon the outbreak of civil war, it is not 
surprising that it failed to maintain even that 
lower standard of excellence. Literature, other 
than that which chronicled the fortunes of the 
opposing factions, was almost totally neglected. 
Writers, even had they found printers willing to 
support them, would have found no readers. Such 
was the public anxiety, that it was scarcely possible 
to publish the Diurnals and Mercurys containing 
the latest news fast enough, and the press was un- 
equal to the strain, although the number of printers 
in London during this period was three times 
larger than that allowed by the decree of 1637. 
Professor Arber, in his Transcript, said that this 

From 1640 to 1700 157 

increase in the number of printers was due to the 
removal of the gag by the Long Parliament. The 
Long Parliament never had any intention of re- 
moving the gag; but having its hands full with 
other and weightier matters it could find no time 
to deal with the printers, and in the heat of the 
fight, it was only too thankful to avail itself of 
the pens of those who replied to the attacks of the 
Royalist press. The best evidence of this is, that 
as soon as opportunity offered, and in spite of the 
warning of the greatest literary man of that day, 
who was on their own side, the Long Parliament 
re-imposed the gag with as much severity as the 
hierarchy which it had deposed. 

For the publication of the news of the day, each 
party had its own organs. On the side of the 
Parliament the principal journals were The King- 
doms Weekly Intelligencer, printed and published 
by Nathaniel Butter, and Mercurius Britannicus, 
edited by Marchmont Nedham ; while Mercurius 
Aulicus, edited by clever John Birkenhead, repre- 
sented the Royalists, and was ably seconded by 
the Perfect Occurrences, printed by John Clowes 
and Robert Ibbitson. 

These sheets, which usually consisted of from 
four to eight quarto pages, contained news of the 
movements and actions of the opposing armies, 
the proceedings of the Parliament at Westminster, 
or of the King's Council at Oxford, or wherever 
he happened to be, and they were published some- 

158 English Printing 

times twice and even three times a week. The 
political pamphlets were bitter and scurrilous 
attacks by each party against the other, or the 
hare-brained prophecies of so-called astrologers, 
such as William Lilly, George Wharton, and John 
Gadbury. These two classes formed more than 
half the printed literature of those unhappy times, 
and the remainder of the output of the press was 
largely filled up with sermons, exhortations, and 
other religious writings. Careless workmanship, bad 
material and want of enterprise are the common 
features of the printer's trade in England between 
1640 and 1650. Any old types or blocks were 
brought into use, and there is evidence of blocks 
and initial letters which had formed part of the 
stock of the printers of a century earlier being 
brought to light again at this time. But as, even 
in this darkest hour of the nation's fortunes, the 
soul of literature was not crushed, and the voice 
of the poet could still make itself heard, so it is 
a great mistake to suppose that there were no 
good printers during the period covered by the 
Civil Wars and the Commonwealth. 

Take as an example the little duodecimo en- 
titled Instructions for Forreine Travell, which came 
from the pen of James Howell, and was printed 
by T. B., no doubt Thomas Brudnell, for Hum- 
phrey Moseley. Some of the founts, especially 
the larger Roman, are very unevenly and badly 
cast, but on the whole the presswork was carefully 

From 1640 to 1700 159 

done. The same may also be said of the folio 
edition of Sir R. Baker's Chronicle, published in 
1643. In this case we do not know who was the 
printer ; but the ornaments and initials lead us 
to suppose that it was the work of William Stansby's 
successor. The prose tracts, again, that Milton 
wrote between 1641-45 are far better printed than 
many of their kind, and prove that Matthew Sim- 
mons, who printed most of them, and who was 
one of the Commonwealth men, deserved the 
position he afterwards obtained. The first col- 
lected edition of Milton's poems was published by 
Humphrey Moseley in 1645. This was a small 
octavo, in two parts, with separate title-pages, and 
a portrait of the author by William Marshall, and 
came from the press of Ruth Raworth. In 1646 
there appeared A Collection of all the Incomparable 
Peeces written by Sir John Suckling and published 
by a freend to perpetuate his memory. This came 
from the press of Thomas Walkley, who had issued 
the first edition of Aglaura and the later plays of 
the same writer. Walkley also printed in small 
Octavo, for Moseley, the Poems of Edmond Waller, 
but his work was none of the best. 

A printer of considerable note at this time was 
William Dugard, who in 1644 was chosen head- 
master of Merchant Taylors' School, and set up a 
printing-press there. In January 1649 he printed 
the first edition of the famous book Eikon Basilike, 
and followed it by a translation of Salmasius' 

i6o English Printing 

Defensio Regia, for which the Council of State im- 
mediately ordered his arrest, seized his presses, 
and wrote to the Governors of the school, ordering 
them to elect a new schoolmaster, 'Mr. Dugard 
having shewn himself an enemy to the state by 
printing seditious and scandalous pamphlets, and 
therefore unfit to have charge of the education of 
youths' (Dom. S. P. Interregnum, pp. 578-583). 
Sir James Harrington, member of the Council of 
State, and author of Oceana, who seems to have 
known something about Dugard, interceded with 
the Council on his behalf, and at the same time 
persuaded him to give up the Royalist cause. So 
his presses were restored to him, and henceforward 
he appears to have devoted himself with equal 
zeal to his new masters. 

He was the printer of Milton's answer to Sal- 
masius, published by the Council's command, of 
a book entitled Mare Clausum, also published by 
authority, of the Catechesis Ecclesiarum, a book 
which the Council found to contain dangerous 
opinions and ordered to be burnt, and of a tract 
written by Milton's nephew, John Phillips, entitled 
Responsio ad apologiam. His initials are also met 
with in many other books of that time. His press 
was furnished with a good assortment of type, 
and his press-work was much above the average 
of that period. 

Among other books that came from the London 
press during this troubled time, we may single out 

From 1640 to 1700 161 

three which have found a lasting place in English 
literature. The first is Robert Herrick's Hes- 
perides, printed in the years 1647-48 ; the second 
a volume of verse, by Richard Lovelace, entitled 
Lucasta, Epodes, Odes, Sonnets, Songs, &c., printed 
in 1649 by Thomas Harper ; the last Izaak Walton's 
Complete Angler, which came from the press of 
John Maxey in 1653. All were small octavos, in- 
differently printed with poor type, and no pre- 
tensions to artistic workmanship. 

In 1649, the year of Charles I's execution, the 
Council of State, in consequence of the number 
of 'scandalous and seditious pamphlets' which 
were constantly appearing, in spite of all decrees 
and acts to the contrary, ordered certain printers 
to enter into recognizances in two sureties of 300, 
and their own bond for a similar amount, not to 
print any such books, or allow their presses to be 
used for that purpose. Accordingly, in the Calen- 
dar of State Papers for the year 1649-50 (pp. 522, 
523), we find a list of no less than sixty printers 
in London and the two Universities who entered 
into such sureties. In almost every case the ad- 
dress is given in full, in itself a gain, at a time when 
the printer's name rarely appeared in the imprint 
of a book. This list has been printed in BiUio- 
graphica (vol. ii. pp. 225-26). 

While it does not include all the printers having 
presses at that time, yet, if we remember that 
under the Star Chamber decree of 1637 the number 

1 62 English Printing 

in London was strictly limited to twenty, it shows 
how rapid the growth of the trade was in those 
twelve years. Of the original twenty, only three 
seem to have survived the troubles and dangers 
of the Civil Wars Bernard Alsop, Richard Bishop, 
and Thomas Harper, though the places of three 
more were filled by their survivors Elizabeth 
Purslowe standing in the place of her husband, 
Thomas Purslowe ; Gertrude Dawsori succeeding 
her husband, John Dawson ; and James Flesher 
or Fletcher in the room of his father, Miles Flesher. 
John Grismond and James Moxon were type- 
founders, Henry Hills and John Field were ap- 
pointed printers to the State under Cromwell, and 
Thomas Newcomb, who had succeeded to the 
business of John Raworth in 1649, was also largely 
employed, and shared with the other two the 
privilege of Bible printing. Roger Norton was 
the son of Bonham Norton. Of Roycroft and 
Simmons we shall hear a good deal later on, as 
indeed we shall of many others in this list. The 
only names that hardly seem to warrant insertion 
as printers are those of John and Richard Royston. 
Although they were for many years stationers to 
King Charles II, we cannot hear of any printing- 
presses in their possession. 

With the quieter time of the Commonwealth, a 
distinct improvement took place in workmanship, 
and several notable works were produced, though 
the annual output of books was much below the 

From 1640 to 1700 163 

average of the seven years preceding. Foremost 
among the publications of that time must be placed 
Sir William Dugdale's Monasticum Anglicanum, 
the first volume of which appeared in 1655. 

This first volume, a large and handsome folio, 
came from the press of Richard Hodgkinson, and 
was printed in pica roman in double columns, 
with a great deal of italic and black letter inter- 
mixed. The types were as good as any to be found 
in Engknd at that time, and the press-work was 
carefully done. The engravings were chiefly the 
work of Hollar, aided by Edward Mascall and 
Daniel King, and are excellently reproduced. The 
whole work occupied eighteen years in publication, 
the second volume being printed by Alice Warren, 
the widow of Thomas Warren, in 1661, and the 
third and last by Thomas Newcombe in 1673 ; but 
these later volumes differed very little in appear- 
ance from the first, the same method of setting 
and the same mixture of founts being adhered to. 

In 1656 appeared, from the press of Thomas 
Warren, Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, a 
folio of 826 pages. On the title-page is seen the 
device of old John Wolfe, the City printer. The 
dedication was printed in great primer ; but the 
look of the text was marred by a bad fount of 
black letter which did not print well. Like the 
Monasticon, this work was illustrated with maps 
and portraits by Hollar and Vaughan. 

Another considerable undertaking was the His- 

164 English Printing 

torical Collections of John Rush worth, in eight 
folio volumes, of which the first was printed by 
Thomas Newcombe in 1659, the others between 
1680 and 1701. 

But the great typographical achievement of the 
century was the Polyglott Bible, edited by Brian 
Walton. It was the fourth great Bible of the 
kind which had been published. The earliest was 
the Complutensian, printed at Alcala in 1517, with 
Hebrew, Latin, Greek, and Chaldean texts. Next 
came the Antwerp Polyglott, printed at the Plantin 
Press in 1572, which, in addition to the texts above 
mentioned, gave the Syriac version. This was 
followed in 1645 by the Paris Polyglott, which 
added Arabic and Samaritan, was in ten folio 
volumes, and took seventeen years to complete. 

The London Polyglott of 1657, which exceeded 
all these in the number of texts, was mainly due 
to the enterprise and industry of Brian Walton, 
Bishop of Chester. This famous scholar and divine 
was born at Cleveland, in Yorkshire, in 1600. He 
was educated at Cambridge, and after serving as 
curate in All Hallows, in Bread Street, became 
rector of St. Martin's Orgar and of St. Giles in 
the Fields. He was sequestered from his living 
at St. Martin's during the troubles of the Revolu- 
tion, and fled to Oxford, and it was while there 
that he is said to have formed the idea of the Poly- 
glott Bible. 

The first announcement of the great under- 

From 1640 to 1700 165 

taking was made in 1652, when a type specimen 
sheet, believed to be still in existence, was printed 
by James Flesher or Fletcher of Little Britain, 
and issued with the prospectus, which was printed 
by Roger Norton of Blackfriars for Timothy Garth- 
waite. Walton's Polyglott was the second book 
printed by subscription in England, Minsheu's 
Dictionary in Eleven Languages having been pub- 
lished in this manner in 1617. The terms were 
10 per copy, or 50 for six copies. The estimated 
cost of the first volume was 1500, and of succeed- 
ing volumes 1200, and such was the spirit with 
which the work was taken up that 9000 was sub- 
scribed before the first volume was put to press. 

To the texts which had appeared in previous 
Polyglotts, Persian and Ethiopic were added, so 
that in all nine languages were included in the 
work that is, Hebrew, Latin, Greek, Chaldean, 
Syriac, Arabic, Samaritan, Persian, and Ethiopic 
besides much additional matter in the form of 
tables, lexicons, and grammars. No single book 
was printed in all of these, only the Greek, Latin, 
Syriac, and Arabic running throughout the work, 
while the Hebrew appears in the Old Testament, 
the Psalms in Ethiopic, and the New Testament 
has, in addition to the four principal texts, the 
Ethiopic and Persian. 

The whole work occupied six folio volumes, 
measuring i6xio|, and was printed by Thomas 
Roycroft from types supplied by the four recog- 


1 66 Englisn Printing 

nised typefounders. At the commencement of the 
first volume is a portrait of Walton by Bombert, 
followed by an elaborately engraved title-page, the 
work of Wencelaus Hollar, an architectural design 
adorned with scenes from Scripture history. The 
second title-page was printed in red ink, and the 
text was so arranged that each double page, when 
open, showed all the versions of the same passage. 
The types used in this work have been described 
in detail by Rowe Mores in his Dissertations upon 
English Founders, and by Talbot Baines Reed in his 
work upon the Old English Letter Foundries (Chap, 
vii. pp. 164, et seqq.). Speaking of the English 
founts, the last-named writer points out that the 
double pica, roman and italic, seen in the Dedi- 
cation, is the same fount that was cut by the six- 
teenth-century printer, John Day, and used by 
him to print the Life of A If red the Great. Mr. Reed 
adds that, in spite of a certain want of uniformity 
in the bodies, the Ethiopic and Samaritan were 
especially good, and the Syriac and Arabic boldly 

All six volumes were printed within four years, 
the first appearing in September 1654, the second 
in 1655, the third in 1656, and the last three in 
1657. Looking at the labour involved by such an 
undertaking, it has been rightly described by Mr. 
T. B. Reed as a lasting glory to the typography 
of the seventeenth century. 
Olivet Cromwell, under whose government this 

From 1640 to 1700 167 

noble work was accomplished, had assisted, as far 
as lay in his power, by permitting the importation 
of the paper free of duty ; and in the first editions 
this assistance was gracefully acknowledged by the 
editor, but on the Restoration those passages were 
altered or omitted to make room for compliments 
to Charles II. 

Amongst those who ably assisted Walton in his 
labours was Dr. Edmund Castell, who prepared 
a Hepfaglott Lexicon for the better study of the 
various languages used in the Polyglott. This 
work received the support of all the learned men 
of the time, but the undertaking was the ruin of 
its author, and a great part of the impression 
perished in the destruction of Roycroft's premises 
in the Great Fire of 1666. 

The Restoration brought with it little change 
in the conditions under which printing was carried 
on in England, or in the lot of the printers them- 
selves. There is in the Public Record Office a 
petition drawn up in 1660 or 1661 by eleven of the 
leading London printers, for the incorporation of 
the printers into a body distinct from the Com- 
pany of Stationers, and appended to it are the 
* reasons ' for the proposed change, which occupy 
four or five closely-written folio sheets. The sig- 
natories were : 


i68 English Printing 









and it was undoubtedly these men, some of them 
the biggest in the trade, who formed the ' Com- 
panie of Printers/ for whom in 1663 a pamphlet 
was issued, entitled A Brief Discourse concerning 
Printers and Printing. For the printed pamphlet 
embodies the same views put forward in the peti- 
tion, only backed up with fresh evidence and terse 
arguments. The claim of the printers amounted 
to this, that the Company of Stationers had become 
mainly a Company of Booksellers, that in order 
to cheapen printing they had admitted a great 
many more printers than were necessary, and from 
this cause arose the great quantity of ' scandalous 
and seditious ' books that were constantly being 
published. They go on to say that the condition 
of the great body of printers was deplorable, * they 
can hardly subsist in credit to maintain their fami- 
lies. . . . When an ancient printer died, and his 
copies were exposed to sale, few or none of the 
young ones were of ability to deal for them, nor 
indeed for any other, so that the Booksellers have 
engrossed almost all. 1 The petitioners show also 

From 1640 to 1700 169 

that the Company of Stationers was grown so large 
chat none could be Master or Warden until he was 
well advanced in life, and therefore unable to keep 
a vigilant eye on the trade, while a printer did not 
become Master once in ten or twenty years. They 
argue that the best expedient for checking these 
disorders and ensuring lawful printing, would be 
to incorporate the printers into a distinct body, 
and they advocate the registration of presses, the 
right of search, and the enforcement of sureties. 
Finally, they claim that this plan would also do 
much to improve printing as an art, as under the 
existing conditions there was no encouragement 
to the printers to produce good work. 

This petition, though it does not seem to have 
received any official reply, was noticed by Sir 
Roger L'Estrange in the Proposals which he laid 
before the House of Parliament, and which un- 
doubtedly formed the basis of the Act of 1662. 
Sir Roger L'Estrange had been an active adherent 
of the Royal cause, and soon after the Restoration, 
on the 22nd February 1661-62, he was granted a 
warrant to search for and seize unlicensed presses 
and seditious books (State Papers, Charles II, 
Vol. li. No- 6). A. list is still extant of books which 
he had seized at the office of John Hayes, one of 
the signatories of the above petition. So that 
although the office of Surveyor of the Press was 
not officially created until 1663, it is clear from 
the issue of the warrant, and also from the fact 

170 English Printing 

of L'Estrange having been directed to draw up 
proposals for the regulation of the Press, that he 
was acting in that capacity more than a twelve- 
month earlier. His proposals were, in 1663, printed 
in pamphlet form with the title, Considerations 
and Proposals in order to the Regulation of the Press, 
and were dedicated to the King, and also to the 
House of Lords ; and they contain much that is 
interesting. He states that hundreds of thousands 
of seditious papers had been allowed to go abroad 
since the King's return, and that there had been 
printed ten or twelve impressions of Farewell 
Sermons, to the number of thirty thousand, since 
the Act of Uniformity, adding that the very persons 
who had the care of the Press (i.e. the Company 
of Stationers) had connived at its abuse. In sup- 
port of this statement he pointed out that Pres- 
byterian pamphlets were rarely suppressed, that 
rich offenders were passed over, and scarcely any 
of those who were caught were ever brought to 
justice. He gives the number of printers then at 
work in London as sixty, the number of appren- 
tices about a hundred and sixty, besides a large 
number of journeymen; and he proposed at once 
to reduce the number of printers to twenty, with 
a corresponding reduction of apprentices and 
journeymen. As this would throw a large number 
of men out of work, he further proposed a scheme 
for the relief of necessitous and supernumerary 
printers. He calculated that the twelve impres- 

From 1640 to 1700 171 

sions of the Farewell Sermons, allowing a thousand 
copies to each impression, had yielded a profit, 
* beside the charge of paper and printing/ of 3300, 
and he advised that this sum should be levied as 
a fine upon those booksellers who had sold the 
book, and be placed to a fund for the benefit of the 
suppressed printers, the balance of the sum re- 
quired to be levied on other seditious publica- 
tions ! 

In this pamphlet L'Estrange gave the titles of 
most of the pamphlets to which he objected, with 
brief extracts from them, and the names of the 
printers and publishers, amongst whom were 
Thomas Brewster, Giles Calvert, Simon Dover, 
and one other, whose name is not mentioned, but 
who is referred to as holding a highly profitable 
office. The reference may be to Thomas New- 

At pages 26 and 27 L'Estrange notices the peti- 
tion of certain of the printers to be incorporated 
as a separate body. He says * that it were a hard 
matter to pick out twenty master printers, who 
are both free of the trade, of ability to manage it, 
and of integrity to be entrusted with it, most of 
the honester sort being impoverished by the late 
times, and the great business of the press being 
engross'd by Oliver's creatures/ He admits that 
the Company of Stationers and Booksellers are 
largely responsible for the great increase of presses, 
being anxious to have their books printed as cheaply 

172 Eng.isji Printing 

as possible, but thinks that there would be as much 
abuse of power among incorporated printers as 
among the Company of Stationers. 

The Act of 1662, which was mainly based on 
L'Estrange's report, was in a large measure a re- 
enactment of the Star Chamber decree of 1636. 
The number of printers in London was limited to 
twenty, the type-founders to four, and the other 
clauses of the earlier decree were reinforced, but 
with one notable concession. Hitherto printing 
outside London had been restricted to the two 
Universities, but in the new Act the city of York 
was expressly mentioned as a place where printing 
might be carried on. 

This new Act was enforced for a time with even 
greater severity than the old one, and under it 
a printer suffered the death penalty for the liberty 
of the press. 

The story of the trial and condemnation of John 
Twyn is told in vol. 6 of Cobbett's State Trials, 
and was also published in pamphlet form with the 
title, An exact narrative of the Tryal and condem- 
nation of John Twyn, for Printing and Dispersing 
of a Treasonable Book, With the Tryals of Thomas 
Brewster, bookseller, Simon Dover, printer, Nathan 
Brooks, bookseller . . . in the Old Bayly, London* 
the 20th and 22nd February i66|-. 

