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$B 3fll Qbfi 

Chester Harvey Rowell 







By W. D. Alexander 


Thomas G. Thrum, Publishei 


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PA444 3 


As all former grammars of the Hawaiian language 
are out of print, at the solicitation of friends, I have 
revised and enlarged a brief synopsis of Hawaiian 
grammar, which was originally written for my pupils, 
and published in 1864. 

This little work does not pretend to be a philo- 
sophical treatise, or to be a complete account of the 
structure and peculiarities of the Hawaiian branch of 
the Polynesian language. But it is hoped that it may 
be of service to those who wish to study the genuine, 
uncorrupted idiom as spoken by the older Hawai- 
ians, as well as to students of comparative philology. 

The terms and divisions of European grammars 
have been retained for the convenience of students, 
although they are only partially applicable to lan- 
guages of a radically different type. 

I have to acknowledge my obligations to Rev. L. 
Andrews' Hawaiian Grammar, to Dr. Maunsell's New 
Zealand Grammar, and to M. Gaussin's able work on 
the Polynesian language. 


May, 1908. 


A Short Synopsis of Hawaiian 


The following synopsis is intended to contain only 
general principles. For details, see Judge Andrews' 
Hawaiian Grammar. 


i. All purely Hawaiian sounds can be represented by 
twelve letters, of which: five are vowels and seven consonants, 
viz : a, e, i, o, u, h, k, 1, m, n, p, w. A is sounded as in father, 
c as in thry, /' as in marine, o as in note, u as in rule, and not 
as in mule. In a few words, as maka, make, mana, &c, the 
sound of a approaches that of a short u in tub. In the com- 
pounds of zvaho and in Oahu, it has a broad sound like that of 
a in fall. 

2. No distinction was formerly made between the sounds 
of k and / or between those of / and r. The sound of t pre- 
vailed on Kauai, that of k on Hawaii. In the words "Hilo," 
"lilo" and "hilahila," the / was often sounded like d. It is on 
-Mine accounts unfortunate that k was chosen rather than / to 
represent the sound which is represented by t throughout the 
rest of Polynesia, while the Polynesian "k" corresponds to the 
guttural of the Hawaiian dialect. The sound of w is really be- 
tween that of ; and ze, in English, and in the middle of words 
it approaches more closely to that of v, as in hewa, lawn. Sec, 

3. Every word and syllable must end in a vowel, and no 
two consonants are ever heard without a vowel sound between 
them. To this rule there is no exception. 

4. Resides the sounds mentioned above, there is in many 
words a guttural break or catching of the breath, sometime^ at 
the beginning, but more often in the middle of a word. This 
guttural is properly a consonant, and forms an essential part of 
the words in which it is found. It almost invariably takes the 


place of the Polynesian k. Thus the Polynesian ika, fish, be- 
comes i'a in Hawaiian. This guttural consonant is represented 
by an apostrophe, in a few common words, to distinguish 
their meaning, as ko'u, my, kou, thy. 

5. A list of a few of the more important words distin- 
guished by the guttural break: 

ae, to assent. 

ai, food. 

ao, light, a cloud. 

au, a current, time, &c. 

au, thine. 

akoakoa, to assemble. 

ea, to rise up. 

ia, he, she or it. 

ie, climbing plant. 

II. mouldy. 

oa, to split. 

6i, to excel. 

66, a digger. 

ou, thine. 

ill, question. 

hai, to tell. 

hao, iron. 

hiu, shy. 

hua, fruit. 

huaka'i, procession. 

hui, to mix, unite. 

kai, seawater. 

koa, a soldier, brave. 

koe, remaining. 

koi, to urge, compel. 

kou, thine. 

km, to stitch, a needle. 

liuliu, to get ready. 

mai, hither. 

makau, fish-hook. 

moa, a chicken, fowl. 

nau, to chew. 

nan, for thee. 

pau, done, finished. 

poi, taro paste. 

pue, to crouch. 

wan, I. 

a'e. to pass over, embark. 

a-i, neck, Polynesian kaki. 

a'o, to teach. 

a'u, a sword-fish. 

a'u, mine. 

ako'ako'a, the horned coral. 

e'a, a cloud of dust. 

i'a, a fish. 

i'e, a kapa beater. 

i'e, quarrelsome in liquor. 

i'i, to be crowded. 

6'a, a rafter. 

6'i, to limp. 

o'o, ripe. 

o'u, mine. 

u'i, young, vigorous. 

ha'i, to be broken. 

ha'o, to discredit. 

hi'u, a fish's tail. 

hu'a, foam. 

hu'akai, sea foam, sponge. 

hu'i, rheumatism. 

ka'i, to carry, lead. 

ko'a, a coral reef. 

ko'e, an angle worm. 

ko'i, an axe. 

ko'u, mine. 

ku'i, to pound. 

li'uli'u, a long time. 

ma'i, sick. 

maka'u, afraid. 

mo'a, cooked, well done. 

na'u, for me. 

pa'u, soot. 

po'i, a cover, lid. 

pu'e, to seduce, to hill potatoes. 

wa'u, to scratch. 


6. It is important to observe the distinction between long 
and short vowels. Thus awa means a harbor, but aiva, a plant 
from which an intoxicating drink is made. Again, kana means 
war, while kaua means we two, or I and thou. Maui is the 
name of an island, Maui of a famous demigod, and kaula 
means a rope, while kaula means a prophet. 

7. The accent generally falls on the penult. This is true 
of about five-sixths of the words in the language. 

8. The accent is frequently drawn forward by the enclitic 
la, which is generally pronounced as if it formed part of the 
preceding word. Thus, aku la> is pronounced akula, ua moku 
la as ua moktila. 

9. A List of Similar words distinguished by the Accent. 

aia, there. 

aka, shadow. 

ala, to rise. 

ano, likeness, character. 

eha, pain. 

i'o, meat. 

ina, if. 

o'o, ripe. 

o'o, a bird. 

ue, to wrench, turn. 

kaka, to rinse clothes. 

kala, to proclaim, to pardon. 

kela, to excel. 

kena, to be satiated, of thirst. 

kanaka, man. 

malu, a shadow. 

mama, to chew. 

malama, month. 

nana, for him. 

poho, chalk. 

pua, a flower. 

wahi, a place. 

aia, ungodly, impious. 

aka, but. 

ala, a pebble. 

an<5, now, immediately. 

eha, four. 

i-6, yonder. 

ina, come on ! be quick ! 

oo, a digger. 

ue, to cry. 

kaka, to split wood. 

kala, a dollar, silver. 

kela, that. 

kena, to order, send on duty. 

kanaka, men, people. 

malu, secret. 

mama, active, light. 

malama, to take care. 

nana, to look, to see. 

poho, to sink. 

pua, a bundle, a flock. 

wahi, to wrap up. 


10. The Hawaiian language has no inflections whatever. 
All grammatical relations such as number, case, tense, &c, 
are expressed by separate particles 

11. Most words in this language can be used either as 
nouns, adjectives, verbs or adverbs, their meaning being indi- 
cated by their position in the sentence, and by the accompany- 
ing particles. 



12. The Gender of nouns is distinguished, first, by the use 
of entirely different words, as elemakule, old man, and InaJiinc, 
old woman. Second, by the use of the adjectives, kanc, male, 
an&.ivahine, female, as moa kwie, a cock, and moa wahine, a 

13. The Plural Number is distinguished. 

First, by the use of the plural definite article na before the 
noun, as na hale, the houses. 

Second, by the use of the plural sign man, which is used 
chiefly of small numbers from two to ten inclusive. It does not 
admit the definite article ka or ke before it, but is generally 
preceded by the^Qefinite article he, or by a possessive or 
demonstrative pronouns, as keia man mea, these things ; ku'u 
man maka, my eyes ; he mau lio, several horses. 

Third, by the use of the plural signs, poe, pae, and pu'u, 
which are properly collective nouns, and take the articles or 
other qualifying words before them. Poe, is used chiefly of 
living things, and means a company, collection. Pa'u, literally 
a heap, is used chiefly of lifeless things, and pae of lands, is- 
lands, &c. E. g., he poe haumana, a company of disciples ; he 
pu'u pohaku, a pile of stones; keia. pae moku, these islands. 

Fourth. A few words, besides the methods explained above, 
also distinguish the plural by prolonging and accenting the 
first syllable. Thus kanaka, man, plural kanaka, wahine, 
woman, plural zvahine, and a few others. 

Fifth. The syllable ma appended to the name of a person, 
denotes the company associated with him, as Hoapili ma, 
Hoapili and his company. 


14. The distinctions of case are expressed by means of 
prepositions. The simple prepositions are as follows : 

{ifea^E,}^ 1 "*' " '-" 

E. g., "Ka piko o ka mauna," the summit of the mountain ; 

"Ko ke alii aina," the chief's land ; "ka liana a ke kauwa," 

the work of the servant ; "wahi a ke alii," the chief said so. 
Na and No, of, for, concerning, on account of. "No" also 
sometimes from, in which case the following noun takes 
the directive mai after it. E. g., "No na alii ka aina," the 
land belongs to the chiefs; "na mea a'u i lohe ai no 
Lono," the things which I heard concerning Lono ; "no 

Amerika mai ka moku," the ship is from America ; "no 

ia mau mea," concerning those matters. 


3. I, la and Io, to, at of time, and by with adjectives and 

neuter verbs. / is also used before what in other gram- 
mars is called a predicate accusative, after verbs signify- 
ing to change, to choose, render or constitute, to become, 
or to be changed into. 
/ is also the sign of the objective case after transitive 
verbs. In certain common phrases a verb is understood 
before the objective sign, as "i wai," bring water; "i 
pahi," "get me a knife," &c. E. g., "E hai aku i keia poe 
kanaka," tell to these men ; "e hele i ke kuahiwi." go to 
the mountain ; "i ka po," in the night ; "piha i ka wai," 
full of water ; "ma'i i ke anu," ill from cold ; "e kukulu i 
ka hale," to build the house ; "ua lilo ia i kahuna," he 
became a priest ; "ua hanaia i makau," it was made into 
a hook, "ua koho au ia Keawe i elele," I have chosen 
Keawe as messenger. 

4. Ma, at or in, of place, and by before pronouns and names 

of persons, in which case it takes after it, and the 
enclitic la or nei after the following noun or pronoun. 
E. g., "Ua noho oia ma Waimea," he lived at Waimea; 
"ma o Iesu la," by Jesus. 

5. Mai, from. The following noun takes mat or aku after it, 

according as the direction is towards or away from the 

Mai takes o after it before pronouns, and a before names 

of persons in relation to time, sometimes written ia. 
E. g., "Mai ka waha mai," from the mouth; "mai Honolulu 

aku i Kailua," from Honolulu to Kailua ; "mai o'u aku 

nei," from me; "mai ka po mai," since the night; "mai a 

Wakea," from the time of Wakea. 
Me, with. E. g., "E hele pu me ia," go together with him. 

As an adverb, me means "as," "like." E. g., "Me he 

hipa la," like a sheep; "e like me keia," like this; "me 

ka ai ole," without food. 
E. by, only used after passive verbs, to denote the agent. 

E. g., "Ua kukuluia ka hale e ke alii," the house has 

been built by the chief. 

Remarks on the Prepositions. 

The Distinction between A and O 

15. There is an important distinction between the three a 
prepositions, a, ka, and ua, and the three prepositions, ko, 
and no. "O" implies a passive or intransitive relation, "a" an 
active and transitive one. "A" can only be used before a word 
denoting a living person or agent, and implies that the thing 


possessed is his to make or act upon, or is subject to his will, 
while "o" implies that it is his merely to possess or use, to re- 
ceive or be affected by. This distinction is common to all Poly- 
nesian languages, but is most clear and striking in that of New 
Zealand. Thus ."ka hale a Keawe" means "the house which 
Keawe built," but "ka hale o Keawe" means simply "the 
house which Keawe lives in." Again, "ka wahine a Keawe" 
means "the wife of Keawe," while "ka wahine o Keawe" would 
mean Keawe's maid-servant. "Ke keiki a Keawe" denotes 
Keawe's own child, while "ke keiki o Keawe" would denote his 
errand boy, &c. In New Zealand, "he hangi mau" is an oven 
for you to cook with, but "he hangi mou" is an oven in which 
you are to be cooked, and would be a most offensive curse. 

16. It follows of course that such words as "hana," work, 
require a after them, and so does at, food, and all its deriva- 
tives. Words are conceived as of made, or fashioned by the 
mouth-, and hence "olelo" "pule" &c, require a. For a simi- 
lar reason "palapala" writing, takes a. The following names of 
relationship, keiki, child, mo'opuna, a descendant, kauzvd, a ser- 
vant, and haumana, a pupil, requires a after them. On the oth- 
er hand, our parents, brothers and sisters, our ancestors, rulers, 
and friends, take o, since they do not owe their existence to 
us, nor are subject to our will. O is used of clothing, canoes, 
and such things as are ours to wear or use, but not to produce. 
All of the parts of the body, and the faculties of the mind, as 
mana'o, makemake, &c, take o. All the more remote relations, 
including that of a part to a whole, are expressed by o. 

