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/ 



SHORT-HORN CATTLE 



A SERIES OF 



Historical Sketches, Memoirs and 
Records 



OF THE 



Breed and its Development 



:n the 



UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 



By ALVIN H. SANDERS, 
Managing Editor of " The breeder's Gazette." 



SECOND EDillON. 



CHICAGO : 

Sanders Publishing Co. 
1909. 






T'^^^ 



\ . 



?!>• Lfb ^^ 



C^ . 



Oopyright« 1900. 

BY ALVIN H SANDERS 

All rights reserved 



AGRIC 
LIBRARY 



" The history of what man has accomplished in this world 
is, at bottom, the history of the g^eat men who have worked 
here. They were the leaders of men, these great ones ; the 
modelers, patterns, and, in a wide sense, creators of whatso- 
ever the general mass of men contrived to do or to attain." — 
Thomas Carlyle. 



267537 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I— THE OLD SHORT-HORN COUNTRY AND 

ITS CATTLE. 
Some Short-horn shrines - A farmer's cow --Grass a prime factor 
in oattle-growlDff— Birthplace and origin of the breed —Ear- 
liest known breeders —Some foundation stock &-24 

CHAPTER n-DEVELOF^ENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 

Faults of the oldTeeswater stock— The Bakewell experiments — 
Ketton and Barmpton — The original Duchess cow — "The Beau- 
tiful Lady Maynard"— The bull Hubbaok— Foljambe and in- 
breeding — Favorite (25'i) an extraordinary sire— *' The Durham 
Ox'» — ** The White Heifer That Traveled " — The " alloy " blood 
—As to Robert Colling — "The American Ck)w"— The Ketton 
Dispersion -~ The Barmpton sales— Pre-eminence of the Ck>ll- 
ings. 25-61 

CELAPTER m-FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 

The elder Booth— The Fairholme experiment— Some foundation 
sires— The Halnaby or Strawberry tribe— The Bracelets— 
Richard Booth at Studley— The IsabeUas— John Booth at Kil- 
lerby 55-67 

CHAPTER IV— THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 

Early studies in cattle-breeding— Original investments— The 
Duchess blood — Student, experimenter and exhibitor— Bulls 
first used on the Duchesses — From Halton to Ridley Hall —Re- 
moval to Kirklevington — Belvedere (1706) of the Princess blood 
—The cross of Whitaker'sNorfoIk— TheMatchemoowand the 
Oxfords — A show-yard disappointment— The Oxford Royal of 
1830— Prizes at Cambridge -A "brush'* with the Booths — 
Duke of Northumberland (1940) —Importance of tabulated ped- 
igrees—The Waterloos- Wild Eyes Tribe— The Cambridge 
(Bed) Roses— Foggathorpefamily— Blanche or Roan Duchess 
sort —The Secrets — So-called Bell-Bates tribes— Last appear^ 
ance in show-yard- Dispersion of the herd —Sixty-four Duch- 
ess females — Individual character of the cattle. . « 68-1 10 
(6) 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V— PALMY DAYS AT KILLERBY AND WAR- 
LABY 

Bracelet and Neoklaoe — Buckinipluun — John Booth's sale — War- 
laby and its show-yard wonders— Faith, Hope and Oharity— 
Crown Prince (10087)— Isabella Buckingham and other celeb- 
rities— The Blossoms and Windsor (4013) — Bride, Brides- 
maid and Bride Elect — The quartette of " Queens **- VlTandiere, 
Campfollower and Soldier's Bride— Death of Richard Booth 

— The Booth method of breeding. 117-142 

CHAPTER VI— OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 

Lord Althorpe (Earl Spencer)— Jonas Whitaker— Wetherell, the 
"Nestor" of the trade— Wiley of Brandsby— The Knightley 
"Flllpails"— Fawkes of Famley Hall — William Torr— The 
long roll of honor. .- 143-163 

CHAPTER Vn-FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 

Character of the Gough & Biiller cattle— Kentucky and the Patton 
stock — An early New York importation— The Cox importation 
—The first pedigreed bulls — The "Seventeens**— Massachu- 
setts importations — Early New York importations — CoL Pow- 
ers purchases— Ancestress of the Louans— Walter Dun's im- 
portations. 164-188 

CHAPTER Vm— DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY 
HERDS 
Feeding for seaboard markets— Ohio Importing Company— Felix 
Renick and confreres in England— Whltaker's selections of 
1835 and 1836— Sale of Oct. 29, 1836— Final sale in 1837— Thos. 
Bates to Felix Renick— Mr. Clay's importations to Kentucky— 
Dr. Martin's importation of 1839— R. Hutohcraft's importation 
— Fayette County Importing Co.— Importations into Tennessee 

— William NelTs importation — Wait and other importations — 
First Bates bull for Kentucky 189-224 

CHAPTER IX— EASTERN IMPORTATIONS-1880 to 1850. 

New York importations — Vail's purchases of Bates cattle— Whlt- 
aker's shipments to America— Introduction of Princess blood 

— Miscellaneous importations. 225-237 

CHAPTER X-SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY IN 
AMERICA. 
The first ** Duke " for America — Morris and Becar — The Earl Ducie 
sale in England —Thomdale and the Duchesses — ReriTsl of in- 
terest in the West— Scioto Valley Importing Co.— Madison Ca 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll 

K>.) Oo.— Nortbem Kentucky Association >- Soott CQi.XKj.) Im- 
porting Oo.— Clinton Oo. (O.) Association— Clark Oo. (O.) Ca- 
ll- A. Alexander of Woodbum — First of the Alrdrle Duchesses 
^The Alexander Importation of July, 186S— Subsequent ship- 
ments to Woodbum Farm- Importations by the Shakers— 
James & Matson (Kentucky)— Wilson & Seawright <0.) — 
Mason and Bracken (Kentucky) Association— Livingston (3o. 
(S. Y.) Association — Thomas Richardson (New York) — Dr. 
H. WendeU (New York) -J. O. Sheldon (New York)-R F. 
Nichols (Lfonisiana)- First importations Into Indiana— An 
early importation to Wisconsin— The Dllnois Importing Co. — 
Founding of the American Herd Book. 288-286 

C3HAPTER XI-SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 

A new era dawns— Duke of Alrdrle (12730) —Gtoorge M. Bedford's 
lease of *' The Duke '*— Jere Duncan and Duke of Alrdrle 2743— 
Abram Beoiek and Alrdrle 2478— Alrdrle a bull-breeder— In- 
breeding of the Rose of Sharons— The Vanmeters— Young 
Phyllis— Young Mary— The Warflelds— Benick 908— Musca- 
ioon 7W7— ^e Loudon Duchesses — Adoption of Bates type 
andmethods 287-332 

CHAPTER Xn-PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 

Ilrst Illinois herds— Early Indiana breeders— Pioneer breeders 
of Michigan —First Short-horns west of the Mississippi — Foun- 
dation stock In Iowa— Early Wisconsin herds— Activity in 
the show-yard —Wm. B. Duncan and Minister 6888— J. M. Hill's 
sale— J. H Plckrell— Sweepstakes fiZao—Qeu. Grant 4825— 
Baron Booth of Ijancaster. 333-376 

CHAPTER XIII-THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 
'Boyal '* honors for Bates cattle —Duchesses exported to England 
—The Qriyid Duchesses — Hayering Park sale — Sheldon of Oe- 
nera- Qetkera cattle abroad— Walcott & CJampbell — First 
Hillhurst importations— Gibson buys Booths for New York 
Mills — Sensational transfer of the Sheldon herd — ** Duke'* 
bulls in demand— The McMillan sale— Col. William S. King— 
The Lyndale show herd— Tycoon 7330- King's riotory at St 
Louis — W. R. Duncan's sale — The beginning of liye-stock jour- 
nalism. 377-417 

CHAPTER XIV-AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 
Hillhurst and Lyndale operations— Exportations to England — 
(3lark Ca (E^y.) Importing Ck».— High prices in Ulinois- The 
great trade of 1872- Oakland FaTorite 10546 and Loudon Duke 
eth 10809— The first National conyention— Opposition to pre- 
Talling" fashions "developed. 418-433 



Vill TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XV— THE SENSATION OP SEVENTY-THREE. 

Spring sales of 1873— Danmore's big deal — Summer sales— New 
York Mills dispersion — Kello's mistake — Sources of deteriora^ 
UoQ— 4th Duke of Qeneva— English sales of 1873. 434-458 

CHAPTER XVI-A GOLDEN AGE. 

Spring sales of 1 874 — Lyndale sale at Dexter Park — Other Western 
eyents- Kentaoky summer sales— Closing events of 1874— The 
sales of 1875 — Glen Flora dispersion — Kissinger's sale — Emott 
& Kent— Spears and the Nelly Blys— Piokrell's great sale — 
Jaoohs' sale at West Liberty — Dexter Park auctions — The 
Ayery & Murphy sale — Long prices at Meredith's— Airdrie 
Duchesses at II 8,000 each — Big sales in the Blue Grass — Push- 
ing the Princesses — The Trans-MissLssippl trade — $3,600 for a 
Scotch heifer — Groom importations and sale — Other important* 
transactions — All records broken at Dunmore — Torr *s Triumph 
— Additional importations— Another Benick exportation — 
North Elkhorn (Ky.) importation — Closing events of 1875. . . 45(MS00 

CHAPTER XVU— THE TURN OF THE TmE. 

Hon. George Brown and Bow Park — 4th Duke of Clarence — Opening 
sales of 1876— Potts buys imp. Dukeof Richmond— Col. Hol- 
loway*8 big average — Albert Crane pays 123,000 for an Airdrie 
Duchess— $17,900 for 14th Dukeof Thorndale — Closing events 
of 1876 - Piokrell & Kissenger — Spring sales of 1877 — Cochrane 
at Windermere — Sale summary for 1877 — A falling market— 
Top prices in England for 1878 — Dark days of 1879— The rally 
of 1880— The Vaile and Rumsey importations — Sales of 1881 — A 
new era at hand— Injudicious breeding— Evils of speculation 
— The spur of opposition — Scotch cattle to the fore. . . 510-548 

CHAPTER XVIII-SCOTLAND»S SEARCHING TEST. 

"Caledonia stem and wild'*- Science, "roots** and Short-horns— 
Feed-lot considerations paramount— Crossing the border— 
Robertson of Ladykirk — Rennle of Phantassie — Barclay of 
Ury — Hutoheson of Monyruy— Grant Duff of Eden— Brawith 
Bud " Simpson and Buchan Hero — Hay of Shethin. . . . . 549-575 

CHAPTER XrX-AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 

A new type sought— The brothers Cruiokshank— The farm at Slt- 
tyton— General plan pursued — The first of the Violets — Venus 
tribe— The family of MLmulus Pico tee and her progeny —The 
Matchless sort — The Broadhooks — Origin of the Lady tribe- 
The Nonpareils— Sittyton Butterflys— Orange Blossoms — Ad- 
mah, Kilmeny 3d, and Eliza by Brutus — Clipper tribe— The 



TABLE OF 00NTBNT8. IX 

Viotorias— The Lianoasters — The Brawith Buds — Dnohesses of 
Oloster — The Secrets — The Cicely sort — Avalanche — Violette 
—The liOTelys — Barmpton Roses— The Splcys— The Layen- 
ders— EMrst Sittyton bulls— Fairfax Royal (0667)— Hudson 
(0228). Report (10701) and Veirei Jacket (10906)— Matadore 
(11800) — Plantagenet (11006) —Doctor Buckingham (14406)— The 
Baron (13833) — Lord Bathurst (15173)— Master Butterfly ad 
(14918)— John Bull (11618) — Lord Raglan (1S244)— The Czar 
(20047) — Lancaster Comet (11663)— (Champion of England 
(17506) —Windsor Augustus (10187) —Forth (17866) - Lord Privy 
Seal (16444) —Prince Alfred (27107) —Other outside bulls— (^n- 
oentration of the Champion of England blood — Scotland's Pride 
and Pride of the Isles — C^sar Augustas — Royal Duke of Qlos- 
ter— Roan 'Gauntlet— Bar mpton — CHxmberland 576-(M4 

CHAPTER XX-OTHER NORTH CX)UNTRY HERDS. 

Douglas of Athelstaneford — Campbell of Kinellar — The Nonpa- 
reils, Miss Ramsdens and Golden Drops — Early Kinellar sires 

— Booth cross disappointing — Marr of TJppermill — The Maudes 
— The Missies — The Princess Royals — The Alexandrinas — The 
Roan or Red Ladys — The Bessles — The Claras — The Emmas — 
The Ooldies — Sittyton sorts — Early sires at Uppermill — Heir . 
of Englishman (24122) - Cherub 4th (83380) —Athabasca (47360) 
—William of Orange (SO604) — Later Sittyton sires at UppermlU 

— Lethenty— CoUynie. 645-670 

CHAPTER XXI— RISE OF SCOTCH POWER IN AMERICA. 

Early importations into Ontario— First Sittyton cattle in Cianada 

— The Athelstane blood — Cruickshank cattle at the shows — 
Violet's Forth- The (Golden Drops — Thompson's other Impor- 
tations-John Miller's first shipment— James L Davidson — 
Hon. John Dryden — Arthur Johnston — Miscellaneous Canadian 
importations — The Hes importation intoDUnois— Robt Milne 
of Kelvin Grove — X^owman and Smiths' importation — Scotch 
success at the shows — Potts and the Duke of Richmond —The 
Fanny Airdrie " nick " — Frederick William and " the twins ** — 
A line of Cruickshank sires — Twenty years in the show-yard — 

The WUhoit herd. 671-711 

CHAPTER XXn— CLOSING EVE3NTS OF THE CENTURY. 

Sale of the HUlhnrstDuchesses— Richard Gibson's sale of 1882— 
Woodbum sale of 1882— The Huston-Gibson sale — Palmer's 
sale of Scotch cattle — Kentucky Importing Co. of 1883 — Sale of 
Pickrell, Thomas & Smith — Kentucky summer sales of 1883 -. 
Sale of the Holford Duchesses - The Hamiltons - Col. W. A. 
Harris of Linwood — Success of Baron Victor — The Linwood 
Goklen Drops — Baron Lavender 2d — Imp. Craven Knight— A 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

searoh for sires — Prinoess Alice — Lin wood's salutary influence 
—J. J. Hill of Nortb Oaks-Hope's show herds of 1887 and 18» 
—Luther Adams* Importations— The shipment of 1887— Gup- 
bearer bought— West Liberty sale— The memorable purchase 
of 1887— Lakeside's show herd of 1888— Third and last lot— 
Last successful Duchess sale— Sale of the Slttyton herd— The 
Gruiokshank cows at OoUynie— Field Marshal and Mario— 
Scottish Archer and Count Lavender — Argentine and the sham- 
bles-Summary of Sittyton sales— Moberley and Young Ab- 
bottsbnm — Mary Abbottsbum 7th— Forest Qrove sal»- Wood- 
bum dispersion— Columbian Exposition awards— Recent im- 
portations— Herd-book consolidation 712-798 

CHAPTER XXm— A DUALrPURPOSE BREED. 

UniTersal adaptability — Feed-lot fayorites — '* Prime Scots" — 
Smithfleld Club — American Fat-Stock Show — On the range— 
Dairy capacity- State fair tests — The Columbian records — 
—The Wisconsin experiment— Official records in Iowa— Fig- 
ures from New York— Polled Durhams 800-888 



CHAPTER XXIV— THE LAMP OF EXPERIENCE. 

What constitutes sttooessT- Inbreeding— Herd-book registration 
—Color — Handling quality— Constitution, character and con- 
formation—Primary points in management— Does showing 
pay T— Selling the surplus— About animal portraiture— Tribal 
designation— Dignity of the breeder's calling— The future. .. 880-872 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Thb 8th (BSD) AND IOth (roan) Duchbss OF Gbnbya. PwntigpUce. 

ChUUJM AHD RoBBBT GOLLIBO FACING PAGB 26 

KbttohHall .80 

*^Whitb Hbifbb That Traybllbd." 41 

COMBT(166) 49 

Thomas Booth 66 

Thomas Batbs 68 

Duchbss bt Daisy Bull (186) 74 

Kbtton 1st (709) . . 74 

Bblybdbbb (1706) 84 

Clbyblanv Lad (S407) 90 

NoBFOLK (3877) 90 

"Pbt" Duchbss 84th 96 

DuKB OF Northumbbbland (1940) 101 

Duchbss 42d and Duchbss 43d 106 

Warlabt Housb. 117 

Nbcklacb * . . 120 

Bracblbt. 120 

Birthday 126 

YlYANDIBRB. 126 

Commandbr-in-Chibf (21461) 187 

IiADY FbAOBANT. 142 

At thb Gatbs of Woodburn 288 

Fblix Rbnick 277 

Capt. Jambs N. Brown 277 

Gbn. Sol Mbrbdith 277 

Thomas Wilhoit 277 

Abbam Rbnick 287 

B. p. Vanmbtbb 287 

Gborob M. Bbdford 287 

William Warfibldi 287 

IMF. DuKB of AmDRIB (12780) 801 

LiouDON Duchbss 2d and Daughter 822 

J. H. PiGKRFLL 888 

CoL. William S. King ..888 

(11) 



XU LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

J. H. KiBBINQBB. 888 

J. H. Spbabs 888 

Bakon Booth of Lancastbr 7585 809 

Cou WiiiMAM S. King's Prize Herd 400 

Simon Bbattib 484 

Richard Gibson ..484 

JohnR. Paob 484 

John Thornton . . 434 

14th DuKB or Thorndale (28450) 460 

4th DuKB OF Gbnbya (30058) 450 

Gborgb W. Rust 467 

Hon. T. C. JoNBS 487 

CJoL. Jambs W. Judy 467 

Lewis F. Allen . . 467 

William Torr 407 

T. C. Booth. 407 

Highland Flower 508 

IOth Duchess of Airdrie 510 

Imp. Maid of Honor 510 

Hon. H. M. Cochrane's Sale. 5i7 

Amos Cruickshank 576 

Sitttton Housb ..644 

The **Stbadino" at Uppermill 665 

A Glimpse of Colltnie. . . ' 660 

J. H. Potts & Son's Show Herd 671 

Young Abbottsbubn 110670 712 

CJOL. W. A. Harris 727 

T. S. MOBBRLET 727 

William Miller 727 

J.H.POTTS 727 

Royal Hero 113611 742 

James I. Davidson. 748 

John Drtden 748 

Hon. M. H. Ck>CHRANB 748 

John Hopb 748 

William Duthie 762 

J. Deanb Willis 762 

S. Campbell. 752 

W. S. Marr 762 

New Year's Gift (57796) 759 

Field Marshal (47870) .. 772 

Rbsidbnob of Dbane Willis of Bapton Mamob. .. ..776 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Xlll 



Elyiba or Bbowmdalb 3d and Cai.v 792 

St. VAUiHTDr» 121014. 796 

Imp. Babon Cbuiokshank 100297 796 

RUBBBTA AND ROSB O'G&ADT 796 

Wnj>QuBBN2D 800 

WHI8KBB8 800 

JOHH D. GiLLBTT 809 

DowagbbSd 822 

MoiXT MniJGBNT 822 

Jbwbl2d 824 

KitttClat4th 829 

SCHOOLEB. 829 

CoixbgbMoobb 882 

CoLLBGB Bbllb 8d 882 

RowBNA 2d 8&5 

Mi88 Bklladbum 6tb. 889 

Bapton Pbabl. 848 

CiCBLT. 848 

Bbbbd Ttpbs Shown bt Photoorapht. . . . . . . 868 

Show Hbhd or Gbobgb Habribon 808 

Champion Aobd Hbbd 1904. 866 

FaibQubbn 860 



CHAPTER L 



THE OLD SHORT-HORN COUNTRY AND 
ITS CATTLE. 

One bright morning in the month of Jane a 
few years since the writer was a passenger in 
a vehicle that emerged from the environs of 
the comfortable little city of Darlington, Eng- 
land — once the Short-horn capital — into the 
open country so familiar a centnry ago to those 
rare old worthies who gave to the world the 
breed that forms the subject of our story. 
Rural England at this season of the year will 
stir the blood of any human being who has 
any capacity whatever for the appreciation of 
pastoral panoramas. When to the natural 
beauty of the landscape is added the charm of 
historic association and congenial companion* 
ship it is indeed not difficult for a lover of Short- 
horns to while away a summer holiday in the 
peaceful valley of the river Tees and contigu- 
ous territory in York and Durham, the ances- 
tral home of the breed. 

Some Short-horn shrines. — Here are the 
grassy lanes of Hurworth, where the dam of 

(«) 



10 A HISTORY OF SHOET-HOEN OATTLB. 

Hubback grazed; there the farms once occu- 
pied by Charles and Robert Colling; yonder 
Tarm with its quaint old market-place and 
Black Bull Inn. This cluster of cottages, nest- 
ling amidst sheltering vines and flowering 
laburnums, holds the unpretentious roof of 
Thomas Bates, and marks also the historic 
little church-yard of Kirklevington with the 
tomb of the man to whom Short-horn history 
is primarily indebted for the 'most dramatic 
event ever registered in the annals of agricul- 
ture.* We try to recall the figure of the keen 
old bachelor, but we seek in vain through the 
now-deserted fields for Belvedere, the Duke of 
Northumberland or Duchess 34th. That typi- 
cal English hamlet of ye olden time — Great 
Smeaton — shows the house where Coates, the 
father of Short-horn pedigree records, com- 
piled his earliest notes. Away over the hills 
is Eryholme, with its memories of "the beau- 
tiful Lady Maynard," and nearing the Tees at 
Croft a portrait of the $5,000 Comet still greets 
the eye on the sign-board of a wayside inn; 
while over the way is Stapleton, the farm 
where the famous old bull was buried. 

Passing from the train at Northallerton and 
mounting a trap in waiting we are soon on a 
perfect English roadway bound for one of the 

• The International contest for the posseaalon of tne Bates Ducheaaea at 
Mow York Mllla In 1873, when 198 head of Short-horn cattle aoki for tlM 
aatoolahUw total of I380,i%. 



THE OLD SHOBT-HOBN OOUNTBT. 11 

most celebrated seats of Short-horn power. 
Wending our way between vine-clad walls and 
hawthorn hedges we traverse a gently-rolling 
Yorkshire landscape having for a background 
the distant Cleveland hills. Lost in admira^ 
tion at the moving picture, not wholly unlike 
the fairest portions of the Blue-Grass region 
of Central Kentucky, we presently sight "red, 
white and roans" in all their glory, up to their 
knees in richest grass, on a sod that represents 
the growth of centuries. A Short-horn enthu- 
siast's heart beats high as he here approaches 
Warlaby and passing through a velvety lawn 
stands at the threshold so sacred to the house 
of Booth. There is a word to conjure with! 
Redolent with its recollections of Crown 
Prince, Queen of the May, Nectarine Blossom, 
Bride Elect and other names that hold a place 
in the great galaxy of Short-horn "immortals"! 
"Many a valuable cup and hard-won medal 
may there be seen. The portrait of many a 
prize-taker decorates its rooms; and many a 
pleasant hour has been spent and ancient story 
told in this quiet Short-horn home, while the 
genuine old squire ' refilled his pipe and showed 
how fields were won.' " 

Away in the bleaker Northland, far beyond 
those beauteous English scenes bounded by 
"Tweed's fair river, broad and deep," is a Cale- 
donian cottage hid away in one of tha prettiesi 



12 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

little gai-dens fancy can portray. So cobily 
does it seem ensconced that the wintry blasts 
from the neighboring German ocean snrely 
lose a part of their hyperborean rigor before 
they reach that quiet fireside. We are in far- 
off Aberdeen. A white-haired octogenarian, 
Amos Cruickshank, there awaited the peaceful 
ending of a life that proved eminently useful 
to his fellow men, pure and elevating in its 
character, and fruitful of results to the Short- 
horn world. Modestly the Nestor of North 
Country cattle-breeding told us something of 
his life and work. We left him, the sage of 
Sittyton, standing there amidst the greenery 
of his shrubs and flowers, and as we looked 
around upon the fields and paddocks that once 
held Champion of England, Pride of the Isles, 
Boan Gauntlet and Royal Northern, and High- 
land winners by the score, we felt the spell of 
a wondrous story brooding over those silent 
Scottish "braes." 

What have these men, their colleagues and 
their followers, accomplished ? What is the na- 
ture of their legacy? Let us first turn for par- 
tial answer to the world's greatest exhibition 
of live stock and agricultural products. We 
are under the medieval walls of Castle War- 
wick. The flower of British Short-horn herds 
is assembled in the park. The meeting of 
the Boyal Agricultural Society of England is 



TBS OLD 8H0BT*H0RN OOUNTRT. 18 

in progress. The ripe fruit of generations of 
careful breeding is before us. We note the 
size and excellence of the various classes as 
they came forward upon that occasion to be 
judged; the ''bloom" and the wealth of flesh 
and hair! We turn to our catalogue. All 
trace at last to that same little valley of the 
Tees; some through Eirklevington, some 
through Warlaby, some through Sittyton, and 
some through other channels found in the 
broad-flowing currents of the breed. The 
crowds throng about the arena^ where prince 
and peasant, great land-owners and tenant 
farmers and visitors from every clime meet to 
do honor to England's most widely-dissemi- 
nated race of domesticated animals, and, indi- 
rectly, to bear testimony to the noble service 
rendered to the cause of agriculture by the 
builders of this breed. 

A farmer's cow.— The average farmer, aa 
distinguished from the dairyman and profes- 
sional feeder, maintaining cattle as an inci- 
dental, albeit necessary, feature of a well- 
ordered system of mixed husbandry, requires 
not only milk, cream and butter in good sup- 
ply for domestic consumption, but the cows 
that provide him with those products are also 
expected to raise a calf each year that can be 
profitably utilized in consuming the grass and 
''roughness'' of the farm; so that the males 



14 A HISTORY OF 8H0RT-H0BN OATTLB. 

will command a &tir price as yearlings and 
two-year-olds for feeding purposes and the 
heifers possess the requisite size and quality 
fitting them for retention in the breeding herd. 
Hence the necessity for a combined beef-and- 
milk-producing breed for general farm pur- 
poses. 

It is claimed by those who support its con- 
tentions that the .Short-horn blood produces 
"the farmer's cow" par excellence of the world. 
The females often reach in full flesh 1,800 lbs. 
in weight, occasionally making 2,000 lbs., and 
with good farm keep at maturity should aver- 
age say 1,400 lbs. in working condition. Aged 
bulls in high flesh occasionally weigh up to 
2,800 lbs., but experienced breeders prefer sires 
that average from 2,000 lbs. to 2,400 lbs., ex- 
treme weights not oeing generally favored. In 
color they are red, roan, red with white mark- 
ings or white. In Great Britain, the home of 
the breed, the roans predominate. This is 
indeed the one distinctive Short-horn color, 
never produced except by the presence of the 
blood of this breed. In America reds have 
been in special demand for some years past 
purely as a matter of fancy, although the other 
colors — save perhaps the pure whites — are also 
seen in nearly every herd. Good Short-horn 
cows should yield a fair flow of milk as well 
as fatten readily when dry. The steers possess 



THIS OLD 8H0RT-H0BN OOUNTBT. 15 

smooth, level frames, mature quickly on the 
ordinary foods of the farm and are in great 
demand for feeding purposes. The bulls 
"cross" well upon cows of other types, being 
especially valued for leveling and refining 
the form of stock lacking size, finish and 
quality. 

Grass a prime factor in cattle-growing.— 
England, the home of the Short-horn, with its 
moist^ equable climate, is a veritable paradise 
for herbivorous animals. During those trying 
months when American pastures lie brown and 
bare under a fierce midsummer sun those of 
England still afFord green feed. Our blue-grass 
fields in June are luxuriant beyond compare, 
and in late autumnal days usually regain for a 
time much of their earlier splendor, but the 
season of uninterrupted grazing in England is 
longer and the pastures carry a greater variety 
of plants. While John Bull, therefore, owes 
much of his fame as a producer of the flesh- 
bearing breeds to the persistency of the island 
verdure it has remained, nevertheless, for an 
American to furnish agricultural literature 
with a fitting tribute to *the universal benefi- 
cence of grass." Not in the midst of the peer- 
less pastures of old England, but on the rolling 
prairies of our own breezy "Sunflower State" 
of Kansas Senator Ingalls found his inspiration. 
"It yields no fruit in earth or air, yet should its 



16 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

harvest fail for a single year famine wonld de* 
populate the world/'* 

From time immemorial it has been the mis- 
sion of the herd and flock to convert this rich 
fruitage of the earth to the use of man, and one 
of the crowning triumphs of modem agriculture 
is found in the perfection to which domestic ani- 
mals especially adapted to this end have been 
brought. England has easily taken the lead of 
all other nations in this fascinating and emi- 

• Readers of Tn Bbbsdib*b OAzam bare often ezproMed the wish 
that this rhetorical gem might be glyen permanent setting in some form. 
It was originally a part of a msgaslne article written hj Mr. IngaUs many 
years ago. The mueh-admlred passage Is secordlngly given a place here: 

**Next in importance to the dlTlne profusion of water, light and air, 
tJiose three physical facts which render existence possible, may be reck- 
oned the unlTersal beneflcenoei>f grass. Lying in the sunshine among the 
buttercups and dandelions of May, scarcely higher in intelligence than 
those minute tenants of that mimic wilderness, our earliest recollections 
are of grass; and when the fitful feyer is ended, and the foolish wrangle cf 
the market and the forum is closed, grass heals oyer the scar which our 
descent into the bosom of the e^rth has made, and the carpet of the infant 
bocomes the blanket of the dead. 

"Orass is the forgiyeness of Nature— her constant benediction. Fields 
trampled with battle, saturated with blood, torn with the ruts of cannon, 
rrow green again with grass, and carnage la forgotten. Streets abandoned 
by traffic become grass-grown, like rural lanes, and are oblltersted. For- 
ests decay, haryes^s perish, flowers yanlsh, but grass is Immortal. Be- 
l^agured by the sullen hosts of winter it withdraws Into the impregnsble 
fortress of its subterranean vitality and emerges npon the solicitation of 
spring. Sown by the winds, by.wandering birds, propagated by the subtle 
horticulture of the elements which are its ministers and senrants, it 
softens the rude outlines of the world. It eyades the solitude of deserts, 
climbs the inaccessible slopes and plnnaciles of mountains, and modifies 
the history, character and destiny of nations. Unobtrusiye and patient, U 
has Immortal ylgor and sggresslon. Bsnlshed from the thoroughfare and 
fields, it bides its time to return, snd when yigilanoe is relaxed or the 
dynasty has perished it silen^y resumes the throne from which It has been 
expelled but which It never abdicates. It bears no blasonry of bloom to 
charm the senses with frsgranse or splendor, but its homely hue is more 
enchanting than the lily or the rose. It yields no fruit in earth or air. yet 
3houlQ its harvest fail for a single year famine would depopulate the 
world." 



THE OLD SHORT-HORN OOUNTRT. 17 

nently practical pursuit» and in the Short-hom 
breed of cattle has given to the world a vari- 
ety of foim stock that has probably been more 
widely distributed than any other known type. 
It has not only received by reason of its dual- 
purpose character more attention at the hands 
of the tenant farmers and landed proprietors 
of Great Britain and Ireland than any other 
British breed, but has a firm hold upon the affec- 
tions of the farmers of the United States and 
CSanada under varying environments. It has 
been extensively introduced into Australia and 
Argentina and has a foothold in the grazing 
regions about the South African Cape. Conti- 
nental Europe with all its conservatism has 
drawn frequently upon British Short-horn 
herds — ^France in particular maintaining good 
collections of registered stock. It has peculiar 
claims, therefore, to the title sometimes be- 
stowed upon it as being '' the one great cosmo- 
politan breed." 

Birthplace and origin of the breed.— The 
Short-hom — or "Durham" as formerly called 
by many farmers in the United States — ^is of 
composite origin, representing the result of 
generations of skillful blending of various ab- 
original types. While its long period of incu- 
bation is shrouded in more or less uncertainty 
there is no question either as to its original 
habitat or its ancient lineage. Traditions, as 



18 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLE. 

well as authentic records, recognized the pro- 
genitors of the modern type in the Counties of 
Northumberland, Durham, York and Lincoln 
for several centuries prior to the final crystal- 
lization of the breed in and about the Tees- 
water Valley. So much of a speculative char- 
acter has been published relating to the grad- 
ual evolution in Northeastern England of the 
established type of which we write that it is 
not essential, nor would it be of any special 
profit, for us to undertake to travel extensively 
over that uncertain ground in this volume. 
For centuries it is said that Northern England 
was the home* of a horned black breed, and 
black cattle jDredominated in Yorkshire and 
adjacent counties until the seventeenth cen- 
tury. At this date two other well-known types 
existed in England, the "pied" cattle of Lin- 
colnshire, with "more white than other colors," 
and the red stock of Somerset and Gloucester- 
shire. By the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, although the Yorkshire cattle were still 
largely black, mixed colors began to make 
their appearance. "But of all the cows in 
England," wrote William Ellis in 1744, "I think 
none comes up to the Holderness breed for 
their wide bags, short horns and large bodies, 
which render them (whether black or red) the 
most profitable beasts for the dairyman, grazier 
and butcher. Some of them have yielded two 



THE OLD SHORT-HOBN GOUNTBT. 19 

or three gallons at a meal." This type took its 
name from the district of Holderness in South- 
eastern Yorkshire. About this time cattle were 
imported from continental Europe into the 
Eastern counties. These consisted chiefly of 
large white Dutch or Flanders cows. It is also 
said that bulls were brought in from Holland 
and used on some of the herds of York and 
Durham. These Dutch cattle should not, how- 
ever, be confused with the modern Holstein- 
Friesians. It is said that Michael Dobinson 
and Sir William St. Quintin— both of whom 
were among the earliest possessors of old-time 
short-horned herds — imported and used Dutch 
bulls. These various types were all of a very 
crude sort when contrasted with the breed 
finally evolved from them, and as we are more 
interested in the result than in speculation as 
to the remote origin of the race we need not 
dwell upon them. 

Earliest known breeders. — It is claimed that 
a short-homed type of cattle existed on the 
Yorkshire estates of the Earls and Dul-ies of 
Northumberland for a period of two hundred 
years prior to 1780. Herds of short-horned 
stock had also been in the possession of the 
Smithsons of Stanwick as early as the middle 
of the seventeenth century. The Aislabies of 
Studley Royal and Blacketts of Newby were 
likewise fond of good cattle and paid great at- 



20 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

tention to the quality of their herds abont this 
same period. Other prominent breeders prior 
to the year 1780 were Sir William St. Quintin, 
Sir James Pennyman* and Mr. Milbank of 
Bamingham. The latter secured some of his 
cattle from the Blacketts, but his reputation 
rests largely upon his use of the famous red- 
and-white Studley Bull (626), calved in 1787, 
that became the progenitor of many celebrated 
animals. Between the years 1730 and 1780 
many eminent breeders gave their attention to 
the improvement of their cattle, among them, 
besides those already mentioned, being Sharter, 
Pickering, Stephenson, Wetherell, Maynard, 
Dobinson, Charge, Wright^ Hutchinson, Bobson, 
Snowdon, Waistell, Richard and William Bar- 
ker, Brown, Hall, Hill, Best, Watson, Baker, 
Thompson, Jackson, Smith, Jolly, Masterman, 
Wallace and Bobettsbn. These names we find 
as breeders of the earliest cattle whose names 
and pedigrees are recorded in the first volume 
of the English Herd Book. It may be well to 
know that as this herd book was not published 
until the year 1822— some thirty or forty years 

•To Indaoe his tenants to p«y more attention to the quality of tbelr 
•took Sir Jamea Is said to hate frequently made small ws^ers as to whose 
oxen wonld weigh the most and brlnr the best i>rices. Cadwallader Bates 
sasrs: "The farm accounts commencinir from 1745 regularly recorded the 
salea of Pennyman Short-horns, with their weight and proof In tallow, for 
they were very often sold by weight As the soil there is a strooff day no 
turnips wero rrown, and the cattie were kept in winter on only hay and 
straw. Notwithatandlnr'thia, the flye-year-old ateers teneraUy aTaraped 



THE OLD SHOBT-HOBir OOUNTBT. 21 

after thd decease of many of those we have 
mentioned — ^tradition^ and the memory of men 
then living, as well as the written records of 
their predecessors, were the authorities on 
which the lineage of the earlier animals were 
admitted to record. 

Some foundatioh stock.— The Studley Bull 
(626), dropped in 1737, was one of the first great 
stock-getters of the breed of which there is 
record. The herd book furnishes no particu- 
lars concerning him, but he is described by 
competent contemporary authority as having 
been a red-and-white " possessed of wonderful 
girth and depth of forequarters, very shorty 
neat frame and light ofFal." One of his sons, 
^'Mr. Lakeland's bull," said to have attained 
great size and to have carried a good back, 
begot William Barker's Bull (51), that acquired 
reput9ition as the sire of another one of the 
breed-founders known as "James Brown's Red 
Boll (97)." This noted bull was bred by John 
Thompson of Girlington Hall. At this date it 
was not customary to preserve the name or 
even a description of the cows from which 
sires in service were descended. The. pedigree 
was traced through the bull line exclusively. 
Hence there is no record as to the maternal 
ancestry of these foundation sires. Mr. Goates, 
who collected the material for the first volume 
of the herd book, which still bears his name, 



22 A HISTdEY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

had intended that a description of the most 
noted animals should appear in the public reg- 
istry. Although this plan was not adopted in 
the final revision of the book his notes on many 
of the earlier sires have nevertheless been pre- 
served. From these it appears that " J. Brown's 
old red bull" had "good fore quarters and 
handle * huggins and rumps not good, strong 
thighs, excellent getter." The progeny of this 
bull was apparently held in great esteem, and 
some of his daughters subsequently attained 
much reputation, one becoming the ancestress 
of the afterwards celebrated Bates Duchess 
tribe, and another was the ancestral dam of 
Robert CoUing's old Red Rose sort. 

The most famous of all the foundation bulls, 
however, was Hubback (319), his influence hav- 
ing been so great as to require special comment 
in these pages further on. Many bulls are re- 
corded in the first volume of the English Herd 
Book that lived anterior to the year 1780, but 
aside from their names and that of a sire, and 
sometimes a grandsire, little or nothing seems 
to have been recorded of their ancestry, and 
nothing beyond can now be known of them. 
Among these, in addition to those already 
named, are Ralph Alcock's Bull (19), Allison's 
Gray Bull (26), J. Brown's White Bull (98), Hol- 
lon's Bull (313), Jolly's Bull (337), Kitt (357), 

• This ref ens evidently to his " touch," as the handling quaUtiee of breed- 
In? stock were carefully regarded by the original ImproTen of the brenL 



THE OLD SHOBT-HORN COUNTRY. 23 

Masterman^s Bull (422), Paddock's Bull (477), 
William Bobson's Bull (538), Sir James Penny- 
man's Bull (601), Jacob Smith's Bull (508), T. 
Smith's Bull (609), Snowdon's Bull (612), sire of 
Hubback (319); Studley White Bull (627), got 
by Studley Bull (626); Waistell's Bull (669), the 
same as Robson's Bull (558); and Walker's Bull 
(670), the same as Masterman's Bull (422), by 
Studley Bull (626). 

Of the cows contemporary with the bulls we 
have named few, if any, are recorded in either 
the first or subsequent volumes. We can, 
therefore, only infer that the cows were equally 
as well and carefully bred as the bulls. Cattle 
fairs (not shows in the sense of our modern ex- 
hibitions), where beasts were taken to market 
for sale, were then, as now, common in Eng- 
land, and probably many well-bred cows and 
heifers were brought there for sale by their 
breeders iand owners. These were doubtless 
taken by breeders of good cattle when the blood 
and quality were considered satisfactory and 
bred to the best bulls. From such market 
cows descended the more immediate ancestors 
of many celebrated Short-horns. It is no dis- 
paragement to those nameless cows that such 
is the fact, as very few pedigrees can now be 
traced by name on the female side beyond the 
year 1780, and but comparatively few beyond 
the year 1800. 



24 



A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 



The earliest recorded pedigree in the female 
line known to Short-hom records is that which 
has long been referred to in England and 
America as the Princess family, tracing to the 
cow Tripes, bought by Thomas Hall in 1760, 



CHAPTER 11. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 

The attention given by the sturdy tenantry 
of the Teeswater country to the production of 
a superior grade of beef at this early date, as 
indicated by the roster of names set forth in 
the preceding chapter, was the response of 
the farmers of that district to the demands of 
Anglo-Saxon taste. On the opposite or conti- 
nental shore of the German Ocean dairy prod- 
ucts were esteemed an especial delicacy; and 
so the low countries gradually became the 
home of what subsequently developed into the 
Holstein-Friesian breed. But the fox-hunting 
Yorkshire "squires," and the ban vivanfs of 
** merrie England " generally, demanded some- 
thing more substantial at their banquet boards. 
Rich " barons " of well-marbled beef appealed 
particularly to the palates of the hearty Brit- 
ons, and right royally did the stock-growers of 
the Island meet the call. Widespread interest 
in the breeding of fine cattle developed. At 
Darlington, Durham Yarm and other central 
points market fairs, the forerunners of our 

(26) 



26 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

modem shows, had begun to attract all the 
progressive farmers, feeders and graziers of the 
country-side both far and near. Each of those 
who took pride in cattle vied with the other in 
the exhibition of good specimens of the Tees- 
water type; and we can easily imagine with 
what absorbing interest these breed-builders 
compared the relative merits of their stock 
and with what satisfaction they noted the prog^ 
ress being made. Herd books were not in ex- 
istence. Blood lines were known only by word 
of mouth or by sundry traditions; but they 
were a superior class of men, these pioneers in 
the study of the laws of heredity as applied to 
animal life, and their local fairs were at once a 
forum and a market-place. Short-horn "par- 
liaments," far-reaching in their, influence, as- 
sembled upon these occasions, frequently with 
some favorite bull or heifer as the stoim cen- 
ter of debate. Then, as now, men differed as 
to the form of animals and methods of breed- 
ing to be pursued. There were few if any 
servile imitators. There was no established 
type or fashion to rule the hour. It was the 
formative stage in the evolution of the Short- 
horn as known to the succeeding generation, 
and each individual sought results largely after 
the dictates of his own personal judgment. 
Would that some of this same independence of 
thought and action might be brought to bear 



DKVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 27 

in the settlement of problems facing those 
who are endeavoring to perpetuate Short-horn 
characteristics at the present time! 

Faults of the old Teeswater stock.— The 
Short-horn of that day was not only lacking in 
uniformity in some essential points but as a 
breed possessed serious faults calling for radi- 
cal treatment. Possibly as accurate a state- 
ment as has been handed down bearing upon 
the character of the old Teeswater stock, which 
formed the basis of " the improved Short-horn," 
is that of William Carr, the historian of the 
afterward-celebrated herds of the Messrs. 
Booth. He says that the best specimens of 
the breed at that time were " generally wide- 
backed, well-framed cows, deep in their fore 
quarters, soft and mellow in their hair and 
'handling' and possessing, with average milk- 
ing qualities, a remarkable disposition to fat- 
ten. Their horns were rather longer than 
those of their descendants of the present day 
and inclining upward. The defects were those 
of an undue prominence of the hip and shoul- 
der point, a want of length in the hind quar- 
ters, of width in the floor of the chest, of 
fullness generally before and behind the shoul- 
ders, as well as of flesh upon the shoulder 
itself. They had a somewhat disproportionate 
abdomen, were too long in the legs and showed 
a want of substance, indicative of delicacy, in 



28 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the hide. They failed also in the essential 
requisite of taking on their flesh evenly and 
firmly over tha whole frame, which frequently 
gave them an unlevel appearance. There was, 
moreover^ a general want of compactness in 
their conformation." 

The Bakewell Experiments.— Robert Bake- 
well of Dishley, a Leicestershire farmer, worked 
out about this period a system of stock-breed- 
ing that was destined to play henceforth a 
prominent part, not only in the development 
of the Short-horn but in the evolution of nearly 
all our other improved breeds as well. What- 
ever may have been the practice of the ancients 
in respect to the coupling of animals closely 
related it remained for 13akewell to demon- 
strate to the stock-breedei*s of the last century 
that in the concentration of the blood of 
animals possessing desired characteristics a 
method was provided whereby results could be 
quickly and definitely attained. This idea was 
diametrically opposed to the principles and 
practice governing the operations of Bake well's 
contempoi-aries. Incestuous breeding of ani- 
mals was held in abhorrence, and when Bake- 
well began breeding long-wooled sheep, Lan- 
cashire Long-horned cattle and cart horses from 
close affinities his neighbors gave him credit for 
being somewhat daft. He was a man of con- 
siderable means at the beginning of his experi- 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 29 

ments, and brought more or less scientific 
knowledge to bear upon his work. His system 
contemplated first the selection of foundation 
stock approximating in form and character as 
closely as possible the type he sought to estab- 
lish. With these as a basis their immediate 
descendants were interbred in such a way as to 
give a strong concentration of the blood of the 
original selections. The idea was of course the 
creation of a family likeness or type — a group 
of animals homogeneous in blood and uniform 
in characteristics. Resort to fresh blood was 
only had when an animal was found elsewhere 
that possessed in marked degree as an individ- 
ual the particular points desired. The plan 
soon began to reveal marvelous results, and 
orders for breeding stock began to come from 
all parts of the island. King George III him- 
self made personal inquiries as to " the new dis- 
covery " in stock-breeding, and about the time 
the early Short-horn breeders became specially 
interested ii^ their work the Bakewell system 
was arousing much curiosity, even among those 
conservatives who had stoutly opposed the 
theory. 

Bakewell did not use Short-homs in his ex- 
periments. He kept a few of the old sort, it is 
said, merely to show by contrast the superior- 
ity of his new breed of Long-homs. While he 
achieved a permanent success with his sheep 



30 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

the Long-horns were not destined to general 
popularity. The method employed in fixing 
the type, however, was soon seized upon by 
some of the younger element in the Short-horn 
breeding ranks, and with wonderful effect, as 
we will now proceed to note. 

Ketton and Barmpton. — About three miles 
northeast of Darlington, in the county of Dur- 
ham, overlooking a little stream that flows into 
the Tees at Croft, is the farm of Barmpton, and 
about a mile beyond is Ketton. Upon these 
two farms the modem Short-horn may be said 
to have had its origin. Charles Colling Sr., 
father of Charles and Robert, the first great 
improvers of the breed, had laid the founda- 
tion for a Short-hom herd at Ketton Farm by 
the purchase of a cow called Cherry at Yarm 
Fair, but finding farming unprofitable at this 
time he gave up the property to his son Charles. 
The brothers set about breeding Short-horns at 
a time when values of farm products in Eng- 
land were much depressed. The American 
Revolution had just been terminated, and, in 
common with all other farm property in great 
Britain, cattle were still feeling the demoraliz- 
ing effects of war. 

The original Duchess cow. — Charles Colling 
had heard of Bakewell and his work and in 
1783 made a prolonged study, at Dishley, of 
the theory and practice of in-and-in or "close" 



I? 

I 

II 

to C 

|s 

II 



t 
H 




DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 31 

breeding. In June of the following year he 
bought in Darlington market a cow which he 
named Duchess that gave rise to the family 
that afterward became the subject of the wild- 
est cattle speculation known in all the annals 
of English or American agriculture. She was 
bought from Thomas Appleby, a tenant farmer 
on the Stanwick estate of Sir Hugh Smithson, 
afterward created Duke of Northumberland. 
As already stated, the Stanwick herds had been 
celebrated locally from a very ancient period. 
This primal Duchess was described as "a mas- 
sive, short-legged animal of a beautiful yellow- 
red flecked color; her breast was near the 
ground and her back wide. She was, too, a 
great grower. Mr. Colling considered her han- 
dling very superior, and no one was a better 
judge. He even went so far as to say that he 
considered her the best cow he ever had or ever 
saw, and confessed that he could never breed 
as good a one from her, even from his best 
bulls, which improved all his other cattle." 
This fine cow cost but thirteen pounds sterling. 
About the same date Charles Colling bought a 
cow named Daisy said to have been descended 
from Masterman's Bull and belonging to a fam- 
ily of cows noted for their milking properties. 
Moreover, it was said that she was " very neat 
ID shape and very inclinable to make fat.*^ 
"The Beautiful Lady Maynard."— In 1786 



32 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN CATTLE. 

Gabriel Thornton, who had lived with Mr. May- 
nard of Eryholme as bailiff for some ten years, 
entered Charles CoUing's service. The quality 
of the Eryholme cattle naturally came under 
consideration, and in September of that year 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Colling rode over to Mr. 
Maynard's to inspect the herd.* Their atten- 
tion was at once claimed by a handsome seven- 
year-old cow then called Favorite "that Miss 
Maynard was milking." This cow was a roan 
possessing the long horns of the old Teeswater 
type and came from a well-established tribe. 
She was bought for twenty-eight guineas, and 
Mr. Colling agreed also ix) take her heifer calf — 
that received the name of Young Strawberry 
and was sired by Dalton Duke (188) — ^at ten 
guineas. At the time of this purchase the 
cow was again in calf to Dalton Duke and gave 
birth to a bull to that service at Eetton in 1787. 
The name of this cow, the most celebrated of 
all the early matrons of the breed, was changed 
by Mr. Colling to Lady Maynard. She became 
the ancestress of sevei*al famous families and 
of the bulls that fairly created "the improved 
Short-horn." 

The Bull Hubback.— While Charles Colling 
was making these purchases of foundation 
stock his brother Robert was not idle. The 

* It 18 said that Mrs. Colling was quite as much Interested in cattle- 
tyreedin? as her huBbaud, and havinir no children she had leisure to indulge 
her love for the stock. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 33 

aathor of one of the latest English contribu* 
tions to Short-horn literature* asserts that 
in Dachess, Cherry, Daisy and Lady Maynard 
Charles Colling was possessed of '' the four best 
short-homed cows in existence." Robert Col- 
ling had bought with judgment from such good 
herds as those of Messrs. Milbank, Hill, Watson, 
Wright, Sir William St. Quintin and Best, all 
of whom were known to possess fine cattle, and 
in the case of the selection and use of the cele- 
brated bull Hubback Robert seems to have 
shown rather more discernment than Charles. 
There is no gainsaying the far-reaching influ- 
ence of the blood of this bull as a factor in the 
improvement of the breed. Indeed some credit 
him with being the one real fountain head of 
modern Short-horn excellence. The testimony 
of Thomas Bates (one of the most distinguished 
of all those who followed Colling, and of whom 
we shall speak more at length later on) was 
particularly radical upon this proposition. He 
said: 

'* 1% was the opinion of all good judges in my early days that 
had it not been for the boll Hubback and his descendants the old, 
Taluable breed of Short-horns would have been entirely lost, and 
that where Hubback*s blood was wanting they had no real merit, 
and no stock ought to have been put in any herd book of Short- 
horns which had not Hubback*s blood in their veins. Had this 
been done, then the Herd Book of Short-horns would have been a 
Taluable record ; as it is, it is undeserving of notice, and ought no 
longer to bo continued as a book of reference, as ninety-nine ani- 
mals out of a hundred in Coates' Herd Book should never have 
been entered there." 

•Oadwallader John Bates of Langlcy CasUo, NorthumherlaiuL 
8 



34 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Mr. Bates may be called a prejudiced wit- 
ness. He was a man of very decided convic- 
tions; dogmatic to the last degree. While it is 
not probable that Hubback held, Atlas-like, in 
his day the whole future of the breed upon his 
shoulders there is no doubt that he imparted 
a quality and refinement of character that had 
been comparatively rare prior to his appear- 
ance. 

Short-horn history abounds in cases where 
outstanding merit has failed of adequate ap- 
preciation, but the story of Hubback, summar- 
ized below, probably surpasses all others of 
its class.* He was thus described by Coates: 
" Head good, horns small and fine, neck fine, 
breast well formed and fine to the touch, shoul- 

• John Hunter, the breeder of Hubback, was a brick-layer and lived at 
Hnrworth. He had onoe been a tenant farmer and bred Short-horn cattle 
which, when leaving his farm to live at Hurworth, he sold all off, 
ezceptinff one choice little cow he took with him, and as he had no i>asture 
of his own for her to ffraze in she ran in the lanes of the town. While 
there she was put to "George Snowdon's Bull," also in Hurworth. From 
him the cow dropped a bull calf. Soon afterward the cow and calf were 
driven to Darlington market and there sold to a Mr. Bassnett. a timber 
merchant Bassnett retained the cow but sold the calf to a blacksmith at 
Hornby, Ave miles out from Darlington. The dam of the calf t&king on 
flesh readily would not again breed and after some months was fattened 
and slaughtered. Growing to a useful age, the young bull in 178S was found, 
at six years old, iu the hasds of a BCr. Fawcett, living at Haughtou Hill, 
not far from Darlington. 

Mr. Wright (a noted Shortrhom breeder) says that Charles CtoUlng, 
going into Darlington market weekly, used to notice some excellent veal, 
and upon inquiry ascertained that the calves were got by a bull belonging 
to Mr. Fawcett of Haughton Hill. This bull, then known as Fawcett*s Bull, 
and some years afterwards called Hubback, was at the time serving cows 
at a shilling each (about twenty-five cents). Cbark^s Colling, however, as 
the merits of the beast were talked over between himself and others, did 
not appear particularly impressed with them. But Bobert Colling and his 
neighbor, Mr. Waistell of Alihill, who had also seen the bull, thought bet. 
ter of him and more accurately measured his value. The two, soon after 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 35 

ders rather upright, girth good, loins, belly and 
sides fair, rump and hips extraordinary, flank 
and twist wonderful." He was a yellow-red 
with some white, calved in 1777. He was got 
by Snowdon's Bull (612), he by Waistell's Bull 
(558), he by Masterman's Bull (422), son of 
Studley Bull (626). His dam was out of a cow 
bred by Mr. Stephenson of Ketton "from a 
tribe in his possession forty years." It was at 
one time alleged that there was Kyloe (West 
Highland) blood in Hubback's veins on his 
dam's side, but this is not substantiated. Rob- 
ert Colling used Hubback for a time and then 
sold him to his brother Charles, who kept him 
in service two seasons, after which he was sold, 
at ten years of age, to Mr. Hubback, in whose 
hands he remained up to his death at the age 
of fourteen years. It appears that neither 
Waistell nor either of the Ceilings truly appre- 
ciated the merits of Hubback until after they 
had parted with him and saw the excellence of 
his stock as they grew up and developed. He 
was a small bull — his dam was small for a 



Good Friday, In April, 1783, bought him of Mr. Fawcett for ten irulneaa 
(about 160) and took him home, where he was jointly owned and used to 
their separate herds, Colllnir having Bcventeen and Walstell eleven cows 
served by him during the season. In the f ollowlnir November (1788) Charles 
Colllnir. having chang€>d his opinion of the merits of the bull, offered hla 
owners elfrht gruineaa (about 140) for him, and they sold him. 

Charles ColUnf kept the bull two years, using him freely In his herd, 
and then sold him late In 1T86. at ten years old, to a Mr. Hubback, at North 
Seton. In Northumberland. The bull had no name when Colling sold him. 
Hr. Hubback used blm (the bull then being called Hubback's Bull) until the 
year 1791, when he was fourteen years old, and he was vigorous to the last. 



36 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

Shorfc-hom, but a very handsome cow, of fine 
symmetry, with a nice touch and fine, long, 
mossy hair. All these choice qualities Hub- 
back took from her. As size was a meritorious 
point in Short-horns at that time it is highly 
probable that the Ceilings discarded him for 
that deficiency more than any other. Yet the 
subsequent reputation of Hubback among the 
breeders was higher than that of any other 
bull of his time, and it was considered a great 
merit in any Short-horn which could trace its 
pedigree back mto his blood, which no doubt 
could be easily done, as he was, both before 
and after the CoUings owned him, open to the 
public at a cheap rate of service. It is said 
that his stock had capacious chests, prominent 
bosoms, thick, mossy coats, mellow skins, with 
a great deal of fine flesh spread evenly over 
the whole carcass. Mr. Bates stated that Hub- 
back had " clean, waxy horns, mild, bright eyes, 
a pleasing countenance and was one of the 
most remarkably quick feeders ever known. 
He retained his soft and downy coat long into 
the summer. His handling was superior to 
that of any bull of the day." 

Foljambe and inbrae^g. — Among other 
good heifers left at Ketton by Hubback was 
one called Haugbton, said to have been "fine 
and neat." Mr. Colling had apparently not a 
high enough opinion of Hubback at that time. 



BEVELOPMBNT OF THB IMPBOVED TYPE. 37 

however, to go to the extreme of Bakewell's 
system and breed her back to her sire, for he 
sent her to be bred to Richard Barker's Bull 
(52), "a large, well-shaped, but coarse, wiry- 
haired beast with a black nose." The produce 
was the noted bull Foljambe (263), a white with 
a few red spots, that seems to have combined 
some of the good points of both sire and dam. 
He was a big, wide-backed, '^tbick beast of 
great substance," inheriting scale and constitu- 
tion from his sire and some of Hubback's good 
handling quality from his dam. Although sold 
as a young bull at fifty guineas Foljambe was 
used upon some of Ceiling's best cows, among 
others the rich red-roan Lady Maynard, the 
produce being a heifer called Phoenix. To the 
cover of Foljambe Lady Maynard's Dalton 
Duke heifer Young -Strawberry dropped the 
bull Bolingbroke (86), called by Coates the 
best bull he ever saw. It is at this point that 
the Bakewell system was first tried. The Lady 
Maynard heifer Phoenix (by Foljambe) was 
bred to the Young Strawberry (daughter of 
Lady Maynard) bull Bolingbroke (by Foljambe), 
the produce of this cldse breeding being the 
celebrated bull Favorite (252). It is claimed 
by historians of the Bates Herd that this 
mating was not directed as a well-matured 
scheme. Phoenix had previously been bred to 
Robert Ceiling's Ben (70). According to Bell 



38 A HISTORY OF SHOBT'HOBN OATTLK. 

the COW was not bred back to Ben again be- 
cause a coolness had arisen between the two 
brothers, and was only served by Bolingbroke 
simply in order that ^'she might have a calf of 
some sort" This may or may not be true, but 
the fact remains nevertheless that Favorite, 
with his double infusion of the blood of Fol- 
jambe and Lady Maynard, represented the first 
fruit of the application of the policy of in-and- 
in breeding to Short-horn cattle. Colling sold 
Bolingbroke when eight years old to Mr. Job- 
ling for seventy guineas. Vigorous to the last 
the old bull was killed at Newcastle in 1800, 
being sold at one shilling per pound. It is said 
that his stock had, as a rule, red bodies with 
sopie white on their faces, thus resembling 
somewhat in their markings the modem Here- 
ford. 

Favorite (252) an extraordinary sire.— This 
greatest of all old-time sires was ^^a large, mas- 
sive bull of good constitution, with a fine, bold 
eye, remarkably good loins and long, level hind 
quarters. His shoulder points stood wide and 
were somewhat coarse; they protruded into 
the neck. His horns were long and strong.'* 
Coates called him "low in the back." Wais- 
tell said he was ''a grand beast * * * with 
a good coat and as good a handler as ever was 
felt." It is said that he resembled his dam, 
Phoenix, rather than his sire, Bolingbroke. 



DBVELOPMBNT OF TAB IMPROVED TYPE. 39 

Favorite was a light roan, dropped in 1793, 
and died in 1809. So nearly did he meet Mr. 
Colling's views as to what a Short-horn boll 
should be that he now began a most extraordi- 
nary course of inbreeding. For years the bull 
was used indiscriminately upon his own off- 
spring, often to the third and in one or two 
instances to the fifth and sixth generations. 
His get were not only the most celebrated 
Short-horns of their day, but his immediate 
descendants constitute a large percentage of 
the entire foundation stock upon which the 
herd-book records stand. He was bred back to 
his own dam, the produce being a heifer, Young 
Phoenix. To still farther test the Bakewell 
system this heifer was then bred to her own 
sire, the issue of that doubly-incestuous union 
being the bull Comet (155), the pride of his 
time and the first Short-horn to sell for $5,000. 
The first calf got by Favorite was dropped by 
the Duchess cow, and the second was a bull 
that was afterward steered and acquired celeb- 
rity as 

<<The Durham Ox." — It must be borne in 
mind that at this time the Short-horns were a 
local breed ,of cattle, confined chiefiy to the 
counties of ancient Northumbria, and the best 
of them were to be found in and about the Val- 
ley of the Tees. The CoUings, in the exercise 
of their usual foresight and sagacity, deter- 



40 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

mined to give their cattle a wide reputation 
through the kingdom, and for that purpose 
Charles prepared the Durham Ox for public ex- 
hibition. As this ox achieved a wide reputation 
and successfully drew the merits of the Short- 
horns to the attention of the cattle-breeding 
public, although it has been frequently pub- 
lished, a full account of him will be repeated. 
He was among the earliest calves got by Fa- 
vorite (252), "bred in the year 1796, and out of 
a common black-and-white cow, bought for 
Charles Colling by John Simpson, at Durham 
Fair, for £14 ($70)." Although the dam of the 
Durham Ox was said to have been "a common 
cow," yet from the price which Colling paid for 
her, and the marvelous excellence of the steer 
descended from her, it is altogether probable 
she possessed much of the "common" Short- 
horn blood of the vicinity. Judging from her 
color she was probably not highly bred, but it 
is certain that she had much quality. This 
iSteer Colling fed up to his greatest flesh-taking 
capacity until nearly five years old, when he 
had attained a reputed weight of 3,024 lbs. 
He was then purchased to be exhibited by Mr. 
flulmer of Harmby, in February, 1801, for £140 
(J700). Bulmer had a traveling carriage made 
to carry him through the country, and after 
traveling and exhibiting him five weeks sold 
the carriage and ox at Rotherham to John Day 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 41 

for £250 ($1,250). On the 14th of May ensuing 
Mr. Day could have sold him for £525 ($2,625); 
on the 13th of June for £1,000 ($5,000), and on 
the 8th of July for £2,000 ($10,000), but he re- 
fused all these offers, which were strong proofs 
of the excellence of the ox, as well as his exhib- 
ition value. Mr. Day traveled with him nearly 
six years through the principal parts of England 
and Scotland, till at Oxford, on the 19th of Feb- 
ruary, the ox dislocated his hip bone, and con- 
tinued in that state till the 15th of April, when 
he was killed, and notwithstanding he must 
have lost considerable flesh during these eight 
weeks of illness, yet his dead weight was: Four 
quarters, 2,322 lbs.; tallow, 156 lbs.; hide, 142 
lbs.; total, 2,620 lbs. This was at the age of 
eleven years, under all the disadvantages of six 
years traveling in a jolting carriage and eight 
weeks of painful lameness. At ten years old 
Mr. Day stated his live weight to have been 
nearly 3,400 lbs. 

«The White Heifer That Traveled."— About 
the year 1806 Robert Colling reared a purely- 
bred heifer, afterward called the '* White Heifer 
That Traveled,'' which he sent out through the 
principal agricultural counties for exhibition. 
The date of her birth is not given in the first 
volume E. H. B., where her pedigree is recorded. 
She was also got by Favorite (252) from a 
dam called *' Favorite Cow," bred by R. Colling. 



42 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

The name of ** Favorite Cow's" sire is not given. 
Her grandam, "Yellow Cow," was by Punch 
(531), and her great-grandam was by Anthony 
Reed's Bull (538), and bred by Mr. Best of Man- 
field. The " White Heifer" being twinned with 
a bull, and herself not breeding, she was fed up 
to her greatest flesh-taking capacity and exten- 
sively exhibited. Her age when slaughtered 
is not given, but the account states that her 
live weight could not have been less than 
2,3(X) lbs., and her dead weight was estimated 
at 1,820 lbs. 

There were other extraordinary, large and 
heavy cattle bred and fed by the Short-horn 
breeders contemporary with the CoUings, whose 
recorded weights we might give, but as they all 
run in about the same scale it is not important 
to record them here. It is suflBcient to say that 
the great reputation which the Collings and 
their animals acquired was through the wider 
knowledge which the public abroad obtained 
of them by these public exhibitions. Thus the 
Collings became conspicuously known, and were 
considered by those not intimately acquainted 
with the other breeders around them as, if not 
the founders, at least the great improvers of 
the newly-advertised and meritorious breed. 

The "alloy" blood.— In the year 1791, after 
Charles Colling had been ten years a Short-horn 
breeder and had his choicest Short-horn fami- 



DEVELOPMENT OF. THE IMPROVED TYPE. 43 

lies well established, one of his neighbors, Col. 
O'Callaghan, purchased two Scotch Galloway 
hornless heifers and brought to his farm. He 
agreed with Colling to have the heifers served 
by his bull Bolingbroke (86), with the under- 
standing that if the calves were bulls Colling 
was to have them; if heifers, O'Callaghan was 
to retain them. One of these heifers, red in 
color, dropped a red-and-white roan bull calf 
in the year 1792, which immediately became 
the property of Colling. The other calf was a 
heifer, which was kept by O'Callaghan. Colling 
had an aged Short-horn cow, " Old Johanna," 
bred by himself, of moderate quality, got by 
"Lame Bull" (358), bred by Robert Colling. 
That is all which is given of her pedigree, no 
dam being mentioned. Yet Lame Bull had two 
crosses of Hubback (319) in him, and his great- 
grandam was by James Brown's Red Bull (97), 
so far giving him an excellent pedigree. Old 
Johanna not having bred a calf for two years 
was put to this Son of Bolingbroke (from the 
Galloway heifer), when a yearling, and he got 
her in calf. The produce was another bull calf, 
in 1794, Grandson of Bolingbroke (280), red and 
white in color, which Colling also kept, being 
three-fourths Short-horn and one-fourth Gallo- 
way blood. Ceiling's cow Phoenix, the dam of 
Favorite (252), had become somewhat aged, and 
not having had a calf since the birth of Favorite, 



44 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

although put to good bulls, as a last resort she 
was coupled to this Grandson of Bolingbroke, 
when a yearling, in 1795, and by him she had a 
red-and-white heifer calf in the year 1796. This 
calf Colling called ** Lady." She had one-eighth 
part Galloway blood. Proving a very good one, 
Colling reared this heifer, and at maturity bred 
her successively to his bulls Favorite (252), her 
half-brother; Cupid (177), otherwise closely re- 
lated to her; and to Comet (155), still more 
closely related. She produced the heifers Coun- 
tess, one-sixteenth Galloway, by Cupid; and 
Laura, also one-sixteenth Galloway, by Favorite, 
both of which proved fine cows. Her bull 
calves were Washington (674), one-sixteenth 
Galloway, by Favorite; also Major (397), one- 
sixteenth; George (276), one-sixteenth; and Sir 
Charles (592), one-sixteenth Galloway; the three 
last ones by Comet (155). The two "alloy" 
bulls, "O'Callaghan's Son of Bolingbroke" 
(469), and "Grandson of Bolingbroke" (280), as 
well as the cows Lady and her daughters Coun- 
tess and Laura and some of their descendants, 
were recorded in Vol. I, E. H. B., many years 
after Colling had sold them, with their Gallo- 
way cross distinctly stated. 

Although very little of this blood remained 
in the descendants of these so-called "alloy" 
cattle at the time of the Ketton sale of 1810— 
the outcross having been buried fathoms deep 



DBVBLOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 45 

by pure Short-horn blood — ^there was an effort 
subsequently made to discredit them, but hap- 
pily the controversy once waged over them no 
longer interests practical breeders. 

As to Robert Colling.— In his youth Robert 
had been apprenticed to a grocer, but his health 
declining he embraced farming. He had often 
visited Mr. Culley, a noted farmer, stock- 
breeder and agricultural writer, and took les- 
sons from him in farming, turnip-growing and 
stock-feeding. He had obtained Leicester sheep 
from Bakewell, and for many years bred and 
sold them with great success, simultaneous with 
his pursuit of cattle-breeding. His annual ram- 
lettings were extensive and profitable. 

Some of his earliest stock he obtained from 
Mr. Milbank of Barningham. They were con- 
sidered as among the best of the Teeswater 
cattle, and noted for their excellent grazing 
properties. He also selected the best cows to 
be obtained from other breeders, and having 
the bull Hubback (319), as previously stated, in 
the year 1783, by which he had seventeen cows 
served, it may well be supposed that he made 
a ready and sure start through the best blood 
and the best animals he could obtain in the 
foundation of his herd. He bred with skill and 
judgment, and founded several different fami- 
lies, among the rest the Wildair, the Red 
Rose, the Princess, the Bright Eyes, and oth- 



46 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN OATTLX. 

ers, which became in future hands, as well 
as his own, widely noted as the basis of supe- 
rior herds. He also bred many noted bulls. 
AmoDg the earliest of them were Broken-horn 
(95), by Hubback (819); Punch (518), by 
Broken-horn; Ben (70), and Twin Brother to 
Ben (660), by Punch; ColUng's (Robert) White 
Bull (151), by Favorite (252) ; Marske (418), by 
Favorite [his dam and grandam also by Favor- 
ite; great-grandam by Hubback (319) — ^that 
became a very noted bull, useful thirteen 
years, and died at fifteen years old]; North 
Star (459), by Favorite [and full brother to 
the "White Heifer That Traveled"]; Phenom- 
enon (491), by Favorite, and Styford (629) by 
Favorite. 

'«The American Cow.^— Among the cows 
bred by Robert Colling was one which has ob- 
tained celebrity, through her descendants, as 
"The American Cow"; and it was a subject 
of inquiry for many years, both in England 
and America, why a cow so ancient in line- 
age should have been called by a name so for- 
eign to her birthplace, and after a country 
where the Short-horns at that time were almost 
unknown. We first find her name in the pedi- 
gree of Red Rose, in first edition of Vol. I, p. 
457, E. H. B., as follows: " Red, calved in 181 1, 
bred by Mr. Hustler, property of Mr. T. Bates; 
got by Yarborough (706), dam (bred by R. Col- 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 47 

ling and called The American Cow) by Favorite 
(252), grandam by Punch (531), great-grandam 
by Foljambe (263), great-greatrgrandam by 
Hubback (319)/* 

In the above pedigree The American Cow is 
originally identified. In Vol. II, p. 497, first 
edition E. H. B., the same Bed Rose is again re- 
corded as Bed Bose 1st, her dam being ''The 
American Cow," as before. In a conversation 
with the late L. F. Allen, Mr. John Thornton 
of London, who visited this country in the 
winter of 1870-71, remarked that he had never 
learned why the American Cow was so called, 
although he had made diligent inquiries in 
England for the reason. 

The American history of the cow, as we have 
been informed on authority which we deem 
good, is this: In some year, not long after 1801, 
a son of Mr. Hustler, who was a Short-horn 
cattle-breeder in Yorkshire, emigrated to New 
York, and brought with him some Short-horn 
cattle, among which was this nameless cow, or 
then heifer, afterward dam of the Bed Bose 1st, 
which his father bought of Bobert Colling. 
The younger Hustler went into business in New 
York city, and put his cattle into the adjoining 
county of Westchester. After a few years' stay 
in America he returned to England, and not 
finding his Short-horns appreciated on this side 
the ocean (as we find no record of them or 



48 A HISTORY OF ^OET-HORN OATTLB. 

their produce in this country) Mr. Hustler 
took this cow back with him, as she was a re- 
markably good beast, and put her into his 
father's herd. Then, on being put to Yarbor- 
ough, she became the dam of Red Rose, after- 
ward purchased by Mr. Bates, he calling her 
Red Rose 1st, which, in his hands, was the 
ancestress of the tribe of Red Rose, from whom 
many excellent animals have descended. The 
only English account we have of The American 
Cow, aside from her pedigree, which we have 
quoted, is that "she was sent to America, and 
taken back to England.'* 

It is hardly necessary to follow Robert Col- 
ling through the various particulars of his 
breeding. The brothers bred much in concert, 
followed the same system of blood concentra- 
tion, and in fact were almost identical in their 
practice. To sum up the results of their joint 
action, it may be said that they, in the midst of 
older and more experienced breeders, combated 
the rooted prejudices of the day, and through 
the Bakewell system established a new school 
of breeding. 

The Eetton Dispersion. — Enjoying the pres- 
tige of success and reputation, in the month of 
October, 1810, Charles Colling made a public 
sale of his herd at Ketton and retired from 
breeding. It was then the heyday of agricul- 
tural prosperity in the British Islands, Eng- 




^ 



p 

2 
«a 

o 

I 

2 



o 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 49 

land had engaged in the continental wars of 
Europe against the first Napoleon; specie pay- 
ments had been many years suspended by her 
banks and at the national treasury; prices of 
agricultural produce were highly inflated, and 
so far as pounds, shillings and pence then rated 
— probably quite double to what they were ten 
years afterward — the sums which were bid for 
his cattle were both unprecedented and enor- 
mous. The sale was well advertised, and its 
results marked an era in Short-horn history. 
Twenty-nine cows and heifers fetched £4,066 
13s., an average of £140 4s. 7d^; eighteen bulls 
and bull calves brought £3,049 4s., an average 
of £169 8s., the forty-seven head selling for 
£7,115 17s., an average of £151 8s. Three- 
fourths of the cattle were got by the bulls 
Favorite (252) and his son Comet (155), and the 
remaining fourth by bulls of their get. Fur- 
thermore, a large proportion of the cows were 
in calf to Comet. This bull brought 1,000 
guineas. The highest-priced female was one 
of his daughters, the three-year-old Lily, that 
brought 410 guineas. The "alloy'* cow Count- 
ess, "undoubtedly the finest cow in the sale/' 
brought 400 guineas.* 

• We qaote xelatlTe to the sale from Thornton's droolar of April, 1M9, 
M follows: 

*«The sale was on a fine Octolwr day, and early in the morning people 

rode and drove to Ketton, leavlmr their horses and g1^ at the adjolnlnff 

(arma; ail the straw-yards were full, and the throng' at the sale Immense; 

everythtnir was eaten up, so that bread had to be sent for into Darliuirton 

4 



50 A HISTORY OF SHOiiT-HORN OATTLK. 

The Barmpton sales.— Eight years after the 
sale of the Ketton herd Robert Colling, in the 
year 1818, made a partial sale of his stock, and 

Mr. KinvBton, the auctioneer, sold the cattle by the sand-irlaBS, and In ac- 
cordance with the cuBtom of the time reoeiyed ahont flye guineas for the 
buBlnees, the work of the sale falling more on the owner than the auction- 
eer. The cattle were not fed up for the sale, hut kept naturally, and Bold 
when they were in ^reat condition from natural keep. 

"The Ketton etook at this time is described by Mr. Wriffht as of rreai 
sise and substance, with fine, lonr hind Quarters; the space from the hip to 
the rib was lon^ and counteracted by a broad back and high, round ribs. 
The shoulders of the males were upright, and the knuckles, or shoulder 
points, large and coarse— a defect not so apparent In the females. The gen- 
eral contour, or side view, was stately and imposing, but their great superi- 
ority consiBted in their extraordinary inclination to fatten. On handling 
the skin was loose and pliant, and the feel imder it remarkably mellow and 
kind. The color was greatly varied, red, red-and-whlte, roan, and also 
white being found in the same kindred, while In all cases of close affinity 
there was a tendency to white, with red ears and spoU. 

" Many of the cows were excellent milkers, giving twelve full quarts at 
a meal. Cherry, the first lot, was one of them, a plain cow in color, red and 
a little white, whose deeoendanU are now In existence in the neighborhood 
of Stockton-on/Tees and Malton, Torks. Countess [alloy] was undoubtedly 
the finest cow in the sale, but she wanted hair and milk; in character she 
oame nearest to Mason's style, and her back and belly formed parallel 
lines. She prodaced three heifers and the bull Constellation (les). in MaJ. 
Bodd'B possesBloo, and died in 1818. Sellna [alloy] had the style of her 
dam, CounteBB, bat not her magnificent appearance; she bred ten calves at 
Denton Park, and her desoendanU in the ninth and tenth generations are 
sUll in existence at Siddington, Glouoesterahire. Lady lacked elegance, 
but had great substance and good hair; in color she was red-and-whlte. 

"Lily, pure bred, sold to MaJ. Budd for 400 guineas (0,Utl), a splendid 
white cow, was the highest-priced female, but did nothing in Mai. Budd's 
possession. Daisy, a small roan cow, but a grand milker, was most fruitr 
ful with Maj. Bower; her dam. Old Daisy, who gave thirty-two quarts of 
milk a day, had been sold to Mr. Hustler, who bred Fairy from her, the an- 
cestress of Bev. J. D. Jefferson's Lady Abbesses. This Fairy was after- 
ward bought by Mr. Bates, who reckoned her to be the finest specimen of 
quality imaginable; she had a long, thick, downy ooat, with a superb flesh 
underneath, which to a superficial observer appeared hard, the cow being 
in a rapidly advancing condition. Cora [alloy], out of the KXKguineas 
cow Countess, had a pretty red frame, but ugly cock horns, and was re- 
sold to Mai. Bower, who bred ten calves from her. Magdalene was a litue 
red cow, with a large bag and belly and short quarters; although the dam 
of the celebrated red-and-whlte bull Blyth Comet (86), her only produce be- 
sides Ossian (476), she was not first rate, and wanted hair, yet when dry 
had a great propensity to feed. 

" The only cow that Charles CoHlng reserved was Magdalena [by (^met, 
dam by Cupid], a great favorite and an extraordinary milker, glTlng six- 



DEVELOPMENT OP THE IMPROVED TYPE. 51 

in 1820 the closing sale, which finished his 
career as a breeder. At the time of his first 
sale, in 1818, he had been before the public as 
a leading and prominent breeder thirty-eight 
years, and at his final sale, in 1820, forty years. 

teen quarts twUe a day. Hr. Whltaker prevailed upon Charlee OolUng to 
let him haye her: the numerous and well-known * Chaff * trihe la deeoended 
from this cow. 

" Comet (156) was the ^reat attraction of the sale, and his close hreedinv 
Clqr Favortte (MS), dam hy ravorite (SS2), out of Favorite's (S5S) dam], did 
not detract from his value or appearance. Charles Colling declared him to 
be the best hull he ever bred or saw. He was a beautiful llrht roan, dark 
[red] neck, with a fine masculine head, broad and deep breast, shoulders 
well laid back, crops and loins rood, hind quarters long, stralirht and well 
packed, thighs thick, twist full and well let down, with nioe straight hocks 
and hind legs. He had f air-sised home, ears large and hairy, and a gran- 
deur of style and carriage thai was Indescribable. It was admitted that no 
bull so good had ever before been seen, and eminent breeders have since 
said that they never again saw his equal. In one point, however, opinions 
differed. Some few objected to his shoulders as not being good, or a little 
too strong in the knuckles: others asserted that he was there, as In every 
other point, faultless. The near shoulder was slightly shrunk in, appar- 
ently diseased, which oiay have arisen from a violent sprain that he re- 
ceived when a calf. When brought Into the ring he was put up at 000 
gnineas. Thomas Newton, a small dairyman at Bishop Auckland, bid 860 
guineas, and Mr. John Wright, standing beside him, asked why he bid? *To 
take in cows at a good profit,' said he, and while talking the glass run out 
at 1,000 guineas (16,000). Mr John Button of Marske, who was unable to get 
to the aale, bid 1,000 guineas for him, as well as Sir H. Vane Tempest, who 
was delayed, and drove up Just as the sale was finishing. Comet was 
located at Cleasby, three miles from Darlington, and was kept In a small 
paddoOk, with a loose box in the comer. The condition of purchase was 
that the four buyers should send twelve cows each annually to him, and 
Mr. Wright was to have one extra for his keep. Mr. Wright died in the 
meantime, and Comet gradually sank, his body breaking out Into sores. 
Bemns (660) is supposed to have been his last calf. Mies Wright kept a 
man expressly to attend to Comet, and when the bull died he was burled in 
the center of the paddock, and a chestnut tree planted on hi a grave. The 
paddock is known as * (Comet's garth * [enclosure] to this day. Mr. Thorn- 
ton of Stapleton purchased this field, and the tree having grown to an enor- 
mous slae was grubbed up on the 8d of February, 1866, and Comet's skeleton 
laid bare; his rib bone measured two feet one Inch, and the leg bone, knee 
to ankle Joint, nine inches to five inches circumference. Many of the other 
bones were quite perfect, and the whole are preserved In a glaae case as a 
curiosity at Stapleton, near Darlington. 

"North Star (468), own brother to Comet, and a year younger, was used 
and died at Gen. Simpeon's in Fifeahire; he was a little lighter in color but 



62 A HISTOBY OP SHOBT-HORN CATTLE. 

Durinsf all that time, like his brother Gbarles, 
he had been a large seller of stock as well as a 
considerable purchaser. He sold his surplus 
animals to other breeders, through which the 
blood of many of his best animals was im- 
parted to their herds, since become famous. 
Like his brother Charles, whenever he had 
found a well-bred female whose superior good 
qualities pleased him, if it were possible he 
also availed himself, by purchase, of her merits. 
As with the sale of Charles in 1810, the widely 
advertised first sale of Robert in 1818, with a 
greater number of animals, brought a large 
attendance of the most spirited breeders of Eng- 
land. It took place on the 29th and 30th days 
of September. Sixty-one cattle were sold for 
£7,852 19s., an average of £128 14s. 9d. The 
top price was 621 guineas for the four-year-old 

fully SB fine In quality, or perhaps rather thicker, thomrh not such a per. 
f ectly elegant animal as Comet 7ounff Phoenlz, their dam, only produoea 
one other calf, a heifer, that died younff. 

"Jftalor (»7), a nice trail, but not particularly handaome, and of a red- 
and-whlte color, beirot much «rood stock In Lincolnshire for many years. 
He was hired by Mr. John Charge, who bred Western Comet (680) by him, 
out of Gentle Kitty. Western Comet was acknowledged to be the best bull 
and finest stock-iretter ever brought Into Cumberland. He was used to his 
daughters and granddaughters, and from this dose alliance came the 
Wbarfdale tribe, recently so successful In Ireland. Petrarch (A88) was a 
splendid-looking bull, but wanted hair, whilst Northumberland (461), who 
had big knuckles, was used, like Oealan (476) In Westmoreland, for seTeral 
seasons, both becoming celebrated sires. Ketton (346) also showed strong 
knuckles and eventually went Into Nottlnghamrhlre. Albion di) Is said to 
have done more good than any other bull used at Klllerby CThoraas 
Booth's]. Touug Duchess, known afterward as Duchess 1st [bought bF 
Thomas Bates], was a fine red heifer and developed into a large, handsome 
cow, with a good deal of the elegance and style of her sire, Comet. She 
was never quite so splendid an animal aa her grandam, the D nrhn sa. by the 
Daisy Bull (186).*' 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMPROVED TYPE. 53 

bull Lancaster (360). Mr. Booth of Killerby 
paid 270 guineas for the bull calf Pilot (496). 
The final closing-out sale of the herd oc- 
curred Oct. 3, 1820, and Uke that of 1818 at- 
tracted wide attention. The forty-six head 
brought £2,273 15s. 6d., an average of £49 Ss. 
7d., the highest price paid being 350 guineas by 
Sir C. Loraine for the five-year-old bull Baro- 
net (62). The total of the two sales wap 
£10,126 14s. 6d. Commenting upon these prices 
Mr. John Thornton, than whom there is no 
higher authority in England, says: " Although 
the average of the Barmpton sale, 1818, was 
under that of Ketton, 1810, there is every 
reason to believe that it was a better sale. In 
1810 things were at war price and everything 
high, whilst in 1818 there was peace and a gen- 
eral depression upon agriculture. The * alloy' 
blood, too, in the Ketton stock tended to pro- 
mote competition for the purer strains at 
Barmpton. The bulls are said by Mr. Wether- 
ell to have been the finest lot he ever saw at 
one sale. They doubled the average of the 
cows, and, taking the highest-priced family 
at Ketton against the highest-priced one at 
Barmpton, we have the following result in favor 
of the Barmpton stock: At Ketton the Phoe- 
nix tribe, sixteen (including Cornet^ 1,000 gui- 
neas), averaged £221 3s.; at Barmpton the Red 
Rose tribe, eleven (including Lancaster, 621 



54 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

guineas), averaged £269 3s. 6cl., and the thirteen 
favorite Wildairs averaged £142 178. 6d." 

Fre-eminence of the CoUings.— While the 
Short-hom history of this particular period 
must deal mainly with the operations of the 
brothers Colling, it will of course be understood 
that they had many intelligent contemporaries. 
Whether the CoUings really earned the right to 
be called the first great improvers of the mod- 
ern Short-hom, or whether they gained their 
fame mainly by reason of the novelty of their 
methods and their superior enterprise as adver- 
tisers, the fact remains that more pedigrees in 
the Short-horn herd books of England and 
America trace to the Colling herds than to any 
other dozen herds of the same period combined. 
Manifestly there was some good reason for the 
general adoption of Colling blood. That the 
breeders of that day conceded leadership to the 
breeder of Foljambe, Favorite and Comet is in- 
dicated by a testimonial tendered Charles Col- 
ling on his retirement from breeding in 1810 — 
a valuable piece of plate bearing the following 
inscription: 

PBBaiinlXD TO 

MR. CHARLES COLLING, 

THX GBKAT IMPBOYIB OV THS 8HOBT-HOBNBD BBBBD OF CATTLB, 
BY THB BBXEDBBB 

WBOSB MAMB8 ABK ANNXXBD, 

^fl A TOKEN OV OBATITUDX DUB VOB THB BXHXriT THXT HAVB OBBITXD 

niOM HIB JUDOMBKT, AND ALSO AS A TBSTIMONV OV 

TKBIB BBTBBIl FOB HIM A8 A MAN. 




THOS. BOOTH, OF KILLERBY. 

(From photograph of painting, reproduced by courtesy of Richard 
Booth, Ksq., Warlaby, North AlUrton, England.) 



CHAPTER IIL 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 

Free use of the Colling blood was made in 
every herd of any importance in the Short 
horn breeding districts, but of all those who 
availed themselves directly of the improve- 
ment wrought at Ketton and Barmpton the 
names of the elder (Thomas) Booth, Thomas 
Bates, Christopher Mason, Earl Spencer and 
Jonas Whitaker are among the most conspic- 
uous. Indeed, one of the first things learned 
by those who take up the study of the Short- 
horn is the fact that for upward of half a cen- 
tury the main question in the minds of a large 
proportion of the breedei^ on both sides the 
Atlantic seemed to have been whether to adopt 
the Bates or the Booth line of breeding. As a 
matter of fact, the cattle bequeathed originally 
by the Messrs. Booth and Thomas Bates were 
unquestionably of the highest order of merit, 
the former representing a type distinguished 
especially for substance and flesh and the latter 
a class of cattle of the dual-purpose sort, pos- 
sessing much refinement of character and un- 
doubted quality. In each case the stock repre- 

(56) 



66 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

sented a remarkable concentration of blood, 
possessed a singular uniformity in general 
characteristics and displayed remarkable pre- 
potency when crossed upon cattle of mixed or 
miscellaneous breeding. In the "craze" that 
set in for stock of one or the other of these 
two great rival types both naturally suffered 
from the very popularity that gave them prom- 
inence. Speculators, as distinguished from 
constructive breeders, appeared upon the scene 
and a traflSc in " fashionable pedigrees " sprang 
up which finally ended in disaster both to the 
breed and to those who recklessly persisted in 
their mad career of in-and-in or "line" breed- 
ing, with its inevitable dangers intensified by 
the retention for breeding purposes of all ani- 
mals, good, bad and indifferent, that could trace 
descent direct from Bates or Booth sources. 
Particularly was this true of the Bates Short- 
horns. The story of the rise and extension of 
the Booth and Bates power forms one of the 
most important parts of the Short-horn history 
of the nineteenth century; and a knowledge 
of the main facts connected therewith is as 
essential as it may be useful to those who are 
now engaged in the breeding of Short-horn 
cattle. We therefore next take up the narra- 
tive of the origin of these two dominant vari- 
eties, with incidental references to the work of 
other early breed-builders. 



F0UVDATIOV8 OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 57 

The elder Booth.— Thos. Booth, the founder 
of the group of tribes that still bear his name, 
was the owner of the beautiful Yorkshire estate 
of Killerby in the fertile valley of the Swale 
and of Warlaby in the vale of the Wiske. He 
began his work with Short-horns at Killerby 
prior to the year 1790. In common with the 
CoUings and nearly all of his other contempo- 
raries, Mr. Booth endeavored to solve the prob- 
lem of how to refine the old Teeswater stock. 
He realized the faulte of the prevailing type 
and was among the first to concede that 
through Hubback (319) and the Bakewell sys- 
tem the Ceilings had probably hit upon the 
long-sought line of progression. Unlike Mr. 
Bates and many other breeders of the time, he 
did not deem it essential, however, to go to 
Ketton and Barmpton for females to carry on 
his experiments. He had an idea that by cross- 
ing moderate-sized, strongly-bred Colling bulls 
upon large-framed, roomy cows showing great 
constitution and an aptitude to fatten he could 
improve even upon the work of the CoUings. 
To this extent, therefore, he must be credited 
with greater originality than some of his broth- 
er breeders. Moreover, the outcome revealed 
that he possessed quite as much skill as he had 
independence of character. 

The first of the " improved " or Colling bulls 
selected for this purpose were Twin Brother to 



58 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

Ben (660) and one of his sons, both bred by 
Robert Colling. This brought in a strong in- 
fusion of the blood of Hubback, through Punch 
(531) and Foljambe (263), in addition to which 
the grandam of Twin Brother to Ben went to 
Hubback direct. 

The Fairholme experiment. — Among Mr. 
Booth's earlier selections were five heifer calves 
from a set of cows owned by a Mr. Broader of 
Fairholme, a dairy farmer and tenant of Lord 
Hare wood in the parish of Ainderby; one of 
which — Fairholme by name — became the an- 
cestress of several illustrious families. The 
dams of these calves were described as " fine 
cattle; good dairy cows and great grazers when 
dry; somewhat incompact in frame and steer- 
ish in appearance, but of very robust constitu- 
tion." Mr. Booth evidently put substance 
ahead of points of less practical importance, 
and from the very first regarded flesh-making 
capacity and breadth of back and loin of more 
value than persistent flow of milk. While 
there were some cows of marked dairy capacity 
in his original herd, they soon acquired a dis- 
position to "dry off" quickly and put on great 
wealth of flesh, a trait which ever afterward 
distinguished the best of the Booth cattle. 

The result of the use of the Coiling bulls 
upon the Fairholme heifers fulfilled all expect- 
ations. From this " nick " descended the Fair- 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 59 

holme or Blossom tribe, the old Booth Red 
Rose tribe and the Ariadne or Bright Eyes 
tribe, from which group came some of the best 
of the Killerby and Warlaby cattle, among 
others the noted Twin cow (by Albion), her 
son Navigator and a score of great show cat- 
tle, including such celebrities as Bloom, Plum 
Blossom, Nectarine "Blossom, Venus Victrix, 
Baron Warlaby and Windsor. 

Some fonndation sires. — The first Colling 
bulls were reinforced by the purchase of Su- 
worrow (636), also of Barmpton breeding, and 
full of the blood of Hubback and Favorito; and 
the work of crossing these bulls upon carefully 
selected cows of different origin was continued. 
At Charles CoUing's sale in 1810 the light roan 
bull calf Albion (14) was purchased for sixty 
guineas, and it is said that he effected even 
greater improvement in the herd than the Ben 
bulls or Suworrow. His get were uniformly 
round-ribbed and stood near to the ground. He 
was intensely bred in the Favorite blood, al- 
though carrying also a cross of the so-called 
''alloy'' through Washington (674). Another 
of the early sires was Pilot (496), of Robert 
Colling's breeding, purchased at the Barmpton 
sale of 1818 for 270 guineas; also overflowing 
with the blood of Favorite (252). Still more of 
the same blood was secured through Marshall 
Beresford (415), bred by Maj. Bower, a brother- 



60 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

in-law of Mr. Booth's, from Comet (155) and 
Charles Ceiling's Daisy. 

Great care was taken in mating the animals 
to try and breed out defects and establish de- 
sired characteristics; and having, by a judicious 
course of jselection and the use of strongly-bred 
Colling bulls, acquired a good degree of uni- 
formity in essential points, the Bakewell idea 
of breeding from close aflBnities was success- 
fully adopted. Ko sooner had the successful 
issue of the cross of the first Colling bulls upon 
the Fairholme and other cows become apparent 
than Mr. Booth began concentrating the blood 
of their progeny. Sir Henry (597) and his son 
Lame Bull (359) and Young Albion (15) were 
among the earlier sires representing the fruits 
of Mr. Booth's first inbreeding. 

The Halnaby or Strawberry tribe. — An- 
other foundation dam was a yellow-red and 
white cow that appealed to Mr. Booth's prac- 
ticed eye in the Darlington market about 1797. 
She was bought and crossed with Colling blood, 
and became the matron of a celebrated family. 
The first named cow in the maternal line was 
Halnaby, by Lame Bull (359). Bred to Albion 
(14) she produced the noted stock-getter Young 
Albion (15), the first of the Booth-bred bulls to 
be let out on hire,* a practice which afterward 

*Yoiiiiff Albion, according to Carr, "went to Mr. ScrooDe'B of Danby 
Hall, near Mlddleham, who bad a fine, lar^e, robust herd of cattle, related 
through some of the bulls used to the Ctolllng blood. In 1812 the SQuire of 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 61 

became a settled policy in the management of 
the Booth herds, and had much to commend it, 
for it enabled the owners to avail themselves 
of the services of many bulls that developed 
into great sires that would otherwise have been 
lost to them in the ordinary course of selling. 
From the Halnabys also came the bulls Rock- 
ingham and Priam, the latter sire of the re- 
nowned show " twins'' Necklace and Bracelet. 
To this same foundation also trace the Bianca 
and Bride Elect sort. The famous cow White 
Strawberry, the dam of the excellent stock bull 
Leonard (4210), was the ancestress of Monk, 
Medora, Red Rose, and her "queenly" quar- 
tette of daughters — Queen of the May, Queen 
Mab, Queen of the Vale and Queen of the Ocean 
—all by Crown Prince. Young Matchem (4422) 
descended from White Rose, an own sister to 
Young Albion, and the same family gave 
Young Rachel, the dam of Mr. Ambler's cele- 
brated Grand Turk (12969). Indeed pages 
might be filled with the triumphs in show- 
yards and breeding herds of animals going 
back to the yellow-red cow picked up by 
Thomas Booth at Darlington market. 

The Bracelets.— This family was derived 
from one of the heifers sired by Suworrow. 

Danby ehaUenged Mr. Thomas Booth to show, " for rump and dosen " (the 
usual stakes at that day beinir rump steaks and a dosen of wine), the best 
lot of heifers he had against the same number of hla own, the match to be 
decided at Bedale. Although a irood lot the Danby had to give place to the 
SUlerby and Warlaby contingent" 



62 A HISTORY OF 8H0BT-H0RN OATTLB. 

Nothing is known of the cow from which she 
was bred, but the Suworrow heifer became the 
ancestress of a fine cow, Countess, dropped in 
1812 to the cover of Albion, from whence de- 
scended Toy^ the dam of Necklace and Brace- 
let, those twin tributes to the greatness and 
genius of the Booths as cattle-breeders. Prom 
the same source also came Col. Towneley's 
Pearly and Mr. Torr's Young Bracelet family. 

The earlier representatives of these Pair- 
holme, Halnaby and Bracelet tribes constituted 
Thomas Booth's breeding herd at Killerby up 
to the year 1814, by which time he had acquired 
a reputation as a skillful improver second to 
none. At that early date the modern system 
of high-feeding for the show-yards had not yet 
come into vogue.* The breeding cows at Kil- 
lerby were on pasture the greater portion of 
the year, and were wintered mainly on hay. 
Heifers were put to breeding at an early age — 
generally calving as two-year-olds. 

Bichard Booth at Studley. — ^In the year 
1814 Richard, son of Thomas Booth, leased the 
farm of Studley, some fifteen miles south of 
Killerby, near Ripon, and began breeding Short- 
horns on his own account. He had been a close 
student of his father's methods, and at Studley 
carried the Booth stock to even greater perfec- 

•Carr Bays that Mr. Crofton was th3 first to introduce iiic idea of "traln- 
ing'" Short-homa for Bhow~"houBe-feedliiir cows and heifers in Bummer 
months/* 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 63 

tion than it had yet attained at Killerby. He 
purchased from his father the cow Bright Eyes, 
by Lame Bull, and her two heifers by Albion — 
Ariadne and Agnes. Ariadne became at Stud- 
ley the dam of the famous Anna by Pilot.* 

The Isabellas.— This great Studley tribe was 
bred from another one of those Darlington 
market cows — ^a roan of untraced breeding, ex- 
cept that she was got by "Mr. Burrell's Bull of 
Burden." Her color and her quality consti- 
tuted her passport into Richard Booth's good 
judgment. She is said to have possessed "a 
remarkably ample development of fore quar- 
ters,'' and Mr. Bruere, who afterward bred a 
noted herd of Booth cattle, remarks that as a 
schoolboy at Ripon he " well remembered the 
brimming pails of milk she gave." Bred to 
Agamemnon (9), of the Killerby Bright Eyes 
blood, she produced the " White Cow," which, 
mated with Pilot, dropped " the matchless Isa- 
bella, so long remembered in show-field annals 
and to this day quoted as a perfect specimen of 
her race."t 

* Anna was one of the beat show cows of her day, and in 1824 walked 
from Studley to Hancheater Show, **iralniuir flrat prize there, walkintr back, 
and DToducinir within a fortnight Tounir Anna." Anna is said to have borne 
a close reeemblance to Queen of the Ocean. She also gave birth to Ade- 
laide, the highest-priced female sold at the Studley sale in IfiSI. and was the 
rrandam of Mr. Storer's Princess Julia. From Anna, through her daughter 
Touncr Anna, were descended two of Mr. Torr's families; and from A^rnes, 
danyhter of Bright Eyes, came Mr. Fawkea' Verbena and her descendants. 
Agamemnon, an own brother of Arladue, was "a bull of extraordinary sub- 
stance, good hind quarters, heavy flanks, deep twist and well-covered hips." 

tSpeaking of Isabella, Mr. Carr Biya: "Pedestrians croHsing the fields 
to the ruins of Fountain Abbey might generally see her and Anna, perhaps 



64 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

It is said that '' Isabella and her descendants 
brought the massive yet exquisitely molded 
fore quarters into the herd, and also the 
straight underline of the belly, for which the 
Warlaby animals are so remarkable," and the 
same authority, Mr. Carr, adds: ''That such a 
cow should have had but three crosses of blood 
is striking evidence of the impressive efficacy 
of these early bulls, and confirms Mr, R. Booth's 
opinion that four crosses of really first-rate 
bulls of sterling blood upon a good market cow 
of the ordinary Short-horn breed should suffice 
for the production of an animal with all the 
characteristics of the high-caste Short-horn." 
Isabella produced among other celebrities the 
Royal prize- winning Isabella Buckingham; and 
of all the cows owned by Richard Booth at the 

the two XiCBX 00W8 of their day. with a hlootnliv bevy of fair heifera, 
attended by Youn«r Albion; and many a trayeler lin^red on hla way to 
admire their buxom forms, picturing to himself, perhaps, how the monka 
of the old abbey would have gloried in such beeves. Isabella was the Bev. 
Henry Berry's beau ideal of a Short-horn. In 1S28, Sir ChorlesJf organ hav- 
ing* offered a premium to promote a trial of merit between J^ref ords and 
Short-horns, Mr. Berry wrote to the editor of the Farmen' Jdumol reQueet- 
ing him to give publicity to the following offer: *I wiU produce as a com- 
petitor for Sir Charlea Morgan's premium at Ghristmaa next a Short-homed 
cow, then nine years old, expecting to drop her eighth living calf (at sepa- 
rate births) in June now next ensuing, against any Hereford in England 
seven or nine years old having had calves for years In the same proportion. 
I will also, on the same occasion, produce a Short-hom heifer three years 
old, having had a living calf, allowing to the Herefords the same ample 
scope— all England —for the production of a competitor. It will be obvious 
to your readers that in thus pitting two individuals against so numerous a 
tribe as the Herefords I must entertain considerable confidence In their 
merits, and it will be as easy to draw a correct conclusion should my offer 
not be accepted/ The cow and heifer which, by permiSBlon of the owners, 
Mr. Borry propoBod brliijrlng into competition with the Herefords were Mr. 
Whitaker'8 cow Moas Roh(' and Mr. Booth's heifer Isabella, by Pilot Ths 
challenge was not taken up." 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HERDS. 65 

time of the Studley sale of 1834 she (Isabella) 
alone was retained and transferred to Warlaby, 
where she produced in her eighteenth year the 
heifer Isabella Matchem, that proved a prolific 
breeder. The entire family was noted for its 
tendency to lay on flesh rapidly on grass. 
- ** White Cow," by Agamemnon, produced be- 
sides Isabella Lady Sarah and " Own Sister to 
Isabella," and was then sold to Mr. Paley. The 
"Own Sister" became the dam of Blossom, 
whose daughter Medora — sold to Mr. Fawkes — 
proved an extraordinary breeder.* 

A Marshal Beresford cow, Madame, taken 
from Killerby to Studley, became the matron 
of a tribe that made up an important propor- 
tion of the stock sold at the dispersion of 1834. 
They were good milkers and ripened quickly 
when not nursing calves. They were largely 
descended through a cow called Miss Foote, 
that was from Fair Maid, a daughter of Madame. 

Probably the two best bulls used at Studley 
were Pilot (496), hired from Killerby, and Julius 
Caesar (1143), the latter ason of Young Albion (15) 
out of one of the Killerby Red Roses by Albion 

•A writer In BelTt Memtmoer, probably Mr. WUllAm Houaman, speaklnir 
of this cow, said: "A ipentleman who haa been conversant with the herds 
of Great Britain for at least a Quarter of a century declares that one of the 
most interesting sights he ever saw at an ay rtcultural exhibition was on 
the show rronnd at Otley some years affo, when, after the Jndrin^ , the 
famona Booth cow Medora, by Ambo, was led around the ring, followed by 
her six daughters, all of them, as well as the mother, decorated with prise 
favors. The daughters were Gnlnare, Haldee and Znlelka (by Norfolk); 
Victoria and Fair Maid of Athens (by Sir Thomas Fairfax), and a heifer 
named Myrrha, by Bockinffham (8560)." 



66 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN GATTLB. 

(14). This was called a very evenly-built bull, 
and he proved exceedingly prepotent, a fact 
which is not surprising in view of his strong 
breeding. He traced six times to Thos. Booth's 
Twin Brother to Ben. Pilot proved a great 
stock bull in all three of the Booth herds. As 
already stated, he was also very closely bred*- 
He was let for a time to Mr. Rennie, but his 
stock developed such extraordinary merit that 
he was recalled and freely used. He was a 
small, compact bull, much inclined to put on 
flesh. 

As already noted, the herd at Studley was 
closed out in 1834. This step was greatly re- 
gretted in later years by Mr. Richard Booth, but 
Mrs. Lawrence, the proprietress ot Studley, re- 
quired some of the best pastures for other pur- 
poses, and there seemed no other coui-se open 
but a sale of the herd. Mr. Booth then retired 
to Sharrow, near Ripon, until the following 
year, when he succeeded to his father's herd at 
Warlaby. 

John Booth at Eillerby.— In 1819, upon the 
occasion of the marriage of his son John (brother 
to Richard), Mr. Thomas Booth gave up Eil- 
lerby and a portion of the herd to the former, 
and removed to his other farm, Warlaby, near 
Northallerton, taking with him to that place 
a draft from the Fairholme (or Blossom) and 



irOONDATIONS OF THE BOOTH HSRD8. 67 

the old Red Rose tribes. The Bracelets were 
all left for the son at Killerby.* 

The period extending from 1820 down to 
about 1835 was not characterized by the same 
widespread interest in Short-horn breeding 
that had prevailed for twenty-five years pre- 
vious, and we are without special particulars 
concerning the Killerby and Warlaby stocks 
during those years. Fox-hunting seemed of 
more importance to a goodly section of the 
Yorkshire farmers than the development of 
their herds of cattle. Still there were some 
who remained steadfastly by the work under 
adverse circumstances, and among these the 
Messrs. Booth and Mr. Bates were distinguished 
for their pertinacity and skill. As what may be 
termed the more modern history of the Booths 
may be said, therefore, to begin late in the 
" thirties," we will leave tne story of the oper- 
ations at Killerby and Warlaby at this point to 
bring down to a similar date (1835) the work 
undertaken by Thomas Bates and some of his 
contemporaries. 

• "KlUerby is one of the pleaaaDtest of the pleasant homes of England. 
It is a BubstADtlal SQuare manor-houae, picturesQuely situated on a gentle 
emineooe to the south of the river Swale, and tr^'y miles from Catterlck, the 
site of the once important Roman camp and city of Cataractonium. The 
house ooeaples the site of the ancient castle of Killerby, once a stronirhold 
of rreat magnitude, founded in the ral^n of Edward I, by Sir Brian Fltzalan, 
Bar! of ArundeL It is approached by a road winding throuirh verdant pas- 
tares thrown together in the form of a park, adorned here and there with 
noble elm and walnut trees. The estate consisted of about 500 acres of 
arable and pasture land. "^Garr** fltotory- 



CHAPTER IV. 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 

"A wonderful, wonderful man! He might 
become anything — even Prime Minister — if he 
would not talk so much." Such was Earl Spen- 
cer's jocular but nevertheless close-fitting char- 
acterization of Thomas Bates. Conspicuous 
anjong all those who exercised powerful indi- 
vidual influence upon the fortunes of the breed 
after the dawn of the nineteenth century; par- 
tially contemporary in time with the Collings, 
although much younger in years, the unique 
and interesting personality of Mr. Bates was 
first projected into the field of Short-horn cat- 
tle-breeding about the year 1800, From the 
date of his death in 1849 for a period of about 
a quarter of a century cattle bearing the Bates 
blood were one of the great factors in the 
Short-horn trade not only of England but of 
the United States as well. During that period 
so great was the demand for animals descend- 
ing from his favorite Duchess tribe that a 
range of speculative values unheard of before 
or since was for a time established, the climax 

(68) 




THOS. BATES, OF KIRKLEVINGTON. 

(lieprodficed fry courtety of Cadwallader John Jiater, Lanfjley t'aatl':, 
Northutiiberland, Kngland.) 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 68 

being reached at New York Mills, near Utica, 
N. Y., in 1873, when the fabulous sum of 
$40,600 was bid for a single specimen of that 
family. 

" Duke " bulls for years held the balance of 
power in the American Short-horn breeding 
world, fashioning the type of cattle bred in hun- 
dreds of herds. On account, therefore, of the 
far-reaching influence exerted by them upon the 
fortunes of the breed we must devote consider- 
able space to the story of Thomas Bates and 
how he conceived and carried out his pet plan 
for the preservation of what he believed to 
be the best of all the early Short-horn blood. 
Injudicious in-and-in breeding, the retention 
for breeding purposes of all animals dropped 
within the charmed circle of the Kirklevington 
tribes, regardll3ss of individual character, and 
the evil influence of certain reckless spec- 
ulators, long since undermined the work of 
Thomas Bates; but the main facts connected 
with his career and the world-wide popularity 
attained after his death by stock derived from 
the Kirklevington herd must ever possess a fas- 
cination for the student of Short-horn history. 
Moreover, they are not without a lesson to pos- 
terity. 

Early studies in cattle-breeding. — Bom at 
Aydon Castle, Northumberland, in 1775, at the 
age of twenty-five Bates leased the extensive 



70 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTIiB. 

&irm and estate of Halton Castle, a few miles 
distant from his birthplace. This was in the 
Tyneside country, just west of Newcastle. 
First adopting West Highland cattle for graz- 
ing and fattening purposes he, like many other 
intelligent farmers of that day, was deeply im- 
pressed by the exhibition of fat Short-horn 
stock of the Colling blood. It appears that the 
young man had gained a considerable knowl- 
edge of the Teeswater cattle before making his 
fii-st investments in them. After the fashion 
of the time he was in the habit of visiting Dar- 
lington on market or "fair" days, and there 
met many of the most prominent Short-horn 
breeders of the period. These markets were 
held on Mondays and provided an admirable 
opportunity for study and comparison. One 
can readily appreciate the value to a beginner 
in breeding of such a school as was provided by 
these Yarm and Darlington fairs. Mr. Mason 
of Chilton, the Joblings, the Collings, Maynard 
of Eryholme, the elder Booth, and many other 
experienced men were in the throng of those 
who constituted the Short-horn "Senate" at 
the King's Head and the Black Bull Inn. 
Those market fairs of a hundred years ago, 
from whence sprang the Royal and Smithfield 
Shows, as well as our American State fairs, fur- 
nished the first great stimulus to Short-horn 
improvement and were the means of enlisting 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 71 

the interest of the farmers of all England in 
tne breed, a fact which serves to emphasize the 
far-reaching impoitance of such events and the 
necessity of supporting them heartily at all 
times. 

Bates was a keen observer at the time he 
began frequenting these market-places. The 
heterogeneous mixture that had up to this time 
constituted the old Teeswater breed was rapidly 
being fused into something like a homogeneous 
type. The fires about the refining crucible were 
burning brightly — especially at Ketton, where 
appeal had been made to Bakewell's magic 
power. Thomas Bates watched the workmen 
at their task; visited among them, and finally 
seized upon what be regarded as the best mate- 
rial then in the hands of the master-spirits in 
the business. He became quite intimate with 
Charles Colling, and usually stayed at Ketton, 
or with Mason of Chilton, from Saturday night 
to Monday, on the occasion of his attending 
Darlington market. It was at the great " fair " 
held at this place on the firat Monday in March 
in 1799 that ''the wonderful Durham Ox" was 
exhibited; but while the great Colling steer was 
astounding the gaping crowd the thoughts of 
the bright young Northumberland farmer were 
otherwise engaged. Another beast of Ketton 
breeding was claiming his close attention. He 
was meditating the selection of foundation 



72 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

stock for a breeding herd, and had been espe- 
cially attracted by a roan heifer of the Duchess 
blood shown upon this occasion by Charles Col- 
ling. He doubtless knew by hearsay of the ex- 
cellence of the original Stanwick cow of that 
name already referred to, and his good opinion 
of this particular roan heifer was heightened 
by the fact that he "thrice met Mr. Thompson, 
a well-known judge of stock from Northum- 
berland," by her side during the day. 

The Durham Ox was got by Favorite (252) 
out of a common black-and-white cow bought 
at Durham Fair; but, like his sire, the steer was 
roan, a fact of interest, in connection with the 
bullock's wonderful character, as foreshadow- 
ing the prepotency of sirqs representing a 
strong concentration of blood. Among other 
remarks heard by Mr. Bates from those who 
were discussing the great steer was one to the 
effect that the most perfect animals likely to be 
bred in the ensuing years would be those sired 
by Favorite out of Hubback cows. This thought, 
it is said, took deep root in the young man's 
mind and governed him largely in his subse- 
quent choice of breeding stock. 

Original investments. — On May day, 1800, 
Bates took possession of the Hal ton Castle Farm. 
In March of that year he had bought hi^ first 
Short-horn. It does not appear, however, as if 
he bad at that time made up his mind fully as 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUGHB8SB8. 73 

to which was the best Colling blood; for this 
initial purchase was a heifer sired by Ben out 
of a cow called Venus, that was an own sister 
to the roan two-year-old heifer Mary which 
Colling sold to Gen. Simson of Fifeshire, Scot- 
land, in 1806 for 300 guineas. Subsequently 
Bates changed his mind about the blood of Ben 
and expressed great aversion for it. This would 
indicate that the heifer for some reason did not 
do well at Halton. The great price (for 1800) 
of 100 guineas was paid for her, the largest sum 
Colling had up to that time received for a cow. 
Mr. Bates and his friends claimed that the pay- 
ment of this fancy figure was a prime factor in 
giving the Ketton stock prestige over the other 
herds of that period. 

In the fall of 1800 Mr. Bates bought from 
Robert Colling some young steers sired by Fa- 
vorite (252) for feeding purposes. He hired 
Daisy Bull (186) from Charles Colling, and aft- 
erward bought him for thirty guineas. In 1803 
he hired Styford (629) from Robert Colling. 
Both were by Favorite (252). Some West 
Highland heifers had meantime been acquired, 
as Mr. Bates at that time believed that by cross- 
ing them with good Short-horn bulls feeding 
stock could be obtained that would be superior 
to any but the best types of the Short-horns of 
that period. The Colling bulls named were 
therefore obtained mainly for crossing pur- 



74 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HORN OATTLK. 

poses. Both Daisy Bull and Styford are said to 
have revealed clearly the Hubback character in 
their hair and handling. 

The DuchesB blood.— About this time a very 
substantial legacy was received from an aunt, 
and this enabled Mr. Bates to go on with his 
Short-horn breeding. For 100 guineas he 
bought from Charles Colling in 1804 the cow 
Duchess, by Daisy Bull (186), then four years 
old and in calf to Favorite. A heifer from her 
was also bargained for at sixty guineas, but at 
Mrs. Colling's request was given up and returned 
to Ketton. In this cow Bates claimed to have 
secured not only the best cow in England but 
the only one then living running direct from 
Hubback to Favorite. He was very anxious to 
breed her to Mr. Charles Colling's Duke (224), 
by Favorite, then going out on hire to a Mr. 
Gibson, and although promised the semce was 
unable to secure it — a fact which led to bad 
blood between Bates and Colling. In 1805 
Duchess, by Daisy Bull, produced a bull calf, 
Ketton (709), by Favorite (252), which was re- 
tained for subsequent service. She dropped 
one heifer, Baroness, by St. John (572), but be- 
coming a "shy" breeder was reluctantly sold 
to Mr. Donkin of Sandhoe, and as she did not 
in his possession settle down to bulls of desired 
form and quality her other calves (all bulls) did 
not carry the blood Mr. Bates sought. She was 




DUCHESS, by DAISY BULL (186) ; tred by Chas. Colling. 





^^^^^ft& ^^H^ ^^ * ' "^ 'Wat 








^^^^^«p ' J*"—-- ^ ^^^^1^1 







KETTON 1st (709) ; bred by Chas. Colling. 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 75 

always a deep, rich milker, making as high as 
14 lbs. of butter per week, and when fed off at 
seventeen years of age she is said to have made 
an excellent carcass of beef. 

Bates had made up his mind that this Duch- 
ess blood was the most valuable strain in the 
entire breed and resolved to persevere in his 
efForts at acquiring it.* At the Ketton disper* 
sion in 1810 he bought Young Duchess, a grand- 
daughter of Duchess by Daisy Bull, sired by 
the 1,000-guinea bull Comet (155), at 183 guin- 
eas. She was evidently not one of the best 
individuals in that memorable sale. Indeed 
sde was pronounced "shabby'' by the whole 
neighborhood about Halton, Mr. Bates Sr., 
in particular, ridiculing his sou's purchase. 
Thomas relied upon her breeding and her qual- 
ity, however, and bided his time. Under the 
name of Duchess 1st she proved the ancestress 

•In a letter written to Mr. Bailey In 1810 Batee said: "A heifer of this 
Ductaess breed, belnr tbe first calf rot by old Favorite, weiirheU when little 
more than three years old within aix pounds of 100 stone, fourteen pounds 
to the stone, and was allowed to be a greater curiosity than the Ketton ox 
of tbe same age when shown with him at Darlington in the spring of 1799. 
The pedigree of Toung Duchess as I received it from Mr. and Mrs. Colling 
is thus: By Comet, dam by Favorite: grandam by Daisy (a son or Favor- 
ite); great^randam by Favorite: greatrgreat-grandam by Hubback; great- 
great-grsa^tfrandam by Mr. Brown's famous old bull of Aldbrough. And 
what adds to the value of this pedigree is that the cow by Mr. Brown's old 
bull was as good as any of the tribe since, without her of course being im- 
proved by those bulls which have so much benefited the other tribes of 
Short-horns. Mrs. Oolllng assured me that this tribe has always been the 
best milking tribe. This Duchess tribe is the only instance now remaining 
of the produce of Hubback being put to Favorite without some other bull 
intervening, which circumstance, added to their being a great milk-and. 
butter tribe, gives them a pre-eminence over any other tribe of Short 
horns.** 



76 A HJ3T0BY OF 8H0RT-H0BN CATTLE. 

of the far-famed Duchess family, which ulti- 
mately became the highest-priced and most- 
widely-sought tribe known in Shorirhom his- 
tory. He immediately began asserting with 
characteristic assurance the extreme value of 
this heifer on account of her descent, and an- 
nounced that he would not take £1,000 for his 
bargain ! Such was the beginning of the Duch- 
ess "boom.'' 

Student, experimenter and exhibitor. — In 
I&IO, at the age of thirty-five years, this ambi- 
tious Northumberland tenant farmer became a 
student at Edinburgh University— a fact which 
should not be without its lesson to those who 
at the present day are wrestling with the prob- 
lems presented by our modern agriculture. His 
course of lectures embraced not only practical 
agriculture but mental and moml science. He 
took copious notes which have been preserved, 
from which it is clear he made good use of his 
time. After his return to Halton we find him 
busy Avith various farming and feeding opera- 
tions and experiments in the handling and stor- 
ing of forage crops. It took, in his opinion, a 
working capital of five times the amount of 
one's rent to farm profitably. At Halton he 
employed a capital of £7,500, one-half of which 
he had expended under his twenty-one-year 
lease in permanent improvements', of which he 
only had the benefit during the unexpired term 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 77 

of the lease. Not satisfied with this sort of a 
situation he bought a portion (1,000 acres) of 
the manor of Kirklevington, near Yarm, in 
Yorkshire, for £30,000, of which £20,000 was 
paid in cash. This property, then as now, pre- 
sented no very flattering prospect to a good 
farmer. The land is a cold clay, fairly good for 
grass, but requiring careful management for 
tillage. 

Mr. Bates always had regard for the milking 
trait in his cattle, and conducted extended ex- 
periments to determine the relation between 
quantity and quality of milk and butter. It is 
related that the cow Duchess, by Daisy Bull, 
"gave on grass alone without other food in the 
summer of 1807 at Halton fourteen quarts of 
milk twice a day. Each quart of milk, when 
set up and churned separately, yielded one and 
one-half ounces of butter or forty-two ounces 
a day. The butter was made up for the New- 
castle market in ten and one-half-ounce pack- 
ages, which were sold at one shilling each. The 
skim-milk was bought by the laborers at a penny 
a quart, and allowing two shillings for the sub- 
traction of the cream this made 14s. 4d. a week. 
Altogther, therefore, the cow brought in more 
than two guineas a week." He insisted that 
many breeders were making a mistake in dis- 
regarding the dairy qualities of their cattle,* a 

••'On a certain occasion Maeon of Chilton called to breakfast at Halton 
Bart>ara OUee, the housekeeper, had Just put the week's butter In readiness 



78 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

point which is not without its practical appli- 
cation at the present time. He was also an 
earnest student of feeding problems, and two 
of his steers, "the brindled ox" of 1808 and 
"white ox" of 1810, attracted much attention 
and attested his skill in that direction. He ex- 
perimented carefully upon the relative merits 
of the systems of soiling and grazing, and in a 
memorable address to the Boards of Agriculture 
of the United Kingdom made a strenuous plea 
fpr extended experimentation as to the various 
breeds of live stock. It thus appears that 
Thomas Bates was wide-awake to the necessi- 
ties of his time in relation to successful farm- 
ing, and in some respects at least a long way in 
advance of his contemporaries. 
Bates was an exhibitor of cattle at the Tyne- 

f or the Newcastle market on the Saturday, and Bates told him that however 
ready he was for breakfast he should have none until he had counted the 
butter. There were 800 half-pounds to iro to the market, besides what was 
used In the house and sold at home. There were then thirty cows which 
had calved, and the butter sold for above one shilling the half pound. This 
left more than ten shUlings for each cow in butter alone, besides the value 
of the milk otherwise sold, while all the calves were reared by the pail 
and none allowed to suck. Had all the milk been creamed and made into 
butter there would have been twice the number of pats. Mason, thrown 
off his guard at this display of dairy produce, confessed to Bates: " Yoa 
can go on breeding Short-horns because they pay you in milk, butter and 
beef, but we cannot do so unless we sell them at high prices to breeders." 
Mason, as Bates plainly told him, was keeping at the time three sets of 
cows, one to breed calves and then get dry (which was no hard matter) In 
order to attract notice by their high condition, a second as wet nurses to 
rear the calves, and a third to supply hla family with milk and butter. 
" This," Bates added many years afterwanl, " 1h a system that would ruin 
any man if he had the land rent free and no outgoings to pay, yet many con- 
tinue to pursue this rcK^kless course in order to gain premiums, attract pub* 
lie attention and gratify their vanity at the cost of their pockets."— IVimMr's 
Magaaine, 



T&0MA6 BATB8 AUD THB DDOHiOSBES. 79 

side shows, held sometimes thrice a year, from 
their inception in 1804, and was successful at 
every show until that of 1812, when he consid- 
ered himself shabbily treated by the judges. 
So incensed was he at the decisions here that 
he never afterward entered the show-yard as a 
competitor until the York meeting of 1838. 

BidlB first used on the DuchesBes. — As 
already mentioned, Duchess- by -Daisy Bull, 
claimed as the best Short-horn cow of her time, 
dropped to the cover of Favorite (252) a bull 
which was named Eetton in honor of his Col- 
ling derivation. This was the first bull of the 
Duchess blood owned and used by Mr. Bates, 
and in spite of his ** close" breeding was a 
beast of strong constitution and possessed of 
the refinement and character so earnestly 
sought.* He was undoubtedly a good bull, al- 
though his portrait — drawn in 1814 — ^would in- 
dicate some prominence of hip and lightness of 
flank. He was red-and-white and remained 

• More than sixty years afterward Mr. William Charlton* who had lived 
near Bates and ultimately settled at Sutton in Essex, wrote: "I think I can 
see the crand old animal standing in the hull i>ark with his fine head and 
placid countenance, hia beautifully-arched neck, his deep and roomy chest, 
his short and widespread legs, his handsome shoulders and full crops, his 
lonr. straight and level hack, his heavy flank and deep ribs, his well- 
formed, beautiful quarters and heavy thiirhs, and his tail so nicely set as to 
rive symmetry to his whole frame. How oft on my youthful mind was 
impressed the idea that I should never see his like aflrain I His image was 
so imprinted upon my memory that whenever I be^an to examine a prise 
bull Ketton came full in view, and then many defects were soon prominent. 
Still, althonffh Mr. Bates used Ketton for so many years, a Duchess heifer 
or bullock could easily be picked out of his herd. There was something in 
their very countenance and in their prominent gait, and, above all, in their 
superior touch like none else. In that last quality they had no equals." 



80 A HISTORY OF 8H0ET-H0EN CATTLE. 

seven years in service. This is the bull of which 
"Tommy" Thompson, the cowman, said, "he 
never got a middling calf" — all were regarded 
as above the average. 

From 1816 to 1820 the bulls Ketton 2d (710) 
and Ketton 3d (349) (the former a son and the 
latter a grandson of Ketton 1st) were used, but 
their get were not equal to the progeny of the 
son of the old Duchess cow. Ketton 2d was 
out of an unnamed cow by a grandson of Fa- 
vorite; second dam by J. Brown's Red Bull, but 
Ketton 3d was a Duchess, sired by Ketton 2d 
out of Duchess 8d by Ketton 1st; second dam 
Duchess 1st by Comet. The earnestness with 
which Mr. Bates adopted the Bakewell scheme 
of in-and-in breeding is here apparent. He nev- 
ertheless tried the experiment of breeding to 
Marske (418), then thirteen years old, a roan of 
Colling blood that Maynard had bought at the 
Barmpton sale. This brought in a dash of good 
fresh blood. Although Marske was a son of 
Favorite (252) his dam was Robert Colling's 
noted cow Old Bright Eyes, that gave fifteen 
quarts of milk twice per day. Bates had owned 
a sister to Marske for some years, and regarded 
the family as one of the best of the day — al- 
ways of course excepting his favorite Duch- 
esses. The Marske cows, however, did not 
fully meet his expectations, and he sent Duch- 
ess 3d, by Ketton 1st, to Donkin's to be bred to 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 81 

Duke(226), the Duchess bull by Favorite. This 
was getting back direct to the highly-prized 
blood, and Bates spoke to Lord Althorpe of this 
mating as "the only hope of the Short-horns/** 
WTien we recall the fact that the fruits of a 
long period of careful breeding were at that 
time in the hands of contemporary breeders we 
have in this remark a characteristic illustration 
of the arrogant position Mr. Bates was wont 
to assume in reference to his own cattle. 
So persistently did he assert their superiority 
that his claims,' together with the admitted 
merit of his stock, at length began to make 
an impression.! Lord Althorpe became one of 
his patrons, hiring the young Duchess bull His 
Grace (311) for service at Wiseton. Mr. Whit- 

* " I will give you fifty rnlneas for the chance, calf or no calf," said Lord 
Althorpe. ** I would not take aoo guineas for the chance," was Bates* reply. 
In responae to Lord Althorpe*s Invitation Bates stayed at Wiseton for the 
Donoaater meetinir of 1S20. As the party were leaving the dining-room after 
deeaert Lord Althorpe, turutnir to one of his friends, said of Bates : " Won- 
dfofulmanl Wonderful man I He might become anythlniT» even Prime Min- 
ister, If he woald not talk so much." 

t Jamea Fawoett of Scaleby Castle gave this description of the Duchesses 
about this date: **The character of the Duchesses at this time was that of 
good and handsome wide-spread cows, with broad backs, projecting loins 
and ribs, short legs and prominent bosoms. The head was generally' In- 
clined rather to be short and wide than long and narrow, with full clew 
ejem and muzsle, the ears rather longr and hairy, the horns of considerable 
length but of froe, waxy quality. They were good milkers, and had for the 
moat part a robust, healthy appearance. Their color was almost uniformly 
red, with, In many of them, a tendency to white about the flank. They had 
also generally what Mr. Bates called the Duchess spot of white above the 
nostrlL A strange anomaly occurred in the case of Duchess 6th. I recol- 
lect her being calved. She was very handsome and of the most orthodox 
color, bat with a round spot of several inches on the flank, of the deepest 
black. Whether this Indicated a harking back to some ancestral Highland 
alloy or a freak of the cow's imagination is a curiou» question." 



82 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

aker had hired Ketton 3d and sabsequently ex- 
changed him to Lord Althorpe for His Grace. 

