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Full text of "A short practical and easy method of learning the old Norsk tongue or Icelandic language after the Danish of E. Rask ; with an Icelandic reader, an account of the Norsk poetry and the sagas, and a modern Icelandic vocabulary for travellers"

ANNEX 



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Ex Li ns , FRANZ THEOI'S 
C. K. OGDEN 1 Series of 

SSICAL AND ORIENTAL GRAMMARS 

1 practical Method, with Exercises, Reading- 
Lessons and Dialogues. 

All uniform in siie 8vo. and neatly bound in Cloth. f g, d 

GERMAN GRAMMAR by Meissner. 10th Ed. ... 036 

Key to ditto, sewed .... 1 
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,, Key to ditto, sewed .... o 1 
ITALIAN GRAMMAR by Marchetti. 4th Ed 04 

Key to ditto, sewed ..,,..010 
SPANISH GRAMMAR by Salvo. 2nd Ed o 4 o 

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PORTUGUESE GRAMMAR by Cabano. 2nd Ed. ..04 
SWEDISH GRAMMAR by Lenstrom. 2nd Ed. . 4 <> 

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DUTCH GRAMMAR by Ahn. 2nd Ed 04 

RUSSIAN GRAMMAR by Alexandrow 040 

MODERN GREEK GRAMMAR by Vlachos .... 4 

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HEBREW GRAMMAR by Herxheimer 040 

Key to ditto 020 

LATIN GRAMMAR by Seidenstucker. 2nd Ed. ... 3 

Key to ditto 016 

The above Series ofGrammars, are written by various author's, on the 
plan laid down in Ahn's French Grammar published by Franz Thimm. 
The prevalent idea in these grammars is that of teaching a lan- 
guage easily and pleasantly, of adapting it to every capacity, of 
removing aft unecessary difficulties and at the same time of impar- 
ting the necessary grammatical knowledge. 




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TURKISH, RUSSIAN, ENGLISH and FRENCH Vocabu- 
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nave been carefully arranged, so as to make these Dialogues really useful. 
Published by Mr. FRANZ THIMM, Foreign Publisher, 

34 Brook Street, Grroavenor Square, Ixmdou. 



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published by 

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' 

Q 


6 
6 
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2 



t G 

1 G 
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2 o 
5 
2 
2 
5 
2 G 





5 

3 6 

2 

1 c. 

2 



3 

1 6 

2 6 

1 6 

3 6 



I G 



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FRANZ THIMM'S 

SERIES 



OF 



EUROPEAN GRAMMARS 



AFTER AN 



EASY AND PRACTICAL METHOD. 



PART XI. 
THE ICELANDIC LANGUAGE. 



3L Q 2ST 3D O 3ST : 
FRANZ THIMM, 

FOREIGN BOOKSELLER AND PUBLISHER. 
3 BROOK STREET, GROSVENOR SQUARE W. 

1868. 



A SHORT 
PRACTICAL AND EASY METHOD 

OF LEARNING THE 

OLD NORSK TONGUE 



OR 



ICELANDIC LANGUAGE 

AFTER THE DANISH 

OF 

E. RASE 

WITH AN ICELANDIC READER 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE NORSK POETRY AND THE SAGAS 

AND A MODERN ICELANDIC VOCABULARY FOR TRAVELLERS 

BY 

H. LUND. 

SECOND CORRECTED EDITION. 



IjOOXriD O3XT: 
FRANZ THIMM, 

FOREIGN BOOKSELLER AND PUBLISHER 

24 LATE 3. BROOK STREET, GROSVF.KOR SQUARE W. 

1869. 



PREFACE. 



The Old Norsk or Icelandic and the Anglo-Saxon may 
be termed the parents of the English Language, and their 
Knowledge is not only highly useful but absolutely necessary 
to every educated Englishman who looks upon his language with 
the eye of a historian and philosopher. Nothing is more interest- 
ing than to look back to these two sources from whence the 
english tongue is derived, and a thorough knowledge of Eng- 
lish is only possible by being acquainted with its 'origin. 

These languages together with Anglo-Norman, early Ger- 
man, ancient, medieval and modern English, ought to be 
regularly studied. 

By adapting Rask's abridgement we have indicated a simple 
method of learning Icelandic, which we hope will be found 
generally useful. 

The Editor. 






INDEX. 



PART I. 

Page 

I. The Pronunciation 1 

II. Modification of Vowels t> 

Inflection of Words & 

I. The Noun. 1st. Declension 8 

Una. . 9 

IHrd. . , . . 14 

Declension of Nouns with the Article 18 

II. Adjectives 20 

The Comparison of Adjectives 26 

HI. Pronouns 28 

Numerals 3 

IV. The Verb 34 

Auxiliary Verbs 49 

V. Particles 51 

The formation of Words 52 

Syntax 54 

Prepositions 55 

Prosody 56 

PART II. 

The Old Norsk Poetry and the Sagas 58-73 

PART HI. 
Icelandic Reader 74101 

PART IV. 

Modern Icelandic for Travellers . . 102-121 



PART I. 



The Pronunciation. 



The Alphabet. 

The Icelandic Alphabet is composed of the following letters 



p 


renunciation 


Pronunciation 


A a 


ah 


R r 


err 


B b 


bay 


S s 


s 


D d 


day 


T t 


tay 


E e 


a 


U u 


00 


F f 


eff 


V v 


vay 


^ g 


ghay 


X x 


iks 


H h 


hah 


Yy 


ue 


I i 


e 


Z z 


zet 


Ij 


yod 


P b 


th 


K k 


kah 


D 8 


dh 


L 1 


el 


M 83 


ae 


M m 


em 


(E 03 


oe (Danish 0, Ger- 


N n 


en 


man 


) 


o 





o- 


oe (German 0) 


P p 


pay 






1. 


The Old Norsk order of the vowels 


was the following 


Vowels Diphthongs 




a a 


<B 




au 


ey 




6 


ei 




i 


i 




o 6 


O3 




u u 







y * 


y 


Icelandic Grammar. 1 



2. 6' always open, as in the danish words: Doren, Idnne. 

3. e, the same as in the danish: bedre, Hest. Before the 
open e () an j is often added in the pronunciation, which 
generally receives the accent (') as: let (Ijet) lod, agreeing 
with the Danish sjette from seks, jeg from tyw. It is uncer- 
tain how far back into past ages this pronunciation may he 
traced. 

4. i, as in the danish vis, til, it comes near to the danish 
e in leve, and is both long aiid short. When it goes over into 
i, it sounds like the danish in Pil, vis, fire. 

5. o, always open, as the danish a, it is both long and 
short, as in: Bogen, os, komme; whilst 6 sounds like the danish 
in Os, Stol, stor, perhaps a little broader. 

6. M as in the danish words Bud, Hul, kun, long and 
short, in its transition to u it sounds like the danish Hus, 
Hul, brun. That this pronunciation of the M and u is the ge- 
nuine old norsk, is proved not only by all the northern lan- 
guages, but also by the Ferroe dialect, in which the correct 
sound has been maintainted to this day, f. i. 

oldnorsk-fcrroe danish 

kunna kunne 

Iritga kua kue. 

7. y as in the danish Byg, hyppe; it approaches a little to 
the danish e and is both long and short; changed into ^ it 
sounds like the danish Ely, Syre, flyde. That y was really dis- 
tinguished from z, is proved partly by the languages of the 
northern continent (Fastlands sprogene) partly by the Icelandic 
pronunciation of the day, which pronounces y in kyrr short, 
but the letter jf long: but more particularly by the circumstance, 
that the poets (skaldene) form a half-rhyme with t, as Fms. 6, 35. 

HersU'llis parf ek ht/lli, 
ha"lf eru void und Kalfi 

8. a like the danish av in Havre, greek, latin and italian 
au in aura with a clear a (not like the german au). 

9. a> almost like aj, so that the sound of a approaches 
the danish (e, and the sound of j somewhat resembles e (no3- 
sten ceje . 

10. au, as the danish tiw or ow, which is still the pro- 
nunciation of the northern au, it is very much like the german 
au: Auga, Auge, the eye. 



11. ey, as written, somewhat like tij, on northern monu- 
ments (Mindesmaerker) it was often written ey, resembling the 
german eu. That it was distinguished from ei is partly seen 
from the Ferroe in which ey is changed into oj, ei into aj, 
but more particularly from the old verses, in which ey with ei 
form a half-rhyme as: Fms. 7, 13. 

hvern feirra kva9 haerra 
(hjaldr-bliks) en sik miklu 
(beffi ofmikit eyftir 
a"ngr) makligra at hnga. 

12. ei like a broad e, in conjunction with t (or j) the 
e loses its open sound and adopts the close one, in which 
the sound of j is but little heard, on this account this diph- 
thong has sometimes been written e (not the german ei). 

i and 6 (see 4 et 5). 

13. GB (0) like a broad danish as pronounced by the 
people i 7a ; the j sound becomes faint and ends al- 
most with e (as in 0je). 

In many good and ancient Icelandic manuscripts this sound 
is blended (ibreblandet) with ce, and in the modern Icelandic 
language as (oe) has regularly changed into os (ae); in Ferroe 
it has changed into 0, as: srekja (s0kja) ferroe: sekja, sejc. 

u and ^ (see 6 et 7). 

14. The simple vowels, a, o', o, u are hard e, i, y, soft 
after g, k; the diphthongs formed with v are hard, as: d, au, 
6, u; those formed withy, are soft; as: ce, ey, ei, i, r?, y. 
f. i. kann, kottr, koma, kunna; alsorkdl, kaup, kol, 
kuga; but: kenni, kirkja, kyrki; and: k%rt, keypt, 
keipr, kif, kceli, ky>. 

15. The order of the Consonants is the following: 

1) soundless (silent) Consonants: 

Labial letter lingual letter palatal letter 

hard p, f, t, p, k, h, 

soft b, v, d, 5, g, j; 

2) liquids: 

m, n, 1, r, s, z. 

3) mixed: 

x (z) 
Of their pronunciation is to be remarked: 

16. f has a double sound, namely 1) like f in the be- 

1* 



ginning and when il is doubled, as in: fara, fra, vaff. 2) 
like a hard v in all other cases, as: haf, nal'n, hOfn, 
stefni, as seen in the Ferroe: Navn, Hovn, stevni, stevndi, 
stevnt. 

17. P (th) sounds like the english th in think, thought. 
It is only found at the beginning of a word, and is therefore 
never doubled. 9 (dh) sounds almost like the d in the danish 
words: med, Bad, Rdd, most like the english th in: bathe, 
father', it is heard more strongly rolling than other Consonants 
;is in: aQrir, o 5 last, feftrum, riQnir, faftrnar. It does 
not appear at the beginning of words and never doubles, but 
it changes indo dd, as: gle5 = gladdi, ry<5 = ruddi. 
The Ancients often wrote J) for 8, if the sense expressed its 
meaning, but they never wrote d for 9 before the 14 lh Century. 

18. k has 1) the hard sound as in the danish kan, 2) 
the soft sound >kj) as in kcert (14) but never aspirated as in 
the Swedish kdnner; nor has sk the aspirated sound as in the 
Swedish skdr or in the german word Scheere, but it is pronoun- 
ced like the danish skaere. 

19. g has 1) the hard sound as in gar; 2) the soft (gj) 
as in the danish Gcer (14); 3) an aspirated sound after vow- 
els or at the end of words or syllables, as the danish g in 
Sag, R#g etc. We recognise this from the fact that the Ancients 
always wrote in such cases gh, as: lOgh, vegh. But it never 
sounded like /, not even when followed by z, this is visible in 
the old verses, in which otherwise the half-rhyme would have 
either been corrupted or vanished altogether, as: Fms. 6, 23. 88. 

eig-i gaztu liftskost Idg-an . . . 
s$g ek or stfltum ceg-i . . . 

20. h is sounded at the beginning of words, also before 
j\ v, I, r, M, as: hjarta, hvat, hleB, bring, hnoQa. 

21. nw, has a very peculiar hard sound after diphthongs, 
like dn, as: sleinn (sleidn) fra"nn, konn, hunn; but not 
if nn is joined to diphthongs as a compound, as: a-nni, 
ku-nni, in such a case and after single vowels nn is pro- 
nounced as usual. 

22. // has a similar hard pronunciation after all vowels 
and diphthongs, and sounds like dl, as: kail, ill, ill, fill, 
full, full; but it loses a great deal of its hardness when 
followed by t, d, s, as: allt, felldi, fulls. 



23. rn sounds very hard and short, almost, like <ln or 
more correctly like rdn, as; barn, burn, horn, it, is ihnv- 
fore often J'onnd in defective modern manuscript:-; or hooks 
xteirn, seirn for steinn, seinn. rl sounds likewise hard and 
t ; hort, almost like dl or more correctly like rdl; on this account 
one often linds jarl and jail, karl and kail, kerlingand 
k ell ing. 

24. s is always hard, like the Danish or like the gernian 
ft (sz), never soft like the german f. 

25. z always sounds like s and is only used as an ety- 
mological sign for s, when a t, rf, or 9 has dropped as: veiz- 
la for veitsla, islenzkr for islendskr, gerzkr for </eroWiT. 
In old manuscripts they made use of z sometimes as an abbre- 
viation of ss, sometimes of st, about in the same manner 
in which the greek 'C stood for ad, in modern and good edi- 
tions the use has been restricted, to specify distinctly the two 
pronunciations and derivations. 

26. a? always sounds hard, like ks or gs with a hard g 
and s, as: lax, sex, Ox, uxi, (never like gs as in the frencli 
word exact,. 

27. The old Norsk pronunciation was altogether broad, 
rich in sound (klangfuld) logical and precise. A vowel before 
a simple consonant is rather long, whether the consonant be 
hard or soft, as: ek (1. ask) or eg (1. Beg), set (I. sret) , las 
(1. las; to express the short sound, the consonant is doubled, 
as: egg, sett, hlass. 

Even vowels are shortened in the pronunciation if a con- 
sonant is added, as: 

h of- uft has a long -- hof9i a short and sharp one. 
her, slar - - - e berja, Dat. bar3i, has a short one. 
vil - - - i -- vilja, vildi 

28. To the syllable belong all consonants which follow a 
vowel, as: ask-a, sett-u, hii I'8-in-u, vild-i, marg-ir, 
best- a r. According to this rule the words are abbreviated at 
the end of a line. 

29. Exceptions are / and w, which belong to the vowel 
following these letters, as: legg-jum, bOgg-va, the letter r, 
also never attaches itself to the preceding vowel, except, when 
it becomes altogether blended with the vowel as: steinn, 
gncnn, hsell, full, it is generally read with the next vowel, 



as: ve5-rit, ve3-f, al-f, set-r; such an r will always in 
future be thus accented f. 

30. The principal accent is constantly on the first syllable 
of the word as: ver-ald-ar-inn-ar; the secondary accent, 
lies on the penultimate in words of three or four syllables as: 
(Jpp -lend-in g-ar, vin-itta, svaraSi, not on the last syl- 
lable, except in composed words, ending in a monosyllabic: 
koniingson. 



II. 
Modification of Vowels. 

The Modification of vowels plays an important part in the 
declension and derivation of the Old Norsk Language. It is 
of a double kind. 

31. a) a into d in the principle syllable of a word if it 
ends in u, as: aska, tisku. Sometimes even if u is dropped 
as: blaft, Plural blo9, leaves. Jafn, jofn. Reversed: 

32. 0' into a % if the termination be a, as: <3gn, agnar, 
sometimes before ir or with shortened terminations in compounds 
or derivations, as: agnir, jarSvegr, jar8neskf. 

33. b) Before endings in , /, or r, even if these letters 
are left out: 

a into e: land, lendi nafn, nefni; 

e: grOf, gef so'k, sekr; 

ja i: bjart, birti djarl't, dirfist; 

J8 i: hjOr5, hir5ir hjOrn, birni; 

e i: regn, rignir hverfi, hvirfill; 

a ce: r5, ra3<5r nd. nai; 

au ey: raun, reyni draup, dreypi; 

o y: son, synir of, yfir; 

u ij: gu9, gy8ja full, fylli; 

u y\- hiis, hysi -- pnitt, pr^Qi; 

jo J: bj69a, by8r hlj65, hly9i; 

ju J: fljuga, n^gf djiipt, dj^pra; 

6 o? (ce): kl6, kloer b6t, boati. 

o sometimes, although rarely into e, as: 
hnot, hnetr -- tro9a, tre8r; 
koma, kemr of, efra, efst. 



34. In the oldest norsk language there were long and 
single vowels before ng, nk, these changed according to the 
above rule, as: langt, longu, lengi, in latter times these 
vowels were modified into diphthongs and changed thus: 
langt, laungu, leingi. 

35. Sometimes there is no modification even if i follows, 
nor if even the vowel on other occasions is changed in its 
root, as : land, Dativ e 1 a n d i ; 

nafn, - nafni, and j>a"nki, thought 
kappi, fighter, although: ek peinki, / think, ek keppisf, 
/ fight are used. The reason of this appears to be that in 
such cases the vowel of the termination was not i but e, as 
we frequently find it in manuscripts thus: lande, nafne, fianke, 
kappe. 

36. In the same way o is often found in terminations 
instead of u, particularly, so it appears, if the chief syllable 
received no modification of this kind, as: ero, v^ro, pin- 
gom etc. But according to rule, there is a difference in 
such endings between e and t, o and . 

37. There are many kinds of modification in the conju- 
gation of the verbs, which will be mentioned in the proper place. 

38. Amongst the consonants change: 

ndt into tt as: batt, bandt; salt, sandt. 
ngk kk sprakk, sprang; ekkja, Enke. 

39. nr into tin as: steinn, steinr; seinn, seinr; seinna, 
sein-ra. 

Ir into ll t as: holl, for hdlr, saslli for scpl-ri. 

40. v is dropped at the beginning of words before o, , 
y and r, as: verfl, var5, ur8u, yr5i, or 8 it; as also: hverf, 
hvarf, hurfu, hyrfi, h or fit; ringt, vrangt, reiSi, Vrede, 
But we iind that the Ancients frequently did not drop the t>, 
as: vurQu, vyr5i, vor5it. 



Inflection of Words. 

1. The Noun. 

41. Nouns are divided into two orders, the open and the 
dosed; the one is more simple in its inflection, the other more 
complex. 

The first has but one declension, the second has two. 
Each has three genders. The Neuter is the most simple. 

Open Order. 

42. First Declension. 

the eye the sunbeam the tongue 
Neuter. Masculine. Feminine. 

Sing. Nom. auga, geisli, tiinga 

Ace. Dat. Gen. auga, geisla, tiingu (o) 

Plural Nom. augu (o), geislar, tungur (or), 

Ace. augu (o), geisla, tungur (or), 

Dat. augum (om), geislum (om), tungum (om),, 
Gen. augna geisla tiingna 

43. Nouns, whose chief letter is a, change a into & be- 
fore the terminations in u (31): 

hjarta, Plural, D. hjOrtum, (the heart) 

kappi - koppum, (the champion) 

saga, A. D. G. sogu - sogur, sOgum, (the saga) 

on the other hand a changes into u in the following syllables,, 

as: harpari, hdrpurum; leikari, leikurum. 

44. Some masculine substantives ending in ingi, take a 
j in all other cases, as: 

ho('5ingi, hofftingja, hofSingjar the captain; 
illvirki, illvirkja the illdoer; 
vili, vilja will. 

45. Masculines ending in andi form their plural irregularly, 
f. i. buaudi, which word is at the same time contracted, ast 
Sing. Nom. buandi (the yeoman) b6ndi, (e) 

Ace. Dat. Gen. biianda bonda, 

Plur. Nom. Ace. buendr, boendi 1 , baendr, 

Dat. buOndum, -endum, b6ndum, b^ndum,, 

Gen. buanda, -enda bonda, baenda. 



9 

46. The words herra and sfra (germ. Ilerr, english Siro, 
father) which were used hefore Christian names of Priests 
and Provosts (Sira Ami, The Revd. Mr. Arnei, are the only 
masculines ending in a, they only differ from geisli in the 
Nominative. 

47. Some Feminities take in the plural not -na but only 
-a, as in the Nom. Sing, as: Una, kanna, skepna, lilja, 
gySja, vara. 

48. The subst. kona (Queen), woman, changes in the 
Gen. plural into kvenna (wife); the word kvinna remains 
sometimes in this case unchanged by ancient writers, the 
moderns always use kvenna. 



Closed Order. 

49. This Order embraces not only the words ending in 
consonants, but also those ending in i and u. Ten masculine 
substantives ending in i of the first Declension, ought to end in e. 

This order is divided in two declensions, to the first be- 
long the words ending in consonants and in , to the second 
belong those ending in a pure sounding u. 

50. Second Declension. 

N. M. F. 

Sing. Nom. land (land) braridr (brand) for (journey) 
Ace. land brand for 

Dat. landi (e) brandi (e) for 

Gen. lands brands farar 

Plnr. Nom. lOnd brandar farir (ar) 

Ace. lOnd braiida farir (ar) 

Dat. lOndum brondum forum 

Gen. landa branda fara. 

51. When there is neither a nor d', no modification oc- 
<;urs, as: skip (ship), skip urn kontingr (king), ko nun- 
gum eign (property), eign, eignar, eignir, eignum. 
only one word has two forms, namely: 

Sing, dagf (the day) Dat. degi, 
Plnr. dagar - dOguni. 

52. The letter r dissolves when n or I precede, into nn and 
II, as in steinn (the stone) instead of stein r, hsell (heel) 
instead ofhp,lr, and in longer words as: drottinn (master). 



10 

lykill (key). Sometimes the i of the Dative drops in the 
words ending in II as: 

hsel, h61 for haeli, h61i. 

In the last radical letters r and s the use fluctuates be- 
tween r and rr, s and ss. forr, herr, hauss, iss, oss, is 
often found because of little consequence. 

Both kinds of words, if they are monosyllabic in the Norn, 
lose the i in the Dative, as: her, is, for heri, fsi. 

The r is altogether dropped after n and I when it comes 
into collision with other consonants as in: vagn, hrafn, 
fugl, karl (Nom. and Ace.) also after s and ss, as in ha" Is, 
kross (in the Nom. Ace. and Gen.). 

53. Words in two syllables are contracted when the pro- 
nunciation allows it, as: 

Neut. suinar (summer), sumri Plnr. sumur sumrum, sumra. 

hdfu5 (head), hOfSi, hOfSum, hotSa. 
Masc. hamri, hamrar, hamra, hOmrum 

drottni, drottnar lykli, lyklar etc. 
Some words receive an uncommon vowel in the contracted 
forms, as: 
me gin, might, power; D. magni, G. megins. PL megiu or 

mOgn (as: goSmOgn), D. mognum, G. magna. 
g. m. ketill (kettle), D. katli, Plur. katlar, A. katla, D. ktttlum, 

g. f. alin (the ell-measure) G. lnar, - a" Inir, a" Inum, A Ina 

54. To the contracted belong the Mascul. jo fur r, fjOt- 
urr, they keep 6 throughout jofri, fjotri Plur. jOfrar, 
fjOtr ar. 

The others of this class of all three genders have only 
an r by the ancient writers (not ur or urr), they must not 
therefore be looked upon as contracted, as: 
Neu. silfr (silver), silfri, 
Mas. akr (acre), akri, Plur. akrar, 
Fern. fjoSr (feather) fjaftrar, Plur. fjaSrir (ar) fjo5rum, fjaSra. 

55. The polysyllabic neuters ending in -a5, -an or the fern. 
ending in an are not contracted, as: 

Sing. Nom. Ace. mannlikan (human being) skipan (order), 

Dat. mannlikani skipan 

Gen. mannlikans skipanar (-onar) 

Plur. Nom. Ace. mannlikun (on) skipanir, 

Dat. mannlikunum (onum) skipunum (onom) 

Gtn. mannlikana skipana. 



11 



56. Some words of this declension allow a j or v to creep 
in before terminations which begin with a vowel, not however 
j before i, rarely v before u. This seems to be a remnant of 
terminations in i or u which were originally in these words. 

57. The inserted letter v protects a preceding 6' (or au) 
from changing into a or a (see $ 32) if it terminates in a it 
lias the same effect as u. In the Plural of the Fern, the in 
serted v takes Ihe old termination in ar 

Sing. Nom. fiw (fra?) 

Ace. froB 

Dat. frojvi 

Gen. frees 
Plural Nom. frre 

Ace. free 

Dat. fro'vum (om) 

Gen. fruna; 



saungr or 

saung or 

satingvi oru (Or) 

saungs orvar 

saungvar orvar 

saungva Orvar 

saungum (om) Orum (om) 
saungva ; r\a. 

58. The inserted letter j requires the. Masculine to drop 
the entire termination (ji) in the Sing. Dat. and to take in 
the plural ir Ace. i. but the feminine always takes the or, so 
that it terminates in jar, as; 

Sing. Nom. nes (neck of land) dreingf ben (wound} 

Ace. nes dreing hen 

Dat. nesi dreing ben 

Gen. ness dreings benjar 

Plural Nom. nes dreingir benjar 

Ace. nes dreingi benjar 

Dat. nesjum dreingjum ben. j urn 

Gen. nesja; dreinja; benja. 

59. But there are a number of masculines with simple von els 
or consonants before r, which also drop the * in the Sing. Dal. 
who take in the Nom. and Ace. Plur. ir, and i without insert- 
ing j equally a number of fern, ending in -ing, -ung or 
in r (or i) which lake ar in the plural without the insertion 



of either v or j as : 

Sing. Nom. dal'r (dale) 

Ace. dal 

Dat. dal 

Gen. dais 

Plur. Nom. dalir 

Ace. dali 

Dat. dolum 

Gen. dala ; 



(] rot Ining (queen) 

drottuing 

drottningu 

droltningar 

drottningar 

droltningar 

drottningum 

drottninga ; 



[hunt) 

veiS'r (veiSi) (chase, 

vei5i 

vei8i 

veiSar 

veiQar 

fetffw 

veiSum 

veiSa. 



12 

But dali is sometimes found in the Dat. (f. i. Harbar5sl. 18) 
even in the Plur. Herdalar (Hk. 2, 8) likewise in the Swedish; 
toru8r has in the Plural bruSir. 

60. Some words resemble the third declension as they ter- 
minate in the Sing. Gen. in ar, otherwise they are declined like 
brandr, dreingr or dalf. To the former belong: hattf, 
kraptf (kraftr) grautr, sk6gr, vindr in the language of 
the old bards vegr. To the latter belong: belgr, mergf, 
leggf, hryggr, verkr, reykf, laekr, drykkr and boer, 
therefore: hoe jar, boejum, boeja with inserted j, which is 
strictly observed by all good ancient authors; of the latter kind 
are mostly found: staftr, sau9r, bragf, vegf (sometimes 
in the Ace. vegu), rettr, vinf (or vin) hugr, hlutf, 
munf (difference) and all those ending in -naSr (-nwor) and 
-skapr, which occur however rarely in the plural. 

61. The neuter terminating in -i, and the masc. terminat- 
ing in -ir, drop the i before the terminations: -urn, -ar, -a, 
except those having g or Ar before them, these change i into/. 

The feminine ending in a pure i remains unchanged in 
Sing, but takes ir in the Plural: 

Sing. Nom. kvjeSi merki lajknir gefi 

Ace. Dat. kvsefti merki Isekni ?efl 

Gen. kvrcSis merkis laBknis sefi 

flnr. Nom. kva?9i merki Uekn-ar aefir 

Ace. kvee5i merki la?kn-a <efir 

Dat. kva39-um merkjum laekn-um a3f-um 

Gen. kvai9-a; merkja; la?kn-a; ref-a. 

Eyrir (Danish: en Ore) an ear, forms the plural in 
aurar 



aura 
aurum 



but eyri a low beach, has in the 
Gen. Plural eyrar. 



aura 

helgi, holiness, holiday, Sunday, forms Gen. Plur. helgar. 
62. Others again from all three genders have many irre- 
gularities. Thus the neuter leeti, sound, forms Dat. Plur. la- 
tum, Gen. 1 At a. Some neuters become feminine in the Plural, as: 

Singular: Plural: 

1 i m , brushwood 1 i m a r , branches, 

tSl, fraud talar, frauds, 

eing (Dan. en Eng) meadow eingjar, meadows, 

mund, time mundir, times, 

busund (Dan. Tusende) thousand piisundir, thousands. 



13 

The word froefti, knowledge, is in the Singular feminine 
and remains unchanged, like n-fi; but in the Plural it is 
neuter and is declined like kv;e8i. 

63. Some neuters are Ibund in the Norn, and Ace. with 
and without the termination in -t, as: eing and eingi; 
fullting (Dan. Hjrolp) help; and fulltfngi; sinn, and 
sinni, the longer form belongs to the modern Icelandic 
language, but often appears in modern copies of old manu- 
scripts. 

64. The Masculine gu8, which drops the r in the Nom.. 
and forms the Plur. in gu9ir, is distinguished from the Neuter 
go 5 (heathen image) Plur. go 8. Many words ending in i 
and r form the Plur. in -ar, as: 

kffirleikf, kaerleik, or kterleiki, kaerleika; 
Plural kxrleikar. 

sannleikf, sannleiki; Plural sannleikar. 
The forms -leiki are common in the modern language. The 
new form often gives a new signification as: 

oddr, a point, oddi a neck of land; 

munnr (Dan. Mund) mouth munni, mouth of river ; 

karl, an old man Karli, male name ,,Charles". 
Some differ altogether: 

bragr (= sta8r 60) a poem Bragi, male name; 

hugr, will hugi, sense, thought and male name Hugo; 

hlutr, an ounce, thing hluti, a part. 
It happens sometimes that words are similar to these termina- 
tions, without being related together, as: 

bolr (= dalr) block boli, bull; 
h a g ) , condition h a g i , garden, 

It is rare that the neuter of this declension changes into the 
masc. of the former, by taking the termination of f; as: 

1 1 n i iik and 6maki (Gylfaginning 12) fainting fit; 

mal, speech formdli, tale; 

verk, work verki, writing, poem, 

with the exception of those which lose at the same time their 
entire signification, as: 

land, land landi, countryman; 

bii (Dan. Bo), furniture bui, neighbour; 

hofu5 (Dan. Hoved) head hOfSi, Cape; 

norSr (Dan. INorden) north Nor Sri, name of a dwarf. 



14 

65. The other irregular Masculines are: 

Sing. Norn, skor (shoe) dorr (spear ) ma3'r (man) fing'r (finger} 

Ace. sk6 dor mann fing'r 

Dat. sko dOr manni fingri 

Gen. sk6s dors manns fing'rs 

Plur. Nom. skiiar derir menn fing'r 

Ace. skua deri menn fing'r 

Dat. skom dorum mOnnum fingrum 

Gen. skua; darra; manna; fingra. 
The moderns contract skor in the Plural Nom. sk6r, 

Ace. sk6, Gen. skda. 

66. Irregular feminines are: 

sal, the soul, Dat. s^ilu Plural salir, Gen. sain a, 

also in the Gen. Sing, salu, particularly found in compounds, 
as: saluhjalp. 

grein forms the Plural in greinir and sometimes greinar,. 

ey, island, Dat. eyju or ey, Plur. eyjar now eya is> 
generally used in Iceland after the 1 st Declension. Monosyllables 
ending in a, which come in contact with an a or u following, 
generally supplant them by , as: bra, eyebrow, Gen. brir r 
Plur. brar, Dat. bram, Gen. bra. Some derivatives with 
these endings remain unaltered in the Sing, by the ancients- 
as: dsja, care. 

Third Declension. 

67. This declension embraces all those words ending in 
u or v, which are however frequently dropped or in some other 
manner obscured. There are but few neuters, all of which end 
in e (for eu), the Masc. end in the Sing, in -or, Plur. -M\ 
Fern, of the Sing, in -ar, or -r, form the Plural in -r: 

N. M. F. [(wood) 

Sing. Nom. Ire (tree) viillur (field) fjor8ur(6a?/) r6t (root) mOrk 

Ace. tre vdll fjOrft rtit mOrk 

Dat. tre velli fir5i r6t mOrk 

Gen. tres vallar fjar^ar r6tar merk'r 

Plur. Nom. tre vellir fir5ir roet'r merk'r 

Ace. tre vollu fjOrQu roet'r merk'r 

Dat. trjam vOllum fjor5um r6tum mOrkum 

Gen. trja; valla; fjarSa; r6ta; marka. 



15 

68. Like tre are declined kne; two words hie and spe 
do not occur in the Plural. It was only in the fifteenth Cen- 
tury that the Icelanders began to pronounce the e in these 
words like je (instead of a?) wherefore we meet in good editions 
of old works the reading tre, tres etc. Plur. Dat. and Gen. 
contracted for trjavum, trjava. 

The word f e, cattle, goods, money, is irregular in the Gen. 
Sing.; we find fjar instead of fjavar; but ve, sanctuary, 
temple (from which OSinsve, Odense) is declined, like land 
or skip after the 2 nd Declension. 

69. The Masculines we find sometimes only written with 
r (instead of Mr) , it not being observed that the termination 
in u was the reason for writing 6', as in the Dat. Plural. 

Therefore hvalf with a, because the ris only distinguished 
by an ' from the root. 

But kjolur with 6, because the ending contains u. The 
Accus. Plural of all these words has a double form , partly 
ending in t, agreeing with the Nom. Plural as: velli, firQi, 
partly ending in -w, agreeing with the Dative Plural, and 
this form is the old genuine one. Several kinds of modi- 
fications are to be noticed, although some words do not modify 
by reason of their nature. 

Siny. Nom. sonur (son) drattur (drawing) viSur (wood, forest) 

Ace. son dratt vi5 

Dat. syni dratti vi5i 

Gen. sonar drattar viSar 

Plur. Nom. synir drsettir viQir 

Ace. (syni) (drfetti) (vidi) 

sonu drattu vi9u 

Dat. sonum drattum vi8um 

Gen. sona; dratta; vi5a. 

Irregular are these two: 

Sing. Nom. fotur (foot) vet'r (for vetr-ur) (winter) 

Ace. f6t vet'r (for vetr-u) 

Dat. foeti vetri 

Gen. ftitar vetrar 

Plur. Nom. Ace. fretf vet'r (for vetr-'r) 

Dat. f6tum vetrum 

Gert. fota; vetra. 



16 

70. The feminines of this declension have also several 
kinds of modification of vowels; some cannot be modified, 
some have a doubled form of declension after this or the for- 
mer specimen, as: 

Present Declension : Former Declension : [stock) 

Sing. Nom. Ace. hnot(miJ) staung mOrk(w?ood) staung (stake, 

Dat. hnot staung mOrku staling 

Gen. hnotar steingr markar stangar 

Plur. Nom. Ace. hnetr steingr markir stangir 

Dat. hnotum staungum morkum staungum 

Gen. hnota ; stanga ; marka ; stanga. 