17. The following list comprises the principal words that 
generally require the a prepositions after them. 

ai, food. kauoha, command. palapala, writing, 

oihana, office. kauwa, servant. pule, prayer, 

olelo, word. kane, husband. wanana, prophecy, 

haumana, disciple, keiki, child. wahine, wife, 

hana, work. mo'opuna, descendant, buke, book. 

On Ka and Ko. 

18. The prepositions ka and ko are called prefix preposi- 
tions, because when they are used, the noun denoting the pos- 
sessor precedes the thing possessed. Thus, "ko ke alii hale," 
the chiefs house, is equivalent to "ka hale o ke alii." the house 
of the chief. These prefix prepositions are undoubtedly com- 
pounded of the definite article ka and the prepositions a and 
respectively. Thus, "ko ke alii hale" is for "ka-o ke alii hale." 


On Na and No. 

19. The fundamental idea in na and no seems to be right 
or possession. Thus, "no ke alii ka hale" means the house is for 
or belongs to the chief. When an active verb in the infinitive 
follows na is used and not no. As, "na Keawe e a'o aku i na 
kanaka," it belongs to Keawe, it is K.'s duty to teach men. "No 
Hilo mai," from Hilo, implies that one belongs to Hilo. No 
denotes Origin from, mai separation from. Both no and mai 
signifying from, require a directive, mm or aku, after the fol- 
lowing noun, according as the motion is towards or away 
from the speaker. 

On I, la and Io. 

20. The preposition i, to, and i, the objective sign, are 
really distinct words. In the New Zealand, Tongan and Raro- 
tongan dialects, the former is ki, and the latter i. They take 
the form ia before pronouns and proper names. The form io, 
to, is used after verbs of motion, before pronouns or proper 
names, which are generally followed by net or la. E. g., "io 
makou nei," to us, "io Kristo la," to Christ. The in ia, and 
the in io are no doubt distinct elements, and in some dialects 
are written separately. Probably like the "O emphatic," they 
express personality or individuality. 

The use of i as a sign of the objective case may be illustrated 
by the use of the preposition d in Spanish before the direct 
object of a verb, when it denotes an animated being. In a simi- 
lar manner eth is used in Hebrew before a definite object. 
E. g., "Puhi lakou * ka hale," they burned the house. 

21. What is called the vocative case, is expressed by the 
prefix c, as "E Keoni !" O John ! 


22. "He" is the Hawaiian indefinite article, corresponding 
to the English a or an. It is used only in the singular number 
and nominative case. After a verb or preposition the article 
"a" is often rendered by "kahi" or "kekahi." Its use before 
the plural signs mau, poe, &c, can be explained by the fact that 
these are properly collective nouns. 

23. There are two definite articles, corresponding to the 
English "the," ka or ke for the singular, and iw for the plural. 
The form ke is used before all words beginning with k, a few 
beginning with />, and a large number beginning with a or o. 
The form te prevails throughout all Southern Polynesia. This 
article, ke, must not be confounded with the participle ke pre- 
fixed to verbs. 



24. The best rule for the form of the definite article be- 
fore words commencing with a is the following. Use ke before 
a short, and ka before a long. Thus ke awa, the harbor, and ka 
awa, the plant azva. L. Gaussin says that ka is used before 
those words at the beginning of which a consonant (the Poly- 
nesian k guttural) has been dropped, and ke before the simple 
vowels a and 0. These two rules generally coincide. 

25. The following are the most common words commenc- 
ing with a, o and p that require the article ke before them. 

ke a, the jaw 

ke a'a, root, vein 

ke ao, light 

ke aupuni, kingdom 

ke ahi, fire. 

ke ahiahi, evening 

ke aho, breath 

ke aka, shadow 

ke akaakai, rushes 

ke akua, God 

ke ala, road 

ke ali'i, the chief 

ke alo, front 

ke aloha, love 
ke ama, outrigger 
ke ami, hinge 
ke aniani, glass 
ke ana, cave 
ke anaina, assembly 
ke ano, likeness 
ke anu, cold 
ke apo, ring, hoop 
ke awa, harbor 
ke awakea, noon 
ke ea, breath 
ke o, fork 

ke o'a, rafter 

ke oho, hair 

ke ola, life 

ke ola'i, earthquake 

ke olo, saw 

ke one, sand 

ke ope, bundle 

ke mele, song 

ke pa, plate 

ke pio, prisoner 

ke pihi. button 

ke po'i, cover 

ke po'o, head 

The 'O Emphatic. 

26. The " 'O emphatic," as it is generally called, ko in 
New Zealand, seems to be a kind of article. It serves to point 
out the subject emphatically. It is used only with the nomina- 
tive case, and chiefly before proper names and pronouns. It is 
the regular prefix to a proper name in the nominative case. 

27. It occurs with common nouns only when they are 
defined or particularized by the definite article, by an ad- 
jective pronoun or a noun in the possessive case, and when at 
the same time they begin the clause. It may be added that it 
occurs with such nouns only when in English they would be the 
subject of the verb "to be," in a clause affirming the identity of 
two terms, or when they stand in the nominative absolute. 

Examples of 'O Emphatic. 

"Holo aku la o Lono," Lono sailed away. "O oe no ke kana- 
ka," thou art the man. "O ko'u lio keia," this is my horse. "O 
Hawaii ka mokupuni nui," Hawaii is the large island. 



28. Adjectives have no distinction of Gender, Number or 

They are compared by subjoining adverbs to them. The ad- 
verbs a'e, and aku are used to form the comparative degree, 
and loa, "very," to form the superlative. The preposition i is 
sometimes used like "than" in English, and then means "in 
comparison with." Comparison is also often expressed by 
using the verb oi, to surpass. E. g., "Na mea nui aku i keia," 
things greater than this. "Oi aku keia mamua o kela," this 
surpasses, goes before that. "E oi aku ko oukou maikai i ko 
lakou," your beauty will surpass theirs. 


29. The Cardinal numbers are as follows : 

11 umikumamakahi 

12 umikumamalua 

20 iwakalua 

21 iwakaluakumamakahi 
30 kanakolu 
40 kanaha 

400 lau 

4,000 mano 

40,000 kini 

400,000 lehu 

[The following have been introduced by the American mis- 
sionaries] : 

50 kanalima 90 kanaiwa 

60 kanaono 100 haneri 

70 kanahiku 1,000 tausani 

80 kanawalu 1,000,000 miliona, &c. 

Formerly 100 would have been expressed thus, "elua kanaha 
me ka iwakalua." 


30. Instead of counting by pairs as in most of the south- 
ern groups, the Hawaiians counted by fours. A four taken 
collectively is called a kauna and formed the basis of their sys- 
tem. This probably arose from the custom of counting fish, 
coconuts, taro, &c, by taking a couple in each hand, or by 
tying them in bundles of four. 

The word kumi or 'tMftt is used in the other ^ialects only in 
counting fathoms. On the other hand anahulu, which is used 






















in Hawaiian only for a period of ten days, is the word for ten 
in all the other Malayo-Polynesian languages. Besides, they 
have for forty the specific numerals, iako, used in counting 
tapas, and canoes, and ka'au, used in counting fish, the South- 
ern tekau. 

31. In counting a is generally prefixed to the numerals, as 
akahi, alua, &c. At other times e is generally prefixed. But 
the Hawaiian dialect generally uses ho'o before kahi, as 
ho'okahi pua'a, one hog, &c. As Gaussin says, a contains the 
idea of succession, and of change, e, of completion, or of per- 
manent state. The higher numbers are used like collective 
nouns, and like them take the articles before them, as he umi, 
he kictnaha, &c. Compare the expressions a hundred, a score, 
&c, in English. The units are connected to the tens by the 
connective kumama, as has been seen above. But the higher 
numbers are connected by me followed by the article, as 
"ho'okahi haneri me ka iwakaluakumamahiku," =127. 


32. The ordinals are formed by prefixing the article ka or 
ke to the cardinal numbers, except "the first," which is''mua." 
"The third day" is "ke kolu o ka la," "The seventh year," "ka 
hiku o ka makahiki." Distributives are formed by prefixing 
pa, as pakahi, one by one, or one apiece, palua, two by two, or 
two apiece, &c. Sometimes koko'o is prefixed, to denote com- 
pany, or partnership, as koko'olima, five in company, koko'o- 
lua, a second, a partner or assistant. 


33. No Polynesian language had originally any word to 
express the idea of definite fraction, though they had an abun- 
dance of words to express the idea of a part. To supply this 
defect, the English missionaries introduced into Tahitian the 
words afa (half) and tuata (quarter). In a similar way the 
word hapa (half) has been introduced into the Hawaiian lan- 
guage, but has acquired the general specification of a part. 
By prefixing this hapa to the several numerals, names have 
been formed for all possible fractions, as "hapalua," a half, 
"hapaha," a fourth, &c. 


34. The personal pronouns are as follows : 

ist Person 2d Person 3D Person 

Singular Au or Owau Oe la or Oia 

Dual Maua, Kaua Oukou Laua 

Plural * Makou, Kakou Olua Lakou 




35. Ozvau is simply a more emphatic form for au, as oia is 
for ia. The dual was formed by compounding the root of the 
pronoun with "lua," two, and the plural in like manner by 
adding "kolu," three, to the root. Hence these plurals were 
originally trinals, as they are still in Vitian or Feejee, which 
has four numbers. The I's have been dropped in all cases ex- 
cept in "oho," but are still retained in the plural by the Tongan 
dialect, as mautolu, &c. None of the pronouns have any dis- 
tinction of gender. 

36. The forms maua and makou exclude while kaua and 
kakou include the person spoken to. This remarkable distinc- 
tion is found in all Polynesian languages, as well as in those of 
Micronesia, and even extends to the East Indian Archipelago. 
In the second person the Hawaiian has dropped initial k, using 
oe for koe, &c. 

37. In the singular number the Personal pronouns have a 
second, shorter set of forms, or pronominal affixes, used only 
after certain prepositions, (a, o, ka, ko, na, no, ia, and io), with 
which they unite to form part of the same word. These forms 
are in the first person 'u, in the second, u, in the third, na. 
This 'u in the first person is ku in the S. W. dialects of Poly- 

38. The Declension of these pronouns in the singular is 
as follows : 


with the Prepositi* 


1st Person. 2d Person. 3d Person. 
Au Oe Ia 
( A a'u au ana 

Less Common. 
a ia 

0/ i 

I Ka 


















ia oe 

fa ia 
i ona la 

By or Through Ma. 


maou{|f ei 

ma ona la 


With- 1 


mai o'u f aku 

me a'u * mai 
e au 


me oe 
e oe 

mai ona 

me ia 
e ia 



The form ia ia, him, is pronounced as one word, with the 
accent on the first syllable, like yaya. 

39. The duals of the personal pronouns often serve to 
connect words denoting persons. Thus, "Hoapili laua o Kala- 


nimoku." The dual laua includes them both. In such sen- 
tences, "0" follows the dual when both nouns are subjects of 
the same verb, as laua o in the preceding example. "E olelo 
pu maua me Manono" means, I will talk with Manono, "maua" 
by an apparent confusion of ideas, including the speaker and 

40. The Hawaiians generally avoid applying laua or lakou 
to inanimate objects. The same remark applies to ia ia. They 
use "ia mca" or some such phrase instead of aTTersonal pro- 

41. "Self" and "ozvn" are expressed by iho placed after 
the pronoun. Himself is "ia ia iho," and his own "kona iho." 

Examples of Pronouns. 

"Ka hana a'u," my work. "Aole o'u Ho," I have no horse. 
"Heaha kou manao no'u," what is your opinion of me. "Ua 
hoopunipuni mai olua ia'u." you two have lied to me. "Ma o'u 
la ua maluhia keia aina," through me this land was in peace. 
"Ua pepehi ia oia e au," he was killed by me. "He hale ko 
kaua,"you and I have a house. "Ua malama mai oe ia maua." 
you have taken care of us two. "Aloha oe a me na hanai au." 
love to thee and thy foster children. "He manao ko'u ia oe," I 
have a thought to you. "Ma 011 la e lanakila ai makou." 
through you we shall conquer. "Ua lawe ia ia mea mai ou aku 
la," that thing was taken away from you. "Malaila no ia," 
there he is. "E kokua oe ia ia," help thou him. "Hele mai la 
lakou io na la," they came to him. "Mai hoohiki ma ona la." 
do not swear by him. "Haliu aku ia mai ona aku," he turned 
away from him. "Uwe pu laua," they two wept together. "Ao 
aku la ia ia lakou," he taught them. "Ma o lakou la e hoouna 
ai oe," by them do thou send. "Mai o lakou aku ka leo kaua," 
from them was the voice of war. 