From Halton to Ridley Hall.— Although the 
Kirklevington property had been bought in 
1811, the lease of Halton did not expire until 
1821, and Mr. Bates continued in possession 
there until that date. Either because he was 
loath to leave Northumberland, or because his 
Kirklevington land had not yet been brought 
into the desired state of fertility, he purchased 
Ridley Hall on the South Tyne, to which he 
removed from Halton in May, 1821. In a let- 
ter written to Jonas Whitaker in 1822 Bates 
said: 

**I have now two bulls (The Earl and Duke 2d) by Duke oat of 
Duchess 8d, the dam of Ketton 8d, and a heifer by Marske (Duch- 
ess 7th) out of the same cow and bulled by The Elarl, and for the 
three I would not take 8,000 guineas, bad as times are for farmers. 
Old Ketton *s stock were the up-making of me, and now that I 
have again got the blood pure of other mixtures I shall never again 
part with it for any other tribe of Short-horns I have oyer seen." 

The "hope of the Short-horns" proved to be 
a bull which was named The Earl (646) and 
used extensively for four or five years at Ridley 
Hall. He was succeeded by his son 2d Hub- 
back (1423). This bull was bred from a cow 
called Acklam Red Rose (or Red Rose 1st), of 
Colling derivation, that Bates had bought from 
a Mr. Hustler, and he grew into what is said to 
have been the best of all the earlier bulls used 
in the herd. His dam (from whom the Cam- 
bridge Roses and the American Rose of Shar- 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 83 

ons descended) possessed old Hubback's hand- 
ling quality. He was a light-red bull said to 
have been remarkably perfect in his point» 
and evenly and smoothly fleshed. His stock 
were uniform in shape, color, hair and handling, 
"as well as in countenance." His heifers all 
proved good milkers. We have in his case 
another illustrs.tion of the fact that strongly- 
bred sires very often get their best stock from 
cows not bred "in line." Certain it is that The 
Earl's best calf was 2d Hubback from a Red 
Rose dam; none of the bull calves from the 
Duchesses equaling him.'^ 

It is said that while at Ridley Hall Bates took 
no steps to bring his herd before the public. 
He rarely let any bulls and kept no bull calves 
except those he thought he might require for 
himself or which his friends desired for their 
own herds. He used the knife freely and fed 
oft his steers, as well as such cows and heifers 
as did not settle down to breeding at an early 
age. Many a good female was undoubtedly 
thus sacrificed. He never had calves born dur- 
ing the three summer months. He very seldom 
sent any fat cattle to the market. The princi- 

•M HnblMck'B measnrementa at elffht years old hare Xyeen handed down 
■a follows: Girth at crops, 8 feet; girth, at ribs, 9 feetS Inches; girth hooka 
OTcr thick of flank, 8 ftet 4 Inches; breadth of hooks, 9 feet « Inches plumb: 
length from breast plumb to tail, 8 feet: length of rumps. 2 feet; length 
from breast to crops, 8 feet; length from crops to hooks, 8 feet; girth of 
fore leg below the knee, 8 inches; girth of horn at root nesct the head, 8 



84 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HOEN CATTLE. 

pal butchers in Newcastle and Shields came to 
buy his stock at home. 

Removal to Kirklevington.— May 1, 1830, 
Mr. Bates transferred his residence and breed- 
ing operations from Ridley Hall — which he had 
sold — ^to Kirklevington; included in the herd, 
which was driven across country, being "fifty 
cows and heifers by 2d Hubback, all as alike as 
beans and leaving a great impression wherever 
they passed." 2d Hubback was let the following 
year to Whitaker, and, disappointed in the de- 
velopment of a yearling bull from Duchess 22d 
that he had intended to use, Bates bought from 
Whitaker for 100 guineas the bull Gambier 
(2046) by Bertram (1716), a bull of Ceiling's Old 
Daisy tribe that had just been sold to Col. 
Powell for shipment to America. Gambler's 
dam was of the Western Comet or Gentle 
Kitty blood. Gambier did not satisfy Bates as 
a stock-getter, and hearing of Mr. Stephenson's 
roan bull of the old Princess blood he went to 
see him. 

Belvedere (1706) of the Princess blood.— In 
the accepted accounts of the purchase of this 
bull we have a striking example of Mr. Bates' 
supreme self-confidence. He believed in the 
Hubback and Duchess blood above everything 
else. He claimed he had founded his herd 
upon the best cow of the breed in her day. 
He had been successful with Ketton 1st and The 



w 



o 

H 

5 

O 



o 



Ml 




THOMAS BATB8 AKD THE DUOHSBSES. 85 

Earl, both Dachess bulls, and with 2d Hubback, 
son of a Duchess bull, but had little luck with 
sires tried from other sources. The tribe was 
now very closely bred and he seemed at a loss 
to know how to proceed. He had up to 1831 
bred but thirty-two Duchess cows in as many 
years. In brief the tribe had not been prolific, 
and whenever cows passed over a year or two 
he fed them off. He would not admit that 
other contemporary bloods were worthy of 
being crossed upon his Duchesses. He had 
spoken his mind freely concerning the breed- 
ing of nearly all the other herds of the district 
and had awakened many antagonisms. He 
would not use anything that carried the so- 
called "alloy" blood. In short he was seri- 
ously hampered in his search for sires by rea- 
son of the &>ct that be had '' blacklisted" nearly 
all the available material. At the same time 
he now required fresh blood. 

He had long held in respect the old Robert 
Colling Princess strain. The original cow of 
that name carried a double cross of Favorite 
on top of Hubback. This was a combination 
which in his radical opinion constituted a 
prime source of Short-horn excellence. He 
was not aware that any bull descending direct 
from this base without admixture of (to him) 
objectionable blood was at that late date ob- 
tainable. By chance, however, he learned that 



86 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

John Stephenson of Wol vision had a Foan bull 
SO descended, and he lost no time in looking 
him up. His purchase of Duchess 1st at the 
Ketton sale on account of her breeding rather 
than her individual merit illustrated his unfal- 
tering faith in the doctrine that "blood will 
tell." With this case in mind it is reasonably 
certain, in view of the trouble he was now in 
with his Duchesses, that Bates went over to 
Wolviston prepared to buy this precious Prin- 
cess bull — "the last of a long race of well-de- 
scended Short-horns" — fairly regardless of the 
appearance of the animal himself. At any rate 
we are told that on passing by the bull-barn 
the head of Belvedere (1706) — for such was his 
name and herd-book number — was visible, and 
that the moment Bates caught sight of it he 
expressed a positive determination to secure 
the bull. Not every man will buy a breeding 
bull solely for the blood that flows in his veins. 
Still less would the average man be likely to 
settle so important a matter by a mere glimpse 
of a bull's countenance. Bates had his own 
peculiar ideas about breeding, however. He 
was not governed by the ordinary ruJes observed 
by his contemporaries, and his swift decision 
to buy at any price this roan bull at Wolviston 
— evidently made as soon as Stephenson had 
told him how Belvedere was bred, and before 
he had seen the bull at all — may be cited as 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 87 

one of the instances where he manifested real 
genius as a cattle-breeder. Belvedere's sire, 
Waterloo (2816), and dam, Angelina 2d, were 
own brother and sister; the pedigree therefore 
represented an extraordinary concentration of 
the blood of old Princess* and Favorite (252). 

There was really something of a bull went 
with that head and pedigree. Belvedere was 
six years old at the time Bates bought him. 
Stephenson was allowed to name his own price 
and was modest enough to place it at £50. This 
occurred June 22, 1831. The next day the bull 
was driven to Kirklevington. No sooner had 
Bates got him than he announced that he would 
by the union of the Princess and Duchess blood 
produce " Short-horns such as the world has never 
seen," and in the opinion of some capable judges 
he very nearly made good his boast. The bull 
with which he boldly proclaimed he would make 
the "hit" of his life as a breeder was a big one, 
possessing extreme length and heavy shoulders, 

* The Prlnoeas cow had been bought orl^nally from Bobert CoUinr bj 
Sir Heniy Vane Tempest at the reputed flrreat price of 700 tineas. Sir 
Henry's widow, the Counteaa of Antrim, had the cow boug>ht at the Wyn- 
yard sale In 1813, and sent her to Barmpton to be bred to the bull WelUxvton 
(880), a son of Comet (156). (Tolling told her a^ent that he " never allowed 
any gontleman's cows " to be eeryed by his bull, and so could not comply 
with Lady Antrim's request The a^nt of the Countees started to return 
to Wynyard, when ColUn^'s servant came runnlnir after him to say that he 
had told his master that Princess was not a g-eiltleman's cow but a lady's, 
and that Colllnir was so amused at the ely intercession that he at once 
waived his rule upon the point of givixig his bull's services to other breed- 
ers and would permit Princess to be bred. The thrifty Yorkfihlre man, 
however, did not permit his ^llantiy to prevent his char^lnr her ladyship 
ten irood guineas for the service. The produce of this coupliof was the 
buU Youag Wynyard, sire of Waterloo (2816). 



88 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

but was a yellow-roan, evidently full of quality; 
^'soft as a mole to the touch." He had the 
"hot-blood temper*' of his sire Waterloo, and 
it took three men to get him safely started off 
down Sandy Lane the morning he left Ste- 
phenson's to begin the work of regenerating 
the Duchesses. 

The breeding of bulls to their own dams or 
daughters was a common occurrence at Kirk- 
levington prior to the time of Belvedere. None 
but inbred Duchess bulls had been used upon 
cows of this favorite family except Marske 
(418), of the Bright Eyes blood, and 2d Hub- 
back, by the Duchess bull The Earl (646) out 
of Hustler's Red Rose. The cross of Belvedere 
upon the Duchess and other tribes which Mr. 
Bates had meantime acquired proved the sound- 
ness of his judgment. The Princess bull wsa 
used extensively until twelve years old and 
then slaughtered. This was in 1837. He did 
much for the herd, siring, ambng other noted 
animals, the famous Duchess 34th, which, bred 
back to her own sire, gave Mr. Bates his great- 
est bull— Duke of Northumberland (1940). The 
Duke was but two years old at the time Belve- 
dere was sent off, so that an elder son of Bel- 
vedere—Short Tail (2621), from Duchess 29th 
(and said to have been a better bull than hie 
sire) — was placed in service. His dam. Duchess 
29th, was got by 2d Hubback out of one of 



THOMAS BATE^ AND THE DUCHESSES. 89 

that bull's own daughters. Duchess 19th, so 
that the practice of breeding from close affini- 
ties went steadily on. 

The cross of Whitaker'8 Norfolk.— In 1834 
Felix Renick and his colleagues, representing 
the Ohio Importing Co., visited England to buy 
Short-horns. Bates showed them every atten- 
tion and offered them some of his best cows 
and heifers, including Duchess 34th. He seems 
to have indulged his loquacity to its fullest 
extent upon his American visitors, tendering 
advice freely as to the other English herds of 
that period. Among other characteristic "point- 
ers" given was one to the effect that Belve- 
dere's sire, Waterloo (2816), then in his six- 
teenth year, and Norfolk (2377) were "the only 
two bulls besides Belvedere that were in the 
least likely to get good stock." What the 
Americans bought on this memorable visit will 
be dealt with in a subsequent chapter. 

Norfolk (2377), a handsome roan bull, was 
then but two years old. He had been bred by 
Mr. Whitaker and sold to Mr. F. H. Fawkes of 
Farnley Hall. His sire was Mr. Bates' 2d Hub- 
back, and his dam Nonpareil by Magnet (2240), 
running down through the Colling blood to a 
Hubback cow at the base. That Bates was sin- 
cere in his advice to. the Americans cannot 
be doubted, for shortly afterward he sent five 
of his own best cows to be bulled by Norfolk. 



90 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

But three of these stood to the service — to-wit.: 
Duchess 33d, Waterloo and Blanche — which 
circumstance was regarded by Mr. Bates at the 
time as fortunate, the immediate result not 
proving satisfactory. This paralleled the sub- 
sequent experience of John Booth in breeding 
Bracelet to Mussulman ; but, as in the case of 
Booth's Buckingham, when the percentage of 
fresh blood was reduced so that it was quite 
subordinated to the main current, its stimulat- 
ing effect became apparent. The heifer Duchess 
38th, dropped by Duchess 33d to Norfolk, gave 
rise to the entire Thorndale, Geneva and Oneida 
Duchess groups; and the Norfolk- Waterloo 
heifer founded a family that has occupied a 
prominent place in the progress of the breed. 
Norfolk was individually one of the great bulls 
of his time, and as he was a son of 2d Hubback 
his character supplied striking proof of the 
value of Bates bulls for service in other herds. 
He kad substance, flesh and a heavy coat of 
hair, showing greater thickness and compact- 
ness of conformation than Belvedere. 

The Matchem Cow and the Oxfords.— In 
April, 1831, Mr. Bates had attended a sale of 
'improved" Short-horn cattle, held by a Mr. 
John Brown of Nunstainton, near Chilton, in 
the County of Durham, and bought seventeen 
cows and heifers at an average of £9 5s. Among 
these was a white four-year-old by Matchem 




Mr. Bates' CLEVELAND LAD (3407) at Five 
Years Old. 




Whitaker's NORFOLK (2877), at Five Years Old. 



THOMAS BATES AND THB DUCHESSES. 91 

(2281), for which he paid £15 lOs. Bates called 
her Matchem Cow. Her sire was the same 
Mason-bred bull whose blood had been previ- 
ously introduced into the Booth herd at Kil- 
lerby. Her dam was by the Princess bull Young 
Wynyard (2859). Her breeding back of this 
has not been traced, but she must have shown 
conclusive evidence of pure Short-horn de- 
scent; for, as has been well said of Mr. Bates, 
"he trusted very much to the evidence of his 
eye, which, considering the subsequent excel- 
lence of his stock and the great impulse of de- 
cided improvement they have given to all cattle 
with which they have come to be paired, must 
have had within it the light of decided genius." 
At nine years of age Matchem Cow produced at 
Kirklevington a bull by Short Tail (2621), and 
in 1838 another by the Same sire. These two 
roan bulls, recorded as Cleveland Lad (3407) 
and Cleveland Lad 2d (3408), were used in the 
herd and constituted the Oxford outcross upon 
the Duchesses. Bates had always denounced 
the Mason blood, with which the Matchem Cow 
was doubtless well filled, but the progeny of the 
cow by his own bulls satisfied him nevertheless, 
and the Cleveland Lads were not only used as 
stock bulls, but her daughters, Oxford Premium 
Cow and Oxford 2d, were retained and became 
the ancestresses of the tribe since known as the 



92 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Oxfords. The line of the former has now been 
extinct for many years. 

A show-yard disappointment.— Mr. Bates 
sent seven head of cattle to the newly-estab- 
lished Yorkshire Show in 1838, headed by the 
two-year-old double-Belvedere Duchess bull 
Duke of Northumberland (1940), and including 
a pair of two-year-old Duchess heifers, Duch- 
esses 41st and 42d, both by Belvedere; a year- 
ling Duchess heifer, Duchess 43d, also with a 
double dip of Belvedere; the roan four-year-old 
cow Red Rose 13th, by Belvedere; the white 
three-year-old cow Short-horns 4th, by Belve- 
dere, and a three-year-old from the Matchem 
Cow, got by Duke of Cleveland (1937), a bull 
that had been dropped by Duchess 26th to a 
service by Mr. Whitaker's Bertram (1 716). The 
Duke of Northumberland received first in his 
class against eight competitors, but was passed 
over entirely in the bull championship contest; 
first prize in a ring of fifteen entries going 
to Earl Spencer's Hecatomb (2102), of Mason 
blood, and second to Mr. Wiley's Carcase (3285), 
afterward imported to America. This was a 
hard blow, and it was contended by Mr. Bates 
that Mr. John Grey, the judge, was improperly 
influenced by being beholden to Earl Spencer 
for substantial business favors. With his fe* 
males, however, Mr. Bates was more successful. 
In the aged-cow class (entries to be in calf or 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 93 

in milk) Red Rose 13th was passed over, the 
ribbon going to John Colling's Rosanne. In 
the three-year-old ring (also in calf or in milk) 
Short-horns 4th — a fine dairy cow — was first 
and the Matchem heifer second in a class of 
six. In a class of ten two-year-old heifers 
Duchess 41st won, and in yearling heifers 
(eight) Duchess 42d was second. These ratings 
did not satisfy Mr. Bates. He felt that his 
three best animals, "The Duke," Red Rose 13th 
and Duchess 43d, had been rejected unfairly. 
He therefore determined to show at 

Th^ Oxford Eoyal of 1839.— Wlien the time 
came Red Rose 13th was not in a fit condition 
to travel, so Duke of Northumberland and 
Duchess 43d were started along with Duchess 
42d and the Matchem heifer. They were 
shipped by steamer from Middlesbrough to 
London.* 

This was the first meeting of the English 
National Show. The exhibition was held upon 
the farm of Mr. John Pinfold, and the entries 
were not numerous. The Kirklevington cattle 
were the center of attraction in the Short-horn 
class, and Mr. Bates had the pleasure of seeing 

• " Bates went with them In the same steamship from Mlddlesbrougrh to 
London and himself saw to their treatment. In landlnsr at London Duke of 
Horthumberland slipped^ and lay across the n^an^way. Bates patted him 
on the head, calUmjr him *poor boy, poor boy. and the hiure animal re- 
mained perfectly passive until he was roscued. Fortunately The Duke re- 
ceived no injury. The four Short-horns proceeded from London in a 
frelffht boat by the Aylesbury branch of the Grand Junction Canal, '—('iul- 
waUaderBala. 



94 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Duke of Northumberland head a list of seven 
bulls; the Matchem Cow's daughter a class of 
four; Duchess 42d a class of three two-year- 
olds, and Duchess 43d a class of nine yearlings. 
That these were a beautiful lot of Short-homs 
is amply attested. Mr. George Drewry, the late 
veteran herd manager of the DuTce of Devon- 
shire at Holker Hall, writing after, a lapse of 
fifty y§ars, said: "The two things that I re- 
member best at Oxford were the Duke of North- 
umberland and Duchess 43d. These I still 
think were the best two Short-horns I ever 
saw.^' In honor of the young Matchem Cow's 
victory upon this occasion she was dubbed the 
"Oxford Premium Cow" — hence the tribal name. 
At a dinner given in the quadrangle of Queen's 
College during this show Daniel Webster, who 
was a visitor at the exhibition, said, in a speech 
which held closely the attention of the audi- 
ence: 

*' In the country to which I belong societies like this exist on a 
small scale in many parts, and they have been found to be very 
highly beneficial and advantageous. They g^ive rewards for speci- 
mens of fine animals and the improvement of implements of hus- 
bandry which may tend to facilitate the art of agriculture, and 
which were not before known. They turn their attention to every- 
thing which tends to improve the state of the farmer, and, I may 
add, among other means of advancing his condition, that they have 
imported largely to America from the best breeds of animals in 
England, and from the gentleman who has been so fortunate as to 
take so many prizes to-day. From his stock, on the banks of the 
Ohio and its tributary streams, I have seen fine animals raised 
which have been supplied from his farms in Yorkshire and North- 
umberland." 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 95 

Prizes at Cambridge.— Having, as he thought, 
vindicated the honor of his Duchesses at Ox- 
ford, Mr. Bates decided not to risk fitting and 
showing any of them the following year. Still 
smarting under the defeat of Red Rose 13th at 
York, he sent her to the Royal at Cambridge, 
along with Cleveland Lad (3407) and a young 
Waterloo bull calf by Duke of Northumber- 
land. Red Rose here had her revenge, winning 
first in a class of six cows. Her name was then 
changed to Cambridge Premium Cow. The 
Waterloo calf also won, but Cleveland Lad was 
turned down, the prize falling to Hero (4021), a 
roan owned in Norfolk; a bull which Cadwal- 
lader Bates asserts was "never heard of before 
nor since."* His picture may be found in 
Coates' Herd Book, Vol. IV. Cleveland Lad 
had not been specially fitted for show; and fat, 
then as now, was a prime necessity. The prizes 
won by the Kirklevington cattle at the two 
great university cities led to many inquiries 
for the blood. 

A "brush" with the Booths.— In 1841 Cleve- 
land Lad was sent to the Liverpool Royal alone, 
he being the only member of the show herds 
left without "vindication"; and he was there 
placed by the judges at the head of the bulls 

* It Is related that "a gentleman came up to Bates in the show-yard and 
■aid: 'Had I been blindfolded I could have told all of your cattle by the 
feel of my fingers.* 'As the stewards of the yard hear your remarks, I 
hope in the future the judges will be blindfolded/ was Bates* reply." 



96 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

on exhibition. That .same season Mr. Bates 
sent Oxford Premium Cow to the Highland at 
Berwick, but she was beaten by John Booth's 
Necklace on the ground that the Bates cow 
was *' deficient in girth and gaudy behind." 
He also showed at the Yorkshire of 1841, 
receiving the bull championship on Cleveland 
Lad. Duke of Cambridge — the Waterloo calf 
shown in 1S40— here won first as a yearling 
over a young bull from Killerby and others. 
The honors of the three-year-old cow class 
were divided between Duchesses 42d and 43d. 
It is stated that the jovial John Booth ban- 
tered his esteemed contemporary the belligerent 
Bates upon this occasion al)out his backward- 
ness about exhibiting longer at leading shows, 
and inferentially challenged him to show a cow 
at the next year s Royal. These two men were 
clearly at the head of their profession at the 
time, but despite their rivalries were good 
friends. The meeting took place at York in 
1842, and to the infinite satisfaction of the 
great champion of the Duchesses a cow of that 
line in her tenth year had the extraordinary 
honor of beating Killerby's great Necklace. 
The story of this memorable contest is told by 
Mr. Bates' people in the following language: 

"There was in milk at Kirklevington a ten-year-old unregcn- 
erate dairy cow, which had never been shown nor had ever been 
intended to be. When about twelve months old she had broken 
her leg, and as Bates would not employ a veterinary Thomas Bell 




> 

H 
(/3 



13 



O 
X 










THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 97 

Bet it with the help of the journeyman miller. For some years she 
had scarcely ever tasted a turnip in the winter months. Since 
May Day she had been going in the ordinary cow pasture, and 
was as ignorant as any Northern farmer of what a hpnne bouehe 
meant. Without any preparatory training at all old Brokenleg 
(Duchess 84th) walked by road about forty miles to York, in the 
company of her son, Duke of Northumberland (1940) . The judges 
ordered the fifteen cows entered to parade twice round the ring, 
and then told old 'Tommy Myers,' the Kirkleyington cowman, to 
stand on ane side with Brokenleg. A murmur of indignation 
broke from the people pieiant, who imagined she was being ex- 
cluded from the prize Ust. 

** Myers remained for half an hour or so thinking, as he said, 
*they were gannin* to use me very badly,' while the judges kept 
disputing over Necklace and one of Mr. Mason Hopper's oows. 
*They could not rightly judge of stars in the presence of the sun.' 
Myers, who had supposed they were determining which was to be 
first and which second, was greatly relieved when they sent 
Brokenleg *the white rose' and placed Necklace behind her. 
When the crowning trophy was placed on Duchess 84th's head 
there was a burst of applause. She was as like the first Duchess 
as two animals could be, in color and in that grandeur of style and 
appearance, such as no animal ever had except a Duchess. 

'* Bates had good reason to be satisfied with the resuls of the 
tug-of-war when KiUerby met Kirkleyington. It was the only 
challenge he ever accepted. That the decision was perfectly just 
was confirmed by Mr. Eastwood, a breeder who had as much ad- 
miration for one line of stock as for the other, so long as the ani- 
mal was a good one, but who thought that a little weight should 
be allowed to fiishion. Mr. John Booth asked him why it was that 
Brokenleg beat Necklace. * Well,' he replied, * I think, Mr. Booth, 
you are fairly beaten; if I had been one of the judges I should 
have done the same. ' ' Then, ' said Booth , * I am satisfied. ' Bates 
came up shortly afterward and asked Eastwood the same ques- 
tion. 'I think you won fairly, Mr. Bates.' * I am pleased to hear 
you say that.' * I told Mr. Booth so.' < Then,' said Bates, * I am 
more pleased still,' and the great rival breeders remained the best 
of friends." 

This was indeed one of the most remarkable 
old-time show-yard events of which any record 
has been handed down from the last genera- 



98 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

tion, and proves the genuine merit of the Bat.es 
cattle of the early days. This cow, Duchess 
34th, was the dam of 

Duke of Northumberland (1940).— The pro- 
duction of this famous bull has always been 
considered the crowning triumph of Thomas 
Bates' career as a cattle-breeder. He was 
the acknowledged champion bull of Eng- 
land in 1842. Bates, writing of him in 1839, 
had said: *'I can state from measurements I 
took of the celebrated Comet (155) that The 
Duke was nearly double his weight both at ten 
months and at two years old," adding, in allu- 
sion to his well-known affection for the Duch- 
ess family: '.*I selected this tribe of Short- 
horns as superior to all other cattle, not only 
as small consumers of food but as great grow- 
ers and quick grazers, with the finest quality of 
beef, and also giving a great quantity of very 
rich milk.'' The live weight of The Duke at 
three years and eight months was 2,520 lbs. 

Mr. Bates has left the following statement 
concerning him and his family, which will be 
of interest in this connection. It was ad- 
dressed to a publishing house about to produce 
portraits of "The Duke" and his dam: 

** I named this bull Duko of Northumberland to perpetuate the 
commemoration that it is to the judgment and attention of the an- 
cestors of the present Duke of Northumberland that this country 
aiul the world are indebted for a tribe of cattle which Mr. Charles 
CoUing repeatedly assured mo was the best he ever had or ever 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 99 

saw. As a proof that they have improved under my care 1 may 
mention that the Duke of Northumberland's dam consumes one- 
third less food than my first Duchess, purchased in 1804, and that 
her milk yields one-third more butter for each quart of milk, 
while there is also a greater growth of carcass and an Increased 
aptitude to fatten. 

** It is now above sixty years since I became impressed with 
the importance of selecting the very best animals to breed from. . 
For twenty-five years afterward I lost no opportunity of ascer- 
taining the merits of the various tribes of Short-horns. It was 
only then that this could be done. Thero is scarce a vestige now 
remaining of the many excellent cattle then in existence. Since 
I became possessed of the tribe I have never used any bulls that 
had not Duchess blood— except Belvedere (1706), and ho was the 
last bull of a long race of well-descended Short-horns— without 
perceiving inunediately the error. 

*' As the post hour draws near I must conclude in order to en- 
able you to print this letter in the same paper with the portraits 
of *The Duke' and his dam. I do not expect any artist can do 
them justice. They must be seen, and the more they are exam- 
ined the more their excellence will appear to a true connoisseur, 
but there are few good judges— a hundred men may be found to make a 
Prim/t Minister to one fit to judge of the real me tits of Short-horns.^^ 

Importance of tabulated pedigrees. — If Mr. 
Bates had submitted for i^ublication along with 
this eulogy of the Duchess family the subjoined 
tabulation of the Duke of Northumberland's 
pedigree the propriety of substituting an ac- 
count of the merits of the Princess for that of 
the Duchess line might have been suggested. 

Blot out the Princess blood and the dashes of 
Red Rose and Marske from this pedigree and 
there remains but a "thin red line" to preach a 
Duchess sermon from. ** The best bull of his 
time," the best bull the keen-witted laird of Kirk- 
levington ever bred, the bull for which almost 
any sum could have been had, was indeed a credit 



100 



A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLR. 



to the skill and judgment of Thomas Bates, 
but he carried only 25 per cent of Duchess 



DUKK or NORTBnMBKRLAND (1910) 



3 



I 



2. 
a 

SB 



»1 
-I 




blood. Moreover his dam, the prize cow Duch- 
ess 34th — 50 per cent Princess blood — was a 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. '101 

better beast than either Duchess 29th or 20th. 
It is apparent, therefore, that Princess on Duch- 
ess resulted, as Bates had predicted, in produc- 
ing Short-horns superior even to the original 
Duchesses. 

We need but print the same Duke of North- 
umberland pedigree in the regulation Short- 
horn Herd Book and Short-horn catalogue 
style to show how a miscarriage of justice 
in estimating family credits has been bred and 
fostered by a pernicious system of pedigree 
registration; a system that so palpably exag- 
gerates the relative importance of a certain 
portion of the maternal ancestry that it seems 
strange that it should still be tolerated. 

DuKs or NoBTHUMBBBLANB, roan, calved Oct. 1$, 1886; bred by 
T. Bates; got by Belvedere (1706) , dam Duchess 84th by Belvedere 
(1706); second dam Duchess 29th by 2d Hubback; third dam 
Duchess 20th by The Earl (1511) ; fourth dam Duchess 8th by 
Marske (418) ; fifth dam Duchess 2d by Ketton Ist (709) ; sixth dam 
Duchess 1st by Comet (156) ; seventh dam Duchess by Daisy Bull 
(186) ; eighth dam by Favorite (252), eta 

Clearly one would say this is a Duchess bull 
He was not, however, so far as blood elements 
are concerned, entitled to such appellation at 
all, as we have already shown. Just how much 
the Stan wick Cow, or *'my first Duchess," or 
the "ancestors of the present Duke of Nor- 
thumberland" had to do with the merit of this 
great bull must be self-evident from our tab- 
ulation. Justice compels the placing of the 
laurel wreath i-ather upon Thomas Bates and 



l02' A HiST6EY OF SHORT-HOEN CATTLE. 

his great "find" at Wolviston, the Princess bull 
Belvedere. The merit of the earlier Duch- 
esses had been largely lost through excessive 
inb^-eeding. The Princess-and-Oxford crossed 
stock that acquired fame under the Duchess 
name in the Short-horn world were in truth 
Bates cattle, but had only a small percentage 
of the old Duchess blood. 

The responsibility for the existing scheme of 
Short-horn tribal nomenclature and prevailing 
methods of herd-book registration does not rest 
entirely upon Mr. Bg.tes. We only use this case 
as an illustration of the fact that the system 
is calculated to befog rather than enlighten 
those who seek to fathom the depths of Short- 
horn pedigree records. One has but to tran- 
scribe to a tabulated blank the pedigree of any 
animal recorded in the Short-horn Herd Books 
of Great Britain and America to see at a glance 
what an absurdly small proportion of the an- 
cestry is presented. Those who have all the 
herd books at their command can under the 
present system, it is true, ferret out the facts as 
to the blood lines of their cattle, but until the 
tabulation method is adopted for catalogues 
and transfer certificates the average buyer will 
possess but the mere shadow of a pedigree. 

The Waterloos. — During the same year that 
Mr. Bates bought Belvedere and the Matchem 
Cow he had purchased from Thomas Parkin of 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 103 

Thorpe, in the County of Durham, "a short- 
legged, wide, red cow, with the look of a pure 
Short-horn." She carried a double cross of the 
Princess bull Waterloo (2816), and was doubt- 
less descended all around from a well-bred an- 
cestry. That she was a cow of marked individ- 
ual merit seems clear from the fact that s^ e 
was one of the five "top" females chosen to be 
sent to be bred to Norfolk (2377). A heifer 
(Waterloo 3d) resulted from that service, and 
she became the ancestress of a fine family of 
cattle still bearing her name. The Waterloos 
were for years distinguished for their thick, 
mellow flesh and furry coats, and during the 
days when Short-horn fanciers were paying all 
sorts of extravagant prices the tribe steadily 
maintained its outstanding merit. Indeed it is 
doubtful if any other one of the Bates families 
held its character so persistently for so many 
years under the stress of continued line breed- 
ing. Further evidence of the original excel- 
lence of the Waterloos is afforded by the fact 
that Waterloos 12th and 13th were the only 
females bought at the Bates dispersion by two 
shrewd Scottish breeders in attendance, viz., 
Amos Cruickshank of Sittyton and W. Hay of 
Shethin. 

Wild Eyes Tribe.— This family traces de- 
scent from a roan heifer calf bought at a sale 
made by Mr, Parrington at Middlesbrough in 



104 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

April, 1832, for £3. She had seven crosses of 
registered bulls on a foundation laid in the 
herd of Mr. Dobinson. Bates claimed that 
through this heifer (Wild Eyes) he got "the 
only good blood (Dobinson's) that the Colling 
herds did not contain." Her sire, Emperor 
(1974), was sold to the Russian Government. 
At the date of the Kirklevington dispersion 
sale this was the most numerous sort in the 
herd. 

The Cambridge (Red) Roses.— Of this strain 
was 2d Hubback and Red Rose 13th — the Cam- 
bridge prize cow previously mentioned. It 
came into the herd early through Red Rose 
1st of Mr. Hustler's breeding (by Yarborough), 
daughter of the American Cow, whose history 
is given in a preceding chapter. Red Rose 5th 
of this family produced to Belvedere Rose of 
Sharon, imported by the Ohio Company, and 
ancestress of the American tribe of that name. 
Under the name of Cambridge and Heydon 
Roses and Rose of Sharons the descendants of 
the Cambridge premium cow subsequently be- 
came the subject of extensive speculations on 
both sides the Atlantic. 

Foggathorpe family. — The original Fogga- 
thorpe cow cost Mr. Bates £113 at Mr. Henry 
Edward's sale at Castle Howard in 1839. She 
was a roan, nearly ten years old at the time of 
the purchase. She was thought to resemble 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 105 

old Princess in character and to carry the blood 
of Charles Colling's White Bull (151)— which 
Mr. Bates prized highly. Her descendants, 
however, did not acquire as much celebrity as 
the other Kirklevington sorts. 

Blanche or Roan Duchess sort. — Another 
noted tribe resting upon a Kirklevington base 
was that of Blanche, derived from the fine 
old stock of Mr. Hutchinson of Grassy Nook. 
Bates bred them for some time, and Blanche 
5th, by the Duke of Northumberland, produced 
in Mr. Towneley's hands Roan Duchess, dam 
of the famous Royal prize-Avinning Roan Duch- 
ess 2d by Frederick (11489). 

The Secrets. — This tribe derives rank as "a 
Bates sort" from the fact that the maternal 
ancestresses were cows bred and owned by Mr 
Bates. The foundation cow, old White Rose, 
was a half-sister to the dam of Belvedere, both 
being daughters of the Princess bull Young 
Wynyard. When ten years old she was bred 
to Whitaker's Gambier (2046): This was in 
1832. The produce, the roan White Rose 1st, 
to the cover of Short Tail, gave birth in 1837 
to Secret, sold in 1844 to C. W. Harvey. The 
family derives its name from this cow, and sub- 
sequently attained reputation in two directions, 
to-wit.: Bates-crossed in the hands of English 
breeders and Scotch-crossed by Mr. Cruickshank 
of Sittyton. No representatives of this (nor of 



106 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the Blanche) family were contained in the herd 
at the date of its dispersion. 

So-called Bell-Bates tribes. — Several fami- 
lies of Short-horns built up under Kirkleving- 
ton's wing by Mr. Bates' tenants — the Messrs. 
Bell — subsequently shared in the great wave of 
popularity that finally set in toward the Bates 
blood. Among these were the Barringtons, 
Kirklevingtons, Acombs, Darlingtons, Fletchers 
(or Filberts), Places, Harts, Georgianas and 
Hudsons. The Messrs. Bell had the use of Kirk- 
levington bulls, and Mr. Bates himself selected 
some of the foundation dams. 

Last appearance in show-yard. — For years 
Mr. Bates argued in favor of prizes at shows for 
family groups, and in 1S47, at the urgent re- 
quest of the Secretary of the Yorkshire Society, 
he sent the roan Oxford 2d, then eight years 
old, along with the four youngest of her progeny 
— two bulls and two heifers — and also one of 
her grandsons to the Scarborough meeting. 
The roan bull 2d Duke of Oxford (9046), then 
three years old, was included in the lot, and 
defejited the noted Capt. Shafto (6833), that had 
been bought by Mr. Parkinson for 325 guineas 
and was champion bull at the Northampton 
Royal a few weeks previous. All six of the 
group sent to Scarborough gained prizes. 

At York in 1848 Bates again exhibited, but 
without success, receiving but one prize, a sec- 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 107 

ond on 2d Duke of Oxford. It is insisted, how- 
ever, that the decisions gave universal dissatis- 
faction. This was his last appearance in the 
show-yard. He had bitterly opposed the whole 
system of training cattle for show,* and was 
wont to ridicule the claims of most of the 
winners. 

Dispersion of the herd. — On the 25th of July, 
1849, at the age of seveuty-four years, after a 
half a century's work with Short-horns, Thomas 
Bates passed to his rest, and was buried in 
the little church-yard at Kirklevington. " The 
Druid" tells us that "his heart was with horn 
and hoof to the last. Those who strolled with 
him in his pastures recalled how the cows and 
even the young heifers would lick his hand and 
seem to listen to every gentle word and keen 
comment as if they penetmted its import; and 
even when the last struggle was nigh and he 
could wander among them no more he reclined 
on some straw in the cow-house that his eye 
might not lack its solace." 

Of the five nephews of Mr. Bates but one, 

**' Bates was disirnBted at the amount of fulsome nonsense written 
about the * InTlncible Belleyllle (6778), which won the champion prize, and 
considered It his duty to warh f oreUrners against supposing that the deci- 
sions at the Royal Shows, given by jud«res who were Indirectly Interested 
in the success of the prise animals, were any guarantee of their usefulness 
as hreedinir stock. * * * On one occasion he drove a friend over from 
Kirklevlnffton to see Belleville at Mr. J. Mason Hopper's, at Newham 
Orinffe, a few miles ofL They met Hopper on the road. Bates greeted him 
with: * I am hringlng my friend to see your bulL I have told him that he 
Is very fat and very quiet.' Hopper, who was rather a rousrh diamond, re 
plied . * If that's sll you can tell him, gang back; ye need yae no farther. ' 
-ThoHMM JSofet and tlu KirkUtingtm Short-korm. 



108 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Edward Bates, had received a training in agri- 
culture, and he was living abroad. There was 
no member of the family, therefore, to carry on 



KIRKLPJVINGTON, NEAR YARM, YORKSHIRE. 



A CATALOGUE 

OF THB 

ENTIRE AND FAR-FAMED HERD 

OV PURS 

SHORT-HORNED CATTLE, 

BBKD BY 

THE LATE THOMAS BATE3, ESQ. 
WHICH WILL BE SOLD BY AUCTION, 

WITHOUT RESERVE, 
BY MR. H. STRAFFORD, 

AT KHiKLEVINGTON, NEAR YARM, 
ON THURSDAY, THE 9th DAY OF MAY, 1850 

BALE TO COMMENCE AT ONE O'CLOCK. 



KiRKLBViNOTON 1» Iwo iiilleB from Yarni, twelve iiillos from Dar- 
lington and twelve mile» from Northallerton, from which places there 
Is railway conveyance to all imrtH of the Kinerdom. 



CataloyneH may be had on application to Mr. SriiAiriruR]), 8, Camden 
Villas, Camden Town, London. 



LONDON : 
PRINTED AT "THE MARK LANE EXPRESS" OFFICE, 

24, NOUFOLK 8TKKET, 8TRANI). 



the herd, and it was accordingly put up at auc- 
tion at Kirklevington May 9, 1850. The title- 






'25 

Is 



t! 



^ o 

IB 




THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 109 

page of the catalogue is herewith reproduced 
from a copy — now yellow with age — in the pos- 
session of the author. 

But five families — Duchesses, Oxfords, Water- 
loosj Wild Eyes and Foggathorpes — were in- 
cluded in the herd at date of sale. Nothing of 
an historical or descriptive nature was given in 
the catalogue, either in the shape of foot-notes 
or introductory matter. No illustrations were 
attempted, and the peculiar form of printing 
pedigrees, to which British breeders still cling, 
was used as follows: 

Fourth Dcks op York (10167), roan, calved December 23, 1846; 

got bj Second Duke of Oxford (9M6) , 
dam (Duchess Slst) by Cleveland Jj&d (3407), 
g. d. (Duchess 4l8t) by Belvedere (1706), 
gr. g, d. (Duchess sad) by ad Hubback (1423), 
gr. gr. g. d. (Duchess 19th) by 2d Hubback (1433), 
gr. gr. gr. g. d. (Duchess 12th) by The Earl (646), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d. (Duchess 4th) by Ketton 2d (710), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d. (Duchess 1st) by Comet (155), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d. by Favorite (252), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d, by Daisy Bull (186), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d. by Favorite (252), 
gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. gr. g. d. by Hubback (319),— by J. 

Brown's Red Bull (97). 

A darker hour for the placing of a fine herd 
of cattle upon the market could scarcely have 
been chosen. At the Oxford Royal, a decade 
previous, Mr. Bates had been offered 400 guin- 
eas each for his prize animals, and at that 
period he could doubtless have named his own 
price for the Duke of Northumberland, but 
times had meantime undergone a serious 



110 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

change. British agriculture was now pro- 
foundly depressed. Average prices at Smith- 
field market at Christmas, 1850, ranged from 
3s. to 8s. lOd. per stone of eight pounds. It 
seemed fairly probable that the Kirklevington 
Short-horns, representing the life-work of one 
of the most enthusiastic breeders England has 
ever known, would simply be led to a sacrifice. 
Mr. Bates had often said that his cattle would 
never be appreciated at their full value during 
his own lifetime. He believed that his own 
estimate of them would some day be accepted, 
and, in later yeara this indeed came to pass. 

The attendance was phenomenal in point of 
numbers, being estimated at five thousand. 
America was represented by bids from Col. L. 
6. Morris and N. J. Becar. Curiosity attracted 
many. Some, who had felt the lash of Bates' 
free criticism during his lifetime, were present 
to exult in what they doubtless hoped would 
prove a Waterloo for the Kirklevington cattle. 
As the first lots passed through, and the sand in 
the auctioneer\s glass ran out at about twenty 
guineas each, these small-minded individuals 
broke into ironical cheers, but presently the 
spirited bidding of Mr. Anthony Maynard 
pulled values out of the mire and some good 
prices for the times were registered. The roan 
4th Duke of York, then three years old, was 
conceded to be the outstanding bull of the lot, 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. Ill 

and had been valued by Mr. Bates at £l,000. 
When Earl Ducie started him at £200, how- 
ever — having previously made known his in- 
tention to buy the bull at any cost— competi- 
tion for him was silenced, and the Duke went 
to His Lordship at what was considered a "bar- 
gain-counter" price. The sale list in detail, 
as respects the Duchesses and Oxfords, is here- 
with presented: 

bnCHBSSSS. £ g. 

DuchASs 51st, roan, calved Aug. 18, 1842— S. E. Bolden 68 

Duchess 54tli, red, calved Oct. 80, 1844— Mr. Eastwood 94 10 

Duchess 66th, red, calved Oct. 81, 1844— Earl Ducie 110 6 

Duchess56th;red-and-white,calvedNov.3,1844— Mr. Ambler 54 13 

Duchess 69th, roan, calved Nov. 21, 1847— Earl Ducie 210 

Duchess 61st, red roan, calved Aug. 19, 1848~Lord Fever- 
sham 105 

Duchess e2d, red-and-white, calved Oct. 10, 1848— Mr. Cham- 
pion 126 

Duchess 64th, red, calved Aug. 10, 1849— Earl Ducie 162 15 

Grand Duke (10284), red, calved February, 1848— Mr. Hay. . .215 
4th Duke of York (10167), roan, calved December, 1846— Earl 

Ducie 210 

Duke of Richmond (7996), roan, calved August, 1844— A. L. 

Maynard 126 

8d Duke of York (10166), red, calved October, 1845-G. D. 

Trotter 74 11 

Duke of Athol (10150), red, calved September, 1849— Mr. 

Parker 42 

5th Duke of York (10168) ,white, calved October, 1849— R. Bell 33 12 

14 head sold for £1,627 lOs., an average of £116 58 

OXFORDS. £ g. 

Oxford 2d, roan, calved April 20, 18&9— Marquis of Exeter.. 54 12 
Oxford 4th, red-and-white, calved Aug. 8, 1843— E. James. . . 28 7 
Oxford 5th, roan, calved Nov. 24, 1844— Col. L. G. Morris 

(U.S. A.) 74 11 

Oxford 6th, red, calved Nov. 6, 1846— Earl Ducie 181 5 

Oxford 9th, roan, calved Oct. 27, 1848— A. L. Maynard 42 



112 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Oxford 10th, red-and-white, calved Dec. SO, 184S-~Col. Morris 68 11 

Oxford 11th, roan, calved Aug. 36, 1849— Earl Ducie 131 6 

Oxford 13th, roan, calved Aug. 27, 1849— Lord Feversham. . . 86 1 
Oxford 18th, roan, calved Jan. 7, 1850-N. J. Becar (U. S. A.) 63 8 

Oxford 14th, roan, calved March 1. 1850— Mr. Downes 21 

3d Duke of Oxford (9046), roan, calved August, ^1843— Earl 

Howe 110 6 

8d Duke of Oxford (9047), roan, calved October, 1845-Mr. 

Robinson 64 1 

Beverley (9664), red-and-wbite, calved October, 1848— Mr. 

Townsbend 32 11 

13 head dold for £894 12s., an average of £68 16s 

WILD EYES. 

36 bead sold for £1,203 Os., an average of £48 2s 

WATERLOGS. 

6 head sold for £367, an average of £89 10s 

CAMBRIDGB ROSES. 

8 head sold for £147, an average of £49 

FOGOATHORPE8. 

7 head sold for £338 138,, an average of £46 19s 

GENERAL AVERAGES. 

68 head sold for £4,558, an average of £67 

15 bulls sold for £1,309 7s., an average of £87 5s 

6 bull calves sold for £201 13s., an average of : £40 

23 cows sold for £1,163 8s., an average of £63 17s 

16 heifers sold for £1,221 8s., an average of £76 6s 

10 heifer calves sold for £662 lis., an average of £66 6s 

Sixty-four Duchess females.— The following 
tabulation showing the record of Duchess fe- 
males in the hands of Mr. Bates — for which the 
author is indebted to Mr. Richard Gibson — is 
worthy of being incorporated here for purposes 
of reference. 

It will be seen that there were but sixty- 
four Duchesses all told. Of these, the last 
(Duchess 64th) was calved after Mr. Bates' 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 113 



death. The one calf of Duchess 58th was 
Duchess 65th, that probably died young, as 
Lord Ducie recorded the 1850 calf of Duchess 
55th also as Duchess 65th. Of the fifty-eight 
Duchesses old enough to breed previous to 
Mr. Bates' death, which number includes all 
that lived long enough to have numbers as- 
signed them, two (13th and 57th) are recorded 
as having died young; one (53d) was a twin 
with a bull, and twenty-four others (so far as 
the Herd Book records inform us) never pro- 
duced calves. A cross from the prolific Wild 
Eyes tribe might have materially increased 
Duchess fertility during the "forties." 







r 




\ 


mn. 


f 


Jfii/«. Femalt. 


Vamb. 










f 

1 




f 


^ 


Oueheaa 1 
DuehecM S 


taOB 

Villi 


r. AW. 
r.Aw. 
r.Aw. 


Cofnet.. .,.,.... 


1 
1 






Ductless 8 


Ketton.., 


4 

1 H S 




Duobess i 


Eettonlcl ^», ..«•«.,,,,,,. 




Duchoss 6 


IM7 r, &w. 

m»y r. & w. 
It:» r, Aw. 
imi r. A w. 

liti-'r. A w. 


K<'ttoii1liK...... ,...^ 




Daoneas 6 
I>uches8 7 
Duchess 8 


KLHioiiad .„,,* 

MJirbkfj*... ,,.w ,..„♦» 

Mai'bke . ...*..... .*. 




4 
8 

1 




Duchess 9 


Mar!4Vi# +' ... f . ii Hi ... .f > F f . t ..».«» . 


i' ^ 




Duchess lit 


CJrVi'liind * * ♦ » , 


11 






Duchess U 


YuiinfT MiVrflkPf», .«..*.. ,..!...>.. 




1 1 
.... I 




Duchess 12 
Duchess 1£ 


Tim Karl.... .,.* .....,., \ 

Tm»K:ipl... „. 

Tlii^Eapl.. ***.**. .**♦*. .»,. 

rin'Earl 




Duchess 14'lft2;l r. & w. 
Duchess Itt i!^24j 


.... 


1 .... 




Duchess 16!J«]4 > A w. 
Duchess 17 , i»l:> i . A w 


Tln^Esirl.. .* >**....* ... 


... 


!! : 1 




^] f5:trl. ,„„.,«, 








Duchess 18 Ji^^^t 


y.r. 
r.A vr. 
i.Aw. 
V Aw. 


2d Hnlibatk. 










Duchess 19 lJ§!2fi 


•M llutibiwlt,,.,», 






6 
• ••■ 




Duchess SO W^ 


M Earl....*...* .*.«*..**«* 






Duchess 31 U»^ 
Duchess 22 U^^i 


SdEiirl ,„ .,., 

■2fi Hiitibiiek *.,.*.... 


11 


•••• •••• 




Duchess 2^ 10:^^ 




ad Eafl. ,.i* 








Duchess ft ih^; 


■J4i Huljfmck 




••. 




Duchess 25 lUiti 


I k>\\ . M H It fjL>:**'k .^ . 









Duchisss Ig iir.-G 


1 Aw. 


iii HtibbJi-h *..... 


1 


1 


1 





114 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 





r 




t 


'*** 


r 




Vajcs. 




1 






■Olf, 

1 




r 4w, 

r. ft w, 
r. A w. 

r. Aw, 

roan, 
p* A w, 
rftl. 
P AW- 
r. A w, 
roan* 

roan, 
roari. 
roao* 
red. 
r. Aw. 
p. A w. 


3de(ibtjack,, .,. 

2d Hubbacb*** . . 


US 
20 

s 

u 

Si7 




1 II 








DucheBB 2v 


2d Hu1>b;irk: *.>*.......* 




'"k 


1 
e 






ai1Hiibback.,„, 

/d Ifiibbuok ,*,^,,,» ,,, 


,,*, 


Duoheas isi mcil 


3lI Rubbatk, ,,..,., „,,„*, 


.► * 
< 


1 


] 
1 

8 




Duc-hea* B3 ; im 
Dut'h**Bs3H 1^^' 


DrlvH-ilppr- „ ,, „ , 

liriVF^tiPr* , 

«jEimblt r., .,..*.,.,.,...,,. 

H. lv*xlMr,/ 

n< 1 v + fletv .. , ....,., . „ . „ 

Nirfolt..,*. , 

B- |\>-di^rr„ „.,„ *„ 

JMvc.kTf*,.* ,.,, .,., 

B. iv.i^.n^ ., 

B^Hvt^t-rp ,.,,. 

Sc^lvetlere .* .,,.«^*,. .. ,*», 


***i 


1 ' 

1 




*,»■ 






, 






... 


i 
1 


3 


i;ii 


DiicLeBh li L^'iS 


ShoM Tail , .K» ,., ^.„,,^*. 




Duchi^ftB 45 li:t:'^ 


Sbor: Tall.-.,,.., 


MI 






1 






Short Tall. ,.J 

Sljort TalI-«, .,...^.,,.^..,.. , 


37 .... 

i 1 


.... 


DiicheBB 4H 


l^i^y r. Aw, 
14.^ r. A w. 


Short TiilJ .*.«, *^w.^ , ,,, 




Duchi'KB 4U 


Sliort Tall.* ..,*. ..*,,,„ 






lftl5 
Igtti 

l»17 
18*7 

vm 


roan, 
poau. 

p. Aw, 

roan* 

red, 

roan, 

rod. 

roan, 

r. Aw. 


Dukn of Nciplhiunbprland,.., 
Cleveland Ljid ...,-.,... 


'* i 


Dut'tn/BH W 


Holtear.,.. ,, 

Duki> of Nijpthuniber)iiml ,„ 

^laeveland Liwl 

<ih Duki'or NopihitrulxTland. 
:if 1 D L! k i' f >f No r t iiiiiiiberlan4. 

?d Cie\*tHl:ind Ljitl ,*.,**.. 

I^rd EarriJimou 

Total 


m 

41 

4tt 


,*, 




Jmctit^B U 
DiicheBR 5b 
l>ucbeBB 6<l 
Ducbesa b"* 


1 
1 


'*** 


i 

f 




DuchtJ^ fi» 


~»9 


~i5 


1 
«1 


~i 


BticbesB fi@ 


?rj Duke of Ojcfopdn , , 


At 

Wi 
M 

66 


Bom preriouB 


DiichtBa DO 

BvK'tit'HH 61 


?d Diikp of OKfopd ., 

M Duke of OJcrgrd, 

2d Dukf oJ Ojrford. ........ ,,». 


to the «lesth of 

Mr.Batee,July 

' S&,1849. and at 


DuclieoB ii4 


roQ 


n. 


;;d Duke of OkJopcI.,...., *..,,. 
sjd Duktj of Oxford 


th ' ' ' ' 

ol 

he 


ai 11 
d en 
ive 1 


aie 

OUffl 

orod 


1 to 
Doe. 



Individual character of the cattle. — It may 

be of interest to American breeders to know 
that, although the prevailing color of the old 
Duchesses had been red and white, thirty-eight 
of the herd of sixty-eight head sold in 1850 
were roan and five pure whit€ in color; fifteen 
being red-and-white and twelve red. The con- 



THOMAS BATES AND THE DUCHESSES. 115 

ceutation of the blood of the light-colored 
Belvedere and of the white Matchem cow^s sons 
— the Cleveland Lads — modified the original 
Duchess color as well as elevated the general 
excellence of the herd. A contemporary re- 
port of the sale in the Farmer's Magazine com- 
mended the character of the cattle in the fol- 
lowing laudatory language: 

*^ In a oombinatioa of those qualities which constitute excel- 
lence in the Short-hom variety of cattle it may be asserted with 
confidence that the Kirklevington Herd at the time of its disper- 
sion was unequaled by any other in existence. Magnificent size, 
straight and broad bock, arched and well-spread ribs, wide bosom, 
snug shoulder, clean neck, light feet, small head, prominent and 
bright but placid eye, were features of usefulness and beauty 
which distinguished this herd in the very highest degree. While 
the hide Is sufficiently thick to indicate an excellent constitution, 
its elasticity when felt between the fingers and thumb, and its 
floating under the hand upon the cellular texture beneath, together 
with the soft and furry texture of the coat, evinced in an extraor- 
dinary degree throughout the herd excellent quality of flesh and 
disposition to rapid taking on fat. In the sixty-eight head of cattle 
not one could be characterized as inferior or even as mediocre, all 
ranking as first-class animals; and when an idea of inferiority 
arose it was only in reference to a comparison with others of this 
splendid herd, which, from their most extraordinary excellence, 
demanded special notice." 

Thus passed into other hands a herd that was 
destined to receive recognition in the subse- 
quent progress of the breed beyond even the 
wildest dreams of its founder. At his grave 
stands a substantial monument,* erected largely 
through the efforts of Mr. William Housman, 

*The exact date of Mr. Batea' death was July 25, as already stated. 
Throucb aome inadvertency the Inscription on the mo^iuinent reada "July 



116 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

one of the most entertaining of all English 
writers upon Short-hom cattle. It bears this 
simple inscription: 

TBI8 MIM ORlAIi 
OF 

THOMAS BATES, 

OV KIBKLBVINGTON, 

«in OF THB MOST DI8TINGU18HKD BRIBDIBS OV 

8HOBT-HORN CATTLE, 

ib rai8kd bt a few friends who apprbciatb 

ui8 ulbours for the improvemkift ov 

. british stock, 

andbb8pbcthi8characteb. 

Born 218T Junb^ 1776. 

DiBD 26th July, 1849. 




Drawn from Photograph bt ths author, IflBft 





'l 1 


• ^ ■■ i. 


^ ■ ; ■ 

1 ' : ■ * . 
1 ,« 







a 

o 



O 



CHAPTER V. 



PALMY DAYS AT KILLERBY AND WAR- 
LABY. 

The establishment pf the Yorkshire and 
Royal Shows (1838-9) proved the means of 
attracting largely-increased attention to the 
breed, not only throughout Great Britain but 
in foreign lands as well. Mr. Bates was quick 
to see the advertising advantages presented, 
and had carried off high honors at the initial 
meetings of the National Show at Oxford and 
Cambridge. His contemporary, John Booth of 
Killerby, soon followed suit and began a career 
of conquest — in which his brother Richard soon 
joined — that gave the Booth cattle for a long 
series of years reputation as a heavy flesh- 
carrying type unequaled by any other in the 
Kingdom. Prior to that time the Booth herds 
had been kept mainly for dairy and grazing 
purposes, most of the males being steered. 
Their quick-feeding quality rendered them 
easily susceptible to "training" for show. 

We have already detailed the division of the 
Killerby Herd that occurred in 1814, at the 

(117) 



118 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

time when Richard Booth began breeding at 
Studley. To take the place at Killerby of some 
of the cows sent to Studley Thomas Booth 
bought others, which when crossed with his 
strongly-bred bulls gave rise to three very 
prominent families — the Farewells, the Brough- 
tons, and the Dairymaids or Moss Roses. The 
matron of the Farewell tribe, like so many 
other good ones that proved successful breed- 
ers, was simply a good market cow, showing 
Short-horn breeding and quality, purchased at 
Darlington. Among her descendants w^ere the 
famous trio — Faith, Hope and Charity. The 
first Broughton cow came, like the Fairholme 
heifers, from a good dairy farmer, and of her 
line was Bliss, Blythe and Bonnet. The origi- 
nal Dairymaid came from a good stock of cat- 
tle near the village of Scorton. To her the 
prolific Vivandiere, Campfollower and Soldier's 
Bride traced in the maternal line. To these 
families were added the Gaudy (or Lady Betty) 
sort, bred from a cow bought from Mr. Tay- 
lor of Catterick; the Mantalinis, derived from 
the purchase of Sylph, by Remus, from Mrs. 
Booth's sister, Miss Wright of Cleasby, and the 
Belindas, that originated from the stock of 
Miss Wright and Mr. Charge. The descend- 
ants of these cows, a portion of the Halnaby 
and Fairholme tribes, and the Bracelets consti- 
tuted the herd that graced " the quiet meadows 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 119 

of old Killerby," from whence John Booth se- 
lected the celebrated show animals sent to the 
early meetings of the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety of England. The sensation created by 
their appearance laid the foundation for the 
wide demand that subsequently set in for 
Booth blood. In five years four first prizes for 
the best Short-horn cows at the Royal were 
won by animals of Killerby breeding. 

Bracelet and Necklace.— In 1840 Killerby 
entered the lists at the Yorkshire Show at 
Northallerton and won fii-st prize with the roan 
three-year-old Bracelet, by Priam (2452) — he a 
son of Isabella by Pilot— and second on the 
yearling heifer Mantalini. In 1841 Mr. Booth 
ventured into deeper water, showing at the 
Royal at Liverpool and the Highland at Ber- 
wick, as well as at the Yorkshire Show. Brace- 
let won first as cow at both of the national 
shows, and Mantalini first as two -year -old 
heifer. In 1842 Bracelet and her twin sister, 
Necklace, swept all before them at York, and 
Necklace was first at the Bristol Royal. Carr 
says: "To this day it is a mooted question 
among those who remember the world- 
renowned twins to which of them could be 
most justly awarded the palm of beauty. 
Necklace is said to have had neater fore quar- 
ters and to have been rather better filled up 
behind the shoulders. Bracelet had fuller, 



120 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

longer and more level hind quarters." Writing 
in 1880 John Thornton said: '*Many old breed- 
ers still maintain that as Duke of Northumber- 
land was one of the finest bulls so Bracelet was 
the finest cow in their recollection." In 1843 
Necklace overcame all opposition at Doncaster. 
These famous cows together brought home as 
trophies of show-yard war some thirty-five class 
and champix)nship prizes and medals; Necklace 
finishing her career by winning a gold medal 
against thirty-seven competitors at the Smith- 
field Fat-Stock Show at London in 1846. 

Buckingham. — Bracelet was not only a 
reigning show-yard queen, but proved a grand 
breeder, producing the fine white show cow 
Birthday, by Lord Stanley (4269), the prize bull 
Hamlet, by Leonard, and that extraordinary 
sire Buckingham (3239), the latter the result of 
mating with Col. Cradock's Mussulman (4525), 
Buckingham was sold to Richard Booth, who 
had in the meantime succeeded to his father's 
estate of Warlaby, and in his hands proved a 
uniform getter of broad-backed, round-ribbed 
stock, with shapely fore quarters and well-filled 
flanks. He was subsequently let to Mr. Barnes, 
who established a noted herd of Booth-bred 
cattle at Westland, Ireland, but the bull was 
unfortunately lost bj^ the burning of the chan- 
nel steamer that was conveying him to the Em- 
erald Isle. Buckingham introduced the Old 




NECKI^ACE AT Six Yeabs Old. 




BRACELET AT Five Years Old. 
John Booth's Famous Royal Prize- Winning Twins. 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 121 

Cherry blood into the Booth herds, and illus- 
trated the vivifying effect of a judicious out- 
cross upon tribes that had been interbred 
for generations. No further proof of this is 
needed than the mere mention of the fact that 
Buckingham left at Warlaby, among other val- 
uable progeny, the celebrated Charity, Plum 
Blossom, Bloom, Medora, Vivandiere, Isabella 
Buckingham, Vanguard, Hopewell, Benedict 
and Baron Warlaby. Bracelet's famous daugh- 
ter. Birthday, in turn produced the prize-win- 
ning heifer Gem (which Dixon says was Mr. 
Booth's model as respects compactness, beauti- 
ful hair and fine, even quality of flesh) and the 
white bull Lord George (10439), the sire of the 
2d Duke of Athol (11376), in the pedigrees of 
Mr. Alexander's American Duchesses of Airdrie. 
Another daughter of Bracelet was Pearl, gran- 
dam of Pearly, bought by Col. Towneley at the 
Killerby sale, that became the dam of the 500- 
guinea Ringlet. Bracelet was also the dam of 
the red bull Morning Star (6223), that was sold 
in 1844 as a two-year-old to Louis Phillippe of 
France. Before crossing the Channel, how- 
ever, he begot Vesper, the ancestress of the 
noted family of that name in the Booth-bred 
herd of Mr. R. S. Bruere. Necklace produced 
Jewel, the dam of Jeweller, used in the 
Towneley herd, the sire of the celebrated 
Barmpton Rose cow Butterfly. Mantalini, the 



122 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

show -yard companion of the twins, had a 
daughter, Pelerine, from whence came those 
** three graces,'^ Rose of Autumn, Rose of Sum- 
mer and Rose of Athelstane, in the herd of Mr. 
Douglas of Athelstaneford. 

John Booth's sale. — After playing a promi- 
nent part in the show-yard for a number of 
years and demonstrating beyond all dispute 
the flesh-making qualities and prepotent char- 
acter of his cattle "the Squire of Killerby" 
sold his herd at auction in July, 1852, the sale 
being attended by breeders from all parts of 
the Kingdom. The depression prevailing at 
the time of the Bates sale still continued, and 
some of the animals were a few years later re- 
sold for three times the price paid at the sale. 
The forty-four lots averaged £48 12s. Bloom 
brought 110 guineas from Mr. Ambler, and 
Birthright 105 guineas from Mr. Douglas. 
After the dispersion John Booth did not again 
engage extensively in cattle-breeding.* His 

•Mr Booth was a very flne-lookliur man, upward of six feet and fifteen 
Btone, with rare hands and a fine (>yi; ta hounds. This was the sport he 
loved best, and when he was on Jack o' Lintem or Eob Boy few men could 
cross the Bedale country with him. • • • He was full of Joviality and 
rood Htorh'S as wrll ns the neatest of practical Jokes. His friend Weth- 
ei"ell generally liad his tfuard up. but when he received a letter, apparently 
from the Earl of Tankervllle, saylng^ th:it he was to lot and sell the wild 
White cattle of Chlhineham, he puzzled for minutes as to how on earth His 
Lordship ever intended to catch them and brlnp them Into the Hng before 
hL guessed the joke and Its author. • • • Booth Judged a great deal In 
England, and never wtut for great size either In a bull or a cow. As a man 
of fine, steady Judgment In a cattle-ring he lias i>erhaps never had an equal. 
HedlfHl In 1857, after a weary twelve month» Illness, In his seventieth year, 
at Killerby, and a memorial window at Catterlck, where ho rests, was put 
■ up by his friends and neiijhbors and the Short-horn world as well."— 5ad<lf< 
2nd Sirloin. 



KILLBBBY AND WARLABY. 123 

brother Richard had purchased Venus Victrix 
at the top price of the sale (175 guineas) and 
afterward presented her to her former owner. 
She was successfully exhibited at leading shows 
from 1852 to 1856, and also produced the two 
bulls King Arthur and King Alfred, both by 
Crown Prince, besides two choice heifers, Vic- 
trix and Venus de Medicis. The latter was sold 
to Mr. Douglas for 300 guineas and shown at 
the Paris Exposition. At Mr. Booth's death in 
1857 his sons inherited this Venus Victrix tribe, 
as well as the descendants of Hecuba, by Hope- 
ivell; among the latter being the noted Forest 
Queen and Queen of Trumps. Hecuba was of 
the real rent-paying sort — a heavy milker and 
quick feeder. Another grand cow in the herd 
at this time was Soldier's Dream, of the old 
Moss Rose sort. Her dam had been presented 
to John Booth's sons by their uncle Richard. 

Warlaby and its show-yard wonders. — We 
now approach the zenith of Booth fame — ^the 
later achievements of that Achilles of British 
show-yard war, Richard Booth (late of Stud- 
ley), who succeeded to his father's estate of 
Warlaby, in the grassy valley of the Wiske, in 
1835. In his later years Thomas Booth had not 
endeavored to give the herd at Warlaby any 
special prominence. He had devoted fifty 
years of his useful life to the interests of the 
breed, and had lived to see the type created by 



124 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

his skill and genius recognized as one of the 
chief sources of Short-horn excellence. He was 
content, therefore, to leave to younger men the 
active " pushing '' of their favorites. It is said 
that Richard on his entrance at Warlaby did 
not at first contemplate any special effort in 
the line of Short-honi breeding. Unlike his 
brother John — who had the traditional York- 
shire love for the excitements of the race- 
course and the hunting field — Richard had 
never been given to active pursuits, and " was 
only a quiet gig-man" from the early days. 
Happily for the breed, however, he changed 
his mind in relation to cattle-breeding and de- 
voted the remainder of his days to the upbuild- 
ing of what was beyond all question the most 
remarkable herd of its time and one of the 
greatest known in Short-horn history. 

Thomas Booth had left at Warlaby cows of 
of the Halnaby (Strawberry), Farewell, Blos- 
som, Broughton, Dairymaid and Christon fami- 
lies. To this collection Richard added old Isa- 
bella, by Pilot, then in her sixteenth year but 
still breeding. Killerby was at this date and 
for some years afterward in the ascendant so 
far as public notoriety was concerned. The 
victories of Bracelet and Necklace, of Manta- 
lini, Ladythome, Birthday and Hamlet had 
drawn all eyes upon the work of John Booth, 
but Richard of Warlaby was meantime buck- 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 125 

ling on his armor. He bought Bracelet's son 
Buckingham, bearing 50 per cent of Old CheiTy 
blood, from his brother John; having already 
sent his own grand cow, White Strawberry, to 
be bulled by Lord Lieutenant (4260), of Mr. 
Raine's breeding. White Strawberry was prob- 
ably the best cow at Warlaby at that time. 
She was bred in evei7 direction from the closest 
affinities of blood, her ancestors, male and fe- 
male, being filled by repeated crosses with the 
blood of Albion and Pilot. She was a magnifi- 
cent broad-backed, wide-breasted animal, quite! 
equal in merit to those buxom matrons, the red 
Anna and the roan Isabella by Pilot, the two 
best cows that either of the herds had pre- 
vious to 1835 produced. The white bull Leon- 
ard (4210) was the result of this Booth-Baine 
union. In those days color did not condemn 
good cattle to destruction. Leonard was called 
a "little" bull, but the Booths were never par- 
tial to big ones. Moreover, he had great loins 
and widely-spread ribs. He was also rather 
heavy in the horn, but the laird of Warlaby had 
confidence in his value as a sire and placed him 
in service. His blood, blended with that of 
Buckingham through the veins of that grand 
galaxy of Booth-bred cows, Isabella, White 
Sti-awberry, Bracelet and Charity, ultimately 
found issue in the world-renowned Crown Prince 
(10087), the bull of all Booth bulls; the bull that 



126 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

was to Warlaby what Duke of Northumberland 
was to Kirklevington or Champion of England 
to Sittyton. 

Faith, Hope and Charity. — It was not until 
1846 that Warlaby closed in earnest with the 
ruling ring-side powers of the United Kingdom. 
John Booth was out with n. strong herd, includ- 
ing Necklace, Birthday, Mantalini, Gem and 
Hamlet— the latter regarded by John Booth as 
the best bull he ever bredo It was a significant 
fact that one of Richard's earliest ventures in 
tile show^-field had been made with a roan cow 
called Faith, of the Farewell family. She was 
a large and excellent cow, but somewhat mas- 
culine, and could only get a second against 
Necklace at the Yorkshire mooting, but her 
name represented the foundation upon which 
Warlaby built for the future — implicit confi- 
dence in the value of the blood combinations 
there at work. From Faith sprang Hope in 
the form of a roan daughter of that name — got 
by the white bull Leonard — that went to the 
Yorkshire Show in 1845 as a two-year-old and 
there became one of the first of a long and 
truly regal line of Warlaby winners. 

In 1846 Richard Booth made his bow at the 
Royal, held that year in the Tyneside Country, 
near Newcastle. Bracelet and Necklace were 
there, but fortunately had graduated into the 
class for "extra stock." Leonard's daughter 




John Booth's BIRTHDAY at Foub Years Old. 




Tam Booth Cow VIVANDIERE at Fivb Ybabs. 
Brtd by John Outhwaiti. Bainesse, Yorkihirt, England. 



KILLEBBY AND WABLABT. 127 

Hope, then three years old, defeated all other 
cows of her age in the yard, repeating the per- 
formance at the Yorkshire at Wakefield. Not 
only did the handsome Hope accomplish this in 
1846, but what was even more to the point dur- 
ing that same year she produced to the cover 
of Buckingham the red heifer Charity, that sub- 
sequently attained imperishable renown as the 
mother of 

Crown Prince (10087). — This extraordinary 
breeding bull was a roan, dropped by Charity 
May 10, 1849, to a service by the white Fitz 
Leonard (7010). Mr. Carr says: "Of Charity, 
who so long graced the Warlaby pastures, it is 
sufficient to say that she was the personifica- 
tion of all that is beautiful in Short-horn shape. 
Such was her regularity of form that a straight 
wand laid along her side longitudinally from 
the lower flank to the forearm and from the 
hips to the upper part of the shoulder blades 
touched at almost every point; her quarters 
were so broad, her crops and shoulders so full, 
her ribs so boldly projected, and the space be- 
tween them and the well-cushioned hips so 
arched over with flesh as to form a continuous 
line. It was difficult for the most hypercritical 
eye to detect a failing point in this perfectly- 
molded animal, and it was in consequence of 
Mr. Booth's high appreciation of her merits and 
those of her son that he made such free use of 



128 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLX 

Crown Prince. Charity won every prize for 
which she was shown save one, when she was 
beaten as a calf by another of the same herd, 
after which her career was one of unvaried 
success. She was thrice decked with the white 
rosette at the Royal and thrice at the Yorkshire 
meetings." 

The Prince proved probably the greatest 
stock-getter of all themany celebrated bulls ever 
used at Warlaby. He was never shown, so val- 
uable vvere his services in the breeding herd; 
his capacity in that respect was attested not 
only by such champion show cattle as Necta- 
rine Blossom and the four peerless "Queens," 
but his bulls — for one of which, the champion 
Windsor, Mr. Booth refused £1,000 — were in 
demand from all parts of the Kingdom. But 
one of his sons, Duke of Buckingham, was ever 
sold, Mr. Booth preferring to retain the owner- 
ship of all. They were let and used with re- 
markable results on some of the best herds of 
their time. Mr. Carr, the accomplished histo- 
rian of the Booths, said of Crown Prince: "To 
the visitor at Warlaby I would say, ^Si monu- 
mentum requiriSy circumspice!^^* If you ask 
where is his monument, look around you. 

Isabella Buckingham and other celebrities. 
— ^Isabella, by Pilot, had produced nine calves 
before her transfer to Warlaby, but she there 
gave birth at the extreme age of eighteen years 



KILLBRBY AND WARLABY. 129 

to the white heifer Isabella (Vol. VI, page 405, 
Coates' Herd Book), by Young Matchem (4422), 
that subsequently produced the white Fitz 
Leonard (7010), sire of Crown Prince (10087); 
the big, broad-backed, heavy-loined roan sire 
and show bull Vanguard (10994)^ that acquired 
fame in the great Booth-bred herd of Mr. Torr, 
and the roan heifers Innocence and Isabella 
Buckingham. Innocence in turn produced the 
white Leonidas (10414), that sired the famous 
Monk (11824) — ^also white — one of the best of 
the Warlaby bulls. Carr says that the hair of 
Leonidas was so long that it fairly "waved in 
the wind, like the wool on a sheep's back.'' 
Isabella Buckingham, "a superb cow of great 
substance," was a roan, dropped March 29, 
1845, and as her name implies was a daughter 
of Bracelet's son Buckingham. She thus joined 
the blood of one of the greatest of all Killerby 
cows to that of the queenly Isabella. The "im- 
posing grandeur" of the Warlaby Isabellas was 
a theme upon which admirers of the herd ever 
loved to dwell, and Isabella Buckingham of 
that line, like Charity, reaped a rich harvest of 
ribbons and rosettes. 

Indeed after 1846 Warlaby's place in the Na- 
tional showa was for many years unquestioned. 
At the Northampton Royal of 1847 Cherry Blos- 
som (by Buckingham), a noble cow "with mas- 
sive fore quarters and of stately presence," was 



130 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

first; Isabella Buckingham was first-prize two- 
year-old, and Charity the first-prize yearling. 
At the same show held at York in 1848 Hope, 
Charity and Isabella were all winners. At the 
Norwich Boyal of 1849 Charity was first and 
Isabella second. Cherry Blossom heading the 
post-graduate class, and at the Highland Show 
at Glasgow they repeated in Scotland what 
they had accomplished "South o' Tweed." 

Meantime Hope had produced to Buckingham 
the roan bull Hopewell (10332), that early dem- 
onstrated his mettle by winning first as a year- 
ling at Leeds in 1849. Hopewell became a sire 
of great renown, Mr. Booth receiving for his 
services while on hire in various herds the great 
sum of £1,000. To the cover of Cherry Blos- 
som's own brother, Baron Warlaby (7813), Hope 
gave birth to the short-legged, thrifty roan bull 
Harbinger (10297), that won as a yearling at 
the Exeter Royal of 1850, and afterward proved 
a wonderful stock-getter, siring the prize cow 
Bridesmaid and Red Rose, the dam of the won- 
derful "Queens" to be mentioned further on. 
He also became known on this side of the At- 
lantic as the sire of Mr. Alexander's imp. Ma- 
zurka, ancestress of a very noted American 
tribe. Isabella Buckingham was first-prize cow^ 
at same show. 

Windsor (14013) and the Blossoms.— We have 
already noted the appearance of the first of this 



KILLERBT AND WARLABY. 131 

family,Cherry Blossom, in the show-yard. In 1851 
the roan four-year-old cow Plum Blossom, by 
Buckingham,* in calf to Crown Prince, won the 
first prize at the Windsor Royal, and in Octo- 
ber following she gave birth to a white bull 
calf that afterward carried all before him at 
the National and Northern county shows. In 
honor of his mother's victory at the Royal he 
was dubbed Windsor. The calf began his win- 
nings at Sheffield the following summer. That 
same year another of this family. Rose Blossom, 
gained first as a two-year-old at the Royal. 

Windsor made ten shows and won nine first 
prizes, being the " bull card " of the Warlaby 
exhibit from 1852 to 1855. He was spoken of 
as "the Comet of modern times. A very sym- 
metrical animal, of extraordinary length, with 
a good masculine head and horn, a well-formed 
neck, a very deep and prominent breast, and 
well-covered, obliquely-laid shoulders; his back 
was admirably formed — firm and levels — and 
his ribs were finely arched up to the shoulders, 
forming a cylindrical shape throughout; his 

•Plam Blossom, according to Carr, was "a leTel, len^hy, short-leffged 
cow of ffreat substance. She had abandanoe of hair, of a rich purple roan, 
a very sweet head and high-bred appearance. While Htill but a slip of a 
heifer (for Plum Blossom was no hot-house nursing, but a wilding of the 
fields from her birth) Mr. Eastwood, yisiting Warlaby with the late Mr. 
Booth, had the sagacity to foresee the perfection to which she would ma- 
ture. He made tempting overtures to compass her transfer to Towneley, 
which he flattered himself the latter did not seem disinclined to entertain; 
but on revlTlng the subject after dinner Mr. Booth dashed his hopes by in- 
timating that he could not allow him to * put in his thumb and pull out this 
I»liim.* " 



132 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

quarters were very long and flat, his thighs, 
flank and twist remarkably deep and full, and 
his legs short and fine below the knee. From 
the top of his shoulder to the tip of his brisket 
he measured four feet ten inches." After win- 
ning at the Carlisle Royal in 1855 an Australian 
breeder offered £1.000 for him, which proposi- 
tion Mr. Booth declined. Windsor was sire of 
the great show cow Soldier's Bride, presently 
to be mentioned. 

. A few years later the big, all-conquering 
Nectarine Blossom, by Crown Prince, appeared. 
In 1857 she was the first-prize cow at York. In 

1858 she was first at the Royal, first at the 
Yorkshire and winner of the 100-guinea cup at 
Durham Show as best animal in the yard. In 

1859 she was again first among cows at the 
Royal. Of this tribe also was that broad, thick- 
fle$hed prize cow Venus Victrix, shown by John 
Booth, as- already noticed. 

Bride, Bridesmaid and Bride Elect. — A 
branch of Mr. Booth's favorite old Halnaby 
tribe threw out a blooming bevy of show-yard 
favorites between the years 1847 and 1857, be- 
ginning with bagatelle by Buckingham, and 
including Bride, by Hopewell, Bridesmaid by 
Harbinger, and the extraordinary white cow 
Bride Elect by Vanguard (10994). The latter 
was regarded as the wonder of her day in re- 
spect to her astonishing development of bosom 



KILLERBT AND WARLABY. 133 

and fore quarters, and also carried a beautiful 
head and horn. She was a leading winner in 
the Warlaby show herds from 1854 to 1858. 

The quartette of " ftueena."— The same Hal- 
naby or Strawberry tribe that gave Warlaby 
these Brides appeared again in full flower just 
as Bride Elect began to lose her bloom;* Red 
Rose, by Harbinger, producing to the cover of 
Crown Prince that remarkable group of heifers 
Queen of the May, Queen Mab, Queen of the 
Vale, and finally the noble Queen of the Ocean. 
It is related that a blank check tendered by 
Rev. J. Bolden for Red Rose— the dam of these 
celebrities — when she was a heifer was refused. 
Mr. Booth's vision as to her future usefulness 
was in this case prophetic, as he was afterward 
offered 1,500 guineas for Queen of the May, the 
first of the daughters to enter the show-yard. 
This heifer began winning as a yearling at the 
Chelmsford Royal of 1856. Queen Mab, "the 
Greek beauty," entered the prize list as a year- 
ling at the same society's show at Shrewsbury 
in 1857. Queen of the Vale came forward in 
1858. Queen of the Ocean was presented as a 
cow at the Battersea Royal of 1862, receiving 
first in her class and gold medal as best female 
in the yard. That same year she won the 100- 

•OM Caddy, lODcmme herdsman for Mr. Booth, would saj: ** Aye I yon*a 
poor auki BHde Elect. Did ye ever see sic an a breast and sic lee^ht tlm. 
bersT Yan wad wonder how ale bane could bear sae muckle beef. Look at 
her rumpe and thlyhs, and loins, and aboon a\ that breastl Why there be 
aoLalst plenty for twa beasts I ' 



134 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

guinea cup championship at Durham County 
Show. In 1863, shown with Soldier's Bride, 
she was one of the first-prize pair of cows at 
the Worcester Royal, and first at the York- 
shire, Northumberland, North Lancashire, Cra- 
ven, Halifax and Keighley Shows. 

Queen of the May has been described as al- 
most a model. Her loins and chine were broad 
and deeply covered, her head sweetly feminine 
and her shoulders, girth and neck veins fault- 
less. Her quarters were long and level; her 
only weakness being at the thigh. She was 
unfortunately permanently injured on a rail- 
way journey. Queen of the Vale and Queen 
Mab were described in the Journal of the High- 
land Agricultural Societyy after winning first 
and second respectively at Perth, in the follow- 
ing language: 

** Queen of the Vale is a cow of faultless proportions, a perfect 
parallelogram in form, with well-fleshed, obliquely-laid shoulders, 
a good head and a very sweet neck and bosom, sweeping finely 
into the shoulders, the points of which are completely hidden by 
the full neck vein. Queen Mab is, if possible, still more remarka- 
ble than her sister for her broad, thick, level loins, depth of twist 
and armful of flank ; but she is now perhaps less faultless, as her 
hind quarters are becoming plain and patchy from fat. She is, 
however, equal, if not superior, to Queen of the Vale in her mar- 
velous capacity of girth, fore rib and bosom. Like her sister, she 
maintains her cylindrical proportions wonderfully throughout, 
the ribs retaining their circular form up to the shoulders, with 
which they blend without any depression either at the crops or 
behind the elbow, and from thence the fore quarters taper beauti- 
fully to the head." 

The massive Queen of the Ocean was a royal 
specimen of her race, with the traditional 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 135 

Booth wealth of flesh, shortness of leg and 
perfect fore quarters. The Battersea judges 
called her *'all that a cow should be." She 
became the dam of the bull Prince of Batter- 
sea, that won a lot of prizes as a calf and 
yearling but died from the effect of overheat- 
ing at the Newcastle Royal of 1864. The great 
price of 800 guineas had been refused for him. 
Queen of the Vale hacl a heifer, Queen of the 
May 2d, that also became a great winner. 
Three of the victories of Queen Mab, Nectarine 
Blossom and Queen of the May reduced to Mr. 
Booth's possession the Durham Society's 100- 
guinea challenge cup, which thereafter became 
an heirloom of the house of Warlaby. 

Vivandiere, Gampfollower and Soldier's 
Bride. — One of the most remarkable of the 
Warlaby matrons was the prolific Vivandiere, 
by Buckingham. Her description indicates 
that she was what the Scotch herdsmen call 
"a lady coo," or what is in common cattle- 
breeding parlance a "breedy" cow. Mr. Carr 
incidentally gives us Richard Booth's testi- 
mony to be added to that of nearly all other 
eminent breeders to the effect that good breed- 
ing cows usually have good heads. He says: 
**The modest Vivandiere, with her beautiful 
head, was frequently unobserved, except by the 
admirers of a well-filled udder, unless brought 
into notice by the quiet observation from her 



136 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

owner 'Look at that head and hair!'" She 
had ten calves, amojig them being the prize- 
winning Prince Alfred, Prince Arthur, Wel- 
come, Vivacity, Verity, Soldier's Nurse, and the 
great cow Campfollower. Prince Alfred gained 
many prizes in 1864 and 1865, was used at 
Windsor, was let one year to the Emperor Na- 
poleon III for the French Government Experi- 
mental Farm and after^mrd spent two years at 
Lady Pigot's; Her Ladyship being an enthusi- 
astic breeder of Booth Short-horns, and produc- 
ing among other celebrities Rosedale, by Va- 
lasco. Mr. Booth did not make a practice of 
showing his stock bulls, but Dixon says that 
"old Prince Alfred after making a perfect 
Ulysses of himself in the home farms of 
princes, emperors and baronets came out and 
was first in the bull class in the eleventh year 
of his age." 

One of the most valuable cows ever produced 
at Warlaby was Vivandiere's daughter Camp- 
follower, by Crown Prince. She was described 
as "a truly noble cow, with queenly gait." 
Moreover, she would have been a profitable 
cow in any working dairy. Indeed, she died at 
last from milk fever, after giving birth to the 
heifer Soldier's Nurse, that was presented by 
Richard Booth to his nephews at Killerby. In 
the hands of the latter the ** Nurse" produced 
Soldier's Dream and the thick, heavy-fleshed 




0; 






I'? 

— 8 

y. a. 






I 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 137 

bull Brigade Major, by Valasco. Campfollower 
probably contributed as much to the ultimate 
fame of Warlaby as any other member of the 
herd. Bred to Windsor (14013) she produced 
in 1859 the celebrated white show cow Soldier's 
Bride. As a yearling the latter grew into an 
astonishing specimen of early maturity, and 
later on became one of the most magnificent 
cows of her time, her grandly-arched ribs, 
beautiful bosom and great heart-girth marking 
her as one of the outstanding Short-horns of 
her day and generation. She traveled the cir- 
cuit for several years with her renowned stable 
companion Queen of the Ocean, had the honor 
of defeating that extraordinary cow upon sev- 
eral occasions, and in 1865 became thedam of 
the roan heifer Bride of the Vale, sold to Wal- 
cott & Campbell of New York for $5,000. In the 
spring of 1864 Campfollower dropped the roan 
bull Commander-in-Chief (21451), by Valasco 
(15443), in reference to which the venerable 
Mr. Wetherell said: "He is the best bull I 
have seen since the days of Comet." In the 
hands of Mr. T. C. Booth, who succeeded to the 
possession of Warlaby Herd, Commander-in- 
Chief acquired international fame. 

Death of Richard Booth. — On the 31st of 
October, 1864, "full of years and honors," Rich- 
ard Booth died at the age of seventy-six. 
Shortly before his death he had refused an 



138 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

offer of £15,000 for his herd, which, while at 
that time reduced to some thirty head, included, 
among other "future-great" individuals, Lady 
Blithe's sensational yearling heifer Lady Fra- 
grant and Campfollower's baby bull Com- 
mander-in-Chief — a pair destined to add, in 
other hands, fresh laurels to the house of 
Booth. The delightful "Boswell" of this re- 
markable family of Short-horn breeders (Wil- 
liam Carr) takes leave of Richard Booth, "the 
good old man," in the following characteristic 
language: 

** He sleeps in peace beneath the shade of the old grey tower 
of Ainderby, that looks down upon the scene of bis useful and 
quiet labors. But Warlaby is there still, and his kith and kin 
retain its hall and herd. And it may be added—for it is a circum- 
stance too well known to savor at all of flattery— that his nephew 
and successor, Mr. T. C. Booth, is no unworthy or unskillful heir, 
wttlle his amiable wife lends a new charm to the old place; and 
his rising family gives the promise of the continuance of the loog^ 
continued Warlaby herd for generations yet to come. '* 

The Booth method of breeding. — The Messrs. 
Booth always adhered to. the proposition that 
they secured their best results by interbreed- 
ing their own established tribes. At the same 
time they were aware of the fact that inbreed- 
ing the cattle in their possession was quite a 
different proposition from, and was probably 
attended by more dangers than, inbreeding as 
practiced by the Collings. In the latter case 
the cattle that were incestuously bred had no 
prior relationships. With the Booth stock as 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 139 

it existed at Warlaby inbreeding meant the 
mating of close affinities, as nearly all ran back 
originally to Hubback and Favorite through a 
hundred different channels. So we find them 
introducing at a comparatively early period the 
Mason blood of Matchem — to which Bates also 
resorted later — and Lord Stanley (4269), of the 
Earl of Carlisle's breeding. The oreeding of 
John Booth's Bracelet to Col. Cradock's Mus- 
sulman, and of Richard Booth's White Straw- 
berry to Lord Lieutenant, of Raine's blood, 
proved to be wise procedure. Neither Buck- 
ingham nor Leonard, the two bulls secured 
from those outside services, were extraordi- 
nary individuals. In fact the former was 
called "shabby." But when the fresh blood 
(50 per cent) carried by these bulls was re- 
duced to 25 per cent, as found in their prog- 
eny, the result, as must appear from the fore- 
going recital, was all that could be desired. 
Indeed, in the case of the matchless sire Crown 
Prince both of these fresh currents met in di- 
luted form. Lord Stanley, bred to Bracelet, 
gave John Booth's noted show cow Birthday. 
Two later attempts at outcrossing were 
made, one through the bull Exquisite (8048) 
and the other through Water King (11024), but 
both were considered at the time as having 
been unsuccessful. Nevertheless Isabella Buck- 
ingham's daughter Sample, by Exquisite, was 



140 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

bred to Crown Prince, and the product of that 
union — a heifer called Specimen — was (con- 
trary to Mr. Booth^s usual practice) bred back 
to her own sire (Crown Prince); the double 
cross of that bull upon the outcrossed cow pro- 
ducing the prize-winning Lady Grace, that was 
first at the Cleveland Show at Yarm in 1861. 
In her the true Booth type was completely re- 
gained, and her daughter Graceful was one of 
a pair of prize heifers at Worcester Royal. 
Carr states that both of these animals were of 
robust constitution, with abundance of hair. 
Exquisite was bought by Messrs. Booth and 
Torr at the Wiseton sale at thirteen months 
old for 370 guineas. He is said to have had 
plenty of substance and " a profusion of beau- 
tiful hair," and combined Mason's and Earl 
Spencer's blood. 

Water King was a roan, bred by Mr. Torr 
from Baron Warlaby (7813) out of the Bates 
Waterloo cow Water Witch by 4th Duke of 
Northumberland (3649). While Mr. Booth did 
not fancy his calves, yet one of his daughters — 
Peach Blossom — was good enough to go into 
the show herd in 1852, and won second to 
Bridesmaid at the Royal at Gloucester. A 
Water King heifer — Welcome, from Campfol- 
lower — was called "homely," but her daughter 
Welcome Hope, by Hopewell, was good. Old 
Cuddy said of her: "Aye, Hopewell has putten 



KILLERBY AND WARLABY. 141 

in some gude work when he gat that heifer. 
She wad make up a slashin' cow, though she 
have a touch o' Bates bluid in her; but then, 
ye ken, Hopewell wad raak' up a' deficiencies." 

The fecundity of the Booth cattle was un- 
favorably affected by high feeding for show. 
They had not beeii as intensely bred as the 
Bates Duchesses. The limited number of the 
latter produced during a period of nearly fifty 
years by Mr. Bates — as shown by the table 
printed on page 113— was unquestionably due 
to incestuous mating. The complete extinc- 
tion, in the female line, of some of the best 
Warlaby tribes — such as the Blossoms and 
Charities — was laid at the door of the exacting 
requirements of the Royal and other show- 
yards. 

We may conclude this reference to the work 
of John and Richard Booth by the following 
quotation from Saddle and Sirloin: 

'*A more remarkable contrast than these two celebrated broth- 
ers, both in form and temperament, is seldom met with in prac- 
tice. John, the eider, was, like 'Robert Ck>lling, perhaps the more 
original thinker of the two, but not the same steady worker. He 
was more the man of the world, fond of a gallop with the Bedale 
and always ripe and ready for a little fun ; while Richard was 
much more of the dignified recluse and thought 'no place like 
home.* John delighted to go off on judging expeditions, while 
Elichard never donned the ermine and only cared for a good lodg- 
ing or his * ease at mine inn ' during a great show, that he might 
see a few select standard-bearek^, who would share his winning 
pleasure or sympathize with him if he were beaten. John was an 
apt and ready speaker and never sat down without some quaint, 
racy sentiment which set the table in a roar; Richard merely rose 



142 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

and bowed to the Chairman and Vice in turn and let himaelf down 
again, with a simple word of thanks to the company. One was 
more off-handed and hardly valued his herd enough ; the other was 
the man of business who appraised it to a nicety." 

The Warlaby bulls were for years in such 
demand that it was with difficulty customers 
could be supplied. Ireland's Short-horn herds 
were fairly dominated by them, while in Eng- 
land such distinguished breeders as Lady Pigot, 
Messrs. Torr, Bruere, Outhwaite, Peel, Pawlett 
and others, by their intelligent manipulation of 
Booth blood, assisted materially in giving it 
that high renown which it has so long enjoyed. 









I 

2 

i 
8 





^K^v^ -^;'^! 


fa 



CHAPTER VI. 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 

The earlier volumes of the English Herd 
Book contain the narpes of many successful 
breeders, but the operations of most of them 
were more or less obscured by the brilliant 
achievements at Ketton, Barmpton, Killerby, 
Kirklevington and Warlaby. It ntust not be 
supposed, however, that all early knowledge of 
the art of Short-hom-breeding began and ended 
with the eminent breeders mentioned in the 
foregoing pages. The careers of these Napo- 
leons of the trade necessarily occupy our atten- 
tion somewhat to the disadvantage of other 
worthy workers in the cause of improvement, 
but no survey of the foundation Upon which 
our American Short-horn-breeding rests would 
be complete without some reference at this 
point to a few other herds that existed prior to, 
or contemporaneous with, the period when our 
leading pioneer buyers entered the English 
market. 

Mason of Chilton.— About midway between, 
the cities of Durham and Darlington Mr. Chris- 

(148). 



144 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

topher Mason of Chilton established a herd from 
which Kirklevington, Killerby, Warlaby, Ury, 
Sittyton and various American herds derived 
undonbted elements of strength — various de- 
tractors to the contrary notwithstanding. Mr. 
Wetherell always insisted that "Mason got rid 
of the open shoulders and improved the fore 
quarters generally.*' The foundation of the 
herd was drawn largely from the stock of Mr. 
Maynard of Eryholme, One section of it de- 
scended 'through Miss Lax, by Dalton Duke 
(188), a daughter of "the beautiful Lady May- 
nard," bought by Charles Colling, as detailed in 
a preceding chapter. From this cow and her 
white heifer, Lily by Favorite (252), descended 
the great family of Victorias afterward so pop- 
ular on both sides the Atlantic. From Lily's 
family also came Earl Spencer's Hecatomb 
(2102), that defeated Mr. Bates' renowned Duke 
of Northumberland (1940) at York in 1838. 
From Lily also descended Great Mogul (14661), 
first-prize bull calf at Salisbury Royal; like- 
wise Exquisite (8048), for which Messrs. Booth 
and Torr paid $1,850 as a yearling; and also 
the Royal prize-winning roan Bolivar (25649), 
sold to Mr. Brierley. 

Another section of the Chilton herd de- 
scended from the cow^ Fortune, bred by Charles 
Colling, and running through Bolingbroke (86), 
Foljambe (263) and Hubback (319) to ^. cow 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 145 

bred by Mr. Maynard. She proved very pro- 
lific, giving Mr. Mason ten calves (of which six 
were bulls) between 1796 and 1807. America 
is indebted to Fortune, as foundation dam, 
for the Woodburn Miss Wileys and the fa- 
mous Bedford and Warfield Loudon Duch- 
esses. Also for the Baroness family, ten of 
which sold at E. G. Bedford's sale in 1874 for 
an average of |600 each. Our Lady Chester- 
fords claim a similar origin; and of this tribe 
was Dodona, a noted English cow that, after 
having been sold to Earl Spencer as barren, 
in the skillful hands of Mr. Jonas Webb had 
190 descendants within a period of twenty-five 
years. Matchem (2281), sire of the Matchem 
cow that gave Mr. Bates his Oxford tribe, was 
bred by Mason from a Fortune foundation. 
The Matchem blood also went into the Booth 
herds. Usurer (9763), used by Lord Ducie upon 
the Bates Duchesses, came from Cassandra, 
daughter of Mr. Mason's No. 25; and of simi- 
lar extraction was the cow Goodness— ances- 
tress of the American family of that name — 
that sold at auction in Kentucky for |2,025. 

Mr. Mason made a memorable closing-out 
sale in 1829, which was largely attended by 
leading breeders, Earl Spencer being one of the 
heaviest buyers. At this sale the highest- 
priced lot was the three-year-old roan heifer 
Lady Sarah, by Satellite (1420). purchased by 



146 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Capt. Barclay of Ury, along with several othei 
females, and taken to Scotland. Her dam was 
the famous Portia. At Ury Lady Sarah was 
bred back to her own son, Monarch (4495), the 
produce being the great breeding bull Mahomed, 
(6170), sire of The Pacha (7612) and other ani- 
mals from whence many of Scotland's greatest 
cattle have descended. From this same Mason 
sale also came Mary Ann (by Sillery), ances- 
tress of a noted Scottish family. From Mr. 
Holmes' purchases at this sale (taken to Ire- 
land) Mr. Amos Cruickshank afterward ob- 
tained the foundation dam of the Sittyton Vic- 
torias; and last, but by no means least, we may 
pass some credit to Mason of Chilton for the 
ancestral dam of the now-celebrated Cruick- 
shank bull-breeding Clipper tribe. 

Lord Althorpe (Earl Spencer). — The nobility 
displayed interest in the breed in the early 
days as now. One of the first to engage in the 
business was Lord Althorpe, afterwards Earl 
Spencer, of Wiseton, near Doncaster. He was 
prominent in politics for many years and on 
that account unable to devote as much atten- 
tion to the work as tenant farmers could give to 
it, but he nevertheless managed to inform him- 
self thoroughly and finally accumulated proba- 
bly the largest herd of the day in England.* 

• Earl Spencer was at one time Chancellor of the Exchequer. SUU he 
had a much greater passion for Short-horns than for politics. John Grey of 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 147 

Bates early acquired an influence over him, as- 
sisted him in some of his selections of breeding 
stock, was frequently his guest at Wiseton, and 
let for his use one or two of the earlier Duchess 
bulls, but subsequently their relations became 
strained, owing, it is said, to His Lordship's 
endeavoring to hire away from Bates Robert 
Bell, whom he desired to put in charge of the 
Wiseton Short-horns. 

At Robert Colling's sale Lord Althorpe pur- 
chased the five-year-old cow Nonpareil at 370 
guineas, the four-year-old Rosette at 300 guin- 
eas, the three-year-old bull Regent (544) — all 
by Wellington — at 145 guineas, and Diana, by 
Favorite, at 78 guineas. Mr. Bates warned him 
that in his judgment these were not of desira- 
ble breeding on account of the large infusion 
of the blood of Ben (70). He also advanced the 
superior claims of his Duchesses, and induced 
Althorpe to send the high-priced Rosette to be 
bred to Duke (226), after which the Duke bull 
His Grace (311) was hired from Bates. At the 
Mason sale His Lordship bought sixteen fe- 
males and a bull, paying up to 145 guineas. 

Dllsion, a man who attained high honor in connection with North-Oountnr 
aiirrlcuUure, usually called on His Lordship at the Government offices when 
In London. *' You've eonu about cow», Hr,'* observed the attendant, "to yeHl no' 
tew long to imiM.** 

In his younger days Grey was a schoolmate of John and Bichaul Booth 
at Richmond. He was a great lover of cattle and was wont to spend liis 
vacations with the Colllngs, Charge and Haynard. Dr. Tate once asked 
him what he fotmd to talk about durlnir those visits, to which the youth 
reiaied in due classic phrase: **Comet et id genw omn€,"'-SaddU and airloin. 



148 A HI8T0BT OF 8H0RT-H0RN CATTLE. 

The Earl was more or less of a speculator in 
cattle, but was credited with having done much 
toward making Short-horns *' fashionable " 
among the great landed proprietors. He is 
said to have been the first to command an ex- 
tensive bull ti^de, and has been called a "cow 
jobber." His herd was of mixed origin and 
composition, and it is said was crossed in-and- 
in, in imitation of the Collings, until constitu- 
tion viras sacrificed. This fault seems to have 
been corrected, however, for at the time of 
Earl Spencer's death in the ** forties" the herd 
numbered about 150 head, and his legatee, a 
Mr. Hall, soon aftei-ward disposed of them at 
public sale at high prices, one bull bringing 400 
guineas, another 370 guineas, and some of the 
cows 200 guineas each. 

Jonas Whitaker. — Near the great manufac- 
turing city of Leeds, in Southwestern York- 
shire, Mr. Jonas Whitaker, a Quaker cotton- 
spin ner, built up at Otley one of the largest 
and best herds of its time; a herd in which 
some of the greatest of the old-time bulls were 
used, and fi'om which our early importers 
drew some of their most valuable material. 
Whitaker had more cattle recorded in the first 
three volumes of cows in Coates* Herd Book 
than any breeder in England, Earl Spencer not 
excepted. In fact it was due to his personal 
efforts that Coates was enabled to issue the 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 149 

first volume of the herd book at Otley in 
1822. He was proud of the dairy capacity 
of his stocky P&ying as much attention to the 
udder as to any other point in the conforma- 
tion of his cows and heifers. Among his most 
celebrated bulls were Frederick (1060) and his 
sons Bertram (1716) and Fairfax (1023). Fred- 
erick was intensely bred in the blood of Favor- 
ite and Comet Mr. Bates' Enchanter (244), 
Ketton 3d (349) and 2d Hubback (1423) were 
also in service. From Mason he had His High- 
ness (2125); from Col. Trotter's came Plato 
(505) and from Robert Colling's Harold (291). 
Sir Charles Tempest's Dan O'Connell (3557) 
also appears in the Whitaker pedigrees. 

Wheu the agents of the Ohio Importing Co. 
visited England in 1834 they were much im* 
pressed by the excellence of Mr. Whitaker's 
herd and bought some of their best cattle from 
him, including the cow Josephine, by Norfolk, 
and bull Duke of York (1941), by Frederick. 
From this herd also came George Renick's 
Prince Charles (2461), by Norfolk. The Renicks 
used Whitaker blood freely in the Rose of 
Sharons. Mr. Rotch and Col. Powell — Ameri- 
can importers of a still earlier date — had also 
bought of Whitaker, as will be detailed further 
on. 

Whitaker drew his foundation stock from 
the best of the old-established herds, and had 



150 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

such sound old blood as that of Charles Col- 
ling's Old Daisy and Magdalena; Robert Col- 
ling's Bright Eyes and Golden Pippin; Mason's 
Portia; Maj. Rudd's Daisys; Mr. Chargers Pret- 
ty maid and Venus; John Booth's Moss Roses 
and Bracelets; Wetherell's Rosanne, a Red 
Rose through the American Cow's line; Col. 
Trotter's Georgiana, the Feldom tribe, from 
whence came the celebrated progeny of Fair 
Frances; Miss Fairfax, dam of the Bristol Royal 
winner Sir Thomas Fairfax; the prolific Moss 
Rose, and Nonpareil, the dam of the great bull 
Norfolk (2377), sold to Mr. Fawkes and resorted 
to by Thomas Bates. In fact Bates bought 
Nonpareil at Mr. Whitaker's dispersion sale of 
1833 for 102 guineas, besides breeding some of 
his best cows to her son. 

Wetherell, the "Nestor" of the trade.— As 
a mere lad Wetherell listened to the lively 
bidding under the lime trees at Ketton in 1810, 
and like many others had an enthusiasm for 
the "red, white and roan " kindled in his breast 
that day which lasted throughout a long 
and useful life. At the Barmpton sale eight 
yeai-s later he bought Lady Anne at 100 guin- 
eas and Cleopatra at 133 guineas, and before 
night had them lodged at Holm House, where 
he proceeded to build up his first herd. Here 
was bred the famous Rosanna and the bulls 
Magnet (2240) and St. Le.eer (1414), the latter 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 151 

sold to Mr. Rennie for 250 guineas. The herd 
was closed out in 1828 and another founded 
near Durham by the purchase at strong prices 
of good. cattle from contemporary breeders. 
H(B gave 250 guineas for Emperor (1839) and 
100 guineas for his dam Blossom at Mr. Hut- 
ton's sale. Emperor was shown at the New- 
castle Royal in 1846 and won over a field of 
twenty-four competitors. He had in this herd 
also the celebrated Barmpton Rose, and after 
breeding Princess Royal from her she was sold to 
Henry Watson. She was carrying at that time 
Buttercup, that became the dam of Butterfly, 
which when crossed with Frederick produced at 
Towneley the never-beaten $6,000 Master But- 
terfly. It was from Mr. Wetherell's third herd 
at Kirkbridge that Eastwood got Blanche 5th 
by Duke of Northumberland and Roan Duchess. 
From these came Towneley's great Roan Duch- 
ess 2d and the show heifer Blanche 6th. An 
outbreak of pleuro-pneumonia nearly destroyed 
the Kirkbridge Herd and the farm had to be 
given up, but nothing daunted a fourth herd 
was established at Aldboro. Here he had in 
charge of his devoted herdsman, John Ward, 
such good ones as the roan Moss Rose, that 
stood next to Warlaby's Nectarine Blossom in 
many a hard-fought battle; the beautiful Stan- 
ley Rose "with her gay little head and Bride 
Elect bosom"; the stately broad-backed Lady 



152 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Scarboro and the fine bull Statesman, measur- 
ing twenty-six inches from "hooks " to tail. At 
Aldboro tiie roan Rosette was also bred (1856) 
and sold to Mr. Eastwood, who declared her the 
"best calf" he ever saw and afterward "the 
sweetest cow." She was winner of many Royal 
and other prizes and challenge cups. This herd 
was at length dispersed at a memorable auction 
sale which was well attended, and averaged 
about seventy-three guineas for forty-eight lots. 
Stanley Rose topped the sale amid great cheer- 
ing at 300 guineas from Lady Pigot. 

In the course of his long and active connec- 
tion with the trade Mr. Wetherell acquired a 
great fund of "cattle lore," and he was never 
happier than when in the company of kindred 
spirits with whom he could hold discourse on 
the "red, white and roan." That delightful 
"gossip" of days "lang syne," the late H. H. 
Dixon, who under the nom de plunte of " The 
Druid" has fairly thrown a glamour of romance 
about the lives and characters of the leading 
British breeders and sportsmen of the^olden 
times, writing of Wetherell, his home and his 
friends, says: 

'''Nestor's' little home at Aldborough has many a herd me- 
mento on its walls. There is the cow bred by Mr. Thomas Booth 
which he sold at two years old to Mr. Carter of Theakstone and 
then bought back at beef price and put to Comus (1861). She had 
three heifers, and Mr. Rennie Sr. of Phantassie bid him 600 guin- 
eas for them and ended by buying the oldest out of the pasture 
for 260 guineas. The second went to Mr. Whitaker. Three roans 



OTHBIR EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 153 

are there from Herring's hand and painted in Memnon's year, 
when he was a struggling coachman-artist in Spring Gardens, 
Doncaster. .. Comet (156) is said to he the only one by Weaver in 
existence. Mr. Wetherell always thought Comet too long, hut 
still a more elegant hull than Duke of Northnmherland, who had 
also to struggle against rather upright shoulders. Comet's kith 
and kin are there in St. John and Gaudy, by Favorite, bred by 
Mason, who always loved good hair. 

"^Bid me discourse' is an invitation Mr. Wetherell never 
shrank from; and, with the brothers Colling, Mr. Thomas Booth' 
Sir Tatton Sykes, Capt. Barclay and Mr. Wiley on his walls, it 
would be strange If he did not sit by the hour in his easy chair 
and tell of old times and Short-horn doings when they were all in 
the flesh. At times the gig comes for the Chief Baron to go over 
and spend a few days at Killerby and Warlaby. He presides 
there in great state at those ' high-private trials ' of Short-horns 
under the trees in the home garth and cites the Charity prece- 
dents. Mr. John Outhwaite frequently assists, and, adopting a 
mode of practice quite unknown to the Westminster law courts, 
that learned Baron generally backs his opinion from the bench for 
one, if not two, new hats. 

*' ' Great constitution ' is Mr. Wethereirs leading; tenet, but 
' great size ' never was ; and if he does illustrate it he goes to Col. 
Cradock, who gloried in it, and whose *' Magnum Bonum vxu like the 
Grtttt EcuAemy He always considers that E^arl Spencer began the 
bull trade and made Short-horns, so to speak, fashionable with 
the landlords. It was the thing to go to Wiseton— more especially 
about the St. Leger time— and if visitors liked a cow they bar- 
gained to give £50 for the produce. The Earl crossed in till he 
sacrlfloed constitution— they had thin fore quarters and no breasts 
—and it tras then that Mason, a very clever, first-rate judge, a 
hater of ' fooPs fat ' and open shoulders, and most decided about 
fore quarters and a good neck vein, came to the £!arrs aid. Whit- 
aker was a great keeper, and all for the milk-bag, and Bates' mel- 
low, light-fleshed sort grew less and less robust— they would get 
fat, but they would not swell and thicken like the Booths, which 
will stand any amount of high pressure. Such is a mere fragment 
of his confession of Short -horn faith." 

From Wetherell's herd came some of the 
best of the early American importations into 
New England. 

Wiley of Brandsby.— Samuel Wiley resided 



1D4 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN OATTLK. 

in the East Riding of Yorkshire; "his long, 
low-pitched house, with the dark-green Cotoni- 
astus creeping over it and peeping with its red 
flowrets in at every lattice,*' being "quite the 
realization of a snug Yorkshire home." He 
was a great lover of Leicester sheep and Short- 
horns, and in 1814 began cattle-breeding by 
hiring from Wright of Cleasby a son of the 
$5,000 Comet. Adonis, another Comet bull, 
did him much good service, and was followed 
by an own brother, Jupiter (343), the succession 
being maintained by North Star (459) and Har- 
old (291), which were returned to Robert Col- 
ling before the Barmpton sale of 1818. At that 
event he bought the ten-year-old bull Midas 
(435), after a bit of warm work with Sir Wil- 
liam Coolie, at 270 guineas. From Midas he 
bred his great Grazier (1085), that was used by 
Sir John Johnstone, Lord Feversham, Smith of 
West Rasen and others until fourteen years of 
age. One of his best sons was Ganthorpe (2049), 
bred at Castle Howard. Whitaker blood was 
introduced by Mr. Wiley through His Highness 
(2125), an own brother to the 210-guinea High- 
flyer at the Mason sale. Sultan (1485), a de- 
scendant of Gen. Sirason's 300-guinea purchase, 
Mary, at C. Ceiling's sale, was also used after 
having proved his worth by siring in Northum- 
berland a class of cattle that the border breed- 
ers for many years fondly styled "the good old 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 155 

Jobson sort." Sultan got during his one year's 
service at Brandsby the cow Sultana, from 
which to the cover of Belshazzar, that had been 
hired from Castle Howard, was bred the famous 
bull Carcase (3285), that as a yearling stood 
second to Hecatomb at York in 1838 in the bull 
championship class, defeating Mr. Bates' Duke 
of Northumberland, and was soon afterward 
sold for 200 guineas. 

Another prize bull of Wiley's breeding was 
Van Dunck (10992), champion at the Yorkshire, 
first-prize two-year-old at the Highland, and 
after being placed second in the bull champion- 
ship at same show to Maynard's Crusade sold 
for 125 guineas to an Aberdeenshire man. The 
Wiley cattle were not much shown for a num- 
ber of years after these victories, but prizes 
were not infrequently won on Brandsby bul- 
locks at York Fat-Stock Shows. As late as 1869 
Mr. Wiley reappeared with show cattle at the 
Royal at Manchester, where he won first in a 
ring of two dozen bulls with Earl of Derby, and 
at the Yorkshire the same bull was second to 
Warlaby's great Commander-in-Chief. 

The Knightley " Fillpails/'— Sir Charles 
Knightley of Fawsley Park, Daventry, after giv- 
ing up hounds, about 1818, founded a herd in 
the Midlands that acquired a celebrity for its 
output of milk, cream, butter and beef even 
more famous than that attained by Whitaker. 



156 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Indeed, the '*Fawsley Fillpails," with tl^eir 
"beautiful fore quarters, gay carriage, general 
elegance and strong family likeness," were long 
recognized on both sides of the Atlantic as 
constituting a type within the breed almost as 
distinct as those to which Bates and the Booths 
gave their names. A marked uniformity was 
attained by the interbreeding of several differ- 
ent tribes. The Rosys sprang from a cow of 
that name, bred by Mr. Barker of Richmond; 
the Rubys were obtained from a cow of Hon. 
C. Arbuthnot's breeding; the Primroses came 
from the old Charge stock; the Quickleys from 
a cow called Valuable, bought from Maj. Bower, 
and the Walnuts from a Booth foundation. 
After a dash of Booth — through the bulls Argus 
(759) and Swing (2721) — and a cross from Rob- 
ertson, of Ladykirk through Caliph (1774), the 
process of crossing the descendants of these 
foundation dams was begun ; among the Faws- 
ley-bred sires used in this concentration being 
the noted Ruby bulls Grey Friar (9172) and 
Little John (4232). A new element came in 
through the Arl)uthnot cow Sylph (ancestress 
of the celebrated Charmer and Sweetheart 
families), bought especially to breed a bull 
from. To a service by Little John she pro- 
duced Fawsley (6004), a sire that was exten- 
sively used. Tiio successful inbreeding of these 
stiuins was followed by a well-considered cross 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 157 

of Princess blood through the noted Earl of 
Dublin (10178), a white bull bred by J. Ste- 
phenson of Wolviston, tracing to Angelina by 
Phenomenon, the mother of the dam of Belve- 
dere (1706). John Thornton says: "Sir Charles 
took a great fancy to the Earl of Dublin, but 
the only opinion that could be obtained from 
him was that *any bull was big enough if he 
were good enough.' " 

At a memorable sale held at Fawsley in 1856 
the celebrated white cow Cold Cream, by Earl 
of Dublin, was bought for the Royal herd at 
Windsor at 100 guineas, a great price for the 
times. A granddaughter of this fine dairy cow, 
Lady Knightley 2d, was first-prize winner at 
the Royal as a yearling, and was sold for 500 
guineas to Walcott & Campbell of New York 
Mills, at whose sale she brought $3,100 and her 
two daughters $5,000 and $4,000 respectively. 
Bosquet, a bull whose name is often met with 
in North Country pedigrees, bought by Hay of 
Shethin at the Fawsley sale of 1856 for 200 
guineas, was of this same branch (Furbelow) of 
the Quickley tribe. At this same great sale 
Mr. Thorne of New York bought four Rosys at 
an average of about $590 each. The Knight- 
leys seemed to nick particularly well with 
Bates-bred sires in the hands of certain leading 
English breeders, and were for many years 
classed among the best Short-horns of their 
time. 



158 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Fawkes of Famley Hall.— "The vale of the 
Wharfe is adorned with elegant mansions, and 
the views obtained from the neighboring eleva- 
tions are at once noble and inspiring." So runs 
a paragraph in an old Yorkshire chronicle. It 
was here that Whitaker had his cattle, and 
hard by the little market town of Otley was 
established also the fine old herd of Mr. F. H. 
Fawkes of Farnley Hall. Whitaker's Norfolk 
(2377), the grand roan bull for which the Ohio 
Co. offered $2,000 in vain, was the first bull 
purchase, and in 1834 Verbena and Medora' 
were bought at Richard Booth's Studley sale. 
They were only "babies" at the time, but Me- 
dora developed into a noble cow and produced 
nine calves. It seems that after Whiteker dis- 
posed of his herd in 1833 he bought some three 
dozen well-bred Short-horn cows for the use of 
the help at the Burley Mills. Mr. Fawkes was 
so favorably impressed with this useful set of 
cows that he arranged to have a number of 
them — to be chosen by himself — bred to Nor- 
folk. He was to pay ten guineas for each calf 
at a week old, provided it "did not have a black 
nose and had no symptoms of unsoundness." 
Some sixty head were thus transferred to Faws- 
ley, and the first ten bull calves by Norfolk av- 
eraged 100 guineas each. One of these was out 
of a half-sister to the cow Young Phyllis, an- 
cestress of the American family of that name. 



OTHER EMINENT ENOLISH BREEDERS. 159 

and grew up to fame under the title Sir Thomas 
Fairfax (5196), a Royal and Yorkshire winner. 
He was sold at four years to B. Wilson of Bra- 
with for 250 guineas. These Whitaker cows 
and others, mainly of Booth, Buccleuch and 
Brawith breeding, constituted a herd that sup- 
plied many prize bulls and heifers at the Eng- 
lish shows, among them being the white Lord 
Marquis (10459), by the 200-guinea bull Lauda- 
ble (9282). The dam of the Marquis was out 
of Zuleika, a daughter of Norfolk's, out of the 
Booth-bred Medora. 

John Thornton tells us that the herd was 
made up largely of " full roans," and that U was 
the atcner^s practice to use light-colored bulls on 
dark-colored cows as being more productive of 
^ood colors. Mr. Fawkes took a keen delight iu 
his cattle, and loved. to entertain appreciative 
visitors not only with the roans in his pastures 
but among the wondrous "Turners" that hung 
in the picture gallery at "the Hall." 

William Torr. — One of the most remarkable 
characters of his time was Toit of Riby and 
Aylesby, Lincolnshire. A contemporary of John 
and Richard Booth and Thomas Bates; a man 
of indomitable energy and extraordinary re- 
sources, holding thousands of acres under 
lease, he acquired fame as a successful tenant 
farmer second to none in English history. Lei- 
cester sheep and Short-horns were his favorite 



160 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

* rent-payers." The latter he bred along inde- 
pendent lines for some twenty years, but in 
1844 he took the oath of allegiance to the house 
of Booth, beginning with two years' service 
from the white Lord Lieutenant- White Straw- 
berry bull Leonard (4210). Vanguard (10094), 
by Buckingham out of Young Isabella, came 
for six years and left a grand set of cows, pos- 
sessing great scale, deep flesh and rare coats. 
He was exchanged for one year for Crown 
Prince, and left altogether some 200 calves. 
Baron Warlaby (7813) — by Buckingham — Hope- 
well, British Prince, Fitzclarence, Royal Bride- 
groom, Prince of Warlaby, Leonidas, Monk, 
Lord Blithe and Mountain Chief were all hired 
from Richard Booth, and from Barnes of Ire- 
land came Dr. McHale and The Druid. From^ 
his own Booth-bred stock were derived such 
sires as Booth Royal, Breastplate, Killer by 
Monk and Blinkhoolie. 

Torr's herd became in its latter days one of 
the most celebrated in England, and its disper- 
sion was marked by most extraordinary prices. 
As this did not occur, however, until 1875 we 
will reserve further details for a subsequent 
chapter. 

The long roll of honor. — To undertake in- 
dividual comment upon the work of all who 
are specially deserving by reason of their suc- 
cess in breeding, from the days of the Ceilings 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 161 

down to the great rise of the Bates and Booth 
power, is indeed a hopeless task. The records 
of Coates' Herd Book and of the English sale- 
rings and show-yards abound in evidence of the 
fact that hundreds of strong, sturdy characters 
in various parts of the United Kingdom were en- 
gaged in the upbuilding of the breed. We can- 
not indeed begin to mention in this connection 
even the names of all who have earned the 
gratitude of posterity for their intelligent de- 
votion to the work of Short-horn improvement. 
We have oixly given place in this chapter to the 
foregoing personal references by way of em- 
phasizing the fact that the breed did not lack 
intelligent champions outside of the recognized 
leaders in the work. Those named were per- 
haps not more worthy than many of their con- 
temporaries, but to particularize further would 
burden our work too heavily with foundation 
faults. 

We would feign dwell here upon what was 
done by such men as the Jobsons, Charge of 
Darlington, Lawson of Stapleton, Cattley of 
Brandsby, Col. Cradock, R. Thornton, Messrs. 
Crofton, George Coates, the Wrights of Cleasby, 
Sir C. R. Tempest, Champion of Blyth, Unthank 
of Penrith, Smith of West Rasen, A. L. and J- 
C. Majmard, Maj. Bower, Hon. J. Simpson, Col. 
Trotter, W. F. Paley, Rev. H. Berry, Lax of 

Ravensworth, Maj. Rudd, Raine, B. Wilson of 
u 



162 A HISTORY OF 6HOBT-H0RN OATTLB. 

Brawith, Wilkinson of Lenton, Capt. Barclay of 
XJry, Amos Cruickshank, Rennie of Phantassie, 
Robertson of Ladykirk, Grant Duff of Eden, and 
point out the distinguished service rendered to 
the breed in its earlier years by such noblemen as 
the Earl of Carlisle of Castle Howard, Yorkshire; 
the Marquis of Exeter, Stamford; the Dukes 
of Leeds and of Buccleuch, Earl Brownlow and 
other great landed proprietors. We are tempted 
here also to go into the operations of Earl Du- 
cie of Tortworth, Bowly of Siddington, Bruere 
of Braithwaite, Peel of Knowlmere, Col. Towne- 
ley and others who carried the colors of the 
reds, whites and roans to such great heights at 
a little later period, but we have now reached 
the point where, we must begin our account of 
the breed in the New World, 'in the course of 
which we shall have occasion to revert not only 
to some of these but to the herds of Scotland. 

The visitor in Britain will find many memo- 
rials of Wellington and Nelson. The heroes 
of Waterloo and Trafalgar England has indeed 
not forgotten. Her parks and public places 
are decorated by captured cannon. Deep down 
in their hearts, however, the English people 
have an equal pride in what has been accom- 
plished in their pastures and paddocks. The 
paths of peace have indeed yielded to them 
*' victories no less renowned than those of war/' 
The wealth, the brains, the persistence of the 



OTHER EMINENT ENGLISH BREEDERS. 163 

British nation have joined with Nature in de- 
veloping an agriculture that has proved fruit- 
ful beyond compare in the production of im- 
proved varieties of fiesh-bearing animals. No 
National memorial is needed to commemorate 
the triumphs of men like those whose names 
have been enumerated in this and preceding 
chapters. They have won their way into the 
memories and affectionate regard of the Anglo- 
Saxon world in a manner at once peaceful, 
practical and patriotic. Every man, woman or 
child who sets tooth in savory sirloin or rich 
roast **rib of beef" pays involuntary tribute to 
the genius of those who led the early line of 
progress in cattle-breeding in the historic con- 
fines of York and Durham. 



CHAPTER VII. 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 

From the green pastures of Old England to 
the Western shores of the stormy North At- 
lantic was indeed "a far cry" to those enter- 
prising pioneers wIjq first conceived the idea of 
transplanting Short-horns from these ancestral 
herds to the virgin soil of the United States, 
Ocean cables and fast "liners " were not at their 
command. Three thousand miles of watery 
waste had to be traversed by vessels sailing at 
the mercy of iEolus, and the god of the winds 
was not always in a propitious mood. How- 
ever, this did not operate as a bar upon the 
aspirations of those who, knowing the merit 
of the newly-established Short-horn breed, de- 
termined to introduce the blood in the seaboard 
States. Unfortunately we have no verified rec- 
ords as to earliest shipments. 

Virginia in the Van. — The Republic is in- 
'debted to the Old Dominion for the primal im- 
portation of Short-horn cattle. No sooner had 
the war of the Revolution reached a trium- 
phant termination under the masterly guidance 
of the great Virginian than the work of pro- 

(164) 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMBRICA. 165 

viding the ways and means for a jnore diversi- 
fied system of agriculture was taken up by the 
farmers and planters of that section. Some- 
thing more than tobacco was wanted. The 
historic "valley" was really well adapted to 
the requirements of live-stock husbandry. As 
nearly as can be ascertained at this late day it 
was in 1783 that the first improved cattle were 
purchased in England for Virginia. A Mr. Mil- 
ler of that State, in connection with Mr. Gough 
of Baltimore, must be given credit for the ini- 
tial shipment. As to the number purchased no 
record has been preserved. As to their charac- 
ter we only know that they represented two 
distinct types — one known locally as the milk 
breed and the other as the beef breed. 

Cliaracter of the Gough & Miller cattle. — 
The "milk breed" was described as having short 
horns and heavy and compact carcasses, the 
cows displaying marked dairy propensities. In 
color they were red, red-and-white and roan — 
proof positive that they were of Short-horn 
origin. The stock of the "beef breed" were 
longer-horned and "rangier" in conformation. 
They lacked the smooth, even lines of the so- 
called "milk breed" and were slower in com- 
ing to maturity. They attained large size and 
made heavy carcasses of beef when fully grown 
and finished. It seems equally certain, there- 
fore, that they represented one of the older 



166 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

types of the breed, probably the sort bred in 
the Holdemess district of Yorkshire. This im- 
portation, it will be noted, antedates the Col- 
ling improvement. About two years later, or 
somewhere between 1790 and 1795, one or both 
of these same pioneer importers made a further 
shipment of cattle of similar types from Eng- 
land. That good use was made of. this blood 
in the valley of the South branch of the Poto- 
mac and adjacent territory cannot be doubted. 
Then, as now, the ** first families" of the Do- 
minion were proud of their country estates, 
possessing the real English fondness for rural 
pursuits and the finer types of domestic ani- 
mals. 

Kentucky and the Fatton stock.— The mak- 
ing of the Ohio Valley States soon followed. 
Over the wall of the Alleghenies, lured by the 
golden promise of the fair and fruitful lands 
beyond the Blue Kidge, the Virginians entered 
into the priceless heritage of the blue-grass 
regions of Ohio and Kentucky. The former 
grazing-grounds of the bison were dedicated to 
lowing herds, showing in many instances traces 
of the magic touch of roan. In the first intro- 
duction of the Gough & Miller blood into 
Central Kentucky we find, therefore, the germ 
of the gigantic American cattle trade of .the 
present day. The conjunction of Short-horn 
blood with the rich grains and grasses of the 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 167 

Ohio Valley called into being an industry that 
has not yet received its full credit in connec- 
tion with "the winning of the West." Lewis 
F. Allen tells the story of how the Pattons laid 
the foundation for nearly all that follows in 
this volume relating to the extension of Short- 
horH blood throughout the great agricultui-al 
States in the following language: 

**Two years after the first importation, in the year 1786, two sons 
and a son-in-law (Mr. Gay) of Mr. Matthew Patton, then a resi- 
dent of Virginia, took into Clark Co., Ky., one of its fine blue- 
grass localities, a young bull and several heifers, half blooded (and 
they could only have been calves or less than yearlings), of their 
then-called * Ehiglish ' cattle. These animals were said to have 
been purchased of Mr. Gough. It is not necessary to further note 
these animals, as they were but grades, only to show the spirit of 
enterprise among some of the sarly cattle-breeders of the State 
in obtaining better stock than Kentucky then afforded for their 
improvement. 