The modification in staung, steingr is in reality the 
same, as in mOrk, merkf (67) as it is merely a mechanical 
consequence of ng, the 6' changes into au and e into ei, we 
also often find stOng, stangar, stengf (34). 

The words which are declined in two ways like mork 
and staung are chiefly the following: 

strond (strand), rOnd (edge) spaung, taung, haunk. 
A difference of signification is only accidental, as: 

ond, Plur. endr the duck Ond, Plur. andir, a spirit,. 

ghost (dan.: en And.) 

Strond, rOnd, Ond receive in the Geti. Sing, always stran- 
dar, randar, andar; so that Ond, spirit, differs only in 
one case in the singular, and two cases in the Plural from 
Ond, duck, Dat. Sing. Ondn, Nom. and Ace. Plur. andir. 

71. Some accented monosyllables deviate by contraction, 
if the. final syllable begins with a vowel, so that d absorbs 
a, u but 6, u, absorbs only the u; as: 

t3, ten, G. tar (for tar) Plur. tser, D. tarn (for taum) 
klo, claw, G. kl6ar Plur. klrer, kl6m, k!6a 
a, sheep (hunfur), Gen. Plur. <e r. 
ku, cow, G. kyr Plur. kyr. 

These forms ser and kyr we find in the modern language given 
to the Sing. Nom. ; so that both these words are in the Sing. 
Nom. and Plur. Nom. and Ace. the same. 

Others blend the r of the Plural with the final letter, 
as brun, Plur. brynn (Egilss. S. 306 and in the Edda Hel- 
gakv. Haddsk. 19) now we say bryn, or bryr; mfis forms 
the Plur. in myss or mys; dyrr or dyr, door, is only found 



17 

in the Plural and forms the Dat. and Gen. durum, dura 
or dyrum, dyra. 

The following are still more irregular : 

3 ing. Nom. Ace. hOnd (hand) na"tt or nott (night) 

Dat. hendi na*tt n6ttu 

Gen. bandar nAttar naBtr (no-tr) 

Plur. Nom. Ace. hendr na?tr (noelr) 

Dat. hOndum nttum n6ttum 

Gen. handa; n;ittu; notta. 

72. Some of the names of relations ending in -j'r, would 

require a separate declension, if there were not so few, 
namely: 

father brother daughter sister 

Sing. Nom. fa9ir brofrr d6ttir systir 

Ace. Dat. Gen. fi)5ur broQur dottur systur 

Plur. Nom. Ace. fefir broeQr doetr systr 

Dat. fe5rum broeSrum doetrum systrutn 

Gen. fe8ra; brreSra; doetra; syslra. 

Like brodir is declined m65ir, mother. 
We find in the Ancients the Dat. Sing, of fa9ir, fe8i, 
of bro5ir, 



73. We also find in the Ancient language some peculiar 
names of relatives with different terminations, which embrace 
two and more persons in one name, and which occur there- 
fore only in the plural ; if the two persons are of different 
genders, they are in the neuter: 

hjon, man and woman; 

systkin, brother and sister; 

hju, youth and girl, or man and woman; 

f eft gin, father and daughter; 

m oe 3 g i n , mother and son ; 

fe5gar, father and son; 

moe8gur, mother and daughter. 

To these belongs also born, the only one which ako occurs 
in the Singular, barn (=land); only fe3gar is masc. and 
moeQgur, fern. (= tiingur) Gen. moeftgna. 



Icelandic Grammar. 



18 



Declension of Nouns with the Article. 

74. In the declension of the noun with the article hit r 
hinn, hin, both retain their endings unaltered, so that both 
combined have a double declension. The article is thus 
declined : 

Sing. Nom. hit hinu hin 

Ace. hit hinn hina 

Dat. hinu hinum hinni 

Gen. hins bins hinnar 

Plur. Nom. hin hinir hinar 

Ace. hin hina hinar 

Dat. hinnum 

Gen. hinna 

The h is continually dropped when the article is com- 
pounded with a substantive ending in a short vowel, a, i, u y 
the -i is also dropped after every polysyllabic word ending 
in -r. 

75. The substantives when used with the article drop 
the m of the Dative Plural, they end therefore in u, whilst the 
article drops -hi. 

First Order. 

Sing. Nom. hjarta-t (heart) andi-nn (spirit) gata-n (road} 

Ace. hjarta-t anda-nn gotu-na 

Dat. hjarta-nu anda-num gtftu-nni 

Gen. hjarta-ns anda-ns gOtu-nnar 

Plur. Nom. hjOrtu-n andar-nir gOtur-nar 

Ace. hjOrtu-n anda-na gOttir-nar 

Dat. hjortu-num ondu-num gOtu-num 

Gen. hjartna-nna; anda-nna; gatna-nna 

76. It must be borne in mind with respect to the 2 nd and 
3 rd Order where the i in the Dat. of masc. subst. is wangtin 
they do not take the i of the Article either, as: 

dreingr-inn, dreingnum; dalrinn, dalnum. r -t) 
But those which can take an t keep it, as: isinum, better 
than isnum; stolinum (Snorra-Edda 114) better than 
st61num. 



Ace. skip-it 


koniing-inn 


eign-ina 


Dat. skipi-nu 


konungi-num 


eign-inni 


Gen. skips-ins 


koniings-ins 


eignar-innar 


Nom. skip-in 


komingar-nir 


eignir-nar 


Ace. skip-in 


koniinga-na 


eignir-nar 


Dat. skipu-num 


konungu-num 


eignu-num 


Gen. skipa-nna; 


konunga-nna; 


eigna-nna. 



19 

77. Second Order. 

N. M. F. 

Sing. Nom. skip-it (ship) konungr-inn (king) eign-in (property) 



Plur. 



78. The r before a vowel is pronounced with it and loses 
its half sound, as: silf-rit, malm-rinn, fjoQ-rin. 

79. All the contracted and irregular forms remain as they 
are, as: 

degi-num, katli-num, salu-nni, filnar-innar; 
i retains its half-sound before n, as: boendf-nir, fingr-na. 
Only m a 5 r (65) adds in the Nom. Plur. -ir. and in the Ace. 
-*', therefore: mennir-nir (rarely mennin nir), menni-na. 

80. The monosyllabic feminine often expels the hi of the 
article in the Ace. Sing, as: 

for-na, instead of ftfr-ina, grOfna inst. of grOf-ina 
(Snorra-Edda, 138); reicf-na for rei5-ina; hudna 
for huQina (Snorra-Edda 144). 

81. In case the substantive be a monosyllable, ending in. 
a long vowel or double sound (Tvelyd) the i of the article is 
retained if the word remains monosyllabic, but it is left out 
if the word becomes trisyllabic as: 

skra-in, skra-na, skrtf-nni; 

ey-in, ey-na, ey-nni (thus also eyju-nni 66). 

82. Third Order. 

N. 
Sing. 



Plur. 



N. 


M. 


F. 


Nom. kne-i't (knee) 
Ace. kne-it 
Dat. kne-nu 


kjolr-iim (keel) 
kjol-inn 
kili- mini 


b6k-in (book) 
b6k-ina 

link-Mini 


Gen. knes-ins 
Nom. kne-in 


kjalar-ins 
kilir-nir 


b6kar-innar 
botikf-nar 


Aec. kne-in 
Dat. knja-num 
Gen. knja-nna; 


kjolu-na 
kjolu-num 
kjala-nna ; 


bo'kf-nar 
b6ku-num 
b6ka-una. 






2* 



20 

83. The more modern form tre8 for tre'it is yet found 
in good manuscripts. 

84. On the whole the irregularities before the article re- 
main as in the second Order, as: mysnar, dyrnar, or in 
the Neuter dyrrin; but brynnar, with two, not three n 
(Snorra-Edda 50) is used. 



11. Adjectives. 

85. The Adjective agrees much with the noun, but by no 
means in so perfect a manner as in greek or latin. 

Joined to the article, which precedes the adjective, it 
makes an imperfect declension, which is termed the ,,definite 
form", resembling the first order of the noun, only that its 
plural is much simpler, as it always ends in u, leaving to the 
article its further definition. Without an article the adjective 
has quite a different and perfect declension, which is termed 
the indefinite form" resembling the closed form of the noun in 
its second declension. For there is no Adj. in which the Plur. 
n. g. ends in -e, or the m. g. Ace. Plur. in -w, or the f. g. 
Plur. in r. This is the more primitive form and has therefore 
the precedent. 

Both forms distinguish three genders, and they resemble 
therefore the six classes of the declension of the noun. 

86. Spakt may serve as a complete Paradigm: 



Indefinite Form. 

N. M. ^ 
Sing. Nom. spak-t (wise) spak-f 
Ace. spak-t spak-an 
Dat. spOk-u spOk-um 


F. 

spdk 
spak-a 
spak-ri 

spak-rar 
spak-ar 
spak-ar 


Gen. 
Plur. Nom. spb'k 
Ace. spdk 


spaks 
spak-ir 
spak-a 


Dat. 

Gen. 


spdkum 
spakra. 





21 

Definite Form. 

Sing. Norn, spaka spaki spaka 

Gen. Dat. Ace. spaka spaka spOku 

Plur. Nom. Ace. spOku 

Dat. spttku or spttkum 

Gen. spokii. 

87. Although the adjective has but one declension there 
are several exceptions to be observed which occur through the 
joining of the final syllable with the root. 

II 1 the last radical letter be 8 preceded by a vowel or a 
diphthong, it absorbs in the n. g. with t to tt as: 

glatt, glaSr, gli)5 glossy, bright; 

breitt, brei8f, brei8 broad; 
in one case, the accent is lost, namely in 

gott, g68r, go8 (good). 
If a consonant precedes, the 8 is altogether dropped: 

hart, har8r, hor8 (hard) sagt, sag8r, sOg8 (said) 

haft, hafSr, h5f8 (clever) 
The same in dissyllabic words, if a vowel precedes: 

kallat, kalla8r, kullu8; 

lagit, Iagi8r, Iagi8 (for kalla8t, Iagi8t). 
Also d after a consonant as: 

vant, vandf, vo'nd (difficult) selt, seldf, seld; 

geymt, geymdf, geymd. 

gladt, gladdf , gliidd (glad) breidt, breiddi, 

breidd (broad) moedt, mu'ddf, moedd (tired). 
If the word ends in tt, no further t is added in the n. g. but 
the form becomes similar to the feminine, as: 

sett, settf, sett moett, moettf, moett 
In weaker consonants the gender may part as: latt, lattf, 
1 o 1 1 , nor can it be distinguished in' the n. g. from a similar 
word with single t, as: 

latt, latf, lot (lazy) hvatt, hvattr, hvOtt and 

hvatt, hvatf, hvOt (hasty). 

88. The adjectives, the root of which end in an accented 
vowel, deviate in so far that they double the -t in the n. g., 
the -r in the f. g. in the terminations -ri and -rar, the -ra 
in the Gen. Plur., and often the -s in n. and m. g. Gen. Sing, as 



22 

brtt, brr, br, bra'ss, bra"rrar, pra"rra; 

auQsaett, au3saer, au9see (clear). 

mj6tt, mj6r, mj6 (delicate, narrow) trutt, trur, 
tru (true) 

nytt, nyr, ny, nyss etc. (new) 

Those with -a, are sometimes contracted if followed hy a or , 
which are swallowed up by a, as: 

bla" for blau bla"n for bHan bHm for blum. 
Likewise in the definite form, as: 

hinn gra"i, Ace. hinn gra", Dat. hinum gra", Gen. bins 

gra\ The contracted forms belong to the modern Icelandic 
and are scarcely written in old Manuscripts. The ancient lan- 
guage therefore sometimes inserts f (or v) to escape the con- 
traction, as: 

ha"tt, h^r, ha" (high) -- m. g. Ace. ha" fan, Dat. ha"fum, 

ha"fom (or hm); def. form hSfa, hafi, hafa, hdfu. 

mj6fa, mj6fan, mj6fum; def. form mj6fa, mj6fi etc. 
The word nytt inserts j before all vowels, with the exception 
of i, as: nyju, nyjan. 

89. Some adjectives insert / or v after the last con- 
sonant, without altering the declension, these resemble the 
nouns in 57 and 58, as: 

dokkt (dokt), dflkkr, ddkk (dark); 

Plur. dokk, dokkvir (dOcqvir), dokkvar; 

Def. form: dokkva, dokkvi, dokkva. 
The only adjective which inserts j correctly is : 

mitt, mi5r, mi8 therefore: 

mi5jan, mi5ja, mi8ju, mi5jum, miQri. 

In some words the last radical letter of which is g or k, 
a j is sometimes inserted before a or u, as : 

fraBgt, freegr, fraBg; Ace. freegan or frsegjan; Dat. 

fraegum or fra3gjum. 

sekr, sekan or sekjan. 

90. Monosyllables ending in r after a long vowel or diph- 
thong are regular, as: 

ber-t, ber-r, ber; fo3r-t, foer-r, foer. 
The masculine termination -r is dropped in modern Icelandic, 
as the pronunciation has changed and the m. g. and f. g. 
have become I he same in the Nom. 



23 

Those words whose vowels are short, and have therefore 
a double r, drop one r in the n. g., before -/ and before the 
termination to satisfy the orthography as three r's ought not to 
appear ; but such words retain the double r in the f. g. Norn. ; 
as otherwise the vowels would be long and the root deformed. 
As: hurt, burr, purr (dry); kyrt, kyrr, kyrr (still). 
Those ending in s, agree with this rule, as: laust, lauss, 
la us (free); particularly as a diphthong precedes; but h vast, 
livass, hvGss (not hvOs) because the vowel is short. 

In a word with a double s the vowel is accented in the 
n. g. as: vist, viss, viss. 

91. If a consonant precedes the last radical letter r, it 
changes before -t and s into J (halfsound), never into ur ; but 
into r before a vowel and the terminations -r, rar, ra, one 
of the r is dropped, as a double r behind a consonant cannot 
be pronounced. The following example will prove the force 
of these observations: 

Sing. Nom. fagft fagf fogf (for fOg-ru) 

Ace. fagrt fagran fagra 

Dat. fOgru fogrum fagri (for fagrri) 



Gen. 
Plur. Nom. fogr 
Ace. fogf 


fagfs fagrar (for fagrrar) 
fagrir fagrar 
fagra fagrar 


Dat. 
Gen. 


.fOgrum 
fagra (for fagrra) 



Definite Form. 

Nom. fagra fagri fagra 

Ace. fagra; fagra; fOgru. 

92. Words whose characteristic letter (Kjendebogstav) is 
I after a double vowel, or, if dissyllabic, stands after any 
vowel, change it in the termination of r into U (39) as: 

heilt, heill, heil and in f. g. Dat. heilli, Gen. heil- 

lar, Plur. Gen. heilla; 

gamalt, gamall, gOmul, Dat. gamalli, Gen. gamallar 

Plur. Gen. gam alia; thus also: 

bagalt or l>ogult, pcigull, piigul etc. 
Before terminations, beginning with a vowel, contractions occur 
as: gamlan, gamla, gtfmlu, gOmlum. Def. Form, gam la, 



24 

gamli etc., but: heimilt or heimult does not contract. 
Foil, folr, fol, does not contract its Ir into II, being a 
monosyllable with a simple vowel. 

93. In two words the I is dropped in the neuter before 
the characteristic letters f, 3, except in a different declension in 
the m. g. Ace.; it is declined 

Iiti3, litill, litil, Ace. m. g. litinn (for litiln) f. g. 

litla, Dat. litlu, litlum, litilli etc. 
It will be observed that the vowel loses its accent, as soon as 
a concussion of consonants occurs. Writing Iiti8 for litit 
is for euphony's sake, and occurs in the best manuscripts; 
viz: the changing of this into 9, as soon as the word re- 
ceives t in the beginning, therefore rita9, but bakat etc. 
The second word is mikit, mikill, mikil, Ace. mikit, 
mikinn, mikla, Dat. miklu etc. 

94. Those whose characteristic letter is n after a diph- 
thong, or dissyllables, followed by a vowel, contract the n with 
r into nn (39) as: 

vaent, vsenn, vgen, Ace. vsent, vaenan, vaena; Dat. 
vaenu, va3num, vsenni and in f. g. Gen. v 33 n n a r, Plur* 
Gen. vaenna. 

Dissyllables deviate besides in m. g. Ace. by contraction, 
if the termination begins with a vowel, as: 
Singular Nom. heiSit hei5inn hei9in 

Ace. heiQit heiftinn heiSna 

Dat. hei5nu hei5num heiSinni 



Gen. heiciins 
Plural Nom. hei9in hei5nir 
Ace. heiSin hei8na 


heiQinnar 
heiOnar 
hei9nar 


Dat. heiSnum 
Gen. hei5inna 
Def. Form Nom. heiSna; hei8ni; 


hei5na eti 



95. In this manner are declined all regular participles of 
the closed Order of Verbs (which remain monosyllabic in the 
Dat.) as: ra8it, ra"5inn, ra9in; gefit, gefinn, gefin; 
tekit, tekinn, tekin etc.; also several of the 3 rd order of 
the first chief lass (with modification of vowel) b a r i t , bar- 
inn, bar in. But these terminations stand in reality for -#, 
-j3r, t'8 a change of pronunciation in accordance with the 



25 

oldest danish language; they shorten the radical letter so 
that t is dropped and 8 is hardened into d or t, in words the 
characteristic letter of which is a hard consonant as: 
bart, bar8f, bOrS; tamt, tamdr, tOmd; vakt r 
vaktr, vOkt. 

In this manner we find in some of these words a double 
or triple form, of which the contracted one is the oldest; 
those in ft, fnn, in, are modern Icelandic. The words of 
double form receive the general mixed declension after the 
euphony, as: 

Sing. Nom. vakit (wakened) vakinn vakin 

.1<T. vakit vakinn vakta 

Dat. vOktu voktum vakinni 

Gen. vakins vakionar 

Plural Nom. vakin vaktir vaktar 

Ace. vakin vakta vaktar 

Dat. voktum 

Gen. vakinna 

Def. Form. Nom. vakta vakti vakta etc. 

As a proof of the real use of contractions by the ancients, 
we cite: 

kraft (Fms. 4,122 and 176), baktr (Fms. 2,305); but, 
paki8r, (Grfmnism. 9), dult (Isfcindingas. 2,243); 
huldr (Snorra-Edda 136), skill (Fms. 6,220). 
The modern forms are: 

krafit, pakinn, dulit, hulinn, skilit. 

96. There is another kind of words which contracts as: 
au8igt, rig-t, Plur. au8ug, auQgir, au<5gar; 
malugr, malgir; Oflugr, oflgiretc., but it is rare and 

not irregular. Heilagt, -lagr, -log contracts in the short- 
ened forms ei into e, Plur. heilOg, helgir, helgar, def. 
Form helga, helgi,helga. The root ill is accented in the 
n. g. ill i. illr, ill, and sann contracts nn with t into // : 
salt, sannf, sOnn; allt, allr, Oil wants the def. form, 
because it is definite in itself. 

97. Compound Adjectives in a are not declinable as: 
einskipa (Fms. 7,123), sundrskila (Fms. 11,131). But 
there are some, in which the gender is shown in the Nom. 
in the m. g. in -i, f. g. in -a as: sammoeSri (Fms. 6,50), 



26 

sammoeftra, forvitri, forvitra (Fms. 6,56) also: orviti 
(Fms. 7,158), mdl65i (Fsreyjingas S. 218), fulltiSi (Egilss. 
185). 



The Comparison of Adjectives. 

98. The Comparative is formed in Icelandic by: 
-ara (neut.), art (masc.), ari (fern.), (kalda-ra, colder; har- 
3a-ra, harder)] which takes the place of the a in the definite 
form. The fern. Sing, and all genders of the Plur. retain i 
everywhere (rarely Dat. in -um) as: spaka, Comparative; 
.spakara 

Neut. Masc. Fern. 

Sing. Nom. spakara spakari spakari 

Gen. Dat. Ace. spakara spakara spakari 

Plur. Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. spakari 

99. The Superlative is formed by adding to the root 
-ast, astr, ust, and is thus declined: 

Neut. Masc. Fern. 

Indef. form. Nom. spakast spakastr spokust 

Ace. spakast spakastan spakasta etc. 

Def. form. Nom. spakasta spakasti spakasta 

Ace. spakasta spakasta spOkustu etc. 

Those which shorten in the Posit., also do so in the other 
degrees, if the same cause exists, namely, that the termination 
begins with a vowel, as: 

au3gara, auSgari, auQgast, au5gastr, auSgustetc. 

100. There is however in many cases a shorter manner of 
formation for these degrees, namely by dropping the final -a 
and adding for the Comparative -ra, -ri, -ri, and for the Super- 
lative -st, -str, -st. The modification of vowels which requires 
-r takes place (see 33. 34). 

hit fagra fegra -ri fegrst fegfstf fegrst 

13ga Isegra -ri Ia3gst Ia3gstf Ia3gst, lowest 

Idnga leingra -ri leingst leingstf leingst, longest 
or langa lengra -ri lengst lengstr lengst 

hit braungva breingra -ri breingst -st? -st, closest 
or jmingva Jtrengra -ri brengst -stf -st, narrowest 
hit st6ra stffirra -ri stoerst -stf -st, greatest 



27 

!iit unga yngra -ri yngst -sir -st, youngest 

punna pynnra -ri j)ynnst -sir -st, thinnest 

djupa dypra -ri dypst -sir -st, deepest 

dyra dyrra -ri dyrst -sir -st, dearest 

va;na; vaenna -ri; vaenst -sir -st, prettiest. 
The word mj6tt, mj6r, mjo, small, hit mj6fa does not 
modify the vowel, although it takes the shorter termination 
mjorra, mjost. 

101. Some form their degrees in both manners, thus we 
meet with: 

djupara, djiipari, djupast, -astf, -ust 
the shorter form almost always belongs to the old language. 

Several take the shorter form in the Comparative and the 
longer one in the Superlative, as: 

seinl, seinna, seinast, 

saelt, sa'lla, sinllast; 

nytt, nyrra, nyjast. 

102. The following are quite irregular: 
Positive. Comp. Snperl. 

g68a, gott, hit g65a betra bezt-a best 

lilt ilia \ 

vant -vanda / verra vet-a wortf 

mikit mikla meira mest-a greatest 

Iiti5 litla minna minnst-a least 

mart (margr, mOrg) fleira flest*) most 

I ellra ellst-a ,, . 

gamalt; -- gamla; eldest; 



103. Some compar. and superl. are formed from adverbs, 

prepos. and subst. and have therefore no positive, as: 

(nor8r) nyr8ra norQast, nyrfist, northmost 

(auslr) eystra austast eastmost 

(su8r) sy8ra syQst (synnst) southmost 

(vestr) vestra veslast westmost 

(fram) fremra fremst foremost 

(aptr) eptra aptast, epzt aftermost 

(lit) ytra yzt outmost 

(inn) innra innst inmost 



*) This is not used definitely except in the plural: hin mdrgu, 
liinir fleiri, hinar flestu mostly used by the moderns. 



28 

(of) efra efst highest 

(ni8r) neBra neSst nethermost 

(for) fyrra fyrst first 

(si6) siSara si<5ast latest 

(heldr) heldra helzt ratherest 

(a"9r) ae9ra aeSst erst 

(fjarri) (firr) first farthest 

(na-) (naer, naerr) naest nearest 

Fremra and siQara, have a regular positive, with different 

significations : 

framt, framr, from, excellent, valiant (poetically); 
sitt, si 8?, si 9, shallow, flat. 

104. Adjectives which have no positive, receive no com- 
parisons, as a lit (96) and those ending in -i, or -a (97) as- 
well as the Pres. part. pass, in -andi. But these words can 
yet be increased or decreased by means of the adverbs: 

meir, mest, or heldr, helzt, or: minor (mi3f). 
minnst (minzt), si9f, sizt. 

111. Pronouns. 

105. The first two personal pronouns have a dual, which 
is commonly used as the plural, whilst the old pi. only occurs- 
in the high style. 

Sing. 1. Person 2. Person 3. Person 

Norn, ek (eg) pii 

Ace. mik (mig) bik (big) sik (sig) 

Dat. mer per ser 

Gen. min |>in sin 

Dual Plural "Dual ~ Plural Plural 

Nom. vit (vi5) ver bit ber 

Ace. okkf oss ykkr yoT sik (sig) 

Dat. okkr oss ykkr y<5f ser 

Gen. okkar vAr; ykkar ySvar sin 

The third person has neither Neuter nor Plural which are re- 
placed by the defin. pron. pat, sa", sii, which is thus declined : 
Nom. hann hon (hun) 

Ace. hann liana 

Dat. hSnum (om) henni 
Gen. bans hennar 



29 



106. From the Genitive of the personal pronoun, are 
formed seven possessive pronouns: 



of the 



1 st person Sing. 

2 nd 

3rd 

1 st - Dual 

2 nd 

1 st - Plural 



2 nd 



minn 

1 n mi 

sinn 

okkarr 

ykkarr 

vArr 

y8varr 



min (mine) 

bin (thine) 

sin (his) 

okkur (your) 

ykkur 

var 

y5ur 



milt 

bitt 

silt 

okkart 

ykkart 

vart 

y5vart 

The three first are declined like the article (74), only they 
receive a double t in the Neutr. and an accent, when an n 
follows the /, as: mins, mins, minnar. The four last 
pronouns are declined like indefinite adjectives, but they only 
take n (instead of an) in the Ace. Masc. as: okkarn (not 
okkaraii), varn (not varan) etc., but the dissyllabic ones 
contract as usual, Dat. okkru, okkrum, okkari. 

107. The demonstrative Pronoun is irregular: 
ba-fr, si, sii, that; betta, bessi, bessi this; 
hinn, hin, that, the other; declined thus: 



Sing. Norn. 


ill Si SU 


Ace. 


iii bann ba 


Dat. 


iff 


jeim beirri 


Gen. 


)6SS 


>ess jieirrar 


Plur. Nom. 


>au 


)eir J)oer 


Ace. 


>au 


)i bser ; 



>etta 


jessi 


>essi 


M'llil 


)enna 


>essa 


)6SSU 

>essa 


>essum 


>essi (-arri) 
>essar (-arrar) 


>essi 


>essir 


>essar 


>essi 


>essa 


icssar. 



Dat. beim bessum 

Gen. Jjeirra ])essarra. 

and the article hit, hinn, hin (74) which very frequently 
drops the h and forms in it, inn, in, or even et, enn, en. 
These are all used as dem. pronouns, but the t is doubled in 
the n. g. as hitt, hinn, hin, nor is the h dropped or the 
e added, as its pronunciation sounds purer and more emphatic. 

108. Relative and interrogative pronouns, are with the 
exception of er and sem, the same, as: 

hvArt (hvort), hvarr, hvar, which of the two 

hvert, hverr, hver, which of many 

h v i 1 i k t , what like, of whdt kind 
both declined as the indef. Adjectiv; only that they take in the 



30 

Ace. m. g. -n instead of -an; and hvert inserts/, when the 
ending begins with the vowels a or M, as: 

Ace. hvert, hvern, hverja; 

Dat. hverju, hverjum, hverri. 

The Skalds use in Ace. m. g. hverjan, every one. 

Declension of hvort (hvdrt): 

Neut. Masc. Fern, Neut. Masc. Fern, 

Sing. Nom. hvort hvorr hvor hvert hverr hver 

Ace. hvort hvorn hvora hvert hverjan hverja 

Dat. hvoru hvorum hvorri hverju hverjum hverri 

Gen. hvors hvors hvorrar hvers hvers hverrar 

Plur. Nom. hvor hvorir hvorar hver hverir hverjar 

Ace. hvor hvora hvorar hver hverja hverjar 

Dat. hvorum hvorum hvorum hverjum hverjum hverjum 

Gen. hvorra hvorra hvorra hverra hverra hverra. 

109. There is also in the old norsk language a separate 
form for the interrogative pronoun what; it is thus declined r 

Neuter g. Common g. 

Sing. Nom. hvat hverr (hvarr) 

Ace. hvat hvern (hvarn) 

Dat. hvi hveim 

Gen. hvess hvess; 

in common speech hvat is only used a as pron. and hvi, a& 
an adjective. 

110. The indefinite pronoun is partly primitive, partly de- 
rived from other interr. pron. Primitive is: 

eitt, einn, eiu, one, each one, alone; sometimes it is 
declined like vnt (94) except that nt in n. g. takes tt, and 
that the Ace. m. g. has a double form as: 

einn and einan. 

111. Annat (aliud, alter um, secundum) the one, the se- 
cond, another, 

has a very irregular declension, thus: 

N. M. F. 

Sing. Nom. annat annarr Onnur 

Ace. annat annan a8ra 

Dat. i)9ru o5rum annarri 

Gen. annars annars annarrar 



31 

Plur. Norn. Onnur a8rir a8rar 

Ace. onnur aQra a8rar 

Dot. OoVum 

Gen. annarra 

It has the same form when the article is added, hit annat, 
the other, second ; but when the question is of two, no article 
is used. 

112. Ba;5i, both, is only used in the Plural: 
Nom. ba?5i ba8ir ba"9ar 

Ace. b#9i ba'o'a ba*8ar 

Dot. ba^um biSum bAdum 

Gen. beggja beggja beggja. 

113. The most important of the derivatives are: 
hvArttveggja, hvArrtveggi, hvArtveggja, each one 

of two; both parts are declined: hvArt (like 108) and tveggja 
like an adj. in defin. form, therefore in Plural: 

hvArtveggju, hvArirtveggju, hvArartveggju etc. 

AnnathvArt, annarrhvArr, Onnur hvAr, one of 
two, one part of many parts, has also a double declension, 
particularly in the Sing. ; in the newer language the last part 
is mixed with hvert, and is therefore generally met with an- 
inserted /, as: 

oQruhverju for o9ruhvAru etc. 

We also find : [other 

hvart (or hvat) annat, hva"rr annan, hvAr a5ra, each 
and hvert annat, hverr annan, hver a8ra 

or in Plur. hvert Onnur, hverr a9ra, hver a9rar 
in this case it is not compounded. 

HvArigt, hvarigr hvArig (or hvArugt etc.), (none 
of the two, no part of the other) is declined like an adjective 
indefinite form. 

Sitthvat, or sitthvArt, sinnhva"rr, sinhvAr (each, 
his OHM, each one's) is used divided, but sitt stands flrst. More 
frequently is used: 

sitthvert, sinnhverr etc. as: peir lita sinn i vher- 
ja alt, each looks to his own side. 

114. Without reference to two, is used: 
eitthvat (Germ, etwas) some, or: 
eitthvert, einnhverr, einhver. 



32 



115. Nokkut (danish noget) any, is contracted from 
nak and hvert, hvat or hvart, in which ve or va is con- 
tracted into M; this has many forms, of which we give the 
oldest and most correct one. 



Sing. Norn, nakkvart nakkvarr 
Ace. nakkvart nakkvarn 
Dat. ntikkuru nOkkurum 



nOkkur or nokkor 
nakkvara or nokkora 
nakkvarri 



Gen. nakkvars nakkvarrar 

Plur. Nom. nOkkur nakkvarir nakkvarar 
Ace. nokkur nakkvara nakkvarar 

Dat. nftkkurum 

Gen. nakkvarra. 

In n. g. also nakkvat, if derived from hvat, Dat. nOkkvi 

Sometimes nOkkut, nOkkurr, nOkkur, 

and often nokkut, nokkurr, nokkur, 

which has been adopted in the modern language. The two 

last forms are also abridged by the moderns as: 

Dat. nokkru, nokkrum, iiokkurri 

116. The negative pronoun is a compound of eitt, einn, 
ein and the negative termination -gi, -ki, which also takes 
many irregular forms; the oldest and most correct seem to be: 



Sing. Nom. ekki (for eitki) 
Ace. ekki 
Dat. eingu (einugi) 


eingi eingi 
eingan (eingi) einga 
eingum eingri 


Gen. eingis, einkis, 
Plur. Nom. eingi 
Ace. eingi 


einskis 
eingir 
einga 


eingrar 
eingar 
eingar 


Dat. 
Gen. 


eingum 
eingra 





The syllable eing is often found contracted into eng; 
thus in the Ace.: engan, enga; and this eng changes with 
o'ng, as: ongan, Onga; or with an inserted v 

as: Ongvan, Ongva, 
Dat. Ongu, Ongum, Ongri, 

or even: Ongarri, Gen. Ongarrar, it also lengthens into 
aung, as: aungan, aunga, or aungvan, aungva. 

But in n. g. and m. g. Gen. occur the changes of ei, 
or i in the chief syllable, not onkis, aunskis. 



33 



117. Numerals. 

Cardinal Numbers. Ordinal Numbers. 



one eitt, einn, ein; 

two tvau (t\o), tveir, tvaer; 
three prjii, brir, prjar; 
four fjogur, fjorir, fj6rar; 

five timm; 

6 s<-\: 

7 sjau (sjO) ; 

8 atta; 

9 niu; 

10 tin; 

11 ellifu; 

12 tolf; 

13 prettan; 

14 ijortan ; 

15 u'mtn; 

16 sextan; 

17 sautjan (seytjan); 

18 atjan; 

19 nitjiin ; 

20 tuttugu; 

21 tuttugu ok eitt etc.; 
30 prjatiu; 

40 fjorutiu; 

50 fimliu; 

60 sextiu; 

70 sjautiu (sjtitiu); 

SO attatiu; 

90 niutiu; 



the first fyrsta, -i, -a; 

-second annat, annarr, onnur ; 

- third pri8ja, Kifti, prifija; 

4 th fjtirfa, -i, -a ; 

5 th fimta, -i, -a; 

6 th setta, (sjotla) ; 

7 th sjaunda, sj<inda(sjOunda) 

8 th atta (attunda) ; 

9 th niunda ; 
10 th tfunda; 
ll th ellifta; 
12 th t61fta; 
13 th prettanda; 
14 th fj6rtanda; 
15 th fimta~nda; 
16 th sextanda ; 
17 th sauljanda (seytj^inda); 



100 hundrafi, tiutiu; 
110 lumdraS <ik tiu, ellifutiu; 
120 h. ok tuttugu, stc'trt hundra8 
200 tvau hundraft etc. 
1000 pi'isund 

118. The four first of the numeral pron 
Eitt (see 110,) the others in the Plural thus: 
Plural Nom. tvau tveir tva i r |irju l)rir 
Ace. tvau tva t\a-r jijru J)rjd 

I veini (tveimr) 
tveggja. 