42. The Possessive pronouns are simply jhe personal pro- 
nouns preceded by the prepositions, a, o, ka, and ko, i. e., the 
first four forms in section 38. Besides these we find the pos- 
sessive, ku'u, my, which is used for both ka'u and ko'u; and ko, 
a contraction of kou, thy, which is used for either kau or kou 
with certain common words. Ku'u and ko seem more familiar, 
and less formal than the regular forms. The distinction, be- 
tween the a and the o forms must be observed. 

Examples of Possessives. 

"Kau mau keiki," thy children. "Ko makou hale," our house. 
"Ka oukou hana," your work. "Kana kauoha," his command. 


"Kona makua," his parent. "Ka'u palapala," my writing. 
"Kuu hoa," my comrade. "Ko'u lio," my horse. 


43. The Demonstrative pronouns are as follows : 
la, that, the most general of the demonstratives. It never ad- 
mits the preposition i before it, i. e., "i ia" is contracted 
into "ia." 

f These two are used in contrast or opposition. Kela 
Keia, this) generally precedes keia, as in the phrase "kela 
Kela, that^\ me keia," this and that, "kela mea keia mea," 

I everything. 

Neia. this, the present. It is often used of time, as "i neia la," 

Ua-nei, "I With these demonstratives the noun is inserted be- 
Ua-la, i tween the two parts of the pronoun, as "ua moku la," 
that ship. Compare the French, "ce livre ci," this book 
(here). They generally refer back to something just men- 
tioned. They are also used with proper names, in which 
case the emphatic is often expressed after ua, as "ka 
olelo ana a. ua Maui nei." 

Examples of Demonstrative Pronouns. 

E. g. "Ka wahahee o ia olelo," the falsehood of that speech. 
"E haalele ia hana." leave that work. "Heaha kela mea nui?" 
what is that great thing? "Ma keia pae aina," at these islands. 
"O Keawe ka inoa o ua kanaka la," Keawe is that man's name. 


44. The Interrogative pronouns are as follows : 
Wai. who? which? In the nominative case, Owai, it is used of 
individual things as well as persons, but after prepositions, 
only of persons. It is never used adjectively, i. e., to 
qualify a noun. 
Aha, what? It takes "he" before it in the nominative, as 
"heaha?" but ke after prepositions, as "no keaha?" for 
what. It always refers to inanimate things, not persons, 
and is never used adjectively with a noun. 
Ilea, which/ It is strictly an interrogative adjective, and 
always follows its noun, as "he kumu hea ia," what sort of 
a teacher is he? The compounds of 'hea" serve as inter- 
rogative adverbs. 


Examples of Interrogative Pronouns. 

"Owai kona inoa?" what is his name? "Nowai ka lio?" 
whose is the horse? "Me wai oe i hele ai?" with whom did 
you go? "Heaha i hana ai?" what hast thou done? "Ma 
ka hale hea?" in which house? 


45. Among Indefinite Pronouns may be reckoned : 

Hai, another, which is used only after prepositions, and never 
occurs in the nominative case. E. g., "ko hai waiwai," an- 
other's property. "Haawi oia ia hai," he gave to another. 

Wahi, some, a little. It was originally a noun, but is now used 
adjectively, as "wahi ai," some food, "wahi laau," some 
. timber, "ua wahi kanaka nei," this fellow, "kela wahi 
kanaka," that fellow. Here it has a depreciatory or dimi- 
nutive force. It never takes the article ka before it, but 
very often is preceded by he, and rarely by na. 

Kauwahi, some part, some. It is a compound of the preced- 
ing, and is always used in a partitive sense. It is some- 
times preceded by the definite article ke, as "ke kau-wahi o 
ka olelo a ke Akua," a little of the word of God. 

Kahi, one, a, a certain. It is the same as the numeral one, but 
has acquired a degree of indefiniteness, like the English a 
or an, which originally was the same as the numeral one. 
E. g., "Eia kahi hewa hou," here is a new sin. "Eia na inoa 
o kahi mau mea," here are the names of certain persons. 

Kekahi, a certain, some. The article ke, prefixed to kahi gives 
it greater individuality. E. g., "i kekahi wa," upon a certain 
time. When repeated it means "some others." Thus, "ua 
nui no kekahi bele, a ua uuku loa ho'i kekahi," i. e. some 
bells are large and others quite small. The phrase "kekahi 
i kekahi" is used in a reciprocal sense, and means "each 
other," "one another." E. g.,"E aloha aku oukou i kekahi 
i kekahi," love one another. "Kekahi placed after the sub- 
ject of a sentence means "also." "also another," as "owau 
kekahi," I also. "O oukou anei kekahi i makemake e hele 
aku?" do you too wish to go away? 

E, other, different. This is properly an adjective, but it may be 
well to mention it in this connection. Its original Poly- 
nesian form seems to have been kese, of which we find the 
variations kehe, ese, ke and e. By itself, it means" strange," 
"foreign," but when followed by the directives a'e or aku, 
it means "other." E. g., "he mea e," a strange thing. "Na 
mea e a'e." the other things. "All" is expressed by 
"a pau" following the noun or pronoun which it modifies. 




46. All the distinctions of tense, mode and voice are ex- 
pressed by separate particles, while number and person are re- 
garded as accidents of the subject and not of the verb. The 
tenses are not nearly as definite as in English. In fact the dis- 
tinctions of time, which in other languages are considered of so 
much importance, are but little regarded in Hawaiian, while 
the chief attention is paid to the accidents of place. The fol- 
lowing is 

A Synopsis of the Verb Hana in the Active Voice. 


Past 1st form, 

" 2nd form, 

ke hana nei au 
hana au 
i hana au 
ua hana au 
ua hana e au 
e hana au 
e hana oe 
e hana 

I work 
I worked 
I worked 
I have worked 
I had worked 
I shall work 
work thou 
to work 

FrnpeTfect 1 " I Partici P le > e hana ana working 

Past Participle 

i hana 

/ having worked or 
I who had worked. 

47. The following is the order in which the verb and its 
adjuncts are placed: 

1st. The tense signs, as i, ua, e, &c. 

2d. The verb itself. 

3rd. The qualifying adverb, as man, wale, ole, pu, &c. 

4th. The passive sign, ia. 

5th. The verbal directives, as aku, max, &c. 

6th. The locatives, nei or la, or the particles ana or ai. 

7th. The strengthening particle, no. 

8th. The subject. 

9th. The object or predicate noun. 

Of course the above mentioned elements are never all found 
together at once. Of the particles in the sixth place, nei. fo* 
ana and ai, if one is used, the others are excluded, except in a 
few cases where la is used after ana. E. g., "E hana mua ia 
aku ana no ke alanui." 

Remarks on the Tenses. 

48. The verb without any prefix has generally a past 
meaning. This is the regular form for the leading verb in past 
time, especially at the beginning of a sentence. In this case it 
is generally followed by la, e. g., "i mai la," he said ; "hoi mai la 


lakou," they returned ; "noho no oia ma Oahu," he lived at 
Oahu ; "alaila, knka iho la lakou," then they took counsel ; "ke 
hai aku nei au ia oe," I inform you ; "ke noi aku nei makou 
ia ia," we entreat him ; aole au e liana hou pela," I will not 
do so again. 


The prefix i is used in negative sentences after aole, and in 
all relative sentences in past time. It never begins an unquali- 
fied sentence. When it begins a statement, a qualifying clause 
follows, expressing a reason, purpose, time, &c. E. g., "I hele 
mai nei au e hai aku ia oe," I have come here to inform you ; 
"aole oia i ae mai," he did not consent; "i ka wa i noho ai o 
Kamehameha," at the time when Kamehameha lived. 


The prefix ua is never used in a negative clause beginning 
with aole, nor in what would be a relative clause in English. 
It has been questioned whether it is properly a tense sign. We 
think that it affirms the completion of an action or the resulting 
state, and hence corresponds most nearly to the English perfect 
with "have." It also differs from i in this, and it affirms abso- 
lutely, and without limitation, while i is limited or qualified in 
construction. The adverbs mai nei, "just now," after a verb 
preceded by ua, express most truly the distinction of the per- 
fect tense in English. 

The adverb e after the verb means "before," and so helps to 
form a sort of pluperfect. But "e hana e au" does not mean 
"I shall have worked," but "I shall previously work." 

E. g., "Ua hele mai na kanaka," the men have come ; "ua ike 
au i kou ano." I have known your character ; "ua hina iho nei 
ka hale," the house has just fallen; "ua lilo c ke aupuni ia ia." 
the kingdom has been transferred to him. 


Instead of "e," the regular prefix of the imperative "o" or 
"ou" is sometimes used, as a mild command. The particle "ua" 
seems to be used as an imperative sign before "oki," to cut off, 
as "ua oki pela," stop there. A prohibition is expressed by 
placing "mai" before the verb. 

E. g. "Ou hoi oukou," return ye ; "o hele oe," go thou. "Ua 
oki oe i ka olelo," stop your talk. "Mai hana hou oe pela," 
don't do so again. This must not be confounded' with the 
adverb, "mai," which means nearly, almost, E. g., "Mai make 
au," I was near dying; "mai haule ia," he came near falling. 


On the Particles Ana and No. 

49. The affix ana, which corresponds to the ending "ing," 
in English, denotes continuance, and may be present, past or 
future. Thus "e hana ana au," may mean "I am working," or 
"I was working," or "I will be working," according to the 
connection. Ana is affixed to the passive as well as to the 
active. Like "ing" in English, ana often forms a participial 
noun. But in this case ana always precedes the directives aku 
or mai. Compare "E holo mai ana," he is sailing hither, and 
"kona holo ana mai," his sailing hither. It may be separated 
from the verb by an adverb. 

The infinitive after hiki, and sometimes after pono, takes ke 
before it. instead of e. 

The particle no is intensive, and serves to emphasize an 
assertion. It is often found also with adjectives and nouns, 
where it helps to express the idea of the verb "to be." 

E. g., "I ko'u hele ana 'ku," in my going, i. e., while I am 
going. "E kukulu hale ana ia," he is house building . "E mahi 
ia ana ka ai," the food is being cultivated. "Oia ke kolu o kona 
holo ana mai," that was the third (time) of his sailing hither. 
Aole ona manao e hele," he had no intention to go. "He pono 
ia oe ke kokua mai." it is right for you to help. 

The Passive Voice. 

50. The Passive sign is ia affixed to the verb. The tenses 
of the passive voice are formed in the same way as those of the 
active. As, "hanaia iho la na mea a pau e ia," all things were 
made by him. Sometimes another letter is inserted between 
the verb and ia, as kaulia, the passive of kau, and auhulihia, 
from ouhuli, loohia, &c. A few words omit the i, as ikea, 
passive of ike, to know, and lohca. the passive of lohe, to hear. 

In the New Zealand dialect the common mode of expressing 
the imperative of a transitive verb is by its passive. Traces of 
this occur in Hawaiian. E. g.. "imiia ka oukou pono," seek 
your own advantage. Laieik-.rwai. p. 62. "Kahcaia ko kupuna- 
wahine," call your grandmother, id. p. 64. So olcloia, nohoia, 
in the same work. 

The Causative Form. 

51. By prefixing ho'o, sometimes ho, before a vowel, and 
sometimes ha'a to the verb, a causative verb is formed. (This 
ha'a is the older form, as we see from the forms whaka, faka, 
fa'a and ha'a of the other dialects.) Thus from a, to burn, we 
get hoa, to kindle, and from komo, to enter, ho'okomo. to cause 
to enter. &c. Any verb in the language may take this prefix. 
From like is formed hoolialike, to cause to be like, and from 
MS, to drink, hoohainu. to cause to drink, to give drink to. 


Verbal Directives, &.c. 

52. That which is denoted by a verb in Hawaiian, is gen- 
erally conceived of as having a motion or tendency in some 
direction, which is expressed by one of the following particles : 

Mm, hither, this way, towards the speaker. 
Aku, away, onwards, from the speaker. 
A'e, upwards, or sideways. 
Iho, down. 

In narration, iho means "thereupon," "immediately after," 
and generally "as a consequence." Aku and ae are also used of 
time, as "kela la aku," and "ia la ae," the next day, "ma keia 
hope aku," hereafter, &c. 

The particles nei or la were originally used to indicate local- 
ity, like "here" and "there," and are opposed to each other in 
meaning. Nei means present in place and time, here and now, 
while la denotes distance in place, but not necessarily in time. 
La unites with the "directives" so as to form one word with 
them in pronunciation, and after aku, iho and a'e, it shifts the 
accent to the last syllable, as ihola, akula, a'eh*. 

The Relative Particle Ai. 