John Twyn was a small printer in Cloth Fair, 
and his crime was that of printing a pamphlet 
entitled A Treatise of the Execution of Justice, in 

From 1640 to 1700 173 

which, as it was alleged, there were several pas- 
sages aimed at the King's life and the overthrow 
of the Government. It was further stated by the 
prosecution that the pamphlet was part of a plot 
for a general rebellion that was to have taken 
effect on the I2th October 1662. The chief wit- 
nesses against Twyn were Joseph Walker, his 
apprentice, Sir Roger L'Estrange, and Thomas 
Mabb, a printer. Their evidence went to show 
that Twyn had two presses ; that he composed 
part of the book, printed some of the sheets, and 
corrected the proofs, the work being done secretly 
at night-time. On entering the premises it was 
found that the forme of type had been broken up, 
only one corner of it remaining standing, and that 
the printed sheets had been hurriedly thrown down 
some stairs. In defence Twyn declared that he 
had received the copy from Widow Calvert's maid, 
and had received 405. on account, with more to 
follow on completion, and he stoutly asserted that 
he did not know the nature of the work. The 
jury, amongst whom were Richard Royston and 
Simon Waterson, booksellers, and James Fletcher 
and Thomas Roycroft, printers, returned a verdict 
of Guilty, and Twyn was condemned to death and 
executed at Tyburn. 

The charge against Simon Dover was of printing 
the pamphlet entitled The Speeches of some of the 
late King's Justices, which we have already seen 
that Roger L'Estrange had seized in John Hayes' 

174 English Printing 

premises, while Thomas Brewster was accused of 
causing this and another pamphlet, entitled The 
Ph&nix of the Solemn League and Covenant, to be 
printed. In defence, Thomas Brewster declared 
that booksellers did not read the books they sold ; 
so long as they could earn a penny they were satis- 
fied an argument that had been used more than 
a century before by old Robert Copland as an 
excuse for indifferent printing. Both Dover and 
Brewster were condemned to pay a fine of 100 
marks, to stand in the pillory, and to remain 
prisoners during the King's pleasure. Sir Roger 
L'Estrange, as a reward for his services, was ap- 
pointed Surveyor of the Press, with permission to 
publish a news-sheet of his own, and liberty to 
harass the printers as much as possible. 

But far greater calamities than the malice of 
Sir Roger L'Estrange could devise fell upon the 
printing trade by the outbreak of the Plague in 
1665, and the subsequent Fire of London. In a 
letter written by L'Estrange to Lord Arlington, 
and dated i6th October 1665, he stated that eighty 
of the printers had died of the Plague (Cal. of 5. P. 
1665-66, p. 20), in which total he evidently included 
workmen as well as masters. The loss occasioned 
by the stoppage of trade and flight of the citizens 
must have been enormous, and yet it was slight in 
comparison to that inflicted upon the trade by the 
burning of London, Curiously enough, there are 
very few records showing the effect of this second 

From 1640 to 1700 175 

disaster upon the printing trade. We find a peti- 
tion by Christopher Barker, the King's printer, to 
be allowed to import paper free of charge in con- 
sequence of his loss by the Fire, and the same 
indulgence is granted to the Stationers' Company 
as a body and the Universities ; but there are no 
notes of individual losses, and only one or two 
references to MSS. that were destroyed in it. On 
the 24th of July 1668 a return was made of all 
the printing-houses in London, which shows at a 
glance who had survived and who had suffered by 
that terrible calamity (see Appendix I). 

Comparing this list with that of 1649, we find 
that only eight London printers were actually 
ruined by the Fire, among them being John Hayes, 
John Brudenell, and also Alice Warren. 

Another interesting paper, written in the same 
year, and preserved in the same volume of State 
Papers, 1 shows the position of every man in the 
trade. This is headed 

A Survey of the Printing Presses with the names 
and numbers of Apprentices, Officers, and Worke- 
men belonging to every particular press. Taken 
29 July 1668. (See Appendix II.) 

The largest employer was James Fletcher, who 
kept five presses, and employed thirteen workmen 
and two apprentices. Next to him came Thomas 
Newcomb, with three presses and a proof press, 
twelve workmen and one apprentice; John May- 

1 Dom* S. P. t Cfas+ //, vol. 243, p. 181. 

176 English Printing 

cocke, with three presses, ten workmen and three 
apprentices ; and then Roycroft, with four presses, 
ten workmen and two apprentices; while at the 
other end of the scale was Thomas Leach, with one 
press, not his own, and one workman. 

Whether L'Estrange carried out his threat of 
prosecuting the three men who had set up since 
the Act, we do not know, but one of their number, 
John Darby, continued to work for many years 
after this, and was the printer of Andrew MarvelTs 
Rehearsal Transposed, and a good deal else that 
galled the Government. In fact, the Act of 1662 
was openly ignored, and new men set up presses 
every year. 

But of all this work it is almost impossible to 
trace what was done by individual printers. The 
bulk of the publications of the time bore the book- 
seller's name only, and it is very rarely that the 
printer is revealed. Newcomb had the printing 
of the Gazette, and also printed most of Dryden's 
works that were published by Herringman ; while 
Roycroft, as we have seen, printed the Polyglot 
Bible, and he was also the printer of the splendid 
series of classics published at this time by John 
Ogilby. Another printer of this period who de- 
serves notice was E. Horton, who in 1679 printed 
for a syndicate of booksellers in London folio 
editions of Cicero and Herodotus, for which the 
type was cast by James Grover, and which may 
rank with the best work of that day. Milton's 

From 1640 to 1700 177 

Paradise Lost came from the press of Peter Parker ; 
but the printer of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress is 
unknown to us. 

There were only three foundries of note in London 
during this time. The first of the three was that 
of Joseph Moxon, who, in 1659, added type-found- 
ing to his other callings of mathematician and 
hydrographer. Having spent some years in Hol- 
land, he was very much enamoured of the Dutch 
types, and in 1676 he wrote a book entitled Regulce 
Trium Ordinum Literarum Typographicarum, in 
which he endeavoured to prove that each letter 
should be cast in exact mathematical proportion, 
and illustrated his theory by several letters cast 
in that manner. Similiar theories had been pro- 
pounded in earlier days by Albert Durer and the 
French printer, Geoffrey Tory, but no improve- 
ment in printing ever resulted from them. 

Moxon's foundry was fitted with a large assort- 
ment of letter, but his work, judging from the 
examples left to us, was certainly not up to the 
theory which he put forward, and he is best re- 
membered for his useful work on printing, which 
formed the second part of his Mechanick Exercises, 
and was published in 1683. In this he showed 
an intimate knowledge of every branch of printing 
and type-founding, and his book is still a standard 
work on both these subjects. Moxon retired from 
business some years before his death, and was 
succeeded in 1683 by Joseph and Robert Andrews, 

178 Englisli Printing 

who, in addition to Moxon's founts, had a large 
assortment of others, t Their foundry was par- 
ticularly rich in Roman and italic, and the learned 
founts, and they also had matrices of Anglo-Saxon 
and Irish. But their work was not by any means 

The third of these letter foundries was that of 
James and Thomas Grover in Angel Alley, Alders- 
gate Street, who after Moxon's retirement shared 
with Andrews the whole of the English trade. The 
most notable founts in their possession were, a 
pica and longprimer Roman, from the Royal Press 
at Blackfriars, Day's double pica Roman and 
italic, and two good founts of black letter, reputed 
to have formed part of the stock of Wynkyn do 
Worde. They also had the English Samaritan 
matrices from which the type for Walton's Poly- 
glott in 1657 had been cast. 

Among the types belonging to this foundry was 
one which, in the inventory, was returned as New 
Coptic, but which was in reality a Greek uncial 
fount, cut for the specimen of the Codex Alex- 
andrinus which Patrick Young proposed to print, 
but did not live to accomplish. The specimen 
was printed in 1643, and consisted of the first chapter 
of Genesis. It is supposed that this fount remained 
unknown, under the title of New Coptic, until 
1758, when the Grover foundry passed into the 
hands of John James. On the death of Thomas 
Grover, the foundry remained in possession of his 

From 1640 to 1700 179 

daughters, who endeavoured to sell it, but without 
success, and it remained locked up for many years 
in the premises of Richard Nutt, a printer, until 
1758 (Reed, Old English Letter Foundries, p. 205). 

After a lapse of twenty years, the Act of 1662 was 
renewed by the first parliament of James II (1685) 
for a period of seven years, and at the expiration 
of that time, i.e. in 1692, it was renewed for 
another twelvemonth, after which we hear no more 
of it. There is no evidence that it had been very 
strictly enforced during its short revival ; in fact 
it is clear, from the number of presses found in 
various parts of the country during the last five 
and twenty years of the century, that it had re- 
mained practically a dead letter from the time of 
the Great Fire. 

Returning now to the provinces, we find that 
the troubles of the Civil War had suspended for 
a time all progress in printing at Oxford. But 
on the Restoration it made even greater advances 
than it had done at an earlier period of its history. 
Archbishop Laud had a worthy successor in Dr. 
John Fell, who in 1667 enriched the University 
Dy a gift of a complete type-foundry, consisting 
of punches, matrices, and founts of Roman, italic, 
Orientals, ' Saxons,' and black letter, besides moulds 
and other necessary appliances for the production 
of type. Dr, Fell also introduced a skilled letter- 
founder from Holland. For a couple of years the 
foundry and printing office were carried on in 

180 English Printing 

private premises hired by Fell, but upon the com- 
pletion of the Sheldonian Theatre the printing 
office was removed to the basement of that building, 
the first book bearing the Theatre imprint being 
An Ode in praise of the Theatre and its Founder, 
printed in 1669. 

Another scholarly benefactor, Francis Junius, 
presented the University in 1677 with a splendid 
collection of type, consisting of Runic, Gothic, 
'Saxon/ 'Islandic/ Danish, and * Swedish/ as 
well as founts of Roman, italic, and other sorts. 
Mr. Horace Hart, the Controller of the Clarendon 
Press, gave examples of several of the founts, in 
his Notes on a Century of Typography at the Uni- 
versity Press, Oxford, printed for private circulation 
in 1900. 

Very little use seems to have been made of these 
gifts before the commencement of the succeeding 
century. The first Bible printed at Oxford was 
that of 1674, and no important editions of the 
classics issued from the University press of this 

In Cambridge, Roger Daniel, who, down to 1640, 
was in partnership with Thomas Buck, continued 
to be the chief printer of that University until 
June i, 1650, when his patent was cancelled for 
neglect, but he continued to print books in London 
down to 1666. 

On October 12, 1655, John Field was appointed 
printer to th<* University. He printed many 

From 1640 to 1700 181 

editions of the Bible, and built a new printing 
office in Silver Street, which continued to be the 
University Printing Office until 1827. In 1668 
he was succeeded by John Hayes, who issued 
some notable books, such as Robertson's Thesaurus, 
1676, 4to, and Barnes' History of Edward III, 
1688, 4to. 

The history of other provincial presses of this 
period is very meagre. Mr. Allnutt, to whose 
valuable papers in the second volume of Biblio- 
graphica I am indebted for the following notes, 
expresses the belief that in several cases local 
knowledge would show that presses were at work 
some years earlier than the dates he has given. 

At the time of the Civil War, Robert Barker, 
the King's printer, had in 1639 been commanded 
to attend His Majesty in his march against the 
Scots. As Robert Barker was then in prison, it 
is clear that he could not have obeyed the order, 
but his son-in-law, John Legate, appears to have 
acted as his deputy on this occasion, and printed 
several proclamations, news-sheets, &c., at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, all of which bear Robert's imprint 
as King's printer. At York, where some thirty- 
nine different sheets, &c., have been traced from 
his press, it was Robert's son, Christopher Barker 
the third, who took presses and workmen to that 
city, and probably also to Nottingham, Shrews- 
bury, and Bristol, in 1642 and 1643. In 1642 a 
second press was at work in York, that of Stephen 

1 82 English Printing 

Bulkley who had fled from London. When York 
fell into the hands of the Parliament, Bulkley 's 
press was silent for a while, and his place was 
taken by Thomas Broad, who printed there from 
1644 to 1660, and was succeeded by his widow, 
Alice, who disappears in 1667. After the Restora- 
tion, Bulkley again set up his press at York, where 
he continued down to 1680. 

In 1645 Thomas Fuller issued, in small duo- 
decimo, a collection of pious thoughts, which he 
aptly termed Good Thoughts in Bad Times, and 
in the Dedication to it expressly stated that it 
was c the first fruits of the Exeter presse.' There 
was no printer's name in the volume, and no other 
work printed in Exeter at that time is known. 
In 1688, however, another press was started there, 
and printed several political broadsides relative to 
the Prince of Orange. And again, in 1698, a small 
pamphlet was printed in this city. 

Stephen Bulkley, the York printer, appears to 
have gone from that city to Newcastle in 1646, 
and continued printing there until 1652. He then 
removed to Gateshead, where he remained until 
after the Restoration, subsequently returning to 
Newcastle, and so back to York. No more is 
heard of printing in Newcastle until the opening 
of the eighteenth century. 

A press was established in Bristol in the year 
1695, and in Plymouth and Shrewsbury in the 
year 1696. 

From 1640 to 1700 183 

In America the progress of printing was very 
slow throughout the seventeenth century. Until 
1660, Samuel Green, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
remained the only printer in the colony. But in 
that year the Corporation for the propagation of 
the Gospel in New England among the Indians 
sent over from London another press, a large supply 
of good letter, and a printer named Marmaduke 
Johnson, for the purpose of printing an edition of 
the Bible in the Indian tongue. This press was 
set up in the same building as that in which Green 
was already at work, and the two printers seem 
to have worked together at the production of the 
Bible, which appeared in quarto form in 1663, the 
New Testament having been published two years 
earlier. Johnson died in the year 1675, but Samuel 
Green continued to print until 1702. After his 
death the press at Cambridge was silent for some 

In 1675 a press was established at Boston by 
John Foster, a graduate of Harvard College, under 
a licence from the College. Besides the official 
work of the colony and theological literature, he 
printed several pamphlets on the war between the 
English and the Indians. He died in 1681, when 
he was succeeded by Samuel Green, junior, who con- 
tinued printing there until 1690. In the following 
year three printers' names are found in the im- 
prints of books : R. Pierce, Benjamin Harris, and 
John Allen. Benjamin Harris is afterwards called 

184 English Printing 

'Printer to his Excellency, the Governor and 
Council/ but in 1693 Harris removed from 'over 
against the Old Meeting House, ' to ' the Bible over 
against the Blew Anchor/ and another printer, 
Bartholomew Green, seems to have shared with 
him the official work. 

Pennsylvania was the next of the colonies to 
establish a press ; its first printer, William Brad- 
ford, setting up there in 1685, in which year he 
printed Kalendanwn Pennsilvaniense, or, America's 
Messinger, Being an Almanack for the Year of Grace 

In 1688 Bradford issued proposals for printing 
a large Bible (Hildeburn, Issues of the Pennsyl- 
vania Press, vol. i. p. 9), but they came to nothing. 
In 1692 he printed several pamphlets for George 
Keith, the leader of the schism among the Quakers, 
and for this he was imprisoned. On his release 
he removed to New York. A press was also set 
up in Virginia in 1682, but was suppressed, and 
no printing allowed there until 1729. The name 
of the printer is not known, but is believed to 
have been William Nuthead, who set up a press 
in Maryland in 1689 with a similar result. 

The first printer in New York was William 
Bradford, who began work there on the loth April 
1693. Among his most famous publications before 
the close of the seventeenth century was Keith's 
Truth Advanced, a quarto of 224 pages, printed 
on paper manufactured at his own mill and issued 

From 1640 to 1700 185 

in 1694 ; in the same year he also printed The 
Laws and Acts of the General Assembly. 


List of several! printing houses taken y 6 24th July 
1668 : 

The Kings printing office in English. 

The Kings printing office in Hebrew, Greek, and 

Latine. Roger Norton. 
The Kings printer in y e Oriental tongues. Thomas 

Collonell John Streater by an especiall provisoe 

in y e Act. [The same who in 1653 had been 

committed to the Gatehouse for printing 

seditious pamphlets.] 

The other Masters are : 

Mr. Evan Tyler. Mr. Thomas Johnson. 

Robert White. Nath Crouch. 

James Flesher. Thomas Purslowe. 

Richard Hodgkinson. Peter Lillicrapp. 

Thomas Ratliffe. Thomas Leach. 

John Maycocke. Henry Lloyd. 

John Field. Thomas Milboume. 

Thomas Newcomb. James CottrelL 

William Godbid. Andrew Coe. 

John Redman. . a , Henry Bridges. 

Widdowes of printers : 

Mrs, Sarah Gryffyth. Mrs. Anne Maxwell. 

Cotes. .... 

Simmons, Custome house printer, 

1 86 English Printing 

Printers y* wore Masters at y e passeing of y e Act w rh 
are disabled by y e fire : 

Mr. John Brudenall. Mr, Lcybourne. 

Hayes. Wood. 

Child. Vaughaa. 

Warren. Ouseley. 

Printers set up since y e Act and contrary to it : 

Mr. William Rawlins. Mr. John Darby. 

John Winter. Edward Oakes. 

(Dom. S. P. Chas. //, vol. 243, No. 126.) 



At the King's House , 6 Presses, 

8 Compositors, 
10 Pressmen. 

At Mr. Tyler's . , 3 Presses and a Proof 


1 Apprentice, 

6 Workmen. 
At Mr. White's . , 3 Presses, 

3 Apprentices, 

7 Workmen, 
At Mr. Flesher's . , 5 Presses, 

2 Apprentices, 
13 Workmen. 

At Mr. Norton's . , 3 Presses, 

i Apprentice, 

7 Workmen. 


From 1640 to 1700 187 

At Mr. Rycroft's [Roy- 

At Mr. Ratcliffe's 

At Mr. Maycock's 

At Mr. Newcombe's 

At Mr. Godbidd's . 

At Mr. Streater's 

At Mr. Milbourne's . 

At Mr. Catterell's [Cot- 
trell ?] 

At Mrs. Symond's , . 
it Mrs, Cotes . 

4 Presses, 

2 Apprentices, 
10 Workmen [three of 
whom were not free 
of the Company]. 

2 Presses, 

2 Apprentices, 
7 Workmen. 

3 Presses, 

3 Apprentices, 
10 Workmen. 
3 Presses and a Proof 

1 Apprentice, 

7 Compositors, 
5 Pressmen. 
3 Presses, 

2 Apprentices, 
5 Workmen. 

5 Presses, 

6 Compositors, 
2 Pressmen. 

2 Presses, 
o Apprentices, 
2 Workmen. 
2 Presses, 

2 Compositors, 

1 Pressman. 

2 Presses, 

1 Apprentice, 
5 Workmen. 

3 Presses, 

2 Apprentices, 
9 Pressmen. 

1 88 English Printing 

At Mrs. Griffin's 

At Mr. Leach's 

At Mr. Maxwell's 

At Mr- Lillicropp's . 

At Mr. Redman's 

At Mr. Cowes [Coe's ?] 
At Mr. Lloyd's 
At Mr. Oake's . 

At Mr. Purslowe's 

At Mr. Johnson's 

Mr. Darby 
Mr. Winter 
Mr. Rawlyns 
At Mr. Crouch's 

2 Presses, 
i Apprentice, 
6 Workmen. 
i Press and no more pro- 
vided by Mr. Graydon, 

1 Workman. 

2 Presses, 


3 Compositors, 

3 Pressmen. 

1 Press, 

i Apprentice, 
i Compositor, 

1 Pressman. 

2 Presses, 

1 Apprentice, 

4 Compositors, 

2 Pressmen. 
i Press. 

1 Press. 

2 Presses, 

2 Workmen. 

1 Press, 


1 Workman. 

2 Presses, 


3 Workmen. 

These three printers are 
to be indicted at y e next 

1 Press, 


1 Workman. 


FROM 1700 TO 1750 


HAVING to some extent shaken itself free from the 
cramping influences of monopolies and State in- 
terference, the output of the English printing 
press at the commencement of the eighteenth 
century had almost doubled that of thirty or forty 
years before, and presses were now at work in 
various parts of the kingdom. But the long period 
of thraldom had resulted in completely destroying 
all originality amongst the printers, and almost 
in the destruction of the art of letter-founding. 
With the exception of the University of Oxford, 
which, owing to the generous bequests of Bishop 
Fell and others, was well supplied with good founts, 
the printers of this country were compelled to obtain 
their type from Holland, and all the best and most 
important books published in Queen Anne's days 
were printed with Dutch letter, as it was called. 
Jacob Tonson is said to have spent some 300 in 
obtaining this foreign letter, and one important 
English foundry, that of Thomas James, was almost 
wholly stocked with these foreign founts. Yet 
this Dutch letter was by no means easy to get, and 

experience of James, who in 1710 went to 


1 90 English Printing 

Holland for the purpose, bore out what Moxon 
had said in his Mechanick Exercises, that the art 
of letter-cutting was jealously guarded by those 
who practised it. Some of the Dutch type-founders 
refused to sell him types on any terms, and it was 
only by getting hold of a man who was more fond 
of his liquor than his trade, that James was able 
to get matrices, for even this individual refused 
to sell his punches. Nor was the vendor in any 
hurry to part with the matrices, and it cost James 
much money, time, and patience before he was 
able to secure them. Writing from Rotterdam 
on the 27th July in that year, he says : 

* The beauty of letters, like that of faces, is as people opine, 
... all the Romans excel what we have in England, in my 
opinion, and I hope, being well wrought, I mean cast, will gain 
the approbation of very handsome letters. The Italic I do not 
look upon to be unhandsome, though the Dutch are never very 
extraordinary in them.' 

