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fxvdos d\ 6s fiiv vvv vyiys, eiprif^evos iaru 



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Cambriligc : 



MORE than six years have passed since I undertook 
to write "A Short Manual of Comparative Phi- 
lology for Classical Students." Considerable progress 
had been made with the work and several sheets were 
already printed off when in 1890 and again in 1891 
such large additions were made to my work as a teacher 
in the University that it was impossible for me to com- 
plete the book immediately. Hence the long delay 
between its first announcement and its appearance. 

The book is intended for the use of Classical 
students who, without being professed students of 
Comparative Philology, desire some acquaintance with 
its principles as applied to Latin and Greek. Accord- 
ingly Parts II and III are devoted to what is practically 
a comparative gTammar of those langaiages. As the 
book is not intended for comparative philologists I 
have not adduced, except in a few instances, words 
from Sanskrit or other languages of which the reader 
was likely to know nothing. On the other hand it 
seemed worth while to cite, where possible, forms from 
English, or from other members of the group of lan- 
guages to which English belongs, when they have cog- 
nates in the classical languages. For the same reason 


— that it is better to proceed from the known to the 
unknown than vice versa — many of the illustrations in 
Part I are drawn from English. But though some 
account — necessarily incomplete — has been given of the 
different forms which the same word assumes in English 
and in the classical languages, no attempt has been 
made to treat English otherw^ise than as illustrative of 
Latin and Greek. 

I have endeavoured throughout to keep the needs of 
the learner before me. Hence, in not a few instances, 
the same point will be found discussed several times in 
different parts of the book, my design being to elucidate 
in this manner the different bearings of some important 
facts in the science. I have not aimed at originality, 
for it seemed to me that, in a subject of this nature, 
originality must frequently mean the propounding of 
hypotheses which the circumstances of the case or the 
limits of space would render it impossible to prove. 
Nothing is more objectionable in an elementary work on 
a comparatively new subject than to state dogmatically 
new theses, the truth or falsity of which the learner 
has no means of testing, while his belief in the results 
of the investigation as a whole may be rudely shaken 
by finding that what he has accepted as sound is pre- 
sently shown to be the contrary. On the other hand, 
even had it been advisable, it would have been im- 
possible, within the space at my disposal, to discuss all 
the various views of authorities on the many questions 
still unsettled with which the book deals. I have 
therefore put in the text what seemed to me after 
careful consideration to be the most plausible view in 
such cases, while in the footnotes I have given other 
views which seemed worthy of mention. Where no 


existing explanation seemed to cover satisfactorily all 
the facts of the case, or where for other reasons no 
certain conclusion could be reached, I have indicated 
my doubts in the text or footnotes. The notes are 
intended neither to be a bibliography nor to give neces- 
sarily the originator of the view which is mentioned, but 
only to indicate where a discussion of the subject in 
hand may be found. Advanced students will find a 
bibliography in Brugmanu's Grundriss which, the Syn- 
tax excepted, has now been translated into English. 
Books or papers which have appeared since the comple- 
tion of Brugmanu's Phonology and Morphology have 
been referred to more freely in the belief that the 
student would find such references useful. 

The first part of the book has been made as simple 
and as free of sjanbols as possible. In the other parts 
symbols were necessary and, in order not to confuse 
the learner, who, it may be hoped, will pass from this to 
larger Avorks, I have employed those used by Professor 
Brugmann. His Gnoidriss is at present the standard 
book of reference and without a rival. It seemed better 
therefore to adopt his system of symbols though some- 
what complicated than to harass the serious student by 
making him pass from one system to another. It was 
not without hesitation that I came to this conclusion. 
To the difference in terminology and symbols must be 
attributed, I think, the wide-spread belief in England 
that the New Philology represented by Brugmann and 
others is something different in its nature and results 
from the Old Philology that was taught by Curtius and 
Schleicher. There is no doubt a difference, but it 
is a difference not of character but of degree. The 
principles of the new school were recognised and enunci- 


ated by Curtius and Schleicher. The difference is that 
the older philologists a])i)lie(l these principles less rigidly 
than their successors. This difference in the application 
of the principles no doubt makes considerable differences 
here and there in the results. But there is no more 
reason to suppose the foundations of the science shaken 
on that account than there is to doubt the principles of 
Physical Science because the theory of the formation of 
dew which served as a model of scientific induction for 
many generations of hand-books on Logic has now 
given place to another. 

The Syntax of the Noun was already completed 
when Delbriick's large treatise (the continuation of 
Brugmann's Grundriss) appeared. My treatment of the 
subject was based, as any such treatment must neces- 
sarily be, on Delbriick's earlier books and papers, and I 
did not find it necessary to make any changes. Some 
of his new views are indicated in the footnotes, but, 
like several of his reviewers, I think that Delbriick's 
second thoughts, contrary to the proverb, are not always 
the wiser. 

For the extraordinarily difficult subject of the Com- 
parative Spitax of the Moods and Tenses there is, at 
present, no complete authoritative work in existence. 
I had therefore to do what I could avToSt8aKTo<;, though 
for Greek and Sanskrit I had Delbriick's Si/ufaktische 
Forschungen to guide me. Here as elsewhere Latin is 
more difficult and has been less studied from the com- 
parative point of view than other langiiages. The 
syntactical examples I have borrowed freely from the 
ordinary grammars, chiefly however for Early Latin 
from Holtze's Synta.ris priscorum scriptorum Latinorum 
and for Greek from Kriiger's excellent Qriechisclie 


Sprachlehre. My arrangement is uaturally different 
from theirs. 

The account of the Greek and Italic dialects and 
the specimens given will, it may be hoped, be useful to 
the beginner who has at present nothing of the kind 
accessible in English. References have been given to 
the authorities from whom the text is taken. For 
convenience the appendix is divided into sections like 
the rest of the book, the numbers running fi*om 601 

As regards my obligations to others, those whicli I 
owe to the books and lectures of my teacher Professor 
Brugmann are the greatest. Without the assistance of 
his great work Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
der Indogermanischen Spnichen such a summary as the 
present would have hardly been possible. For the 
syntactical part Delbrilck's treatises on Comparative 
Syntax have been equally useful. But I have read the 
literature of the subject for myself, so far as it was 
accessible to me, and have drawn my own conclusions. 

I have to thank many friends for their help in 
various parts of the work. Dr Peile, Master of Christ's 
College, my teacher and predecessor in the same field, 
gave me advice at the beginning and read some parts 
in manuscript. Dr J. S. Reid of Gonville and Caius 
College, Mr Neil and Mr Whibley of Pembroke College 
read all the early part in the first proof. My friend 
and former tutor the Rev. E. S. Roberts gave me the 
advantage of his wide knowledge of the history of the 
Alphabet and of the Greek dialects. Above all I 
gratefully 'acknowledge the kindness of Dr Postgate of 
Trinity College, Professor Strachan of Owens College, 
Manchester, and Professor Streitberg of Fribourg, Switzer- 


land, who have undergone the drudgery of reading the 
whole book in the first proof and have greatly helped 
me in many ways. They have saved me from many 
mistakes, for those that remain I alone am responsible. 

In spite of the vigilance of so many eyes, to which 
in justice must be added those of the excellent reader 
of the Cambridge University Press, it was inevitable in 
a work of this kind that some misprints should escape 
notice. Those I have observed wdiich are likely to 
cause confusion I have noted below (p. xxxviii) along 
with some important matters that have appeared since 
the parts of the book to which they relate have been 
printed off. 

P. G. 


April 15, 1895. 


The numbering of Acts, Scenes and lines in references to 
Plautus are those of the Tauchuitz edition — the only complete 
text likely to be in the hands of young students. The 
passages quoted have been collated, however, with the most 
recent texts. The numbers in brackets refer to the plays 
edited by Fleckeisen in the Teubner series or to the first 
two fasciculi of Goetz and Schoell's new text. The references 
to the Greek tragic poets are according to the numbering of 
the lines in Dindorf'.s Foetae Scenici. 



Table of Abbreviations xxxiii 

Addenda et Corrigenda xxxviii 



What is Philology ? 


1 — 2. Inexactness of the name ....... 3 

3. Other names suggested ....... 4 

4. Scope of Philology in this sense 5 

5. Methods of studying Philology „ 


What is an Indo-Germanic language ? 

6 — 7. Indo-Germanic, Aryan, Indo-European, Indo-Keltic . 6 

8. All Idg. languages descended from one original . . 8 

9 — 10. Distinctions between languages ,, 

Effects on English of borrowing ..... 9 

11. Effects on Armenian and Albanian of borrowing . . 11 

12. Criteria of Idg. languages " . . „ 

13. Importance of pronouns and numerals as criteria . . 12 

14. Identity of words having different sounds in different 

languages 13 

15. Classification of the Idg. languages 14 

16. Original home of the Indo-Gei-mans .... 18 

17. Civilisation of the primitive Indo-Germans ... 19 

18. Connexion between different Idg. languages . . . ,, 

19. ,, ,, Italic and Keltic dialects ... 21 




Hoio do Tndo-Gerviatiic lanyuayes differ from other languages ? 


20. Latin equos and its cognates in other Idg. languages 

21. Latin vidrios „ „ ,, „ 

22. Nominative suffix, stem-suffix, root ... 

23. Division of equos and viduos as above 

24. Definition of a root. How words come to be roots 

25. Latin mens and its cognates in other Idg. languages 

26. Component parts of mens. Its rdated verb forms 

27. Latin dds and dr> and their cognates . 

28. Noun suffixes and Verb suffixes. Adaptation theory 

29. Case suffixes and their uses .... 

30. Loss of inflexions in English .... 
31 — 2. Vowel-gradation in roots and suffixes 

33. Distinction between Idg. and Isolating languages 

34. ,, „ Agglutinative ,, 

35. ,, ,, Semitic ,, 

36. Are all these families sprung from one original ? 








The Principles of modern Philology. 

, Prescientific attempts at etymology . 

Scientific study of language 

Bopp, Kask, J. and W. Grimm . 
, Pott, Curtius, Schleicher, Miiller etc. 
, Ascoli's theory of two fc- sounds etc, . 
, Brugmann's theory of nasals. Vowels 
■^ Verner's accent theorj' 

Principles of modern philology and their authors 
Is Philology a science ? . .... 
How Philology differs from the natural sciences 


Logical analogy 

Proportional ,, 



50 — 3. Formal analogy 51 

54. Combination of logical and formal analogy . , . o4 

55. Analogy in gender . . . . . . . • „ 

56 — 7. ,, syntax ........ 55 

58. Semasiology ......... 57 

59 — 63. Bon'owing of words ........ 59 

64, Dialect and language 63 

65. Continuous action of natural laws ..... 65 



66. Definition of language 

67. Physiology of language. Breath and voice 

68. Mute consonants or stops 

69. Spirants 

70. Three classes of dental spirants 

71. Greek spiritus a^)er . 

72. Breathed and voiced consonants 

73. Aspirates : qh, gh ; kh, gh ; th, dh ; p]i, bli 

74. Affricates : pf, ts, kx .... 

75. Change of Aspu-ates through affricates to spirants 

76. Nasals : m, ii, ng. How they differ from spirant 

stops ....... 

77. Liquids : r, I and their different forms 

78. Vowels 

79. Classification of vowels : back, front ; high, 

close, open ; rounded, unrounded 

80. Examples of vowels . 

81. Syllabic and non-s^ilabic sounds 
Sonant nasals and liquids 

82. Long and short sounds 

83. Division of syllables. Diphthongs 

84. Glides. On -glide and off- glide 

85. Vowels with and without initial glide. Spiritus leni 

86. Final glide .... 

87. Consonants with and without ghdes 
Table of the more important sounds, 














%/ Accent. 


88. Accent used in two senses 

89. Stress-accent 

90. Pitch-accent 

91. Languages with pitch-accent 

92. Effects of pitch-accent 

93. ,, stress-accent 

94. Accent of Idg. language 

95. Three degrees of pitch- and stress-accent 

96. Accent-points 

97. Kinds of pitch-accents 

98. Unaccented words .... 







Differences (1) between English and the Classical languages 
and (2) between English and other Germanic languages. 

99. Diffei'ences between the Germ, and other Idg. languages . 83 

100. Grimm's Law . . . . . . . . . ,, 

101. Idg. breathed aspirates in Germanic .... 84 

102. Grassmann's Law ,, 

103. Consonant combinations not aiJected by Grimm's Law . 85 

104. Verner's Law ,, 

105. Roots with bye-forms 87 

106. Germanic changes of Idg. sonants . . . . • i, 

107. Change of Idg. accent in Germanic „ 

108 — 9. Assimilation ; final sounds ...... 88 

110. English spelling 89 

111. Value of early forms in philology ,, 

112. High German consonant change ,, 




Indo-Germanic sounds. 


113. Idg. consonants 95 

114. Idg. sonants ......... 96 

115. Idg. diphthongs „ 


Attic Greek alphabet and pronunciation. 

116. Attic alphabet 97 

117. Attic pronunciation. Stops 98 

118. Pronunciation of f 99 

119. ,, p 

120. ,, Greek nasals ,, 

121. Pronunciation of vowels ,, 

122. Proper and improper diphthongs. Pronunciation of et, ov. 

History of ai, ei, oi, vi, (f, rj, ip . . . , . 100 


Latin alphabet and pronunciojtion. 

123. Alphabet 101 

124. Pronunciation. Stops 102 

125. Spirants : /, 7;, s, v, i (j) 103 

126. Liquids „ 

127. Nasals 104 

128. Vowels 

129. Diphthongs 105 



History of tlie original Indo-Germanic sounds in Greek and 



130. History of ^;. Euglish/ sometimes = Idg. A: and ? . . 106 

131. ,, h ,, 

132. „ hh 107 

133. ,, t. Idg. tj in Greek. Latin ^Z . . . ,, 

134. ,, d, Latin Z sometimes = Idg. d ... 108 

135. ,, (//(. In Latin = fo and rf, but not =/ medially . ,, 
13fi. ,, k. Two kinds of gi;tti;rals and their repre- 
sentation 109 

137. ,,(/.. 110 

138. ,, gh. Latin peculiarities Ill 

139. ,, q. Idg. languages form two groups in treat- 

ment of velars, q with and without labialisation. 

Analogy 112 

140. ,, ?, with and without labialisation . . .115 

141. ,, j/i, with and without labialisation . . . 117 

142. ,, s. Gk. itpiritus asper. Latin r — s. . . 118 

143. ,, z 120 

144. ,, i(i and u ; ij ....... ,, 

145. Number of original liquids uncertain .... 121 

146. History oil 122 

147. „ r „ 

148. „ m 123 

149. ,, n ,, 

150. ,, n and id 124 

151. Liquids as sonants ,, 

152. History of / and // 

153. ,, r and rr ....... . 125 

154. Long sonant liquids ..,.....,, 

155. Nasals as sonants 126 

156. History of ?ft and Hi )/i .......,, 

157. ,, n and nn ,, 

158. Long sonant nasals 127 

159. History of Vowels : a. Latin changes .... 128 





History of Vowels : a 

e. Latin changes 

e . . . 

6. Latin changes 

o . . . 

T. Latin changes 

i ... 

V. Latin changes 

Varying treatment of i and u according to position 
i and u preceding a sonant in the same syllable 

,, medially between vowels 

,, following a sonant in the same syllable 
History of ai. Latin changes 

Changes in Latin owing to u 
Diphthongs with long sonant 











On some Combinations of Consonants, 

182. Cause of assimilation ....... 142 

183. Chronology. Different laws prevail at different times . 143 

184. Formal analogy. Loss of consonants in combination. 

Logical analogy 144 

185. Influence of suffix on final sound of root .... 145 

186. New suffix formed of last sound of root + old suffix . 146 

187. Double consonants. Their simplification . . . • ,, 

188. Groups of three or more consonants. Influence of s in 

simplifying groups ....... 147 

189. Initial combinations with s followed by stop simplified in 

Latin 148 

G. P. 




190. Varying changes according as a consonant is followed by 

one or more consonants 

191. Combinations of two consonants 

192. ,, two stops 

193. ,, stop + spirant, of stop + nasal 

194. Latin -tn- and -dn-. Origin of gerund 

195. Latin -kn- ..... 

196. Combinations of stop + liquid . 

197. ,, stop + j 

198. ,, stop + u. Gk. initial tn-, Latin ku- 

199. Combinations where the first element is a spirant 

200. si in Greek 

201. su in Greek and Latin 

202. Loss of s before nasals and liquids . 

203. sr in Greek and Latin initially . 

204. „ ,, medially 

205. Combinations where the first element is a nasal or liquid 

206. mr in Greek and Latin 

207. Nasals and hquids followed by -i- in Greek 

208. Combinations of u with i . 
Tables of consonant combinations .... 160- 














On some otJier Sound Changes. 

Contraction of vowels in Idg. period ; in suffixes of dat 

sing., gen. pi., loc. sing. ; contraction with augment. 

Contractions in Greek and Latin 

,, by loss of } . 

,, „ -s- in Greek . 

,, ,, -h- in Latin . 

Table of the chief vowel contractions. 
Anaptyxis : in Latin -clo-\ in foreign words in Latin 

,, in Greek 

Compensatory lengthening of vowels 

,, ,, ,, in Greek . 

,, ,, „ in Latin . 








227. Shortening of vowels 172 

228. Loss of a syllable. Syncope only in Latin. Loss of one 

of two similar syllables 173 

229. Prothesis : only in Greek 174 

230 — 3. Prothesis of a, e, o, i ,, 

234. Causes of prothesis ,, 

235. Phonetics of the sentence. Differences between spoken 

and written language ....... 175 

236. Consequences of the fusion of words in the sentence . 176 
237 — 8. Words wrongly divided ,, 

239. w(pe\iw and ocpeiXo} 177 

240. Wrongly divided words in English 178 

241. Loss of final consonants ; assimilation ; i> ecpeXKvariKov . „ 

242. Loss of final s in Latin 179 

243. Crasis. Greek dv, air, /car, etc. ,, 

244. Latin et, ac, atque ........ 180 

245. Scansion of diphthongs before vowels in Homer . . ,, 

246. irpori and -rrpos 181 

247. e| and els „ 

248. Survival of double forms ,, 



249. Pitch and stress accent 182 

250. Two systems of accentuation to be discussed . . . 183 

251. Vowel gradation. Interchange of e and o affected by 

252. Vowel series : not equally conspicuous in all languages . 184 

253. Typical forms of roots. Weak forms arise from stress 

accent ....,, 

254. Levelling of vowel grades in Latin 185 

255. Special cause of levelling in Latin 186 

256. Long vowels in the short vowel series . . . . ,, 

257. Vowel series rarely complete in any language . . . ,, 

258. The e : o series ,, 

259. Examples of e : o series 187 





260. Examples of e : '> series 190 

261. „ a: a „ ,, 

262. „ a -.o „ 

263. „ -.d „ 191 

264. „ o , „ 

265. Examples of Ju7-grade in Sanskrit ,, 

Note, (i) Bartholomae's vowel series .... 192 

(ii) Streitberg's lengthened grades .... 193 

266. Difference in nature between Greek and Latin accent . 194 

267. Cause which produced special Greek accent. Changes in 

position of accent under new system .... 195 

268. Accentuation of dactylic words ...... 196 

269. Analogy in accentuation .......,, 

270. Nature of the Greek accents 197 

271. Interchange of acute and circumflex ....,, 

272. Two changes in the special accent of Latin . . . 198 

273. Traces in Latin vocalism of the earlier accent . . . ,, 

274. Changes of quantity in Latin produced by stress accent . 199 



General princijdes of word formation. 

275. Words in combination 203 

276. Structure of the word and sentence ..... 204 

277. Differences between substantive and (i) verb, (ii) pronoun, 

(iii) adjective. English hut 205 

278. Adverbs. Analogy in their formation .... 207 

279. Analogy in the formation of English adjectives and 

adverbs 208 

280. Course of development in such formations : i560-r)v, XeyeaOai 210 



Noun Morphology. 


' 281. Parts in a noun form. Suffixes primary and secondary . 211 

282. Compound stems. Analogy in such stems . . . 212 

283. Second part of compound stem becoming suffix. Eng. -ly, 

Lat. -iter 213 

284. Case forms in compounds ...... 214 

285. Brugmann's criteria to distinguish composition from 

juxtaposition 215 

>4286. Mistaken division of compounds and its results . . 21(3 

287. Living and dead suffixes 217 

288. Four methods of forming new substantives . . . 218 


Classification of Nouns. 

289. Root nouns (a) without, (b) with gradation . . . 220 

290. Nouns with formative suffixes. Suffixes ; theu- signifi- 

cation 221 

291. Suffix -a and feminine gender 222 

292. Gender in other suffixes ,, 

293. Natural sex and grammatical gender .... 223 

294. Gender in words indicating objects without sex . . 22.5 

295. Gender in different stems 226 

296. Number. Three numbers. Plural in abstract nouns . 227 

297. The dual: its earliest usage : lost in Latin . . . 228 

298. Neuter plural with singular verb 229 

299. Schmidt's theory of this construction .... 230 

300. Noun cases. Are two confused in Instrumental ? . . 232 

301. Idg. system of cases incomplete ,, 

302. The vocative not a case .......,, 

303. No separate forms for some cases 233 

304. Origin of cases. Endings pronominal and postpositional. 

Grammatical and local cases 234 

305. Three causes of syncretism in cases. Table of syncretism 235 




Case Suffixes. 




Nominative singular 237 


Vocative ,,....... 



Accusative ,, 



Genitive singular. Gradation in suffix. Loss in Latin 
Gk. -Tos ........ 


Ablative singular. Separate from gen. only in -o- stems 

i 240 


Dative singular. Confused in Gk. with loc. 



Locative singular, with and without suffix 



Extended use of locative in Greek .... 



Instrumental singular. Two suffixes 



Dual: nom. voc. ace. 



Dual : other cases 



Nom. voc. Plural 



Accusative ,, 



Genitive ,, 



Ablative ,, 



Dative ,, 



Locative ,, with and without loc. suffix . 



Instrumental Plural . 



Pronominal Declension. 

324. Pronouns which distinguish gender 251 

825. Stems of such pronouns in Gk. and Lat ,, 

326. Differences between nominal and pronominal declension . 253 

327. Personal pronouns 257 

328. Forms of pers. pron. in Singular „ 

329. ,, „ Dual and Plural . . . .259 

330. Possessive adjectives 260 



Uses of the cases. 


331. Nominative 260 

332. Vocative 261 

333. Accusative 262 

(1) with verbs of motion towards, (2) of time p. 263, (3) of space ih., 
(i) of content ib., (5) with transitive verbs p. 264, (6) with 
substantives and adjectives p. 266, (7) adverbial p. 268, (8) 
with prepositions p. 269. 

334. Genitive 270 

(1) possessive, (2) partitive p. 271, (3) with substantives of verbal 
nature p. 272, (4) with verbs p. 273, (5) with adjectives p. 274, 
(6) predicative p. 275, (7) adverbial p. 276, (8) with preposi- 
tions ih. 

335. Ablative 276 

(1) Pure ablative, (2) abl. of comparison p. 279. 

336. Dative 281 

(1) with verbs, (2) with substantives p. 284, (3) with adjectives and 
adverbs ib., (4) final p. 285. 

337. Locative 287 

(1) of space p. 288, (2) of time p. 289, (3) of persons ib., (4) of per- 
sons with verbs ib., (5) with substantives and adjectives p. 
290, (6) of motion towards p. 291, (7) with prepositions ib., 
(8) adverbial p. 292. 

338. Instrumental 292 

(1) sociative, (2) of likeness and equality p. 293, (3) of cause p. 294, 
(4) of means ib., (5) with verbs ib., (6) with substantives, ad- 
jectives and numerals p. 295, (7) of measure p. 296, (8) of place 
ib., (9) of time ib., (10) adverbial p. 297, (11) with preposi- 
tions ib. 

339. Absolute cases 297 


Fragments of cases. 

340. Adverbs and prepositions : how related .... 299 

341. Adverbs which are relics of declension-forms . . • ,, 

342. Conjunctions : primitive, nominal, pronominal . . 301 




Stem formation in the 7ioun. 


343. Simple and complex suffixes . 

344. Classification of suffixes according to sounds 

345. Influences which affect suffixes 

346. Stems in stops. Labial stems 

347. Dental stems. Stems in -t- 

348. Stems in -</-, -wSrys 

349. „ „ -k- {-k- and -q-) 

350. „ „ -</- (-CJ- and -g-), -y^ 

351. „ ,, spirants, -s- stems 

352. ,, „ -ies- . 

353. ,, ,, -uea-. 

354. ,, „ liquids, -r- stems 

355. „ „ -ter-, -tor- 

356. ,, ,, nasals 

357. Different grades in different meanings 

358. Stems in -en-, -on- .... 

359. ,, ,, -men-, -man-, -mn-, -vvj- . 

360. ,, „ -ien-, -ion-, -in-, -in- (-/»-)• Lat. -tion 

361. ,, „ -uen- -mn-, -un-, -un- {-ni}-), -unto 

362. „ ,, -ent-, -ont-, -rit- 

363. Gradations in -7it- stems 

364. Stems in -uent-, -nijt- .... 

365. ,, „ vowels and diphthongs . 

366. „ ,, -i-. Confusion with other stems in Latin 

367. ,, ,, ,, confused in Greek and Latin adjectives 

368. „ „ -ti- . 

369. ,, „ -tat- and -tid- . 

370. ,, ,, -ri-, -li-, -mi-, -ni- 

371. ,, „ -u- ; variations 

372. „ „ -tu- . 

373. „ ,, -««-, -rti-, -III- . 

374. „ „ -;- (-ie-) . 

375. ,, ,, -0- and -a-. Eelation to cons, stems 

376. Uses of -o- and -a- stems . . . . 



377 — 404. stems in consonant + 0- (a-) 327 

377 -bho-; 378 -to-; 379 -Mo-, -mnto-, -unto-; 380 -do-; 381 -ko-, 
-sico- \ 382—3 -qo-, -iqo-, -Iqo-, -uqo-, -aqo-, -tiko-, Lat. -tico-, 
-ittKo-; 384 -so-\ 385—6 -ro-, -ero-; 387 -tero- ; 388 -tro- ; 
389 -dhro-; 390-1 -tlo-, Lat. -do-, -lo-, -Uo-, -elo-, -dhlo-; 
392 Lat. -stro-, -slo-; 393 -mo-; 394 -<mmo- of superlative; 
395_6 .no-; 397 -eno-, -ono-; 398 -ino-; 399 -Ino-; 400 
-meno-, -mono-, -mno- ; 401 -<rvvo-, Lat. -Una-; 402 -jo-, -iio-, 
Lat. -eio- ; 403 -uo-, -%iuo-, -Tcfo- ; 404 Lat. -Ivo-, -tivo-. 

405. Stems in -oi 341 


The Numerals. 

406. Decimal and duodecimal systems 342 

407 — 416. Cardinal numbers ; one to ten 343 

417 — 8. Eleven to nineteen 345 

419. The Tens 346 

420. Twenty „ 

421—2. Thirty to ninety 347 

423. Hundred 348 

424. The hundreds ,, 

425. Thousand „ 

426. Ordinal formed from cardinal numbers .... 349 
427—435. First to tenth 

436. Twentieth to hundredth 351 

437. Ordinals beyond hundredth ,, 


Verb Morphology. 

438. History of the Verb 352 

439. Original Idg. Verb forms 353 

440 — 2. History of original forms in Gk. , Lat., and Germanic ,, 

443. Tendency to analysis in modern languages . . . 355 

444. Characteristics of the Verb . . . . . . ,, 




Augment 355 

Eeduplication. Difference between Greek and Latin . 356 

The voices of the Verb 358 

Greek Passive ,, 

Latin ,, , originally only in 3rd person . . • ,, 

Personal endings of Active and Middle .... 360 

Scheme of personal endings „ 

Difficulties in reconstructing original endings . . 361 

Primary endings of Active voice ,, 

Secondary „ ,, ,, ,, 364 

Primary ,, ,, Middle ,, 365 

Secondary ,,,,,, ,, 367 

Perfect , 368 


The Present Formations. 

478. Present sufiSxes identical with those of Future and Aorist 369 

479. Classification of present formations .... 370 

480. L Person suffixes added to root with or without 

thematic vowel 371 

(a) roots without them. v. and ^vithout reduphcation ib., {b) roots 
in strong or weak form + them. v. p. 373, (c) roots redupli- 
cated but without them. v. ib., (d) roots reduplicated and 
with them. v. ib., (e) roots with reduplication in -e- p. 374, 
(/) roots with intensive reduplication ib., (,g) roots with 
them. V. in weak form ib. 

481. II. Roots with a formative suffix in -n- preceding the 

person suffix 374 

(a) -na- -na- -n- ib., (6) -ne- -no- p. 375, (c) Greek -avo- (i) 
without, (ii) with nasal in root p. 376, (d) 'infixed' nasal 
p. 377, {«) -neii- -nit-, •mt,- -nu- p. 378, (/) -neuo- -nuo- 
p. 379. 

482. in. Verb stems in -s-. Parallelism between noun 

and verb. Non-thematic and thematic forms . . 379 

483. rV. Verb stems in -sko- (a) without, (&) with redupli- 

cation 381 

484. V. Verb stems in -to- (-^) 382 



485. VI. Verb stems in -dh- and -d- 383 

486. Other possible consonant sufl&xes . . • >, 

487. VII. Verb stems in -J0-. Suffix mainly secondary . ,, 

(a) -jp- appended to (i) strong, (ii) weak form of root, (iii) to 
long vowel p. 384, (6) root with intensive reduplication ib., 
(c) -io- secondary ib., denominatives p. 385. 

488. Causatives and intensives in -eio- ..... 386 

489. Greek desiderative verbs ...... 388 

490. Latin frequentative „ ,, 


The Future. 

491. Original future in -sio- doubtful . . • . . . 389 

492. Greek future forms ,, 

493. Latin futures of three types 390 


The Perfect. 

494. Distinctive characteristics of the perfect 



495. Greek perfects in -/ca . 

496. ,, aspirated perfects 

497. Latin perfect ; confused with -s- aorist . 

498. „ perfects in -vi and -ul . 


Past Formations. 

499. Aorist, imperfect, pluperfect 394 

500. Strong aorist and imperfect identical. Gk. 2 Aor. Pass. 395 

501. Latin imperfects in -ham ,, 

502. The -s- aorists 396 

503. Thematic -s- aorists 397 

504. Aorists in -es- and -ds- , 

505. Pluperfect a late development ,, 

506. Greek pluperfect 398 

507. Latin ,, ,, 




The Moods. 


^_^_.._508. Subjunctive and optative 

^,^--^'509. Thematic subj. from non-thematic indie. 

510. Subj. of thematic stems . 

511. Analogy in forms of subj. 

512. Optative suffix of two types . 

513. Optative of -s- aorist 

514. ,, „ thematic stems 

515. Latin imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives 
516 — 523. Imperative 

517 bare stem p. 404, 518 stem + dhi ib., 519 stem + tod p. -iOS, 
520 Injunctive as Imper. ib., 521 later developments p. 406, 
522 Imper. of Gk. Middle ib., 523 Latin Imper. Passive. 







Verbal Nouns. 

525. Infinitives are noun cases. 

different cases 

526. Greek dative Infinitives 

527. „ locative ,, 

528. Latin Infinitives Active . 

529. Latin Supines " . 

530. ,, Infinitives Passive 

531. ,, Gerund 

532. Participles 

533. „ in -nt- . 

534. Perfect participle active 

535. Participles in -meno-, -mono- 

536. ,, ,, -to-, -teuo-. 

537. Latin participle in -turo- 

538. ,, gerundive participle 

Different languages affect 




> J 





Uses of the Verb Forms. 


539. Difficulties of verb syntax .... 
540 — 2. Uses of the Voices ...... 

540. Different methods of forming Passive . 

541. Transitive and intransitive meanings of Active 

542. The iliddle Voice 

543 — 4. Verb-types. Durative and perfective verbs . 

545 — 555. Uses of the Tenses 

545. Durative and momentary forms in Greek 

546. Tenses a later development .... 

547. Present may express (i) action, (ii) process, (iii) 

(iv) present with adverb of time = past 

548. Imperfect ; narrative tense ; relation to aorist ; 


549. Perfect ; an intensive present ; expresses a state 

550. Greek pluperfect 

551. Latin ,, ...... 

552. Aorist ; (i) perfective, (ii) inceptive, (iii) present, 

immediate past . 
(v) of future 

553. Latin Passive aorist perfect . 

554. Future ..... 

555. Future perfect 
556—567. Uses of the Moods . 

556. Different views regarding original meaning of subj 


557. Chief difficulties of the question 

558. Subjunctive has three values 

559. Subjunctive of will 

560. ,, ,, interrogation . 

561. ,, ,, future (potential) 

562. Optative has three values 

563. Optative of wish 

564. ,, ,, interrogation 

565. ,, ,, future (potential) . 


iv) of 

. and 





566. Greek optative with and without dv 443 

567. Greek indicative forms in unfulfilled wishes . 
568 — 570. Latin subjunctive 444 

568. Latin imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive new forms 

569. History of Lat. present and aorist jjerfect subj. 

570. ,, ,, ,, imperfect and pluperfect ,, . . 445 



The Greek and Latin Alphabets. 

COl. Origin of Greek alphabet 

602. Adaptation of Phoenician alphabet 

603. Development of new Greek symbols 

604. Eastern and Western Greek alphabets . 

605. Origin of Latin and other Italic alphabets 

606. Alphabets of Central Italy fall into two groups 

607. Confusion of breathed and voiced stops . 

608. Oscan, Umbrian, Faliscan alphabets. Etruscan 


609. Adaptation of superfluous Greek symbols for numerals 




The Greek Dialects. 

610. Physical features of Greece encourage development of 

dialects 455 

611. Linguistic without racial changes 456 

612. The Dorian invasion ,, 

613. Three stocks : Achaean, Dorian, Attic-Ionic . . . 457 
614 — 6. Sources of our knowledge of dialects. Causes of 

corruption ......... 458 

617 — 8. Arcadian with specimen 459 

19_620. Cyprian „ „ 462 



621. Aeolic : comprehends three dialects 

622. Sources for Aeolic 

Fick's Homeric Aeolic ...... 

623. Thessalian with specimen 

624. Lesbian and Aeolic of Asia Minor with specimens . 

625. Boeotian with specimens ..... 

626. Common characteristics of the three dialects . 
627 — 631. Dialects of North-west Greece in three groups 

628. Common characteristics of all three groups . 

629. Locrian with specimen 

630. Phocian including Deli^hian with specimen . 

631. Aetolian etc., with specimen ..... 

632. Dialects of Achaea and Elis ..... 

633. Elean with specimens 

63'4. Doric ; where spoken ; sources .... 

635. Common characteristics of all Doric dialects . 

636. dialectus severior, dial, mitis ..... 

637. Laconian with specimens 

638. Heraclean with specimen 

639. Messenian . . ...... 

640. Dialect of Argolis and Aegina with specimen 

641. „ „ Megara, Selinus, Byzantium, with specimen 

642. ,, ,, bucolic poets 

643. ,, ,, Corinth, Corcyra, Syracuse, with specimens 
644 — 5. ,, ,, Crete- (Gortyn) with specimen 

646. ,, ,, Melos, Thera, Cyrene, \vith specimens . 

647. ,, ,, Ehodes, Gela, Agrigentum, with specimens 

648. ,, ,, Doric and Ionic contraction . 
649 — 656. Ionic with specimens .... 

650. Ionic of Homer ..... 

651. ,, ,, lyric and elegiac poets 

652. Divisions of Ionic ..... 

653. Common characteristics of all divisions 

654. Characteristic differences of divisions 

655. /CO- K7]- not found on inscriptions . 

656. Eelations of Ionic and Attic Greek 


The Italic Dialects. 




Classification of dialects .... 



Oscan records 



Umbrian ,,...... 



Differences between Oscan and Umbrian 



,, ,, these dialects and 





Differences in phonology 



,, „ inflexion of noun 



,, ,, ,, ,, verb 


Specimens of Oscan 



,, „ Umbrian 




Index of Greek words 509 

Italic ,, 525 

„ Germanic ,, 537 

,, subjects 543 


A. J. P. = American Journal of Philology (in 16th volume). 

Archiv [fiir lateinischen Lexicograiihie unci Grammatik] (in 9th vol.). 

B. B.=Beitrage zur kimde der indogermanischen sinachen, herausgege- 

ben von Dr Ad. Bezzenberger und Dr W. Prellwitz (in 21st vol.). 
Bartholomae, Studien [zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte]. 1890, 

Baunack, Johannes und Theodor, Ins[chrift] v[on] Gortyn. 1885. 

,, ,, ,, Studien [auf dem Gebiete des grie- 

chischen und der arischen Sprachen]. 1886. 
Bechtel, Fritz, Hauptprobleme [der indogermanischen Lautlehre seit 

Scleicher]. 1892. 
Bechtel, I. I., = Inschriften des ionischen dialekts. 1887. (In Abhand- 

lungen der historisch-philologischen Classe der koniglichen Gesell- 

schaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen : 34ter Band. ) 
Berichte d[er] k[bniglichen] s[achsischen] G[esellschaft] d[er] W[issen- 

Blass^ = Ueber die Aussprache des griechisehen von F. Blass (3rd edition). 
Bronisch, G. , Die oskisclieu i und e Vocale. 1892. 

Brugmann, K., Gr. or &ra7itfr. = Grundriss der vergleichenden Gram- 
matik der indogermanischen Sprachen von E. B. und B. Delbriick. 


(Brugmann's part, comprehending Phonology and Morphology, 

has been translated into English in four volumes; of Delbriick's 

part, the Syntax of the Noun is all that is yet published.) 
Brugmann, K., Gr. G?-. = Griechische Grammatik, 2nd ed., 1889. (In 

Iwan Miiller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft, 

vol. 2.) 
G. P. C 


Buck, C. D., Vocalismus [der oskisclien Sprache]. 1802. 
Bull[ctin de la] Soc[ietu] Ling[uistique]. 1869 — , 
C. I. G. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 
C. I. L. = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

C. R. or Class. Rev. = Classical Review (in 9th vol.). 

Cauer- = Delectus inscriptionum Graecarum propter dialectum memora- 

bilium, iterum composuit P. Cauer. 1883. 
Caw. = Fouilles d'Epidaure par P. Cavvadias. Vol. i. 1893. 
Curtius, G., Greek Verb (English translation by Wilkins and England). 

Curtius, G., Studien [zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik]. 

10 vols. ; the last appeared in 1878. 

D. I. = Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften, herausgegeben 

von Dr H. CoUitz und Dr F. Bechtel, 1885— (still unpublished). 
Delbriick, B., A. L. I. = Ablativ Localis Instrumentalis. 1867. 

,, ,, S. F. = Syntaktische Forschungen. 5 vols. 1871-88. 
,, ,, Syntax (in Brugmann and D.'s Gn<H(/r(ss; see Brugmann). 

Dittenberger, Guil., Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum. 1883, 
Draeger, A., Hist[orische] Synt[ax der lateinischen Sprache]. 2 vols. 

2nd ed. 1878. 
Fleckeisen's [Neue] Jalirbilcher [fiir Philologie und Paedagogik]. In 

152nd vol. 
Goodwin, W. W., [Syntax of the Greek] Moods and Tenses. New ed. 

Hermes, herausgegeben von G. Kaibel und C. Robert. In 30th vol. 
Hoffmann [0., Die griechischen Dialekte in ihrem historischen Zusam- 

menhange mit den wachtigsten ihrer Quellen]. 1891 — . 2 vols. 

Hiibschmaun [H., Zur] Casuslehre. 1875. 
I. F. — Indogermanische Forschungen : Zeitschrift fiir indogermanische 

Sprach- und Altertumskunde herausgegeben von K. Brugmann 

und W. Streitberg. (In 5th vol.) 
Inscriptiones Graeciae Septentrionalis i. ed. Dittenberger, 1892. 

,, Graecae Siciliae et Italiae, ed. Kaibel. 1890. 

K. Z. = Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung begi'iindet von A. 

Kuhn; herausgegeben von E. Kuhn und J. Schmidt. (In 33rd 

Kluge, F,, D[eutsches] e[tymologisches] W[orterbuch]. (Now in 5th ed. 

The edition referred to is the 4th.) 


Kriiger, Dialekt. = Part ii. of K. W. Kriiger's Griechische Sprachlehre. 

5th ed. 1879. 
Kurschat, Lit. Gramm. = Grammatik der littauischen Sprache von Dr F. 

Kurschat. 1876. 
Lindsay, W. M., The Latin Language. 1894. 

M. U. = Morphologische Untersuchungen auf dem Gebeite der indoger- 
manischen Sprachen von Dr H. Osthoff and Dr K. Bnigmann, 
(5 vols.; complete.) 
Meisterhans- = Grammatik der attischen Inschriften von Dr K. Meister- 

hans. 2nd ed. 1888. 
Meringer, E., Beitrage [zur Geschichte der indogermanischen Declina- 
tion]. 1891. 
Meyer, G., Gr. Gr. = Griechische Grammatik. 2nd ed. 1886. 
Meyer, L., Yerg. Gramm. = Yergleichende Grammatik der griechischen 
und lateinischen SjDrache von Leo Meyer. 2 vols. 1st vol. in 2nd 
ed. 1882-4. 
Monro, D. B., H. G.- = A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. 2nd ed. 

Osthoff, 0., Psychologisches Moment = Das physiologische nnd psycholo- 
gische Moment in der sprachlichen Formenbildung. (Sammlung 
gemeinverstandlicher wissenschaftlicher Yortrage herausgegeben 
von E. Yirchow und Fr. v. Holtzendorff. Heft 327.) 
P. u. B. Beitrage = Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und 
Literatur, herausgegeben von H. Paul und W. Braune. (In 20th 
Paul's Grundriss = Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, herausgege- 
ben von H. Paul. I. Band. 1891. 
Persson, P., Wurzelerweit"iTing=Studien zur Lehre von der Wurzeler- 

weiterung und Wurzelvariation. 1891. 
von Planta, E., Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte I. Band. 

Prellwitz, W., Etymologisches Worterbueh der griechischen Sprache. 

Eheinisches Museum [fiir Philologie], herausgegeben v. 0. Eibbeck und 

F. Biicheler. (In 50th vol.) 
Eoby, H. J., Latin Grammar = A Grammar of the Latin Language from 

Plautus to Suetonius. 2 vols, oth ed. 1887. 
Schmidt, J., Pluralbildungen [der indogermanischen Neutra]. 1889. 
Schweizer-Sidler, H., und Surber, A., Grammatik der lateinischen 
Sprache. Erster Teil. 1888. 


SeeImann = Die Aussprache des Latein von E. S. 1885. 
Sievers, E., G. d. G. P. = Phonetik in Paul's Grnndriss, vol. i. 

„ G. d. P.^Grundziige der Phonetik. (3rd ed. 1885. A 4th 
ed. has now appeared.) 
Skeat, W. W., Etym. Diet. = Etymological Dictionary of the English 

Language. 2nd ed. 1884. 
Skeat, W. W., Principles of English Etymology. First Series. The 

Native Element. 1887. Now in 2nd ed. 
Skutsch, F., Forschungen [zAir lateinischen Grammatik und Metrik]. 

I. Band. 1892. 
Stolz^ or Stolz, Lat. Gr. = Lateinisehe Grammatik (Laut- und Formen- 

lehre) von Fr. S. 2nd ed. (In Iwan Miiller's Handbuch der 

klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft.) 
Sweet, H., Handbook [of Phonetics]. 1876. 

,, „ H. of E. S. = History of English Sounds. (2nd ed. 1888.) 
Techmer's Zeitschrift = Internationale Zeitschrift fiir allgemeine Sprach- 

wissenschaft begriindet und herausgegeben von F. Techmer. 

1884 — . (5 vols., discontinued.) 
Torp, Den GrsBske Nominalflexion sammenlignende fremstillet i sine 

Hovedtraek af Dr Alf Torp. 1890. 
U. D.=Die unteritalischen Dialekte von Tbeodor Mommsen. 1850. 
Umbrica, interpretatus est F. Buecheler. 1883. 

Wharton, E. E., Some Greek Etymologies = Transactions of the Philo- 
logical Society, 1891-4, p. 329 ff. 
Whitney, W. D., Skt. Gr. = Sanskrit Grammar, by W. D. W. 2nd ed. 

Zvetaieff = Inscriptiones Italiae inferioris dialecticae; composuit loh. Z. 





Eng. = English. 



0. E. = Old English. 

or I 

- = Indo-Germa 

M.E. = Middle Enghsh. 

Idg. , 

Goth. = Gothic. 


= Latin. 

Gk. = Greek. 


= Lithuanian. 

jle. = Icelandic. 


= Oscan. 

|N, = Norse. 


= Sanskrit. 


= Umbrian. 

An asterisk ijrefixed to a form indicates that the form is not actually 
found, but must be presupposed to account for existing forms : thus 
Greek fLards, Lat. visits presuppose a form * uidto-s, from which both are 


p. 22 ff. The subject treated of in this chapter is dealt with very fully by 
F. Misteli in his CharaJiteriiitil- der liaitptsachliclisten Typen des 
Sprachbaites 1893. 

p. 25. Brae is given by Murray (N. E. D. s.v.) as a special form of brow. 

p. 52 § 50. Fee =pecu is obsolete, as has been shown by Mr Bradley (see 
A''. E. D.). Modern usages come from Low Itatin feodum. 

p. 75 § 81. The whole theory of sonant nasals and liquids has been again 
called in question recently by several eminent authorities — in a 
pamphlet by Fennell in 1891, by Bechtel in his Hauptprohleme in 
1892, and by Johannes Schmidt in a jmper read at the Oriental 
Congress of 1894. 

p. 85 § 104. For (iothic juggs read yuggs. 

p. 86 § 104. For *pa-t('r, "ma-ter read *pd-ter, *vw-ter. 

p. 87 § 105. For Gothic taikno read tdikns. 

p. 127 § 158. For gnutns read gndtiis. 

p. 147 § 187. Before remains insert sometimes. 

p. 151 § 193. For ^dva read ^avd. 

p. 155 § 199. For I'j'o read tfw. 

p. 174 last line. For never read rarely; poTrrpoj' = rafter in a j^^'obaMe 

p. 190 § 260. For O.E. scr-d read sie-d. 

p. 196 § 268. Mtex jiroper names insert ; cp. 

p. 212 § 282. For a7r€pfj.6\oyos read (r'7repfxo\6yos. 

p. 213 § 282. For di'5p6(povo^ read dvdpo(p6i'os. 

p. 214 note. Lindsay {Latin Language p. 549) explains adverbs in -iter 
as nom. sing. masc. of stems in -tero-. 

p. 252 § 325 iv. Add at end of § and ace. i quoted by ApoUoniiis de pron. 
p. 330 /mm Sophocles' Oenomaxis [Fr. 418 Dindorf). 

p. 252 last line. Read: and Ww, the latter being an analogical form. 

p. 253 § 325 vii. Lindsay (p. 420) explains hie (which is short in Old 


Lat.) as=*/je-ce; Skutsch (B. B. xxi. 85) SiS — '^Iw-ce, hie appearing 

where the word was proclitic before an initial vowel. S. explains Juc 

as hic + c{e) with double -ce. 
p. 300 1. 8. After -a add m- -m. 
p. 301 1. 7. For Jiau- read hau. 
p. 308 § 352. The Greek comparative suffix is now explained by 

Thurneysen (K. Z. 33 p. 551, E.) a,s — -L{(T)ov- a confusion with -n- 

stems existing also in Germanic and elsewhere. 
p. 314 § 358. To account of dpvos add note : The nom. apr\v is found on 

an Attic inscr. (Meisterhans -, p. Ill) and in Cretaii as faprju. 
p. 332 § 388. For poirTpov read p^iTTpov. 
p. 338 § 401 1. 1. After -crwo- add {fj-v-qixouvvos etc.). 
p. 339 note 2. For *d7-aos read *ay-uos. 
p. 342 § 405. Here add stems in -du found e.g. in the numeral '''dud{u) 

p. 342 § 406. Before tlie Babylonians insert the sexagesimal system of. 
p. 375 note 1. J. Schmidt has shown {Festgruss an R. Roth p. 184) that 

in Skt. two classes of verbs have been confused viz. (1) verbs in -nd-, 

-n9-; (2) verbs in -nd{i)-, -ni-. A stem of the second class is to be 

found in the Umbrian persnimu {§ 665. 6 a). 
p. 392 note 1. Johansson {Beitriige zur griechischen Sprachkunde 

p. 91 ff.) assumes a root-determinative -q-, etymologically connected 

with KeV, Ka, and probably in the primitive language an encUtic 

particle attached to certain verb forms. 
p. 415. A summary of a similar treatment of the verb forms m Greek 

and Croatian by Dr A. Music QDublished in Croatian in 1892) is 

given in German by the author in Streitberg's Anzeiger (attached to 

the Idg. Forschungen) for 1895 p. 92 ff. 

Through inadvertence there is some variation in the marks used to 
indicate length in Old English; for ceosan and a few other forms read 
ceosan etc. They are corrected in the index. In two or three forms in 
Gothic, as viduvd, v is inconsistently used for lo which occurs elsewhere ; 
the distinction of ai into ai = diphthong and ai — e has been sometimes 
omitted but the forms are corrected in the index. 

An asterisk has been omitted before vollus p. 144 § 183, /cXaf-iw, K\dL-fo) 
p. 159 § 208, /xepdaXiovs p. 177 § 237, aie'i p. 241 n., jecinis p. 310, 
dn-tero-s p. 349 § 428, eVe((r)o p. 359 last Hue, 5eK-a-To, e/xiK-cr-To p. 397 
1. 8, <()tpoLa p. 402 § 514. 



G. P. 

i. What is Philology? 

1. It is an almost invariable rule in the growth 
of scientific knowledge that when a mass of inexactness of 
facts large enough to form a separate science ^^^ ^^^'^' 
has been collected, an old name is at first extended to 
cover this sum of new information. Thus Geology which 
denotes properly the science dealing with the earth was 
formerly used (and is still so used in popular accepta- 
tion) to include also the body of knowledge dealing with 
the remains of extinct animals found in rocks. But when 
this became a very important branch of stud)^ a new 
name — Palaeontology — was invented to distinguish it 
from Geology properly so called. 

2. The same holds true of that body of knowledge 
with which this book proposes to deal. When the sum 
of facts dealing with langiiage and languages was com- 
paratively small and the study novel, the term Philology, 
previously used in a somewhat different signification, 
was extended to cover this branch of research. 

The meaning of the word in former times was, and 
its most common meaning still is, the study of a 
language looked at from the literary standpoint. In 
Germany the word Philologie means only the body of 
knowledge dealing with the literary side of a langniage 



as an expression of the spirit and character of a nation, 
;ind consequently the department deahng with language 
merely as language forms but a subordinate part of this 
wider science. But in England the study of language 
as such has developed so largely in comparison with 
the wider science of Philology under which it used to 
rank, that it has usurped for itself the name of ' Compa- 
rative Pliilology' and in recent years of ' Philology' with- 
out any limitation. This is justifiable by the derivation 
of the word which only denotes vaguely all that deals 
with words ; but for the sake of definiteness it is better 
to use some term not so open to the charge of am- 
biguity. ' Comparative Philology ' is an unfortunate 
title', for, looking at the original application of the 
word it ought to mean the comparative study of the 
literature of different countries, whereas it is always 
employed to denote merely the comparative study oi 
sounds and words as elements of language. The actual 
usage of the word is thus at variance with the original 
meaning, for many languages such as the Gipsy, the 
Lithuanian and various others spoken by semi-civilised 
or barbarous peoples have no literature, but are not- 
withstanding of the greatest interest and importance to 
the student of language ^ 

3. Hence various other names for the science have 

other names ^^^^^ proposcd, such as Comparative Gram- 

suggested. jjjg^j. ^y^f\ j-j^g Scieucc of Language. The 

latter is the wider and the better term; Comparative 
Grammar is more properly applicable to the study of a 
group of languages closely related to one another, .such 
as the Indo-Germanic group or the Semitic group. 

1 Cp. Whitney in Encyclopaedia Britannica, s. v. Philology. 
■■^ F. Miiller, Grundriss der Sprachicissenschaft, p. 4. 


'^ 4. Philology, therefore, if we may use this term to 

denote the Science of Language, deals with 

all the phenomena of ^speech — with the pro- loiogy in this 

-, ■ (• -t 1 1 • 1 • sense. 

duction of the sounds which compose it, 
with their combinations into syllables, with the union of 
these syllables in words, and with the putting of words 
together into sentences. In its widest sense it includes 
also the important but abstruse question of the origin 
of language, of articulate utterance, a characteristic so 
remarkable that Aristotle fixed upon it as the test of 
distinction between man and brute ; Xoyov 8c ^lovov 
avOpwTTO^ €^et T(uv ^wu)v...o 8(. Xoyos €7rt t(5 orjXovv icrri. 
TO crvfx<ji€pov Koi TO (SXa/Sepov, wcrre koI to ScKaiov Kat 
TO olBlkov ^ . 

5. But the number of languages on the earth is so 
enormous that it is a task far too great for 

, , „ Methods of 

any single man to thoroughly master all, studjing pwio- 
or even a large part of them. Hence the 
principles of the science must be studied in connexion 
with a few languages which are taken as types of the 
great body of languages. As the science sprang from the 
study of the classical languages, and as these languages 
have had a very important influence on the develop- 
ment of English thought and of the English tongue, 
and are moreover members of the same great gToup 
of languages to which English belongs, we naturally 
turn to them in the first place when we begin the study. 
Probably the great majority of philologists begin with 
Latin and Greek, but no one can advance far in the study 
till he has made himself master of other langaiages which 
throw a flood of light on the problems which lie before 
the student of language. To clear up many difticulties 
1 Politics, I. 2. 1253 a. 


not only in Greek or Latin but also in English a knowledge 
of Sanskrit forms is indispensable; to settle the cha- 
racter and position of the original accent of words it is 
necessary to study the early history of the Geimanic' 
languages, the family to which English belongs ; some 
Slavonic dialects again preserve features long effaced in 
all other Indo-Germanic tongues ; in short there is no 
langfuage and no dialect however remote which belongs 
to the Indo-Germanic family that may not throw light 
upon some important branch of the study of these 
languages. For other questions, again, some knowledge 
of languages which are formed on different principles and 
belong to different families is necessary : nothing eluci- 
dates better the nature of inflexion than a comparison of 
an Indo-Germanic tongue with Chinese on the one hand 
and with Turkish on the other. The beginner must not 
suppose that the philologist knows all or even many of 
these languages so far as to be able to read them fluently : 
in most cases his information is supplied by the grammar 
and the dictionary alone ; but on each language or group 
of languages there are specialists at work who store up 
results available for the student of languages in general. 

ii. What is an Indo-Germanic language? 

6. In the last chapter it was mentioned that English, 
indo-German- Latin, Greek and Sanskrit belonged to the 
European, indo- Same family of languages. This family is 
Keltic. known at present as the Indo-Germanic. In 

older books other names for it -will be found such as Aryan 
or Indo-European, sometimes Indo-Keltic The first of 

1 To tills branch the name Teutonic is sometimes applied. 


these words is derived from Sanskrit and the objection to 
the use of it in this meaning is that it more appro- 
priately denotes' the group formed by the Iranian and 
Indian dialects of the family, which are very closely con- 
nected. Against ' Indo-European ' it is urged that some 
languages such as Armenian which exist neither in India 
nor in Europe are excluded and that prima facie the 
term suggests that all Indian and all European languages 
belong to this family. This is far from being the 
case ; in India the dialects belonging to this family are 
mostly confined to the broad belt across the north of the 
Peninsula from the Indus to the Ganges, while the 
Deccan and the south generally are occupied by people of 
different races who speak languages of quite another 
origin. In Europe also, on the other hand, there are 
many languages which do not belong to this family, such 
as the Turkish, the Hungarian, the Basque, the Lapp, 
and the Finnish. 

7. The term ' Indo-Germanic ' is an attempt to de- 
note the family by the names of those members of it 
which form the extreme links of a chain stretching from 
the North-East of India to the West of Europe. As the 
name was applied to this family of languages before it 
was finally ascertained that Keltic also belonged to. the 
same family, it has been proposed to use Indo-Keltic in- 
stead. But this is not necessary, for though the Kelts 
have gradually been driven into the furthest corners of 
the West of Europe by the inroads of the Germanic 
tribes, yet Iceland tlie most westerly land belonging to 
the European continent has been for a thousand years a 
settlement of a Germanic people. 

. 1 Whitney, Lt/e and, Groiuth of Language, p. 180. 


8. A great advance in knowledge was rendered pos- 

Aii idR. Ian- sible by the discovery of Sanskrit. On its 

an^s^of oiirwi- introduction to Europe by English scholars 
ginai language, jjj^^ gj^. ^^Ymhm Jones, Colebrooko and 

others, the conception was gained of a family of lan- 
guages not derived from one another but all returning 
like gradually converging lines to one centre point, to 
one mother language — the original Indo-Germanic. From 
that felicitous conception the whole of the modern 
science of Language may be said to have sprung. The 
similarity of Sanskrit to the classical languages and its 
wide geographical separation from them made scholars> 
see that old notions such as that Latin was derived from 
a dialect of Greek must be given up. Men now realised 
clearly that the relation between Greek and Latin was 
not that of mother and daughter but of sisters. This led 
to eager investigation for the purpose of determining 
what other languages belonged to the same family. In 
some cases the investigation has been far from easy, lan- 
guages having occasionally lost the distinguishing charac- 
teristics which would clearly mark them out as members 
of the family. In some cases too it has been found ver)' 
hard to decide whether an individual dialect was to be 
treated merely as a local variety of another dialect or 
whether it deserved to be classed as a separate language. 

9. The distinguishing marks which would be looked 
How languages foi ai'e Very different in these two cases. Li 

gutshed from one Separating two languages the difficulty is 
on°*E^ngibh'^'°of o^^eu occasioued by the mixture of words 
froin°^other°ail^ borrowed from a neighbouring or a con- 
guages. quering nation and becoming at last so large 

a part of the vocabulary as to obscure the original cha- 
racter of tlie language. Thus in the English language a 


very large number of words iu ordinary use are not of 
Germanic origin. A very large part of any English dic- 
tionary is taken up by words of Latin or Greek derivation 
which have been imported into English at different times 
and for different reasons. Some were borrowed in Anglo- 
Saxon times; these were more especially words con- 
nected with Christianity and the Christian Church, as 
bisko]), i^riest and many others; a very large number 
were introduced because the country came for a time 
under the political control of the Normans. The words 
introduced at this time have not come directly from 
Latin but indirectl)' through the medium of the French. 
The influence here was much greater than in the 
previous case. The Anglo-Saxons borrowed words to 
express ideas which were new to them. Instead of 
translating €7rto-/<o7ros as they might have done by 'over- 
seer,' they preferred in this special and technical use to 
keep the foreign term for the office. These new words 
once introduced became part and parcel of the language 
and changed with its changes, hence the Greek cTrto-KOTros 
is metamorphosed in time into the modern English 
hisJiop. But the importations from Norman French 
affected the most ordinary things of common life, and 
hence it is that we use good Germanic words for common 
animals as coic, steer, sheep, swine, while for the flesh of 
these animals we employ words of French, i.e. Latin 
origin, beef, mutton, pork. A third period of importation 
was after the Renaissance when men in their enthusiasm 
for the new learning thought to improve their Saxon 
tong-ue by engTafting multitudes of classical words upon 
it. Hence we sometimes have (1) the same word appear- 
ing under two different forms, one being borrowed earlier 
than the other, as in the case of priest and presbyter, both 

10 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 9 — 

through Jjatiu presbyter from 7r/5€o-/3ur€pos, or (2) besides 
difference in the time of borrowing one of the forms comes 
through another language, as blame and blaspheme. Both 
of these go back to f3Xa(T(f>r]fj.eLv througli Latin blasp)he- 
mare, but the former has also passed tlirough France on 
its way from Latium to England. The same is true of 
double forms like surface and superficies, frail and fra- 
gile, and a great many more'. In the later period when 
the literary sense had been awakened to the origin of 
many of these words, old importations were furbished up 
to look like new by giving them a more classical spelling 
than they liad previously had. This has liappened in 
the case of words like fault and doubt, earlier faut and 

10. But though so many words have been borrowed 
by English no one doubts that it is a Germanic language, 
for (1) such inflections as are still left to it are essentially 
Germanic and (2) though the majority of the words in 
our dictionaries are Latin and Greek, a very large number 
of them are not in everyday use, and in ordinary conver- 
sation words of Latin and Greek origin are in a minority. 
It has been said that the common rustic uses as a rule 
scarcely more than 300 words ; and with a few exceptions, 
such as use, fact and some others, these 300 words are all 
of Germanic origin. The statement however is not true ; 
the vocabulary of the rustic about ordinary things may 
be small, but he lias a very large supply of technical terms 

1 Owing to the difficulty which exists in English of forming 
new compound words we still fall back upon the classical languages 
for new terms for scientific discoveries, in most cases without much 
regard to the proper rules for the formation of such compounds. 
From the classical standpoint, words like telegram, telephone, 
photograph, are absolute barbarisms. 


— mostly too of Germauic origin— for his ordinary work. 
Of these a great number is always purely local and 
would be quite unintelligible to the ordinary English- 

The most common borrowed words are naturally 
substantives — names of wares, implements etc., and 
occasionally the verbs which express their function. 
But iise und fact do not come under this class, nor does 
take, a verb which has been borrowed from the Danish 
invaders of the Anglo-Saxon period and which has com- 
pletely ejected the Middle English words fangen (Old 
English y^w), and nhneii (0. E. niman) from the literary 
language, though 'stow'n fangs,' i.e. 'stolen goods,' is 
a phrase still known in Scotland, and B}Tom's poem of 
the Nimmers shows that 'let's nim a horse' was still 
intelligible in some dialect last century and may be even 

11. But in some languages the history of borrow- 
ing and the relations of the neighbouring 

, ^ .^ • Armenian and 

tongues are not so clear as they are in Albanian only 

•P, T 1 1 , ^ l_^ recently distin- 

hngiish ; hence some tongues, such as the mulshed as sepa- 
Armenian and the Albanian, are only even ^^ anguages. 
now asserting their right to a position in the Indo- 
Germanic family not as subordinate dialects but as 
independent languages. In the case of Albanian the 
problem has been complicated by the great variety 
of languages wliicli have encroached upon its territory ; 
Slavonic, Turkish, Greek, Latin have all foisted some 
words into it. 

12. Hard, however, as the problem of distinguish- 
ing nearly related languages is, it is far criteria of idg. 
surpassed in difficulty by that of deciding languages, 
whether a language is ludo-Germanic or not. What 

12 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 12— 

criteria can be laid down to guide the philologist in 
this investigation ? 

In order to assign a language to the Indo-Germanic 
family several things must be proved : 

(1) That the word-bases or roots of this language are 
prevailingly the same as those which appear in other 
Indo-Germanic languages, (2) that the manner in which 
nouns and verbs are formed from these bases is that 
which appears in other Indo-Germanic languages, (3) that 
the changes which words undergo to express various 
relations within the sentence are of the same kind as in 
other Indo-Germanic languages. 

Of these three (1) is the only condition which is 
indispensable ; (2) and (3) may be so obscured as prac- 
tically to disappear. In English the distinction between 
noun and verb and between both of these and roots has 
in many cases disappeared. Noun inflexion is now con- 
fined to a limited number of possessive and plural forms ; 
verb inflexion remains only in a very mutilated condition. 

13. A fairly certain inference may be drawn fi-om 
the identity of the pronouns and the nu- 
pronouns^"^an°d ^erals. Prououns are so essential to the 
?el^!'^'' ^ """■ life of a language that they are not likely 
to be given up in favour of others from a 
foreign source. But even these are not always certain 
authority for the connexions of a language. Perhaps the 
question does not' arise in the case of the Indo-Germanic 
langiiages, but in another family of languages — the Se- 
mitic — it presents a great difiiculty. The Coptic and 

1 According to Gustav Meyer, however (Essays imd Studien, 
p. 63), it is probable that Albanian has borrowed its article and 
some important pronouns from Latin. 


the Semitic family are similar in their pronouns and 
numerals and in little else '. 

14. In order that the word-bases of a language may- 
be shown to be identical with those of the 
other Indo-Germauic languages it is not may have differ- 

, , 7 1 • 1 • pnt sounds in 

necessary that the sounds winch appear m different lan- 
them should be the same. The b in the change of sound 
EngHsli bea)' corresponds to the /in the "^ ereguar. 
Latin fero, the <^ in the Greek ^epw and the bh in 
the Sanskrit bhurumi ; the k in the English knoiv cor- 
responds to the g in the Latin {g)nosco, the y in the 
Greek yt-yvw-o-Kw, the z in the Lithuanian zinau and the 
./ in the Sanskrit Jrt-«a-?J2/; but all philologists are agTeed 
that b,/, (ji awd bk in the one case and k, g, y, z, j in the 
other represent severally but one original sound — bh in 
the former and a ^-sound in the latter. And the repre- 
sentation of the original sound by the corresponding 
sound of the derived language is, with some intelligible 
exceptions, invariable. Thus all that is wanted is 
that some system be observable in the interchange of 
sounds among the connected languages. If we found 
that no such system existed, that in the same cir- 
cumstances <^ in Greek was represented in English 
sometimes by m, sometimes b}^ .r, sometimes by r and 
occasionally disappeared altogether, we should have to 
conclude (1) that in these cases the philologists were 
connecting words together which ought not to be con- 
nected, and (2) if this prevailed also with all sounds 
except in a few words which had the same meaning, 
we might be sure that Greek and English had no original 
connexion, and that such traces of inflexion as appear 
in English must have been borrowed from some Indo- 
^ Eenan, Histoire des Langues Semitiqiies, pp. 84 — 85. 

14 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 14 — 

Germanic language with which it had at some period 
come into very close contact. At the same time, we 
should have to admit that the borrowing of inflexion 
was of very rare occurrence. 

15. Philologists proceeding upon these principles 
Classification have identified the following languages as 
!?uages. ' belonging to the Indo-Germanic family. 

(i) The Aryan Group. 

This includes {a) Sanskrit, the ancient language 
spoken by the Indo-Germanic invaders of the Punjab. 
The earliest literature in it is the Vedas, the oldest 
writings in any Indo-Germanic language preserved to 
us. The Vedas date from about 1500 B.C. and stand in 
somew'hat the same relation to the classical language as 
Homer does to classical Greek. Sanskrit as a spoken 
language had died out before the Christian era ; it was 
succeeded by dialects derived from itself called Prakrit 
and Pali, which have also long been extinct in their 
original form and are now represented by Hindi and 
other modern dialects. The Gipsy dialect is a degTaded 
branch of this family which has wandered to the West. 

{h) The Iranian dialects, — Zend, the language of 
the sacred books of the ancient Persians and the modern 
Parsis (which however also show variety of dialect), and 
Old Persian, the language of the cuneiform inscriptions 
which record the doings of the ancient Persian monarchs. 

The Zend sacred books are supposed to belong to 
various periods between 1100 b.c. and 600 B.C.; of the 
Persian inscriptions the oldest date from King Darius 
520 B.C. 

This group is characterised by having lost the 
original distinction between a, e and 0, all of which it 
represents by a, though the sound was probably difterent 


from the original a sound. In Zend later changes appear 
in this a sound also. 

(ii) Armenian. This language, known from the fifth 
century a.d., has only recently been distingiiished from 
the Iranian family. 

(iii) Greek. This language is known to us by an 
extensive literature and by numerous inscriptions whicli 
help us to distinguish clearly the characteristics of the 
numerous dialects into which the language was divided. 
An account of the leading dialects of Greek will be found 
in the Appendix. 

(iv) Albanian. This has no early literature and 
has been but lately added as a separate member to the 
Indo-Germanic family of languages. 

(v) Latin and the kindred Italic dialects Oscau, 
Umbrian and various minor branches. In Latin be- 
sides the extensive and varied literature there is a large 
mass of inscriptions, rare in the early period, exceedingly 
numerous under the Empire. The history of Latin and 
the other Italic dialects is extremely important and 
interesting for two reasons. 

(1) A strange parallelism is exhibited by Oscan 
as compared Avith Latin, and by Welsh as compared with 
Irish (see below), in the treatment of guttural sounds. 
In Oscan and Welsh p appears in many cases where qu 
or c occur in Latin and Irish. 

(2) The second and much more important point 
is that from Latin — not indeed in its literary form as we 
find it in the great Roman writers, but from the dialect of 
the common people — are descended the various Romance 
languages, French, Italian, Provencal, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, Wallachian, Rhaeto-Romanic. 

These form as it were a subordinate parallel to the 


history of the Indo-Germanic family of languages. 
Nearly as many separate and mutually unintelligible 
dialects have sprung from Latin as there are branches 
of the great Indo-Germanic family, but in the former 
case we possess what is for ever lost to us in the latter, 
the parent tongue from which they spring. We have 
the original Latin ; we can never hope to have, except 
by hypothetical restoration, the original Indo-Germanic. 

The origin of one dialect of Italy, the Etruscan, is 
shrouded in mystery. It has been classed by various 
scholars with almost every family of languages. At the 
present moment the prevalent tendency is to classify it 
with the Indo-Germanic stock and even to connect it 
closely with the other dialects of Italy. 

(vi) Keltic. This includes (1) the old Gaulish 
spoken in the time of Caesar, known to us by words 
preserved incidentally in Greek and Roman writers, — 
proper names, names of plants, etc. — and by a few in- 
scriptions and coins. 

(2) Welsh, with an extensive literature beginning 
in the eleventh century. 

(3) Cornish, extinct since the beginning of the 
present century. 

(4) Breton, introduced int(_) Brittany from Corn- 
wall 400—600 A.D. 

(5) Manx. 

(6) Irish, first in glosses of the eighth century ex- 
plaining words in Latin MSS. ; there is a large literature 
in its later stages known as Middle and Modern Irish. 

(7) Scotch Gaelic, closely connected with the 
Irish. Its earliest records — the charters of the Book of 
Deer — date from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

These dialects fall into two great divisions, the first 


four having certain points of similarity among themselves 
which sharply distinguish them from the last three'. 

(vii) Germanic or Teutonic. This group is divided 
into three great branches : 

(1) Gothic, preserved in the fragments of the 
West-Gothic version of the Bible made by bishop Ulfilas 
in the fourth century of our era for his people at that 
time settled on the northern bank of the Danube. 

(2) The Scandinavian branch represented by the 
Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish and Danish. The Ptunic 
inscriptions are the oldest remains of this branch and go 
back perhaps to the 5th century a.d. The Gothic and 
Scandinavian dialects are sometimes classed together as 
East Germanic. 

(3) The "West Germanic dialects. In the earliest 
period these are Anglo-Saxon (i.e. Old English), Frisian, 
Old Saxon or Low German, Old High German, and Old 
Low Franconian, from which spring Dutch and Flemish. 

Of these dialects perhaps the oldest record is the Old 
English poem of Beowulf which, in its original form, may 
have been brought by the Saxon invaders of England 
from their continental home. 

(viii) The Letto-Slavonic group. As in the case of 
the Aryan, the Italic and the Keltic groups, this breaks 
up into two well-marked divisions : 

(1) Slavonic proper. This includes a great variety 
of dialects ; the old Bulgarian in which the early Chris- 
tian documents of the Slavs were written down (the 
earliest date from the 9th century), Bohemian, Polish, 
Russian in all its varieties, Servo-Croatian, Sorbian and 

1 Some authorities make three groups by separating Gaulish 
from Welsh, Cornish and Breton. 

G. P. 2 

18 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 15 — 

(2) The Lettic or Lithuanian group consisting of 
tlu-ee dialects, («) Old Prussian, (b) Lettic, (c) Lithuanian. 

Old Prussian became extinct two centuries ago. Its 
only relics are a Catechism and a glossary, and neither of 
the other dialects have any literature properly so called. 
Lettic and Lithuanian are still spoken in the frontier 
district between Prussia and Russia, Lettic being the 
more northern of the two dialects. They differ in ac- 
centuation, and the forms of Lettic are more broken down 
than those of Lithuanian'. 

1 6. There is no doubt that these eight groups of 
dialects go back to one original language, 

OriKinalhome ,r^ ■ r j.i r • xi 

<f the indo-Ger- and irom a comparison oi the rorms in these 
various languages we are able to ascertain 
what the original form in the primitive Lido-Germanic 
language may have been. Unfortunately we cannot 
bring our induction to the test by comparing the hypo- 
thetical with the genuine form, for not one word of this 
{primitive tongue has come down to us. Our knowledge 
of the original home of the people who spoke this lan- 
guage and of its civilisation is ecpially meagre. Many 
have been the ingenious attempts of scholars to break 
through the darkness which encircles this part of the 
history of our race, and great would be the importance 
of their results not only for Philology but for Anthropo- 
logy had these attempts the slightest chance of success. 
Formerly, partly from a desire to follow the Biblical nar- 
rative, partly from a belief that the Aryan members of 
the family represented in all respects the most primitive 
form of the Indo-Germanic tongue preserved to us, the 
original seat of the primitive people was placed in the 

1 For fuller details with regard to these languages cp. Sayce, 
Introduction to the Scieiice of Lanquaiie^, vol. ii. p. 6o ff. 


uplands of Central Asia. Recent speculation has tended 
to remove it to the borders of Europe and Asia or even 
to the north of Europe. 

17. From a study and comparison of the words 
used for common thinys bv the various 

1 n 1 T ^ /^ " ■ Civilisation 

branches 01 the indo-Uermanic stock at- of the primitive 

I , , , . Iiido-Germans. 

tempts have also been made to ascertain 
the height which the primitive civilisation had reached. 
But here success is almost as hard of attainment, for it is 
not enough to show that some or all of the Indo-Ger- 
mauic peoples used a certain name for some object as a 
metal, a weapon, etc. To ascertain the character of the 
primitive civilisation it must be shown that the word 
means the same thing in all these languages, or, at all 
events, changes from the supposed original meaning 
must be proved b)' a chain of evidence of which in manj^ 
cases important links are now and probably will ever 
be wanting. That the primitive Indo-Germanic people 
knew the most ordinary domestic animals, the cow, the 
sheep, the pig, is certain; the trees which tliey knew 
and the metals are very uncertain. For people when 
they change their abodes tend to apply the old names 
to new things and we have no means of determining 
how far one branch of the family may have borrowed 
names from another which was at some prehistoric time 
its neighbour. Perhaps no peoples have wandered so 
much to and fro upon the face of the earth as the Indo- 
(rermans; at the dawn of the historic period we find the 
Aryan, the Slavonic, the Germanic, the Keltic races in a 
state of active migration ; their wanderings in the thou- 
sands of years pre\dous to that period who shall tell ? 

18. Another subject on which there has been much 
learned discussion in recent years is the degree of 

9 9 

20 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 18 — 

inter-coiincxion ainoiiy the Indo-Germanic languages. 
Various ingenious tlieories have been pro- 

Connexionbe- i i i • i i /•, 

tween idg. Jan- pounded wliich are named alter seme ana- 
logical feature in their structure, as the 
'genealogical-tree' theory of Schleicher, the 'wave 
theory' of Johannes Schmidt, etc. Attempts have also 
been made to show a clear division between the Euro- 
pean and the Asiatic branches of the family on the 
ground that the European languages show a, e, o where 
the Asiatic members show only a. But this has failed 
because Armenian, which is an Asiatic branch', though 
probably not settled from an early period in Armenia, 
shows the (?-sound of the European tongues, and thus 
occupies an intermediate position. There are striking- 
similarities between various members of the family in 
individual points, as between the Italic and Lettic 
families in the tendency to change the form of the 
original declension of consonant stems into -/-stems, 
between Greek and Sanskrit in the treatment of certain 
nasal sounds and the fonnation of some verb stems, 
between the Aryan and the Letto-Slavonic branches in 
the treatment of guttural sounds, between the Germanic 
and the Slavonic in the insertion of t between s and r, 
as in English stream, Old Bulgarian o-strova, 'island".' 
Greek, the Italic and some Keltic dialects agree in 
representing a class of original ^-sounds by b, /?ov?, bos. 
Greek and Latin agree in changing an original in into n 
before ?/-sounds, as in ^aiVw, venio {% 140), and in both, 
the inflexion of the genitive plural of r7-stems in pro- 
nouns has infected «-stems in nouns, rawv is-tarum 

1 Some, however, contend that Armenian has crossed from 
Europe into Asia, in which case this argument is not conchisive. 
- Brugmanu, Techmer's ZeiUchrift, i. p., 234. 


(origiiiall}^ tcisom), causing Oedoiv, dmrum to be formed. 
Again some forms of the verb seem to have been in- 
vented by both Greek and Latin at a late period, as 
3 pi. imperative XeyoVrw, legunto wliich is no part of 
the original inflexion of the verb. 

But these similarities are not great enough to show 
closer connexion between any two members of the family 
than any other two. Such changes of original forms 
often happen in languages quite independently. Thus 
some peculiarities of the Lettic dialects and the Ro- 
mance languages have exact parallels in the dialects 
descended from Sanskrit. Not in Greek and Latin only 
does the pronominal inflexion affect the noun ; exact 
parallels to the phenomenon are to be found in Pali, 
and in Gothic other cases of the noun are aff"ected than 
those which suff"er in the classical languages. 

19. The only members of the family which show such 
important coincidences as to make it prob- italic and Kei- 
able that they stand iu closer connexion tic dialects. 
with one another than with other members of the family 
are the Italic and the Keltic dialects. In both groups 
some branches show j-^ representing an original strongly 
guttural k, others show c or qu. In both groups the 
passive is formed in the same manner', and a secondary 
imperfect and future appear in both from derivative 
verbs — the Latin -ham and -bo forms. There are some 
minor resemblances, but the similarities in the verb are 
so remarkable as almost to prove a more than ordinaril}^ 
close connexion betw^een the languages, especially when 
we consider that nowhere else can such passive and im- 
perfect and future forms be proved to exist. 

1 Zimmer (KZ. 30, p. 240) considers this identity of form has 
another explanation. 

22 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 20- 

iii. IIoiv do Indo-Germanic languages differ from 
other languages ? 

20. Let us take some common word which appears 
Lat.<r/Mosand "^ ^ Considerable number of Indo-Germanic 
othTr"'id-°"ian- languages and compare the various forms 
guages. which it assumes. 

(1) Skt. aqvas. 

(2) Gk. iTTTTos (dialectic Ikko^). 

(3) Lat. equos Cearlier form of eqiius). 

(4) (a) 0. Irish ech. (b) Welsh ep, eh. 

(5) Goth, aihva-tundi (thorn-bush, lit. ' horse- 
thorn"). 0. Sax. ehu. 

(6) Lith. aszva (mare. The masc. aszvas is ex- 

From Sanskrit, Latin, Gothic and Lithuanian it is 
easy to see that the word may be divided into two 

1 For the formation ep. ^ov-XL-fj-la, /3oi'-/3pw(rrij, English horse- 
Imirjh, hor>ie-play. 

- For the sm-rival of the fem. and the loss of the masc. form 
cp. English mare = 0. E. mere fem. to mearkhovse, preserved only 
in the word marshal which English borrowed through Old French 
mareschal from the Low Latin mariscalcus of the Holy Eoman 
Empire, itself borrowed from 0. H. G. mara-scalh a derivative from 
viarah and scalli, Gothic skulls ' servant.' The word has still the 
meaning of ' farrier' in French. The Teutons were great lovers of 
horses ; the legendary leaders of the Saxon invasion — Hengist 
and Horsa — were both named from the animal. 0. E. hengest 
■we have lost (German keeps it as hengst) ; 0. E. horx, 0. H. G. 
liros, modern German ross we have retained and this has driven 
out mearh. In German, ^^f'"'^ ( = Low Latin paraverfdtis, Old 
French palefreie, Eng. palfrey) has taken the place of ross as the 
common word. In Lithuanian ar-/i/(/.< = plough-beast (from the 
same root as Lat. ar-are, Eng. earing) has diuven out *aszvas. 


syllables a^-vas, eq-iios, aih-va, asz-va. Xow we know 
from a long series of observations made upon these 
languages that the first part of these words, though now 
different in each, was in all originally the same. Every 
schoolboy also knows that in this class of words, whether 
w^e call them -o-stems or nouns of the second declension, 
s is the sign of the nominative in all masculine forms ; 
-s at the end of the word therefore we may mark off b}' 
itself, as a sign for a special purpose. 

21. Xow compare with equos another word, Lat. 
viduos. Taking the languages in the L^t. viduos 
same order we find a result of the same fm,V^in^°oUiei- 

'^XlA. ^'^^- languages. 

(1) Skt, vidhavas. 

(2) Gk. rii6e.o<i (i.e. v^'Ft^epo?). 

(3) Lat. viduos (viduiis adj., vidua subst.). 

(4) (a) 0. Ir. fedb. (b) Welsh gweddit: 

(5) Goth, viduvu (fem. -ou-stem). 

(6) 0. Bulg. vidova (also feminine) ^ 

22. From the comparison we see that in these 
words there is, besides the nominative suffix, 

another separable part, which appears m the suffix, stem-suf- 
classical languages in the form of -Fo- or ' 
-U0-. This is called the nominal, formative, or stem- 
suffix, i.e. the suffix by the addition of which the noun 
stem is formed from the still more primitive portion now 
left behind. This primitive portion is called the root. 

23. Thus equos and viduos may be di- Division of 

(1) -5, nominative case suffix. ponent parts. 

1 Delbriick (Die Indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen, p. 
64 ff.) considers the feminine forms of this stem to be the older, 
but in any case the formation of the suffix is the same. 

24 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 23 — 

(2) -to- or -no-, noun-stem suffix. 

(3) eq- or ec-, and vid+-, root. 

The sign + is put after vid because, as most of the 
hinguages show, there is another sound between the first 
syllable and the suffix -co-, which possibly is a sign that 
these forms come not directly from the root but from 
a verb stem'. 

24. A root never appears by itself in an Indo- 

Deflnition of Germanic language; that is to say, it has 

words^come °to uo independent existence. A root is a con- 

taikT * LiUiua- venti(nial term used by grammarians to 

when everything formative is stri})ped off. 

The word root when so used is in itself a metaphor ; 
and as all Indo-Germanic languages spring from one 
original or root language now lost, we ought properly, 
when we speak of roots, to give them in the form which 
we believe from a comparison of its various descendants 
they had in this original tongue. But not infrequently 
we have not material enough to form a satisfactory 
induction of this kind ; therefore practical convenience 
justifies us in speaking of the roots of an individual 
language, e.g. of Greek roots and Latin roots. For when 
we do so it is understood that we mean by the term not 
something which exists by itself in the language, but merely 
the fragment of the actual word which is left behind 
when we have taken away all formative elements. From 
this point of view it is of small importance what the 
root itself may have been or whether a long history lies 
behind it also or not. In every language there is a 
residuum with which the philologist is unable to deal, 
because the forms seem to occur nowhere in the Indo- 

1 Brugmann Gr. 11. § 64, p. 126. 


Germanic area outside the particular language with 
which he is dealing. Such words may be whimsical 
formations as Van Helmont's gas, Reichenbach's od- 
force, which were attempts to form absolutely new words, 
or they may be formed from proper names, which them- 
selves belong to a different langiiage. 

Thus in the English phrase 'to burke discussion,' 
which is a coinage of the present century, the verb has 
had a curious history. To elucidate the word we need 
to know that in Edinburgh in 1827 — S there was an Irish- 
man named Burke who supplied the anatomical schools 
with the bodies of victims whom he had suffocated. 
Hence comes the metaphor to burke or stifle discussion. 
We need to' know further that Burke is not an Irish word 
but only the Irish pronunciation of the name De Burgh 
which was borne by certain Englishmen who settled in 
Ireland some centuries ago. Tracing the name further 
we find that the word came to England from Normandy, 
and that though the people who thus came from Xor- 
maudy spoke a dialect of French, still the name is of 
Germanic origin, Germ, hurg, Eng. borough. From the 
mediaeval Latin biirgus, the Romance languages bor- 
rowed the word, Ital. horgo, French bourg, and it appears 
even in Irish in the guise of borg, ' city.' In its earlier 
history it is connected with berg, ' a hill.' From the 
same root come the Keltic word seen in the Scotch 
brae, and the Sanskrit adjective brhat, to say nothing 
of proper names like the Germanic Burgundy and the 
Keltic Brigantes. But to all intents and purposes 
burke is a root in English from which nouns and verbs 
may be formed. It is only accident which has preserved 
its early history in quite a different meaning. 

Another word which looks at first sight of indispu- 

26 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 24 — 

tably English origin is talk. Yet Professor Skeat traces 
this through tlie Danish to the Jjithuanian and says it is 
the only Lithuanian word in English. It seems, how- 
ever, to have come into Lithuanian from Old Bulgarian 
and is probably ultimately Turkish. If the early his- 
tory of the Germanic and Slavonic dialects had been 
as completely lost as the history of the original Indo- 
Germanic language or the early history of Latin, we 
should have had to acquiesce in calling talk an English 
word which seemed isolated, unless we had happened to 
guess that the German dolmetscher (interpreter) was 
related to it. This is really the case, dolmetscher being 
also of Turkish origin ; the Middle High German tolc 
(Dutcli tolk) is the same as the English word; 

One curious example of a British name passing into 
another language may be given. In Lithuanian the 
ordinary word for pedlar is szdtas. If we did not know 
that in the middle ages most of the trade of Lithuania 
was done by Scotchmen we might probably have some 
difficulty in recognizing the word as ' Scot ' (through 
the German Schotte). 

Thus we see the meaning of a word may be attached 
to it more or less by accident; the word may be im- 
ported from anutlier langaiage in a meaning which it 
never had before in that language, but once it has been 
imported it sticks fast, and throws out a mass of new 
formations from itself. In other words it becomes a 
root in the language ' into which it has been newly 
planted. The people who now use it are unable to 
analyse it any frirther, but it may come to be treated 
as a native word and analysed in the same manner as 
some series of native words which it happens to re- 


Sometimes in nouns this part which defies analysis 
can be identified with a part similarly left in verbs, at 
other times it cannot. The eq- which is left in equos 
we cannot certainly identify with the root of any verb, 
except of course verbs derived from the noun itself or 
from its derivatives, as equitare. 

25. Now let us take another common word which 
appears in Latin as mens. The genitive Lat. we^sai'd 
shows us that there was a t in the stem, other"TdS.Tan- 
and comparison of mentis with forms fi'om ^"''ses. 
other languages shows us that it belongs to the class 
called -ti- stems. Thus 

(1) Skt. maff.'^, i.e. ma-ti-s. 

(2) Gk. /Aa'vTis. 

(3) Lat. 7nens - orig. form *men-tl-s. 

(4) [0. Ir. er-miti-H, the latter part of which 
= Lat. menti-d in form.] 

(5) («) Goth, ga-munds, (b) Old English ge- 
mynd, Eng. mind. 

(6) {a) Lith. at-minfis, (b) 0. Bulg. pa-m^fi. 

26. If we treat this in the same way as the pre- 
vious words and strip off first the s where 

it occurs at the end as the mark of the parts^^oT "S* 
nominative and then the noun-suffix -ti-, jll^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
we have left a syllable beginning in all 
cases ^vith m and generally ending with n, though the 
intermediate vowel appears in a great variety of forms. 
The reason for this and for the variety of consonants 
representing the q of equos will be explained later (§§ 157, 
136). At present it is sufficient to recognise the form 
the syllable takes in the different languages and to ob- 
serve the similarity between this and some verb forms. 

28 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 26 — 

(1) Skt. mdn-ya-te {e in Skt. is a diphthong, 
here = ni), perf. participle passive ma-tds. 

(2) Gk. /xaiVerat = fxav-Le-rai (§ 83), fie-f/.ov-a, 
])kiral fxi-fxa-ixev. 

(3) Lat. mon-eo, me-mhi-'it - *me-mon-it, re-min- 
iscor = *re-men-iscor. 

(4) 0. Ir. do-moinlur, pres. dep. =Lat. jmto in 

(5) Goth, ga-mun-an. 

(6) (a) Lith. min-iu, keep in mind, 
(i) 0. Bulg. mln-e-tl vo/xt^etv. 

Lat. d'/s and ^7. In tlie Same way compare the 
ne^ons^n other ^^rm which appears in Latin as dds with 
idg. languages. ^|^g ygj.|j fj-gnj -whicli it comes. 

(1) Skt. ddti-vdras, he who loves giving : dd-dd-mi. 

(2) Gk. ' 8w-rt-? 8t-8a)-)Ht. 

(3) Lat. dos = *dd-ti-s (cf. mens) do. 

(4) Lith. dU-tl-s. dU-mi. 

28. Thus we see that from the same root come 

both nouns and verbs, but that these differ 

Xoun suffixes in their suffixes. This applies only to the 

and \ erl) sui- _ ... 

fixes Adapta- finite Verb; the infinitive and the partici- 

tion theory. ' . , . . ^ . 

pies are really nouns m tlieir mnexion and 
not verbs. In their usage these parts form the con- 
necting link between nouns and verbs. Sometimes one 
of these forms acts as a verb. In Latin legimini, the 
nominative plural of the obsolete present participle 
(- Xeyo/xevoi) is used for the 2nd person plural of the 
present and either the same form or one phonetically 
the same but equivalent to the old Greek infinitive 
XeyifxevuL for the corresponding form of the imperative. 

1 The form is somewhat doubtfuL 


There are not wanting philologists who draw the con- 
nexion still closer and try to prove that all verb forms 
are noun stems or noun cases'. There is a certain 
amount of plausibility in identifying the -ti of the 3rd 
sing, of the present as Skt. as-ti, Gk. Ict-tl, with the 
form of noun stem which we have seen in /Aai'-rt-s^ and 
which appears also by a regular phonetic change (§ 133) 
in yeve-crt-s, and in connecting the 3rd plural Doric 
(^epoi'Tt, Attic 4>ipovcn, with the plural participle <f>€porT€<;. 
But the theory leaves as manj' difficulties as the more 
common one which connects the verb endings with the 
personal pronouns. 

29. The next point to observe is the series of 
changes within the noun itself by which case suffixes 
cases and numbers and, in most words, and their uses, 
genders also are distinguished, equos is a horse as sub- 
ject of some statement ; equom a horse as object of 
some statement involving action which affects the 
noun; eqiu (gen.), equo (dat.), equd (ablat.), express 
the idea contained in the word horse in various relations 
within the sentence, eqiu, i.e. equoi (pi.) expresses horses 
as the subject, equos horses as the object of a statement, 
and similarly with the other cases. IN^ow we cannot 
doubt that these changes were not made at random, and 
may be assured that these different sounds by which 
horse in these various relations is expressed had once a 
very distinct meaning of their o\a\. But this was at a 
period of which we know nothing and never can know 
an)rthing, except from the appearance of similar phe- 
nomena in languages which remain as primitive in their 
formation at the present day as the Indo-Germanic in 
that far pre-historic age. There is little doubt that 
' Sayce, Techmer's Zeitschrift, i. p. 222. 


the root was once a word in itself, and what we now call 
stem-sufifix and case or person-suffix were words added 
to it to define its meaning in particular ways. That 
stage was passed long before the Indo-European peoples 
separated, but in other languages we see the same 
thing still existing. In Chinese the root is even now a 
word in itself; tliere is no stem, no case or person suffix; 
distinction in meaning turns very largely upon the accent 
and the position in the sentence. Turkish is still such 
a language as Indo-Germanic was in its second stage 
when it put two or more roots into close combina- 
tion witli one another, but still knew the meaning 
of each, and could consciously separate them. The 
only family of languages which stands on the same 
footing as the Indo-Germanic in point of formation 
is the Semitic, the principal branches of which are the 
Hebrew, the Syriac and the Arabic ; and even the 
Semitic languages differ from the Indo-Germanic in a 
variety of ways. 

30. It is worth observing that in some cases Indo- 
Loss of inflcx- Gemiauic languages have lost the greater 
ions in English. ^^^^^ ^f ^j^gjj. inflexion. Two of them in- 
deed have returned almost to the stage in which we find 
Chinese '. These are Persian and English. If I pro- 
nounce the word ' bear ' you cannot tell without context 
or reference to surrounding circumstances whether I 
mean a verb, a noun, or an adjective (bare). 

1 Some good authorities regard Chinese as having passed 
through much the same stages as English. Thus the simpHcity 
of the Chinese word would not be primitive hut due to the loss of 
inflexion. If so it is curious that it seems to be gradually regain- 
ing the power to make compounds, thus starting anew on the 
path to complete inflexion. 


Tlie only inflexion of substantives which remains in 
English besides the plnral is a possessive here and there. 
Even with very common words the possessive has died 
out of use. When B}Ton says ' he sat him down at a 
pillars base,' we recognize the possessive as a poetical 
licence, for in prose we should certain!}^ say ' at the 
base of a pillar.' "We still retain some inflexions in the 
personal pronouns and a few in the verb to mark some 
of the persons, the past tense and participle. In 
English the past tense is formed in two ways ; either 
-ed is added to the present form, as fill, fill-ed, or a 
variation appears in the root vowel as in sing, sang, 
sung; come, came, come. These we call irregular verbs, 
and we from time to time allow some of them to pass 
over to the so-called ' regular ' conjugation and to form 
a past tense with -ed. Hence the verbs which form a 
past with -ed, though originally few, have now become 
the great majority \ 

31 . If we look at a verb like 8ep/<o/xat we see the same 
vowel-change taking place. We see by a com- 

..1,1 1 , / / Vowel grada- 

pariSOn Wltll other verbs as (pcpo/xai, rt/Aao/Aat tlon in roots and 

etc. that we can strip off" a personal ending 
and a vowel which appears as o in the 1st pers. sing, 
and the 1st and 3rd pi., but as e in hipK-e-rai, SepK-e-crOe, 
and in the old 2nd sing. 8£/3(ce((r)at. We remember that 
there is the same change of stem vowel in cf>ip-o-fX€v, 
<fi€p-e-Te and that it is not confined to the verb, for it 
appears in the nouns already so often cited and in many 
others. We have itttt-o-s but iTTTr-e, equos but eque. So 
also ye'v-os but gen. yo'-e(o-)-os, Lat. gen-us (for -os), gen. 
gen-er-is in which r comes in regularly in Latin for .«. 
This is what is called stem-gradation and will have to 
1 Skeat, Principles of English Etymology, (First Series) § 139 S. 

32 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 31 — 

Ije discussed more fully later on. But the phenomenon 
is not confined to the stem sufiix. It appears also in 
the root, as we see when we compare SepK-o-jxai with 
Se-SopK-a and e-BpaK-ov. Forms like the perfect stem ap- 
})ear also in nouns; Sop/c-a's 'gazelle' has the same form 
of the root as Se-SopK-a. We see also that forms with pa 
and Aa — weak forms as they are called — are not confined 
to aorists only but also appear in verbal adjectives 
which are really old passive participles of past time. 
Thus we have Sparo's or Saprds from Sepw with, on the 
other hand, the noun Sopa. In Latin the weak forms 
have or or ur, ol or id corresponding to the Greek ap pa, 
aX Aa. Thus we have past participles like vorsiis = *vort- 
tij-s while the present verto has the same vowel as <^€pw 
and SepKo/xat. We may observe, even within the perfect, 
changes of the same kind, jxe-fjiov-a but p-e-fxa-ixev, ye-yov-a 

but yi-ya-jxev in Homer. This is what corresponds in 
Greek to the changes we see in the English sing, sang, 
sung. Nowadays we find that for the past tense in such 
verbs sang or sung is used indifferently. Perhaps in 
prose sang and rang are more common, but no one 
objects to Scott when he writes : 

And, while his harp resiDonsive rung, 
'Twas thus the latest minstrel sung. 

32. In the oldest English there was a genuine differ- 
ence between the forms, just as there is between yi-yov-a 
and ye-ya-jj-ev: sang represents the old singular, sung the 
old plural form. The changes which we observe in Se'pK-o- 

/xai, 8e-8opK-a, e-8paK-ov, in yc-yov-a and ye-ya-/>tev, in s/ng, 

sang, swng are known by the general name of ablaut ' or 

1 This, the German name for the phenomenon, seems to be 
now generally adopted in English books. 


vowel-gradation. This term includes within it not onh' 
vowel changes in the root part of the word but also those 
in the suffixes for which there is the special term 'stem- 
gradation' viz. such varieties of form as were men- 
tioned above TTTTro?, LTnre; <^e/3-o-/xeF, (^ep-e-re; Trarpoji/, 
Trarpao-t, Trarepe?, and many others. In no family of 
languages other than the Indo-Germanic is there any- 
thing exactly corresponding to this. 

33. The various characteristics which have been 
enumerated distinguish the Indo-Germanic Distinction be- 

, p 11 .1 tween Idg. and 

languages from all others. other languages. 

(1) They are distinguished from the so-called 
Isolating languages — the class to which isolating lan- 
Chinese belongs — by (a) the changes that ^"'s^^- 
appear in the root, which in the isolating languages is 
unalterable; {b) by the possession of various suffixes of 
two kinds — (i) those which go to form the stems of the 
noun and verb respectively, aiid (ii) those which dis- 
tinguish the different cases in the noun and the different 
persons in the verb ; (c) by the clear distinction wliicli 
can thus be drawn between different parts of speech. 

34. (2) They are distinguished from the Ag- 
glutinative languages — the class to which 

Turkish belongs — (a) by having suffixes tween idg. and 
which cannot be consciously separated from languages. Ex- 
the root or stem and which have no exist- tSatfve^ forma- 
ence as independent words. Thus no Greek 
could divide oUol 'at home,' into oIko 'home' and t 'at,' 
thoiigh probably at some prehistoric period in the history 
of the Indo-Germanic languages such a division was 
quite possible '. The only traces however of the possibility 

^ The fact that otKei not olkol was probably the earliest Greek 
form does not affect the matter in hand. 

G. P. 3 


of tin's (livisinn arc tliat in certain Sanskrit stems, tlie 
locative ending / may be dropped at will in the early 
language and that before certain endings tlie laws of 
euphony prevail which otherwise affect only the ends of 
words'. There is one great advantage in division of this 
kind : it permits of the plural having precisely the same 
endings as the singular for the different cases, the plural 
number being marked by an inserted syllable. Every 
one Avho has ever thought aboitt language, or who has 
had long paradigms of forms to learn, must have wished 
that for the dual he might, by the help of some syllable 
which we may represent by 2, have siicli forms as 

Sing. Diial 

Nom. equo-s equo-2-s 

Ace. equo-m equo-1-m. 

In the same way if we represent the plural by the 
usual symbol for unknown quantity -x- we might have 

Sing. Plural 

Nom. equo-s equo-x-s 

Ace. equo-m eqiio-x-m. 

and so on for other cases. 

This is precisely the principle of the Agglutinative 
languages. Thus in the Turkish word ev 'house' we 
have cases as in oTkos or domus. 

Sing. Plural 

Nom. ev - domus ev-ler 

Gen. ev-in = domus ev-ler-in 

Dat. ev-e =domo ev-ler-e 

1 Whitney, Skt. Gr. % 425 c, § 166. The locative suffix is 
dropped also in ote's 'always' as compared with akL=*aifeff-i. and 
in the Latin preposition penes. 


Sing. Plural 

Ace. ev-i =clomum ev-ler-i 

Loc. ev-de =domi ev-ler-de 

Abl. ev-den = diomo tv-ler-den 

The form of the inserted syllable shows a process 
almost unknown in the Indo-Germanic tongues. It 
depends on the character of the root-syllable whether 
the plural sufiix shall be -ler- or -lar- and there are 
similar and even more varied changes for the case suf- 
fixes. Apart from this law of vowel harmony there is 
only one declension, and in theory there is no limit to 
the cases except the limit of possible relations between 
objects, most of which English has now to indicate by 
prepositions. The tendency in all Indo-Germanic lan- 
guages has always been to lessen the number of cases 
and replace them by prepositional phrases. In Greek 
and Latin, as we shall see, there are numerous fragments 
still surviving of obsolete cases. 

This process of adding and removing suffixes at will 
gives agglutinative languages a power unknown to other 
tongues. Thus, to take another example from Turkish, 
el is hand, el-im my hand, el-im-de in my hand, el-im- 
de-ki being in my hand, from which again a genitive can 
be formed el-im-de-kin = toS \lv] ifxrj x^P'- oVtos. The 
same holds true in verbs ; ' We should like not to be 
able to be caused to love ' can all be easily expressed in 
one word. 

Another result of this power of combination is that 
these langixages dispense with the inflexion of the ad- 
jective altogether unless when used substantivally like the 
Greek rd KaXd. Finnish is the only exception to this — 
it is supposed through the influence of the Swedish. 



{b) There are properly speaking no compound words in 
tliese languages, while compounds are extremely freijuent 
in Indo-Germanic languages, {c) There is in the lowest 
forms of the class but little difference betw-een noun and 
verb. Tlie ending for the first person is the suffix used 
in the noun to express 'my.' In Hungarian hal-unk is 
'our fish,' vart-unk 'we have w^aited'.' In Turkish, which 
represents the highest gTade of this class of languages 
and which some writers declare to be an inflexional 
language, the verb is formed mostly of a participle with 
the personal pronoims appended for the first and second 
persons, while the third is the participle alone. This is 
very like the Latin legimini {% 28) and the periphrastic 
future of classical Sanskrit ddtdsmi 'I shall give,' really 
'I am a giver;' while the 3rd sing, is data 'giver' with- 
out a verb". 

35. (3) The distinguishing characteristics of the 
Distinction two inflexional families — Indo-Germanic and 

betwet-n Idg. Qq,„:4-:„ „,.„ 
and Semit?c oemitlC— aiC, 

languages. ^^^ ^Y\Q vowel-gradation in Indo-Ger- 

manic roots and stems, 

(b) the peculiar form of the Semitic roots. 

Semitic roots with very few exceptions possess three 
consonants ; within the root vowel-change appears, but it 
is different in character from the corresponding changes 
in Indo-Germanic. Words are formed from roots mainly 
by varying according to definite 'measures' or schemes 
the vowels attached to the consonants, partl}^ by prefixes 

^ 0. Schrader, S2}rachver()leichu7ig und Urgeschichte'^, chap. vii. 
p. 413 ff. 

^ Cp. with this the Lithuanian yra, an abstract substantive = ^r- 
istentia, used for 3rd sing, and plural of the substantive verb. It 
is connected by some with the root of the English 'are,' etc. 


(fi-agments of pronouns e.g. ma = 'what' in ma-sjid 'place 
of worship' from a root sjd), and to a very small extent 
by suffixes. An interesting example is the root shn of 
the verb salhna ' he has been at peace ' whence come 
the well-known words saldm (salaam) and Islam, both 
infinitives of the verb used as substantives, mii-slim 
(Moslem) properly a participle, Setlm and Soleyman. 
With regard to the ' measures ' the most notablfe point is 
the distinction between active and stative vowels as it 
appears in the verb, e.g. Arabic sharuf {-a) 'he was 
exalted,' sharaf {-a) 'he overtopped, excelled;' and in 
general this distinction runs through the languages, 
e.g. malk \nll be 'king' (possessor), milk 'possession.' 
The last mentioned change bears a certain resemblance 
to the Indo-Germanic vowel-gradation. 

As regai'ds inflexion the verb, which alone is highly 
inflected, consists of noun and adjective forms combined 
with fragments of personal pronouns prefixed or afiixed. 
Compare Avith this the Hungarian forms mentioned 

The lack of the power of composition is compensated 
by a very close sjoitactical arrangement and in the older 
forms by simple apposition. The Semitic relative is a 
particle which being prefixed to a clause changes a 
•demonstrative into a relative clause. There are no 
proper tenses but only perfect and imperfect action:^. 
The 3rd pers. pronoun is generally used for a copula. 
You may say 'great John' for 'John is great;' if that is 
ambiguous you say 'great he John.' 

36. Each of these three great classes of lan- 
guages which have now been mentioned — "^Vas there 

, _ - . . , . . an original lan- 

the lsoh\ting, tiie Agglutmative and the g^uage from 

in ■ 1 . ,1 '. , . . ,, , which all these 

Inflexional — includes withm it all languages families sprang? 

88 A SHORT MANUAL OF [^ 36 — 

of that particular type witliout regard to any histo- 
rical connexion between tlie dift'erent members. So 
Avidely are meml)ers of the same class separated that 
historical connexion is a priori improbable, and we are 
left to suppose that the development has been inde- 
pendent but on the same lines. The (question of the 
origin of language, and the equally abstruse question 
whether language spread from one single centre or from 
a number of independent centres, lie beyond our range. 
Some eminent scholars contend for a relation between the 
Semitic and the Indo-Germanic tongues, some even think 
they can trace an historical connexion between Hebrew 
and Chinese. At present the possibility of such con- 
nexion cannot be denied. Mankind has a very long 
history behind it ; the footprints of early man have in 
most cases been nuiely obliterated by time, and the 
separation of Chinaman and Semite, of Semite and Indo- 
German, if it ever took place, dates from a period so 
remote that independent development has removed, it 
seems, most if not all traces of the original connexion. 

iv. The Principles of modern Pliilology. 

37. Most nations manifest an interest in the etymo- 
• .-^ logy of their names, but as a rule this 

Prescientific .'' , 

attempts at ety- mterest IS uot accorduig to knoAvledge, 
though auguries are drawn from the real 
or fancied derivation of a name. We remember the 
name given by the child's gTandfather to the son of 
Laertes — 'OSuo-o-evs — 

TroA/Xoicriv yap eyoj ye ooucrcra/xei/os t66' LKavui. {0(/. XIX. 407), 


and in Aeschylus the good-omened name of Aristides, 

ov yap SoK£U' apicrros dXX eivat BeXet. (>S'. C. T. 579), 

and the terrible augury in the Agamemnon (689), 
eA.£vas, eXav8/)os, eAeVroAis. 

It has been suggested, and perhaps with truth, that 
the name of Nicias the son of Niceratus, as well as his 
actions, commended him to the favour of the Athenians. 

Such plays on words are common everywhere. But 
it has been well remarked that when the ancients 
meddled with etymology they took leave of their usual 
sanity, and even when they hit upon an accurate deriva- 
tion it was merely a brilliant guess based on no scientific 
principles, and as unlike the systematic induction of 
modern philology as the methods of Democritus were 
unlike those of Darwin. 

38. So late as last century, the etymologies com- 
monly proposed were so rash and so improbable that 
Swift ironically set up as a philologist with such deri- 
vations as ostler from oat stealer, and Voltaire re- 
marked with considerable justice that 'Etymology is a 
science in which the vowels count for nothing and the 
consonants for very little. ' 

39. It was in the case of the consonants that this 
reproach began first to be wiped off. Since g • (.fi t d 
vowels changed, as we have seen, so fre- of language, 
quently in different forms of the same word, people paid 
little attention to them, as if indeed they had nothing 
to do with etymology. But the consonants appeared in 
the same form much more constantly, and hence scientific 
progress began with the careful investigation of the 
consonants. Franz Bopp (born 1791, died 

1867) was the first great scientific writer on 

40 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 39 — 

comparative jihilology. However strongly Bopp may 
have desired to establish a systematic relation of sound- 
changes between different languages, he often allowed 
himself to be carried away by plausible derivations which 
set all laws of sound entirely at nought. The Germanic 
languages were first investigated by Bopp's contempo- 
raries, the Dane R K. Rask (1787—1832), and the 
Jacob and wii- udore famous brothers Jacob and Willielm 
helm Grimm. ^.^.-^^ ^j^^^^^^ 1785-1863, Wilhelm 1786— 

1859), The first part of Jacob Grimm's 'Deutsche Gram- 
matik' appeared in 1819. In the second edition of this 
work, which appeared in 1822, were first clearh'- laid 
down the regular sound-changes which exist between 
tlie classic and the Germanic languages, and which make 
English words look so unlike their Latin and Greek 
equivalents (see .^ 100). The principle of the change 
had been seen by Rask at an earlier period and it was 
known perhaps even before liim, but Grimm was the first 
to enuntiate it fully and scientifically. Hence this great 
generalisation has always been known in England as 
'Grimm's Law.' 

40. As has been hinted, Bopp was not so strong in ety- 
mology as in other departments of comparative philology. 
The first systematic book of derivations on a scientific 
basis was the 'Etymologische Forschungen' of A. F. Pott 

(1802-1887) which appeared in two volumes 

^°"- in 1833-36. To him we owe a very large 

number of the recognised etymologies of Lido-Germanic 

words and the first tabulated comparison of sounds from 

the languages included in his investigation. He was 

followed by George Curtius (1820-1885) 

Curtius. -^hose well known work 'The principles 

of Greek Etymology' (1858, 5th edition, 1879, 2nd 


Eugiisli edition 1886) comprehends a comparison of the 
Greek words with their Sanskrit, Zend, Latin, Germanic, 
Letto-Slavonic and Keltic equivalents. Here the sounds 
were discussed fully and systematically, and changes 
which apparently proceeded on no system were grouped 
together under the heading of 'sporadic change.' From 
1850 to 1870 the efforts of the great philologists were 
devoted rather to organising and systematising the 
matter already acquired than to breaking new ground. 
Much was done in this period for individual languages 
of the Indo-Germanic family, but no great discoveries 
affecting the whole were made. 

August Schleicher (1821-1868), who has exercised on 
the history of philology even a greater in- 
fluence than Curtius, resembled him in his 
power of organisation while he differed from him in his 
point of view. Curtius looked at language in its history; 
Schleicher, as himself a skilled scientist, viewed it from 
the stand-point of natural science. The next great 
landmark in the history of philology after the com- 
parative Grammar of Bopp (1833-52, 3rd ed. 1869-71) is 
the Compendium of Comparative Grammar by Schleicher 
(1861, 4th ed. 1876). Theodor Benfey (1809-1881) held 
an independent attitude and in later life concerned him- 
self more immediately Anth Sanskrit. Unvarying rules 
Avere not as yet laid down with regard to sound-change, 
but there was a general tendency to demand greater 
precision in the correspondence between words which 
were said to be related to one another. The general 
results of the scientific investigation of this period were 
made accessible to the public at large in 
Max Miiller's 'Lectures on the Science of 
Language' (1861 and 1864). 

42 A SHORT MANUAL OF [^41-- 

41. Ill 187U tlie Italian .scliolar (). I. Ascoli pointed 
Ascoii's theory out that the A'-sound, modifications of wliich 

audTs d1?eiop- appear in such words as Skt. «f»a.s', Lat. 
ments. equiis, Lith. aszva (§ 20), was of a nature 

originally different from that which appears in Skt. 
ndkti-, Lat. nocti-, Lith. nakt)-s. The former sounds 
were called palatal, the latter velar gutturals (§>; 67-8). 
Besides these ^-sounds, original g and gh sounds were 
shown to exist of the same kind. In Sanskrit another 
class of guttural sounds appeared which are usuall)' 
represented by c, j and It. Ascoli observed that these 
gutturals "were often followed by an /-sound, but he did 
not work out the theory in detail. In 1876 when the 
discussion of phonetic principles was most active and 
attention had been drawn anew to the vowels by 
Brugmann's discoveries (§ 42), a number of scholars in 
different Danish and German universities found out 
simultaneously and independently the cause of the 
variety in the Sanskrit gutturals. The results were first 
published by Osthofif, Collitz and Johannes Schmidt in 
essays which appeared in 1878 and 1879. It has now 
been shown conclusively that this second class of gutturals 
c, j and h arose from the velar k, g and gh owing to the 
influence of a palatal sound behind them— i.e. an i or 
e sound (pronounce ee or ek). 

42. This discovery, taken in connexion with certain 
Brugmann's discovcries of Karl Brugmann published in 

eoryo nasa s. ^g_g ^^,.^|^ regard to the nasal sounds of 

Indo-Germanic, entirely revolutionised the theory of the 
original vowels. 

In San.skrit and in Gothic, two languages which 
represent two main branches of the Indo- 

\owels. '■ 

Germanic family there appear but three 


simple vowels a, i and ii. These, Grimm had accord- 
ingly assumed, represented the number and character (if 
the original vowels. Bopp accepted Grimm's theory and 
it passed without demur into all succeeding works. The 
multiplicity of vowel sounds in such languages as Greek 
was taken as a later development, and the a, e, and o 
which appeared in such languages where Sanskrit had 
only a was explained by Curtius' theory of the 'splitting 
of the original a-sound.' 

Johannes Schmidt in a very learned work on the 
'Vocalism of the Indo-Germanic Languages' (1871 and 
1875) had collected a mass of valuable material, but 
the explanation of many phenomena of this kind was 
only rendered possible by a remarkable discovery made 
by Karl Verner in 1875. This scholar „ 

'' Verner s ac- 

showed that certain exceptions to the sound- cent theory; 
changes known as Grimm's Law depended on the original 
accentuation of the Lido-Germanic languages. Tliis dis- 
covery, and one made by the eminent mathematician and 
Sanskrit scholar H. Grassmann (1809 — 1877) with regard 
to the form which certain roots took in Sanskrit and 
Greek', finally removed all exceptions to Grimm's Law, 
thus strengthening the views which had been graduall}- 
gaining ground as to the strict observance of phonetic 
rules and the avoidance of everything known to the 
older philologists as 'sporadic change.' But Verner 's 
discovery did much more than this. By settling once 
for all the character of the original Indo-Germanic 
accent he furnished a basis on which to found further 
investigation concerning the vowels as well as the con- 
sonants of the Lido-Germanic tongues. Li the same 

1 See S 102. 

44 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 42 — 

way Brugmaiiii's investigation of the 'sonant nasals' 
sonant nasals; sliowed that various seeming inconsistencies 
sonant liquids, jj^ ^j^g different Indo-Germanic languages 
really depended on a law pervading the whole group, 
that e.g. the ace. ending in the singular of consonant 
stems, Gk. a (7ro8-a), Lat. -am (ped-em), Goth, -u 
(originally -urn, *fot-um), Lith. -i (once nasalised) and 
0. Bulg. -e all represented one original sound, viz. a 
nasal sound -m acting as a vowel and forming a syllable 
l:)y itself. The ending of the ace. sing, was thus shown 
to be m ; if a vowel preceded, it was the ordinary con- 
sonant, equo-m, but if a consonant preceded, it had to 
form a syllable, ped-m, and in tlie different languages 
this original sound was represented in different ways. 
On the same principle, the sounds which appear as a 
in the Skt. ma-tU, as en in Lat. ment'i-, as -nn in 
the Gothic and -In in the Lithuanian corresponding 
words (see § 25), were proved to represent an original n 
standing between two consonants and thus liaAdng to 
make a syllable by itself, myitis. 

Even before this Osthoff had shown that in all 
probability an original r appeared as a vowel in the 
same way, though in Sanskrit grammar indeed, an r of 
this kind had always been recognised by the native 
grammarians. These new doctrines were excellently 
summarised by Ferdinand de Saussure in a work of great 
freshness ' Mt^moire sur le syst^me primitif des voyelles 
dans les langues indo-europ6ennes ' (Leipzig, 1879). 

43. Hand in hand with these important discoveries 
went a more definite formulating of philo- 

Two great prill- , . , ■ • i t 1 i -i 1 • 

cipies in modern logical principles. Ill tlicory philologists 

philology; 111 I'll • r- 1 

Phonetic Law had alwaj's admittetl tlie existence of pho- 
netic laws ; in other words they had recog- 


nised more or less clearly that, though there miglit be 
a slight residuum which came under no rule, still in 
certain circumstances sounds changed in the same way. 
In the making of etymologies phonetic laws were sup- 
posed to be more carefully observed than they had been 
by Bopp, though precept and practice did not always 
perfectly con-espond. Philologists had also admitted in 
theory that the action of the mind infliienced the forms 
of words in various ways. It had been recognised that, 
when a form was erroneously connected in the mind of the 
speaker with other forms which did not really belong to 
it, tliis tended to counteract phonetic law. But the matter 
had not been carefully enquired into. Now, however, 
'False Analogy',' as this effect of the action 
of the mind was called, became recognised 
as a gTeat factor in the history of language. Professor 
W. D. Whitney gave the impulse to this in 
'Language and the Study of Language' " "ey. 

(1867) where he dwells on the tendency children mani- 
fest to make all verbs uniform; to say 'bringed' because 
they are taught to say ' loved,' or on the other hand to 
say 'brang' because they remember 'sang' (pp. 27-.S, 
82, 85). W. Scherer (1841-1886) in his work 'On the 
History of the German Language' (1st ed. 1868) applied 
the principle of analogy on a larger scale. A decisive 
step was marked by the declaration in Professor A. 
Leskien's prize essay on 'Declension in 
Letto-Slavonic and Germanic' (1876) that 
phonetic laws had no exceptions. In the introduction to 

' As ' Philology ' is now largely used in the sense of ' Com- 
parative Philology,' so ' Analogy ' alone is constantly employed to 
mean ' False Analogy.' 

46 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 43 — 

the tirst volume of Ostliotf and Bnigmann's 'Morpho- 
osthoiiand logisclie Uutersucliuiigen ' (1878) the priii- 
Brugmann. ciples of Leskieii's adherents were definitely 

laid down. These principles were two (p. xiii). 

(1) Phonetic change proceeds according to laws 
which liave no exceptions. In other words a sound 
changes uniformly over the whole area where a language 
is spoken, if the language is not split into a number of 
dialects. Different dialects may and do develop in 
different ways. 

(2) As it is obvious and admitted that in the 
modern forms of language ^ analogy or form-association 
plays an important part in the history of words, so we 
are entitled to assume a similar part for it in the past 
history of language, 

44. The older philologists had, as has been said, 
admitted a large part of this in theory; 
the modern the- they had formulated phonetic laws, they had 
admitted the working of analogy in lan- 
guage, but they were startled at the hard and fast 
application of these principles by the 'Young Gram- 
marians,' as the adherents of these ideas came to be 
called. During the following seven years a fierce con- 
troversy raged. Two books which appeared in 1880, 
^ „ . , Prof. B. Delbruck's 'Introduction to the 


study of language ' (English ed. 1882) and 

Prof. H. Paul's 'Principles of the History 

of Language' (English ed. 1888) sketched the history of 

the science and formulated the new views with greater 

care and at greater length than had hitherto been done". 

^ Professor Paul's work is, however, much more than the 
philosophical representation of the new views; it is really a guide 
to the principles of language in general and is, apart altogether 


Gustav Meyer's ' Griechische Grammatik' which also 
appeared in 1880 treated Greek from the 

1 • mi iMeyer. 

new stand-point. The controversy came to 
a head in 1885 when Curtius pubHshed a pamphlet in 
support of his views which was immediately answered 
by counter- pamphlets from Delbriick and 
from Brugmann and supported somewhat 
later by Hugo Schuchardt, while in the philological 
journals many others joined in the fray. The result 
was an undoubted triumph for the new ideas. Even 
philologists who stand aloof from the party of the 
' Young Grammarians ' show in their writings the in- 
fluence of the party's hypotheses. Brugmann's great 
work Grimdriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik der 
Lido-Germanischen Sprachen, now in course of pub- 
lication, though containing much more detail will stand 
in the same relation to the ' New Philology' as Schleicher's 
Compendium did to the old. 

45. Though a great deal of extraneous matter was 
dragged in, the issue at the bottom of the j^ philology a 
whole controversy about phonetic law was ^"'^"ce? 
'Is or is not Comparative Philology a science?' Now, if 
we adopt Whewell's definition of a science as a 'body of 
knowledge,' comparative philology has always been a 
science. But if with Comte we afftrm that science im- 
plies prevision, that, given certain circumstances and the 
result in one case, science can forecast for us the result 
in other cases, are we entitled to declare philological 
knowledge scientific? To this there can be but one 
answer. If e. g. an original sound resembling the Eng- 
lish w becomes in one Greek dialect under exactly the 

from the standpoint of the author, of the very highest value to 
every student of language. 

48 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 45 — 

same eircunistances, sometimes y8, sometimes the spiritu.-f 
asper, and sometimes [x. at the begimiing of words, 
while in the middle of words it disappears entirely or 
remains as v, it is absolutely impossible to foresee 
what form in any particndar case this phonetic Proteus 
will take. Philologists may gather multitudes of in- 
stances where these strange phenomena occur, but ex- 
planation is as impracticable as it would be in chemistry 
if, when two simple elements were mixed together, the 
result might be indifferently water, or carbonic acid, or 
spirit of salt. The same causes under the same circum- 
stances must produce the same residts, otherwise scien- 
tific knowledge is impossible. 

46. It is at this point that philology parts company 
mth the natural sciences. If the chemist 

How philology -11 J. XT 

difiers from the compounds two pure Simple elements there 

natural sciences. , , , „ , 

can be but one result and no power or the 
chemist can prevent it. But, as has been said, the 
minds of men do act upon the sounds which they 
produce. The result is that, when this happens, the 
})honetic law which would have acted in the case is 
stopped, and this particular form enters on the same 
course of development as other forms to which it did 
not originally belong. 

The consequence is that a philologist must, in 
formulating phonetic laws, be careful to see that he is 
not including in his generalisation forms which have 
been brought by this psychological force to resemble 
other forms, but which are really fundamentally dif- 
ferent. The tracing of regular sound-changes and the 
search for the effects of analogy must go hand in hand. 
It is one of the hardest tasks of the philologist to duly 
apportion the share which these two great forces, pho- 


netic law and analogy, play in the history of words. In 
many cases the facts of the linguistic history are so 
scant that it would be rash to decide dogmatically till 
more knowledge has been obtained. By a free use of 
analogy where facts are few and speculation is easy, it is 
not difficult to reach conclusions which further inquiry 
at once renders ridiculous. 

47. Writers on analogy generally class the various 
forms which it takes under three heads ; (i) 

logical, (ii) formal analogy, (iii) a combina- 
tion of (i) and (ii). 

48. i. Logical analogy appears in those cases where 
particular forms of a word influence other 

forms ofthe same word. In the original Indo- ^^^°«^^ ^'^^^ 
Germanic word for 'foot' we have some 
reason to suppose that owing to the influence of accent, 
some cases had an -0- and others an -e- sound, that 
the accusative was *pod-m but the locative *ped-i. In 
Greek however the -o-cases have driven out the -e- 
cases, while in Latin the exact reverse has taken 
place. In Greek the only traces of the old inflexion 
are TrcSa, the instrumental form now used as a prepo- 
sition, and such derivatives as Trego's = *j)ed-ios, and Tpd- 
Tre^a; in Latin no trace is left of the -o-cases. In 
the same way TTarrjp had originally an ace. iraripa, a 
locative Trarept and a genitive Trarpo's : but the locative 
and ace. on the one hand afi'ect the genitive and produce 
waripos : the genitive on the other hand afl'ects the 
locative (later used as dative) and produces iraTpi In 
Latin the weaker have, in all the obliciue cases, ousted 
the stronger forms ; hence patrem patre patris. On the 
other hand the long form of the nominative dator has 
been carried through all the cases, datorem for *datdrem, 
G. P. 4 

50 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 48— 

datore for *datere, datoris for *datris. For exactly the 
same reason later Greek has ycyova/xcj/ etc. after yiyova, 
instead of the correct Homeric form ycya/xci/, and out of 
the Old English preterite inflexion 

Sing. Plur. 

1 sang f 

2 sunge J sungon 

3 sang [ 

we obtain the modern sang and sung used indifferently 
for singular or plural (see also § 31). 

The same thing also appears in French. According 
to the position of the accent in the Latin verb the 
corresponding old French parts take different forms ' : 

Sing. Plur. 

( 1 ) a im -dmo amons = amdmus 
ainies = dmas amez — amdtis 

aime{t) = drnat aiment = dniant 

(2) lieve = leva levons = levdmus 
lieves = levas levez = levdtis 

lieve - levat Uevent = levant. 

With the same number of parts in both cases to 
influence, analogy generalises the opposite forms — the 
longer forms in aimer, the shorter forms in lever. As 
the long forms in aimer are twice as numerous as the 
short ones, the result might be expected, but in lever the 
fewer forms triumph over the more numerous ^ 

^ Osthoff, Psychologisches Moment, p. 29. Darmesteter, La vie 
des Mots, 13. 10. 

2 It is, however, possible that we have partially formal analogy 
here, because many verbs as porter, etc. did not change their vowel 
character in any of the persons. 


49. Sometimes the development of analogies of this 
kind may be represented by a proportion, a proportional 
form being coined to stand in the same re- *"^'°^'- 
lation to an abeady existing form as two other forms 
are to one another, legimini is the plural of a participle 
which has come to be used as the 2nd pers. plural pass. 
of lego; lepebamini is merely a spurious imitation of 
this form, there being no participle of tliis kind. It 
arises in this way ; leg-or : leg-imini : : legebar : x, and x 
in this case is legehamini. An interesting example of 
the same kind occurs in some German dialects. Of 
the German personal pronouns those of the first and 
second persons have a special form for the dative distinct 
from the ace. : dat. mir, dir; ace. mich, d'lch. In the 
literary language sich is the sole form for dat. and ace. 
But by proportional analogy 

mich : mir) , , 
,. , ,. V ::sicn : x 
dic/i : air) 

and the form sir is actually used in several places at the 
present day. In other places, as there is no form sir, 
mir and dir have also been given up and mich and dick 
are used for the dative as well as for the accusative. 

50. ii. Formal analogy appears where forms of 
one word influence forms of another which 

belongs to a different category. This pro- analogy, in iiie 
duces the irregular declension of nouns and 
genuine irregular verbs. In Old English foot and hook 
belong to the same class of nouns. Both form the plural 
by a change in the root vowel. Thus instead of books 
we ought to have *beek (like feet) for the plural. Book 
now follows the analogy of the majority of nouns, which 
have their plural in -s. In Greek ^wKparr]^ has the same 


52 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 50 — 

apparent ending in the nominative as 'AA/ci^iuSi^s, hence 
also the accusative ^oiKparrjv. Xeiov is the same word as 
the Latin leo, but the genitive of the one is Aeov-ros, of 
the other leon-is. The feminine Xiatva shows that the 
inflexion was originally like TeKTwv, t€ktovos, so that the 
Latin is nearer the original than the Greek. Xeov-ros 
has arisen from a confusion with participial stems in -vt- 
as irXi(i)v, peoiv and noun stems like yepwv, the nomina- 
tives in both cases being alike. 

In Latin there was a masculine and a neuter u- stem : 
(l)pecus corresponding to Skt. pa^us, masc, (2) pecu, Skt. 
jydi^u, Goth, faihu, Eng. fee (cf. pecu-nia), neut. The 
masc. stem changed in two different ways ; {a) it became 
neuter and made its genitive jjecoris after neuter stems 
like genus, pectus (where u represents an original o), 
instead of forming its cases like fructus or acus; {b) it 
became fem. and made a genitive in -d-, pectb-dis, pro- 
bably first *pecudis on the analogy of fonns like incRs, 

51. Changes in the verb are very frequent. 
Formal ana- ^^i English, as has already been men- 
logy.intheverb. tioncd (§ 30), many verbs have passed from 
the one conjugation to the other, the vast majority 
transferring themselves from the old system with ablaut 
to the later formation with -ed. Thus the verbs sow, 
hake, clhnb, slit, creep and many others formed the 
preterite by a change in tbe vowel as sew, etc., and in 
various dialects they do so still'. Sew, heuk, clamh, 
crap are still the preterites in Lowland Scotch, but in 
literary English all these verbs have long formed the 
preterite in -ed. The verb ivear has reversed the 
process and become a strong verb though originally 
1 Skeat, English Etymology (First Series), § 139 ff. 


weak, no doubt under the influence of hear and tear. 
These strong verbs occur now so rarely that the making 
of them comes ^"ithin the province of the humourist; 'a 
smile he smole, and then a wink he wunk' etc. Oc- 
casionally, as in the case of cleave (split) a strong verb, 
and cleave (adhere) a weak verb, two verbs have become 
confused together in their forms. Sometimes such con- 
fusions are very old; in the oldest relics of the Norse 
and West Germanic dialects there is the same mixture 
of the forms of flee and fly as exists in modern English. 
It is probable that some parts formed from the roots dhe 
'place' and do 'give' were confused even in the original 

In Attic Greek there is a tendency in verbs to pass 
over from the -/^t to the -w conjugation; hence arise 
parallel forms h&iK-w-^i SetK-rv-w etc. In Aeolic the 
tendency is in the contrary direction ; thus in the con- 
tracted verbs we have ^iAt^/xi, yeAai/tt, SoKtytw/xt and the 
like. In many Greek dialects the present and aorist 
infinitives end in -/xo', as in the Homeric e/x/^iev, So'/tev, 
^e/i,€v etc. In the inscriptions of Rhodes and some other 
islands there appear forms in -)".€iv, ei)u.etv, defxcLv, Sd/xcif 
and many others. The diphthong is produced by the 
influence of the ordinary infinitives in -eiv'. 

52. In Latin the whole of the original -ml verbs 
except sum have passed over to the -0 conjugation, cp. 
jungo with ^ei^yw/ii, do with SiSojixl etc. 

In late and corrupt Latin formal analogy plays a 
great part. In the classical period credo and rendo 
make their perfects credidi and vendidi: in late Latin 
pando makes pandidi as well. In early Latin stetl 
(siiti) is a unique formation ; from the form with / comes 
1 G. Meyer, Gr. Gr:^ § 596. 

54 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 52 — 

the Italian stetti; diedi from dedi becomes on the 
analogy of this form detti; vendo, credo etc. follow the 
example of the simple verb, and ultimately there are 29 
Italian perfects in -etti all springing from the influence 
of a single original form. 

53. Another set of forms widely developed in 
the Romance languages is descended from participles 
which in late Latin followed the analogy of the few 
forms from verbs in -uo, imbutus, acutus etc. Muptus 
was ousted in favour of rumputus, French rompu; 
tonsus was replaced by tondutus, Fr. tondu ; venditus by 
vendutus, Italian venduto, Fr. vendu; visits by vidutus, 
Ital. leeduto, Fr. vu. 

54. iii. It is possible also to have a combination 

of logical and formal analogy. A good ex- 
and formal ana- ample is the word Zcvs for *Zi7vs correspond- 
ogy com me . .^^^ ^^ ^^ Indo-Germauic form *diem. Ac- 
cording to Greek phonetic laws this should have gen. 
Alto's, dat. At/'i with ace. Z17V, which actually appears 
three times at the end of a line in the Iliad, viii. 206, 
xiv. 265, xxiv. 331. But through the influence of formal 
analogy the ordinary ending -a was appended — Zrjva^. 
From this form, partly by logical, partly by formal analogy, 
Z771/0S and Zr/vt were developed, and from these forms 
Plutarch makes even a plural Zi^ve?, The inflexion of 
Tts follows exactly the same course, and as the original 
forms Ato's, Ait still appear, so fragments of the old de- 
clension of Tt? remain in rt-o-t and in the compound 
aa-aa or arra in Attic ( = *a-Tt-a). 

55. Analogy aff"ects also the gender of substantives. 
Analogy in I^^ ^'^^^ Indo-Gemianic languages gender 

Render. ^^^^ apparently at first purely grammatical ; 

1 Meyer, Gr. Gr.^ § 324. 


it did not depend, as in English, upon the meaning but 
varied according to the nature of the ending which the 
word had. But one word soon affected another. 8p6- 
(To? with a masculine ending became feminine be- 
cause cpcrr] was feminine ' ; vr/a-os and ijireipo^ with mas- 
culine endings followed the gender of yfj. In Latin, 
apparently because a?'bos was femmine, fag us, ornus etc. 
became feminine. Logical gender sometimes influenced 
the grammatical gender. Venus is properly a neuter 
noun like genus; when the quality 'beauty' becomes the 
goddess 'Beauty,' the word naturally changes to the 
feminine. Grammatical gender seems sometimes to have 
changed with the phonetic change in the form. If sedes 
and plebes are really the same words as ISos and -rrX-fjOo^ 
they are examples of this. As Jides has connected with 
it a rare Sidjectiye Jldus-tu-s^, it may have been originally 
a neuter word like genus, which, having in some way 
passed from *Jid-us to fides in the nominative, con- 
sequently changed from the neuter gender to the gender 
of other words ending in -es^. 