53. Ai is a relative particle, and often supplies the want of 
a relative pronoun. It follows the verb, and refers back to a 
preceding noun, or to an adverb or adverbial phrase expressing 
time, place, cause or manner. The initial a, is often dropped 
after a verb ending with a, and after the passive sign ia, as 
hana'i, loaa'i, hunaia'i, &c. It is sometimes omitted when nei, 
ana or la takes its place. It must be used: 

First, in relative clauses in which the relative would be the 
object of the verb in English, as "the things which he saw," na 
mea ana i ike ai. 

Second, in relative clauses in which the relative refers to a 
thing, which is the means, cause or instrument by which any 
thing is or is done, as "Eia ka mea i make ai na kanaka," here 
is the cause from which the people died. 

Third, in relative clauses, where in English the relative 
adverbs when or where would be used, referring to a time or 
place in which any thing is or is done, as "I ka la a makou i 
hiki mai ai," on the day when we arrived. 

Fourth, when an adverb or adverbial phrase expressing time, 
place, cause or manner, stands for emphasis at the beginning of 
the sentence. E. g., "Malaila oia i ike ai," there (is the place) 
in which he saw. For further explanations see Part II. 



54. It does not enter into our plan to give a complete 
account of the adverbs in the language. 

Any adjective or noun may be used as an adverb by being 
placed immediately after the verb. 

The interrogative adverbs are all compounds of hea, as 
auhca and mahca, where? pehea, how? nohea, whence? ihea, 
whither? ahca and inah-ea, when? &c. Ahea refers to future 
and inahea to past time. 

Questions which require "yes" or "no" for an answer, are 
asked by placing anei after the leading word in the sentence. 

The Hawaiian has two negative adverbs, aole and ole. The 
former begins a sentence and is the general negative ; the latter 
is a suffix, and may be added to almost any noun, adjective or 
verb in the language, like un and less in English. E. g., "hila- 
hila ole," shameless; "me ka kapa ole," without clothes; "me 
ke noi ole mamua," without asking beforehand. 

The following are the most common simple adverbs, which 
have not been mentioned already: 

Ae, yes. 

Paha, perhaps. Aneane, almost. 

Ho'i, also, certainly. Mai, nearly. 

Loa, very. Pinepine, often. 

Iki, a little. Man, continually, ever. 

Pe. as. Oiai, and Oi, while. 

Peia, thus. Hou, again. 

Penei, in this way. Ano, now. 

Pela, in that way. Apopo, tomorrow. 

Wale, merely, just so. Inehinei, yesterday. 

Wale no, only. Aia, there. 

Pu, together. Eia, here. 

Kainoa. I supposed, expressing surprise, as "Kainoa he oiaio, 
aole ka !" I thought it was true, but it is not. 


55. A large class of words, expressing the relations of 
place, and which are really nouns with the article omitted, 
when preceded by either of the simple prepositions, serve as 
adverbs of place or time. When at the same time they are 
followed by a preposition, generally 0, they serve as "com- 
pound prepositions." 


E. g., "Ma (ka) loko," within, inside. 

"Ma loko o ka hale," inside of the house. 
"Ma waho," outside. 
"Mawaho o ka hale," outside of the house. 

The following is a list of the principal words of this class : 

'O, yonder, from which are formed ma'o, i'o, &c. 

Uka, inland. Mua, before. 

Hope, after, behind. Muli, behind, after. 

Kai, sea. Kahi. where. 

Lalo, below. Waena, between. 

Loko, inside. Waho, outside. 

Luna, above. Laila, there. 

Nei, here, which is anei after i, ma, or mai, as ia nei, maanci. 

E. g., Mamua holo aku kekahi poe ilaila, formerly certain 
people sailed thither. 

Nolaila, ua maopopo, therefore it is evident. 

Noloko mai o ka moana, out of the ocean. 

Haule ia iloko o ka lua, he fell into the pit. 

Mamua aku nei, before this time. 

Mahope o kona make ana, after his death. 

Aole paha aina maanei, there was perhaps no land here. 

Pii aku la lakou iluna, they ascended upward. 

Mailalo mai, from below. 

Mawaena o na mauna, among the mountains. 

Aole au e hele iuka, I will not go inland. 

Ma'o aku o ka hale, beyond the house. 

E iho i kai, descend to the sea. 

Ma kahi e ku ai na moku, at the place where ships anchor. 


56. These are few and simple. The principal conjunctions 
are as follows : 

A, and. When it connects nouns, it always takes the preposi- 
tion me after it, as a me. 

A, long, also means until, as far as, when, and when, before 

Aka, but, a strong adversative. 

I, that, in order that, denoting purpose. 

Ina, if, sometimes repeated again in the conclusion of a con- 
ditional sentence, like "then." 

I, if, a shorter form of ina. 

I ole e, if not, or in order that not. 

O, lest. 

Ho'i, also. 


Ke, provided that, used with a present or future meaning. 
Nae, however, yet. 
No ka mea, because. 

For Examples See Part II. 


57. Under this head may be mentioned the following: 

E! O, used as a vocative sign, and in calling. 

Ea ! to call attention, as Hear ! 

Auwe ! Alas ! especially used in wailing. 

Ka ! and Kahaha used to express surprise or disappointment. 

Kahuhu ! expressing strong disapproval. 

Ina ! O that, would that, and also Go to ! Come on ! 

Hele pela! Begone! 


58. Most of the roots in Hawaiian as well as in the other 
Malayo-Polynesian languages are dissyllabic. A great many 
words are formed from others by doubling either the first or 
second or both syllables of the root. This reduplication, which 
is common to nouns, adjectives and verbs, expresses the idea of 
plurality, intensity or repetition. 

Other derivative words are formed by prefixing some forma- 
tive syllable, as pa, ka, ha, na, ma, and ki, po, pu, &c. For the 
meaning of these formative syllables see Andrews' Dictionary. 
The verbal noun in ana has been mentioned above in section 
49. It expresses the action signified by the verb. Other verbal 
nouns are formed by suffixing na, which more often refers to 
the result or the means of the action, than to the action itself. 
E. g., hakina, a broken piece, a fraction, from haki, to break; 
mokuna, a dividing line, from moku, to be broken or cut; 
haaivina, a gift, from haawi, to give,; huina, an angle, a junc- 
tion, from hui, to unite, &c. Some of these forms are peculiar, 
as komohana, the west, from komo, to enter, or sink into, i. e. 
the goin? down of ihe sun ; and kulana, a place where many 
things stand together, as a village, &c, from ku, to stand. 


An Outline of Hawaiian Syntax. 


i. Syntax, is defined to be that branch of grammar which 
treats of the construction of sentences. The Syntax, then, of a 
language like the Hawaiian, which has no inflections whatever, 
must chiefly relate to the arrangement of its words. It will not 
follow the methods of European grammars, nor will it have 
any use for the terms "agreement" or "government." 

In such a language the structure of sentences must neces- 
sarily be loose rather than compact. In a highly cultivated lan- 
guage, such as the Greek, each period forms a symmetrical 
whole, with its beginning, middle and end, in which the rela- 
tions of all the subordinate parts to the whole, and to each 
other, are clearly indicated, so that the words form a compact 
whole as well as the thought they express. 

But a language which has not until lately been reduced to 
writing, or employed in carrying on consecutive trains of 
thought, must necessarily be wanting in means to express the 
connection and mutual dependence of its ideas. It will delight 
in short sentences, and will prefer to make its clauses coordi- 
nate rather than subordinate, and to keep them distinct rather 
than to incorporate them into the sentence as essential parts of 
it. Hence our principal task will be the analysis of simple 

2. Two ideas which pervade the language, and have great 
influence on its syntax, are (i) the distinction between living 
and inanimate things, and (2) that between transitive verbs on 
the one hand ; and intransitive or passive ones on the other. 
Add to this the extensive use of the Possessive construction, 
so characteristic of all the Polynesian languages. 

3. In this as well as its cognate languages, most words 
may he used either as nouns, adjectives, verbs or adverbs, their 
meaning being indicated by their position in the sentence, and 
by the accompanying particles. 


4. The Hawaiian language has remarkable flexibility. 
Any one of its sentences may be cast in quite a variety of 
forms, all conveying different shades of meaning. The general 
principle of arrangement is that the emphatic word is to be 
placed at or near the beginning of the sentence. E. g., 

Ke haawi aku nei au i keia ia oe I give this to you. 
Owau ke haawi aku nei i keia ia oe / give this to you. 
O keia ka'u e haawi aku nei ia oe I give this to you. 
O oe ka mea a'u e haawi aku nei i keia I give this to you. 
Na'u keia e haawi aku nei ia oe / give this to you. 


5. The following general principles are taken for granted : 

Every proposition consists of two essential elements, the sub- 
ject and the predicate. There are three subordinate elements, 
the object, the adjective element, and the adverbial element. 
Each of these five elements may consist of a single word, a 
phrase or a clause. 


6. The Subject must follozv its Predicate. 

This is the general rule. Exceptions to it, whether real or 
apparent; will be noticed below. 


1. Ua hele mai nei au I have come here. 

2. Ke uwe nei ke keiki The child cries. 

3. He aihue ia He is a thief. 

7. The name of a Person, when in the nominative case, 
is regularly preceded by the "O emphatic." 


1. He alii mana o Kamehameha Kamehameha was a pow- 

erful chief. 

2. Make o Kahekili ma Oahu Kahekili died on Oahu. 

3. Holo aku la o Lono Captain Cook sailed aWay. 


8. In negative sentences, when the subject is a Pronoun, 
and somethimes when it is a proper name, it stands immediate- 
ly after "aole," and before the predicate. If this latter is a 
verb or adjective, it generally takes the prefix "i" before it, or 
"e" if the time is future. 



i. Aole au e hana hou i kau hana I will not do your work 

2. Aole au i pupule I am not crazy. 

3. Aole ia he mea e hilahila ai That is not a thing to be 

ashamed of. 


9. Whenever an adverb or adverbial phrase, expressing 
time, place, cause or manner, stands for emphasis at the be- 
ginning of the sentence, the subject, if it be a Pronoun, pre- 
cedes the verb. In sentences of this kind the verb is generally 
followed by the relative particle ai, of which more hereafter. 


1. Majaila kaua e noho ai It is there that we will dwell. 

2. Pela no wau e hiki aku ai That is the way that I will 

Compare "Mahea oe e hele ai?" Where are you going? 
and "E hele ana oe mahea?" 

Note : We have received the following acute suggestions 
from an accomplished Hawaiian scholar. "I imagine," says he, 
"that sections 8th and 9th are not exceptions to sections 6th. 
The 'aole,' and the adverb or adverbial phrase are the true 
predicates, and the verb following with its adjuncts, is an inh~- 
nitive used adverbially, i. e., showing how far or in tvhat 
respect the negation, or the circumstances of time, cause, &c., 
are predicated of the subject." 


10. The construction called nominative absolute in Euro- 
pean grammars, is very common in Hawaiian. The subject in 
this construction is always preceded by the "O emphatic," and 
is represented by a pronoun after the predicate. This pronoun, 
"ia," is sometimes omitted, leaving the sentence incomplete. 
The construction just described is to be used whenever a sen- 
tence would begin with "as to" or "in respect to," &c. ; in 
English; or when the subject is to be rendered prominent or 
emphatic; or when the subject is a phrase of some length. 


1. O ka honua nei, he mea poepoe no ia The earth here, it 
is a round thing. 


2. O kona ma'i ana, o kona make no ia Her sickness, that 

was (the cause of) her death. 

3. O ka pono no ia, o ka noho na'auao That is the right 

(thing), the living wisely. 



11. Nouns in apposition follow the nouns which they 
limit. (1) If the leading noun is preceded by a preposition, 
this preposition is generally repeated before the noun in appo- 
sition. (2) If, however, the noun in apposition be a Proper 
Name, it may have either the "O emphatic" or the repeated 
preposition before it. 


1. I ke kau ia Kalaniopuu i ke alii nui In the time of 

Kalaniopuu, the great chief. 

2. Kena ae la oia i kona kaikaina, o Haiao He sent his 

younger brother, Haiao. 


12. An Attributive Adjective follows its Noun. An ad- 
jective is called an attributive, when the quality, which it ex- 
presses, is assumed or taken for granted, and not predicated of 
the subject. It is then a mere accessory* or modifier of the 
noun to which it belongs. 

One noun may have two or more adjectives qualifying it. 


1. Ka palapala hemolele The Holy Scriptures. 

2. He poe liilii, nawaliwali, naaupo makou We are a small, 

weak, ignorant company. 

13. Certain limiting adjectives, including the articles, pos- 
sessive, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns, and the plural 
signs, precede their nouns. The plural signs are or were origi- 
nally nouns qualified by the following word, as 

Ka poe bipi the herd (of) cattle. 

Keia mau hale these houses. 

Ko'u lio my horse. 