19 th uiljanda; 

20 th tuttugasta ; 

21 st tuttugasta ok fyrsta etc. 

30 th britugasta ; 

40 th fertugasta ; 

50 th limtugasta ; 

60 th sextugasta ; 

70 th sjautugasta (sjotugasta) ; 

80 th attatugasta ; 

90 th nitugasla ; 
100 th hundrafiasta ; 
110 th hundra9asta ok tfunda; 
120 th h. ok tuttugasta; 
200 th tvau hundraQasta ; 
1000 th jnisundasta 

are declined. 



J.rjar 
J)rjar 



Dat. 
Gen. 

Icelandic Grammar. 



(primr) 
Ju-igjya. 
3 



34 

Plural Norn. fjOgur fjorir fjorar 
Ice. fjogur fjora fjorar 

Dat. f jorum 

Gen. fjogurra 

1 19. Those compounded with -tiu, have often another form 
in -tigir, -tigi as: brjatigir, brjdtigi, but are not further 
declined, as: brjatigi ok fimm a"rum Landn. pag. 2, stiil 
more visible in the noun tigr (>tugr', togr, togr), Plur. 
tigir, as: sex tigir, Sverriss. pag. 230 and atta tigir, 
Hk. 3,357. Hun draft is a regular noun (55). The ancients 
almost always reckoned by the great hundred (120) so that 
ha" 1ft hun drab 5 counted for 60 etc. I*usund (bushiind- 
raft) is irregular (62). 

120. From the ordinal Numbers are formed, those ending 
in -tugt, -tugr, -tug (-togt or tfigt), 

and -rcett, -rceftr, -ra>&, as: 

the 2 nd part: tvitugt, tugr, tug; the 8 th part: attrostt, -roe5f , -roe5 ; 

- 3 rd - britugt; - 9 th - niroett, 

- 4 th - fertugt; - 10 th - tiroett; 

- 5 th - fimtugt; -11 th - ellifuro3tt; 

- 6 th - sextugt; - 12 th - olfroett. 

- 7 th - sjautugt (sjotugt); 

The half is expressed by: ha 1ft, halfr, half, as: half- 
britugt, halffertogr etc. which points out that 5 has been 
deducted from the last ten, thus: 

halffertogr = 35, halfattro35r = 75. 



The Verb. 

121. Verbs are divided like the substantives into two chief 
orders the 1 st or open, with the vowel in its termination; 

2 nd or closed, with a consonant 

The first has more than one syllable in the Imperfect, the 
second is monosyllabic. 

The open oiHler is subdivided into 3 classes: 
1 st Cl. has three syllables in the Imperfect, with vowel a, 
2 nd Cl. has two syllables in the Imperfect, with vowel i, 
3 rd Cl. has two syllables with change or modification of vowel 



35 

(it has in the 1 st person us, but seems originally to have had 
the vowel ). 

The closed order has two manners of inflection. 

1 st Cl. the one in which the change of vowel takes place 
in the Indicative and Conjunctive of the Imperfect; the Part, 
takes the same vowel of the main syllable as the present tense. 

2'" 1 Cl. contains the modification of the vowel of the Im- 
in the Part, with some exceptions. 

Each of these two conjugations is subdivided in three 
classes according to the modification of the vowel of the Im- 
perfect. There are therefore altogether 9 Conjugations in which 
every regular and irregular verb is included. 

122. The following table will show the distinctive feature 
of each: 

I. Open Order. 

1 st Form. 

Pres. Indie. Imperfect. Sup. 

1 st Class ek autla stlafia atlat 

2 nd - - heyri heyrda beyrt 

3 r ' 1 - - spyr spnrda spurt. 

11. Closed Order. 

2 1 " 1 Form. 

1 st Class ek drep drep drap drepit 

2 nd - - raft rdQ re9 raQit 

3 rd - - dreg drag dro dregit. 

3 rd Form. 

1 st Class ek renn rann PI. runnum nmnit 
2 nl - - lit leit - litum litiB 

3 rd - - by8 bau8 - bu8um ho9it. 

123. It must be borne in mind, that the indicative and 
Conjunctive distinguish the Present and Imperfect, the Impe- 
rative is only used in the Present. 

The Infinitive and Participle are only single forms, but 
they are both declined like nouns. 

The Supine is the Participle in n. g. 

The Participles end generally in -st, in the oldest lan- 
guage in sk (an abbreviation of sik). 

3* 



36 



124. 



I st Open Order. 

/" Form. 



kalla, to call; brenna, to burn; telja, to tell. 



1" Class. 



2 nd Class. 3 rd Class. 



Indicative 



Active. 



Pres. Sing. 


1. ek kalla 
2. bii kallar 
3. hann kallar 


breuni 
brennir 
brennir 


tel 
telr 
telr 


Plur. 


1. ver kollum 
2. ber kallit 
3. heir kalla 


brennum 
brennit 
brenna 


teljurn 
telit 
lelja 


Imp. Sing. 


1. ek kallafta (i) 
2. bii kalla5ir 
3. hann kallafti 


brenda (i) 
brendir 
brendi 


lalda (i) 
taldir 
taldi 


Plur. 


1. ver kolluSum 


brendum 


toldum 




2. ber kolluSul 
3. f>eir kolluchi 


brendut 
brendu 


toldut 
toldu 


Conjunctive 








Pres. Sing. 


1. ek kalla (i) 
2. bii kallir 
3. bann kalli 


brenna (i) 
brennir 
brenni 


telja (teli) 
telir 
teli 


Plur. 


1. ver kallim 


brennim 


li'liin 




2. ber kallit 
3. beir kalli 


brennit 
brenni 


telit 
teli 


Im%. Sing. 


1. ek kallafti (a) 
2. bii kalla5ir 
3. hann kallaSi 


brendi (a) 
brendir 
brendi 


teldi (a) 
teldir 
teldi 


Plur. 


1. ver kallaftim 


brendim 


teldim 




2. ber kalla5it 
3. {>eir kallaSi 


brendit 
brendi 


teldit 
teldi 


Imp. Sing. 


2. kalla (-8u) 


brenn (-du) 


tel (-du) 


Plur. 


1. kollum (ver) 
2. kallit (ber) 


brennum 
brennit 


tel jinn 
telit 


Infinitive 
Part. 
Sup. 


at kalla 
kallanda, i 
kallat. 


brenna 
brennanda, i 
brent. 


telja 
teljanda, i 
taht (tail). 



Indicative 



37 

I' 1 Class. 2 nd Class. 

Passive. 



3 rd Class. 



Pres. 


Sing. 


1. 


kallast 


brennist 


telsl 






2. 


kallast 


brennist 


telst 






3. 


kallast 


brennist 


telst 




Phtr. 


1. 


kollnmst 


brennumst 


teljumst 






2. 


kallizt 


brennizt 


telizt 






3. 


kallast. 


brennast. 


teljast. 


Imp. 


Sing. 


1. 


kalladist 


brendist 


taldist 






2. 


kallaftist 


brendist 


taldist 






3. 


kalladist 


brendist 


taldist 




Plur. 


1. 


kOlluSumst 


brendumst 


Wldumst 






2. 


kiilluduzt 


brenduzt 


tOlduzt 






3. 


k5llu5ust. 


brendust. 


tOldust. 



Conjunctive 



Pres. Sing. 


\. kaUist 


brennist 


telist 




2. kallist 


brennist 


telist 




3. kallist 


brennist 


teiist 


Plur. 


1. kallimst 


brennimst 


telimst 




2. kallizt 


brennizt 


telizt 




3. kallist. 


brennist. 


telist. 


Imp. Sing. 


1. kalladist 


brendist 


teldist 




2. kallaSist 


brendist 


teldist 




3. kallaQist 


brendist 


teldist 


Plur. 


1. kalladimst 


brendimst 


teldimst 




2. kalladizt 


brendizt 


teldizt 




3. kallafrst. 


brendist. 


teldist 


Imp. Sing. 


2. kallast-u 


brend-u 


telst-u 


Plur. 


1 . kollumst (ver) 


brennumst 


teljumst 




2. kallizt (ber). 


brennizt. 


telizt. 


Infinitive 


at kallast. 


brennast. 


teljast. 


Part. 


(kallandist). 


(brennadist). 


(teljamdist). 


Sup. Pass. 


kallazt. 


brenzt 


talizt (talzt). 



125. Many ol the personal terminations are unsettled, we 
have taken as the regular one those which have most claim 
to be called so. The 1 st Person Pres. has sometimes r, and 
becomes alike to the 2 ml and 3 rd Person, as: 
ek kallar, ek brennir, ek telr, 



38 

but the frequent and best use, as well as contractions, show 
the r to be spurious as 

kallag, brennig, telk, for kalla ek etc., 

hyggig, hykk for hygg ek etc. 

126. It is more correct to end the 1 st Pers. of the Im- 
perfect in -a, than in -i, for the preceding part of the verb 
has always those vowels which harmonize wilh a and not with 
i, except when i in the Present has been substituted by deri- 
vation and runs in every tense through the entire word, as 
brenni, from brann. 

127. The 1 st Pers. of the Conj. Present is also more 
correctly ended in a than i, but both are frequently used, and 
good manuscripts prefer in certain cases the -i. 

Abbreviations like hugQak (Lodbrkv. 24) munak (Snorra 
E. 35) also prove the termination -a. 

The 1 st Person Plural has -im, in harmony with the other 
termination, and by a general use of the ancients; in the mo- 
dern language this person has been changed into -um as the 
Indicative (kollum, brennum, teljum). 

128. The 1 st Pers. of the Conj. Imp. has sometimes -a 
instead of i in ancient writers, chiefly used by the Skalds; 
but it is less correct considering the vowel of the chief syllable. 
It is therefore less correct to say vekba ek than vekti ek 

ba3paek - bsefti ek 

(Snorra E. 97) except the third person be taken, which could 
perhaps be placed in the 1 st pers., as is done in the oriental 
languages. 

It is however always correct in the plural that the 1 st pers. 
should terminate in -im, the 2 1 " 1 in -it, although, -um, ut, is 
to be met with in more recent Mss. In all verbs, (except the 
1 st Class) with the modification of vowel in the principal syl- 
lable, which requires the termination -i, as: 

kOlluQum, kOlluQut, brendum, brendut, teldum, 

t e 1 d u t.. 

The 3 r<1 Pers. is only found in u, in the modern icelandic 
of the northern dialect, as: 

kollu5u, brendu, teldu 

although these forms have crept into all Mss. The two first 
persons in -um and -ut are generally wrong, even if they ap- 
pear in the Sagas or the Skalds. 



39 

129. It must be observed that the Imperative 1 >1 and 2' J 
person harmonize with the Indicative Present. The third per- 
son is formed by (he Conjunctive, as: Nj. 67: 

koll urn karl enn skegglausa ! 
and Sverriss. S. 185: 

TVnom Birkibeinum ! 

beri Sverrir hint verra! etc. 

130. In reflective verbs the 1 st Person Plur. -umst, is often 
seen, also in the 1 st Pers. Sing, as: 

eigi berjumst ek (Fms. 6, 25), 
ek hiigfimnst (Snorra E. 97). 

131. The terminations of the Plural drop in the 1 st Pers. 
-m, in the 2 nd Per?, -t (3) if immediately followed by a pronoun, 
particularly in the Imperative, as: 

megu ver, megu pit (Nj. 17", 
for u ver! far i her! 

132. The 1 st Class is very regular. Words which have no 
-a in the principal syllable take naturally no modification, as: 

ek skipa, ver skipum, ek s k i p a 5 a , ver skipudum, 
not even those which have d', change it into a, although the 
-u termin., which seems to have occasioned the d in the prin- 
cipal syllable, is dropped and terminates in -a, as: 

ekfjotra, ver fjfltrum, ek fjtitrada, ver fjotruduin, 

f jot rat. 

133. The other class has some irregularities, occasioned 
by the vowel -i in the Imperfect and Part., which is dropped 
if the consonant is the same as the root. The ancients make 

it single, where it was double as: 



byggi 

hnykki 
kippi 
kenni 
stemmi 
h\es>i 


byg5a 
hnykta 
kipta 
kenda 
stemda 
hvesta 


bygt -goY -g8 
hnykt -ktr -kt 
kipt -ptr -pt 
kent -dr -d 
stem! -dr -d 
livest -tr -t. 



134. The termination is still more influenced by the con- 
sonant of the root 
-/ after p, t, k, s, 



-da after 6, 8 (changed into d) fl, gl, fn, gn, m, 
-8a after /", </, r and every vowel; with another consonant 
preceding t is dropped behind tt or ?, 
-d behind nd etc., 9 behind r8, as: 



steypi 

veiti 

krffiki 

lijesi 

kembi 

rei8i 

efli 

nefni 

ILi'ini 

deyfi 

vigi 

la?ri 

PJai 

hitti 

vaenli 

heiniti 

sendi 

vir8i 



steypta 

veitta 

krcekta 

liiesla 

kembda 

reidda 

eflda 

nefnda 

fhemda 

deyi'3a 

vigSa 

Iaer8a 

bja8a 

hit! a 

vaenta 

heimta 

sen da 

\ir8a 



steypt 


-ptr 


-pt 


veitt 


-ttr 


-tt 


kroskt 


-ktr 


-kt 


la-si 


-sir 


-st 


kembt 


-bdr 


-bd 


reidt 


-ddr 


-dd 


eflt 


-Idr 


-Id 


nefnt 


-ndr 


-nd 


fla?mt 


-mdr 


-md 


deyft 
vigt 
laert 


-f5r 
-g8r 
-r8r 


-f5 

- 
r5 


pa8 
hitt 


-8r 
-ttr 


-9 
-tt 


va;nt 


-tr 


-t 


h oil ul 


-tr 


-t 


sent 


-dr 


-d 


virt 


-9r 


-8. 



135. Those in -Ig, -ng, receive in some Mss. -Igfta, -ngfta; 
in others -Igda, -ngda; as fylgda, tengda (Fms. 7) 
Those in /, n receive partly -da, partly -ta, as: fell, fellda 
(felda); masli, mselta, s^ni, s^nda; raeni, raenta. 

136. Those whose last consonant is g or fr, even with 
another consonant preceding, do not always drop the i, but 
change it into /, which they retain before the terminations -a 
and -H, as: 

byggi, ver byggjum, beir byggja, at byggja, 
byggjanda; likewise: 

ek fylgi, ver fylgjum; ek syrgi, ver syrgjum; 
ek .teingi, ver teingjum; ek fylki, ver fylkjum; 
ek merki, vermerkjum. 

137. It will be observed that this class does not modify 
the vowel, having already received the modification in the Qrst 
person (-t), which is transmitted without regard to the ter- 
mination. In some words this is not accidental; it seems as if 



41 



the characteristic letter should be ; these words have other 
irregularities, the most important of them are: 

dugi at duga dugdka Conj. dyg8i dugat 



vaki 


- vaka 


vakta 


- 


vekti 


vakit 


-inn -in 


kaupi 


- kaupa 


keypta 


- 


keypti 


keipt 


-tr -t 


poJi 


- pola 


polda 


- 


l>yldi 


polat 




pori 


- |)ora 


por8a 


- 


j)yr8i 


jiorat 




uiii 


- una 


unda 


- 


yndi 


nnal 




vari 


- vara 


var8a 


or 


vara8a-i 


varat 




trui 


- tn'ia 


triiSa 


Conj. 


try8i 


In'iat 




n;e 


- na 


na8a 


- 


nac8i 


na8 




le (IjiB) 


- lj a 


Ie8a 


- 


Ie8i 


Ie8. 





138. To this class belongs the auxilliary verb ,,hefi" 
to have: 



Indicative. 

Present. Sing. 1. hefi 
2. 3. hefir 
Plur. \. hofum 

2. hafit 

3. hafa 
Imperf. Sing. 1. hal'fta 

2. haf8ir 

3. haf5i 
Plur. 1. hOfQum 

2. hoTQut 

3. hOf3u. 

Imperat. Sing. 2. haf-8u 
Plur. 1. hOfum 
2. hafiS 



Conjunctive. 

Present. Sing. 1. hafa 

2. hafir 

3. haQ 
Plur. 1. hafim 

2. hafit 

3. hafi 
Imperf. Sing. \. hef5i 

2. hef^ir 

3. hef8i 
Plur. 1. hef5im 

2. hefSit 

3. hefft. 
Infinit. at hafa 

Part, hafanda, i 
Sup. haft, -ffir, 



139. Sometimes the modification of a vowel appears in 
the F'resent: 

na3 veld 

naer veldr 

iiam (for naum) vOldum 
n, lit valdit 

na (for na*a); valda. 



Sing. 1. vaki 

2. 3. vakir 

Plur. \. vokuni 

2. vakit 

3. vaka; 



42 

Veld is one of the most irregular verbs: Imperf. olli, 
Conj. ylli, Sup. valdit, now ollal, Infin. valda (only 
olla). In the Supine differs: lifi, Iif8i, lifat. 

140. The third Class is monosyllabic in the Present 
Sing., but takes a -j before the finals in -a, -u. In the Im- 
perfect it has like the preceding -ta, -da, or 5a, but more 
regularly da after /, n. In the Part. Past, it has sometimes 
the shortened sometimes the mixed form (95). The Imperfect 
and Part. Past, has only a double modification of vowel, either 
e into a, or y into u, as: 



glep 


at glepja 


glapta 


glepti 


glapit (glaptj, 


to lead astray 


let 


- lelja 


latta 


letti 


lall. 


to let 


vek 


- vekja 


vakti 


vekti 


vakit, 


to waken 


kve8 


- kvedja 


kvaddi 


kveddi 


kvadt, 


to take leave 


vel 


- velja 


valda 


veldi 


valit, 


to chose 


ven 


- venja 


van da 


vendi 


vanit, 


to wean 


tern 


- temja 


tamda 


terndi 


tamit, 


to tame 


kref 


- krelja 


kraf5a 


krel'Si 


krafit (kraft), 


to crave 


legg 


- leggja 


laggSa 


Ieg5i 


(lagit) lagt, 


to lay down 


her 


- berja 


bar3a 


bertfi 


barit (bart), 


to smite 


flyt 


- flytja 


flulta 


flytti 


flutt, 


to carry 


lyk 


- lykja 


lukta 


lykli 


lukt, 


to shut to 


pys 


- pysja 


pusta 


bysti 


bust, 


to rush on 


rv5 


- rydja 


rudda 


ryddi 


rudt, 


to root out 


hyl 


- hylja 


hulda 


hyldi 


(hull) hulit, 


to hide 


styn 


- stynja 


stunda 


styndi 


(stunt) stunit, 


to groan 


rym 


- rymja 


rumda 


rymdi 


rumt, 


to roar 


tygg 


- tyggja 


tugQa 


tygSi 


tuggit, 


to chew 


spyr 


- spyja 


spurfta 


spyrSi 


spurt, 


to ask 


11 


- lyja 


Iu9a 


Iy8i 


luit (Iu9), 


to hammer. 



141. Irregular in the Sup. is: hygg, hugQa, hugat. 
The five following do not change the vowel: 

set at setja setta setti sett, to set 

sel - selja selda seldi sell, to sell 

skil - skilja skilda skildi (skill) skilit, t<> separate 
vii - vilja vilda vildi viljat, to will 

fty - ftyja flfQa flyft ftyit, to fly. 

of these vil is found in the ancient Manuscripts in the 2 nd 
and 3' d person: vill (for vilr) sometimes to {the 2 nd person 
villtu or vilt, modific. form Infin. vildu for vilja. 



43 



The five following have in the Present: 

sagl, to say 
bagat, to be silent 
bolt, to think 
ort to write verse 
yrkt to work 
s6tt, to seek. 

142. Some are also irregular in the Present, where they 
become monosyll. ; and like the Imperfect of the closed order, 
they are: 



scgi 


at segja 


sagda 


seg5i 


begi 


- legja 


bag8a 


pegft 


l>ykki 


- bykkja 


jx'tlta 


bffitti 


yrki 


- yrkja 


f orta 
I yrkta 


yrti 
yrkti 


soeki 


- soekja 


s6lta 


soetti 



ann 


at unna 


unna 


ynni 


unt, 


to grant 


man 


- muna 


munda 


myndi 


munat, 


to remember 


kann 


- kunna 


kunna 


kynni 


kunnat, 


to be able 


man 

mini 


- mundu 

- iiiiiini 


> munda 


( myndi 
1 mundi 


wanting 


will, would 


skal 


{- skyldu 
- skulu 


I skylda 


skyldi 


wanting 


shall, ought 


barf 


- burfa 


Juirfta 


byrfti 


purft, 


to be needful 


A 


- eiga 


:ilt:i 


setli 


all, 


to own 


in;i 


- mega 


matta 


ni;i'lli 


mStt, \ 


to be able 


ku:'. 


- knega 


knatta 


kiiM-lli 


(knaHt), ( 




veil 


- vita 


vissa 


vissi 


vita9, 


to know. 



A regular word unni, unta, ynti, unt must be di- 
stinguished from ann. For kna" is also found knai, knafta, 
k n a 5. 

143. The irregularities in the Present consist in these 
verbs, that the 1 st and 3 rd person are alike, the 2" d receives 
the termination -t or -st in words in which the principal letter 
is t, chiefly in the word veil; the 2 nd pers. Plur. receives in 
some words -ut or -#, the 3 rd pers. Plur. often receives -u (o) 
by the ancient, and -a by the modern writers, as: 

1. 



Plur. 



3. kann 
2. kant 


sk;il 
skalt 


a 
All 


veil 

vci/.l 


1. kunnum 
2. kunnit 
3. kunna. 


skulum 
skulut 
skulu. 


eigum 
eigut ti) 
eigu (a). 


vitum 
vili8 (a5) 
vita (u). 



44 



144. 



II nd Closed Order. 
II nd Form. 



gefa, to (jive; Hta, to let: fara, to fare. 
1 >1 Class. 2 nd Class. 3 rd Class. 



Indicative 



Active. 



Pres. Sing. 


1. gef 


Ia3t 


fer 


2. 


3. gefr 


Iffltr 


ferr 


Plur. 


1. gefuin 


latuni 


fOrum 




2. gefit 


lati? 


farit 




3. gefa 


lata 


fara 


Imp. Sing. 


1. gaf 


let 


f6r 




2. gaft 


lezt 


fort 




3. gaf 


let. 


for 


Plur. 


1. gafum 


letum 


f6rum 




2. gafut 


Ietu5 


f6rut 




3. gafu. 


letu. 


f6ru. 


Conjunctive 








Pres. Sing. 


I . gefa (i) 


lata (i) 


fara (i) 




2. geQr 


latir 


farir 




3. gefi 


lati 


fari 


Plur. 


1. geflm 


lalini 


farim 




2. geQt 


iatid 


farit 




3. gefi 


lati 


fari 


Imp. Sing. 


1. gsefi(a) 


leti (a) 


foeri (a) 




2. gififir 


letir 


ferir 




3. gaefi 


leti 


tori 


Plur. 


1. ggefim 


letim 


foerim 




2. gaefit 


Ieti8 


foerit 




3. gajfi 


leti 


fffiri 


Imp. Sing. 


2. gef (-5u) 


hit 


far 


Plur. 


1. gefum 


latniii 


fdrum 




2. gefit 


Iali5 


farit 


Inf. 


at gefa 


lata 


fara 


Part. 


gefanda, i. 


hilaudii, i. 


faranda, i 


Sup. 


gefit. 


lati?. 


farit. 



45 



III rd Form. 




brenna, to burn; gripa, to gripe; 


s kj6ta. 


I' 1 Class. 2 nd Class. 


3 rd Class. 


Indicative Passive. 




Pres. Sing. 1. brenn grip 
2. 3. brennr gripr 


skyt 
skytr 


Plur. 1. brennum gripum 
2. brennit gi'fpit 
3. brenna gripa 


skjotum 
skj6li5 
skj6ta 


Imp. Sing. 1. brann greip 
2. brant greipt 
3. brann greip 


skaut 
skauzt 
skaut 


Plur. 1. brunnum gripum 

2. In iinniit gripul 
3. brunnu. gripu. 


skutum 
skutuft 
skutu. 


Conjunctive 




Pres. Sing. 1. brenna (i) gripa 
2. brennir gripir 
3. brenni giipi 


skj6ta (i) 
skjoiir 
skjoti 


Plur. 1. brennim gripim 
2. brennit gripit 
3. brenni gripi 


skjolim 
skj6ti5 

skjoli 


Imp. Sing. 1. brynni (a) gripi (a) 
2. brynnir gripir 
3. brynni gripi 


skyti (a) 
skylir 
skyli 


Plur. 1. brynnim gripim 
2. brynnil gripit 
3. brynni gripi 


skylim 
skytid 
skyti 


Imp. Sing. 2. brenn grip 


skjot 


Plur. 1. brennum gripum 
2. brennit gripit 


skj6tum 
skj6ti5 


Inf. at brenna gripa 


skji'dii 


Part, brennanda, i grfpanda, i 


skj6tanda, 


Sup. liriiiniit. gripit. 


>l\nli|. 



145. As a singularity in tbe Conjugation of tins closed Or- 
der, it must be noticed that those whose principal letter is- s, 



46 



take in the 2 nd and 3 rd person not -r, but in the 2" d -t, and 
retain in the 3 rd the termination of the first, as: 

ek les, bu lest, hann les, Imp. las, Sup. lesit; 

ek blass, bu falsest, hann blses, Imp. bles; Sup. bla"sit; 

ek ris, bii rist, hann ris, Imp. r e i s , Sup. r i s i t ; 

ekfrys, bii fryst, hann fry s, Imp. fraus, Sup. fro sit. 
No doubt this belongs to the modern icelandic language, not to 
the genuine old Norsk, in which the termination was without 
doubt r, contracted with s into ss: 

ek eys, bu eiss (Lokagl. 4), hann eiss, ver ausum, 
Imp. jos, Sup. a us it. Also: 

ek vex, bii vex (not bu vext), Snorra E. 114, hann 

vex, sst. ver vflxum, Imp. v6x or 6x, Sup. vaxit. 
The modern language applies this rule generally to those words, 
whose principal letter is r as: 

eg fer, pii fer 5, hann fer, for 

ek fer, pii ferr, hann ferr, 
which is generally the rule in the ancient language. 

146. The 2 nd form, If Class, contains some irregular 
verbs, as: 



kem 

sef 

get 

get 

et 

veg 

ligg 



troSa tra<5 tra"9um 


trafti 


troSit, 


to tread 


koma kvam kva"mum 


kva3mi 


kornit 


to come 


sofa svaf sval'um 


SV33fi 


so fit, 


to sleep 


geta gat ga"tum 


gaeti 


geU5, 


to beget 


geta gat ga"tum 


gseti 


getaS, 


to talk of 


eta at -urn 


a?ti 


eti5, 


to eat 


vega vS -gum 


vaegi 


vegit, 


to kill 


liggja la -gum 


Ia3gi 


legit, 


to lie 


piggja pa -gum 


baegi 


begit, 


to receive 



- se 



- sa 



sa -m 



saei sed (se5), to see. 



For kvam etc. we find often kom-um, kasrni, rarely in the 
Imp. Sing. v3g, Hg, bg; the second person is bii va"tt 
(Nj. 203), not vdgt. The word se shortens, when u follows 
after a, as: in the Pres. sj&m (ver), Hk. 1, 163, and in the 
Imperf. sa<5 (per), Nj. 8. Part. Pass, adds j before e or takes 
the accent, as: in n. g. set (or se9), in m. g. senn (Fms. 
5, 249) or se<5r, in f. g. sen. 

147. To this class belongs also the auxiliary verb, ek 
em, / am: 



47 



Indicative: Conjunctive: Imperative: 
Pres. Sitig. ek em (er) / am. se veri 
bu ert ser ver-tu (verir) 
hann er se veri 


Plur. ver erum 


sem verum 


|)er erut 


se8 vent 


J>eir eru. 


se. veri. 


Imp. Sing, ek var / was. 
bii vart 
hann var 
Plur. ver vArum 
]>er vArut 


va3ri (a) Infinitive: 
vajrir Pres. at vera 
vairi Part, veranda, i 
va3rim Sup. verit 
va3rit 


|>eir vAru 


vjfiri. 


148. Some have irregular modification of the vowels in 
the Supine, 0s: 


in'tii at nema nam 


namiim na>mi niunit 


breg8 - breg5a bra" 
ber - bera bar 


brugQum bryg5i brugfiit 

luii'iim li.ni borit 


sker - skera skar 


skArum >k,rri skorit 


stel - stela stal 


stdlum >i;i li stolit 


fel - fe,a { J*, 


IVdum f.i-li falit i 
folum) folgit | 

/ op 



149. The second class has but few irregularities, these are: 

heit at hcita 

lieiti - heita 

hangi - hanga 

geing - ganga 



het -um -i heitiQ 

het -um -i heitiS 

hekk hengum -i hringit 

gekk gengum -i gengit 

fekk fengum -i fengit. 



150. Several belonging to this class are quite irregular in 
the Imperfect: 

ny nua nera -rum -ri ni'iit 

ny snua snera (Nj. 95) -rum -ri sniiit 

ro3 r6a rera -rum -ri roil 

gro; groa grc-ra -rum -ri gr6it 

they are conjugated according to Ihe first form, namely 2 n<l IMTS. : 
nerir, 3 rd neri etc. In the old language we often iiiul (i 
or ey for e, in the new language e, as: nera or neri, sneri, 
etc. The word rsS, which is regular in the old language, 
forms in the new the Imperfect with additional t, refli. 



48 

151. The third Class has the following irregularities: 

svar sverja / S r8i s f r8um Sver8i j svarit, to swear 
I s6r sorum SORH I 

stend standa sto5 -urn stoebi staSit, to stand 

sla3 sla" sl6 -gum sloegi slegit, to strike 

fl fla" fl6 -gum floegi flegit, to flay 

hlae hteja hlo -gum hlffigi hlegit, to laugh 
dey deyja d6 -gum doegi dSit, to die 

spy spyja spj6 -m spuit, to spit. 

In the Sing. Imperf. we find, although rarely 

slog, flog, 16g, d6g. 

The g is more frequently dropped in the Plur. of the Conj. 
Imperfect, as: 

s!6um, don, hloei (Fms. 2, 152). 

152. Some verbs are quite irregular in the plural of the 
Imperfecl, Indicative and Conjunctive, as: 

vex vaxa ox uxum yxi vaxit, to wax, grow 
eyk auka jok jukum jyki aukit, to increase 
eys ausa j6s jusum jysi ausit, to sprinkle 
hleyp hlaupa hlj6p hlupum hlypi hlaupit, to run, urge 
by biia bjo bjuggum bjyggi buit, to dwell 
hOgg hOggva hj6 hjuggum hjyggi hOggvit, to hew. 
We also find 6xum, hlj6pum, but this form is spurious, 
as the Conjunct. O3xi, hi j 02 pi is not used, but only yxi, 
hlypi, which presupposes in the plur. of the Indicat. uxum, 
hlupum. 

153. The 1 st form of the 3 rd Class has also the following 
irregular verbs: 

finn finna fann fundum fyndi fundit, to find 
bind binda batt bundum byndi bundit to bind 
vind vinda vatt undum yndi undit to wind 
sting stinga stakk stungum styngi slungit to sting 
spring springa sprakk spningum spryngi spningit, to split 
geld gjalda gait guldum gyldi goldit, tobeworth,pay 
skelf skjilfa skalf skulfum skylfi skolfit, to shake 
hverf hverfa hvarf hurfum hyrfi horfit, to diminish. 
The last are regular with the exception of the accent in sk j a 1 f a , 
such is also the auxilliary verb: 

ek ver9, at verSa, Var5, urSum, yrQi, or5it. 



Most of the regular verbs have o in the first syllable of the 
Sup.; only those which have n after the vowel, receive u; also 

drekk, drakk, drukkit 
because kk stauds here for nk or ngk (38). 

154. The second class is very regular. But the Verbs in 
-ig have in the Imperfect not only -eig, but also the 2 n>1 form 
of the 2 d Class in e, with a dropped g, as: 



} 

I ste (steum stei) I 

Likewise: vik, vikja, veik or vi>k (Paradism. S. 218). 

155. The third class is also very regular; only a few have 
in the Imperfect ; occasioned by a double Consonant following 
it, which is pronounced hard. Some in -ng take in the first 
syllable of the Sup. after a vowel u. These ought to be added 
to those which take in the Imperfect; but the extension of 
all vowels before -ng (34) is the reason that they generally 
take -aw, as: 

sukk sOkkva sOkk sukkum sykki sokkit, to sink 

stokk stokkva stokk stukkum stykki stokkit, to leap. 

hrokk hrOkkva hrokk hrukkum hrykki hrokkit, to move quickly 

isyng syngja saung siingum syngi sungit, I fQ g| . 

Isyug syngva sOng sungum [ syngi sungit, I 

Thus also sl^ng, slaung (Helgakv. Hundb. I. V. 33); slun- 
gil, and bryng, braung, |)rungit, which are however 
antiquated poetical words. 



Auxiliary Verbs. 

156. These auxiliary verbs are used to supply the wanting 
tenses by periphrase ; they are very simple in the Old Norsk, 
and were less frequently in use than in the Danish, otherwise 
they are about the same. 

Future periphr. man (mun) and skal; 

Future preterite, munda, skylda; 

Perfect, hefi, em (er); 

Pluperfect. haf8a, var, 
f. i. with the auxiliary verbs em and ver5. 

Icelandic Grammar. 4 



50 



Indicative 

Put. periph. ek man vera 

- skal vera 
Put. prefer. - munda vera 

- skylda vera 
hefi verit 



Perfect. 
Pluperfect. 



- hafSa verit 



Conjunctive 

Put. periph. ek muna (i) vera 

- skula (i) vera 
Put. prefer. - myndi (a) vera 

- skyldi (a) vera 
Perfect. - hafa (i) verit 

Pluperfect. - heffti (a) verit 

Derivative Forms 

Ind. Put. per. (at) munda vera 

- skyldu vera 
Perfect. - hafa verit 

Part. Perf. - hafanda verit. 
The Part. Perf. was rarely used. 



ek man verQa 

- skal ver5a 

- munfta \er5a 

- skylda verSa 

- hefi or8it 

- em orSinn 

- haffia or5it 

- var or5inn. 

ek muna (i) verSa 

- skula (i) verSa 

- myndi (a) ver5a 

- skyldi (a) verfta 

- hafa (i) or5it 

- se ordinn 

- heffii (a) orSit 

- vseri (a) orfinn 

(at) munda ver9a 

- skyldu verfta 

- hafa or9it 

- vera or5inn 

- hafandi orSit 

- hafandi or5inn. 