James returned to England with 3500 matrices 
of various founts of Roman and italics, as well as 
sets of Greek and some black letter. He set up his 
foundry in a part of the buildings belonging to the 
Priory of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, and it 
continued to be the most important in London until 
the days of Caslon. The proportion of Dutch to 
English types in the printing offices at that time is 
well illustrated by the valuable list of the types 
possessed by John Baskett, the Royal printer at 
Oxford, in the year 1718. The Royal printing- 
house was perhaps the largest and most lucrative 

From 1700 to 1750 191 

office in the kingdom. For upwards of a century it 
bad been owned by the descendants of Christopher 
Barker, from whom it had passed to Messrs. New- 
combe, Hill, Mearne, and others. From these the 
patent was bought in 1709 by John Baskett, of whose 
antecedents nothing is known. In addition to the 
business at Blackfriars, Baskett, in conjunction 
with John Williams and Samuel Ashurst, obtained 
a lease from the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars 
of Oxford University of their privilege of printing 
for twenty-one years. From an indenture in the 
possession of Mr. J. H. Round, the substance of 
which he communicated to the Athencsum of 5th Sep- 
tember 1885, it appears that on the 24th December 
1718 Baskett gave a bond to James Brooks, stationer 
of London, for a loan of 4000, and for security 
mortgaged his stock, which was set out in a schedule 
as follows : 

' An Account of the Letter, Presses, and other Stock and 
Implements of and in the Printing house at Oxford, 
belonging to John Baskett, citizen and stationer of 

1. A large flfbunt of Perle letter cast by M r Andrews, 

2. A large fount of Nonp 1 Letter new cast by ditto. 

3. Another ffount of Nonp 1 Letter, old, the which standing 

and sett up in a ConVon prayer in 24 compleat. 

4. A large ffount of Min* Letter new cast by M r Andrews. 

5. Another large ffbunt of Min n Letter, new cast in Holland. 

6. The whole Testament standing in Brev r and Min" Letter, 


7. A large ffount of Brev T Letter, new cast in Holland, 

192 Englisn Printing 

8. A very large ffount of Lo: Primer Letter, new cast by 

M r Andrew. 

9. A large ffount of pica Letter very good, cast by ditto. 

10. Another large ffount of ditto, never used, cast in Holland. 

11. A small quantity of English, new cast by M r Andrews. 

12. A small quantity of Great Prim r new cast by ditto. 

13. A very large ffount of Double Pica, new, the largest in 


14. A quantity of two-line English letters. 

15. A quantity of French Cannon, two-line letters of all 

sorts, and a set of silver initial letters. Cases, stands, 
etc. Five printing presses very good. 

John Basket! is chiefly remembered for the magni- 
ficent edition of the Bible which he printed in 1716- 
1717, in two volumes imperial folio, and which from 
an error in the headline of the 20th chapter of St. 
Luke, where the parable of the Vineyard was 
rendered as the ' parable of the Vinegar/ has ever 
since been known as the 'Vinegar Bible/ This slip 
was only one of many faults in the edition, which 
earned for it the title of * A Baskett-full of printer's 
errors/ But apart from these errors, the book was 
a very splendid specimen of the printer's art, and has 
been described as the most magnificent of the Oxford 
Bibles. The type, double pica Roman and italic, 
was beautifully cut, and was that which is de- 
scribed in the above list as the c largest in England/ 
It was clearly not one of the founts belonging to the 
University, for, had it been, Baskett would have had 
no power to mortgage it. It is also noticeable that 
it was not described as ' cast in Holland, ' as many of 
the others were, so we may infer that it was cast in 

trom 1700 to 1750 193 

England, and an interesting question arises, by 
whom ? Clearly it was not cast by Mr. Andrews, 
or Baskett would have said so. 

During a great part of his life, Baskett was en- 
gaged in litigation over his monopoly of Bible 
printing, and in spite of the large profits attached 
to it, he became bankrupt in 1732. Further trouble 
fell upon him in 1738 by the destruction of his 
office by fire. He died on 22nd June 1742. At 
one period he had been in danger of losing his 
patent altogether, for Queen Anne was induced by 
Lord Bolingbroke and others to constitute Benja- 
min Tooke and John Barber to be Royal printers in 
reversion, in anticipation of the ending of Baskett 's 
lease in 1739 ; but Baskett purchased this reversion 
from Barber, and afterwards obtained a renewal of his 
patent for sixty years, the last thirty of which were 
subsequently acquired by Charles Eyre for 10,000. 

John Barber, who for a time held the reversion 
of Baskett 's patent,*was the only printer who has 
ever held the high office of Lord Mayor of London, 
and for this reason among others he deserves a brief 
notice. He was born of poor parents in 1675, and 
according to one account was greatly helped in 
early life by Elkanah Settle, the city poet. 

He was apprenticed to Mrs. Clark, a printer in 
Thames Street, and set up for himself in 1700. His 
first printing-house was in Queen's Head Alley, 
whence he soon afterwards moved to Lambeth Hill, 
near Old Fish Street. 

194 English Printing 

Accounts differ as to his first work. Curll, in his 
Impartial History of the Life, Character, &c., of Mr. 
John Barber (London, 1741), says that the alderman 
himself stated that the first fifty pounds he could 
call his own were earned by printing a pamphlet 
written by Charles D'Avenant ; while in the Life 
and Character, another pamphlet printed in the 
same year for T. Cooper, it is said that it was 
Defoe's Diet of Poland which brought him the first 
money he laid up. It is also said that he was 
greatly indebted to Dean Swift for his rapid ad- 

By whatever means it was accomplished, Barber 
was introduced to Henry St. John, afterwards Lord 
Bolingbroke, and was engaged as printer to the 
Ministry, his printing-house becoming the meeting- 
place of the statesmen, poets, and wits of the day. 
Barber was himself a genial companion and hard 
drinker, who spent his money freely, and in this 
way made many friends. He printed for Dean 
Swift, for Pope, Matthew Prior, and Dr. King, and 
was also the printer of nearly all the writings of 
the versatile and unhappy Mrs. Manley. 

At the time of the South Sea scheme Barber took 
large shares, and, it is said, amassed a considerable 
fortune before the bubble burst. But he was in- 
debted mainly to the patronage of Lord Boling- 
broke for his success as a printer. Through that 
statesman he obtained the contract for printing the 
votes of the House of Commons, and by the same 

From 1700 to 1750 195 

influence he became printer of the London Gazette, 
The Examiner, and Mercator, printer to the City of 
London, and finally received from the Queen the 
reversion of the office of Royal printer, which he 
soon after relinquished to Baskett for 1500. 

Elected as alderman of Baynard Castle ward, 
Barber filled the office of Sheriff, and in 1733 be- 
came Lord Mayor of the City of London. As Lord 
Mayor, he gained great popularity from his opposi- 
tion to the Excise Bill, and by permitting persons 
tried and acquitted at the Old Bailey to be dis- 
charged without any fees. He died on the 22nd 
January 1740. 

Much amusement, not altogether unmixed with 
uneasiness, was caused in the printing trade between 
1727 and 1740 by a futile attempt to introduce 
stereotyping. A Scotch printer having jcomplained 
to a goldsmith in Edinburgh of the vexatious delays 
and inconvenience of having to send to London or 
Holland for type, it occurred to William Ged, the 
goldsmith in question, that the transition from 
founding single letters to founding whole pages 
should not be difficult. He made several experi- 
ments, and at length satisfied himself that his 
scheme was practicable. In 1727 he entered into 
a contract with an Edinburgh printer to carry out 
the invention, but after two years his partner 
withdrew, being alarmed at the probable cost. 
Ged next entered into partnership with William 
Fenner, a stationer in London, by whom he was 

1 96 English Printing 

introduced to Thomas James, the founder, and a 
company was formed, in July 1729, to work the 
scheme. But James, perhaps influenced by the 
representations of his 'compositors,' whom the 
new invention threatened with the loss of work, 
instead of helping, did his utmost to ruin the under- 
taking and its inventor. Instead of supplying the 
best and newest type from which the matrices might 
be made, he furnished the worst, whilst his work- 
men damaged the formes. Much the same hap- 
pened at Cambridge, where Ged was for a time 
installed as printer to the University. He struggled 
against the opposition so far as to produce two 
Prayer Books, but such was the animosity shown 
to the new invention, that the books were sup- 
pressed by authority, and the plates broken up. 

To add further to his troubles, dissension broke out 

between James and Fenner, and, disheartened and 
ruined, he returned to Edinburgh. There another 
attempt was made by his friends to produce a book, 
but no compositor could be found to set up the 
type, and it was only by Ged's son working at night 
that the edition of Salhtst, and a few theological 
books, were finished and printed at Newcastle. 
Ged died in 1749, and his sons subsequently emi- 
grated to the West Indies. 

Next to the King's printing-house, the press of 
which we have the most accurate knowledge at this 
time was that of William Bowyer, the elder and the 
younger. The seven volumes of Nichols' Literary 

From 1700 to 1750 197 

Anecdotes give a complete record oi the work of 
this printing-house, and from them the following 
brief account has been taken. William Bowyer, the 
elder, had been apprentice to Miles Flessher, and 
was admitted to the freedom of the Company of 
Stationers on 4th October 1686. He started busi- 
ness on his own account in Little Britain in 1699, 
with a pamphlet of ninety-six pages on the Eikon 
Basilike controversy. He afterwards moved into 
White Friars, where, on the night of 2gth January 
1712, his printing-office was burned to the ground; 
among the works that perished in the flames being 
almost the whole impression of Atkyn's History of 
Gloucestershire, Sir Roger L'Estrange's Josephus, 
* printed with a fine Elzevir letter never used be- 
fore ' ; the fifteenth volume of Rymer's Fcedera ; 
Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, and an old book, of 
Monarchy, by Sir John Fortescue, in c Saxon/ with 
notes upon it, printed on an s extraordinary paper ' 
(Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 56). This short 
list of notable works proves that Bowyer had a flour- 
ishing business at the time of the catastrophe. A sub- 
scription was at once raised for his relief, and 1162 
subscribed by the booksellers and printers in a very 
short time. A royal brief was also granted to him for 
the same purposes, and by this he received i377> 
making a grand total of 2539, with which he began 
business anew. Tn remembrance of his misfortune, 
Bowyer had several tail-pieces and devices engraved, 
representing a phcenix rising from the flames. 


198 English Printing 

In 1715 Bowyer the elder printed Miss Elstob's 
Anglo-Saxon Grammar. The types for this were 
cut by Robert Andrews from drawings made by 
Humphrey Wanley, and were given to the printer 
by Lord Chief-Justice Parker. But these types 
were very indifferently cut. Wanley himself said 
'when the alphabet came into the hands of the 
workman (who was but a blunderer) he could not 
imitate the fine and regular stroke of the pen ; so 
that the letters are not only clumsy, but unlike 
those that I drew/ 

In 1721 Bowyer printed an edition of Bishop Bull's 
Latin works in folio, but lost 200 by the impression. 
The following year his son, William Bowyer the 
younger, joined him in the business. 

The younger Bowyer had received a University 
education, although he never succeeded in taking a 
degree. He was, however, a highly cultivated man, 
and employed his pen in many of the controversies 
of the time, writing Remarks on Mr. Bowman's Visi- 
tation Sermon in 1731, and on Stephens' Thesaurus 
in 1733, and in 1744 a pamphlet on the Present State 
of Europe. But at the beginning of his connection 
with the printing-house, he was mainly concerned 
in reading the proofs of the learned works entrusted 
to his father for printing, and though towards the 
latter end of the elder Bowyer 's days the son may 
have taken a more active part in the practical work, 
as we read of his appointment as printer of the 
votes in the House of Commons in 1729, and as 

From 1700 to 1750 199 

printer to the Society of Antiquaries in 1736, it was 
not until his father's death, in 1737, that the sole 
management of the business devolved upon him. 

One of the earliest works upon which the younger 
Bowyer was employed as ' reader ' was Dr. Wil- 
kins' editon of Selden's Works, printed by Bowyer 
the elder in six folio volumes in 1722. The publica- 
tion of this book marks an era in the history of 
English printing, for the types with which it was 
printed were cut by William Caslon. 

This famous type-founder, who by his skill raised 
the art of printing to a higher level than it had 
reached since the days of John Day, was born at 
Cradley, near Hales Owen in Shropshire. We are 
indebted for his biography partly to Bowyer and 
partly to Nichols, but it must be confessed that the 
earlier part of it is vague and unconvincing. Ac- 
cording to this oft-quoted story, Caslon began life 
as an engraver of gun-locks, and made blocking 
tools for binders. This was somewhere about 1716, 
in which year it is said John Watts, the printer, 
became his patron, and employed him to cut type 
punches. Bowyer became acquainted with him 
from seeing some specimen of his lettering on a 
book, and took him to the foundry of James, in 
Bartholomew Close. Bowyer next advanced him 
some money, as also did Watts, and with these loans 
he set up for himself, his first essay in type-founding 
being a fount of Arabic for the Psalter published by 
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Know- 

2oo English Printing 

ledge. When he had finished the Arabic, i.e. some- 
where about 1724 or 1725, he cut his own name in 
Roman type and placed it at the foot of the speci- 
men. This attracted the notice of Samuel Palmer, 
the author of a very unreliable History of Print- 
ing, and with Palmer, Caslon worked for some 
time, but at length transferred his services to 
William Bowyer, for whom he cut the types of the 
' Selden.' 

It is almost impossible to place any reliance upon 
so vague and inconclusive a biography as this. 
There was a belief in the Caslon family that he 
began letter-cutting before 1720, and the equally 
vague traditions which point to a later date need 
not make us treat this as impossible. 

Was his the unknown hand that cut the double- 
pica type which Baskett used in printing the 
4 Vinegar ' Bible in 1716-17 ? A close examina- 
tion of the types used in that Bible, those used 
in printing the folio edition of Pope's Iliad, and 
those of the ' Selden,' reveals a striking resem- 
blance, especially in the form of the italic letter, 
and at least makes it clear that if the two first- 
mentioned works were printed with Dutch letter, 
then it was on the best form of that letter that 
Caslon modelled his types. 

The charm of Caslon's Roman letter lay in its 
wonderful regularity as well as in the shape and 
proportion of the letters. In this respect it was a 
worthy successor to the best Aldine founts of the 

From 1700 to 1750 201 

sixteenth century. The JtaEc was also noticeable 
for its beauty and regularity. 

Caslon's superiority over all other letter-cutters, 
English or Dutch, was quickly recognised, and from 
this time f onvard until the close of the century all 
the best and most important books were printed 
with Caslon's letter ; the old letter-founders, such 
as James and Grover, being entirely neglected, and 
even such a powerful rival as John Baskerville 
being unable to compete with him. 

In addition to the printers in London already 
noticed, there were two others who must not be 
forgotten. Samuel Richardson, author of Pamela, 
Clarissa Plarlowe, and Sir Charles Grandison, was 
by trade a printer. Born in Derbyshire, of humble 
parents, in 1689, he was apprenticed to Mr. John 
Wilde, a printer in London, whom he served for seven 
years. He took up his freedom in 1706, and started 
business for himself in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street. 
Among his earliest patrons was the Duke of Wharton, 
for whom he printed some six numbers of a paper 
called the True Briton, and the Right Hon, Arthur 
Onslow, by whose interest he obtained the printing 
of the Journals of the House of Commons. But he 
did some better work than this, as in 1732 he 
printed for Andrew Millar a good edition in folio of 
Churchill's Voyages, and in 1733 the second volume 
of De Thou's History, a work in seven folio volumes, 
edited by Samuel Buckley, his share in which re- 
flects credit on Richardson as a printer. Between 

2O2 English Printing 


1736-37 he printed The Daily Journal, and in 1738 
the Daily Gazetteer, and in 1740 the newly-formed 
Society for the Encouragement of Learning entrusted 
to him the printing of the first volume of The 
Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, in folio. In this 
the text was printed in the same type as the De 
Thou, but the dedication was in a fount of 
double pica Roman. This work, which was in- 
tended to have been in six volumes, was never 

Richardson's work as an author began in 1741 
with the publication of Pamela, in four volumes, 
duodecimo, printed at his own press. Clarissa 
Harlowe appeared in 1747-48, and in 1753 his final 
novel, Sir Charles Grandison. Through the treachery 
of one of his workmen in the printing-office, the 
Dublin booksellers were enabled to issue an edition 
of Sir Charles Grandison before the work had left 
Richardson's press. He vented his aggrieved feel- 
ings by printing a pamphlet, The Case of Samuel 
Richardson of London, Printer. 

In 1755 Richardson rebuilt his premises, and in 
1760 he bought half the patent of law printing, 
which he shared with Catherine Lintot. He died 
on the 4th July 1761, his business being afterwards 
carried on by his nephew, William Richardson. 

The other press to which reference has been made 
was that of Henry Woodfall. In the first series 
of Notes and Queries (vol. xi. pp. 377, 418) an anony- 
mous contributor supplied some very interesting 

From 1700 to 1750 203 

and valuable notes drawn from the ledgers of that 
printer between the years 15 34 and 1747. 

Woodfall's printing was broadly divided into 
two classes, c gentlemen's work ' and ' booksellers' 
work/ and the second is naturally the more in- 

Among those for whom he printed were Bernard 
and Henry Lintot, Robert Dodsley, Andrew ^Millar, 
and Lawton Gulliver. Against Bernard Lintot is 
the following entry : 

Deer. 1 5th, i?35 

Printing the first volume of Mr. Pope's Works, 
Cr., Long Primer, 8vo, 3000 (and 75 fine), @ 
^2, 2 s. per sheet, 14 sheets and a half . 30 09 o 
Title in red and black ..... I I 
Paid for 2 reams and J of writing derny . 2 16 3 

On 1 5th May 1736, Woodfall enters to Henry 

The Iliad of Homer by Mr. Pope, demy, 
Long Primer and Brevier. No. 2000 in 
6 vols,, 68 sheets and \ @ 2, 2s. per sheet ^143 17 

Under Dodsley's account is entered on isth May 

Printing the first Epistle of the Second Book 
of Horace Imitated, folio, double size, Poetry, 
No. 2000, and 150 fine, [seven] shts, at 
27 s. per sht ........ 9 09 o 

May 18, 1737. 150 foL titles, Second Book of 

Epistles ....... 4 

A few weeks later Woodfall received an order from 
Lawton Gulliver for 1500 crown octavo copies of 

204 English Printing 

Epistles of Horace, and 100 fine or large paper copies. 
The second edition of Pope's Works was also printed 
by Woodfall for Henry Lintot, the order being for 

For Andrew Millar, Woodfall printed the following 
works of Thomson the poet 

Oct. I4th 1734. Spring, a poem, Svo, 250 

Jan. 8th 1734. Liberty, a poem, ist part 

cr. Svo, No. 3000, and 250 fine copies. 

Of the 4th and 6th parts only 1250 copies were 

June 6th, 1738, Mr. Thomson's Works. Vol. I. 
No. 1000, Svo. 

With the issue of the second volume the number 
was increased to 1500. 

The Seasons were printed on igth June 1744, in 
octavo. There were 1500 errata in the work, and a 
special charge of 2, 4$. was made for ' divers and 
repeated alterations/ 

Among the miscellaneous writers whose workb 
were passed through the elder Woodf all's presb was 
the Rev. John Peters, against whom he entered an 
account, dated iyth July 1735, for printing Thoughts 
concerning Religion, 4to, 16 sheets This gentleman 
was a literary shark, ready to devour any unpro- 
tected morsel that came in his way. The work 
above mentioned, and another printed by Woodfall 
in 1732, called A Letter to a Bishop, were afterwards 
discovered to be from the pen of Duncan Forbes, 

rrom 1700 to 1750 205 n 

and were published in an edition of his works 
printed in Edinburgh and London in 1751. A law- 
suit was at once commenced by George Woodfall 
and John Peters against the publishers of Forbes' 
works, the name of Messrs. Rivington being pro- 
minently mentioned, and the defendants, in their 
answer, stated that the two works in question were 
well known to have been written by Duncan Forbes, 
and that the MS. was in the possession of his family. 1 

This little incident, taken in conjunction with 
Henry Woodf all's connection with E. Curll and the 
letters of Pope, and the story told by Thomas Gent 
of the printing of The Bishop of Rochester's Effigy, 
shows that he was a worthy disciple of lago in the 
matter of money-getting. 2 

Mention of Thomas Gent leads naturally to a 
study of the provincial press of this period. By 
the middle of the eighteenth century presses were 
established in almost every town of any size. All 
that is attempted here is to give a sketch of the 
more important. 