56. Analogy affects also the domain of Syntax. 
Little has been done as yet in this field*. One or two 

1 In Aeschyl. Agamemnon 561 — 2 Spjaoi is followed by TiOevres. 
As it is preceded by Xeifiwviat ('? -01) there is possibly some corruption, 
but it is deserving of notice that the word is not found in Homer. 

- The formation, if trustworthy (the word exists only as 
quoted by Festus), is parallel to venus-tus from Venus, vetus-tu-s 
from vetus, which was itself originally a substantive identical with 
the Greek Itos (feros), cp. § 138 note. 

3 For an elaborate classification of the phenomena of analogy 
see Analogy and the scope of its application in language, by Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler, Ithaca (America), 1887. 

4 A beginning made by H. Ziemer, ' Junggrammatische Streif- 
ziige im Gebiete der Syntax,' 2. ed., 1883, is followed up by G. 
Middleton, Analogy in Syntax, 1892. 

50 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 56 — 

examples may be cited to show the problems which call 
Analogy in ^^r Solution, In the original Indo-Germanic 
Greek syntax, language there existed an ablative case, 
^ which indicated the starting-point of the action denoted 
by the verb. In most stems ablative and genitive are 
identical from a very early period, and consequently the 
use of the ablative without a preposition even in the 
Veda, the oldest literature of an Indo-Germanic lan- 
guage which we possess, is rare with verbs of going, 
coming and such like. In Homer verbs of this class 
never take the genitive unless when they are com- 
pounded with a preposition. But the old ablatival form 
which has become adverbial may be used with them 
without a preposition, KXialrjOev lovaa, otKoOev ^y€. The 
Attic poets, however, do use the genitive alone (cp. 
Soinh.. Antigone 417-8 x^oi'o? tu^ws a€ipa9 a-KrjirTov), ex- 
tending the usage on the analogy of other verbs as in 
TratSos iSe^aTo etc. (see Monro's Homeric Grammar § 152). 
A parallel case is II. xvi. 811 8i8ao-/coyu.€vos ttoAc/xoio, the 
only instance of a genitive with this verb. It follows 
the analogy of ciSws^ which in this meaning regularly 
takes a genitive. The occasional occurrence of et with 
a subjunctive, of eai/ with an optative really arises from 
a similar tendency, two independent constructions being 
confused together. 8^A.ov on and oX^ on are so often 
used as meaning etidenthj and doubtless that ultimately 
they are treated quite as adverbs, cp. the ordinary use 
of hr]\ovoTL in Aristotle and such constructions with otS' 
oTi as Plato Apol. Socr. 37 b cxwyu^ai Zv ev oT8' otl KaK<2v 
ovTbiV, = TovTwv d €v oi6a KOKtt ovxa. 

^ See Ameis-Hentze's commentary on the passage. Cp. also 
Monro, H. G. § 151 d. 


57. lu Latin, Plautus has many similar construc- 
tions. In Miles Gloriosus 371 we find quern Anaioey in 
2)ol ego capitis pei'dam. The construction, ^^^'" syntax. 
which also occurs elsewhere, follows the analogy of dam- 
nare aliquem capitis. In the same play 619, the poet 

Facinora neque te decora neque tin's virtutibus. 

The construction oi decor us with the abl. is unparal- 
lelled, but it obviously arises from the use of the word in 
the sense of dignus. Temis, an 'improper' preposition, 
governs the ablative on the analogy of the regular pre- 
positions; but it shows that, to some extent, it is still 
felt as the ace. of a noun by occasionally taking the 
genitive, genus ten us 'as far as (literally, to the extent 
of) the kuee.' In its prepositional usage however, we 
have ore ten us 'up to the mouth,' etc. 

58. With this phase of analogy Semasiology — the 
science which traces the development of 's-z-uwa^t- 

, .„,.,, Semasiology. 

the meanmg 01 words — is closely connected. 
This science also is only in its infancy. The interest 
of the subject can easily be seen from the history of 
words like paganus, which originally denoted the in- 
habitant of a pagus or country district. As such people 
were late in receiving new ideas the modern notion of 
pagan developed out of the word. Literature has thrown 
even a greater slur on the villanus, first the dweller in 
the farm house, then, from the position of villani in 
the late Roman empire, villein a serf and lastly villain 
in its modern sense. Knave once meant only servant- 
hoy. In English the word has deteriorated, in German 
knahe means boy still. On the other hand knight, 
which also originally means boy, youth, appears in the 

58 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 58 — 

sense of hero in both Old English and Old German: 
in the former it retains its nobler meaning, in the latter 
hauer-knecht now means farm servant. The word loon, 
which appears in the ballad of Chevy Chase as the 
opposite to lord, 

' Thou shalt not yield to lord nor loon,' 

seems to have meant originally a ' base, low fellow ' ; in 
northern Lowland Scotch it is now the ordinary word 
for boT/. 

Another word which has had a very interesting 
history is nooii. This is the no7m hora of the Romans 
and ought therefore to mean not midday but three 
o'clock in the afternoon. The cause for the change of 
meaning was a strange one. It was the custom of the 
pious in Early England to fast the whole day till three, 
at least on Wednesdays and Fridays. But though the 
spirit was willing, the flesh was weak and, by judiciously 
quickening the course of time, the holy fathers salved 
their consciences and enjoyed their meal three hours 
earlier '. 

Among the most extraordinary changes in signifi- 
cation which can be historically traced are those of the 
w^ord Tripos, which is used in Cambridge University 
to mean the Examination for Honours. (1) The word 
is found as early as the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, in the meaning of the three-legged stool (t/jittos) 
on which the Bachelor of Arts sat, who conducted the 
disputation for the University with the ' Questionists,' 
then to be admitted Bachelors. (2) The disputation 
presently degenerated into a farce, and the Bachelor was 
now expected to show his wit in personalities rather than 

^ See Prof. Mayor's note on Bede iii. 5. 


his wisdom in disputation ; the name is now applied 
not to the stool but to the Bachelor. (3) The next 
stage was that two Bachelors made speeches of a hu- 
morous character at the prior and latter acts of 
Bachelor's Commencement. When these Tripos-speeches 
were given up, (4) two sets of Tripos-verses had to be 
written by each of the two Tripos-Bachelors. This prac- 
tice of verse-writing still survives. About 1747-8 (5) the 
honour-lists began to be printed on the back of the sheet 
containing these verses, and from the honour-list the 
name has passed to (6) the honour-examination \ 

Innumerable examples of similar changes might be 
given. These words are but a few samples of the store, 
but they fully confirm the observation of Lucretius 
(v. 832), 

' Namque aliud putrescit et aevo debile languet, 
Porro aliud clarescit et e coutemptibus exit.' 

59. The last point to be mentioned in this connex- 
ion is that seeming violations of phonetic Borrowine of 
law may often be explained by the borrow- '^<^'''is- 
ing of forms from kindred dialects. The different relays, 
if we may call them so, of English words borrowed 
from Latin either directly or through the French, have 
already been mentioned (§ 9). Borrowing between dif- 
ferent dialects of the same language is often much 
harder to detect and, from the nature of the case, is 
likely to be much more frequent. Communication be- 
tween diflFerent sections of the same people is, in most 
eases, much easier than communication with distant 
peoples, who speak a language which, though possibly 

^ Wordsworth's Scholae Academicae, pp. 17 — 21, 

60 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 59 — 

nearly allied, is nevertheless quite unintelligible without 
special training. Kindred dialects are likely to borrow 
from one another in all the ways in which languages 
borrow from one another. But they affect one another 
in their syntax to a degree which mutually unintelligible 
languages never do, except when the districts where they 
are spoken border on each other and many of the people 
on both sides of the frontier speak both languages. Dia- 
lectic syntax is likely to appear largely in literature, 
for literary men have always tended to be migratory, 
and in former times a court which patronised letters 
attracted people from all quarters. A great poet 
especially, if popular, is likely to have many imitators, 
who from their birth have spoken a dialect different 
from his, but who will repeat his words and constructions 
though strange to their dialect, merely because they 
are his. His influence may be so great that tlie dialect, 
in which he wrote, may become the standard or literary 
dialect for the future, and natives of other regions will 
be expected to conform to it. This they will seldom be 
able to do with exactness. Traces of their original 
dialect will remain. It has been remarked that some of 
the best Scotch writers as Hume and Adam Smith were 
never able to \vrite correct English. " Hume is always 
idiomatic, but his idioms are constantly wrong ; many of 
his best passages are, on that account, curiously grating 
and puzzling ; you feel that they are very like what an 
Englishman would say, but yet that, after all, somehow 
or other, they are what he never would say ; there is a 
minute seasoning of imperceptible difference which 
distracts your attention, and which you are for ever 
stopping to analyse'." 

^ Walter Bagehot, Biographical Studies, p. 272. 


It is well known that a foreigner, when once he has 
thoroughly mastered a language, will write or speak in 
it more idiomatically than a person who has been brought 
up to speak a kindred dialect, although this dialect may 
be, in the main, intelligible to the speakers of the 
language in question. The reason is that, in the second 
case, the similarities are so much more numerous than 
the differences, that the latter fail to be clearly felt. 

60. An example of borro^ving in poetry is the word 
loon just discussed. According to the regu- 
lar laws of phonetic change in English, this loan-words in 
word should appear as loun or loiim, a form ^^ '" 
which sometimes occurs ; but when Coleridge makes the 
Wedding Guest address the Ancient Mariner as ' grey- 
beard loon' he employs a form which is not English', 
but is borrowed from the Scotch of the Border ballads, as 
in one of the Scotch versions of the battle of Otterburn, 

' Ye lie, ye lie, ye traitor loon.' 

61. Caxton gives an interesting account of the 
difficulty of forming an English prose style in his time. 
" Common English that is spoken in one shire varieth 
much from another," he says and proceeds to tell a 
story of an English merchant sailing from the Thames, 
who was ^\^nd-bound at the Foreland, and going on land 
asked at a house for some eggs. "And the good wife 
answered that she could speak no French. And the 
merchant was angry, for he also could speak no French, 
but would have had eggs and she understood him not. 
And then at last another said he would have eyren, then 

1 In other words, the form does not belong to Mercian English, 
which is the basis of themodern literary dialect, but to Northumbrian 
English, of which Lowland Scotch is the descendant. 

62 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 61 — 

the good wife said that she understood him well. Lo ! 
what should a man in these days now write, eggs or 
eyren ? certainly it is hard to please every man by cause 
of diversity and change of language. For in these days 
every man that is in any reputation in his country will 
utter his communication and matters in such manners 
and terms that few men shall understand them\" Here 
there is more than a mixture of mutually intelligible dia- 
lects. The form egg had indeed by this time become in- 
corporated in an English dialect and, as it has happened, 
in that which has become the literary language, but it 
really is a Norse form introduced by the Danish invaders ; 
eyren is the lineal descendant of the Old English plural 
(jegini with a second plural ending added, as in childer-n. 
62. The classical languages, as usual, have exact 

parallels to this interaction of dialects. It is 
loan-words in a well-known rule of Attic Greek that in the 

first declension the nominative ending after 
a vowel or p is a and not 77 as when other letters precede. 
But this rule has some apparent exceptions. Kop-q stands 
for Kopf-q so that the rule is not really broken; but 
<^66y], x>^6ri, d(f)v-q and a few others do transgress the rule^ 
Explanation is not easy in every instance, but of those 
cited (}>d6r] is supposed to be a medical word taken by 
Plato from Hippocrates, who writes in Ionic Greek where 
7) is regular : x^'^V in the best period is only poetical, for 
the style of Plato, in whose prose it first appears, is on 
the border line between poetry and prose. Consequently, 
as we have seen (§ 59), it may have come from another 
dialect; d<fiV7] is also an Ionic product, wliile Trvorj and 
/Sot; stand respectively for ttvoFt] and /SoFrj. 

^ Caxton's Preface to his Eneydos, p. 2. 

- Meyer Gr. Gr.'- § -18, x^^V too probably stands for -x^bf-q. 


63, In Latin some common words appear in forms 
which are most probably Oscan. Thus both 

bos and ovis are held by many philologists La^t°n""'°'''*''° 
to contradict Latin phonetic laws. bos 
certainly does; as ^67110 con-esponds to ySatVcu and vordre 
to ^L-^poi-cTKetv (v being left to represent original g- 
§ 140), so vos ought to be the Latin form for /8o{;s. In 
Oscan and Umbrian b is the regular representative of 
this g-sound as in kumbened {Osc.)~€onvenit, benust 
(Umbr.) = venerit. 

The difficulties which present themselves in bringing 
the sound-changes of Latin under phonetic laws are 
perhaps more often the result of borrowing than is gene- 
rally supposed. When we remember that Rome was a 
commercial town on the frontier of Latium and Etruria, 
and that, according to all tradition, her population was 
from the beginning composed of difterent tribes, the 
existence of such borrowing will seem not only possible 
but even inevitable. 

64, The division of dialects is a subject in which 
much has still to be done and on which Dialect and 
much light will be thrown by the investiga- Language. 
tion of modern dialects. As in botany it is not always 
easy to decide what is merely a variety and what is a 
new species, so here it is hard to say where individual 
peculiarity ends and dialect begins'. In every classi- 
fication of dialects there must be much that is arbitrary. 
There are very few cliaracteristics which are peculiar to 
any one dialect and shared by none of its neighbours. 

When a body of people is sharply divided from its 
neighbours as by living on an island, and intercourse 
with the outside world is rare, peculiarities develop 

1 Paul, Principien der Sprachgeschichte, p. 36. 


rapidly. This is not always owing to changes made 
by the islanders ; they are even more likely to retain old 
forms and phrases which presently die out elsewhere. 
Greece owed its numerous dialects, partly to the character 
of the country which made intercommunication difficult, 
partly to the great number of independent states within 
it'. The members of any one of these states, as being 
frequently at hostilities with their neighbours or not 
having much business abroad, naturally soon developed a 
form of speech which was fairly homogeneous for them, 
though some among them used words frequently which 
others did not. On the other hand, there was an 
ever increasing difference from their neighbours. As 
soon as the Macedonian conquests broke down most of 
the old political distinctions, the various peoples made 
ever increa,sing use of the koivi], a dialect founded on the 
Attic, the most influential of the old dialects. The 
same holds good now. If communication with America 
had been as difficult always as it was three hundred 
years ago, and if emigration from England to America 
had ceased, peculiarities in American English would have 
been much greater than they are at present. In modern 
times the locomotive and the steamboat ruin local 
dialects as effectively as the armies of Alexander did 
those of Greece. Within England itself, though dialectic 
pronunciation will involuntarily long survive, dialectic 
vocabulary is rapidly disappearing. The man of York- 
shire and the man of Somerset will become more easily 
intelligible to one another by the spread of the English 
K0LV7] — the literaiy dialect — which, taught in Board 
Schools and read in newspapers, is, in conjunction with 

1 This second reason is of course largely dependent on the 
first. Separation maintained independence. 


the more migratory habits of the people, rapidly usurping 
the place of all local dialects. 

65, This part of Philology proves perhaps more 
conclusively than any other the continuous „ ^. 

'' ■' . . „ Continuous ac- 

action of natural forces. In the pre-scientific tion of natural 
geology frequent cataclysms were supposed 
to occur in the history of the world, the record of which 
then began anew. The older philologists still assert 
that certain forces acted more violently at one period 
than they did at others. Curtius' held that, in the 
early history of language, analogy did not play such an 
important part as it admittedly does in more recent 
times. But of this there is no proof. Just as a harder 
layer of rock may resist more effectually the action 
of the waves and by and by become a far projecting 
headland, which alters the course and character of some 
ocean current and changes the geological history of the 
neighbouring coast, so in the history of language there 
are many events which may accelerate or retard the 
action of analogy and of other forces ; but in either case 
the force is there, and has always been, though we may 
not be able to trace it. In both cases many a leaf of the 
history is missing, and this is true to a greater extent 
for Language than for Geology, inasmuch as the history 
of speech is written on a less enduring material than 
that which contains the geological record. 

^ Zxir Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung, p. 67. 

G. P. 

66 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 66 — 

V. P]Lonetics\ 

66. Spoken language is the result of a number of 
Definition of Complicated processes, but as the individual 
language. leams in his childhood to speak by imitating 

other individuals, few people are aware of the complexity 
of movements required in the production of a sentence. 
Lang-uage is ordinarily described as voice modulated by 
the throat, tongue and lips. This definition is however 
very inexact. Voice is properly speaking produced only 
when the vocal chords (below § 67) are in action, and a 
large number of sounds do not call these chords into 
play at all. Indeed a conversation may be carried on 
without using them, as actually is done in whispering. 
Another well known definition whicTi describes language 
as 'articulate sound' is equally inexact, for in the pro- 
duction of a number of the consonants called 'mutes' 
or 'stops,' there is a veiy brief interval of absolute 
silence owing to the momentary closure of the breath 
passage. This is the case in the pronunciation of k, t, p^ 
(S 68). 'Articulate communication' might be a more 
rigidly accurate definition, but in actual practice most 
phoneticians are content to use 'sound,' the word which 
represents the most prominent feature of language. 

1 For the facts in this chaj^ter I am indebted to Peile's Greek 
and Latin Etymology^, chap, iv., H. Sv^eeVs Handbook of Phonetics 
and History of English Sounds-, E. Sievers' Grundziige der Pho- 
netik^, and most of all to Sievers' excellent summary in Paul's 
Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, vol. i. , pp. 266—299 
(Triibuer, Strassburg, 1889). 

- The fact of this closure is showTi much better if these letters 
are pronounced not kay, tee, pee as usual, but as ik, it, ip. 


67. In the production of these articulate sounds the 
chief factors are the larynx, the cavities of physiology of 
the mouth and nose, and the lips, tongue, ^^"eiiage. 
teeth and palate. The larynx is a small cartilaginous 
box at the top of the windpipe. The upper end of this 
box opens into the back of the mouth. Across the 
middle of this box two folds of mucous membrane stretch 
towards the centre line from the sides, to which they are 
attached. In the centre a slit is left between them. 
The folds of membrane are the vocal chords, the slit 
which is left between them is the glottis \ When these 
chords are tightened by the action of the Breath and 
muscles, they project farther towards the ^°"^®- 
centre line than at other times, and in this tense condi- 
tion voice is produced by the air blowing across their 
edges, which have been brought parallel to each other, 
and thus causing them to vibrate. If the chords do not 
vibrate, whisper is the result. When this takes place 
the air is generally in process of being expelled from the 
lungs, but it is possible to produce voice by inspiration 
as well as by exspiration. In ordinary breathing the 
vocal chords are flaccid and, the glottis being wide 
open, neither the musical note which constitutes voice, 
nor the rubbing noise called whispering, is heard. 
Thus sounds may be produced either with breath or 
with Toice, and the difference between breath and 
voice depends upon the slackness or tension of the vocal 

The further character of the sounds of language, 
apart from being breathed or voiced, depends on the 

^ For a fuller account of the mechanism of speech-production 
see Prof. Huxley, Lessons in Elementary Physiology, pp. 190 ff. 
(revised edition). 


68 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 67 — 

action of the other organs mentioned. A sound, in 

the production of which the soft palate 

from that part of (veluui) takes a prominent part, will be 

themouthwliere „ i , ^• ^ 

they are pro- called Telar, a tenn applied to certain very 
guttural consonants. A sound produced by 
the help of the tongue when approximated to the roof of 
the mouth is called palatal, when approximated to the 
prominences caused by the roots of the teeth, alveolar, 
when to the teeth themselves, dental. When the point of 
the tongue is turned back, a cerebral sound is produced. 
A sound in producing which the lips prominently help is 
taXlQdi labial. ^cJ>^^'i '^-^--^ c^ Icm.«---=(^'--^<»^"^ 

68. The several classes of mute or stopped conso- 
Mute conso- n^uts are known by these names. In the 
nants or stops, original ludo-Germaiiic language there was 
a series of deep guttural sounds resembling k, g, kh, gh, 
but probably produced farther back in the mouth than 
the English gutturals. These are velars (§ 139 IF.), written 
q, qh, g, qh. Another series of gutturals also existed. 
These were produced farther forward in the mouth and 
are called palatals — Tc, kh, g, gh. On the other hand the 
sounds called dentals—^, d, th, dh, where th represents not 
the sound in then or thin but t followed by a breath — are 
in English pronunciation not dentals but alveolars, being 
produced by the pressure of the tongue against the roots of 
the teeth and not against the teeth themselves as they are 
in German and many other languages. The labial stops 
of the original Indo-Germanic language were p, b, ph, bh. 
In the production of these sixteen sounds the breath 
passage is for a moment entirely closed. Hence the 
name mute or stojjped sounds, because there is a very 
brief interval of absolute silence. This can be easily 
tested by pronouncing slowly and distinctly combinations 


like aTca, ata, apa. The name of the sound is taken 
from that part of the mouth where the stoppage takes 
place. It must also be observed that, in producing all 
these sounds, the nasal passage remains closed. 

69. If, however, the breath passage of the mouth is 
not absolutelv stopped but only narrowed 

„ , " . . , . Spirants. 

SO far that an exspiration produces a noise, 
while the nasal passage remains closed as before, we 
have a parallel series of sounds called 'rubbing sounds' or 
'spirants,' which may be guttural (velar or palatal), 
dental (alveolar etc.), or labial. Thus to every set of 
stops we have a corresponding set of spirants, {a) To 
velar q and q correspond sounds which phoneticians 
represent by x and 3 respectively, x corresponding to 
the c/i-sound in (Scotch) loch, 3 to the pronunciation of 
g after a-vowels in some parts of Germany as in the 
word Lage. ib) The corresponding palatal sounds are 
represented by x and y. (c) To t and d correspond the 
two sounds found in English thin and t/ien, represented 
by the old Germanic s}'Tnbols ]) and ^ (d) Similarly ]) 
and b have their correlatives in /, v and w, though 
/ and V are not pure labials but labio-dentals, the lower 
lip being pressed against the teeth of the upper jaw. 

70. Besides ]> and 3' two other spirants correspond 
to t and d. These are s and z. The tongue 

Th.r66 clflsscs 

position for these differs slightly from that of dental spi- 
for J) and 6?" which are frequently interdental, 
while for s and z a groove is formed longitudinally in 
the tongue. The difference between the two series is, 
however, small, and foreigners in attempting to pro- 
nounce Jj and d' often produce s and z (as in blaze) 
instead, or on the other hand t and d. Other sounds 
of a similar nature are sh and zh (the 2;-sound heard in 

70 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 70 — 

seizure), which are generally classed as cerebrals, though 
then' method of formatiou is somewhat obscure. 

71. An unvoiced spirant produced in the glottis 
Greek spirit- itself is the Greek spiritus ctsper \ Con- 

us asper. trast with this the ordinary A-sound (§ 85). 

72. If, however, 2^ and b are produced by the same 

parts of the mouth and in the same way, 

Breathed and t , , tq, n 

voiced coiiso- how do they diner from one another? p 
and the corresponding sounds, t, k, q, are 
produced without voice, and with the breath alone; h 
and the corresponding sounds d, g, g, are produced with 
voice, i.e. in the production of these sounds the vocal 
chords are not only brought closer to one another but 
are also made to vibrate. 

Breathed and voiced sounds are also known by a 
number of other names, as ' Surds ' and ' Sonants,' 
'Tenues' and 'Mediae,' 'Hard' and 'Soft' sounds, and of 
late as ' Fortes ' and ' Lenes,' a nomenclature derived 
from the strength or weakness of the exspiratory effort 
in their production. 

73. From the spirants /, v, >, etc. (.§.§ 69, 70) we 

must carefully distinguish the aspirates. 

These have been already mentioned — qh, g/i, 
Ich, gh, tk, dh, ph, bh. They are distingaiished from the 
other stopped sounds by the breath which succeeds them 
before another sound is produced. Sounds of this 
nature are to be found in the vulgar Irish pronunciation 
of pig as p-hig, of water as wat-her etc. The ancient 
Greek x, ^, ^ ^ere sounds of this kind. In imitation 
of the spiritus asper of Greek some phoneticians write 
these sounds k\ g, etc. 

74. Another series of sounds which must be also 
distinguished from spirants and aspirates is the affri- 


cates'. These consist of a stop followed by the cor- 
responding spirant when both belong to the 
same syllable, as in German jjferd, zahn Affricates. 
(z = ts). kx appears in. some Swiss dialects". 

75. The Indo-Germauic aspirates soon changed their 
character in most languages. In the earliest Greek the 
Indo-Germanic voiced aspirates gh {qh, gh, § 113 i. b), 
dh, and bh had become breathed aspirates kh (x), th {$) 
and ph ((f)). In modern Greek these breathed aspirates 
X, 0, (f) have become ch (as in loch), th (as in thin) and /; 
that is to say they are now spirants, and there is some 
evidence to show that in Greek as in many other 
languages the affricates formed an intermediate stage 
between aspirate and spirant^. The change from aspirate 
to affricate seems to have begun very early, for on in- 
scriptions we find X written as kx, as t6, and 4> as '^'^• 
Sometimes too a short vowel before these sounds is 
lengthened, as ^atoxtVcoj/cs {Clwephoroe 1049). 

76. If now we put the different parts of the mouth 
in the proper position to produce p, b, ox t, 

d, or k, g, but leave the nasal passage open, 
we produce a new series of sounds m, n, ng (n palatal, 
w velar) — the nasals. As the nasal passage is open the 
nasal sounds resemble the spirants in being 

How nasals 

continuous, while on the other hand the differ from spi- 

,. /o \ 1 1 «■ 1 1 rants and stops. 

corresponding stops (§ 66) break on abruptly. 

In other respects m, n, ng are produced precisely like b, 

d, g, the vocal chords vibrating in the formation of both 


1 Sievers, G. d. G. P. p. 282. 

2 N.B. X is not the English sound but the phonetic symbol for 
the velar spirant (§ G9 a). 

3 G. Meyer, Gr. Gr.- § 210. 

72 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 77 — 

77. Other sounds which resemble these in being 

continuous voiced' sounds are the liquids 
r and /. I is produced by closing the 
centre of the mouth passage with the tip of the tongue, 
thus resembling d, but leaving an opening at either one 
or both sides. The sound varies according to the manner 
in which the stoppage is made and the part of the mouth 
which the tip of the tongue touches. The one s}T2ibol r 
is used to denote a considerable number of distinct sounds. 
Of these the most important are (1) the alveolar r pro- 
nounced, when trilled, by placing the tip of the tongue 
loosely against the sockets of the teeth and causing it to 
vibrate with a strong breath ; (2) the cerebral r (un- 
trilled) produced by the tip of the tongue turned back- 
wards against the palate, and (3) the trilled r produced 
by the uvula, the tip of the soft palate which hangs 
downwards. English /- at the beginning of words is the 
untrilled alveolar ; after t and d it is almost a spirant. 
Foreigners have at first some difficulty in distinguishing 
tried and chide. An unvoiced r is found in the com- 
bination jor as in pride^, etc. Welsh // as in Llangollen 
is an unvoiced /, so is the English I in flat, help, etc. 
The nasal passage is closed in the production of the 

78. In producing all the sounds which have been 

enumerated, the breath passage is to some 

extent obstructed, and consequently in the 

case of the stops there is a moment of absolute silence 

when the passage is entirely closed ; in the case of the 

1 Though these are the ordinary kind, it is possible to produce 
all of these sounds without voice. 

* Sievers, Grundziige der Phonetik^, pp. 107 ff., Grundriss der 
Germ. Phil, p. 278. 


spirants there is a distinct noise, as distinguished from 
a musical note, produced by the breath rubbing against 
the narrowed passage. In the ordinary nasals and 
liquids this noise is not observable, though it may be 
made evident by increasing the force of the exspiration 
and narrowing the breath passage. We come now to 
sounds which are purely ' voice modified by diiferent 
configurations of the superglottal passages but without 
audible friction'.' These are the vowels. In producing 
the ordinary vowels, the nasal passage is closed ; w^hen 
it is open, nasalised vowels are produced. The factors 
concerned in modifying the configuration of the mouth 
passage are the tongue, the lips and the cheeks. The 
tong-ue may be raised or lowered, drawn back, or pushed 
forward ; the lips and cheeks may be contracted so as to 
round the mouth, or their position may be changed in 
other obvious ways. 

79. (a) Some vowels are back or guttural sounds, 
i.e. the voice is modified by the approxi- classification 
mation of the back of the tongue to the soft "^('^""'^apij and 
palate as a^, 0, u. Others are front or front vowels. 
palatal vowels, as d, e, i, ii ; all of which are produced 
by approximating, to a greater or less extent, the upper 
surface of the tongue to the roof of the mouth. 

(b) Vowels may also be classified, according to the 
height to which the tongue is raised, as (j) jjj^jj^ ^-^^^ 
high, mid and low vowels. Thus i is higher ^°^ vowels, 
than e, u is higher than a. 

(c) Vowels are also divided into close or narrow 

1 Sweet, History of English Sounds'^, p. 2. 

2 These sounds are to be produced in the continental not in 
the English manner, thus a = ah, u = oo, i — ee etc. a is an inter- 
mediate stage between a and e, for ii see § 80. 

74 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 79 — 

and open or wide vowels. If the surface of that part 
(e) close and of the tongue with which the sound is 
open vowels, formed be made more convex than it is in 
its natural shape, the vowel is close or narrow. Thus in 
English the a oi father and the u of but are both back 
or guttural sounds, but the former is an open, the latter 
a close sound. The vowel sounds in air and man are 
both front sounds, but the former is a close, the latter an 
open vowel. 

{d) Lastly, vowels may be rounded or unrounded, 
according to the position of the cheeks 
and unrounded and Hps. The greatest rounding goes with 
the highest vowels. Hence there are three 
important degrees of rounding corresponding to the 
three degrees of high, mid and low vowels. For example, 
in pronouncing who, only a narrow opening is left 
between the lips, in no the opening is mder and broader, 
and in saw only the corners of the mouth are di'awn 

80. The vowels are often set in a p}Tamidal form 
Examples of ^o illustrate these characteristics. 


The line a, e, i represents the gradual raising 
of the tongue from the low to the high position ; the 
line a, 0, u represents the successive stages from the 
unrounded to the fully rounded vowel. These five 
sounds of course only represent the most clearly marked 
vowel positions. The number of intermediate stages 
between these positions is infinite, because the positions 
which the tongue may assume are infinite; a limited 
but still a large number can be distinguished by the ear. 
Thus we might have a, a\ cC", a^ o", o\ etc. Some 

1 Sweet, Handbook, p. 13. Sievers, G. d. Phorietik^, p. 93. 


phoneticians distinguish a few intermediate grades by- 

such symbols as a^, e" etc., the larger letter indicating 
that the sound approximates more to a or 6^ and so on 
as the case may be. o is a rounded vowel like o with 
the tongue position of e. It is found in such words as 
the French peu and the German sclwn. u bears a some- 
what similar relation to u and i. It appears in the 
French lune, the German uher. v in Attic Greek and 
the vowel represented in Latin by i or u indifferently, 
as in optimus or optumus, were sounds of the same 

Following these principles the technical language of 
phoneticians describes the sound of a in English father 
as a mid-back-open unrounded vowel ; u in the French 
lune is a high-front-close rounded vowel. 

A neutral or indistinct vowel, that is, an unaccented 
vowel the formation of which is hard to define, is 
represented by the symbol 9, because on the whole the 
sound approaches most nearly to e. This vowel is 
represented in English by the initial vowel of words like 
against, and by obscure sounds such as the o and er of 
together when carelessly pronounced. 

8i. The last important classification of sounds is 
into those which can form a syllable by themselves 

76 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 81 — 

and those which cannot. This is the most important 
point historically in connexion with pho- 
non-syiiabic netics. The discovery that, besides the ordi- 
nary vowels, certain other sounds could form 
s)dlables by themselves, has done much to revolutionise 
comparative philology. These other sounds are the 
Sonant nasals liq^^ids and nasals. Vowels, liquids and 
and liquids. nasals are classed together as sonants while 
the non-s3'llabic sounds retain their old name of conso- 
nants. Words like fathom, smitten, brittle, German 
hitter^ might as<well be spelt fathwi (as in Old English) 
smitw, \)V\il, bitr. There would be no difference in 
sound. The second syllable consists entirely of the 
sound of m, n, I, r respectively. Hence philologists 
represent these syllabic nasals and liquids by the 
ordinary symbols with a small circle below, m, n, I, r. 
As will be seen later on (§§ 151 — 158), these syllabic 
sounds have played a very important part in the history 
of the Indo-Germanic languages. 

82. All sounds may vary in length according to the 
Long and short ^me occupied in their production, and it 

sounds. jg important to observe that all sonants 

appear in both long and short forms. Thus we have 
a, a etc. but also n, n etc. (cp. § 151 fif.). 

83. The manner in which one syllable is divided 
Divisionofsyi- ^om another is also important. Thus the 

labies. combination aia may be divided into (1) 

a-i-a, (2) ai-a, (3) a-ia, (4) ai-ia (§ 84). In every 
syllable there is one sound which is much more prominent 
than any other. That sound is the sonant of the syllable. 
Where two sonants seem to come together in the same 
syllable, one of them really becomes consonantal. Thus, 
1 In English there is no final sonant r. 


in the combination ai-a, a and i, wliich are both 
ordinary sonants, come together in the same syllable, but 
if we pronounce the combination, it is evident that a 
plays a much larger part in it than i. In other words a 
remains a sonant while i becomes consonantal. Similarly 
in the combination a-ia pronounced a-ya, a is sonant 
and i consonant. Combinations of two 
sonants in the same syllable are called '^ 
diphthongs. The term in English is commonly re- 
stricted to those combinations where the first element 
remains sonant and the second becomes consonantal, as< 
ay ; but those where the first element is consonantal and 
the second sonant as ya have an equal right to the title. 
It is also to be observed that, though in English we 
apply the term only to combinations of the ordinary 
vowels a, e, i, o, u, it may be equally well applied to 
combinations with nasals and liquids. Any vowel may 
become consonantal in such combinations, but i and u 
do so most frequently, and are then known as consonant 
I and consonant ti (written i, u). When the liquids and 
nasals, which are more frequently used as consonants, 
are employed as sonants they are distinguished by the 
names sonant liquids and sonant nasals. We shall see 
later (§§ 258, 259) that there is exactly the same rela- 
tion between en and n, etc. as between eu and u, etc., 

cp. TTcV^os and irdOeL (= TrtiOei § 157) with </)evy'^ and <f)vyyi. 
The vowels, nasals and liquids are the ordinary 
sounds which can form syllables, s also may do so as 
in the ejaculation Pst! and attempts have been made 
recently to show that the corresponding voiced sound z 
really did often form syllables in the original Indo- 
Germanic language '. 

1 Thumeysen, K. Z. 30, p. 351. 

78 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 84— 

84. In passing from one sound in a word to 

another, a transition-sound or glide is pro- 
Glides. On- ' . Ti 7 1 
glide and off- duced. In a combination like duo there 

is a transition sound which is produced, 
though not represented in writing, when the voice is 
passing from u to 0. Some languages do actually repre- 
sent these sounds very carefully in writing. In these 
we should probably find the word ^^Titten duwo. w is 
here the 'off-glide' from u, the 'on-glide' to 0. Similarly 
there is a transition-sound produced between d and u. 
Compare also ai-ia above (§ 83). 

85. Vowels may have a glide to introduce them if the 

glottis is gradually narrowed through the 
and wuhout in- positions for breath and whisper before voice 
itid g 1 e. .^ produced. If the stress of the breath is 

changed from the vowel itself to this introductory sound, 
the aspirate (A) is produced, e.g. instead of the sound a 
the sound ha is heard. If the breath is kept back till 
the glottis is in the position to produce voice, the vowel 
is produced without a glide. If the glottis is completely 
closed so that voice cannot be produced till the closure 
is broken by a special impulse, an explosive sound or 
, ' stop ' may be heard just before the vowel, 
pin us ems. ^^^.^ sound, the result of the opening of the 
glottis, has been identified with the Greek spiritus 
len is. 

86. In the same way a vowel may finish abruptly 

while the glottis is still in the position to 
ina g 1 e. ^^^^ voice, or it may die away through the 
successive stages of whisper and breath — the final glide. 

87. All consonants have an on-glide and oflf-ghde. 
Consonants except wheu two cousouauts come together 

■with and with- , . , „ , . • i ii_ 

out glides. which are lormed in precisely the same 


(Alvooliiv Gtc.) 






Bietithed Voiced 


Ten, Asp. 
qh or 





.V 3 


/ r 
(■' RuBsinn 'linvd' /) (in German) 

It 11 



X ; .'/ 


(in Italian .,0 


'■ i 


til nr 



.s or 

- or 


(in dialects of India) 


(in dialect of Kent 

and elsewhere) 


ill cir 



(Enjjlisli etc.) 


(■ i 





ph (ir 

1, hh 

(iu u-here etc.) 



(somctimeK a.^ an 

" II 

In the earlier plmBe.s of tlie Indo-Oermanic languiiKcs r was apparently always formed with the point of the tongue, ii and « as regards the position of 
the tongne are guttural vowels ; they are classed here as lahials as well, the lips are active agents in their production and hccause their lahial character 
has an important influence upon the development of velar consonants in b-everal languages— notably in Greek. l''or the latter reason (; and i are classed as 
dental as well as |ialatal sounds (cp. §§ 131)— 141). The pure labial spirant corresponding to li is sometimes written Ir and that corresponding to ij as -y or §. 

;■" /,„■.• /,. 78.) 


positions'. Thus the only difference between n and d 
is that for the former the nasal passage is open, and 
hence, in the combination nd, there is no glide between 
n and d. 

vi. Accent. 

88. Of all the phonetic peculiarities of a language 
accent is the most important. The term Accent used in 
accent is applied to denote two things t^o senses. 
which are essentially different, and hence the word is 
generally used with a qualifying epithet Pitch-accent or 
Stress-accent. The latter — stress-accent — is the form 
of accent with which we are most familiar in our own 
language, though it is easy to observe that in English 
pitch-accent also exists to a considerable extent. For 
example, observe the difference in accent which appears 
in any short sentence pronounced first as a statement 
and then as a question. 

89. (1) Stress-accent, also known as exspiratory, 
dynamic or emphatic accent, depends upon 

the energy with which the breath which 
produces any sound is expelled from the lungs ; 

90. (2) Pitch-accent, also known as musical or 
chromatic accent, indicates musical tone, 

which depends on the number of vibrations 
the vocal chords make in a given time. This accent is 
most marked in ' sing-song ' dialects. It is well marked 
in some languages of the present day, as in Lithuanian, 
Swedish, and the dialect of the fishermen of the east 
coast of Scotland. The most marked difference between 

1 Sweet, if. o/£. S.^ p. 11. 

80 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 90 — 

French and English is the less important part which 
stress-accent plays in French. 

91. Languages are divided into those with stress- 
Languageswith accent and those with pitch-acceut accord- 
piich-accent. -^^g g^g ^j^g stress or the pitch-accent is the 
more prominent. Every language, however, possesses 
to some extent both forms of accent. In the ancient 
Sanskrit and the ancient Greek, the rise and fall in 
musical tone was very marked. The accent-signs of 
these languages indicate pitch not stress. The ordinary »'^'' 
view that the Greek accents indicate stress is erroneous. 

92. The effects of the two forms of accent are very , 
Effectsofpitch- different. As every sound has a natural ^^t- 

accent. pitch of its own and the pitch varies over a 

considerable scale, it is only to be expected that, when a 
syllable has the strongest pitch-accent in its word, that 
syllable will have a high-pitched sonant. 

We shall find that some vowels as e and inter- 
change largely with one another. Of these e has a 
considerably higher pitch than 0, and hence we may 
expect to find e accompanying the highest pitch- 
accent. If this theory be true (cp. § 251), analogy has 
affected this department of language perhaps more than 
any other, but we can still find not a few instances 
where the original rule apparently holds good ; compare 
for example Tra-xT/p (= original -ttr) with ^tXo-n-a-rcop 
(= original -tor unaccented). 

93. On the other hand the effect of stress-accent 
Effects of stress- ^^ to emphasise one sound or one syllable 
accent. ^^^ j.|^g expeusc of its neighbours. More 
energy is given to the accented and less to the un- 
accented syllables. The unaccented syllables are slurred 
over and consequently tend to disappear. Hence wher- 


ever we find syllables disappearing entirely we have 
reason to suppose that there stress-accent is at work. 

Thus the difference between the root vowels in ^epw 
and (f>opd, in Latin tego and toga, in English bind and 
band, originates in a difference of pitch ; the disappear- 
ance of a syllable as in the pronunciation of history as 
histry, or in the French frere, the historical develop- 
ment of Lshtin fratrem, is the result of stress-accent. 

94. Both phenomena — the interchange of high and 
low pitched vowels and the disappearance ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
of syllables — ^can be traced back to the ori- indo-Ger. lan- 
ginal Indo-Germanic language, and conse- 
quently we have a right to assume that in this original 
language, as in those derived from it, both forms of accent 
were active, though perhaps pitch and stress-accent wei'e 
more equally balanced there than they have been in the 
later development of the Indo-Germanic languages. It 
may be that first one, then the other, was predominant. 

95. In both pitch and stress-accent three degxees 
may be distingTiished— the principal accent, 

"^ ^ 111 1} Three degrees 

the secondary accent and the absence 01 of pitch and 


accent. In a long English word there is 
really a different degree of stress-accent on each syl- 
lable, but the three degTces given above are all that it is 
necessary to distinguish. The secondary accent is as a 
rule removed from the principal accent by at least one 
intervening syllable. 

96. In both kinds of accent, the syllable may have 
either one or two 'accent-points.' If the 

. , Accent-points. 

syllable has but one ' stress-accent point, 
this indicates that the exspiration does not come in 
jerks, but either increases or decreases in energy 
uniformly, or else first increases and then decreases 

G. P. 6 

«2 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 96 — 

uiiifonnly. If tlie syllahle has two 'stress- accent points' 
the exspiration in such a syllable is not iiniforni, but 
after a decrease of energy there is again an increase 
without the continuity of the sound being so far broken 
as to form two syllables'. Such double 'stress-accent 
points ' appear in English words like do, man, and may 
be indicated by the circumflex do, man. 

97. In pitch or musical accent we have to distin- 
Kinds of pitch g^ish, besldes the uniform tone or monotone, 

accents. ^Y) the ftilling \ (2) the rising ', (3) the 

rising-falling " and (4) the falling-rising " tones. 

(3) and (4) are generally combined with ' double- 
pointed' exspiration. Of this kind are the circumflex 
accent in Greek and the similar accent in Litliuanian. 
The Greek acute accent is the rising (2), the Greek 
gTave the falling accent (1), 

98. It is to be observed that individual words as 
Unaccented ^^^11 as Syllables may be unaccented. 

words. These are called enclitics and proclitics, 

and in such cases the whole clause or sentence f(jrms one 
word e.g. English at home, don't; Greek h ttqv ttoXlv, 
eiVe /xot; Latin noctes-que, in urhe etc. In the original 
Indo-Germanic language this was carried to a much 
greater extent : vocatives were not accented except W'hen 
standing at the beginning of a sentence, nor was the 
principal verb of the sentence accented. Interesting 
traces of this are left in the tendency which Greek shows 
to place the accent of the vocative and of the verb as 

far back as possible : thus Trarrip but Trdrep, e-crxov. In 

the latter example, as the augment was originally a 

separate adverb, the verb really still remains unaccented. 

In longer Greek words, however, such as i<i)ep6ixe9a, 

1 Sievers, G. d. G. P. p. 286. 


owing to a peculiar Greek law which appeared at a much 
later period and which forbade the accent to be placed 
farther from the end of the word than the third syllable, 
the orioiiial accentuation has been obliterated. 

\i\. Differences (1) between English and tlm Clas- 
sical languages and (2) hetiveen English and other Ger- 
manic languages. 

99. The discussion of accent has now cleared the 
way to explaining the reasons for the 

seeming differences between English words tween the Ger- 

, ,, 1 • ,1 1 '11 manic and other 

and those words m the classical languages indo-Genn. lan- 
which philologists declare to be identically ^"*^'^*" 
the same words or at any rate their congeners. 

100. Changes in the primitive Germanic period 
and so affecting all the Germanic languages. 'Grimm's Law.' 

(A) Changes in Consonants (cp. §§ 130 — 141). 

i. The Indo-Germanic breathed stops Jc {q, k), t, p 
became breathed spirants h (x?r, x), hJ- 

ii. The Indo-Germanic voiced stops g {q, g), d, b 
hecame breathed stops k (qu), t, jJ '■ 

iii. The Indo-Germanic voiced aspirates gh (qh, gh), 
dh, bh became voiced spirants 3, ^, ti and then voiced 
stops, g, d, b. 

These changes are known as the Germanic 'sound- 
shifting' or 'Grimm's Law' (see § 39). 

Examples of the changes. 







Gothic luiirt-o Eng. 





,, Jre/s „ 




(gen. 7ro5-6s) 

(gen. ped-is) 

,, fut-us ,, 





[§ 100- 






(ace. agr-um) 




















0. E. 






h anser 




goose iXr^t 


clh [rtJ-^Tj-Mt 








The Indo-Germauic breathed aspirates did not 
Tennesaspi- P^^Y ^ large part, and their history is not 
yet known in detail. In Germanic they 
became, like other breathed stops, breathed spirants. 
In certain combinations, however, they became breathed 

Exceptions to Grimm's Law. 

102. (a) There are some seeming discrepancies 
' Grassmann's between the sounds of the original language 
^*^-' as they appear in Greek and Sanskrit and 

their representation in Germanic. Thus to the root of 
TrvvOdvofxaL, irevO-, Skt. bod/i-, the corresponding Gothic 
verb is biiida (1st pers. sing.) not * piuda as might have 
been expected. So Gothic binda, English bind, is from the 
same root as ■n-evOepo';, Skt. root bandh-. The explanation 
of this is that in the original Indo-Germanic language 
these roots both began and ended with an aspirate 
^bheiidh- and *bhendh-, and a phonetic law of Greek and 
Sanskrit forbade roots to begin and end with an aspirate. 
Tlie explanation of the seeming anomaly is due to 

1 In the original Indo-G. language h was a comparatively rare 
letter ; hence examples of this sound change are rare and doubtful. 


Hermann Grassmann and hence is known as 'Grassmann's 
Law' (see § 42). 

103. (b) Certain combinations of consonants do not 
undergo complete 'sound-shiftinff.' 

. . .._ Combinations 

(1) sk, st, sp remain unchanged: Lat. not affected by 

. /-I T /. 7 /I T 1 1 -n Grimm's Law. 

piscis, Goth, jiskii (but by a later change hng. 

fish) : Lat. hostis, Goth, gasts, Eng. guest; Lat. con-spicio, 

0. H. G. sp'e'Mn, Eng. 5;?a^-wife (fortune-teller). 

(ii) In the combinations H and 2^t, t remains un- 
changed. oKTw, Lat. veto, Goth, ahtau: Lat. nox (stem 
noct-), Goth, nahts: kActttt;?, Goth, hli/tns, Eng. cattie- 
lift-ing: Lat. captus, Goth, liafts. 

(iii) Original tt became \t and later ss: original 
*uit-to-s, Fia-TO's, Goth, ga-iviss, 0. Eng. Y tvis. 

104. (c) Verner's Law. Li the middle of Ger- 
manic words if the immediately preceding 

sonant did not originally bear the principal Analogical ir- 

. . 17/ j'x regularities, 

accent, origmal k {q, k), t,p, s are not repre- 
sented by h (hv), ]^,f,s but by g (gw), d, b, r, except in 
the combinations ht, hs, ft, fs, sk, st, sp. The historical 
order was (1) the ordinary change into breathed spirants, 
(2) a change to the voiced spirants y, ^,17, z, and then (.3) 
from these into g, d, b, r. The position of the original 
accent is often shown by Greek, much more frequently 
by Sanskrit. 


Skt. Greek Lat. Germanic 

k. yitvam-s -. v6.K-ivdo-i :juvencu-s : Gothic ji//7/7-.s', Eng. young 
( = yui-nrd-s) { = ivr^K-) ( = y'"^'i'Xo-) 

t. qatdm : e-Karov : centum : ,, huncla-, „ hund-red 
p. Uinpami : Xnrapeco : li2)pus : ,, hi-leiha, O.Eng. be-llfe 

'I remain' 

{'I stick to, 

= 'I 

smear ') 

snum : 


: 71 ferns : 

0. Eng. snoru. 

86 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 104 — 

As lias already been inentioned, tlie accent varied in 
the singular and the plural of the Indo-Gerinanic Perfect. 
Hence the discovery by Karl Verner of this law made it 
at once clear why in Old English seopan (seethe) had the 
singular of the perfect seaS but the plural sudon and the 
participle '^e-soden (sodden), and \i\iy for-leosan (='lose' 
in meaning) had in the perfect sing, for-lea^, pi. forluron, 
and in the participle forloren (forlorn). As the accent 
also varied in the different cases of the noun (cp. in 
Greek ttovs iroS-os etc.) we have in German Jime but in 
English hare, in Gothic aui<d but in English ear, each 
language having modelled the whole of its forms by 
analogy on one part of the original noun forms. Com- 
pare with this the o throughout in ttoi's, the e throughout 
in pe!<, though o and e both appeared in the original 
declension (§ 48). 

Analogy has caused some other irregularities. Thus 
Eng. brother corresponds regularly to an original *hhrd- 
tor, but father and mother should have d instead of th, 
since they come from original *pa-tir, *ma-tSr. The 
original accentuation of these words is represented 
accurately by Sanslait only, which has bhrd-td(7'), 2n-td{r), 
md-td{r)\ Greek keeps the accentuation correctly in 
(ftpdrrjp ((fipdrMp, the more regular philological form, is 
cited by the grammarians) and in Trarrjp, but has changed 
it in p-yjrrjp. Old English had correctly Jceder, mddor^ 
brod'or, and according to Professor ^keiit\ father, mother 
with th hardly appear before 1500 a.d., the manuscripts 
of Chaucer hnwing fader, moder, brother. In south-west 
Cumberland and elsewhere the regular forms appear, in 
northern Lowland Scotch the analogy has gone in a 

^ Principles of Eiujlisli Etymology (First Series) § 126. 


direction exactly opposed to English and produced d in 
all three cases. 

105. {d) Some few irregularities have arisen from 
the original root having a bye-form with a j^^t^ ^^i^^ 
different final consonant produced by assi- ^J'^-fo''™^- 
milation to some suffix. Thus Goth, taikno (token) 
belongs to the verb teiha, BeU-w-fjii; dic-o, but comes 
from a bye-form with g for k. In the same way ^tyiv/xi 
is from a root mik, and pango pepigi are forms from the 
same root as pax pac-'is. 

B. Changes in Sonants. 

106. The main differences between the Germanic 
and the original Indo-Germanic sonants are 

- ., . Germanic 

the lOlJowmg. changes of Indo- 

^ -I r\ ^ ^ w • /-, . G. sonants. 

1. Indo-G. became a m Germanic : 
o/cToj, Lat. octo, Goth, ahtuu : Lat. hostls, Goth, gasts: 
oTSa, Goth. wait. 

ii. Indo-G. «, became Germanic o : ^parcap, fJi.y]Trjp. 
Lat. /rater, mater, 0. English brodbr, mudor. 

iii. Indo-G. sonant m and sonant n (m, n) appear 
as um and un : a/xa (= *smma), Lat. sem-el (= *s?n7n-er), 
Goth, sinn-s. Negative particle: Greek a-, Lat. in, Goth. 
iin, Indo-G. *n. 

iv. Indo-G. sonant ^ and sonant r (/,r) appear as 
id and ur (written aur in Gothic, or in some of the 
other Germanic dialects) : ra'A-as, O.Latin tulo (perf. 
tuli), Goth. ]iul-a (dialectic Eng. thole, 'bear patiently '), 
aU from ''til-, one form of the root tel-. Kapvos (Hesy- 
chius), Lat. cornu, Goth, haurn (Eng. horn). 

107. In the primitive Germanic period, as we have 
seen, the accent, although no longer a pitch but a 

88 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 107 — 

stress-accent, was free to stand on any syllable as in 
the primitive Indo-Germanic period. But 

Germanic ac- soou a further change came in, by which 
the first syllable of all uncompounded words 

was accented. 

1 08. Further causes of dissimilarity in appearance 
Assimilation; between English and classical words w^ere 

final sounds. ^^^ different laws of assimilation of conso- 
nants: (2) different treatment of the final sounds of 

109. At an early period the Germanic languages 

lost a considerable part of their Noun In- 

Cnanges 111 . 

English. (/ flexion. Whatwasleft in English was largely 

changed to y ; i • 1 f t -r\ • ^ 

c to ch. destroyed by the mnuence 01 the Danish 

invasion, and still more by that of the Norman 
conquest. Further dissimilarity w^as produced by 
English words being now spelt after the Norman 
fashion. Many other changes have occurred since 
then. Nearly every trace of inflexion has disappeared, 
and many vowel and consonantal changes too intricate 
to discuss here have taken place'. One of those which 
help most to disguise English words is the change of g 
into the spirant y which took place in certain cases. 
Thus Gothic ga-, German ge-, becomes Middle English 
Jjc, and in Shakespeare and Spenser we find it as y in 
yclept, yh'ujht. Final g in similar w^se appears some- 
times as -dge, as in midge, 0. E. mycg, through the 
intermediate stage migge, sometimes as -gh as in borough, 
0. E. hur{u)g. Final g first became oh, or h, biirrh, and 
then passed into 3/^ before e. Another change of the 

1 For a full account of these changes see Skeat's Princijjh's of 
E. Etym. (First Series), chap', xix., and Sweet's Histonj of EiKjUsh 


same kind is that of the 0. E. palatal ^--sound in cild-re 
into the affricate ch of child, etc. 

no. The spelling of modern English is little dif- 
ferent from that of Shakespeare's time, but English speii- 
the pronunciation has changed immensely ^"^' 

in the interval \ Hence our spelling, which now bears 
comparatively little relation to our pronunciation, is a 
help to the beginner in tracing the connexions between 
the words of English and those of other tongues, but is 
really a stumbling-block in tracing the history of the 
English language itself because, as the spelling is con- 
stant, the incessaiitly varying pronunciation has to be 
traced out laboriously from other sources. 

111. It is this incessant change in the sounds and 
forms of words which makes comparative 

Vtilu.6 of Gurlv 

philologists always deal by preference with forms in phiio- 
the earliest accessible forms of any Ian- "'' 
guage, these being naturally less removed from the ori- 
ginal type than later forms which have undergone a 
number of further changes. Isolation and separate de- 
velopment make people of the same family speak a 
different dialect : the same causes make their descend- 
ants speak languages which are mutually unintelligible, 
and which at first sight bear no resemblance one to 

112. Hence languages so nearly related as High 
German and English differ widely in both 

vowels and consonants. The most marked consonant 
cause of this was the second or High Ger- 
man mutation of consonants, which appeared -ttithin his- 

1 Besides Sweet's H. of E. S. compare also A. J. Ellis's great 
work Early English Pronunciation, the fifth and last volume of 
which appeared in 1889. 

90 A SHORT MANUAL OF [| 112 

torical times'. It began about 600 a.d. in the most 
southern districts of Germany and spread gradually 
northwards, but never covered the whole German area. 
Nor Avere all the sounds affected everywhere. The centre 
of the change was in South Germany where the original 
population had been Keltic, and as the effect moved 
farther from the centre it became weaker and less 
marked. The northern districts were almost untouched 
by it. 

i. («) t was first affected, becoming the affricate z 
(= ts) at the beginning of words : Eng. tooth, German 
zahn ; Eng. tiro, Germ, zivei In the middle and at 
the end of words it became a spirant z and is now a 
simple s-sound. Eng. foot, Germ, fuss ; Eng. let, Germ. 

At a later period other sounds were affected. 

(b) In the middle and at the end of a word Ger- 
manic k appears now as the spirant ck (x), after having 
passed through the stage of the affricate kck (kx)- Thus 
Eng. speak (0. E. also sprecan). Low Germ, sjjreken, 
H. Germ, qwechen: Low Germ, ik, H. Germ. ich. In most 
districts /• at the beginning of words remained intact. 

(c) In the middle and at the end of words 2> became 
/; Eng. sheep, Germ, schaf; Eng. sleep (Goth, slepan). 
Germ, schlafen. Initial ^j remained in some districts, 
but became p)f i^^ most. Eng. pound (0. E. pund). 
Germ, pfund'. 

^ For a brief but clear account of this see Wright's Old High 
German Primer, § 58 f. 

- This word is interesting as a Latin word — pondus — borrowed 
at an early period in the history of both English and German and 
making the following changes exactly in the same way as the 
native words. 


ii. The voiced stops g, d, b ceased to be voiced at 
an early period, and hence became confused with k, t, 
p, from which they differed only in the smaller energy 
with which the exspiration was produced. Hence to the 
stranger, g, d, h as pronounced in South Germany sound 
in many cases exactly like k, f, p. Hence also the con- 
stant variation in spelling: Inns-pruck, Inns-hruck, etc 
d is almost invariably represented by t : Eng. daughter, 
H. G. tochter; Eng. deed, H. G. tat, etc 

iii. Still later and independently the spirant th (]->) 
became d over the whole area. Eng. })rother, Genu. 

PAET 11. 


viii. I lido-Germanic sounds. 

113. Of the sounds discussed in Chapter v. the 
original Indo-Germanic language had the following : 

A. Consonants. 

1. Stops : 

(a) Breathed, p, pk ; t, th ; k, kh ; q, qli. 

(b) Voiced, b, bh ; d, dh ; g, gh ; g, qh. 

As the history of the original breathed aspirates j)h, 
th, kh and qh is in many respects still obscure, these 
sounds will not be discussed here. 

2. Spirants : 

(a) Breathed, s. 

(b) Voiced, ;:;, w, v. 

Some authorities recognise also a guttural spirant 
to account for such equivalents as Skt. ka, Gk. yi ; Skt. 
aham, Gk. eyoj. It is also suggested that besides s, 
there was an original sh (s)^ Collitz finds this sound 
in Skt. kse-tl, Zd. sae-ti (3 sing.), Gk. ktl-Iw, Lat. si-no 
and possibly in Gk. ktl-Xo^ ' tame, quiet,' Lat. silere, 
Goth, silan ' to be silent, keep c^uiet ' ; all from an Idg. 

1 Collitz, B. B. xviii. 201 ff. If this theory is correct probably 
Skt. lisam-, Gk. x^wv ought to be derived rather from an original 
root with initial ylis- than from a combination with original z as 
it is given by Bartholomae and Brugmanu {Gr. Gr.^ § 46). 

96 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 113— 

root ^ksei. From two separate roots of identical form 
ghsei, he derives (1) Skt. ksdy-ati 'controls' (3 sing,), 
km-trci- 'lordship,' Zd. hs(t-]n-a 'kingdom,' Gk. L-cf)6l- 
/Aos and possibly c})ddv(j}, (2) Skt. ksi-nd-ti 'destroys', Zd. 
ksi fem. 'misery,' Gk. 4>de.ioi, (jiOivoi, (pOetpw. 

The spirant y has to be carefully distinguished from 
the consonant /-sound i, but in none of the descendants of 
the original Indo-Germanic language have these a dif- 
ferent representation except in Greek (^ = y, ' = i). There 
is still greater difficulty in distinguishing w from u. 
Hence, as in most cases there was probably no strong 
rubbing or spirant sound, most philologists represent 
both original sounds indifferently by u. 

3. (a) Liquids, /, r. 

4. (a) Nasals, m, n, n, ra. 

n and ra are the nasals which occur in conjunction 
with palatal and velar consonants respectively (§ 76). 

114. B. Sonants. 

3. (h) Liquids, /, r ; I, f. 

4. (h) Nasals, m, n, n, w; 

m, n, n, w. 

5. Vowels, a, e, i, 0, u, ^ 

«, e, I, o, u, 
z is also classified by some authorities as a sonant as 
well as a consonant. 

115. C. Diphthongs. 

6. The combination of a, e, with i and u makes 
the ordinary twelve diphthongs, 

ai, ei, oi; mi, eii, oii; 
di, ei, oi; du, eu, ou. 


ix. Attic Greek alphabet and p>-onunciation. 

ii6. To represent the Greek developments of 
these original sounds the Attic dialect had the following 
symbols after 403 B.C., when the Ionic alphabet was 
officially introduced ^ : 

1. Stops : 

(a) Breathed, tt, <^ ; t, 0; k, x- 

(b) Voiced, y8; 8; y. 

2. Spirants : 

(a) Breathed, s (o-) : in conjunction with breathed 
consonants and when between sonants or final. 

(b) Voiced, o- : in conjunction with voiced con- 
sonants, as in a-^evvvfXL (= zb-), Sioo--SoTOS {=°zd''). 

Greek represented u by F — a symbol lost in Attic and 
Ionic but preserved in other dialects. i/ is represented by 
^, which has also other values ; i has in one or two dialects 
a symbol for itself; elsewhere in some positions it dis- 
appears, in others it becomes the spiritus asper ' (see 
§ 170 ff.). 

3. Liquids: X, p. 

4. Nasals : fi, v, y {- n and rs). 

5. Vowels : a, €, t, o, v, -q, w. 

In Attic Greek 17 represents not only original e but 
also in many cases original a. 

The remaining letters of the Attic alphabet — f and 
i/' — represent respectively a guttural + s and a labial + ?. 
For the other symbols of the Attic alphabet, which have 
only a numerical value, see Appendix. 

^ For the other Greek dialects and their alphabets see Ap- 

G. P. 7 

98 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 116 — 

6. Diphthongs : at, «, ot ; av, ev, ov ; vl. 

u, 11, w at the end of words represent di, ei, oi. 
Elsewliere diphthongs with a long sonant shortened tlie 
sonant before a following consonant. Hence only tlie 
series with a short sonant is preserved. But in some 
cases we can tell by comparison with other languages 
where an original diphthong with a long sonant stood, 
e.g. Zer's = Skt. dydus, original *dieus ; lttttol^ = Skt. 
d^vdis, original ekudis (see § 181, 3). 

VI is a diphthong, which apparently did not belong to 
the original language, but arose in Greek through the 
loss of a consonant and subseciuent contraction, e.g. 
iSvIa represents an older FiSvar-ia. uto's represents an 
original *su-io-s not *si(i-o-s. 


117. 1. Stops. The breathed and voiced stops 
Ancient and present uo difficulty, the pronunciation 
mmdation" ^""of being in the classical period approximately 
stops. ^Yis,t of the corresponding English sounds. 

In the popidar dialect y at an early period became a 
spirant between vowels, and Plato the comic poet charged 
Hyperbolos the demagogue (murdered -411 B.C.) with 
pronouncing dXiyos as oXios, that is oliyos. On papyri 
there is often a confusion between g- and _?/-sounds, as 
in uyiyatVis for vytaiVcis, but this did not occur in the 
speech of cultured Athenians. In modern Greek y, 8, 
and /8 have all become spirants y, (f, v. 

The aspirates <^, 6, x ^vere pronounced as y, t\ k', not 
as/, l^, ch (§ 73). For otherwise we could explain neither 
(a) the aspiration of tt, t, k before the rough breathing 
(e'^' tS, avd' ov, ovx ottws), nor (b) the representation of 


the Greek aspirates in old Latin by breathed stops : 
e.g. Pllipus-^iXnnro^, tus — Ovo<i, calx = x°-^'-^- 

ii8. 2. As already mentioned (!^ 116, 2), s had two 
values— s and z. The Greek C did not pronunciation 
correspond to the English z but was pro- °^^- 
nounced as zd, whether it represented an original zd- or 
an earlier dz- sound formed from 8? or y, as in Zcvs and 
^iryoV (see § 1-44). This is shown by the following facts. 

(rt) Sio'crSoTos, ^€o'(tSotos etc. are found sometimes 
^vritten Sid^oros, ^to^oro? etc. even in the same dialect. 
So 'A^T^va^e is undoubtedl}^ 'A^j^Vas-Sc 'Athens- ward.' 

(6) V disappears before C, o-v-t,riv, crv-ltvyvvvai etc. 
This could only happen if t, was zd not dz, for v remains 
before 3, rov-^i. etc. 

((•) zd in foreign words was represented by t, as 
in ^Clpo-ixdt,r]<; = Ahura-mazda (Persian deity). 
At a later period the sound of ^ sank to z. 
iig. 3. p was a dental )\ The spiritus aaper, 
which is written with p, indicates that it pronunciation 
was breathed not voiced. But on inscrip- ^^'f- 
tions this breathing is found only once — , PHOFAIII 
(from Corcyra) = poala-L. 

120. 4. fi. was apparently a weak sound before some 
consonants, as on old vase-inscriptions pronunciation 

forms like a<^t, vv(jir] (for d/xcfyi, vviJ.(f>r]) oftheGk.nasals. 


The pronunciation of -yi'- in yiyvofxaL etc. is uncer- 
tain, but later the y-sound disappeared, as is shown by 

121. 5. a was pronounced as ak. e was a close 
vowel approaching i ; this is shown by the 

. p • . X - mi Pronunciation 

contraction or ce into €t as m t^iAcire. That of the vowels, 
at a very early period this vowel was not 


100 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 121 — 

SO close is shown by the contraction of the augment 
with € into r] ; thus e + ^ctOlov becomes rjo-diov not ci- 
a-diov. o was also a close sound approaching u (= oo), 
whence the contraction of oo into ov as in BrjXovrc, but it 
had once been more open, as is showai by the contraction 
with the augment into w : (o<^£Xov not ovc^cXov. 

In Attic V became at an early period ii ; hence Attic 

Greek had, like French, to represent a pure 

M-sound by ou (ov). In the diphthongs av, 

ev, ov, however, v retained its original value of u. r, was 

an open sound, as is shown (1) by its often 

representing the a of other dialects, as 8^/ao? 

= Doric Safjios ; (2) by the fact that ca contracts to rj 

{tuxt] =- Tct'xea) ; and (3) since by it the comic poets 

represented the cry of the sheep (o 8' -qXiBLo^ wa-irep 

irpofiaTov (Srj (Srj Aeywv (SuSl^cl). w was also an open 


122. 6. In £t and ov two different values have to 
be distinguished : (1) the original or proper 

Proper and . ... '^ .^ ' ■ T , ^ / 

improper diph- diplltilOngS ct and ov aS m ActTTW, a-TTovhr] ; 

thongs. Pro- , x ^ • ^• ^ ^ ^ • ^ i 

iiuncTation of €c (2) the improper diphthongs which are the 
result of contraction, ^iXcirc, StjXovJtc. In 
the Attic inscriptions of the early period such words as 
AciVw and (nrovhrj are always written with the diphthong, 
while the vowel-sound of contracted syllables is repre- 
sented by e and o only, not « and ov. Whether these two 
classes of sounds were still distinguished at the end of 
the fifth century B.C. or whether both proper and improper 
diphthongs were already pronounced as close e and u 
respectively is much disputed'. 

In the diphthongs ai, ct, ot, vt there was a constant 
tendency to drop the consonantal i before vowels. 
1 Blass^ § 10. Brugmann, Gr. Gr." p. 34. 


Thus Tas ■^ixLcrea'; is cited by a grammarian from 
Thuc. VIII. 8 ; we have ttAcov as well as History of ai, 
TrXeiov ; Troelv as well as ttoluv and oTos "' °'' "'• 
TotovTos etc. scanned with a short first syllable ; in the 
fourth century B.C. vl6<; is written almost uniformly vos 
though V is still scanned as long'. 

In the diphthongs a, 77, w, which were always written 
in ancient times with i on the line — AI, HI 

, Til 1 Pronunciation 

m — the I ceased by the second century B.C. and history of 
to be sounded. 77 had apparently become "'' '' 
a close e much earlier. The modern method of writing 
these diphthongs begins with manuscripts of the twelfth 
century of our era^ 

X. Latin alphabet and protiunciation. 

123. To represent the Italic development of the 
original Indo-Germanic sounds Latin had The Latin ai- 

° _ phabet. 

the following symbols. 

1. Stops: 

(a) Breathed, ]) ; t ; c, k, q. 

(b) Voiced, b; d ; g. 

2. Spirants : 

{a) Breathed,/; s; h. 

(b) Voiced, r (= u), i, now ^^TittenJ (=i). 

3. Liipiids, /, r. 

4. Nasals, m, n. 

5. Vowels, a, e, I, 0, u. 

y and z were introduced from Greek in Cicero's time, 
y to represent v = 11, z to represent C The symbol for z 
had existed in the original Roman alphabet, which was 
1 Blass3§14. 2 Blass3§ 13. 

102 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 123 — 

borrowed from the Western Greek alphabet, but it had 
been dropped wlien the old Latin sound it represented 
disappeared (§ 125). x is merely the combination Xu 

6. Diphthongs ai, el, oi ; au, etc, ou. 

These forms are the forms of the earliest inscriptions. 
In the Augustan period ai was represented mostly hy ae, 
ei by I, oi by u and oe; au remained except in the vulgar 
dialect, where it appeared as d ; original eu appears only 
once in a doubtful fragment, becoming elsewhere always 
ou even in the earliest records. Before the Augustan 
period ou had become U (§ 179). 

The Indo-Germanic diphthongs with long sonant 
have all passed into other sounds (§ 181). 

Of later origin are the diphthongs eu and ui in seu, 
neuter, cui. 


124. 1. Stops. 

p and h were pronounced as in English, d was dental, 

not alveolar like English d (§ 68). In pro- 
Ancient and . ^ ^^ ^ c ^ ^ ^ 

modern pronun- nouncuig t the blade 01 the tongue touched 

elation of stops. ^ ,^ , ,^ ^ TT n • i 

both teeth and gums. Hence at all periods 
of the language tl had a tendency to change into cl, 
there being an almost inappreciable difference between 
them, when t was pronounced a little farther back and c 
a little farther forward in approximating to the position 
for /. c and k were pronounced alike, c having except in 
a few words taken the place of Ji (see Appendix), ti 
and ci never became a sibilant as in the English sedition, 
patrlcla7i but were pronounced separately, c was never 
pronounced as s, as in English circle. With very rare 
exceptions q occurred only along with u. g was always 
a genuine stop, never the affricate j as in gibe, etc. In 


some of the other dialects of Italy these voiced sounds 
seem to have been pronounced almost as breathed 

125. 2. / Avas pronounced as in English, h was 
not so strong probably as the corresponding pronunciation 
English sound but rather, like the Greek |!ati,/"sSntsI 
', represented a breath. Later it entirely /> ^•*'^' '(•?')• 
disappeared. Hence the late forms anser, arena for 
earlier *hanser (not found in the literature), harena. 

s was always breathed. It never had the value of z. 
When combined with a voiced consonant, the consonant 
became breathed. Thus a Koman said ajMineo even 
when he wrote ahs°. In old Latin there was a voiced 
s (= z), wliich between 450 and 350 B.C. changed into r, 
whence lahorem (ace.) for older labosem, Fur his for 
Fusius, etc. 

V, which was the only symbol the Romans had for 
both the vowel u and the consonant v, was, when con- 
sonant, pronounced probably not so strongly as the 
English w, but more as the French ou in oui In the 
same way i had both the vowel and the consonant value 
in ancient Rome ; 7 is a modern improvement on the 
Roman alphabet. The consonant value of / was that of 
the English y. 

The Romans objected to the combinations uu and //. 
Hence they kept servos not seruus, for the nominative 
sing. ; cum, quom or even qiwi not quu7n ; the genitive 
singular of nouns in -ius in the best period was always 
contracted : JluvJ etc. ; the nominative plural of such words 
is found on inscriptions in -iei. Sometimes where / was 
written, i/i was pronounced, as in ahicit = abyicit. 

126. 3. / was pronounced by placing rpj^^ ^atin 
the tongue against the teeth and gums ; r ^^v-^^^^- 

104 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 126 — 

was alveolar and strongly trilled in any position in the 

127. 4. m at the beginning of a word was pro- 

nounced as in English ; n was dental, n 

Pronunciation 1 c n i 1 1 ^ p 7 

and historj- of at the end 01 a syllable and beiore c, k, 

the Latin nasals. ,, i i t ti 

q, g was guttural n and pronounced like 
English ng ; thus incipit was pronounced ingkipit and 
so on. m and n in all other cases at the end of a 
syllable or a word became a very weak sound, and con- 
sequently in the inscriptions is represented indifferently 
by either m or n. In modem books the nasal is gener- 
ally assimilated to the following consonant ; m is written 
before the labial p, n before the dental d and so on. 
But the Romans themselves wrote Canpani as well as 
Campant, tuemdam as well as tuendam. Before h, i, u 
and vowels, m disappeared entirely. Hence the form co 
of the preposition com (cum) in cohihere, coicere, coven- 
tio, conctum, coerceo, coire, etc., cp. also circu-eo. n 
disappeared before .•?. Thus Cicero preferred megalesia 
to megalensia, etc. ; cosol for consid is very frequent on 
inscriptions. The nasal was also left unpronounced 
before gn, i-gnotus, co-gnamenK 

128. 5. Seelmann^ considers that old Latin resem- 
The Latin ^^sd English in a tendency to make its 

T^fi' o' d- u. sii^pls vowels into diphthongs and in the 
"• manner in which it produced its vowel 

sounds generally. 

In the earlier period d was apparently a more open 

^ Seelmann, Aussprache des Latein, p. 268 ff. How far e and 
were nasalised (as in French en, on) when h was not written is 
uncertain. Some consider the pronunciation of ignotus to have 
been ingnotus. 

- Aunaprache des Latein, p. 158 ff. 


sound than d, but in the Augustan period of Latin the 
two sounds seem to have been quite similar, and pro- 
nounced like the vowel sounds in English dhd ! ' Later 
the sound approached more closely to e. In Latin e was 
an open, e a close sound, Latin in this respect showing 
the exact reverse of Greek, t was also an open 
sound resembling the sound in English miss, fhick^, and 
hence in the Romance languages has been extensively 
confused with e; hence too final t being unaccented 
changes to e. l was a close sound as in English 
machine, o and u were open, d and 0, close sounds. 
and u were very similar in sound and there is a con- 
stant change of o to u in the later Empire. The sound 
u appeared in those words where / or u is ^\Titten indif- 
ferently, as in optimus, optumus, etc. 

129. 6. at had become ae in wTiting by 100 B.C., 
though even in Cicero's time the pronun- 

. -PI PI The Latin 

ciation 01 the second component 01 the diphthongs, ai, 

-,• ^ ,^ , 1 , /> • ei,oi, cm, eu, ou. 

diphthong was that 01 a very open i. ae 
gradually approached nearer and nearer to e, but did not 
become identical with it till the fifth century a.d.^ ei 
became a monophthong very early and is found repre- 
sented by e, ei and i ; i finally prevailed, oi became oe 
about the same time as ai became ae. Later it passed 
into u through the intermediate stage of oe. au had a 
tendency towards a long sound, as in the Clodius of the 
popular speech for the Claudius of the upper classes. 
eu, as already mentioned, has almost disappeared in the 
earliest remnants of Latin ; it exists by contraction in a 

' Pronunciation of Latin in the Augustan Period (a small pam- 
phlet published by the Cambridge Philological Society), p. 2. 

2 Seelmann, p. 198. 

3 Seelmann, p. 224. 

106 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 129 — 

few words, as neii, etc., and was undoubtedly pronounced 
eh-ob\ ou, which is A\Titten till after 100 B.C., was pro- 
nounced u. Ill was never commonly recognised by the 
Romans as a diphthong-. It occurs only by contraction 
in a few forms, ciii, etc. 

xi. History of the original Indo-Germanic sounds in 
Greek and Latin. 

130. I, Stops. 

A. Labial Stops. 

Indo-G. 2^ = Skt. p, Gk. tt, Lat. />, Eng. /, v (= earlier 
h) medially under certain conditions, Letto-Slavonic p>- 

In Keltic 2^ disappears entirely except before another 
consonant, when it becomes a spirant. 

ira-T-qp : Lat. pa-ter : Eng. father 

Trav-pos : Lat. pini-cus : Eng. fete 

eir-To. : Lat. sep-tem : Eng. seven (Goth, sihtin). 

For 7r= original q see under D (§ 139). 

In English / sometimes represents not only original 
r- r 1, ^ 7^ but also k (a) and t, as in four, Goth. 
giuaU-and^ fidvdr, Lat. quattuor ; flee, GermgLii ft iehen, 
is supposed to come from a root *tleuk-. 

131. Indo-G. h = Skt. b, Gk. /8, Lat. h, Eng. ;^ 
Letto-Slav. h. There is no certain example in Keltic 
(Brugm. Grundr. i. § 519 n.). 

This sound is very rare in all the Indo-G. languages 
(§ 100 note). 

/3ap-/3ap-o-s : Lat. hal-hu-s 

Lat. lub-ricus : Eng. slippery (§ 100 iii). 

1 Pronunciation of Latin (C. P. S.), p. 3. Seelmann, p. 228. 

2 Seelmann, p. 222. 


For )8 = original g see under D (§ 140). 

132. Indo-G. M = Skt. bh, Gk. </>, Lat. /initially, 
b medially, Kelt, b, Eng. b, Letto-Slav. b. 

(pepoi : Lat. fero : Eng. hear 

(ppd-TT]p : Lat. fra-ter : Eng. brother ' 

yofM-cpo-s : Eng. co7rt6, Germ, kainm 

dix(pl : Lat. amb-itii-s : O. Eng. ?/m6' round.' 

For ^ = original qk see under D (§ 141). 

B. Dental Stops, 

133. Indo-G. ^ = Skt, t, Gk. r, Lat. t, Kelt, t, Eng. 
^A (ci medially under certain conditions), Letto-Slav. t. 

Tavv-yXwaaos : Lat. tenu-is : Eng. thiti 

Tep-e-Tpo-v : Lat. ter-e-bra : Eng. thrill^ 

(ppd-Trip : Lat. frater : Eng. hro-ther 

o-vt'l : Lat. a7)te : Eng. a?i(Z 

kXii-to-s : Lat. in-chi-tu-a : Eng. /owd (O.E. Jilud)'- 

Skt. (1) 6Mra?/j . Lat. (2) /-,,■« : Eng. (1) beareth. 

For Greek t= original q see under D (.§ 139). Greek 
T before t sometimes remains, sometimes be- 

mi p 11 • 1 • • 1 Treatment of 

comes a-. The lollowmg are the principal original ti in 

11 m 11-1 Greek. 

cases. T remains in all Greek dialects 
(a) after o-, Trto-rts, (^) at the beginning of words, rto-is, 
(c) before accented t, oktis, fieXriwy, (r/) before final t in 
paroxyton words, hi, apn, r in the middle of words before 
an unaccented l becomes o- in all dialects, ^eVis, Troo-ts 
(Latin j)otis). The Ionic, Attic, Cyprian, Arcadian and 
Aeolic dialects changed t before final t in proparoxyton 

words into cr, Attic TtOrj-at, <})epovcri, Doric tiO-tj-tl, <f>epovTi. 

1 The word originally meant 'to pierce;' the noun = ' hole' is 
preserved in nos-tril. 

2 Cp. § 167 and note 3 there. 

108 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 133 — 

But a considerable number of words are left which trans- 
gress the rule and have to be explained as owing their 
form to the analogy of other cases or of compound forms'. 
In Latin tl very early became cl, ptrklum, etc. 
(§ 124). 

134. Indo-G. d = Skt. d, Gk. 8, Lat. d, Kelt, d, 
Eng. t, Letto-Slav. d. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

hvii} : duo : two 

8eiK-vv-fj.L : dico (older deico) : teach (0. E. tacean), token 

o-5oi's : dens (weak stem = *<?«?-) : tooth (0. E. tu]> from *tan))) 
Kapo-ia : cor(d) : lieart. 

For Greek 8 = original g see under D (§ 140). 

In a few Latin words initial d before a vowel and 
Latin I = ori- iii^dial d between vowels become /, lacruma, 
gmai d. SaKpv ; odor, but oleo ; sedeo, but solium, 

etc. This happens also to a certain extent in Sanskrit. 
The change is an easy one, the only difference between 
d and / being that in pronouncing / the breath escapes 
at one or both sides of the tongue, while in pronouncing 
d the mouth passage is entirely closed, though the tongue 
is otherwise in the same position as for / -. 

135. Indo-G. (//i = Skt. dh, Gk. B, Lat. / (initially), 
h and d (medially), Kelt, d, Eng. d, Letto-Slav. d. 

6vpa : Jj&t. foras ( — *dhuoran:i) : Eng. door (O.E. dttru, dyre) 

^-drj-K-a : Lat. fe-c-i : Eng. do 

(■pv6-p6-s : Lat. ruber (stem ruh-ro-) : Eng. ruddy, red 
ovd-ap : Lat. ub-er : Eng. udder (0. E. uder) 

Homeric ^eVcros (= */u€^-iio-s) : h&t. med -his : Eng. middle 
Homeric Tji'f^fos : 'La.t. viduos : Eng. icidow etc. (§21). 

1 P. Ki-etschmer, KZ. 30, p. 589. 

- The variation between / and d seems to mark a dialectic dif- 
ference (Conway, Indogermanische Forschuntjen, vol. 11. p. 157 ff.). 


For Gk. 6 = original qji see under D (§ 141). 

In Latin h appears for Indo-G. dh before and after 
original r, before I and possibly after m\ in orig. d/j=Lat 
all other cases Indo-G. dh probably changed ^ '^"'^ '' 
medially to d. 

In Latin / sometimes appears to represent original 
dh in the middle of words, as in rufus, which q^^ ^,^ ^^^^ 
is akin to ruber. But rufus is borrowed Lat./mediaUy. 
from some one of the other Italic dialects in which dli 
was regularly represented by/! 

C. Palatal Stops. 

136. Indo-G. k - Skt. }• (Zend s), Gk. k, Lat. c, Kelt, 
c, Eng. h (but see § 100 i.), medially under certain con- 
ditions g, Letto-Slav. sz in Lithuanian (pronounced sh), s 
in Lettic and Slavonic. 

It will be observed that while Greek, Latin and 
Keltic keep the hard ^-sound (which is re- Tj^g ^^^ Ym&% 
presented in English by h according to the ?h^r"re^!fsent^ 
regular change under Grimm's Law), the '^^'°"" 
Iranian and Letto-Slavonic languages change it to some 
form of .<?. In consequence, these langaiages throw valu- 
able light upon the nature of the >?:-sound in other 
languages where %, g, gh and q, g, qh have been fused 
together and are represented by the same symbol, as is 
the case occasionally in Greek, frequently in Latin, and 
always in Irish. The Italic dialects however and those 
branches of the Keltic languages which represent ori- 
ginal velars by labials (§15) also help us to ascertain 
the nature of the original gutturals. It is customary to 
represent a guttural, the nature of which (o-ning to the 
lack of cognates in other dialects) it has been found im- 
possible to determine, by the ordinary guttural symbols 
k, g, gh without any distinguishing mark. 








: cli-no : 
cU-vus : 


: Kvcov 

: c«7i/.si : 


: SeKa 

: Jece?n : 

yuva-rn-s ; 

: vd-K-iv 

■eos : 

; juven-cu-s : 

^NUAL OF [§ 136 — 


lean (0. E. hl^nan infinitive) 
lozv in Lud-low etc. (O.E. hlcBw) 
: Lith. szly-ti 
hound (0. E, 7iu«rf) 
/c« (Goth. taihun = *tekn § 148) 
yo»HY/ (§ 104). 


Owing to the strong labial sound u which originally- 
followed, Indo-G. k in ''^ekuos is represented in Greek by 
TT in iTTTTos. So too in the word quoted by Pliny from 
Gallic epo-redia, and in the tutelary deity of horses 
Epona, a borrowed word in Latin. The aspirate in 
iTTTTos, which is not original, since the Skt. form is a<^vas, 
the Latin equos, was possibly produced by an early 
fusion of tlie article 6 with the initial vowel'. 

137. Indo-G. g = Skt. j (Zend z), Gk. y, Lat. g, 
Kelt, g, Eng. k, Letto-Slav. z (in Lith.), z (in Lettic and 

As Skt. j represents not only § but also g before 
original palatal vowels, the Zend and Letto-Slavonic 
show best the nature of any ^-sound. 






: {g)iio-sco 

: know 
(hith. zinai'i) 

zantu ('family') ; 

. 761' -05 ) 


_ genus 

: kin 

zaiwa ('knees,' pi.) 

: yopv 

: genu 

: knee 
(Goth. k7iiu) 


: mulg-e-o ( 

= 'mlg-) : milk 

(Lith. melzu). 

^ Can is was perhaps originally the feminine form (Schmidt, 
Pluralbildungen d. Indog. neutra, p. 61, 62 n.) ; cp. vulpes below 
(§ 169 c). 

2 Baunack, Studien, i. p. 240 ff. 



138. Indo-G. gh = Skt. h (Zend z) ; Gk. x ; Lat. initi- 
ally h and perhaps J\ medially h and g (when following 
n) or lost altogether ; Kelt, g ; Eng. g, y (later) ; Letto- 
Slav. z (in Lith.), z (in Lettic and Slavonic). 

From this it will be seen that in Zend, Keltic, Ger- 
manic and Letto-Slavonic there is no longer any dis- 
tinction kept np between the original aspirated and 
unaspirated voiced sounds. 





K 0,T «> !»,«, 

'Xftfliiv ' 

: anser (§ 125) 

: goose (O.H.G. gaits) 
: Lith. z(^s-is 



• < , > 

.X'Vatpa , 

: hieinps (p euphonic) 

: gimmer^ 


: bride-groom (Goth. 

Xa/J-ai : 

: <:}iomo (0. L. hemo\ 
1 —terrae filius) | 

git ma) 

: Lith. zmo-gus 

Xaivu} ^ 


\yawn (O.^.ganian 

xd-cr/cw ) 


I and g'lnan) 

oxos- ( = /bxos) ■ 

: veh-0 


\icain (O.E, xccegn) 
: Lith. vela 

6-aix-e-i^'^ : 


: O.E. migan {Goth, 
maihstus 'urine'). 

1 Dialectic and Scandinavian = a lamb that has lived through 
one winter. Wether has a similar meaning, but comes from the 
same root as ?tos, Lat. vetus, vitidus (?) and so 'yearling.' Cp. the 
origin of himus in Jjntin = hi-him)is 'two winters old.' 

- This word is not connected with e^x'^' which is in no way 
related to Lat. veho. The aorist i-ax-o-" shows that the root of 
ext^ is *segh- . For the change of meaning in E. weigh cp. eX/cw, 
which is also used of weighing. 

3 For a similar root see under g/i and Feist, Grundriss d. Goti- 
schen Etymologie, s.v. jnaihstus. 

112 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 138— 


Apparently x*'^ (x^'^"*^> ^X*^") tnust be connected 
with Lsitm /undo, 0. E. geMan, dial, ^ow^ = ' sluice ' in 
Lincolnshire (Goth, giutan), where / represents gh, and 
as yet no satisfactory explanation has been given of 
this irregularity'. Other words with initial / interchang- 
ing with h, SiS folus or kolus ' yegetahle,' far iolus or 
hariolus, are explained by the hypothesis that the forms 
with/, as riifus {% 135), are not Latin but Sabine. 

h for original gh when between vowels or before i 
often disappears in Latin; nemo = *ne-hemo, nil = nihil. 
So also major from ^mahior ; aio from *ahid or *ahid ; 
meio from ^meiho'. 

D. Velar Stops. 

139. Indo-G. q = Skt. k, c ; Gk. «, tt, t ; Lat. qu, c 
(Oscau and Umbriau jt>) ; Kelt. Irish etc. c, Welsh etc. j) 
(§ 15 vi.) ; Eng. hw (written wh), h and, medially under 
certain conditions g ; Letto-Slav. k, retained in Lith., 
but passing into other sounds in Slavonic. 

Here and in velar sounds generally Greek, Latin, 
Keltic and Germanic follow one line of development, 
indo-G. Ian- Sanskrit and Letto-Slavonic another. \i\ 
nito^^vo ^oups tl^6 first class Very many words show that 
meiu^o/thrve- ^ slight «-sound was developed after the 
''"■^- velar. That it was not a strong sound is 

shown by the fact that it does not make strong position 
when combined with the guttural. Cp. tTTTros = *ek- 

1 Buck {A. J. P. XI. p. 215 f.) holds that / in fiindo is due to 
the u following. It is too common a word, he says, to be Sabine. 
But English take is even more common and yet is Danish (§ 10). 

- Brugmann, Grundr. 1. § 510. Stolz- § 52. 


uos with lirojjLai = '■^seq'-o-maL Both are represented 
in Latin by qu. The reason for the parting of the 
Indo-G. languages into two groups in this matter re- 
mains still to be discovered'. Even languages which 
follow the same line of development, do not all show 
this w-sound in the same words. Even different dialects 
of the same language disagree. Thus the common Gk. 
form is TroTepos, the Ionic kotc/dos ; to Attic rts the equi- 
valent form in Thessalian is kis. Osthoff argues that 
there were originally three series of guttural pog^ibiy three 
consonants, making the velars which are "uf^u^if"*'* °^ 
not followed by u the third intermediate or 
' palato-velar' series". 

i. With labialisation by w. 

{a) Before o-vowels, nasals and liquids whether 
sonant or consonant^ : Gk. tt ; Lat. qu (c). 







: what 






: see^ (Goth, saihivati, 




: 0. E. Ilha7i^ (Goth. 



in-sec-e ( 


imperat.) : say (0. E. secgan 





onna (= 



: oc-ulu-s 

: ? etje (O.E edge) 

1 Brugm. Grundr. i. §§ 417, 424, 466, Gr. Gr." § 35. 

^ Morphologische Untersuchungen, VoL v. p. 63 note. Moi"e 
fully Bezzenberger, B.B. xvi. p. 234 ff., and Bechtel, Die Haupt- 
probleme der indogermanischen Lautlehre, p. 338 ff. Subdivision ii 
in §§ 139 — 141 coiTesponds to the new series. 

3 Brugm. Grundr. i. § 427, Gr. Gr." § 35. 

^ =' follow with the eye.' Wiedemann I. F. i. p. 257, denies 
the identity of see with sequor. 

^ Hence are derived loan and lend. 

G. P. 8 

114 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 139 — 

jrjirap ( — *ieqrt) : jeciir ) 

[TJ-rraTos ( — *ieqn-tos) : jecin-or-is] 

(b) Before dental (palatal) vowels: Gk. t; Lat. qu. 
Gk. Lat. Eng. 

Ti-j : qui-s (Oscan i)i-s) : ivh- as in luhat above 

reTTapes : quattuor : /our (0. E. in compounds /(/«e/'-) 

irevT€ : qidnqiic : Jive (Goth. JimJ). 

(c) In Greek, before v, which is itself probably 
occasioned by the labialisation : k. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

\vKo-s : vid2)es i : icolf, original form *ulqo-s 

vvKTos (gen.) : noct is (gen.) : ninht {O.E. neaht). 

ii. Without labialisation : Gk. k ; Lat. c. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

KapTTos : carpd (verb) : harvest 

KoXuvos : coUis { — *col-ni-K) : ]nll (and 0. E. heall 'rock') 

ajKuui : ) ( : awr/^e ' hook for angling.' 

ojKos ) (uncus) 

"Within the same word the consonant changes ac- 
cording to the following vowel. Hence 7ro8-a7ros, rts 

above ; ttol-vt], ri-fxij ; TToA-os, reWd) (cp. Tr€pLT€k\ofJi€vo}v 
iviavTwv with 7r€pt7rXo/xeVwv iv.) from the same root as 
Lat. colo, inqidUnus. 


(1) The force of analogy (§ 48) lias changed many 
Influence of forms in Greek ; thus from XetVcj we should 
analogy. \\a,\Q had in the present 

XetTT-w XfiTT-o-fiev 

XeiT-ets Xeir-e-Te 

Xeir-ei \€lv-o-vti. 

In the numerals this is specially marked. Thus 
corresponding to Attic Tcrrapes Doric tcto/ocs and Ionic 

1 A feminine form borrowed from a Sabine dialect, hence ^j 
for q. 

-§ 140] 



recrcrepes, we find iu Homer TTLcrvpe^, ill Lesbiau 7recr(o-)up£S, 
in Boeotian TreVTapes, the forms with initial t being 
levelled out. 

(2) In Latin original *penqe becomes by assimilation 
■quinque ; original *peqo (cp. -Kido-^a = ^peq-'io) becomes 
coquo through *quequo. 

(3) In English *penqe should be represented by 
*finli, but we find by assimilation, as iu Latin, 0. E. jif. 
In Latin and English the assimilation it Avill be observed 
has worked in opposite directions ; in Latin the first, in 
English the last consonant has changed. In the same 
way the word for 4 should have begun with h not/; in 
toth numerals the change must have been very early as 
it is shared by aU the Germanic dialects. So also Eng. 
ivolf corresponds more closely to the Sabine vulpes than 

to XvK05. 

140. Indo-G. g = Skt. g, j ; Gr. y, A ^ ; Lat. g, gu 
after n, lost before u; Kelt, g, h; Eng. qu, k; Letto- 
Slav. g, with later changes in Slavonic. 

i. With labialisation. 

(«) Before 0- vowels and nasals and liquids whether 
.sonant or consonant : Gk. /3, Latin v. 





; bos''- (an Oscau 

: cow 


: venio (§ 156) 

: come (Goth, qiman) 

Boeotian ^ava.^ ' woman ' 

: queen {quean is ori- 

ginally the same 



: viig-ra-re 

iari^ci} ( = 


: instigare 

: stick (\ev\)= pierce). 

1 The Latin form should be "^vos. 

- From the weakest form of this word *^va. assimilated to *fiva, 
as *dj3-i'6s for *ag-nos to dn-vos, comes the verb /xvaonai. 'woo.' 



(b) Before palatal vowels g appears in Greek as 5. 
Examples are not numerous, and before t, in nearly 
every case, /? appears. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

{M\(paS, 'pig' : : calf, orig. 

5eX0i's and 5o\(p6s 'womb' : ? vulva (for *voIha form *solhh- 
d-SeXipos frater uterinus by assimilation, 

cp. 140, Excep. 2) 
Arcadian — 

SeWuj = paX\cj : vol-are : ? qnaW^ 

Ai'cadian or Macedonian — (causative quell) 

depedpov = ^dpadpoi' '. vor-are. 

Compare also Delphian o^iXo^ with Attic o^oXds. 
The form 6(5€\6<; has arisen from a confusion between 
the other two. Cp. also Doric ST/Ao/xai, Locrian SciXo/xat, 
Thessalian /SeXXo/xat, Boeotian (SebKofxai with Attic ^ov- 
Xo/xat (= *(36\, Lesbian ^6Wo[xaL, Doric ^ajXo/i,at, 
Arcadian PoXo/xaL^. 

(c) In Greek, when q is accompanied by v we find 
it represented by y, as in yvm] contrasted with Boeotian 


Exception. (3 before t. 

/3tos : Lat. vivos : Eug. quick (Goth, qius 'living'). 

ii. Without labialisation ; in Greek y, Latin g. 

{(TjTkyo} (§ 237) : Lat. tefjo : Eng. thatch (0. E. \ieccan, Scotch thak) 
yepavo^ : Lat. gnis : Eng. crane. 

^ For the change of meaning 0. E. civelan 'die,' cp. Lithuanian 
(lelti 'pierce,' gylys 'sting of a bee,' gclia 'it hurts' used of violent 

- G. Meyer Gr. Gr.- § 194. ^ovXofxai. may =*j3o\-fo-ixaL according 
to J. Schmidt, K. Z. 32, p. 385. 


141. Indo-G. C|/i = Skt. gh, h; Gr. x, ^^ ^ ', Lat. h, 
J", g initially, b, gu, t medially, according to the character 
of the neighbouring sound ; Kelt, h, g ; Eng. ir, g, or lost ; 
Letto-Slav. g, with later changes in Slavonic. 

i. With labialisation. 

{a) Before 0- vowels and nasals and liquids whether 
sonant or consonant, in Greek <^ : 

vecppoi : Lat. (dialectic) nehrundines, pi. : Mid.E. nere"^ (borrowed 
,, (Praeuestine) ne/rones „ from Scandinavian) 

vi<l>a (ace. 'snow") : Lat. \)iive}n : Eng. snow". 


(b) Before g-vowels, in Greek ^ : 

Skt. gharmd- : dep/xos : JjSit. for mus : ? Eng. wrarai 

Skt. ^'han : deivu { = *dei'-Loj) : 'La.t. fendo. 

For a similar change within the same word compare 
^eu'di with 4>6vo<; and 4>°^T6<;=*q/mtos. Analog)'' some- 
times causes irregularities as l-davov-*e-qhnn- where <^ 
might be expected. So also vct^et for the regular 


(c) In combiuation with v, qh appears in Greek 

eXaxi's : La,t. lev is : ? ILng. ligJit [a-d].). 

1 The latter part of kid-ney represents the same word, being a 
corruption of nere or neer; kid- is a corruption of an old word 
quith 'the belly.' nere goes back to a primitive form *neshrun. 

- The English snoiu and Gothic snaiws ( = Idg. *snoishiid-s) 
exemplify Sievers' law (P. u. B. Beitrdge, v. p. 149) according to 
which a primitive Germanic 7 ( = Idg. gh, or k according to 
Verner's law) disappeared before w except when w was followed by 
«, as in Goth, magux 'servant,' but fern, maici (Idg. *maq-, Celtic 
J/ac = 'son,' in proper names). 

118 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 141 — 

ii. "Without labialisation ; x, Lat. //. 

Xauoavu : Lat. \pre-hendo : Eng. get 

{praeda ( = *prac-hed(i) 
o/xix^T] : '• Eng. mist : Lith. migla 


In Latin g appears before ?• as in grad'tor. 

II. Spirants. 

142. Indo-G. s = Skt. s, s (= sli) ; Gk. or, 9, ' (initially 
before sonants or « or ?") or nil (medially between vowels 
and by assimilation) ; Lat. s, r (between vowels) and nil 
(by assimilation) ; Kelt, s or, in certain positions nil ; Eng. 
s and r according to Verner's law (§ 104) ; Letto-Slav. s 
appearing sometimes as sz in Lith. and ch in Slavonic. 

6" initially and medially in combination with breathed 
stops or ^- remains : 





: sper-no 

: spiur-n^ 


: in-stig-are 

: stick ' pierce' (§ 140). 

So also 

I3a-UK(J}, Hom. 


■tcr-cTL, ecTTi ; Lat. 2)a-sco, 

es-sem, est ; 

Final -s remains : 









1 The meaning of the verb would be originally 'kick with the 
foot'; Latin and English have given it a metaphorical meaning. 
Another metaphorical sense ' track out ' is developed in the German 
spiiren, and Scotch speir ( = ask) 0. E. spyrian. 

— g 

§ 142] 



The Greek spiritus asper ' stands for 

(1) S-, 





: sal 



: se-ro 


( = *si-se-?)u') 

( = *./-..-o) 


: se-men 

see-d (Goth. se\>s) 


: sed-eo 


{ — *sed-l-) 


: sag-ire 




: sudvis 



( — *sudd-v 



: sudor 


( = *suid-) 

( = *suoidor 



: som-nus 

M. E. sivefyi 

(2) su- 

(weakest form of root ( = *suep-no-s § 201) 
*suep § 253) 
(3) si- v-nTjv suo (verb) : seio. 

{ = *siu-) ( = *SH(-7ti) 

As ' was not -sNTitten in the middle of words, o- entirely 
disappears in Greek between vowels ; in Latin s becomes 
in this case r : 

( = *7e^ecr-os) 

(=*mu$-os gen.) 
Homeric ra-wv : 

(=^td-som gen. pL fem. 
of article) 

Lat. gener-is 
{ = *genes-es) 

Lat. nmr-is 
( =: *vius-es) 

Lat. is-td-rum 

O.E. mus 

O.E. ])d-ra. 

For changes brought about by assimilation see under 
Combinations of Sounds (§§ 188 ff.). 

Medial -o-- is sometimes restored by the force of 
analogy ; hence eXv-a-a because of €-Koif/-a. jnfl^ence of 
So modern Greek gives (ftipeo-ai 2 sing. Middle '^"^ios>'- 
on the analogy of 4>€pofxaL and cjiipeTai (cp. § 48). 

1 For V see § 227. 

120 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 142 — 

The reason for the appearance in Latin of 6- in a few 
words between two vowels, miser, nasus, etc., is not yet 
absolutely certain \ 

143. Indo-G. z does not require much discussion. 
Treatment of ^^ apparently occurred originally only be- 

indo-G. s. fQj.g voiced stops. It is represented in 

Greek by o- before /8 and y as cr/Sevvvfjn, Trpe'cr-yus (a 
dialectic form = TrpeV/Jvs) ; C as already mentioned (§ 118) 
represents original zd. In Latin z disappeared before 
d and probably became r before g {mergo). In English 
the voiced stops have become breathed and consequently 
;:; has become *" in combination with them. 

In the classical languages the voiced aspirates be- 
came breathed aspirates and ultimately, in Latin, spirants ; 
hence we expect z, in all cases, to become s. In Germanic, 
as the voiced aspirates lost their aspiration, z remained 
and ultimately in some cases became r, in others dis- 

t'fw- : sido ) 

nldus) • Eng. nest 
( = *ni-zd-os) 
o^os : Goth, asts 

Zend mlzda : fiiados : Lat. ? mlles^ : Eng. meed (0. E. med). 

10 and u. 

144. These sounds seem to have been indistinguish- 
able from an early period. Recently an attempt has been 

^ For the best discussion of the point see E. S. Conway, 
Veitiefs Laio in Italy, 1887. 

2 =z*si-zd-o a reduplicated verb like 'iuT-qixi, sisto; zd is the 
weakest form of the root *sed-. 

3 With the Latin change of d to I (§ 134). The meaning would 
be exactly that of 'soldier^ — one who serves for money {soUdi). 
But as Latin d here would represent Indo-G. dh, the phonetic 
change is doubtful. 


made to show that a difference of treatment is discernible 
in Armenian, but the point is not finally decided ^ It is 
possible that the difference between iv and u (and be- 
tween y and ?) was not that the one was a stronger 
spirant than the other, but that iv and y were breathed 
while u and / were voiced. 

As no certain distinction can be drawn between v; 
and u, the consideration of both sounds may be postponed 
till we reach the diphthongs (§ 173). 


Greek is the only language where a clear distinction 
is made between the treatment of original y 

11 f • • 1 . T /-. 1 • • 1 Difference be- 

and that oi original i. In breek original y tweenorig./and 

is represented by C- There are but a few 

certain examples, and these only at the beginning of 


few : Eng. yeast 

{ = *ye$-o) 

^vyov : Lat. jugum : Eng. yoke 

^fjLT) : Lat. J«s {' broth'). 

III. (a) Liquids as Consonants. 

145. The number of liquids in the original language 
is not absolutely certain : two sounds, I and original liquids 
r, certainly existed, but there may have '^"certain, 
been more. The difficulty of the question is increased 
by the fact that the Aryan languages sometimes have r 
where the other languages have uniformly /, 

^ See H. D. Darbishire, Notes on the Sinritus Asper in Greek 
etymologicaUy considered (Transactions of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society), Cambridge, 1888. 



[§ 146— 

146. Indo-G. /^Skt. /and r\ Zend and Old Persian 
r, in all the other languages /. 





^Iruc ' shine 

' : \evK-6-s 


: light (0. E. leoht) 

ijrni 'hear' 

: k\v-t6-s 


-s : 0. E. hliid (§ 133) 



: hdlc and liuil 



: ell 



•A fell 'skin' 
: (film. 

ole of shoe ' 


Indo-G. r = 

Skt. / and 

r, in all the other lan- 

guages r. 





: por-rigo 

reach and rack^ 


: fero 



: porcu-s 


farroiv ' litter of pigs' 

0. E. fearh ' pig.' 

1 The relations between I and r in Skt. and the development 
of the cerebral dentals from the original combination Z + dental 
have been discussed by P. Fortunator, B.B. vi. pp. 215 ff. and 
more recently by Bechtel, Hauptprohleme der indog. Lautlehre, 
p. 380 ff. who, in the main, endorses F.'s conclusions. The results 
have been submitted to a searcliing investigation by Bartholomae 
(J. F. III. p. 157 ft".), whose criticism is mainly negative. The chief 
difficulties with regard to the history of I and r in the Aryan 
gi'oup of languages are these : (1) Z occupies a very inconsiderable 
space in early Skt. ; where the classical language has I, the 
Eigveda has mostly r; (2) in the Avesta I does not occur at all; 
(3) the cuneiform symbol in Old Persian identified by Oppert as I 
occurs only in two foreign words ; (4) the modern Iranian dialects 
have I but do not agree in its use. On the other hand all the 
European groups have an /-sound and agree in its use. The 
difficulty of distinguishing r and / is felt in our own time by the 
Chinese and Siamese. Christ in Chinese is Kilisetu ; a Siamese 
will pronounce "the flames rolled on" as "the frame loll on." 

- Some meanings of rack are apparently borrowed from the 






: nther : 

rvddij ' red'i 


otter (0. E. otor) 


: a(jer (from *agros : 
through the stage *agrs 

acre (Goth, akrs) 

IV. (a) Nasals as Consonants. 
148. Indo-G. m appears as in in all the branches 
of the Indo-G. family. In Greek, Keltic, Germanic and 
Slavonic final }n became n. 

Gk. Lat. 


Doric /Jii-Trjp : ma-ter 

: vwther (§ 104) 

a-fj.k\yb} : mulgeo 

: milk 

dep-fjio-s'^ : for-mu-i 
(6d-/io-s : do-)7ut-s 

: icarm 

: timber* (Germ, zimmer 'room') 

t6-v : is-tu-m 

: Goth. i>an-a. 

149. Indo-G. n appears as 7i in all the branches of 

the Indo-G. family. 


Lat. Eng, 

veos ( = j'e/b-s) : 



veoj 'spin' : 



Dialectic oi-v6-s : 

u-nu-s {~*oi-no-s) 

one, an, a~ 

ev : 



1 The English word has not the -ro- suffix. 

- Literally ' water beast. ' 

3 The Greek word represents the f-form, the Latin and English 
the o-foi-m of the root Qher- (§ 141, i. h). 

•* Properly 'wood for building,' cp. Lat. tig-nu-m from tego. 

5 For Lat. = original e see § 180. 

^ According to Kluge (D. E. W. s. v. niihen), the root has been 
borrowed by one language from another, and so is not originally 
Germanic. Forms appear in other languages with an initial s. 

"^ an and a are the unaccented forms. 

8 Latin in for *en is according to Hoffmann (BB. xviii. p. 156) 
the unaccented form which changed e to t before the initial con- 
sonant of the following word. This form then ousted *en, which 
should have appeared in other combinations. 

124 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 150 — 

150. Indo-G. n appeared only before palatals, w be- 
fore velars. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 
n ayx^ '• ango : ag- in agnail=0. E. ang ncegl 'a sore by the 

>9 appeared originally in Indo-G. *2)ei9qe = Tr€i'T€, qiiinque, jive 
(§ 139, exc. 2). 

B. Sonants. 
III. {h) Liquids as Sonants. 

151. As sonant liquids and nasals appear in the 
weakest forms of many roots which have also stronger 
forms actually existent, different forms of the same root 
Avill often illustrate both sonant and consonant nasals 
and liquids, as SepK-o/Aat, Se-Sopx-a, l-SpaK-ov, Lat. pello, 
pulsus, where e-SpaK-ov and pulsus represent respectively 
original e-drk-om and pl-to-s. 

152. Indo-G. / = Skt. r, Gk. aX, \a, Lat. ol, (ul), 
Keltic //, Germ, ul, lu, Letto-Slav. it. 

Before sonants Indo-G. I is followed by the corre- 
sponding consonant, hence Indo-G. //=Skt. ur, ir, Gk. 
aX, Lat. ol. {ul), Keltic al, Germanic and Letto-Slav. 
as above. 

KcCkvwTU} : Lat. oc-eidtus : Eng. hole (Goth, hiihmdi 

( — k\\-) {cf.celare) 'hiding-place') 

TciXas : (Lat. tollo { = *tlno) : Scotch tJioIe (0. E. ]>olian 

{ = tU-) \o. Lat. tulo Goth. \>ulan, 'suffer') 

[TraJXos]^ : liSbt. puUus { — *2)l-nos) : Eng. foal {Goth, fiila) 

TraX-Tos : Lat. j^ul-sus" ( = *jj/-t6s). 

^ The word, as is shown by the difference of meaning in Latin, 
had originally been used for any young animal. The Greek form 
shows the root in a different grade from that of the other languages. 

2 In such words, s after I appears on the analogy of forms like 
versus = *vrt-tus where s is according to a Latin phonetic rule 
(§ 191). 


153. Indo-G. r = Skt. r, Gk. ap, pa, Lat. or {nr), 
Keltic ri, Germanic ur {ru § 158), Letto-Slav. ir. 

Indo-G. rr = Skt. ur, ir, Gk. ap, Lat. ol {id), Keltic 
ar, Germanic and Letto-Slav. as above. 

Skt. Gk. Lat. Eng. 

bhrti-s : [<pepw] : fors { = *bhrti-s) : birth (0. F,. ge-hyrd) 

ddp-ai-s Goth. ga-haur\>s 

(from Se'pw) 

porca ' balk be- : furron-, fur-long 

tween furrows' 0. E. furli 

Trpacro-i'^ 'leek' : porruvi{ = *2)r-so-vi}. 

ovO-ap shows final rr ; er of uher probably arises in 
the same way as in ager, from *agrs, agros. 

154. As regards the long sonant liquids much still 
remains to be done. According to Brug- Long sonant 
mann^ it is certain that Indo-G. I, r are '^i"^*^*- 
represented in Skt. by ur, tr, in Gk. by o\, op. Aw, pw, 
and at the end of words wp, in Lat. by al, ar and la, ra ; 
in Keltic Id is found and apparently ar (in ard = Latin 
arduus), and in Germanic al and ar. But see § 158). 

ov\os * curly '=;*u7ho-s : Lat. lana = ulna. 

Skt. imrnd-s : woWol ( = *i}T-7i6-s) 

t\7]-t6s (Doric TXa-r6-s) 



Lat. latus [=:*tl-tos) 
Lat. stra-tiis 
Lat. pars {=*pfti-s cp. 
partim old accusative). 

1 The reason for the double representation of the sonant 
liquids in Greek is a vexed question. According to Kretschmer 
K. Z. 31, p. 390 ff.) ap appears if the later Greek accent falls on 
the syllable, pa if the syllable remains unaccented. But cp. 
§ 158. 

2 Grundriss, i. § 306. 

126 A SHOKT MANUAL OF [§ 155 — 

IV. {h) Nasals as Sonants. 

155. The Indo-Germanic sonant nasals in Aryan 

and Greek, when not standing; immediately 

Various repre- i i 1 1 

sentation of so- before i and ijrobably u, or a sonant, are 

nant nasals in ~ i • ^ ■ ^ 

Greek and Latin represented by a and a respectively : ni the 

according to po- ,^ , .,1 ^ ' .■ 

sition and ac- other languages, With Scarcely any exception, 
they are represented by the same sounds 
in all positions, these sounds being m and n respectively 
with a vowel which in Sanskrit and Greek is a, a, in 
Latin e, in Keltic originally e (for nn, an), in Germanic 
u, in Letto-Slav. i. 

156. Indo-G. m = Skt. a, am, Gk. a, a/x- (before a 
sonant), Latin em, Keltic em, am (cf. K. Z. 27, 450 n.), 
Germanic urn, Letto-Slav. im. 

Similarly for the 7i-sounds Skt. a, an, Gk. a, av, etc. 
From the stem sem- seen in ofj-os, tv {=*sem), /j-m 
{= *smia) we find 

d in d[-7r\6os = *sm- : Lat. sim-plex 
Ace. suffix -?«: iroo-a : La,t. j^ed-em : Goth, fot-^l { = *fot-iim). 

Before sonants 

diJia = *smin- : Lat. sem-el : Goth. snm-s = *smm-o-s. 

Before i, m becomes av in Gk, en in Latin 
/3aiVw (for */3ai'tw = *ewfo) : Ij&i. venio : Eng. come. 

157. Lido-G. M = Skt. a, an, Gk. a, av (before a 
sonant), Lat. en, Keltic (see K. Z. I. c), Germanic un, 
Letto-Slav. in. 

Negative prefix Lido-G. *n : Gk. a : Lat. en (in) : 
Eng. im. 


Skt. sat- : Dialectic eaa-aa (fem. ) : Lat. prae-sens : [Eng, sooth^, 
( = ^e-o-yr/a) from the stronger 

ovo-fj-aT-a : Lat. cog-no-ment-a : Germanic suftix -mund 
( = -miit-) in German leu-mund 

daavs : Lat. den.sus. 

Before sonants 
Tavv-y\u}(7aos { — *t>jnu-) : Lat. tenu-i-s : Eng. tliin { = *i>uiiiius) 

Before i 

lj.aiv€Tat { = miiietai) : of. Lat. (jeniiis : Eng. kin (stem ^knio-)'-. 

158. The history of the long sonant nasals is even 
more obscure than that of the long sonant ^0,^^ sonant 
liquids. In Greek d (Ionic and Attic 77) "^^^'^• 
seems to represent m and n between consonants, while 
vd appears for initial n ; e^rp-e = e-qmte, v^-ttutios. 

In Latin nd appears for n in the middle of words, as in 
gnat lis, an initially, anas, 'duck,' cp. Gk. vya-a-a (= *ntia). 

Quite recently Osthoff has propounded a new treat- 
ment of the sonant nasals, recognising two osthoffs new- 
different forms in each of the Indo-Ger- tiieory. 

1 The meaning is 'truth' as in 'sooth to tell,' etc. The deri- 
vative satija in Skt. has the same meaning. The forms cited 
above are the present participle of the substantive verb *e»-. 

- An accented sonant nasal or liquid, except as the result of 
analogy, is a contradiction in terms, these sounds being by defini- 
tion the result of the absence of expiratory accent on any given 
syllable. The forms supposed to be accented are now satis- 
factorily cleared up by Streitberg (J. F. i. p. 83). The sonant 
nasals, according to him, have only one representation in Gk. and 
Skt. just as in the other languages; where Skt. am, an, Gk. av 
occur to I'epresent these sounds, the form is a mixture between 
the genuine sonant a, a and the stronger grades \s'ith original 
e and 0. Thus tdcn. is a mixture of *ia(Ti { = i-iirti) and *wvtl, cp. 
Lat. eunt. 

128 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 158 — 

manic languages for each of these sounds'. Thus in 
Greek ni, n are represented not only by a and av", but 
also by \i.a.- and m-, in Latin by ma, na as well as by 
em, en, in Germanic by mu and nu as well as by um and 
un. It has always been recognised that I and r in Greek 
had each two representatives oA, \a ; ap, pa. Osthoff finds 
in Latin besides ol and or, la and ra, and in Germanic 
besides id and ur, lu and ru. Similarly the long sonant 
nasals and liquids are represented in the manner given 

Examples of the second set of representative sounds 
are fxaT^vw from the same root as fj-eTaWdu). 

magnus = *'Jiignos from root of /xcyas. 

va'nii = *nsi6 (from the weakest form of the root in 

nac-fus, Lido-G. root nek^. 

V. Vowels. 

159. Indo-G. a = Skt. a, Gk. a, Lat. a (in certain 
cases given below e, i, n), Kelt, a, Germ, a, Letto-Slav. 
0, but at a later period a in the Lettic dialects. 

dy-p6-s : Lat. ager from agros : Eug. acre (Goth, akrs) 

through *agp 
a.p-6u : Lat. ar-o : Goth. a?7/a ' I plough' 

Bibl. E. earing 'ploughing season' 
avrl : Lat. ante (§ 165) : Eng. and, ansicer. 

1 Morphologiiiche Vntersuclmngen, Vol. v. p. iv ff. 

^ This is discounted by Streitberg's theory given in the 
previous note. 

^ Sonant z is found by Thurneysen, A'. Z. 30, 351 ff. in such 
words as x'^'oi ( = *ghzl-iio-), (ppvyio, Jj&t. frigo, KpWrj ( — ghrzdhu) 
akin to Germ, gerste, Eng. grist. It may be mentioned here that 
some philologists deny the existence of sonant liquids and nasals, 


In Latin a when unaccented became 

(1) in open syllables u, the intermediate sound 
between i and u. This is represented some- unaccented 
times by i, sometimes by u ; thus quatio, ^'^ •^'^*'°' 
conditio; salio,insulio; hxxt pater, Iup-x>iter ; ago,adigo; 

(2) in close syllables, with rare exceptions, e; cano, 
concentus ; cajno, acceptus (cp. accipio) ; facio, artifex, 
but artijicis according to (1). Before I followed by 
another consonant a appears as u : conculco but calco 
(cp. § 273). 

i6o. Indo-G. a = Skt. «, Gk. a (?/), Lat. «, Kelt, a 
and a (when unaccented), Germ, o (§ 106. ii), Letto-Slav. 
originally «, which now appears as u in Lith., a in Lett, 
and Old Prussian, and a in Slavonic. 

In Ionic Gk. d became rj everywhere, in Attic d 
appears at the end of words after another vowel and 
after p (§ 62) ; elsewhere Attic has -q. 
Doric /m-T77p \ . j^^^_ ^^^ -^^^j. . j,^„_ ,^^.^,^^,. (g 104J 

Attic firj-Trip ) 

Bovic 4>a.-y6-s I : hat. fdgiis : Eng. huck-ioheat'^ 

Attic (prj-yo-s \ 0. E. bOc-treoio (beech-tree), 

Doric aSi^s '/ 
Attic 7;5i;s \ 

Lat. siidvis : Eng. sit-eei (0. E. sitofe). 

i6i. Indo-G. ^ = Skt. a, Gk. c, Lat. (? (in some cases 
{ and o), Kelt, e, Germ, e but in many positions (in 

holding that a reduced vowel sound always accompanies the liquid 
or nasal. For a full discussion of the question from this point of 
view see Bechtel's Uanptprohleme d. indog. Lautlehre, pp. 114 — 143. 
The theory of long sonant liquids and nasals seems to be based on 
facts which can be explained better otherwise ; magnus, for ex- 
ample, vaa,y — *m?gnos while /jL^yas = megns. 

1 The form beech comes from a by-form of this word, bece. 

G. P. 9 

130 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 161 — 

Gothic eveiywliere) i\ Letto-Slav. e (in the same case 
as in Latin o, whence Lith. a). 





: fer-o 

hear (0. H. G. heran'mi.) 



I (Goth, ik) 



ten (§ 148) 



is (Goth. Germ, ist) 



chin (Goth, kinnus) 


\emo- = *nmo'\ 

0. E. nima (§ 10). 

In originally unaccented syllables in Latin e became 
Unaccented e ^ (1) ^^'^^en any single consonant but r fol- 
in Latin. lowed, (2) generally before nasals in close 


(1) a g ite = ay ^Ti \ lego but colUgo (cp. confero), 
premo but opprimo etc. (2) qidnque =^ Trivn. (§ 139 (2)), 
tignum 'wood for roofing' tego^, lignum 'wood for 
gathering ' ' fuel,' lego. 

In Latin e before u became a, novus = vef os, 0. Lat. 

tOVOS (tuus) = TeFo's. 

162. Indo-G. (9 = Skt. (7, Gk. •>?, Lat. e (7), Kelt. J, 
Germ, originally e, which Gothic retains, the other 
dialects changing to a, Letto-Slav. e, whence Lith. 'e, 
Slav, e (yd, a). 

1 Before r and h in Gothic the e-sound was restored. In 
Gothic Mss. it appears as ai and in modern books is given as 
ai to distinguish it from the genuine diphthong. Hence in 
Gothic the sonants of bairan, raihts and niman all represent 
original e. 

2 The original meaning of the word, as is shown by legal Latin, 
is 'to take.' 

2 Tignutn, however, is more commonly connected with tck- 
in TiK-ruv, Skt. taJcsan- (§ 195). 




71100)1, 0. E. mOna, Gotb. menu 

month, Goth. mend\>s 

seed ( = *se-)ji-s) 

soio (0. E. sdwan inf.) 

Gk. Lat. 

fi-qv for */jL7ivs^ : viensis 
(cp. Lesb. gen. /j.tjvi>os 

— *fj.riv<T-Os) 

{ = *si-se-mi) 


111 Latin Jilius appears, not felius (connected with 
^^Xus etc.), possibly through influence of the I in the 
next syllable. 

163. Indo-G. 6»=Skt. a and « (in open syllables'^), 
Gk. o, Lat. 0, u, e, i, Kelt, 0, Germ, a, Letto-Slav. 0, 
which in the Lettic dialects has become a. 


( — *si-so) 
pa-ter : fa-ther (§ 104) 
ed-i : ate (Goth, et-um 'we ate'). 




octo : 

: Eng. eight (Goth, ahtdu) 


potis : 

Goth. hru\>-fa')?s 'bridegroom' 

( = '"TTOTli 



is-tud : 

; Eng. that 


domus ; 

: cp. Eng. day ( = *dhog]ios) (Goth. 



genus ; 

: cp. Germ, sieg, 0. E. si^or 'victory' 

{ = *seghos), Skt. sdhas 

)ric (ptp-o- 

VTL '. 


: Goth, hair-a-nd. 

In Latin of the classical period, n in final syllables 
has superseded o except after u as in sernos, u, i, e in Latin 

1 The phonetically correct representative of this original form 
viz. jxeis is found in Ionic. 

- There is a difficulty here. Not every original o in an open 
sj'llable becomes a in Skt. Cp. 2)dtis troais with jun-a-s y6i>-o-s. 
This difficulty is evaded by de Saussure and others by assuming 
two original o-sounds, one of which interchanges with e and is 
represented by « in Skt., while the other remains constant as o, 
and is always represented in Skt. by d. Cp. now I. F. iii. 364 ff. 


132 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 163 — 

« sometimes appears even in accented syllables as in 
hunc = hone, uncus = oyKos. 

i appears for o in illico = *in sloco (old form of locus) 
' on the spot/ and possibly in agi-mus as compared \vitli 
ay o-ixev. It is, liowever, possible that agi-mus by ana- 
logy follows a git is in its vowels. The genitive ending 
-is is not an example of this weakening ; -is in this case 
stands for -es, a grade of the suffix different from the 
Greek -os. 

Except as a final sound (sequere-eTreo), e appears in 
Latin for o probably only in unaccented close syllables, 
a case in which a also changes to t< (§ 159); e.g. hospes, a 
compound oi hostis 'guest, stranger,'^ and j30^^s 'lord'; 
cp. on the other hand, compos, imioos, later formations 
after the word had become an adjective. 

164. Indo-G. r7 = Skt. a, Gk. w, Lat. 0, Keltic a, u 
in final syllables, Germ, d (originally), Letto-Slav. °i 
(Lith. and Lett.), d Slavonic. 

veixu) : Lat. emo : Goth, nima^ 

vSwp : : Goth, ivat-u (an 

wa 'border of a garment' : Lat. ora ' shore' : 0. E. ora 
etSws : Osc. sipus^ : Goth, weit-ivods. 

165. Lido-G. I = Skt. /, Gk. I, Latin / (in final 
syllables and before r, e), Kelt. /, e (before a and 0), 
Germ, i, Letto-Slav. /. 

^ This is the original meaning of the word ; guest, Goth, gasts, 
is its philological equivalent. 

- In Goth, final 6 is always shortened and becomes a. In 0. E. 
final u appears as «, 0, and e. 

^ So Johannes Schmidt (K.Z. 26, 373), who explains it as the 
weak form of the participle of *sepi the old perfect of sapio, cp. 
6iS-wa, * freid-v(T-ia. Others regard the suffix as original *uos. 


Gk. Lat. Eng. 

"> Boric Ip-Tjv ' iuvenis^ : vir ( = *iuros) : world^ 

Tri6-€cr-6ai. : fid-es : bid- (Goth, bidyan) 

errd-o-t-s : sta-ti-o : stead ( — *sthB-ti-s 
( = *sth9-ti-s) §169) 

fors (=:*fortis : birth (=bJiki-s). 
from rt. *bher-) 

For Latin I changing to e, cp. se?'o 'I bo-w' = *si-sd 
(§ 142) with si-sto. Final i appears as e in the nomi- 
native of neuter noun stems in -/-, as mai^e for older 
marl, and in the ablative if, as is most probable, it 
represents the original locative; ped-e is then to be 
compared with ttoS-l. 

i66. Indo-G. I=Skt. i, Gk. Z, Lat. 1, Kelt. J, Germ. 
I, Letto-Slav. I (written y in Lith.). 

cTia = /'iT€a : Lat. vl-ti-s : Eng. icithy. 

Indo-G. suffix -Ino- : 
dyxi-<^T-tvos : Lat. sii-lnu-s : Eng. sw-ine, 0. E. siv-in. 

Weaker form of optative suffix -ie- : 

elSeifxev : Lat. slmus : 0. H. G. slm and sin 

(=*elSea-i-fj.€v) (strong form in siem) (0. E. sien). 

167. ludo-G. « = Skt. u, Gk. V, Lat. u (i or ic before 
labials), Kelt, u, Germ, u, Letto-Slav. u. 

vv : Lat. nu-diu-s : Eng. now, 0. E. nu 

'^vyov : Lat. jugum : Eng. yoke, Goth, yuk 

k\v-t6-s : Lat. in-clu-tns : Germ. (H)hid-icig ( = Leivis)^. 

^ World originally means 'the age of man' (0. E. iceorold), 
= saeculum. 

- In the English 'bid' two separate original verbs are confused, 
corresponding respectively to ind-iadaL and irvd-eadai, the former 
in English originally meaning 'pray' as in 'bidding-prayer,' the 
latter 'command' now the ordinary sense. 

3 The English loud, 0. E. lilFal, comes from a bye-form of this 
original participle *klu-tu-s. 



[§ 167- 

For Latin i or 11 (the intermediate sonnd between i 
and u, ci). optimus and optiamis), we have 

Mill Latin. ^ / . ,., / „ f , , 

an example m «6^^, by-rorm ot lnoet 
from a root *lub/i-. Compare also limpa or lumpa, later 
by reason of false derivation from Greek, lympha. This 
variation is very frequent in the dative and ablative 
phiral of ?<-stems, as in gent-bus as well as gmu-bus 
from gen-u. 

1 68. Indo-G. 

R = U 

separate languages. 

IMS : Lat. 


v-s : Lat. 


■jrv-dw : Lat. 


u in the first stages of all the 

0. E. mus (mouse) 

0. E. su (for *su-z), sow 

0. E. fill (foul). 

169. Indo-G. 3 'schwa' or the neutral vowel = Skt. 

i {a before /-vowels), Gk. a, (e, o), Lat. a, (i, 

ed in "the same u), Kelt, a, Germ, a, Letto-Slav. a. In 

way as tlie sound , , ■. . . r^ 1 1 , i i , 

with which each these languages it suiters all the later 
gmg™ identifies changes whicli the sound -with which it is 
identified undergoes ; thus in Latin it ap- 
pears as i in animus, cp. accipio {§ 159). In Greek it 
occurs frequently as the weakest form of a syllable, and 
then, except when influenced by analogy, always as a. 
Orig. form *2y9-ter. 

Skt. pi-ta(r) : Tra-Trjp : Lat. pa-ter 

: Gotb. fa-dar. 

Orig. form *sth^-ti-s. 

Skt. sthi-ti-s : <Trd-(n-s : Lat. sta-ti-o : 

Eng. stead (§ 104). 

af-e-fjLos : Lat. an-i-mus 

Skt. vam-i-ini : fe/x-^-io. 

The -0- form appears in Gk. in o'/a-o-tt;? and similar 
words. The reason for the variation between c and o in 


the syllable succeeding a root, when c and o represent 
original 9, is not known \ 

i and u. 

170. i and u remain in many positions in all the 
Indo-G. languages, though in some they have 

, 11 • 11 Varying treat- 

been strengthened to spirants, or have be- ment of i and « 

, 111-1 1 • T • 1 according to po- 

come voiceless and labio-dental, as 111 Irisli sition in the 

J, , „ ^ J . ■ word. 

jer man = *mros, Lat. xir. 

These sounds are most important in two positions 
(a) preceding a sonant in the same syllable as vi-Fo-%, 
no-vo-s, (b) following a sonant in the same syllable as at, 
ou. In the former position i and u are naturally often 
also preceded by sonants as in the example given, 
but consonants also frequently precede, as ievFos, 
Attic ^eVos, o-reAA-o) = *o-T€A(,w. In the latter position i 
and u may similarly be followed by either sonants or 

171. (a) Preceding a sonant in the same syllable. 

1. Initially : 

i is represented in Greek by the spiritus asper ; u 
regularly disappears in Attic, though sometimes by a 
kind of ' cockney ' pronunciation, which in the fourth 
century B.C. was very frequent, the spirit us asper occurs. 
In many other dialects it was retained as ?. 

1 For av-e-no-i, i/x-e-o} and other forms of the same kind, Fick's 
theory of disyllabic roots supplies a better explanation. There is 
nothing to prevent -e- and -0- grades having a weak grade in 9. 

136 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 171- 




i VOLK-lvdoS 

: juvenats 

: yoring (§ 104) 

vixeh (Aeolic 


: Goth, yus 

= *iu- 


\iTia ] 

: vi-ti-s 

: tfith-ij (§ 166) 

rt. ncgh. \''°^°' \ 

: veJio 

: wain. 

(oxos ) 

IT 2. 2. Medially: 

i between vowels disappeared early everywhere in 
Greek except when preceded b}^ v. In this case some 
dialects, as Cyprian and Lesbian (cp. § 122), retained it 
dowai to the historic period. In Latin also, i between 
vowels has disappeared before the historical time. For 
i with sonant nasals see § 156. 

Gk. Lat. 

, N (am-o =amd-i6 

Tiua-oj 1 I 

,,„..,, 1 , \)itone-o = moiie-id 

(pLXe-oj r had all originally -iw^ : so also < 

\,statu-o = statn-i6 

7 ■ '^V^- "^ Theocritus : fu-at=^*hlm-i-. 

or (pvLT} ) 

In many words in which / is consonantal in other 
languages, it appears as a vow^el in Latin, cp. yaeWo? 
(Homeric) = */xe^-io-5 (§ 135) with Lat. medius. 

u between vowels is preserved as F in many dialects 
though not in Attic. It remains also in Latin. 

6(f)is : Lat. oris : Eng. eice 

ai-{f)wv : Lat. ae-co-m : Goth, ahv, 0. E. a (from *dica), aho 


The combination of these sounds with consonants 
mil be discussed later (.§197 ff.). 

^ This is the common view, but some of both the Gk. and the 
Latin verbs may be later modifications of stems in -mi. 


VI. Diphthongs. 

173- (^) i ^iicl U following a sonant in the same 
syllable. These combinations are called ^. ^^, 

\ Diphthongs. 

diphthongs. There were, as already men- 
tioned (§ 115), twelve original diphthongs, but those 
with a long first element were always rare and have 
been much mutilated in their later development in the 
separate languages. 

Hence the diphthongs ^^'ith a short first element will 
be given here and the remaining fragments Diphthongs 
of the others after them. ^^^ ^^""^ «°- 

174. Indo-G. a? = Skt. e, Gk. at, Lat. ae, i, Kelt. 
ai, J (final). Germ, at (0. E. a), Letto-Slav. ai, e (Lith.), 
e (Slav.). 

This is preserved in Greek and in the early period of 
Latin, later it becomes ae and, in syllables unaccented in 
the early Latin .system of accentuation, I (§ 272 f.). 

aW-o-s : 0. Lat. aidi-Us\ 
aedes f 
Xai-/'6-s : Lat. lae-vo-s 

( = *slai-no-s) 

fO. E. (id (funeral pyre) 
lEng. idle ? 1 
Eng. slow =*slai-uo-s 

For the change to J in Latin, cp. aestimo -with ex- 
Istumo, laeclo with colUdo. 

