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Full text of "The sign painter;"




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A COMPLETE SYSTEM 

AND SET OF LESSONS 

FOR BEGINNERS 





THE PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 
CHICAGO, ILL. 






iqi\ laiMer 



A COMPLETE SYSTEM 

AND SET OF LESSONS 

FOR BEGINNERS 




THE PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



TT360 



MAR 16 1916 



/^' (^77/ 



riv 



THE BEST WAYS 

TO LEARN 
SIGN PAINTING 



A Complete System And Set 
Of Lessons For Beginners 



Copyright 1916 by 
A.R.Hussey. 



The Pullman School 

of Lettering, 

Pullman Station, Chicag,o" 



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CONTENTS 



Acid 21 

Aluininuiii (leal' ami l)ionze) . . . . 29 

Alphabets (names of) 6 

Amount of Lettering 27 

Awiiiny Lettering 33 

Backing Up Letters 14 

Barber I'oles 21) 

Backs for Glass Signs 3G 

lioai d Signs 33 

Bi ass Signs 33 

Bronze Signs (or Tablets) 33 

Burnishing (gold leaf) 12 

Care of Brushes 38 

Curved Betters 31 

Ciicies 21 

Chipped Glass Signs 4a-46-4( 

Chalk Bine 30 

Coating Signs 40 

Coioi s (how to mix) •>■* 

Cutting- in Color 32 

Cutting- Letters 5 

Corner I'ieces *1 

Cleaning- L'p Gold Job 15 

Cleaning Glass 32 

Damp Brushes 3tj 

Designs *> 

Diiliing- Holes in Glass 31 

Kmbossed Gold 20 

ii^tching (gold on glass) 24 

Etching- (brass signs) 4 i -48-4!) 

Btching (glass signs) ■13 

l-irst Principles 4 

first Gilding 11 

I'lat Coating 21 

flitters 4 

Mock 24 

l-'rames (muslin and oil-cloth)., .yj 

l-'iosting on (jlass 2o 

(jalvanized Iron Letters 3!i 

liaivaiiizcd lion (how to paint).. 37 

Gilding (outside) 21) 

( rildei s Tip 2(i 

Gilding Raised Letteis 2i 

Gilding (surface or Hat letters).. 3ti 

Glass Signs S-4 3 

Glass Cleaning s^ 

Glass Gilding !^ 

Gold Stipple (on boaids) 21 

Gold Leaf 3!) 

Indelible Layouts 37 

Instiuctions 13 

Introductory 5 

Japanned Tin Signs 32 

Klean Kups 2S 

Kit (the) 50 

Lacfjuer (on tin signs, etc.) 30 



Laundry Signs 22 

Jjayouts 7 and 22 

Lemon (iold Leaf 23 

i^etters (names of) 6 

Lettering Brushes 37 

Letters 6 

Lines (chalk) 30 

Lines (thread) 30 

Li((uids (conmionl\- used) 29 

Muslin 38 

Muslin Signs 22 

-Moulding (for glass signs) 31 

oilcloth Signs 32 

Oilcloth 28 

Outlining and Shading If) 

I'atterns 7-16-40 

Batching (gold jobs) 12 

I'ounce Bag 8 

Bounce Pattern 16 

Piir.iing Coat (for boards) 24 

Putty (all kinds) 31 

Quick Size 28 

Questions 50-51-52 

liaised Letter- Signs 41 

liaised Letters (on boards) 28 

Raised Letters (on wire) 27 

lieal Estate Signs 30 

Screen Signs 20 

Second ('oating 40 

Second (Hiding 11 

Shading 16 

Shellac 27 

Shop Equipment 36 

Silvei ing (ilass 41 and 42 

Silver Leaf 28 

Size (slow) 42 

Skewing Box 29 

Smalting Signs 16 

Siiacing Letters 32 

Special Letters 6 

SLenciling 43 

Thread Lines 30 

Tricks of the Trade 52-53-54 

Tracing Patterns 28 

Ti-ansparency 26 

Varnish Grounds 38 

Varr-iishing Gold Work 16 

Wall Signs 37 

Wagon Lettei'ing 25 

Water Size 9 

Washing Gold 13 

White Frosted (51ass 26 

Wii-e Signs 25 

Window Signs 26 

Window Shade Lettering 41 

Zinc Etched Stencils 26 



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FIRST PRINCIPLES 

The instructions in this set of lessons are intended for 
the exclusive use of the student whose name is on file in 
the office of The Pullman School of Lettering, Pullman 
Station, Chicago, Illinois. The student should l)ear in 
mind that he is entitled to personal assistance to over- 
come obstacles, for which there will he no extra charge, 
and such assistance will he rendered free for one year 
from date of enrollment. I strongly reconmiend that 
advantage he taken of this privilege as often as neces- 
sary. Do not hesitate to write for information, fearing 
that you will annoy us. We want you to meet with 
success, and the more help we can give you the easier it 
will he for you to succeed. 

Always inclose postage and self-addressed envelope 
asking for advice and further instruction. We are here 
to help you; that is what you have paid us for. and we 
will do our part. We are just as much interested in you 
now as we were before you sent your a])plication, and it 
will not be necessary for you to i)ay any more fees for 
advice and help. Remember always that the man who 
becomes easily discouraged rarely succeeds. 

With best wishes for yoiu^ success, we are. 
Yours faithfully. 

The Pullman School of Lettering, 



Pullman Station, Chicago, 111. 



"iiiiiiiiiilttiiiliililiilliiliillllliiiiiiiriii 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



INTRODUCTORY 

The system aiul working 
rules for learning sign painting 
given in this set of instructions 
are intended for men and boys 
everywhere who wish to bet- 
ter their condition by entering 
-the sign i)ainting business, that 
promises big cash results for 
those who have energy and 
pluck. These instructions are 
based on my own actual expe- 
rience, and the experience u\ 
some of the best sign -painters 
in this country. Remember 
there is noway for you to suc- 
ceed unless you jiieet success 
half way.' If '■••ou wish to suc- 
cecvl in the sign painting busi- 
ness it will bq quite necessary 
for vou to '^^^■'^ sj;rict attention 
to tht sy»;tem and rules lai»' be- 
fore you. which you will find 
correct in every detail. If ymi 
find something wrong with the 
working of any part of these, 
don't hesitate, and be di-^- 
couraii'ed ; sit down anrl ask u^^ 
and we will gladly make clear 
anv nart that goes wrong. The 
more careful you are, and :he 
hardvr vou study the svstem. 
the more quickly you will suc- 
ceed and I'ventuallv be able to 
sail into it and make good. 

You Can Go to Work at Once 

The instructions in this sys- 
tem arc ])rinted in book form 
for the com enience of the be- 
ginner< It is customary for 
some -chooTs to Issue lessons in 
leaflets, one lesson on a leaflet, 
and send vou one lesson a week. 



We have found the book form 
much better, being more con- 
\ enient to keep all the lessons 
before you all the time. When 
^ou want to know anything 
about a particular sign, or how 
to mix a particular color, you 
don't have to wait a week to 
pet your next lesson sheet, be- 
sides losing valuable time. 

You can carry the entire sign 
painting business in your pock- 
et and refer to it at any time. 

Ask All the Questions 
You Like 

Don't be afraid to ask ques- 
tions, fearing they might seem 
foolish or iiliotic to an experir; 
enced sign painter. 

We have lots of time and pa- 
tience for the man who is will- 
ing to try to help himself. 

You will find the lessons con- 
tained in this book the most 
simple and easy to understand 
of any heretofore Dublished, 
and l)ased on practical expe- 
rience, not guess work. 

LESSON I 

How to Prepare Your Letters 
Ready for Use 

The letters sent you in this 
course are the very latest sign 
jKiinters' styles and used by 
every first-class sign painter. 

These letters are printed on 
specially prepared paper, ready 
for you to cut out and use. 

Cutting Letters 

To cut out letters, first pro- 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



cure a soft pine board (or plate 
ii^lass) and a sharp pocket knife. 
Slant knife a little and cut away 
all black around each letter, 
being very careful to follow the 
black edge perfectly. 

Now your letter is ready for 
u.se. 

Names and Sizes of the Differ- 
ent Styles of Letters Carried 
in Stock 

ABCDEFGHIJKL 

MNOPO 
RSTUVWXYZ& 

abcdefghijklmnopqrs 

tUVWXYZ 

No 1. Plain Egyptian (reg- 
ular). 

ABCDEFG 
HIiJKL^MNr 
OPQRSTU 

VXYZ& 
1S34567890 

No. 5. I' nil Block (regular). 

ABCDEFGH 

IJKLMNO 

PORSTUVW 

XYZ& 

abcdefghijklmnop 
qrstuvwxyz 

1234567890 

ROMAN 



ABCDEF 

GHUKLM 

NOPQRS 



BULLETIN 
No. 2. Plain Egyptian (con- 
densed). 

No. 3. Spurred Egyptian 
( rt'i^ular). 

No. 4. Spurred Egyi)tian 
( ciiidcnsed). 

No. 6. Half Block (con- 
densed). 

1 he above alphabets are car- 
ried in stock (including num- 
erals) and run from two inches 
to six inches high. 

Any si/.e made to order on 
ihorl notice. 

LETTERS 

Tlu- ]tre]>nred loUcrs arc car- 
ried ill stock by us only, "reg- 
ular" meaning as wide as high, 
"condensed" meaning one hall 
.IS wide a.s high, these sizes be- 
ing apjiroximate and are to be 
r -td in our course in painting 
signs. 

Special Letters and Layouts 

We will make your special 
letters and lay out (or design) 
any jt>b you have, pattern ready 
for you to perforate and letters 
ready for you to cut out. and 
charge you for time and mate- 
rial only. 

The above charges are made 
for the lazy fell«)w's benefit. 
Instead of taking the size of the 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



siti^n and making a pattern with 
his own letters, he w^ould rather 
^it down and let the other fel- 
low do the work, if he wouldn't 
charge for it. 

Drawing, or placing the let- 
ters in position on the sign you 
are to paint, is called "Layout*^ 
(or design), and you will tind 
that the more particular and 
painstaking you are, the better 
job you will have. 

All tirst-class sign ])ainters 
make a pattern (or layout) for 
the smallest job. it being more 
accurate and quickly done than 
drawing it on the window or 
sign, and the pattern may be 
used on both face and back of 
glass after gold leaf is on, and 
is perfect and easy to handle. 
You can't go wrong and your 




r<tuiii-e imttcrii iiiitl "lay- 



iiori/.ontal lines are level. 

The pattern sent you. with 
the word signs on, after being 
perforated is called a "Pounce 
Pattern," and the letter "L"- at- 
tached shows how to perforate 



around the edges of letters, 
also showing a line drawn |)er- 
pendicular through the center 
of the pattern, called a guide 
line, and is used only when pat- 
tern does not fit the sign, it not 
l)eing necessary to make yo.:r 
])attern as large as your entire 
window, unless it is a ^nlall 
Vv'i'iKJow. as you can readily see 
what a big jattern a window 
8x10 feet would re(|uire. Bj- 
s'dcs, \\m \\n)u'.(ln't ha\e a wall 
( r drawing board large enough 
to lay your paper on, and a pat- 
tern that large would have to 
be made in sections, making it 
too large to handle conxenient- 
ly, and uncalled for. 

How to Make Your Patterns 

To make a "pounce pattern," 
lay the glass sign to be lettered 
down on top of any good tough 
drawing paper and cut around 
glass with a sharp pocket knife. 
Then you will have no guess 
work and the pattern will be 
exact size and fit the glass. 

LAYOUTS 

Now you are ready to "lay 
out" your sign (or draw vour 
letter.s). 

St'e Ki«. 4'J on piiut' 7. 

If yt!ur sign is to read: 

Frank L. Smith 

Fancy 

CROCERIES 

and your glass is 18 inches by 
36 inches, you should make 
your pattern as follows: Al- 
ways remember height of sign 
is called "upright" and width 
of sign is called "landscapes," 
and on your order always ni'uk 
it. to a\t>i(l all jxissible error in 
letterinir- 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



Now take your prepared let- 
ters and lay out the size you 
think will fit best in the space 
vou have. 

See figs. 26, 27, 28 and 29 on 
page 10 

shows sign to be lettered 18 
inches by 36 inches ; also shows 
.^pace and size of letters, thus : 

2 inch space, 3 inch letter ; 2 
inch space, 2 inch letter ; 2 inch 
space, 5 inch letter and 2 inch 
space. 

shows size of space and let- 
ters that are best suited for this 
size sign. 

Larger or smaller letters 
may be used and must be gov- 
erned by the sign painter's 
taste entirely. You will find 
there are some people who 
can't get the letters large 
enough and others can't get 
them small enough. 

Lines to Place Letters On 

Now with a perfectly straight 
yard stick draw your lines 
across naper and lay your 3 
inch letters between the two 

3 inch lines (Frank L. Smith). 

Sec Fi'^s. 2<!, 27 ami '2S on iinK'e !••• 

When in j)lace and properly 
spaced to suit, mark around 
letters v/ith a sharp lead pencil 
and take them dut of your way. 
and ]n-oceed with the 2 and 5 
inch letters in the same man- 
ner. This will show you how 
to make your pattern. 

When you have laid out and 
perforated your pattern, then it 
is ready to place on the window 
or sign you are to paint. 

Pounce Bag 

Next make a "pounce bag." 
Fill a Durham tobacco sack 



two-thirds full of clean, dry 
whiting, tie it up securely and 
place your pattern on the glass 
(or window) to be lettered, and 
hold pattern securely, being 
careful not to let it slip. Make 
fast with gummed labels (se- 
cured at your druggist), then 
rub "pounce bag" over the per- 
forated lines and you will have 
an exact duplicate of the let- 
ters (or layout). 

.See Fijs. !)9 on itnK'e 17. 

If pattern is to be used on 
white background (see board 
signs), you will make a dark 
"pounce bag," using dry ulta- 
marine blue or dry lamp black, 
and proceed as above, using 
less "pounce," as dark colors 
show stronger on white sur- 
faces. 

You will then trace around 
your white lines with a "grease 
pencil" (on gold glass work 
only), as it enables you to see 
vour "layout" better and to 
patch broken places in the gold 
leaf; remembering always that 
tools mentioned in this course 
can be secured of the Pullman 
School of Lettering. 

See price list of tools and 
material ; send oostoffice money 
order with your order for sup- 
t~ilies and they will be sent same 
day. 

GLASS GILDING 

This is one of the most sim- 
ple methods ever published, 
one that really teaches you 
how to lay gold leaf on glass 
and other surfaces. 

Glass Cleaning 

Clean your glass thoroughly 
with a wet sponge (or rag) 
(lil)])ed in whiting. After you 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



have rubbed over the entire 
surface (usiiiQf a safety razor 
blade for takiii"- ofi all paint 
rubbinw the surface with news- 
|)a])er, making sure every par- 
ticle of whitinp- is wiped off, 
leaving your glass clean and 
free from grease. 

After this operation you will 
proceed to put your pattern on 
the outside of the glass (or the 
side you read from). As the 
gold leaf is put on the inside 
(or back of glass), place your 
I)attern on perfectly even, with 
face out, then wipe white 
"pounce bag" over it and you 
have transferred your letters to 
the glass (same as instructions 
under "layouts"). 