In the previous chapter it has been shown how 
the munificence of Bishop Fell and Francis Junius 
furnished the University of Oxford with an unusually 
large stock of excellent letter of all descriptions, so 
that it was in a position to do better work than any 
other house in the kingdom. Its productions, 
during the first twenty years of the eighteenth cen- 

1 Chancery Proceedings, 1753 (Record Office). 
1 Notes and Queries, First Series, vol. xii. p. 197* 

2o6 English Printing 

tury, were in every way worthy of its reputation, 
and some of its productions deserve special mention. 

In 1705 Hickes' Linguarum Veil. Septentrionalium 
Thesaurus was issued in three large folio volumes of 
great beauty. The work required many unusual 
founts, and these were mainly furnished from the 
bequest of Junius. 

In 1707 the University published Mill's Greek 
Testament, which Wood in his Athena Oxonienses 
(vol. ii. p. 604) says had been begun in 1681 at 
Bishop Fell's printing-house near the theatre. The 
double pica italic used in this was a grand letter. 
Both the foregoing works were ornamented with 
handsome initial letters, and head and tail pieces 
engraved by M. Burghers, at that time probably the 
best engraver in this country. Many classical works 
were also produced in the same sumptuous manner, 
notably Hudson's edition of the Works of Dionysius, 
1704, which it is difficult to praise too highly. The 
copies measured nearly eighteen inches in height, 
the paper was thick and good ; the Greek and Latin 
texts were printed side by side, with notes at the 
foot, yet ample margins were left. In fact it is one 
of the finest examples of English printing of this 
period to be met with. 

In Cambridge the press was also active. Cor- 
nelius Crownfield, who had been Inspector of the 
Press in the University since 1698, was nominated 
University printer on nth February 170!-, and issued 
an edition of Eusebius in three folio volumes in 1720. 

From 1700 to 1750 207 

Much of his work consisted of reprints in octavo and 
duodecimo of classical works for the use of the 
scholars, and repeated editions of the Bible and 
Book of Common Prayer, full of errors, and badly 
printed. We may notice, however, an edition of 
Butler's Hudibras, edited by Zachary Grey, in two 
octavo volumes, with Hogarth's plates, and two 
books by Conyers Middleton, Bibliotheca Cantabri- 
giensis, 1723, quarto, and A Dissertation concerning 
the Origin of Printing in England. 

Among the earliest provincial presses at work in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century was that at 
Norwich, where Francis Burges was established in 
the year 1701. Thomas Tanner, afterwards Bishop 
of St. Asaph, sent John Bagford a broadside, printed 
by that printer, a list of the clergy that were to 
preach in the cathedral of Norfolk from ist Novem- 
ber 1701 until Trinity Sunday following. In a MS. 
note at the foot Tanner says : 

' DR. BAGFORD, When you were at Cambridge, I thought 
you would have come to Norwich. I send this to put among 
your other collections of printers. It is the first thing that was 
ever printed here/ * 

In this statement, however, Tanner was wrong, 
unless we suppose this, broadside to have been 
printed nearly five weeks in advance, as there had 
appeared, on 27* September 1701, Some Observa- 
tions on the Use and Original of the Noble Art and 
Mystery of Printing, by Francis Burges, which is 

1 Harl. MS. 

208 English Printing 

also claimed as the first book printed at Norwich 
since the sixteenth century. There is also evidence 
that Burges began to issue a newspaper called The 
Norwich Post early in September. Among his other 
work of that year were sermons by John Jeffrey 
and John Graile, and Humphrey Prideaux's Direc- 
tions to Churchwardens for the Faithful Discharge of 
their Offices. For the Use of the Archdeaconry of 
Suffolk. (Norwich 1701, quarto.) Francis Burges 
died in January 1706, leaving the business to his 
widow, who in the following year printed and pub- 
lished a little tract of eight quarto pages, with the 
title, A true description of the City of Norwich both 
in its ancient and modern state. 

Meanwhile, in November of the preceding year, 
a second press was started in the town by Henry 
Crossgrove, who began to issue a paper called the 
Norwich Gazette in 1706. 

Burges 's business seems to have been taken by 
Freeman Collins, a printer from London, with whom 
Edward Cave, the editor of The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, was associated for a time, who printed from 
the same address, in 1713, Robert Pate's Complete 
Syntax. He in his turn was succeeded by Benjamin 
Lyon, who in 1718 reprinted the True Description, 
as The History of the City of 'Norwich . . . To which 
is added Norfolk's Furies : or a view of Kett's Camp. 
(Norwich. Printed by Benj Lyon near the Red-well, 
for Robert Allen and Nich Lemon. 1718 . 8vo. pp. 
40.) He added to this some lists of bishops, &c., 

From 1700 to 1750 209 

and a * Chronological Account of Remarkable 
Accidents and Occurrences, to date,' in which the 
following entries occur : 

' 1701. The first printing office was set up in Norwich, near 
the Red-well, by Francis B urges. 

' 1706. Sam. Hashart a destiller, set up a Printing Office, in 
Magdalen St., and sent for Henry Cross-grove from London to 
be his journeyman.' 

Crossgrove died on i2th November 1744, being 
succeeded by William Chase, who had been printing 
since 1711, and who established the Norwich Mercury 

in 1727. 

At Bristol the press that William Bonny had 
established in 1695 continued to flourish until 1713. 
About November 1702 he began to issue a weekly 
paper called the Bristol Post-Boy, which ran until 
1712, when it was either replaced or supplanted by 
Samuel Farley's Bristol Postman. 1 

The Parleys were noted printers in the West of 
England at this time, and the above-named Samuel 
must not be confounded with Samuel Farley the 
Exeter printer. 

In Cirencester printing began in 1718, in which 
year Thomas Hinton brought out the first number 
of the Cirencester Post, and the Gloucester Journal 
was printed in that city by R. Raikes and W. 
Dicey on gth April 172^. Robert Raikes continued 
printing there till 1750, and was succeeded by his 
son Robert, the founder of Sunday Schools. 2 

1 Hyett and Bazeley, Bibliog. Man. ofGlouc* Litera/ierc t \~QL iii. p. 339, 
* Ailnutt, Bibliographic^ vol. ii. p. 302. 

2io English Printing 

In the neighbouring county of Devon the Exeter 
press, finally established after many vicissitudes in 
1698 by Samuel Darker, is found busily at work in 
1701, Darker having been joined by Samuel Farley, 
whose relation to the Samuel Farley of Bristol offers 
an opportunity to some cunning genealogist to reap 
distinction. In 1701 Farley issued by himself John 

Prince's Danmonii Orientates Illustres ; or, The 


Worthies of Devon, a work of 600 folio pages, with 
coats of arms. It was certainly one of the largest 
works printed at that time by any provincial press 
outside the Universities. In point of workmanship 
all that can be said for it is that it was no worse 
than the bulk of the work turned out by provincial 
presses ; and it furnishes its own criticism in a list 
of errata on the last page, which closes with the 
words, 'with many others too tedious to insert. 1 
Thomas Tanner, writing to Browne Willis in 1706, 
says that he has heard of a bi-weekly paper printing 
at Exeter. No copy of an Exeter paper of so early 
a date is known. 

In 1705 Farley was joined by Joseph Bliss, and 
jointly they issued several books ; but the partner- 
ship lasted a very short time, as by 1708 Joseph 
Bliss had set up for himself in the Exchange. 

On 24th September 1714, Samuel Farley issued 
the first number of The Exeter Mercury, or Weekly 
Intelligence of News, which in the next year he 
transferred to Philip Bishop. In 1715 also Joseph 
Bliss started a rival sheet called the Protestant 

From 1700 to 1750 211 

Mercury; or, The Exeter Post-Boy, from his new 
printing-house near the London Inn. Meanwhile 
Farley appears to have left Exeter, for on 27th Sep- 
tember 1715 he published the first number of the 
Salisbury Post-Man. In 1717 Andrew Brice, the 
most important of Exeter printers, began to print, 
his address then being e At the Head of the Serge 
Market in Southgate Street/ from which he issued, 
some time in 1718, a paper called the Post-Master, 
or the Loyal Mercury. The history of this printer 
is too lengthy to be told here, and has already been 
ably written by Dr. T. N. Brushfield (The Life and 
Bibliography of Andrew Brice). Farley's name occurs 
again in 1723, when he returned to Exeter and 
started Farley's Exeter Journal. In November 1727 
the burial of Samuel Farley is recorded in the regis- 
ters at St. Paul's, Exeter. He was succeeded in 
business by an Edward Farley. 

Another provincial press that revived very early 
in the eighteenth century was that of Worcester. 
It had been silent for upwards of a century and a 
half ; but in June 1709 a printer from London, 
named Stephen Bryan, set up a press, and started 
a newspaper called the Worcester Postman. In 1722 
the title was altered to the Worcester Post, or 
Western Journal. Bryan died in 1748, but just 
previous to his death he assigned his paper to Mr. 
H. Berrow, who 'then gave it the name it has ever 
since borne, that of Berrow' s Worcester Journal. 

Hazlitt, in his Collections and Notes (3rd Series, 

212 English Printing 

p. 282), mentions a book entitled Tonbridgialia, or 
ye pleasures of Tunbridge, a poem, as printed ' at 
Mount Sion at ye end oi ye Upper Walk at Tun- 
bridge Wells/ 1705. 

At Canterbury printing was revived in 1717, and 
a very interesting record of it is in the British 
Museum in the form of a broadside with the fol- 
lowing title : 

'A List of the names of the Mayor, Recorder, 
Aldermen & Common Council of the City of Canter- 
bury Who (In the year of our Lord 1717) promoted 
and encouraged the noble Art and Mystery of 
Printing in this City and County. Canterbury, 
Printed by J. Abree for T. James, S. Palmer, and 
W. Hunter, 1718.' This James Abree died in 1768 
at the age of seventy-seven. 

Turning northward the most important presses 
were those of York and Newcastle. 

At York, John White, who had settled in the city 
in 1680, was actively engaged in business in 1701, 
and he remained the sole printer there until his 
death in the year 1715. By his will, dated sist 
July 1714, he gave his wife Grace White the use 
of one full half of his printing tools and presses, 
etc., for her life. And after her death he gave 
the same to his grandson, Charles Bourne, to 
whom he bequeathed the remaining half of his 
printing implements immediately upon his death. 
To John White, his son, he devised his real 

From 1700 to 1750 213 

On the 23rd February 1718-19, Grace White 
issued the first York newspaper, The York Mer- 
cury. Upon her death in 1721 the printing-house 
was carried on by Charles Bourne until 1724, when 
he was in turn succeeded by Thomas Gent, who had 
served under John White in 1714-15, and married 
the widow of Charles Bourne. Davies in his 
Memoirs of the York Press (pp. 144 et seq.) gives a 
detailed and interesting biography of this printer, 
who, he says, has obtained a wider celebrity than 
any other York typographer. Gent was an en- 
graver as well as printer, and was the author of 
a History of York, and other works. As a printer 
his work was wretched ; there is little to be said 
for him as an engraver, while as an author he was 
below mediocrity. Nevertheless, he deserves credit 
for the interest he took in the history of York. 
His history of that city was published in small 
octavo in 1730, and he followed it up in 1735 with 
Annales Regioduni Hullini; or, The History of the 
Royal and Beautiful town of Kingston upon Hull, 
also an octavo. 

These works were quickly overshadowed by 
Drake's History, and from this time forward Gent's 
fortunes began to decline. He made an enemy of 
John White, the son of his old employer, with the 
result that White set up a press at York in 1725, 
and issued the first number of The York Courant, 
a weekly paper, but sold it and the business to 
Alexander Staples ten years later. Staples in turn 


214 English Printing 

was succeeded by Caesar Ward and Richard Chandler 
the first a bookseller in York, the second in 
London ; but Chandler committed suicide in 1744, 
and left Ward to carry on the business alone. 
John Gilfillan was another printer at work in 
the city during this period. Thomas Gent lived 
to the age of eighty-seven, dying on the igth 

May 1778. 

In Newcastle, John White, the son of the York 
printer of that name, began printing in 1708. He 
started the Newcastle Courant, the first number of 
which appeared in 1711. In 1761 the firm became 
John White and Co., and in 1763 John White and 
T. Saint. White died in 1769, when he is said to 
have been the oldest printer in the kingdom. As 
has been noted, from 1725 to 1735 he had carried 
on a press at York in opposition to T. Gent. One 
or two other printers are found here for short 
periods, but little is known about them. 

Among other towns possessing presses early in 
this century were Nottingham, 1710 ; Chester, 
1711 ; Liverpool, 1712 ; Birmingham, 1716 ; and 

Manchester, 1719. 

In America the number of printing presses in- 
creased but slowly during the first half of the 
eighteenth century. William Bradford in New 
York continued the only printer in that province 
for thirty years. He died on the 23rd May 1752, 
at the age of ninety-two. For fifty years he had 
been printer to the Government, and among the 

From 1700 to 1750 215 

numerous books that came through his press were 
the Book of Common Prayer in quarto, in 1709, 
the only issue in America before the Revolution, a 
venture by which he is said to have lost heavily. 
He also printed a Mohawk Prayer-book in quarto ; 
this was issued in 1715. On the i6th October 1725 
he began to publish a weekly paper called the New 
York Gazette, and continued it until his retirement 
from business. 

In 1726 a German named John Peter Zenger set 
up as a printer in New York. He is chiefly remem- 
bered as the printer of the second New York news- 
paper, the New York Weekly Journal, the first 
number of which was wrongly dated 5th October 
1733, instead of 5th November. The paper in- 
volved the printer in several actions for libel, and 
led to some lively passages with William Bradford. 
Zenger is believed to have died about 1746. Bradford 
was succeeded as printer to the Government by 
James Parker, one of his apprentices, who is de- 
scribed as a neat workman. He continued the New 
York Gazette, with the alternative title, or Weekly 
Post Boy. He also issued in 1767 an edition of the 
Psalms in metre, one of the earliest books printed 
from type cast in America. 

In 1753 Parker took into partnership William 
Weyman, but the connection lasted but a short 
time, Weyman setting up for himself in 1759. 
Parker also established presses at New Haven 
and Woodbridge in New Jersey. Among the later 

216 English Printing 

printers in New York were Hugh Guine (1750-1800) ; 
John Holt (1750-84), printer to the State during 
the war ; Robert Hodge (1770-1813) ; and Frederick 
Shober (1772-1806). 

Philadelphia possessed only one printer until 
^23 Andrew Bradford, son of William Bradford, 
of New York. In 1723 Samuel Keimer set up near 
the Market House. It was this printer whom 
Benjamin Franklin worked for in his early days. 
Bradford started the American Weekly Mercury on 
Tuesday, 22nd November 1709 ; and the Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette, afterwards carried on by Franklin and 
Meredith, was first printed by Keimer. Andrew 
Bradford died in 1742. Perhaps the most notable 
of Keimer's books was the folio edition of Sewell's 
History of the Quakers, which he began in 1725. It 
was a work of upwards of seven hundred pages. 
Keimer soon found that he had taken the contract 
at a ruinous rate. It was only by the help of 
Franklin and Meredith that he was enabled to finish 

it in 1728. 

Benjamin Franklin's history hardly needs retell- 
ing. His career as a printer began in the shop of 
his brother James at Boston in 1717. Differences 
arose between them which ended in Franklin's set- 
ting out for New York. Work was not to be had 
there, and by the advice of William Bradford he 

oved on to Philadelphia. There for some months 

he worked for Samuel Keimer until, deluded by 

he promises of Governor Keith, he took ship for 

From 1700 to 1750 217 

England with a view of obtaining materials for a 
printing office. While in England he worked for 
James Watts in Bartholomew Close, and James 
Palmer. On his return to America he once more 
entered Keimer's office as a journeyman. But aiter 
a short time, in company with Hugh Meredith, he set 
up in business for himself. He was the proprietor 
and printer of Poor Richard's Almanack, which 
became celebrated, and also of the Pennsylvania 
Gazette. After a long, prosperous career Franklin 
died, on igth April 1790, at the age of eighty-five. 

Boston was the home of more printers than any 
other place during the eighteenth century. To give 
anything like a history of even a few of them would 
be beyond the limits of this work. Only one or 
two of the more notable can be even noticed. 

Thomas Fleet arrived in Boston in 1712, set up as 
a printer, and for nearly fifty years carried on busi- 
ness there. His issues were principally pamphlets 
for booksellers, small books for children, and ballads. 
He was also the proprietor of a newspaper called 
the Weekly Rehearsal, first begun in September 
1731. At his death, in July 1758, he left three sons, 
two of whom succeeded him in business. 

In 1718 Samuel Kneeland set up in Prison Lane, 
and his printing-house continued for eighty years. 
He was one of the printers of the Boston Gazette, 
and he started besides several other journals* 
Thomas in his history (vol. i. p. 207) says that Knee- 
land, in company with Bartholomew Green, printed 

218 English Printing 

a small quarto edition of the English Bible with 
Mark Baskctt's imprint, but this is not confirmed. 
Kneeland died on I4th December 1769. .Another 
celebrated printer in the city of Boston was Gamaliel 
Rogers, who began business about 1729. In 1742 
he entered into partnership with Daniel Fowle. In 
the following year they issued the first numbers 
of the American Magazine, and in 1748 started 
the Independent Advertiser. The partnership with 
Fowle was dissolved in 1750. Rogers subsequently 
moved to the western part of the town, but suffered 
from a fire, which destroyed his plant. He died in 


Daniel Fowle, on the dissolution of his partner- 
ship with Rogers, set up for himself. He was 
arrested in 1754 for printing a pamphlet reflecting 
on some members of the House of Representatives, 
and was thrown into prison for several days. Upon 
his release, he at once left the town and set up in 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where he started the 
New Hampshire Gazette. He was succeeded in his 
Boston business by his brother Zachariah Fowle, 
who continued printing there until the Revolution, 
when he also retired to New Hampshire, where he 
died in 1776. 


FROM 1750 TO I800 

THE improvement in printing which Caslon had 
begun quickly spread to other parts of the kingdom, 
even as far north as Scotland, where, before the 
middle of the century, there was established at 
Glasgow a press that became notable for the beauty 
of its productions. 

Robert and Andrew Foulis, the founders of this 
press, were the sons of Andrew Faulls and Marion 
Paterson, Robert being born at Glasgow on 20th 
April 1707, and his brother on 23rd November 

Robert Foulis was apprenticed to a barber, but 
his love for literature led him to study at the Uni- 
versity, where he attended the moral philosophy 
lectures of Francis Hutcheson, who advised him to 
become a bookseller and printer. His brother, 
Andrew, entered the University at a later date, 
destined for the ministry, and during their vacations 
they travelled throughout England and on the 
Continent. In the course of these travels they 
sought for and brought back with them many rare 
and beautiful books, and gained a wide knowledge 

of the book trade. 


22O English Printing 

At length, in 1741, Robert Foulis set up as a 
bookseller in Glasgow. In some of his earlier pub- 
lications will be found lists of books printed and 
sold by him, which are very interesting. One of 
these, which enumerates fifteen books, includes a 
Greek Testament, Buchanan's edition of the 
Psalms, Burnet's Life of the Earl of Rochester, 
seven or eight classics, among which were a Cicero, 
Juvenal, Cornelius Nepos, Phsedrus, and Terence, and 
two of Tasso's works. The Terence was printed 
for him by Robert Urie, and shows some excellent 
founts of small italic and Roman. Robert Foulis 
seems to have begun printing on his own account 
in 1742, and among his earliest patrons was Pro- 
fessor Hutcheson, for whom he printed a treatise 
entitled Metaphysicce Synopsis, a duodecimo of 
ninety pages, and a work on Moral Philosophy of 
three hundred and thirty pages. He also printed 
in the same year the second and third editions of a 
sermon preached by William Leechman before the 
Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, The Meditations of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and editions 
of Cicero and Phaedrus . All these were in duodecimo 
or small octavo, printed in a clear readable type, 
that probably came from Urie's foundry. On the 
3ist March 1743, Robert Foulis was appointed 
printer to the University of Glasgow, and published 
Demetrius Phalerus He Elocutione in two sizes, quarto 
and octavo. This was the first book printed at 
Glasgow in Greek type, the Greek and Latin render- 

From 1750 to 1800 221 

ings being printed on opposite pages the Latin in 
a fount of English Roman that cannot be distin- 
guished from Caslon's letter, while the italic also 
has a strong resemblance to that of the English 
founder. Among other productions of the year 
1743 was a specimen of another Glasgow man's 
work, Bishop Burnet's translation of Sir Thomas 
More's Utopia, to which was prefixed Holbein's 
portrait of the great Chancellor. 