** In 1790 the elder Mr. Patton removed from Virginia to Clark 
County, in Kentucky, and took with him a bull and cow directly 
descended from the Gough & Miller importation of the * milk ' 
breed, also some half-blooded cows of both the *milk' and 'beef 
breeds. The *beef' breed were * long-haired, large, coarse, 
slowly coming to maturity and fattening badly until fully grown, 
yet tolerable milkers.' The 'milk' breed (of which the bull 
and cow first named were of pure descent) were short-homed, 
coming early to maturity and fattening kindly. Their milking 
qualities were extraordinary. It was not at all uncommon for 
cows of this breed to give thirty-two quarts of mUk daily. The 
Short-horn bull, red in color, with white face, rather heavy horns 
yet smooth and round in form, was called Mars. He is recorded 
by number 1850, American Herd Book. The cow was called Venus, 
white in color, with red ears, small short horns turning down. She 
bred two bull calves to Mars and soon afterward died. Mars got 
many calves on the native cows In Kentucky, which were said by 
the old breeders to be both excellent milkers and good fattening 
animals. Mars remained with Mr. Patton until the death of the 
latter, in 1803, when the bull was sold to a Mr. Peeples, in Mont- 
gomery Co., Ky ., in whose possession he died in 1806. Of the two 



168 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

bulls deeoeaded from Mars and Venus one was taken to Jessamine 
Co., Ky., the other to Ohio, probably the Scioto Valley; but as all 
this breed or breeds, in their various intermixtures after their 
introduction in Kentucky, were called *Patton stock,' they became 
commingled, the shorter-homed and refined ones with the longer- < 
horned and coarser ones, and were, for many years afterward, 
universally known by uhat name only. 

"In the year 1808 Mr. Daniel Harrison, James Patton and 
James Gay, of Clark Co., Ky., bought of Mr. Miller, the importer, 
living in Virginia, a two-year-old bull, descended from a bull and 
cow of his importation. This bull was called Pluto (825 A. H. B.) 
and said to be of the * milk ' breed. He is described as * dark-roan 
or red in c3lor, large in size, with small head and neck, light, 
short horns, small-boned and heavily fleshed.' He was bred 
mostly to * Patton' cows and produced some fine milkers. He was 
taken to Ohio about the year 1812 and died soon afterward. 

" In the year 1810 Capt. William Smith of Fayette Co., Ky., pur- 
chased of the before-mentioned Mr. Miller of Virginia and brought 
to Kentucky a bull called Buzzard 804 (3264). He was coarser, 
larger, and taller than Pluto, but not so heavy. He was bred in 
different herds many years, and also used by the Society of Shak- 
ers at Pleasant Hill, Mercer Co., Ky., in 1821 and for some years 
afterward. 

''In the year 1811 the buU Shaker (2198 A. H. B.) was bought 
of Mr. Miller aforesaid, and used some years both by the Pleasant 
Hill, Ky., and Union Village, O., Societies of Shakers. They 
afterward sold him to Messrs. Welton and Hutchcraft of Ken- 
tucky. He was of the ' milk,' or Short-horn breed. This account 
we have from Messrs. Micajah Burnett of the Pleasant Hill and 
Peter Boyd of the Union Village Societies, and although they each 
differ in some non-essential items the identity of the bull is fully 
recognized. These four bulls, viz., Mars, Pluto, Buzzard and 
Shaker, appear to have been purely bred from the Gough Sl Mil- 
ler importations previous to the year 1810. From these bulls, but 
not on equaUy pure^meA cows of those importations, descended many 
animals whose pedigrees have been recognized and recorded as 
Short-horns in the earlier volumes of the English Herd Book, and 
of coDsequence since in the American Herd Book, as the latter is 
founded on the English publication as standard authority in all 
matters of Short-horn genealogy. 

"During the years above mentioned several other bulls from 
the Gough & Miller Virginia stock were brought into Kentucky 
and Ohio— some with names and some without names other than 
those of their owners^as ' Inskip's Bull,' ' Peeples* BuU ' (Mars^ 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 169 

probably,), * Witherspoon^s Bull,' * Bluff,' and others. Some pedi- 
grees in the herd books run back into several of those bulls, 
which, as many pure-bred crosses have since been made upon 
their descendants and been recorded in the English Herd Bool(, 
most be classed in the family of Short-horns. 

** From the above accounts it is understood where and how the 
*Patton stock > originated. There can be no doubt that some of 
the original importations of Gough & Miller were well-bred cat- 
tle of the Short-horn or Teeswater breed (which were identical in 
original blood), but without pedigrees; also that others of them 
may have been of the Holdemess variety— coarser and less im- 
proved—of the same race. From the various accounts which we 
have gathered from different quarters in Ohio and Kentucky 
some of them were rough animals, tardy in arriving at maturity ; 
others fine both in figure and quality, and most of the cows de- 
scended from them proved excellent milkers. Their colors were 
more or less red, white and roan, which are true Short-horn 
colors. 

"These accounts are about as accurate and as much to the 
point as the English traditions relating to the ancient Short- 
horns or Teeswaters in their native land, and may be received as 
a fair basis on which to found the genealogy of all the pedigrees 
which trace back into the *Patton ' blood and are found recorded 
in both the English and American Herd Books.'* 

An early New York importation.— Tradi- 
tion is authority for the statement that about 
the year 1791 a Mr. Heaton, who had emigrated 
from England to New York in 1775 and followed 
for some years the occupation of a butcher, 
returned to England and brought back with 
him several Short-horn cattle from the herd of 
George Culley of Northumberland. What be- 
came of these cattle neither tradition nor writ- 
ten history of the day records. In 1796 it is 
further stated tliat Mr. Heaton returned to 
England and brought out a bull and cow which 
he had bought from one of the brothers Colling 



170 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

and took them to his farm in Westchester Co , 
N. Y., where he then resided. It is surmised 
that the Short-horns which he had previously 
imported had also been taken to that place, but 
as to this there is no verified account. What 
finally became of the Heaton cattle and their 
descendants nothing definite is known, except 
that some superior cattle were for many years 
grown in Westchester Co., N. Y., after the pres- 
ent century came in, but no pedigrees of them 
have been traced except in one or two instances 
through " Brisbane's bull," which was purchased 
of Mr. Heaton by the late Mr. James Brisbane 
of Batavia, N. Y., in the early years of this cen- 
tury. The bull left much valuable stock in the 
vicinity of Batavia and was supposed to be a 
pure-bred Short-horn. Of the Heaton stock 
retained in the vicinity of New York nothing 
further is known. It is altogether probable 
that the people of that vicinity, knowing little 
of any breed in those days, let the stock " run 
out," and that the blood was finally lost in the 
common herds of the country.* 

The Cox importation.— While the Virginians 
were settling upon the virgin fields of Ken- 
tucky, and helping to occupy the rich coun- 
try to the north of the broad stream of the 
Ohio, enterprising men were seeking to intro- 

, In this connection aee also the story of the Importation and retarn of 
"The American Cow," page 4«J. 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 171 

duce advanced ideas in agriculture throughout 
the territory once dominated by the Iroquois. 
"Squaw-farming" had not caused the lands of 
the Empire State to blossom as the rose, and 
the white pioneers had made little progress in 
the line of live-stock improvement. 

Immediately after the close of the war of 
1812 with the mother country Mr. Cox, an Eng- 
lishman, brought into Rensselaer County, near 
Albany, N. Y., a Short-horn bull and two cows 
that were placed upon the farm of Mr. Cadwal- 
lader Golden. This was before Coates and Whit- 
aker had brought the English Herd Book even 
to its manuscript stage. No pedigrees came 
with the cattle. From this trio a numerous 
progeny resulted, known in Short-horn par- 
lance as "Cox Importation Cattle." The de- 
descendants of the Cox cows were subsequently 
crossed by the bulls Comet (or Cornet) 2649 
(158) and Nelson 1914, imported in June, 1823, 
by Messrs. Cox & Wayne. Some of the cows 
thus descended passed into the possession of a 
Mr. Matthew Bullock of Albany County, and 
their progeny acquired local reputation under 
the name of "Bullock stock." They were de- 
scribed as "large, robust animals, good, al- 
though not remarkably fine in quality, but of 
true Short-horn type." Comet, or Cornet, was 
a red-and-white (spotted) bull, bred by Sir H. C. 
Ibbetson of Denton Park,.Otley, and was got 



172 A HISTORY OF RHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

by Meteor (432) — of the elder Booth^s.breedinfe 
— a son of Albion (14) out of a cow by C. Col- 
ling's Windsor (698). Nelson was a red-and- 
white bull by Nelson (449), a roan bred by 
Simpson of Babworth and got by Colling's 
Ketton (346), he by the |5,00() Comet, going 
back on the dam's side .to Charles Colling's 
herd. 

The first pedigreed bulls.— According to 
Allen the first pedigreed Short-horn bulls to 
set hoof on American soil were Marquis (408) 
and Moscow (9413), imported into the Genesee 
Valley of New York, in 1817, by Samuel M. 
Hopkins of Moscow. Mr. Warfield lists this 
importation as "supposed." The very cream 
of the Charles Colling blood is represented in 
the breeding of Marquis (from Mr. Jonas Whit- 
aker's), as he had for dam the far-famed Mag- 
dalena, by Comet, and his sire was Wellington 
(679), intensely bred in the blood of Favorite 
(252) on the Old Cherry foundation. Moscow 
(9413) was likewise deep in the richest Short- 
horn blood of his time. He was a roan of Sir 
Henry Vane Tempest's breeding, of the Prin- 
cess blood, sired by Wynyard (703) out of El- 
vira by Phenomenon (491); second dam Prin- 
cess by Favorite (252). Along with this well- 
bred pair of bulls Allen says there came a cow 
called Princess that was said to be descended 
from a Robert Colling ancestry. It is said that 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 173 

descendants of these cattle, crossed by bulls 
from Col. Powel's herd, presently to be men- 
tioned, were purchased by the Holland Land 
Co. for the benefit of the settlers upon that 
corporation's lands near Batavia, in Western 
New York, and were carefully bred for many 
years. 

The^Seventeens."— The first direct impor- 
tation from England into the territory west of 
the Alleghenies was made by Col. Lewis San- 
ders of Kentucky, "a gentleman of character 
and position," who was at this time actively 
engaged in manufacturing, merchandising and 
farming. He resided latterly in Gallatin Coun- 
ty not far from where the Kentucky River 
flows into the Ohio, a short distance below Cin- 
cinnati.' The following statement as to the 
cattle purchased on his order in 1817 is in Col. 
Sanders' own language : 

'* I was induced to send the order for the cattle (in the fall of 
1816) by seeing an account of Charles Colli ng's great sale in 1810. 
At this sale enormous prices were paid— 1,000 guineas for the bull 
Comet. This induced me to think there was a value unknown tu 
us in these cattle, and as I then had the control of mean deteiv 
mined to procure some of this breed. For some years previous 1 
was in the regular receipt of English publications on agricultura/ 
improvements and improvements in the various descriptions ol 
stock. From the reported surveys of counties I was pretty well 
posted as to the localities of the most esteemed breeds of cattle 
My mind was made up, fixing on the Short-horns as most suitable 
for us. I had frequent conversations on this matter with my 
friend and neighbor Capt. William Smith, then an eminent breeder 
of cattle. He was thoroughly impressed in favor of the old Long- 
bom breed. To gratify him and to please some old South Branch 
feeders 1 ordered a pair of Long-horns, and was more willing to d o 



174 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

so from the fact that this was the breed selected by the distin- 
guished Mr. Bake well for his experimental, yet most successful 
improyements. I forwarded to the house of Buchanan, Smith & 
Co. of Liverpool 11,500 to make the purchase, expecting to get 
three pair only, with instructions to procure a competeat judge 
and suitable agent to go into the cattle district and make the se- 
lection, the animals not to be over two years old, and no restriu- 
tion as to price. At the time the Holdemess breed was in highest 
repute for milkers. I directed that the agent should be sent to 
Yorkshire to procure a pair of that breed, then to the river Tees, 
in Durham County, for a pair of Short-horn Durhams, then to the 
County of Westmoreland for a pair of the Long-horns, etc. 

*^The agent sent from Liverpool, J. C. Etches, a celebrated 
butcher of that place, went as directed and purchased six pair in- 
stead of three. It being soon after the war all kinds of produce 
had much cheapened and the stock sold lower than was expected. 

** After the cattle were shipped from Liverpool on the vessel 
Mohawk, bound to Baltimore, Md., where the cattle afterward 
landed, I sold one-third interest in them to Capt. William Smith 
and another third to Dr. Tegarden of Kentucky.'» 

Of the twelve animals bought, eight (four 
bulls and four heifers) were Short-horns and 
four (two bulls and two heifers) were Long- 
horns The importation was made five years 
prior to the publication of Vol. I of the Eng- 
lish Herd Book, at a time when comparatively 
few of the old-country breeders gave that strict 
attention to their private records that after- 
ward became imperative. The only infonna- 
tion furnished in the invoice as to the Short- 
horns is indicated below: 

"'No. 1. Bull from Mr. Clement Winston, on the river Tees, 
got by Mr. Constable's bull, brother to Comet,' afterward (155) 
E H. B. The name of this bull was San Martin, afterward 
(2599) in E. H. B. 

'' ' No. 2. Bull, Holdemess breed, from Mr. So*tt, out of a cow 
which gave thirty-four quarts of milk per day.' The name of this 
bull was Tecumseli, afterward (5409) E. H. B. 

" ' No. 3. Bull from Mr. Reed, Westholme, of his own old 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 175 

breed.* This bull Is probably the one called Comet, afterward 
188d A. H. B. Said to have been got by either Ck>met (155) or his 
brother North Star (458) E. H. B. 

** * No. 4. Bull, Holdemess breed, from Mr. Humphreys, got 
by Mr. Mason's bull of Islington/ No herd-book record appears 
to have since been made of this bull, and we know not what be^ 
came of him. Mr. Clay states that one of the bulls * was sold "to 
Capt. Fbwler, who afterward sold him to Gen. Fletcher, and was 
taken to Bath Co., Ky., where he died.' 

^* Of the females the inyolce states that 

**'No. 7 was a heifer from Mr. Wilson, Staindrop, Durham 
breed.' 

** ' Nos. S, 9, 10 were heifers from Mr. Shipman, on the river 
Tees, of his own breed.' 

^*' * In the division of the Short-horns above named Col. Sanders 
became owner of the bulls San Martin and Tecumseh.' Col. San- 
ders states that Comet became the property of Dr. Tegarden. 

** * Of the Shipman heifers No. 7 became the property of Capt. 
Smith and was called the *' Durham Cow." > 

** ' Of the three remaining two were retained by Col. Sanders, 
one of which was called ** Mrs. Motte " and the other named the 
" Teeswater Cow." * 

** The fourth heifer died in Maryland, never having reached 
Kentucky." 

The descendants of the three heifers Mrs. 
Motte, the Durham Cow and the Teeswater 
Cow are to this day known as "The Seven- 
teens," so called from the date of the original 
importation. Mrs. Motte* produced the four red 

• In view of the lar^e number of descendants of Mre. Motte throughout 
the country the following excerpt from a letter written to the author by Mr. 
William Warfleld under date of Feb 21, lOie, may bo of Interest: '*Upon 
the occasion of CoL Sanders' last visit to my father in the fifties I heard him 
BUte the facts as to the naming of Mrs. Motte. At Charleston, S. C, during 
the Revolutionary War, lived Maj. Motte of the United States army and his 
family. Mrs. Motte bein«r a very great patriot was much concerned In the 
doetnictlonof a certain fort which Interfered very much with the reduction 
of the city. She learned that the destruction of a very fine residence which 
was her own property— and which was already in the possession of the 
enemy— would remove the difficulty of reducing this fort. Shtf presented 
the besi^crs with a Quiver of African arrows to be used for that purpose. 
Skewers armed with combustible materials were also used with more 
effect'* In commemoration of this patriotic sacriflce Col. Sanders gave the 
name of Mrs. Motto to his Imported cow. 



176 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

heifers Lady Munda3% Miss Motte and Sylvia 
to San Martin, and Lady Alice by Tecumseh, 
besides five bulls. The Durham Cow was also 
prolific, dropping eleven calves — five heifers 
and six bulls — her last four being sired by her 
own son Napoleon 1899, by San Martin. The 
Teeswater Cow gave birth to four heifers and 
two bulls. The leading Kentucky and Ohio 
farmers of that period availed themselves 
largely of this opportunity for improving their 
herds, among those who purchased progeny 
from the three Sanders cows being Gen. Gar- 
rard, Dr. S. D. Martin, Maj. Gano, Dr. Warfield, 
Judge Haggin, Walter Dun, T. P. Dudley and 
the Ohio Shakers. Mrs. ' Motte's daughters 
Lady Kate, Lady Munday and Sylvia inherited 
the fecundity of their dam, producing in the 
aggregate thirty calves, more than one-half of 
them through Lady Munday and Sylvia, the 
property of Gen. Garrard. The Durham Cow's 
daughter Lady Durham left five heifers and 
three bulls, two of the former going into the 
hands of Benjamin Warfield. It thus appears 
that the importation of 1817 became an im- 
portant element in the breeding operations of 
those enterprising men w^ho laid the founda- 
tion for the subsequent popularity of the breed 
in the States bordering upon the Ohio River; 
and the cattle derived from that source were 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 177 

for a long series of years among the very best 
Short-horns known in the United States. 

Notwithstanding the marked excellence of 
the so-called "Seven teens'* there sprang up, 
after the era of herd books and "fashion" in 
blood lines asserted powerful influence upon 
the breed, a prejudice against them which prac- 
tical men were unfortunately unable to wholly 
overcome. Parties who were breeding from cat- 
tle drawn from the later and fully-pedigreed 
importations began casting aspersions upon 
the "purity" of the blood of the Sanders stock 
because the foundation dams had no extended 
pedigrees. In regard to this much nonsense 
has been written. For instance, the "cock- 
and-bull" story of the late Ambrose Stevens, 
as published in Vol. II of the American Short- 
horn Herd Book and repeated in Allen's "His- 
tory of the Short-horns" (page 166), fitting 
Mrs. Motte out with a long pedigree running 
back to Lady Maynard, alleged to have been sup- 
plied by Thos. Bates. This had no basis what- 
ever in fact. The simple truth is that the cat- 
tle bought by the butcher, Mr. Etches, were 
doubtless good ones individually, although not 
bred by men who had preserved records of their 
breeding or acquired reputations. The animals 
clearly belonged to the same class .of market 
stock from whence Thomas Booth drew the an- 
cestral dams of a number of those families 



178 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

that afterward acquired international fame at 
Killerby and Warlaby, as detailed in preceding 
chapters. In the hands of such men as Gar- 
rard, Clay, Warfield, Bedford, the Renicks, 
Trimble, Harrold and other breeders of sound 
judgment a class of cattle sprang from this 
foundation that would have compared favora- 
bly with the best results attained by their 
English contemporaries, the Messrs. Booth and 
others, whose cattle — similarly descended — 
became *^ fashionable.'' In vain was this fact 
pointed out by thoughtful and disinterested 
men. Vain were all the winnings of the de- 
scendants of the importation of 1817 at the 
great shows of the West, The fiat of fashion 
went out against them in the later years, and 
whole herds of valuable cattle carrying but a 
mere drop of the original "Seventeen" blood 
were practically lost to the brsed because of 
the unreasoning prejudice created against 
them.* 

The imported Long-horns were sold by Col. 
Sanders to Capt. Smith and Dr. Tegarden, in 
whose hands they did not prove popular. Some 

•The late Judpe T. C, Jones of Delaware, O., one of the closest stadents 
of American Shortrborn broetiirtsr, onca said: **Wo have a frroat many 
Short-horua of high, and even fa ^hionablc rank, the origin of whoac Uncage 
la quite as obscure as that of the Short-horns of Col. Sanders— at a period 
much less remote than the date of that importation. • • ^ A lanro class 
of valuable cattle, with well-ostablished characteristics, has been sacri- 
ficed. FoUowlngr the whims and fancies of speculators In pedlgrrees. In 
some InstaiiccH, thlck-fleshod and quick-feeding catUe of this and other un- 
fashionable strains of blood have b:?cn dl.scarded to make way for Uffhtr 
fleshed and unthrifty animals of the fancy aorta." 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 179 

experimental crosses between cattle carrying 
Short-horn blood and the Long-homs were 
made in Kentucky, Virginia and Ohio,* but the 
judgment of the best breeders of the day was 
not favorable and the Long-horns presently dis- 
appeared. 

In 1818 Mr. James Prentice of Lexington? 
Ky., imported the two bulls Prince Regent 877 
and John Bull 598|, both certified to be of pure 
Short-horn blood but not supplied with pedi- 
grees. John Bull was described as a deep red, 
of fine size and good form, with small down- 
curving horns. Prince Regent was "pied," 
white with some red spots. As indicating the 
enterprise of the Kentucky breeders of that 
day in the work of improving their cattle it 
may be stated that these bulls were purchased 
by Nathaniel Hart of Woodford County and 



* George Benick of Ohio was amomr those who triod the cross and dis- 
carded the Long^hom blood. Writing upon this subject Mr. Brutus J. Clay 
of Bourbotk Co., Ky., said: *' We recollect in 1821, when just verging into 
manhood, taking a horseback Journey from Columbus to Circlcville, O., in 
the Tlclnl^ of which latter town the Renlck brothers owned lanrc landed 
estates. We saw a herd of a dozen or more long-horned cattle grazing In a 
field by the side of the road. Their singular appearance, grazing on the 
rich blue grass or lying under the shade of the majestic trees, attracted our 
attention. We rode up to the fence, hitched our horse and went into the 
field to Ylew them. They had every appearance of being either pure-bred 
or high grades of the liong-hom breed, with long, drooping horns pushing 
forward beyond their noses or falling below their Jawa, light brindle in 
color, with white stripes along their backs, as we now see their portraits 
in the books. They were long-bodled, a little swayed in the back, not very 
compact in shape, but withal imposing animals to the eye. We made no in- 
quiries about them at the time, as wo knew little of breeds of cattle. Thirty 
years afterward, being again at Circlcville. and having a better knowledge 
of breeds, on Inaoiry for cattle of that character we could find no trace nor 
even a reeoUeeUon of them among the older farmers of the vicinity." 



180 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

John Hart of Fayette County for $1,500, and 
they are said to have left good stock. It thus 
appears that the foundation of the Short-horn 
breeding interest in Kentucky and Ohio was 
laid mainly in the Gough & Miller (Patton) and 
the Sanders bloods, which were more or less 
intermingled for a long series of years. 

MassachusettB importations. — In Novem- 
ber, 1817, Samuel Williams of Massachusetts, a 
merchant, at that time residing in London, 
purchased of Mr. Wetherell and sent out to his 
brother Stephen Williams of Northboro, Mass., 
the bull Young Denton (963). He was a roan, 
sixteen months old at the time of importation, 
and was used in Massachusetts for about ten 
yeai-s, after which he was taken to the State of 
Maine, where he died in 1830. He was consid- 
ered a very choice specimen of the breed. In 
1818 Mr. Cornelius Coolidge of Boston imported 
the bull Ccelebs 349 and the cow Flora, both 
bred by Mason of Chilton and both sired by 
sons of Comet (155). Mr. Williams sent out in 
1822 the roan yearling heifer Arabella, by North 
Star (460) out of Aurora by Comet (155), which 
was also of Mr. Wetherell's breeding. Her de- 
scendants, like nearly all other Short-horns 
tracing to the earlier importations into New 
York and New England, were distinguished for 
their excellent dairy qualities. The Arabellas 
were at one time a large and valuable family. 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 181 

During the same year several other cows were 
imported into Massachusetts by Messrs. Lee, 
Orr, Monson, and perhaps others, most of them 
being purchased from the Wetherell herd. 
Among these were Tuberose, by North Star 
(460), and Harriet, by Denton (198), a son of 
Comet. The latter was described as a very 
fine cow, nearly white in color. In 1823 and 
1824 Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin of the British 
Navy, who was born in the State of Massachu- 
setts, sent out to the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tui-al Society the roan bull Admiral (1608) and 
the red-and-white cow Annabella, by Major 
(398), also from the Wetherell herd. A numer- 
ous progeny claim descent from these animals. 
In another shipment he sent the white cow 
Blanche, by a son of Comet; Snowdrop, by 
Fitz Favorite (1042), and the heifer Emma, by 
Wellington (683). 

Reference is made in the American Herd 
Book to a bull called Fortunatus, or Holder- 
ness, as having been bred by George Faulkner 
and imported by Gorham Parsons, Brighton, 
Mass., in 1818. We cannot identify him. 

In 1828 Mr. Francis Rotch of New York, who 
was then in England, shipped to his brother-in- 
law Benjamin Rodman, New Bedford, Mass., 
the bull Devonshire (966) and the cows Ade- 
liza, Dulcibella and Galatea, all from the herd 
of Mr. Whitaker, all roans, all possessing good 



182 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

pedigrees, and all sired by the famous Freder- 
ick (1060). The cows gave rise to families bear- 
ing their respective names, which, like the Pan- 
sies and Arabellas, acquired wide repute for 
their excellence at the pail. Devonshire was 
bought by Lewis F. Allen, founder of the 
American Short-horn Herd Book, in 1834 and 
died at eleven years of age. He was a bull of 
good scale and fine points. Adeliza and Dulci- 
bella were good cows, prolific breeders, excel- 
lent milkers, and lived to be aged animals.* In 
1831-32 the young white cow Roxanne, by 
Frederick, and her white heifer Mary Whitaker 
were added to Mr. Rodman's holdings by pur- 
chase from Jonas Whitaker. 

In 1830 Mr. Enoch Silsby of Boston imported 
the cow Agatha, by Sir Charles (1440), and the 
yearling bull Boston (1735), both roans from 
the herd of Mr. Curry of Northumberland. 
They proved excellent breeders, and Agatha's 
descendants subsequently became widely and 
favorably known. 

Early New York importations. — Gen. Ste- 
phen Van Rensselaer of Albany, N. Y., brought 

• SpcakinfiT of the purchase of these Whitaker cattle Mr. Rotch aald : " I 
arrived at Otloy Just In t.tme to attend an exhibition of Btock^ which was 
then the great and leadingr show of the North for Short-horns. My sudden 
arrival as an American created mtieh interest and kindly feellniTt 'which 
showed Itself in the strong- wish that I should not g-o away without obtain- 
ing' the animals I selected, though they were not Intended for sale." Mr. 
Rotch was a fine type of that intelligent body of men seeking in the early 
days the Improvemont of American live stwk. He lived to a green old a^ 
at his coimtry homo in Otsego Co., New York, and retained a ffreat interesl 
in Short horns to the last. 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 183 

out in 1823 from the herd of Mr. Champion the 
bull Washington (1566)* and the cows Conquest 
and Pansy by Blaize (76). Conquest failed to 
breed, but Pansy had several daughters by 
Washington that gave rise to a very noted 
family of dairy Short-horns, afterward popular 
throughout New England and the West. 

In 1821 Humphrey Hollis, an Englishman 
who emigrated to New York, brought out two 
cows called Hart and Nudd, said to be sired by 
Collings' Wellington. ' Their descendants were 
at one time to be found in New York and Penn- 
sylvania herds. In 1823 George M. Tibbetts of 
Troy brought out a red bull called Young Comet 
2419. In 1828 a Mr. Green of New York im- 
ported the bull Banquo 1226 and sent him to 
the State of Maine. About the same date Abi- 
jah Hammond of Westchester County brought 
out the cow Old Willey, unpedigreed, several of 
whose descendants are recorded in the first vol- 
ume of the American Herd Book. 

In 1822 and succeeding years Mr. Charles 
Henry Hall, a New York merchant who had 
previously lived and done business in various 
European countries, imported a number of 
Short-horns selected from good English herds, 
among them the cows Princess, by Lancaster 
(360), that was bred in 1816 by Robert Colling; 

•Lewis P. Allen lend» hi» name to the «latoment that WaHhInerton lived 
to be Diueteen year» old. doln^ Horvtce lu hiM cii^hlecntb year. 



184 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Canada, by Sir Peter (606) ; Primrose, by George; 
and bulls Regent 899, Young Hector and Comet. 
A few of Mr. Hall's cattle bred from these im- 
portations were kept on a small farm near Har- 
lem, but the major portion were taken to Green- 
busbj near Albany, where they were kept and 
bred for some years. It seems that Mr. Hall 
was not careful to preserve accurately the 
breeding records of his stock, and through this 
inattention the correct lineage of many of his 
cattle was lost. Largely through the influence 
of these purchases several other New York 
business men imported Short-horns and bred 
them on Long Island and in Westchester 
County, but the pedigrees of these were neg- 
lected also. 

Col. Powers purchases. — Between the years 
1822 and 1831 Col. John H. Powel of Powelton, 
near Philadelphia, imported about twenty-four 
head of cows and heifers and seven bulls, a 
majority of which were of Mr. Whitaker's 
breeding. Included among these were the 
bulls Bertram (1716), Bolivar (804), Gloucester 
(1074) and Memnon (1223)— all by Frederick 
(1060); and the cows Belina by Barmpton (54), 
Desdemona by Frederick (1060), Cleopatra (of 
Richard Booth's breeding) by Pilot (496), Ruby 
by Young Dimple (971) and Mandane by Rich- 
mond (1380)— all of which founded good fam- 
ilies of dual-purpose cattle. Belina was indeed 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 185 

one of the great dairy cows of her time, hav- 
ing a well -authenticated butter record of 20^ 
lbs. per week. Cleopatra was the first Booth- 
bred cow imported to America and was sold 
by Col. Powel to David Sutton of Kentucky in 
1833. She was called " a grand cow."* 

The bull Bertram not only had the endorse- 
ment of Thomas Batesf but was recognized by 
American breeders as one of the best Short- 
horn bulls that had been imported up to that 
period. He was a compactly-fashioned, short- 
legged red of Colling^s Old Daisy sort, possess- 
ing a fine touch, good hair and an impressive 
individuality. Allen says: " The cows struck 
us as being of excellent quality, with indica- 
tions of giving large quantities of milk; were 
good in form, long in body, straight on back, 
broad in the hips, with fine heads and horns, 
excellent coats of hair and well-shaped udders." 

Ancestress of the Louans. — In 1821 a Mr. 
Law of Baltimore, Md., imported the roan cow 
Rosemary (of J. C. Curwen's breeding), by Flash 
(261), and her white heifer Virginia, by General 
(272), that afterward passed into the possession 

•See Preface A. H. B., Vol XIV. 

t"I think the bull Bertram which you have bouerht of Mr. Whltaker of 
Oreenholme iB t!hqr>0D6 toll I know of at present to lay the foundation of a 
food stock of ShortllOniB In any country. He la descended from one of 
the beat-milking' and qaickeet«razinf tribes, and one which yielded meat 
of the best quality, and, as I found by expeHments, left the most fo. the 
food consumed. I used the Daisy bull, brother of the great-grand'^m of 
Bertram above thirty years airo. * * • I consider Bertram a much sup» 
rlorbull to Comet, which bulll saw sold for 1.000 «ruineas.at public sale, 
and afterward £1,600 was ofTered for hhn."— Thormu Bate» to Got. FoMxel, kOL 



186 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOHN CATTLE. 

of Col. Powel and became the ancestress of the 
family so noted in Kentucky and other West- 
ern States under the name of Louans. From 
the Curwen herd Mr. Law also bought the bull 
Bishop (73) and the cow Assurance. 

During the same year there was imported 
into Maryland the roan bull Champion (864), 
the white heifer White Rose, by Warrior (673), 
and the red-and-white heifer Shepherdess, by 
Magnet (392) — all of Mr. Champion's breeding. 
White Rose was in calf to Blaize (76) — ^sire of 
imp. Pansy previously mentioned — and was 
sold to Gov. Lloyd of Maryland. She produced 
to this English service the bull Wye Comet 
(1591). Shepherdess and Wye Comet were sold 
to Col. Powel. Mr. Allen credits this importa- 
tion to Col. John S. Skinner, and Mr. Warfield 
to a Mr. Oliver. 

Walter Dun's importations.— In 1833 Mr. 
Walter Dun, a Scotchman living near Lexing- 
ton, Ky., sent an order to a friend, one William 
Douglas, residing in the South of Scotland, to 
go into Yorkshire and buy several head of 
Short-horns to be shipped out to America. 
Ample funds were supplied, and the animals 
were to be chosen with reference to quality 
rather than to price or pedigree; Six head 
were bought and shipped from Liverpool Sept. 
5, 1833, arriving safely in Kentucky on Nov. 26 
following. This shipment proved of much value 



FIRST IMPORTATIONS TO AMERICA. 187 

in capable hands on both sides of the Ohio River, 
some of the best cattle of succeeding years tra- 
cing descent to it. The imported cows were 
Caroline (red), by Dash wood; Red Rose (red- 
and- white), by Emesty; White Rose (white), 
by Publicola; Multiflora (roan), by Walter; 
Daisy (red-and-white), by Wild, and Premium 
(roan), by Maximus, which were accompanied 
by the two-year-old bull Symmetry (5382). 
Some of the bulls appearing in certain of these 
pedigrees were not at that time recorded in 
England, on account of which efforts to dis- 
credit their descendants were subsequently 
made; and, as in the case of the '^Seventeens," 
Pattons and Cox cattle, such efforts were at- 
tended with more or less success. 

In 1836, in connection with Mr. Samuel 
Smith, Mr. Dun sent another order to Mr. 
Douglas, which was filled by the shipment of 
the roan bull Comet (1854), the red-and-white 
George (2059), and the cows Maiy Ann (roan), 
by Middlesboro; Adelaide (roan), by Magnum 
Bonum (2243), and Jewess. The latter proved 
barren. Adelaide was in calf to Brutus (1752), 
and gave birth to the heifer Beauty of Wharf- 
dale. Mary Ann had been served in England 
by Norfolk, and gave birth to the roan bull calf 
Otley (4632). To these cows the American Ade- 
laide and Mary Ann families trace. In 1838 
Mr. Dun imported two bulls from Premium, by 



188 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Maximusy and Young Charlotte, by Thorp, re- 
corded as Otho 794 and Tarik.1022. 

Meantime the Ohio Co. had begun its memo- 
rable importations, and the desire for good 
Short-horns among the better class of farmers 
was universal. Messrs. Dun and Smith both 
died shortly after these latter importations, and 
at an auction sale held by their executors Sept. 
11, 1838, the prices made revealed the fact that 
the breeders of that period were both prosper- 
ous and enterprising. Imp. Adelaide brought 
$1,375 from Messrs. Dillard & Ferguson, and 
her daughter $755 from F. S. Bead. The cow 
Adeline brought $1,030, and her daughter $440. 
Imp. Mary Ann and her Norfolk bull calf, then 
but ten days old, fetched $2,100 from Messrs. 
R. G. Jackson and B. P. Gray, and Allen states 
that Messrs. Wesson and Shropshire afterward 
gave that amount for Otley alone. At this 
same sale R. T. Dillard and C. R. Ferguson gave 
$1,235 for the cow Ellen, C. C. Morgan $1,230 
for the cow Cleopatra and W. S. Hume $1,000 
for the bull calf Oliver Keen — all the property 
of Mr. Smith's estate. The bull Comet had 
meantime become the individual property of 
Mr. John G. Dun, and for him the great price 
of $3,000 was offered by Mr. Gray, one of the 
buyers of imp. Mary Ann. He was bred by Mr. 
Crofton from a Mason foundation. Otley was 
supposed to have been bred by Mr. Fawkes. 



CHAPTER VIIL 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 

In a general way it may be said that during 
the first period following the early introduc- 
tion of Short-horn blood into America the type 
developed greatest favor among the holders of 
the rich lands of Central Kentucky and South- 
em Central Ohio. In New England and New 
York it had been chiefly in the hands of gen- 
tlemen of wealth and leisure, and the fetrm- 
ers of that section, who kept cattle mainly for 
the dairy and the yoke, were rather inclined to 
regard the breed as a mere "fancy" type, not 
specially adapted to their comparatively thin 
soils and rigorous climate. Still the merit of 
Short-horn cows as dairy cattje was recognized, 
and the blood was freely used by those who saw, 
particularly in the Wetherell and Whitaker 
stock, a valuable "general-purpose" type. 

In Ohio and Kentucky the Short-horns found 
a most congenial home, and quickly acquired 
favor among practical men in close touch with 
the Baltimore and Philadelphia markets — men 
who had found in the Gough & Miller and San- 
ders cattle a class of stock that made wonder- 

(189) 



190 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ful responses to good keep. Their's was a veri- 
table land of plenty — a country teeming with 
corn and blue grass. York and Durham were 
fairly distanced in comparison, so far as unlim- 
ited feed supplies were concerned. Hundreds 
of prime Short-horn bullocks were matured and 
driven across the mountains to the seaboard 
markets. It was in the course of this trade 
that the Ohio Valley drovers and graziers, liv- 
ing remote from the great centers of popula- 
tion, learned of the establishment of the Powel 
herd, and in spite of the distance and obstacles 
to be overcome they invested in fresh blood 
from that source and introduced it upon their 
"^attons"and " Seven teens." When we con- 
sider the length of the journey from Cincin- 
nati to Philadelphia before the days of rail- 
roads one can but admire the pluck and enter- 
prise displayed by the sturdy pioneers engaged 
in this ti-ans-Allegheny cattle traffic. Those 
who had been fortunate enough in the first 
rush of the tide of emigration to secure large 
holdings in Kentucky and Ohio found that 
Short-horn blood enabled them to reap a rich 
harvest from their grain and pasture lands. 
Never has there been a more complete demon- 
stration of the value of good blood in farming 
operations than was afforded by the history of 
the introduction of the Short-horn into the 
Ohio Valley States. To them the hoof of the 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 191 

"red, white and roan" was indeed golden, and 
to this day no other type of cattle has found 
equal favor among those enjoying the fruits of 
the Short-horn's peaceful invasion of the an- 
cestral acres. 

Feeding for seaboard markets.— Virginians 
from the valley of the South Branch of the 
Potomac were the most influential of the pio- 
neers who settled in Southern Central Ohio and 
Kentucky early in the nineteenth century. 
They had been accustomed to breeding cattle 
for grazing and feeding purposes and originated 
the system of fattening steers in large num- 
bers by feeding "shock" corn in the open fields 
during the winter months. Among the earliest 
of these emigrants were the brothers George 
and Felix Renick, from Hardy Co., Va., who 
found their way over the mountains on horse- 
back, with the aid of a compass,* and selected 
large tracts of land in the valley of the Scioto 
River, near the present site of Chillicothe, 0. 
Other members of the Renick family followed 
them, but George and Felix by their enterprise 
in cattle-growing gained the right to recogni- 
tion as the most distinguished of those who 
laid the foundation for Short-horn breeding in 
the State of their adoption. 

George Renick first conceived the idea of 

^Hon. T. C. Jones* address before the Iowa Short-horn Breeders' Asso- 
datton In 1884. 



192 A HISTORY OP 8H0BT-H0BN CATTLE. 

driving fat cattle from the Scioto to Baltimore, 
and although his Virginia friends scouted the 
plan as impracticable, he nevertheless put it to 
the test, and in 1805 successfully drove sixty- 
eight head through in good condition and dis- 
posed of them at a round profit. The problem 
of a market was solved, and the industry de- 
veloped with amazing rapidity. In 1817 Felix 
Benick drove 100 head of prime fat Short/-hom 
steers through to Philadelphia, receiving for 
them in that market $134 per head! In 1818 
George Renick sent a drove through to New 
York — ^the first Western cattle ever seen there 
—that sold for $69 per head.* These cattle 
were descended from the Gough & Miller stock, 
the roan bull Pluto 825 being one of the sources 
from whence that blood was derived. Felix 
Renick became the leading feeder of "top" 
cattle in his State, and aside from the Messrs. 
Gofif of Kentucky was probably the most ex- 
tensive breeder and feeder of well-bred bul- 
locks in the United States in his day. George 
Renick also fed largely for nearly fifty years. 

Other successful Ohio breeders and feeders of 
the early days were Gov. Allen Trimble, John 
I. Van Meter, James Vanse, John Grouse, Wil- 
liam, Jonathan and Thomas Renick, Messrs. 
Huston, M. L. Sullivant and R. R. Seymour. 
The latter fed from 100 to 700 head annually, 

•Belated by the late William Benick of ClrcievUle, O. 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 193 

and in 1841 drove 840 head through to Phila- 
delphia.* The Shakers of Warren County also 
gave their attention to the improvement of 
their cattle by the use of the.Patton and "Sev- 
enteen " blood. Cattle-feeding was thoroughly 
established as a profitable industry by the time 
the Walter Dun importations were made, and 
the rivalry that developed between the breed- 
ers and feeders on either side of the Ohio River 
was like unto that which existed in Britain 
"twixt North o' Tweed and South o' Tweed." 
The owners of the Dun cattle were loud in 
their claims as to the superiority of their stock 
over the other Short-horns of that period. The 
bull Comet was their trump card and was hav- 
ing quite his own way at the cattle shows.f 
Kentucky was for the time being "on top/' 
Men of similar blood and with equal pride in 
their herds dwelt across the river, however, and 
they did not propose to permit their friends, 
relatives and competitors in Fayette, Bourbon, 
Clark and adjacent (Kentucky) counties to hold 
the whip hand. They had the land, the feed, 
the brains and the capital to defend their own 

* Mr. Beymour removed from Vlrvlnla to Ohio in 1830. He says that when 
be left Vlrvinia all the prineipal cattlemen in the South Branch Valley had 
stock of the Engliah hlood, either of the Gou^h dt Miller importationa or 
the Lonv-homs, and In aome Instances they had a mixture of those breeds: 
as wte also the case to some extent in Kentucky and Ohio. This accounts 
for the fact that about fifty years a^o it was not uncommon to hear people 
•peak of ** Ijonr-hom Durhams." This mixture, however, proved very geo* 
«rally unpopular. 

r William Warfleld, in Breeder' t GoMette, Aug. 6, 1886. 
1« . 



194 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

position in the cattle trade, and they were men 
of action. They had indeed already taken steps 
to protect and promote their own interests by 
the formation of the memorable 
. Ohio Importing Company. — Felix Renick, a 
man deserving high rank in American Short- 
horn history as one of the most intelligent of all 
those who helped to place the *'infant industry " 
squarely upon its feet, was the prime mover in 
a proposition looking to the formation of a 
joint stock company to be made up of the lead- 
ing contemporary cattle-growers of the Scioto 
Valley and contiguous Ohio territory for the 
purchase of English cattle. Nov. 2, 1833, ex- 
Governors Allen Trimble and Duncan McAr- 
thur, with the Messrs. Renick and others, 
formed a company ''for the purpose of promot- 
ing the interests of agriculture and of intro- 
ducing an improved breed of cattle," and they, 
together with the subscribers mentioned below, 
contributed the amount of money necessary 
"to import from England some of the best im- 
proved cattle of that country." 

There were in all about fifty shareholders, 
but two of whom resided out of the State. 
These were Isaac Cunningham of Kentucky 
and W. H. Cunningham of Virginia. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the other subscribers from 
the several counties represented in this asso- 
ciation: Ross — Ex-Gov. Duncan McArthur, Fe- 



DEVELOPMENT OP OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 195 

lix Renick, George Renick, James Vanse, R. R. 
Seymour, E. J. Harness, Arthur Watts, S, Mc- 
Neil, John McNeil, Wesley Claypool, John T. 
Webb, Robert Stewart, Archibald Stewart, Jas. 
G. White, John Pancake, John Foster, John 
Grouse, Presley Morris, John L. Taylor, B. J, 
Davis and Charles Davis. The subscribers in 
Pickaway County were: William Renick, S. S. 
Denney, Thomas Huston, Elias Florence, Josiah 
Renick, Harness Renick, Thomas Renick, Wil- 
liam Renick Jr., Jonathan Renick, Elias Pratt, 
John Boggs Sr., J. M. Alkire, Francis Campbell, 
Evan Stevenson, Ashel Renick and George Rad- 
cliff. From Franklin County were: M. L. Sul- 
livant, Lyne Sterling and E. W. Gwynne. Fay- 
ette — Batteal Harrison, A. Hagler and M. Pat- 
terson. Highland — Ex-Gov. Allen Trimble and 
H. P. Gallaway. Pike — John I. Vanmeter. 

The stockholders appointed Felix Renick as 
their agent to proceed to England and select 
the cattle. That his experience was such as to 
qualify him admirably for the work must ap- 
pear from what has already been stated con- 
cerning his commanding position in reference 
to bullock-breeding. Edwin J. Harness and 
Josiah Renick were designated to act as assist- 
ants. They were not limited to the purchase 
of Short-horns, the idea being to entrust the 
trio with plenary powers. Members of the 
company were willing to experiment with other 



196 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

breeds if thought advisable, and in a letter writ- 
ten by Henry Clay to Gov. Trimble, dated Wash- 
ington, D. C, Dec. 13, 1833, the great Kentuckian 
advised the purchase of typical specimens of the 
"Durham," Hereford and Devon breeds. He 
thought the Devons might do well, as being 
specially adapted for contending with the hard- 
ships of the long journey from the West to the 
Eastern markets. That Mr. Renick was not 
averse to studjring this proposition is shown by 
the fact that while at Baltimore en route to Eng- 
land he and his colleagues visited a herd of 
Devons belonging to Mr. Patterson of that city 
and they were well pleased with the "rubies." 
Proceeding to Philadelphia they called upon 
Col. Powel, examined his Short-horn herd, and 
received many useful hints from him in refer- 
ence to the purchasing and shipping of stock 
across the Atlantic. It is of interest in this 
connection as showing the changes in popular 
taste in respect to color that Felix Renick spoke 
of the Powel cattle as " white, red-and-white 
pied and the fashionable roan." They had set 
out from Ohio upon their long journey on Jan. 
29, 1834, and it is needless to say that they ar- 
rived in England free from prejudice not only 
as between the different breeds but also as be- 
tween the rival breeders of Short-horns, con- 
cerning whom they had doubtless heard some- 
thing from Col. Powel before embarking for the 
other side. 



DBVBLOPMENT OF OHIO VALLBY HERDS. 197 

Felix Benick and confreres in England. — 
The Ohio Co/s agents landed at Liverpool March 
24, 1834, and immediately addressed themselves 
to the business in hand. As the visit was an 
historic one, by reason of its far-reaching effects 
upon American Short-horn breeding, some de- 
tails will be of interest. 

After examining a few herds about Liverpool 
they journeyed toward Yorkshire, stopping at 
Leeds to see the herd of Mr. W. F. Paley. 
Finding his stock of excellent breeding and 
quality they secured options on a few apimals. 
They next attended the Ripley show, after 
which they proceeded to Studley to see Rich- 
ard Booth's herd. With the Studley cattle Mr. 
Renick was well pleased, but as they were then 
announced to be sold at a later date at auction 
none could be priced. The herds of J. Wood- 
house, A. L. Maynard, J. Clark and the elder 
Booth (at Killerby) were next seen. Arriving 
at Darlington the Americans fell in with Thos. 
Bates. They were at once invited to Kirklev- 
ington, Mr. Bates insisting that they make his 
house their headquarters while in that vicin- 
ity.* Mr. Renick writing of this said: "Mr. 

•This Incident is thus related by Cadwallader Bates: " On Easter lion- 
day, ISM, Bates was as usual at Darlington market. Some Americans atay- 
Inff at the Klo^'s Head came up and spoke to him. * * * In the course of 
tMe eonyerBallon Bates soon found that they possessed a ^reat knowledge 
upon the subjoct of Short-horns. • • * He irave them full details of his 
ezperlenoe» tellinr them, amonir other things, that Belvedere's sire, Water- 
loo (2816), (hen in his sixteenth year, and Norfolk (2377) were the only two 
bulls besides BelTedero (irC6) that were In his opinion the least likely to 
t'it rood BU>ck.**~"Tk<Mna« Bate» and the Kirklevington ShorUhoms," page 217. 



198 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Bates is a wealthy bachelor, owns a fine farm 
of 1,000 acres, all under best cultivation. He 
keeps a dairy of forty or fifty cows, generally 
of the best Short-horn blood, from which he 
raises some very fine stock, and had then on 
hand some young bulls an<l heifers better than 
any we have seen elsewhere." Bates was evi- 
dently flattered by the compliments bestowed 
by these intelligent foreign visitors — ^the more 
so, doubtless, as they had already been at Stud- 
ley and Killerby — and to the surprise of his 
friends he offered to sell them six of his best 
females. The Americans were not yet ready 
to buy, however, and continued their investi- 
gations. Bates furnished them with horses 
and rode with his guests for several days among 
the herds of the Valley of the Tees; "but," 
says Felix Renick, "from our own observa- 
tions, as well as the judgment of Mr. Bates, 
their stock [that of the neighboring breeders] 
is generally 'going back.'" He expressed dis- 
appointment at the character of many of the 
herds visited. They then turned Southward, 
"Mr. Bates going with us." Evidently the 
sage of Kirklevington was determined that his 
guests should not "go wrong" in their buying 
— from his standpoint — if he could prevent it. 
In company with Bates they called on Jonfls 
Whitaker, who had dispersed his herd the pre- 
vious autumn. 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 199 

At this point in their inquiries it was ar- 
ranged for Messrs. Harness and Josiah Renick 
to go to London and thence into Hereford and 
Devonshire as per Henry Clay's suggestion. If 
pleased with those breeds Felix Renick was to 
join them and decide as to what should be done. 
The impression made upon these gentlemen was 
evidently not favorable as against the Short- 
horns as no purchases were made. Meantime 
Felix Renick went with Mr. Whitaker and Mr. 
Paley to Lord Althorpe's, and with Bates to 
Lord Feversham's. Mr. Fawkes, Col. Cradock 
and Mr. Raine were also visited. It thus ap- 
pears that a very thorough examination of the 
English herds of that date was made, and in a 
letter to his friend, S. S. Denney of Ohio, Felix 
Renick gave his impressions of the cattle as 
follows: 

'* Prom the appearance of many of the old hnlls and cows we 
have seen, which are now from twelve to twenty years of age, it is 
very evident to me that their stocks here have been rather on the 
decline for some years hack owing to several causes, the principal 
of which I believe to be the unbounded prejudices generally pre- 
vailing among the breeders, each one thinking his own the best 
and consequently breeding in-and-in too much, to the great injury 
of their stock, although some of them are now partially convinced 
of their error and in some measure changing their practice. 

'* We have done the best we could and procured some that are 
at least as good as the country affords, for which we have paid all 
sorts of prices, from 80 guineas up to 175 guineas, such is the 
disparity of prices. The value depends almost entirely upon the 
parity of blood and high pedigree. If a breeder here goes to pur- 
chase an animal for his own use to breed from he will not have it 
at all If he cannot trace it back some 50 or 100 years and have it 
descended from the famous bull Comet, that sold for 1,000 guineas, 



200 A HISTORY OF 6H0RT-H0RK CATTLE. 

or some other equally as good ; and on the side of the dam it mosl 
also have descended from Old Daisy, for whom some hundred 
guineas were refused, or some other equal in their estimation. 
Thus you see the situation we are placed in. We must either take 
cattle without pedigree or much of anything else to recommend 
them or take those that have at least pedigrees, with more excel- 
lence of form and size, at a high price. The latter was in our 
judgment the better of the two alternatives and the one we have 
so far pursued, and shall continue to pursue, and take fewer in 
number.*' 

Having looked the ground over to his satis- 
faction Mr. Renick selected and bought nine- 
teen head of cattle — seven bulls and twelve 
females. Norfolk he had been unable to secure 
from Mr. Fawkes at an alleged offer of 400 guin- 
eas. Mr. Bates had priced his "pet beauty ^" 
Duchess 33d, at 150 guineas. Duchess 34th at 100 
guineas, and the Matchem Cow at 15 guineas, 
but neither of those noted animals was bought. 
It is alleged that the influence of Mr. Whitaker 
was strenuously exerted against the purchase 
of these two Duchesses, but as the former (bred 
to Norfolk) became the ancestress of the costly 
New York Mills cattle and -the other produced 
the Duke of Northumberland it was probably 
well for Bates interests that the Americans did 
not take them. Mr. Renick was particularly 
pleased with the young stock by Belvedere and 
took four of his get — two bulls and two heifers. 
The cattle were shipped during the summer of 
1834 to Philadelphia, whence they were driven 
over the mountains through to Chillicothe and 
placed upon Mr. Renick's farm. The judgment 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 201 

of the stockholders and contemporary breeders 
was that Mr. Renick had discharged his difficult 
task in an eminently satisfactory manner. The 
bulls were put out in servicfe among the share- 
holders and the company instructed Mr. Renick 
to arrange for further shipments. 

Two of the heifers included in this importa- 
tion of 1834 gave rise to families of Short-horns 
which are at the present day among the most 
numerous to be found in the leading Short-horn 
breeding States. These were the roan heifers 
Rose of Sharon, bred by Mr. Bates and sired by 
Belvedere, and Young Mary, bred by J. Clark 
and sired by Jupiter. Young Mary was taken to 
Kentucky and is said to have produced no less 
than fourteen heifer calves, besides one or two 
bulls — possibly the most extraordinary case on 
record. She lived to be twenty-one years old. 
The red cow Blossom, by Fitz Favorite, and the 
heifer Matilda, by Imperial, also left numerous 
descendants. Among the bulls of this first im- 
portation were the three-year-old roan Re- 
former (2505), of Raine breeding; the yearling 
Duke of York (1941), of Whitaker-s breeding, 
and Rantipole (2478), bred by Mr. Paley, main- 
ly of Booth descent. 

Whitaker's selections of 1835 and 1836.— 
Mr. Renick deemed it safe to risk the judgment 
of Mr. Whitaker for such additional stock as 
might be wanted, and wrote him as follows: 



202 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLJ5. 

"I am anthorized by the company to make another small impor^ 
tation in the spring, which I beg the favor of doing through you. 
The calf of your old cow Minna by Norfolk I shall expect, pro- 
vided he still continues to do well and proves, when the time 
arrives for starting him, to be first rate in form, size, handling, 
etc. This will be left entirely to your own judgment and deci- 
sion. But we wish, if possible, to have something a little supe- 
rior to anything that has yet been imported. If you do not con- 
sider him so at that time we do not wish him sent. We also wish 
you to procure us two young cows with calves by Norfolk or other 
good bulL ♦ ♦ ♦ The prices we were asked for year-old bull 
calves by Lord Althorpe and Mr. Bates were fifty guineas. From 
others we could have purchased them, perhaps equally good, from 
that price down to thirty guineas. We want none without fair 
pedigrees, but form and size they must have or they will not be 
well received here. You will, of course, not forget the handling 
and quality.'' 

The importation of 1835 was a small one and 
included several animals sent out on individ- 
ual account. It was upon this occasion that 
Mr. Bates shipped to America the Skipton 
Bridge Bull (5208) and the heifer Hon. Miss 
Barrington as a present to the Bishop of Ohio 
at Kenyon College. In 1836 a large shipment 
was forwarded, including many splendid spec- 
imens of the breed. These lots came via New 
York, being shipped from Albany to Buffalo by 
the Erie Canal, by lake from Buffalo to Cleve- 
land, and thence driven "overland" to Chilli- 
cothe. Great care and j udgment were evidently 
used in making those selections. Whitaker 
had the assistance of Mr. Paley and Mr. Fawkes 
and wrote to Mr. Renick shortly before the cat- 
tle were forwarded «as follows: .. . , 

'*Mr. Fawkes and I returned last nijrht from our Utorof inspec- 
tion among all the principal breeders from Ripon to the Bishop of 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 203 

Darham's ; tbence to Mr. Bates', Mr. Maynard's, Mr. Wiley's, Mr. 
Harrison's in the East Riding, Castle Howard, and, in conclusion, 
the Earl of Spencer's at Wiseton. We were at it early and late 
for seven days. Booth had nothing to sell. Col. Crsidock will 
sell or let Magnum Bonum in the autumn, and Intends writing to 
Gen. Garrard, who, he says, offered him 400 guineas for him, and, 
the Colonel refusing to sell, he asked if another hundred would 
induce him. John Colling said the General offered him 800 guineas 
for two heifers. Mr. Coiling, has now fixed to sell his entire herd 
in the autumn of 1887, John Maynard his in the autumn of this 
year. • • • i attempted to buy something of Mr. Bates, but he 
soared so high I could not grapple with him. For a bull calf five 
months old, by Belvedere, dam by Belvedere, grandam Duchess 
34th, he had the modesty to ask 400 guineas. I could have bought 
two young bulls, but they were not good enough to send. Mr, 
Paley has bought three females, but I have not seen any of them 
but Sherwood's. I have finished my purchases within one beast 
but have not time to give you particulars— In fact, cannot, not 
having received authenticated pedigrees of several animals. I 
shall have exceeded your limits, but could not avoid it." 

The shipments of 1835 and 1836 embraced 
forty-two animals, bringing the total number 
of cattle imported by the Ohio Co. up to sixty- 
one head, a complete record of which may be 
found in the valuable list of imported cows 
compiled by Mr. William Warfield and pub- 
lished by the American Short-horn Breeders' 
Association. Space will not permit us to enu- 
merate all in this connection. It should be 
stated, however, that among the selections 
made by Mr. Whitaker were the afterward- 
celebrated cows Josephine, by Norfolk (2377); 
Young Phyllis, by Fairfax (1023); Illustrious, 
by Emperor (1974), and Harriet, by Young 
Waterloo (2817). When Mr. Felix Renick was 
at Mr. Whitaker's in 1834 he fell quite in love 



204 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

with the cow Minna, by Frederick, mentioned 
in his letter already quoted. It seems that this 
cow was also a special favorite with Mrs. Whit- 
aker, and she promised Mr. Renick that the 
next heifer calf produced by Minna should be 
reserved for him. The cow was bred to Nor- 
folk, and the progeny — the red-and-white Jo- 
sephine, dropped in November, 1835 — was sent 
out as a calf to Mr. Renick according to prom- 
ise. She developed into a cow of outstanding 
excellence, and her descendants for many years 
constituted one of the best families of Short- 
horns known in the Western States. Young 
Phyllis was a roan, dropped Sept. 11, 1831, bred 
by the Earl of Carlisle and imported for Mr. 
E. J. Harness. This cow had a very distin- 
guished career as a breeder in Kentucky, and 
her descendants are now to be found in many 
first-class herds. One of her daughtei-s, Cath- 
erine Turley, by Qoldfinder (2066), lived to be 
eighteen years old. Illustrious was also a roan, 
dropped March, 1835, and bred by Mr. Crofton. 
A high price was paid for her. Mr. Whitaker 
wrote : "I consider her dear, but being a beau- 
tiful calf and from one of the best herds in the 
country I was obliged to give more than I 
thought she was worth. As you wished some- 
thing superlative I could not leave her." De- 
scendants of Illustrious attained high rank as 
show and breeding stock in various Western 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 205 

herds. Harriet was a red-roan of March, 1835. 
She was imported for Mr. James Renick of 
Kentucky, a son-in-law of Mr. Felix Renick, 
and her blood, as well as that of Josephine 
and Illustrious, was afterward used by the late 
Abram Renick in crossing upon his Rose of 
Sharon family. 

Among the sixteen bull^ imported in 1835 
and 1836 one of the most noted was Comet 
Halley (1855), a light roan bred by John May- 
nard, sired by Matchem (2281), dam by Freder- 
ick (1060), tracing to Robert Colling's Golden 
Pippin. After Reformer became inefficient 
this bull seems to have been more generally 
used upon the best cows of the company than 
any other except the Duke of York. He had 
no difficulty in defeating in the show-yard the 
bull Comet of the Dun importation which we 
have previously mentioned. Qoldfinder (2066), 
a roan of 1835, had a very successful career as 
a breeder, fully confirming the hopes Mr. Whit- 
aker expressed regarding him at the time he 
was selected hs a calf. Prince Charles (2461), 
another roan, calved in 1834, bred by Mr. Whit- 
aker and sired by Norfolk, was imported spe- 
cially for Mr. Geo. Renick and ranked among 
the very best of all the bulls brought out in 
the coui-se of the operations of the Ohio Co. 
and its individual members. The roan bull 
Nimrod (2371), by Norfolk, matured into a 



206 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

grand animal, but he developed what appeared 
to be a tumor before the company's sale, and 
but for that would have doubtless brought a 
very long price, as Abram Renick favored pur- 
chasing him instead of Matchem (2283), but 
his associates did not agree with him in this. 
Nimrod was bought by Col. Florence and used 
on grades. A few pure-bred cows were sent to 
him, however, by Harness Renick and others, 
the produce being cattle of extraordinary merit. 
Sale of Oct. 29, 1836.— The object of the 
company — the transfer from England of a val- 
uable stock of breeding cattle to Ohio soil — 
having now been accomplished, it was decided 
to close up the financial affairs of the "syn- 
dicate" by means of auction sales, at which 
stockholders and outsiders alike would have 
the privilege of bidding. The first of these — 
which was the earliest important event of the 
kind in America — was held upon Felix Renick's 
Indian Creek Farm, in Ross County, in the au- 
tumn of 1836. The cattle were in fine condi- 
tion, the attendance was large and high prices 
were realized, as will appear from the subjoined 
report: 

cows AND HEIFERS. 

Teeswater, roan, calved Oct. 22, 1832; bred by Bates, of 
Princess blood, and heifer calf Cometess, by Comet Hal- 
ley— John I. Vanmeter, Pike Co., 12,225 

Young Mary, roan four-year-old, by Jupiter, and roan heifer 
calf Pocahontas, by Comet Halley— Edwin J. Harness, 
Ross County 1,600 



DEVELOPMENT OP OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 207 

Flora, roan four-year-old, by son of Young Albion (780), and 
bull calf Powhatan 828X, by Comet Halley— George 
Renick, Ross County 1,206 

Moss Rose, roan two-year-old heifer, by Stapletdn (2606)— 

Jonathan Renick, Pickaway County 1,200 

Mallna, red-and-white two-year-old, bred by Whitaker— 

Isaao Cunningham, Kentucky 1,006 

Blossom, red six-year-old, by Fitt Favorite (10t2)— R. R. 

Seymour, Ross County 1,000 

Matilda, red-and-white, five years old, by Imperial (2151)— 

Arthur Watts, Ross (bounty 1,000 

Gaudy, red-and-white, five years old, bred by A. L. Maynard 

—James M. Trimble, Highland County 985 

Lily of the Valley of the Tees, roan, five years old, bred by 

Raine— Thomas Huston, Pickaway County 050 

Celestina, roan, two years old, bred by Whitaker— Thomas 

Huston, Pickaway County 080 

Beauty of the West, red two-year-old heifer from imp. 
Blossom, by Fitz Favorite— Asahel Renick, Pickaway 
County 900 

Lady Abemethy, roan yearling (imported), bred by Mr. 

Wyli»— Thomas Huston, Pickaway County 815 

Illustrious, roan yearling, by Emperor (9174) — Abram Renick, 

Kentucky 775 

Lady of the Lake, red, little white, yearliug heifer, by Re- 
former (2505) out of imp. Rose of Sharon— R. R. Sey- 
mour, Ross County 775 

Poppy, red-and-white heifer calf, by Rantipole (3478) out of 
Blossom by Fitz Favorite — Harness Renick, Pickaway 
County 610 

Pink, red-and-white heifer calf, by imp. Duke of York 
(1941), dam imp. Duchess of Liverpool— William Trimble, 
Highland County 575 

Duchess of Liverpool, imported in 1834, but unpedigreed— 

William M. Anderson, Ross County 570 

Lady Palcy, red-and-white heifer calf, by Rantipole (2478) , 

dam imp. Flora — Alexander Renick, Ross County 510 

Lilac, red, little white, yearling, by Rantipole (2478), dam 

Duchess of Liverpool— Elias Florence, Pickaway CJounty 435 

May Flower, red-and-white heifer calf, by Duke of York 

(1941), dam imp, Matilda— B. Harrison, Fayette 0)unty 405 

Lucy, roan calf, pedigree in doubt— George Radcliff, Pick- 
Away County. 406 



208 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Calypso, red-and-white, five years old, Imported in 1834, sired 

by Bertram (1716)— S. McNeil, Ross County .835 

Lady Blanche, sold as doubtful breeder— Charles Davis, 

Ross County. 360 

Lady Colling, doubtful breeder— J. T. Webb, Ross County. . . 205 

BULLS. 

Duke of Norfolk (1939), red-and-white yearling, imported, 

sired by Norfolk (2377)— Robert Stewart, Ross County. . 1,255 

Young Waterloo (2817), roan, three years old, bred by Bates, 
of Princess blood— R. D. Lilley, Highland County, for 
Gov. Trimble and others 1,260 

Matchem (2283), roan, five years old, bred by J. Woodhouse, 
sired by Imperial (2161)^Renick, Cunningham and War- 
field of Kentucky 1,900 

Greenholme Ebcperiment (2075) , roan, two years old, bred by 

Whitaker-James M. Trimble, Highland County 1,150 

Duke of York (1941), red-and-white three-year-old, bred by 
Whitaker, got by Frederick (1060)— R. R. Seymour, Ross 
County 1,120 

Goldfinder (2066), roan yearling, bred by J. Lawson, sired by 
Charles (1815)— Renick, Cunningham and Warfleld of 
Kentucky 1,096 

Nimrod (2371), roan yearling, bred by Mr. Tempest, sired by 

Norfolk— Elias Florence, Pickaway 0)unty 1,010 

Whitaker (2836), roan two-year-old, bred by Whitaker, sired 
by Norfolk, dam Minna, hence own brother to imp. Jo- 
sephine— WilUam M. Anderson, Ross County 856 

Rantipole (2478) , red-and-white four-year-old, bred by W. F. 

Paley— Arthur Watts, Ross County 810 

Logan (2218), roan yearling, by Duke of York (1941), dam 

imp. Young Mary— J. Renick 750 

Earl of Darlington (1944), roan three-year-old, bred by Bates 

and sired by Belvedere— B. Harrison, Fayette County. . 710 

John Bull (2161), red, little white, bull calf, by Earl of Dar- 
lington , dam Gaudy— William Renick Jr. , Ohio 615 

Duke of Leeds (1938), roan yearling, by Norfolk — John 

Grouse, Ross County 675 

Windham (2845), red-and-white yearling, bred by Earl Spen- 
cer—Charles Davis, Ross County 500 

Davy Crockett (8571), roan yearling, recorded as from imp. 

Young Mary— Peter Ayres, Ohio 480 

Snow Drop (2654), white yearling, by Reformer (2505), dam 

Lily of the Valley of the Tees-Stewart & McNeil, Ohio. 4aO 



DETELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 209 

Indepeadenoe (2153), roan yearling, by Elarl of Darlington, 

dam imp. Matilda— Hagler & Peterson, Ross County 400 

Commodore Perry (1869), red yearling, by Reformer, dam 

imp. Teeswateiv-W. H. Creighton, Madison Coanty 400 

Goliah (2068), red yearling by Earl of Darlington, dam imp. 

Calypso— Isaao V. Cunnin^am, Scioto County 800 

24 females sold for $19,545 ; an average of 1814.87 

19 bulls sold for 14,995; an average of 780.20 

48 animals sold for 84,540; an average of 808.25 

The bulls Reformer and Columbus were sold 
at this sale as " unsound," and as they there- 
fore commanded a low price they are not in- 
cluded above. The company made a present to 
Felix Renick upon this occasion of the roan 
six-months-old bull calf Paragon of the West 
(4649), sired by imp. Duke of York (1941) out 
of imp. Rose of Sharon. This was a graceful 
act upon the part of the stockholders, as the 
calf was regarded as perhaps the most valu- 
able young bull in the possession of the com- 
pany at this date. Like his sire, the Duke of 
York, he proved a very superior stock-getter, 
and in the fall of 1837 won first prize as a year- 
ling at the Ohio State Fair at Columbus. Rose 
of Sharon's daughter, Lady of the Lake, pur- 
chased by Mr. Seymour, proved a great breeder. 
She never grew into a large cow, but was ex- 
ceedingly neat, with a very handsome head 
and prominent eyes. She was of a deep-red 
color, with a little white on each flank and star 
in forehead. She was sold to George Renick, 
for whom she bred five heifers, to- wit.: 1838 — 

M 



210 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Rose of Sharon 2d, by Comet Halley (1855); 
1839 — Virginia, red-and-white, by Powhatan 
828i; 1840 — Thames, red, by Shakespeare 
(12062); 1842— Flora, roan, by Shakespeare, 
and in 1844 Lady of the Lake 2d, red-roan, by 
Young Shakespeare 1311. All of these heifers 
left a valuable progeny, some of which, in the 
hands of Abram Renick of Kentucky, gained 
international fame. After the conclusion of 
this sale the imported bull Duke of Norfolk 
was resold to Gov. Vance and J. H. James of 
Champaign County for $1,400. 

Final sale in 1837.— On Oct. 24, 1837, the 
company's affairs were finally closed up by a 
sale of such stock as still remained in its hands, 
which consisted at that date of the animals 
sold as per following list: 

BULLS. 

Comet Halley (1855), light roan, bred, by John Maynard; 
calvDd December, 1882; sired by Matchem (2281), dam by 
Frederick (1060)— George Renick and others $2,500 

Acmon (1606) ,♦ roan, calved 1833 ; bred by W. Raine ; by Anti- 
Radical (1042),damSally by Young Rockingham (2547) 
— M. L. Sullivant & Co., Columbus, O 2,500 

Hazlcwood (2008), red-roan, calved April 9, 1836; bred by W. 
F. Paley ; got by Norfolk (2377)— Gov. Trimble and R. R. 
Sejrmour 700 

Powhatan 828)^, rcd-and-white, calved Oct. 6, 1836: got by 

imp. Comet Halley out of imp. Flora— Harness Renick. . 500 

Bouncer (3196), roan, calved March 18, 1836; bred by Col. 
Cradock; got by Magnum Bonum (2243) — John Walk, 
Pickaway County 450 

*Acmon was a great Hhow bull and also proved a superior Btock-«etter. 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 211 

Santa Anna, loan, calved July 4, 1887; got by imp. Comet 
UaUey out of Lily of tho Valley of the Tees— J. C. 
Vance, Ohio Co. , Va 425 

cows AND HEIFERS. 

Elizabeth (imported), roan, calved in 1882; bred by T. Har- 
rison ; got by Memnon (22dS) ; and calf --Gov. J. Vance 
and William Vance, Champaign County $1,460 

Flora (imported), roan, seven years, by son of Young Al- 
bion (730)— M. Li. SaUivant, Columbus 1,300 

Matilda (imported), red-and- white, calved April 12, 1881 ; by 

Imperial (2151)— Allen Trimble, Highland County 1,220 

Arabella* (imported), red-and- white, calved March, 1884; 
bred by R. Pilklngton; got by Victory (5565) ; and calf— 
Dr. Arthur Watts, ChiUioothe 1 ,200 

Blnsh (imported), white, calved Jan. 10, 1835; bred by Mr. 
Bowen; got by Monarch (2826)— John H. James, Cham- 
paign 0)unty 1,015 

Emily (imported), ♦* flecked," calved Feb. 25, 1875; by Maxi- 

mus (2284) ; Asahel Renlck, Pickaway County 875 

Victress, roan, calved Jan. 8, 1836; got (in England) by Nor- 
folk (2377), dam imp. Meteor of the West— M. L. SuUi- 
vant, Columbus 700 

Charlotte (imported), roan, calved March, 1883; bred by R. 
Pilkington; got by Alderman (1622)— J. G. White, Ross 
County , 630 

Fidelle (imported), roan, calved 1830; by Adrian (7720); 
bought of Whitakcr, and the dam of bull Greenholme 

Experiment in the sale of 1836— Allen Trimble 610 

6 bulls sold for S 7,075; an average of $1,179.15 

9 females sold for 9,000 ; an average of 1,000.00^ 

15 animals sold for 16,075 ; an average of 1,071.65 

This was a period of great expansion. Values 
of all sorts were inflated by paper-currency is- 
sues, and cattle shared in the general "boom." 
Hence the great prices made at this sale. Allen 
speaks in his " History of the Short-horns'* (page 

«Arabella was a rrand cow and proved a ^reat breeder, producing tor 
Dr. Watts many fine animals— among otherH tbu twin show cows Bessie 
Belle and Mary Grey. Her boo Marshal (419^0) was ubeU by Geort^e Benick 
and sired many fine cauie. 



212 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

183) of the stockholders reaping "a large profit 
on their investment," but this was not true save 
in the case of a few of the minor members of 
the association, who were not buyers of cattle,* 

Nearly ail the capital stock subscribed was 
repaid in cattle at high prices. Had the ani- 
mals been resold soon the shareholders would 
have made a good profit, but most of them were 
in the business as a steady pursuit and kept the 
cattle until overtaken by the great depression 
that soon afterward set in. George Renick in- 
vested more liberally than any other one stock- 
holder and had the largest herd, but his sales of 
surplus stock were made at moderate prices, 
and in 1846 he was obliged on account of ad- 
vancing age to give up the management of his 
landed estates and his entire herd was offered 
at auction, "Hard times" prevailed, however, 
at that period and but one-half the cattle were 
sold, and those at ruinous figures. The other 
Renicks, Gov. Trimble, Messrs. Seymour, Sulli- 
van t, Vanmeter, Watts, et al., had also to be con- 
tent with moderate returns until the revival 
which set in about 1850. 

The prime object, however — the providing of 
material for the improvement of the Ohio and 

* Araongr these was a well-known capitaliat, Lyne Starlinflr of Columtras, 
who, when the a^ent of the company called after the last sale and paid him 
more than double the amount of his Investment, was amazed, i^nd told Mr. 
Renick that he had intended the amount as a contribution for the improve- 
ment of the cattle of the country and had never expected a dollar la re- 
turn.— Hon. T. O. Jonu, in Breeder's Oazette, Sept. 7, Una. 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 213 

Kentucky herds — had been attained, and in 
that fact the enterprising men who made these 
memorable importations found ample compen- 
sation. Speaking of the first importation, in a 
letter written July 26, 1834, Felix Renick said: 

" We have already bad a number of applications to purchase 
some of them and bave been oifered 1600 for tbe youngest, a calf 
less tban five months old. But we, as a company, have higher 
views tban that of immediately realizing a little profit, provided 
it could be done. The object was first conceived and has so far 
been carried out for the good of the country, whether it has been 
well or illy executed is not for us to say." 

It is indeed difl5cult to overestimate the value 
of the Ohio Co/s work. It gave to the West 
not only the Rose of Sharons, Young Marys, 
Young Phyllises and Josephines, but supplied 
crosses of fresh blood that proved powerful in- 
fluences for good upon the herds derived from 
earlier importations. The entire industry in 
Ohio and Kentucky felt the quickening touch, 
and in later years the full fruition of the fond- 
est hopes of the company were more than real- 
ized. 

Thomas Bates to Felix Benick.— The Ohio 
Co. had meditated a continuation of its impor- 
tations, but the financial drift of the times was 
not favorable. In December, 1837, Felix Ren- 
"ick had written to Mr. Bates in reference to 
further purchases, inquiring particularly about 
the Duke of Northumberland (1940). While 
nothing came of these negotiations, the ap- 
pended reply of Mr. Bates is given in full as 



214 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

possessing some historic interest. The itali- 
cized sentence is especially characteristic and 
shows that in spite of all his claims for the 
Duchess blood Bates was fully aware of the 
fact that it was the Princess bull Belvedere 
that really made his herd. We quote: 

"KiRKLEViNOTON, Aprils 1838.— I think it on the whole better 
not to send you any of my own cattle this season, the exchange 
boing so ouch against you. Next year, as you say you intend to 
continue importing, I might furnish you with ten young heifers or 
young cows having had a calf or two, and five or six young bulls, 
either of the age you got the two last from me or a year older. 

''The Duke of Northumberland (1940) and Short-tail (2631) are 
the only bulls I am now using, and their stock is even more prom- 
ising than that of their sire Belvedere (1706). The four you got 
of me were all by Belvedere, and all my stock are by him and his 
sons. After the trials I have now had and seen of Short-horns for 
nearly sixty years nothing could induce me to use any bull that 
had not Belvedere^s blood. You wUl find U aU money thrown away to 
tmy any buU that has not »pruno from him. 

"Twenty-eight days after the birth of the Duke of Northum- 
berland (1940) , Brokenleg (Duchess 84th) , whom you will remem- 
,ber, was again put to her sire Belvedere and brought 2d Duke of 
Northumberland. She has since brought me a heifer to her sire, 
and is now I expect in calf to Short-tail. 

"By putting Duke of York (1941) to the heifers you got of me 
you will bring their produce into disrepute. I will on no consid- 
eration whatever (if you would give me ten times the price I 
would otherwise have charged you for a heifer) sell you any heif- 
ers to put to any bulls but what I have bred, or are of my blood. 
Nor will I sell you at any price till you and the company you act 
with, under your joint hands, have solemnly promised not to do 
so. My object has never been to make money by breeding, but to 
improve the breed cf Short-horns ; and if I know it I will not sell 
any to anyone who has not the same object in view. On this prin- 
ciple I began breeding, and I am convinced I have a better breed 
of Short-horns in my possession at present than there has been 
for the last fifty years, even in the best days of the Messrs. Col- 
ling. 

"The bull you ask me about sending you, Duke of Northum- 
berland, is evcrthing I can wish in a bull, and Short-tail has taken 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 215 

after 2d Hubback, of whom his dam (Duchess 82d) had two crosses. 
Short-tail's sister (Duchess 41st), the best animal in my posses- 
sion, I expect is in calf to the Duke of Northumberland. The six 
from which your two were taken were good, but the breed of the 
years 1835-^ were far superior to those six, though very good. 
Brokenleg (Duchess 84th) I offered you at 100 guineas. If you 
were to send twenty times that sum for her and her produce I 
would not take it now. You will remember I told you after buy- 
ing the two heifers that if either of them died on the passage or 
did not breed when you got them home I would give you the two 
nearest in blood to them. Now (Red Rose 13th) a sister in blood 
to your Rose Of Sharon (calved since you were here) has produced 
a heifer (Sd Cambridge Rose) to her sire Belvedere ; and for the 
two I would not take 1,000 guineas. These would have been yours 
now had -yours not bred. I will not sell either cow or calf, but I 
have no objection to sell the bulls I breed from them, or from my 
Duchess tribe, which are far better animals than the Red Rose 
tribe. I will not part with the females of these tribes at present.'' 

Mr. Clay's importations to Kentucky.— In 
1836 and 1837 Mr. H. Clay Jr., Fayette Co., Ky., 
imported eleven head of Short-horns, including 
the bulls Lord Althorpe 65S and Neptune 748, 
and cows Britannia (roan), Victoria (white), by 
Osgodley,aiid Crocus (red-and-white), by Impe- 
rial (2151). The pedigrees of some of these 
cattle were imperfect or missing entirely. In 
1838, in connection with Gen, James Shelby, 
Mr, Clay made a further importation, consisting 
of twelve head, including the bulls Cossack, alias 
Julius Caesar (3503), Don John 426, and cows 
Jane, Dorcas, Charity, Nerissa, Moss Rose by 
Eclipse, Columbine, Pet, Vixen, Princess and 
Protectress. The bull Cossack, or Julius Caesar, 
above mentioned, was a roan, bred by Mr. Top- 
ham, sired by Cossack (1880), bred by Richard 



216 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Booth of Studley, dam imp. Moss Rose by 
Eclipse. He was imported as a calf, was after- 
ward sold to Benjamin Warfield, and left much 
good stock. At a sale held by Mr. Clay at Lex- 
ington in the fall of 1839 eight cows and heifers 
averaged $420 each, the highest price paid be- 
ing $835 for a two-year-old. 

Dr. Martin's importation of 1839.— Dr. Sam- 
uel D. Martin of Clark Co., Ky., who had been 
breeding Short-horns for some years, in 1839 
sent an order to Mr. Paley for a shipment of 
cattle. Mr. Paley had assisted in the selections 
made for the Ohio Co. and filled this order by 
sending oiit nine head, including the cows 
Jessy (roan of A. L. Maynard's breeding), by 
Plenipo (4724); Beauty (red-roan), by Laurel 
(2188); Leonida (red), by Red Simon (2499); 
Rosalie (red-and- white), by Cadet (1770), dam 
Leonida, just mentioned; Sprightly (red-and- 
white), by Fitz Roslyn (2026), and Jessamine 
(roan), by Leonidas (4211) out of imp. Jessy, 
mentioned above. The cow Sprightly gave 
birth in December, 1839, to a pair of twin bulls, 
afterward recorded as Specie (5289) and Specu- 
lation (5293), both bred by Mr. Paley, and sired 
by Mendoza (4456). Imp. Beauty produced to 
an English service the red bull calf Bullion 
(3240). 

B. Huteheraft's importation. — Reuben H. 
Hutchcraftof Bourbon Co., Ky., imported seven 



BEVELOPMBNT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 217 

head from England in 1839, including the bulls 
Van Buren 1062, bred by Col. Cradock and 
sired by Magnum Bonum (2243) and the year- 
ling Don John (3603). The females included 
the roan yearling heifer Wild Rose, by Chorister 
(3378), bred by Mr. Watkin; the red cow Har- 
riet, by Gainf ord (2044), and the Magnum Bonum 
heifers Fatima, Beda and Blossom — all of Col. 
Cradock's breeding. 

Fayette County Importing Co.— The first 
** syndicate" formed in Kentucky for the pur- 
chase of English Short-horns was that repre- 
sented by the Fayette County Importing Co., 
which, in the spring of 1839, sent the Rev. R. 
T. Dillard and Mr. Nelson Dudley abroad as 
agents. They bought twenty-one head of cows 
and heifers and seven bulls. After arrival in 
Kentucky the cattle were placed upon the farm 
of David Sutton, near Lexington, and in July, 
1840, were sold at auction. This was consid- 
ered a very superior lot and included such fine 
bulls Bs Eclipse (9069) and Carcase (3285), of 
S. Wiley's breeding. Among the females that 
afterward gave rise to good families of Short- 
horns were Victoria, by Plenipo; Fashion (dam 
of heifer calf Zelia, by Norfolk); Lady Eliza- 
beth, by Emperor; Rosabella 2d, by Velocipede, 
etc. Indeed, some of the best cattle bred in 
subsequent years in Kentucky and the West 
claimed descent from this selection, and on 



218 A HISTORY OF 8H0ET-H0BN CATTLE. 

this account we append herewith report of the 
sale: 

cows AND HSIFBRS. 

Victoria, roan, calved August, 1885; bred by J. EL Maynard, 

sired by Plenipo (4724)— R. Fisher $1,750 

Miss Maynard, roan, calved 1887, bought of A. L. Maynard, 

sired by Chorister (8378)— A. McClure 1,005 

Avarilda, white, calved April, 1846; bred by W. F. Paley, 

sired by Norfolk (2377)— John Allen 020 

f^hion, roan, calved April, 1833; bred by W. Cooper, sired 
by Young Don Juan (^10) , and red-and- white heifer calf 
Zelia, by Norfolk (2377)— F. W. Williams 885 

Miss Luck, roan, calved May 25, 1834; bought of Mr. Whit- 

aker, rired by Allison's Roan Bull (2999) — H. Clay Jr . . . . 800 

Nancy, white, calved Jan. 1, 1887; sired by Reformer (2510) 

—C. J. Rogers 780 

Tulip, roan, calved 1836, bred by Mr. Crofton, sired by Bach- 
elor (1666)— A. McClure 700 

Beauty, roan, calved March, 1834 ; bought of A. L. Maynard, 

sired by Belvcdero (1706)— H. Clay Jr 700 

Lady Elizabeth,* roan, calved Feb. 4, 1838 ; bred by Mr. Crof- 
ton, sired by Emperor (1974)— H. Clay Jr 660 

Splendor, roan, calved March, 1834; bred by Mr. Cattley, 

sired by Bedford Jr. (1701)— B. Gratz 65C 

Elizabeth, roan, calved October, 1832; bred by J. E. May- 
nard, sired by Plenipo (4724)— A. McClure 606 

Rosabella 2d, roan, calved January, 1839; bought of Mr. 
Whitaker; sired by Velocipede (5652) , running to Col- 
ling's Golden Pippin— W. A. Warner 466 

Flora, calf of imp. Beauty— H. Clay 410 

Lily, white, calved 1834; bred by L. Severs, sired by Count 

(8506)— T. Calmes ;. 890 

Britannia, roan, calved February, 1838; bred by Mr. Crof- 
ton, sired by Emperor (1974), and heifer calf Dido— II. T. 
Duncan 875 

Isabella, white, calved Oct. 14, 1839; bred by T. Crofton, 

sired by Melmoth (2291)— R. Fisher, Boyle County 855 

«Lady Elizabeth was an exceedlnerly well-hrod cow and proved the 
anceHtresB of one of the best families of Short-horns ever bred in the West- 
ern States. The branch known a» the Nelly Blys, In the liandB of Mr. J. H. 
Spears of IlllnoiB and others, acquired national reputation for their uniform 
hiffh excellence. 



DEVELOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 219 

Jessica, roan, calved Feb. 22, 18S9; bought of Mr. Maynard, 
sired by Velocipede (5552) out of imp. Beauty by Belve- 
dere—Joel Higgins 830 

Maria, heifer calf from imp. Elizabeth— J. B. Ford 810 

Miss Hopper, roan, calved 1835; bred by T. Crofton, sired by 

Duke (1985)-W. T. Cahnes 270 

BULLS. 

Eclipse (9069), calved April 26, 1837; bred by Mr. Arrow- 
smith ; sired by Velocii^ede (5552)— K. Fisher $^1,050 

Carcase (3285), red-and- white, calved July, 1837; bred by S. 
Wiley; sired by Belshazzar (1704)— Benjamin Gratz, 
Lexington 726 

Nelson 741, white, calved Dec. 4, 1839; bred by Mr. Whita- 

ker ; sired by Sir Thomas Fairfax (5196)— P. Todhuntcr 610 

ilk>lus 2CX), roan, calved April, ISiiO; bred by Mr. Rowland- 
son, sired by Harlscy (2091)— K. Fisher 610 

Prince Albert 2065, roan, calved May 25, 1840; bred by J. E. 
Mayuard ; sired by Carcase (3285) out of imp. Victoria 
by Plenipo— J. Floumoy 850 

Bruce 289, bull calf from imp. Avarilda— M. Williams 815 

Milton 713, calf Ox imp. Miss Maynard— James Gaines ?S5 

19 females sold for $12,210; an average of $642.60 

7 bulls sold for 8,945 ; an average of . 568.65 

26 animals sold for 16,155 ; an average of 621.35 

From the above it appears that Fayette 
County buyers took eight head, Bourbon, Scott 
and Mercer Counties five each and Jessamine 
County four. In view of the fact that this sale 
was made during a period of declininr; values 
the prices obtained were excellent and dem- 
onstrated the pluck of the Kentucky breeders 
of that day. 

Importations into .Tennessee. — The great 
interest manifested in Short-horn breeding in 
Kentucky extended at an early date into the 
neighboring SUte of Tennessee, and a few cat- 
tle were imported into that State prior to 1840. 



220 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTL*. 

Unfortunately no exact data exist in reference 
to these selecrions. It is known that in 1837 
Messrs. Gordon & Bradford of Nashville im- 
ported the cow Hibemia, recorded in Vol. 
XXIV of the American Herd Book. She was 
white with red markings, said to have been 
bred in Ireland, and was sold soon after im- 
portation to the Shakers of South Union, Ky. 
About the same date Mr. Harvey Hill of New 
Orleans imported and sent to his farm in Ten- 
nessee the roan heifers Gentle, by Cupid (7941), 
Lady Littleton (white), by Ranunculus (2479), 
and Mild Spring, that were sold to Mark R. 
Cockrill of Nashville. Messrs. Shelby & Wil- 
liams of Nashville imported the heifers Agnes 
and Buttercup (the former calved in 1835 and 
the latter in 1836) and the bulls Champion and 
Cassius. These latter were without pedigrees 
so far as the records show. 

Mr. B. Letton imported in 1840 into Ten- 
nessee the young cows Beauty, Spot and Cow- 
slip, Beauty calved the white Aqua, and Spot 
the red-aud-white Neptune at sea. An un- 
named roan and a red-and-white heifer were 
included in this same shipment. All were 
without herd-book record. Some five years 
previous a Mr. Murdock'had imported the red- 
and-white Bella, by Silkworm (5129), and cow 
Rebecca — bred by Sir John Kennedy — together 
with the bulls Murdock and Silkworm — both 



DEVELOPMENT OP OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 221 

roans. Bella was pedigreed and passed into 
the possession of M. R. Cockrill. . 

William Neff's importation. — In June, 1838, 
William NefF, a public-spirited and wealthy 
business man residing in Cincinnati, imported 
into Ohio the roan cows Blossom, by Belshaz- 
zar (1704); Catherine, by Eastthorpe (1947); 
Strawberry (of Booth blood), by Ambo (1636); 
and bulls Prince William 1390, Cincinnatus and 
Clifford — the former roan and the latter white. 
To this list, as given by Mr. Warfield, Judge 
Jones adds the roan heifer Lady Anne, by Mag- 
num Bonum (2243), and states that she was a 
great dairy cow, giving thirty-two quarts of 
milk per day for two months in succession. 
The Judge also states that Mr. Neff imported 
the roan bull Berryman (3143), but Mr. War- 
field is authority for the statement that Lady 
Anne and Berryman were imported by Mr. Jo- 
siah Lawrence of Cincinnati, and in addition 
states that Lawrence also imported in 1838 the 
heifers Juno, Fortuna, Adelaide, Empress and 
Verbena. 

Wait and other importations.— In 1839 Sam- 
uel Wait imported, via New Orleans, Duchess, 
by Studley Royal (5342); Rosebud, bred by John 
Booth of Killerby, sired by Harlsey (2091); Lily 
of the Tees, by Belvedere 2d (3126); Pretender 
(4756), bred by Lord Feversham; Velocipede 
11098, Cleveland (3405) and Liverpool. Mr. 



222 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

Warfield states that these cattle were sold to 
Messrs. Shirley & Birch of Louisville, Ky. lu 
1840 Mr. Wait made another importation, con- 
sisting of the two bulls. Macadam 1814 and 
Anty (3021), and eight cows, Ellen Long, by 
Beaumont (3115); Hebe, by a son of High- 
flyer (2122); Victoria (or White Rose), by 
Matchem 4th; Pink, by Belvedere 2d (3127); 
Flora, by Imperial (2151); Splendour, bred by 
Mr. Cattley and sired by Symmetry (2723), 
and Daisy, by Bamaby (1678). It is said that 
most of these cowa were^ imported for Mr. S. 
Bradford of Tennessee. Splendour is said to 
' have been sold to Mr. E. P. Prentice of New 
York in 1839. Daisy passed into the possession 
of the Shakers of Kentucky. Messrs. Wait & 
Bagg also imported about this sanie time the 
roan bull Albion (2971), bred by R. Lawson and 
sired by Charles (3343). The pedigrees of some 
of these cattle seem to have been perfect and 
others were not. Mr. Warfield says: " So many 
errors and blunders have been found in the ped- 
igrees of the cattle imported by S. Wait that it 
is deemed necessary to state that they should 
be examined with great care." 

In 1837 the bull Grosvenor (3946), tracing to 
a Booth foundation, was imported for Mr. Mi- 
chael Boyne, and the bull Sovereign 995, with 
heifer Strawberry, by Magnum Bonum, for 
Messrs. R. Jackson and John Hodgson; presum- 



DBVSLOPMENT OF OHIO VALLEY HERDS. 223 

ably in connection with the Ohio Co/s opera- 
tions. 

About 1840 Messrs. Joel Higgins and Calvin 
C. Morgan imported into Fayette Co., Ky., five 
heifers from the herd of Mr. Chrisp, as follows: 
Mary and Theodosia, both by Prince Eugene 
(2C43); Henrietta, by Red Prince (2489); Ele- 
anor, by Brougham (1746), and Princess (or 
Anne), by Captain (3273); the fii-st four roans 
and the latter red. 

First Bates bull for Kentucky.— Between 
the years 1839 and 1841 James Letton of Bour- 
bon Co., Ky., imported several females and two 
bulls, one of the latter being Locomotive (4245), 
bred by Mr. Bates and sired by Duke of North- 
umberland (1940) out of the Oxford Premium 
Cow. This bull was a half-brother to Duke of 
Wellington (3654), imported by Mr. Vail of New 
York. Mr.Warfield lists the Letton importation 
as having been made in 1839. The Albany Cul- 
tivator tor July, 1841 (page 120), is our authority 
for the statement that Locomotive arrived in 
New York May 20, 1841, so that we believe our 
statement on page 230, that Duke of Wellington 
was the first Oxford bull bought for Amer- 
ica, to be correct.* For Locomotive the sum of 

• It is sale; that Mr. Letton bad seen the Bates-Oxford bull Duke of Wei- 
Unffton. bought by George Vail, land at New York, and was so favorably 
Impressed that upon loamlnff that Duke had a half-brother (Locomotive. 
that had been bonirht of Mr. BateH by J C. Etches of Liverpool for 100 guin- 
eas) he determined to buy him. TIiiB lie did. aud the bull (Locomotive) 
proved a Buccessful pnzc-wlnncr in Kentucky. 



224 



A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 



$1,225 was paid in England. He became the 
property of W. T. Calmes of Fayette Co., Ky., 
upon whose farm he died. Among the cows 
imported by Mr. Letton was the red-roan 
lanthe, by Barforth (3085), that gave rise to a 
numerous family. Another that had many de- 
scendants was Miss Severs, by Eefonner (2510). 



CHAPTER IX, 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS — 1830 TO 1850. 

While the farmers and stock -growers of the 
Ohio Valley States were making substantial 
progress in the improvement of their herds, as 
noted in the preceding chapter, large infusions 
of fresh blood from England were introduced 
into New York and Pennsylvania. The more 
important importations made into these and 
adjacent States, contemporaneous with and 
following the important operations of Colonel 
Powel already mentioned, will now be noted. 

New York importations.--Mr. Wm. Jackson 
imported into New York between the years 
1833 and 1840 the roan cows Duchess, by Ebor 
(996); Rose, by Skipton, and Miss Scotson. The 
former was sold to Messrs. Wasson & Shropshire 
and Rose to N. L. Lindsey of Kentucky. The 
latter had numerous descendants, among which 
were many excellent cattle, but, as her sire 
was not pedigreed, these shared more or less in 
the discredit that was cast in later years upon 
cattle tracing to animals having such defects 
in their lineage. Jackson also imported the 
bulls Magnet and Dimples 421, the latter being 

15 (225) 



226 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

taken by Mr. Brent to Bourbon Co., Ky., in 
1835. 

Around 1834 to 1836 Thomas Weddle im- 
ported about fifteen head of Short-honis, most 
of which were females. Some of these were 
pedigreed and some were not. Among the ped- 
igreed cows were Daisy and Crocus, both by 
Romulus (2563); Primrose, by Pioneer (1321), 
and Buttercup, by Sir Walter (1459). Primrose 
was bought at Mr. Weddle's sale of 1838 by 
Gen. James Dudley of Fayette Co., Ky. The 
roan bull Charles (1816), bred by the Earl of 
Carlisle and sired by Rockingham (2550) of the 
Weddle importation, was taken to Kentucky 
the same year by Gen, Dudley. Allen states 
that Mr. Weddle was an Englishman, who had 
emigi-ated from Yorkshire into Western New 
York and brought these cattle with him. He 
states that they were all well-bred Short-horns, 
chiefly from the well-known herd of Major 
Bower. 

In 1835 Samuel Allen is said to have imported 
into New York the roan cow Rachel of Mr. 
Whitaker's breeding on the same ship that 
brought out one of the Ohio Co.'s iijQ£;>0 iAT^tions. 
Although her pedigree was mis'aiu she was 
guaranteed a purely-bred Sj.cit-horn and gave 
(when in full flow of milk on asture) twenty- 
eight quarts per day. Mr. Allen also ' rought out 
at same time the roan cow Miss Lawrence, said 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS, ii27 

to have been bred by Richard Booth at Stud- 
ley. Her pedigree was also lost, but she is said 
to have been a prize-winner as a dairy cow in 
England before being shipped, and after her 
arrival in America gave thirty-four quarts of 
rich milk per day on grass alone. She was sold 
in 1839 to N. C. Baldwin of Cleveland, 0. A 
third cow in this same shipment was the white 
Miss Mellon, that became the property of Lewis 
F. Allen, founder of the American Herd Book. 
She was also an excellent milker, producing, 
Mr. Allen states, for weeks in succession twelve 
pounds of butter per week. 

In 1836 Messrs. Edward A. Leroy and Thomas 
H. Newbold of Livingston Co., New York, im- 
ported three heifers and the bull Windle 185. 
The heifers w^ere Venus, by Magnum Bonum; 
Dione, by Monarch, and Netherby, by the same 
sire. About 1836 Peter A. Remsen of Genesee 
County imported the red bull Alexander 4, of 
Mr. Maynard's breeding, and several cows and 
heifers, including Adelaide, Pretty Face, La- 
vinia and White Rose. He bred from these 
for several years, and after disposing of some 
of them in New York removed with the re- 
mainder to Maryland, where they were finally 
dispersed. About 1838 Mr. John F. Sheaffe es- 
tablished a Short-horn herd at his farm and 
country residence in Duchess County, on the 
Hudson River. He started with cattle de- 



228 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

scended from the early New England importa- 
tions. To these he added, soon after 1840, the 
COWS Phoebe 1st, Dahlia 1st and Beauty 1st, but 
the pedigrees of these are imperfectly stated. 
He subsequently imported the roan cow Ser- 
aphina, by Wharfdale (1578), and the red-and- 
white bull Duke of Exeter 449 — the latter bred 
by J. Stephenson of Wolviston. This bull is 
said to have proved a capital sire. He is de- 
scribed as an animal possessing remarkable 
quality and subsequently passed into the pos- 
session of Lewis F. Allen. Mr. Sheaffe bred 
cattle until Aug. 29, 1850, when his herd was 
dispersed at public sale. Between the years 
1840 and 1843 James Lenox of New York, who 
owned a fine country seat adjoining that of 
Mr. Sheaffe, imported three cows and two bulls, 
including Daffodil, Red Lady and Gayly, and 
the bulls Prince Albert 133 and King Charles 
2d 84 — bred by Jonas Whitaker, The two 
bulls and one of the females were sired by the 
noted Sir Thomas Fairfax (5196). Between 
the years 1835 and 1841 Mr. E. P. Prentice of 
Albany imported eight or ten head of Short- 
horns, which were placed upon his villa farm 
near that city. He had founded his herd with 
stock bought from the early importations of 
General Van Rensselaer already mentioned. 
Among the females imported were several from 
the herd of Mr. Whitaker, including Esterville, 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS. 229 

by Alfred (2987), and Moss Rose, by Harden. 
He maintained the herd until 1850, when it 
was dispersed at public sale. 

In 1836 Erastus Coming of Albany, in connec- 
tion with Mr. W. H, Sotham, who later be- 
came an active advocate of Herefords, made 
an importation consisting of seven females 
and three bulls. One of the cows, the roan 
Wilddame, by Anthony (1640), proved a very 
successful breeder, and left many descendants 
whose pedigrees may be found in the American 
Herd Book. She was from the stock of Mr. W. 
Lovell, from whose herd Mr. Coming also ob- 
tained the heifers Mary, MrA el, Cherry, Pet, 
Cleopatra and Venus. The bulls Columbus 
(5869), also from Mr. Lovell's herd, and Ashley 
(3045) were imported along with these heifers. 
About 1846 a Mr. Oliver of Westchester County 
imported the bull Marius 684, a roan, bred by 
Earl Spencer from Mason stock. He was sold 
to Col. L. G. Morris, who exhibited him at the 
New Tprk State Fair at Buffalo in 1848, at 
which show he was sold to David Harrold of 
South Charleston, 0., in which State he did ex- 
cellent service for some years. 

VaU's purchases of Bates cattle. — Some- 
where about the year 1835 Mr. George Vail of 
Troy, New York, became enamored of Short- 
horn breeding and established a herd at his 
country seat near that cit y . Between the years 



230 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HGEN CATTLE. 

1839 and 1844 he imported, in connection with 
Mr. S. P. Chapman, about fifteen head of cat- 
tle. In 1840 he bought from Thomas Bates, 
through Mr. Etches of Liverpool, the roan bull 
calf Duke of Wellington (3654), that was sired 
by the Duchess bull Short Tail (2621) and had 
for dam the noted Oxford Premium Cow, win- 
ner at the first show ever held by the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England. This purchase 
constituted the earliest importation of the 
Duchess and Oxford blood into this country.* 
Mr. Vail also bought from Mr. Bates a cow 
called Duchess, although not belonging to the 
family of that name. She was a white daugh- 
ter of Duke of Northumberland (1940) out of 
Nonesuch 2d by Belvedere (1706). This cow 
produced the two bulls Meteor 104 and Sym- 
metry 166, both by Duke of Wellington, but 
died without leaving female progeny. Mr. Vail 
showed a marked partiality for Bates blood and 
subsequently impoi-ted the red heifer Lady Bar- 
rington 3d, bred by Mr. Bates from Cleveland 
Lad (3407) out of Lady Barrington 2d by Bel- 
vedere (1706). From Messrs. Thomas and Rob- 
ert Bell, tenants of Mr. Bates, he obtained the 

• It may be of some Interest to state that from an entry In the Klrklev- 
Ing-toa accouutH, Ixiarlng^ date of June 8, 1840. It appears that Mr. Vail paid 
for Duke of WolUng^ton and DuclieBS the sum of £2(W. It appears from a 
letter written by Mr. Hatea to Mr. Vail In 184:i that 100 milneas each was be- 
hiK' ankiKl for such cat'wh; as Bates was willing to spare. In this same letter 
Bates adds. " Tlie tribes of really pood Sliort-homs are very few. I have 
trliHl myself above two hundred varieties. Out of these 1 have but slZ 
trilMiS which 1 do not mean to part with." 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS. 231 

roan Hilpa, by Cleveland Lad (3407); the roan 
Yarm Lass, by 4th Duke of York (1X)167); the 
red-and-white Cecilia, by 3d Duke of Northum- 
berland; the roan Agate, by 3d Duke of York 
(10166), running on the dam's side to Acomb 
by Belvedere; the red-and-white Arabella, also 
an Acomb, sired by 4th Duke of Northumber- 
land (3649); the roan Frantic, by 4th Duke of 
York (10167); Boukie (red-roan), by 4th Duke 
of York, tracing on dam's side to Craggs, a cow 
obtained by Messrs. Bell from Mr. Bates; and 
the roan bull Earl Derby 456, by 5th Duke of 
York (10168) out of Lady Barrington 4th. 

Prior to Mr. VaiPs purchases of Bates-bred 
Short-horns about the only specimens of Kirk- 
levington breeding seen in the United States, 
had been the few brought out during the course 
of the Ohio Co.'s importations. Mr. Vail was 
an enthusiast in Short-horn breeding and ex- 
hibited with success at the York State shows of 
that period.* He made an effort to be present 



• WritiniT to Mr. Bates In 1847 Mr. Vail said: " I sent my bull Meteor to 
the show for eidilbltion only at the request of some friends, us he had taken 
the first premium for the best Durham bull In 1844, as well as the first prize 
for bull of any breed. The bull Marius, bred by Earl Spencer, Justly took 
first premium In Durham bulls. The Judges in their report on these said: 
• The Justly celebrated bull Meteor, belonginsr to Mr. George Vail, was on 
:heflrround for exhibition only, being excluded from competing at present. 
Wo think he stands unrivaled.' * * * I suppose there were 30.000 or 40,000 
persons present, among them many of the first men in the country and two 
ex-Presidents of the United States. • • * Mr. A. B. Allen of New York, 
whom you know, Is continually urging me to get a yoimg Duchess bull 
from you. I would much like one, but at present dare not venture the ex- 
pense. • • • Meteor Is In some respects a finer animal t!ian W<'11in?ton. 
He is t>etter in the hind quarters and across the hips. Wellington has rot 



232 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

at the closing-out sale of the Bates herd in Eng- 
land, but the event occurred at an earlier date 
than he had anticipated, so that he did not ar- 
rive until the sale was over. He had mean- 
kime bought the herd of Mr. Prentice, but soon 
afterward gave up breeding; his herd being sold 
in October, 1852. 

Whitaker's shipments to America. — Un- 
doubtedly the most active man in England in 
connection with shipments to America during 
the period from 1820 to 1840 was Jonas Whit- 
aker. He had not only sold quite a number of 
cattle to the early New York and Massachusetts 
importers as already detailed, but had supplied 
Col. Powel of Philadelphia with many first-class 
cattle. He had also been largely instrumental 
in the selection of the importations made by 
the Ohio Co. and its individual members. Im- 
pelled by the high prices made at the Ohio Co.'s 
sales Mr. Whitaker determined to try the ex- 
periment of exporting Short-horns to America 
to be offered for sale on his own account. The 
first shipment was made in August, 1837, the 
cattle being placed upon the farm of Col. Powel. 
This lot consisted of fifteen bulls and nineteen 
cows and heifers. Whitaker was always a good 

a broad hip and Is ratber thin across the twist.' His fore end cannot be 
beat. He is a superior handler, as is also Meteor. The latter weighs 2JKn 
lbs. and Wellin^on will wei^h nearly 1,900 lbs. Meteor would Uke hirb 
rank even in yonr country. • • • Our county show took place last week 
and was the best we have had. I was equally successful in winning pro* 
mlttms here as at the State show. Hilpa took the first prise" 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS. 233 

"keeper," and these animals were forwarded in 
good condition; and as they were well bred and 
their coming had been widely advertised they 
attracted much attention, and when offered at 
auction drew the presence of a great attend- 
ance not only from the States of New York and 
Pennsylvania but from the then distant cattle- 
, breeding districts of Ohio and Kentucky. The 
sale occurred at Powelton in September, 1837, 
the bulls averaging $353, the cows $480,* and 
the total sales aggregating $14,215. Among 
those sold upon this occasion were the follow- 
ing: 

ClarksTillef by Lottery (2227), a roan two-year-old heifer, 
bought by Mr. Nefl for I6SM) and subsequently sold to John Ifadley 
of Clinton Co., C, in which State she gave rise to a considerable 
family. 

Youog Isabella, a red-and-white cow, bred by Richard Booth, 
sired by Memnon (22d5) out of the celebrated Isabella by Pilot. 
She was bought by C. J. Wolbert of Philadelphia for 1406. 

Profitable, roan, two-year-old heifer, sired by Young Ebor 
(9682), sold to Mr. Neff of CinciuDati for 1560. 

Ruth, red-and- white six-year-old, bred by Richard Booth and 
belonging to the old KlUerby Moss Rose family, also sold to Mr. 
Nefl at «MO. 

Beauty,* red-and-white four-year-old, bred by Mr. Tempest, 
sired by De Veauz (1916), runniDg throu^'h Bertram (1716) and 
Frederick (1060) to CoUing^s old Bright Eyes sort. This cow was 
likewise purchased by Mr. Neff at 1540. 

* From Imp. Beaaty was descended the irreat family of show and breed- 
ing cattle known as " Profltables," afterward famous in Ohio In the hands of 
the late David Selaor, from whose herd many splendid Individual Short- 
horns of that tribe were sold throusrhout various Western States. There 
was at one time an effort made to discredit this family on account of alleged 
InabtU^ to trace the lineaere direct to Imp. Beauty. The breediner was, 
however, certified to by Mr. J. J. JoneH, who bought the cow Profitable 2d 
from Mr. Keff. See reference to this in Bretder» Gazette, Sept. U, 18S2. 



234 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

LiUcilla, roan four-year-old, by E>liDund (1954) , also bought by 
Mr. Neff and resold to Benjamin Scott of Kentucky. 

Brutus 31, roan yearling bull, bred by Wbitaker, bought by 
Mr. Neff for $330. 

Bruce (3233), red yearling bull, bred by Whitaker, bought by 
Mr. Rotch of New York for 1380. 

Miser (2323), white yearling bull, bred by Whitaker, bought by 
Mr. Cunningham for $470. 

While these prices were not altogether sat- 
isfactory to Mr. Whitaker he sent out another , 
considerable shipment in 1838 or 1839 that were 
also- sold near Philadelphia. In this lot were 
twenty-two cows and heifers and six bulls. 
They were sold at sales held in the years 1838 
and 1839, but accurate records as to what be- 
came of many of the cattle have not been pre- 
served. There are in fact few descendants of 
the females included in these last shipments on 
record in this country. One exception to this 
may be noted, however, in the case of the roan 
Victoria, by Luck's All (2230), of Mr. Cattley's 
breeding, that was bought at the sale by Mr. 
George Brinton for $520. This was about the 
highest price made at the last sales, values rang- 
ing sharply downward from about that figure. 
The depression which was at this date begin- 
ning to settle down upon American industries 
militated against success in these operations of 
Mr. Whitaker and he nifide no further ship- 
ments. 

Introduction of Princess blood. — Mr. Vail's 
importations had the effect of drawing public 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS. 235 

attention to the herd of Mr. Bates, and in the 
year 1849 Mr. Ambrose Stevens of Batavia, 
N. Y., went to England with a letter of intro- 
duction to Bates from Vail and* purchased for 
importation the roan bull 3d Duke of Cam- 
bridge (5941), then eight years old, sired by the 
Duke of Northumberland (1940) out of Water- 
loo 2d by Belvedere. This bull represented a 
union of the Duchess, Princess and Waterloo 
tribes, and after his arrival in America an in- 
terest in him was sold to Col. J. M. Sherwood 
of Auburn, N. Y. Along with the Duke Mr. 
Stevens brought out from the herd of Mr. Ste- 
phenson of Wolviston the roan yearling heifers 
Princess 2d, by General Sale (8099), and Prin- 
cess 3d, by Napier (R238), together with Red 
Rose 2d, a red four-year-old cow by Napier, 
These were the first representatives of the tribe 
of Belvedere to be transferred to American 
soil. Red Rose 2d was sold to Col. Sherwood. 
She was a capital dairy cow, and it is recorded 
that "she made forty-nine pounds of butter in 
twenty-five consecutive days in May and June, 
1851, when four years old with her second calf." 
Mr. Stevens brought out in 1849, as a calf, the 
Princess bull Lord Vano Tempest (10469) and 
sold him to Col. Sherwood. 

In 1850 Messrs. Stevens and Sherwood im- 
ported the two-year-old Princess bull Earl of 
Seaham (10181), of Stephenson's breeding, that 



236 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

was afterward sold to Rev. John A. Gano, Ken- 
tucky. The Earl also proved a successful stock- 
getter. Along wath him were imported the cows 
Princess 4th, by Napier; Waterloo 5th and Wild 
Eyes 5th, both of Bates blood, but they died 
without issue. The red Princess bull Wolvis- 
ton 1109 was also included in this shipment, 
and was sold after importation to William Ash- 
ton of Gait, Can. In 1851 Messrs. Stevens and 
Sherwood imported the Princess bull calf Earl 
Vane (14483) and the five-year-old cow Princess 
1st, by Napier. The following year the roan 
Princess heifer Lady Sale 2d, by Earl of Chat- 
ham (10176), and the roan four-year-old Prin- 
cess cow Tuberose 2d, by Earl of Antrim 
(10174), were brought out. Red Rose 2d, Tube- 
rose 2d and Lady Sale 2d became the matrons 
of the Princess tribe in America, and in later 
years their descendants commanded enormous 
prices as a result of the great appreciation in 
values of Bates-bred Short-horns. This was of 
course due to the fact of the great success met 
with by Mr. Bates in the use of Belvedere. 

Miscellaneous importations. — In 1835 Mr. 
Harmer Denny of Pittsburg imported the red- 
and-white yearling bull Young Buckingham 
(1758), a roan two-year-old heifer and her sire, 
a bull called Architect; the two latter not being 
fully pedigreed. These were selected in Eng- 
land by Rev. John A. Robertson. During the 



EASTERN IMPORTATIONS. 237 

same year R. D. Shepherd of Baltimore, Md,, 
imported nine females and six bulls, some of 
which were without pedigrees. Several of the 
cows, including Lucrece, Haidie and Diana, 
were sold to Hon. Henry Clay and taken to Ken- 
tucky. In 1837 or 1838 William Gibbons of 
Madison, N. J., imported the roan bull Majestic 
(2249), bred by Mr. Crofton, the roan Arthur 
(3040) and the white cow Volage; both of the 
latter bred by Whitaker. In 1838 Dr. John A. 
Poole of Brunswick, N. J., imported the white 
yearling bull Bernard 19, descended from Mag- 
dalena, by Comet, and the cows Maria, Fanny 
and Barmpton Cow. In 1839 Joseph Cope of 
Pennsylvania bought at Kirklevington the roan 
bull Yorkshireman (5700), bred by Bates and be- 
longing to his Blanche tribe; paying for him 
something over £100. In 1839 Daniel Holman 
imi)orted the red-and-white three-year-old cow 
Jane, bred by G. L. Ridley and sired by Young 
Magog (2247). We should also note the ship- 
ment of the roan cow Violet, by Regent (2517), 
along with the bulls Young Rocket (4979) and 
Rubens (2573) to H. Whitney of Connecticut 
about 1840, Also the importation by William 
Whitney of Morristown, N. J., about the same 
date of the tw-in heifers Cornelia and Harriet, 
l)y Birmingham (3152), and their dam, the 
roan Ringlet, by Belshazzar (1704), of the Earl 
of Carlisle's breeding. 



CHAPTER X. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY IN 
AMERICA. 

During the decade from 1840 to 1850 a pro- 
found depression overtook American agricultu- 
ral industries. The outburst of activity in live- 
stock improvement that had found manifesta- 
tion in the new West duriug the "thirties" in 
the operations of the first Ohio and Kentucky 
importing companies, was followed by ten or 
twelve years of declining values and waning 
interest in all things agricultural. Importa- 
tions ceased. Discouraged by the absence of 
demand for good cattle, leading breeders reluc- 
tantly castrated many well-bred young bulls 
that should have been doing service in the 
herds of the farming community. Large num- 
l)ers of good cows and heifers were fed off for 
the shambles. Pedigree records w^ere in many 
causes neglected. * In this way many descend- 
ants of the importations already noted disap- 
peared from view. As has been true, however, 
during all such trying times, certain men who 
knew that history never fails to repeat itself 
stood steadfastly by the " red, white and roans," 

(238) 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 239 

firm in the belief that the tide would some day 
turn. And so it did. 

Soon after 1850 the clouds that had settled 
over the industry during the twelve years pre- 
ceding began to break. The price of meats 
advanced under a renewed domestic demand 
and the opening up of foreign markets for 
grains and provisions. Those who had tena- 
ciously held their ground in cattle breeding dis- 
cerned signs of better days near at hand and 
began taking steps to recruit their herds up to 
the former standard. We now enter upon a 
most interesting period of Short-horn history; 
a period characterized by remarkable activity 
on the part of powerful interests; a period that 
witnessed the founding of the great herds at 
Woodbum and Thorndale; the organization 
of numerous importing coiripanies in Kentucky, 
Ohio and New York, and that also marks the 
extension of Short-horn breeding into Indiana, 
Illinois and other Western States. 

The first "Duke" for America.— Mr. Loril- 
lard Spencer of New York imported in the year 
1851 or 1852 the red Bates Duchess bull Duke 
of Athol (10150), that had been sold at the Kirk- 
levington sale of 1850 as a calf to Mr. Parker 
of Penrith for forty guineas. Along with him 
came the young bull Augustus (11125) and 
Woldsman (11026), together with the heifers 
Sonsie 8th, by 2d Cleveland Lad; Faraway, by 



240 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

3d Duke of Oxford, and Jean, by Chevalier. 
He bred from these for a few years and pos- 
sessed a few other Short-horns bought from 
New York State ])reeders. He maintained the 
herd, however, but a short time. 

Morris and Becar. — Col. L. G. Morris and 
Noel J. Becar of New York attended the dis- 
persion sale of the herd of Thomas Bates in May, 
1850, as repoiied on page 111, and after looking 
over the cattle determined to invest in the Ox- 
ford blood. Three cows and heifers of the fam- 
ily that gave Mr. Bates his Liverpool Royal 
Champion Cleveland Lad fell to their bidding, 
viz. : The roan five-year-old Oxford 5th, by Duke 
of Northumberland; the red-and-white year- 
ling Oxford 10th, by 3d Duke of York (10166), 
and her full sister, the roan heifer calf Oxford 
13th. Col. Morris took the cow and the year- 
ling, and Mr. Becar the calf. Subsequently Col. 
Morris bought the roan cow Beauty of Brawith 
(of B. Wilson's breeding); the red-roan Bloom, 
l)y the Booth-bred Sir Leonard (10827), and 
Romelia, a roan, by Flageolet (8130). He also 
purchased the red-and-white Bates-bred Balco 
(9918),* by 4th Duke of York (10167) out of 
Wild Eyes 15th by 4th Duke of Northumber- 
land (3649), the first of that tribe to come to 
America; Lord of Eryholme (12205), a roan of 



* At a later period Balco passed Into the posseflsion of OeiL Sol Meredith 
of Cam bridge City, Ind. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 241 

A. L. Maynard's breeding; Marquis of Carrabas 
(11789), a roan, bred by Fawkes of Farnley 
Hall, and the Bell-Bates bull Billy Rtt (9967). 
The roan Romeo (13619), bred by the Marquis 
of Exeter, was bought on joint account, and 
afterward proved a valuable "outcross" upon 
the Oxfords. 

Mr. Becar was a Frenchman who had emi- 
grated when a young man to the city of New 
York, where he established himself as a mer- 
chant, which occupation he for many years suc- 
cessfully pursued. He married an American 
wife, whose family held large possessions of 
land on Long Island. He imported on his indi- 
vidual account some sixteen head of cows and 
heifers between the years 1850 and 1854. In- 
cluded among these were the Bates-bred Oxford 
6th, Lady Barrington 12th and Apricot. The 
shipment also included the Secret heifer Sur- 
prise and the white cow Songstress, the first of 
the Gwynne family (closely allied to the Prin- 
cesses) imported to America. This lot also in- 
cluded the roan cow Actress, by Harkaway 
(9184), that was subsequently sold to the Hon. 
John Wentworth of Chicago, 111. This impor- 
tation is notable also as having contained the 
first specimen of the Mason Victorias brought 
to this country — namely, Victoria 26th, bred by 
Mr. Holmes of Ireland and sired by the Booth 
bull Baron Warlaby (7813). Two roan heifers 

16 



242 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

from noted English herds were Zoe, bred by 
Mr. Tanqueray, and Miss Belleville, bred by 
Mason Hopper and sired by the *' never-beaten" 
Belleville (6778). The former was the earliest 
representative of the ''J" branch of the Prin- 
cess sort imported. 

The Earl Ducie sale in England. — While 
Messrs. Morris and Becar were making these 
purchases an event that was destined to exer- 
cise an extraordinary influence upon Short-horn 
breeding on both sides of the water occurred 
in England. This was the closing-out sale of 
the herd of Earl Ducie, at Tortworth, which 
took place Aug. 24, 1853, as a consequence of 
the Earl's decease. It will be remembered that 
at the Bates dispersion sale Ducie had bought 
the 4th Duke of York, Duchess 55th, Oxford 
6th, Duchess 59th, Duchess 64th and Oxford 
nth. He bred Duchess 59th to Usurer (9763) 
— the Mason-bred bull for which he paid 400 
guineas at the sale of the Earl Spencer cattle 
in 1848. The white Duchess 67th resulted, but 
she seemed so unpromising that Lord Ducie is 
said to have considered that the cross w^as a 
failure and stated that he would never again 
*' outcross " the Duchesses and Oxfords. At the 
Tortworth sale Messrs. Becar and Morris were 
represented and secured Duchess 66th and the 
red three-year-old bull Duke of Gloster (11382), 
by Grand Duke (10284). For Duchess 66th 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 243 

they were forced to pay 700 guineas — the top 
price of the sale. She was a roan, coming 
three years *old, sired by 4th Duke of York 
(10167) out of Duchess 55th, and became the 
ancestress in America of the far-famed Oneida, 
Geneva and Thomdale branches of the Bates 
Duchess tribe; the sale of which at New York 
Mills in 1873 proved the most sensational event 
in Short-horn history. 

This Ducie sale was also attended by Messrs. 
Samuel Thome and F. M. Rotch of New York. 
Mr. Thorne was in quest of Short-horns for his 
father, Jonathan Thorne of Dutchess County, 
and purchased Duchess 59th, Duchess 64th and 
Duchess 68th. For these he gave 350 guineas, 
600 guineas and 300 guineas respectively. Had 
it not been for the bidding of Mr. J. S. Tanque- 
ray and Gunter of Gloucestershire the Ameri- 
can buyers would have taken all of the Duch- 
esses. It was the competition between the Old 
World and the New that resulted in such high 
prices as compared with those made at Kirk- 
levington three years previous. The six head 
of cattle for which Earl Ducie had paid £955 
10s. upon that occasion brought at Tortworth 
£2,052 15s. This sale, it may be said, fairly 
marked the beginning of what is known this 
side of the Atlantic as the great B^tes "boom." 
Duchess 65th at 50 guineas, Oxford 6th at 205 
guineas, Oxford 11th at 250 guineas, Oxford 16th 



244 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

at 180 guineas and Duchess 69th at 400 guineas 
were bought by Mr. Tanqueray ; Mr. Gunter pur- 
chasing Duchess 67th, by Usurer, at 350 guineas, 
and Duchess 70th at 310 guineas. The Earl of 
Burlington bought Oxford 15th at 200 guineas, 
and the Earl of Feversham took 5th Duke of 
Oxford (12762) at 300 guineas. The 4th Duke 
of York (10167) was bought by Gen. Cadwalla- 
der and Mr. Vail of New York at 500 guineas, 
but did not live to reach America, his neck hav- 
ing been broken during a storm at sea. 

Thorndale and the Duchesses. — Mr. Becar 
having died in 1S54 Col. Morris purchased his 
interest in the partnership herd, and after sell- 
ing quite a number of young bulls to various 
breeders in different States disposed of the en- 
tire holding to Mr. Samuel Thorne of Thorn- 
dale Farm, Duchess Co., N. Y. Mr. Thome's 
father, Jonathan Thorne of New York City, 
owned an extensive farm at Millbrook, which 
is still in the possession of the family. This 
was in 1857. In the year 1850 Mr. Thorne Sr. 
had sent an order to his son Edwin, who was 
then in England, for a Short-horn bull. A pair 
of cows had previously been purchased from 
Mr. Vail of Troy. Tho. order was filled by the 
purchase and forwarding of the bull St. Law- 
rence (12037), bred by Capt. Pelham. This bull 
was afterward sold to Dr. E. Warfield and taken 
to Kentucky in the autumn of 1853. In 1852 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 245 

Mr. Thorne received on an order he had given 
to Robert Bell the two Bell-Bates heifers Count- 
ess (Craggs) and Forget-me-not 2d of Bell's 
Fletcher family. He also bought from Mr. 
Tanqueray the young cow Ellen Gwynne, bred 
by Mr. Troutbeck. 

In the spring of 1853 Mr. Samuel Thorne, in 
company with Mr. F. M. Rotch, sailed for Eng- 
land to purchase Short-horns, their intention 
being to buy the best that could be found with- 
out reference to cost. They attended the Ducie 
sale, at which Duchesses 59th, 64th and 68th 
were selected. From Mr. S. E. Bolden they se- 
cured the Duchess bull Grand Duke (10284), 
that had been purchased by Mr. Hay of Scot- 
land at the Kirklevington dispersion at the top 
price of 205 guineas,* and the roan heifer Peri, 
by Grand Duke. From Tortworth the red 
Gwynne cow Mystery, by Usurer, was obtained. 
Col. Towneley's breeding was drawn upon for 
Frederica and Lalla Rookh. The red cows Au- 
rora and Darling (the latter an Acomb by Grand 
Duke), mainly of Bates blood, completed the 
purchases of cattle brought out in 1853. Duch- 



*Mr. Bolden had bought at the Bates sale Duchess 61st, as a doubtful 
breeder, at sixty guineas. He bre<i her Arst to Richard Booth's Leonidas 
(1M14), but the calf came dead. Bred to Grand Duke. Ducht^ss alst pave Mr 
Bolden the celebrated Grand DuchesscH 1st and 2d. the anccHireHHOH of the 
family of that name. In this connection it Is of Interest to note that Grand 
Duke had not been regarded as a satisfactory sire in Mr. Hay s herd at 
Shethln. but there was no mistaking the outstnndln? excellenco of such of 
his get at Mr. Bolden's as the Grand Duchesses. Cnerry DuchesH 1st and 2t\ 
Duke of Cambridge 



246 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ess 64th was left in England until the following 
year, and in the meantime droppod to a service 
by 4th Duke of York the bull calf 2d Grand 
Duke (12961), which under an arrangement pre- 
viously entered into became the property of Mr. 
Bolden. This shipment of 1853 had cost Mr. 
Thome the snug sum of $18,000, thus making 
it the highest-priced lot of Short-horns im- 
ported to America up to that date. The vessel 
upon which they were shipped in October of 
that year had a tempestuous passage. Duchess 
68th was killed outright by the falling of a mast 
and Peri had a hip knocked down, two ribs 
broken and lost one horn. She nevertheless^ 
bred successfully and gave rise to a family bear- 
ing her name that afterward commanded long 
prices. 

In 1854 Mr. Thome imported nine females, 
including Agnes, Cypress, Cherry and Constan- 
tia— all by B. Wilson's Lord of Brawith (10465) 
—Lady Millicent (from Fawkes), by Laudable; 
Diana Gwynne, Dinah Gwynne and (from Tan- 
queray's) the Bates Barrington heifer Lady of 
Athol. In the fall of 1855 the bull 2d Grand 
Duke (12961), above mentioned, was bought 
from Bolden for $5,000 to succeed Grand Duke 
(10284). An accident had rendered the latter 
practically useless, but he was not slaughtered 
until 1857. With 2d Gmnd Duke was shipped 
in 1855 the Killerby-bred Booth bull Neptune 



8B00ND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 247 

(11847), by Water King (11024) out of Bloom 
by Buckingham; second dam the celebrated 
Hawthorne Blossom. At the sale of Sir Chas. 
Knightley in 1856 Mr. Thome bought the cows 
Blouzelind and Mrs. Flathers, both by Earl of 
Dublin, and Elgitha, by Balco. This gave him 
a dip into the most noted dairy strain of the 
day in England. From Col. Towneley he bought 
the two heifers Miss Buttercup, by the cele- 
brated Master Butterfly (13311), and Buttercup 
2d, by Horatio (10335). These five cattle cost 
over $5,000. From other sources he obtained 
Darlington 6th, Maria Louisa and Dewdrop. 

In 1857 the entire Morris & Becar herd, con- 
sisting at that date of fifty-three head, was pur- 
chased for $35,000. This gave Thorndale a vir- 
tual monopoly of the Duchess and Oxford blood 
in America and an investment in Short-horns 
mounting well up toward $100,000. Opera- 
tions of such magnitude did not fail to create 
more or less of a sensation in cattle-breeding 
circles on both sides the Atlantic. During this 
same year Mr. Edwin Thome, then in England, 
bought and sent out to his brother Samuel the 
bull Grand Turk (12969), bred by Bolden, rep- 
resenting a cross of Grand Duke (10284) on the 
Booth cow Young Rachel by Leonard (4210). 
It thus appears that Thorndale drew upon the 
most noted strains of the breed, besides impart- 
ing an impetus to the trade in England and 



248 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

America that permeated the entire industry 
and influenced in marked degree the work ,of 
leading breeders at home and abroad for many 
succeeding years. 