.14. Numerals generally precede their nouns. This is ex- 
plained by the fact that they are really collective nouns like "a 


myriad,'' "a decade," &c. But if they are defined by an article, 
or adjective pronoun, or noun preceded by the possessive ko or 
ka, then the numeral follows. 


Compare "Elua kumu," two teachers and 
"Na haole elua," the two foreigners, 
"Ehiku hale kula," seven school houses, and 
"He mau hale kula eha," four school houses. 

Remark. Ordinal numbers are generally followed by the 
preposition o between them and the nouns they qualify. 
E. g. I. I ke kolu o ka makahiki In the third year; lit., in 
the third of the year. 

2. Ka mua o ka hale the first house. 

3. Ka umi o ka hora the tenth hour. 

15. The first nine numbers take the prefix a or e, while 
the round numbers from ten upwards, inclusive, take the article 
"he" or a numeral before them. See Part I, Section 31. 


"He umi," "he kanaha," "elua haneri." 
Remark. "Nui," when it means "many" takes "he" before 
it, as if it were a collective noun, like the higher numerals. 


1. Hele mai na kanaka, he nui wale there came a great 

many men. 

2. But, "hele mai na kanaka nui loa" would mean "there 

came very forge men. 


16. Any adjective may be used as an abstract noun by 
prefixing the definite article. On the other hand, any noun 
immediately following another has the force of an adjective. 


1. "Pono" means right, just, "ka pono," justice, &c. 

2. He hana kamalii no ia, that is childish work. 
Remark. In this way we explain the use of "mea" with a 

following noun to denote ozvner or possessor. Thus '"mea 
aina" means owner of land. Here "aina" is an adjective 
qualifying "mea," person. 




17. This subject properly belongs to another branch of 
grammar. The indefinite article "he" is used chiefly with the 
predicate of a sentence. It is never used with the object of a 
preposition. When a noun used in an indefinite sense is the 
object of a verb, the article is commonly omitted. This is 
especially the case after Mo and other verbs signifying to 
change, appoint, constitute, &c, and before "mea" in the sense 
of "cause" or "means" after "i" denoting purpose. Often, 
when "some" or "a certain" might be substituted for "a," 
"kekahi" takes its place. 


1. Nonoi aku la ia i la'au He asked for medicine. 

2. Haawi o Kamehameha i a'ahu hulu manu Kamehameha 

gave a robe of birds' feathers. 

3. E lilo i koa to become a soldier. 

4. Hoonoho oia i kekahi keiki i mea e hooino mai ia makou 

'He appointed a boy as a person to revile us. 


18. The definite articles are generally used in the same 
manner as in English. They are also used in address, as "E ka 
Lani e" May it please your Majesty! "Ka" is also used 
before abstract and verbal nouns, where "the" would not be 
used in English as "ka maika'i," goodness, &c. It is often used 
with a noun understood, which is generally "mea," "poe" or 


1. Owau ka (mea) i olelo aku ia Boki I am the (person 

who) said to Boki. 

2. O lakou ka (poe) i ike They were the (persons who) 



.19. The definite article is omitted before the words kinohi 
and kahakai; as well as before luna, lalo, and other words of 
that class, which are combined with simple prepositions to form 
compound prepositions and adverbs. In the following example 
the word kahi, is undoubtedly a contraction of ka wahi. This 
supposition will account for its use as an adverb of place. The 
singular article ka is often used in a collective sense when the 
plural would be employed in English. 



i. I kinohi In the beginning. 

2. Ma kahakai On the sea shore. 

3. Ma luna o ka hale Upon the house. 

4. Ma kahi a makou i hele ai In the place where we went. 

5. Haawi mai ka haole ia lakou i ka hao The foreigners 

gave them iron. 



20. In European languages, when the predicate is a noun 
or adjective, it is connected to the subject by the copula or 
verb "to be." In Hawaiian this verb is expressed by the 
arrangement of the words, aided in some cases by certain 
affirmative particles which, are also used with other verbs. 

21. In order to explain the structure of Hawaiian sen- 
tences we must borrow from the science of Logic the distinc- 
tion between common or general terms, and singular or in- 
dividual terms. "The former can be affirmed of each of an 
indefinite number of things, the latter only of a single thing 
or collection of things." John Stuart Mill. 

A common noun may be a singular term, when defined or 
particularized by the accompanying words. Thus "the present 
king of England" and "this riyer" are individual or singular 

22. Case i. The simplest form of a preposition is that 
which affirms the existence of something. Here the substantive 
verb in European languages is both copula and predicate. In 
English the expletive "there" is prefixed to the verb, when as 
is generally the case, it is followed by a "general term." In 
common with most other languages Hawaiian has no word to 
express the abstract idea of existence. Sometimes the words 
"to live" or "to dwell' are substituted for it. When the sub- 
ject is a common noun, and "there would be prefixed in 
English, the indefinite article "he," or a numeral precedes the 
in ain in Hawaiian. Often the affirmative particle "no" is added. 
which is also subjoined to verbs to strengthen an assertion. 


1. He wai no There is water. 

2. He lua wai ma ua wahi la There was a well in that 


3. Elua wahi e noho ai ke alii There are two places for the 

king to dwell in. 
23, Case 2. When the predicate is indefinite, i. e., a "gen- 


eral term," or when the subject is affirmed to belong to a 
class, then the predicate precedes with he before it, according 
to Section 6. 


i. He kaula o Mose Moses was a prophet. 

2. He aihue ke kanaka The man is a thief. 

3. He ali'i mana o Kamehameha Kamehameha was a pow- 

erful chief. 

4. He poe anaana lakou nei They are sorcerers. 

24. Case 3. Another kind of preposition is that which 
affirms the identity of two objects or collections of objects. 
From the nature of the case, the subject and predicate must 
both be individual or "singular terms," i. e., they must either 
be pronouns, proper names, or common nouns defined by some 
limiting words. 

In all these cases the sentence begins with the "O emphatic." 
A. When the predicate is a common noun, thus rendered defi- 
nite, the subject generally precedes the predicate, with the 
"O emphatic" prefixd to it. 


1. Owau no kou ali'i I am your chief. 

2. O lakou ka poe i kohoia They are the persons elected. 

3. Oia ka'u pule i ko'u wa pilikia That was my prayer in 

my season of distress. 

4. O ka make ka mea e maka'u ai Death is the thing to 

be afraid of. 

5. O Hawaii ka mokupuni nui Hawaii is the largest island. 

6. O oe no ka'u i kii mai nei You are the person I have 
1 come here for. 

7. O olua ke hele, a wau ke noho You two are to go, I am 

to stay. 
Exception. In certain cases when the predicate is emphatic 
and especially when the subject is a pronoun of the third per : 
son, the predicate precedes with the "O emphatic" before it. 

Compare 1. Oia no ka hewa This (particular thing) was 
wrong, and 

2. O ka hewa no ia That was the wrong (of it). 

3. O ke kaua iho la no ia War was the immediate result. 

4. O ka pau aku la ia o ko lakou kamailio ana That was 

the end of their conversation. 

5. O ka mana'o o ke ali'i This was the thought of the 


6. O ka'u make kamalii no keia This is my dying in youth, 

i. e., I am about to die in my youth. 


7. O ka hele keia o kakou? Is this our going, i. e., Shall 

we go now 

B. 'The simplest affirmation of identity is in answering the 
question, "Who is it?" as "it is I," "it is John," &c. In Ha- 
waiian the "O emphatic" is always prefixed to the predicate in 
such sentences, and "no" often follows it. 


1. Owau no It is I. 

2. O Ioane no It is John. 

C. When the predicate is a Proper Name it generally pre- 
cedes the subject, with the "O emphatic" before it. 


1. O Umi oe thou art Umi. 

2. O Mala kona inoa His name is Mala. 

3. O I ka inoa o keia kanaka This man's name is I. 

25. Case 4. Sometimes that which forms the predicate in 
Hawaiian is an adverb or adverbial phrase, which specifies the 
mode or place of existence. In such propositions the subject is 
(1) in most cases a definite or "singular term," and follows 
the adverbial expression. When on the other hand, (2) the 
subject is indefinite, the expletive "there" is prefixed in Eng- 
lish, and in Hawaiian the subject generally precedes the adver- 
bial expression, as in case I. 


1. Pela ma Nu'uhiwa So it is at Nukuhiwa. 

2. Eia ka mea maika'i Here is the good thing; i. e., the 

best thing. 

3. Aia no Amerika, ma ka hikina Yonder is America on 

the east. 

4. Malaila no ia There he is. 

5. He lunakanawai ma kekahi kulanakauhale There was a 

judge in a certain city. 

6. He moku koonei There is a ship here. 

7. He aihue maloko o ka hale There is a thief in the house. 


26. Case 5. When the predicate is an Adjective, it is 
known to be a predicate and not an attributive, by its position 
before the noun, according to Section 5. 

(1.) It often takes he before it, in which case it seems to 
be construed as a noun, or "mea" may be supplied after he. 


(2.) In many cases it takes "ua" before it, in which case it 
seems to be construed as a verb. 

(3.) Sometimes, again, it stands abruptly at the beginning 
of the sentence without any prefix. 


He poepoe ka honua The earth is round. 

He mea poepoe ka honua The earth is a round thing; 

i. e., a globe. 
Ua nui na moku i ili Many were the ships stranded. 
He nui ka kanaka i make Many were the people who 

died. See section 15, Remark. 
Nani ka naaupo ! What folly ! 
Ua huhu ia He is angry. 


27. When the predicate is a verb, it precedes its subject 
according to the general rule, except in the two cases men- 
tioned in sections 7 and 8. The following is the order in which 
the verb and its adjuncts are placed. 

The tense signs, as /, ua, e, &c. 

The verb itself. 

The qualifying adverb, as mua, wale, ole, &c. 

The passive sign ia. 

The directives, as aku, mai, &c. 

The locatives, nei, or la, or the particles ana or ax. 

The strengthening particle no. 

The subject. 

The object or predicate-noun. 

Of course the above mentioned elements are never all found 
together at once. Of the four particles in the 6th place, viz., 
nei, la, ana and ai, if one is used, the others are excluded, 
except in a few cases where la is expressed after ana. The 
subject is sometimes omitted in rapid or excited speaking. 


1. E hana mua ia aku ana no ke alanui. 

2. Malaila i malama malu ia aku ai o Laei-eikawai. 


28. Any verb may be used as a noun by simply prefixing 
to it the article or other definitive. 



i. Kaumaha oia i ka lawe ukana He was tired of carrying 

2. Me ka noi ole mamua Without asking beforehand. 

3. E'e iho la oia me kona hoouna ole ia She went on 

board without having been sent. 

4. Loaa ia Noa ke alohaia mai imua o Iehova Noah found 

grace before Jehovah. 

29. More frequently the verb, when used as a noun, takes 
after it the particle ana, which denotes continuance. This form 
is equivalent to the participial noun in ing in English, but is 
used much more extensively. Observe that in this case ana 
precedes the directives, instead of following them as it does 
with the verb or participle. 


Compare 1. "E holo mai ana ia" "He is sailing hither," 
and "Kona holo ana mai" His sailing hither. 

2. Pela ko ka makai hai ana mai ia'u Thus was the con- 
stable's telling me, i. e., "So the constable told me." 


30. Any verb may be used as an adjective, according to 
the principle stated in section 3. E. g., "Aloha," as a verb, 
means "to love," as a noun "love," as an adjective "loving," or 
"affectionate." When the idea of time is superadded, the ver- 
bal adjective may be called a Participle. The two forms gen- 
erally used as participles, are: 

1. The form with i prefixed to it, called the past participle, 

2. The form with e prefixed and ana or sometimes nei or la 
affixed, which we call the present or more properly the imper- 
fect participle. 

The form with ua prefixed, and that with ke prefixed and nei 
or la affixed, are occasionally used as participles. Like other 
adjectives, they always jollow their nouns. As will be seen 
hereafter, they very often supply the place of a relative clause. 


1. O kekahi kanaka c noho ana ma Olualu A certain man 

living at Olualu. 

2. Ma ka aina hhaawUa nona On the land given to him. 

3. Ka poe i haule The persons fallen, or* who fell. 

31. The nouns "mea," and "poe" are very often omitted 
after the definite article before the past participle. The words 


ka i, like the Tahitian tei have often been mistaken for a rela- 
tive pronoun, and are often written together as one word. 


i. Owau ka (mea) i olelo aku ia Boki I am the (person) 
who said to Boki. 

2. Oia ka i hoike mai ia ia He is the (person) who de- 

clared him. 

3. O na kauwa ka (poe) i ike The servants were the (per- 

sons) who knew. 

Note. This construction resembles the definite participle 
in Greek, and the "relative participle" in Tamil. 

32. Another class of sentences, instead of ka i, have ke 
before the verb, which might be considered a verbal noun 
denoting the agent or doer. This ke is perhaps a contraction 
of ka e. The difference between it and ka i seems to be that k& 
i is used in a past, and ke generally in a present or future sense. 