In 1744 Dr. Andrew Wilson, who for some years 
had been furnishing Scotch and Irish printers with 
types from his foundry, moved to Camlachie, a spot 
within a mile of Glasgow, and at once began to 
furnish letter for Robert Foulis. In the same year 
Robert took his brother Andrew into partnership, 
and the firm quickly became famous for the beauty 
and correctness of their classics, beginning with the 
edition of Horace, which, despite the fact that it 
had six errors in the text, was called the Immaculate. 
Other attractive books were the Sophocles of 1745, 
quarto ; Cicero in twenty volumes, small octavo ; 
the small folio edition of Callimachus, which took 
the silver medal offered in Edinburgh for the finest 
book of not fewer than ten sheets ; the magnificent 
Homer, which Reed in his Old English Letter Foun- 
dries describes as ' for accuracy and splendour the 
finest monument of the Foulis press/ But the 
Foulis press did not confine itself to Greek and L^tin 
classics. It published several fine editions of Eng- 
lish authors, among them a folio edition of Milton's 

222 English Printing 

Paradise Lost, and editions of the poems of Gray 
and Pope. In 1775 Andrew Foulis died suddenly. 
The blow was very severely felt by his brother, and 
coming as it did upon the failure of his Academy of 
Arts, completely crushed him. He removed his art 
collection to London for sale ; but here another dis- 
appointment awaited him the sum realised after 
paying expenses being fifteen shillings. He re- 
turned to Edinburgh, and was on the point of 
starting for Glasgow when he died on the 2nd 
June 1776. The Foulis press was carried on by 
the younger Andrew Foulis until the end of the 

In England, the chief event of this period was 
the appearance of John Baskerville at Birmingham. 

John Baskerville was born in 1706 at Wolverley, 

a village in Worcestershire. For some time he 

earned his living as a writing-master ; after which 

he appears to have gone into the japanning trade, 

and in 1750 embarked some capital in a letter 

foundry. He appears to have employed the most 

skilled artists he could obtain, and it is said that he 

spent upwards of 600 some say 800 before he 

obtained a fount to suit him. His letters to Dodsley 

show how anxious he was to attain perfection. The 

result of all this care and labour was shown in the 

quarto edition of Virgil which appeared in 1757, 

and was followed by quarto editions of Milton's 

Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. 

The appearance of Baskerville 's publications gave 

From 1750 to 1800 223 

rise to no little controversy, which has continued to 
the present day. As regards Roman type, there is 
very little to choose between Caslon's and that of 
Baskerville, while the italic of Baskerville has some 
claim to be considered the most beautiful type that 
had ever been seen in England ; and the ridiculous 
criticism passed on it that its very fineness was 
injurious to the eyesight, was shown to be utterly 
worthless by Franklin's letter to the printer, which 
is printed in Reed's Old English Letter Foundries. 
But there are also other features of excellence about 
these books of Baskerville's. They are simplicity 
itself. There is not a single ornament or tail-piece 
introduced into them to divide the attention. The 
books were printed with deep and wide margins, 
and the lines were spaced out with the very best 

The first public body to recognise Baskerville's 
ability was the University of Oxford, which in July 
1758 empowered him to cut a fount of Greek types 
for 200 guineas. This order proved to be beyond 
his power. It is generally admitted that his Greek 
type was a failure, and he wisely made no further 
attempts at cutting learned characters. Some of 
the punches of Baskerville's Greek types are still 
preserved at Oxford, and are the only specimens of 
his foundry that we have. 

In his Preface to Paradise Lost, Baskerville stated 
that the extent of his ambition was to print an 
octavo Prayer Book and a folio Bible. In connec- 

224 English Printing 

tion with this ambition, he applied to the University 
of Cambridge for appointment as their printer, a 
privilege which was granted to him, but at the cost 
of such a heavy premium that he obtained no pecu- 
niary profit from it. The Prayer Book, printed in 
two forms, appeared in 1760, and the same year saw 
the prospectus and specimen of the Bible issued, 
the Bible itself appearing in 1763 in imperial folio. 
Both are beautiful specimens of the printer's art. 

But Baskerville soon became disgusted with the 
ill-natured criticism to which he was subjected, 
coupled with the failure of booksellers to support 
him, and was anxious to have done with the busi- 
ness. The year before the publication of the Bible, 
he wrote to Horace Walpole a letter, given by Reed 
(p. 278), in which he says that he is sending speci- 
mens of his foundry to foreign courts in the hope of 
finding among them a purchaser for the whole con- 
cern, and during the next few years he was in cor- 
respondence with Franklin with the same object. 
Fortunately for his country, these attempts were 
unsuccessful during his lifetime, and between the 
years 1760-73 he produced not only several 
editions of the Bible and Common Prayer, but the 
works of Addison, 4 vols. 1761, 4to ; the works of 
Congreve, 3 vols. 1761, 8vo ; JEsop's Fables ; and 
in 1772 a series <rf the classics in quarto, which, 
Reed says, ' suffice, had he printed nothing else, to 
distinguish him as the first typographer of his time ' 
(p, 281). 

From 1750 to 1800 225 

Baskerville died on 8th January 1775, and for a 
few years his widow carried on the foundry ; but 
at the same time endeavoured to dispose of it. 
Both our Universities refused it, and no London 
foundry would touch it, because the booksellers 
would have nothing but the types of Caslon and 
Jackson. The type was eventually sold in 1779 to 
the Societe Litteraire-typographique of France for 
3700, and was used in a sumptuous edition of the 
works of Voltaire. 

Yet one firm was found bold enough to model 
its letter on that of Baskerville. In 1764 Joseph 
Fry, a native of Bristol, began letter-founding in 
that city. He took as a partner William Pine, 
proprietor of the Bristol Gazette, but the business 
was not carried on in their name, but in that of Isaac 
Moore, their manager. In 1768 they removed the 
foundry to London, and issued a prospectus. But 
so strong was the hold which Caslon 's foundry had 
obtained, that they were compelled to recast the 
whole of their stock. This took them several years ; 
meanwhile, they issued one or two editions of the 
Bible in their first fount. In 1776 Isaac Moore 
severed his connection with the firm. In 1782 Mr. 
Pine also withdrew, and Joseph Fry admitted Ms 
two sons, Edmund and Henry, into partnership. 
At length in 1785 appeared the first specimen-book 
of Fry's foundry, and it was frankly admitted in the 
preface that the founts of Roman and italic were 
modelled on those of Caslon. 

226 English Printing 

Joseph Fry retired from the business in 1787. 
Amongst the books printed with his later type may 
be mentioned the quarto editions of the classics 
edited by Dr. Homer. 

Caslon the First died at Bethnal Green on 23rd 
January 1766. His son, Caslon the Second, died 
intestate on the I7th August 1778, when the business 
came to his son, William Caslon the Third. In the 
same year that Joseph Fry published his Specimen 
of Types, Caslon the Third also published a speci- 
men-book of sixty-two sheets, in every way worthy 
of the reputation the firm had established. It in- 
cluded, besides Romans and italics of great beauty 
and regularity, every variety of oriental and learned 
founts, and several sheets of ornaments and flowers, 
arranged in various designs. This book was 
dedicated to the King, and contained an address 
to the reader in which, after reviewing the estab- 
lishment of the foundry, Caslon referred bitterly 
to the eager rivalry of other printers and their 
open confession of imitation. In 1793 Caslon 
the Third disposed of his share in the Chiswell 
Street business to his mother and his brother 
Henry's widow. 

Mrs. William Caslon, senior, died in October 1795, 
when the business was sold by auction and bought 
by Mrs, Henry Caslon for 520. 

Joseph Jackson, who shared with the Caslons the 
favour of the London booksellers, was one of two 
apprentices formerly in the employ of William 

From 1750 to 1800 227 

Caslon II. Some dispute arose in the foundry about 
the price of certain work, and Joseph Jackson and 
Thomas Cottrell, having acted as ringleaders in the 
movement, were dismissed, and being thrown on 
their own resources, set up a foundry of their own 
in Nevil's Court, Fetter Lane. Of the two Jackson 
proved much the more skilful, but seems to have 
been of a roving disposition. After working for a 
year or two with Cottrell he went to sea, leaving 
Cottrell to carry on the business alone. This he 
did with a fair measure of success, though his 
foundry was never at any time a large one. After 
a few years' absence Jackson returned to England 
in 1763, and again turned his attention to letter- 
cutting, serving for a time under his old partner 
Cottrell ; but having obtained the services and, 
what was of more value, the pecuniary help of two 
of CottrelTs workmen, he set up for himself, and 
quickly took a foremost place in the trade. Among 
his most successful work was a fount of English 
'Domesday/ for the Domesday Book published 
by order of Parliament in 1783, which was preferred 
to that cut by Cottrell for the same purpose. Jack- 
son also cut a fount for Dr. Waide's facsimile of the 
Alexandrian Codex with great success. But perhaps 
his most successful effort was the two-line English 
which he cut for Macklin's edition of the Bible, 
begun in 1789. At the time of his death in 1792 
he was at work upon a fount of double pica for 
Bowyer's edition of Hume's History of England. 

228 English Printing 

After his death his foundry was purchased by 
William Caslon III. 

Both Macklin's Bible and Hume's History were 
printed at the press of Thomas Bensley in Bolt 
Court, Fleet Street. As a printer of sumptuous 
books Bensley had only one rival, William Bulmer, 
who is generally accorded the first place. But 
Bensley was certainly earlier in the field. His 
work was quite equal to that of Bulmer, and, apart 
from this, the world owes more to his enterprise 
than it has ever yet acknowledged. 

Thomas Bensley was the son of a printer in the 
Strand, and in 1783 he succeeded to the business of 
Edward Allen in Bolt Court, a house adjoining that 
in which Johnson had lived. He at once turned his 
attention to printing as a fine art, Dibdin, in his 
Bibliographical Decameron (vol. ii. p. 397, &c,), 
gives a list of the works printed by Bensley, and 
says that he began with a quarto edition of Lava- 
ter's Physiognomy in 1789, following this with an 
octavo edition of Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd 
in 1790. In this list, however, Dibdin has omitted 
the folio edition of Burger's poem Leonora, printed 
by Bensley in 1796, with designs by Lady Diana 
Beauclerc. In 1797 he printed a very beautiful 
edition of Thomson's Seasons, in royal folio, with 
engravings by Bartolozzi and P. W. Tomkins from 
pictures by W. Hamilton. 

But the chief glories of his press are the Bible and 
Hume's History. The first was begun in 1789 ; but 

From 1750 to 1800 229 

Jackson's death caused some delay when the book 
of Numbers had been reached, owing to more type 
being required. For some reason, not clearly shown, 
Bensley would not employ Caslon, but applied to 
Vincent Figgins, who for ten years had been in the 
service of Jackson, to complete the type. Figgins' 
foundry was in Swan Yard, Holborn, where he had 
established himself after Jackson's death in 1792. 
He succeeded with the task set him, and his type, 
which was an exact facsimile of Jackson's, was 
brought into use in Deuteronomy. The whole work 
was completed in seven volumes, in the year 1800, 
and this date appears on the title-page ; but the 
dedication to the King was dated 1791, and the 
plates, which were the work of Loutherbourg, West, 
Hamilton, and others, were variously dated be- 
tween those years. The text was printed in double 
columns, in a handsome two-line English, with the 
headings to chapters in Roman capitals, no italic 
type being used> and no marginalia. 

Robert Bowyer's edition of Hume was in the 
press at the time of Jackson's death, but was not 
completed until 1806. The type used in this is a 
double pica, and the founder, it is said, declared 
that it should c be the most exquisite performance 
of the kind in this or any other country. * He died 
before its completion, and the work was completed 
by Figgins ; but the book is a lasting memorial to 
the skill both of the founder and the printer. 
In January 1791 appeared the first number of 


230 English Printing 

Boy-dell's Shakespeare. The history of this notori- 
ous undertaking was briefly this. Boydell was an 
art publisher in Pall Mall, where he had established 
a gallery and filled it with the work of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Benjamin West, Opie, and Northcote, 
chiefly in Shakespearian subjects. George Nicol 
the bookseller proposed to the Boydells that William 
Martin, brother of Robert Martin of Birmingham, 
should be employed to cut a set of types with which 
to print an edition of Shakespeare's works, to be 
illustrated with the drawings then in Boy dell's 
gallery. This William Martin had learnt his art in 
the foundry of Baskerville ; and such is the irony 
of fate, that less than twenty years after the death 
of that eminent founder, his work, scorned by the 
booksellers of London in his own day, was imitated 
in what was certainly one of the most pretentious 
books that had ever come from the English press. 
The printer selected for the work was William 
Buhner, a native of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where he 
was apprenticed to Mr. Thomson, the printer, of 
Burnt House Entry, St. Nicholas Churchyard. 
At that time he formed a friendship with 
Thomas Bewick, the engraver, who in his Memoir 
tells us that Bulmer used to c prove ' his cuts 
for him. 

After serving his time, Bulmer came to London 
and entered the printing- office of John Bell, who 
was then issuing a miniature edition of the poets, 
A fortunate accident won him his acquaintance 

From 1750 to 1800 231 

with Boydell and Nicol, and so led to his subsequent 
employment at the Shakespeare press. 

The Shakespeare was followed by the works of 
Milton in three volumes folio in 1794-5-7, and 
again in 1795 by the Poems of Goldsmith and Par- 
nell in quarto. In the advertisement to this work, 
Bulmer pointed out how much had been done by 
English printers within the last few years to raise 
the art of printing from the low depth to which it 
had fallen a work in which the Shakespeare Press 
had borne no little part. He went on to say that 
much pains had been taken with this edition of Gold- 
smith to make it a complete specimen of the arts of 
type and block printing. The types were Martin's, 
the woodcuts Bewick's, and the paper Whatman's. 
One copy of this book was printed m on white satin, 
and three on English vellum. 

Among the books that appeared within the last 
five years of the century was an edition of Lucretius 
in three volumes large quarto, which certainly 
ranks for beauty of type and regularity of printing 
with any book of that period. Like most of the 
works of Baskerville, this book was quite free from 
ornament, and claims admiration only from the 
excellence of the press-work. The notes were 
printed in double columns in small pica, the text 
itself in double pica. In the whole three volumes 
not a dozen printer's errors have been found. This 
work came from the press of Archibald Hamilton. 

Time has not dealt kindly with some of these 

2 32 English Printing 

specimens of what was called * fine ' printing. 
After the lapse of a century, we begin to see that 
though the type and press- work were all that could 
be desired, and placed the English printers on a 
level with the best of those on the Continent, there 
was something radically wrong with the production 
of illustrated books. Whether it was due to the 
ink, or to the paper, or, as some suppose, to in- 
sufficient drying, in all these sumptuous volumes 
the oil has worked out of the illustrations, leaving 
an ugly brown stain on the opposite pages, and 
totally destroying the appearance of the books. 
This applies not only to large and small illustrations, 
but in many cases to the ornamental wood blocks 
used for head and tail pieces. In Macklin's Bible 
and in the * Milton ' printed at the Shakespeare 
Press, this discoloration has completely ruined 
what were undoubtedly, when they came from the 
press, extremely beautiful works. 

Before leaving the work of the eighteenth century, 
a word or two must be said about the private presses 
that were at work during that time. The first place 
must, of course, be given to that at Strawberry Hill. 
None of the curious hobbies ridden by Horace 
Walpole became him better, or was more useful, 
than his fancy for running a printing-press. He 
was not devoid of taste, and though no doubt he 
might have done it better, he carried this idea out 
very well. The productions of his press are good 
examples of printing, and are far above any of the 

From 1750 to 1800 233 

other private press work of the eighteenth century. 
His type was a neat and clear one, though some- 
what small, and the ornaments and initial letters 
introduced into his books were simple and in keeping 
with the general character of the types, without 
being in any sense works of art. The following brief 
account of the Strawberry Hill press is compiled 
from Mr. H. B. Wheatley's article in Bibliog raphica, 
and from Austin Dobson's delightful Horace Wai- 
pole, a Memoir, 1893. 

The press was started in August 1757 with the 
publication, for R. Dodsley, of two * Odes ' by 
Gray. c I am turned printer, and have converted 
a little cottage into a printing office/ he tells one 
friend ; and to another he writes, e Elzevir, Aldus, 
and Stephens are the freshest persons in my 
memory ' ; and referring to the ' Odes, ' he writes 
to John Chute in July 1757, *I found him (Gray) 
in town last week ; he had brought his two Odes 
to be printed. I snatched them out of Dodsley's 

Walpole's first printer was William Robinson, an 
Irishman, who remained with him for two years. 
The * Odes ' were followed by Paul Hentzner's A 
Journey into England, of which only 220 copies were 
printed. In April 1758 came the two volumes of 
Walpole's Catalogue of Royal and Nolle Authors, of 
which 300 copies were printed and sold so rapidly, 
that a second edition not printed at Strawberry 
Hill was called for before the end of the year. 

234 English Printing 

In 1760 Walpole wrote to Zouch, in reference to 
an edition of Lucan, c Lucan is in poor forwardness. 
I have been plagued with a succession of bad printers, 
and am not got beyond the fourth book/ It was 
published in January 1761, and in the following year 
appeared the first and second volumes of Anecdotes 
of Painting in England, with plates and portraits, 
and having the imprint, * Printed by Thomas 
Farmer at Strawberry Hill, MD.CCLXII.' Then 
another difficulty appears to have arisen with the 
printers, and the third volume, published in 1763, 
had no printer's name in the imprint. The fourth 
volume, not issued till 1780, bears the name of 
Thomas Kirgate, who seems to have been taken on 
in 1772, and held his post until Walpole 's death. 
Between 1764 and 1768 the Strawberry Hill press 
was idle, but in the latter year Walpole printed in 
octavo 200 copies of a French play entitled Cornllie 
Vestale, Tragedie, and from that time down to 1789 
it continued at work at intervals, its chief produc- 
tions being Memoires du Comte de Grammont, 1772, 
4to, of which only 100 copies were printed, twenty- 
five of which went to Paris ; The Sleep Walker, a 
comedy in two acts, 1778, 8vo ; A description of the 
villa of Mr. Horace 'Walpole, 1784, 4to, of which 
200 copies were printed ; and Hieroglyphic Tales, 
1785, 8vo. 

Next to the press of Horace Walpole, that of 
George Allan, M.P. for Durham, at the Grange, 
Darlington, must be noticed. The owner was an 

From 1750 to 1800 235 

enthusiastic antiquary, and he used his press chiefly 
for printing fugitive pieces relating to the history of 
the county of Durham. The first piece with a date 
was Collections relating to St. Edmund's Hospital, 
printed in 1769, and the last a tract which he printed 
for his friend Thomas Pennant in 1788, entitled Of 
the Patagonians, of which only 40 copies were 
worked off. 

The productions of his press were very numerous, 
but of no great merit. Allan was his own composi- 
tor, and gave much time to his hobby ; but his 
printer appears to have been a dissolute and dirty 
workman, who caused him much annoyance and 
trouble. Altogether it may safely be said that 
Allan's press cost him a great deal more than it was 


Another of those who tried their hand at amateur 
printing was Francis Blomefield, the historian of 
Norfolk, who started a press at his rectory at Fers- 
field. Here he printed the first volume of his 
History in 1736, and also the History of Thetford, a 
thin quarto volume, in 1739. But the result was 
an utter failure. The type was bad to begin with, 
and the attempt to use red ink on the title-pages 
only made matters worse. The press-work was 
carelessly done ; and it is not surprising to find that 
the second volume of the History, published in 1745, 
was entrusted to a Norwich printer. 

The celebrated John Wilkes also carried on a 
private printing-office at his house in Great George 

236 English Printing 

Street, Westminster. Three specimens of its work 
have been identified : An Essay on Woman, 1763, 
8vo, of which only twelve copies are said to have 
been printed ; 1 a few copies of the third volume of 
the North Briton ; and Recherches sur VOrigine du 
Despotisme Orientals, ouvrage posthume de M. Bou- 
langer, 1763, 12mo. A note in a copy of this volume 
states that it was printed by Thomas Farmer, who 
had also assisted Horace Walpole at the Strawberry 
Hill press. 

During the last four years of the century the Rev. 
John Fawcett, a Baptist minister of some repute, 
established a press in his house at Brearley Hall, 
near Halifax, which he afterwards removed to 
Ewood Hall. He used it chiefly for printing his 
own sermons and writings, among the most impor- 
tant issues being The Life of Oliver Heywood t 1796, 
pp. 216 ; Miscellanea Sacra, 1797 ; A Summary of 
the Evidences of Christianity, 1797, pp. 100 ; Con- 
stitution and Order of a Gospel Church, 1797, pp. 58 ; 
The History of John Wise, 1798 ; Gouge's Sure Way 
of Thriving ; Watson's Treatise on Christian Con- 
tentment ; and Dr. Williams' Christian Preacher. 
Most of these were in duodecimo. 

The type used in this press was a very good one, 
and the press-work was done with care. Owing to 
his growing infirmities Fawcett was obliged to dis- 
pose of the press in 1800. There is reason to believe 
that the above list might be considerably increased. 

1 Chalmers' Life of Witfas. 

From 1750 to 1800 237 

At Bishopstone, in Sussex, the Rev. James Hurdis 
printed several works at his own press, the most 
important being a series of lectures on poetry, 
printed in 1797, a quarto of three hundred and 
thirty pages, and a poem called The Favorite Village, 
in 1800, a quarto of two hundred and ten pages. 