Bevival of interest in the West.— It was a 
trying ordeal the business passed through in 
Ohio and Kentucky during the ** forties." Lit- 
tle more than butchers' prices could be real- 
ized. At the time the George and Jonathan 
Renick herds were offered (1844-1846) not more 
than $130 could be obtained for the best. The 
value of the blood had been fully demonstrated, 
but farmers generally were financially unable 
to avail themselves of it save at extremely low 
prices. The large landed proprietors, however, 
maintained their herds and manifested their 
interest by exhibiting stock at the various local 
fairs.* By 1850 times had brightened, and the 
Ohio State Agricultural Society held its initial 
show near Cincinnati, Harness Renick winning 

• In a report of the Bobb County Fair for 1849, In the Ohio OuUlmMtor, it is 
said that " thu Durham Short-horns wore exhibited in all their sleeknees 
and beauty. These arc, very justly, the pride of the principal fanners and 
herdsmen of the Scioto Valley. We have never seen better animals of this 
class than were exhibited on this occasion from the herds of Geo. Benlck. 
Dr. A. Watts, J R. Anderson, Alexander Renick, etc. As a whole it ex- 
celled in quality the show of this breed at either of the New York fairs." 

The report g-ives the wei{?hts of several Shortrhom bullocks on exhibi- 
tion; among' them a steer of Dr. Watts, three years old in April, weighed. 
Oct. 6, 2,200 lbs. ; one, two years in February, weighed, Oct. 5, 1,780 lbs. From 
the herd of George Renick a bullock of "preat i)erfectlon of form," five 
years, weighe<l 2,800 lbs. Six others, only thn»e years, welerhed 1.8S0, I.TSOl 
1,720. 1.680. 1,670 and 1.664 lbs, Tliest* cattle had not been forced as is the 
modern practice, having only good grass in summer.— Bion. T C. JoiMttfn 
Brudera GazetU, Oct. fi, 1882. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 249 

first prize on Sterling 1004 — tracing to imp. 
Blossom by Fitz-Favorite — ^in aged-bull class, 
and Mr. Poage first on Lilac — a descendant of 
imp. Duchess of Liverpool — in aged cows. The 
modern system of training for show had not 
at that date come into vogue. It should be 
mentioned before proceeding further that 
shortly after the settlement of Walter Dun's 
estate, in Kentucky, his sons John G., James, 
Walter A. and Robert G. located upon their 
father's extensive estates in Madison Co., 0., 
taking with them a lot of good Short-horns 
descended from their father's importation al- 
ready mentioned. The bull Comet (1854) was 
used by the Messrs. Dun in Ohio as late as 1845 
and was an excellent getter. 

With the return of better times the Ohio 
breeders manifested renewed interest in their 
herds. In 1852 trade had revived to such an 
extent that it was determined to make a fresh 
importation from England. Eighteen years 
had elapsed since the first purchase by the old 
Ohio Co., and breeders were anxious to ascer- 
tain as to what progress had been made in the 
improvement of the breed in England during 
that period. The project took definite form by 
the organization of the 

Scioto Valley Importing Co.— The veteran 
Dr. Arthur Watts a^id Mr, George W. Renick, 
son of Felix Renick, were appointed agents, and 



250 A HISTORY OF BHOBT-HOBN OATTLB. 

the result of their journey was the purchase 
and importation of ten bulls and seven females 
that were sold at auction at the farm of Dr. 
Watts, near Chillicothe. Stockholders had the 
privilege of bidding and took most of the cat- 
tle at high prices. The sale list> with some 
particulars, follows:' 

BULLS. 

Nobleman (18992), roan two-year-old, bred by J. Wood; a 
boll of marked excellence— Hon. John I. Vanmeter, Pike 
County $2,610 

Ck)unt Fathom (11816), robn yearlin^r* bred by F. H. FAwkes; 
got by Lord Marquis (10459) ; proved a very successful 
sire— N. Perrill, Clinton County 2,075 

Master Belleyille (11T95), roan two-yeaivold, bred by J. M. 
Hopper; sired by the show bull Belleyille (6778) and de- 
scribed as "a grand, rangy bull and the sire of a large 
number of fine Short-horns, including Billy Harrison 
268, the prize bull Master Miller, etc."— Messrs. Renick 
and Maypool 2,006 

Lord Nelson 664, red-roan two-year-old, bred by R. Thorn- 
ton—John L. Meyers, Fayette County 1,828 

Gamboy (11508) , red-and- white, bred by F. H. FAwkes ; trac- 
ing to the Booth cow Isabella by Pilot— M. L. SuUiTant, 
Columbus 1,400 

Rising Sun 5130, roan bull calf, bred by Mr. Wetherell— 
Isaac Cunningham, Scioto County 1,800 

Alderman (9882), roan three-year-old, bred by R. C. Lown- 
des; afterward became the property of Jacob Pierce 
and used for some years in his fine herd—Hon. Alex. 
Waddle, Clark County 1,160 

Isaac 589, roan two-year-old, bred by R. Thornton ; a low, 
compact ball of fine quality, a good feeder and capital 
sire; second-prize bull at the Ohio State Fair, 1854— 
Messrs. Gregg and J. O^B. Renick, Pickaway County. . . 600 

young Whittington 1165, roan yearling; afterward owned 
by Messrs. Brown of Sangamon Co., III.— Arthur Watts, 
Chillicothe 460 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 251 

GOW8 AND HEIFEBS. 

Mary, roan two-year-old, bred by J. Emerson ; by Lord of 

the Manor (10466)— Hon. A. Waddle $1,650 

Sunrise, red, by Twilight (0758)— Hon. John I. Vanmeter, 

Pike County 1,230 

Blue Bonnet, roan two-year-old, by Earl of Antrim (10174) ; 
a large, stylish cow of superior quality and a greskt 
milker; dam of prize bulls Master Miller 698, Winfleld 
1107 and a yaluable progeny of females— F. W. Renick, 
Pickaway County 1,235 

Mobs Rose, roan six-year old, bred by J. W. Parrington; 
sired by. Ravensworth (9487) ; afterward became the 
property of Jacob Pierce, in whose hands she dropped 
the show cow Mattie by Nobleman (13S92)— Hon. Alex. 
Waddle, CUrk County 1,200 

Raspberry, roan two-yearold, sired by Banker (11196) ; a 
fine cow that in the hands of Messrs. Gregg and J. O'B. 
Renick was champion female at the Ohio State Fair, at 
Newark, in 1854, afterward becoming the property of 
James M. Trimble, in whose hands she produced, among 
other good things, the cow Maggie Trimble, dam of Air- 
drie 2d 11267, used in the prize herd of J. R. Anderson, 
Ross County— Greorge W. Gregg, Pickaway County 1,110 

Strawberry, roan cow, bred by R. Thornton ; sired by Post 

Master (9487)— George W. Renick, Ross County 1,000 

Enchantress, roan two-year-old, bred by Mr. Thornton; 
grew into a cow of superior quality and produced the 
fine bull Noble 753— Harness Renick, Pickaway County. 900 

9 bulls* sold for 113,815; an average of $1,479.46 

7 females sold for 8,315 ; an average of 1,187.85 

16 animals sold for 21,630; an average of 1,351.85 

The prices which the stockholders were wil- 
ling to pay for these cattle inspired fresh con- 
fidence on both sides of the river, and in the 
following year several other importing compa- 
nies were organized. 

*The red-roan bull Adam (12838), bred by J. Clark, of this importation 
was out of condition and not sold. He became the property of M. L. Sulli- 
rant and was noted for his wonderful coat of hair. Mr. Hamesa Benick's 
prise heifer A#ittha, of the Blossom tribe, was one of his geU 



252 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

Madison Co. (0.) Co.— In 1853 the Madison 
Co. (0.) Importing Co. was formed. Messrs. 
Charles Phellis, B. B. Browning and Mr. Farrar 
were appointed agents and selected from the 
English herds fifteen bulls and nine cows, 
which, after the usual plan of these companies, 
were sold at auction. The event occurred Sept. 
27 at London, Madison County, the result, to- 
gether with a few notes upon the more noted 
animals, being as indicated below. From this 
it will appear that prices now mounted to a 
still higher range than had yet been attained: 



starlight (12146), roan two-year-old, bred by R. Lawson; 
sired by Lansdowne (0277) , dam Beauty by Mussulman 
(4524). This bull was kept upon the farm of James Pul- 
lington, in Union County, for many years and was one 
of the best sires ever used in the State. Though a first- 
prize bull at the State Fair of 1854, Starlight was not a 
first-class show bull. His strong, masculine front, with 
broad and massive brisket, were quite imposing, and the 
length of his fore ribs gave a chest of unusual capacity. 
He had a good back and loin, but his quarters were a 
little short. He was a bull of unusual vigor of constitu- 
tion and required to be carefully handled. Among his 
get that ac(iuired distinction in show-yards were the 
champion bulls Starlight 2d 2559, Buckeye Starlight 
8718 and General Grant 4825— Charles ' Phellis, Madi- 
son County $3,000 

Marquis (11787), roan two-year-old, bred by R. Thornton; 
sired by Whittington (12299) ; a fine, compactly-fash- 
ioned bull of extra quality, extensively used on the fine 
herds then owned in the region known locally as the 
"Darby Plains"— James Fullington (Union County) and 
bthers 8,000 

Sheflielder (18693), roan two-yearold, bred by Mr. Hall; 
sired by His Grace (101323)— J. W. Robinson, Madis6n 
County 1,800 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 253 

Mario (11779), roan two-year-old, bred by J. S. Tanqueray; 
sired by Horatio (10335) out of the Gwynne cow Melody 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax ; a fine, large bull, with wonder- 
ful! depth of chest and of a remarkably quiet disposi- 
tion ; his get were uniformly good ; afterward property 
of David Watson— Robert Reed, Madison County 1,550 

Colonel (12614), red-and- white roan yearling, bred by R. 
Lawson; proved a good breeder; gained first prize as 
bull with five of his get at Ohio State Fair, 1860; prog- 
eny frequently shown with success— Messrs. Dun 1,350 

Farmer Boy (11464) , roan two-year-old, bred by R. Thorn- 
ton — Joseph Reybum, Madison County 025 

Thornberry (12222), white two-year-old, bred by Richard 
Booth, Warlaby ; sired by Hopewell (10332), dam Haw- 
thorne Blossom by Leonard; sold in bad condition; 
*'off*' on his feet and thin in flesh; low and level, with 
wonderful spring of rib, splendid quarters and real War- 
laby chest and shoulders ; one of the best feeders ever 
known in the Scioto Valley ; imparted his rare feeding 
qualities with great uniformity to his get— Messrs. Har- 
ness and Felix W. Renick, Pickaway County 875 

Beau Clerc (11160), roan two-year-old, bred by F. H. Fawkes 

— D. M. Oreighton, Madison CJounty 750 

Symmetry (12167), roan two-year-old, bred by J. Knowles, 

sired by Phosphorus 0477— Messrs. Dun, Madison County 1, 150 

Sportsman, roan buU calf— James Foster, Madison County. . 700 

Duke of Liverpool, roan bull calf— George G. McDonald, 

Madison County 555 

Splendor 007K» roan yearling— F. A. Yocum, Madison 0)imty . 500 

Prince Edward 864, roan yearling— M. B. Wright, Fayette 

County 475 

Rocket 021>^, white yearling— David Watson, Union (bounty. 425 

Prince Albert 8284, roan yearling— J. F, Chenoweth, Madison 

County 300 

cows AXD HEIFERS. 

Stapleton Lass, red-and-white roan three-year-old, bred by 
R. Thornton, sired by Sailor (9502) ; afterward property 
of James Fullington, in whose hands she proved a capital 
breeder and great milker ; she was dam of David Wat- 
son s Fancy, that produced the great champion show oow 
Jessie, by Starlight 2d ; she was also dam of the prize 
trail Buckeye Starlight 3718— Jesse Watson, Madison 
County $1,350 



254 A HISTORY OF SHOET-HOEN CATTLE. 

Piootee, roan six-year-old ; sired by Robin Hood (8402) -^esse 

Watson, Madison Ck)anty 1,276 

Miss Hilton, roan two-yearold, bred by T. Raine— David 

Watson 875 

Princess, roan three-year-old, bred by W. Raine— William 

Watson, Clark County 600 

blossom, roan yearling, bred by R. Thornton— David Wat- 
son 660 

Victoria, roan three-year-old, bred by W. Raine ; afterward 
property of James Follinerton— J. Q. Winchell, Madison 
County 600 

Alezandrina, white yearling, bred by T. Raine— David Wat- 
son 660 

Yorkshire Dairy Cow (not pedigreed)— Joseph Negley, Clark 

County 426 

Monsoon (not pedigreed) , dam Yorkshire Dairy Cow-^os. 

Reybum, Madison County 396 

15 bulls sold for $17,855; an average of $1,157 

9 females sold for 6,720; an average of 747 

24 animals sold for 24,075; an average of 1,008 

Northern Kentucky Association. — In 1853 
an association of Kentucky breeders under this 
title commissioned Messrs. Solomon Vanmeter, 
Nelson Dudley and Charles T. Garrard to pro- 
ceed to England for the purchase of cattle. 
Fifteen cows and ten bulls were selected and 
imported in July of that year, which were sold 
at auction soon after their arrival at the farm 
of B. J. Clay, in Bourbon County, at the extra- 
ordinary prices noted below: 

BULLS. 

Diamond (11857), roan three-year-old, bred by Earl Fever- 
sham— B. J. Clay, H. Clay Jr., George M. Bedford and 
J. Duncan, Bourbon County $6,000 

Challenger (14252) , roan yearling, bred by Earl Ducie ; sired 
by 4th Duke of York (10167) ; dam Chaplet by Usurer 
(9768) , running to Magdalena by Comet — Isaac and Solo- 
mon Vanmeter and T. L. Cunningham, Clark County. . . 4,850 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 255 

Oitmtes 2d (11877) , red two-year-old, bred by Earl of Bur- 
Ungton ; out of imp. Goodness, of Mason blood— R, A. 
Alexander, Woodford County 4,650 

Young Chilton (11278), white three-yearK)ld, bred by J. Em- 
erson; sired by Chilton (10054)— Dr. R. J. Breckenridge 
and Messrs. B. & W. Warfield, Fayette County 8,005 

Fortunatus 1554, roan bull calf, bred by F. H. Fawkes ; sired 
by Lord Muxiuis (10459) ; dam Fairy Tale by Sir Thos. 
Fairfax- Messrs. Vanmeter, Fayette County 2,500 

The Count (12191), roan two-year-old, bred by H. Ambler; 

sired by Sd Duke of York (9047)— S. Goff, Clark County. 2,500 

Senator 2d (19687) , white yearling, bred by H. Ambler ; sired 
by Senator (8548) ; dam Fair Frances by Sir Thomas 
Fairfax (5196) —Allen & Curd, Fayette County 2,000 

Belleville 8d (14150), roan yearling, bred by Mason Hopper; 

sired by Belleville (6778)— G.W. Sutton, Fayette County 1,500 

Fusileer (11499), roan two-yearold, bred by T. Bell; sired 

by Grand Duke (10284)— R. W. Scott, Franklin County. . 1,400 

Yorkshire Maynard (14048), roan yearling, bred by A. L. 
Maynard; sired by Lord George (10448)— Robert S. Tay- 
lor; Clark County 1,000 

cows AND HEIFBBS. 

Mazurka, red-roan yearling, bred by W. Smith, sired by the 

Booth bull Harbinger (10297), in calf to Orontes 2d— R. 

A. Alexander, Woodford County $8,050 

Maid of Melrose, roan yearling, bred by F. H. Fawkes, sired 

by Lord Maixiuis (10159)— R. A. Alexander 2,200 

Goodness, red, calved in 1847 ; bred by Mr. Hall, legatee of 

Earl Spencer; sired by Orontes (4628)— G. W. Sutton. . . 2,025 
Lady Carolinei roan two-year-old, bred by Mr. Spearman, 

sired by Newtonian (14991)— B. J. Clay, Bourbon County 1,825 
Lady Stanhope, roan, calved in 1847, bred by A. L. Maynard, 

sired by Earl Stanhope (5966)— B. J. Clay, Bourbon 

County 1,500 

Lady Fairy, red, calved in 1848, bred by F. H. Fawkes, sired 

by Laudable (9282) out of Fairy Tale, the dam of Imp. 

Fortunatus— Dr. Breckinridge and B. lie W. Warfield, 

Fayette County 1,100 

Orphan Nell, roan yearling, bred by J. S. Tanqueray, sired 

by Ruby (10760) ; dam of the Gwynne family— J. A. Gano, 

Bourbon County 1,000 

Equity, red yearling, bred by John Booth, sired by Lord 

George (10439)— R. A. Alexander, Woodford County 1,000 



256 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Roan Duchess, roan three-year-old, bred by Mr. Wetherell, 
sired by Whittington (125899)— W. H. Brand, Fayette 
County 900 

Duchess of Sutherland, red two-year-old, bred by H. Ambler, 

sired by Captain Edwards (8939)— W. H. Brand 900 

Gem, roan two-year-old, bred by H. Ambler, sired by Broker 
(9993) ; dam the Booth cow Gulnare (bred by Mr. 
Fawkes) by Norfolk (2377)— S. Vanmeter and T. L. Cun- 
ningham 825 

Flattery, white yearling, bred by Earl Ducie, sired by 4th 

Duke of York (10167)— W. R. Duncan, Clark County .... 815 

Necklace, roan yearling, bred by Col. Towneley, sired by 

Duke of Athol (10150) —Henry Clay Jr, , Bourbon County 805 

Bracelet, roan twin-sister to Necklace above— M. M. Clay, 

Bourbon County 750 

Muffin, roan yearling, bred by Earl Ducie, sired by Usurer 

(9768)— W. A. Smith, Scott County 585 

10 bulls sold for 129,305; an average of 12,990.50 

15 females sold for 19,230; an average of 1,282.00 

26 animals sold for 48,535 ; an average of 1,941.40 

The ten bulls cost in England about $5,570 
and fetched nearly $30,000. The females cost 
about $5,920 on the other side and brought 
nearly $20,000. The cattle were well chosen, 
fell for the most part into good hands and 
were important factors in subsequent Ken- 
tucky Short-horn history. The high-priced 
bull Diamond proved impotent. Young Chil- 
ton, Challenger and Orontes 2d were, in the 
order named, remarkable stock-getters. It is 
worthy of note in this connection that Young 
Chilton's sire, Chilton (10054), was a white bull 
got by the " never-beaten " show bull Belleville 
(6778) out of one of that bull's own daughters. 
Belleville (see foot-note page 107) was the bull 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 257 

that Mr. Bates so persistently decried. As one 
of the best sires ever used in Kentucky carried 
a double cross of the Belleville blood, the infal- 
libility of Mr. Bates' judgment is not in this 
case apparent. In point of individual merit 
Young Chilton also headed this remarkable list 
of bulls, Orontes 2d standing second and Chal- 
lenger third. As a sire, however, the latter, 
in the hands of Messrs. Vanmeter, surpassed 
the work of Orontes 2d at Woodburn. Sen- 
ator 2d, Fortunatus and Yorkshire Maynard 
produced no extraordinary stock. Of the cows 
of this memorable importation it is only neces- 
sary to say that the descendants of Goodness 
in the hands of George M. Bedford, of Mazurka 
in the hands of Mr. Alexander, of Gem in 
the herd of William Warfield, of Roan Duch- 
ess and Orphan Nell in many different herds, 
and of Lady Caroline at C. M. Clay's, demon- 
strated the fact that the original selections 
were made with rare judgment and that their 
progeny was handled with uncommon skill. 

Scott Co. (Ky.) Importing Co.— Near the 
close of the year 1853 a company was organ- 
ized in Scott Co., Ky., and Messrs. W. Crockett 
and James Bagg, as agents, proceeded to Eng- 
land and purchased seven females and five 
bulls, which were sold at auction Jan. 10, 1854, 
at the farm of Mr. M. B. Webb. Included in 
this lot were the bulls Baron Feversham 

17 



258 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

13414, a roan two-year-old bought at the sale 
by C. Estill of Madison County at the top price 
of $1,525; the bull Pathfinder 805, a roan year- 
ling, taken by Messrs. Webb & Ford of Scott 
County at $860, and the cows Venus by Fair 
Eclipse (11456), sold to J. Hill of Bourbon 
County at $710, and Carnation by Budget 
22265, bought by C. W. Innes, Fayette County, 
at $610. The entire lot brought $7,535, an av- 
erage of $685. 

In 1854 the same parties who had been inter- 
ested in the Scott County Co. organized again 
under the name of the Kentucky Importing Co. 
and sent Messrs. Wesley Warnock and James 
Bagg to England for a second lot of cattle. 
They purchased six bulls and fifteen cows and 
heifers that were placed upon the farm of C. 
W. Innes, near Lexington, and in October, 1854, 
five of the bulls and fourteen of the females 
were sold at auction, the former averaging 
$994 and the latter $390. This sale was mem- 
orable from the fact that Mr. R. A. Alexander, 
whose extensive operations are shortly to be 
noticed, paid $3,500 for the roan two-year-old 
bull Sirius (13737), bred by E. Ackroyd; sired 
by Concord (11302) out of a daughter of Mr. 
Fawkes' Fairy Tale, that was also the dam of 
Fortunatus 1564. The next highest-priced bull 
was the roan yearling MacGregor 675 — also of 
Fawkes' breeding — that was taken by John 



SECOND PERIOD OP ACTIVITY. 259 

Hill at $600. The top price for cows was $650, 
paid by Mr. R. A. Alexander for the roan two- 
year-old Bessie Howard, and $600 paid by the 
same buyer for Lizzie, by Marquis of Carrabas 
(11789), both bred by Mr. Fawkes. From the 
cow Matilda, by Villiers (13959)-sold to S. Cor- 
bin of Bourbon County for $205 — descended the 
celebrated show heifer Fannie Forrester. 

Clinton Co. (0.) ABBOciation. — An organiza- 
tion formed in Clinton Co., 0., in 1854 sent as 
its agents Messrs. H. H. Hankins, J. G. Coulter 
and A. R. Seymour, who bought and imported 
seventeen cows and heifers and ten bulls, that 
were sold Aug. 9 of that year at Wilmington, 
Clinton County, at an average of $1,037 for the 
bulls and $649 for the females. The top price 
for females was $1,675, paid by M. B. Wright 
and William Palmer, Fayette Co., 0., for the 
roan cow Duchess, by Norfolk (9442). The roan 
cow Princess, by Lord Newton, was taken by 
Hadley & Hankins of Clinton County at $1,060; 
the white cow Hope, by Duke of York (6947), 
fell to the bidding of William Palmer at $1,000, 
and the roan Victoria, sold without pedigree, 
brought from Mr. Peringer a like sum. Of this 
importation also was the cow Lady Jane, by 
Whittington, a red of Wetherell's breeding, 
bought by David Watson, Madison County, for 
$500. She left numerous descendants. Another 
cow to which some of our American pedigrees 



260 A HISTORY OF 8H0RT-H0RN OATTLE. 

trace was also in this shipment — Miss Shaftoo, 
a red by Captain Shaftoe (6833), bred by W. 
Smith, purchased at this sale by Jesse Starbuck 
at $650. We should also mention Louisa, a 
roan by Crusader, taken by J. R. Mills, Clinton 
County, at $300. The bull Wellington (13989), 
a roan two-year-old, bred by R. Lawson, com- 
manded the great price of $3,7(X) from Messrs. 
Coulter, Hankins and others. The white two- 
year-old bull Billy Harrison 263, out of the 
$1,675 Duchess by Norfolk, was taken by Jesse 
Starbuck of Clinton County at $1,500. The 
four-year-old roan Warrior (12287), bred by 
Richard Booth, sired by Water King (11034) 
out of Bagatelle by Buckingham, went to B. 
Hinkson and H. H. Hankins at $1,200. 

Clark Co. (0.) Co.— The last of the importing 
companies organized in the State of Ohio was 
formed in Clark County in 1854. Dr. Arthur 
Watts of Chillicothe and Alexander Waddle of 
South Charleston were sent abroad to make the 
selection and purchased twenty cows and heif- 
ers and nine bulls that were divided by auction 
sale Sept. 6, 1854. This importation included 
some very valuable cattle, some of the most 
noted of which are listed herewith, together 
with a few facts of interest : 

New Yearns Day (13383), sold at this sale as a roan yearling, 
was bred by Lee Norman and sired by Magrnet (11765) out of Moas 
Rose by Killerby (7123). He was bought by C. M. Clark of Clark 
County for ^'i,500. Before importation he won a first prize at the 
Royal Dublin Show of 1853. He was extensively exhibited through- 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 261 

out the West, and was doubtless the best show bull of his day. 
His first appearance was at the United States Cattle Show held 
at Springfield, O-, in the fall of 1854. This was a great event and 
the scene of a memorable contest between Kentucky and Ohio 
bred Short-horns. The big light roan Kentucky show bull Perfec- 
tion 810, belonging to the Louan family; Mr. Bedford's famous 
Laura and Abram Renick's Rose of Sharon cow Duchess, by Buena 
Vista, were among the ^'cracks'' present from south of the river, 
but imp. Duchess, by Norfolk, gained for Ohio premier honors 
among the cows shown. The Kentuckians were fairly cap- 
tivated by the young imp. New Year's Day, and after a consulta- 
tion in which Abram Renick participated they made an earnest 
effort to buy him at a considerable advance, but without success. 
New Yearns Day won at all the leading shows, and when quite ad- 
vanced in years was taken West and won prizes at exhibitions 
held at St. Louis and Chicago. While he did not have any special 
opportunities as a sire he begot, among other choice cattle, the 
tamous Lady of Clark out of the Miss Wiley cow Anna Hunt, that 
Mr. Clark had bought in Kentucky. Lady of Clark was afterward 
sold to go to Illinois. Flora Belle, bred by R. G. Corwin from imp. 
Scottish Bluebell, was another daughter of New Year's Day tbat 
acquired celebrity in the show-ring. 

Medalist (1S3S4), a white yearling bull, was, we believe, the first 
representative of William Terr's breeding brought to America. 
He was sired by Mr. Booth's celebrated Crown Prince (10087), and 
was a bull of fine substance and extraordinary spring of rib, deeply 
covered with flesh. He was purchased at the sale by Dr. Watts 
for 12,100 and afterward sold to Harness Renick. Some of the 
noted show animals exhibited by Mr. Anderson belonging to his 
Matilda and Rose of Sharon families carried a Medalist cross. 

Czar 895, a roan yearling got by Baron Warlaby (7818), was 
taken by A. J. Paige of Clark County at $1,900. Ho was not a 
large bull, but showed the fleshy character of his Booth ancestors 
and left much good stock, including the beautiful heiiers Darling, 
out of imp. Dahlia, and Delightful, from imp. Aylesby Lady. 

Buckingham 2d 207-- also of the Booth blood— brought $1,000. 
He was bought by William D. Pierce of Clark County, and al- 
though highly esteemed for his individual merit was not given 
much chance as a stock bull in the hands of Mr. Pierce, who was 
a very poor keeper. 

The top price among the females of this importation was $1,425, 
made by the roan Torr-Booth cow Aylesby Lady, by Baron War- 
laby (7818). She was bought by A. J. Paige and was easily one of 



262 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the best cows of her time in this country. She was exceptionally 
broad, deep and compact, carried a great wealth of flesh, was neat 
in her bone and a capital milker. She was shown with snooess at 
the Ohio fairs and produced several good calves, including De- 
lightful already mentioned. 

Roman 18th, a roan cow bred by Mr. Wilkinson and sired by 
Will Honeycomb (6660) , possessed grea.t scale and commanded the 
next highest price— $1, COO— from Jacob Pierce. She produced the 
bull Champion, by New Year's Day, that won sweepstakes at the 
Ohio State Fair of 1858 as best bull of any age or breed, being at 
that time only eighteen months old. 

Easter Day, a roan yearling heifer bred by Mr. B^wkes and 
sired by Lord Marquis (10459), was a low, thick-set, squarely- 
built cow that was also very successful at the shows, but not a 
good milker. She was bought at the sale by C. M. Clark at $1,125. 

Dahlia, a red cow by Upstart (9760) , was taken by A. J. Paige of 
Clark County at $1,100. 

Zealous, a roan cow bred by Mr. Wilkinson belonging to a 
Mason family, went to Alexander Waddle at $1,000. In symmetry 
of form, quality of hide, hair and flesh this cow was extraordi- 
nary. She had an abundance of long, soft hair, possessed great 
reflnement of character and was an excellent dairy cow. She was 
one of several head bought by the agents of the company at a pub- 
lic sale made by Mr. Wilkinson, this being the flrst selection made 
from that fine old herd for America. 

Lavender 8d and Lancaster 17th— heifers from Mr. Wilkinson's 
— are of special interest in this connection on account of the fact 
that they were the earliest representatives in America of a family 
which afterward acquired celebrity in the hands of Amos Cruick- 
shank, and through the exhibition in the West of imp. Baron 
Booth of Lancaster. Lavender 8d was considered a very valu- 
able heifer and was bought at this sale by Dr. Watts, for $600, and 
was afterward sold to Walter A. Dun of Madison County. Lan- 
caster 17th was sold to W. D. Pierce at 1900. 

The nine bulls sold for $10,700, an average of 
$1,188.88, and the twenty females for $13,215, 
an average of $660.75. 

From a consideration of the results obtained 
in Ohio, Kentucky and other Western States 
by the use of the blood introduced by the vari- 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 263 

0U8 Ohio companies, it must be conceded that 
America owes a lasting debt of gratitude to the 
enterprising men who in these early days, actu- 
ated largely by a pure desire to benefit the ag- 
ricultural community, transferred at great cost 
to themselves so many valuable Short-horns 
from Great Britain to the West. 

£. A. Alexander of Woodburn. — No name in 
American Short-horn history is more revered 
than that of Robert Aitcheson Alexander. 
Manifesting a deep interest in cattle-breeding, 
contemporaneous with Mr. Thorne of New 
York, Mr. Alexander s operations were on a 
still more extensive scale than those at Thorn- 
dale, already noted. Moreover they had the 
additional advantage of being carried on in a 
community that appreciated to the utmost the 
extraordinary opportunities- offered by the es- 
tablishment of such a herd. As the proprietor 
of the princely estate of Woodburn, Woodford 
Co., Ky. — a short distance west of Lexington, 
the "blue-grass" capital — Mr. Alexander, with 
characteristic Scottish thrift, had brought his 
magnificent farm into a high state of fertility. 
Stone walls and stone stabling gave an air of 
solidity to the surroundings. The far-famed 
Lothians of his native land afforded no rural 
scenes so fair as those presented by the wood- 
land pastures of this "old Kentucky home." 
Naught was wanting to add grace and value to 



264 A HISTORY OP SHOET-HORN CATTLB. 

the great estate but worthy tenants for its lux- 
urious fields. 

During the winter of 1852-53 Mr. Alexander 
and his brother, A. J., visited Great Britain. 
The now rapidly reviving interest in cattle- 
breeding in America had not escaped his no- 
tice, and it was determined upon the occasion 
of this visit to the motherland to lay the foun- 
dation for a great herd of Short-horns at Wood- 
burn.* In the selection of the stock, aggregat- 
ing about sixty-eight head of cows and heifers 
and some fifteen head of bulls, Mr. Alexander 
early gave evidence of his intention to give 
American cattle-breeders the benefit of a wide 
range of choice as between the different noted 
strains of blood then prominent in Great Britain. 
This phase of Mr. Alexander's character has been 
well commented upon by Mr. Warfield in the 
following language: 

<* No importations ever made to America have been of more 
value to this county than those of Mr. Alexander, and perhaps no 
man in America has done more for the cultivation of pure-bred 
stock than did the late Robert Aitcheson Alexander, whether we 
speak of the Thoroughbred racer or the more sturdy trotter, or of 
Short-horn, Ayrshire or Alderney cattle, or of Cotswold or South- 
down sheep. He had an eye for the beauties in each and all. Pos- 
sessed of a large estate he used it unsparingly in the cultivation 
of the best quality of stock. Possessed of the power that comes 

• Woodbum Farm afterward became quite as noted for Its rare collec- 
tion of Thoroughbred and trotting horses as for Its Short-horns. It waB 
lh<' ho-no of the great four-mile racer Lexington, and In later years, after 
the property ha^l passtnl Into the hands of A. J. Alexander, the farm, under 
tlie ni.'in.iffement of Mr. Lucas Brodhead, achlev«?d world-wide fame as a 
nupHitry of great performers on lh<' trotting turf. Jersey cattle and Ctote- 
wold and Southdown sheep were also bred. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 265 

from great wealth he wielded it all in the support of the best in- 
terest of the community. Able to command any blood in Short- 
homa he insisted on having the best. Familiar with pedigrees 
and knowing what was good and what was bad he honestly ap- 
plied right principles to the end. Consequently he was carried ofl 
into no crochets and gave no particular strain the sole benefit of 
his great influence, holding it up to the public gaze as the true and 
only pure blood. On the contrary, few herds have ever been 
founded on a more varied basis, and few breeders have ever been 
so catholic in their tastes. Pure Booth, pure Bates, Knightley, 
Mason, Wiley, Whitaker, * Seventeen,* every strain nearly that 
has ever been known on the continent, had a place in his herd and 
affections. The consequence was the gathering together of a herd 
that in its prime had certainly no equal on this side of the water, 
and perhaps as certainly none on the other. All of good sterling 
worth and fancy, so long as fancy did not conflict with worth, that 
money would gather together was to be seen on his farm at Wood- 
burn. Knowing what was good, when he found it in other blood 
than what was represented in his herd, instead of claiming it to 
be impure he purchased it and inoori)orated it with what he already 
had. Thus he set an example of catholic appreciation which it 
would do us of this day good to follow more closely.'* 

First of the Airdrie Duchesses.— Visiting 
the leading herds of Britain he bought, among 
other valuable animals, the two-year-old roan 
heifer Duchess of Athol and her half-brother, 
the yearling red-roan bull 2d Duke of Athol 
(11376), both bred by Col. Towneley, at 500 
guineas for the pair. It may be remarked in 
passing that on this same trip the heifer Ma- 
zurka, offered at 100 guineas, was declined and 
left behind, only to be bought at the Kentucky 
Importing Co.'s sale the following year at 
$3,050. The 2d Duke and the Athol Duches? 
had been produced at Towneley by Duchess 
54th, that was taken at the Kirklevington dis- 



266 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

persiou by Mr. Eastwood at £94 10s. Colonel 
Towneley had bred Duchess 54th to the Booth 
bull Lord George (10439), a white bred by John 
Booth at Killerby from Fitz-Leonard (7010) 
and the famous Toy cow Birthday, daughter 
of the celebrated Bracelet. Mr. Alexander 
was not one of those who insisted upon strict 
breeding "in line." He liked the yearling 
that resulted from this "outcross" — 2d Duke 
of Athol — and bought him, but the young Duch- 
ess and 2d Duke were left for a time in Eng- 
land. To a service by the 2d Duke of Athol 
or Valiant (10989) Duchess of Athol produced 
Duchess of Airdrie— so called from the Alex- 
ander family estate at Airdrie House, Scotland 
— the first of the line of that name destined to 
play a remarkable role in American Short-horn 
history. Duchess of Athol was then bred to 
the Duke of Gloster (11382), that had been 
bought at Lord Ducie's sale in 1853 by Morris 
& Becar for $3,350, with the understanding 
that he was to be left in England one year 
before being shipped to America; the progeny 
this time being the red -and -white bull calf 
registered and afterward famous throughout 
the Western States as imp. Duke of Airdrie 
(12730). 

The Alexander importation of July, 1853. 

— The first lot consigned for Woodburn in- 
cluded thirty-six females and five bulls, which 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 267 

were forwarded by the same vessel that carried 
the valuable purchases of the Northern Ken- 
tucky Co. in 1853. Few cargoes of greater ul- 
timate value have ever been discharged upon 
American shores than that landed after this 
voyage by the good ship Washington, under 
the 'command of Capt. Duncan. Hundreds of 
herds of pedigreed Short-horns and thousands 
of the best bullocks ever bred in the Ohio and 
Mississippi Valleys in after years owed their 
excellence in a large measure to the valuable 
blood introduced into the West as a result of 
the two consignments brought by this vessel. 
Among the animals in this initial shipment 
far Woodburn was the red-and-white cow Miss 
Hudson — bred by Wiley of Brandsby— belong- 
ing to a tribe originated by Mason of Chilton. 
Several of her daughters were also bought by 
Mr. Alexander, and from this foundatfon sprang 
the Miss Wiley and Loudon Duchess families 
afterward so famous in Kentucky, Ohio and the 
West. Other cows included in this consign- 
ment were the Bell-Bates Filbert, a roan by 2d 
Cleveland Lad; Jubilee, Jubilee 2d, Joyful and 
Juniata of the "J" Princess family, all bred 
by Mr. Tanqueray; Miss Towneley, mainly of 
Fawkes blood; Maid Marion, Beatrice, Sweet 
Mary, Buttercup, Nightingale and Grisi, by 
Grand Duke, of Bolden's breeding. Among the 
bulls were Lord John (11278), a roan by Nor- 



268 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

folk (9442),* and Fantichini (12862), bred by 
Fawkes and tracing to Fair Sovereign, by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax. 

SubBequent shipments to Woodbum Farm. 
— During the years immediately following Mr. 
Alexander purchased and imported thirty-two 
head of cows, heifers and bulls from first-class 
English herds, bringing out along with them 
Duchess of Athol and her daughter, Duchess of 
Airdrie, and son, Duke of Airdrie already men- 
tioned. Also such cows as Pearlette, red-and- 
white, bred by S. E. Bolden, sired by the famous 
Booth bull Benedict (7828) ; Victoria 20th, a roan 
belonging to the Mason blood; Filigree, a white 
heifer, bred by Mr. Saunders and sired by Abram 
Parker (9856), of Booth descent; Lady Gulnare, 
bred by Ambler from Mr. Fawkes* Booth cow 
Gulnare by Norfolk (2377); Minna, Constance 
and Rosabella, all bred by Mr. Fawkes and all 
sired by Bridegroom (11203); Lady Derby and 
her dam, the Bell-Bates cow Forget-me-not; 
Lydia Languish, by Duke of Gloster (11382); 
Vellum, bred by Sir C. Tempest, sired by Abram 
Parker (9856); Lady Barrington 13th, bred by- 
R. Bell from 4th Duke of York (10167); Abigail, 
sired by Loyalist (10479), and Minerva 3d, a red 

• This Norfolk Hhould not be confused with Norfolk (3877), that has been 
eo frequently nieniloncd. Ho was not only the sire of Mr. Alexander's 
Lord John but of the Kreat roan cow Ducheas, imported by the Clinton Ca 
(O.) Co. in 1854. that was flrst-prlzo female at the United States Cattle Show 
at Springfield, O., that year. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 269 

Gwynne cow, and her roan heifer Lady Sher- 
wood, by 5th Duke of York. 

In addition to the Bates bulls 2d Duke of 
Athol and Duke of Airdrie Mr. Alexander im- 
ported the Booth-bred Dr. Buckingham (14405), 
bred by Ambler, sired by Hopewell (10332); El 
Hakim (15984), a red-roan bred by Bolden from 
the Duchess bull Grand Duke (10284) and the 
Booth cow Fame, by Raspberry; The Priest 
(6246), a roan sired by The Prior (13870) out of 
the Mason-bred cow Graceful 2d by Earl of 
Dublin (10178); Baron Martin (12444), roan, 
bred by Holmes of Ireland, sired by the Booth 
bull Baron Warlaby (7813) out of a Mason Vic- 
toria dam; and several others. 

As will appear from the reports of the sales 
made by the Northern Kentucky and Scott 
County companies, Mr. Alexander added to his 
own extensive importations, by purchase, the 
grand cows Mazurka, Maid of Melrose and 
Equity and such bulls as Orontes 2d and Sirius. 
After breeding from this extraordinary array 
of cattle for several years the Woodburn herd 
numbered something like 200 head and was 
beyond all question the best collection of Short- 
horns then in North America. Indeed it is doubt- 
ful if its superior, size considered, existed at that 
time in either England or the United States. 
The leading Kentucky breeders of that period 
were not slow to take advantage of this valu- 



270 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

able material, and in a subsequent chapter we 
shall have occasion to point out the far-reach- 
ing effects of Mr. Alexander's importations* 
upon Short-horn breeding in the Western 
States for a long series of years. 

Importations by the Shakers.— In 1854 and 
1856 the society of Shakers at Union Village, 
Warren Co., 0., imported about eighteen cows 
and heifers and eight young bulls, most of which 
were from the fine old herd of James Douglas* 
of Athelstaneford, Scotland. Among the cows 
were AprilMorn,Violante(with white heifer Ata- 
lanta), Marchioness, Margaret, Duchess, Blanche 
(with white heifer Lady Blanche), Farewell, 
Bellevue and Heroine, all from the Douglas 
herd. Of Mark Stew^art's (of Southwick) breed- 
ing was Hawthorne Blossom, and from Mr. 
Hutchinson's stock they obtained the roan 
Prize Flower, by Prince Charlie (13503). From 
Mr. Douglas they also bought the bulls Captain 
Balco (12546), Morning Star (14962), King of 
Trumps (14767), Chancellor (12579), Hearts of. 
Oak (14684), Duke of Southwick (14455), and 
Hawthorne Hero (14682). 

In 1854 the Shakers of Pleasant Hill, Ky., 

• Mr. Ben F. Vanmeter, who afterward became a prominent breeder In 
Kentucky . In the course of a recent letter to the author Bays: " I came home 
aoroBB the Atlantic with Mr. R. A. Alexander In 1858 just before he made 
his first imix>rtatlon of bloodtnl stock. He and I were the only two South- 
ern men on bounl, ;iml although I waH then only nineteen years old a friend- 
ship Hpraug* up between us which continued to the end of his life. I con- 
sider tliat he was the irreatest benefactor the blooded-stock interest has 
ever had in America." 



SECOND PERIOD OB^ ACTIVITY. 271 

imported the bull Duke of Cambridge 447. 
They had many years previously bought, iu 
connection with Hon. Henry Clay, for $1,000 
the imported bull Orozimbo 786, and also bought 
cows imported by Mr. Gambel, via New Orleans. 

James S. Matson (Kentucky). — In 1852 J. S. 
Matson of Paris, Ky., imported the roan two- 
year-old bull John o' Gaunt (11621), bred by J. 
S. Tanqueray, and the roan yearling Javelin 
(11610) of Lord Hill's breeding. The former 
was used on some of the best cows in the State, 
including a number of Abram Renick's. 

Wilson & Seawright (Ohio).— In 1854 Messrs. 
Wilson & Seawright of Cincinnati, 0., imported 
the bulls Fair Trader 1545, Lord Eglinton 1795, 
Deceiver 409, Locomotive 646, Benjamin Dis- 
raeli 1251, and heifers Gaudy, White Stockings, 
Margaret and Isidora. This same firm subse- 
quently imported four other heifers, two of 
which were named White Rose (both white), 
one Fanny with heifer calf, and a fourth the 
roan Laura. The two White Roses and Laura 
were bred in Ireland. 

Mason and Bracken (Kentucky) Associa- 
tion. — In the year 1856 a group of Kentucky 
breeders organized a company under the name 
of the Mason and Bracken Counties Importing 
Co. Their purchasing a^i^onts were Messrs. Al- 
exander R. Marshall and Henry Smoot, the 
importation being lauded at Philadelphia in 



272 A HI8T0BT OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

June of that year. It included sixteen cows 
and heifers and five bulls. No sale was made 
by this company until Oct. 1, 1859, after the 
financial crisis of 1857 had swept values away, 
and we are without details as to prices ob- 
tained. They were doubtless low. Among the 
females were the following: Duenna, roan two- 
year-old, bred by Mr. Bolden and belonging to 
a Bell-Bates family; Diana, roan two-year-old, 
sold to J. E. French, Mason Co., Ky.; Alice, red- 
and-white two-year-old, sired by Harbinger 
(10297), sold to J. C. Humphrey; Light of the 
Harem, roan two-year-old, bred by Mr. Fawkes, 
sold to B. Jameson; Lady Macbeth, two-year- 
old, bred by Mr. Fawkes, sold to H. Smoot; 
Jennie Deans, roan two-year-old, bred in Ire- 
land, sold to Messrs. Durrett. Among the bulls 
were: Macbeth (13266), a roan, bred by Mr. 
Fawkes, sired by Bridegroom (11203); Vatican 
12260, a roan, bred by Earl Ducie and sired by 
Usurer (9763); Blandimar 19044, a roan, bred 
by Sir Charles Knightley, sired by Earl of Dub- 
lin (10178) and belonging to the Fawsley Wal- 
nut tribe. The importation did not leave any 
special impress upon Kentucky Short-horn 
breeding. 

Livingston Co. (N. T.) Association. — A num- 
ber of well-to-do farmers and cattle-breeders 
in the Genesee Valley of New York formed a 
company in 1854 known as the ** Livingston 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 273 

County stock Association," and through their 
agents, Messrs. David Brooks and S. L. Fuller, 
purchased in England twenty-four Short-horns. 
Unfortunately one-half of these were lost dur- 
ing a storm at sea. Among the surviving ani- 
mals were the bulls Governor 2922, Usurper 
3522 and Bletsoe 2548, and the cows Music, a 
roan of the Gwynne family bred by Mr. Tan- 
queray,^ sired by Balco (9918); Hopeless, red- 
and-white, sired by Horatio (10335); Lady El- 
lington, red, sired by Broughton Hero (6811); 
Medora, also a Gwynne, by Horatio. (10335); 
Phoenix 2d, red-roan, by Horatio (10335); Aus- 
tralia, red -and -white, by Lord Foppington 
(10437), and Camilla, red-roan Gwynne of Tan- 
queray's breeding, sired by Fusileer (11499). 
Several of these cows passed into the posses- 
sion of •Gen. James S. Wads worth of Geneseo 
and left a valuable progeny. Soon after this 
importation was made the bull Governor 2922 
was sent out to the same parties. 

Thomas Richardson (New York). — About 
the year 1854 Thomas Richardson of New York 
City imported some Short-horns along with 
other live stock, among them the Duke of 
Cambridge (12746) and the Booth-bred cows 
Bijou, by Crown Prince (10087); Fanella, by 
Baron Warlaby (7813); Fanny Warlaby, by 
same sire; Harmony, by Crown Prince; Rachel, 
by Hopewell (10332), together with Laura, by 

18 



274 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Hector (13002), and Lady Constance, by Lord 
Derby (13179). Three of the Booth cows were 
bred by Mr. K. Chaloner, Kings Fort, Ireland, 
and one by Mr. Torr. These were kept on Mr. 
Richardson's farm at Westchester, the herd 
being sold soon after his death, which occurred 
a few years after the arrival of the importar 
tion. 

Dr. H. Wendell (New York).— In 1856 Dr. H. 
Wendell of Albany brought out an importation 
of four cows and heifers and the bull Lord 
Ducie 662-^all bred by II. Bell and crossed by 
Bates bulls. The red Craggs cow Alice Maud, 
by Grand Duke (10284); the roan Lady Liver- 
pool, by 3d Duke of York (10166); the red-and- 
white Aconib heifer Agnes, by Earl of Derby 
(10177), and the roan two-year-old Famous (of 
the Bell-Bates Fletcher tribe), by Earl of Derby 
(10177), were in this shipment. Agnes was in 
calf to Gen. Canrobert (12926) and dropped the 
red-and-white Duchess of Cleveland after im- 
portation to that service.* 

J. 0. Sheldon (New York).— Sheldon of Ge- 
neva, N. Y., who afterward acquired the Thorne 
Duchesses, imported in 1S57 the roan yearling 
Bates Oxford bull Grand Duke of Oxford (16184), 
bred by Capt. Gunter from Oxford 11th; the red 

*We h:ivo neirlecteU to list In its i>roi>or onler the Importation of the 
red-:ind-whlto cow Lucy, by Yoiinir North Star (2381), brougrhi Into Not» 
York in ISK» by ii ('apt. Sproul. Thia cow was bought by J. S» Berrymau of 
Fayette Co., Ky., In 1S38. 



SECOND PERIOD OP ACTIVITY. 275 

yearling Grand Duke 2d (14640), rt//fi5 Claren- 
don 2632, bred by Jonas Webb and afterward 
sold to N. L. Chaffee of Ohio; and the roan 
heifer Miss Butterfly, by Master Butterfly 2d 
(14918) out of Ratafia by King Arthur (13110). 

R. F. Nichols (Louisiana).— In 1856 Mr. R. F. 
Nichols of New Orleans imported the two roan 
cows Lady Stanhope 2d and Nightingale, both 
sired by Whitaker Comet (8771). As to where 
they were taken and as to what progeny they 
left we gtre not advised. 

First importations into Indiana. — We have 
now to record the first direct importation from 
England into the territory west of the State of 
Ohio. In 1838 Mr. Chris. Whitehead of Frank- 
lin County imported the roan two-year-old bull 
Eryx (1982), bred by Mr. Tempest and got by 
Brutus (1752) out of Venus by Sir Walter (2638); 
the cow Young Venus, by Reveller (2529), in calf 
to Young Grazier (3929) — the progeny being the 
roan bull Grazier 4041 — and heifer Strawberry, 
by Eryx. 

In the year 1853 Dr. A. C. Stevenson of Green- 
castle, Ind., imported four heifers and two young 
bulls, as follows: Bloom, red-and-white, and 
Violet, roan, both bred by John Emerson and 
both daughters of Master Belleville (11795); 
Miss Welbourn, a roan bred by Messrs. Weth- 
erell, sired by St. John (27755), and Strawberry 
5th, red-roan, bred by Mr. Thornton of Staple- 



276 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ton, sired by Deliverance (11347). The bulls 
were Prince of Wales 876, a roan of Mr. Weth- 
erell's breeding, sired by Whittington (12299), 
and the roan Fancy Boy 492, bred by Mr. Thorn- 
ton, sired by Major (11771). 

An early importation to Wisconsin. — In 
1854 Mr. John P. Roe of Waukesha County 
brought the first imported Short-horns into 
Wisconsin. The lot consisted of three or four 
females and a bull, all bred by George Faulkner 
of Rothersthorpe. The shipment included the 
red cow Sally, by Pilot (24748); the two-year- 
old red heifer Raspberry, by Protection (11956); 
red yearling heifer Diana, by Dictator (11356), 
and red yearling bull Rothersthorpe 928, by 
Dictator (11356). Raspberry was in calf to 
Rothersthorpe, and dropped the red heifer Re- 
gina. (See Vol. II, A. H. B.) 

Illinois Importing Co. — Prominent among 
those who settled at an early date upon the 
fertile prairies of the State of Illinois were a 
class of men, principally from the State of Ken- 
tucky, who not only brought good cattle with 
them but advanced ideas as to the value of good 
blood in the maintenance of their herds. They 
found the grasses and grains of Illinois quite as 
well adapted to beef-cattle breeding as those of 
their native State, and it was not long before 
several good herds of Short-horns were estab- 
lished. Chief among those w^ho were foremost 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 277 

in this pioneer work with Short-horns in the 
newer West must be mentioned the late Capt. 
James ,N. Brown, whose magnificent estate of 
Grove Park in Sangamon County still remains 
in the family and is still devoted largely to 
cattle-growing and feeding operations. Capt. 
Brown removed from Kentucky in the year 
1833 and brought with him some good Short- 
horns, which constituted, we believe, the earliest 
introduction of the breed into the Upper Missis- 
sippi Valley. Soon after these early settlers 
founded their herds, however, the great depres- 
sion from 1840 to 1850 settled down upon the 
country and slow progress was made in the im- 
provement of the Illinois cattle, but with the 
revival of interest that occurred in other States 
in the fifties the enterprising breeders of Cen- 
tral Illinois resolved to undertake in earnest 
the work of bringing their herds up to the 
standard of those that had existed for so many 
years in Kentucky and Ohio. Accordingly in 
the year 1857 a syndicate was formed for the 
purpose of making a direct importation from 
England. 

Capt. James N. Brown was the master-spirit 
of this organization, and the whole project 
would have failed had he not consented to act 
as one of the agents for the purchase of the 
cattle on the other side. Messrs. II. C. Johns 
and H. Jacoby were selected to act as his assist- 



278 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ants. They proceeded to Great Britain, and 
after careful examination of many of the lead- 
ing herds in England, Scotland and Ireland they 
purchased ten bulls and twenty-one cows and 
heifers. These were shipped on the sailing ves- 
sel Georgia, which had a stormy passage of some 
sixty days' duration. Three bulls and one heifer 
died at sea, but the rest were duly landed at 
Philadelphia in July, 1857. Following the prac- 
tice of their predecessors in the older States the 
stockholders decided to divide up the cattle 
through the medium of an auction sale. It was 
first agreed, in order that the full benefit of this 
importation might accrue to the State of Illi- 
nois, to bar all bidders from other States. The 
sale was held on the local fair-grounds at Spring- 
field Aug. 27, 1857, and attracted widespread in- 
terest. There was not only a great attendance 
from Illinois but numerous breeders were pres- 
ent as spectators from adjacent States. It was a 
great event in the early agricultural history of 
the West.* It was an exciting day at Spring- 



* To Mr. William Brown, son of the late Capt. James N. Brown, the 
author is indebted for a copy of the original catalogue of this memorable 
sale, the tltle-pa^e of which reads, "Cataloirue of Pure-Blooded Short- 
Horned Cattle, also Horses, Sheop and Ho^h. owned by the Illinoislmport- 
Ing- Association." The horses seem to have consisted of a three-year-old 
Cleveland Bay stallion, a two-year-old Thoroughbred stallion and a black 
Thoroughbred mare that unfortunately died before the sale. The sheep 
consisted of Cotswolds and Southdowns. the latter mainly from the flock 
of Jonas Webb, the breeder of the bull Kins Alfred, to be mentioned. The 
swine consisted of Berksblres from the herds of E. Bowly of Siddln^ton, 
Hewer of Hlghworth and others, and of Irish, Cumberland and Yorkshire 
pig-s, all purchased In the Emerald lale. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 279 

field, and fortunately for the company (but per- 
haps unfortunately for the individual buyers at 
the sale) the event occurred a few weeks before 
the alarming financial panic of 1857 overtook 
the business interests of the Nation. 

In view of the fact that this was the primal 
auction sale of Short-honis in the Western 
country it will be of interest to produce here- 
with a full report: 

BULLS. 

Defender (12687), roan three-year-old; bred by A. Crulck- 
shank, Sittyton, and the first bull from that afterward 
celebrated herd brought to Amorica ; sired by Matadore 
(11800)— A. G. Carle, Champaign County $3,500 

Admiral 2478, red two-year-old, bred by Lord Talbot of Ire- 
land, sired by Ctirisp's Phcenix (10608) out of the Booth- 
crossed cow Maid of Moynalty by Beau of Killerby (7821) 
— S. Dunlap & Co 2,500 

Argus (14102), roan yearling, bred by H. Combe; sired by 
Beau (12182) out of Annie by Broughton Hero (6811), a 
roan bull illustrated on page 25, Vol. VI, Coates* Herd 
Book, sired by Buchan Hero (S238)— George Barnett, 
Will County 2,055 

King Alfred (14760), red two-year-old, bred by Jonas Webb, 
sired by Cheltenham (12588) ; dam Heart's Ease by Lord 
of the North (11748)— Brown, Jacoby & Co., Sangamon 
County 1,300 

Dnbloon 8838)^, red yearling; bred by J. Topham, Ireland; 

sired by Orphan Boy (13429)— W. lies, Sangamon County 1,075 

Goldfinder 29205<, roan buU calf, bred by H. Ambler; sired 
by Grand Turk (12960) , that was imported by Mr. Thome 
—J. C. Bone, Sangamon County 725 

Master Lowndes 8140X, roan two-year old, sired by Belle- 

rophon (11165)— J. H. Spears, Menard County 725 

cows AND HEIFERS. 

Rachel 8d, roan two-ye^r-old, bred by S. E. Dolden : sired by 
l>ake of Bolton (12738), a Bates-topped Booth buii; dam 
the Booth-bred Rachel by Leonard (4210), tracing to the 
Halnaby foundation— Jas. N. Brown, Sangamon County. $3,025 



280 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Emerald, roan yearling; bred by T. Barnes, Westland, Ire- 
land ; sired by the Booth bull HopeweU (10332) ; dam Ruby 
by Royal Buck (10750), running to Mason's Lady Sarah 
—J. C. Bone 2,125 

Empress, roan two-year-old, bred by Edward Bowly of Sid- 
dington, sired by Tortworth Duke (13892) ; dam Flippant, 
by Bourton Hero (9968)— Henry Jacoby 1,T25 

Western Lady, roan two-year-old, bred by H. Ambler, sired 
by Grand Turk (12909)*; dam Wlseton Lady by Humber 
(7102), running through Earl Spencer's herd to a Mason 
foundation — Capt. James N. Brown 1,825 

Lady Harriet, roan three-year-old, bred by A. Cruickshank 
and the first Sittyton-bred cow brought to America ; sired 
by Procurator (10657) , dam Countess of Lincoln by Dia- 
mond (5018) ; buUed by Lord SackvUle (13249)— J. H. 
Jacoby, Sangamon County 1,300 

Fama, r^-and- white yearling, bred by S. E. Bolden, sired 
by imp. 2d Grand Duke (10284) and tracing to Booth's 
Fame— J. H. Spears & Co., Menard County 1,060 

Pomegranate, roan yearling, bred by Rev. T. Cator, sired by 
Master Charley (1SS12) ; dam Cassandra by Norfolk 
(9442), a granddaughter of Fawkes' Fair Maid of Athens 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax, running to Booth's Isabella by 
Pilot— T. Simpkins, Pike County 975 

Stella, roan foui>year-old, bred by K Bowly, sired by Snow- 
storm (12119) —Mr. Bonnman, St. Clair County 925 

Perfection, red yearling, bred by A. Cruickshank, sired by 
The Baron (18883), dam Model by Matadore (11800)— E. 
B. Hill , Scott County 900 

Adelaide, roan yearling, bred by A. Cruickshank, sired by 
Matadore (11800), dam Edith Fairfax by Sir Thomas 
Fairfax (4196)— R. Morrison, Morgan County 825 

Minx, red yearling, bred by J. Christy of Ireland, sired Dy 

Lord Spencer (18251 ) — J . G. Loose, Sangamon County ... 800 

Bella, roan five-year-old, bred by E. Bowly, sired by Cali- 
fornia (10017)— J. Ogle, St. Clair County 750 

Violet, roan yearlinfj, bred by Jonas Webb, sired by Young 

Scotland (l8881)-Col. J. W. Judy. Menard County 700 

Constance, roan two-year-old, bred by E. Bowly, sired by 

Snowstorm (12119)— George Barnett, Will County 700 

«Grand Turk was a bull of ImmenHe size, and for a blir one qiiUeas 
smoothly put together an could be expected. He was imported to Mew 
York by the Thornea. See pagre 241. 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 281 

Cassandra 2d, roan two-year-old, bred by Rev. T. Cator; 
sired by Master Charley (13312) , traclDfi: to the Booth 
oow Medora by Ambo— H. Owsley, Sangamon County. . . 675 

Empress Eugenie, rcd-and-white two-year-old, bred by H. 
Ambler, sired by Bridegroom (11203), tracing to the 
Cherry by Waterloo foundation — J. Ogle, St. Clair 
County 675 

Coquette, roan yearling, bred by E. Bowly, sired by Econo- 
mist (11425)— George Barnett, Will County 550 

Lily, white two-year-old, bred by E. Bowly, sired by Snow- 
storm (12119)— George Barnett 550 

Caroline, roan four-year-old, bred by Lowndes, sired by Ar- 
row (W06)— J. M. Hill, Cass County 500 

Coronation, red yearling, bred by Jonas Webb, sired by Chel- 
tenham (12588)— J. A. Pickrell, Sangamon County 500 

7 bulls sold for 110,880; an average of 11,554 

20> females sold for 20,575 ; an average of 1,028 

27 animals sold for 81,455 ; an average of 1.165 

With the single exception of the imported 
cow Mazurka, for which Mr. R. A. Alexander 
had paid $3,050 at the Northern Kentucky Im- 
porting Co/s sale, the purchase of Rachel 2d by 
Capt. Brown at $3,025 represented high-water 
mark up to that date for a Short-horn female 
at public sale in North America. This cow is 
described to us by Col. James W. Judy as "a 
rich roan, rather leggy, quite lengthy and some- 
what light in the body." Unfortunately for 
her buyer she lived but a few years and had no 
produce that proved fruitful. Western Lady, 
Caroline and Constance were the cows that left 
the most and best progeny among all the fe- 
males of the importation. In fact, so far as 
herd-book records indicate, these three cows 
are about the only ones that did found families 



282 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

of any consequence. While Emerald wiis per- 
haps the best individual cow sold, Western 
Lady was easily the most valuable, as subse- 
quently demonstrated by the large and excel- 
lent tribe she gave to the Western States. Car- 
oline was out of condition on day of sale, but 
proved to be a good purchase. Among the bulls 
King Alfred of Jonas Webb's breeding was un- 
doubtedly the most valuable although not the 
highest-priced. While he was preferred by 
some as an individual to any other bull in the 
lot, yet a majority of those in attendance re- 
garded Admiral and Defender as the two show 
bulls of the importation. 

Founding of the American Herd Book.— 
America was practically without a public ped- 
igree registry for Short-horn cattle until 1855. 
The late Lewis F. Allen of Black Rock, N. Y., 
had, it is true, issued the small initial volume 
of the American Herd Book in 1846, but at that 
early date few breeders could be found to take 
an interest in the project, and the entries were 
limited largely to the pedigrees of such stock 
as Mr. Allen was personally familiar with — no- 
tably animals owned in New York, Pennsylva- 
nia and New England. It was not until the 
second volume* was issued ' in the autumn of 
1855 that the breeders of the West came to the 
support of the register. Prior to that time 
some of the leading breeders and importers 



SECOND PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 283 

had been content with recording certain of 
their animals in the English Herd Book. 
Others maintained, with more or less accu- 
racy, their own private records, showing the 
lineage of their stock. Another large class 
preserved no detailed accoun^t of the breeding 
of their cattle, or handled their records so loose- 
ly as to render them of little value. 

Itwas indeed anappallingtaskthatconfronted 
Mr. Allen at the outset of his undertaking. It 
was even a more difficult work than had been 
assumed by George Coates in Yorkshire some 
thirty years previous. Coates could throw the 
saddlebags upon his old white "nag" and jog 
about among the breeders, within a day's jour- 
ney, at his convenience. Moreover he had the 
powerful influence of Jonas Whitaker at his 
back. Mr. Allen had to collect the data of 
half a century of breeding in the new world; 
the stock being mainly in the possession of peo- 
ple unaccustomed to the preservation of pedi- 
gree records. The cattle were in the hands of 
a great number of people in widely-separated 
States; scattered in fact throughout an empire 
extending from New England to the Central 
West. 

Mr. Allen had some qualifications for the 
work. He had been breeding Short-horns him- 
self in a modest way, and enjoyed the personal 
acquaintance of a number of Easteni import- 



284 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

ers, including such men as Col. Powel, F. M. 
Rotch and others. The first volume was issued 
during the depression of the "forties." In the 
meantime, a committee of breeders had been 
appointed in Kentucky to investigate and col- 
lect the pedigrees of Short-horns l)red in that 
State. The results of this committee's investi- 
gations were not published, but supplied a basis 
for further research. 

When Mr. Allen undei-took the second volume 
of the book, after the revival of the "fifties," 
he met with good encouragement, the book 
ultimately appearing in the autumn of 1855 
with something like 3,000 pedigrees.* The lead- 
ing breeders of the West had joined with those 
of the East in placing the work squarely upon 
its feet. Pedigrees were forwarded from Ken- 
tucky by such men as Edwin G., Benjamin C. 
and George M. Bedford; Dr. 11. J. Breckenridge, 
0. H. Burbidge; Brutus J., Cassius M., M. M, 
and H. Clay Jr.; Silas Corbin, the Messrs. Cun- 
ningham, R. T. Dillard, Messrs. Dudley, Jere 
and William R. Duncan, J. P. Fisher, John 
Allen Gano, the Garrards, James and Reuben 
Hutchcraft, C. W. Innes, George W. Johnson, 
J. G. Kinnaird, Samuel D. Martin, James S. 
Matson, Abram and James Renick, the Shakei^s, 
the Shropshires, the Vanmeters, Warfields and 
others. From Ohio came the pedigrees of the 

•This total includes stock recorded as produce under dams. 



BECONL PERIOD OF ACTIVITY. 285 

cattle of such breeders as James R. Anderson, 
Ezra and Walter T. Carpenter, R. G. Corwin; 
John G., Walter A. and Robert G. Dun; Jauies 
FuUington, John Hadley, H. H. Hankins; Chas., 
David and William Harrold; R. Jackson, Wil- 
liam Neff, Jacob Pierce; Felix W., George and 
Harness Renick; M. L. SuUivant, the Shakers 
of Union Village, Allen Trimble and Alexander 
Waddle. From the farther West ped igrees were 
received — indicating that the Short -horns 
were gradually working their way toward the 
Mississippi River — from such men as Hon. John 
Wentwoiiih of Chicago; Capt. James N. Brown 
and James D. Smith of Sangamon Co., 111.; 
George Barnett of Will Co., HI., and Gen. Sol 
Meredith of Cambridge City, Ind. The East 
contributed largely from such herds as those of 
Samuel Thorne, S. T. Taber, S. P. Chapman, 
Messrs. Cowles and Haines of Connecticut, Wil- 
liam Kelly of New York, Paoli Lathrop of Mas- 
sachusetts, John R. Page of New York, J. A. 
Poole of New Jersey, T. P. Remington of Penn- 
sylvania, and J. T. Sheafe, J. M. Sherwood, Lor- 
illard Spencer, Ambrose Stevens and others of 
New York. 

The records set forth in these initial volumes 
were .not in all cases complete. Errors and 
even forgeries crept in, but the foundation was 
laid. Quickly recognizing the necessity of such 
public registration, breeders generally co-oper- 



286 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 



ated in the work and the herd book soon at- 
tained National support. It was continued as 
a private enterprise by Mr. Allen until 1883, 
when it was purchased by the American Short- 
horn Breeders' Association. 







"^S4->ir 



'^%?T^t. 






CHAPTER XL 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 

Thus far our stoiy has of necessity dealt 
mainly with foundation facts. We have 
sketched briefly the upbuilding of the breed 
in its native land and have now outlined the 
importations that formed the basis of breeding 
operations in the United States. We pass, 
therefore, at this point to a consideration of 
the more important results flowing from the 
extensive introduction of English blood already 
noted. 

We have shown that the Gough & Miller, 
Sanders, Powel, Dun and other early importa- 
tions were utilized to the fullest possible extent 
in developing cattle-feeding as a leading indus- 
try in the Ohio Valley. The descendants of 
those impoi-tations were bred before the days 
of herd books and "fashions" purely for the 
practical business purposes of the farm and 
feed-lot. As illustrating the absence of preju- 
dice against the blood of the older importa- 
tions in the early days, it may be mentioned 
that at a sale held by Samuel Smith in Ken- 
tucky Sept. 11, 1838, the Mrs. Motte ("Seven- 

(2S7) 



288 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

teen") cow Cleopatra, by Accommodation 
(2907), brought $1,230, and her daughter Ellen, 
by the great Powel bull Oliver (2387), $1,235— 
the latter bought by Dillard & Ferguson. The 
bull Oliver Keene, only five months old, fetched 
$1,000 from William P. Hume. At same sale 
Dillard & Ferguson got imp. Adelaide at $1,375, 
and imp. Beauty of Wharf dale went for $755. 
For imp. Mary Ann and calf Richard Jackson 
and B. P. Grey paid $2,100. Evidently the 
home-bred stock was as good as the imported. 
This fact is also proved by the show-yard rec- 
ords of that period.* It is apparent from the 
ratings in these competitions that the "Seven- 
teens'' were of good form and chai-acter, and 
that the Kentucky breeders had kept pace up 
to the time of the Ohio Co.'s operations with 
the work of their brother-breeders in Britain. 



•At the fair at Lezinirton, September, 1884, the Judaea— H. Clay, Jamea 
Benlok, Jaeob HivheB, Isaac Vanmeter and W. P. Hume-eertalnly very 
competent men— «aaiffned the pricea as follows : A^ed bulla— **Seventeen8" 
both flrat and second: two-year-olda— "Seventeens" both first and second; 
yearllnirs— "Seyenteena" both first and second; bull calves— first to a "Sot- 
enteen,** aeoond to a Patton. A^ed cows— first to Imp. Caroline (by Dash- 
wood), second to a Powel cow; two-yearolds— "Seventeens** both first and 
second; yearlings— "Seyenteens" both first and second; calYee— ''Seven- 
teens" first. Dun importation second. In 1886 about the same result was 
recorded. The old stock won seven first prises and six second prises, the 
newly-imported stock one first prise and two seconds. Coming down to 
1889, at the Lexington Fair that year the flrstrprlze aged bull came from the 
Smith and Dun importation; two-year-old, from the Ohio Oa*s; yearlinr, 
from Dun's; calf, Ohio Co.'s: two-year-old heifer, Ohio Oo.'s; yearllnff, 
''Seventeen"; cow calf, "Seventeen." In 1810: Aped boll, Powel; two- 
year-old, Ohio Co.; yearling, Ohio Co.; calf, "Seventeen**; aged cow. "Sev^ 
enteen"; two-year-old, "Seventeen**; yearling, "Seventeen**; calf, "Sev- 
enteen." In 1841: Aged bull (late importation), Letton*s; two-year-oM, 
Letton's;* yearlings, H. Clay*; aged cows, **Seventeen**; two-yearold, Ohio 
Co.; yearling, L^tton's: calf, Ohio Co. 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 289 

Such bulls as Mr. Sutton's Frederick 575, Capt 
Warfield's Pioneer 819, Mr. Wasson's Otley 
(4632), Mr. Vanmeter's Charles Colling 333, Dr. 
Kinnaird's Patrick Henry, Capt. Warfield's Oli- 
ver (2387) and Cossack (3503), Cunningham & 
Co.'s Goldfinder (2066) and Mr. Renick's Para- 
gon of the West (4649) were prominent among 
the early prize-winners. Such cows as Dr. 
Kinnaird's Olivia, Mr. Dun's Caroline, Mr. Let- 
ton's lanthe, Mr. Vanmeter's Hannah More, 
Capt. Cunningham's Catherine Turley and Capt. 
Warfield's Helen Eyre, Ellen Ware and the 
never-beaten Caroline would be a credit to 
any modern show-ring. Large numbers of the 
prize animals were sired by Oliver, Goldfinder 
and Cossack. 

With the various shipments of the Ohio Co., 
Vail, Stevens, Morris & Becar, Thorne, the 
Northern Kentucky Co. and R. A. Alexander, 
and the establishment of the herd book, the 
question of " caste '* was projected into the 
trade. Time-honored strains were presently 
sneered at by some who had invested in the 
blood of the later importations. Bates and his 
followei-s had inoculated some of the American 
buyers with the idea of a select Short-horn ar- 
istocracy based upon tho "only bloods at all 
likely to do anybody any good"; and the Amer- 
ican competition at the Ducie sale, together 
with the prices paid by Mr. Thorne for the 

19 



290 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLR. 

• 

Grand Dukes and the Morris & Becar cattle, 
had attracted very geneiul attention to the 
Bates-bred sorts. 

A new era dawns. — By the time Mr. Alex- 
ander brought the first Duchess blood to Wood- 
burn the herds of Kentucky had attained a high 
degree of excellence. Untrammeled by fash- 
ion, prejudice, line breeding and other latter- 
day problems the brothers James and Abi-am 
Renick, the Vanmeters, Warfields, Bedfords, 
Clays, Jere Duncan, Dr. Breckenridge, and 
their contemporaries on both sides of the 
Ohio River, had developed their cattle along 
practical lines until they would bear favorable 
comparison with the parent herds of York and 
Durham. They had been free to follow the 
dictates of their own individual judgment, re- 
gardless of color, blood lines or aught else — 
save the one paramount consideration of the 
practical utility of their stock. They were sell- 
ing breeding animals to go into Ohio, Virginia, 
Indiana and Illinois, and with the creation of 
the great herd at Woodburn the position of 
Kentucky as the center of Short-horn breeding 
activity in America was, for the time being, 
well assured. 

With the advent of Mr. Alexander's Bates 
Duchess bull imp. Duke of Airdrie (12730) a 
new era may be said to have dawned in West- 
ern Short-horn breeding. Notwithstanding the 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 291 

fact that the two highest-priced cows sold at 
aaction in America prior to the Civil War — 
imp. Mazurka and imp. Rachel 2d — were repre- 
sentative of Booth blood the cross of the Duke 
of Airdrie upon the Kentucky-bred cows proved 
so satisfactory that the Bates cattle straight- 
way attained a widespread popularity. As the 
herds of the Central West — the present seat of 
Short-horn power in America — were primarily 
founded by purchase, mainly in Kentucky after 
the Duke of Airdrie's use, it will be of interest 
to note briefly the main facts concerning his 
career. 

Duke of Airdrie (12730).— It is not too much 
to say that this impressive Bates Duchess sire 
did more to shape the course of Short-horn 
breeding in the West during the twenty years 
following his importation than any other ani- 
mal of that period. It will be remembered 
(see pages 266-268) that Mr, Alexander brought 
him to Kentucky in September, 1855. He was 
at that time two years old. He was immedi- 
ately put in service in Mr. Alexander's mag- 
nificent herd of cows and there had an extra- 
ordinary opportunity. In March, 1857, he was 
let for a year to George M. Bedford of Bourbon 
County, under a contract permitting the bull 
to serve fifty cows, for a net sum of $1,250. 
Mr. Alexander, with his usual generosity, per- 
mitted substitutions in cases where cows failed 



292 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

to stand, so that nearly fifty calves were se- 
cured during the year he was on hire from 
Woodburn. His get from the earlier service at 
Woodburn proved of extraordinary merit, but 
his work while at Mr. Bedford's was even more 
remarkable. While in Bourbon County he was 
permitted to serve some cows for Abram Ren- 
ick and Maj. Jere Duncan, and it was for years 
asserted that these services from the Duke of 
Airdrie fairly made the reputation of the three 
breeders named. 

Individually t)uke of Airdrie was perhaps not 
the equal of his sire, Duke of Gloster (11382), 
that was imported by Morris & Becar into New 
York. He inherited from the Duke a lot of 
quality in addition to long, level hind quarters 
and the fault of prominent hips; but, like old 
Gloster, he proved a wonderfully successful sire 
of good bulls. He was probably not above the 
average in size, with a short, well-carried head, 
rather strong horns and smoother shoulders 
than his sire, with an exceptionally straight and 
level top. He would probably be considered at 
the present time as rather too high from the 
ground, a characteristic, by the way, that has 
not been held to be so objectionable by many 
of the Kentucky breeders as by their brethren 
of the North and West.* He was never kept in 

•The late Gen. Sol. Meredith of Indiana once vlaittMi Kentucky to see 
amonjr other not«Hl antnials tht? ?4,8:jO bull imp. Challenger (14252). of Ducle's 
breedluer, a Bon of the 4th Duke of York (10167), owned by the Vaziineterfl 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK, 293 

high condition. No portrait was ever made 
of him in his prime, but about six months be- 
fore his death, when he was very low in flesh, 
Mr. John R. Page of New York executed an oil 
painting of him, from a copy of which the pic- 
ture in this volume has been prepared. 

George M. Bedford's lease of ''The Duke." 
— As one of the original demonstrators of the 
Duke of Airdrie's outstanding value as a sire, 
some account of George M. Bedford's career 
as a breeder will be of interest. He began 
about 1828 with the Long-horns and other 
crosses, together with some Patton stock. In 
1838 he purchased at Gen. Garrard's sale the 
"Seventeen" bull Eclipse, for which he paid 
the sum of $688.* In 1842 Mr. Bedford ac- 
quired an interest in the cow Rosabella, out of 
imp. Rose by Skipton, which, bred to Sir Al- 
fred 969 (he by Rose of Sharon's only son Par- 

and Cunnlngbam. The General was perhaps the tallest breeder of Short- 
horns north of the Ohio River at this time. On vlslUuf the stalls the own- 
ers were not present, but the herdsman led out Challenger for the biff 
** Booster's " examination. While thus engaged one of the Vanmeters, who 
himself was tterhaps over six feet tall, came up and iMttiently waiting till 
the General was through and had ordered the bull back to his stall ap- 
proached and said: *'\Vell, stranger, you have given him a close look: 
what do you think of him? '* The General had admired the bull in many of 
bis points, and after mentioning these concluded by saying that he thought 
the bull was " rather too high from the ground." Mr Vanmeter, looking up 
at the towering Indianlan, said : " Well, sir. I think you arc the last man on 
the ground that should find that obJcH^tton to the bull." 

* At this same sale Hon. B J Clay and Mr Hutchcraft paid 11.830 for the 
bull Exception (374ft), which Mr Bc.-dford connidcred the best "Stiventeen" 
he ever saw. Indeed, upon being ankcd in his later years how Exception 
would compare with the best Short-horns of the pi-esent. he answerttd; 
"Well, sir, J should have to call him a good bull even now." 



294 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE, 

agon of the West out of a daughter of Mr. 
Dun's imp. Red Rose by Ernesty), produced 
the prolific white heifer California, from which, 
by the use of such bulls as D'Otley 432, King 
Cyrus 609, etc., Mr. Bedford bred his afterward 
celebrated family of Brides. About 1853 he 
bought three females descended from Abram 
Renick's imp. Harriet; and about the same 
time, in connection with Messrs. Clay and Dun- 
can, purchased the imported bull Diamond at 
the Northern Kentucky Co.'s sale at $6,000. 
This proved an unfortunate investment, as Dia- 
mond failed to breed. The red bull King 
Cyrus, bought of Mr. Renick, was sired by Ren- 
ick 903 out of a granddaughter of imp. Har- 
riet, and proved a remarkable stock-getter.* 
In 1854 Mr. Bedford and Abram Renick had 
bargained, at the United States Cattle Show in 

*In connection with the llIuBtration of King Cyrus, which appears at 
pare 166, Vol. II. of the Amerlcau Herd Book, a good story is told. If the 
reader will look at this picture. It will be seen that Just behind the bull's 
fore legH and above his back are the faint outlines of another picture which 
has been practically obliterated by the engraver. The other picture was 
that of a negro herdsman who had been in Mr. Bedford's employ for many 
years. King Cyrus, when being shown, had a habit of " humping '' his back, 
and the colored herdsman upon such occasions would Invariably be found 
busy with his cloth rubbing him down, as strangers would suppose. In 
reality he was pincl.ing the bull's back to keep it straight. Mr. Page went 
to Mr. Bedford^s to sketch the bull. In showing the drawing to certain 
other breeders one of the party, with a view toward a little fun, said: *' The 
picture Is all right, but it would be much Improved if you would sketch the 
* darky,* who always shows him, with his hand on the bull's back.** Page 
thought this would make a good background and sketched in the picture of 
the herdsman. After the picture was engraved and sent to Mr. Bedford he 
of course took great offense at what had been done, and when Page found 
there was something wrong lie " Bquare<l " himself as best he could by 
having the herdsman's flirure obliterated. He drew no more pictures, how- 
ever, for George M. BedfoiHi. 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 295 

Ohio, with Messrs. Coulter for the imported 
Booth bull Warrior (12287), but for some rea- 
son the sale failed to go through. The incident 
is of interest as illustrating the fact that at 
that date the great Kentucky breeders had not 
acquired that fondness for Bates blood that 
afterward characterized their breeding opera- 
tions. 

At the time the Duke of Airdrie was hired 
by Mr. Bedford he owned a small herd of Har- 
riets, Brides, Britannias and the cow Goodness 
3d, by Senator 2d. The cow last named dropped 
•to the Duke of Airdrie the 1st and 2d Duch- 
esses of Goodness, from which Mr. Bedford 
bred his remarkable family of that name. Mr. 
Bedford was considered one of the best judges 
not only of breeding cattle but of steers (of 
which he fed a large number in his time), and 
it may be remarked in passing that he consid- 
ered imp. Goodness (of Mason blood) of the 
Northern Kentucky Co.'s importation of 1853 
as the best cow of that famous importation, 
although Mazurka outsold her by $1,0(X). He 
was so delighted with the Duke of Airdrie's get 
that he afterward purchased from Mr. Alexan- 
der the first bull calf sired by the Duke at 
Woodburn — Bell Duke of Airdrie 2552, out of 
Lady Bell by 2d Duke of Athol. Bell Duke of 
Airdrie had a remarkable career in the show- 
ring, winning, among other notable prizes, the 



296 A HISTORY OF SHOET-i;OEN CATTLE. 

$1,000 sweepstake at EX }k)tac in 1858 and the 
championship at same show in I860. The Har- 
riet COW Atossa, by King Cyrus, to a service by 
the imported Duke dropped Grand Duke 2933, 
that was also a St. Louis winner as a two-year- 
old. 

Mr. Bedford was a man of very decided con- 
victions and prejudices and was not always 
consistent. He became a great opponent of 
the '*Seventeens" and found fault with the 
breeding of some of the Louans. At the same 
time his own cattle of that family had the 
cross of Dun's imp. Red Kose by Ernesty; whil6 
his beautiful Brides and his Zoras went direct 
to Rose by Skipton. It was largely on account 
of Mr. Bedford's caustic criticism of these other 
strains that the late Mr. Parks of Glen JFlora 
(Illinois) raised the question of the purity of 
the breeding of the Dun importation — a strik- 
ing exemplification of the fact that people who 
occupy glass houses should not throw stones at 
their neighbors' roofs. George M. Bedford was 
an eminently successful producer of good cat- 
tle, but the love of Bates blood engendered by 
his successful use of the Duke of Airdrie and 
his sons finally drew him into unfortunate 
pedigree speculations in that line of breeding. 

Jere Duncan and Duke of Airdrie 2743.— 
Prominent among the great bulls sired by imp. 
Duke of Airdrie while at Mr. Bedford's was Maj. 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK, 297 

Jere Duncan's Duke of Airdrie 2743. Duncan 
was the originator of a family of cattle known 
as the Louans, that played a prominent part in 
Ohio, Kentucky and Western breeding herds 
and show-rings for many years, gaining many 
championship prizes and commanding great 
prices. The original cow of that name was 
bred by Georgo H. Williams and was sired by 
imp. Otley (4632). She produced eight calves, 
including the famous show bull Perfection 810, 
sold to E. G. Bedford. In Duncan's hands was 
another family of Powel origin known as the 
Rubys. Both sorts were bred to such bulls as 
D'Otley 432, Prince Albert 2d 857 and Sir Al- 
fred 969, and one of the Ruby cows, bred to the 
latter, produced the famous prize cow Nannie 
Williams. Her sire, Sir Alfred, was one of the 
noted bulls of his time, and was bred by Dr. 
Kinnaird of Fayette Co., from Paragon of the 
West (4649) and the handsome and prolific Red 
Rose (by Ernesty) cow Mira. He was sold when 
about two years old to Messrs. Bedford of Bour- 
bon County,'and was described as a light roan, 
with straight top and bottom lines, good head, 
smooth shoulders, fine heart-girth, broad ribs, 
good flank and level quarters. He sired many 
valuable cattle while in Bourbon County, in- 
cluding Mr. Bedford's cow California, already 
mentioned, but owes his fame largely to Nan- 
nie Williams. Sir Alfred was owned for a time 



298 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HOEN CATTLE. 

by James S. Duncan, son of Maj. Duncan, but 
becoming **breechy" was given to a relative in 
Tennessee and died while en route to that State. 

Duke of Airdrie 2743, dropped by Nannie Wil- 
liams in February, 1858, to a service by imp. 
Duke of Airdrie, proved a first-class show bull, 
winning a championship as a two-year-old at 
the Bourbon County Fair in 1860. He was sec- 
ond at the Ohio State Fair the same year and 
second at the United States Fair as well. As a 
three-year-old he swept the decks at the Fay- 
ette, Bourbon and Harrison Co. (Ky.) Fairs, and 
in 1863 was first-prize and champion bull at the 
Kentucky State Show. In 1866, at eight years 
of age, he won first prize as the best aged bull 
at the Bourbon County Fair. One of his sons, 
Duncan's Airdrie 5615, a Louan, was a first-prize 
and champion bull at the leading Kentucky and 
Ohio shows from 1865 to 1873; but as a sire Dun- 
can's Duke was specially distinguished as a 
heifer-getter, fairly making the reputation of 
the Louans; specimens of which for many years 
were great prize-winners at leading shows. 
He was the bull to which Mr. Warfield bred 
Miss Wiley 4th, securing from that service the 
great show cow Loudon Duchess 2d. 

Abram Senick and Airdrie 2478. — None 
profited more largely by the services of imp. 
Duke of Airdrie than Mr. Abram Renickp who 
sent his Rose of Sharon show cow Duchess, by 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 299 

Buena Vista 299, to be bred to the Woodburn 
Duke. The issue was the celebrated Airdrie 
2478— the bull that made the reputation of Mr. 
Renick and hils Rose of Sharon tribe. 

Abram Renick, who was of the same family 
as the Ohi# Renicks, had been a member of the 
original Ohio Importing Co., and bred Short- 
horns for a number of years in connection with 
his brother James. They owned imp. Harrtet, 
imp. Illustrious and imp. Josephine, and had 
bought in Ohio the heifer Thames, by Shake- 
speare 961 out of Lady of the Lake, daughter 
of imp. Rose of Sharon by Belvedere — for which 
cow Mr. Renick paid Mr. Bates in England $700. 
From Thames descended the entire Renick Rose 
of Sharon family. The blood of these Ohio cows 
was more or less intermingled during the ear- 
lier years of Mr. Renick's breeding. That of 
imp. Illustrious was utilized through the me- 
dium of such bulls as Young Comet Halley 
1134 and Ashland 220; the Harriet blood 
through Pilot 817, and that of imp. Josephine 
through Buena Vista 299, the inbred Josephine 
Renick 903 and General Winfield Scott 530. 
Rose of Sharon's blood came in not only 
through her granddaughter Thames but in the 
bull line through the imported cow's only son, 
Paragon of the West (4G49). Thames had been 
bred in 1845 and 1846 to Prince Charies 2d 861, 
tracing to imp. Blossom by Fitz Favorite (1042). 



300 A HISTORY OF SHOKT-HORN CATTLE. 

The progeny in the one case was the heifer Red 
Rose and in the other the heifer Dorothy. Red 
Rose, bred to Ashland, produced the roan Poppy 
in 1849, and she in turn, bred to Renick 903, 
gave birth in 1853 to the light roan heifer 
Norah. Red Rose, bred to Buena yista,* pro- 
duced in 1850 the red-and-white heifer Duch- 
ess, that afterward became the dam of Airdrie 
2478. A few cows were also bred to the Tan- 
queray bull John o' Gaunt (11621), imported 
into Bourbon County by Mr. Matson in 1852. 
To a service by this bull Duchess produced in 
1853 the heifer Ophelia. These cows were 
among the noted matrons of the Rose of Sha- 
ron family in the Renick herd. 

Airdrie 2478 was a red, with little white, of 
only medium size. In good thrifty breeding 
condition he weighed about 1,900 lbs. at full 
maturity. He was repeatedly shown by Mr. 
Renick, but was never made fat enough to 
weigh more than 2,1(X) lbs., although he could 
have been made to carry 2,200 lbs. in excess- 
ively high flesh. He was very symmetrical in 
conformation; smooth, neat and stylish, with 
no serious faults. Airdrie may safely be listed 
as one of America's greatest progenitors of 
valuable Short-horns; imparting finish and 

•Buena ViatA*8 sire was the grand bull CoBsack. alina JuUub Csesar 
(3503). bretl by Mr. Clay and sold to B. Warfleld. Cosaack (3803) was by Cos. 
sack (1880), bred by Richard Booth at Studley from the old KlUerby H088 
Rose tribe. 



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SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 301 

quality with a rare degree of uniformity to his 
progeny. Like his sire, the imported Duke, 
he was more impressive as a stock-getter 
than as an individual animal. Duncan's Duke 
of Airdrie, as already noted, proved a won- 
derful heifer-getter, but Airdrie 2478 gained 
lasting fame as a sire of bulls. He was used 
by Mr. Reuick for a period of about twelve 
years to the fullest possible extent, the only 
limit to his service in the herd being placed 
upon his own daughters, some of which were 
afterward bred with success to the 13th Duke 
of Airdrie 5535; the splendid cow Poppy 5th 
being thus produced. For several generations 
none but sons and grandsons of Airdrie or imp. 
Duke of Airdrie were kept in service. 

Airdrie a bull-breeder. — Among Airdrie's 
greatest sons may be mentioned Sweepstakes 
6230, afterward famous in the show herd of Mr. 
Pickrell of Illinois; Joe Johnson 10294; the in- 
bred Airdrie 3d 13320 out of Duchess 2d by Pi- 
lot — all Rose of Sharons; and Vanmeter's Dick 
Taylor 5508 and Airdrie Duke 5306; both great 
hoifer-rjof.tcrs, out of the Young Phyllis cows 
Ruth and Ruth 2d. Sweepstakes' remarkable 
career in the West will be noticed further on. 
Joe Johnson was almost a/ac shnile of Sweep- 
stakes, the only difference being that the for- 
mer was rather a finer bull. They were both 
exceedingly successful in the show-yard. Joe 



302 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HOBN OATTLE. 

Johnson once gained a champion prize at the 
Bourbon County Fair, with something over 
twenty bulls in the ring, probably as good a lot 
as were ever shown at one time in the State.* 
About the only objection that was urged 
against either of these bulls was their color. 
The ''craze" for red cattle was already setting 
in, and both Sweepstakes and Joe Johnson had 
too much white to suit the public taste. They 
had white spots to the extent of perhaps one- 
fourth of their entire color. Airdrie 3d was 
quite a successful show bull also. Had he been 
as perfect behind as he was in front he would 
have been fairly invincible. At one time bulls 
sired by Airdrie were gaining prizes at all of 
the best fairs of Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri 
and Illinois almost without defeat. 

Inbreeding of the Rose of Sharons. — Mr. 
Renick was so pleased with the results of Air- 
drie's use that he adopted a comprehensive 
course of in-and-in breeding, using the sons 
and grandsons of the bull for many years with 
great success, attracting the attention of the 
entire cattle-breeding world. John Thornton, 
the veteran Short-horn salesman of England, 

* Joe Johnson was a snooesaful price-taker In Kentucky, and also stood 
at the head of the 9800 prise herd, composed wholly of Rose of Sharons, at 
the Ohio State Fair of 1870. He was the sire— amonir other hl^h-prloed cat> 
tie— of the heifer Duchess 10th, sold In 1872 to Earl Dunmore at 16,000. He 
represented a double cross of Imp. Duke of Aln^le, havlnff heen sired hy 
Airdrie 2478 out of Cordelia by Dandy Duke 209L The latter was a red-roan 
bull Mr. Renick had secured by breeding Basterday Ulaxight&t Of Poppg^) 
Ii7 Pilot Of, to Imp. Duke of Airdrie <mao> 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 303 

who visited America after the Airdrie blood had 
been thoroughly concentrated in the Renick 
herd, said: 

** I saw the bull AirdriOf rising thirteen years old, a magnificent 
animal, not too large but exceedingly symmetrical, stylish and 
handsome, with a splendid head and fine masculine character. 
The cows and heifers were called from the fields by a lot of negroes 
—men, women and children— and it was wonderful to observe the 
singular uniformity and great excellence of the cattle as they 
walked past to a comer of the field where they stood to be milked. 
The heifers, mostly by Airdrle, were splendid animals, combining 
great length, elegance and sweetness of character with rich full 
colors, roan or red hair, good form and great substance. Some of 
the older cows were thinner and slightly lame^ owing, as it was 
said, to the thick cornstalks fastening in their hoofs. The calves 
were also good, and two or three jouu^ bulls were of great prom- 
ise. Seeing how very superior this hprd 'was and how closely it 
was in-and-in bred I was induced to ask Mr. Renick how he came 
to take sucA a course. He told me he took up the herd books and 
saw what Ck>lling, Mason and other early breeders had done, and 
he thought he would do the same thing; his neighbors thought he 
would tain his stock, but he thought that he had got quite as good 
as any of them." 

At the time of Mr. Thornton's visit (1869) 
every animal in the herd was of Mr. Renick's 
own breeding. Not only that, but their dams, 
grandams, great-grandams and even great- 
great-grandams had been bred on the farm — 
certainly a fact unique in the history of Short- 
horn breeding in the United States. For years 
he declined to part with any Rose of Sharon 
females at any valuation, but latterly high 
prices tempted him to do so. He has generally 
been regarded as one of the greatest construc- 
tive breeders ever identified with Short-horn 
breeding in America. A disciple of Thomas 



304 A HISTORY OF SHOET-HORN CATTLE. 

Bates, and like that famous breeder without 
immediate family, Mr. Renick was thoroughly 
devoted to his cattle and made them the sub- 
ject of his most untiring personal attention.* 
He was always partial to the golden-skinned 
yellow-reds, and insisted that Short-horns of 
that color were invariably better feeders and 
possessed more quality than the dark reds, in 
which contention he had the unanimous acqui- 
escence of the most experienced breeders. Of 
his subsequent purchase and use of the 4th 
Duke of Geneva we shall have occasion to speak 
elsewhere. The mingling of the Duchess blood 
with that of the Hose of Sharons, thus, reunit- 
ing the Bates lines, proved in this case a suc- 

• Visitors at shows where Mr. Renick was exblbltinfir his cattle were 
very apt to find him feedini? or currying his stock with his own hands. He 
was particularly wrapped up in old Airdrie.and upon such occasions would 
usually be found near him. Perhaps the best show Mr. Renick ever made 
was the year that the Kentucky State Fair was held In Bourbon County. He 
had an exhibit in nearly every rlnsr and never came out without a ribbon, 
usually a blue one. In some classes ho gained both first and second. One 
of the best exhibits he made at this show was for a prize for bull with five 
or six of his get. He had taken Airdrie up out of the pasture without prep- 
aration, and with him and his progeny won the group prize over a number 
of competitors. Airdrie was then eight or nine years old. 

Speaking of this event Mr. Ben F. Vanmeter says: "I do not think I 
ever saw Mr. Renick enjoy a day more than he did this one. As became 
out of the ring leading old Airdrie a gentleman from Ohio sent an intimate 
friend of Uncle Abe's to me with a request that I go with him to see if we 
could not get a price on the old bull. I told him it was a waste of time, but 
he Insisted and we went. We readily found Mr. Renick, and my friend 
Taylor lost no time in broaching the subject. The old man was at first al 
most ready to take It an an insult. Then he suspected us of playing a J«ke 
on him. Taylor finally told him that he considered the bull nearly worn 
out, but was satisfied that his Ohio friend would give $1,000 for him. Th« 
old man then straightened himself up two or three inches above his noi* 
mal height and with his list tightly closed and eyes flashing exclaimed: 
" A natUnuU bank can't 2mv html It I outlive him he will die mine." 



SOMB HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 305 

cessful operation; a fine illustration being seen 
in the case of the celebrated pair of "Genevas," 
Minnie's Duchesi^ of Geneva and Poppy's Duch- 
ess of Geneva, familiarly known as "Big Gen- 
eva" and "Little Geneva," sired by 2d Duke of 
Geneva.* These fine cows had a remarkable 
show-yard career, "Little Geneva" usually 
winning the blue ribbon and her larger sister 
the red whenever exhibited. They rarely low- 
ered their colors in any company. 

The Vanmeten. — The State of Kentucky 
was fortunate in possessing distinguished fam- 
ilies of Short-horn breeders who, like the 
Messrs. Booth in England, displayed an heredi- 
tary love for the cattle and for several succeed- 
ing generations bred Short-horns with a high 
degree of skill and intelligence. We have 
already noted the prominent part played by 
Messrs. George, Felix and Abram Renick and 
may now mention the Vanmeters as worthy of 
rank among those who contributed most to the 
extension of Short-horn breeding in the West. 
To them the West is indebted for the Young 
Marys and Young Phyllises to be found in al- 
most every good herd. 

About the year 1817 Mr. Isaac Vanmeter, who 
was a native of Hardy Co., Va. — in the valley 

•3d Duke of Geneva 5663 was bred by J. O. Sheldon and bought by Edwin 
Bedford, w hone succeaa with the Loudon Duchossoa. etc., R:ive him rank 
hmong the leadin^r Kentucky breeders of his time. The 2d Duke died 
younff. leaving a limited number of calvea, but they were aa a rule excep- 
tionally good. 



306 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

of the South Branch of the Potomac — emi- 
grated to Kentucky and soon afterward mar- 
ried a daughter of Capt. Isaac Cunningham, 
another Virginian who had purchased, early in 
the present century, the farm and some of the 
stock of Mr. Matthew Patton, who had intro- 
duced the Gough & Miller blood into Kentucky. 
The elder Vanmeter and Capt. Cunningham 
formed a partnership for the purpose of carry- 
ing on farming and cattle-breeding operations 
in Clark Co., Ky., and in 1834 they took stock 
in the newly-organized Ohio Importing Co., ac- 
quiring from that company's selections imp. 
Young Mary, with heifer calf Pocahontas; imp. 
Young Phyllis, with heifer calf Catherine Tur- 
ley, and imp. Lavinia, together with the bull 
Goldfinder (2066). Capt. Cunningham also pur- 
chased an interest in imp. Matchem (2283). 
Prior to this time Messrs. Vanmeter & Cun- 
ningham had bred for some twenty years a 
large herd principally descended from the orig- 
inal Patton stock, upon which had been used, 
among others, the noted bull Rising Sun.* La- 

* Capt. Cunningham died in 1S42. maklnir the sons of his daughter, Mra. 
Solomon Vanmeter. executors of a good estate. Mr. Isaac Vanmeter died In 
1864. leaving his son, Ben F. Vanmeter, then but twenty-one years of age, 
sole executor of an estate quite as large as that left by Capk Cunningham. 
Mr. Ben F. Vanmeter's elder brother. Solomon, who died at forty years of 
age, provcxl himself also a most capable breeder and when the Northern 
Kentucky Importing Co. was organized in 1853 he was selected as Clark 
County's ropreHontative upon the committee sent to England to buy the 
cattle constituting that mnmorable purchase. Ben F. Vanmeter was a 
mere lad at tliiH date attending collrgo at Danville, Ky, Learning of the 
proposed expedition to England after cattle, he pleaded earnestly to be 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 307 

vinia, after producing a bull calf, died, but 
Young Phyllis and Young Mary proved among 
the most useful cows of the breed ever brought 
to America. As in the case of the Renick herd, ■ 
the blending of the blood of these Ohio Co. 
cows with that of imp. Duke of Airdrie re- 
sulted in the production of an excellent class 
of cattle. 

Young Phyllis. — This cow ranked as one of 
the best of her day in America. In fact she has 
repeatedly been called the best of all Short- 
horn cows of her time owned in the State of 
Kentucky. Unfortunately she died young, leav- 
ing but three or four calves. She produced, be- 
sides Catherine Turley, a heifer named Eliza 
Woods, by Matchem, and the prize bull John 
Randolph 603, by Goldfinder. Eliza Woods was 
rather disappointing as an individual, although 
some excellent cattle descended from her. Her 
sire, Matchem, was a large, stylish bull; rather 
coarse in his conformation and of a vicious dis- 
position. Quite a number of his get were un- 
popular on account of their dark-colored noses. 
Catherine Turley is said to have been a cow of 
fine character. She was much inclined to make 



allowed to leave school and accompany the committoo. Hn was iriven the 
cholco of either (TOinrr or remalnlnfT and Kradiiallni? that nprlnfr. Without 
bealtatlon he abandonctl liiH aftplratlonM In reffnMicf! to a diploma nnd 
Accompantfd his brolhor nt>on a tour of the Short-horn lui*dH of Great 
Britain. In later years ho attained l:U;>rnation:vl r(>putallon npt only an a 
breedor of hljrh-clasH cattle of ilw Vaniri<'ter trilx-M, but iilwo In fonn«'Ctlon 
With the notable operations of Abram Uonicli with the Rose of Sharoua. 



308 A HISTORY OF BHOET-HOEN CATTLE. 

flesh and unfortunately was allowed to become 
SO fat that she stopped breeding. From her de- 
scended such famous bulls as Dick Taylor 5508, 
Airdrie Duke 5306, Clarendon 2634, Mr. Pick- 
cell's $3,000 Baron Lewis and many other old- 
time celebrities. 

Dick Taylor 5508 was one of the best stock- 
getters produced by the Phyllis family. He 
was a red, bred by Dr. J. J. Taylor and Abram 
Vanmeter, and represented a peculiarly rich 
combination of the best blood introduced into 
the Ohio Valley up to the time of his produc- 
tion in 1863. Sired by the Duke of Airdrie- 
crossed Rose of Sharon bull Airdrie 2478, he 
had for dam Ruth by the $4,850 bull imp. Chal- 
lenger (14252); second dam Maria Edgeworth 
by Arthur Watts' Prince Albert 2d 857, carry- 
ing much of the best of the Ohio Importing 
Co.^s blood; and his third dam, Susan Turley, 
was by Cossack (3503), son of the richly-bred 
Booth bull Cossack (1880), that will be remem- 
bered as the sire of Abram Renick's Buena 
Vista 299. Dick Taylor proved particularly suc- 
cessful when mated with the descendants of 
imp. Young Mary. Indeed one branch of that 
tribe became so celebrated throughout the West 
that it was given (and still bears) his name. He 
was repeatedly shown with success, and upon 
one occasion gained a $100 sweepstake against 
several of the most noted sires of the day for 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 309 

best five calves the get of one bull. We can- 
not in the space at our command make detailed 
reference to the many distinguished animals 
sired by Dick Taylor. We should, however, per- 
haps mention his two sons, Washington 9284 
and Dick Taylor 2d 16637, bred by the Messrs. 
Sudduth. The former belonged to the Leslie 
branch of the Marys, tracing from the show cow 
Hannah More, and won a great many first and 
sweepstakes prizes at the Kentucky shows from 
1869 to 1871. Dick Taylor 2d, a few years later, 
was one of the ruling show-yard champions of 
Kentucky and was sold for $1,100. 

Airdrie Duke 5306, like Dick Taylor, was a 
red son of Mr. Renick's Airdrie 2478. His dam, 
the Phyllis cow Ruth 2d, was by Mr. Alexander's 
famous prize bull exp. 2d Duke of Airdrie 2744, 
so that he represented a double cross of the Air- 
drie-Duchess blood. Airdrie Duke was bred by 
Abram Vanmeter, and was one of the great 
heifer-getters of Kentucky in the later sixties. 
Like Dick Taylor, he made a pronounced "hit" 
when mated with the Marys. His greatest 
daughter was probably Ben F. Vanmeter's re- 
nowned Young Mary show cow Red Rose 8th, 
the best Short-horn cow Mr. Vanmeter ever 
bred. Another celebrated show cow got by Air- 
drie Duke was the roan Phoebe Taylor of the 
Pomona family, that gained prizes all over the 
Western country from 1871 to 1874 in the herd 



310 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

of J. H. Kissinger. He was also sire of the 
Mary cow Miss Washington 2d, that sold for 
$1,000, whose daughter by 4th Duke of Geneva 
brought a like price, and of the $3,200 Poppy's 
Julia and the $2,000 Princess cow Princessa 2d. 

Another branch of the Phyllis tribe that ac- 
quired high repute in Kentucky was bred by 
John W. Prewitt of Clark County from the roan 
cow Gentle Annie, by imp. Challenger (14252), 
that was bought by Mr. Prewitt at the admin- 
istrator's sale of the Solomon Vanmeter cattle 
in 1859. She was a granddaughter of Susan 
Turley. 

Young Phyllis was of a rich roan color, with 
neat head, small, crumpled horns, short, neat 
neck, fine shape and style and a first-class show 
cow in her day. She was frequently exhibited 
at the fairs in Kentucky when in her prime 
and never failed to receive the first prize when 
in the ring except once, and then she received 
the second. Although imported for Mr. Har- 
ness in 1834 at a cost of $1,500, she passed to 
the possession of Capt. Isaac Cunningham and 
Mr. Isaac Vanmeter in 1836 and remained the 
property of the latter until she became barren 
and was slaughtered. Catherine Turley was 
begotten in England and calved at Sycamore, 
in Kentucky, soon after her arrival. 

Young Mary. — This celebrated cow and her 
daughter Pocahontas, sold at the Ohio Co.'s 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 811 

sale of 1836 to Mr. Harness for $1,500, were 
bought and taken to Kentucky that same year 
by Messrs. Vanmeter & Cunningham. Although 
not a show cow like Young Phyllis, Young 
Mary was one of the practical, profitable sort 
that often do more for their owners than ani- 
mals of show-yard character. She is described 
as having been a large cow of striking appear- 
ance, a light roan in color with some white, 
especially on her legs. Her horns, which were 
inclined to be **crumpled," were rather strong 
and well carried out from her head, which was 
broad and well shaped, with a good full eye. 
Her neck was rather thin, shoulders smooth, 
back broad, rib deep, udder large and good. In 
fact she was an extraordinary milker— one of 
the best dairy cows ever owned in the Van- 
meter herds. She was a remarkably prolific 
breeder, and during the first month or six 
weeks after calving (if on grass) could be de- 
pended upon to yield a large pailful of milk 
morning and evening after the calf had drawn 
its fill. Unfortunately Isaac Vanmeter's pri- 
vate herd records were lost or destroyed during 
the Civil War, but it is a commonly-accepted 
fact that Young Mary lived to be about twenty 
years old and died after having given birth to 
her sixteenth calf. 

She produced but four bulls; two of them — 
Davy Crockett and Logan — were dropped while 



312 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

she was in the possession of the Ohio Co. The 
former was purchased by Mr. P. L. Ayres of 
Ohio for $490 for use upon unrecorded stock. 
Logan was bought by Elias Florence of Ohio 
for $750. In Kentucky Young Mary produced 
a red-and-white bull calf named Romulus, by 
Matchem (2283), that was sold while young to 
Mr. James Stonestreet of Clark County, in 
whose hands he was bred to but few pure-bred 
cows. The last calf she ever produced that 
lived to be useful was the roan bull Tom Big- 
bee, by Prince Albert 2d, calved in 1848 and 
sold while young to Mr. Rice Campbell of Bour- 
bon County. He proved quite a good show 
bull. 

Young Mary's female produce after Poca- 
hontas cannot now be named in the order of 
their respective ages. Her next calf was the 
bull Romulus above mentioned, and then fol- 
lowed five heifer calves by Goldfinder (2066),* 
to- wit.: Hannah More, Judith Clark, Sarah 
Hopkins, Lilac and Florida, all of which were 
very superior and lived to be useful cows. All 
of these except Sarah Hopkins were owned by 
Isaac Vanmeter as long as he or they lived. 
Sarah Hopkins was given to Mr. Vanmeter's 



*Imp. Goldfinder (3086) was taken to Kentucky In 1836 and was success- 
fully used for many years, largely in Clark and Fayette Counties, althonrh 
he died the property of Joel Scott in Franklin County. Few better sires 
were known at that time. Be was a lar^e, rich roan, li^ht-bodled and som» 
what le^fry, high-styled and Impressive. 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 813 

son, I. C. Vanmeter, who sold her after a few 
years to George W. Sutton of Fayette County. 
The records do not reveal further facts of 
interest concern! ng Young Mary^s progeny. All 
that is known is that she was a regular breeder 
of good stock and lived to an extreme age. The 
great family of Young Marys, still so popular 
throughout the United States, has descended 
from the Goldfinder heifers and Pocahontas 
above mentioned. Probably the best individual 
of all of Young Mary's daughters was Hannah 
More. She was exhibited at all of the leading 
Kentucky shows and was, we believe, never de- 
feated. Her jBisters were almost as good, but 
Hannah More and Pocahontas, in particular, 
like their Phyllis companion Catherine Tur- 
ley, proved mines of wealth to Kentucky, and 
the West. Pocahontas gave rise to the famous 
Red Rose and Hannah More to the Beck Tay- 
lor, Leslie and Flat Creek branches of the Mary 
tribe. Judith Clark also left a valuable prog- 
eny, among her descendants being the Grace 
Youngs, once so prolific of good show cattle in 
the West, and the Leopardess family, which 
gave to the show-yard Lucy Napier. The suc- 
cess of the blending of the Mary and Phyllis 
bloods in the hands of Messrs. Vanmeter was 
instantaneous. Bred to John Randolph 603, 
son of imp. Young Phyllis, Hannah More had 
a daughter — Queen Anne — that produced to 



J4 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the cover of Prince Albert 2d 857 the bull Al- 
bert Gallatin 202. Randolph and Gallatin did 
some of the local shows in company and car- 
ried many ribSons; the older (Phyllis) usually 
securing first honors and the Mary second. 

Ben F. Vanmeter gave the Marys interna- 
tional fame. From his father's red-roan Red 
Rose, by Pearl 2012*, he bred the celebrated 
family of Red Roses; and by mating the Han- 
nah More cow Beck with the Phyllis show bull 
Dick Taylor he bred the red Beck Taylor, the 
matron of a family of that name still popular 
in the West. Probably the best two cows ever 
produced in his herd were Red Roses 8th and 
11th, own sisters by the Phyllis bull Airdrie 
Duke 5306. The Airdrie Duchess blood was by 
this. time producing remarkable results in all 
the leading Kentucky herds, and when the 
Renick, Vanmeter, Warfield and Bedford cows 
carrying the Bates cross met at the local shows 
there was " war to the knife." Upon one mem- 
orable occasion Mr. Ben. Vanmeter with Red 
Roses 8th and 11th encountered one of the 
greatest cow combinations Kentucky had ever 
seen, meeting Mr. Renick's pets, "Little" and 
"Big" Genevas, two of Edwin G. Bedfoi-d's Lou- 

* Pearl was a red bull bred by Solomon Vanmeter that became the prop> 
erty of Robert S. Taylor of Clark County. He was rot by Vanmeter, Dun- 
can k Cunnln«rham'8 imported 14,850 bull Challenger (14362) from the Im* 
ported cow Gem by Earl Ducle'a Broker (9093), irot by Usurer (9T68). Pearrs 
rrandam was Gulnare, by Whl taker's Norfolk (2877), and his g-reat-^andam 
was the Booth-bred Medora by Ambo (ItfS6). 



80MB HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 315 

don Duchesses, besides one of the best of that 
family ever produced by Mr. Warfieldj^and 
three or four imported cows. In the cow class 
Red Rose 11th won, but in the sweepstakes 
Red Rose 8th gained the prize.* She was af- 
terward champion Short- horn cow at the Phila^ 
delphia Centennialand subsequently sold to the 
Grooms for $1,750 and exported to England. 
Her companion at this show, Red Rose 11th, 
sold to Mr. Fox of England at $2,325 was the 
only cow that ever defeated Red Rose 8th. Mr. 
Vanmeter, however, never considered her so 
good. This cow was the dam of the famous 
roan Young Mary steer that was the champion 
four-year-old bullock at the first American Fat- 
Stock Show at Chicago; a beast that weighed 
2,440 lbs. and sold to the late John B. Drake of 
the Grand Pacific Hotel for $150 for Christmas 
beef. An own brother to Red Rose 8th and 
11th, the bull Rosy Man 27764, was also a prize- 
winner at Kentucky shows. 

Ben F. Vanmeter sustained close relations 
with Mr. Renick and in later years became 
identified with the Rose of Sharon interest, 
further reference to which will presently be 
made. It may be remarked in passing that 
the two prize-winning Young Mary bulls Wash- 

* After the liblwii was tied on Red Rose 8th Mr Vanmeter asked Mr. 
Senlck what he thonyht of it The old man was very slow In making his 
reply, but finally said: >*I reckon It is all rlpht. She is a devil of a i^ood 
one." 



316 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ington 9284 and Dick Taylor 2d 16637— both by 
Dick Taylor 5508 and both bred by Messrs. Sud- 
duth of Clark County— were of Vanmeter stock, 
the former being of the Leslie branch and the 
latter coming through Judith Clark, own sister 
to Hannah More. Dick Taylor 2d won a cham- 
pionship at a Bourbon County fair in a ring of 
thirty entries. We may also add here that the 
bull Seaton 4356, bred by Solomon Vanmeter, 
appearing in certain pedigrees of cattle of Ken- 
tucky origin, represented a cross of Mr. Alexr 
ander's imp. Orontes 2d upon a daughter of the 
imported Wilkinson-bred cow Lavender 3d, 
that was of the same foundation as the Cruick- 
shank Lavenders. 

The Warflelds.— The city of Lexington, the 
blue-grass capital, is situated in the fertile 
county of Fayette, which, in connection with 
the adjacent counties of Clark and Bourbon, 
had from the earliest periods constituted the 
headquarters of the breed south of the Ohio 
River. The name of Warfield is so intimately 
and honorably identified with the cattle-breed- 
ing interest, not only of Fayette and contiguous 
counties but of the entire West, that no his- 
tory of Short-horns in America would be com- 
plete without some reference to the services 
rendered by those of this name. 

The Warfields are descended from Richard 
Warfield, who in 1663 settled in the Puritan 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 317 

colony of Anne Arundel Co., near Annapolis, 
Md. In October, 1790, Elisha Warfield and his 
wife, Ruth Burgess (descended from Gen. Wil- 
liam Burgess, who commanded the troops of the 
colony of Maryland in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century), removed to Fayette Co., 
Ky., from Anne Arundel Co., Md., bringing with 
them their sons, Elisha, born in 1781, and Ben- 
jamin, born Feb. 8, 1790. They settled about 
seven miles east of Lexington, near Bryan's 
Station. Benjamin Warfield began to breed 
cattle in 1824, but had no pure-bred Short-horns 
until 1831. He practiced law until the outbreak 
of the war of 1812, and again until 1831; mean- 
time purchasing the farm of Grasmere, near 
Lexington. His brother, Dr. Elisha Warfield, 
also engaged in stock-breeding, but gave more 
attention to the Thoroughbred horse than to 
cattle; breeding old Lexington and other celeb- 
rities of the turf. The former became the 
owner of Mrs. Motte's bull Partnership (6277) 
and of the Durham Cow's daughter Lady 
Durham, by San Martin (2599). The latter 
owned the Teeswater Cow's bull Mirandi (4428), 
by San Martin, and Messrs. Smith & Warfield 
bought the Teeswater Cow's daughter Pink, by 
Munday's Bull 727.* At a later date, when 

• The **8eventeenB ** were brougrht by Col. Sanders to Fayette, and Mrs 
Motte and the Teeswater Cow were retained there, the property of Messrs 
Ifunday and Haerfrln, respectively. The Durham Cow was taken by the 
Importer to Gallatin County. See pa^e 173. 



818 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the Kentuckians were availing themselves of 
the stock imported by Col. John H. Powel of 
Pennsylvania, Messrs. Warfield were fortunate 
enough to secure the bull Oliver (2387)*, that 
proved a remarkably successful stock-getter — 
undoubtedly the best of all the Powel bulls 
brought West. Capt. Ben Warfield became 
part owner of the Ohio Co. bulls Matchem 
(2283) and Goldfinder (2066), and also had some 
service from imp. Prince Charles (2461). Prob- 
ably none of the earlier Warfield bulls, however, 
proved more successful than the famous roan 
Cossack, alias Julius Caesar (3503), dropped the 
property of Mr. Clay by the imported cow Moss 
Rose, by Eclipse (1949), brought out from Eng- 
land by H. Clay Jr. and Gen. James Shelby of 
Fayette County in 1839. This bull had for sire 
the Booth-bred Cossack (1880), and his blood 
was for many years to be found in some of the 
best Short-horns in leading Kentucky herds. 

Renick 903. — This great Kentucky sire, bred 
by James Renick and sired by Tippecanoe 1036 



• No less than twenty-two bulls and thirty-two cows of OoL John Hare 
PoweVs breedlnir or Importation were taken to Kentucky— largely between 
1831 and 18Stf. While Oliver (2387) was undoubtedly the best of these Powel 
bulls, the outstandlnfir cow acquired by Kentucky from the Poweltoa WiirtI 
was the Booth-bred Isabella, by Pilot (see pa^ 185). 3b» wiwub ably the 
most celebrated cow of her day in the Ohio Valley flbtes, and at the sale 
of her produce by her owner. Mr Suttoo oC V^yette County, Sept. S6, 1837, 
her Bon Frederick 515 sold to Buford A Scott of Franklin County forlMlO; 
her heifer Western Daisy went to Joel Scott at 1745: heifer White Rose to 
James Shelby of Fayette Covrofy at |7:{5. and bull Cyrus to B. S. Waahlnrton 
of Fayette County at |8IA Another dauf?hter of Cleopatra, Sally Jackson, 
was sold privately to J. S. Berryman A, Co. for t3,0001 




BOMS HI8T0BI0 KENTUCKY STOCK. 319 

ontof a daughter of imp. Josephine, was bought 
by Capt. Warfield as a six-mor\ths calf. He was 
begotten in Ohio, and although his sire and dam 
were both descended from imp. Josephine* by 
Norfolk he was not specially promising as a 
calf and was by no means satisfying as a year- 
ling. For this reason he was sent to Dr. Breck- 
enridge for a year of trial. As soon as his calves 
began to come, however, all doubt as to Ren- 
ick's value disappeared and he was freely used 
with extraordinary success. He was a red with 
a long and level carcass, well-sprung ribs and 
superior handling qualities. He stood some- 
what high on the leg, and was not in fact what 
would be considered a real show bull. He was 
often exhibited, but his success lay in his prog- 
eny rather than in his own individuality. He 
therefore furnishes an instance — along with 
Goldfinder (2066) and imp. Duke of Airdrie — 
where a plain bull proved to be a stock-getter 
of unquestioned capacity. Renick soon ac- 
quired reputation as the best sire of his time 
in Kentucky. Of the show cows among his 

•Josephine was a fine show cow; provinsr a auccesBful prize-winner at 
the Ohio fairs. She produced In 1838 a roan cow calf named Nonpareil, by 
Comet Halley (M35). In 1839— bull calf Hubback, by Paraxon of the West 
(4649). In 1840-bull calf Tippecanoe, by Rover (5015). In 1841— cow calf 
Lady Harrison, red-and*white, by Rover (6015). She then produced twin 
bull calves, neither of which lived to bo useful, after which she ceased 
hreedlnr— was fatted and slausrhtered. Nonpareil and Lady Harrison, the 
female produce above mentioned, were sent by Mr. Felix Renick to his son* 
In-law, Mr. James Renick of Bourbon Co., Ky., to breed on shares In some 
way, but the latter finally became the owner of the stock. 



820 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

progeny perhaps the most distinguished were 
the light roan Tulip and the roan Fleda, both 
of these being descended from Capt. Warfield's 
never-beaten show cow Caroline. The former 
was sold to Capt, James N. Brown and the lat- 
ter to J. D. Smith, both of Sangamon Co., 111., 
and for many years they divided the verdicts 
of Western show-yard juries. Indeed the late 
Capt. Brown considered that Tulip was a vastly 
better cow than Capt. Warfield's celebrated 
Mary Magdalene, that had been bred by Abram 
Renick f i-om a Harriet dam from a service by 
Renick 903. Mary Magdalene combined aston- 
ishing substance with rare finish. Although 
she was of enormous size, weighing in show 
condition 2,250 lbs., still an ordinary hand could 
span her ankle with thumb and fore finger. 
Lizzie Higgins, the dam of Fleda, invariably 
produced a show animal to a service by Renick, 
her heifers Sally Campbell and Pearl and the 
bull Magyar 677 illustrating this fact. Still 
another cow that "nicked" well with Renick 
was Lucy, a descendant of imp. White Rose, 
by Publicola, that gave to Renick the two great 
heifers Lucy 2d and Lucy 3d and bulls Francisco 
2266 and Duke of Stockdale 1483. That excellent 
old cow CheiTy 2d, by Don John 426, also pro- 
duced to Renick a pair of extraordinary calves 
known as Amy and Sally Smith. Another great 
Renick heifer was Adah, and we should also 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 321 

mention Mr. William Warfield's Princess and 
Mr. Kinnaird's Pearl. 

MuBcatoon 7067.— This celebrated sire of 
prize cattle in the herd of Mr. William Warfield 
of Grasmere was one of the fruits of the great 
herd assembled by Mr. Alexander at Woodburn. 
He was a red bull, sired by the Bates-bred Royal 
Oxford (18774) out of Mazurka 2d by Orontes 2d 
(11877); second dam that famous Lincolnshire 
roan imp. Mazurka by Harbinger. There is 
no question as to this cow having been one of 
the best ever imported. Rich in color, her 
capital carcass, with its far-famed back and 
flank, was set off by a head of surpassing sweet- 
ness. Muscatoon was a red with a perfect head 
and the full eye of the kindly feeder. He was 
strongly filled behind the shoulder and had the 
rib and full lower line of Mazurka joined to 
the great loin and thighs of Orontes 2d. He 
was bought by Mr. Warfield as a yearling, and 
his career at Grasmere both as a show bull and 
a stock-getter did much to strengthen the rep- 
utation of the Woodburn stock. Although 
shown by Mr. Warfield with exceptional suc- 
cess from 1867 to 1871 his most lasting fame 
was gained as a getter of extraordinary show 
and breeding animals. In fact in the rings for 
best lot of calves the get of one bull he was al- 
most invincible in the State of Kentucky in the 
later sixties. The most remarkable feature of 



322 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

his service at Grasmere was the uniform excel- 
lence of his get. They were all good, and some 
of them attained such outstanding excellence 
that they were for many years reigning show- 
yard champions. Among these were the heif- 
ers Duchess of Sutherland 4th, Maggie Musca- 
toon, 1st and 2d Ladies of Grasmere and Loudon 
Duchess 4th. He also sired the Rose of Sharon 
cow Grace and Louan of Waveland, for which 
Walter Handy paid respectively $1,000 and 
$1,150 at a sale of E. L. Davison's. Among the 
noted stock and show bulls of his get were Lou- 
don Duke 6th 10399 ; Tycoon 7339, Lord of the 
Manor 12332 and 2d Duke of Grasmere 13961. 
He died as the result of an accident in 1873, 
and it may be said that he shares with the 
Duke of Airdrie bulls the reputation of having 
materially advanced the name and fame of the 
Short-horn breed throughout the entire West- 
em country. Indeed rank as a sire of show 
cattle has been claimed for this Mazurka bull 
along with such English celebrities as Booth's 
Crown Prince and Towneley's Frederick. 

The Loudon Duchesses. — Mr. William War- 
field has the honor of having originated one of 
the best tribes of Short-horns yet evolved by 
the breeders of the United States. We allude 
to the Loudon Duchesses produced by his skill 
and intelligence by a judicious utilization of 
Woodburn blood. The Hon. Frank Key Hunt, 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 323 

an able lawyer and a neighbor and kinsman of 
Mr. Warfield, having expressed a desire for a 
good Short-horn heifer to grace his spacious 
lawn, Mr. Warfield purchased for him at a sale 
held by Mr. R. A. Alexander in 1856 Miss Wiley 
4th, sired by 2d Duke of Athol (11376) out of 
imp. Miss Hudson, at $470, which, we believe, 
was the highest price of the day. Mr. Warfield 
was to direct her breeding and was to take each 
calf at six months of age at $300. He believed 
that as she promised to make a big, large-framed 
cow good results would follow her mating with 
the finely-finished imp. Duke of Airdrie (12730). 
The first calf proved to be the red bull regis- 
tered as Loudon Duke 3097, whose name was 
derived from the title of Mr. Hunt's farm. In 
the meantime Mr. Hunt suggested that Miss 
Wiley 4th be bred to imp. St. Lawrence (12037), 
that had been imported by Mr. Thorne of New 
York and purchased by Elisha Warfield. Mr. 
William Warfield objected to this cross on 
the ground of incompatibility of type, but Mr. 
Hunt insisted upon trying it, releasing Mr. 
Warfield from any obligation to take the calf 
if not satisfactory. The experiment was a fail- 
ure and the bull calf that resulted was steered. 
The cow was then bred back to imp. Duke of 
Airdrie, and in 1860 dropped the red heifer 
Anna Hunt, subsequently sold by Mr. Warfield 
to Charles M. Clark of Springfield, 0., from 



324 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

whose hands she passed into the possession of 
Daniel McMillan of Xenia, becoming the an- 
cestress of a great family of cows known as the 
Ladys of Clark. Miss Wiley 4th had by this 
time grown into a cow of immense scale, weigh- 
ing 1,700 lbs. off grass. The development of 
Loudon Duke and of Anna Hunt demonstrated 
that the cross with the fine but rather "rangy" 
imp. Duke of Airdrie was a success, and she was 
again sent to be served at Woodbum. This 
time she dropped the red bull calf Duke of Ed- 
inburgh 4724 (also known as Loudon Duke 2d), 
that was sold to a Mr. Woodruff of Indiana. 
The result of the next service to the imported 
Duke was the roan bull calf Loudon Duke 3d 
10398, sold to Mr. Wilson of Cincinnati and used 
with success in Ohio herds. In 1863, to imp. 
Duke of Airdrie, she dropped the red bull Lou- 
don Duke 4th 5906, sold to Mr. Edwin G. Bed- 
ford and afterward the property of Mr. D. S. 
King of Ohio. During this period Mr. Warfield 
had used the first Loudon Duke with success, 
finally selling him to Mr. Isaac Vanmeter of 
Clark Co., Ky. 