157. Passive. 

Indicative 

Pres. ek em (er) kallaQr talinn etc. 

Imp. - var kallaQr talinn 

Future. - man (ver5a) kallaSr talinn 

Put. pret. .- munda (ver8a) kalla5r talinn 

Perf. - hefi verit kallaQr talinn 

Pluperf. - haffta verit kalla5r talinn 

Conjunctive 

Pres. ek se kalla8r talinn 

Imp. - vaeri (a) kalla5r talinn 

Future. - muna (i) [verSa] kalla3r talinn 

v 



51 

Fut. pret. - myndi (a) [ver5a] kalla5r talinn 

Per/. - hafa (i) verit kallaSr talinn 

Phtperf. - hefSi (a) verit kallaQr talinn 

Derivative Forms 

Ind. Put. per. at vera kallaSr talinn 

Perf. - mundu [ver5a] kallaSr talinn 

Pluperf. - hafa verit kallaoV talinn 

These periphrase iorms are rarely used in the order we have 
given, they are partly separated, partly transposed by inserted 
words. 

Skal is used in an obligatory and assured sense. After 
man or skal verQa or vera is frequently left out. Vera 
is used for the present time, which has begun, verQa, for the 
future time, which is now beginning, man and skal for the 
future time, not yet begun. 

158. The Passive form in -st, has also derivatives, as: 

ek man kallast teljast 

- munda kallast teljast 

- hefi kallazt talizt 

- haffta kallazt talizt etc. 

V. Particles. 

159. This class of words, generally not inflected, take a 
comparison, they form the Comparative in -a, the Superlative 
in -ast; some have shorter forms in -r, -st: 

opt 

tilt 

vfSa 

nor3r 

skamt 

leingi 

160. Some are irregular or imperfect: 

vel betr bezt good 

ilia verr verst bad 

mjok meir mest much 

lilt minnr (mi5r) minnst little 

gjarna heldr helzt rather 

uti utar yzt without 

4* 



optar 
tiQar 
vi9ar 
nor8ar 
skemr 
leingr 


optast 
ti8ast 
viQast 
norQast 
skemst 
leingst 


often 
closely 
widely 
northerly 
shortly 
long ago. 



52 

inni innar innst within 

uppi ofar (efra) ofarst (efst) up 

niQri neQar neQst beneath. 

The n. g. of the adjective in the 1 st and 2'" 1 degree has often 
two forms with different significations as: 

utar, outside (opposite the door, but visible), 
ytra, without (out of sight), 
leingr and skemr, shorter, only of time, 
leingra and skemra, shorter, only of place. 



The Formation of Words. 

161. The formation of words, much resembles the Danish, 
but it is more lively, richer and more certain. We do not 
intend to enter here into a minute disquisition, but one of the 
chief sources of derivation deserves attention, il is the Imper- 
fect of the 2" d Order. From the plural are derived: 

162. A) Nouns, such as: 

drip, from drep, drap, dra"pum; 

na"m from iiem, nam, namum; 

fengr from fae, fekk, fen gum; 

soeri from sver, s6r; 

hloegi from hlae, hlog; 

fundr from finn, fann, fundum; 

spriinga from spring, sprakk, sprungum; 

hvarf from hverf, hvarf; 

stig from stig, steig, stigum; 

bit from bit, beit, bitum; 

saungr (sflngr) from syng, saung (sOng). 

Sometimes there is no difference at all, and the noun 
seems to be the genuine old Imperfect, as: 

brag 5 from bregU, bra; 

bo 5 from by 5, bau8; 

skot from skyt, skaut. 

The plural brug5um seems to be formed from bragS and 
not from bra; also stigum from stig, not from steig, 
bitum from bit, not from beit; bu5um, Conj. form by5i, 
from bo8, not from bau8; skutum, Conj. form skyti, 



53 

from skot, not from skaut. Related languages show the 
same, as for instance the english 

/ bite, bit, I shoot, shot, with a bit, a shot, as nouns; 
such is also the german: 

beisse, biss, schiesse, schoss and the nouns: Biss, Schuss. 
Sometimes the German language lengthens the vowel as in 

steige, stieg; biete, bot; 

but even these lengthened Imperfects harmonize with the Old 
Norsk nouns: 

stig, bo9, not steig, bau5. 
But transitions occur from 
i'i into i 

au (ey) into o (ut 
even in the old norsk formation of words, as: 

veik-t vik-na; baugr, beygi bogi, bugr. 

163. B) Adjectives which show in the Active as well as 
Passive that the exlention of the verb is possible. These are 
so much more remarkable, as they have entirely disapeared 
in the modern language, as: 

dra3p-t, dr;ep-r, drp, what one may Ml; 
naem-t, to take easily, contagious, 

& - f e n gr, which is easily received, goes into the head, intoxicates ; 
al-geng-t, (german gctng und gctbe) current, usual, from 

geng, gekk, gengum; 
foer- 1, navigable, from fer, for; 
upp-tock-t, takeable, from tek. t6k. 
fleyg-t, (german flilgge) fledged, from fl^g, flaug; 
n e y t - 1 , useful, from n $ t , n a u t etc. 

164. C) Verbs, which instead of the unobjective take the 
active signification, or if the root were active they take the 
figurative signification as: 

svtefi, to fall asleep, from sef, svaf, sva"fum; 

saUi, to watch, from sit, sat, s a" turn; 

hacngi, to hang up, from hangi, hekk, hengum; 

felli, to fell, from fell, fell-urn; 

breyti, to alter, from bryt, braut; 

neyti, to eat etc. 



54 



Syntax. 

165. In the position of sentences the Old Norsk resembles 
the Danish, but the definite inflection to which the ancients 
paid great attention, gave them greater scope and freedom in 
the composition of the sentence. The most remarkable differ- 
ence of this kind is the custom of placing the verb, particu- 
larly the Imperfect, before the noun or pronoun, as: 

kallaSi Njall betta lOgvOrn; 

varu f bessu p margir hOfQingjar; 

ok fekst bat af; 

gengu hvarirtveggju ha"; 

ri9a beir mi heim. 

166. The numeral pronouns up to 29 are always added to 
the noun as adjectives, whether declinable or not, as: 

brir islenzkirmenn; fimta"n bcendr; tuttuguskip 

(HK. 3, 344), 
but 30 and the higher decimals govern the word in the Ace. as: 

brjdtigi skipa; sextigi heiftingja (Fins. 6, 61); 

tfutigi manna (Fms. 7, 303). 

The reason of this is, that the last part of this compound is 
a noun (119) as with 

hundraS as: prjii hundru5 nauta. 

167. The Verbs frequently govern the Gen. as in other 
languages, often the Dat. and Ace. Some govern two cases, 
two Gen., two Dat. or Gen. and Dat., Dat. and Ace. etc. 

One of these rules has such expansion that we must spe- 
cify it; it is this: a number of verbs govern the Dative, showing 
that a thing changes place and position, without being changed 
in its own basis, as: 

sny, vendi, fleygi, kasta, sk^t, lypti, dreifi, sa"i, 

styri, rse9 etc. 
Some take the Gen. in a different signification, as: 

hann skaut Oru til mannsins; but: 

skj6ttu manninn bann hinn mikla. 

All Verbs which express a use, assistance, injury, saying etc. 
govern the Dative, some of them take two Datives, as: 

hann Iofa5i henni bvi; lion svaraoM hdnum pvi. 



.jr. 

Prepositions. 

168. The following govern the Accusative: 
urn (of), over umfram, before 
unihvciTis, round about Irani yfir, over 

i gcgnum, through, by framundir, against, 
also a great many combinations with um, as: 

ut um, out of, outside, 

inn um; yfir um, i bring um (around in a ring], 
and those signifying a position, as: 

fyrir norQan, fyrir sunn an, fyrir ofan, fyrir ne5- 

an, fyrir utan, fyrir innan, also fyrir handan Sna. 

169. The Dativ govern: 

af, of lija, by 

fr, from asamt, together with 

Or, yr, ur, or, out gagnvart, above 
undan, out of m6t, 5 m6ti, i m6ti, against, 
with some combinations, as: 

lit af, upp fra, fram or, a" undan (before), 

framhjei, by, over; 

i gegn, against; 

& hendr, against, in opposition; 

til ban da, for, for the best; 
also: user, na3rri, fjarri, near, yet. 

170. The Genitive govern: 

til, to millum, a" milli, & meftal, between 

an, on, without i sta5 (bans), instead of (his) 
utan, out of sakir (fyrir sakir) | 
innan, within sOkum > by means of, 

auk, without vegna 
and the composita with me gin, as: 

bd8um megin, on both sides, 

bo ru m m e g i n , h i n u m megin, on each side, 

}> e s s u m megin, on t his side, 

6 1 1 u m megin, on all sides. 

171. The Accusative and Dative govern: 

A, on eptir, behind 

i, to, in fyrir, for 

me5, with uudir, under 

vi9, with, by, against yfir, over, 



56 

and a great number of combinations with short, local ad- 
verbs, as: 

upp a", lit i, fram me9, i sta3inn fyrir, inn undir, 
lit yfir etc. 

172. The preposition at governs three cases: 

\) the Accusative in the signification ,,after" (obsolete), 

2) the Dative in the sign. ,,to, towards" used of things, 
places, and time ,,at sumri", towards summer, 

3) the Genitive in the signification ,,at, in." 

173. It often happens that a preposition is found before 
a noun, without governing the same ; in such a case the prep, 
belongs to the verb ; in reading a short stop is made between 
prep, and noun. As: 

sva 1 at begar t6k af hofu5it, 

so that (it) straight took off the head. 

174. The preposition is often found behind the verb in 
relative sentences, chiefly where the demonstr. pronoun is not 
declined, as: 

Sverrir koniingr haf5i viSset bessi snOru 

er peir a3tlu9u hann i vei5a. 

The king Sverrir had seen the cord 

with which they thought to catch him. 

The prepos. -i is accented, but forms no composite with v e i 8 a, 
as ivei5a is no word. 



Prosody. 

175. The old verse of the Skalds may be reduced to three 
Orders; corresponding to the three manners of rhyme in which 
the chief poems of the old Icelandic tongue are written. 

They are all divided into sing- verses or strophes (visa, 
staka) which generally contain eight lines in each verse. 

These strophes are again divided into two halves (visu- 
helmingr) and each of these again into two parts (vfsu- 
fjor8ungr) which form the fourth part of the whole strophe. 

The separate lines or verses (visuorS) are generally 
short, the longest has but four feet, they all have the caesura. 



57 

176. The two lines which form the fourth part of I ho 
slrophe are without exception united by alliteration (letter - 
rhyme), this is a most essential part of the Icelandic versification. 
The nature of Alliteration demands that three words should occur 
in these lines beginning with the same letter. One of these 
three words must stand at the beginning of the second line 
and is called the chief letter, the two others in the first line 
are governed by it, these are called the sub-letters. 

If the chief-letter be a compound as -sp, st etc., the sub- 
letters must correspond with it, but if the chief letter be a vo- 
wel or a diphthong the sub-letters may change the tone by 
another vowel, as: 

Stendr AngantVrs 

'/"-inn moldu 

salr i Sdrnsey 

sunnan\er3ri. 

177. It is not always necessary that the chief-letter stands 
at the beginning of the line, in short verses it often has a 
toneless word before it, indispensable for completing the sen- 
tence, these are called f nidify! ling) ^filling up the sentence", 
such are or, sem i etc. 

178. The Assonance or Line-rhyme, consists in the oc- 
currence in the same line of two syllables, the vowels of 
which and the following cons, agree together. The one stands 
at the beginning, the other at the end of the syllable. It is 
called half-assonance when the vowels are different, and only 
the consonants agree. These two kinds of the Line-rhyme 
are thus divided ; the first line of the quarter verse has the 
half-assonance, the second has the assonance, as: 

held-vild, in the first line, 
veg-seg, in the second line. 

179. The final rhyme is the same as in the modern lan- 
guage, except that it is generally monosyllabic, and that the 
two lines united by the chief-letter rhyme together, as: 

Ni'i er hersis hefnd 
vi8 hilmi efnd, 
gengr ulf'r ok Orn 
of Ynglings born. 

180. Quantity is not observed, as all syllables may be long. 
The freeest and oldest kind of verse is the (fornyrQalag) 



58 

speechverse ; it has four long syllables, sometimes two with em- 
phasis, and if the verse permits it is followed by some short ones. 
The example of 176 is quite regular without short syllables. 

181. The Heroic-poems (drottvae9i) generally have the 
end-rhyme and the syllabic-rhyme. Regular lines, each with 
six long syllables, or three spondees, of which the two first 
change with dactyls. This is the verse used in most of the 
Sagas. It must be observed, that one meets sometimes a syl- 
lable in the oldest verses of this kind, before the chief-letter, 
which cannot be looked upon as ,,malfylling", but which 
belongs, to the verse to give it the right lenght, as: 



sattaftu 
of hr&- 


Arafn i 
soil! 


fcuisti 
gjalla 



182. The Songs (run'henda) have also regular lines but 
they have both syllabic and final rhymes. The shortest verse 
of four syllables also has sometimes a syllable before the chief- 
letter, for the reason given, as: 

vi 5 hllml efnd. 

Jon Olafsen, who has written a treatise ,,on the old Icelandic 
Poetry" expresses the same opinion on pag. 68. 

A single short syllable is frequently found in the verse. 



PART II. 



The Old Norsk Poetry and the Sagas. 

Iceland was formerly looked upon as the ultima Thule 
of Virgil; it received the greater part of its population from 
Norway, where it first became known between the years 860 
870 through the skandinaviau navigators Nadd-Odd, Gar- 
dar and Floeke. The last one called it Iceland in conse- 
quence of the masses of drift-ice which he found in all its 
creeks. 

The first settler was the Nonveian In golf (870) who 
fled to the iceland with his retinue and relations from King 
Ha raid Harfager who after having subdued the other petty 
kings of Norway, obtained supreme power by levelling taxes oil 
all the freeholds of the nobles, whom he in reality reduced 
to tenants, and all those who would not submit fo this usurped 
authority, emigrated to Iceland, and thus within 60 years the 
habitable shoreland of the isle was taken possession of. 

As most of these emigrants were the freest and noblest 
men of Norway, some of royal descent, others from the flower 
of the aristocracy, they continued their old mode of life in 
their new home, and Iceland became an aristocratic republic. 
They brought with them their language, the Old Dansk, their 
rites of heathen worship and their civil institutions. The ground 
work of their political life was chieliy Ulfi lot's (927), who 
established a system of law and created the ,,Althing" a national 
parliament, composed of all the freeholders of the island, which 
held its meetings every year for 14 days on the great plain of 
the Thingvalla to discuss the interests of the land. 

Besides this general meeting, there were instituted since 962 



60 

a number of smaller Things* for the various districts of the 
island, to which was added A. D. 1004 through Njal a superior 
court of justice. Christianity, already introduced by some of 
the early settlers, was legally established in 1000, and with it 
came the knowledge of the latin language and literature, in- 
deed poetry and science found ground ready to receive them 
on these shores, and both poetry and historic sagas where al- 
ready more widely cultivated here than in other parts of the 
germanic north. 

It is no wonder that in this remote region a literary life 
began and literary treasures were kept and reared, whilst the 
whole of northern Europe was nothing but a bloody battlefield. 
These noble Norsemen had brought with them a beautiful lan- 
guage, diamond-hard, pure as crystal and golden tinted, in 
which the Edda Songs were written. We call it the Icelandic 
or Old Norsk tongue, but the Old Icelanders called it the 
,,dtinsk tunga och norrcena tunga." 

It was once the common language of all the tribes of the 
germanic north, spoken in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The 
FarOe, Orkney and Hebrides Islands, and transplanted by the 
Danes into England. This tongue is still spoken, with some 
modifications, in Iceland and the FarOe Islands, it has kept up 
its ancient type, partly from the naturally secluded position of 
the island, partly because of its finished literature. In Den- 
mark itself, it underwent a process of degeneration by the mix- 
ture with the Anglo-Saxon and German, through the influence 
of latin and at last by the french, so that it is scarcely possible 
now to trace* in the Danish language, the once powerful, 
harmonious, full -sounding Norraena - tongue. Thus it is that 
since the beginning of the 14 th Century, the contrast of the 
old-norsk or icelandic tongue (fslendska tunga) and the modern 
danish and Swedish language has become visible.** 

It is interesting to enquire how these rich treasures of 
ancient lore were preserved in this remote island. A great 
quantity of Sagas matter was collected in Iceland from the very 
first, not only did the emigrants bring with them the great 
national Sagas of the Norwegians, Swedes and Danes, but also 

*) Thing in Icelandic means, a meeting or assize, Court of Justice. 

**) Koeppen's Literar. Einleitung in die NordischeMythologie; one 
of the best hooks on icelandic literature and Mythology. 

Dietrich's Altnordisches Lesebuch, with Introduction on the Old 
Norsk Literature. 



61 

the Sagas of the tribes and the local traditions from every part 
of Scandinavia; besides a number of Sagas from the other 
countries which they continually visited in their numerous 
travels by sea and land. The nobles brought with them their 
own family Sagas from the remotest times, and they were also 
the keepers of the Old Sagas of Gods and Heroes, with the 
latter of whom their own families were often connected by 
tradition. Hence this incredibly rich mine of poetry and history, 
of mythology and superstition in Iceland. Moreover the nobles, 
from the old houses of Y n g u i s or Ski Old, remained in their 
northern seats, without any other occupation than the care of 
Jheir property, there was little agriculture and that was left to 
their servants. The national feasts, and the Things, and also 
disputes and wars occasionally interrupted their solitude, other- 
wise their days glided away evenly enough. Ennui drove the 
nobles partly to travel, partly to study and writing, and thus 
they became poets and historians, and created this rich icelandic 
literature which we possess. 

The Skalds. 

,,The early dawn of literature*) in Europe was almost every- 
where else marked by an awkward attempt to copy the classi- 
cal models of Greece and Rome. In Iceland, an independent 
literature grew up, flourished , and was brought to a certain 
degree of perfection before the revival of learning in the South 
of Europe. This island was not converted to Christianity until 
the end of the tenth century, when the national literature, 
which still remained in oral tradition, was full blown and ready 
to be committed to a written form. With the Romish religion, 
latin letters where introduced; but instead of being used, as 
elsewhere, to write a dead language, they were adopted by 
the learned men of Iceland to mark the sounds, which had been 
before expressed by the Runic characters. The ancient language 
of the North was thus preserved in Iceland, whilst it ceased to 
be cultivated as a written, and soon became extinct as a spoken 
language, in the parent countries of Scandinavia/' 

The Skalds or poets were the Minnesingers of the North, 
they preserved poetry, mythology and history in the verses 



*) Whea ton's History of the Northmen pag. 49. an interesting 
work for the early history of the Danes and Normans. 



62 

which they recited. As early as the 10 th Century these ice- 
landic Skalds where known far and near. We find them at 
all the northern courts, where they occupy a distinguished po- 
sition in the trains of kings, whose companions and chroniclers 
they were ,,who liberally rewarded their genius (see Wheaton) 
,,and sometimes entered the lists with them in trials of skill 
,,in their own art. A constant intercourse was kept up by 
,,the Icelanders with the parent country, and the Skalds were 
,,a sort of travelling minstrels, going continually from one North- 
,,ern country to another. A regular succession of this order 
,,of men was perpetuated, and a list of 230 in number, of those 
,,who were most distinguished in the three Northern kingdoms, 
,,from the reign of Ragnar Lodbrok to Valdemar II is 
,,preserved in the Icelandic language, among whom are several 
,,crowned heads and distinguished warriors of the heroic age. 
,,The famous king, Ragnar Lodbrok, his queen AslOg or 
,,Aslauga, and his adventurous sons, who distinguished them- 
,,selves by their maritime incursions into France and England 
,,in the ninth century, were all Skalds. A sacred character 
,,was attached to this calling. The Skalds performed the office 
,,of ambassadors between hostile tribes, like the heralds of an- 
,,cient Greece and of the Roman fecial law. Such was the 
,, estimation in which this order of men was held, that they 
,,often married the daughters of princes, and one remarkable 
,,instance occurs of a Skald, who was raised to the vacant 
,,Jutish throne, on the decease of Frode III, in the fourth Cen- 
,,tury of the Christian a3ra." 

In such a position the Skalds accompanied the king in 
their raids and to the battle field, they were present in the 
banqueting hall and in the hot fight, continually collecting ma- 
terials for new Songs, Sagas and Tales ; and at last when they 
were worn out and tired of life, they returned to their home 
in Iceland, frequently covered with renown and with riches, 
to tell their friends and countrymen of the foreign countries 
they had visited and of their own exploits. The Skalds therefore 
much more resemble the knightly Troubadours of the Middle ages 
than the Indian Rramahs, or the Celtic Druids. They could sing 
of fights and battles and deaths, which they had personally wit- 
nessed, they could sing of the Sea with its charms and dangers 
because they had led a daring Vikinglife and had steered the 
,,steed of the sea" ; through storms and tempests. They could 
sing of the bliss of the Gods and Einheriar, because they 



63 

had partaken of kingly hospitality and feasts, the prototype of 
which was Valhall. 

The Skalds obtained their highest position at the time of 
Eric, the bloody axe, Ha con the Good, Ilarald and II a - 
con Jarl 

The most celebrated Skalds of that period were: Egil 
Skallagrimson, KormakAugmundarson, Einar Hel- 
gason Skalaglam, Eilif Gudrunarson, Guttorm Sin- 
dri, Glunv Geirason etc., but they were all surpassed by the 
Norvveian Eyvind, the great-grand child of Harald Haar- 
schOns, who received the proud name of Skaldaspillir (the 
annihilator of the Skalds). Even the Icelanders acknowledged him 
and sent him a costly present (Harald-GraTelds-Saga c. 18).*) 

,,As there were female warriors (Wheaton), or Amazons 
,,in the heroic age of the North, so there were female Skalds 
,,or poetesses, whose lays sometimes breathed the harsh notes 
,,of war and celebrated the' achievements of conquering heroes, 
,,and at others sung the prophetic mysteries of religion. 

,,Thus we perceive how the flowers of poetry sprung up 
,,and bloomed amidst eternal ice and snows. The arts of peace 
,,were successfully cultivated by the free and independent Ice- 
ganders. Their Arctic isle was not warmed by a Grecian sun, 
,,but their hearts 'glowed with the lire of freedom. The natural 
,,divisions of the country by ice-bergs and lava streams, insu- 
,,lated the people from each other, and the inhabitants of each 
valley and each hamlet formed, as it were, an independent 
,,community. These were again reunited in the general na- 
,,tional assembly of the Althing, which might not be unaptly 
,, likened to the ^mphyctionic council or Olympic games, where 
,,all the tribes of the nation convened to offer up the com- 
,,mon rites of their religion, to decide their mutual difl'emin's, 
,,and to listen to the lays of the Skald, which commemorated 
,,the exploits of their ancestors.*' 

A collection of these early remains of old Scandinavian 
poetry will be found in the Poetic or Elder Ed da, the prose 
in the Younger Edda and the Sagas, the Nja"la, the 
Heimskringla, the Konungsskuggsja' , and the Land- 
namabok.**j 



*) A Catalogue of the most celebrated Icelandic skalds (Skaldatal) 
will be found in Worm's Literal. Run, and in Peringskiold'- IV.i- 
lion of the Heimskringla. 

**) See Bos worth's Scandin. Literal, with specimens of the va- 



64 

Indeed the Icelandic literature begins with the compilation 
of the Poetic Edda in 1056 and ends in the 14 th Century. 



The Edda. 

In the year 1643 the Bishop ofSkalholt Brynjulf S ven el- 
se n found amongst other Manuscripts, a very old Memhran 
which contained icelandic poems, he had it copied and added 
to the title with his own hand ,,Edda Saemundar hins 
Fr6da" Edda of Sanwnd the Wise. The old Manuscript 
was sent to Copenhagen and is now to be found there in the 
Royal Library. It seems to have been written in the 1 4 th Cen- 
tury and although not quite perfect, is the chief codex of the 
Edda. 

This Poetic Edda is one of the most incomparable works 
of the human race, no people have noted down their heathen 
belief in so innocent a manner and with such freshness of 
colour as the Icelanders. These Songs are the ancienf Relics 
of Antiquity, and are for the Scandinavian Nations, what Homel- 
and Hesiod combined are for Ancient Greece. It is the thoroughly 
original and national poetic monument of the Northern Nations. 

The Songs of this Edda consist of the Sagas of Gods and 
Heroes. Edda means proa via" the great grand mother,* 
who tells to her numerous grand children the history and tales 
of their forefathers. 

The Songs of the Edda are mythologic or heroic -epic, 
they are of so remote a period, that it is not likely they were 
written in Iceland, it is much more probable that they were 
brought over to Iceland by the old Noble families in whose 
keeping they were preserved, and it is the proud distinction 
of the Icelanders that to their intelligence we are indebted for 
these, the most precious relics of the germanic races. 

Wheaton says:**) About two centuries and a half after 
,,the first settlement of Iceland by the Norwegians the learned 
,,men of that remote island began to collect and reduce to 
,,writing these traditional poems and histories. Sttunuud Sig- 



rious northern Dialects; Mallet's Northern Antiquities. English trans- 
lations of the Edda by S. Cottle (mythol. songs only) and by Thorpe. 

*) Halderson' explains: ,,M6dir heitir ein/amma onnur, edda 
hin bridia." (Moder is called the one [in the first degree] grand mother 
the second, Edda or the great, grand mother; the third). 
**) Northmen page 59. 



65 

,,1'ussen, an eccle*iastic, who was born in Iceland in 1056 
,,and pursued his classical studies in the universities of Ger- 
,,many and France, first collected and arranged the hook of 
,,songs relating to the mythology and history of the ancient 
,,North, which is called the poetic, or elder Edda. Various 
,,and contradictory opinions have been maintained as to the 
,, man ner in which this collection was made by Sar-inund, who 
,,first gave it to the world. Some suppose that he merely 
,,gathered the Runic manuscripts of the different poems, and 
^transcribed them in Latin characters. Others maintain that 
,,he look them from the mouths of different Skalds, living in 
,,his day, and first reduced them to writing, they having been 
,, previously, preserved and handed down by oral tradition 
,,merely. But the most probable conjecture seems to be, that 
,,he collected some of this fragmentary poetry from cotem- 
,,porary Skalds and other parts from manuscripts written after 
,,the introduction of Christianity and Latin letters into Iceland, 
,,which have since been lost, and merely added one song of 
,,his own composition the S61ar Lj6d, or Carmen-Solare of 
,,a moral and Christian religious tendency, so as thereby to 
,,consecrate and leaven, as it were, the whole mass of paganism." 

The Edda contains I st Songs of the Gods, and II" d Songs 
of the Heroes. Volu-spa" (the oracle of vala, the seer) tells 
of. the creation of the World, and the Gods and People who 
dwell in it. The Seer has heard of the doings in this world 
from her instructors, the primeval giants, and she is acquainted 
with nine heavens, she also knows the future. 

The entire poem is most prophetic and remarkable. 

Grimnis-ma"!, the Song of Grimnir, in which he de- 
scribes the twelve duellings of the Gods and the splendour of 
Valhalla. 

The Vafbru5nis-mal, OQinn undertakes to visit a 
wise and powerful giant and to question him on the World, 
the Gods and the Giants. The giant gives his replies and 
shows his knowledge, but from the lenour of the last question 
he guesses that the visitor who has drawn his secrets from him 
is the powerful God himself. 

The S61ar-li6d, the song of the sun, as we have al- 
ready seen is a Christian song, interwoven with old mytholo- 
gical fancies. 

Besides these four most important songs, the following are 
of a very remarkable kind, in which the old poetry has a tinge 

Icelandic Grammar. 5 



66 

of divine lore, namely: the Skirnisfor, Vegtamsk vi9a . 
Harbar9slio9, HymiskviSa and the PrymskviSa. 

The most important of the Songs of the Heroes are 
the Volundarkvi8a, the two Songs of Helgakvifta, the 
songs of Sigurft, Tafnismal and Sigrftrifumal. 

The Epic contents of some of these Songs are maintained 
by Jac. Grimm, to have been gathered from the german 
forefathers, and that the Scandinavians have saved these tutonic 
remains; these poems are of an epic grandeur, and a truly 
homeric power, which give them the foremost position in the 
Edda. 



Schools were formed in Iceland in the eleventh Century, 
and being far distant from Rome, enjoyed much liberty and 
national formation. The Bishops were elected by the Althing, 
the schools were not only established in the Monasteries but 
also in private houses. 

The Bishop of Skalholt introduced writing in 1057 and 
Sagas were then much collected. Without writing there were 
songs and sagas in abundance, even traditional science, but 
no literature. The Icelanders like other Norsemen certainly 
wrote earlier in Runic Characters, but these were only used 
for inscriptions in wood and stone, to express names, pedigrees 
and forms of witchcraft, rarely poems. 

The Runic alphabet*) ,,consists properly of sixteen letters, 
which are Phenician in their origin. The Northern traditions, 
,,sagas and songs, attribute their introduction to Odin. They 
,,were probably brought by him into Scandinavia, but they have 
,,no resemblance to any of the alphabets of central Asia. All 
,,the ancient inscriptions to be found on the rocks and stone 
,,monuments in the countries of the North, and which exist 
,,in the greatest number near old Sigtuna and Upsala, in S\ve- 
,,den, the former the residence of Odin, and the latter of his 
,,successors, and the principal seat of the superstition intro- 
,,duced by him, are written in the Icelandic or ancient Scan- 
,,dinavian language, but in Runic characters." 

The Icelanders first received the latin alphabet from the 
missionaries, in a double form, namely from the Germans and 
Anglo-Saxons. The german writing ( MOnchsschrift ) became 
however predominant, but they retained some of the anglo- 

*) Wheaton's Norsemen 61. 



67 

saxon characters. Books were created through school-know- 
ledge. Young Icelanders visited Germany, England, Italy and 
France to study and prepare Ihemselves for the church; they 
studied at the Universities in Oxford, Rome and Paris. Schools 
were established to teach Christian learning and to educate 
their own clergy, Latin, Theology, reading, writing and sing- 
ing were the branches chiefly taught. 

Sacmund hinn fro8i, Sigfusson (born 1036. d. 
1133j who collected the poetry of the elder Edda had studied 
at Paris and Cologne, and in the School on his property Odd 
was educated ,,Snorri Sturluson the author of the Chron- 
icles of the Norwegian Kings from Odin downwards, and the 
Prose Edda. Historical prose rose to its highest point in the 
12"' and 13 th Centuries when Sagas of all times and countries 
were written or translated. 

Willi the gradual fall of the political state in the begin- 
ing of the 13"' Century, we also find that the compositions 
of the Sagas become less numerous; the 14" 1 Century only fur- 
nished translations, fictions, fairy tales and Annals, and even 
these ceased to be created at the end of the Century, when 
Iceland was visited by diseases and plagues. 



Poetry of the Skalds. 

We find in the 12 th Century the most celebrated of the 
historical Skalds to be: 

Marcus Skeggson, Ivar Ingemundson at the nor- 
wegian court, the priest Kin arc Skulason court poet, from 
1114 with Sigurd in Norway. He wrote poems on Sven, king 
of Denmark to whom he went in 1151. In the time of king 
Sverrer(1177 1202) the following are the most distinguished 
Skalds: Hallr Snorrason, MAni, Blackr, PorbibTn, 
Skackaskald, and the young Snorri Sturluson. 

In the first part of the 13 th Century Liot, HOskuld 
the blind. Jatgeir, Snorri, Jarl Gizur, and chiefly Olaf 
hvita skald bo r 8 arson (d. 1259) the author of the Knyt- 
lingasaga and of many poems on king Waldemar of Den- 
mark and Hakon VI of Norway were much esteemed. His 
brother Sturla hinn fro5i (d. 1284) wrote the histories of 
Hakon VI and Magnus VII. In the 12 th Century we already find 
in the Icelandic and Norwegian Sagas a number of folk songs 

5* 



68 

(Volkslieder) interspersed. Saxo Grammaticus often quotes 
these songs as authorities. 

Prose writing rose high in the 12 tu Century, historical 
events were frequently written down, and although the man- 
ner in which they were composed, was unfinished, yet an 
artistic form is visible in the narrative of events and in the 
treatment of the subjects generally. Real history of which the 
father is Ari hinn fro Si who wrote a Chronicle of Iceland, 
and ( the Landnmabok is treated too much in the character 
of dry statistics and genealogy and is much in want of general 
survey and enlarged handling. It is only when we come to 
Snorri and his nephews Olaf and Slur la that descriptive 
history becomes more finished and personal dialogues infuses 
life into the historical pages. Both Sweden and Norway have 
taken part in collecting and writing down their old laws and 
privileges, but we are only indebted to the industry and in- 
telligence of the Icelanders for having preserved to us the tra- 
ditions of their common Hero Sagas, to which we look as the 
real history of those remote ages. Without these Sagas there 
would be a great blank in northern history for several Centuries. 



The Sagas. 

,,The ancient literature of the North" says Wheaton, ,,was 
,,not confined to the poetical art. The Skald recited the 
,, praises of King and heroes in verse, whilst the Saga-man re- 
,,called the memory of the past in prose narratives. The talent 
,,for story-telling, as well as that of poetical invention, was 
Cultivated and highly improved by practice. The prince's hall, 
,,the assembly of the people, the solemn feasts of sacrifice, all 
,,presented occasions for the exercise of this delightful art. The 
,,memory of past transactions was thus handed down from age 
,,to age in an unbroken chain of tradition, and the ancient 
,,songs and Sagas were preserved until the introduction of book- 
,,writing gave them a fixed and durable record." 

The great mass of Prose writing which has come down 
to us, from these cold icebound shores, is truly amazing, it 
contains not only the Sagas of entire tribes, but of kings, Jarls 
or chiefs, skalds and other celebrities. We will mention some 
of the most important 



09 



/*' Hero Sagas 

were one of the flrst subjects of their prose tales. In the Vol- 
sungasaga \ve find much of the germanic and northern.ele- 
meni, it tells of Sigfrid's youthful deeds, Ihis is followed by 
the Ragnarlodbrokssaga, in which is set forth how the 
danish king, having lost his queen Thora, marries Si gf rid 's 
daughter, whose sons become the great conquerors. Both Sa- 
gas belong to the 12'" or beginning of the 13 th Century. 

The Vilkina or Niflungasaga are based on low ger- 
man poems and tales. 