To these must be added a press at Lustleigh, in 
Devon, made and worked by the Rev. William 
Davy, and at which was printed some thirty copies 
of his System of Divinity, 26 vols. 1795, 8vo, a copy 
of which remarkable work is now in the British 
Museum, and is considered one of its curiosities ; a 
press at Glynde, in Sussex, the seat of Lord Hamp- 
den, from which at least one work can be traced ; 
and a press at Madeley, in Shropshire, from which 
several religious tracts were printed in 1774 by the 
Rev. John Fletcher, and in 1792 a work entitled 
Alexander's Feast, by Dr. Beddoes, 



FOR nearly four centuries after the invention of print- 
ing the press in use in all printing-houses remained 
very much the same in form as that which Caxton's 
workmen had used in the Red Pale at Westminster. 
There had been some unimportant alterations made 
by an Amsterdam printer in the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; but until the year 1800 no important change 
in the form or mechanism of the printing-press had 
ever been introduced. Some such change was 
sorely needed. The productive powers of the old 
press were quite unable to keep pace with the ever- 
increasing demand for books and newspapers that 
a quickened intelligence and national anxiety had 
awakened. Up to 1815 England was constantly at 
war, and men and women alike were eager for news 
from abroad. In 1800 Charles Mahon, third Earl 
Stanhope, invented a new printing-press. 

The Stanhope press substituted an iron frame- 
work for the wooden body of the old press, thus 
giving greater solidity. The platen was double the 
size of that previously in use, thus allowing a larger 
4heet to be printed, and a system of levers was 

adopted in place of the cumbersome handle-bar and 


The Nineteenth Century 239 

screw used in the wooden press. The chief merits 
of the new invention were increased speed, ease to 
the workman, evenness of impression, and dura- 
bility. Further improvements in the mechanism of 
hand machines were secured in the Columbia press, 
an American invention, brought to this country in 
1818, and later in the Albion press, invented by 
R. W. Cope of London, and since that time by many 
others. Yet even with the best of these improved 
presses no more than 250 or 300 impressions per 
hour could be worked off, and the daily output of 
the most important paper only averaged three or 
four thousand copies. But a great and wonderful 
change was at hand. 

In 1806 Frederick Koenig, the son of a small 
farmer at Eisleben in Saxon Prussia, came to 
England with a project for a steam printing press. 
The idea was not a new one, for sixteen years before 
an Englishman, named William Nicholson, took out 
a patent for a machine for printing, which fore- 
shadowed nearly every fundamental improvement 
even in machines of the present day. But from 
want of means, or some other cause, Nicholson 
never actually made a machine. Nor did Kcenig's 
project meet with much encouragement until he 
walked into the printing-house of Thomas Bensley 
of Bolt Court, who encouraged the inventor to pro- 
ceed, and supplied him with the necessary funds. 
There is reason to believe that Koenig made himself 
acquainted with the details of Nicholson's patent 

240 English Printing 

during the time that his machine was building. He 
also obtained the assistance of Andrew F. Bauer, an 
ingenious German mechanic. His first patent was 
taken out on the 2Qth March 1810, a second in 1812, 
a third in 1814, and a fourth in 1816. The first 
machine is said to have taken three years to build, 
and upon its completion was erected in Bensley's 
office in Bolt Court. There seems to be considerable 
uncertainty as to what was the first publication 
printed on it. Some say it was set to work on the 
Annual Register, one writer 1 asserting that in April 

1811, 3000 sheets of that publication were printed 
on it ; but Mr. Southward, in his monograph Modern 
Printing, confines himself to the statement that two 
sheets of a book were printed on the machine in 

1812. Curiously enough neither Bensley's publi- 
cation, the Annual Register, nor the Gentleman's 
Magazine, take any notice of the new invention, 
although in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1811 there 
is a notice of a printing machine invented at Phila- 
delphia, which apparently embodied all the same 
principles as Koenig's (Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxi. 

P- 576). 
In 1814 John Walter, the second proprietor of 

the Times, saw Kcenig's machine, and ordered one 
to be supplied to the Times office, the first number 
printed by steam being that of the a8th November 
1814. This machine was a double cylinder, which 

1 The History of Printing. London : Printed for the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge, 1855, 8vo. 

The Nineteenth Century 241 

printed simultaneously two copies of a forme of the 
newspaper on one side only. But it was a cumber- 
some and complicated affair, and its greatest output 
1800 impressions per hour. 

In 1818 Edward Cowper, a printer of Nelson 
Square, patented certain improvements in printing, 
these improvements consisting of a better distribu- 
tion of the ink and a better plan for conveying the 
sheets from the cylinders. Having joined his 
brother-in-law, Augustus Applegarth, they pro- 
ceeded to make certain alterations in Kcenig's 
machine in Bensley's office which at one stroke re- 
moved forty wheels, and greatly simplified the 
inking arrangements. In 1 827 they j ointly invented 
a four-cylinder machine, which Applegarth erected 
for the Times. The distinctive features of this 
machine were its ability to print both sides of a sheet 
at once, its admirable inking apparatus, and great 
acceleration of speed, the new machine being capable 
of printing 5000 copies per hour. 

These machines at once superseded the Koenig, 
and were to be found in use in all parts of the country 
for printing newspapers until quite lately. In 1848 
the same firm constructed an eight-cylinder vertical 
machine, which was one of the sights of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. Shortly afterwards Messrs. 
Hoe, of New York, made further improvements in 
the mechanism, raising the output to 20,000 per 
hour. All these machines had to be fed with paper 
by hand, but in 1869 it occurred to Mr. J. 0. Mac- 

242 English ^Printing 

donald, the manager of tfie Times, and Mr. J. C. 
Calverley, the chief engineer of the same office, that 
much saving of labour would result if paper could 
be manufactured in continuous rolls ; and the result 
of their experiments was the rotary press, which was 
named after Mr. John Walter, the fourth of that 
name, then at the head of the Times proprietorship. 
Since then the improvement in printing machines 
has steadily continued, and the latest Hoe press as 
used for printing Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper, takes 
four double-width reels of paper at each end, and 
is capable of printing, cutting, folding, and auto- 
matically counting 144,000 copies per hour. 

These great changes in presses and press- work 
have occasioned similar changes in type-founding. 

At the beginning of the century, the firm of Caslon 

had been given a new lease of life by the energy of 

Mrs. Henry Caslon, who in 1799 had purchased the 

foundry, a third share in which a few years earlier 

had been worth 3000, for the paltry sum of 250. 

She at once set to work to have new founts of type 

cut, and was ably helped by Mr. John Isaac Drury. 

The pica then produced was an improvement in the 

style of Bodoni, and quickly raised the foundry to 

its old position. Mrs- Caslon took into partnership 

Nathaniel Catherwood, but both died in the course 

of the year 1809. The business then came into the 

hands of Henry Caslon II, who was joined by John 

James Catherwood. Other notable firms were 

those already noticed in the last chapter Mrs. Fry, 

Tlie Nineteenth Century 243 

Figgins, Martin, and Jackson. One and all of these 
suffered severely from the change in the fashion of 
types at the beginning of the century, the ugly form 
of type, known as fat-faced letters, then introduced, 
remaining in vogue until the revival of Caslon's old- 
faced type by the younger Whittingham. 

Upon the advent of machinery and cylinder 
printing, the use of movable type for printing from 
was supplemented by quicker and more durable 
methods, and William Ged's long-despised dis- 
covery of stereotyping is now an absolutely neces- 
sary adjunct of modern press-work. This, again, 
was in some measure due to Earl Stanhope, who in 
1800 went to Andrew Tilloch, and Foulis, the Glas- 
gow printer, both of whom had taken out a patent 
for the invention, and learnt from them the process. 
He afterwards associated himself with Andrew 
Wilson, a London printer, and in 1802 the plaster 
process, as it was called, was perfected. This re- 
mained in use until 1846, when a system of forming 
moulds in papier-machd was introduced, and this 
was succeeded by the adaptation of the stereo- 
plates to the rotary machines, 

It would be foreign to the purpose of this work, 
which is concerned with printing as applied to books, 
to attempt to describe the Linotype and its rival 
processes which have been recently introduced 
further to facilitate newspaper printing. We must, 
therefore, return to our book-printers, and note first 
that the Shakespeare Press of Wiliam Bulmer, for 

244 English Printing 

which Martin the type-founder was almost exclu- 
sively employed, continued to turn out beautiful 
examples of typographic work during the early 
years of the nineteenth century. A list of the works 
issued from this press up to 1817 is given by Dibdin 
in his notes to the second volume of his Decameron, 
PP- 384-395- Some of the chief items were The 
Arabian Nights Entertainments, 5 vols. 1802, 8vo ; 
The Book of Common Prayer, with an introduction 
by John Reeves, 1802, 8vo ; The Itinerary of Arch- 
bishop Baldwin through Wales, translated by Sir 
R. L. Hoare, 2 vols. 1806, 4to ; Richardson's Dic- 
tionary of the Arabic and Persian Languages, 2 vols. 
1806-10, 4to ; Hoare's History of Wiltshire, 1812, 
folio; Dibdin's Typographical Antiquities, 4 vols. 
1812, 4to ; and the same author's Bibliotheca Spen- 
ceriana, 4 vols. 1814-15, 8vo, and Bibliographical 
Deccwieron, 3 vols. 1817, 8vo. These three last are 
considered to be some of the best work of this press, 
which also turned out many books for private circu- 
lation only. William Bulmer died on gth September 
1830, after a long and active life, and was succeeded 
by his partner, Mr. William Nichol 

Nor had Thomas Bensley slackened anything of 
his enthusiasm for fine printing. Twice during the 
first twenty years of the century he suffered severely 
by fire : the first time in 1807, when a quarto edition 
of Thomson's Seasons, an edition of the Works of 
Pope, and many other books were burnt; the 
second on June 26th, 1819, wh en his premises were 

Tlie Nineteenth Century 245 

totally destroyed. This was followed by the death 
of his son, and shortly afterwards he retired from 
business, and died on nth September 1835. Not 
only was he an excellent printer, but he did more 
than any other man of his time to introduce the 
improved printing machine into this country. 

John Nichols was another of the great printers of 
his day, and he too was burnt out, on the night of 
8th February 1808. No better account of the 
magnitude of his undertakings at that time could 
be found than his own description of the disaster, 
which he contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine 
in the following March : 

* Amongst the books destroyed are many of very 
great value, and some that can never be replaced. 
Not to mention a large quantity of handsome quarto 
Bibles, the works of Swift, Pope, Young, Thomson, 
Johnson, etc. etc., the Annals of Commerce, and 
other works which may still be elsewhere purchased, 
there are several consumed which cannot now be 
obtained at any price. The unsold copies of the 
introduction to the second volume of the Sepulchral 
Monuments ; Hutchins' Dorsetshire ; Bigland's 
Gloucestershire; Hutchinson's Durham; Thorpe's 
Registrum and Custumale Roffense ; the few num- 
bers that remained of the Bibliotheca Topographica ; 
the third volume of Elizabethan Progresses; the 
Illustrations of Ancient Manners ; ' Mr. Cough's 
History of Fleshy, and his valuable account of the 
Coins of the Seleucida, engraved by Bartolozzi; 


246 English Printing 

Colonel de la Motte's Allusive Arms ; Bishop Atter- 
bury's Epistolary Correspondence ; and last, not 
least, the whole of six portions of Mr. Nichols' 
Leicestershire, and the entire stock of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine from 1782 to 1807, are irrecover- 
ably lost. 

c Of those in the press, the most important were 
the concluding portion of Hutchins' Dorsetshire 
(nearly finished) ; a second volume of Manning and 
Bray's Surrey (about half printed) ; Mr- Bawdwin's 
translation of Domesday for Yorkshire (nearly 
finished) ; a new edition of Dr. Whitaker's History 
of Craven ; Mr. Gough's British Topography (nearly 
one volume) ; the sixth volume of Biographia Bri- 
tannica (ready for publishing) ; Dr. Kelly's Dic- 
tionary of the Manx Language ; Mr. Neild's History 
of Prisons ; a genuine unpublished comedy by Sir 
Richard Steele ; Mr. Joseph Reid's unpublished 
tragedy of Dido ; four volumes of the British Essay- 
ists ; Mr. Taylor Combe's Appendix to Dr. Hunter's 
Coins ; part of Dr. Hawes' annual report for 1808 ; 
a part of the Biographical Anecdotes of Hogarth; 
two entire volumes, and the half of two other 
volumes of a new edition of the anecdotes of JVtr. 
Bowyer/ etc. 

Writing to Bishop Percy in July of that year, 
Nichols stated that he had lost 10,000 beyond his 
insurance in this outbreak. 

John Nichols died on the 26th November 1826, 
after a long and laborious life. He was a voluminous 

T:ie Nineteenth Century 247 

author and a born antiquary, his chief works being 
The History and Antiquities of the Town and County 
of Leicester, completed in 1815 in eight folio volumes, 
and Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 
1812-15, an expansion of the Biographical and 
Literary Anecdotes of William Bowyer, which had 
been printed in 1782. This work was afterwards 
supplemented by Illustrations of the Literary History 
of the Eighteenth Century, 6 vols. 1817-31, to which 
his son afterwards added two additional volumes. 
John Nichols was Common Councillor for the ward 
of Farringdon Without from 1784 to 1786, and again 
from 1787 to 1811. In 1804 he was Master of the 
Stationers' Company. He was succeeded in business 
by his son John Bowyer Nichols, and the firm sub- 
sequently became J. Nichols, Son, and Bentley. 
Like his father, John Bowyer Nichols was editor 
and author of many books, and was appointed 
Printer to the Society of Antiquaries in 1824. He 
died at Baling on igth October 1863, leaving seven 
children, of whom the eldest, John Gough Nichols, 
born on 22nd May 1806, became the head of the 
printing-house, and editor of the Gentleman's 
Magazine, as his father and grandfather had been 
before him. He was one of the founders of the 
Camden Society (1838), and edited many of its 
publications. He was the promoter and editor of 
The Herald and Genealogist, and his researches in 
this direction were of great importance- The 
Dictionary of National Biography enumerates thirty- 

248 English Printing 

four works from his pen, most of which it would be 
safe to say were also printed by him. He died on 
I4th November 1873. 

Another press of importance in the first half of the 
nineteenth century was that of Thomas Davison. 
He was the printer of most of Byron's works, and 
many of those of Campbell, Moore and Words- 
worth ; but his chief claim to notice rests upon 
the magnificent edition of Whitaker's History of 
Richmondshire, in two large folio volumes, printed 
in 1823, and upon that of Dugdale's Monasticon, in 
eight folio volumes, issued between 1817 and 1830, 
an undertaking of great magnitude. In Timperley 's 
Encyclopedia it is stated that Davison made im- 
portant improvements in the manufacture of print- 
ing ink, and few of his competitors could approach 
him in excellence of work (p. 919). 

The history of the firm of Eyre and Spottiswoode 
would, if material were available, form an interest- 
ing chapter in the history of English printing. It 
is the direct descendant in the royal line of Pynson, 
Berthelet, the Barkers, and finally of John and 
Robert Baskett, the last ot whom assigned the 
patent to John Eyre of Landford House, Wilts, 
whose son, Charles Eyre, the great-grandfather of 
the present George Edward Briscoe Eyre, succeeded 
to the business in 1770. During the seventeenth 
century, the work of the Government and the 
sovereign had been divided among several firms, 
but in the eighteenth century it was again given to 

The Nineteenth Century 249 

one man, John Baskett. In the printing of the 
Bible and Book of Common Prayer, however, the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have also 
a share ; but all the other Government work is done 
by Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode. 

Charles Eyre, not being a practical printer, ob- 
tained the co-operation of William Strahan. On 
the renewal of the patent in 1798, the name of John 
Reeves was inserted, but Mr. Strahan purchased 
his interest. In 1829, the patent was again re- 
newed to George Eyre, the son of Charles, John 
Reeves, and Andrew Strahan. George Edward 
Eyre, son of George William Strahan, was born at 
Edinburgh in April 1715, and, after serving his ap- 
prenticeship in Edinburgh, took his way to London, 
where, it is believed, he found a post in the office of 
Andrew Miller. In 1770 the printing-house was 
removed from Blackfriars to New Street, near Gough 
Square, Fleet Street. William Strahan was inti- 
mately associated with the best literature of his 
time, among those for whom he published being 
Dr. Johnson, Hume, Adam Smith, Robertson, and 
many other eminent writers. In 1774 he was 
Master of the Stationers' Company and Member 
of Parliament for Malmesbury ; in the next Parlia- 
ment he sat for Wootton Bassett. Among his 
greatest friends was Benjamin Franklin, who kept 
up a correspondence with him in spite of the strong 
political differences between them. Strahan died 
at New Street on gth July 1785, leaving three sons 

250 English Printing 

and two daughters. The youngest son, Andrew, 
succeeded his father in the Royal Printing House, 
and one of the daughters married John Spottis- 
woode of Spottiswoode, whose son, Andrew, after- 
wards entered the firm. Andrew Strahan was 
noted for his benevolence, and on his death in 1831 
he left handsome bequests to the Literary Fund and 
the Company of Stationers. 

Andrew Spottiswoode, who died in 1866 at the 
ripe age of seventy-nine, had a large printing busi- 
ness apart from the office of Queen's Printer, and 
his imprint will be found in much of the lighter 
literature of the period. His son, William Spottis- 
woode, after a distinguished career at Oxford, ulti- 
mately attained high rank as a mathematician, and 
in 1865 became President of the Mathematical 
Section of the British Association. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1853, and became 
its President on soth November 1878. He died on 
27th June 1883. 

Equally renowned was the firm of Gilbert and Riv- 
ington. Early in the second half of the eighteenth 
century (the exact date is not known) John Riving- 
ton, the fourth son of John Rivington the publisher, 
and direct descendant of Charles Rivington of the 
Bible and Crown in Paternoster Row, succeeded to 
the business of James Emonson, printer, of St. 
John's Square, Clerkenwell. John Rivington died 
in 1785, and was succeeded by his widow, who in 
1786 took as partner John Marshall A series of 

The Nineteenth Century 251 

classical works, of which they were the printers, 
was very favourably received. These included the 
Greek Testament, Livy, Sophocles, as well as a 
series of Latin poets and authors, edited by Michael 
Maittaire. The business next passed into the hands 
of Deodatus Bye. He in turn admitted Henry Law 
as partner, and the firm became successively Law 
and Gilbert and Robert and Richard Gilbert. The 
partnership being dissolved early in the last century 
by the death of Robert Gilbert, Richard carried on 
the business alone until 1830, when he took into 
partnership Mr. William Rivington, a great-grand- 
son of the first Charles Rivington, and from that 
day the firm went by the name of Gilbert and Riv- 
ington. Richard Gilbert died in 1852, and for 
eleven years after his death the printing business 
was carried on by Mr. William Rivington, who 
issued many valuable and standard works on sub- 
jects of classical and ecclesiological interest. 

William Rivington retired from business in 1868, 
being succeeded by his son, William John Rivington, 
and his nephew, Alexander. The business increased 
largely in their hands ; one of their first under- 
takings being the purchase in 1870 of the plant of 
the late Mr. William Mavor Watts, by which they 
secured a large addition to their collection of Oriental 
types. In 1875 Mr. E. Mosley entered the firm, and 
Mr. William John Rivington left it to join the pub- 
lishing house of Sampson Low, Marston and Searle. 
Mr. Alexander Rivington retired from the firm in 

252 Englisn Printing 


1878, being thus the last Rivington connected with 
the house, which shortly afterwards was turned into 
a limited liability company. In 1907 this was 
absorbed into the business of Messrs. Clowes and 

To the firm of Messrs. Clowes of Stamford Street, 
which by this extension became, with what they 
already possessed, the largest owners of foreign type 
in England, belongs the credit of being the first to 
print books by machinery and the first to print 
cheap periodical literature. William Clowes the 
elder, a native of Chichester, born in 1779, was 
apprenticed to a printer of that town, and coming 
to London in 1802 commenced business on his own 
account in the following year 1803. By marriage 
with the daughter of Mr. Winchester of the Strand, 
he obtained a share of the Government printing 
work. His first premises adjoined the garden of 
the Duke of Northumberland at Charing Cross, and 
when Clowes took to printing by steam the Duke 
brought, and lost, an action against him for damages 
to the ducal garden. A money offer was then made, 
and the firm moved (in 1824) to Stamford Street, 
Blackfriars Road, where it still has its headquarters. 
Here Clowes was chosen to print the Penny Maga- 
zine, edited by Charles Knight, the first attempt to 
provide the public with good literature in a cheap 
periodical form. The work was illustrated with 
woodcuts, and so great was its success that from 
No. i to No. 106 there were sold twenty million 

The Nineteenth Century 253 

copies ; but the undertaking was heavily handi- 
capped by the paper tax of threepence per pound 
(see The Struggles of a Book, C. Knight, 1850, 8vo). 
In 1840 an article appeared in the Quarterly Review, 
written, it is said, by Sir F. B. Head, but which is 
more in the style of T. F. Dibdin, on the Clowes 
printing-office. At that time there were no less 
than nineteen of Applegarth and Cowper's machines 
at work there, with a daily average of one thousand 
per hour each. Besides these there were twenty- 
three hand presses and five hydraulic presses. The 
foundry employed thirty hands, and the composi- 
tors numbered one hundred and sixty. 