175. Indo-G. ei = Skt. e, Gk. ct, Lat. I (ei), Kelt, e 
(with later changes). Germ, ii (0. E. I), Letto-Slav. ei, 
becoming in Lith. e, in Slav, i (always long). 

1 Perhaps the original meaning of idle was 'empty' or 'con- 

138 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 175 — 

Preserved intact in Greek and in early Latin, ei 
in later Latin appears as 7. 

irddu : Lat. feido (fldo) : Eng. bid (§ 165 n. 2) 
(TTeixio : h&t. in-ve-stuj-are : O.'E. stiyan^ {ini.). 

The hysterogenous ct of (fnXeiTe (§ 122) must not be 
confused with the original Greek diphthong ei. 

176. Lido-G. oj = Skt. e, Gk. ot, Lat. oe, it, 1, Kelt. 
oi, 1, Germ, and Letto-Slav. have the same forms as 
for ai. 

Preserved in Greek, oi becomes in Latin oe and u 
in accented, J in unaccented syllables. 

TTe-TToid-a : Lat. foed-us : Goth. 5a/}> 

oT5-e : Lat. v'ld-it- : Goth, ivait (Eng. \oot) 


ol-po-s C&ce') : hat. oemts, iinus : Goth, a ins (Eng, one, an, a) 

Examples of the change of oi in Latin to a are seen 
in 0. Lat, loidos later Indus ; 0. Lat. moiros later 
mnrus, hwi po-merium (= 'the place beliind the walls') for 

1 With this are connected sty (in the sense of enclosure and of 
swelling on the eye), and stair — 0. E. stcegr. 

- After V in Latin, oi by a species of dissimilation apparently 
becomes (, cp. okos with Lat. vicits. In some Scotch dialects the 
same thing takes place; u after lo is unpronounceable and is 
changed to i, or w is dropped. In Aberdeenshire, ivool is pro- 
nounced '00', ivound 'oon' {oo = n). In the Boai'd schools, wood, 
tcouhl are commonly pronounced 'oo(? ; the popular pronunciation 
varies from wid to iciul (n as in but). As the sound of o in Greek 
tended towards ?T and in the Aeolic dialect is frequently repre- 
sented by it, this form of dissimilation may explain why in Homer 
such words as dpau show no trace of the Digamma which they 
undoubtedly once possessed (Monro, H. G.-, § 393). 


*2^os-moiriom\ ~t is seen in the dative and abl. plural of 
o-stems : vlcls = oi/cots, both going back to ^uoikdis. So 
also nom. pi. Js-ti = roi (Doric). 

177. Indo-G. f/w = Skt. 0, 6k. av, Lat. au (0), u, 
Kelt, au, u, Germ, au (0. E. ea), Letto-Slav. au, later 
Slav, u (always long). 

Preserved in Greek and in accented syllables in 
Latin ; in unaccented syllables it becomes u. In the 
pronunciation of the common people au seems to have 
been pronounced as 0, cp. Clodius (plebeian) and Claudius 
(patrician), jjlostrum and plaustrum. In the Imperial 
period au veered towards an a sound ; hence such forms 
as Agustus, Cladius and the like. 

ayf-oi'w : Lat. aug-ere : Eng. eke (Goth, aukan) 
wav-pos : Lat. pau-cu-s : Eng. feio (Goth, fans) 

u appears for au in Latin in compounds, as claudo, 
includo and in some simple words as frustra, connected 
with fraudo. But frustra may represent a ditferent 
root grade. 

178. Indo-G. f« = Skt. 0, Gk. ev, Lat. ou, u, Kelt. 
ou (with later changes), Germ, iu (Goth.), Letto-Slav. au 
(Lith.), -u (from oii) Slav. 

eu is preserved in Greek but has entirely disappeared 
in Latin, having passed first into oii and next, along with 
original ou, into u. eu in ntu, seu, etc. is the result of 
contraction (§ 129). 

1 Possibly foedus owes its archaic form to the fact that it was 
a technical word in the jus feti ale; po-merium, ohedio seem to have 
e in syllables originally without accent (§ 272). Cp. von Planta, 
Grammatik der oskisch-umhrii'chen Dialekte, § To. p. 154. 

140 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 178 — 

yev-u( = *fiem-d) : Lat. [[iitstarc'^] : Goth, kiu.san 

0. E. ceosa7i, Eng. choose 
ei'w ( — *emd) : Lat. uro 

? oai-ova-a-ecrdai.- : 0. Lat. douco {diico) : Goth, tiuhan 
( = *5aL-dvKi€a-6ai) ivova*deuco cp. Eng. <02<; (verb). 

179. Indo-G. OM = Skt. d, Gk. ov, Lat. u, d, Kelt, on 
(with later changes), Germ, au (0. Eng. m), Letto-Slav. 
au (Lith.), « Slav. 

This diphthong, which should appear in the Perfect 
and in certain noun-forms from verbs with a present in 
-ev-, has almost disappeared in Greek. €l\i]\ovOa, cp. fut. 
iXevcrofxai for iXevO-croixaL, and cnrovBt], cp. cnrevBoi, are tllB 
only certain instances, (favya) and irvuOofxai {Trvvdavoixai) 
form their nouns in a different manner and in ^euyw the 
perfect has followed the analogy of the present ; hence 

we find irecfievya for the regular *7r€^ovya. 

In Latin, as mentioned above, ou becomes u and 
sometimes d in the Classical period. 

*Ke-xof-a '• Lat. fudi-t : Goth, gdut 

(hypothetical perfect 

of x^^^) 

Lat. robiis : Goth, rduds {red). 

Under what circumstances appears in Latin for ou 
IS not certain^. 

1 From the weak form of the root — giis — a frequentative. 

2 =e\Ke(Tdai, Hesychius. 

3 Kretschmer contends (/v. Z. 31, p. 451 ff.) that in most cases 
where <') appears, it represents the long dijohthong I'lu. There 
would thus be a difference of grade between riibus 'red berrj-' and 
robiis, rohigo, and o-pillo and fi-pilio represent respectively dvi- 
and uvi-. 


i8o. In Latin u seems to have a peculiar influence 
on adjacent vowels. Medially it combines 

•xT p n • • .. • * - Changes in 

■v\itn a loliownig e into o as m soror = suesar, Latin owina: to 
socer = *sue'kros. Medially it also changes 
a preceding e into o (§ 161) as in nows = *ne-uo-s, tovos 
(tuus) = *te-uo-s (t€os). In a considerable number of in- 
stances ou both initial and medial seems to become av : 
caveo : KoFeoi, faveo causative oi/u-l, latere : XoFe. The 
reason for this is uncertain — it is attributed by some to 
accent, pre-accentual ou becoming au — and there are 
some exceptions the explanation of which is by no 
means easy, as ovis\ 

i8i. Diphthongs with a long first element. 

(1) di. A diphthong of this kind which arose in the 
original language by contraction is to be 

r J • .1 J ?• • r - ^ -n • Diphthongs 

lound m the dative smg. oi a-stems; Doric with long so- 
<^uya = cf>vydL, Lat. fugae = earlier *fugdi = 
*hhuga + ai, cp, Goth, gihai 'to a gift.' 

(2) ei would occur by contraction of the augment 
with ei of the verb form. Thus e + ei would appear as 
ei, as in ^a from et/xi. It is also found in Latin res, 
Skt. rdi-, = *rei-. 

(3) oi : in the dative of o-stems both singular and 
plural; olk(o, Lat. vJcd=*uoikui, otKois : Lat. v7cls=*uoikois 
Skt. te^dis'-. The example shows that at the end of a 
word the final i of oi disappears in Latin. In the 
earliest Latin the full form -oi is still found. On the 

1 avillus 'new-born lamb' which is cited as connected with 
ovis is obviously a diminutive from the same root as agnus, afipos 
and therefore = *«g-i7Z«s. 

- There can be no doubt, I think, that these forms though 
ordinarily called instrumentals are really the original dative. 

142 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 181 — 

oldest known inscription Numasioi is found = the later 

(4) du in vav<;, Lat. ndvls, whicli has become an 
-«-stem. According to the general rule in Greek, a 
medial long diphthong passes into a short diphthong 
(§ 227). 

(5) m in Z€Vi = *Zr]v'i {=*Dieus) from which dies 
(= * rlieus) also comes (cp. medius from *medh-io-s). 

(6) ou. fiovs, Skt. gdus, Latin bos (a borrowed word) 
= Indo-G. ""gdns (§ 140). 

It seems that, before a following consonant, i and u 
in these diphthongs w^ere lost in the original language \ 

xii. On some Comhinations of Consonants. 

182. It will be observed from the tables which follow 
that many combinations of original sounds remain un- 
changed in Greek and Latin in all positions — whether at 
the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word. But, 
on the other hand, a large number of sounds show a change 
in one at least of their elements and others present a. 

1 On this question a great deal has been recently written, but 
all difficulties have not yet been solved. Meringer contends {K. Z. 
28, 217 ff., B. B. XVI. 221 ff. and elsewhere) that in combinations 
consisting of a long vowel followed by i, u, r, I, n, in, the second 
element is dropped before a following consonant whether within 
the word itself, or at the beginning of the next word. According 
to others this phonetic change depends upon accent and this on 
the whole seems more probable. According to Streitberg (I. F. iii. 
p. 319 ff.) the long dii^hthoug in ^dieiui-, *?«?/.<, ^mlus, etc. depends 
on an accentual change in the primitive language whereby disyllabic 
forms of the type *dieuos, *oouo'<, ^nums were reduced to mono- 
syllables. For further important conclusions that arise from this 
theory cp. note following § 265 and the sections on Stem forma- 
tion in Nouns. 


new sound, altogether unlike the primitive elements, as 
in the case of t, k, 6, x in Greek when combined with t 
(§ 197). The cause of most of these changes is suffi- 
ciently obvious. In pronunciation, dis- Q^use of as- 
similar elements approach more nearly to emulation, 
one another or become identical, because during the pro- 
duction of the first, the organs of speech are already 
getting into position to pronounce the second, or on 
the other hand, the organs linger over the first element 
when they ought to be already in position for the 
second. Here, as in many other instances, the written 
lags behind the spoken language. In English we write 
cupboard but pronounce knh^d, limb but pronounce 
lim. The popular dialect always carries this farther than 
the literary language : compare the costermonger's 
Gimme, Lemme with the literary Give me, Let me. 

In the majority of instances in Latin and Greek, 
it is the second sound which has assimilated the first. 
In many cases, however, the two languages follow a 
different course of development. Here, as in so many 
other respects, Latin presents much less variety than 
Greek. The vocabulary of Latin is much smaller than 
that of Greek and the number of combinations found in 
its words is very much less. One reason for this is that, 
in the middle of words, the old aspirates become iden- 
tical with the original voiced stops. 

183. The chronology of assimilation requires care- 
ful study. It is reasonably assumed by all modern 
philologists that, at the same period of a language, the 
same sound under exactly similar conditions will always 
change in the same way (§ 45). But a law. Different pho- 
which is active at one period, may die out vao'a/ ^dmemit 
and, in consequence, a combination may ^^^^^- 

144 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 183 — 

appear later, wliicli was non-existent heretofore. It is 
only in this way that the difference in Latin between 
collis {-*col-ni-s) and volniis can be explained. If 
volmis were of the same age as collis, no doubt the form 
of the word would have been vollus. But probably 
volnus was originally formed like /acinus and it is b)^ 
the loss of i, at a period later than the change of *col- 
ni-s to collis, that volnus has arisen \ It must be for 
some such reason that we find sessus (= *sed-tos), castus 
(= *cad-tus) and cette (= *cedite) in the same language. 
sessus follows the oldest rule of Latin for the combina- 
tion of two dentals ; castus and cette do not. Compare 
with this sallo for *sakl-o (like English salt), while the 
later calda 'hot water' for calida remains. It seems 
better to explain agmen, as compared with exdmen 
where g has been lost, as arising from *agimen", than 
with Brugmann to hold that g disappears before m only 
when a long vowel precedes. 

184. Again, there is no breach of phonetic law in 
Formal ana- ^^^® appearance of falsiis, mulsi alongside 
'°^'^* of the assimilation in collum (= *col-su-m). 

falsus is formed, at a later period, on the analogy of 
other participles such as vorsus =*vrt-to-s where pho- 
netic causes changed -tos into -sus (§ 192). At the 
comparatively late time when this analogical participial 
form originated, the old law had ceased 

Loss of a con- ° 

sonant in a com- to act. mulsi, on the Other hand, does not 

bination. , . . , ... 7 r. 

represent the original combination -Is-, tor 
g has been lost between / and ^r, the root being *mulg-. 

1 Stolz, Lat. Gr.- § 65, 1. 

2 Stolz, Lat. Gr.- § 65, 2. Brug. Griimlr. i. § 506. 


But why should et/At represent original *esmi while 
ecr/ieV retains the original -sm-1 Here the Logical ana- 
analogy is of another tj^e ; eo-/xe'v ought ^°"^- 
to be ei/xe'v, as in Ionic, but the -o-- is restored by the 
influence of lu-ri (cp. § 48). So lo-irupa, la-T^ika, which 
represent ^ta-n-epaa, *eo-TeA.cra, are said to be formed on 
the analogy of evet/xa, l/Actva {=*h'€jx-(ra, *i.jx(.y-(Ta) because 
the change is confined to the aorist, while the original 
forms remain correctl}' in aKepaeKoixr]?, aXo-os, reXaov etc., 
and even in some aorists eK^pa-a, eKeXaa. 

185. In other cases where there seem to be dif- 
ferent changes of the same combination influence of 
in precisely similar circumstances, the g'^far^ind ^^o^f 
cause is often some peculiarity of root end- ^^^*^ '■°*'*- 
ing or of suffix which, in some instances, may no longer 
be easily traceable. Thus in Greek many roots end some- 
times in voiced .stops, sometimes in aspirates. The 
difference no doubt originally depended on the following 
sound, but one form has often been carried over to other 
positions, in which it did not originally occur. Hence 
varieties of form like 0dix[3o), l-ra^-ov; l-Aa/S-ov, el-Xrjtfj-a ; 
aTep./3-w, a.-cr-ep.^-ri';. The difference in the form of the root 
-rjy-w-fXL, as compared with ttt/k-to'-s, is one caused pureh' 
by the fact that in the former case a voiced, in the latter 
a breathed sound follows. Compare also ypa^-w with 
ypdfS-Srjv and ypaTT-To'-s. In pe-pig-i as compared with 
pdc-is, the diSerence had the same origin (cp. pango). 
In the same way Spax-^T? and 8pay-/i.a ' handful ' are 
derivatives from the same root, for the ^po-XM is the 
handful of six copper nails, or obols, which were the 
primitive medium of exchange '. 

' Kidgeway, Origin of Currency and Weight Standards, p. 310. 
G. P. 10 

146 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 186 — 

1 86. In some cases the final sound of a root or 
New suffix preceding suffix becomes attached to the 

laltToundoflhe Part which follows and the suffix is after- 
wTth aroTd'suf^ ^^ards used in this form (§ 286). Thus -s- 
fi^- appears very often in front of -lo- and -no-. 

Hence the difference between nuc-leus and vil-la, the 
latter representing not *vic-la but *clc-sla. Compare 
with this te-la {~*tex-ld), ii-la {=* ax-la), which is 
connected with a^-wv, ax-is and the rest, lu-na stands 
not for *luc-na which, as is shown by dignus {-*dec-no-s 
from the same root as dec-us), would become Hiigna, 
but for *louc-sna (cp. illustris = *il-luc-stris). So also 
alnus ' alder tree ' is no exception to the rule for the 
assimilation of 7i to a preceding /, since it represents 

187. In both languages the doubling of a consonant 
Double conso- ^ery rarely represents an original doubling. 

nants. rpj^g Homeric ^eV-o-a from the root *yes- 

(§ 144) and Latin us-si are cases where the double s is 
original, but generally doubling indicates assimilation. 
Thus in Greek, aXXos represents an original *al-io-s, 6\- 
Xv-fiL is *6\-vv-fXL ; in Latin pello is probably *2)el-nd. 
When assimilation takes place in a combination of 

mutes in Greek and Latin, there is a ten- 
of double conso- dency to reduce the double to the single 

consonant. This seems to indicate that 
the double consonants were pronounced in the same 
manner as they are in English and without that distinct 
separation of the two members which is found in Italian ; 
compare the English with the Italian ])ronunciation of 
ditto. Hence *6r]T-(TL, *7roS-o-t, *fid-tHs, *vid-tus, become 
ultimately ^170-1, Troai, fuus, visas. In Latin, however, if 
the vowel of the first syllable is short the double con- 


sonant remains: Jlssiis, passns (§ 190) etc. Compare 
also 7}i2si (*7n1t-si) with mlssum. 

i88. Although the great majority of combinations 
are formed of two sounds, not a few consist 

- 1 on T> Groups of 

ot three and some of four consonants. But three or more 

, , . , , , consonants. 

ni the classical languages, cases where the 
vowel element forms such a small proportion as in the 
German stnimp/s or the English strengths or twelfths are 
rare. The full inflexion of Greek and Latin and their 
phonetic laws, which reduce the number of final con- 
sonants in words, permit of large combinations of con- 
sonants only at the beginning, or more frequently in the 
middle of words. Thus in Greek we find a-Xdy^vov, 
in Latin tonstrix. When a gxeat com- ^. ,.^ ^ 

*^ Simplificatiou 

bination of consonants occurs, the com- by s of medial 

1 . . . ,.„ , . , consonant 

binatioii tends to be simpimed. 6^ is the groups, 
chief solvent in such cases, more particu- ing liquids and 
larly when it precedes a nasal or liquids 
Under the influence of s, many large groups of con- 
sonants in Latin lose one or more members. This 
happens most frequently when nasals and liquids form 
part of the combination. Thus pllum, prelum, scdla, 
culina, seni, suhtemen, cernuus, tostus, turdus, ptosco 
represent '''pin-slom (cp. pinsio), *prem-slom, *sca7it-sld 
(for *scand-sld), *coc-sUnd, *sex-m, * suh-tex-men, *cers- 
nuus (cp. Kopa-rj and cerebrum = *ceres-ro-m), *torstus, 
*turzdus (English throst-le), *porc-sco (an inceptive from 
the root of prec-or and thus = *prk-skd). Other cases, 
— dla, tela, lima, illustris, etc. have been already men- 
tioned (§ 186). In Greek, s is hardly less efiective. Thus 

KccTTos, SecTTroTy^s, StKacTTToXo?, TTTLacTw, vtaaofiai, a(ryu.€vos, 
i.(j—^L(T ^xai, CK/x-qvo';, —elcfjia, eaTrecaa, TraAro, Trpe-n-ovcra re- 
present ^KeVaros (cp. Kevrew), * Bev(T-Tr6Tr]<i (for *8e/xs- 


148 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 188 — 

7roT77s, where Sc/xs is a genitive, the word being a com- 
pound = ' house-lord '), *8iKavs-7roAos (where SiKaj/s is an 
ace. pi. governed by ttoAos, the whole forming an ' im- 
proper' compound (§ 284) = 'judgments-wielder' 'deem- 
ster'), *7rTivo-tw (cp. Lat. pinsio), *i/t-vo--io-;u,at (a redu- 
plicated present from the root veer- found in vioixai., 
v6aTo<i), *crfaT-o--/i.€i/os (a participial form from *siiad-, 
the root of 7;8us and siidvis, -S- becoming -t- before -o--), 
*i(nrevafjiaL, *€^ixr}vos, *Tr€v6-<TfjLa (root of English hind), 
*l-(TiT(.vT-a-a (-8- of o-7r€v8(jD becoming -t- before -or-), *7raA- 

(T-TO (an .S-Aorist), *Tvpi.Tvov7ia whence *7rpe7rov<Tcra, 7r/3€- 
TTovcra, TTpeTTOvcra. 

Even with stops, s breaks up the combination ; com- 

(ii) containing P^re 8i8ao-Kca (= *8t8a'K-o-Ka)) with disCO 

only stops. ^ ^ *di-tc-sco for *di-dc-sco, a reduplicated 

inceptive with the weakest form of the root). In the 
Homeric aorist AcVto (= *A£k-o--to), -o-- itself has disap- 
peared and so also in e'/cros ' sixth,' as we see by com- 
parison with the Latin sextus. 

189. At the beginning of initial combinations of 
Initial combi- cousonants, s- generally remains in Greek, 

nations -^^ j^ j^ fQ^lQ^ygfl jjy ^ stop, cnrXrji/, (rrpw- 

Tos, o-kAt^pos. In Latin, combinations where the third 
simplified in element is r remain, spretus, stratus, scredre, 
Latin. ^^^^ ^^^ other cases the third member of the 

combination is alone retained. Thus to a-n-Xijv cor- 
responds lien, and the old Latin stlls and st locus become 
lis and locus through the intermediate stage oi slis (once 
or twice found on inscriptions) and * sloe us ; cp. the 
adverb Uico 'on the spot,' which is really an adverbial 
phrase *i}i sloco. Brugmann thinks' that clctvis, cldvos, 
Greek kAt^'w, kX-qcs, ' key ' represent an original ski- which 
1 Grundr. i. §§ 425, 528 note. 


is simplified to si- in the English sluice (German schlies- 
sen, Old Saxon slutil ' key' etc.). 

190. Sometimes the change which a combination of 
two sounds undergoes, when they stand „ . , 

,.,.-. f> I ^ arying cnan- 

between two vowels, is dmerent from that ges in a conso- 

. iiant according 

which happens when they are m combma- as it is followed 

.,11 , rrn • T • by one or more. 

tion With other consonants. Thus m Latin, 
original -tt- became -ss- : *urt-to-s Lat. vorsus ; *pH-t6-s 
Lat. passus etc. But in the combination -tti'- the change 
is not to -SS7-- but to -st)'- ; pedestris represents an original 
*pedet-tris. The same is true of the original combination 
-nttr- thus tonstrlna {- *tont-trina from the root of 
tondeo), defenstrix { = *defent'trix from de-fend-o)\ 

191. Of the combinations of two elements, those 
which consist entirely of stops call for 

. '^ Combinations 

little remark. Their numbers are not very of two conso- 
large and, of those which can be cited, a 
considerable proportion are compounds with prepositions. 
These, by themselves, are unsafe guides, because such 
combinations are so late, comparatively, that the original 
rule may have been quite different. From the root 
*keudh- found in KevO-w, a derivative by means of the 
root determinative -dk- was made apparently in the 
primitive Indo-Germanic period. From the beginning 
the combination -dh + dk- was simplified to -d + dh-, which 
is represented in Greek by kv(j6o<;, in Latin by custos, in 
Gothic by huzd^. But later combinations of d with dh 
do not change in this way. In Latin, original dh is 
represented initially by/, medially by d or b, but af-ficio 

1 It is possible that in these combinations the change was first 
to -sr-, and that -t- was then inserted between s and r as in 
English stream from rt. *sreu- and sister ( — *suesr-). 

- Brngm. Grundr. i. § 469, 5. 

150 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 191 — 

{-ad-dh-) and ad-do'' (where dh- lias one of its medial 
forms) would be altogether misleading g^^ides for the 
history of the earlier combination. 

192. Combinations of stops unless assimilated are 
so difficult to pronounce that frequent 

(i) Combina- , , - j rrn u- 

tioiis of two changes may be expected. Ihe combnia- 
^ °^^" tion pt remains in Greek, but initially loses 

p in Latin ; hence -m^kia but til'ia. In pro-{p)termis, 
p is dropped, apparently because the word is a com- 
pound, for aptus, saejitus and other forms show that 
-pt- is a quite possible combination in the middle of a 
Latin word. 1\\ tUtw there is an interesting example of 
transposition. The root is tck- and the form of the redu- 
plicated present should be *Tt-T/<-a) (cp. Trt-Trr-w from ttct-). 
It may be that, as is generally held, the analogy of verbs 
like TTCKTw, xaXcTTTw brouglit about the change ; it is at 
least as likely that the rareness of the combination and its 
Difficulty of difficulty were the causes. It is not, how- 

pronunciation. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

found a difficult combination. Dialects of the same 
language vary from one another. Thus the ordinary 
Greek ^1^09 is in Lesbian o-kic^os ; o-^e appears in Syra- 
cusan as i/'e. The English ask, wasp appear in Old 
English both as dscian, wwsp, and as dcsian, ivwps; 
in the Scotch dialects the combination -rs- is much em- 
ployed, cp. English grass, Northern Scotch girs (0. Eng. 
gwrs), Christian (as female proper name) with the com- 
mon Scotch form represented in Mrs Oliphant's Kirsteen. 
In all combinations of two dentals -it-, -dd-, -ddh- 
there seems to have been a very early change towards a 

1 ad-do, con-do and some other compounds of do represent not 
the original root *dd- in 5i'-5w-/xt etc. but *dhe-, the root of tI-6ti-/jli, 
du-fid-s etc. 


spirant sound, so that, in time, one or both elements is 

reduced to -S- ; Greek to-ro?, KvaOos etc., combinations 

Latin vJsus, custos etc. Hence Brugmann of Centals, 
writes these combinations -ft-, -d^d-, -d^dk-. 

193. Much more change occurs in the combinations 
of stops with spirants, nasals and liquids, combinations 
The combinations with s- have already been a^foHowS'^spi- 
described. The initial combinations j) + s, ^^^' 

k^s in i/o7Xa<^ao), ^t<^os (§ 192) are doubtfully assigned 
to the early period. The only serious difficulty here is 
as to the original sounds represented by xr-, cf>9-, y^6- in 
Greek, where an equivalent to Greek words with these 
initial sounds appears in Sanskrit ^vith ks-; ktciVw is 
paralleled by the Sanskrit ksan-, x^wv by ksd(m), (fiOl-voi 
by kfi-na-ti, t^ktov- by taksan-. This has led to the 
suggestion that there was an sh (s) sound (§ 113, 2) in 
the original language distinct from the ordinary s. No 
certain conclusion can as yet be arrived at. In Latin, 
according to Osthoff, super as compared with virep and 
Sanskrit upari has s as the weak form of ea:. The com- 
binations of stops with nasals and liquids (jii) afoUowing 
present more variety. In both languages a ^^^^' 
labial is assimilated to a following m. Latin avoids the 
combination of a dental ^vith m in any position, while it 
changes -cm- into -gm- (segmentum but seccwe). Combi- 
nations of a stop with n present no difficulty in Greek ; 
velar gutturals follow the changes of the sounds into 
which they have passed whether labials or dentals. 
Initial fiv- {=*^n-) becomes /av-; fxvdofxaL ' I woo' is the 
verb to (3dva 'woman' (§ 140, i). ip€ij.-v6<; is from the 
root of €pep-o<s (= *req-, root of English reek). 

194. In Latin, the development of dentals followed 
by a nasal presents great difficulties. The history of 

152 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 194 — 

-tn-, in particular, has given rise to much discussion in 
, . ^ . recent years ; not only do different philolo- 

-in- in Latin. . . . 

gists hold different theories, but even the 
same philologist has more than once held different theo- 
ries at different times on this question, which is of especial 
interest as concerning the history of the Latin gerund 
and gerundive participle. After all that has been written 
on the subject, it seems most probable that -tn- becomes 
-dn- and then metathesis takes place ; hence -nd-. 
Thurneysen, who originated the discussion \ regarded 
tendo as a reduplicated verb, from the root of ten-eo, 
*te-tn-o became *te-dn-o, *tendno, tendo. The example 
may be disputed, but there can hardly be any doubt 
that pando is from the same root as pat-eo and there- 
fore represents an original *pat-no. As regards the 

treatment of original -dn- in Latin, there 

•dn- in Latin. . , i i i mi i i • i 

IS also much doubt. The old identification 
of the second part of 'AAoo--v6-v7; with unda seems plau- 
sible ; if correct, metathesis has also occurred here. 
How then are mercennarius {=*nierced-ndrius) and the 
Plautine dispennite {= dispendite) to be explained? For 
the former, it is possible to assume that the suffix was 
not -nd- but -snd-; if so, the first stage was by assimi- 
lation of d to s, *mercet-sndrius whence *me)-cesndrius, 
mercennarms as penna comes from *2?et-snd. The 
Plautine form can be easily explained as a vulgar assimi- 
lation (§ 182). 

195. The treatment of original kn in Latin is 
curious, hiitially the guttural disappears {n7dor=*cmdor, 

1 In A'. Z. 26, p. 301 ff. Most of the supporters of this 
theory, including its author, have now given it up. Brugniaun, 
after accepting it to exphiin the origin of the gerund [A. J. P. viii. 
p. 441 ff.), has now discarded it [Grundriss, Verb-fJexion, § 1103). 


probably through the intermediate stage *gnJdor}, medi- 
ally the breathed sound becomes voiced 
and the vowel also is affected. Thus 
from *dec-no-s (cp. dec-et, dec-us) comes dignus (pro- 
nounced diunus § 127 u.); tignuni may represent *tec- 
no-m (from root of re/cTov- etc.), but it is equally 
probable that the Romans themselves were right in 
connecting it with tego directly. Thus, according to 
the definition of the jurist Gains, tignuni is 'wood for 
building,' while lignum is 'wood for gathering,' 'firewood' 
from lego. 

196. Of the combinations of stops Vt^itli a following 
/, Greek presents a great variety. It combinations 
seems probable that initial dl- in Greek be- ('i^v)Tfonowing 
came yX- in yAuKv? as compared with the '^i^"^- 
Latin dulcis. Latin changed medial -tl- into -cl- and 
-dkl- into -bl- in the suffixes -do- {-culo-) and -bio- {-bulo-) 
respectively. Medial -g- disappeared in Latin before 
-/- without leaving any trace, the preceding vowel 
not even being lengthened, sfilus without doubt is 
from the root of a-Tiy-^a etc. Initial t- is dropped in 
Latin before -1-; TX77T0S (rAdTo's) and Idtus (participle to 
tollo, O.Lat. tulo, and tuU) are the same word, -dhr- 
becomes -br- in Latin, rubro- {- Ipvdpo-); jia-bru-m has 
the same suffix as K\fj-0po-v. 

197. The combinations of stops with a following i 
are in Greek fertile in changes. In Latin, 

, . , , . . , . T , . ,. ,. , Combinations 

except ni the initial combination di- where of stops with 
the -i- sound expels the d altogether (Jovis, "' 
Old Latin Diovis), the -i- becomes vocalised or disappears 
(cp. medius with spuo — *spiu-io). In Greek t, k, 6, x 
followed by i are represented by -aa- (Attic -tt- which 
seems to have been pronounced as -]?]?-) ; compare At'tr- 

154 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 197 — 

o-o/xat with Atr?;', ocrcre with oculus, /xecrcros (later /u.eo-os) 
with medius, iXdo-a-oiv with eAa;i(v?. St aud y^ become C '• 
Zeus (§ 181, 5) and o-Tt^w (§ 140, i). jn became ttt: hence 
TTToXts, 7rTdA€ju.os, wliich seem to have arisen from a 
dialectic pronunciation ; compare the American pronun- 
ciation of car as ct/ar. In verbs (xa/^-cTrrco etc), -ttt- for 
-2)i- is regular throughout Greek. It is a question 
what was the original form of the Latin suffix -bits in 
the dative and ablative plural. In Sanskrit the cor- 
responding form is -hhyas which may represent an 
original *-hhios or '^-hhioms. It seems therefore pro- 
bable that Latin -bus should represent the same original 
form. But the Gaulish ixarpefio { = matribus), the suffix 
of which goes closely with the Latin, is against the 

198. One or two of the combinations of stops with 

-u- present difficulties. That which is still 

most in doubt is the treatment in Greek of 

initial tii-. Medially -tii- becomes -o-cr- (-tt-) ; thus 

Tfcrcr-ap€S = *qetu-. 

It seems probable that tu- initially also became o-- ; 
Initial tv- in lisncc rf € acc. of the second personal pro- 
Greek, noun becomes o-e and from this or some 
similar case form, the nominative crv for tv was formed. 
Some other words which have initial o-- possibly show 
the same origin; thus craipw 'sweep,' o-wpo's 'heap' may 
be *turw and *TMwpos and connected wath the Lithua- 

1 The Megarian's ad fiav ; in Aristophanes, Acharniaus 757, 
does not stand for rl fj.-qv ; as explained by Liddell and Scott ; (t6. 
is the plural ( = *Ti-a), ffc- not being written initially. o-^/S-w is 
explained by Brugmann as from a root *tieg-. irpoTi and Trp6s 
( = *7r/30Tt) were originally parallel forms, Trpon appearing before 
consonants, "trpoTi before vowels ; hence came 7rpo?(.s). 


nian tveriu 'enclose, pack together.' In the suffix -a-wo- 
fjLvrjfxo-dvvo? etc. which seems identical in origin with the 
Skt. -tvana- (cp. § 401) we find the influence of -tu- in 
the weak form, precisely as a-v owes its origin to o-e. 

The history of the loss of k (q) before u in Lat. vap- 
or as compared with Greek KaTr-vds, Litli. is Latin /fc lost 
kvdp-as, is still doubtful. If the words are ^^^°^^^'- 
to be identified, we must suppose that k (q) first became 
voiced (cp. 7ildor § 195) and then g was lost. 

199. The next group of sounds which calls for 
special notice is that in which a spirant combinations 
is the first element. As has been already element is uTa 
mentioned, original z occurred only iu com- ^p""^"*- 
bination with voiced sounds; hence s and z must be 
considered together. The history of the combinations 
with stops is sufficiently obvious. One combination of 
s with a stop is of interest, t^o and sJdo both represent a 
reduplicated present of the root *sed- {*si-zd-o). nl-dus 
{=*ni-zd-us the 'sitting down' place). Eng. nest is the 
same word (§ 143). zd represents the weak form of 
the root exactly as -/38- in l-TTi-f^h-ai represents the weak 
form of the root found in ped- -n-oS-. 

In Latin, s preceding original bk is said to disappear 
both initially and medially ; hence fucus = (r<fir]$, sedlbus 
= *sedes-bh-. But other explanations of the forms are 
possible ; sedes etc. are influenced by -i- stems. 

200. In combination with a following i, the s 
sound in a Greek word became weakened 
or assimilated. Hence from -osio the old " 
genitive of -o- stems we obtain first -olo as in Homer, 
next, by dropping i, -00, which has to be restored, e.g. 
in 'IXlov Trpo-rrdpoLde (II. xv. 66) which will not scan, and 
lastly by ordinary contraction, -w in the severer Doric, 
-ov in the milder Doric, Attic and Ionic dialects. 

156 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 201 — 

201. The treatment of a-u whether initial or medial 

presents the same kind of difficulties as tu- 
above. What is the relation between vs 
and (Tv<; ? "We must suppose that both words are of the 
same origin. How then can we explain the existence of 
tw^o different forms under the same circumstances? It 
is conjectured that, while vs is the legitimate represen- 
tative of original "'sfis (§ 168), the form o-v<; has de- 
veloped from a genitive form *(TF-o'i where o- was regularly 
retained. But if so, why does eKvpos Lat. socer represent 
an original sii- merely by the rough breathing? Here 
there is a difficulty w^hicli has not as yet been satisfac- 
torily solved. It is supposed that medial -(tu- became 
-a-a- as in Kovi-o-o-aXos and from this compound form 
initial cr- was restored to the simple word cra'Aos, which 
we expect to become *aXos, after the manner 

52« ill Latin. ,. , / t ^i i> • j-i. "j-i 

01 cKupos. In these forms, as m otfiers with 
u, Latin changes iie into o, hence socer, soror (= *svesdr) 

202. In both languages s, whether initial or medial, 

when followed by a nasal or liquid, disap- 

Loss of s be- . , , . , , 

fore nasals and peai's or IS changed into some otlier sound 
without being fuUy assimilated to the suc- 
ceeding sound. The only exception to this is in one 
or two Greek w^ords beginning with o-/x-; o-/xt/cpos (but 
/i,t/<pos), o-ftepSvo's English smart, etc. These forms have 
probably an explanation similar to that of the variation 
between crreyo? and reyo? (see below, § 237). 

203. The combination sr becomes in Greek pp by the 

assimilation of the first to the second ele- 

sr in Greek. t • • n i • i i i i 

ment. Initially this appears as the breathed 
r (p) ; pew represents an original *sreu-d. 
The history of sr in Latin is more uncer- 
tain. The common belief at present is that initial sr is 


represented in Latin by fr. Undoubtedly medial -5?'- 
became -hr-. Of initial sr- however, which 

, . , . 1 , ' , («) initially. 

was a rare coinbmation, only two examples 
are cited; Jrlgiis (=plyo<;) and frdgiim (=pa^). On the 
other hand some good authorities contend that in Latin 
as in Greek ^t disappears. But on this side, as on the 
other, the argument turns upon a few uncertain ex- 
amples. The name Roma has often been connected with 
the root *srm- found in pew and the English stream, 
but the etymology of this as of many other proper names 
is very doubtful. There is nothing to decide between 
the claims of rigor and oi frig us to represent ptyos, for 
analogy from the treatment of medial -sr- is an unsatis- 
factory argument and a change in the quantity of a 
vowel, more particularly of an /-vowel, is found else- 
where (cp. Lat. vir with Skt. rlras). The last discussion 
of the subject — by H. Osthoft' — although citing more 
supposed cases of initial r in Latin for original sr- is by 
no means conclusive (cp. § 237). 

204. The history of medial -sr- in Greek is less clear, 
for -pp- in compounds and after the aug- 

, ■ . f ^ p 11 ('^) medially. 

ment as m ^-ppe.ov irom rt. sreu- may lollow 
the analogy of initial sr-, which first by assimilation 
became pp- and finally p, and other examples as rpyjpoj}' 
{- *Tpao--pwi', ^^frs- fi'om rt. of Tpc(o-)w) ' are rare and 
uncertain. In Latin medial -sr- always becomes -br-. 
Of this there are many examples : *svesr~inos ' sister's 
child' 'cousin' becomes sobrinus; cerebrum is ^ceres-ro-m 
(see § 188); funebris is *fiines-ri-s. The adverb temere 
literally 'in the dark' has connected with it the sub- 
stantive tenebrae (= *temsrae) but the cause of the 
change of m to n in tenebrae is not clear. 

1 M. U. V. p. 62 ff. 2 Solmsen, A'. Z. 29, p. 348. 

158 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 205 — 

205. Ill the, Greek medial-combinations -/xo--, -vo--, -o-- 
conibinations ^^'as assimilated to -/^-, -v-. Aeolic Greek 

demenul (%'li remained at this stage, but Attic lengthened 
nasal or liquid. ^^iQ prevlous vowel and used only one con- 
sonant (§ 219). Thus, from the original aorist forms 
*e-V£/x.-o-a, €fxev-(Ta come in Aeolic tvc/xyu-a, €/x€VFa, in Attic 
iveifia, ejxetva, where -€t- is not a diphthong (§ 122). The 
history of the final combinations is different. Here -s 
remains and the nasal disappears, with or without com- 
pensatory lengthening of the vowel (§ 248) : n/ids (for 
TLfJLav<s § 218), otKov;, eh (es) for e'v-s etc. Medial -per- -X(T- 
remained (^ 184) but -pa- was changed in pure Attic to 
-pp- : apo-rjv {apprjv) etc. In botli Latin and Greek, m 
whether sonant or consonant becomes n before i (cp. 
jiaivoi, venio = * ; kolv6<: for *Koyu,-ios' connected with 
Latin cum 'with' ; and quoniam for quomjam). 

206. In Greek initial mr- becomes {ip-\ cp. /SpoTos 

from the same root as mortuiis and the 
mr in Tree -. (^Qp^yj-g^eg^j-^ j8apva-/ti,€vos (= *fipava-) the par- 
ticiple to fj.dpvafj.aL. Medially in Greek -wir- remains, 
inserting however jS between /x and p; d-fx/SpoTo-^ etc. 
The history of this combination in Latin 
is still a matter of dispute. Osthofif con- 
tends' that initial mr- is represented by fr- in fremo 
(= ftpifxo)), /return akin to jBpda-aw. fnitex to /3pva), 
fragor to e/Spaxe; medial -^nr- he finds in k'lbernos- 
*X^i-H--pi-^os Avhich could stand to the ordinary x^'-H-^P'-^^^ 
as fX€ar]fjif3pLv6<; does to T^/Acptvo'?. The first stage of 
change would be fi'om *heimrhios to *hihrmus which 
becomes hihernus exactly as *se-crino becomes se-cerno. 
tuber Osthoff considers akin to tu-meo etc. and to Skt. 

1 For the epenthesis see below (§ 207). 
■^ J/. U. V. p. 85 ff. 


tu-m-ras. This theory, which is, in some respects, a 
return to an old view, may be regarded as still sub 

207. The treatment of nasals and liquids in Greek 
when followed by i is also deserving of 

, " -P, . I Nasals and li- 

notice m another respect, hxcept with quids followed 
A, t produces epenthesis, by which is meant 
that the i following the nasal or liquid disappears but 
an z-sound is introduced into the preceding syllable. 
The process by which this takes place is in two stages ; 
(1) the nasal or liquid sound is weakened through the 
influence of the following i and (2) in turn acts upon the 
vowel before it. The sonant and consonant forms of the 
nasals and liquids are treated exactly alike : compare 
cnreLpu) {*spe7'-id) with cnraipM {=*S2}rid); /3aivco with 

KOtvds (§ 205), KTCLVOi (*KTeV-tU)) witll TCKTairtt {*T(.KTUi(l). 

If there is a group of consonants, it is simplified ; hence 
Sc'cr-TTotva (= *8€o--7roTv^i-a). On the other hand, medial 
-X+i- becomes -X\-; cp. o-rcAXw (*o-T€X-tca) with (SdXXw 

208. Combinations of u with i occur in a small 
number of words; kXyju) 'shut' =KXdF-Lw whence KXai-Fu), 
KAa'w, kXtjo). In Latin cap-tJvus may possibly have a 
suffix representing original -teuio-s Skt. -tavya-. 

^ The attempt of Johannes Schmidt {Pluralhildungen der Id<i. 
neiitra, p. 198) to connect Eng. liver and its cognates in other 
Germanic languages with Skt. ydkrt, Gk. fjirap, Lat.jecur, by postu- 
lating an original initial combination U- is extremely doubtful. 

J ^ 
p ^ 

S .2 

o c 

6 ;:= s -^^ 



_ >^ 

































• ^ 






"p 1 

























1— ( 



















0^ -^ 

c3 HH _r- 

g o ^ 

? a2 05 









O w 







o -"S 



S g 

56 S 




•< s 









1- M 












-J 1 




: b K 
-5 « s^^-" 



(ii) Par-fnoro 
(iid- later) 


u i£ 




ic = 







'i 5 J" 


^ £ 





"?• i: 



^^ ^_- 




i^= :5'i 


^ Ji ^'jy. •— F^^ 



= ,r= -; II 5t ■ 

■— ^ ? if c It.ii C" 


•= .icg5===^ 

II ^£ 

^-^ c; s2 



t- • 



II ll- 

V" t; vQ i 

'O S 




*- — ^ "^ 


b i 

ill i 

=s ^- 1'- II 




■^ u, ^:s 

'^- :k^-^ 




^^ ""-' 


II U. M 

^' 3 " T" 

<, l^t 2 


r %2L 

:s -S* si 







G. P. 


'-^f IIO 

33 « 



" X ^~-' ? 


^ X 


-3 S s fc. xb 



-5-1 1 

b bt: — ;;^ b 

g a.- =•- 



^^ ^-^ 

^ — 



- ~ '^ b ^ ■■C 

- 0^ 



V 5 





3 -t: °« .■ 

;A S lA 




(£ b xtfc- — ^ 

i o-a 

a-o >- 

b'-ii 05s 

^i fi 

■•V .S 


•o» 8i 











a 3 



^ "^c 




:> ^«. 


■^ -^ . — 


, — ' — . 

i 3 a: 





-G-iS a 


f '-S 

» > c 

Q. Sm 





w ^-^ 














^ 3 





iX -^ 

^^ ^ .11 ? 


:= ^i" 

~ — y — 1 

v.^ S ZJ 




i 1 



t/. X 

lA— 11 





02. J3 



3- 5 


a. .- oa. X 

<-^— t- t,— 

^ (- :a 




:=: ?!„ p >- 





>-^v_^.« -^ 


52.E-B i sS- 

._ II? 




a il 

ll'i fc- 

.jr.=-B s 

-a X 

-8 tS 

SB =5, 

S'i K-s-3 



'-3 c 


f , 


8 S 



3 -i 2 ° X. 
'"teg i'S^-g 



>-^ -3 U 

^^ ■ — ^ -^^ 

N-^ *— ' 

s-^ --^ 

-^ ^^ 



. * ^ 








£ == b i' 


.< 3 


b -'" =* 

£ c: X 

--4^ M 

■^ ^-' 
















|2ii II 


O r 



'S sS 0.2 

,^X °-~ ^i: 


S - V! o 


^ *s ^ 

X 2 





O "O 

o c- 

c- 'O 



^ ,— V 

s w- g 


2 2 

" £ A 
3 ?S 1 

O 3 


3 ^2 

II 11 2 3 

rZMI^ c 

>.^>— ' 

"— ' 

— > — 

-w'^-' ^-' 


a » 


-"5 S 
-< S 

'o a. 








■ ■« 



CO. . 

.■* - 3 



£ i"^ 

— '% 


• c 


>, ,^ S S.2 i.2 

nSC O '-"'3 i (y. ^ 

01 i- 

-s-^S" s^ 2 S" o 

^^ b K II S 

t: S-S. * i k S 

a «»<=> 

-ii , 1' 3 


.; II .a. 

'■=• 1 

-_ w 

-^ ^^ 


8 ,^ 

'T P' o 

1 — 

u. -t 

.— V 

T5 1 •' 

to i 

" -^2 

1i :° 

^*-' II 

o ft t" 

^41 ^ 1 

J S'.o J 

b b-a-B^ 

- — ' t: ^'.7^ 

G r. o 


-^ « 

«o .^ 

b '7t 

^^— > 1 


(tf p ' " - c 1 



1 1'l £ ? 1 

1i i-zCiF 

b = 5 i > 


'■^ -c 

■■c ■■=. C 

^ ■-=- 







fr-t. c g 


K =-=2 

2-= = St = 

3 S £ 

-=3 5 

— -^ s 

S = R-'T 

~ ^ c 


b r - ? 

— "•22 



^■5:1 = 

^ C? 

_ -g* 



s" S 

^ s 






k ° 

li. t: 8 



Q- 5 


^ ;=■ 


•o - 

■c o 





3 8 


i 1 

« _ 


:! .1 

■it = 

^ = 



II . 


y-s rZ-" 

S^s 8 ic 

w ;:^ 





y~^ X 

(/« ,- 

§ i 

b 5 

-=■ 1 i 


1. i=-|l: 


1 5.5 


' T ^^— > ^ Z) 


Q. ac. 

-S'O M 

O w ^ 

— ^- — 

* — 

-S- II ■^ 

„ 03 >, 





-2 II S S g 
og - s s 

II ^1? 


r^ ■= 

O O 



~— ' 



— S-^ 


,, ll 

« - 




P '^ — 



-0 6 



«>:: si 


o ^ 










'5 L 


fc j 


J I 





,3 ^.T 


« * S c" 



< 8 B -S 

■= -^^ 

C»- >— ^ 

^ * .;< g 

,^-v •— 

'—- w 



s^ s_^ 






'5' ^ 

5 s 


1 S 



^ i> X 

N.^ N-*- 






^-s :^ 

>-s ."C^ 


.X .— 

«w — 

"— ' N—' 

' -—' 

^•^ ■*— ' 

■*— ' ^"^ 






— ( w 

166 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 209 — 

xiii. On some other Sound Changes. 

1, Contraction of vowels. 

2og. The certain contractions which go back to the 
original Indo-Germanic language are few in 

Contractions , , . j_i j. r xi 

intheindo-Ger- number and, HI some cases, the nature oi the 

manic period. , , ^ • xr, x x* 

component elements m the contraction is 
not easy to ascertain. The best authenticated original 
contractions are those of stems ending in a vowel 
with a case suffix beginning Antli a vowel, because the 

original vowel of the suffix can be dis- 

Contraction , , ., .., , 

in the Dative covered where it appears with consonant 
stems. Thus from *ekua+ai came the 
dative form *ekudi of the feminine *t4'2<^7 'mare,' whence 
the Latin equae (§ 181, 1) ; from the stem *ekuo-tai 
came the dative form *ekudi of the masculine *ek-uo-s. 
That the original dative ending was -ai is sho^ni by 
such survivals as the old Greek infinitives So/xevat and 
Sovvat, which represent the dative of original -men- and 
-uen- stems, *clo-men-ai and *do-uen-ai. Similarly 
*ekud+es and ^ekuo+es of the nominative plural were 
contracted into *ekuds and *ekuds originally. These 
forms have no representatives in Greek and Latin, but 
the Sanskrit and the forms of the Oscan and Umbrian, 
Gothic and (for the feminine) the Lithuanian show that 
these Avere the original forms replaced in Greek and 
Latin by the endings at, ot ; ae, t {oe) respectively. The 
nature of the original ending is shown by the ending of 
the masculine and feminine consonant stems 7roi-/>t€i'-es, 

1 The long e of homines is a later development {§ 223). 


The combination of o with another o is illustrated 
by the genitive plural of o-stems ekuo+om = contraction 
ehuom, tWwv divuni\ The locatives oixct, pK,rafand"ioca.^ 
oIkol, Lat. vici, represent the old combination *'^^- 
of the e : stems with the locative suffix -/ seen in ttoS-i, 
Lat. 2^ed-e (§ 165) etc. 

The augment w4th verb forms illustrates the combi- 
nation of e with a and e. e+ag- becomes 
eg-, Attic ^yov ; e+ed- becomes ed-, Attic with the aug- 
rja-Biov from the root of Latin ed-o (cp. Lat. 
es-t for *ed-t)'. e+ei- became ei-, whence Gk. rja 'I 
went' from cT/ai^ 

210. The contractions in Greek and Latin need not 
detain us long. The ordinary contractions 

„ , . ■ ^ c ^^ • ii Conti-actions 

ot vowels are given m the loliowing table, in Greek and 
Those which arise by the loss of an original 
consonantal sound between the vowels deserve somewhat 
more attention. The number of such contractions seems 
to be greater in Greek than in Latin, because in Greek 
the number of important consonantal elements certainly 
lost between vowels is gTeater. But as the history of 
Latin is so imperfectly knoAvn to us in this matter, as in 
so many others, it is impossible to give the same details 
as for Greek. 

211. In both languages the most frequent source of 
such contractions is the loss of i ; rpets, tres 

both go back to an original *treies; com- 
pare also TToAets, otes = *iro\-ei-es, *ot-ei-es. So also, in 

1 equoruin has a different origin (§ 319). 

2 The Latin perfects egi, edi are more probably formed like cejji, 
sedi than examples of augmented types e + ag-, e + ed-. 

^ For further and more doubtful examples of these early com- 
binations see Brugm. Gritndr. i. § 111 ff.. 

168 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 211 — 

the verb, ^iXw, moneo represent *(f)L\€-io, mone-id, tl/xu} 
and amo represent *Tifia-id and *amd-id. According to 
the most recent authority the 1st person sing, in such 
cases is formed with the -io- suffix, but other persons are 
made directly from the noun stem plantd-s etc' In 
classical Greek this tendency is still going on; hence the 
scansion of tolovto<;, irom with the first syllable short. 
The second part of the diphthong, however, is not lost 
here, but in pronunciation the word seems to be divided, 
not as Toi-ouTos etc., but as to-ioutos etc. (§ 245). 

212. In Homeric Greek the loss of the u- sound 

represented by F was so recent that hiatus 

Loss of M. . ... .. J. 

generally marks its original position and m 
many dialects it survived throughout the classical period. 
The F was altogether lost in Attic Greek, and contraction 
takes place, in the verb, between the augment and the 
vowel sound which was originally preceded by the 
digamma. This contraction could not have been early, 
otherwise we should have found not ei-, which is 
the contraction e.g. in uXkov ( = *e-ueJqorii), but rj-, as in 
rja-Oiov. Koi\o<i is possibly for Kof-t-Aos, cp. Latin cac-um. 
In Latin the absolute loss of u is rare, but latrlna- 

213. In Greek SavAds 'shaggy' is cited as an ex- 
Loss of -0- in ample of contraction after loss of -o--, cp. 

^^^^e'^'^- 8a(7v?. But this is doubtful. 

214. In Latin not a few contractions arise from the 
Loss of -h- in ^o^s of h between similar vowels ; hence nihil 

Latin. becomes nil{c]}. English not-ne-whit), *ne- 

hemo becomes nemo, *bi-kimiis 'two winters old' blmus etc. 

1 Brugmann, Gnindr. 11. § 487 (but cp. above, § 172 n.). 
- Schweizer-Sidler, Gramm. d. Lat. Sprache (1888) § 31. 


ons which are generally cited are 


atSw ( = aid6a—*aidosm). 








driX&re ( = dri\67)Te). 


coepi (=:co + *epi, perfect whose 

ptc. is aptus). 


5d.iJ.u3 (Doric) -= 5)7/ioi;. 

c5pia ( = eo + op- from the stem 

found in op-em, etc.). 




7re5t-oto (Homer) whence irediov. 


fearlier alphabet was spelt with E, 
ov from €0, oe and oo. 
sio- (§ 200), contracts into w, but 

[To/wccp. 168. 


No forms have been given except those that are fairly certain. Many verb contractions which are generally cited are 
probably erroneous. (See Brugm. Grundr. ii. § 487.) 

a + a - a 

SiTTd (pi. = S^Traa), arrj ( = df <£t9)), 

e + a = S 

retxv { = -relxea). 

a + a=o 

alda { = iiiS6a = *aidosm). 

TaXXci ( = Ta aWa). 

? egi (§ 209 n. 2). 


latrina ( = lavatrina § 212). 

e + a = e 

degere { = de-agere). 

6 + a = u 


a + e = a 

Tlfiare (Doric Ttfliyrs). 

? amatis. 

e + e=Sl' 

0iXeil, irdX-Eis ( = -«es). 

o + e-^°" 





rifxaTe subj. (Doric Ti^ir/Tf). 

? amemus. 

e + e = e 


° + '^ = |oe 

57?Xuire ( = 5T?Xd7)7c). 

coepi ( = co + *epi, perfect whose 

a + o = ^ 


G 4- e = e 

j8a(n\i}s ( ^^^atrtX^^es). 

ptc. is aptvs). 

male ( = *mag + velo, *maolo). 

demere ( = de-emere). 

+ = 

dd/iia (Doric) '= S^^ou. 

a + 5 = o 




cupia ( = co + op- from the stem 




found in op-em, etc.). 

a + i = ai 

^ch { = nip!). 

e + o = a, 


+ = W 


e + i:=« 

^oXeM=TdX£i-), €t( = »£(,r)0. 

o + i = oi 

TTcSf-oio (Homer) whence weSloir. 

a + n = an 

No certain example (cp. § 213). 

5 + i = ei 

I3a(n\ci in Attic ( = /3aiTiX5i)- 
deinde, dehinc (in poetry). 

e? (cp. Homeric ivs). 

1 This is the spelling only after 403 B.C. The sound never was a diphthong and in the earlier alphabet was spelt with E, 
which then represented e as well as e (§ 12^). The same remark applies mutatis viutandis to ov from co, oe and oo. 

- In most Greek dialects -oo- of the genitive of o-stems, which represents a still older -osio- (§ 200), contracts into u, but 
in the "milder" Doric, Ionic and Attic into ou ( = u). 

[To J\,ce p. 1G8. 


2. Anaptyxis. 

215. By this term is meant the development of a 
vowel between two consonants. The first of the two 
consonants is generally a stop, the second a nasal or 
liquid. Anaptyxis occurs in both Latin and Greek, in 
Latin being especially frequent between c Anaptyxis in 
and I To this is due the vowel between c ^*"" ''"'''■• 
and / in such words as saeculmn, periculum, poculum. 
But it has been recently proved' that in this case a con- 
fusion has arisen between -do- the Latin development of 
-tlo- (§ 196) and the double suffix -co-lo-, and that this 
confusion belongs to the classical period, for in Plautus 
-do- which represents -tlo- is always scanned as a mono- 
syllable. Apart from this series of exam- 

, . . T . Anaptyxis in 

pies, anaptyxis m Latin appears most com- foreign words 

1 • r • J 7 z. /? in Latin. 

monly in foreign words; drachuma {opa- 
XJ^v), Alcumena {'A\KfjLy]vrj), tediina {t^x^t}), mina (n-va), 
Patricoles (UaTpoKXij^) , Aesculapius {'Ao-kXtjitio's). With 
r, anaptyxis occurs in several genuine Latin words, age7% 
cerno, sacerdos, the er being developed out . ... 

.^ '■ Anaptyxis in 

of an earlier r (§ 147) ; with /, apart from native words in 

™ 7° 1 1 • Latin. 

the suinx -do- above, the most common in- 
stances are the suffix -bio- which appears as -bulo- 
{sta-hulum etc.), and occasional variants like discipuUna 
and extempulo. The history of sum, sumus, humus and 
volup is not clear ^. 

216. Many of the Greek instances are also un- 
certain, it being possible in many cases Anaptyxis in 
that the vowel w^as developed before the ^'■®®'^- 

1 By W. M. Lindsay, Classical Review vi. p. 87. 
- For further examijles see Schweizer-Sidler, Gramm. d. Lat. 
Sprache § 47. sum has jarobably a thematic vowel — *s-o-?h (§ 453). 

170 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 216 — 

separate life of Greek began'. As examples the follow- 
ing may be cited. With A; yaAa beside yXaKTo<^ayo?, 
aXcyeivo? beside aXyeti'os, rjXvOov beside y])^Oov; with p, 
ySapayxos (cited from Hipponax) beside /?payxo?, a-paftvXat 
(quoted by Hesycliius) beside dpISvXai. The examples 
with nasals are less certain. e/?8o/A-o-s is supposed by 
some to represent an original *septm-o-s; a^cvos 'riches' 
has for its adjective a^j'eio's'. 

3. Compensatory lengthening of voAvels. 

217. The loss of consonants discussed in chapter 
xii. is often accompanied by a lengthening of the vowel 
of the preceding syllable. The -ei- and -ov- wdiich appear 
in Greek under these circumstances represent not a 
diphthong but an e and u sound respectively (§ 122). 

(«) Lengthening of vowels in Greek. 

218. a. Trao-a for Tvavaa (still found in Cretan) from 

Lengthening ^^^ earlier *7ravTia, raAds for TaXav-9, Ti/xas 

°^ "• for Ti/Aai/-s. In the last instance, although 

the vowel of the nominative is -•>; ( = original -a), the 
vowel of the accusative plural must have been -a-, as 
otherwise we must have had *Ttju,77s not Tt/u,a9^ a-nqX-q, in 
other dialects a-TaXXd and o-raXa, shows compensatoiy 
lengthening for the loss of the second consonant, which 
itself came probably from an earlier -vd sufhx *crTaA.-i'd. 
KaXo's in Homer has the lengthening, because it repre- 

1 Brugmann Gr. Gr."^ § 29. 

- For further examples see G. Meyer Gr. Gr.^ §§ 94—97. 

^ The Greek rule on this point was that a vowel before a nasal 
or a liquid or / or u followed by an explosive or 8 became short 
{§ 227). 


sents an earlier *KaX-to-s. In this case Attic has no 
lengthening, KaAo's. Compare with this aXAos (=*a\- 
to-s), the -AA- of which was apparently later since Cj^rian 
has atAos. 

219. €. The lengthening arising from the loss of 
consonants is written after 403 B.C. as ct. Leng:thening 
€V€t/u,a for ^evefxcra, e/ACtva for *e|U,€vcra\ ° ^^ 
TaOeiat for ^raOivrcn, cIs for *sem-S (but SecTTroTT;? for 

*8€/i,-9-7roT7;s § 188), ets for ev-s (§ 246). The cause of the 
lengthening in /xei^wv, Kpda-a-wv is not certain. Attic 
Ic'vos (Ionic ^€tvos is used in Attic poetry) shows no 
compensation for the loss of F in the combination -vF-. 

220. o. €xpvcri for exovTt (3 pi. of present) and 

*€xovT-o-t (dat. pi. of participle), cxo^o-a for Lengthening 
*€xoi'Tta, [xovcra for ^ixovtlo. (Doric //.wcra), ° °' 
iirTTovs for tTTTTovs. Homcric yovv6<;, 8ovp6<s represent 
*yoi'f-os, *Sopf -OS, Kovpo^ = *Kopf 0-9, but in Attic opos 
' boundary ' = Corc}Tean opfos ; /SovXo/xat apparently re- 
presents ^^ok-vo-fiaL (cp. § 140 i b). 

Some lengthenings, dddvaro^, iTnjfioXo^, ovvojxa, seem 
to be used for metrical reasons only. 

{h) Leng-thening of vowels in Latin. 

221. Cicero telLs us that -ns and -nf always made a 
preceding vowel long. Priscian adds that ^3^;^ vowels 
-gn- had the same effect, but his statement S^cmifonan^ 
is not borne out by the history of the combinations. 
Romance langTiages. 

222. a. halare is said to represent an older *aw- 
sld-re from the root of an-imu-s, qualum Lengthening 
'work basket' is for ^quas-lo-m, scdla for of Latin a. 

1 For ^(XTfLXa, ecpOeipa see § 184. 

172 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 222 — 

*scant-sla (§ 188), major for *muk-ior, equds for earlier 

223. e. vesica for censica, cena for sc€d-snd\ 
Lengthening d^fii'iis {=*aies-n-). tela for *tex-la\ toties 

ofLatme. besicle tot tens etc. The long e oi homines, 

pedes etc. does not originate in this way but simply 
follows the analogy of the /- stems, aces (= *av-ei-es) etc. 

224. 0. 'pomerhim for *pos-merium, pono for *p)0- 
Lengthening ^'^<^ {c^. po-sui, oldev jMsTci), cosol iYe([\ient 

of Latino, j^^ inscriptions for consul (§ 127 n. 1), cy«- 

cere, equds for ^equons. 

225. /. dlduco, d'dabor, dlmitto etc. with loss of s 
of Latin ?, (cp. dJr-imo = *dis-emo 'take asunder'), 
If/ewi, s'ido. 

and of Latin ii. 226. u. j (Imentum hwt jugum. 

■4. Shortening of vowels. 

227. In both Greek and Latin a long vowel before 
i, u, a liquid or a nasal followed by a stop-consonant is 
shortened, ot/cots, Lat. vJcJs for Indo-6. *uoikdis (§ 181, 3), 
Zev?, Lat. dies, etc. (§ 181, 4 — 6) ; XvOe-vr- from XvOrj- 
in stem of participle of Gk. 1st Aorist Passive, Lat. 
amdnt- docent- etc. ; Ace. pi. of -d stems originally 
Tt/xavs (§ 218), Lat. ^equdns, whence later rt/Aa's, equas. 
Li Greek, cjiepwvTai of the Subjiuictive is an exception to 
this rule, no doubt through the intiuence of the other 
forms which are long. 

Both languages tend to shorten a long vowel before 
a following vowel which is of different quality'. ve-<2v 
(gen. pi. of raws) for *vrjF-wv, Lat. 2^^-o, fa-i etc. In 
Ionic and Attic Greek, when a long vowel was followed 

1 Stolz, Lat. Gr." p. 302. 

- Vowels of the same quality contract. 


by a short vowel, a curious metathesis of quantity took 
place : /Sao-tAews for Homeric ySao-t\^os etc. The stress 
accent of Latin led to many other shortenings, as in 
final -0 of verbs etc. (cp. § 274). 

5. Loss of a syllable. 

228. (i) Syncope which is the loss of a vowel between 
two consonants does not occur in Greek, 
the nature of the Greek accent (§ 266) not pears only m 
affecting the length of the syllables in the 
same manner as the stress accent of Latin did. A stress 
accent tends always to weaken those syllables of the 
word on which it does not fall ; consequently there are 
many examples of the loss of a syllable in Latin. The 
most common are inirgo beside pior-i-go, j^ergo for *per- 
rego, cp. per-rexi, surgo for *suh-rego, cp. siir-rexi, 
sur2)ui for surripui, rej)piili, rettuli, etc. for re-peimli, 
re-tetuli, etc., caldus, vendere beside venumdare, quin- 
decim, vir for *mros, ager, and many others \ 

(ii) A similar loss of a syllable is produced in both 
languages by another cause. When two 
syllables follow one another which have two similar syi- 
exactly the same consonants, thei^e is a ten- 
dency in most languages to drop one of them. Hence 
we find in Greek a'/x^opeu? for *dfji(f>L4>op€vs (cp. dfj.(f)L- 

KVTreWov), ■qfjie.hijxvov for -qiXL-ixihifJiVov, KeXo ive(jiy]s for 
KcAaivo-vec^r?? ; in Latin stipendium for "^ stlpi-pendlo-m, 
voluntarius for *vohmtat-arius. niitrix for nutri-trix 
etc. voluntarius and nutrix are ob\dously derivatives 
from the stems found in voluntas and nutri-o respec- 
tively, not of a non-existent volunt- and nu-. 

1 For a long list, not, however, all of the same nature, see 
Scbweizer-Sidler, Gr. d. Lat. Spmche § 45 ff. 

174 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 229 — 

6. Protliesis. 

229. This is a purely Greek peculiarity ; no certain 

instances are known in Latin. Protliesis is 
curs only in the appearance of a vowel in front of the 

sound which we know, from comparison 
with other languages, to have been originally the initial 
and only before souud of the word. The consonants gener- 
certain sounds, ^^y preceded by such vowels are p, \, fx, F ; 
the vowels which precede these consonants are a, e, 
and o. Some groups of consonants kt-, x^- and a-d-, are 
preceded by i. 

230. a. Prothesis of a : a-pao-aw ; a-Xet<^aj (cp. XtVa) ; 
a-ynaXo's, d-ix/Skv? (cp. ju-aXaKOS, /8Xa^ = ml-), d-ixei^-w (Lat. 
/uig-rd-re), d-fxe\y-(a (cp. Lat. midg-e-o); aepa-a (dia- 
lectic form of Fepa-rj). 

231. b. Prothesis of € : €-pe<^-w, £-p€ijy-o-/zat (cp. Lat. 
ruc-ta-re), e-pvOp6-<; (Lat. ruber), eXa^v's (Lat. levis), l-keo- 
Oepo-'i (Lat. liber); no certain example of prothetic e 
before p.-; e-vpv-^; evXrjpa (Homeric = *i-F\r]pa, Lat. Idra 

'reins'); e-eSva (root Fe8-), i-eiKoat (Doric /^tKart), i-epar] 


232. c. Prothesis of o: d-puWw (root pvK-); d-Xty- 
0-s, d-Xtcr-^avoj (cp. Xtrds, Xttrcrds) ; 6-fXL)(^i(xi (§ 138); d- 
^cXos (§ 239) ; no example of prothetic o before F, unless 
perhaps the name of the Cretan to^^'n "Oa^os. 

233. d. Prothesis of i: l-x^v's (original form un- 
certain ; cp. c-x^«s alongside of x^e?) i i-^tis (alongside of 
KTiSerj 'weasel-skin helmet' in Homer); t-a-Oi 'be.' 

234. The causes of prothesis are by no means 
Possible causes Certain, but it seems probable that more 

of prothesis; th&n One cause has been at work, p repre- 
senting original r is never found at the beginning of 


a word in Greek ; where p begins a word it represents 
original sr- or ^r- as in plyos (§ 203) and difficulty of pro- 
pt^a. Original initial r is always preceded "unciation; 
in Greek by one or other of these prothetic vowels. 
This seems to indicate a difficulty which the Greeks 
felt in pronouncing r; cp. French es^jrit for Latin sj^i- 
r'ltus (§ 249 n.). But why should the vowel vary ? Why 
should we not have uniformly a, or c, or o instead of aU 
three ? G. Meyer suggests that the nature of this vowel 
was generally determined by the character of the vowel 
in the next syllable, thus introducing a principle some- 
what of the same sort as the law of vowel hannony in 
the Turanian languages (§ 34), a principle which has 
been more prominently brouglit forward recently'. But 
we must search for further causes, for we can hardly 
suppose that the Greek found a difficulty in pronouncing 
A and p. as well as p and F. It is notice- nasals and li- 
able that p, \ and /x are sounds which ap- ftL^Zn^^t■^ 
pear as both sonants and consonants; con- consonant; 
sequently it is possible that after a preceding consonant 
they were pronounced as rr-, II-, mm- respectively, 
whence would come ap-, aX-, and ap.-. ^ong division 
There are other possibilities — the wrong °^'^°^'^- 
division of words (§ 238), the existence of prefixed 
particles (§ 239) as in d-Aeycj which has been explained 
as *n-legu', and disyllabic roots. 

7. The phonetics of the sentence. 
235. In the making of a sentence the individual 
words pronounced during a breath are not Difference be- 
kept carefuUy separate, as they appear in and^° w?itteil 
writing, but are run into one another, the *p®^^- 

1 By Johannes Schmidt, KZ. 32, p. 321 ff. 

2 By E. E. "\Miarton (Some Greek Etymologies, p. 4). 

176 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 235 — 

final consonant of the preceding word being assimilated 
to the first of the following word, and vowels contracting 
or disappearing, precisely as in the case of the individual 
word. Hence in Sanskrit, the language of the most 
acute grammarians the world has ever seen, we some- 
times find a series of words run into one whole 
which ends only with the end of the sentence or witli 

Examples of soi^^G other natural break. The form in 
this difference, ^yl^igh we ^nite the words of our own lan- 
guage or of Latin and Greek is that which the words 
would have when no other sound followed. Thus we 
write Tov \6yov, but what the Greek said, and what he 
not unfrequently wrote, was toWojov : the variations in 
Latin haud, haut, hau, point to assimilations of the 
same nature, and, though in English we A\Tite at all, we 
actually combine the sounds of these two words exactly 
as we do in a tall man. 

236. Among the consequences we may deduce from 

Consequences these facts are the folloAnng ; {a) words are 
words ^'in°"thi likely to be wrongly divided, thus giving 
sentence. pjgg ^q j^g^y fomis ; {h) final and initial con- 

sonants will be assimilated and one or other may dis- 
appear, thus again giving rise to new forms ; (c) final 
vowels may either disappear or become consonantal 
before the initial vowel of a following word, and, if the 
consonantal form of the vowel affects the previous con- 
sonant, may give rise to new forms ; {d) if the forms 
originated in these three ways continue to subsist side 
by side, they may be specialised in different usages, and 
may no longer be felt as at all connected, or one dialect 
may keep one of the forms and another another. 

237' («) This generally arises from the similarity 
of the case ending of the article or some such word 


to the initial sound of the word which is affected. Thus 
in Greek ras-o-TCyas is divided Ta<; reya's aud Words wrong- 
hence a byeform arises reyo?, Teyij aud the '^ tii^ided. 
verb reycij by the side of the older axeyo?, (TTeyij, o-Tcyw'. 
So also Toil? fJ.LKpov<;, Tovs fJiepSaXeov?, etc. lead to Tovs 
(Tfj-LKpovs, Tot)5 (T/AepSaAeors aud ultimately to a complete 
set of forms with initial 5, which had been lost earlier by 
a general Greek law (§ 202). The pronoun 6 Seiva ' a 
certain one' is supposed to be a wrong division of oSe 
+ another pronominal element I If any further change 
takes place in the form of an initial combination of 
consonants, the byeform may be widely separated from 
its parent. If we could be certain of the identification, 
a good example of such difference would be found 
in ptyos = *sngos, whence in Latin both frJgus {% 203) 
and rigor^. 

238. This wrong division of words is probably one 
of the origins of prothesis. Thus 6fx.6py- 

vvfXL by the side of p-opyvvp-i probably arises 

from a A\Tong division of d-n-o-ixopyvvp-L, and the same may 

be true of o'-puo-crw and o-Xto-^ai'O). 

239. The cognate words w-cf>e\ew and o<^€tA.a>, oc^eXos 
seem to owe their initial o and its two .i^eAea) and 
forms to a somewhat different cause. In °^^''"^- 

the preliistoric period of Greek there seems to have been 
a preposition *oj (=Skt. a) meaning 'round about.' 
This still survives in wK-cavos, originally a participle from 

^ This interchange goes back to ludo-G. times, the Germanic 
Iftuguages (Eng. thatch) showing a form without s-, for initial st- 
woultl remain unchanged (§ 103 i). 

- Bauuack Studien i. p. 46, Solmsen KZ. 31, p. 475 S. But 
compare Persson /. F. 11. p. 228 ff. 

* So Pedersen I.F. 11. p. 32.3 n. 

G. P. 12 

178 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 239 — 

the same root as Kel-fxaL and indicating the river ' lying 
round' the world'. The stem of oj</)cXe(D etc. is ap- 
parently the same as that in Skt. jjhal-a-m ' fruit, gain.' 
If *tu could be used with tlie same meaning of greatness 
as Trept in irfpLKXvTos etc. it is not hard to arrive at the 
meaning of wc^eAc'w. When the old preposition died out, 
a confusion arose with the augmented w forms of the 
imperfect and aorist. Hence in ocfieiku) the present was 
written with o by mistake for w, and oc^eXos followed its 
verb^ It may be conjectured that a still further stage 
is to be seen in epe'^w as compared with its substantives 
opo^os, opo(j)y], the verb changing its initial o to e parallel 
to the regular change of its root vowel. 

240. The number of such wrongly divided words in 

English is considerable; as examples may 
vided words in be citcd aproii akin to napery originating 

in the wrong division an apro7i instead of 
a napron, an orange for a norange, a nickname for an 
eke name, a newt with the bj'eform an eft ' the water 
beast ' from the root of Lat. aqua, the n in the last two 
cases being added to the original word, whereas in the 
first two cases the n which originally began the word has 
been lost I 

241. (Jj) The loss of final consonants is probably 
mostly due to assimilation. To this may l)e attributed 

1 See V. Fierlinger, KZ. 27 p. 477 ff. 

2 Moulton, A.J.F. viii. p. 209. 

3 In the Keltic languages this has resulted rather in the change 
of the initial consonant of the second than of the final consonant 
of the first word. The speakers of the old Gaulish language, when 
they adopted Latin as their speech, kept the old manner of pro- 
nunciation, a jDronunciation still ti'aceable in the curious 'sentence 
phonetics' of French, cp. il a with a-t-il? and the pronunciation 
of avez-voiis ? with that of the same words in vous avez. 


the total loss of final stops in Greek. Double conso- 
nants arising by assimilation at the end of a Assimilation 
word were reduced at the end of the clause ^" ^^'^ sentence, 
or sentence to a simple sound; hence vco'-tt;?, novi-tas 
with final -?, -s for -o-s, -ss by assimilation from -ts, -ts 
the original stem being *nem-tdt-. The 
V 1<^(Xkv(ttlk6v, whether at the end of a verb 
form as ecjiepe-v, or of a noun form like Itttvokti-v, was not 
originally merely an arbitrary means of avoiding hiatus, 
but was extended from cases where it had originally a 
meaning and syntactical value to other cases where it 
had not. Parallel to this is the confusion of of and on 
in Shakspearian English ^ and in modern dialects. The 
unaccented form of both prepositions became simply a 
neutral vowel sound written o (cp. a-hed where a is the 
unaccented form of the older an = on, and a, an the 
articles, really unaccented forms of ane, one). Hence on 
came to be used for of and vice versa. In the modern 
Northumberland dialect on has, in consequence, developed 
largely at the expense of of. 

242. The frecpient loss of final 5 after a short 
syllable in early and popular Latin was lq^^ ^f ^^i g 
owing to a weak pronunciation of the s and ^^ L,atm. 
partly, perhaps, also to assimilation. But to the Eoman 
Avriters it was merely a metrical device and the elision 
occurs before all consonants Avith equal impartiality. 

243. (c) The contraction of a final vowel with the 
initial vowel of the following word has 

already been discussed. The loss of a final 
vowel before a succeeding initial vowel leads in Greek 
to various dialectic forms of the prepositions dv, aV, kut 
etc., which were then used before consonants and some- 
1 Abbott, Shakspearian Grammar § 182. 


180 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 243 — 

times assimilated, as is the case Avitli kut Ijefore tt to tt 
— KttTT TreStov (Homer), before /3 to (3 — Ka/3)8a\e (Homer), 
and so on'. 

244. In Latin et represents the same original as 
Latin ef, ac, ^'^'- *^^^ ^Y ^^^^ regular change of final / in 

afque. ' ' L^tjj^ ^Q g ^g ^g5^) became *ete and the final 

e was dropped before a following vowel as in (mimed, 
calccw etc. which are neuter /-stems. So also ac is 
merely a byeform of at-que (itself only ad+que 'and 
besides '), the e- sound being lost by a kind of syncope 
(.^ 228 i) before a following consonant and t being assimi- 
lated to c {qu) exactly as in siccus from *sit-co-s'. In the 
popular pronunciation which we find in Plautus this 
dropping of final e was carried miich further, as we 
learn from the scansion, than the representation of the 
language in writing shows. 

245. The peculiar scansion of Homer is also in a 
Scansion of large measure due to the change of the 

fore'^^vowds ^fn sscoud part of a diphthong into a conso- 
Homer. naut beginning the next syllable, the so- 

nant part of the diphthong being then treated as short ; 
in otlier words -at a- (see § 83) is now scanned as -a ta-. 
Hence, in the line auv dpLa-reveLV koI virupoxov eufxevaL 
aXXwv, the latter part is to be scanned kS. ivTreipoxov 
e/Aju.€va laXXwv. In cases of erases like kcitti, Kara the 
grammars lay down the rule that a is to be written only 
when t is part of the second element in the combination. 
This rule finds an explanation in this principle ; in KotTri 
t disappears as it does in ttow for ttoio) and o-Tod for older 
cTTottt, while in Kara the i of eha still survives. 

1 G. Meyer Gr. Gr." § 309. 

- Skutscb, Forschungen z. Lat. Gramm. p. 52. 


246. (d) A good example of the double forms 
produced when a final vowel becomes con- ^p^^- ^nd 
sonantal is seen in -n-pos. This is the form "''°^' 
which TTpoTL takes before a following vowel. Thus the 
primitive Greek forms would have been *7rpoTc-StSwTt but 
*7rpoTUBu)Ke whence *7r/Doo-o--€SwK€. This when isolated 
was ■s^Titten Trpo's and remained the only form in Attic 
Greek, although irpoTt survived and Trpds disappeared in 
other dialects. 

247. The s in forms like ii (=€k-s), ets (=*ev-s), 
YCDot-s etc. is of uncertain origin. As irapos 

, . , , , f I and ei5. 

(gen.) Trapd (instr.) -n-epi (loc), Trapat (dat.), 

seem to belong to one noun paradigm, it is possible that 
-s in e/c-s is the weak form of the genitive suffix, cts and 
ev have been specialised in Attic in different senses. In 
some dialects, however, ev is the only form, governing 
alike dative and accusative just as Lat. i7i governs the 
ablative and accusative. 

248. The forms once ending in -vs which show com- 
pensatory lengthening of the vowel are survival of 
only one of two sets of forms which existed double forms. 
as the effect of the following word upon the pre\aous 
one. x\t the end of the sentence or before a following 
vowel the forms with long vowel were developed — rt/ias, 
CIS (*ev-s), Sect's; before a following consonant the vowel 
showed no lengthening although the -v- was dropped as 
before — rijaas, es, 6eos. So too Secr-7roT7;s 'house lord' 
for *8€/As-7roT7;s, where *8e/As is a genitive of an old stem 
from the same root as 80V-0-S and Se/^-w. This accounts 
for the variants eis and h and for the short forms of the 
accusative plural which are sometimes found in poetry ; 
cp. Hesiod, Works and days 675 /cat -^^^ip-iZv linovTa, 
KoTOid re Setvas dv^ras : Shield 302 rot S cuKVTroSas Aayds 

182 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 248 — 

ypevv. These short forms, liowever, have generally been 
overpowered by those which show the compensatory 

xiv. Accent. 

249. It has already been pointed out that in the 
Pitch and Original Indo-Germanic language there 
stress accent, -^yere two kinds of Accent— pitch accent 
and stress accent (§§ 92 — 3). It was also observed that 
the effects produced by these accents were of different 
kinds. The effect of pitch accent would be to influence 
the nature of a sound, a high-pitched sound naturally 
going with the high pitch accent and conversely. The 
main effect of stress accent is that it emphasizes one 
syllable at the expense of its neighbours; the syllables 
before and after are likely either to lose their separate 
existence altogether or to have their vowel reduced to a 
neutral sound. This happened extensively in Latin, and 
in the development of the Romance languages from 
Latin. In Latin compounds, in instances where there 
was no counteracting cause, the a, e, or sound of the 
simple word was reduced to the neutral / or u sound 
(§ 272); compare desilio, insulto vdt\\ salio; adimo, pro- 
tinus with emo and fen us ; ilico { = *in slow), sedulus 
(formed from se dolo 'without guile') with locus and 
dolus. In the late Latin, from which the Romance 
languages sprang, the stress accent was stronger appa- 
rently than it had been at an earlier period; hence, in 
cases where no other law crossed its effect, the loss of 
unaccented syllables preceding or following the syllable 
which had the main stress. Thus the Italian Bimini, 
storia are the representatives of the Latin Arim'mum, 


Mstoriam; the French Gilles, frere, aimable, esjjrit^ of 
the Latin EglUus (a byeform of Egidius, Cic. De Orat. 
II. &%), fratrem (§ 93), amabilem, spiritiuiz. 

250. It is necessary to discuss (1) the remains of 
the oriiiinal Indo-Germanic accent which ^ 

_ ^ ... Two systems 

are still found in the history of the indivi- of accentuation 

, , -, , . ■, to be discussed. 

dual languages and (2) the changes m the 

original system of accentuation which took place in the 

separate history of Greek and Latin. 

1. The Indo-Germanic Accent. Ablaut. 

251. The most important relic of the original ac- 
centuation and the only one which requires vowei grada- 
consideration here is the vowel gTadation or *'°"' 
ablaut, which the majority of philologists still attribute 
to the influence of pitch accent'. It is contended that 
there was a change of vowel according to the position of 
the highest pitch, for example e interchanges interchange 
mth 0, e as a, higher pitched vowel appear- °^ * ^^^ "' 
ing in the syllable with the chief accent, in the syllable 
which had not the chief accent. Thus we have rightly 
(f)€p(D but (fiopa. Analogy of all kinds has, however, ob- 
literated a large part of the system, if this affected by 
theory be correct. Thus yevos is right but Analogy. 
70V0S is wrong, and so also is o86<; which ought to be 
*o8€s. This confusion no doubt can be explained as the 
result of a change of position in the accent of the 
oblique cases and a consequent change of vowel, this 

1 The initial e is prothetic, originating in the difficulty which 
the speakers of late Latin found in pronouncing initial s- followed 
by another consonant; hence late Latin i.-ipiritus (cp. § 234). 

2 See § 92. 

184 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 251 — 

new vowel being at a later period introduced into tlie 
nominative from the oblique cases, or on the other hand 
being expelled from its rightful position by the vowel of 
the nominative. 

252. There are according to the generally accepted 

theories of ablaut, six series of vowel changes 

\ owfl series, , . ° 

corresponding to the six vowels a, a, e, e, 0, d. 
There seem to be traces of similar variations between i 
and i, u and u, although, as will be seen by the tables of 
changes below, i and u in the other series figure only as 
the consonant part of diphthongs, except in the weakest 
grade of all where they appear exactly in the same way 
as sonant nasals and liquids ; Tret'^w : -klO-wv -. : Treia-oixat 
(fr. Trda-xo) and = *Trev6-(TOfxai, cp. § 188): -rraO-uyy {^irnd- 
oji). But when we examine the earliest relics of the 
Indo-Germanic languages we find that in some of them, 
such as Latin, the system of vowel gradation has been 

nearly obliterated, while in others, such as 

not equally con- , . . 

spicuous m all (jreek, it IS to a large extent preserved. 
Even in Greek, however, only one series is 
found to any very large extent, viz. that which is named 
from its vowels the e : series. Of this series there are 
very many examples in Greek, and even in Latin a few 
have been preserved. 

253. The g-grade of such roots is generally taken in 
Typifai form I'sceut books as the typical form ; older 

of roots. ^,^,3].^ followed the fashion of the Indian 

grammarians and gave the forms in their weak grade in 
most cases. Thus the root of Tpiir-u), rpoTr-o-s, would 
now be given as rpeir- representing exactly an original 

*trep- ; the root of irdO-oi, iri-iroLO-a, t-inB-ov as *7r£t^-, not 

as ttlO-, representing an original ^hheidh- (cp. § 102) not 
*bhidh-. The form in is generally called the ablaut or 


variant' form, Avliile the forms in i, u, I, r, m, n, or with- 
out a sonant at all, are described as the weak grade. 
But it is really inaccurate to say that ttolO- and ttovO- 
(in Tre-TTovd-a) are the deflected forms respectively of ttuO- 
and irevO', for such a statement implies that Tret^- and 
irei'^- were in existence before iroid- and -n-ovO-, and of 
this there is no proof. Accent changes accompany 
vowel changes from the earliest period that we can reach 
in the history of Indo-Germanic sounds ; as already 
mentioned the principal 2^iic^ accent on a syllable was 
accompanied, it seems, by an e-vowel; the absence of 
such accent by an o-vowel. On the other ^ , , 

1 . . , Weak forms 

hand, the absence of the principal stress the result of 
accent was marked by the appearance of 
the syllable in its lowest pronounceable form ttlO- -n-nO-, 
or, if it was possible, by the total absence of the sonant ; 

Cp. Tra-rep-a, ira-Tpa-cri i^—*p9-tr-Sl)', Tra-rp-o's. 

254. The levelling which has taken place in Latin 
in the noun forms has been already men- 

^ Levelline of 

tioned (§ 48). Instead of del-tor, *da-tr-es vowel grades in 

n • \ J. 1 ^ • f>i7 T - • Latin 

(later -is), *da-ter-i we nnd dator, datoris, 
datore the strong form being carried through all the 
cases; on the other hand j!)rt#^r has weak forms in 
every case except the nominative singular, caro, carnis 
represent the normal declension but we have no cari- 

1 I prefer this to the term deflected used to translate flechi in 
the English translation by Mr Elliott of Victor Henry's excellent 
Precis de la Grammaire comparee du Grec et du Latin, because I 
■wish to avoid suggesting that the forms are in any way less 
original than the e forms. 

^ The accent here, whatever its original position, could not 
have been on the -tr- syllable, for an accented sonant liquid or 
nasal, as was pointed out in § 157 note 2, is a contradiction 
in terms. 

18(5 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 254 — 

nan {= *curonem), no carine (= *careni) ; these have been 
replaced by carnem and came. So even in 
Greek although ku-wv, ku-v-os is regular, 

there is no ^Kvova for the accusative singular and no 

*Kva(TL for the dative (locative) plural. The weakest form 

has taken their places. 

255. This analogical levelling appears to some 
„ . , extent in all languages; there is a further 

Special cause . <=> <^ j 

of levelling in reason in Latin for the disappearance of 

Latin. .-Ill . 11 

the original ablaut, viz. the tendency to 
change its diphthongs to simple sounds and to reduce 
to the neutral vowel all vowels unaccented under its 
later system of accentuation (§ 272). 

256. In the short vowel series a number of forms 

are found with a long vowel. The relation of 

Long vowels i ,. n 1 • 

in the short tliese loruis to the others is not yet satis- 

vowgI SGriGS. 

factorily cleared up, and indeed, notwith- 
standing the work of the last twenty years on this whole 
problem, much still remains to be done, and scarcely a 
single statement made on the subject can be said to 
have met with universal acceptance (cp. note after § 265). 

257. In the following six series it is to be observed 
Vowel series ^^^^^ ^^^ most cases uo single language has 

pieteln'anyTan- retained representatives of all the vowel 
guase. grades ; sometimes one language shews 

forms which have been lost in others, but in many 
instances a complete set of forms cannot be obtained 
even from the whole of the Indo-Germanic languages. 

258. A. The e : series. 

This, by far the most important series, is found not 

Forms of the merely in the simple form e : with the 

e : series. corresponding weak grades, but also in cases 



where the vowel is combined with i, u, sonant nasals 
and sonant liquids. The relation of long forms like 
Tra-rrfp, ^p>?V, €v-7ra-Twp, ev-c^pwi/, homo, ttous, j!?(9S, etc., to 
the shorter forms -n-a-Tep-a, (^peV-a, ei-Trd-Top-a, ev-ffypov-a, 
komine?n, iroS-a, ped-em, etc. is not clear : (see, however, 
note after § 265). The weak grade appears in two forms 
according as some slight vowel-sound remains (^-grade) 
or the e : o vowel entirely disappears (the ?? //-grade). 
The remaining i, u, nasals and liquids might be sonant 
or consonant according as a consonant or a vow^el 
followed them. Hence the complete table of this series 
(excluding the long forms) in the original language must 
have been as follows \ 

Strong Grade 

Weak Grade 

(i) e : o 

3 : nil 

(ii) ej : oi 


(iii) 6u : ou 


(iv) 6m : om 


(v) en : on 


(vi) ^r : or 


(vii) 61 : ol 


In the individual languages these sounds followed 
the course of development which has been already ex- 
plained in each case. 

259. (i) e : 


: nil. 

iri5-a : ir65-a 


ped-e : tri-pud-ium 


Vgui { = *si-zd-v § 143) 

sed-e-o : sol-ium (l = d 


(nidus ( — *iu-z(l-os) 


1 Possibly under a we ought to add, ai found in Oei/xev for 
*datiJ.€v ( = *clhdi-), dv, ?m etc. In the case of the sonant nasals 
and liquids it would be impossible to distinguish am, »n, ar, al 
from mvi, nn, ^r, U. 






Weak Grade 

sit : 


(Goth, satyan 
like (pop^u) 



ei : 



TvelO-w : 


/7rt(T-To's(-*7ri9-T6-s § 192) 



feid-0 : 



pei8-o-ixai : po'ida 



: vid-i (§ 176) 





: wat (I wot) 




: 0^1 



: — 



: — 





: ceas 



: (chose) 


Trevd-o-fiai : — 

7,va-TLs ( = *w6d-Tis% 192) 




: bead 

bud-on (1 pi. pft.) 




: om 

m (m). 


emo { = *nmo § 161) 




(§ 10) : nam 

ge-num-en ( = *n7?i7»-) 

eh { = *sem-s% 156) : o/x-o'-y 

(d-Tra^ ( = *sm-) 

jciM-a { = *smm-) 


: same 







: eii-(f)pov-a 

(ppa-cL (Pindar) 


: yi-yov-a 



: yov-o-s 

gi-gn-0 ^ 

gen- us 

: — 

gen-ius [ = §n-ios) 


chind' child' : O.E.c^nnan 

0. E. cynn 'kin.' 

^ The compounds maligims, henignus, abiegnus etc., are later 




Strong Grade 
Min-er-va : me-min-i 

0. E. 

(vi) er 

0. E. fe-der 

<p€p-ii} : 

fer-o : 

0. E. ber-an : 

(vii) el 



(pop- 6-^ 

bfer (pft.) 
bearm 'bosom' 
beam (bairn) 

'belt to hold some- 
thing up' 

: ol 

: te-tul-i 


pel-lo ( = *2)el-7w) : pe-pul-i 

Weak Grade 

( — tmi-io-mai §§ 26, 83) 
(mens (§ 25) 


Gothic Jfa-di'-s (gen.) 

|fa-dru-m (-tr-') dat. 


(a vehicle to carry two) 

Jfor-s ( — *bh^-tl-s) 




rdX-as ( — tU-) 

tollo (-*tl-nr>) 

t>oliau 'thole' (§ 106, iv) 


pul-su-s { = *pl-td-s § 152) 

formations in which the vowel of the root *rien- is suppressed by 
the influence of the later stress accent (§ 272) cp. oleacjinus etc. 

^ The Latin nominatives ■pater, dator, represent an older *iMte,r, 


26o. B. 



The e : d series. 

[§ 260- 

O. E. 


died 'deed' 


dom ' doom ' 
do 'I do.' 

0. E. 

•^-/xa (§ 142, 1) : a.<p-€-u)-Ka 




0e-To-s { = *dh3-to-s) 




C. The a : a series. (See note after § 265.) 










O. E. 

ad {§ 174) 
(iii) auw ( — *saus-<~) 

0. E 

0. E. 

sear ' sere.' 
262. D. The a : 

a : 

i-cTTd'/jLL (Doric) 


tito-1 (stool) 





Tdel (idle) 


(pa-/xi (Doric) 
fa-ma l 



(TTa-aL-s ( = aT3-Ti-s § 169) 




1 The initial o of oy/j-os is said to be protbetic. Bartholomae, 
however, holds that this series like all the others has a grade with 
an o-vowel. If this view is correct, oyfios would represent the 
o-grade, (BB. xvii. 105 S.) 




263. E. The : d series. 
The forms of this series are rare and uncertain. 

3 : nil 

6\p-o-fiai. : 


(— PTT-Tl-S 




bad-i 'bed' 



264. F. The series. 

This is the most doubtful of all. No probable ex- 
amples are to be found in the Germanic languages. 
Apparently there is no difference of vowel between the 
accented and the variant forms. 

Si2-Ti-s (§ 27) 

9 : 



265. The nil-grade of several of these series 
shewn best by Sanskrit ; ta-sth-us ' they 

stood' (3 pi. pft.) from Sthd- = a-Td-, da-dh- nil-e;rade in 

mdsi 'we place' (cp. TL-Oe-iJ.ev) from dhe-, 
devd-t-ta 'given of God' from do-, where t-ta is the 
weakest possible form of the participial stem {=*d-tu-s) 
in combination ^nth an accented word. 

Note. — The account of the Indo-Germanic ablaut given above 
is practically that of Hiibschmann in his Indogermanisches Vocal- 
system (1885) and of Brugmann in his Grundriss, Vol. i. (1886). 
But as has been already jjointed out (§ 256) no explanation of 
these complicated phenomena can be at present regarded as more 

1 bo-To-s like Oeros, eros has taken the prevalent vowel of its 
own verb. The regular form would be *8aT6s { — *d3tos). 

192 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 265 

than provisional. In the account given, there are undoubted 
defects. For example (i) the a : a series (§ 261) can hardly be 
taken as parallel to the e : o series, for a change of quantity cannot 
be equated with a change in the quality of the vowel, (ii) Another 
point which was left undecided was that of the relation between 
the long forms wa-Trjp, cpprjv etc. (§ 258) and the short forms 
■wa-Tipa, (j)piv-a. The long forms, it is to be observed, occur in the 
nominative only. 

It is impossible here to summarize the whole of the immense 
recent literature on the subject of ablaut, but plausible attempts 
at solving the two problems indicated above may be briefly men- 

(i) Bartholomae {BB. xvii. p. 91 ff.), starting from Armenian 
which gives sometimes a and sometimes o as equivalent to the 
sound represented uniformly in Greek by o, concludes that Greek 
and all other languages except Armenian have confused together 
at least two separate original sounds, which he indicates as 
Indo-G. (in Armenian o) and ludo-G. a (in Armenian a). The 
former is represented in yi-yov-a and Lat. proc-us (variant form to 
prec-or), the latter in 6cr(r€, Lat. oc-ti-lu-s ; Trda-i-s, Lat. pot-i-s 
(§ 163 note 2). Bartholomae accordingly recasts the ablaut series 
according to the following principles (BB. xvii. p. 105) : 

(1) All series had four grades — two high grades and two low 

(2) The vowels of the high grades were distinguished in all 
series by quality, not by quantity. 

(3) According to the vowel quantity of the high grades the 
six series fall into two groups, three series having a short, three a 
long vowel. 

(4) One series in each group has the same vowel-quality as a 
series in the other group. 

(5) One of the two vowels of the high grade in every series 
is o ox o; the other a clearer (higher-pitched) vowel e, a", a" or e, 

(6) The low grades are the same in all series ; in one the 
vowel is entirely absent, in the other rejolaced by d. 

(7) At a later period, other two grades were added to the four 
already mentioned. The vowels of the high grades w^ere in certain 
circumstances lengthened. In this way the long vowels, e etc. in 
the three series with short vowels originated ; in the thi-ee series 




which had ah'eady loug vowels, extra-long (ilberlange) vowels, 
e etc. arose. For example the contraction of two short vowels 
gives a long vowel of the first kind : ^domo + es becomes *dom''S 
(nom. pi. ep. § 317). On the other hand a contraction of a long 
with a short vowel produced an extra long vowel. Thus from 
Indo-G. *Snu 'woman' the nom. pi. is ^giias ( = *gnf7 + e«); the 
conjunctive sthdti represents *st}ul + a + tL 

Bartholomae's six series are, therefore, as follows. 

High grades 

Low grades 

1 2 

a nil 




This scheme, though in some respects an improvement, by no 
means gets rid of all difficulties. Bartholomae is unable to 
explain satisfactorily the presence, in the high grade of his 
a^-series, of the forms \ox-ay6-s, Lat. amb-dges : dy-uy-6s, by the 
side of ayw, Lat. ago : '6yixo% in the same high grade. 

(ii) The " lengthened grades," the long vowels of ira-T-qp, of 
Lat. pes etc., have been placed in a new light by recent investiga- 
tion . To this investigation a number of scholars have contributed 
important elements, which have been coordinated and completed 
in an important article by Streitberg (I. F. iii. pp. 305 — 416). 
The following summary is taken from this article. 

(1) An accented short vowel in an open syllable is lengthened 
if a following syllable is lost. 

Compare 4>ihp and (popos, irapa-^Xu-^ and Karu-^Xetp, 
and (retaining the accent of their nominatives) evpvoira 
and Kvvdira. Hence Doric ttws, Lat. pes represent 
*ir6dos, *pedos and similarly with other monosyllabic 
root nouns : Lat. vox, rex, lex etc. Thus Indo-G. *g6us 
(^ovs) = ''S6uos ; Indo-G. *dieus = *dieuos. But in com- 
pounds, where the accent went on to the first element 

G. P. 13 

194 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 265 — 

{ve6-^v^, dl-TTTv^ Lat. xemi-fer compared with *j'i'76s, 
^vy6v, •TTTvxo's and Lat. ferus), the vowel remains un- 
changed. So the long suffixes -en-, -on-, -men-, -mon-, 
•er-, -or-, -ter, -tor have parallels with -o- ; -eno-, -ono-, 
•meno-, -mono-, -ero-, -teru-, though the last two differ 
in meaning from the long forms. Similarly -nt- has a 
bye-form in -7ito- etc. The -s- forms, alone in the 
noun, Streitberg thinks have no form with vowel 
ending beside them. The Homeric yeveri, however, by 
the side of 7^1/05 (cp. Lat. generdre) seems to vouch 
for such original forms. No Indo-G. accusatives are 
lengthened except *!om, and diem, because these are the 
only accusatives which became monosyllables ; irboa, 
pedem etc. remain disyllabic. 

(2) An accented long vowel changes its accent from acute to 
circumflex if a following syllable is lost. Bartholomae's extra-long 
vowels are such circumflexed forms. In other words, while a 
short is one beat or mora, an ordinary long is two, a circumflexed 
long three. 

Compare 7X0^^ with adj. y\avK6s, Homeric pi^yes 
with p7;7vi;/xt. Indo-G. *ndus {vavs) = "'nuuofi. 

(3) The loss of 1, u, m, n, r, I after long vowels and before 
stop-consonants takes place only when the syllable bears the 
principal accent of the word. The accent by this loss is changed 
into the circumflex (cp. § 181). 

(4) Unaccented vowels are lost both before and after the 
principal accent of the word, i, u, m, n are lost not merely after 
original long vowels but also after those which have been length- 
ened, except when they stand before s. 

2. Accent of Greek and Latin in the historical period. 

266. The accent of (jreek and Latin in the his- 
torical period was very different from the 

Differeiice in . . "^ / 

nature between orioinal Indo-Gemianic accent and the two 

Greek accent , ,. ,, i • 1 

and Latin ac- lani(ua!jres also ditier very mnch m this re- 
cent. 00 J 

spect from one another. In Greek the 


accent marks indicate pitch ; on tlie other hand the 
main accent in Latin was a stress accent, less strong 
perhaps in the later period of the language than it had 
been in the earlier, and perhaps at no time so emphatic 
as the stress accent in English. The accounts of the 
Latin accent which we receive from gram- ^^,^5,^ ^^^^^ 
marians are of comparatively little value, ^unt"untrust' 
because it is evident that they applied to ^^orthy. 
the stress accent of Latin the terminology of Greek 
grammarians dealing with the pitch accent of their own 
langiiage. Thus, not recognising the difference between 
the two languages in this respect, they attributed to 
Latin many phenomena, such as the circumflex accent, 
which it almost certainly never possessed. 

267. The changes in the Greek accent seem to 
have been brought about by the develop- ^^^^^ ^j^j^jj 
ment of a secondary accent which, in words speciai^*^ Greek 
whose last syllable was long, never receded ^^ccent. 
further from the end of the word than the penultimate, 
and in no case farther than the third syllable. Words like 
TToAccos are no exception to this rule, for in such words 
-ews represents an older -r/os, and the metathesis of 
quantity is later than the development of this 'trisyl- 
labic law ' as it is called. If this new accent chanced to 
agree in position with the old accent inherited from the 
Indo- Germanic period, no change took place, changes in the 
If the old accent, which, being absolutely ^00™°" ""under 
free, could stand on any syllable, was the new system. 
nearer the end of the word than this new secondary accent, 
the old accent might remain or the new accent might 
take its place. Thus Tran^p preserves the original Indo- 
Germanic accent ; fj-yjrrjp, on the other hand, has taken 
the new accent (§ 104). In words of more than three 


196 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 267 — 

syllables and in trisyllabic words whose last syllable was 
long, the accent could no longer be on the first syllable. 
Thus the verb of the principal sentence, which was origin- 
ally enclitic, and the verb of the subordinate 

Accentuation ... , •. n i. 

of the Greek sentence, which was accented on its nrst 
syllable, were now both reduced to the same 
f(jrm, and all genuine parts of the verb (the infinitive and 
participle are noun fonns) were treated in the same 
manner, and accented as far from the end as the trisyllabic 
law would permit. Thus -ytyvo/Ac^a of the principal 
sentence, where the accent was thrown forward on to the 
syllable preceding the verb whether that syllable was the 
augment (.§ 98) or a different word, was now accented 
precisely in the same way as ycyvofxeOa of the subordi- 
nate sentence, the trisyllabic law forcing the accent 
back to the o in both cases — ytyvo/xe^a. 

268. A further peculiarity of Greek accent is the 

law by which words that form a dactyl or 

Accentuation t , 1 .1 ,1 

of dactylic end m a dactyl, are accented upon the pen- 
ultimate ; 0-qpLov, •)(U)pLOv, Xlcr-)(y\os, ko/xttv- 
Aos, ycyei'-^iaeVo?, TcXccr-c^opos. Most of these words were 
originally oxyton, an accentuation still retained in some 
cases, especially in proper names TraxvXo's, Teto-a/xei/o's, etc' 
This law, however, was not shared by Lesbian Aeolic, 
which in all cases threw the accent as far from the end 
of the word as the trisyllabic law would permit. 

269. In accent, as in other things, analogy affects 
Analogy in the Working of the general principles. 

accentuation. jJeuce, although euclitics are practically 
part of the word they follow, because by definition they 

1 Analogy also affects this law. (ppovpiov has lost its diminu- 
tive meaning (cp. Lat. castellum) and is accented on the first 


come under its accent, we find not dXyea tlvwv or d/Vyca 
TiVwj', but aXyea tivcdv on the analogy of aXyed. Tivo?. 

So also we find evvov for evvov the legitimate contraction 
of evvoov, because the oblique cases follow the nomina- 
tive in their accentuation. Conversely XP^^°^^ i^ cir- 
cumflexed in the nominative because xP^^^^v etc. regu- 
larly contract into xp^o"o{; etc. Since a large number of 
perfect participles passive ended in a dactyl, those which 
did not, as Tera/xero?, AeXvyaeVo?, were analogically accented 
in the same manner'. 

270. The nature of the Greek accents has already 
been briefly indicated (§ 97). The acute Mature of the 
was a rising, the circumflex a rising-fall- ^^'■eek accents, 
ing accent. The nature of the grave accent is not 
easy to determine. As the Greek accent was musical, 
the relations of the acute and the grave accents may 
be best illustrated by comparing the acute accent 
to a higher note rising from a monotone chant, the 
grave accent indicating only that the pitch it marks is 
lower than that which the syllable has when it ends 
the piece. In the same way, the circumflex is of the 
nature of a slur in music combining two notes of dif- 
ferent pitch. 

271. There is one further point. Why should some 
long syllables be marked with an acute, 

while others have a circumflex ? Why Zeus acute and cir- 


but Zev ? Why Tt/x77 but ti/at^s ? To this 
question there is at present no final answer. In 
the former case the difference is regarded by some 
authorities^ as one existing from the beginning, in the 

1 For further details see B. I. Wheeler's Der griechisclie 
Nominalaccent (1885) and Brugmann's Gnindr. i. § 676 ff. 
^ Brugmann, Gnnulr. i. § 671. 

198 A SHORT MANUAL OK [§ 271 — 

latter it has been recently held' that the circum- 
flex indicates the contraction of the stem vowel with 
the e of the genitive suffix -es. But this whole question 
is still in the region of hypothesis. 

272. In the changes which Latin accent has under- 
,„ , gone since abandoning the original Indo- 

Two chancres ° _ . 

ill the special Germanic system of accentuation, two stages 

accent of Latin ; *' > o 

are observable. (a) The first change, 
which seems to have been shared by the other Italic 
(a) stress ac- dialects was to a system in which the first 
syiiabte^Sf ^the Syllable of the word bore in all cases a stress 
'^°"*' accent. In Latin this .system had given 

way before the historical era to {h) the system which 
(6) the later Continued to prevail throughout the clas- 
tri«yiiabiciaw. ^-^q^ period. According to it the stress 
accent fell upon the penult if it was long, on the ante- 
penult if the penult was short ; umamus but ama.bitur, 
lefjebam but Mgeirm. This accent sometimes came to 
stand on the last syllable by the loss of a final vowel, 
when words like illfce, videsne, etc., became illfc, vidfn, 

273. Traces of the earlier accent, however, .still 

continued to survive in the vocalism of 

Traces in vo- . 

caiism of the Latm. Under the later sj'stem 01 ac- 

csrlicr ficcsnt. 

centuation ad-fuc'w could never have be- 
come afficio ; late compounds like cale-facio, indeed, keep 
the ((-sound, de-huheo, jyrae-hubeo, pro facto, if such had 

1 Hilt, Indoger. Forschungen i. p. 11 ff. Streitberg's more 
plausible explanation [I.F. iii. p. 349 ff.) is that the original suffix 
of the genitive was -so (as had been earlier conjectured by Moller). 
The loss of the final syllable produced the circumflex of the 
accented long vowel in the preceding syllable (see note after § 265, 
ii. -2). 


been their accent, could not have changed to debeo, 
praeheo, profecto. The forms of these words must date 
from the time when the older system of accentuation 
prevailed. That it reached down to a comparatively 
recent period is shown by the fact that foreign names 
in some cases were accented according to it ; Tapavra, 
'AKpdyavra became Tarentum, Agrigentum, according to 
this principle'. 

274. To its strong stress accent Latin owes its fre- 
quent and sometimes surprising changes of quantity. 
These changes are best exemplified in the scansion of the 
comic poets, who represent better than the writers of the 
Augustan age the Latin language as it was spoken. Li 
Plautus we find a constant tendency to change all 
iambic disyllables into pyrrhics ; all words of the type 
of vide tend to be scanned as vide, the stress empha- 
sizing the short syllable and the unaccented long syl- 
lable being shortened. 

To this accent also the reduction of all vowels in 
unaccented syllables to the neutral vowel is to be at- 
tributed : hence adigo, colligo, ilico, quidlibet (root 
*letjJ)h-)\ hence too the total disappearance of vowels 
as in benignus, malign us, etc. 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 1. § 680. The Romans generally formed 
the name of a Greek town from the Greek accusative. Hence 
from 'MdXop^vTa (ace.) 'Apple-town' the Romans made Male- 
ventum and, in their popular etymology regarding it as a name of 
ill omen, changed it to Bene-ventum. Compare the similar change 
of Epidamnus to Dyrrhachium. 



XV. General principles of word formation. 

275. Up to this point we have been concerned en- 
tirely with the question of sounds, vi\i\\ the changes 
which befall the original sounds as they pass from the 
original language into those descendants of it with 
which we have more immediately to deal, and with the 
further changes which arise from the contact of (ine 
sound with another. We have next to treat of those 
groups of sounds which are in themselves intelligible 
wholes and, as it were, the small coin of language, 
capable of being added together so as to make a larger 
whole expressing, in many cases, more complex relation- 
ships. This larger whole we call the sentence. But 
just as words vary in length even within the ludo- 
Germanic gTOup from the single letter of the Latin i 
or Greek rj to the mouthfilling incur vicervicus of the 
early Latin poetry or the (TvyKaOekKva-drjo-^rai of Aeschy- 
lus, so too we have sentences of all lengths. One has 
only to contrast the often monosyllabic phrases of 
ordinary conversation and the crisp brevity of Tacitus or 
jNIacaulay with tlie long and rounded periods of Livy or 
of Clarendon. 

The longest sentence may give the largest number 
of details but it does not necessarily express the great- 
est fullness of meaning, hi brevity is pith; in moments 

204 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 275 — 

of great mental excitement an incoherent exclamation 
may express more to the listener than many sentences. 

But properly speaking the province of the gramma- 
rian is not bounded even by the sentence. To express 
the full meaning more than one sentence often is re- 
quired. Thus beyond the sentence lies the paragraph, 
and beyond the paragraph the composition as a whole. 
This wider field the philologist leaves to the gramma- 
rian and the teacher of rhetoric ; for philology proper 
there is little to be gleaned beyond the area of the 

276. The sentence however is a kingdom which 
has many provinces, or to use what is perhaps a better 
metaphor, it is a building in which are many stories, all 
of which must be examined separately before we can 
grasp with full perception the finished whole. 

(1) The first part with which we have to deal is 
structure of ^^^® structure of the individual word, and 

the word. }^gj.g again we must distinguish various 

parts. As has already been pointed out (§ 20 ff.), we 
have here (a) a root, (b) a formative suffix or suffixes, 

(c) in many instances special case suffixes in the noun 
or person suffixes in the verb. We also find occasionally 

(d) one or more prefixes at the beginning of the word. 

(2) The distinction between noun and verb brings us 
to a further point — the use of each word in the sentence. 
The chief distinction no doubt is between noun and 
verb, but this distinction is not necessarily one of form 
(§ 30). In many languages words in all outward respects 

structure of ic^eutical are used indifferently as nouns or 
the sentence. g^g verbs. No doubt in many cases their 
earlier history was different; but in English, as we have 
seen (§ 24), it is a famiHar process to turn a noun or 


even a combinatiou of nouns into a verb. To boycott is 
a transitive verb formed within the memory of many of 
us, but the Xy^Q of formation is of ancient growth. 

277. Thus we see that there is a doubtful margin 
between noun and verb as far as form is 

. . Aouns and 

concerned; there is no doubtful margin ni verbs: changes 

. . of meaning 

ponit 01 meaning. As soon as a noun is 
used to make the predicate of a sentence it has become 
a verb '. It is unnecessary to multiply examples of this, 
so common is the phenomenon. One or two words in 
English seem to have the happy faculty of adapting 
themselves to any surroundings and so becoming all 
the parts of speech in turn. Of this but is 

111 1 T 1 • ^" °"'' 

perhaps the best example. It begins as an 
adverb and preposition, usages in which it may still be 
found. 'There was but one,' 'none but me.' In 
modern English its use as a conjunction is the ordinary 
one, but in the phrase 'But me no buts,' which occurs in 
more than one author, it appears as a verb and also as a 
substantive. As an adjective also it is not unknown, 
although its usage as such is more frequent in the Scot- 
tish dialect, for example ' the but end of a house ' in the 
sense of the outer end. Finally but is used also as a 
pronoun and negative in combination ; ' Xot a man but 
felt the terror' ^ 

1 Cp. the vigorous langiiage of Professor Whitney. " I have 
long been accustomed to maintain that any one who does not see 
that a noun is a word that designates and a verb a word that 
asserts, and who is not able to hold on to this distinction as an 
absolute and universal one (within the limits of our family of 
languages) has no real bottom to his grammatical science." 
(A. J. P. XIII. p. 275.) 

- For further details see the New English Dictionary, s. v. 

206 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§277 — 

It has sometimes been objected to Macaula}- that he 
made the personal i)ronouns useless, by frequently re- 
peating the previous substantive . instead of employing 
them. To make a pronoun into a substan- 

111 pronouns, ... 

tive IS, liowever, much more common, auros 
((fir] : 'There is One above.' In many rural districts the 
reluctance of wives to refer to their husbands by name 
leads practically to the use of the pronoun he in the 
sense of my husband. In some languages the exact 
reverse is true ; the word for husband, lord or master 
comes to be used as an emphatic pronoun. Thus in 
Lithuanian j^'^d'^ (older jmfis), which means husband or 
lord and is identical with the Greek Trdcrts, Skt. ^^^es 
and Latin j^otis (no longer a substantive), is often used 
simply as the emphatic pronoun avro'?, and its feminine 
pati as avTYj \ 

The Latin form of this word — potls — gives us an 
from substan- example of a substantive coming to be used 
tive to adjective. ^^ ^^^ adjective and actually forming a com- 
parative as w^ell as changing into an adverb. In the 
verb jMssuni, a corniption of jjotis sum, the original 
sense ' I am master ' has faded into the vaguer ' I am 
able.' Possideo ' I sit as master, hold the mastery of 
retains the meaning better, although to the Romans 
themselves the derivation was probcxbly equally obscure. 
It is this change from substantive in apposition to 
adjective which according to Delbriiek is the explanation 
of the numerous Greek adjectives in -o- that have no 
separate form for the feminine, at any rate in the early 
period of the language'. He thus explains forms like 
rjfxepo?, eKTjAos and T^'o-i'xo? and compares with these words 

1 Kurschat, Lit. Gr. § 906. 

- Sy)itakti.-c)ie Forgchunfien, iv. p. 65. 


which have entirely passed into adjectives such phrases 
as o-Tu'^Xos 8k yrj /cat xepcros (Soph. Antigone 250), where 
Xe/aoros is in the transition stage. 

278. The readiness with which adjectives in most 
languages pass into adverbs is known to 

1 . .,, . -r. Adverbs. 

every one and requires no illustration. But 
many adverbs are (1) actual case forms of substantives, 
(2) relics of cases, or (3) prepositional phrases ; com- 
pare Latin /orfe 'by chance,' an ablatival form from/or^?', 
with ixirtim the old accusative of the stem represented 
by pars, or again ^-itli ex-templo or ilico (= *in sloco ' on 
the spot '). Other adverbs again are parts of verbs, licet'-, 
vel, or whole clauses such as forsitan just cited, scilicet 
and the English may he. Adverbs so formed are subject 
to the intluence of analogy and occasionally take the 
form of adverbs derived from other origins. For ex- 
ample, KttAws is explained as the old abla- 
tival form of KttXd?, which would appear the' formation of 
originally as *«a/\c3S. According to Greek 
phonetic laws the final 8 is dropped (§ 241) and a final 
-s is added, the origin of which is not clearly known, cp. 
X^pt and x^api-'i, aveu and avcv-? in different Greek dia- 
lects. On the analogy of KaA.c3s the Greeks invented 
KpetTTovws, although properly the ablative of an -n stem 
ought to be formed quite differently (§ 309). It would 
not be surprising if the members of a phrase like vovc 

1 Found declined in Fors Fortuna, the name of the goddess, 
and in the nominative in various phrases as forsitan, i.e. foi-g sit 
an, which itself is also used as an adverb. 

■^ licet and vel might be more properly described as conjunc- 
tions, but the line of separation between adverb and conjunction 
is not easy to draw. Conjunctions seem best regarded as a 
subdivision of adverbs. 

208 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 278 — 

iX^Lv which occurs so frequently in Greek were to run 
together into one word just as unimum advertere has 
become animachertere in Latin. But the influence of 
analogy is so strong that Isocrates can venture to make 
an adverb vowexovrws and Plato still more boldly cu koX 
cxo'vTws vovv \ In the later Greek we find also an adjec- 
tive vowcx'fs and a new substantive derived from it — 


279. In no language can this principle be carried 
to a greater extent in the formation of ad- 

Analogy in . . *^ . 

the formation of lectives and advcrbs than m English, but 

English adjec- -> ^^ ^^ i i • 1 

tives and ad- as we oiten aliow the words which we use 
in this way to stand apart from one another, 
the working of the principle is not always obvious at 
first sight. In a phrase like ' a penny wise and pound 
foolish policy,' all the words except the first and last 
form, as it were, one huge adjective. 

Analogy affects English exactly as it affected Greek. 
One curious example may be given. In the English 
Universities it is customary to distinguish as " Close " 
and " Open " those Scholarships for which competition is 
restricted and free respectively. The two words ' Open 
Scholarship ' make, as it were, one substantive, and from 
this again has been formed a new substantive ' Open 
Scholar,' a combination in which, if treated as two words, 
' open ' has no intelligible meaning. 

One or two other curious examples of word-making 
may be cited from our own language because here we 

1 Isocr. 83 e. Plato, Laics 686 e. In both cases it is to be 
noticed that another adverb is used at the same time. It is 
erroneous to say that the adverb is derived from vowexv^. In 
Isocrates, Blass prints vovv ix^"'''^^ ^s two separate words, but in 
the new edition of Kiihner's Griechische Grammatik as one word. 


can trace the history of the development in a manner 
which is impossible for any of the so-called dead lan- 
guages. The first is an example of a borrowed suffix. 
In many words which have come into English directly 
or indirectly from Latin the suffix -able oc- „ „ 

. , . p ^ • Suffix -ao/e. 

curs, representing the Latin suffix found in 
such words as amabilis, irremeahilis. This suffix was 
confused with the word able which comes from the accu- 
sative form of kabilis through the French. Hence it 
has come to be supposed that -able might be used as a 
suffix to make an adjective from any English word or 
even phrase, cp. understandable, get-at-able. 

A second example may be taken from Saxon English. 
In the earliest English there was a feminine suffix -estre 
corresponding in meaning to the masculine -€?• as a noun 
of agency: thus 0. E. bcecestre, preserved 

f -r, ^ f ■ Suffix -s^er. 

m the proper name Baxter, was the femi- 
nine of baker. But in process of time these forms came 
to be regarded as only more emphatic varieties of the 
forms in -er, and most of them became masculine. At 
present spinster, properly the feminine of spinner, is the 
only remaining feminine word of this form'. Indeed so 
completely was the original meaning forgotten that a 
new feminine was formed in some cases, e.g. songstress, 
seamstress. Further, when the forms mostly became 
masculine a special meaning was attached to the suffix 
and it is henceforth used contemptuously as in imn-ster, 
trickster'^, etc. 

Changes of the nature of tliis last specialisation of 
-ster are not uncommon in many languages. In Latin 

1 Morris, Hist. Outlbies of English Accidence, p. 89. 
- Possibly this special meaning may have been influenced by 
the Latin suffix -aster, which has a similar value. 

G. P. 14 

210 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 279— 

and the Germanic languages, for instance, the suffix -vo- 
has become identified specially with words of colour : 
ful-vu-s, gil-vu-s, fla-vu-s, etc., English yellow, sallow, 
blue, grey, all originally -uo- stems'. 

280. The history of such developments seems to be 
that the original signification of the suffix 

Course of devel- . n -p 1 «■ , 

opment in such IS lorgotteu and, it the suffix happens to 

formations. „ ,^ • • ^ • • 

occur irequently in some special meaning, it 
comes to be regarded as connected with that meaning 
and is accordingly further extended in that sense. This 
is true not only of the noun but also of the verb suffixes. 
Legehamini has been already cited (§ 49). It is now 
commonly held that the first Aorist Passive in Greek 
Greek Aorist ^-^o-Orj-v , etc, wliicli has 110 exact parallel 
Passive. jj^ other languages, was formed by a mis- 

taken extension of the ending -Orj'; in the second person 
singular (§ 474 b). The second aorist passive, icfiavrji' etc., 
in Greek, which is an independent development in the 
separate history of this language, is also supposed to be 
formed on the pattern of intransitive forms like eySi/v, 
which belong to the active voice. There is moreover 
some reason for believing that many verb forms are 
really compounds. In Greek Xeyio-Oat has recently been 
analysed into *A.£yes, an old locative form 
(§ 312), and *-6ai a dative form fi'om the 
root of TiOyjjx.L'^. In Latin it is possible to analyse many 
subjunctive forms in a similar fashion into locative stems 
followed by some part of the substantive verb; for in- 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 64. Bloomfield, A. J. P. xii. p. 25. 

- According to the common grammatical arrangement X^yeadai 
and other infinitives are ranked amongst verb forms. Strictly 
speaking however all infinitives, whether simple or compound, 
are cases of a substantive. 


stance legis-sem is possibly such a locative *leges, followed 
by a possible form (sem ~ *siem) of the sub- 

,-P,, "" . ,..,.. Lat. legis-sem. 

jimctive siem (rlautus) or sim, which is in 
reality the ancient optative. These however are as yet 
only possibilities ; the forms of the verb have hitherto 
presented graver difficulties to the philologist than those 
which occur in the analysis of noun forms. 

As the noun and verb forms differ in most respects, 
although at some points, as has already been shown (§ 49), 
they do overlap, it will be more convenient to discuss 
the formation of substantives, adjectives and pronouns 
and the development of their forms and uses separately 
from those of the verb. 

xvi. Noun Morphology. 

281. All nouns are either simple or compound. In 
other words they come from one stem or from two or 
more stems. Aoyos for example is a simple noun, 8ta- 
Xoyos, o-TTep/xoXoyos are compound nouns. 

Every noun consists of a stem, and, in general, it has 
suffixes added to indicate various case rela- Partsinanoun 
tion.s. The stem again may in many in- *^°'''^' 
stances be analysed into a root and a formative suffix. 
But this is not true in all cases. /3oi)-s, Lat. res, are 
stems which it is impossible to analyse further ; that is 
to say, root and stem are indistinguishable'. A.dyo-s 
consists of the stem A.oy-o- and the case-suffix -s ; Xoy-o- 
again of Aoy- a form of the root (cp. the form Xey- in the 
verb Ae'y-w) and a stem suffix which appears sometimes 
as -o- and sometimes as -c (vocative Aoy-e)^ On the 

1 Compare § 181 note. 

- Compare, however, the note following § 265. 


212 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 281 — 

other hand, a word like Tep-jj.a or Lat. ter-men can be 
analysed into a root *ter- and a suffix *-meii, in. its 
weak form *-mn (§ 157). But here there is no case 
suffix at all in the nominative, accusative or vocative 
Singular, although such suffixes are to be found in other 

When the suffix is not added to a root but to an al- 
ready existing stem which contains a suffix, 
mary, second- the suffix added is Called a secondary suffix. 
Even if more than a second suffix is added, 
although we ought properly to have a new name, tertiary, 
etc., for each additional suffix, it is found more conve- 
nient to distinguish only a primary and a secondary 
series, the latter including all which are not primary. 
In many books primary and secondary derivatives are 
treated separately. This however is not necessary. If 
there are no secondary derivatives^ formed by means of 
a suffix, this fact generally indicates that the use of the 
suffix to form new words has ceased in that particular 

282. In words, however, like 8ta-A.o-yo-s and cnrepixo- 
Compound Aoy-o-s we cau uot Only distinguish those 
®*''™^- parts which we have already seen in A.oy-0-9, 

but we also find a new set of parts belonging in the for- 
mer case to an indeclinable word well known separately 
as a preposition and also as an adverb in combination 
with verbs. Such indeclinable words are mostly old case 
forms (§341) which it may or may not be possible in the 
present state of our knowledge to analyse in detail. In 

^ Derivatives must be carefully distinguished from cognates ; 
Tpotpetov (§ 293) is a derivative from the stem of Tpocprj ; rpecp-u} 
and Tpo(p-6-s are cognates, rpocp- being as primitive a form as 



o-TTcp-yxo-Xdy-o-? we seem to have as the first element a 
stem connected with cnrep-iJM, itself a substantive like 
rip-jxa and connected with the verbal root found in a-ireipoi 
(= *a"!rep-uji § 207). But in the paradigm of o-Trep-yua we 
have no form cnrep-ixo-. Yet, as the original meaning of 
the word is ' seedgatherer,' there can be no doubt that 
the form must be somehow connected with a-irep-ixa. 
This brings iis back once more to one of the great prin- 
ciples of language which have already been discussed. 
cnTf.p-p.o- has obtained its -o- by analogy from -o- stems, 
these being the most numerous of all. The Analogy in com- 
impulse in this case was probably given by p^""'^ stems, 
words like Ov-p.6-%, 7rp6-p.o-<;, etc., which have a stem 
suffix -/A0-. As 6v 1X0-/3 6 p-o-<; is a regular form, (nrepp-o- 
Ady-o-s irregularly obtained its -o- from such regular 
forms. This change of vowel in compounds is very com- 
mon. From a stem like dvep- ' man ' we should have all 
compounds of the same form as av8pa-7roS-o-v. But, as 
can be seen from any lexicon, the type of avSpd-^ov-o-?, 
etc., is far the most common. In the formation of the 
cases we find the same influence at work. This has 
already been pointed out (§ 50). In English, book which 
originally belonged to the same declension as foot ought 
to form its plural beek. The analogy of the majority of 
nouns has led to the formation of the plural books. In 
Latin we have a constant interchange between forms of 
the second and forms of the fourth declension, — domi and 
do?7ius, senati (early) and senatus; in Greek ^wKpa.Tr] 
and irregularly 'S.wKpa.Trjv (§ 50). 

283. Thus far examples have been taken where it 
is possible to draw the line distinctly be- 

, . . Second part of 

tween snuple noun stems and compound compound stem 

-P, . . , becoming suffix. 

noun stems. But it sometimes happens 

214 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 283 — 

that one part of a compound is so mutilated that it 

really becomes a formative suffix. A good example of 

this is the English suffix -ly in man-ly, tru-ly, like-ly, etc. 

This suffix was originally a substantive, 
English -Zt/. . ,, , , ^ \. 

meaning body and sometimes corpse, 

the latter signification being preserved in such forms as 
Lich-field, lych-gate and lyke-vmke (the wake or watch 
for the dead). Thus man-ly originally meant man-like, 
i.e. 'having the body or form of a man.' In Homeric 
Greek we find the first beginnings of a similar construc- 
tion in the phrase, four times repeated, fxapvavro Se'/Aa? 
TTvpos aWo/xevoLo, where Se/Atts is exactly the English ' like 
flaming fire.' From this simple form we pass to tru-ly 
i.e. 'having the form or semblance of truth.' Finally 
the meaning is so entirely forgotten that we actually 
compound the word with itself and make the strange 
form like-ly which, though far removed in meaning, is 
etymologically equivalent to ' body-body.' 

In Latin, as Dr Autenrieth long ago pointed out', 
the adverbial suffix -iter is really the sub- 
stantive iter and breviter is but breve iter 
' short- ways.' From its frequent use with adjectives 
whose neuter ended in -e (earlier -i § 165) -iter passed to 
other stems. Hence we find forms like Jlrmiter, audacter 
and many others from -o- stems and consonant steins, 
although perhaps at every period the suffix was most 
common with -/- stems. 

284. In most of the forms which have been cited, 

^ In Eos, ii. Jahrgang (1866) p. 514. See a note in Archiv fiir 
latein. Lexicographic v. 276. Osthoff had taken the same view 
independently in vol. iv. of the Archiv p. 455. Delbriick (Gnitidr. 
Syntax § 264) rejects this theory and holds that the entire series 
is made on the analogy of inter. 


only the second member of the compound has had a 
case suffix, the first member appearing mere- Case forms in 
ly as a stem. In 6v-fjio-(36po-s, Ov/xo- is the '^"^p""" 
stem of 0v-fx6-<; but it is not a case form of Bv-fj.6-^. In 
many compounds, however, there is a syntactical relation 
between the parts of the compound and the first mem- 
ber is a genuine case form. Thus AtoV/covpot is only 
Ato? KovpoL ' sons of Zeus,' StoVSoros is Aios Soto's ' given 
of Zeus,' a form preserving a very old syntactical con- 
struction. In Latin the most probable explanation of 
words like iiide.r and tindex is that they are compounds 
the first part of which is an accusative, ius, vim. They 
are therefore of the form represented by ixoyocnoKO'i, an 
epithet of the goddess Eileithyia = /Aoyors-roKo? (§ 248). 
In late Latin proper names were sometimes thus formed, 
e.g. Adeodatus ' Given by God,' the name of St Augus- 
tine's son. Cp. our own Puritanical names Praise-God 
Barebones, etc. Sometimes the form might as well be 
given as two words ; K77/jeo-o-t^o'pr;Tos ' urged on by the 
Fates' is a verbal preceded by the old locative used here 
in the sense of agency. So also oVop,a/<:A.uTos might be 
equally well divided ovofxa kXvt6<; ' famous of name,' 
6vo/xa being the accusative. Thus it will be seen that 
in some cases it is hard to tell where juxtaposition ends 
and composition begins. 

285. Tlu-ee means of distinction have been formu- 
lated by Brugmann'. 

(1) The ending of one part of the com- to distinguish 
pound passes into words where it would not froufjuxtaposi- 
appear in the simple form; ^eoVSoros fol- *'°"' 
lows the analogy of StoVSoros. 

^ Gnindr. ri. p. 5. 

216 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 285 — 

(2) The first member of the componnd no longer 
stands in the same syntactical relation to the second. 
a.p-r}i-(^LXo<i ' dear to Ares,' dpr)L-cf>aTo^, dpT]i-KTdfj.evo<i ' slain 
in war ' have the proper syntactical meaning ; dpeidvcra- 
vos, an epithet applied by Aeschylus to a doughty warrior, 
has not. 

(3) The meaning of the compound is changed from 
that which the two words have when merely placed in 
juxtaposition. A black bird is not necessarily a black- 
bird and there is no relation in meaning between sweet 
bread and siveetbread, between a hog's head and a hogs- 
Jiead^. In English the change from two words to one is 
often marked by a change in accent. 

286. Sometimes the speakers of a language cease 

Mistaken di- to recognise the dividing line between the 

pounds ''an d°its parts of a compound. Thus the 'Greeks 

results m Greek, ^^^q f^Qj^ ^]^q StemS of KttKOi and epyov a 

masculine form (/caKo-epyos) KaKovpyo<; ' evildoer.' This 
they mentally analysed as KaK-ovpyo<: and next made 
7ravovpyo<; upon this analogy. From the form dXXoB-a-n-o-';, 
which is formed with the neuter stem *dA.A.o8 and the 
suffix found as -inquo- in Latin long-inquo-s, 'prop-inquo-s 
(§ 139 i.), a new suffix -SaTros is made and in this way 
-TravT-o-SttTTos arises. 

In Latin, a mistaken suffix of the same kind viz. -lento- 
T . . is found in a certain number of words, lutu- 

Latin, ' 

lentus 'muddy,' opu-lentus (for opi-) 'rich,' 
tem-u-lentus 'drunken.' This suffix seems to have arisen 
from a combination of the suffixes -Hi- (or -uli-), -ent- 
so frequent in participles and -0-. It may possibly have 

1 That such words have not their original form (see Skeat's 
Dictionary s. v. and Kluge s. Oxhoft) does not affect the point. 
Popular etymology connected hogshead with hog^s head. 


begun with the single form graci-lentu-s, but this cannot 
be proved. 