Now set ^^our glass upright 
on easle (fig. 22 below '^ with 
"layout" (or pattern side) turn- 
< (1 in, and you are ready for 
gilding. 




l-'i;;. -li. I'oillK'O pjiU«Tii |>lilf<'(l 
on tsi«'«' of K'la.ss shows, word siu'iis 
i«ii4l\ to traro with Kronso lUMioil 
I ;;il<i. 

We are sending you a 
"pounce pattern" of the word 
"Signs," with letters tcj match. 



that you may more fully under- 
stand our system and start sign 
' ainting at once. The "pounce 
pattern" must be perforated by 
means of a tracine wheel (see 
printed directions on pattern) 
and the pattern cut and made 
ready for use, to show you ex- 
actly how you are to ])roceed 
and make your own patterns. 

The "pounce pattern"' should 
be made in your shop or at 
home, and not on the job, as 
this is a secret method and one 
you should protect for your 
own good, being nobody's 
business how you form your 
letters. 

After cuttinp- the letters fur- 
nished you in this set of in- 
structions, you are then pre- 
T\ired to make your own pat- 
terns and shape your own let- 
ters by following our instruc- 
tions. 

\Vhen you have carefully 
studied every word of the above 
instructions and know it almost 
"by heart" then you are ready 
for gilding. 

READY FOR GILDING 

Now you ha\-e your glass on 
the easle, and your letters 
"pounced" on, and the glass 
cleaned and free from grease ; 
then you will proceed to make 
the size for sticking the gold 
leaf to the glass. 

"Water Size" for Gilding 
on Glass 

To one-half pint of distilled 
water add one No. 1 empty ca])- 
sul and bring to boil in a clean 
granite cu]). After same has 
l)oiled, stir briskly with a ])er- 
fectly clean stick, and size is 
ready for use. 

If impossible to get distilled 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



water, filtered rainwater is 
practically as good and will an- 
sVver the purpose. (Note — 
Never use alkali water.) 

When "size" has cooled 
proceed to gild. 

See Pi«-. 40 on itsiK'e 1^5. 

The "size brush" sent you is 
used to put on the above de- 
scribed "size." With this 
brush you will coat one or two 
letters, depending on size of 
letters, beginning at top left- 
hand corner, and gild the entire 
toj) line of letters. When top 
line is gilded, begin in same 
corner on the next line, and so 
on until entire job is finished. 

See Fiji-. 40 on pnue '-t- 

(jilding in this manner will 
prevent 'size" from running 



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down over your wet gold leaf 
and streaking it, which is al- 
most impossible to get out. 

Putting on the Water Size 

See Fitt'. 40 on |»:iK'e i:{. 

You will next lay on your 
gold leaf (or start to gild). 

See FiK. 41 ou pa^e t2. 

Place the book of gold sent 
you in your left hand, then you 
are ready to use the "water 
size" for sticking the gold leaf 
to the glass. Place your "size" 
on a box or chair at your right 
hand ; dip "size brush" into 
"size" and coat one or two let- 
ters as described above ; then 
turn back the cover of gold 
book until you come to the gold 
leaf, keeping the gold book in 
left hand. You will then turn 





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■FANCY- 

GROCERIES 



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SI'AU'I' I'O FINISH in "I.X^IN*; Ol'l" a sinn. 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



back the leaf of the book until 
you have a strip of gold large 
enough to cover the stem of 
letter you are gilding, using the 
thumb of left hand as a stop, or 
guide. 




Fi^'. 4'A. i'uttiuK ili^ K'oliI leaf with 

First Gilding 

and proceed to co\er the entire 
letter at first gilding. "First 
gilding" is a term used by sign 
painters, and the more careful 
you are in the first gilding the 
less patching you will ha\e to 
do in the "second gilding." 
"Second gild" (or ])atching up) 
is also a term used by sign 
]:)ainters, and care must be 
taken in tlic "first gild," makinii^ 
sure y> u !i-i\e er.oiigh gold on 
to cover the letter. The space 
between letters do noi re- 
quire gilding, but on 'Uiall let- 
ters, un to 3 indies liigh. may 
be glided "solid," always re- 
nvcmbcrin;..^ that it is impossible 
to gild on glass, unless you flow 
on plenty of "size." And 
should your gold leaf slide and 
run out of i)lace, by t(!uching 
ed<re of the leaf with your 
"gilders' tip" you wilj readily 
see the results. "Sliding" is 
caused l)y api)]ying the Icnf be- 
fore "si.-e" has ^-topped run- 



ning, and can be prevented in 
two ways. First is : put on 
your "size" and by the time you 
ha\e oj)ened the gold leaf book 
and cut your leaf to lit, it will 
be through running; then ap- 
ply your leaf and it will seldom 
slide. Second: By touching 
Q(\gc of leaf with vour "gilder's 
tip." 

"Laying Gold With a Tip" 

The "gilder's tip" sent yon is 
for laying gold leaf on glass 
and difficult raised letters (see 
raised letter signs), and sht)uld 
be slightly oiled by wiping it 
through yt)ur hair each time be- 
fore laying it on the gold leaf. 




FiU'. 4^. Str«»kinfi- linir with uil- 
<l<>rs tip. Iift'ore lii.viiiu tip on k<>I<I 
leaf. 

When you ha\ e stroked "gild- 
er's tip" through your hair it is 
then ready to i)ick up the si^olfl 
and apply to the glass. This 
yon must do each time, and 
your "tip" will never fail to 
])ick up the gold leaf. After 
you have "first gilded" your 
letters, you will then wait until 
gold is perfectly dry before 
l)nrnishing: by watching the 
outside, or o])posite side of 
glass, you will see that it has 
started to dry. taking on a high 
burnish or bright spots, and the 



11 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



gold must appear bright before 
you can burnish it. Any dull 
])laces (called damp or wet 
places) must not be touched 
until they disappear. In cold, 
damp weather gold dries slow- 
er and may be hurried along by 
fanning it, or carefully blotting 
with soft, clean blotters. Great 
care must be exercised in lay- 
ing on blotters that they do not 
slip and mark the gold. When 
gold is thoroughly dry you 
will then proceed to burnish 
and "patch up." "Patching up" 
is also a term used by sign 
painters, and is very essential, 
unless job is on windows abo\e 
the second floor, where a small 
broken place (or crack) in the 
"first gild" will not show from 
the street, and patching is un- 
necessary. 

Patching Gold Jobs on Glass 

Great care should be exer- 
cised in "patching" your gold 
jobs, for the fellow who is care- 
less is not in demand, and 
nothing looks worse than a 
poor gild, and by following this 
course to the letter you can't 
SH) wrong. 

Burnishing the Job 

When you are sure the gold 
is dry. the next ste]) is to bur- 
nish ofif the superfluous gold 
(or ragged parts) wMth a nice 
clean piece of medicated cotton 
(that you can secure at the 
drug store for five cents a pack- 
age). 

You will wipe away all loose 
particles into a deep cigar box 
that has previously been cov- 
ered with a piece of common 
wire screen, and is called a 
"skewing box," or a box to save 
your scraps of gold leaf in. 




Piu. 41. I^ayiiiK on the leaf. 

After this is done smooth 
your piece of cotton out. form- 
ing a nice, smooth surface that 
w^ill rub over the gold leaf 
without scratching, rubbing 
first up and down, then the 
other way, making sure you 
have rubbed it enough, and is 
almost free from wrinkles and 
rough places, being careful not 
to rub through. By looking 
through to the light, you can 
see every move you have made 
with your cotton in burnishing. 

After you have burnished 
your gold (as described above) 
you will then "patch" up the 
holes and broken places, that 
can be easily seen by looking 
through to the light. Start in 
the left hand corner of the job, 
same as "first gild," taking a 
few letters in top line, and flow 
another coat of "size" on them. 
being ready always with your 
gold and "gilder's tip," and 
proceed as beft^re. onlv using 
small pieces of gold leaf instead 
of larger ones in "first gilding." 

Smaller pieces of gold for 
patching are made by opening 
book until about half inch of 
gold shows, cutting it ofif from 
left to right with the front fin- 
ger nail, then cutting it cross- 



12 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



ways, making any size pieces 
desired, and that will fit the 
places intended ior, making 
sure that you have "patched" 
every place you think will 
show or be seen from the out- 
side (or reading side) of the 
sign. 

When dry. as explained in 
first gilding, you will burnish 
patches with cotton as before 
(in "first gilding." 

Sot' I'^i^i. -4:? on |tii;if I 1. 

Washing Gold 

Washing your gold (or giUl- 
ing) is a \ery simple process, 
but jiroduces a wonderful ef- 
fect, and no job is thoroughly 
(U)ne w i t h o u t "washing ;" 
neither can you |)roduce a per- 
fect guild. 

The "washing" simply brings 
out the l)urnish on the gold 
that no other process will do. 
and vou will be surpri-ed at the 
wonderful elTect 

After you have burnished the 
patches with cotton, you will 
"wash" entire job with boiling 
h( t water, flowing it on with 
your "size" brush, same as ap- 
])lying "water size" in first 
gilding and patching, l)eing 
careful not to go over same 
places twice. (As water l)ein; 
I-. (jrdy .icnnd that wili cK-an 
off the gold, it being soaked u]-. 
on the first a])plication ot 
water, it must not be touched 
again until dry.) 

When you become more fa- 
miliar with gilding, and know^ 
the exact action of the sizing, 
gilding and washing, you will 
then be able to do- the w(jrk 
with ease, and no guessing. 

I therefore advise you to get 
a piece of glass the size of the 
jjatterns sent you. "pounce" on 
the ivittern. gild and patch it 




Kiu. 10. I'uMiii;^ on Hie ">iiz«-" lor 
KiltliiiK on kIxk.s. 

Up as often as necessary ; or un- 
til you are sure you thoroughly 
understand the process, which. 
if interested, will absorb about 
nne hour's time. 

W hen vou thorough' v under- 
stand gilding on glass, and have 
the gold "patched" and thor- 
oughly washed, you are then 
ready to put the lettering on. 




£■ iv. I.~. How <Iit' li'ttor.s sent .>»;!> 
J". CO to lie ii.sejl c.ii ^<>l;l le:if si;tii.s. 

Follow Instructions 

^'ou will lind the two pat- 
terns sent you are easy to han- 
dle while practicing, and the 
letters being connected and 
properly sj)aced. you will ha\e 
noihinu 1(1 di> but to follow my 
inctructicns, the gilding being 
(!('■>■ ;is al)o\e. 

The "cut out" pattern is now 
1)lac( (1 on the g.ass (with side 



13 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



marked face) laid carefully 
against the gold (or gilded sur- 
face), being careful not to let 
it slip and mar or scratch the 
gold leaf. 

You will then clean away the 
superfluous gold between let- 
ters with the round brush sent 
you, by slightly moistening the 
end of brush with your tongue 
(or damp sponge) and rubbing 
the brush over the space be- 
tween letters in a circular mo- 
tion. 

See Fijjf. 4.'> on page 13. 

When you have cleaned 
away all gold leaf from between 
letters, remove the cut out pat- 
tern and you have the word 
Signs in gold letters ready to 
clean and back up. 

To clean up letters ready for 
"backing up" and finishing jol). 
first secure a piece of cigar box 
lid about 5 inches long, }'s inch 
thick and % inch wide. With 
a sharp knife trim ofif the paper 
and make it perfectly square 
on the end (or ^x^ inch in 
size). Then lay your yard 
stick down carefully on top 
edge of letters, and with the 
]?iccc of cigar l)ox lid clean 
; way tlie <j-old that does not be- 
lonp- there, called ties. 

.See Fi^i'. -Hi mill 4H on psiK'e 14. 





Fi'i. -((i. ClcMiin- f.:i) : :..i bottom 



How the .semi-circle i.h 



W^hen top and bottom of let- 
ters are cleaned ofT thoroughly 
you will look on the other side, 
to make sure that every par- 
ticle of gold leaf that does not 
go to make up the letter has 
l)een cleaned away thoroughly. 

If edges of letters appear 
ragged, it is your fault, and 
next time you will remember 
this point and be more careful, 
as it can be done cleaner and 
more perfect with our process 
than by hand, and much 
quicker. 

rhis being finished, you will 
now proceed to "back up" the 
letters. 

BACKING UP LETTERS 

Into one of our famous 
"Klean Kup" boxes sent you. 
put one tablespoon full of our 
celebrated "backing up" var- 
nish, which is prepared by us, 
and ready for immediate use. 

With the camel's hair brush 
sent you. you will then coat 
the entire back of letters 
(which is called "backing up") 
running over on the glass }i of 
an inch or less, if possible. 
T.ook over each letter carefully 
to make sure you have covered 
every particle of gold leaf. If 
not covered in cleaning off the 



14 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



superfluous gold (or washing 
entire glass) you will soon dis- 
cover the places you have miss- 
ed, and your gold will wash ofl', 
leaving the bare glass where 
gold should be. 

When this o])eration has 
been thoroughly taken care of. 
you will let the backing varnish 
dry for four hours or over 
night, before cleaning oft 
ragged ])laces, or su])erfluous 
gold. 

This, however, can be done 
in nmch less time with our 
celcl)rated "backing up" var- 
nish, but for your first few 
t-.mcs wotdd advise letting it 
dry thoroughly before cleaning 
oft. If nt)t dry enough, the 
varnish may let go of gold in 
]daces, causing ragged edges. 

Cleaning Up Gold Jobs 

The tools most essential in 
cleaning up gold jobs are the 
damp chamois skin, damp 
sponge and a "wad" of medi- 
cated cotton. 

When "backing up" varnish 
is thoroughly dry, you will pass 
the damp sponge over the glass 
and letters carefully, following 
this up with a "wad" of cotton, 
rubbing over the surface until 
glass is perfectly clean, watch- 
ing the face of sign to make 
sure e\ery ]>article of gold leaf 
is cleaned ofY. N(nv ])roceed 
with your damp chamois skin 
to finish cleaning. 

After glass is thoroughly 
cleaned, you are ready for out- 
lining, or shading. 

OUTLINING and SHADING 

The Prussian Blue sent you 
is mixed and tested ready for 
use, and can be made darker or 
lighter as desired, by adding 
ni(.re blue (if drirkcr shade is 



wanted), and varnish (if light- 
Pour out small amount of 
blue in paper box at a time (as 
it dries quickly) and soon be- 
comes fat (or thick) and impos- 
sible to work hi lettering brush. 
Place your sign on the easel 
and you are ready for btisiness. 
W ith the brush sent you 
(called outliner) you will "out- 
line," or edge, and coat entire 
back of each letter, beginning 
at your left and working to 
your right, being carelul to till 
your brush about half fttll of 
color, smoothing it out straight 
and square like a chisel, never 
allowing brush to become 
twisted or pointed, but must be 
kei)t flat. 

This is done by working the 
brush back and forth on your 
palette or piece of glass. 

Hold your brush firmly but 
lightly between front finger 
and thumb, similar to holding 
a pen or pencil, not too stifi, 
but so as to allow brush to turn 
or roll when necessary, as in 
outlining round letters. 

Keep your brush well filled 
with color to axoid ragged 
edges. 

Color should be proper con- 
sistency, not too thick or too 
thin, but just right, and you 
will have very little trouble 
making a perfect "edging," or 
"outline." 