In 1851 Messrs. Clowes printed the official cata- 
logues of the Great Exhibition, for which they speci- 
ally cast 58,520 Ibs. of type. They subsequently 
printed the catalogues of the Exhibitions of 1883- 
1886 and the Royal Academy catalogues, and have 
been connected from their inception with two works 
of a very different character, Hymns Ancient and 
Modern the circulation of which has to be reckoned 
in millions and the great General Catalogue of the 
Library of the British Museum, for their excellent 
printing of which all 'readers' are indebted to 
them. In 1872 a branch of the business was opened 
at Beccles, in Suffolk, where many hundreds of 
workmen are now employed. William Clowes the 
elder died in 1847. He was succeeded by his son, 
William, who died in 1883. Two years before this, 
in 1881, the firm had been turned into a limited 

254 English Printing 

liability company, which has always been man- 
aged by direct descendants of the first William 

As regards fine printing the chief honours of book 
production in London during the nineteenth century 
belong to the Chiswick Press. 

Charles Whittingham the elder, the founder of 
the firm, was born at Calledon, near Coventry, in 
1767, and was apprenticed to a printer of that city. 
As soon as his time was out he came to London, and 
set up a press in Fetter Lane, his chief customers 
being Willis, a bookseller of Stationers' Court, 
Jordan of Fleet Street, and Symonds of Paternoster 
Row. His beginning was humble enough, his chief 
work lying in the direction of stationery, cards, and 
small bills. His first important publisher was a 
certain Heptinstall, who set him to print new 
editions of Boswell's Johnson, Robertson's America, 
and other important works. This was enough to 
set him going, and in 1797 he moved to larger pre- 
mises in Dean Street, Fetter Lane, and then began 
to issue illustrated books. In 1803 he took a second 
workshop at 10 Union Buildings, Leather Lane, and 
again in 1807 he moved to Goswell Street. In 1811 
he took his foreman Robert Rowland into partner- 
ship, and shortly afterwards left him to manage 
the city business, while he himself set up a press at 
Chiswick and made his home there at College House. 
Here he continued to work until his death in 1840. 
For a short time, from 1824 to 1828, he was joined 

The Nineteenth Century 255 

with his nephew Charles, to whom at his death he left 
the Chiswick business. 

There is not much to be said of the work of the 
elder Whittingham. He confined his attention to 
the issue of small books, such as the British Classics, 
which he began to print in 1803. His books are 
chiefly notable for the printing of the woodcuts, 
which by the process known as overlaying, he 
brought to great perfection. His relations with the 
publishers were, however, none of the best. They 
accused him of piracy, and considered it to be 
against the best interests of the trade to issue small 
and cheap books. The productions of the elder 
Whittingham 's press have, moreover, been largely 
overshadowed by those of his nephew. 

Charles Whittingham the younger was a genuine 
artist in printing. He loved books to begin with, 
and thought no pains too great to bestow upon their 
production. Born at Mitcham, on 30th October 
1795, he was apprenticed to his uncle in 1810. In 
1824 he was taken into partnership, but this lasted 
only four years, and he then set up for himself at 21 
Took's Court, Chancery Lane. A near neighbour of 
his at that time was the publisher William Pickering, 
who since 1820 had been putting in the hands of the 
public some excellently printed and dainty volumes. 
It is stated in the Dictionary of National Biography 
that the series known as the Diamond Classics was 
printed for Pickering at the Chiswick Press. But 
this was not the case. He had no dealings whatever 

256 Eng'isri Printing 

with the Whittinghams or the Ch is wick Press before 
his introduction to Charles Whittingham the younger 
in 1829. The Diamond Classics, which he began 
to issue while he was living in Lincoln's Inn Fields 
in 1822, were printed by C. Corrall of Charing Cross, 
and the Oxford English Classics, in large octavo, 
chiefly by Talboys and Wheeler of Oxford, while 
most of his other work, amongst it the first eleven 
volumes of the works of Bacon, was done by Thomas 
White, who is first found at Bear Alley, and sub- 
sequently at Johnson Court and Crane Court in 
Fleet Street. 

Few of these early books of Pickering's had any 
kind of decoration beyond a device on the title-page. 
Simplicity, combined with what was best in type 
and paper, seem to have been the publisher's chief 
aim at that time ; but in some of the Diamond 
Classics will be found the small and artistic border- 
pieces which he afterwards used frequently. 

The first of Pickering's books in which anything 
of a very ornamental character occurs is The Bijou, 
or Annual of Literature, a publication which fixes 
very clearly his association with Whittingham. 
The Bijou first appeared in 1828, printed by Thomas 
White, with one or two charming head-pieces de- 
signed by Stothard. The volume for 1829 was also 
printed by White, and is noticeable as having the 
publisher's Aldine device, showing that this came 
into use during the year 1828, The volume for 1830 
was printed by C. Whittingham of Took's Court. 

The Nineteenth Century 257 

The meeting between the two men had been brought 
about by Basil Montague in the summer of 1829. 
They found themselves kindred spirits on the sub- 
ject of the artistic treatment of books, and a friend- 
ship sprang up between them, that ceased only 
with Pickering's death in 1854, and was productive 
of some of the most beautiful books that had ever 
come from an English press. Mr. Arthur Warren 
in his book, The Charles Whittinghams, Printers 
(1896), tells us : c The two men met frequently 
for consultation, and whenever the bookseller 
visited the press, which he often did, there were 
brave experiments toward. The printer would 
produce something new in title-pages, or in 
colour work, or ornament, and the bookseller 
would propound some new venture in the re- 
production of an ancient volume. . . . They made 
it a point, moreover, to pass their Sundays 
together, either at the printer's house or at Picker- 

In the artistic production of books they were ably 
assisted by Whittingham's eldest daughter Char- 
lotte, and Mary Byfield. The former designed the 
blocks, many of which were copied from the best 
French and Italian work of the sixteenth century, 
and the latter engraved them. 

Among the notable books produced by these 
means were the Aldine Poets, editions of Milton, 
Bacon, Isaak Walton's Compute Angler, the works 
of George Peele, reprints of Caxton's books, and 

258 English Printing 

many Prayer-books. In 1844 Pickering and Whit- 
tingham were in consultation as to the production of 
an edition of Juvenal to be printed in old-face great 
primer, and the foundry of the latest descendant of 
the Caslons was ransacked to supply the fount. 
The edition was to be rubricated and otherwise 
decorated, and this, or the printer's stock trouble, 
Mack of paper/ occasioning some delay, the revived 
type first appeared in a novel entitled Lady Wil- 
loughby's Diary, to which it gave a pleasantly old- 
world look in keeping with the period of which the 
story treats, The type thus resuscitated has ever 
since held its own. Another revival in which the 
Chiswick Press led the way was that of decorative 
initials and devices, many of the best French initials 
of the sixteenth century being carefully copied and 
used by the firm. 

Pickering died in 1854, and though Charles Whit- 
tingham the younger lived to the age of eighty-one, 
his death not taking place till 1876, he had retired 
from business in 1860. The business was after- 
wards acquired by Mr. George Bell 

In the English provinces Messrs. Clay, of Bungay, 
in Suffolk, have made for themselves a reputation 
both as general printers and more particularly for 
the careful production of old English texts ; and 
Messrs. Austin, of Hertford, are well known for their 
Oriental work. But the pre-eminence certainly 
rests with the Clarendon Press at Oxford, whose 
work, whether in its innumerable editions of the 

The Nineteenth Century 259 

Bible and Prayer-book, its classical books, or its 
great dictionaries, is probably, alike in accuracy of 
composition, in excellence of spacing and press- 
work, and in clearness of type, among the most 
flawless that has ever been produced. Book-lovers 
were at one time known to complain of it as so good 
as to be uninteresting, but under the Controllership 
of Mr. Horace Hart, while the old excellence has 
been maintained, the work of the press became 
distinctly richer and more individual. 

If England has no lack of good printers at the 
present day, in Scotland they are, at least, equally. 


The Ballantyne Press was founded by James 

Ballantyne, a solicitor in Kelso, with the aid of Sir 

Walter Scott. Ballantyne and Scott had been 

school-fellows and chums, and after they had been 

separated for some years, while Scott was studying 

in Edinburgh and Ballantyne was carrying on the 

Kelso Mail, they met and renewed their friendship 

in the stage coach that ran between Kelso and 

Glasgow. Shortly afterwards, Ballantyne called on 

Scott, and begged him to supply a few paragraphs 

on legal questions of the day to the Kelso MaiL 

This Scott readily undertook to do, and when the 

manuscript was ready he took it himself to the 

printing-office, and with it some of the ballads 

destined for Lewis's collection then publishing in 

Edinburgh. Before he left he suggested that Bal- 

lantyre should print a few copies of the ballads, so 

260 English Printing 

that he might show his friends in Edinburgh what 
Ballantyne could do. Twelve copies were accord- 
ingly printed, with the title of Apologies for Tales of 
Terror. These were published in 1799, an( i Scott 
was so pleased with their appearance that he pro- 
mised Ballantyne that he should be the printer of 
a selection of Border ballads that he was then 
making. This selection was given the title of Min- 
strelsy of the Scottish Border, and formed two small 
octavo volumes, with the imprint, c Kelso, 1802.' 

Ballantyne's work, as shown in these volumes, 
was equal in every way to the best work done by 
Bensley and Bulmer at this time. Good type and 
good paper, combined with accuracy and clearness, 
at once raised Ballantyne's reputation, Longman 
and Rees, the publishers, declared themselves de- 
lighted with the printing, and Scott pressed his 
friend to remove his press to Edinburgh, where he 
assured him he would find toough work to repay 
him for the removal. After some hesitation 
Ballantyne acquiesced in the proposal, and having 
found suitable premises in the neighbourhood of 
Holyrood House, set up * two presses and a proof 
one/ and shortly afterwards, in April 1803, printed 
there the third volume of the Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border. From this time forward Scott 
made it a point that whatever he wrote or edited 
should be printed at the Ballantyne Press. The 
first quarto, the Lay of the Last Minstrel, was pub- 
lished in J anuary 1805 . The poem was printed in a 

The Nineteenth Century 261 

somewhat heavy-faced type ; but in other respects 
the typography left nothing to be desired. In the 
same year Ballantyne and Scott entered into partner- 
ship, Scott taking a third of the profits of the 
printing-office. So rapidly did James Ballantyne 
extend his business that in 1819 Scott, in a letter to 
Constable, says that the Ballantyne Press 'has 
sixteen presses, of which only twelve are at present 
employed.' In 1826 the firm became involved in 
the bankruptcy of the publishers, Messrs. Constable. 
After this Ballantyne was employed as editor of the 
Weekly Journal, and the literary management of the 
printing-house. He died on the i7th January 1833. 
The firm is now known as Ballantyne, Hanson and 
Co., and admirably sustains its old traditions. 

Another great Scottish printing-house, that of 
T. and A. Constable, was founded by Thomas 
Constable, the third son of Archibald Constable the 
publisher. He learned his art in London under Mr. 
C Richards, and on returning to Edinburgh, in 1833, 
he founded the present printing-house in Thistle 
Street. Shortly afterwards he was appointed 
Queen's Printer for Scotland, and the patent was 
afterwards extended to his son Archibald, who 
continued till his death titular head of the house. 
Some years later Thomas Constable received the 
appointment of Printer to the University of Edin- 
burgh. He also inherited and incorporated with 
his own firm the printing business of his maternal 
grandfather, David Willison, a business founded in 


262 Englisn Printing 

the eighteenth century. The firm has always been 
noted for its scholarly reading and the beauty of 
its workmanship. 

Among other Scottish firms who are doing ex- 
cellent work mention may be made also of Messrs. 
R. and R. Clark of Edinburgh, and Messrs. Mac- 
lehose, the printers to the University of Glasgow. 
In America also much good work has been done, 
that of the late Theodore De Vinne and of the 
Riverside Press, Cambridge, being of the very 
highest excellence. 

In the history of English printing, the close of 
the nineteenth century will always be memor- 
able for the brilliant but short-lived career of the 
Kelmscott Press. 

In May 1891 Mr. William Morris, whose poems 
and romances had delighted many readers, issued 
a small quarto book entitled The Story of the Glitter- 
ing Plain, which had been printed at a press that he 
had set up in the Upper Mall, Hammersmith. 

Lovers of old books could recognise at once that 
in its arrangement, and, to some extent, in its types, 
this first-fruit of the Kelmscott Press went straight 
back to the fifteenth century, resembling in its label 
title-page and richly decorated first page of text the 
scheme of some of the quartos printed at Venice 
about 1490. It contained also a number of decora- 
tive initial letters, to use the clumsy phrase which 
the misappropriation of the word capitals to stand 
for ordinary majuscules, or 'upper case' letters, 

The Nineteenth Century 263 

makes inevitable. Mr. Morris's initials were, of 
course, true capitals i.e. they were used to mark 
the beginnings of chapters, and the only fault that 
could be found with them was that they were a 
little too large for the quarto page. These also 
were from Mr. Morris's own designs, ideas in one or 
two cases having been borrowed from a set used by 
Sweynheym and Pannartz, the Germans who intro- 
duced printing into Italy ; but the borrowing, as 
always with Mr. Morris, being absolutely free. As 
for the type, it was clear that it bore some resem- 
blance to that used by Nicolas Jenson the French- 
man who began printing in Venice in 1470, and 
whose finer books, especially those on vellum, are 
generally recognised as the supreme examples of 
that perfection to which the art of printing attained 
in its earliest infancy. Mr. Morris's type was as 
rich as Jensen's at its best, and showed its author- 
ship by not being quite rigidly Roman, some of the 
letters betraying a leaning to the 6 Gothic ' or c black- 
letter' forms, which had found favour with the 
majority of the mediaeval scribes. At the end of the 
book came the colophon, in due fifteenth-century 
style, with information as to when and where it was 
printed. The ornamental design bearing the word 
Kelinscott ' by way of the device or trade-mark 
without which no fifteenth-century printer thought 
his office properly equipped, was not used in this 
book, but speedily made its appearance. 
A few months later the appearance of the three- 

264 English Printing 

volume reprint of Caxton's version of the Golden 
Legend of Jacobus de Voragine, proved that the 
Kelmscott Press was capable of turning out a book 
large enough to tax the resources of a printing- 
office, and the new book was not only larger but 
better than its predecessor. It became known that 
this, but for an accident, should have been the first 
book issued from the new press ; and it was evident 
that the initial letters were exactly right for this 
larger page, while the splendid woodcuts from the 
designs of Sir Edward Burne- J ones revived the old 
glories of book-illustration. In the. Golden Legend 
also appeared the first of those woodcut frontis- 
piece titles which formed, as far as we know, an 
entirely new departure, and confer on the Kelmscott 
books one of their chief distinctions. Printed some- 
times in white letters on a background of dark scroll- 
ery, sometimes in black letters on a lighter ground, 
these titles are always surrounded by a border har- 
monising with that on the first page of text, which 
they face. They thus carry out Mr. Morris's cardinal 
principle, that the unit, both for arrangement of 
type and for decoration, is always the double page. 

As far as permanent influence is concerned Mr. 
Morris's Roman letter, the * Golden type, ' as it was 
dubbed, from its use in the Golden Legend, is the 
most important of the three founts which he em- 
ployed. His own sympathies, however, were too 
pronouncedly mediaeval for him to be satisfied with 
it ; and for th$ next large book which he took in 

Tlie Nineteenth Century 265 

hand, a reprint of Caxton's Recuyell of the Histories 
of Troy, the first work printed in the English tongue, 
he designed a much larger and bolder type, an im- 
provement on one of the * Gothic ' founts used by 
Anton Koberger at Nuremberg in the fifteenth 
century. This ' Troy ' type was subsequently recut 
in a smaller size for the double-columned Chaucer, 
and in both its forms is a very handsome fount, 
while the characters are so clearly and legibly 
shaped, that despite its antique origin, any child 
who knows his letters can learn to read it in a few 
minutes. With these three founts the Kelmscott 
Press was thoroughly equipped with type ; but 
until his final illness took firm hold on him Mr. 
Morris was never tired of designing new initials, 
border-pieces, and decorative titles with a profusion 
which the old printers, who were parsimonious in 
these matters, would have thought extravagantly 
lavish. Including those completed by his exe- 
cutors after his death in 1896, he printed in all fifty- 
three books in sixty-five volumes, and this annual 
output of nine or ten volumes of all sizes, save the 
duodecimo, which he refused to recognise, gave his 
work a cumulative force which greatly increased 
its influence. Whatever else Morris did, or failed 
to do, he proved that it was possible for a modern 
press to beat the fifteenth-century printers on their 
own ground, Working under his inspiration, though 
purposely on different lines, Mr. Emery Walker 
and Mr. Cobden Sanderson at the Doves Press, Mr. 

266 English Printing 

St. John Hornby at his Ashendene Press, and the 
late Robert Proctor with his ' Otter ' Greek type 
(though he only lived to see a few printed sheets) 
have all attained a complete success. The Doves 
Press books easily beat those of Nicolas Jenson, 
the finest of the early printers at Venice, on whose 
famous Roman fount their type is modelled, while 
the red capitals of the later books arc an added 
pleasure ; Mr. St. John Hornby's adaptation of the 
fount used at Subiaco by the first printers in Italy, 
and the capitals of gold or colours which he uses 
with it, are no less perfect ; the editions of the Ores- 
teia of /Eschylus and of Homer's Odyssey printed 
with Proctor's Greek type, based on that cut for the 
Greek Testament of the Complutensian Polyglot, 
are the two finest pieces of Greek printing which 
have ever been produced. The measure of success 
attained by other experimenters, by Messrs. Ricketts 
and Shannon, for instance, with their Vale types, 
was less complete, and naturally there have also 
been some painful failures. But as an antiquarian 
revival the success of the movement initiated by 
Morris has been complete. Thanks, moreover, to 
the interest which his example aroused, there has 
been a distinct improvement in the better-class 
commercial printing, Some excellent founts have 
been designed by Mr. Herbert Home, there has been 
a tendency to use better ink and the importance 
of good ink can hardly be overrated books are 
planned with more carefully graded margins, and 

The Nineteenth Century 267 

the standard of press-work is certainly higher. 
Under the inspiration of Mr. Berkeley Updike and 
Mr. Bruce Rogers similar progress has been made 
in the United States; Mr, Rogers, indeed, in a 
series of books too little known in England, has 
shown himself one of the surest and at the same 
time the most versatile of modern printers. It is 
thus pleasant to be able to end this book with the 
recognition that both positively and relatively to 
the work being done elsewhere the Printing Art 
is now being practised more successfully in the 
two great English-speaking countries than at any 
previous time. 