In the Germanic languages also the same phenome- 
non may be observed. By a wrong analysis ^^^^ ^,^g ^^^_ 
of the parts of a word, the final consonant ™^'"c lan- 
of the root has been taken as part of the 
sufiix and then a series of new words has been made 
with this spurious suffix as their final element. The 
suffix -keit used in Modern German to form abstract 
substantives has arisen from the combination of the 
ordinary suffix -heit (English -hood) with a k at the end 
of the previous part of the word. Thus in Middle High 
German arose the form miltec-keit or miltekeit and on 
the analogy of this form many others have been made, 
gerechtigkeit 'righteousness,' dankharkeit 'thankfulness,' 
etc.^ So too the English suffix -ling has arisen from the 
addition of the suffix -ing to an -/-stem and an ensuing 
mistaken division of the component parts. It seems 
that from a few old English words — lyteUng ' little child,' 
wtheling 'nobleman's son, prince' preserved in the name 
Eadgar the Aetheling, all the later forms nestling, 
youngling, darling, etc., have sprung. 

287. It is to be remembered that these processes 
do not belong to a past time only ; they Living and 
were not perfected in a day to remain un- ^^^^ suffixes, 
changeable for ever afterwards. Just as sound change is 
perpetually in progTess, so too the constant growth and 
ilecay of suffixes is an ever present factor in the history 
of language. Some suffixes gradually die out and are 
no longer used in the making of new words, others again 
increase in importance and new words are continually 
being made by means of them. Such sufiixes in English 
1 Paul's Principien der Sprachgeschichte, chap. xix. p. 295. 

218 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 287 — 

are -er for nouns expressing the agent, -ation for 
abstract substantives'. On the other hand the suffix 
which is seen in tru-th, hlr-th and many other words, 
and which corresponds to the -n- (-o-i-) of such Greek 
substantives as ©e'-n-?, Sap-o-i-? (§ 133), has ceased to 
make new words in English. In Latin also this suffix, 
which appears in a mutilated form in mors, pars etc. 
and in its full form in vi-ti-s, cu-ti-s etc. had ceased 
before the classical period to form new words, its place 
being usui-ped by -tidn- as in men-ti-o, co-ven-ti-o etc. 
288. Besides the two methods of forming new sub- 
., , stantives which have been mentioned, viz. 

Four methods _ , c c • rti 

of foriiiinsj new (I) the addition of a formative suffix or 

substantives. ^ i / i i • • 

suffixes to a root and (2) the combination 
of (a) two stems or (b) two words in actual case relation- 
ship to one another, other two methods also occur, but 
need not detain us long. 

The first of these is (3) Reduplication. This although 

1 A curious example of the development of a sufQx in a new 
meaning is the use in School and University slang of the suffix 
-er as in footer for football, hedder for bedmaker, etc. This ap- 
parently senseless and whimsical change began, it is said, at 
Harrow, where ' ducker ' was used for ' duck pond.' From HaiTow 
it spread to other schools and to the Universities, where in com- 
mon parlance Rugger and Socker have taken the place with the 
players of Rugby and Association football of those terms respec- 
tively, while fresher bids fair to usurp the place of freshman. 
This is not uncommon in language ; the slang of one generation 
creeps into the literary dialect of the next. The hybrid word 
starvation, with its English root and Latin suffix, was for long a 
byeword, and supplied a nickname to its inventor, who was ever 
after known as Starvation Dundas. 

"^Tiy the suffix -er should have been so generalised is hard to 
see. It has been ingeniously suggested that English objects to 
spondaic words and so a lighter termination was used. 


perhaps existing in every Indo-Germanic language is at 
no time common, and for obvious reasons. It comes into 
existence for the purpose of expressing emphasis. As 
a child says a ' big, big house ' to indicate a very big 
house, so language seems to have occasionally caught up 
such forms and perpetuated them in a more or less com- 
plete shape in such words as ySap-/3ap-o-s, Lat. hal-b-u-s 
' babbling '\ 

The last method of forming new words is by the use 
of (4) Vowel Gradation or Ablaut. "Whatever the origin 
of this phenomenon it certainly did not at first indicate 
difference of meaning ", but at a later period was utilised 
for this purpose, and so words of particular forms take 
to themselves vowels of a particular grade. Thus words 
like Aoy-o-s of the masculine gender affect the o-vowel 
in the root; neuter words like ycVo? affect the ^- vowel, 
although to both rules there are exceptions. If the 
difference was originally one of pitch accent as many 
philologists think (§ 92), there is a curious parallel in 
the modern English application of stress in a similar 
way ; ilwi's, progress {^uh^i?a\i\we), progress (verb), subject 
(substantive), subject (verb), or again content (substan- 
tive), content (adjective) ^ 

1 Reduplication in the verb will be discussed later (§ 446). 

2 Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 7. 

3 See the interesting letter of Dr Murray in the Academy for 
1891, vol. II. p. 456, who finds that, out of 341 correspondents, 
150 always accent the second syllable of content, 100 always the 
first syllable, and the others vary according to the meaning. 


220 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 289 — 

xvii. Classification of Nouns. 
A. Root Nouns. 

289. Root nouns are those in which the case suffixes 
are attached to something which it is impossible to 
analyse further, in other words to a root (§ 24). Such 
nouns are not very numerous in any language, and a 
large proportion of them seems to have descended from 
the primitive Indo-Germanic period. Latin has developed 
more of them independently than any other language, 
except perhaps Sanskrit. Some do and others do not 
show traces of gradation in their vowel system^. 
{a) Root nouns without gradation : 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 


vim : mouse (0. E. mits) 

nav-em ^ 

sil-s : sow (0. E. sn) 

(b) Root nouns with gradation : 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

/3o0-s (§ 181) : bo-s (§ 63) : cow 

2)e-s : foot (0. E. fot) 


(Doric TTtis) 

Zeu-s ) Jov-is etc. ) 

Z^-.1(§1«1) = die->n \ ■■^ 

1 It is a common mistake to suppose that all monosyllabic 
nouns are root nouns. This is by no means the case. 

- -t is a, further suffix which may possibly have also once be- 
longed to the Latin word, if the verb sallo represents an earlier 

3 This original root word has passed over in Latin to the i- 
declension in the nom. nciv-is. ndv-em = lomc vrj-a ( — *iiaH-m). 

■* Tuesday = raf-es-(Zr(3, or the day of Tiu ; Tiwes is the 


For an explanation of the origin of these forms see 
note (ii) after § 265. 

B. Nouns with formative suffixes. 

2go. As far as can at j)resent be ascertained, the 
number of suffixes originally used in the 

Xoun suffixes. 

lormation oi nouns was not very large, mn 
from the earliest period their number has been con- 
tinually added to by combinations of two or more 
suffixes, o-o(^-w-Te/5o-s; Lat. pos-tu-mu-s, grac-il-ent-o-s 
(§ 286) etc. Although some of these combinations date 
from a time before the separation of the original Indo- 
Germanic community, most of them are of late origin. 
Hence many series of forms occurring in individual 
languages have no parallels in the sister tongues, and 
the discussion of such forms properly belongs to the 
gTammar of the language in question. 

Of all suffixes -o- is the most common ' ; to it or the 
various suffixes ending in -o- as -mo- -no- -ro- -to- -uo- 
-io- the great majority of nouns belong. A considerable 
number of -i- and -u- stems also exist. There are, more- 
over, many consonant stems, such as those which end in 
-n- -r- and -s-. Besides these stems, which include a 
very large proportion of the whole, there are others 
ending in dental and guttural stops, which will be 
mentioned in their proper places (§§ 346 — 350). 

x\s regards the original signification of these forma- 
tive suffixes it is at present idle to speculate, ^i^gji. sjgnifi. 
In individual languages we do find particu- <^t'°"- 

^ As almost every consouant stem has an -o- form by the side 
of it, the theory that aU stems were originally -o-stems has strong 
claims to acceptance. Cp. note after § 265 and § 344 n. 

222 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 290 — 

lar suffixes set apart to indicate special meanings, but, in 
some cases, we find the same suffix specialised in different 
senses in different languages. Some suffixes too seem 
to have no well defined meaning, but are employed in a 
great variety of usages. 

291. The suffix which has apparently the most 

definite meaning is -a. In all the lan- 
aiid'^'' fmuinine guages which in any degree retain the 
gender. different original declensions this suffix in- 

dicates feminine gender. In adjectives this suffix most 
commonly forms the feminine to those stems which, in 
the masculine and neuter, belong to the -0- class. Thus 
we have ve'os, ve'ov, novus, novum, but vea, nova. 

From the widespread usage of this suffix to indicate 
the feminine gender, most grammarians have considered 
this its original use. Recently, however, Brugmann has 
contended that -d had originally nothing to do with 
gender, but was utilised in tliis way because some words, 
such as the Indo-Germanic word for woman * <^nd, Boeo- 
tian ^ava etc. (§ 140), happened to end originally with 
this voweP. That the original meaning of a suffix may 
be forgotten, and that it may be used in quite a different 
meaning and with quite a different purpose from its 
original one, we have already seen (§ 283). But the 
uniform employment of -a to indicate feminine gender 
shows that the suffix has been so used ever since a time 
preceding the separation of the Indo-Germanic peoples. 
Earlier than that it is unnecessary for our purposes to 
go, and therefore we may leave the original meaning of 
this suffix as well as of the others undecided. 

292. The -/- and -u- stems are of all genders. Of 

1 Techmer's Zeitschrift vol. iv. p. 100. An acute controversy 
is still raging on the subject. 


the consonant stems, those in -er-, since they mostly 
express the agent, are largely masculine ; Gender in other 
words in -en- -on- and -s are also of all s"ffi^«^s. 
genders, particular grades of the suffix being, however, 
to some extent specialised for particular genders. As 
soon as a substantive is used in an adjectival sense, 
or in some usage for which it was not originally intended, 
it may and frequently does change its gender. Hence 
the use of -o- stems as feminines (§ 55). In compounds 
also the same is true. Originally a compound substan- 
tive was of the gender of its final component. Thus 
poho^uKTvXos meant properly 'Rose-finger' as a substan- 
tive and was masculine'. As we know it in Homer, 
however, it is an adjective 'rosy fingered,' and conse- 
quently, although it keeps its original ending, it is made 
to agree with t^'w's a feminine word. dvfxop6po<; is also 
properly a substantive ' soul devourer,' but when made to 
agree with a neuter substantive like Trrjixa, it takes the 
form Ovixojiopov. When the -5-stems are used in this 
way they form a new nominative and accusative. Thus, 
/j.eVos is a neuter word, but from the same stem we have 
Ev^ei'r;s a masculine name, and the same form used adjec- 
tivally for the feminine as well as masculine, with the 
form €r/i,ei'€? for the neuter. 

293. As has been said, -o-forms go hand in hand 
with -«-forms. Even before the separation „ , , 

^ Natural sex 

of the Indo-Germanic peoples, -o-forms had ^"d grammati- 

... ,. cal gender. 

been used to indicate masculine and neuter 
stems, while -a-forms indicated cognate feminines. But 
this purely grammatical gender was crossed by the influ- 
ence of natural gender or by that of other words of 

1 Delbriick, S. F. iv. p. 12, aud Grundr. Syntax § 198. 

224 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 293 — 

cognate meaning, rpo^o's is properly a word of mascu- 
, , ^ line form and, since TraiSaywyos is not an 

Tpo(j)os etc. _ ' 

early word, was once applicable to such a 
guardian as Phoenix was to Achilles. But, in later 
times, rpoc^os indicates duties more frequently discharged 
by women and becomes feminine, while a new masculine 
form Tpocjievs begins to appear. All the while a feminine 
word Tpocj)rj has been used to indicate that which the 
Tpoffio^ supplies. To express another idea arising from 
rpocfi-q we have another word formed — rpo^dov or in the 
plural Tpoc^eta, the return made by the child for the 
rpo4>ri which he has received. This word is in the neuter 
and is formed by adding another suffix to that already 

Some -a- (in Greek most frequently -tu-) stems 

M « uiine -«- ^^come masculinc and, when they do so, 

stems in Greek penerallv take final -s in Greek and form 

and Latin. ^ .' . . 

the genitive in -ov, ■n-oXi-rri-'i, ttoXL-tov. Some 
stems of this kind in Homer are said to be crystallised 
vocative forms ' and have no final -s, lttttoto. etc. In Latin 
scriba, agricola etc. are masculine. In only one or two 
instances in old Latin does a final -s appear, paricidas. 
„, . ,., These words are said to have been (1) 

Their history. _ _ _ ^ ' 

original abstracts, next (2) collectives, and 
finally (3) specialised for individuals. Compare English 
youth and truth which are (1) abstracts, the state of 
1 This is Brugmann's view, Curtius' Studien ix. p. 259 ff. But 
Schmidt from eiipvoira Zei/s argues for a different origin (Pluralbil- 
dungen d. idg. Neutra, p. 400 ff.). According to Schmidt, eiipvova 
' wide-eye ' is a neuter substantive in ap2:)osition to Zei;s (cp. origin 
of Lat. vetiis). As evptjova was used unchanged with vocative as 
well as ace. and nom., genuine vocative forms like /xTp-iera were 
also used for the nominative, and new forms were made on the 
same analogy. 


being young and true respectively, (2) collectives, ' the 
youth of a country' etc., (3) specific, 'many youths,' 
'mathematical truths' etc. So TroXt-rr;-? would be (1) 
citizenship (abstract), (2) the body of citizens (collec- 
tive), (3) a citizen (specific). 

294. When -a-stems change to masculines, when 
such words as Tpo<^os become feminines, we lender in words 
have examples of the influence of natural ■e^t^'^^'^thout 
sex upon grammatical gender. <^r;yos Lat. sex. 
fagu-s and other names of trees are feminine for another 
reason. As it happens, in both languages the generic 
words for tree, Spr-s, arhos, are feminine. Accordingly 
the generic word draws over the words indicating the 
individual species to its own gender \ Hence the rule 
that independently of the character of the sufiix all 
names of trees in both Greek and Latin are feminine 
(§ 55). 

But now we are face to face with a difiicult question. 
Why should the generic word for a tree be feminine ? 
Why should not everything which has no natural sex be 
also of the neuter gender in gi'ammar ? To this question 
there is at present no satisfactory reply. The older 
philologists relied upon the ' personifying tendencies ' of 
primitive man. The existence of such tendencies is 
denied by some of the greatest of recent scholars'. But 
there are certainly traces of such personification in the 
language of English sailors, who talk of a ship as ' she.' 
And if it be true that the ideas of primitive man stand 

1 In Greek, according to Delbrlick, the generic word follows 
the special words, S. F. iv. p. 6. Delbriick now is more doubtful 
(Grundr. Syntax § 3). 

- For instance, by Brugmann in Techmer's Zeitschrift iv. p. 
100 ff. 

G. P. 15 

226 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 294 — 

in the same relation to modern thought as the child 
stands to the grown man, such tendencies to personifica- 
tion will not seem at all wonderful. To the child every- 
thing is alive, and deserving of reward or punishment 
even as he himself is. 

The two reasons assigned, viz. (1) the influence of 
natural sex and (2) the influence of the gender of 
cognate words, will explain a large number but very far 
from the whole of the phenomena of gender. Why oT/cos 
and vicus should be masculine while So/xos is masculine 
in Greek and domus feminine in Latin, we do not know. 
Even if we assign the change of gender to the working of 
analogy, it is not easy to suggest the model, imitation 
of which caused the change. 


295. The Indo-Germanic noun is characterised as 
such by the possession of special features to mark the 
possession of Gender, of Number and of Case. But the 
distinguishing marks of all of these need not co-exist in 
any one word. 

In -0- stems, the suffix -s in the nominative generally 
Gender in -0- ^larks a masculinc, occasionally a feminine 
stems; word; -m (changed to -v in Greek) in the 

nominative marks the neuter. The -s at the end of the 
in -i- and -«- nominative in an -i- or -u- stem indicates 
stems; ^Yia,^ the word is either of the masculine or 

of the feminine gender, the absence of any suffix that 
such a stem is neuter, -d-stems (§ 291) and -J- {-ie-) 
in -a and -I- stems are in the Indo-Germanic languages 
(-ie-) stems; generally feminine and have originally no 
nominative suffix in the singular. Nasal and liquid 


stems as a rule have no -s-suffix in the nominative, 
whatever their gender may be. Neuter ;„ ,,353,1 and li- 
gender is, however, generally indicated by qi"<i stems; 
the appearance of the stem suffix in its weak grade as 
a long or short sonant nasal or liquid ; cp. Tep-/xa, Lat. 
termen (neuter) with rip-fjiwv, Lat. ter-mo (masculine); 
7jTr-ap,jec-u?'{ry, (TKwp ( r?), calcar, with Tra-Tijp^pate?', 8w- 
Twp, da-tor, etc. In -s stems, nouns of the neuter gender 
end in -os -es or -a? in Greek, i/^eSSos, ti'cvSes, 

, . , . / .,.-,. in -s stems ; 

yepas, m -0.'* {-US) or -is (gen. -ens) in Latin, 
those in -is, however, having as a rule changed their gen- 
der before the historical period, while those correspond- 
ing to the type of the Greek -es have disappeared. Thus 
forms like gen-us alone survive in perfection. The mas- 
culines and feminines of -s steins appear in Greek as -ws 
and -ijs, atS-ws, eLryev-?/?, in Latin as -us or -or, honos 
{Jwnor), arbus {arbor). The type corresponding to the 
Greek -r?s is represented only by the fragment de-gener. 
Mute stems, except those which end in -nt-^, mark mas- 
culine or feminine gender by the addition 

, , . , in mute stems. 

01 -5 ; when the gender is neuter, the stem 
is left without suffix, the stem-ending or some part of it 
also disappearing if the phonetic laws of the language so 
require (cp. yaXa with yaXaKT-09, Latin lac with lact-is). 


296. The original Lido-Germanic language distin- 
guished three numbers, the Singular, the Dual and the 

1 The Sanskrit form yakrt may, as some authorities hold, 
have an additional suffix -t. If the -t is original, rjir-ap, jec-ur 
represent an original *ieqrt. On the question of long sonant 
nasals etc. cp. § 158 note 3. 

- See § 306 note. 


228 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 296 — 

Plural. The different numbers in the noun are each 
characterised by their own suffixes (cp. § 34). 

Some kinds of substantives, as abstracts, collectives 

Plural in Ab- ^^^^ nouns of material, may be expected to 

stract nouns. ^^^^^j. Q^^jy -^ ^|^g singular. But in all 

languages such words frequently occur in the plural. 
Thus in English we speak not only of sugar and ivine, 
but also of sugars and wines, meaning thereby different 
forms or kinds of the material. So in Latin, plurals like 
vina, carries ; veritates, avaritiae occur'. 

297. Other words may be expected to occur only in 
the dual, 8vw, afxcfxjj. But nevertheless such 
words are often inflected as plurals. It 
may indeed be conjectured that the Dual is merely a 
specialisation of one out of many original forms of the 
Plural. Be that as it may, the earliest historical use of 
the Dual which we can trace seems to have been to ex- 
press things which occur (a) naturally in pairs, as the 
eyes, the ears, the hands etc., or {b) artificially in pairs, 
as the two horses of a chariot. Later the Dual is used 
for a combination of any two things. Li the first sense 
Its earliest ^^s use is quite distiuct from that of the 
usage. Plural. But as soon as the Dual comes to 

be applied to any two things without regard to their 
being naturally a pair and without any emphasis being 
laid on the idea of duality, it becomes a grammatical 
luxury ; it has no sense separate from that of the Plural 
and consequently it speedily dies out. 

When things are thought of in pairs, every pair may 

be regarded as a unity and be followed by a singular 

verb, though this construction is not very common. It 

1 See Draeger, Hititorische Syntax der lateinischen Spradte- 

§§ 4-8. 


is worth observing that the Dual in Greek is rarely used 
without Svui unless when the objects referred to are a 
natural or artificial pair', and this agi'ees with the use 
of the Dual in Vedic Sanskrit. 

. t . In Latin duo and a)nbo are the only surviving dual 
forms and these are inflected in the oblique Dual lost in 
cases as plurals. ^^'"" 

298. The use of the Plural which calls most for 
remark is that in Greek and the Aryan languages a 
neuter noun in the plural is followed by a verb in the 
Singular. The reason for this is that things ^fg^ter piurai 
which make a class or set bv themselves ^'^h singular 


may be treated as a unity. But in the his- 
torical period they are so treated only when the word is 
neuter, although it may be conjectured that all plural 
forms were originally collective. An ingenious theory 
has been recently revived^ which endeavours to prove 
that the nominative plural neuter is no genuine plural 
at all, but a collective singular. It is argued by another 
writer^ that in many cases where a plural verb is put with 
a neuter plural in Homer, this arises from a later corrup- 
tion; thus the earlier reading in Iliad ii. 135, accord- 
ing to this theory, was o-n-dpTa XikvTaL for the ordinary 
a-n-dpTa XeXvvTai. The Converse of this usage, the use of 
a singular verb with a masculine or feminine substantive 
in the plural, usually known as the Schema Pindarlcum, 
has an entirely different explanation. Here the verb 
always precedes the subject. Consequently, it is argued, 
the writer or speaker changed his mind as to the form 

1 Cp. Monro H. G.- % 173. 

- By Johannes Schmidt, Pluralhildungen der indog. Neutra 
(1889), pp. 1 ff. 

3 J. Wackemagel, E. Z. 30, p. 308. 

230 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 298 — 

of his sentence while he was in the act of writing or 
speaking it ; hence the illogical seqnence of a singular 
verb and a plural noun. 

299. The tlieor}' which explains the neuter plural 

Theor to ex- i^ouiinative as a collective singular is sup- 

piain this con- ported uot onlv (1) by its occurrence with 

struct ion. ^ _ j \ / j 

a singular verb in the Greek and Aryan lan- 
guages, but also (2) by the fact that frequently a neuter 
plural is formed to a masculine or feminine singular — 
d o-tTos but Tci crira, 77 KeXevOos but in Homer vypd KeXevOa ; 
Latin locus but loca, sibilus hnt sibila^ etc. ; while, on the 
other hand, a masculine or feminine plural to a neuter 
singular hardly occurs at all. It has also been observed 
by various writers that when a masculine or feminine 
and a neuter plural both appear in the same word, the 
neuter plural has generally a collective meaning-. As 
the personal pronouns of the plural number were origi- 
nally inflected in the singular and passed over to the 
plural inflexion at a later period (.§ 327), so it is con- 
tended that the original genitive oijugd was *jugds, not 
*jugdm, but that later it took the same inflexion as the 
masculines because the neuters and masculines had most 
cases the same in the other numbers. Since in other 
numbers the neuter has the same form for nominative 
and accusative, in the plural jngd, originally only nomi- 
native, comes to be used also as accusative. (3) It is 
also urged that many languages do use collective singu- 

^ Schmidt, Fluralb. p. 5. 

2 Cp. with this what has happened in the development of 
Latin into the Romance languages. As in Latin nom. and ace. 
pi. neut. are the same in form as the nom. sing, fem., neuter nouns 
■whose plural has a collective sense became feminine, thus folium 
' leaf,' /oZia 'leafage,' hut foUi or foliae 'leaves.' 


lar forms instead of the neuter plurals. Homer uses -n-po- 
/?ao-is for Trp6/3aTa (Od. ii. 75), Herodotus depairrjirj for 
6'€pa7rovT€s (v. 21). Latin has juvent us, English ^outh, for 
juvenes and young men respectively (§ 293), and the same 
appears in other Indo-Germanic languages. (4) A fur- 
ther support is found for the theory in the fact that in 
the same language the same word has both a neuter and 
a feminine form, or that kindred languages show, one the 
plural, the other the feminine form. Thus we find SpeVa- 

vov and Sperrdi'Tj, vevpuv and vevpr], Homeric rd rjvia, but 

Attic I/ rjvia pi. -qviaL, cbvXov but <^uA?/ (post-Homeric) ; 
Latin caementum and caementa, labium and labea; 0. 
H. G. nama n. but 0. E. nam f., 0. Saxon gi-lagu n. pi. 
but 0. E. lagu f. sing, 'law.' (5) A plural is often used 
in the predicate where only a single object is in question, 
as in Homer ScSpa 8e rot Swo-w KaXov 9p6vov, dcftOiTOv a€t, 
)(^pv(r€ov (i7. XIV. 238), KCtvos dvrjp...avdL kuvcov fxiXTrrjdpa 
yivoiro (II. xiii, 233) ; Latin neino me lacrumis decoret 
neque funera fletu fax'it (Ennius' Epitaph), jo^r cUpeum 
Vulcani, dona parentis (Virg. Aen. viii. 729); compare 
the frequent use of colla, guttura, ora, jyectora where 
only one object of the kind is meant. (6) These collec- 
tives come to be used for individual members of the 
class, because they express originally the nature or 
characteristic which the members of the class have in 
common; hence cruyyeVeia, signifying first k-inship then 
kinsfolk, is used of a single person (Eur. Orest. 733) ; 
Latin custodia is used in the same way (Ovid 3Iet. viii, 
681) ; in German stute, originally the same as English 
stud (of horses), has come to mean steed and finally mare, 
a,nd Jrauenzimmer, literally 'women's chamber,' gijnae- 
ceum, became first a collective word for ' women ' and 
since the seventeenth century has been used for ' a 

232 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 299 — 

woman ' '. From truth an abstract quality we pass in 
English to the comparative concreteness of ' mathemati- 
cal truths,' a development parallel to that of youth 
which has been so often cited (cp. § 293). 

Noun Cases. 

300. In the original Indo-Germanic language the 
noun possessed at least seven cases: Nominative, Ac- 
cusative, Genitive, Ablative, Dative, Locative and 
Instrumental. In the Instrumental some authorities 
have discovered traces of an amalgamation of two origi- 

Weretwosepa- nally separate cases — an Instrumental pro- 
fused*i?f the^in- perlj SO Called and a Comitative or Sociative 
strumentai? ^^^^ g^^ ^|-^g existence of such an original 

distinction is very doubtful, and any observable differ- 
ence of meaning may be attributed to the fact that 
inanimate objects as a rule must be spoken of as instru- 
ments, animate objects as companions or helpers. 

301. The relations expressed by these seven cases 
indo-German- ^^^ ^^0^' howevcr, all that could have been 

!.oco.'*^**'^WAm^ indicated by means of cases. Some Ian- 
"P^^^- guages, such as Finnish, have a much larger 

number of cases and by this means express greater defi- 
niteness of relation than it is possible to express by the 
seven Indo-Germanic cases, which cannot distinguish, 
for example, between rest in and rest on, motion into 
and motion towards, motion from and motion from out 
of, notions all of which are distinguished by the more 
complex Finnish case system. 

302. In the enumeration of cases, the vocative 
The vocative ^^ uot reckoned as a case. Among noun 

not a case. forms — especially in the -o-stems — the 
1 Schmidt, Pluralh. p. 25. 


vocative of the Singular stands apart, precisely as the 
Singular of the Imperative stands apart — especially in 
the -o-verbs. Aoye in the noun, A-eye in the verb are 
simply stem-forms without anything to mark them as 
belonging to a paradigm of forms. Neither has any 
suffix besides that which marks the stem ; Xo'ye has 
nothing to mark a case relation, Xeyc nothing to 
mark a person of the verb. In some stems, and 
always in the neuter gender, the nominative serves for 
the vocative in the Singular; in the Plural the nomi- 
native discharges the function of the vocative in all 

303. Cases originally existed in all three Xumbers, 
Singular, Dual and Plural. But in the 
Dual and Plural, separate forms for each of forms for some 
the cases were apparently not found neces- 
sary. This is true at any rate for the dative and abla- 
tive Plural. The Dual forms vary so much in different 
languages, and the whole system is already so rapidly 
decaying even in the earliest historical period, that it is 
impossible to restore with certainty the Dual paradigm 
except in the forms which served indifferently for nomi- 
native, vocative and accusative. In the Singular there 
are separate endings for the individual cases. In all 
stems, however, except the -o-stems, there is but one 
form from the earliest period for genitive and ablative. 
Stems ending in nasals, liquids, -d- or -l-(-ie-) have no 
case ending for the nominative, which in masculine or 
feminine forms of nasal or liquid stems is expressed by a 
difference of gradation in the stem suffix (§ 354 fF.). 
Xeuter forms except in the -o-stems have no suffix in the 
nominative, vocative and accusative Singular, all of 
which are indicated by the same form in all neuter 

234 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 303 — 

stems. In the -o-stems, the nominative of the neuter 
has tlie same form as the accusative of the masculine 
(cp. C^yo'-i/, jiign-m, with oXko-v vicu-m) : whether tliere 
was any original connexion in meaning between the two 
has still to be proved. 

304. As regards the origin of case suffixes in the 
r. ■ f Indo-Germanic languages we know nothing. 

Origin of cases. _ . . . . 

They exist from the earliest historical period 
as an iutegTal part of the noun form, and therefore are 
beyond the reach of Comparative Philology. Various 
theories, based mainly on the analogy of other languages 
where the noun remains in a more primitive stage of 
development, have been propounded. Some authorities 
hold that the suffixes are pronominal in origin, others 
that they are of the nature of post-positions. The whole 
question is too speculative to be discussed here. It is 
enough to say that the reasoning is largely a 2}riori and 
therefore uncertain ; but the probability is that the 
Endings pro- iioJ^iu.ative suffix is deictic or pronominal, 
nominal and ^he Same may be said but with more hesita- 

post-positional. _ . , . . 

tion of the accusative suffix, while in the 
other cases it seems more likely tliat the suffixes are 
post-positions indicating originally some kind of local 
relation. In German books it is customary to divide the 
Grammatical cases iuto 'grammatical' and 'local.' To 
and local cases, ^j^g latter group belong such as the abla- 
tive and locative, which distinctlj' show a local mean- 
ing ; to the former are assigned those cases, such as the 
genitive and dative, where the local meaning, if ever 
existent, has been in process of time obscured. But to 
call a case ' grammatical ' is no aid to the elucidation of 
its history, and all that we know of language goes to 
show that the vague usages ranked under this indefinite 


heading are in all probability developed from earlier 
simple and concrete local uses\ 

305. In the later history of the separate languages, 
there is a constant tendency to reduce the r^j^^.^^ gauggg 
number of case forms. This tendency may of syncretism in 

'' '' cases. 

arise from one or all of several causes : 

(i.) phonetic, as when -dis, the sufiix of the instru- 
mental plural of -o-stems, becomes confrised in Greek 
with that of the locative -ois(i) in otKots and oIkoio-l, or as 
when in Latin the ablative singular of -o-stems by losing 
its final -d- becomes confused with the instrumental 
{vicod and vied) ; 

(ii.) syntactic, when one case extends the area of its 
usage at the expense of another. Such extensions of 
usage are analogical. There is a doubtful margin where 
either case might be legitimately used ; for some cause 
the one case becomes more prevalent than the other with- 
in this borderland and afterwards gradually encroaches 
on the proper domain of its vanquished opponent. The 
confusion between ' rest in ' and ' motion towards,' which 
we find exemplified in the English usage ' Come here ' 
for 'Come hither,' is widely developed in case usages in 

1 Cp. Whitney (Transactions of the American Philological 
Association, voL xiii. p. 92) : ' There is no such thing in lan- 
guage as an originally grammatical case or form of any kind.' 
The same writer in reviewing Delbriick's Altindische Syritax says 
(A . J. P. XIII. 285) : ' To pronounce a case originally grammatical 
is simply equivalent to saying that its ultimate character lies 
beyond our discovery; and the statement might much better be 
made in the latter form. For to postulate such a value at the 
very beginning is to deny the whole known history of language, 
which shows that all forms begin with something material, ap- 
prehensible by the senses, palpable Such an explanation simply 

betrays a false philosophy of language.' 



[§ 305— 

otlier languages. The cases could express relationship 
only in a very general way. Hence arose the use of 
adverbs to go with cases in order to make the meaning 
more specific. These adverbs, which we now call pre- 
positions, in time become the constant concomitants of 
some cases ; and when this has happened, there is an 
ever-increasing tendency to find the important part of 
the meaning in the preposition and not in the case 

(iii.) A third cause may be found in the less 
frequent use of some cases. The smaller number of 
separate forms for plural use, and the greater tendency 
to confusion in plural as compared with singular forms, 
seems to be owing to the fact that plural forms are less 
needed and are in less frequent use than singular forms. 
The Dual is less used than either the Singular or the 
Plural and its forms are more corrupted. 

The following table will show the degree and manner 
of confusion which has affected at the earliest period 
the original cases in Latin, Greek and the Germanic 



Loc. Instr. 













y , 

Dat. (Loc.) 









^ Cp. Hiibschmann, Cususlehre, p. 87. 

- In -0- and -a- stems represented by the locative. 


xviii. Case suffixes. 

A. In the Singular. 

306. i a. Stems which end in -0- -i- (inckiding 
-ei- § 365 ff.), -u- (inckiding -eu-), or a mute consonant, 
and possibly all root words made originall)' Nominative, 
the nominative singular of masculine and 
feminine forms in -s : oTko-<; vicu-s, ot-s ovi-s, .^yith .g. end- 
T]Sv-^ manu-s /3a(riAeu-s, Owpai audax, t-? '"^' 
vi-s etc. All others have the stem suffix only, -d- 
stems when they become masculine in Greek add the -s, 
veavtas etc. (§ 293). There are also one or vFithout -s- 
two examples in Latin as paricida-s. In ^""^^^s- 
stems which end in nasals or liquids it seems that the 
final nasal or liquid was either always dropped or there 
were double forms with and without the final nasal or 
liquid, the use of which depended on the phonetics of 
the sentence (cp. § 235 ff.). Compare rep/xwv with Lat. 
termo, Skt. pa with kvwv, Skt. jjitd with Trar-^p Lat. 
pater. The lengthened strong form is regular for the 
nominative of such stems (cp. Trartjp with irarip-a etc.). 

i h. In the -o-stems the neuter is formed by adding 
-m (Greek -v § U8) : t.vy6-v Lat. jugu-m. In ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
all other stems the neuter has no sufiix, 
but the stem suffix, if it has gradation, appears in the 
weak grade'. 

^ In words of whatever gender, phonetic changes according to 
the regular laws of the language take place in the ending,^ 
for *avaKT-s, Lat. rex for *reg-s. Gk. (pepuv for *hJieront-s is ex- 
ceptional compared with ddovs for *odont-s and is not yet satis- 
factorily explained. So also in neuters yaXa for *ya\aKT, Lat. 
lac for *lact(e). 

238 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 307 — 

307. ii. The vocative is originally a stem form 
(§ 302). Hence the vocative proper has no case suffix : 
oTkc, TToA-i, ix^'^) "'»'<^ (= *ava/cT), Zeu. In stems without 

a nominative suffix the vocative has a 

\ oeative. 

different grade from the nominative : la^*^'^ 

(-d), VOC. vvfJi-ffiS. (Homer) ; -n-aT-qp VOC. Trarcp, iroLfjiyjv VOC. 

TTOL/xev. Except in -o-stems, Latin has replaced the 
separate vocative form by the nominative, or the forms 
have become phonetically indistinguishable. 

Neuter^ have no vocative form separate from the 
nominative form. 

308. iii. The suffix of the accusative is -m, which 

is sonant after a consonant, consonant after 


a sonants Hence ^ped-m sonant, *uoiko-m 
consonant. Greek has thus oTko-i/, oi-v, rihv-v, l-v, 6ed-v, 
TTOTVLa-v (originally an -J- (-ie-) stem § 374), Latin vicu-m, 
securi-m, manu-m, vi-m, dea-m, luxurie-m (an -I- stem) 
in all of which the consonant sound appears. On the 

other hand Greek Trarep-a, 7rot/AeV-a, atSw ( = *atSocr-a), 

6(vpaK-a, <^epoi/T-a, Latin jsa^r-^m, komin-em, arbor-em, 
audac-em, ferent-em show the sounds which represent 
original -m. 

hi the neuter the accusative is the same as the 

309. iv. The suffix of the genitive appears as -es, 
Gradation in ~^^> "^ witli gradation. Consoiiaiit stem 

genitive suffix, {qy^^ y^[i\^ gradation appear in their weak 

grade in the genitive. In the -0- stems the suffix is -05- 
io {-es-io), apparently the same suffix as in other stems 

^ This is jjractically accurate. No doubt origiually *pedm kept 
the consonant -m when the following word began with a sonant, 
but the separate languages did not keep up the consequent double 


with a pronomiual element -to added'. lu the -«- aud 
-1- {-ie-) steins there is seemingly a contraction between 
the stem and the suffix ; otherwise it is difficult to ex- 
plain the difference of accentuation between tl/jlv, opyvia 
in the nominative aud rt/xr;?, SpyvLo.^ in the genitive'. In 
Greek, the -os form is kept in the later period with all 
consonant stems including also root words like ttous, Zeus 
etc. : Trarp-o's, 7rot/xeV-os, ttoS-os etc. -s appears in the 
primitive genitival form Scs- ( = *8c/>i-s) in Secr-TroTr/s 
'house-lord.' In Latin, -es which becomes phonetically 
-is (§ 161) is generalised in all consonant stems exactly 
as -OS is in Greek. In early inscriptions a few traces of 
the -OS suffix are found, Vener-us etc. The case suffix 
which in Greek is contracted with -rj (-a) is presumably 
-es ; if -OS, we should have expected the genitive to 
appear as -ws not -77? (-"?)• -s is the suffix in Latin 
oci-s, matut-s etc. but there is in ovi-s apparently a con- 
fusion with -lis for earlier -es, since in -/- and -?^-stems 
the original genitive form seems to have ended in either 
-ei-s {-oi-s), -eu-s {-ou-s) or -i-es (-i-os), -ii-es {-u-osy. 
manJi-s may represent an older *manou-s whether as an 
original form or as the Latin phonetic representative 
of original *maneu-s* (§ 178). Strong forms of the 
stem appear also in Greek : lySe'-os ( = *778ef-os) Homeric 
/3acriA.i7(f)-o9, Attic yiSacrtXews by metathesis of quantity, 
Ionic /Sao-tAe'os ; Tragic ttoXcos etc. = *7roA€i-os '. 

1 Hirt, Idg. Forschungen 11. p. 130 ff. 

2 Hirt, Idg. Forschungen i. p. 11. According to Streitberg's 
explanation (cp. § 271 n.) the ending was -so originally. 

3 Brugm. Grundr. 11. §§ 231—2. 

•* The form in -en- is not required by any language; -on- will 
explain all the forms which occur. 

^ The Attic wbXewi (from TroXrjos) seems formed on the analogy 

240 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 309 — 

In Latin the original genitive of -u-, -a-, and -~i- {-ie) 
T f • • 1 stems has disappeared. Of -os-io there is 

Loss or original _ ^ ^ 

genitive in some ^^o trace ; -US is found in paterfamilias etc. 

Latin stems. _ , _ ± -t 

The genitive ending -I of the -o-stems in 
Latin is probably the old locative ending, vici thus 
corresponds either to ot»cet the variant form of oIkoi or to 
oiKoi itself (§ 176). -ae of the -a- stems may represent the 
older disyllabic -al still found in the poets {Bomai etc.) 
which was formed on the analogy of the -I in the -o-stems 
and may have begun with the masculines in -a, scriba 
etc' luxuriei etc. of the -~i- stems are also analogical 
forms. The dative probably influenced both -ae and -ei. 
The suffix -Tos in Greek -w-stems is not original. 
Gk. suffix in jMa^}' explanations of this suffix have been 
"'°^' offered. The best seems to be that -ros in 

6vo/xa-Tos instead of *ovop.v-o<i is taken from the adverbial 

-TOS in €k-t6<;, ev-Tos^. 

310. V. As already mentioned, the. only stems 

Ablative has ^^^^h have a Separate form for the Ablative 

separate form are the -0- stems, where the ending is -d 

only in -0- stems; ' _ _ ^ 

preceded by some vowel. Since this vowel 
contracts with the preceding -e- or -0- of the stem, its 
nature cannot be ascertained. Greek has lost the abla- 
tive in the -o-stems, the genitive in them as in others 
discharging ablatival functions. In Latin the loss of 
is confused in tlie final -d of the ablative, which took 
strumenta? and place in tlie second century B.C., led to a 
locative. confusion between the ablative and the in- 

of ^acnXe'ojs, au analogy which seems also to have kept the poetic 
TToXeos from contracting to *iro\ovs. Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 231 c. 

1 Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 229. 

- Fick, B. B. XII. p. 7; Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 244. Cp. Bar- 
tholomae /. F. i. p. 300 ff. 


strumental. At a period preceding the separation of the 
Italic dialects from one another the -d of the ablative 
had been extended to other stems ; hence in old Latin 
inaidad 'from booty,' a'lrld 'from copper' etc. The 
other ablative forms patre, homine, pede etc. are not 
genuine ablatives but either locative or instrumental 
forms (see under \'ii and viii). 

311. \'i. The original dative ended in -ai. This 
suffix is retained in the Greek infinitive Dative is con- 
forms So/Aej'-at, hovva.1 ( = 8of eV-at) etc. ; else- Gkf'ltems with 
where consonant stems, -/- and -u- stems lo'^**'^^- 

and root words in Greek have replaced the dative by the 
locative, Trarep-t, Troifte'i'-t, 6wpaK-L, TroXe-t, ixOv-t, ttoS-l 
etc. In the -0- and -a- stems the suffix is contracted 
with the vowel of the stem : oikoj, rtfj-rj, 6ea. In Latin 
the suffix is regular throughout : pat?'-! (in older Latin 
occasionally -ei), homin-l, audac-~i, ped-l; vied {% 181, 3), 
older Xumasioi, pophe {=popul6), deae (cp. Matuta on 
inscriptions with vico), ov-J, manu-i (for *manou-ai § 174). 

312. vii. The original locative had two forms, 
according as the ending -i was or was not ^ *• -.^ 

° ° Locative with 

added to the stem. The stem, if graded, ap- ^"^^ without 
peared in a strong form. The suffixless form 
was probably not locative from the beginning, but in time 
was thus specialised. In Greek and Latin there are but 
few traces of the suffixless locative, hojx^v the Homeric 
infinitive is an example from a -men stem (§ 359) ; it 
seems probable that the type (f>€peLi' (if =*<^€peo-ev) is 
also a locative : aie's is an example from an -s stem 
(ai'f-es cp. Lat. aev-om) of which aiet ( = *atf-ecr-i) seems the 
locative with the -i suffix '. In Xiy^a-Bai the same loca- 

1 This is doubtful on account of the accent ; an original form 
*aiit-esi ought to become aiel in Greek. 

G. P. 16 

242 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 312 — 

tive has been traced (§ 280). Latin presents even fewer 
examples. The preposition penes from the same stem 
as the substantive jjenus stands alone, unless legis-sem 
etc. (§ 280) form a parallel to \eyecr-9ai. 

313. The locative in the Greek consonant, -i- and 
T, ^ . , -H- stems, has taken the place of the dative 

Extension of ' ^ 

the use of the (gee under vi). In the -o-stems it is doubt- 

locative in Gk.; ^ ' _ _ 

ful whether the -ei and -oi forms of the 
locative are coeval or whether the -ei forms are the 
earlier. The former hypothesis is more probable. 
The -ei forms in Greek are very rare ; in a noun stem, 
otxet is the only form found in the literature. Other- 
wise the locatives are of the type represented by olkol 
'la-dp-ol etc. Cp. also IIvAotyei/r;? ' boni at Pylos ' parallel 
to which is ©T^^aiyevvys ^ 'born at Thebes.' Elsewhere 
the forms of the locative of -«-stc-ms in Greek have been 
absorbed in the dative. In -c'-stems, -t was added to a 
stem form in -ei or -e' ; hence the Homeric irohqt ; from 
the ordinary stem -ei- + -I comes TroAet, Homeric tttoAci. 
The -H- stems are similar: (3aaLXr}F-i,-)]8ei (Homer), Attic 
. T *• v^^^^- In Latin vici, deae (cren.), luxuriei are 

in Latin. ' _ _ ' \o /'^ 

locative in form ; for the meaning compare 
domi, Romae. The ablative in other stems is either 
locative, or arises from a confusion of locative and instru- 
mental. In the former case patre, homine, genere, pede 

1 In tragedy this form has generally been emended by editors 
into Qrjpayevrjs, an emendation which destroys an interesting 
historical record. In Homer the town is 'Tirodrj^aL (Iliad 11. 505), 
and QvlSri is certainly the original fonn {II. iv. 378) of which 0^/3at 
is the locative, this locative being later treated as a nominative 
plural. The same is probably true of 'ABTJmi and other plural 
names of towns. The same explanation has been given of German 
names such as Sachsen, Xanten. 

- Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 260. 


etc. represent older forms ending in -i (§ 165), in the 
latter also forms containing the instrumental ending 
(see viii). manu may represent an earlier *manoii-e. 

314. viii. The suffixes of the instrumental were (1) 
either -e or -a\ and (2) -hhi t^o .^jg^e, 

(1) In both Greek and Latin the in- "f instrumental, 
strumental of the first tyi^e has ceased to be a separate 
case. In Greek its functions have been taken over by 
the dative, in Latin by the ablative. Those who hold 
that -a was the instrumental suffix find it in such adver- 
bial forms as ju-era, TreSa, ajxa, Trapd, fcKa (in ere/ca), tva, 

Latin aere, pede etc. 

(2) The suffix -bhl appears in Greek as -</)i. But 
when the instrumental ceased to be a separate case in 
Greek, the usages of the suffix were extended so far that 
-4>i forms are found in the ablatival meaning of the 
genitive, the instrumental and locative meanings of the 
dative, rarely in Homer as true dative or genitive, and 
once at least (in Alcman) as a vocative. The number 
of forms found is not very large. The form is used 
indifferently for either Singular or Plural. 

^ This is a vexed question. Schmidt contends that the suffix 
was -e, Brugmann that it was -a, but with some hesitation. 
Kecently Hirt has contended {I. F. i. p. 13 ff.) that the -a forms in 
Greek really present an instrumental suffix -m {-m). The principal 
reason for holding -a to he the instrumental suffix is that Lat. 
hide corresponds to ^da, and that therefore pede corresponds to 
Treoct. But (1) the equation is not certain ; inde may just as well 
be iv6€-{v), a better equation in respect of meaning; for absence 
of -v cp. wpocde. (2) Original *pedi would undoubtedly be rejire- 
sented by pede in Latin. 


244 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 315 — 

B. Dual. 

315. Even ill those cases (Xom. Ace. and Voc.) for 

Dual forms for '^vhicli several languages show forms going 

nom. voc. ace. j^g^^], |.q ^^^ original, it is difficult to decide 

what or how manv were the original suffixes. Except in 

duo and (unbo, the Dual has disappeared in Latin (.§ 297). 

^.^. , For the masculine and feminine in con- 

With gender. 

sonant-stems and root words, Greek shows -c 
as the suffix, Trarep-e, kvv-€, /3o-€ etc. In -0-, -i-, -2- {-ie-) 
and -u- stems, Brugmann' regards the lengthening of the 
.stem vowel as the original form for the masculine and 
feminine, there being in the -o-stems, however, another 
original form in -uu. For the -a stems he postulates -at 
as the original form of the ending in the Dual nominative 
and finds it in the forms rt/Aat, equae etc. employed by 
Greek and Latin as the nominative of the Plural. The 
Greek dual forms Tifjud etc. are then analogical forma- 
tions after the -o-stems. It seems on the whole simpler 
to follow Meringer in regarding the forms in -ou and -0 
as phonetic variants (.§ 181 11.) and to treat the nom. of 
the Dual as a collective form identical with the Singular 

For the neuter the suffix for all stems is said to have 
Without gen- Contained -i or -I, the two forms possibly 
^^^- representing different grades. But in Greek 

and Latin, this suffix is found only in d-Kotx-i, pei- 
Kar-L, vl-gint-l, the neuter forms having elsewhere the 
same suffix as the masculine and feminine, a fact which 
would rather lead us to suppose that all genders of the 

1 Grundr. 11. § 284 ff. 

- Meringer, B. B. xvi. p. 228 note. Brugmann's explanation 
of equae is untenable, for in Latin -ai when unaccented becomes -I. 


Dual had originally the same suffix. If the form is 
originally a singular collective, this is all the more 

316. The forms for the oblique cases of the Dual 
vary so much from one language to another 
and the restoration of the original forms is ^*^"^ '^^^^^' 

consequently so difficiilt that the question cannot be 
discussed in detail here. The Greek forms t-n-Trouv 
(tTTTToiv) etc. seem only the correct phonetic representa- 
tives of the old locative Plural {*ekuois-i)\ The con- 
sonant stems (7ro8-otv,7raT€p-otv etc.) have borrowed the 
suffix from the -o-stems. 

C. Plural. 

317. i, ii a. Nominative and vocative, masculine 
and feminine. There is no separate form guaxfomom. 
for the vocative in the Plural, the form for and voc. masc. 
the nominative being used wherever the 
vocative is required. The original suffix is -es. In 
Latin this ending appears as -es, the lengthening being 
borrowed from the -i-stems where the stem suffix in its 
strong form -ei- coalesced with -es into -es. Hence Idg. 
*ouei-es becomes in Latin ores'. On this analogy are 
iormed patr-es, homi7i-es, audac-es,ped-es etc. as compared 

\vith 7raT€p-es, TTOi/xev-es, OwpuK-e?, 7ro8-es etC. Lat. maUU-S 

apparently arises by syncope from manou-es (.§ 228), cp. 
T^'Sets = T/Sef-c?. Greek and Latin have both diverged 

1 See however § 322. 

- The Greek 6tes is not original; we should have had bet% = 
*bfetr-t%. Brugmann explains the bjeform in -Is in Latin as the 
old accusative form of the -i- stems *oui-ns ov'is, Grundr. 11. § 317. 
The ace. forms pedes etc. may also have influenced the nom. 

246 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 317 — 

from the original type in making the nom. Phiral of -o- 

in -0- and -a- ^'^'^ ~^^' stemS end in -/, otKO-i i:k-l ; n/Aai, 

**®™^- turbae. In the -o-stems, the suffix is bor- 

rowed by analogy from the pronoun; Idg. *toi uoik-us 
( = + es) becomes in primitive Greek toI foIkoi, and 
similarly in Latin is-foi vicoi whence later is-ti vici. In 
the -«-stems, -ai (Ti/xat, turbae for earlier turhai) is 
formed on the analogy of the -oi forms of the -o-stems 
rather than, as Brugmann holds, the original nominative 
of the Dual (§ 315). The change to these -/ forms must 
have taken place in Latin and Greek independently, for 
Latin alone of the Italic dialects has made the change, 
the others preserving forms which are the lineal de- 
scendants of the original -o+ -es {-as) and -a + -es (-as). 
Latin inscriptional forms in -s from -o-stems such as 
onagisty-eis are later analogical formations. 

i, ii h. Nominative and vocative neuter. The suffix 

Suffix for nom. ^''^^ pi'obably originally -9, whence in Greek 

and voc. masc. .a. But there is reason to believe that this 

and fern. 

suffix was not attached to all stems. The 
neuter Plural of the -o-stems, as already pointed out, 
was a feminine collective form (§ 298). Consonant 
stems, at least those in -n- and -r-, seem to have made 
a Plural fi'om the singular form by lengthening the stem 
vowel ; of this repfxwv Lat. termo by the side of rep-fxa 
( = *-m7j) Lat. ter-men is possibly a surviving trace. 
Stems in -i and -u seem to have made the neuter Plural 
in -~t and -u. Of this t}'pe Lat. tr'i-ginta alone survives 
in the classical languages. Whether this -I was a 
strengthening like -on beside -n in the nasal stems or 
was a contraction of -/ + ^ is uncertain. 

Analogy has largely affected these neuter forms. 
In Greek the -a ( = -a) of consonant stems has replaced 


-d in the -o-stems ; hence ^vy-a for original *yug-d. 
In Latin, on the other hand, -a of the -o- ^^^g^j ^^ ^^^^^ 
stems was carried on to all other stems, as ^°^^'' 
is shown by the quantity in early Latin. In the classical 
period, final -a was universally shortened and hence 
jug-d, 7iomin-d, cornu-d. 

318. iii. The accusative Plural masc. and fern, of 
all stems probabl}' ended in a nasal followed sufflxofaccu- 
by -s.. The old view was that the ending native Piurai. 
was -ms, s being a mark of the Plural added to the form 
for the accusative Singular ; Brugmann now holds ' that 
the Letto-Slavonic forms compel us to assume -?is as the 
original suffix except in -d stems in which the original 
accusative like the original nominative Plural ended in 
-as. It seems, however, more probable that the -d stems 
had also originally -ns as the sufiix and that the Skt. 
forms, on which the necessity for excepting the -d- stems 
mainly turns, are a new formation within the Aryan 
branch, being in reality only the nom. form used for the 
accusative. The nasal of the sufiix was either sonant 
or consonant according to the nature of the sound pre- 
ceding : *7raT€p-vs but f oiK-o-vs. 8vcrfjiev€Ls does not repre- 
sent *Sv(T-fJLeve(ry<; which ought to become ^Svaixevrjq but is 
the nom. form used for the accusative. Original -diis 
would have become in both Greek and Latin -diis, whence 
Tt/u.u5, turbds (§ 227). For the short forms of the accusa- 
tive Plural in Greek from -0- and -d- stems compare 

319. iv. The original sufiix of the genitive Plural 
seems to have been *-dm. This in -0- and „ .^. „, , 

Genitive Plural 

-d- stems contracted with the stem vowel 
into *-vm (Greek -wv, Lat. -urn). The genitive Plural of 
1 Grundr. 11. § 186. 

248 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 319 — 

the -«-stems would have been phonetically the same 
affected by pro- ^^ ^hat of the -0-stems ; OcZv might repre- 
^^^^- sent either *6eo-o)v or *Oea-wv. For the -d- 

stems a new genitive Plural has been formed in both 
Greek and Latin on the analogy of the pronominal 
adjective. From the earlier Vao-wv Oei2v Lat. *is-tdsum 
deiim come rawv ^eawv (Homeric), is-tarum dearum. 
As the masculine forms in -a in Latin are not primitive, 
caelicolum etc. are more probably analogical than origi- 
nal. The Latin -o-stems follow for the most part the 
-a-stems and make -orum in the genitive Plural ; hence 
c'lcorum but poLKuiv. 

320. V. In Greek, the genitive of the Plural, like 

the genitive Singular, performs the functions 
of the ablative. Latin follows the original 

language in keeping one form in the Plural for ablative 

and dative. 

321. vi. The reconstruction of this original form for 
^ ,. „, , dative and ablative is difficult. It is often 

Dative Plural. 

given as *-b/n-os, but whether Latin -bus 
could represent this original form is doubtful (§ 197). 
Original suffix Greek has entirely lost this original form, 
doubtful. using instead of it the locative in -en or the 

instrumental forms in -ots etc. for which see viii below. 
Latin also uses these instrumental forms in the -0- 
stems and generally in the -«-stems except where 
ambiguity would arise ; hence equabus, deabiis, filiabus 
etc. because of the masculine forms equis, deis, filiis. 
But alis, pennis, mensis etc. where there is no ambiguity. 

322. vii. The locative seems to have originally ended 
Forms of loca- i^^ "-') ^0 which Were frequently added post- 

tive suffix. positions of doubtful meaning -/ and -u. In 

the Aryan and Letto-Slavonic languages, -u is generally 


added ; in Greek and apparently in Latin, tlie suffix was 
-i. Some authorities, however, regard /Aera^u xheories on 
and Lat. mox, which they identify with Skt. ^^'"^^'^ '°'=^"^'^- 
maksu, as surviving remnants of the -u suffix. Others 
treat the Greek suffix as representing -sii t i {-o-pi, -o-t), 
in this way accounting for the retention of -o-- in vowel 
stems, l-mroLdi, oiKOKTL, 'KOrjvqai etc. But there are other 
possibilities. If -i was a movable postposition which did 
not become an integral part of the locative form till after 
the period when -o-- between vowels disappeared in Greek, 
the retention of -o-- is satisfactorily accounted for. 
Another explanation is that the -o-- in I-ttokjl etc. is 
restored on the analogy of consonant stems cf>v\a$L etc. 
It seems on the whole most probable that -t remained 
movable till a comparatively late period, and that thus -s 
being treated as final was retained. But if so, the explana- 
tion given of the Dual forms in -ouv (^ 316) must be 
given up. 

In Greek and Latin, traces of the suffixless locative 
Plural are rare and doubtful. In Greek guffixiess loca- 
otxots might represent the locative without *'^''' 
-I, but as the form phonetically represents also the in- 
strumental form equivalent to the original *-dis, this 
assumption is hardly necessary, more especially as the 
uses of locative and instrumental are confused in the 
Singular, -o-t appears in all stems : Trarpa-o-t, iroL^i-o-i 
(where e has come from the other cases instead of the 
phonetically correct *7ro6^a-o-t (a =n) ; cp. <t>pacrL in Pindar, 
the phonetically correct form for Attic <^p€o-t), Owpaii, 
tirecr-a-L (Homer), oSova-L (= * oSovr-cri, an analogical form 
instead of the weak form *68acrt with -??-, cp. o8a^), Troa-a-L 
(Homer) by assimilation from *7ro8- + -en, irokL-cn (Ionic) 
ixOv-a-L. Attic TToAccrt cannot be a phonetically correct 

250 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 322 — 

form, whether the stem be in -{- or -ei-, but must have 
followed the analogy of other plural cases. The ordinarj^ 
forms from -a-stems, beaten etc. are formed on the 
analogy of -oto-t in the -o-stems, which were affected by 
the pronouns (§ 326 vi). The regular locative forms 
6vpd(n, 'KOrjvqcTL and some others are retained only as 

The Latin forms cited from inscriptions for the loca- 
tive of -0- and -a- stems — deivos (maso.) and devas (fem.)' 
— are possibly to be explained otherwise. 

323. viii a. The instrumental suffix in all except 
Instrumental "O-stems seems to have originally ended 
Plural. jj^ -hhis. Of this suffix such Greek forms 

as AiKpt-c^is, dfjL-cjiLs may be surviving traces, but it is 
equally possibly to explain the final -9 otherwise ; cp. 
eV, i$ ; xoipi; x^^pts. In Latin the suffix has disappeared. 

viii b. In the -o-stems instrumental forms ended in 
*-dis, whence in Greek -ots, in Latin -Is (§ 181, 3). It 
is probable that this form is the original Plural of the 
dative, in which case -dis would represent -0 + ai-s. Con- 
sequent on the confusion of meaning and the similarity 
of form, the Greek instrumental in -ots and the locative 
in -oto-i came to be used indififerentlj' in the Attic poets 
according to the exigencies of the metre. From the 
middle of the fifth century B.C. onwards, -ot? alone was 
used in prose. The forms in -ats, Latin -is, from -a- 
stems are a new formation on the analogy of forms from 
-o-stems. By the end of the 5th century B.C., the forms 

' deivos is cited from the Dvenos inscription found in Rome 
in 1880, but the explanation cannot be accepted till there is more 
agreement as to the meaning among the interpreters ; devas 
occurs in the short inscription C. I. L. Vol. i. No. 814, Devas 
Corniscas Sacrunt. 


iu -at? have entirely ousted on Attic inscriptions the 
genuine and spurious locative forms in -ao-t, -770-1 and 

-aicrt, -ao'i, -y(Ti. 

xix. Pronominal Declension. 
1. Pronouns which distinguish gender. 

324. Under this heading are included demonstra- 
tive, relative and interrogative pronouns. The relative 
is certainly a comparatively late specialisation of a 
demonstrative form, or (as iu Latin) of an interrogative. 
The same form serves for both interrogative and indefinite 
uses. As an interrogative it is accented, as an indefinite 
pronoun it is unaccented. Pronouns, like nouns, have 
developed differently in different languages, and Greek 
and Latin draw some of their commonest pronouns 
fi'om different stems. 

325. The chief stems which appear in Greek and 
Latin are 

i. Indo-G. *so- *$d- : preserved in the Greek nom. 5 ;<;; 
sing, of the article 6, rj, and possibly iu the Latin ip-se^, ■So.^ ,<ja. 
ipsa. Oblique forms, mainly accusatives, are found in 
old Latin : sum, sam, sos, sas. The stem in the original 
language seems to have been confined to the nom. Sing, 
masc. and fern. Eng. she is of the same origin. - - ' \ '-^ 

ii. Lido-G. *to-, *td-, *tod: found in Greek to 
{=^tod, Eng. that) and in all cases of the article except 
the nom. masc. and fem. Sing. For Attic ot, at in the 
Plural, other dialects have rot, rai. In Latin, the stem 
is found in is-te, is-ta, is-titd and in an old particle 

1 For *ipso. For -e = unaccented -0 compare in the Passive 
Imperative legere = Xeyeo (for *\eyi<To). 

252 A SHOKT MANUAL OF [§ 325 — 

quoted by Quintilian' topper {^*tod-per) 'straightway.' 
ovTo<; is a combination of the two stems *so- and *to with 
the particle u often found in other combinations, especially 
in Skt. {*so-u-to-s). auVo's is not yet satisfactorily 
explained. To these two stems belong also oSe and 
probably 6 Seiva which has been wrongly divided (cp. 
§ 237), though none of the many explanations of the 
form are altogether satisfactory. 

iii. Indo-G. *el-, *i- : Old Greek ace. 'l-v, Old Latin 
i-m from a stem whose nom. is in the weak grade is, 
while the other cases are in the strong gTade ei- : Lat. 
eius, etc. (§ 326 ii). The Homeric and poetic forms /AtV, 
viv are explained" as *o-/a' + lv and *vf-ii', where cr/x- is 
the particle discussed in § 326 iv and vF- is the enclitic vv. 

iv. From the same or a similar stem, Indo-G. *io- 
(*eio-), comes the Greek relative o? ( = *«'>■). The weak 
form is probably found in i-va (§ 342) for *L-va. 

V. Indo-G. *ko-, *kd- : Greek e-Kct, a locative adverb 
from which e-K£t-vo? is derived; Latin ce in ce-do 'give 
here,' ec-ce, ki-c, etc. From a cognate stem *A'/- (cp. *qo-, 
*qi- below) come Latin ci-s, ci-tra and possibly -kl in 
ov-KL, 7roXX.d-KL-'s'\ etc. English has words with both the 
significations found in Greek and Latin : hi-m, hi-ther. 

vi. Indo-G. *qo-, *qd-, *qi-: Greek irov, -n-oi, -n-o-Ocv, 
interrogative adverbs, Lat. qiiod (cp. Eug. what ttoS- 
aTTo?) : Tt?, Ti, Lat. quis, quid. The interrogative forms 
in Attic, Tov, T(2, represent the Homeric rio ( = *qe-sio). 
The Homeric rew is an analogical form. The same stem 

1 Inst. Orat. i. 6, 40. 

- By Thumb in Fleckeisen's Jahrhucher for 1887, p. 641 ff. But 
it is very doubtful whether an enclitic particle could thus be com- 
bined with a pronoun (cp. Wackernagel, I. F. i. 333). 

' Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 409. 


is also used for the indefinite pronoun, the difference 
being that when the pronoun is used interrogatively it 
has the principal accent of the word, while when used 
indefinitely it passes on the accent to the word preceding : 
et-rt?, oo--Tts: si-quis, etc. The Latin relative qui repre- 
sents the ^-o-stem with a suffixed -i : *quo-i (cp. kic below). 

vii. The Latin kJ-c comes from a stem ko- (cp. ho-die) 
with a deictic particle -/ suffixed. To *hoi, *hai, thus 
formed is added the particle -ce (v) : hence ki-c, hae-c. 
The neuter *hod has only the particle -ce added ; *hod+ce 
becoming hoc. The Indo-G. form of the Latin ho-, ha- is 
not certainly known. 

viii. Brugmann' finds an original stem *o-, *«-, in 
Greek e-t 'if (a locative case), and the mere stem in 
e-Kei, Lat. e-quidem; possibly also in the augment 
€-</)epov, etc. (§ 445). 

326. The pronominal declension differs in several 
respects from the declension of the noun. On the points 
of difference alone is it necessary to dwell here. The 
points of difference illustrated b)^ Greek and Latin are : 

i. Difference in nominative formation. 

(a) Some masculine -o-forms in the uom. Singular 
appear without final -^^ : Indo-G. ^so, Gk. 6, Latin ijy-se 
(§ 325 i). Others which have no final -s have -^ sufiixed : 
Latin qui, hi-c. 

(b) The neuter singular forms its nominative in -d : 
TO (for *tod), Lat. is-tud: dAAoS-aTrds, Lat. 

7-7 cv ' T 7 '/!•*• i\ ^'^^ varia- 

aliud: TTOO-aTTOS, Lat. quod: n (tor qid), tions from noun 

_ . , declension in 

Lat. quid. the nom. of 

(c) In Greek the feminine Dual rai 

is replaced by the masculine tw : cp. Svw, Lat. duo of all 
genders (see also § 315). 

1 Grundr. 11. § 409. 

254 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 326 

{d) The Plural is formed by the addition of -I to 
the stem, a characteristic borrowed in both languages 
by the nominal -o- and -a- stems (§ 317). 

{e) The neuter Plural makes the form for nom. and 
ace. in -ai. Lat. quae (=*qud + i), kae-c. In Greek 
this formation is lost except perhaps in Kat (§ 342). 

ii. The genitive Singular ^to-sio, etc. Gk. toIo, etc. 
was probably the origin of the special genitive form in 
the nominal -o- stems. A suthx *-sids must be postu- 
lated as the original form for the feminine genitive 
Singular in so many languages that it must go back to 
the Indo-Germanic period. But it seems nevertheless 
Fern. gen. a ^^^ obvious amalgamation of the masculine 
mixed form. ^^^^ neuter -sio suffix with -as of «-stems in 
the noun. Whether there was originally only one form 
for all three genders, or whether the type -as, as in the 
noun, was earlier, cannot at present be determined'. 
Greek follows the noun declension in the fern, genitive. 

The genitive forms in Latin, istius, cuius, eius etc. 
have given rise to much discussion, istius, illius seem 
Latin gen. in ^0 ^^^^Q Sprung from a locative istl, ilU (cp. 
■*'"*■ isti-c, illi-c) with the ending -os, -us of the 

noun genitive affixed. These locatives may have ended 
in either -oi or -ei (§ 313). cuius (older quoius) may be 
explained in the same way. From the accented form quoi, 
which, owing to its accent, retained its original vocalism, 
a genitive was made by affixing -os, -us as in the other 
words mentioned. In the other members of the series 
these old locatives remained as datives, but from quis a 
new dative to quoius was made *quoii or *quoiei on the 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. ii. §420. A different explanation is given 
by Hirt (I, F. ii. p. 130 ff.). 


analogy of ilUus, illi, etc. This form became first quoi 
and then cui '. 

iii. The separate form of the genitive in nominal 
-o-stems is with mucli probability referred Pronominal 
to pronominal influence. To the same in- ablatives, 
fluence may be attributed the separate ablative forms 
-del, -ed in the same stems (Lat. equod, facillumed). The 
suffix -6€v is frequent in all pronominal stems in Greek. 
Like -ros Lat. -tus: ev-rds, in-tus, -O^v is properly an 
adverbial suffix which has become so firmly incorporated 
with the paradigm of the pronoun that the forms a-iOev 
etc. are used for the genitive. tto-O^v and others retain 
their adverbial signification. If the forms rrjviL-Oe, tovtoj-0€ 
etc. found in Doric authors are genuine, the suffix -Be 
must have been added to the original ablative form 

*TT]V(i), ^TOVTO) for *TT]V(J)S, *TOVT0i8. 

iv. In forms for the ablative, dative and locative, a 
suffix -sm- is frequently found. This suffix g^^^ .^,„. j,^ 
is identified with Skt. sma, which is also Pronouns, 
found as a separate particle. The locative ends in 
either -/ or -in: cp. the personal pronouns in Lesbian 
vfjifj.1 or vfj-ixLv, where -/x^i- represents -s?n- (§ 329). This 
-s»i- suffix is also found, as Brugmann conjectures', in the 
dative (locative) form d-rt/xi ( = *rt-(r/x-i) from Gortyn in 

1 J. H. Kirkland, Class. Rev. vi. 433. This explanation seems 
slightly simpler than Brugmaun's {Grundr. ii. § 419), which assumes 
a combination of an interrogative with a demonstrative stem : 
quoiei = quo an adverbial case form +eei (from is). Such combina- 
tions must, however, be admitted for other Italic dialects. Another 
but still less probable explanation is that of Buck, Vocalismus der 
oskischen Sprache p. 151, who identifies quoiu-s with Gk. iroh-s and 
supposes the genitive and dative to arise from a confusion in the 
use of the adjective, the value of which was practically genitival. 

- Grundr. ii. § 423. 

256 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 326 — 

Crete. In Latin, the suffix appears in the strengthened 
forms memet, temet, ipsemet. Forms with -sm- are more 
widely developed in Sanskrit. 

V. The pronoun had a separate instrumental form 

Pronominal '^1 "'^^*' ''^ill fouud in Greek I'-va. Many 
instrumental, adverbial forms from pronominal stems are 
possibly old instruinentals in -m: ol-i-m, istinc {-ist-i- 
m + ce) etc. On the analogy of these forms, helped by 
old accusative forms like partim, statim\ others were 
made from stems of many other kinds : gradatim, 
pedetentim etc. 

vi. The genitive Plural of the pronoun ends in 
Pronominal *-som. In the masculine and neuter forms 
gen. PI. ^Yiis was lost in both Greek and Latin, but in 

Latin was restored later from the noun forms after the 
suffix had been extended to them (§ 319). This is proved 
by the fact that the pronominal stem originally appeared 
in a diphthongal form before the suffix: *toi-sdm, whence 
in classical Latin only *is-turum not is-torum could be de- 
veloped. The diphthongal form of the stem arose from the 

-i as mark of ^^niou of -/, a mark of the Plural (§ 326 i d), 
Plural. ^^,j^|^ ^Y\Q original stem, and seems to have 

been carried through all the cases of the Plural. The 
-oi- of the locative Plural in nouns (§ 322) may have 
been derived from the pronominal forms : *toisi ekuosi 
being changed later into *toisi ekuoisi\ 

^ Cp. now Delbriick {Gnindristi, Syntax § 255). It may, 
however, be pointed out that these Latin forms have exact Slavonic 
parallels in Old Bulgarian instrumentais like pq-ti-mi, final -I 
being here, as frequently, lost in Latin. 

2 Cp. Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 430. 


2. Personal Pronouns, 

327. The personal pronouns— i.e. the forms to 
express /, thou, we, you and the reflexive self, selves — 
are an extremely old formation, in several respects more 
primitive than any other part of the Indo-Germanic 
declension. They do not distinguish gender, and there 
are forms in the oblique cases which have no clear case 
ending, e/xe Lat. me etc. The forms for the Plural were 
originally inflected as singulars, the stem for oriKinaiiy no 
the Plural in the pronouns of the first and ^P'j^'f j^r '"lurai 
second persons being diff"erent from that for '''»''''*• 

the Singular. But even in the Singular of the pronoun 
of the first person two entirely different stems have to 
be distinguished : eyw, Lat. ego, Eng. / (0. Eng. Ic), is a 
diff'erent stem from e-yxe, Lat. me, Eng. me. As in the 
noun, different grades of the stem appear in different 
cases. Case usages are not in all instances clearly 
defined : e.g. the original form *moi, Gk. ^lol, Lat. mi, 
resembles a locative and is used in Sanskrit as a 
genitive, in Greek and Latin as a dative. 

328. A. i. The original form in the nominative Singu- 
lar of the pronoun of the first person is hard 

to determine. The relationship between Gk. ^ *'™' °'^™*' 
eyw, Lat. ego, and Skt. ahdm, like that between Gk. ye 
and Skt. ha, has not yet been satisfactorily explained. 
Some Gk. dialects have the form cywV which apparently 
shows the same ending as Skt. ahdm. The nominative 
of the Lido-G. form for thou was tu. tv is found in Doric 
Greek : Attic <rv cannot come phonetically from rv, but 
G. P. 17 

258 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 328 — 

arises from the ace. rfe". As in Greek and Latin, the 
reflexive had originally no nominative. 

ii. In the accusative the original forms seem to have 
been *me, *tue {*te) and in the reflexive 

jVcc form s w w ** 

*sup {*se), whence in Gk. /xc and l-jxi (pos- 
sibly from the influence of €-yw)> "'"«' Attic o-c, I: Lat. 
me, te, se: Eng. me, thee. 

iii. The genitive in Greek is formed as in nominal 

Genitive and ■^"•''tems with -crio, wheuce Homeric e/ieio 

possessive ( = *i[j.€-(rip), ifji.eo, Attic i/jiov : Homeric a-elo, 

o-e'o, Attic (Tov : Homeric elo, eo, Attic ov. 
Such forms in Homer as reoto ' thine ' can come only 
from the possessive adjective, from which also the Latin 
forms mei, tui, sui, can alone be derived. As in the case 
of cuius and cuium, there is a constant interchange 
between the forms of the possessive adjective and of the 
pronoun proper. The Doric forms e'/xoOs, reot-s, kov<; are 
monstrosities arising from a confusion with the genitive 
suffix in -.« of noun stems. 

iv. For the ablative, Greek must use the genitive 
forms, or those forms with an adverbial suffix 
■which, though originally ablatival, do duty 
for either case (§ 326 iii). In Latin, the old forms med, 
ted, sed, when compared with the Skt. mat, teat and Latin 
sM ' but ' (if it really comes from this stem), show a 
change of quantity. This arises from a confusion with 
the accusative forms, me, te, se, which are sometimes 
found with -d appended. 

V. In Greek e/Aot (/xot), o-oi, ol, which seem in 
form to be original locatives, discharge the function of 

^ This form, disguised as rp^, is quoted by Hesychius. Dia- 
lectical influence may also have been at work (cp. Wharton, Class. 
Rev. VI. p. 259 f.). 


datives'. In Latin ml is not a contraction of mihi, 

but the descendant of an original form 

*mei or *moi as in other languages. The meaning of seve° 

forms mihl, tibl, sibi are difficult. The "^ ^^^^^' 

/-vowel in the root syllable may be explained from 

their enclitic uses. The original Indo-G. 

form cannot be restored with certainty, but 

that tlie forms are old is shown by comparison with Skt. 

mdhya{m) and tiihliya{m). The nominal suffix, Gk. -^t-, 

has probably influenced these forms, tih'i etc. with I 

final are no doubt due to such forms as istl etc. 

329. B. i. In the Plural, the forms in Greek and 
Latin are very different. Throughout the Different 
pronouns of the first and second persons fn'^G^r^k^^^i 
Plural, Greek shows the suffix -sm- (§ 326 iv). ^'^"°- 
The nominative in Attic has been influenced by the 
nominal declension. The most primitive forms are the 
Lesbian d-/x/A€ (= *7i-sm-e), v-fx/xe (= *iu-s77i-e). In the 
stem syllable, the same form as the English us, you ^ can 
be distinguished. The dual forms in Greek from the 
first person : Homeric vwt, Attic vw, vwtv (vwv), are closely 
connected with Latin nijs. vos is from the same original 
stem as English v)e. The dual form (o-c^w) for the 
second person in Greek still awaits explanation, -^w 
may be conjectured to be of the same origin as -</)co in 
uyac^co and in English bo-ih. a-- can hardly come from 
Tf- here, and the form is specially remarkable as com- 
pared with the plural of the reflexive o--^€, (r-<f>iv etc. 

ii. The ace. was originally like the nom. in Gk. as 
well as in Latin. ■7/tAas, vfid'; are analogical 

formations like WU,. Accusative. 

1 In Sanskrit the corresponding forms are genitives. 

2 You is less certain than us. 


260 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 329 — 

iii. Since the plural pronoun was originally in- 
Genitive fleeted as a singular, the forms tjfxwv, v/xwv, 
forms, affioiv, as the genitive appears in Attic, must 

be a new formation, nostrum {nostri), vostrum (vostri), 
like the singular forms (^ 328 iii), come from the posses- 
sive adjective. 

iv. The remaining cases are inextricably entangled 
Forms for together, -j/juv, vfjuv, fouud frequently also 
other cases. ^yjj^^ i^ 2iXQ locatives like the Cretan o-ti/ai 
(§ 326 iv). vwtj/ (v(3v) of the Dual is also locative. In 
nobis, vobis, apparently for ^nozbh'is, *vdzb/us, we can 
recognise the same suffix as in the singular tibi, sibi. 

Possessive Adjectives. 

330. From the stems of e/^e jm: rpi te : I se, are 
formed the pronominal adjectives : Homeric e/id?, refd?, 
€fds : meus, tuns {=*teuo-s, Old Latin tovos), suus {=*seuo-s. 
Old Latin sotos). Attic o-ds is from *tFo-^. From the 
plural forms, Attic by means of the sufiix -repo- makes 

yixeT€po-<;, vfJierepo-?, o-c^eVepo-s. Houier has also I'tDtVcpos 

and (T<jiO}LT€po<; . With the same suffix Latin makes 
noster- and vaster (later vester). Other Greek dialects, 
e.g. Lesbian, had also forms made directly from the stem 
of the pronoun : a/x/xo-s, vp-ixo-^, o■<^d-s. 

XX. Uses of the Cases. 

331. The nominative was not originally the case of 

i. The nomi- ^hc subjcct, for the personal endings of the 

native. ^gj.j|^ expressed vaguely the subject of the 

sentence : <^d-/j.t (Attic <f>-n-H-^), ' say I,' <^d-Ti (Attic ^77-0-1), 

Lat. inqui-t, ' says he.' But in many usages gi-eater 


precision was necessary, and a substantive or pronoun 
was added in apposition to give the meaning that defi- 
niteness which was required. Tliis substantive or pro- 
noun is commonly called the subject and the nominative 
is its case. This apposition may, however, be expressed 
by other cases, cp. Lat. dedecori est and modern English 
It's me. 

332. The vocative, as already pointed out, is 
properly no part of the sentence and is not jj rpj^g ^^^^ 
a case. In Homer (and also in Sanskrit) ^^^^• 
Avlien a vocative and a nominative occur together they 
are connected by a conjunction : 'ArpeiS?/, cru hi irave. 
II. i. 282. 

When one invocation was followed by a second, it 
seems to have been the rule from the earliest period to 
put the second in the nominative : ZeC irarep, ^Ih-qOe-v 
jxeSeoiVj kv8l(tt€, /xeyio-re, | 'He'Xtos 6\ os -rravr i(f)opas Kat 
irdvT iiraKOveLS. II. 111. 276 . 

The occurrence of the vocative in the predicate 
arises by an analogical attraction, A genuine vocative 
always appears in the sentence and causes the attrac- 

oXfSie, Kovpe, yivoLo Theocr. xvii. 66. 

Matutine pater sen lane Uhentius audis 

Hor. Sat. ii. 6. 20. 

Cp. Milton's imitation of the construction {Paradise 
Lost, iii. 1 ff.). 

"Hail, holy Light, offspring of Heaven first born... 
Or hear'st thou rather pure ethereal stream." 

1 The order is sometimes reversed, ya/x^poi e/u6s dvyarip re, 
ridiad'' ovo/j.' oTTL Kev eiVw Od. xix. 406. Some Jiss however read 
6vydT7)p. Cp. also tS 7r6Xts xat orj/jn, Aristoph. Knights 273. 

262 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 333 

333- " The accusative brought the noun into a 
iii The ac- ^l^^ite indefinite relation to the verb. The 
cusative. nature of the relation was determined by 

the character of the verb and its dependent noun'." 
The accusative could, however, be used also with adjec- 
tives and substantives. While it may be difficult to 
trace historically the whole of its usages from one 
original meaning, it seems simplest to define the ac- 
cusative as that case which answers the question ' How 
far^ ?' 

(1) The accusative with verbs of motion towards. 

a. V^P^f] OLVijSr] ixeyav ovpavov OvXvfXTTov re 

//. i. 497. 
In a mist went she up great heaven and Olympus. 

rogat quid xeniam Cariam 

Plautus, Curculio, ii. 3. 60 (339). 
He asks why I come to Caria. 

b. 'Hcfyaia-Tov iKave Sofxov ©cVt? apyvpoir(.t,a 

77. xviii. 369. 
To Hephaestus' home came silver-footed Thetis. 

Nunc domum propero 

Plautus, Persa, ii. 4. 1. 

At present I'm hurrying home. 

Compare with these usages of place the usage of 

c. fJLvr]<jTrjpa<; a(f)iK€TO Sia yvyatKijiV Od. XVI. 414. 

To the wooers came the fair lady, 

1 Brugmann Gr. Gr.- § 178 p. 203. 

- Naturally, as the usages of the case develope, this simple test 
becomes too vague. 


d. Vaguer usages are not common in Greek — 
ToS' Ikolvu ' to this I am come ' is practically the only 
construction. In Latin the construction most similar is 
the accusative of an abstract substantive which is called 
the supine — spectatum veniunt etc. 

Closely akin to the accusative with verbs of motion 
towards, are the accusatives of time and space. 

(2) The accusative of time. 

TepTTOvraL /laKapes 6iol rifxara Travra Od. VI. 46. 

The blessed gods take their pleasure at all times. 

annos multos filkis meas celavistis clam me 

Plant. Poemdus, v. 4. 83. 
Many years have you concealed my daughters from me. 

(3) The accusative of space. 

Mr/ptoK>;s XetTTCTO 8oupos ipo)i]v U. xxiii. 529. 
M. was a spear's throw behind. 

nominee insunt cubitum longis litteris 

Plant. Poenulus, iv. 2. 15. 
The names are in letters a cubit long. 

(4) The accusative of content. 

This comprises the constructions known as («) the 
cognate, and (h) the quasi-cognate accusatives, the 
latter being only an analogical extension of the former. 
The cognate accusative expresses merely the same idea 
as is contained in the verb, it being the accusative of a 
substantive from the same root. The quasi-cognate 
accusative has the same effect, but though verb and noun 
convey the same idea, they are not formed from the 
same root. 

264 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 333 

piignam pugnare. 
To fight a fight. 

h. Cw€(.S ayaOov (3lov Od. XV. 491. 

Thou livest a good life. 
ut profecto vivas aetatem miser 

Plant. Amiyh. iv. 2. 3 (1023). 
That you may indeed live your time in 
Cp. also, 

kA-vw (T eyto fji€jxr]voT ov a/xiKpav voaov 

Aeschylus, F. V. 977. 
I hear that thou art maddened with no small disease. 

This construction is restricted within very narrow- 
limits in early Latin, but as time goes on, it is more 
widely extended, till in the Imperial period we find such 
loose constructions as 

grammaticus non eruhescit soloecismum, si sciensfacit 

Seneca, Epp. 95. 8. 

Tlie scholar does not blush for a mistake in grammar, 
if he makes it wittingly. 

(5) Accusative with transitive verbs. 
a. When the verb is changed to the passive this 
accusative becomes the nominative. 

eTrati'w rdi'Sc tov avOpuyrrov 
hunc hominem laudo 
I praise this person. 

In the passive ohf. 6 avdpwiro'i eVatvetTat 
/lie homo laudatur 
This person is being praised. 


b. This construction is extended to verbs which 
are intransitive. 

TriTTOvOiv Ota Kai ere Kat Travraq /xeveL 

Euripides, Frag. 651. 
He hath sutiered such things as wait thee and all men. 
elves meum casum luctumque doluerunt 

Cic. p. Sestio, lio. 
The citizens mourned my mischance and grief. 

c. Two accusatives with one verb\ 

These accusatives may be (a) in apposition, (ft) of 
different t}-pes, (y) of the same type, but one ace. of tlie 
person, the other of things. 

a. ITatav vfj-vovcrt tov Aarou? yovov 

Euripides, JI. F. 68 7. 
Paean they praise, Leto's son. 

Cicei-onem consulem creare 
To make Cicero Consul. 

/?. TTjv \xa.yriv tovs ftapftdpov; IviKqcrav 

They defeated the foreigners in the fight. 

Malta deos venerati sunt 

In many ways they worshipped the gods. 

y. Tjoovrj Tts yfi'at^i ixy]8h' rytes aAAv^'Aas Xeyeiv 

Eur. Fhoen. 200. 
Women have a certain pleasure in reviling one another. 
Trihunus me sententiam rogavit 
The tribune asked me my opinion. 
Sometimes a transitive verb and its accusative to- 

1 There may be of course more complicated constructions 
where one or more accusatives depend on another accusative. 
Cp. Dominus me loves mercatum Eretriam miait Plaut. Persa, ii. 
0. 21, My master sent me to Eretria to buy cattle. 

266 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 333 

gether are equivalent to another verbal notion, and 
govern a second accusative. 

Oeol . . .'1\lov (j>Oopa^]c{iov<; WevTO ( = iif/r](f)L<7avTo) 

Aescli. Agam. 815. 
The gods voted the wreck of Troy. 

hanc edictionem nisi animuni adtortetis omnes 

Plaut. Pseud, i. 2. 10 (143). 
Unless you all attend to this notice. 
(6) Accusative with substantives and adjectives. 
The substantives which take this accusative are 
mostly verbal. Originally all verbal substantives had 
^ the same power of governing a case as their verb. In 
Sanskrit a noun of the agent regularly does so, giving 
such constructions as, if existing in Latin, would be 
represented by the tyjje dator divitias. All noun forms 
called infinitives, supines and gerunds, retain this power ; 
other forms have, for the most part, lost it. 

(a) i(TTL Tt5 SwKpaTTj? Ta fxeTcoipa (f>povTi(r'n]^ 

Plato, Apol. 2 B. 
One Socrates a student of the heavenly bodies. 

iusta sum orator^ datus YXawtw^, Amjjk. Prol. 34. 
I am appointed ambassador for justice. 

In these constructions the noun of the agent with a 
verb expresses the same meaning as the verb : 2. r. /x. 
^povTLt,ci : ut iusta mxirem ; compare ev fxkv Trpwra o-ol 
jxopLf^rjv e'xw ( = yu,e/A<^o/ Eur. Or. 1069. 

Cp. also o T(3 ovTi Tvpavvo<; tw ovtl 8ovXos ras /xeyfcrTa? 
^wTTctas Kttt SovXcias Plato Rep. 579 d. ' The real t}Tant 
is a real slave in respect of the greatest flatteries and 

1 Tlie only example in Latin with a noun of the agent. Goetz 
and Schoell read iuste in the new Teubner text. 


In Latin the construction remains more extended 
than in Greek. 

Reditiis Romam Cic. Phil. ii. 108. 
The return to Rome. 

Quid tihi istum tactio est? 

Plant. Cure. v. 2. 27 (626). 
What right have you to touch him ? 

b. With verbal nouns (Gerunds). 

ola-Teov 'n7v tvxw Eur. Ion, 1260. 

We must bear our lot. 

(The construction is not Homeric.) 

Poenas in morte timendum est Lucr. i. 111. 
We must fear punishments in death. 

Cp. vitabundus castra Liv)% xxv. 13. 

Avoiding the camp. 

c. With adjectives. 

dya^os Porjv : ovojxa 'kXvt6<; (Homeric). 
ol Oeol dyaOoi eicrt Tracrav aperrjv 

Plato, Legg. 900 d. 

The gods are good in respect of every virtue. 

qui manUs gratior siet 

Plant. Pseud, iii. 1. 19 (785). 
Who would be heavier of hand. 

The ' accusative of the part affected ' is more largely 
developed in Greek than elsewhere, and is supposed to 
have come from Greek into Latin. Hence o/x/xara ^ai 
K€<f)a\rjv LKiXos All, II. ii. 478, is the model for such 
constructions as os iimerosque deo similis, Virg. Aen. i. 

268 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 333 

(7) Adverbial accusative. 

The process by which accusative forms crystallise 
into adverbs can be very clearly seen in the historical 
development of most languages. In Greek it is very 
marked, the number of adverbial accusatives, except 
from adjectives and pronouns, being very limited in the 
early period. Thus in Homer we find /Ac'ya irdvTOiv 
'Apyctwv KpareeL'. 'EiKTopa acTTrep^ts kXcvewv ct^cTr (hkv; 
'AxtA-Xcrs : and more rarely neuter plurals, v'/ict? ovkItl 
KaXa fxeOUn OovptBo^ a\Krj<; ; TLp.rjv XcXoy^acriv icra 
Oeota-Lv. But the adverbial accusatives from substantives, 
BiK-rji', x°-P'-^ 6tc., do not occur in Homer, with the ex- 
ception of TTpocfiaa-Lv (II. xix. 262), 8£/xas four times in 
the phrase Se/ta? Trupos aWop-ivoto (cp. § 283) and one or 
two others. 

There are three classes of adverbial accusatives : (a) 
the neuter of adjectives both Singular and Plural, (h) 
the accusative feminine of adjectives with a substantive 
understood, (c) the accusative Singular of substantives. 
The course of development is in many cases not hard 
to trace, as (i) from ace. of content, 6$€a KeKX-qyio^, rrjv 
raxia-T-qv Tropevccr^at' (where 6S6v is easily supplied); (ii) 
from ace. of time, Trpwrov, ivvfjp-ap; (iii) from an ace. 
defining the extent of action of the verb, eZpos, p-eye^o?, 
6vop.a, x'^P'-^^ hU-qv etc. Tliis includes the ace. in appo- 
sition to the sentence, a usage in which x'^'p'*' i^ found 
in //. XV. 744, x°-P^^ "E/cropos oTpvvavTo^, where X'^P'-^ 
means ' as the pleasure ' (of Hector). 

In Latin these usages are more frequent in late than 
in early Latin, for many adverbial forms in Plautus 
usually called accusatives are probably to be explained 

1 Cp. English keep to the right. 


a. ia-TL^owi'To Setvov 8epKo'yu,evot //. iii. 342. 
They stalked with furious look. 

ws alyvTrtol fxeyaXa Kka^ovre fid^wvTaL 11. xvi. 429. 

As vultures shrieking loudly fight. 

ego nil moror Plaut. Persa, v. i. 15. 
I care nothing. 

acerba tuens... serpens Lucr. v. 33. 

A snake glaring fiercely. 

b. o8' ov jxaKpav aincrriv aXXa irXrjaiov. 

Eur. Phoen. 906. 

To this construction belong the Latin forms in 

-fariam, hi-, tri-, qiiadri- fariam. Otherwise it is rare ; 

aeternum, siqyremum, and some others occur in the 

C. hmpedv irapa tov S^/xov £/\.a/3e to ^^wpiov 

Lysias, vii. 4. 
He got the place from the people gratis. 

For corresponding uses in Latin compare ixirtim 
and tenus (§ 57). 

(8) Accusative with prepositions. 

The usages with prepositions are more frequent in 
the accusative than in any other case. This may be 
partly owing to the vagueness of its meaning, for prepo- 
sitions which spring from older adverbs are first used 
in those cases where the meaning of the case by itself 
is too vague to express the precise intention of the 
speaker ^ (See .§ 340 ft'.) 

1 The use of wj as a preposition in Greek is curious because it 
is found only with the ace. of persons. It is explained by Kidge- 

270 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 334 

334. Tlie accusative in most of its relations is 
iv. The geni- closely Connected with the verb ; the geni- 
*'^'^* tive is similarly connected with the noun. 

As far as its functions are concerned, the genitive closely 
resembles an adjective. But they are not of the same 
origin, the old belief that such an adjectival stem as 
8r]fjLO(TLo- was identical with the old genitive B-q/xoio 
being erroneous. There was however to some extent 
confusion between genitival and adjectival forms, cuius 
in Latin being also declined as an adjective. Compare 
also the constant intercliange between the genitive of 
the personal pronouns and the possessive adjectives. 

When connected with verbs the genitive "expresses 
partial control by the verb of that which is contained in 
the Object, while the Accusative expresses complete 

control' " : apTOV €(/)ayc ' he ate the loaf,' aprov e^ayc ' he 

ate a slice.' 

(1) The possessive genitive includes many different 
usages which frequently can be exactly determined only 
from the context. Compare the following construc- 
tions : 

'HcrtoSou epya Horti Caesaris 

irapa OZva OaXdaa-r]^ pater familias 

jKi'tcrr/s /Aepos voti partem | 

1 Ato9 /txepos Apollinis partem] 

Trj<; 8v(i} yevofxecrOa JJ. xxi. 89. 

Her's are we twain-. 

way (Journal of Philolofii/, xvii. p. 113) as arising from ws 'wliere' 
originally used with a nom. : ^\deu ws /3a(nXei)s {ecrri). The verb 
after ws was frequently omitted, hence the change to the ace, a 
parallel to which can be found with yena 'where' in Skt. 

1 Grimm quoted by Delbriick S. F. iv. p. 39. 

2 This might be explained also as an ablative, but such con- 


lam me Pompei totum esse scis 

Cic. Fam. ii. 13. 2. 

Similar constructions in Sanskrit seem to sliow that 
the rare construction Kucrai eras aXoxov o-^ayets, Eur. £JL 
123, ' Thou liest slain of thy spouse,' is a true genitive 
arising from the original value of the participle as a 
noun. It must, however, be remembered that if the 
only separate ablative form, viz. in the -o-stems, is 
borrowed from the pronoun (§ 326 iii), there is no cri- 
terion by which to distinguish genitive from ablative 
singular except usage. This construction, like ttjs 8vw 
yevoixecrOa above, lies witliin the debatable land between 
the two cases. 

(2) The partitive genitive is also a widely extended 

Sla yvvaLKcZv (Hom.) 

Fair among women. 

Iimo Saturnia sancta dearum ' 

Enu. Ann. i. 72. 
Saturnian Juno holy among goddesses. 

II. i. 176. 
Most hateful to me art thou of the kings fostered by 

maxime divom Eunius Ann. i. 71. 
Greatest of Gods. 

\pv<Tov he.Ka rdXavTa H. xix. 247. 

Ten talents of gold. 

structious are found in Skt. with forms distinctly genitival (Del- 
briick S. F. v. p. 153). 

1 This construction is however possibly an imitation of the 

272 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 334 

hanc minam fero auri 

Plaut. True. v. 8. 

This miiia of gold I bring. 

Satr' ayaOrjv KptLwv tc kol olvov -i^BvTroToio 

Od. XV. 507. 
A goodly feast of flesh and sweet wme. 

cadum vini propino 

Plaut. Stichus, iii. 1. 24 (425). 

I toast you in a cask of wine. 

To this construction belong such phrases as the 
Latin id aetatis, and quid hoc est homin'is Plaut. Amph. 
ii. 2. 137 (769). Under it also may be ranged the geni- 
tive of material (which is often made a separate class) — 
TttTTT^s e'ptoto Od. iv. 124 'a carpet of wool,' mantes auri 
'mountains of gold.' 

A further development of this type is the genitive of 
definition, as in Homer's epKos ohovTOiv, where o^ovtimv 
expresses what would have been expressed by oSwrcs in 
apposition, 'the fence of teeth' (= which is the teeth). 
This construction is also frequent in Latin and English — 
monstrum hominis (Terence) ' a monster of a fellow" etc. 

(3) The genitive with substantives of verbal nature. 

This includes both the ' genitive of the subject ' and 
the ' genitive of the object.' 

^oiTrjp idoiv dator divitiarum 

Giver of good things Giver of riches. 

1 Here however the construction is the reverse of 'ipKos 656vtwv, 
the nom. in the one case being the gen. in the other. i}6j xPWa 
(Hdt. i. 36) 'a monster-boar,' is an exact parallel to monstrum 


ft)S ovScv rj/xlv rjpKecrav Xtrat dewv 

Eur. Supp. 262. 
For supplications of the gods availed us naught. 

Empedocles in deoruni opinione turpissume labitur 

Cic. N. D. 1. xii. 29. 
E. makes shameful slips in his views about the gods. 

T^Ket Katvojv epywi' iy)(€Lpr]Trj? 

Aristoph. Birds 257. 
He has come to take in hand strange works. 

omnem naturam esse conservatricem sui 

Cic. De Fin. v. ix. 26. 
All nature desires self-preservation. 

(4) The genitive with verbs '. 

The verbs so used are verbs of ruling, and verbs 
expressing feelings or sensations. The genitive in Greek 
with verbs of eating, touching etc. is partitive. 

' Ayaix€fji.v(Dv fteya Travrtuv 'Apyctwv TJvaaaev 

R X. 32. 
Agamemnon ruled mightily over all the Argives. 

ut salvi poteremur domi 

Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 32 (187). 
That we might make ourselves masters of the house in 

crapoi \i(T(Tovro^.crcnv Tvpwv alvvfj.evov<i levai iraXtv 

Od. ix. 224. 
My comrades besought me that, having had their fill of 
the cheeses, they might return. 

■ 1 Delbriick is now inclined (Grundriss, Syntax § 147) to make 
this the starting point of the genitival usages. The older view- 
seems however more probable. 

G. P. 18 

274 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 334 

haec res ritae me, soror, saturant 

Plaut. Stick, i. 1. 18. 
These things surfeit me with life. 

ovM Ti oiScv 7r€vOeo<; II. xi. 657. 

Nor knew he the grief at all. 

<^wTe £i8oT€ \dpi}.y]% II. V. 608. 

Cp. expertus belli Virg. Aen. x. 173. 

The construction with such verbs is much less fre- 
quent in Latin, except with verbs of remembering — com- 
meminit clomi, Plaut. Trin. iv. 3. 20 (1027). Compare 
also the rare constructions ne qiioiusquam misereat\ Ter. 
Hec. i. 1. 7 (64); quamquam domi cupio,opperiar,V\?i\xi. 
Trin. iv. 1. 22 (841). This constniction of cupio is fre- 
quently exjilaiued as being on the analogy of cupidu>i. 
It is to be observed that verbs of condemning have no 
genitive in Homer, although this genitive is frequent in 
later Greek and in Latin. It is not found in Sanskrit, 
and its origin is not yet satisfactorily explained. 

(5) The genitive with adjectives. 

Many adjectives are developed from nouns fre- 
quently used in apposition (cp. § 277); it is therefore 
not surprising that they should take a genitive; others 
again have a partitive meaning. Adjectives expressing 
fulness take the genitive 'full of,' they might also take 
the instrumental 'filled with.' In Latin, owing (1) to the 
form for genitive and ablative being originally the same 
in most stems ; (2) to the fact that words expressing the 
opposite idea ' empty, deprived of take the ablative ; 
(3) to the confusion in the separate history of Latin 

^ Wagner inserts tc before migercat, believing it to be in the 
Bembine ms. 


between instrumental and ablative, words expressing 
fulness frequently take the ablative. 

oiKTt^CTat CTWTr]pia<i aveXirts 

Eur. /. r. 487. 
He is pitied when hopeless of safety. 

doiSol TifjL7<; e/xfiopoL eitri Od. viii. 479. 
Bards are sharers in honour. 

iyoi ^€vos /u-ev tov Xdyou tovS' i^epui 

Soph. 0. R. 219. 
I a stranger to this tale will speak. 

OoucrcTEr'? iTrLO'Tpo<f)0? ^v dvOpwTrwv 

Od. i. 177. 

Odysseus was regardful of men. 

The construction is well developed in Greek and still 
more widely in Latin, pattens laboris, peritus earum 
regionutn, studiosus Utterarum etc. 

(6) The predicative genitive (properly only a special 
usage of other types). 

In Homer this is limited practically to one class of 
phrases — Trarpds (.Ip! dyaOolo 'of a good sire am I' H. xxi. 
109; ai/AttTos et? dyaOolo, Od. iv. 611, 'of good blood art 
thou.' Owing to the confusion between genitive and 
ablative it is difficult to distinguish between (1) this 
construction, (2) the possessive genitive, and (3) the 
ablatival genitive. In Latin the construction is very 
fuUy developed. It shows clearly how the genitive 
borders on the adjective. 

scis til med esse imi supselli virum 

Plant. Stick, iii. 2. 35 (489). 
You know that I'm a back bench man. 


276 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 334 — 

non multi cibi hospitem accipies multi ioci 

Cic. Fam. ix. 26. 4. 
You are to have a guest of little appetite, infinite jest. 

(7) The adverbial genitive. 

A few Greek constructions of time may be thus 
classified, i^'ovs //. viii. 525 'in the morning,' vvkt6<; Od. 
xiii. 278 'in the night.' Compare also tovS' avroS 
kvKd(3ai'To<; Od. xiv. 161 'in this very year' ; oTrwprj? U. 

xxii. 27 'in autumn'; outtotc KapTrb<; aTroXXvTaL ovS^ OLTTO- 

XcLTTiL x^^/J-a-To^ ovSk Oipev; Od. vii. 118 'neither in winter 
nor in summer.' Brugmann' regards these as develop- 
ments of the partitive genitive, to which also he refers 
the Homeric construction of ' space within which,' Sie- 
Trpr]<T(Tov TTcStoto 'they made their way over the plain,' 
etc. (always with forms in -oto^). 

(8) The genitive with prepositions is probably in no 
case original. In Greek it is only the genitive of place 
that takes prepositions — €7ri, -n-epl and /xera. But in 
Homer their usages are limited, and /xera occurs only 
five times. In both Greek and Latin, as in other 
languages, some nominal forms (such as avrtov in Greek, 
tenus in Latin), which have become quasi-prepositions, 
take a genitive because their adjectival or substantival 
force still survives. 

335- The ablative was distinguishable from the 
V. The abia- genitive only in the -o- stems. Hence it 
*'^®- is supposed that the separate ablatival form 

in the -o- stems w^as borrowed at a very early period 
from the ablative of the pronouns. As its name implies, 
it originally indicated motion from, or separation. With 
this went comparison, 'he is taller than me' being, it 

1 Gr. Gr.^ p. 206. - Monro H.G." § 149. 


seems, conceived in the original Indogermanic language 
as ' he is taller from me.' The smaller of the two objects 
compared is taken as the standard of comparison. 
(1) In ablatival sense. 

a. With verbs with and without a preposition 
prefixed : 

ctK€, Atos 6vyaT€p, TroXe/xov koX SrjLOTrJTO^ 

II. V. 348. 
Withdraw from the war and the contest. 

nu^cGi/os e^as Soph. 0. R. 152. 
Thou camest from Pytho 

(cp. fidOpwv taTaaOe ib. 142). 

(rare) Aegypto advenio 

Plant. Most. ii. 2. 10. 

KTJp a\e.o<i iJ.e6er]Ka II. xvii. 539. 

I set my heart free from anguish. 

si dill afueris domo 

Plant. Stick, iv. 1. 18 (523). 
If you have been long from home. 

In Classical Greek, verbs of depriving frequently take 
two accusatives, though, as in Homer, many traces of 
the original construction survive. 

T^v ^Irj dcKOVTOS a7rr]vp(j)v II. 1. 430. 

Whom they reft by force from him against his wiU. 

aotSov Mo£'0-a 6({i0aXfjiwv p-ev ap.ep(T€ k.t.X. 

Od. viii. 64. 
The Muse bereft the poet of his eyes. 

The double accusative is also found in Homer. It 
arises presumably from the possibility of using the verb 

278 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 335 

witli either an animate or inanimate object — ' they 
robbed him, tliey took away his goods'; the two con- 
structions being finally fused into one. The Latin con- 
struction of accusative and dative wdth verbs of taking 
away is formed apparently on the analogy of the con- 
trasted verbs of giving, Eripuit me morti is thus an 
imitation of dedit me morti. For the original construc- 
tion cp. domo me eripuit Ter. Adelpk. ii. 1. 44 (198), se 
turn eripuit flamma Cic. Brut. 90. 

Verbs of freeing and warding off sometimes also take 
the simple ablative. 

Tov ye Oiol KUKOTr^TOS cAvtrav Od. V. 397. 

Him the Gods release from his trouble. 
ego hoc te fasce levabo 

Virg. Ed. ix. 65. 
I will relieve you of this bundle. 

T/jwa5 afjivvf. vewv //. XV. 731. 

He warded off the Trojans from the ships. 

aqua et igni arcere^ 

Tac. Ann. iii. 23. 
To keep from fire and water. 

b. With verbal nouns. 

CKySacris ov Try <f)aLV€$' aAos Od. V. 410. 

There appeared nowhere an outlet from the sea. 

oXiyq dvaTTveucrts TroAe/Aoto //. xi. 801. 

Short is the respite from war. 

Periphane)< Rhodo mercator ('a trader from Rhodes') 

Plant. Asin. ii. 4. 92 (499). 

^ In Plautus apparently only noster esto, dum tepoteris defensare 
iiimria Bacch. iii. 4. 39, and possibly ecquis Mc est qui iniuriam 
foribus defendat ? Most. iv. 2. 20. But forihus may be a dative. 


In Latin the construction was always limited to 
place-names and soon died out, except in its usage to 
give the tribe-name in the official designation of a 
Roman, as Ser. Suljyicius Q. F. Lemonia Rufus 'Servius 
Sulpicius Rufus, son of Quintus, of the tribe Lemonia.' 

c. With adjectives. 

OS fJi VL(2v TToXAwv re koX ecr^Xwv ewiv eOrjKev 

II. xxii. 44. 

Who made me bereft of many noble sons. 

ut ego exheredem meis bonis me faciam 

Plaut. Most. i. 3. 77. 
To disinherit myself of my goods. 

\wf3r]^ T€ Koi aicTT^eos ovk eTTiSeucis 

77. xiii. 622. 

Not lacking in disgrace and shame. 

vactd culforibus agri 

Ovid, Met. ^A\. 653. 
Fields empty of tillers. 

d. With prepositions and adverbs. 

All prepositions indicating motion from govern the 
ablative. In Greek, genitives with such prepositions 
represent the original ablative. Besides the original 
prepositions some adverbial forms in the process of 
becoming prepositions also govern this case, e.g. voo-^i 
and Tre'Aas in Greek, coram, jyalam, tenus in Latin. 

(2) The ablative of comparison. 

a. OfJLLX^TJV VVKTOS d/AetVO) 77. lil. IL 

A mist better than night. 

280 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 335 — 

qua muliere alia nullast pulcrior 

Plaut. Merc. i. 1. 100. 
Than she there is no fairer lady. 

h. Comparatio compendkirla : for brevity or by 
confusion the two things compared are not parallel, the 
most frequent case being that a quality in the one case 
is compared with the possessor of the quality in the 

Kp€i(r<rci)v avTt. Aios ycve^ TTOTafxolo rirvKTai 

II. xxi. 191. 
The race of Zeus is better than a river 

(for 'a river's race'). 

sermo promptus et Isaeo torrentior 

Juvenal iii. 73. 
His language ready and more rapid than Isaeus 

(instead of Isaei sermone). 

c. Words and phrases with a meaning resembling 
the comparative take the same construction. 

TwvSe TO. erepa Troueiv 

Herod, iv. 126. 
To do things different from these. 

species alias veris 

Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 208. 
Ideas other than the true. 

nullus hoc metuculosiis aeque 

Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 142 (293). 
Nobody so nervous as he. 

The Latin construction with aeque may, however, be 
instrumental (§ 338, 2). 


336. The Greek dative, as has been aheady shown, 
is a mixture of three original cases — the 

vi TI16 dSttivG 

dative, the locative and the instrumental. 
Latin retains the dative intact. 

" The true Dative expresses the person to or for 
whom something is done, or who is regarded as cliiefly 
affected or interested'." 

(1) The dative with verbs expressing (a) giving, 
(b) addressing, including commanding, (c) obeying, (d) 
helping, favouring, etc., (e) anger, (/) belief, (g) yielding, 
(A) motion towards (rare) ; (/) with the substantive verb. 

a. rf fjLU)pia 8i8w(rLV dv6pu)TrOL<; KaKo. 

Menand. Sent. 224. 
Folly gives men troubles. 

illi perniciem dabo 

Enn. Medea, Fr. 5 (Merry). 
To him I will bring ruin. 

Sometimes an object to some extent personified ap- 
pears in the dative instead of a person. 

rrj yrj Savec^iLv KpetTTov iartv r] f^poTot? 

Philem. Fr. li. c. 
Lending to the land is better than to men. 

dehemur morti nos nostraque 

Hor. ^. P. 63. 
We and ours are a debt due to death. 

^ Monro H. G.- § 143. In practice the dative is not confined 
to persons, as several of the following examples show, but the 
majority of its usages are concerned with persons or with things 
personified. The old and somewhat vague inclinatio rei is the 
only definition which will cover all the uses of the dative. 

282 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 336 

h. This dative in Greek is a genuine dative of 
interest, Trpo? nva being used of mere address. 

il (TV fJ-rj ToS' ei'voeis, eyw Xeyw (rot 

Aesch. ^^r. 1088. 
If thou understandest not this, I tell it to thee. 

dicit Cleomeni, ' tihi uni parcam ' 

Cic. VeiT. Act. ii. v. 105. 
He says to Cleomenes ' 1 shall spare you only.' 

C. ol ouSc ovToi ecn]KOvov ol Adrjvalot 

Herod, vi. 87. 
Not even so did the Athenians hearken to him. 
Cp. the phrase dicto audiens sum alicui 


TCtpojU.€vots irdpoicTLV dixvvlfJLev alirvv oXeOpov 

II X\\\\. 128. 
No evil is it to ward off headlong ruin from wearied 

gnato ut medicarer tuo 

Ter. Andr. v. 1. 12 (831). 

To be physician to your son. 

e. KoX Kepa/x€us Kepafxel Kore'et Kai tsktovl tcktwi' 

Hesiod, W. D. 25. 

Potter is wroth with potter, WTiglit with wright. 

veheme liter mi est irata 

Plant. True. ii. 6. 64. 

She's awfully angry ^\-ith me. 

f. firj Travra Trctpw ttScti TTLCTTeveiv a€i 

Menander, Sent. 335. 
Try not always to trust all men in all things. 


credere suis miUtihus Livy, ii. 45. 

To trust their soldiers (cp. crede mihi, etc.). 

g, TO ov jxivo'i ovocvi (.Ikmv 

Od. xi. 515. 

• Yielding in his might to none. 

cedant arma togae Cicero. 

Let arms yield to the gown. 

h. Biai'oovfieOa 8ta iroXefJiov avrots levai 

Xen. A7iab. iii. 2. 8. 
We are minded to meet them in arms. 

it clamor caelo 

Virg, Aen. v. 451. 

The shout reaches to heaven'. 

i. H-'']'''VP °' ^^'''' 'A.<fipo8iTr] II. V. 248. 

His mother is Aphrodite (ot practically - krj.). 
'iTTTTia ixovdi Twv ahfX^wv TraiSes lyevovTO 

Thuc. \\. 55. 1. 
Hippias was the only brother who had children. 

semper in civitate quihus ojjes nullae sunt, bonis invident 

SaU. Cat. 37. 

In a state those who have no property always envy the 

Cp. domino erit qui iitatur Cato R. R. 7, 'the user 
Avill be owner ' ; a construction bordering on the ' Predi- 
cative Dative ' with abstract substantives'- (cp. (4) below). 

1 This construction is not originally locative however it may 
be understood later (cp. Delbriick Grundriss, Syntax § 136). 
-' See Eoby, Latin Grammar Vol. ii. Introduction. 

284 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 336 

(2) With substantives. 

a. The dative is finah 

€/xoi TpecfiiTai Trats crwTT/p 8o/xot? 

Arist. Clouds 1158. 
I'm having a child brought up, a saviour for my house. 

dies colloquio d ictus est 

Caesar, B. G. i. 42. 
A day for a conference was appointed. 

b. The verbal noun takes the same construction as 
its verb (rare). 

TODS ap^ovras vvv v7rr]piTa<; tois vo/xots eKaXctra 

Plato, Legg. 715 c 
The rulers I now call servants to the laws. 

opulento homini servitus dura est 

Plant. Amjih. i. 1. 12 (166). 
Service to a wealthy man is hard. 

(3) With (a) adjectives and {h) adverbs. 

a,. TravpoLCTLV TrLavvo<; p.€yd)C arbpaaiv epy' €7rt;^ctpet 

Theognis 75. 
Trust few when you take in hand great deeds. 

OeotCTL fxkv axprjcTTGV i/'erSos, audpojTroL^ Se •^prjdLp.ov 

Plat. Rep. 389 b. 
While a lie is useless to gods, it is useful to men. 
bonus sit bonis, mains sit malis 

Plant. Bacch. iv. 4. 13 (661). 
He must be good to the good, bad to the bad. 

b. l\6po'i Srj jxoL Acetvos 6/xws 'At6ao TrvXyaiv k.t.X. 

//. ix. 312. 
Hateful indeed is that man to me as the gates of Hades. 


While the dative of advantage requires no special 
discussion, the definition of the dative as a whole in- 
cluding this, it is necessary to treat separately 

(4) The final dative. 

In Greek this construction is in the main confined to 
the infinitive (cp. §525ff.), which is only an isolated case- 
form — found in the different Indo-Germanic languages 
from perhaps all cases including the nominative. The 
infinitive forms in Greek are partly dative, partly loca- 
tive in origin, but in usage no distinction is observed. 
In Latin the accusatival infinitive — the Supine — assumes 
this final use (with verbs of motion), while the dative 
and locative forms {dixe - Seliai, leg-l= *leg-al; legere — 
*leges-i) retain this value only in poetry. The final 
usage is however widely developed in the dative of the 
substantive proper, which in Latin is not fettered by 
the danger of confusion with other cases. 

Tw pa ^€0? Trepi SwKev aoihrfv ripTreLV 

Od. viii. 44. 
To him God gave song to make gladness. 

mater filiae dono dedit 

Plant. True. iv. 3. 28. 
The mother gave it to her daughter for a gift. 

Cp. dedi quinque argenti deferri minus 

Plant. True. iv. 2. 30. 

I gave five minae of silver to be taken (for taking or 
being taken). 

vvfitfta? cs vrjcrov aTriOKiae rr/Ao^i vaUiv 

Od. xii. 135. 
The njonphs she removed to the island to dwell afar. 

286 A SHORT MANUAL OF [| 336 — 

ea relicta huic arrahonist pro illo argento 

Ter. Heaut. iii. 3. 42 (603). 

She was left him as an earnest for that money. 
Cp. parasitum misi petere argentum 

Plant. Cure. i. 3. 50 (206). 

I've sent to ask money. 

o-e Ovfxos av^Kiv Au ^ctpa? ava<T\€LV II. VI. 256. 
The spirit moved thee to lift thy hands to Zeus. 

turn profecto me slhi hibeant scurrae ludificatui 

Plant. Poen. v. 5. 2. 
Then certainly let the wits have me for a laughing- stock. 

Cp. quem virum sumis celehrare ? 

Hor. Od. i. 12. 1. 

What hero do you undertake to glorify ? 

Tcu^ca, Oav[xa ISicrdai II. X. 439. 

Armour, a wonder to see. 

receptui signuni Cic. Phil. xiii. 15. 
A signal for retreat. 

Cp. hoc mi hail sit lahori^ lahorem hunc potiri 

Plant. Rud. i. 3. 6 (190). 
It would be no task to me to master this task. 

iTTTToi (3dp8icrTOL OeUiv II. xxiu. 309. 
Horses very slow to run (for running). 

1 Is it possible that this dative so frequent in Latin can have 
been developed in early times through attraction to infinitives of 
a similar form as here ? This has happened in Sanskrit : hrah- 
viuria indram mahdyanto arkair avard}unja7m ahaye hantava u. Eig 
Veda V. 31. 4. The priests magnifying Lidra with songs strength- 
ened him for the slaying of the serpent (for the serpent to slay it). 
Delbriick, S. F. v. p. 89. 


ne sit reliquom poscendo atque auferendo 

Plant. True. Pr. 15. 
Left to ask and carry off. 

referundae habeo linguam natam gratiae 

Plaut. Persa iii. 3. 24. 

I have a tongue born to return (for returning) thanks. 

te ridere audireque aegroti 

Plaut. Trin. i. 2. 39 (76). 
Sick to see and hear you\ 

The possibility that the predicative dative originates 
to some extent, if not entirely, in attraction to another 
dative in the sentence is strengthened by a comparison 
of such sentences as luventus nomen fecit Peniculo 
mihi, Plaut. Men. i. 1. 1, where Peniculo without 
doubt is attracted into the same case as 7nihi. From 
its nature the predicative dative requires a personal 
dative along with it. There is no difference in meaning 
between est mihi cura and est mihi curae : both types of 
construction are found in Plautus, but the dative in the 
later period and especially in Tacitus developes enor- 
mously at the expense of the nominative. 

The original dative was not used with prepositions. 
The use of prepositions with the Greek dative arises 
from its locative and instrumental elements. 

337. The locative is the case expressing ^jj^ r^^^ ,„. 
situation in or at. From the earliest period, <'^*^^®- 
however, there were added to this signification the related 
meanings of on to — TreStw ^SaXc (Homer) ' he threw it on 
the ground ' — and among — roto-t eeiTrev ' among them he 

^ This particular type is very rare in early times ; later it is 
much extended, especially with participial fonns. 

288 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 337 

spake.' The confusion between situation in and motion 
towards is common in many languages. 

(1) Locative of space. 

'EXXaSt OLKia vaicuv II. xvi. 595. 

Dwelling in Hellas. 

ate Zevs, rjixevo'i OuXv/xttw' U, xxi. 388. 

Zeus sitting on Olympus heard. 

nullust Ejjhesl quin sciat 

Plant. Bacch. ii. 3. 102 (336). 
There is nobody at Ephesus who doesn't know. 

KivrjaavT^'i t(2v OXvfXTriaaLv y ^€X(f>ol<; ^pr]fj.a.T(i)v 

Time. i. 143. 1. 
Moving some of the wealth at Olympia or Delphi. 

e PMlippa matre natam Thehis 

Plant. Epid. v. 1. 29. 
Born at Thebes of Philippa. 

TTaTTjp (Tos avTo^t \x.i\xv(.i dyp<^ Ocl. xi. 187. 
Your father remains there in the country. 

sibi quisque riiri metit 

Plant. Most. iii. 2. 112. 
Everybody's his own reaper in the country. 

More abstract. 

Kf-XapoiaTO OvfiQ U. i. 256. 

They would be gladdened at heart. 

^ After the confusion of the cases, Greek naturally used 
genuine dative forms in a locative sense and vice versa. For a 
surviving locative singular accompanied by dative forms used as 
locatives cp. Kdpv^ iroifj-os ^^av '0\vfj.Tria re Kai ^Icrdfidi Ne/xe'a re 
avvdifievos, Pindar, Nem. iv. 75; for a locative plural cp. the next 
example in the text. 


ahsurde facis, qui te angas animi 

Plaut. Epid. iii. 1. 6. 

You're an idiot, to vex yourself at heart. 

(2) Locative of time. 

rJixaTL TpiTttTCfJ 77. ix. 363. 

On the third day. 

die septimi 

Plaut. Menaech. v. 9. 94. 
On the seventh day. 

OySootTCj) £T£t Od. IV. 82. 

In the eighth year. 
Cp. quot annis (passim), quot mensihus Cato, R. R. 43. 

(3) The locative with persons, which is distinctly 
preserved in Sanskrit and in Greek, is inextricably con- 
fused with the dative in Latin wherever its place is not 
usurped by such prepositions as inter — with the accusa- 
tive. In Greek the usage is found in such sentences 
as OS Tpcoo-i ^c6s-ws tUto Stj/j-Wj II. xi. 58, 'who was 
honoured among the Trojans as a god in the land.' 
Compare also the phrases at the beginning of a speech 
Totcri 8' dveaTT] ' among tliem up rose he/ roio-i Se ixvdwv 
^PX^ ' among them he took up his tale.' 

(4) The locative of persons with verbs was found 
commonly with (a) verbs of ruling, (b) taking delight in 
and the like. In Latin this construction is probably 
retained with potior and with some verbs of the 6-class, 
the preposition in which is so frequently used with them 
seeming to show their locative sense. The Homeric 

construction with Bexo/jiat — ©c/zto-Tt St KaXAiTrapT^w SeKTO 

SeVas, //. XV. 88, 'From Themis the fair-cheeked re- 
G. P. 19 

290 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 337 

ceived she the cup' — seems better taken (with Monro') 
as a genuine dative than (with Delbriick'^) as a locative, 
although similar locative constructions are found in 
Sanskrit. In this construction Sexo/xai means to receive 
as a favour or to take as an attendant does^ ; in its 
ordinary meaning it takes the ablatival genitive. 

a. 6eol(Tt Koi (IvOpiiiTroLai. avacraei II. 11. 669. 

Over (among) gods and men he rules. 

iroWfiiTLV vrjfTOKJL KoX Apyd TratTi avaa'aeiv 

II. ii. 108. 
To be king over many islands, and Argos all. 

multis locis poti7'i'^ Sail. Jitg. 02. 4. 
To be master in many places. 

fj. fxrjva yap olov e/xeLva TerapTro/Aevos T€Kee(T<TLV 

KOvpiStrj T dXo^w Koi KTrjfxaaLV Od. XIV. 244. 

For but one month I abode delighted with my children, 
my lady wife and possessions. 

Cp. hi virtute recte gloriamur 

Cic. N. X>. iii. 87. 

In virtue do we rightly pride ourselves. 

(5) The locative is found also with (<(,) substantives 
and (b) adjectives. 

In Latin this construction is absorbed in the genitive, 
traces remaining only in such phrases as aeger animi 

1 H. G.- § 143, 2. 

2 All. Loc. Instr. p. 40; S. F. iv. p. 56. 
^ Monro, H. G.- loc. cit. 

■' Delbriick, A. L. I. p. 65 calls this the instrumental. 


(I. Tpwa 'Ept^^ovios TtKCTO Tpwecrcrii' avoKra 

II. XX. 230. 
Erichthonius begat Tros, the king among the Trojans. 

Cp. ®7]l3atcrLv cut'TTTTois ava^ Eur. Phoen. 17. 

King in Thebes famed for steeds. 

TdSv TOi fiaraLWV av8pd<ri <j>povr]iJ.a.T(iiv 
■q yX(a(T<T o.\7]6rj<; ytyverat Karrjyopo^. 

Aesch. S. c. T. 438. 
Verily of vain imaginings among men 
the tongue becometh infallible accuser, 

aptTrptTrea Tpwecrcrt 11. VI. 477. 

Illustrious among the Trojans. 

(6) The locative of motion towards. English has 
the same construction. 

KXrjpov Kvvirj (SaXe 11. Vll. 187. 

The lot he threw in the helmet. 

■)( (3aX€ SeVSpea II. ix. 541. 

He threw the trees on the ground. 

procumbit kumi^ bos Virg. Aen. v. 481. 
The ox falls 07i the ground. 

toto piviectus corpore terrae 

Virg. Aen. xi. 87. 
Cast at his length on the earth. 

(7) The prepositions with the locative in Greek are 

afi<j>L, ava, iv, ctti, /actci, Trapa, Trepi, Trpos (Trpori) and vtto, of 

which dfj.(fiL, ev, eVi, Trepi and Trpos are themselves old 
locatives. The Latin prepositions are m, sub, super, 
siibter, coi'am. 

1 According to Draeger, Hut. Synt. i.- p. 573 uot found before 
Cicero, terrae not before Virgil. 


292 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 337 — 

(8) From the locative a considerable number of 
adverbial forms are made. Besides the prepositions 
mentioned may be cited aiei (aUs § 312), irepva-L 'last 
year,' dvri ante, penes (§312), pron. ttoI ; Old Lat. qiu, 

338. The instrumental is the case of the person, 
viii. The in- object or circumstance accompanying, or 
strumentai. acting as ageut, instrument or cause. The 
transition from the idea of association to that of instru- 
ment is easy and can be observed in many languages. 
Thus in modern English with is first a preposition of 
association : The man with the child, the man ivith the 
sword. From the latter usage comes without difficulty 
loith the sword he slew them, the earlier form of which 
would be : he had a sivord and he slew them. 

(1) The sociative instrumental, whether {a) person 
or Q)) circumstance. 

a. aA.a)/x.£vos vrji re koI krapoLui Od. xi. 161. 

Wandering with a ship and with comrades. 

si aedificahis, operis iumentis materia adiuvabunt 

Cato, B. R. 4. 
If you build, they will assist you with workmen, 
beasts of burden and wood. 

TOis aya^ois crv/JifJiLcrye, xaKotcrt 0€ fx.r] 7706' o/xaprci 

Theognis, 1165. 
Mix with the good and company never with the bad. 
ijjse uno graditur comitatus Achate 

Virg. Aen. i. 312. 

Himself stalks forward attended by Achates only. 

h. T/awes i^X^ "icav II. XVll. 266. 

The Trojans marched on with a shout. 


non dicam dolo Plant. Men. ii. 1. 3. 
I will not speak with guile. 

With non-personal substantives in Homer auVo? is 
frequently combined : avToU 6/34\oLcnv, Od. xiv. 77, 
' skewers and all.' The construction appears also in 

classical prose : fitav Se [vavi'] avrois ai'Spacrii' clAov, TllUC. 

ii. 90. 6, ' One shij) they took, men and all'.' 

The accompanying circumstance has frequently an 
adjective with it, a construction very extensively 
developed in Latin. 

ayyi'/AoXov 8e cr<^' tjXB Ekol/St] TiTurjoTi dv/xio 

R xxiv. 283. 
And near to them came Hecuba with anguish-stricken 
utinam ne tmquam...cupido corde pedem extidisses^ 

Would that you had never set forth with your covetous 
Hence comes the frequent descriptive ablative in 

(2) The instrumental of likeness and equality. 
The place of this construction has generally been 
usurped by the dative or by usages with prepositions. 

OeocjiLv fjiy]crT(j}p araXavTos H. Vli. 366. 

A counsellor equal with the gods. 
(Cp. also lo-os, o/xotos, o/Aoi<3 etc.) 

Compare with this nullust hoc metuculosus aeque, 
cited in § 335, 2 c. The construction, which is not 

1 For an explanation of the effect of avros in this phrase see 
Monro, H. G? § 144 note. 

' Draeger, Hist. Synt. i.- p. 538. 

294 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 338 

common in Latin, falls within the border- land between 
ablative and instrumental. 

(3) Instrumental of cause. Not of persons in 
early Latin'. 

w^eXe? avToO^ oXi<x6at, avSpl Sa/xels KparepiZ 

II. iii. 429. 
Would that thou hadst perished here, slain by a stout 

■q 8' td^^v (iopiri dvipno Od. xiv. 299. 

The ship sped on with the north wind. 

(rare) iacent suis testihus Cic. /». Mil. 47. 

They lose their case by reason of their own witnesses. 

(4) Instrumental of means. Very common. 

ocrcroi' eyoj hvyajxai -^epaiv re ttoctlv tc koL adevei 

II. XX. 360. 
As far as I am able with hands and feet and strength. 

si summo lovi jjrobo argento sacruficassem 

Plant. Most. i. 3. 84. 
If I had made a sacrifice to Jove almighty with good 

(5) Instrumental with verbs. 

This ver}' common construction requires illustration 
only in the case of verbs of {a) price, {h) fulness. 

a. Trpiaro [/u.e] KTeaTecraLV coicnv Od. XV. 483. 
He bought me with his own wealth. 

quattuor minis ego istanc emi 

Plant. Men. i. 3. 22. 
I bought her with (for) four minae. 
^ Draeger, Hist. Sijnt.- § 229. 


b- (rare) tw Se ol ocrcre 8aKpv6<f>L TrXrjcrOei' 

R x\-ii. 696. 
His two eyes were filled with tears. 

tel/s complehantitr corpora 

Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 95 (251). 
Their bodies were filled with darts. 

Both of these classes also take a genitive. The 
genitive of price is probably predicative. It occurs in 
both languages with substantive verbs. The genitive of 
fulness is no doubt partitive (§ 334, 5). 

(6) Instrumental with {a) substantives, (b) adjec- 
tives, and (c) numerals to express the thing in respect 
of which a predication about the subject is made. 

a. (rare) vofXL^e y>7'^as SoCAos cTvot tw /8tw 

Gnom. 11. 
Marry and think yourself a slave as regards your life. 

natura tu illi pater es consiliis ego 

Ter. Ad. i. 2. 46 (126). 
By birth you're his father, in schemes I am. 

b. OTrXoraTOS yeverjcfiLV H. IX. 58. 

Youngest in point of birth. 

hie mens amicus illi generest proximus 

Ter. Ad. iv. 5. 17 (651). 
My friend is nearest to her in respect of kin. 

ei'pvrepos w/xoto-t^ 11. lii. 194. 

Broader in respect of shoulders- 

1 In Greek this construction disappears before the ' accusative 
of the part affected.' In Latin however it is the regular construc- 
tion ; the accusative is a Graecism for the most part. 

296 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 338 — 

sum pernix manibus, pedihus mohilis 

Plant. M. G. iii. 1. 36 (630). 
I am active with my hands, agile with my feet. 

C. iroXkoL apt^/xw HerodotuS [apiOfiov 

in Homer]. 
Many in number. 

mille numero navium 

Cic. Vei'r. ii, 1. 48. 
A thousand ships in number. 

(7) Instrumental of measure with comparatives 
and superlatives. Of words of quantity Homer uses 
the accusative (ttoXi', fxeya etc.), but 

Tts o8' eVrtv jxeiwv fxev KeejbaXrj 'Aya/Ae/Avovos 'ArpeiSao ; 

//. iii. 193. 
Who is this less by a head than Agamemnon ? 

ne pilo quidem minus te amabo 

Cic. ad Quint. Fr. ii. 15. 
I shan't love you a hair the less. 

(8) The instrumental of place disappeared in Greek 
except in such pronominal words as Trrj; 'by which way?' 

(9) The instrumental of time is possibly found in 
XpoVo)^ 'with time, in time.' 

Both types are possibly extant in Latin. Delbriick' 
cites from Caesar omnibus viis semitisque essedarios ex 
silvis emittebat ' by all roads and bye-paths he sent out 
chariot fighters from the woods ' ; quod iniquo loco 
atque impari congressi numero quinque horis pi^oelium 
sustinuissent, B. C. i. 47, 'for five hours.' But this time 
usage is indistinguishable from the locative. 

1 Brug. Gr. Gr."- § 187. " A. L. I. p. 54. 


(10) Adverbial. 

Adverbial forms from the instrumental are common 
in both Greek and Latin. If the instrumental had for 
one of its endings -a (or m), many particles such as u-a, 
/nera, TreSa and adverbial forms such as ra^a, (S«:a may be 
referred to the instrumental. r-<^t, XiKpi-<^i-? are probably 
of the same origin (§§ 314, 323). In Latin, forms like 
cito, modo are instrumentals. 

(11) With prepositions. 

In Greek avv and ajxa seem to have been originally 
used with the instrumental'. In Latin cum is the only 
instrumental preposition. 

Absolute Cases. 

339. In all branches of the Indo-Germanic family of 
languages there are case-forms used mainly with partici- 
ples and referring to some person or thing other than the 
subject of the sentence, while at the same time they are 
dependent on no other word. Such forms are said to be 
in an absolute case. But the Indo-Germanic 
languages do not all use the same case for gu?gerimve dif" 
this purpose. Sanskrit uses regularly the ^^^^""^ absolute 
locative, occasionally the instrumental and 
the genitive, Greek uses the genitive and, in certain 
cases, the accusative, Latin the ablative, which may 
represent an original locative or instrumental, Old 
English the dative, which represents either the original 
locative or instrumental, and the Slavonic languages the 
dative. The separate languages seem therefore to have 

1 Delbriick, S. F. iv. p. 133 ; /nera (ibid. p. 132) was originally 
used with the locative. 

298 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 339 — 

developed the construction independently' and from 
somewhat different points of view. In Greek 

Greek abso- , . . , . . , 

lute case is Ken. the Construction is a real genitive and not 

of time. IT- T 111 • /-I 1 

an ablative. It probably arose in breek 

out of the genitive of time" (§ 334, 7). The ablative 

Latin abso- absolute in Latin more probably represents 

lU't^ a^T r.r!^ the original instrumental than tlie locative, 

iiistr. ana pos- ~ ' 

sibiy loc. f'Qj. [^ ii^Q early Latin the preposition cum 

occasionally appears in such constructions : cian divis 
volentihus, Cato, B. R. 14L Some usages, especially those 
of time, may equally well be derived from the original 
locative. While therefore the Homeric T]e\iov a.vt6vTo<; 
taken literally is 'within the time w^hen the sun rises,' 
the Latin sole oriente is ' at the time when the sun rises ' 
or ' along with the rising of the sun.' 

Corresponding to Greek sentences without expressed 
subject^, such as Uean, the absolute parti- 

Special forms ■-,,,., ■ -, ,^^^ ■ 

of absolute con- ciple e^ov appears in the ace. i his construc- 
tion, however, is not Homeric. In Cicero and 
the later Latin the participle appears in the ablative 
(1) without an accompanying substantive : (luspicato, 
nee opinato, etc. or (2) ■wdth a clause in place of the sub- 
stantive : terga dantihis qui modo secuti erant (= secu- 
toribus), Liv. xxxi. 37. 7. 