!<'ins. I. I- jmi IN slio^v proiM-r 
Mti'okfN ill t'oriiiiiiu letterM iiiul oiit- 
liiiiiiu. 

Always remember to fill your 
brush full and work it out even- 
ly t)n your palette or glass, and 
when this is done several times 
draw the brush towards yoti, 
keeping it flat to the ])alette. 
and apply the palette side of 
brush to the sign, using the 
point of brush, pressing lightly. 

Never press hard on the heel 



\5 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



of your brush ; it's the wrong 
end to paint with. 

Varnishing Gold Work 

After your outlining is thor- 
oughly dry, wipe over lettering 
with a damp chamois skin and 
varnish the job, by pouring 
into a paper cup a small amount 
of the varnish sent you, and 
proceed to "outline" the letters 
with varnish, same as described 
in outlining, only using a clean 
(or new) brush and varnish, 
instead of the blue paint, being 
sure to cover entire back of let- 
ters and extending over the 
blue outline onto the glass }i 
inch or more, being careful to 
make a nice, clean, uniform job. 

Using Patterns 

By using the patterns sent 
you, it will be very easy to 
understand our method and be 
able to make your own "pounce 
patterns" and lay on the letters. 

It not being necessary to 
make a cut out pattern for 
every job, neither do we recom- 
mend it, as you can place each 
letter in exact position after 
you have made the "pounce 
l)attern." 

Pounce Pattern 

The "pounce pattern" is call- 
ed "layout," and should be 
made in the shop or at home, 
and on arrivel at the job 
"pounce" the pattern on the 
outside of the glass; do your 
gilding; reverse the pattern 
and use it on the inside of glass, 
on top of the gold, and you have 
an exact outline of your letter- 
ing. 

Then you are ready to use 
your separate letters (or the 
ones sent you) by laying let- 
ters on the perforated marks of 



"pounce pattern" and cleaning 
away the surplus gold with the 
round brush, previously de- 
scribed, and proceed with 
backing up, outlining or shad- 
ing and varnishing. 

See FIjt'. 45 on pnee Hi. 

SHADING 

Shading is for the sole pur- 
pose of causing letters to stand 
out, or have a raised appear- 
ance, which is very pleasing to 
the eye. 

All shading must be on left 

As in Fi;;'s. Hi, 24 nnil lit on paK'e 
IS, and FiK'K. '2ii and 21 on pa^e 17. 

and bottom of letters, except in 
script lettering, which must be 
shaded on opposite side and 
bottom. See fi^, 23 on Pa^e 17 
When lettering is dry, then 
you are ready for shading. 
This is done by sliding the let- 
ter or pattern to the left and 
down, the same width as stem 
of letters, marking edge of let- 
ters where shade is wanted 
with a lead pencil. 

FIks. 14 and Hi shows letters 
shaded with your "cut out" letters 
and connected to letter by dotted 
lines, as described in "Shading." 

This method of shading 
holds good in letters, scrolls 
and all shaded work in sign 
painting. 

Practice long "master 
strokes" in using lettering 
brush ; it looks professional, 
and is usually more perfect 
than the short ones, as a line 
or stroke can be drawn better 
fast than slow. Pay strict at- 
tention to the finished, or out- 
side of the stroke, letting inner 
side take care of itself. 

SMALTING SIGNS 

Where smalt background is 
wanted, cut in around letters 
with nice, clean "cutting in" 
black (see "cutting in" color). 
When all letters have been "cut 



16 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



in." "fill in" (or j)aint) remain- 
der of baekground and smalt 
immediately. Lay a smalt 
cloth on the floor and ])lace 
trestles crossways over it 
(smalt cloth shouhT he 3x30 
feet, made of strong- calico or 
an old muslin sign) ; lay sign to 
he smalted on trestles and sift 
smalt over entire board and let- 
ters (using a strainer of any 
kind that s a n d will r u n 





Ki^'. -O .shows split .sliiule on left 
<i<lo liiiil soiiil sli:i;i(* on ri;;lit si<l<>. 



KiK- '■^^ I 'itterii |ioiinf<-<l on uc>l<l 
losjf. iilttT ;iil<liiiu, is <irj. 





:i. >lnslin siikI oilcloHi sliii(t«> 



V'xVi. 'IW. i'ro|MT siil«' lo .sli:i<l«- nil 
script lottiTs. 



17 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 





Vits. -4. Split mill xtoii .slimlf ri'iiit> 
for lileiiit Nliaile ns in Fijj;'. IT. 




/'/f/^ 





V\k. i:{. < a.Ht siitiiir. 



IS 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



^—^ 




Pie. 4 mIiown ^vlint is cnlletl the 
STK^l or IIODV of lettiTN. 




/^^/■s? 



Pie. UK iust .slisiile. 




Fijf. 12. & 18 Proper stroken to form round letters. 




V "< ut In" H"«l linrtlj lllletl In hIkii. 



10 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



through) covering sign to a 
depth of ys inch or more. Look 
carefully over the entire job 
(looking toward the light), see 
if every place is thoroughly 
covered. If all bare places 
(called shiners) are covered, 
you will turn board edgeways 
on trestle, allowing smalt to be 
dumped off into smalt cloth. 
You will then trim (or l)lack 
off) edges and ends of sign, 
with "flat back" (lamp black 
turpentine) when edges are 
dry. set sign against wall or on 
uprights (se uprights in shop 
equipment). 

SCREEN SIGNS 

Screen signs are made to fit 
on inside at bottom of win- 
dows, and do not permit the 
])eople "gazing in," which adds 
privacy to the office and will 
not exclude the light, also al- 
lowing you to look out of win- 
dows as readily as though they 
were not there. 

They may be lettered with 
any inscription, using round or 
flat face raised wood letters. 
First make frames of wood to 
match interior finish or fixtures 
in building, finish and \arnish 
to suit, then stretch 60 mesh 
bronze screen on the frame, 
keeping it perfectly even and 
tight. 

Lay on raised letters (that 
have previously been gilded) to 
suit space, when satisfied with 
"laycjut" you are ready to fas- 
ten them on. Remove them 
from the screen and set frame 
up edgeways ; you will then 
tack cheap yardsticks on face 
of screen, at bottom, or base 
line of letters, full length of 
wording on each line. Then 
you will lav screen and frani',' 



down (face up) and place let- 
ters in position on top of yard- 
stick. 

Remove letters and stand 
screen and frame on edge again. 
This entire operation requires 
a helper to hold frame on edge 
and drive the tacks (or tack on 
letters). 

Hold your letters in place by 
means of a 2x4, about 2 feet 
long, covered on one end with 
two thicknesses ' of chamois 
skin. This you will dampen 
and hold securely against face 
of letters, while your helper 
drives the tacks through the 
screen into back of letters. 
Make no mistakes in spelling 
or placing tacks, as screen is 
very expensive and holes and 
soiled places cannot be re- 
paired. (See price list). 

EMBOSSED GOLD 

To emboss gold letters on 
glass, gild and outline in usual 
manner. Coat one letter at a 
time with thick Demar varnish. 
When letter is coated, dabble 
the end of a half-inch bristle 
fitch (that has previously been 
cut t)ft') into the varnish. This is 
called embossing (or stip- 
pling). When thoroughly dry 
(say over night) size and gild 
as in glass gilding. This is 
used on inside of letters that 
have previously been outlined 
in burnished gold, and for 
backgrounds that have been 
lettered in any dark color. For 
embossing backgrounds, letter 
panel in black or any dark 
color, and shade with asphal- 
tum to which has been added 
a little quick rubbing varnish. 
Coat over all with Demar \ar- 
nish, ami :--t:]^|)lc a-^ di '^' 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



1)rush. and giUl with lemon or 
deep gold, using water size. 

FLAT COATING 

Most all coating in the sign 
shop should be flat or semi- 
flat. This is imi)ortant and 
very essential. In laying out 
and smalting, smalt will stick- 
to glossy surfaces, causing all 
kinds of trouble. Marking 
with chalk or pencil on glossy 
surfaces will dig into the soft 
glossy film and almost spoil the 
job. Semi-fiat coats are sel- 
dom used unless same is to be 
varnished over. All colors 
(ground in japan and thinned 
with turpentine) will dry per- 
fectly flat and free from gloss. 
White lead (ground in oil. 
thinned with turpentine) will 
also dry flat. If gloss or semi- 
gloss is recjuired, add rubbing 
varnish to the Japan colors and 
oil to the white lead. To draw 
oil out of white lead, break u]) 
a small keg of lead in tur])cn- 
tine and let stand over night. 
Dip off the oil and repeat as 
often as necessary. This can 
be mixed with Demar varnish 
or any light-colored varnish, 
and is mostly done in this man- 
ner for wagon work, when i)er- 
fcctly wdiite job is wanted. 

ACID 

Nitric acid may be kept in 
glass bottles or earthen jugs, 
and is used for etching on 
brass. Hydrofluoric acid must 
be kept in either paraffine. gut- 
ta percha or lead bottles or 
jugs, and never in glass recep- 
ticles. and is used for etching 
on glass. 

GOLD STIPPLE ON 
BOARD SIGNS 



To Stipple background on 
board signs in gold leaf, pro- 
ceed to cut in and smalt, same 
as in smalting board signs. To 
cutting in color add a trifle 
more japan and allow to dry 
longer. \\^hen dry, paint with 
a thin coat of flat white, using 
])lenty of japan dryer. Be very 
careful in this coat, and do not 
rub out the paint, as it will 
loosen the smalt, making let- 
ters rough. And should smalt 
get in letters on this coating, 
go over each letter with yotir 
fingers which wall knock every 
particle of smalt off. \\'hen 
second coat is dry, thin shellac 
entire surface and size in "sIoav 
size." W^hen readv, gild on out 
f>f book as in Gilding ( Surface 
or flat letters). Before burnish- 
ing, press down entire gilded 
surface with a piece of cotton 
or pbish. This will force gold 
in all hollow places. Lettering 
mav be done in black or anv 
dark color that w^ill look good 
with a gold backjrround. Do 
iwt fill in letters with black en- 
tirely, but leave % inch of flat 
gold around letters. 

CIRCLES 

Circles mav be made on an\- 
surface excc|)t gla^^s by placing 
a tack in exact middle of wdiere 
circle is wanted and making 
one end of thread (or any good 
string that will not stretch) 
fast to the tack and with loop 
at the other end, place lead- 
jiencil in loop and mark circle 
the size wanted, or mav be 
drawn by means of carpenter's 
compasses. To make a gold 
leaf circle on glass, gild where 
circle is w\anted, and by cutting 
the exact size of circle out of 



21 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



cardboard, place on back of 
gold and clean gold away with 
square end of a damp stick. If 
half inch stripe is wanted in 
circle on the glass, two card- 
boards may be necessary. A 
large one the size of outside of 
circle, and one a half inch 
smaller. Back up with rub- 
bing varnish as in (Gold AVork 
on Glass). 

LAUNDRY SIGNS 

The most practical and use- 
ful laundry signs made are the 
Sidewalk sign, Double-faced 
Board sign, and Glass Hanging 
sign. The sidewalk sign is 
made of white pine boards, 12 
inches wide, tongue and 
grooved and glued together. 
When dry, plane off smooth 
and with No. 1^ sandpaper on 
a block, rvib across the grain 
until plane marks disappear. 
Before planing and sanding, 
nail a 1x2 inch strip on top and 
bottom. This w\\\ keep sign 
from warping, prime and coat 
(as in priming and second coat- 
ing). Letter in black, dark 
blue, dark red or any dark 
color, and shade with tints (as 
i n oilcloth signs). T h e 
"Double-faced" Board sign is 
rsually 12 inches by 18 inches 
;ind lettered on both sides, 
cleated on ends, coated and let- 
tered (as in sidewalk signs) ; 
are fastened ' to building bv 
means of a 1x3 inch cleat,. 18 
in.ches lonsr, nailed on edge of 
ove end. This strip will extend 
3 inches over at top and bot- 
tom, and can be nailed or 
screwed to building and sign 
will extend out, making a very 
attractive doul)le-faced sign 
and inex])ensi\e in lots of a 



dozen or more. The Glass 
Hanging sign also makes an at- 
tractive sign for hanging in 
windows, etc., and should be 
double thick glass, 12x18 in. 
or larger, suspended by brass 
chain. Chain should be fas- 
tened to sign by means of drill- 
ing holes in the two upper cor- 
ners and brass cleats bolted 
into each hole or by using the 
ladle chain placed around en- 
tire sign. This may be sup- 
ported by two pieces of jack 
chain, desired length. This 
sign may be lettered in gold 
leaf or any dark color of let- 
ters and shaded to suit, but 
should have either a frosted 
background (see white frosted 
glass) or a Flitter background 
(see Flitter), making a beauti- 
ful transparency. Background 
may also be of any opaque 
co^.or, leaving thS letters to be 
frosted, which will make a 
beautiful sign. ^lake pounce 
pattern and layout sign as pre- 
viously mentioned in "pounce 
patterns" and "cutting in" 
color. 

LAYOUTS 

Laying out signs ("called 
layout") is very interesting and 
requires no small amount of 
taste, but by looking at other 
signs and layouts you will see 
that there are many different 
ways to arrange them, and it 
would be impossible for us to 
attempt anything further than 
snap])ing lines, drawing semi- 
circles, letters, etc. 

See FiKN. E ami A on vn-j:v -Jli. 

MUSLIN SIGNS 

Muslin signs are one of the 
most i)opular temporary signs 
made, and <i4-e -used across store 



22 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



fronts for special announce- 
ments, removal sales, openings, 
etc. Also used for signs on 
frames large enough to cover 
entire huiUlings. 

Muslin signs are lettered in 
o'\\ colors, thinned with ben- 
zine. Add very little jajjan 
drier, and make color very 
ih.'n. 

I'h'.ce letters on as in oil cloth- 
signs, and mark around with 
iharp lead j;encil. Letter with 
regular sign ]iainter's muslin 
brush ers and shade as directed 
(in "oil cloth signs") using 




Kiu. 1'^. Sliowiii;^ l>r*i|>«T iiietli:><l 
iiiitl iiii;;l<' <«» |»l!if»' l»'<t«Ts oil :i .seiiii- 
firolt- — \<)'I'K tlie liiu- in eYiiot cen- 
ter ttt eaeli letter. 




Fiu'. "A." iO\net itu.sitioii t«t hold 
lettering iM-iK-il iinil tinu«TN in <lr:i\\- 
iii;; top :iii<l liaittoni line. 



tints. Shadhig must be kei)t 
away from letters. Large 
sale signs can be "cut in" with 
water color, sometimes called 
"distemper color." For this 
you will use prepared calci- 
mine, called "muresco," which 
is })re])ared with glue, etc., 
ready to mix and thin witli 
iM^iling water. 

First mix in boiling water 
into thick paste, then thin to 
l-rnDcr wordcing c -i^istencv 
vv-i<h hot wat'^r. (This you 
'\-i11 try out on a scrap of mus- 
lin.) "Cut ill" arc~)und letters, 
lerning the clear white musTn. 
which mnkes a very a<-trnctive 
sign, by using red or blue back- 
ground. 