In 1864 Miss Wiley 4th dropped to imp. Duke 
of Airdrie the red heifer calf destined to fame 
under the name of Loudon Duchess. The im- 
ported Duke having meanwhile died, it was 
decided to breed Mr. Hunt's cow to Duncan's 
Duke of Airdrie 2743, which Mr. Warfield con- 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 325 

sidered the imported Duke's best son; and from 
a service by that bull the red heifer Loudon 
Duchess 2d was dropped in 1865. In the fall 
of that year Mr. Warfield had sent a small 
bunch of cattle for exhibition to the local 
fairs, included among the number being the 
yearling Loudon Duchess. The stock was taken 
to the Bourbon show in Mr. William Warfield's 
absence in attendance at the Illinois State 
Fair, which was held the same week, and dur- 
ing the continuance of these shows the follow- 
ing telegram was received from Kentucky: "I 
am offered $500 for your yearling heifer and 
$250 for your steer; shall I take it?" This re- 
ferred to Loudon Duchess and a great steer of 
the Rosabella 24 by Velocipede tribe. In those 
dull days the prices seemed large, and as Mr. 
Warfield believed that Loudon Duchess 2d 
would make a better heifer than her sister by 
the imported Duke he replied in the affirma- 
tive, and thus Mr. E. G. Bedford of Bourbon 
County became the owner of Loudon Duchess, 
the prize yearling of that season and subse- 
quently a great prize-taker and dam of win- 
ners. Loudon Duchess 2d proved to be Miss 
Wiley 4th's last calf and Mr. Warfield decided 
not to part with her. These two heifers then 
embarked upon a show-yard and breeding ca- 
reer that has probably not been surpassed in 
this country. 



326 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

The Bedford heifer produced one bull and 
one heifer (Loudon Duchess 3d) to services by 
The Priest 6246, and one bull (Loudon Duke 
7th 10400) and three heifers (Loudon Duchesses 
5th, 7th and Uth) to services by that capital 
Bates Duchess sire 2d Duke of Geneva 5562. It 
had previously been agreed between Mr. War- 
field and Mr. Bedford that the Loudon Duchess 
name should be given to the progeny of these 
cows. To avoid confusion Mr. Bedford was to 
use the odd numbers and Mr. Warfield the even 
numbers. Mr. Warfield's Loudon Duchess 2d 
produced ten calves — six bulls and four heifers 
— three of which were by Muscatoon 7057, two 
by Robert Napier 8975, one by 5th Duke of 
Geneva 7932, one by 11th Duke of Geneva, one 
by 4th Duke of Airdrio, one by 14th Duke of 
Thorndale and one by 2d Duke of Grasmere 
13961. Loudon Duchess 4th, one of the Mus- 
catoon heifers, was considered by Mr. Warfield 
to be the best female produced by either of the 
celebrated sisters, and Loudon Duke 6th 10399, 
afterward so famous in Missouri and the West, 
was counted the best bull. He was sold to Mr. 
J. G. Cowan of Missouri for $3,000 in 1872, a great 
price for that time. 

We have already alluded to the fact that dur- 
ing the great expansion of the Short-horn trade 
following the Civil War a^prejudice was unfor- 
tunately created by interested parties against 



80MB HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 327 

cattle carrying crosses of stock descended from 
the Walter Dun importation. Inasmuch as 
Duncan's Duke of Airdrie had such a cross, 
those who in the later years sought to discredit 
the Dun importation insisted that the descend- 
ants of Mr. Bedford's Loudon Duchesses by imp. 
Duke of Airdrie were more valuable than the 
descendants of Mr. Warfield's Loudon Duchess 
2d. The absurdity of this contention is clearly 
shown by the fact that, judged by the stringent 
requirements of the show-yard, Mr. Warfield's 
Loudon Duchesses were even better individuals 
than those bred by Mr. Bedford. While Lou- 
don Duchess gained twelve first prizes, Mr. 
Warfield's Loudon Duchess 2d won fifty-six, 
some of them gained at the State fairs of Ohio 
and Indiana. The female calves of Loudon 
Duchess won while in the hands of Mr. Bedford 
five prizes, but Mr. Warfield's Loudon Duchess 
4th alone won fourteen and his Loudon Duchess 
6th alone won over forty. There was always a 
friendly rivalry as to the merits of the original 
cows between Mr. Bedford and Mr. Warfield, 
but it is self-evident that there was no founda- 
tion whatever for any assumption of superior 
value in behalf of the Bedford line of breeding. 
Mr. Warfield was the first to secure extraordi- 
nary prices, selling Loudon Duchess 8th to Mr. 
J. F. Cowan of Virginia for $2,500 and Loudon 
Duchess 6th to W. H. Richardson of Kentucky 



328 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

for $2,005, the highest-priced female at the auc- 
tion sales of that year. Mr. Bedford, however, 
surpassed even these exceptional values at his 
closing sale of 1874, where seven Loudon Duch- 
esses averaged $3,521 and two bulls $2,033; one 
cow (Loudon Duchess 9th) going to Mr. B. F. 
Bedford at $6,000 and one bull (Loudon Duke 
19th) to W. R. Duncan of Illinois for $3,500. 
A very superior bull produced by Loudon Duch- 
ess 2d was Mr. E. L. Davison's red Loudon Duke 
3d 8542, sired by Muscatoon. This bull should 
not be confused with Loudon Duke 3d 10398 
from Miss Wiley 4th. The latter had been sold 
into Ohio by Mr. Warfield and passed from no- 
tice before the Muscatoon bull was assigned a 
name. There were thus two Loudon Duke 3ds, 
uncle and nephew. Loudon Duke 3d 8542 was 
shown extensively from 1868 to 1870 at all of 
the leading Kentucky fairs, and won many first 
and championship prizes. 

Mr. William Warfield steadfastly resisted the 
dictates of fashion and clung tenaciously to 
the right of selecting sires of approved form 
and quality belonging to established tribes with- 
out reference to the whims and fancies of the 
speculative element. While on this account he 
did not profit largely by the great speculative 
advance that resulted in such enormous prices 
being paid in subsequent years for certain " line- 
bred" families, he stood manfully by the best 



80MB HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 329 

traditions of the breed, and has up to the end of 
the present century consistently advocated the 
breeding of Short-horns for individual excel- 
lence from the best sources regardless of par- 
ticular blood-lines.* 

Adoption of Bates type and methods. — Imp. 
Duke of Airdrie was extensively used by Mr. 
Alexander at Woodburn and sired a large num- 
ber of good cattle of both sexes in that superb 
herd. We have already mentioned the prize 
bull Bell Duke of Airdrie 2522 used by Mr. 
Bedford. Another noted son was Clifton Duke 
(23580), that was used by Mr. Alexander upon 
the Airdrie Duchesses and was also hired by 
George M. Bedford. He was out of the im- 
ported Filbert Bell-Bates cow Lady Derby. 
Another good bull by the old Duke, bred at 
Woodburn, was Princeton 4285 (from imp. Prin- 
cess 4th by Revolution), that was sold to Dr. 
Breckenridge and left much valuable stock. 
The Duke of Airdrie heifers at Woodburn, as 
elsewhere, proved very valuable as breeders. 
From one of these, Minna 2d — a daughter of 
imp. Minna by Bridegroom — Mr. Alexander 
bred the celebrated show bull Minister 6363, 

«William Warfield was a son of Capt. Ben Warfleld and became one of 
the acknowledged authorities on all subjects pertaining to American Short- 
horn history. A frequent contributor to the Breeder'» Qazette and other agrri- 
ciiltnral Jonmals and the author of "A History of Imported Short-horns " 
and of *' Cattle-Breedinsr "—published by the Sanders Pub. Co., ChlcajfO— he 
has perhaps done more than any other one man in America to preserve the 
records of early Importations and build up a Short-horn literature m tiie 
United SUtes. 



330 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

whose career in the hands of William R. Dun- 
can in Illinois will presently be mentioned. 

Another noted show bull that served to prove 
to the minds of Kentucky breeders the efficacy 
of Duchess blood for crossing purposes at this 
period was Burnside 4618, a red bred by H. 
Clay Jr. of Bourbon County, dropped in 1861 
by the Duke of Athol (10150) cow imp. Brace- 
let to a service by Duke John 2741, he a roan 
bull by imp. Duke of Airdrie (12730) out of the 
Gwynne cow Lady Sherwood by 5th Duke of 
York. Burnside was shown with much success 
and died in November, 1873. 

While Woodburn made no apparent effort to 
concentrate the Duke of Airdrie's blood, Abram 
Renick and George M. Bedford did not hesitate 
to double it up at eveiy opportunity. Messrs. 
Vanmeter were also inclined to the belief that 
the "more of the old Duke's blood the better." 
The pronounced success of such bulls as Dun- 
can's Duke 2743, Airdrie 2478, Sweepstakes 
6230, Joe Johnson 10294, Airdrie Duke 5306, 
Dick Taylor 5508 and of the Loudon Duchesses, 
etc., established thoroughly the popularity of 
Bates sires in Kentucky; and Mr. Renick's 
skillful concentration of Airdrie and Rose of 
Sharon blood rooted the idea firmly in the 
minds of most of the Kentucky breeders that 
by a system of in-and-in or line breeding based 
on the use of Bates bulls the best Short-horns 



SOME HISTORIC KENTUCKY STOCK. 331 

were likely to be produced. Pronounced style, 
good scale, level lines and great finish were 
cardinal points with those who w^ere most ac- 
tive in shaping the course of Short-horn breed- 
ing in the West at this time. These character- 
istics were secured and thoroughly established 
largely through the use of the sons, grandsons, 
daughters and granddaughters of imp. Duke of 
Airdrie. Such was the general situation, there- 
fore, at the time when Illinois and other West- 
ern States began stocking up largely with Short- 
horns ; the foundation animals for nearly all of 
the leading Western herds being secured from 
Kentucky sources. 

An unbiased and thoroughly capable judge 
who visited the herds of Kentucky at intervals 
during this period — the late Simon Beattie of 
Canada and Annan, Scotland — called the atten- 
tion of the breeders of that State to the fact 
that while they were securing a marked uni- 
formity, fine heads, a beautiful finish and gay 
carriage by this system of close breeding, they 
were at the same time sacrificing heavy flesh, 
substance and hair, and '^ working their cattle 
toward a leggy type, thin about their rumps, 
thighs and hind quarters." In rebuttal of this 
criticism Mr. Alexander's Mazurkas were cited 
as a family that had escaped those defects, but 
the fact was promptly pointed out by Mr. Beat- 
tie that imp. Mazurka was by Mr. Booth's Har- 



332 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

binger and her dam by Mr. Lax's Baron of Rav- 
ensworth — both bulls that imparted short legs 
and thick flesh to nearly all their offspring. 
Mr. John Thornton, the able English live-stock 
auctioneer, who visited the States in 1869, ap- 
parently approved of this observation of Mr. 
Beattie's in a measure, for he was quoted as say- 
ing that he regarded the Mazurkas as the most 
promising foundation for a fine family of cattle 
of any one sort he had seen in America. 



CHAPTER XII. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 

From 1857 down to the close of the Civil 
War in 1865 importations of Short-horns had 
practically ceased; and during a great portion 
of that time values ruled so low that there was 
little encouragement for those engaged in the 
trade. The financial crash of 1857, with the 
War of the Rebellion in its train, put a damper 
upon enterprise in this direction. Kentucky, 
the active center of Short-horn breeding in 
America at this time, was a border State be- 
tween the North and South and was a theater 
of military operations. A few of the leading 
breeders, Mr. R. A. Alexander among the num- 
ber, sent their Short-horns north of the Ohio 
River for safety, the Woodburn cattle being 
placed temporarily in the charge of Mr. J. M. 
Woodruff of Nineveh, lud. Others drove their 
pets into their most secluded pastures, hiding 
them as best they might when the exigencies 
of the occasion called for special care, and 
bided their time. With the advent of peace 
the business entered upon an extraordinary pe- 
riod of expansion toward the West, to which 
section we must now direct our attention. 



334 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

First Illinois herds. — Virginia carried the 
Short-horn colors into Ohio and Kentucky, and 
emigrants from those States in turn bore the 
banner of the "red, white and roans'' into Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Missouri, from which vantage 
grounds the breed ultimately spread through- 
out the entire West. 

The earliest introduction of Short-horn blood 
into Illinois was made by Capt. James N. Brown 
of Grove Pkrk, Sangamon County, who had 
previously bred and shown cattle successfully 
in Kentucky. The herd at Grove Park was 
founded in 1834. The stock was brought from 
Kentucky, probably the most noted of the ear- 
lier members of the herd being the cow Lady 
McAllister, for which $900 was paid in 1837. In 
1852 he bought in Kentucky the cows Beauty 
and Miss Warfield and the bull Vandal 1065. 
These were followed two years later by such 
animals as Margaretta, Bentona, Stella, Sally 
Campbell, Lulu and Tuscaloosa. In 1856 Capi 
Bfown bought in Kentucky Queen Victoria, 
Maude and Orphan 2d. These cattle and others 
purchased subsequently by Capt. Brown, in 
common with most of the other stock of that 
period, carried more or less of the blood of the 
importation of 1817. In the meantime (in 
1854) he had purchased in Ohio the imported 
bull Young Whittington and the imported cow 
Picotee and bull calf Buckeye. In 1857 Capt, 



PROGRESS IN THB OBNTRAL WEST. 335 

Brown organized and directed the notable im- 
portation from England listed on page 276, se- 
curing for his own herd the $3,025 cow Rachel 
3d, the $1,325 roan heifer Western Lady and an 
interest in the bull King Alfred (14760). The 
Grove Park Herd was shown with more or less 
regularity at the Morgan and Sangamon County 
Fairs until the establishment of ihe Illinois 
State Fair in 1853 and the St. Louis Fair in 
1856. 

Capt. Brown's brother. Judge William Brown 
of Jacksonville, was a partner in some of these 
earlier operations, and Col. G. M. Chambers of 
Jacksonville was also associated with him in 
the purchase of stock brought from Ohio. His 
neighbor and kinsman, Hon. J. D. Smith, also 
began breeding Short-horns during this period, 
and at a somewhat later date Judge Stephen 
Dunlap of Morgan County founded a herd. 
Prior to 1840 Messrs. E. B. Hitt & Bro. introduced 
Short-horns into Scott County, and in that same 
year Messrs. Samuels and Forsythe brought 
in what was afterward the foundation herd of 
the Messrs, Dunlap, In 1853 Messrs. Calef and 
Jacoby shipped some good Short-horns into Il- 
linois from Kentucky, the latter making a fine 
exhibit at the first Illinois State Fair. In this 
connection it may be stated that prior to 1856 
Messrs. Calef and Jacoby had acquired and fed 
J 00 head of high-grade Short-horn steers that 



336 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOEN CATTLE. 

were marketed at an average weight of 1,965 
lbs. — a fact which did much to attract the at- 
tention of Illinois farmers to the value of the 
blood. About this same time Mr. B. F. Harris 
of Champaign County collected a lot of 100 
grade steers that were fed to the enormous av- 
erage weight of 2,377 lbs. While such weights 
are not wanted at the present time, this feed- 
ing experiment served as a great advertisement 
for Short-horn blood. About 1854 Mr. John 
Huston, father of the late Rigdon Huston, in- 
troduced Short-horns into McDonough County, 
and the Hon. John Wentworth of Chicago 
also entered the list of breeders. The Went- 
worth Herd was one of the oldest in the 
Northwest. Its owner was a man of gigantic 
stature — familiarly known as " Long John " — 
who was prominent in the politics of the State 
of Illinois and amassed a large fortune in Chi- 
cago. He drew most of his foundation stock 
from the East, but bought also from his early 
HIinois contemporaries. His farm was located 
at Summit, Cook County. Mr. Wentworth 
maintained the herd continuously until his 
death, which occurred some fifteen years since, 
and a peculiar feature of his management was 
the fact that he was in the habit of putting a 
uniform price of $100 per head upon his crop of 
bulls irrespective of breeding or quality. With 
his customers it was "first come first served," 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 337 

While we cannot undertake in the space at 
our command to particularize concerning all 
of the many herds established in Illinois in 
ante-helium days, we may mention the following 
owners of registered stock, some of whom con- 
tinued in the business for many years and 
achieved great reputation: Stephen Dunlap, 
J. 6. Strawn, Elliot Stevenson, John P. Hen- 
derson and R. Pollock of Morgan County; R. 
H. Whiting, George Newman, Luther Martin 
and Godfrey & Sumner of Knox County; Tru- 
man Humphreys, Peoria County; J. C. Bone, 
William B. Smith & Bros, and H. H. Jacoby, 
Sangamon County; J. M. Hill, Cass County; J. 
H. Spears, J. W. Judy and James Purkapile of 
Menard County; E. L. Gilham of Scott County; 
George Barnett, Robert Milne and S. W. Ran- 
dall of Will County; Davis Lowman of Stark 
County; A. G. Carle of Champaign County; S. 
S. Brown of Jo Daviess County; William Black 
of Greene County; A. Kershaw of Dupage 
County; The Bishop Hill Colony of Henry 
County; J. P. Reynolds and Ed Bebb of Win- 
nebago County; Thomas Wray and D. B. Tears 
of McHenry County; Ralph Anderson, James 
Makepeace and S. Simpkins of Pike County; 
E. C. Marks of La Salle County; George M. 
Bedinger of McLean County; A. W. Bowen of 
Will County; D. J. Townsend, Kendall County; 
P. Hudson, Edwards County; Green & Davis 



338 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

and W. Marks, La Salle County; Charles Mer- 
riam and S. W. Ball of Madison County; A. 
Pyle, St. Clair County; George Severs and W. 
W. Parrish, Kankakee County; Caleff & Jacoby, 
Piatt County; H. C. Johns, Macon County; 
Parks & Trundell, Mercer County; H. N. Cross, 
Jersey County; M. W. Biggs, Scott County; 
David Graft, Woodford County; and Messrs. 
Green, Paul & Wurts of McLean County. 

Early Indiana breeders. — Short-horns were 
introduced into Indiana soon after the importa- 
tions of the Ohio Co. in 1836, at several differ- 
ent points. The late Dr. A. C. Stevenson of 
Greencastle was the "Nestor" of Short-horn 
breeding in the " Hoosier " State. We have al- 
ready referred (on page 275) to his importation 
from England, consisting of four heifers and 
two bullst made in 1853. He had been inter- 
ested in Short-horn cattle for some years prior 
to that date, having used the Ruby bull Mon- 
arch 717, that was bred in Kentucky in 1845. 
By both example and precept Dr. Stevenson 
never lost an opportunity to impress upon the 
farmers of his State the advantages of good 
blood, and he maintained his interest in the 
trade until his death, at a very advanced age, 
a few years since. 

The late Gen. Meredith, who bought his Oak- 
land faftn adjoining Cambridge City, in Wayne 
County, in 1851, was one of the most prominent 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 339 

of tbe early Indiana breeders, and afterward 
acquired international reputation for his herd. 
He was a native of North Carolina, but removed 
to Indiana about 1830. He was a man of no- 
table physique, standing six feet seven inches 
in height, and for a number of years was one 
of the most conspicuous figures in the frater- 
nity of American Short-horn cattle-breeders. 
His entire life was marked by that same deter- 
mination and perseverance that impelled him 
when little more than a lad to make the toil- 
some journey from North Carolina over the 
mountains into the West on foot and after ar- 
riving to work for $6 per month cutting wood. 
He bought his first Short-horn bull in 1836, and 
from that time until his death, which occurred 
Oct. 21, 1875, he never lost his interest in the 
breed. He was closely associated with the 
leading breeders of his time, included among 
his earlier Short-horn-loving friends being such 
men as Samuel Thorne, Lewis G. Morris, Lewis 
F. Allen and Robert A. Alexander. The foun- 
dation cows for the Meredith herd were bought 
mainly in Kentucky. The first notable pur- 
chase of a bull was the Bates Wild Eyes imp. 
Balco (9918), the highest-priced bull of his fam- 
ily at the Kirklevington dispersion sale, men- 
tioned on page 240. It was something of an 
undertaking to transport him from New York 
to Indiana in those days. A letter written by 



340 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

his former owner, Col. Morris, accompanied 
Balco on the trip addressed to '^Railroad and 
steamboat agents en route to Cambridge City," 
bespeaking special attention to the wants of 
"this very valuable bull." 

Gen. Meredith was an exhibitor at the first 
United States Cattle Show, held at Springfield, 
0., ill 1857, where a prize of $500 was offered 
for the best Short-horn herd. There were five 
herds in competition — two from Ohio, two from 
Kentucky and Gen. Meredith's from Indiana. 
There were five judges, two of which voted 
for the Indiana herd, two for the Ohio herd and 
one for the Kentucky herd. After two days' 
fruitless balloting the committee unanimously 
made the rather remarkable recommendation 
that no premium be bestowed, but that, instead, 
the money remain in the society's treasury! 
And it was so ordered. Gen. Meredith was 
considered a fine judge not only of cattle but 
of Southdown sheep, improved swine and high- 
class horses, and unquestionably rendered the 
farmers of the State of his adoption signal ser- 
vice along the line of live-stock breeding. He 
was a gallant soldier during the War of the 
Rebellion, commanding the famous "Iron Bri- 
gade " at the battle of Gettysburg. We shall 
have occasion a little further on to make refer- 
ences to some of the more valuable animals 
included in the Oakland Herd in its prime. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 341 

Thos. Wilhoit of Henry County was another 
of the Indiana pioneers whose herd achieved 
celebrity. He began with Short-horns in 1851, 
when he bought of Milton Thornburgof Wayne 
County two heifers and a bull. They were 
good cattle for that day, although unrecorded. 
It is related that Mr. Wilhoit paid $35 per head 
for these unregistered animals, and his neigh- 
bors and friends considered this pure extrava- 
gance and laughed at what they termed his 
folly. His experience with them was never- 
theless so satisfactory that in later years he 
made several journeys to Kentucky, selecting 
animals approaching as nearly as possible his 
ideal as represented in the beef type. He 
bought four heifers from H. H. Hankins of 
Ohio and also purchased females from W. H. 
Richardson and the administrator of T. G. Sud- 
duth of Kentucky, paying as high as $500 for 
single animals. Subsequently the Wilhoit herd 
developed into one of the best in the Western 
States, largely through the use of the Booth- 
bred Forest Richard and Scotch bulls, reference 
to which will be made further on. 

Other enterprising men who helped to intro- 
duce the breed into Indiana were J. M. Wood- 
ruff of Johnson County, in whose hands Mr. 
R. A. Alexander placed the Woodburn Herd for 
safe-keeping during the Civil War; A. Root, 
Lake County; Chas. Lowder, Hendricks County; 



342 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

W. W. Thrasher, Fayette County; J, D. Wilson, 
Greensburg; Alfred and Washington Hadley, 
Parke County; Smith Wooters, Union County; 
Jacob Taylor, Henry County; Joseph Allen, R. 
N. Allen and Messrs. Farrow of Putnam County; 
James Wright, Franklin County; Messrs. Lott 
and T, S. Mitchell, Jefferson County; Thos. E. 
Talbot, Jefferson County; John Owen, Monroe 
County; Levi Druley, George Davidson and L. 
F. Van Schoick of Wayne County; Ell Harvey, 
Addison Hadley and Sidney Hadley of. Morgan 
County; W. I. Walker of La Porte County; J. 
W, L. Matlock, Abram Hoadley, V. Lingenfel- 
ter and Alfred Coffin of Hendricks County; 
Messrs. Scholfield, Johnson County; Joseph H. 
Hendricks and John R. Cravens, Jefferson 
County; Rockhill & Nelson and L. S, Bayless, 
Allen County; Nicholas Druley, Union County, 
and E. Pierce, Whitley County. 

Pioneer breeders of Michigan.— In 1843 Mr. 
A. S. Brooks of Oakland County, who had re- 
moved to Michigan from New York several 
years previous, ordered sent from York State 
three heifer calves and a bull calf, all to be pure- 
bred Short-horns. With the cows came a lot of 
Merino lambs. After a perilous journey on the 
lake from Buffalo they were, through the care- 
lessness of an attendant, turned loose in the 
streets of Detroit and were not located until 
three days afterward. They were then driven 



PBOOBESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 343 

from Detroit to Mr. Brook's farm. Some idea 
of the discouragement which attended early 
ventures of this sort in the West may be 
gleaned from the fact that one of his neigh- 
bors remarked after the arrival of this stock: 
"The calves are a very good lot, but the bull 
has evidently been fed on shortcake and honey. 
But I do not see what you wanted to bring 
those little lambs so far for. It would take a 
dozen of them to make a pot-pie." The critic 
was a man by the name of Chapman, and his 
was not the first instance on record where one 
who "came to scoflf remained to pray." Mr. 
Chapman was the first to buy a Short-horn 
heifer calf from Mr. Brooks, for which he paid 
the munificent sum of $10! It must be remem- 
bered that this was an era of very low prices 
and scarce money in the West, and the fact 
that Mr. Brooks sold a calf for such a price 
fairly established his reputation as a cattle- 
breeder, for the simple reason that one could 
buy a cow at that period for the price named.* 
The first Michigan State Fair was held at De- 
troit in 1849, and Short-horns were exhibited 
by Messrs. Brooks and Ira Phillips. The fol- 
lowing year the show was held at Ann Arbor, 
and it is recorded that there were thirty-four 
head of Short-horns on exhibition distributed 



«Paper hy N. A. Clapp before the Michigan State Short-horn Breeders' 
▲sBoclatlon, 1881. 



344 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

among nineteen breeders. Some of these were, 
however, unable to present satisfactory evi- 
dences of pure breeding and were classed as 
grades. In 1851 the Short-horn exhibit had 
increased to thirty-seven head. In 1853 Mr. 
Brooks sold at auction his herd of non-pedi- 
greed stock, and then brought from New York 
the bull Yonondeo 1116, sired by Old Splendor 
767 of the Weddle stock. He also bought the 
yearling heifer Fatima, for which he paid $250, 
and in 1858 the imported Gwynne cow Camilla. 
These purchases were followed by the bull John 
o' Gaunt 1707^, a white, sired by imp. John o' 
Gaunt (11621) out of imp. Romelia, brought out 
from England by Morris & Becar in 1854. Soon 
after this it is stated that Mr. Brooks sold a 
pair Qf two-year-old Short-horn steers for the 
very gratifying price of $228.50. This was in 
1860. Soon afterward he bred a very famous 
white heifer that attracted the attention of en- 
terprising farmers throughout the entire State. 
She was fattened and bought by Mr. Wm. Smith 
of Detroit, with the expectation of exporting 
her to England for exhibition at the Smithfield 
Show. This project was not carried out, how- 
ever, and she was slaughtered in Detroit. Imp. 
Camilla gave Mr. Brooks the bull Sunrise 4411. 
He was white in color, symmetrical in form, 
and of extraordinary handling quality. ^ He 
remained at the head of the herd until five 



PBOOBESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 345 

years old, and his descendants were for many 
years much sought after by Michigan breed- 
ers. 

In 1847 George W. Phillips of Romeo began 
bi-eeding from cows descended from the impor- 
tsitions of Messrs. Weddle and Newbold of New 
York, his first bull being Young Splendor 3611, 
In 1848 Edward Belknap of Jackson County 
founded a herd with the bull American Comet, 
a son of the Bell-Bates cow imp. Hilpa, at the 
head. Mr. Belknap's foundation cow was 
Estelle 2d, descended from Whitaker stock- 
Messrs. Moore of Kalamazoo County owned 
a few Short-horns in the early fifties. In 
1857 Mr. D. M. Uhl of Ypsilanti appears as an 
exhibitor and breeder. About the same time 
Silas Sly of Wayne County engaged in the trade 
and was a successful showman at the Michigan 
State Fairs. In 1855 Mr. J. B. Crippen of Cold- 
water entered the lists and pushed the breed 
with vigor. He was quite an extensive breeder 
and did much to encourage the use of Short- 
horn bulls throughout the State. In the 
spring of 1857 William Curtis & Sons of Hills- 
dale County laid the foundation of a herd 
which afterward became very prominent in 
the State. In 1861 they bought the entire 
Crippen herd, and in 1864 secured the bull 
Llewellyn 6596 from J. 0. Sheldon of New 
York, They afterward visited Kentucky and 



346 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE, 

purchased females of the Illustrious, Harriet, 
Young Mary, Young Phyllis and White Rose 
tribeSy as well as the bull J. E. B. Stuart, that 
was shown with great success. Other Michigan 
breeders recording in Vol. V of the Herd Book, 
issued in 1861, were B. J. Bidwell of Tecumseh — 
who seems to have started his herd with cattle 
purchased mainly in Ohio and Kentucky; his 
foundation stock consisting largely of ** Seven- 
teens," Daisys (by Wild), Amelias, etc. — and M. 
Shoemaker of Jackson, whose Belleflowers (of 
the Pansy tribe) obtained a good local reputa- 
tion. The latter also had the Estervilles of the 
E. P. Prentice (N. Y.) stock. 

Amos P. Wood of Mason became interested 
in Short-horn breeding as early as 1852 in the 
State of New York before his removal to Mich- 
igan. In 1867 he brought to the latter State 
representatives of several well-known Eastern 
families, such as Pansy, by Blaize, p.nd Bright 
Eyes, by Favorite. He bred these two families 
until 1872, when he added another Pansy and 
a Bloom heifer. He continued breeding from 
this stock until June, 1874, when they were 
sold at auction at an average of $271.50. Mr, 
Wood was a Short-horn enthusiast and after- 
ward established another herd. 

First Short-homs west of the MiBBiBBippi. — 
The first pedigreed Short-horn cattle taken west 
of the Mississippi River of which we have any 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 347 

record were those with which the late N. 
Leonard founded his Ravenswood Herd in Coo- 
per Co., Mo. This was in 1839, at which date 
Mr. Leonard bought from George Renick of 
Ohio the bull Comet Star 9676. It is of inter- 
est to note that this, probably the first pedi- 
greed Short-horn bull ever seen in the trans- 
Mississippi region, was a white. He was a 
yearling, sired by imp. Comet Halley (1855) out 
of imp. Evening Star. Along with him came 
the heifer Queen, by imp, Acmon (1606) out 
of LadyPaley by Rantipole 885; second dam 
imp. Flora by son of Young Albion (15). For 
these the sums of $600 and $500 respectively 
were paid. They were shipped via steamer 
on the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, 
being landed at Boone ville at large expense for 
transportation. From these Mr. Leonard bred 
a number of fine cattle, and they, with their 
produce, were exhibited at the earliest Mis- 
souri fairs. Thus was the breed introduced 
into the farther West; the Ravenswood Short- 
horns commanding the admiration of the pio- 
neer farmers of that period. In 1853 Mr. Leon- 
ard bought the bull Malcolm 10436, a red-roan 
descended from imp. Teeswater, by Belvedere. 
He proved a good sire. The first "State fair" 
held in Missouri occurred at Booneville in 1852, 
Mr. Leonard being an exhibitor and receiving 
many prizes. He continued to exhibit stock 



848 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

at various fairs, always with success until the 
breaking out of the Civil War. 

The early volumes of the herd book indicate 
that pure-bred Short-horns were owned in Mis- 
souri prior to and during the early days of the 
war by the following: Thomas S. Hutchinson, 
who was associated with Mr. Leonard; Elisha 
N. Warfield, Horace H. Brand and David Cas- 
tleman of Cooper County; H. Larimore, Calla- 
way County; James R. Hughes, Pettis County; 
Messrs. Brown, Saline County; James Doneghy, 
Jackson County; Messrs. Hubbell, Ray County; 
Lewis Bryan, Elmira; J. A. Talley, St. Charles 
County; R S. Wilson, Boone ville; W, D. Mc- 
Donald, Gallatin; D. K. Pitman, St. Charles 
County, and Messrs, McHatton and Phillips of 
St. Louis County. At a little later period 
Messrs. H. V. P. Block of Pike County, Richard 
and William Gentry of Sedalia; C. E. Leonard, 
Jeff Bridgford, John G. Cowan, the Duncans, J. 
H. Kissinger and many others became promi- 
nent in the trade. 

Foundation StQck in Iowa. — In the report 
of the ninth Iowa State Fair, which was held 
in 1862, it is stated that Judge T. S. Wilson of 
Dubuque was a breeder of Short-horns twenty 
years prior to that date, which would indicate 
that specimens of the breed were taken to Iowa 
as early as 1S42. He exhibited at the fair mfen- 
tioned a white bull called Rocket. At the first 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 349 

Iowa State Fair, which was held at Fairfield in 
1854, Mr. H. G. Stuart of Lee County and Tim- 
othy Day of Van Buren County exhibited Short- 
horns, or "Durhams," as they were then com- 
monly called in the West. In 1858 J. H. Wal- 
lace, at that time Secretary of the Iowa State 
Agricultural Society, published what he termed 
the Iowa Herd Book and continued it for a few 
years. An examination of these volumes shows 
no record of cattle calved prior to 1849, and 
most of them were bred in the early fifties. 
Col. E. W. Lucas of Iowa City bought a Short- 
horn bull as early as 1845, and there is a record 
of a pure-bred bull having been taken into Mus- 
catine County by Charles A. Warfleld in 1841. 
These are the first references we have to the 
introduction of the breed into the **Hawkeye" 
State.* 

So far as herd -book records reveal the facts, 
the first pure-bred Short-horn produced in the 
State of Iowa was the bull Marion 1833, regis- 
tered as bred by and the property of Samuel 
Hollingsworth, Pilot Grove, Lee County, calved 
April 4, 1851, sired by Fremont 516 and tracing 
on dam's side to Lady Washington by Diomed, 
said to have been imported in 1837, but as to 
the facts connected with her importation all 
Short-horn records are silent. Mr. Hollings- 
worth seems to have owned several females be- 

• We are indebted for these facts to Mr. H. W. Lathrop of Iowa City. 



350 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

longing to this same Lady Washington family, 
which will be found recorded in the early vol- 
umes of the herd book. We should place the 
beginning of his work a few yeara prior to 
1850. 

Mr. Timothy Day of Van Buren County was 
one of the first to begin in a systematic way 
the breeding of registered Short-horn cattle in 
Iowa. He commenced about 1854, his founda- 
tion stock being obtained mainly from Ken- 
tucky, and consisted of animals descending 
from the importation of 1817. The earliest 
sires used in his herd seem to have been Fill- 
more 2855, a light roan, bred by E. 6. Bedford 
and sired by the Louan show bull Perfection 
810, and Star of the West 3469, a Mrs. Motte 
bull of Brutus J. Clay's breeding. He also 
seems to have used the bull Nicholas Jr. 752, a 
white, bred by Jere Duncan and sired by D'Ot- 
ley 432, tracing to imp. Fashion. At least he 
recorded females in Vol. IV of the American 
Herd Book, entering them as bred by himself 
and sired by that bull. It is possible that he 
simply bought the dams in Kentucky in calf 
to this bull and recorded the progeny as his 
own breeding on account of their having been 
dropped in his possession. During the great 
extension of Short-horn breeding in the West, 
following the War of the Rebellion, the Day 
herd became one of the most prominent in 



I 



PROGRESS IN THB CENTRAL WEST. 351 

the Western States through the enterprise of 
Messrs. A. H. & I. B. Day, who purchased and 
bred some of the best cattle ever owned in the 
State of Iowa, and exhibited them with suc- 
cess in competition with th.e leading herds of 
the time. 

Contemporary with the elder Day, Mr. H. G. 
Stuart of Lee County founded a herd and bred 
Short-horns in considerable numbers, descended 
mainly from cows of Kentucky breeding, a ma- 
jority of them belonging to the "Seventeen" 
and Rose, by Skipton, families. One of his 
earliest bulls appears to have been the light 
roan Tom Claggett 2299, bred in Bourbon Co., 
Ky., by Peter Hedges. About this same date 
— 1854 — an organization known as the Ohio 
Stock-Breeding Co. operated quite largely in 
Ohio-bred Short-horns in Butler County, mak- 
ing their purchases mainly from the herds of 
Messrs. Dun, Harrold, Jacob Pierce and their 
contemporaries. They seem to have pushed 
their business with some vigor; at any rkte 
they were enterprising enough to have pre- 
pared and inserted in Vol. Ill of the herd book, 
published in 1857, an illustration of their big 
red-and- white Caroline, by Dashwood, cow 
Quince, of James Dun's breeding. In this 
same volume of the herd book Peter Melendy 
of Butler County first appears as the owner of 
the Ohio-bred light-roan "Seventeen" cow Ar- 



352 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

temesia 3d, whose bull calf of December, 1857 
— Champion 2615 — was sold to William Briden 
of Bremer County. Mr. Melendy seems to have 
first used the bull Young Colonel 3584, bred by 
John G. Dun of Ohio. He sold an Artemesia 
heifer, calved in 1858, to George Clark of Cedar 
Falls. Among the other ownera of Short-horns 
in Iowa in the "fifties" were John Patterson of 
Burlington; B. N. Moore of Van Buren County; 
George GrifiEen of Monroe County ; J. H. Majors 
of Mahaska County ; John E. Teter of Jasper 
County, who owned a roan Ohio-bred Rose of 
Sharon cow that was calved in 1856; and W. 
Duane Wilson of Fairfield, who appears in Vol. 
Ill as the owner of an Ohio-bred Rosabella. 

About 1860 a religious order holding 3,000 
acres of good land in Dubuque County under 
the title of the Corporation of New Melleray* 
established a herd of Short-horns. They bred 
largely from stock tracing to the importa- 
tion of 1817; one of their earliest bulls having 
been Emperor 3910, bred by Capt. James N. 
Brown of Illinois and sired by imp. King Al- 
fred. One of their foundation cows was the 
roan Beauty Spot — a daughter of Mr. War- 
field's Renick 903 — bred in Kentucky in 1854. 
They also purchased a cow from Hon. J. D. 
Smith of Illinois, and another bred in 1854 

* The Brothers maklnfir np this Catholic oriranizatlon came orlglnalljr 
from Ireland In 1831; eatabllBhlnfr upon the fertile body of land secured in 
DubuQue County what 1b known aa New Melleray Abbey. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 353 

from John P. Henderson of Morgan Co., HI. It 
was from this corporation that "Uncle John" 
G. Myers of Washington County bought his 
first Short-horns in the early "sixties"; haul- 
ing them across country in wagons. 

Such were the beginnings of the Short-horn 
trade in the great cattle-growing State, which 
perhaps now numbers within its borders more 
herds than any other State in the Union. 

Early Wisconsin herds. — We have referred 
on page 276 to an importation made into Wis- 
consin direct from England by John P. Roe of 
Waukesha County in 1854. Mr. Roe bred from 
imp. Raspberry and other females for some 
years, his herd being a source of supply for the 
farmers of that part of the State. So far as we 
can ascertain, however, a start in Short-horn 
breeding had been made shortly before this 
importation; the earliest owners of registered 
stock in the State being Messrs. C. H. Williams 
of Baraboo and Lambert H. Kissam of Berlin, 
Marquette County. Mr. Kissam's operations do 
not appear to have been very extensive, but the 
Williams herd was maintained for many years 
and became prominent, G. W. Bicknell of Rock 
County appears in the herd book as an owner 
of registered Short-horns prior to 1860, as does 
also the late Richard Richards of Racine. Mr. 
Richards was a devoted admirer of improved 
tarm stock, and secured his first Short-horns 



B54 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

from Northern Illinois herds and by purchase 
in Ohio. One of his first investments was the 
Rose of Sharon cow Camilla and her heifer calf, 
bought of Edward Bebb of Winnebago Co., 111. 
These were of Harness Renick's (Ohio) sort. In 
the fourth volume of the herd book entries were 
made by Messrs. E. E. Elkins of Kenosha, A. G. 
Knight of Racine and C. F. Hammond of Fond 
du Lac County, all of whom owned Short-horns 
prior to 1859. During the war little was done 
in the way of extending the trade in this State, 
but Wisconsin took a prominent part in the 
great revival of interest in the breed that oc- 
curred immediately after the conclusion of 
peace. 

Activity in the show-yard,— While it thus 
appears that the foundations of Short-horn 
breeding had been laid throughout the cen- 
tral corn belt of the Middle West prior to the 
Civil War, it was not until about 1865 that 
the business received impetus sufficient to en- 
list general attention. Quick to realize the ad- 
vantage of public exhibitions as a means of 
bringing the breed to the notice of the farming 
community, enterprising men began, about the 
date mentioned, to seek for the best obtainable 
specimens for show-yard purposes. Conspicu- 
ous among those who came to the front in this 
line of work were the breeders of the State of 
Illinois. They had already taken the lead so 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 355 

far as the new West was concerned when they 
made the importation of 1857, and they now 
began a campaign in behalf of Short-horns at 
the fairs that proved productive of far-reaching 
results, bringing to the support of the trade 
scores of new recruits whose liberal invest- 
ments and enterprise spread the reputation of 
the Short-horn throughout the largest area of 
rich com and blue-grass land in the world. 
Some of the more important of these show-yard 
operations leading up to the great "boom" of 
the "seventies" will now be noticed. 

William B. Duncan and Minister 6363.— 
Mr. William R. Duncan, a Kentuckian who re- 
moved to McLean Co., Ill, about 1864, had bred 
cattle for many years in his native State, hav- 
ing had in service at one time in his Clark 
County herd Mr. Alexander's imp. Orontes 2d 
(11877), which he had hired in the fall of 1855 
for one year at $655. He brought with him to 
Illinois a good, lot of stock, including quite a 
number of Vanmeter Young Marys, Phyllises, 
etc., and also the roan Woodburn-bred bull Ox- 
ford Wiley 8753, sired by imp. Royal Oxford 
(18774) out of a Miss WHey dam. This bull 
subsequently became the property of J. B. Ry- 
burn of Bloomington. Mr. Duncan is chiefly 
distinguished, however, in connection with 
Western Short-horn history by reason of his 
exhibition of the show bull Minister 6363, bred 



356 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HORN OATTLB. 

by R. A. Alexander, calved in 1863 and brought 
to Illinois by Mr. Duncan as a two-year-old in 
1865. He was a strong-backed red, of great 
scale and fine style; indeed quite a typical 
specimen of the class of bulls then so popular 
in Ohio and Kentucky. He was sired by the 
Filbert Bell-Bates bull Lord Derby 4949* out of 
Minna 2d by imp. Duke of Airdrie (12730); sec- 
ond dam the red cow Minna by Bridegroom, 
which Mr. Alexander had imported from the 
herd of Mr. Fawkes of Fameley Hall, 

Minister was not only one of the star show 
bulls of -his day in Illinois but sired show stock, 
one of his best sons being the prize bull Royal 
Rose 12852, that was out of a Vanmeter Red 
Rose- Young Mary dam and sold at auction in 
1874 for $1,000. Minister was also the sire of 
the roan Miss Leslie, a Young Mary that sold 
at Col. King's Dexter Park sale in 1874 along 
with her daughter by Gen. Napier for $4,020 to 
the late C. A. DeGraff of Minnesota. He was 
also the sire of the Young Phyllis show cows 
Pattie Moore, Pattie Moore 2d and Queen of 
the Meadows. 

J. M. Hill's sale. — Among the earlier Illinois 
breeders who took an interest in the show-ring 
was Mr. J. M. Hill of Harristown. Like most 

•Loixl Derby was sired by Albion 24S2, a white bull by Imp. Grand Turk 
(12969)— a Bateft-crossod Booth. Albion's dam was imp. Frances Fairfax, 
bred by Mr. Ambler and a half-sister to Mr. CrulcksbanlL'B noted stock knill 
Lord Racrlan, by Croaade (7V3B}. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 357 

of the other Western breeders of that day he 
had relied largely upon Kentucky for his breed- 
ing stock, and he not only bought some good 
cattle from the blue-grass country but had se- 
cured the services as herdsman of David Grant, 
who had been for a time in the employ of Geo. 
M. Bedford. Grant was a Scotchman, who had 
gone from Canada to Kentucky to feed show 
stock, and later on had charge of some of the 
most celebrated prize-winners ever shown in 
the West. Mr. Hill died suddenly at Quincy, 
111., while the Illinois State Fair of 1867 was in 
progress, and Nov. 20 of that year his herd was 
closed out at auction under the management of 
J. H. Pickrell as administrator.* Everything 
offered sold quickly at good prices. It was here 
that the 15th Duke of Airdrie was bought by 
Hon. John Wentworth of Chicago for $1,260. 
and "thereby hangs a tale." Hon. M. H. Coch- 
rane of Hillhurst, Can., wanted this bull and 
sent Simon Beattie to the sale to buy him. 
The bidding was mainly by Mr. Beattie and a 
stranger whose identity was unknown to any of 
the breeders present. The "unknown" had his 

•The Grove Parle Herd of J.imes N. Brown A Sons hart never failed to 
get the herd prize at the IlUnolB State Fair after the herd competition wan 
InauflTurated until 1867 at Quincy. At that fair J. H. Plckrell'B herd was 
awarded the first prize both for agoA animals and for younir herd. Mr. 
Hill, who died on the grounds at tlio close of that show, won the second 
prizes on both herds. Hill had always said that he would just like to live 
longr enough to beat Capt Brown's herd, so that he really accomplished his 
object. He was sick wheii the show was made and died the next day, but 
he was told that his herd had beaten Mr. Brown's^ 



358 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLX. 

way in the matter, and after the Duke was 
knocked off to him presented credentials from 
Mr. Wentworth, who was one of the best-known 
men in the State. After the bull had been put 
on board the cars the buyer produced two cards, 
upon which were written in Mr. Weiitworth's 
own handwriting these words: "If this *green- 
horn' of an Irishman gets lost send this bull to 
John Wentworth, Chicago." The cards were 
tied to the Duke's horns, and it is needless to 
say he arrived safely at Summit Farm, where 
he did good sei-vice up to his fifteenth year. At 
this same sale Mr. D. McMillan of Ohio, whose 
herd was one of the foremost of that day, sent 
an unlimited order to buy the cow White Lady, 
a daughter of imp. Western Lady, for which 
Capt. James N. Brown had paid $1,325 at the 
Importing Co.'s sale in 1857, and secured her at 
$800. 

J. H. Pickrell. — We now reach the point 
where consideration must be given to the work 
of Hon. J. H. Pickrell — the present editor of 
the American Short-horn Herd Book — formerly 
of Harristown, 111., whose long and active 
identification with Short-horn interests in the 
United States calls for conspicuous recognition. 

Mr. Pickrell descends from a Kentucky and 
Virginia ancestry. His father removed from 
Kentucky to Illinois in 1828, settling in Sanga- 
mon County. J. H. (or " Henry," as his friends 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 359 

are fond of calling him) was bom March 20, 
1834, in this State. In regard to his earliest in- 
duction into the Short-horn trade we can do no 
better than quote the following characteristic 
account furnished by Mr. Pickrell himself: 

**The month of September , 1869, found me In Kentucky for the 
purpose of attending the Bourbon County Fair at Paris (that was 
then said to be the oldest continuous fair in the United States) 
and the Kentucky State Fair, that was held in Lexington the fol- 
lowing week. Arriving at Paris I took a room at the Bourbon 
House, expecting to occupy it during the week. Reaching the 
fair ground soon after dinner I found a large crowd in attendance. 
An Illinois gentleman who happened to be visiting in an adjoining 
county and had come to the fair recognized me and informed one 
of the directors that the President of the Macon Co. (111.) Fair 
was on the grounds. The Marshal was at once started around the 
amphitheater to call me. I responded, supposing that he had a 
telegram for me. He invited mo into the ring and introduced me 
to the officers, who no doubt thought that Illinois must have been 
hard up for men when such a young one as I was should be chosen 
for such a position. I was older, though, when I resigned after 
nineteen years' continuous service. Whether they thought so or 
not I was heartily welcomed and royally entertained during my 
visit. At the close of the day's exhibition I was invited by two 
or three directors to go home with them. I at first declined, stat- 
ing that I had my room secured for the fair. After some good- 
natured contention between them one of them remarked that he 
had one of the nicest nieces in the world and that she was. going 
to his home for the night. The hotel room was given up, and you 
can guess which one of them I went home with. 

** The next week the fair was held at Lexington. As Hon. Bru- 
tus J. Clay was President of both fairs and Mr. William Warfleld 
one of the chief managers of the State Fair ; and as the gentleman 
who had charge of the Bourbon County Fair, together with the 
young people I had met at Paris, were also in attendance, I began 
to feel that I was not so much of a stranger after all. The young 
ladles were nearly all daughters of prominent Short-horn breed- 
ers and were of course much interested in the awards, and we all 
indulged in guessing which would win the prizes. It was the 
largest and much the best display of Short-horns I had ever wit- 
at a fair, and I had been quite successful in naming the 



360 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

prize-winners. When the sweepstakes ring was called from thirty 
to forty cows and heifers put in an appearance. One of the young 
ladies remarked that she would bet that I could not name the 
winner. I asked her to name the stake. She laughingly said that 
she did not know what she had to bet unless it would be herself, 
so it was soon arranged that I should bet myself against her. She 
granted me the privilege of accepting the inyitation that Mr. War- 
field had tendered me of examining the animals before the awards 
were made. Upon returning to the amphitheater I named Emma 
Hickman (Vol. Vin, p. 838), that had just turned her two-year 
mark, and she won the blue ribbon and I won the girl and got the 
stakes. Of course it was a safe bet, for had she won I would 
have paid. It was my first and last bet, and, as getting married is 
a game of chance anyway, I have neyer been censured for making 
it. And as I had proved (to myself at least) that I knew a good 
one (cow, and girl, too) I concluded to make Short-horn breeding 
my business, and under the circumstances I do not think that 
even the Hereford or the 'doddie* men would wonder at my be- 
coming a Short-horn breeder.'* 

Sweepstakes 6230.— Mr. Pickrell's promi- 
nence in the Western Short-horn trade may be 
said to date from the year 1865, when he pur- 
chased from George M. Bedford of Kentucky 
the red-and- white Rose of Sharon bull Sweep- 
stakes 6230 at $600 as a yearling. Mr. Bedford 
had bought the bull as a calf from his breeder, 
Abram Renick, for $150. Mr. Pickrell had pre- 
viously seen Minister 6363 and liked him so well 
that he would have been willing to purchase 
him at a long price, but Mr. Duncan would not 
part with him. Sweepstakes had won a cham- 
pionship at the Bourbon County Fair as a year- 
ling, having been "made up" for that show by 
the late John Hope, aftenvard prominent in 
connection with the Bow Park Short-horns in 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 361 

Canada. Sweepstakes was sired by Mr. Renick's 
Airdrie 2478 out of Cordelia by Dandy Duke 
2691, and therefore carried a double cross of 
Mr. Alexander's imp. Duke of Airdrie (12730). 
Mr. Bedford afterward regretted having sold 
the bull, but was induced to do so on account 
of his color. He had considerable white, and 
the Bedford herd at that time included quite a 
large proportion of light-colored cows and heif- 
ers. As the red fancy was even then asserting 
itself, and as Mr. Bedford had been offered by Mr. 
Renick an own brother to Sweepstakes that was 
darker in color, he parted with the bull to come 
to Illinois. It is related that when " Uncle Abe " 
Renick heard that Mr. Bedford had received $600 
for Sweepstakes he decided that his Bourbon 
County contemporary should not get the calf 
that he had already priced at $150. Mr. Bed- 
ford went over at once to see about it and found 
Mr. Renick ill. The housekeeper, who was quite 
familiar with all of Mr. Renick's eccentricities, 
advised Mr. Bedford not to notice what the old 
gentleman had said, saying "old Abe never 
would do anything when he was sick." This 
did not satisfy Mr. Bedford, however, and he 
left and never secured the bull. Mr. Pickrell 
states that Mr. Bedford thereupon offered him 
the choiceof his entire herd if he would leave 
Sweepstakes, but as he (Pickrell) was desirous 
of securing a first-class show bull he declined 



362 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

to avail himself of this privilege and shipped 
the bull to Illinois.* 

At the time Sweepstakes landed in Illinois 
Duncan's Minister was having it all his own 
way in the West, but Mr. PickrelFs purchase 
soon acquired rank over him. The first meet- 
ing of these two young bulls occurred at the 
Illinois State Fair at Chicago in 1866. Minis- 
ter was a year older than Sweepstakes, and in 
their respective classes each received first 
prize, but in competition for a $100 bull chan, 

*The first Shortrhom Mr. Piekrell purchased for breedinc purposes 
was Iiord HUrhland 4113, which canie to the fann in August, 1800. In Janu 
ary, 1061, he brouflrht from Kentucky Duke of Rockland 278& and three younf 
hulls and seven cows and heifers. They were good ones of "Seventeen" 
extraction. The next addition to the herd was in June, 1808, when pur- 
chases were made in Kentucky from William Warfleld, the late James Ball 
and Maj. Duncan. In 1004 stock was bought from the herd of Capt. James 
N. Brown and James M. Hill of Illinois. In 1866 came Sweepstakes 0280 and 
the Phyllis cow Kate Lewis, of Ben V. Vanmeter's breedinr— a cow that 
was good enough to win first prise at the Illinois State Fair in 1868, In com- 
petition with one of the best collections of cows ever seen in the West, be- 
sides many other prizes. Mr. Piekrell says: " Kate Lewis was one of the 
best specimens of a beef cow that I ever saw and at the same time was the 
best milk cow that was ever in my herd. We did not make formal tests 
then, as they do nowadays, to see the amount and quality of milk she would 
^ve, but I often measured it after a good big calf had finished nursing, 
and frequently we would get a wooden pail full. She was the dam of Baron 
Lewis 9484, that I sold for 8S,000 (the first animal bred in IlUnois that sold 
for that much). He was her third calf and she died of milk fever after he 
was produced." At this same time Princess Ann was purchased from B. 
J. Clay. She produced Princess Belle (Vol. Vin, page 616), a heifer that 
won a sweepstakes at the Illinois State Fair over all competitors at two 
years old. She unfortunately took the lump-Jaw, and as medical aid failed 
to cure her was slaughtered and her skeleton was preserved and mounted 
and sent to the University of Illinois, at Champaign. This was at the begin- 
ning of the revival In prices, and these three animals cost, respectively, 
0600. 0400 and OSSO. The price was thought by many to be exorbitant, but it 
did not turn out so. They proved to be a splendid investment. The princi- 
pal addition to the herd in 1806 was made from Israel Pierce, whose stock 
came from the Messrs. Dun of Madison Co., O. This purchase was followed 
the next ypar by otliera from MesHrs. John G. and W. D. Dun, seven from 
B.C. Bedford of Paris (Ky.) aud five from the adiniiiistrator's sale of the 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 363 

pionship the Rose of Sharon was successful. 
The following week at St. Louis he again cap- 
tured $300 in prizes. These victories were re- 
peated at the same shows in 1867, $600 in 
money being awarded the Pickrell bull. Of 
the four large prizes shown for by these two 
bulls during the years of 1866-1867, aggregat- 

late J. IL HiU, held in Korember of that year. In 1888 Hannibal 8888 was 
iware haac d. Imi>. Duke of Alrdiie (17TJ0) waa hia ^randaire, greatrirrandaira 
and rreatrgTeaHrrandalre. 

In December, 1888, Baron Booth of Lancaater 7585 and Prairie Blosaom, 
Vol. IZt pac« 879 (from the herd of J. O. Sheldon, Geneva, N. Y.). were 
added. In 1808 aome cowa were purchaaed from Thomaa Warfleld of 
Macon Co.. 111. In the lot waa the mother of Lord Highland 4113. Her flrat 
calf after coming 1. >the herd waa Daisy Booth, by Baron Booth of Lan- 
caater, that Bold for ii.810 aa a yearling. In this purchaae alao waa Bride 
Uth (Vol. X, page 621), that produced Lady Bride, that aold at public auction 
for 0,860. and afterward won every prise she showed for. Another noted 
cow that came about that time was Lady Fairy ISth, from Mr. Warfleld a 
herd, and Princess Royal 5th, from B. J. Clay's herd. One or two animals 
were added in 1870. In 1871 some Lady Elixabeths were bought from T. C. 
Stoner, Macon County, who had bought them from the herd of the Meaara. 
Hamilton of Kentucky. In this lot was a calf. Maggie Ellen (Vol. XI, page 
B81), by Baron Booth of Lancaster, that was sold to the Government of 
Japan for 11,800, one of the first lot of cattle ever known to have been ex- 
ported to that country. 

Mr. Pickrell displayed a fondness for the excitement of the show-yard 
at an early age. In the spring of 1840 his grandfather gave him a sucking 
mare colt, and although the boy was but six years old at the time he rode 
the dam to Springfield, exhibited the colt and took first prize, which was a 
big ailver spoon, marked " Sangamon Ck>imty Agricultural Society, 1840." 
Mr. Pickrell has that token of his early show- ring prowess yet. The first 
year that he owned a Short-horn (1861) he made an exhibit and won a prise. 
The next year he showed at Macon, Logan and S:ini?amon County (111.) 
Fairs. His career at the Illinois State Fair commenced in 1868 and contin- 
ued for many years, in the course of which he visited as an exhibitor va- 
rioua other State fairs, including Indiana, Ohio and Iowa, and never miss- 
ing the St. Louis show when they had a fair at that city. Deducting 
amounts paid for transportation, feed . etc., he received dn ring the nine years 
from the fall of 1888 to the fall of 1874 89.120 in prizes, and it may also be 
added that during the first fifteen years he bred Short-horns he received 
from other breeders 8S,570 for the use of bulls, a certain Indication that they 
were good ones. 

Mr. Pickrell says: *' Just for curiosity at one time I computed the period 
of gestation of 100 cows in my herd. The shortest period wan 'I5/i> days and 
the longest 298 days (both cow calves), the average being 283 days." 



364 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ing in value $1,000, Sweepstakes gained three, 
possessing a value of $900, At the Illinois 
State Fair of 1868 Sweepstakes won the $200 
prize offered for bull with five of his get. In 
brief he was the ranking bull of the breed in 
the West for the years mentioned. He was 
closer to the ground than Minister, possessed 
fine finish, ample substance, and good depth 
and quality of flesh. He had been well han- 
dled from the time Mr. Hope had first fitted 
him, and proved an exceedingly useful stock- 
getter, leaving many valuable calves in the 
Pickrell herd.* He was finally sold to Mr. G. 
J. Hagerty of Ohio, in whose hands he added 
still further to his laurels, siring among other 
choice stock there the show heifers Blue Belle 
14th and Bonnie Belles 7th and 13th. 

Gen, Grant 4826.— While Kentucky was the 
chief source of supply for the early Illinois, 
Indiana and Missouri herds, it remained for 
Ohio to contribute to the West one of the 
greatest all-around show and breeding bulls of 
American production ever owned in the West- 

* After the Hill dispersion sale Mr. Pickrell hod eneracred David Grant to 
take charge of his stock, and that culpable feeder and herdsmau was Identi- 
fied with the g-reat triumphs of Mr. Pickrell's show herds most of the time 
until 1875, and It is not too much to say that a largo share of the success at- 
tained was due to "Davy's " fldellty and good judgment. 

George Story was also at Mr. Hill's at the time of the proprietor's de- 
cease. His brother WllUam Story came to Mr. Pickrell's in time to fit 
Sw(>ep8takes and the Ti.'Ht for the Hhows of 18U7. He was also from Canada 
and had been working with sheep with William Miller. It is needless to 
say that William was a proud lad when his \)o\» won first prize that year 
over the Hill cattle brought into the ring by Grant and George Story. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 365 

em States — ^the far-famed Gen. Grant 4825. 
Few bulls can boast a longer list of show-yard 
honors, and no other sire ever used in the State 
left a legacy more valuable than the daughters 
of Gen. Grant proved to be in leading Western 
herds. Calved in 1862 in the herd of D. McMil- 
lan of Xenia, this remarkable bull was shown 
for five years by his breeder at the leading 
fairs of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois with but one 
defeat. Passing into the hands of Mr. J. H. 
Spears of Tallula, 111., in 1867, he not only con- 
tinued to carry prizes at the Illinois, Iowa and 
St. Louis shows but sired some of the best cat- 
tle the West has ever known. 

Gen. Grant came of a noble ancestry. His 
sire was the $3,000 bull imp. Starlight (see 
page 252), one of the best bulls ever owned in 
the State of Ohio. His dam was Mr. McMil- 
lan's great show cow Jessie (winner of more 
first and championship prizes at leading Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky fairs from 186Q 
to 1867 than any other cow of her day), by 
Starlight 2d 2259. It thus appears that Gen. 
Grant was the product of mating a son and a 
daughter of old imp. Starlight. The youngster 
grew to be a remarkably compact bull, with 
the general appearance at first glance of being 
somewhat undersized; but in good flesh he 
would tip the beam at 2,400 lbs. His head was 
good — perhaps a little too masculine to fill the 



366 A HISTORY or SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

eye of some; but "sweet" heads, are not spe- 
cially to be desired in breeding bulls. His eye 
was remarkably mild, his neck short, his shoul- 
ders smooth and his chine and back good. He 
was rather high at root of tail and wanted 
filling at the flank; but he was well balanced 
in essential points, had a mellow hide and 
one of the silkiest coats of hair ever seen. 
In disposition he was so quiet that a child 
could handle him, in this respect resembling 
his great-grandsire Mario, a bull that Judge 
Jones states never required a nose-ring. 

Of the career of Gen. Grant in the show-ring 
it is scarcely necessary to speak at length. In 
the hands of Mr. McMillan he was exhibited in 
Ohio and Indiana up to and including his fifth 
year, and in all that time met with but one de- 
feat.* Passing into the possession of Mr. Spears 
he was shown with his get all over the West, 
capturing the highest honors in competition 
that would astonish some exhibitors at the 



*An amuBlnr incident occurred one year when Mr. Spears exhibited 
GexL Grant at the head of his herd at the Illlnoia State Fair at Peoria. 
He was the oldest and perhapc the largrest hull In the rln^ at the head 
of a herd. As the refirularly-appolnted committee failed to respond to the 
call the superintendent concluded that he would send in a committee 
composed of stranfers to the ezhihitors. As there was a biir show on this 
action rather startled the exhibitors. When the "unknowns 'started in 
Mr. Byram of Abingdon, 111., who was showinflr his mother's herd, said to 
Mr. Spears : " Who's that committee? " Mr. Spears looked a long time, and 
not knowing any of them said : " I do not know, but / think they are a tot of 
ahoemaker» anC tailon.'' When after examining the herds they brought the 
first-prize ribbon to Mr. Spears Air. Byram said: '' What do you think of 
them now? " " Well," Hald Spears, " I rookon they thought my bull's hide 
would make more shoes than any bull in the rln^." 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 367 

present day. Often ten or twelve first-class 
herds and twenty to forty animals would show 
in single rings, and all of them good ones. He 
was the first-prize bull calf at the Ohio State 
Fair of 1862; sweepstakes winner at same show, 
1863; first in his class same year at Wayne Co. 
(Ind.) and Indiana State Fairs; first and sweep- 
stakes at same fairs, 1864; first prize and sweep- 
stakes at the Ohio State Pair, 1865; first prize 
and sweepstakes and gold medal as prize bull 
with five of his calves at Indiana State Fair in 
1866, and at head of prize herd at same fair; 
first, with five of his calves, and at head of 
prize herd at Ohio State Fair, 1866. In the 
year 1865 he stood at the head of the herd 
awarded first prize at the Iowa and Illinois 
State Fairs. He was repeatedly awarded the 
first prize at many county fairs in Central Illi- 
nois, won first prize at St. Louis and first with 
five of his get at the Illinois State Fair at Peo- 
ria in 1873. 

In the herd T)f Mr. McMillan Gen. Grant 
proved a most valuable sire, two of his get, 
Mignonette and Wenona, bringing respectively 
$3,800 and $3,000 at his great sale soon to be 
mentioned. As to what he did in Illinois we 
can do no better than to quote the language of 
Mr. Spears: "He was a sure and good server, 
and, allow me to say, the best and most uni- 
form breeder I ever saw or ever expect to see. 



368 A HISTORY OF BHORT-HORN OATTLK. 

He never got a calf in all his long career but 
what would readily sell at a first-class price; 
while as a show bull and getter of show ani- 
mals he stands unrivaled." At Mr. Spears' 
great sale of 1875 the Nelly Bly family, largely 
the get of Gen. Grant (tracing to imp. Lady 
Elizabeth by Emperor), were pronounced by 
many of the most prominent breeders of Ken- 
tucky and other States the best family of cows 
they had ever seen together, and the fine aver- 
age of over $1,500 was attained in the sale-ring 
that day.* Prominent among the Nelly Blys 
may be mentioned the 5th and 7th of the fam- 
ily, the latter a grand breeder and show cow 
and sold for $2,000. Of his bull calves the most 
noted that we now recall were Mr. Kissinger's 
famous Starlight 11018, Duke of Forest Hill 
(never beaten in the show-ring except by bulls 
got by Gen. Grant) and Major Story. The two 
latter were shown at all the leading fairs of 
the West, usually winning first and second. A 
wonderful show calf also was Major Jones, 

* Col. Jamea W. Judy of TallulA, 111., the veteran auctioneer who made 
this Bale, In response to a query as to the character of these cattle, under 
date of Feb. 4, 1898, said: " The Nelly Blys bred by Mr. Spears were a irand 
family of cattle— ffood feeders, rood milkers and very prolific and almost 
invariably good colors and very uniform In their ^neral make-up, which 
was very neat, and I think many of their sterlinff qualities were largely due 
to the blood of Gen. Grant He was a low-down, well-proportioned, blocky 
bull; a yellow or pale red, with no white; solid red, with a remarkably 
mellow hide and as fine a coat of silky hair as I ever saw on a ball, and 
was a very uniform and regular breeder, and was a great factor In spread- 
in? the fame of the Spcara Nelly Blys— in fact did more for the reputation 
of Mr. Spears* herd of Short-horn» than any bull he ever owned, the Hat 
Duke of Airdrie not excepted." 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 369 

that during a whole fall campaign of State and 
county fairs (including St. Louis) was never 
beaten, taking sixteen first prizes — and we be- 
lieve every time by a unanimous vote of the 
awarding committee — in rings where there 
were often twenty or more competitors. It is 
idle to attempt to say which were most uni- 
formly good of the get of Gen. Grant — his bulls 
or his heifers. Mr. Spears was never able to 
decide, and Mr. McMillan often said, after the 
bull came West, that for uniformity of breed- 
ing he had never known the General's equal. 
He died at Mr. Spears' Forest Hill Farm at the 
ripe age of fourteen years. 

Baron Booth of Lancaster. — We now have 
to note an epoch-marking event. Mr. Pickrell 
had parted with Sweepstakes and Spears was 
triumphant with Gen. Grant. The desire to 
gain honors in the show- ring now asserted itself 
actively throughout the West. Leaders in the 
trade sought in ever direction for heavy show- 
yard timber. While the Kentucky and Ohio- 
bred cattle and their descendants were con- 

« 

tending among themselves for the mastery in 
the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys Hon. M. H. 
Cochrane, of Hillhurst, Can., began a series 
of importations destined to produce marked 
changes in the prevailing channels of trade. 
In 1867 his agent, that fine judge of a good 
Short-horn, the late Simon Seattle, selected 



370 A HISTORY 09 8B0BT-HOBN CATTLE. 

and brought out by the steamship Austrian 
from Glasgow to Montreal a cow and a bull 
calf that proved to be makers of history. One 
was Rosedale; the other, Baron Booth of Lan- 
caster 7535. Of the former we shall have more 
to say later on. Of the latter we must now 
speak as a new force in the progress of the 
breed in the Western States. Greater cows 
than Rosedale may have trod American show- 
yards. Greater Short-horn bulls than Baron 
Booth of Lancaster may have "starred" the 
great show circuits of the Nation. History has 
failed, however, to record the names of any 
such. The Baron came from Scotland. He 
was bred by G. R. Barclay of Fifeshire and was 
got by Baron Booth (21212)* out of Mary of 
Lancaster — one of a set of triplets bred from 
the herd of Amos Cruickshank of Sittyton — 
by Lord Raglan (13244). His second dam was 
Lancaster 25th (of same derivation as Mr. 
Cruickshank's Lavenders — from Wilkinson of 
Lenton) by Matadore (11800), a bull that was 
a brother to Mr. Alexander's imp. Mazurka, by 
Harbinger. Mr. Cochrane exhibited the young- 
ster as a yearling at Montreal, Hamilton and at 



* Baron Booth was bred by Mr. R. S. Bruere of Bralthwalte Hall, York- 
Bhire. Ho was erot by Prince George (13610) out of Vesper by Klnff Arthur 
(13110), and was bought by Mr. Barclay when a two-year-old for 11,000. He 
was the sire, among other noted animals, of the 16,000 bull imp. Cherub; 
Star of Bralthwalte; the great show heifer Booth's Lancaater, Booth's 
Seraphina,' and the bull Knight of Warlaby, used by Hessrs. Hunter la 
Canada. 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 371 

the New York State Fair in 1868. At each show 
he won first in his class and headed the win- 
ning herd. A scale of points was used in the 
judging at the York State Fair, and Baron 
Booth was credited with 950 out of a possi- 
ble 970 points; 1,000 being counted as perfec- 
tion in a female, 30 points being allowed for 
udder. 

Through Wm. Miller of Canada, afterward of 
Storm Lake, la., Mr. Pickrell learned of the 
wonderful young bull Mr. Cochrane had flashed 
upon the public in Canada and the East, and in 
company with W. R. Duncan visited Hillhurst. 
They found the bull even better than they had 
anticipated, and for a consideration of $1,550 
Mr. Pickrell secured him for the Harristown 
Herd.* He was brought to Illinois by Mr. 
Miller, who with characteristic thrift ran the 
gauntlet of the customs with a valuation of 
$100 on the bull. The new arrival was in- 
stalled in his new position in January, 1869, 
where he remained in service until his death, 
which occurred while en route to the Illinois 
State Fair of 1873. It is doubtful if a grander- 
backed bull has ever been produced by the 
Short-horn breed. His top from crest to tail- 
root was the wonder of his time. Such breadth 

* Duncan bouflrht a yearling heifer on this aame trip out of Rosedale by 
a Duke bull, concerning which ' WllUc " Miller says: " The aire was em- 
phatically bad and impreuive. I believe the heifer never bred, which waa 
juat aa well, for she was a bad one.' 



372 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

and depth and evenness of flesh had not before 
been seen in the West, and his smoothly-cov- 
ered hips were something of a revelation to 
those who had been accustomed to the rough- 
ness often observable at the "hooks" in the 
leading herds of that date. He was a bull of 
magnificent substance, possessing great depth 
of chest and was heavily filled behind the shoul- 
ders. That he was a kindly feeder is well shown 
by the following figures: When he went into 
herdsman David Grant's hands in January, 1869, 
he weighed 1,580 lbs.; April 28, 1,730 lbs.; June 
16, 1,810 lbs.; Aug. 31, 1,965 lbs.; Feb. 22, 1870, 
2,170 lbs.; July 1, 1870, 2,290 lbs.; Sept. 2, 2,400 
lbs., and at full maturity 2,600 lbs. He at once 
took and held a commanding position in the 
show-ring, and was never beaten, as a sire 
shown with his progeny. It must be remem- 
bered that we are now dealing with the days 
of the battles of the giants of the Western 
arena; that the "all-star" combination of Col. 
William S. King, the like of which has possi- 
bly not since been seen in America, v/as on 
the road; that Gen. Grant and Tycoon were in 
the field; that ten to twelve herds often en- 
tered the competition; that sometimes thirty 
to forty animals were engaged in a single ring. 
To have been the most successful bull of this 
golden age of the Western shows is suflBcient 
to stamp Baron Booth of Lancaster as the 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 873 

greatest Short-horn of his day and generation 
on this continent. 

The Baron began his career as a show bull 
in the United States at the Ohio State Fair of 
1869 at Toledo, Mr. Pickrell having shipped his 
Illinois cattle to that point, where he met great 
competition, eleven herds competing in the 
Short-horn class. Daniel McMillan of Ohio 
had been winning the herd prize at the Buck- 
eye show for so many years that it was consid- 
ered rather presumptuous on the part of an 
Illinois breeder to beard the lion in his den in 
this manner. On the morning of the show Mr. 
Pickrell would have been very willing to have 
divided the money with McMillan, but before 
night he had been awarded the $200 prize for 
best herd, the Baron also receiving first prize 
in his class and the $100 bull championship. 
The McMillan herd was very celebrated at this 
date, being headed by the Canada-bred Plan- 
tagenet 6031, and included some of the best 
of the Jere Duncan (Kentucky) Louans and 
other good sorts. Mr. Pickrell had visited it be- 
fore the Toledo show, and then went to Ken- 
tucky to attend the Bourbon County Fair. Mr. 
McMillan asked him to examine the Kentucky 
herds carefully to see if he thought it would 
pay to send the Ohio show herd to that State, 
Mr. Pickrell reported favorably and the Mc- 
Millan herd was so exhibited, and with success. 



374 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

The Ohio cattle were then shipped to the To- 
ledo and afterward to the Peoria (111.) Fair, 
being defeated at both points by the Pickrell 
herd. Soon after these shows the Pickrell 
and Spears herds came together at the Illinois 
State Fair at Decatur. Messrs. McMillan and 
Charles Fullington, who were both noted Ohio 
breeders of that date, were present as visitors, 
and, desiring to honor them, the superintend- 
ent placed them upon the committee; to which, 
of course, nobody could object, although under 
the circumstances it was scarcely fair, as Mr. 
Spears had purchased Gen. Grant from Mr. 
McMillan and the bull's dam, Jessie, had been 
bred and owned by Mr. Fullington. They gave 
the Spears herd the prize. After the awards 
had been made the gentlemen passed up to the 
amphitheater, where Mrs. Pickrell and her sis- 
ter, Miss Bedford, who lived in Kentucky, were 
stationed, and of course the award was dis- 
cussed in the presence of the ladies; where- 
upon Miss Bedford remarked that she was 
"getting scared." She "didn't know Kentucky 
was getting so far behind. An Ohio herd went 
South and beat everything there was in Ken- 
tucky. This same herd then goes to the Ohio 
State Fair and an Illinois herd comes along and 
defeats it. Then the following week the very 
herd that beat the Ohio herd is beaten by an- 
other Illinois herd." So she thought Illinois 



PROGRESS IN THE CENTRAL WEST. 375 

was getting clear ahead of Kentucky and was 
getting a little ahead of Ohio. All of which 
rather annoyed the Ohio breeder and inciden- 
tally foreshadowed the future. At this same 
show Baron Booth of Lancaster was so unfor- 
tunate as to be turned down to third place in 
the class for two-year-old bulls, first prize 
going to 25th Great Republic, owned by the 
Shakers and shown by John Martin, and sec- 
ond prize to a bull called Sucker Boy shown by 
Harvey Sodowsky of Vermilion Co., 111. Nei- 
ther of these bulls cut any figure in subse- 
quent showings, and the committee that did 
the work was severely criticised. 

In 1870 Baron Booth was first-prize and cham- 
pion bull at Quincy. 111., at the Iowa State Fair 
and at the Illinois State Fair, champion at St. 
Louis, first and champion at Canton, and stood 
at the head of the groups that won the $100 
championship for best display at the Iowa Show 
and the $100 prize for the bull showing five 
best calves at the Illinois State Fair. In 1871 
he was first and champion at the Illinois State 
Fair, first at St. Louis, and at the head of the 
first-prize herd at same show, besides winning 
numerous firsts and championships at local fairs 
for himself and get. In 1872 he was again first 
and champion at the Illinois State Fair, won 
the $200 bull sweepstakes at St. Louis and was 
everywhere first with his get. In fact he was 



376 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

never defeated in showing with his progeny, 
and during these four years gained for the Pick- 
rell herd prizes aggregating in value over $4,000 
cash.* 

As a stock-getter he "nicked" especially with 
cows and heifers by Mr. Renick's old Airdrie 
2478 and those by the Uth Duke of Airdrie 
5533. It was a cross upon an Airdrie cow that 
gave Mr. Pickrell Baron Lewis, a bull that de- 
feated his sire for the bull championship at an 
Indiana State Fair and was the first bull ever 
bred in Illinois that commanded a price of 
$3,000. Another Airdrie "nick" was the phe- 
nomenal Lady Bride, that sold for $2,850 and 
walked through the Illinois, Iowa and Missouri 
shows an undefeated heifer. Among the great 
Baron Booths out of 11th Duke of Airdrie dams 
may be mentioned Louan Hill's 4th and 5th and 
Caroline 15th, all noted show animals. 

* Mr. Pickrell entered a competition at Canton, HI., in IflTO, where IfiOO 
was offered for the best display of not less than ten nor more than twenty 
head. He had Baron Booth of Lancaster at one end of a string of eighteen 
head of nice cows and heifers and at the other end of the line had the 
Baron's best son, Baron Iiewis. Mr. Dunlap of Jacksonville showed ten 
head and was awarded first prize. The relative values of the oompetinc 
lots may he Judgred from the fact that Mr. Dunlap made a sale the followinr 
year at which his ten prize-winners brouirht a total of t2,700 and were con- 
sidered well sold at that. Mr. Pickrell sold Baron Lewis alone tor IMOO 
and bad his sire and eighteen cows and heifers left. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 

While the breeders of the Central West were 
successfully extending the Short-horn power 
in the Upper Mississippi Valley States, largely 
through the medium of impressive show-yard 
displays, operations were under way in Eng- 
land and the East that were soon to stir the 
trade to its very depths. Prior to the appear- 
ance in the West of imp. Baron Booth of Lan- 
caster the Duke of Airdrie- crossed cattle — 
mainly of Alexander, Bedford, Renick, War- 
field, Vanmeter and Duncan origin — practi- 
cally held undisputed possession of the field. 
Aside from Gen. Grant there were but few 
great show cattle that did not carry some per- 
centage of the blood and show more or less of 
the character of the .Woodburn Duke. Daniel 
McMillan of Ohio had, it is true, headed his 
show herd with the Canada-bred Plantagenet 
6031, but that bull was got by Oxford Lad 
(24713), bred by J. 0. Sheldon of New York 
from imp. Duke of Airdrie's sire imp. Duke of 
Gloster (11382) out of a Bates Oxford cow, so 
that he also fell within the rule that the Bates- 

(877) 



378 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

crossed Short-horns were the ruling ring-side 
power. The American-bred cows, with which 
the Bates blood had "nicked" so kindly, were 
possessed, as a rule, of sound constitution and 
ample scale, and among them were many ex- 
traordinary milkers. Some of them were more 
or less lacking in refinement of character. Un- 
der these circumstances it is easy to under- 
stand how the Bates cross acquired public fa- 
vor; the prepotent, fine-styled, level-lined bulls 
of that strongly-bred type stamping neatness 
and finish wherever their impressive seal was 
set. 

"Royal" honors for Bates cattle,— On the 
other side of the Atlantic, while Booth and 
Towneley had been doing most of the winning 
at the shows, certain wealthy and enthusiastic 
followers of the fortunes of the Bates-bred 
tribes had occasionally tried conclusions with 
their rivals at the National shows with good 
success. The Earl of Feversham was first at 
the Chester Royal of 1858 with 5th Duke of 
Oxford (12762).* At the Leeds Royal of 1861 
Col. Gunter won high honors, gaining first in 
the cow class with Duchess 77th over animals 
shown by Richard Booth and Lady Pigot. He 
was also first in three-year-old heifers with 

«Speaking of this event Richard OlbBon says: "This was my flrai 
Royal, and the Impression left upon my mind by 5th Duke of Oxford has 
never been obliterated. He was larsre and carried lots of flesh. The way 
he moved and the air of coiibcIo us superiority he assumed I have never 
forgotten." 



% 



THE BIRTH OP A "bOOM." 379 

Duchess 78th — twinned with Duchess 79th, 
thac was placed fourth in same class; Richard 
Booth's Soldier's Bride being second. In year- 
ling heifers Gunter was first with Duchess 83d. 
It soon became evident, however, that the 
stock would not successfully withstand forcing 
for this purpose, and the show business was not 
pei^sistently pursued. Gunter had started in 
1853 with Duchesses 67th and 69th, both white, 
and Duchess 70th, red-and-white, and soon be- 
came the only possessor of the tribe in England. 
Duchesses exported to England. — In the 
spring of 1861 Samuel Thorne visited England 
and was besought on all sides for Duke and 
Oxford bulls. Accordingly, he sent over soon 
afterward the roan 3d Duke of Thorndale 2789, 
the roan 4th Duke of Thorndale 2790, the white 
5th Duke of Thorndale 3488, the red Imperial 
Oxford 4905, and the heifer 4th Lady of Oxford. 
The 5th Duke sickened on the voyage and died 
in Queenstown harbor, but the rest sold quickly 
after landing at Liverpool at prices varying 
from 300 to 400 guineas each in gold. Of these 
the 4th Duke of Thorndale and Imperial Ox- 
ford acquired great celebrity in England as 
sires. The former was bought by Mr. Hales at 
400 guineas and earned that amount in fees 
alone during the first two seasons. At Mr. 
Hales* sale in 1862 he was taken for the Mar- 
quis of Exeter at 410 guineas after a sharp con- 



880 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

test with Col. Gunter, who subsequently ac- 
quired the bull (in 1867) at 440 guineas. He 
was maintained in service at Wetherby until 
his death at ten years of age in 1869. The 4th 
Duke was sired by Duke of Gloster (11382) out 
of Duchess 66th, and enjoyed with the 7th 
Duke of York (17754) the distinction that at 
tached at that time to the fact that the pair 
were the only "pure" Duchess bulls in Eng- 
land. Of his career abroad Mr. Thornton 
writes: 

*' The stock left by this bull is not only numerous but Taluable, 
showing the style and character for which the blood is remark- 
able. Probably no bull earned more money in single fees. In ap- 
pearance he was a fine-looking animal ; his head and crest were 
magnificent, his hind quarters long and good, but the tail-head 
was rather too high. His shoulders, which were perhaps a little 
upright, made him appear somewhat deficient behind them, and 
the great length of his quarters detracted from his middle. In 
hair, quality of fiesh, and in grandeur of style and carriage he 
was wonderfully good." 

One of the 4th Duke of Thorndale's English- 
bred heifers from a Cambridge Rose dam gave 
rise to what is known as the Thorndale Roses, 
the original heifer of that name being sold pri- 
vately in 1864 for 200 guineas to Mr. Betts. 
Her half-sister, The Beauty, by Puritan (9523), 
for which Mr. Jonas Webb gave 160 guineas at 
the Cobham Park sale, was bought by Lord 
Braybrooke at Webb's sale of 1863 in calf with 
Heydon Rose, which in the hands of his lord- 
ship founded a costly family bearing her name. 
Nine descendants of The Beauty at the Webb 



THE BIRTH OP A * BOOM." 381 

sale made 1,253 guineas; one bull, Lord Chan- 
cellor (20160), afterward a Royal winner, bring- 
ing 400 guineas. 

Imperial Oxford was extensively used upon 
the Grand Duchesses, being the sire of the fa- 
mous Grand Duchess 17th. 4th Lady of Oxford 
also acquired renown, not only as a breeding 
animal, but in the show-yard as well. In 1862 
Mr. Thome sent to England Lord Oxford 3091, 
2d Lord Oxford, Bishop of Oxford, and Duke of 
Geneva 3858 of J. 0. Sheldon's breeding. These 
also brought high prices, 600 guineas being ob- 
tained for the latter. The Duke entered the 
English show-yard with success and became 
vei-y famous in the Bates Short-horn breeding 
ranks, dying the property of Lord Penrhyn in 
1867. These shipments were followed by the 
exportation by Ezra Cornell* of Ithaea, N. Y., 
of the young bull 3d Lord of Oxford 4958, bred 
by Mr. Thorne; that also sold on the other side 
for 600 guineas. 

Early in the "sixties" Mr. R. A. Alexander 
exported to England 2d Duke of Airdrie 
(19600), 5th Duke of Airdrie (19601) and the 

* Mr. Cornell, who was the munificent founder of Cornell University, had 
made an Importation of Bates cattle from England, In 1863, consisting of two 
Fidget heifers (Bell-Bates), and a Kirkleyington from C. W. Harvey. He 
maintained a herd of Shortrhorns f or a number of years; the pedigrees of 
most of which may be foimd in Vols. VHI to XVI of the herd book. 

Among other Bastem breeders who were becoming prominent in Short- 
horn breeding about this time were Messrs. A. B. Conger, T. lu Harison, 
George Butts and Messrs. Wadsworth of New York: Messrs. Wlnslow and 
A. W. Grlswold of Vermont; Augustus Whitman of Massachusetts and B. 
Sumner of Connecticut. 



382 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

6th Duke of Airdrie (19602). These all repre- 
sented outcrosses upon the Duchess tribe. The 
2d Duke was a roan sired by the Duchess- 
crossed Booth 'bull imp. El Hakim (15984). He 
was calved in the fall of 1856 and in 1859 was 
awarded a $1,000 championship at the St. Louis 
Fair. He was a bull of marked excellence, and 
became the property in England of Messrs. C. 
Howard of Biddenham and J. Robinson of Clif- 
ton Pastures. The 5th Duke was also a roan, 
calved in the spring of 1859. He was sired by 
a bull called Lord Languish (20188), that had 
been bred at Woodburn from imp. 2d Duke of 
Athol and imp. Lydia Languish, by Duke of 
Gloster (11382); a cow that traced in the ma- 
ternal line to the herd of Mr. Robertson of 
Ladykirk. The 5th Duke was used by Mr. T. 
Barber of Sproatley Rise. The 6th Duke of 
Airdrie was a red, dropped in the spring of 
1860 by 2d Duchess of Airdrie to a service by 
the white bull imp. Albion, son oif imp. Grand 
Turk (12969) and Fawkes' Frances Fairfax. The 
breeding of these bulls and the fact of their ex- 
portation shows that the fashion for cattle bred 
strictly in the Bates line did not receive the 
countenance of the broad-minded proprietor 
of Woodburn, and that fresh blood in Mr. Bates' 
favorite family was not deemed an objection in 
the minds of at least a portion of the English 
Short-horn breeding public at that date. Imp. 



THE BIRTH OP A "BOOM" 883 

Albion was also exported back to England 
along with these Dukes of Airdrie. 

The Grand Duchesses. — A very famous 
branch of the Duchess tribe, descended from 
Mr. Bates' Duchess 51st, had been founded in 
England under the name of Grand Duchesses. 
They originated with Mr. S. E. Bolden of 
Springfield Hall, Lancashire, who sought to 
correct what he regarded as the faults of the 
Bates type by means of fresh crosses. Accord- 
ingly he introduced extraneous blood through 
the medium of the bulls Cherry Duke (12589), 
Prince Imperial (15095) and 2d Duke of Bolton 
(12739). The two latter carried Booth blood; 
the Prince having for dam Bridecake of the 
Bliss tribe, and the latter running to Richard 
Booth's Fame. While the family attained 
great reputation, and produced some extraor- 
dinary individual animals, such as Grand Duke 
3d (16182) and that remarkable cow Grand 
Duchess 17th, by Mr. Thome's Imperial Oxford 
(18084), some of the partisans of Bates breed- 
ing have strenuously denied that the outcrosses 
really did anything for the vitality of the stock. 
The fact nevertheless remains that in later 
years the so-called "pure" Duchesses became 
totally extinct, and had it not been for the 
Airdrie and Grand Duchesses, both of which 
carried Booth outcrosses, Mr. Bates' favorite 
family would have disappeared. 



384 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Mr. Bolden had sold in 1860 twenty head of 
Bates Waterloos at an average of £92; Sir Cur- 
tis Lampson giving 165 guineas for Waterloo 
.20th. In 1862 he disposed of his entire herd, 
including the Grand Duchesses, to Mr. Ather- 
ton, who soon afterward parted with the Grand 
Duchess family, consisting of nine cows and 
four bulls, to Mr. Hegan of Dawpool at private 
sale for the lump sum of £5,000. Three of 
these cows proved barren, and after Mr. He- 
gan's death in 1865 the tribe — by that time 
numbering seventeen head, of which twelve 
were females and five bulls — sold at a memor- 
able auction held at Willis' rooms in London. 
The Thorndale bull imperial Oxford had been 
used in the herd and was also included in this 
sale. It had been Mr. Hegan's desire to close 
the lot out as a whole, and it was understood 
that the Hon. Col. Pennant had offered £6,000 
for the twelve females. This was perhaps the 
first case on record where cattle were sold at 
auction without the animals being in the pres- 
ence of the bidders. The stock had been pre- 
viously examined at Dawpool. 

The sale proved thoroughly sensational in 
many respects, as is shown by the comments 
of the London press at that time. From the 
Illustrated News we quote: 

*^ A perfect bridal luDch greeted the congress of about 120 lead- 
ing Short-hom men— peers, M. P.s, clergymen and laymen— who 
attende'l to sec the great battle at Willis' rooms over the eighteen 



THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 385 

Grand Dukes and Duchesses. Lord Feversham was in the chair, 
supported by Gen. Hood (who came, like several other members 
of Council, direct from Hanover Square) , and the Bates men made 
up a most imposing array, while I4r. Torr and Mr. Thomas Booth 
were at the head of the greaX rival house of ' the red, white and 
roan.' The noble chairman declared his Kirklevington faith in 
such unwavering fashion that the Booth men complained he ra- 
ther ignored Bridecake's share in the Grand Duchess pedigree." 

Mr. E. L. Betts of Preston Hall, Kent, bought 
the whole herd of Gmnd Duchesses, which were 
sold in "blocks of three." For the first trio he 
paid 1,900 guineas; for the second, 1,300 guin- 
eas; for the third, 1,800 guineas, and for the 
fourth, 1,200 guineas; also securing Imperial 
Oxford to accompany thera at 450 guineas. 
The Grand Dukes were scattered; the Duke of 
Devonshire buying Grand Duke 10th at 600 
guineas. The London Times said on the fol- 
lowing day: 

*^The splendor of such an event almost pales the strongest 
blase that can be got up by agricultural societies. There is no 
such test of value, no such triumph of enterprise as that which is 
obtained without shows and judges and prizes in the auction-room. 
Here is a p^ain commercial proof of what can be done and how far 
we have advanced upon our forefathers in the matter of kine.^' 

Mr. Betts, the new owner of the family, 
closed out his herd at auction in May, 1867. 
He had not been particularly successful. 
Grand Duchesses 10th, 12th and 14th ail died 
from indigestion and impaction resulting from 
the feeding of un decorticated cotton-seed cake. 
The 7th and 13th were slaughtered and his 
best bull calf of the tribe died just before the 
sale. Nevertheless some astonishing prices 



386 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

were made; the thirteen head bringing 5,615 
guineas, an average of 432 guineas. Grand 
Duchess 17th, described as "a beautiful cow 
with good ribs, mossy coat and splendid touch," 
was carried to 850 guineas, at which figure she 
was taken by Capt. R. E. Oliver of Sholebroke 
Lodge, who also secured the 18th at 710 guineas. 
C. H. Dawson gave 700 guineas for Grand Duch- 
ess 19th; Lord Penrhyn 550 guineas for Grand 
Duchess 8th, and Earl Spencer 430 guineas for 
Grand Duchess 20th. The highest price for a 
bull was 510 guineas, paid by Mr. Roberts for 
Grand Duke 16th (24063); Mr. A. Brogden giv- 
ing 305 guineas for Grand Duke 17th, 

Havering Park sale.— In May, 1867, Mr. D. 
Mcintosh of Havering Park, Essex, Eng., who 
had devoted himself successfully to the breed- 
ing of Bates cattle, held a sale that attracted 
widespread attention. 3d Duke of Thomdale 
and Grand Duke 4th had been largely used, 
and the sale included four descendants of Mr. 
Thome's Lady of Oxford 4th. Her daughter 
Lady of Oxford 5th, "a splendid roan, with much 
substance and quality," had been a winner as a 
calf at the Worcester Royal in 1863 and at this 
sale brought the top price of 600 guineas from 
the Duke of Devonshire. Baron Oxford, a two- 
year-old by the American-bred Duke of Geneva 
(19614), was eagerly competed for, falling to Col. 
Townelev at 500 guineas, while his half-brother 



THE BIRTH OP A "bOOM." 387 

Baron Oxford 2d went to Mr. Holland at the 
same price. 

Sheldon of Oeneya. — Mr. J. 0. Sheldon of 
White Spring Farm, Geneva, N, Y. (not Illi- 
nois, as certain English writers persist in put- 
ting it), upon whose shoulders fell the mantle 
of Samuel Thorne, began breeding Short-horns 
by making the importation mentioned on page 
274. A few years later he bought from Mr. 
Thorne the bull imp. Duke of Gloster (11382), 
Duchess 64th and her daughter 1st Duchess of 
Thorndale, together with Duchess 66th and her 
daughter Duchess 71st. In 1860 he bred from 
the latter the bull Duke of Geneva (19614), sold 
to Mr. Thorne and exported to England. Shel- 
don also secured some of the Oxford blood from 
Thorndale, and in 1860 bred from that family 
the bull Oxford Lad (24713), which acquired 
great reputation in the herd of the Hon. David 
Christie of Canada. Sheldon also bought large- 
ly from Mr. R, A. Alexander, securing a num- 
ber of the daughters of imp. Duke of Airdrie, 
among others the Victoria cow Vara (that be- 
came the flam of the noted stock bull Weehaw- 
ken 5260), and females of the Mazurka, Con- 
stance, Miss Wiley, Vellum, Jubilee, Lady Bates, 
Roan Duchess, Pearlette and other noted Wood- 
burn families. He also bought from Mr. Alex- 
ander the 7th Duke of Airdrie 5532. 

In 1866 Samuel Thorne decided to close out 



888 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

his herd and devote his entire time to the 
leather trade in New York city, the business 
that had been his father's chief source of rev- 
enue, and Sheldon with characteristic shrewd- 
ness bought the entire Thorndale Herd of 
Duchesses, Oxfords, etc., at a reported price of 
about $40,000. This gave him a monopoly of 
the so-called "pure" Duchess blood in Amer- 
ica; and as the English landed proprietors, as 
well as prominent Kentucky breeders, were de- 
veloping a marked preference for Duke and Ox- 
ford bulls he now occupied a strong speculative 
position. 

Oeneya cattle abroad.— In the fall of 1867 
Mr. Sheldon exported to England two bulls 
and a heifer of the Duchess tribe, and six Ox- 
ford heifers. They were taken to the Queen's 
farm, Windsor Park, and sold at auction Oct. 
15 of that year. After inspecting the Ameri- 
can cattle the company adjourned for business 
to the cafe of the Castle Hotel, where cham- 
pagne flowed freely, and for the first time in a 
long professional career Mr. Strafford, as auc- 
tioneer, sold cattle by candlelight. The white 
7th Duchess of Geneva was knocked off to Mr. 
Leney of Kent at 700 guineas. In fact Leney 
was the chief bidder, and his persistency and 
activity added great zest to the proceedings. 
8th Lady of Oxford and 6th Maid of Oxford 
were taken respectively by Col. Towneley at 



THE BIRTH OP A "BOOM." 389 

450 and 400 guineas. Leney paid 300 guineas 
for 4th Maid of Oxford, Col. Kingscote 250 
guineas for Countess of Oxford and Mr. Down- 
ing 200 guineas for 5th Maid of Oxford. Leney 
also paid 260 guineas for 7th Maid of Oxford. 
The young bull 12th Duke of Thomdale was 
very much out of condition and was bought in 
by Edwin Thorne at 185 guineas,* but the roan 
3d Duke of Geneva went t^ Mr. Mcintosh at 
550 guineas. For the entire lot $1,6475 was 
obtained, an average of $1,830. The six Ox- 
fords averaged $1,550. When to the total the 
then existing premium on gold was added 
Sheldon had nearly $20,000 in American cur- 
rency, less the expenses of transportation. In 
commenting upon this result the London Illus- 
trated News said: "People differ in opinion as 
to whether the American lots would have made 
most under the greenwood or around the ma- 
hogany tree; but the sale was unique in char- 
acter and served to stamp 1867 as an amius 
mirabilis in Short-horn history." In fact this 
invasion of England by Sheldon created some- 
thing of a sensation on both sides the water.f 

In 1869 Mr. E. H. Cheney of Gaddesby Hall 
bought from Mr. Sheldon the two-year-old 
heifer 11th Duchess of Geneva, the yearling 

• 12th Duke of Thomdale afterward became the property of D. R. Dayles 
of Here Old HalL 

t London Punch took up the affair and dror'ied into verse under the 
caption, "The Golden Short-horns." 



390 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

14th Duchess of Geneva and the bull calf 9th 
Duke of Geneva for the lump sum of $12,500; 
and at the same time the roan bull calf 8th 
Duke of Geneva was exported to Messrs. Har- 
ward & Downing at $4,000. 

Walcott & Campbell.— While Mr. Sheldon 
was thus acquiring international position in 
the Short-horn trade Messrs. Walcott & Camp- 
bell, proprietors of the extensive New York 
Mills Sheeting Factories, on the Mohawk River, 
some two miles north of Utica, had laid the 
foundation of the herd that was destined to 
confound the agricultural world. The Hon. S 
Campbell of this firm was a native of Ayrshire, 
Scotland, who, from working at the loom, be- 
came superintendent and eventually partner 
in the great cotton mills mentioned. In ac- 
quiring water privileges for the mills it had 
been necessary to purchase some 1,400 acres of 
rich bottom land, which the firm desired to 
put to some profitable use. The idea of cattle- 
breeding suggested itself, and Mr. Campbell's 
early instincts inclined him natumlly to the 
dairy breed of his native county. He first 
turned his attention, therefore, to Ayrshires, in 
partnership with Mr. James Brodie, a Scotch- 
man who had also imported, in connection 
with a Mr. Hungerford, a few Short-horns, 
among which were two cows and a bull from 
the herd of J. Mason Hopper. These cattle 



THE BIRTH OP A "bOOM." 391 

had a double cross of Belleville (6778) and were 
superior specimens. Mr. Campbell bought 
Hungerford's interest and eventually acquired 
Brodie's. 

Richard Gibson was employed as manager of 
the farm and cattle, and speaking of the trans- 
action just mentioned says: 

*'B7 this deal Mr. Campbell became possessed of Sbort-borns, 
for which he had do love at the time, and I doubt if he ever had. 
It was only the calves that he cared for Of an Ayrshire he was 
a fair Judge, and as they were a paying investment in supplying 
milk to the operatives they were looked upon with a great deal 
more favor by the proprietor than were their swell relatives the 
Short-horns. ' Gibson, what good are they? They give no milk ; 
just one mass of blubber ; you can't eat them.' This idea of a cow 
simply raising a calf was preposterous, just as among the opera- 
tives every child must work, and usually the mother as well. So 
it is easy to understand that in this community of busy workers 
no drones were allowed, and the Short-horn cow at rest in the 
rich pastures of the Mohawk Valley, negligently chewing her cud, 
was entirely out of keeping with the surroundings. Why should 
the patrician English cattle live in purple and fine linen? They 
weaved not, neither did they spinl 

** The remark quoted came in response to my question as to 
what bull to breed the Short-horn cows to. I was led to make 
this inquiry on seeing the men take out the Ayrshire bull to the 
Short-horn cow imp. Rosamond. My ire arose. No more such 
sacrilege was permitted, but it was some months before I could 
persuade Mr. Campbell to allow me to buy a bull. I eventually 
secured Weehawken, bred by J. O. Sheldon. Upon this bull 
hinged the destiny of the breed so far as the Mills was concerned. 
He proved a most impressive sire, and as his progeny developed 
his value became more established, and yearly the treasury of the 
New York State Agricultural Association was laid under contri- 
bution. After returning from one of our successful trips Mr. 
Campbell put the situation in this way: * Now I find your things ' 
(he always called them 'Gibson's things' up to a certain time) 
* are giving us notoriety. We must either get rid of them or go in 
deeper. I don't ask your opinion ; I know what that will be ; but 
this I ask, can we take as high a pcsition with Short-horns as we 



392 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

h-ive done with Aynbires? Remember, J will play second to 
none.' My reply was: 'You can't unless you can persuade Mr. 
Sheldon to sell his herd, which I feel sure he will not do. But 
you can do this: go on the opposition tack and buy Booths and 
beat him in the ring wherever he shows.' " 

Gibson* was quite familiar with the extraordi- 
nary show-yard career of Booth Short-horns in 
England and had not failed to notice the sensa- 
tion created on this side tlie water by Mr. Coch- 
rane's importation of Baron Booth of Lancas- 
ter and Rosedale. He accordingly had a long 
conversation with Mr. Campbell, explaining 
that there were then practically no Booth 
Short-horns in America, and it was decided 
that Gibson should go to England at once and 
make purchases of cattle of that bkwd. This 
was in 1869 ; and theerents that followed may 
best be underafcood by a brief digression at this 
point. 

First Hillhurst importations. — Hon. M. H. 
Cochrane of Hillhurst Farm, Quebec, Can., was 
prominent among those enterprising men who 

*Mr. Gibson was bom in Enirland in 1840, almost beneath the shadow 
of Belvoir Castle, the seat of the Duke of Rutland. Educated at the g^ram- 
mar schools of Derby and Lincoln he entered a ^rain merchant's ofOce for 
a period of two years, after which he studied closely for four years the 
farniioK methods of his father, who had grained various prizes for the best 
cultivated farm in Derbyshire. Speaklnir of his early life Mr. Gibson says: 
" My father always kept a pure-bred bulL The first I remember was a son 
of Eai-l of Dublin, the white Princess bull us«d by Sir C. Knl^htley ; and the 
first noti d bull I recollect was the same Earl of Dublin. The farm reeked 
of Short-horns, as it was occupied by Mr. Smith, a purchaser at Colling' 
sale, and a member of the Dishley Club. The old men talked of Lancaster 
and Comet, and the yams when shearincr sheep, etc., fell on ears whose 
senflitive orfranism was receptive to the quaint laniruaere and enthusiasm 
of tht! |ilit<»rate btjt observant herdsman.** One of a family of fourteen chll- 
dreu and the eldest of eight sous he determined upon arriving a^the age of 



THE BIRTH OF A ''BOOM." 393 

contributed largely to the great expansion in 
Short-horn trade and values that set in just 
prior to 1870. It was in 1867 that he began 
his memorable series of importations. The in- 
itial shipment, selected by the late Simon Beat- 
tie, consisted of two of the greatest show-yard 
celebrities known to American Short-horn his- 
tory, to-wit.: Baron Booth of Lancaster, al- 
ready referred to, and the wonderful Booth 

twenty-one to seek bis f ortuneln America. He landed at Quetec in 1881 and 
for two years foUowlnir worked at farming In Ontario, after whl6h he re- 
ceived an apDointment as manairer for Mr. Delamater, a shipbuilder of Kew 
York, who owned a l,GO(Kacre farm on Lonir Island. After two years' serv- 
ice in this capacity he was employed by Mr. Campbell to managre the farms 
at New York Mills. He retained this responsible position until about one 
year prior to the ^reat closlnir-out sale of the herd, subsequently engSLging 
in Canada In the importinir and exporting trade on his own account, and 
afterward parchasln? his present farm of Belvoir, where, after a remark- 
able experience in connection with the international trade in pedigreed 
live stock, he still resides. 

In the course of his eventful career Mr. Gibson has croesed the Atlan 
tic more than thirty times, usually on business relating to the live-stock 
trade, and has enjoyed the acquaintance of a majority of the most promi- 
nent Short-horn breeders of his time. He has been a frequent contributor 
to the agricultural press and has served as an expert Judge of many diffei^ 
ent varieties of live stock at the leading shows of North America, besides 
being President of the Dominion Short-horn Breeders' Association and of 
the Dominion Kennel Club. t4ike Jorrocks of old he is a thorough believer 
in the efficacy of " a bit o' blood, whether it be In a 'orse, a 'ound ' or any 
other of the many four-footed or feathered pets by which Anglo-Saxons of 
rural tastes love to surround themselves. One of the most companionable 
of men, fond of a good dinner and a good story, an admirable reuonUur him- 
self, he is never so happy as when living again in retrospect the stirring 
scenes of which he has been a witness, and-his wealth of cattle lore is ever 
at the service of those who share his interest in the great achievements of 
the rare old worthies of the past. 

Mr. Oibson belongs to a remarkable family. His brother John T. was 
manager for Col. William S. King when Lyndale was in its prime, and was 
subsequently manager for J. J. Hill of North Oaks. Another brother, Wil- 
liam, was manager of the Niagara Herd of Mr. Bronson C. Rumsey of Buf- 
falo, N. Y. Still another brother, Arthur, is manager for Mr. Philo L. Mills 
of BnddJngton Hall. Nottingham, Eng., and a fifth brother. Charles, is his 
assistant. A sixth member of the family. Edwin, is in Australia, and Fred 
Is in India. 



394 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

COW Rosedale, bred by Lady Pigot. Along 
with Rosedale came her bull calf Capt. Aiton 
6512. Baron Booth went into the West to win 
imperishable renown in the herd of Mr. Pick- 
rell, and Rosedale soon afterward followed; 
being purchased by Col. William S. King of 
Minneapolis, in whose hands she proved the 
sensation of her time. 

In 1868 Mr. Cochrane imported eleven head, 
four of which were of Bates breeding and the 
remainder of Booth blood from the herds of 
William Torr and R. S. Bruere. He resolved 
to be "in" on the Duchess proposition as well 
as the trade in show stock of Booth deriva- 
tion, and bought from Col. Gunter of Wetherby 
Grange, Yorkshire, the yearling heifer Duchess 
97th for $5,000*— the highest price up to that 
date ever paid for a cow or heifer of any breed; 
and from C. W. Harvey of Walton-on-the-Hill^ 
Liverpool, the young Bates cow Wild Eyes 26th 
and her bull calf. Meantime he had secured 
from Sheldon the 11th Duke of Thorndale. This 
shipment is notable not only for the purchase 
of the Duchess heifer at a startling price but as 
having included the roan bulls Robert Napier 
8975 and Star of the Realm 11021; the former 
bred by Mr. Torr, descending from Booth's 
Anna, and the latter bred by Mr, Bruere from his 

* This was the first Duchess female Gunter had parted with up to 1808. 
He had refused In 1865 an offer from Mr. Betts of 1,000 guineas for Duchesa 
8Mb and her heifer calf Duchess 92d. 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 395 

Vesper tribe. We have already alluded to the 
great impression made by Baron Booth of Lan- 
caster upon the breeders of the Central West, 
and quick appreciation of the value of these 
Booth bulls was shown in another quarter. 
William Warfield became the owner of Robert 
Napier* and A. J. Alexander, who had succeeded 
to the ownership of Woodburn upon the death 
of his brother, R. A. Alexander — which occurred 
Dec. 1, 1867— took Star of the Realm. 

In 1869 Mr. Cochrane made two importa- 
tions, one in June and one in August. These 
were practically all Booth-crossed stock, from 
the herds of such successful adherents of the 
house of Booth in Great Britain as Messrs. R. 
Chaloner of King's Fort, Ireland; T. E. Pawlett 
of Beeston, T. Barnes of Westland, Ireland; 
Torr of Aylesby and Hugh Aylmer of West 
Dereham Abbey, Norfolk. One of the bulls, the 
roan Torr-bred Gen. Napier 8199, was bought 
by Col. William S. King, the owner of Rose- • 
dale, who was easily the most daring operator 
of the day in the Western States. 

The time seemed ripe, therefore, for New 

*Mr. Warfield says: "Robert Napier waa a lar^e bull of great scale 
and weight, but not what I would call a very fine bull, neither was he a 
uniform breeder. Hla calvea— Bertha (VoL XV, page 447), Loudon Duchess 
dth (Vol. XI. page 888), 3d Gem of Grasmere (Vol. XXI, page 6537), Loudon 
Duke 12th 23847, and Bridesmaid (Vol. XXII, page 17075)— were as fine ani- 
mals as I ever bred. He received an Injury on being shipped to the fairs on 
the railroad, which I believe was permanent. I gave him to a neighbor and 
I think he finally fell into the hands of Mr. Dean, MaryvlUe, Mo." Another 
fine daughter of this bull, bred by Mr. Warfield, was Lucy Napier, bought 
■nd shown \jiy J. H. Plckrell. 



396 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

York Mills to follow Gibson's advice and go 
gunning for Sheldon with Booth weapons. 

Gibson buys Booths for New York Mills. — 
T. C. Booth of Warlaby was now at the cli- 
max of his show-yard renown. Commander- 
in-Chief (21415) and the marvelous Lady Fra- 
grant had been champions of the breed at the 
Leicester Royal of 1868.* While the Bates men 
had forced prices for their favorites to a high 
point Warlaby also had a powerful following 
throughout the United Kingdom, and nothing 
but very tempting offers wQuld induce Mr. 
Booth to part with any of his best cattle to 
come to America. Mr. Gibson had not gone so 
far, however, for the purpose of purchasing in- 
ferior specimens, and at the handsome figure 
of $5,000 secured the great roan heifer Bride of 
the Vaie, sired by Lord of the Valley (14837) 
out of the famous Soldier's Bride. He also 
bought the roan bull calf Royal Briton (27351), 
.bred at Warlaby from Lord Blithe (22126), tra- 
cing through Crown Prince to Bride Elect. 
From the same noted nursery of show-yard 
champions came the roan heifer Merry Peal, 
by Commander-in-Chief, and the white heifer 
White Rose, by Mountain Chief. From R. 
Chaloner, King's Fort, Ireland, he bought the 

* The last appearance of the Booth» at the English Royal was at Man- 
chester in lS6\i, upon which occaBion Lady Fragrant was champion female 
and Earl of Derby (21tt3S), bred and shown by Wiley of Brandsby. was c 

pLi)U bull. 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 397 

white heifer Fair Maid of Hope and her bull 
calf King of the Ocean. Four other heifers 
were also selected, included among them being 
the white Knightley heifer Lady Oxford. Hill- 
hurst had already set the pace. The price paid 
for Bride of the Vale ($5,000) was fixed by the 
fact that Gunter had just obtained that unpre- 
cedented figure from Mr. Cochrane for a Duch- 
ess heifer. The Booths were quite as proud of 
their reputation and prestige as were the fol- 
lower of the fortunes of Thomas Bates, and 
Warlaby females were quite as difficult to ob- 
tain as were specimens of the Duchess tribe. 
It had been Mr. Booth's settled policy not to 
sell females to contemporary British breeders 
to be retained in England, He had permitted 
Mr. Bolden to send out a shipment to Austra- 
lia, and we believe that a Christon heifer had 
been sold to Mr. B. St. John Ackers of Prink- 
nash Park, who was a dist^ant relative. At that 
time, however, this tribe had not been admit- 
ted into full fellowship with the time-honored 
Booth Short-horn strains. Aside from these 
transactions Bride of the Vale and Merry Peal 
were, we believe, the only heifers Mr. Booth 
had parted with for breeding purposes, and 
they were only sold with the understanding 
that they were to be taken to America. 

In 1870 ten head were imported, including 
the Christon heifers Patricia and Minaret. In 



398 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

this lot were two heifers from Torr's Waterloo 
tribe and the roan Baron Oxford's Beauty from 
Col. Towneley's. This shipment experienced 
cold weather at sea, but the day the cattle 
landed in New York harbor the thermometer 
registered 105 deg. in the shade. Poor Patri- 
cia, for which $5,000 had been paid, succumbed 
to the heat on shipboard before the cattle 
could be landed. Had the rest not been 
carefully handled after unloading other losses 
would doubtless have oCcuiTed. Gibson had 
them hauled from the dock to the railway 
freight-yard in canopy-covered "lorries," with 
a big sponge tied on top of the head of each 
animal and a boy alongside of each cow to 
apply cold water. In this way they were safe- 
ly started for the farm. 

The Mills now had indeed the nucleus of a 
herd which might well set Bates men thinking. 
Cochrane and Simon Beattie in Canada were at 
this time attracting the attention of the trade 
on both sides of the water by their extensive 
importations of Booth -crossed stock, and it 
really began to look as if that type might at 
last become a formidable rival of the Bates 
tribes in the New World. 

Sensational transfer of the Sheldon herd. — 
Sheldon was nothing if not shrewd, and soon 
scented danger in the Booth propaganda with 
such backers in the East as Walcott & Camp- 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 399 

bell, Simon Beattie and M. H. Cochrane, and 
such sympathizers in the West as the influen- 
tial breeders already mentioned. He resolved, 
therefore, to make terms with the New York 
Mills management, and offered to sell Mr. 
Campbell one-half of the Geneva herd. This 
was in 1869. Mr. Gibson advised that the pur- 
chase be jnade. Mr. Campbell replied: "But 
you don't know the price." The imperturbable 
Gibson rejoined: "Never mind that. Buy.^^ 
The price was a big one, and the herd was to 
be divided by a process of alternate selection. 
Sheldon secured first choice in the "toss up," 
and picked 12th Duchess of Geneva. The se-* 
lection proceeded until Mr. Sheldon had, in ad- 
dition to the 12th, the 4th Duchess of Geneva 
and the 10th, 12th and 13th Duchesses of 
Thorndale. Walcott & Campbell got the 6th, 
8th and 13th Duchesses of Geneva and the 3d 
and 9th Duchesses of Thorndale. Of the Ox- 
fords Sheldon secured 6th Lady, 3d Maid, 2d 
Countess and Gem of Oxford. Gibson took the 
7th and 10th Ladys and 2d Maid. The entire 
lot was gone over in the same fashion, and 
the 4th Duke of Geneva, then at the head of 
the herd, was retained in common. Further- 
more, it was agreed that no Oxford or Duchess 
female was to be sold by either partly until the 
other had the first option. The Duchesses had 



400 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN CATTLE. 

cost Walcott & Campbell an average of $5,500 
each and the Oxfords S2,800 each. 

Immediately after this division of the herd 
Sheldon began stocking up again and within a 
year his stables were found full to overflowing. 
He, of course, looked to Walcott & Campbell 
to buy the entire outfit. He was playing the 
Duchess game for all there was in it. The 
New York Mills people declined to be baited, 
however, in any such wholesale manner. They 
were perfectly willing to take the Duchesses 
and Oxfords, but this did not suit Sheldon. 
The facts as to the deal which finally resulted 
in their transfer to Walcott & Campbell in 
1870 are set forth by Mr. Gibson in the follow- 
ing language. 

**Sheldon bad not filled his tern for naught. A deadlock en- 
sued. James Wadsworth was nibbling, Col. King of Minnesota 
was after them and so was Cochrane of Canada. A sale cata- 
logue was then circulated and date arranged. Walcott & Camp- 
beirs hands were forced and they were obliged to buy in self-de- 
fense. The lot was taken, fifty females and fourteen bulls, at a 
round $100,000, with interest at 6 per cent until paid. Now Mr. 
Campbell, though bom an alien, had confidence in the Govem- 
ment's pledges to pay. Mr. Sheldon was a Democrat and guessed 
otherwise. Gold was about 160 and the agreement was that when 
the settlement was made it was to be on the basis of gold as 
quoted on the day of sale. Result': 960,000 paid the original debt 
of 9100,000. Mr. Campbell could have paid at time of purchase 
Just as well as not, but preferred waiting under the circum- 
stances and therein got a chance to 'even up' with Mr. Sheldon." 

"Duke" bulls in demand.— Thorne and Shel- 
don's European trade had served as a great 
advertisement for the Thorndale and Geneva 



THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 401 

stock. The Kentuckians, naturally predisposed 
to favor the Duchess propositiou by reason of 
their satisfactory experience with the kindred 
Woodburn blood, contributed to the upbuild- 
ing of the ** boom/' Edwin Bedford had bought 
2d Duke of Geneva 5562, and during his brief 
career that bull m&de a distinct ^'hit," as stated 
on page 305. Mr. Bedford then got the 5th 
Duke at $3,000. Col. King of Minnesota se- 
cured the 6th at the same price. In 1869 Mr. 
Alexander took the 10th Duke of Thorndale 
(28458) from Sheldon at $5,500. A. W. Gris- 
wold of Vermont had given $3,000 for the 14th 
Duke of Thorndale (28459) as a calf, and in 1869 
George M. Bedford purchased him at $6,000. 
The 8th and 9th Dukes of Geneva had gone at 
$4,000 each, and Cochrane had the 11th. 

The Bates tribes were now (1870) firmly held 
by powerful interests on both sides the Atlan- 
tic. Walcott & Campbell, after their prelimi- 
nary flirtation with the Booths, had gone into 
the Duchess speculation,* and this gave the 
Kirklevington sorts a prestige that needed 
only the great sale at New York Mills to fairly 
stampede America to the Bates colors. Mean- 
time the West was aroused to action by the an- 
nouncement of a dispersion sale of the entire 
herd of Mr. McMillan of Ohio, and as this was 

•The New York MIUb Booth cattle were afterward sold to M-. Coch- 
rane, who sent some of them back to Boffland. 

as 



402 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE, 

the opening gun in a most extraordinary era 
of auction sales in America the event will be 
noticed in detail. 

The McMillan sale.— Mr. Daniel McMillan 
of Oakland Farm, Xenia, 0., had for many 
years been breeding Short-horns descended 
from the Ohio and Kentucky importations. 
He had been a frequent exhibitor at the lead- 
ing fairs of the West, and the herd was one of 
the best known in the United States. Indeed 
Mr. McMillan was the first breeder north of 
the Ohio River to cross swords with the Ken- 
tuckians in their own show-yards. This event 
occurred in 1869. The herd was at that time 
headed by Plantagenet 6031, but Mr. War- 
field's Muscatoon defeated this bull in the class 
showing: In the herd competition, however, 
the McMillan cattle prevailed.* The great 



•The best of the McMillan show herds had been fitted by James 
Lyall, a Scotchman, who had come to America m 1856 as an assistant in 
connection with the ill-fated shipment of Short-horns made that year via 
New Orleans by Alex. Barrett of Henderson, Ky. The ship experienced a 
tempestuous passaire, beinsr nearly six weeks at sea, and all of the Short- 
horns but two were lost, included among those that perished being the 
famous Douglas show cow Queen of Trumps, by Belleville (6778), for which 
500 guineas had been paid. 

I4yair8 father was at this time herdsman in the old country for Douglas 
of Athelstaneford. so that the young man had been reared to the cattle 
business. He remained with Barrett four years, going to McMillan in 1863. 
The show bull Oen. Grant was then a yearling. Mr. Lyall fitted the show 
herds for their most successful campaigns, ae well as for this closingK>ut 
sale, after which he was identified with the noted herds of George Murray 
of Racine, Col. William S. King and others. 

Unfortunately the show bull Plantagenet and the great cow Ijouan 18th 
bad been lost shortly before the sale. Plantagenet was a very massive 
bull of imposing presence, a bull of more substance than Gen. Grant, al- 
though a bit rough at the tail-head, and not so good In his Quarters. 



THE BIBTH OF A "BOOM." 403 

prices that were now current in England 
and the East stimulated the rapidly-rising in- 
terest in Short-horns throughout the entire 
Union, and it was indeed an historic gathering 
that assembled at Oakland on the morning of 
the 8th of June, 1870. Practically all of the 
leading breeders and exhibitors, not only of 
the East but of the West, were present. The 
cattle were tied in line along a fence for exam- 
ination, and here for the first time the Short- 
horn breeding fraternity of America may be 
said to have actually assembled, all former 
auctions having been more or less local in their 
character. The sale was held in a grove and 
no seats were provided for the company. This 
did not detract, however, from the complete 
success of the occasion, as the bidding was 
active and spirited from start to finish. 

Following is the list of females sold for $500 
or over: 

Mignonette,* red show oow; sired by Gen. Grant out of his 

own dam, Jessie-C. C; & R. H. Parks, Waukegan, 111. .98,800 

4th Louan of Oakland, yearling heifer; by M Duke of 

Geneva 5602— J. C. Jenkins, Petersburg, Ky 3,660 

Louan 21st,t eight-year-old show cow, bred by Jere Duncan; 

sired by Duke of Airdrie 2743— Geo. Murray, Racine, Wis. 8,600 

«Mlirnonette, It will \)e obseryed, was incestuously bred. She was a 
very fine show heifer as a yearliiu? and two-year-old, but grevr too " lumpy *' 
for the show-yard and did no good as a breeder. She was sold by Messrs. 
Parks Immediately after the sale to Georire Murray at $4,000. 

t Louan 2lBt was the beat of her family In the herd at this time, although 
In the opinion of Herdsman Lyall not so Rood a cow as old Jessie, the dam 
of Gen. Orant. He describea JcBsic as a red of ^reat scale, with «rood head, 
excellent quarters and fine quality, altO)?e1her the best cow that Mr. Mc 
Mlllan had ever owned, although inclined to be up on legs. 



404 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

Wenona, red show oow, tracing to imp. Loaisa; sired by 

Gen. Grant— W. J. Neely, Ottawa, HI $8,000 

Forest Queen, red two-year-old; by Plantagenet— George 

Murray 2,800 

Louan 85th, red show cow; by Duke of Airdrie 2748— £. G. 

Bedford, Kentucky 2,025 

Highland Lady, roan cow, bred by J. M. Hill, Illinois; sired 

by imp. King Alfred (8068), dam White Lady, bought by 

Mr. McMillan at the Hill sale already mentioned— J. H. 

Spears, TaUuia, 111. 2,076 

6th Louan of Oakland,* red show heifer; by Plantagenet— 

George Murray 2,000 

Louan 28d, roan show cow; by Lord Derby— A. J. Dunlap, 

Galesburg, lU 1,750 

Louan 80th, red cow ; by Duke of Airdrie 2748— T. J. Megib- 

ben, Cynthiana, Ky 1,660 

Linda Belle 2d, red show heifer; by Plantagenet-J. H. 

Spears 1,525 

6th Duchess of Oakland, red-and-white three-year-old; by 

Plantagenet --George Gregg, Beechville, Can 1,500 

7th Duchess of Oakland, red two-year-old ; by Plantagenet 

James Fullington, Union Ck>., O 1,400 

f^ora Belle 8d, roan yearling— J. H. Spears 1,825 

Magenta, red heifer calf ; by Plantagenet, dam Clinton Lady 

-J. H. Spears 1,106 

Oxford Duchess, red cow— W. M. Haines, Metamora, Ind. . . 1,075 
Fannie Hunt, red three-year-old ; dam Anna Hunt, of Mr. 

Warfleld's breeding— A. J. Dunlap 1,025 

Myrtle, roan twelve-year-old cow ; by imp. Starlight (12146) 

—James FullingtoD 1,006 

Anna Clark, red-and-white cow, bred by C. M. Clark— Mil- 
ton Briggs, Newton, la 050 

Eudora 2d, red heifer; by Plantagenet— B. H. Campbell, 

Batavia, ni 910 

Clinton Lady, red nine-year-old cow— Jesse Hagler, Fayette 

Co., O 850 

Louan of Oakland, red cow— Milton Briggs 800 

* Lyall, who liad "been consulted by Mr. Hurr&y as to what to hoy, and 
who afterward entered the employ of Mr. Murray, tried to induoe him to 
take the 4th Louan instead of the 6th, as the former was a irood one and 
Louan 6th was slack In her loin and never could make a cow. This advice, 
however, was not followed. It has been «renerally believed that Mr. Mur- 
rny really bought what stock ho wanted privately, before the sale, and hsd 
it passed through the rln5:. 



THE BIRTH OF A " BOOM/' 405 

liouan 12th, red eleven-year-old cow— K. G. Dan, Loodon, O. 1800 

Rosa Bonheur, red-roan three-year-old^James Fullington. . 750 

Emma ad, red cow— B. H. Campbell 780 

Anna EggleBton, red cow— Thomas Kirk, Fayette Co., O . . . . 730 

10th Belle Republic, red cow— Milton Briggs 700 

141st BeUe RepubUc, red cow— Milton Briggs 700 

8d liOuan of Oakland, roan two-year-old— J. W. Armstrong, 

Deer Park, 111 600 

Honey Bud, roan two-year-old— B. H. Campbell 300 

Oxford Queen, heifer calf; by Plantageoet— J. W. Arm- 

stroxig 660 

Vain Lady, red two-year-old ; by Gren. Grant— B. H. Camp- 
bell 686 

Minna Watson, roan heifer calf— H. B. Sherman, Toledo, O. 635 

May Day, red-and-white cow— B. H. Campbell 605 

Bride of Greenwood, red-and-white, bred by David Selsor— 

Greorge Gregg, Canada 525 

Emma Palmer, red-and-white oow, twelve years old; by 

imp. Warrior (12887)— Thomas Kirk, Fayette Co., O.... 500 

Eudora, roan cow— Charles Hook, Xenia, O 600 

Oneota, cow; by Duke of Airdrie 8748— Jesse Hagler 500 

4th Belle Republic, roan co w— Milton Briggs 600 

Of the bulls Royal Oakland, a red two-year- 
old by Plantageiiet out of Mignonette, brought 
the highest price, $1,300, from James Fulling- 
ton. This bull had been winner of first prize 
at the Ohio State Fair of 1868, and stood at the 
head of the breeders' herd at the same show in 
1869. He was resold the next day for $2,000. 
The rest of the bulls ranged in price from $75 
for old Oxford Lad up to $825 for Royal Lad — 
a yearling by Plantagenet. The entire herd 
brought $63,980, an average of $864.60. Twen- 
ty-four head went to Illinois at $23,625, twen- 
ty-five head to Ohio at $13,265, six head to Iowa 
at $4,350, six head to Kentucky at $11,090 and 
three to Wisconsin at $8,400. 