1 No doubt various usages of the locative and instrumental 
bordered upon this construction from the earliest period, but the 
use of one case for this meaning was not yet fixed. 

2 Monro, H. G.^ § 246. 

^ More accurately, without a substantive in the nom. in appo- 
sition (§ 331). 


xxi. Fragments of cases. 
Adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. 

340. Between adverbs and prepositions no distinct 
line can be drawn. When a case ending was 

. Prepositions 

round too vague to express the meaning used to dettne 

, , , , . - - . - case-meaning. 

intended, another word was added m order 
to convey greater defiiiiteness. ofjufj-dToju a-n-o with ana- 
strophe is therefore no exception but the original type. 
So aT-ijOea-a-L irepi ' Oil the breast round about ' would 
precede -mpl a-Ti'jdta-a-L 'round about the breast.' The 
more local the meaning of a case is, the more preposi- 
tions it requires to convey definiteness of meaning. 
Hence the cases which are most widely construed with 
prepositions are the accusative, locative and ablative ; 
the instrumental needs fewer and the genitive and 
dative none. The preposition therefore is only an adverb 
specialised to define a case usage. 

What then of ctTroySatVet, avecrxov and other verb forms 
which are combined with words such as ac- 

^ TT , , Prepositions 

company noun cases { Here the adverbial (adverbs) with 
meaning is still retained — vews dirojiaiv^L 
' from the ship he goes off,' x^^pas dviaxov ' they raised 
their hands up.' In Homer these adverbial forms are 
still frequently separated from the verb with which they 
go. In the later history of the language, the combination 
of adverb and verb becomes more constant. 

341. In the early history of all languages there are 
probably few adverbs which are not nominal 

or pronominal forms ; adverbs formed from art*^^Te'iiel'^'*of 
verbs are late and always rare (§ 278). Ad- cSon°*^ ^'" 
verbs ending in -0 ; arro, irpb, vtto cannot be 

300 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 341 — 

identified with any known case ; ai/' ( = a7r-9) Lat. aps (ab), 
i$ (=£K-s) Lat. ea^ may however be genitives; afKfA Lat. 
amh- in amh-itus etc., d.vr-\ Lat. ante, irr-l cp. Lat. ob^ loca- 
tives with the -i suffix, eV (also iv-l) Lat. in, a-rep (cp. 
ardp) Eng. asunder {=^sn.ter), rVep, Lat. s?<^^r {=s-uper^) 
probably suffixless locatives, di/-a, Kar-a, jxir-a, 8i-a possi- 
bly instrumentals, if the original suffix of the instru- 
mental is -a (§ 314). In va-Tepo-;, an old adverb *Hd 
(Skt. ud, Eng. out) is concealed by phonetic changes. 
v(TTepo<i represents the comparative stem found in 
the English utter. Sometimes a whole group of ad- 
verbial or prepositional forms seem to come from one 
original stem, Trapos (gen.), Trapal (dat.) Lat. prae, -n-ep-l 

(loC.) 7ra/o-a (instr.), to which are akin Trpos, nepav, -n-epa. 

Latin de and Old Latin se (sed) in se fraude ' without 
deceit ' are apparently ablatives for *ded, sed''. The 
history of $vu and a-vv, which are said to be originally 
different*, and of Latin cum (from *kom- root of koivo? = 
*Ko/>t-to-s) is not clear. 

Of other forms which have certainly a case origin 
may be mentioned dXXa, the proclitic form of aXXa ace 

^ With variant grade (Brugmann, Gr. Gr." p. 219). 

- s- in super, sub as compared with vTrep, virb, Skt. npari, upa 
is explained as the weak grade of ex (Osthoff, M. U. iv. pp. 15C, 

3 Buck, Vocalismus der oskischen Sprache, p. 31, takes de as 
the instr. of an -o-stem, a view which receives support from the 
fact that the corresponding form in Old Irish di produces aspira- 
tion and cannot have originally ended in a consonant. 

■* Kretschmer K. Z. xxxi. pp. 415 ff. identifies ^hv and <nV, sup- 
posing |- to change to a- as in Latin s-uper. The double forms 
date from ludo- Germanic times and hence a bye-form vv is found 
in Cyprian and Pamphylian. This form he identifies with the 
Lithuanian sa Old Bulgarian sn ' with.' 


plural (cp. Lat. ceterum) ; a/^a (=*sium-a) probabl}^ instru- 
mental ; 6Vw-s, from the same root as a/^a but with 
diiFereut grade, ablative. 

342. Some conjunctions have certainly descended 
from the primitive period and cannot be certainly ana- 
lysed. Such are re Lat. que, ye, fx-tj, vv, vv-v and vvv 
Lat. nmn, tr-L Lat. et, ov possibly Latin hau-, hau-t, hau-d. 

The great majority of conjunctions are certainly or 
probably of pronominal origin. Such are in Greek o, a-re. 
accusative forms of the pronominal stem to- (§ 325 iv) 
ov genitive, ol locative, ^ and l-va probably iustrumen- 
tals, Toi ethic dative 'mark you ! ' cws, which in Homer 
must be scanned rjo-i (= *Ld-Fo? cp. Skt. yd-vat with a 
different suffix), ^al is explained as a neuter plural = 
Lat. quae. Latin forms are quod, quia accusative, utei 
(ut), ubei (;ubi) locative, quo ablative and instrumental. 
qui7i is the locative qui with the abbreviated negative 7ie 
added. Many other forms of obviously pronominal origin 
have not yet been satisfactorily explained. Such are quam, 
cum (quom), iam. The 'if particles in both Greek and 
Latin present many difficulties. €i and Doric at were 
formerly explained as being the same as Lat. sei (si) and 
Oscan svai But the loss of aspiration is not easily 
accounted for, and Brugmann' conjectures that el is the 
locative of an -o-stem, at of an -a-stem from the prono- 
minal stem 0- (§ 325 viii) found in the Skt. genitive 
a-sya etc. sei and svai may also be taken as masculine 
and feminine locatives from the pronominal stem suo- 

(§ 328 ay. 

1 Gr. Gr.' p. 225. 

^ For a full account of such adverbial case-forms see Delbriick, 
Gritndriss, Syntax, chapters xiv. and xv. 

302 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 343- 

xxii. Stem formation in the noun. 

343. Those nouns which are formed directly from 
the root with or without the addition of case suffixes 
have already been discussed. It remains now to classify 
the elements that are employed in the languages with 
which we have to deal, in order to build up the stem 
in those noun forms which are not made directly from 
the root. 

The suffix attached to a stem or a class of stems may 
Simple and ^e either simple or complex. A simple 
complex suffixes, g^ffix is that which we cannot analyse into 
further component parts, e.g. the -0- in the stem syllable 
of oIk-o-?, the -u- of vic-u-s. A complex suffix is one which 
can be analysed into component parts, e.g. €Xax-to--To-s 
pos-tu-mu-s, where the superlative suffix in each case can 
be analysed into two suffixes which have a separate and 
independent vitality of their own. 

344. The suffixes iised in stem formation may be 
most easily classified according to the sounds of which 
they are composed. We thus have six series of suffixes 

Classification Corresponding to the six classes into which 
of suffixes. sounds Were divided (§§ 113—5). There 

may be stems ending (1) in stops whether voiced, 
breathed, or aspirated, (2) in spirants whether voiced or 
breathed, (3) in nasals and (4) in liquids in either case 
whether consonant or sonant (§81), (5) in vowels or 
(6) in diphthongs. But all six classes are not equally 
well represented in language. Stems ending in stops 


are comparatively rare, those in spirants, nasals and 
liquids of few types but widely developed, those in 
vowels commonest and most widely developed of all'. 
From vowel stems it is impossible to separate diph- 
thongal stems, for, as we have seen, in various ablaut 
series the weak grade of a diphthong is a simple vowel 
(§ 252). It is also to be remembered that the uniformit)' 
in stem suffixes, which most languages present to us 
throughout all the cases of the noun, is not the original 
.state of things, but the result of a great variety of changes 
both phonetic and analogical, extending over a gi-eat 
period of time during which many external forces may 
have been brought to bear upon the elements of language. 
The philologist in dealing with this part of language is 
.somewhat in the position of the historian viewing an 
ancient battlefield or the ruins of some early fortress. 
The historian sees earthworks, or the outlines of a 
camp on the battlefield, he may trace the course of the 
moat round the castle and make out where some of the 
principal buildings stood. But without other aids he 
can advance no farther. The earthworks will not tell 
him how the battle swayed this way or that, the ruins 
will not reveal to him the date or number of the sieges 
they have endured. And so it is in language. An 
errant form here and there shows that in former days 
the uniformity which is now to be found did not always 
exist. But to trace the causes and course of the changes 
is, in most instances, more than is at present possible. 
We do know, however, that the Latin uniformity which 

1 Torp, Den Grceske Nominalflexion (Christiania 1890) p. 10 ff., 
contends that the consonant stems are contracted out of o- stems 
*ersono-s becoming *erson-s (ip(j7)v) ; *nero-s becoming *ner-s {a-prip). 
Cp. also note after § 265 p. 193 f. 

304 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 344 — 

carries -tor through all the cases of da-tor is not original 
(§ 48), and we have good reason also to doubt whether -o- 
iu -o-stems did originally appear in all cases except the 
vocative and possibly the locative (§ 251). 

345. One main factor in causing diversity in stems 

was accent, one main cause of uniformity 
which affect was analogy. Most of the suffixes which 

we can assign with certainty to the original 
Indo-Germanic language show traces of gradation ; few 
if any have escaped the working of analogy. And 
analogy alFects not merely the form of words when they 
have once come into existence. New words are made by 
analogy. Only grammarians and educated people re- 
cognise the elements of which their words are made. 
The great majority of the human race make a new word 
by adding to a word already known that which they 
imagine to contain the meaning they wish to ex- 
press by the new word. If lytel-ing means child, then 
young-ling may be formed in the same way, and so 
on (§ 286). Every child makes its new words for itself 
by analogy : hence mouses as the plural of mouse, 
axes of ox, etc. The forms mouses, oxes show good 
reasoning, but defective knowledge of the history of 

346. Stems in stops are but poorly developed in the 

Indo-Germanic languages. Those which are 

found come mostly from dental and guttural 

suffixes, and all or nearly all of them have forms 

ending in -0- parallel to them. Labial root nouns like 

kAwi/^ (cp. kA-otto-?), Oplf, (t^^eij/, Lat. dajjs, caelehs have 

developed in the separate languages, and 

Labial stems. , . , 1 • i • 1 ^ i 

have no exact etymological equivalents else- 
where. <^X€)/^ may represent *bhle^-s. 


347- Stems in -t-. Few seem to reach back to 
the Indo-Germanic period, although Greek 

1 „ . , „ Dental stems. 

and Latin have each a lair number oi 

viiS, (vvKT-6s) : Lat. no.v {noct-i.f) : Eng. nigJd (Goth, naht-s geu.). 

Compare also 6ri<;, Xe{3r]<;, ayvw? : Latin locu-ple-s, sacer-dos 
( = *sacro-dot-s through *sacr-dds) \ Greek has no par- 
allel to such Latin forms as com-es (from rt. / 'go') 
geu. com-l-t-i-s, seges gen. $ege-t-ls. Greek moreover has 
changed many such stems into -d- stems, possibly because 
in some cases both series have the same changes of -t- 
form of assimilation. Hence ])arallel to ^^*^™® "^ Greek, 
the Latin nepos neiiotis 'descendant' 'gTandson,' Greek 
has veVoSes {a.\o(jv?)vrj<;). Here a confusion has taken 
place between the original stem *nepot- ^nepot- and a 
Greek negative form from ttou's, j/i^ttos (cp. rpi-troi) 'foot- 
less,' because in Odyssey iv. 404, where the phrase 
' children of Halosydne ' occurs, the creatui'es indicated 
■ are seals, to whom the epithet *vrjiro8e<; would be equally 
applicable". Sanskrit and other languages prove that 
Latin has kept the original form. Other words which 
have passed in Greek fi*om -t- to -d- in the suffix are 
the numeral substantives ScKas, Trerras etc., which in 
other languages show a -t- stem. 

For the suffixes in -7it see § 362 ff. 

348. Steins in -d-. These are more numerous in 
Greek and in Latin than in any other language. Greek 
has by far the greater number, many of which, however, 
as in some cases above, can be shown to be analogical 

1 -t- in comjjounds pi'obably is, as Streitberg contends, a relic 
of the common suffix -to- (§ 378). 

2 Cp. now Johannson (I. F. iv. p. 144). 

G. P. 20 

306 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 348 — 

modifications of other stems. Secondary formations 
from this stem are to be found in the adjectives in -wSt/s 
-(3Sc9 (TToi-ojSrys 'grassy' etc.) which are often confused 
with compounds ending in -eiS-^'s, the signification being 
ahnost identical. The -8- in cpt-s, ept-S-o? and some 
others is obviously late, for the ace. ep-tr to an -t- stem 
is also found. The -8- in Greek is preceded only by -a- 
and -t- : <^i;yas, cA-ttis'. Latin makes no such distinction. 
Latin unaccented -a- and -e- would be confused with -i- 
(§§ 159, 161), but we find besides -/- which arises in this 
way in cuspi-s, lapis etc., -e- in merces, -u- in pecu-d-is 
(gen. § 50), -u- m palu-d-is. 

349- Stems in -Jc- {-k- and -q-). In all cases there 
is some authority for an -o- stem beside 

Guttural stems. , ^ ,. , ^ 

the consonant stem. Compare aAwTn;^ 
(stem *ldpeTc-) with Skt. Idpci^d-s', ^u-etpaf (stem *meriaq-) 
with Skt. maryakd-s, Lat. senex (stem *seneq-) with 
Skt. sanakd-s. Lat. cervix is presumably for *cer-vtc-s 
and being thus from a root in -k has no -k- suffix. 

350. Stems in -g- {-g- and -g-). These are very 
doubtful in d'pTraf and Trrepv^. The latter is supposed 
by some* to be developed from a neuter nom. suffix in 
-g-, cp. Skt. asrg ' blood ' : the origin of the forms 
in -ng- in Greek is not clear : cf)a\a-y$, ardkTr-Ly$, 
\dp-vy^. This suffix has been specialised in Greek for 
words conveying "the notion of hollowness," at any 

1 eXTTtj is a modification of an original -/-stem. Cp. ace. of 
compound eije\in-v and Old Latin volup (neut. of -i- stem for 

- See however Darbishire, Proceedings of Cambridge Philological 
Society for 1893, p. 3. 

3 Cp. Meringer, Beitrlige zur Geschichte der indogermanischen 
Declination, p. 6. 


rate in the forms -ly^ and -vy$, a-vpiy^ ' pipe,' o-n-^A-uy^ 

351. ii. Stems in spirants. Here only stems which 
end in -i; need be considered. The suffixes with -s play 
an important part in the Indo-Germanic 

"5" StflUS. 

languages. The varying forms of the simple 
-s- suffix may all be explained as ablaut forms of one 
stem, but in practice different grades have been specialised 
in different significations. (1) The forms -os, -es have 
been specialised for the masculine and feminine forms of 
the nominative, while -os, -es are found as neuters. 
Compare aiSws, rjuk (Horn. = *ausos), Latin arbos, honos 
with yeVos Lat. gen-US. (2) The forms in -es have been 
further specialised for the adjectival forms, while -ws, 
-09 are kept for the substantive forms ; cp. \f/ev8t]'s, 
i/'evSe's with ij/€vho<; ; Svcrjuev?^'?, Sva/j-evh with fxivos. The 
only trace of this which is left in Latin is degener by the 
side of gen-US. The adjective vetus is in origin a sub- 
stantive (§ 138, n. 1). Analogy has led frequently to the 
generalising of one grade of the stem at the expense of 
the other grades. Thus atSw's makes as its genitive not 
*ai8e(o-)os but aiSo(o-)os, aiSoCs. In Latin this is more 
frequent : honoris for *honeris from *hones-is with the 
of the nom. ; arboris for *arbes-is ; temporis for *tem- 
pes-is, cp. the case-form temperi isolated as an adverb. 
(3) A weaker form of the suffix where the vowel is 
represented by ' schwa ' 9, is probably to be found in 
such nouns as the Greek Kpeas when compared with the 
Skt, kravis. But it is noticeable that most of the Greek 
stems in -a? have some type of -n- stem in connexion 
with them ; compare Ke'pas with Latin corn-ii Eng. horn 
(§ 106) and in Greek itself with Kopa, Kapvo-s and Kpda-- 
1 Bloomfield, A. J. P. xii. p. 27. 


308 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 351 — 

TTcSov. K€f)a<; may therefore represent *keni-s. yep-as 
and yr/p-as (both connected with yep-wv) may also show 
traces of -n-, but here the stem should end in -nt-. 
(4) To the weakest of all the forms of the stem viz. -s- 
it seems other suffixes were occasionally added ; hence 
probably the origin of the Greek Kop-a-rj ' temple ' (from 
the same root as Kep-as) and 8o^-a {=*SoK-(r-a)^ etc., cp. 
Lat. noxa from the same root as nec-o. 

352. Closely connected with this suffix are two 
other suffixes -ies- and -ues-. -ies has been 

' i€S' stains. ^ '^ 

specialised in the comparison of adjectives, 
where by itself it frequently forms the comparative and, 
in combination with such other suffixes as -to- and -mo-, 
the superlative. 

Thus, unlike as they seem, eXao-o-w (ace.) and leviorem 
{*lc{'x)uids-) are one and the same : eXdaao) represents 
*e-Xax-to(r-m, *e\a(T(To-a, wliile lemdrem like datorem has 
taken over the long form of the suffix from the nom- 
inative. In Greek, however, a confusion has arisen 
between -^^ and -n stems ; hence such forms as iXdaaov-os, 
fi€Ll,ov-o<; etc. Tr\dov% ( = *ple-iios-es) may be compared 
with the old Latin form pleores in the Hymn of the 
Arval Brothers, though the two are not in all respects 
identical. The suffix appears as -ids, -ios in nominative 
forms, as -ios- in accusative forms. Traces are also 
found of the -ies- type, and it is fi-equent in the weak 
form -is- : €A.a'x-io--To-s, Lat. pluri-mu-s, 0. L. plolrnmo-s 
(from ^plo-is-mmo-s). Cp. Eng. next, O.H.G. ndhisto 
' neighbour.' 

353- The suffix -ues- was specialised for the perfect 
particii)le active. In the nominative this suffix ap- 

1 This form however with -a might represent *5oK--Tta (i- 
suffix § 374). 


peared as -uos, -iios, in the accusative as -uos-. Its 
weakest form was in -us-, from which a 

IT m -V-es- stems. 

feminine form was made by adding the sutnx 
-I {-ie-). In Greek the sufiix in -uos is retained, but con- 
fused in the masculine and neuter forms with -t- stems 
(cp. eiSto's with et6o-To?), a confusion not yet satisfactorily 
explained. The tjqie tSma (Homeric ywaiKes fe'pya 
Fihvtai) represents the original feminine form (Skt. 
vidiisl) with the weak root-syllable. In Latin this 
suffix has entirely disappeared, for the suggestion that 
cadaver and paimver represent -ues- forms rhotacised 
has little probabiHty. In Oscan, however, philologists' 
now regard the existence of this participle as certain, 
the future perfect active being formed by means of it. 
The form sipus (=sciens in meaning) is explained as 
being the perfect participle active of a verb correspond- 
ing in Oscan to Latin sajjio, the perfect in Oscan being 
*sepi (cp. Lat. capio, cej^i), whence, with the weak form" 
of the suffix, sipus^. 

354. iii. Suffixes in liquids. The only liquid 
suffix is -?•-. As in the -s- stems there are here many 
forms -or, -er ; -or-, -er-; r ; r, and possibly f. 

Here, as in the -s- stems, the forms in -or, -er are 
specialized for masculine and feminine forms with 
different vocalism (on the ordinary theory) according 

1 Following Johannes Schmidt, 7v. Z. 26, p. 372, who first ex- 
plained sipus (cp. § 164, n. 3). 

- According to Buck, Der oskisclu' Vocalisinus, p. 100. Bronisch 
takes it as from the strong form of the suffix, but is refuted by 
Brugmann, Berichte der Kon. Sfichs. Ges. iler Wissenschaften, 1893, 
p. 138. Gk. forms like eppTjyeia (Heraclea) etc. seem to show that 
the feminine form had originally -ues-i in the nom. , -us- in the 
weak oblique cases. 

^ For Oscan i = e see Appendix. 

310 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 354 — 

to the position of the accent: -tr but -or\ -or-, -er-, -r 
and -r are also found in these steins ; -or- and -er- in 
the accusative, -r and -r in the weakest cases of the 
declension. The neuters have -r (-rr) in the nominative 

o ^ o ' 

singular : ovOap, or in some cases possibly r, o-K-oip, 
v'8-wp", and they carry weak forms througliout. Closely 
connected with these forms are others which in some 
languages show -t- as the final suffix, Skt. yakrt, Gk. 
^7ra/3, Lat. jecur. All stems of this form regularly show 
an -11- stem in the genitive : Skt. yak-n-as, Gk. ^Tr-a-ros 
(where -a- = -»-), Lat. jec-in-is {c^. fem-ur gew. fem-in-is). 
The -T- in Greek r]7raTo<; etc. is a difficulty for which 
several explanations have been offered. Of these two 
are more plausible than the rest. (1) Either there was 
a confusion between -7i- and -nt- stems which was 
carried into these forms, or (2) the sufiix -tos was 
borrowed from such ablatival adverbs as ck-to's, iv-T6<; 
(§ 309). In these stems analogy produces many com- 
binations of the -r- and -n- forms. Thus in Latin we 
have for the genitive of jecur, *jec-in-is^, jec-or-is and 
jec-in-or-is, a new nominative femen by the side of 
fem-ur and a new genitive fem-or-is. Compare vh-wp, 
v8-a-Tos mth a.\o<i-vh-v--q and possibly iinda ; Eng. tvat-er 
(Gothic gen. wat-in-s). o-K-wp makes o-K-a-rds ; the Old 
Norse skani (Scotch shar-n) has a combination of both 
stems in the nominative. 

1 In Skt. the nom. sing, of r and u stems never has the final 
consonant; thus svasa, Latin soror (*sresrir), rvd kvwv. The 
simplest explanation is that in the sentence the final sound was 
assimilated to the first sound of the succeeding word, the origin of 
Double forms (§ 237). 

- Schmidt {Plni-alb. p. 193) takes these forms as collectives. 

3 We must postulate the form *Jeci>ns in order to explain 


355. The masculine and feminine forms in -tor-, 
-ter- are widely specialised as nouns of the agent, and 
along with -or- and -er- as nouns of relationship. The 
latter class certainly dates from the Indo-Germanic 
period. The history of the former class is less easy to 
determine because very many nomina agentis stand in 
close relation to verb-forms and may frequently have been 
developed within the independent life of the individual 
languages. The type, however, must be Indo-Germanic. 

a. Nomina agentis^. 

do-TTjp j 

du-Trjp y : dator 

Sdl-TWp I 


: ac-tor 


: ard-tor 

Xouns of relationship 


: iM-ter : 


Doric fia-T-ffp 

: md-ter : 


<ppa-rr)p ) 


: f rater : 




? ^-op2 

: sor-or : 



: le-v-ir : 

O.E. td-cor 



1 In the Germanic languages this class has disappeared, the 
English -er as in gardener representing the same suffix as the 
Latin -drio-. 

- Explained by Hesychius as dvydrrip, dve\pm. Brugmann 
(Grundr. 11. § 122) takes this as the vocative form. The nomi- 
native would be 'i(j3p = *sues-dr, to which also corresponds the 
Latin soror (§ 201) ; sii^ter is borrowed by English from the Norse 
systir and has replaced the Old Eng. sweos-t-or. In this word the 
-t- is not original. Where s and r came together, the Germanic 
languages inserted -t- between them : cp. stream from the same 
root as p^w (srey,-). The original Germanic nominative would 
thus have been *svesor, gen. *svestr-s. 

■^ From an original stem *daiuer- with various ablaut forms ; 

312 A SHOUT MANUAL OF [§ 356 — 

356. iv. Nasal suffixes are foitnd in -11- only ; 
there are no -in- suffixes used to form new 
words,, and the only words originally ending 
in -m- are the Indo-G. words for earth and snow 
represented in Greek by x^'^" '<^^^^^ X"^" respectively. 
Final -m regularly becomes -v in Greek, and -v- is then 
carried throughout the declension. For -m in these 
words cp. x^^-P-"^^^"^ hnm-u-K ; xf-iit-Mv, x^^f^'*^' kiemps 
(wath euphonic -p-) gen. hiem-is. Just as in the -r- and 
-s- stems, gTadation plays a large part, and the syllable 
containing -n- appears as en,' on, en, on, n, n, and 
possibly n according to circumstances. As in the -s- 
stems, there are various kindred suffixes, -men-, -ten-, 
-uen-, with their numerous graded forms. Closely con- 
nected with the last mentioned are the suffixes in -uent-, 
and by the side of -en-, -on- are numerous forms in -ent- 
and -ont-. All of these forms had apparently at one 
time a complete system of gradation, the details of which 
are in some respects hard to determine, but which, at 
all events, was built up on the same principle as the 
gradation of the -s- and -r- stems'. It is not necessary 
to suppose that each of these -n- suffixes had an in- 
dependent origin. Some of them may have arisen by a 
confusion of the final sound of the root with the suffixal 
element, as happens occasionally in modern languages 

Uvir is an instance of popular analogy, the second syllable of the 
word being erroneously connected with vir. The number of names 
of relationships which go back to the Indo- Germanic period is 
strikingly large and has been the subject of investigation by 
Delbriick in a treatise entitled Die Vencandtschaftxnamen in 
den indogermanischen Sprachen. 

1 I see no probability in Bartholomae's view that the participle 
of the present had originally uo gradation, K. Z. 29, p. 487 ff. 


(§ 286). But at any rate this confusinu, if such it be, 
dates from the Indo-Germanic period. 

357. As in the -.>^- and -r- stems, so here the 
different gradations of the stem suflix are 

.,.?.,. ™ . -T Different grades 

specialised m dmerent meanings. JNeuters in different 
appear in -71 and possibly -n, but there is 
no distinction parallel to that between ij/evS-rjs, i//€i;8es 
and i/'evSos. The -n- suffixes have a considerable variety 
of meanings, the most characteristic uses being as 
nomina agentis (forms in -en- -on-), nomina actionis 
{-men-, -mon-), feminine abstracts {-ten-, -ion-), active 
participles {-?it-) and descriptive adjectives {-uent-). It 
is noticeable that comparatively few -n- stems are found 
in both Greek and Latin. Latin developed a large 
number of new -n- stems, especially in the form -tidti-, a 
suffix which replaced the older and extinct -ti- (§ 368) ; 
cp. yvw-o-i-s (=*yvw-T(,-s) with no-ti-0, /?a-o-t-9 (~*q}n-ti-s) ^aji,'. 
with con-ven-ti-o etc. With the suffixes -men-, -mon- 
and -uent- Latin combines the suffix -to-, thus forming 
the suffixes -mento- (in cogno-men-tu-m etc.) and -*uent-to- 
*-uenso- -onso- -dso-(\i\ formonsus, formdsus). -r »• 

^ '' '-^ / Latin -onso- 

The suffix always appears as -oso- without ■^^«<'•• 
regard to the nature of the stem-ending to which it is 
affixed, whether e.g. -a- as in forma, -a- as in verhu-m, 
-n- as in fuligo {fuliginosus). Other forms which are 
much affected by Latin are those formed by adding -on- 
to stems ending in -g- or -d-, whether such stems are 
simple or complex : marg-o ' brink ' (gen. margi7i-is), 
caU-g-o 'mist' (gen. cal7-g-m-is); car</-o 'hinge' (gen. 
card-in-is), testii-do 'tortoise' (gen. testu-din-is). But 
the new combinations are treated as themselves suffixes 
(cp. -ling in the Germanic languages § 286) and make 
new words : plumb-d-g-o from plumbu-m, lan-u-g-o from 

314 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 357 — 

lana ; altl-tudo from altu-s etc. The form of the 
original stem is disregarded in these secondary fonua- 
tions. A probable parallel to such forms are the Greek 
(mostly poetical) abstracts d-xO-rj-B-oiv, TrjK-e-S-tiv, which 
have sometimes derivatives again as </)ay-e-8atva, a de- 
rivative in -la from a possible *</>a'y-e-8-ojv. 

358. In forms of the type o-rpa^-wV, K-qcfi-ijv the 
strong form is carried throughout the declension. In 
Greek the stem -pr}v- in iTokvpp-qvi.'i appears in its weakest 
form in the simple substantive gen. apv-o's {^^urn-), 
which has this weak form in all its existing cases. 
Latin has only one word with the weakest stem in the 
genitive, viz. caro ' flesh ' cam-is. That, however, these 
weak forms did exist in the primitive Italic period is 
shown by other dialects: cp. Umbriau gen. no-mn-er 
(with final rhotacism) with Lat. no-min-is ( = *no-mn-es). 
In all -n- stems Latin -in- being unaccented may re- 
present either -on- or -en-. In old Lat. homo makes its 
accusative hemonem or homdnem. The suffix -en- is 
apparently to be found in the Gk. infinitive of the type 
^e'peii', now generally recognised as a suffixless locative 
parallel to the Skt. -s-an-i. If so, an -n- suffix is added 
to an -^"- stem, *<fi€p-e(r-€i', whence *^ep-e-£i', <^ipuv 
(Lesbian 4>ip-r]v). 

359. -men-, -man-, -mn-, -ma- (neuter). 

Tep-ixwv : 


Tip-fxa : 



Kpt'/xa : 


Imperat. . , 7 •■ - ,r> • t * v 

^ ,. . ]\ey€-tx€v-a.L: Zfr/f-mfH-Mrassive Imperat.). 
Infinit. S 

In Greek and Latin some forms Kiv6-pu)v, ser-mo etc. 
carry the long form throughout. The number of parallel 


forms T€p-fnoi', Tep-fia etc. suggests that both forms had 
originally belonged to one paradigm, and that the forms 
by mutual levelling had made two separate paradigms. 
Cp. TTtt'^o; and Tre'i'^os, (3d6o<s and ^ev6o<s etc. The 
infinitives of the type -/j-ev-ai are obviously old dative 
forms from -men- stems. Like various other noun forms 
which are used in the verb paradigm, they have nothing 
in themselves to characterise them as either active or 
passive, and hence each language is free to specialise 
them in its own way. If the identification of Aeye/x-evai 
and legimini given above fi'om Wackernagel be correct, 
this form must be carefully distinguished from leglmini= 
Xeyo/xevoL of the Present Indie. Passive, although the use 
of the former as the 2nd pers. Plural must have been 
occasioned by the latter. The neuters of this series 
have frequently in Latin byeforms with Latin byeforms 
the additional suffix -to- ; cogno-men : cogno- "^ -"'«»-''o-- 
men-tu-m. With this may be compared oVo/xa and its 
plural ovo'/xara : but whether the -r- forms from this 
w-stem were occasioned by the existence of a byeform 
with a -to- suffix, or whether from a new-formed ablatival 
genitive sing. oVd/Aa-ros the -r- was carried throughout, 
is still a vexed question (cp. § 309). 

360. -kn-, -ion-, -in-, -in- (-in-). 

The form -in- is found only in Sanskrit words like 
balin- ' strong,' in which -in- is generalised for all cases. 
The weak grade of the -ten- suffix which survives in 
Greek is -In-, a form which according to Brugmann' is 
still found in SeAc^-Is (gen. SeA^-tr-os), Ak-t-U (gen. 
aKT-lv-os) and others with nom. in -is or -Iv. In some 
words the ordinary feminine suffix -d- (-■>;-) has been 
added. Brugmann compares ^xM-r-lvq by the side of 
1 Grundr. 11. § 115. 

316 A SHOKT MANUAL OF [§ 360 — 

Sw-Tt-s (cp. § 27) witli Lat. da-tio by the side of dos. 
In Latin the form -Iryn- is earned tln-oughoiit the 
declension except in the river-name Anio; Oscan and 
Umbrian, however, preserve the weaker form in the 
declension. In neither Greek nor Latin is the suffix 
-icov, Lat. -ion-, very common. In Latin there are many 
more words with this suffix in ordinary use than there 
are in Greek, but, notwithstanding, -tidn- overshadows 
MeRningof -ion- ^^^6 more simple form. In Greek the com- 
stemsui Greek jjjonest words with this suffix indicate 
'dwellers in' or 'descendants of: oupav-tW-cs, Kpov-iwi/, 
'dwellers in heaven,' 'son of Kronos.' There are also a 
few words of a diminutive or contemptuous meaning 
(/xaAttK-t'cov ' 'weakling' Aristoph. Eccl. 1058) parallel to 
Latin forms like homunc-io j^wnil-io etc. In Latin the 
and Latin suffix is of more general signification. Be- 
sides the diminutives above mentioned, 
forms in -ion- are found as ordinary masculine substan- 
tives : resti-o ' rope-maker ' (resti-s), centuri-o etc. There 
are also feminine collectives or abstracts: leg-io, opinio ; 
cp. reg-io 'a stretch of country.' Some have a parallel 
neuter form in -io- m use : contag-io : contag-ium ; 
ohsid-io : ohsid-ium. The suffix -tion- is very common. 
It has ousted the old -ti- suffix (§ 368) and is freely 
used to form new abstracts : cp. stati-m from a nomi- 
native *stati-s with station-em. The beginnings of this 
must date very far back because by the side of the old 
ace. parti-m later part-em stands a stem with a differ- 
ent root-grade, por-ti-o, ace. poi'-ti-on-em. 

361. -uen-, -non-, -im-, -tin- {-uij-). 

The forms of this suffix are parallel to those of -ien- 

^ Both this and deiXaKp-iwu (Arist. Pax 193) are probably comic 
patronymics ; cp. son of a gun, son of a sea-cook. 


stems. The suffix is rare in the classical languages. 
In Greek, apart from a few forms like aiwV (=at-fa)v 
cp. Lat. ae-ro-m), ttl-wv 'fat ' (cp. Skt. jn-van-), it survives 
possibl)^ only in the infinitive forms hovvai etc. (= So- 
Fiv-at which is found in the Cyprian dialect : Skt. dd- 
'can-e)\ Brugmann finds the weak form -un- in 4>pedTa, 

■n-eppara {^ *<l>pr]-fra-ra, Hom. <f>p7]ara, *7rep- ^^^^^^,,.,,,,.^0^ 

^a-ra, forms with extended stems ; cp. oVo- 
fxa-ra, Lat. cognometi-ta , § 359). 

362. -ent-, -ont-, -nt-. 

This suffix has always formed all active participles 
except those of the perfect. In Greek such passive 
participles as are formed on the analogy of active forms, 
viz. 1st and 2nd aor. passive, also take this suffix ; 
Xv-6-€VT-, <pav-€j'T-. There are also some nominal forms of 
the same tyjDe, Gk. dSovs, yep-wv, Lat. dens. In Greek 
the only forms which retain the exact phonetic repre- 
sentation of the original suffix -ont-s are o8ovs, and 
participles like Sovs : the ordinary participial and nominal 
form of the nominative seen in ^ipwv, yepwv etc. must 
by some analogical method be borrowed from the -en-, 
-on- stems". That there w^as a close connexion between 
the two series is shown by the trans- interchange 
ference of stems from the one series to stems. 
the other, cp. Xe'wv, Aeovr-o? with Lat. leo, leon-is and 

with the fem. Ae'aaa {- *leunia), OepdTrwv, 6epa.irovTO<i 

1 Brugmann's derivation of the substantives avdpdov 'men's 
chamber,' iwwwv 'stable' from this suffix, and his identification of 
-vv- in eijdvfa seem somewhat improbable (Grundr, 11. § 116). 
Even some of the forms given above are doubtful. In alfwv and 
aevo-vi, u may possibly belong to the root. Fick holds that in 
S6fevai, h was part of the root in the Indo-G. jjeriod, comparing 
Latin duam etc. 

- Brugm. Grundr. n. § 198. 

318 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 362 — 

with OepaTraLva. Ill Latiu, witli rare exceptions, weak 
forms (in -n-) or -en- forms have been carried throughout 
the declension ; hut lenfi, gen. eunt-is {~*nent-s, *eiiont- 
es). The neuter of the participle and adjective in Latin 
presents some difficulty, f evens ingens (neut.) cannot 
J4euter of Latin ^^^^'^ thie noui. -.><- suffix. Thurneyseii's ex- 
-»l^ participles, pianatiou ' is that in Latin tinal -nt became 
-ns. Where final -nt is found as in the verb ferunt etc. 
it, according to this theory, represents -nti. 

363. The ablaut variations are well preserved in 
Gradations in Sanskrit. In the classical languages much 
-nt- stems. more levelling has taken place, so that only 

a few relics of the original system are preserved. In 
Greek beside wv, ovro? we find in Doric evT€<; = *se'?it-es 
and the feminine eao-o-a and possibly Homeric /xeVacrorai", 
where -aaaa =*snt-ia; in Latin, besides iens euntis, we 
have apparently in sons and praesens two different grades 
of the participle of the substantive verb^ Presumably 
as in -r- steins the original declension ran in the simple 
and compound forms thus : 

Nom. *sents *prnl-sonts 
Gen. *snt-es *pra\-svt-os. 

The English participle is of the same origin : <^ep- 
OVT-: 0. E. ber-end-. The suffix in the participle 
berende etc. is found changed to -inge first in Layamon 
in the beginning of the 13th century. 

1 Archiv fiir lateinischen Lexicographie v. p. 576, following as 
regards final -nt Bugge in K.Z. 22, p. 385 E. 

2 Classical Review, iii. p. 4. 

* For this explanation which does awa}- with the difficulty of 
an 'accented sonant nasal' (cp. § 157, n. 2) see Streitberg, /. F. i. 
p. 93. 


364. -uent-, -tint-. 

This suffix is found only in the Aryan, Greek and 
Itahc groups of the Indo-Germanic languages. It is 
used as an adjectival suffix to indicate ' possessing, 
endowed with,' as in x«P'-«'-? ' endowed with charm.' In 
Latin, as already mentioned, it appears only in com- 
bination with -to- in the adjectives ending in -usus. The 
Greek masculine form as in x^P'^-^'? represents by -ets 
original -uent-s. The feminine x«pt-«o-o-a represents origi- 
nal -unt-ia which should appear as -ao-O-a, Gradation in 

but through the influence of the masculine '^^'^*' **'""'*■ 
the vowel has been changed to -e-. The stem gradation 
in the oblique cases has also disappeared except in the 
locative (dative) plural x^P'-fo"' {=*-yi]f-s-^) which has 
however changed its vowel like the other cases'. With 
this change of vowel compare Troi-fxia-t for *7rot-/>iao-(,, 
4>p€(rL for 4>pa(rL (found once in Pindar). 

365. Suffixes in vowels and diphthongs are much 
the most numerous class. They may be stems in vowels 
divided according t(j the vowel by means of and diphthongs, 
which they are formed into (1) -/-stems, (2) -«-stems, 
(3) -I- (-ie-) stems, (4) -«-stems, (5) -o-stems. Of these 
the -o-stems are present in much the greatest variety of 
combination, hardly any consonant stem being without 
its counterpart formed by suffixing -0- to the consonant 
element. So also, beside -/- and -u- stems there are 
others in -To- and -uo-. Moreover i and u may repre- 
sent reduced gi-ades of such diphthongs as ei, eu. Here 
an important difference between vowel stems and con- 
sonant stems is to be observed. In the consonant stems 
the longest form of the suffix appears in the nominative 
singular, while the weakest grade is represented in the 

' *xa-pi--fiVT-(Ti. must have become *xopi-«<ri. 

320 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 365 — 

genitive, dative and instrumental. Bnt in the vowel 
stems the weak form frequently appears in the nom. 
singular, and the stronger grades in the genitive. Thus 
7roA.-t-9 but TToAecus, by metathesis of quantity for ttoA-i^-os 
(= *7roX77i-os), T^S-iI-s but TySeos (= *7;8€f-os). But what of 

Greek -ev- louic ttoXl-os (gen.) and such forms as 
stems. iTTTTcus, ^ao-tXeu's i In the former case the 

weak stem is seen in the genitive, in the latter the 
diphthongal form is found in the nominative with the 
long form in the genitive — Homeric /3aa-iXrj-o'y {^*(3a(TLXr]f- 
os), whence by metathesis of (piantity /Jao-iAcw? in 
Attic. The origin of these stems in -ev- is further 
complicated by the fact that in some dialects' they have 
a byeform of the nominative in -rj^. The type repre- 
sented by /3acrtA.£t's seems confined to Greek. 

366. (1) Stems in -/- seem to have been somewhat 
rare in early times. Some common names 
of animals go back to the original language 
(as Gk. o-is (of-t-s) : Lat. ov-i-s : Eng. ewe) and a few 
other words such as Lat. aiirls (Lith. a!is-).-s). In Greek 
the only neuter is oaae (=*ok-l-€), a dual form. In Latin 
neuter forms are hardly more numerous ; except mare 
all seem compounds or neuter adjectives used as sub- 
stantives, e.g. jjrae-saepe, ovlle, animal (for ^animale). 

_, , . , In Latin great confusion has arisen be- 

Confusion of _ ° 

other stems with tweeu Original -s-stems, -/-stems and -ie- 

-i- stems in . 

Latin substan- stems I forms like plebes and sedes have 


neuter -5-stems parallel to them in Greek, 

1 In Ai-cadian and Doric. Wackeinagel, /i. Z. 24, p. 29-511. and 
27, p. 84 f., attempts to connect with Skt. words ending in -ayu-, 
afjvayil- etc. There seems more probability in Torp's conjecture 
{Den Grceske Nominal flex ion, p. 102) that the Greek forms in -ev- 
are identical with original -«- stems : cp. (popevs with Skt. 
bhani- etc. If Zeijs = *dieuos (p. 193) why not 'nnrevs = *ekueuos ? 


if it be true that tliey represent ttXt/^os and eSo? respec- 
tively. The stems in -ie- in Latin have, contrary to the 
practice of other languages, taken a final -s, so that a 
nominative singular in -es may represent an original 
consonant stem, an -/-stem or an -eV-stem (cp. § 374). 
The confusion between consonant stems and -/-stems is 
explained by some as having arisen from the dative and 
ablative plural in which the s of -s-stems phonetically 
'disappeared, '^gedes-hos thus becoming ^sede-bos sedi-bus, 
a form similar to ovi-bus etc. Consonant stems and 
stems in -ti- became confused, because the strong stress 
accent on the first syllable made the second syllable of 
disyllabic words disappear. Thus *morti-s (= Indo-G. 
*mrti-s) becomes mors, *parti-s becomes joars etc., and a 
new ace. form is made parallel to those of genuine con- 
sonant stems. Hence the new form part-em beside the 
old parti-?n now only retained as an adverb. 

367. Greek has confused its adjectival forms in -t- 
with -fZ-stems : I'Sots ace. tSpi-Sa (Soph. fr. ^ ^ . 

■^ 1 X jr ./ CoTifusioii of 

889), while Latin has a very large number other stems with 

' . . . . , . . -i- stems in 

of adjectives in -l- : COm-l-S, rud-l-S, turp-l-S Greek and Latin 
.„,-,•• adjectives. 

etc. A gTeat portion 01 the Latm -i- 
adjectives are however due to the fact that -u- adjectives 
made their feminines in -1- {-ie-) : Indo-G. *su(~(du-s 
masc, *suddii-J fem. (cp. ■>]Sv-<;, T^Seta). Latin has gene- 
ralised the -/-forms ; hence sudci-s for both masculine 
and feminine. 

368. The suffix -fi- is more frequent in the early 
period of most languages than the simple 

'ti* suffixps 

-/- suffix. Li Latin and English it soon 
died out. In Greek it often appears as -o-t- (§ 133), and 
is generally added to a root in the weak grade. But as 
the accent is sometimes on the root, sometimes on the 
G. p. 21 

322 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 368 — 

.sutiix, probably the form of the root and suffix originally 
varied accordingly. In Latin, disyllabic forms are often 
confused with consonant stems (see above), and the 
place of this suffix is taken by the lengthened form 
-tidn- (§ 360). For examples cp. §§ 25 and 27. 

369. Closely connected with this suffix are the two 
Suffkes in suffixes -tut- or -tciti- and -tut- or -tuti-. 

-tat- and -tut.. fjgj.g again the double forms of the suffixes 
arise from the confusion between -/- and consonants 
stems. The suffixes seem to arise from a combination 
of -td- and -tu- with -ti-^. In Greek -tut't- is not found, 
and there are but few common forms in Latin : juventus, 
senectus, virtus, sermtus. Compare with this suffix 
-tudon- in servitudo etc. 

370. The other -/-suffixes are but poorly developed 
other -;- suf- i" luost languages. They are -;•/- -//- -mi- 

^^^'^- -ni-. In Latin, however, -ri- and -li- 

develope extensively, -ri-; o/<-pt-s: Lai. oc-ri-s (c]). acer 
through ^acrs from *acris). -li- is not found in Greek ; 
but cp. TTTj-Ai'-Ko-s, T7?-At-Ko-s, wliicli have an additional 
suffix, with Latin qua-li-s and td-li-s. According to 
Brugmann" the suffix -all- so fre(j[uent in adjectives 
springs by analogy from these original forms. This 

1 Benfey regarded -tdti- as an independent word from the root 
*tan-, thus signifying 'extension' (L. Meyer Verfi. Gramm. 11. 
p. 532). A similar view regarding -fjLT]v- in iroi-fxrjv and -rwp, -r-qp 
has been propounded recently by Prellwitz {Etijmolog. Worterhuch 
d. griechischen Sprache s.r. aTfnf]v and B. B. xix. p. 306 f.). If 
Benfey's explanation of -tuti- could be accepted we should have in 
a.v5p6-T7]'s and civi-tas parallels to the English sufl&xes (really 
complete words) in man-hood, citizen-ship. Greek, which does not 
lose its vowel sounds, seems to support -tilt- as the original form : 
cp. veo-TTjs with Lat. novi-tas. 

- Grundr. n. § 98. 


suffix appears occasionally as -nr- by dissimilatiou when 
an -I- sound has already occurred in the word ; hence 
palmd-ri-s for *palmd-li-s. In Latin moreover many 
words appear with the -li- suffix which have -lo- in other 
languages : cp. 6/Aa-Ao-s, Lat. simi-li-s. -mi- appears in 
a few words 6e-fjLL-<; (rt. *^€- of TL-drj-ixi), (pTJ-fXL-';, Lat. 

-ni- is very rare in Greek; cp. /cXd-vi-s, Lat. clu-ni-s 
with an unexplained difference in the root-syllable, Lat. 
com-mu-ni-s, ig-ni-s and some others, om-ni-s probably 
represents *op-iii-s^. 

371. (2) The suffix -u- was employed originally to 
make both substantives and adjectives. It 
is not used as a secondary suffix. The 
feminine was made in -I- {-ie-), and in Latin all the 
adjectives have become -/-stems (§ 367). In compound 
adjectives a trace of the original stem sometimes remains, 
as in acu-pedin-)i connected with wkv-s, and in genu-lni 
(sc. denies) ' cheek-teeth,' cp. yei/v-?. -^^stems are of all 
genders, and the root-syllable appears in different grades. 
For the relation in Greek between -v- and -eu- stems see 
§ 365. The suffix -u- appears also both variations in 
as long and as short ; tt^x^"* l^^t o^pu-s. ""' stems. 
The form of the genitive in Greek -u- stems seems to 
vary according to the quantity of the -v- ; hence Tnfxeos 
(replaced in Attic by -n-rjxew;) but oe^puos. The Attic 
forms Trrfxcoj? ao-rews are analogical. Homer has only 
the genitive in -co?, which is preserved in Attic in the 
adjectives — r/8eos etc. In Latin many -u- stems vary 

1 An attempt has been made recently to treat these forms as an 
amalgamation of suffixes (Meringer, Beitriige, p. 3). 

- Breal's view, that the plural omnes is homh^es in the weak 
grade and with the aspirate lost, is improbable. 


324 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 371 — 

in the dative and ablative plural between -u- and -i- 
forms, the syllable being unaccented. The relation be- 
3^0.^ tween yofv and Lat. genu is difficult to explain'. 

'^ 372. Of the suffixes composed of a consonant and 

-U-, -til- is the most important. It is com- 
parativel}^ rare in Greek, but is widely 
developed in Latin in the form -rltu- to make abstract 
substantives, especially in the sense of function or office ; 
consulatus, prhicipatus etc. The infinitive forms called 
supines are cases of -tii- substantives formed from verb 
stems (§ 529). The ordinary Latin substantives in -tu- 
are all masculine ; the corresponding Greek forms such 
as IBp(D-Tv-^, iS-r]-Tv-s etc. are all feminine. The neuter 
forms aa-Tv, cfil-Tv have no parallel in Latin. Forms in 
-tu- rarely occur from the same roots in Greek and 
Latin. Compare however I'-tv-s (= f t-rv-s), Lat. vi-tu-s ; 
dp-TV-?, Lat. ar-tii-s. 

373- Brugmann cites as other -jf-suffixes -nu- (Aty- 

Other-«-suf- ''^''^' ^^^- P^"?' "-■?), -ru- {SaK-pv, BaKpv-ixa, 

^^^- Lat. lacri-ma for *dacru-ma") and -lu- 

(6rj-Xv-<; from dhe ' suck,' Lat. fe-l-are). 

374. (3) The suffix -~i- and -ie- was largely used 
to form feminines from existing masculine 
stems. The original form of the suffix and 

the relations between the -1- and -ie- forms are by no 

means clear, and though much has been written on the 

1 Johannes Schmidt [Plurnllnldungcn, p. 50) contends that final 
short -u was dropped in Latin like final short -(, and that the long 
-u is introduced later by using the collective plural instead of the 

- The reading dacrumis for lacrinnis in Ennius' epitaph nemo 
me dacrumis deeoret has no ancient authority, but is an emendation 
made by Bergk. 


subject in recent years no certain conclusion has as yet 
been reached. The suffix appears in the nominative in 
Sanskrit as -I (devl ' goddess ' fern, to deva-s, Lat. divu-s, 
Indo-G. *deiuo-s), but in Greek as -tu : rj^iia, ^cpaTratva, 
ouo-a, 8oT€ipa, aXyjOeca representing respectively ^-qSeF-ia, 

*0epa7rv-La, *SO)it-ia, *SoT€p-ia, *a.\.rj$€cr-La. In Latin it 

appears in the great majority of the forms of the fifth 
declension : ac-ie-s, sjyec-ie-s etc. But here the restora- 
tion of the original form is complicated (1) b)^ the fact 
that these stems have assumed a final -s on the analogy 
of such stems as are included in the third declension, 
ab-ies etc. ; and (2) because a number of such words 
have byeforms in -ia, the regular representation of 
original -id, cp. luxur-ie-s and luxur-ia etc. But as the 
suffix -io- seems to stand in ablaut relation to the suffix 
-i-, so -id- may possibly like -ie- have a weak grade of 
the form -l-. Forms with long -i- in Latin are found 
only when another suffix follows, as in vlc-trt-x fem. to 
mc-tor ; cp. So-Tijp and So-retpa. Some suppose that -la 
in the Greek nominative may have come from the 
accusative form -lai' and supplanted the older -Z-', others 
consider -m the older form, et ad hue sub judice lis est. 
In the adjectives Latin has added -s to the feminine 
forms, which thus become confused with other -i- stems. 
Thus suavi-s is properly the etymological equivalent of 
■>;8eia, although it comes to be treated as an -/-stem and 
used as such in all genders (§ 367). 

375. (4, 5) The -0- and -d- stems cannot be sepa- 
rated, the -d forms having been used as ,^. and -a- 
feminines to the -0- stems from the proethnic ®*®'"^- 
period (§ 291), although in all probability the suffix -d 
had originally nothing to do with gender. These suffixes 
1 Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 109. 

326 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 375 — 

are more frequent than any others. The -o-.suffix is, 
indeed, so widely extended that the question has often 
been raised whether it ought not more properly to be 
treated as part of the root than as a suffix. And, as has 
already been mentioned, there seems to be no consonant 
suffix which has not an -o-fonu by the side of it, and 
even root nouns have parallel -o-forms. According to 
Torp's theory' the forms with -o- are the earlier. Thus 
from an original *pedo-s (cp. Skt. j)add-ni neut.) there 
came a form *pSds, Lat. pes with a " sentence-doublet " 
*pod-s Doric ttw's ; from an original *Iego-s (cp. Gk. Xoyo-s) 
*lfi(/-s, Lat. le.r; fi'om an original *bkero-s (Skt. -bham-, 
Gk. -cj)6po-<;) *bl/er-s, Gk. <f><^p ; from participial forms 
*d/ie-to-s, *bheuto-s came *d//fit-.-<, bheut-s, Gk. Bri<;, ' free 
labourer,' <^ws ' man.' Torp attributes this change to 
the influence of accent, and almost alone amongst philo- 
logists constructs a scheme of original declensions 
consistent with the theory he propounds. One of these 
declensions may be given as typical of all — that of the 
stem found in Attic aparjv, Ionic cpo-T/v-. 

Sing. Nom. 'ersono-s >*erson-s 

Ace. *ersono-m > *ersfm-m 

Gen. *rse7io-s 

Plur. Nom. *ersono-es >*ersdn-es 

Ace. *ergono-ms >*ersvii-md 

Gen. *rsenum 

Dual Nom. i „ , » - . 

'■*ersono-e > ersun-e. 
Ace. \ 

^ Den Grceske Nominal flexion, pp. 1 — 18, (see § 344, note). 

- Torp, op. cit. p. 14. The same theory with certain modi- 
fications is held by other writers, and is the foundation of the 
article by Streitberg already mentioned (Die Entstehung der Dehn- 
stufe, I. F. III. pp. 305—416). 


376. Apart from the distinction between -0- and 
-a-stems to indicate gender, a distinction uses of -o- and 
which as we have seen (§ 293) is not fully ■"■ ^t'^'"^- 
preserved in the classical languages, the most common 
values of -o-stems are (1) as class names (common nouns), 
(2) as adjectives ; the most common of -a-stems as root 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

(1) o(/(-o-s 


(2) p^-o-s) 
ve-o-v 'r- 

vic-u-s (§ 176 n.) : -au'c/c (borrowed from Latin). 
fag-u-s : beech (cp. § 160, n. 1). 

jug-u-m : yoke 

fug -a 

I nov-u-s (§ 180) 
- nov-u-m : new 


377. The combinations of -0- with a consonant may 
be taken in the same order as the consonant stems. 

Original -hh + 0- is found developed to a small extent 
in Skt. and Greek, much more widely in 

01 • TTT- •^ ^ • 'b^°' stems. 

Letto-blavonic. W ith the possible exception 
of mor-bu-s^ it is not found in Latin. In Skt. and 
Greek this suffix is mostly confined to names of animals ; 
Gk. £Aa-</)o-s (where o- = n), eptc^o-s, KtSdcfyr) 'fox".' Com- 
pare however KoA.a-^o-s 'weal,' Kp6Ta-(f>o-^ 'temples,' 
Kopv-cf)-)] 'top' and the adjective apyv-cf)o-<; 'bright' ^nth 
a byeform apyu-<^e-os. 

378. The suffix -t + 0- is very common, especially in 
participial formations. In English, -ed as 

... -to- stems. 

the suffix of the weak past participle is of 
this origin. 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 78. 

■^ For this adaptation of the suffix cp. Bloomfield, A. J. P. xii. 
p. 24 f. 

328 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 378— 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

k\v-t6-v : in-chi-tu-s : loud (§ 167 n.) 
a-yvu-To-s : i-g)to-tu-.s : iin-couth (Scotch 'unco') 
o-peK-To-s : rec-tu-s ; right 

As the last example shows, this participle passes 

easily into adjectival uses. But the suffix cau also be 

added directly to substantival stems, as in d-yepaa-To-? 

' unhonoured,' and in Lat. in-hones-tu-s from the weak 

stem of honor (cp. § 351). Greek and 

Uses of -to- . . -. / .' „ . 

stems in Greek Latin speciahse the meaning oi the -to- 

and Latin. . i ^^rr 

lorms irom verb stems in somewhat dinerent 
ways. In Greek the meaning corresponds rather to that 
of the Latin gerundive participle, while in Latin, as in 
English, the meaning is that of a past participle mainly 
passive ; exceptions to the passive value are such as 
potus 'a drunken man.' Forms in -to- are also used as 
substantives ; vf.-T6-<; ' rain,' ^v-to'-v ' plant,' (^pov-rrj 
(from jSpe'/A-o)) 'thunder'; Lat. legd-tu-s 'envoy,' dic-tu-m 
' phrase,' mul-ta ' fine.' 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 
x6p-To-s : hor-tu-s : yard (O.E. geard). 

379. The suffix -to- is also found in combination 
with -is- the weak form of -ies- in the superlative suffix 
-isto- (§ 352) and with -mn- and -un- the weak forms of 
-men- and -uen- (§§ 359, 361). 

380. A suffix -do- possibly found in Greek in 

/copu-80-s ' crested lark ' (koou-s), and in 

-do-stems. "^ . ., . , 

adverbs like o-toix^-So-v ' m rows etc., is 
widely developed in Latin as an adjectival suffix, timi- 
dn-s, stupi-du-s, soli-du-s, floi'-i-du-s etc. Parallel forms 
in Skt. in -da- seem to show that these words are 
compound forms, the second component being the stem 


of the verb ' give.' ' Whether -do- in the Latin gerund 
and gerundive participle is of this origin or not is still 
uncertain. None of the numerous theories propounded 
in recent years to explain these forms is at all con- 
vincing ^ The Greek patronymics in -1877-5, -taS?;-? etc. 
(npLaiJ.-L8r]-s, Bopea-Sr}-';) and the forms in -tSeo? (-tSoSs) as 
aSeA^-tSoi's are no doubt of the same origin as the -do- 

381. The suffix in -ko- is certain for the Skt. 
1/uva-gd-s, represented in Greek possibly by .;;.^. ^y^^ .^^(,. 
voLK-ivdo-s (§ 104), in Latin by juvencu-s, ''"®^*^^- 
English young. Combined with -s- as -sko- it occurs in 
a few words where it is obviously identical with the 
-sko- suffix of verbs ^ seen in /So-gku), jxi-sco-r etc. Gk. 
l3o-(Tioj ' fodder,' 8to-/<o-9 ' quoit ' (= *8ik-o-ko-s from 8iK-eiv 
'to throw) ; Lat. esca (= *ed + sat) ; Eng. wish (O.E. wusc 
=*un-sko-) from root in Lat. ven-us. 1\\ Greek -ktko- 
appears as a diminutive formation : Traih-ia-K-q ' little 
girl ' etc. The adjectival suffix -ish in English, green-ish, 
child-ish etc., is of the same origin. 

382. The suffix in -qo- is much more common, but, 
apart from a few words such as Gk. 6ri-Kin 

, 11/ T -50-SUfflxeS 

and Lat. sic-cu-s ' dry {=*sit-qo-s) literally 
' thirsty,' is secondary and used mainly to make adjec- 
tives. The suffix is often expanded into the form -iqo-, 
-tqo-, -uqo- and -aqo-, the last three forms being shown 
much better by Latin than Greek. Forms in -q- alternate 

^ Victor Henry {Conqnirative Grammar of Greek and Latin, 
§ 163) takes a different view. 

- Until an explanation oi pamlo as satisfactory as Thurneysen's 
(from *pat-no) is discovered, the view that gerundu-s = * geront-no-s 
or possibly *gero-tno-s seems the preferable one. Cp. § 538 n. 

2 Brugmaun, Grundr. 11. § 90. 

330 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 382 — 

with those in -qo- (§ 349). When a substantival form 
and their ex- ^^ ^tiads with tlie suffix -qo- it often has 
pansions. exactly the same value as the more simple 

form (cp. Lat. senex, gen. 8en4s). In combination v/ith 
other suffixes as -h-, -ion- in Latin, it had a contemptuous 
or diminutive signification ; homun-cu-lu-s, homun-c-io. 
The suffix in the form -iqo- is well developed in many- 
languages ; in Greek and Latin it is appended to stems 
of all kinds, av8p-tKo-s, do-T-iKo'-s (from aa-Tv), apx-iKo-^ 
from apx^' etc. In combination with -t- it is very frequent : 
(TKeTT-TiKo-s etc. ; Lat. urb-ifu-s, fullon-icu-s, modicu-s ; 
as substantives ^^^c?-/crt 'fetter,' vom-ica 'running sore' 
etc., and in combination with -t- : rus-ticu-s, silva-ticu-s, 
subst. can-ticu-m. The English suffix -y- in heavy etc. 
is of the same origin, primitive Germanic -iga- repre- 
senting Indo-G. -iqu-. What the secondary -taKo- bor- 
rowed by Latin in Corinth-iacu-s comes 
from is not clear. There are three possi- 
bilities, (1) from -m-stems KapSta-Ko'?, {2)--iinqo-, (3) 
confusion with stems in -aqo-. 

383. The forms preceded by a long vowel may be 
„ illustrated by the Latin adjectives am-lcu-s, 

-qro-sumxes " _ *' 

preceded by a ant-lcu-s ; cad-itcH-s; 7ne)'-dcii-s ; and sub- 
long vowel, . < T 
stantives lect-ica, JSas-lca; aer-uca verdi- 

gi'is,' lact-uca ' lettuce ; ' clo-aca ' sewer.' 

Greek has only consonantal forms parallel to the 
above, and these rare. Bruginann {Grundr. 11. ,^ 88) 
cites irepS-li 'partridge,' Krjpv^ 'herald,' fxelpai 'boy' 
(§ 349) and a few others. Latin has also many con- 
sonant stems, mostly adjectives (none however in -Uc-), 
felix, audax ; also atrox, velox etc. 

384. The -*"-suffixes are rarely extended by the 
addition of an -0- or -«-suffix. When combined with 


other suffixes, as tlie.y are in all probability in the -ies- 
and -ues-hrms, the -s-siiffix stands last. ^^ „ 

' . No so-surhses. 

There is thus not much evidence of the type 
-so-, sd-'^ although a few words such as the Greek yevey] 
(=*y€recr-a, cp. Lat. generd-re), So^a (-*8oK-o--a if for 
*SoK-a-o'), Lat. Atiror-a, Flor-a (=''^mis(js-d, *flds-d), 
are apparently the surviving remnants of this formation. 

385. The -r-stems have throughout -ro-forms by 
their side. The forms in -0- and -d- are 

■I n / \ • -i -in 1 -)'o-siiffixes. 

thereiore (a) simple -ro-, -ra- with collateral 

forms -rro- -rra- and -ero- -erd-^ ; (Jj) -tero- -terd- ; 

(c) -tro- -trd- ; (d) -dhro- -dhrd-. 

386. («) The suffix -ro- -rd- with its byeforms 

makes both substantives and adjectives, 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

ay-pb-v (acc.) : ag-ru-m (ace.) : ac-re 
e-pvd-po-v (acc.) : ruh-ru-m (acc.) 

In Latin a preceding -s- changes before -ro- -rd- into 
-h- ; *ceres-ro-in (stem of Kepas) becomes cerebru-m 
(§ 204). 

-ero-: i-XevO-epo-v : Ub-eru-m; -ro- and -rro- side 
by side in Ipos {=*is-ro-s) and tapo's {=*{s-rro-sy. The 
-ro-suffix is very common in Greek and is frequently 
used to make new forms from existing stems : 6Svvrj-p6~s, 
laxv-po-s, </)ojSe-po-s etc. -ero- is also used as a com- 
parative suffix, cp. ev-epoL, Lat. s-uper, Eng. over. 

1 Compare now Streitberg, I. F. iii. p. 349. 

2 See Johansson K. Z. 30 p. 422 f. 

^ It is to be noticed that all stems in liquids and nasals + -0- 
and -a- have forms where the consonant form of the liquid or nasal 
is seemingly preceded by the sonant form. But it is not easy in all 
cases to decide whether the preceding vowel belongs to the suffix. 

* The Attic form iepds is not clear. Cp. Brugm. Gnuidr. 11. 

332 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 387 — 

387. (b) -tero-, -terd-, wliicli seems rather a com- 
bination of the -to- (-ta-) suffix with -ro- than like -tro- 
a parallel formation to -ter-, is used specially as the 
suffix of the comparative and of pronouns which express 
an alternative. The suffix in the pronouns in Latin 
generally appears in the weak form ; ut-ru-m but 
al-teru-m. The adverbial forms from the comparative 
stem have also the shorter form ex-tra, ci-tra etc. ; cp. 
ex-teri (masc. pL), ci-ter-ior. In Latin the other com- 
parative suffix -ies is added to -tero- where it occurs in a 
comparative sense in-ttr-ior etc. ; compare also the 
suffixes in the reverse order in ap-La-Ttp6-<i, sin-is-te7\ 
Some forms of this combination in Latin are found also 
as substantives, mag-is-ter, min-is-ter. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

^v-Tipo-v : in-ter-ior : cp. fur-ther 
Tvo-repo-v : [n-tru-m'^'\ : whether 

Compare also the pronominal adjectives ■t]ixe-T€po-<;, 
etc. with nos-ter, ves-ter. 

388. {c) The suffix -tro- {-trd-) is found most fre- 
quently as a neuter and in the making of class names 
(common nouns). Gk. (f)epe-Tpo-v, Lat. fere-tru-ni ; 
apo-Tpo-v, ard-tru-m (modified after the verb stem) ; 
poTT-rpo-v, Eng. raf-ter ; XiK-rpo-v, Scotch lach-ter^. For 
feminines compare x^''''/°") ' pitcher,' Lat. mulc-tra, 
'milking pail.' 1\\ eques-ter, pedes-ter, etc. this suffix 
(changed to the -/- declension) is found as a secondar}^ 
adjectival suffix : *equet-tri-, *pedet-tri, etc.^ 

^ The relation (if any) of this stem to that of iro-Tepo-v and 

whether is still unexplained. 

- As in midden-lacliter ' place for the dunghill.' 

^ It is, however, equally' possible to attach these forms to -tero- 

(§ 387). 


389. (d) The suffix -dkro-, -dhrd- has arisen like 
the English suffix -ling (§ 286) from a mistaken division 
of the word. It is found in the classical languages and 
Slavonic, but not in Sanskrit. The meaning is the 
same as that of -tro- -trd-. There are however some 
masculine forms. Gk. o\e-6po-^, ' ruin,' is used along Avith 
MaKcSwv by Demosthenes almost as an adjective. In 
Latin cre-ber is an adjectival form of the same origin. 
Feminine foniis illece-bra, dold-bra etc. are found in Latin. 
But the majority of the words are neuter: Gk. K\.rj-Opo-v, 
' bar,' Lat. cri-bi'u-m {Kpi-vM, cenio), ' sieve.' Some of 
the forms are abstracts : (nipy-q-Opo-v (mostly in plural), 
pro-bru-m, if from this source. 

The forms in -tlo- and -dhlo- seem in many cases to 
be mere varieties of -tro- and -dkro- produced by dissi- 

390. The suffixes in -lo- are of the same types and 
have much the same meaning as those in 

. . „ p -fo- sufflxes. 

-ro-. There is, however, no series of forms 
in -I- only by the side of them. In Latin -tlo- becomes 
-do- (often -culo-), peri-du-m and perl-culum, etc. 
This suffix must be carefully distinguished from the 
compound suffix -qo + lo- which also appears in the 
classical period as -culo-, cor-cu-lu-m, uxor-cu-la, etc. 
Plautus, however, distinguishes them in most cases, 
never shortening -co + lo- to one syllable, and generally 
. making -do- disyllabic only for metrical reasons, as at 
the end of a line or hemistich', -do- is sometimes 
changed by dissimilation after another -I- to -cro- ; 
lava-cru-m, lu-cru-m (cp. Gk. \v-Tpo-v). 

1 Lindsay, Classical Beview, vi. p. 87. 

334 A SHORT MANUAL OF [| 390 — 

-lo- ni-Xo-s : pi-lu-s : ?fel-t 

e\-\d (Doric) : sel-la} : sett-le 

-Ho- 6/j.-a\6-s : sim-ili-s^ 

■elo- vetpe\Ti : neh-iila : Germ, nebel {O.Il.G. 7iehul}. 

The suffix is very frequent in both Greek and Latin 
-lo- as a dimi- ^^ ^ Secondary suffix ^vith a sHghtly depre- 
nutive sutfis. ciatory or (liuiiuutive signification, like -isk 
in siveet-ish, etc. Thus 7raxu-Xo-s, ' thickish, Lat. 
fi'igid-ulu-s, 'cohlish.' In the later history of the lan- 
guage, these secondary formations often usurp the place 
of the primary words. This is the origin of forms like 
helhis (*bt:n-lu-s, cp. bene), agellus {=*age7'-lo-s), etc. 
The suffix was sometimes even reduplicated as in 
jyuellula for *2}Her-lo-ld. Of the same origin are the 
Greek diminutive suffixes in -vXXio-, el^vWiov 'idyll,' etc. 


-tlo- dv-T\o-p : ex-an-cla-re (borrowed from Gk. ) 

: sae-clu-m^ 

■dhlo-'^ diixe-d\o-v : cp. sta-buln-m 

392. Both -r- and -/- suffixes are sometimes preceded 
by -.^;-, which was borrowed originally from the end of a 
preceding root or stem and then treated as part of the 
suffix. This -s- sometimes arises phonetically, as in 

1 For Indo-G. *sed-la. 

- With change of declension as often, cp. x^a/i-aXo-s hum-ili-.s. 
From the suffix -dido- with this change of declension comes the 
suffix -bill- so widely developed in Latin for the formation of 

^ This word is always so scanned iii Plautus (Lindsay, C. R. 
VI. p. 89). 

* Dr Fenuell, in a paper summarised in the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Rejiorter for 1893 — 4, pp. 435—6, attacks Brugmann's 
views regarding the suffixes in -dhro- and -dhlo- and connects e.g. 
jyrobrum with the rt. found in Skt. ^;r.j-, thus making its original 
form *pros-rit-m 'a spot, stain.' 


Lat. ros-tru-m (rod-o), ras-tru-m (rad-o). In mon-stru-ni 
it has no such justification. A development of this new 
suffix in -stro- is the mascuHne suffix -aster found in 
oleaster, parasitaster (Ter. Adelph. 779), etc., a suffix 
which has been borrowed by English in poet-aster, etc. 
With -/- suffixes this -s- had existed in the root of 
ala - * ax-la (cp. ax-is, a^-wv, Eng. ax-le), but is bor- 
rowed in pre-lu-m = ^'prem-s-lo-m, scala = *scand + s-ld 
(§ 188). The suffixes in -n- are also often preceded by 
-s- (§ 186). 

393- The suffix -mo- occurs in a comparatively 
small number of substantive and adjective .,„o. s^^xes 
forms pretty widely disseminated through («)primar3-. 
the whole family of languages. 

dv-/j.6-s : fii-mu-s 

(pop-/j.6-s : ?for-ma : bar-m^ 

dv€-fio-s : ani-mu-.s 

d€p-ix6-s : for-mu-s (§ 141 \b.) : icar-m 

cprj-ixr] : fCima. 

The suffix is fairly frequent in Greek, sometimes in 
combination with -t- (as in epe-r/xo-s, ' oar ') and -6- 
{(TTa.-6jx6-<;, ' station ')". In Latin the feminine -ma occurs, 
in a few words as a primary suffix, ru-ma, spu-ma, 
secondary in lacri-ma, or by adaptation after spu-ma^. 

1 In Chaucer 'lap, bosom.' These three similar derivatives 
from the same root as (^ep-w are an interesting example of the de- 
velopment of meaning; har-m apparently as if 'bearer, support,' 
for-ma like the English 'hearing' whence 'figure, beauty' (cp. 
formosus) ; (popfio-s (1) 'a basket for carrying,' (2) 'basket-work, 
wicker.' The Romance languages however postulate /5/--/na which 
renders the etymology doubtful. 

2 The -a- which appears before -fx- in ocfir) by the side of 68fj.ri 
and in some other words is not of phonetic origin and comes 
in late. 

s Bloomfield, A. J. P., xii. p. 27. 

336 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 394 — 

394. The superlative is frequently formed with this 
(b) in super- suffix ; -tero- in the comparative has in 

latives. gj^j- ^j^jj Latin -tmino- in the superlative ; 

pos-ter-ior, pos-tumu-s. But the simple -mo- is also 
found in Latin pri-mus for *pris-mu-s (cp. pris-tinu-s, 
pris-cu-s). Somewhat similar is 7rpd-/Ao-s, ' chief.' Com- 
pare also 02)ti-mu-s, pmlcher-ri-mu-s, humil-li-mu-s, 
nov-issi-mu-s. The same suffix is found in Ying.fore-m-ost, 
which, like hindmost, arises from a combination of -uma- 
with -ist- the superlative suffix in ap-io-ro-?, etc. In 
7n;-^a-To-s the same suffix may possibly be found if the 
word is Aeolic and connected with a-ir6. In Latin 
superlatives like 2mlcke7'-i'i-mu-s, humil-li-mu-s etc., the 
simplest explanation of the suffix is that -;•/-???«/-, -U-mu- 
stand for -simo- which arises phonetically from -tmmo 
after -t- as in pes-simu-s, *2Jet-tmmo-s, from root oi pet-o, 
Gk. TTi-TTT-o). But 2)essi7nHS being in popular etymology 
connected with jjeior, the suffix is then generalised as 
-ssimu-s in novi-ssimu-s, etc. 

395. The suffixes in -no- form a very large group, 

parallel to the numerous forms of -?z-stems ; 

-no- suffixes. , , r -■ 

-no- {-niw-}, -eno-, -ono- ; -meno- i-jno7io-\, 
-mno- ; \-fno-] -tnno- ; and in Greek -uwo-. 

396. Forms -with -no- suffixes are used both as 
substantives and as adjectives. 

T€K-vo-v : [cp. tig-mi-vi (§ 195)] : thane''^ (O.E. i>eg-n) 

vTT-vo-s : som-7iu-s : Middle Eng. swefu 

{ = *siiep-no-s) 
d^-v6-s : ag-mt-s (§ 140 n. 2) 

oT-vo-s (rare) : it-nu-s : one (O.E. «n) 

(pa€i-v6-s : cp. ae-nu-s 

( — *4>ar€(r-vo-s) ( = *aies-no-s). 

1 For the change of meaning between tskpov and thane cp. the 
difference between the special sense of child (in e.g. Childe Harold) 
and its usual value. 


397. The suffix -eno- is found in Latin : 0. Lat. 
dv-eno-s, classical h-ono-s ; bellus comes 

from *b-en-lo-s. Greek shows -ono- in such 
words as Kp-oi/o-s, dp-6vo-%, -qh-ovri^. The suffix -eno- 
survives in English in such participial forms as boimden; 
-mo- in fain (0. E. fwgen, 0. Low Germ, fag-an), and 
in the first syllable of wan-ton', Middle Eng. uan-hope 
(despair), where wan = *u-ono- with the same root as in 
Gk. eu-vt-?, 'bereft,' Skt. u-nd-s, 'lacking.' 

398. The adjectival suffix -ino- is sometimes early, 
as in <^vfy-ivo-s : Lat. fag-hm-s : cp. Eng. 

heech-en, but in Greek words of time as 
cap-i-vo-s may possibly be a new formation from the loca- 
tive capt ' in the spring '. For a similar origin of other 
stems compare cyKw/ztov, literally what is said ev kw/xw, 
and Lat. aborigines, the inhabitants ab origins. 

399. The form -mo- is common as a secondarj^ 
suffix in the classical languages generally 

to make names of living beings, or adjec- 
tives connected with them^ Li the Germanic languages 
it is also so used, and more widely as the suffix for 
adjectives derived from ' nouns of material' In Latin 
the feminine of the adjectives in -mo- is commonly used 
of the flesh of the animal (so. caro) ; capr-lna, ' goat's 
flesh,' etc., although it has other values as j^^'sc-ma, 
'fish-tank,' sal-mae, 'salt-pits.' 

^ Brugmann's explanation of dunum as a contraction of this 
suffix with the root vowel is not at all probable (Gruitdr. 11. §67c). 

2 Wanton means properly 'without teaching, education.' The 
simple word ivan is of a diiJerent origin (Skeat, Etym. Diet. s.v.). 

* The order of development seems to be that -hw- first made 
an adjective from the simple stem, the masc. or fem. of which was 
next made a substantive. Some forms as vicinus peregrinus may 
be developed from a loc. as possibly in Greek oUelos (p. 340 n. 1). 

G. P. 22 

338 A SHORT MAN'UAL OF [§ 399 — 

-mo- asordinary adj. d7X'CT-ri'o-s | jvic-inu-.s:ep.Goth.aiweim 

TT po fiv rj err- IV o-s\ \peregr-inu-s [{eternal) 

-Ino- as subst.^ KopaK-lvo-s : cp. sobr-inu-s : cp. maiden 

( — * 
df\4>aK-iv7i : cp. reg-lna 

-«no-as adj. of animals : su-lnu-s : swine 

400. The forms -meno-, -mono- (not found in Greek 

anywhere, but postulated for some participial 
forms in Sanskrit) and -mno- stand in 
ablaut relations to one another. Some Greek forms in 
-avo- after a consonant, as o-re^-avo-s, could phonetically 
represent -mno-. The suffix is mostly used to form 
participles of the middle voice, though some forms are 
ordinary substantives, these last occurring most fre- 
quently when a substantive in -men- -mon- is also 
present ; cp. ^e\e-fj.vo-v, ' missile,' o-Tpw-ixvij, ' couch ' 
(orTpw-/xa) ; 7r\r]a--fji.ov>]^ ' satiety ' ; Lat. al-u-mnu-s, 
'nursling,' Verttt-m7m-s, col-u-mna (cp. cul-men) ; ter- 
minus (termo and termen). Owing to the weakening of 
Latin vowels in unaccented syllables, it is impossible to 
decide whether -mino- represents original -meno-, -mono- 
ox -mnno-. In Lat. leghnini of the 2nd pi. pres. Ind. 
Pass, is apparently identical with Aeyd-zicvot, while in 
the Imperative it is now explained as an infinitive form 
identical with \eye-fxevai (§ 359). 

401. The suffixes found in Greek -a-wo- and Latin 

-tino- present some difficulty. In Sanskrit 
there is a suffix -tvand- to which -a-uvo- 
raight be a weak grade (cp. utt-vos, Skt. svap-na-s). In 
that case we must suppose the two grades had once 
existed in Greek, and that just as o-£ (= rFe) produces 
by analogy a-v for tv, so here -crevo- (= -tFcvo-) produced 

' The sufiQx is frequent in proper names; <l>iXtvos, Allinus, etc. 


-avvo- for -TWO- by analogy'. If a suffix -tueno- had 
existed iu Latin, it would have become phonetically 
-tono-, whence in the unaccented syllable 

■p. 11 T • 1 • 1 1 re Latin -tino-. 

-tmo-. l5ut all Latm words with the sumx 
-tino- are adjectives of time, cras-tinu-s, pris-tbni-s, etc., 
and in Skt. a suffix -tana- with the same meaning is 
found. With this sui&c therefore the Latin form is 
more probably connected. A shorter form in -tna- is 
also found in Skt., and for this and other reasons it 
seems probable that the Latin suffix represents -tnno-. 
The question as to whether the suffix -ino- is not the 
origin of the gerund suffix in Latin has already been 
touched on (§ 194). 

The forms in -mento- and -iiento- have already been 
noticed (§^ 359, 361). 

402. The suffix -10- -id- with its byeform -lio- -iid- 
is mainly adjectival. It can be added to 

,, . , 1 T • p **0" stems. 

all stems m order to make adjectives from 
them. Some forms made with this suffix as TraVptos, 
Lat. patrius {=*2Mr-iio-s) have no doubt descended 
from the proethnic period; but the great majority of the 
forms have been constructed by the individual languages 
separately and at different times in their history. The 
suffix is naturally for the most part secondary, although 
a few forms like ay-6o-s ' holy,' o-<^a'y-to-v ' sacrifice,' Lat. 
stud-lu-m, come apparently direct from the root. In 
Greek the suffix is disguised when it is preceded (1) by 
"^^ ><, ^) X which amalgamate with -t- into -aa-, Attic -tt- 
(§ 197) ; (2) by 8, y which with -i- become C (§ 197). 
When added to an -0- or -«-stem the characteristic 
vowel of the stem is omitted, possibly, Brugmann 

1 Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 70 note. 
- dV'o-s therefore = *d7-aos. 

09 9 

340 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 402 — 

thinks', because the primary formations intiiience these 
secondary forms : hence ayp-to-s, rt/x-io? {rifjiTJ) ; Lat. 
lud-iii-s 'player' (liidu-s), aviiis (via). The suffix sliowed 
gradation ; hence in old Latin ccli-s, ali-d, not al-iu-s, 
Latin stems cil-iu-d, CaecUis as well as Caecilius. Names 
m-eio: Qf ^Yie type Ateius, Velleius etc. seem 

secondary derivatives from Atius, Vellius etc. The 
enumeration of the vast mass of suffixes, produced by 
the addition of -io- to simple suffixes and combinations 
of simple suffixes, belongs rather to the grammar of each 
individual language than to comparative philology. 

403. As the suffix -io- -id- is parallel to the suffix 
-i-, so the suffix -uo- -ud- with its byeform 

•no- stems ' . "* " . 

-uuo- -iiud is parallel to the suffix -u-. 
Some words in which this suffix occurs have alreadj- 
been mentioned (§ 20 f.). It is used for both nouns 
specialised for ^'^^ adjectives, and in Latin and the Ger- 
coiours. manic languages is specialised to form 

adjectives of colour ; Lat. fla-vu-s, ful-vu-s, fur-tu-s, 

1 Grundr. 11. § 63, 2, note 3. A discovery by Bronisch [Die 
O'fkischen i ^ind e Vocale, p. 67 ff.) seems to throw light upou this 
difficult point. Oscan distinguishes between two groups of stems, 
one represented by nom. Statis, the other by nom. Puntiis 
{UofiTTTUs), this last being represented by the Eomans as Pontius. 
The principle is that praenomina or nomina derived from p?-ae- 
nomina which have no -i- suffix make the nom. in -i- only ; while 
forms from an already existing -to-stem have -ii. The -*- forms 
thus depend on Indo-G. gradation, the -ii- forms on special Oscan 
syncope. We might therefore argue from analogy that rifi-io-s 
has the structure of primitive formations, while 5lKaios from diKr] 
parallel to tl/jlti represents a later Greek formation for diKa + uos. 
So oU-ia represents an early derivative parallel to oh-o-s, while 
oiKe7os represents the secondary formation. oIksios however might 
represent an adj. derived from a locative oiKei, cp. e-Kfi-vos (§ 325 v). 
dv5peios is obviously an analogical formation. 


(jil-vu-s, kel-vu-s ; Eng. sallow, yellow, fallow^, blue and 

possibly grey. 

Gk. Lat. Eng. 

: cli-vo-s : low ( = hill cp. § 136) 
\ai-fb-s : lae-vo-s : doic (§ 174) 

Attic K^vo'i, ievo<; represent *Kei'-Fo-<; (cp. kcvc-o's) and 
^ev-Fo-s. As a secondary suffix it is found in the Greek 
verbals in -reo- (= -re-Fo-) : irpaK-rco-s etc. , and possibly 
in adjectives in -aXeo-: pwy-aXc'o-s^ In Latin it is found 
in Miner-ra from the stem *menes-, Gk. fj.v/o<;, and in 
some adjectives as cernuos (-*cers-no-uo-s, cp. Gk. 
Kopa-rj) ' headlong,' menstr-uo-s (cp. tri-mesfr-i-s etc.) 
' monthly.' mort-iio-s is probably a modification of an 
older *morto-s (Indo-G. = *mrt6-s) after the analogy of 
the suffix in vi-vo-s, opposites very often influencing one 
another in this way. 

404. In Latin the suffix -Ivo- is frequent, -tlvo- still 
more so. The long -7- seems to have been Latin-?vo.and 
borrowed in the first instance from -^-stems. ■^'^''■• 

The value of the suffix is identical with -no-, both being 
found from the same root, cp. voc-Jvo-s (and vac-lvo-s) 
with vac-uo-s, cad-lm-s (late) with occid-uo-s, sta-tlco-s 
with sta-tua ^. 

405. In Greek the suffix -w or -w is found in a 
certain number of words, especially proper names. The 
nom. in -w is apparently the older of the two. Since 

1 The word in fallow-deer &ndi fallow -field is the same, being in 
both cases an epithet of colour. 

■^ Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 64. 

^ Another explanation is given by Thurneysen {K.Z. 28 p. 
155 f.) and von Planta (Gramrmitik d. osk-umb. Dialekte § 86), who 
hold that the forms in -ivo- are secondary formations with -io- from 
-M-stems ; the combination -iii- becoming in primitive Italic -iu- ; 
Gaiiix from * Gaiuos = * Gauios, divos = *diHios or *deiuios (§ 208). 

842 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 405 — 

Greek proper names originally always consisted of two 
words, as 4>iAoo-TpaTos, Aiy/xocr^cVrys, shorter forms are 
really pet names like the English Tom, Dick etc. Of 
this nature therefore are female names like $iA.w, s-avdut. 
(^ommon nouns are rare, rix'^^ Trtt^w, Trev^w. The origin 
of the forms is disputed. The most plausible explana- 
tion* is that they are diphthongal stems in -oi, final -i 
being lost phonetically in the nom. and restored later 
from the voc. in -oi, a case which in proper names 
naturally plays a large part. On this theory these stems 
are identified wnth a few Skt. stems of which sakhd 
' friend ' ace. sakhdyam is the type. 

xxiii. The Numerals. 

406. The Indo-Germanic system of numeration is 

from the outset decimal. At points it is crossed by a 

duodecimal system, traces of which remain in the dozen 

Decimal and and the gross. A Combination of the decimal 

duodecimal sys- ^ t ^ • ■> ■ c 1 • 1 

terns. and duodecimal system is lound in the 

" long hundred " (= 12 x 10), but the material at our 
disposal seems to give scarcely gi-ound enough for the 
ingenious theory, propounded by Johannes Schmidt, that 
the duodecimal elements in the Indo-Germanic system 
of numeration were borrowed from the Babylonians, and 
that consequently the original seat of the former people 
must have been in Asia and in the neighbourhood 
of Babylon-. Pronouns and numerals are amongst the 
most stable elements of language, and the Indo-Germanic 
peoples are more harmonious in their use of numerals 

1 Given by Johannes Schmidt, K.Z. 27. p. 374 flf. and b}- others. 

^ Die Urheimath der Indoijermanen itnd das europdische Zahl- 
system (1890), cp. H. Hirt, Die Urheimath der Indoqermanen I.F. 
I, p. 464 ft'. 


than in their use of pronouns. But tlie forms for 
indi\adual numbers in the separate languages often are 
different from those which by a comparison of other 
languages we should theoreticallj' expect. The truth is 
that the numerals are as much in a series as forms in the 
paradigm of a noun or a verb, and that consequently 
analogical changes are continually arising. For example, 
the series in the Latin names of months, September, 

, November, December, naturally leads to the 

formation of an Octember, which is actually found, 
although it did not permanently survive. 

A. Cardinal Numbers. 

407. One. A root *oi- with various sufiixes is 
used for this numeral by most languages : Lat. u-nu-s 
(=*oi-nO's) ; Eng. one (0. E. d7i). Greek preserves this 
in ot-i'o-s, oi-v-q ' one on dice,' but has replaced it in 
ordinar}' use by eU, /xm, eV (=*sem-s, *s7n-La, *se?n). oT-o? 
' alone ' represents original *oi-uo-s. 

408. Two. Indo-G. (1) *diid and duou, (2) ^■^duud; in 
compounds, (3) *dui- : Gk. (2) 8uw : (1) Sw-ScKa (SFw-) : 
Lat. (2) duo : Eng. (1) tivo (0. E. twd fem. and neut. ; 
twegen masc. with a further suffix ; hence twain). 8uo, 
the only form for w'hich there is inscriptional authority 
in Attic, is not clear. Brugmann conjectures that it was 
the original neuter\ *dui- is found in Greek 8t-s Si-ttovs, 
Lat. his bi-den-s {=*dm-s, cp. bonus § 397) : Eng. twice 
(O.E. twi-es), twi-s-t, ' something made of two strands.' 

409. Three. Indo-G. *trei-es, neuter probably *tri 
(cp. § 317 b), the plural of an -?-stem. Gk. Tper9 {=*trei- 

1 Gnmdr. ri. § 166. Kretschmer {K.Z. 31 p. 451 n.) holds 
that Bvo is simplj' the uninflected stem. 

344 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 409 — 

es), Tpt'-a ; Lat. tres (cp. oves, § 317 a), tri-a, Eng. three 
(0. E. 8r^ masc, ^reo fern, and ueut.). 

410. Four. Original form not certain, probably a 
stem *qetuor- with all possible gradations in both 
syllables. From the stronger grades come the various 
forms of the numeral in Greek TcVopcs, reo-o-apts etc. 
(§ 139, Exc. 1). Tpd-ire^a is said to be derived from a 
weak form *qtur-, which, it may be safely averred, never 
existed in that form. This like the preceding three 
numerals was originally inflected. Latin has dropped 
the inflexion and changed the vowel sound of the first 
syllable from -e- to -a-, according to most authorities 
on the analogy of the ordinal quartus, which obtains its 
-ar- according to the received ex|3lanatinn from a long 
sonaiit r (-r-). For the change in the initial sound in 
the English numeral (/- where ivh- might be expected) 
cp. § 139, Exc. 3. 

411. Five. ludo-G. *2)emje : Greek TrevTe(^lSd,ib), 
Lat. quitiqiie with assimilation of initial sound (§ 139, 
Exc. 2) and -e- changing to -/- before a guttural nasal 
(§ 161) ; Eng. Jive (0. E. /if) with assimilation of con- 
sonant in the second syllable (§ 139, Exc. 3). 

412. Six. Here different languages seem to postu- 
late different original forms : *suek-s and *seks will 
explain the forms in all Indo-G. languages except 
Armenian and Old Prussian, which require *ueh\ 6k. 
U = *sueks, for f €^ and its compounds are found in 
several dialects. Lat. sex, Eng. six = *seks. 

413. Seven, Indo-G. septm : Greek cTrra : Lat. 
septem. The Germanic forms, Goth, sihun, Eng. seven etc., 
show^ the numeral without any sound corresponding to 
the original -t-, a peculiarity for which several explana- 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 170. 


tions have been offered. It seems most likely to arise, 
before the action of Grimm's Law begins, from some form 
of assimilation of *septm into *sepm, whether in the 
ordinal ^septmo- as Brugmann, or in the cardinal as 
Klnge and others contend. The accent must have 
changed to the last syllable at a very early period. 

414. Eight. Indo-G. *oktou *oktd ; in form a dual. 
Gk. oKTiii : Lat. octo : Eng. eight (0. E. eahta ; primitive 
Germanic form *ahtau). Pick conjectures that the 
word originally meant ' the two tips ' (of the hands) and 
derives from a rt. ok- seen in oKpts etc. 

415. Nine. Indo-G. two forms ; (1) *^nuu and (2) 
*neun. Gk. (1) eva-ro-s {- *ei'^w-TO-s, cp. ^eVos, § 403), 
(2) er-ve'a explained' as 'nine in all' with the original 
Gk. preposition Iv in the sense of the later es in such 
phrases as es rpts, e? Treire vavs etc. Lat. (2) novem ^vith 
m after decern, for non-us shows -n. Eng. nine (0. E. 
nigon out of *neicim). 

416. Ten. Indo-G. *dekm : Gk. SeVa : Lat. decern : 
Eng. ten (0. E. tlen). Kluge contends that the original 
form was *dekmt'. 

417. Eleven to ]Xineteen. These seem to have been 
in Indo-G. generally expressed by copulative compounds 
which are retained in Latin throughout : nndecim {-im 
in an unaccented syllable), octodecim etc. and in Greek in 

€V-heKa, Sw-Se/ca. Eleven and twelve in the Eleven and 

Germanic languages are expressed differently c^rmanic^ iL> 
by means of a suffix -lif: Goth, din-lif, twa- ^"'^®^- 
lif. This suffix some connect plausibly with -lika, which 
in Lithuanian makes the numerals from eleven to nine- 
teen. If the identification is correct, both go back to a 

1 By Wackernagel, K. Z. 28 p. 132 ff. 
- Paul's Grundriss, i. p. 404. 

346 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 417 — 

form *-Uq- ill which the Germanic languages have changed 
-q- to -/- as in Jive (§ 139, Exc. 3). The meaning also is 
disputed, but it seems best to connect it with the root 
*leiq- of AetTT-co linquo, in the meaning ' one over, two 
over.' That the word ten should be omitted is no more 
surprising than the omission of shilling in ' one and 

418. From thirteen to nineteen Attic Greek numbers 

Double form ^^ "^^"^ ""' ^^""^ ^^^•' *^^® ^"^^^ ^^^^^'^ ^®" 

of numeration mainiug inflected on inscriptions till 300 B.C. 

in Attic Greek. ^ _ i 

If the substantive precedes, the numerals 
are in the reverse order, like the English twenty-four etc. 
dvSpdai Sexa cTrra, a system which holds good as a general 
rule also for larger numbers ^ For eighteen and nine- 
teen Latin employs most frequently a method of sub- 
traction fi-om twenty : dimdeviginti, undeviginti ; cp. 
0, E. twd Iws twentig. 

419. The Tens. The Greek 8€Kas represents a very 
old abstract substantive dehmt (cp. § 347), from forms 
of which all tens and also all hundreds are made. The 
first syllable is reduced in composition and disappears. 
''^dkmt- and '^dkomt becoming Gk. -Kar- and -kovt-. The 
original name for hundred seems to have meant ' ten 

420. Twenty. A dual form. Indo-G. probably *ui- 
Imt-i with a new form for two, according to Brugmann^ 
from a stem meaning 'apart, against,' found in English 

^ Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 175, gives this explanation, but 
derives from *leip- seen in Skt. limpdmi ' adhere '. Kluge identifies 
Germ, lif and Lith. lika, but conjectures that *liqc meant 'ten', 
which seems improbable. (Paul's Gnaidriss, i. p. 404.) 

- Meisterhans, Grammatik der attischen Irificltrifteii- p. 1*26 ff. 

3 Grundr. 11. § 177. 


ivi-th and possibly in vji-de (a participial form). This 
stem appears in different languages in what appear to 
be different grades and case forms : Gk. Doric Ft-Kar-L, 
Attic €t'-Koo-t, with -o- on the analogy of the following- 
tens ; Lat. vl-gint-l (-(/- instead of -c- probably after 
septin-genti where it is phonetically correct). Eng. 
twenty is from 0. E. tiventig contracted from *twwm 
tigum^ with crystallised dative case. The Germanic 
substantive *tigus is a modification of *dehnt-. 

421. Thirty to Ninety are plural forms. 

Indo-G. Gk. Lat. [0. Eng.^ 

.30 *tri-komt-9 : rpid-KovT-a : trl-gintd : ^ritig 

40 ?*qetnf-komt-3 : rerpu-KovT-a : quadm-gintd : feowertig 

(Cp. T€TTapd-KOVTa) 

50 *penqe-komt-d : irevT-fj-KovTa : quhiquu-gintd : f'tftig]. 

In the original language modifications seem to have 
appeared in the reduced form of the numeral /owr (qetuf) 
in 40 and the lengthening of -e- in 50. The latter seems 
certain as the lengthening occurs also in other languages 
than those cited, a in rptd-Kovra seems to have been 
produced by the influence of the succeeding numerals. 

422. From sixty (where the decimal and duodecimal 
systems cross) different languages follow different lines 
of development, so that it is impossible to say what the 
original forms were. Greek and Latin remain similar, 
and English carries on the numeration as it is still 

In Greek k^-rj-KovTu, i/SSo/ji-ij-KovTa, 6y8o-7]-KovTa and 
ivev-rj-KOvra (= *€vf ev-) have taken -rj- from TrevT-TJ-KOVTa. 
Compare Lat. sex-d-ginta etc. There is also a form 

1 Sievers, Grammar of Old English (Eng. trans, p. 163). 

2 The English forms are not identical with the Latin and 
Greek forms. 

348 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 422 — 

oy8w-Koi'T-a. The origin of -fSS- aud -yS- in the forms 
for 70 and 80 is very difficult to explain (cp. § 432). 

423. Hundred. Indo-G. *]cmt6-m, a reduction of 
*dkmt(j-m. Gk. c-Karo-v (apparently = ' one-hundred,' c 
coming from the stem in els, a- of aira^ etc.) : Lat. 
centu-m : 0. E. hund and hund-teon-tig. The Gotliic is 
tathuntehund, but as to the proper division of this word 
there is much uncertainty, the meaning being either 8e/ca 
Sf/caSe? (.Tohannes Schmidt) or ^cxaSwi' Sc/ca's (Brugmann). 

424. The development of the forms for the hundreds 
is a matter of much dispute. The forms in Greek at 
any rate are derivatives in -io- from the stem l-njt- 
whence in Doric -Kanoi-, in Attic -koo-loi with the -o- 
borrowed from -KovTa. In Latin, the forms are com- 
pounds with -centum, which instead of being neuter 
plurals have become adjectival, apparently by a syntac- 
tical change which introduced the construction ' so 
many hundred things' instead of the partitive 'of 
things.' quadringenti and octingenti have borrowed 
-In- from septingenti. 

425. Thousand. For this the Aryan and Greek 
branches have a common form represented by Ionic xc'-^tot, 
Attic x^^'-^'-y Lesb. x^^^-'-*^'- (= *ghes-l-). Latin milia 
cannot be connected wdth iMvpioL ; an ingenious but not 
very plausible attempt has been made ' to connect it with 
XiA.tot as *sm-{h)lUa, literally ' one thousand,' sm- being 
from the root of *sem- els and the word thus parallel 
except in the suffix to Skt. sahasra-m. s is dropped 
phonetically before m in Latin (cp. mii-us) and k- is 
sometimes lost as in {h)anser. The singular form then 
sta,nds to milia as omne to omnia. The Germanic 

1 By E. W. Fay (A. J. P. xiii. p. 226 f.). But what of Lucilius" 
meilia ? 


*]>usundi, Eng. thousand, seems to have been originally 
a vague abstract substantive meaning ' many hundreds.' 
0. N. yfisund is used like Gk. [xvpior. 

B. Ordinals. 

426. The ordinals are adjectival forms derived in 
most cases from the same stem as the cardinals. The 
suffixes of the numerals yavy, some ending in -jho-, 
others in -to- and some in -no-. These three suffixes 
and combinations of them are found in different lan- 
guages even ■with one root. 

427. First. Indo-G. root *per-, Gk. Trpwros (Doric 
Trparos) for *-7rpu)-^-a-To-<i) : Lat. prl-mu-s {-'" 2>i'is-mu-s, 
§ 394) : 0. E. fyrst with suffix -isto-. 

428. Second. In each language an independent 
formation. Gk. Sev-rcpo-s according to some from a 
strong fonn of the root seen in 8v-w, according to Brug- 
mann from hev-o-fxai and thus meaning ' coming short of.' 
Lat. secundus from sequor has practically the same 
meaning ; al-ter which is often used in the same way is 
from the same root as al-ius. In al-ter as in Eng. ot/ier 
(0. E. oSej' from an Indo-G. dn-tero-s) the meaning ' one 
of two, second ' arises from the comparative suffix. 

429. Third. Here also different formations appear, 
but all from the stem *tri- or *ter-, Gk. rpi-To-?, Hom. 
Tp6T-aTo-s : Lat. ter-tius (cp. Lesbian Tcp-ro-s) : 0. E. 
'Sridda (North, ^ridda) may represent *tre-tio-s or 

430. Fourth. Formed from different grades of the 
stem of four in Greek, Latin and English with a -to- 

1 Kluge (after Vigfusson) in Paul's Grundriss, i. p. 406. 

350 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 430 — 

or -tko-snffix : Tcrapro-s; Lat. quartu-s (§ 410); 0. E. 

431. Fifth and Sixth have also a -#o-.suffix: Indo-G. 
*penq-to-s, * s{u)eks-to-s ; Gk. Tre/ATrros, cktos with -<r- lost 
phonetically between -k- and -r- (§ 188) : Lat. quinc-tu-s 
(quin-tu-s), sex-tu-s ; 0. E. flf-ta, siexta. 

432. Seventh. The suffix in most languages is -mo. 
There were possibly three original forms', (1) *sept77io-, 
(2) *septm-7no- and (3) *septm-t6-. The form *septm6- 
may possibly explain the voicing of the original con- 
sonants in Gk. e/38o/A-o-s^, which would then arise from a 
confusion of two forms, *e(3Sfxo- and "^l-mafxo-. To this 
second form Lat. septimu-s belongs. English in the 
ordinals from seventh onwards to twentieth shows a -to- 

433- Eighth. The Greek and Latin forms of this 
ordinal may be derived with the simple suffix -0- from 
the stem "^oktdu^ : oySof-o-s Lat. octdv-ii-s. In oySoos 
-yS- is supposed to arise from the influence of -jSS- in 
eySSo/xos. The -a- of octdv-u-s is difficult ; a form more 
closely resembling oySoo-s is seen in the Low Latin 
octud-ginta for *octov-d-, on the analogy of which the 
more permanent form septud-ginta must have been 
originally made\ 

^ Brugmann, Grundr. 11. 171. 

- According to Schmidt (7v'. Z. 32, p. 325) the vowel of the 
middle syllable is affected by the following -0-, while in e^8e/xaiov 
(Epidaurus) it is affected by the preceding e-. i^donrjKovra ought 
therefore to be i^defj-riKovra, as in Heraclean. 

■' Kluge, Paul's Grundrisa, i. p. 404. 

■' Conway now holds (J. F. iv. p. 217) the probable view that 
both the Greek and the Latin form come from an original oktiuo-, 
whence -afo- -dvo- and through the influence of the cardinal 


434. Ninth. Made in Greek with suffix -to-, in 
Latin with -0-; Iva-To-s : Lat. ndn-u-s out of *mdn- 
*noven- from noun-, cp. nun-dinu-m, 'space of nine 

435. Tenth. Greek -to-, Lat. -mo-; Gk. SeKa-ro-s : 
Lat. dechn-us {=*dekmmo-s). Khige finds only an -0- 
suffix in Gk. (cp. § 416). 

436. For the ordinals from twentieth to hundredth 
Greek has a suffix -to- whence with *-knit- -kot- comes 


-Kao-To-9, in Attic with irregular change of vowel -koo-to-s. 
The suf&x -simiis in Latin represents -tmmo- as in some 
superlatives; hence ricesimus {=*m-kmt-tm?no-s), tri- 
gesimus etc. 

437. The ordinals beyond hundredth in both Greek 
and Latin depend upon the forms of the cardinal numbers 
in the same way as those already mentioned {vevTaKoa-Lo- 
o-To's, quingenteslmiis etc.). By the Romans the adjectival 
suffix in numerals was felt to be -esimus, and in this 
manner centesimus and higher ordinals are made. \i\ 
precisely the same way Greek carries on -aro-, which 
arises phonetically in etKoo-ro's etc. to these obviously 
new^ formations. 

number -opo- -dvo-, the quality of the final sound affecting the 
Greek, its quantity the Latin form. 

^ Solmsen, Studien zur lateinischen Lautgeschichtp, p. 84. 

352 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 438- 


xxiv. Ve7'b Morphologij. 

438. In the discussion of the verb, in tracing the 
history of its forms and the development of its usages, 
the philologist meets with much greater difticulties than 
beset his path in the investigation of the noun. In 
noun-formation the languages of the Indo-Germanic 
group show greater uniformity than in their verb-forms. 
No doubt cases have become confused and forms originally 
applied in one meaning have come to be used in others, 
but in all respects the verb has suffered more severely 
History of the ^^^'^^^ ^^^^ uouu. The spitax of the verb is 
^®''''' also more difficult to unravel, the various 

languages differing in many points infinitely more than 
in the syntax of the noun. There are, moreover, fewer 
materials for comparison. The languages which have 
retained their verb-system best are the Sanskrit, Greek 
and Slavonic, the two first mentioned being closely 
similar in most respects and mutually illustrating both 
morphology and syntax. Far behind these lag the 
Keltic, Italic and Germanic, the last however preserving 
some forms with great purity. Greek and Latin it is 
especially difficult to compare. In the Latin verb- 
system only a mutilated fragment of the original scheme 
is preserved, the defects of which are remedied by a 
curious medley of forms pieced together from various 
sources. Although the new forms take the place of 


others wliich originally existed, it is only to be expected 
that the different origin of the new forms will introduce 
differences in syntax. Hence, in the syntax of the 
verb, perhaps no two Indo-Germanic languages are more 
unlike than Greek and Latin. 

439. In the parent language of the gTOup there 
were forms corresponding to those wliich we ^ ^, . ^^ 
call present, imperfect, future, aorist (both 

strong and weak), perfect. The pluperfect is probably 
later. There were also subjunctive and optative forms, at 
least to the present and the aorists. Perhaps in every 
case the signification was in some respect different from 
that which we now attach to these forms, but the forms 
at least existed. There were two voices coiTesponding to 
those which in Greek we call the active and the middle. 
Let us see now how this original scheme has been dealt 
with by the classical peoples. 

440. Greek has preserved the two original voices 
and constructed, out of the middle and out . „ ,. 

of new forms which it has itself created for ■ 

the future, first and second aorist, a new voice — the 
passive. It has preserved the types of the active almost 
intact — we may except the future and probably the 
pluperfect— although it has considerably modified in- 
dividual forms. It has added a future optative, which 
is used only in indirect narration. 

441. Latin has recast its voice-system. The middle 
as a separate voice disappears. Possibly 

analysis will show some traces of it in the 
new passive with -r suffixes, which the Italic and Keltic 
languages alone have developed (§ 19). The active 
voice remains, but its forms are much changed. A new 
imperfect has been developed everywhere. In three out 
G. P. 23 

354 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 441 — 

of the four conjugations (according to the usual classi- 
fication), there are traces of a new future fully developed 
in the types amd-ho and mom-bo, and traceable in others : 
t-ho and 0. Lat. sci-ho. The other futures, whether of 
the type leg am, leges or ero, or again the obsolete faxo, 
dixo, probably represent earlier subjunctives. The -s- 
aorist and the perfect are inextricably confused in one 
paradigm. Subjunctive and optative are merged in one 
new mood of various and, to some extent, uncertain 
origin, while some original subjunctives appear in the 
future or future perfect. 

442. How do the losses and gains of the classical 
compare with those of the Germanic lan- 

and in the ^ t 1 i 

Germanic Ian- guages i In the latter, as represented by 
modem English, much has been lost. We 
preserve the ancient present and the perfect in the 
so-called strong verbs, sing, sang etc. (§ 31), and there 
are traces of an optative in the language of such culti- 
vated persons as say 'if I were you.' All else is lost. 
But within the historical period, Germanic languages 
and English itself preserved much more than this. From 
the earliest period there is no trace of a future, but 
there are a few scanty relics of aorist-forms', and 
Gothic has preserved considerable remnants of the old 
middle formation. 

The passive is now made entirely by means of 
auxiliary verbs, which must also be used in the active 
to make the modern perfect, pluperfect, future and 
future perfect. A new past tense with the sense of the 
Greek aorist is made in all the Germanic languages by 
means of a sufhx corresponding to the English -ed in 
loved etc., but an auxiliary must on the other hand be 
^ Kluge in Paul's Grundriss, 1. p. 375. 


employed to form the durative imperfect corresponding 
to the Latin amabam (I was loving). 

443. This tendency to analysis instead of synthesis 
in verb-formation is also widely developed ,„ ^ 

•' ^ . Ten den cy to 

in the modern representatives of the classi- analysis in mod- 

, , , . „ ern languages. 

cal languages, thus leadmg to the loss of 
the early future and perfect in both the Greek and the 
Romance dialects. Latin had already lost all distinction 
between subjunctive and optative. Hellenistic Greek 
is almost in the same condition ; the optative occurs 
but once in St Matthew's Gospel, and the later Atticists 
use it rarely and then often wrongly, thus showing that 
it had disappeared from the language of the people. 

444. The special characteristics of the verb are 
(i) its augment, (ii) its reduplication, which characteristics 
however we have found to a small extent ofthe^e^b. 

in the noun, (iii) its distinctions of voice, mood and 
tense, and (iv) its endings for active and middle or 
passive in the three persons of the three numbers. 
Apart from these peculiarities the verb-stem cannot in 
many cases be distingiiished from the corresponding 
noun-stem, the suffixes of the stem in both verb and 
noun being frequently identical. 

445. (i) The augment is properly no part of the 
verb. It seems to have been originally an „. . 

'^ -^ _ _ The Augment. 

adverbial particle, on to which the enclitic 
verb threw its accent (§ 98). It accompanies only forms 
with secondary endings, and seems to have the power of 
attaching to such forms the notion of past time, for 
without this element, as we shall see later, forms with 
secondary endings are found in other meanings than 
that of past time. The augment which in the original 
language was e- is found only in the Aryan group, in 


356 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 445 — 

Armenian and in Greek. When another element besides 
the augment is prefixed to the verb, the augment comes 
between it and the verb, e.g. Kar-e-fiaXov, unless the 
compound is used in so specific a meaning as to be felt 
as one whole. In such a case the augment precedes the 
preposition, e.g. Ka6it.ofj.aL, iKa6e^6[j.r]v. Sometimes the 
augment in such cases is doubled, being placed before 
the preposition and also before the verb, dv-exo/xai, 


Two strata of augmented forms can be recognised in 
Greek when the root begins with e-. Those in which 
the vowel is the original initial sound of the root 
combine with the augment into e-{r]), while those roots 
which have lost an initial consonant generally make the 
augmented forms in ci-. .ThuS' elfj-t {= *la--ixL) makes 
rja (1st per. amg.) = *e + es-ra, but €7rofiat (rt. seq-) 
makes el-n-ofxrjv (= *t-o-e7ro/xiyv) with the rough breathing 
of the present. JAkw (root in two forms in different 
languages *suelq- and *uelq-) makes elXKov ; epya^o/iai 
makes in Attic both elpya(6;j.r]v and T^pya^o/xr/v. In some 
forms, however, the voAvels originally separated by a 
consonant remain uncontracted even in Attic : caAwv, 
iu)6ow, ewvovfjLTjv. In roots wdiich begin with t or v the 
vowel is sometimes lengthened to indicate an augmented 
tense. This lengthening arises not by contraction with 
the augment, but on the analogy of augmented forms ; 
hence such forms as 'LKeTevo-a, v4>rjva. The inferior forms 
^/AcXXov, -^Svvdfxrjv, T^j3ovX.6fxr]v do not sliow a long form of 
the augment, as is sometimes supposed, but are formed 
on the analogy of r/OeXov from ideXix). 

446. (ii) In the verb three kinds of reduplication 
T, , ,. ^. are found ; (1) wath the vowel of the redu- 

Reduphcation. , _ j v / 

plication in -i-, (2) with the vowel of the 


reduplication in -n-, (3) with the whole syllable redupli- 
cated. The first form is as a rule confined to the 
reduplicated present, the second is specially characteristic 
of the perfect, the third is confined to a small number 
of verbs. In Latin the reduplicated perfect sometimes 
assimilates the vowel of the reduplication to the vowel 
of the root : mordeo, momordi for *menim^di ; tondeo, 
totondi for *tetondi. 

Gk. Lat. 



: si-sti-mus 


: se-ri-mns ( = ^xi-s^-mos) 



: cp. te-tul-i 


: cp. pe-pul-it 


: cp. de-d-i. 



: cp. mur-iHur-o 

Forms of type (3) are more numerous in Greek 
than in Latin (cp. § 480/). Greek has a type peculiar 

to itself m forms like TraL-TrdXXw, SaL-SaXXw, Trot-^vcro-w, 

the origin of which is not clear. 

A difference between Greek and Latin is to be 
observed in the treatment of roots which Difference be- 
begin with .^- followed by a stop-consonant, iltfn^dhipUra^ 
when reduplication is required. From the *'°"' 
root std- Greek makes a reduplicated form si-std- (Attic 
L-a-TT]') for the present, which is found also in Latin sisto, 
but in all other cases Latin puts both consonants at the 
beginning of the reduplication and only the second at 
the beginning of the root : ste-t-I, spo-pond-1. In such 
cases Greek begins the reduplication with a- only ; cp. 
e-arix-f^a' with ste-ti-miis, l-a-jziia-jxai with s])o-pondi. As 
the last Greek example shows, the rough breathing which 
represents original initial s- may be dropped, and no dis- 
tinction drawn between augment and reduplication. This 

858 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 446 — 

confusion between augment and reduplication occurs in 
some other instances where the root begins with two 

consonants, as in i-^Xda-Trj-Ka (but fSi-fiX-q-Ka), e-KTrj-fxai 

as well as Ke-KTrj-jxai etc. 

447. (iii) The voices of the original verb, as has 
The voices of already been mentioned (§ 439), were the 

the Verb. active and middle. Apart from the differ- 

ence in personal endings, the only distinctions between 
active and middle in respect of form are (1) that in 
non-thematic verbs without stem-suffix the root in tlie 
middle is frequently in the weak grade : i-a-nj-fiL, l-a-ra- 
fxai. 8t-Sw-/Ai, 8i-So-/Aai etc., although in the Verb, just as 
in the Noun, there are some forms which show no 
gradation, 8t-^i7-/, Kil-jxai ; (2) that verbs with stem- 
suffixes as -neu-, -nd-, and probably others, show weak 
forms of the suffix in the middle : ^uk-vv-jxi (§ 481 e), 
hetK-vv-fJiai ; cp. Trip-vq-yn with ^dp-va-fxai. 

448. The passive voice not being an original voice 
The Passive in is made by each language in its own way. 

Greek. j^^ Greek the only new forms distinct from 

the middle are (i) the 2nd aorist in --qv, i-(f)dv-7]v etc. 
(§ 480 a) ; (ii) the 1st aorist in -6rjv, which seems to be 
a purely analogical formation from the secondary ending 
of the 2nd person singular of the middle (§ 474 /;) ; (iii) 
the future passive, which is a late development from 
the stem found in the 1st aorist k-Tifx-q-d-q-v, Tiii-q-Orj-a-ofjiaL ; 
e-X€i(fi-$r}v, XeL<f)-6-j-(rofxaL. In some verbs the future 
middle has a passive sense, e.g. Tifnj-a-ofxai. 

449. In Latin the passive is made in the same way 
The Passive in ^^ in Keltic, by the addition of a suffix in 

•^^*'" -r added after the old personal endings. 

This formation is peculiar to the languages of the Italic 
and Keltic groups. Its origin is still to some extent 


uncertain, though much light has been thrown upon its 
history by recent researches. The whole paradigm 
seems not to have originated at once, but to have begun 
with the third person, like venitur in the sense of ' one 
comes,' caintur ' one takes,' the subject of the sentence 
being left vague, dicitur is thus originally exactly 
parallel to the French on dit. A plural . . „ 

^ . . . . . , originally onlv 

form is not required, and this original state in the 3rd per- 


of things is shown in the frequent Virgilian 
and Livian construction itur ad siltam and the like, 
where iUu- may refer to any person singular or plural. 
Such forms made from transitive verbs naturally re- 
quired an accusative, a type which is preserved in the 
so-called deponent verbs. Here the question arises as 
to whether the -u- which precedes -r is to go with -r or 
with the -t- preceding. As such verbs in both the Italic 
and the Keltic groups make their perfect forms with a 
passive participle in -to- and the substantive verb', it 
seems Hkely that we ought to take -tu- as representing 
the original middle ending -to, to which -r is then 
added. It is easy to see how a plural form Teniimtur 
etc., is made to the original venitur. From this we pass 
to a further stage where the passive sense is fully 
developed, and this development calls into being a com- 
plete paradigm by adding -r after a vowel-ending : rego-r, 
and by replacing -?n and -s endings by -r : i-ega-i-, 
regere-r ; regi-mu-r, rega-mti-r, regere-mu-r. It is to 
be observed that the 2nd persons of the present, both 
singular and plural, are of a different origin, sequere 
(§474rt) corresponding to £7r€(o-)o {sequeris is a new forma- 

1 Thurneysen in Brugmann's Grundriss, ii. § 1080 n. 1. There 
is no substantive verb in the Keltic passive forms; cp. Lat. /wsi 
hostes etc., so frequent as complete sentences in Livy. 

360 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 449 — 

tion), and seqidmini being a participle. The 2n(i persons 
in other tenses are formed on this analogy. The history 
of these changes cannot be traced in detail, because 
they took place at a period long preceding any literature 
we possess, and most probably before the Italic and 
Keltic languages had separated from one another'. 

45°- (iv) For the persons of the active and middle 
Personal end- voiccs there are distinct series of personal 
in^b°ith°a^ctive endings. Within each series there are 
and middle. again two distinct groups, (1) primary and 
(2) secondary endings. This distinction, however, is 
not found in all languages. In Latin there is no trace 
of its existence, the whole of the endings being of one 
type. These primary and secondary endings are thus 
distributed in both the active and the passive voice. 

Primary : present and future indicative, subjunc- 
tive throughout. 

Secondar}' : imperfect, aorist and pluperfect in- 
dicative, optative throughout. 

The perfect indicative active had an independent 
series of- endings, at least in the singular. 
ings of perfect lu the hrst persou of the present indica- 
tive active, the ending, if attached to the 
root directly, is -mi ; if attached after a thematic vowel, 
the ending and this vowel appear contracted together as 
-d horn the earliest period. Hence the nature of the 
original suffix in this case cannot be determined. 

451. The following is a scheme of the endings 

Scheme of per- '^vhich existed in the original active and 

sonai endings, middle, in both their primary and their 

1 The greatest part of this explanation comes from an article 
by Zimmer in A'. Z. 30, p. 224 ft'., but with considerable modifica- 
tions from Brugmann {Grundriss, 11. § 1079 — § 1083). 



secondary forms. The variations from this scheme, 
which are found in the languages to be dealt with, will 
be discussed later. 



Primary Secondary 



1 Sing. 

2 Sing. 

3 Sing. 

1 Dual 

2 Dual 

3 Dual 

1 Plural 

2 Plural 

3 Plural 

-mi (non-thematic) 
-d (thematic) 



-ues-i (-uos-i) 
-thes {-thos) 

■mes-i {-mos-i) 

■? -the 





-rte {-uo) 



-me (-mo) 




-sai (?-s3J) 
-tai (?-tdi) 
■ itedliai (? -j/edftsj) 


'>-dh + ' 
\^-ntai ('>-ntdi) 
\-ntai {-utai) 


-so I 



-dh + 

452. In the list of forms just given it will be 
observed that one form in the active (2nd Difficulties in 
Plural) and several forms in the middle oriSr'^end- 
are marked as doubtful. The reasons for '°^^" 
this are (1) either the forms occur so rarel)^ that Com- 
parative Philology can hardl}- hope to establish the 
original form as a certainty, or (2) the forms, though 
found in several languages, differ so much from one 
another that it is doubtful whether they can be referred 
to one original. 

Endings of the Active Voice. 

453. The thematic verbs, it will be noticed, differ 
but in one person (1st sing. pres. indie, act.) Endings of the 
from the non-thematic. The classification A'-tive voice. 

362 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 453 — 

is convenient, but it grows continually more probable 
, that the difference between thematic and 

Thematic and • (. • ^^rc 

non-thematic non-tliematic forms IS a difference rather 


in roots than in stem-formation \ In Latin 
the difference has practically disappeared. The sole 
remnants are the forms sum and inquam, of which the 
former shows traces of a thematic origin in its vowel : 
su7n = *s-o-m from the weak form of the root es:-. In 
Attic Greek the difference is preserved in the types ^'/?-/At 
and <^€pw (cfiep-o-fjiev), but the -mi type is gradually 
being displaced even in the classical period in verbs like 

8€LK-VV-fXC (SciK-VU-O)). 

454. For the second and third persons of the 
Greek 2nd and singular, Greek differs from other languages 

Softhlpresent "^ ^*"^ thematic forms : </)€pcis, </)e/3et. These 
Indicative, cannot phonetically represent the original 
type *bkere-si, *hhere-ti, which in Attic Greek could 
become only *^€pei (cp. 7€Ve(c/)t, from yeVos § 14:2), and 
*^6/3€-cri (cp. ycfe-crt- stem of yeVc-crt-s in § 133). The 
best explanation of them is to identify them with simi- 
lar forms in Skt. which are called injunctives (§ 520). 

The corresponding forms of the subjunctive have 
(ii)ofthePresent been modified under their influence by the 
Subjunctive. addition of the -t-sound in <^ipri%, cj>4prj, and 
the recasting of the original form *bkere-si, *bhere-ti. 

455. In Latin the endings throughout are second- 
Secondary end- ^^y^> but this might arise through the loss 

ings in Latin, ^f ^^^^^ -i according to phonetic laws. In 

1 Compare Streitberg's remarks in his article on the accented 
sonant nasal (IF. i. 90 fi'.), which has been already referred to, 
and his more recent article IF. iii. 305 H. 

• If Thurneysen's theory already referred to (p. 318 n. 1) is 
right, the Latin endings are all primary with final -/ lost, final 
-lit becoming -ns. 


the verb just cited the second and third persons are 
made without thematic vowel, fers, fert, a formation to 
which Skt. supplies an exact parallel ; agis and agit, 
however, represent the ordinary type. So in English 
the oldest endings are -is or -es for the second person, 
and for the third -^5 from an earlier -«S, phonetically 
corresponding to the original -e-ti. This second person 
is still found in the North of England and in Scotland — 
"Thou lifts thy unassuming head" (Burns) — its place 
elsewhere being usurped by a new formation -est. The 
original third person is represented by the (now only 
literary) form heareth. The common form bears with an 
-es sufiSx is a Northumbrian new formation. 

456. The first person of tlie dual is preserved only 
in the Aryan and Letto-Slavonic groups, Personal end- 

, . „ , . ings of the Dual, 

and in (jOtniC. Ist Person. 

457. The second person has in Skt. a suffix -thas, 
which is now supposed to be also preserved 

^, T • •/•/•• . . • , 2nd Person. 

in the Latm -tis (m jer-tis, ag-i-tis etc.) 
and has therefore replaced the proper 2nd person of the 
plural. The form of the original suffix is not quite 
certain ; but -thes, with a possible variant -thos, seems 
most probable. 

458. The ending of the tliird person is in Skt. -tas, 
which may represent an original -tes. Greek 

has replaced both the 2nd and the 3rd 
person by the secondary form of the second person. 

459. In the plural the 1st person seems to have 
originally ended in -mes-{i) and -mos-{i). 

The former is still found in the Doric inps of tiie piu- 
<^epo-/;i£s, the latter in the Latin feri-mus. 
The Attic <^epo-fiev seems to be a modification of the 
secondary ending. In neither lang-uage is there any 

364 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 459 — 

trace of the longer form with appended -i which is found 
in Skt. and elsewhere. The iinal -/, however, may be 
merely a deictic particle. 

460. The form of the 2nd plural is doubtful. The 

Aiyan branch shows a suffix which requires 

2nd Person. 7 mi n 1 

US to postulate -t/te. The breek -re may 
be borrowed from the secondary endings. The Latin -tis 
is apparently a dual form (§ 457). 

461. The ending of the 3rd person plural is un- 

doubtedly 'Uti : Doric d)€po-vTi, Attic <i>ipov(TL 

3rd Person. , ^ \ ^ ^ -^ ,,. 

(^ 133), Lat. fer-unt, 0. Eng. ber-a^ for 
*ber-an<5, Gothic bair-and. The sonant form of this 
suffix gives rise to tdo-t etc. (= *iinti ; lacn whence on 
the analogy of la-rdvTL (lo-Tacn) comes idcn). 

462. The secondary endings require but little com- 

ment, differing as they do in most cases 
endings of the fi'om the primar}' only by having no final -i. 
(i) in the Sin- The first persou in Greek has -v for -m if 
^" '^^ ' consonant : £^€p-o-v, e-cftrj-v ; but -a if -m is 

sonant : e8ci|-a. In the optative (jtepot-fxi has a presen- 
tial ending. One or two secondary forms found in 
Euripides, Tp€<jiOLv, d^iapToiv, are formed on the analogy 
of the other persons. The secondary endings are illus- 
trated in Latin by the imperfects mone-ham etc., -bam 
being a secondary tense fi'om the stem of <^voi, Lat. fui, 
with b for / regularly in the middle of the word. 

In the 3rd person Greek loses its final consonant 
phonetically, €-^€p€(-T). 

463. The Greek -tov, -T-qv in the 2nd and 3rd per- 

sons of the dual represent accurately the 

(ii) in the Dual : . . , „ 

original lorms. 

464. Forms in other languages (e.g. the Aryan and 
Letto-Slavonic group) seem to render it necessary to 


assume a 1st person plural with no final consonant. 
The Doric €^€po-/x,€s, Lat. fere-bd-mus, are 
therefore borrowed from the present, and 
the Attic i4>ipo-ixev, cl>€poL-fji.€v, e8€t^a-/Aev ' , have the so- 
called V €<^€AkV(TTI/<oV. 

i(f>ep€-T€ and 'i-^f.pov correctly represent the original 
*e-bhere-te and *e-bheront. 

Endings of the Middle Voice. 

465. Here certainty is less attainable than in the 
active voice. The ending of the 1st per- primary end- 
son is a matter of some difficulty. In the ^"ifVoice" ^^'^' 
Sanskrit indicative it appears simply as a ist Person Smg. 
diphthong e, which may represent ai, ei, oi or 9i, while 
in the subjunctive the ending is a long diphthong of 
the same type. Most authorities hold that the same 
diphthong as is seen in the Sanskrit indicative is to be 
found in -i in the ending of the Latin perfect active; 
tutudi etc. These forms are then middle forms, but 
this view, though generally accepted, can hardly be 
regarded in the present state of our knowledge as more 
than an ingenious hypothesis. In Greek the ending is 
always -/xai, which may represent either original -mat or 
-mH. If the Skt. form is the earlier, the Greek -/xat 
must have been influenced by the active form of the 1st 
person in the non-thematic verbs. 

466. The 2nd' person in Skt. and Greek represents 
the same original whether -sai or -s^i. In 

, .. , " .'~, '2nd Person Sing. 

Greek, -or- disappears between vowels, and 
contraction takes place. Hence *(liepe-aai becomes (f>ipr] 

1 This form is difficult. It seems better to explain the -a- as 
an analogical insertion than to assume with Osthoff a suffix 

366 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 466 — 

then (^t'pei. But in the classical period the non-thematic 
verbs restore the forms with -a-- : riOe-a-ai, 8t8o-crai etc., 
possibly on the analogy of forms like yiypa^pai, where, 
through the consonant preceding, -o-- was phonetically 
retained '. The full restoration of -o-at as the ending was 
accomplished by degrees, and in modern Greek <^epo-/u,ai 
gives <f>€p€-(rai etc. 

467. The original ending of the 3rd 

.3rd Person Sing. . 

person was -tat or -t9i ; TLde-rai, <f>€p€-Tai. 

468. The 1st person of the Greek dual has nothing 

parallel to it in other languages. It occurs 
altogether in the classical literature only 

three times (once in Homer and twice in Sophocles"). 

Hence it can hardly have been used in the spoken language. 

469. The forms of the 2nd and 3rd persons are 
2iid and 3rd equally obscure. The Greek forms are 

Persons Dual, probably uot old, and are possibly a modi- 
fication of the 2nd person plural in -o-^c, under the 
influence of the active -rov ; TcOi-a-Oov, (f>ep-€-(rdoi\ 

470. The 1st person of the plural in Greek corre- 
ist Person sp'^i^ds apparently to the Skt. secondary 

Plural. ending -mahi. icfiepo-ixeOa is then more 

original than 4>^p6-p.(.Ba, just as k^'ipo-p.^-v in the active 
is more original than (f)epo-p.€-v (§ 459). The poetical 
forms in -p-ea-da may arise either under the influence of 
-crOe or in imitation of the -/ form in the active. 

» G. Meyer, Gi: Gr.- § 46(5. 

- The forms are Trepidufiedov Iliad xxiii. 485, \e\ei/j./xedov 
Electra 9.50, and opp-uiixedov Philoctetes 1079. In every case there 
is some authority for the 1st plural in -p-eda and in no case is 
-fjLidov required by the metre. It is no doubt a creation on the 
analogy of the 2nd person, but of what date is doubtful. Hence 
it is hardly safe to attribute the form to the grammarians and 
read -fj-eda wherever it occurs (cp. Jebb's Philoctetes 1079 note). 


471. The 2ud person was no doubt originally 
connected vnth the Skt. form -dhve, but gnd Person 
seems to have been re-cast under the influ- p^""^!- 

ence of the active ending -re. In any case it is probable 
that the -a-- in -a-de was originally no part of the suffix, 
but came in phonetically in such forms as 7re7r€to--^c, 
whence it was generalised every^vhere. Some think the 
ending -a-6ov of the dual corresponds to the Skt. second- 
ary ending in -dhvain. It was then transfen'ed from 
plural to dual under the influence of -tov, and -o-^e was 
a new formation after -re', 

472. The 3rd person originally ended in -ntai or 
-nt9i, the -n- in the suffix becoming a sonant srd person 
after a preceding consonant. Hence the ""^ " 
perfect forms yeypa^arai, reTev^"''''*' stc, where -a- in the 
penultimate syllable represents -n-. (Cp. secondary 
£T€Tax-aTo etc.). The suffix appears analogically in 

(3ef3X.7]aTaL etc. 

The subjunctive follows the indicative closely 

473. As in the active, the secondary „ Secondary 

7 • 1 1- 1 Endings of the 

endmgs require but little comment. Middle voice. 

In Greek the ending of the 1st person is -fxdv, Attic 
-fxrjv, which has no parallel elsewhere. 1st Person. 

474. a. The ending of the "ind person was origin- 
ally -so, which is preserved in many languages. 

, . . . • ,, rr p ? 1 2nd Person. 

Latin retains it in the suinx -7'e 01 the 2nd 

person: cp. Epic e-rreo {=*seqe-so) with Lat. seque-re^. 

The -0-- between vowels is irregularly restored in eStSo-o-o 

^ Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 1063. 

2 The other form in the Indicative sequeris is a new formation 
which gradually usurps the place of the -re form. 

368 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 474 — 

etc. (cp. § 466), but regular forms as irWov (for iridi-a-o) 
are sometimes found in the literature. 

b. Besides this ending there was another which 
Development seems to have been originally in -tkes (Skt. 
PasSfvl^ ^rom -t^^H From such forms as e-80-^779, accord- 
suffix -thrs. jj^g |.Q ^jj ingenious theory of Wackernagel ', 
Greek constructed the new forms i86-6r)v, iSo-Orj etc., 
thus making a complete new aorist out of a single form. 

475. According to Brugmamr the secondary end- 
3rd Person Sing, ings of the 3rd persous sing, and plural 

and Plural in . ° f 

Latin. are to be seen m the Lat. agi-tu-r, 


476. In the Greek dual, -o-Oov and -(rOdv (Attic 
Greek Dual -^^w) ^Te influenced by the active forms. 

Endings. although -(tOov may be the original form for 

the 2nd person plural (§471). 

In the middle, the optative takes secondary endings 

The Perfect Endings. 

477. Greek preserves separate endings 
feet Endings in for the perfect only in the three persons of 
the singular active. In other respects the 
perfect inflexion is identified with the primary forms 
found in other tenses. In Latin the perfect is a curious 
medley of original perfect and aorist inflexion combined 
in one paradigm. 

1 A'. Z. 30, p. 307. V. Henry (Bull. Soc. Ling. vii. p. xxix) 
made the same suggestion independently. Henry successfully 
explains the forms in -a-dris by supposing that the type began in 
the -s-Aorist: iyvu)(jd7]s=:S]it. djftdsthds. 