There are a number of sagas whose heroes are renowned 
Icelanders, such as Finnbog and Gretter, Hialmler and 
Olver, Hromund, Hroi and of the Swedish Herraud 
and Bo si. Styrbiorn, the Swedefighter , Gautrek King 
of Wesfgolhia, and of his son Hrolf, and the Sagas of the 
Norwegian An, the bow-man, Sturlaug the industrious, Por- 
stein the son of Vikings and others. 

Foreign Hero-Sagas were introduced into Iceland and Nor- 
way during the 13 th Century through translations, chit-fly by 
Hakon Hakonarson and the Icelandic clergy; of which 

Jon Hall tor, Bishop of Skalholt 1322 39 was the most 
celebrated. Old British Legends are also early imported through 
translations, the BretasOgur is said to have been made by 
the monk Gunnlaug Leifson in Thingeyre (1218). 

Many foreign sagas were transcribed by order of HP. kon 
VI, such as the Prophecies of Merlin, the Arlursaga, the 
Mottulssaga, the monk Robert, the Tristram ok Isod- 
d u saga; and in the 13"' Century the Alexandrasaga, and 
the history of King Tyrus and Wlate, both by Brandr 
Jonsson , who died Bishop of Holum in 1264. The precise time 
when many of these sagas were translated is not known, as the 
TrAamannasaga and the Spanish F 1 o r and Blancheflur. 

II nd The Historical Sagas 

were written unter the title SOgur, they contain much that 
is mythic before the time of Halfdan the Black (863) but 
much real history is interspersed, which is principally taken 
from the pedigrees and traditions of the Nobles of the land. One 
of the most important works, on the history of Iceland, chiefly 
composed from the various family histories which were then 



70 

in existance, is the ,,Islendf ngabok" written by Ari hinn 
fro5i (born 1067) which gives a general history of the colo- 
nisation and events of the island, down to the beginning of 
the -12 th Century, also the Landn&mab6k commenced by 
Ari, which after many continuations was* finished by Sturla 
Pordarson (d. 1284) with additions by Erlauk Erlend- 
son (d. 1334). It contains a complete history of the island 
from the taking possession of the same to the 10 th Century, 
but it is full of genealogies and dry detail. We must further 
mention the excellent Fcereyingasaga (12 th C.) which treats 
of the history of Sigmund, who introduced Christianity into the 
Fan) Islands. The Orkneyingasaga from the middle of 
the 13 th Century; the Heidarvigasaga (12 th C.) which gives 
an account of the battle on the Heath (1013 1015) a fearful 
contest, in which entire tribes fought against each other. The 
Hungurvaka (12 th Cent.) treats of the first five Bishops of 
Skalholt. 

The Laxdoelasaga (13 th Cent.) is an interesting history 
of the trials and adventures of a very rich norwegian woman 
A u d a , who fled with her father before H a r a I d , first to Scot- 
land and then to Iceland. 

The Sturlungasaga (end of the 13 th Cent.) is one of 
the most important historical documents we possess. It begins 
its narrative in 1110, and relates minutely the fate of Sturle, 
the father of Snorri, and the various conflicts of his race with 
other chiefs; its author was Sturla fordssohn who was 
engaged in writing it until he went on his journey to Norway 
in 1164. 

The Vigastyrssaga written by a noble Icelander Styr 
(styled Arn grim) the "murderous fighter"; he was at last slain, 
and it was in consequence of his death, that the celebrated 
battle on the Heath was fought. 

The Liotsvetninga or Reykdoelasaga, written by 
the rich Gudmund the powerful (d. 1025) and his sons. It 
gives an account of the earliest aristocracy of the island (12 lll C). 

The historical biographies of the Icelandic Skalds are 
very interesting. One of the oldest is the Gunnlaug Orm- 
stunga ok Skald Rafn's Saga from the 12 th Cent. The 
Saga of two poets, whose valour was widely renowned is the 
Fostbrosdrasaga, it tells of formed who received his 
death wound in the battle of Stiklestad, and 1* o r g e i r 
who saw many a fight in Iceland, Ireland, England and Norway, 



71 

in the latter country he was for some time Court skald at 
Olaf's, until at last he found his end in Iceland, where he 
was slain in battle. 

The Kormakssaga also belongs to this remarkable kind 
of Sagas, in which the battle and love adventures of these 
Minnesingers and gallant blades, which they experienced in 
their romantic wanderings are told. 

The Heimskringla (orbis terrarum) is one of the prin- 
cipal works of Iceland. It is written by Snorre Slurlason, a 
man to whom his country's history and literature are much 
indebted; and who earned for himself the title of the Northern 
Herodotus. A scion of one of the old noble families, he was 
born in the year 1178 at Ilvamm. He lived long at the Courts 
of Sweden and Norway, became an Icelandic lagman and was 
murdered in his castle on the 22 nd September 1241. He was 
a man of great talents, and made himself famous as a poet, 
lawgiver and historian. 

Snorre collected 16 Sagas on his numerous voyages, the 
first of which treats of the mythic limes before Half dan the 
Black, followed by the histories of all Norwegian Kings down 
to Magnus Erlingsson (1162 1184). To these are add- 
ed three continuations, first by Karl Jonsson Abbot of 
Thingeyri (d. 1213) who wrote the minute history of King 
Sverrer, followed by the histories of Hakon Sverrersson, 
Guttorm Sigur5arson and Ingi Bardarson, written by 
an unknown author, and lastly by Sturla, the last Skald who 
wrote the life of Hakon VI and a fragment of Magnus VII. 

Snorre mentions that he has not only used the poems of 
the Skalds, but the Sagas of Kings which he found written, 
and which he collected in his travels. The completion of the 
entire work may be placed towards the year 1230. 

With this remarkable book, a masterpiece of history, only 
inferior to the Edda itself, closes the history of the Sagas. It 
is a mine of Icelandic history and mythology, interesting alike 
for its Swedish and norwegian Annals, giving at the same 
time historical glances at Bussia. 

The history of the Swedish Kings has not been treated 
with originality by the Icelanders; nor has Danish history been 
faithfully represented after the 12 th Century. The Jomsvikin- 
gasaga is the history of the renowned pirates who lived in 
the Jomscastle, the terror of navigators and the coast popu- 
lation, and Jarl Hakon's taking and destruction of this Castle ; 



72 

the Knytlingasaga records the history of Knut the Holy 
(1080 1086) and his successors down to 1186. 

There are also a great number of Biblical Sagas and Old 
Legends extant, which it would be beside our sketch to 
dwell upon. 

III rd The Old Law Statutes. 

are of great value to the philologist, as these Old Laws and 
Statutes were collected and wrilten down by the northern Coun- 
tries in their own various dialects. One of the oldest is the 
Icelandic Grama's" (Greygoose) which name was given to it 
by its last editor the Lagman Gudmund Porgeirsson 
(1123 1135). It commenced in 1119 on the basis of the 
laws of Ulfliot in the 10 th Century, but was only used until 
the subjugation by Norway, since which time (1273) the Ha- 
konarbdk was introduced, which, having being re-edited by 
Jon an icelandic Lagman (1280) was called J6nsb6k. 

The Icelandic Cannon -law (Kristinrettr) dates from the 
year 1275. 

IV th Science. 

Remains of Learning and Science are not wanting in Ice- 
land, for after the introduction of Christianity, many persons 
studied abroad. Grammar, Rhetorics, Astronomy, Chronology, 
Physics and Geography were cultivated by them. The study of 
Grammar was an especial favourite in which Porodd became 
so great that he received the name Runameistari (Gram- 
maticus) but the most celebrated work is the 



lounger Ktlila or Prose Edda. 

It was first found 1628 by Arngrim Johnson. Three 
Codices are extant, two in the Copenhagen and one in the 
Upsala Library. It was Snorre who contributed mainly to 
the compilation of this prose Edda. 

In the 14 th Century the Younger Edda consisted of three 
parts. The 1 st contained the Myths, or the material out of 
which the poetic language should be formed. The 2'" 1 Ken- 
ningar, gave the forms of authority, in which the mythic 
element should be adopted, and it therefore gives the Mytho- 
logy of the Poetic Edda. The 3' J part contains the Skalda, 



73 

the rules or art of poetry adopted by the Skalds subdivided 
into three classes namely 1) reading and writing, 2) speaking 
correctly and 3) writing verses as the result of the entire study. 
It further contains a Dictionary of poetic synonymes and the 
whole art of versification, alliteration, species of verse, etc. 

The ,,Konungsskuggsi;\" Kingsmirror, from the 12"' 
Century, is a curious collection of knowledge and experience. 
It contains firstly physical and geographical curiosities, secondly, 
rules of life and manners to be observed in the presence of 
Kings and Courts, and hence its title. 

The learned industry, so long and habitually practised by 
these noble Icelanders, continued during the Centuries following, 
but after the introduction of the Reformation, although literary 
occupations were kept up, the authors wrote in latin, much 
was translated, nor did poetry entirely die out, but the power 
and the lustre of its might and beauty were gone, the Saga 
with its powerful poetry and its heroic elements fled, and the 
old Icelandic Art was at an end for ever.*) 



*) We refer the student for further information to 
Mo bins, T., Ueber die altere islandische Saga. 1852. 

Ueber die allnordische Philologie. 1S64. 

Analecta Norrcena. Auswahl aus der islandischen und norwegi- 

schen Lileratur des Mittelalters. 1859. 

These books can be had of the publisher of this Grammar as well as: 
Haldorsson's Lexicon Islaridico-Latino-Danicum. 
Jonsson's Icelandic-Danish Dictionary. 
Fritzner, J., Old Norwegian Dictionary. 



PART III. 

Icelandic Reader. 



Sundurlausir 

enbcrlafc 

Separated thoughts. 

Icelandic: G6d bok og god kona, lagfsera marganii brest, 
Danish: ob 33og og gob $one rette mangen 33r0ft, 
English: Good book and good wife mend many fault, 
slasm b6k og slaem kona sk6mma margt gott bjartalag, margir 
ftem 33og og ftem one fovbcere mangt gobt ^jertelao, ntange 
bad book and bad wife spoil many good disposition, many 

gaeta ekki ad ftdru & bidum beim, enn hvOrnin bser 
fee iffe fcaa anbet paa begge bem, enb ^oor(ebe be 
look not to others on both (sides) them, than how (but only to) they 
eru utan; Fer })eim b^i ad kvarta yfir 

ere itboorteg. - (Summer bem ba at Kage ooer 

are the outside (of things). Beseems them then to complain over 
bvOrnin hid innra seinna reynist. 
^bortebeg bet 3nbre fenere ^oe6. 
how the interior later proves.**) 

Heimskura verdur ad halda til g6da, b6 beir tali 
>imtme fcttoer ot ^otbe tt( obe, ffj^nbt be tate 
Stupid must to keep to good, although they speak 
nokkra heimsku, bvi bad vaeri hardt ad Jofa beim aldrei ad 
nogen )uml?eb, t^t bet boere fyaarbt at ttttabe bem atbrtg at 
some stupidity, for it were hard to allow them never to 
tala eitt ord. 
tale et Orb. 
speak one word. 



*) From Sivertsen's Icelandic Laesbog. 

**) Must be constructed thus: Most people look not to both sides, 
but only to the outside of things; it behoves those who complain to 
examine both sides. 



75- 

Correct Danish. 



Gm gob 33og og en gob $one forbebre mange $ct(, en 
f(et 33og og en f(em $one forbccrbe 2)?ange8 gobe inbetab. 
>e ^(efte fee fun paa S3cgge UbborteS. (Summer bet fig 
ba at ftage otoer fyoorlebeS S3egge8 3nbre fiben erfareS? )e 
>umme maa man fyolbe bet tit obe, ffjonbt be tate noget 
burnt, ba bet cilbe ocere fyaarbt, atbrtg at tiflabe bem at tate 
ct Orb. 

Gatur dauber Riddles. 

Eg er m6durlaus, en hann fadir minn er madurinn rninn. 
3eg er mobert^S, men ^>an ^aber min er SOlanben min. 
/ am motherless, but the father my is the husband my. 
Frd m6dur lifi kom eg hofudlaus, og fotavaui, 
gra 2Rober-(io !om jeg l^oebt0, og g0bber$mang(enbe, 
From mother's life came I headless and feetwanting, 

fell eg })annin mOrgum vel, med hofdi og f6tum er eg 
fatber jeg faatebeS mange t>et, meb ofceb og ^bber er jeg 
fall I thus many well, with head and feet am I 
lika g6dur maga }>inum, en }> verdur l>u ad bida. 
ogfaa gob 9)?ae bin, men ba btioer bu at fcente. 
also good [to] stomach thy, but then must thou wait. 

Hvad er |>ad sein i dag ekki verdur Jjat sama d 

bab er bet font i-bag iffe bttber bet famme t* 

What is it which to-day not becomes that same to 

morgun, missir bord, rum, has, og nafnid med, en gne- 

morgen, mifter S3orb, @eng, uu, og 9labnet meb, men groe* 

morrow, loses table, bed, house and the name with but de- 
tur ))n ekki missirinn. 
ber bog iffe @faben (Xabet). 
plores yet not (he loss. 

Correct Danish: 



3eg er moberUd, og min Saber er min Mgtefccfle. (5 o a. 
3eg er fob uben ^)ooeb og jobber, og be^ager bog SDiange. 



76 



ofceb og gibber fmager jeg big ogfaa ret gobt, men faa 
bu maa fcente ifyrenb be fomme). 2@g. 

)ab er bet font i )ag iffe b(ier bet fatnme i 9ftorgen, 
foranbrer 33orb, @eng, ntu$, og maaffe v J?afcn, men kgrceber 
bog et Xobet? en 33rub. 



Thales Thales. 

Merki til heimskn er ofmikil lyst til ad tala. 
2ttcerfe paa J)um^eb er formegen Styft tit at tate. 
^w o/ stupidity is too-great desire to to talk. 

Likamans farsa?ld er irmiialin i heilbrigdi, en ssilar- 
Segemet^ S^ffatig^eb er inbbefattet t ^elBreb, men @jce^ 
The body's happiness is contained in health, but the 

innar i laerdtimi. 

tens t Scerbom 

soul's in knowledge. 



01 er innri niadur, 

1 er inbrc 9ftanb. 

Ale is inner man. 

Tyrkja-keisarinn, edur eins og ba var kallad Califeii, 

Xit>rfefeiferen eller lige font ba bar latbet ($altfen f 

The Turks' emperor, or as then was called the Calif f 

Mahadi var einn af beim sti6rnendum, sem voru sofandi a 
SDZa^abt bar en af be ttyrere, font Dare focenbe paa 
Mahadi was one of those rulers, who were sleeping on 
ktings - hcisa3tmu, og feingu agjOrnum radherrum taiun- 
tong^<JtfcEbet, og finge gjcerrtgc 9^aabS^errer X^m-- 
the king's-highseat, and delivered avaricious councilors the rein- 
haldid i hendur. Einusinni ba hann a dyraveidnm var ad 
^otbet t Ipcenber. (Sngang ba ^an ^aa SDtyrefangfter ar at 



keeping in hands. Once then he on ^ rcam 9 s wa $ to 

(huntmg) 

elta steingeit, villtist hann fri fylgiurum sinum, og 

forf^tge teengeeb, bttbebeg fyon fra S0(gere fine, og 

pursue stonegoat ( - wmt v ' stra y^ he from followers his, and 
y 



77 

nttllin yfirfell liann. Pegar liann var breyltur onlinn. kom 
9ktten oberfatbt fyant. )a fyan tear trcct bteben, font 
the night over fell him. When he was tired become, came 
liann i riodur, livar liann sa tjald eitt, ur IivOrin ara- 
fyan t tab, fybor fyan faae ett et, ubaf fybilfet ara- 
he in clearing, where he saw tent a, from which Ara- 
bisknr madm* kom ut, og beiddi gst sinn ad vera vel- 
biff 2)?anb !om ub, og bab jceft fin at boere bet* 
bic man came out, and asked guest his to be wel- 
kominn. Calffen 16t ekki & bera, hvOrr liann va3ri, annad- 
fommen. SaUfen tob iffe moerle, fyt>em ^an car, en- 
come. The Calif did not disclose, who he was, ei- 
hvort til bess ad sjd seinna hvornin b6nda yrdi vid, begar 

ten tU bet at fee fenere fytoortebeS Sonbe ^ teebe } ba 

ther in order to see later how peasant became to, when 

liann feingi ad vita, bvflr kominn vreri, ellegar og hann 

^an ftnge at totbe, ^bo fommen bar, efler og ^an 

he got to know, who come was, or also he 

tptladi einusinni a llfstid sinni niota bess yndis at 



agtebe engang toaa 8totib fin n^be 
intended otice in lifetime his enjoy that delight to 
uniifangast vid jaminga sinn. Medan J)essi a;rlegi madur 
omgaaeS beb gtgemanb fin. SftebenS benne crrttge 9)?anb 
converse with lus equal. While this honest man 
gittrdi allt hvad hann gat til at taka vel a" moti komum- 
gjorbe a(t ^bab ^an !nnbe tit at tage bet t mob jce* 
did all that he could in order to talk well against the com- 
anni, spurdi Califen liann ad, bvarl'yri bann byggi i 
ften, fburgte Satifen ^am ont, ^borfor ^an btyggete t 
er, asked the Calif him about, why he dwelled in 
svoddan eydiplatsi? ^adsem J)6r med svo iniklum r6tti kallid 
faabant )be^tabS? etfom S)e meb faa ftor 9ict fatber 
such ' desertplace? That which you with so great right call 
eydiplats, svaradi binn arabiski, var fyrrnni IjOlbyggt 
SbebtabS, fbarebe fytn Slrabtffe bar forbum toetb^gget [ted 
desertplace, answered the Arab, was formerly nuinwonsly inhabi- 
af Arabiskum og TyrkjaiiKmnum, sem bOI'du nog vidnrvii-ri 
af i(rabtf!e og X^rfe'-aJicenb, font ^abbe nof Unbeii;otb 
hy Arabs and Turks, who had enough support 



78 

af kaupbOndlun og akuryrkju, og med anaegin guldu 
of ^fcfyanbel og 2lgerbtyr!ning, og meb $orn0jetfe fcetaite 
from trade and agriculture, and with pleasure .paid 
}>olanlegann skatt Califanum Almansor. Sci go5i Herra lagdi 
taatetig fat Sattfen 2llmanfor. )en gobe erre lagbe 
bearable taxes(to) the Calif Almansor. That good Lord laid 
alud d ad stiorna sinum lOndum, og gjOra begna 

glib paa at fttyre fine anbe, og gfore Unbevfaatter 
diligence on to govern his countries and make subjects 

sina lukkussela; en hanns eptirkomara og nuverandi 

fine fyffeltge; men fyanS @fterfommereS og nnocerenbe 

his happy; but his successors and present 

sti6rnara leti og hyrduleysi hefir feingid hird- 

ttyreres )ofcenffab og @!i0beS(0$fyeb ^ar gtoet (j^Jab* 
rulers laziness and carelessness have delivered the coun- 

stjorunum i hendur pegna bans, svo ad vegna 

atberne) * $ en ^ er Unberfaatter ^ang, faa at formebelft 
cillors in hand subjects his, so that on account 
peirra tfgirni eru hinir tvistradir vidsvegar sem her 
bereS jcemg^eb ere Ijtne abfprebte toibe 33ete font Ijer 
of their avarice are the others scattered far and wide who here 
bjuggu adur. Califen, sem nu i fyrsta sinni heyrdi sannleikann, 
B^ggebe for. (Saltfen, font nu f^rftegang ^0rte @anb^eben r 
lived before. The Calif, who now for first time heard the truth, 
firtist ekki af pvi, heldur ^setti ser ad verda adgaet- 
DrebebeS iffe af bet, men beftemte fig at 6(toe o^mcerf* 
got angry not of it, but resolved himself to be more atten- 

nari i embaettisskyldu sinni framveigis, en 16t ekki 

fommere t (SmBebS'^ligt fin frembe(e6, men (ob t!fe 
tive in office -duty his for the future, but let not 
husbondann d s6r merkja med hvada paunkum bans 

|)uubonben tyaa. fig mcer!e meb ^otl!e 5Tan!er IjanS 
the house-master (on) himself perceive with which thoughts his 
sinni var uppfyllt. S^l arabiski vildi gjOra komumanni til 
@tnb ar o^f^tbt. en Slrabtffe t(be gj^re joeften tit 
mind was upfilled. The Arab would do the comer to 
g6da allt hvad hann gat, og p6 undireins var 
obe att ^oab tyan formaaebe, og bog ttflige oar 
good all what he could, and yet at the same time was 



79 

hrrcddur um ad hann kynni hneixla hann, dr6 leingi timann, 

bange for at fyan f unite [rjk e j fyant, brog fonge STimen, 
afraid for that he might scandalize him, dreic long the time, 
adurenn hann taladi til bess, at hann cetti eina vinflusku, 
ferenb Ijan tatebe tit bets, at fyan eiebe en SStin-gfoffe, 
before he spoke to that, that he possessed one wine- flask, 
sem hann gjarnan skyldi g6fa honum ad drekka ur, ef 
font fyan gierne ffutbe gibe fyannem at brtffe af, berfom 
which he willingly should give him to drink from, if 
gSstur byrdi ad taka bad uppa" sina samvitsku, bvi eptir 
ioeft turbe at tage bet oppaa fin antbtttigljeb, tl)i efter 
guest dared to take it upon his conscience, for after 
Tyrkja-trfi er ekki leyfilegt ad drekka vin, edur neitt sem 
tyrIeS-ro ev iffe tiUabetigt at briffe 23iin, efler noget font 
Ttirks'-religion is not allowable to drink wine, or anything which 
afeingt er. Califen sem var 6vanur bessum drikk, vildi 
fecritfenbe er. Sattfen font bar noant benne X)rif f bt(be 
inebriating is. The Calif who was unused this drink, would 
nyta ser tickifserid til at ni6ta peirrar dnaegiu, sem 
ni^tte fig getltgfyebet tit at ntjibe benS gorn0je(feg ; font 
use for himself the opportunity to to enjoy that pleasure, which 
honum var bvi ymlislegri af bvi bun var fyribodin, og 
fyam &ar befto fcefyagetigere af bet fyitn bar forbuben, og 
him was the more delightful because she was forbidden, and 
hann vissi ad silt misbrot mundi her ei komast npj>. 
^an bibfte at fit ^orbrl^betfe monne fyer et lomnteg op. 
he knew that his crime would here not come up. 
Eptir ad hann var biiinn ad drekka hid fyrsta staup, sagdi 
(gfter at ^an bar fcerbig at briffe bet ferfte @t0b, fagbe 
After that he was finished to drink the first glass, said 
hann med hiru bragdi vid bann arabiska: Minn vin! eg 
tycm tneb Btibt 5laft;n beb ben ?(raotffe: 2)itn $en! jeg 
he^ with mild mine to the Arab; My friend! I 
er einn af hirdsveinum Califans, og bu skalt ei burfa ad 
er en af >offbenbe (EatifenS, og bn flat ei befy0tte at 
am one of courtiers the Calif's and thou shall not need to 
ydrast eptir bann greida sem bu hefir gjiJrt m^r. Sa 1 
fortr^be efter ben S3ebcertning font bit fyaber gjort ntig. >en 
repent of that entertainment, which thou hast done me. The 



80 

arabiski let aptur m6ti i te gledi og bakklaeti 

Slrobtffe tob atter imob t tee tcebe og (et) a!nemme(t>ifjeb 
Arab let again in return joy and gratitude 

fyri bessa alutl, og syndi komumanni bessmeiri 

for benne Dptncerffomfyeb, og bifte jceften beftomere 
for- this condescension, and showed the comer the more 

vyrdingu. I'essi, sem sagdist vera Califans embaBtlismadur, 
Slnfeetfe. >enne, font fogbeS ocere (SotifenS (SmbebSmonb, 
honour. This, who said himself be the Califs officer, 
t6k fliott til floskunnar aptur, en vid hvOrt eitt staup 6x 

tog fnart tit ^taffenS otter, men beb fytoert et <St0b too^te 
look quickly to the bottle again, but at every one glass increased 
bans anaBgja og vidf'eldni. Eg vil ekki leyua |>ig 

fyonS gorntfjetfe og Dmgaengetigfyeb. 3eg bit iffe ffjute (for) big 
his pleasure and affability. I will not conceal thee 
neinu sagdi bann vid husbtimlann, eg er Califans einka 
noget fagbe ^>an beb wu$bonben jeg er SatifenS fcebfte 
anything said he to the housemaster, 1 am the Califs intimate 

vin, sem hann hefir mestar msetur A. SA vinskapur 
23en, font ^an ^aer ftarfte obljeber ^aa. en 33enffa6 
friend whom he has greatest goodness upon. That friendship 

sem bann vyrdist at hafa til min, skal innan skamms g6fa 
font fyan bcerbigeg at ^ae tit ntig, ffal tnben torts gie 
which he appears to have for me, shall within short give 
mcr tffikifa?ri at litvega ber velgjOrdir af banns hendi. 
ntig (et) eitigl)eb at f orffaff e big 33etgjerninger of J?an$ aanb. 
me opportunity to get thee benefits from his hand. 
Pegar enn arabiski beyrdi petta, Jioktist bann ei n6gsamliga 
)o ben Slrobiffe ^erte bette, ttyfteS l^an ei noffomt 
When the Arab heard this, thought himself he not sufficiently 
gela veitt g6sti sinum lotningu en kysti banns klacdafald, 
lunne ^be joeft fin ^)0jogtetfe men l(>fte IjonS (en) ttcebeoon, 
be able given guest his reverence' but kissed his cloths' -seam, 
og beiddi hann fyrir alia muni ad spara ei |ietla vin, sem 
og bob tyom for ot 5Ting ot fpore et bette SStin, fom 
and bade him by all means to spare not this wine, which 
gjOrdi hann svo lystugann. Mahadi kom s6r belur og betur 
gjorbe ^om foo t^ftig. Sttofyobt fom fig bebre og bebre 
made him so merry. Mahadi came himself bettet* and better 



81 

hja" vininu, svo hann burfti ekki ad taka naerri 
i S3enffab IjoS SMnct, [aa fyan k^oefce iffe at tage noer 
into friendship by the wine, so (hat he needed not to take near 
s6r ad drekka [>ad fyri hiisbdndans bon. Eg sjd sagdi 
fig at briffe bet for $ituSbonben8 S30n. 3eg feer fagbc 
himself to drink it fur the housemaster's request. I see, said 
hann, ad 01 seigir allann vilja. Eg er hvorki hirdmadur 
Ijan, at [ figer at $MUje. 3eg er fyoerfen )offinbe 
he that ale says all will. I am neither courtier 
n6 einka vinur Califans, heldur er eg Califen sjalfur, og 
elter bebfte 23en GattfenS, feller er jeg Salifen feto, og 
nor intimate friend of the Calif's, rather am I the Calif himself, and 
nu stadfesti eg og ytreka allt pad loford, sem eg adur hefl 
nu ftabfcefter jeg og gjentager att bet 0fte, font jeg far Ijar 
now confirm I and repeat all that promise which I before have 
gjttrt l>cr. Arabiski madurinn tok slrax i kyrdum fri 
gjort big. Slrabiffe-manben tog ftraj t @ti(^eb fra 
made thee. The Arab took immediately in quietness from 
honum fluskuna, og a3tladi ad bera hana burt. Hvad ertii 
fyannem 5(af!e*n, og agtebe at fccm ben Bort. t>ab er bu 
him the bottle, and intended to carry her (it) away. What art thou 
ad gjOra? spurdi Califen, sem hugsadi ad sd arabiski mundi 
at gjtfre? fpurgte Salifen, font tcenfte at ben Strabtffe monne 
to do? asked the Calif, who thought that the Arab would 
nii syna s6r Idngtum meiri lotningu enn ddur. I*6r 
nu ijtfc fig langt mere 0jagtelfe enb for. e 
now show him far more reverence than before. You 
megit vera hvOrhelst sem }>er viljid, svaradi husb6ndinn, 
maa occre ^bofom^etft font 1)e it, foarebe uu6onben, 
may be whosoever which you like, answered the housemaster, 
ba" laet eg ydur samt ekki drekka meir. Vid fyrsta staupid 
ta (aber jeg !5)cm bog tffe briffe nteer. SSeb forftc (Stybet 
then let I you yet not drink more. At the first glass 
sOgdust per vera sttirherra, og bvi gat eg vel truad; 
fagbeS e toaere tor^erre, og bet !unne jeg et troet; 
thou saidts you were great Lord, and that could I well believe; 
vid bad annad vorud per ordinn mesta uppi bald Califans, 
eb bet anbet oar )e bteoen ntefte 3lff;olb SaltfenS, 
at the second were you become greatest favourite of the Calif's, 

Icelandic Grammar. 6 



82 

og ha" hafdi eg st6ra vyrdingu fyrir ydur; vid hid bridja 
og ba fyabbe jeg ftor $(rb0btgljeb for >em; beb bet trebie 
and then had I great reverence for you; at the third 
sOgdust her vera Califen sjdlfur, og bad getur sk6d, 
fagbeS 5)e bcere Sattfen felt), og bet fan f!ee, 
thousaidst you were the Calif himself, and that may happen 

ad bad s6 salt; en haett er vid, ad b6r vid fjorda statipid 
at bet er fanbt; men fartigt er beb, at )e beb fjerbe ttfbet 
?/*a? it he true; but danger is to, that you at the fourth glass 
segist vera okkar st6ri spamadtir Mohamelh, og kanusk6 
figeS bcere boreS ftore<Sbaamanb!>Jftofyameb, og fanffee 
say you were our great prophet Mahometh, and perhaps 

vid fimta staupid alma'ttugur Gud ; en pvi a eg ba"gt med 
beb femte <St0bet atmcegtige ub ; men bet ejer jeg Onbt meb 
at the fifth glass Almighty God; but that own I difficult with 
ad triia. Mahadi hlo ad jjessu einfaldlega en p6 ekki 
at troe. Sftafyabt toe ab bette eenfotbige men bog iffe 
to believe. Mahadi laughed at this simple but yet not 
heimskuliga svari; og par vinid var farid ad stiga uppi 
bnmme @Dar; og ba 23inet bar faret at fttge oto t 
stupid answer; and as the wine icas begun to rise up in 
hofudid, lagdi hann sig nidur a abreiduna, sem hus- 

<pobebet, (agbe ^an fig neb toaa ^ebben, fom ^)iiu* 
the head, laid he himself down on the coverlet, which the house- 
bondinn hafdi a3tlad lionum til ssengur um n6ttina. Daginn 
bonben ^abbe agtet ^am tit eng$ om fatten. SDagen 
master had intended (for) him as bed during the night. The day 
eptir reid hann af stad, tok med ser pann arabiska, svo sem 
efter reeb Ijan affteb, tog meb fig ben Slrabiffe, faafom 
after rode he away, took with him the Arab, as 

leidsOgumann, og gaf honum stor gjafir, begar heir komu 
ebfagetfemanb og gab fyam ftore aber, ba be fom 
guide and gave him great presents, when they came 
til Bagdad, 
tit SBagbab. 
to Bagdad. 



83 



I tlcgdarsiigan. 

Godgjordasamur madur nokkurr a"setti sr ad audsyna 
velgjiirdir einum br*li sinum, gaf honum pessvegna frelsi, skip 
med ullum reida, og svo mikinn forda, sem n6gur vjeri til ad 
leita ser lukku og frama med, i hvttriu hellst landi sem hann 
vildi taka s6r bolfestu. I'essi frelsingi f6r um bord, og let ur 
lagi, en skelfilegr stormur koni uppa", sem hrakti hann uppa 
nokkra ey, er honum syndist vera obygd. Nu var hann buinn 
ad missa allt hvacl hann Uti, hjalpa"rlaus, vissi ekkert hvad af 
ser mundi verda, og gat ei hugsad til seinni timanna a*n sk61- 
fingar. Hann var einsog i poku hvad hann a"tti ad horfa, gekk 
afram i baunkum, edur rettara ad seigja ba"nkaleysi, baugadtil 
fyri honum vard slettur og trodinu vegur. Med gledi hellt 
hann afram bann veg, og sa" a"leingdar st6ra borg, hvad ed jok 
I>ans fognud, svo hann hvatti sporid til ad koma pangad sem 
fliotast. Hissa vard hann, pegar hann na"Igadist borgina, sa 
hennar innbyggjara koma i hopatali a" moti ser, segja sig vel- 
kominn med meslu blidla'tum, og ad stadarins tiilkur hrbpadi 
harri roddu: bessi er ydar Kongur! Allir fylgdu honum til 
borgarinnar med fOgnudi og gledildtum ; hann var leiddur med 
mestu vidhOfn og prakt i ])A boll, hvar Kongarnir v6ru vanir 
ad hafa sitt adsetur, var fserdur i purpura kipu og dirmaet 
k6rona sett a" bans hofud. ^Edstu hofdingjar borgarinnar s6ru 
honum hollustu eid i alls lidsins nafiii, ad heir skyldu vera 
honum hlidnir, hollir, og tniir, einsog beim ba3ri vid Kong 
sinn ad breyta. Sd nyi K6ngur hugsadi i fyrstunni, ad Jjetta 
allt vaeri ekki annad enn draiimur, en af reynslunni hlaut hann 
ad gauga ur skugga um, ad betta var raunar einsog bad syn- 
di^t, svo hann i huganum vard ad spyrja sialfinu sig; hvad ^ 
betta ad pVda? Og hvad mun s<1 tedsti Sliornari allra hluta 
sctla ser med mig? l*essi l>a"nki f6r aldrei ur huga bans, og 



Audsyna, show. horfa, 

Fordi, provisions. aleingdar, from distance. 

leita, search. hvatli sporid, quickened his paces 

Frami, honour. harri roddu, in a loud voice. 

Bolfesta, dwelling. Adsetur, residence. 

ad lata ur lagi, to leave the dirma i lr, precious. 

Imrbour. breyta, behave. 

hrakli, drifted. hlaut, was obliged. 

buinn, finished. ganga ur skugga, be convinced. 

an, without. raunar, really, in fact. 