\ ' ? / 

/J 7 


ABC and litell Catechism, 77, Barker, Christopher the first 

7.8, 79 
Abingdon, printing at, 101 

Abree, J., 212 

Act for regulating printing, 

172, 178 

Albion press, 239 
Alday, J., 80 
Aide, Edward, 133, 138 

Elizabeth, 138 

John, 133 

Allan, George, M.P., his private 

press, 234, 235 
Aljnutt, W. H., 181 

Alsop, B., 139, 140, 141, 149* Bell, J. ( 230 

78, 90-93 ; zhe number of 
his presses, 97 ; patent for 
Bible printing, 96; death, 

the second, 127, 132 

the third, 175, 1 81 
Barker, Robert, 97, 127-129, 

Barnes, s oseph, TOO, 1 52 

Baskervile, J., 201, 222-225, 

230, 231 

Baskett, J., 190-193 
Bassandyne, T., 116, 119-120 


America, printing in, 154-155, 
183-185, 214-218, 262, 267 

Ames' Typographical Antiqui- 
ties, 99 

Andrew, L., 43, 47 

Andrews, R., 198 

Anglo-Saxon type, 1 98 

Anglo-Saxon initials, 89 

Applegarth, A., 241 

Bensley, T., 228, 239, 244 

Berrow, H., 211 

Berthelet, T., 50-54; types 

used by, 51, 52, 53 
Bible, 53, 57, 64, 90, 91, 97, 

107, 128, 129, 162, 180, 192, 

224, 228, 229, 249 

Polyglott, 164-166 

Vinegar, 192 

Wicked, 145 

Arabic type cut by Caslon, Bible printing in America, 183 

in Scotland, 120 
Bill, John, 127, 131 
Birmingham, printing at, 214 
Bishop, G., 87, 90, 127 
Bishop, P., 210 

R M 136, 151, 162 
Blades, W., 3, 8 
Bliss, J., 211 

Blomfield, F,, his private press, 

Blount, E., 133 

Bodleian Library, 131 
Boleyn, Queen Anne, 84 
" Bonere." See Bonham 


Arber, E., transcript of re- 
gisters, 66, 146, 149 

Arbuthnot, A., 119-121 

Archer, T., 140 

Aspley, W., 133 

Asplyn, 75 

BAGFORD, J., 207 
Ballantyne, J., 259-261 
Ballantyne Press, 259-261 
Bankes, R,, 45, 46, 49 
Barber, J., I93-I9S 
Barbier, J., 25 



English Printing 

Bonham, W., 41, 42, 43, 59, 

60, So, 104, 132 
Bonian, R., 135 
Bonny, W., 209 
Bookbinding, 26, 51, 102 
Books destroyed by fire, 197, 

245 , 246 

Boston, Mass,, 183, 217-218 
Bourman, N., 104 
Bourne, C., 213 

N., 140 

Bowyer, W., the elder, 196-199 

the younger, 198-199 
Bradford, A., 216 

W., 184, 185, 214, 215 
Bradshaw, Henry, 11, 101 
Bradwopd, M., 130 
Breviarium Aberdonense, 115 
Brewster, T., 171, 174 
Brice, A., 211 
Brinckley, S., 112 

Bristol, printing at, 105, 181, 

182, 209 
Broad, A., 182 

T., 182 
Brudenell, J., 168, 175 

T., 158 
Bryan, S., 211 
Buck, T., 1 80 
Bulkeley, S., 181-182 
Buhner, W., 228, 230, 243 
Burges, F., 207 

Butter, N., 140, 142 
Byddell, John, 31, 53, 55, 56 

R., 61 

Bynneman, Henry, 75, 112, 

CAIUS, John, writings of, 76 
Calvert, George, 171 
Cambridge bookbinders, 102 

printing at, 97, 101-102, 
110-111, 180-181 

University printers, 206 
207 ; disputes with Com- 
pany of Stationers, no, 153 

printing, its character, 1 1 1 

Mass., printing at, 15 5, 183 
Canterbury, printing at, 61, 

107-108, 212 

Caslon, William, the first, type 
founder, 199-200, 225 

Caslon, William, the second, 

the third, 226 
Cave, Edward, his association 

with F. Collins, 208 
Cawood, Gabriel, 88, 90 

John, So, 88, 90 
Caxton, William, 1-14, 29; 

begins to use signatures, 7 ; 

death, 12 ; device of, n, 13 ; 

early years, i ; family, 1 3 ; 

first illustrated book, 9 ; 

learns printing at Cologne, 

4 ; situation of printing 

office, s ; translations by, 

2, 9, 13: types used by, 

6-12, 19, 20 
Censorship of press, 139 
Chandler, R., 214 
Character of English printing, 

Charteris, Henry, 116, 118, 

121, 122 

R., 123, 124 
Chase, William, 209 
Chepman, Walter, 114, 115 

W., and Myliar, A., types 
used by, 115" 

Chester, printing at, 214 
Chiswick Press, 254-258 
Cirencester, printing at, 209 
Civil War, effect on English 

printing, 156-158 ; effect on 

university printing, 179 
Clark, R. &. X 262 
Classics printed at Foulis 

Press, 221 

Clowes, William, 252 
Collins, Freeman, 208 
Columbia Press, 239 
Commonwealth, improvement 

in printing under the, 162 
Constable, T. & A., 261262 
Copland, Robert, 31, 38-40, 


William, 6 1-8 1 

Cosmo jraphicallGlasse, printed 

by ; . Day, 67 
Cotes, Thomas, 151 
Cottrel, James, 168 

Thomas, type-founder, 327 
Coventry, secret press at, 113 


Criticism of Baskerville's types, ' English Stock/ 126 

^^ i i ^ 

_ _ _ . ti w r*mi*i w 9 .M ^1 ^^m 4* t *^. *^ r * 


223, 224 Engraved title-pages, 86, 87, 

Crossgrove, Henry, 208 91, 93, T ^9 166, 264 

Crownfield, Cornelius, 206-207 Eton, printing at, 1 30 

Exeter, printing at, 182, 210- 


Extracts from Woodfall's led- 
gers, 203-204 
Eyreand Spottiswoode,248-249 

DANIEL, Roger, 180 

Darby, John,. 176 

Darker, S., 210 

Davidson, Thomas, 115, 

Davison, Thomas, 248 

Davy, Rev. \V., private press 

of, 237 

Dawson, George, 162 
Day, John, 63-79, 81, 83, 112- 

129, 1 66, 178 ; arrested, 65 ; 

attempt on his life, 74, 75 ; 

FAQUES, or Fawkes, Richard, 

W T illiam, 36-37 

" ' r,s., 


f f ^ i , 

"7T,""^" ~~ ~e ~j~' lu" ' " ' Fat-faced letters, 243 
birthplace, 63; death, 79, Fawcett, Rev. J,, private press 
devices, 68, 72, 80 ; family o f, 236 

Thomas, 140, 141 

, , , 
of, 80 ; opposition to, 73 ; 

' ' i A ---^-- ^ __ 

Roman type cast by, 73; Fawsley , secreVp'ress at, 1 1 3 
Saxon type, 70 : trouble p u ^ ishop gi ft to Oxford 
with J. Wolfe, 86 ; types Vniversily, 179 
used by, 64, 65, 67, 68,70, 75 Fenner> \villiam, 195, 196 

Fictitious imprints, 46, 105 
Field, John, 162, 180 
Richard, 95-9 6 > ^3 

Richard, So 

Stephen, 154 

Devon, printing in, 210-211 

Dexter, Gregory, 144 

Dicey, W., 209 

Dictes and Saytnges of the ^ 

*v v K i 1 ^ ^ ^ 

Fifield, A., type-founder, 148 
Figgins, Vincent, type-founder, 

Philosophers, 6 
Disputes between R. Barker 

' Fine ' printing, its defects, 


Fire destroys Bowyer's print- 
ing house, 197 

and B. Norton, 127 
Dockwray, Thomas, 81 

'Domesday,' fount so called, pire'destroys J.' Nichols' print- 
ing house, 245 
' First Folio/ of Shakespeare, 

1 34-i 35 . . 
Fisher, Benjamin, 141 

Fleet, T., 217 
Flessher. See Fletcher 


Dover, Simon, 171, 173 
Doves Press, 265, 266 
Dublin, press in, 134 
Duff, E. G., 4, is, 21, 22, 

46, 99 

Dugard, W., 159-160 Fletcher, James, 162, 173. *75 

Dutch language, books m, 107- --< - -* ** 


printing at, 113* 

129, 261 
Edward the Sixth's Catechism, 

Eld, George, 138 

Miles, 138-140, 197 

Rev. J., private press of, 


Foster, Jolm, 183 
Foulis, Andrew, 219 

Robert, 219-222 
Fowle, D.,2i8 

Z., 218 
Foxe, Jolin, 69 


English Printing 

Franklin, Benjamin, 216, 249 

James, 216 
Freez, Frederick, 98 

Fry, Joseph, letter-founder, 225 
Fuller, Otto, schoolmaster at 
Westminster, 20 

GATESHEAD, printing at, 182 

Gaver, James, 31 

Ged, William, 195-196, 243 

Gent, Thomas, 205, 213 

Gibson, T., 53 

Gifts of type to Oxford Uni- 

versity, 179, 180 
Gilbert and llivington, 250-251 
GilfiUan, J., 214 
Glasgow, printing in, 219-222, 


Gloucester, printing in, 209 
Godbid, William, 168 
Goes, H., 27 ; his mark found 

on wall-paper at Cambridge, 


Golden Legend, 1483, 10 ; Mor- 
ris's reprint, 264 

' Golden type,' 264 

Gough, John, 31, 42, 43, 44, 
49. 8 1 

Graf ton, Richard, 46, 53, 57- 
59, 61, 92, 93; appointed 
royal printer, 59 ; death, 
59 ; device of, 59 

Greek type, 77, 83, 85, 102, 
130, 138, 145, 178, 220, 266 

Green, Bartholomew, 184 

Samuel, 155, 183 

Samuel, junior, 183 
Greenstreet Press, 112 
Griffin, Edward, 139 
Grismond, John, type-founder, 

148, 162, 167 

Grover, James, type-founder, 

J. and T., foundry, 178 
Guine, H., 216 

HABERDASHERS forbidden to 

sell books, 149 
Hamilton, Archibald, 231 
Harper, Thomas, 138, 161, 162 
Karris, Benjamin, 183, 184 
Harrison, John, 88 

Luke, 88 

Harrison, Richard, 81 
Haseley, secret press at, 113 
Haviland, John, 139 

Thomas, 140 
Hayes, John, 1 68, 169, 175 
Hebrew letters, cut by John 

Day, 75 

Hempstead, or Kernel Hemp- 
stead, 112 

Herford, John, 103, 104 

Heron, J., 42 

Hester, Andrew, Si 

Hills, Henry, 162 

Hinton, T., 209 

Hodge, Robert, 216 

Hodgkinson, Richard, 163, 167 

Hodgkys. See He/skins 

Hoe machines for printing 
newspapers, 241 

Holland, type obtained by 
English printers from, 1 8y 

Holt, J., 216 

Hornby, St. John, 266 

Home, Herbert, 266 

Horton, E., 176 

Hoskins, Samuel, 113 

Hunt, Thomas, 18 

Hurclis, Rev. J., private press 

of, 337 
Huvin, J., 25 

IllBOTSON, R., 167 

Imprints, fictitious, 46, 105 
Imprints of Barker, Bill and 

Norton, 127 
Indulgences printed by Cax- 

ton, 8 

Lettou, 20 
Inferiority of English printing, 

Initial letters, 67, 91, 131, 136, 


Ipswich, printing at, 105106 
Ireland, printing in, 124-125 
'Irish Stock/ 126 
Irish type, 124-125, 178 

JACKSON, Joseph, 226 
^aggard, Isaac, 133 

William, 133 

James, Thomas, type-founder, 
189, 190, 196, 199 



' John Pryntare,' 104 
" ohnson, Marmaduke, 183 
Jones, William, 142, 149 
J"ugge, Richard, 78, 81, 90, 91 ; 

device, 91 

Junius, F., gift to Oxford Uni- 
versity, 1 80 

KEIMEK, Samuel, 216 
Kele, John, 81 

R. chard, 49, 60 

Thomas, 42, 60 
Kelmscott Press, 262-265 
King's Printing House, 127, 

132. 139, 190-191 
Kingston, Felix, 133 
Kirgate, Thomas, 234 
Kneeland, S., 217 
Kceiiig, F., invents printing 

machine, 239 
Kyrforth, C., TOO 

LAIR. See Siberch, John 
Lamb, Sir ].. 143, 149 
Lant, Richard, 61, 81 
'Latin Stock,' 127 
Laud, William, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 145 
Law books, patent for printing, 


Leach, T., 176 
Lee, William, 138 
Le "ate, John, 111 ; acts as 

ceputy for Robert Barker, 


Legge, Cantrell, in, 153 
Leipreuik, Robert, 117, 118 
L'Estrange, Sir R., 169-174 
Lettou, John, 8, 20-22 
Litcfefield, John, 152 
Liverpool, printing at, 214 
London, custom of the city, 84 

Fire of, 174, 175 

number of printers in, in 
1649, 161 

in 1663, 170 

in 1668, 185-188 
London Gazette, printer of, 177 
Low state of printing in Eng- 
land in 1700, 189 

Lownes, Humphrey, 138 

Matthew, 138 

, B., 308 

MABB, Thomas, 168, 173 
Machlinia, William de, 21, 22 ; 

types used by, 22, 23 
Madan, Falconer, 152 
Mahon, Charles, third Earl 

Stanhope, 238, 243 
Manchester, printing at, 214 
Mansion, Colard, 3 
Marprelate Press, 112-113 
Marriot, John, 137 
Marsh, Tiomas, 78, 8 1 
Marshall, John, 250 
Martin, William, type-founder, 

230, 244 
Maryland, U.S.A., printing in, 


Matthewes, Augustine, 142, 149 
Maxey, J., 161 
Maxwell, D., 168 
Maycocke, John, 176, 177 
Mayler, 61 

Middleton, William, 55, 61 
Milner, Ursyn, 99 
Molesey, East, secret press at, 

Monopolies, 78, 93, 96 

Morris, William, 262-265 
Morton Missal, 35 
Moseley, Humphrey, 159 
Moxon, James, type-founder, 

162, 177-178 

Mychell, John, 61, 107-108 
Myllar, Andrew, 114, 115 

NAVIGATION, first English book 

on, 40 

Newberry, Ralph, 127 
Newcastle - on -Tyne, printing 

at, 181, 182, 214 
Newcomb, Thomas, 162, 163, 

164, 171, 175 
New Haven, U.S.A., printing 

at, 215 

Newspapers, 208-218 
News sheets, 156, 157 
New York, printing in, 164, 

Nichols, Arthur, type-founder, 


~ohn, 245-247 

^ohn Bowyer, 247 

'~ohn Gough, 247 


Englis.i Printing 

Norton, Bonham, 60, 127, 129, 
131, 132, 153 

John, 127, 129-130, 131, 

Joyce, 131 

Mark, 91 

Ro ;er, 162 

\i iam, 60, 81, 129, 132 
Norwich, printing in, 108109, 


Notary, Julian, 25 ; book- 
binder, 26; devices of, 32, 
33 ; removal to London, 
32 ; types used by, 32 

Notes on London printing 
houses, 149 

Nottingham, printing at, 181, 

Nuthead, W., 184 

Nutt, Richard, 179 

OKES, John, 141, 151 

Nicholas, 137-149 

Old -face type, revived by the 
Chisw ck ?ress, 258 

Oswen, J., 105-106 

Oulton, R., 151 

Overton, J., a fictitious im- 
print, 105 

Oxford, printing at, 17-18, 99, 
152, 205-206, 258-259 

first book printed at, 17 ; 
number of books printed at 
first press, 1 8 ; types used 
at first press, 18-19 

type foundry at, 170 

PAINE, Thomas, 149 
Palmer, J., 217 

Samuel, 200 
Paper-mill in England, Tot- 

tell's scheme for, 93 
Parker, J., 215 

Matthew, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 68, 76, 86, 87, 

Parsons, Marmaduke, 149 

Pennsylvania, printing in, 1 84 
Pepwell, Henry, 31, 39, 43, 60, 

104 ; types used by, 43 
Petit, Thomas, 61 
Petition for incorporation, by 

London printers, 167 

Philadelphia, printing in, 216 
Pickering, William, 255, 257 
Pictorial initials, 85, 86, 129 
Pine, William, 224 
Plague, 138, 174 
Powell, Humphrey, 81, 124 

Thomas, 54, 81 

\\il!iam, 55, 8 1 
Printers appointed under de- 
cree of 1637, 148 

Printing machines, 240 

materials, sale of, 139 

patents, 129, 131 
Private presses,' 74, 232-237 
Proctor, Robert, 47, 266 
Proposals for regulating the 

press, 169171 
Provincial presses, 98-113, 


Purfoot, Thomas, Si 
Purslowe, Elizabeth, 151, 162 

George, 139 

Thomas, 144* 140 
Pynson, Richard, 23-25, 50, 

54. 55 * appointed royal 
printer, 34 ; death, 36 ; 
devices, 35 ; first dated 
book, 24 ; removal to Fleet 
Street, 33 ; types used by, 
24, 33 I will of, 36 

R., junior, 36 

QUARTOS, W. de Wordc's pre- 
ference for, 29-30 

RAIKES, Robert, 209 
Rastell, John, 41-43 

William, 43, 89 
Raworth, Richard, 145, 149 

Ruth, 159 

Redman, Robert, 46, 53, 54, 55 
Reed, T. B., 70, 73, 125, 130, 

1 66, 179, 221, 223 
Revolt against monopolies, 79 
Reynes, John, 88 
Richardson, Samuel, 201-202 

William, 202 
Rivington, Charles, 249 

! J-. 250 

Roberts, John, 78 

Robinson, William, 233 

Rogers, Bruce, 267 
i G., 218 



Roman type introduced by 
Pynson, 34 

cast by J. Day, 73 

by Caslon the 
first, 200 

Rood, Theodoric, 1 7 

Ross, J., 121 

Rotary press, 242 

Roycroft, Thomas, 162, 165, 

168, 173. 176 
Royston, John, 162 

Richard, 162, 173 
Russhe, John, 24, 25 
Rycharde, Dan Thomas, 102 

Saxon type, 70, 198 
Sayle, Charles, 99 
Scolar, John, 99-101 
Scolokar, Anthony, 64, 105 
Scotland, printing in, 114-124, 

219-222, 259262 
Scott, E. L. J., 13, 20 
Secret presses, 1 1 1-112 
Seres, William, 61, 63, 82, 105 
Shakespeare, William, 95, 96, 

Sheldonian Theatre used as 

printing office, 180 
Shober, F., 216 

Short, J., 152 

Shrewsbury, printing at, 181 
Siberch, John, 101-102 
Simmons, Matthew, 159, 162 
Skot, John, 4^-, 116 
Smethwicke, _"., 133 
Smyth, Robert, 123 
Snodham, Thomas, 138 
Solempne, A. de, 107-108 
Sparke, Michael, 142-143 
S-DOttiswoode, Andrew, 250 
S 1 :. Albans, printing at, 19, 103 

Manor at Westminster, 20 
St. Andrews, printing at, 118 
St. Chrysostom, Works of, 130 
Stanhope press, 238 
Stansby, William, ISS"^, 

138, 139. ISLI59 
Staples, A., 213 
Star Chamber decrees, 77, 97, 

142, 146, 147 

prosecutions, 141-144 

Stationers' Company, 65, 66, 
80-82, 89, 90, 93, i io s 126, 
127, 137, 138, I53 168, 170, 

171, 175. 197 

list of members, 80-82 

Order made by, 132 
Stereotyping, 195-196, 243 
Stirling, printing at, 119 
Story, J., 115 

Strahan, William, 249 
Strawberry Hill Press, 232-234 
Streator, John, 168 
Struggle zor religious liberty, 

Survey of the Printing Presses, 

1668, 175, 185-186 
Surveyor of the Press. See 

L 'Estrange, Sir R. 
Symmes, V., 113 

TABB, Henry, 104 

Tavistock, printing at, 102 

Taylor, William, 144 

Thomas, Thomas, no 

Thomlyn, A., 113 

Thome, John, 46 

Times first printed by steam, 

Title-page, first Westminster, 

Title-pages, engraved, 129-131, 

137, 166,264 
Tottell, Richard, 59, 78, 82, 

89 9*. 93 
Tottell's Miscellany, 92 

Toye, Elizabeth, 90 
Robert, 90, 112 
Treveris, P., 46 
Tunbridge Wells, printing at, 


Turner, William, 142 

Twyn, John, trial and execu- 
tion of, 172-173 

Type-founders, 148, I77- J 79 

Type-founding in England, low 
state of, 189 

Type specimen books, 225, 226 

UNIVERSITY Presses, 151-1 

Updike, B., 267 

Urie, Robert.type-founder. 220 

276 4 !? English Printing 

VALE Press, 266 

Vautrollier, Thomas, 78, 9?~ 

95 ; character of his work, 

94 ; death. 94 ; devices, 95 ; 

visits Edinburgh, 122 
' Vinegar ' Bible, 192 
Virginia, U.S.A., printing in, 


W AU> EGR AVE , Robert, 112- 

113, 123 

Waley, John, 89 
Walker, Emery, 265 

- Joseph, 173 
Walkley, Thomas, 159 
Walley, H., 135 
Ward, G,, 21 4 

Roger, 79 
Warren, A., 163, 175 

Thomas, 163 
Waterson, Simon, 173 
Watkins, Richard, 78 
Watson, H., 99 
Watts, John, 19,9, 217 
Welsh book printed at Oxford, 

Westminster, printers at, 5-16, 

Weyman, W,, 215 

Whitchurch, Edward, S3. 57 
White, Grace, 213 

John, 212, 214 
Whittfiker, T., 131 
Whitti^gham, Charles, the 

elder, 254 

the younger, 255 
' Wicked ' Bible, 145 
Wilde, J., 201 

\Vilkes, John, private press of, 

Wilson, Dr. A., type-founder, 


Windet, John, 135, 136 

Wolf, John, 70, 163 

Wolfe, Joan, 87 
Reginald, 82-87 ; ap- 
pointed king's printer, 86 ; 
Birthplace, 84 ; collects ma- 
terial for a chronicle, 87 ; 
death, 87 ; device, 85 ; free- 
dom, 84 ; trouble with J. 
Day, 86 ; types used by, 84 ; 
will, 87 

Wolston Priory, secret press 
at, 113 

Woodbridge, New Jersey, 
U.S.A., printing at, 215 

Woodcock, Thomas, 91 

Woodcut borders, ix, 52, 53, 


Woodfall, Henry, 202, 204 
Worcester, printing in, 106- 

107, 211 

Worde, Wynkyn de, 1416, 25, 
27-31, 4A, 45, 47, 55, 5<>, 
178 ; birthplace, 14 ; death, 
31 ; devices, 30, 31 ; number 
of books printed by, 28-29 I 
removal to Fleet Street, 16 ; 
types used by, 14, 15, 16, 
27, 28 ; will, 31 ; woodcuts, 


Wrench, W., 152 
Wright, Thomas, type-founder, 

Wyer, Robert, 37, 47-49. 6x, 

82, 98-100, 115 

YORK, printing at, 98, 181, 

Young, Robert, 139, 140 

ZENGER, J, P,, 215 

Ace. N o. 

c . 

Book IMO.