- Grundriss, 11, §§ 1057, 1069. 


The ending of the 1st person is -a : Gk. oT8-a, 
€tA.77'Aou^-a. Latin, as has been already men- 

• 1 • • 1 11 1st Person. 

tioned, IS supposed to have taken a middle 
form in the 1st person (§ 465). 

The 2nd person ended in -tha, preserved in Greek 
only in oTa-Oa (phonetically = oTS-^a) and 

111 ^ - /I 1 • 2"d Person. 

the old perfect rj(T-da now used as im- 
perfect. From the later use of ^cr-da as an imperfect 
the suffix is extended to other imperfects, l(^rj<T-da etc. 
The ending seems to be preserved in the Latin vidis-ti, 
where the stem is an -s- aorist. The final long vowel is 
however possibly due to the analogj^ of the 1st person. 

The ending of the 3rd person is -e : Greek ot6-e. 
In Latin this has added to it the ordinaiy 3rd Person. 
-t- suffix — vidi-t. 

XXV. The Present Formations. 

478. In that part of his great work which treats of 
the verb, Brugmann divides all the forms of the Indo- 
Germanic present into thirty-two classes, thirty of which 
are found in Greek. But the t}^es represented by some 
of these thirty-two classes are practically confined to a 
very few words, and therefore, for the present purjjose, 
a somewhat simpler division is both desirable and 
possible. Brugmann was the first to point out that 
witliin the present formation t}^es must be included 
which we generally identify with other parts Present suffLxes 
of the verb such as the future or the lh™e 'o^f FuTili'e 
aorist. Thus rp-e-w (= *tr-es-d) when com- ^""^ ^°"^^- 
pared with rp-e/x-w shows a suffix in -s- which is indis- 
tinguishable from the suffix found in the Future KaAct 

G. P. 24 . 

370 A SHOUT MANUAL OF [§ 478 — 

(-Ka\€-{a)ti), or the Aorist ^Sea {-*eueidesmy. Many 
roots seem to be found in simple forms from whicli 
extensions are made by the addition of some consonant 
or vowel sufiix, the original signification of which it is 
no longer possible to trace. These suffixes, however, 
are exactly parallel to the suffixes in the substantive 
and in many cases can be identified with them. The 
relation between substantive and verb is at all times 
very close : noun forms are being constantly made from 
verbs, verb forms similarly from nouns'. The details of 
the theory of root-expansion are however as yet too little 
worked out to be suitable for discussion in an elementary 

479. The different methods of forming the present 
Classification may be classified under seven heads : 
mations. I. The person suffixes are added di- 

rectly to the root. 

Subdivisions are made in this class according as the 
.suffixes are added to monosyllabic roots, or disyllabic 
roots, or, as other authorities phrase it, roots Avith a 
thematic vowel. These roots again may be reduplicated 
and may occur in different vowel grades. The only 
Second Aorist difference between the imperfect and the 

and Imperfect ... , . „ , . , 

in Class I. second aorist is that the imperfect which 

belongs to the present stem has frecjuently a formative 
suffix, while the second aorist is made directly from the 

^ Two forms of this sort may even be combined in the same 
paradigm, e.g. Lat. pr-em-o, pr-es-si (Danielsson in Persson's 
Studien zur Lehre von der Wurzelcnceiterunij und Wurzeh'ariation, 
p. 217 n.). 

* In Persson's treatise mentioned in the last note this subject 
is worked out at considerable length and the suffixes or " root 
determinatives " are classified in the same way as the noun 
suffixes have been classified above in chapter xxii. 


rodt with or without a thematic vowel. Thus the 
difference between imperfect and aorist is one of mean- 
ing not of form, sometimes the difference is purely 
conventional. Hence there is no difference either in 
form or syntactical value between e-c^iyv and c-jSt/v, 
although we are accustomed to call the former an im- 
perfect and the latter an aorist. l-^r/v and e-Xey-o-v 
(cp. l-AtTT-o-v) have frequently the same s}Titactical 
constructions as aorists. On the other hand (.ypaff>ov as 
compared with ISpaxov, i/Sakov, ISpa/Aov etc. is obviously 
an aorist form, wliich has crept into the present or, to 
speak more correctly, is a present of a type of which few 
specimens survive in Greek. In Attic Greek all noun 
and verb forms are alike from this weak form of the root, 
but elsewhere ypot^os, ypo^et's are found, just like Spofxos 
and 8po/ut€rs etc. This question will arise again in con- 
nexion with the difference of signification between present 
and aorist (§ o-to). 

II. Between the root and the person sufiixes there 
appears some form of a formative suffix in -n-. 

III. Presents with a formative suffix in -s-. 

IV. Presents with a formative suffix in -sk-. 

V. Presents with a formative suffix in -dk- or -d-. 

VI. Presents with a formative suffix in -t-. 

VII. Presents with a formative suffLx in -io-. 
Classes II. to VII. may have forms of different grades 

and with reduplication, but their numbers, except in 
Class VII., are much smaller than those in the first class. 
Latin throughout shows much less variety than Greek. 

480. I. The person suffixes are added to the root 
with or without a thematic vowel. 

(a) Roots without a thematic vowel and without 


372 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 480 

Gk. Lat. 

e<r-Tt : es-t 

Doric (ba-Ti ) 

...• ,/ '• cp. to-tu-r 

Attic (pTj-ai) 

el-o-t : i<( = *e/-<(i) 

It is to be observed that as in the substantive so in 
the verb the root syllable varies in grade according to 
the position of the accent. Thus in Skt., which repre- 
sents the original language faithfully in this matter, the 
1st person plural of the substantive verb is s-mds where 
*'- is the weak form of the root. Greek, however, in this 
verb carries the strong form tliroughout the present ; 
compare on the other hand <^7?-/xt but plural ^a-yneV 
(where the accent of the singular cannot be original). 
So also el-fjLL but L-fxev (for "'1-iJ.ep). In some verbs how- 
Verbs without ^vcr the vowel remains unchanged, e.g. in 

gradation. iSpd-v, €-(3r]-v{J)orice-ftd-v),€-af3rj-v, i-^dXrj-v, 

parallel to which in Latin are verbs of the type Jlo 
{fld-mus),jieo {fle-mus). These unchanging forms Brug- 
mann supposes to be forms expanded by means of a 
vowel suffix. But this does not seem very probable. 
It is more likely that this long vowel made part of the 
root'. In aorist forms the principle was no doubt 
extended to forms which did not originally possess this 
long vowel : ifidXrfv, Ikiir-qv (identified by Brugmann 
with Lat. licet) and others of the same kind may be 
analogical formations. 

1 The original diphthong is shortened according to the Latin 
rule whereby every long vowel preceding a final -t is shortened. 

- This is admitted even by Persson, the apostle of "root- 
expansion," in his Wurzelerweiterung, p. 212. Cp. now also 
Michels, I. F. iv. p. 58 ff. Fleo however, as opposed to the other 
persons /Zt-s etc. has a -lo-suffix, if it is not itself a new formation 
after the thematic series instead of an older *Jle-mi. 


(b) Roots with a thematic vowel, the root being 
(i) in its full form and accented, (ii) in its weak form 
with the accent originally upon the thematic vowel. 

Gk. Lat. 

(i) Dor. ( 
Att. ^ep-o-fiev 

(ii) (Ly-o-/jL€v 



fid-i-mus (§ 17-5) 
nr-i-mus (§ 178) 


cp. rud-i-mus 

(c) Roots reduplicated but without thematic vowel. 
Here as in («) the root syllable may vary with the accent 
or remain steadfast. 

Gk. Lat. 

Dor. I'-tTTa-Tt ) i^[sistit is a thematic form probably arising by 

Att. i-artj-ffi ) ' I analogy from the form of the 1st per. pL] 

tara-fxiv : si-sti-mus (if for '*si'Sta-mus) 

For other forms in Greek cp. St-8a)-/u.i, TL-Orj-fii, 
l-TQ-fi-i, all of which remain non-thematic (with the ex- 
ception of such forms as IriO^i for *l-Ti.-6r]-T) and vary 
the grade of the root vowel in the plural 8t-8o-/xev, 
TL-6e-aiv, L-£-fj.€v. Some reduplicated roots 

• , 1 1 1 cs/ * R*-duplicated 

retain the vowel unchanged, e.g. Si-Qn-aaL roots without 

, . . gradation. 

(contrast L-a-Ta-ixai). Latin cannot be satis- 
factorily compared with these verbs as it has given up 
the non-thematic type of formation. 

(d) Roots reduplicated and with thematic vowel. 
In both Greek and Latin the root syllable appears in its 
weakest form. 

Gk. Lat. 

yi-yv-o-fiiOa : nl-gn-i-mus 
i^-o-/x(v (§ 14.3) : f')d-i-m>ts 

374 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 480 — 

Compare also /u.t-/xv-w (/xtV-w), iri-iTT-di (Trir-o-fxaL), 

Ti'-KT-cj for *Tt-TK-w (e-TCK-0-v), L-(r)(-o} {=*si-zgk-o from 
root of €xw). The Latin sisto and s^ro {=si-s-d, § 142) 
belong properly to (c). 

(e) Besides the forms in (c) and (c?) with the -/- 

reduplication, generally called the present reduplication, 

... .,, there is another series of forms with -e- 

\erbs with 

reduplication in reduplication, generally called the perfect 
reduplication. Such forms are preserved 
to a small extent in Greek ; in Latin there are few 
traces of them. Examples of non-thematic forms are 
kc-kXu-^i, Te-rXa-^t and eiTra ( ^ *e-ue-uq-in) ; examples of 
thematic forms are e-Tr€-(f)v-o-v, l-o-ir-e-To, cTtt-o-v. Li 
Latin feiido possibly represents *te-t?i-o, a reduplicated 
form from the root of ten-e-o (cp. § 194). 

(/) A still stronger form of reduplication, which is 
Verbs with in- generally called intensive reduplication, is 

tensive redupli- p , . „ 

cation. found HI such verbs as -qv-^yK-a and the 

rare forms ipvKaKOv, rjviiTaTrov. 

(g) The thematic vowel appears in its weak form. 
To this type belong the Greek e/x-e-w, Skt. vam-i-mi, 
-e- and -/- respectively representing -9-. Li the Greek 
middle voice this weakened vowel appears as a ; Kpc/xa- 

/xat, aya-ju,ai etc' 

481. IL Roots \nth. a formative suffix in -n- 
preceding the person-suffix. 

Of these verb stems in -n- there are several varieties. 
(a) The suffix appears in its strong form as -11 a - 

1 If the second vowel of e/x^w was originally a, we should expect 
it to appear as a, just as in the middle. The vowel however ma.v 
have been -e- in the sing., -3- in the plural, or it may have been 
assimilated to the -e- of the root syllable according to Schmidt's 
theory (A'. Z. 32, p. 321 ff.). 


with weaker grades -n- and probably -n9-\ The root 
syllable appears in a weak form and no ,. , 

11 • • 11 1 /v • 1 • \erbs with 

doubt originally the sunix varied m grade suffix in -««-, 
in different numbers in the same way as the 
root varies in Class I. In nearly all Greek verbs the 
vowel of the root appears as -i- ; thus Kip-v-q-ixi but Kcpaw, 
TTiX-va-fxaL but TTcXaw etc The most plausible explana- 
tion of this curious difference, for which no phonetic 
reason can be assigned, is that it originates in the 
parallel forms a-Kih-vq-fii and o-KcSaw, which come from 
different roots, the former being the weak form of the 
root found also in the Latin scindo and in its stronger 
form in caedo. 7rtT-vr;-/u,i, ttCt-vw and irn-vi-w probablj^ 
have their -i- vowel from the synonymous 7^t7^Tw^ Sa^- 
viq-p.L and Trip-viq-ixL keep the original vowel ; Sv-va-/xai 
carries the suffix through all its parts. It is noticeable 
that a large number of the roots which make their 
present with the -nd- suffix have also forms with a suffix 
in -lieu- (-VV- e ii. below) ; thus Kcpawv/xi, o-KcSawu/Ai, 
Trerai'vv/xi. In Latin these non-thematic forms disap- 
peared before the thematic. 

{h) -n- stems with a thematic vowel giving the forms 
-no- -ne-. The root is (i) sometimes strong, (ii) some- 
times weak. 

(i) With strong form of root. 

1 The forms with -nd- are postulated by Brugmann for the 
Middle / etc. This is most probable, as forms with -na- 
are found in Skt., but it is possible to explain the Gk. forms as 
having like edei^afj-ev a form of the personal suffix with -nim-. But 
even in edei^a/jLef the explanation of -a- as coming by analogy from 
the 1st person sing, seems preferable. 

2 This is J. H. Moulton's explanation {A. J. P. x. p. 284 f.). 

376 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 481 

Gk. Lat. 

TTiT-pu (cp. fl above) 
? Kpt-fio (cp. § 487 c) 

cp. sper-no 
pello { =* pel-no) 
[cer-no weak form] 

(ii) With weak form of root. 

Greek SaK-vw {=*d^k-nd from the same root as in 
Eng. tongs, the original meaning of which is therefore 
= pincers), Ka/x-vw : cp. Lat. tol-lo {- *tl-nd), li-no, si-no. 

(c) The verbs found in Greek with the suffix -avo- 
Greek verbs in ^^^^> though practically non-existent in 
■•""*' Latin, well developed in several other 

branches of the hido-Germanic family, are probably 
only a subdivision of the former class ; the suffix -imo- 
being a variant form of the other exactly as it was in 
the noun (§ 395). This longer form of a suffix is regu- 
larly found if the root syllable is long whether by vowel 
quantity or by position. In this series of verbs there is 
no exception to the rule, but the verbs fall into two 
groups according as this length (i) belongs originally to 
the root or (ii) is the result of inserting a nasal before 
its final consonant. 

(i) The series where the root is long consists to a 

with long root large extent of verbs obviously derived from 

syllable, nouus and having shorter verb forms by 

their side : cp. KivO-dvin (kcv^-w), \rj9-avo) {\y]0-w), Orjy-dvoi 
{Oijy-d), cp. dtjy-avo-v and 6r]y-dvr]), av^-dvo} (av^-to) where 

both forms as compared with the Latin aug-e-o have 
already been expanded by means of an -s- suffix. 

(ii) The forms with an ' infixed ' nasal are very 

with 'infixed' COmmOU : Xa-ix-P-dv(D, \a-y-x-d.vw, \a-v-6-dvw 
"^**'* (cp. \rjO-dvw above), d-v-S-dvw, xa-v-B-dvoi, 

TTv-v-O-dvo-fiai (cp. TTEv^-o/xai), TV-y-x-dvw, 6i-y-y-dvw, 


(fiv-y-y-avui. By the sicle of all of these forms the simple 
type is to be found in second aorists and in substantives. 
That this type of verb is not original is shown by the 
fact that there is no exact parallel in any other language. 
To call this nasal an ' infixed element ' is no explanation'. 
Language so far as we know is not built up on such 
principles. These verbs are much more likely to be 
analogical formations, beginning possibly by accident 
and extending as e.g. the perfects in -etti have extended 
in Italian from one original form, Lat. steti. Many 
explanations of the forms have been offered, but none 
are satisfactory. 

A stronger form of the suffix is supposed by Brug- 
mann to be found in some languages. He also connects 
with this series the Latin cnientns {- *criiu-n-to-s) and 
verbs like rtmcinare by the side of the substantive 

(d) The next type of -n- stem is formed of those 
verbs where a nasal is inserted in the root „ , 

rr 1 rm • • verbs with 

but no other is suffixed. This type is nasal inserted 

•/-111' 1 '" ™°^" 

almost non-existent m week ; o-fpiyyoi and 

possibly a.T€-ix.-l3-ofjiat, p€-fji-j3ofjiaL seem its only repre- 
sentatives. In Latin, however, it is very common : 
fi-n-go, ju-n-go, pi-n-go, ta-n-go, pa-n-go, la-m-bo, 
ru-m-po, fi-n-do, li-n-qu-o. 

In this series the formation is as difficult to explain 
as in the last. The nasal, however, is often carried 
beyond the present formation as in fi-n-go, ju-n-go. 
pi-n-go, la-m-bo. In pre-hendo it certainly belongs to 
the root ; cp. the Greek future xf'O'o/iai {- *x€vS-o-o-/ 

1 Cp. Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 596, 2, uote 2, and Thurneysen, 
I. F. IV. p. 78 ff. 

2 Grundr. ii. §§ 617, 622. 

378 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 481 — 

and e-xa8-o-v ("Xi'S"). We may therefore conjecture, as 
in the last series, that the nasalisation belonged origin- 
all}^ to a few words and was gradually extended to 
many others. 

{e) Non-thematic suffixes in -7ieu, -nu-, -nu-, -nu-. 
This type, though lost in Latin, is well developed 
IT u .tu elsewhere, especially in Sanskrit and Greek. 

Verbs with ' -t -^ _ 

suffix -nev- in 'f J^e Sanskrit forms in the singular always 

various grades. " 

show the diphthongal form of the suffix, 
the Greek never. It seems however most probable that 
the Sanskrit forms are nearest the original type and 
that the Greek -vv- is a recent formation taking the 
place of earlier -veu- by the side of -vv- on the analogy 
of the collateral forms in -va- and -va-. The root 
frequently appears in its weak form. In Greek the non- 
thematic are disappearing before the thematic forms. 

i. Verbs with root in strong form : op-w-ixi, SeiK- 
I'V-fXL, 6-[x6py-i'V-fj.L, o-pey-vv-jxi. 

ii. Verbs with root in weak form : ap-w-fxaL, indp- 
vv-fiai, Ta'-i'v-Ttti (= *tn-nu-) in Homer, but rai'vw is more 

Tliroughout this series the strong form of the suffix 
is found in the three persons singular of the indicative 
while the dual and plural and the middle throughout 
have the weak forms. iKavw and Kixavoi stand apparently 
for *tK-avf-a) and *Ktx-avf-w respectively. According to 
Dindorf the Attic poets always wrote KiyxS-voi. 

Some ten or twelve forms occurring in classical Greek 
appear with a suffix -v-rr/xi, the previous vowel being 
(a) short as in hw-pn, a-j^ivw-ixL, (b) long as in ^wwv-fjLi^ 
pwi'vu-zAi, or (c) the apparent root is disyllabic as in 
Kepavw-fxi, 7r€Tavvv-/Ai, Kpeixavw-fxi, crKeSdvw-fii. In AttlC 

Greek we should expect not h'-w-fit but el-w-fiL from 


*ues-n-, and this form is found in Homer by the side of 
Iv-vv-iii. Bruomann ' contends that the -o-- 

' ^ _ . , / tvirvfli. etc. 

was restored analogically as m -q^x^Ua-^ai 
etc. and that the new *Io--vi;-/ai was then changed into 
lv-^'v-fJiL. In the same way arose a-f^iv-w-fjiL and 1^wv-vu-ij.l 
from roots ending in -.t. These verbs then formed the 
model for other new formations. No forms in -awu/At 
are old. -rreTOLvvvfjn is found in Aristophanes, the others 
mentioned not earlier than Xenophon and 

, , , Kopivwy-i. etc. 

Plato, while KopevwfxL and a-TopeuwixL are 

very late^ and are formed from iKopeaa, Icnop^aa as 

parallels to the Attic d/^tt^teVvv/xt and rjfxcfyUa-a. 

(/) The last of the -n- stems are the thematic forms 
parallel to those preceding. Here the suffix verbs with 
appears as -7ieuo- and -nuo-. The former is fow^ ' by*' the'- 
seen in iK-veo-'p-ai by the^side of t»caVco {e ii ^atic vowel, 
above), in 6v-ve-(i> (Hesiod) by the side of 6v-v(x}, and in 
vtr-tcrx-v^o-fjiaL by the side of to-^^-ai/w, lo-x-avaw and the 
shorter to-xw, the verb thus originally resembling in 
meaning the English under'-take. The shorter form -nuo- 
is found in <f>6a.voi (= cfyOdvpui), t^Oivw (= <l>6ivpui) and tiVcd 
(cp. Tt-vu-jLtevos in Homer, Odyssey xxiv. 326). The root 
vowel, which is long in Homer, is shortened in Attic, 
exactly as in ^cVo? (for ^eVfo-s). The Latin minuo could 
be phonetically explained as having either form of the 

Many of the -n- suffixes are frequently followed by a 
-io- suffix (§ 487). 

482. ni. Verb stems in -s-. 

Here there is a close parallelism with noun stems, 

1 K. Z. 27, pp. 589—593. 

2 Curtius, Greek Verb, p. 112 ff, 
^ Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 649. 

380 A SHORT :\IANUAL OF [§ 482 — 

the non-thematic -s- stems appearing in three forms 
„ „ ,. -es-, -9S- and -s-. The series of thematic 

Parallelism ' 

between noun verb-forms in -eso- and -so- is better de- 

aiul verb stems. 

veloped than the corresponding noun stems. 

(a) Non-thematic forms except in the aorist are 

Non-thematit ^^0^ found in Greek or Latin. i^Sca, Lat. 

forms m -s-. c'lderam represent an original *{e-)ueid-es-m. 

Cp. also e-Sci^-a and old Latin dit-ti. These forms will 

be discussed under the aorist (§ 502 fif. j. 

{h) Thematic forms are found not unfrequently in 
Thematic forms Greek. They are more rare in Latin. 
'" "*"■ No distinction can be drawn between De- 

nominatives like the Greek TeXe'-w from the noun-stem 
*T€Aeo-- in T€A.os (cp. hiXf-cr-a-a) and the more primitive 
verbs KAa-(cr)-cu (cp. K€-KXa(r-Tai), cr7ra-(cr)-a), Tp-€((r)-a) and 
av^-ui, the suffix no doubt being the same in both noun 
Denominative ^iid verb. In Latin the Denominative verbs 

verb.s in Latin, ^f ^j^-^.j^ ^^^^^ j^ ^j^^ ^^p^ j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

become confused with the contracting verbs in -ciio-; 
hence generdre from the stem genes-, moder-dre from 
the stem seen in modes-tu-s, decor-are, labor-are etc." 
The -s- suffix added to the verb root found elsewhere 
in Latin is seen according to Brugmann" in quaes-o 
{''^= quais-so) by the side of quaer-o, in 67.5-0, in inces-so, 
arces-so, both from the root of ced-o, and in accers-o which 
is confused through identity of meaning with arcesso, ' 
but seems rather to stand for ad-cers-s-o, with possibly 
the same root as is found in Greek (.Tri-Kovp-o-%^ ' one 

' The cause of the confusion must have been the existence of 
-a- stems developed from -s- stems (cp. yive-q by the side of yivo^) 
which later disappeared from Latin except in a few words like 
auror-a, fior-a. 

s Grundr. ii. § 662. ^ Solmsen, A'. Z. 30, p. 600 f. 


who runs up (to help),' and in the English horse, literally 
' courser.' 

The reduplicated forms of this class, which in Skt. 
make the desiderative verbs, are not found elsewhere 
except in Keltic'. 

483. IV. Verb stems in -sko-. 

These are the verbs generally called Inceptive verbs. 
They are formed with a suffix which we 

•' Inceptive verbs. 

have already lound used scantily as a noun 
suffix (§ 381). Brugmann treats this class as a com- 
bination of the -.^- {-es-) of the previous class and the 
suffixes -ko- and -qo-'. He holds that besides the forms 
with -k- there were also in the original language forms 
with -kh-. But tliis requires further investigation. 

In this class there are two types, {a) those in which 
the suffix is added to the simple root, {b) those in which 
the root has reduplication. The second t}^)e is found 
only in Greek and Latin. 

(a) This t)i)e is common in both Greek and Latin. 

Gk. : fSd-CTKOJ, <^a-o"Kw, ySo-CTKw, Xa-cTKU) (for *XaK-(TK(u cp. 

€-\aK-o-v), 0\n]-(TKOi better authenticated as Ovrja-Kw with 
a suffix -lo-Ko- found in cvp-io-Kw etc. The origin of this 
bye-form is not clear. It cannot, however, be separated 
from the ending found in substantives : oIk-lo-ko-s, 
TraLB-icTK-r) etc. Latin : hi-sco, sci-sco, jm-sco-?', po-sco 
(- *porc-sco ; -or- representing -r- and the root being 
the weak grade of that found in prec-o-r, jjroc-u-s : cp. 
German for-schen). misceo stands for *nuc-sc-eid ; cp. 
/xto-yw for *iJ.LK-aKw, -y- appearing through the influence 
of fiiy-vv-fxi. In English wash (= *uat-sko from the root 
in water) and ivish (§ 381) are examples of this for- 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 668. •- Griuidr. 11. § 669. 

382 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 483 — 

In both languages a number of inceptive forms are 
, ,. , found by the side of simpler verb forms, in 

Inceptive by _ -^ _ _ ^ ^ ' 

the side^ of wliich case the inceptive suffix is generally 

simple verbs. ^ . 

added to the suffix found in the sira})le 
verb. Specially noticeable in this connexion are the 
inceptive imperfect and aorist forms found in Homer 
and Herodotus. 

ea-Ke ' he was,' cp. 0. Lat. escit (= est) in the Frag- 
ments of the XH. Tables ; Sta^^ctpeo-Kov, (jievyea-KOv, 
Xd(3ea-Kov. These forms are never augmented. In Latin 
we have forms like alhe-sc-ere by the side of albe-re, 
turge-sc-ere by the side of turge-re, ohdormi-sc-ere by the 
side of dorml-re. The vowel preceding -sc- speedily 
came to be felt as part of the suffix, which is then 
extended in this new form to other stems. Many verbs 
with the -sko- suffix in Latin are formed directly from 
noun-stems : arhor-esc-ere, Ji<imm-esc-ere etc. 

{b) The reduplicated form is found in only one verb 
Reduplicated "^ Latin : disco i^*di-dc-scu) : Gk, St-hd(K)- 
inceptives. ^.^^^^ i^ fg^ Other verbs are found in Greek, 
some of them common : yi-yvw-o-KO), fxi-iivrj-aKu), ^t-/8pw- 
<rK(ti ; others are Homeric : TL-Tv{K)-(TKo-fiai, cp. the bye- 
form Te-ruo-KeTo with reduplication in e, which is shown 

also by e'to-KW (= *f c-f ik-o-kw). 

484. V. Verb stems in -to- (-t-). 

Persson' finds this suffix in nineteen original forms 
amongst which he includes Lat. ver-to (Eng. worth in 
" Woe worth the day ! ") where -t- is ordinarily recog- 
nised as part of the root ; Gk. Sareo/xai ' divide ' (cp. 
8a-t-w), iraTiOfxai (cp, Lat. pci-sco) ; Lat. fateor and 
others. As a present suffix it is found in a few words : 
Gk. TreK-Tw, Lat. pec-to, Eng. fight (Scotch fecht) ; Lat. 
^ Wurzelerweiterung, p. 28 ff. 


plec-to, (jermsLU jieckten. Forms with -t- but without the 
thematic vowel are found only in Aryan'. 

485. VI. Verb stems in -dk- and -d-. 

These suffixes sometimes appear side by side as 
expansions of simpler roots. Thus from the root found 
in the Latin al-o, Gk. av-aA-ro-s ' insatiable ' come 
' expanded ' forms ak-6-o-fxaL, dX-d-mvio and aX-S-o-jxaL, 
dX-8-aLV(ii ; compare /xaX-O-aKo-s, Eng. mild, with d/xaX- 
8-VVW-. In Greek the suffix -dJi- of the present (which 
includes morphologically the second aorist § 479) is 
specially common : (3pi-6o), fxi-vv-doi, (j)Xey-€-Ow, -rrprj-Ow, 
€cr-6u) (and ia-OLio ; root ed- in Lat. ed-o, Eng. eat) ; 
l-a-x'^-Oo-v, i-Kia-Oo-v. In Latin gaud-e-o is apparently 
the same as yrj-Oe-w (=*yd/'-£-^-ea)^). In Greek eA.-8-o/xai 
compared with eA-Tr-t^w shows a -d- suffix (cp. iiXSwp 
'hope'). In Latin sallo 'salt' represents *saldu and 
corresponds exactly to the English word. 

486. A number of other consonant suffixes might 
be postulated, as for example in Gk. gh (x) in a-irep-x-o-fj-ai ; 
Tpv'-xw, cp. rpv'-w, i/^'-xw, cp. ij/dw etc. But none occupy 
such an important position as those already mentioned, 
nor as a rule is the suffix confined to the present, though 
some verbs, on the other hand, show nothing but 
presential forms. 

487. VII. Verb stems in -io-. 

This is a wide-reacliiug series including a considerable 
variety of types. As in the noun formation 

, , T • Verbs with -io- 

we saw that -lo- was the great adjective- suffix mainly 
forming suffix, so in the verb it is the great 
denominative-forming suffix. It thus is pre-eminently a 

* Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 679. 

^ Persson, WurzeUrweiterung, p. 46 f. 

3 Persson, loc. cit. 

384 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 487 

secondary suffix in botli noun and verb. In the noun 
however there were primary forms which contained this 
suffix (§ 402) ; in the verb also it has a primary value. 
In the verb as in the noun the suffix has gradation, cp. 
Lat. cap-iunt and cap-It . 

{a) The suffix is appended directly to the root which 
Primary -io- ^^Y appear in (i) a strong or (ii) a weak 
stems. form. There are also some roots which 

(iii) end in a long vowel (cp. Class I a). 




Xevcrauj ( = *Xei<;f-ia>) 

: cp. -spec-io 

eeivu}^ ( = *Slien-io) 

: cp. fer-io 


Xaipui { = *xf-tw) 

: hor-ior 

^aivu} ( = *gm-id) 

: venio 



: cp. no (inf. nd-re) 

(b) There are a few forms with intensive redupli- 

Reduplicated cation aS aicraoi (=*fai-f tK-iw) and Trop-cftvp-o) 

■ro- stems. ^ ^ *7rop-(j>vp-io)) with which Brugmami com- 

pares in Latin tin-tinnio, an obviously onomatopoetic 

(c) The -io- suffix is secondary, being added after 
Secondary -io- another suffix as (i) -»-, (ii) -s-, or (iii) to 

®*®"^- an actually existing noun stem. 

(i) According to Brugmann" the verbs in Greek 
which have a long vowel preceding -v- are of this origin ; 
Kplvw, kXlvo), opLvu), oTpvvw. The suffix lu tliB form -y.-io- 
is very common in Greek, -aivo- making many new verbs. 
Hence comes Kp-aivw (cp. Kp-oVo-s), but most of these 
forms come from noun stems in -n- (§ 356 ff.). Some- 

1 According to the old theory revived by Conway that -ni- 
becomes -nd- in Latin, -fendo is the exact equivalent of deivu. 
But this theory is at present not proven. 

" Grundr. ii. § 743. 


times -n- is ' infixed ' in the root ; Tnicra-ui (= *7rTtvo--ia)), 
Lat. pins-o. 

(ii) Nearly all forms in -s-^io- are future in mean- 
ing : Lat. pru-r-io seems to be a present from the root 
pru-ina with this double suffix. For the futures see 
§ 491 ff. 

(iii) The noun stem may be of any of the types 
which have been already discussed (§ 344 fF.). Denominatives 
Thus we find from a labial stem x^-'^^'^tw i^i^reek. 
(= *-^aXiir-iM)), from a dental stem ScKa^co (8eKa8-), Kopva-a-m 
{KopvO-)^ from a guttural stem Krjpxxra-u} (ktjpvk-), fxaaTL^w 
{[xaa-TLy-), from an -S-stem TeAetw (Homer), rcAew (TeXecr-) ; 
from -/i-stems TriaiVw, TeKraiVw, TTotfxaii'O}, ovo/i,aivw, after 
which many analogical formations are produced. XeuKatVw, 
TTLKpaivo} etc. ; from -r-stems TeK/^atpco, and parallel to 
forms with thematic vowel l-^OaipM (ixOpo-), yepaipw 
(yepapo-) etc. ; from -^-stems /Ar/vtw, koviw ; from -?^stems 
ax^vw, fJLiOvo} ; /3acriA.€i;w, vo/xevoj ; from -0-stems <^tAe-w, 
Kv/cAe'-w and many corresponding forms ; from -a-stems 
Tretpa-w, TLp.d-u> and a large number of others. As in the 
noun, so in the verb, analogy plays a large part, and most 
suffixes are occasionally or even frequently attached to 
stems, to which they do not originally belong. The 
-o-verbs by the side of -g-verbs in such double forms as 
TToXefjieu) and TroXejxoo}, with a distinction of meaning, seem 
to have arisen in Greece itself 

In Latin the -w-verbs are less disguised and therefore 
more easily traced : saep-io ; custod-io ; Denominatives 
wwr-/o ' cry like a mouse' ; aper-io ; nutri-o '"^^^tiu. 
(cp. nutri-x) ; siti-o, poti-or ; metu-o ; albe-o ; turh-o, 

The -io- type in Latin, though possessing a consider- 
able number of forms, shows but little variety when 
G. P. 25 

386 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 487 — 

compared with Greek. Apart from root verbs like 
rajno, nearly the whole of the Latin -|o-stems fall into 
a few categories. A large number of those which have 
the infinitive in -we are denominatives from -z-stems, 
a second large series are onomatopoetic words expressing 
sounds : gloclre, hlatlre etc., and nearly all the rest are 
desideratives, none of which except esurlre and partu- 
rlre are common and old. Words corresponding to the 
Greek type seen in f^nXi-w are comparatively rare. The 
root verbs in -io- which make the infinitive in -ere (some 
25 in number) it may be observed have always a short 
root syllable : fug-io, mor-ior, jac-io, quat-io, sajJ-io. 
The causes of the difference in treatment between these 
and the verbs which make the infinitive in -Jre are hard 
to discover. The simplest explanation seems to be that, 
apart from denominatives from -*-stems, only those 
verbs belonged originally to the so-called fourth conju- 
gation, which had a long root syllable, the suflix in that 
case appearing as -iio-. The number of verbs which 
conform exactly to the type of audio, and yet have a 
short syllable in the root, is very small, and most of them 
can be easily explained as arising through the analogy 
of forms akin to them in meaning. 

488. (d) We come finally to a series of forms which 
in all Indo-G. languages except Sanskrit are indistin- 
guishable from the -io- stems already mentioned as 
coming from -0- stems. These are the 

fl,ii sft t i V Gs 

and intensives forms uscd Sometimes as causatives, some- 
times as intensives or frequentatives \ The 
form of the suffix is -eio- with the accent on the first 

^ Delbriick points out (I. F. iv. p. 132 f.) that in the Aryan 
languages causatives have regulai-ly a long root vowel, iteratives 
a short one. 


element, while in the denominatives already mentioned 
the accent is upon the -io- syllable. Whether the suffix 
is or is not connected with the suffix in denominatives 
is hard to decide, but, at any rate, no hard and fast line 
can be drawn between the two classes. The intensive or 
frequentative meaning often shades off into the mean- 
ing of the simple verb, because it is a constant tendency 
in language to employ emphatic forms where emphasis 
is not necessary, and consequently to lower emphatic 
forms to the level of the ordinary term : cp. Lat. volare 
and volitare etc. Apart from the original accent pre- 
served by Sanskrit, there is no difierence in form be- 
tween the presents of intensives and denominatives, 
although where the causative meaning exists they can 
be disting-l^ished by signification. The intensives how- 
ever carried their suffix throughout in some form (cp. 
Lat. mon-i-tu-s), while in the denominatives it was 
purely presential. But this distinction was soon ob- 
literated. Examples of this formation with causative 
meaning are in Greek : ^ojS-iw to (f)ef3-o-ixai cp. <f)6/3o'; ; 
(Tofiew to cre(3-o-fj.aL (rt. tie^- 'keep aloof); in Latin, 
mon-eo to me-min-i; noc-eo to nec-o; doc-eo to disco 
(= *di-dc-sco). In English we have parallel forms : fall, 
fell; sit, set etc. The intensive meaning is equally 

common : <f)op-eo) to ^ep-w, cp. 4>6po-<; ; rpoTT-eo) to TpeV-w, 

cp. TpoTTo-s ; o-KOTT-eo) with Its futurc crKi\poiJ.aL from the 
simple verb, cp. o-kotto-s; Latin spond-eo cp. a-n-evhtji ; 
tond-eo cp. rcVSw 'gnaw\' Substantives are not found 
by the side of such verbs in Latin, the interchange of 
-e- and -o- forms between verb and noun being, except 
in a few instances, obliterated. 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 802. 


388 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 488 — 

In the examples cited, the root syllable appears 
with root in always ill the -0- grade, but the root is 
weak grade. occasionally found in its weak form. Brug- 
mann cites ^ Kv-ea> Lat. qiieo (cp. part. i?i-ci-ens = *in-cu- 
iens) and Lat. ci-eo ' call, fetch,' a causative to the form 
found in Kt-w. 

In the Greek poets it is often hard to decide between 
forms in -w and forms in -ew, e.g. between 

Confused in , , / t / i t / i 

Greek withother ttltpo) and TTtTveo), ptTTTW and piTrreo), the 

difference in Attic being only one of accent, 


489. In conclusion it may be observed that in each 
language new categories not represented in the original 
language come to the front. 

An entirely new formation in Greek is the small 
New forma- gTO^^^ of forms Called desideratives and 
*^°"^- ending in -crctw. The Latin forms in -urio 

(§ 487 c. ii.) cannot be directly connected with the Greek. 
The most recent explanation is that of WackernageP 
who holds that the verbs in -o-€tw arise tlirough the 
Greek desidera- running together of a dative case and a 
*"'®^" participle in such forms as oi/^etovres (= oij/ei 

io'i'T€s) 'going for a view,' which precede in time the 
present forms. Other forms of the desiderative occur 
in -taw, ixa6r]Tidoi ' I long to be a disciple ' etc. This type 
is founded on substantives in -td in the first instance. 

490. In Latin the most characteristic independent 
Latin frequen- development is the series of frequentatives 

tatives m -to-. ^^ _f- ^_ .tdid) wliich have the suffix some- 
times reduplicated : cp. dic-o (primary), dic-io (secondary, 
founded on the participle dic-tu-s), dic-ti-to (tertiary). 

1 Grundr. u. § 791. 

2 K. Z. 28, p. 141 ff. 


These verbs are often used merely as the emphatic form 
of the simple verb, although sometimes, as in cogo and 
cogito, the meaning of the simple and the secondary verb 
is quite different. In the later Imperial period, when 
the language is decaying, the straining after emphasis 
becomes greater and the number of forms in -tu and 
-titd steadily increases. 

xxvi. The Future. 

491. How far a future in -sio- was developed before 
the separation of the Indo-Germanic peoples, original future 
it is impossible to say'. The Aryan and ^^ ■*-"'■■ 
Letto-Slavonic groups certainly possess such a future, 
but no Greek or Latin forms need be identified with it. 
The Germanic languages have no future form at all, 
but, when the necessity is felt, develop the future mean- 
ing by the help of an auxiliary verb. In Vedic Sanskrit 
the number of futures in -sio- is very small. 

492. In Greek there is a close connection between 
the conjunctive of the -s-aorist and the The Greek fu- 
fature, and it seems probable that in origin *^*^'^^- 

they are one and the same. If so, Set^w Lat. dixo are 
identical in both form and meaning. It is, however, 
phonetically possible for Sei'fw to represent an original 
future *deik-sid, and as the history of -i- in Latin after 
-s- is still uncertain, dixo may even on this hypothesis 
be the equivalent of Set'^w. The so-called syncopated 
futures in Greek, KaXw, (iakio, etc., arise from the dis- 
appearance of intervocalic -o--, after a vowel sound 
belonging to the root Koki-aw etc. The Greek future 
passive in -O^o-ofiaL (A-Tj^-^j/o-o/xai etc.) is not found in 
1 Cp. E. W. Hopkins in ^. /. P. xiii. p. 1 ff. 

390 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 492 — 

Homer. It is closely connected with the development 
of the passive aorist in -Or]-v (§ 474 b), which is also 
peculiar to Greek. The forms iSofxai, irLOfxai, x^*^, w'hich 
are used as futures, are probably subjunctives of a 
presential (or second aorist) stem. Greek developed 
independently a future from the perfect stem in a few 
instances : ea-nj^w, r^dv-q^oi. It occurs most frequently 
in the middle. 

493. In Latin, apart from old forms like dixo, faxo, 
, ^ . the future is made up of a strange medley 

The Latin fu- ^ . . 

tures are of three of elements from many sources. (1) ero is 
no doubt the old subjunctive of the root 
es-, parallel to the Homeric cw. The future perfect 
forms arise from other verbs in a similar way. Thus 
mdero is parallel to f eiSe'w (= *ueidesd) ; the special mean- 
ing of the future perfect is attached to the form after 
the separation of the Italic group from the original stock. 
(ii) As has been already mentioned, the derivative con- 
jugations form their futures in Latin by composition 
with forms from the root bhU- ; amd-bo, mone-bo, sci-bo. 
(iii) The history of the future of root verbs, legam, 
leges, leget etc., is more difficult. The prevalent view at 
present is that this future is made up of subjunctive 
forms with two different suffixes, the 1st person with -«- 
and the other persons with -e-\ An older view, more 
plausible in some respects but hardly tenable on phonetic 
grounds, was that the forms with -e- in Latin represented 
the original optative: fer-es- (f)epoL<; etc., cp. pomerium 
{% 176). But the change of -oi- to -e- is hardly defen- 
sible in the verb. 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. §§ 924, 926. 


xxvii. The Perfect. 

494. The notion of recently completed action was 
not attached to the perfect forms in the primitive period. 
The meaning was originally merely that of an intensive 
or iterative present, a signification which in Greek it 
has frequently retained: fiefSrj-Ka, ea-Trj-Ka etc., cp. Lat. 
memini, novi etc. 

The perfect is distinguished from other presential 
forms (1) by its reduplication, (2) by its vowel 

. \\ , . ,. "^ '' J Distinctive 

grade, (3) by its pecuhar personal sutnxes. characteristics 

A 1 /e ,_,\ A J- ,• ,• • of the perfect. 

As we have seen (§ 4<7), the distinction in 
suffixes tends to disappear, and the other characteristics 
are not present in every case. Thus ol8a Lat. vldi Skt. 
veda, Eng. icot, has at no time any trace of reduplication. 
Perfects like Lat. cepi sedi with a long vowel and no re- 
duplication seem to go back to the primitive language. 
Distinctions in vowel grade also are not always present'. 
Thus we have yt-yv-o-/xat : ye-yov-a, ye-ya-ju,ev ; fxaiv-o-fxai : 
[xifx-ova^ [j.e-jxa-fxev ; KTetVw : e-KTOv-a (not in Homer), e-Kxa- 
fj-ev (where the augment replaces the reduplication and 
confuses the forms with the strong aorist) ; TreCd-ui : -n-k- 
TTotO-a, ir€-7n6-fj.ev, where such distinctions still remain 
although the weak plurals are, even in the Homeric 
period, being levelled out. But the majority of Greek 
verbs in the classical (though not in the Homeric period) 
make the perfect with a suffix -Ka (-^a) of uncertain 
origin and disregard the original difference of grade. 
Thus Tci'vw makes ri-ra-Ka ; (fyOeLpoj, Ic^Oap-Ka as well as 
€-<fi6opa ; vifjuo^ ve-vk/xYj-Ka ; reXew, TcreXeKa ; ttcc'^w, ttc- 

ireiKa; etc. The Germanic forms (§ 48) seem to show 

1 Latin is of no value for this distinction, its vowels in 
unaccented syllables being reduced throughout to -i-. 

392 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 494 — 

that not only the pkiral forms but also the 2nd person 
singular was weak, but this is not supported by the 
classical languages. 

495. The attempts to find a satisfactory explanation 
Greek perfects ^f -Ka in the Greek perfect have all proved 

"^"'"*' abortive'. It might most naturally be ex- 

pected to begin with verbs whose roots end in -k, e.g. 
oAouAeK-a from oXeK-w by the side of oXwX-a from 6\-Xv-fii, 
but there is not sufficient basis for such an explanation. 
In Homer the twelve simple verbs which form this 
perfect all end in a vowel, a liquid or a nasal, e.g. €-0-77;- 
Ktt, Tre-cj)v-Ka, ^e-/3r]-Ka, Ke-Kfxrj-Ka, ri-Ovq-Ka, ^e-^Xrj-Ka, 
/Se-fSpoj-Ka. In Homer the number of forms from se- 
condary formations is also very small, but in Attic all 
secondary verbs make the perfect in -Ka. Along with 
the perfect forms in -Ka must be considered the aorist 
forms (.-By]-Ka, £-8co-Ka, •:7-Ka^. The Latin /^-c-J seems to 
form an exact parallel to (.-6-q-Ka, and hence Brugmann 
would attribute the formation to a root-determinative in 
the primitive speech, the working of which developed 
greatly in Greek after its separation from the original 
stock ^ 

496. The aspirated perfects with ^, x, from stems 
Greek aspira- ending iu a breathed or voiced stop of the 

ted perfects. game nature, are not found in Homer, and 
in the early classical period only 7re7ro/x(^a and Tirpo^a. 
In the 4th century B.C. they become more common 

^ Osthoff, having argued at great length in his book on the 
Perfect for the identification of the suffix with the particle Kev, 
Doric Ka, soon gave up this explanation and connected it with 
Latin ce in ce-do etc. (Berliner phil. Wochenschrift, 1885, col. 1610). 

" ijveyKa, which is often mentioned along with these three, owes 
its -K- to the root. 

3 Grundr. 11. § 864, 


BeSrjxa, h'rjvoxa, KeKXocjia, ^€/3Aa<^a. They are obviously 
analogical formations, e.g. the perfect of rpee^o) influencing 
that of TpeVcD and changing it from *Te-Tpo7r-a to Te-rpocfi-a. 
Such middle forms as TeTpac^arai (3 pi.) occur even in 
Homer, but must also be analogicaP, forms like ye'ypa^/xac 
from ypd(f)(i> influencing TirpajxixaL from TpeVw in the 
3rd plural by the proportional analogy yeypafxp-aL : 

TeTpa/jL/jiaL = yeypatftaraL : T€Tpd(j>aTaL. 

497. The Latin perfect is an extraordinary example 
of confusion between the original perfect The Latin per- 
and the original -s-aorist. In such forms ^'^^^' 
as vJdJ, cepl, mo-mord-l (for *me-mord-i by assimilation 
of the vowel in the first syllable to that in the second), 
te-tul-l etc., we have remnants of the original perfect 
formation, although the personal ending has been 
changed (§ 465). In dixi, scripsi etc. we have relics of 
the -5-aorist formation. The confusion probably arose 
from two causes, (1) identity of meaning confusion in 
between the two formations, (2) phonetic aonst w?th p'er- 
identity in some forms of the two para- ^^'^^' 
digms. Thus *vides-mos, the 1st plural from the 
aorist whose conjunctive is videro, might phonetically 
become similar to sedimus, a genuine perfect developed 
like Skt. sedhna\ The -s- in the 2nd person of both 
singular and plural is no doubt also derived from the 
aorist, while -tl, the suffix of the 2nd person singular, 
may be a modification of the original perfect suffix -tka. 
The 3rd person singular md-i-t seems to have the suffix 
-e- of the perfect followed by the secondary ending -t 
of the aorist. The forms of the 3rd person plural are 
extremely difficult. The double forms vld-erunt (the 

1 J. Schmidt, A'. Z. 27, p. 309 ff. 

2 J. Schmidt, A'. Z. 27, p. 328. 

394 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 497 — 

penult of whicli is scanned both short and long) and 
vld-ere have possibl)^ different origins. Forms like 
dedrot (= dederunt) on inscriptions seem to show that 
the penult of the type mderunt was originally short 
(cp. steterunt in the poets). The form may therefore be 
that of the -so-aorist with the sufhx -nt representing an 
earlier *iudeso-?it. The type vldere is conjectured to 
have original -r- and to be connected with Sanskrit 
forms of the 3rd plural which show -r- in both active 
and middle. Many other views on this form have been 
propounded, but they only show^ that our material is too 
scanty to warrant any dogmatic statement as to its 

498. The Latin perfects in -ti and -lu stand by 
Latin perfects themselves. The conjecture of Schulze' 

m -vt- and -ui. ^Y\2X the -i'Z-forms arose from a combina- 
tion of the old perfect participle in -ves with the sub- 
stantive verb (*seves smos gi^^ng sevimus, *seves stes, 
sevistis, and the forms being then generalised for all 
persons) and Deecke's recent revivaP of the old explana- 
tion that -vi is the medial form of fui have little to 
recommend them. Nor are serious difficulties absent 
from Brugmann's explanation which starts from mov-i, 
juv-i and makes plevi, flevi etc. to be formed by analogy 
through the parallelism between motus, jiitus and pletus, 
detus, while genul is (after geni-tu-s) for *gene-iu^. 

xxviii. Past Formations. 

499. Of the tenses of past time only one requires 
detailed treatment — the aorist. The imperfect and 

1 K. Z. 28, p. 266 £f. 

- Lateinische Schul-GrammntiJi, § 146 ff. 

3 Grundr. 11. § 875. Cp. Chadwick, B. B. xx. p. 273. 


the pluperfect, as far as their stems are concerned, have 
already been discussed under their presential forms. 

500. The imperfect according to our classification 
will also include the Greek second or strong aorist, for, 
as we have seen (§ 479), there is no difference in forma- 
tion between such aorists and certain present forms, 
except that in the indicative they have as a rule an 
augment and secondary personal endings. 

The only forms in Greek which require notice are 
new forms used as passive aorists : i/3dXr]v, Greek 2n(i 
Irpdir-qv etc. These have already been ex- '^"**^ passive. 
plained as arising on the analogy of preterite forms like 
€-cjir]-v and l-^-q-v. They are therefore by origin really 
members of the active voice. 

501. In Latin all imperfects are made by a suffix 
-ham. This suffix is now generally recog- ^atin imper- 
nised as being derived from the root hhu- ^^^'^^ ™ '*^'"' 
{hheu-), although its phonetic history is not without 
difficulty. It seems better to recognise in it with 
Thurneysen^ an old aorist *bkudiim which became in 
the primitive period *bhdm, Italic *fdm, whence medially 
-ham, than to find with Brugmann^ the root determinative 
-d- in the form. The first part of the form is an 
infinitive are-bam, 0. Lat. sci-bam, on the analogy of 
which amd-bam etc. were formed, scie-bam is a later 
formation than scl-bam, on the analogy of -e- verbs. 
Lat. eram is not the phonetic representative of *es-m, 
Gk. ea augmented ^a ; -am appears in er-am {— *es-em) 
on the analogy of -bam ^. 

^ B. B. vm. p. 285 ff. But even in this form the -a- is hard 
to explain. 

2 Grundr. 11. § 583. 

2 According to Bartholomae {Studien z. idg. Sprachgeschichte, 

396 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 502 — 

502. The -s- aorists play an important part in the 
The -s- aorists ^^•''^0^7 of the Aryan, Greek and Slavonic 
groups ; in the other languages such forms 
as occur are obscured by intermixture (as in Latin) with 
forms originally distinct. The -s- element, which appears 
also as -es- and -ds-, is apparently the same as exists in 
Group III. of the present formations (§ 482). The 
indicative is generally augmented and in Greek is for 
the most part an historical tense. 

As in the present formations with -s-, the aorist has 
History of the botli thematic and non-thematic forms. 
S^'^he indlcl' Tlie latter owing to the weak form of the 
*^^® suffix in the singular of the indicative might 

be expected to show a long vowel or diphthong in the 
root syllable, and such forms are actually found in 
Sanskrit. Greek, however, has ceased to make any such 
distinction, although in Latin 7'ea'i, texi etc. may be 
relics of it. From the root ^deik- the original forms of 
the singular and plural would on this theory be as 
follows : 


*diks-me (cp. § 464) 





From this Greek has constructed its paradigm eSci^a 
etc., losing the long diphthongs phonetically, levelling 
out the weak forms of the plural and extending the -a 
of the 1st person singular to the other persons. eSet^as 
for *£8et^ and eSei^e for "^eSei^ {-kst becoming -ks phonetic- 

II. p. 63 ff.) eram etc. are developments of original aorist forms in 
-(7/-, with a weaker grade -3|- which became -t-. Hence Lat. -bus 
would represent *-b}mnis, -hat *h}iudit, -i- disappearing in long 
diphthongs (§ 181 note). 0. Lat. fuels, fuat etc. come from a bye- 
form *bhuudis, *bhuuait with loss of -i-. 


ally) were no doubt brought into being by the influence 
of the perfect forms. In forms like eo-TT/o-a, irLfn^a-a etc. 
-0-- was retained by the force of analogy from such forms 
as erpeij/a, iTrefjupa etc. (cp. § 322), where -cr- is phonetic- 
ally retained, *e-ueidesm however having no presential 
form ; but oTSa was isolated and the form passed into 
*€-feiS€a, ^8ea, y8r}. The Homeric aorists Sckto, Iixlkto 
etc. are -s- aorists, and represent 8e/c-o--To, IfxiK-cr-To etc., 
-0-- phonetically disappearing between two stop con- 

503. The thematic forms are regularly found in 
the subjunctive : oetfw etc., and in some imperatives : 
otcre 'bring' (cp. fut. olaw), as well as in the Homeric 
' mixed ' aorist Kare^T^o-eTo, Ihva-ero and the like, the 
meaning of which is often that of the imperfect ^ 

Greek develops many aorist forms to ty^e?> which 
should be presential only. Thus iKptva, eStSa^a, dvofx-qva, 

■^p-n-aaa as well aS 77p7ra^a (apTray-) etc. 

504. The stronger form of the suffix -es- is found 
in ^Sea mentioned above, in iKope(T-Or]<; and Aorist stems 
other forms of these two types, while -0s- i^ -««■ ai"i -^s-. 
appears in eo-KeSacr-^T;? etc. (§ 474 6)^, and commonly in 
Sanskrit. Brugmann* postulates for Latin vldis-tis etc. 
an aorist in -Is- ; but this seems doubtful. 

505. The remaining preterite forms are develop- 
ments within the separate history of the individual 

1 A new theory of these aorist forms has been propounded by 
Mr F. W. Walker (Class. Rev. vii. 289 ff.). who holds that -s-forms 
of a non- thematic subj. and future combined with an -s- optative 
and -s- infinitive produced in ' Graeco-Italian ' the -s- indicative 
with the personal endings of the perfect. 

* Monro's Homeric Grammar^, § 41. 

3 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. §§ 836, 840. 

4 Grundr. 11. § 841. 

398 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 505 — 

languages. In the original language there was appa- 
rently no sucli form as a pluperfect. 

506. The Greek pluperfect forms arise, no doubt, 
Greek piuper- through the influence of ^8fa by the side of 

feet forms. ^^g^^ fj.^^ ^}^g addition of the aorist suffix 

-es- to the perfect stem. Hence e-7re7rot^-e(o-)-a, i-TreirotOr] 
(the ending in good Attic is -rj) ; CTreTroi^eas, eVeTroi^Tj? ; 
eTreTTot^ee, lTr(.iroi6u{v). The plural sliould be in *-e(T-fxeu, 
*-€cr-Te, -ea-av (as in the aorist), but from the 3rd 
plural new forms in -^fxev, -ere are made for the other 
persons'. The long forms of the singular lead to a 
confusion in the later Attic, so that -et/x€v, -eire, -eiaav 
are introduced in the plural, and -eiv in the 1st person 
singular -. 

507. The Latin pluperfect forms are parallel to the 
Latin piuper- Greek development ; vJderam being an 

feet forms. obvious Counterpart to -rjSea. The form of 

the ending -a7n is difficult. The simplest explanation 
seems to be that it comes by proportional analogy from 
eram ; ero : videro = eram : videram^. 

The future perfect forms in Latin have already been 
discussed (§ 493). 

xxix. The Moods. 

508. From the primitive period there existed, apart 
from the formations already considered, two sets of 
forms having separate formative suffixes, and in the one 

1 Brugmann, Grundr. 11. § 836. 

- Cp. Rutherford, New Phnjnichus, p. 229 ff. Wackerncagel 
{K. Z. 29, p. 126) holds that the plural became phonetically 
ydeifiev, *T]d£ffTe and analogically ydeire. 

^ Bartholomae {Studien, 11. p. 118) gets forms like vider-d-s etc. 
direct from an aorist stem (cp. § 501, n. 3). 


paradigm generally primary, in the other secondary 
endings. These two gToups of forms are the subjunctive 
and optative. In them difference of forma- subjunctive 
tion is easier to discern than difference of ^^'^ Optative, 
meaning. Both groups are used in senses closely akin 
to the future as well as in other significations, as 
deliberation, wishing and the like (§ 558 ff.). These 
subjunctive and optative forms exist side by side with 
indicative formations from present, perfect and aorist 
types. In most languages these forms are dying out 
from the earliest historical period. They are still extant 
to a considerable extent in Vedic Sanskrit, but the 
subjunctive as such disappears in the Sanskrit classical 
period, although its 1st persons remain with an impera- 
tive value. Greek is the only language which retains 
subjunctive and optative distinct and with separate 
values ; aU other langiiages either like Latin confuse 
the forms together or lose one or both of the paradigins. 

509. (a) The distinction between indicative and 
subjunctive cannot always be easily drawn. Thematic Sub" 

In Homer forms like aAywV-e-Te, ayeip-o-uev, from non-the- 
' ' ; / ; I y matic Indjc. 

a/i.eti/'-c-Tat are frequently not futures but, 

as is shown by the context, aorist subjunctives. Cp. 

also toyu.€v (= Attic LOifxev), 7r€7rot^-o-/u,cv etc. 

Hence we may conclude that non-thematic stems 
make their subjunctives originally b}^ means of the 
thematic vowels : e, which in other verbs are used to 
make the indicative. In Attic these forms have been 
replaced by others, but eS-o-/xat, 7ri-o-/, yiui remain as 
futures (§ 492). To this category belong in Latin : ero, 
dixo etc., cp. xldero (§ 493). 

510. {h) The question as to the suffix for stems 
with a thematic vowel is more difficult. Brugmann 

400 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 510 — 

would recognise for such stems two suffixes -a- and -e- 
Subj. of the- ("^■) '' ^oth suffixes appearing in Latin : 
matic stems. fer-cis and fer-es, but -e- alone in Greek, 
(*(fi€pr]<;, *<f>ipr] which become, on the analogy of the indica- 
tive, <j>epi]<s, ii^pv 6tc.) with -0- interchanging : (fiep-u)-p.ev. 
There are however many other views, perhaps the most 
prevalent being that the type ^epr/s is the original one, 
and that ferds is a form whose -a- is borrowed from 
some other type such as -bam, -bds etc." But this 
analogy seems unlikely to influence the subjunctive. 
In the long vowels of these forms it seems as likely^ 
that we have to recognise an Indo-Germanic contraction 
of a vowel suffix with the thematic vowel precisely as 
we have seen it in such case forms as the ablative and 
dative singular (§§ 310-11). No analysis of the forms 
can at present claim to be final. The 3rd plural of both 
active and middle keeps its long vowel through the 
analogy of the other persons ; phonetically, <^epwvTt 
(whence Attic ^epwcrt) and (^epwvTat should shorten the 
vowel before the double consonant. 

1 Grundr. u. § 918. 

" Thurneysen, B. B. viii. 269 ff. Wackemagel {K. Z. 25, 267) 
holds that the -a- forms begin with such as ster-nd-mns, si-std-mus, 
which are paralleled by the Doric dtj-va.-/xai, Arcadian icrrd-Tai. 

3 J. H. Moultou {A. J. P. X. p. 285 f.) holds that there was 
but one mood-sign in the subj. -(7-. The formations were anterior 
to contraction, and in non-thematic formations the subj. having 
always a thematic vowel before -a- preserved only types like 
*ueul-o-mos (perf.), *leiqs-e-the {-s- aorist), *tn-neu-o-nti (pres.), 
the unaccented mood-sign having vanished altogether. In 
thematic verbs with accent on the thematic vowel we have 
*uidd-d-mos, *uide-9-the, whence *uidomos, *uidethe, fldufiev, fiST^re ; 
with accent on root, -d- kept its own accent, whence *bhero-a-inos, 
*bhere-d-the ; *bherdmos, *bherdthe. 


511. In the Greek subjunctive man}' analogical 
forms appear. Thus in Homer we find Analogy in 

(1) UT-q-o-ix^v, ^X-rj-c-rai, rpainj-o-fxev etc, forms of Subj. 

where the suffix is added as in eS-o-fxai, Tvi-o-ixai instead 
of contracting with the root vowel, (2) the long form of 
the suffix added to the long vowel of the root 6-qri, 
yv<or]<;, yvcowcri, Sa/AT^T^s, (3) forms in -W-, where owing to 
the suffix vowel a different form might be expected, 

6vv(DfJiaL, lirLUTdifxaL instead of Swd/xat, iiriaTdfiaL (in Attic 
*Bvvy]/JLai, *€7ricrTr;/\ 

512. The special suffix of the optative appears in 
two different forms; (1) as -ie- strong, -7- „. 

' ^ ' ■ . The optative 

weak with stems where there is no thematic ?"fli^ of two 


vowel, (2) as -i- with thematic forms. Hence 
with the weak form of the root which is regular in the 
optative of non-thematic stems ; Sing. opt. of non- 
^s-ie-ni from the root es-, *st9-ie-m from the thematic stems. 
root std- ; Plural *s-~i-me, *sU[-me: Greek en/f (for 
*es-ie-m with the strong form of the root), pi. etrjfxev on 
the analog}' of the singular ; araLijv, pi. a-Toifxev ; Lat. 
siem (Plautus) = *siiem, pi. s-J-mus ; stem, pi. stemus. 
It seems most probable that amem, amemus etc. are 
made analogically after such forms as ste)7i, sternum. 
dem can hardly be the phonetic representative of the 
Greek 8oir]v ; this ought rather to be found in the 
old form du-im for *di(,-em, like sim for *sie?7i, ed-im for 
*ed-iem etc. 

513. The forms from -s- aorists are preserved in 
their original shape in a few instances by optative of -s- 
both Latin and Greek ; elSetrjv (= *f etSeo-- '^°"**^- 

irj-^), Lat. vlderim. But the ordinary Greek aorist 

optative, such as Set^ai/xt, is a new formation, as is shown 

1 G. Meyer, Gr. Gr.- § 580 ff. 

G. P. 26 

402 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 513 — 

(1) by its primary ending, and (2) by its having the 
diphthong at, which is obviously borrowed from the 
a (= m) of the 1st person singular of the indicative. The 
so-called Aeolic aorist forms Sci'feta?, Set'^etc, 3 pi. Sct^etav 
may be a late formation corresponding to the Skt. -sis- 
aorist, which arises by a reduplication of the -s- element ; 
Sci^ttav = *8etKo-e(o-)tai/. The other persons are probably 
analogical. The Old Latin dixim etc. represent more 
accurately the original type. The only Greek optatives 
of the perfect which preserve the original tj^e are such 
as T(6vat7ji', k(TTaiiqv, where the root ends in a vowel'. 

514. The Thematic tyi)e -i- combines with the 
Opt. of the- thematic vowel -0- into a diphthong -oi-. 

matic' stems. TheGreek original type is (/.ep-o-t-a (-a for m), 
^cp-oi-9, (f)€-p-oL etc. <f)€poLfxi and (fiipouv (for *<^6potvT) are 
new formations. This type occurs in all thematic forms 
of the present ; in the future Trava-oifxi, TravcroLfjiyjv etc., 
which are, however, formations within the sei)arate his- 
tory of Greek ; and generally in the perfect when the 
optative is not formed by a periphrasis as in TveiravKU)'; 
eirjv etc. 

515. In Latin there still remain two series of forms 
Latin imper- ^0 be discussed — the imperfect subjunc- 

fect ""'subjiufc- tives turbdrem, viderem, legerem, audlrem 
*^^®- etc. and the pluperfect subjunctives tur- 

hassem (and turbavissem), vidissejn, legissem, audissem 
and audivissem etc. There are also some old forms tur- 
bassit and the like. Of the origin of these forms nothing 
can be said to be definitely known, (i) Brugmann holds 
that they are fragments of the -s- aorist with the sub- 

^ Only roots ending in a vowel with the exception of one or 
two forms like dr]v, eldely^v preserve the unthematic forms intact. 
The others change to the thematic type. 


junctive -^-suffix'. In vid^-re-m, according to this 
theory, -e- appears first as a formative _. 

•' ' ^ t^ _ _ Three views of 

suffix vid-e- and next as a snbiunctive suffix, their deveiop- 

. ment. 

-se- becoming -re- ; in vidis-sem we have 
the same subjunctive suffix appended to the aorist stem: 
dixissem arises from a transference of the ending of 
vidissem to dixim'; turhassim is formed on the analogy- 
offaccim etc. (ii) Stolz^ attempts to grapple with these 
difficult forms by starting from sta-i-em for the imperfect 
subj., which he identifies with {l)(TTrj<Ta and takes as an 
injunctive in meaning (cp. § 520). Upon its analogy he 
supposes other forms to be made. Such forms as dixissem 
according to him correspond to the Skt. aorists in -sis- 
where the -s- suffix is apparently reduplicated. But 
such Skt. forms are rare and late, so that the Latin 
forms ought to be an independent development, (iii) 
Another possible explanation of these forms is that they 
are formed of a noun in the locative or instrumental, 
with the optative of the substantive verb in its short 
form *siem, whence -se/n*. If so vide-rem, es-sem, legis- 
sem (with -e- after legt) are the original types on the 
analogy of which other forms are built up ; vide- is the 
infinitive form found in vide-bam etc., leffis- the suffix- 
less substantive found in the infinitive leger-e (= *leges-i 
§ 280). This explanation also, however, has some pho- 
netic difficulties. 

516. As aheady mentioned (§ 302) the original im- 
perative, like the vocative, was the stem rpj^g impei-a- 
without any suffix. But from the primitive ^^^^• 

1 Gnmdr. 11. § 926. - Gruiidr. 11. § 841. 

3 Lat. Gr.- § 112. 

* P. Giles, Transactions of Cambridge Philological Society, 
1890, p. 126 ff. 


404 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 516 — 

period certain particles were suffixed to this stem, for 
otherwise the sameness of development in widely sepa- 
rated languages could hardly be explained. But besides 
these early forms most languages have attached an 
imperative signification to other forms not only verbal 
Five stages of ^^^^ ^^'^^ nominal. Thus in the classical 
development, languages we find at least five strata of 
imperative formations. 

517. (i) The stem whether {/() without, or (b) with 

a thematic vowel. This distinction hardly 

i. The Impera- ,..-,• 

tive is the bare applies lu Latin, where almost all verbs 

stem. , , 

have become thematic. 

(a) l-a-nq, Kpy/x-VT], TTLjx-Trpr], SeLK-vv. Forms like Tidei, 
Ul, 8180V are formed on the analog^" of stems with a 
thematic vowel. Lat. es ' be ' possibly belongs to this 
category ; Lat. I ' go ' = *ei. 

(h) <t>€p€, aye, tSe' etc. Lat. fe?-, age, lege etc. In 
forms like ra2ye, ccqye we seem to have the reduced form 
of the -io- suffix becoming e (cp. mare ' sea ' for *mari), 
and ^vith these must be compared sarcl,farcl, audi etc. 
(§ 487). The historj' of the types ama, tide is doubtful ; 
they may represent *amaie, *videie or be original non- 
thematic forms from the types *amd-mi, *vide-mi (cp. 
>5 480 n. 2). The latter seems more probable. 

518. (ii) With a suffix *-d/ii. Such imperatives 
ii. The Impera- ^^^ fouud in the Aryan, Greek and Letto- 

the*matfc^^ stem Slavonic gToups only, and there with none 
+dh!. ij^^j- non-thematic stems. This suffix was 

probably an adverb originally^. Examples are common. 

1 The accent of the five oxytone imperatives eiV^, i\9e, evpe, 
154, \a^i is that which such imperatives originally had at the 
beginning of the sentence (Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 958). 

2 Brugm. Grundr. 11. § 959 after Thurneysen. 


k\v-6i, K£-K/\i'-^t, Te-rXa-OL, (rrrj-di, yvw-Oi, l-Ol but e$-€t 

(Aristoph. Clrmds 633'), lo-^i (=*Fl8.6l), XaOi 'be' 
= *(t-Ol-. Zend z-di, 8l-8o)-0i, IXrj-di, 6p-w-6i etc. From 
second aorists like Tpd-rr-q-Oi, <f)dvr]-OL it is attached to the 
new 1st aorist passive vdth. dissimilation of -0- into -r- 
after the preceding aspirate : Xdc^O-q-n etc. 

519. (iii) With the suffix -*tod, the ablative of the 
pronoun. Thus ^'hhere-tod would mean ... „^ , 
ormnially ' bring from that, ' brino- here, perative is the 

rni° P P • • r^ 1 i Stem +^5d. 

ihis t3'pe 01 formation is confined to the 

Sanskrit, Greek and Italic branches. It is used \\\\\\ 

(a) non-thematic and (b) thematic stems indifferently. 

(a) ecr-Tw, Lat. es-to; i-toj, but Lat. l-fo {~*ei-tdd); 
fjLe-ixd-T(j), Lat. me-men-to. In the non-thematic forms 
the stem, if it has stem-gTadation, is generally weak. 

(h) (ftepe-Tw, but Lat. fer-to possibly non-thematic ; 
aye'-Tw, Lat. ag't-to etc. That these forms could be used 
for either 2nd or 3rd person is a natural result of the 
original value of the imperative, which, having no per- 
sonal endings, may be used for any person and is practi- 
cally equivalent to an interjection. 

520. (iv) With the use of injunctive, i.e. unaug- 
meuted indicative forms with secondary j^. injunctive 
endings, we reach the possibility of making ^ imperative, 
a dual and plural to the imperative. Thus in Greek 
6i<;, 86s, £9, cr;(C5 seem to be the 2iid singular of such 
unaugmented forms, but in the first three we should 
expect *Or]s, *Saj?, *^s. A Latin form of the same type 
is the conjunction vel for *vel-s, literally 'wish you!' 

1 Doubted by some critics. Veitch (Greek Verbs) takes it as a 
present with fut. sense. 

- 10- = original 2- before -dhi, according to Thurneysen's 
theory, A'. Z. 30, p. 351 ff. 

406 A SHORT RLA.NUAL OF [§ 520 — 

According to Brugmann ', fer ' bring ' belongs to the 
same category, and he supposes that on this analogy 
die, due and fac are made. But all four may also be 
explained as ordinary imperatives with final -e dropped, 
like kic for *hi-ce, sic etc. 

Corresponding middle forms are used regularly in 
both languages for the imperative : tlius Ittco (Ittou), 
Lat. sequere = *seqe-so. 

521. (v) Having thus obtained a complete series 
V. Later de- 0^ forms for the 2nd person we can see 

veiopments. Yiqv: it was possible for the imperative to 
develope corresponding forms for the 3rd person. The 
form with -tod, 4>ep^-T(ii fer-to, engrafts itself permanently 
as the form for the 3rd person, and through its influence 
the dual of the injunctive is modified in Greek from 
4>€p€-T7)v to 4)€p€-T(xiv (a Very rare type). In the plural 
^epoiTwv — the only good Attic form till Aristotle's time 
— seems to arise from an injunctive *<fi€pov, followed by 
the -Tio suffix and with the ending of the 3rd plural 
added on again, thus making, as it were, a plural to the 
form (fiepi-TOi. The Latin fer-unto represents a corre- 
sponding form without final -». The 2nd plurals agi- 
to-te etc. in Latin show how the -tod sufiix had become 
fixed in the paradigm. The later Attic type (f)€peTU}-(rav 
is a pluralising of the singular (f>€piTUi by the suffix -a-av, 
which at this time began to encroach also on other areas, 
as in the Hellenistic eXa^oo-av for e\a(3ov. 

522. The middle forms of Greek are somewhat more 

^ Grundr. 11. § 505 and § 958 n. fer on this theory is the 
regular phonetic representative of original *bher-s through the 
stage feis by assimilation, while Lat. fers 2 sing. pres. is a new 
formation on the analogy of other 2nd persons ending in -s. Cp. 
however, Solmsen Studien z. d. kit. Sprache 5, 185. 


difficult. cf)€pe(r6(jj seems to arise from the analogy of 
act. <f>epeT€ and ct^ipea-ee, producing a new ^^^^^ ^^.^^j,^ 

form bv the side of (iepeVoj. d>tp€(r6wv, <±>e- forms of the Im- 
•' ^ ' , , . \ perative. 

peaOaiaav are made from the singular in the 
same way as (ftepovrtav. The Greek forms for the 2nd 
person singular of the -s- aorist, both active and middle 
{Seizor, Setfai), are not yet explained. Both seem noun 
forms (infinitives). 

523. The Latin forms of the 3rd person in the 
passive seem to be merely the active form ■^^^^J^ Passive 
with the passive sign appended : ferto-r, imperatives. 
agito-r ; ferimto-r, agunto-r. The 2nd plural legimini 
etc. is now generally explained as being an infinitive 
used in an imperative sense, as so often in Greek ; if so, 
legimini is identical with Homeric infinitives in -/xciai, 
Xtye-fj-evai, and is not the same as the 2nd plural of the 
present, which is a participle = Xcydjaevot. The singular 
form in -mind {prae-famino etc.), found in old Latin, 
seems an analogical formation founded on this. 

XXX. Verbal Nouns. 

524. Although the formation of the verbal nouns — 
the infinitives and participles — has already been dis- 
cussed in its proper place under the stem formation of 
the Noun, it will be according to custom and at the 
same time convenient to briefly enumerate here the 
forms which are found in the classical languages. 

The Infinitive. 

525. The infinitive is merely a crystallised noun 
form which, ceasing to be connected with infinitives are 
the other noun forms of the type to which '^^^ forms. 

408 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 525 — 

it belongs, is gradually extended to other uses than 
those which originally belonged to it as a noun fomi. 
In the various Indo-Germanic languages practically any 
case including the nominative can be used as an infinitive. 
The classical languages however restrict themselves to a 
few cases. Greek affects the dative and locative, Latin 
the accusative, dative and locative. In Latin the accu- 
sative forms are called supines, but they differ from 
other infinitives only in the limitation of their use to 
accompany verbs of motion (cp. § 333, (1) d). The in- 
finitive, by its origin, can have nothing to do with the 
distinction between active, middle and passive, and the 
specialisation of particular forms to particular voices 
must be therefore comparatively late. 

526. The Greek dative forms are all infinitives 
Greek dative wliich end in -ai ; (i) from non-thematic 
Infinitives. g^g^^^ Y[\q lard-vai, (jxi-vai, BovyaL (= 80-f cv- 

at), from the last of which (a -ueti- stem) and its like 
the type seems to have arisen when the F had disap- 
peared and to have been carried on to other forms', 
including the perfects yeyov-irai, TmravK- evai etc.; (ii) 
forms from -jx^v- stems as in the Homeric infinitives in 
-fxevat, Sofjuvai ; (iii) from -5- stems as in the first aorist 
8eL$aL etc. The middle and passive forms belong either 
to (i) if passive aorists : ^avrjvai, XeLtjidrjvai, or have a 
separate form (iv) ending in -Oai or a-Oai : lara-a-OaL, 
XeiTrea-Oai, SeLKvv-cr-6ai ; Xvira-a-OaL, Xva-i-cr-Oai ; 7re(f}di'-6ai, 
TCTpa<^-^at etc. The simplest explanation of the forms 
in -a-dai is Bartholomae's", that forms like Xeyecr-Oai are 

J G. Meyer, Gr. Gr.^ § 597. In Sofevai, Cypr. dvfavoi the /may, 
as Hoffmann thinks, belong to the root. 

^ Rheinisches Museum, xlv. p. 151 ff. Brugmann explains 
these forms somewhat differently, supposing that the type begins 


really compoimds, Xe-yes- being the locative without 
suffix and -^at a dative from a root noun identical with 
the root of Ti-B-q-fxi. 

527. (v) In Homer forms of the type 8o-/acv are 
locatives without suffix, (vi) The ordinary Greek locative 
infinitive in -etv is difficult. It is appa- infinitives. 
rently a contraction of the thematic vowel -e- with the 
-e- vowel of a suffix, but whether this suffix was -uen or 
-sen is not clear. The latter is, however, more probable, 
for the suffix could then be identified with the Skt. 
infinitive sufiix -san-i, and there is less difficulty in the 
early contraction of the vowels. 

528. (i) The Latin present infinitive active ends 
in -re, and is the original locative of an -^^^^^ jncmi. 
-s-stem, regere in the verb being exactly ^i^es Active. 
parallel to genere {= *genes-i) in the substantive, (ii) 
The history of the perfect infinitive is not clear. Old 
forms such as dixe^ may possibly represent the same type 
as the Greek Set^ai, but the history of such forms as 
legisse, rexisse, vidisse, amasse and amavisse, audivisse 
etc. is as obscure as that of the corresponding forms of 
the pluperfect subjunctive, (iii) With regard to the 
forms of the future infinitive active there has been 
much dispute. Till recently the received explanation 
was that the so-called future participle was a derivative 
from the -tor stems found in the noun, that e.g. recturus 
was a derivative from rector. It was however recognised 
that the phonetic change of -or into -iir- was insuffi- 
ciently supported by the parallel between ^wp and fur, 
and various other attempts at explanation were made. 

with the stem et'Ses- in etSecr-^ai and is then extended to other 
forms as -cBai (Grundr. 11. § 1093, 8). 

1 For -e (instead of -i) cp. now Solmsen I. F. iv. p. 240 ff. 

410 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 528 — 

Dr Postgate' points out that the infinitive with the 
indecHnable form -turum is earlier than that with the 
decHnable participle, and argues that such a form as 
facturum arises from a combination of facta with an 
Infinitive in -om from the substantive verb which, though 
no longer found in Latin, is still found in Oscau and 
Umbrian. This infinitive *es-om becomes according to 
the Latin rhotacism *er-om, *er-utn, and contracts with 
the preceding word (which ends in a vowel) into one 

529. (iv) To this hypothetical Latin infinitive, 
Latin Supines, wliich would be the accusative of an -0- 

stem, we have a living parallel in the so-called supine, 
which is the accusative of a -tu- stem, the locative case 
of which (v) is used with adjectives of certain classes, 
facile dictu literally ' easy in the telling ' etc. As in the 
case of the other infinitives, the supine in -um has 
nothing characteristic of the active voice, the supine in 
-u nothing characteristic of the passive. Eo amhulatum 
is literally ' I go walking,' facile dictu passes without 
difficulty from ' easy in the telling ' to ' easy to tell ' and 
' easy to be told.' 

530. (vi) The present infinitive of the passive is 
Latin infini- ^^ old dative case : agl = *ag-ai. The 

tives Passive. present infinitive in all conjugations has 
the same suffix, although in the derivative verbs it seems 
like the active suffix in -re to be added by analogy. 
The relation between this infinitive and the passive 
infinitive in -ier, amarier etc. is uncertain. The most 
plausible explanation is that the infinitive in -ier is a 
mixture of the infinitives in -I and in -ere, the latter 
1 I. F. IV. p. 252, an elaboration of earlier papers in Class. Rev. 
V. p. 301 and elsewhere. 


being curtailed to -er. This, which is the view of Stolz', 
is however not generally accepted. The other passive 
infinitives in Latin are periphrastic : esse with the per- 
fect participle passive, and for the future the accusative 
supine with the present infinitive passive of eo, actum 
iri etc. This form, however, occurs but rarely. 

(vii) According to most recent authorities, legimini 
the 2nd person plural of the imperative is an infinitive 
(§ 523). 

531. (viii) Amongst the verbal nouns must also be 
reckoned the gerund. Whether this noun Latin Gerund, 
form was the original from which the genindive participle 
was developed, agendum, for example, being changed 
into agend-us, -a, -um, or whether the gerund is but the 
neuter of the participle crystallised into a substantive is 
still sub judice. The difficulties of the formation have 
already been referred to (§ 194). 


532. Participles in the various Indo-Germanic lan- 
guages are made from a considerable number of different 
stems. In the formation of participles Latin and Greek 
are more closely akin than usual. 

533- (i) The most frequent suffix for active parti- 
ciples is -nt-. The stem had originally Participles in 
gradation, but this has in both languages ""^■' 
almost disappeared (§ 363). The formation of the pre- 
sent participle in both the classical languages is alike ; 
4>€povTa : ferentem = 7r68a : pedem. Latin has of course 

^ Lat. Gr.^ § 117. Brugmann holds the somewhat improbable 
theory that -er in such forms is the unaccented preposition ar (in 
ar-vorsum, ar-fuere, ar-hiter) appended to the infinitive as in the 
Germanic languages to is set before it. 

412 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 533 — 

110 aorist and no future participle of the types found in the 
Greek XuVas and Xva-wv. The Greek passive participles 
of tlie types ^aj/eis and Xv6eL^ are like the rest of the 
formation a special Greek development. 

534- (ii) The sufhx of the perfect participle active 
Perfect parti- ^^'^^ Originally in -uos- with gradation 

cipieact. ^g 353)/ rpj^j;, -^ stilf preserved in Greek 

€tSw's, dBvla, but confused with a -t- formation in the 
oblique cases of the Masc. and Neut. etSoVa, tiSoVos etc. 
The perfect participle active is entirely lost in Latin 
but preserved in Oscan (§ 353). 

535- (iii) The suffix of all middle participles in 
Participles in Greek is -/xevo- (§ 400). This suffix or its 

■meiio; -mono-, bye-fomi -moiio- is found in the form used 
for the 2ncl person plural of the present passive in Latin, 
on the analogy of which other forms are made (^ 49). 
536. (iv) The forms in -to-, which survive in Latin 

Participles in ^^ ^^^^ regular perfect participle passive, 
-;o- and -ffMo-. \^QyQ originally nothing to do with the 
perfect. Greek keeps many forms with the same sense 
as the Latin gerundive, but in both languages some old 
forms such as k\vt6<;, incUtus, and others are purely 
adjectival. Closely akin in meaning to the -to- form in 
Greek are the forms in -j^Fo- (§ 403), with which again 
the isolated form in Latin mortuus may be connected. 
537* (v) The forms for the future participle 

Latin partici- ^ctive in Latin acturus etc. are probably 
pie in -iurus. developed from the future infinitive. 

538. (\a) The gerundive participle in Latin in 

Latin gerun- -ndo- has been already discussed (§ 194). 
(live participle, j^g formation and history are still wrapped 
in the greatest obscurity'. 

' An excellent collection of material for the study of the 


xxxi. Ches of the Verb forms. 

539. It has already been pointed out (§ 438) that 
the forms of the verb present more morphological diffi- 
culties than those of the noun. They also present more 
syntactical difficulties, partly because the verb system of 
the different languages has been so much recast that 
comparison is less easy, partly because the sense of the 
verb forms is more subtle than that of noun forms. 
From the nature of the case, we cannot expect to find in 
the verb the straightforward simplicity of the local cases 
of the noun, but, as we shall see, the signification of 
different tenses and moods overlaps in a manner which 
makes it almost impossible to draw distinguishing lines 
between them. 

1. Uses of the voices. 

540. The passive (§ 448) has been developed in 
each language separately and is therefore, Different 
strictly speaking, outside the limits of methodsofform- 

•^ ■■ °' mg the Passive 

comparative syntax. In Greek, as we have in indo-G. lan- 
seen, it is developed out of the middle with 
the addition of some new forms containing the sjdlable 
-df]-, in Latin it is developed from active or middle 
forms by means of a suffix -r {-ur) added after the per- 
sonal ending, but apparently existing originally only in 
the 3rd person singular (§ 449). In Sanskrit the passive 

histoiyof Gerund and Gerundive will be found in the Introduction 
to Vol. II. of Roby's Latin Grammar. The commentary, however, 
is in some respects antiquated. The most recent of the many 
views lately propounded on these forms is that of L. Horton 
Smith (A. J. P. XV. 194 ff.) and Lindsay (Latin Language, p. 544) 
who consider the first element an accusatival infinitive followed 
by the suffix -do- of luci-du-s etc. 

414 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 540 — 

is a -10- stem, distinguishable only from the ordinary 
type by the fact that the -io- suffix is always accented. 
Some languages, as Lithuanian, avoid passive construc- 
tions. In the rare instances where such constructions 
occur, Lithuanian forms them by means of the substan- 
tive verb and a participle as in English'. Lithuanian 
has also lost the original middle and replaced it by 
reflexive forms constructed from the active with a 
reflexive pronoun suffixed — a method of formation which 
the early philologists assumed for the Latin passive^ 

541. The distinction bet^veen the transitive and 
intransitive meanings of the active voice depends upon 
the nature of the root in each case. 

542. The middle is possibly a later formation than 
The Middle ^^^^ active^. As regards the meaning of 

^°^^^- the middle voice there seems to be no 

better explanation than that it has some sort of reflexive 
sense, the action of the verb being directed towards the 
agent, although the agent is rarely the direct object^ 
Thus Xovfiai 'I wash myself is really rather the excep- 
tion than the typical example. From the reflexive 
meaning it is in some cases easy to trace the develop- 
ment of an intransitive sense ; cp. Travw ' check,' Travofiat 
'check myself, cease'; <f>aLV(o 'show,' ctiatvofj-aL 'show 
myself, appear.' It is noticeable that in both Greek and 
Sanskrit, verbs of thought and feeling are mostly in the 
middle voice, as, from the definition, might be exjiected. 

1 Kurschat, Lit. Gramm. § 1131. 

- This assumption fell to the ground when it was proved that 
Keltic and Itahc passive formations were identical, for in Keltic s 
does not pass into r. 

^ Brugmann, Gr. Gr.- § 150. 

* Monro, H. G.- § 8. 


2. Verb-types. 

543. It seems that in the original Indo-Germanic 
language there were two types of verb Durative and 
clearly distinguishable from the syntactical perfective verbs, 
point of view. In the one series, the idea expressed by 
the root implied duration over a perceptible period of 
time, in the other the idea was that of something occur- 
ring instantaneously. Naturally a verb which expresses 
continuity of action cannot be made in the present from 
a root which expresses instantaneous action. On the 
other hand no root expressing continuous action can 
occur in an aorist. Hence arise (1) the series of defec- 
tive verbs which have presents but no aorists or aorists 
but no presents', (2) the series of compounds with pre- 
positions which have the meaning of a simple verb in a 
somewhat different signification from the uncompounded 
form. This series is developed separately by the different 
languages, the prepositional meaning being still unde- 
veloped at the time when the primitive community 
broke up (cp. § 340). Thus of the first series we find in 
both Greek and Latin that <^epw, fero begins and ends 
with the present formation, the aorist (in Latin the 
perfect) being formed from a different verb ^vey/ca, tuU. 
In Greek opaw is limited to the present ; Cihov to the 
aorist (oTSa has a different meaning), and many other 
instances might be quoted. It is for the same reason that 
when the present of the verb expresses a durative meaning 
the aorist is made from a different form of stem. Thus 

1 In Latin, as perfect and aorist are confused, we must sub- 
stitute perfect for aorist. Some verbs are no doubt defective for 
other reasons. 

416 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 543 — 

SiSovat ' to be giving,' i.e. (as usually in Attic Greek) ' to 
offer,' Sovmi ' to give ' ; ToX/xdv ' to be courageous ' (a 
state), zXyvaL ' to dare, endure ' (on a particular occa- 
sion). Compare also iyL-yvofxrjv ' I was becoming ' with 
iyevofirjv ' I became ' (was). 

544. The second series seems less widely developed 
in Greek, though in Attic Prose, while we have tIOvtikcl 
never *d.T7or(.0vf}Ka, we must ahvays, on the other hand, 
have dTvoOvQa-Kta not Ov^o-kw. The reason for the use of 
the compound in this particular case seems to be to 
counteract the inceptive force of the suffix. Cp. also 
(ftevycLv 'flee,' and Kara^cuyetv 'escape,' Latin sequi and 
consequV. For the classical languages this subject is 
not fully worked out". These double types are best 
preserved in the Slavonic languages, where they are 
kept apart in two separate and complete verb formations. 
In these languages when the verb-idea is not accom- 
panied by the subsidiary notion of completion the verbs 
are called " Imperfective," and may be of two kinds : 
(rt) simply durative. Old Bulgarian bitl 'to strike,' 
(h) iterative, bivati ' to strike repeatedly.' If on the 
other hand the verb-idea is accompanied by the sub- 
sidiary notion of completion, the verbs are called "Per- 
fective," and may be of two kinds : («) simply perfective 
u-hiti 'to kill by a blow,' {b) iterative perfective u-bi- 
vati ' to kill by a blow repeatedly ' (used of several 
objects or subjects^). In the early history of the Ger- 

1 Brugmann, Gr. Gr.- p. 179. 

- Mutzbauer, starting from Curtius' comparisou of the present 
to a line, of the aoi'ist to a point, has partially' worked it out for 
Homeric Greek in his Grundlagen der griechischen Tempuslehre 
(Triibner, 1893), 

3 Leskien, Handbuch der althulyarischen Sprache-, § 149- 


manic languages the same phenomenon is obvious', and 
we still preserve it to some extent in modern English by 
making a durative present by means of a periphrasis: 
' I am writing ' etc. , while we keep a perfective sense in 
the ordinary present. In the Slavonic languages this 
perfective form expressing momentary action is often 
used for a future ; with which we may compare the 
English " He said, / go, but went not," where / go is 
equivalent to a future, and exactly parallel to the 
ordinary Greek use of c'/ai as a future. 

3. Uses of the Tenses. 

545. The above discussion has thrown some light 
upon the relation between present and x^ .• 

■■^ . _ ^ Durative ana 

aorist. It is now clear that when present momentary 

. p ■ 1 forms m Greek. 

and aorist are found in the same verb, the 
former is the durative, the latter the perfective or mo- 
mentary form. The relation between aorist and future 
is also clear. While eV-^tw and iri-vw are durative forms, and TTL-o-fjiaL are ' perfective ' or aorist forms which 
are utilised for the future. In Greek, unlike Slavonic, 
we hardly find durative and perfective presents from the 
same verb by the side of one another, though ypa<^a> and 
the bye-form Tpd-mo for the present are examples of the 
corresponding aorist forms transferred to the present. 
A possible example of durative and perfective forms 
making separate verbs is to be seen in epx-o-i^ai and 
apx-o-fjiat, the meanings of which are related precisely as 

^ Cp. Streitberg, Perfective u. imperfective Aetionsart iiii Ger- 
manischen (reprint from Paul u. Braune's Be it rage). 

G. P. 27 

418 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 545 — 

those of ySat'vo) and eftrjv in the Homeric {3r} 8' icVai ' he 
started to go'.' 

546. In the examination of tense usages, we must 
be careful to observe that tenses in the 

Tenses are a • 1 • i 1 i • 

later develop- sense 111 wliich the word IS now used are 
of comparatively late development and 
that e.g. the pluperfect in Greek does not in the Homeric 
period express relative time as the Latin pluperfect 
does. The pluperfect sense when wanted is generally 
expressed by an aorist form : 'Apvaios 8' ovofx eaKc- to 
yap Oero ttotvlu iJ-T]Tr}p {Odyssey xviii. 5) 'Arnaeus was 
his name, for that name had his lady mother given him' ; 
■q (UT^veXoTreta) 8' ovt d6pr](TaL Svvar dvrirj outc vorjcraL | t^ 
yap 'A6r]vaLrj voov erpairev (Odyss. xix. 478-9) 'she was 
not able... for Athene had turned....' The imperfect of 
a compound with ' perfective ' meaning may be used in 
the same way ; /cat 01 Iwv iv vrjvalv eireTpe-Trev oTkov aTravra 
(Od. ii. 226), ' And he had put all his house in his 
charge.' The Greek pluperfect is simply an aoristic 
^form developed from the perfect stem. The so-called 
future perfect in Greek has only the meaning of an 
ordinary fl^ture'^, though it is possible with the help of 
the context to translate it occasionally like the Latin 
future perfect. The idea of relative time, tlie idea 

1 The variant form to ^pxo/J-at. and apx^o is found in opxa/J-os 
(Homer) ' a leader.' 

- Such forms of course take the same shade of meaning as the 
stem from which they come ; /j,€/jivr]( ' I shall remember,' 
StaTreTToXe/LtTjcreTat 'the war will be over' etc., with the idea of the 
state contained in the perfect (§ 549). The future passive is 
developed after Homer as a parallel to the passive aorist : i-Tt/xrjdij-v, 
TLpL-qd-q-ao/xai. etc. There is hardly a trace of a similar difference 
in the active ; e|w is the presential future to ^x'^' cxw^ the aorist 
future to l-crxoj'. Cp. Kiihner-Blass, Griech. Gram. 11. § '2'29. 2 n. 3. 


that the time of an action is to depend on the time of 
some other action whether in the past or in the future 
is entirely foreign to the early history of the Indo- 
Germanic languages. Nor can we assert of any forms, 
whether presential or preterite, that they had originally 
a distinct reference to time. 

547. The present in Greek may be either perfective 
or durative, as we have already seen. This „, 

' ■' _ _ The present 

perfective or momentary value, which is i^aay express (i) 

■^ "' . an action, (u) a 

properly expressed by the Greek aorist, must process, (iii) a 
not be confused with another value that 
some presents have which express a state rather than a 
process or action. These presents have the same value 
as many perfects, ^kw and otxofiaL exemplify well this 
perfect meaning in Greek. Apart from verbs like sian 
it is hard to find simple perfect presents in Latin, though 
compounds, as advenio, in a perfect sense are common. 
In Greek there are some other verbs which express a 
state whose meaning is that of a perfect: vikw, Kparw, 
T^TTWfxai. The original present seems to 
have had three values', being used (i) of values of the 


that which was true at all times, (ii) as a 

future, (iii) instead of an historical tense (the historic 


(i) ovK dpera KaKo. €pya. Od. viii. 329. 

Ill deeds ne'er prosper. 

Quod sihi volunt, dum id impetrant, honi sunt. 

Plant. Capt. ii. 1. 37 (234). 
As long as they get what they want, they are good. 

' Brugmann, Berichte der konigl. sfichi. GeseUschaft der 
Wissenschaften, 1883, p. 169 ff., an article from which several of 
the following Greek examples are taken, 


420 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 547 

(ii) In Homer the future use of tlie present is found 
with eifjLL, veofj-ai, and one or two other verbs, but is 
much rarer than in Attic '. 

oi yap 8r]v fJLvqarrjpes diricraovTat ixeydpoio, 
aXXa fjidX. rjpL veovrai. Odyss. XX. 155. 
Not for long will the suitors be absent from the 
hall, but they will certainl}' come in the morning. 

et avTq t] ttoXis Xr]<j)67](r€TaL, liberal tj irdaa Si/ceAta. 

Thuc. vi. 91. 
If this city shall be taken, the whole of Sicily is in 
their possession. 

Quam mox navigo in Ephesmn ? 

Plant. Bacch. iv. 6. 6 (775). 
How soon do I sail to Ephesus ? 

quae volo simul imperaho : posts continuo exeo. 

Ter. Eun. iii. 2. 40 (493). 
At the same time I'll demand what I want ; imme- 
diately after that I'm off. 

(iii) The historic present is not found in Homer, 
thongh frequent later in both prose and verse. Why 
Homer does not use it is hard to discover, for the con- 
struction is widely developed elseAvhere and is almost 
certainly Indo-Germanic^. 

KcAcvci Trefxij/aL av8pas k.t.X. ThuC. i. 91. 

He bids them send men. 

1 A subdivision of this future is the use in oracles or prophecies, 
as in Herodotus vii. 140 cure tl — Xeiirerai, dXX' diSijAa TrAef Kara 
yap fxiv ipd-rrei irvp re Kal o^i/s "A/jtjs. Compare Campbell's LochieVs 
Warning, "And the clans of CuUoden are scattered in fight" etc., 
the seer beholding the events of the future passing before him. 

2 Brugm. Gr. Gr^ § 156. 


Kfivq fJLtv wXecrev vtv es Tpotav t ayci. 

Eur. Hecuba 266. 

She ruined him and took (lit. takes) him to Troy 
(v(TT€pov Trporepov). 

The example from Euripides shows that the historical 
present and a genuine past tense can be used in the 
same construction. Compare with this the inscription 
on the tomb of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, consul 
B.C. 298, Taurasia(m) Cisauna(m) Samnio cepit suhigit 
omne{m) Loucanam opsidesque ahdoucit. 

accedo ad pedisequns. quae sit rogo. 
sm'orem esse aiiint Chrysidis. 

Ter. Andr. i. 1. 96 (123). 

I go up to the attendants. I ask who she is. They 
say she is Chrysis' sister. 

(iv) Homer and later Greek writers often use the 
present with an adverb of time instead of a past tense, a 
construction which has an exact parallel in Sanski'it and 
which is therefore supposed to be Indo-Germanic. 

TiTTTc G)eTt TavvireirXe t/cav€i9 rjfji.€T€pov 8aj 
alSoLT] T€ (fiiXrj re ; Trapos ye fxiv ov Tt ^a/xt^cts. 

//. xviii. 386. 
Why Thetis with trailing robe comest thou to our 

house, revered and beloved ; in former days thou 

wert no frequent guest ? 

Cp. Kpii TTcVov, Tt fx.0L toSe 8ta cTTreos taavo /xi^Xwv 

rcrraTos ; ov tl Tra'po? ye XeXei/xfievos ip)^€ai olSv. 

Od. ix. 448. 

The only difference between present and imperfect 
in this construction is that tlie latter expressly " brings 

422 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 547 — 

the time of the action into connexion with the speaker'." 
The two are used in conjunction in Iliad xiii. 228 f. 

dXXa ®6av, Ka\ yap to Trapos /xereST/io? rjcrOa, 
orpvveis 8k kol aWov, oOl fxeOievra 181701. 

548. The imperfect is pre-eminently the tense of 
, . , narration. In form it cannot be distin- 

The imperfect . , , 

the narrative ffuished from the strong aorist and m mean- 

ing also aorist and imperfect overlap to 

some extent. In Greek, aorist and imperfect from the 
same verb are often found in precisely the same relation 
in the same passage, so that it is futile to draw any 
Its relation to distinction between them'. The imperfect 
the aorist. ^^ verbs of Saying and commanding is 

frequently used as an aorist. c/cXvov (an aorist in 
formation) is regularly so used in Homer, as is shown 
(1) by its gnomic use in os /ce Oeoi<i e-7ri7r€t^T/Tat, [JidXa T 
€k\vov avTov, II. i. 218, 'whoso obeys the gods, to him 
they attentively give ear,' and (2) by its combination 
with the aorist tov fxdXa fxlv kXvov t^'Sc -n-iOovTO, H. xiv. 

1 Brugmanu in the article cited above. 

^ For example in Iliad vii. 303 Hector SuK-e ^t'^os dpyvp6r]\oi>, 
while in 305 Ajax ^wa-r^pa 5i5ov. Monro, in his edition, explains 
SiSov as 'gave at the same time,' 'gave in return.' Goodwin's 
remark (Moods and Tenses, 1889, § 57) is worth quoting. " The 
fundamental distinction of the tenses, which was inherent in the 
form, remained ; only it happened that either of the two distinct 
forms expressed the meaning which was here needed equally well... 
The Greeks, like other workmen, did not care to use their finest 
tools on every occasion." The truth of this is well illustrated by 
Iliad ii. 42 — 46, where it is said that Agamemnon lv5we x'^'*'''''. 
and ^dWfTO <pdpos, but eSriaaro KaXd irediXa, which was presumably 
a more tedious operation than those given in the imperfect. 
Probably metrical convenience decided the usages here. 


133 'him they heard and obeyed.' The Latin im- 
perfect in the main is like the Greek. 

(i) The imperfect as an historical tense of con- 
tinuous action. 

h'6a Sk TToWor jxh' fxiBv ttivcto, TroAAa oe fiTJXa 
l(T(^at,ov irapa 6tva k.t.X. Od. IX. 45. 

There was much wine drunk and many sheep they 
slaughtered by the shore. 

In tonstrina ut sedebam, me infit percontar'ier. 

Plant. Asin. ii. 2. 76 (343). 

As I was sitting in the barber's shop, he begins to 
inquire of me. 

It is noteworthy that in narration Plautus promptly 
changes, as here {infit), to the historical present. For 
long narratives in the historical present see Amphitruo 
i. 1. 50 (205) ff., Curculio ii. 3. 50 (329) ff. With these 
it is worth while to contrast the management of a long 
narrative in Homer, as in Od. ix. 

(ii) When the present of a verb is the equivalent of 
a perfect as apx^, vikw, Lat. regno etc., the imperfect 
has a corresponding meaning rjpx^ ' was archon,' kvUa 
'had conquered,' regnahat 'was king.' So ^k€ 'had 
come,' wxero ' had gone.' Contrast the aorists rjp^a etc., 
which are often inceptive (§ 552 ii)'. 

(iii) The imperfect frequently expresses the attempt 
to do something, a notion which arises out of the general 

^ In the Attic inscriptious a date is given by the imperfect : 
Tlavbiovh iwpVTdveve, W.yvppios KoWvrevs ^ypa/j-fiaTeve, 'EvKXeiSr]^ 
rpxf, KoXXtas 'Qadev eTreo-rtiTet, but a reference to such matters as 
past events is in the aorist : xp^^ov, oaov eKacrros rjp^ev (377 B.C.), 
oi jBovXevral Ka\u>s Kal SiKuicos ejSovXevaav Kal eirpvTavevdav (287 B.C.). 
Meisterhans, Gram. d. att. In.-tcltr.- § 86, 2. 

4.2-i A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 548 — 

progressive meaning of the tense. In Greek this sense 
is specially common in iStSow ' I offered, tried to give,' 
and tTreiOov ' tried to persuade. ' 

ws Tpi€T€S /xh' ekrjOov iyw koI eTretOov 'Ai^atovs. 

Od. xix. 151. 

Thus for three years lay I hid and tried to per- 
suade the Achaeans. 

171 exilium quom tret reduxi domum ; 
nam ihat exulatum. Plaut. Merc. v. 4. 19 (980). 
When he was going into exile, I brought him home 
again ; for he was trying to go. 

549- The perfect was originally, as far as sjTitax is 

The perfect coucemed, merely a special kind of present, 

''resent"**"^'^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ intensive form and had nothing 

to do with time. 

i. The perfect is distinguished from the presents of 

The perfect ex- contiuuous action by expressing a state, an 

presses a state. -^^^^ ^^^^^ which the uotiou of the perfect 

as the tense of completed action easily developes'. oT8a 

' I know ' (cp. Lat. novi), used only of the state of 

knowing, is thus distingiiished from ytyvwo-Kw, which 

indicates the process of coming to know. In the same 

way BvrjdKii ' he is dying ' is distinguished fi-om reOvrjKe 

' he is dead ' (hence T^Ovai-q^ in Homer ' mays't thou lie 

^ The English perfect in have expresses the present result of a 
past action : ' I have bought a book ' = I bought a book and I have 
it. The connexion of the two ideas in one predicate gives by 
implication the notion of the immediate past, a notion which 
seems the earliest meaning of the aorist (§ 552 iv). The old 
English perfects sang, rang etc. have passed into an aoristic 
meaning, which they share with the later past formation in -ed : 
loved etc. ; while the continuous imperfect is now expressed by 
was and a present participle : ' he was singing ' etc. 


dead ') ; compare fJUfj^vj^a-Kw ' I remind,' ixefxvrjfxai ' I have 
reminded myself, remember ' (Lat. memini), Krdoixai. ' I 
acquire,' KCKTrjixai ' I possess,' etc. oAwAa, Lat. j^erii, 
actum est, express the completed action which in English 
is expressed by a present ' I am lost,' ' it is all over,' and 
the like. 

That the difference between perfect and present is 
originally one rather of root-meaning than of tense is 
shown by such passages as 

iXdtiv €S McvcAaov cyw k^Xo/jml /cat avwya 

Od. iii. 317, 

I call and command thee to come to Menelaus, 

where the two are combined with a scarcely perceptible 
difference of signification. Other examples which illus- 
trate the parallel between present and perfect are 

Tpa77€^at (TLTOv Ka\ Kpeiwv Kol OLVOV (i^Ppidaaiv 

Od. XV. 333. 
The tables are laden with bread and flesh and wine. 

ov TOL iywv eppiya fxa)(rji' ov8e ktvttov Ittttwv 

II. xvii. 175. 
In no wise do I dread the fight or the thunder of horses. 

The same meaning is found with the perfect middle, 
but more rarely. 

OLoa ws p.0L oScoSvcTTai kXvt6<; eVvocriyato? 

Od. XV. 423. 

I know how the famed earthshaker hates me 
(cp. Lat. odi). 

In very few cases can the Homeric perfect be trans- 
lated by the English perfect, and in such cases there is 

426 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 549 — 

always some continuing result implied \ Many such 
verbs, e.g. ^f.jipida(Tiv and eppiya above, have no present 
forms in Homer. 

The state expressed by the perfect is very often 
contrasted in the Attic prose writers with the jtrocess 
expressed by the present. 

ov jiovXevecrOaL wpa, dXXu (SefSovXevcruai. 

Plato, Crito, 46 a. 
It is no time for deliberation but for decision. 

ouTot, rjv 8' eyw, ti' f^ovXeveaOov ttoiciv ; ovbev, e(j>rj o 

Xap/xiSr]';, aWa fte/SovXev/xeOa. Plato, Charmides, 176 c. 

' What are you planning to do ? ' ' Nothing. The 
planning is over.' 

Nunc illud est, quom me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim. 

Plant. Capt. iii. 3. 1 (516). 
This is a moment when I'd rather have been (i.e. be 
now dead) than be. 

ii. It is noticeable that in Homer the perfect is 
frequently intransitive, corresponding in meaning to the 
present middle, while the present active forms some 
sort of causative verb ; cp. l(, ea-rrjKa ' I stand,' 
IfTTrjjxi ' I set, cause to stand ' ; dpapta-KU) ' I fit,' aprjpi 
' is fixed,' opvvfxi ' I raise, cause to rise,' opmpf. ' it arises.' 

'AX€^a'v3pOtO CtV€Ka VeLKOS Op<Dp€V, II. \\\. 87. 

For Alexander's sake the strife is stirred. 

550. The Greek pluperfect is simply the augmented 

The pluperfect P^^^ ^^ presents of the perfect type. In 

in Greek. Homer it is used like the imperfect as a 

narrative tense. At all times this is the value of the 

1 Monro, H. G.- § 28. 


augmented tenses of" present-perfects : ol8a, novi, ' I 
know ' ; ^Sr;, noveram, ' I knew.' As we have already 
seen (§ 506 f.), the phiperfect forms are etymologically 
closely connected vdth. aorist forms. The Greek forms, 
occurring only in the 3rd person, which are sometimes 
represented^ as a link between the perfect itself and the 
imperfect and aorist can be otherwise explained. They 
are ye'ywve, dvTjvoOe and eTTivTjvoOe. The last two are 
identified by Curtius" with the reduplicated type Ifxiix-q- 
Kov, with which must also go eye'ywi/e (//. xiv. 469) if 
genuine, yeywve is found four times as a perfect in form, 
but always in the same phrase ocro-ov re ycycove /?o7;'o-as. 
An aorist in the same construction would be defensible, 
and no passage renders it necessary to read eyeywvci as a 
pluperfect, while some passages seem to show that yeycuve 
and eye'yajve are the same form differing only by the 
presence or absence of the augment ; cp. a/jiepSaXeov 
8' ip6rj(T€, yeytove re Tracri Beolai. Od. viii. 305. 

551. The Latin pluperfect is etymologically an 
aorist form (S 507), and some traces of its The pluperfect 
original value seem still to be found in the "^ ^'^*'"' 
interchange of perfect and pluperfect, the Latin perfect 
being in part also of aorist origin (§ 497). The use of 
pluperfect for perfect forms is, according to Draeger^, 
earlier than the converse, being found in Plautus, while 
perfect for pluperfect begins only in the classical period ^ 

1 As by Kruger (Dialekt. 53, 3, 4). 

2 In his Greek Verb (p. 429, English edition). 
^ Historische Si/nta.r, i.- p. 258. 

■* According to Blase {Geschichte des Plmqiiamperfekts ivi 
Lateinischen), whose views do not convince me, all such usages 
of the plpf. as an absolute tense are late and begin with fueram, 
which is by confusion so used, since in some instances fui and 
eram are identical. This \-iew seems tenable only if it could be 

428 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 551 — 

Nempe ohloqui me iusseras. Plant. Cure. i. 1. 42. 
Why sure yon ordered me to contradict. 

Quosquefors obtulit {—obtulerat), irati interfecere. 

Livy XXV. 29. 9. 
Those that chance had thrown in their way, they 
slew in their wrath. 

Compare Propertius' non sum ego qui fueram (i. 12. 
11) with Horace's non sum qualis eram {Od. iv. i. 3). 

In the passage from Livy, the pluperfect meaniDg 
arises from the context as in the Greek use of the aorist 
as pluperfect (§ 546). 

552. As we have already seen (§,§ 500, 502), there are 

The aorist has ^wo types of aorist. The forms which end 

two types. ijj ^^g ^^,^.j^g Qf ^YxQ Greek verb in -ov 

are, etymologically considered, only augmented tenses 
of perfective presents. The forms which contain a 
suffix in -.•?- are of different origin, have a different 
inflexion and might be expected to show differences of 
meaning. Investigation, however, has not yet succeeded 
in discovering any such difference of signification be- 
tween them and the strong forms. 

(i) The aorist meaning best recognised, because 
Perfective ao- ^i^o^t widely developed, is that of simple 
'■'^'- occurrence in the past. But the aorist, 

except iu the indicative, shows no past meaning other 
than that which may be derived from the context, and 
the injunctive forms of Greek (o-xe's etc.), Latin {vel, § 520) 
and Sanskrit show that the idea of past time must be 
contained in the augment and not in the verb-form 

shown that the Latin plpf. is not a descendant from the original 
language but an invention within Latin itself to express relative 


proper. In Greek even the presence of the augment is 
not able in all cases to attach a past meaning to the 
verb, for the gnomic aorist ^vhich expresses that which 
is true at all times is generally found with an augment : 
pcx^ev Se T€ vT^TTtos lyvw', A similar aorist is in almost 
every case' found in Homeric similes except when it is 
desired to express duration. 

(ii) When the present of a verb expresses a state, 
its aorist generally expresses the idea of inceptive ao- 
entrance into that state, o-pxoi, ' I am "*'^- 
archon ' ; rjp^a, ' I became archon, came into office ' ; 
(3ao-i.Xiv€i, ' he is king ' ; iftaaiXeva-e, ' he became king ' ; 
dapa-Ci, ' he is brave ' ; iOdpcrrja-e, ' he took courage.' 

Kttt TOTC S17 ddpcrrjcre koL r]v8a jxavTis dfjivfjLOiv. II. i, 92. 

' Then at last the blameless seer took courage and spake.' 
In the same way, when the perfect expresses a state, 
the aorist frequently is' a perfect or pluper- ^ perfect. 
feet in meaning. Thus from KraofxaL, the 
present of which is not found in Homer, we have the 

perfect iKT-qixai or KeKTrjfxai, ' I poSSeSS,' but eKTrjO-dfjLTjv, 

' I have acquired ' or ' I had acquired ' according to the 

iireacrvTO dvp.o'i dyrji'ojp . . . 
KTrj/xacrt TepnecrOaL, rd yepwv iKTijararo TlijXev^' 
ov yap ifxoit ij/v^rjs dvTa^iov, ou8 oaa ipaaiv 
IXlov iKTrjcrOai, evvaLO/xevov TTToKudpov 
TO Trplv iir elpyjvrj^ Trplv IXOuv mas A;(at(3v. 

//. ix. 398. 

' My lordly heart is eager to take its pleasure in the 
wealth which Peleus has acquired; for not equal in value 

1 See Piatt, Journal of Philology, xix. p. 217 ff. 
- For exceptions see Monro, H, GJ^ % 78 (2). 

430 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 552 — 

to my life is all that Ilium once possessed etc' {ro TrpXv 

iKTYJcrOai, cp. Trdpo^ ov Tt 6afi.i^(.L% § 547 iv). 

(TiTov 8e cr<^iv €i'€ifj.€ WeaavXio<;, 6v pa (rv^wrrj? 
auTos KTrjaaro oios aTroL)(OiJi€voio avaKTo<;. 

Od. xiv. 449 f. 
' And among them Mesaulius distributed food, whom 
the swineherd himself had gotteji ' etc. 

(iii) The aorist in U. ix. 398 quoted above is 
Aorist= present. f>bviously used of the present time, and 
this usage is not uncommon. According 
to Monro', such aorists "express a culminating point, 
reached in the immediate past, or rather at the moment 
of speaking." He cites amongst other passages //. iii, 415 : 
Tojs Se a oLTrexOTjpoi ws vvv cKTrayX' e<^t'Ar;cra, ' and thus 

come to hate you as I now (have come to) love you 
exceedingly. ' 

In Attic poetry there is a considerable development 
of this usage whereby dTrcVruo-a, eTryvecra and the like are 
used as presents. 

OLTreTTTVcr i^dpov (^ojtos l\6i(Trov ttXckos. 

Aristoph. Peace 528. 
I scorn the hateful fellow's hateful shield. 

Although found in Aristophanes, the construction is 
absent from good prose. 

In Latin such aorists as ruperunt in ilUus immensae 
ruperunt horrea messes, Virg. Georg. i. 49, are not found 
in early Latin and are most probably imitated from the 
Greek aorist. 

(iv) The idea of something beginning in the past 

1 //. G." § 78. 


and culminating in the present brings us to what is 
perhaps the most primitive use of the aorist, Aorist of im- 
viz. to express that which has just happened. °i^'**« vast. 
This is the ordinary value of the aorist in Sanskrit and 
is also found in Slavonic. The English equivalent is 
the perfect with have (§ 549 ii.), and the Latin perfect 
meaning, like the Sanskrit, may have developed directly 
from this usage. 

ZCVS...OS TTplv (xiv fiOL v7r£o-;^€ro koi Kareveva-ev (inde- 
iinite past) 

...vvv 8c KaKYjv aTraTTjv f^ovXtvcraTO, Kai fj.e KeXcuet 

SvaKXea Apyos iKecrOai. II, ii. Ill ff. 

' At this time he hath devised' etc.^ 

(v) A development in the direction of future time 
which Greek shares with Slavonic. The 

, . . , ^ Aorist = future. 

ordmary explanation that the speaker puts 
himself at the future point of time when the aorist is 
thus used, is hardly necessary, for as we have already 
seen the perfective or aorist presents of other languages 
are frequently used instead of futures. 

ci fxiv K avOi fxivijiv Tpwwv iroXiv d/x<^i/Lta^( 

<oA.€TO )U,€V fX-OL I'o'cTTO?, ttTOtp K\io<i af^ULTOV IcTTat. 

77. ix. 412. 
'If I remain... my chance of return is gone (will be 

qui si comervatus erit, vicimus. Cic. Fcmi. xii, 6. 
If he shall be saved, we (shall) have won. 

553- The passive forms of the Latin perfect and 
pluperfect with fui and faeram instead of Latin passive 
sum and eram, which are so frequent in ^'''*' perfect. 

1 Cp. Monro, if.G.2§76. 

432 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 553 — 

Livy and later are comparatively rare in the early 
period. Only four examples are (quoted from Phuitus', 
three of which are deponents and one passive : miratus, 
oblitus, opinatus, vectus all with fui. The difierence 
may possibly depend to some extent on local peculi- 
arities in the language of particular authors. No 
definite distinction in meaning can be drawn between 
these and the ordinary forms. 

It is noteworthy that in Greek the aorist, in Latin 
the aorist-perfect are used with words meaning after 
that, €7ret, postquam etc. in the sense of the pluperfect. 

Note. — The following passage from Iliad vi. 512 — 516 will help 
to elucidate Homeric past tenses : 

ws w6j H/jid/toto ndpts Kara. Wipyo-ixov aKprji 

KayxcL^ouv. rax^es 5i TroSes (pepov al\j/a 5' iireira 
"EKTopa diov ireTp-ev a.Be\4>ehv, eur' ap ?p.€X\ev 
<TTpi\pead^ €K xcioTj?, 66i r/ odpL^e yvvaiKi. 
Here e^e^-qKeL is pluperfect in form, imperfect in meaning and 
parallel to (pipov the tense of durative action in past time ; irerp-ev 
is the aorist expressing instantaneous occurrence, while odpi^e is 
an imperfect in form, a pluperfect in meaning, the action being 
already past at the time expressed in the rest of the passage. 

554. In neither Greek nor Latin can the forms 

used for the future be certainly identified 

with the original Indo-Germanic future 

(§ 491 fif.). The future forms of both languages are for 

the most part subjunctives, and the discussion of them 

falls therefore under that of the moods. 

555. The future perfect is not a primitive forma- 
The future per- ^^0^^- ^^^ Homer always, and in early Latin 

^^'^*- frequently, future perfect forms are used 

1 Draeger, H. S.- i. p. 276. The enumeration is certainly 


like ordinary futures, the only difference (if any) being 
that the future perfect forms have somewhat more em- 
phasis'. In Greek the active forms are rare at all times. 

TovSc 8 iyiov cTTiovTa SeSe^o/xat o^ei Sovpi. 

II. V. 238. 
Him, as he presses on, I will receive on my sharp 

ifiol Bk /AaAtcTTa XeXeiij/eTai aAyea Xvypd. 

II. xxiv. 742. 
And to me specially will grievous sorrows be (remain) 

Emm in obsidione linquet, inbnicum animos auxerit'. 
Plant. Asi)i. ii. 2. 14 (280). 

He will leave his master in the siege and will increase 
the courage of his foes. 

Capiam coronam mi in caput, adsimulabo me esseehrium 
Atque illuc siirsum escendero; inde optume aspellam 
virum. Plal^t. Amph. iii. 4. 16 (999). 

I'll put a crown on my head, pretend to be drunk, 
and climb up aloft yonder ; from there I'll best drive 
the hero away. 

The idea of relative time is however much more 
common in Latin than in Greek, and even in Plautus is 
the usual meaning. 

1 Goodwin, Moods and Tenses (1889), § 83, and for Latin, 
F. Cramer (Archiv f. lutein. Lex. iv. p. 594 ff. ). 

- This paratactic construction is interesting, because the future 
perfect is used to indicate the result of a future action (linquet), 
while in the ordinary hypothetical sentence the order is inverted : 
Si in obsidione erum liquerit, inimiconun animos augebit. 

G. P. 28 

434 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 556 — 

4. Uses of the Moods. 

556. As we have abeady seen (§ 302), the impera- 
^.„ . . tive is not properly a mood, while the in- 

Different views _ . . 

reprding the finitive consists of substantive forms built 

orisiiial mean- 
ing of Subj. and xip ^)ll tiie different types of verb stem. 

We are left therefore with only the sub- 
junctive and optative. The original meaning of these 
moods and the history of their development is the most 
difficult of the many vexed questions of comparative 
syntax. Since the publication in 1871 of Delbriick's 
elaborate treatise on the uses of these moods in San.skrit 
and Greek', the most generally accepted view has been 
that propounded by him. This view put in the briefest 
form is that the subjunctive indicates Will', the optative 
Wish. In later treatises Delbriick has to some extent 
modified his view of the development of these moods*, 
and now admits that it is impossible to trace certainlj^ 
all uses of the subjunctive to the original notion of will 
or desire that something should or should not take place, 
or all uses of the optative to the original idea of wish. 

Some authorities oppose Delbriick's view, holding 
that "the subjunctive was originally and essentially a 
form for expressing future time, which the Greek in- 
herited, with its subdivisions into an absolute future 
negatived by oi, and a hortatory futiire negatived by fJL-rj, 
and used in independent sentences^" while the primitive 

1 Si/ntaktische Forschuiigen, vol. i, 

- In other words the subjunctive would correspond to the 
English I u-ill, thou shalt, he shall, while the future is I shall, 
thou ivilt, he u-ill. 

■> Cp. S. F. iv. p. 115 ff., V. p. 302, 

* Goodwin, Moods and Temes (1889), 375. 


optative also, " before it came into the Greek language, 
was a weak future form, like he may go and may he go, 
from which on one side came its potential and its future 
conditional use and on the other side its use in exhorta- 
tions and wishes. These uses would naturally all be 
established before there was any occasion to express 
either an unreal condition or an unattained wish\" 

557. The chief difficulties connected with the ques- 
tion are these. 

(1) The only languages which keep these moods 
distinct are the Aryan gToup and Greek. scarcity of 
But even in the Yedic period Sanskrit is ^'^teriai. 
losing grip of any distinction between the moods and in 
the classical period the subjunctive has disappeared. 
Zend and Old Persian are not in a position to compen- 
sate for the shortcomings of Sanskrit. Latin, although 
it retains forms of both subjunctive and optative, has 
eutireh' confused them in usage. Armenian, Germanic 
and Letto-Slavonic have practically lost the subjunctive ; 
Irish has lost the optative. Greek therefore is the only 
language which retains these forms as separate moods 
and in vigorous life. 

(2) Though Greek and Sanskrit agree in the main 
in the use of these moods there are some serious difter- 
ences. For example, the history of the Greek negative 
ov with certain iy^&s, of subjunctive and optative is 
altogether obscure, for no sure etymology of ov has as 
yet been discovered. In corresponding sentences in 
Sanskrit the old Indo-Germanic negative Differences be- 
girt is used. Greek seems therefore to have ^^ch'ke^)'^thl 
to some extent recast these moods. The ^^°^'^*- 

1 Moods and Tenses, p. 388. The whole appendix in which 
these quotations occur deserves careful study. 


436 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 557 — 

subtle usages of these moods with kIv and av seem to be 
a development within Greek itself. At any rate nothing 
similar is found elsewhere. 

(3) In Goodwin's theory it is a serious, though not 

an insuperable difficulty that any distinct 

Close con- ..... , , . 

nexion between divisiou between the moods IS given up. 

the two moods. _,, ... i i i i 

The same objection would, however, apply 
to Delbriick's theory for, as he himself points out', Will 
and Wish meet in the higher conception of Desire, the 
only difference between them being that while wishes 
cover the whole field of the attainable and unattainable 
alike, will presumes the ability to attain. It might also 
be urged that as both stem and person suffixes in the 
two moods are different^ some important original dis- 
tinction might be fairly supposed to be implied by these 

(4) The shades of meaning expressed by these 
Difficulty of moods are frequently so delicate that the 

f hides"f f mea n- personal equation is likely to affect cou- 
p's- siderably the classification of the facts. 

It seems likely that no satisfactory solution of the 
problem will be arrived at until the extent and nature 
of the development of subordinate sentences, including 
Oratio Ohliqua, within the primitive language has been 
more fully investigated than it has yet been^ 

558. Without being committed to a dogmatic state- 

1 S. F. i. p. 16. 

- The fact that Skt. shows secondary suffixes in the sub- 
junctive is not conclusive evidence to the contrary, as the forms, 
even in the earliest period, are tending towards decay. 

3 Cp. now Hermann (A'. Z. 33, p. 481 fif. ), who holds that there 
is no proof of the existence of subordinate sentences in the original 


ment as to the order of development of the usages, a 
statement for which there are at present no 

„ . . , . . ., , -,. The subjune- 

sumcieut materials, it is possible to dis- tive has three 
tinguish three usages of the subjunctive in 
wliich Sanskrit and Greek agree, (i) in the sense of will, 
eqvial to the English / will, thou shalt, he shall, (ii) in 
interrogative sentences, whether real or rhetorical, and 
(iii) as a vague future. 

559' i. In independent sentences the 1st person 
sing, in Homer can be used {a) with dXX' aye sometimes 
followed by 877, or {h) without any introduction after an 
imperative sentence. In the plural it is used only with 
dXA.' aye (817) or aX\' dyerc. The negative is /tT7, but in the 
1st person it is very rare, because the cases where such a 
usage is refpiired are not more numerous than in English 
such constructions as ' Don't let me find j'ou there again.' 

(rt) dAA' dy' eyajF, os creio yepaiVepos iv^^ojxaL eh'ai, 

e^etTTco Koi Travra 8tt'^o/u,at. II. IX. 60. 

But come now, since I avow myself to be moi'e 
honourable than thee, let me speak and go through 
the whole tale. 

(h) Oaim fj-i. OTTL Td)(^i(TTa, vrvXas 'Aibao 7rcp);craj . 

//. xxiii. 71, 
Bury me with all speed, let me pass the gates of 

Plural. aW dye vvv lofiev. Od. xvii. 190. 

But come, now let us go, 

1 From such constructions the final sentence easily developed 
by the addition of a deictic pronoun ws, oOrws in the first clause 
and of an anaphoric 'Iva etc. in the second. 

438 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 559 — 

dAA aye 8»y tppa^wfjifO' ottojs ecrrai ra^c epya. 

Od. xvii. 274. 
But come now let us take thought how these things 
shall be. 

In conditional clauses this construction is well 

£t ifLOi ov TLcrovcTL fSoMi' eVtciKC afj.oifirjv, 
ovao/xaL cis 'At'Sao Kal iv veKveaat cftaeivoi. 

Od. xii. 382. 
If they will not pay satisfactory recompense for my 

oxen, I will (subj.) sink into Hades and make 

light among the dead. 

The negative form of the first person as has been 
said is rare. 

fxq ae, yepov, kolX-yjctlv iyw Trapd vrjvcrl kl)(€l<j). 

II. i. 26. 
Don't let me find yon, old man, near the hollow ships. 

The afiirmative form of the subjunctive of will is 
very rare in the 2nd and 3rd persons. That it must 
once have existed in the 2nd person is proved by its 
ordinary negative form, the subjunctive with p.ri, and the 
3rd person is quotable without doubt as to the reading. 

<^€p , W T€KVOV, VVV KoX TO TI7S V7](T0V fldOr]?. 

Soph. F/ul. 300. 
Come, my child, learn now also the nature of the isle. 

TO oc if/acf>i(TfJia to yeyovop a7ro Tap l3w\a.p...dvaTt6a. iv 
TO lapoi' Tw Aiop T<3 'OXv/xTTto)'. Eleau inscrip. Cauer^ 264, 
ColHtz 1172. 

Let the resolution passed by the council be dedicated 
in the temple of Olympian Zeus. 

1 Delbriick, S. F. iv. p. 117, who gives up the passage in 


Some passages where kIv or av is usually read border 
closely upon the 2nd person of this type. 

7) K€V £/.(,a) VTTO Sovpl TVTTtlS UTTO OvfJiOV oXidCTr]?, 

II. xi. 433. 
Smitten under my spear shalt thou lose thy life'. 

The ordinary aorist construction of the 2ud person 
with ixy] requires no illustration. It can hardlj^ be 
doubted that this usage is older than the development 
of the aorist imperative. The rule that a present 
imperative and an aorist subjunctive must be used in 
negative commands seems to prevail in Old Latin as in 
Greek, ne time, ixrj (ftevye ; ne dixeris, fj-rj \€$r)<;'. 

The third person has a very emphatic force in such 
passages as 

oi'K €(T^' ovros di'ijp ovS' eacnrai ovSe yivqrai. 

Od. xvi. 437. 

There is not such a man, nor will nor can there be^. 

560. ii. The interrogative subjunctive is commonest 
with the 1st person in both prose and poetry. 

W fXOL €y(J, TL TTOlOu) ', II. xl. 404. 

Woe is me, what shall I do ? (= what is to become 
of me ?) 

Sophocles on the ground that the text generally is untrustworthy. 
It is probably one of Sophocles' frequent experiments in language, 
on the analogy of (pipe jxado). 

1 In the context thou ivilt would be hopelessly weak. 

2 This was written before Elmer (A. J. P. xv. 133 ff.) had over- 
thrown by simple enumeration of instances the dictum of Madvig 
which has been credited for fifty years. Between Terence and 
hivy there are but eleven instances of the type ne dixeris, outside 
Cicero's letters. 

3 Compare Shakespeare's iVay, it icill please him well ; it shall 
(i.e. is sure to) please him {Henry V. v. 2. 269). 

440 A SHORT MAN'UAL OF [§ 560 — 

This usage is close to that of" the future ; compare rt 
irdOo) ; TL Bk Sptu ; tl 8c fxyjcrw/xaL ; Aesch. >S'. C. T. 1057 
with TL TrdOio ; Tl 8€ ixTjo-ofxat ; Soph. Track. 973. If the 
future is the old aorist subjunctive, /xijatjifxai and /Aifo-o/xai 
are of course merely different formations from the same 
aorist stem. . 

The only example of the 2nd person in this con- 
struction (ttws ovv It' eiTnys on (rvve'(TTaX/i,ai KaKois ; Eur. 
ff. F. 1417) is possibly coiTupt, and is generally emended 

into ai' eiTTOt?. 

The 3rd person is fairly common, especially in the 

T6 ctTTT/ Tts ; Demosthenes xxi. 197. 
Tt TTorjo-oycTLv ; Dem. xxix. 37. 

Compare also w//,ot eyw, Tt irdOai ; Tt vv /xot fxrJKLcrTa 
yev-qrai; Od. V. 465. 

For the negative type compare the frequent Tt -n-dOw ; 
Tt' fJLT] TrdOui ; and Trorcpov /j-yj <fipd^r), TrapafxvOta'i 8e ovSe ev 
7rpoo-8t8(3 ; Plato, X^^^. 719 r. 

561. iii. The use of the subjunctive as a future 
is common in Homer both with and without particles. 

ov yap TTOi TOtovs t8ov dvipas ovBk tSwfiai, II. i. 262. 

Never yet saw I such men nor shall I see them. 

€t Se K£ jxrj 8wa)0"tv, eyw Se k^v avTos eXiDfiaL. II. i. 137. 

If they give her not to me, then will I go and take 
her myself. 

The 2nd person hardly occurs, for the passage //. xi. 
433 cited above has a different shade of meaning. The 
3rd person is commonest in the phrase 

Kat TTore Ti'i elTrrjcn. II. vi. 479 and elsewhere. 
And some day they will sa}'. 


In other phrases it is accompanied by dv or kIv, the 
fine distinctions expressed by which are a matter con- 
cerning Greek grammar only, as they seem to have 
developed within the language. 

562. The original usages of the optative in simple 
sentences seem to have run parallel to ^he optative 
those of the subjunctive. We can dis- has three values, 
tinguish (i) the usage in wishes, (ii) the usage in cpies- 
tions, a construction to which av is generally added in 
Greek, (iii) a potential usage which may refer to present, 
past or future time. The negative in wishes is fjii]\ in 
the potential usage ov. The particles Kev and dv are not 
used with (i) but are common with (ii) and (iii). Wishes 
are often preceded by such particles as flOe, el ydp etc. 

563. (i) The nature of the wish is different accord- 
ing to the person used. 

1st Person, 
(W cS? rj(i(i)Oifj.L (3n] re fxoi I/xttcSos eh], Od. xiv. 468. 
Would that now I were young and my strength 
were as firm. 

Cp. fx-y] fxrjv da-n-ovSi ye koi. aKA.€tc<JS dTroXoL[xr]v. II. xxii. 304. 

The 2nd and 3rd persons are specially used as a sort 
of suggestion or exhortation. 

€1 TLvd TTOv Tpojojv e^aAyu€vos dvSpa pdXourOa. U. XV. 571. 
I wish you would jump out and shoot some Trojan. 

dAA' et Tts KoX TovcrSe /ACTOi;(OjU,evos /caXeVetev. 77. X. 1 1 1 . 
I wish somebody would go after these men and call 

1 In Vedic Skt. md is found in only one instance with the op- 
tative. Otherwise the negative is nd throughout {S. F. v. p. 337). 

442 A SHORT MANUAL OF [^ 564 — 

564. (ii) Tlie optative in Attic Greek witliout ap 
is so rarely used interrogatively that many authorities 
would emend the passages where it occurs or treat 
them as mere anomalies \ They preserve however an 
ancient construction which has become rare in Greek. 

real/, Ztv, Swacrtv Tt's avSpwv virep/Saa-ta Karaa-^oi ; 

Soph. Antig. 605. 
Thy power Avhat human trespass can limit ? 

tdO" OTTWS " AXKy](jTL<; e? yrjpa^ fxoXoL ; Eur. Alc. 52. 