In "cut in" work, letters may 
be spaced closer than "letter- 
ing on ;" in fact, letters may 
almost touch each other and 
still look good, if spacing is 
uniform. After lettering one 
or two signs you will see vour 
little blunders, and be able to 
straighten out defects. 

These signs may be lettered 
with "cut out letters," or by 
marking around letters, "rut- 
ting in" with "fitch" or "bristle 
brush." 

The above descr'b':'d si""n 
can be done in oil co^or. and is 
sometimes preferable. 

LEMON GOLD LEAF 

Lemon gold leaf should 
never be used on outside, or ex- 
posed to the weather, unless 
thoroughly varnished, as it will 
tarnish in a very short time. 
However, it may be used in 
gilding on glass and wagon let- 
terimr (same as deep gold leaf) 
and will wear equally as well if 
\arnished over. 

It is also used fi)r inside of 



23 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



letters and is called "mat gold." 
For this purpose you will gild 
and "patch up" job (as in glass 
gilding). When job is gilded 
and "patched up," you will then 
outline the letters with the fol- 
lowing "backing up color :" 
"To lamp black" (ground in 
japan) add rubbing varnish, 
and thin with turpentine to 
proper working consistency. 
After pouncing on the letters 
(as described in using "pounce 
pattern") you will follow the 
"pounce" lines, making an 
even outline on the letters. 

When dry, clean ofif surplus 
gold with damp cotton and fin- 
ish cleaning with damp cham- 
ois skin ; and "size" (or coat) 
inside of letters with clear, 
"quick size." When dry, "gild 
on" out of book ; this will give 
you a burnished outline, and 
"mat gold" center, and is called 
"double gold lettering" or "em- 
bossed gold lettering." 

ETCHING GOLD (On Glass) 

To etch pictures or designs 
on gold leaf, make pounce pat- 
tern of picture or design and 
place on outside of glass and 
pounce, then trace over pounce 
marks with a grease pencil, 
then gild in the usual manner. 
Avoid patching and overlap- 
ping as much as possible. 
When patching and washing is 
done (as in glass gilding) you 
will reverse the pattern and use 
it on inside of glass and pounce 
the design on the gilded sur- 
face. Now coat over design on 
outside with water color black. 
You will then scratch or draw 
the outline of your picture or 
design with a sharp stick 
through the gold, the water- 
color (on the outside) will 



24 



show through and aid you in 
shading. To shade the picture 
(or etching as most commonly 
known) you will cut ofif a ^-in. 
bristle fitch, 34-iiich from 
the ferrule. This will leave the 
bristles stifif enough to cut 
through the gold leaf and do 
your shading (or etching). 
When picture or design is 
etched, clean the black off of 
outside and back up design 
with japan black on the inside. 
For backing up use lamp black 
(ground in japan) to which is 
added quick rubbing varnish 
and thinned to a proper work- 
ing consistency with turpen- 
tine. One coat will be sufficient 
and may be varnished in about 
two hours. 

PRIMING COAT FOR 
BOARDS 

The priming or first coat on 
new boards should be very thin, 
mixing the white lead with 
about one-third oil and two- 
thirds turpentine, adding a 
small amount of dryer to aid in 
drying hard, so it can be sand 
])apered smooth. 

First, coat all knots and 
pithy nlaces with thin shellac, 
let stand 30 minutes or until 
dry. then coat (or prime), 
putty all cracks and holes. 

Rub the priming coat into 
the wood thoroughly by cross- 
ing and recrossing with the 
brush several times. 

When this coat is thorough- 
ly dry or hard, sand paper and 
You are then ready for a second 
coat. (See second coating.) 

FLOCK 

Flock is used for back- 
grounds on oilcloth and makes 
a beautiful inside sign. 

Oilcldth strcchcd on ;i 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



frame, size in lettering with 
quick size, and rub on gold 
bronze, "cut in" and sprinkle on 
flock (same as in smalting 
signs). 

Cut in with oil color about 
same shade as flock. Flock 
may be had in most any color 
desired. 

FROSTING ON GLASS 

The two most used frostings. 
in the sign business, is the one 
as described in "white frosted 
glass" and the one herewith de- 
scribed. 

Tie up a large piece of com- 
mon house painters' putty (size 
of fist), in a piece of cheese 
cloth, leaving enough of the 
latter to hold as a handle. With 
this, dabble over glass where 
frosting is wanted (using putty 
very soft), making perfectly 
even, when dry this may be 
varnished. 

WAGON LETTERING 

Wagon letiering may be 
done, on the "flat coat" or, after 
the rubbing varnish has been 
;UM)lied. and thoroughly dried. 
The rubbing varnish should be 
rubbed with ])ulvcrisc(l pumice 
stone, or curled hair, which re- 
moves the gloss and i)rcvents 
the proi(l from sticking. 

However, it is l)est U) b; 
wjyrc "sure than sorry" and 
thoroughly "pounce" the sur- 
face to be lettered with your 
white "pounce bag"; this will 
usually ])rcvcnt g"ld from 
sticking. 

Should the surface not be 
thoroughly hard (or' dry) it is 
better to wait a few days, or 
trv the following, which is a 
sure preventive and is used only 
ill extreme cases : 



Coat surface (to be lettered) 
with white of egg diluted with 
water ; if any gold sticks to this 
it can be easily washed or 
wiped ofl^, with moist chamois 
skin. 

Now make "Pounce Pattern" 
and proceed in the usual man- 
ner to "layout" job. Size let- 
ters carefully and evenly with 
our celebrated quick size, and 
lay it on smoothly and not too 
runs and leaves wrinkles in the 
gilding. 

Begin to lay on size from left 
to right, as in glass sizing and 
gilding. 

When size is thoroutjhly dry 
(or to the desired "tack"), gild 
and burnish with cotton as in 
glass gilding, then shade and 
outline. (See shading.) 

Sof I<'i'.i-»i. -<> :iii!l '21 on iia^e 17. 

WIRE SIGNS 

Scmietimes called "Sky 
Signs," are made of No. 9 gal- 
\ anized wire, woxen in dia- 
mond shape (or "Mesh"), any 
size "mesh" up to 3 inches, and 
is either set in channel, or 
round iron frame. "Channel 
iron frame" being more expen- 
si\e, round iron frame Is 
cheaper and must be set in an 
extra gas i)ii)e frame, in order 
to hold sign securely, and is 
u: ed on roofs of buildings only, 
and is called "Sky Sign." 

Flat galvanized iron letters 
is the f)nly style recommended 
for "Sky Signs. The letters 
may be cut out of 28-gauge gal- 
\ anized iron, painted black and 
fastened to *'\\'ire Mesh" with 
ct)i)per wire or copper rixets. 
wire being most ]iractical, black 
letters being the only co'or that 
will contrast with a li'^-ht blue 
sky. m'd<es a \e-y (lur;il)]>- aii'! 
lecfible siuii. 



2t> 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



The "Wire Mesh" with 
"Channel Iron" frame is vised 
on store fronts, and "double 
face" swinging signs, and may 
be painted any color to match 
front, or plain black, using 
raised wood letters — gilded. 
For store front signs and rib- 
bons, made of galvanized iron, 
painted and lettered in gold 
leaf and smalted any color. 

See V«>. 11 on itaue 27. 

WINDOW SIGNS 

Make "Pounce Pattern" of 
lettering desired and place on 
outside of window as previous- 
ly explained, g:o over pattern 
v.M>h "Pounce Bag." 

Size in the letters with our 
"celebrated quick size" allow- 
ing same to dry about f^ of an 
hour, or until ])roper "Tack" is 
felt. 

Place back of finger to size 
and if it appears dry and hard, 
it will be ready for gilding. If 
gilded when too wet, you will 
drown the gold ; hence, a poor 
gild, and gold cannot be prop- 
erly burnished unless size is 
the proper "tack." 

After becoming accustomed 
to gilding and feeling the size, 
vou will encounter no difficulty. 
(See quick and slow size.) 

Use the same "Size" for Gold 
and Aluminum Bronze. 

GILDERS' TIP 

The gilders' tip is made of 
camel's hair, in different 
lengths, from 1 inch to 3 inches, 
and must be thoroughly wiped 
through the hair (or side of 
face) before lifting the gold leaf 
from the book to surface to be 
gilded. 

Tip used for laying silver 
leaf, is much stronger, and 
made of badger hair. The 



camel's hair tip is used only 
for laying gold leaf on glass, 
and gilding dil^cult places on 
scrolls and raised letters. 

WHITE FROSTED GLASS 

Mix white lead and boiled 
oil to the consistency of thick 
cream, and coat glass to be 
frosted. 

Then fill a Durham tobacco 
bag with cotton, turn glass to 
the light, and tap the paint 
gently until it appears evenly. 
(This is called stippling.) 

ZINC ETCHED STENCILS 

On No. 4 sheet zinc, place 
your design (or layout) and 
paint around the lettering with 
best turpentine asphaltum, be- 
ing careful to cover every spot 
except the lettering. Coat back 
of zinc with melted parafifine 
& pour muriatic acid on side to 
be etched ; wipe over lettering 
gently with a piece of cotton 
while etching. A\'hen acid has 
eaten its way completely 
through, rinse in clear water 
and remove asphaltum with 
coal oil. Now warm the zinc 
plate until parafifine begins to 
melt, and wipe ofif with soft 
cloth. 

To make temporary etching 
tub, use a piece of oilcloth, 
fastened in a frame made of 
lx2-inch wood strips, large 
enough for your zinc plate, 
keep tub in motion while plate 
is etching. 

TRANSPARENCIES 

Make "pounce pattern" and 
"layout" your glass, same as in 
window and glass work. Using 
the "pounce ])attern" on inside 
of glass, going over same 
slightly with white "pounce 



26 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



"Cut in" around lettering" 
with oil black, (.r an\- color, 
ground in oil. being first 
thinned to proper working con- 
sistency with boiled oil, and add 
small anioiuit of japan dryer. 

When black is dry ; frost. 
( See white frosted glass. ) For 
quick work. 



"Cut in" with lamp black, 
ground in japan, and a little 
let stand until dissolved. Shake 
quick rubbing varnish added ; 
thin to proper consistency with 
turpentine. 

This you will fnid the cpiick- 
est, and best way. recpiiring 
but ( me coat of black. 




RAISED LETTERS ON 
WIRE 

To fasten raised wood let- 
ters on wire mesh signs, gild 
letters in usual way and coat 
back of letters, with one coat 
of golden ochre (ground in 
japan), thin with turpentine to 
consistency of thick cream. 

When this is thoroughly dry 
fasten on wire mesh by means 
of ea'\ani/.ed iron staples. 

Great care must be exercised 
in splitting letters when driv- 
ing in sta])les. Use 2x4 co\- 
crcd on end with two thick- 
nesses of d.aniT) chamo'S ^k'u. 
hold against face of letters (as 
in Screen Signs). 

GILDING RAISED 
LETTERS 

Proceed to gild raised letters 
out of book same as jn gilding 
surface or flat letters, except 
when letters are \^ery small, or 
as in case of script, or difficult 
letters, then gilder's tip may be 
used as in gilding on glass. 
(See glass gilding.) 



27 



■tt«Ts on ^vir«'si;;ii. 

AMOUNT OF LETTERING 

• Vn excessive amount of let- 
tering must be charged extra. 

You should, both, for the 
customer's benefit and yours. 
!(^id d()\\'ii tlie amount of let- 
tering as far as possible. Too 
mtich spoils the appearance 
and legibility of a sign, besi les 
"brevity is the soul of adver- 
tising." 

SHELLAC 

Shellac is used for coating 
over knots and sap])y places 
before painting. 

.\lso used in quick work, 
over priming coats, or second 
coats, and before laying on 
"size" for gilding, for the lat- 
ter, you will find very benefi- 
cial, as it stops all suction and 
prevents "size" from striking 
in. 

Putty in nail holes, and 
cracks. will always show 
throuph the "size" unless coat- 
ed with shellac before sizing. 

Shellac is made by dis.solv- 
ing gum shellac, one pound in 




BUILDING SUGGESTING VARIOUS SI 
The above picture shows the different I 
making it easier for both the salesman and c 
look best and be most serviceable. 

The above buildings are printed one-thi 
ience. For sale by The Pullman School of 




;$ OF SIGNS AND MANNER OF PLACING THEM 

ds of signs and the different places for signs, 

tomer to understand what kind of a sign will 



larger and made in tablets for your conven- 
ettering. Write for price. 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



one quart of grain alcohol, and 
occasionally and thin with alco- 
hol to suit. 

Avoid trouble, by using shel- 
lac very thin. 

Flow on quickly, and avoid 
p-oing over more than once, 
with brush. 

SILVER LEAF 

Silver leaf should never be 
used on outside work, or left 
exposed to the air and light, 
causing it to tarnish. 

It may be used in gilding on 
glass work, same as gold leaf, 
by using size a trifle stronger. 

Proceed same as in (gilding 
on glass). 

RAISED LETTERS ON 
BOARDS 

A cheap and quick way to 
fasten raised letters on board 
signs, is to smalt and black the 
edges of boards first, when 
thoroughly dry, place a heavy 
clean fish line on board, where 
letters are to be ^laced. by aid 
of bradawl, at one end. make 
fast, and draw line tight and in 
place. Lay letters in place and 
i^roperly snaced. put one brad 
in each letter to hold them tem- 
iM^rarily. This will keep them 
from iarring out of place until 
nailed on securelv putting' in 
ribont four brads to each six- 
inch hotter, more or Ic^s, as '"e- 
quircd according to size. Re- 
move fish line and sign is 
completed. 

OILCLOTH 

C )iU-loth can be had in either 
(lull or glossv finish. 36, 45 and 
54 inches wide. 

The dull finish being prefer- 
able and does not reouire the 
benzine rub. as described in oil- 



cloth signs. 

TRACING PATTERNS 

Tracing patterns are done 
after letters are placed in posi- 
tion and carefully marked 
around with a lead pencil. 

For tracing, use dressmaker's 
tracing wheel, place pattern on 
a soft pine board, and carefully 
trace each letter. When fin- 
ished, turn over and sand paper 
the marks caused by tracing 
wheel, then pattern is ready for 
use. 

See the letter "I^" attached 
to pattern sent you. 

QUICK SIZE 

"Quick size" is used for sur- 
face lettering on board signs, 
wagon lettering, and for gold 
and aluminum bronze, on win- 
dow work. In using "quick 
size." you must be very care- 
ful to lay on even, avoiding 
runs. 

When dried to the desired 
"tack" for gilding (as explained 
in window si<^ms), lay gold leaf 
on out of book, this is called 
"gilding from the book." A 
drop or two of boiled oil will 
be of great helj:) in sizing in a 
large job, where there is lots 
of readirg matter. The oil will 
slow it down, and give vou a 
chance to "size in" several let- 
ters before starting to gild. 

Watch "size" closely, that it 
(Iocs not dry to quickly (or "get 
away") and become so hard 
that there is no "tack" left, and 
gold will not adhere to the 
"size." In "slow size" you will 
seldom experience such diffi- 
culty. 

"KLEAN KUPS" 

To have clean cups at all 
times. }-ou should provide your- 



28 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



self with a lye tub. A 5-gallon 
stone jar is best for this pur- 
pose. To one can of Lewis' 
Concentrated Lye, put 3 gal- 
lons of water. Place in stone 
jar and keep tin cups in over 
iiifj-ht, or longer, until paint will 
wash off in clear water, or, send 
for a hundred of our famous 
Liquid-Proof "Klean Kups", 
knocked down, ready for vou 
to fold, as the one sent you. 
(See price list.) 