6* 



84 

loksins kom hann honum til ad grendslast eptir, hvornin & Ollu 
pessu stsedi. Hann kalladi bvi bann af birdmOnnum sinum 
fyri sig, sem optast var vanur ad vera i kringum hans per- 
s6nu, var hans radaneyti, og sem af Guds forsjon syndist hafa 
verid settr honum til adstodar i landstjOrninni. Drottseti! 
sagdi hann: hvOrr hefur gjOrt mig ad ykkar K6ngi? hvorsvegna 
hlfda me"r allir? og hvad a" af mer ad verda? Vitid Herra, 
svaradi hirdst j6rinn honum, ad innbyggendur eyar bessarar, 
hafa bedid Gud ad senda peim a" ari hvOriu bann Kong sem 
s6 af Adam kominn. Sa" Almattugi hefur bsenheirt pa", svo ad 
ari hvOriu kemur hiugad em manneskja, allur lidurinn tekur 
med mestu vidhofn og fOgnudi mod bessum manni, og setur 
hann til K6ngs yfir sig; en hans rikisstjorn varir ekki leingur 
enn eitt a"r. f*egar si timi er a" enda, pa" er honum velt lir 
hei?a3tinu, dregin af honum tignar kla3din, og hann aptur fa3r- 
dur i litilfjorliga larfa, stridsmenn, sem ekki gefa nein grid, 
fa3ra hann ofan til strandar, og kasta honum Jiar 6ti skip, er 
flytur hann til annarar eyar, sem af sia"lfrar sinnar kostum er 
hri6strug og g^dalaus. Sa"sem fyri nokkrum dOgum var rikur 
k6ngur, hefur b^ hvorki Pegna n6 vini, en lifir |)ar i sorg og 
eymd. Lidurinn, sem laus er ordinn vid sinn gamla K6ng, 
flylir s6r pi ad medtaka bann n^a, sem Guds forsjon a"rlega 
sendir hingad, og betta Herra ! er bad 6umbreytanlega Iflgmal, 
sem ekki stendur i ydar valdi ad raska. Vissu beir sem fyri 
mig hafa verid spurdi Kongurinn, pessi hOrdu forlOg? Eingum 
beirra svaradi Drottsetinn, hefir pad verid dulid, en peir hafa 
ei haft n6gann mod og mannshug ad athuga svo sorglegar Lt- 
farir, par augu peirra hafa verid blindud af glampa KongdaB- 
misins. Peir hafa lifad og I3tid einsog vellystingar og einsegja 
hafa hvatt bd til, og aldrei hugsad til ad n3 stodugri lukku, eda 
gjOra s6r baerileg |iau endalok, sem beir vissu s6r var 6mOgulegt 
ad unifl^a; J)eirra lukku a"r leid eetid fliotara enn ba* vardi, svo 
<3fara dagurinn kom loksins yfir ba" fyrr enn beir v6ru biinir, ad biia 
nokkud i haginn fyri sig, ad eymd og litlegd beirra yrdi beim bseri- 
leg. Pegar Kongurinn heyrdi betti, vard hann micig 6ttasleginn, 
sveid honum bad mest, ad mikill partur af dirmseta timanum 
var til 6n^tis lidinn; hann a*setti ser pvi ad briika bess betur 

jjrendslast eptir, inquire. hriostrugur, barren. 

adstod, assistance. fegn, subject. 

Drottseti, counsellor. eymd, distress. 

litilfjorlegr, mean. oumbreytanlegr, unalterable. 

larfar, rags. raska, alter. 



85 

bad af honum, sem eptir var. l'ii vitri Dr6ttseti! Sagdi harm 
til bans, bii hefir sagt me"r mitt lilkomandi ofall, scgdu me> 
lika hvOrt medal er til ad komast klaklaust hja" bvi? Minnist 
]ier, Herra! svaradi Drotisetinn, ad be"r kumud hingad allslaus 
til eyarinnar, og athugid ba undir eins ad allt eins muni verda, 
pegar Jer farid h6dan, og ad |HT aldrei muuud >i;i hana aptur. 
Eitt einasta medal er til, ad varna bvi ofalli sem fyrir ydur 
liggur, ])er verdid ad senda smidi til eyarinnar, sem per egid 
ad fara til, lata byggja pa"r stor vistahiis, og fylla bau af Ollu 
sem barf til vidurlifls. Fors6mid hddanaf ekkert augnablik sem 
be"na kann til ydar lukku og brukid Oil pau medOl sem ber 
ge"lid upphugsad, til ad koma i veg fyri J)d vesOld, sem fli6tt 
dynur yflr en leingi varir; allt ])etta verdur ad giOrast undan- 
dr^ttarlaust Jivi tidin fl'ygur, sa" fastsetti timans punktur n^ilgast, 
og ])ad er forgefins ad aHla ser ad aptur kalla pa stund sem 
;i II ili hi er; en yilr alia hluti fram, munid til ]>ess ad a* peim 
stad, sem per egid til svoddan la"ngframa ad bua, munud p6r 
ekkert fyri finna nema }>ad, sem per latid ftytja pangad, ^ peim 
stutta lima er J)er egid ennu eptir. K6ngurinn fe"llst a* rad 
Dr6ttseta sins, sendi strax smidi til Eyarinnar ad koma ollu 
pessu i verk, hann let gjora eyuna ad yndisligum og gagn- 
legum biistad. Loksins kom sa fikvardadi dagur, kouginum 
var snarad lir baseetinu, allur Kongs-skrudi af bonum tekiun, 
og hann hnepptur uti skip sem flutti bann i bans Utlegdarstad. 
I'essi al'setti Kongur kom bdngad lukkulega, og lifdi bar badi 
rolegri og dnaegdari enn ddur. 

ofall, disaster. vidurlifi, subsistence. 

Klaklaust, without danger, undandratlarlaust, without delay. 

Vistahus, store-room. langframa, for so long a lime. 



Af Egils-Saga. 
tpphaf rikis llaralds harragra. 

Haraldr, son Halfdauar svarta, hafSi tekit arf eptir fo5ur 
sinn; bann haffti pess beit streingt, at Llta eigi skera bdr sitt 
ne kemba, fyrr en bann \xri einvaldskoniingr yfir Noregi ; bann 
var kallaQr Haraldr lufa. 

Si3an barQist bann vi9 J).1 konunga, er ntestir varo, ok 



86 

sigraBi ba, og eru })ar Idngar frdsagnir. SiBan eignaBist hann 
Upplond, paBan for hann norBr i Prindheim, ok atti par mar- 
gar orrostur, aBr hann yrBi einvaldi yfir tillum PramdalOgum. 

SiBan atlaBi hann at fara norBr i Naumudal a hendr peim 
broidrum Herlaugi ok Hrollaugi, er pi vAro konungar yfir Nau- 
mudal. En er beir broedr spurBu til ferBar hans, pa gekk 
Herlaugr i haug pann meB tolfta mann, er a"Br hoi'Bu peir 
gera IdtiB, ok vAro at prjd vetr; var siBan haugrinn aptrlokinn. 
En Hrollaugr konungr veltist or konungd6mi, ok t6k upp jarls- 
rett, ok f6r siBan a vald Haralds konungs, ok gaf upp riki sitt. 
SvA eignaBist Haraldr konungr Naumdoelafylki ok Halugaland; 
setti hann par menn yfir riki sitt. 

SiBan bj6st Haraldr konungr or frandheimi me9 skipaliBi, 
ok f6r suBr i Mceri, atti par orrostu viB Hunpjof konung, ok 
hafBi sigr; fell par Hiinpj6fr: pi eignaBist Haraldr konungr 
NorBmoeri ok Raumsdal. 

En Solvi klofi, son Hi'mpjdfs, hafBi undan komizt, ok for 
hann a Sunnmoeri til ArnviBar konungs, ok baB hann ser full- 
tings, ok sagBi svA: P6tt petta vandradi hafi nu borit oss at 
hendi, pa mun eigi l&ngt til, at sama vandraedi mun til yBvar 
koma; pviat Haraldr setla ek iat skjott mun her koma, Jja er 
hann hefir alia menn }}ra3lkat ok a"pjaB, sem hann vill i NorB- 
moeri ok i Raumsdal. Munu per hinn sama kost fyrir hOndum 
eiga, sem vaer ittum, at verja fe yBvart ok frelsi, ok kosta 
partil allra teirra manna , er ySr er liBs af van , ok vil ek 
bj6Bast til meB minu liBi moti pessum ofsa ok ojafnaBi. En 
at oBrum kosti munu per vilja taka upp Pat raB, sem Naum- 
doelir gerBu, at ganga meB sjilfvilja i dnauB, ok gerast prselar 
Haralds. Pat p6tti foBur minum sigr, at deyja i konungd6mi 
meB soemd, heldr en gerast undirmaBr annars konungs i ga- 
mals aldri : hygg ek at per muni ok sv& pykja, ok oBrum peim 
or nokkurir ero borBi, ok kappsmenn vilja vera. Af slikum 
1'ortOlum var konungrinn fastraBinn til pess at samna liBi, ok 
verja land sitt. 

Bundu peir Solvi pa saman lag sitt, ok sendu orB AuB- 
liirni komingi, er reB fyrir FirBafylki, at hann skyldi koma til 
liBs viB ba. En er sendimenn komu til AuBbjarnar koniings, 
ok baru hftnum Jjessa orBsending, bi reBst hann urn viB vini 
sina, ok redu hAnum bat allir, at samna liBi, ok fara til m6ts 
viB Mceri, sem hAnum vAro orB send til. 

AuBbjOrn kouiingr let skera upp herOr, ok fara herboB 
um allt sitt riki; hann sendi ok orB n'kismonnum, ok baB })a 



87 

koma a sinn fund. En er sendiraenn kom'ings komu til Kveld- 
I'll's, ok sog8u hanum sin emidi, ok bat ;tt konungr vill, at 
Kveld-L T lfr komi til hans me3 alia hiiskarla sina; pa svarar 
hann: 1'at mun konungi skylt bykja, at ek fara meS lignum, 
ef hann skal verja land sitt, ok se lierjat i FirQafylki, en liitt 
;i-tla ck mer alloskylt at fara nor8r a Mojri ok berjast }>ar, ok 
verja land beirra. Er ySr bat skjotast at segja, bd er her hiltiS 
koniing ySvarn, at Kveld-UH'r mun beima sitja um betta her- 
blanp, ok hann mun eigi herliSi samna, ok eigi gera sina pa" 
heitnanfcrft, at berjast moti Haraldi lufu; bviat ek hygg at hann 
bail bar byrQi gn6ga hamingju, er komingr vjlrr hafi eigi krep- 
ping fullan. F6ro sendimenn heim til konungs, ok stigftu lianuni 
erendislok sin, en Kveld-Llfr sat heima at buum sinum. 

Peir I J 6rolfr ok Egill viro J)aun vetr me5. Ptfri (hersi) 
i goQu yfirlfcti, en um vArit bjuggu }jeir Mngskip mikit, ok 
fengu manna til, f6ru um sumarit i Austrveg ok herju3u, fengu 
})ar of fjar, ok <iltu orrostor margar. 1'eir heldu til Kiirlands, 
ok Iog5u vi5 landsmenu h^lfs minaftar friS, ok Ii0f8u vi8 ba" 
kaupstelnu ; en er pvi var lokit, })a t6ko peir al berja, ok 10g8u 
at i ymsum stoQum. 

Einn dag logftu })cir at vi8 aros einn mikinn, ok var }>ar 
murk mikil a land upp; peir re8u par til uppgongu. Li5i var 
skipt i sveitir, tolf monnum saman ; peir gengu yfir sk6ginn, 
ok var ]);i eigi langt, a9r en bygftin tok vid ; beir rtentu })a, 
ok drapu menn, en Ii5it flj'8i, unz peir fengu Onga viQtoku. 
En er a"lei5 daginn, })a let Porolfr bldsa Ii8inu til ofangungu; 
sneru nifnn ]ia aplr ;i sknginn, par sem bverr var staddr. En 
er Jieir I'oi^lfr rannsOku5u Ii8it, b5 var Egill eigi ofankominn, 
ok sveit hans, en ba tok at myrkva af n6tt, ok })6ttust meun 
eigi mega leita hans. 

Egill hafSi gengit yiir skog nokkurn , ok tolf menn me8 
hdnum, ok si J)eir Jii slettur myklar ok byg8ir. Brer einn 
slo8 skamt frd l)eim ; ])eir stefna til boejarins, en er beir komo 
|)ar, hlaupa peir i bus inn, ok ver8a ekki vi8 menn varer; 
j)eir toko fe }>at allt, er fyrir l>eim var, laust, bar vAro mOrg 
htis, ok dvaldisl beim ]>ar lengi. 

En er Jieir vftro ulkonmir, ok fra boenum, var Ii3 komit 
inilli beirra ok skogarins, ok s6lti }>at at ])eim. Ski8gar8r var 
liar fr1 boenum til skogarins; jia m;plti Egill, at beir skyldu 
fylgja hanum, sva at eigi maUli Ollum megin at beim ga"nga. 
I'cir ger8u sva, irckk Egill fyrslr, en si8an hverr at O8rum, 
svA naer at ekki nialti skilja jta. Kurer s6ltu at }>eim fast, ok 



88 

mest me3 lo'gum ok skotum, en gengu ekki i hoggorrosliu 
En er peir Egill heldu fram me5 ski5gar5inum, fundu peir eigi 
fyrr, en par gekk annarr ski9gar5r jafnframt, ok ger5ist par 
mj6tt i milli, partil er lykkja var9 a, ok matti eigi framkomast. 
Kurir sottu eptir peim i kvina, en suuiir sottu utan at, ok 
logftu spj6tum ok sverSum i gegnum garftana, en sumir bru 
klaeSi & vdpn peirra. Ur5u peir Egill sdrer, ok pvi nsest hand- 
tekner, ok aller bundner, leiddir sva" heim til bccjarins. 

Sa" var rikr ma9r ok auQigr, er bo3 bann a"tti; hann atti 
son roskinn. Pa" var umrredt, hvat vift ba skyldi gera: sag<5i 
b6ndi, at h^num b6tti bat ra9, at drepinn, va3ri hverr A foetr 
()5rum; b6ndason segir at ba" ger3i myrkt af n6tt, ok matti 
enga skemtan af hafa at kveija ^ei, ba9 hann Idta bi5a margins. 
Var beim bd skoti8 i hiis eitt, ok bundnir ramliga; Egill var 
bundinn vi9 staf einu, bse5i hendr ok foetr; si3an var hiisit 
laest ramliga, en Kurir gingu inn i stufu, ok mOtu8ust, ok 
vSro allkcitir ok drukku. 

Egill ferSist vi9, ok treysti stafinn, til bess er upplosna5i 
or g61fiuu; si5an fell stafrinn, smeygSist Egill pa" af stafnum. 
Eptir pat leysti hann hendr sinar me9 tOnnum; en er hendr 
bans voru lausar, leysti hann bond af fotum ser. Si3an leysti 
hann felaga sina; en er beir vAro aller lauser, bei leitubust 
beir um, hvar likast var lit at komast. Husit var gert at vegg- 
jum af timbrstokkum storum, en i annan enda hussins var 
skjaldjjili flatt, hljopu |)eir Jjarat, ok brutu })ilit; var bar bus 
annat, er beir komo i, vAro bar ok timbrveggir um. 

Pa heyr9u beir manna mal undir fostr ser ni5r; Ieitu9ust 
beir ba um, ok fundu hur5 i g61finu, luku beir bar up, var 
|>arundir gr5f djup, heyr5u beir Jjangat manna malit. Pa 
spurQi Egill hvat manna par vsri. Sd nefndist Aki, er yi5 
hann ma3lti. Egill spurSi ef beir vildi upp ur grofinni; Aki 
segir at peir vildu pat gjarna; si5au letu peir Egill siga festi 
ofan i grOfina, pd er peir vAro bundnir me9, ok drogu bar 
upp J)rja menn. Aki segir at pat vAro synir bans tveir, ok 
beir v&ro menn dansker, hof5u ])ar or5it hertekner it fyrra 
sumar. Var ek, sag9i hann, vel haldinn i vetr, haf9a ek mjok 
fj<irvar9veizlur biianda, en sveinarner v&ro bj^5er ok undu beir 
ilia. I var re9u ver til, ok hlupum a brott, ok ur5um si5an 
fundner, vAro ver bd her setter i grOf bessa. Per mun her 
kunnigt um hiisaskipan, segir Egill, hvar oss er vrcnst a brott 
at komast. Aki sag5i at bar var annat skjaldbili: brjoli ber 
J)at upp, munu per pa" koma fram i kornhlo9u, en pa er lit- 



S9 

gdnga sem sjalfr vill. f*eir Egill ger9u svA, brutu upp lilit, 
gengu si<5an i hlo8una, ok j>a5an ut. NiSamyrkr var L 

IM imcltu l>cir forunautar Egils, at beir skyldu skunda 
& sk6ginn. Egill mtelti vi3 Aka ef per eru her kunnig hVbyli, 
(fi muntu visa oss til fefanga nokkurra. Aki segir at eigi 
mundi par skorla lausafe: her er lopt mikit, er b6ndi sefr i, 
par skorter eigi va"pn inni. Egill ba8 pa ]>;ingat fara til lopt- 
sins ; en er peir komo upp & Ioptri5it, p3 s1 peir at loptit var 
opit; var par Ij6s inni, ok pj6nostu-menu , ok bjuggu rekkjur 
manna. Egill ba8 bd suma I'iti vera, ok gta at engi kaemist 
ut. Egill hljop inn i loptit, greip }>ar vApn, l)viat pan skorti 
]>ar eigi inni, dr1pu par menn alia, pi er par varo inni; }jeir 
t6ko ser aller alva?pni. 

Aki gekk bar til er hlemmr var i golfpilinu, ok lauk upp, 
mrelti at peir skyldi par ofan g^nga i undirskemmuna. l^eir 
t6ko ser Ijos, ok gengu piingat; vAro J)ar febirzlur b6nda ok 
griper g69er ok silfr mikit; I6ko men ser par byr5ar, ok bciru 
lit. Egill t6k undir hOnd ser mjoddrekku eina vel mikla, ok 
bar hana undir hendi ser. En er beir komo i sk6ginn, bii: 
nam Egill sta5 ok msclti: ]>essi fer8 er allill, ok eigi hermann- 
lig; ver hofum stolit fe b6nda, svA at hann veil ekki til, skal 
oss aldregi }>a skomm henda; fOrum nil aptr til boejarins, ok 
lAtum j)A vita hvat tilt er. Allir mseltu pvf i m6t, si)g9u at 
peir vildu til skips. 

Egill setr ni9r mjo5drekkuna, si5an hefr hann & ras, ok 
rann til Ixrjarius; en er bann kom til bo?jarins, bA sd hann, 
at Jijonostusveinar gengu fra eldaskala me5 skutildiska, ok barn 
inn i stofuna. Egill sa at i eldahusinu var eldr mikill, ok 
katlar yfir, gekk hann bringat til. t'ar hol'Qu verit stokkar 
st6rer flutter heim, ok svA eldar gerver, sem bar er siSvenja 
til, at eldinn skal leggja i stoksendann, ok brennr svA stokk- 
rinn. Egill greip upp stokkinn, ok gekk heim til stofunnar, 
ok skaut beim endanum er logacli upp undir upsina, ok svi 
upp i na?frina, ok fesli par eldinn i skjott. En vi8ir lau |>ar 
skamt i brott, ok bar bann )ia fyrir stofudyrnar. Eldrinn las 
skjott tr()9vi8inn , en })eir er vi5 drykkjuna s^tu ; fundu eigi 
fyrr, en loginn st63 inn um raifrit. Hlj(')po menn ba til dy- 
ranna; en par var ekki greiQfoert lit, ba?8i fyrir viSunum, sv^ 
}iat at Egill varBi dyrnar, ok drap })a fiesta er lit leUu5u, ba?9i 
i dyrunum ok liti lyri. 

Bondi spyrr, hverr fyrir eldinum re5i. Egill segir: s 
einn ra38r nii fyrir eldi, er her mundi olikast bykja i ga;rkveld^ 



90 

ok skaltu ekki bei3ast at baka heitara, en ek mun kinda ; skaltu 
hafa mjiikt ba9 fyrir mjuka rekkju, er bu veitter mer ok minum 
fOrunautum. Er her nu sa sami Egill, er bu lezt fjtitra, ok 
binda vi<5 stafmn i husi bvi, er her Ia3stu9 vandliga: skal nii 
launa ber vickokur, sem bu ert verSr. I bvi astlar b6ndi at 
leynast ut i myrkrit, en Egill var nasrstaddr, ok hj6 hann begar 
banabOgg, ok marga aSra. En bat var svipstund ein, aSr stufan 
brann, svA at hon fell ofan ; tyndist bar mestr hluti Ii5s bess, 
er bar var inni. 

En Egill gekk aptr til sk6garins, fann bar fOrunauta sina, 
fara ba allir saman til skips. Sag5i Egill, at mjo5drekku b 
vill hanu hafa at afnamsfe, er hann f6r me9, en hon var 
reyndar full af silfri. Peir P 6r6lfr urSu allfegnir, er Egill kom 
ofan, heldu })eir ba {oegar fra landi, er mornaQi. Aki ok Jjeir 
fe9gar v&ro i sveit Egils. t*eir sigldu um sumarit, er dlei5, til 
Danmarkar, ok l<5gu bar enn fyri kaupskipum, ok ra3ntu par 
er peir komust vi3. 

Haraldr Gormsson haf9i pd tekit vi5 riki i Danmork, 
en Go'rmr var pa" dau5r, fa3ir bans; landit var J^a herskatt, 
la"gu vikingar mjOg liti fyri, DanmOrku. Aka var kunnigt i 
DanmOrku basSi sj^i ok landi; spurSi Egill hann mjog ept- 
ri, hvar peir staler vasri, er st6r fefaung mundi fyriliggja. En 
er peir komu i Eyrarsund, pa sag5i Aid at par var a" land upp 
kaupstaSr mikill, er het i Lundi, sag9i at par var fevdn, en 
likligt at par mundi vera \i5taka, er boejarmenn vseri. Pat 
mdl var uppborit fyri Ii8sm0nnum , hvcirt bar skyldi r^5a til 
uppgaungu eSa eigi. Menn t6ko par allmisjafnt a, fystu sumer 
en sumer lottu, var pvi ma"li skoti5 til styrimanna. Por^lfr 
fysti heldr uppgaungu; pa" var roedt vi5 Egil, hvat lionum ])6tti 
ra5 hann kva5 visu: 

Upp skolum orum sverQum, 

ulfs-tann-litu3r ! glitra ; 

eigum da5 at drygja 

i dal miskunn fiska. 

Leiti upp til Lundar 

1^9a hverr sem braQast; 

gerum Jjar fyri setr s61ar 

sei9 6fagran vigra. 

SiSan bjuggust menn til uppgaungu, ok foro til kaupsta- 
Sarins. En er boejarmenn urftu varer vi3 ufrift, bd stefndu 
}}eir f m6t; var Jjar treborg um staSinn, settu beir bar menn 
til at verja; t6kst bar bardagi hinn har9asti. Egill s6tti at 



91 

hli5inu fast me9 sina sveit, ok hlif9i ser lilt; var9 jjar mikit 
mannfall; bu at hvcrr fell inn annan hon:arinanna. Er *\A 
sagt at Egill gengi fyrstr manna i borgiua, ok si9an hverr 
at o9rum; si9an fly9u boejarmenn, var bar mannfall mikit. 
En beir Porcilfr r&ntu kaupsta9inn, ok toku mikit fe, en brendu 
boejinn, a9r beir skildust vi9. F6ro si5an ofan til skipa sinna. 



Af Snorre Sturlesens Heimskringla. 
Saga Hakonar gorta. 

1. Hakon A9alsteinsf6stri var ba" a England! , er hann 
spur9i andldt Haralds konungs fo9ur sins; bjost hann ba begar 
til ferSar: fekk A9alsteinn konungr hAnom Ii8, ok g69an ski- 
pakost, ok bjo bans for allvegliga; ok kom hann um bauslit 
til Noregs. Pi spur8i hann fall broe9ra sinna, ok })at me9 
at Eirikr konungr var ba" i Vikinni: sigldi })d Ha"kon nor9r til 
I'randheims, ok f6r d fund Sigur9ar Hla9ajarls, er allra spekinga 
var mestr i Noregi, ok fekk par g69ar vi9tOkur, ok bundo })eir 
lag silt saman; het Hakon hanom miklo riki, ef hann yrdi 
konungr. Pa" leto beir slefna Jiing fjOlmennt, ok ^ bingino 
tala9i Sigurdr jarl af hendi Hakonar, ok bau9 b6ndom hann 
til konungs. Eptir pat sto9 Hakon sjalfr upp ok tala9i ; ma'lto 
J)d tveir ok tveir sin a milli, at l>ar vrcri kominn Haraldr ha"r- 
fagri, ok or9inn lingr i annat sinn. ILikoii haf9i bat upphaf 
sins mals, at hann beiddi boendr vi9tOku, ok at gefa ser kon- 
I'mgsnofn, ok bat me9 at veita ser fullting ok styrk til at halda 
konungdominom; en }jarim6t bau9 hann l)eim at gera alia 
bocndr 69alborna, ok gefa beiin 69ol sin, er abjoggu. At besso 
orendi var9 r6mr svA mikill, at allr bonda mugriun O3pti ok 
kalla9i, at Jjeir vildi hann til konungs taka; ok var sva" gert, 
at 1'nendir toku Hdkon til konungs um allt land, [bar var hann 
15 vetra: tok hann ser j)A hir9, ok f6r ylir land. 

I J au ti9indi spur8ust & Upplond, at ^sendir hOf9o ser kon- 
I'mg tekit, slikan at Ollu sem Haraldr hiun ha"rfagri var, nema 
})at skildi, at Haraldr haffii allan lyd i landi [}>ra3lkat ok a"bja9, 
en bessi, Hdkon, vildi hverjom manni gott, ok bau9 aptr at 
gefa b6ndoiu 69ol sin, bau er Haraldr konungr haf9i af l)eim 
tekit. Vi9 j)au ti9indi ur9o allir gla9ir, ok sag9i hverr o9rum, 



92 

flaug pat sem sinoeldr allt austr til lands enda. Margir boendr 
f6ro af Upplondum at hitta Hakon koniing; sumir sendo menn, 
sumir gerflo or5sendingar ok jartegnir, en allir til pess, at 
bans menn vildo gerast. Koniingr t6k pvi pakksamliga. 

2. Hdkon koniingr f6r ondurSan vetr a" UpplOnd, stefndi par 
ping, ok dreif allt f61k a" bans fund, bat er komast ma'tti; var ban 
pa" til koniings tekinn a Ollum pingom; f6r bann pa" austr tilVikr. 

11. fa" er Hdkon var koniingr i INoregi var friSr g6<5r 
med bondom ok kaupmOnnum; svA at engi grandaQi O9rum 
ne annars fe ; pa var ok a" r mikit ba3(5i a" sja" ok landi. Ha" kon 
koniingr var allra manna glaSastr ok malsnjallastr ok litilla'tastr^ 
hann var ma5r storvitr, ok Jagcii mikinn hug a" lagasetning: 
hann setti GulabingslOg me3 ra9i Porleifs spaka ; ok hann setti 
FrostabingslOg me3 r9i SigurQar jarls ok annarra bra3nda, 
beirra er vitrastir v^ro; en HeiSssefislOg haf5i sett Ha'lfda'n 
svarti, sem 1'yrr er ritat. 

15. Ha"kon koniingr var vel kristinn, er hann kom i Noreg, 
en fyrir pvi at J^ar var land allt hei5it, ok b!6tskapr mikill, 
ok stormenni mart; en hann b6ttist Ii8s burfa mjok ok albyftu 
vinsasld ; ba" t6k hann bat ra^, at fara leyniliga me9 kristninui, 
belt sunnodaga ok frja'dagalb'sto ok minning hinna storsto hati9a, 
Hann setti Jiat i logom, at lief j a jolahald bann tima, sem krist- 
nir menn, ok skyldi jia* hverr ma5r eiga maelis 61, en gjalda 
fe ella, ok halda heilagt me5an ol ynnist; en i9r var j61ahald 
hafit Ho'ko-nott, bat var miftsvetrar n6tt, ok haldin briggja neitta 
j6l. Hann a3tla3i svA, er hann festist i landino, ok hann hef9i 
frja"lsliga undir sik lagt allt landit, at bafa ba" fram kristniboQ. 
Hann gerfti svA fyrst, at hann lokkafti ba" menn, er hdnom vAro 
ka3rstir til kristni ; kom svd me9 vinsaild bans, at mjok margir 
leto skirast, en sumir leto af blotom. Han sat Icingom i Prand- 
heimi, bviat bar var mestr styrkr landsins. En er Halion kon- 
iingr bottist fengit hafa "styrk af nokkorum rikismonnum , at 
halda upp kristninni, })i sendi hann til Englands eptir biskupi 
ok OSrum kennimOnnum; ok er peir komu i Noreg, pa" ger9i 
Ha*kon koniingr pat bert, at hann vildi bjoSa kristni urn allt 
land, en Moerir ok Raumdo3lir skuto bannug sino rndli, sem 
Pra3ndir vfiro. Ha"kon koniingr let bd vigja kirkjor nokkorar, 
ok setti bar presta til. En er hann kom i Prdndheim, b6 
stefndi hann bing vi9 boendr, ok bau8 jjeim kristni. Peir svara 
sva\ at heir vilja pesso mdli skj6ta til Frostajiings, ok vilja ba 
at bar komi menn or Ollum fylkjom, }ieim sem ero i Pra3nda- 
logom; segja at pa" mAno peir svara pesso vandma^li. 



93 

17. Hdkon konungr kom til Frostajnngs, ok var j)ar komit 
allljOlmennt af btindom. En er })ing var sett, bd talaSi Hakoii 
konungr, hefr bar fyrst, at bat var bo8 bans ok bum vi8 boendr 
ok bubegna, rfka ok urfka, ok barmeS vi8 alia albySo, imga 
menu ok gamla, saelan ok vesadan, konur sem karla, at allir 
menn skyldo kristnast Idta, ok triia a" einn gu3, Rrist Marioson, 
n hafna bltitum Ollum ok hei8nom go5um, balda beilakt limit 
7da hvern dag vi8 vinnom ollum, fasta ok binn 7da hvern dag. 

En Pegar er konungr haffii belta uppborit fyrir alj>y8o, 
pd var3 begar kurr mikill, kurro3o bcendr urn bat, er konungr 
vildi vinnur taka af })eim, ok segja at vi9 }iat malti landit eigi 
byggja; en verkalyor ok J)rselar kOlluSu, at beir msetti eigi vinna, 
ef l>eir skyldi eigi mat hafa: sogSo ok at bat var skaplostr 
HAkonar konungs, sem fo9ur bans ok beirra fraenda, at beir 
vAro illir af mat sfnom, }6tt [>eir va3ri mildir af gulli. 

Asbjorn af Meoalhusom or Gaulardal st65 upp, ok svarar 
yrindi konungs ok m.Tlti. Pat hug3o ver boendr, Hakon kon- 
ungr! segir bann, at ba* er l)ii bafSir et fyrsta J)fng haft her 
i Prandheimi, ok hOfSom }>ik til konungs tekit, ok begit af ber 
6oOl vrtr, at ver hefSim ba" bimin hOndom tekit; en nii vitom 
ver eigi hvfirt heldr er, at ver mAnom frelsi Jjegit hafa, e8a 
mantu nii la"ta bra?lka oss af nyjo me9 undarligom lu-etti, at 
ver munim liafna 5triina9i beim, er fe5r vdrir hafa haft fyrir 
oss, ok allt forellri, fyrst urn brunaOld, en nii urn haugsOld, 
ok hafa beir verit miklo gofgari en ver, ok hefir oss b6 dugat 
bessi atrunaQr. Ver hofum lagt til yoar svd mikla aslu5, at 
ver hi)fom bik ra"3a latit me5 oss Ollum logum i landino ok 
landsrett. Nu er bat vili vdrr ok sambykki, b6ndanna, at halda 
bau log, sem }>u settir oss her a" Frostajjingi, ok ver ja"ta9oin 
})er; viljom ver allir ber fylgja, ok J)ik til konungs halda, me- 
9an einnhverr er lifs b6ndanna beirra, er her ero nii a" bin- 
gino, ef bii, konungr, vill nokkut hof viShafa, at bei5a oss 
bess eins, er ver megom veita ber, ok oss se eigi 6geranda. 
En ef her vilit betta ma 1 ! laka me9 s\& mikilli freko, at deila 
atli ok ofriki vi8 oss, bd hofum ver bnendr gert rd8 vArt, at 
skiljast allir vi8 |)ik, ok taka oss annan hOfSingja, bann er 
oss haldi til bess, at ver munim i frelsi hafa bann dtruna8, 
sem [ver viljom. Nii skallu, konungr, kj6sa um kosti bessa, 
48r J)ing se slitit. 

At eyrindi ])esso ger8o bojndr r6m mikinn, ok segja at 
beir vilja svd vera Idla. 

En er hlj68 fekkst, bd svarar Sigur8r jarl: Pat er vili 



94 

Hdkonar koniings, at samjjykkja vi9 y5r, bcendr, ok la"ta aldri 
skilja y8ra vinatto. Boendr segja at beir vilja, at konungr 
bloti til ars beim ok IriSar, sva sem faSir bans gerSi, staSnar 
ha" kurrinn, ok slita beir bingino. SiSan talaSi SigurSr jarl 
viS konung, ok baS hann eigi riemast meS Ollu, at gera sem 
boandr vildi, sagSi at eigi mundi annat lySa, en sveigja til 
riokkot viS bcendr: er betta, konungr, sem sja"lfir per megut 
heyra, vili ok a"kafi hOfSingja ok barmeS alls folks; skolo ver, 
konungr, her fmna til gott ra"5 nokkut; ok samdisfc bat meS 
beim konungi ok jarli. 

16. SigurSr LaSa-jarl var hinn mesti bl6tmadr, ok sv 
var Ha"kon fadir bans; belt SigurSr jarl upp b!6tveizlom ollum 
af hendi koniings par i Prandalogom. 

Pat var forn si5r, pa" er b!6t skyldi vera, at allir boendr 
skyldo bar koma, sem hof var, ok flytja pannug fdng sin, ban 
er beir skyldo hafa, meftan veizlan st65. At veizlo beirri skyldo 
allir menn Ol eiga: pa var ok drepinn allskonar smali ok svd 
bross, en bl65 |)at allt, er bar kom af, bat var kallat hlaut, 
ok hlautbollar bat, er bl65 bat st65 i, ok hlautteinar, bat var 
svck gert sem stoklar, me9 pvi skyldi rj69a stallana Olio saman, 
ok svji veggi hofsins utan ok innan, ok svA stokkva a" mennina ; 
en sldtrit skyldi sjo8a til mannfagna5ar. Eldar skyldo vera 
i micljo g61fi i hofinoj, ok par katlar yfir, ok skyldi full um 
eld bera. En sd er ger9i veizlona, ok hOfQfngi var, J)a skyldi 
hann signa fullit ok allan b!6tmatinn. Skyldi fyrst 09ins full, 
[skyldi bat drekka til sigrs ok rikis konungi sinom, en si9an 
NjarSar full ok Freys full til a"rs ok fri5ar. P& var morgum 
mOnnum titt at drekka parna3st Braga full; menn drukko ok 
full frsenda sinna, peirra er gofgir hof5o verit, ok varo bat 
minni kOlluS. 