Is it possible that Alcestis could reach old age ? 

ovK ecrO OTTODS Xe^ai/JLL to. ij/evSrj xaXa. 

Aesch. Agam. 620. 
It is not possible that I should make a false tale fair. 

With the last passage we may compare ovk la-ff os 
a-q'i y€ Kvva<; K€^aA.^s aTraXaAxoi, II. xxii. 348, which, how- 
ever, has a different history. The Homeric construction, 
instead of coming from the interrogative and deliberative 
usage (cp. the subjunctive, § 560), arises from (iii) the 
vague future use. 

565. (iii) Under the vague future or potential use 
we may also rank the concessive use ; compare the 
English hesitating he might go, which, though referring 
to the same future time as he may go and he will go, 
expresses greater remoteness of the possibility of his going 
than either of the others. This construction is so likely 
to be confused with wishes, especially in the 2nd and 3rd 

^ Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, § 242. The instances of this 
construction have been properly treated by A. Sidgwick in appen- 
dices to his editions of the Agamemnon and Choephori and more 
fully in an article in the Classical Review, vii. p. 97 ff. Hale's 
elaborate dissertation {Transactions of American Philological Associ- 
ation, 1893, p. 1-56 ff.) does not seem to me convincing. 


persons, that even in the Homeric period av and kI are 
the rule with the potential optative, though a certain 
number of the older constructions still survive. The 
instances cited from Attic are mostly very doubtful. 
They are, however, all optatives from verbs of saying 
and seem to be related to the subjunctive t}^)e et-n-r] ns 
(§ 561) j Koi Baacrov rj Xe'yot rts' e^pru/xcvas 1 ttojAovs Trap' 
ai'Tov Seo-TTorT/i' kcrrrjaafxev^ Eur. Hipp. 1186. 

566. The distinction (if any") between sentences of 
this type with av and those without av is very subtle. 

(a) avTcip TOL Kol Ketvci) eycu TrapafxvOrjcraiix-qv 

TTJ Lfjiev r] K€v 8rj av, Kc/Vatvc^e's, ijycyaoveiJTjS. 

//. XV. 45. 

(6) Koi 8 av TOts aWoLCTLV iyoj ~apafJiv9r]craifir]v 
OLKaS avroTrXcUiv. II. ix. 417. 

Monro, in his edition of the Eiad, translates the 
optative in {a) by ' I am ready to advise,' as expressing 
a concession ; in {b) by ' I should advise.' The con- 
struction in other clauses however shows no concessive 
meaning : ov n KaKWTepov aWo TrdOoL/jn, II. xix. 321, 
' I could not suffer aught worse ' ; x^PM"^'^'' Aa/Se, o ov 
hvo y avSpe cfyepouv, II. v. 302, ' which tivo men could 
not carry.' 

567. The application in Attic Greek of indicative 
forms to express wishes or conditions that can no longer 
be fulfilled is in the Homeric period not yet fully 
developed. Forms of uxfuXov are alone used for wishes 

1 Wecklein's emendation XoyoiaLi', although supported by I. T. 
836, seems unnecessary. 

2 Goodwin (.1/. T. § 240) treats the optatives without /ce or dv 
simply as exceptions to the general rule. 

444 A SHORT MANUAL OF [§ 567 — 

impossible of fulfilment, and in the apodosis of con- 
ditional sentences of the same nature the optative with 
K€ is used, though rarely, for the more common past 
indicative with av\ 

Kat vv Kei' ei'O aTroAoiTO,. . .€t /xry ap o^v vorjcrey. 

II. V. 311. 

He would have perished, if she had not quickly 
perceived him. 

5. The Latin Subjunctive. 

568. Latin has suffered so much mutilation before 
the beginning of the historical period that, as has been 
already mentioned, its mood system is of little use for 
the purposes of comparison with other languages. Two 
members only of the subjunctive series can be regarded 
as lineal descendants of Indo-Germanic forms. These 
are the present and the perfect-aorist. The forms 
ordinarily called imperfect and pluperfect must have 

Latin imper- ^^en developed within the separate history 
feet subj^a'new 0^ Latin. Whether they be regarded as 
development. modifications of original aorist t3'|)es or as 
compounds with the substantive verb (§ 515), they have 
no exact parallels elsewhere, even in the Italic group of 
languages. The periphrastic forms containing a future 
participle are of later origin. 

569. The history of the present and the perfect- 
aorist subjunctive is tolerably clear. The constructions 
of both are parallel to the Greek constructions to a large 
extent. Both subjunctives show the same close relation- 
ship with the future ; the perfect-aorist subjunctive is 
combined with a negative precisely as the aorist subjunc- 

1 Goodwin, M. T. § 440. 


tive is in Greek; /xr] oei^T^s: ne dixerls; ne diris istHc\ 
Plant. Asin. v. 1. 12 (839). 

570. The imperfect and pluperfect present greater 
difficulties. Their iisages in Plautus are different in 
many respects from those of the best classical period, 
while in the later period, when the forms of Latin are 
passing into Romance, they undergo an important change 
in meaning. The pluperfect takes the place of the im- 
perfect subjunctive, while the latter by the loss of its 
endings becomes confused with the infinitive and dis- 
appears. The names, imperfect and pluperfect, are given 
to these forms from one of their chief usages in the 
classical period. But even then the imperfect so-called 
is in unreal conditions a present : si velim, liosslm is the 
more frequent type in Plautus, si vellem, possem in 
Cicero ; in signification both are identical. The plu- 
perfect on the other hand is found used as the equi- 
valent of both imperfect and perfect-aorist. But the 
history of these two cases must be different. When the 
pluperfect is used as the equivalent of an imperfect, we 
are at once reminded of the history of the Greek 
pluperfect indicative. No doubt the development was 
the same here ; the so-called imperfect is formed from 
a durative present stem, the so-called pluperfect is 
obviously formed from a perfect stem and may therefore 
be expected to represent not a process but a state 
(§ 549). The idea of relative time cannot be got out of 
Cicero's cum ille homo audacissimus conscientia convictus 
reticuissef, patefeci.{Cat. ii. 6. 13) ; reticuisset is when 

1 It is to be remembered that etymologically dixeris and dixis 
are optatives. There is not in Early Latin that delicate distinction 
in usage between a negative with pres. imperative and a negative 
with 2 pers. aorist subj. which exists in Greek. 


he had become silent, i.e. while he vjas silent, the 
pluperfect of an inceptive verb being the exact e(iuivalent 
of the imperfect of a verb expressing a state \ On the 
other hand, since the Latin perfect has to discharge at 
the same time the duties of an aorist, forms of the 
perfect subjunctive may have a past meaning, and there- 
fore we find in Plautus such constructions as audivi ut 
expugnavisses regemque Pterekim occideris, Amj)h. ii. 2. 
114 (746), where the two clauses are parallel. 

As this question concerns the history of Latin only, 
it cannot be further discussed here. But the develop- 
ment of the subjunctive forms and the changes in their 
signification within the historical period should form one 
of the most striking chapters in that historical grammar 
of the Latin language wdiich has still to be written. 

1 Cp. Foth {Boehmer's Eoinanische Studien, ii. p. 313) who was 
the first to set this matter in its proper light. Blase (Geschichte 
d. Plusquamperfekts, p. 82) disputes this, wrongly in my opinion. 



The Greek and Latin Alphabets. 

[The chief recent authorities for this subject are Taylor, The 
Alphabet, vol. ii. ; Kirchhoff, Studien zur Geschichte des griech- 
ischen Alphaheti* ; E. S.Eoberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy ; 
Hinrichs in ed. 1, Larfeld in ed. 2, of vol. i. of I, Miiller's Hand- 
buck; Schlottmann in Kiehm's Handicorterbuch des Biblischen 
Altertums, s.v. Schrift und Schriftzeichen ; Fsmly's Real-Encyclo- 
pcidie (new ed.) s.v. Alphabet; Lindsay, The Latin Language ; 
von Planta (for the Italic alphabets) in his Grammatik der 
oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte.] 

601. The alphabet, wherever it may have originated, 
undoubtedly came to the Greeks from the Phoenicians. The 
Phoenician alphabet, identical with the Hebrew, consisted of 
twenty-two lettei-s. The oldest specimen of this alphabet 
that we possess and that can be dated with approximate 
certainty, is in the inscription upon the Moabite stone the 
fragments of which are now in the Lou\T:'e. This stone, 
discovered in 1868 in the ruins of the ancient Dibon, records 
the triumph of ^lesha, King of Moab, over his enemies. The 
date is some years after 896 B.C. i. The letters of this inscrip- 
tion bear a surprising resemblance to those of early Greek 

1 Mesha was a tributary of Ahab, King of Israel, and rebelled 
after Ahab's death (2 Kings iii. 4, 5). 


inscriptions. But the art of writing was luidoubtedly known 
to the Semitic races of Western Asia many centuries before 
the time of Mesha. The Greeks must have received the 
alphabet from the Phoenicians while the Phoenicians still 
carried on an active trade with Greece. But this trade seems 
to have been already on the wane in the eleventh century B.C. ^ ; 
hence we may conclude that the art of writing was known to 
the Greeks from at least the twelfth century. 

602. The alphabet as borrowed from the Phoenicians was 
not well adapted for Greek uses. It had no vowel symbols ; 
it had a superfluity of breathings and sibilants. The signs for 
Aleph, He and Ain^ were adopted for the vowels a, e and o, 
while Yod, the symbol for y (i), was utilised for the vowel i. 
The Greek treatment of three of the four sibilants, Zain 
(Eng. z\ Samech (5), Sade (ss) and Shin {sh), is less certain. 
Zain was kept in the place which it had in the Phoenician 
alphabet, but with the value of Greek f (§ 118), and with 
a name corrupted from Sade. Greek o- follows p precisely as 
in the Hebrew alphabet Shin follows Resh, while, on the 
other hand, if the name crt'y/xa is not merely connected with 
o-/f(B as the hissing letter, it looks as if borrowed from Samech. 
Samech follows the symbol for N and on the ^loabite stone 
has a form S closely resembling that of the ordinary Greek S. 
In the Greek inscriptions there are two symbols which are 
used in different dialects for a-, viz. M (sometimes |^) and 2!!. 
The form of Sade, written from right to left on old Hebrew 
gems and coins ^ bears considerable resemblance to the 
Greek /^, when, as is common in the early inscriptions, it is 
written from right to left like the Semitic letter. Shin 

^ Such is the ordinary view. Beloch {RJieinisches Museum, 
49, p. 113) puts the date of Phoenician influence on Greece as 
low as the 8th century. 

2 The Hebrew names of the Semitic letters are given at the 
head of the different sections of the 119th Psalm, which is an 
acrostic composition. 


appears on the Moabite stone as w which is identified with Z, 
the angle at which letters are written varying considerably in 
early and rude inscriptions. 

603. The Phoenician alphabet ended with T. Thus all 
letters in the Greek alphabet after t are developments within 
Greek itself. Of the new letters v is the earliest. The most 
plausible explanation of v is to identify it with the ancient 
Vau which occupied the sixth place in the Phoenician alpha- 
bet and had the value of vj (?/). On the jMoabite stone Vau 
has a form closely approaching to Y. This explanation of v 
receives plausibility not merely from the resemblance in form 
but also from the parallel treatment of Yod. A new symbol 
known to us from its shape as digamma (f ) then replaced 
Vau with its value as m (§ 171). Whether this symbol was 
an adaptation of the preceding E or whether it was a modi- 
fication of the original Vau symbol, is hard to decide. Some 
forms of Vau on ancient Hebrew gems make the latter view 
possible. The seventh and eighth letters (Cheth and Teth) 
in the Phoenician alphabet were used for the rough breathing 
(then written H) and for 6 respectively i. The only other 
letter in the Phoenician alphabet which differs from the 
forms in the Greek alphabet as ordinarily used is Koph or 
Qoph which stands before the symbol for Resh (R). This 
symbol was preserved in some Greek dialects, e.g. Corinthian, 
for a long time before o and v sounds ; compare the Latin Q, 
which is the same letter. 

The Greek symbols which still remain to be provided for 
are (p, x, ^> <». The authorities differ widely as to the origin 
of these forms. Some writers maintain that ^ is developed 
from one of the forms of Koph, x and ylr from bye-forms of 
the Phoenician T and Vau respectively. Many other views 
as to their origin are still held by eminent scholars and will 
come up again in the next section. Q is most likely merely 
a modification of O which was used in Miletus to indicate 

1 The first step towards the use of Teth as d was the writing of 
0H, the next the use of 9 alone. 

G. P. 29 


the long o-sound by at latest 800 B.C. It must, however, be 
remembered that these modifications of and additions to the 
original alphabet were the work of a considerable period and 
that while some remote and less progressive districts were long 
content with a primitive alphabet in which PH, KH, PZ 
did duty for the later single letters tp, x^ ^) the busy com- 
mercial towns like Miletus made rapid improvements in the 
alphabet as handed down to them. 

604. There were amongst the Greeks ^ two distinct 
alphabets, resembling one another in most respects, but 
differing in the representation of ^, x and yf/ or rather in the 
value which they attach to the symbols X and Y. Of the 
one type the Greek alphabet as usually written is the de- 
scendant, the Latin alphabet and through it the alphabets of 
Western Em-ope- generally are the representatives of the 
other. These alphabets are generally distinguished as the 
Eastern and the Western, The Western alphabet was used 
in Euboea and the whole of continental Greece except Attica, 
the north-east coast of the Peloponnese and the colonies like 
Corcyra and Syracuse which sprang wholly or partly from that 
area. The Western colonies with the exceptions mentioned 
above also used this alphabet. The Eastern alphabet was 
employed in Asia Minor and in most of the islands of the 
Aegean; Crete, Iklelos and Thera alone retaining for a long 
period a more primitive and less complete alphabet. The 

^ One branch of the Greek family — the Cyprian — did not use 
an alphabet but a syllabary of the same nature as that in which 
the cuneiform inscriptions of many Asiatic nations are written. 
This syllabary did not distinguish between breathed stops, voiced 
stops and aspirates ; hence tlie two symbols to-te may mean rire, 
ToSe, Tiode, dore, boBt], to Stj, etc. Another very primitive method 
of writing has been discovered in Crete by Mr A. J. Evans 
(Journal of Hellenic Studies xiv. p. 270 ff.). 

^ The Russian alphabet is a modification of the Greek alphabet 
as it appeared in the 9th century a.d. Some symbols had to be 
added to the Greek alphabet owing to the greater number of 
sounds in Slavonic which had to be represented. 


Western alphabet, as Latin shows, placed x after V (v) and 
used as its symbol X which in the Eastern alphabet was used 
for X- y or a local form \^ was used for x- The combination 
TTo- was generally left without a symbol, although in Arcadia 
and Locris a new symbol is invented by adding a pei'pen- 
dicular line in the middle of the symbol X. 

In the Eastern alphabet as here described there were still 
some variations from the present Greek alphabet. H was 
still used to represent not rj but the spiritus asper; E re- 
presented 6, 77, and the 'improper' diphthong ei which arises 
by contraction (§ 122); O after the introduction of Q re- 
mained the symbol for o and for the non-diphthongal ov. 
The lonians of the mainland lost the aspirate very early and 
employed H, no longer necessary in this value, as the equi- 
valent of Tj. The complete Ionic alphabet, which is the 
alphabet now in use, was fii-st officially adopted at Athens in 
403 B.C., although it is clear that the alphabet was in ordinary 
use at Athens considerably earlier 1. 

605. From the alphabet of the Greeks settled in I\Iagna 
Graecia came the alphabets used by the Etruscans, Romans, 
Oscans, Umbrians, and the smaller trites of the same stock. 
There seems to be little doubt that the Etruscans were the 
first to adopt the alphabet and handed it on to the Oscans 
and Umbrians. The shape of the Latin letters, which is in 
many respects very different from the Greek to which we are 
accustomed, is almost entirely an inheritance from the Greek 
alphabet of the Chalcidic colonies, in which letters exactly 
corresponding to those of Latin can be found except in the 

^ It may be mentioned that, apart from the great divisions 
of the alphabet which are discussed here, there were a large 
number of minor local peculiarities which enable scholars to 
assign with great definitencss the earlier inscriptions to their 
original home. This becomes increasingly difficult after the 
introduction of the Ionic alphabet. We have then to rely on the 
local dialectic forms, but with the appearance of the koivt] (§ 64) 
these tend more and more to disappear. 



case of P and G. In the oldest Latin, however, P is P 
as in Chalcidic, and it seems probable that G was introduced 
instead of the useless f by Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 B.C. 
The borrowing of the alphabet must have been at a com- 
paratively early period since in all the dialects the earliest 
writing is from right to left. 

606. The alphabets of Central Italy fall into two gi'oups, 
of which one is formed by the Latin and Faliscan, the other by 
the Etruscan, Oscan and L'mbrian. The main distinction 
between the two groups is that in the former the sound of / 
is repi'esented by the ancient Yau (F), while in the latter it is 
represented by a symbol more or less closely resembling the 
figure 8. The history of this difference is not clear. In the 
earliest Latin inscription, which is on a fibula found at 
Priieneste and published in 1887, we find FHEFHAKED 
written for the later fefacid. FH for the sound / seems to 
show that at the period of writing (probably in the sixth 
century B.C.) F still retained its ancient value as u and that 
the aspirate was added to show that the soimd was not 
voiced but breathed as in the Corcyrean PH for p (§ 119). 
But as V was used for both the consonant ij. and the vowel v., 
F came to be used alone with its modern value. It is 
contended by many authorities that the other group made 
its new symbol for / from the second member of the group 
FH at a time when H had still its ancient closed form 0, 
for an artistic stonemason might readily alter the two 
rectangles into two diamond-shaped or circular figxires^ 

607. The main argument for deriving even the Latin 
alphabet from the Chalcidic through the intermediate stage 
of the Etruscan, is the confusion in symbols between breathed 
and voiced stops, which Etruscan did not distinguish. The 
balance of evidence is against this theory, though it would ex- 
plain how the Greek rounded y (C) came to have in Latin 

1 In Umbrian this closed H is retained with its usual value in 
the shape ^. 


the same value as K and to oust it from all except a few 
forms stereotyped in the official style. 

608. The Umbrian, Oscan and Faliscan alphabets show 
similar but more numerous traces of Etruscan influence. 
FaUscan like Etruscan has no symbol for B. Etruscan had 
no D; neither has Umbrian, and the Oscan form S] is 
obviously a restoration from the form for /• with which the 
form for d had become confused. A still more important 
resemblance to Etruscan is that neither Oscan nor Umbrian 
has a symbol for o originally, V representing both original o 
and original u sounds. At a later period Oscan distinguished 
forms by placing a dot between the arms of the V; V- ^^ 
also distinguished i'-sounds which came fi'om original e by a 
separate symbol |-i. Umbrian has two further symbols; 
(1) S used to denote a peculiar pronunciation of original d 
which is represented in Umbrian monuments written in the 
Latin alphabet by rs, and (2) j, used for the palatal pro- 
nunciation of k before e and i, which is represented in Latin 
writing by s. They are now often transliterated by r or cl, 
and f. 

609. The symbols for the aspirates were not required by 
the Italic alphabets although Umbrian keej^s 6 in the form O. 
Some of the Roman numeral symbols were however derived 
from them; M = 1000, which appears in early inscriptions 
as (D with many variants produced by opening the side 
curves 2, there can be little doubt is ^, while half the symbol 
( d) is used for 500. We may gather from Etruscan that e 
was the earlier form out of which the Latin C = 100 developed 

1 These symbols when they appear in small type ai-e generally 
printed u, i. They are represented with greater clearness by u, f, 
the latter introduced by Mommsen, the former by Prof. R. S. 

- The symbol M, according to Mommsen {Hermes xxii. p. 601), 
is used by the Romans only as an abbreviation for miUe, milia, 
never as a number. Hence it is a mistake to write MM = 2000. 


by assimilation to the initial letter of Centura when the 
original value was forgotten. The Chalcidic Xi '^'i^- ^) had its 
side limbs made horizontal \_ \_ and was used for 50. X = 10 
is found in Etruscan, Umbrian and Oscan as well as Latin; 
whether it was the Chalcidic ^ — as a letter, x is found only in 
Latin and Faliscan — is uncertain. Whatever its origin V — 5 
is obviously meant for the half of it. 


The Greek Dialects. 

[The chief collections of materials are the volumes of the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, the collection of dialect in- 
scriptions edited by CoUitz with the help of many other scholars 
and still unfinished {Samvilung der griechiselien Dialekt-In- 
schriften), Cauer's Delectus Inscriptionitm Graecarum propter 
dialectum memorabilium^, 1883 and Bechtel's Insehriften des 
ionischen Dialektes. Among the most important treatises 
may be mentioned (1) Meister's Die griechiselien Dialekte, of 
■which two volumes founded on Ahrens' treatise De Graecae 
linguae Dialectis have appeared, the first (1882) containing 
Aeolic (as defined in § 621), the second (1889), Elean, Arcadian 
and Cj^prian ; (2) Hoffmann's Die griechiselien Dialekte (2 vols., 
1891, 1893), covering even more fully the same ground except 
Elean and Boeotian; (3) H. W. Smyth's The Greek Dialects (Ionic 
only), 1894. A useful summary of the main facts of Doric 
is given in Boisacq's handy compilation, Les dialectes doriens, 
1891. The dialects of North Greece are treated by H. W. Smyth 
(,-1. J. P. vii. pp. 421 — 445). An excellent resume of all the 
dialects is given in Pezzi's Lingua Greca Antica, 1888, to which I 
am much indebted.] 

610. The physical featm-es of Greece are such as to en- 
coiu'age the growth and maintenance of many separate 
dialects. Lofty mountain ridges divide valley from valley, 
thus rendering possible the existence of a large number of 
small communities politically independent and each in fre- 
quent conflict with its nearest neighbours. Separate societies 


under one political government tend to become more homo- 
geneous in language ; when a single society is broken into two 
parts under difterent political governments the parts tend to 
gi-adually diverge in language as in institutions (cp. § 64). 

611. The racial origin of a people need not throw any 
light upon the language it speaks, for many causes may lead 
in time to the loss of the ancestral language and the ac- 
ceptance of another. The Norse settlers in Normandy 
adopted a dialect of French instead of their native tongue; 
after their settlement in England they gradually resigned 
their French in favour of English. English itself is encroach- 
ing more and more upon the area in which Keltic dialects 
used to be spoken. It is therefore clear that a people may 
remain ethnologically almost pure and yet from political 
circumstances or self-interest change its language. But 
although history will not supi)ly a trustworthy key to the 
facts of language, nevertheless history and language will 
frequently corroborate one another. 

612. The Greeks of the Peloponnese and of Phthiotis in 
Thessaly who formed the expedition to Troy are known to 
Homer as Achaeans. The peoples who play a great part in 
later times, Dorians, Aeolians, lonians, are to Homer little 
more than names. According to Greek tradition, it was some 
eighty years after the Trojan war that the Peloponnese was 
invaded and conquered by a people from the north or north- 
west — the Dorians. The invaders, like the Normans in 
England, established themselves as a conquering caste, but in 
the countries under their authority the conquered Achaeans 
still survived partly as freemen without political rights, partly 
as slaves. According to Herodotus (viii. 73) the people in the 
centre of the Peloponnese — the Arcadians — had remained in 
their mountain fastnesses undisturbed by this invasion. In 
Arcadia then, if anywhere, we may look for the dialect of the 
ancient Achaeans. Cyprus was colonised from the Pelopon- 
nese and more especially from Arcadia, and inscriptions show 
the dialects to be closely akin. The branch of the race settled 
in Phthiotis also spread eastward to Asia Minor, and we find 


two great dialect areas with a form of language very similar, 
viz. Thessaly in Northern Greece and Aeolis in the north- 
west of Asia Minor. In Boeotia a similar dialect is found, 
crossed, however, with many Doric pecvdiarities. Ancient 
legend hints at some such mixture by a story that the 
Boeotians dislodged from Arne in Thessaly poured down into 
the Cadmeian land. These Boeotians must have been Dorians, 
and Doris the land from which they derive their name is in 
the heart of the mountainous region between Thessaly and 
Boeotia. We might therefore expect to find resemblances 
between the dialects of Xorth-west Greece and those of the 
Dorians of the Peloponnese. Our documents, however, leave 
us with a long gap of some centuries between the time of the 
legendary separation of the Peloponnesian Dorians from the 
northern Dorians and existing records. There was no direct 
communication between the tribes thus separated and hence 
many dift'erences between the dialects of North-west Greece 
and of the Peloj)onnese have had time to gi'ow up. So great 
are these differences that some of the best authorities separate 
these dialects into two distinct groups. The northern Eleans 
according to Herodotus were Aetolians and therefore members 
broken oiF at a later time from the main stock which re- 
mained to the north of the Gulf of Corinth. 

The Athenians boasted that they and their ancestors had 
lived through all time in Attica. They were known as 
lonians and identified themselves in origin with tribes living 
in Euboea, in some of the islands and in a large district on 
the coast of Asia Minor. 

613. There are thus three main stocks, (i) the Achaean, 
consisting of Arcadians and Cyprians on the one hand and 
Aeolians of Asia Minor and Lesbos, Thessalians and Boeotians 
(partly) on the other, (ii) the Dorian, originally resident north 
of the Gulf of Corinth but most powerfully represented by its 
warlike emigrants to Sparta, Argolis and Corinth, and (iii) the 
Attic-Ionic. These stocks in process of time sent out off"- 
shoots which planted the shores of the Black Sea, the north 
coast of Africa and the western Mediterranean on the 


European side with iiuuierous colonies, some as Cumae in 
Italy dating back to the legendary era soon after the Trojan 
war, others as Amphipolis in Thrace or Thurii in Southern 
Italy belonging to the middle of the historical period. 

614. For knowledge of any dialect we are indebted to 
three sources, all of which in some cases may not be available. 
These sources are (i) literature, (ii) grammarians and lexico- 
graphers, (iii) inscriptions. Neither of the first two sources 
can be trusted by itself. For (a) before the invention of 
printing, when scribes had to copy the works of authors, 
there was a constant liability to error in matters of dialect, 
since the scribe was likely to write inadvertently the forms of 
his own dialect in place of those in the manuscript before 
him or to mistake the reading of forms with which he was 
not familiar. When a manuscript thus incorrectly written 
was itself copied, the numljer of errors in matters of dialect 
was likely to be gi-eatly increased. Hence sometimes, as in 
some works of Archimedes the Syracusan mathematician, the 
almost total disappearance of the dialectical element; hence 
too the occasional occurrence of two widely divergent copies 
of the same work. For example, the treatise by Ocellus 
Lucanus De Rerum Natiira is preserved in Attic, although 
Stobaeus quotes it in Doric. Owing to the same cause the 
exact treatment of Ionic in the hands of Herodotus is still to 
some extent a matter of dispute, the manuscripts varying 
greatly as to the contraction of vowels and the like. 

615. ih) There is however a more subtle source of error. 
Much of the Greek dialect literature is in poetry, and it is 
hard to tell in many cases how far corruption of dialect is 
due to the poet himself or to his transcriber. A later Greek 
poet might be reasonably expected to be influenced by 
Homeric diction ; he might use a borrowed word which 
suited his verse better or, even though well acquainted with 
the dialect, he might use a conventional form which was not 
actually spoken ^ That the dialect writing of Theocritus 

1 To take a modern instance, Burns does not write pure 
Scotch although born and bred a Scotchman. Even in what 


was conventional is admitted by every one ; how far the early 
writers of lyrics use a conventional language and how far the 
dialect of their native cities, is a vexed question. 

616. The grammarians are no more trustworthy, for 
they often worked on insufficient data and put down forms 
as belonging to particular dialects without certain ev'idence. 
The works of the ancient grammarians, moreover, are subject 
to the same dangers in copying as works of literature. The 
only trustworthy evidence to be obtained with regard to any 
dialect is from the records of the dialect engraved on some 
permanent material, such as stone or metal, by the people 
themselves and still preserved. Even here the material at 
our disposal is not always to be relied on and the genuine- 
ness, authenticity and decipherment of inscriptions must be 
investigated by the canons according to which such matters 
are tested in the case of literarv works. 


617. Our information regarding this dialect is derived 
from (i) inscriptions, (ii) glosses containing Arcadian words. 
Most of the inscriptions in the dialect are short or consist 
merely of proper names. From Tegea there are two longer 
inscriptions, one dealing with a building contract first pub- 
lished in 1860, the other regarding the right to pasture in 
the neighbourhood of the temple of Athena Alea first pub- 
lished in 1888. The latter to judge by the alphabet, which 
is in the transition stage between the native and the Ionic 
alphabet, is somewhat older, belonging probably to the early 

might be supposed his most characteristically national poem 
Scots xcha hae, of these three words ivha and hae are only 
conventional changes of English words, for Scotch uses not the 
interrogative tclio but that as the relative, and the plural of have 
ends in -s, the genuine Scotch phonetically written really being 
Scots 'at hiz. 


part of the fourth century B.C. The former, however, al- 
though written in the Ionic alphaVjet presents more character- 
istic features of the alphabet in less space and part of it is 
therefore given here. 

618. The main characteristics of the dialect most of 
which it shares with Cyprian are these : 

i. (a) -Ks- in the preposition e| is reduced to s before a 
following consonant : eo-Sor^pes. 

(b) -PTi becomes -p(n which remains : Kpivwvai. Cp. iepa/j.- 
vd/jLoviTL dat. pi. 

(c) Original g is represented by f and 5 the pronuncia- 
tion of which is uncertain : '(;ipe6pov, iadeWovre^. Cp. Attic ^dpaO- 
pov, ^dWovTes. 

(d) € before v became i in the preposition tV. 

(e) Final o became v : dirv. The old genitive ending ao 
also becomes au. 

(/) -01 appears for -at in the 3rd sing, middle : yivrjroL etc. 
Spitzer's explanation of -rot as influenced by ordinary secondary 
ending seems most probable. 

ii. (a) Some stems in -77s show a strong form of the root 
syllable where Attic has the weak : 2w-K-p^T7?s, while Attic ^.u-Kpdrrjs 
has -)•-. 

(b) Stems in -ijs, whether -s-stems or -f»-stems as iep^s 
( = L€p€vs), are inflected like stems in -7; (cp. § 50). 

(c) The old genitive of masculine stems in -u, Homeric 
'Arpeidao, appears as -av and is followed through analogy by the 
fem. (T-stems oiKiav, etc. 

(d) The ' contracting ' verbs in dw, ^w, ocj are of the /it- 
conjugation, which is perhaps more original than the -w type : 

ddlK^VTa, TToivTO}. 

(e) The locative has taken the place of the dative : Ipyoi. 
dTri) and e^ accompany the locative, iir-h = iTri^ takes the genitive, 
nos — '*TroT'$ and Iv take both locative and accusative (cp. Latin in). 


et K av Ti yivrjTOi Tois epycovais Tois iv roi avTOi 
epyoi, ocra rrepl to i'pyov dTTVf(T(d)a> 8i 6 d8iicT)pfvos 
Tov dbiKfvra Iv ap.4pais Tpiai, dnv roi av to dSi- 
-Krjfia yevT]Tot, vcTTfpov 8e p.rj- koi oti ay Kplvooi'cri 
01 fcrdoTfjpfs, Kvpiov etrro). Ei 8e iroXt nos 8ia- 
-KaXvaei ti twv epyoov rav icrboQivTwv tj tojv 
Tjpyaapfvoov ti (jidepai, ol TpiaKaaioi diayvovTco, 
ti fiel yiveadai- ol 8e (TTpaTayol TTOcrodop TToevTco, 
e'i k' av SiaTOi (T<pfis noXepos rjvai 6 KCt)\v\^co]i' ^ e- 
-cf)dopKo)s TO. epya, Xa(f>vpoTro)\tov iovTOs KaTv Tas 
TToXtoy el Se ri{s) epycovTjcras prj lyKf)(T]pT]KOi to7s 
epyois, 6 8e TrdXe/iOs 8iaK0iXvoi, d7rv86as [r]6 dpyvpiov, 
to av XfXa^rjKcbs Tvyxdvrj, acfyeajcrdco tcH) epyco 
ft K av KeXfvcovcn ol ecrSoTripes. Et 8' «[i'] tls eVi- 
-(rvvioTaToi. toIs ecrSocrecrt twv e'pyav J) XvpaivT]- 
-Toi KaT fl 8e Tiva Tpoirov (pdrjpav, ^apiovToi 
ol ecrSoTTJpes, ocrai av 8iaToi crcfyeis ^aplai, Ka\ 
dyKapvalaov^TO) Iv eTriKpia-iv <al IvayovTo) 
Iv diKaaTrjpiov to yivopevov roi ttXtjOI ras 
^apiav. Mr] e^fcrrco 8e pr]8e KOivdvas yevecrdai 
irXeov T] 8vo eVl pr]8ev\ tcov i'pyajv ft Se /xtj, oC^XeVo) 
enaoTOS TrevTrjuovTa 8ap)(pds' fTrfXacr{d)adcov 
8e ol aXiaarar lp(f)aivfv 8e Top ^oXopevov sttI toI 
fjpicrcroi. Tas ^apiav. Kara avTo. Se Ka\ e'l k' av [t]is 
TrXfOV fj 8vo epya i\ri Tmv Upmv tj t(ov 8ap\o\(j{.a>v 
KaT el 8e Tiva Tponov, otivl ap prj ol aXia(TTa\y\ 
TrapeTa^covcri 6po6vpa86v irdvTes, ^apia)\_(j]{d)co 
Kad' eKacTTOv twv TrXfot'cov epycov Karii prjva 

nevTTjKovTa 8ap^pals, pecrT av 

TO. epya. TO. rrXeova, 
Hoffmann's text (vol. i. p. 25). Cp. Collitz' D.I. No. 1222. 
awvboas, ptc. of aorist from stem seen in Cypr. SoFivai. (x<peis, 
ace. pi. piar' av, cp. Thessal. peairoSL, Homeric pe<7(p' -fjovs 
II. viii. 508, where the right reading is possibly pia-ir'. 



619, As already mentioned, the Cyprian inscriptions are 
written not in the Greek alphabet but in a cuneiform syllabary. 
This syllabary was first interpreted by George Smith in 1871. 
Since then much more material has been collected and many 
scholars, mostly German, have advanced the reading and 
interpretation of the monuments. The lack of any distinction 
between breathed stops, voiced stops and aspirates, the dis- 
appeai'ance of nasals in consonant combinations, and the 
difficulty with a syllabic notation of indicating a combination 
of consonants, make the reading of Cyprian inscriptions an 
intricate puzzle. Compare the following symbols and their 
interpretation : 

ta se te e nii ta se pa pi a 
Tas dtai ifii rai na0ta[j] 

sa ta sa ko ra u ^raaayopav 

e mi' to sa e/xi ra 

ta sa to ro 2Taa-a{u)8pa>. 

The passage transcribed on the opposite page is on a 
bronze plate engraved on both sides which was found at 
Edalion. It is the longest Cyprian inscription. It is dated 
by Meister about 389 B.C., by Hoftmann about 449 B.C. 

620. i- Cyprian resembles Arcadian in all characteristic 
sounds except that ef does not change to es before consonants : 
CP- ('^) ^X"! ")<'■' (or possibly ^xw(»')<3't)t (c) fas = Attic 7^5, (rf) io(v)fft 
( = *{{(t)ovti), (e) y^voiTv and many proper names. There is no 
example of a middle optative ending in -toi. Cyprian has how- 
ever other peculiarities which are not shared by Arcadian. 

(a) Between 1 and v and a following vowel it indicates the 
glide {§ 84) UaT^pap, KaTeaKe{iJ'( = u)aae. There is a converse 
change in eiifprjTda-aTv for i/p — . 

(h) V did not change to ii as in Attic, for in the glosses it 
interchanges with : p.oxoi = p-vxot- 

(c) Such forms as pa ta for iravra seem to show that the 
vowel was nasalised as in French. 


(l)"Ore Ta{v) tttoXiv 'HSoXiov Karepopyov MaSoi Kas KerirjFfS, 
i(v) Tu>i ^iXoKvirpav ptrei Ta> 'Ovacray6\pav, ^acriXfvs Sracri- 
KVTrpos Kas d tttoXis UdaXiyjfes avcoyov Ovd(ri\ov tov Ovacn- 
<VTr\po>v TOV ljaTr]pav kcis ros nacriyvrjTOs Ijdcrdai tos d{v)dpa)Tros 
Tos l{v) rdi /ia^at iK\fJ.ap.€Vos c'lvev pucrOcov Kas nai fvFprjTdaaTv 
jSaaiXevs kcis a tttoKis 'Oj/a(ri'||X(ii)i Kas toIs KaaiyvrjTois d{v)T\ rw 
P-ktOwv KCi d{v)Tl rd vx^jpcov 8oFfvai e| ran \ Fo'lkuii rm ^acriXijFos 
Kas f$ rdi TTTokifi. dpyvpco{v) rfi[Xai/Toi/] | rd[Xai'roi/]- r] bvpdvoi 
vv divert rw [ dpyvpmv rwSe rco TaXd{v)Ta>v (Bacrikfvs Kas a 
TTToXis 'OvaaiXcoi kcis tols Kaai\yvrjrois dnv rai ^di rdi ^acrtXrjFos 
rd i{v) TOO IpcovL Tcbi ' A\a(iJi)7r pLjaTai t6{v) ^apov | tov l{v) tS)i 
eXei t6{v) ;^pai;d/Liei/oi' "0{y)Ka{v)TOS aXfco Kas rd Tipxvija to. 
€7ri6{v)Ta II 7ra(i')ra i'xfv rravciiviov, vFals ^dv, aTeXrjv rj Ke cris 
'OvdcriXov Tj TOS \ KacriyvrjTos rj tos Tralbas Tcb{v) iraiScov tu)v 
^OvacTiKVTTpcuv i^ Tan x'^P'^'- ^wtSe | e^ opv^rj, iSe wai, o e^ 
opv^T], TTfiaei 'Oi/acrtXcoi Kas toIs Kaaiyvr]Toi\s j] to'is natcn tov 
dpyvpov T6{v)8e- dpyvpco{v) TdlXavTov^ \ ra[Xai'roi']- | Kas 
'Ovaa-iXat. o'lFcoi, clvev Ta{v) Kaaiyvr]Tcov Tciv a'lXcov, iFpr^TacraTV 
lia(TCXfv\\s Kas a tttoXis hoFivai d{v)T\ to ix'^ipt^v, tco pLiadcov 
dpyvp(jo{v) TrelXeKtFas] \\\\ Trf[Xf KeFas] \ \ \ 8l[8paxp-a] 'H[8a- 
Xui]- rj ScuKot vv ^acnXfvs Kas d tttoXis ^Ovacri — | 

(2) -Xcot d{v)T\ TOO dpyvpoo{v) rwSe dnv Tdi ^dc Tai ^acrCXrjFos Ta 
l{v) MaXaviJa\L rat nfdijai t6{v) x^pov Td{v) xpav^opevov Ap-qvija 
aXFoo, Kas TaTfplxviJa Ta im6{v)Ta Trd\y)Ta,To{v) Tro^xopfvov nds 
t6{v) p6Fo{v) To{v) Apvfiiop Kas Tr6\\s Tav Upr^Fijav Tds A6dvas, 
Kas t6{v) kuttov tov l{v) 2ip.{p.)i8os dpovpa\i, t6{v) Aifei'^e/xts o 
'Appdv(vs rjxe ciXFoo, t6{v) TToexopevov ttos IIacray6pa\v tov 
^Ovatrayopav, Kas Ta Ttpxvija Ta fTri6(v)Ta ird{v)Ta i'xev iravoovios 
v^Fals ^dv, ciTfXija l6{v)Ta- t] Ke ais 'OvdcriXov rj tos Tra'idas tos 
'OvacriXoov i^ rat ^di ratSe t e^ rait KCiTrcot rwtSe e'^ opv^r], i[jSe, o 
f^ dpv^T], TTficrei 'OvacriXooi rj Tols Traial tov lipyvpov r6(i')Sf 
dpyvpoo\v 7re[XeKefas'] |||| Tre\X€KeFas'\ \\ 8t[6/ja;(/iia] 'H[SdXta]* 
Ihf Taiv) baXTOv Td{v)8f, Ta F^i^i-Ja Tabe IvaXaXicrpeva, \ (3aaiXfvs 
Kas d TTToXis KaTfdiJav l{v) Td{v) 6iov Tav \6dvav Tav irep' 
'H[SuXtoi', crvv opKOis pr/ Xvcrai tos Fpr/Tos TdaSe vpciis ^dv. \ 
"Om cris Ke rds FprjTas Tiicrbe Xvarj, avocrija foi yevoiTv Tds 


(d) ouKuv = aWuv if correctly interpreted shows that the 
assimilation of -li- was completed after the separation of the 
Greek dialects. Arcadian has aXXos. 

ii. (a) The genitive singular of -o-stems at some Cyprian 
towns (as Edalion) was in -uv. The origin of the -c is not clear. 

(b) -V is added after the sonant nasal in accusatives like 
haTripav (cp. Horn. Irjrrjp) and a.{p)5pia(v)Tav. 


621, To Aeolic used in its widest belong three 
dialects, (1) the dialect of Thessaly except Phthiotis which 
through Doric influence has become since the Homeric period 
akin to the dialects of North-west Greece, (2) the dialect of 
Lesbos and of the coast of Asia Minor adjoining, (3) the 
dialect of Boeotia. Of the three the dialect of Lesbos and its 
neighbourhood is the purest because, like that of Cyprus, it 
was brought less into contact with other dialects. Thessaly 
was ruled by a few noble families apparently of Dorian origin 
who lived in feudal state, while the earlier inhabitants had 
sunk to the level of serfs and were called Penestae. In 
Boeotian there is a much larger Dorian element. 

622. The soiu"ces for Thessalian are inscriptions and a 
few statements of Grammarians. For Lesbian and Asiatic 
Aeolic there is a large number of inscriptions, many fragments 
of lyric poetry by Sappho and Alcaeus^ and a considerable 
amount of grammatical literature. For Boeotian the most 
important source is the inscriptions. There are also some 
fragments of the poetess Corinna. The grammarians fre- 
quently confuse Boeotian with the Aeolic of Lesbos. The 
Boeotian of Aristophanes {Acharnians 860 ft'.) and of other 
comic poets was probably never correct and has been fiu'ther 
corrupted in transmission by the scribes. 

1 The Aeolic of Theocritus and of Balbilla the learned com- 
panion of Hadrian's Empress is a literary imitation and not 
trustworthy evidence for the dialect. 


ice II fas TficrSe kcis tos kottos roaSe ol 'OvaaiKvnpcov Tratdfs kcil 
Ta>[v) iraibuiv ol Tra\'ibfs e^o{v)ai aiFei, ot '{v) Ta> Ipuivi tu>l 

Hoffmaun's text (vol. i. p. 69). Cp. D. I. No. 60. 

Kds = Kai. LK/ML/xhos (ace. pi.) 'bit.' i'xhp'^^ (gGQ- fern. ) = eVt- 
Xeipov, i> probably = *ud cp. va-repos, fa? — y^. aXfw (ace.) 
threshing-floor (H.). Tipxvi.ja = (f>vTa.. vfah ^av meaning uncer- 
tain, perhaps 'forever.' TreiVei — Attic reiati.. iva\a\i(T/j.eva perf. 
pass. part, from elsaXiveiv 'written thereon.' The pronominal 
forms wat. (enclitic particle), otti, crts ( = Ttj) may be noticed. 

[N.B. Here as in other inscriptions curved brackets indicate 
doubtful or worn letters, square brackets letters illegible or lost 
and restored by the editor.] 

The following passage from Tick's edition of the Iliad 
(i. I — 16) is an attempted restoration of the Aeolic of the 
Homeric period (see § 650). Fick has now published a 
slightly different recension in B. B. xxi. p. 23 flf. 

M.aviv ('I'ftSf, Bia, IlriKrfiaba Ap^iXj^oj 
oWopivav, a pvpC 'Axnioia' aXye edrjKf, 
TToWais 8'l(p6ifj.ois yj/vxais "AFi8l Tvpoia^e 
Tjpaaiv, avTois 8e peXapia revxe Kvveaai, 
olcovoKTi re naiai, Ai'os 8 ireXTjero /SoXXa, 
e^ o) Brj Ta npcoTa SifcrrnTav fpicravre 
'ArpetSas re Fava^ avSpav koL 87os A)(iWevs. 
Tis Tap acfiwf 6(a>v e'piSt (TvverjKf pd^fo-dni ; 
Adrcar kol ilios vios. o yap liaa-iX-rji ^oXcodfis 
vovcrtrov dva (rrpdrov (opae KOKav, o\(koi>to 8e Xdoi, 
awfKa Tov XpvaT]v drifiaae dpaTTjpa 
'ArpetSay o yap rjXde 66ais eVi vdas A)(ai(i)v 
Xv(Tiip€v6s re Ovyarpa (f)epa)v t airepicrcri airoiva, 
ariTTnaT e';(wv fv x^P'^'- FfKaiBoXo) ATTTToXXtuz/oy 
XpvTicoi av aKaTTpcoi Ka\ FXicrcrfTO nam-as Axcuois, 
'Arpftda 8e pdXtaTa 8vo), KocrprjTopf Xaav. 

G. P. 30 

466 appendix. 

1. Thessalian. 

623. The extract given is a reply of the people of Larissa 
to a letter of Philip V. king of Macedon. The original 
docnment first published in 1882 is of considerable length, 
containing two letters of the king and two replies as well as a 
long list of signatories at the end. The date is soon after 
Philip's second letter, which was written B.C. 214. The 
alphabet is Ionic. The older inscriptions are much smaller. 
In this inscription the king's letters are in the koivt], the 
replies in the local dialect. 

i. (a) In the 3rd pi. middle -vto appears as -vOo : iyevovdo 
(cp. Boeotian). 

(h) Original o (w) appears as ov : xoi^pai', wavTow, ovs. 

(c) Original e (77) appears as et : jBacnXe'ios, xP^'^^'Mow 

(d) at in verb terminations appears as -ei : ^eWeirei 
{ = /3o(;Xr;Tat), iacricrdeLV ( = ^a€adai), 

(e) Final d appears as e in dii (Sid) ; cp. 3rd pi. ive<pivia(Toev, 
iSovKae/JL (final fx. for v by assimilation before yua-) with Boeotian 

(/) Kis = Attic Ti's. According to Hoffmann the palatalized 
g-sound survived till the Greek dialects separated with a sound 
like that beginning the English ' child.' 

(r/) Instead of compensatory lengthening as in Attic, nasals 
and liquids are doubled: Kpepvefxfv ( = Kp'i.veiv), dTrvaT^WavTOi 
( = d7ro(TTetX-). Compare Kvppoi' = *Kvptpv. 

ii. (a) All infinitives end in -v : 5e56adeLv, ^ixfiev. 

[h) As a demonstrative 6-ve = Attic o5e, but both elements 
are declined : Todweow. 

(c) Instead of the genitive the locative is used in o-stems : 

(d) p.a (perhaps ="wg) is used =5^. It seems to occur also 
with a variant grade in fxeairodi ( = ews), which is probably to be 
analysed into p-ea-wod-L, woo being rather the pronoun (Lat. quod) 
than the same stem as in wedd etc. 


YLavdfifioi TO eKza eV iKa8i (Tvvk.X€ltos 

yevofiivas, dyopavofiivrovv tovv rayovv -nav- 
-Tovv, ^iXiTTTTOi Tot jSatTiXaoy ypdnfiara Trijii^avTOs ttot tos 

Tayos Koi rav tvoXlv, St[e']Kt IlerpaTos Koi AvdyKnnros KUi 
'ApioTwooff, ovs aT rds 7rpei(r/3[ei]as eyevovdo, eve(()avi(rcro€v 

avTOv, iTOKKi Koi a dufxiovv nokis Ste rbs 7roXe/iOf tto- 
-rcSe'ero tvXhovovv tovv KaToiKSLcrovTovv fiecnroBl kc ovv koi 

iripos iTTLVOflcrovp-ev d^ios Toi trap dp.p.e 
TroXiTfvp.aros, er rdl irapfovTOS Kpevvip^fv i\ra(^L^dcrdeiv 

dp.p.i, o{v)s <e rols KaroiKevreacn Trap dfipi IIeT6\a-\ 
-Xovv Koi TOVV (iWovv 'F,\[X]avovv Sodel A noXiTeia — TOiveos 

yap crvvTeXecrdivTOs koi avvp.€vvdvTovv irav- 
-Tovv Ste TO. (piXdvQpovTva neTreiaTeiv oXXa Tf TroXXa tovv 

)(p€ia'Lp.ovv eacreadeiv kuI €{a)vTov koI tu ttoXi Kai 
rav -xovpav pdWov i^fpyaaOeicriadeiv — , eylrafptaTei to. TroXiTfia 

irpacdcpev irep Tovvveovv, kut ra 6 j3a- 
-aiXevs eypayj/'e, koi tois KaTOiKfVTearai Trap dp-p-e TleTdaXovv 

Ka\ TOVV (IXXovv 'EXXavoui' SeSocrBeiv Tav ttoXi- 
-reiav Ka\ avTo2s koi iayovOLS koI to. Xoitvo. Tipia VTrap)(^epL€v, 

avTols TrdvTa, oaaoTrep Aaaalois, cf)v\as fKope- 
-i/ot? eKciaTov, Troias ks /Se'XXeiref to pa yf/-d(f)Lap.a Tove Kvppov 

fp\^p\fv KaTT TravTos XP^^^'- *"*' '''^^ Tapias e'crSo- 
-pfv ovypaxJAeiv avTo iv crraXXaj \i6ias 8vas koi Ta ovvpaTa 

TOVV TToXiToypacfieidevTovv koi KaT6ip.ev 
Tap pev 'lav iv to Upov toI 'A.TrXovvos rot KepSotot, Tap. pa 

ciXXav iv Tav aKpoTvoKiv Ka\ tuv ovaXav, kls k€ yi.- 
-vveiTfi, iv Tave 86pev. 

Hoffmann's text (vol. ii. p. 21). Cp. D. I. No. 345. 

aT Tas = d.Tr6 ttjs, e'r TOL = eTrl toO. Xaaaiois apparently no mis- 
take, for Hesychius has Adaav ttjv Adpiaav. 6vd\av = dvdXupa. 
'/LvveLreL from yi-vv-iJiai = yLyvoiJ.aL in meaning. 



2. Lesbian and Aeolic of Asia Minor. 

624. None of the inscriptions are very old, the earliest of 
any length the dates of which can be ascertained belonging to 
the beginning of the 4th century B.C. Both inscriptions 
given here probably belong to the end of the 3rd century B.C. 

i. The two most marked characteristics of genuine Aeolic 
are (a) j3apvT6vT]ai.s and (b) \f'i\(a(Tis. Unlike other Greek dialects 
Aeolic throws back the accent in all words (except prepositions 
and conjunctions) as far from the last syllable as it will go. 
Hence aSroiat, Ipos (Attic iepos), iiraiv-qaaL, oXiyos, Terdynevos etc., 
every word being barytone, for the long monosyllables oxytone in 
other dialects are here circumflexed : ZeDs, tttwI, etc. The 
second point — ^j/iXuxjis — is the total loss of the spiritus asper, a loss 
which, however, is equally certain for the lonio of Asia Minor. 

(c) The Digamma is not found in inscriptions after the 
adoption of the Ionic alphabet. It seems, however, to have dis- 
appeared early in the middle of words but had, to judge from the 
grammarians, survived initially, /appearing as /3: j3pd\-ea = Attic 
paKi], Ppi^a = pii;a etc. "When a consonant followed, f passed into 
a diphthong with the previous vowel : Sei/w^Attic 5^w ( = *5€vct-w), 

(d) The grammarians tell us that f was written o-5- in 
Lesbian, a statement which is not borne out by inscriptions, and 
which seems to point only to the fact that the Lesbian like the 
classical Attic pronunciation of f (§ 118) was different from its 
later value represented by-s.s- in Latin transliterations: atticisso etc. 

(e) Nasals and liquids are doubled when another consonant 
ff, t , f is assimilated : i/xcvya, ivefi/j-a, ^areWa, x^PP"-^ ' hands ' 
( = *Xc/w-) but Ipcrev ; (pdfvvos, d/xfrn, x^^^'<" (cp- Attic x'^"") ; 
Kplvvu, dvayyiWu, x^PP'^" { — *X^Pi.'^^ 'worse'); ^ewos, irippaTa 
(Horn. vdpaTa — -pF-). 

(/) The later assimilation of final -v^ and non-original 
-vi- produces in the preceding syllable a pseudo-diphthong : at, ei, 
ot : rah ypdtpais (acc. pi.), ei's prep, very frequent ( — *iv-s), deoLs 
(ace. pi.); nom. masc. of particii^les =-«^s: dKovcrais, deixOas, 


(1) Decree of Mytilene : 

Hep\ d)f ol arporayoi TrpoTideicri tt p oar a^ai eras T(a.)s [/3oX-] 
[-X]ay Kol ol Trpia^fis ol dTTOardXevTes els AtTco[Xiai/] 
[ajwayyeWoicri Koi 86yfia rjviKav Trap ru> Koiv<o Atr[6)X&)i'] 
[Trjepi Tas olnrjioTaros Koi ras (fxXias, cos Ke Siapev^axri] 
(e)ls Tov ndvTa )(^p6vov Ka\ firjbeis prjre AlraiXcov P''f]{Te'\ 
[rjav KaTOLKTjvTcov €v AlrcoXiai prjbeva MvriXTjvdcov "[y?;] 
prjbdpodfv oppdpevos p^Te (car' dppvaiov prjre Tvpos ['A/i-] 
\_-(pi.lKTv6i'iKOV prjTe Trpos akXo eyicXTjpa prjdev 8e8ox^dai rco 8d- 
[-ju-Jo) €7raivr](Tai to ko7vov tuiv AlraiXav Ka\ to\s npoeSpois Ka[lJ 
(Tl)avTaX€0VTa tov oTpoTayov, oti evvoats e^oiai Trpos t6{v) 
8dpov tov MvTiXrivdtov, kol eTTipiXfcrdat. avTav Tav ^oX- 
-Xav Kal TOV 8dpov Ka\ Tois tipx^ais del rals KaOiarapivais 
&)$• a T€ (piXia Ka\ a olKTjioTas a VTrdpx^oiaa npos AtrcoXoty 
Siapepfi els tov irdvTa )(pnvov, Ka\ a" Ke tivos 8eva>VTai ■n'(a)[/j] 
rds TToXios, ois ecrrai avToiai ndvTa els to 8vvaTov e7raiv(T]-) 
-(rai 8e Kal toIs irpeajieis Evvopov Q-qplaov, MeXeSapov 'A(/3)[ai'-] 
-Teinv Kal aTecpdvaxrai avTois ev toIs Aiovvaioia-i XP^^U^l 
(rTe(f)dva> kut dvopxvros, oti Tav Te 7ro[X]tVav Tivas Toiv e[oi'-] 
(-r)coi' ev TleXoTTOvda'ai eXvTpa>aavTO kol eiv pacr{(T)ov , enl ra 

-nepffjdev, Trpodvpas. To 8e yp-depiapa tovto Kal to Trap 

{y)pd'<\ravTas roi(j) e^eTanTais el[s) aTaXXav dipevai els to lpo\y'\ 
T(o AcrKXaTTLO), tov be rapiav tov errl Tcis 8ioiKea-ios 86p.e- 
-vai avToicn, to Te dvaXacrav els toIs alxpaXojTOLS Kal els Ipla] 
8pd)^pais TpiaKoalais 'AXe^av8peiais, to 8e dvdXaipa tovtIpJ 
Ijfjppevai els noXios aa)Tr]plav. "E,ypa\l/e ^aeaTas ^v(rdpeio(s). 
Hoffmann's text (vol. ii. p. 61). 


{iij/ois (=-o-i'Ts) ; -}iti(i): <pa7cn ( = (/)acr:), TrporideLtn, exoi-cn, ypa.<l>(j}iai 
(subj.). iraiaa ( = *7rai'Tta), fMoTaa (Attic fj.ovaa), and iu the fern, of 
participles : yeXaiaas, vTrdpxoi-cra etc. 

(g) has close relations with a and n : ov=:di'd (so too 
Thessalian), arpdros — ffTpards and iu a few other words (cp. 
Boeotian), but dirv (as in Arcadian and elsewhere), ow/xa (6i>ofj.a), 
but TrpbravLs ( = Attic irpdravis.). 

ii. (rt) The ' contracting ' verbs appear as verbs in -px : 
yfKats ' thou smilest,' KoK-qpx, <TT€<f>d.vuip.i. In all three Aeolic 
dialects intermediate forms between the -p.i. and -w inflexion appear 
in the types -7;a;, -ww, which occur also in Phocian. 

(h) The perfect participle is declined like the present (cp. 
Homeric K£/cX^7o^rej): ireTrpea^evKov . This is true also of Thessalian 
and Boeotian. 

(c) The 3rd person plural of the imperative in both active 
and middle has a short vowel : (pepovTov, eTri/xeXeadov. Of this 
peculiarity there is no satisfactory explanation. 

{d) icTTi and etrcrt are both used as the 3rd plural of ^ixui. 

3. Boeotian. 

625. While Boeotian ofiers great resistance to loss of F, 
it has modified its vowel system more than any other Greek 
dialect. The Boeotian method of representing its sounds 
after the introduction of the Ionic alphabet enables the pro- 
nunciation to be accurately ascertained. 

i. (a) V remained if and did not as in Attic change to ii. 
Hence on the introduction of the Ionic alphabet the pure M-sound 
had to be represented as in French by ou (ou). u seems, as in 
English, to have developed after dental stops, \ and v,& y {i) sound 
before it, for otherwise it is difficult to explain such forms as 
TLO&xjx {tvx']), ^oKwv-^evos (IIoXi'-). 

(6) The sound e (r;) was pronounced vei'y close and is repre- 
sented in the Ionic alphabet by et : Trareip, /xeire, aveOeiKe. 

(c) The diphthong at is written at Tanagra ae (cp. Latin), 
elsewhere t], whence ultimately ei (i.e. close e) : Ae<Txp<^''Sas, 
Avaaviae ( = at); kt^, 'Hcrxoi^Xos {AlaxOXos) ; Oet/SeFos. 


(2) From Methymna : 

BaaiXevovTos IlToXe^ala) Ta> \ YlToKffxaico kol BepfviKas dea>v | 

(vepyerav, dyada TV)(a, eVi irpvrdvios | Ap^ia eSo|e rco Koivco rcov 

IlpaTfav I eVftSij Upa^LKXrjs ^lXlvo) dd^das \ xf^XrjoTvdpxas rdv 

iraicrav iTri\p(Kfiav (7roir]craTO, oiruts Kf tois 5[e]|o(0"i toIs iraTpat- 

oicri al Ovdiai c7T;[i']|reAe'(T^etei' <a\ d x^Wrjarvi \ iv Traicra yivTjrai, 

enififXeia Ka[i] | els ravra irdrra €K rav Ibiav e;(o[payj/cre 

a^icjs rcov ^e'coi' koI rds | ;^eXA)7crTuos' dydda Tv^a eyp-d(j)i(Tdm' | 

CTrei Ke crvvreXei] d ^^eXXTjarvs \ Tois deoiat ra ipa, didcov avrw 

KOi I eKyovoiai [^dLjjLOiplajv kol adpKa iTevTd\[j.vaiov d7r[v rco /3]oos 

tS) dvopiva Tw I At rai 2a)[r>;pt], ems Ke ^oxxxrt, koi dva\Kap\i(T(Triv 

avTOis, oTi d ^eXXrjcrrvs \ are(f}dvoL Ilpa^iKXrjv ^iXivco Koi eKyo-\ 

vois 8ipoipia Koi crdpKi fioeia TrevTa\\_p'\vaia> crvvTeXecraavra to. 

Lpa rois I dioicri kqt tov vopov Ka\ rds x.eX\Xrj(TTvns eTTipeXjjffevTa 


Hoffmann ii. p. 73 ; D. I. No. 276. 

From Orchomenus. 

"ApxovTOS iv ''Ep)(opevv Qvvdpxo> pei\p6s ^ AXaXnopevla, ev oe 
FeXaTiT] Me\voiTao \Ap)(eXda> peivos Trpdrco, 6po\Xoy\_i\a EvjBaXv 
FeXaTLTjij KTj TT] ttoXl 'Ep\)(opevL(ov eVtSel KeKopicrr-q Eu/3coj|Xoff 
iTcip rds TToXios TO hdveiov dnav | /car rds opoXoyias ras redeicras 
Qv\vdp)^o) dpx^ovTos peivos QeiXovdio), | nf) ovt oipeiXeTT] avTv en 
ovdev Trap rdv \ TroXti', dXX dTrex^i iravTa nepX uavTos 11 kt] arro- 
8fb6av6i TT] TToXt TV i'xovTes I Tas opoXoyias- elpev TroTi8e8op(\vov 
)(^p6vov Ei/3toXv eTTivopias FfTia \ TrtTTapa ^ovecrcri crovv imrvs 
8ta(ca|r/r;s FtKaTi, 7rpo(3dTvs arovv rjyvs _Yf'|iXt'/y «PX' '''^ Xpdva> 
6 eviavTos 6 pera \ Qvvapxov dp^ovTa ^Epxopevivs. 'ATrojypa- 
(f)e(rdr] 8e Ev^coXov kut eviavTov \ eKaoTov nap tov Tapiav ktj tov 
vopai\vav Ta Te KavpaTa twv 7rpo/3arcov ktj \\ Tav r]ya>v ktj tuv 
^ovu>v KT) rdv iTTTrco)/ KTJ I (cd Tiva dcrapa 1a>v6i ktj to trXelaos' 
pe\ I dTToypaCpecrda) Se nXiova twv yeypap\pev(>>v iv Trj (Tovyx<^- 
peiai. 'H be /cd rts [7r|pdTTet]T7; to ivvopiov 'Ev^cuXov, 6(f)eiXfT\[ci> 
d TTojXts Tcov 'Epxopeviuiv dpyovpico \ [/iva?] TTfTTapaKOVTa F-v^coXv 
KaG' eKoaWov ivinvTov ktj tukov (})epeTa> Spa[;^p(W | 8ovo] Tds pvdi 


{(l) Similarly ot becomes first oe and about the end of the 
3rd century b.c. passes into v {ii) ; Koipavos, AtoviKToe { — oi) ; \vird 
(=:Xot7rd), pvKlas ( =oi/ct'as), tvs ^oiutvs {oi preserved in root syllable 
but changed in suffix). 

(e) Tlie diphthong et becomes I: Kt/x^yas { = K€iuJvas), riai 
( = Tfi(ret ' shall pay'), iji ( = ael). e in most districts becomes very 
close; hence 6l6s for Beds. 

(/) f is represented by 5 initially, by 55 medially: Suite 
( = fw5 subj.), ypa/x/xaTiddofTos. 

(g) As in Attic, -tt- appears where Ionic has -acr- : irerTapa, 
Attic Tirrapa. Boeotian however has -tt- where Attic has -o-- in 
ottSttu { = 6Tr6aa) etc. 

ii. As in Thessalian -v6- appears instead of -vt- in verb 
suffixes; Trapaytvvijjvdi] ( = Trapayiyvu}VTaL), bap-nJcvOu ( = ^rifxiovPTUu 
3 pi. imperat. from ^r)/xL6w) with the final u absent as fi-equently in 
Doric inscriptions; dTro5f.86avdi (perfect). 

626. The three dialects agree in the following respects : 
(«) Instead of giving the father's name in the genitive as 
in Attic official designations (ATjfj.off0evT]s Aij/xoadivovs, etc.), they 
frequently make an adjective from the father's name, except when 
it ends in -5as ; hence '^tlrao-LyeveTos but Aio(TKopi5ao ; but in Thes- 
salian 'Hpa/cXetSatos etc. 

(b) The perfect participle ends in -wv. 

(c) In the consonant stems, the dative plui'al ends in -effffi. 

The Dialects of North-West Greece. 

627. Here may be distinguished (1) Locrian, (2) Phocian 
including the dialect of Delphi, and (3) the dialect of Acar- 
nania, of the Aenianes, of Aetolia, Epirus and Phthiotis. 

628. The following points are characteristic of all three 
groups : 

((/) The consonant stems make their dat. plural in -ots on 
the analogj' of -o- stems : dythvois, tivois { — TLal), dpxovTois, viKeovTois 
(verb in -ecj not -dw), ereots TeTTapois. Such datives are found 


fKacrras Kara fxt'iva \ [eKncrJroz', k/) (jxnpaKTOs earo) Eii/3(b[Xv il d 

Cauer^, No. 298 ; D. I. No. 489 c. 
ijyvs — aiyois, Attic ai^i 'goats.' Luvdi = ^uvTi, Attic ucn. 

From Tanagra. 

NtKt'ao ap^ovTos p-eivos ^ AXaXKopeinai fK[Tr]j aTTWuros, j eVe- 
\f/-a(piS8e EvKTeipioi', QioTropnos Evvofxco eXe^f, 8e\86)(6r] tv dd/xv 
npo^evas eipev ktj (vepyeras rds ttoXios \ Tavaypi']o)v ^LXoKpdrrjv 
ZcfltXco, Orjpapevrjv Aaparpio), j| ' ATroXXocfiavrji' 'AdavoSorco Avtlo- 
)(e'las Tcov ttoS AdcpvTj, avras | kt) ecryovcos, kt] et/xev avTvs yds ktj 
FvKias (TTTTacnv ktj | FicroTeXiav ktj dcrcfiaXiav kt] dcrovXiav kvj 
TToXefxco I KT] Ipdvas Idxras ktj Kara ydv ki) Kara ddXarrav, ktj 
Ta I aXXa ndvra Kaddnep tvs (iXXvs npo^ivvs ktj eiiepye||T7;y. 
Cauer", No. 370 ; D. I. No. 952. 

TToS Ad(pv7] = wbT A-. iinra<nv = ifx-. Zcucraj Attic oiicriys. 

Locrian inscription from Naupactus (last part). 

Z. I lovs €TriFoi()ovs ev ^avnaKTov rdv hiKav Trpo^Kfov hapecr- 
Tai TTOToiis 8\iKaaTepas, hapiarai koi 86p.fv ev ^OnoiVTi Kara 
Fe(T)os avTafxapov. AoC)\priv tov HvTroKvap.i8iov tt pocrrdrav Kara- 
ardaai, tov Aocfpov t6wiF\\ol(}o koX tov eVif 0/901/ to Aoffpa, hotrives 
Ka f TTiaTeaevTipoiecrf. — H. IIoa-a-\Tis k' dTroXiTrf Trardpa koL to 
fiepos TOV xpep.dTov to jrarpi, eVet k \ dnoyeveTai, e^elfiev 
aTToXax^elv tov eTTLFoKfnv ev NavTruKTov. | — 0. HoacTTis Ka to. 
FeFa8e<}6Ta 8ia(f)0eipe Te^va Koi fia^ava Ka\\ p.ia, OTi Ka fie 
dv(f)OTdpois 8oK€e, Hottovtlov t€ )(^iXiov TrXedWa Kal 'NaFnaKTiov 
TOV iiTiFoiqov TrXtOa, liTijiov flp.ev Kai ^pi\ij.aTa TTafxaTotpayelcrTai. 
TovKoXeip-fvo Tav hiKav Bofifv tov dp\)(6v, ev TpidgovT^ dfidpais 
86fi€v, a'l Ka TpidqovT dfidpai Xei7rovT\ai Tas dp^ds' at Ka fie 8180 
TO evKaXeifievo Tav SiKav, aTip.\ov fip.ev Kal ^^pep-aTa TrafiuTocfya- 
ye'icTTaL. To pepos peTa Fo']iKiaTdv Siopoaai hop<)ov tov vopiov' 


also in Elean, Arcadian and Boeotian. Phocian and the Locrian 
of Opus share with the AeoUc dialects a t'onii in -eco-t : Ke0a\- 

(h) The participles of verbs in -ew have the suffix -ifiivos not 
-bixivos in the present middle : KaXei/j-evos. Compare the Attic 
substantive to ^eXe/xvov { = ^a\6 jxevov). 

(c) The preposition ev is used with the accusative as well as 
with the dative (locative) : ev 'SaviraKTov, ev rb iep6v, iv to '4dvo^. 
This usage is, however, common to many other dialects. 

1. Locrian. 

629. In the district of the Ozolian Locrians there have 
been found two long inscriptions, one a law passed by the 
Opuntian Locrians to regulate the relations between their 
colonists about to settle at Naupactus and their native state, 
the other a treaty between Oeanthea and Chaleion. Both 
belong to the 5th century B.C. but there is nothing to fix the 
precise date. Canon Hicks {Manual of Greek Histoncal Inscrip- 
tions, No. 63) places the former doubtfully in 403 B.C., after the 
Athenians had been e.xpelled from Naupactus. Most authori- 
ties, however, place it in the first part of the 5th century. 
The characteristics of the older dialect in which these in- 
scriptions are written are as follows : 

i. (a) Chanf;e of e into a before p: Trardpa ( = -jraTepa), 
dfiapdv {—■Tjp.epihv) ; compare the English Derby, sergeant. 

{b) Arbitrary use of the njnritus (isper: 6 e {rj), but hayev 
( = S.yei.v). 

[c) -(t5- is represented by -(7T- : xP^araL { = xpV(^Sai), lieXiffTU] 
( = €\i(Tdoj). This characteristic is fomid also in Boeotian, Thessa- 
lian, Phocian, Elean and Messenian. 

(d) Frequent occurrence of koppa (9) and p : ewLfOi<)ov, 
pepadegdTa (from avddvio), poTi, hbpqov. pin is regarded by some 
as a mistake for EoTt = 75 on. 


iv v8piav Tciv \lra(})i^i^iv elfiev. Kal to Sedixwv rots HinroKva- 
fiidtois .\o<fpoLS Tav\Ta reXfov eifxev XaXeuois toIs crvv 'AvTiffiaTtj 

Cauer -, No. 229 ; D. I. No. 1478. 

There is no distinction between long and short e and o sounds. 
The rough breathing is still written with H. In line 5 the letters 
marked with t have not yet been explained. 

The general drift is as follows : The colonists in Naupactus 
(if they have au action at law with an Opuutian) are to bring 
the case before the home courts within a year of the offence 
and have the right to a hearing before other cases (TrpoSipoi/). 
The magistrates for the year (so Hicks interprets the doubtful 
letters) are to appoint TrpocrraT-at in the respective countries, 
an Opuntian for a colonist and vice versa. A colonist in N. 
who leaves his father behind in Opus shall be entitled to his 
share of the property on the death of his father. Anyone 
destroying these placita unless with the consent of both 
parties shall be disfranchised and his property confiscated 
(cp. the Zulu phrase for the same thing 'to be eaten up'). 
A magistrate, unless his office expires within 30 days, must 
give a hearing to an accusing party, or suffer the same penal- 
ties. The party {to pipos:) ? is to swear with imprecations on 
himself and his household that he speaks the truth. The 
vote is to be by ballot. The same regulations are to hold for 
the colonists from Chaleion with Antiphates. 


2. Phocian including Delphian. 

630. The great majority of the inscriptions are records 
at Delphi of the enfranchisement of slaves. 

ii. (a) The genitive sing, in -o- stems is in -ov, the ace. plur. 
in -ovs. 

(b) The nom. phiral is used for the ace. in one of the oldest 
Delphian inscriptions in the form deKareTopes {/ju'ds), a peculiarity 
also found in Elean and Achaean. 

(c) Verbs in -tjoj and -ww : avXrjOPTes, aTraWor pMoi-q, /laa-ri- 

3. Aetolian, etc. 

631. When the Aetolian league became of importance in 
the third century B.C. it appai-ently established a stereotyped 
official language with less pronounced characteristics than 
the local speech. F has disappeared and the influence of the 
KOLVTj is ob\^ous. Consonant stems continue to make the 
dative plural in -ois. 

632. Closely connected with the dialects of North- West 
Greece are the dialects of Achaea and Elis in the Peloponnese. 
According to Herodotus viii. 73 the Achaeans belonged to 
the same original stock as the Arcadians, but had been driven 
from their original abodes by Dorians. Elis he holds for 
Aetolian. Whatever the ethnological origin of the inhabitants 
of Achaea, its dialect undoubtedly belongs to the North-West 
group. It seems likely that, as in the case of Aetolia, the 
rise of the Achaean league in the third century B.C. led to the 
formation of an official style somewhat different from the 
spoken dialect. It has no special characteristics ; the most 
noticeable point — the use of the nom. plural of consonant 
stems instead of the ace. — it shares with Delphian (and 
Phthiotic) and Elean. 


From Delphi. 

Ap)(OVTos 0app[€']os'(?) firjvos JJavayvpiov a>s ' Afi(f)i(r(rf2s | 

ayoPTi, iv AfX(f)ols 8e ap)(^ovTOS Aafiocrrpdrov prjvos | UoLrpoiTLOv, 

aTTtboTO TeXav Kai KXtjtui, crvvev8oKeov\Tos tov vlov 'Erpdrcoi os, 

Tc3 AttoWuvi rw Uvdico aapa \\ dvdpdov co ouopa ^uxroi, to 

yfvos KaTTTraSoKa, ripds dp\yvplov pvav rpiaiv, Kadois eniaTevaf 

^cbcros T<a deco rdv \ wvdv, e(f) tore (XfvOepos eipev kol dve(j)aTrTOS 

OTTO I Trdvrav tov ndvTa xpovov. Bf^aicoTrjp KaTci tov vopov koL 

Ka\Ta TO crvp^oXov ^i\6^€i>os Aoopodeov \\p<picrafvs. 'A Se 

iTpo\\Tepaa-ia cova d yfvopiva 2<icrou rco 'ATroXXcovi eVi ap^ov\Tos 

iv AfX(pois Gp[a]o"VKXe'oy Koi ra iv to. wva iTOTiyfypappi\va, 

Sxrare irapape'ivai SoJcroj/ irapa TeXcova koi KXtjtoi as \ ku ^oiwvti, 

aTeXi]! KoX dppeva eVrw. Maprupoi ol iepe'is \ tov AttoXXoivos 

Jlpa^ias, 'Av8p6vLKOs koI 6 apx<>>v Ilvp\\plas Apx^Xdov kol 'Ap- 

(picrafls XapL^evos 'EKf(f)vXov, \ TloXvKpiTos, ApiaToBapos KaXXi- 

KXfos, EvdvSapos IlOiXvKpiTov, Acopodeos Tipaaiov, Arjpr]TpLos 

Movipx>v. Tciv I aivdv <pvXd(r(TovTi oi ts lepers Ylpa^las Kai 

'Av8p6\viKos Kai 'Apcfiiacrels IIoXvKpiTos, [Xapt]^ej/[oj] || 'Ek€- 


Cauer-, No. 219. 

From Delphi, which after 293 B.C. was under Aetoliau 

'STpaTayiovTos Tipaiov eSo^e rots' | AtrcoXoTy prjdiva Tcjv ev 
AeX(f)ols (Tvvol Kcov aTtXia dpfv, ft xa pf] 8o6rj\_i\ irapa I Tas 
iroXtos Tcbv A€Xcf)ci)v dreXeta, Kai el || tivols epTrpocrdev aTiXaa 
yiyove \ px] hovTU>v tu>v tToXiTav, V7roTeXe7s I eipev KaScios koi oi 
XoiTTol crvvoiKOi, 

Cauer 2, No. 235 ; D. I. No. 1409. 



633. The dialect of Elis, frequently treated as entirely 
isolated, owes its peculiar characteristics to the mixed nature 
of its population and to the fact that, with a large element 
of the dialect more purely represented by Arcadian and 
Cyprian, ingredients from the Doric of the North-West as well 
as from the Doric of the Peloponnese have been intermingled. 
The dialect is not uniform throughout Elis. 

i. (a) Original e-sounds whether (1) short or (2) long were 
pronounced very open in Elean. e was represented by a not 
merely before p as in Locrian, but also sporadically in other 
positions; e appears as a: (1) pdpyov, (pdpTjv {(pepeiv), aKfvdwv 
( = cTKeiiecoi'), diroTipOLav, evaa^eoi ( = eucre(3oiri) ; (2) fpdrpa (=-priTpa), 
Tr\a6vovTa, xpo^^^oi (=XP??fot), /SacrtXaes, (palvarai, 5o0at ( — do$y), ia 
{ = eiT]). 

(b) 8 even at the date of the earliest inscriptions seems to 
have become a sphant (Tt) which is generally represented by f 
though 5 is sometimes retained: fetj'ws { = ei8d}s), jl/cata, feVa, 
^dnov { — S^fj-ov). On the other hand the j^rimitive Greek sound 
represented in Attic by f appears in Elean as in Boeotian and 
various Doric dialects as o : 5t^-d5ot (5t/cdj'ot), etc. 

(c) Final s becomes p. The intermediate stage was no doubt 
the inevitable voicing of final s before a following voiced consonant. 
Thus TOis 5^ must be pronounced toizde. The change of final -s 
to -p is found in other dialects as Laconian (Dorian). After the 
pronunciation changed -s was still occasionally written : roip 

(d) Medial s between vowels disappears: iiroiqa (^eiroitjaa). 
But this change though occurring also in other dialects is found 
in Elean only in the -s aorist and there but rarely. 

(e) e was apparently no longer t' but \) (§ 75). hence 
TTo-qacrcraL arises out of iroL-qaadOai.. 

(/) Compensatory lengthening in the ace. plural of -o- and 
-«-stems is sometimes found in -ols and -ats as in Aeolic. It is 
possible that here there is a confusion between dat. and ace. 


From Olympia. Date earlier than 580 B.C. 

'A Fpcirpa rols FoXeiois. narpiav dappev kol yeveciv koI 
ravTo, I al ^4 tis Kariapavcreie Fdppevop paXeio. At ^e piTTidilav 
TO. fi'|Kata op peyiaTov riXos f'xoi koI to\ (BacriXaes, C^ko p.vals 
Ka I aTTOTivoi Fi<n(TTOs tov piinnrofovTov Ka{T)dvTais rol Zt 
OXvv\\irioi. 'ETrei/TTOt ^e k' eXXavo^LKas, /cat roXXa ^iKaia enev- 
7r|eVo d ^afiiopyia- al fe fieviroi, ^[(pviov diroTivero ev fxa(rTpd\aL. 
At ^[e] Tis TOV alrtadfvra ^ikuiov IfiacTKOi, ev TOi ^eKafivaiai. k' 
6|i'e;)(o[tT-]o, at Fei-C^s Ifidcrnof Koi narpias 6 ypo(j)evs Tailr^d ku 
TrdcTKOi. I [T]ut V [ate]t k' eoi 6 nlva^ lapos 'OXwirtai. 

It is thus transcribed into Attic by Cauer (p. 176, 2ud ed.). 

H prjTpa To7s HXfiois. ^parpiav dappeiv koi yfreai/ Koi to. 
avTOv, I €L 8r] TIS Kadifpevaeiev (ippevos 'HXet'ou. Ei 8e /X17 (Tridflfv 
TO. Si|/caia OS fifyiaTov TeXos ex°' '^''' "' /SafrtX^y, 8fKa p.vds av \ 
aTroTivoi iKacTTOS tS)v fif] eTTi-rroLovvTaiv KaTaOvTovs tw Att iro)) 
'0Xu/x||7rtcp. yirivvoL 8' av 6 iXXavobiKijs, <a\ to. aXXa biKaia 
fi.r]vv\iTU> Tj brifiLovpyia- el 8e firj nrjvvoi, 8nrXovv aTroTiviToi ev 
ev6vv\ais. Et Se tis tov SiKaiav uiTiaBevTa Ifidcraoi, ev Trj 
BeKafxvala (^rjfjLia) av i\vi-)(OLTO, el eldons Ifidcraor nal (ppaTpias 6 
ypa<pevs tuvtci av ■7rda)^oi. | Tj]8e els del av e[rj 6 niva^ lapos {ev) 


The meaning of many parts is doubtful and even the 
general drift of the whole is uncertain. Blass {B. I. Xo. 1152) 
gives as a possible interpretation the conjecture that the 
inscription is a guarantee of security for Patrias a ypafifiaTevs. 
The forms enevnoi, eirevireTo, evnoi are interpreted in many 
ways. They seem to have to do with the infliction of a fine ; 
Biicheler compares Latin inquit ; Brugmann {Gnmdr. 11. 
§ 737) assumes.a verb *7ra-ia) ' exact ' ( = *kud-id). 


ii. (a) The nom. plural of consonant stems is used for the 
accusative, as in Deljihian and Achaean : irXelovep, xa/"T«p- 

(h) Similarly the consonant stems form the dat. plural in 
-01^ : xp'Of^o-Tois, ajibvoip. Similar forms are found (on one inscrip- 
tion) for the gen. and dat. dual : !)7ra5i;7toi'oty ( — vrro^iyioii/ but text 
doubtful), avToioLp {=auToli'), -ois being added to the dual suffix. 


634. The Doric dialects occupy all the Peloponnese (ex- 
cept Arcadia, Elis and Acbaia), and some of the islands, as 
Melos and Thera, Cos, Rhodes in the Aegean. The longest 
Greek inscription in existence is in the Doric dialect of Gortyn 
in Crete. Doric is also represented in many colonies ; Cyrene 
from Thera (while Thera according to the legend was colonised 
from Laconia); Corcyra, Syracuse and its oflfshoots from 
Corinth ; Tarentum and Heraclea, its offshoot, from Laconia ; 
Megara Hyblaea and Selinus, its oftshoot, from Megara ; Gela 
and Agrigentum from Rhodes. 

The literary records are as we have already seen untrust- 
worthy for the dialect. The Doric in the choruses of Attic 
tragedy is purely conventional, and consists mostly in keeping 
original a instead of changing it as usually in Attic to rj. 

635. Some characteristics are universal thrf)ughout Doric : 
(i) the 1st pers. plural of the active ends in -fies ; (ii) the 
suffixes of the active are used for the future passive ; (iii) ac- 
cording to the grammarians Doric had a system of accentua- 
tion difierent from either Attic or Aeolic. The chief variations 
in accent seem to have been: (a) that monosyllables were 
accented with the acute where Attic had a circumflex, (6) that 
final -at, -oi, were treated as long syllables, (c) that the 3rd 
pers. plural of active preterite tenses was accented on the 
penultimate, probably by analogy from other persons; thiLS 
eXvcrafiev, iXva-are, iXvcrav with the accent throughout on the 
same syllable, (d) that in a number of cases analogy main- 
tained an acute where Attic had a circumflex : iralbes, yvvaiKes, 
Kokws (adverb, cp. koXos) while in others analogy brings in 
the final circumflex where Attic keeps an acute on an earlier 
syllable : naidw, navrcov. But our information, even if cor- 


From Olympia. Date about 500 B.C. 

A Fparpa roip FaXfiois kqi toIs Ev\Faoiois. '2vvp.a-)(l.a k €(t)a 
eKorov Firea, \ ap^oi Se Ka Toi. At Se rt Se'ot aire Finos aire 
F\apyov, <TVve{j.)av k nX(X)a\ots to. t a\(ka) kol iraWp troKipo- 
al Se pa <jvve(^i)av, rakavTov k \ apyvpo diroTivoiav toi Ai 
'OXvi/TTt'oi roi Ka||(8)SaXe'/iei'oi Xarpfiopevov. Al 84 rip ra 
■ylpac^ea rai Ka(S)SaXe'otTo aire Ff'>'ns aire r|eXeo-ra aire 8apos, 
e'v Temdpoi k' eve^\\oiTO toi 'vtovt' iypap{p)4voi. 

It is thiis transcribed into Attic by Cauer (p. 179, 2nded.). 

'H pTjTpa Tols 'HXeiotf koi to7s 'Ev\acoois. '2vppa)(^ia av firj 
iitaTov €Tr), | ap^oi S av ToSe, Ei 84 ti Se'oi eiVe eVoy eiVe | epyov, 
(Txjvelfv av aXXijXois to t' aXXa icai TreHpl TroXepov el 8e pfj 
(Twelev, ToXavTov av | dpyvpov aTroTivoifv rco Ait (tw) 'OXv/littio) 
oi KaTa\8riKovpevoi XoTpevopevov. Ei 84 tis to. y\pdppaTa Td8f 
KaTaSrjXoiTo eiVe eVrjj ei're T\fXe(TTr]s e'lre 8ripos, iv ttj errapa av 
eVe;^||otTo Ta ivTavda yfypapp4vat (read rfj yeypapptvij). 

The name of the people who make the treaty with the 
Eleans is not certain. Blass (D. I. vol. i. p. 336) would read 
'Hpaojoif 'inhabitants of Heraia.' The final -s of reXea-ra' is 
probably omitted by mistake. In the last line Blass reads 
TOI TavTTj {yf)ypa{p)p4voi. 

G. P. 31 


rect, is too incomplete to permit of this method of accentuation 
being carried out systematically. Most modern authorities 
therefore follow the Attic .system even for Doric inscriptions. 

636. The division of Doric adopted by Ahreus into a 
dialectus severior and a dialectus mitts turns (1) on the con- 
traction of + and e + f into w and tj respectively in the 
former and ov and ei in the latter, and (2) on the compensatory 
lengthening in to, rj, or ov, d. But this distinction is not 
geographical, as Ahrens held, but chronological; the older 
inscriptions showing the severer forms, the later inscriptions 
of the same dialects when influenced by the koivij the milder. 

1. Laconia. 

637. Besides inscriptions we have for Laconiau the frag- 
ments of Alcman, the treaty in Thucydides v. 77 and the 
Laconian in Aristophanes Lysistrata 1076 flf., as well as a 
considerable number of glosses. These sources however, as 
in other cases, are untrustworthy. 

i. (a) In the earliest inscriptions intervocalic -<t- appears as 
in other Greek dialects but in the period between 450 and 400 
according to Boisacq it changes into h. The inscriptions with 
medial -a- are, however, doubtfully attributed to Laconia. 

{h) The change of the aspirate 6 into a spirant frequently 
represented by a but probably having the value of )>, belongs to a 
later period if we may trust the inscriptions. If this characteristic 
is late it must be to the copyists that we owe tcD (tlG> (rvfiaros { — tov 
deov 6v/xaTos) in Thucydides v. 77, and the same change in Alcman 
and Aristophanes Lysistrata. 

(c) The -f- of Attic is represented by -55-: 

(d) From Hesycbius we may gather that Laconian like 
Boeotian had preserved v=u: ^oOywvep ( = ^vyo}i'es). This word 
shows the rhotacism which later Laconian shares with Elean. 
Many of the late Laconian inscriptions are not to be trusted to 
give the genuine forms of the dialect, for under the Eomans an 
archaising tendency set in. Foreign influence is shown still 
earlier by the substitution of -/j-ev for -fies as the ending of the 
1st pers. plural, by the contraction of o + a into w not a : old 
Laconian Tr/saros = tt/jiDtos ; and by other changes towards Attic 


From Tegea. Date earlier than that of the following docu- 
ment. Ficks holds it to be not Laconian but Achaean. 

Sovdia TrapKa(d)deKa to ^i\a)(a\io T*fTpaKaTiai [xvai apyvplo. 
Et p.\iv KG foe, aiiTos aviKiado, al Se K\a /xe foe, roi (')vioi 
avfXotrdo Tol yvf\\(TLOi, eVet na (')e^d(TovTi irei'Te FiTe\a- ei 8e' Ka 
pe ^ovTi, Tai dvyarepes j [dji/eXocr^o ral yveaiar el 8e Ka /xe | 
f[oJi'ri, Toi vodoi aveXocdo- el de Ka \ pe vodoi foirt, Tol aacnara 
iro6iK\\es aveXocrdo- el 8e k' dvcf)(.\eyovT\{i, T)o\TeyedTai diayvovTO 
Ka{T) Tov 6e6p6v. 

Cauer-, No. 10 b. 

The general drift of the above is as follows X. a Spartan 
had deposited in the temple of Athene 400 minae of silver, 
which if he lives he may recover. Failing him his legitimate 
sons may recover it five years after they reach puberty, whom 
failing the legitimate daughters, whom failing the illegitimate 
sons, whom faihng the next of kin. Arbitration in case of 
dispute is left to the people of Tegea. 

Dedication by Damonon in gratitude for his unparalleled 
successes in the chariot races. 

Aapovov I di'e'^eKe(i') 'Adavaia[^i] \ IloXtd^^o 
viKahas I ravrd ar ov8es II nenoKa rov vvv. | 

TdSe eviKahe Aapl^ovovy \ to avTo Te6pimro\L\ avTos avio)(^iov \ 
iv TaiaFo^o rerpdKt[i'] |1 Kal 'Addvaia rer[pdKij'] | KeXevkvvia 
TeTipdKiv]- I Kal Tlohoibaia Aap6vo\^i''\ eviKe "EXet, Kot 6 KfX[e^ | 
<7/xJa, avTos dvLO^LOV i| ivhe^ohais "nnrois \ enTdKiv eK Tav aiiTo | 
iTTTTOv KCK TO ai»[r]6 ('7r7r[o]- I Ka\ HohoiBaLa Aapovov | [e'jviKe 
Qevpia OKrd[K]t[i'] |1 avTos aviox^iov ev\he^6hais "imrois \ eK rav 
avTo iiTTTOV I KCK TO uvTo tTTTTO" | Kev 'ApiovTias ev'iKe II Aapovov 
oKTdKiv I avTos dvio)(iov \ evhe^ohaislnnoLs \ eK rdv avTo ittttov | 
<eK TO aiiTo Imro, Kal \\ 6 KeXe^ eViKe '[a/xa]- Kal 'EXevhvvia 
Aapl^ovov^ I eviKe avTos dvio^iov | evhefBohais Ittttols | rerpaKtv.H 
TdSe ivUahe. [The rest is fragmentary and unintelligible.] 

Caaer"^, No. 17 b. 


2. Heraclea. 

638. The Heraclean tables were found in the bed of a 
Lucanian stream in the year 1732. They are two in number, 
of bronze, and contain minute details with regard to the 
letting of certain lands belonging to the local temple. They 
probably date from about the end of the fourth century B.C. 
The dialect is not pure and the alphabet is Ionic although it 
has a symbol for F which is not, however, used medially. 
The numerals appear sometimes in Doric, sometimes in 
Hellenistic, forms. The most noticeable points are : 

i. Arbitrary use of the spiritus asper : tcros, o'iaovTL, oktu, kvvia 
(under the influence of eTrrd). 

ii. (a) The dative plural of participles in -nt appears as 

•vraffffi: irpaacrdvTaaaL, ivraaci. (from a variant plural ^;'Tes = 6VTes). 

(6) The perfect active makes its infinitive in -yjixev. ir€(f>v- 

TevKTJfjiev. In the contraction of vowels the dialect belongs to the 

dialectus severior. 

3. Messenia. 

639. From Andania in Messenia there is a long inscrip- 
tion dealing with sacrificial rites in honour of the Kabeiri, 
but it is too late (first century B.C.) to be of value for the 
dialect. The treaty from Phigalea which belongs to the third 
century B.C. shows Aetolian influence. 

The contraction of vowels is still true to the Doric type. 
The most characteristic features are : 

(a) The 3rd plural of subjunctives in -rjfTi not -uvti : Trpon- 
6rjvrL, Trpo'Ypa(pTJvTL. 

(b) The particles dv and ku are both used in the Andaniau 


From first Heraclean table. 

Toi 8f fiiadcoaafiepoi Kapneva-ovTai tov del )(p6vov, as kg 
irpcayyvas TroTay(i)v\Ti koI to piadoipa (ZTroSiScoi'Tt nap Feros 
af\ Ilavdpa) pTjvos TrpoTepela- na). (ai) k' ffiTrpocrda | aTToBivcovTi, 
dira^ovTL es tov dapocriov poyov koi TrappiTprjcrovTi. to'is ariTa- 
yeprais to7s \ eVl tcov FfTfcov tcH bafxocrla )(^oi peaTcos toos )(ovs 
Kpidds KoOapas BoKipai, olas ko d ya | (fiipei. TloTa^ovTi Se 
npcoyyvcos to7s TroXiavopois toIs del eVl tcov FfTeav tvTacrcnv 
Trap II TrevTaeTTjpiSa cos ko fdfXovTes toI jroXiavopoi SeKwvrat, 
Ka\ a'l Tivi Ka oXXo) | napbavTi Tav yar, dv Ka aiiToX pepiadco- 
crtovTai, Tj dpTvcrcavTi ff'aTTobcavTai tclv €\TTiK.apniav, av avTO. Ta 
nape^ovTai irpcoyyvas ol irap\aj36vTfs rj ols k dpTvcrei ^ ol 
Trpi apivoi Tav iiriKapiriav, dv d Ka\ 6 e^ dp^ds pfpicr6u>pevos. 
OcTTis Be Ka pf] TTordyet Trpayyvlais rj pfj to plcrdoopa nTToSiSw 
KCtr Ta yeypappeva, to re picrduipa SiTrXeZ dworetcrei to eVi rw 
Fe\\Tfos Ka\ TO dpnaXrjpa to7s re TroXiavopois kol to7s aiTayeprais 
Tois del eVl rw FeTfos, dacrut Ka | peiovos dppKrdiodrj Trap TrevTe 
FfTT] Ta TTpaTa, oti Ka TeXidei y^rac^icrQev dpa Ttdv tco Trpdro) | 
picrduipaTi, Kol Ta iv to. yd TretpvTevpiva (cal oiKodoprjpeva | 
TrdvTa Tds ttoXios iacrdvTai. 

Kaibel, Inscrr. Sidliae et Italiae, No. 645 ; Cauer^, No. 40. 

The passage given above is from near the beginning of a 
lease of the ' sacred lauds of Dionysus ' granted according to 
a decree of the Heracleaus by the state and certain magis- 
trates called TToXiavopoi. The lease is for life. The lessees 
are to have the crops so long as they produce sureties and 
pay the rent annually on the first of Panamus (September). 
If the lessees thresh out before, they are to bring to the 
public granary (Lat. rogus) and measure out with the state 
measure before the officials appointed for the year, the 
required amount of good pure barley such as the land 
produces. The sureties must be produced every five years 
before the officials to be accepted or rejected at their dis- 
cretion. If the lessees sublet, or mortgage, or sell the crop, 
the new tenant or mortgagee or purchaser of the crop is to 
take the responsibilities of the original tenant. If a lessee 
fails to produce sureties or to pay his rent, he is fined double 
a year's rent and a fine on reletting fixed by the popular vote 
in proportion to the decrease in the new rent obtained (the 
laud being supposed to be run out and therefore at first 
fetching less rent on reletting) for the first five years. 
Everything planted or built upon the estate by the defaulting 
lessee is to fall to the state. 


4. Argolis and Aegina. 

640, Argolis included besides Argos other important 
towns : Mycenae, Troezen, Tiryns, Hermione and Epidaurus. 
From the temple of Aesculapins at Epidaurus a large number 
of interesting inscriptions have been obtained in recent years. 
The earliest Argolic inscriptions are too short to be of much 
value for the dialect, but we can see that F was still retained : 
inolrfhe, a form which shows the same comparatively late 
change of intervocalic -a- as we have already seen in Eleau 
and Laconian. Koppa is also found in some of the oldest 

i. (a) Final -vs is preserved as in Cretan: rot's viovs, Alyi- 
vaiavs. Similarly medial -vs- is found in a.Travaai' from Mycenae 
and dyuvaaps from Nemea. 

(b) -ad- is represented at Epidaurus (1) by -6- alone, as 
sometimes in Cretan: 'IdfxoviKa, (2) by -cr-: eyKaTOTTTpi^ao-ai., the 
sound apparently being t>. 

ii. (a) Verbs of the Attic tj'pe -j-w make the aorist in -aa-a : 

(h) At Epidaurus (rvvTid-qcn occurs as a '2ud person. 

(c) From Epidaurus comes the infinitive iiridiiv = i-rndduai. 

5, Megara and its colonies Selinus and 

641. The inscriptions are not old, and Aristophanes' 
Megarian in the Acharnians 729 — 835 is not to be trusted. 
There was a close connexion between Boeotia and Megara 
which has influenced the Megarian dialect at least in Aego- 

aa fidv; in the Acharnians 757 shows a plural *Ti-a 
(§ 197 «.). 


From the temple of Aesculapius at Epidaurus. 

'Avtjp tovs ras X^P^^ 8aKTvXovs aKpardi e;^a)i' irXav \ evos 
d[<^]tK6T0 TTol Tov Ofov iKfTas, Qfcopojv Sf rotes' ev r«t lapai \ 
[TrJtVaKaf aTrt'cTTei rols Idpaciv aal viroBifcrvpe rii eTTiypappa\[T\a. 
'EyKadfv8a>v 8e 6y\riv ei8f e'SoKei vno tS>i vawi aorrpayaXifoi'|[r]of 
avTov Koi peWovTos (SaXXeti/ rail, daTpayaXai inK^avivTa \ \t\ov 
6eov ((paXfadai eVl rdv XW'^ ''''' iKTeival ov tovs 8aKTv\\X]ovs., 
as 8' dwolialrj, 8ok€7v avyKapyj^as rav XW'^ '^^^ ^""^ eKreiveiv \ 
[tJoji' baKTvKav, eirel 8e irdvras e^fvdvvai, fTrepcoiiiv viv tov 
deov, II [ejt iTL aTTicrTriao'L toIs eTriypdppacri to'ls eVt Tap mvdKUiv 
Tap I [KJara to [t]ep6v, avTos 8' ov (f)dpev OTi Toivvv eprrpoaOev 
aTTiaTeis \ [ajiiropjj o[i)k] eovaiv aTricrrois, to Xoittov etrro) rot 
(pdpev, ciTTiaTos \ [a o\|/-ts']. 'Apepas 8e yevopevas vytr]s e^rfKde. 
— 'Ap^pofxia e^ ^Adavdv \ \aTfpo\nT\i]K\os. AvTa tKe7-[ts'] rjXde 
Trot TOV deov. YlepUpTvovcra 8e \ [kutci t^o [la]p6v Tav tapdrav 
Tiva Sieye'Xa as diridava Koi dSvi'a||[ra eov^Ta ;^coXovs Ka\ Tv<pXovs 
vyie'is ylvfcrOai ivvrrviov l86v\\Tas po\vov. ''E,y<adiv8ov<Ta 8e 
oyl^iv fI8e- e'SoKft ol 6 dfos eTTKTTas \ [ctTTfij'], ot\_l\ vyirj pev viv 
TTOtTjaol, picrOop pdvToi viv .8fr]aol dv\\_6epev ejiy to iapov vv 
dpyvpeov, vnopvapa Tas dpaOias- ei'7rai'|[ra 8e(?) TavTa\ dva-x^frtrai 
ov TOV OTTTiXXovTov vocTOvvTa Koi (f)dppla\\K6v Ti €'y;^e]at. 'Apepas 
8e yevopevas \y]yt^s e^fjXde, 

D. I. Xo. 3339. Cp. Cavvadias, Fouilles ($ Epidaure, p. 25. 
Prellwitz in D. I. accents ttoI but ito[ seems preferable. After 
aTTiaros Caw. reads ^^[0/j.a]. 

From Megara. Date, 3rd century B.C. 
'ETretSij 'Aya^oKX^y ' Apxi-8dpov \ BoiaTios evvovs eav 8ia- 
TfXel I Koi evepyeTus tov 8dpov tov \ Meyapeav, dyaOai Tvxm, 
8f86\\x0ai- Tat /SouXdi kch toil 8dpai | Ttpo^evov avTov eipey Kai 
eK\y6vovs avTOv Tas TroXtos ras \ Meyapeay kottov vopov eipev | 
8e avTai Kal oIkIos epnaaiv \\ Kal 7rpoe8pl.av ep ndcn toIs aya\cnv 
ols a TToXis TidrjTi. 'Ayypa\|/'dJTco 8e to 86ypa T68e 6 ypappa\Tevs 
TOV 8dpov ev (TToXai Xi6i\vai, Kal dvdeTa els to OXvpnie^ov. || 
BaaiXevs Ila(Ttd8as' ecrTpaTd\yovv Aiovvaios n.vppi8a, Aape\as 
MaTpOKXeos, ^AvTicf)iXos ^pd\xov, Mvaaideos JJaa-iavos, 'EpKla[v] \ 
TiXrjTos. Tpappaljevs] f:iovXds II koI 8dpov "innav Tlayxdpeos. 
Cauer'^ Xo. 106 ; D. I. No. 3005. 


6. Corinth with its colonies Corcyra, 
Syracuse, etc. 

642. The dialect of the bucoHc poets Theocritus, Bion 
and Moschus is often said to be Doric of Syracuse, but is too 
artificial and eclectic to be true to the spoken dialect of any 
one place. The dialect of Theocritus in his Doric idylls, if 
the MSS. tradition could be trusted, seems to resemble more 
the dialect spoken in the island of Cos and its neighbourhood 
than any other. The works of Archimedes are too late to 
record the dialect accurately, and here again the tradition has 
been faulty. 

643. The old inscriptions of Corinth and her colonies are 
few and short. 

i. (a) In the earlier dialect p and 9 were preserved ; f and -^ 
are written x'^i 'P<^' Xtrdi'^os, iypa<pa-e. 

(b) Corcyrean shows an unvoiced p in phopaTai and possibly 
a similar M in Mhei^io^, while p is used as a glide in apiarevpovTa, 

(c) In Corcyrean and Sicilian \ before dentals appeared as 
v: ivdbv (Corcyra) = ASwi', Syracusan ^ivTla%, etc.=$tXTt'as. 

(d) Sicilian also transposed the initial sounds of <j(pi: xpe, 
etc., and made 2nd aorist imperatives in -ov, \d^oi> for \a^4, etc. 

ii. The perfects were declined as presents in Sicilian, as 
deSolKU, ireTrbvdeis, bibvKuv (inf.) in Theocritus, a.vayiyp6.({>ovTai in 


From Corinth. 

SFevia ro5e [cra/xa], rov oXecre irovros dvai\_8es]. 

Cauer2, No. 71 ; D. I. No. 3114. 

SFevla the same root as in Attic Aeiv I'a?. Observe the 
quantity of the middle syllable. 

From Corcyra. 

(a) 2afjia robe 'Apvidda Xaponos- rov S oKe\afv' Apei 
^apvdfjifvov napd i'aucr|(i' eV ' \pad6oio phoFalci 
Tr6KK6\v dpicTTfi^FyivTa Kara (TT0v6Fe(T{a)av dFvrdv. 
Cauer2, No. 84; B. I. No. 3189. 

^apvdfjifvov, § 206. Blass in Z>. /. reads apKn-evTovra, sup- 
posing the second t a mistake. 

Date probably 4th century B.C. 

(6) IIpvTavif Srparo)!', | pely SE'vSpfi'S', ape'pa reJTapra eVi Sf ko, 
n pocTTdras \ Tvddios Scoxparevf. il Upo^evov Troei a dXla \ Aiovv- 
(Tiov ^pvvi)(Ov I ' AQrjvalov avrov (cat | eKyovovs, dldoJTi be Kai | 
yay Ka\ otKias ffnracnv. || Tav 8e npo^fviav ypdyl/avlras (Is ;faXK6»' 
dvdefiev \ fi Ka 7rpo/3ovXotr (cat Trpo\8iKois Sonrji KaXais e)(etv. 
Aiovvaiov II ^pvvlxov \ ^Adrjvalov. 

Cauer2, No. 89 ; D. I. No. 3199. 

From Syracuse. Found at Olympia. 

Hiapov 6 Advopfvfos \ koi toI 'SvpaKocrioi | to Ai Tvp{p)av' 
OTTO Kvpaj. 

Cauer2, No. 95 ; D. I. No. 3228. 


7. Crete. 

644. Of all the Doric dialects that exemplified in the 
early Cretan of the great Gortyn inscription is the most 
peculiar. The date is uncertain, but probably not later than 
the fifth century B.C. Other Cretan inscriptions are later 
and less characteristic. There are a few marked similarities 
in the Gortyn dialect to the Arcado-Cyprian which may be 
the result of dialect mixture. As early as the date of the 
Odyssey (xix. 175 flf.) there were different elements in the 
population of Crete : 

cik\r] S aWav yXaxraa fiffxiy^evT]- ev fiev A.)(aLoi, 
(V S' ''ETeoKprjTfs fieyaXrjTopes iv 8e KvBcoves, 
Aoapiefs Tf rpi^diKfs Stoi re UeXacryoi. 

645. i. (a) -TL- is represented medially by -tt- as in Attic, 
Thessalian and Boeotian: o-ttottoi {oiroa-oi), IdrrgL [ = *e-snt-iai) 
dative of present participle of elfxi. But -vti- became -va- : ^Kovcrav 

(b) Attic f is represented by 5 initially iu 5o OS ( = ^0)6?). In 
the dialects of other Cretan towns t- or tt- is found in the initial 
sound of Zei;s, Zrjua which is represented at Dreros by Tijva, on a 
coin by Tr^ya. Medially -55- is found in diKaddev {dLKd^av). 

(c) The combination -ns was kept both medially and finally: 
fievai (dat. plural of /mtjv), iiriaTrevcre (-v5<t-), eiri^dWovcn (dat. plural), 
iKovaav, Tifiavs, iXevO^povs, KaTadivi (participle). But generally 
Tos, Tas (ace. pi.) before an initial consonant (§ 248). 

(d) In the Gortyn inscription aspirates are not distinguished 
from breathed stops : irv\ds, dvTpoirov, Kpefj-ara. d, however, is 
written except in combination with v. It seems to have become 
a spirant and to have assimilated a preceding a in aTro-penrdOdo 
{ = eiTrda6u), oTcvUddai. and owviidai, etc. 

{e) Assimilation of a final consonant to the initial consonant 
of the following word is very common : iraTfd doe { — TraTTip fw??), 
rdO dvyaT^pas, Ta?5 5e, rtX Xe ( = tis \y) '(if) one wish.' 

(/) According to the grammarians \ before another con- 
sonant in Cretan became v. evOeiv ( = e\6€Li>), avKvova (=d\/ci/ova), 
aC(Tos ( = &\(TOi). The statement is not supported by the inscrip- 


From Gortyn. Part of Table IV, dealing with the property 
of parents. 

Tov narepa rov \ riKvov Ka\ rhv KpefxciTov K\apT€p6v ififv Ta8 
daiaios, \\ icai rav fiarepa tov Fov av\Tas Kpeparov. 

as Ka 800VTL, I ixi inavavKov epev 8aTf\66at. ai 8e ris uTa- 
6eif, d7ro8\aTTa.ddai to drapevo, a\\i. iypaTTai. e 8e k ajrodave 
Tis, I (a)T€yavs pev tcivs ev rroXt K\\a ti k iv Tois {(TJTeyais fve, 
ai\s Ka pe FoiKevs ivFoiKe iir\i Kopa Foiklov, kuI to. irpo^aTa Kai\i 
Ka/)Ta[t]7roSa, o Ka pe FoiKeos f, \ eVi to'is v'td(ri epev, tci 8 
«X|Xa KpipaTa iravTa 8aTedda i KaXof, Ka\ \avKdvfv tos p\ev 
vtvvs, oTTOTToi K 'lovti, 8v\\o poipavs FiKacTTOv, Ta8 8\e 6vya- 
Ttpavs, OTTOTTai k' 'iov\Ti, piav poipav FeKaaTav 6[y\y'\aT(\^pa\. 

at Se Kal Ta paTp[o^'ia, ? | k' a7ro^a[i'e]i, a7re[p] tci [Trarpot J | 
elypdrrjai. al 8e KpipaTa pe fl'jf , crre'ya 8e, \aKev Tad ^^[(y)]"- 
Tt\pas, a eypdrrai. 

al 8e Ka \e\i 6 Trarep 806s lov 86pfv Tai oTrviopeva, 86to Kara 
r||a iypappiva, likiova 8e pe. \ 

OTfia 8e Trp660' eSoKC ? inea jrevrrt, ravT €K(v, nWa 8f pe II 

Baunacks' text, Ins. v. Gortipi, p. 102. 

The general drift of the passage is as follows : The father 
is to have control over his children and property with regard 
to its division among them, the mother is to have control 
over her own property. In the parents' lifetime a division is 
not to be necessary, but if one (of the children) be fined he is 
to receive his share according as it is written. When there is 
a death, houses in the city and all that is in them, those 
houses excepted in which a Voikeus (an adscriptus glebae) 
lives who is on the estate, and sheep and cattle, those be- 
longing to a Voikeus excepted, shall belong to the sons ; all 
other property shall be divided honourably, the sons to get 
each two shares, the daughters one share each. If the 
mother's property [be divided] on her death, the same rules 
as for the father's must be observed. If there be no other 
property but a house, the daughters are to get their statutory 


(//) e in Cretan, as also in some other Dorian dialects, 
appears as i before another vowel: dvoBeKaperia, bfxoKoyiovTi (subj.), 
Koklov (part.), Trpa^lo/nev (fut.). 

ii. (a) The ace. plural of consonant stems is made in -avi on 
the analogy of vowel stems: fiaiTvpavs ( = fj.dpTvpa$), eTriftaWdvravs, 

{b) Other Cretan inscriptions sometimes show -ei- for -ej in 
the nom. plural aKovffavTev, aixiv ('we'). 

(c) Some subjunctives carry an -a vowel throughout : bvvaiiai. 

8. Melos and Thera with its colony Cyrene. 

646. The earliest inscriptions from Melos and Thera are 
written in an alphabet without separate symbols for (^, ;^, i^, 
I which are therefore written vh, kK or qh, ncr, k(t. e + e and 
o + o are represented by e and o. The digamma .seems how- 
ever to have been lost. Cyrene preserved some of these 
peculiarities long after its mother city Thera had changed to 
the milder Doric. 

9. Rhodes with its colonies Gela and 

647. ii. (a) The present and aorist infinitives end in -/x«v : 
Sofieiv, eifietv. 

{b) The infinitive of the perfect ends in -eiv : 7e76»'en'. 
(c) Some -aw verbs appear in -ew : tihovvtcs, etc. 

648. It is characteristic of Rhodes and also of Cos, Cnidus, 
and other districts in its neighbourhood to contract eo into 
ev : TTouviievosi 6f ukX^s, etc. The same contraction, however, 
is frequently found in the later Ionic. 


portion. If the father chooses in his lifetime to give a portion 
to a daughter on her marriage, such portion must not exceed 
the amounts already specified ; if he has given beforehand or 
guaranteed any sum to a daughter, she is to have that sum 
but is not to receive a portion with the others. 

From Melos. Date probably first half of 6th century b.c. 

TTol ^i6s, ''EKTrhdvTo SfKcrai rod' d/xevTrhes dyaXfj.a. 

ao\ yap (TrevKnofjievos tovt fVeXecrcrf yporrkov. 

From Thera. Names from rock tombs. Date probably in 
Tth century B.C. 

Qhapvfic'iKka. KpiroTrAtiXo (genitive). IIpaKai\ar]p.i. Qhapv- 
fiaqhos eVoi'e. 

There is also a long and interesting inscription from Thera 
— the testaraenhim Epictetae — but it is too late to show strong 
dialectic peculiarities. 

From Camirus in Rhodes. Date before Alexander the Great. 

'ESo^e Ka/iipeiia"f rds KToivas ras Ka/icpewv ras \ iv to. vdcra 
Koi Tcis iv TO. direLpoi dvaypdyj/'ai Trdaas | Koi i^Bipnv is to lepov 
Tas 'Adavaias i{v) CTTaXa | Xidivq X'^P'^ XoXki^s- i^Tjfj.eiv 8e kol 
Xa\KrjTais II dvaypaCpTjpeiv, a'i ica ■x^pi]^<i>vTi, iXiadai 8e av8pas J 
Tpels avTiKa fidXa, olrives iTripLeKrjdrjafvvTi Tav\Tas rdi jrpd^ios 
as Td)(i(TTa Koi dTroScoafvvTai \ rio XP.'/f'""'' iXa)(iaTov Trapa- 
(Txelv rav (rraXav \ Kai ras KTOivas dvaypdyj/ai koi iyKoXdxjrat. 
iv ra crra|jAa aai ardcrai iv tcd lepa rds Addvas kol jrepi- 
)3oXt^cd|crai cl>s exU ^^ lo-^vpoTara koi KciXXtcrra- rd Se Te\Xevpeva 
is ravTa ndvra rbv rapiav Trapix^iv. 

Cauer-, No. 176 (part). 

From Agrigentum. Found at Dodona. 

[Sfos] Ti^;^a dyadd. \ 

['EttI TrJpocJ-rdra Afi;j[;^]apoi;, dcl)iKopev(o\v 'Itt- 

Troadevfos, Tet'j[o"io]s', "Kppcovos, SeXi'lviof, eSo- 

^e Tois I 'MoXoaaois npo\^fviav bofxeiv \ toIs 

Aicpaya vri'l \vois. 

Cauer2, No. 200. 

494 appendix. 


649. This dialect it is unnecessary to discuss at length 
because its characteristics are more familiar than those of 
less literary dialects, and because a more detailed account 
than it is possible to give here is accessible in English i. The 
literary records of this dialect far outweigh its inscriptions in 

650. It is generally said that Homer is written in old 
Ionic, but the Epic dialect as handed down to us is certainly 
the artificial product of a literary school and no exact repre- 
sentative of the spoken dialect of any one period. (1) No 
spoken dialect could have at the same time, for example, 
three forms of the genitive of -o- stems in use : -oio, -oo, and 
-ov, which represent three different stages of development. 
(2) The actual forms handed down to us fi-equently transgress 
the rules of metre, thus showing that they are later trans- 
literations of older and obsolete forms. Thus ews and re'wy 
should be written in Homer, as the verse generally demands, 
Tjos (cp. Doric as) and r^os; 8fi8ia represents dedpta ; de'iofiev, 
crreiofifv are erroneous forms for drjofiev, a-rrjofjiev. (3) It is by 
no means certain that the original lays of which Homer is 
apparently a redaction wei'e in Ionic at all. Fick holds with 
considerable show of reason that these poems were originally 
in Aeolic, and that when Ionia became the literary centre the 
poems were transUterated into Ionic, forms of Aeolic which 
differed in quantity from the Ionic being left untouched. A 
parallel to this may be found in Old English literature where 
the Northumbrian poets Caedmon and Cynewulf are found 
only in a West-Saxon transliteration. 

651. Between Homer and the later Ionic of Herodotus, 
Hippocrates and their contemporaries, comes the Ionic of the 

1 In the introduction to Professor Strachan's edition of 
Herodotus, Book vi, where everything necessary for the ordinary 
classical student is collected. The advanced student has now the 
opportunity of referring to the elaborate treatise on this dialect by 
H. W. Smyth (Clarendon Press, 1894). 


(1) From Miletus. A fragment found in the ruins of 

the ancient theatre. 

vrav, Xafi^dveiv 8e ra Sepfiara K[al] to. aXXa yepea. 

Hv €V 6[yr]^Tai, \d[\l/^€\Tai •y\a>(r]<Tav, 6(T(pvp, bacreav, aprjv. 
Tjv 8e TrXeco Bvrjrai, Xa'^erai an' fKacrrov 6(X(pv\_v, \ Sacre'Jai' Koi 
yKucrcrav Ka\ KcoXrjv p.iav airo navTwv. Ka\ tuip aXXav 6eS>v 
Toiv I [ei'Jrf/xfi'tcai', ocrcnv Updrai 6 lepecos, Xdyf/^frai to. yepea to. 
avrd Koi kcoXJjj/ airl [rj^y <wp7;y, fjp pf] ^ao'iXfvs Xap^dvrji. *1iv 
8e evcTTov 6vt)i. t) ttoXis, Xdyj/erai yXa)(r\(rav, 6(T(f)vv, 8a(reav, 
loprjv. *Hv ^€vos lepoTToirji ran. 'ATToXXcoi't, Trpoitpdadai Ta>[y'\\ 
dcTTcbv ov av deXrji 6 ^evos, 8i86vai Se rcoi lepel Ta yepea 
anep rj ndXis Siboi 7r[dj' ra] X^P^^ deppdroi^v"], 7r[X)7i/] Tois 
'ATToXXoivlois.... Bechtel, /. /. No. 100. 

Bechtel explains aprj as aponXdTrj and quotes a scholiast 
on Odyssey xii. 89 : rovs lavas Xeyeiv (paal rrjv kcoXtjv aprjv 
Ka\ apaiav. 

(2) From the ancient Keos, modern Tzia. Date, near 

end of 5th century B.C. 
Ol8e v6\ji\oi TTepl ray Kar\_a]<pdi[pe'\vui\_v • Kara [ ra]Se 
^d[7rr]ei' tov 6av6vTa- ev | e/x[ar]('o[iy TpC\a\ XevKois, (rrpoi- 
pari Kai evdvpari [^koi \ e^mfiXepaTi - — e^evai be Ka\ ev 
eX\a\cr\cr\oa\i. — /^ e] irXeovos d^iois rois rpi(r\ eKl^arojv S[p«lx]" 
uecov. ex<pepev 8e ey kXivtji cr0[e]i'o;[7ro5t k] a\ pe naXinrTev, 
TO. 8' 6X[o]a-xep[€a^ roI[j eparjllois. (pepev 8e olvov fVl to 
<r^|jx]a [/ije [TrXeov] | rpiav ^^v Kal eXaiov pe 7rX[e']o[i'] e[i']o[f, 
TO. 8e \\ dy]yela diTO(pepe(T0ai. tov dav6\_v^Ta [8e (f)epev | Kjara- 
KeKoXvppevov aiQiTrrp pe[)('\pi [eVi to | ajripa. n poacpayiaii 
[;^]pecr^[at /cjara [rja 7r[dTptja" TJjjy kXlvtjv diro To[y] aljjp^a- 
{t]oIs xjat 7-[d] {7[rp&)!/x]ara eacpfpev ev86ae. ttji 8e v(rTepai[T)i 
8i\\a^ppaivev ttjv oIkltjv [f]Xei,'[^]fpoj/ ^aX[dcr(r/;|t] wpaTOv, erreiTa 
[nX]v[K]cBr[coi] o[^e]i', T77[Xo{) aridji/ra* eTrf/v Sc 8iapav0TJi, K.a6- 
apTjv evai tt)v oIkitjv, Ka\ 6vr] 6vev e<^[/o"riaJ. | Tas ywalKas rds 
[t]ovcr[a]s [ej^ri to kti8\os \ a\TTi4vai trpoTepas tcov . . dv8pS>v 
dno \tov \\ crJij/xaTo?. eVi rtui 6av6vTi TpirjKoa^Tia pi \ ir^oiev. 
pe VTTOTidevaL nvXiKa viro T\rjy kXPv^tjv, pe8e to v8a>p eK)(ev, 
pe8e TO KaXXw[cr/ia]|ra (f)epev eVi to (rrjpa. ottov av [ff]dvr]i. 


poets, Ai'chilochus of Paros, Simonides of Amorgos, Hipponax 
of Ephesus, Anacreon of Teos, Mimnermus and Xenophanes 
of Colophon. It seems probable that these poets kept on the 
whole closely to the dialect of their native towns although not 
without a certain admixture of Epic forms in elegiac poetry. 

652. According to Herodotus (i. 142) there were four 
divisions of Eastern or Asiatic Ionic. But there is not 
enough evidence preserved to us to confirm the distinction 
thus drawn. Ionic may therefore be distinguished geo- 
gi-aphically into (1) the Ionic of Asia Minor spoken in the 
great centres Miletus, Ephesus, Chios, Samos and the other 
Ionic settlements and their colonies, (2) the Ionic of the 
Cyclades : Naxos, Keos, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Siphnos, Andros, 
los, Myconos, and (3) the Ionic of Euboea. 

653. It is characteristic of all Ionic (a) to change every 
original a into e (77), (6) to drop, except in a few sporadic 
instances, the digamma. 

654. Eastern Ionic has entirely lost the spiritus asper. 
Eastern Ionic and the Ionic of the Cyclades agree in con- 
tracting -nXeTjs into -KAfjs, and in making the genitive of -i- 
stems in -los not -iSo?. The Ionic of the Cyclades and of 
Euboea agree in retaining the spiritus asper, but in Euboea 
-KXerjs is still written and the genitive of -t- stems is in -tSoy, 
both features being also characteristic of Attic. Euboea is 
peculiar in having rhotacism in the dialect of Eretria : ojropai, 
napajSaivcopiv, etc. 

655. The curious phenomenon not yet fully explained 
whereby Ionic presents forms in ko-, kt]- from the Indo- 
Germanic stem qo-, qd-, while other dialects give forms in 
TTo-, TTT)-, is confined to the literature, no example of a form in 
KO- or KT)- having yet been discovered on an inscription. 

656. The relations in literature between the Ionic dialect 
and Attic Greek have often been misunderstood. The forms 
which the tragedians and Thucydides share with Ionic, e.g. 
-a-ar- where Aristophanes, Plato and the Orators have -tt-, are 
borrowed from Ionic, which previous to the rise of Athens to 
preeminence was the specially literary dialect. Attic Greek 
never possessed forms in -a-a-, which it changed later to -tt-. 


€[77171' e'Ji^eve;^^?*, fie livai yvva'iKas 7r[p6]s T\rjv ot] i/ctT/i' aXKai 
e TCis niaivofiivas' \ji]ia[ivfa6 a]i Se fiijrepa koi yvvaiKa Kai 
aSf[X0fa? K,a]( [^Juyarepas-, 7rp[o]f Se rat;T[a]i? ^e [TrXeoi^ Triejvre 
7vi/aiKo5i/, TratSas Se [Siio, 6^vy\ar€pas \ a\vi-^i(idv, aXKov 8i 
jLt[e]S[e'j']a. [TJoiif [/i]ta[ii/o/if jli'otis] Xoticra^ei'o[us'] 7r[ep[ iravra 

TOP ;;^p6)ra | vSarJos [x]"^""' Ka\_dap]ovs evaL e | 

rj . vv . . . . T . . . . I T 

Dittenberger's text, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, 
p. 654. Cp. /. /. No. 43. 

H is used foi* original a, E for original e and for the 
spurious diphthong, but note the diphthongs davr]i and Sia- 
pavdrji, where -et might be expected. 

(3) From Oropus. In the dialect of Eretria. Date is be- 
tween 411 and 402 B.C. or 387 and 377 B.C., the only 
periods in the age to which it belongs when Oropus was 
an independent state. 

Ofot. I Tbv if pea rov ' h.p.(^i,apaov (ftoirav els to lepo v eTret,8av 
^eipcov TrapeXdei p-expi^ dpoTov ap'jjs, p-Tj nXeov SiaXeiTrovTa tj 
Tpels Tjpepas, koi i| peveiv ev Toi lepoi prj eXarrov t] 8eKa T]pfpa\s 
Toil prjvos eKcicTTov. 

Kai e nav ay Ka^eiv tov v ecoKopov tov re Upov empeXelcrdai 
Kara t6\v vopov Ka\ Ta>v d(f)iKi'e{o)pevcov els to lepov.] 

Av 84 Tis dStKei ev Tol Upol r) ^evos r/ Sry/iorHTj?, ^rjpiovTco 
6 lepevs p-^XP'- ^^'''''f Spaxpeav \ Kvpias, Kai evexvpa Xap^aveTUt 
TOV e^Tjpicoplevov av 8' eKTivei to dpyvpiov, napeovTos Toii | 
lepeos ep^aX(X)eTco els tov drjaavpov. 

AiKa^eiv 8e tov lepea, av tis tSi'ei d8iiiri6el. rj Tmv ^e'jjvtov tj 
Tcjv 8T]poTe(ov ev rol Upol, pexP'- '''P'-^^ I Spaxpecov, to, 8e pe^ova, 
Tjxoi eKaoTois al St»c|at ev Tols vopois e'lprjTai, evTOvda yiv ecrQav. 

IIpo(TKa\e1(T0ai 8e Ka\ avdrjpepov TveplTwv e\v toI lepo2 dSimav, 
av 8e 6 dvTiSiiiOS prj a-vvx\\<ope'L, els Trjv ixjTeprjv 17 Si'kt; TeXeladoi. 

''ETraplxrjv 8e 8i8ovv Top peXXovTa BepaTrevefrdai vjtto tov 
6eov prj eXaTTOv evveolHoXov 8oKipov dpyvpiov Kai ep^dXXeiv 
els TOV drjaavpov TrapelovTOS tov veaxopov 

Karev^fcr^at 8e Ta>v lepav Kai enl tov ^copov eTriTide'iv, 
UTav napel, tov lepea, \ oTav 8e pfj Trapel, tov dvovTa, Kai Tel 
6vaiei dvTov eavTol KaTevxea-Sai eKoaTov, Tav 8e 8r]popi(,)v 
TOV lepea k.t.X. 

Inscrr. Graec. Septentrionalis i. No. 235 ; /. /. No. 18. 

G. P. 32 


The Italic Dialects. 

[The standard work on Oscan is Mommsen's Unteritalische 
Dialekte (1850) ; a more recent and accessible collection is 
ZvetaieflE's Inscriptiones Italiae inferioris (1886). The older 
grammatical works are out of date. Eecent treatises on Oscan 
are Bronisch's Die oskischen i und e Vocale, and Buck's Der 
Vocalismus der oskischen Sprache. The best accounts of Umbrian 
at present are to be found in Brt^al's Les Tables Eugubines (1875) 
and Biicheler's I'mbrica (1883). In Umbrian, even where the 
forms are clear, interpretation is largely guess-work. A complete 
account of all the Italic dialects and of their existing records 
is promised by von Planta in his Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen 
Dialekte of which one volume (Phonology) was pubUshed in 1892, 
and by Prof. R. S. Conway in a volume soon to be published. 
The distinguishing characteristics given below will be found 
discussed at much greater length in von Planta's introductory 
chapter. The Italic words are collected in Biicheler's Lexicon 
Italicum (1881). In the following account of the characteristics 
of Oscan and Umbrian, the usual practice has been followed of 
printing forms found in the native alphabets in ordinary tj-pe, 
forms found in the Latin alphabet in italics.] 

657. The principal dialects of Italy which belong to the 
same stock as Latin are Oscan and Umbrian. Oscan in the 
widest sense of the term was the language spoken by various 
peoples of Samnite origin, monuments of whom have been 
found over a vast area extending from the borders of Latium 
southward to Bruttium and northern Apulia. On the northern 
frontier of this territory lived several tribes, Paeligni, ]\Iarru- 
cini, Marsi, Yestini, Volsci, Sabini, of whose dialects .some 
scanty remnants have survived. The Umbrians inhabited 


the great district called by their name, which extends from 
the shore of the Adriatic westwards across the Apennines to 
the border of Etruria, and is bounded on the north by the 
territory of the Gauls, on the south by that of the Sabini and 

658. The records of these dialects, except isolated words 
or place-names, are entirely in the form of inscriptions. The 
most important of the Oscan inscriptions are: (1) The 
Tabula Bantina from Bantia which lies some distance to the 
S.E. of Venusia. It differs from the Oscan of other districts 
by changing -ti- into -s-, di- into z- ; hence Bantia appears as 
Bansa; zicolo- a diminutive from dies = & Latin ^diecailo-. 
The document is of considerable length and deals with cer- 
tain questions of local law. (2) The Ci'ppus Abellanus which 
contains a treaty, regarding the privileges of the people of 
Abella and the people of Nola in the use of a shrine of 
Heracles. The Oscan of this monument is the most accurately 
written which we possess. (3) The Tahxda Agnonensis found 
some way to the N.E. of the ancient Bovianum in 1848. This 
is a bronze plate originally fixed up in the neighboiu-hood of a 
temple and containing on its two sides a long list of names of 
deities who had statues and altai-s there. (4) Two lead 
tablets from Capua containing ciu-ses invoked on enemies. 
Although the general drift is clear, much doubt still exists 
with regard to the interpretation of individual words and 
phrases. A considerable number of other inscriptions have 
been discovered at Capua in recent years and published most 
accessibly as yet in the Rheinisches Museum. (5) From 
Pompeii come a certain number of short inscriptions which, 
being mostly of an ephemeral character, probably date from 
the last years of the city before its destniction in 79 a.d. The 
date of the other documents is much disputed, the authorities 
differing in some cases as much as two hundred years. Most 
of the inscriptions from Capua, however, date from before 
211 B.C. when that city, for having i-evolted to Hannibal, was 
deprived of self-government, and the local magistrate or 
meddix tuticus ceased to exist. The Tabula Bantina probably 



belongs to the early part of the tirst century B.C., or the end 
of the preceding century. This Tabula Bantina is written 
in the Latin alphabet, the others mentioned are in the native 
alphabet. There are also some small inscriptions from the 
south of Italy and Sicily in the Greek alphabet. 

659. The Umbrian records are much more extensive 
than those of any other dialect. By far the most important 
are the Euguhine Tables from the ancient Iguvium. These 
tables are seven in number, all except iii and iv engraved on 
both sides. The first fom- and the fifth to the seventh line of 
the reverse side are in the ancient Umbrian alphabet, the 
rest of Table v and Tables vi and vii are in the Latin alphabet. 
The date is uncertain. The tables in the Umbrian alphabet 
are no doubt older than those in the Latin alphabet. Tables 
vi and vii deal with the same subject as Table i, viz. the 
purification of the fortress of Iguvium, but in much greater 
detail. Biicheler places the first four tables about a century 
before, the Umbrian part of v immediately before the time of 
the Gracchi. He woiUd assign the parts in the Latin alphabet 
to the period between the Gracchi and Sulla, while Breal 
places them as late as the time of Augustiis. The whole of 
these tables deal with a sacrificial ritual and belonged originally 
to the priestly brotherhood of the Atiedii at Iguvium. Other 
records of Umbrian are small and imimportant. 

660. Oscan and Umbrian and the other small dialects 
form a imity distinguished from Latin and Faliscan by a con- 
.siderable number of characteristics in phonology, inflexion 
and syntax. There are some real but less important differences 
between Oscan and Umbrian themselves. The dift'erent 
appearance of the forms of Umbrian as compared with 
Oscan turns mostly upon the following changes in Umbrian : 
(1) change of all diphthongs into monophthongs, (2) change of 
medial -s- between vowels and of final -s to -?•, (3) change of 
-d- between vowels into a sound represented in the Umbrian 
alphabet by H (f, given by Biicheler as cf), in the Latin by rs, 
(4) palatalisation of gutturals in combination with e and i — 
k into a sound represented in the Umbrian alphabet by d( = f), 


in the Roman by s ov s, g into a y-soiind : ta9ez ( = tadtus) 
9imu {Hmo) from the same pronominal stem as the Latin 
ci-s, ci-tra; muietu (participle) cp. mugatu (imperat.), and 
later liuvinu- ( = Iguvino-) where earlier Umbrian represents 
k hj g: Ikuvins ; (5) changes in combinations of (a) stops, 
-ft- (representing in some cases original -pt-) becoming -ht- 
while -kt- changes to -ht-, and (6) of stops and spirants, -ps- 
becoming -ss- (or -s-): osatu { = *opsatd) Latin operato, while 
in the combination of l-\-t, the liquid is silent: motar= 
*moltds gen. (Latin multae 'of a fine'); (6) Umbrian final d 
and generally also final t, /, s, and r disappear. (7) Umbrian 
changes u into I and -um into -om. 

661. On the other hand Oscan changes e and o into f and 
ii and develops in many words one or more anaptyctic vowels 
in combinations of liquids with other consonants : sakaraklom 
[ = *sakro-klo-m), sacaracirix { = *sacratri.v). 

662. The difterences between these dialects on the one 
side and Latin and Faliscan on the other are much more 
numerous and important. 

A. Phoxology. 

663. 1. To represent original q'^, gl', Oscan and Umbrian 
have p and b while Latin has qu (c) and ?/ (gu after n). 

Y)is = quis, hiuo- = vivo-, hevn = veni. 

2. Sounds which became spirants in primitive Italic 
remain so in Oscan and L'mbriaii while medially Latin 
changes them to a stopped sound : alfo- = albo-, me/lo- = medio-. 