BARBER POLES 

To repaint Barber Poles, 
trace all stripes, scrolls, etc.. 
with indelible lead pencil, ana 
paint the entire barber pole 
with a thin coat of flat white, 
and continue to coat until per- 
fectly white. Size and gild the 
ball and other places to be gild- 
ed with "slow" size, but do not 
varnish over the gold. Then 
stri])e with red and blue, and 
when dry, finish by varnishing 
with Deniar \irnish. 

ALUMINUM 
(Leaf and Bronze) 

Aluminum Leaf and Alum- 
inum Bronze must 1)e applied 
to "quick size" only. Do not 
attem])t glass-gihling with 
Aluminum Leaf. It will not 
work. A hi milium Leaf is used 
principally for raised and sur- 
face letters on inside work only. 
Aluminum Bronze for outside 
window lettering and edges of 
board signs in the shop. For 
--irii)inu- and outlining, use "lin- 
ing aluminum bronze" mixed 
thick in rnbl)iiig varnish and 
ihiniu-d with turi)entine. 'I'o 
do a while job of lettering on 
dark surface, add a little "lin- 
ing aluminum bronze" to the 
wliite. It will cover b.'ttcr and 
von can often <>,et awav witli 



one coat of paint on your let- 
ters. 

SKEWING BOX 

A small box used for the sole 
purpose of cleaning skewings 
from gilding is made as fol- 
lows : Take an ordinary cigar 
box, remove lid, and cover with 
common wire screen. When 
skewing box is full, empty and 
sell to the buyer of gold waste. 
We urge the saving of all cot- 
ton used for burnishing and 
cleaning gold (on glass), or 
(surface gildinp-'i, also all old 
letters which have been gilded 
and are beyond repair. Burn 
them in the stove and save the 
ashes. 

LIQUIDS 

(Used in Sign Painting Busi- 
ness) 

Demar varnish. 

(Juick rnl)1)ing varnish. 

S])ar \arnish. 

Coach varnish. 

Asphaltum. 

White shellac. 

( )range shellac. 

( irain alcohol. 

Wood alcohol. 

'I\iri)entine. 

Japan. 

Nonpareil, gold size. 

I'^it oil. 

Boiled linseed oil. 

Le Page's glue. 

GILDING (Outside) 

"Slow size" should be used 
for outside gilding, as it wears 
longer and no danger of drying 
too fast. When gilding store 
fronts, "quick size" should be 
used. Ixcmembcr that gold 
will adhere to any sticky sur- 
face, so (lit not forget the 
"pounce bag." Patent leaf (or 



2<) 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



outside gold) should be used on 
all outside gilding. To make, 
rub one side of leaves in gold 
book with common beeswax. 
In closing book, your gold will 
adhere to the waxed leaves. 
Then cut out one leaf at a time 
as needed, and by pressing to 
sized portions with thumb, the 
and stick to the "size." This is 
used in windy weather with 
great success, when ordinary 
gold would blow away. 

LACQUER 
(For Tin Signs, Etc.) 

A very beautiful imitation of 
brass signs may be made by 
lacquering new sheet tin, and 
lettering in black or"cutting in" 
with black, or any dark color, 
leaving the brass letters, but is 
not recommended for outside 
use. To very thin baking var- 
nish, add enough Tumeric to 
color as desired, and bake in 
slow oven ; or, 

Seed lac, 3 ounces ; Tumeric, 
1 ounce ; Dragon's blood, 34 
ounce ; Alcohol, 1 pint. Digest 
one week. Shake frequently, 
but do not bake. 

CHALK LINE 

The chalk line is another al- 
most indispensal)le tool, in the 
sign shop. A thin fish line mak- 
ing the best and strongest line 
for almost all purposes. Make 
marks at one end of sign for 
space and letters, and duplicate 
these marks on the other end, 
by marking on yard stick and 
measuring them ofif where 
wanted. By means of a small 
fish hook with (barb filed ofY) 
tied to one end of line, and 
hooked into cloth, or board, 
von are ready to "snaj/' the 



line. To "snap" line, draw 
tight and lift with thumb and 
finger, letting loose and repeat 
as often as lines are wanted. 
Use charcoal, blue chalk, or 
common school crayon, for 
chalking lines. 

THREAD LINES 

For short lines, wrap black 
cotton thread around end of lit- 
tle finger, on left hand. Chalk 
the thread with common school 
crayon, place little finger with 
thread wrapped around, at 
starting point where line is 
wanted, take hold of thread 
with fore-finger and thumb of 
left hand, then pull tight with 
right hand, and snap by letting 
go with thumb and finger of 
left hand. This you will find 
to be one of the most useful 
ways ever discovered, with 
which to make chalk line on 
signs and glass. Lines can be 
made at any angle by adjusting 
and raising and hiwering the 
hands. 




Kitt. 



Siiiipiiinu' tlirend line. 



REAL ESTATE SIGNS 

Real Estate signs are usu- 
ally made of white ])ine in the 
following sizes: 1x2 feet. 2x.S 
feet. .^x4 feet. 4x.^ feet, 4x6 feet. 



M) 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



6x(S feet. 7x9 feet. The larger 
sizes can be made of galvanized 
iron with a wood frame, cost 
being practicallv the same as 
wood. 2x3 feet, 3x4 feet, 4x5 
feet, 4x6 feet boards, should be 
made of wide kiln-dried lum- 
ber, tongue and grooved, and 
clamped together until glue is 
thoroughly dry. First shellac 
all knots and satM-iv places, then 
prime with white lead and oil. 
Second coat should be white 
lead thinned with benzine, 
putty all holes and cracks with 
white lead putty before second 
coating. (See Putty — How to 
Make.) 

CARVED LETTERS 

Carved letters are made of 
.)4-inch kiln dried white pine, 
and are commonly called raised 
letters, and should be painted 
three coats, sized and gilded in 
the usual manner. They are to 
be used on all raised letter jobs. 
Send to Spanjer Brothers, Chi- 
cago, for ])rice list and catalog, 
or, send inscription and size of 
board letters are wanted for. 
and we will give prices and size 
(if letters you should have to fit 
gold will let loose of the leaves 
tlie board. 

DRILLING HOLES IN 
GLASS 

Lay glass on a solid le\ el 
table' Cut an X (with "red 
devil" glass cutter) where holes 
are wanted, and with a three- 
cornered file, fastened in a car- 
penter's brace, proceed to drill 
until halfway through. M'urn 
o\ er and mark another X an 1 
jinish drilling. To make drill, 
get smallest three-cornered fde 
l^ossible, and with i)inchers. 
break off end, until ragged 



enough to cut good. When 
drilling, keep hole full as pos- 
sible of turpentine. Drills for 
sale by the Pullman School of 
Lettering. (See price list.) 

PUTTY 

Dry white lead putty is the 
most popular i)utty in the sign 
shop, and is used for filling 
holes and cracks in new and old 
board signs. New boards 
should always be primed (or 
lirst coated) before -puttying. 

To make the abo\ e i)Utty (com- 
monly called lead putty) put 
out on a board or any solid 
[)lace, two i)ounds of dry white 
lead, add equal parts cjf quick 
rulibing \ arnish and turpentine 
until mixed into a thick mass. 

I hen pound with a hammer 
until lumps disappear, (ireat 
care should be exercised in mix- 
ing this putty thick (or dry), 
keej) in water when through 
using. The writer prefers ct)m- 
mon glazier's putty for nail 
holes in raised letters, where 
they are to be sheliaced and 
sized for gilding. The lead 
])Utty should be squeezed into 
cracks and holes with a stiff 
putty knife, allow^ed to dry 
hard, then sand pai)ered 
smooth. By mixing too much 
rubbing varnish into lead putty, 
it will be impossible to sand 
paper, causing the putty to dry 
too hard, and great care should 
be taken in preparing it. Hot 
glue and whiting makes an ex- 
cellent putty for knot holes and 
large cracks. 

MOULDING 
(For Glass Signs) 

.Ml glass signs, except inside 
hanging signs, should ha\e 
either oxidized copper (.r pol- 



.31 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



ished bronze border. The oxi- 
dized copper border is the most 
commonly used and looks best 
with most any color of back- 
ground. Send to us for prices. 

OIL CLOTH SIGNS 

To prepare oil cloth for let- 
tering, stretch out on wall the 
size wanted, and go over en- 
tire surface with a big piece of 
cotton, first dipped in benzine, 
then in whiting, being very 
careful to touch every particle 
of surface ; this will prevent 
your color from "creeping." 
Then "snap" or ("draw") your 
lines where letters are to be 
placed, and proceed with lay- 
out, letter in any color, and 
shade, or outline, to suit. Let- 
tering may be done in Oil 
Black or Japan Colors, shading 
in light colors, such as, light 
green, light yellow, drab or 
ivlnk ; in fact, most any light 
tint. Oil cloth is very often 
smalted, and when stretched on 
a frame and lettered has the 
exact appearance of a board 
sign, and wears for one year or 
more, if put flat on building 
where wind cannot get at it. 
Black or blue smalts being pre- 
fc rable, with white or light yel- 
low letters. Proceed with 
"cutting in" as in (Board 
Signs). 

JAPANNED TIN SIGNS 

Simply wrap in pattern paper 
a japanned tin the exact size 
wanted for the sign, and lay 
cut as for pounce pattern, then 
unwrai) and rub white pounce 
bag over paper and place tin 
face down on white, and trace 
letters with a lead pencil, this 
will give an exact impression. 
Letter with quick size, to which 
has been added a small amount 



of medium chrome yellow 
(ground in oil). 

Letter with a pencil brush or 
use cut-out letters and plush 
roller. Gild in the usual man- 
ner and wash over letters with 
cotton and water, then chamois 
dry. Japanned tin is made in 
black only, prepared and ready 
to letter. Can be had in most 
any size. 

CLEANING GLASS 

To clean old signs off of win- 
dow's, use a "Gem" safety razor 
blade, using a jeweler's hand 
\ice for a handle. This you 
will find one of the most useful 
articles for this purpose, and is 
also used for trimming edges 
of letters, such as round letter, 
etc. Wash glass with whiting 
and water, sponge off, and dry 
with a chamois skin. Then pol- 
ish with common newspaper, 
and you are ready for gilding. 

SPACING LETTERS 

There being no set rule for 
.'pacing letters, the space be- 
tween them should be meas- 
ured by the eye entirel}'. All 
: 'aces ]:)etv^'een letters must a])- 
rear the same. Letters are 
never the ^ame size, but they 
appear to be. 

Some letters occupy more 
space than others and when 
this happens in a line of letter- 
ing, you must make the space 
between the others in that line, 
to look as near the same as pos- 
sible. 

The most essential part is a 
pleasing effect. 

CUTTING IN COLOR 

Cutting in color should always 
be made up with plenty of oil, 
and just enough japan to dry 
over nieht. ."Cutting in black" 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



for snialting. shouUl he made of 
lani]) l)lack ( iyrouiul in oil). To 
this you will add a small lumh 
(>\ white lead ahout the size of 
an e.ug", and enoug^h japan to 
make it dry. say a tahlespoonful 
to each pint of color. Do not 
use japan color for smalting 
backgrounds, as it drys too fast 
v\m\ will not hold smalt and 
should ne\er be used for that 
purpose. However, it may he 
used with fine result in "cuttinc: 
in" on o^lass signs. Use Prus- 
sian blue in oil (for blue 
■^malts). and for other colors of 
-^malt, use paint as near the 
^ame color as possible, lea\-rng- 
out the wdiite lead. 

AWNING LETTERING 

Use dry lamp black mixed in 
cheap furniture varnish, thick 
like mush, and thin with ben- 
zine; or, to as])haltum, add dry 
lamp black, and thin with ben- 
zine. "Cut out" letters and use 
bristle brush to apply the black, 
usine semi-drv l)rush. 




/=/^/o . 



BRONZE SIGNS 
(Or Tablets) 

P.nni/.e tablets sell so little 
outside of the larger litirs, tliat 



we would ad\ise you to not 
bother with them at present. 
The prices run from $20 per sq. 
ft. up, ow'ing to the amount of 
work. The most elaborate 
carving is often done on pat- 
terns, which of course, makes 
price run up accordingly. You 
can give price wdien requested 
but will make more money pay- 
ing attention to other work. 

S»>e Ki«'. !► oil |i:iK'C .'{.">. 

BRASS SIGNS 

Brass signs may be used for 
sill signs, corner signs, drum 
signs, etc., in fact, for most any 
high-class business firm that 
can afford to ha\e them pol- 
ished often enough to keep in 
good sha])e, as they are far 
from being a lazy man's sign, 
and are being re])laced by the 
chipped and etched glass sign, 
and wn"ndow lettering. They 
are used with any sized bevel, 
or, without bevel, and make a 
beautiful sign if kept clean, 
h'tch and Fnamel, either letters 
or background. h""or particu- 
lars see hatching Brass Signs. 

.See Fi;>'. 7 on itiiKc :?.">. 
.See Vi^. 2 (ill |i3i.:xe -47. 

BOARD SIGNS 

I'oard signs are made in most 
all shapes and sizes and are 
used for overhead swinging 
signs, sill signs, panel signs, 
long board signs, etc. Over- 
head and long board and panel 
signs, should be smalted, being 
best for durability and beauty, 
h.owexer; they may be finished 
in varnished groind, lettered in 
flat surface gold i^r raised let- 
ters. Smalted backgrounds 
should not be i)lace{l within 
reach (if the i)asser-by, on ac- 
count i'^i the sandy finish, which 
m; ke^ an excellent place for 
<cratchiii<.> matches. 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 




DitVerent It ACKS I'or nI^aiim jiiiiI h irw Nii;:.^«>Kti<>iis :in to \^ Iktc .si;iii> 
iii:i.> (;(> iiiHtle for. 



,^4 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 




HE 



1 




LOAN&TRUST 

COMPANY 

(ESTABUSHED 188? 



F/tf.Z 





/^« 



MINNEAPOLIS 
TRUST COMR^NY 



^/<r,S. 



P/^./o 




F/(r, // 



I'iKN. !• mill lO Itratii/.f I'lililfts. 
l-'i^.N. N mill S-- Doiiblr Kiu'i' Si;iiiH. 
KiK. I I Sky Siuii. 



35 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



SHOP EQUIPMENT 

The Sign Shop shouUl be pro- 
vided with 2 pairs of trestles, 
called horses, about 2 ft. 6 in. 
high and 3 ft. 6 in. long; 1 large 
easel made of 1x4 white pine 
strips, about 3 ft. wide and 6 
ft. high, also holes for pegs in 
uprights 5 in. apart ; 6 2x4's for 
uprights, 3 or 4 inches longer 
than ceiling is high, with peg- 
holes 4 or 5 inches apart. Pegs 
should be made of old worn-out 
broom-handles, about 7 inches 
long ; being of hardwood, it will 
be impossible to break them. 
Spike a 2x4 on the center of 
ceiling, full length of the shop, 
and place one end of upright 
against the 2x4 on ceiling, and 
kick bottom end (on floor) in 
tight. This will hold a number 
of board signs and will keep 
them up end out of the way, 
also; shorter uprights may be 
used on the walls of the shop 
for the same purpose. 