406 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Col. William S. King.— One of the most in- 
terested spectators at the McMillan sale was 
Col. William S. King of Minneapolis, Minn., 
who was one of the first to introduce Short- 
horns into the Northwest and whose lavish in- 
vestments in show 9,nd breeding stock contrib- 
uted so largely to the development of a taste 
for Short-horn breeding in the Western States. 
The controlling motive in the establishment of 
his Lyndale Herd was the improvement of the 
cattle stocks of the Northwest. Short-horns 
were but little known in Minnesota even while 
Brown, Pickrell, Duncan, McMillan, Spears and 
their contemporaries were fighting their earlier 
show-yard battles in Illinois. Col. King was 
himself without special knowledge of them at 
that time, and indeed began his work by an 
unavailing effort to introduce Ayrshires among 
the farmers of the Northwest. Reared in the 
stock-growing and dairy region of Northern 
Central New York his thoughts naturally re- 
verted first to the herds of the Empire State 
and he has given us an amusing account of 
how his attention became first diverted from 
the Ayrshires to the Short-horns and as to how 
his first purchase was received upon arrival at 
St. Paul in 1867. In the autumn of that year 
he visited the J. 0. Sheldon herd at Geneva, 
N. Y., and was captivated by it. One of the 
Duchesses had just dropped a bull calf— the 



THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 407 

5th Duke of Geneva— which he contracted for 
at $3,000; but before the youngster was 
shipped Sheldon arranged for an exchange of 
the 5th Duke to Edwin G. Bedford of Ken- 
tucky for the 6th Duke of Geneva.* In 1869 
Col. King added by purchase from the Sheldon 
herd a Bloom, two Gwynnes, a Mazurka, and 
several other females, including Constance 6th, 

* " I took oooasion on one of my frequent trips east to visit the New 
York Mills Herd of Ayrshires, wMch was then reputed to be the finest of 
the kind in the United States. It was on that occasion that I first met both 
Mr. Campbell and Richard Olbson and formed an acquaintance with the lat 
ter which led to many later business transactions between us and a friend- 
ship which still exists and has been to me a source of much pleasure. But 
to my story. Telling Mr. Campbell the purpose of my visit the old gentle- 
man left his business office and walked with me to the barn, where, calling 
for Gibson, he ordered out for review his Scottish pets, which Gibson 
began to assemble from the various small lots adjoining the bams and 
yards. While standing on the platform of the bam looking at the Ayr- 
shires there was a great crash near by, and looking in that direction I saw 
a young Short-horn bull about eighteen months old which had dashed 
through a partly opened gate to'an adjoining yard and with head and tail 
erect stood before us a living picture of animal beauty. * What's that? * said 
I to Mr. Campbell. *Oh, that's one of Qibeon's things* a Short-horn, but I 
don't think much of them,* was the reply. But a friend who had accom 
panied me to inspect the herd turned to me and said: 'Colonel. that'B the 
kind of stock you want for the West Tour Western people will never be 
satisfied with these Ayrshire cattle.' Mr. Campbell was evidently nettled 
at this remark and replied : ' Then the people of the West don't know what 
is best for them.* Truth compels me to say that I was a little nettled my- 
self. It was Ayrshires that I * went out to see '; Ayrshires that I had fully 
decided were to be my instruments in the work of stock and dairy reform 
in Minnesota, and the result was that before leaving the barn I had picked 
out a small number of young Ajnrshire heifers and a yearling bull and ai^ 
ranged for their shipment. Before I left, however, Olbson found an oppor- 
tunity to whisper in my ear: *Tou ^111 make no mistake if you take the 
advice of your friend and take along a few Shortrhoms.' So just as we 
were about leaving I turned to Mr. Campbell and asked: 'What will you 
price me that young bull for? ' 'Oh, if you want him you may have him for 
IIOO,* was the reply. 'Why, Mr. Campbell.' spoke up Olbson quickly, 'Mr 
Sheldon would never sell such a bull as that for a cent less than t400 ' ' No 
matter, said Mr. Campbell, 'if Mr. King wants him for tlOO he can have 
him.' ' Take him,' said my friend decidedly; ' he will be worth more to you 
than all the Ayrshires on this farm.' I took the bull, and with him two or 
three young heifers of the same strain of blood, all, I think, by Weehawken 



408 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

which latter proved to be the most profitable 
cow ever owned at Lyndale. Such was the 
foundation. These Sheldon cattle were shown 
at the Minnesota State Fair of 1869 and at- 
tracted much favorable notice although not in 
high condition. Meantime the proprietor had 
been a visitor at some of the important shows 
elsewhere, and realizing that his stock could 
not hope to cope successfully with the great 
show herds of Illinois, Ohio and Kentucky he 
determined to bring all the resources of large 

from dams of the Rosamond, or Haaon blood. And thus becan my Short- 
horn purchases. Whether Gibson put up a Job to have that Short-horn bull 
appear on the stave at that particular moment I do not venture to assert, 
but that his appearance at that time had much to do In shaping my future 
course as a breeder Is a solid fact. 

^'When adTlsed by telegraph that the boat on which the stock warn 
shipped frdm La Crosse would reach St. Paul at a given hour I was on 
hand to receive them. When the passengers had disembarked the cattle 
were led off, the Ayrshlres first belnir unloaded. Amonff the crowd of 
levee lounirers who were ' watching out * to see what was going on was one 
tall, lank, uncouth-looking chap who eyed my little Ayrshlres with great 
apparent curiosity, and finally addressing me he broke out: ' I say, Mister, 
what do you call them are critters there?' 'Young Ayrshlres,' was the 
short reply. 'Young wharf rats/ he rejoined, and added: 'I say. Mister, 
you'll have to look out or them little critters will crawl through the cracks 
of your bam floor and you'll lose 'em.* Too Indignant to reply to this gross 
insult put upon my beautiful young Ayrshlres I turned away from the fel- 
low Just as the young Short-horn bull was being led off the boat, when my 
tormentor, espying him, broke out again: *I say, Mister, there comes a 
critter something like what a critter should be. I know that kind myself.' 
' What kind of a critter do you call that? ' some one standing by Inquired. 
'Why,' said this expert Judge of live stock, 'that's a Devon. I've seen 
hundreds of them cattle down in Maine 'fore I ever came West.' Offended 
pride and patience could stand no more, and sharply turning upon this 
critic I Haid to him: ' Young man, that bull don't come anywhere as near 
being a Devon as you do to being a natural-bom Jackass.* The fellow 
turned a half-pitying, half-offended look upon me as though debating In his 
own mind whether I was really as big a fool as he evidently rated me, or 
whether it was hiB duty to resent in some effective way my ill manners In 
thus characterizing his pedigree, but finally strolled off into the crowd 
while I headed my young bovine pilgrims for Minneapolis, where I i 
had them safely aud comfortably housed in their hiunble quarters." 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 409 

means to bear upon the acquisition of animals 
of such character as would enable him to 
break a lance with the leading showmen of 
the day. He had heard of Baron Booth of 
Lancaster and of Rosedale, and following Mr. 
Pickrell's example visited Mr. Cochrane's. 

The Lyndale show herd,— At Hillhurst he 
saw and bought the great Rosedale, imp. Queen 
of Diamonds and Maid of Atha, of William 
Miller's breeding. This was a grand founda- 
tion for a show herd, but no bull of the requi- 
site character could be found, and a two-year- 
old heifer and yearling were also needed. The 
Colonel's ambition was now thoroughly aroused, 
and with characteristic enterprise and liberal- 
ity he gave Mr. Cochrane and Simon Beattie 
carte blanche to select and bring out from Great 
Britain the best animals money could buy in 
the United Kingdom to fill out the herd. About 
this same time Mr. John Gibson (brother to 
Richard, then at New York Mills) was engaged 
to take general charge of the Lyndale Herd. 
The McMillan dispersion occurred while Col. 
King's agents were looking for show cattle 
abroad. This was the first auction sale of cat- 
tle he had ever attended, and like all others 
who were present upon that occasion he was 
fairly carried away by the excitement and en- 
thusiasm of the day. It was here that he met 
Lyall, McMillan's herdsman, and engaged him 



4iO A HISTORY OF SHOET-HORN CATTLE. 

to undertake the detailed training of the show 
herd then in progress of formation. 

Beattie arrived Aug. 2, 1870, Avith the im- 
ported cattle. He had brought out forty head 
altogether, including the bulls Scotsman 10951 
and Old Sam 10551, both two years old, and a 
pair of roan two-year-old show heifers — Booth's 
Lancaster and Countess of Yarborough — for 
Col. King's examination. The bulls were both 
good ; in fact so evenly balanced that it seemed 
impossible to make choice between them. Af- 
ter extended deliberation, however, in which 
Messrs. Beattie, Cochrane, King and Gibson all 
participated, they decided to make their stand 
with Scotsman. He was a roan, bred by the 
Duke of Buccleuch and sired by Royal Errant 
22780 (the sire of the dam of the afterward cele- 
brated imp. Duke of Richmond) out of Comet 
by Lord Stanley (18275). Even niore difficulty 
was experienced in trying to choose between 
the two heifers. They were both grand thick- 
fleshed specimens and in beautiful bloom. 
Booth's Lancaster was a great "chunk" — full 
sister in blood to Baron Booth of Lancaster — 
being by same sire out of one of the celebrated 
triplet daughters of Lord Raglan from the cow 
Lancaster 25th, bred by Mr. Cruickshank. The 
Countess was bred by Dudding from Baron 
Rosedale (21239), a bull out of the dam of Rose- 
dale. The Lyndale people were afraid that if 



THE BIBTH OF A "bOOM." 411 

they left either of these. at Hillhurst there 
would be grave danger of meeting the other 
later on in hostile hands at the Western shows. 
There was but one safe thing to do ; buy them 
both. No yearling had been bought, but hear- 
ing of Rosedale's last calf, Rosedale Duchess, 
her purchase was decided upod without the 
formality of an examination ; the price being 
$5,500. She proved a disappointment. In Col. 
King's expressive language, " richly worth 
about 5 per cent of the price paid," 

En route to Minnesota Scotsman developed a 
case of foot-and-mouth disease, which necessi- 
tated his being quarantined at Lyndale, and in , 
spite of the most careful treatment he was in 
no condition to head the herd as the fall shows 
drew near. The Illinois State Fair was being 
held the week before "the Great St. Louis' 
Show, which was in those days the "Royal" of 
America, and after loading the cattle (and 
some imported Cotswold sheep) on board a 
river steamer at St. Paul for St. Louis Gibson 
was started post haste for Decatur, with in- 
structions to buy a show bull, if there was one 
on the Illinois State Fair Grounds, at any cost. 
On Saturday before the opening the Lyndale 
cattle were in their stalls at St. Louis, minus a 
bull, but that same day Gibson wired that he 
was starting with Scotsman's ocean companion 
Old Sam. Mr. Cochrane had not sold the bull 



412 A HISTOEY OF SHOET-HORN CATTLE. 

during the summer, and had shipped him out 
to the Illinois State Fair in the expectation of 
finding a purchaser. James N. Brown's Sons 
had Tycoon 7339 at Decatur that year as a 
three-year-old, and Mr. Gibson offered $2,500 
for him without effecting his purchase. As 
this was one of the most noted of the home- 
bred show bulls of that time a brief statement 
concerning him will be of interest at this point. 
Tycoon 7339. — This noted roan must be cred- 
ited primarily to Kentucky, as he was sired by 
Mr, Warfield's famous Muscatoon 7057 out of 
Nannie by Derby 4689, he a son of Renick 903; 
second dam Maria Hunt by imp. Young Chilton, 
tracing in the maternal line to imp. Illustrious 
by Emperor (1974). He was dropped on Capt. 
James N. Brown's farm in Sangamon County 
March 27, 1867. While his sire and dam were 
both bred at Grasmere the credit for his devel- 
opment into one of the most noted show bulls 
of his day rests with Capt. Brown and his sons, 
who had by this time become associated with 
their father in the management of the herd at 
Grove Park.* At three years of age he attained 
a weight of 2,360 lbs. His head was neat, horns 
slightly drooping, and of masculine character. 
He was well filled behind the shoulders, good 
at the chine; level in his top and bottom lines; 

•Capt. James N. Brown died Nov. 16, 1868. His sona still canyon the 
farm, althouirh doing little now in pedigreed cattle. 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 413 

square and well finished about the rumps, with 
thighs carried well down to straight and well- 
filled legs. He was rated by good judges as 
one of the best bulls of his time in the West, 
and his victories in the show-yard at the Illi- 
nois State Fair, at St. Louis and other lead- 
ing exhibitions gained for him much reputa- 
tion. 

Tycoon was a uniformly good breeder and 
many of his heifers were fitted for show with 
great success. Prominent among his get may 
be mentioned the $1,000 show heifer Maud 
Muller, Illustrious 5th and the famous Young 
Marys, Grace Youngs 4th, 5th and 6th. He 
was sold at auction in 1871 to Mr. S. C. Duncan 
of Missouri and died in 1873. His sister, Illus- 
trious 3d, was also a great winner in the herd 
of Messrs. Brown. 

King's victory at St. Louis.— When the 
great St. Louis show of 1870 opened its gates 
Old Sam was found at the head of the Lyndale 
Herd. He was a red, bred by R. H. Crabb of 
Chelmsford, Essex, Eng., and was got by the 
Bell-Bates Duchess Nancy bull Duke of Graf- 
ton (21594), a son of exported Duke of Geneva 
(19614), and similar in his breeding to the cele- 
brated Grand Duke of Oxford (28763), sire of 
Rev. B. B. Kennard's great English-bred prize 
cow Queen Mary. Old Sam's dam was the 
mixed-bred cow Roma, by Baron Roxwel] 



414 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

(21240). He gained first prize in the aged bull 
class over Baron Booth of Lancaster, but the 
latter was awarded by another committee the 
male championship of the class. Rosedale* was 
an easy winner among the aged cows; Queen 
of Diamonds carried the three-year-old ribbon, 
Booth's Lancaster the first for two-year-old 
heifer and Countess of Yarborough second. In 
yearlings the $5,500 Rosedale's Duchess was not 
noticed, but in heifer calves the sweet-faced, 
heavy-coated Constance of Lyndale, by 5th Duke 
of Geneva, headed the list.f The herd prize fell 
to Lyndale after one of the most exciting con- 
tests ever known in American show-yards 
Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky were defeated, 
but Great Britain and Canada had been ran- 

*John Gibson describes Rosedale as follows: "Bosedale was one of 
the best cows I ever saw. She was laid out on a much larrer f;cale than 
the cows now shown. She had an extraordinary front that was well car^ 
ried back to her hips. She was lonfr. wide and deep, with grreat thickness 
of flesh, evenly laid. She was Just a little plain from her hip» back, which 
was about her only fault. With all her size and wealth of flesh she had no 
coarseness or roufrhness, showing a fine feminine head, well carried. 
Queen of Diamonds tied her for sweepstakes at St. Louis, but the old cow 
rightly got it. One of the best thiners we showed at St. Louis in 1870 was the 
Constance heifer. One gentleman who saw her before the show remarked 
what a good one she was and said: 'You have trained wrong: kept too 
much hair on. That is all right for the Royal, but will not do for the 
States. I replied that I never saw a Shor^hom with too much hair of the 
righ quality, and the St. Louis Judges seemed to think the same." 

t Constance was shown here in the wrong class, as was afterward 
acknowledged. There was always considerable contention between 
Edwin Bedford and George Bedford. Mr. Edwin Bedford had bought the 
6th Duke of Geneva, and when this heifer made the rounds, really a year- 
ling and shown as a calf, she was awarded great honors and, of course. 
Edwin was very proud of her. Mr. George Bedford aald he need not be, 
becauBo she could not be a daughter of 5th Duke of Geneva, as she was too 
younir. Theu. of cours»'. Col. Kin;,' eiflior h;ul to deny her sire or acknowl- 
edi^e- as, upon In', esttgation. he subsoiiuently did— that she was shown In 
the wrong riutc . 



THE BIRTH OF A "bOOM." 415 

sacked with a blank check-book to do the 
trick. 

History tells of the ''Field of the Cloth of 
Gold," where the kings of France and England 
met in the midst of such luxurious surround- 
ings as to make the conference memorable 
mainly for its extravagant splendor. The tent 
which flew the flag of Lyndale and from 
whence Col. King dispensed hospitality to the 
fraternity of Short-horn breeders at this show 
was not carpeted with gold exactly, but it 
lacked little that money could supply that 
would minister to the tastes or appetites of the 
most fastidious among the congenial spirits 
congregated to do honor to that princely enter- 
tainer upon this gala occasion. It was a fa- 
mous victory ; a magnificent herd and a royal 
celebration ; an event which will be recalled 
as long as show-yard battles retain their inter- 
est as probably the most remarkable event, in 
some of its features at least, in the annals of 
cattle competitions in America. 

W. R. Duncan's sale.— The McMillan sale, 
it is needless to say, gave a great impetus to 
Short-horn breeding in the West, and trade at 
once grew active, both at public sale and pri- 
vate treaty, at high prices. At an auction 
held by W. R. Duncan at Towanda, 111., Aug. 
24, 1870, the show bull Minister 6363 was sold 
to Andrew Wilson of Topeka, Kan., at $1,760. 



416 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Oxford Wiley 8753 fetched $705 and several 
other bulls brought from $400 to $500 each. 
The seven-year-old Young Mary cow Red Rose 
3d, a red-roan of Ben F. Van Meter's breeding, 
went to George Otley of Neponset, 111., at 
$1,500. The red cow Gem 3d, also of Van 
Meter's breeding, fetched $1,150, going to Ed 
lies, Springfield, 111. The cow Oxford Belle, 
bred at Woodbum, made $1,000 to Robert 
Otley, Neponset, 111. Others were sold at from 
$400 to $750. 

The beginning of live-stock journalism. 
— It may be of interest at this point to note 
that from the month of May, 1869, may be 
dated the beginning of live-stock journalism 
as a special feature of agricultural newspaper 
work. Upon that date Mr. J. H. Sanders, 
founder of the Breeder^s Gazette, began the 
publication of a sixteen-page monthly called 
the Western Stock Jvurnal, issued at Sigourney, 
la., the initial number presenting a portrait of 
Mr. McMillan's celebrated Louan 21st. Mr. 
Sanders was at that time interested in stock- 
breeding himself, and feeling the need person- 
ally of information bearing upon the business 
took advantage of his ownership of a small 
country printing-office to undertake on his 
own account the first venture of this kind of 
which we have record. The publication ac- 
quired immediate popularity and its success 



THE BIRTH OF A "BOOM." 417 

attracted the attention of Mr. George W. Rust, 
at that date engaged in newspaper work upon 
the Chicago Times, who in connection with the 
Hon. John P. Reynolds established at Chicago 
in September, 1871, a more pretentious maga- 
zine, which was christened the National Live- 
stock Journal. The immediate object of Mr. 
Sanders having thus been accomplished he 
accepted a proposition for the consolidation 
of his own paper with that of Mr. Rust, as- 
suming at the same time a position as associ- 
ate editor of the Chicago periodical. 

Mr. Rust was a ready and forcible writer, 
and at once made a special study of the Short- 
horn trade. His paper soon attained National 
circulation and influence and afforded stock- 
breeders in general and the Short-horn frater- 
nity in particular a needed medium of commu- 
nication.- The National Live -Stock Journal, 
with which Messrs. Charles P. Willard and 
William Hallowell also became identified, was 
soon recognized as a powerful influence in the 
development of the American interest in pedi- 
greed-stock breeding.* In the course of time 
the Journal gave way to the weekly Breeder^s 
Gazette, which was established in 1881. 

* The author may perhaps be pardoned for atatlnflr that It was in the 
work of compiling Short-horn catalo^uea in the office of the monthly masror 
zlne mentioned that he acquired, some twenty years a^o, his first acQualn- 
tance with the intricacies of the Short-horn Herd Books of Great Britain 
and America. 
87 



CHAPTER XIV. 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 

Importiant events now followed thick and 
fast. Hundreds of herds were in process of 
formation all the way from New England to 
the Pacific Coast. The fame of the Short-horn 
had become co-extensive with North American 
agriculture and the demand greater than at 
any previous 'period. To mention, therefore, 
in detail all those who took a prominent part 
in this broad expansion of Short-horn interests 
would be to transcribe to these pages volumes 
of facts and pedigrees that may best be gath- 
ered from the herd-book records of the period. 
We can therefore touch only upon matters 
that fairly possessed National or international 
interest. 

Hillhurst and Lyndale operations.— Three 
importations were made to Hillhurst in 1870, 
aggregating some sixty-five head of cattle 
representing the leading Bates and Booth 
strains. In the first lot were the show cattle 
sold to Col. King, as already mentioned. 
Along with these Mr. Cochrane brought out 
from Col. Gunter's Duchesses 101st and 103d — 

(418) 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 419 

at the extraordinary price of $5,000 and $7,500 
respectively — both sired by exp. 4th Duke of 
Thorndale, and in the fall of that year these 
Duchesses dropped heifer calves by 8th Duke 
of York (28480). In this same shipment was 
the roan show cow Jessie Hopewell, of Ayl- 
mer's breeding, that was sold to Ed lies of 
Springfield, 111. In the second shipment were 
several heifers from Warlaby and Killerby and 
three Booth bulls, one of which, Royal Richard 
15415, was sold to A. Van Meter of Kentucky. 
Mr. Cochrane continued his operations in 1871, 
bringing over a large number of well-bred and 
individually excellent animals, including the 
roan heifer Royal Duchess 2d, sold to Mr. lies; 
the red Portulacca, that became the propertj of 
C, E. Coffin of Muirkirk, Md.; the red bull The 
Doctor 13021 and Cherub 11505, both subse- 
quently famous in the West; the roan Bread- 
albane 11429, of Torr's breeding, sold to S. R. 
Streator of Cleveland, 0., etc. 

Richard Gibson selected for importation by 
Col. King in 1871 a lot that included such 
noted animals as Baron Hubback 2d 13199, of 
Col. Towneley's breeding; Countess of Oxford, 
from Messrs. Hosken of Cornwall; Lady 
Brough, largely of Booth blood, etc. Mean- 
time Mr. Cochi-ane had sold Duchess 97th 
to Col. King at the enormous price of $12,000, 
but shrewdly foreseeing the result of the 



420 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE, 

manipulations going on at New York Mills 
the proprietor of Hillhurst repurchased this 
heifer, and along with her the 6th Duke of 
Geneva. 

Ezportations to England.— In April, 1871, 
Mr. Cochrane sold through Mr. Thornton to 
Col. Kingscote for $4,000 the. red yearling 
bull Duke of Hillhurst 9862, by 14th Duke of 
Thorndale out of Duchess 97th, that afterward 
sired the highest-priced bull of any breed ever 
sold in the world, to-wit.: Duke of Connaught 
(33604), for which Lord Fitzhardinge gave 
$22,500. Along with Duke of Hillhurst Mr. 
Cochrane shipped the roan heifer 11th Lady of 
Oxford to the Earl of Dunmore, Stirling, Scot- 
land, at $3,750.. 

In October, 1871, Walcott & Campbell shipped 
three Oxford heifers, the 9th Maid and 10th and 
13th Ladys of Oxford, together with the year- 
ling Oxford bull 5th Lord Oxford 10382 and the 
1st Duke of Oneida 9925, all sold to E. H. 
Cheney. For the 1st Duke $4,250 was received. 
He was afterward resold to Lord Skelmersdale. 
The 9th Maid of Oxford was a particularly val- 
uable heifer, having been successfully exhibited 
before exportation at the New York State Fair. 
Unfortunately she died soon after landing 
abroad. 

In November, 1871, Mr. Cochrane made an- 
other sale to Dunmore, consisting of the white 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 421 

Duchess 107th and the roan Duchess 108th, the 
8th Maid of Oxford, Marchioness of Oxford, and 
four Kentucky-bred Rose of Sharons. For the 
Duchess heifers the enormous price of $12,500 
was paid. The two Rose of Sharon cows Red 
Rose, of Mr. Renick's breeding, by Airdrie 
2478, and Red Rose 2d, of William Warfield's 
breeding, by Duke Frederick, were taken, to- 
gether with their heifer calves, at $2,500. 

Clark Co. (Ky.) Importing Co.— The import- 
ing trade into Kentucky, which had languished 
for many years, was now revived. An organi- 
zation made up mainly of Clark County breed- 
ers sent Lewis Hampton and W. C. Vanmeter 
to England early in 1871 to make a selection of 
cattle for immediate importation. The stock 
landed in New York April 11 and was disposed 
of on the fair grounds near Winchester on Aug. 
26. Twenty-three head brought $19,685, an av- 
erage of $855.87, the highest price realized being 
$1 ,300 for the red heifer Cowslip 2d, bought by 
Lewis Hampton. The red cow Pride of the 
West, bred by Mr. 6. Game and sired by exp. 
6th Duke of Airdrie (19602), went to W. H. Nel- 
son of Montgomery County at $1,250. The 
same buyer took the red yearling heifer Lady 
Spencer 2d, by Baron Oxford (23375), at $1,220. 
For Rarity, of the Charmer tribe, Asa Bean 
gave $1,080. The roan bull Peabody (29535) 
went to W. C. Vanmeter at $900, Duke of Ba- 



422 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

braham (25934) to W. L. Sudduth at $790, and 
the Pawlett-Booth bull calf Pioneer 12593 to 
same buyer at $400. At this same sale a draft 
of home-bred cattle was offered, the highest- 
priced animal contributed by local breeders 
being the Young Mary cow Beck Taylor, by 
Dick Taylor, taken by Mr. J. E. Sudduth at 
$600. The Young Phyllis yearling heifer Queen 
of Hearts, sired by the show bull Burnsidq 4618, 
brought $550. 

High prices in Illinois. — Edward lies sold 
twenty-nine head at Springfield, 111., Nov. 15, 
1871, for $14,940, an average of $515.17. The 
show cow Jessie Hopewell, by a Booth bull on 
a mixed English foundation, was included in 
this sale and was taken by J. H. Kissinger of 
Clarksville, Mo., at $2,500. J. G. Taylor of De- 
catur, 111., bought Oxford Duchess, a two-year- 
old Bates-topped heifer (imported by Hon. M. 
H. Cochrane), for $2,100. The yearling show 
heifer Nelly Bly of Forest Hill, by Gen. Grant 
4825, commanded $1,800 from Mr. Spears. Mr. 
Sodowsky of Indianola, HI., gave $1,800 for the 
red cow Potentilla, of mixed English breeding, 
also imported by Mr. Cochrane. J. H. Pickrell 
took the imported roan cow Statesman's Daugh- 
ter 2d at $700, and other parties, afterward well 
known and active in the trade, such as C. E. 
Lippincott, Messrs. Parks, A. R. Babbage, Wil- 
liam Stewart, Samuel Dysart, William Smith, 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 423 

Jeff Bridgford (Missouri), et al., were buyers of 
cows and heifers. The ten-year-old 7th Duke 
of Airdrie was bought by W. B. Dodge, Wauke- 
gun, 111., at $500, and the roan bull calf Chief 
Napier — a "J" Princess by imp. Gen. Napier — 
was taken by E. W. Mills, Sullivan, III, at $800. 

The great trade of 1872. — During the year 
1872 exportations at high prices to Great 
Britain were renewed on a still more extensive 
scale, and the domestic trade was vastly in ex- 
cess of anything previously recorded, no less 
than 1,014 head of Short-horns being sold at 
auction in the United States during the year 
for $317,256, an average of $313 each. This, 
of course, does not include the great list of 
transfers at private sale. 

Richard Gibson, who was now located at 
London, Ont., went to Woodburn in April and 
bought the 8th, 13th and 14th Duchesses of 
Airdrie for export to Cheney of Gaddesby Hall. 
Along with the Duchesses he sent the Princess 
cows Primula (bred by A. B. Conger), Lady 
Wellington and Lady Sale of Putney (both 
bred by Messrs. Winslow of Vermont), the 
Gwynne cow Lady Susan 3d and heifer calf 
(bred by Mr. White of Framingham, Mass.), 
and the Constance heifer Bosina, bred by 
Cowan of Canada. 

Lord Dunmore again drew upon America, 
ordering from Hillhurst the Booth-bred bulls 



424 A HISTORY OF SHORT HORN CATTLE. 

Royal Blithe and Breakspear and the red year- 
ling 3d Duke of Hillhurst. Mr. Cochrane had 
now acquired possession of the Booth stock 
imported for New York Mills. Royal Blithe 
was a son of the Warlaby-bred Merry Peal, but 
died on shipboard. A stormy passage was en- 
countered and the other two bulls arrived at 
Liverpool in December much reduced in flesh. 

This year is memorable in the annals of 
Kentucky Short- horn breeding especially for 
the sale to Earl Dunmore by Abram Renick of 
the Rose of Sharon heifers Red Rose of the 
Isles, Red Rose of Thorndale and Red Rose of 
Rannoch, the first a daughter of old Airdrie, 
the second by 8th Duke of Thorndale and the 
third by Joe Johnson. All were in calf to the 
4th Duke of Geneva. Dunmore had been at- 
tached to the staffs of various Confederate 
commanders during the American Civil War 
in quest of military experience. He was with 
Lee, Wade Hampton and Kirby Smith, and 
when the latter made his dash into Kentucky 
the Scottish Earl improved the opportunity to 
have a look incognito at some of the Short-horn 
herds of the blue-grass country. Out of this 
visit grew his subsequent orders for cattle of 
the Rose of Sharon tribe. 

Col. L. G. Morris of New York brought out 
in August, 1872, five heifers and two bulls of 
Bates blood, including the bull Oxford Beau 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 425 

2d, of Kingscote breeding. Australia was also 
buying freely in the mother country about this 
period, paying the Duke of Devonshire $5,000 
for 24th Duke of Oxford (31002). 

The first public sale of cattle ever held at 
Dexter Park, Chicago, occurred this year, the 
herd of Mr. E. P. Brockway of Wisconsin, that 
acquired considerable reputation in the show- 
ring, going under the hammer at an average 
price of $693 per head. Col. William S. King 
sold twenty-eight females at auction at an av- 
erage of $452, the show heifer Booth's Lancas- 
ter bringing $1,700 from Messrs. Parks of Glen 
Flora Farm, Waukegan, 111., and the imported 
cows Henrietta and Countess Oxford going to 
the same noted herd at $1,500 and $1,000 re- 
spectively. Booth's Lancaster was resold later 
to S. R. Streator of Cleveland, 0., for $2,000. 

It was during this year also that J. H. Pick- 
rell sold imp. British Flag 13211,* bred by Messrs. 
Dudding, for $1,800, and Baron Lewis, a Phyllis 



* British Flair was one of an importation made in 1871 by a CapL Pratt, 
that xMMsed Into the poaaesaion of Mr. Pickrell. Baron Ijewia was the firat 
Shortrhom bred and reared In IlUnoia to brlnr so gre&t a price. At this 
sale a very persistent stranirer bid for Baron Lewis against Mr. Sodowsky, 
and when the |2,!iOO notch was reached the excitement was intense. Turn- 
inir to his opponent Mr. S. said: " Well, stran^rer, you must have lota of 
money." The only reply was an adyance of the bid. The belligerent Ver- 
milion County breeder, however, had some " sand,*' as well as means, him- 
self, and forced his rival out at 13,000. The stranger did have money sure 
enough, or at least he represented it, for he was the agent of the Hon. John 
Wentworth of Chicago. ** Long John," as he was familiarly called, was 
fond of sending " unknowns '* out after valuable cattle offered at public 
sale, and in this instance only rep«^atpd his tactics as already noticed in hlA 
purchase of the l&th Duke of Alrdrie some years prevloua. 



426 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLR. 

bull by Baron Booth of Lancaster, to "Uncle 
Harvey" Sodowsky of Indianola, 111., for $3,000 
at a public sale that averaged $603. 

Many important transactions were consum- 
mated this season at private treaty. George 
Murray, a Scotchman in the lumber trade at 
Racine, Wis., who had been a heavy buyer at 
the McMillan sale, now acquired from Mr. Al- 
exander the afterward celebrated lOth Duchess 
of Airdrie. He was using at this time at the 
head of his Slausondale Herd the 17th Duke of 
Airdrie, and had paid $1,210 for Mazurka 26th. 
J. H. Kissinger of Missouri received during this 
season's trade $1,800 for his Caroline Airdrie 
heifer by Mr. Pickreirs Sweepstakes 6230 to go 
to California. 

While all this was going on in America 
prices were "booming" abroad. At Earl Dun- 
more's sale Sept. 5, 1872, the English sale rec- 
ord was broken when Mr. Tliornton disposed 
of forty-eight cows and heifers for over $60,- 
000, an average of some $1,250. At this sale 
Baron Oxford 5th brought $2,000. The highest 
price for a female was $6,000 for a yearling Ox- 
ford heifer, another of the same family bring- 
ing $5,050. The part of the Earl's herd not 
offered upon this occasion comprised his Amer- 
ican importations, one or two favorite old cows, 
and a tribe known as the Revelrys — twenty- 
two head in all — for which $75,000 in a lump 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 427 

sum was said to have been refused. After this 
sale two of the Red Roses (Renick Rose of 
Sharon) were parted with privately at $10,000. 
On Nov. 30 following Mr. Simon Beattie shipped 
for Lord Dunmore from America five heifers, 
all descended from imp. Rose of Sharon, by 
Belvedere (1706). Three of these were bred by 
Abram Renick — Minnie 4th, by old Airdrie 
(30365); Duchess 10th, by Joe Johnson, and 
Rose of Thorndale, by 8th Duke of Thorndale. 
The other two were of the Ohio branch of the 
tribe, tracing through Lady of the Lake, and 
were bred by Mr. Chauncey Hills of Delaware; 
one of them got by Mr. Hills' Imperial Star- 
light 8270 and the other by Judge Jones' Ma- 
zurka Duke of Airdrie 10478. Remarkable as 
was the Dunmore sale of Sept. 5 a still more 
sensational one was soon to follow. Messrs. 
Harward & Downing sold on Sept. 18 sixty-one 
head for £15,458, an average of £253, the three- 
year-old bull 8th Duke of Geneva going to Mr. 
Leney at £1,650, or fully $8,250 in gold, the 
highest price paid at auction for any animal of 
the breed up to that date. Mr. Downing had 
paid Mr. Sheldon of New York $4,000 for the 
bull in 1869. Col. L. G. Morris of Fordham, N. 
Y., was a buyer at this sale. The highest-priced 
female was 5th Maid of Oxford at $4,500. 

Oakland Favorite 10546 and Loudon Duke 
6th 10399.~In 1870 Mr. Charles E. Leonard of 



428 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Ravenswood Farm, Mo., had purchased from D. 
McMillan of Ohio the eight-months bull calf 
Oakland Favorite 10546, sired by Loyal Duke of 
Oakland 6977 out of Mignonette by Gen. Grant 
4825; second dam Jessie— the dam of Gen. 
Grant— by Starlight 2d 2259. He sustained the 
good reputation of the McMillan stock, prov- 
ing an extra show bull and winning for Mr. 
Leonard many first and championship prizes 
west of the Mississippi River. 

In 1872 Mr. John G. Cowan of Holt Co., 
Mo., purchased the celebrated Loudon Duke 
6th 10399, bred by Mr. Warfield and sired by 
Muscatoon 7057 out of the great show cow 
Loudon Duchess 2d by Duncan's Duke of Air- 
drie 2743. We believe this bull was once de- 
feated at Kansas City by Mr. Leonard's Oak- 
land Favorite, but his career in the Missouri, 
Kansas and Nebraska show-yards represented 
an almost unbroken line of victories. He was 
a red with straight top and bottom lines; a 
broad, deep chest; good on the fore ribs and 
through the heart; possessing smooth, well-laid 
shoulders, deep ribs, low flanks, faultless hind 
quarters and the traditional Duke of Airdrie 
neatness. He had been shown by Mr. Warfield 
with great success in Kentucky, Ohio and In- 
diana, where he had only been beaten once as 
as a yearling. Mr. Cowan paid $3,000 for him 
as a two-year-old, and his exhibition at the 



AN ERA OP EXPANSION. 429 

Western fairs served to spread the reputation 
of the Short-horns well beyond the Missouri 
River. Shown with his get he never met de- 
feat. In fact as a breeding bull he had no 
equal in the Western country in his day. His 
descendants in the Oowan herd were distin- 
guished show and breeding animals for many 
years, and one of his sons contributed much to 
the success of the late Hon. D. M. Moninger in 
his great steer-breeding operations in Iowa. 
In the hands of Mr. Richard Daniels, one of 
Nebraska's pioneer breeders,* bulls by Loudon 
Duke 6th rendered capital service,.aud one of 
his daughters, Loudon's Minnie, was a feature 
of the Short-horn exhibit at the Philadelphia 
Centennial. 

First National convention. — On Nov. 27, 
1872, the first National convention of breeders 
of Short-horns ever held in America met at In- 
dianapolis, Ind., the chairman of the commit- 

*lir. Ralph Anderson of Falls City was possibly the first breeder of 
ShorVhoms in Nebraska, but Mr. Daniels shipped, in 1867, the first speci- 
mens of the breed ever taken to the State by rail, paying: tMO per car from 
GhlcaiTO. A chute for unloading had to be specially built at Council Bluffs. 
Mr. Daniels' initial purchases, like those of most of the other Western 
breeders, were largrely of ** Scvent<jen " blood, and concerning these he 
says: *'I think they were as «rood beef cattle as I ever saw.** He also 
brought with this lot a two-year-old steer for which he paid 1100 in Michi- 
gan, keepinir him until he was six years old. when he was sold to Shirley 
Bros, of Omaha for Christmas beef at a hlgrh price. Mr. Daniels bougrht 
from Mr. Cowan the breeding bull Knight of St. Qeor^e 8473, that had been 
bred by W. B. Duncan of Illinois. He was a Phyllis, sired by Minister 
6968, and cost Mr. Daniels 11,000. Then for many years he bred from sons 
of Loudon Duke 6th. Speakingr of his experience with Shortrhorns " Uncle 
Dick,** as this veteran Nebraska breeder ia familiarly called, sajrs: **If I 
had to bevln life over again I would breed Short-horns. They always paid 
me.** 



480 A HISTOKY OF SHORT-HOEN CATTLE. 

tee that i^ued the call for this important 
meeting having been the late Hon. Claude 
Matthews of Indiana. This great mass meet- 
ing grew out of a desire on the part of those 
who were the recognized leaders in the trade 
at this date to have a higher standard of regis- 
try established for the herd book, which was at 
that time the private property of Mr. Lewis F. 
Allen. Those who had been paying long prices 
for stock of comparatively recent importation, 
or immediate descendants thereof, sought to 
cast discredit upon cattle bred from many of 
the earlier importations, and it was argued 
that inasmuch as some of the foundation stock 
in the herd book had no pedigree, and as others 
registered in the early days boasted pedigrees 
known to be of questionable character, it was 
necessary to practically treat the descendants 
of such cattle as "grades." Indeed the ques- 
tion of demanding a more rigid standard of ad- 
mission to the herd book was the prime factor 
in the calling of this convention. George W. 
Rust, through the Live-Stock Journal^ had pub- 
lished scathing denunciations of what he char- 
acterized as the inexcusable laxity of the Allen 
rules, and the fact that the "purists" had al- 
ready gone so far as to establish in Kentucky 
(under the powerful patronage of Mr. A. J. Al- 
exander and under the immediate direction of 
Maj. Humphrey Evans) a rival pedigree regis- 



AN ERA OF EXPANSION. 431 

ter known as the "American Short-horn Rec- 
ord" indicated the extent and depth of the feel- 
ing existing in respect to this matter. 

After extended debate the following resolu- 
tions bearing upon this and another mooted 
question were adopted: 

Raotoe&^ That the ancestry of the animals should be traced on 
both sides to imported animals, or to those heretofore recorded in 
the American Herd Book, with pedigrees not false or spurious, 
before they can be entitled to registry. 

RaobotAj That the person under whose direction the animals 
are coupled should be recognized as the breeder of the produce. 

Mr. Allen accepted these and the other rec- 
ommendations of the convention and agreed 
to be governed by them in the conduct of the 
herd book. 

Opposition to prevailing ^'fashions" devel- 
oped. — The era of speculation was now in 
full swing. Bell's history of Bates cattle and 
Carr's history of the Booth herds had ap- 
peared in England, and were widely read in 
America. Controversies were waged through 
the public press and at every gathering of 
breeders over the pedigrees and character of 
the great rival types. Prominent among those 
who took part in this in the States were Hon. 
T. C. Jones of Delaware, 0., and A. S. Matthews 
of Wytheville, Va., both of whom ridiculed 
many of the claims made by the partisans of 
the Bates Short-horns. Judge Jones was a 
man of strong intellect, deeply versed in Short- 



432 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HORN CATTLE. 

horn lore, and as fond of a controversy as any 
native of Erin. He was an experienced breeder, 
and for a period of nearly twenty years was one 
of the leading American writers on Short-horn 
cattle. His ability, honesty of purpose, and 
virile character commanded the respect even 
of those who differed with him in relation to 
the various controverted tenets of the Short- 
horn faith. There was a sharp tilt in England 
between Lord Dunmore and Mr. J. B. Booth, in 
the course of which the latter challenged the 
Earl to show twenty head of the Killerby Hec- 
ubas against a like number of any one tribe at 
Dunmore for $5,000 a side, to which His Lord- 
ship responded that he did not have that num- 
ber of any one tribe in his pastures. It is of 
interest at this juncture, as reflecting a feeling 
that was becoming very prevalent at this stage 
of the proceedings, to note that the National 
Live-Stock Journal in commenting upon the 
Booth-Dunmore controversy in its issue of Jan- 
uary, 1873, used the following significant lan- 
guage: 

** The Booth and Bates men asually profit by these discussions ; 
they no doubt intended that this controversy should tend, as pre- 
vious ones have, to attract public attention to those rival strains, 
until purchasers should be. persuaded that the only question for 
them to decide was which of the 'breeds,* to use the laninuige of 
Mr. Bates, should be selected. Hearing this perpetual contro- 
versy it is not strange that amateurs should be willing to pay long 
prices for a Booth or Bates pedigree, without regard to the excel- 
lence of the animal. But that practical men, who have had ex- 
perience in breeding, and especially that managers of publications 



AN ERA OP EXPANSION. 



433 



supported by the owners of Short-horns of all strains, should aid 
in Iceeping up this mania is a matter we cannot comprehend. For 
our own part we mean in the future, as in the past, to keep clear 
of this mania. While admitting, as we always have, the high ex- 
cellence of these rival stocks we shall insist that they are not 
superior in blood or in valuable characteristics to the cattle of 
other good breeders, and that those, therefore, who claim for 
them this pre-eminent superiority are misleading the public and 
unjustly depreciating the value of other Short-horns." 

This is the first time we find any public edi- 
torial condemnation of the tendency of the 
times in Short-horn breeding circles, a fact 
which indicates clearly that the rank and file 
of American Short-horn breeders were begin- 
ning to grow restive under the constant and 
usually arrogant assumptions of superiority in- 
dulged in l)y the dealers in the *' fashionable" 
strains of that day. 



CHAPTER XV. 



THE SENSATION OF- SEVENTY -THREE. 

The year 1873 dawned with the breed bask- 
ing in the sunshine of a popularity such as no 
other variety of improved live stock has ever 
enjoyed. The wealth of the cattle-breeding 
world was now ready to be poured at the feet 
of the Short-horn. Notwithstanding the inter- 
nal dissensions noted in the preceding chapter, 
agricultural history has no parallel to the en- 
thusiasm and boundless devotion displayed by 
the followers of the *'red, white and roan" 
during this and the years immediately succeed- 
ing. The beauty and practical utility of the 
breed had captivated the great landed proprie- 
tors of both hemispheres, as well as the farm- 
ers and feeders of both continents; and under 
the stimulus of a demand almost world-wide 
in its character those who had the means to 
gratify their taste for rare specimens of the 
breed were forced to measure values not so 
much by the mere intrinsic worth of individ- 
ual animals for the feed-lot or the dairy as by 
the degree of personal satisfaction flowing 

(434) 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THEEE. 435 

from the ownership of Short-horns of illustri- 
ous lineage or bearing the badge of show-yard 
superiority. 

It is true there were certain parties identi- 
fied with the trade who were engaged in pro- 
moting public interest from purely mercenary 
motives. Such individuals did what they could, 
of course, to add fuel to the fire, but it goes 
without saying that their utmost efforts would 
have been wholly unavailing but for the exist- 
ence of an abiding appreciation of the breed 
upon both sides the Atlantic, which was as pro- 
found as it was widespread and persistent. It 
therefore came to pass at this period that those 
who sought what they regarded as the most 
desirable cattle of the breed were compelled to 
pay exorbitant and finally fabulous prices; but 
the mere fact that breeders and fanciers were 
willing to follow their favorites to the amazing 
figures quoted in the following pages is in it- 
self a tribute to the fascinating character of 
the Short-horn such as no other race of domes- 
tic animals has ever yet received. 

*' Coming events cast their shadows before." 
While it was not until the autumn of 1873 that 
the pent-up enthusiasm for the Duchess blood 
was at length unchained, transactions both at 
auction and at private treaty forecasted por- 
tentous events early in the year. Trade opened 
up briskly in the West. 



436 A niSTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Spring sales 1873.— At the Parks* and Mur- 
ray sales, in April, Col. James W. Judy as auc- 
tioneer disposed of twenty-four females for 
the former at an average of $789, and thirty- 
two for Mr. Murray at an average of $848. Of 
the Glen Flora (Parks) lot Messrs. Sodowsky 
took the two imported cows Countess of Oxford 
and Henrietta at $2,000 each. D. M. Flynn of 
Des Moines, la., bought Moss Rose at $1,610, 
and A. H. & I. B. Day of Utica, la., took imp. 
Lady Brough at $1,680. Elliott & Kent of Des 

«Mesara. C. C. ft R. H. Parka were Wall street brokers, and had for* 
merly resided at Waukegran. After aoqulriner poBsesalon of the Glen Flora 
Farm they soon decided upon etockins It with pediirreed cattle, horses and 
sheep. Their attention was drawn to Sho^^homs through the herd that 
Mr. W. B. Dod^ had established at Waukeran. Their first investment was 
In 1809, when they bought five heifers, by Minister 6863. of W. R. Duncan for 
i2.(XW. They bought Lady of Racine, a daughter of Lady of Clark, famous 
in Ohio Short-horn history, from Mr. Dodge and sold her to George Murray 
for UJOM. This transaction, we believe, occurred while the parties were 
tain tendance at the McMillan sale. Messrs. Parks hired the late Mr. John 
Hope as herdsman In the spring of 1870, and bought the Torr bull imp. 
Gen. Napier from Col. King with a view toward showing at the Wisoon- 
■in State Fair and various local shows, where they met George Murray, 
Messrs. Brockway and others. Gen. Napier was a very low, thick, mellow- 
fleshed bull, and one of the very first of his get was the famous Jubilee 
Napier, sold to Mr. Pickrell. Other good ones were Miss Leslie Napier, 
that went to C. A. DeGrafI at a high price, and Qem of Bryholme, sold to S. 
W. Jacobs of Iowa. All of these made great reputations and were grand 
Individual cattle. Gen. Napier was afterward sold to Stephen Dunlap, but 
realizing their mistake Messrs. Parks bought him back. They purchased 
the entire herd of C. K. Ward of New York, beHides a number of cattle from 
Messrs. Lusk, W<id8worth, Pratt and other prominent Eastern breeders, 
nnd were for several years among the most active lu the American Short- 
horn trade. 

The Glen Flora Herd that was shown in the fall of 1872 won something 
over $2.(100 in prizes at Michigan and Wisconsin State Fairs and the district 
fairs held at Aurora and Dixon, 111. It included the bulls imp. Gen. Napier, 
imp Scotsman, imp. Baron Hubback 2d, and among the females were the 
cl.ampion cow imp. Henrietta, imp. Ruberta, imp. Lady Brough, shown as 
a two-year-old; Miss Leslie, Pattie Moore, Miss Leslie Napier, and the calf 
iM Qem of Eryholnie. This was a strong lot. admirably fitted. 



THE SENSATION OP SEVENTY-THREE. 437 

Moines secured imp. Frill at $1,050. Sodowsky 
bought imp. Scotsman 10951, of Lyndale fame, 
at $1,000. Scotsman was a roan of the Duke of 
Buccleuch's breeding, and it is of interest to 
note in passing that he was a half-brother to 
the dam of the afterward famous Duke of Rich- 
mond, so celebrated in the herd of J. H. Potts 
& Son. At the Murray sale A. B. Conger of 
New York bought the 17th Duke of Airdrie for 
$2,300, and S. W. Jacobs of West Liberty, la., 
the cow Forest Queen at $1,280. Gen. Sol 
Meredith of Indiana gave $1,325 for Valeria; 
S. W. Jacobs $1,350 for 3d Louan of Slauson- 
dale; William Stewart of Taylor, 111., $1,700 for 
2d Lady of Racine and $1,400 for Mazurka 20th, 
and G. W. Gaines of Ridge Farm $1,775 for 
Mazurka 23d. W. B. Dodge of Waukegan sold 
a lot at the same time at high prices, G. J. 
Hagerty of Ohio paying $1,010 for Elsie, and 
Elliott & Kent $1,000 for Mazurka of Wood- 
lawn. 

In May of this year Col. King sold ten head 
to William S. Chapman and J. D. Carr of Cali- 
fornia for $10,000, including the prize bull Old 
Sam 10551. 

Dunmore's big deal. — Meantime Lord Dun- 
more closed a trade with the Hon. M. H. Coch- 
rane for ten head of Bates-bred cattle for $50,- 
000. This lot included 6th Duke of Geneva, 
Duchesses 97th, 101st and 103d, one Waterloo 



438 A H18T0EY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

and five Wild Eyes. Duchess 97th at the time 
of this sale to Dunmore was at Walcott & 
Campbell's, being bred to the 2d Duke of Onei- 
da. Duchess 103d died at Hillhurst before the 
order was filled. 

Summer sales. — In July Edward lies sold 
imp. Cherub 11505 at auction at Springfield for 
16,000 to J. H. Spears of Tallula, 111.,* and at 
the same sale Gen. Meredith paid $2,000 for 
Joan of Arc, $1,650 for Royal Duchess 2d, $1,200 
for Royal Duchess 3d and $2,200 for two Louans; 
Henry Clark of Missouri $1,000 for Anna Bo- 
leyn; S. C. Duncan of same State $1,100 for 
Florence; J. H. Kissinger $1,000 for Prairie 
Blossom, and W. R. Duncan $1,000 for Baron- 
ess Bates 3d. About the same time William 
Stewart of Franklin Grove, 111., sold a lot at an 
average of $540, chiefly notable now from the 
fact that it contained the first specimen of the 
breeding of Mr. Amos Cruickshank of Sittyton, 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland, to pass through the 
sale-ring in the West since the Illinois Import- 
ing Co.'s sale of 1857, viz.: the show cow Vio- 
let's Forth, bought by J. H. Spears for $1,525. 
(ieorge Otley gave $1,000 at this sale for Dove 
6th. On June 25 J. H. Kissinger held a sale 
that aveiuged $540 on the females, the "top" of 

•Cherub was bred by Lord Sudeley of GlouceBtershire, Edit., and was 
got by Buroii Booth (2121*2). sire of imp. Baron Booth of Lancaater, out of 
Seraphln» I3th by John o' Gauut (IG322). He was Imported by Cochrane, 
who sold hlni to lies. 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 439 

which was Illustrious 3d at $2,050 to T. W. 
Garrard of Missouri. This was one of the best 
cows of her time — a red-roan, bred by James 
N. Brown's Sons and sired by the Roan Duch- 
ess bull Gallant Duke 6749 from a cow descend- 
ing from imp. Illustrious by Emperor. She was 
five years old at the time of this sale. J. H. 
Spears bought the Pomona show cow Phoebe 
Taylor for $1,500 and Mr. Pickrell the red 
Beauty by De Vaux cow Farina 2d, also a 
noted prize-taker, at the same figure. The 
Daisy (by Wild) show bull Duke of Airdrie 
9800 went to H. Clark of Missouri at $1,000. 
At Dr. A. C. Stevenson's sale at Green castle, 
Ind., Aug. 13, $1,000 was paid by J. Bridges, 
Bainbridge, Ind., for Stevenson's 28th and 
$1,100 by same party for Stevenson's 37th. 
At R. R. Seymour's sale at Chillicothe, 0., a 
half-interest in 3d Duke of Oneida sold for 
$3,300 to John Montgomery, Licking, 0. At 
R. H. Prewitt's sale at Pine Grove, Ky., July 
31, Gen. Meredith gave $2,800 for the Booth 
bull imp. Forest Napier 11973. At Winches- 
ter, Ky., Aug. 1, at a sale conducted by Capt. 
P. C. Kidd for the estate of Lewis Hampton, 
$3,300 was paid by B. B. Groom for Mazurka 
Belle and $3,150 by same party for Lady Paw- 
lett. At the same sale Geneva Lad 10129 went 
to A. H. Hampton at $1,850, the cow Mazurka 
Belle 2d to Hon. T. J. Megibben at $2,050, 



440 A HISTORY OP RHORT-nORN CATTLE. 

Annie Laura to S. F. Lockridge, Greencastle, 
Ind., for $1,000, the bull Mazurka Lad 15928 to 
J. V. Grigsby at $1,400, and the bull Mazurka 
Duke 2d 15927 to Mr. W. Voorhies of Illinois at 
$1,225. Abram Van Meter sold at Winchester, 
Ky., Aug. 2 and received $2,000 from R. H. 
Prewitt for Forest Queen, $1,010 from John 
(Jrigsby for Forest Beauty and $1,000 from the 
same buyer for May Cadenza. On. Aug. 5 
George M. Bedford made an average of $849 on 
twenty-seven females, receiving for 5th Duch- 
ess Louan $3,575, for 23d Duchess of Goodness 
$2,950, for 22d of same name $1,000, for the 
21st $1,025— all to local buyers — and for 9th 
Duke of Goodness 11736 $4,500 from Strawn & 
Lewis of Ottawa, 111. At James Hall's sale at 
Paris, Ky., Aug. 6, S. F. Lockridge gave $1,060 
for Sarah Rice 5th. At Silver Lake, Kan., on 
Aug. 20 the State Agricultural College paid 
Andrew Wilson $1,050 and $900 respectively 
for a pair of Young Marys — Grace Youngs 4th 
and 5th. 

While these sales serve to indicate the pre- 
vailing furor as evidenced around the auction 
block, leading breeders were making important 
private transfers. Leney took to England from 
New York Mills 10th Maid of Oxford and 6th 
Duke of Oneida. A. J. Alexander sold 15th 
Duchess of Airdrie for export to Cheney at 
$10,000! J. H. Pickrell while attending the 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 441 

Kentucky sales bought the famous Booth bull 
Breastplate 11195 from Prewitt for $6,250. 
George Murray bought 11th Duke of Geneva 
9843 from George M. Bedford at a reported 
price of $10,000. The bull had been bought by 
Mr. Bedford at Hughes & Richardson's sale of 
1872 for $6,000. Richard Gibson exported a 
half-dozen females of the Frantic or Fletcher 
Bell-Bates sort, a Kirklevington cow and two 
Princesses, and sent word back from England 
that at Cheney's sale the 9th Duke of Geneva's 
heifers averaged over $2,000 each! The pot 
was boiling furiously on both sides the Atlantic 
and — then came the deluge. 

New York Mills dispersion. — Hon. Samuel 
Campbell, after acquiring the interest of his 
partner (Mr. Walcott) in the Duchesses and 
other Short-horns at New York Mills, was now 
ready for the coup toward which the events 
detailed in the foregoing pages had all been 
tending, to-wit.: the closing-out of the entire 
herd at auction. The 10th of September, 1873, 
was the day set for the event. John R. Page, 
Sennett, N. Y., was engaged as auctioneer and 
Mr. Carr of England was asked to write up the 
herd on the other side the water for a consid- 
eration of 1| per cent of the gross receipts. 
H. Strafford, the celebrated English auctioneer 
and editor of the English Herd Book, was cor- 
responded with. He wa>s to sell the Duchesses 



442 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

for a fee of 1,000 guineas! He publisned a sale 
catalogue of the Duchesses and Oxfords. Page 
announced: *'I have the sale and shall be 
pleased to see Mr. Strafford and have his as- 
sistance, but he will sell what I choose to as- 
sign him. I am the auctioneer." The Can- 
episode led to a long and heated newspaper 
controversy, in the course of which BelFs Mes- 
senger of London said: "The words quoted by 
Mr. Carr mean that when he offered to Mr. 
Campbell as a salable commodity his influence 
with British Short-horn buyers and Mr. Camp- 
hell agreed to accept it at a price both Mr. 
Campbell and Mr. Carr (on their own showing) 
were guilty of disgraceful traffic in public con- 
fidence." All of which served as capital adver- 
tising. 

There were now no Duchesses living on 
either side the Atlantic descended direct from 
Mr. Bates' herd, without admixture of blood 
from other sources, save those at New York 
Mills, and they were all derived from Duchess 
66th.* Just why this should have made the 
Mills cattle so much more precious than their 

*The leadlnflT outcroBses on the Ducbeases came throuffb M Duke of 
Athol (11376) into the Duchesses of Airdrie, through Usiirer (8768) into the 
English Duchesses, through Imperial Oxford 4905, Prince Imperial (IflOBG) 
and 2d Duke of Bolton (12730) into the Grand Duchesses, and through Grand 
Turk (12969) Into some of the Dukes of Thorndale. Outcrosses put upon the 
Oxfords included Romeo (13619) and his sons Oxford Lad 4220 and Imperial 
Oxford 4905; MarQuis of Carrabas (11789), bred by Fawkes, and Lamartine 
(ll(i62), bred by J. M. Sherwood. Imperial Duke (18088). that was half-Duch- 
ess and half-Knightley, had also beeu introduced into some of the Duchess 
and Oxford pedigrees. 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 443 

distinguished relatives is not apparent at this 
time, especially in view of the freedom with 
which Mr. Bates had outcrossed the family 
during his lifetime, except upon the hypoth- 
esis that all skill and judgment in mating cat- 
tle perished with the founder of the tribe. As 
a matter of fact evidence was not wanting that 
this very element of "purity" carried with it 
the seeds of danger. At the time Gibson sev- 
ered his connection with the herd* it was of 
high average merit, but it had been culled 
freely and handled with consummate judg- 

* Richard Gibson, speaklnfl: of the sale, saya: "The Question of the 
hour was not what the BTera^ would bo but what would a Duchess brinir? 
Some were sanguine enough to place the flirure at 190,000. In the momin^ 
the tension was somelhinff terrific, and aa the time to commence drew near 
little coteries were befflnnin^ to bunch together, Kentucky's tall sons to 
the northwest of the ring^, the Enirllsh visitors on the southwest, while the 
others were promiscuously seated in the stand. Eello, the incomprehen- 
sible, was alone away from all the rest, fearful to mix with these dreaded 
Yankees lest they should steal not his purse but his thoughts and inten- 
tions. Dnring the forenoon W. R. Duncan had approached Mr. Campbell, 
saying: * I apprehend, sir, you are aware that Mr. Page can*t sell this 
bunch of cattle In one day.' 

*'Mr. Campbell posted oil to Page and said: *I hope you will not at- 
tempt to sell all these cattle in one day/ 'I shall,' replied Page. *Then, 
air, I shall consider that you are sacrificing my property,* was Campbell's 
rejoinder. * May I take the bids as fast as they come7 ' asked the auction- 
eer. 

** On a waterincr trough in the center of a ring Mr. Page took his stand. 
The proverbial pin could have been heard to drop. The excitement at this 
moment was intense: not noisy or boisterous, but for two or three days 
the tension had gradually been Increasing. There was the keenest anxiety 
as to what the Englishmen were after, and a determination to prevent them 
tnm. taking all the beat. Mr. Page gauged the feeling of his company. 
They had not come, some of them over three thousand miles, to hear a lot 
of Cheap John spread-«aglei8m, but for business. He said: 'Gentlemen, 
please give me your attention and I will read the conditions of this sale.' 
The Sd Duke of Oneida was brought into the ring while he was readincr 
ttiem« *Will anyone make me an oiler on the bull?' were the opening 
words. *Ten thousand dollars,' came the answer from the Kentuclslans, 
and so the sale beffan." 



444 A HISTORY OF SHOET-HORN CATTLE. 

ment. The desire to possess the "pure" blood, 
regardless of all other considerations, had taken 
firm hold upon those who considered that the 
Duchesses as Bates had left them constituted 
the creme de la creme of the Short-horn breed. 
The National pride of the English breeders was 
appealed to with success. America had taken 
from the mother-land what many of the Britons 
esteemed as the highest single source of Short- 
horn excellence. Hence they came to New 
York Mills prepared to heap their golden guin- 
eas high against American dollars. History 
has long since characterized this as a day of 
monumental folly, but as the event stands out 
in bold relief as the crowning sensation of the 
centuiy in the realm of stock-breeding it there- 
fore demands adequate record in these pages. 
Some idea of the nature of the scene may be 
gleaned from the following notes made by an 
eye witness — the late George W. Rust, whose 
library and manuscripts were acquired by pur- 
chase by the author many years ago: 

The Duchesses of course formed the attractive feature of this 
sale ; and in the lobbies at the hotels, which were thronged with 
breeders from all parts of this country, and a liberal representa» 
tion of English breeders, speculation was rife as to the prices 
which would be realized. It was rumored that the Englishmen 
(with the exception of Mr. Kello, who represented Mr. R. Pavin 
Ehivies, with whom the other English gentlemen refused to eniier 
into any arrangement) had a private understanding as to which 
animal each person would bid upon, the others agreeing not to 
compete with their countrymen in these cases, and that Earl Bco- 
tive's representative had brought £13,000 (about 170.000) with 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 445 

him, and it began to be whispered that some of the females would 
bring as high as $16,000 each. This seemed Ifke a fabulous price, 
however ; and as every one took great pains to conceal his own in- 
tentions there were many persons loth to believe that this much 
was to be paid, and the probability of $15,000 being paid for a 
single animal on the morrow was the staple subject of discussion 
as long as the lobbies contained any people. Gradually they 
thinned out, and soon after midnight they were entirely deserted 
and Short-horns and Duchesses passed out of mind, save as the 
anxious ones painted and pictured them in their dreams. With 
the earliest streak of dawn the hotel lobbies began to All, and the 
probable events of the day engaged the attention of alL Before 
the breakfast hour had passed it was evident something new and 
startling had been discovered ; and soon it was whispered that a 
delegation from Clark Co., Ky., was present with 100,000, which 
had been raised for the purchase of three females, and the proba- 
bility of $20,000 being paid formed the subject of eager discussion. 
The sum seemed so enormous, however, that few believed' it, al- 
though the minds of all were in a measure prepared for such an 
event. 

By 10 o'clock the hotels were deserted and the crowds had 
transferred themselves to the Mills, where they thronged the 
stables or gathered in excited groups about the ample grounds. 
At 1 o'clock Mr. Page announced the sale. Those in attendance 
had gathered upon the stand with the seats ranged one above an- 
other, and the reporters and clerks sharpened their pencils at the 
tables. The first animal led into the ring was the 

2d Duke of Oneida, a deep red, calved Aug. 8, 1870, got by 4th 
Duke of Geneva 7981 out of 18th Duchess of Thomdale by lOtli 
Duke of Thomdale (28458). Mr. Alexander of Kentucky wanted 
him, as did Mr. T. J. Megibben of the same State, and negotiations 
had been pending between them all the morning looking to the 
transfer to Mr. Megibben of Mr. Alexander's Duke of Alrdrie, 
which, if they had proved successful, would have taken Mr. 
Megibben out of the competition and brought Mr. Alexander in. 
These negotiations, however, were not successful, in consequeiice 
of the price demanded by Mr. Alexander ; and making a final un- 
successful efTort to reconcile their diiferences, while the auc- 
tioneer was making his preliminary remarks, Mr. Megibben 
started the bull at $10,000. The English gentlemen were gath- 
ered in a little knot at the left of the auctioneer and wanted 
the bull also, and the opening bid fell among them like a bomb, 
shell and gave them the first intimation of the character and 



446 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

nerve of the gentlemen who were to contest with them the 
honors of the day. **£leyen thousand dollars" was said by one 
of them in an agitated voice, so uncertain and tremulous that 
Mr. Page for the moment was uncertain whether the bidder 
meant it or not, and then their heads were laid together in anx- 
ious consultation. A number of Kentucklans also gathered around 
Mr. Megibben, and on both sides of the ring there was a group of 
anxious faces. With those around him Mr. Megibben made a 
private arrangement for the service of the bull in case he fell to 
him, and to carry him (as we afterward learned) past $17,000 be- 
fore surrendering him. As the group of Kentucklans separated 
Mr. Megibben raised the bid to 112,000, and still the Englishmen 
consulted. It was evident they wanted the buU ; but the fenukles 
were more valuable, aod they were of the opinion that if they ad- 
vanced the price of him to the point to which the Kentucklans 
were prepared to go the price of the females might be correspond- 
ingly advanced, and perhaps put altogether beyond their reach. 
Their minds were quickly made up on this point, and the 2d Duke 
of Oneida was knocked oif to Mr. Megibben at fl2,000, the highest 
price ever paid to that moment for a Short-horn. Then the cheers 
rose, peal on peal, and the more distant seats of the stand were 
deserted and their occupants gathered closer to the scene and 
clustered like bees around the auctioneer. 

1st Duchess of Oneida was then led in. She was a red-and- 
white, calved Jan. 24, 1870, got by 10th Duke of Thomdale (28458) 
out of 8th Duchess of Geneva by 8d Lord of Oxford (22200), and in 
Ciilf since Dec. 10 to 2d Duke of Oneida. The Clark Co. (Ky.) oom- 
J)loation started her at once at $15,000, which Lord Skelmersdale 
of England raised at once to $80,000, shutting out a bid of $25,000 
proffered by Mr. George Murray of Racine, Wis. His Lordship 
was evidently informed that the Clark County gentlemen had 
brought $60,000 for the purpose of buying three, and his bid called 
upon them to place the half of it on the head of a single animal. 
This took them by surprise, and to gain a moment's time for re- 
flection they interposed an additional bid of $100, upon which his 
Lordship promptly placed another $100. The Kentucklans con- 
cluded to follow her no further, and then Mr. Kello, the represen- 
tative of Mr. Da vies of England, advanced the $200 bid to $900, 
which Lord S. promptly made $400. Mr. Kello and Mr. Brodhead 
(the representative of Mr. Alexander), who was quietly smoking 
in the rear of the English party, which by this time had gathered 
inside the fence, bid $500 simultaneously, and $30,600 was his Lord- 
ship's response. All were now done and she was quickly knocked 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 447 

off to him on this bid. Consideiinrr her age and that she is almost 
at the calving she was one of the best bargains of all the Duch- 
esses. Thirty thousand dollars ! it seemed incredible, and for a 
few moments none could realize it; but in a short time it seemed 
to break upon the minds of aU and such a scene of excitement was 
never witnessed before. Men shouted themselves hoarse and hats 
were waved and flung wildly into the air on all sides, and several 
minutes elapsed before order could be restored and the ring 
cleared for the entrance of her calf, the 

7th Duchess of Oneida, a red-and-white, calved Aug. 1, 1872, by 
8d Duke of Oneida 0996 out of 1st Duchess of Oneida by 10th Duke 
of Thomdale (28458). The audience began to feel the reaction 
which follows every unusual excitement and to repent of such ex- 
treme figures. She was led around the ring and not a bid ; the 
contestants eyeing each other from all sides, as if striving to 
master each other's intentions. Finally Col. King started her at 
t6,000 and the ball opened— f7,000, 18,000 by two, 110,000 by two, 
911,000 by two, $12,000 by two, followed in such rapid snocession 
that it was impossible to see from whom the bids came. * 'Twelve 
thousand five hundred makes it my bid," came from Mr. Brod- 
head, which the r^nglishmen in his front promptly raised to 918,- 
000. From the further side of the ring Mr. E. G. Bedford of Ken- 
tucky interposed another 1500, which the Englishmen made 914,- 
000, only to elicit an additional 9500 when it came to Mr. Brod- 
head's turn. Mr. Bedford, who had crowded to the front, now 
saw between whom the competition lay and shook his head, as a 
token that he would not interfere, and 9500 bids followed until 
the calf was declared the property of Mr. Alexander at 919,000. 
The audience, who began to fear from the sale of the dam that 
the English gentlemen were determined to have them all, greeted 
Mr. Brodhead's victory with the most rapturous applause. The 
next animal to come under Mr. Page's hammer was the 

10th Duchess of Geneva, a roan, calved May 15, 1867, got by 2d 
Duke of Geneva (2S752) out of 5th Duchess of Geneva by Grand 
Duke of Oxford (16184), in calf since March 80 by 2d Duke of 
Oneida. Ck>l. Morris of New York led off with 95,000, which Col. 
King of Minnesota raised to 910,000. Mr. KeUo advanced the fig- 
ure to 915,000 for Mr. Da vies, and Mr. Berwick for Ekirl Bective 
made it 920,000, when it was very evident there was to be such a 
trial of nerve as had not before been witnessed. One of the Ken- 
tuckians bid 925.000, and Col. King added another 91,000, which 
Mr. Berwick lost no time in advancing to 980,000. This bid Mr. 
Brodhead advanced 9100, when Mr. Berwick declared, **I am 



448 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

done," and started to leave the ring. His English friends, how- 
ever, rallied him, and he exclaimed in an excited manner, ''Thirty 
thousand dollars I how much is that in sterling?'* One of them 
pushed him again to the front, exclaiming, ''Buy her, and count it 
afterward 1" but not until Mr. Kello had taken advantage of his 
excitement to raise the price to 180,500. Mr. Berwick returned 
with $81,000, Mr KeUo with $100, which Mr. Berwick raised to 
$600. with no other efTect than to bring from his opponent a bid of 
$82,000. Mr. Berwick seemed to be nettled by Mr. KeUo's undis- 
turbed manner and added another $1,000, making $88,000; and Mr. 
Kello, not at all dashed, added $600 more without delay, and then . 
Mr. Berwick advanced it to $84,000; *<and $600," was Mr. KeUo's 
response. Mr. Berwick put on enough to make $35,000, and Mr. 
Kello's flag and the auctioneer's hammer came down. The Amer- 
icans, who had not made a bid after the $36,000 and were aware 
that Mr. Kello hod not been permitted to become a member of the 
ELiglish party, watched this contest between the two English in- 
terests with no little concern ; and his opponents, althou^ evi- 
dently feeling tbey had paid dear for the victory, were in high 
glee that they had won it. Of course the price, $85,000, would 
never be equaled again, and the audience gave itself up once more 
to various expressions of astonishment. The entrance to the ring 
of the 

8th Duchess of Oneida served to restore order. Another roan 
she proved to be, calved Nov. 18, 1872, got by the 4th Duke of 
Geneva 7931 out of 10th Duchess of Geneva by 2d Duke of Geneva 
(28752). She was started at $5,000 and advanced rapidly to $14,- 
000. Between this and $15,000 the bids were quick but small, but 
she finally passed this point, and was sold to Mr. Berwick for 
Earl Bective at $15,300. Then came the 

18th Duchess of Thorndale, red, calved Feb. 25, 1867, got by 
10th Duke of Thorndale (28458) out of 10th Duchess of Thorndale 
by 2d Grand Duke (12961), served July 8 by 4th Duke of Oneida. 
She, too, was started at $6,000 by 0>1. Morris, which was doubled 
by Col. King. Mr A. B. Ck>nger of New York added another 
$1,000, and $1,000 bids followed quickly until she was declared to 
be the property of Mr. 0>nger at $15,000. Then came the 

4th Duchess of Oneida, red, calved Jan. 17, 1872, got by 4th 
Duke of Geneva 7931 out of 13th Duchess of Thorndale by 10th 
Duke of Thorndale (28458) . She was started by the English party 
and ran up in two or three bids to $10,000, and a few $600 bids sent 
her up to $13,000, which several gentlemen raised to $18,600, and 
Mr. George Murray made it $14,000 to prevent dispute. Mr. Brod- 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 449 

head then signified his willingness to contend for her by advano- 
ing her 1600 more, and Mr. E. G. Bedford advanced the figure to 
$15,000; and here it seemed as if the battle was over, for Mr. 
Brodhead came back with only $100. Mr. Bedford responded 
with another $100, Mr. Brodhead made it $800. At this point Mr. 
Holford of England, considering the Amencans had about got 
through, entered the. lists with a $900 bid, and she stood at $16,- 
600. Mr. Brodhead greeted his new competitor with an addi- 
tional $600 bid. to which the Englishman responded with a $1,000, 
making it $17,000. Mr. Brodhead promptly interposed another 
$100, and the Englishman, adopting the same tactics, bid $100 
more, and she climbed up slowly, $100 at a time, until Mr. Brod- 
head had bid $17,600, when Mr. Holford, as if hoping to shake off 
the Kentuckian, bid sharply $18,000. And to show that he could 
not be bluffed by that game Mr. Brodhead added promptly an- 
other $1,000. From $19,000 to $21,000 the bids were $100 each in 
most cases, and when that point was reached Mr. Holford, seeing 
the Kentuckian was in no measure disturbed, dropped out of the 
contest, and Mr. E. G. Bedford came forward, just as she was 
about to be knocked off, with a $600 bid, Mr. Brodhead respond- 
ing with a similar amount, and $600 more was bid by Mr. Megib- 
ben, the gentleman who had purchased the bull, and Mr. Brod- 
head made it $28,000, and, with $600 jumi)s, she advanced to $35,- 
000, as Mr. Bedford*s bid. Mr. Brodhead then discovering that 
it was one of his Kentucky neighbors who was bidding against 
him declined to go farther, and she was knocked off at $25,000 to 
Messrs. E. G. Bedford and T. J. Megibben of Kentucky. The an- 
nouncement that she was to remain in this country again made 
the audience extremely demonstrative, but when the 

8th Duchess of Geneva was led into the ring a tolerable degree 
of silence and order was restored. She proved to be a red-and- 
white, calved July 28, 1806; got by the 8d Lord of Oxford (22200) 
out of the 1st Duchess of Greneva by 2d Grand Duke (12961) ; 
served June 1 by 2d Duke of Oneida. Being seven years old and 
over, and having produced nearly the full complement of calves 
which this family of cows produce in this country, it was not ex- 
pected that she would sell so well as some of the others, and Mr. 
Kello doubtless expected to get her on the first bid, when he 
placed $10,000 on her bead. But the other English gentlemen had 
agreed among themselves that Mr. Kello should not have a Duch- 
ess, and they raised him at one jump to $15,000 and the audience 
were at once overcome by the excitement. $16,000 and $17,000 
were bid from the stand, and then $20,000 by two, one of them 
29 



460 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

being Mr. Kello, and some one of the English party made it I06,- 
000. Mr. Kello made it 996,000, and his opponents $90,000. Blr. 
Kello added tl,000 more, and his bid was promptly raised to $S2,- 
000. Then tSS,000 came from the stand (from either Ool. King, 
Col. Morris, Mr. Murray, or G. M. Bedford), and was the highest 
American bid, and Mr. Kello raised that to 184,000, when the 
other Elnglishmen made it 186,000. Mr. Kello hesitated, but re- 
membering his unsuccessful contest for the 10th Duchess of Ge- 
neva, and that his countrymen had combined to rule him out 
altogether from this much-coyeted family, he determined to take 
Liord Skelmersdale's advice to Mr. Berwick and **btcy her," and 
added 9600, which brought 187,000 from his opponents. ** Tkirtih 
eight ehouioful,** said Mr. Kello. Evidently thinking that one more 
bold push would crowd Kello from the course one of them bid 
f(nty thousand doOars I For a moment Mr. Kello faltered, but finally 
added 9100. Here she seemed likely to go, but Mr. Berwick added 
$100 more. *' Forty thouBand three hundred doUany just in time, from 
Mr. Kello." The ezcHement was now so Intense that every indi- 
vidual in that vast throng seemed to hold Jiis breath ; the silence 
was absolutely oppresHve, and broken only by the words of the 
auctioneer as he slowly repeated: " Forty— thousand— three- 
hundred — dollars — Are — you — all — done —gentlemen? " JJo/Uy 
Simon Beat tie, with an English order in his pocket and Mr. Coch- 
rane at his back, ventured another 9100. "Forty thouaand four 
hundred; are you all done gentlemen? " were the measured words 
which alone broke the deathly silence. Reluctant to go farther, 
still more reluctant to yield, Mr. Kello stood like a statue, while 
every eye was resting upon him, and finally added 960 more. 
^^FHve /lufidred," said Berwick, in a sharp, impatient tone, as if 
auziqus to end in some way the terrible suspense. ** Forty Cftou- 
Band five hundred dnUars; are you all done? Once I Twice I Six 
hundred, and in time," and she was knocked off to Mr. Kello for R. 
Pavin Davies of England. One long breath, and then the cheers 
went up, and the thousands- there seemed fairly beside- them- 
selves, and the extravagant things which were said and done 
would fill a volume. A few minutes were given to allow people 
to recover their senses, and then the 

10th Duchess of Oneida was led in— a last spring's calf (dropped 
in April), red-and- white, by the 2d Duke of Oneida out of 8th 
Duchess of Geneva by 8d Lord Oxford (22200) . Before order was 
restored Col. Morris of New York started her at 96,000. Col. King 
of Minnesota, who sat beside him, made it 910,000; 911,000 and 912,- 
000 were bid, when George M. Bedford of Kentucky from the seat 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 451 

behind put her at $16,000. Mr. Richard Gibson, who had hurried 
home from England to attend this sale with an order in his pocket, 
added 13,000 more, and then Mr. Brodhead, who desired hor to 
grace the blue grass at Woodburn, placed her at 118,000, and Mr. 
Gibson put her at once to $20,000. But this was a game at which 
two could play, and Mr. Brodhead advanced the figure to $22,000, 
and Mr. Gibson went $2,000 better still. Twenty-five thousand, 
even money, seemed a point hard to pass, and Mr. Brodhead, evi- 
dently thinking Mr. Gibson would not get over that limit, made 
the bid. Mr. Gibson, however, had another thousand, and Mr. 
Brodhead was compelled to pay $27,000 before he secured her. 
The OQntest was a short one, and the announcement that the Eng- 
lishmen had again failed to capture a Duchess provoked the wild- 
est enthujsiasm. The 

9th Duchess of Oneida, another calf of the present year 
(dropped March 2), was next led in. She proved to be a roan by 
9d Duke of Oneida 9926 out of 12th Duchess of Thorndale by 6th 
Duke of Thorndale (2S794). She had two outcrosses in her pedi- 
gree, the Bomeo through the 6th Duke of Thorndale, and the Im- 
perial Duke through her second daiu, and foi; that reason perhaps, 
and because of the natural reaction from the previous excitement, 
did not attract so much attention. She was started at $5,000 by 
CoL King of Minnesota and knocked off to Mr. Berwick for Ekiri 
Bective on the next bid— $10,000. She was followed by the 

12th Duchess of Thorndale, roan, calved Oct. IS, 1866, by 6tb 
Duke of Thorndale (28794) out of 5th Duchess of Thorndale by Im- 
perial Duke (18068), in calf since April 17 by 2d Duke of Oneida. 
She had the Romeo and Imperial Duke crosses in her pedigree, 
and besides was eight years old and her prime as a breeder about 
passed, and for this reason the first bid was but $500. This was 
too cheap, however, and there was considerable competition lor 
her developed, and finally at $5,700 she was knocked off to A. B. 
Conger of New York. As she was led out there was led in the 

8d Duchess of Oneida, roan, calved March 19, 1871, by 4th Duke 
of Geneva 7981 out of 8th Duchess of Thorndale by Sd Duke of 
Airdrie (28717), through which she gets the Lord George outcross, 
served July 8d by 4th Duke of Oneida. She was started at $5,000 
by Mr. Duncan of Illinois, which was promptly doubled by Col. 
Morris of New York. Mr. Duncan added $2,000, Col. King $1,000. 
G. M Bedford $600, and Mr. Murray of Racine bid $14,000. Then 
Mr. Berwick of England bid $16,000, to which Mr. Brodhead added 
$100. Mr. Holfordof England then appeared as a competitor, and 
finally secured her at $15,600. 



452 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

SUMMARY OP HIGHEST PRICES AND AVERAOBS. 

8th Duchess of Geneva— R. Pavin Davies, England $40,600 

10th Duchess of Geneva— Earl Bective, Ehigland 36,000 

1st Duchess of Oneida— Lord Skelmersdale, E^ngland 90,600 

10th Duchess of Oneida— A. J. Alexander, Kentucky 27,000 

4th Duchess of Oneida— E. G. Bedford and T. J. Megibben, 

Kentucky 25,000 

7th Duchess of Oneida— A. J. Alexander 19,000 

8d Duchess of Oneida— T. Holford, England 15,600 

8th Duchess of Oneida— Earl Bective 15,300 

18th Duchess of Thomdale— A. B. Conger, New York ...... 15,000 

9th Duchess of Oneida— Earl Bective 10,000 

12th Duchess of Thomdale— A. B. Conger 5,700 

2d Duke of Oneida— T. J. Megibben, Kentucky 12,000 

4th Duke of Oneida— Ezra Cornell, New York 7,600 

7th Duke of Oneida— A. W. Griswold, Vermont 4,000 

11 females* sold for 1238,800; an average of 121,709 

8 bulls sold for 23,600; an average of 7,866 

14 Duchesses sold for ... . 262,400; an average of 18,742 

Countess of Oxford— A. B. Conger $9,100 

12th Lady of Oxford— T. Holford 7,000 

2dMaidof Oxford— A. W. Griswold 6,000 

12th Maid of Oxford— Col. L. G. Morris, New York 6,000 

10th Earl of Oxford— A. B. Cornell, New York 2,500 

2d Countess of Oxford— A. W. Griswold 2,100 

6th Lord of Oxford— Simon Beattie 1 ,300 

8d Maid of Oxford— Warnock & Megibben 1,000 

6 f emalest sold f or $81,200; an average of $5,200 

2 bulls sold for 3,800 ; an average of 1,900 

8 Oxfords sold for 85,000; an average of 4,375 

Lady Knightley 8d-Col. L. G. MorHs $6,000 

Lady Knightley 4th— A. W. Griswold 4,000 

Lady Knightley 2d— E. K. Thomas, Kentucky 3.100 

Lady Bates 4th— E. G. Bedford 8,260 

Lady Bates 6th— George M. Bedford 2,800 

Lady Bates 7th— A. B. Cornell 1,600 

Lady Worcester 5th (Wild Eyes)— T. Holford 8,100 



•This is exclusive of the 8th Duchess of Thomdale. that was sold as 
biirroii to C. F. Wadsworth of New York at $150. 

t Exclusive of 7th Lady of Oxford, sold as doubtful breeder to Esra 
Coruekl at |4UU 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THEBE. 453 

Lady Worcester 4th (WUd Eyes)— T. Holford 8,000 

Atlantic Gwynne— Lord Skelmersdale 2,000 

Miss Gwynne— Col. WUliam S. King 1,700 

Brenda (Bloom)— Col. L. G. Morris 2,600 

Berlinda (Bloom)— Col. L. G. Morris 2,800 

Bloom 4th (Bloom)— A. B. ComeU 1,000 

Beauty's Pride (Foggathorpe)— A. W. Griswold 1,726 

Baron Oxford's Beauty (Foggathorpe)— Bush & Hampton, 

Kentucky 1,600 

Cherry Constance 2d— T. J. Meglbbeir 1,725 

Cherry Constance— Col. King 1,100 

Peri 4th-Col. King 1,700 

PeH 5th— Col. King 1,800 

Moselle (Mazurka)— A. W. Griswold 1,425 

Rosamond 10th— W. R. Duncan, Illinois 2,060 

Victoria 7th— A. W. Griswold 1,625 

Water Lily— Bush & Hampton J ,126 

Roan Duchess 8d— George M. Bedford 1,(^^5 

22 females sold for $360,775; an average of . 93,813 

17bulls60ld for 31,215; anavcrageof 1,836 

100 animals sold for 881,990; an average of 8,604 

Kello's mistake.— After the sale it developed 
that the agent of Mr. Davies had made an error 
in estimating American currency while bidding 
the 8th Duchess of Geneva up to $40,600. Da- 
vies, while not disavowing his agent's act, 
cabled Mr. Campbell to resell the cow and he 
would adjust the difference between such price 
as might be received and the price bid by Kello. 
Campbell wrote to Col. L. G. Morris stating the 
facts and asked him to make an offer on the 
cow. Morris replied that he was willing to 
take her at the price made by her daughter at 
the sale, viz.: $30,600, and the ofEer was ac- 
cepted. Meantime Davies was forming a syn- 
dicate in England to take the cow at the $40,- 



464 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

600 bid, and finally cabled: "Don't sell the cow. 
Have arranged to take her." This ainved too 
late, however, as the trade with Col. Morris had 
been closed. The cow, being forward in calf, 
was left at Mr. Campbell's farm until parturi- 
tion should take place. A few days before her 
time she dropped a fully-developed dead heifer 
calf, and soon thereafter the cow hei'self died, 
all efforts to save her proving fruitless.* Mr. 
Davies then sent a bill of exchange for $5,000 
to Mr. Campbell, which was handed over to 
Col. Moms, thus alleviating to that extent his 
lamentable loss. Morris had no thought of 
buying a Duchess before the sale, but as the 
bidding progressed and the "plums" seemed 
falling steadily to the English party, Samuel 
Thorne remarked to Col. Morris: "It is a pity 
there is no American Gunter here." This was 
an allusion to the first contest for the posses- 
sion of the Duchesses at the Tortworth sale in 
England in 1853, as noted on page 242. Upon 
that occasion Gunter had driven out to Earl 
Ducie's without the slightest idea of becoming 
a bidder, but in response to an appeal to the 
^* patriotism " of the large crowd of Englishmen 
present to prevent the capture of the tribe 
bodily by the Americans he entered the lists. 

*It has been said by those familiar with the facts that the 8th Duchese 
was literally clone to her death by an i^rnorant Irish employe of Mr. Camp- 
beir». She developed at parturition a case of false presentation, with 
which she wrestled for thirty-six hours, while the poor beast wa9 driven 



THE SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THREE. 455 

Sources of deterioration. — England was 
more fortunate than America in her Duchess 
investments; or it may be nearer the truth 
to say that in the hands of English herds- 
men the cattle were handled with better judg- 
ment. The English purchases were shipped 
late in the autumn of 1873. Along with the 
Campbell cattle went five Princesses, bought 
for account of E. H. Cheney. The $35,000 10th 
Duchess of Geneva produced in the hands of 
Earl Bective the bull Duke of Underley (33745), 
that became a sire of great renown. The Duch- 
esses that remained in America failed to meet 
the expectations of their buyers, and through 
deaths and failures to breed the line became 
extinct on this side the Atlantic within ten 
years. That incestuous or long-continued close 
breeding tends to impairment of vigor and in- 
fertility does not admit of doubt. The Sheldon 
Duchesses certainly had not proved, as a rule, 
either fruitful or long-lived in Mr. Campbell's 
hands. That fact is shown by the compara- 
tively small number of females in the herd at 
the time of the dispersion. Six of the twelve 
bought in 1869 and 1870 had disappeared be- 
up and down the road during her distreas "to make her calve alayl'* It ia 
alao related that one of Mr. Alexander'a purchaaea waa driven to A. Ben- 
ick'a by a colored hand on horaeback, to be bred to the 4th Duke of Geneva. 
At New York Milla the Ducheaa would have ridden and her attendant 
walked. Thla cow arrived at Renick'a overcome by the heat, waa turned 
cut in paature, and a thunder-ahower at nigrht completed the Job. Com. 
mentlnff upon thla incident and contraatlncr It with the treatment given to 
hla peta at their York State home Glbaon remarka: "The nig-ger lived." 



466 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

fore the sale of 1873, leaving no offspring in 
the herd. It has been commonly claimed that 
tuberculosis was the cause of this and the sub- 
sequent mortality and lack of fecundity, but it 
has, perhaps, not been generally known that 
every cow and calf at New York Mills had 
contracted from the English importation of 
1870 one of the most aggravating of all bovine 
plagues, foot-and-mouth disease, which scourge 
during the years 1867 and 1868 had so sorely 
tried the courage of Mr. Booth ia.nd others in 
Great Britain. The only two beasts upon the 
farm that escaped attack were the bulls 4th 
Duke of Geneva and Royal Briton. A frame 
that had been used for shoeing oxen was pro- 
cured from a blacksmith away in the woods of 
Oneida County and each animal had its feet 
dressed daily; even the cows that were heavy 
in calf being subjected to this treatment. 
Aside fropi the Hillhurst people, who were 
going through the same ordeal, no one knew 
at the time of this difficulty. Linseed-meal 
gruel was provided, and as. a result of care- 
ful nursing no deaths occurred. Like la grippe 
in the human subject, foot-and-mouth disease 
in cattle is chiefly to be dreaded for its after 
effects. It will be recalled that during one 
season (probably 1870) after the disease had 
been prevalent at Warlaby Mr. Booth raised 
but one heifer calf. To this cause, therefore, 



THB SENSATION OF SEVENTY-THRKE. 457 

Mr. Gibson attributes most of the troubles of 
the New York Mills Duchesses after his con- 
nection with the herd ceased.* 

4th Buke of Geneva.— As the chief stock 
bull in service at New York Mills this bull oc- 
cupied a commanding position in the minds of 
those who were following the Bates colors. 
Through the instrumentality of Ben F. Van- 
meter of Clark Co., Ky., he was bought in the 
spring of 1873 for the joint account of himself 
and Abram Renick at $6,000. He weighed at 
that time about 2,000 lbs. Mr. Wright, herds- 
man for Mr. Alexander, had looked at him as a 
yearling with a view toward securing him for 
Woodburn, but left him on account of his. 
showing at that time a defect behind the 
shoulder. He improved in that respect, how- 
ever, and is generally credited with having 
proved a great success in Kentucky, to which 

* The history of this herd reads like a romance. The fl^ht atrainst fate at 
flnt, the Importation of the Booths, the first purchase of half the Geneva 
herd, the compulsory acquirement of the second and the final dispersion 
were all the outcome of peculiar circumstances. The climax was a success, 
but that success was not commanded by superior knowledge nor sag'acity, 
but simply caused by a fortuitous sequence of favorable events— all having 
a bearing. Old Weehawken, the success as sires of American Duchess 
bulls in Enirland, the extinction of the pure Duchess line there, the con. 
stant refusal to price one, England's competition in the sale-ring, and a 
favorable time, all conspired to bring about the astounding result. Two 
months later we were in the throes of financial trouble. The gratuitous 
advertising through controversy In England, and above all the tact and skill 
of the auctioneer, were also important factors. 

'* Are you satisfied, Mr. Campbell, 100 head of cattle can be sold In an 
afternoon? " asked the auctioneer after It was all over. *' I am aware it has 
been done, air,** rejoined Mr. Campbell: and the auctioneer's fee was two 
black-noaed Victorias that were not worthy to be put in the sale!— iKiekaf4 
Qibmm <n **Breeder't Qaxetur 



458 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

State he was taken May 1, 1873. He was let 
to forty COWS from other herds at a service fee 
of $150 each within a year. Cows were turned 
away during the following year after services 
for twenty had been arranged at $250 each. 
After the New York Mills sale Lord Skelmei-s- 
dale (afterward Earl of Latham) visited Ken- 
tucky and endeavored to buy the 4th Duke of 
Geneva, but could get no price upon him, al- 
though intimating that he was willing to give 
116,000. 

English sales of 1873.— At Cheney's sale in 
July thirty-five head averaged £294, 14th Lady 
of Oxford making 905 guineas from Earl Bec- 
tive, 12th Duchess of Geneva 935 guineas from 
Sir Wilfred Lawson, 3d Duke of Gloster 820 
guineas from Earl Bective, the Gwynne heifer 
Geneva's Minstrel 600 guineas from J. P. Fos- 
ter, and an American-bred Princess cow (Lady 
Sale of Putney) 470 guineas from Earl Bective. 
At Lord Penrhyn's sale in May forty-one head 
averaged £210, the highest prices being 755 
guineas for Cherry Duchess 14th to Earl Bec- 
tive, 550 guineas for Waterloo 33d to Lord 
Skelmersdale, 500 guineas for Waterloo 30th 
to F. Leney, and 505 guineas for Cherry Duch- 
ess 20th to C. A. Barnes. At the dispersion of 
the famous herd of Col. Towneley forty head 
averaged £l26, the top being 800 guineas for 
6th Maid of Oxford. 




14th duke of THORNDALE (28459) at 13 Months. 
Sold for $17,900. 




'^y^r,^ ^ 



4th duke of geneva (30957) at Three Years. 
rsfii at yew York Mills and on Renuk liOi^e of Sharon*. 



CHAPTER XVL 



A GOLDEN AGE. 

The Campbell sale fairly electrified the 
breeding fraternity on both sides the Atlan- 
tic, and although followed by a period of 
financial disturbance, yet during the years 
immediately succeeding an enormous business 
was done in Short-horns at both public sale 
and private treaty. The Central West still 
busied itself with the fairs, and having the 
requirements of the ring steadily in view af- 
forded a strong market for show stock as well 
as for animals of the prevailing fashionable 
blood.* 

Spring sales of 1874.— The great show herds 
of the West now depended very largely on Can- 
adian importations for their heaviest "timber." 
Stock of the high-styled, "rangy" type could 

• Wrttinff of the sltnation in the fall of UTS John Thornton said: ** A 
alight reaction in favor of not b roo ding from * pure ' alraina waa noticeable 
during the autumn. Close in-and-in breeding is doubtleaa the method 
whereby many of our finest animals are produced, aa it is also the cause of 
delicacy and decay. The judicious blending of sound tribes must naturally 
result In the perfection of form and quality, to which fair milking proper- 
ties should also be added. The combination of milk with the feeding qual- 
ities and graceful beauty of the Short-horn has been the cause of its su- 
premacy, but if the milking properties are reduced tlfe fThort-hom le 
brought to a lerel with other breeds, and its value consequently depre- 
ciated." 

(459) 



460 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

no longer win. Mr. Cochrane had fitted out 
Col. King with his famous herd, and other 
champions had found their way into the 
West from the Dominion. American breeders 
were frequent visitors in Canada in these days 
in quest of show stock. It is related that a 
Western buyer, whose ambition exceeded his 
judgment, after examining the stock of Simon 
Beattie and James 1. Davidson in quest of a 
show cow, was advised to look at an animal 
then in the hands of a neighbor, which he was 
assured could be bought for $250. After start- 
ing away the prospective buyer came back and 
gravely asked Mr. Davidson if he thought the 
cow in question was as good as Rosedale. "A 
coo as gude as Rosedale for $250!'' exclaimed 
the old Scotchman in amazement. •*Weel, 
mon, if that's a* ye ken aboot coos ye better 
gang hame where ye came from.*' Those 
Americans, however, who attended Simon 
Beattie's sale in the early spring of 1874 were 
of a different class. They did not expect to 
get Rosedales at the price of common cows, 
for it was here that George Murray of Racine, 
Wis., bought the grand roan three-year-old 
show heifer imp. Maid of Honor, of Game's 
breeding, at $2,600, and the mixed-bred imp. 
Lady Gunter at $2,000. C. C. Parks bought the 
roan heifer Malmsey, also of Game breeding, 
at $3,100. Gen. Sol. Meredith took Rose of Ra- 



A GOLDBN AGE. 461 

cine, a Bates- topped Rosabella by Bridegroom, 
and her heifer calf at $3,420, and the grand 
roan Ruberta, another Garne-bred cow, im- 
ported by William Miller in 1869, at $1,275. 
On April 8 at John Snell's sale at Edmonton, 
Ont., Messrs. Day of Iowa paid $1,225 for the 
Scotch-bred imp. Golden Drop Ist, then eight 
years old, and $1,005 for the roan yearling 
heifer Golden Circle. On the following day 9.t 
Hugh Thompson's sale John Collard of Des 
Moines, la., gave $1,015 for imp. Raspberry, 
and J. R. Craig $1,000 for the two-year-old 
Golden Drop 3d; the six-year-old Golden Drop 
2d falling to Richard Gibson's bidding at $1,005. 
About this date Mr. Rigdon Huston of Blan- 
diusville, 111., sold the Kentucky-bred Galatea 
show bull Bourbon Star 11425 to M. W. Fall of 
Eddyville, la., for $1,000. May 13 the Muirkirk 
Herd of C. E. Coffin was sold by John R. Page 
in Maryland, the highest price paid being $1,425 
by Hon. T. J. Megibben for Muirkirk Gwynne. 
Leslie Combs Jr. of Kentucky bought Water 
Nymph at $1,200, and T. S. Cooper of Pennsyl- 
vania paid $1,060 for Portulacca. 

The Glen Flora sale at Waukegan on May 20 
resulted in an average of $900 on fifty-five fe- 
males. Col. Judy wielding the hammer. Imp. 
Jubilee Gwynne was taken by Stephen Dunlap 
at $2,500 and Melody Gwynne by C. P. Wads- 
worth of New York at $1,000. For Melody 



462 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN C\TTLB. 

Grwynne 6th Elliott & Kent of Iowa gave 
$1,600. The same firm bought Mazurka Duch- 
ess 2d for $1,520 and for another Mazurka B. 
B. Groom of Kentucky gave $1,350. Gen. C. E. 
Lippincott purchased imp. Malmsley at $1,500 
and Irene 11th at $1,000. Mr. Megibben took 
Oxford Princess at $1,500 and 5th Miss Wiley 
of Glen Flora at $1,250, and Emory Cobb gave 
$1,425 for 4th Louan of Glen Flora. J. H. 
Kissinger paid liberally for several cows of the 
Louan family, $1,325 for one and $1,000 for an- 
other. Rigdon Huston took 7th Louan of Glen 
Flora at $1,500 and Avery & Murphy of Detroit 
2d Louan at $1,825. John Niccolls of Bloom- 
ington. 111., was also a free buyer, paying up to 
$1,825 for Victoria of Glen Flora. James W. 
Wadsworth of New York secured Lydia Lan- 
guish 2d at a bid of $1,000. For imp. Lady 
Oxford H. Ludington of Milwaukee gave $2,350. 
A feature of this big sale was the high average 
of the Gwynnes, eight averaging $1,100 each. 

Lyndale sale at Dexter Park.— Col. William 
S. King made a memorable sale at Dexter Park, 
Chicago, on the following day. May 21. But one 
specimen of the popular Bates Duchess family 
was included, and in view of this fact the prices 
paid were considered at that time quite as ex- 
traordinary as those made at the great sale at 
New York Mills. A summary of the highest 
prices and averages is appended: 



A GOLDEN AGE. 463 

2d Dake of Hillhunt 12803:--G«orge Robbins, London, Enf?. .914,000 
Lady Mary 7th (Princess)— Charles F. Wads worth, New 

York 6,600 

I^dy Mary 8th— Charles F. Wads worth 6,500 

Lyndale WUd Eyes— T. J. Megibben 5,000 

Bell Duchess— James Wadsworth, New York 4,400 

Peri 5th-James Wadsworth 4,000 

BeU Duchess 8d— T. J. Megibben 8,800 

Peri 4th— T. J. Megibben 8,000 

T^dy Mary 6th— Gen. N. M. Curtis, New York 8,000 

8d Malvern Gwynne— T. J. Megibben 8,000 

Miss G wjmne— A. W. Griswold, Vermont 8,000 

Baron Hubback 2d— C. A. DeGrafl, Minnesota 2,600 

Peri 2d of Lyndale— Avery & Murphy, Michigan 2,600 

True Blue (buU)— P. A. Coen, Illinois 2,240 

PeriSd- A. W. Griswold.... 2,100 

Hubback*s Garland— WUliam Sodowsky, Illinois 2,100 

Garland— T. J. Megibben 2,100 

Bell Duchess 2d— B. B. Groom, Kentucky 2,100 

Miss Leslie Napier— C. A. DeGraff • 2,015 

Miss Leslie— C. A. DeGrafl 2,005 

6th Lady Sale of Brattleboro— C. F. Wadsworth 2,000 

Butterfly's Gift— Maj. S. E. Ward, Missouri 1,900 

Gem of Lyndale— Maj. S. E. Ward 1,860 

Star of Lyndale— S. E. Ward 1,860 

2d Tuberose of Brattleboro— T. J. Megibben 1,800 

Florence— D. M. Flynn, Iowa 1,700 

Constance of Lyndale 2d— A. W. Griswold 1,076 

Moselle 6th— A. W. Griswold 1,600 

8th Lady Sale of Brattleboro— C. F. Wadsworth 1,600 

Roan Princess— D. M. Flynn 1,600 

Constance of Lyndale Sd— John R. Craig, Canada 1,600 

Maxnrka of Lyndale— S. Meredith & Son, Indiana 1,625 

2d Lady Gwynne- T. J. Megibben 1 ,600 

Oakwood Gwynne 2d— Gen. N. M. Curtis 1,600 

Mazurka of Lyndale 8d— J. H. Kissinger, Missouri 1,475 

Mayflower^— K L. Davison, Kentucky 1,485 

Medora 14th— John R.Craig 1,800 

Scottish Lady— S. W. Jacobs, Iowa 1,276 

June Flower— J. G. Coulter, Ohio .... 1,225 

68/emales sold for $101,615; an average of $1,762 

21 bulls sold for 25,875; an average of.... 1,206 

79 animals sold for 126,990; an average of 1,688 



464 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

The sale of 2d Duke of Hillhurst to the Eng- 
lish bidder was not consummated on account 
of delay in making settlement. It is included 
in this report, however, for the reason that the 
sura of $13,900 was bid in good faith for the 
bull by Hon. John Wentworth of Chicago. Mr. 
Wentworth had started the bidding at $12,000. 
The contest from that point up to $13,000 was 
between "Long John" and the Englishman. 
George Murray of Wisconsin them entered the 
competition and carried the price to $13,800. 
A bid of $13,900 was made by Mr. Wentworth, 
which was raised by Robbins to $14,000. It 
was stated that Robbins was bidding for joint 
account of Lord Dunmore, Earl Bective and 
Col. Gunter of England, and as the price was 
the largest ever made up to that date for a bull 
of any breed in any country the result was 
greeted with hearty cheers. Robbins left for 
Buffalo the evening of the sale for the alleged 
purpose of drawing the funds, but on Saturday 
telegraphed Col. King that he must go to New 
York to complete his arrangements. Feeling 
that he had given him reasonable time Col. 
King wired in reply that he did not consider 
himself bound to delay any longer, and that 
the 2d Duke would return to Lyndale. Rob- 
bins was a fraud pure and simple. 

A noticeable feature of this sale was the 
great price made by the Princesses and the 



. A GOLDEN AGE. 465 

coraparative lack of appreciation of the Booth- 
bred lots. Mr. De Graff resold Baron Hubback 
2d after the sale to B. Sumner of Connecticut. 

Other Western events. — At Cambridge City, 
Ind., on the day following this exciting event 
Gen. Meredith & Son sold fifty-three head at 
an average of $454, the thirty-nine females 
bringing $20,985, an average of $515. For imp. 
Royal Duchess 2d Hon. T. C. Jones and G. J. 
Hagerty of Ohio gave $2,000, and Avery & 
Murphy took Joan of Arc at the same price. 

J. H. Spears & Sons held a sale at Tallula, 
111., on May 27, at which Gen. Lippincott paid 
$5,800 for Cherub 2d and $1,600 for Duchess of 
Sutherland 4th. Several Sanspareils — then a 
new sort in the West — sold at high prices, 
Messrs. James N. Brown's Sons of Berlin, 111., 
paying $2,250 for two females of that family. 
Gen. Meredith gave $1,000 for Mazurka 20th 
and J. H. Kissinger $1,025 fof Rosettie 4th. 
The thirty-four females sold averaged $630 
and eleven bulls $950. About this date Mr. S. 
F. Lockridge of Indiana bought the Booth- 
crossed Scotch bull Lord Strathallan from Mr. 
John Miller of Canada for $2,500. J. H. Kis- 
singer disposed of forty head at auction at an 
average of $427.50, Mr. Pickrell paying $1,675 
for Bride 15th. Messrs. J. H. Potts & Son 
made liberal purchases upon this occasion. 
W. R. Duncan's sale made an average of $525 

83 



466 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE, 

on twenty-six head, George Otley giving $1,500 
for Rosamond 10th, P. A. Coen $1,000 for Ma- 
zurka 34th, Gen. Meredith $1,025 for Rosa- 
mond 7th and J. H. Pickrell $1,500 for Lady 
Bates. At Decatur, 111., April 28, Messrs. 3. Z. 
& T. M. Taylor disposed of thirteen females at 
an average of $843, including six Louans that 
averaged $1,399 each, Louan 6th of Poplar 
Farm, by Aristocrat 7509, bringing $2,110 from 
E. W. Miller, Lula, IH.; Louan 4th, by Baron 
Booth of Lancaster, $1,760 from John Niccolls 
of Bloomington; Louan 5th (by Aristocrat) 
$1,300 from Claude Matthews, and Louan 3d, 
by 11th Duke of Airdrie, $1,100 from Emory 
Cobb. 

Kentucky summer sales. — The Kentucky 
auction sales of 1874 were largely attended 
and made some big averages. At Hughes & 
Richardson^s eighty-eight head averaged $581. 
Lady Bates 3d fetched $2,150, Geneva Gwynne 
$1,675, Minna of Elkhill $1,905 and Loudon 
Duchess 6th $1,775— all to Kentucky buyers; 
Candidate's Duchess 2d, $1,425, and Wilda, 
$1,200, to Gen. Meredith; Louan of Elkhill 
$1,025, to Leslie Combs; Louan 5th of Elkhill 
$1,100, to J. H. Kissinger; Louan 4th of Elk- 
hill, $1,100, to W. N. Offutt; Mazurka Belle 2d, 
$1,000, and Lady Newham 10th, $1,050, to 
Theodore Bates; Bertha, $1,640, to Bush 4 
Hampton. At E. L. Davison's Gen. Meredith 







^^^^^%B^i/^m. 



A GOLDEN AGE. 467 

paid $1,725 for Mazurka 36th and $1,000 for 
Grace 4th. Walter Handy gave $1,150 for 
Louan of Waveland and J. R. Shelley of Illi- 
nois $1,250 for Mazurka 37th. At Wamock & 
Megibben's seventy-eight head averaged $457, 
George M. Bedford giving $1,700 for Airdrie 
Belle, Col. William E. Simms $1,800 for Rose 
Jackson, Kirk & Cunningham of Ohio $1,550 
for Cambridge Rose 3d, Ed Thomas $1,300 for 
Miss Stonewall Jackson, Col. J. B. Taylor of 
Canada $1,000 for Cambridge Rose 2d, John 
Niccolls & Sons $1,525 for 3d Mazurka of 
Woodlawn, Abner Strawn of Illinois $1,735 for 
9th Duchess of Springwood and Mr. Megibben 
$2,475 for two females of same family, etc. At 
this sale, held July 28, Mr. George W. Rust, 
editor of the National Live-Stock Journal^ was 
the victim of a murderous assault, narrowly 
escaping assassination. The affair grew out of 
charges made through that paper in 1873 in 
relation to the pedigree of the famous Shrop- 
shire show heifer Fanny Forrester. 

Ben F. Van Meter sold thirty-four head for 
$18,000, an average of $539. Abram Van 
Meter^s eighty-three head averaged $565. A 
notable private sale in the fall of this year 
was the transfer of four head by David Selsor 
of Ohio to Mr. Keyes of Wisconsin for $4,000, 
and three head from same herd to an Ohio 
party at $3,000. 



468 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Closing events of 1874, — The great events 
of the autumn of 1874 were the sales of E. G. 
Bedford and B. B. Groom in Kentucky. At the 
former seven head of Loudon Duchesses sold 
for $24,650, an average of $3,521, four being 
bought by Kentuckians — C. M. Clay, T. J. Me- 
gibben and Ben P. Bedford — ^and three by Illi- 
nois breeders, J. H. Spears taking two at 
$2,250 and $2,000 respectively and Gol Robert 
Holloway one at $2,700. The highest-priced 
one was the $6,000 Loudon Duchess 9th, that 
was bid off by B. F. Bedford. At this same 
sale S. F. Lockridge gave $1,700 for Cora 3d, 
E. L. Davison paid $2,075 for Cannondale 2d, 
E. K. Thomas $2,325 for Lady Bates 4th, two 
Louans brought $2,225, the 21st Duke of Air- 
drie $7,000 from J. H. Spears, Loudon Duke 
19th $3,500 from W. R. Duncan and Loudon 
Duke 15th $2,100 from S. Meredith & Son. 
The thirty-five head averaged $1,672. At the 
Groom sale 119 head sold for an average price 
of $573, twenty-two head commanding prices 
ranging from $1,000 up to $2,550, the top price 
being paid by C. C. Childs of Independence, 
Mo., for Bell Duchess 2d. 

No less than 2,592 head of Short-horns 
passed through the sale-ring in America dur- 
ing 1874, bringing $1,004,159, an average of 
$387, the great year's business closing with 
the private sale of the 2d Duke of Hillhurst 



A GOLDEN AGE. 469 

and of the 10th Duchess of Airdrie and six of 
her descendants to Hon. M. H. Cochrane by 
Col. William S. King and Mr. George Murray 
at terms not made public but known to be 
extraordinaiy. The transfer of the 7th Duke 
of Oneida from A. W. Griswold to Mr. A. J. 
Alexander of Woodbum Farm, Ky., for $10,000 
ha^ also to be noted at this time. 

The public sales in England of the year 1874 
were sixty-eight, aggregating 2,165 head, at an 
average of $323 each, a total sum of $702,556, 
being 236 animals more than in 1873, and at an 
increased price of $45 per head, yet lower by 
$69 each than the American public-sale prices. 
The exceptional sales in England were those of 
Messrs. Leney & Sons, of forty-one head, at an 
average of $1,458; Duke of Devonshire, forty- 
three head, $1,913; Earl Bective, fifty-five 
head, $1,816; E. H. Cheney, twenty -seven 
head, $2,095— all of Bates blood. 

The sales of 1876.— There seemed no abate- 
ment of public interest as the trade of 1875 was 
inaugurated. As in the previous year, the in- 
itiative was taken by Canada. John R. Craig 
made a sale of thirty-three head at an average 
of $548, Col. Robert Holloway of Illinois lead- 
ing the bidding with $2,600 for Waterloo J 
and $625 for the Scotch-bred Miss Ramsden 
5th. Wesley Warnock of Kentucky took Peri 
Pink at $1,350 and W. E. Simms of Kentucky 



470 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

bought Mystery at $1,175. Ware & McGood- 
win of Kentucky secured Campaspie 3d for 
$1,000. A still better sale was that of Wil- 
liam Miller^s, where thirty-five animals com- 
manded an average of $583. Col. Holloway 
was a liberal buyer upon this occasion also, se- 
curing Princess of Atha for $725, Wave Duch- 
ess at $660 and the Kinellar-bred Golden Drop 
2d at $775. Still Bates blood was on top, 
Ware & McGoodwin paying $3,360 for Fennel 
Duchess 7th and $1,200 for Fennel Duchess of 
Lancaster. B. B. Groom took the Craggs 7th 
Duchess of Winfield at $805 and Wamock the 
Bell-Bates Duchess of Springwood at $1,225. 
Birrell & Johnston of Canada also sold some 
good cattle in this series, including two Scotch 
Golden Drops that fetched $850 and $550 re- 
spectively from local buyers. That a lively 
trade at full figures was to characterize the 
year in the Central West was foreshadowed by 
the spring sales as well as by the private trans- 
fers. Mr. Pickrell received $1,000 early in the 
year for the young bull Breastplate Louanjo, 
by the famous Breastplate out of a Louan cow 
by imp. Baron Booth of Lancaster, the buyer 
being B. Vantress of Maiden, 111. In Virginia 
George W. Palmer sold a Craggs cow to A. M. 
Bowman at $1,700. Vol. IV of the Kentucky 
Short-horn Record was announced as ready for 
delivery at $8, a price quite on a parity with 



A GOLDEN AGB. 471 

prevailing values for cattle. In March Wil- 
liam Stewart of Illinois held a successful sale, 
at which Mr. R. H. Austin of Sycamore, 111., 
gave $1,900 for 1st Duchess Louan and $1,500 
for 2d Lady of Racine. N. P. Clarke of St. 
Cloud, Minn., entered the lists here, taking 
among other lots Caroline 6th at $810. Dur- 
ing this same month Col. HoUoway journeyed 
to Mr. Cochrane's and bought the 4th Duke of 
HiUhurst for $7,000, and Messrs. Grimes and 
Montgomery of Ohio sold the 3d Duke of 
Oneida to Ware & McGoodwin of Kentucky 
for $12,000. 

Glen Flora dispersion.— The closing out of 
the Glen Flora Herd of Mr. C. C. Parks at Wau- 
kegan, HI., in April drew out a great attend- 
ance from far and near and resulted in an 
average of $612 on 122 head of cattle. The 
best prices of the day were as follows: $2,500 
for Peri of Fairview from Mr. Megibben; 
$2,000 for Oxford Bloom 4th from same buyer; 
$2,000 for Bright Eyes Duchess 2d from George 
Otley; $1,800 for 6th Duchess Louan from N. P. 
Clarke and $1,600 from same buyer for Peri's 
Duchess; $1,500 for the bull Baron Bates 3d 
11332 from George Otley; $1,325 for Victoria of 
Glen Flora from Mr. Megibben; $1,200 for 2d 
Rose of Racine from H. F. Brown of Minne- 
apolis; $1,225 for Oxford Gwynne 5th from 
William Miller, Atha, Ont.; $1,850 for Princess 



472 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

of Oxford 7th from N. P. Clarke; $1,550 for 
Atlantic Gwynne 2d from George Grimes of 
Ohio; $1,200 for Princess Gwynne and a like 
sum for Oxford Bloom from J, R. Shelley of 
Illinois; $1,200 for Jubilee Gwynne 2d from 
Mr. Grimes, etc. Large purchases were made 
by Hon. William M. Smith, Lexington, 111., 
Albert Crane, Durham Park, Kan., and many 
others afterward prominent in the trade. 

Kissinger's sale. — This important sale was 
followed by another from the herd of J. H. 
Kissinger of Missouri, who received an average 
of $606 for forty-one head. It was here that 
Ed lies gave $2,200 for- the bull Kissingers 
Breastplate 17476, sired by old Breastplate out 
of imp. Primula by FalstafE (21720). The same 
buyer also took Mazurka of Lin wood at $1,600. 
George Otley increased his investment in high- 
priced stock by paying $1,180 for 3d Louan of 
Linwood and $1,650 for Orphan Gwynne. Al- 
bert Crane bought Miss Wiley of Linwood at 
$1,200 and J. H. Spears & Son gave $1,000 for 
Illustrious 3d. 

Elliott & Kent. — This Iowa firm had been 
liberal buyers of cattle for several years and 
this spring placed sixty-one head on the mar- 
ket that averaged $559. The sensational event 
of this sale was the purchase of the Princess 
cow 4th Tuberose of Brattleboro by Col. Rob- 
ert Holloway at $3,500 and the high price 



A GOLDEN AGE. 473 

brought by other specimens of that famous 
old family. W. E. Simms of Paris, Ky., 
paid $1,810 for 2d Red Rose of Brattleboro. 
George Grimes of Ohio gave $1,550 for 13th 
Lady Sale of Brattleboro and $1,150 for 39th 
Lady Sale of Putney. J. R. Shelley took 37th 
Lady Sale of Putney at $1,050. All these were 
primarily descended from the Stephenson Prin- 
cess tribe, from whence Mr. Bates obtained Bel- 
vedere. At this sale A. Ludlow of Monroe, 
Wis., bought Mazurka Duchess 2d at $1,700 
and Albert Crane took Louan 5th of Elm Grove 
at $1,400. 

Spears and the Nelly Blys.— J, H. Spears & 
Son made a memorable sale this spring, which 
had for its most interesting feature great prices 
for a family of cows built up in their herd from 
a descendant of the roan cow Lady Elizabeth 
(by Emperor), brought out from England in 
1839 by the Fayette Co. (Ky.) Importing Co. 
and sold at their sale for $660. These Nelly 
Blys, as they are still called, were fine show 
cattle, as well as capital breeders, and at this 
sale nine head of cows and heifers belonging to 
it sold for $11,350, an average of $1,261. The 
top price for these was $1,825, paid by Mrs. 
Kimberly of West Liberty, la., for Nelly Bly 
4th. Most of them were daughters of Gen. 
Grant 4825. Still higher prices were made, 
however, by a pair of Loudon Duchesses, the 



474 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

13th and 17th of the line, the former, by 5th 
Duke of Geneva, going to S. W. Jacobs of West 
Liberty, la., at $3,200, and the latter, by 21st 
Duke of Airdrie, to E. K. Thomas of North 
Middletown, Ky., at $2,750. Mr. E. C. Lewis 
paid $1,600 for Magenta 2d, by Gen. Grant, and 
J. R. Conover, Petersburg, 111., took her dam, 
the McMillan-bred Magenta, by Plantagenet, 
at $1,325: James N. Brown's Sons of Grove 
Park, Sangamon Co., 111., paid $1,995 for High- 
land Lady 2d, by Royal Oakland 9034, tracing 
to imp. Western Lady, by the celebrated Grand 
Turk (12969). This cow^s heifer by Col. Towne: 
ley 13691 went to Mr. Conover at $1,750. C. W. 
Goff of Monmouth, 111., bought 14th Louan of 
Woodlawn, a daughter of the Woodburn-bred 
Laudable 5890, at $1 ,650. Duchess of York 9th, 
a Canadian-bred roan, fetched $1,000 from Al- 
bert Crane. The imported cow Lady High- 
thorn was bought by Mr. Conover at $1,000. 
The Cruickshank cow Violet's Forth, then in 
her ninth year and belonging to a family of 
cattle practically unknown at that time in the 
West, went to Mrs. Kimberly at $1,000. The 
21st Duke of Airdrie was purchased by Gen. 
Lippincott at $10,500. The forty head sold 
brought an average of $1,163. 

Fickreirs great sale.— J. H. Pickrell's sale 
of twenty-three head at Decatur, 111., April 27. 
1875, at an average of $1,265 stands next to 



JL GOLDEN AGB. 475 

Col. King's Dexter Park average of 1874 as the 
highest ever made in the Western States. The 
celebrated show bull Breastplate 11431, for 
which Mr. Pickrell had paid $6,000, was bought 
by Mrs. Kimberly for $6,100. This bull was a 
red, bred by Hon. M. H. Cochrane from Star of 
the Realm 9150 out of Bright Lady by Lord 
Blithe (22126). He was largely of Booth blood 
and at the shows of 1872 and 1873 had won 
over $1,000 in cash prizes. Some fine speci- 
mens of the Bedford Bride family and choice 
show things of the Louan sort brought "four 
figures." A. E. Kimberly paid $2,850 for the 
red cow Lady Bride, by imp. Baron Booth of 
Lancaster out of Bride 15th by Airdrie 2478. 
E. W. Miller, Raymond, 111., took the splendid 
roan Baron Booth of Lancaster heifer Louan 
Hill 5th, then three years old, at $2,000. Wil- 
liam and W. Pickrell bought Louan Hill 4th, a 
four-year-old roan, also by Baron Booth of Lan- 
caster, at $1,925, and resold her to Col. Robert 
Holloway for $2,225. Louan Hill 3d, a red- 
roan five-year-old daughter of Sweepstakes 
6230, went to L. B. Wing of Bement, 111., at 
$1,225. Another Baron Booth of Lancaster 
heifer, Caroline Cochrane (out of an 11th Duke>. 
of Airdrie cow tracing to imp. Caroline by Ar- 
row), was bought by J. H. Kissinger & Co. for 
$1,800. The red-roan two-year-old heifer Jubi- 
lee Napier fell to the bidding of A. E. Kimberly 



476 A HISTORY OP 8H0ET-H0EN CATTLE. 

at $1,600. She was by imp. Gen. Napier (26239), 
the Booth bull that Messrs. Parks sold to Col. 
Stephen Duulap in 1873 for $5,000 and bought 
back in 1874 at same price. The Caroline, by 
Dashwood, heifer Detura, another daughter of 
Baron Booth of Lancaster, was secured by J. 
R. Shelley at $1,100. The imported Booth cow 
Amelia, bred by Messrs. Dudding, was pur- 
chased by Thomas Windle, Lincoln, 111., at 
$1,025. Her yearling bull Royal Baron 18238, 
by Baron Booth of Lancaster, was taken by 
Williani and W. Pickrell at $1,000. 

At a combination sale held at Bloomington, 
111., in April Mr. C. M. NiccoUs sold Princessa 
2d, a red of Abram Van Meter's breeding, sired 
by Airdrie Duke 5306 out of a Princess dam, to 
J. V. Grigsby of Winchester, Ky., for $2,000, 
the same buyer taking Mazurka of Lyndale 4th 
at $1,825. At the same sale E. L. Davison of 
Kentucky paid $1,450 for Oxford Gwynne. 

Jacobs' sale at West Liberty. — At West 
Liberty, la., April 14, 1875, occurred the sale 
of Mr. S. W. Jacobs, the first ever held at that 
point. Eighty-three cattle averaged $614, and 
the attendance was estimated at 1,500. This 
was one of the memorable events of the period. 
The Lady Sale Princess cow Maude, by Earl of 
Grass Hill 8071, w^as bid off at the extraordi- 
nary price of $7,200, and her yearling heifer by 
Col. Wood 13692— Princess Maude— at $2,800. 



A OOLDKN AGE. 477 

Mrs. Kimberly gave $2,025 for the fine show 
heifer 3d Gem of Eryholme, bred by Messns. 
Parks and sired by imp. Gen. Napier. D. M. 
Flynn took the Vellum heifer Lady King at 
$2,025 and the massive 1,800-lb. Cruickshank 
Secret cow imp. Sylvia, by Champion of Eng- 
land — ^the great cow of the sale — at $2,500. J. 
W. Handley of Mount Vernon, la., bought For- 
est Queen (of McMillan's breeding and sired by 
Plantagenet 6031) at $1,550, and George Chase 
bid off the McMillan cow Louan of Slausondale 
at $1,100. M. Bunker, Tipton, la., purchased 
the "crack" Kissinger show cow Bettie Stewart 
(running to imp. Daisy by Wild) at $1,425, and 
Mrs. Kimberly bought imp. Royal Booth (of 
Game breeding and out of Malmsey) for 
$1,075, Scottish Lady, by Col. King's imp. 
Scotsman, at $1,425, the noted Kissinger Caro- 
line (by Dashwood) show cow Russie Pierce at 
$1,500 and Fannie Pierce of same family at 
$1,100. C. S. Barclay took the roan show 
heifer British Baron's Gem, by imp. British 
Baron, at $1,000. This was a grand lot of cat- 
tle. Many of the cows weighed from 1,600 to 
1,800 lbs. and were neat as well as large. As 
illustrating the character of the demand for 
Short-horns at this time Mr. C. S. Barclay tells 
us that the evening after this sale he sold 
nearly $2,000 worth of cattle, some of which 
were bought by the light of a lantern! The 



478 A HISTORY OF SHOtlT-HORN CATTLE. 

fact is that the only way a man could keep a 
cow in those days was to refuse to price her. 
West Liberty became a great Short-horn breed- 
ing center, a distinction which it has ever since 
held. 

Milton Briggs of Kellogg, la., sold on the day 
following the West Liberty sale 122 head at an 
average of $308. This sale was remarkable for 
the large number sold and the uniformity of 
values maintained. But two animals passed 
the $1,000 mark, one, Anna Clark, at $1,075, to 
S. Corbin, Paris, Ky., and the other. Jubilee of 
Spotwood, at $1,025, to W. M. Blair, Inland, la. 

Dexter Park auctions. — In May a notable 
series of sales occurred at Dexter Park, Chi- 
caugo. On the 19th some long prices w ere again 
(iiade by the Princess family, the occasion being 
the sale of L. W. Towne of Clarence, Mo. These 
were descendants of the Lady Sale branch of 
the tribe, coming through Highland Maid, one 
of whose daughters brought $7,200 at the Ja- 
cobs sale already mentioned. Col. William E. 
Simms of Kentucky was the heaviest buyer, 
taking the three-year-old 'Highland Maid 7th 
at $3,600, Highland Maid 5th at $1,900 and 
Highland Maid 4th at $1,125. For Highland 
Maid 8th Robert Otley gave $1,600. At this 
same sale Col. Simmes paid $1,600 for Lady 
Hester 3d and $1,025 for Lady Hester, both 
Lady Sale Princesses. On May 20 J. P. San- 



A GOLDEN AG-E. 479 

bora of Port Huron, Mich., received $2,600 for 
the Craggs co.w Duchess of Huron, by 22d Duke 
of Airdrie, from John R. Craig of Edmonton, 
Can., and $1,500 from same buyer for her dam, 
2d Duchess of Springwood, then ten years old. 
T. Hickman of Ashland, Mo., gave $1,025 for 
the Ohio Rose of Sharon.Crystal Queen 5th. A 
few Scotch-bred cattle were included in this 
sale and met with fair appreciation, the im- 
ported cow Wastell's Jenny Lind 7th, by Lord 
of the Isles, falling to ^T. Heckman's bidding 
at $800. 

The Avery & Murphy sale.— On May 21 
Avery & Murphy of Port Huron followed with 
a sale of seventy-five head averaging $670. 
The yearling Bates-topped Peri heifer Peri 2d 
of Lyndale, of Col. King's breeding and sired 
by the $14,000 bull 2d Duke of Hillhurst, was 
taken by S. W. Jacobs of Iowa at $4,000. The 
18th Duke of Airdrie cow Miss Wiley 4th was 
bought by Col. Simmes of Kentucky for $2,675, 
and the roan Miss Wiley 25th, by 10th Duke of 
Thorndale,l)y same buyer at $1,825. The 2d 
Louan of Glen Flora at $2,350; the Ohio Rose 
of Sharon cow Rose of Fairholme 4th (of Judge 
Jones' breeding) at $1,275, and the imported 
Kinellar-bred Scotch cow Wastell's Golden 
Drop 4th at $1,100, all fell to the persistent 
bidding of Col. Robert HoUoway. The Aber- 
deenshire cattle were not well known in the 



480 A history' OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

West at this time, but their merit was begin 
ning to win them many friend^ and at this 
sale Mrs. E. Byram of Abingdon; 111., bought 
the Cruickshank cow Michigan Casket, by Sen- 
ator (27441) out of Cactus by Champion of Eng- 
land, at $1,725; the mixed-bred imp. Michigan 
Daisy and Welcome at $1,000 and $1,025 re- 
spectively. For the fine imported show cow 
Joan of Arc, of mixed English breeding, Albert 
Crane paid $1,000. The 23d Duke of Airdrie 
was sold at this sale tQ J. P. Sanborn for $9,600. 
On the 22d day of May at same place J. R. 
Shelly sold the Princess cow 37th Lady Sale 
of Putney to E. L. Davison of Kentucky for 
$1,600, and Princess 3d to D. Eichholtz of 
Shannon, 111., for $1,150. Also Mazurka Duch- 
ess 3d to Campbell & Chase of West Lib- 
erty, la., for $1,550, and the roan Victoria cow 
Venus to J. P. Sanborn, Port Huron, Mich., for 
$1,000. 

Long Prices at Meredith's.— On May 28 at 
Cambridge City, Ind., S. Meredith & Son made 
a great sale of fifty-three head, averaging $829. 
It was here that the famous Woodburn-bred 
cow Mazurka 36th, by Star of the Realm 11021 
out of Mazurka 31st by 12th Duke of Airdrie, 
brought $4,005, the buyer being J. C. Jenkins 
of Petersburg, Ky. Mazurka of Lyndale, by 
17th Duke of Airdrie, and. her heifer calf Oak- 
land Mazurka, by 2d Duke of Hillhurst, were 



A GOLDEN AGE. 481 

taken for George Fox of Cheshire, Eng., at 
$3,100 and $2,500 respectively. The Rose of 
Sharon cow Grace 4th, bred by Mr. William 
Warfield and sired by Muscatoon 7057 out of 
Grace by Airdrie 2478, at $3,000, and the roan 
yearling heifer Craggs Duchess of Cambridge, 
by 22d Duke of Airdrie, at $2,400, went to John 
R. Craig of Canada. The red Victoria cow Va- 
leria, bred by George Murray and sired by 17th 
Duke of Airdrie, was taken by R. H. Prewitt of 
Kentucky at $1,800. Duchess Cadenza, a Cy- 
press cow by 10th Duke of Thorndale, and her 
yearling heifer brought $3,150 from Benjamin 
Sumner of Woodstock, Conn. The Young Mary 
cow Miss Washington 8d, by the great Ken- 
tucky breeding bull Airdrie Duke 5306, and 
her heifer calf Lady Geneva, by 4th Duke of 
Geneva, were taken by James Mix, Kankakee, 
111.', at $2,150. The imported cow 2d Lady, of 
F. H. Fawkes' breeding, went to Ed lies at 
$1,250. For the show cow Maggie Stone (by 
Airdrie Duke 5306 out of a Margaret, by Snow- 
ball, dam) Hon. Pliny Nichols of West Liberty, 
la., gave $1,000. Rigdon Huston of Blandins- 
ville, HI., bought the show bull imp. British 
Baron 13557, of Col. Towneley's breeding, then 
five years old, for $975. The Messrs. Meredith 
sold privately, after the conclusion of the sale, 
the Bates-bred 5th Duchess of Springwood to 
Mr. Craig for $2,000. 