Sigur5r jarl var manna Orvastr; hann gerSi bat verk, er 
fra?gt var mjok, at hann ger3i mikla [b!6tveizlo a" Hlo5om, ok 
belt einn upp Ollum kostna9i. 

18. Um haustit at \etrn6ttum var bltitveizla a" Lo8om, ok 
s6tti bartil konungr. Hann hafSi jafnan fyrr verit vanr, ef 
hann var staddr bar sem b!6t v^ro, at matast i litlu hiisi me5 
fa menn; en boendr toldo at bvf, er hann sat eigi i ha"?feti 
sino, ba" er mestr var mannfagnadr; sag5i jarl, at hann skyldi 
eigi ba" sv^i gera, var ok svA at konungr sat i ha"sa3ti sino. 
En er et fyrsta full var skenkt, ha" maBlti SigurSr jarl fyrir, 
ok signaSi 65ni, ok drakk af horninu til konrtngs; konungr 
t6k vi5, ok gerSi krossmark yfir: ba" maBlti Ka"rr af Gratingi: 



95 

hvi ferr konungrinn nii svA? vill hann eigi enn biota? SigurSr 
jarl svarar: konungr gerir svA, sem beir allir, er triia i mitt 
sinn ok megin, ok signa full sitt t*6r; hann ger8i hamarsmark 
yfir, i8r hann drakk. Var bi kyrt um kveldit. Eplir um da- 
ginn, er menn gengo til bor8a, ha" busto bcendr at konungi, 
sOg5u at pi skyldi hann eta brossaslitr; konungr vildi Jtat firir 
engan mun. fa bi8u beir hann drekka so5it; hann vildi bat 
eigi. Pi bi8o beir hann eta flotit; hanu vildi bat ok eigi; 
[ok var bi vi3 atgOngu buit. 

[Jarl kvaSst vildu sretta bi, ok baS bi hretta storminom, 
ok ba3 hann konting gina yfir ketilhodduna, er soSreykinn Iiaf3i 
lagt upp af hrossaslitrino , ok var smjOrug haddan; \)& gekk 
konungr til, ok bra" lindiik um hodduna, ok gein yfir, ok gekk 
si<5an til hisastis, ok Iika9i hvarigom vel. 

19. Um vetrinn eptir var buit til jolaveizlo konungi inn 
i Moeri ; en er atlei5 jolunom, Iog3o beir stefno me9 ser itta 
hofQingjar, er mest reSo i'yrir blotum i Ollum PnendalOgurn ; 
beir vAro 4 utan or I J randheimi: Kirr af Grytingi ok AsbjOrn 
af MeQalhiisum, I*6rbergr af Varnesi, Ormr af Ljoxu; en af 
Innl>ra?ndom B6I61IV af Olvishaugi, Narfi afStaf i Veradal, ]>randr 
haka af Eggjo, Ptirir skegg af Husaboi^f eynni IbVi: jiessir 8 
menn bundust i bvi, at Jieir fjorir af [Otjinendom skyldu ey5a 
kristninni, en Jieir fjorir af Innjra3ndom skyldu neyda koniing 
til biota. Utpraandir f6ro 4 skipom su8r a Moeri, ok drdpo 
Jar presta 3, ok brenndo kirkjor 3, [f6ro aptr si5an. En er 
Ilakon konungr ok Sigur8r jarl komu inn i Moeri rneS hir5 
sina, l>a vAro bar bccndr komnir allfjolniennt. Ilinn fyrsta dag 
at veizlonni [veitto bicndr, konungi algOngo, ok ba"9o hann 
b!6ta, en heto hAnom afarkostom ella ; Sigur5r jarl bar ba sitt- 
mal i millom beirra, kOmr })i svA at Hikon konungr it nok- 
kura bita af hrosslifr; drakk hann bi Oil minni krossalaust, 
bau er bcendr skenkto hAnom. 

En er veizlo bessarri var lokit, f6r konungr ok jarl begar 
lit a Hla9ir; var konungr allukatr, ok bjost Jiegar i brott me5 
Ollu H9i sfno or Prindheimi , [ok malti svA, at hann skyldi 
fjolmennari koma i IVindheim annat sinn, ok gjalda brindom 
J)enua Ijandskap, er ]>eir hflfSo til bans gert. SigurSr jarl 
ba5 koniing gefa trap-ndom petta eigi at sOk; segir svA at kon- 
ungi muni eiga pat duga at heitast eor herja i innanlands 
folk, [}>ar sem mestr styrkr er landsins, sem i I'rindheimi 
var. Konungr var bi svA rei8r, at eigi mitti or8om vi3 hann 
koma; for hann i brott or IVmdheimi, ok su8r i Moeri; dval- 



96 

dial bar um vetrinn ok um va"rit. En er sumraSi dr6 hann 
Ii8 at ser, ok v&ro bau or3 a", at hann mundi fara meS her 
bann & hendr brsendom. 

20. [fldkon koniingr var ha" & skip kominn, ok hafSi 115 
mikit; pa" koma ha"nom tidindi sunnan or landi, bau at synir 
Eiriks konungs varo komnir sunnan af DanmOrk i Vikina; ok 
pat fylgSi, at beir hoi'5o elt af skipom Tryggva konung Olafs- 
son austr vi9 S6tanes; hoffto beir ba vi9a herjat i Vikinni, ok 
hoffto margir menu undir ha" gengit. En er koniingr spur3i 
bessi tiftindi, b6ttist hann Ii5s burfa, sendi hann ha" or8 Sig- 
ur<5i jarli, at koma til sin, ok sva 1 oSrum hOfSingjom, beim er 
h^nom var Ii8s at van. SigurSr jarl kom til Hdkonar konungs, 
ok hafSi allmikit Ii3; varo bar ha" allir PrsBndir, beir er um 
vetrinn hof9o mest gengit at kominginom, at pynda hann til 
b!6ta; varo beir bd allir [i saBtt teknir af fortolum SigurSar 
jarls. 



JHannjafna^r mc3 kouungum. 

Eysteinn konungr ok SigurSr koniingr f6ro einn vetr 
at veizlom d UpplOndom, ok a"tti sin bii hvdrr beirra; en er 
skamt var milli beirra bosja, er komingar skyldo veizlor taka, 
ba gerSu menn bat r&9, at beir skyldu bciSir vera samt at 
veizlonom, ok sino sinni at hv&rs buum ; varo J^eir fyrst ba^er 
samt at \wi biii, er Eysteinn konungr a"tti. En of kveldit, er 
menn t6ku at drekka, ha" var munngat ekki gott, ok vro menn 
hlj63er. Pd ma3lli Eysteinn konungr: [1*6 ero menn hljo5er! 
hitt er 5lsi9r meiri, at menn geri ser gle9i; fdm oss olteiti 
nOkkura, man ba enu dreitast gaman manna. Sigur8r br68ir! 
Pat mun Ollum sosmst jjykkja, at vi3 hefim nOkkurar skemt- 
unarroeSur. SigurSr konungr svarar heldr stygt: ver bu svd 
malugr sem pii vill, en lit mik na" at pegja fyrir per! 

Eysteinn konungr mashi: sd OlsiSr hefir opt verit, at menn 
taka ser jafnaftarmenn, vil ek her svd vera Idta. Pd bagSe 
SigurSr konungr. 

Se ek, segir Eysteinn konungr, at [ek ver3 at hefja bessa 
teiti; mun ek taka bik, br63er! til jafna5armanns mer: foeri 
k bat til, at jafnt nafn hofom vi9 bdSer, ok jafna eign, geri 
ek ok engi mun settar okkarrar e3a uppfoezlu. 

H svarar SigurSr konungr: mantu pat eigi, er ek braut 
bik a" bak, ef ek vilda, ok vartu vetri ellri! 



97 

Eysteinn koiiiingr svaraSi: eigi man ek hitt si9r, er bu 
fekkt ekki leikit, pat er mjiikleikr var i. 

1'a m<rlti Sigur3r konungr: mantu hversu of suudet f6r 
me6 okkr? ek mdtta kefja pik, ef ek vilda! 

Eysteinn sagSi: ekki svam ek skemra en pii, ok eigi var 
ek verr kafsyndr; ek kunna ok a" fsleggjom, sva" at engau 
vissa ek, Jann [er kep5e vi9 mik, en pii kunnir pat eigi heldr 
en naiii. 

SigurSr konungr svarar: hoffiingligri iQrott ok uytsarnligri 
J)ykki mer sii, at kunna vel vi8 boga; a3tla ek at pii nytir 
eigi boga minn, J)6tto spyrnir fotom i. 

Eysteinn segir: ekki em ek bogsterkr sva* sem pii, 
eu minna mun skilja beinskeyti okkra, ok myklo kann ek 
betr en {)ii a" skiQom, ok haffte pat enn [verit kallat fyrr 
go5 i5rott. 

Sigur5r segir: pess bykkir mikill munr, at bat er hOfSing- 
ligra, at sa*^ er yfirrnaoY skal vera annarra manna, se mikill i 
ilokki, sterkr ok vapnlberr betr en aQrir, auQsaar ok au5kendr, 
pa er [inargir eru saman. 

Eysteinn segir: eigi er pat si5r eiukanna hlutr, at ma5r 
se friSr sanom, ok er sa ok auQkendr i mannfjolda, pikki mer 
pat ok hofftingligt, pviat ft iQleikinom samir hinn bezti biinaQr. 
Kami ek ok myklo betr til laga en biij ok sva\ hvat sem vi8 
skolum tala, em ek myklo slettorQari. 

SigurQr svarar: Vera kann at \>u baflr numit fleiri log- 
pretto, jnlat ek atta \>& annat at starfa ; ok engi fryr per slett- 
ma^lis, en hitt maela margir, at J>u ser ekki allfastorQr, ok JitiQ 
mark se liverjo [>ii beitr, ok ma;lir eptir })eim er pa ero bja", 
ok er pat ekki konunglikt. 

Eysteinn svarar: ]>at herr til l^ess, er menu bera mil sin 
fyrir mik, }>a hugsa ek pat fyrst, at liika svA livers maims 
ma"li, at l>eim mteUi bezt }>ykkja; bd kemr opt annarr, si er 
mal a" viS hann, \er5r pa" jafnan dregit til ok mi81at, sva" at 
ba"5om skyldi Jika. Hitt er ok, at ek lieit pvf er ek em beftenn, 
pviat ek vilda, at allir fouri fegnir af minom funde ; se ek hinn 
kost, ef ek vil hafa sem pii gerir, at heita Ollurn illu, en engi 
heyri ek efndanna i'ryja. 

Sigur9r svarar: pat hefir verit mil manna, at fer8 sii er 
ek f6r or lande va3ii heldr hof5inglig, en bu sazt heima inedan, 
sem d6ltir fc)9ur l>ins. 

Eysteinn svarar: nii greiptu a" kylino! eigi mynda ek bessa 
r(c9o vekja, ef ek kynna her engu [um at svara: na3r b6tti 

Icelandic Grammar. 7 



98 

mer hino, at ek ger5a pik heiman sem systor mfna, a8r bu 
yr9ir btiinn til fararinnar. 

Sigur8r svarar: heyrt muntu bat hafa, at ek a"tta orrostor 
margar i Serklandi, ok fekk i Ollum sigr, ok margskonar gjOr- 
simar, baer er eigi hafa slikar komit hingat i land*, p6tta ek 
}>ar mest verSr, er ek fann gtffgasta menn, en ek hygg, at 
eigi hafir bti enn [hleypt heimdreganom. F6r ek til J6rsala, 
segir hann, ok kom ek vi5 Ptil, ok sa" ek big eigi par, broclir! 
Ek gaf konimgd6m Rodgeiri jarli hinom rika; vann ek atta 
orrostor, ok vartu at aungarri. F6r ek til grafar drottins, ok 
sa ek big eigi bar, br69ir! For ek i a"na Jorddn, bar sem 
drottinn [var skir9r i, ok svam ek tit yfir a"na, ok sa ek big 
eigi bar, [en lit a" bakkanom var kjarr nOkkut 1 , ok knytta ek 
ber f>ar kntit a kjarrino, ok bi9r bin bar; [ok mselta ek sv 
fyrir, at bu skylder leysa, broker! eSa hala ellar bvilikan for- 
mdla, sem bar var alagftr. 

l*a" ma3lti Eysleinn koniingr: smatt mnn ek hafa herimoti: 
Nor3r i V^gom setta ek fiskimannabii5ir, at fa"toekir menn maetti 
na^rast til lifshja"lpar, ok setta ek bar prestvisf, ok lagfta ek fe 
til kirkju beirrar, er nciliga var allt hei9it a9r; mAno befr 
menn muna, at Eysteinn koniingr hefir verit i Noregi. Um 
Dofra fjall var f5r or frdndheimi ; ur5o menn bar jafnan titi, 
ok foro bar margir menn hOr9om fOrum, let ek bar SBelohiis 
gera, ok fe tilleggja, ok munu beir vita, at Eysteinn koniingr 
hefir verit i Noregi. Fyrir Ag5anesi voru draft ok hafnleysi T 
f6rust mOrg skip; bar er mi hofn ger ok gott skipalsegi, ok 
kirkja gjOr. Si5an let ek vita gera i haTjOllom; nti munu pessa 
nj6ta allir menn innanlands. Hollina let ek gera i BjOrgyn 
ok postulakirkju ok ri5 milli ; munu konungar peir muna nafn 
mitt, er eptir koma. Mikjalskirkju let ek gera ok mtinklifi; 
skipaSa et ok lOgonom, br63ir, at hverr mselti hafa rettindi vi5 
annan, ok ef bau ero haldin, ba" mun betr fara landsstjornin. 
StOpulinn let ek gera i Sinh6lmssundi. feim jamtom hofom 
ver ok siiiiit undir petta rfki, meir rneft bliQom or9om ok viti 
en meS agdng e5r 6fri5i. Nti er betta sma'tt at telja, en egi 
veit ek vist at landsbuunom se betta 6hallkva3mara , en bolt 
bu brytja9ir bla"menn fyrir fjandann [a" Serklandi, ok hrapa 
peim svA til helvitis. En bar sem pti hrosaQir g69gerningom 
pinom, a3tla ek mer eigi minna til s,11ub6tar staSi p?i, er ek 
let setja hreinlifismOnnum. En par sern pti reitt mer knutinn, 
ok mun ek pann eigi leysa, en ri9a matta ek per pann kntit, 
[ef ek vilda, at pti va3rir aldregi kontingr i Noregi, p1 er pti 



99 

sigldir einskipa i her minn, er bii komt i land. Lit! nu viltrir 
menu hvat bii hefir umfram, ok vita skulut J)er bat, gullhals- 
arnir, at menu nmno enn jafnast viS i<5r i Noregi. Eptir pat 
bOgnuSo peir ba3er, ok var hvdrtveggi rei8r. Fleiri lutir ur8o 
beir i skiptom peirra brceSra, er bat fanst, at hv&rr dr6 sik 
frarn ok silt mdl, ok vildi vera (iSrom meiri, en p6 helzt friQr 
[millum peirra, me5an beir lifQo. 



Af Njalssaga. 

Gunnarr a Hlidarcnda. 

19... Gunnarr Ha"mundarson bj6 at Hliftarenda i Flj6ts- 
hli9; hann var mikill ma5r vexti ok sterkr, [manna bezt vigr: 
hann hjo ba^um hOndum ok skaut, ef hann vildi, ok hann 
vA svA skj6tt me5 sverQi', at brjiii b6ttu d lopti at sjd; hann 
skaut manna bezt af boga, ok hrefSi allt bat er bann skaut 
til; hann hljop meir en bscQ sina me8 ollum herklcccwm, ok 
eigi skemra aptr en fram fyrir sik; hann var syndr sem selr; 
ok eigi var sa leikr, er riokkurr J)yrfli vi8 hann at keppa; 
ok hefir svft verit sagt, at eingi v*ri bans jafningi. Hann var 
vsenn at yfirlitum ok Ijos-litaoV, rett-nefjaSr ok hafit upp i fra- 
manvert, bldeygr ok snareygr, ok ro8i i kinnunum, h1rit mikit, 
ok for vel ok vel litt; manna kurteisastr var hann, harSgjOrr 
i Ollu, femildr ok stiltr vel, vinfastr ok vinavandr; hann var 
vel auQigr at fe; br69ir bans bet Kolskeggr, hann var mikill 
ma<5r ok sterkr, drengr g63r ok Oruggr i Ollu. Annarr br68ir 
bans bet Hjorlr, bann var pa" i bernsku. .. 

20... Nj^ll bj6 at Bergb6rshvali i Landeyjum, annat bii 
^itti hann i tdrflfsfelli. NjAll var vel au8igr at fe ok vnn 
at dliti, hAnom vox eigi skegg. Hann var lOgmaSr svA mikill, 
at eingi fannst bans jafningi; vitr var hann ok forspar, heil- 
ra8r ok goftgjarn, ok var8 allt at ra5i, pat er hann re8 mOn- 
num, b6gva3rr ok drenglyndr; hann leysti hvers manns vandraiQi, 
er & bans fund kom. Berg})6ra het kona bans, hon var Skar- 
phe9ins d6ttir, kvennskOriingr mikill ok drengr g68r, ok nokkut 
skaphGrft ; }>au attu 6 bOru, doetr prjdr ok sonu prjri, ok koma 
peir allir vi9 }jessa sOgu si8an. 

25... Nu skal nefna sonu Nj^ls: SkarpheSinn het hinn 

7* 



100 

^Izti, hann var mikill maBr vexti ok styrkr, vel vigr, syndr 
sem sir, manna f6tlivatastr, ok skj6tr ok Oruggr, gagnorBr ok 
skj6torBr, ok skald gott, en ])6 laungum vel stiltr; hann var 
jarpr 3 heir, ok sveipr i hcirinu, augBr vel, folleitr ok skarpleitr, 
liBr a nefi, ok M halt tanngarBrinn, munnlj6tr mjok, ok J)6 
manna hermannligstr. Grimr het annarr son Njals, hann var 
friBr Seinum, ok hserBr vel, dokkr & htfr, ok friBari sanum en 
SkarpheBinn, mikill ok sterkr. Helgi het inn briBi son Njals, 
hann var friBr synum ok ha3rBr vel, hann var styrkr maBr ok 
vigr vel, hann var vitr maBr ok stiltr vel; allir varu beir 6k- 
vangaBir synir Njals. HOskuldr het hinn fj6rBi son Njals, hann 
var laungetinn, m6Bir bans var Hr6Bny, ok var HOskulds dottir, 
systir Ingjalds fr$ Keldum. 

33. Gunnarr rei5 ok beir allir, en er beir komu & ping, 
b varu peir sva vel biinir, at Ongir voru bar jafnvel bunir, 
ok lorn menn lit or hverri bii9 at undrast \)&. Gunnarr rei9 
til bu9ar RSngseinga, ok var bar me9 fraendum si num. Mar- 
gir menn f6ru at finna Gunnarr, ok spyrja hann ti5inda; hann 
var viB alia menn lettr ok k^itr, ok sag5i Ollum slikt. er vildu. 

Pat var einn dag, er Gunnarr gekk fr& kigbergi, hann 
gekk fyrir mosfellfngabuft, hi s hann kono fara i moti ser, 
ok var vel biiin, en er bau fundust, kvaddi hon begar Gunnar, 
hann tok vel kveSju hennar, ok spyrr hvat kvenna hon va3ri. 
Hon nefndist HallgerSr, ok kvaBst vera d6ttir Hoskulds Dal- 
akollssonar; hon mselti til bans djarfliga, ok baB segja ser fr^ 
ferSum sinum, en hann kvaBst ekki varna mundu henni mals; 
settust |)au b^ ni9r, ok tOluBu. Hon var svA biiin, at hon var 
i rauBu kyltli, ok hafBi yfir ser skallazskikkju [hlaBbuna i skaut 
niBr; hirit t6k ofan d bringu henni, ok var bffiBi mikit ok 
fagrt. Gunnarr var i skallazkl*9um, er Haraldr komingr Gorms- 
son gaf hanum; hann hafBi ok gullhring d hendi, bann er 
H^kon jarl gaf hAnum. 

Pau tOluBu lengi h^itt, par kom er hann spurBi, hvart 
hon va3ri 6gefin. Hon sagBi at sva va3ri: ok er pat [ekki 
margra at haetta d bat. Pikki per hvergi fullkosta? Eigi er 
bat, segir hon, en mannvOnd mun ek vera. Hversu munt bii 
svara, ef ek biB bin? l*at man her ekki i hug, segir hon. 
Eigi er bat, segir hann. Ef her er nokkurr hugr a\ b3 finn 
bii foBur minn. SiBan skildu bau talit. 

Gunnarr gekk begar til buBar Dalamanna, ok fann mann 
liti fyrir buBinni, ok spyrr hvart Hoskuldr va3ri i buB; s^i segir 
at hann va3ri i buB ; gekk b Gunnarr inn. Hoskuldr ok Rutr 



101 

I6ku vel vi8 Gunnari, harm settist ni8r & meSal beirra, ok 
fanrist bat ekki f tali jieirra, at bar helfti missaelti verit i mefal. 
Par kom ni9r roe9a Gunnars, hversu J>cir brneQr munclu bvi 
svara, ef bann beeSi Hallgerdar. Vel segir Hoskuldr, cf her er 
bat alugat. Gunnarr segir ser bat alvOru: en s\& skildu ver 
nacslum, at morgum mundi bat ]>ikkja likligt, at her mundi 
ekki samband verSa. Hversu Hzt ber, Rutr frandi? segir IIOs- 
kuldr. Rutr svaraQi : ekki bikki mer bella jafnraeSi. Hvat 
finnr bu til bess? segir Gunnarr. Riitr nitclti: bvi mnn ek 
svara Jier urn betta, er salt er; bu ert ma9r vaskr, ok vel 
at ber, en hon er blandin mjok, ok vil ek bik i Ongu svikja. 
Vel man ber fara, segir Gunnarr, en |>6 mun ek bat fyrir salt 
hafa, at ber vir5it i fornan fjandskap, ef j)er vilit eigi gera 
mer kostinn. Eigi er bat, segir Rutr; meir er hitt, at ek se 
at bu m;Ut nu ekki viSgera; en b6tt ver kaupim eigi, ba vil- 
dim ver b6 vera vinir binir. Ek hefi talat vi9 hana, segir 
Gunnarr, ok er bat ekki fjarri hennar skapi. Rutr meelti: 
veil ek at b,1flum er betta girnda rd9, ha3ttit j)it ok mestu til, 
hversu ferr. 

Rutr sag8i Gunnari tifregit allt um skapferSi HallgerSar, 
ok b6tti Gunnari fyrst oerit mart, |iat er a"fa"U var, en par kom 
si8ar, at saman dr6 kaupmdla me9 peim. Var pa" sent eptir 
HallgerSi, var pd talat um m^lit, svA at hon var vi3. Letu 
beir nii sem fyrr, at hon festi sik sjalf; skyldi betta bo9 vera 
at HU5arenda, ok skyldi fara fyrst leyniliga, en b6 kom bar, 
er allir vissu. 

Gunnarr rei5 heim af biugi, ok kom til Bergbtirshvol?, ok 
sagSi Njali fr1 kaupum sinum ; hann t6k pessu piingliga. Gun- 
narr spyrr hvi Nja"li b6tti petta svA urdSligt? t*viat af henni 
man standast allt it ilia, er hon kemr austr hingat, segir Njdll. 
Aldri skal hon spilla okkru vinfengi, segir Gunnarr. I*at man 
})6 [svA na?r fara, segir Njall, en j)6 mant pii jafnan boeta fyrir 
henni. Gunnarr baud \j;ili til bo5s ok Ollum beim badan, sem 
bann vildi at foeri. Njall het at fara. SiSan rei9 Gunnarr 
heim, ok rei3 um hera5it, at bj65a mOnnum. 



PART IV. 



Modern Icelandic. 

This part has been added for Travellers and for practical 
purposes; and will, it is hoped, be a welcome assistant for 
travellers in Iceland. 

The Modern Orthography and Grammar is the same as 
the ancient, except k, which |is in modern orthography fre- 
quently changed into the softer g, and f, which is frequently 
changed into 5. 



Modern Icelandic. 

For Travellers. 
1. Alphabetical Vocabulary. 



accept 


ganga a9 


afternoon 


si5ari hluti 


acceptable 


aftgengilegur 




dags. 


accommodate 


utvega 


again 


aptur 


can you accom- 


geti5 be> ut- 


age 


aid UP 


modate me 


vega5 me"r 


agent 


umbo5sma8ur 


account 


reikningur 


air 


lopt 


give me my ac- 


gefi 8 mer reikn- 


ale 


01 


count 


inginn minn 


a glass of ale 


glas af (ili 


I admire 


eg ddist ad 


all 


allur 


advice 


ra5 


not at all 


alls eigi 


give me your 


gefiS me"r y5ar 


nothing at all 


alls ekkert 


advice 


rSQ 


alone 


einn, aleinn 


after 


eptir 


also 


lika 



103 



altogether 


allir saman, 


bath 


ba8 




alveg 


I want a bath 


eg vil fa 


always 


alltaf 




ba8 


and 


og 


to be 


a8 vera 


angler 


iinglari 


be quick 


veri8 flj6tur 


animal 


dyr 


let it be 


Iati8 j>a8 


to answer 


a8 svara 




vera 


answer me 


GjOri8 svo vel 


because 


af pvia8 


please 


a8 svara m6r 


bed 


rum 


answer slowly 


svari8 seint 


give me a bed 


Iati8 mig fa 


apartment 


herbergi 




rum 


have you an 


hafi8 per her- 


I go to bed 


eg fera8hStta 


apartment to 


bergi til 


beef 


nautakjot 


let? 


leigu? 


roast beef 


i nautakjots- 


apple 


epli 


beef steakes 


l stejk 


the arm 


handleggurinn 


beer 


bjor 


to arrive 


a8 koma 


I want some 


eg vil & bj6r 


to ascend 


a8 fara uppa" 


beer 




I want to as- 


eg vil fara 


to beg 


a3 biftja 


cend the 


uppa fjalli8 


I beg of you 


eg bi8 y8iir 


mountain 




behind 


eptir 


to ask 


a8 spyrja, bi3ja 


I left it be- 


eg skildi pa8 


ask him 


spyrji8 haiin 


hind 


eptir 


to assist 


a8 hjiilpa 


the bell 


bjallan,klukkan 


assist me 


hjalpi8 i HIT 


the bill 


reikningurinn 


at 


i, * 


to bind 


a8 binda 


at home 


heima 


bind it up 


bindi8 ba8 


at sea 


5 sj6 




upp 


not at all 


alls eigi 


the bird 


fuglinn 


attendant 


p6nari 


can you tell 


Geti8 per sagt 


I want an at- 


eg vil fa" ben- 


me where to 


m6r, hvar 


tendant 


ara 


get board 


in,i fa kost 


back 


aptur 


and lodgings 


og husuie8i? 


let us go back 


fOrum aptur, 


boat 


batur 


' 


snuum aptur 


book 


b6k 


bacon 


flesk 


bookseller 


b6kasOluma8ur 


bad 


vondur 


boot 


stigvt-1 


bandage 


umbii8ir 


I want my 


eg barf a 8 f 


bank 


banki 


boots mended 


gjiirt vid slig- 


bank note 


bankase8ill 




\rlin in in 


banker 


vixlari 


brush my 


bursta8u slig- 


the barber 


rakarinu 


boots 


vrlin min 



104 



loot jack 


stigve"la togari 


candle 


kerti 


box 


askja, kassi 


I wanta 


eg barf kerti 


brandy 


brennivin, ko- 


candle 






niakk 


care 


umhyggja, vari 


I want some 


egvilfa" brenn- 


take care 


takid vara 


brandy 


ivin 


carriage 


vagn 


fill my flask 


fyllift floskuna 


to carry 


a9 bera 


with brandy 


mina me9 


carry this 


beri5 betta 




brennivini 


cartridge 


skotmanns ves- 


bread 


brau5 




ki 


breakfast 


morgunver5ur 


cattle 


nautpeningur 


I want to 


eg vil fa" mor- 


certain 


viss 


breakfast 


gunver5 


chair 


sttill 


bridge 


bru 


chamber pot 


nattpottur 


bring 


bera, fsera 


change 


skipti 


bring me 


fa3ri5 me"r 


give me change 


geu'5 mer 


bring me some 


fa3ri9 me"r 




skipti 




nokkuft 


to charge 


a9 setja upp, 


a brush 


bursti 




heimta 


brush my 


burstiQ fotin 


what do you 


hva9 seti9 per 


clothes 


min 


charge 


upp? 


but 


en 


cheap 


od^r 


butter 


smjOr 


cheese 


ostur 


to buy 


a5 kaupa 


chest 


kista 


by 


hja, me5, af 


- of drawers 


dragkista 


by and by 


viflogvift, bra9- 


chicken 


hasnuungi, 




um 




kjuklingiir 


by all means 


fyrir alia muni 


child 


barn 


by no means 


fyrir engan 


church 


kirkja 




mun, engan 


chymist 


efnafraftingur 




veginn 


cigar 


vindill 


cabbage 


kal 


city 


ba3r, slafiur 


cabbin 


kahetta 


clean 


hreinn 


to call 


a5 kalla 


cloak 


k^pa 


call the wai- 


kalli8 a bjon- 


clock 


klukka 


ter 


inn 


closet 


afhus 


call the man 


kallifta'mann- 


coach 


vagn 




inn 


coat 


frakki 


what do you 


hva9 kalliS 


coffee 


kaffi 


call thatl 


b6r ba9? 


give me some 


gefiS m6r 


can 


a5 geta, eg get 


coffee 


kaffi 


can you 


geti5 J)6r? 


coffee-house 


kaffihus 



105 



n//,/ kaldur 


at day break i dtigun 


/ feel very mr er mji)g 


dear d^r 


cold kalt 


this is very ])etta er mjOg 


comb kambur 


dear dyrt 


to come a9 koma 


delightful yndislegur 


come here komi9 he> 


dentist tannlxknir 


come with me komi9 me9 


departure burtfor 


mr 


descend fara ni9ur 


a conveyance flutningur 


let us descend forum ni9ur 


to cook a9 elda 


dialect mallVzka 


cost kosta 


what dialect hva9a ma*llyzku 


what does it bva9 kostar 


do they speak tala |>eir 


cost? ba9 


here? her? 


country land 


difficult Or9ugur 


courier hra9sendibo9i 


dinner mi9dagsver9ur 


cow k^r 


/ want to eg vil la" mi9- 


cream rjoini 


dine dagsver9 


give me some gefi9 m6r 


distance fjarlseg9, vega- 


cream rj6ma 


lengd 


cup bolli 


what is the hva9 er vega- 


cupandsaucer bolli og un- 


distance? lengdin? 


dirskal 


to do a9 gjOra 


fo cut a9 skera 


do this gj<)ri9 ]>etta 


CM* # a9 skera bad 


do that gjOrift hitt 


dawip rakur, votur 


do it gjUri9 |>a9 


/ hope the eg vona, a9 


do me gji)ri9 fyrir mig 


sheets arenot rekkvo9irnar 


dont do it gjOri9ba9ekki 


damp se ekki rakar 


the doctor heknirinn 


danish danska 


do^ hundur 


do you speak tali9berdOns- 


door dyr 


danish ku? 


to doubt a9 efa 


what is that hva9 er ba9 


/ doubt it eg efa j>a9 


called in da- kallad a* 


down ni9ur 


nish diinsku? 


let us go down forum ni9ur 


/ do not speak eg tala ekki 


drawers nasrbuxur 


d,anish dtinsku 


to dress a9 kloe9a sig 


/ understand eg skil daliti9 


to drink a9 drekka 


a little da- i dOnsku 


/ want to eg vil fa a9 


Mtlft 


drink drekka 


dark dimmur 


dry bur 


day dagur 


each hver 


to-day i dag 


ea^fe Orn 



106 



early 


snemma 


field 


engi 


earth 


jOr8 


finger 


flngur 


east 


austur 


fire 


eldur 


east wind 


austanvindur 


let us make 


kveykjum upp 


easy 


au8veldur, hse- 


a fire 


eld 




gur 


I want some 


eg vil f& eld 


to eat 


a8 eta, bor8a 


fire 




I want to 


eg vil fa a8 


a fish 


fiskur 


eat 


bor3a 


to fish 


aft fiska 


let us eat 


latum oss 


let us catch a 


la turn oss 




bor8a 


fish 


veifta fisk 


have you any- 


hafi5 her nokk- 


my fishing rod 


fiskistOngin 


thing to eat ? 


u<5 a5 




min 




bor8a? 


flask 


flaska, pu5ur- 


m 


egg 




horn 


give me two 


gefi8 mer tv5 


fog 


poka 


W 


egg 


foot 


f6tur 


to engage 


a8 festa 


my foot is 


f6turinn a m6r 


engage a guide 


festa fylgdar- 


sore 


er viQkvoemur 




mann 


for 


bvia9 


enough 


nog 


fork 


gaffall 


evening 


kvOld 


free 


frjals 


every 


s6rhver 


fruit 


ivOxtur 


every day 


s6rhvern dag 


full 


fullur 


eye 


auga 


game 


vei8i 


my eye pains 


mer er illt i 


its there any 


er nokkur- 




auganu 


game here! 


veifti h6r 


face 


andlit 


german 


byzkur 


far 


langt 


to get 


a8 fa, utvega 


is it far from 


er ba8 langt 


get me 


iitvegi8 m6r 


here? 


h68an? 


get it 


fitvegi8 pa8 


how far is it 


bva8 langt er 


gin 


einirberja- 


from here? 


ba8 began? 




brennivin 


a farm 


baer 


to give 


a8 gefa 


fast 


flj6tt 


give me 


gefl8 mer 


go faster 


gangi8 fljolar 


give it 


gefi8 ba8 


do not speak 


tali8 ekki 


a glass 


glas 


so fast 


svona flj6tt 


to go 


a8 ganga, fara, 


faster 


fljdtar 




koma 


fellow 


ma8ur 


go with me 


komi8 me8 


you are a good 


b6r eru8 g68- 




mer 


fellow 


ur ma8ur 


go away 


fari8 i burtu 



107 



go back 


fariS aptur 


head 


hofu3 


go down 


farifl ni8ur 


to hear 


a8 heyra 


go up 


fari8 upp 


do you hear? 


heyri3[>er 


good 


g63ur 


heart 


hjarta 


very good 


miki3 g68ur 


heat 


lull 


better 


betri 


great heat 


mikill liiii 


best 


beztur 


heavy 


bungur 


be so good 


veri3 svo g68- 


height 


haeS 




ur 


what is the 


hva8 er 


have the good- 


gjtirff svo vel 


height 


haj8in? 


ness 




help 


bjalp 


great 


mikill 


help me 


hjSIpff me> 


a great deal 


mikill liluii 


give me a help 


veiti8 m6r 


gun 


byssa 




hj.ilp 


give me my 


faff mer bys- 


hen 


li.i'iui 


gun 


suna mina 


here 


her 


where is my 


hvar er byssan 


come here 


komi3 he> 


gun? 


min? 


high 


bar 


powder 


pu8ur 


how high is 


hva8 hdtt er 






it? 


ba3? 


hair 


bar 


hill 


hae8 


hair brush 


hdrbursti 


to hire 


a3 leigja 


half 


hdlfur 


to hold 


a3 balda 


ham 


hangi8 svfns- 


hold this 


haldi3 a j>essu 




lasri 


home 


heimili 


hand 


bond 


is this your 


er betta y8ar 


give me your 


gefi8 m6r hi)" 11 


home? 


heimili? 


hand 


y8ar d() 


honest 


ra3vandur 


hand it me 


rettff m6r b 


I want an ho- 


eg vil fa" r^8- 


handkerchief 


vasakliitur 


nest fellow 


vandanmann 


handsome 


fallegur 


horse 


hestur 


harbour 


hofn 


horseshoe 


skeifa 


hard 


har8ur 


hot 


heitur 


hare 


heri 


it is very hot 


}>a3 er miki8 


harness 


aktygi 




heitt 


hat 


hattur 


I want it hot 


eg vil fd ba3 


hatbox 


battaskja 




heitt 


to have 


a3 hafa 


hotel 


gestgjafahus 


have you? 


hafi8 b6r 


hour 


klukkustund 


let me have. 