1. O ka mea malama i ka oiaio, oia ke hele mai i ka mala- 

malama He who keeps the truth, he it is that comes 
to the light. 

2. O olua ke hele, owau ke noho You two are the ones to 

go, I to stay. 

3. O ko makou hale ke hiolo It is our house that falls. 


33. The infinitive may be the Subject of a clause, especial- 
ly when the predicate is the verb hiki, in the sense of "can," 
"pono" or some other adjective, or a noun or pronoun, pre- 
ceded by the preposition na. After "hiki," and often after 
"pono," it takes ke and not e before it. It may well be ques- 
tioned, however, whether this form is a real infinitive. 


1. He pono i na kamalii a pau e makaala It is right for all 

children to beware. 

2. Aole pono ke haceim i ka nana ia hai It is not right to 

give the work to another. 

3. Na Hoapili e kukulu i hale pule, &c. It is for Hoapili 

(i. e., Hoapili's duty) to build a meeting house. 

4. Ua hiki i keia kamalii ke heluhelu This child can read, 

literally "It has come to this child to read." 

N. B. This is the regular way of expressing "can" in Ha- 


34. The infinitive is often the Object of a verb, especially 
of such as denote some action or state of mind, and those 
of asking, commanding or teaching. 


1. Paipai na kumu ia lakou e ku paa The teachers urged 

them to stand fast. 

2. Ao aku la kela ia lakou e pai palapala That person 

taught them to print books. 

3. Makemake no wau e hele I wished to go. 


35. The object of the verb is preceded by the preposition 
i or ia, which serves as an objective sign. In Hebrew we find 
"eth" used in a similar manner before a definite object, and so 
the preposition a in Spanish is used before the object, when it 
denotes an animated being. 

Some verbs govern two objects, one direct and the other in- 
direct, as 

1. E haawi mai oe i ke kala ia'u Give thou the money to 


2. E ao aku ia lakou i ka heluhelu Teach them to read. 
36. The objective sign "i" is always omitted before "ia," 

"that," and sometimes before nouns, especially after mai or at 
or a verb ending in 1. 


1. E holo e ike ia moku haole Go and see that foreign ship. 

2. E lawe mai oe ia mau bipi He will bring those cattle. 
.37. Participles and participial nouns take the same con- 
struction after them as verbs. 


1. I ko'u ike ana i ka lakou hana On my seeing their work. 

2. Ka haawi ana mai ke kanawai The giving of the law. 

3. Nui wale kou kokua ana ia makou Great was your 

assistance to us. 


38. A proper name in the predicate after "kapa," to name 
or call, always takes the "O emphatic" before it. A common 
noun in the same situation is generally preceded by "he," even 
when it would have the definite article before it in English. 

1. Ua kapaia kona inoa o Puhi His name was called Puhi. 


2. Kapa aku la oia i kona inoa o Umi He called his name 


3. Aole an e kapa aku ia oukou he poe kauwa I will not 

call you servants. 

39. After verbs signifying to become, to change, to choose, 
to appoint or constitute, the predicate-noun commonly takes 
the preposition i, "into," before it, and drops the article. This 
i, is the same word as the conjunction "i" used to express pur- 
pose, the hei or kei of the Southern groups. This is especially 
frequent in the phrase i mea, &c. 


1. E lilo ia i alanui maikai, ke hanaia It will become a 

good road, if it be worked. 

2. E hoolilo au ia oe i kaula I will make you a prophet. 

3. Ua koho au ia Kahale i luna kanawai I have chosen 

Kahale as judge. 


40. As has been stated in section 27, the simple adverbs 
are placed immediately after the verb or other word which they 
qualify. Accordingly they always come between the verb itself 
and ana or the passive sign ia. Any adjective may thus be used 
as an adverb. The compound adverbs, mentioned in Part I, 
Section 55, generally stand at the beginning or end of the 
clause. They are really nouns preceded by a preposition, with 
the article omitted. 


1. E uku maikai ia ka mea nana ka waiwai He shall be 

well rewarded who owns the property. 

2. E kukulu hale ana ai He is house-building. 

3. Ua 00 ke kurina i kanu lalani ia The corn planted in 

rows is ripe. 

4. Ma mua holo aku kekahi poe ma laila Formerly certain 

persons sailed there. 

5. Aole ia i hele aku iwaho He did not go out. 


41. Prepositions precede the nouns to which they relate, as 
in English. When two nouns are in apposition, the preposition 
is generally repeated before the latter noun as was stated in 
Section II. When two nouns are connected by a me, "and," a 
preposition which relates to both nouns, it is expressed only be- 
fore the first. The preposition is sometimes repeated, however, 
after the conjunction a. Prepositions are frequently separated 


from the following nouns by the article or other limiting adjec- 
tives mentioned in Section 3. What are called compound prep- 
ositions are really nouns, preceded by a preposition, with the 
article omitted, and followed generally by o, but sometimes by i. 
For the distinction between a and o, &c, see Part I, Section 15. 


1. Me ka moi, me ka mea kiekie With the king, the ex- 

alted personage. 

2. E kuai i ka waina a me ka waiu Buy wine and milk. 

3. Kau a'e la maua ma luna o na lio We two mounted on 

the horses. 

4. Pii a'e la oia iluna, i ka la'au He climbed up into the 



42. After a noun preceded by ko or ka, the limited noun 
is often omitted. Thus ko before the name of a country 
denotes the inhabitants of that country, in which case "poe" 
is understood. 


1. Ko ke ao nei The (people) of this world. 

2. Ko Hawaii nei The (people) of Hawaii. 

3. Ka ke Akua (olelo) God's word. 

4. Ka Iseraela (mau keiki) The children of Israel. 


43. The possessive construction is far more extensively 
used in Hawaiian, than in most other languages, and helps to 
supply the want of a relative pronoun. The thing possessed, in 
Hawaiian, is very often a verbal noun or infinitive. 


1. Aole o'u lohe i kona ano I have not heard about his 


2. Aole o'u ike i ka lawaia I don't know how to fish. 

3. He huhu kona He is angry; lit., "An anger is his." 


44. The verb "to have" is expressed by the prepositions a 
or 0, ka or ko, before the name of the possessor in the predi- 
cate. "I have a book" would be expressed thus: "A book is 

Case i. In affirmative sentences it is expressed by the 
prepositions ka <>r ko before the name of the possessor, fol- 
ng the thing possessed. 

42 hawaiian grammar. 


i. He mana'o ko'u I have a thought. 

2. He palapala kau You have a book. 

3. He kunu anei kou Have you a cold? 

4. He aina kona He has a land. 

Case 2. In negative prepositions it is expressed by the 
prepositions o or a Tand the word denoting the possessor, when 
a pronoun, precedes the thing possessed. 


1. Aole ana buke He has no book. 

2. Aole a'u palapala I have no book. 

3. Aole anei ou wahi barena? Have you not a little bread? 

Note. To get, receive or find, is expressed by "loaa," used 
as a passive or neuter verb. E. g., "ua loaa mai ia'u ka pala- 
pala," I have received the letter. 


45. The preposition na is often placed before the noun 
denoting the agent, when an active verb or clause is the sub- 
ject, to express duty or agency emphatically. 

Thus, "Nanz no e hoakaka" It is for him to explain. It is 
often used thus at the beginning of a sentence to point out the 
subject more emphatically, than the other construction in which 
the subject is expressed after the verb. E. g., "Nana i hana ka 
lani." "He it was that made the heavens ;" literally. "It was his 
to have made the heavens." In this example Nana is the predi- 
cate, and the clause "i hana ka lani" is the subject. The pro- 
noun Nana may refer to a plural as well as to a singular 

46. When the object of the following clause is a pronoun, 
it generally precedes the verb, without the objective sign, i*. 
(In this case the pronoun seems to be construed as the subject, 
and the following verb to be subjoined adverbially to define 
the mode or extent.) 

E. g., 1. "Na ke aupuni oukou e uku mai" It is for the 
government to reward you literally, "you are for 
the government to reward. 

2. Na'u o ia e hoouna mai I will send him literally, "He 

is for me to send." 

3. O ke Akua nana makou e kiai nei God who watches 

over us, literally, "Whose we are to watch over." 
This last important use of nana as a relative pronoun will be 
explained more fully in Sec. 54. 



47. These are of two kinds : 

1. Direct interrogative sentences, which require yes or no 
for an answer. Such questions are asked in Hawaiian by put- 
ting anei after the leading word in the sentence. Affirmative 
questions which expect the answer "yes" begin with Aole anei. 


1. He moku anei keia? Is this a ship? 

2. Aole anei he Akua kou? Have you not a God? 

3. Ua holo anei ia? Has he sailed? 

4. Ua puhi anei oia i ka pu? Has he blown the horn? 

48. 2. Indirect interrogative sentences, which require a 
sentence for their answer, and which are asked by interrogative 
words. These interrogative words are of three kinds : 

1. Interrogative pronouns, as wai or aha. 

2. Interrogative adjectives, as hea or ehia, and 

3. Interrogative adverbs, as ahea, pehea, auhea, &c, which 

are compounds of hea. 
These interrogates generally stand at the beginning or end 
of a sentence, and very rarely in the middle. 


1. Owai ka mea aina maanei? Who is the owner of land 


2. Ua lilo ka palapala ia wai? The book has passed to 

whom ? 

3. Ua hopuia ka aihue e wai ? By whom has the thief been 


4. Ehia ou mau makahiki? How old art thou? 

49. Interrogative pronouns are seldom the subject of a 
verb. They are used in the nominative case, when there is a 
noun in the predicate, and the verb "to be" would be used in 
English, i. e., in Case 3, Section 24. With other verbs the form 
preceded by na is used, as has been explained in Section 45. 
The ansiver to a question must always closely correspond to it 
in construction. 


1. Nawai oe i hana? Na ke Akua Who made you? God. 

2. Mahea oe e hele ai? Where are you going? or E hele 

ana oe mahea? 

3. No keaha oe i hana ai pela? Why (literally, for what) 

are you doing so? 

4. Heaha ka inoa o keia aina ? O Kualoa. What is the name 

of this land? Ans. Kualoa. 



50. A compound sentence consists of two or more inde- 
pendent propositions connected together by conjunctions. 

A complex sentence consists of a principal and one or more 
subordinate clauses. From what has already been stated, it is 
evident that Hawaiian sentences are generally compound rather 
than complex, and their clauses are apt to be co-ordinate rather 
than subordinate. What would form a long sentence in Eng- 
lish, in Hawaiian is generally broken up into several inde- 
pendent propositions, but loosely connected with each other. 

We will next take up the various kinds of dependent clauses 
in English, and show how they are expressed in Hawaiian. 


51. In European languages a substantive clause is fre- 
quently the subject of a sentence. Thus in the sentence, "It is 
evident that the earth is round," the word "it" is really an 
expletive, and the subject is the whole clause, "that the earth 
is round." 

In Hawaiian the dependent clause is often abridged, and ex- 
pressed by a substantive or by a participial noun, or again it is 
subjoined without any connective as an independent proposi- 

Thus the sentence given above, might be rendered, "The 
roundness of the earth is evident" ua akaka ka poepoe ana o 
ka honua; or "It is evident; the earth is round" "Ua mao- 
popo, he poepoe no ka honua." 


52. The use of a real relative pronoun is confined to the 
most perfect class of languages, viz., the inflected languages. A 
relative pronoun incorporates its clause into the sentence as a 
subordinate part, and as an adjective element, qualifying some 
noun or pronoun in it. This noun or pronoun to which it refers 
is called the antecedent. Such clauses are expressed in Hawaii- 
an, either in an abridged form by means of adjectives or parti- 
ples, or by the Possessive Construction, explained above, which 
last furnishes a clear and compact mode of rendering such 
clauses when they are short. When they are long or involved, 
they must be rendered in Hawaiian by independent propositions. 

53. Remark. Observe that when the antecedent of the 
relative is a pronoun of the third person, as in the phrases, "he 
who," "those who," &c, it is expressed in Hawaiian by the 
nouns "ka mea" for the singular, and "ka poe" for the plural. 


54. Case i. When the Relative is Subject of its Clause. 

A. When the clause contains the copula "to be," the relative 
is wanting, and the clause is expressed by an adjective simply, 
or by a noun in apposition. Thus, "the man who is honest"= 
"the honest man." "Paul, who was an apostle"="Paul, an 
apostle." "He that is holy, he that is true'O ka mea hoano, 
ka mea oiaio. 

B. When the relative is the subject of a verb, the clause is 
often expressed by a participle. This is the regular construc- 
tion when the verb is intransitive or passive. Thus, "the thing 
which was given' the thing given ka mea i haawiia. 

E. g. 1. Ka poe i haule The people who fell. 

2. Ka poe e noho ana maluna o ke kuahiwi They who 

dwell on the mountain. 