482 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE^ 

Airdrie Duchesses at $18,000 each.— Mr. 

Fox, the English buyer of the Mazurkas at 
this sale, bought privately from Mr. A. J. 
Alexander that excellent bull 24th Duke of 
Airdrie for $12,000, and the 20th Duchess of 
Airdrie at $18,000 for exportation, and from 
Gen. N. M. Curtis of Ogdensburg and James W. 
Wadsworth of same place a number of Prin- 
cesses. About this game time Mr. Alexander 
sold to E. H. Cheney of England the 16th 
Duchess of Airdrie for $17,000. 

At a sale from the herd of Mr. Cochrane, held 
in June, 1875, at Toronto, Airdrie Duchess 5th 
was bought by Avery & Murphy for $18,000, 
and the 5th Duke of Hillhurst by Mark S. 
Cockrill of Tennessee for $8,300. 4th Louan of 
Slausondale was taken by B. B. Groom at 
$2,850. Messrs. Beattie & Miller sold some (jat- 
tle at high prices at same time, receiving $3,000 
for Princess of Oxford 4th, a like sura for Prin- 
cess Maud, $2,200 for Princess of Raby, $2,700 
for Surmise Duchess 5th, $2,400 for Sunnise 
Duchess 10th, $3,100 for Duchess of Raby, 
$4,600 for Kirklevington Princess 2d, $4,025 
for Kirklevington Duchess 8th, and $2,300 for 
Careless 8th — thirty-four females averaging 
$1,226 each. 

Another important transaction in the spring 
of 1875 was the purchase by Avery & Murphy 
of the entire high-priced herd of Col. L. G. 



A GOLDEN AGE. 483 

Morris, including five of his purchases at New 
York Mills. 

Big sales in the Blue Grass.— The Kentucky 
summer sales of 1875 were well attended, and 
Renick, Vanmeter and Bates blood commanded 
great prices. At Ben F. Vanmeter's twenty 
Rose of Sharons brought $44,340, an average 
of $2,217, C. D. Chenault of Richmond, Ky., 
taking Julia's Rose at $3,900, and H. P. Thom- 
son of Kentucky 2d Cambridge Lady at $5,550. 
Poppy 5th was bought for Earl Bective at 
$2,000. At the same sale twelve Red Roses 
(Young Marys) averaged $890, Messrs. Groom 
paying the top, $2,350, for Red Rose 11th. At 
E. S. Cunningham's the Grooms paid $4,150 for 
Duchess of Sharon, and Messrs. Meredith $1,600 
for Rose of Wicken. At J. G. Kinnaird's B. 
Sumner of Connecticut gave $2,650 for Oneida 
Rose, Messrs. Meredith $2,050 for Minna of Elk 
Hill, and Emory Cobb $1,600 for Mazurka 25th. 
At William Lowry's J. W. Bean of WinchevSter, 
Ky., gave $2,380 for Valeria. At Walter Ban- 
dy's Messrs. Meredith bought 4th Mazurka of 
Chesterfield at $3,500, Mr. Megibben gave $3,150 
for Peri of Clifton and B. Sumner $2,025 for 
Grace Sharon. At Wesley Warnock's $2,675 
was paid by L. F. Pierce of Kentucky for Cam- 
bridge Rose 3d, $2,250 by John R. Craig of Can- 
ada for Duchess of Springwood, and $1,600 by 
J. H. Spears & Sons for Miss Wiley of Vinewood. 



484 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HORN CATTLE. 

At J. C. Jenkins' sale Mrs. Jesse Long of Iowa 
gave $2,125 for Mazurka 36th, George M. Bed- 
ford $2,500 for 4th Louan of Oakland and $2,000 
for Louan of Prospect Farm, E. K. Thomas 
$2,055 for Blooming Heath 2d, and J. H. Spears 
took Mazurka 33d at $1,650. Mr. Jenkins' fif- 
teen head averaged $1,274. 

Pushing the PrincesBeB. — While the cham- 
pions of this fine old sort did not score as 
dazzling a success during this speculative era 
as might have been anticipated in view of 
Belvedere's brilliant career and the conceded 
dual-purpose capacity of the tribe, still they 
enlisted the support of several daring spirits 
prominent in the trade during these halcyon 
days of Short-horn prosperity. 

The American-bred Princesses were all de- 
scended from the three imported cows, Red 
Rose 2d, Lady Sale 2d and Tuberose 2d. Those 
tracing to Red Rose 2d were unquestionably 
the best. Wherever they were fairly treated 
and intelligently bred they displayed fine sub- 
stance, thick flesh and scale, as well as dairy 
propensity. The Princesses had been largely 
in the hands of dairymen in the New England 
States, and were treated as dairy stock, de- 
veloping milking qualities of the highest order. 
The Tuberose branch manifested a tendency to 
present dark noses; a point which has never 
met with the favor of the fraternity of Short- 



A OOLDBN AGS. 485 

horn breeders. Prominent among those inter- 
ested in the Princesses in the East about this 
time may be mentioned Messrs. A. W. Gris- 
wold, a New York lawyer who had a farm in 
Vermont that was in charge of J. 0. Sheldon's 
old herdsman, Mr. Williams, one of the best 
men of his profession England has ever given 
to this country; D. S. Pratt, a clothing mer- 
chant at Brattleboro, Vt., who was in the busi- 
ness purely as a speculation and not because of 
any special love for the cattle; the Messrs. 
Winslow of Putney, Vt., who were practical 
farmers and dairymen; the Messrs. Wadsworth 
of Geneseo, N. Y.; A. B. Conger, Haverstraw, 
N. Y.; T. L. Harison, Morley, N. Y.; Col. John 
B. Taylor,* London, Ont., and Richard Gibson 
of Canada, who bought and exported a number 
of cattle of this tribe to England. These were 
reinforced by Col. William S. King of Minne- 
sota, Col. W. E. Sirams of Paris, Ky.; B. B. 
Groom, Winchester, Ky., and others. In July, 
1875, Mr. C. F. Wadsworth, after conferring 
with leading owners of Princesses throughout 
the country, issued a small volume entitled "A 
Record of Princess Short-horns in America," 

* Ck>l. Taylor was an Ehvllsh army offleer who had aerved with hla teg. 
Unent, the Sixtieth Btflea, In the Crimea. He aettled In CanadA and waa 
made Deimty Adjutant-Oeneral In command of the mlUtla of the district in 
which he resided. He boucrht a small place near London and begran breed- 
ing Short-horns with marked success. Ho was a rreat enthusiast and one 
3f the closest stndents of pcdUrrees of his day. Probably his greatest suc- 
cess was with tho Brutes Crag-^rs tribo. Ee died a few years since at Wlnni- 
- per while in command of that military district. 



486 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

which, it was expected, would assist in build- 
ing uj) a Princess aristocracy by separating the 
pedigrees of cattle of that tribe from the great 
mass of records carried by the Short-horn Herd 
Book. As might have been anticipated, how- 
ever, and as was predicted by some of the level 
heads in the Princess camp, this attempt at 
"exclusiveness" was resented by the breeders 
at large. While long prices were established 
for a time the manipulations of speculators 
failed to attain for any extended period their 
cherished object. In common with other tribes 
that were at this time largely at the mercy of 
those who were handling Short-horns for spec- 
ulative purposes only — and often with violent 
disregard of correct principles and practice — 
the Princesses suffered more or less deteriora- 
tion; the blame for which, as in the case of the 
Bates tribes, rested upon the folly of reckless 
men rather than upon the hairless cattle that 
were made the subject of egregious blundering. 
In August, 1875, Almon W. Griswold sold in 
the historic Duchess ring at New York Mills 
five Princesses for $18,100, an avemge of 
$3,620 each, the top being $5,600 for Lady 
Mary 2d to Richard Gibson for Col. King. The 
laird of Lyndale also obtained Lady Mary at 
$4,000 and Avery & Murphy got Lady Mary 9th 
at $2,200 and 6th Lady Sale of Brattleboro at 
$3,300. Several Gwynnes — near kin to the 



A GOLDEN AGE. 487 

Princesses — also sold well, Gibson paying 
$3,000 for one and $1,900 for another. These 
traced to Tanqueray's Minerva 4th, imported 
by Morris & Becar. At this same sale 7th Lord 
of Oxford 17586 fetched $3,700 and Avery & 
Murphy paid $3,000= for Peri 3d. The thirty- 
three animals disposed of brought $56,000, an 
average of $1,697. 

As a matter of fact the Gwynnes of this pe- 
riod ranked with the best Short-horns of their 
time. Indeed for many years, while the old 
Princess sort and their cousins the Elviras and 
"Js'* were still in comparative obscurity, under 
the skillful management of careful handlers in 
Cumberland and the North the Gwynnes were 
making Short-horn history. Their intrinsic 
merit and solid worth, their grand flesh and 
scale, their finish and dairy quality gained for 
the Gwynnes the plaudits of the entire coun- 
try-side even in the very heart of the old Short- 
horn country. As one after another of these 
handsome specimens of the breed made their 
appearance in the English show-yards and sale- 
rings their name became a bye-word, synony- 
mous with symmetry and persistent quality. 
''The Gwynnes can't be downed,^' an expres- 
sion often heard in those days across the At- 
lantic, meant that no matter what cross or 
alien blood was resorted to the Gwynne char- 
acter seemed to assert itself. Richard Gibson, 



488 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN 0.*TT1-E. 

appreciating fully tlieir position abroad, be- 
came an ardent supporter of the tribe on this 
side, and many breeders subsequently profited 
largely by the presence of Gwynne cows and 
heifers in their pastures. The late Simon Beat- 
tie offered Gibson $4,000 for one specimen of 
the family to h.e exported to England. 

At H. P. Thomson's sale of 1875 in Ken- 
tucky six Princesses were disposed of at a val- 
uation of $15,725, an average of $2,^20. D. U 
Hughes of Iowa took two, paying $4,100 for 
Lady Sale 29th and $1,700 for 2d Tuberose of 
Grass Hill. D. S. Pratt of Vermont acquired 
Lady Sale 29th on a bid of $4,000. Avery & 
Murphy paid $2,500 for Lady Sale 31st. S. W. 
Jacobs of Iowa bought Lady Sale 36th at 
$1,800 and John Collard of the same State be- 
came the owner of 6th Tuberose of Brattleboro 
at $1,625. At this sale Emory Cobb of Elinois 
took Constance of Putney 4th at $1,950 and E. 
Stedman of Massachusetts bought Blush of 
Glen Flora at $2,750. The $1,000 mark was 
passed sixteen times during the sale, the 
ninety-six head sold fetching a total of 
$53,070, an average of $553. 

The Trans-Mississippi trade. — The summer 
of 1875 was a season of sore trial and tribu- 
lation to the farmers beyond the Missouri 
River on account of the ravages of grasshop- 
pers. Feed was in short supply in the newer 



A GOLDEN AGE. 489 

West, SO when Mr. J. G. Cowan of Missouri, 
the owner of the $3,000 show and breeding 
bull Loudon Duke 6th 10399, arranged for a 
public sale, to include that distinguished ani- 
mal, it was decided to offer the stock at . Ot- 
tumwa, la. The event occurred Aug. 18, and 
with the exception of the fine Young Mary 
cow Grace Young 3d everything was taken by 
Iowa and Missouri breeders, the thirty-six head 
commanding $19,340, an average of $537. Lou- 
don Duke 6th was bid off by E. Gilliston of 
Mound City, Mo., at $1,950; S. W. Jacobs gave 
$1,000 for Loudon's Minna; D. A. Rouner of 
Newark, Mo., $1,000 for Red Daisy of Fairview 
5th, and J. G. Strawn of Illinois a like sum for 
the Mary cow above mentioned. 

In September, 1875, D. M. Flynn of Des 
Moines made an average of $699 on eighteen 
head. D. L. Hughes of Vinton had opposition 
on Roan Princess up to $3,500 and S. W- 
Jacobs had to carry the Scotch-bred Minnie's 
Annandale 2d to $2,000. For Lady King the 
same buyer paid $1,500. Dr. George Sprague 
of Des Moines sold nineteen head in connec- 
tion with Mr. Flynn that made an average of 
$592. Red Daisy of Fairview 4'oh, that the 
Doctor had bought at the Cowan sale for $710, 
fell here to D. L. Hughes' bidding at $1,550. 
For Oakwood Miss Wiley John Collard paid 



490 A HISTORY OF 8H0BT-H0EN OATTLK. 

$1,100. 2d Duke's Gem went to A. W. Thom- 
son of Kentucky at $1,200. 

At John Collard's sale the red six-year-old 
Scotch-bred imported cow Raspberry, by 
Prince of Worcester, was taken by William 
Hastie, Somerset, la., at $1,200. For Lady 
Dahlia the same price was given by J. D 
Brown of Omaha. 

13,500 for a Scotch heifer.— Shortly before 
this Mrs. A. E. Kimberley of West Liberty, la. 
had broken the record for Scotch-bred cattle 
by paying J. H. Kissinger $3,500 for the cele 
brated Cruickshank show heifer imp. Orange 
Blossom 18th. 

Short-horns were enjoying a great "boom" 
west of the Mississippi. Mention has been 
made of some of the more notable purchases 
of Mr. Albert Crane of Durham Park, Kan., at 
auction sales. About this time he bought some 
Booth-bred cattle from Mr. Coffin of Maryland, 
and from F. W. Belden, Kaneville, 111., he se- 
cured for stock purposes the Booth-bred Hec- 
uba bull Lord of the Lake at $1,000. He man- 
ifested his interest in Bates blood, however, by 
purchasing privately about this same date from 
Mr. Alexander of Woodburn the white bull Lord 
Bates 3d, by 24th Duke of Airdrie, at $1,000. 

Groom importations and sale. — One of the 
most prominent of the breeders and import- 
ers of this period was Mr. B. B. Groom of 



A GOLDEN AQE. 491 

Vinewood Farm, near Winchester, Clark Co., 
Ky. In April, 1875, the firm of B. B, Groom & 
Son imported from England thirty-one head of 
Bates-bred cattle, belonging mainly to families 
originated by the Messrs. Bell ; included in the 
shipment being the roan 8th Maid of Oxford, 
of Sheldon's breeding, that had been exported 
to England some years previous. In July of 
the same year Messrs. Groom imported 7th 
Maid of Oxford and her bull calf and the roan 
bull 8th Duke of Geneva (28390), both of Shel- 
don's breeding. These had been bought at 
Leney's sale at $10,000 for the Duke and $3,325 
for the Oxford cow and calf. On Oct. 14 a 
number of these imported cattle, together with 
a selection of American-bred stock, was offered 
at public sale, and the event drew out a great 
attendance from all parts of the United States. 
The prices paid and the wide distribution of 
the animals indicate the remarkable character 
of the demand at this time for Short-horns 
carrying the Bates blood. We append here- 
with a summary as to the leading lots, together 
with the general averages : 

8dd Duchess of Airdrie— J. H. Spears & Sons, niinois $17,500 

Kirklevington Duchess 18th— John R. Craig, Canada. 5,160 

Brightness— Benjamin Sumner, Connecticut 5,100 

Highland Maid 6th-J. C. Tyler, Vermont 5,060 

Duchess of Clarence— J. H. Spears & Sons 4,100 

KirlKlevington Lady 6th— Avery & Murphy, Michigan 8,900 

8d Duchess of Clarence— J. H. Spears & Sons 8,175 

Wild Eyes Rose— W. N. Offutt, Kentucky 8.060 

KirkleTington Lady 8d~J. V. Grigsby, Kentucky 8,000 



492 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Princess of Vinewood Ist— D. L. Hughes, Iowa 8,000 

Georgia HiUhurst 8d— Avery & Murphy 8,800 

Duchess of KingBCote--J. V. Grigsby 8,660 

KirkleTington Lady 4th— Avory Sl Murpby 2,560 

Fennel Duchess of Knightley Hall— T. J. Megibben, Ken- 
tucky 2,500 

2d Lady Bates of Vinewood— E. S. Bussing, New Yorlc 2,000 

Kirklevington Lady 5th— Henry Corbin, Kentucky 2,00C 

Annette of Knightley Hall-^ohn Gollard, Iowa 2,000 

Wild Flower Duchess— N. .G. Pond, Connecticut 1.900 

Duchess of Knightley Hall— John Gollard 1,860 

Highland Maid 7th-D. I* Hughes 1,700 

Wild Eyes of Horton Park— W. N. OfTutt, Kentucky 1,700 

Lady Sale lOth-D. L. Hughes 1,600 

Princess of Vinewood 2d-J. V. Grigsby 1,560 

Sd Lady Bates of Vinewood— E. S. Bussing, New York. .... 1,600 

Rosa Bonheor 8th— Avery & Murphy 1,400 

Ruby Duchess— John R. Craig 1,226 

Bright Eyes 9th— T. Stedman & Son, Massachusetts 1,176 

Duenna Duchess 7th— J. H. Spears & Sons 1,126 

Victoria llth-J. G. Cowan, Missouri 1,060 

Duenna Duchess 6th— B. Sumner & Co., Connecticut 1,060 

JubUeeOxford 4th-J. V. Grigsby 1,000 

Sanspareil 10th— J. H. Spears & Sons 1,000 

Oxford Geneva— D. L. Hughes, Towa 6,000 

2d Compton Iiord Wild Eyes— John Collard, Iowa 8,600 

8d Duke of Under-Edge— John Collard. 2,100 

2d Duke of Undei^Edge— Hon. William M. Smith, Illinois. . 1,650 

1st Duke of Under-Edge— Mrs. Jesse Long, Iowa 1,060 

64 females sold for $109,446 ; an average of $1,710 

9 bulls sold for 14,015; an average of 1,557 

78 animals sold for 128,460; an average of 1,091 

Other important transactions. — At H. D. 

Ayres' sale Mr. Groom bought Hilpa Duchess 
at $2,50a; at W. L. Sudduth's a pair of Miss 
Washingtons (Youug Marys) fetched $2,000; at 
John W. Prewitt's B. F. Vanmeter gave $1,000 
for a Gentle Annie Phyllis, and at B. P. Goff's 
Mr. J. H. Pickrell took Bright Lady of the 



A GOLDEN AGE. 493 

Realm at $4,000. This Booth heifer was out of 
Bright Lady, the dam of Breastplate. 

At Wesley Warnock's seventy-three females 
sold for $29,510, an average of $404, L. F. Pierce 
of Maysville giving $2,675 for Cambridge Rose 
3d, John R. Craig of Canada $2,250 for Duchess 
of Springwood, and J. H. Spears & Son $1,600 
for Miss Wiley of Vinewood. At J. C. Jenkins' 
sale fifteen head brought the great average of 
$1,274, Mrs. Jesse Long of Iowa going to $2,125 
for Mazurka 36th; George M. Bedford bid $2,500 
for 4th Louan of Oakland and $2,000 for Louan 
of Prospect Farm ; E. K. Thomas followed Bloom- 
ing Heath 2d to $2,055, and J. H. Spears went 
to $1,650 on Mazurka 33d. 

Mr. Warfield sold to John Comstock of In- 
diana the bull calf Loudon Duke 12th, by imp. 
Robert Napier, at $1,500. Gen. Meredith & 
& Son bought 3d Mazurka at $2,000, Julia 3d at 
$1,000 and Martha Muscatoon at $1,000 from 
C. M. Niccolls, Bloomington, 111. 

All records broken at Dunmore. — On 
Wednesday, Aug. 25, 1875, the greatest aver- 
age ever made at an auction sale of cattle in 
the world was obtained by Lord Dunmore at a 
draft sale held on the Earl's estate near Stir- 
ling, Scotland, upon which occasion thirty- 
nine head brought the enormous total of 
$149,336, an average of $3,829 on the entire 
lot. It was here also that the greatest price 



494 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN CATTLE. 

ever obtained for a bull of any breed was paid, 
to- wit.: 4,500 gs., which reduced to American 
gold at that date was the equivalent of $26,904, 
the bull being Duke of Connaught (33604) of 
the Bates Duchess tribe. 

It is of special interest to American breeders 
to note that the best price made at this sale by 
a female was by a representative of the Renick 
Rose of Sharon family, and that the sire of 
Duke of Connaught was the American-bred 
Duke of Hillhurst (28401), that was bred by 
Hon. M. H. Cochrane from the 14th Duke of 
Thorndale (28459). Furthermore, the high- 
priced Oxford females sold were the produce 
of the 8th and 11th Maids of Oxford, bred in 
New York and exported in 1871. In addition 
to this the second highest-priced bull of the 
sale — and the sire of a number of the most val- 
uable heifers offered — was the American-bred 
3d Duke of Hillhurst (30975), by 6th Duke of 
Geneva (30959). 

The case of Duke of Connaught is unique in 
the annals of stock-breeding for the rcaoon that 
he proved to be one of the most successful sires 
of high-class Short-horns ever used in Great 
Britain, and so great was the demand for jtock 
of his get on account of their conceded excel- 
lence that the buyer of the bull. Lord Fitzhar- 
dinge of Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, re- 
ceived in stud fees and for Connaught calves 



A QOLDEN AGS. 495 

an aggregate sum of money which more than 
reimbursed him for his extraordinary outlay at 
Dunmore. This was indeed an outstanding 
example of tke fact that if one is certain oi 
his premises in seeking to estimate the proba- 
ble value of a stock bull it is difficult to place 
any limit within reasonable bounds upon the 
price to be paid. 

This sale was conducted by Mr. John Thorn- 
ton, whose maiden effort on the auction block 
had been made at Rugby in 1868, in the em- 
ploy of the Rev. John Storer of Hellidon. * A 
list of the animals that brought $2,000 or up- 
ward is presented below, the English values 
being reduced to their current equivalent in 
American gold: 

cows AKD HKTFBBS. 

Red Rose of tbe Isles, red» calved March 9, 1870; bred by 
Abram Renick, Kentucky; got by Airdrle 2478, dam 
Duchess 8d by Dandy Duke— Lord Bective $11,669 

Marchioness of Oxford 8d, white, calved March 8, 1873; got 
by 2d Duke of Collingham (38780) out of 8th Maid of Ox- 
ford by 2d Duke of Geneva— Duke of Manchester 10,831 



* The Hellidon sale was indeed a red-letter day In Mr. Thornton's career. 
Storer waa quite an authority on Short-faoms at that time and actively 
identified with the fortunes of the Booths. In common with Messrs. Torr, 
▲ylmer, Booth and their friends Mr. Storer felt that Strafford, who was at 
this dale the presidinir renius at all the great Short-horn sales, was too 
active in behalf of tbe breeders of Bates cattle. Thornton was In Straf- 
ford's employ, and the idea of encouracrlnir a paid helper to usurp the 
throne of his employer was an unheard-of thing in Bn^land among such 
conaervative men of means as were represented by the backers of the 
Booths. Neyertheleas the Booth men brou«rht Thornton out at the Helli- 
don sale, and, although It was his first attempt with the sand glass, he 
proved his fitness for the work by keeping cool even under circumstances 
calculated to excite an old hand. 



4% A HISTORY OF 8H0BT-H0BN CATTLE. 

Red Rom of Balmoral, red, calTed Not. 14, 1878; gothyBd 
Duke of HiUhurat (80076) out of the Rose of Sharon cow 
Red Rose of Braemar by Uth Duke of Thomdale— Lord 
Bective f7,iG9 

Oxford Duchess 2d, roan, calved June 20, 1872; got by 2d 
Duke of CoUlngham (28780) out' of 11th Lady of Oxford 
by Baron of Oxford (28871)— Lord Fitzhardinge 6,078 

Fuchsia 12th, roan, calved Feb. 15, 1872; got by Duke of Al- 
bany (25081) out of Fuchsia 10th by Grand Duke of York 
(24071)--T. Lister \ 6,880 

Water Flower, red-and-white, calved Dec. 20, 1871 ; got by 
6th Duke of Geneva (80050) out of Waterloo 88th by Earl 
of Eglinton (28882)— T. Halford 8,708 

lAdy Worcester 6th, roan, calved March 80, 1800; got by 8d 
Duke of Claro (28720) out of Lady Worcester 8d by 
Charleston (21400)— A. H. Brassey 8,706 

Blythesome Eyes, red, calved Dec. 22, 1874 ; got by 8d Duke 
of HUlhurst (80075) out of WUd Eyes Duchess by 0th 
Grand Duke (10870)— Lord Bective 8,617 

Fuchsia 18th, roan, calved March 4th, 1872; got by Duke of 
Albany (26081) out of Fuchsia 0th by Grand Duke of 
York (24071)-J. W. Larking 8,886 

Lady Worcester 12th, white, calved Nov. 16, 1872; got by 
8th Duke of Geneva (28200) out of Lady Worcester 6th 
by 8d Duke of Claro (28720)— Lord Bective 8,818 

Lady Worcester 11th, white, calved Oct. 2, 1872; got by 8d 
Duke of Clara (28720) out of Lady Worcester 8d by 8d 
Duke of Wharfdale (21610)— Duke of Manchester 8,288 

Lady Worcester 16th, roan, calved May 28, 1875; got by 8d 

Duke of HUlhurst (80075)— Lord Bective 8,288 

Water Lily, red, calved June 25, 1874; got by 8d Duke of 

Hillhurst-T. Halford 8,108 

Wild Eyes Duchess, red, calved Feb. 8, 1865; got by 0th 

GrandDuke (10870)— T. Wilson 2,860 

Wild Eyebright, roan, calved Sept. 10, 1872; got by 6th Duke 

of Geneva (80050) — T. Wilson 2,720 

Lady Worcester 18th, red-and-white, calved Jan. 28, 1874 ; 

got by 8d Duke of HUlhurst (80075)— George Fox 2,000 

Lady Worcester 0th, red-and-white, calved Aug. 10, 1871 ; 

got by 8d Duke of Claro (28720) —Mr. Brogden 2,680 

Hazel Eyes, roan, calved Nov. 80, 1874 ; got by 8d Duke of 

HUlhurst (80075)— H. J. Sheldon 2,881 

Lady Worcester 15th, red, calved Feb. 1, 18T5; got by 8d 

Dukeof HUlhurst (80075) -R. Loder 2452 



A GOLDEN AGE. 497 

FnchaiA 14th, roan, oalved March 19, 1874; got by Dnke of 

Albany (25»31)— Mr. Libter 12,162 

Wild Rose, red-and-white, calved Feb. 2, 1872; got by 6th 

Duke of Geneva (80969)— Col. Kingsoote 2,092 

Sparkling Eyes, red-and-wblte, calved Nov. 18, 1873; got by 

6th Duke of Geneva (30959) —Lord Feversha m 2,09^ 

BULLS. 

Duke of Connaught (88604), roan, calved Aug. 10, 1873; got 
by Duke of HiUhurst (28401) out of Duchess 108th by 8th 
Duke of York (28480)— Started at $10,000 and sold to 
Lord Fitzhardlnge 26,904 

8d Duke of Hillburst (20975), red, calved Dec. 2, 1871; got 
by Oih Duke of Geneva (30959) out of Duchess 101st by 
4th Duke of Thorndale (17760)— Started at $5,000 and 
sold to J. W. Larking 17,988 

30 females sold for $96,457.28 ; ad average of $3,281.91 

9 bulls sold for 50,878.73; an average of 5,653.19 

39 animals sold for 149.236.01 ; an average of 8,829.13 

Ton's Triumph.— While the Bates flag flut- 
tered thfe defiance from its stronghold in the 
North, the broad pennant of the Booths was 
spread upon the autumn breeze from a moated 
manor house in Lincolnshire, where, under the 
guidance of the squire of Warlaby in person, 
the challenge met with a response that re- 
verberated throughout the Short-horn cattle- 
breeding world. 

Torr of Aylesby was dead. Warlaby had 
been passing through the fiery furnace of epi- 
demic foot-and-mouth, and now leaned for sup- 
port upon the great herd which the genius of 
'*the first farmer of England" had builded by 
thirty years of unwavering devotion to Booth 
bulls. "The well-knit frame, the cheery sun- 
at-Loonday smile, the organizing head, the 

32 



498 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

dauntless, warm heart whence w^elled unflag- 
ging energy, determined persevemnce, elo- 
quent speech and endless hospitality'' was to 
be seen no more about the picturesque cot- 
tages or among the fine old trees of Aylesby, 
but the results of a long and useful life were in 
striking evidence in those rich East Anglian 
pastures. When it came to be known, there- 
fore, that the herd was to pass at auction on 
the 2d day of September, 1875, beneath the 
shifting sands of Thornton's fateful glass,* the 
very flower of England's Short-horn chivaliy 
assembled to do honor to the memory of one 
of the most striking personalities British agri- 
culture has developed. Indeed the fame of 
Aylesby, its Short-horns, its Leicesters, its 
ponies and its well-kept fields had extended 
to the four corners of the earth. The story of 
how the great tenant-farmer had begun by 
leasing Leonard in 1844; of his persistent hir- 
ing of Mr. Booth's best sires; of his recourse to 
the Mantalinis of Barnes of Westland, Ireland, 
while Warlaby was contending with disease; 
of his creation of the Bright, Flower, the "G," 
the "M" and other famous Ri by and Aylesby 
families, was familiar to all the well-informed 
cattle-breeders in Europe, America and Aus- 

•The Bnvllah auctioneer uaea a aand-glaaa ia cloalnr blda. After due 
warning the ^laaa la held aloft and the aand allowed to run. The laat bid 
lu before the upper chamber of the grlat^s emptlea Itaelf Into the bottom 
aecurea the animal. 



A GOLDEN AGE. 499 

tralia. Hence it came to pass that when the 
dispersion of the herd was announced visitors 
from far and near gathered literally by the 
thousand. Luncheon had been set for 1,500 
guests, a great canvas accommodating 2,000 
people was provided, and yet the crow^ds over- 
flowed all Aylesby and vicinity. Great landed 
proprietors and peers of the realm mingled 
with eminent breeders, all intent upon show- 
ing their respect and love for the man who 
had accomplished so much for his country's 
good. Factors, herdsmen and agents mingled 
with the throng, eagerly examining the cattle 
and making notes on the various lots prepara- 
tory to laying bids for absent principals. It 
was, in brief, a scene that has had few paral- 
lels in agricultural history; and the disposition 
of eighty-five head of Ton's own production 
for the great sum of $243,144.57 must be re- 
garded, all things considered, as the most re- 
markable result ever yet worked out by an 
individual breeder of Short-horns or any other 
class of cattle. 

Mr. Torr had once remarked, 'It takes thirty 
years to make a herd and bring it to one's no- 
tion of perfection." Fortunately for himself 
and for the breed he lived to exactly that limit 
from the date when he first began his final 
breeding operations with Booth bulls as sires. 
He sought to produce animals combining supe- 



500 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

rior quality, with faultless pedigree, uniformity 
of character and **hard, nay, iron constitu- 
tions." He bred for oblique shoulders, great 
fore ribs, strong loins, and heavy flesh possess- 
ing mellowness without softness, and covered 
with abundance of furry hair; avoiding at all 
times what is generally referred to as "loose 
handling." To his sound^ judgment, his un- 
equaled knowledge and experience, his un- 
changeable determination to keep his best 
*'even when tempted by the golden hand of 
fashion" may be attributed the fact that his 
herd at the time of his death was called **the 
best large herd in Britain." 

Torr's favorite family was the Flower sort, 
descended in the maternal line from Robert 
Colling's Wildair; whose own brother, Phe- 
nomenon (491)— the sire of Angelina, the dam 
of Belvedere — was counted at Barmpton a bet- 
ter bull than Comet. The Aylesby Flowers 
traced to Wildair through the famous roan 
Nonpareil, the highest-priced cow at Robert 
CoUing's sale of 1818 — sold to Earl Spencer at 
370 guineas. The tribe came into Mr. Torr's 
hands in 1841 through Flora of Farnsfield, by 
Rinaldo (4949), a bull of Booth blood. The 
great cow Highland Flower (see sale list be- 
low) was of this family. The five head sold 
averaged $2,880. 

The Ribys and Brights went back to Booth's 



A GOLDEN AGE. 501 

Anna, by Pilot, through Rose, a cow bought by 
Whitaker at the Studley sale of 1834. Rose 
had two daughters. White Rose, by James 
Chrisp's Bull, and Red Rose, by Scrip (2604). 
The Brights came from the former and the 
Ribys from the latter. Although several crosses 
of extraneous blood intervened in the breeding 
of these Aylesby Annas between the Whitaker 
purchase of 1834 and the subsequent return to 
Warlaby lines in the hands of Mr. Terr in 1851 
the reuniting of the Booth currents proved a 
happy stroke. Mr. T. C. Booth took advantage 
of the Aylesby dispersion to rejuvenate the 
herd at Warlaby by transferring the best of 
this sort to his own pastures. For Bright Em- 
press he was forced to pay the record price of 
$12,900 — the highest ever given for a cow of 
any breed at auction up to that date in Great 
Britain. The twenty-two Annas made the as- 
tounding average of $4,180 each. 

Mr. Torres "G" and ^^M'' tribes— so called 
from, the fact that those were the initial letters 
used respectively in the family nomenclature — 
had a common origin in the herd of Mr. Rob- 
son. The ancestral dam of the "Gs" was Gold- 
en Beam, and of the "Ms" Moonbeam, both 
bought about 1840 and sired by Prince Comet 
(1342). The strongly-bred Warlaby bulls made 
a great impression upon this sound old founda- 
tion, producing many good Short-horns. The 



502 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

**Beams" were reduced to but seven head at 
the sale, but made an average of $1,530 each, 
the ''M" COW Mountain Vale fetching $2,500 
from the Earl of Tankerville. 

Although a devout believer in Booth blood 
Torr had an eye for a good beast however bred. 
He was impressed at the Bates dispersion sale 
by the excellence of the Waterloos. Mr. Bates 
had bred and sold to Rev. T. Cator Waterloo 3d, 
by Norfolk, from which Mr. Cator had Water 
Witch, by 4th Duke of Northumberland (3649). 
The last-named cow was bought by Mr. Torr in 
1845, and from her a large and meritorious fam- 
ily of Booth-topped Waterloos descended. In 
the herd catalogue for 1868 no less than forty 
cows and heifers were included. At the sale of 
1875 twenty-one head brought an average of 
$1,275 each.* 

Several other families, including the Tellu- 
rias — descended from a cow of that name bred 
by Earl Spencer and sold to Col. Towneley— 

*Mr. Torr reirarded Bates* Dake of Northumberland (LMO) as the "best 
Bhow bull" he ever saw. It Is related that he once went u> KlrkleTlnvton 
to hire the 4th Duke of Northumberland, bellevin? him to be even a better 
bull than the first Duke. An airreement as to price was made, but Mr. 
Bates added the stipulation that the bull must not serve more than twenty* 
five cows. Torr replied that he was wilUngr to pay the price asked, but 
could not permit such a restriction upon his use. At that time he had 
mbout thirty cows and heifers. Bates repeated : "I should not like him to 
be put to more than twenty-five cows,*' whereupon Mr. Torr dropped the 
matter, sayinsr: "Very well, Mr. Bates, you have got your bull and I have 
rot my money." It is recorded that Mr. Torr had expressed, alonff with 
many other of Mr. Bates' visitors that year, an admiration for his three 
cows by Whitaker'H Norfolk. These estimates did not meet with Mr. 
B^UeH' approval, and he finally sold two out of tie three, to-wit.: Blaneb» 
Id and Waterloo 3d, as some alleged 'to Bret rid of the eul0ff>.* 




-25 






5 I 

a; - 

o ^ 



»-4 



A GOLDEN AGE. 503 

were included in the herd at the time of the 
sale, but we have not space to supply details 
concerning them. 

The following is a list of such animals only 
as brought $3,000 or upward at this extraordi- 
nary sale. As in the case of the foregoing re- 
port of the Dunmore sale, the English prices 
are reduced to their equivalent in American 
gold, which was at that date at a premium 
which rendered the English guinea worth 
$5.9787 : 

cows AND HBIFBB8. 

Bright Empress, roan, calved July 19, 1871; got by liOrd 
Napier (26688) out of Bright Queen by FitSt-Clarence 
(14552)— Started at $5,000, sold to T. C Booth, Warlaby .112,914 

Bright Saxon, roan, calved' Feb. 22, 18?2; got by Royal 
Prince (27384) out of Bright Spangle by Prince of War- 
laby (15107)— T. C. Booth 8,997 

Highland Flower, roan, calved Aug. 6, 1868 ; got by Mountain 
Chief (20883) out of Clarence Flower by Fitz-Clarence 
(14652)-Rev. T. Staniforth 8,968 

Riby Marchioness, roan, calved March 81, 1875; got by 
Knight of the Shire (26552) out of Riby Peeress by 
Breastplate (19887)— Mr. Crosby of Ireland 7,583 

Bright Marchioness, white, calved July 20, 1871; got by 
Lord Napier (25688) out of Bright Countess by Breast- 
plate (19337)-H. Chandos Pole-Gell 7,084 

Bright Spangle, roan, calved March 8, 1866; got by Prince 
of Warlaby (15107) out of Bright Dew by British Prince 
(14197)— T. C. Booth 6,307 

Brjffht Baroness, roan, calved Aug. 21, 1870; got by Lord 
%apier (26G88) out of Bright Countess by Breastplate 
(19837)— Mr. Mitchell of Scotland 5,978 

Bright Design, roan, calved Feb. 7, 1875, got by Knight of 
the Shire (26552) out of Bright Spangle by Prince of 
Warlaby (15107) — T. C. Booth 6,081 

Heather Flower, roan, calved July 10, 1871; got by LorJ 
Napier (26688) out of Highland Flower by Mountain 
Chief (20382)-Rev. Mr. Staniforth 5,978 



504 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Briirht Dowager, red, little white, calved Nov. 12, 1878; got 
by Duke of York (28804) out of Bright Queea by Fitz- 
Clarence (14B52)—B. St. John Ackers $4,813 

Riby Pearl, white, calved Jan. 1, 1874; got by Knight of the 
Shire (26652) out of Riby Peeress by Breastplate— Hugh 
Aylmer ! 4,64S 

Bright Jewe), roan, calved Feb. 1, 1874; got by Knight of 
the Shire (26562) out of Bright Spangle by Prince of 
Warlaby (15107) -T. C. Booth 4,633 

Flower of Germany, red, calved April 18, 1860; got by 

Breastplate (19S37) -T. H. BiiUer 4,543 

Lowland Flower, roan, calved April 12, 1871 ; got by Manfred 

(26801)-B. St. JTohn Ackers 4,782 

Foreign Queen, roan, calved March 7, 1878; got by Blink- 
hooUe (28428) out of Foreign Empress by Fltz-Royal 
(26167)— Mr. Crosby of Ireland 4,812' 

Bright Queen, red-and-white, calved July 19, 1864; got by 
Fltz-Clarence (14552) out of Bright Princess— Lady 
Pigot 4,484 

Riby Empress, red, calved Nov. 4, 1872 ; got by Duke of 

York (28804) -J. W. & E. Cruickshank, Scotland 4,484 

Flower Alpine, red-and-white, calved Oct. 11, 1870; got by 

Lord Napier (26688) -Mr. McCuUoch, Australia 4,244 

Fair Saxon, red-and-wbite, calved March 11, 1860; got by 

Breastplate (I98S7)— B. St. John Ackers 4,135 

Flower of Holland, red, little white, calved Aug. 8, 1871; 

got by Breastplate (19337)— Mr. Wardle 4,065 

Riby Lassie, red, calved May 7, 1860; got by Blinkhoolie 

(23428) out of Riby Countess-T. C. Booth 8,79« 

Riby Peeress, roan, calved Sept. 18, 1865; got by Breast- 
plate (19337) out of Riby Queen— T. C. Booth 8,587 

Bright Swede, roan, calved July 28, 1874; got by Lord Cain 

(31630) out of Bright Saxon-Mr. Wilson 8,587 

Flower of Belgium, roan, calved June 17, 1872; got by Royal 

Prince (27394) -Mr. Phillips »»587 

Foreign Beauty, roan, calved Feb. 26, 1875; got by Knight 

of the Shire (26552)-Hugh Aylmer 8,108 

Warluck, red, calved Feb. 26, 1871 ; got by Lord Napier 
(26688) out of a Waterloo dam— Mr. McCuUoch, Aus- 
tralia 3,108 

Flower of the Rhine, roan, calved June 12, 1874; got by 

Knight of the Shire (26552) -Sir William S. MaxweU. . . 3,049 



A GOLDEN AGE. 50> 

Mountain Vale, red-and-white, calyed Feb. 14, 1809; got by 

Blinkhoolie (28428)— Mr. Wilson $8,079 

BULLS. 

Riby Knight, roan, calved April 14, 1874; got by Knight of 
the Shire (26652) out of Riby Lassie by BUnkhoolie 
(28428)-J. Marshall of New Zealand 4,185 

Fandango, roan, calved July 6, 1872 ; got by Royal Prince 
(27884) out of Flower of Germany by Breastplate (19887) 
-Sir William S. MaxweU 4,185 

Balmoral, roan, C3blved Feb. 17, 1875; got by Knight of the 
Shire (26652) out of Bright Queen by Fitz-Clarence 
(14552)— Rev. J. N. Micklethwaite 4,185 

Lord Lamech, roan, calved Nov. 21, 1874; got by Knight of 
the Shire (26652) out of Lady Adah by KUlerby Monk 
(20068)-^. H. Pickrell, Harristown, IlL, U. S. A 8,848 

72 females sold for 1215,585.80; an average of 12,994.25 

13 bulls sold for 27,568.27; an average of 2,119 87 

85 animals sold for 243,144.57 ; an average of 2,860.52 

Additional importations. — Mr. J. H. Pick- 
rell, who was among the Americans present at 
the English sales of 1875, made two shipments 
for account of himself and Mr. J. H. Kissinger 
of Missouri. The first, which came out from 
London in August along with some Clydesdale 
horses, long-wooled and Southdown sheep and 
Berkshire pigs, included some first-class heifers 
from the noted herd of Messrs. Hosken of Corn- 
wall, a pair of roan Booth heifers from Hugh 
Aylmer of West Dereham Abbey, Norfolk, and 
two Bates-bred yearlings from J. W. Larking, 
one a bull and the other a heifer, and both 
sired by Grand Duke of Geneva (28756). The 
second shipment was made from Glasgow in 
September and included Mr. Pickrell's pur- 



506 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

chases at the Torr sale, the $3,350 roan bull 
Lord Lamech, the red-and-white bull calf 
Flower Lad, the red "G" cow Germania, the 
roan Waterloo heifer Waterloo Shield, by 
Knight of the Shire (26552), and the red bull 
calf 2d Marquis of Worcester of the Bates Wild 
Eyes tribe from Dunmore at $900. 

Messrs. Cochrane, Beattie and Hope of Can- 
ada imported in October, 1875, twenty-five 
head, mainly of Bates breeding; and on the 
same steamer four females were shipped to S. 
R. Streator of Cleveland, 0., and six for Albert 
Crane, a Chicago capitalist owning the Durham 
Park Ranch in Kansas. In November eleven 
head were imported by Mr. Robert Ashburner 
of California. 

Coming events were already beginning to 
cast portentous shadows before. Even while 
speculation in stock of the Bates and Booth 
tribes was at its very heighth shrewd and prac- 
tical men w^ere turning their attention to the 
herds of Scotland, hitherto little known in 
America. In 1874 Mr. Robert Milne, a former 
neighbor and friend of Amos Cruickshank of 
Aberdeenshire, had imported a half-dozen fe- 
males and the bull Viscount 18507 from the 
Cruickshank herd. Favorably impressed by 
these Messrs. Low man & Smith of Toulon, 111., 
imported during the summer of 1875 seven fe- 
males from North Britain, including two 



A GOLDEN AGE. 507 

Cruickshank Butterflys and a Missie from the 
herd of Mr. Marr of Dppermill; but of these 
more anon. 

Another Benick exportation. — Prominent 
English dealers in cattle of the Bates blood 
continued to set a high valuation upon Mr. 
Renick's Rose of Sharons, and in August, 1875, 
an additional shipment selected by Simon Beat- 
tie, consisting of seven cows and heifers, was 
made on an order from Earls Dunmore and 
Bective at a reported price of $25,000. The 
Dunmore purchase consisted of the roan cow 
Poppy 5th, by 13th Duke of Airdrie; Norah 7th, 
by 4th Duke of Geneva, and Duchess 17th, by 
same sire, which were in England christened 
respectively Red Rose of Luskentyre, Red Rose 
of Dalmally and Red Rose of Killigray. Lord 
Bective took for his herd at Underley Hall 
Rosebud 10th, DucheSs 16th and Lenora 2d, all 
by 4th Duke of Geneva, and Poppy 11th, by 
Airdrie 3d. These were also given titles on the 
other side, in the order mentioned, to corre- 
spond with the English Red Rose nomencla- 
ture as follows: Red Rose of Tweeddale, Red 
Rose of Annandale, Red Rose of Nithsdale and 
Red Rose of Eskdale. 

North Elkhom (Ky.) importation.— On Oct. 
16, 1875, a sale of seventy-nine head was made 
by the North Elkhorn Co. in Kentucky, which 
resulted in an average of $652 per head. This 



508 A HISTORY OF 8H0BT-H0BN OATTLB. 

company had made an importation of more 
than forty head from England in May, 1875; 
the cattle being selected by Messrs. Richardson 
& Boswell acting as agents for the company. 
Some of the animals of this importation after- 
ward acquired high rank as producers of first- 
class stock. Bates blood predominated in the 
shipment, but there was also included the good 
cows Lady Seraphina 6th and Seraphina Caris- 
sima Sd of Lord Sudeley's breeding. There 
was also a sprinkling of Knightley and Booth 
blood. The imported cattle were sold along 
with a lot of home-bred stock on date above 
mentioned, top prices ranging as follows: 

Seraphina 8d—W. H. Riohardson, Kentucky €3,800 

Pretty MiB8 Prim— George M. Bedford, Kentucky 2,400 

Georgia Hillhur8t--0. M. Clay, Kentucky 9,060 

Acacia— E.G. Bedford, Kentucky 1,000 

Georgia Clarence— E. L. Davison, Kentucky 1,900 

Lady Seraphina 6th— John R. Craig» Canada 1,600 

Surmise Duchess 0th— T. J. Megibben, Kentucky 1,696 

Lady Seaham of Roeeneath— W. A W. Pickrell, Illinois 1,600 

Brunette 8d— J. W. Burgess, Kentucky 1,936 

tJna— J. G. Kinnaird, Kentucky 1,996 

Cateress— H. C. Hutchcraf t, Kentucky 1,996 

Duke of Wotton 9d—E. L. Davison, Kentucky 1,986 

Bohemian Knightley— E. G. Bedford, Kentucky 1,060 

Alpha— H. P. Thomson 1,060 

Water Girl— W. L. Grimes, Kentucky 1,000 

Asalea 9d—W. N. Offutt, Kentucky 1,000 

Closing eyents of 1875.— In December, 1875, 
the national convention was held at Toronto 
under the Presidency of Mr. Pickrell. After 
adjournment a combination sale from the herds 



A GOLDEN AGS. 509 

of J. R. Craig, Col. J. B, Taylor and Sumner & 
Hilton was held, at which Mr. Cochi-ane paid 
$4,000 for Kirklevington Duchess 18th. Ayres 
& McClintock of Kentucky bought the 17th 
Duke of Airdrie at $4,500, and Mr. Ayres took 
Grace Sharon at $2,900. Simon Beattie bid off 
Duchess of Raby at $3,050, and S. R. Streator 
took Grace 4th at $3,300. Princesses again 
commanded good prices, quite a number sell- 
ing at from $1,000 to $2,200; Mr. Cochrane 
gave $2,400 for Careless 8th, and Groom & Son 
$3,700 for Oneida Rose. A pair of Constances 
fetched $3,100, and the bull imp. Baron Hub- 
back 2d went to M. W. Terrill at $2,500. 

During the year 1875 115 public sales of 
Short-horns were held in America, at which 
4,347 head were sold for a total of $1,832,383, 
an average of $422. During the same time 
there were sold in Great Britain fifty-five lots, 
aggregating 2,355 head, at an average of $515. 
One of the characteristic outgrowths of this re- 
markable period of activity in the trade was 
the appearance of Bailey's Short-horn Reporter, 
issued from the oflBce of Mr. Allen, proprietor 
of the American Herd Book. It was a quar- 
terly, modeled on the general lines of John 
Thornton's invaluable English Short-horn Cir- 
cular. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE TURN OP THE TIDE. 

On the surface there was still great appar- 
ent enthusiasm on the basis of the extraordi- 
nary range of values already established, but 
the trade of 1876 developed indications that 
the market was becoming "top heavy," As 
is usual in the case of all such extensive 
speculations there had been a great expansion 
of credits. Notes given for cattle bought at 
high pric/es were beginning to mature. Such 
paper now became the subject of closer scru- 
tiny at the hands of prudent bankers, and this 
fact marked the beginning of the end of the 
most astounding trade in pedigreed cattle to 
be found in agricultural history. The decline 
at first was neither sudden nor severe, and for 
several seasons great prices were occasionally 
obtained. In fact average values held up well 
under heavy offerings, but nevertheless the 
waters of speculation were now palpably re- 
ceding. Space admonishes that we must deal 
more briefly with the details of the transac- 
tions attending the subsidence of the " boom," 
and we shall therefore in this chapter only 




The .Woodbubn-Brbd 10th DUCHESS OF AIRDRIE. 
Who»4 deacendanl» told for sums aggregating Marly $900,ooo. 




IMP. MAID OF HONOR. 
Bred by T, Qarne; imported 1873 by the late Simon Beattit, 



THB TUEN OP THB TIDE. 511 

sketch the most noteworthy events daring the 
great ^'down turn" in values marked by the 
period extending from 1876 to 1880. 

Hon. (George Brown and Bow Park. — In the 
spring of 1876 the Hon. George Brown of Can- 
ada, one of the most remarkable characters 
ever identified with the Short-horn trade in 
America, proceeded to Scotland (the land of 
his birth) and through the assistance of his 
brothers-in-law Messrs. William and Thomas 
Nelson, of the great firm of Thomas Nelson & 
Sons, organized a limited company under the 
name of the Canada West Farm Stock Associa- 
tion. While this enterprise was launched at a 
most unfortunate time for the stockholders, 
and was therefore foredoomed to ultimate 
financial failure, its operations were so exten- 
sive and were carried forward with such enter- 
prise that a deep impression was made upon 
the fortunes of the breed on this side of the 
Atlantic. 

Mr. Brown had come to Toronto from Edin- 
burg as a young man and had worked himself 
up through the field of journalism and politics 
into the very highest circles of power in the 
Dominion. He had for many years been pro- 
prietor of the Toronto Globej a paper known 
all over Canada as "the Scotchman's bible/' 
Personally he was a man of marked force of 
character, and his vigorous intellect, combined 



512 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

with a commanding physique, rendered him 
one of the most conspicuous figures of his day. 
Inflexible, as a rule, in his dealings with others, 
and. a dictator in his editorial office, he failed 
to control the political elements with which 
he came in coni^t^ but animated by an ambi- 
tion to promote the material interests of his 
adopted country, and having a natural taste 
for agricultural pursuits he took up first at 
Bothwell, a small town west of London, Ont, 
and latterly at Bow Park, Brantford, Ont., the 
business of farming. Naturally a man of broad 
ideas he developed at Bow Park the breeding 
of Short-horn cattle upon a most extensive 
basis. In June, 1874, an invoice showed that 
he had then upon the farm 330 Short-horns, of 
which 274 were females and fifty-six bulls. At 
that time his plan was to rear the cattle on 
what is known as the "soiling" system. The 
Short-horns were never turned out to graze, 
but had green food duiring the summer months 
and dry fodder, along with beets and turnips, 
during the winter.* In addition to being ex- 
ceedingly expensive this system was, of course, 

* While In attendance at some of the Eentuclcy sales Mr. Brown com- 
mented in the most complimentary terms upon the excellence of the Ren- 
Ick Rose of Sharons, his expression ordinarily belnv: *' A praad lot of cat> 
tie; but they ought to beT* A Kentucklan finally asked the Canadian visi- 
tor what he meant hy the latter part of his remark. He replied In 
Yankee fashion by asking the question: *' How many acres In Mr. Renlck's 
farm?'* He was Informed: "Mr. Benlck's estate consists, air, of about 
S^fiOO acres of the best blue-crass land In Central Kentucky, sir.** To which 
Mr. Brown rejoined: " I believe that ^reat body of land carries only a herd 
of 100 cattle. We have had at Bow Park 3G0 head upon 800 acres.** 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 513 

unnatural. The herd at that time consisted 
mainly of cattle of mixed breeding, good indi- 
vidually, as a rule, but in the belief that some- 
thing still better existed the enterprising 
proprietor decided upon a change of base. 
The Nelson alliance was perfected and the 
original herd disposed of at low prices, but for 
many years following its practical value was 
reflected throughout the whole of Canada in 
the steers produced upon the Dominion farms. 

The Canada West Farm Stock Association, 
with a capitalization of $400,000, made its ini- 
tial importation by the Polynesian from Liver- 
pool in June, 1876, which was followed in July 
by two other shipments, aggregating in all 
some seventy-five head of high-priced Bates- 
bred cattle. It was the plan of the company 
to import only animals of the finest individual 
quality belonging to the most popular strains 
of blood, and something like $200,000 was rep- 
resented by its investments in cattle, horses, 
sheep and pigs. 

4th Duke of Clarence. — In the shipment 
that came out from Liverpool in July, 1876, 
by the good ship Circassian was a long, lank, 
undeveloped roan yearling bull, bred by Col. 
Gunter of Wetherby Grange and sired by 18th 
Duke of Oxford (25595) out of Duchess 109th 
by 2d Duke of Claro (21576). Mr. Brown was 
so little enamored of this youngster upon his 



514 A HI8T0BT OP SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

arrival that his first idea was to return him to 
England and have him. resold. Fortunately fof 
himself and the Bow Park Short-horns better 
counsel prevailed. It was pointed out that the 
calf had been badly kept on a farm on the 
Yorkshire "wolds" and had proved a poor 
sailor on the Atlantic. He was accordingly re- 
tained at Bow Park and lived to develop into 
the crowning glory of that great Short-horn 
breeding establishment ; known to Short-horn 
fame for all time to come under the title of 4tb 
Duke of Clarence. He developed all of the best 
points of Mr. Bates' old type, with few of the 
defects shown by many of his carelessly-bred 
relations. Maturing into a massive, mellow- 
fleshed bull of beautiful quality, grand breed 
character and commanding presence the 4th 
Duke wafi the pride of his day and generation 
among the adherents of Bates Short-horns in 
the new world. Mated with the many good 
cows and heifers imported and bought for the 
Bow Park Herd, and under the skillful manage- 
ment of the late John Hope — who took charge 
of the herd in 1878 — he sired many valuable 
cattle that gained high honors in the show- 
yards of Canada and the United States, con- 
spicuous among which may be mentioned the 
celebrated white bullock Clarence Kirkleving- 
ton, champion of the American Fat-Stock Show 
of 1884. The 4th Duke proved not only a great 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 615 

stock-getter but was also shown with success 
at Cleveland (Ohio), Toronto and London in 
1878 and 1879. lie remained at the head of 
the Bow Park Herd until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1887. 

Opening sales of 1876.— The sales this year 
opened in Iowa, where a large number of cat- 
tie were offered at West Liberty and Des Moines. 
No sensational prices were made except at S. 
W. Jacobs' sale, where 2d Peri of Lyndale was 
bid off at $7,050 by D. S. Bussing of New York. 
D. M. Plynn took Roan Princess at $3,900. Bus- 
sing bought Lucy Napier at $2,475, and Minnie 
Annandale 2d for $2,500. For Loudon's Minnie 
D. Wilson of West Liberty gave $2,550. For 
Nelly Bly 7th Rigdon Huston of Illinois paid 
$1,975. The bull Oxford of Springwood fetchec^ 
$2,000 from John R. Owens of Illinois. Jacobs' 
146 head brought $86,895, an average of $595. 
C. S. Barclay sold eighty-eight head for $27,275, 
and Campbell & Chase ninety-seven head for 
$27,446. 

In Illinois Davis Lowman of Toulon held a 
sale which was topped by the Cruickshank cow 
Red Lady 8d, bought by W. & W. Pickrell for 
$1,200. A. J. Dunlap paid $1,010 for the Scotch- 
bred imp. Lovely 18th, and at the same sale 
WinlBeld Scott, Wyoming, 111., bought Miss 
Wiley of Green Lawn for $1,100, and J. H. 
Spears paid $1,005 for the bull Sam Wiley 



516 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

12880. At A. J. Dunlap's sale Mr. Spears paid 
$1,300 for Fanny Hunt 5th, and George Otley 
of Neponset, III., 11,060 for Sonsie Lass 2d. 

Potts buys imp. Duke of Richmond. — At 
Springfield, 111.^ on May 3 J. H. Kissinger sold 
twenty-two cattle for $25,335, an average of 
$1,152. D. A. Rouner of Newark, Mo., bid off 
the bull 2d Marquis of Worcester at $3,000 and 
the cow Knightley Belle at $2,275. J. H. Potts 
ft Son bought the Scotch-bred imp. Duke of 
Richmond for $2,250, the cow Mattie Richard- 
son at $1,805, and 2d Louan of Linwood at 
$1,850. W. & W. Pickrell took Caroline Coch- 
rane at $2,100. A. E. Kimberley of West Lib- 
erty paid $2,700 for Loudon Duchess of Bedford. 
Mr. J. H. Pickrell owned a half interest in the 
cow last named, and at the same time and 
place sold ten head of cattle at an average of 
$862, including Countess of Cornwall at $2,050 
to Col. Robert HoUoway and Countess- of Ox- 
ford 4th at $1,500 to James N. Bro.wn's Sons. 
On the following day Messrs. Spears, lies, et a/., 
sold at Springfield ; Harvey Sodowsky paying 
$l,600.for Airdrie Bloom, and Winslow Bros, of 
Kankakee $1,025 for Prairie Blossom. 

Col. HoUoway's big average. — On May 25 
Col. Robert HoUoway sold sixty-three cattle 
at Dexter Park, Chicago, for an average of 
$1,087. The top price was $4,250, given by A. 
J. Streeter of New Windsor, 111., for Rose of 



THE TUEN OF THE TIDE. 517 

Sharon of Durham Lawn. The next was $3,925, 
paid by F. J. Barbee of Kentucky for Loudon 
Duchess 15th. For the bull imp. Oxford Beau 
2d the West Liberty breeders gave $3,800. For 
1st Rose of Sharon of Durham Lawn John 
Hope, then in business at Markham, Ont., gave 
$3,200. For the Princess cow 4th Tuberose of 
Brattleboro George Otley paid $3,025. For 
Roan Duchess 7th of Bow Park Streeter gave 
$3,250. For 11th Belle Duchess of Plumwood 
William Thomson's Sons of Kentucky paid 
$3,050. Streeter also gave $2,750 for imp. Wa- 
terloo J., $1,700 for Roan Duchess 7th of Au- 
vergne, $1,250 for Lady Goodness and $1,426 for 
the bull Grand Airdrie 19894. Mr. Pogue of 
Kentucky gave $2,500 for Geneva Duchess of 
Goodness. 

On the following day W. B. Dodge sold at 
Chicago; the highest price obtained being 
$1,800 for the Princess cow 7th Lady Sale 
of Brattleboro, bought by Bailey & Goodspeed 
of Wisconsin. The same parties purchased 
9th Lady Sale of Brattleboro at $1,500. S. 
W. Jacobs of West Liberty took thQ famous 
Garne-bred Murray cow imp. Maid of Honor at 
$1,525 and imp. Nectar at $1,000. At a sale 
from the herd of Nelson Jones next day Pliny 
Nichols of West Liberty gave $1,050 for 2d Red 
Rose of Woodside, and P. A. Coen, Washburn, 
ni., paid $1,000 for Baron Bates 4th. 



518 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HOBN CATTLE. 

At the Meredith sale at Cambridge City, Ind., 
in June fifty-two head brought $20,555, the 
most notable transaction of the day being the 
purchase of 4th Mazurka of Chesterfield by 
Walter Handy of Kentucky at $2,525. At Ste- 
phen Dunlap's sale in Illinois Gen. C. E. Lip- 
pincott gave $1,800 for imp. Jubilee Gwynne. 

Albert Crane pays $23,600 for an Airdrie 
Duchess.— At Cochrane, Beattie and Hope's 
sale in Canada Albert Crane of Chicago, whose 
purchases of cattle for his 17,000-acre ranch at 
Durham Park, Kan., have already been men- 
tioned, came into the market for Duchesses, 
and took Airdrie Duchesses 2d and 3d at $21,- 
000 and $23,600 respectively. J. P. Foster of 
England bought Wild Eyes Lassie at $4,500. 
Col. Le G. B. Cannon, a wealthy Vermonter, 
took Kirklevington Duchess 18th at $4,000. 
Messrs. W. & W. Pickrell of Illinois bought the 
bull Baron Siddington at $2,200. The fifty- 
four head averaged $1,709. About this same 
date Avery & Murphy of Port Huron, Mich., 
purchased Airdrie Duchess 5th as a calf from 
Mr. Cochrane for $18,000. At a sale by John 
Snell's Sons, held in Canada at same time, W. 
^Yilliams of Massachusetts gave $1,520 for 
Lady Seraphina 6th, and N. G. Pond of Milford, 
Conn., $1,800. Hon. George Brown of Bow 
Park sold at Toronto in this same series, re- 
ceiving $1,500 from John R. Craig for 3d Duch- 



THB TURN OF THE TIDE. 519 

ess of Springwood, and $1,000 from 8. W. 
Jacobs of Iowa for Mazarka 10th. Messrs. A. 
H. & I. B. Day sold at Keokuk, la., on June 15, 
West Liberty breeders proving the best buyers. 
Messrs. Jacobs & Wilson bought the three 
Scotch-bred females imp. Golden Drop 1st, 
Golden Drop A. and Golden Drop B. at $1,000, 
$1,475 and $1,275 respectively. D. Wilson & 
Son also bought Louan of Van Buren at $1,200. 
$17,900 for 14th Duke of Thomdale.— At 
the Kentucky summer sales of 1876 the highest 
price ever made in America for a bull of any 
breed was obtained for the 14th Duke of 
Thorndale (28459). He was sold by George M. 
Bedford and knocked off at $17,900 to Mr. W. C. 
Vanmeter of Winchester, Ky., bidding for Levi 
Goff of Paris, a son-in-law of Mr. Bedford's. 
At this same sale A. L. NiccoUs of Ottawa, 
Kan., bought $18,000 worth of stock — twelve 
head — including Lady Bates 6th at $6,000, the 
bull Imperial Bates at $3,300, and the 20th 
Duchess of Goodness at $2,100. The security 
tendered on his notes, however, was not satis- 
factory and the cattle remained at Mr. Bed- 
ford's. Mr. Embry of Richmond, Ky., took 
Airdrie Belle at $2,750, Airdrie Belle 8d at 
$4,050, and Oneida Belle at $2,000. At a sale 
made by B. J. Qay, Hall & Taylor and B. F. 
Bedford eighty-one cattle sold for an average 
of $400. Brown and Gregg of Canada paid 



520 A HISTORY OF 8H0BT-H0RN CATTLK. 

$1,425 for Roan Dachess 12th, and H. C. Smith 
of Kentucky $2,750 for Cambridge Rose 5th. 
A pair of Valley Princesses brought $2,300 from 
Corbin & Patterson. At Leslie Combs' sale 
Hon. George Brown and Maj. Gregg paid $1,400 
for Moss Rose 2d. At Walter Handy's Ware 
& McGoodwin of Kentucky bought 4th Mazurka 
of Chesterfield for $1,740. On Aug. 17 at Chil- 
licothe, 0., George Grimes and others sold fifty- 
three cattle for $17,680. At this sale John 
Montgomery of Granville, 0., paid $1,000 each 
for Oxford Gwynnes 2d and 6th and Rose of 
Cashmere. J. S. Kirk of Washington C.-H. 
gave the same for Elsie. 

Closing events of 1876.— In the autumn of 
this year Ware & McGoodwin of Kentucky sold 
the 3d Duke of Oneida at public sale for $6,800 
to Ayres, Barton & Hutchcraft of same State. 
At a sale by H. P. Thomson in Kentucky forty- 
one head averaged $977. Quite a lot of Prin- 
cesses were included and a determined effort 
was made to secure long prices for them. 
Winslow Bros, of Illinois took 4th Princess of 
the Valley at $2,200; Col. J. B. Taylor of Canada 
Princess of the Valley at $2,450; Hon. M. H. 
Cochrane 2d Princess of the Valley at $2,500, 
and Col. Simms of Kentucky Highland Maid 
6th at $1,650. For the Bates-bred 2d Duchess 
of Kirklevington F. J. Barbee gave $2,000 and 
Belle Duchess was bid off by Joseph Julian of 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 521 

Bainbridge, N. T., at $4,000. At Bush & Hamp- 
ton's sale Abner Strawn of Illinois gave $2,050 
for Geneva Rose. At J. V. Grigsby's ho less 
than thirteen head sold in the four figures; the 
Haniiltons of Mount' Sterling, Ky., took Sharon 
Rose at $3,400; Col. Simms bought Geneva 
Rose at $2,325, and W. C. Vanmeter several 
high-priced lots. The $1,000 mark was also 
passed several times at the sales of Robinson, 
Bean and the Haniiltons. In connection with 
Ayres & McClintock's sale August Whitman 
sold two Princesses (Tuberoses) to T. L. Mc- 
Kc^n of Easton, Pa., for $2,750. 

During 1876 there were sold at auction sale 
in America 4,014 animals for $1,366,805, an av- 
erage of $341.28. Of these 1,151 head were sold 
in Illinois for $395,005, 1,011 head in Kentucky 
for $373,830, 751 head in Iowa for $232,475. 
The general average was $41 below that for 
1875. In Great Britain 2,802 head were sold 
at auction for $728,270, an average of $260 
each. 

B. B. Groom & Son shipped six more Renick 
Rose of Sharons this year to England, and also 
sold the 6th Duke of Kirklevington (30182) to 
J. R. Shelley of Freeport, 111., for $5,000. An- 
other event of general interest this season was 
the removal of Messrs. A. M. Winslow's Sons 
(Henry and Peleg), with their herd of Prin- 
cesses, from Putney, Vt., to Kankakee, 111. 



522 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN OATTLB. 

Pickrell & Kissinger. — In the early spring 
of 1877 Messrs. J. H. Pickrell and J. H. Kissin- 
ger pooled their valuable Short-hom holdings, 
one half, headed by imp. Flower Lad 23170 
(Torr-Booth) and Baron Siddington (Bates), 
being maintained at Clarksville, Mo., and the 
other portion, with the imp. Lord Lamech 
(34578), at Harristown, 111. We have already 
detailed at some length Mr. Pickreirs promi- 
nent identification with Western Short-horn 
interests, and have made some allusion to Mr. 
Kissinger's successful operations. Some fur- 
ther facts in reference to the latter's connec- 
tion with the trade will be of interest. 

Mr. Kissinger was born in Pike Co., Mo., in 
1840 from Kentucky parentage. Reared on a 
farm and possessed of great natural love for 
agricultural pursuits, he developed a deep in- 
terest in Short-horns and in 1867 made his first 
appearance in Western show-yards. At the 
Illinois State Fair of that year he exhibited a 
grade Short-horn steer four years old weighing 
2,400 lbs., to which a first prize was awarded. 
The bullock was afterward sold to J. H. Spears 
for $300. It was here that Mr. Kissinger made 
his first purchases, buying the cows Dove 3d 
(A. H. B., Vol. VIII, p. 316) and Beauty (Vol. 
VIII, p. 257); the latter proving a grand show 
animal, beaten at St. Louis in 1871 only by Col. 
King's renowned imp. Rosedale. Kissingers 



THE TURN OF THB TIDB. 523 

next purchase was at J. H. Spears* sale in 1868 
where he bought the cow Iva Jones (Vol. XV, 
p. 608) and her bull calf Duke of Airdrie 9800, 
which stood at the head of his herd for four 
years and proved a successful show bull as well 
as a sire of prize-winners. The next addition 
to his herd consisted of four females from Mr. 
Pickrell's, bought in 1869. Among these was 
Caroline Airdrie (Vol. IX, p. 519), which was 
sold in 1871 to Thomas S. Page of California 
for $1,800. From 1870 to 1872 he made numer- 
ous purchases of females in Kentucky, and in 
June, 1873, made his first sale at Linwood 
Farm, his residence in Pike Co., Mo., when fifty 
head brought an average of $400. In 1874 he 
purchased largely from the best Kentucky 
herds, securing Kissinger's Breastplate 17476 at 
six months old at $1,250. His next purchase 
was the yearling Cruickshank heifer imp. Or- 
ange Blossom 18th for $2,500, which he kept 
for one year and sold to Mrs. Kimberly of West 
Liberty for $3,500 He also bought the after- 
ward celebrated Scotch-bred bull imp. Duke of 
Richmond, subsequently so famous in the herd 
of Messrs. Potts. Mr. Kissinger was one of the 
first to recognize the great merit of the Aber- 
deenshire Short-horns on this side of the water. 
Indeed imp. Duke of Richmond laid the foun- 
dation for their later popularity in this coun- 
tiy. In 1875 he bought a car-load of Cruick- 



524 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

shank-bred cattle from James I. Davidson of 
Canada. At the great Western fairs that year 
his herd, headed by imp. Duke of Richmond, 
and including the cows Mattie Richardson, 
Caroline Cochrane, Caroline Pickrell, 2d Louan 
of Linwood, and Pretty Jemima 2d, won first 
prize at Jacksonville, 111.; Hannibal, Mo.; the 
Illinois and Iowa State Fairs, at St. Louis and 
Louisiana, Mo. The cattle were then sold at 
auction, as already detailed. The famous show 
herd of J. H. Potts & Son was largely founded 
from this stock. 

Messrs. Pickrell & Kissinger were for years 
ruling spirits at our Western shows. During a 
period of twelve years, running from 1867 to 
1879, cattle shown in their names won, in com- 
petition with the best herds of the United 
States and Canada, prizes aggregating $40,000. 
Their aim was'ever individual merit in the an- 
imal and the promotion of the best interests of 
the breed. Lavish in their expenditures for 
high-class Short-horns, enterprising and per- 
sistent in their efforts at demonstrating the 
excellence of the breed in the great show- 
yards of the West, it is but simple justice to 
record that no men ever connected with the 
American Short-horn trade have done more to 
set up correct standards and further the sub- 
stantial interests of Short-horns on this side of 
the Atlantic. 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 525 

Spring sales of 1877. — The opening sales of 
1877 were disappointing, but at John Bond's 
at* Abingdon, 111., the Scotch-bred imp. Missie 
39th, of Marr's breeding; brought $1,040 from 
J. McClellan of Astoria, 111., and imp. Butterfly 
45th, from Sittyton, fetched $1,000 from George 
Chase of West Liberty, la. At S. W. Jacobs' 
sale at West Liberty A. Shropshire of Monroe, 
la., gave $1,600 for the Cruickshank heifer Vil- 
lage Girl and $1,550 for Lucy Napier. C. Mc- 
Cune of Solon, la., paid $1,460 for the Bates 
cow imp. Acomb Belle, $1,200 for the Scotch- 
bred imp. Golden Drop 2d, $1,000 for Golden 
Drop A., and $1,120 for imp. Maid of Honor, 
taking also the Bates bull imp. Underley Wild 
Eyes at $700. A cross of this bull upon the 
Golden Drops produced the branch of this 
fine Kinellar family that afterward became 
so celebrated in the herd of Col. W. A. Harris 
at Linwood, Kan. At a sale by Abner Strawn 
at Dexter Park, Chicago, May 8 Trimble & 
Henshaw of Plattsburg, Mo., gave $2,425 for 
Geneva Rose, and William E. Simms of Ken- 
tucky $1,500 for Grace 3d. During the same 
series C. A. De Graff of Minnesota paid $3,000 
for Peri's Duchess, and William Slater of Mass- 
achusetts $1,500 for 7th Lady Sale of Brattle- 
boro — both sold by Bailey & Goodspeed of Wis- 
consin. At Lippincott & Spears' sale at the 
same place Gen. Lippincott bid off the 22d 



526 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Duchess of Airdrie for 115,000, and the 21st 
Duke of Airdrie was knocked down to William 
Babcock of Canton, III, at |8,000. On Jun6* 6 
the 22d Duke of Airdrie was sold by Richard 
Gibson at London, Ont., to Col. Le G. B. Cannon 
of Vermont for $4,900; Rosy Princess 2d to 
Winslow & Wadsworth for $1,250; Rosy Prin- 
cess 5th to A. L. Stebbins of Detroit for $1,225; 
Ursuline 3d at $1,500 and Constance of Lyndale 
6th at $1,000 .to Col. Cannon; thirty-nine head 
averaging $591. On the same day John Hope 
gold Kirklevington Duchess 8th to U. J. Han-is 
of Webster, Mass., for $2,300, and Duchess of 
Clarence 12th at $1,500 and Docile at $1,225 to 
Hon. George Brown of Bow Park. At the same 
sale T. L. Harison of New York sold the Prin- 
cess Lady Gertrude to Winslow & Wadsworth 
for $4,000. Shortly after this sale Mr. Hope 
took charge of the herd at Bow Park. During 
the summer Messrs. Winslow sold six young 
Princess bulls at an average price of $1,000 
each, the 19th Duke of Airdrie being in service 
in their herd at the time. 

At S. Meredith & Sons' summer sale the 
Messrs. Hamilton of Mount Sterling, Ky., 
bought the 20th Duke of Airdrie for $6,975. In 
their Flat Creek Herd this bull afterward left 
a very valuable set of heifers; many of which 
were introduced into prominent Western herds. 
He seemed to "nick" particularly well with the 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 527 

Young Marys, Rose of Sharons, and Josephines 
of which the Hamilton herd was so largely 
composed. 

At A. E. Kimberley's sale at West Liberty, 
la., S. W. Jacobs bought Breastplate 11431 at 
$5,000. J. H. Bowman of Waverly, la., gave 
$1,010 for the bull Jubilee's Breastplate, $2,025 
for Jubilee Napier, and $1,750 for Jubilee Na- 
pier 2d. At Wilson & Sons' sale at West Lib- 
erty Mr. McCune, Solon, la., added to his herd 
imp. Golden Drop 2d at $1,160. At S. C. Dun- 
can's sale in Missouri B. F. Winn gave $1,200 
for Duke of Tuberose 26408. At C. L. Vanme- 
ter s summer sale in Kentucky Messrs. Hamil- 
ton were free buyers, taking Ophelia's Geneva 
at $1,350 and 7th Belle of Bath at $1,000. At 
Mr. Barbee's sale in Kentucky the Hamiltons 
gave $1,570 for Loudon Duchess 15th and John 
Hope bought two Kirklevingtons at $1,225 
each. 

Cochrane at Windermere.— On Sept. 4, 1877, 
at Bowness, Cumberland, amid the beauteous 
surroundings of the Lake district of North- 
western England, so famed in poetry and song, 
the Hon. M. H. Cochrane of Hillhurst, Can., 
offered at public sale thirty-two head exported 
for this purpose from Canada, along with 
eleven head belonging to Simon Beattie. Mr. 
Cochrane had been from the beginning one of 
the clearest-sighted men identified with the 



628 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN OATTUS. 

Short-horn trade. He was one of the first to 
profit by the rising tide of Short-horn values in 
America after the close of the Civil War; en- 
gaged boldly and profitably in the early Duch- 
ess speculations, made numerous sales at high 
prices to leading buyers on both sides the At- 
lantic, and when he observed that America was 
not taking kindly to the high-priced Booths, 
began turning them back upon the English 
market. In the fall of 1875 he sold to Mr. A. 
H. Browne of Northumberland five Booth heif- 
ers at a reported price of $17,500. During that 
same year he exported Royal Commander 
(29857) and sold him at the Aylesby sale for 
1,150 guineas to Hugh Aylmer. In August, 
1876, he shipped two heifers and three year- 
ling bulls, also of Booth blood, to Scotland, and 
in 1877, as above mentioned, he appeared at 
Windermere with a group of cattle deep in the 
most fashionable Warlaby blood.* Believing 
also that the English market at this time 
afforded a better prospect for high prices for 
Bates cattle than America he included in this 
shipment the red Duchess heifers 3d and 5th 

* Mr. Cochrane attributed the failure of the Booths to score a specula 
live success in America durinsr this period largely to the fact that Ameri- 
can buyers at that time insisted, as a rule, upon fine style and Anlsh. The 
Booths, more especially the bulls, were somewhat inclined to roughness 
about their heads, having been bred more for flesh and constitution tlun 
for refinement. A^ain they ran strongly toward ll^ht colors. Another 
reason was found in the fact that quite a number of the hirh-prlced im- 
ported Booth cows and heifers had failed to breed. 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 529 

Duchesses of Hillhurst and the 2d Duke of Hill- 
hui-st. 

The event demonstrated that Mr. Cochrane's 
judgment was, as usual, not at fault.* The 
yearling 5th Duchess of Hillhurst was taken 
by Earl Bective at 4,300 guineas, the highest 
price ever paid for a cow in Great Britain; the 
yearling 3d Duchess went to R. Loder at 4,100 
guineas, and the six-year-old 2d Duke of Hill- 
hurst to A. H. Longman at 800 guineas. The 
Bates-bred heifers Marchioness of Barrington 

«This sale was one of the few events In Short-horn history to which s 
ffenuine International Interest attached. While no American bidders were 
p r e s e nt the occasion stirred the British Short-horn breedlner fraternity to 
Its very dei»ths. Senator Cochrane had shrewdly baited his hook to attract 
the heavy-welvhts of both the Bates and Booth factions. The excitement 
was Intense, as record prices were made on the Duchess heifers, and after 
the sale a rather clever parody entitled "The Farmada, by Thomas Bab> 
bUnffton Mook-a-laj,** appeared in the London IAn»-8todc JounuU^ from 
which we make the followlnir excerpts: 
**Blgh on his break sits Bective; meek near the rln^ stands Torr. 
While Stanlforth with Loder hold with AUsopp friendly war; 
There is Crosbie from wild Kerry and Foster from Klllhow, 
There is Salt from busy Bradford and Longman from 'The Bow;* 
The rival strains commlnirle and forget their deadly hates. 
As now the cry's for Booth blood and now a^ain for Bates. 
But hark! the war commences, fitlr shines the sun upon 
« The friendly lerlons marshalled by the wand of 'Honest John.* 
At first the bids are modest, and the small men have their way. 
Bat fiercer ^rows the struggle when the giant 'plungers* say. 
A Duchess proudly walks the ring and 'thousands* fly like hall, 
But Whittlebary scores the prise, the second of the sale; 
The vales of Troutbeck rtnif with cheers and echo back the sounds 
As HillhursVs Third Is landed for o*er four thousand pounds. 



Waves now the field for Warlaby as Vesper Star comes In, 
And silent though the Bates men are the Booths maintain the dlik 
A Crosbie wins the maiden for a thousand guineas down, 
Nor rues the lucky bid that claimed her for his own. 
More Stars shine forth in beauty and make but little stay, 
Vor sturdy Booth is 'wanted* and quickly wins Its w«y.** 
31 



580 A HI8T0RT OF SHORT-HORN OATTLE. 

and Lady Surmise, that had also been exported» 
fetched respectively 800 guineas and 400 guin- 
eas from Sir W. H. Salt. The Booth cow 
Vesper Star went to Mr. W. Talbot Crosbie of 
Ardfert Abbey at 1,000 guineas. The eleven- 
year-old Vernal Star made 450 guineas to Mr. 
Darby The nine-year-old cow White Rose, by 
Mountain Chief, was taken by Rev. T. Stani- 
forth at 300 guineas. Mr. John Torr, M. P., 
bought Bright Lady, a nine-year-old roan, at 
330 guineas. British Queen, eight years old, 
became the property of Rev. T. Staniforth at 
230 guineas, and Welcome Lady and Queen of 
Beauty were bought by Mr. J. B. Booth at 226 
guineas and 120 guineas respectively. 

Mr. Beattie did not have as good luck with 
his lot> although the 41st Duchess of Goodness 
(of Kentucky breeding) fetched 205 guineas 
from Earl Bective. His Princesses and other 
American-bred cattle sold at low figures. 

Sale summary for 1877. — During this year 
3,237 Short-horns were sold in America for 
$742,871, an average of $230, a falling off of 
$111 per head from the average of 1876. In 
Great Britain 2,455 head were sold at an aver- 
age of about $274, an increase over the average 
of 1876 of about $12. During the year Col. 
Gunter had received $10,000 for the Duchess 
bull 5th Duke of Clarence, a brother to the 
Bow Park 4th Duke of Clarence. On Sept. 18 



THE TUEN OF THE TIDE. 531 

E. H. Cheney had sold at Gaddesby the 13tli 
Duchess of Airdrie to R. Loder for $11,000 
13th Lady of Oxford to H. AUsopp for $9,500 
10th Maid of Oxford to Earl Bective for $8,025 
nth Maid of Oxford to H. Lovatt for $7,000, 
and the 7th Duke of Gloster (39755) to the 
Duke of Devonshire for $9,250. On the follow- 
ing day Capt. R. E. Oliver sold Grand Duch- 
esses at Sholebroke Lodge, receiving $13,750 
from Earl Bective for Grand Duchess 23d; $12,- 
250 from the wealthy brewer H. AUsopp for 
Grand Duchess 29th; $9,000 from Lord Skel- 
mersdale for Cherry Grand Duchess 4th; $7,550 
from Earl Bective for Grand Duke 31st (38374); 
$5,000 from Sir G. R. Phillips for Grand Duke 
29th (38372), and $4,500 from Mr. AUsopp for 
Cherry Grand Duchess 8th. On July 5 George 
Fox made a sale at Elmhui-st Hall, at which 
Allsopp gave $5,500 for 2d Cambridge Lady and 
$3,500 for Geneva's Eirklevington Duchess. At 
William Ashburner's sale at Conishead Grange 
Mr. Allsopp gave $3,900 for Bright Eyes 6th, 
$3,050 for Mild Eyes 4th, and $3,050 foi Conis- 
head Wild Eyes, by 24th Duke of Airdrie. Mr. 
Albert Crane sold during this season a pair of 
Airdrie Duchess heifers to Mr. Holford of Eng- 
land for $28,000. 

Notwithstanding these fancy figures abroad 
the year's business closed in America in bad 
condition. Two of the leading speculators of 



532 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the United States, Messrs. B. B. Groom of Ken- 
tucky and S. W. Jacobs of Iowa, had been 
forced into liquidation, with heavy liabilities, 
and these failures only proved the prelude 
of many others to follow.* The fall sales in 
America were everywhere disappointing. 

No Short-horus were imported during 1877, 
but some sales were made for export to the 
Japanese Government. 

A falling market. — There were some private 
sales during 1878 at high prices, but the gen- 
eral result of the year's business was disastrous 
to the speculative element. Numerous failures 
in the American trade had precipitated gen- 
eral liquidation. 

The assignment of the Grooms brought 178 
head of Bates-bred Short-horns upon the mar- 
ket at auction June 19 and 20, 1878, but sup- 
port was furnished by numerous bidders, and a 
general average of $405 was made upon the en- 
tire lot. Leading sales were as follows: Kirk- 
levington Duchess of Horton, bought for Bow 

•An incident of the trade that attracted widespread aitentton about fSbM 
period was a suit for dama^ea brought by Hon. T. J. Me^bben aotoat B. 
G. Bedford, both of Kentacky. The case grew out of the purohaae by Mr. 
Megribben of Mr. Bedford's half ink^rest in the Duohees boll Duke of Wood- 
land that had been dropped by the 4th Duchess of Oneida, pnTOhased K>inil7 
by these srentlemen at the New York Mills sale for n^^NO. The 061f was 
Imperfect— showinir but one teBticle— and proved impotent; hcnoe the suit. 
The most eminent lawyero In Kentucky were enerared as oounsel, liwlwrtlny 
the Hon. John G. Carlisle, W. C. P. Breckenridflro and others. Nearlj all the 
leading Kentucky breeders of Short-horns were summoned to givs expert 
testimony- The Jury disaflrreed, and at a second trial the result was stl^^ 
the same. On the third hearice Mr. Me«ibben secured Judcmeat for liJM< 



THE TURN C'F THE TIDE. 533 

Park at $2,800; Kirklevington Duchess of Kent 
2d, Avery & Murphy, $2,000; Wild Eyes of Vine- 
wood, same firm, $2,800; Winsome 16th, taken 
to Bow Park at $2,600; Miss Wild Eyes 3d, Hon. 
M. H. Cochrane, $1,900; Lally 8th and Barring- 
ton Lally, A. L. Hamilton, $1,550 and $1,525 re- 
spectively; May Rose 4th, Col. Le G. B. Cannon, 
$2,010; Bell Duchess, A. F. Duckworth, $1,325; 
2d and 4th Duchesses of Vinewood, C. H. An- 
drews, Yocmgstown, 0., $1,225 and $1,075 re- 
spectively; 6th Duchess of Vinewood, S. White, 
Windsor, Ont., $1,100; 15th Lady of Oxford, 
bought for Bow Park at $1,000. T. Corwin 
Anderson of Side View, Kentucky, was a free 
buyer at this sale. 

At H. N. Moore's sale in Iowa T. R. Westrope 
paid $2,150 for the roan Bates Secret cow Silver 
Lady, bred by J. P. Foster of Killhow and im- 
ported by John Hope. Notwithstanding occa- 
sional prices of this sort the 2,048 head sold at 
auction in America during 1878 averaged but 
$154. The situation abroad was better, as the 
English were doing business with more capital. 
During the same period 2,877 head were sold 
in Great Britain at an average of $285. 

Top prices in England for 1878.— Earl Bee- 
tive sold privately to Allsopp of Hindlip Hall 
six head for about $55,000; among the number 
being 8th Duchess of Oneida, purchased at New 
York Mills and now transferred at a reported 



684 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

valuation of about $22,500; Duchess of Under- 
lay 2d, a granddaughter of 10th Duchess of 
Geneva, at a valuation of $15,000, and a Red 
Rose valued at $5,000. Simon Beattie shipped 
during this season to England for account of 
Mr. Albert Crane the 27th Duke of Airdrie and 
some Bates and Booth females; for Avery & 
Murphy, Airdrie Duchess 3d and heifer calf 
Airdrie Duchess 9th, 4th Fordham Duke of Ox- 
ford and Grand Airdrie; and for ^ckrell & 
Kissinger the Booth-bred Bright Lady of the 
Realm, an own sister to the famous Breast- 
plate.* The 27th Duke of ' Airdrie fetched 
$2,225 at the sale of A. Brogden, being bought 
by Mr. A. H. Lloyd. 

The Duke of Devonshire had meantime be- 
come one of the great Short-horn powers of 
Great Britain. His herd was specially dis- 
tinguished for the excellence of its Oxfords, 
and under the skillful management of Mr. 
Drewry, one of the most intelligent of all those 
who have contributed to Short-horn prestige 
abroad, the Holker Hall Short-horns gained 
international fame. Drewry was probably one 
of the best judges of his time, and, while par- 
tial to Bates blood, gave careful consideration 
to the individual character and quality of the 
herd under his charge. At the Holker sale of 
1878 Baroness Oxford 5th, by 5th Duke of 

• Xr. T. C. Booth of Warlaby died m 187& 



THE TURN OP THE TIDE. 535 

Wetherby (31033), was taken by D. Mcintosh 
at $13,300; Grand Duchess of Oxford 22d was 
bought by W. McCulloch at 510,500; Grand 
Duchess of Oxford 21st, by Lord Penryhn, at 
$7,750; Grand Duchess of Oxford 40th went to 
S. P. Foster at $8,000; Grand Duchess of Oxford 
19th to Maj. Chaffey at $4,275; the 44th Duke 
of Oxford (39774) to H. A. Brassey at $8,250; 
the 45th Duke of Oxford to Lord Pitzhardinge 
at $7,500, and the 46th Duke to the Earl of 
Ellesraere at $3,330. 

At a sale made by Mr. J. W. Larking Sir 
Curtis Lampson gave $7,550 for the American- 
bred 3d Duke of Hillhurst (30975). The Duke 
of Devonshire invested $4,525 in Cherry Duch- 
ess of Hillhurst and $4,250 in Marchioness of 
Worcester, by 8th Duke of Geneva; and Mr. 
Allsopp gave $3,000 for Belle of Worcester. At 
a sale made by T. Hoi ford A. H. Lloyd paid 
$4,050 for Winsome 12th; D. Mcintosh gave 
$4,000 for Viscount of Oxford (40876), and AU- 
Eopp paid from $2,000 to $3,000 for several lots. 

Dark days of 1879.— The year 1879 was a 
repetition of the previous season except that 
the depression in values of such cattle as were 
expected to sell on the strength of their breed- 
ing was still more profound on this side of the 
Atlantic. Trade at both public and private 
sale in America was flat, and hundreds of those 
who had been chasing the rainbows of fashion 



536 A HISTORY OF SHORT-liORN CATTLE. 

found themselves in the possession of cattle 
that were not good enough to command high 
prices on their merits as individuals and for 
which no market existed among those who had 
been engaged in the mad race for "blue" blood 
regardless of all other considerations. There 
were a few speculators who believed that the 
depression was only temporary, one of whom 
was the late T. Corwin Anderson of Side View, 
Ky., who insisted that purchases made at prices 
then prevailing would ultimately show a hand- 
some profit. At a sale made from Bow Park 
at Dexter Park, Chicago, Oct. 17, Mr. Anderson 
gave $1,000 for Kirklevington Duchess 23d; but 
there were few who had suflBcient courage to 
take hold at any such price. The total number 
of cattle sold during the year in America was 
2,865, disposed of at the very unsatisfactory 
average of $115. Of these more than 2,000 
head were sold under the hammer of Col. J. W. 
Judy. An illustration of the general desire to 
liquidate was afforded by the fact that during 
this season the Hamiltons of Kentucky sold 396 
head at auction at Kansas City at an average 
of $109 each. 

Wealthy English noblemen and land-holders 
still managed to keep things moving on the 
other side. Mr. Fox sold Duke of Elmhurst, 
out of the American-bred 20th Duchess of Air- 
drie, to «o to Australia at $10,000. At Lord 



THE TURN OK THE TIDE. 537 

Dunmore's gale Allsopp gave $16,000 for Duch- 
ess 117th and $13,500 for Duchess 114th, and 
Sir Curtis Lampson paid $6,250 for Duke of 
Cornwall 2d (43082). At Lord Skelmersdale's 
sale at Latham House in September Mr. R. 
Loder of Whittlebury paid $10,000 for Duchess 
of Ormskirk. At Lord Braybrooke's sale at 
Audley End, Allsopp gave $5,000 for Thorn- 
dale Rose 7th; Earl Recti ve paid $4,500 for 
Thomdale Rose 9th and Sir Curtis Lampson 
$3,000 for Thorndale Rose 12th. At Col. Kings- 
cote's sale Lord Fitzhardinge gave $5,500 for 
Oxford Belle 5th; and the bull Oxford Beau 7th 
(42082), by Duke of Hillhurst, was bought by 
Mr. Angas of Australia at $3,375. Mr. Angas 
also bought a number of the get of Duke of 
Connaught at Lord Fitzhardinge's Berkeley 
Castle sale, including Lady Wild Eyes 12th at 
$2,000. At this same sale Mr. J. A. Rolls gave 
$3,750 for Kirklevington Empress 2d, by Duke 
of Connaught. Notwithstanding these occa- 
sional high prices the general trend of values 
in Great Britain was also downward, the sales 
for the year aggregating 2,354 head at an aver- 
age of $240. This average would have been 
materially less but for the few sensational 
prices above quoted. 

The rally of 1880.— The panic which had 
prevailed among the holders of speculative lots 
in America for several years had now spent 



538 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

its force in large degree and a somewhat better 
feeling prevailed. On June 30 Hon. M. H. 
Cochrane ventured the sale of forty-three head 
at Dexter Park, Chicago, w^hich made the hand- 
some average of $900. This result was largely 
due to the liberal bidding of Col. Le Grand B. 
Cannon, a wealthy fancier of Burlington, Vt., 
who paid $8,000 each for the 7th and 8th Duch- 
esses of Hillhurst. Mr. N. P. Clarke of St. 
Cloud, Minn., purchased the 7th Duke of Hill- 
hurst 34221 at $3,900. The Bow Park manage- 
ment took Kirklevington Duchess of Kent 2d 
at $2,600 and Mr. Brbnson C. Rumsey of Niag- 
ara Stock Farm, Buffalo, N. Y., paid $4,150 for 
Marchioness of Barringtons 5th and 6th. 

In December, 1879, two disastrous fires had 
occurred among the buildings of Bow Park, the 
institution suffering great loss. The indirect 
result of this was to force the company to ship 
a large number of cattle to the States. The 
old Glen Flora Farm of Messrs. Parks at Wau- 
kegan. 111., was selected as a suitable distribut- 
ing point, and several sales were afterward 
made there at which prices ranged well above 
the average being obtained at Western sales.* 

The Hamiltons of Kentucky were still free 
sellers, disposing of 190 head at Kansas City in 

* Tbe Hon. George Brown died In the spring of 1880; bis death reeuUinr 
from a shot fired by one of the employes in the office of the Toronto OUbt. 
Vh**. shooting resulted in a flesh wound from which blood-po<.sonlng aet 1& 



THE TUEN OF THE TIDE. 5j5) 

May for an average of $118. At a sale in Chi- 
cago they sold sixty-four head at an average of 
$219, at which Maj. S. E. Ward of Kansas City 
paid $1,300 for the cow Rosebud. About 500 
head were sold at auction in Kentucky during 
this summer; Mr. T. C. Anderson's sixty-six 
head averaging $227; Vanmeter & Hamilton's 
fifty-five head averaged $304; W. T. Hearne's 
fifty-two head averaged $287; I. C. Vanmeter's 
nineteen head averaged $320; E. S. Cunning- 
ham paying $1,510 for Sharon's Beauty and A. 
M. Bowman of Virginia $1,500 for Sharon's 
Belle. Messrs. Tracy sold forty-nine head at 
an average of $272. 

The 3,222 head sold publicly in America dur- 
ing 1880 averaged $144. The British average 
for the same period on 1.820 head was $175; the 
only extraordinary price made in England dur- 
ing the year being $10,000 paid by the Earl of 
Feversham for 3d Duchess of Underley at Earl 
Bective's. Sir Curtis Lampson gave $4,900 at 
same sale for 12th Maid of Oxford. 

The Vaile and Rumsey importations.— In 
October, 1880, importations of Bates cattle were 
resumed, important purchases being made by 
Col. H, M. Vaile of Independence, Mo., and B. 
C. Rumsey, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Vaile importation consisted of sixteen 
head, including some capital Waterloos from 
the fine herd of the Rev. J. L D. Jefferson of 



540 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Thicket Priory, Yorkshire; Kirklevingtons from 
J. W. Larking, Ashdown House, Sussex; the 
roan Wild Eyes 34th, etc. From this importa- 
tion many valuable Short-horns were bred. 
Indeed, the Vaile Waterloos became famous 
throughout the West for their fine quality and 
flesh. 

Mr. Rumsey's lot included the Duke of Con- 
naught cows Oxford Duchess 3d, Kirklevington 
Empress 4th, and Wisdom 2d; Rowfant Kirk- 
levihgton 4th and Rowfant Peach from Sir 
Curtis Lampson's; aBarriiigton heifer from H. 
Lovatt's and the roan bull Knight of Oxford 2d 
(39549), bred by R. P. Da vies. During this sea- 
son Mr. Rumsey bought Airdrie Duchess 8th 
from Avery & Murphy at a reported price of 
5510,000. 

Sales of 1881. — Considerable activity and 
some strong prices characterized the auction 
sales of 1881. An offering of fifty-five head 
from Bow Park made at Glen Flora Farm 
brought the gratifying average of $516.35. 
Messrs. DeGraff & Brown of Minnesota* paid 
$4,200 for Duchess of Oxford 21st; H. L. Stout, 
Dubuque, la., $2,550 for Kirklevington Duchess 
26th, $2,350 for 46th Duke of Oxford and $1,810 

*Col. Charles A. DeOraff. who bought this cow Jointly with H. F. Brown, 
was the owner of the beautiful estate known as Lake Eljsian Stock Fann, 
near Janeeville, Minn. He was a bier, broad-gauged, generous-hearted man, 
who for some years contributed largely to live-stock improvement In the 
Northwest, and his death, which occurred a few years since, removed from 
ihe fraternity of American stock-breeders one of its most admirable charac- 
ters. 



THE TURN OP THE TIDE. 541 

for 10th Duchess of Barrington, and Hon. John 
Wentworth took the 8th Duke of Kirkleving- 
ton at $1,760. As indicating the magnitude of 
the business being transacted at West Liberty, 
la., it may be mentioned that in the spring of 
this year the late Robert Miller and others sold 
about 250 head at auction, the average price 
received on the lot being $123.50. 

On May 18 and 19 at Port Huron, Mich., 
Messrs. Avery & Murphy and John P. Sanborn 
sDid 122 head at an average of $950. The 
Messrs. Hamilton of Kentucky bought Airdrie 
Duchess 2d at $7,000 and Airdrie Duchess 5th 
at $3,000. Mitchell Bros, of Detroit bid oS 
Airdrie Duchess 11th at $5,055. T. C. Anderson 
of Kentucky paid $2,900 for Wild Eyes of Vine- 
wood and $2,000 for Wild Eyes of Vinewood 2d. 
G. J. Hagerty of Ohio gave $1,500 for Marquis 
of Oxford 39861, and J. S. Beriy of Kentucky 
took imp. Kirklevington Princess 2d at $2,010. 

At the Hamilton sale in Kentucky, in Au- 
gust, sixty-one head averaged $489.25; top 
prices being $1,705 paid by E. L. Chrisman, In- 
dependence, Mo., for Kirklevington Lady Ox- 
ford 2d; $1,515, $1,500 and $1,025 by Gen. John 
.S. Williams of Kentucky for three Kirkleving- 
tons; $1,510 by J. M. Bigstaff of Kentucky for 
Barrington Place, and $1,225 by T. C. Ander- 
son for Peach Blossom 9th. Mr. Ben. F. Van- 
meter was at this time in partnership with the 



542 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

Messrs. Hamilton,* and at a sale held by the 
firm of Vanmeter & Hamiltons this season 
seventy-three head averaged $519; ten head of 
Renick Rose of Sbarons being knocked off at 
prices ranging up to J3,000. 

On Nov. 10 the Bow Park people sold thirty- 
eight head at Glen Flora Farm at an average 
of $555; Mr. A. J. Alexander of Woodburn 
Farm, Kentucky, buying imp. Kirklevington 
Duchess of Horton — famous as the dam of the 
fat-stock show champion Clarence Kirkleving- 
ton— at $2,030. Messrs. Henshaw, Trimble & 
Pickett of Plattsburg, Mo., gave $4,025 at this 
sale for imp. Grand Duchess of Oxford 29th, of 
the Duke of Devonshire's breeding. Mr. S. F. 
Lockridge of Greencastle, Ind., paid $1,700 for 
Waterloo 38th, and the Hon. Emory Cobb of 
Kankakee, 111., purchased imp. Kirklevington 
Duchess 17th at $1,270. 

A new era at hand. — Another milestone in 
Short-horn history had now been reached. The 
preat outburst of enthusiasm for cattle of the 
Bates, Booth, and allied tribes which had swept 
over England and America was now subsiding. 
In its earlier phases it represented the tribute 
of the cattle-breeding world to the genius of 
successful breeders; the verdict of two conti- 
nents upon the refinement, beauty, and quality 

• Messrs. Vanmeter A Hamiltons had a few years prior to this sale a» 
quired by purchase about one-half of Mr. Renick 'a herd, Includlnir quite a 
Diim ber of 4th Duke of Geneva cowa. 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 543 

of the Bates-bred tribes and the sturdy sub- 
stance and deep flesh of the Warlaby stock. 
Undoubted merit lay at the foundation of the 
fashions that ruled the sale-rings of both conti- 
nents for so many years, as detailed in the 
foregoing pages. Unfortunately not all of 
those who made investments during this pe- 
riod were actuated by a desire to promote the 
interests of the breed. Indeed, as the great 
"boom" progressed it drew to itself many who 
simply improved the opportunity to indulge 
their speculative instincts without any special 
reference to the effect of their operations upon 
the general welfare. Many of the Duchesses, 
Princesses, Rose of Sharons and other favorites 
were bought at enormous prices not because 
they were better than the average well-bred 
Short-horn of their time, but in the hope that 
some other eager investor would be willing to 
pay a like price for the progeny. It will be 
observed from a perusal of the preceding chap- 
ters that only such tribes were systematically 
"promoted" as were comparatively scarce and 
in few hands. It would have been idle for any 
man or group of men to attempt to maintain 
such figures for any of the more prolific or 
widely-distributed sorts. 

InjudiciouB breeding. — In some instances 
these high-priced cattle fell into the hands of 
careful men who handled them with a decent 



544 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

regard for sound principles of breeding. In 
some herds they were mated with consummate 
skill and judgment, and the original merit of 
the stock was in these exceptional cases fairly 
well maintained. Too often, however, these 
unfortunate descendants of a noble ancestry 
became the mere tools of speculators and the 
victims of a vicious system which could have 
but one result; to- wit.: inevitable deterioration. 
A certain set even undertook the foolhardy 
task of breeding the Bates tribes ''absolutely 
pure." There were still in existence more 
than thirty-five years after the death of Thomas 
Bates cattle belonging to families originated 
either by himself or his tenants, the Messrs. 
Bell, which had been kept squarely within 
strict Bates lines; that is to say entirely free 
from admixture of blood from any other than 
the Bates source. One has but to hark back to 
the practice of Bates himself to find ample 
warrant for characterizing this procedure on 
the part of certain of his alleged disciples as 
utterly unworthy not only of the master of 
Kirklevington, but, as a proposition in scien- 
tific breeding, not to be considered by intel- 
ligent men. Fortunately there were but few 
who undertook to carry this reckless practice 
to extreme lengths. It was pointed out that 
but for the outcrossed families, not only of the 
Bates but of the Booth tribes, the main chan- 



THE TURN OP THB TIDE. 545 

nels of those bloods would have ceased to cut 
much figure upon the Short-horn map. The 
"pure" Duchesses about this time became ex- 
tinct both in Europe and America, leaving the 
field, so far as Mr. Bates' favorite family was 
concerned, to the outcrossed branches. The 
effort to preserve the Kirklevington tribes for 
an indefinite period free from admixture of 
other blood met with no success so far as sus- 
taining the individual merit of the cattle was 
concerned. 

EtUs of speculation. — There is nothing so 
dangerous as popularity. Whenever it is dem- 
onstrated that cattle of any particular line of 
breeding possess pronounced merit and repre- 
sent a blood concentration likely to insure pre- 
potency a widespread demand leads to the re- 
tention for breeding purposes of "all sorts and 
conditions" of cattle carrying the coveted ped- 
igree. The really good specimens are taken 
by leading breeders or wealthy speculators at 
fancy prices, leaving the inferior and indiffer- 
ent "misfits" for those whose purse does not 
permit of the purchase of the best. Thus it 
came to pass that during the years of inflated 
values the tendency of Short-horn breeding 
was away from correct standards, so far as 
practical excellence for the farm, the dairy, or 
the feed-lot was concerned. The entire breed 
was "honeycombed" by the speculative mania. 



546 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

At the same time there were not only in Great 
Britain but America certain sturdy characters 
who refused to be stampeded at the crack of 
fashion's whip. There were in nearly every 
State in the Union, as well as in Canada and 
Great Britain, devoted lovers of the breed who, 
often at great, apparent cost to themselves, 
maintained the sacred fires of the early Short- 
horn faith. True to the principles of those 
who gave the breed to the world they persist- 
ently pursued individual excellence in the ani- 
mal as the corner stone of all progress; and to 
these men the breed owes its preservation from 
those who were unintentionally poisoning the 
very fountains of its vitality. 

The spur of opposition. — Several causes con- 
spired to bring American breeders to their 
senses about this period. Coincident with the 
declining merit for practical purposes of those 
tribes that were most frequently in the public 
eye came the invasion of the markets of the 
West by two of Britain's most distinguished 
beef types; to-wit.: the Herefords and black 
polls. The establishment of the American 
Fat-Stock Show at Chicago, which occun-ed in 
1878, gave these new candidates for public 
favor an opportunity of which they were not 
slow to take advantage. "White-faces" and 
**doddies" began to appear in force for the first 
time in the history of American cattle-breed- 



THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 547 

ing at the great State fairs of the West. En- 
terprising and intelligent men devoted time 
and ample capital to a presentation of their 
merits as feeders' and butchers' beasts. It was 
apparent from the beginning that before the 
tribunal of practical men constituting the 
great body of Western feeders and stock-yards 
buyers only such Short-horns as possessed sub- 
stance, feeding capacity and natural wealth of 
flesh could successfully defend the colors of 
the "red, white and roan." Style without 
stamina could not resist the shock. Finish 
without flesh failed to satisfy the cold logic of 
the block. Those who had been dictating 
terms to the Short-horn cattle-breeding fra- 
ternity were now confronted with a competi- 
tion that based its claims not upon past 
reputation, but upon actual present worth. 
Those who were endeavoring to sustain the 
prestige of the prevailing fashionable type 
made a brave effort to cope with their formid- 
able adversaries, and in some noteworthy in- 
stances succeeded in presenting animals tit to 
stand for the credit of any breed at any time 
in any place. Such isolated instances, how- 
ever, ouly served all the more effectually to 
prove that something weightier than mere 
pedigree, something more tangible than mere 
pride of birth was the crying need of the 
hour. 



548 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HOBN CATTLE. 

Scotch cattle to the fore. — Naturally in such 
an emergency the character of the Short-horns 
available at the time for repelling the newly- 
introduced breeds became, the subject of close 
scrutiny. Examination of the breeding of the 
cattle that had been sustaining and were still 
battling for the honor of the breed at leading 
shows in the West revealed the fact that the 
fighting line was not held, as a general propo- 
sition, by animals representing the prevailing 
fashionable blood. It so happened that at this 
critical juncture in Short-horn affairs on this 
side the Atlantic some of the stoutest defend- 
ers of Short-horn fame against rival breeds had 
been brought from the old-established herds of 
Scotland. Baron Booth of Lancaster (half-Booth, 
half-Scotch), Violet's Forth, the Golden Drops, 
Orange Blossom 18th, and other North Country 
cattle that had been seen in the West in former 
years were recalled as types of the stamp now 
demanded. The Scotch-bred Duke of Rich- 
mond 21525 and other cattle of his compact, 
fleshy conformation were even then holding 
back the Hereford host. The hour had struck; 
and the early "eighties" found the Aberdeen- 
shire Short-horn claiming the center of the 
American Short-horn stage. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



SCOTLAND'S SEARCHING TEST. 

On the rich farming lands of England and 
America the Short-horn, as a prolific source of 
both profit and pleasure, had received early 
and adequate recognition. For half a century 
"John Buir' and "Brother Jonathan" had been 
heaping honors and riches at the feet of the 
"red, white and roan" with a recklessness un- 
paralleled in agricultural history, but in win- 
ning its way into their affections the breed had 
reveled in the bounty of the most opulent ag- 
riculture the world has ever seen. Could it 
maintain its superiority when the path no 
longer led through the grassy vales of York 
and Durham, or by the rustling cornfields of 
"the States'^? It was not until long after the 
great feeders of the Ohio Valley began driving 
their fine big Short-horn steers to seaboard 
markets that the tenant farmers of the North 
of Scotland undertook to answer this pertinent 
question in a district where balmy breezes, 
sunny skies, rich pastures, groaning grain bins 
and other bovine "creature comforts" were 
conspicuous mainly by their absence; and the 

(549) 



550 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

triumphant vindication of the intrinsic value 
of Short-horn blood, under apparently adverse 
conditions of soil and climate, resulting from 
that practical test makes up one of the bright- 
est chapters in the annals of the breed. Inci- 
dentally it also furnishes a lesson in good farm- 
ing that is world-wide in its application. The 
story of the Short-horn in the North of Scot- 
land has, therefore, a deep significance. 

^^ Caledonia stem and wild." — Within the 
memory of the generation now passing Aber- 
deenshire, a comparatively bleak and unpro- 
ductive country, was unknown as a producer 
of prime beef. To-day, thanks to Short-horn 
blood, turnips, Capt. Barclay of TJry, Grant 
Duff of Eden, Hay of Shethin, Watson of 
Keillor, McCombie of Tillyfour, the Cruick- 
shanks of Sittyton, their contemporaries and 
successors, it is one of the primary factors in the 
world's supply. Reaching from the Northern 
Highlands of Perth and the forest of Glen Ey, 

"Land of brown heath and shaggy wood; 
Land of the mountain and the flood,*' 

to where Kinnaird Head finally plows its way 
into the surf of Northern seas, Aberdeenshire 
presents a rolling landscape, strewn for the 
most part with the stony debris deposited by 
the ancient glaciers of the Grampians. A 
rough, broken country, possessing but limited 
areas of good soil, wanting in natural shelter, 



• Scotland's searching test, 551 

swept for a good portion of the year by the 
chill East winds of the German Ocean, and 
enduring the long, dark winters of a latitude 
of 58 deg. north it is one of the marvels of our 
time that the Aberdonian tenantry and their 
neighbors of adjacent districts in the face of 
such environment should have won so high a 
place in the farming world. 

Science, "roots" and Short-horns.— For gen- 
erations the Northern farmers had made but 
little progress in the improvement of their cat- 
tle. A scanty herbage was grazed by the na- 
tive, unimproved, black hornless breed of the 
district, or by the shaggy little steers from the 
Western Highlands, and these supplied what 
beef was required for local consumption. The 
feeding of cattle for distant markets, as a reg- 
ular source of revenue, could receive but scant 
attention. In the course of time, however, 
science came to the rescue. Experience proved 
the beneficent effects of lime and bone dust 
upon many hitherto sterile stone-fenced fields, 
thus paving the way for the successful intro- 
duction of the culture of turnips as a stock 
food; since carried to a degree of perfection 
unknown in any other countiy. Marsh and 
moor-lands were transformed by drainage and 
artificial fertilization. Some good grass fol- 
lowed; and this, along with the "neeps"* and 

•Colloauial Scotch for tumli». 



552 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

oat fields, provided a firm foundation for a 
more profitable agriculture. Indeed, "roots'* 
fairly revolutionized North-Country farming 
and rendered it possible to attempt the im- 
provement of the size and weight of the Aber- 
deenshire, Banff and Forfar herds with pros- 
pects of success.* The experiment was made 
and carried to a successful issue primarily by 
the use of Short-horn blood. 

Feed-lot considerations paramount.— Those 
who inaugurated this work of improvement, as 
well as those who followed in their footsteps, 
were, as a rule, men who made a living by 
their own unaided efforts. Upon those North- 
ern hills life was real and earnest. There was 
no place in the local agriculture for the purely 
ornamental. Cattle had first of all to be of a 
rent-paying sort. This called for sound consti- 
tutions to enable the animals to withstand the 
climate and for a feeding quality and early 
maturity that would give prompt and full re- 
turns in the feed-lot for all forage consumed. 
Those to whom the early breeders had to look 
for the sale of their surplus bulls were men 
who had roofs to keep over their heads. They 

• During A TlBlt to Aberdeenahlre In 189S the author was Bhown a fine 
turnip field— on one of the farms held by Mr. William Duthle from the Barl 
of Aberdeen— which, originally a peat bor. had been drained and reclaimed 
at a cost to the tenant of about £80 per acre. Inasmuch as this sum (lUO) 
represents about double the value in fee simp'.e of rood Ameriean farms, 
this fact affords a fitting illustration of the expense and labor with whleh 
many North of Scotland farms were adapted to the requirementa of sue 
cesaful cattle-breedinc* 



Scotland's sbarohino test. 558 

could indulge in no "fads" or fancies. The get 
of any sire, no matter how distinguished his 
lineage, were studiously shunned unless show- 
ing plainly the qualifications demanded in an 
atmosphere where economy and practical util- 
ity were the essential handmaids of thrift 

It thus happened that Short-horn breeding 
in the North rested from the beginning on the 
bedrock of actual merit for feeding purposes. 

Crossing the border. — Tweedside marks the 
Northern confines of England. At the river's 
mouth, on the Scottish side, stands the historic 
city of Berwick, sternly typical of the character 
of the people over whose destinies it kept 
"watch and ward" for centuries. On the grassy 
southern bank lies ancient Northumbria and 
Flodden Field. The ruined battlements of 
Norham Castle remind the traveler in these 
parts of the Border Country's stormy past; but 
since the days of William Wallace and King 
James this pastoral region has fallen under 
gentler sway. From the Cheviots to the Hills 
of Lammermoor the herds and flocks of a 
thrifty husbandry have grazed, free from war's 
alarms, for generations. 

Prior to the introduction of the breed into 
the Northern Counties it had already been 
proved that Short-horns would thrive in the 
South of Scotland. Indeed, they had been suc- 
cessfully transplanted early in the century 



554 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

from the Valley of the Tees across the border 
into the district lying between the River Tweed 
and the Firth of Forth. Robertson of Lady- 
kirk and Rennie of Phantassie were the pio- 
neers in this forward movement toward the 
North; and after the introduction of Short- 
horn bulls had aroused the spirit of improve- 
ment among the farmers of the higher latitude 
the blood of these earliest Scottish herds be- 
came an important element in the evolution of 
the Aberdeenshire type. 

Robertson of Ladykirk. — Residing near 
Coldstream, Berwickshire, close by the placid 
waters of the Tweed, Robertson of Ladykirk, 
Scotland's first breeder of Short-horn cattle, 
acquired an early familiarity with the merits 
of the original Short-horn stock of Northum- 
berland and Durham. A contemporary of the 
Collings, Mason, Grey of Dilston, Bates and 
Thomas Booth he had ample opportunities for 
making a thorough study of the breed while 
still in its infancy. Quick to adopt practical 
ideas into his own farming operations he re- 
solved to transfer to Scottish territory some of 
the best of the Ketton and Barmpton blood. 
Cows and heifers of the most approved Tees- 
water type were selected mainly on their mer- 
its as individuals and crossed by herd-book 
bulls of Colling and kindred breeding. The 
canny Scot, however, was opposed to the whole 



Scotland's searching test. 555 

scheme of pedigree registration. Geo. Coates 
and his saddlebags found no welcome at Lady- 
kirk. Robertson held that the attempt to limit 
the choice of cattle reared for practical farm 
purposes to such as might chance to be bred 
within herd-book lines constituted an unrea- 
sonable check upon freedom of individual judg- 
ment and would prove a bar to real progress. 
Fortunately for the breed Jonas Whitaker and 
others saw the wisdom of providing a founda- 
tion for the future by recording the lineage of 
the first of the "improved" Short-horns. Al- 
though registration went steadily on in England 
the Berwickshire breeder's patronage was stub- 
bornly withheld. It transpires, therefore,, that 
the breeding of the Ladykirk cows, although 
well known to their owner, was never put on 
record and those who started from this essen- 
tially sound and substantial stock of Short- 
horns were unable to trace their pedigrees to 
their actual English oirigin. That the herd was 
well bred has never been questioned. That it 
attained a high standard of excellence is borne 
out by all the early chronicles of Tweedside 
agriculture. That it furnished the foundation 
for many a fine family of cattle in the North 
IS one of the primary propositions of Scotch 
Short-horn history. 

Bennie of Phantassie.— The colors of the 
*'red, white and roan" were carried from 



556 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Tweedside to the Forth by John Rennie ol 
the farm of Phantassie, in the County of Had- 
dington (East Lothian). His father, George 
Rennie, had been one of the most active pro- 
moters of agricultural improvement in his day; 
having been sent when a mere lad into the 
Tweedside country to study the farming of 
that district^ where such men as Lord Karnes, 
Renton of Lamberton, Hume of Ninewells, 
Fordyce of Ayton, and others had begun exten- 
sive improvements upon their estates. The 
knowledge thus gained by observation was af- 
terward turned to good account at Phantassie. 
A man of fine business ability and sound judg- 
ment, Rennie rose to great eminence as a 
breeder and feeder of fine Short-horns in a 
region already famous for the skill of its farm- 
ers.* He bought from Robertson of Ladykirk, 
with whom he was on terms of intimate friend- 
ship, and also drew upon the herds of the first 
English improvers of the breed. 

Rennie agreed with Robertson in reference 
to the then newly-established Short-horn Herd 
Book of England and also refused to record his 
cattle in it, but the perfection to which he 
brought his herd is attested by references made 
to his stock by Youatt, McCombie and other au- 
thorities. The Northern farmers who bought 

• The f arminr of the Lothians is to this day a source of National pride 
Id Scotland. 



Scotland's searchinq test. 557 

cattle from these Southern herds were in quest 
of a profitable feeding type rather than partic- 
ular blood-lines. They knew little and proba- 
bly cared less about the disputes as to the rela- 
tive values of different strains as carried on 
by their English brethren. Indeed, those who 
owned animals tracing descent from these two 
primal Scottish herds were quite content to 
rest the pedigrees at ^he base upo/i the sub- 
stantial names fcnd character of "Rennie of 
Phantassie" or "Robertson of Ladykirk." An 
abrupt termination this, one might say, and 
yet to those who drew material from those 
sources it meant a foundation in genuine Short- 
horn merit as firm as the granite hills of their 
native land. 

Rennie has the honor of having supplied the 
. first Short-horn bull ever taken into the terri- 
tory North of the River Dee, reference to 
which will be made further on.* 

*'*We bare been bonored witb a letter from Mr. Jobn Bennle on tbe 
subject of bis stock from wblob we make tbe followlnir extract, confirma- 
tory of Mr. Brown's account, and wblcb, in Justice to so enterprislnr and 
skillful a breeder an Mr. Bennle, sbould be placed upon record: 'Tbe 
prinolpal breed (be means amon^ tbe few wbo bare directed tbelr attention 
to tbe breeding of cattle) Is Sbort-boms, or Teeswaters, wblcb were lntro> 
duced by myself, barlnr selected tbem from Mr. Bobertson of Ladyklrk, 
wbo. I bave no bealtation in saying, bad some of tbe best Sbort^boms In 
tbe kingdom. I also bad two or tbree bulls of tbe best blood from tbe 
County of Durbam. I bad tbree or four larye sales of stock wblcb were 
attended by some of fbe most celebrated breeders in Bncland and Scoilana. 
Bulls were bou^bt at from £60 to £130 eaob to ro aOO miles nortb and above 
300 miles soutb.' 

**Mr. Brown of DrylAW Hill, to wbom we are Indebted for some previous 
remarks, informs us that about tbe years 1818 and 1819 tbe Sbort-bomed or 
Tetewater breed of ?Le best and purest sort was Introduced into tbecountv 



558 A jJISTOBT OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB« 

Barclay of Ury.— The father of Shorfc-hom 
breeding in the North was one of the best 
known characters of his day and generation— 
Capt. Barclay of Ury. Descended from an old 
Kincardineshire family, distinguished for great 
physical strength, a soldier by profession and a 
sportsman by instinct, he developed a fondness 
for farming, which resulted in his founding 
a herd of Short-horns about the date of Ma- 
son's sale, from which those who afterwards 
engaged in the trade drew many of their most 
valuable foundation animals. Notwithstand- 
ing his success and reputation as the introdu- 
cer of the Short-horn in North Scotland it is an 
open question as to whether or not his fame in 
of her directions was not even greater than his 
celebrity as a cattle-breeder. An athlete him- 
self Barclay was passionately fond of all forms 
of out-of-door sport. It is said that he once 
walked 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours on a wager. 
He was financially interested in the operation 



principally from the stock of the late Mr. Bobertaon of Ladyklik and 
which were descended In a direct line from those of Meaara. OoUinc of 
DarllnfftoQ. Others were likewise brought from some of the moat cele- 
brated atocka In the North of SUurland. For thla he aaja the oountr waa 
Indebted to Mr. John Rennle, son of Mr. Gtoorve Bennie. The produce of 
his stock is now spread over the count7t and as a proof of its mertta a bul- 
lock bred by Mr. Bennie and fed by Mr. Boyne of Woodhall reoeiTed the 
second prize at the Smithfleld Cattle Show in 18S1. 

"Mr. Bennie obtained many prizes from the Highland and hia owndla- 
trlct society. He has had many beaata that weighed from eirhty to one 
hundred stone (imperial weight) when at two and a half or three yeara old; 
and he once aold eighteen steers at two and a half yeara old which weighed 
from elghty-flve to one hundred stone and for whJoh he reoelTed £0 per 
bead.**— YouaU on OaUle^ page US, 



Scotland's searching test. 659 

of the mail coaches of East Scotland, and one 
of these, notably the famous '* Defiance," was 
one of the noted outfits of its time.* He had a 
very celebrated breed of game fowls, and was 
a devoted patron of the cock-pit and the prize- 
ring. Fond of arranging fistic encounters be- 
tween the expert boxers of that period he often 
served in the capacity of "trainer" as well as 
backer. Good dogs and the "mimic warfare of 
the chase" also claimed his attention. Indeed 
for more than a generation the exploits of Bar- 
clay of Ury, by flood and field, furnished the 
theme for many a "rattling" story told at 
oflScers' "mess" or wayside inn. 

Barclay had inherited from his father the 
estate of Ury on the banks of the River Cowie, 
hard by the seaport of Stonehaven. At large 
expense of time and labor, by the liberal use of 
lime and by the importation of skilled plow- 
men and improved implements from Norfolk, 
the elder Barclay had secured fair grass and had 
successfully introduced the culture of turnips. 
The Captain was on terms of intimate friend- 
ship with Wetherell and had many interesting 



•Barclay once drove the " Defiance '* throti^h on a wa^er of £1,000 from 
liOndon to Aberdeen without leaving the box. It is aaid that on thta trip 
the coach was " horaed " at two Bta^ee by Thorou^hbreda aa leaders that 
had never been In harness before. On arriving at Aberdeen a friend 
remarked, **Captain, you must be tired/' Barclay replied, " I have £1,000 
that aays I can drive back to London again starting in the mom.** 



560 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN GATTLB. 

"sessions'* with Watson and McCombie, the 
great improvers of the Aberdeen- Angus polls. 
His first great success with Short-horns fol- 
lowed his purchase of the best cow sold at the 
dispersion sale of Mason of Chilton — ^the beau- 
tiful roan Lady Sarah at 150 guineas. She was 
a daughter of the massive roan cow Portia, 
illustrated in the first volume of Coates' Herd 
Book. At Ury she proved prolific, producing 
the bulls Monarch (4495), Mahomed (6170), 
Pedestrian (7321), Sovereign (7539), and the 
three heifers, Julia, Cecily, and Helen. Bar- 
clay was familiar with the Bakewell scheme of 
the CoUings, Bates, and the elder Booth, and 
produced the valuable roan bull Mahomed, 
above mentioned, by breeding Monarch back to 
his own dam, Lady Sarah. Mahomed was sold 
as a calf, but, developing into a capital bull, 
was bought back in 1839. He appears to have 
been used in the herd until 1841, and sired 
among other valuable animals The Pacha 
(7612), the progenitor of many animals after- 
ward distinguished in Scotch Short-horn his- 
tory. Lady Sarah's daughters Cecily and Helen 
were sold to Mr. Pollock of County Meath, Ire- 
land, along with their produce; and their de- 
scendants were afterward to be seen in the 
noted Booth-bred herd of Barnes of Westland. 
Besides Mahomed Monarch sired the successful 
stock bull BiUy (3151), that was sold as a calf 



Scotland's searching test. 561 

to Hutcheson of Monyruy, who afterward 
parted with him at a high price to Boswell of 
Kingcausie. He was winner of the Highland 
Society's prize in 1840 and his heifers gave rise 
to many valuable Scottish tribes. He was the 
sire of the cow Clipper, the matron of the 
famous Cruickshank bull-breeding tribe bear- 
ing her name. Billy (3151), The Pacha (7612), 
Conqueror (6884), and Premier (6308), all bred 
by Barclay, were used in founding the Cruick- 
shank herd.* 

The Ury cattle of this date are said to have 
possessed great scale and substance. In 1838 
the original herd, which owed its excellence 
very largely to Lady Sarah, was dispersed in 
order, it is said, to replenish the Captain's 
purse. The bull Mahomed seems, however, to 
have been retained at Ury. The best lots in 
this sale were the get of Monarch (4495), three 
of whose daughters made over £100 each. 
About eighty head were sold for a total of 
£3,000. Lady Sarah at thirteen years old was 
sold to Mr. Wetherell at 40 guineas. It has 
been asserted that she afterward became the 



b Cruickshank bad in their herd at SlttFton at one time sixty fe- 
males desoended from cowb sired by Billy (Sl&l). In color be was a llrbt 
roan, almost white, with broad forehead, eyes prominent and mild, boms 
▼ery short and pointing toward his ears, carcass lengthy snd deep, on 
short legs. He had also a very fine disposition. At eight years old his 
llTC weight was S,S0O lbs., and his rlrth around the heart ei^bt feet four 
inches. He was very heavy in front, but not so nest and rood in his hlnd- 
Quarters. This description was glyen by Mr. T. F. Jamieson of BUon, 
Aberdeenshire, in the London (Bnir*) £ive-fltoek Journal for May », IflBS. 
80 



562 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

property of Hugh Watson, in which case she 
would be entitled to credit in connection with 
the birth of the Aberdeen- Angus breed as well 
as furnishing the foundation of the Aberdeen- 
shire Short-horns. Speaking of this remark 
able cow the late Amos Cruickshank once 
said: "I question if ever there was a better 
breed of Short-horns either in England, Scot- 
land or anywhere else than the Lady Sarah 
tribe.'^ 

About 1840 Barclay began another herd with 
Mahomed at the head. He bought ten females 
at a sale made by Hon. J. B. Simpson of Bab- 
worth, in Nottinghamshire, and Wetherell pur- 
chased some heifers and calves for him from 
Burfows of Carleton Hall, near Carlisle. It is 
stated that probably the best cow in this sec- 
ond herd was Julia, a roan that carried more 
or less Booth blood and was sired by Paganini 
(2405). She became the dam of two bulls af- 
terward extensively used at Ury — Pacha (7612) 
and The Duke (7593). Paganini was full of Col. 
Cradock's blood. The 2d Duke of Northumber- 
land (3646) was hired for service, from Mr. 
Bates in 1842, but after serving a year at Ury 
was transferred to Mr. Grant Duff's herd at 
Eden,, where he remained two years and got 
one very good bull called Duplicate Duke 
(6952). The Duchess bull nevertheless did not 
leave a very good reputation in the North. 