Ia"ti8 mig hafa 


house 


bus 


hay 


bey 


how 


hversu 


he 


bann 


how much 


hversu miki3 



108 



hunger hungur 


do you know viti8 J>er 


hungry hungra5ur 


lake vatn 


/ ant hungry eg er hung- 


lamp lampi 


ra9ur 


?f/ land 


a km kofi 


landlord Iuisb6ndi 


Ice is 


language tunga 


Iceland Island 


Lapland Lappland 


an Icelander Islendingur 


late seint 


are you an eru5 per Is- 


rt is very late pa9 er mjog 


Icelanderl lendingur? 


lava seint hraun. 


do you speak talift p6r fs- 


?o lay a5 leggja 


Icelandic ? lenzku ? 


fey if down leggiS I)a8- 


what do you hva9kalli5per 


ni5ur 


call this in betta & is- 


?/ down Ieggi9 ni9ur 


icelandic! lenzku? 


fo /earf a5 leiSa, liggja 


if ef 


does fAe way liggur vegur- 


ill illt 


/earf M/)? inn upp? 


{ f 1 f 1 mer er illt 


lead to right Iei5a a rettan 


/ am ill ] 


way veg 


fetch a doctor saekiQ laeknir 


left vinstri 


in i, i 


to the left til vinstri 


in the city i bffinum 


to let ad I;ila 


in the country a landinu 


let me alone latiS mig vera 


indeed svo ! sannarlega 


let it be IdtiS pa9 vera 


the inn veitingahiis 


?ef me do it Iati5 mig gjOra 


inn keeper veitingamaSur 


pa3 


ink blek 


let it be done Iati5 paS vera 


insect skorkvikindi 


gjtirt 


iron jam 


Zeer bref 


island ey 


any letters for nokkur bref 


it ba9 


met til min? 


to keep geyma 


send the letter sendi5 brefi5 


keep it for me geymi<5 ba5 


to the Post a p6st hiisi5 


fyrir mig 


life Iff 


key lykill 


the light IjosiS 


knife hnifur 


bring a light komi5 me5 


give me a Ij3i8 mer hnif 


Ijos 


knife 


strike a light kveikiQ Ijos 


where is my hvar er hnif- 


light the candle kveikiS a kert- 


knife? urinn minn 


inu 


to know aS vita, bekkja 


like lika, pykja 


/ know eg veil 


vsent um 



109 



/ should like m6r skyldi 


^it;c me some gHifi m6r 


})ykja vjcnt 


7fr nijolk 


urn 


w7/ mynla 


linnen linfot 


money peningar 


wash my lin- })\oi5 IfnfOliii 


moon m;ini, tungl 


nen mm 


7oor myri 


/ want my eg l>arf aft (A 


more meira 


linnen wash- linfotin min 


more on(/ meira og^neira 


ed immedi- l>vegiii undir- 


more 


ately eins 


nosf mest 


little litill 


morning morgun 


to live a8 lifa 


mother m68ir 


liver lifur 


mucA, mikid 


loaf hrau8 


it is too much pa5erofmiki5 


lock ls, skni 


much more miki9 meira 


lock the door I*si8 dyrunum 


so much svo mikiQ 


lodging leiguherbergi 


must. v. aux. verSa, hljota 


/on# langur, Icngi 


you must do it ]ier ver5i8 a5 


to look ad lila 


gjOra pa8 


looking glass spegill 


mustard mustarQur 


to lose a9 missa, tina 


mutton sau8akjOt 


/ have lost eg hefi misst 


my minn 


have you lost ? hafiS p6r misst 


natY nOyl 


luggage farangur 


name nafn 


where is my hvar er fa- 


what is your hva8 er nafn 


luggage? rangurinn 


name? y8ar? 


minn? 


my name is N. n afn mi tt er N 


to make a8 gjOra 


narrow prOngur 


make haste flytift y8ur 


nasty slffimur 


man ma8ur 


near naerri 


many margur 


it is near? er pa8 naerri? 


market markaSur 


necessary nauQsynlegur 


me inig, m6r 


needle ndl 


meat kjot 


neither hvorki 


roast meat steikt kjot 


neither-nor hvorki-n6 


feoz'/erf meat so9i8 kjot 


never aldrei 


fo weef a5 mta 


new nyr 


meet me maetiQ m6r 


news ti8indi 


merchant kaupmaBur 


next uaest 


n?7fc iiijolk 


night n6tt 


have you any liafiS per nokk- 


/as; night i gaurkvOldi 


milk? ra mj61k 


no engiun 



110 



no one 


enginn 


pear 


pera 


nobody 


enginn ma9ur 


pen 


penni 


nr 


nor9ur 


penknife 


pennahnifur 


north wind 


norSan vindur 


pencil 


ritbly 


not 


ekki 


people 


Iy5ur 


not yet 


ekki enn ]ia 


pepper 


pipar 


now 


mi 


perhaps 


ef til vill 


oats 


hafrar 


person 


ma8ur 


to oblige 


hjalpa um 


a pin 


tituprjonn 


oblige me 


hjlpi5 mer 


pipe 


pipa 




um 


pistol 


smabyssa 


ocean 


haf 


place 


staQur 


off 


burtu 


plate 


diskur 


far off 


langt i burtu 


poor 


fatsekur, vesall 


often 


opt 


pork 


svinakjOt 


oil 


olia, lysi 


porter 


bur8arma9ur 


old 


gamall 


portmanteau 


fer<5ataska 


omlet 


eggjakaka 


post 


p6stur 


on 


a 


where is the 


hvar er p6st- 


only 


einungis 


post office? 


skrifstofan ? 


open 


opin ii 


postage 


burSareyrir 


or 


e9a 


potatoe 


jarSepli, kart- 


an orange 


apelsina 




apla 


other 


annarr 


powder 


piiSur 


the other man 


hinnmaSurinn 


pronounce 


bera fram 


the other day 


um daginn 


pronounce this 


beriQberbetta 


each other 


hver annan 


to me 


fram lyrir mig 


out 


lit 


provisions 


matv?eli, nesti 


out of 


lit lir 


to put 


a5 setja 


over 


yfir 


put it down 


seti5pa3ni5ur 


ox 


uxi 


put it there 


seli5 ba5 


to pack 


a9 lata uppa" 




barna 


the mules 


lilfaldarnir 


quick 


fljotur 


paper 


pappir 


railway 


jaYnbraut 


to pay 


a5 borga 


rain 


regn 


I want to pay 


eg a3tla a8 


rain water 


regnvatn 




borga ? 


it is a rainy 


ba9 er rignin- 


what have I 


hvaS a" eg a<5 


day 


gar dagur i 


to pay? 


borga 




dag 


peak 


tindur 


rainy 


regnlegur 


can we ascent 


getum vi8 fari9 


will it rainl 


ailar hann a3 


the peak? 


upp;i tindinn 




rigna? 



Ill 



raw hra"r 


let us see Idtum oss >j,t 


to read aft lesa 


to send aft senda 


read it to me lesift paft fyrir 


send it away sendift baft i 


mig 


burtu 


ready tilbiiinn 


servant pjtiim 


is every thing er allt tilbiiift? 


/M sef aft setja 


ready? 


set it down setiftj>aftniftur 


are you rea- eruft her til- 


to sew aft sauma 


dy? buinn 


to shave aft raka 


rest hvild 


she hun 


let us rest vift skulum 


ship skip 


here hvila herna 


s/urf skirla 


to return aft fara aptur 


shoe sk6r 


rich rikur 


shoemaker sk6ari 


n'rfe rifta 


sicAr sjiikur 


/ u>z'W rufe eg vil rifta 


to sit aft sitja 


rifle kulubyssa 


to sleep aft sofa 


right reltur 


sfegp svefn 


is this right? er betta rett 


slow seinn 


is it the right er betta sa 


$ma/2 lilill 


way? retti vegur? 


to smoak aft reykja 


to the right til haegri 


soap s;i|>;i 


ripe broskaftur 


soon br^lftuin 


river a 


N/V//: tala 


road vegur 


do you speafc talift b6r 


ffa /M'giA road alfaravegur 


english ? ensku ? 


rough 6slettur 


or french efta frakk- 


a rough road 6slettur vegur 


nesku 


rum romm 


or Icelandic efta fsleDzku 


to run aft hlaupa 


or danish? efta donsku? 


saddle hnakkur, s05ull 


7 rfo no? speak eg tala ekki 


saddlebags hnakkpoki 


/ speak a little eg tala d;ilil ift 


horse hestur 


speak slowly talift hffigtji ;.j 


salt salt 


spoon skeift, sp6nn 


have you any hafi9 b6r nokk- 


steamer gufuskip 


salt? u3 salt? 


steel stal 


sand sandur 


stocking sokkur 


to say a8 segja 


stone stein n 


the sea sj6rinn 


s/rato str^ 


the sea bird sjofuglinn 


s/reef strati 


the sea shore sjdfarstriindin 


s*ron$f sterkur 


to see aft sjd 


stupid heimskur 



112 



sugar sikur 


towel handklaefti 


sun s6l 


town ba3r, staQur 


supper kvoldverBur 


travel fer5 


sweet saetur 


trowsers buxur 


to swim aB synda 


true sannur 


table borB 


trunk koffort 


the tailor skraddarinn 


under undir 


to take aB taka 


understand skilja 


take me t 


Iaki5 mig 


do you under- skili3 ber mig ? 


take it 


takiB baB 


stand me? 


tea tevatn 


I do not un- eg skil y3ur 


a cup of tea 


tevalnsbolli 


derstandyou ekki 


have you any hafiB ber nokk- 


can you un- getiB ber 


tea 


uB tevatn 


derstand? skiliB ? 


hot tea 


heilt tevatn 


not much ekki roikiB 


cold tea 


kalt tevatn 


only a little einungisdalit- 


tea spoon 


teskeiB 


iS 


to tell aB segja 


until til 


tell me 


segiB mer 


up upp 


I tell you 


eg segi yBur 


Mp ^e ^?7/ upp haeBina 


tent ijald 


up the stream uppeptirflj<H- 


thanks bakkir 


inu 


many thanks 


margfaldar 


upon a 




bakkir 


vegetables kalmeti 


I thank you 


eg bakka yBur 


very m foo 


that aB 


the waiter bj6nniun 


theatre leikhus 


to walk aB ganga 


then 


)d 


warm heitur 


there 


>ar 


to wash aB bvo 


thick 


)ykkur 


the washing bvotturinn 


thin 


)imnur 


the watch liriB 


thirsty {)yrstur 


water vatn 


/ am very 


eg er mikiS 


give me some gefiB mer vatn 


thirsty 


byrstur 


water 


this bessi 


the water closet naBhiisiB 


time timi 


the way vegurinn 


what is the 


hva5 er fram- 


show me the visiB m^rveg- 


time? 


or3i5 ? 


way inn 


to til, i, a" 


which way hvaBa veg verB 


to-day 


i dag 


must I go? eg aB fara? 


to-morrow 


a morgun 


which is the hvar ervegur- 


tobacco t6bak 


way to? inn til? 



113 



we 


vr, vid 


window 


gluggi 


weather 


vedur 


wine 


vin 


will it be fair 


aitli bad verdi 


have you any 


hafid [X'T nokk- 


weather? 


gott vedur 


wine ? 


ud \ in 


will it be bad 


aetli bad verdi 


Portwine or 


portvin eda 


weather? 


vont vedur 


Sherry? 


serri 


well 


gott, godur, 


with 


med 




friskur 


without 


an 


I am not well 


eg er ekki g6d- 


woman 


kona 




ur, friskur 


wood 


skogur, vidur 


west 


veslur 


to write 


ad skrifa 


wet 


volur 


to write a 


ad skrifa breT 


what 


hvad 


letter 




where 


hvar 


year 


ar 


when 


hvena3r 


yes 


j& 


which 


liver, hvada 


yet 


enn, ennbiH 


ichy ? 


bvi 


you 


b6r 


will you 


vilid ber 


you are 


b6r erud 


wild 


villur 


are you? 


erud b6r? 


wind 


vindur 


yourself 


ber sjalfur 




11. Necessary Questions. 




I want 


Mig vantar, eg 


some brandy 


brennivin, kon- 




barf, eg vil 




iakk 




ft 


a bottle of 


brennivins 


some bacon 


nesk 


brandy 


flOsku 


a banker 


vixlara 


some bread 


braud 


a bath 


bad 


to breakfast 


ad borda morg- 


my beard shav- 


skegg mitt rak- 




unverd 


ed 


ad 


tea, coffee, 


tevatn, kaffi 


a bedroom 


svefnherbergi 


two eggs and 


tvo egg og 


some beer 


bj6r 


bacon 


flesk 


my bill 


reikninginn 


or ham 


eda hangid 




minn 




svinslaBri 


the bill of 


matarlistann 


a brush 


bursta 


fare 




some butter 


smjrtr 


my boots clean- 


stigvelin min 


to buy 


ad kaupa 


ed 


lireinsud 




Jferdanokann 


my boots soled 


stigvelin min 


my carpetbag 


i minn 




sulud 


a carriage 


vagn 


Icelandic Grammar. 


8 



114 



for one, two eina, tvser 


a horse best 


hours stundir 


some ink blek 


for a day einn dag 


an interpreter tulk 


the chamber- pj6nustu stiilku 


the landlord htisb6ndann 


maid 


my letters brefm min 


some cheese ost 


to write a letter a9 skrifa bref 


to change some a5 skipta nokk- 


to post a letter a9 koma l.irefi 


money rum pening- 


A postlinn 


um 


my linnen linfotin min 


my coat frakkann minn 


washed ^vegin 


my collars kragana mina 


my baggage farangurinn 


washed pvegna 


minn 


a cup of coffee kaffibolla 


some meat kjot 


a cup of tea tevatnsbolla 


cold meat kalt kjot 


a comb kamb 


hot meat heitt kjot 


to dine a8 borSa mi5- 


pepper pipar 


dagsverQ 


pens penna 


fish fisk 


the porter burSarmanninn 


roast meat steikt kjOt 


roast beaf steikt nautakjot 


boiled meat so9i5 kjot 


mutton - sauftakjot 


potatoes jarSepli, kart- 


veal - kdlfskjot 


Oplur 


pork - svinakjot 


vegetables kalmeti 


the railway jarnbrautin 


pudding biicJing 


a room herbergi 


salad salat 


some salt salt 


drawers naerbuxur 


to see the town a5 sja baeinn 


eggs egg 


- - - thea- - - Ieikhusi5 


a fire eld 


tre 


to get up at aft fara faetur 


to see the pro- - - skemmli- 


5 o'clock klukkanfimm 


menade gdngusviQiS 


a glass of water glas af vatni 


dry sheets burrar rekk- 


a glass of wine glas af vlni 


vo8ir 


to go to the . . a9 fara til 


shirts skirtur 


to goby steamer a9 fara med 


my shirts skirturnar min- 


gufuskipi 


washed ar pvegnar 


to go by rail- a9 fara me5 


a sitting room herbergi 


way jirnbraut 


my slippers morgunskona 


to go to bed a5 hatta 


mina 


some ham hangift svins- 


some soap sdpu 


Ia3ri 


a stick staf 


a good hotel gott gestgjafa- 


my stockings sokkaiia mina 


hus 


suggar sikur 



115 



supper 


kvi>ldver5 


help me 


lijalpa IIKT 


a ticket 


bilseti 


let me 


l;ila mig 


for the 1 st class 


a" fyrsta pla"ss 


let me have 


1,-ila mig Inl.i 


forthe2" d class 


a annad plass 


look for 


ga a 9 


toothbrush 


tannbursta 


look after 


lita eptir 


my trowsers 


luixurnarminar 


make 


gjOra 


my trunk 


koffortift mitt 


mend 


gjOra vi8 


umbrella 


regnhlif 


oblige 


lij.-iijia uiu 


you to wake me 


a<5 ber veki8 


pick 


Una 


at . . . 


mig urn . . . 


please 


p6knast 


the waiter 


bjdninn 


procure 


utvega 


some water 


vatn 


recommend 


myela me8 


hot water 


heitt vatn 


remain 


vera eptir 


cold water 


kalt vatn 


rest 


hvila 


watch 


ur 


ride 


ri9a 


wine 


vin 


row 


roa 


a bottle of wine 


flosku af vini 


skate 


fara a skauluin 


port wine 


portvin 


speak 


tala 


sherry 


serri 


swim 


synda 


claret 


rau5a vin 


stay 


dvelja 






stop 


standa vi9 


111. Will you 


Vili8 per 


tell me 
walk 


segja m6r 
ganga 


ask 


spyrja, bi8ja 






assist me 


hjdlpa mer 


IV. Does the 


bring 
call me 


ftera, bera 
kalla ;i mig 


bell ring? 


hringir bjallan? 


come 


koma 


coach go to A? 


fer vagninn til 


drive 


aka 




A? 


divide 


skipta 


coach stop at B? 


stendur vagn- 


do 


gjOra 




inn vtf i 


do me 


gjOra fyrir mig 




B? 


fetch 


srekja 


- slop here? 


stendur vagn- 


find 


finna 




inn vi8 


get 


la 




he>na? 


go to 


fara til 


- leave at? 


fer vagninn 


away 


fara burtu 




hurt? 


from 


fara fra" 


- take pass- 


tekur vagninn 


give me 


gefa mer 


engers? 


vi8 fer8a- 


go with 


fara me9 




mOnnum? 


go on 


fara afram 


coach start at ? 


fer vagninn a 


hand me 


retta mt'-r 




sta8? 






8* 



116 



road lead to ? 


f liggur vegur- 


V. Is it? 


E r h a n n 


- take to? 


l inn til? 




(ba8) 


- pass near? 


liggur vegurinn 




\ |'vy 




naerri? 


attentive 


aftgnetinn 


- crosses at ? 


liggur vegurinn 


bad 


vondur 




yflrum 


beautiful 


fagur 


railway go to ? 


liggur jarn- 


bitter 


bitur 




brautin 


black 


svarlur 


train go quick? 


fer jdrnbrautar- 


blue 


blar 




lestin hart? 


blunt 


slj6r 


train go slow ? 


ferjarnbrautar- 


bold 


djarfur 




lestin hffigt? 


broad 


brei5ur 


mail start 


fer posturinn 


brown 


brunn 




af sta5? 


careless 


skeylingarlaus 


journey take 


varir fer5in 


cheap 


6dyr 


long? 


lengi? 


clean 


hreinn 


steamer start 


fer gufuskipift 


clever 


lipur 


from? 


frd? 


cold 


kaldur 


steamer pass 


fer gufuskipiS 


dark 


dimmur 


here? 


herna framhjS? 


dear 


dv^r 


steamer stops 


stendur gufu- 


deep 


djupur 


here? 


skipiQ herna 


disagreeable 


6paegilegur 




vi8? 


difficult 


erfi5ur 


steamer stop 


stendur gufu- 


dirty 


6hreinn 


at? 


skipiS vi9 i? 


dry 


purr 


steamer land 


lastur gufuskip- 


easy 


auftvekliir 


passengers ? 


i9 fer9a- 


empty 


t6mur 




menn a 


false 


6sannur 




land? 


far 


langt 


way lead over ? 


liggur vegurinn 


fine 


fallegur 




yfir? 


flat 


flatur 


way lead 


liggur vegurinn 


full 


fullur 


through ? 


gegnum ? 


green 


grapnn 


way go right? 


liggur vegurinn 


good 


go9ur 




til hsegri? 


great 


mikill 


- left? 


liggur vegurinn 


grateful 


bakkldtur 




til vinstri? 


grey 


grir 


- strait 


liggur vegurinn 


hard 


har9ur 


on? 


beint alram? 


heavy 


J)ungur 


time admit of? 


leyfir timinn. 


healthy 


heilnrcmur. 








heilsugoSur 






hiqh 


bar 



117 



hollow 


hoi ur 


short 


honest 


rdQvandur 


sick 


hot 


heilur 


small 


kind 


g69ur 


soft 


large 


st6r 


sour 


left 


leifQur, eptir 


strong 


tight 


leltur 


stupid 


long 


langur 


sweet 


low 


Mgur 


tedious 


mild 


mildur 


thick 


narrow 


brOngur 


thin 


near 


na?rri 


tired 


new 


n 5 r 


true 


nice 


nettur 


uggly 


obliging 


grei5vikinn 


unhealthy 


old 


gamall 


unwell 


polite 


kurteis 


warm 


poor 


fdtaekur, vesall 


weak 


prudent 


hygginn, for- 


well 




sjall 


wet 


red 


rauour 


white 


rich 


rikur 


wild 


right 


r6ttur 


wide 


ripe 


]}roska5ur 


wise 


rough 


6slettur 


wrong 


round 


kringlottur, si- 


yellow 




valur 


young 


sharp 


skarpur 





stuttur 
sjukur 
If till 

mjiikur 

sur 

sterkur 

liciinskur 

saetur 

leidinlegur 

>ykkur 

mnniir 
'jreyttur 
sannur 
Ij6tur 

6heiln:emur 
6friskur 
heitur 
veikur 
heilbrig3ur 
volur 
hvitur 
viltur 
viSur 
vi tin- 
ran gur 
gulur 
ungur 



VI. Adverbs. 



nil 


alls 


by all means 


fyrir alia muni 


almost, 


naestum 


by no means 


fyrirenganimm 


already 


pegar 


by and by 


vi5 og vi8, br;i5- 


always 


alltaf 




iini 


at last 


ad siftuslu 


certainly 


vissulega 


at once 


i einu, undir- 


daily 


daglega 




eins 


early 


snemma 


because 


af [nia9 


else 


annars 


besides 


auk 


enough 


u6g 


but' 


en 


ere 


45or 



118 



ever 


jafnan, setiS 


out lit 


extremely 


mjog 


perhaps ef til vill 


exceedingly, 


einstaklega 


pretty fallegt 


here 


her 


quite alveg 


hither 


hingaQ 


scarce valla 


hourly 


hverja stund 


seldom sjaldan 


how 


hvernig, hversu 


since si5an 


however 


samt sem ciftur 


so svo 


if 


ef 


some nokkucf 


in 


i 


sometimes stundum 


indeed 


svo 


SOOM bra5um 


in fact 


i raun rettri 


surely vissulega 


in this manner 


svona 


then 


)a 


in short 


i stuttu mali 


there 


)ar 


just now 


einmitt niina 


thither 


)anga5 


late 


seint 


thus 


jannig 


like 


likt 


till 


)anga9 til 


monthly 


manaSarlega 


to-day : 


dag 


much 


mikicJ 


to-morrow a morgun 


neither-nor 


hvorki-ne 


to-night i 


kvold 


never 


aldrei 


truly sannarlega 


no 


nei 


well vel 


no doubt 


efalaust 


very mjog 


not 


ekki 


where? hvar? 


not at all 


alls ekki 


whence? hvaftan? 


nothing 


ekkert 


why? pvi? 


now 


nu 


with I 


i me9an 


of course 


sjalfsagt 


without doubt efalaust 


only 


einungis 


yearly arlega 


oft 


opt 


yesterday i 


ga3r 


once 


einusinni 


yet enn, ennpa 


over 


yfir 





VII. Voyage to Iceland. 



/ go to Iceland 
When? 
to-morrow 
how? 

by the steamer from Grange- 
mouth, 



eg fer til Islands 
hvenaer? 
a morgun 
hvernig? 

me<5 gufuskipinu fra Grange- 
mouth, 



119 



It is a screw steamer 

It comes from Copenhagen 

And goes to Reykjavik 
rails at Grangemouth 

On their outward and home- 
ward voyaije 

six times a year 

The ship is clean ami fast 

The danish cheer provided is 
ample and loholesome 

No man used to luxuries 

Shonld make the trip 

Even in fine weather 

A few Icelanders are an board 

The to eat her is excellent 
We left the Shetlands yesterday 
The Faroe islands are in sight 
Their mountains and cliffs are 

lofty 
At noon we reashed Nalsoe 

From which we went to Thors- 
haven 

We leave the Faroes for Ice- 
land 

Iceland is one- fifth larger than 
Ireland 

It is situated about 500 miles 
N. W. of Scotland 

The Needles of Portland Head 

are curious 
We pass the singular rock called 

the ,,Mealsack" and see Rey- 

kianaes 

The horizon is so clear, that 
ice see in the north the mag- 
nificent outline of the Snae- 
fells Jo kul 

The view is magnificent 



>,') <T 

|)a5 kermir IV;i KaupmannahdAi, 
og fer til Ileykjavikur; 
]>afi kenitir vi8 i Grangemouth 
a ut- og heim-leiftinni, 

sex sin num a ,'iri. 

Skipift er hreint og trau>(. 

Ilin danska f;e3a, sem vein er, 

er mikil og liciln.-nn. 
Enginn inadur, vanur vifisii-llili, 
setti a9 fara pa for, 
jafnvel f ^goSu veSri. 
FAeinir Islendingar eru a 

skipinu 

Ve9ri8 er ^gaelt. 
\ IT torum fra Skotlandi i ga3r. 
Fa3reyararnar eru i syn. 
Fjollin og bjOrgin d |>eim eru 

hi. 
Urn hadegi komumsl V'T til 

N^lseyar, 
jiarian forum ver til jiorshafnar. 

\ cr ITtrum fra F*reyuin til fs- 



Island er einum flmta liluta 

slrerra en Irland 
|)a91iggur h6rumbil fimin liund- 

ru5 milur i utnorihir frd 

Skollandi 
Drangarnir viQ Dyrfadlaey (Port- 

land) eru skrilnir. 
Vi9 ft) nun framhja hinuni si'-r- 

slaklega kletti, sem kalla^ur 

erMelsekkur, og sj;Uim I<'\ k- 

janes 
Lopti5 er svo bjarl, a5 ver 

sjaum i nordri hina lignlegu 
af Snaefellsjokli; 



Ulsjonin er vegleg 



120 



We soon reach the bay in which 
lies the capital Reykjavik 

Here you will find an hotel 

It is not a bad one 

But you have only a week to 

return by the steamer 
We want ponies by to-morrow 

for the Geysers 
Early, very early I 
The Icelanders think little of 

time 

It is indefinite, 
Early in Iceland, is at any time 

during the forenoon 
The beds are delicious 
This is the land of eider-down 
The icinter requires warmths, 

rest, sleep 
The harbour and Esianrange 

is visible 

There is a pretty cemetery 
At its foot is the road to Bessa- 

stad 
This is the promenade of the 

beau monde 
There is a cathedral 
It contains a font by Thor- 

waldsen, 

who was of Icelandic parentage. 
At the back of the church is 

the Alsing, the house of par- 
lament of the island, 
But the whole town looks more 

like a village. 
Society here is purely Danish. 

The great natural phenomena, 
with the exception of the 
Krabla, lie in and about the 
south-west portion of the is- 
land. 



Ve"r komumst bra'Sum inna" flo- 

ann, barsem hofu3sta5urinn 

Reykjavik liggur. 
Par er gestgjaf'a bus; 
ba5 er ekki sla3mt; 
JDer hafi5 a5eins viku, ef per 

fari5 aptur rne5 gufuskipinu. 
Vi5 burfum hesta a" morgun 

til Geysis; 

snemma bra"Ssnemma ! 
fslendingar hugsa eigi miki5 

urn limann; 
ba8 er oakvar5a9. 
Snemma a" Island! er allt til 

ha"degis. 

Riimin eru inndsel; 
betta er eeftarduns land. 
'A veturna })urfa menn hita, 

hvild, svefn. 
Hofnin sest og fjallgar8ur sa", 

sem kallaQur er Esjan. 
barna er laglegur kirkjugar9ur. 
Fram hja honum liggur vegur- 

inn til Bessasta3a. 
Hann er skernmtig Ongusvid 

hinna ungu manna, 
Jiarna er domkirkja, 
par er skirnarfontur eptir 

Thorvaldsen 

Fa9ir hans var Islendingur 
'A bak viS kirkjnna ( er er bus 

J)a5, sem Aiding Jslands er 

haldift i. 
Allur ba3rinn litur lit likt og 

borp. 
Samkvcemin eru b6r me3 alveg 

dOnslui sni5i. 
Hin miklu natturu einkenni 

eru Oil i og kringum su9- 

vestur hluta landsins , a5 

KrOflu undan skildri. 



121 



The island is volcanic. 
At Thingvalla, of historic re- 
noun, is good shooting. 

It is one of the most wonder- 
ful sights in the world. 
All are riding ponies. 
No one thinks of walking here. 

The Salmon fishing is excellent 

sport, 
Particularly the salmon rivers 

at Bogar Fiord. 
From here you can go to Snae- 

fells Jo'kul 
Visit the valley of Reykholt and 

its terminal waters, 
The cave of Surtshellir, 
Than, if you have time, go 

across country to Geyser and 

Hekla. 
Generally the visitors only go 

to the Geysers and Hekla. 
You ought to have good travel- 
ling books. 



LamliJf er fullt af eldfjullum. 
'A I'ingvolliim. SCID iiafMl'iM'iMr 

eru i siigulegu tilliti, er n6g 

a8 skjoia. 
I*eir er ein liin umlrunarverS- 

asta sjun i heimi. 
Allir rifta a" heslum. 
Engum delliir i hug ad ^;niu r a 

ber. 
Laxveidi er ^gaet skemmtun, 



cinkuni i lax.inum i Borgar- 



He5an mfi lara til Sria3fells- 

jokuls 
Sko8iS Reykholtsdalinn og 

laugarnar J)ar. 
Surtshellir 
Ef l>er hafid J)i lima til, geti8 

per fari9 ylir um Iandi8 til 

Geysis og Heklu. 
Vanalega fara fer5amenn aSeins 

til Geysis og Heklu. 
per 0etti9 aS hafa go5ar ferSa- 

baekur. 



LIST OP 

ICELANDIC BOOKS 

IN STOCK OK IMPORTED BY 

FRANZ THIMM 

EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL BOOKSELLER 3 BROOK STREET. 
GROSVEJiOR SQRE, LONDON. W. 

f. S. d. 

Andreae, Lexicon Islandicum. ed. Resenius. 4. 1683. 14 

Dietrich's, Altnordisches Lesebueh, Poesie und Prosa bis 

XV. Jahrh. 1843. 4 6 
Edda Islandorum. Islandice, danice et latine. ed. Rese- 
nius. 4 paries. 4. 166573. 3 

Saemnndi, dicta Voluspa, Iscel. elLat. ed. Resenii, 4. 1673. 1 10 

- Semundar Hinns Froda. 3 Vol. 4. 17871828. 55 

- die, iibersetzt von Simrock, 8. 1855. 76 
Egilsson, Lexicon pret. anti. Linguae septentrionalis. 1854. 2 10 
Fommanna. Sogur eplir gomlum Handritum utgefnar ad Tilh- 

lutun bins Norraena Fornfraeda Felags; in Icelandic. 12 
Vols. 8. Kop. 18121837. 2 10 

Gilasun'S, DonskOrdabok, medlslenzumThydingum. 4. 1851. 14 

- urn frum. parta Islenzkrar tungu i fornold. 1846. 7 6 
Grimm, W. C. Alldanische Heldenlieder, Balladen u. Mar- 

chen, iibersetzt ins Deutsche. 1. 1811. 9 

Haldorsen'S Lexicon Islandico-latino-danicum ed.Rask. 1814. 2 10 - 

Jonsson'S Oldnordisk (islandsk-dansk) Ordbog. Cop. 1863. 1 1 
Ire. (J. Glossarium Suio-Gothicum ; Dialect. Moceso-Gothica, 

Anglo-Saxonica, Anglica hodierna, Islandica, etc. 2 Vol. 

Folio. 1769. 4 10 

Islands Landnamabok : Islandice el Lat. 4to. 1774. 1 1 

Roppen. Liter. Einleilung in die Nordische Mythologie. 1837. 5 

Mboius, fiber die allesle islandische Saga. 1852. 3 

Ueber die altnordische Philologie 1864. 16 

Analecta Norrasna. Island. u.Tiorw. Lit. d. Mittelalters 1859. 70 
Miiller, L. G. Islandsk Laesebog. Kop. 1836. 8 
Pfeiffer, Altnordisches Lesebueh. Text, Grammatik, Worth. 

1860. 9 

Rask, die Verslehre der Islander, deutsch. von Mohnike. 1830. 2 

- Undersogelse om del gamle islandske nordiske eller 

Sprogs Oprindelse. Cop. 1818. 10 

Icelandic Grammer by Dacent (rare) 1843. Cloth. 14 
Scripta Historica Islandorum de rebus gestis veterum 

Borealium. ed. Soc. Reg. Antiq. Sept. 12 Vols. 8. Cop. 
1828/46. 55 

Wheaton'S history of the Northmen 1831. 8 6 



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