BACKS FOR GLASS SIGNS 

Back boards for glass signs 

r-a4:€-made so that wh©n-glass-is~ 

: laid in frame, and moulding 

j screwed on, the glass will rest 

■ on its outer edge. Backs of 

! flass signs should be made so 

t^that glass will touch only on 

i'buter edge (where oxidized 

copper border is used), and do 

not allow glass to rest on any 

part, except ou-ter edge. Should 

this occur, sign will catch 

water and dust, causing it to 

reel in a very short time. 



GILDING 

(Surface or Flat Letters) 

Lay lettering to be gilded on 
trestles, or set upright on the 
easel and gild out of book. 
Start to gild bottom line of let- 
ters to prevent small particles 
of gold leaf falling down into 
size, causing rough places in 
gold when l)urnished. When 
sign is laying down on trestles, 
this precaution is not necessary. 
Place gold book in left hand, 
opening and turning leaves 
back wdth front finger of right 
hand. Press end of book 
fartherest from vou gently to 
the board and directly under 
the letter. Allow book to roll 
towards top of letter, pressing 
gently to stick gold to size. 
(See above cuts on sizing let- 
ters upright on easel). When 
pold is layed on all sized por- 
tions proceed with burnishing. 
\\'ith a wad of medicated cot- 
ton, the size of your fist, go 
over it in circular motion, tak- 
ing ofif the loose gold leaf ; this 
you will rub over the screen in 
--your, "skewing box" and save. 
When full you can sell all waste 
cotton and "skewings" to your 
gold dealer. Finish burnishing 
by rubbing over each letter in 
different directions to remove 
all wrinkles, and rough places, 
being careful not to scratch the 
gold leaf. 

DAMP BRUSHES 

Never allow your lettering 
brushes to come in contact with 




.36 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



water or cl-amp chamois skin, 
as brushes will lose their shape, 
and it renders them useless, 
inxariably causing them to be- 
come pointed — when they 
should be flat like a chisel. If 
one should be crowded and 
twisted out of shape, pull be- 
tween the thumb and hot putty 
knife, or stove-pipe, being care- 
ful that you do not scorch or 
to straighten it out properly. 
Ilien lay away in a flat posi- 
burn the hair, but warm enough 
tion. 

WALL SIGNS 

Xew brick, or raw wall, 
should be first primed with a 
thin coat of lead and oil, mostly 
oil. Measure size of wall to 
be lettered and make sketch, 
drawn to scale, one inch to the 
foot. Paint each letter on with 
best white lead, thinned with 
benzine, nothing else. Cut in 
;is soon as you like with dry 
l.'inip l)l-'ck. mixed to a mush in 
boiled linseed oil and small 



GALVANIZED IRON 
(How To Paint) 

It is very essential that care 
be taken in coating all galvan- 
ized iron, as it will soon peel off 
unless proi)erly treated. Coat 
with same mixture, and in same 
way, as Galvanized Iron Let- 
ters. 

INDELIBLE LAYOUTS 

^^'hen priming coat is thor- 
oughly dry, go over with No. 
Ij4 sand])aper. cutting until 
smooth. Lay on letters and 
mark around them with intlel- 
ible lead pencil. Putty all holes 
and cracks, then coat until per- 
fectly white. You will find the 
indelible marks will show 
through sufficiently to "cut in" 
or trace with lettering brush, 
or use the letters sent you and 
a i)lush roller. (See Cutting ^n 
Letters.) 

LETTERING BRUSHES 

Lettering brushes are made 
in all sizes, and of all kinds of 




r.mount of japan ; then thin 
v.ith b.Mizine to proper work- 
ing consistency. Cutting let- 
; rs must be done with a bristle 
fitch or bristle cutter and fdled 
in with a large bristle brush. 



material, and furnished by us 
for any kind, or size of sign 
you wish to paint. You should 
iiaxe brushes that are best suit- 
ed for the different signs to be 
painted, and by ordering of us 



llrifk WnU Simi In forojrroiiiul niitl rniNiMl letter wire sIkii in baek- 
;; roil 11)1. 

37 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



and stating what your needs 
are, we will gladly send yon 
suggestions and prices at once. 

We want you to succeed, bnt 
will not guarantee succc-s, i'^ 
you use inferior material and 
tools, or suggestions, from 
others. 

After you are through usir"; 
the lettering Inrushes, wash 
them thoroughly in tur])cntinc. 
pulling hetween thumh and fir- 
ger and dip])ing in and out of 
tur])entine until perfectly clean, 
then with a soft cloth \vi])e 
them dry and di|) into pure lard 
oil, till they are full of <^~c'\^^-'\ 
and wipe again, then smooth 
them out into chisel shri])C, lay 
away in j^encil b'^x and keer in 
dry place. Before usino- a-T'iin 
wash out grease in turpentin.e. 
Brushes kept in this manner 
will last for years. 

CARE OF BRUSHES 

Lettering brushes must be 
thoroughly washed in turpen- 
tine after using. ("See lettering 
brushes.") Fitches and larger 
bristle brushes mu^t Iv 
wrapped in paper. To wran. 
lay paper down and iV'-^-- ■ 
brushes on to]) cf it. \\'r-i'> 
paper around brush securely 
and fold in at end of bristle^. 
This will keep brush straight 
and ready for use. Set briv di- 
es in pail of benzine, deep 
enough to cover bristles of 
brush. Never keep them in 
water. Red sable, or any w^ater 
color brushes must be washed 
in clean water. Pull water out 
of brush gentlv with thumb and 
finger, and lay away in a 
straight position, d'ake care of 
your brushes and thev will last 
a long time, and obey you to 
the letter. 



.■^s 



MUSLIN 

Sign painters' muslin is pre- 
l^arcd and ready for use, put up 
in rolls, and is 24, 36 and 42 
inches wide, and may be 
stretched on frames, or lettered, 
and fastened to building with- 
out frame, is cliea]) and makes 
the best looking temporary sign 
in the business. 

Letter on finished side of 
muslin, which you will find to 
be smooth and completely 
filled with starch. The muslin, 
described herewith, is the very 
best made, and can be furnished 
by us in rolls of 60 yards each, 
or more, (vn receipt of order. 

VARNISH (Grounds) 

X'a.rnished (irounds may be 
used for backgrounds on any 
board signs for either raised or 
surface gold lettering. Prime 
and thoroughly coat, sand- 
l'ai>ering each coat perfectly 
:^mo(-th. being very careful to 
work out all brush marks, putty 
everv hole and crack. If back- 
ground is wanted, coat board 
three thin coats of dark lead 
('olor nnd. thr(H' coats of dr<")p 
l)1ack (g-ound in japan). Mix 
l^'a'^k ^vith ciuick rubbing var- 
nish, and thin wdth turjientine. 
\\ hen dry hair ofif each coat 
of black, with upholster's 
cnrl'^d hair until smooth and 
free from little particles. L^se 
\erv little rublnng varnish in 
the b'ack. above mentioned, 
and a]ii)ly with camel's hair 
brush ; when dry, coat over the 
])lack with one coat of color 
\ arnish, made of quick rubbing 
\arnish and colored slightly 
with clean drop black (gnnmd 
in ia])an). Wdien this coat is 
drv and hard, hair off with 
rnrled hair, jioinice thoroughly 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



with white pounce bag to pre- 
vent gold from sticking to the 
black, and proceed with surface 
lettering and shading (or out- 
lining), as you choose. Then 
tinish with one coat of best out- 
side coach varnish. For red 
background, use salmon color 
for first three coats, using japan 
red, same as black (in black 
liackground), also color var- 
nish and finish as in black 
background. Raised letters 
])reviously gilded, may be 
tacked on after finishing coat 
of varnish has thoroughly 
dried by stretching a tight, 
clean fish-line at base or bot- 
tom line where letters are to 
set. Then proceed to layout 
and tack letters on (as in 
Raised Letters on Boards). 

GALVANIZED IRON 
LETTERS. 

(ialvani/ed iron letters are 
cut out with snips, ])ainte(l and 
fastened on wire signs, some- 
times called sky-signs. Prime 
(or first coat), with dry red 
lead, first mixed thick like 
nuish. and add small quantity 
of japan and thin with turpen- 
tine. I'^irst, you will clean let- 
ters with strong cider vinegar, 
when dry, coat with the above 
red lead, rubbing out very dry, 
then ]>aint letters black and 
fasten them on wire as direct- 
ed in ( Wire Signs). 

GOLD LEAF 

Ciold Leaf is put uj) in books, 
.V4 inches square. Tiold is 
hanmiered by hand and is ver\- 
thin, about 23 carats fine, it is 
'old by the pack, 20 books to 
the i)ack. and 25 leaves to each 
book. One book will cover aj)- 
proximately 216 scpiare inches, 
or, Wj scpiare feet. This will 



allow enough to over-lap a lit- 
tle in gilding, as should be done 
in all surface gilding to insure 
a good job. You may think 
you are wasting gold by lib- 
eral gilding, but by so doing 
you will save time, which is 
sometimes more valuable. 

FRAMES 

(Muslin and Oilcloth Signs) 
Muslin and oilcloth frames 
are usually made of lx2-inch 
strips (for illustration), to 
make a frame 3x12 feet, cut 2 
side strips, 12 feet long, and 
5 cross strips, 3 feet long. Lay 
two 3-foot strips on the floor 
12 feet apart and nail the 12- 
foot pieces on top at each cor- 
ner, putting one nail in each 
corner until ready to square. 
Place the remaining three 
strips under the 12-foot strips, 
about 3 feet apart, also putting 
one nail at each end to hold 
in place until four corners of 
frame is squared. You will 
now square the four corners 
(one at a time), putting in three 
more 4-penny nails. Proceed 
in like manner until four cor- 
ners are perfectly squnre and 
sufficiently nailed to hold in 
place. Then finish nailing the 
three remaining cross cleats. 
If corners do not come out per- 
fectly square, there is just two 
things wrong; either your 
square, or you have not cut the 
strips exactly the same length, 
which is absolutely necessary, 
and would ad\'isc putting 
strips together when cutting to 
length. ^^'hen the abo\e is 
completed, fill in at each end 
with strips. 

SECOND COATING 

Second and third coating 
niav be done either Hat or 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



glossy, and depends entirely 
where, and how, signs are to 
be used. 

In second and finishing coats, 
we recommend turpentine in- 
stead of oil, especially in sign 
painting. Too much oil will 
cause the white to turn yellow 
in a few hours, while turpen- 
tine, or benzine, will evaporate 
and leave the coating perfectly 
white. A small piece of Prus- 
sian blue, or black, the size of 
a pea will color about two gal- 
lons of paint sufficiently to 
make it perfectly white, and 
will cause it to bleach out 
whiter with age. 

Always add a few spoonsful 
of our celebrated "quick size" 
in your coating color. Where 
boards are being coated for 
smalted backgrounds, the ])aint 










'■r ^sr- ■ 



should be perfectly flat (with 
no gloss or shine), (ilossy color 



will often cause the smalt to 
stick (which should not), spoil- 
ing the sign or causing lots of 
trouble, and is prevented by 
mixing color in turpentine. 
This is called "Flat Color." Too 
many painters imagine that oil 
is the most essential thinner for 
white lead. This may be the 
case in house i)ainting, but 
never in sign painting, except 
in priming coat on new work. 
Coating board signs proper- 
ly (ready to letter), is no small 
item, and should be done with 
great care. Lay color on even- 
ly, smooth out well, and avoid 
brush marks by crossing and 
recrossing until they disappear. 
Lay boards flat on horses (or 
trestles) while sandpapering, 
puttying and coating. Allow 
boards to lav in this position 
until partially dry, then set up- 
right on easel, or against wall. 

PATTERNS 

A pattern should be made for 
all glass, board and window 
signs, also, any small signs 
where it is practical. 

Tf the sign is broken or de- 
stroyed in any way, you have 
the exact size of letters, glass, 
etc., also preference in getting 
the job again. 

Aifter each job is completed 
roll pattern up carefully and 
mark it so you know exactly 
what job it is, and date when 
completed. 

FLITTERS 

Flitters are very small 
metalics cut in diamond shape 
and can be had in most all 
colors, and are used for sprink- 
ling on letters, and for back- 
i-Tounds on gflass signs. 



■'<': 



40 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



Cut around letters on glass 
using thick black, that will 
cover good. W hen dry, var- 
nish with clear, "(juick size" or 
"quick rubl)ing varnish." Be- 
fore varnish is dry s])rinkle on 
flitters wliich make a very ])ret- 
ty sign. 

Flitters are sometimes used 
for entire backgrounds. Do let- 
teiing in black, and varnish en- 
tiro back of glass with ' r .:b- 
bing varnish." When varnish 
is nearly dry, sprinkle with thl- 
ter, after standing a few min- 
utes, dump off surplus flitters. 

RAISED LETTER SIGNS 

This is a very pojiular sign, 
and is not very expensive, and 
makes a good appearing, dressy 
sign, where a large size can be 
used. 

They can be made for a'mo^ t 

any place, across the front oi 

buildings, suspended o\er sivlc- 

'.valks, ])anels under win(U)Ws, 

winiJ" signs, etc. 

They are made of high-grale 
uiln and air-dried white pine, 
securely glued together, ap- 
I earing as one ])iece. 

To paint (see coating sign ) 
p:actically any color may be 
Msed in smalted or varnished 
I)ackgrounds, dark colors b.^!n"; 
l)referable and shows off tlie 
'did to the best advantage. 



WINDOW SHADE 
LETTERING 

Make pounce pattern of lay- 
out. Pounce on lettering in the 
usual manner, size in lettering 
with our celebrated quick size, 
and gild in about one hour with 
gold leaf, aluminum leaf, or 
gold bronze, or aluminum 
bronze. 

Shade or outline, with colors 
to suit. Black being preferable 
on dark colors, double shading 
on light colors, using asphal- 
tum glaze, split and outlined 
with black. See cut of Split 
Shade. 

S«M' Kiji. 'iU oil piiK'e 1~. 

CORNER PIECES 

Corner pieces are used on 
both wood and glass panel 
signs, and help to make a beau- 
tiful layout. The corners and 
end pieces shown (on page 4C-) 
are carried in stock ready to be 
])erforated, same as the pounce 
pattern sent vou. (See price 
list.) 

KIkx. 7.' ami "<> sliow enil .sitoIIn 
iiikI oonier iiit'oe.s. vjirriecl in .Ht«M-k. 

SILVERING GLASS 

Solution No. 1 

Tut IS ounces of distilled 

water in a clean granite ves cl 

and add 1^ grams of nit-nte 

of silver, and 1>^ grams of Ro- 




AHUFACTURERS NATIONAL BANK, 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



chelle salts, and boil 5 minutes. 
Then form a funnel of filter- 
paper, closing ends firmly, and 
placing in a glass funnel, pour 
the boiled solution into this 
and when filtered, put solution 
in a bottle that has been paint- 
ed black on the outside to ex- 
clude the light. 