3. Syncope. Osc. actud=agitod, factud—faciiod; hiirz 
= kort7cs: Umbr. pihaz=jt;/a^^<^. Osc. teremniss, Umbr. fratrus, 
dat. and abl. pi. with ending = primitive Italic *-/'os, Lat. -bus. 

4. Change of -kt- to -ht-, of -pt- to -ft- (Umbr. -ht-). 
Oscan 'Uh.tavis = Octarncs, scriftas=smptae; Umbr. rehte 
= 7'ecte. 

5. Assimilation. 

(a) Of -nd- to -nn- ; Osc. tipsannam = o^e?*a??o?aOT, 
Umbr. pihaner=pia7idi (Ji being inserted to avoid hiatus). 


(b) Of -h to -ss (s) whether medially or finally : Osc. 
destrst = dextra est ; Umbr. destra. rueddfss = meddix. 

(c) But s is not assimilated before nasals and liquids 
initially or medially : Osc. slaagi- cp. locus ; Osc. fffsna-, Old 
Umbr. fesna-, cp. fanu-7n. Paelign. i>rismn= primus. 

(d) -rs- in Oscan becomes -rr-, or -r- with compensatory 
lengthening of the previous vowel, in Umbrian it appears as 
-rs- and -rf-. Osc. teer[um] once, Kerri ; Umbr. tursitu, 

6. Treatment of final -ns and -nts. 

Indo-G. -?w = Osc. -ss, Umbr. -/; Osc. viass = vtas, Umbr. 
aoif { = *avi-ns) 'birds,' nerf { = *ner-ns) 'men.' 

Osc. nom. sing. \\\it\\ii =*oiti6ns, an analogical foi-mation 
with final -s, from a stem in -Hon-; Umbr. zeref =sedens 
(-nts). -ns, however, in the 3 pi. with secondary ending ( = -7it) 
and -ns, which arises by syncope of a vowel between -n- and 
-s, remain ; coisatens ' curaverunt,' Banthis = Banthms. 

7. Original a appears as o : Osc. vi'u cp. via ; Umbr. pro- 
seseto, cp. pro-secta. 

B. Inflexion. 

664. i. In the Noun : 

1. The consonant stems retain the original nom. pi. in 
-es, for otherwise the vowel could not disappear by syncope : 
Osc. hunxuns = *homo7ies, meddiss — meddices, censtur = censores, 
Umbr. frateer=fratres. 

2. Where Latin generalises analogically the strong form 
of a consonant stem, Oscan and Umbrian generalise the weak 
form. Thus from a stem *tangiOn- we find Osc. ace. tangin- 
om, abl. tangin-ud, Umbr. natine = ?ia<io?ie. But in the nom. 
Osc. uittiuf and also stati'f. Q,p. also Umbr. uhtr-etie with 
Lat. auctOr-itas. 

3. The -0- and -a-stems retain the original form of the 
nom. and gen. pi. (the «-stems also the old gen. sing.), and 
following a course exactly the reverse of Latin have extended 
these forms of the plural to the pronoun. Osc. states = sto^z; 


moltas, Umbr. m.otar=multae ; Osc. sci'iftas = scriptae. Osc. 
pus=jM2, Umbr. erom = *is-dm 'eonim.' 

4. The locative of -o- stems survives as a distinct case in 
-ei, Osc. muinikei terei ' in communi territorio ' etc. 

5. New analogical formations : 

(a) in case-endings of consonant stems after -o-stems 
Osc. tangin-om (ace), tangin-ud (abl.) ; Umbr. arsferturo = ad- 
fertorem. But the Umbr. abl. like the Latin ends in -e : 
natine ; 

(6) -eis the gen. of -i-stems is extended to consonant 
and -o-stems : Osc. Appelluneis (.4joo/Zf/i«'-s),medikeis(j«eo?c£icis), 
tangiiieis ; Umbr. no/nner, inatrer ; Osc. Xiumsiei's (.LYttmmi), 
Pumpaiianeis {Pompeiani) : Umbr. popler {populi). 
665. ii. In the Verb : 

1. Secondary endings in -d occiu- for the sing., in -ns for 
the plural, -d is found in old Latin also. Cp. the forms of 
the perfect below (4). 

2. The future instead of being as in Latin in -b- is in -s- ; 
Osc. deiuast 'iurabit,' Umbr. pru-pehast 'principio piabit.' 

3. All future perfects active are made from the perfect 
participle (lost in Latin) and the substantive verb : Osc. 
per-emust 'peremerit,' Umbr. en-telust {=*en-teiid-lust an ana- 
logical formation from a stem *en-tend-lo-) 'intenderit.' 

4. When Latin has perfects in -y-, Oscan and L^mbrian 
show a great variety of forms : 

(a) in -/- : Osc. aa-man-affed ' faciundum cm-avit.' 
(h) in -^ : Osc. dadikatted ' dedicavit.' 

(c) Osc. vuipsens from a stem *op-sd- with 3 pi. 
.secondary ending ' operaverunt,' Umbr. porttist from a stem 

(d) In Umbrian only appear perfects in -I- and -nk-, 
entelust 'intenderit,' coTiibifiami ' nuntiaverit ' ; ? Osc. \io<a- 


5. The infinitive ends in -om: Osc. deik-um 'dicere,' 
ac-um ' agere ' ; Umbr. a{n)-fei'-o{m) ' circumferre.' 

6. Imperatives are found : 

(a) in -radd, Pass. -mor. Osc. cemamur 'censemino,' 


Umbr. persnimu ' precamino.' The origin of these forms is 
uncertain ; von Plauta conjectures that -«i- in the suffix may 
represent original -mn- by assimilation. 

(6) In Umbr. the Plural of the Imperative is found in 
-totd, -momd. There is no example in Oscan. 

7. In the Passive -er is found as the suffix by the side of 
-or and in Umbrian -wr. Osc. sakarater = Lat. sacratur. 

8. The perf. conj. and 2nd future play a large part in the 
passive : Osc. sakrafir ' let one dedicate,' Umbr. pihafei{r) 
' let one purify ' ; Osc. comparascuster \ioc egrno] ' ea res 
consul ta erit.' 

9. Vei'bs in -a- make their participles in -eto- ; cp. Late 
Latin rocfUus, probUus. 


(1) The Cippus Abellanus. The text is Zvetaieff's, the 
interlinear translation Bucheler's. 

Maiiiii Vestirikiiui Mai. Sir. | prupukid sverrunei 

Maio Vestricio Mai{Jilius) Sir. 
kvaistulrei Abellanui inim Maiiu[i] | luvkiiuf Mai. Puka- 
qiiaestori Ahellano et Maio lovicio Mai{f.) Puca- 

latiii I medikei deketasiui Nuvl[a|nui] I'nim ligatuis Abel- 
lato medici Nolano et legatis Abel- 

l[anuis] I ini'm ligatiiis Niivlanui's | pus senateis tanginud | 
la)iis et legatis Nolanis, qui senati sententia 

suveis puturuspi'd lfgat[us] | fufans ekss kiimbened | sakara- 

stii utrique legati erant, ita convenit: 8a- 
kliim Hereklefs | slaagid piid 1st inim teer[um] ( pud up 
crum Herculis e regione quod est et territoi'ium quod apiid 
efsud sakaraklud [fst] | pud anter teremniss eh... | ist pai 

id sacrum est quod inter terminos ex... est, quae 


teremenniumu[inikad] | tanginiid pruftuset r[ehtud] amnud 

termitia communi sententia 'probata sunt recto circuitu, 

puz idik sakara[klum] | inim idi'k terum muini[kum] | miif- 

ut id sacrum et id territorium comriume incom- 

nikei terei fusid [I'nim] | ei'sei's sakarakleis i[nim] | tereis 
muni territorio esset, et eius sacri et territorii 

iruktatiiif fr[ukta|tiiif] muini'ku puturu[mpid | fusji'd. avt 

fructus fructti.s communis utrorumque esset. Nolani 
Nuvlanu... j ...Herekleis fii[sn... ' ...] iispkl Xiivlan... | iipv 

autem Herculis fun 

lisat?... j I ekkum [svai pi'd hereset] | triibarak- 

Item si quid volent aedificare 

[a-snira terei pud] | liimitu[m] term[. . . puis] | Herekleis fi'isnu 
in territorio quod limitum quibus Hercidis fanum 

mefi[u] I I'st ehtrad feiliuss pu[s] | Herekleis fiisnam amfi- et 
medium est, extra fines qui Herculis fanum amhiunt, 
pert viam pussti'st | pai ip I'st pustin slagim | senateis suveis 
trayis viam post est quae ibi est, pro regione senati sv.i 
tangiinud tribarakaviim li ki'tud. I'nim luk tribajrakkiuf pam 
sententia aedificare liceto. Et id aedificium, qiiod 
Xvivlanus | tribarakattuset ini'm | uittiuf Xiivlaniim estud. i 

Xolani aedificaverint, et usus Nolanorum esto. 
ekkum svai pi'd Abellanus \ tribarakattuset iiik tri|barakkiuf 

Ite'in si quid Abellani aedificaverint id aedificinm 
i'nim uittiuf | Abellanum estud. avt | pust feihuis pus fisnam 
et usus Abellanorum esto. At post fines, qui fanum 

am|fret eisei terei nep Abeljlanus nep Niivlamis pi- 
ambiunt, in eo territorio neque Abellani neque Nolani quid- 
dum I tribarakattins. avt thejsavrum pud esei terei 
quam aedificaverint. At thesav.rum quod in eo territorio 
ist I pun patensins : miiinikad ta[n];ginud patensi'ns im'm 
est quom aperirent: communi sententia aperirent et 

pid e[sei] | thesa\Tei pukkapid eh[stit | a]ittium alttram 
quidquid in eo thesauro quandoque exstat portionum alteram 
alttr[us I h]errins. avt anter slagim \ [A]bellanam inim 

alteri caperent. At inter regionem Abellanam et 


Niivlanam | [pjullad vii'i uruvu I'st tedur | [ejisai viai mefiai 
Nolanam qua via flexa est in ea via media 

teremen [n]iu stafet. 

termina stant. 

prupukid =pro luice (Biich.); if so it must be a different grade 
like <pta-vf} and fd-ma. sverrunei, apparently some sort of title, 
deketasiui according to Bronisch = decentario from decern. 

(2) The third of the six surviving clauses of the Tabula 
Bantina. The text and translation are Biicheler's as given by 
Mommsen in Bruns' Fontes Juris Romani J/i<i^?ii (6th ed.), 
p. 61. 

Svaepis pru meddixud altrei castrovs avti eituas | zicolom 
Siquis pro tnagistratu alteri fundi axU pecuniae diem 
dicust, izic comono ni hipid ne pon op tovtad peti- 
dixerit, is comitia ne hahuerit nisi ctim apud popidurn qua- 
ruiiert urust sipus perum dolom | mallom, in tnitum 
ter oraverit sciens sine dolo malo et definitum 
zico[lom] tovto peremust petiropert. Neip mais pomtis 

diem populus perceperit quater. Neve magis quinquies 
com preivatud actud | pruter pam medicatinom didest, in 
cum privato agito prius quam iudicationem dahit, et 
pon posmom con preivatud urust, eisucen ziculud j zicolom 
cxmi postremum cum privato oraverit, ah eo die diem 
XXX nesimum comonom ni hipid. Svaepis contrud exeic 
X X X proximum comitia ne hahuerit. Siquis contra hoc 
fefacust, ionc svaepis j herest rueddis moltaum licitud, am- 
fecerit, eum siquis volet magistratus midtare liceto, du)n- 
pert mistreis aeteis eituas licitud. 
taxat minoris partis pecuniae liceto. 

hipid, subj. from perfect stem = *heped. tnUum according to 
Bugge = 4th, from a weak stem *qtru-to-. If xirust is from the 
same root as Lat. oro, (1) it must be borrowed from Latin, or 
(2) neither word can be connected with Lat. os, there being no 
rhotacism in Oscan. op {= Lat. oh) governs the ablative. 


(3) From Pompeii. Now in the Museum at Naples 
(Zvetaieff, p. 51, Mommsen U. D. p. 183). 

V. Aadirans V. eitiuvam paam vereiiaf Pumpaiianai 
Vihius A dirantts V. {f.)peeuniam quam civitati Pompeianae 
tristaajmentud deded, eisak eitiuvad | V. Viinikiis Mr. 

testamento dedit, ea pecunia V. VimciusMarae{f.) 
kvaisstur Pumpjaiians tri'ibum ekak kumbenjnieis tanginud 
qiuxestor Povipeianus aedificium hoc conventus sententia 
iipsannam | deded, isi'dum prufatted. 
operandum dedit; idem probavit. 

B. Umbriax. 

The text and translation of both passages are Biicheler's 
{Umhrica, 1883). 

1. In the Latin alphabet, fi-om Table vi a ; part of the 
directions for purifying the citadel of Iguvium. 

Verfale pufe arsfertur trebeit ocrer peihaner, erse stah- 
Templum ubi flamen versatur arcis piandae, id sta- 
mito eso tuderato est: angluto | hondomu, porsei nesimei 
tivum sic finitum est: ab angulo imo qui proxume 

asa deveia est, anglome somo, porsei nesimei vapersus 
ab ara divorum est, ad angidum summum qui proxume ab sellis 
aviehcleir | est, eine angluto somo vapefe aviehclu tod- 
aftguralibus est, et ab angido summo ad sellas augurales ad 
come tuder, angluto hondomu asame deveia todcome | 
urhi/nim finem, ab angido imo adaramdivontmadurhicum 
tuder. eine todceir tuderus seipodruhpei seritu. 
finem. et urbicis Jinibus ittroque vorsum servato. 


2. In the Umbrian alphabet ; from Table ii a. ( Umbrica, 
p. 138.) 

Asama kuvertu. asaku vinu sevakni tagez per- 

Ad aram revertito. apud aram vino sollemni tadtus sup- 

snihmu. | esuf piisme herter, erus kuveitu tecbtu. vinu 

plicato. ipse qyiein oportet, erus congerito dato. vinum 

pune tecl"tu. | struh9las fiklas sufafias kumaltu. kapid'e 
poscam dato. struiculae fitillae suffafiae commolito. capide 
punes vepuratu. | antakres kumates persnihmu. amparihmu, 
poscaerestinguito. integris commolitis supplicato. surgito 
statita subahtu. esunu purtitu futu. katel asaku 
statuta demittito. sacrum esto. catidus apud aram 

pelsans futu. | Kvestretie usage svesu \n\q\ stite- 

pelsandus esto. Q^iaesturae suum votum stite- 


The most noticeable point in these extracts is the large number 
of post-positions: anglu-to ; anglom-e{ii), asam-e(n), todcom-e{n), 
etc.; asam-a(d); asa-ku(m). In erse,porsei = id-i,pod-i an enclitic 
appears, vapersus v, Planta conjectures = lapidibus with I changing 
to u. erus occurs 23 times; meaning and derivation are uncertain. 
It may be connected (1) with ais- a root found in most of the 
Italic dialects, Umbr. esono- (esunu below) = di'i;mus, (2) with root 
of German ehre 'honour,' aes-tvnatio. Knveit\i = convehito. pelsans 
means sepeliendus (Biich.). The meaning of usaQe is very un- 
certain. vuv(;i possibly parallel to a Latin *vovicius. 


The references are to sections unless p. is prefixed. Where several 
references occur, they are separated by commas ; a point between two num- 
bers, as 337. 8, indicates that the second number is a sub-section. 

d- (neg.) 106 iii, 157 

ayafiai i80 g 

dye 517 

dyeipo/xev (subj.) 509 

hdyeu (dyeiu) 629 & 

ay^pajTos 378 

dytTw 519 

a7tos 402 

dyKibv 139 ii 

dyviis 347 

dyvuTos 378 

ayofiev 480 b 

dyds 261 

dypios 402 

dypov 386 

d7p6s 100, 147, 159 

dYX'Txrcos 166, 399 

dyx'^ 150 

dyij} 261 

dywyos p. 193 

dyijovoip 633 ii b 

dywvois (dat. pi.) 628 rt 

dydivcravs 640 i a 

d5e\0t5oi)s 380 

ddeXcpos 140 i b 

ddiKivTa 618 ii d 

aepcra 2.80 

Kiaxp^vSas 625 i c 

I. Greek Index. 

dddvaros 220 

' XdT)vai;e 118 a 

' AdrivaL 313 n. 1 

'Adrivriai 322 

ai 325 ii 

at' (if) 342 

Aiyivaiavs 640 i a 

al5Q 308 

atStis 295, 351 

aUi p. 34 n., 312, 337. 8 

atVyp. 34 n., 312, 337.8 

aWos 174 

aW(.} 261 

ctrXos 218 

atXwv (gen. pi.) 620 i d 

di(rau} 487 b 

A/crxi'Xos 268 

aiwv 172, 361 

dKepaeKd/iirii 184 

dKoiVats (nom. ptcp.) 624 

dKovaavrev (nom. pi.) 645 

'AKpdyavra 273 
dKTU 133, 360 
dKT(j)p 35.5 
a\7eti'6s 216 
0X7770- ere (subj.) 509 

dXdaivu} 485 

dXSo^ot 485 

dXe7eti'6s 216 

dXe7a; 234 

d\ei(pi>} 230 

oK-qdeia. 374 

dXdaivu] 485 

d\ 485 

dXXd 341 

aXXoSaTTos 286, 326 i 

dXXoj 187, 218 

aXoo-i^Sj/j? 194, 354 

dXs 142, 289 

dXcros 184 

dXciTTT/J 349 

dVa 106 iii, 156, 259 iv, 

314, 338. 11, 341 
dfiaXdvvu) 485 
dfjLaXds 230 

dfiapdv [ijnepicv) 629 ifl 
dfxdpTOLv 462 
dfj-^Ms 230 
d/M^poTos 206 
dMfi.Sw 140 i a, 2.30 
dixdxpeTaL (subj.) 509 
dMeX7w 137, 148, 230 
dn^v 645 ii b 
dfxfii 329 



a/€i 624 ie 

anfi'Os 330 

dfj-vosTp. 115 n. 2, 180 n.l, 

dfKpi 132, 337. 7, 341 
d/xcpiivvvfu 481 e 
d/jKfiis 323 
a/j.(f)op€vs 228 
dfKpu 297, 329 
dv 243 

a.- 559, 562, 566, 639 b 
aftt 307 
dud 337. 7, 341 
dvayyiWu 624 i e 
dvayeypd(f>ovTai 643 ii 
avaXros 485 
dfa^ 306 n. 1 
d^'ttt (TpiieircrtJ') 337. 5 « 
dvdaaeiv ("Apyei) 337. 4 « 
dvaredq. 559 
dvfidi'a; 481 c 
dvdpdTTodov 282 
dvdpeTos p. 340 n. 1 
d(j')5pta(;')Tai' 620 ii 6 
dvdpLKds 382 
dvBpoTtjs 369 n. 1 
di'8po(p6voi 282 
dvdpiliu 361 n. 1 
dvedeiK€ 625 i 6 
dvep.oi 169, 393 
dcei) 278 
dfei's 278 
dvexoiJ.a.1 445 
dvijvoQe 550 
ctfTjp 344 n. 1 
dz'Ti 133, 159, 337. 8, 341 
di/rXo;' 391 
dvTpoirov (dvOpuTTOv) 645 

d^'o):' (subst.) 186, 392 
dw 243 

dTraWoTpLcooii} 630 c 
diravcrav 640 i a 
dTra^ 259 iv 
diri-rrrvaa 552 iii 
dirXoos 156 
d7r6 341, 394 
diroOiSoavdi 625 ii 
dirofeiirdddo 645 i (Z 
dirodvricTKii) 544 

dwofjiopyuv/xi 238 

dirorivoLav 633 i « 

aTTi^ 618 i «>, 624 i jr 

dTTi'crrAXai'Tos 623 iry 

dpa^vXai 216 

dpapiaKU} 549 ii 

dpdcrcrw 230 

dp^v\ai 216 

dpyvcpeos 377 

dpyv<pos 377 

dpei^i'ffaz'os 285 

dpTjiKTdfiefos 285 

dprii(paT'^i 285 

dpT]i(pi\os 28-5 

dpr)pe 549 ii 

dptarepos 387 

dpiffTivfovra 643 i ?> 

dpiGTos 394 

apvos (gen.) 358 481 e 

dporrjp 355 

dpoTpov 388 

dpo'w 159 

dpwa^ 350 

dpprjv 205 

dparji/ 205, 375 

aprt 133 

dpr[''s 372 

apx'? 382 

dpx'^'os 382 

dpxofJ.a.(. 545 

dpxoi'Toiy 628 a 

dpxtJ 552 ii 

ds ( = ea;5) 650 

dcrp-evos 188 

dVcra 54 

dffTefjLtprjs 185 

dcrreojs (gen.) 371 

dcrrtKos 382 

dcrri; 372, 382 

drdp 341 

are 342 

dr^fi^ofiai 481 d 

drep 341 

dTjXTtv 369 n. 1 

drra 54 

ai.'/c(''o»'a (dX/cwi'a) 645 i/ 

ai'ld^'o; 177, 481 c 

ai'^to 481 c, 482 6 

aiJcros (dXcros) 645 i/ 

avToioip ( = ayroiv) 633 ii /^ 

ai^rotj (oj'Spdo'ti') 338. 1 b 

avToicri 624 i a 

avTO/xaros 259 v 

ayros (subst.) 277 

ouToj 325 ii 

aCo} 261 

d4>(vos 216 

d^^wKa 260 

d0{ (dfjL(pl) 120 

d^^etos 216 

d^iTTj 62 

dxOTjSiiiv 357 

dxXyw 487 C 

a> 341 

/Sd^os 359 

/3aiVwl8, 63, 140ia, 156, 

205, 207, 487 a, 545 
^dXXw 140 \h, 207 
)3aX<2y (fut.) 492 
^avd 140 i a, 193, 291 
j3dpa7xos 216 
jidijadpov 140 i ?> 
^dpliapos 131, 288 
^apvafj-ivoi 206 
^aaL\des 633 i a 
jSao-iXaos (gen.) 623 i c 
iSacrtXeoj 309 
jiaffiXevei. 552 ii 
^aaiKevs 306, 365 
^a(Ti.\evw 487 c 
/SafftX^ojs 227, 309, 365 
^acCKrji 313 
/3a<TtX^os 227, 309, 365 
/3d(Tts 357 
/SdcTKW 142, 483 a 
,3^(3r?Ka 494, 495 
/3^y3Xa0a 496 
/Se/SXijarat 472 
§i^\-r}Ka 495 
PejiovXeOa-dai 549 i 
^e^pidaffiv 549 i 
fiij3pu}Ka 495 
(SetXo/xat 140 i Z' 
^i\ifj.vou 400 
(SeWeirei. (3 s. subj.) 623 

^eWofxai 140 i 6 
^eXriuf 133 



^ivdos 359 

/3^ /3^ 121 

^L^pujffKeiv 63 

/3t/3pw(r/cw 488 b 

^ios 140 i c 

/3\cif 230 

^'\aL<T4>y}iieLv 9 

^Xrierai 511 

^de 315 

/3o7? 62 

/3d0pos 263 

^otdiTvs (dat. pi.) 625 i </ 

BoWopiai 140 i Z^ 

jSoXoyuat 140 i 6 

BopedSTjs 380 

^OdK-q 381 

/Soir/cw 381, 483 rt 

^ov^pucTTis 20 n. 1 

^ovXevecrdai 549 i 

^ovXevaaro (hath devised) 

552 iv 
^ovXi/j-ia 20 n. 1 
^ovUfjLai. 140 i b, 220 
/3o0s 18, 63, 140 i a, 181 

(6), p. 193, 281, 289 
Ppdyxos 216 
^paKca 624 i c 
ppacraw 206 
iSpe^w 206, 378 
/Spi'i'a 624 i c 
Ppido} 485 
/3poi/T^ 378 
^poTos 206 
/SpiT-w 206 
/SpwTi^s 372 
^uAofxai. 140 i 6 

7a\a 216, 295, 306 n. 1 
7^113.2, 328 i, 342 
yiyajj-ev 31, 32, 48, 259 v, 

yeyevrj/xivos 268 
yeyova 31, 32, 48, p. 192, 

259 V, 494 
yeyovafiev 48 
yey6veiv (inf.) 647 ii b 
yeyovivai. 526 
yeypa/xfiai 496 
yeypicparai 472, 496 
yiypa\j/ai 466 

YeYW^e 550 

^Aaiyui 51 

7Aais (2 sing.) 624 ii a 

7e\at(ro9 (gen.) 624 i /' 

y€V€-^ p. 194, 384 

yeveT}(ptv 338. 6 b 

yiveos 31, 142 

yeveais 28 

y4vr]TaL ( = cau be) 559 

yivr)Tai (interrog.) 560 

yevonv 620 i 

yivos 31, 137, 142, 163, 

p. 194, 251, 259 v, 288, 

7^;'i;j 161, 371 
yepaipu 487 c 
y^pavos 140 ii 
7epas 295, 351 
7epwj' 50, 351, 362 
yevu) 178, 259 iii 
yij 55 
yrjdiu 485 
yfipas 351 

ylyvoixai 137, 259 v, 494 
ycyvdneea 267, 480 d 
yiyvuiffKu 14, 137, 483 ^, 

549 i 
yivriTOi. 618 i / 
yivo/iiai 120 
7\a(CTO0d7OS 216 
7\ai;/c6$ p. 194 
7X01/^ p. 194 
7X^x1/5 196 
yv(JbrjS 511 
yuQdi 518 
7fcD£ris 357 
yviiwai. 511 
y6/j.(pos 132 

76;/os 163 n. 2, 251, 259 v 
76CI' 137, 371 
7oi'j'6s 220 
ypdpdrjp 185 
ypaixfj.aTiS5ovTos 625 i / 
ypawTos 185 

ypd(pais (ace. pi.) 624 i/ 
ypd(po/j.€v 480 6 
ypdipw 185, 496, 545 
7pd^wtcrt 624 i/ 
ypo<p€vs 479 
yp6(pos 479 637 i c 
7ui'oi/c€j 635 
7i;j'i7 140 i c 

5oi7p 355 

5at5dXXw 446 

5ai5y(r<re(7^at 178 

Sa/w 484 

Sd/cvw 481 b 

SdKpv 100, 134, 373 

SdKpvfja 373 

Safxrijii 511 

8aiJ.nbvdu (3 pi. iniperat.) 

625 ii 
Sd/j.vri/j.L 481 a 
Sdfios {8t}ijos) 121 
Sdyos 264 
Sdpo-ts 153, 287 
dapros 31 
Satri^s 157 
8aT€0/jai 484 
5ai;X6s 213 
SeSe^o/xa: (fut.) 555 
5^5r?x(x 496 
8e8oiKU} 643 ii 
8^SopKa 31, 32 
8e86crd€iv 623 ii n 
5e5i'K€t;' (inf.) 643 ii 
SeScjKa 446 
8ei8ia 650 
SeiKvv 517 
8eiKvviJ.aL 447 
SeiKw/xL 51, 105, 134, 

447, 453, 481 e 
8€lKvvcr0ai 526 
Set/cci^w 51, 453 
SeiXaKpiuv 360 n. 1 
5eiXo/uat 140 i & 
6 Se^j/a 237, 325 ii 
Seti'd's 248 
Set^a' (imper.) 522 
Sei^a' (inf-) 526, 528 
5ei|at^it 513 
8€i^€iav 513 
Self etas 513 
Sei'feie 513 
Serioi' 522 
5e/|a; 492, 503 
8€lx0eLs 624 i / 



5iKa 136, 161, 416 

d^Ka iwrd 418 

5eK6.^<j> 487 c 

SiKai 347, 419 

SeKareropes (acc.) 630 ii b 

d^Karos 435 

BeKTo 502 

SeWw 140 i h 

de\<paKlvri 399 

d^X^a^ 140 i b 

5eX^/s 360 

^eX^i'S 140 i b 

defias(^\ike) 283 

d^liiic 148 

depedpov 140 i 6 

depKeai 31 

SepKeaOe 31 

depKerai 31 

d^pKO/xai 31, 32 

5epw 31 

decTTTOLva 207 

bicnrbT-qs 188, 219, 248, 

dfvTepoi 428 
Sei'oi 624 i c 

S^xo/xat (with dat.) 337. 4 
drjXo/jiai 140 i?> 
57;Xoj'6Tt 56 
57?Xo0re 121, 122 
577X6W 172 
did 341 

6tdXo70s 281, 282 
SiairewoXefxriaeTai 546 n. 2 
diacpdeipecTKOP 483 a 
5t5d(r/ctj 188, 483 b 447 
dido/jiev 480 c 
StSoi'at 543 
8L5o(raL 466 
6i5ou 517 
atSw^t 518 
St'ScjM' 27, 52, 191 n. 1, 

264, 447, 480 c 
Ai/t 54 
Ai/"6s 54 

Sifwat 447, 480 c 
8iKa58fv (inf.) 645 16 
diKadoL 633 i ?; 
5kaios p. 340 u. 1 

diKaaTToXos 188 

diKelv 381 

SiKrjj/ 333. 7 

6i6joTos 118 

Aior'L'croe 625 i d 

5i6a5oTOi 116. 2 b, 118 a, 

284, 285 
AiocTKopidao 626 a 
AioffKovpoi. 284 
StTTous 408 

SlTTTl/t p. 194 

5tj 408 
olaKos 381 
di<ppos 259 vi 
5o/ecat 361, 526 n. 1 
dodal (Sod^) 633 i a 
5oi7ji> 512 

doKLUiO/ULl 51 

o6/H€(j' (inf.) 51, 647 iia 

56^61' 51, 312, 527 

56i-uvaL 209, 311, 526 

do/xos 148, 163, 294 

86^a 351, 384 

Sods (fcoos) 645 i 5 

80 pd 31 

8opKis 31 

56s 520 

86T€ipa 374 

ooTTjp 264, 355, 374 

Soros 264 

SoOXos (with acc.) 333. 6 a 

Sovvai 209, 311, 361, 526, 

Sovpos 220 
5oi^s 362 
SpdypLa 185 
8paT6s 31 
8paxp-ri 185 
5/)dw 487 a 
dpeirdvrj 299 
8piwavov 299 
8pofiei'S 479 
Spofios 479 
8p6(Tos 55 
5pOs 294 
Si'/cti'oi 526 n. 1 
Svva/ 481 n 
8vvd/j.aL (subj.) 510 H. 2, 

511, 645 ii c 

8llVU/jLaL 511 

oi'o 408 

oi'oSe/ca/erto 645 i 3 

8vafiev€is (as acc.) 318 

Svafievh 351 

Svcrfj.€vrjs Sol 

Svcrofiai (subj.) 559 

Svcrx^/J-os 138 

5i/w 134, 297, 326 i, 408 

^a)5e^-a 408, 417 

Suite ( = ^ioy subj.) 625 if 

8<I>pa { = 8Qpov) 299 (5) 

Swpedv 333. 7 c 

8Qipov 264 

Siorrip 355 

Swrivrj 360 

5(iTts 27, 264, 360 

8d)Twp 295, 355 

e 328 ii 

e (^) 629 i b 

?a 501 

^a (eti?) 633 i a 

edXwv 445 

iapLvos 398 

^a(T(7a 157, 363 

e/SdXr/j' 480 a, 500 

^;3aXo^ 479 

^^av 480 a 

ifSaaiXevcre 552 ii 

ffiSefjLalov 432 n. 2 

€^8ifir)K0VTa 432 u. 2 

e^8op.r)KovTa 422, 432 n. 2 

e^5o/xos 216, 432 

^^171/ 280, 479, 480 rt, 500, 

m-riTe 158 
i^Xd(jTf)Ka 446 
g^paxe 206 
eyeywve 550 
ifivero 259 v 
eyev6p.T)v 54.3 
eyevovdo 623 i a 
iyuyvbp/qv 543 
eyKaTOTTTpi^acrai (inf.) 640 

iyKuifuov 398 
?7i'w 552 i 
eyvihcrd-qs p. 368 D. 1 
iypa(j>ov 479 
iypa(pae 643 i a 



e7a> 113. 2, 161, 327, 328 

iywv 328 i 

iSii^a 462, 482 a, 502 

eBd^anev 464 

eSet^as 502 

iSei^e 502 

idriduis 1 62 

idijTui 372 

edida^a 503 

edidocro 474 

e5t5ow' 548 iii 

ediKacrcrav 640 ii a 

e566'77 474 

eSoiJT?;' 280, 474 

eSo^Tjs 474 

iSofxai. 492, 509, 511, 545 

eSos 55, 366 

i5ovKa€fx {=?5(i}Kav) 623 ie 

^SpaKo;; 31, 32, 151, 479 

iSpafLov 479 

?5pai' 480 a 

edvcreTo 503 

^5o}Ka 495 

^eS^/a 231 

eeiKocn 231 

e4\du}p 485 

eepcrij 231 

e/bs 330 

e>Mat 142 

efw 259 i 

idavoi' 141 i 6 

iddpo-qae 552 ii 

#^77/ca 135, 495 

el 325 viii, 342 

etSetiji' 513 

eideifiev 166 

et'SecT^at 526 n. 2 

eZSoi' 543 

fldora 534 

et'SoTos (gen.) 352, 534 

fldvla 534 

eidvWiov 390 

et'Stis 164, 353, 534 

etrifitv 512 

eiTjj' 512 

eiTjs 142 

etKocTi 315, 420 

e'lKOffTos 437 

elX-^Xovda 179, 477 

el\ri<j)a 185 

G. P. 

efX/v-oi' 212, 445 

ei'^ei;' (inf.) 51, 647 ii a 

eifiei' 184 

ei'M' 184 

elfju'iSOa, 544, 547 ii 

eiVi/^tt 481 e 

efo 328 iii 

eiTra 480 e 

dire 517 n. 1 

elirrj (interrog.) 560 

fi'TTTjs (interrog.) 560 

elwriffi. (=:fut.) 561 

elTTOfxriv 445 

eiTTov 480 e 

elpya^ofnjv 445 

eh 205, 219, 247, 248, 

624 i f 
els 219, 259 iv, 407 
el(n 480 a 
el<TK(j) 483 6 
etTij 325 vi 

eKade^6/J.r]u 445 
eKarou 104, 423 
^«6£ 325 V, 325 viii 
eKeTvos 325 v 
iKeXaa 184 
iKepffa 184 
e\-7;Xos 277 
eKladov 485 
^K-Xuoy 548 
eKfjL-qvos 188 

iKovcrav (exoy(rav)645 in,c 
eKopecra 481 e 
eKopeadris 504 
^Kpiva 503 
^KTafxev 494 
^KTrjfjLai. 446, 552 ii 
eKTTjcrdfj.r]!' 552 ii 
^KTova 494 
e\'Tos 188, 431 
fNTos 309, 3.54 
eKi'pos 201 
^\a/3oc 185 
eXd^ocrau 521 
IXaKov 483 a 
eXdcrcroi'o? (gen.) 352 
iXdaffu} (ace.) 352 
eXdcrcrcov 197 
^Xa</)os 377 

eXdx'CToy 343, 352 

eXaxi^s 141 ic, 197, 231* 

aSo^at 485 

?Xe7o;' 479 

e\eLcf>dr]v 448 

eXeVrw (eX^c^w) 629 i c 

i\evdepoi> 386 

eXevdepovs 645 ic 

eXeudepos 231 

eXevaofiai 179 

e\(?e 517 n. 1 

iXl-rr-qv 480 a 

?\i7roi' 479 

eXXd 390j 

eXiri^w 485 

eX7r/s 348 

eXvaa 142 

eXvaav 635 

£M^ 327, 328 ii 

gyuetfci 184, 205, 219 

e/ifro 328 iii 

^/xevva 205, 624 ie 

6/x^ 328 iii 

e>'w 169, 480 <; 

^IXIKTO 502 

^/i/if" 51, 623 iia 

e^uot 328 V 

e'lttos 330 

e^ioO 328 iii 

€/u,oCs 328 iii 

eV 149, 247, 337. 7, 341 

ev ( = 61$) 628 c 

ev 156, 407 

eVaros 415, 434 

evdexa 417 

^;/et;ua 184, 205, 219 

eve/xua 205, 624 i e 

ivevTjKovTa 422 

ivepoL 386 

evecpavicraoev 623 i e 

evrjvoxo- 496 

^i/^a 314 n. 1 

^^/^e;/ 314 n. 1 

evdov [eXduiv) 643 i c 

ivl 341 

ev'iKa 548 ii 

ev^'ea 415 

ei'i'^a 638 i 

'ivveire 139 ia 

'evvvixt. 481 e 




lvTa(j(Ti 638 ii a 
evrepov 387 
ivre'i 363 

ivT6% 309, 326 iii, 354 
ef 247, 323, 341, 412 
i^ei 518 
i^eiirw 559 a 
e^rjKovra 422 
e^ov (ace. absol.) 339 
€^03 546 n. 2 
eo 328 iii 
^op 355 
eoPs 328 iii 
iwaivrjcrai 624 ia 
iireidov 548 iii 
ewe/xxpa 502 
eirev7}vode 550 
eTreo 163, 474, 520 
iTreTnd/j.ev 259 ii 
£7re7roi^ei(j') 506 
iweiroidi] 506 
iweirold-q's 506 
fV^s 618 ii e 
iniairevae 645 i c 
?7re(r<n 142, 322 
eirecpvov 480 e 

CTT^^OXOS 220 

eTT-Qveaa 552 iii 
eTri 337. 7, 341 
eiri^iWovcn (dat. pi. ) 

645 ic 
ewt^aXKovTai's 645 iia 
eTri(35a 259 i 
e7rt/35at 199 
e7ri/"o(9o;' 629 i (7 
iwidrfv (inf.) 640 iic 
^ttlOov 253 
eTTLKovpos 482 6 
eTTi/jLeXecrdov 624 ii c 
iwlaKOTvos 9 
€TriffT(i)fj.aL 511 
fTTolrja 633 i d 
(TTo/xaL 139 
eiroii 520 
fTTTd 130, 413 
^P7ot 618 ii e 
t'pe/Soj 193 
fpefxvos 193 
eper/jLos 393 
epevyo/xai 231 

e>e0w 231, 239 

6'pts 348 

ipL<pos 377 

ippeov 204 

eppTjyeTa 353 n. 2 

Ippiya 549 i 

^pa-ev 624 ie 

ep(r7; 55 

?p(T?7i' 375 

ipvdpov (ace.) 386 

fpi'^pos 135, 147, 231 

ipvKaKov 480/ 

ipXOixaLL 545 

es 248, 520 

^(T/St?;/ 480 rt. 

eao^Wovres 618 ic 

eadoTTJpes 618 i rt 

eadld) 485, 545 

e'd^w 485 

ecTKe 483 a 

ecTKebaadrjs 504 

icfxev 184 

'iaireipa 184 

'iaireiaa 188 188, 446 

eairero 480 t' 

eaaiadetv 623 i (Z 

^crcrt (3 pi.) 624 ii (Z 

eaTal-r\v 513 

earafxev 446 

eo-re 184 

?(7Tei\a 184 

^trreWa 624 i e 

earrjKa 494, 495, 549 ii 

earrj^cj 492 

^aTTjaa 502, 515 

^(7Tt 28, 142, 161, 480 a 

^(tt: (3 pi.) 624 iirf 

earopeaa 481 ^ 

^(TTO; 519 

iax^Sov 485 
^o-xoi' 98, p. Ill n. 2 
^racpov 185 
ireKov 4S0 fZ 
ereKeaaa 482 ii 
ere'otr ( = Irecri) 628 a 
treTaxaro 472 
fV: 133, 244, 342 
eW^ft 480 c 
irifiridrjv 448 

eTl/x.7)<Ta 502 

?roy 55 n. 2, p. Ill n. 1 

eT6s 260, 264 n. 1 

eTpdinjv 500 

irpexpa 502 

€i)7e;''^s 295 

eifeXTTtj' 348 n. 1 

evfprjTdaaTv 621 i a 

e^^ei^' (e\6'ei;') 645 i/ 

evdvva 361 n. 1 

evX-qpa 231 

ev/xeves 292 

Ei^yaevT;? 292 

euvis 397 

eCvoi; 269 

ei'o/xer' 480 Z) 

evwcLTopa 258 

evTrdrup 258 

ei/p^ 517 n. 1 

ei'piaKio 483 a 

ei'pyoTTa p. 193, 293 n. 1 

ei'pvs 231 

evaa^eoi 633 ia 

eiKppoua 258, 259 v 

exicppwv 258 

ei'co 178 

e(;6d:'7;;/ 280, 448 

i(pepe 462 

«'0ep€-i' 241 

ecpeptTe 464 

ecpepbtxeda 98, 470 

e<pepo/jLev 464 

e0epo/x£? 464 

ecpepov 325 viii, 462 

'i<pepov (3 pi.) 464 

^^771/ 462, 479, 500 

l^77(7-^a 477 

^(pdapKa 494 

^(;fr^opa 494 

^X^-Sov 481 d 

Ixei'a 138, 624 i c 

exSo.lpw 487 c 

eX^*^? 233 

^XO'tri 625 i f 

^Xolf)^-! 620 i 

exovTws vovv 278 

^Xoi'ca 220 

fXoi'C' (dat. pi.) 220 

e'xoi'o-t (3 pi. pres. ) 220 

e'X'.'p. Ill n. 2, 480 d 



fX'<'(i')(rt 620 i 
^u) 493 
iwdovv 445 
ewvovfiriv 445 
fws ('until') 342 

fdpyov 633 i a 
/"etSew 493 
feioofxai. 259 ii 
/eifws 633 i ii 
feiKari 315 
/e/ca 314 
/tSeij' 259 ii 
/(57?Te 510 n. 3 
/IdviaL 352 
fidwixev 510 n. 3 
/iV-art 420 
fiaroi 103 iii 
/olSa 259 ii 
/okwi/ (gen. pi.) 319 
foTi 629 i d 
fparpa 633 i a 
fvKias (olKias) 625 i d 

^ajiov 633 i & 

i'Ss 620 i 

i'e'K-a 633 i h 

'^ipedpov 618 i c 

i'ecrcra 187 

ZeO 271 

i'e^iyvvfii. 52 

Zeiys 54, 116. 6, 118, 

181 (5), 197, 271, 289 
ZeCs 624 i a 
iew 144 

Z^:/ (ace.) 54, 289 
Z?jya 54 
ZTjj/ej 54 
Zrjvi 54 
Zrjvos 54 
]"t(cata 633 i & 
'^ovyuivep 637 i rf 
^u7d. 317 

303, 306, 376 
^vfit) 144 
^ufvvfj.i 481 e 

t; 325 i 

T7 (adv.) 342 

77a 181 (2), 209, 445, 501 

T^^OvKoflTjV 445 

Tj-yeofiai 142 

•^701' 209 

rj8ea 478, 482 a, 502, 504, 

T]8(i. 313 
Tjoel 313 
r;oera 367, 374 
ijdeiiaeu 506 n. 2 
r^SeFs 317 

rideos 309, 365, 371 
yS-q 502, 550 
:75o;'-7 397 
i]5w 308 
■fjdvvdfiTji' 445 
^Si^s 142, 160, 306, 365, 

ijdeXov 445 
Tjt (del) 625 i e 
rjideos 21, 135 
■^Ka 495 
:7/ce 548 ii 
■iJKu 547 
^\6'o;' 216 
ffkvdov 216 
77Mct 142, 162, 260 
rifids 329 
rj/jLedifivov 228 
•^/uers 329 
ij/xeWov 445 
rjfxepivos 206 
T^Mfpos 277 
Tj/j-erepos 330, 387 
17^4!' 329 
i}fj.L(X€as 122 
Tjfxcpiecra 481 e 
r]fi(pU(Xfiai. 481 e 
T7/HUJ1' 329 
^i-eY/ca 480/^; 495 n. 2, 

7]v eixo/iirjv 445 
^j/ia (n. pi.) 299 
7;;'ta (fem. sing.) 299 
■fjviTraTTOv 480/ 
^os 342, 650 
TjoOs 334. 7 
TjTrap 139 ia. 207 n, 1, 

295, 354 

ijiraTos 139 i a, 354 

ijweipos 55 

' Hpa\'\ei5aios 626 « 

r]pyai^'6fj.7jv 445 

^p^a 548 ii, 552 ii 

rjpira^a 503 

ijpTracra 503 

^PX^ 548 ii 

770-^0 477 

^trdiio;/ 121, 209, 212 

T/Vi'xos 277 

"H(Txoi''Xos 625 ic 

rjTTus/jLai 547 

•?7X<^ 405 

Tjcis 351 

6d/x^t>} 185 

dapaei 552 ii 

(^f5 311 

<?ear<n 322 

^edc 308 

eedo)v 18, 319 

Get/Sfios 625 ie 

delixev 258 n. 1 

deivw 141 ii, 487 « 

Oeio/J-ev 650 

ee/xedXov 391 

deixetv 51 

defxev 51 

<?e/its 370 

Oeoi'oTos 118 a 

6'eors (ace.) 624 i/ 

^eos (ace. pi.) 248 

deocrdoTos 118 a, 285 

^eoi's 248 

deocpiv 338. 2 

depdiraiva 362, 374 

dipairrjlri 299 

depdTTOJv 362 

(?6p^65 141 i 6, 148, 393 

tfes 520 

^fo-is 133 

e^rts 287 

(?fr6s 260, 264 n. 1 

eevK\7Js 648 

6'ewi' (gen. pi.) 319 

Q-q^ayevTjs 313 n. 1 ' 

e^/3at 313 n. 1 

i)T]j3aiyev7]i 313 

077/^77 313 n. 1 




drjydvT] 481c 

O-qyavov 481 C 

drjydvu} 481 C 

6riyu} 481c 

^Tjg 511 

e-fiKT) 382 

^TjXus 162, 373 

drjpiov 268 

0^s 347, 375 

driai 187 

diyydvo} 481 c 

t^tos (^eos) 625 ic 

dv-QOKU) 483 a, 544 

dpl^ 346 

Opovos 397 

dvydrrjp 355 

6v/jio^6pov 292 

6ii'/xo/36pos 282, 284, 292 

^i'M<ij 282, 393 

^w^w 481/ 

^i^cw 481/ 

^I'/os 117 

^I'pa 135 

dvpacn 322 

ea;Ai6s 191 n. 1, 260 

dupana 308 

0upaK€S 317 

QihpaKi 311 

dibpa^ 306 

^wpolt 322 

iapos 386 

rao-t 157 n. 2, 461 

idxTa ( = ofiTTj) 645 i a 

lU ('see') 517 

i5pts 367 

tSptis 142 

iSwa 116. 6, 352 

idbi/xai (fut.) 561 

let 517 

ieixev 446, 480 c 

iepafxvdfiovcn 618 i 6 

iep77S 618 ii 6 

iepos 386 11. 4 

Vfo/xe;/ 480 d 

i'^w 143, 199, 259 i 

irmi 142, 162, 480 c 

L0ap6s 261 

r^i 518 

'IdfjiOVLKo. 640 i 6 

Uar^pav 620 i «, ii 6 

il-dj'w 481 e, 481/ 

'iKeTfvcra 445 

t/c/v'os 20 

iKvio/iai 481/ 

(V'Tts 233 

l'\r)0t 518 

'IXtoo 200 

t/xff 480 rt 

Ii/ 308, 325 iii 

Iv 618 i d 

■iva 314, 325 iv, 326 v, 

338. 10, 342 
io/j.ei' (subj.) 509, 559 Z> 
io{c)trt 620 i 
I'TTTre 31, 32 
IwTrevs 365 
iTTTTOi:' 316 

I'ttttois 116. 6 

tTTTroicrt 321 

'iTnroi.(nv 241 

IVttos 20, 31, 32, 136, 

'nnroTa 293 

i'TTTTOl'S 220 

iTTTrwj' 209 

Lirirwv 361 n. 1 

I'pTjt' 165 

ip6s 386 

Ipoy 624 i a 

h 289, 306 

iV^t ('know') 518 

tadu ('be') '2.33, 518 

'ladfiol 313 

i'cros 638 i 

iffTap-aL 447, 480 c, 549 ii 

'i(TTa/j.€v 446, 480 c 

LCTTa/M 262 

iordvai 526 

io-TajTi (3 pi. pres.) 461 

LCTTaffdai 526 

'icTTaCTL 461 

'icTarai (subj.) 510 n. 2 
'iffTari (3 sing. ) 480 c 

I'CTTTJ 517 

l'(TTr)^i 447, 549 ii 
'i(TT-qaL 480 c 
iVt6s 192 
iaxo-vdu} 481 / 

iffXfii'w 481 / 
Iffx^pb^ 386 
i'<7Xw 480 d, 481 / 
iVea 166, 171 
iVi/s 372 
iTw 519 
t06ii/xos 113. 2 
r^i 338. 10 
Ixdv 307 
tx6'ur 311 
IxOvi 233 
t'X^yo-i 322 

Kd 639 h 
Kd^jiaKe 243 
Kade^opLai 445 
/cat 326 i, 342 
KaKovpyos 286 
KaXe? (3 sing, fut.) 478 
KaXei/jLCvos 628 Z) 
KaXelv 140 
KdXrjfM 624 ii a 
KaXiov (ptcp.) 645 i(7 
/caXos 218 
/caXi^TTTw 152 
AcaXcD (fut.) 492 
KoXuis 278 
/caXws (adv.) 635 
Kdixvw 481 Z> 

KCLfJiTTllXoS 268 

/coTT 243 
K-dTTt 245 


Kdpa 351 
Kapdia 100, 134 
KapdiaKos 382 
Kdpfos 106 iv, 351 
Kapiros 131} li 
/car 243 
Kara 341 
*cdra 245 

Karadhi (ptcp.) 645 i c 
K-ard(rxoi (interrog.) 564 
KaTa<i>€vyeiv 544 
KaTe(ia\ov 445 
KaTejBrjcreTo 503 
KaTQl3\€\p p. 193 
/ceiMC" 239, 447 
KeKXacTTat 482 6 
/cf/cX^YovTes 624 ii & 



K€K\o<pa 496 
KSKXvdi 480 e, 518 

KiK/MTlKa 495 

K€KTr) 446, 549 i, 552 ii 

Ke\aive(p7)i 228 

K^Xevda 299 

KiXfvdoi 299 

K^^ 559, 562 

A-eveos 403 

^cevos 403 

Kepdvvvfj.1 480 <?, 481 a 

Kepas 351 

Kfpdu 481 a 

K^crros 188 

Kevddvw 481 c 

Kevd/j.J)!' 359 

Keu^w 191, 481 c 

Kei^aXXd;'e(rcrt 628 a 

Krj [Kai) 625 i c 

Krip€ccn(pbp-qTOS 284 

KTjpV^ 383 

KTJpVffCTii} 487 c 

K-qcp-qv 358 

/ci7xd;'a) 481 e 

Ki8d(pT] 377 

Kifievas 625 i e 

KLpv7]fj.i 481 a 

k:s 139, 623 1/ 

Kix^''^ 481 e 

/ctxf'w (subj.) 559 

Kw 488 

/cXdci) 482 /^ 

/cXeTTTTjs 103 ii 

/cXS^/Jc 196, 389 

«X7jis 189 

KX77W 189, 208 

kXIvcj 136, 487 c 

KXij-is 370 

kXottos 346 

/cXO^t 518 

a:Xi;t6s 133, 146, 167, 378, 

xXtii/' 346 

zoo- (Ionic = 7ro-) 655 
Ko^pavos 625 i d 
Koiij 180 
KoTKos 212 
ycoti/os 205, 207 
K6\a(pos 377 
Ko\uv6s 139 ii 

KovlaaaXos 201 

Kovi(i) 487 c 

KopaKivos 399 

KopivvvfiL 481 e 

K6p7; 62 

/f6/)o-77 188, 351, 403 

KbpvBos 380 

Kopm<j(j} 487 c 

Kopv(prj 377 

KOTepos 139 

Kovpos 220 

Kpaivio 487 c 

Kpdcnredov 351 

KparCj 547 

/cp^as 351 

Kpeiacwv 219 

KpeiTTbvu^ 278 

Kpf/xafxai 480 <; 

Kpe/J.dvvv/j.L 481 <' 

Kpefxara (xpT7,aaTa) 645 i (/ 

Kpevvijxiv 623 i <; 

Kprjfj.vr) 517 

)fpi(^^ 158 n. 3 

Kpifia 359 

Kplvvoj 624 i e 

KptVw 389, 481 &, 487 c 

Kplvwvffi 618 i 6 

Kpo^'iwi' 360 

Kpoj'os 397, 487 c 

Kp6Ta<poi 377 

KTao/j-ai 549 i, 552 ii 

/cretj/oj 193, 207, 494 

KTLdfT] 233 

ktI'^u} 113. 2 
ktLXos 113. 2 
K-u^w 488 
KVKXiu 487 c 
/iiyve 315 
Ki;c6s 254 
KuvwTra p. 193 
Kvppov 623 i j; 
/cuo-eos 191, 192 
K-i^w;' 136, 254, 306 

Xa^^ 517 n. 1 
Xd^ecTKov 483 a 
Xd^ov (imperat.) 643 i(Z 
Xa76j (ace. pi.) 248 
Xa^x'^*''"' 481 c 

Xaios 174, 403 

Xa/uL^dvu) 481 c 

Xavddvu} 481 C 

Xdpu74 350 

Xdcr/cw 483 a 

Xe'atva 50, 362 

Xe/37?s 347 

X^7e 302 

XfYei;/ (with 2 acc.) 333. 

Xeyefievai 28, 359, 400 
Xe7eo 325 n. 1 
Xiye(xeai 280, 312, 526 
Xe70( (fut.) 565 
Xeybfievot 28, 359, 400 
XeydvTco 18 
XeiTreadai 526 
XeiVcu 122, 139 i a 
XeLcpdijvai 526 
XeicpdrjaopLai. 448 

Xd<pd7)TL 518 

X^/cTO 188 
X^KTpof 388 
XeXeifjLfx.eOov 468 n. 2 
XeXei^perai 555 
XeXv/x^vos 269 
XeXvraL 298 
Xf^aifxi (iiiterrog.) 564 


XevKaivw 487 C 
Xei'Kos 146 
Xevacrui 487 a 
Xfw^ 50, 362 
X-qBdvw 481 C 
X^f^w 481c 
Xr]<pdrj( 492 
Xt7i'i5s 373 

XiKpi(pis 323, 338. 10 
XiTTtt 230 
XtTrapfcj 104 197 
Xt<T(r6s 232 
XtTT^ 197 
X£t6s 232 
X67e 281, 302 
X670S 281, 288, 375 
X6e 180 
Xovixai 542 
Xoxa76s p. 193, 261 
XK^et's 362, 533 



\v9evT- 227 
\vKd(iavTOS 334. 7 
Xi'Kos 139 i c 
Xi'TTtt (XoiTrd) 025 id 
Avaauiae 625 ic 
X('/cras 533 
Xt^fTticr^at 526 
Xi'o-eo-^ai 526 
\v(TUv 533 
Xiyrpoj' 390 

/xa 623 ii (Z 

fiddys 559 

fj.adT]TLdu 489 

ixaiverai. 26, 157 

ixalvotxai. 259 v, 494 

fiaiTvpaus ( 

fiaXaKioov 360 

;UaXa\'6s 230 

/xaXdaKos 485 

>IaXo/evTa (ace.) 273 n. 1 

IxdvTLs 25, 28 

fid pv a nai 206, 447, 481 a, 

n. 1 
/xaaTLyiiicv 630 ii c 
/iacTT^'w 487 c 
fiarevcj 158 
/jidrrip 148, 355 
/te 328 ii 
ja^7as 158 n. 3 
yae^i'w 487 c 
yue/j'oros (gen.) 352 
ixei^uiv 219 
M/(e(t'os643 i6 
Merpat 349, 383 
juft's 162 n. 1 
/xeire 625 i h 
IJ.€\Tn,epa ( = sing.) 299 

fiep-afxev 26, 31, 494 
/xefxaTOj 519 
fiefjLfqfjLai 549 i 
fxeixv-qaofxai 546 n. 2 
^lip.ova 26, 31, 259 v, 494 
pLivo<i 259 V, 292, 351, 403 
ixivai (dat. pi.) 645 ic 
yueVoj (with ace.) 883. 5 6 
/Lc^j/w 480 rf 
fxeaT]p.ppii'6s 206 
/t^o-os 197 

fxiairoSi. 623 ii f? 

/xiaaos 135, 172, 197 

//6Td 314, 337. 7, 338. 10, 
338. 11 rt, 341 

fji€TaX\d(jj 158 

/xeraft^ 322 

fiiraacrai. 363 

yUTj 342, 556, 559, 562 

fXTjy 162 

fj.-qviw 487 f 

IxTJvvos (gen.) 162 

fx-qaoixai (inteiTOg.) 560 

fjLrjffUfiai. (interrog.) 560 

H-qrvp 104, 106 ii, 160, 

fiririera 293 n. 1 

ixia 156, 407 

Ij-iypvpLL 105, 483 a 

Mu-p6s 202, 237 

fj.Lfj.vri(TK(i} 483 Z), 549 i 

fxipLvti) 480 (Z 

/xiV 325 iii 

/xcvvdu 485 

fxicryu 483 a 

jxiaOos 143 

fivdouai p. 115 n. 2, 193 

Mi'acri-yei'f(os 626 a 

fjLvrjfxocnii'os 198 

/xoyocTTOKos 284 

/xot 327, 328 V 

fj-oicra {fiovja) 624 i / 
1 ytioXot (interrog.) 564 
' /xopyvvfxi 238 

/Mop/jivpu) 446 

/xovcra 220 

lUoxo? 620 i Z^ 

ytil'OS 142 

fxvpioL 425 
mCs 168, 289 
^cDtra 220 

vatu) 158 

^aOs 181 (4), p. 194, 289 
v^a 291, 376 
veavias 306 
fet^et 141 i b 
ve/xos 259 iv 

vifxo} 161, 164, 259 iv, 
I vefifXTjKa 494 

veoii'f p. 194 
v€ oil ii 
phv 291, 376 
^/eos 149, 291, 376 
ve6rT]s 241, 369 n. 1 
v^TToSes 347 
vei/pT; 299 
vevpov 299 
z/e^e'X?; 390 
ve(pp6% 141 i rt 
:'e'w (' spin ') 149 
veCiv 227 

vria (ace.) 289 n. S 
VTTjrvTios 158 
I'^CTOS 55 
^'^crcra 158 
viKeovTOLs 628 a 
j'tKuJ 547 
j/tV 325 iii 
viaao/xai 188 
:'t0a 141 i a 
vofj.€vijj 487 c 
I'OjUos 259 iv 
vovvexfto, 278 
I'oOi' ^xety 278 
j'owexTJs 278 
^'oi'fexo'^'^s 278 
vv 167, 342 
i';;k-t6s 139 ic, 334.7 
vvfj-cpa. (voc.) 307 
vvv 342 
j'Oi' 342 

;'i;raTat 645 ii c 
ni 347 
j'vos 104 

vi;07; (vv/x<pr]) 120 
i-ci 329 
^-wt 329 
k2(1' 329 
ytalrepos 330 
fw;' 329 

AavOdj 405 
^e^'/bs 403 
feivos 219 
^€vvo% 624 i c 
^evos 170, 219, 403 
ft0os 192, 193 
tiV 341 



6 629 i 6 

6 325 i, 326 i 

•'Oa^os 232 

d/Se\6j 140 i b 

6/3oX6s 140 i /; 

oydoTiKoura i'22 

oydoos 433 

oyduiKovTa 422 

07/cos 139 ii, 163 

6yiiLos p. 193, 261 

d5d? 322 

55e 325 ii 

dSeXos 140 i b 

65/j.-n 393 n. 2 

656s 251 

65oi5y 134, 306 n. 1, 362 

odovcri 322 

odwTjpds 386 

'OSi/crcrei/y 37 

oSwSiicTTai 549 i 

6^os 143 

oi 325 ii 

ol (dat.) 328 v 

or (adv.) 342 

oWa 106 i, 477, 494, 502, 

506, 543, 549 i, 550 
olde 176, 477 
di8ev (with gen.) 334. 4 
oI5' oTi 56 
otes 317 11. 2 
oke 307 

olVet 34 n., 209, 309, 313 
okeZos p. 340 n. 1, 399 n. 3 
oUia p. 340 D. 1 
oiKlav 618 ii c 
oiKiffKos 483 « 
oiVot 34, 209, 309, 313, 

oiKOis 176, 181 (3), 227, 

oHkolctl 305, 321 
oIkov 303, 308 
okos 142, 294, 306, 343, 

oiKovi 205 
oiKw 181 (3), 311 
Sii' 308 

0LV7] 407 

oTs^os ('ace') 149,176, 396, 

olos 122, 407 

ois 172, 306, 366 

olae 503 

oiada 477 

o'iaovTi 638 i 

ohriov (with acc.) 333. 

ot(rw 503 
o'ixofiai 547 
oKpts 370, 414 
o/crci 103 ii, 106 i, 163, 

OKTLO 638 i 
bXedpos 389 
oXeVw 495 
oXiyos 117, 232 
0X1705 624 i a 
6\i(Tddvio 232, 238 
oWvpu 187, 495 
SXcoXa 495, 549 i 
oXtjXe/ca 495 
6/xaX6s 370, 390 
ofiixe^ 138, 232 
ofx-ix^V 141 ii 
6/U;ua 139 ifl 

6/xo\oyioPTi (aubj.) 645 i(7 
6/iwpyvv/Mi 238, 481 e 
oMos 156, 259 iv 
o/jLorris 169 

O/JLWS 341 

6v (dj'd) 624 i g 

Svo/xa 359 

ovo/xaivu} 487 c 

oi'o/id/cXuro? 284 

6vbfj.a.Ta 157, 359, 361 

ovo/xaTos 309, 359 

6vv/j.a 624 i r; 

OTTopaL ( = oTTocrat) 6.54 

oTTOTTa (oTTocra) 625 i ^ 

btroTToi. ( = oTTocrot) 645 i a 

6TrvU[e)dai 645 i d 

OTTuiira 263 

owJjprjs 334. 7 

opdw 543 

opyvia 309 

6p7was 309 

opiyvviu 481 e 

opeyo} 147 

opeKTos 378 

opivu 487 c 

op/xw/jLedov 468 n. 2 

6pvi)0t 518 

bpuvfii. 481 e, 549 ii 

6/)os 220 

6po4>r) 239 

6po(po^ 239 

hbp^ov 629 id 

opiyo-o-w 232, 238 

6/)wpe 549 ii 

oTpvvcj 487 c 

OS 325 iv 

ocjUTj 393 n. 2 

oo-o-e p. 192, 197, 366 

ocTTts 325 vi 

6're 342 

ort^t 326 iv, 329 iv 

o5 (gen.) 328 iii 

ov (adv. ) 342 

ov 342, 556, 557. 2, 562 

ovdap 135, 153, 354 

ovKL 325 v 

oi'Xos 154 

ovvofxa 220 

oi'paviuves 360 

oys ( = il)s) 623 i 6 

ovaa 374 

oi'Tos 325 ii 

64>ei\ij 239 

6<?ieXos 232, 239 

oippvos 371 

6<f)pvs 371 

6xos 138, 171 

o^elovres 489 

oi/'ts 263 

6\l/o/ 263 

Trd^et 83 
Trd^os 359 
irddw 560 
Traduiv 252 
Tat5a7£J76s 293 
TratSes 635 
iraiSiVKTj 381, 483 a 
TratStDi'. 635 
TratTrdXXw 446 
Traicra (Tracra) 624 i/ 
TTdXro 188 
TraXros 152, 259 vii 
7raj'oOp7os 286 
irdvcra 218 



■7rd{v)Ta 620 i c 

TravTodaTr6s 286 

irdvTovv (gen. pi.) 623 i b 

7ravTu>v 635 

Trapd 247, 314, 337.7, 

irapa^aivwpiu (siibj.) 654 
irapa^\(J)\l/ p. 193 
irapayLviiuvdri (3 pi. subj.) 

625 ii 
irapal 247, 341 
Trdpos 247, 341 
irdaa 218 
Trardpa (Trarepa) 629 i a 

irareS (iraTTjp) 645 i e 

Trarelp 625 i b 

iraTeofxai 484 

7rdTe/3 98, 307 

iraripa 48, p. 192, 253, 

258, 259 vi, 308 
Traripe 315 
Trarepes 32, 317 
iraripL 311 
iraripOLV 316 
irarepos 48 
Trar^p 48, 92, 98, 104, 

130, 162, 169, p. 192, 

p. 193, 258, 267, 295, 

306, 355 
narpdai 32, 253, 259 vi, 

iraTpi 48 
TrdrpLos 402 
irarpos 48, 253, 259 vi, 

Trarpuiv 32 
Travo/j-ai 542 
TraCpos 130, 177 
Trav(Tolp.7]v 514 
7rai''(Tot/xi 514 
Trai'io; 542 
Traxi'Xos 268, 390 
TreSd 48, 259 i, 314, 338. 

Tredioio {dUirpyjcraov) 334. 

irefos 48 
ir€i6o/j.iv 480 6 
Tret^o; 175,252, 253, 259 ii, 

405, 494 

weipdu) 487 C 
TTucr/jLa 188 
ireicrofxaL 252 
7re/frco 192, 484 
TreXdw 481 a 
TrAXa 146 
Tre\fj.a 146 


■mvdepbs 102 

TT^z'fi'os 83, 359 

TTiVTaKOffiocrThi 437 

Trezrds 347 

TT^/zre 139 i ?y, 150, 411 

ireuTrjKOVTa 421 

TreTraXrat 446 

TreiravKevaL 526 

TreTretKa 494 

irewuffde 471 

TreTridpi.ev 494 

Treiroida 176, 253, 259 ii, 

ireTToido/j.ei' 509 
veTrofMcpa 496 
weirovda 253 
ireirovdus 643 ii 
weTrpfa^evKuv 624 ii & 
Treirpwrai 154 
TTf'pa 341 
Trepav 341 
wepSc^ 383 
weprjaia (subj.) 559 & 
Trepi 247, 337. 7, 341 
TrepiSdifxedov 468 n. 2 
TrepiK\vTos 239 
wepnr\6/jieP0S 139 
Tripv7]fj.i 447, 481 a 
Treppara 361, 624 i e 
irepvcri 337. 8 
Treaavpes 139 
ireTdvuv/xi 480 e, 481 a 
■KiTOfj-ai. 480 rf 
irerrapa 625 i 17 
TT^TTapes 139 
irevdo/xai 179, 259 iii, 

481 f 
irevdib 405 
Tr€(pdvdai 526 
Tri(pevya 179 
ire<pvKa 495 
TretpvrevKTJfiep 638 ii 6 

TT^ 338. 8 
vrp/vv/jLi 185 

WTjKrds 185 
tttjXlkos 370 
wrixeos 371 
WTjxews 371 

TTTJXl'S 371 

■jriaivu: 487 c 

TTideadai 165 

TTi^civ 252 

TTLKpalvui 487 c 

TriXvafxai 481 a 

trCKvdij} 481 & 

TTtXoj 390 

Trifiirpr) oil 

ttIvo} 545 

TTto/iat 492, 509, 511, 545 

TTiTTrw 192, 480 (Z, 481 a 

TTLffTlS 133 

TTLffTos 259 ii 
wicrvpes 139 
TTtr^'^co 481 a, 488 
wiTi'r]p.i 481 a 
Triri/w 481 rt, 4S1 /;, 488 
TTtw;' 361 

TrXa^yoj'Ta 633 i fl 
wXeiovep (acc.) 633 ii a 
nXfiovs (acc. pi.) 352 
wXeov (TrXeloi') 122 
wX^wv (part.) 50 
7rX^(?os 55, 366 
irXriff p.ov7) 400 

TTCO^ 62 

7r65a 42, 156, p. 194, 258, 

259 i 
TTooaTTos 139 ifl, 326 i 
TToSes 317 
7ro5i 165, 209, 311 


7ro565 309 
TToe?;' (TTOiei'i') 122 
iroivTw 618 ii d 
Trorjaffaai{Troi.ri<Ta<Tdai) 633 

TToyaiocTLv (interrog.) 560 
TTo^ej' 325 vi, 326 iii 
TTor 325 vi, 337. 8 
TTOiev/xeuos 648 
TTOifiaivu) 487 c 

TTOL^Jiiv 307 



TToi/xeva 308 
TTOLfiives 209, 317 
iroLixevL 311 
TTOLfxevos 309 
TTOLuecri 322, 36-i 
TTOipLrjv 359 

TTOCV Tj 139 

TToios 326 ii n. 1 
Troicpvcrffti} 4-46 

TTOlui 211 

Troi,di5r]s 348 

TToXei 311, 313 

TToXeis 211 

■jroXe/xiu} 487 C 

TToXe/iow 487 c 

TToXeos 309 

TToXetrt 322 

TToXewj (gen.) 267, 309, 

noXtji 313 
7r6X77os 365 
TToXt 307 
TToXios (gen.) 365 
TloXiov^evos 625 i « 
irdXis 365 
TToXicrt 322 
7ro\iTT]s 293 

TToXtTOl; 293 

TToXXot 154 

TToXoS 139 

Tro\uppr]ves 358 

TTOpKOS 147 

Trop(p6pu} 487 & 

TTos 618 iie 

TTocrt 187 

TTOffts 133, 163, p. 192, 

TToaai 322 
iroTepov 387 
TTorepoj 139 
TTOTViay 308 
TToO 325 vi 

TToiys 100, 104, 258, 289 
TTOii 245 
TTpaKTeos 403 
T pa^lofxev (fut.) 645 i f/ 
irpdaov 153 
irpaaaovTaaffi 638 ii a 
:rparos427, 637 id 

vpiirovaa 188 

trpeo'^vs 143 

■jrp€(r^vTepos 9 

TTpiayvs 143 

Trprjdts} 485 

npiaMi5i?s 380 

Trpo 341 

vpo^acTLS 299 

Trpoypa<p7JvTL 639 a 

TTpo/jLvrjaTivos 399 

Trpofxos 282, 394 

Trpo's 197 n. 1,246, 337.7, 

TTpoade 314 n. 1 
irpoTavLS 624 i ,^ 
7rpoH197n. 1,246,337.7 
Trporideicn 624 i/ 
TrpoTLdrjvTi 639 a 

TTpUTOS 427 

wTdpfviMai 481 e 
TrreXea 192 
Trripv^ 350 
TTTtVffw 188, 487 c 
n-ToXei 313 
7rT6Xe//os 197 

TTToXtS 197 

TTTwl 624 i rt 
TTvdecrdai 165 n. 2 

TTl^d^W 168 

TTiiXas (0uX^s) 645 i fZ 
niiXoi7ey^s 313 
TTv/jiaTos 394 

7rw^dj'o/xatl02,179,481 c 
TTi/crrts 259 iii 


TTws p. 193, 289, 375 

pdf 203 
pefipo/xai 481 d 
p^w 203 
petjv 50 
pTj-yVvpn p. 194 
pFYos 203, 234, 237 
ptj'a 234 
piiTTiw 488 
p'lWTO} 488 
po5o5dKTi'Xos 292 
phopcuiji. 119, 643 i 6 

pOTTTpOV 388 

p(i)ya\^os 403 

pw7es p. 194 
pwvvvfj.1. 481 e 

crd ( = * Tia) 641 

cat'pw 198 

o-aXos 201 

(rdXTTiY^ 350 

(rd ;ud^ ; 197 n. 1 

cr^evvvfj.1 116. 2 h, 143, 

481 e 
o-e 198, 328 ii 
(Te^ofxai 488 
cre/Sco 197 n. 1 
(7f(?e;' 326 iii 
o-eFo 328 iii 
aeo 328 iii 
o-rra 299 
alTos 299 

0-1(2) ( = 6'£oO) 637 i& 
(T/caros (gen.) 354 
(TK€5a.vvvij.L 481 a, 481 e 
(tk€5cuj] 481 a 
aKewTLKOs 382 
c^^-eudcJ;' (u/cevew/') 633 i a 
aKeil/0/ 488 
<TKlbvqp.L 481 « 
(TKicpOS 192 
(TK\T]p6s 189 

CFKOTreu) 488 

ffKOTTOS 488 

o-Kuip 295, 354 
<7/ji(p5a\eos 237 
cr/j.€p5i>6s 202 
a/juKpoi 202, 237 
aojBeo} 488 
crot 328 V 
(70 s 330 
£7(^0 328 iii 
ffocpiirepos 290 
(Tiraipii} 142, 207 
(TTrdii) 482 & 
(TTreipo; 207, 282 
a-Tr^vSw 488 
aTripp.a 282 
cnrepfxoKoyos 281, 282 
CTTrepxcfJ-ai 486 
(TTrei'iSoj 179 

CTTT^Xu^^ 350 

cv\r]v 189 
ffTToudri 122, 179 



arad/jLos 393 
aTal-qv 512 
ffral/xev 512 
ardXa 218 
(TTciWa 218 
aTafxicv 2G2 
(TTdffis Wo, 169, 262 
any-q 237 
<Tr^7os 202, 237 
arkyui 140 ii, 237 
ffTeiofiev 650 

(TTUXIJ} 175 

o-reWoj 170, 207 

«rT6|U/3a) 185 
aTepyr)dpov 389 
<TTk(pavos 400 

ffTiCpCLVW/JLL 624 11 rt 

0T^i9t 518 
crrriX-rj 218 

(TT-qOfXiV 511 

ariypLa 140 i a 
o-Tijw 140 i((, 142, 197 
(Trod 245 
(TToia 245 
crrotx'^Soj' 380 
(TTopkvvvfxi 481 e 
(jTpa^wv 358 
(TTpoTos 624 i (7 
aTpQfjLa 400 

(TTpWjJLVri 400 

o-rpwTos 154, 189 
(Ti- 198, 328 i 
(Ti»77ei'eia 299 
ffvyKaOeXKV<Tdr!(T€Tai 275 
(Ti)j"ei)7;'i'')/at 118 ^ 

(Tl'j'TJI' 118 i 

(TuXTjo^Tes 630 ii c 

ffv/uaroi 637 i 6 

o-tV 338.11, 341 

avfridriai. (2 sing.) 640 ii Z^ 

avpiy^ 350 

crOs 201 

cT<payeis (\Yith gen.) 334.1 

acpayiof 402 

0-06 192, 329 

<X(p'eT€pos 330 

<T0)7$ 190 

acpiyyci} 481 (J 

(r0tV 329 

ff<^ds 330 

o-0(i 329 

(T0WlTfpOS 330 

<T(piov 329 
o-xes 520, 552 i 
(TX^cw 546 n. 2 

Zw/^paT7j 282 
2co^-pdr7JI/ 50, 282 
SwK-perT/s 618 ii a 
crwpos 198 

Tad (ace. pi.) 645 ie 

raMo-t 219 

rat 325 ii, 326 1 

Ta75 (dat. pi.) 645 ie 

Tats (ace.) 624 i /' 

rdXas 106 iv, 152, 218, 

259 vii 
ravi'iyXucraos 133, 157 
Tavvrai 481 e 
Tavvu) 481 e 
Tdpaj/ra (ace.) 273 
rds (ace. pi.) 645 ic 
rdxa 338. 10 
TCiw (gen.) 18, 142, 319 
re ( = 0-^) 328 ii 
re ('and') 342 
re7ij 237 
re7os 202, 237 
Te7w 237 
refoj 330 
redvairji' 513 
reOvairis 549 i 
TedvTjKa 495, 544 
redv-q^o} 492 
Teivu 494 
Tetcra/xeyds 268 

reixv (■''"Xf ) 1-1 
TeKfiaipw 487 c 

TiKVOV 396 
TiKTaiVa 207 

TeKTaivcj 487 c 

TfKTwv 50, 161 n. 3, 193 

reKdfxwv 259 vii 

reXetw 487 c 

T€\e(T(p6pos 268 

T6Xew 482 6, 487 c, 494 

reWw 139 

reXos 482 & 

reXcoi' 184 

rkfivti} 481 Z; 

T€Pd(j} 488 

r^o 325 vi 

reoto 328 iii 

reoOs 328 iii 

riperpov 133 

r^/)/ia 281, 282, 295, 317, 

Tippiwv 295, 306, 317, 359 
ripros 429 
reffcrapes 198, 410 
riffaepei 139 
TeTd7yaet'os 624 i a 
T^raKa 494 
rerafx^vos 269 
T^rapTOS 430 
rereXeKa 494 
reret/xaTat 472 
r^rXa^t 480 e, 518 
T^TXa/xev 259 vii, 446 
T^ropes 139, 410 
Tirpap-ixat 496 
TeTpd(l>aTai 496 
Terpdcpdai 526 
T^rpofpa 496 
TeTpu>KOVTa 421 
reTTapa.KOVTa 421 
rirrapes 139 i 6 
rerrdpois 628 a 

T€TVffK€TO 483 6 

r^y 325 vi 
r/? 198, 328 i 

TTJKfdwV 357 

TrjXiKO^ 370 

T^va (Z^w) 645 it 

TTjuQde 326 iii 

T'^os 650 

W 325 vi, 326 i 

Ti^ei 517 

Tidefieu 480 c 

TiOecraL 466 

Tieiadov 469 

TideraL 467 

ri^Tj^t 100, 191 n. 1, 260, 

480 c 
Tid-qai 133 
Tid-qTi 133 
riV-rw 192, 480 rf 
rtX (rtj) 645 i e 
rijttd 315 
Tt/iat 315, 317 



rifxavs 64-5 i c 

TifxaofxaL 31 

Ti/jLds 205, 218, 248, 318 

Tifiis 248 

ri/xdu 172, 211, 487 c 

TLfjL-^ 139 ii, 271, 309 

TLflTJ 311 

Tiu,TjdTicrofj.aL 448, 546 n. 2 
Ti^^s (gen.) 271, 309 
Tifirjcro/xaL 448 
Hm'os 402 
Ti/xovvTes 647 ii c 
TtuoL? (=Ticri) 628 a 
Tivvfievoi 481/ 

TIVLO 481/ 

Ttoi^xa 625 i a 

Ws 54, 139, 139i6,325vi 

TiVi (dat. pi.) 54 

rt(rt ( = Telaei) 625 i e 

TLcris 133 

TLTvcrKo/xai 483 Z> 

rX^ca: 543 

tXtjtos 154, 196 

TO 163, 325 ii, 326 i 

Toi 176, 325 ii 

Toi (adv. ) 342 

Toio 326 ii 

TotoOros 122, 211 

To2p (rots) 633 i c 

TdXfia 259 vii 

To\/j.S.v 543 

to;/ 148 

T6«'5e 118 b 

t6vs 640 i a 

t6s (aec. pi.) 645 ic 

ToD (interrog.) 325 vi 

Tovvveovv 623 ii b 

TovTwde 326 iii 

Tpdirei'a 48, 410 

TpdTrr}6i 518 

TpaiTT^ofMev 511 

TpaTTo} 545 

Tperj 100, 211, 409 

rpeis Arat S^Ara 418 

r/3^/;tw 478 

Tpeirco 253, 488, 496 

Tp4<f>oiv 462 

rp^^w p. 212 n. 1, 496 

rpiw 204, 478, 482 b 

Tprjpuv 204 

rpia 409 

rpLaKOfTa 421 

TpiraTOS 429 

rpiTos 429 

Tpoirid) 488 

rpoTTos 253, 488 

Tpo<pela 293 

Tpoipeiov p. 212 n. 1, 293 

Tpo(pevs 293 

rpo^^ p. 212 n. 1, 293 

Tpoipos p. 212 u. 1 293, 

rpvxu 486 
rpi/oj 486 

TrijTO (Zijca) 645 i & 
T() 328 i 
Ti'yxo-'''^ 481 c 
Tvpl3r] 100 
Ti}s (rois) 625 i d 
Tu 326 i 
ry (interrog.) 325 vi 

vaKLvOos 104, 136, 

vyiaiveii 117 
CSaros (gen.) 354 
u5pos 147 
iJdcop 164, 354 
1)6x6? 378 
uiovs 640 i a 
wos 116. 6 
vfj.ds 329 
iVfis 171 
vfieTepos 330 
i}/i^c 142 
vfuv 329 
iVA^e 171, 329 
vfj.p.i{v) 326 iv 
v/jL/iios 330 
i'MWj' 329 
l!'^' 341 n. 4 
i^os (wos) 122 
ivTraoiiYioiots 633 ii b 
iiTrdpxoiaa 624 i/ 
(}7r^p 193, 341 
vwLaxvioixaL 481/ 
uTTi/oy 142, 396 
U7r6 337. 7, 341 
'TTTodrj^aL 313 u. 1 
us 168, 201, 289 


vcTTepos 341 

v(p7]va 445 

i^otj (nom. i3tcp.) 624 if 

(payedaiva 357 

(paeLvb% 396 

(paelfu (subj.) 559 

(pdeuuos 624 i f 

(patvarai 633 i a 

(palvoixai 542 

(palvoj 542 

(paioxiTU}V€s 75 

0ar(7t (3 pi.) 624 i/ 

(pdXay^ 350 

^a^e'c 262, 480 a 

0aMt 262, 331 

(pdvat 526 

(paveU 362, 533 

0d;'?;6't 518 

(pavTJvai 526 

i^dpT;;' ((pepeiv) 633 ia 

(pdaKOj 483 a 

<;&ari 331, 480 a 

(paros 141 i & 

(jiipop-ai 488 

06pe 517 

0^pet (3 sing. pres. act.) 

0ep« (2 sing. pres. mid.) 

(pepuv 312, 358 
(pepeis 454 
(pepeaai. 142, 466 
(pepfcrdov 469 
(pipiadui 522 
(pepiffduv 522 
(pepicrdusaav 522 
(peperai 467 
(p€p€T€ 31, 32 
(pep^TTjv 521 
(piperpov 388 
(pf-pirw 519, 521 

<p€p€TWl> 520 

(peperuiaav 521 

0e'p7; (subj.) 454, 510 

0^p77 (2 sing. pres. mid.) 

(peprjv 358 
ipepris 454, 510 
0^pot 514 


(pipoiev 514 

<p4poiixfv 464 

(p^poi/xi 462, 514 

(pepois 493, 514 

(p^pofMai 31 

(p€pofii0a 470 

(Pepo/j.ei' 31, 32, 459, 480 b 

(pepop.€s 459, 480 ^ 

(pipovTa 308, 533 

<pipovT€% 28 

^fpoj/Tt (3 pi.) 28, 133, 

163, 461 
(pipovTov 624 ii c 

(jXpOVTUV 521 

(pepovcn 28, 133, 461 
0fpw 14, 93, 100, 132, 

147, 161, 251, 259 vi, 

453, 488, 543 
(pepwfxev 510 
(fjipw 306 n. 1, 362 
(pipwuTUL 227, 510 
(pep(j}VTL 510 
(pipLoaL 510 
<p€vy€LV 544 
(pevyecTKov 483 a 
06(770) 83, 179 
(prjyipos 398 
</)7776s 160, 294, 376 
<pr]fj.T] 393 

07j/xi 331, 453, 480 a 
(pTJfxis 370 
^Tja-i 331, 480 a 
00di/w 113. 2, 481/ 
^eei'pw 113. 2, 494 
(p0(M 113.2 
0^/i/w 113.2, 193, 481./" 
(pdoT) 62 

(piXelre 121. 122, 175 
0iXew 172, 211, 487 c 
<pL\r]/j.c 51 
i-Lyifos p. 338 u. 1 
4>iXc7r7roj 117 
(piXoTraToip 92 
<l>tXa! 405 
^iiTtas 643 ic 
^iTu 372 
(pXey^duj 485 
^Xei// 346 
0o/3ep6s 386 
0oS^w 488 
.^io/ios 488 


<p6vos 141 i b 

(Popd 93, 251 

(popevs 365 u. 1 

4>op4u} 259 i, 488 

0opAt6s 259 vi, 393 

<pop6s 259 vi 

(popos 488 

(/.paffi 259 V, 322, 364 

(ppdr-np 104, 132, 133, 355 

(ppdropa 259 vi 

(ppaTwp 104, 106 ii, 355 

(ppiara (pi.) 361 

^p^ca p. 192, 258, 259 v 

(ppeal 364 

(Pp-qv p. 192, 258 

(ppovTLcxTris (with ace.) 

333. 6 a 
(ppo'upi.ov 268 n. 1 
(ppvycj 158 n. 3 
<puyq. 181 (1) 
<;&i/7ds 348 
(pvyydvu 481 c 
0i;777 83, 376 
(pvrj (opt.) 172 
^ii;/?? (opt.) 172 
cpvXa^i. 322 
0vX7i 299 
(pOXov 299 
(pvTov 378 
<p(j>vr] 262 

0u)p p. 193, 375, 528 
0a!s 375 

^ai^'U) 138 

Xaipu 487 a 

XaXf TTTw 192, 197, 487 c 

XdXit, 117 

XafjLai 138, 337. 6 

Xai'Sdj'w 141 ii, 481 c 

Xcpl-eis 364 

Xa.pieo'i- (dat. pi.) 364 

Xapiectra 364 

xdpiv 333. 7 

XdpiTtp 633 ii a 

xd(T*(w 138 

XeiXiot 425 

l^ei^a 356 

XeLfJLfpLVos 206 

X^i-jJ-^v 138, 356 

Xeio'Ofiai 481 d 

xAXiot 425, 624 i e 

X^PP°-^ ix^po-^) 624 i c 

X^ppi^v (xfipwy) 624 i e 

X^po-os 277 

X^w (fut.) 492, 509 

X^w 138, 179 

xw 100, 138 

X^tt/aaXos 356 

X^fs 233 

x6'c6j' 192, 356 

XtXtoi 158 n. 3, 425 

xi-p-o-ipa. 138 

X^fJ'O.pos 138 

Xtwi' 356 

XX677 62 

XopToi 378 

Xovpav 623 i ?) 

Xpcii5ot {xpvi'o'-) 633 i a 

Xpeiffiixovv (gen. i^l.) 623 

Xpecrrat (xp^c^ctt) 629 c 
XPTj/Ltdrois 633 ii Z> 
Xpovoi 623 ii c 
XputroOs 269 
Xcrdj'^os 643 la 
XVTpa. 388 
XcSp: 278, 823 
Xij}pi-ov 268 
Xwpts 247, 278, 323 

i/'du) 486 
^pi 192, 643 i ^ 
^Pevdh 295, 351 
\l/evdrjs 351 
^eOSos 295, 351 
^prjXacpdu 193 
iprjx^ 486 

oia 164 
c5/ca 338. 10 
1 w/ceai'65 239 

dlKVS 371 

I wX^vTi 146 

wXero ( = fut.) 552 v 

w;/ 363 

uvdfitiva 503 

'ilpofjid^rji 118 c 

cbs (prep.) 333. 8 n. 1 

a)0eX^w 239 
' w^eXoi' 121, 567 
j ioxero 548 ii 

II. Italic Index. 

The following abbre\'iations are used : = Oscan, P = Paelignian, 
U = Umbrian. Latin words have no distinguishing mark. 

aamanaffed 0. 665. ia 

ab 341 

abicit 125 

abiegnus p. 188 n. 1 

abies 374 

aborigines 898 


acceptus 159 (2) 

accerso 482 6 

acer 370 

acies 374 

actor 355 

actud 0. 663. 3 

actum est 549 i 

acturus 537 

acum 0. 665. 5 

acupedius 371 

acutus 53 

addo 191 

Adeodatus 284 

adigo 159 (1), 274 

adimo 249 

advenio 547 

aedes 174 

aeneus 223 

aenus 396 

aequo (constr.) 335. 2 c, 

338. 2 
aere 314 
aeruca 383 
Aesculapius 215 
aestas 261 
aestimo 174 
aevom 172, 361 

afficio 191, 273 

age 517 

agellus 390 

agendum 531 

agendus 531 

ager 100, 147, 159, 215, 

agi 530 

agimus 163, 480 6 
agis 455 
agit 455 
agite 161 (1) 
agitis 457 
agito 519 
agitor 523 
agitote 521. 
agitur 475 
agmen 183 
agnus 180 n. 1, 396 
ago 261 
agricola 293 
Agrigentum 273 
agrum 386 
aguntur 475, 523 
Agustus 177 
aidilis 174 
aio 138 
airid 310 
ala 186, 392 
albeo 487 c 
albere 483 a 
albescere 483 a 
Albinus p. 338 n. 1 
Alcumena 215 

alfo- U. 663. 2 
alid 402 

alls (dat. pi.) 321 
alis 402 

aliud 326 i, 403 
alius 402, 428 
alnus 186 
alo 485 
alter 428 
alterum 387 
altitudo 357 
alumnus 400 
ama 517 

amabam 442, 501 
amabilem 249 
amabilis 279 
amabitur 272 
amabo 441, 493 
amamus 272 
amaut- 227 
amarier 530 
amasse 528 
amavisse 528 
ambages p. 193, 261 
ambitus 132, 341 
ambo 297, 315 
ambulatum 529 
amem 512 
amemus 512 
amicus 383 
amo 172, 211 
anas 158 
ancus 139 ii 
a(n)fero(m) U. 665. 5 



ango 150 

animadvertere 278 

animal 244, 366 

animutn advertere 278 

animus 169, 393 

Anio 360 

anser 100, 125, 138 

ante 133, 159, 337. 8, 341 

anticus 383 

apei'io 487 c 

Appelluneis 0. 664. 5 b 

aps 341 

apstineo 125 

aptus 192 

avare 20 u. 2 

arator 355 

aratrum 388 

arbor 295 

arborem 308 

arborescere 483 a 

arbos 55, 294, 295, 351 

arcesso 482 b 

arebam 501 

arena 125 

Ariminum 249 

aro 159 

arsferturo U. 664. 5 a 

artifex 159 (2) 

artus 372 

Ateius 402 

Atius 402 

atque 244 

atrox 383 

audacem 308 

audaci's 317 

audaci 311 

audacter 283 

audax 306, 383 

audi 517 

audiens (dicto) 336. 1 c 

audio 487 c 

audirem 515 

audissem 515 

audivisse 528 

audivissem 515 

augeo 481 c 

augere 177 

auris 366 

Aurora 3S4, 482 b n. 1 

auspicate 339 

auxerit (fut.) 555 
avaritiae (pi.) 296 
aves 223 
avif U. 663. 6 
avillus 180 n. 1 
avius 402 
axis 186, 392 

balbus 131, 288 

Bansa 0. 658 

Bantins 0. 663. 6 

bellus 390, 397 

bene 390 

Beneventum 273 n. 1 

benignus p. 188 n. 1, 274 

beuust U. 63 

beru U. 663. 1 

bidens 408 

bimus p. Ill n. 1, 214 

bis 408 

biuo- 0. 663. 1 

blasphemare 9 

blatire 487 c 

bonus 397 

bos 18, 63, 140 i a, 181 

(6), 289 
breviter 283 
Brigantes 24 
burgus 24 

cadaver 353 

cadivos 404 

caducus 383 

Caecilis 402 

Caecilius 402 

caedo 481 a 

caelebs 346 

caelicolum 319 

caementa 299 

caementum 299 

calare 146 

calcar 244, 295 

calda 183 

caldus 228 

calefacio 273 

caligo 357 

calx 117 

canis 136 

Canpani (Campani) 127 

canticum 382 

cape 517 

capit 487 

capitur 449 

capiunt 487 

caprina 399 

captivus 208 

captus 103 ii 

cardo 357 

carne 254 

carnem 254 

carnes 296 

carnis (gen.) 254, 358 

caro 254, 358 

carpo 139 ii 

castellum 268 n. 1 

castus 183 

cavum 212 

ce 325 V 

cedo 325 v 

cedo 482 b 

cena 223 

censamur 0. 665. 6rt 

censtur 0. 664. 1 

centesimus 437 

centum 104, 423 

centurio 360 

cepi 494, 497 

cerebrum 188, 204, 386 

cerno 215, 389, 481 b 

cernuos 188, 403 

cervix 349 

ceterum 341 

eette 183 

cieo 488 

9imu {h'lno) U. 660 

circueo 127 

cis 325 V 

citerior 387 

cito 338. 10 

citra 325 v, 387 

civitas 369 n. 1 

Cladius 177 

Claudius 129, 177 

claudo 177 

clavis 189 

clavos 189 

cliuo 136 

clivos 136, 403 

cloaca 383 

Clodius 129, 177 



clunis 370 
coactum 127 
coerceo 127 
cogito 490 
cognomen 127, 359 
cognomenta 157, 361 
cognomentum 357, 359 
cogo 490 
cohibere 127 
coicere 127, 224 
coire 127 

coisatens 0. 663. 6 
coUa 299 
collido 174 
coUigo 161 (1), 274 
coUis 139 ii, 183 
collum 184 
eolo 139 
columna 400 
combifiansi U. 665. 4 d 
comes 347 
comis 367 
commentus 259 V 
communis 370 
comparascuster 0. 665. 8 
compos 163 
concentus 159 (2) 
conculco 159 (2) 
concutio 159 (1) 
conditus 260 
coudo 191 n. 1 
consequi 544 
conspicio 103 i 
consulatus 372 
contagio 360 
contagium 360 
conventio 357 
coquo 139 
cor 100, 134 
coram 337. 7 
corculum 390 
Corinthiacus 382 
cornu 106 iv, 351 
cornua 317 

cosol (consul) 127, 224 
coventio 127, 287 
crastinus 401 
creber 389 
credidi 52 
credo 52 

cribrum 389 

crimen 359 

cruentus 481 c 

cui 123. 6, 129, 326 ii 

cuium 328 iii 

cuius 326 ii, 328 iii 

culina 188 

culmen 400 

cum (quom) 125, 342 

cum (prep.) 205, 338. 11, 

cupio (with gen.) 334. 4 
cuspis 348 
custodia 299 
custodio 487 c 
custos 191, 192 
cutis 287 

dadikatted O. 665. 4 b 

daps 346 

datio 360 

dator48, p. 189n. 1,254, 

264, 295, 344, 355 
datore 48, 254 
datorem 48 
datoris 48, 254 
datus 264 
de 341 
deabus 321 
deae (dat.) 311 
deae (gen.) 313 
deam 308 
dearum 18, 319 
debeo 273 

decem 136, 161, 415, 416 
decimus 435 
decorare 482 h 
dedecori (est) 331 
dedi 446 
dedrot 497 
defenstrix 190 
degener 295, 351 
deico (dico) 134 
deikum 0. 665. 5 
deis 321 

deiuast 0. 665. 2 
deivos 322 
deliro 487 c 
dem 512 

dens 134, 362 

densus 157 

desilio 249 

destra U. 663. 5 h 

destrst 0. 663. 5 b 

devas 322 

die 520 

dicitur 449 

dico 105, 134, 490 

dictito 490 

dicto 490 

dictu 529 

dictum 378 

dictus 490 

diduco 225 

diem 289 

dies 181 (5) 

dignus 186, 195 

dilabor 225 

dimitto 225 

Diovis 197 

dirimo 225 

discipi:lina 215 

disco 188, 483 b, 488 

dispennite 194 

divos 374, 404 n. 3 

divum (gen. pi.) 209 

dixe (inf.) 336. 4, 528 

dixi 497 

dixim 513, 515 

dixissem 515 

dixo 441, 492, 493, 509 

dixti 482 a 

do 27, 52, 191 n. 1 

docent 227 

doceo 488 

dolabra 389 

dolere (with ace.) 333. 5 b 

dolus 249 

domi 282, 313 

domum 333. 1 b 

domus 148, 163, 282, 294 

dona ( = donum) 299 (5) 

donum 264, 397 n. 1 

dormire 483 a 

dos 27, 264, 360 

drachuma 215 

duam 361 n. 1 

due 520 

duco 178 



duim 512 
dulcis 190 
duo 84, 134, 297, 315, 

326 i, 408 
duodeviginti 418 
dvenos 397 
Dyrrhachium 273 n. 1 

ecce 325 v 

edi 162, p. 167 □. 2 

edim 512 

edo 485 

egi p. 167 n. 2 

Egidius 249 

Egilius 249 

ego 161, 327, 328 

eius 325 iii, 326 ii 

emo 161, 164, 249, 259 iv 

entelust U. 665. 3, 4 d 

Epidamnus 273 n. 1 

Epona 136 

eporedia 136 

equabus 321 

equae (dat.) 209 

equae (nom. pi.) 315 

equas 222 

eque 31 

equester 388 

eqiii (pi.) 29 

equi (gen.) 29 

equidem 325 viii 

equis 321 

equitare 24 

equo (dat.) 29 

equo (abl.) 29 

equod 326 iii 

equom 29 

equorum p. 167 n. 1 

equos 20, 23, 29, 31, 41, 

136, 163 
equos (ace. pi.) 29, 224 
eram 501 
ero 441, 493, 509 
erom U. 664. 3 
es (imper.) 517 
esca 381 

escendero (fut.) 555 
escit 483 a 
essem 142, 515 
est 142, 161, 480 a 

est {'eats') 209 
esto 519 
esurire 487 c 
et 244, 342 
euntis (gen.) 362, 363 
ex 193, 341 
examen 183 
exanclare 391 
esistumo 174 
extemplo 278 
extempulo 215 
exteri 387 
extra 387 

fabula 262 

fac 520 

facillumed 326 iii 

faciuus 183 

facie 100, 260 

factud 0. 663. 3 

facturum (inf.) 528 

faginus 398 

fagus 55, 160, 294, 376 

falsus 184 

fama 262, 393 

farci 517 

fariolus 138 

fateor 262, 484 

fatur 480 a 

faveo 180 

faxim 515 

faxo 441, 493 

feci 135, 260 

feido 175, 259 ii 

felare (inf. ) 373 

felix 383 

femen 354 

feminis (geu.) 354 

femur 354 

fendo 141 \b, 487a 

fer 517, 520 

feras 510 

ferebamus 464 

ferens 362 

ferentem 308, 533 

feres 493, 510 

feretrum 388 

ferimus 459, 480 h 

ferio 487 a 

fero 14, 100, 132, 147, 

161, 259 vi, 543 
fers 455, 520 n. 1 
fert 133, 455 
fertis 457 
ferto 519, 521 
fertor 523 
ferunt 163, 461 
ferunto 521 
feruntor 523 
ferus p. 194 
fesna- U. 663. 5 c 
fides 55, 165, 259 ii 
fido 175 
fidustus 55 
fiisna- 0. 663. 5 c 
filiabus 321 
filiis 321 
filius 162 
findo 481 d 
fiugo 481 d 
finio 172 
firmiter 283 
fissus 187 
fisus 187 
flabrum 196 
flammescere 483 a 
flamus 480 a 
flavus 279, 403 
flemus 480 a 
fleo 480 a 
fles 480 a n. 2 
fletus 498 
flevi 498 
flo 480 a 

Flora 384, 482 b n. 1 
floridus 380 
fluvi 125 
fodio 263 
foedus p. 139 n. 1, 176, 

259 ii 
folia 299 n. 2 
foUae 299 n. 2 
folii 299 n. 2 
folium 299 n. 2 
folus 138 
foras 135 
forma 393 
formonsus 357 



formosus 357 

formus 393, 141 i b, 148 

fors 153, 165, 259 vi, 

278 n. 1 
forsitan 278 n. 1 
forte 259 vi, 278 
fragor 206 
fragum 203 
frateer U. 664. 1 
frater 106 ii, 132, 133, 

fiatrem 93, 249 
fratrus U. 663. 3 
fraudo 177 
fremo 206 
fretum 206 
frigidulus 390 
frigo 158 n. 3 
frigus 203, 237 
frustra 177 
frutex 206 
fuas 501 n. 3 
fuat 172, 501 n. 3 
fucus 199 
fudit 179 

fueram ( = fui) 551 n. 4 
fuga 376 
fugae 181 (1) 
fugio 487 c 
fui 227 

fuisse (be dead) 549 i 
fuliginosus 357 
fullonicus 382 
fulvus 279, 403 
fumus 393 
fundo 13 s 
funebris 204 
funera ( = funus) 299 (5) 
fur 528 
furvus 403 
Fusius (Furius) 125 

Gaius 404 n. 3 

gaudeo 485 

gena 161 

generare p. 194,384, 482 b 

genere 313 

generis 31, 142 

genibus 167 

genitus 498 

G. P. 

genius 157, 259 v 

genu 137, 871 

geuubus 167 

genui 498 

genuini (dentes) 371 

genus 31, 137, 142, 163, 

259 V, 351 
gerundus 380 n. 2 
gignimus 480 (Z 
gigno 137, 2.59 v 
gQvus 279, 403 
glocire 487 c 
gnatus 158 
gracUentus 286, 290 
gradatim 326 v 
gradior 141 ii 
grus 140 ii 
gustare 178, 259 iii 
guttura 299 

habilis 279 

haec 325 vii 

haec (pi. neut.) 320 i 

halare 222 

harena 125 

hariolus 138 

bau 235, 342 

baud 2.35, 342 

haut 235, 342 

helvus 403 

hemo Old L. 138 

hemonem 358 

hiare 138 

hibernus 206 

hie 325 V, 325 vii, 326 i, 

hiemps 138, 356 
hisco 138, 483 a 
historian! 249 
hoc 325 vii 
holus 138 
homine 310, 313 
hominem 258, 30S 
homines 209 n. 1, 223, 

homini 311 
homo 138, 258, 358 
homonem 358 
homuncio 360, 382 
homunculus 382 

honor 378 
hones 295, 351 
horior 487 a 
hortus 378 
hospes 163 

hostis 103 i, 106 i, 163 
humi 337. 6 
humillimus 394 
humuns 0. 664. 1 
humus 138, 215, 356 
hunc 163 
hiirz 0. 663. 3 


ibo 441 

Idem 225 

ieus 362, 363 

ignis 370 

ignotus p. 104 n. 1, 127, 

liuvinu- U. 660 
Ikuvins U. 660 
ihco 163, 189, 249, 274, 

illecebra 389 
illi (loc.) 326 ii 
illic 272, 326 ii 
illius 326 ii 
illustris 186 
im 325 iii 
imbutus 53 
impos 163 

in- (neg.) 106 iii, 157 
in 149, 247, 337. 7 
incesso 482 b 
inciens 48 S 
incipit 127 
inclitus 536 
includo 177 
inclutus 133, 146, 167, 

incurvicervicus 275 
inde 314 n. 1 
ingens 362 
inhonestus 378 
inquam 453 
inquiliuus 139 
iuquit 331 
insece 139 i a 
instigare 140 i a, 142 




insulio 159 (1) 

insulto 249 

inter 283 n. 1 

interior 3.S7 

intus 326 iii 

investigare 175 

ipsa 325 i 

ipse 325 i, 326 i 

ipsemet 326 iv 

irremeabilis 279 

is (pron.) 325 iii 

ispiritus 249 n. 1 

ista 325 ii 

istarum 18, 142, 319 

iste 325 ii 

isti (nom. pi.) 176 

isti (loc.) 326 ii 

istic 326 ii 

istinc 326 v 

istius 326 ii 

istorum 326 vi 

istud 163, 325 ii, 326 i 

istum (ace.) 148 

it 480 a 

iter 283 

ito 519 

itur 449 

jacio 487 c 

jam 342 

jecinoris 139 i a, 354 

jecur 139 ia, 207 n. 1, 

295, 354 
Jovis (gen.) 197, 289 
judex 284 
juga 299, 317 
jugum 144, 167, 303, 

306, 376 
jumeutum 226 
jungo 52, 481 d 
Juppiter 159 (1) 
jus (broth) 144 
jutua 498 
juvencixs 104, 136, 171, 

juventus 299, 369 
juvi 498 

Kerri 0. 663. 5 d 
iumbened 0. 63 

labea 299 

labium 299 " 

laborare 482 b 

labosem (laborem) 125 

lac 295, 306 u. 1 

lacrima 373, 393 

lacruma 100, 134 

lactuca 383 

laedo 174 

laevos 174, 403 

lambo 481 d 

lana 154 

lanugo 357 

lapis 348 

latrina 212 

latus 154, 196 

lavacrum 390 

lavere 180 

lectica 383 

legam (fut.) 441, 493 

legatus 378 

lege 517 

legebam 272 

Jegebamini 49, 2fSC 

legere (imper. pass.) 325 

n. 1 
legere (inf.) 336. 4, 515 
legerem 272, 515 
leges (2 sing, fut.) 441, 

leget 493 
legi (inf.) 336. 4 
legimini (part.) 28, 49, 

359, 400 
legimini (imperat. pass.) 

359, 523, 530 
legio 360 
legisse 528 

legissem 280, 312, 515 
legunto 18 
leo 50, 362 
leonis 50 

leviorem (ace.) 352 
levir 355 
levis 141 ic 
lex p. 193, 375 
liber 231 
liberum 386 
libet 167 
licet 278, 480 a 

lien 189 

lignum 161 (2), 195 

limpa 167 

lino 481 b 

linquo 139 ia, 481rf 

\ioKaK€iT 0, 665. 4 d 

lijjpus 104 

lis 189 

loca 299 

locuples 347 

locus 189, 249, 299 

loidos 176 

longinquos 286 

lora 231 

lubet 167 

lubricus 100, 131 

lucem (ace.) 146 

lucrum 390 

ludius 402 

Indus 176 

lumpa 167 

luna 186 

lutulentus 286 

luxuriei (gen.) 309, 313 

luxuriem 308 

luxuries 374 

lympha 167 

magister 387 
magistreis 317 
magnus 158 
major 1.38, 222 
Maleventum 273 n. 1 
malignus p. 188 n. 1 , 

manu 313 
mauui 311 
manum 308 
manus 306 
manus (gen.) 309 
maniis (n. pi.) 317 
mare 165, 366 
margo 357 
mariscalcus 20 n. 2 
mater 106 ii, 148, 160, 

matrer U. 664. 5 b 
Matuta (dat.) 311 
me 327, 328 ii 
med 328 iv 



meddiss 0.663. 5^, 664.1 
medikeis 0. 664. 5 b 
medius 135, 172, 197 
mefio- 0. 663. 2 
megalesia (megalensia) 

mei 328 iii 
meilia 425 n. 1 
meio 138 
memento 519 
memet 326 iv 
memini 259 v, 488, 494, 

549 i 
meminit 26 
mens 25, 259 v 
mensis 162, 321 
menstruos 403 
mentio 25, 287 
meracus 383 
mercennarius 194 
merces 348 
mergo 143 
metuo 487 c 
mens 330 
mi 326 V, 327 
migrare 140 ia, 230 
mihi 326 v 
miles 143 
milia 425 
mina 215 

Minerva 259 v, 403 
mingo 138 
minister 387 
minuo 481/ 
misceo 483 a 
miser 142 
misi 187 
missum 187 
moderare 482 b 
modicus 382 
modo 338. 10 
moiros 176 
moltas 0. 664. 3 
momordi 446, 497 
monebam 462 
monebo 441, 493 
moneo 26, 172, 211, 488 
monitus (part.) 488 
monstrum 392 
morbus 377 

mordeo 446 
morior 487 c 
mors 287, 366 
mortiios 206, 403, 536 
motar U. 660, 664. 3 
motus 498 
movi 498 
mox 322 
mugatu U. 660 
muietu U. 660 
muinikei 0. 664. 4 
muletra 388 
mulgeo 137, 148, 230 
mulsi 184 
multa 378 
murio 487 c 
muris (gen.) 142 
miummo 446 
murus 176 
mus 168, 289 

nactus 158 

nare 487 a 

Nasica 383 

nasus 142 

natine U. 664. 2, 5 a 

navem 289 

navis 181 (4), 289 n. 3 

nebrundines 141 1 a 

nebula 390 

neco 351, 488 

uecopinato 339 

nefrones 141 i« 

nemo 138, 214 

nemus 259 iv 

neo 149 

nepos 347 

nerf U. 663. 6 

neu 129, 178 

neuter 123. 6 

nidor 195 

nidus 143, 199, 259 i 

nihil 214 

nil 138, 214 

ninguit 141 i a 

Niumsieis 0. 664. 5 b 

nivem 141 i a 

no 487 a 

nobis 329 

noceo 488 

noctis 139 ic 
nomina 317 
nominis (gen.) 358 
nomner (gen.) U. 358, 

664. 5 b 
nonus 415, 434 
nos 329 
nosco 14, 137 
noster 330, 387 
nostri 329 
nostrum (gen.) 329 
nova 291, 376 
novem 415 
never am 550 
novi 494, 549 i, 550 
novissimus 394 
novitas 241, 369 n. 1 
uovos 161, 180 
novum 291, 376 
novus 149, 291, 376 
nox 103 ii, 347 
noxa 351 
nucleus 186 
nudius 167 
num 342 
Numasioi (dat.) 181 (3), 

Numeric (dat.) 181 (3) 
nundinum 434 
nurus 104 
nutrio 487 c 
nutrix 228, 487 c 


obdormiscere 483 a 

obedio p. 139 n. 1 

obsidio 360 

obsidium 360 

obtulit ( = obtulerat) 551 

occideris ( = plpf.) 570 

occiduos 404 

occultus 152 

ocris 370 

octavus 433 

Octember 406 

octiugenti 424 

octo 103 ii, 106 i, 163, 

octodecim 417 
octuaginta 433 




oculus 139 ifl, p. 192, 

odi 549 i 
odor 134 
oenus 176 
oleaginus p. 189 n. 
oleaster 392 
oleo 134 
olim 326 v 
omnis 370 
opilio 179 n. 3 
opinio 360 
opprimo 161 (1) 
optimus 80, 128, 167, 394 
optumus 80, 128, 167 
opulentus 286 
ora 164, 299 

orator (with ace?) 333. 6(( 
ornus 55 
osatu U. 660 
oves 211, 317 
ovi 311 
ovile 366 
ovis 172, 180, 306, 309, 

ovis (ace. pi.) 317 u. 2 

pacis (gen.) 185 
paganus 58 
palmaris 370 
palus 348 
Ijandidi 52 

pando 52, 194, 380 n. 2 
pango 105, 481 d 
papaver 353 
parasitaster 392 
paraveredus 20 n. 2 
paricidas 293, 306 
pars 154, 278, 287, 366 
partem 3()0, 366 
partim 278, 326 v, 360, 

parturire 487 c 
paseo 142, 483 a, 484 
pascor 381 
passus 187, 190 
paterlSO, 162,169, p. 189 

n. 1, 254, 295, 306, 355 
paterfamilias 309 
patre 48, 310, 311, 313 

patrem 48, 308 

patres 317 

Patricoles 215 

patris 48, 259 vi 

patrius 402 

paucus 130, 177 

pax 105 

peeto 484 

pectora 299 

pecu 50 

pecunia 50 

pecus (-oris) 50 

pecus (-ndis) 50, 348 

pede 165, 209, 259 i, 310, 

311, 313, 314 
pedem 42, 156, p. 194, 

pedes 223, 317 
pedester 388 
pedestris 190 
pedeteutim 326 v 
pedica 382 
pejor 394 
pellis 146 

pello 187, 259 vii, 481 b 
penes p. 34 n., 312, 337.8 
penna 194 
pennis 321 
penus 312 
pepigi 105, 185 
pepuli 259 vii 
pepulit 446 
peregrinus 399 
peremust O. 665. 3 
pergo 228 
periclum 133, 390 
periculum 215, 390 
perii 549 i 

persnimu U. 665. 6 a 
pes 100, 104, p. 193, 258, 

289, 375 
pessimus 394 
pihafei(r) U. 665. 8 
pihaner U. 663. 5 a 
pihaz U. 663. 3 
Pilipus 117 
pilum 188 
pilus 390 
pingo 481 d 
pinsio 188 

pin so 487 c 

pinus 373 

pis 0. 139 ih, 663. 1 

piscina 399 

piscis 103 i 

plantas (2 sing, pres.) 211 

plaustrum 177 

plebes 55, 366 

plecto 484 

pleo 227 

pleores 352 

pletus 498 

plevi 498 

ploirumos 352 

plostrum 177 

plumbago 357 

plurimus 352 

poculum 215 

pomerium j). 139 n. 1, 

176, 224, 493 
no/jLTTTies 0. p. 340 n. 1 
pondus 112 n. 2 
pono 224 

Pontius p. 340 n. 1 
popler U. 664. 5 b 
poploe (dat.) 311 
porca 153 
porous 147 
porrigo 147 
porrum 153 
portio 360 
portust U. 665. 4 c 
posco 188, 483 a 
possem 570 
possim 570 
posterior 394 
postumus 290, 343, 394 
potior 487 c 
potiri (locis) 337. 4 a 
potis 133, 163, p. 192, 

potus 378 
prae 341 
praebeo 273 
praeda 141 ii 
praefamino 523 
praesaepe 366 
praesens 157, 363 
praidad 310 
precor p. 192, 483 a 



prehendo 141 ii, 481 d 
prelum 188, 392 
premo 478 n. 1 
presbyter 9 
pressi 478 n. 1 
primus 394, 427 
principatus 372 
priscus 394 
prismu P. 663. 5 c 
pristinus 394, 401 
pruina 487 c 
probitus 665. 9 
probrum 389, 391 n. 4 
procus p. 192, 483 a 
profecto 273 
propinquos 286 
proseseto U. 663. 7 
protervus 192 
protinus 249 
prupehast U. 665. 2 
prurio 487 c 
puellula 390 
pulcherrimus 394 
puUus 152 

pulsus 151, 152, 259 vii 
pumilio 360 

Piimpaiianeis O. 664. 5 b 
Pantiis 0. p. 340 n. 1 
purgo 228 
purigo 228 
pus 0. 664. 3 
puteo 168 

quadraginta 421 
quadringenti 424 
quae (pi. neut. ) 326 i 
quaero 482 b 
quaeso 482 6 
qualis 370 
qualum 222 
quam (conj.) 342 
quartus 410, 430 
quatio 487 c 
quattuor 130, 139 i b 
que 342 
queo 488 
qui 325 vi, 326 i 
qui (loc.) 337. 8 
quia 342 
quid 325 vi, 326 i 

quidlibet 274 
quin 342 
quinctus 431 
quindecim 228 
quingentesimus 437 
quinquaginta 421 
quinque 139 i b, 150, 161 

(2), 411 
quintus 431 
quis 139 i b, 325 vi 
qum (quom) 125 
quo 342 
quod 139 i a, 325 vi, 326 i, 

quoi 326 ii 
quoius 326 ii 
quoniam 205 
quot aunis 337. 2 
quot mensibus 337. 2 

rape 517 

rapio 487 c 

rastrum 392 

recturus 528 

rectus 378 

reditus (with ace.) 333. 

regamur 449 
regar 449 
regere 52S-_— 
regeremur 449 
regerer 449 
regimur 449 
regina 399 
regio 360 
regnabat 548 ii 
regor 449 
rehte U. 663. 4 
reminiscor 26 
reppuli 228 
res 181 (2), 281 
restio 360 
reticuisset 570 
rettuli 228 
rex p. 193, 306 n. 1 
rexi 502 
rexisse 528 
rigor 203, 237 
robigo 179 n. 3 
robus 179 

rogitus 665. 9 

rogo (with 2 ace.) 333. 

5 c 
Roma 203 
Romae 313 
Romai 309 
rostrum 392 
ruber 135, 147, 196 
rubrum (ace.) 386 
rubus 179 n. 3 
ructare 231 
rudimus 480 b 
rudis 367 
rufus 135 
ruma 393 
rumpo 481 d 
rumputus 53 
runcina 481 c 
runcinare 481 c 
ruperunt 552 iii 
rusticus 382 

sacaracirix 0. 661 

sacerdos 215, 347 

saeclum 391 

saeculum 215 

saepio 487 c 

saeptus 192 

sagire 142 

sakaraklom 0. 661 

sakarater 0. 665. 7 

sakrafir 0. 665. 8 

sal 142, 289 

salinae 399 

salio 249 

sallo 183, 289 n. 2, 485 

sam 325 i 

sapio p. 132 n. 3, 487 c 

sarci 517 

sas 325 i 

satus 260 

scala 188, 222, 392 

scibam 501 

scibo 441, 493 

sciebam 501 

scilicet 278 

scindo 481 a 

scisco 483 a 

screare 189 

scriba 293 



scriftas O. 663. 4, 66i. 3 

scripsi 496 

se (pron.) 328 ii 

se (adv.) 341 

secare 193 

secerno 206 

secundus 428 

securim 308 

sed 328 iv, 341 

sedeo 134, 142, 159 i 

sedes 55, 366 

sedi 494 

sedibus 199, 366 

sedimus 497 

sedulus 249 

seges 347 

segmentum 193 

sella 390 

semel 106 iii, 156 

semeu 142, 162, 260 

semifer p. 194 

semper 259 iv 

senati 282 

senatiis (gen.) 282 

senectus 369 

senex 349, 382 

seni 188 

senis (gen.) 382 

septem 130, 413 

Septimus 432 

septingenti 420, 424 

septuaginta 433 

sequere(2sing.pres.) 163, 

449, 474 
sequere (imper.) 520 
sequeris 449, 474 n. 2 
sequi 544 
sequimini 449 
sequor 139 i a 
serfe U. 663. 5 d 
serimus 446 
sermo 359 
sero (vb.) 142, 162, 165, 

480 d 
servitude 369 
servitus 369 
servos 125, 163 
sessus 183 
sen 123.6, 178 
sex 412 

sexaginta 422 

sextus 188, 431 

si (sei) 342 

sibi 326 v 

sibila 299 

sibilus 299 

sic 520 

siccus 244, 382 

sidimus 480 d 

sido 143, 198, 225, 259 i 

siem 512 

sies 142 

silere 113. 2 

silvaticus 382 

sim .512 

similis 370, 390 

simplex 156, 2.59 iv 

simus (vb.) 166, 512 

sinister 387 

sino 113. 2, 481 b 

sipus 0. 164, 353 

siquis 325 vi 

sistamus 510 n. 2 

sistimus 446, 480 c 

sistit 480 c 

sisto 165, 480 d 

sitio 487 c 

slaagi- 0. 663. 5 c 

sobrinus 204, 399 

socer 180, 201 

solidus 380 

solium 134, 259 i 

somnus 142, 396 

sons 363 

soror 180, 201, 355 

SOS 325 i 

sovos 330 

species 374 

-specio 487 a 

spectatum (supine) 333. 

sperno 142, 481 b 
spiritum 249 
spoudeo 488 
spopondi 446 
spretus 189 
spuma 393 
spuo 197 

stabulum 215, 391 
staiem 515 

statif 0. 664. 2 

statim 262, 326 v, 360 

statio 165, 169, 262 

stationem 360 

Statis 0. p. 340 u. 1 

stativos 404 

statos O. 664. 3 

statua 404 

statuo 172 

stem 512 

stemus 512 

sternamus 510 n. 2 

steteruut 497 

steti 52, 446, 481 c 

stetimus 446 

stilus 196 

stipendium 228 

stlis 189 

stlocus 189 

stratus 154, 189 

studium 402 

stupidus 380 

suavis 142, 160, 367, 374 

sub 337. 7 

subtemen 188 

subter 337. 7 

sudor 142 

sui 328 iii 

suinus 166, 399 

sum (vb.) 52, 215, 4-53 

sum (pron.) 325 i 

sumus 215 

sue (vb.) 142 

super 193, 341, 337. 7, 

surgo 228 
surpui 228 
sus 168, 289 
suus 330 
svai 0. 342 

tapez U. 660 

tactio (with ace. ) 333. 6 a 

talis 370 

tangiueis O. 664. 5 b 

tanginom 0. 664. 2, 5 a 

tanginud 0. 664. 2, 5 a 

tango 481 d 

Tarentum 273 

te 328 ii 




techina 215 

ted 328 iv 

teei[um] 0. 663. 5 d 

tego 93, 140 ii 

tela 186, 223 

temere 204 

temet 326 iv 

temno 481 b 

temperi 351 

temulentus 286 

tendo 194, 480 e 

tenebrae 204 

teneo 480 e 

tenuis 133, 157 

tenus 57, 249 

terebra 133 

terei 0. 664. 4 

teremniss 0. 663. 3 

termen 281, 295, 317, 

359, 400 
terminus 400 
termo 295, 306, 317, 359, 

terrae (loc.) 337. 6 
tertius 429 
testudo 357 
tetuli 259 vii, 446, 497 
texi 502 
tibi 326 V 

tignum 161 (2), 195, 396 
tilia 192 
timendum (poenas) 333. 


timidus 380 

tintinnio 487 b 

toga 93 

tollo 152, 196, 259 vii, 

tondeo 446, 488 
tondutus 53 
toustrina 190 
topper 325 ii 
tostus 188 
totiens 223 
toties 223 
totondi 446 
tovos (tuus) 161, 180, 

tres 100, 211, 409 
tria 409 

trigesimus 436 

triginta 317, 421 

trimestris 403 

tripudium 259 i 

tuber 206 

tuemdam (tuendam) 127 

tui 328 iii 

tuli 106 iv, 196, 543 

tulo 106 iv, 196 

tumeo 206 

turba 100 

turbae (nom. pi.) 317 

turbarem 515 

turbas 318 

turbassem 515 

turbassim 515 

turbassit 515 

turbavissem 515 

turbo 487 c 

turdus 188 

turgere 483 a 

turgescere 483 a 

turpis 367 

tursitu U. 663. 5d 

tus 117 

tutudi 465 

tuus 830 

ubei .842 

uber 135, 153 

ubi 342 

Uhtavis 0. 663. 4 

uhtretie U. 664. 2 

iiittiuf 0. 663. 6, 664. 2 

ulna 146 

uncus 139 ii, 163 

uuda 194, 354 

undecim, 417 

undeviginti 418 

unus, 149, 176, 396, 407 

npilio 179 n. 3 

upsannam O. 663. 5 a 

urbicus 382 

urimus 480 b 

uro 178 

ussi 187 

ut 342 

utei 342 

utrum 387 

uupsens 0. 665. 4 c 
uxorcula 390 

vacivos 404 

vacuos 404 

vapor 198 

velio 138, 171 

vel 278, 520, 552 i 

velim (si) 570 

Velleius 402 

vellem (si) 570 

Vellius 402 

velox 383 

vendere 228 

vendidi 52 

vendo 52 

vendutus 53 

Venerus 309 

veniolS, 63, 140 i 0,156, 

205, 487 « 
venitur 449 
veniuntur 449 
veuumdare 228 
Venus 55, 381 
venustus 55 n. 2 
veritates 296 
vermis 370 
verto 31, 484 
Vertumnus 400 
vesica 223 
vester 330, 387 
vetus 55 n. 2, p. Ill n. 1, 

vetustus 55 n. 2 
viass 0. 663. 6 
vicesimus 436 
vici (loc.) 209, 309, 313 
vici (nom. pi.) 317 
vicimus (shall have won) 

552 V 
vicinus 399 
vicis 176, 181 (3), 227 
vico (dat.) 181 (3), 311 
vicorum 319 
victor 374 
victrix 374 
vicum 303, 308 
vicus 142, 294, 306, 343, 

vide 274, 517 



videbam 515 

viden 272 

videram 482 a, 507 

videre 259 ii 

videie (3 pi. pft.) 497 

viderem 515 

viderim 513 

videro 493, 497 

%iderunt 497 

vidi 259 ii, 494, 497 

vidisse 528 

vidissem 515 

vidisti 477 

vidistis 504 

vidit 176, 477, 497 

vidua 21 

viduos 21, 23, 135 

vidutus 53 

viginti 315, 420 

villa 186 
villanus 58 
vim 308 
Vina 296 
vindex 284 
vir 165, 228 
virtus 369 
vis 289, 306 
viso 482 b 
visus 187, 192 
vitabundus (with 

333. 6 b 
vitis 166, 171, 287 
vitulus p. Ill n. 1 
Vitus 372 
viu 0. 663. 7 
x-ivos 140 i c, 403 
vobis 329 
vocivos 404 


volare 140 i b, 488 
volitare 488 
volnus 183 
voluntarius 228 
volup 215, 348 n. 1 
vomica 382 
vorare 63, 140 i b 
vorsus 31, 184, 190 
vos 329 
voster 330 
vostri 329 
vostrum 329 
vox p. 193 
vulpes 139 i c 
vulva 140 i 6 

zeief U. 663. 6 
zicolo- 0. 658 

III. Germanic Index. 

The following abbreviations are used : Du = Dutch, G = German, 
H.G. = High German, L.G. — Low German, Go = Gothic, N = Norse, 
S = Saxon, Sc=Scotch, = 01d as in O.H.G. = 01d High German. EngUsh 
words whether old or modern have no distinguishing mark. 

a 149, 176 

5 172 

abed 241 

able 279 

acre 100, 147, 159, 386 

acsian 192 

ad 174, 261 

Eegru 61 

aetheUng 286 

against 80 

agnail 150 

ahtau Go. 103 ii, 106 i, 

aihvatundi Go. 20 
ainlif Go. 417 
ains Go. 176 
aiw 172 
aiw Go. 172 
aiweins Go. 399 
aka N. 261 

aki-3 Go. 100, 147, 159 
an 149, 176 
an 396, 407 
and 133, 159 
angle 139 ii 
answer 159 
apron 240 
arya Go. 159 
ascian 192 
ask 192 
asts Go. 143 
asunder 341 

ate 162 

aukan Go. 177 
auso Go. 104 
axle 392 

badi Go. 263 
baecestre 279 
baer 259 vi 
baira Go. 100 
bairan Go. 161 n. 1 
bairand (3 pi. pres.) Go. 

163, 461 
baib Go. 176 
bake 51 
baker 279 
band 93 

barm (bosom) 393 
bauerknecht G. 58 
Baxter 279 
bead 259 iii 
bear (vb.) 14, 100, 132, 

147, 161 
bear 30 

beareth 133, 455 
bearing 363 
bearm 259 vi 
beam (bairn) 259 vi 
bears (3 sing. pres. ) 455 
b^d 263 
bedder 287 n. 1 
bedmaker 287 n. 1 
beech 160 n. 1, 376 
beechen 398 

beef 9 

behfe 104 

beodan 259 iii 

beran O.H.G. 161 

beran 259 %'i 

beraS 461 

berende 363 

berg G. 24 

beuk (past of bake) Sc. 

bid 165, 175 
bidyan Go. 165 
bileiba Go. 104 
bind 93, 102 
binda Go. 102 
birth 153, 165, 287 
bishop 9 
bitter G. 81 
biuda Go. 102 
blackbird 285 
blame 9 
blaspheme 9 
blue 279, 403 
b5ctreo(w) 160 
book 50, 282 
books 50, 282 
borough 24, 109 
both 3-29 
bounden 397 
boycott (vb.) 276 
brae 24 

bridegroom 138 
brittle 81 



brother 104, 112 iii, 132, 

133, 3o5 
broSor 104, 106 ii, 259 vi 
bruder G. 112 iii 
bru)jfal>s Go. 163 
buckwheat 160 
budon 259 iii 
burg G. 24 
bur(u)g 109 
Burgundy 24 
Burke 24 
burke (vb.) 24 
burrh 109 
but 79, 277 

calf 140 i b 
came 30 
ceas 259 iii 
c^nnan 259 v 
ceosan 178, 259 iii 
child 109 
childish 381 
children 61 
chin 161 

chiud O.H.G. 259 v 
choose 178 
Christian 192 
cildre 109 

citizenship 369 n. 1 
clamb Sc. 51 
cleave (adhere) 51 
cleave (split) 51 
climb 51 
comb 132 
come (part.) 30 
come 30, 140 i a, 156 
content (adj.) 288 
content (subst.) 288 
cow 9, 140 i a, 289 
crane 140 ii 
crap (vb.) Sc. 51 
creep 51 

cwelan p. 116 n. 1 
cyun 259 v 

dffid 260 
dags Go. 163 
dankbarkeit G. 286 
darling 286 
daughter 112 ii, 355 

day 163 

deed 112 ii 

dich G. 49 

dir G. 49 

do 96, 100, 135, 260 

dolmetscher G. 24 

dom 260 

door 135 

doubt 9 

doute 9 

ducker 287 n. 1 

eage 139 i a 

eahta 414 

ear 104 

earing 20 n. 2, 159 

eat 485 

eft 240 

eggs 61 

ehu O.S. 20 

eight 163, 414 

eke 177 

ell 146 

etum Go. 162 

ewe 172, 366 

eye 139 ia 

eyren 61 

fact 10 

fadar Go. 169 

fader 104 

fadrs (gen.) Go. 259 vi 

fadrum (dat. pi.) Go. 

259 \T 
fffider 104, 259 vi 
fsegen 397 
fagan O.L.G. 397 
faihu Go. 50 
fain 397 
fall 488 
fallow 403 
fangeu 10 
fangs Sc. 10 
farrow 147 
father 79, 80, 104, 130, 

162, 355 
fathom 81 
' fault 9 
i faut 9 
i faws Go. 177 

fearh 147 

fecht Sc. 484 

fee 50 

feet 50 

fell (subst.) 146 

fell 488 

felt (subst.) 390 

fCorSa 430 

feowertig 421 

few 130, 177 

fidwor Go. 130 

fif 139, 411 

fifta 431 

fiftig 421 

fight 484 

fill 30 

filled (past) 30 

film 146 

fimf Go. 139 i b 

fish 103 i 

fisks Go. 103 i 

five 139 1 b, 150, 411 

flat 77 

flechten G. 484 

flee 51, 130 

fliehen G. 130 

fly (vb.) 51 

foal 152 

fon 10 

foot 50, 100, 112 i a, 282, 

football 287 n. 1 
footer 287 n. 1 
foremost 394 
forleas 104 
forleosan 104 
forloren 104 
forluron 104 
forschen G. 483 a 
fot 289 
fotu Go. 156 
fotus Go. 100 
four 130, 139 i b 
fragile 9 
frail 9 

fraueuzimmer G. 299 
fresher 287 n. 1 
freshman 287 n. 1 
ful (foul) 168 
furh 153 



furlong 153 
furrow 153 
fm-ther 387 
fuss G. 112 i a 
fyrst 427 
fy«er- 139 i b 

gabaurljs Go. 153 

gaers 192 

gamunds Go. 25 

ganian 138 

gans Go. 100, 138 

gardener 355 n. 1 

gas 24 

gasts Go. 103 i, 106 i, 

p. 132 n. 1 
gaut Go. 179 
gawiss Go. 103 iii 
geard 378 
geboren 259 vi 
gebyrd 153 
gecoren 259 iii 
gemynd 25, 259 v 
genumen 259 iv 
geotan 138 
gerechtigkeit G. 286 
gerste G. 158 n. 3 
3esoden 104 
get 141 ii 
get-at-able 279 
gibai Go. 181 (1) 
gilagu O.S. 299 
gimmer 138 
ginan 138 
girs So. 192 
giutan Go. 138 
go 544 

goose 100, 138 
gowt 138 
grass 192 
greenish 381 
grey 279, 403 
grist 158 n. 3 
guest 103 i, p. 132 n. 1 
guma Go. 138 

hafts Go. 103 ii 
hail 146 
hairto Go. 100 
hale (vb.) 146 

hare 104 

harvest 139 ii 

base G. 104 

liaurn Go. 106 iv 

He (subst.) 277 

heall 139 ii 

heart 100, 134 

heavy 382 


hengest 20 n. 2 

hengst G. 20 u. 2 

hill 139 ii 

him 325 v 

hindmost 394 

history 93 

hither 325 v 

blienan 136 

hlffiw 136 

hliftus Go. 103 ii 

hlud 133, 146, 167 u. 3 

(H)ludwig G. 167 

hogshead 285 

hole 152 

horn 106 iv, 351 

hors 20 n. 2 

horse 482 b 

horselaugh 20 n. 1 

horseplay 20 n. 1 

hound 136 

hros O.H.G. 20 n. 2 

hulundi Go. 152 

bund 136 

hund( = 100) 423 

hundi-ed 104, 419 

bundteontig 423 

huzd Go. 191 

I 161, 327 


ich H.G. 112 i b 

idel (idle) 261 

idle 174 

ikL.G. 112 ib, 161 

in 149 

Innsbruck 112 ii 

Innspruck 112 ii 

is 161 

ist Go. G. 161 

kamm G. 132 

kidney 141 a n. 1 
kin 137, 157 
kinnus Go. 161 
Kirsteen 192 
kiusan Go. 178 
knabe G. 58 
knave 58 
knee 137 
knight 58 
kniu G