3. He nui ka mea e ae i hanaia Many were the other things 

which were done. 

C. The relative is expressed by nana, by the construction in 
Section 45, when the following verb is active and transitive, 
and when the agent is a person. The tense signs are i in past 
time, and e in present or future time. 

E. g. 1. Ka mea nana au i hoouna mai He who sent me. 

2. O Iuda nana ia i kumakaia Judas who betrayed him. 

3. O oe ke kanaka nana i aihue ko'u lio You are the man 

who stole my horse. 

4. O ke Akua nana e ike i na mea a pau God who sees all 


5. Aole o'u mea nana e hai mai. &c. I had ho one to tell 

me, &c. 

55. Case 2. When the Relative is Object of its Clause. 

What would be the subject of the clause in English, is put 
into the possessive form, i. e., preceded by the preposition a or 
ka, as if the antecedent were a thing possessed, and the verb is 
subjoined as with nana. The prefix preposition "ka" is used 
when the noun (generally mea) follows or is understood. 

The relative participle at always follows the verb, except 
when nei. la, or ana takes its place. 

E. g. 1. "What I tell you" "My thing to tell you" fca'u 
mea e hai aku nei ia oukou. 

2. "The things which I saw the things of me to have seen" 

Na mea a'u i ike ai. 

3. "This is what they saw here is theirs to have seen" 

Eia ka lakou i ike ai. 

4. A tale which my mother told me He kaao a ko'u ma- 

kuahine i hai mai ai ia'u. 


5. Ke kumu niu a maua i ae like ai The coconut tree 
which we two agreed about. 

56. Case 3. When the relative is in the possessive case, 
or if governed by a preposition. 

A. When it relates to a person it is expressed in Hawaiian 
by a personal pronoun in the same construction. 

E. g. 1 O ka mea %ct ia ke ki He to whom the key belongs. 

2. "E ke akua mana loa, me oe e noho la ka uhane o ka 

poe i haalele i keia ao" "Almighty God, with whom 
dwell the spirits of the departed." 

3. "Ka mea ma ona la ia i hana ai i ka lani a me ka honua" 

"The person by whom he made the heaven and the 


B. When the relative refers to a thing, which is the cause, 

means or instrument "by which" any thing is or is done, the 

relative is generally expressed only by the particle ai, which 

always follows the verb in such clauses. 

E. g. 1. Eia ka mea e make ai na kanaka "This is the cause 
from which the people decrease.". 

2. Oia ke kumu i kaua ai lakou That was the cause for 

which they fought. 

3. Heaha kau mea i hiki mai ai What is your reason for 


4. "Ka kaua mea i au mai net (for ai) i keia mau kai 

ewalu" "The reason for which we have sailed hither 

over these eight seas," or "Our reason for sailing 

hither, &c. 
C. When the relative refers to a noun denoting the time or 
place, "in which" or "at which" any thing is or is done, the 
possessive construction explained in Section 55 is preferred 
when a person is the agent, and an active verb follows. In this 
case the preposition a is generally used before the noun denot- 
ing the agent, but sometimes ko especially when wahi follows. 
The verb is always denoted by the relative particle ai, or nei, 
which sometimes takes its place. Often, however, and always 
when a passive verb follows, the construction given in the last 
paragraph (B) is preferred, the relative being expressed simply 
by ai after the verb. 

E. g. 1. "At the time in which Captain Cook arrived When 

Captain Cook arrived" "I ka wa i ku mai ai o Lono." 

2. "At Kona, the place where he lived" Ma Kona kona 

wahi i noho ai. 

3. "Ma ke alanui a makou i hele ai" In the road in which 

we went. 

4. "Ma kahi i hunaia 'i o Kaahumanu" At the place where 

Kaahumanu was concealed. 


5. I. Waiapuka kahi i malama ia ia o Liloa At Waiapuka 

where Liloa was kept. 

6. Ka wa i make ai na 'Hi ma Beritania When the chiefs 

died in England. 

7. Ma Laie kona wahi i hanau ai At Laie, her birth place. 

8. Ka aina a'u e noho nei The land in which I dwell. 
Observe that kahi=ka wahi. 

Adverbial Clauses 6f Place. 

57 Most adverbial clauses of place are expressed in the 
manner explained in the last section. Some noun denoting place 
must be expressed, and connection of the clauses indicated by 
ai. Thus, "where," "whither" and "whence" are generally ex- 
pressed by "kahi" or "wahi," &c,. with "ai" after the following 

E. g. 1. The land where we journey O ka aina kahi a maua 
e hele ai. 

2. Whence I came Ko'u wahi i hele mai ai. 

3. Whither I go Ko'u wahi e hele aku ai. 
"Wherever" "ma na wahi a pau a ai." 

"As far as" is expressed by a circumlocution, as, e. g., "As 
far as the East is from the West" E like ma ka loihi mai ka 
hikina a i ke komohana. 

Adverbial Clauses of Time. t 

58. These clauses generally assume the forms given in 
Section 56, C. They are generally connected to the leading 
proposition by "when" or "while" in English. In Hawaiian 
some noun denoting time must be expressed, and the connec- 
tion of the clauses indicated by the relative particle ai. 

E. g. 1. I ka wa i make ai na 'Hi When the chiefs died. 

2. I kona wa e maalo ae ana While he passes by. 

"Whenever" or "As often as" is expressed by "i na wa a pau 

a ai." E. g. "I na wa a pau a oukou e ai ai" As often as 

ye eat." "As long as" is similarly expressed, as "i na la a pau 
a ai." 

59. A looser mode of connecting such clauses, when less 
precision is required, is by the conjunction a or aia, which is 
equivalent to "when." "and when, "until." &c 

E. g. 1. A hiki mai ia When he arrives. 

2. Aia ike aku oe i ka manu When you see the bird. 

3. A ahiahi iho When it was evening. 

4. A ao ka po When it was morning. 

. . 60. Another mode of rendering clauses connected by 
"while" or "when" is by prefixing the preposition 1 or ai to the 


subject, when it is a person, and placing after it a form of the 
verb, which may be considered as a participle. When the pro- 
gressive form in ana follows, it is to be rendered by '"while" 
with a verb ; when the past participle, by "when" or "as soon 
as." In the latter case the verb is always followed by ai. This 
use of ai may possibly be explained by ellipsis as follows : 
E. g. i. "(I ka wa) ia ia i hiki ai iluna pono o Kalala" As 
soon as he reached the summit of Kalala. 

2. "Ia ia e noho ana malaila" While he was sitting there. 

3. "Ia lakou i ike aku ai ia ia" As soon as they saw him. 

4. "Ia'u e noho ana me oukou," While I am with you. 
Some Hawaiian scholars make the following distinction : 
5 Ia ia e hele ana aku While he was going. 

I Ia ia e hele aku ana When he was about to go. 

.61. A clause introduced by "while" in English, may also 
be rendered by a participial noun, preceded by a preposition, as 
"o ko'u hele ana 'ku" "While I was going." (Lit. "in my go- 
ing."' This is a very common construction. 

Oiai is often used for "while," especially when the clause, in 
English, has for its predicate the verb "to be," followed by a 
noun. Thus, Oiai ka la="While it is day." Oiai ka malama- 
lama me oukou'While the light is yet with you." A shorter 
form of the same is oi. E. g., "E hele i ka malamalama oi kau 
ke ea i ke kino." 

62. Clauses intrduced by "before," "since," or "after," are 
expressed by the compound prepositions mamua o and mahope 
o, followed by a participial noun as "Before I went' Mamua o 
o'u hele ana aku ;" "mamua o ka wa e ko ai"=before it is 
accomplished. "Mahope iho o kona hiki ana mai" After he 

63. The use of ai in the sentences beginning with an ad- 
verbial expression spoken of in Section 9, may be accounted 
for from the analogy of relative clauses, by supposing an 

E. g. Thus, "malaila oia i ike ai" That (is the place) in 
which he saw. 

"Pela no oia i malama aku ai ia lakou" That's the way in 
which he took care of them. 

As was before stated, the subject, if a pronoun, generally 
precedes the verb in such sentences, as "Pehea la oukou i ike 
ai ia mea?' How do you know that? 


64. Final clauses are those which denote a purpose or mo- 
tive. These are generally introduced by i, "that," "in order 
that," i ole e, "that not," or 0, "lest." Sometimes purpose is ex- 


pressed by an infinitive followed by ai, which is equivalent to 
"in order to," with the infinitive in English. The particle ai 
sometimes occurs in final clauses introduced by i, to bring out 
the idea of the "means" or "cause." It can be rendered by 
"whereby" or "thereby," and explained by substituting i mea e 
for i. 
E. g. I. "E hooikaika oe i na keiki i loaa 'i ka pono" Ex- 
hort the children in order that they may receive good. 

2. "Kua lakou i ka laau ala i pau ka aie" They cut down 

sandal-wood in order that the debt might be paid. 

3. "Aole laua i ai pu o pepehiia laua" They two did not eat 

together lest they should be killed. 

4. "Mai hele oe i ka lua Pele o make oe" Do not go to 

the Volcano, lest you die. 


The Hawaiian is very poor in means of expressing compari- 
son. Such sentences must generally be broken up into inde- 
pendent propositions. Clauses introduced by "as," in English, 
are expressed in Hawaiian by like, followed by a relative clause 
of the kind explained in Section 55. 

E. g. 1. "E like me ka'u i olelo aku ai ia oukou" As I told 
you, (lit., "like what I told you," or "like mine to 
have told you.") 
2. ''E like me ka'u i aloha ai ia oukou, pela oukou e aloha 
aku ai i kekahi i kekahi" As I have loved you, so love 
ye one another. 
Clauses introduced by "so that," expressing a consequence 
are stated as independent propositions in Hawaiian. "How," 
introducing a dependent clause, is expressed by a circumlocu- 
tion, as follows : "You have heard how Abraham used to burn 
lambs on altars" Ua ike oukou i ke ano o ka Aberahama ho'a 
ana i na hipa keiki maluna o na kuahu. 


In English, such clauses are connected to the leading propo- 
sition by one of the conjunctions, "because," "since," "for," 
"as," &c. In Hawaiian they are either introduced by no ka mea, 
"because," or are expressed by the preposition no followed 
by a verbal noun. 

E. g. 1. "No ka mea ua ike no oia i na mea a pau" Because 

he knew all things. 
2. "No ko lakou ike ana i na mea ana i liana 'i For they 
knew the things which he did. 



67. In these the condition is introduced by ina "if," either 
alone or followed by the tense signs i, e, or ua; by i, a shorter 
form of ina; or by ke, "provided that," which is used of present 
or future time. The clause beginning with ke, generally is sub- 
joined at the end of the sentence, while % or ina stand at the 
beginning. "If not'' is expressed by putting ole after the verb, 
and ina, &c, before it, or by the phrases i ole e or ke ole. In a 
long sentence the conclusion is often marked by a second ina, 
equivalent to "then" in English. 

E. g. 1. Ina i hele mai nei oe, ina ua ike If you had come 
here, then you would have seen. 

2. Ina i makemake mai oe ia mea, ina ua kii mai oe If you 

had wanted this thing, then you would have come for it. 

3. E maluhia lakou ke hiki mai They shall be at peace if 

they come. 

4. A i hoi ole mai, kaua no And if he does not come, it 
is war. 


68. Objective clauses generally follow verbs which denote 
1st, some act or state of the mind, or 2nd. a declaration or 
command. Such causes are introduced by "that" in English. 
In Hawaiian they are often expressed by the infinitive after 
the verbs mentioned in Section 34. Often, however, especially 
after verbs of saying, or declaring, they stand without any 
connecting particle between them. There is no distinction then 
in Hawaiian Grammar between direct and indirect quotation. 


69. The first passage we have selected is from the account 
of the Temptation of Christ, (Matt. iv. 1.) 

1 234. 

V. 1. Alaila alakaiia 'ku la o Iesu e ka Uhane i ka 
Then was led away Jesus by the Spirit to the 

5 6.27 

waonahele, e hoowalewaleia 'ku ai e ka Diabolo. 
wilderness to be tempted by the Devil. 

Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to 
be tempted by the Devil. 

Notes, i. Alakaiia is compounded of ala. way. the Javanese 
jialan, and ka'i to lead ; ia is the Passive sign. 2. The initial a 
of the verbal directive aku, is contracted with the final one of 


the preceding word. 3. La here is the sign of past time, (See 
Part I, 48 and 52) 4. O here is the sign of the nominative 
with proper names. Part I, 26. 5. Waonahele is compounded 
of wao, an uninhabited place, and nahele, overgrown with 
bushes, &c. 6. Hootvalezvalcia is compounded of ho'o, the caus- 
ative prefix, (See Part I, 51), zvalezuale, to deceive, and ia the 
Passive ending. 7. Ai is the relative particle, and with the pre- 
ceding e serves to express the idea of purpose, "io order to," 
(See Part II, 64). 