Solution No. 2 

Put 18 ounces of distilled 
water into a granite cup, pour 
out 4 ounces (4 ounces into a 
glass). Into this put 2 grams 
of nitrate of silver and cau- 
tiously drop in liquid ammonia 
until it becomes dark and con- 
tinue dropping until it becomes 
clear. Add 2 grams nitrate of 
silver, thoroughly, dissolved, 
and add to the water in granite 
cup. and filter as before. Clean 
glass with felt and jeweler's 
rouge, then Avash with w^hiting 
and water. In a glass pitcher 
pour equal parts of the 2 solu- 
tions. Mix well and pour over 
Hass and allow to stand about 
30 minutes. Pour ofif the sur- 
plus solution and allow glass 
to dry. When thoroughly dry. 
rnb well with a clean chamois- 
skin and coat back with orange 
shellac. Hlien. with a flat coat 
of grey paint and finish with 
one coat of asphaltum. If let- 
tering is to be done on the sil- 
vered side, it should be backed 
with a coat of hard drvinj? var- 
nish, and allowed to dry thor- 
oughly before silvering. All 
vessels used in the above sil- 
vering solution must be relig- 
iously clean. 

ANOTHER SILVERING 

PROCESS 

Hot Solution 

Put 1 pint of distilled water 



into a flask and place on stove 
until it boils. Then add 24 
grams of Rochelle salts and 
boil 7 minutes. Take ofif, let 
cool, and filter, as first silver so- 
lution mentioned above. When 
placing flask on stove to boil 
this solution, flask must be 
placed in sand, in a pie pan. or 
some such utensil. 

Cold Solution 

One pint distilled water. 
Pour half of glass into a pint 
tumbler. Put in tumbler 38 
prams nitrate of silver, drop in 
liquid ammonia and stir until 
clear. Then add 32 grams ni- 
trate of islver. 

Either one of the above- 
mentioned silvering solutions 
may be used for silvering 
chipped elass. and etched glass 
signs. Clean the glass thor- 
oughly before pouring on solu- 
tion. When solution is dry. 
i^'p your patterns (as in 
Chijipcfj (ilass Signs). 

SLOW SIZE 

"Slow size," sometimes call- 
ed "fat oil size." is used for 
gilding, raised and surface let- 
tering and most all exterior 
work, and should ne\er be var- 
nished. "Fat oil" is made by 
first breaking up 2 lbs. of dry 
red lead in boiled (^il, thick like 
mrsli ; to thi'^ you will add one 
gaUon of boiled oil. mix thor- 
oughly and put away in a tin 
pail. Cover pail with two 
thicknesses of cheese cloth and 
allow to stand in the sun from 
three to six months. The 
longer it stands the better it is. 

"Fat oil" is very expensive, 
and by making it up as directed 
above you will have enough for 
manv vears. 



42 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



"Fat oil" and "fat oil size" 
are indispensible in the sign 
sho]) and is the most reliable 
when allowed to stand twelve 
hours or more. 

Be sure to ha\e surface to he 
"sized" well coated and free 
from suction and perfectly 
smooth l)el\)re laying- on size. 

In cold climates "sizing" 
must be d<^ne in a moderately 
warm room. Should the room 
l)ecome cold while size is dry- 
ing, this will cause the size to 
lose "tack," but on warming 
the room "tack" will soon ap- 
pear and you are ready for gild- 

"Slow size" or "fat oil size" 
is made by mixing together 
cciual ])arts of "fat oil" and our 
celebrated "quick size." To 
this add e n o u g h medium 
chrome yellow (in oil) to color 
it surticicntly to show on the 
background (or surface) you 
are "sizing" in. 

When taking "fat oil" out of 
tin pail that has stood the re- 
(|uired length of time, break the 
lilm on the oil and pour out 
carefully. Do not stir or mix 
the red lead into the oil. This 
will allow all sediment to go to 
the bottom of the pail, leaving 
the "fat oil" perfectly clean and 
red lead on the bottom. 

STENCILING 

To make a stencil for (|u;m- 
titv work, always make "male" 
and "female." 

h^irst make "i)ounce" pattern 
;ind jjerforate. 

I'ounce this on i)re])ared 
stencil paper and cut out half of 
each letter. This is called the 
"male stencil." 

Now i)lace this stencil on an- 
other i)iece of stencil pai)er and 
make impression of same by 



going over half cut letters with 
your dark "pounce bag." 

Then place your "pounce" 
pattern or "layout" on this to 
get the other half of letters and 
cut. This is called the "female 
stencil." 

Cover a 2 inch paper hanger 
roller with heavy plush, and 
roll your color instead of using 
a stencil brush. 

Use color heavy and not too 
much on the roller. By work- 
ing the roller semi-dry, you will 
find your letters will be per- 
fectly clean when finished. 
When done with roller and 
stencils, wash thoroughly in 
turpentine and hang stencils on 
a nail, which will keep them 
perfectly straight. 

With this treatment they will 
last for years. 

Make stencil color of lamp 
black, ground in oil, and add a 
little fat oil to make color good 
and stiflf. 

For background stencils see 
"cut in" letters. 

.See Kiu'. tiTi oil itiiiie MK 

ETCHING (Glass Signs) 

Ftching glass signs is a very 
simple process, and when prop- 
erly executed makes a beauti- 
ful sign for either outside or 
inside work. Coat glass to be 
etched with best "turpentine 
asphaltum," thinned with tur- 
pentine (about two parts as- 
phaltum and one part turpen- 
tine), and when dried to proper 
tack (not too dry) roll on lead 
foil, smoothing out all wrinkles 
carefully with thumb and fin- 
ger. Now coat with a thin 
wash of whiting, with a \ ery 
little Le Page's Glue (enougli 
to bind) thinned with water. 
This may be aj^plied with a 
"wad" of cottoti. Now pounce 



4.^^ 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



on your "layout" and go over 
lines, correcting the letters. 
This will prevent rubbing off 
"layout" with your sleeve or 
while working on the job. Cut 
out letters with a needle and 
|.Mck out foil where glass is to 
be etched. Then wash care- 
fully with benzine or turpen- 
tine (turpentine preferred), 
bank (or putty) edges of glass 
with thick putty made of bees- 
wax and a very little asphal- 



tum, which should be heated a 
trifle. If too thin, add enough 
whiting to make thick like 
putty, using the thumb to bank 
or putty edges, which should 
be j^2 to ^ of an inch deep or 
high on edge. Now coat the 
letters with thin Le Page's 
(due. and sprinkle them with 
flake graphite. To one part of 
hydrofluoric acid add three 
parts water and pour on glass 
until letters and background 








IK 



/PfL£ 



BANK 



l':oj»or v.siy to flit .h<«'IU-:Is <-ii!I«mI "^I \I,I-; AM) KIOM \l, 
ill «|ii:!ii(it.v work or :iii.v Ni;;ii itjiiiitiiiu. 



44 



.*' mill iiro iiNcil 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 




are covered. This you will al- 
low to etch about 20 minutes. 
'! hen throw off into a pan that 
has i)re\-iously been coated 
with pararime and rinse off 
g"]ass in clean water and hold to 
light to see if etched to suit. 

This will give the etched 
parts a beautiful eml)osscd ef- 
fect, and when gilded and 
treated (as in chipped glass 
signs) you will have an em- 
bossed letter with a burnished 
gold outline. ( See Chij)])ed 
(ilass Signs.) 

CHIPPED GLASS SIGNS 

Chipping glass signs have 
remained a secret for many 
years, although several have 
described the process but have 
nex'er gone into detail suffi- 
cient!}' far that one could really 
master tlie art or become ])roR- 
cient and use it to any advan- 
tage financially. We have or- 
ganized The Pullrr.an School 
of Lettering for the })urposc of 






iiSTATE 

ll. A I I IV 



I \1 1 I 

N(;jRTH FIELD 




STATE , 

bank\ 

NORTHFIELD 





PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



helping its students instead of 
taking their money, and the 
more you want to know the 
better we like it. Chipped 
glass signs should be made on 
plate glass only. With the 
letters sent you, make a pounce 
pattern of what you want to 
say on the sign and perforate. 
Clean your glass and paste on 
a piece of heavy manila paper 
that has been prepared as fol- 
lows : To a half pound of gran- 
ulated glue (that has been 
soaked in water four hours) 
shave a half bar of laundry 
soap ; to this you will add a half 
pint of glycerine and heat in a 
double boiler until thoroughly 
cooked. While this mixture is 
hot. coat a larp^e sheet of manila 
])aper and let stand over night 
(or until dry), then wet glued 
side with a damp sponge and 
apply to the glass, smoothing 
out all wrinkles with a piece of 
cigar box lid that has been 
rounded on edge with sand- 
paper. When paper is dry, lay 
on your pounce pattern face 
down and pounce letters with a 
dark "pounce bag." Then, 
with a lead pencil and T square, 
g. ' o\er top and bottom lines of 
lettering. This will make them 
level and sharp. Lay "cut out" 
letters sent you on perforated 
lines of pounce pattern and 
mark each one with a sharp 
lead pencil. Now you are 
ready to cut, and with a sharp 
stencil knife (or pocket knife) 
cut out letters as follows : In 
cutting letters, keep away 
from the lead pencil marks y^ 
inch (in ordinary size letters). 
You will find, when gilded and 
ready to clean off between and 



around letters, your "cut out" 
letters are ^i inch larger than 
the space or letters you have 
just cut, and when letters are 
sandblasted, chipped and gild- 
ed, and the surplus gold is 
cleaned away, you will then 
have a chipped gold letter, with 
a burnished gold outline J^ 
inch wide around each letter. 
You will then back them up 
(as described in Backing Up 
Letters), and when the "back- 
ing up varnish" is dry you are 
then ready for the background, 
which should be black (or any 
dark color, such as dark red, 
dark blue, dark green, etc.) 
When you have cut the letters 
out, you are then ready to have 
them sandblasted. If there is 
a sandblast machine in your 
town, or neighboring town, 
have glass sandblasted and you 
are ready for chipping, or send 
us size of glass and wording 
wanted for sign and we will 
furnish the glass, cut all neces- 
sary patterns, etc., sandblast 
and chu) the letters ready for 
you to gild and put on back- 
ground, border, etc. All you 
will have to do is gild the let- 
ters and lay on the "cut out" 
pattern we send you and clean 
away surplus gold with brush 
(as per printed instructions at- 
tached to the word "Signs" 
sent you). This is a very sim- 
ple process that any one with 
ordinary intellip^ence, good eyes 
and two hands can do as well 
as we, and the only reason for 
above suggestions is on ac- 
count of so few towns having a 
sandblast machine. We wish 
to impress upon your mind 
again, we are here to help you 
instead of taking vour monev ; 



46 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



only you ask the questions and 
we will be only too glad to an- 
swer them. In this way you 
will be able to make any kind 
of sign wanted, and be in a 
class by yourself and in big de- 
mand. To chip letters or back- 
ground on a sign 24x36 inches, 
soak one pound of best cabinet 
glue in water over night. In 
the morning pour off water and 
melt in a double boiler or car- 
penter's glue pot. When hot. 
ai)i)ly with a clean 3 inch bristle 
brush quickly, one line of let- 
ters at a time, covering over 
])aper letters and all, being 
careful to touch every place 
that is to be chipped. When 
the glue has set or dried a few 
minutes (or sufficiently dry to 
cut around letters with a small 
knife blade) you will proceed 
t<i cut around each letter care- 
fully, and do not miss or skip 
one place to be cut. The cut- 
ting prevents glue from stick- 
ing to edges of letters, and un- 
less this is done edge of letters 
when chi])ped will be ragged. 
When this is finislied pull ofif the 
j):i])er artnmd the parts to be 
chipped. Some j^refer a needle 
in ])lace of a knife blade for cut- 
ting around letters. Now sign 
is ready to set away in a warm, 
dry room, and it will chip itself 
Do not pick the chips unless 
they do not come ofif after 
standing ten hours or so. If 
good blue is used this should 
not happen, and will chip per- 
fectly in about eight to ten 
hours, or sooner. When the 
chipping process is- finished 
soak the glass with water until 
pa])er and particles of glue 
wash off easily. Then rinse 
thoroutrhlv with clean water 



and you are ready for gilding. 



See Fin". 41 «>ii itiiK'e 111. 




I^M;;. H. HrjisN et«-lieil, Mliowiii^' full 
l(e\el mill roNette.s. 

ETCHED BRASS SIGNS 

Brass signs are usually made 
of 16 gauge patent leveled etch- 
ing brass. Cut plate to size 
and have same Imffed to a per- 
fect surface. Lay out and 
make pounce i)attern with let- 
ters sent you. Before laying 
out pounce pattern clean entire 
j)late with turpentine and whit- 
ing, being careful not to scratch 
the i)late. When thoroughly 
clean, pounce on the layout 
with while jxnmce bag. and 
with lead pencil in one side of 
compasses trace top and bot- 
tom lines of lettering, and with 
T square go over pounce lines, 
squaring and correcting each 
letter perfectly. While cut- 
ting around letters with the 
acid resist keep your fingers 
from coming in contact with 
polished surface, as this will 
leave a greasy mark and acid 
will refuse to etch. To j^revent 
this make what is called a 
bridi/e. bv nailinij- a 2x2 inch 



47 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



of a 1x2 inch pine strip, 30 
inches long. Rest your left 
hand on bridge, steadying the 
right hand, or brush hand, 
while "cutting in" letters. Cut 
around each letter carefully 
with the following acid resist:" 

"Acid Resist" 

To 8 ounces of paraffine add 
8 ounces white beeswax and Yz 
ounce of Burgundy pitch. Melt 
wax and paraffine together, and 
before adding the pitch pulver- 
ize to insure immediate coali- 
tion. To the above you will 
add one and one-half times as 
much best turpentine asphal- 
tum and heat o\er slow fire and 
stir thoroughly. Remove from 
fire, and to the above add one- 
half pint of best turpentine. 
This you will return to the fire 
and cook carefully for ten min- 
utes. There are other "acid 
resists" mentioned below, more 
simple to make and easier to 
work, but we are unable to 
recommend them to our 
students. 

Soc KiK. 7 on iciye '.\Tt. 