Scotland's searching test. 563 

Duke (7593) was another of his sons, which, 
along with The Pacha, did most of the work 
in the herd during the remainder of its exist- 
ence. 

The final dispersion occurred Sept. 22, 1847, 
with Wetherell as auctioneer. There were 
about ninety of the Ury cattle at that date, 
but prices were not so good as at the previous 
sale. Probably the quality was not equal to 
the original Lady Sarah lot. Forty-two cows 
averaged £34 14s. each, the highest being Rosa- 
mond, by Sultan (5349), which went to Long- 
more of Rettie at 73 guineas, and Molly, by The 
Pacha, bought by Hay of Shethin for 71 guin- 
eas. Campbell of Kinellar here laid the foun- 
dation for his afterward celebrated herd by the 
purchase of two heifers by The Pacha. The 
Messrs. Cruickshank of Sittyton were also buy- 
ers. The ninety-one animals fetched an aver- 
age of £31 Is. each. 

Ury was undoubtedly the corner stone of the 
Scottish Short-horn structure. The bulls from 
the Barclay herd were used originally to cross 
upon the native black cows, and the improve- 
ment wrought was so apparent that probably 
a majority of the herds of the district received 
an infusion of Ury blood. The result was a 
demand for Short-horn bulls that finally turned 
the attention of such men as Grant Duff of 
Eden, Hay of Shethin, the Cruickshanks of 



564 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

Sittyton, and many others to the production of 
pure-bred Short-horns.* 

Hutcheson of Monyruy.— John Hutcheson, 
tenant of the farm of Monyruy, near Peter- 
head, was the owner of a large granite quarry 
that supplied many of the great blocks for the 
London docks, and was also interested in the 
whale fisheries. He made a capital start in 
Short-horn breedinjar in 1837 by the purchase of 
Capt. Barclay's Billy (3151), above mentioned, 
and secured females from B. Wilson of Bra- 
with, Fawkes of Famley Hall, Rennie of Kin- 
blethmont, and others. He also bought in Eng- 
land the great prize-winning bull Sir Thomas 
Fairfax (5196), of Whitaker's breeding. The 
bull was eight years old at the time of its pur- 
chase in 1845, and, although he was of massive 
character and had never been defeated in the 
South, long-continued training for the show- 
yard proved his ruin, as he died six months 

*McComl>i« of Tlllyfour, who knew Barclay well, says: ** Though he 
remaine without a national acknowledgement of his merits, no man de- 
served better of the farmers of Scotland, for he was their Arm supporter 
through life, In good and bad report * * * I have been many a day In 
company with him and have the most vivid recollection of him as he ex- 
amined the stock in a show-yard. • * * He was a claimant of the Earl- 
dom of Monteith. No one would have made any mistake as to Capt. Bar> 
clay being a gentleman, although his dress was plain— a loag green coat 
with velvet collar, and big yellow buttons; a colored handkerchief: long, 
yellow cashmere vest; knee breeches; very wide top-boots, with long 
brown, dirty tops, and plain black hat, generally pretty well worn. • • • 
His horses were the strongest and his flelds the largest In the country* He 
said, 'He did not like a field in which the cattle could see one another every 
day.' • • • He was found dead in bis bed in 18M; and in him the tenant 
farmers of Scotland and the poor of his own neighborhood lost one of tholr 
Destfrienua." 



Scotland's searching test. 56") 

after being taken to Scotland, leaving but two 
calves, both heifers. These grew up to be ex- 
cellent cows, one of which, Edith Fairfax, was 
bought by Messrs. Craickshank, leaving some 
good descendants at Sitty ton. The other, White 
Fairfax, became the ancestress of a good family 
in the herd of James Bruce of Inverouhomery. 
Speaking of these Fairfax heifers Mr. Jamieson, 
to whom the author is indebted for niany val- 
uable facts in relation to the early Aberdeen- 
shire herds, says: "Edith Fairfax was out of 
a fine breeding cow called Fancy, by Billy 
(3151), while White Fairfax's sire and dam 
were by Billy. The latter seemed to have put 
constitution into everything he got." 

In 1847 Hutcheson visited England in com- 
pany with Mr. Amos Cruickshank * and hired 
from Warlaby the bull Fitz Leonard (7110) 
at 80 guineas the season. He was shipped by 
steamer to Hull and walked thirty miles to 
Monyruy where he was retained two years. 
Fitz Leonard was described by Peter Boddie, 



• "Just as the Scotchmen were startlDr." says Jsmleson, "a letter came 
from Peterhead saying that Hutcheson'a ship, the Traveller, had arrived 
from Davis Straits with a bumper cargo of oU. He therefore resolved to 
set about things In proper style. On reaching Hull a carriage was char- 
tered with a pair of spanking horses and the two Aberdonlans drove 
through the Northern counties Inspecting the various herds. Mr. Crulck- 
shank had set his heart on buying a fine bull called Fairfax Royal, bred by 
Torr, and to be sold at an approaching sale at Walkerlngham. Knowing 
the high spirits of his companion he dreaded that Hutcheson might take a 
fancy for the same animal and be an opponent at the sale, but, as luck 
would have It, Richard Booth came on the scene and carried Hutcheson off 
with him to Warlaby, where he concluded the bargain for Fitz Leonard." 



566 A HISTORY OF SHOBT-HOBN CATTLE. 

Hutcheson's herdsman, as a lengthy enough 
beast but not very broad; with shortish legs 
and good enough quality. In the language of 
the old cowman, *'the warst thing aboot him 
was his heed." Although he proved something 
of a disappointment in Scotland, and Amos 
Cruickshank averred that he would not have 
used him at all, yet on his return to Warlaby 
Fitz Leonard sired Mr. Booth's world-famous 
Crown Prince (10087). The Hutcheson herd 
was dispersed in 1852, some of the best cattle 
going to Sittyton. 

Grant Duff of Eden.— The farm of Eden was 
a small estate along the banks of the River 
Deveron in Northwestern Aberdeenshire, on 
the Banffshire border, and between the years 
1839 and 1854 one of the best of the early Scot- 
tish herds was there maintained. Mr. Grant, 
as he was known in his earlier manhood, had 
been in the employ of the East India Co. and 
had acquired reputation as a man of fine judg- 
ment in that service in Bombay. It was upon 
his inheriting the property of Eden that he as- 
sumed the name of Duff. He set about the 
formation of his herd with a determination to 
possess as good cattle as could be found in all 
Britain. He visited the Short-horn breeding 
districts of England and bought some of his 
first cows from Chrisp of Northumberland. 
From Mr. Crofton he bought the bull The Peer 



Scotland's searching test. 567 

(5455). Heifers were obtained from the Earl 
of Carlisle and Benjamin Wilson of Brawith. 
On one of his English visits he met Thomas 
Bates, who succeeded in inoculating him with 
somewhat of his own enthusiasm for his pet 
strains. The result was the purchase of the 
bull Holkar (4041), sired by Belvedere and out 
of a cow having two crosses of 2d Hubback. 
He was a good individual, four years old, deep 
red in color, with a few white patches, and was 
taken to Eden in May, 1S40, at a cost of £162. 
Unfortunately he remained useful but a short 
time. A few years later the 2d Duke of North- 
umberland (3646), that had been on hire at 
Capt. Barclay's, was leased for service. He 
was not as good a bull as Holkar, being harsh 
in his hair and possessed of a vicious disposi- 
tion, as well as a dark nose, but remained 
at Eden two seasons nevertheless and sired 
some good stock, including the two bulls Du- 
plicate Duke (6962) and Dannecker (7949), the 
latter sold to Longmore of Rettie. 

The show-yard victories of the Booths had 
by this time begun to interest the North, and 
an agent was dispatched to Warlaby for a bull. 
It is stated that he was offered the use of Buck- 
ingham (3239), then five years of age; but as 
that great sire was never an impressive animal 
individually the proposition was not accepted, 
and Duff's deputy proceeded to Kirklevington, 



568 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

where he hired Duke of Richmond (7996), sired 
. by 2d aeveland Lad (3408) out of Duchess 50th. 
This bull was followed by two others of Bates 
blood— Young 4th Duke (9037) and 11th Duke 
of York (11399); both bred by G. D. Trotter, 
near Darlington. While it thus appears that 
the majority of the Eden bulls were of Bates 
origin, there was another sire, introduced from 
the herd of Wilson of Brawith, that proved 
perhaps a better stock-getter than any of them 
save Holkar. This was . Robin-o'-Day (4973), 
sired by Mr. Wiley's Carcase (3285). 

Brawith Bud. — The best cow ever intro- 
duced into the herd and one of the most val- 
uable ever taken into Scotland was the red- 
aud-white Brawith Bud — the highest-priced 
animal at the Brawith sale of 1841, the oppos- 
ing bidders being John Booth of Killerby arid 
Mr. Maynard — two of England's best judges. 
Grant Duff was one of the first breeders to 
publish a private catalogue with foot-notes, 
and in one of these is found the following: 
"Although Brawith Bud was as well recollected 
in this district (Banff) as any cow that ever was 
imported yet, as this is intended as a record, it 
may be as well to repeat that she was bred with 
great care and highly prized by the late Peter 
Consett of Brawith and left by him in special 
legacy to his near relative, Benjamin Wilson, 
who never intended to sell her. She cost Mr# 



Scotland's searchinq test. 569 

Grant Duff £178 19s., and paid him several 
hundred per cent. She was a useful cow until 
eighteen years of age and her sire was a good 
bull when eighteen years old." This remarka- 
ble cow had been bred from a line of bulls be- 
longing mainly to Charles CoUing's Old Cherry 
tribe, receiving also a bit of Booth through her 
dam's sire, Young Jerry (8177). She was to 
Eden what Lady Sarah had been to Ury, her 
descendants proving the best cattle in the herd. 
Two of them, the heifers Second Mint and Pure 
Gold, went into the Cruickshank herd, where 
they gave rise to one of the best Sittyton fam- 
ilies. 

Numerous public sales were held from the 
herd at different times, so that the Eden stock 
became well distributed throughout the North- 
ern counties. In 1854 the entire herd was dis- 
posed of at auction,* the sale being in charge 

• Notwlthstandlnr the fact that the 9d Duke of Northumberland did not 
make a i>articularly favorable impression in the Nbrih, it is apiwrent that 
Grant Duff believed that the Kirklevin^ton blood would prove of value. 
At the conclusion of his last annual eataloffue, issued (December* 1868) be- 
fore his dispersion, we find the following: 

"The sale of the late Barl Dude, in Gloucestershire, has stamped a 
value on Mr. Bates' blood, such as Mr. B. frequently foretold. The above 
animals, with very few exceptions, have all more or less Kirklevinyton 
blood, which, fortunately, had been already partially infused into the stock 
of this district before the value in England exceeded all ordinary compe- 
UUon. 

"All the animals included' in the abore list, with the exception of two 
eows (Star Pagoda and Man^ranese) and one bull not yet selected, are in- 
tfsnded to be included in tbe displenish sale at Mains of Bden, on Wednes- 
day, Mth May, 1864, when their present owner must cease to share in for< 
warding that important branch of rural economy, namely, the rearing of 
the best kinds of stock, but he trusts a fair and generous rivalry may pro- 
long and far excel our present progrrf^sa in the Improvement of domestic 
animals, which It has been his endeavor to aid and stimulate.** 



570 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

of Mr. Strafford, at that time editor of Coates' 
Herd Book and the leading auctioneer of Great 
Britain. No better evidence of the quality of 
the herd is required than is furnished by the 
fact that among those who attended and pur- 
chased were Messrs. Cruickshank, Torr, Tan- 
queray, Longmore and others prominent in the 
trade. The top price was 100 guineas, paid by 
Tanqueray for a daughter of Brawith Bud. 
Amos Cruickshank took Pure Gold at 91 guin- 
eas, and other lots commanded up to 90 guin- 
eas and 95 guineas. 

Simpson and Buchan Hero.— Mr. Ferguson 
Simpson, tenant of the farm of Mains of Pit- 
four, bred a good herd of Short-horns from 1835 
to 1846. His chief claim to distinction rests 
upon his production of the celebrated show 
bull Buchan Hero (3238), winner of the High- 
land Society's £100 prize at Berwick-on-Tweed 
in 1841 as the best bull of any age, competition 
open to all Britain.* He was a massive, deep- 
bodied, short-legged roan, with a beautiful coat, 
and was bought at Berwick by Jonas Whitaker, 
afterward passing into the possession of Sir 

*'*The Braid*' in bis delightful remlnlscenceB of Sootttsh flocks ana 
herds, published under the title of " Field and Fern/* speaking of Buchan 
Hero's victory at Berwick says: "One of his greatest admirers who had 
his eye to a ' crack ' in the palings on that memorable day thus describes 
the contest. * I lookit, and they drew them, and they sent a vast o' them 
back. Again I lookit, and still the Buchan Hero stood at the heed. They 
had naedootof him then. A Yorkshireman was varra fond of him. And 
he wan; and Simpson selt him to Sir Charles Tempest for 200. It was a 
prood day, that, for Aberdeenshire and Mr. Simpson.' '* 



Scotland's SBABOHiNQ TEST. 571 

Charles Tempei^t at 350 guineas. A yearling 
bull sired by him brought 200 guineas. The 
dam of Buchan Hero, a cow called Young 
Broadhooks, produced a heifer, Eliza, that was 
.bought for Sittyton, and from her the cham- 
pion show bull New* Year's Gift (57796), bred 
by Lord Lovat and sold to the Queen of Eng- 
land, was descended. Indeed it is said that 
this noted prize-winner resembled in essential 
characteristics old Buchan Hero himself. 

Hay of Shethin. — One of the most substan- 
tial characters among all those who early gave 
their attention to Short-horn breeding in the 
North was William Hay, tenant of Shethin, 
one of the many good farms on .the extensive 
estates of the Earl of Aberdeen, situated in the 
valley of the Ythan, near Tarves, and not far 
removed from Collynie, Uppermill, Tillycairn, 
and others since made famous by Duthie and 
Marr. Before taking up with pedigreed cattle 
Hay was one of the leading graziers and feed- 
ers of this district and is credited v/ith having 
been the first to ship bullocks by rail from 
Aberdeen to the London market. McCombie 
says that the bull Jerry that was brought to 
Shethin from Rennie of Phantassie in 1828 by 
Alexander Hay, a brother of William's, was 
the first Short-horn that ever crossed the River 
Dee. This primal bull was white and was 
both long-lived and prolific, leaving a deep 



572 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

impression on the native black polls of the 
district. 

Hay began his Short-horn breeding opera- 
tions by purchases from Barclay of Ury. Two 
of his best cows, Molly and Clara 2d — ^both by 
The Pacha — were bought at the Ury sale of 
1847. From Molly came the family of Mysies. 
The cow Vesta, bred by Robert Smith of Bur- 
ley, became the ancestress of the Venuses and 
Princess Royals, both of which have since be- 
come prime favorites with the admirers of 
Scotch Short-horns, but probably the best cow 
obtained in England was Marion, from the herd 
of Mr. Lovell, selected for Mr. Hay by one of 
the leading cattle salesmen of London. She 
produced the good stock bull Kelly 2d (9265), 
besides becoming the fountain head of a fine 
family of cows known as the Lovelys, after- 
ward celebrated in the hands of Mr. Cruick- 
shank, producing at Sittyton the prize bull 
Scotland's Pride (25100), Lord Lancaster (26666) 
and Lord Lansdowne (2^128). Another tribute 
to the remarkable breeding qualities of Simp- 
son's Young Broadhooks was to be seen at 
Shethin in the shape of the splendid cow Scot- 
land's Queen, descended direct from the dam 
of Buchan Hero. 

For a number of years home-bred bulls were 
used, no less than five of which descended in a 
direct male line from the bull Billy (SSSS) of 



Scotland's searching test. 578 

the Uiy stock, fresh blood being brought in 
each time through the dams. Some service 
was also had from the good bull Robin o' Day 
(4973) of Brawith breeding. Mr. Hay had 
brought his herd to a rare state of excellence 
by 1850. There was no better in all Scotland. 
In that year, along with the brothers Cruick- 
shank, he attended the Bates dispersion where 
he purchased, besides Waterloo 13th, the Duch- 
ess bull Grand Duke (10284) at 205 guineas, the 
highest-priced lot of the day. It is related that 
before the sale began the Messrs. Cruickshank 
had discussed with Mr. Hay the idea of a joint 
purchase of the 4th Duke of York, which Mr. 
Amos Cruickshank thought much the best bull 
of the sale. Earl Ducie^s opening bid of 200 
guineas for that bull, however, scattered all op- 
position at the start; so that the project of tak- 
ing the bull to Scotland fell through with tit 
once. Grand Duke was a bull with rather 
more length, both of body and leg, than the 
Scotch breeders desired, but was used two 
years by Mr. Hay as an experiment. It was 
thought that he made no improvement in the 
herd, and he was sold to S. E. Bolden of Eng- 
land at the original purchase price. In Bol- 
den's herd he proved more successful and was 
ultimately sold to America at $5,000. The 
Booth bull Red Knight (11967), from Killerby, 
was next in line. He had been first as a two- 



574 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

year-old at the English Royal of 1852, and 
headed the aged bulls at Aberdeen in 1852. 
He was a compact, thick-set, short-legged, well- 
fleshed bull, and in 1856 was sent to the Paris 
Exposition. On the return trip he contracted 
foot-and-mouth disease and was slaughtered 
in London. 

Mr. Hay's death occurred in 1854 and his 
herd passed into the possession of his son-in- 
law. Mr. Shepherd, who, in 1856, bought the 
bull Bosquet (14183), of Sir Charles Knightley's 
breeding, and in 1858 Cherry Duke 2d (14265) 
from Mr. Bolden. The latter made a great 
record at the great Northern shows 1859-1861 ^ 
but was not specially satisfactory as a sire. In 
fpuct, it has usually been claimed that the 
Shethin cattle were better before the Bates, 
Booth or Knightley bloods were introduced. 
The herd was dispersed in 1863, at which 
time it aggregated 134 head, including sixteen 
Mysies, ten Lovelys and nine Waterloos, be- 
sides a lot of Claras, Rosemarys, etc. The 
event occurred Wednesday, July 29, Mr. Straf- 
ford presiding. Messrs. Cruickshank bought 
the eleven-year-old red Mysie 3d at 50 guineas, 
Mysie 26th at 21 guineas, Princess Royal 5th at 
46 guineas and Lovely 8th at 41 guineas. Mr. 
Marr of Uppermill bought Princess Royal 6th 
for 24 guineas. William Duthie bought a pair 
of Wanton heifers at 17 and 20 guineas. Tho 



Scotland's sbaechino test. 



575 



Duke of Richmond made a number of pur- 
chases and one of the Waterloos was bought 
by Col. Pennant of Penrhyn Castle, Wales, at 
51 guineas. The highest price was 64 guineas, 
given by Mr. Wilson of Bray ton for the heifer 
Waterloo 21st. 



CHAPTER XIX, 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTOJT. 

To Ketton, Kirklevington, Killerby and Ayles- 
by we have now to add the name of Sittytoa 
Mr. Bates, the elder Booth and William Ton 
did not survive to witness the crowning show- 
yard and sale-ring triamphs of their favorites. 
Amos Cruick8hank,."the herdsman of Aber- 
deenshire/' more fortunate in that respect than 
the great English breed-builders, lived to re- 
ceive recognition both at home and abroad as 
one of the few great constructive breeders of 
Short-horn history. An inspiring story this of 
Sittyton. Not a legend of Aladdin and bis 
lamp, but a plain, unvarnished tale of patient, 
persistent, unfaltering pursuit of an ideal fol- 
lowed over all obstacles to the goal of final and 
complete success. 

Born in 1808 and reared in the County of 
Aberdeen, entering the ranks of the tenant- 
farmers of the district at the period of greatest 
activity and progress in the development of the 
modern agriculture of the North; engaging in 
the very thick of the fight for leadership in the 
work of evolving a type of cattle suited to the 

(576^ 







AMOS CKUICKSHANK OF SITT^TON. 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 577 

exacting requirements of his native heath; 
competing with a class of farmers probably un- 
matched in all the world in respect to the in- 
telligence and skill with which they manage 
their lands and live stock; leaving all beaten 
tracks and marking out a distinctive policy of 
his own; loyally supported in his task by an 
enterprising brother-partner, the life and work 
of Amos Cruickshank looms up above all con- 
temporary effort in the North of Scotland even 
as Ben Nevis dominates in majesty the moun- 
tain wilderness of the West. 

A new type sought. — Amos Cruickshank 
was a man with a well-defined purpose. Firm 
as a rock in his convictions, steadfast to the 
end in maiQtaining his views, he recognized no 
test of value in cattle save that of demonstrated 
ability to turn straw, turnips and ^'cake" into 
pounds, shillings and pence at a profit. Beauty 
was to his severely practical eye but skin-deep 
at best. Of itself it paid no rent. He never 
allowed himself , therefore, in making his selec- 
tijons of breeding stock to lose his heart or head 
to any beast, be it ever so "bonny," if it had 
only graceful outlines or mere "sweetness" of 
character to recommend it. 

The Cruickshank creed demanded first of all 
"a good middle." The signs of constitution 
and digestive capacity in cattle present their 
most visible manifestations in the body rather 

87 



578 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN GATTLB. 

than in the extremities. Vitality and feeding 
quality were with Amos Cruickshank consid- 
erations paramount. A broad, full chest, wide 
back and deep ribs were his all-in-all. The 
head had attention only as it gave some token 
as to the vigor or probable capacity of the ani- 
mal for feed-lot or reproductive purposes. The 
rump carried cheap meat and was, in his view, 
of wholly secondary importance. Level quar- 
ters and fine fronts he fully appreciated, but if 
the "middle" was weak the fault with him was 
fatal. While not opposed to "finish," and fully 
sensible of the value of "style," he took the 
ground that, from the tenant-farmer's view- 
point, if other and more vital qualifications 
were wanting the Short-horn could not hope 
to withstand the ordeals of the climate of 
North Scotland or satisfy the close calculations 
of feeders who wrested their forage from an 
unwilling soil. 

As for pedigree he had originally imbibed 
something of the same contempt felt by Ron- 
nie of Phautassie and Robertson of Ladykirk. 
When in quest of stock to suit his purpose his 
mind was an open book so far as the great 
rival strains of blood were concerned. The 
names of Bates, Booth, Towneley, or Torr 
moved him to no expression of mere sentimen- 
tal regard for the stock of the English leaders. 
He listened with comparative indifference to 



AMOS ORUIOKSHANE OF 8ITTYT0N. 579 

the story of the Duchesses and viewed with 
equanimity the rising reputation of Warlaby. 
Cool and calculating, deliberate always, never 
carried off his feet by the currents of fashion that 
whirled round about the Short-horn breeders 
of his time, it was with him always, and for- 
ever a question only of "what is best forcmr 
country, our agriculture, our people? " And so 
he started out on the indifferent soil of Sittyton 
of Straloch to rear a class of cattle that should 
meet the Scottish want. Untrammeled by 
prejudices, unmoved by the gongs and cymbals 
of those who were attracting the attention of 
the majority of his contemporaries, this silent 
man of destiny, keeping his own counsel, re- 
served and retiring beyond all his colleagues; 
honest, faithful, upright and inflexible in his 
service in behalf of Northern agricultuie, pur- 
sued the even tenor of his way, often discour- 
aged but never despairing, seeking in every 
nook and corner of the United Kingdom for 
material likely to aid in developing his herd; 
testing first one blood and then another, until 
finally a blade was found that cut the Gordian 
knot for him and Scotland. 

While the Sittyton herd was progressing to 
itd apotheosis it had the service of a succes- 
sion of distinguished sires and show bulls. It 
has been said that Mr. Cruickshank did not 
participate in th<? "wild hurrah" for "fashion- 



580 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

able" blood, because of the proverbial Scottish 
prudence; that is to say because he was not en- 
terprising enough to relax the partnership purse 
strings for the purpose of securing specimens 
of the prevailing popular sorts. This is alto- 
gether lacking in truth. For years the breed- 
ing farms and National show-yards of England, 
Scotland and Ireland were visited in quest of 
such material as approximated the Sittyton 
ideal. There was nothing niggardly in a policy 
that dictated the payment of $2,000 for individ- 
ual bulls and nothing narrow in the plans that 
finally brought the herd to a total of over 300 
head of registered cattle — the largest in all 
Britain. 

The brothers Cruickshank.— Amos and An- 
thony Cruickshank, who were jointly interested 
in the breeding operations carried on at Sitty- 
ton, were born and reared on a farm near the 
little village of Inverurie, some fifteen miles 
northwest of the Aberdonian capital. Amos, 
retiring by nature and preferring the peace 
and quiet of rural scenes to the bustle of shops 
and streets, devoted his attention wholly to 
agricultural pursuits. Anthony decided to en- 
gage in trade at Aberdeen, where he succeeded 
in establishing a good business and subsequent- 
ly acquired considerable local prominence in 
commercial and banking circles. He was a 
man of great energy and public spirit, and 



AMOS 0RUI0K8HANK OF SITTYTON. 581 

while the credit for the development of the 
Sittyton Short-horns must be rested primarily 
upon the sound judgment and practical sense 
of Amos, still it must not be forgotten that it 
was largely through the determination of An- 
thony that such vigorous and persistent efforts 
were made for so many years in the matter 
of foundation stock. It was in a little back 
room at Anthony Cruickshank's place of busi- 
ness in the city of Aberdeen that the idea of 
the Royal Northern Show was firet conceived. 
Barclay of Ury, Grant Duff and other kindred 
spirits were called in conference and the result 
of their deliberations was the establishment of 
that afterward useful agricultural show associ- 
ation. The Sittyton Short-horns were for a 
long series of years exhibited at the leading 
Scottish National andJocal shows, winning 
their way to great public favor and general 
patronage. 

Anthony with his commercial instincts was 
anxious to secure a reputation for the partner- 
ship herd. He favored all schemes looking 
toward the bringing of the Sittyton Short-horns 
prominently before the public. He served, there- 
fore, as an eflScient *' promoter." Amos soon de- 
veloped a genius for practical cattle-breeding. 
Quick to detect faults he never allowed an un- 
satisfactory sire to remain long in the herd no 
matter at what cost a bull might have been 



582 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

placed in service. Philosophical always he re- 
marked after having lost the $2,000 purchase, 
Master Butterfly 2d, shortly after his arrival at 
Sittyton : " It is the best thing that could have 
happened, for he would only have done mis- 
chief in the herd. He hasn't died a day too 
soon." He was not the man to " enthuse " over 
any beast, no matter how great its reputation 
or its cost, unless he thought he could see some 
indications that it would prove useful in devel- 
oping the type of cattle sought. The brother 
therefore proved each useful to the other. To- 
gether they gave the world one of its greatest 
and most valuable herds.* 



* " The two brothers made an excellent combination, bat in some ways 
were very unlike. Anthony was the keener, brighter, more Intellectual 
spirit of the two. He had a fine rich voice and dark briirht eyes, the sitarkle 
of which denoted a high deirree of intelllffenee. Amos was stouter built, of 
a Quieter and more phlegmatic type. The one was always ready to con- 
verse ; the other was of the silent sort No interviewer or newspaper cor- 
respondent could make anything of Amos; even the genial ' Dmld * failed 
to draw him. Anthony would discuss the merits of an animal in detail, be 
it Short-horn or Clydesdale, and give aroason for the faith that was In him; 
but it required almost a surgical operation to get any deliverance on the 
subject from Amos. *A good beast ' or ' Not a good beast ' was about all 
you might expect. Anthony attended to the herd-book entries, the adver- 
tising and cataloguing of the stock, and, I believe, named all the animals, 
but the practical management of the farms and herd devolved, of course, 
on his brother. In their numerous purchases of stock Anthony looked 
much to show-yard reputation and pedigree, Amos almost entirely to the 
perBonal appearance of the animal itself, and he had his own notions of 
what constituted a good sort. * I had often great battles,* he told me, * with 
Anthony about the bulls we were to use. A vast deal of money was spent 
in the purchase of animals that did no good whatever.' Amos did not 
bother much with the herd book, and I am told could seldom be got to look 
at it. In this respect, I believe, he resembled Richard Booth, Wilkinson of 
Lenton and many other noted brooders. His brother's object in a large 
measure was to make the undertaking a commercial success. He studied 
what would attract and please his customers. Amos, on the other hand, 
had the eye of a breeder and strove to get his animals of the type that 
pleased himself. He seemed to have an iaiuitlve knowledge of what con- 



AMOS 0RUI0K8HANK OF SITTYTON. 583 

Anthony Cruickshank died in 1879 at the 
age of sixty-six yeai-s. Amos lived to be 
eighty-seven years of age, passing from the 
scene of his long and useful life at Sittyton 
May 27, 1895, the herd having been closed out 
at private sale as an entirety in 1889. Like 
many other of the most noted Short-horn 
breeders of the century he never married. He 
was wedded only to the herd that .received 
for such an extended period his most earnest 
thought and devoted attention. A devout 
Quaker he carried into his daily life the sim- 
ple, upright, kindly teachings of his faith. It 

Btituted a rood beast and the development of iliat which Is known as the 
Cmickahank type of Short-horn I believe to have been almost entirely due 
to Amos. 

" His success as a breeder was no doubt due to the patient, persevering 
nature of the man, his Innate turn for the pursuit, and also, perhaps, In 
some derree to the fact that he was totally devoid of any sentimental no- 
tions about 'blood' and pedUrree. He looked at the animal squarely as it 
stood before him; If It did not come up to his standard it mattered not what 
the pedigree was or who the breeder. I remember visiting him on one occa- 
sion shortly after the arrival of some cows from a distant herd, which had 
been taken In ezchan^e for an equal number from Sittyton. They had 
splendid pedlrrees of rreat lenirth, with Boan Duchesses and I know not 
what, all runninir back to Frederick, Belvedere and many a far-famed sire, 
but they lacked the substance, flesh and hair which Amos loved. As he 
pointed them out he could not conceal his dissatisfaction. Not one of them 
would please him. I ventured to remark that some of them looked to be 
milky. *They may have some milk,* said he, gloomily, 'but that is about 
the only rood thing about them/ Long experience and observation had 
made him a very thorough judge. For half a century he had watched over 
a herd of Shor^hom8 which for many years was the largest in the king- 
dom, and which sent out animals that have made the fortunes of many 
other herds, not only in this country but in other lands. He enjoyed a long, 
healthy life, due partly to his good constitution and also to his regular, tem- 
perate habits. Notwithstanding his great age his mind remained wonder- 
fully clear to the very last. He was a type of character rarely met with 
nowadays; so free from all vanity, affectation and humbug, so unpretend- 
ing, simple and true. As some one well said, ' There was only one Amos 
Cruickshank and he is gone.* "— T. F. Jamieson in London (Eng.) Live-Stock 
JcmnuU. 



584 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

is indeed not recorded that he ever spoke ill of 
any man. Given little to speech it was with 
difficulty that even his best friends could draw 
him out. The house in which he lived and 
died at Sittyton was a modest one, as befitted 
th^ character of its tenant. He was very fond 
of his shrubbery, vines and flowers, and here, 
far removed from "the madding crowd," he 
worked out in his own original way the great 
problem that confronted the cattle-growers of 
his time in the North of Scotland. 

The farm of Sittyton.— The farm upon which 
the Messrs. Cruickshank began their breeding 
operations is situated about twelve miles north- 
west of the granite city of Aberdeen. From 
the roadway leading to this, the foremost nur- 
sery of Scotch-bred Short-horns, one may catch 
upon the east glimpses of the German Ocean 
and toward the west, when the air is clear, the 
outlines of the distant Grampians. ' It consists 
of about two hundred and siitty acres, consti- 
tuting a part of the estate known as Straloch. 
It has no natural advantages adapting it to 
successful cattle-breeding from the standpoint 
of those accustomed to the fertile and well- 
sheltered farms abounding everywhere in Eng- 
land and America. When Amos Cruickshank 
took possession in 1837, at the age of twenty- 
nine years, the land was in poor condition and 
stood greatly in need of buildings, as well as 



AMOS GRUIOKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 585 

drainage, but he went to work with a will; 
the necessary improvements were provided 
and an immediate start was made with Short- 
horns. Some ten years later the herd had in- 
creased to proportions that made it necessary 
to take a lease of the neighboring farm of 
Clyne, rendering about five hundred acres of 
land available. This sufficed for a time, but 
the breeding operations were carried forward 
on such an extensive scale that it was found 
desirable to increase the holding still further 
by leasing another adjacent tract of about one 
hundred and thirty acres, known as Longside. 
Still their ambition was unsatisfied, and in 
1855 the brothers obtained control of the fine 
farm known as Mains of Udny, some five 
miles distant, bringing the total area under 
their control up to 900 acres. The herd at- 
tained a membership of more than three 
hundred head during the period of its greatest 
expansion, say between the years of 1860 and 
1870, and a lease of the small tract known 
locally as Middleton gave them possession of 
fully 1,000 acres. About 1873 the lease of 
Longside terminated and a few years later 
that of Mains of Udny, necessitating a lai^e 
reduction of the herd. In the latter years of 
Mr. Cruickshank's life he was tenant of about 
600 acres, the herd numbering at the time the 
last complete catalogue was issued 120 head. 



586 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

General plan pursued.— Briefly stated, the 
methods of the Messrs. Cruickshank did not 
differ materially from those of the elder Booth. 
Bates proceeded on the theory that a combina- 
tion of certain bloods must necessarily produce 
the type he sought. Thomas Booth and Amos 
Cruickshank worked for type alone, utilizing 
at first any good material attracting their at- 
tention and finally "fixing" the desired con- 
formation by resort to in-and-in breeding. In 
the purchase of the foundation cows and heif- 
ers for Sittyton choice was usually made of 
those that seemed to possess good constitutions 
and an aptitude to fatten. If milking qualities 
were shown that point was also prized at its 
full value. Cattle were drawn from widely 
separated sources, and while Mr. Cruickshank 
endeavored to adhere to one general ideal as 
closely as possible, he was unable to collect a 
cow herd which in point of uniform excellence 
would satisfy his aspirations. Realizing that 
the bull was the key to the situation, greater 
attention was bestowed upon the selection of 
sires than upon choice of females. Beginning 
with bulls bought from Capt. Barclay, no stone 
was left unturned for a quarter of a century to 
obtain for service at Sittyton stock bulls of the 
very highest order of merit. In the course of 
that time nearly every leading herd and every 
important show-yard in the Kingdom was 



AMOS CRUIOKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 587 

visited in quest of sires of the desired type. 
In this search no attempt was made at confin- 
ing selections to any particular line of blood. 
It was a question not of descent but of type. 
It was not until after 1860 that the policy 
of purchasing bulls for service was modified. 
Up to that time, notwithstanding the fact that 
a remarkable succession of noted bulls had 
seen service in the herd,* that uniformity in 
essential characteristics which Mr. Cruickshank 
so earnestly desired had not been attained. 
When, therefore, the get of the home-bred 
bull Champion of England (17526) made their 
appeamnce the whole policy was changed and 
a system of inbreeding begun. His stock ap- 
proached closely the Sittyton idea of what 
a North of Scotland Short-horn ought to be, 
and for generations afterward the best of his 
sons, grandsons and great-grandsons were kept 
in service. From that time forward im- 
provement in the matter of uniformity was 
rapid. Latterly the stock bulls were all bred 
upon the farm; the size of the herd and the 

*lfoComble in hlB InteresUn? little volume on ** Cattle and Cattle-Breed- 
era'* saya: "Foremost among eminent breeders of Shori-homs in the 
North at the present time are the Messrs. Cruickshank, Sittyton. Their 
fame is European; they own the largreat herds of Short-horns In the world. 
It is only necessary to name Fairfax Royal, Prince Edward Fairfax, Velvet 
Jacket, Matadore, Lord Sackvllle, The Baron by Baron Warlaby, Master 
Butterfly Sd, John Bull, Lancaster Comet, Lord Sarlan, Ivanhoe, Lord 
Oarlles, Malachite, Windsor Augustus, Sir James the Rose and last, though 
not least. Forth, to show the distinguished position their herd has taken. 
SufBco it to Bay that no other breeder of Short-horns can claim having 
owned such an array of flre^claas bulla.** 



588 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

great variety of blood represented in it en- 
abling Mr. Cruickshank to carry on his process 
of concentration for many years with little 
danger of deterioration. 

To undertake an enumeration of all the vari- 
ous purchases made for the herd would be a 
useless task. Sittyton was represented for a 
long series of years at every auction sale of 
any consequence in Great Britain, and many 
animals from many different herds and of vari- 
ous lines of breeding were bought. Some of 
these gave satisfaction and some did not. We 
need allude here only to such as left some im- 
press on the herd. 

The first of the Violets.— It was in 1837 that 
Amos Cruickshank laid the foundation for the 
Sittyton Herd. In that year he made a pil- 
grimage to the South in quest of Short-horns, 
proceeding as far as the County of Durham, 
England. With characteristic caution he re- 
turned to the North with but a solitary heifer 
as the fruit of his travels. The following year 
he again visited England and secured about a 
dozen heifers. These are said to have been 
bought from a Mr. George Williamson of North 
Lincolnshire, and one of them, Moss Rose, be- 
came the maternal ancestress of a family after- 
ward famous at Sittyton as the Violets. In 
1843 Moss Rose produced to a service by the 
Ury bull Inkhorn a dark-roan heifer that was 



AMOS 0RUICK8HANK OF SITTYTON. 589 

named Red Rose, that became the dam of the 
beautiful cow Carmine Rose, by Fairfax Royal, 
which, bred to the bull Hudson (9228), dropped 
China Rose, whence came Roseate, by Mata- 
dore, the dam of the great roan Violet, by Lord 
Bathhurst (13173). Violet proved an extraor- 
dinary breeder and her name was given to the 
females tracing descent in their maternal line 
from her. She was the dam of the grand cow 
Village Rose, by Champion of England; the 
prize-winning Sweet Violet, by Lord Stanley, 
and Red Violet, by Allan, and of the roan stock 
bull Grand Monarque (21867), by Champion of 
England. 

Yenufl tribe. — ^This sort at Sittyton was orig- 
inally derived from a red heifer bought at a 
sale held by Mr. Rennie of Kinblethmont, For- 
farshire, who was said to have been a brother 
of Rennie of Phantassie. This was in 1841. 
Venus was out of a cow called Dairymaid, bred 
from the stock of Robertson of Ladykirk. It 
is stated that the immediate descendants of 
Venus were "real good milkers, but rather 
rough and bare of flesh." Later on, however, 
they acquired the valuable general characteris- 
tics of the best Sittyton stock, those descending 
through Flora, by Fairfax Royal, and her grand- 
daughter, Morning Star by Champion of Eng- 
land, being perhaps the most highly prized. 
The bull Beeswing (12456), sold to Campbell of 



590 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

Kinellar, was a son of Flora. The Venus fam- 
ily was retained until the final dispersion of 
the herd. 

The family of ttimulus. — A good Short-horn 
cow was bought in 1841 from the Rev. Robert 
Douglas of the parish of Ellon, not far from 
Sittyton. The minister was engaged in farm- 
ing and had the reputation of being a first-class 
judge. The cow in question had been bred by 
John Rennie of Phantassie from a Ladykirk 
foundation. At Sittyton she was bred to Ink- 
horn and produced the heifer Phantassie, which 
in turn left the heifer Maidstone, by Matadore. 
The latter to a service by Lord Raglan pro- 
duced Mistletoe, that was the dam of the ex- 
traordinary red cow Miraulus, by Champion of 
England. This cow was sold to Hon. John 
Dryden of Canada, after having produced at 
Sittyton the bull calf that subsequently devel- 
oped into the great bull Royal Duke of Gloster 
(29864), the sire of such bulls as Roan Gauntlet 
(85284), Barmpton (37763), Grand Vizier (34086) 
and Privy Seal (50168); and such cows as Cus- 
tard, the dam of Cumberland, Souvenir, Silvia, 
Lavender 17th, Garnish and Violet Queen. In 
Canada Mimulus became the dam of the famous 
bull Barmpton Hero that did splendid servi(^e 
up to the age of fifteen years, contributing 
many thick-fleshed, compactly-fashioned cattle 
of the real Aberdeenshire type to various 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 591 

American breeding and show-yard herds. The 
family ot Mimulus was never numerous at Sit- 
tyton and exerted its influence upon the herd 
mainly through Royal Duke of Gloster. 

Ficotee and her progeny .^-In 1841 a cow 
called Sunflower, descended from Phantassie 
and Ladykirk blood, was bought from James 
Walker. She produced two heifers, one of 
which, Picotee, gave rise to a numerous and 
valuable family. Indeed Picotee herself at ten 
years of age was one of the first-prize pair of 
cows at Aberdeen in 1855. From her descend- 
ed Joyful 2d, a first-prize heifer at the Royal 
Northern of 1862; the handsome red cow Flor- 
ence Nightingale, by The Baron; the great roan 
Village Belle and the red British Queen, both 
by Champion of England. 

The Matchless sort.— A heifer called Pre- 
mium, sired by Geoige (2057) and in calf to 
the Bates-bred Holker (4051), was bought from 
Grant Duff in 1841. To the Holker service she 
produced the heifer Matchless, considered one 
of the best of her day in the herd and winner 
of first prize at a Highland Show at Dundee. 
She proved the first of a noted race of cows 
bearing her name, besides contributing through 
her daughter Kindly a family of " Ks," of which 
Kindness and Kindred were early representa- 
tives. This tribe was closed out in the reduc- 
tion of the herd in 1876. 



592 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

The Broadhooks.— Eliza, by White Bull 
(5643), a heifer that was an own sister to the 
celebrated Buchan Hero (3238), was bought 
from Hutcheson of Monyruy, and produced sev- 
eral good bulls besides founding an excellent 
family of cows known as the Broadhooks that 
disappeared from the herd about 1870. Eliza 
went back to the old Ladykirk stock. This 
Broadhooks tribe was the same as that con- 
tained in the herd of Lord Lovat at Beaufort, 
that produced the champion bull New Year's 
Gift (57796). 

Origin of the Lady tribe.— Always on the 
lookout for a good one, Mr. Cruickshank saw 
and admired at the Edinburgh Show of 1842 
the two-year-old heifer Amelia, that had suc- 
ceeded in getting into the prize-list not only at 
Edinburgh but at Berwick. From Amelia came 
one of the best of the earlier Cruickshank 
tribes, known as the " Ladys." Writing of these 
a correspondent of the Banffshire Journal in 
1864 said: "The most remarkable descendant 
of Amelia is Grand Lady, out of Lady Louisa 
and sired by Lord Sackville (13249). Grand 
Lady is worthy of her name. She is a beauti- 
ful roan and the very perfection of symmetry." 

The Nonpareils.— A good red cow, called 
Nonpareil 3d, came into the herd in 1844 from 
the stock of Mr. Cartwright of Lincolnshire. 
She proved a fortunate investment and gave 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OF SITTYTON. 593 

rise to the Sittyton Nonpareils that acquired 
much celebrity throughout the Northern Coun- 
ties. Several of the family were disposed of at 
from 100 to 200 guineas each. Nonpareil 16th 
of this line was a first-prize heifer at Aberdeen 
in 1855. The demand for females of this sort 
was extensive. Many were parted with and 
some of the Nonpareils proved persistent bull 
breeders; hence it came about that much to 
the regret of the Messrs. Cruickshank the orig- 
inal line disappeared from the herd about the 
year 1864. A few years later the cow Non- 
pareil 12th was bought ut Mr. Cartwright's dis- 
persion sale, but as a breeder she did not prove 
as successful as the first purchase. 

Sittyton Butterflys.— Upon the occasion of 
the dispersion of Capt. Barclay's herd at Ury 
in 1847 Messrs. Cruickshank improved the op- 
portunity for making additions to their stock. 
The first bulls used at Sittyton were of Ury ex- 
traction, and a number of females of Barclay 
breeding were now secured. Among these 
were Clara, by Mahomed, and Strawberry, by 
2d Duke of Northumberland. Although it is 
stated that Strawberry was not so good an in- 
dividual as Clara she produced at Sittyton the 
famous bull Pro Bono Publico, that was sold 
to Lord Clancarty and after a noted career as 
a prize-taker in Ireland was shown with suc- 
cess at the Paris Exposition of 1856. Strawber- 



594 /L HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ry's daughter Bounty, by The Pacha, dropped 
the splendid cow Buttercup, by Report (10704), 
and she in turn produced the stock bull Baro- 
net (16614). From her also was derived a great 
set of cows known as the Butterflys, that proved 
prolific breeders of the right sort of stock. In- 
deed Buttercup was called one of the very finest 
cows ever seen at Sittyton. She was a red, with 
an exceptionally strong back and rib, and all 
of. her immediate descendants were similarly 
distinguished. Butterfly 1st carried the High- 
land Society's first prize in 1856, and Butterfly 
4th was first at the Royal Northern in 1862. 
The original Butterfly, by Matadore, was de- 
scribed as "a deep-ribbed rather high-standing 
red cow." She proved long-lived and produced 
many calves, among others two bulls that saw 
some service in the herd; to-wit,, Lord Byron 
(24363) and Royal Forth (25022). Butterfly 9th 
of this family produced the red bull Breadal- 
bane (28073), by Champion of England, that 
was used for a time by Mr. Cruickshank and 
imported into Canada in 1871 by H. Thompson. 
The Ury cow Clara, above mentioned, became 
the dam of the heifer Barcliana that produced 
the noted roan stock bull Lord Sackville 
(13249). Another one of the Barclay cows, 
Emily, left a number of descendants at Sitty- 
ton, one of which, Lucy, by The Baron, pro- 
duced the bull Lord Chamberlain used in the 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OP SITTYTON, 595 

herd in 1864, and also the bull Lord Lyons, 
bought by Mr. Marr of Uppermill at the sale of 
that year for 76 guineas. 

Orange Blossoms. — This tribe, which has to 
its credit the highest-priced Cruickshank cow 
ever sold in America; to-wit., Orange Blossom 
18th at $3,500, descends from the roan cow 
Fancy, by Billy (3151), obtained in 1847 from 
Hutcheson of Monyruy. Fancy's dam, Jessie, 
had been purchased by Hutcheson from Bennie 
of Kinblethmont, going back to the old Lady- 
kirk foundation. Fancy did so well at Sitty- 
ton that her daughter, Edith Fairfax, was also 
bought from Hutcheson in 1851. She was one 
of the two calves sired by the noted Sir Thomas 
Fairfax (5196), that died at Hutcheson's. From 
Edith Fairfax some splendid Short-horns were 
bred at Sittyton, among others Queen of Scot- 
land, by Matadore, whose daughter. Queen of 
the South, wae one of the greatest cows of her 
day in all Scotland. She was a roan of splen- 
did flesh and substance, and as a yearling won 
first prize at the Royal Northern of 1862, be- 
sides the Formartine Society's medal as the 
best animal in the yard. From Queen of Scot- 
land was also bred the original Orange Blos- 
som, by Doctor Buckingham (14405), one of 
whose daughters. Orange Blossom 2d, became 
one of the acknowledged queens of the herd. 
From this family also came the roan Delight, 



596 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLlS. 

dam of the bull Diphthong, first-prize winner 
at Aberdeen in 1862 and 1863 and challenge- 
cup winner at the Royal Northern. From this 
sort, also, spi-ang one of the greatest of all the 
latter-day Scottish sires, William of Orange, so 
celebrated in the herd of Mr. Marr of Uppermill. 

Admah, Eilmeny 3d, and Eliza by Brutus. 
— Cows introduced into the herd in the early 
"fifties" that had descendants upon the farm 
for many years were Admah, by Fitz Adolphus 
Fairfax; Kilmeny 3d, by Robin o' Day, and 
Eliza, by Brutus. The first-named came from 
Hutcheson and was out of a cow by Richard 
Booth's Fitz Leonard that had been on hire two 
seasons at Monyruy. Her grandam had been 
bought from Rennie of Kinblethmont. From 
Admah came Aroma, by Matadore, whose 
daughter Oakleaf, by The Baron, produced the 
bull Royal Oak (22792), by Champion of Eng- 
land, that saw some service at Sittyton. Kil- 
meny 3d came from Grant Duff's, and her de- 
scendants were maintained in the herd for 
some years, Eliza, by Brutus, a red cow bought 
from Mr. Cochrane of Glasgow Forest, acquired 
distinction as the dam of Emily, by Lord Sack- 
ville, that produced the stock bull Cassar Au- 
gustus (25704). Eliza was descended from the 
stock of Ben Wilson of Brawith. 

Clipper tribe.— By the year 1852 the number 
of females at Sittyton exceeded 100 head, but 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OP 8ITTYT0N. 597 

still the quest for good material went od. Dur- 
ing that year there was bought from Mr. Bos- 
well of Kingcausie, near Aberdeen, two cows 
that exerted, perhaps, a greater influence upon 
the fortunes of the herd than any other. These 
were Verdant and Clipper. The first named 
became the grandam of the celebrated Cham- 
pion of England and will be referred to further 
on in connection with the appearance of that 
epoch-making sire. 

Clipper, by the Barclay bull Billy (3151), was 
a light-roan cow, not very large, "slightly hol- 
low in the back, but very fleshy and of great 
substance." She was seven years old when she 
came to Sittyton, and was descended from a 
sort that had been in Mr. Boswell's hands for 
several generations, tracing her maternal de- 
scent from the Chilton herd of Mr. Mason. It 
is worthy of note that she continued to breed 
until fifteen years of age and produced her best- 
heifer, Cressida, by John Bull (11618), in her 
fourteenth year. To the cover of The Czar 
(20947) Cressida produced the good red-and- 
white cow Carmine, whose daughters by Cham- 
pion of England — Princess Royal and Carmine 
Rose — proved mines of bovine wealth. Indeed 
this pair did much toward convincing Mr. 
Cruickshank that in Champion of England he 
had found the sire he long had sought. Jamie- 
son of Ellon tells us that in her day Carmine 



598 jl history of short-horn cattle. 

Rose was considered the best combinatiou of 
beef and milk in the entire herd; that "her 
bag would have excited the cupidity of a Lon- 
don dairyman," and of the same extraordinary 
pattern was her daughter Cdchineal, which, 
bred to Princess RoyaPs great son Roan Gaunt- 
let (35284), produced the massive Cayhurst 
(47560), used by Mr. Duthie, sold to Mr. Jamie- 
son, and eventually passing to Mr. Sutton-Nel- 
thorpe of Lincolnshire. 

Princess Royal is said to have been a grand, 
big roan, but not so great a dairy cow as her 
sister Carmine Rose. As a breeder her influ- 
ence in the herd was felt for generations. She 
became the dam of the four fine cows Custard, 
Claret, Crocus and Chrysanthemum, besides 
giving birth to the renowned Roan Gauntlet, 
one of the most famous of all Sittyton sires. 
Custard was a heifer of rare beauty from the 
beginning, neat, but not large, and produced 
the two bulls Cumberland (46144) and Commo- 
dore (54118). She was specially strong in her 
hind quarters, a characteristic that was inher- 
ited by Cumberland, a bull that was extensively 
used by Mr. Cruickshank in his later years. 
Commodore grew into a bull that was the ad- 
miration of his time, but unfortunately after 
having been used for a short period with great 
success died at sea en route for South America. 

Claret carried the size and substance of her 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 599 

mother, but produced only two calves, one of 
which was the fine sire Clear-the-Way (47604), 
used at Caimbrogie and by Bruce of Inverqu- 
homery. The table-backed white Chrysanthe- 
mum, that became the property of Mr. William 
Duthie of Collynie on the final sale of the herd, 
was the dam of the massive bull Chamberlain 
(60461), that passed into the possession of Mr. 
Philo L. Mills of Ruddington Hall. All in all it 
is doubtful if Sittyton ever produced a greater 
breeding cow than Princess Royal" From this 
same Clipper foundation came Mr. Duthie^s 
prize bull Pride of Morning (64546). 

The Victoriag.— The first of this Mason-bred 
tribe to enter the Cruickshank herd was Victo- 
ria 19th, by Lord John (11731), that was bid off 
by Anthony Cruickshank at the sale of Mr. 
Holmes of Westmeath, Ireland. Although full 
of the best English blood she lacked the sub-" 
stance which Mr. Amos Cruickshank had inva- 
riably insisted upon. On her arrival in Scot- 
land she was sent to Mr.' Hay's at Shethin to be 
bulled by the Booth-bred Red Knight (11976), 
and to this service produced the twin heifers 
Victoria 29th and 30th. It is said that the for- 
mer "had weak loins and was not good; the 
latter much better, but left no female stock." 
The dam was called delicate and the sort 
showed no special merit at Sittyton until 
crossed with Champion of England. That 



600 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

great sire seemed to bring them out. Victo- 
ria 39th, by that bull, was a good one and bred 
on to old age. Her heifer Victoria 41st, by 
Lord Privy Seal, was of the right stamp and a 
good breeder, producing the thick Victoria 57th 
and the good stock bull Ventriloquist (44180). 
The family improved with age under Mr. 
Cruickshank's skillful crossing, and Victoria 
48th, by Lord Lancaster, a cow of marked 
merit, produced Royal Victor (43792), that be- 
came the sire of Gravesend (46461). Of this 
tribe also was the bull Vermont (47193), that 
did good service in the herd of Mr. Campbell 
of Kinellar, and Deane Willis' 500-guinea prize 
bull Count Victor (66877).* 

The Sittyton Victorias imported to America 
have proved among the most valuable Scotch- 
bred Short-horns that ever crossed the Atlan- 
tic. The first to come out was the roan Victo- 
ria 51st, by Royal Duke of Gloster (29864), im- 
ported by Mr. Davis Lowman of Toulon, IlL, in 



* Although the Vlctoriaa had a pedUree runnlncr hack to " the heaatlfal 
Lady Maynard '* of Charles Oolllnff's herd the ordinal females of this fam- 
ily at Sittyton were not well liked by Amos Grulckshank. The old Sooths 
Boswell, Mr. Jamieson, says: " I remember passing through the byres at 
Sittyton one day many years agrO when we came upon a roan cow. * This,* 
said Mr. GruickBhank, ' Is a Victoria; my brother thinks a great deal of 
them.' With characteristic reticence he said nothing as to his own opinion, 
but I gathered from the tone that it was not quite so favorable. It was not 
until their constitution had been renovated by one or two croaaes of Cham- 
pion of England blood that any bulls of the tribe were kept for servlee in 
the herd." Latterly, however, the original defects were quite bred out and 
the substance, flesh and feeding quality for which Sittyton finally became 
so famous was Impressed upon the Victorias in common with the other 
leading Cruickshank tribes 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OP 8ITTYT0N. 601 

1876. From this cow some of the very best 
Cruickshank cattle ever seen in Western show- 
yards and breeding herds have descended. 
Probably the greatest success, however, ever 
scored by the tribe in North America was 
through the extraordinary record of imp. 
Baron Victor (45944), a son of Victoria 58th, 
as a bull-getter in the fine herd of Col. W. 
A. Harris, Linwood, Kan. 

The Lancasters.— Three capital cows were 
bought at the sale from the fine old herd of 
Wilkinson of Lenton in 1854 — Lancaster 16th, 
Pomp and Roman 9th. Lancaster 16th pro- 
duced the good bull Lord Bathurst (13173), 
that was sold from the herd before his value 
was realized. She was one of the first-prize 
pair of cows at the Royal Northern of 1856 and 
for one of her descendants, the handsome Lan- 
caster 25th, Mr. Barclay of Keavil gave 150 
guineas. She proved in calf at the time to 
Mr. Cruickshank's Lord Raglan (13244), and in 
April, 1862, gave birth to three heifer calves, 
two of which, Anne and Mary of Lancaster, 
won prizes at Kelso as yearlings. The latter 
subsequently became the dam of imp. Baron 
Booth of Lancaster 7535, whose remarkable in- 
fluence in America in the herd of Hon. J..H. 
Pickrell has already been commented upon in 
these pages. Mr. Cruickshank had one weak- 
ness. He would occasionally put his best cat- 



602 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

tie in price to wealthy patrons. Tempting 
offers induced him to part with the best of 
these three Wilkinson cows — Roman 9th. The 
Lancasters also got away from him, so that 
after a few years he had nothing left from his 
judicious Lenton purchase. 

The Brawith Buds.— This celebrated Cruick- 
shauk family comes from the cow Pure Gold, 
descended from the famous Brawith Bud al- 
ready mentioned in connection with the opera- 
tions of Mr. Grant Duff of Eden. Pure Gold 
cost Messrs. Cruickshank 90 guineas at five 
years old at the Eden sale of 1854. Old Bra- 
with Bud had cost 160 guineas in 1841 and pro- 
duced calves until eighteen years of age, dur- 
ing all that period maintaining perfect health. 
Amos Cruickshank considered her one of the 
most remarkable cows he had ever seen. Pure 
Gold was often exhibited, and carried home to 
Sittyton many first prizes from Aberdeen. Like 
her maternal ancestress she lived to a good old 
age, in fact was the senior matron of the herd 
for many years. 

Pure Gold's daughter Golden Days, a great 
milker and grand breeder, sustained the repu- 
tation of her family for longevity. She gave 
to the herd the three fine bulls Golden Rule, by 
Champion of England ; the prize bull Pride of 
the Isles, by Scotland's Pride, and Lord of the 
Isles, by same sire. Pride of the Isles was chief 



AMOS 0EUI0K8HANK OP 8ITTYT0N. 603 

stock bull at Sittyton for a number of years, 
leaving a most valuable progeny, including 
such bulls as Cumberland (46144), Athabasca 
(47359) and Shapinshay (45581). Lord of the 
Isles was sold to Bruce of Inverquhomery, but 
was afterward bought back because of the 
great service rendered by his brother. One 
daughter of Golden Days, named Golden Mom, 
was bought by Mr. Jamieson of Ellon and in 
his hands developed into an excellent breeder. 
She was quite a dairy cow. Another heifer 
from Golden Days retained by Mr. Cruickshank 
was Golden Year. True to the traditions of 
her tribe she rounded out a long life of useful- 
ness in the herd. Among the most famous of 
the Brawith Bud cows may be mentioned Gilli- 
ver. Garnish, Godiva and Glowworm; the line 
that gave rise to Roan Robin (57992), Gondo- 
mar (55821), Gondolier (52950), Wanderer (60138) 
and other noted sires. 

It is stated that the original Brawith Bud 
cows at Sittyton, while presenting a satisfac- 
tory broadside view, were somewhat lacking 
in spread of rib, which characteristic was not 
wholly corrected until the days of Champion of 
England. That they possessed remarkable con- 
stitutions, however, is clearly apparent. They 
were developed into great flesh-carriers as well 
as good milkers and did much toward estab- 
lishing the name and fame of Sittyton, 



604 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLK. 

Duchesses of Gloster.— This sort, like the 
VictoriaA, owed its excellence at Sittyton to 
the skill and judgment of Amos Cruickshank. 
Although, like the Victorias, they were de- 
scended originally from a very celebrated Eng- 
lish cow; yet the female that brought the 
blood of Magdalena, by Comet — the only cow 
that Charles Colling reserved at the time of 
the Ketton dispersion — to the Cruickshank 
herd was not herself an animal of special su- 
periority. The blood was acquired by purchase 
of a cow called Chance, by Duke of Gloster 
(11382), bred by Eari Ducie and bought in 1855 
from a Mr. Robinson of Burton-on-Trent, who 
had obtained her from Tortworth. She is said 
to have been somewhat wanting in constitu- 
tion and her first heifers produced only two 
or three calves each. Her descendants were 
named Duchesses of Gloster, and the first good 
one of the line is said to have been the 7th 
Duchess, sired by Lord Raglan. She had five 
calves by Champion of England that measured 
well up to Mr. Cruickshank's standard. In 
fact, the Lord Raglan Duchesses of Glosters 
seemed to "nick" particularly well with the 
Champion. It was this blending of blood that 
produced the very handsome and thoroughly 
satisfactory breeding bull Grand Duke of Glos- 
ter (26288). This bull perhaps resembled 
Champion of England more than any other of 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 605 

his sons ; unfortunately, however, he broke a 
leg as the result of an accident at two years 
old, leaving but few calves, all of which were 
of pronounced merit. Among them was Royal 
Duke of Gloster (29864), that was not only a 
bull of superb individual merit, but proved one 
of the most valuable sires ever used in the 
herd. Mr. Cruickshank always considered that 
his loss of Grand Duke of Gloster was almost 
irreparable. 

The Duchess of Gloster sort was not largely 
represented in the herd toward the last, but at 
different times has thrown some of the most 
perfect specimens of the real Cruickshank 
type. 

The Secrets. — Another one of Anthony 
Cruickshank's purchases was the cow Sympa- 
thy, bought at Mr. Tanqueray's sale at Hendon, 
along with the bull The Baron (13833), in 1855. 
She represented the Bates line of breeding and 
was got by the Duchess bull Duke of Athol 
(10150). She was in calf to The Baron at the 
time of purchase and produced to that service 
the heifer Sunrise. Sympathy afterward pro- 
duced two heifers, Splendor and Splendid, by 
Lord Sackville (13249). While Sympathy and 
Sunrise were rather deficient in substance the 
Lord Sackville heifers were full of it. Mr. 
Cruickshank retained at Sittyton only the de- 
scendants of this robust pair. The sort proved 



606 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

prolific and constituted quite a feature of the 
herd up to the very last. Probably one of the 
best of the Secret cows was Surname, dam of 
the successful Collynie stock bull Scottish 
Archer (59833). None of the Secret bulls were 
used at Sittyton. 

The Cicely sort.— In 1860 there was bought 
from Mr. Morrison of Bognie an evenly-built, 
low-legged, level-fleshed red cow, with white 
marks, called Crocus, sired by Jemmy (11611). 
She was bred to Lancaster Royal (18167), of the 
Wilkinson Lancaster sort, and produced the 
heifer Cicely, that became the ancestress of 
some of the grandest cows Mr. Cruickshank 
ever bred, including Courtesy by Scotland's 
Pride, Campion by Roan Gauntlet^ Circassia by 
Champion of England, Cornucopia by Grand 
Vizier and Corolla by Feudal Chief. Those 
who were familiar with the herd in its prime 
have always asserted that Courtesy and Cam- 
pion were among the greatest cows ever pro- 
duced upon the farm, possessing splendid sub- 
stance and great scale. Mr. Deane Willis' tine 
show heifer Cactus is of Cicely descent. 

The Cicelys trace on the dam's side to the 
cow Premium, by George (2057), that was 
bought by Mr. Cruickshank from Grant Duff 
in 1841 ; so that they are of kindred origin 
with the Matchless sort already mentioned. 

Ayalanche. — Contemporary with Crocus was 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF 8ITTTT0N. 607 

the cow Avalanche, bought as a yearling at the 
sale of Mr. Budding of Panton in 1860. She 
was a roan, sired by the closely-bred Booth 
bull Sir Samuel, and, although not particularly 
strong as an individnal, she left a heifer in the 
herd, Anemone, by the prize bull Forth (17866), 
that was fruitful of good results. Bred to the 
Champion of England bull Caesar Augustus 
(25704), Anemone produced Azalea, the mother 
of the great Field Marshal (47870)— undoubt- 
edly the grandest of all the latter-day Cruick- 
shank bulls. She was also the dam of the good 
sire Athabasca (47359), used with success by 
Mr. Marr at Uppermill. Alma, a granddaugh- 
ter of Anemone, was one of the best cows pro- 
duced by the Avalanche tribe ; acquiring con- 
siderable renown in the herd of Mr. Mitchell. 
No bulls of this tribe were tried by Mr. Cruick- 
shank. 

Violette. — A rather plain-looking cow of 
this name, that produced valuable stock when 
crossed with Cruickshank bulls, was bought in 
1860 at the sale of her breeder, Mr. Morrison 
of Montcoffer. Mated with Champion of Eng- 
land she gave birth to three capital daughters, 
known as Violante, Finella and Victorine. To 
Grand Monarque she produced Vellum. Vio- 
lante was a noble cow and bred until fifteen 
years of age. Vellum produced the bull Privy 
Seal (50268), that proved useful in the herd of 



608 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

Bruce of Inverquhomery. These daughters of 
Violette were among the best cows of their 
time at Sittyton. 

The Loyelys. — As already stated in our ref- 
erences to Mr. Hay of Shethin this Sittyton 
sort was derived from the two good cows 
Lovely 6th and Lovely 8th, bought at the 
Shethin sale of 1863. The family came orig- 
inally from the beautiful cow Marion, by An- 
thony (1640), that had been bought in England 
from Mr. Lovell of Edgcott. Bred to Grand 
Monarque (21867) Lovely 8th gave the Messrs. 
Cruickshank one of the bulls that made their 
reputation — Scotland's Pride (25100). She also 
left the handsome cow Lovely 9th, which, 
bred to Champion of. England, produced Lord 
Lancaster (26666), also used in the herd. The 
Lovelys were prime favorites with Mr. Cruick- 
shank, and he also put in service the bull Lord 
Lansdowne (29128), a grandson of Lovely 6th. 

Barmpton Eoses.— The Sittyton branch of 
this renowned English show-yard tribe de- 
scended from Butterfly's Pride obtained from 
Col. Towneley in 1864. She was sired by the 
champion show bull Royal Butterfly (16862), 
and at the time of her purchase was in calf to 
the Bates Duchess bull 2d Duke of Wharfdale 
(19649). The produce was a heifer, Butterfly's 
Joy, that was scarcely up to the family stand- 
ard. The astonishing success of Towneley's 



AMOS 0RUICK8HANK OF SITTYTON. 609 

great herd manager, Joseph CalshaW, with the 
Barmpton Roses in the great show-yards of 
England, Scotland and Ireland, as well as at 
the Paris Exposition of 1856, seemed to have 
been due largely to the successful "nick" of 
Booth blood, and that of the bull Frederick 
(11489), with the Barmpton Rose base.* At 
any rate the Bates cross, as represented by 
Butterfly's Joy at Sittyton, did not seem to 
produce equal results ; but a dash of the blood 



«The author regrets that Towneley has not that close identiflcatlon 
with American Short-horn breeding operations which has made it neces- 
sary to discuss at such length various other British herds. Those who 
write specially for English readers certainly have In Culshaw a character 
unique in Short-horn histoiy, and in his beauteous Butterflys and regal 
Roan Duchesses an inspiration that should tempt the dullest pen to flights 
rhetoricaL While the subject is of only collateral Interest to America the 
Shortrhorn breeding world claims the name and fame of Towneley as a 
part of the common heritage. A few of the main facts relating to the herd 
may therefore be here recorded. 

The West of England, like the North of Scotland, developed some great 
herdsmen. There is nothing like having to overcome obstacles to build up 
mental power. The County of Lancaster is noted for its manufacturing 
rather than for its agricultural interests. It has within its borders those 
great emporiums of trade the cities of Liverpool and Manchester. CoL 
Towneley's home farm adjoined Burnley, one of the smaller, but none the 
less busy, Lancastrian centers of fiidustry. The soil was cold and sour. 
Grain rarely ripened and roots gave up in disgust. The land was imper- 
vious to drainage on account of its sUff clay subsoil; moreover it was en- 
croached upon by the Burnley factories and shops, and the smoke and 
gases from the furnaces destroyed much of the vegetation. Science could 
avail little against such conditions so far as farming operations were con- 
cerned. Nevertheless a Short-horn herd, probably the peer of any that has 
ever existed elsewhere, was here developed. Not many leagues to the 
north was Holker Hall, where the Duke of Devonshire also scored a bril- 
liant success. It Is worthy of note, however, that Culshaw came before 
the birth of the Butterflys and that Drewry preceded the Grand Duchesses 
of Oxford. 

It was In 18M that Col. Towneley got through that rare Judge Mr. East- 
wood of Whltewell, in the Valley of the Hodder, the twenty head of cattle 
that brought him fame imperishable. At the sale of Henry Watson East- 
wood had bought the fine cow Buttercup, " a sort of yellow-red, and like 
Habback In her flecks," a daughter of the celebrated Barmpton Bose. The 



610 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLB. 

of the great North-country show bull Forth, 
through his son Allan (21172), seemed to bring 
back much of the beauty of the sort as dis- 
played at Towneley. Bred to the bull last 



latter waa bred bj Mr. WaUly of Barmx>ton, near Darlington. She was full 
of Robert Gollinr'a old Bed Boee blood, and waa a heaTj-bodied, broad- 
ribbed, deep-mllklnr atrawberry roan. 

** He whom the roda call Oulahaw, 
And men on earth call * Joe,* " 
waa under **Tom** Maaon at Sir Charles Tempeet'a when Barmpton Boae 
waa bron^ht from the Walkerlnyham aale to Brouchton Hall, and her 
buxom beauty made a deep impreaaion upon the ** future rreat " tralnar 
and breeder. When a mere lad Culahaw betrayed an Irrepresalble enthu- 
alaam for the **red. white and roana.** Upon one occasion he was aent 
with a CQW that was to be bred to a bull at Whltaker'a, and the brlirhtneaB 
of the boy and hla Intereat in the cattle ao attracted the attention of the 
proprietor that he peraonally ahowed the youthful ambassador throoffh 
the Oreenholme Herd in detail. That waa indeed a sreat day for** little 
Joe.'* Would that all of thoae who have auoh opportunitlea would eTinoe 
the aame dlapoaltion to encourage younr men who manifest a loTe for rood 
cattle I 

Col. Towneley waa a man of rreat wealth and many acres and engaced 
Eastwood aa lila general manager. The latter waa fond of Klllerby and its 
Short-homa, and after buying Buttercup hired from John Booth the boll 
Jeweler (10K4), son of Necklace, ** a abort bull with a bad head and a light 
neck, but with capital aidea and quality." Buttercup, aerved by thla bull 
and weak from an attack of ** foot-and-mouth,** and her half-sister Beaale, 
another daughter of Barmpton Boss, in calf to Laz's Duke (90B). were in- 
cluded in the lot that went to Towneley in IMS. The former dropped But- 
terfly and the latter the great stock bull Frederick (11480)— the pair from 
whence came those ahow-yard monarcha Maater Butterfly (Uni) and Boyal 
Butterfly (16881). 

After haying aerved a long apprenticeahip under Xason at Sir Charles 
Tempeat'a C^ilahaw waa hired by CoL Towneley in IM8. He had been with 
Mr. Ambler, the breeder of the celebrated Grand Turk (UHB), for the pre- 
Tioua eighteen montha, and while there had taken Senator to the Boyal 
and defeated Mr. Bates* M and 8d Dukes of Oxford. Jeweler went with the 
Baatwood cowa to Towneley, and aoon afterward the Booth-bred Lord 
(George (1048»)— aon of Birthday and sire of Sd Duke of Athol in the Airdrle 
Ducheaa pedigree— followed. 

The opportunity that (hilahaw had ao long deaired was now presented. 
He had under his control at Towneley a rare good lot of cows selected hr 
Mr. Eastwood and Mr. Strafford. He waa keen to try conclusions with the 
beat breeders and flttera of the realm at a time when ahow-yard enthualaam 
had been fanned into a fierce flame largely through the triumpha of the 
Booths. With the active sympathy and aupport of hia employers Culahaw 
charged the entire line of oppoaition with one of the most admirably 



AMOS ORUICKSHANK OF 8ITTTT0N. 611 

named Butterfly's Joy produced the good cow 
Barmpton Flower, which, mated with Royal 
Duke of Gloster, gave Mr. Cruickshank the ex- 
cellent stock bull Barmpton (37763), famous 
throughout America as the sire of imp. Baron 

brought out collections of Short-horns the world has ever seen. Butterfly 
herself opened the tell, and with her rich loins, beautiful bosom and won- 
derful quality walked through the show-rlnffs of her time almost without 
defeat She had six Uring calres, and after her frame was bent with age 
popoduced Royal Butterfly that was seen te late as in his thirteenth year at 
the National Show at Manchester. He was a noble, thick-fleshed roan with 
wonderful thighs. It was in 1868 that Butterfly gave birth to the world- 
famous roan Master Butterfly. After winning firsts and championships 
over all Britain, and heading the great Gtold Medal herd shown at the Parts 
Exposition of 1066, he was sold at the then extraordinary price of 1,100 
guineas for export to Australia. Beauty's Butterfly was one of the most 
noted of the winners and after gaining Soyal honors, won at the London 
Sm.thfleld Fat-Stock Show, and returned to fresh triumphs in the breeding 
rings the following year, earning for Culshaw a characteristic recognition 
from Pumeh in verse under the heading ** Joe's Lament." Space will not ad- 
mit of our recording here even the names, much less the winnings, of the 
Towneley cattle. From the years 1860 to 186« they were constantly seen at 
the leading exhibitions of England, Scotland and Ireland, winning upward 
of 110,000 in cash besides twenty-two challenge cups. Culshaw was not 
only the prince of all **trainers" of his time, but had most extraordinary 
success in holding his show cows to their work as breeders. Richard 
Gibson, who knew him well, submits the following tribute: "Mr. Culshaw 
was one whose name will be identifled with Short-horns long after many 
of his contemporaries are forgotten. Of a quiet, unobtrusive temperament» 
still he had a forceful manner; his word was trusted, but in his strong 
provincial dialect he had more power with which to express himself than 
had he been loaded to the mussle with Latin and Greek. Of him it is said 
that his equal had never been who could keep on showing successfully and 
have his show cattle breed regularly and keep on producing winaers. He 
graduated from a good school, his father being employed at Sir C. Temp- 
est's, and under Tom Mason he and his half-brother, G^eorge Moore (still 
at Holker), made for themselves reputations that will be ever green. 
Moreover, from the same school was sent forth James Knowles, whose 
name was so Intimately connected with the herds of Lord Ducie and of 
OoL Gunter." 

A second herd was begun by CoL Towneley shortly after the dispersion 
of the original stock in 1861. Some of the Butterfly cows were bought back, 
but Bates blood predominated. Royal Butterfly had been reserved at the 
closing-out sale at an upset price of 1,200 guineas. The Bates-bred Baron 
Oxford, however, was the principal sire used in the second herd. Some 
Oxford females were also added. The show-yards were again invaded and 
daughters of Baron Oxford were winners at the Manchester, Oxford and 



612 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLK. 

Victor, the bull that fairly made the herd of 
Col. W. A. Harris of Linwood. An own sister 
to Barmpton Flower, known as Butterfly's 
Delight, produced the bull Barmpton Prince 
(32995), by Viceroy, that was chosen for ser- 
vice in the herd. He had to be sent to the 
butcher, however, at an early age as the result 
of a broken leg, and left but few calves, all of 
excellent character. M^ Cruickshank earn- 
estly desired to introduce the Barmpton Rose 
blood into the herd, and used another bull from 
Butterfly's Joy, known as Ben Wyvis (30528). 

The Spicys. — There was bought from Mr. 
Milne of Kinaldie, Aberdeenshire, in 1868, a 
cow known as Spicy 4th. She was a daughter 

Cardiff Royals from 1869 to 1872. The second herd was closed out in 1873 at 
high prices, as noted In a previous chapter. 

Col. Towneley received some ^reat prices for his pets at private treaty. 
Douglas of Athelstaneford gave fiOO guineas for Ringlet, that became the 
dam of his 600-gulnea Queen of Athelstane. For Frederlca and lAlla Rookh 
Mr. Thome paid 700 guineas. The former had been the flrst-prize yearling 
at the Iiewes Royal, but was accidentally killed at sea. The great Towne» 
ley sale of fifty-six head, of which twenty-eight were Barmpton Roses. 
proved one of the most memorable in English Shortrhom history. A com- 
pany of not less than 3,000 persons assembled and competition for the best 
lots was active between the best breeders of the Kingdom. Royal Butter^ 
fly's Duchess fetched £600 and the bull Royal Butterfly 11th £100 from the 
agent of Sir William Sterling Maxwell for his Scottish herd at Keir to take 
the place of Forth that had been sold to Messrs. Cruickshank. The general 
average of the sale was £128. 

The Towneley Butterflys were specially distinguished for their fine 
style, finish, quality and long, level quarters. While somewhat on the up- 
standing order, they were of a substantial mold, possessing gay carriage 
and stepped like "hunters." 

All hands at Towneley were fond of a good horse. Kettledrum, a Derty 
winner, and the "king buir' of his day. Royal Butterfly, were in fhe Towne- 
ley stables at the same date. Eastwood and Culshaw owned Bntierfly, 
winner of The Oaks and other races, adding to the herdsman *b bank ac- 
count not less than 810,000. "Joe" had named the flUy ^*after *taald eoo.** 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 613 

of a COW that had been brought from the herd 
of Mr. Harvey Combe of Cobham Park, Surrey, 
Eng., who had obtained the family originally 
from the Earl of Carlisle. Spicy, by Marma- 
duke (14897), the cow taken from Surrey to 
Al)erdeen by Mr. Milne, had the reputation of 
being an extra good one. At Sittyton her 
daughter Spicy 4th, bred to Champion of 
England, gave birth to the fine cow Silvery, 
the ancestress of an excellent, although not 
numerous, family. To this source the bulls 
Strongbow (52230) and Sea King (61769) traced 
their maternal origin. Strongbow was used 
two seasons by Mr. Cruickshank, and one of 
his get — the bull Norseman (56233) — entered 
the herd of Her Majesty Queen Victoria at 
Windsor. Of this same sort also was the roan 
Spicy Robin (69638), the pick of the Deane 
Willis bulls of 1895 and sold at twelve months 
old for 250 guineas. 

The Layenden. — Mr. Cruickshank always 
regretted having parted with the Wilkinson 
cows previously mentioned in our references 
to the Lancaster family, and he made repeated 
efforts to recover some of the original Lenton 
blood, for which he had the highest respect. 
Some difficulty was met with, however, in 
again acquiring satisfactory representatives of 
that notted Nottingham herd. A few of the 
Hebes were finally obtained from Messrs. Dud- 



614 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

ding of Panton, but they proved unsatisfactory 
and were soon disposed of. From a Mr. Harris 
of Worcestershire a Lenton Lady and a Lancas- 
ter were then obtained, but they also proved 
disappointing. It was not until 1870 that the 
original Lenton threads were gathered up suc- 
cessfully. In that year some Lavenders were 
obtained from Mr. Butler of Badminton, who 
had purchased the matron of the family in his 
hands from a Mr. Logan of Newport, Ireland, 
who had got the blood direct from Wilkinson. 
Mr. Cruickshank bought these Butler cows 
solely on account of their Lenton origin, in 
spite of the fact that the intervening crosses 
had materially modified the original type. At 
first they did not promise the desired results, 
but after being subjected to several infusions 
of Sittyton blood they began to justify his 
faith. It is stated that Lavender 16th, by Lord 
Lansdowne, and Lavender 17th, by Royal Duke 
of Gloster, and their descendants were much 
the best of the tribe. Lavender 17th was con- 
sidered the best heifer of her year in the 
herd and matured into one of the great cows 
of her time. Lavender 16th possessed great 
scale and produced many calves, among others 
the bull Feudal Chief (51251), used in the herd 
at the very close of its career. Some of the 
best Cruickshank females we have had in 
America were of this Lavender family, and it 



AMOS ORUIOKSHANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 615 

has to its credit in recent years in England the 
production of Mr. Deane Willis' Royal prize- 
winning bull Count Lavender (60545). 

First Sittyton bulls.— The first Sittyton sires 
came from Barclay of Ury. While the founda- 
tions were being laid cows and heifers were in 
many cases sent to be bred to bulls on neigh- 
boring farms. Notably that of James Walker 
of Wester Fintray, afterward well known in 
the Aberdeen-Angus trade. Walker liked a 
good Short-horn, and among the Wester Fin- 
tray bulls patronized by Mr. Cruickshank were 
General Picton (3876) and Sovereign (7539). 
The first Barclay bull purchased was the white 
Inkhorn (6091), whose name was derived from 
the farm from whence he came. Barclay, like 
Robertson and Rennie in the South, had been 
somewhat indifferent in reference to herd book 
registration. Inkhorn traced on his dam's side 
to the best English foundations, as set forth in 
the herd book, but his sire is not given. The 
bull calves Chancellor (5850) and Premier 
(6308), both bred by Capt. Barclay and both by 
Mahomed (6170), were next purchased. Pre- 
mier, out of the cow Mary Anne by Sillery, 
was retained, and Chancellor sold to Mr. Bruce 
of Heatherwick. The latter, however, turned 
out to be the better bull. Then came Con- 
queror (6884), bought as an aged bull. He was 
also of Ury blood and by Mahomed. 



616 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN OATTLK. 

Fairfax Royal (6987).— The first of the long 
line of distinguished bulls used at Sittyton was 
Fairfax Royal (6987), a rich dark roan, bred by 
William Torr. He was bought in 1845 as a 
two-year-old for 150 guineas at a sale made by 
Mr. Watson of Walkeringham, who had given 
100 guineas for him as a calf. According to all 
the accounts that have been handed down con- 
cerning the earlier Sittyton stock, and judging 
by the illustration in Vol. VI Coates' Herd 
Book, Fairfax Royal was a bull of outstanding 
merit, full of substance, flesh and hair. He 
was sired by Lord Adolphus Fairfax (4249) out 
of Fair Rosamond, and was a prime favorite 
with Amos Cruickshank. He was a first-prize 
bull at Aberdeen in 1847, and in the opinion of 
those who knew the best of the North Scottish 
bulls, ranked with the famous Forth as one 
of the best bulls ever owned in Aberdeen- 
shire. Jamieson states that his heifers had 
this peculiarity that many of them would not 
breed until three years old, but when once 
started bred regularly and well. Several, how- 
ever, were sold fat to the butcher before this 
was discovered. The same authority says: "I 
remember having seen the cow Carmine Rose, 
by Fairfax Royal, whose name appears in the 
pedigree of the Violet family. She was a grand 
beast, very fat and had been put to the plow 
for awhile to get her to breed." 



AMOS ORUIOKSHANK OP SITTYTON. 617 

Hudson (9228), Report (10704) and Velvet 
Jacket (10998)-— At the English Royal Show 
of 1848 the first-prize bull in the class for 
yearlings was Hudson (9228), bred by W. Lin- 
ton of Sheriff Button, Yorkshire. Being in 
need of a bull Amos Cruickshank went to see 
him and although not particularly impressed 
bought him — it is stated because he could not 
suit himself better at the time — for use at Sit- 
tyton. Hudson was a yellow-red, somewhat 
lacking in scale, but possessed of exceptional 
quality, and won second at a Royal Northern 
Show. He was kept in service two years and 
two of his daughters, both possessing his golden 
skin and quality, were retained for breeding 
purposes. One of these was China Rose out of 
the Violet cow Carmine Rose above mentioned. 

Resort was next had to the herd of S. Wiley 
of Brandsby, from whom was hired the roan 
bull Report (10704), described as "neat and 
compact, but smallish; and chiefly remembered 
as the sire of a remarkably fine cow. Buttercup, 
which had both substance and style in an unu- 
sual degree." Fair success seems to have at- 
tended the use of the Wiley bull. 

The roan Velvet Jacket (10998), bred by Mr. 
Unthank, was bought in 1850 from Douglas of 
Athelstaneford, whose East Lothian herd had 
leaped into fame as a result of some remarka- 
ble show-yard victories. Bred to Rose of Au- 



618 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

tumn, one of the greatest of the Douglas cows, 
Velvet Jacket sired the celebrated Rose of 
Summer. Before she was developed, however, 
Amos Cruickshank offered Douglas £50 for the 
bull, which was accepted and he went to Sitty- 
ton. It is said that "Amos considered him a 
good-looking beast, but happening soon after 
to see his dam he thought her so very bad that 
he sold Velvet Jacket at the first opportunity." 
What few calves he sired while in the herd 
made no special mark. He was winner of first 
prizes at the Highland, Royal Northern and 
Royal Dublin Shows. 

Matadore (11800).— None of the earlier Sit- 
tyton sires proved of more practical worth than 
the dark-roan Matadore (11800). At the time 
he was introduced into the herd the females 
numbered about 120 head. This was in 1853. 
Matadore was bred by Mr. W. Smith of West 
Rasen, Lincolnshire, Eng., and was an own 
brother in blood to one of the most valuable 
cows ever imported into America; to-wit., the 
red-roan Mazurka for which Mr. Alexander 
paid $3,050. Both were out of the fine cow 
Moselle, by Baron of Ravensworth (7811); and 
both were sired by Booth bulls — Mazurka, 
by Harbinger (10297), and Matadore, by Hope- 
well (10332). Mr. Cruickshank purchased from 
Mr. Smith at the same time another son of 
Hopewell, called Bushranger (11228), and 



AMOS CBUICKSHANR OF 8ITTYT0N. 619 

thought the latter rather the better of the 
two. He practically failed to breed, however, 
and was soon turned off. 

Matadore is said to have been a bull of fine 
quality, with a capital skin and hair and strong 
in the loin; his fault being some little lack of 
width through the chest. He responded read- 
ily to feed, and had been first at the Yorkshire 
Show of 1861 as a yearling. He was first at 
the Highland Show at Perth in 1852 as a two- 
year-old and first at the Royal Northern of 
1853. He was used in the herd for four years 
with much success. He was specially distin- 
guished as a bull-getter; his sons used in other 
Scottish herds giving the best of satisfaction 
and doing much toward establishing the repu- 
tation of Sittyton. Among these were Mag- 
num Bonum (13277), used by the Duke of Rich- 
mond; Pro Bono Publico (13528), sold to Lord 
Clancarty of Ireland; Prince of Coburg (15100); 
Goldfinder (14629); Beeswing (12456), the first 
noted bull used by Campbell of Kinellar; De- 
fender (12867), the first Cruickshank bull sold 
for export to America (see page 279); and Lord 
Sackville (13249), that was the first home-bred 
bull except Prince Edward Fairfax retained for 
service by Mr. Cruickshank. 

Lord Sackville was a roan of great constitu- 
tion, possessing the same great back and loin 
that distinguished both Matadore and Mazurka. 



620 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

It was the cross of Lord Sackville upon the 
Secret cows that first brought that sort up to 
the Sittyton standard. A portrait of Matadors 
will be found in Vol. X of Coates' Herd Book. 
Plantagenet (11906).— This red-and-white 
bull, bred by Col. Towneley, had been bought 
as a calf by Douglas of Athelstaneford, who 
sold him to Mr. Cruickshank as a yearling in 
1852. He was sired by Duke of Lancaster 
(10929)— bred by Mr. Eastwood and got by 
Lax's Duke (9032), sire of Towneley's famous 
Frederick (11489)— out of Madeline, bred by 
John Booth of Killerby. Plantagenet was 
shown at Aberdeen as a yearling, winning first 
prize, but died after one year's service at Sitty- 
ton. He was the sire of the twin heifer calves 
Virtue and Verdure, that became the dams of 
two of the greatest bulls ever known in Scot- 
land — Virtue producing, to a service by Lan- 
caster Comet (11663), the most renowned of 
all Cruickshank bulls Champion of England 
(17526). Her sister, Verdure, bred to The 
Baron (13833), dropped Scarlet Velvet (16916), 
a very stylish bull that had a successful career 
in the herd of Mr. Campbell. It is stated that 
Mr. Cruickshank did not credit Plantagenet 
very largely in connection with the production 
of Champion of England, that honor being at- 
tributed rather to Lancaster Comet. Virtue 
and Verdure and another Plantagenet cow 



AMOS CRUIOKSHANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 621 

Sharon's Rose, were all good milkers but rather 
plain in appearance. 

Doctor Buckingham (14405).— This red 
bull was a pure Booth, bred by Ambler, and 
sired by Hopewell (10332) out of the Warlaby- 
bred Bloom. He cost Messrs. Cruickshank 
400 guineas. Much diflSculty was experienced 
in getting him to serve properly and after a 
short time he was sold to Mr. R. A. Alex- 
ander, who impoi-ted him to Kentucky. He 
figures in Mr. Cruickshank's operations mainly 
as the sire of the first of the Sittyton Orange 
Blossoms. 

The Baron (13833).— At Mr. Tanqueray's 
sale at Hendon, near London, in 1855 Mr. An- 
thony Cruickshank purchased for 400 guineas 
the two-year-old red bull The Baron (13833), 
that had been bred by Mr. Richard Chaloner of 
Ireland. He was sired by Baron Warlaby (7813) 
out of Bon Bon, of Earl Spencer's breeding. As 
a yearling he had headed his class at Dublin 
and in Scotland was one of the notable win- 
ners at the Highland and Royal Shows of 1854, 
1855 and 1856. He was described as very neat 
in his quarters, but rather lacking in mascu- 
line character. In spite of this fact, however, 
he proved a very prolific and, as was thought 
at the time, a very successful sire, especially of 
heifers; his get showing more style and finish 
than had yet been seen in the herd. His bulls 



622 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

generally lacked substance, although Scarlet 
Velvet and Magnus Troil constituted excep- 
tions to this rule. 

The Baron was used for six or seven years, 
and his heifers grew into very handsome cows 
up to about five years of age, but after that 
seemed to lose "bloom" and a number of them 
showed signs of disease. They were, for the 
most part, indifferent milkers, and few of them 
lived to be more than seven or eight years old. 
Speaking of this Jamieson says: "There was 
evidently a want of constitution about The 
Baron, but it must have been many years be- 
fore suspicion arose that he was doing mischief 
in the herd, for several bulls out of cows sired 
by The Baron were kept for service. None of 
them, however, proved a success and gradually 
The Baron blood was well cleared out. Only 
two of his own sons seem to have been used 
as stock bulls; namely. Baronet (1614) and 
Lancaster Royal (18167). Baronet was out of 
an extra good cow, Buttercup, and was used 
for two or three seasons. He had more sub- 
stance and less style than The Baron, was 
sound and robust and proved to be a useful 
sire. Lancaster Royal was kept because he 
was from a Lancaster cow whose dam came 
from Wilkinson of Lenton. He was little used, 
but sired the good cow Cicely, whose descend- 
ants formed one of the best families at Sitty- 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SItTYTON. 623 

ton in the latter years of the herd's exist- 
ence." 

Lord Bathurst (16173).— This bull was 
dropped at Sittyton July 5, 1854, by the Wil- 
kinson cow Lancaster 16th, that had been 
bought at the Lenton sale the previous year in 
calf to Monarch (13347). He was one of three 
yearling bulls exhibited by Messrs. Cruickshank 
at Aberdeen in 1855 that won first, second and 
third prizes, the latter position being assigned 
to this Lancaster calf. Although the Wilkin- 
son sort was held in high esteem at Sittyton a 
red breeding bull was wanted just at this time, 
and as Lord Bathui-st was roan and had inher- 
ited white legs from his dam he was sold to 
Mr. Stronach of Ardmeallie, in whose hands he 
proved a remarkable getter. He met with an 
accident, however, and had to be killed after 
one season's use. Before leaving Sittyton he 
had been bred to several heifers and two of his 
females, Violet and Vintage, grew into good 
cows and were excellent breeders. Violet pro- 
duced Grand Monarque (21867), a stock -getter 
of outstanding merit, and also Village Rose, 
that was in all probability about the best cow 
the Cruickshanks ever bred. Vintage was the 
dam of Village Belle. It has always been con- 
sidered that Village Rose and Village Belle 
were the two best of all the great cows sired 
by Champion of England. 

40 



624 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

Master Butterfly 2d (14918).— This was a 
sou of Col. Towneley's champion bull Master 
Butterfly (13311), that was sold to go to Aus- 
tralia for 1,200 guineas after having headed the 
Towneley herd at the National Shows of Great 
Britain and at the International Exposition at 
Paris in 1856. His dam was the show cow 
Vestris 2d. He had been bought by Mr. Mar- 
joribanks at twelve months old for 300 guineas, 
and at his sale in 1856 was purchased for Sitty- 
ton at 400 guineas. The purchase of this bull 
doubtless reflected Mr. Anthony Cruickshank's 
desire to profit by the advertising involved in 
the ownership of a high-priced sou of the 
greatest English show bull of his time. Amos, 
however, never liked him and upon the bull's 
death some twelve months after his purchase 
remarked that the beast had not died any too 
soon. It is stated that what few calves he sired 
at Sittyton were "light-made, light-fleshed, too 
leggy and never had carcass enough." We be- 
lieve the only one of the Sittyton pedigrees in 
which this bull's name appears in recent yeai-s 
is one branch of the Victorias. 

John Bull (11618).— From the foregoing it 
will be observed that the Messrs. Cruickshank 
were inclined to test all of the leading bloods 
of the period; and as they had been well 
pleased with the use of the Wiley bull Report, 
already mentioned, they now went to Brandshy 



AMOS CRUICK8HANK OP SITTYTON. 625 

for another sire; purchasing in 1858 John Bull 
(11618). He is said to have been an animal of 
great length and rather high on leg.* It is in- 
teresting to note as evidencing the intent of 
Mr. Cruickshank to weed out mercilessly every- 
thing that did not suit, that only two of John 
Bull's calves were detained. These were the 
cows Cressida and Jubilee, "both compact, 
deep, well-proportioned cows, not at all too 
long, and real good beasts." 

Lord Raglan (13244).— This noted bull came 
to Sittyton at seven years of age, in 1860, and 
was used until twelve years old. He was bred 
by Mark Stewart of Southwick and sired by 
Maynard's Crusade (7938). He had been used 
by Douglas of Athelstaneford, as well as by 
Lord Kinnaird and Lord Southesk. He was' 
purchased from the latter at 110 guineas. It 
is of interest to state that Mr. William Miller, 
then of Canada and later of Storm Lake, la., 
came near buying Lord Raglan in 1856f and 

* Speaklnir ot John Bull, Jamleaon says: " He was a very lexurtby ani- 
mal, not too well lot down, tender on his feet and walked very slow. A 
worthy neighbor, Mr. Phillip of Boynds, watchlnflr him on one oooaslon as 
he gradually emerged out of a door said : ' if I am to wait until all of your 
bull comes out, Mr. Cruickshank, I would need a chair to sit doon on.* " • 

t Mr. Miller, who was in Great Britain in 1856 buying Short-horns, says: 
" This was the time that I oug^ht to have sent out Lord Bairlan before 
Cruickshank got him. Simon Beattie and I went to Southwick to see him. 
but Stewart priced him just high enough to keep him out of my reach. I 
got within £6, but although Simon was pushing me I dare not go it. How- 
ever, I have no doubt the bull did a lot more good as it was. Of all the 
bulls I saw in Britain at that time I preferred Lord Raglan. I think he was 
priced to me at about £100. He was then twd years old and impressed me 
as being one of the «iitetanftal rather than the showy sort.** 



626 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

never ceased to regret that he did not trans- 
fer the bull to America. 

Lord Raglan grew into "a large, stylish, 
rather highstanding bull, fertile as a yearling, 
quite useless as a two-year-old and unusually 
prolific ever after. In outward appearance 
he took after his sire, CrusAde, whom Douglas 
considered the best bull of his day in England." 
He was a Highland winner in the hands of Lord 
Kinnaird iu 1857 and on being taken North to 
Sittyton in 1860 was the Challenge Cup winner 
at the Royal Northern and first at the Perth 
Highland of 1861. Probably the two best indi- 
vidual cows among his get at Sittyton were 
Butterfly 5th and The Gem. His most valuable 
daughter, however, proved to be Golden Days, 
possibly the best milker of her time in the 
herd. She left a valuable progeny, including 
the prize bull Pride of the Jsles (35072), and 
lived to be one of the oldest cows of the herd. 

The Czar (20947). This was the best of the 
Lord Raglan bulls and saw considerable service 
at Sittyton. He was a red, "compact and well 
set on his legs," and sired Carmine, a thick- 
fleshed, well-haired cow, with extraordinary 
back and ribs, that produced the famous Prin- 
cess Royal already described. Mr. Cruickshank 
is quoted as saying that he did tiot reap as 
much benefit from the use of Lord Raglan as 
he had anticipated. Notwithstanding this fact 



AMOS 0RUICK8HANK OF SITTYTON. 627 

some of his very best cattle, including Grand 
Duke of. Gloster (26288), Pride of the Isles 
(35072), Bridesman (30586) and the handsome 
Mimulus were bred from Lord Raglan cows. 

Lancaster Comet (11663). — Mr. Cruickshank 
had long been partial to the stock of Wilkinson 
of Lenton. We have already noted his efforts 
at introducing the blood through the Lancas- 
ters and Lavenders. Robert Bruce relates that 
in speaking of his first visit to Lenton to in- 
spect Mr. Wilkinson's herd Mr. Cruickshank 
said: "After seeing the cattle I was so excited 
that when I tried to write to Anthony at night 
I could not use a pen. I had to write with a 
pencil." This little incident proves two things. 
Fii-st, the fact that in spite of his habitual self- 
control Amos Cruickshank possessed a quiet en- 
thusiasm capable of being thoroughly aroused. 
It indicates also that there was something in 
the Wilkinson stock not found in other con- 
temporary herds. In fact the Lenton blood 
alone seems to have been the subject of Mr. 
Cruickshank's steadfast devotion. 

In the autumn of 1858 it was thought desira- 
ble to purchase a stock bull for use at Sittyton. 
A good young red one was desired at that time. 
Mr. Cruickshank wrote to Wilkinson, inquiring 
if he could f uraish such a bull. He replied that 
he could not, but recommended old Lancaster 
Comet (11663), then in his eighth year, which 



628 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLB. 

he offered to sell at a nominal price. After 
first examining the herds of Mark Stewart, S. 
E. Bolden, Richard Booth, Col. Towneley and 
Messrs. Dudding without success Mr. Cruick- 
shank wrote to Wilkinson that he might ship 
Lancaster Comet. He was forwarded to Sitty- 
ton in November, 1858. Mr. Cruickshank went 
to the station to meet the bull, and his first 
glimpse of "his great head and horns lowering 
upon him over the side of the truck" caused 
him to turn away in disappointment. Lancas* 
ter Comet had a large head, with horns of great 
length. They were well enough set onto the 
head and curved toward the front. They were 
not very thick, nor were they pointed at the 
tips, being more uniform in thickness from 
base to point than is ordinarily observed. One 
sarcastic neighbor, of the type often present 
upon such occasions, remarked: "If he wanted 
a Highland bull he might have got one nearer 
home." Notwithstanding the horns, however, 
Lancaster Comet was a good bull. He stood 
near to the ground, had a beautiful coat of 
hair, a round barrel, straight top and bottom 
lines, level quarters, nicely -filled thighs, car- 
ried plenty of flesh and was active on his feet. 
In size he was about medium. He had been a 
great favorite with Mr. Wilkinson aad was 
somewhat inbred, both his sire — The Queen's 
Boan (7389) — and dam having been got by the 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 629 

same bull, the roan Will Honeycomb (5660), 
illustrated in Vol. IV, Coates' Herd Book; a 
bull that was bred by Mr. J. Beetham of West 
Harlsey, near Northallerton, and used by Mr. 
Wilkinson for some years. 

Lancaster Comet was scarcely as massive as 
Mr. Cruickshank would have liked and was rel- 
egated to the Clyne farm, it is said, "to hide 
his horns." The following spring he was 
turned into a pasture along with a lot of cows 
that had not settled to the bulls by which they 
had been served. He ran out quite late in the 
field that fall and contracted rheumatism so 
severely that it became necessary to send him 
to the shambles. Not more than a dozen calves 
are known to have been sired by him at Sitty- 
ton, perhaps a half a dozen of each sex. None 
of the females were retained. One of tbem 
called Camelia made a fine yearling and two- 
year-old, but was disappointing at full matur- 
ity. One of the bulls, recorded as Moonshade 
(18419), was bought by Bruce of Inverquhom- 
ery. Another that attracted no special notice 
for a time was retained by Mr. Cruickshank 
under the name of Champion of England 
(17526). Lancaster Comet had cost but 30 
guineas, but so far-reaching was his influence 
upon the herd, as exerted through the bull just 
mentioned, that the history of the Cruickshank 
cattle naturally divides itself into two epochs. 



630 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

one dealing with the period before his intro- 
duction and the other a record of what followed 
after that date. 

Champion of England (17526).— From the 
foundation of the herd in 1837 down to 1860 it 
had been with Amos Cruickshank one long, con- 
tinuous and but partially successful search for 
the type of cattle he so earnestly desired. Dur- 
ing that time great numbers of cows, heifers 
and bulls had been bought from the best Scotch 
and English herds, but in spite of a long list of 
show-yard victories, and notwithstanding the 
production of at least an average percentage 
of good cattle, Amos Cruickshank's ideal had 
scarcely been realized. As yet there was a 
lack of uniformity in essential characteristics. 
Lancaster Comet, however, supplied, through 
Champion of England out of the cow Virtue by 
Plantagenet (11906), the means of correcting 
this fault. He was a roan, dropped Nov, 29, 
1859, and although not a phenomenal calf at 
the start was deemed good enough to be sent 
to the Royal English Show at Leeds in 1861. 
Being a November calf he had to compete upon 
that occasion against two-year-olds, and as he 
was only a yearling he failed to secure a place. 
He was also shown at Aberdeen, but was only 
able to secure a third prize. On account of this 
non-success he came near being disposed of, 
but there was something about the young 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 631 

bull's hair, quality and thrift that led Mr. 
Cruickshank to decide upon his retention for a 
time at least. The bull was particularly strong 
on his fore ribs, developed remarkable feeding 
quality and soon began to assume more mas- 
sive proportions than had been displayed by 
his sire. He was not so level in his quarters 
as Lancaster Comet, drooping a bit from the 
hips to the tail, a fault which he probably in- 
herited from his dam.* His calves soon evi- 
denced rare promise. They were robust, thick- 
fleshed, near to the ground and possessed a pro- 
pensity for putting on flesh such as had not 
been shown by the get of any of his predeces- 
sors in service. Mr. Cruickshank resolved to 
use him freely and not risk impairment of his 
usefulness by putting him in high condition 
for the shows. Meantime the settled policy of 
testing the best bulls obtainable from contem- 
porary stocks was not abandoned. 

Windsor Augustus (19157).— The selection 
of this roan bull represented another effort on 
the part of Messrs. Cruickshank to utilize Booth 
blood. Like the previous experiments, how- 
ever, in the same direction it did not altogether 
fulfil expectations. Windsor Augustus was 

*Mr. Jamieson writes: "I do not remember haylnflr seen the ChAm> 
plon's dam, tnit one day when goljog throuirh the byree with Amos Cruick- 
shank I asked him what like a beast she was. * Well/ said he, ' she was 
very like that one/ pointing to a cow standing* at the end of the byre. This 
was a ^ood-sised red animal, with plalnlsh hind quarters. Champion of 
England was never kept on account of the merits of his dam." 



632 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

bred by Mr. Carr and sired by Richard Booth's 
Windsor (14013). He had been a winner at the 
leading English shows, and was one of ths 
highest-priced bulls ever bought for service 
in the herd. He was used during the seasons 
of 1863 and 1864, but Amos Cruickshank never 
liked him and did not retain many of his prog- 
eny. He left a few good things, nevertheless, 
including the fine cow Lovely 9th, that pro- 
duced to Champion of England the stock bull 
Lord Lancaster (26666). 

Forth (17866).— This famous bull was taken 
to Sittyton in 1864 at four years of age with the 
reputation of being "the grandest Short-horn of 
his time." He was a light roan, possessing great 
Bcale and substance, bred by Sir William Ster- 
ling Maxwell of Keir. He had been a cham- 
pion show bull at leading exhibitions both in 
England and Scotland, and while some doubt 
was felt as to his proving a breeder high hopes 
were entertained as to what he would accom- 
plish when mated with the "ci-ack" cows of the 
Sittyton herd. There can be no doubt that he 
was individually the best bull ever bought for 
Sittyton. His portrait will be found in Vol. 
XVI of Coates' Herd Book. He was described 
as '*a remarkably fine animal on a large scale, 
having length, breadth and depth to satisfy the 
most fastidious and was extremely good tem- 
pered. He had a good head, a full, placid eye, 



A^OS ORUIOKSHANX 07 SITTTTON. 633 

a rich coat of hair, great girth of body, with 
rib^ arching well out from his back. His horns 
were somewhat coarse." Forth remained in 
service until 1870 and notwithstanding his high 
condition left a large number of calves. While 
filling the eye much more perfectly than Cham- 
pion of England he did not approach the latter 
as a sire. Still he left some good stock, among 
others the cow Violet's Forth, that was im- 
ported to America and shown with success in 
the Western States, as has been already noted. 
It was the exhibition of this cow that first 
drew prominent attention to Mr. Cruickshank's 
breeding in the United States. Viceroy (32764), 
by Champion of England out of Violet's Forth, 
was used a short time in the herd. Another of 
the Forth cows, Anemone, although not much 
to look at, was a capital breeder. Two sons of 
Forth bred at Sittyton, Royal Forth (25022) and 
Julius CaBsar (26486), had a trial in service but 
did not give satisfaction and were sold. One 
of the best of his get. Lord Forth (26649), was 
used by Mr. Longmore of Rettie. 

Allan (21172), a red bull bred at Keir and 
sired by Forth prior to his purchase for Sitty- 
ton out of a cow of Knightley blood, was 
bought and used in the herd for three years 
with a good degree of success. 

Lord Privy Seal (16444).— In 1865 Anthony 
Cruickshank bought at a sale by Lord Kinnaird 



634 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

the roan bull Lord Privy Seal. He was bred 
by the late Prince Consort at Windsor and 
was sired by the Booth bull Prince Alfred 
(13494) out of Cowslip by the famous show bull 
Belleville (6778). He Was then in his seventh 
year, having been taken North as a yearling 
and bought by Lord Kinnaird in 1860. All 
hands at Sittyton were disappointed in the bull 
upon his arrival. He lacked size as well as 
flesh, and was not extensively used. Like most 
of his predecessors, however, he left a few good 
calves, such as the bull Multum in Parvo 
(26934), and the cow Victoria 41st, one of the 
best of her family and a fine breeder — the dam 
of the bull Ventriloquist (44180). 

Prince Alfred (27107).— In 1871 Mr. Pawlett 
offered to sell to Mr. Cruickshank Baron Killer- 
by (23364). Amos went to see him, but was 
more favorably impressed with one of his sons, 
Prince Alfred (27107), and wished to take him 
instead of the sire. Being unable to buy the 
young bull without taking them both, he closed 
a trade for the pair and shipped them to Sitty- 
ton. Baron Killerby was then six years old and 
possessed a bad temper. He was too heavy in 
the bone to suit Mr. Cruickshank, and was but 
little used. Prince Alfred was a young bull of 
much promise, but, as luck would have it, foot- 
and-mouth disease appeared in the herd not 
long after his purchase and he succunibecl to 



AMOS GBUIOKSHANK OF SITTTTON. 685 

the malady. He was the only animal in the 
herd that was lost. This is rather a surprising 
fact in view of the the statement that Prince 
Alfred is said to have been of robust appear- 
ance and was thought to have capital constitu- 
tion. While no opportunity was had to breed 
any great number of cows to him, the heifers 
that he left in the herd indicate that his un- 
timely death was a severe loss. One of his 
daughters, Garnet, proved the ancestress of 
some of the best cows in the herd during its 
later years. Another, Alma, sold as a yearling 
to Mr. Mitchell, "developed most wonderfully 
and expanded into one of the largest and 
grandest cows that was ever seen, with im- 
mense loins and back and good shoulders. In- 
deed, as a show-yard animal, few cows ever 
bred at Sittyton would have been a match for 
her." She took first prize at the Highland 
Show of 1876, the cup at Aberdeen in 1879 as 
best breeding animal in the Short-horn class, 
besides many other honors. 

Other outside bulls.— Between the years 
1866 and 1877, in addition to Baron Killerby 
and Prince Alfred, there was bought and tried 
in the herd the bulls Rob Roy (22740), Count 
Robert (80812), Scotch Rose (25099)— out of 
the famous Rosedale; Knight of the Whistle 
(26558), Master Darlington (37067), Meridian 
(38746), Ravenshope (22681), and General Wind- 



636 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN OATTLK. 

sor (28701). None of these, however, gave as 
good satisfaction as the home-bred bulls used 
during the same period. 

Concentration of the Champion of England 
blood. — Writers of romance after following the 
fortunes of their heroes and heroines through 
various trials and tribulations to a point where 
all is joy and rapture usually dismiss them with 
the remark that "they lived happily ever after." 
It may almost be said of Amos Cruickshank 
that when he produced Champion of England, 
after twenty-five years of conscientious work, 
he was at the beginning of the end of his 
troubles as a Short-horn breeder. One after 
another of the sons and daughters of this, the 
greatest stock bull Scotland has ever known, 
grew up into cattle of the real rent-paying sort. 
Pages might be filled with the names, pedigrees 
and performances of his descendants in the 
show-yards and breeding-pens of Britain and 
America, but space will not here permit. Such 
cows as Village Belle, Village Rose, Princess 
Royal, Morning Star, British Queen, Carmine 
Rose, Silvery, Mimulus, Surmise, Circassia, Vio- 
lante, Finella and Victorine would alone suflice 
to make the reputation of the most ambitious 
breeder. Not only were these and other of the 
best of the Champion's heifers retained for 
breeding purposes but his bulls were given a 
trial along with sires obtained from other herds. 



AJiOS CR0I0K8HANK OF SITTYTON. 637 

It must be borne in mind that in resorting 
to bulls of his own breeding Mr. Cruickshank 
was contravening what had been the almost 
universal practice in Scotland. It is generally 
believed by those most familiar with his work 
that if he had begun placing his own bulls in 
service -many years earlier he would have more 
quickly realized his ambitions. It seems clear 
that the grand roan bull Lord Sackville (13249), 
mentioned on page 619, might have filled the 
place held later by Champion of England had 
he been given like opportunity; for he possessed 
such grand constitution, substance and quality, 
and with his limited opportunity wrought such 
an improvement on the Secrets and a few other 
Sittyton sorts that he would doubtless have 
made a great reputation' had he been more 
freely used. Longmore of Rettie is generally 
credited with having been the first of the North 
of Scotland breeders to place home-bred bulls 
in service. He was a man of rare intelligence, 
and although his herd was small as compared 
with that at Sittyton he met with marked suc- 
cess by his departure from the then prevailing 
usage, his stock possessing unusual size, flesh 
and real show-yard character. Experience had 
now taught Mr. Cruickshank the uncertainties 
attending the use of even the best individual 
bulls acquired from various sources and rep- 
resenting many diverse elements. With his 



638 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

usual caution he felt his way slowly at first 
with the Champion of England bulls, but when 
once convinced that he was on the right track 
he pursued his plan to the end. 

Among the bulls chosen for the purpose of 
concentrating this blood may be mentioned 
the roan Caractacus (19397), a winner of chal- 
lenge cups at Aberdeen and Perth, that was 
calved in 1862 by Nonpareil 20th, a daugh- 
ter of The Baron; the roan Grand Monarque 
(21867), calved in 1863 by Violet by Lord Bath- 
urst; the roan Royal Oak (22792), dropped in 
1864 by Oakleaf by The Baron; the red Prince 
Imperial (22595), calved in 1864 by Candia by 
The Baron; the red Lord Byron (24363), dropped 
in 1865 by Butterfly by Matadore; the red Csesar 
Augustus (25704), calved in 1867 by Emily, 
daughter of Lord Sackville; the roan Grand 
Duke of Gloster (26288), dropped in 1868 by 9th 
Duchess of Gloster, daughter of Lord Baglan; 
the roan Lord Lancaster (26666), of the crop of 
1868, dropped by Lovely 9th by Windsor Au- 
gustus; the roan Master of Arts (26867), dropped 
same year by The Gem by Lord Raglan; and 
the roan Viceroy (32764), calved in 1871 by 
Violet's Forth, afterward a noted show cX)w in 
America. 

It does not appear that the bulls from cows 
by The Baron made any special impression on 
the herd. Those representing the cross of 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF 8ITTYT0N. . 639 

Champion of England upon cows carrying the 
blood of Lord Raglan, Lord Sackville and Lord 
Bathurst, including Grand Monarque, Caesar 
Augustus and Grand Duke of Gloster, were 
potent factoi-s in bringing the herd to its best 
estate. 

Scotland's Pride and Pride of the Isles. — 
Scotland's Pride, calved in 1866, was sired by 
Grand Monarque out of Lovely 8th, a cow that 
belonged to a tribe much esteemed in the 
North. His sire, like many other of the sons 
of Champion of England, did not have a head 
entirely to Mr. Cruickshank's liking. This was 
a characteristic doubtless inherited from old 
Lancaster Comet, and on account of the clamor 
about his head and horns Grand Monarque was 
sacrificed before his real value as a stock-get- 
ter, as illustrated in Scotland's Pride, was fully 
realized. The latter was a stylish, deep-fleshed 
roan, winning first prize as a yearling at the 
Highland in 1867 and a $250 Challenge Cup 
same year. He proved one of the best sires 
ever bred at Sittyton; one of his sons, the 
roan prize bull Pride of the Isles (35072)- 
from Golden Days by Lord Raglan, calved in 
1872, acquiring great celebrity. Speaking of 
this valuable bull Mr. Edward Cruickshank 
says: "I do not think that Pride of the Isles 
ever had his merit fairly recognized. He was 
a grand animal himself, and his young stock 



640 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

looked well; but as cows they were such good 
milkers that they were never much to look at, 
although good breeders." An own brother to 
Pride of the Isles, known as Lord of the Isles, 
was also used in the herd. They were of the 
Btawith Bud or Pure Gold tribe. 

CsBsar Augustus.— This good red bull, calved 
in 1867, joined the blood of the two grand bulls 
Champion of England and Lord Sackville, and 
became one of the most valuable sires and show 
bulls used in the herd. He was exhibited with 
great success, and some of his daughters proved 
among the most valuable breeding cows owned 
at Sittyton, among them being Azalea» the dam 
of Field Marshal. 

Royal Duke of Gloster.— This remarkably 
successful stock bull, a red, calved in 1870, was 
got by Grand Duke of Gloster out of Mimulus, 
a good cow descending in the maternal line 
from the stock of Rennie of Phantassie. He 
represented the strongest concentration of 
blood Mr. Cruickshank had up to that date 
used; both his sire and dam having been got 
by Champion of England out of Lord Raglan 
cows. As the sire of Roan Gauntlet and of the 
dam of Cumberland Royal Duke of Gloster ac- 
quired high rank in the great galaxy of Sitty- 
ton bulls. His sire, Grand Duke of Gloster, was 
considered the best of all of the sons of Cham- 
pion of England; inheriting in a remarkable 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF 8ITTYT0N. 



641 



degree his robust constitution, thrift and thick- 
ness of flesh. Unfortunately the Grand Duke 
met with an accident which resulted in his 
death as a two-year-old. 

Roan Gauntlet. — The mating of the inbred 
Royal Duke of Gloster with the Champion of 
England cow Princess Royal resulted in the 
production in 1873 of the most famous of all 
the latter-day Sittyton stock bulls, Roan Gaunt- 
let (35284). A glance at the subjoined tabula- 
tion will be of interest: 



Boral Dake of Gloster 
(29804). 



^PrinoeM Royal. 



Grand Duke of Glos- 
ter (20288). 



Chttmpiof^ of Engkuid 

9th Duchess of Glos- 
ter, by Iiord Raglan 



ICimuluB. 



(13S44). 

fChamjdon of England 
(/76^). 
Mistletoe, by Lord 
I Raclan (18244). 

( Lancaster Comet 
(11068). 
Virtue, by Plantaga- 



Carmine. 



I net (11« 



( The Czar (80047). 

< Oessida, 

I by John Boll (11018). 



This was certainly subjecting the Champion 
of England blood to a searching test, and as 
Roan Gauntlet proved one of the greatest sires 
of his day Mr. Cruickshank's judgment found in 
his case ample vindication. Some of the objec- 
tionable features of old Lancaster Comet's head 
were visible in Roan Gauntlet, but the out- 
standing excellence of his progeny furnished 
fresh proof of the fact that it is a mistake to 
discard an otherwise remarkable bull for a 

41 



642 A HISTORY OP SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

miDor defect of that nature. Among other ex- 
traordinary animals begotten by Roan Gaunt- 
let may be named the renowned Field Marshal 
(47870)— the sire of Mario (51713)— and the 
good stock bull Baron Violet (47444), used at 
Sittyton. 

Barmpton. — Whatever may be the relative 
rank assigned to the latter-day Cruickshank 
bulls in their own country American breeders 
will always set a high value upon the red 
Barmpton (37763). He was another son of 
Royal Duke of Gloster that was dropped in 1875 
by the good cow Barmpton's Flower (of the 
Towneley Butterfly line), a daughter of Allan 
(21172), son of the great Forth. If Barmpton 
had done nothing more than sire Baron Victor 
(45944), so celebrated in the Linwood Herd of 
Col. W. A. Harris of Kansas, he would still be 
entitled to the recognition here accorded. 

Cumberland.— One of the bulls most exten- 
sively used after Roan Gauntlet was Cumber- 
land (46144), a massive roan that was calved in 
1880 and maintained steadily in service for a 
period of eight years. He was described as 
"short in the leg, deep and long in the body, 
with an excellent head, full, wide chest, well- 
laid shoulders, strong loins, well-sprung ribs, 
with such a cover of lean flesh as is rarely met 
with." As will be observed from the following 
tabulation Cumberland's dam, the fine cow 



AMOS CRUICKSHANK OF SITTYTON. 



643 



Custard of the Clipper tribe, was own sister in 
blood to Roan Gauntlet, so that his selection 
for service resulted in still further intensifying 
Mr. Cruickshank's favorite blood: 



8 



Pride Of th^ J 
Isles (36072) 



SooUand*8 Pride (25100). 



^Custard. 



Oolden Days. 



Royai Duke of Gloster 
(29804). 



Princess RoyaL 



1 Grand Monarque (21807). 
by Champion of England. 
IjOYely 8th. 

J Lord Ra«rlan (13244). 
iPureGtold. 

I Grand Duke of Gloster 
(20288), 
by Champion of England. 
Mimulus, 
by Champion of England, 

f Champion of England 

I Carmine, 

I by The Czar (20947). 



There is not in Short-horn history a record 
of greater success attained in the production of 
valuable cattle for practical farm and feed-lot 
purposes than that which attended the breed- 
ing operations at Sittyton after the practice of 
using only home-bred bulls was adopted. The 
herd began at once to take on a uniform- 
ity in essential points which it had not hith- 
erto possessed, and the further the concentra- 
tion of blood was carried — up to a certain 
point — the better the results. The fruit of Mr! 
Cruickshank's appeal to the practice of inbreed- 
ing was the establishment of a well-fixed type 
of short-legged, broad-ribbed, thick-fleshed cat- 
tle feeding to satisfactory weights at an early 
age; and the same concentration of blood that 
served to fix these desirable characteristics in- 



644 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

sured the prepotency of the stock for reproduc- 
tive purposes. The herd became the fountain 
head of Short-horn breeding in the North. The 
Sittyton bulls became the standard sires of 
Scotland. The value of the service the Messrs. 
Cruickshank had rendered was now universally 
conceded in their native land and leading 
American breeders gladly availed themselves 
of the privilege of selecting stock bulls from 
this premier Aberdeenshire herd. 

The closing years at Sittyton will form the 
subject of further reference. 



CHAPTER XX. 



OTHER NORTH COUNTRY HERDS. 

The constructive work carried out to such 
extraordinary success at Sittyton was destined 
to exert an influence over the breed on both 
sides the Atlantic as far-reaching as it was 
beneficent. There were none to dispute the 
supremacy of Sittyton in the North. It was 
the source from whence nearly all the breeders 
of Aberdeenshire and adjacent counties drew 
their best material as well as their inspiration. 
While Amos Cruickshank must therefore be 
called the real leader of the line of Short-horn 
progression in Scotland, passing notice should 
be taken of the work of some of his contem- 
poraries. 

To review the operations in detail of all 
those who contributed largely to the upbuild- 
ing of the Short-horn interest in the North 
would require more space than can here be 
given. Indeed, we cannot undertake to list in 
full their names. Coates' Herd Book must be 
consulted by those who wish to delve deeply 
into the subject. We should, however, give a 
place in this record to the names of Gen. Sim- 

(645) 



646 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

son of Fifeshire, Douglas of Athelstaneford, 
Barclay of Keavil, the Duke of Richmond, the 
Earl of Montrose, Lord Lovat of Beaufort, Sir 
William Sterling Maxwell of Kier, Longraore 
of Rettie, Mark Stewart of Southwick, the 
Bruces of Inverquhomery and Burnside, Syme 
of Red Kirk, Mitchell of Alloa, Sylvester Camp- 
bell of Kinellar, William S. Marr of Uppermill, 
John W. and Edward Cruickshank of Lethenty, 
and Duthie of Colly nie. While we need not 
undertake a detailed account of the opera- 
tions of these and other leading breeders of 
that time it seems essential to a correct under- 
standing of the career of the Scotch-bred Short- 
horns in America that some facts be furnished 
relating especially to the herds at Athelstane- 
ford, Kinellar, Uppermill, Lethenty and Col- 
lynie. 

Douglas of Athelstaneford. — A herd that 
was in every way worthy of the district that 
had been the home of Rennie of Phantassie 
was begun about 1842 by Mr. James Douglas, 
an enterprising tenant farmer at Athelstane- 
ford (locally called "Elshinford") in East Lo- 
thian. Douglas was ambitious from the first 
for show-yard honors, and as a competitor at 
the great exhibitions of the United Kingdom, 
as well as at the Paris Exposition of 1856, he 
met with a brimming measure of success. The 
herd was begun about 1842, but it was not un- 



OTHER NORTH COUNTRY HERDS. 647 

til the Newcastle Royal of 1846 that he made 
notable purchases. The famous show bull 
Belleville (6778) was then at the height of his 
reputation, and several of his daughters were 
purchased. One of these, the roan Queen of 
Trumps, bred by Mr. Unthank, was one of the 
greatest prize-winners of her time. She was 
bought for shipment to America at a high price 
by Mr. Barrett of Kentucky, but was lost at 
sea. 

In 1852 a sale was made which included 
practically the entire original herd. Reserva- 
tion was made, however, of the celebrated 
Mantalini show cow Rose of Summer, by Vel- 
vet Jacket (10998), Scottish Blue Belle and a 
few others of special excellence. At this sale 
Rose of Summer's dam. Rose of Autumn, to- 
gether with Brenda (then carrying Lord Rag- 
lan, by Crusade) were bought by Mark Stewart 
of Southwick. Subsequently Lord Raglan was 
bought back, together with Rose of Sharon, 
a daughter of Rose of Autumn, and the four 
fine heifers Hawthorne Blossom, Heather Belle, 
Cherry Queen and Imperial Cherry, a quar- 
tette that cost 600 guineas. Prior to the sale 
the Athelstaneford cattle had won some sixty 
prizes at leading shows, and the second herd, 
with Rose of Summer and Scottish Blue Belle 
as its trump cards, inaugurated another cam- 
paign that was even more successful. Scot- 



648 A HISTORY OF SHORT-HORN CATTLE. 

tish Blue Belle was ultimately sold to Mr. R. 
G. Corwine of Lebanon, 0., and brought to the 
United States. Killerby and Warlaby were 
then drawn upon for females. The sum of 500 
guineas was offered Richard Booth in vain for 
Charity, and a 550-guinea bid for Nectarine 
Blossom was also declined. Mr. Douglas se- 
cured, nevertheless, Birthright, a granddaugh- 
ter of Bracelet, Isabella Hopewell and Venus 
de Medicis. 

Douglas scored a great success with the roan 
bull Captain Balco (12546) of Ambler's breed- 
ing. He stood next to Towneley's undefeated 
Master Butterfly at the Royal Dublin, and after 
being used for a time in the herd was sold 
along with Hawthorne Blossom and a lot ag- 
gregating some twenty head to the Shakers of 
Ohio. The Booth-bred bull Hymen (13058), of 
Bolden's breeding, out of Bridecake, w^as next 
bought and fitted as a member of the herd sent 
for exhibition at Paris in 1856, at which '^how 
he w^as sold to M. de Trehonnais for 200 guin- 
eas. Bates blood was acquired by the pur- 
chase of the cow Playful, by 4th Duke of York. 
Some of Troutbeck's Gwynnes were also se- 
cured. A son of Captain Balco, called Sir 
James the Rose (15290), out of Rose of Summer, 
succeeded his sire at the head of the herd and 
proved a capital stock-getter. Rose of Sum- 
mer and her descendants were of a remarkably 



OTHER NORTH COUNTRY HERDS. 649 

thick-fleshed, neat-boned, blocky, short-legged, 
squarely-built sort; and such cattle as Rose of 
Athelstene, Maid of Athelstane, Lady of Athel- 
stane, Queen of Athelstane, Pride of Athelstane 
and Crown Prince of Athelstane constituted a 
collection that has rarely been excelled in any 
herd on either side the water. 

In 1864 the late Hon. David Christie of Can- 
ada bought and imported a number of the best 
cattle of the Douglas herd and they exerted a 
great influence for good on this side the At- 
lantic. We believe that this sale to Mr. Chris- 
tie practically closed the operations of Mr. 
Douglas as a breeder of Short-horns. Further 
reference to the importation just mentioned 
will be made in a subsequent chapter. 

Campbell of Einellar.— Although not one 
of the earliest the herd of the late Sylvester 
Campbell was one of the best in Aberdeenshire. 
Founded in the year 1847 by the purchase of a 
pair of heifer calves at Barclay of Ury's sale, 
one costing 20 guineas and the other 9, the 
Campbell herd affords a striking illustration of 
what an intelligent fanner can accomplish 
from a modest beginning. Situated about nine 
miles northwest of the city of Aberdeen, located 
in a district noted for its fi