1 2 3.4. 
V. 2. Hookeai iho la ia i hookahi 

kanaha la, 

Fasted thereupon he for one 
5 6 
a me na po he kanaha, a mahope 
and the nights a forty and afterwards 

forty days 
2 7 
iho, pololi 


.2 3 

iho la ia. 

accordingly (was) he. 

And when he had fasted forty days and nights, he was 
afterwards a hungered. 

Notes, i. Hookeai is compounded of hooke, abstain, and 
ai, food. Hooke again is componded of ho'o, the causative 
prefix, and ke, to elbow, to push away. 2. Iho is a directive 
particle. (See Part I, 52.) It expresses here the idea of 
sequence, like "thereupon," "immediately after," "accordingly." 
3. La denotes past time as in V. 1. 4. Ho'okahi is compounded 
of kahi, the numeral, one. and the prefix ho'o, and expresses 
with precision, "one," "only one." 5. A me, and, is used to 
connect nouns, a to connect verbs. 6. The plural definite arti- 
cle. 7. On the structure of this sentence, see Part II, 26. 
The position of the adjective shows that it is predicated of 
the subject. Or, "pololi" may be constructed as a verb, "he 
hungered," which view is confirmed by the use of the verbal 
particles iho and la after it. 

V. 3 - A 

And when 

3 4 
la i aku la ia, 
there said forth 

e i mai 
speak hither 



, Ina 

he if 

aku ka hoowalewale 
forth the tempter 

6 7 
ke Keiki oe a ke 
the son thou of the 

i ona 
to him 


oe i 

thou to 

keia man pohaku i 
these stones that 



lilo i bercna. 
become to bread. 


And when the tempter came to him and said, If thou be the 
Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. 

Notes, i. A long at the beginning of a clause often means 
"when," "and when," "until." 2. For the form i ona la, "to 
him," see Part I, 20 and 38. 3. / here is the verb, to say, in 
the past tense. 4. La signifies past time as usual. 5. O here is 
the article 0, used to render the following noun emphatic, in a 
clause affirming the identity of two things. See Part II, 24. 
6. For the distinction between a and see Part I, 15. 7. For 
the use of the form ke rather than ka, see Part I, 24. 8. E 
is the sign of the imperative. 9. Mau is the sign of the plural. 
10. On this use of i see Part II, 39. 

12 3 

V. 4. Olelo mai la o Iesu, i mai la, Ua 

Spake hither Jesus, said hither (It) has 

5 6 

palapalaia, Aole e ola ke kanaka i ka berena 

been written Not shall live the man by the bread 

7 8 

wale no, aka, ma na mea a pau mai ka waha 
alone but by the things all from the mouth 

9 . 

mai o ke Akua. 
hither of the God. 

But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live 
by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the 
mouth of God. 

Notes, i. La is the sign of the past time. 2. O is the article 
o, used with proper names in the nominative, Part II, 7. 3. 
Ua is the sign of the perfect tense. 4. Palapala is the verb, to 
write, and ia is the passive sign. 5. E is the sign of the future. 
6. / means "by" after an intransitive verb or adjective, but e is 
used after a passive verb. 7. No is a strengthening particle, 
Part I. 49, and generally accompanies zvale, which signifies 
"only," "alone." 8. A pau, "all," originally meant "until done," 
"completed." 9. On the repetition of mai, see Part I, 14. 

70. The next passage is from the romance of Laieikawai. 
Page 13. 

1 2 3 

I. Iloko o ko Laieikawai mau la ma Waiapuka, ua 
During Laieikazvai's days at Waiapuka zcas 

4 5 

hoomauia ka pio ana o ke anuenue ma kela 

continued the arch- ing of the rainbozv at that 

1 6 

wahi iloko o ka manawa ua a me ka 

place in the time rainy and the 



malie, i ka 

fair weather in the 

nae i hoomaopopo 










mea a 




i ke 






keia anuenue; aka, ua hoomauia keia mau hoailona 
this rainbow but were continued these signs 

6 7 9 io ii 3 

alii ma na wahi i malamaia 'i ua mau 

chief <a.t the places (where) were guarded these 
mahoe nei. 

In the days when Laieikawai was at Waiapuka, the arching 
of the rainbow was continued at that place in rainy weather 
and in fair weather, by night and by day; but yet all persons 
did not understand the nature of this rainbow ; but these 
tokens (of a) chief were continued in the places where these 
twins were guarded. 

Notes, i. Iloko o is a compound preposition like inside of" 
in English. (Part I, 55). 2. Ko is the prefix preposition, 
"of," on which see Part I, 18. 3. Mau is a sign of the plural. 
4. Hoo-mau-ia. Mau means continual, ho'o is the causative, 
and in the passive sign. 5. Pio ana is a sort of participial noun. 
Part II, 29. 6. The nouns ua and alii are used here as adjec- 
tives. 7. / here is the.sign of the past tense. 8. / is the sign 
of the objective case. 9. In malamaia, ia in the final a of 
the preceding word. The relative ai here refers back to wahi, 
like "where" in English. Part I, 53. II. Ua-nei taken to- 
gether mean "these." Part I, 43. 

1 2 3 

II. I kekahi manawa ia Halaaniani e kaahele ana ia 

On a certain time to Haleaniani travel- ing 

Kauai a puni ma kona ano makaula nui 


an >ii n < I in his 

no Kauai, a 
of Kauai and 

UM niai la 
sun- hither then 

ia i 


character (as) prophet great 

6 78 

hiki ai iluna pono o Kalalea, 

arrived upon right Kalalea 

oia i ka pio a keia anuenue i Oahu 
he the arch of this rainbow on Oahu 

"<' ; Mho iho la oia malaila he 

dwelt accordingly h< there a 

iwakalua la 
twenty day 


12 13 15 14 

kumu e ike maopopo ia 'i ke ano kana 

means to seen clearly be by ivhich the nature of Jiis 
mea e ike nei. 
thing to see here. 

On a certain time while Halaaniani was traveling around 
Kauai, in his character (as) great prophet of Kauai, when he 
arrived at the very summit of Kalalea, he saw the arch of this 
rainbow on Oahu here; he accordingly dwelt there twenty 
days, in order to discern more clearly the nature of what he 

Notes : 1. I a here is a preposition, and e kaahele ana the 
present participle. On this mode of expressing ' ' while ' ' in 
English, see Part II, 60. 2. Kaahele ana, is compounded 01 
Tcaa, to roll, hele, to go, and ana, which denotes continuance, 
and is equivalent to "-ing" in English. It means then "travel- 
ing around," "making the tour of." 3. Ia here is the sign of 
the objective case. 4. Ia ia, the first ia is the preposition, and 
the second the pronoun, Part I, 38. The construction is simi- 
lar to that explained in Note 1. See Part II, 60. 5. / is the 
sign of past time. 6. Ai is the relative particle. 7. / hina o. 
is a compound preposition, like "on top of" in English. Part 
I, 55. 8. Pono is an adverb, "right," "exactly," and 
qualifies i lima. 9 . La serves as sign of past time. 10. / is 
sign of the objective case, like ia, in Note 3. II. / here de- 
notes purpose. It means literally, "as a means, whereby 
might be discerned," &c. 12. Ia is the passive sign of ike 
separated from it by the adverb maopopo. 13. Ai has dropped 
its a. It may be rendered "whereby," and refers to lumu, 
Part II, 56 B. 14. See Part II, 55. Nei takes the place 
of ai after the verb. 15. The subject of "ike maopopo ia" 
is "ke ano," &c. 

In conclusion, the author would express his obligations to 
Judge Andrews' Hawaiian Grammar, for many of the examples 
quoted in this little work. 




Orthoepy, . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 

General Remarks on Etymology, 


Gender of Nouns, 


Number of Nouns, 


List of Prepositions, 


Distinction between A and 0, 


On Ka and Ko, 


On Na and No, 


On I, la and [0, 


The Vocative Case, 


The Articlefi 


1 ndefinite Article, 


Definite Articles, 


The Emphatic, 

26, 27 

Adjectives, how Compared, 




< 'ardiiial Numerals, 


Ordinal and Distributive Numbers, 




Personal Pronouns, 


Possessive Pronouns, 


Demonstrative Pronouns, 


Interrogative Pronouns, 


Indefinite Pronouns, 



. . 46. 47 

Tense Sign 8 :,n<1 Imperative Partielet 


The Particles Ana and No 


Passive Voice, 


( lausative form, 

5 1 

Verbal 1 directives, vVc. 


Tiie Relative Particle Ai, 




Compound Preposition. && 


< Conjunctions, 




Formation of Words 





Introductory Remarks, 
Elements of a Simple Sentence, 

The Subject, 

Position of the Subject, 

Names of Persons preceded by O, 

Position of Subject in Negative Sentences, 

Position of Subject after Emphatic Adverbial 

Nominative Absolute, 

Attributive or Adjective Element, 


Attributive Adjectives, 

Numerals, : 

Adjective used as Nouns, &c. 
Use of the Articles, 

Indefinite Article, 

Definite Articles, 

Omission of Articles, 

The Predicate, 

Mode of expressing the Verb "To Be,' 


Verbal Nouns, 

The Verb as an Adjective, 

The Infinite. The Verb "Can" 


Predicate Nouns, 




The Possessive Construction, 
Mode of expressing the Verb "To Ha\ ! 
On the Use of Na, 
Interrogative Sentences, .... 

Complex and Compound Sentences, 
The dependent clause used as Subject 
Relative or Adjective Clauses, 
Adverbial Clauses, 

Final Clauses, 

Clauses which express Comparison, 
Clauses which express Cause or Reason 

Conditional Clauses, 

Objective Clauses, , 

Specimens of Hawaiian Sentences Analyzed, 





A and O, . . .. 

9, 10 



Adjectives, attributive, 




used as nouns, 


how compared, 




" position of, 


Adverbial clauses of place, 


of time, 


Ae as a directive, 


Ai as a relative particle, 


Aku as a directive, 


Ana and No, 


Analysis of sentences, 


Anei, in questions, 


Aole and ole, 




Articles "he." 


Articles "ka" and "ke," . 

.... . . 11, 12 

As, how rendered, 


Attributive adjectives, 


"Be," how expressed. 


"Can," how expressed, 


Cardinal numbers, 


Causative form, 


Clauses expressing cause, 


Clause used as subject, 


Clause expressing compari 

5011, 49 

Comparison of Adjectives, 


Compound prepositions, 


Conditional clauses, 




Definite article, 

II, 12 

" omission o 

f 32, 33 

Demonstrative pronouns, 




Dual number, 





"E" as an adjective, 


"E" as adverb, "before," 


Ellipsis of noun after "ka," 


" " "ko" and "ka," 


Emphatic adverbial sentences, . . 

. . 29 & 48 



Final Clauses, 

48, 49 

Formation of words, 






Guttural break, 


"Have," how expressed, 

41, 42 

I, la and Io, 


I, as a tense sign, 

19, 20 

la, as an adjective pronoun, 


Iho, as a directive, 


Imperative particles, 


Indefinite articles, 


" pronouns, 


Infinitive mood, 

19, 20, 29, 38 



Interrogative adverbs, 

. . 22 & 43 





Ka and Ko prepositions, 


Kahi, adjective pronoun, 


" adverb of place, 

32, 47 





La, verbal particle. 

7 & 22 

"Loaa," to get, how construed, 


Mai, as a directive, 


" in prohibition, 


Mea, ellipsis of, 


" meaning "owner," 


Na and No, 


Na, Syntax of, 


Nana as relative, 


Negative sentences, 

28, 29 

Nei, how used, 


Nominative absolute, 



13, 14 

position of, 


0, emphatic. 


Objective clauses, 





Objective sign, 

. . 1 1 & 39 

Order of verbal particles, 

.. 19&36 

Ordinal numbers, 




"Own," how expressed, 



.. 19,37,38 

Passive sign, 


Personal pronouns, 


Plural number, 


Possessive construction, .. 




Predicate nouns, 

39, 40 

Prefix prepositions, 


Prepositions, simple, 

. . . . 8, 9 

syntax of, 

40, 41 

Pronominal affixes, 


Purpose, how expressed, 

48, 49 

Quotation, direct and indirect, 


Relative clauses, 


Relative as object, 


" " subject. 


" expressing time or place, 

. . . . 46 

" in possessive case, 

. . . . 46 

''Self," how expressed, 


Subject, position of, 

28, 29 

Syntax, remarks on, 

. . . . 27 

Tense signs, 

19, 20 

"To be," how expressed, 


Ua, as tense sign 


Ua, as adjective pronoun, 

.... 17 

Verb, synopsis of, . . 


Verbal adjectives, 


" nouns, 


Vocative sign, 


Wahi, as an adjective. 



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