Caution 

Great care should be exer- 
cised in making the abo\e 
formula, or "acid resist," as 
both turpentine and asphaltum 
are high explosives, and great 
care must be taken not to over- 
heat while cooking. T h e 
above "acid resist" must be 
worked on warm brass and in 
a warm room, heated to about 
80 degrees. When cutting i>n 
around letters with this mix- 
ture, use a long camel's hair 
outlining brush. Dij) brush in 
tur])entine, then in mixture. 



working the two together on a 
warm piece of glass to shape 
your brush before applying to 
brass or "cutting in" letters. 
After letters are "cut in" and 
background around letters fill- 
ed in, allow to dry over night. 
When dry, place plate in a 
warm oven, watching it until 
"resist" begins to melt and set- 
tle (or flow). Then remove 
and touch up all pin holes and 
bare places, including ends and 
liack of plate, with hot paraf- 
fine, and the plate is ready for 
etching. For small etching 
tub, make a frame of 1x4 inch 
wood strips, nailing together at 
four corners. Tack oilcloth on 
edges, allowing enough slack in 
oilcloth so that tub will l)e 
about four inches deep when 
completed. You will also 
paraffine entire inside of tub as 
on back of brass plate (men- 
tioned ab(n-e). To one part of 
C. P. (chemically ])ure) nitric 
acid, add two parts of cold 
water. Make enough to cover 
entire l)ottom of tub to a de])th 
of about 1 inch or m i^'c. Pl-'.ce 
T 'nte in the soluti; :i. face uj), 
and acid will act on exposerl 
hra'S or letters and etch to 
•--r^'^rr dn^th in a few hours. 
.•\p"itate often v\u\ wn'rh c''"'^- 
fuUy to prevent acid from etch- 
ing too rai)idly or overheating. 
When the plate is etched to 
proper depth (which is about 
1-32 inch) you will remove 
plate from acid and rinse in 
water thoroughly. Then clean 
resist off with benzine or coal- 
oil and place in oven to warm 
slightly, and remove paraffine 
by wiping plate briskly with a 
soft cloth. Now wash with 
benzine and return ]>late to a 



48 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



hot oven and burn oft any par- 
ticles that may stick in corners 
or edges of letters. To remove 
hot plates from oven place a 
thin board under same, using 
board as a handle, and allow to 
cool. When cool, brush over 
plate with fine sawdust. This 
will remove any possible trace 
of grease t)r oil from the paraf- 
hne or "acid resist." After you 
have dusted off every particle 
of sawdust, you are ready for 
enamel, and with "Premier 
Black Backing Japan" you will 
fiow a coat over entire back- 
ground and letters, using a 
bear hair (or fitch-hair) brush; 
then place in the oven and bake 
at about 200 degrees heat two 
hours, or until dry (not hard 
and brittle). This you will re- 
peat until lour coats ha\ e been 
applied and baked. When 
fovirth coat is baked and cooletl. 
you will shave enamel «3ff 
around letters with a stiff 
putty knife that has been shar- 
pened on end, same as a car- 
' enter's wood chisle. and is free 
from knicks (or rough places). 
l)t) not let shavings of enamel 
fall into letters. When all 
enamel is shaved off carefully 
( where it is not wanted) return 
to oven and bake in 500 degrees 
heat four to six hours. W'hen 
cool, polish with any good 
metal polish until perfectly 
clean. This will leave a beau- 
tiful black letter with a brass 
background, or vica versa, and 
may be ])olished as often as 
necessary by usin*i^ a piece of 
plush tacked on a block (3x4 
inches. 1 inch thick).. If the 
polish dulls the letters in the 
first cleaning, you have n<it 
baked lluni sulVicientlv hard or 



at the proper heat. You may 
thin the first coats of enamel 
to a nice flowing consistency. 
Finish coat should be a trifle 
heavier or thicker, being care- 
ful that surroundings and table 
you do your coating on are free 
from dust. This is quite neces- 
sary in doing a perfectly clean 
job. For beveling brass signs 
you should have a set of our 
beveling tools, which are made 
by us for beveling brass and 
copper signs, with full instruc- 
tions how to use, etc. (See 
price list.) 

Another "Acid Resist" 

(For Etching Brass) 

Beeswax, resin and asphal- 
tum (e(|ual parts) heated to in- 
sure coalition. 

And Still Another ''Acid 
Resist" 

To 1 pint turpentine asphal- 
tum, add 1 ounce beeswax. 
Heat until melted; when cool 
thin with turpentine and coat 
entire surface oi brass to be 
etched, and before resist is dry 
(or when j)ro])er tack is reach- 
ed) roll oil lead foil, smoothing 
out all wrinkles which may ap- 
pear ; then go over foil with a 
very thin whiting and glue mix- 
ture. This will show the pen- 
cil marks around letters which 
you have previously marked. 
Then cut out letters with a 
sharp pocket knife (or needle) 
and lift out foil in places to be 
etched ; wash with coal oil or 
1)en/.ine. \\'hen thoroughly 
cleaned lay plate flat on a level 
table and "bank" edges with 
stiff putty made of beeswax, to 
whicli has been added a small 



49 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



quantity of asphaltum. (See 
Etching- Brass Signs.) Now 
pour on plate about a quarter 
of an inch of the following so- 
lution : One part nitric acid 
and three parts water. Leave 
stand until etched -to desired 
depth. 

THE KIT 



' 


m 


' js-.^-.^B 


1 




■ ^««-%^ 


i 


^K 



FlK. "D." The Kit (or Tool Box > 
loaded ready for any job. Write for 
l»artleiilarH and price. 

The sign painter's kit (or 
tool box) should be composed 
of the following tools and 
materials : 

1 complete set of muslin 
brushes. 

3 each of the different camel's 
hair lettering brushes, 

3 sword striping brushes 
(different sizes). 

1, y2 inch fitch. 

1, 1 inch fitch. 

1 gilder's tip (camel's hair). 

1 gilder's tip (badger hair). 

1 tracing wheel. 

1 grease pencil. 

Gold leaf (deep and lemon). 

Gold lining bronze. 



Turpentine. 

Aluminum bronze (lining 
and regular). 

Half dozen "Gem" safety 
razor blades, and handle. 

One hundred No. 1 empty 
capsuls for water size. 

School crayon (chalk). 

4 thumb tacks. 

1 spool of No:. 8 black cotton 
thread. 

1 alcohol lamp. 

1 small bottle of wood alco- 
hol. 

1 small bottle of chloroform. 

1 putty knife. 

1 small screw driver. 

10 cent package of medicated 
cotton. 

1 big--mouthed bottle of lamp 
black (ground in japan). 

^ pound of English vermil- 
lion (dry). 

6 screw-top cans for the fol- 
lowing: 

Quick size. 
Rubbing- varnish. 
Spar varnish. 
Lard oil. 
Demar varnish. 
1 big mouthed bottle of tur- 
pentine, for rinsing- brushes. 
Pounce bag (white). 
^2 dozen sticks of charcoal. 
Chamois skin. 
Sponge. 

QUESTIONS 

Study every question thor- 
oughly before you attempt to 
paint your first sign job. Be 
sure you are right before going 
ahead. The following ques- 
tions are very important and 
vou should be able to answer 



50 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



each and every one of them 
practically. 

No. 1. What is flat coating? 

No. 2. Give different meth- 
ods of snapping lines. 

No. 3. How are damp i)en- 
cils cared for? 

No. 4. What is^ cutting in? 

No. 5. How is hacking up 
color made? . 

No. 6 How do you straight- 
en a warped pencil? 

No. 7. Name all liquids used 
in sign i>ainting. 

No. 8. \Vhat is flock? 

No. 9. What is smalt? 

No. 10. What use have we 
for Le Page's Glue? 

No. 11. How do we care for 
hristle brushes? 

No. 12. How do we layout 
japan tin? 

No. 13. What is a hack- 
ground stencil? 

No. 14. What is a surface 
letter stencil? 

No. 15. What is meant by 
landscape? 

No. 16. What is meant by 
upright? 

No. 17. ^^'hat is meant by 
the term condensed? 

No. 18. What is meant by 
the term regular? 

No. 19. How is gold and 
silver applied to glass ? 

No. 20. What is the best 
method used in frosting glass? 

No. 21. What is the process 
of burnishing gold and silver 
on glass? 

No. 22. How do yoii prepare 
a sign for varnish background? 

No. 23. How is flitter ap- 
plied to letters? 



No. 24. For what other pur- 
pose is flitter used? 

No. 25. Why do you add 
quick rubbing varnish to as- 
phaltum ? 

No 26. How do you make 
water size? 

No. 27. Which side of a let- 
ter should be shaded? 

No. 28. How do you remo\ e 
old lettering (tr old ])aint 
from glass? 

N(». 29. What is ilu- fir^t 
precaution in window letter- 
ing? 

No. 30. What brushes arc 
most used for muslin and oil- 
cloth signs? 

No. 31. Describe a back- 
ground stencil. 

No. 32. How d(^ we make a 
zinc-etched stencil ? 

No. ^^. How do you emboss 
gold on glass? 

No. 34. HoAv- do-we yirepare- 
galvanized iron. for coating? 

^^. What 'do we use' fat 
oil for? 

No. 36. What is fat oil? 

No. 37. How do we prepare 
to letter on a finished wagon? 

No. 38. Why do we use 
stale beer in "laying out" on 
glass? 

No. 39. How do we prevent 
gold from sticking to varnished 
ground ? 

No. 40. What is shellac used 
for? 

No. 41. What use have we 
for an alcohol lamp? 

No. 42. What liquids are 
used for drilling holes in glass? 

No. 43. What is meant by 
cutting in ? 



51 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



No. 44. What is surface let- 
ter? 

No. 45. How do we smalt a 
board sign? 

No. 46. What use is made 
of an indelible lead pencil? 

No. 47. What use is made 
of nitric acid? 

No. 48. What use is made 
of hydrofluoric acid in the sign 
business? 

No. 49. ^^'hat is a skewing 
box? 

No. 50. What kind of gold 
leaf is best for outside work ? 

No. 51. How is the surplus 
gold removed when the back- 
ing up is dry? 

No. 52. For what purpose is 
lemon gold leaf used ? 

No. 53. Which of the two 
requires the stronger water 
size, gold or silver leaf? 

No. 54. How do we cut gold 
leaf? 

No. 55. What is meant by 
washing gold leaf? 

No. 56. What kind of a 
brush is used for applying gold 
leaf to the glass? 

Nfi. ?7 . How is gilder's tip 
j>rc]~»ared to lift the gold leaf? 

No. 58. What is meant by 
patching gold jobs? 

No. 59. \Miat is meant by 
backing up ? 

No. 60. What kind of var- 
nish is used for stippling? 

No. 61. How should colors 
be mixed for outlining? 

TRICKS OF THE TRADE 

Liberal gilding may waste 
gold Init it will save time, 
which is often more valuable. 

Outlining gold letter with 
color on glass is most casih' 



done wMth semi-transparent 
colors, such as drop black, 
Prussian Blue or reds, mixed 
with "quick size" and turpen- 
tine. 

Pure white lead is mostly 
used in coating boards, etc., for 
outside work, being very dur- 
able. 

Lamp black is the most dur- 
able of all pigments. 

Drop black is deeper in tone 
and more transparent. 

Sign writers' black (in oil) 
is best for ordinary board signs 
or black lettering on glass. 

Swedish black is best for 
water color, mixed in thick 
paste form with Le Page's glue 
thinned with water. 

Wash lettering brushes im- 
mediately after using. If used 
in water color wash in water. 
If used in oil or Japan color 
wash in turpentine, grease with 
lard oil ; wash again with tur- 
pentine before using. 

Never use skinny or dirty 
colors ; strain them through 
cheese cloth. 

Never use a worn-out or poor 
brush. Save time by using 
good tools and taking good 
care of them. 

Never allow wall brush to 
stand in water ; wash them out 
and wrap them, and keep them 
in benzine. 

Have two sets of lettering 
brushes, one set for water 
colors and another for oil 
colors. Don't allow water 
colors to come in contact with 
oil of any kind. 

Sable hair brushes are best 
for water colors and heavy lead 
colors. 

All surfaces to be lettered 



.S2 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



should be thoroughly cleaned. 
You will save by adopting this 
plan. 

Measurements should be 
taken accurately. 

Always keep top of can 
colors smooth and covered 
with turpentine. 

Quick size may be slowed by 
adding a few drops of good var- 
nish. 

Use rule, snap line and com- 
passes for making lines and 
curves. 

Don't depend too much on 
your eye. 

Shellac should not be used 
between coats of paint. It 
may cause trouble. 

Never promise a jol) sooner 
than you can do it. 

Never use quick size for out- 
side gilding. Use slow size or 
fat oil size, which must stand 
over night before the proper 
tack is reached for gilding. 

To make layout or pounce 
pattern, make layout just as 
wanted, then ])erforate lines 
and letters with tracing wheel, 
lay pattern on face of signs and 
run o\'er layout with ])ounce 
bag with dry whiting and re- 
move ]:)attern. anrl your layout 
will appear. 

Flock produces a tine vel- 
vety gromid for signs and may 
be used instead of and in same 
manner as smalt. 

Cheap closing out t^r sjiecial 
sale signs may be made on 
glass fronts by coating outside 
of gla-s with calciniine. Let- 
ter with jajian color t same as 
in oilcloth and muslin signs). 

I)(i not take e\ erybody's ad- 
\ ice. Study carefully, using 
L-tiod indunient in e\ervthing 



you do. To be successful in 
the sign business use good 
materials. Get good prices 
and collect promjitly. 

If chalk will not write on 
glass, rub over with stale beer 
or cider vinegar and the chalk 
will mark extra fine. 

No sign painter's kit is cotn- 
j)lete without that most valu- 
able article, the chamois skin, 
for wiping and drying glass 
and other surfaces. 

A small alcohol lamp is gen- 
erally carried in the kit for 
boiling and making water size. 

A soft sponge is another very 
essential thing in the kit and is 
used for washing glass signs 
and on window work. 

Dainp windows in cold, 
changeable weather should be 
kept dry with an electrical fan. 

Sign rods for swinging signs 
should be made of gaspipe, 
supported by chain or wire 
cable, using small turnbuckle 
to tighten and level signs. 

Ne\er add oil to asphaltum 
It will retard the drying. Add 
rubbing \arnish or quick size 
to insure hardness. 

Asphaltum is used for glass. 
o\ er color and gold, and sliould 
be ajiplied thin. 

Never buy your staple colors 
in one pound cans, if it is pos- 
sible to get them in five pound 
press cans. This will avoid 
waste and is much more con- 
\enient, it being best to get 
most any color in japan or oil 
put up in five pound press cans. 

Don't use cutting in color 
that has been standing for sev- 
eral days. It should be made 
up fre^h for most every job. 
and will avoid trouble, as it be- 
comes fat and li.ard to wnrk. 



5.3 



PULLMAN SCHOOL OF LETTERING 



Don't let smalt run (or slide) 
off board signs, as it will spoil 
edge of letters. Dump it off 
quickly. 

When varnishing, flow on 
freely. 

Pounce all surfaces (except 
glass) where leaf or rubbing- 
bronzes are used before sizing 
in letters. Use the pounce 
bag or whiting and soft cloth. 

^ COLORS 

(How to Mix) 

Tn this table the hrst color 
named in each item is the base 
and should be used in the 
greatest quantity. The other 
colors should be added until 
desired shade or tone is 
reached : 

White and red produce pink. 

Red and black produce ma- 
roon. 

Yellow, blue and red produce 
bronze green. 

White, black and red pro- 
duce lavender. 

Red. yellow and blue produce 
citron. 

Yellow and blue produce 
green. 

White and yellow produce 
cream. 

Yellow and red produce 
orancfe. 



Blue and red produce violet. 
Yellow and black produce 
olive. 

Red and blue produce purple. 

Yellow, black and red pro- 
duce brown. 

Red, yellow and black pro- 
duce russet. 

WHiite and blue produce 
light blue. 

White, black and red pro- 
duce lavender. 

Red, yellow and blue produce 
citron. 

Yellow and blue produce 
green. 

W'^hite and yellow produce 
cream. 

Yellow and red produce 
orange. 

Blue and red produce violet. 

White and black produce 
gray. 

White, yellow and red pro- 
duce flesh. 

Yellow and black prodtice 
olive. 

Red and blue produce purple. 

Yellow, black and red pro- 
duce brown. 

Red, yellow and black pro- 
duce russet. 



54 



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